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FOR T H E ARTIST
FOR THE ARTIST
LONDON • NEW YORK MELBOURNE • MUNICH • DELHI Senior Editor Paula Regan Senior Art Editor Mandy Earey Art Editor Anna Plucinska Managing Editor Julie Oughton Managing Art Editor Heather McCarry Art Director Peter Luff Publishing Director Jackie Douglas Production Joanna Bull DTP Designer Adam Walker Picture Research Sarah Smithies US Editor Christine Heilman First American Edition, 2 0 0 5 First Paperback Edition, 2 0 0 9 Published in the United States by DK Publishing 3 7 5 Hudson Street New York, New York 1 0 0 1 4 10 11 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3
6 8 20 22 Master Builders The Order of Sound Future Fictions Pathways of Sight Single-Point Perspective Creating an Imaginary Space Further Aspects of Perspective Theaters Venetian Life Parisian Street
68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86
Foreword Introduction Drawing Books and Papers Posture and Grip
Objects and Instruments
TD075-July 2009 Copyright © 2 0 0 5 Dorling Kindersley Limited Text and authors artworks © Sarah Simblet 2 0 0 4 Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited A Cataloging-in-Publication record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN 9 7 8 - 0 - 7 5 6 6 - 5 1 4 1 - 1 Color reproduction by GRB, Italy Printed and bound in China by Toppan
Still Life Instruments of Vision Bench Marks Light and Illusions Further Illusions How to Draw Ellipses Tonality Drawing with Wire Artifacts and Fictions
90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106
Documentaries Presence and Mood Movement Icon and Design Pen and Ink Drawing with Ink Capturing Character Sleeping Dogs Turtles Dry Birds
26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44
Postures and Poses Choreographs Passion Measurement and Foreshortening Quick Poses Hands and Feet Charcoal Hands Phrasing Contours The Visual Detective La Specola
110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128
Plants and Gardens
Botanical Studies Jeweled Gardens Fast Trees Graphite and Erasers Cropping and Composition Negative Space Fig Tree Summer Flowers Acanthus Spinosus
48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64
Discover more at
Projections Magnetic Fields The Human Condition Disposable Pens The Travel Journal Catching the Moment Grand Canal Crossings Caravans The Big Top
174 Abstract Lines
176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 Process and Harmony Writing Time Chants and Prayers Compositions Being "Just" Collage Zen Calligraphy Nocturnes
220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234
Poise Anatomies Revelations Self-Portraits Silver Point Head and Neck Essential Observations Drawing Portraits Generations Castings
132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 152
Earth and the Elements
Air in Motion Storms Nature Profiles Charcoal Landscapes Drawing in the Round Decaying Boat Cloudburst Notes of Force Mountains
198 200 202 204 206 208 210 212 214 216
Gods and Monsters
Marks of Influence Hauntings Convolutions Brushes Brush Marks Monsters Goya's Monsters Consumed Glossary Index Acknowledgments
240 242 244 246 248 250 252 254 256 259 264
Cloth and Drapery Character Costumes Femmes Fatales Colored Materials Study and Design The Structure of Costume Textures and Patterns Dressing Character Posture Carving
156 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172
are made outside as discreet installations. Some of my drawings cover entire walls. art schools. I was training in anatomy and studying how. through history. from schoolchildren to senior citizens. and experience. It is my love of these. geologists. where I expect them to be discovered by some people. Augustine his notes on memory. and I refer back to them for years after they are made. and in a few sessions they will be flying. shape. still standing by the door. or a quantum physicist trying to see for themselves the fluctuations of our universe. a cartographer charting the land. I was also reading among The Confessions of St. I know that with their cooperation I can soon prove them wrong. By using our imaginations. and feeling. drawing is the immediate expression of seeing. and a reflector of experience. perhaps hidden on a door hinge or a street bench rail. a sculptor. For twelve years I have enjoyed the privilege of teaching drawing. texture. I work with people of diverse ages. remain unseen by most. . doctors. It is a tool for investigating ideas and recording knowledge. understood (and often misunderstood) our own bodies. It makes me feel excited to be alive. night security staff. who tells me firmly upon approach that they cannot draw. Some are more traditionally framed and hung in galleries for solo or group exhibitions. and local c o m m u n i t y classes. and size. as a visiting professor at universities. We can all learn how to draw. architect. a drawing book is the perfect portable private vehicle for your imminent exploration of drawing. or engineer. but because it is how I engage with and anchor myself in life. Drawing is a mirror through which I understand my place in the world. Drawing occupies a unique place in every artist and creator's life. and be slowly washed or worn away. undergraduates to fellow professors. Chosen in any color. Combine these things and the possibilities are endless. by invitation. we learn to see it. The very first step is to believe it. They enfold their viewer and are made on joined sheets of paper that I reach by climbing ladders. of Sketch Book for the Artist. in which he describes himself flying and diving in his imagination through pictorial caverns of knowledge. we have looked at. thinking. I will always draw. be they a child discovering their vision and dexterity. Others can be held in the h a n d or. The most rewarding challenge is always the newcomer. we learn to feel truly alive. that inspired the title and structure MEMORY T H E A T E R S This pen-and-ink drawing was made from imagination during research for my PhD. and their importance to so many artists.Foreword B Y DRAWING THE WORLD AROUND US. and makers of special effects. I also make drawing books. where spaces are shaped by nothing more than the objects and activities contained within them. not only to make art. They occupy a shelf in my studio. aspirations. These inspirations led me to invent museums. especially as travel journals. and through which I can see how I think. For me personally. fashion designer. a composer notating a musical score.
Rio Pinturas 13. a great crowd is raising their hands in greeting. They have a natural affinity to many modern graffiti signatures. Children cannot be restrained from running across the pristine white lawn of newly fallen snow. in lectures.000-9500 bce . Drawing is international. Cueva de las Marios. graffiti. packaging. logos. irreverent to language barriers. We are bombarded with linear and tonal pictorial information. "CAVE OF THE HANDS" In this drawing. inscribing every fresh part of it with their eager scrapes and trails. waving to us from many thousands of yearsago. not just chosen pictures on our walls but everywhere—maps. like a great canvas for them to mark. and we spend our lives reading it.8 INTRODUCTION Where We Begin There is a fundamental drive in our human nature to make a mark. Most adults still feel that certain exquisite pleasure on arriving at a beach to find the tide out and the sand perfect. Sometimes we draw because we are bored. The sense of relief we may feel from the information overload of modern commercial life when visiting a country in which we can no longer read every written word. but more often because drawing actually helps us to focus and take in what is said. and patterns on our clothes. We are surrounded by drawings in our daily lives. and in meetings. At home and at work we doodle.Theseancient silhouettes were drawn with earth pigments rubbed onto rock. is not afforded us by drawing. signs. We can always read each others drawings. scrawling shapes and cartoons when on the telephone.
She gave me a notepad and a red crayon and asked me to draw her "a picture of Daddy. we see our oldest surviving images. enjoying the physical sensation of crayon on paper. and the appearance of my strikes of colors. I now think this is a picture of proximity. at age two-anda-half. who in their day-to-day hardship made time to picture themselves and the animals on which they depended. The image above is what I gave back to my mother. I was sitting with my mother.9 WHERE WE BEGIN FIRST PORTRAIT For sorre forgotten reason. Eyelashes take up as much of my attention as the head itself. . created by societies of hunter-gatherers. and belonging to place. but I had never yet attempted to figuratively picture my world." Until this day. Even though it is made by a toddler this image would be recognizable to anyone. reflecting my experience of looking closely at my father's face. In cave paintings like the one opposite. the hair of my first portrait was most important. Cave art was not made for decoration but as a fundamental part of life. and she kept it as my first step beyond the delighted realms of scrawl. On a particular afternoon in September 1974. power. MAKING OUR MARK It seems reasonable to assume that we have engaged in pictorial mark-making for as long as we have made conscious use of our hands. an expression of existence. like all toddlers. I. had happily scribbled.
Don't b e p e r s u a d e d to draw in a w a y s o m e o n e else . PROGRESSION T h e r e is a point in all o u r lives w h e n w e first c o n t r o l o u r mark and m a k e it a line. to help a stranger see their way W h e n taking first steps in relearning h o w to draw. then drag o u r line into a loop. But as adolescents. and from that first unit build and describe the shape of something or someone we know. Young children love to draw. W e do n o t hesitate to draw a map. for example. At this point many will insist they cannot draw. it is important to value your natural abilities a n d ways of seeing.10 INTRODUCTION PEN-AND-INK BEE This tiny drawing has been enlarged to show its texture and composition. As you progress. yet still turn to drawing w h e n their verbal language fails or is inadequate. Hours are lost immersed in the glorious world of imagination. h o w e v e r small a n d u n f o r m e d y o u believe they are. most of us stop. b e p r o u d o f what m a k e s y o u r w o r k individual to y o u . It was made with a few bold strokes of a steel pen dipped in ink to conjure the dried bee I was holding between my fingers on a pin. and this activity plays a vital role in their d e v e l o p m e n t . Inhibitions creep in and ideas of good a n d b a d terminate confidence.
Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse c. harbor and sea is one of many that Alfred Wallis made from memory while sitting at home. remember that all advice is only advice. 1925-42 53/8x87/8in (135 x 225 mm) ALFRED WALLIS prefers and tells you is better. He was a retired Cornish fisherman and junk dealer who began drawing at the age of 70 "for company" after his wife died. The journey of every artist demands hard work and discipline. you must decide whether to keep or discard it. Think how much would have been lost if anyone had interfered with Alfred Wallis' personal sense of proportion and perspective in the exquisite drawing above. but it does help to set out facing in the right direction. and which aspects of the vast wealth and diversity of graphic language would be most appropriate to their goals. what they most want to achieve. . I ask them their reasons for drawing. I meet students struggling unhappily with a particular method of drawing. He used leftover ship and yacht paint with crayons on cut-out pieces of cardboard boxes.11 PROGRESSION A UNIQUE SIGHT This innocent yet sophisticated drawing of boats. and they have never questioned why. After experimenting and trying each new idea. Enjoy the control of your own journey. Occasionally. As you read this b o o k and perhaps attend art classes. Someone once told them they must draw in this way.
clear-minded understanding of the sea. There should neve: be a slavish obligation to represent things exactly as we collectively agree we see them. author of The Story of Art. His notes visually balance his drawings. There are countless reasons for drawing. not for disguise but as a personal choice. all raise water From the Archimedes' screw to Leonardo's own cupped wheel. perhaps for comfort or ease as a left-hander or a habitual enjoyment of the challenge. we can drive out its spirit. and inspire others. depending on the occasion and our purpose. but the child in us knows that this is an all-embracing. "There really is no such thing as Art. We BIRD STUDIES The flutter of faint scratches that dance across the pages on the right is an attempt to see the movement and bony weightlessness of a bird. boats. If as artists we nail a subject down too hard. is. embedded in this book. wrote as the opening line of this great work. Below. I hope. Our imaginations are the tools with which we can increase the essence of life. The art historian Professor Sir Ernst Gombrich. We all see differently. There are only artists. 11). and lose the very thing that attracted us to it. They are also always written backward. be visionary. right. the breast. The observed world may be our subject." The clarity and empowerment of these words.and collarbones and shoulder blades of a different bird almost become new creatures in themselves. Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels LEONARDO DA VINCI . the page bristles with the focus of ideas. it may not be accurate to our critical adult eye. When we look back at Wallis' seascape (see p. but it should be the experienced world we draw. and breathtaking wind of a choppy harbor.12 INTRODUCTION VISION All artists see the world differently. IDEAS A N D I N V E N T I O N S These active machines. We also see differently ourselves.
Don't be disheartened. drawing in pursuit of our own thoughts and understanding. More was learned drawing the bird 18 times than would have been understood drawing it only once or twice. it may be best to start afresh. Opposite. conduct an experiment. . or to discover the best use of a new material. when it looks tired and still feels wrong. to express the beauty in a moment's play of light. It will be invested through your experience in the new drawing. time spent is not lost. make a calculation. Each fresh image reflects growing confidence and the experience of the preceding study. Decide before you start whether you are drawing to warm up. Leonardo drew to invent a machine. shout against a terrible injustice. stripped-down parts. This also applies if struggling at length with a larger picture. while below. Our drawings are annotated investigations into the mechanisms of nature and of an idea. or illustrate a dream. but it is important to be clear why we are making it. We have both covered our paper with focused. My drawings of a housemartin (opposite top) illustrate the importance of repeated study. I drew to understand the apparatus of flight.13 VISION should not try to know how every finished picture will look.
are both made of ink laid onto wet paper with speed and agile certainty. and spirit of each subject was held strongly but loosely between the fingertips. and how it feels to the touch. These two brush drawings. As you draw any subject—something you see. ink. bone. silk. Our position asvieweris unsteady. This suits many artists well and is perfectly valid. Imagine these qualities so strongly that you feel them in your mind and at your fingertips. and we can just make out the distant stains of mountains. meaning. BRUSHED LANDSCAPE FLOWING SKELETON T h e gliding poise of this walking anatomy comes as much from the feeling of movement as it does from the feeling of drawing. W e float toward the quiet vista as it also moves toward us. Each image relied upon past experience to know the probable behavior of the brush. and paper. temperature. You must also think of its intrinsic nature: its purpose. explain the composition. or ice—you must actually feel it beneath your fingers as you draw. Whatever the material— wood. It denies the importance of accident. created centuries and cultures apart. They each allowed the energy and focus of the moment to be expressed through controlled accident and a degree of the unknown Both drawings were made trusting the marks. As your hand meets the paper to make a mark. Landscape in Haboku Style 15TH CENTURY . the unknown. and what you discover in the process of making. trusting my intuition to find a visual equivalence for the sensation of weight within my body. We are caught in a shifting focus that makes everything fluid.14 INTRODUCTION ALCHEMY At school. or imagine—it is not enough to only render its shape. and practice each part before putting the final image together. However. size. metal. and allowed to flow through the brush. fire. and at speeds beyond conscious thought. we are advised or even required to plan our pictures. your marks will become the subject on the paper. and sometimes beyond. it should be responding to the sensation and meaning of the subject it draws. balance. and position in space. mists. which can offer keys to other things. declare the idea. I made it almost unconsciously with a pen and a brush. This is a detail of a brush-and-ink drawing by a Japanese Buddhist monk. This is the alchemy of drawing. If you can do this. feel. excessive planning can get in the way of the imagination. and opacity of your subject. The physicality. water. depth. and an island brushed with trees. Know the texture.
c. one of many luminous works in watercolor. gold leaf and spray paint. lives on. Lautrec's flamboyant splashes o f petticoats and pantaloons are drawn with long sweeps of chalk and brushed oil paint.16 INTRODUCTION PLACE A N D MOMENT The heat and teeming atmosphere o f this Parisian dressing room. Focusing on the Negative 2004 22 x 30 in (56 x 76 cm) J O H N WALTER . left. pastel. which evoke realities o f place and the p o w e r o f moment. more than 100 years after its making. like folded insects. He dazzles us with flashes o f light and dabbed marks o f shadow. stand table-sized with furniture legs attached t o b o t h sides of their jacket. right is set inside a rib cage. made by a young British artist who creates alphabets o f the absurd f r o m familiar childhood characters. acrylic. W a l t e r also makes books: some.1896 Woman at her Toilet 41 x 26 in (104 x 66 cm) TOULOUSE LAUTREC RIB-CAGE D R A M A Thus drama.
Pages do not have to lie open for other people to inspect and comment on. even those you dislike. just through the act of making. Ignore these at first and allow yourself the freedom to play. Drawing is exploratory. diary-like observations. potential ideas still forming. Choose other materials and do the same. One of the advantages of a drawing book is that you can shut it. and mistakes are a valuable process of learning. Try to keep all of your first drawings. Put them away and look at them later. you will be surprised and encouraged to see how far you have come. Such books are personal: the territory of new exploration and experiment. With no help and advice at all. try not to grip your pen worrying about the technical terms you might have heard. As you follow lessons in this book.17 FREEING THE HAND If you are just beginning to learn how to draw. you will naturally make progress on your own in response to concentration and the decision to look and draw. Enjoy discovering what your hand and the material can do. FREEINGTHEHAND . Much will be learned on these test sheets and in your first drawings. It is yours. take your time and don't worry if you need to make several attempts to grasp a concept. at a point when you feel you are not making progress. Start by choosing a material you like the look of and cover a piece of paper with different marks. and miscellaneous items of inspiration.
In the total wealth of these pages. we still only glimpse a corner of the magnitude of this subject and the infinity of what can be achieved. adapting its form and occupation. comes from within. the path is yours. An artist's personal voice is something that also evolves through lessons learned. Drawing is a living language that over millennia has grown and changed. Its sensuous and flowing line seems to drift like smoke. and enfolding new media. Note that the drawing classes are allocated to subjects. but not confined to them. The chapters of this book present 90 different artists' ways of seeing. when they are more experienced. As you draw. staring straight through his image of a bull. To these I have added my own drawings to explain elementary materials and techniques and offer introductory approaches. This practical journey will take you through the door into the vivid heart of drawing. ELECTRIC BULL With a penlight. Picasso Painting with Light at the Madoura Pottery 1949 . I was particularly attracted to their gentle articulation and understated determination. It rarely flourishes in isolation. which is held frozen in space by a camera lens. which of course he cannot see. and became a great subject for me.Their elegant strength seems to summon a lifetime of drawing. threedimensionally. However. and many more reasons for drawing the world. seek ideas in the life around you. 150). The real drawing book has yet to come. Once there.18 INTRODUCTION THE THINKING EYE Techniques and materials are the grammar and vocabulary of drawing and can be studied and shared. caught between action and repose. Picasso is poised smiling. Imagination needs nourishment. it is this voice that is the subtle part of their art and something that ultimately. it will be your creation as you discover your own personal vision. A N ARTIST'S HANDS These are the hands of the artist Phyll Kiggell (see p. Picasso has just finished his drawing. Look to your own experience and also learn from the work of others.
b o u n d b o o k s t h a t fit in y o u r p o c k e t o r bag. c o l o r If planning t o use pencils. Sand the edges to avoid splinters. t h i s is h o w I l e a r n e d . and cost. and collage their ideas. binding. thick enough not to flex. Calculate a range of useful dimensions and have several cut at once. Many artists invent ways o f binding their o w n books. 6. 5. stitched.C O V E R E D H A R D B O U N D : Ideal f o r c a r r y i n g a r o u n d . F o r e v e n i n g classes. color. and glued t o a s t r i p o f bias binding. Dissecting a d i s c a r d e d h a r d . C A N V A S . a n d crayons. a n d r e f e r e n c e b o o k s f o u n d in s e c o n d . Alternatively. which are also sold in an enormous range.B O U N D PADS: T h e s e are t h e least expensive a n d useful f o r o p e n i n g flat. c h o o s e larger f o r m a t s t o give y o u s c o p e f o r e x p e r i m e n t . 2002 Tantalus o r The Future of Man 81/2 x61/4in (215 x 158 mm) ROSE MILLER . They can be very expensive in art stores. There are dozens to choose from. N o t e t h e w i d e l y differing c h o i c e o f p a p e r s w i t h w h i c h t h e s e are m a d e .20 INTRODUCTION Drawing Books and Papers T o BEGIN YOUR EXPLORATION o f d r a w i n g . Homemade books can be assembled easily from found materials or selections of loose sheet papers. R I N G . BLACK P O C K E T B O O K S : Hand-sized w i t h ready-made elastic binder and a marker ribbon. cut. cheap corrugated plastic ones fall apart in days. is perfect. T h e hardb o a r d j a c k e t is s t r e t c h e d w i t h canvas beneath t h e p a p e r sleeve. be sure they fit comfortably under your arm. y o u n e e d a lifetime. ties on either side to keep your papers in place. These are perfect f o r w o r k i n g in novels. Purchase a h i g h . A high-quality one will last a DRAWING BOOKS Select d r a w i n g b o o k s t o suit y o u r aims. study the structure of a good portfolio and make your own. C O L O R E D PAPERS: Large a r t supply stores o f t e n sell t h i c k b o o k s full o f c o l o r e d p a p e r s . If you intend to carry your boards for a distance. Smooth plywood. F o r traveling. H O M E M A D E : I m a d e this b o o k f r o m drawing paper that I folded. You simply need two strong boards hinged together well. 1.q u a l i t y r i n g . drawing book. 2. b e a w a r e t h a t p a p e r t e x t u r e effects a n d changes t h e i r marks. catalogs. pastels. t h e i r jackets w i l l a c t like d r a w i n g b o a r d s a n d p r o t e c t y o u r w o r k .b o u n d b o o k w i l l s o o n s h o w y o u h o w it is m a d e . thickness. Art students often make use of printed books picked up from secondhand stores into which they draw. H o w e v e r r i n g bindings o f t e n break. F O U N D B O O K S : O l d p r i n t e d 3 . and handles to lift the weight of your artworks. a l e n g t h o f black elastic t i e d a r o u n d t h e m i d d l e will h o l d the contents together w h e n y o u f o l d in c o l l e c t e d items. Gleaming store purchases vary greatly in format. texture. c h o o s e s m a l l e r h a r d . It is also useful to own a portfolio.b o u n d p a d if y o u w i s h t o keep your drawings together long-term. quality. 4. it is better to have them made at a lumber yard or home improvement store.h a n d s t o r e s make unique subjects f o r e x p e r i m e n t s a n d collage. Drawing boards are invaluable. Most contain thin p a p e r and are perfect f o r use w i t h disposable pens.
Papers differ in thickness (weight). Use cheap paper for rough ideas and quality paper for work to last See the glossary ( p p . not. and white. FABRIANO INGRES: Thin. turning brown and brittle. 100% cotton and sold in sheets. SAUNDERS WATERFORD N O T 300GMS: Mid-quality textured watercolor paper. Cotton papers are high-quality and acid-free. and hot pressed papers. white textured paper that can take abrasive use of any medium. MAGIC PAPER: A reusable sheet for testing ideas without creating waste. JAPANESE PAPER: Strong. yellow. also good for drawing with colored pencils. resisting deterioration. 13. 14. FABRIANO R O U G H 600GMS: Very heavy. They are hand-. Ph. texture. and other plant fibers. 12. 11. 15. printed on one side only. AQUARELLE ARCHES 300GMS:The very top quality hot-pressed (smooth) watercolor paper. fine. and cost. 20. cold. 22. color. it is made from rice. size. C A N S O N : Inexpensive lightweight pastel paper in many colors. For use with any media. mold-. 10. blocks. GLASSINE: Sold as protective wrapping. T W O RIVERS GREEN 410G MS: Very heavy tinted textured cold-pressed watercolor paper See Two Rivers Yellow. or machine made in sheets. pastel paper in flecked pastel colors with a distinctive ribbed marking. 18. or rolls. used to imprint lines of these colors onto a surface. VELIN ARCHES 250GMS: Printmaking paper available in black white. from pencil to paint 9. PAPERS . smooth. red. 7. Use for brushwork drawings. It is available in white or cream. and rolls. ITALIAN PARCHMENT: Imitation-animal-skin parchment that is translucent and slightly waxy. C A R B O N PAPER: Available in dark and light blue. METALLIC PAPER: Thin paper in different metallic colors.5 9 ) for explanations of rough.TISSUE PAPER: Place sheets between drawing book pages to keep images from printing on each other and use for delicate collage. T W O RIVERS Y E L L O W 410GMS: See Two Rivers Green 19. FABRIANO ACADEMIA: Standard medium-range multipurpose paper Use with any media. blocks. and translucent. It is also excellent for drawing with marker pens on layered sheets. tough. mulberry. bamboo. and cream sheets or rolls. absorbency. 8. Cheap wood-pulp papers are acidic. 16. 17. Use with a brush in clean water Water makes a dark mark like ink and becomes invisible again when dry. 21. 2 5 6 .
arm. if left-handed. your lines will distort. . but you need to understand that the expression of a line or mark originates in the body and flows t h r o u g h the shoulder. don't sit too close to the paper. you can draw lines freely and achieve a significant arc of movement. Turning your drawing sideways or upside-own will also help reveal what is wrong. You do not have to dance to draw. If your hand twists to maneuver between the paper and your body. If your body posture is well balanced and you can move freely. a n d h a n d to the fingertips. you Drawing classes can be cramped places. body. In this book we will look at parallels between drawing and music. There are also parallels to dance. SPACE TO WORK Cramped grip. place it on your left. b u t it should n o t be forgotten that many people make remarkable a n d striking works drawing with their feet or holding their brush or pencil in their mouths. Ideally.22 INTRODUCTION Posture and Grip T o DRAW WELL. but wherever possible. place it on your right. Regularly step back 6-9 ft (2-3 m) to check your progress. place it on the correct side: if right-handed. From a distance you will spot errors you cannot see close up. Examples are shown here. and look to the right. Use the side of your little fingernail as a support on the page. Placing your easel o n the w r o n g side folds y o u r b o d y against your drawing arm. and subject. 116-17). You cannot draw like this—your hand is locked and your fingers can barely move. your whole relaxed b o d y should be involved. Accelerated perspective also occurs if you look down the surface steeply (see pp. or with your drawing board angled between your lap and a chair. This cramped grip tires your hand and makes small. make sure you have enough room to back away and view your work. your drawing will reflect this. Relaxed fingers: Hold the pencil away from its tip and relax your fingers. strangledlooking drawings. It will also reflect discomfort if you are in any way cramped. This photograph illustrates how some people hold a pen to write. There should be an open. should be able to look comfortably straight ahead at your picture plane. flowing space between your hand. If using an upright easel. How you hold your drawing materials is also important. a n d look to the left of it at your subject. If seated on a b e n c h easel (a donkey). With your hand in this position.
If you turn a brush or dip pen up into the air to draw above your hand. roughly marking out a large-scale work. It is most comfortable when reaching to draw above your head. To stop this. hold your material as you find most comfortable. or change to the wrong hand. But be careful not to tense your fingers. alternative way of holding the pencil. brush pressed against an upright surface will cause a dribble of ink to run down your drawing. ALL MEDIA There are no rules as to how you should hold your drawing media.23 This loose "candle" grip is very useful when drawing with your arm extended. and body are not restricted. This can give a new lease on life to your mark-making. or it can spoil your work if not anticipated. As long as your fingers. This can be used to great effect. upright way of holding the brush near its base is similar to the Japanese way used in Zen calligraphy (see pp. Soft media: Short materials such as pastels and charcoal can be accommodated in the palm. Brush calligraphy: This comfortable. arm.232-33). liquid will run down your hand. GRAVITY Remember that gravity affects the flow of ink and paint. depending upon what it is and how large you are working. not up to the paper Brushes can be used on upright paper but dip Anticipating effects: A fully loaded pens need a level surface. Large amounts of ink can be applied without fear of uncontrolled running if the paper is flat. find an unfamiliar. Remember you can also draw just by dipping your fingers in pigment—this is how many women draw in rural India. . Large scale: POSTURE AND GRIP U n f a m i l i a r i t y : T h e habitual movements of our handwriting style will sometimes infringe upon our drawing.
out are now oxidized and so appear black W h e n less preoccupied with understanding ourselves. to be there at the m o m e n t of discovery. In 19th-century Europe this became a "science. offer challenges and delights to draw. floating turtles. White's commission was to ". 11 x91/4in (277 x 234 mm) .. which are so unlike ours. O v e r the centuries. This drawing is made in black lead (metal point) with watercolor Highlights of silver would have gleamed. Here (left) we see J o h n White's exquisite record of a flying fish. and this very drawing was to endure many copies and plagiarisms after its triumphant return to the English court of Queen Elizabeth I.drawe to lief one of each kinde of thing that is strange to us in England. Europeans on board had never seen such a thing. and to bring h o m e drawn documentaries of their finds. and people. and silent. and we still see escapees from its pages carved and grinning as the gargoyles of churches. In this chapter we discover the use of pens and ink through the delineation of insects. JOHN WHITE British artist. which very likely leaped o n t o the deck of Sir Walter Raleigh's ship Tiger as it sailed north from the Caribbean to Virginia in 1585..m o u n t e d skeletons of birds. mermaids. birds." Paranoid newcomers c r a m m e d into swelling industrial cities used handbooks of physiognomy to identify and judge their neighbors. cartographer. animals provide a perfect subject with which to begin. fish. from which personality and predicted behavior were " d e d u c e d . bats. W h e n lost to explain our own emotions. and snakes have between them engendered harpies." He worked with the scientist Thomas Harriot. and dragons. the Latin bestiary was one of the most popular picture books—an illustrated dictionary of one hundred parts. sleeping dogs. we turn and take the features of beasts.Animals H UMANS HAVE DRAWN ANIMALS from the beginning of our time. they are perhaps our favorite pictorial preoccupation. who described in words what White drew. or scampering through the initials and borders of pictures from that time. plants. W e have drawn them in m a n u s c r i p t s to explain our genesis and to c o u n t their species into Noah's ark. " Animals perpetually feed our imaginations. For the novice artist. werewolves. Together they made maps and documented animals. After the subject of ourselves. each dedicated to the moralized tale of an animal or monster The bestiary profoundly influenced the art of its period. we have employed artists on expeditions. and pioneer born c. Framed in the z o o or in domestic cohabitation. As children we delight in the humanized trials of Tom and Jerry and their c a r t o o n relations. 1590 J O H N WHITE capture form and movement from the m a n n e r i s m s of honking geese. We have drawn them on the walls of caves to evoke their kinship and power. 1540. m u s e u m . and learn how to Flying Fish c. insects. their different speeds and patterns of action. dogs. On the Roanoke voyages of Sir Walter Raleigh. In medieval England. Facial features were analyzed in terms of their animal likeness.
Sailing to Rome. He in turn sent the mysterious creature to the Pope via Marseilles at the request of the King of France. Meanwhile. and wrote four books on proportion. Unsurpassed. filled journals with ideas and observations. writer. they were rejected. years after its publication. Original Ink Drawing of a Rhinoceros 1515 ALBRECHT DURER 103/4 x 161/2 in ( 2 7 4 x 4 2 0 mm) . printmaker. Converted into a print. Durer's image changed eager hands until it was known across Europe. draftsman. DURER'S RHINOCEROS AND STUBBS'S skeletal Durer. Contemporary texts related accounts of the beast as the mortal enemy of the elephant and rare relative of the "more common" unicorn. but the drowned animal washed ashore. It is such a lifelike triumph of imagination and intelligence that for centuries zoologists never questioned its authority. inspiring countless works of art and so touching people's imaginations that later. the ship was lost. the home of ALBRECHT DURER German Renaissance painter. Stubbs's Anatomy of the Horse achieved similar documentary status. Durer traveled widely to study at different European schools of art. when more accurate portrayals were made without armor and scales. a gift to the Portuguese King. The first live rhinoceros to reach Europe came from India in May 1515. a drawing of it arrived in Nuremberg. Life-like This is Durer's original quill-and-ink drawing made after an anonymous Portuguese drawing.26 ANIMALS Documentaries horse are superb affirmations of the power of drawing as a recorder and communicator of knowledge. and mathematician. naturalist. it continued its journey to Rome. He studied the image and drew his own interpretation. It was to become the animal's only accepted likeness for 250 years. Carefully stuffed. it is still consulted by veterinarians today.
Anatomy of the Horse. composed from notes and observations. Stubbs's m o s t c e l e b r a t e d publication. and therefore invented the lighting that Compare how Stubbs and Durer both invented lighting to portray the reality of their animals. His painted p o r t r a i t o f t h e b e a s t is in t h e R o y a l C o l l e g e o f S u r g e o n s o f England. Lighting Stubbs's breathtaking international work won immediate There acclaim. Dissections Stubbs took his knife and his pencil and physically climbed inside the horse. a n d anatomist. Table of the III of the Horse (rear Skeleton view) mm) 1756-58 1 4 x 7 in ( 3 5 4 x 1 8 0 GEORGE STUBBS . dissecting and drawing until he understood the mechanisms of its power and grace. knowledge of parts. in t h r e e v i e w s — r e a r f r o n t . He composed makes each horse appear so real and each plate from his three-dimensional. a n d s i d e .GEORGE STUBBS B r i t i s h e q u i n e a n d s o c i e t y p o r t r a i t painter. The entire project was developed over ten years. which has never diminished. He translated his own drawings into engravings for publication. Stubbs w a s o n e o f t h e first E u r o p e a n artists t o m a k e a n a c c u r a t e representation o f the rhinoceros. c o m p r i s e s 1 8 p l a t e s s h o w i n g d i s s e c t i o n s in l a y e r s f r o m b o n e t h r o u g h m u s c u l a t u r e t o skin. Dissections were made over a total of 18 months. L o n d o n . This is one of Stubbs' original finished pencil drawings. is no other work like it. naturalist.
playwright. it silently rises to the light. her sharp teeth. the ominous beast unwinds from the dark of the sea and of our nightmares.28 ANIMALS Presence and Mood THESE DRAWINGS HAVE BEEN CHOSEN to s h o w t w o v e r y different ways of picturing a wild animal. I've ended up mixing in pencil. drawing her again and again to pin d o w n the texture of her loose skin. Surrounding sprays of graphite powder are stuck into washes of oil and ink to suggest glutinous depths. coal dust. more or less what I have in view. and all sorts of bizarre concoctions which manage to convey above all in mind. charcoal.. His copious drawings are characterized by mixed media. The Hunchback of Notre Layers and shadows Throughout this drawing. drama.. and Pieuvre 1866-69 91/2 x81/8in (242 x 207 mm) VICTOR H U G O . H u g o mixed his media and drew from m e m o r y and imagination to create narrative atmosphere. Hugo used graphite powder. soot. linseed oil soaked into the paper has made shadows and repelled the ink to create translucent tentacles. VICTOR HUGO Poet. and turn. Gericault's sheet a p p e a r s almost s c r a t c h e d b y the f e r o c i o u s play of his cat. snarl. and her distinctive temperament. and leader of the French Romantic movement. novelist. Gericault took a sharp p e n c i l to m a k e repeated direct o b s e r v a t i o n s f r o m life. Mixed media Here. A s if disturbed from its gritty b e d by our presence and curiosity..".. Apparently drawn in its o w n ink. By contrast. He has w a t c h e d her p o u n c e . Hugo's novels Les Miserables and Dame have become classics of film and stage. ink and linseed oil on paper. sepia. Hugo's page is f l o o d e d w i t h the fearful presence of a remembered octopus. The octopus is formed in layers applied and distressed with a brush. saying ". conjured b y the hand of a great author of French literary fiction. He wrote to poet and art critic Charles-Pierre Baudelaire about his experiments. her b o n y frame. and a love of accident.
since it can lead to a flattened form. displayed in the Louvre.29 THEODORE GERICAULT C o n t r o v e r s i a l . Here. and keep trying again. s h o r t . of drawings Gericault erased. Beginners are advised to follow the natural contours of form as shown on pp. facing right. 144. undertraces unify and vitalize the composition. standing sideways. artists reused sheets and them full of studies. Tones that do not follow surface contour is very difficult to do well. Paris. fiery.l i v e d French R o m a n t i c painter and lithographer Largely self-taught. 124-25 and p. and it can be applied to any subject (see pp.118-119). parallel. H e is best k n o w n f o r his gigantic painting. Repeated study This drawing demonstrates of feeling confident repeat different the importance subject Remaining enough to isolate parts of a views. focused upon seeing will lead to a greater understanding of the subject Much is learned from repeated study. The Raft of the Medusa. diagonal strokes of his pencil. Before paper became so cheap. horses w e r e a favorite subject t o g e t h e r w i t h politics and history. of previous Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 1817-18 121/2 x 151/2 in ( 3 1 9 x 3 9 8 mm) T H E O D O R E GERICAULT . Undertraces Beneath these graphite studies we see traces Tones On the top row we see clearly how Gericault laid broad areas of tone using fast. At the center of the page is crammed drawings the outline of a horse.
Ink and gouache This drawing is made in black Chinese ink and gouache (opaque watercolor) applied with a brush. His hand must have shuddered and twitched just like the constant actions of this humorous meeting. Klee's riders are constructed from all the gestures of greeting mules. and scrolled lines. Both Picasso and Klee have enclosed their subjects to compress and amplify the speed of PABLO PICASSO A prolific Spanish painter sculptor. overwhelmed by a screeching bird. Faune. Cheval et Oiseau 1936 173/8 x 211/4 in ( 4 4 0 x 5 4 0 m m ) PABLO PICASSO . These media complement and amplify each other with their brilliant contrast. and brown. His powdery. The ink is used to make sharply defined solid. noise is everywhere. the first abstract movement of the 20th century. In these two drawings. Gouache is brushed softly in translucent hazy layers of cool blue. dissolving faun kneels stranded. or proud. made only a year apart. flattened animals composed almost entirely of movement. In Picasso's drawing. draftsman. flapping bird. The fact that they never stand still influences the movement in his line.30 ANIMALS Movement M O V E M E N T IS OFTEN THE CHARACTERISTIC b y w h i c h w e their lines and the power of their beasts. the whinnying of a frantic horse. slow tortoise. hooked. taking them to guide their hand in bringing form and essence together. Picasso cofounded Cubism. and waves breaking distantly below. with George Braque (see p90). gray. identify an animal: the fast cheetah. quivering horse. printmaker ceramicist graphic and stage designer who lived in France. Artists commonly focus on such actions. we see semi-abstract.
He is a u t h o r o f The Thinking Eye (1923). and t e a c h e r at t h e Bauhaus school. Layers of marks In this pale Dentil drawing we see layers of' agitated marks that together present a kind of visual "itch. well-worn copies o f w h i c h are found in m a n y art schools." They chatter around bodies in groups. Chicago PAUL KLEE . draftsman. creatures. sculptor. They remain in contact with the surface of the page and scribble back and forth as they maneuver from one area to another. W i t h his drawings Kleeb o u n d sophisticated theories to personal and often witty childlike imagery. Scene der Komischen of Comical Reiter Riders) (Scene 1935 161/2x111/2in ( 4 1 9 x 2 9 1 mm) M o r t o n G . printmaker. turning our eye and around inside the and postures of the paper- thin on pictorial space. The entire drawing suggests the endless small movements of horses standing still.PAUL KLEE Swiss painter. N e u m a n n Family Collection. top all happily of each other in the Endless lines Look closely at how Klee's lines rarely leave the paper and how they are free from the constraint of finite shape. violinist.
which in application gave strength and advantage to the English fighting the Spanish Armada. t h e earliest geometrically defined elevations. and s e c t i o n s o f ships. and the carefully observed gills. slim stern). Baker lived in an era when ships were built without drawn plans. b a s e d o n his studies o f fish. the expression of its eye. fins. He studied the anatomy of fish. seemingly looking for our attention. B a k e r initiated t h e scientific p r a c t i c e o f naval a r c h i t e c t u r e and applied h y d r o d y n a m i c s . and author o f Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (1586).32 ANIMALS Icon and Design IN THESE T W O MANUSCRIPTS we discover diagrammatic and mackerel's tail" (full bow. and scales. The ship The upper decks of the ship appear curved toward us at both ends. This drawing illustrates Baker's theory. In contrast to the practical clarity of Baker's thought. and steerage. Knopf's drawing opposite is the personal enigmatic expression of a mind gripped by illness. Below we see his revolutionary design for an Elizabethan warship. plans. It is simply how we read his perspective. The fish It is likely that Baker drew with a quill dipped in irongall ink. His birds stare. adding washes of color with a fine brush. Baker did not intend this. balance. drawings of animals that are each held tightly in a surprising space: a giant fish wears a ship's hull. it would achieve greater speed. later called a galleon. and to assess our next move. mathematician. In just one drawing he has displayed more angles of his design than we would expect to see from a single viewpoint Fragments English 1586 101/2 x 153/8 in (270 x 390 mm) MATTHEW BAKER of Ancient Shipwrightry . and blackbirds fly in formation through a mosaic of text. and from them learned that if he designed his ship with a "cod's head MATTHEW BAKER Master shipwright. Exquisite details in this drawing include the lips of the fish.
appears to be stirred like water by the presence of the The Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks UNDATED 133/8 x 115/8 in (340 x 2 9 6 mm) and psychiatrist Hans Prinzhom collected this image. The text.JOHANN KNOPF An " O u t s i d e r " a r t i s t w h o s u f f e r e d f r o m m e n t a l illness.K n o p f b e l i e v e d h e c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h e language o f birds. The main group is placed in a circle drawn with a compass. w h i c h o f t e n f e a t u r e as s y m b o l i c creatures in his drawings. firmly outlined. and filled evenly with tone. JOHANN KNOPF . T h e G e r m a n a r t historian Outline and tone The blackbirds illuminating this frantic manuscript are drawn in pencil. written last of all. circle and the birds. numbered.
producing a different line. Quills were later cut from feathers. ink is traditionally applied with a brush (see pp. you can have great fun drawing the world around you. which range greatly in their handling and character of line. spots." "Gum" refers to gum arabic extracted Dip pens are essential and inexpensive drawing tools.246-47). That is an ink. Each pen has a unique character. Avoid needle-sharp mapping pens. high-quality Chinese and Japanese inks are subtler and more complex than those produced in Europe. and it is still in use today. The best are goose or swan. and first used by the Egyptians. METAL PENS: Inexpensive removable steel nibs are available in a range of widths. F O U N T A I N PENS: These vary in quality and nib width. Today. Only fill with suitable inks. which scratch rather than draw. The bar is then rubbed into water on a slate block to produce ink. REED PENS: A broad nib can be cut from bamboo or another tubular grass. Intricate or dramatic lines. then pour a little warm gum water into it and temper the two together. The Chinese used animal or fish glue. expressive drawing techniques such as the ones we explore in this chapter 1. 5 0 0 years ago. They fit into wooden holders. the recipes for which have been handed down over centuries. while metal nibs began as rare gifts in gold and silver before being perfected by the British steel industry. QUILLS: These are cut from the barrel of a flight or tail feather. PENS . The paste from either recipe is pressed and dried into a bar for storage. distinguished manufacture. where reeds were gathered. Masters choose brands of long. Early artists recommended raven and crow for especially fine work. Responsive to slight changes in pressure. and spatters can be made with an exotic choice of inks. The reservoir gives a constant flow of ink for very long unbroken lines and continuous bottle-free use. simultaneously 4 . light it. A German recipe of 1531 gives a simple description: "Take a wax candle. The Egyptians and Chinese are credited with the invention of carbon ink. s t i c k s . In the Far East. 4. 3. Dip pens began their history in the Nile River. 2. a n d m e t a l p o i n t s . from the acacia tree. and hold it under a clean basin until the soot hangs to it. they are associated with rapid.34 ANIMALS Pen and Ink W I T H A HANDFUL OF FEATHERS.
charred bone (Ivory Black). an often misused term. C A R B O N INK: Traditionally produced from oil or resin soot (Lamp Black). or charcoal. and sepia. Excellent for drawing they are bright and non-clogging. The complexities of traditional iron-gall ink are explained on p. waterproof or non-waterproof. Waterproof types contain shellac. boiled. INKS 9. suspended in a binder and stored as a solid block Blocks are imported today 7. and sieved. Old stock turns solid and bottlesChina. and most can be homemade. 5. They are the easiest inks to use. Beechwood soot is best. . and can be mixed and diluted to create subtler colors and tones.G A L L INK: Abnormal spherical growths caused by parasitic wasps can be collected from some oak trees in fall. SEPIA A N D BISTRE INKS: Sepia. It dries with a sheen and clogs uncleaned pens. and are still in use today: carbon (Chinese and Indian). reduced. Inks can be lightfast or non-lightfast. I R O N . they produce a golden dye for drawing.36. dated. ACRYLIC / CALLIGRAPHY INKS: Available in black and a range of colors. Now we also have acrylic ranges in many colors. Non-waterproof Indian inks can be reworked with a wet brush after drying. Crushed. iron-gall. Bistre is the more humane use of soot scraped from the fireplace and ground into wine. bistre. I N D I A N INK: Carbon ink sold today in liquid form. is the ink of a cuttlefish or squid extracted post-mortem. roastedwine sediment (Yeast Black). 8. from are not 6.35 PEN AND INK Four types of ink were common before the 20th century.
red-brown. and delicious to draw with. Running fresh. finding reed p e n s unwieldy. M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s d r a g o n o n p . Some of Michelangelo's drawings are now a little eaten by their own ink. giving longer lines. of a loaded nib. Quills are also called D u t c h pens. It also oxidized and ate or burned paper. T h e y give a finer. a n d M a t i s s e also e n j o y e d t h e m . Walnut ink is gloopy. t h e y stick a n d j u d d e r f o r w a r d . Although oak galls and walnut skins are harmless. It dried black. the blade and cut away from you. for example. appears broken to show paper beneath. then cut a final nib (feathers. Scribes o f t h e M i d d l e Ages. Practice to gain a feel for how materials behave. U n d e r heavy pressure.36 ANIMALS Drawing With Ink To MAKE A QUILL OR REED PEN. For centuries. and turned brown with time. crushed. I u s e d t h e s e qualities t o d r a w t h e w o r m s above. 2 4 4 is an e x q u i s i t e e x a m p l e . it was gray-purple. QUILL PENS Q u i l l s a r e highly r e s p o n s i v e t o c h a n g e s in p r e s s u r e . and boiled to make a golden ink. The lighter right Quill marks Quills carry more ink than strokes and for as reeds.) You can make ink easily from the boiled. a n d d e v e l o p e d t h e quill instead. The darkest of this grasshopper wings) were made (around the head first. giving a s h o r t . galls were ground with iron sulfate to make an unstable solution. Collect skins from the ground beneath trees once they are blackened. keep all your fingers behind basis of iron-gall ink. always be cautious when experimenting with recipes. Paler strokes were made where the mark has the legs and antennae the ink ran out. can also be collected from affected trees. are surprisingly tough. Rembrandt. reduced. . Oak galls. fleshy skins that surround ripe walnuts. forming the REED PENS R e e dpens dispense ink quickly. sieved. V a n G o g h . r e s e r v e d t h e i r use f o r large c h o i r b o o k s . since t h e D u t c h w e r e t h e first t o realize t h a t they could be hardened and i m p r o v e d w i t h heat t r e a t m e n t in ash o r sand. m o r e e x t e n d e d line than reed and a m o r e organic line t h a n m e t a l . drawn to glisten with a dryer nib. Reed marks The darker left wing of this beetle was drawn with the wet inky stroke wing. d r y mark.
o r being ruined as fountain pens would be under the same pressure. tonal Ink layers The wings of this beetle were drawn in layers using black and white ink on pale gray paper. clean strokes. White markings were drawn last Tones Here we see subtle tones of diluted ink beneath the undiluted black rim of a beetle's wing.37 METAL PENS Metal pens give long. marks become fine and needle-sharp. they splay to make thick o r double lines. withstanding great pressure without sticking. W h e n the nib is pressed upside down. sharp. . Each layer of of the drying droplet dome the drawing was left to dry before adding more. DRAWING WITH INK Filled outlines Each segment of wing was outlined. The of pigment to fall to the edges effect of the shape. breaking. Loaded with ink and pressed hard. giving a graded. particles then filled with a droplet of ink. it is important to feel for when the ink will run out and to know how much ink you pick up when dipping the nib. When using dip pens.
Take a cup and water for diluting a range of tones. and quickly draw around it using only three or four strokes. and a large drawing book or plenty of paper Use masking tape to secure pages against the wind. and be brave. touch the bottle's rim to drain the excess. to absorb blots when drawing. Attempt with a loose hand to capture their posture and outline. Watch their heavy feathered bodies flap. Empathize. It happens that goose feathers also provide artists with the best type of quills." If you don't like a stroke. Try to hold the whole posture in your mind's eye. Posture . so pick a spot where other people can keep them entertained.38 ANIMALS Capturing Character GEESE ARE EXCELLENT SUBJECTS to draw when practicing the first use of pen and ink. It teaches confidence and focus through intensive repetition. be bold and press firmly. Quick drawing trains you to see what is most important about a subject and to mark only its most essential expression. Experiment. Focus on it. and bellyflop off the waterside. Geese are nosy birds. Focus on the geese. Dip your pen in ink. make another one. Cover your drawing book pages in speedy responses to the geese and try to capture each bird in as few lines as possible. steel nibs are fine. That said. MATERIALS NEEDED Look for a bird expressing a simple posture. Study them before drawing. I covered eleven sheets in sixty quick drawings—in less than an hour. draw what the bird is doing. You cannot break the nib. test your limits. not on your drawing. there is no obligation to prepare a quill. and boldly plunge into your drawing. Take no more than ten seconds to draw each one and make lots of drawings. Pack plenty of tissue around a bottle of calligraphy or acrylic ink. Illustrating this exercise on Oxford Port Meadow. Cover a sheet. waddle. and there is no "wrong.
and don't worry about mechanical facts or accuracy. and diving. Use more lines than before to express these. flapping. Again. draw the feeling of what you see. . Avoid detail unless really tempted by a close-up visit Fluctuate the pressure of your pen in response to how you know the bird would feel if you touched it.39 Action With growing confidence. running. CAPTURING CHARACTER Texture Gradually allow yourself more lines to describe the texture of each bird as well as its posture and action. look among the birds for more complicated actions such as shaking off water.
a d o g w h o w a s a l w a y s town. and personality. Make a test sheet to discover your control of diluting on the nib. This will give a medium-gray line. a dip pen and ink of your choice (see pp. Dip the nib quickly again into water and again drain it. and drain the excess by touching the nib against the rim of the bottle. Ras Curled Up Asleep "Capturing the true character of a cherished companion is best achieved with objective determination rather than sentimental shyness." . Sleeping animals present the artist with ideal opportunities to study their texture. first dip your pen in ink. MAKING A PALE LINE To make a pale line. The only time he remained still was when he was sleeping.34-37). form.40 ANIMALS Sleeping Dogs R A S WAS A GREAT CHARACTER. your drawing book. and a tissue for blotting drawn lines that appear too dark. For this class you will need one oblivious dog. These drawings are not an analysis of his anatomy or breed but the expression of his satisfied comfort in a deep sleep after a night out on the together with a glass of water for diluting tones on the nib. Then dip the nib quickly into a glass of water and drain the excess again. and even then he twitched and stretched in dreams. Now it will make a pale line. engaged in his and everyone else's business.
this time to create a line a little darker in tone. Here I marked the features of Ras's head. To add texture.It is essential when drawing any subject (even something abstract) to know how it feels andtoemulate this with your line. and the shadows in his coat. in bold layers. quickly draw what you see. ears. tail. SLEEPING DOGS 1 Fix your eyes at the center of the dog. W i t h pale lies. 2 Reload your pen with ink. D o not go back over lines you are pleased with—doing so dulls their lively freshness. Then I immediately rebalanced the drawing with lines around his hind quarters.41 DRAWING YOUR DOG Be bold in this exercise. Then. alter the pressure and moisture of your line in response to howyouknow your dog feels when you ruffle itscoat. I added ink to Ras's nose. second thoughts may be different Changing your mind is a positive aspect o f seeing and thinking. First lines are first thoughts. 3 Gradually introduce darker tones. Trust your intuition. Character is better captured drawing quickly with confidence than w o r k i n g slowly. add more detail. Remain focused on the whole dog and. . Layers o f thoughts can bring a drawing alive. ignoring all detail. c o n c e r n e d a b o u t detail. to emphasize how he is curled up. Here. see how the animal's posture determines its whole shape.
as if caught in a camera freeze-frame.Turtles to observe. swinging their limbs and shells with a slow circular movement. Beyond the glass wall of the aquarium. offering plenty of time for the artist to draw the pose. turtles often pause unexpectedly. they stretch and paddle. A perfect subject for the beginner. THE ELONGATION AND BUOYANCY of a group of turtles is fascinating .
With speed. weightlessness of the kiwi. . balance.Dry Birds THESE ARE THE ARTICULATED BONES o f a k i w i a n d a h o u s e - martin drawn in a museum using a steel pen. dry. I made repeated studies of the housemartin to discover its mechanism of flight. I sought to capture the form. I darkened lines as each drawing progressed. and sharp. Beginning with very pale tones. and water. India ink.
Plants and Gardens W E SHARE THIS PLANET with the more ancient.Morethan 1. Botanical illustration is a precisely defined and scientific art. Medieval knowledge was not gained by the first-hand observation of life but by reading. In this chapter. an There are close parallels between the acts of gardening and drawing. After Here Aconthus spinosus is combined with forget-me-nots and-a-half centuries of intensive observation. He sent boxes of plants to Nuremburgburned with the urgency and excitement of explaining every plant's form. on which our lives depend. and beauty. and the Acanthus spinosus constant but exhilarating struggle to make a living image feel right. Plants seventeenth century. Plants are the principal inspiration of the decorative arts—from Roman Corinthian columns crowned with carved leaves of the acanthus. Conrad von Gemmingen. we now have laid before us fourto show how well their colours complement each other infinite wealth of material to explore. and focus. to the proliferation of floral designs with which we have dressed ourselves and furnished our homes for centuries. form. and texture. Classifications were set in367copperengravings. PriceBishopof Eichstatt specimens. as opposed to only herbal. shape. the punctuation of space with structure and mass. we see very different cultural visions of plants and gardens and use pencils and plants to learn the pictorial values of space. Rich owners of private gardens commissioned large-format florilegiums commissioned the volume to document his private garden to immortalize their personal taste and power of acquisition. It was published plain in 1611 and withhand-paintedplates in poured off ships returning from the New World and were eagerly collected and 1613. B A S I L I U SBESLER when botanists founded new work upon the direct study of plants. The revolution came in the 1530s. where a number of uncredited artistsd r e wthem for Besler. and the drawn pages ofthesame name. 1613 187/8x153/4in(480 x 400 mm) BASILIUS BESLER . Fledgling years Botanist and apothecary who compiled the Hortus Eystettensis of scientific research bore manifold explosions of knowledge in a fever of discovery. color.000 species of plants are depicted life-size drawn. and to ornament our lives. and diverse kingdom of plants. robust. manipulations of light and shade. From its history there is one overriding lesson to be learned: the importance of looking and seeing with our own eyes. nurture. Botanic gardens were established and expanded. Chapters are arranged by out. Patrons funded the breeding of decorative. We collect. —-the largest and most influential botanical book of the early Natural scientists accompanied explorers to document unknown finds. to catalog our knowledge. and hybridize them for our sustenance and pleasure. Later. season. Early European illustrators were trapped within dogma that was determined by ancient scholarship. the microscope was refined to unfold yet another world. infinitely vivid. Both embrace the anticipation of evolving shape. We draw them to celebrate their beauty and range.
W i t h bright F R A N Z BAUER An Austrian artist who trained at the Schonbrunn Imperial Gardens in Vienna. detail. and seeds conventionally a p p e a r o n o n e plate. and wilted. delicate. Outline Bauer prepared a pencil outline before laying in fleshy succulent hues and tones of watercolor. M a c k i n t o s h e x p r e s s e s the f o l d e d petals of a broken rose b u d so delicately w e can sense the perfume. It is likely Bauer would have studied these under a microscope. Dissections Across the lower part of this drawing we can see dissections of seed pods and petals. and Franz Bauer and his brother Ferdinand were employed there to draw specimens. o p e n i n g a n d c l o s i n g i n the w a r m t h a n d light of the studio. leaves. Stella Ross-Craig said of the need to d r a w from a dried herbarium plant "I could make it live again. o p t i m i s m .48 PLANTS AND GARDENS THE SCIENTIFIC VALUE OF A BOTANICAL DRAWING lies i n its Botanical Studies were specimens that often refused to stay still. measured drawings. Botanical art c o n c e a l s the challenge of its m a k i n g . and meticulous precision. He has made the spatial and physical relationships in this drawing all the more real by placing a single." Her slipper orchid s h o w s that botanical drawing must often resolve the challenge of its subject's p r o d u c i n g parts in different seasons — r o o t s . s u c h as w e see here in Bauer's Protea nitida. Light in this drawing is given by the paleness of the paper showing between washes of darker tones. Here. petal tip over a lower leaf Protea nitida 201/4 x141/4in (513 x 362 mm) FRANZ BAUER 1796 . or that were diseased. B e h i n d detailed. subtle union of beauty. T h e rest of u s are free to d r a w as w e w i s h . The King was then establishing the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. insect-ravaged. naturalist explorer and advisor to King George III invited Bauer to London in 1 7 9 0 . stems. They are counted among the most accomplished 18th-century botanical artists. Each plant must b e clearly distinguished from its closest relative. flowers. fruit. Sir Joseph Banks.
imagination. Line Drawing of Cypripedium calceolus L c. Closer to fiction can come together perfectly. A s m a n y of her drawings are kept G a r d e n s . Pencil lines cling to." This line drawing is one of 1. H e r Drawings of British Plants. and follow shadow. 1970 x 81/4 in ( 3 2 5 x 2 1 0 m m ) STELLA ROSS-CRAIG . is r e c o g n i z e d as tne m o s t c o m p l e t e a n d i m p o r t a n t work 3. as at trained botanical artist Ross-Craig Swift lines The drawing was planned in pencil and then overworked with a lithographic pen. a n d he inspired. S h e also o f thousands o f contributed an drawings. L o n d o n in 1 9 2 9 . a n d f o u n d e r o f t h e G l a s g o w S c h o o l o f A r t M a c k i n t o s h ' s flair h a d an e n o r m o u s i n f l u e n c e o n t h e a v a n t . Ross-Craig said of her work "Plants that wither rapidly present a very difficult problem to which there is only one answer—speed. BOTANICAL STUDIES Lines and shadows This lush. G u s t a v K l i m t In his r e t i r e m e n t Mackintosh m a d e n u m e r o u s inventive pencil a n d w a t e r c o l o r d r a w i n g s o f plants. and perfect coordination of hand and eye.7 3 in 3 1 p a r t s . sensual pencil drawing is later works.286 studies for her book Drawings of British Plants. found among Mackintosh's than reality. p u b l i s h e d 1 9 4 8 ..49 C H A R L E S RENNIE MACKINTOSH Scottish a r c h i t e c t d e s i g n e r painter. Curtis's Botanical Magazine.g a r d e in G e r m a n y a n d A u s t r i a . and observation the nuance and contour of every in one image.. and speed depends upon the immediate perception of the essential characteristics of the plant. and it shows how design. Rose 1894 103/4 x 83/4 in ( 2 7 5 x 2 2 1 mm) CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH STELLA ROSS-CRAIG A j o i n e d t h e staff a t t h e R o y a l B o t a n i c G a r d e n s . K e w . it is small and discreet. a m o n g o t h e r s .000 Kew to archive accessible t o d a y v i a t h e I n t e r n e t of o n British flora.
and Nanha. is remembered in the pages of his journal. the sumptuous petals permeated with prayer and wisdom. Every fiber of AMONG DRAWINGS FROM BISHNDAS A N D N A N H A Little is known of these Mughal painters who were related as uncle and nephew and commissioned to illustrate the pages of Babur's journal.50 PLANTS AND GARDENS Jeweled Gardens the Middle East we find exquisite stylization of form and upright formality in pictorial space. Below. and calligraphy are brought together to hold the sacred names of prophets and the 99 beautiful names of God. roses took their form in a bead of perspiration on the brow of Mohammed as he passed through his heavenly journey. Babur directs his gardeners in the design and planting of this quartered chahar bagh. By Muslim tradition. Envoys chatter outside the gate. paper is brimming with the beauty and celebration of nature. and attention to detail are all shared with medieval European manuscript drawings. The first Mughal Emperor Babur's Garden of Fidelity (Bagh-e Vaja). painting. The white of the page shines through the brilliant color. fluctuations in scale. anticipating their view. in miniature. which he personally created near Kabul. Afghanistan. . Upright shallow perspectives. and miraculous growth. Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity c. uniform focus. in the early 16th century. 1590 85/8 x55/8in (219 x 1 4 4 mm) BISHNDAS AND NANHA Bright pigment These pages were illuminated by Mughal artists in the late 16th century. They used a fine brush to lay pigment over a line drawing. Drawing. Bishndas was probably responsible for the overall design. urgent attentive human activity. Opposite is the Rose of Mohammed. a notable portrait painter drew the faces.
G e r m a n y . Note how each bud is essentially the same shape.c e n t u r y Turkish manuscnpt a book of religious e t h i c s w r i t t e n in the O r i e n t a l C o l l e c t i o n s of Berlin.AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH This is a detail o f a page from a n 1 8 t h . look closely and you will see words written in gold fluttering over the form of the flower. The Rose of Mohammed 1708 9 1 / 2 x 61/2 in ( 2 4 0 x 1 6 5 mm) FROM THE TURKISH M A N U S C R I P T AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH . However. It is n o w k e p t in Border The elegant border of this drawing was mode with a pen and ruler It cleverly compresses and defines the composition. Sacred words The central rose is more solid than any other on the page. The physical anatomy of the rosebud has been studied and translated into a repeated stylized motif. fragmenting its detail in a whisper of prayers. t h e Staatsbibliothek zu Arabic. so that overlapping petals and stems give an impression of fulfillment and abundance. and how the shape has been repeated freehand. Stylized motif A fine brush has been used throughout this drawing to apply inks and watercolors.
PLANTS AND GARDENS
IN CONTRAST TO THE QUIET, formal detail of other drawings in this chapter, these powerful fast trees enact the actions of plants. Each tree reaches out and holds its landscape with dynamism and pulse. In both drawings we find testament to the inexorable energy of growth. Rembrandt expresses a delicate quickness. Gentle lines draw a warm breeze through this remote wooded garden. Rustling in a loose foliage of soft marks, his pen evokes the weight of abundant activity on this late summer's day. Mondrian's arch of scratching branches is drawn with such force it will always be alive. We can still feel his hand storming across the paper. Set within a frame of smudged landscape, the tree possesses a musical agitation. This characteristic will increase in the artist's later abstract work. Here, we see a punctuated ordering of space. Sharp branches cut out negative shapes of winter sky.
R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter; etcher; and draftsman. Rembrandt's prolific output comprises oil paintings of historical and religious subjects together with group and self- portraits. His emotive etchings and pen and ink drawings (see also p. 174) are great resources for artists learning to understand the potential of these media.
Pen and ink lines describing foliage also tell
us the directions of sunlight and wind. An arc crossing the bottom of the drawing from one side to the other supports the scene and separates us from the landscape beyond. Compare Rembrandt's arc to that of Mondrian's. and note the similar treatment of low horizons in both works emphasizing the height and dominance of trees.
Cottage Among Trees 1648-50 63/4 x121/8in ( I 7 I x 308 mm) R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN
Atmosphere Here we see how shapes of negative space are as important as the physical subject they enclose (see pp.58-59). Mondrian has again lightly dragged his chalk on its side to evoke a wet depth of atmosphere. These passive gray marks contrast with the assertive tension of the tree.
Dutch Pure abstract painter preoccupied w i t h line and plane relationships. W i t h increasing austerity, Mondrian banished t h e subject from his drawings, in his later w o r k he also banished space, composing visual h a r m o n i e s using only straight lines a n d flat planes o f black, w h i t e , gray, o r p r i m a r y color.
Winter ground Short vertical marks along thebottomof this drawing reveal the length oftheblackchalk Mondrian used. Rubbed onitsside,itroughly blocks in the ground. Thecrudeeconomy of line is all we need tofeelthecold, wet, unwelcoming quality ofthiswinterearth.
Branches and trunk Lines shaping the branches of the tree are built up in layers. To make the trunk more dense, the artist has rubbed and smudged preliminary marks with his fingers before firmly overdrawing with new lines. Solid black lines are achieved by pressing the chalk hard. When used lightly, it shows the texture of the paper. Tree: Study for the Grey 1911 23 x 335/8 in ( 5 8 4 x 8 5 5 m m ) Tree
PLANTS AND GARDENS
Graphite and Erasers
GRAPHITE, FROM THE G R E E K word
This drawing illustrates a range of achieved with graphite pencils of different grades.
Modern pencils are graded from 9H (hard and pale) to 9B (black and soft). Graphiteclay sticks are also available, together with a powder form. All possess a natural sheen and are erasable to a varying degree. Graphite drawings smudge easily, so fixative, a form of varnish, can be used to hold a drawn surface in place. It is applied as a fine mist from an aerosol can, or from a bottle using a diffuser. For the beginner, ordinary hairspray is an effective and cheaper alternative.
(to write), is a soft and brittle carbon. It was first mined in Cumbria, England, in 1 5 6 4 , and was initially used in small, pure pieces bound in lengths of string. Pencils as we know them—with their slender wood casing and "lead" of graphite—were invented in France in 1794 by Nicolas-Jaques Conte. He discovered that milled graphite mixed with clay and water, press-molded, and baked to a high temperature produces a harder and paler medium than graphite alone.
3B pencil A range of mark and textures can be achieved with a 3B pencil when you vary its pressure, speed, and direction, as this detail shows.
Here is a selection of 14 items to illustrate a basic range of pencils, graphite sticks, sharpeners, erasers, and fixative.
1. AND 2. HB AND 3B PENCILS: It is unnecessary to possess every grade of pencil. HB, the central and most common grade, is perfect for making delicate lines. 3B gives a blacker tone. A great variety of effects can be achieved with just these two. 3. WATER-SOLUBLE PENCIL Effective for atmospheric drawing, but be aware of how watery tones can dull the impact of the line. 4. AND 5. MECHANICAL PENCIL Thick or fine leads are made in a range of grades. They are particularly useful because they do not require a sharpener 6. ROUND SOLID GRAPHITE PENCIL: Excellent for large-scale drawing, producing thick bold lines. A range of grades can be honed with a craft knife or sharpener 7. THICK GRAPHITE STICK: For large-scale drawing. Graded soft, medium, and hard. It crushes to produce graphite powder 8. SQUARE GRAPHITE STICK: Useful for making broad, sweeping marks in large-scale drawing. If worn and rounded, the stick can be snapped into pieces to regain the sharp, square end. 9. CRAFT KNIFE AND BLADES: Handles are sold in two sizes to fit large or small blades, and blades are sold in a range of shapes. Perfect for sharpening pencils to a long point, to cut lines in paper or to remove areas. 10. PENCIL SHARPENER: Makes a uniform point. Keep one in your pocket for drawing outside the studio, together with an envelope for shavings.
HB and 5B Layers of tone have been built up withHBand5Bpencils. Softer pencils require less pressure to make a mark, revealing the texture of the paper surface. It is important to keep the point of the pencil sharp with either a craft knife or a sharpener.
ERASING AND FIXING
Erasers can be used t o blend and s o f t e n lines, o r t o r e m o v e altogether. Fixative them prevents
GRAPHITE AND ERASERS
s m u d g i n g a n d s e c u r e s lines.
Using fixative You can use fixative while drawing to hold the definition of lines you wish to gently fade but not remove entirely, for which you would use an eraser.
11. P L A S T I C E R A S E R : Avoid cheap colored erasers that may stain drawings with grease and dye. White brands are available in soft and hard versions.
P U T T Y RUBBER:
W a r m it in your hand before use. It is excellent for removing powdery materials, and for making crisp sweeps of light across a delicate pencil drawing
13. D I F F U S E R : Helleborus corsicus (Corsican hellebore) fixative, or to spray mists of ink.
PLANTS AND GARDENS
Cropping and Composition
M A N Y STUDENTS WILL START a d r a w i n g i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e
that its skin nearly touches the boundary. The meaning of the same drawing changes simply by its relationship to the space it occupies. The size of any subject, its placement on the page, the size of the page, and its overall proportion are all discrete and essential aspects of successful picture-making. Before you begin to draw, think carefully about where to place your subject. Are you are happy with your paper? If not, change it; add more, take some away, or turn it around. Do not just accept what you are given, adapt it to what you need.
paper. Focused on the shape and detail of their subject, they remain happily unaware that there is, or should be, any relationship between what they are drawing and the surface they are drawing it on. The paper is only paper, and the troublesome subject floats somewhere in the expanse of it. However, a single fig drawn in the middle of a large, empty square of paper gives quite a different impression from the same fig drawn on such an intimately small square
CHOOSING A VIEW
A Single Fig
"The size, shape, and orientation of the paper are so integral to the composition that they determine the impact and meaning of the drawing."
the uppermost edge of the drawing. Here the left fig is attached to.57 THE VIEWFINDER T h e s e pencil drawings o f figs d e m o n s t r a t e different crops and compositions. When subjects touch two or more edges. running corner t o corner. U s e it as a starting point. spaces between things are as important as the things themselves. Touching the edge When the subject o f a drawing touches one edge of the paper it attaches t o it visually. The angle of the fruit together with dark shadow (top left) and bright light(bottom right) suggest a diagonal division across the whole drawing. a device to help you decide what t o draw. A card with a small rectangle cut out o f it makes a useful viewfinder C l o s e o n e e y e t o look through the hole. its stem and shadow framing a white center. CROPPING AND COMPOSITION Off-center and diagonal Here I held my viewfinder so the fig appeared upper-left in the space. and therefore apparently suspended from. bottom-left t o top-right. its illumination. Space as the subject Inallpictures. as also shown here.O u r focus is on the white cloth supporting the figs. and lines describing shadows cast by the fruit . t h e n m o v e t h e c a r d t o e x p l o r e different views. This drawing hasbeencropped to emphasize space between thefruit. they establish a tension and unity with the paper.
The drawing opposite is of the uppermost leaves of a potted fig tree. Unfamiliar shapes of negative space reveal the real shape of a positive subject. and a fresh page in your drawing book. Follow these from left to right and see how I began with one complete shape between two parts of a leaf. tone. a foundation stone in picture-making. and so on. Draw a complete shape Map outward from the center Erase and adjust lines until correct . WHERE TO START Arrange your plant and paper so you can look back and forth by barely moving your head. and a role to play. shapes of air cut out and defined by the physicality of our environment? When we look into the branches of a tree. dynamic. rather than what you see in front of you. It helps to start at the center and map outward. you will need a similar large-leaved plant. Remember that plants do move! Therefore it is best to complete your drawing in one sitting if possible. Viewers appreciating a finished image may not see shapes of space. Negative space is the simple key to getting positive shape right.The box opposite isolates an area. an eraser.58 PLANTS AND GARDENS Negative Space UNCONSCIOUSLY WE ASSESS spatial relationships all the time to guide ourselves through the world. remember to draw only space. not leaves. and engaging. But how often do we look at the air between things. erasing and adjusting lines until itlooked right. their subject and composition will become more real. In your own version. It is an astonishingly simple device that many artists use and I strongly recommend. position. do we see myriad distinct and unique shapes of daylight or do we just see branches? Why as artists should we look at the air? Every space in a picture has a shape. In following this class. which is shown in the three steps below. but if the artist does. Looking at negative space overrides the problem of drawing what you know. unified. fourth. this ensures a consistent view. a sharp H B pencil. third. then added a second shape.
Here I drew only spaces, adding one to another until the leaves were revealed. Besides looking at negative space, there are two other useful things to do when a drawing feels wrong but you cannot see why: look at it in a mirror or turn it upside down. errors and suggest changes.
Spaces between leaves
Either view will
WALKING IN THE ALPUJARRAS in A n d a l u c i a ,
Spain, I drew a bare fig tree clinging to the wall of an almond grove; a perfect subject for seeing negative space. I marked its essential frame of large branches first, frequently erasing lines and changing my mind until the balance felt right.
S a l v i a , RIBES, CLEMATIS, Allium, Passiflora, and Acanthus
drawn with an H pencil by observing the
negative spaces between the stems, petals, and leaves. I arranged the flowers on a sheet of paper in a cool r o o m and rapidly sketched a composition. Then I put them in water, taking the stems out one at a time to draw.
62-63). our eyes travel and adjust from one point of focus to another.Acanthus Spinosus As we LOOK AROUND. . If an artist changes the pace of their line and focus of their attention. interfolding points of detail with areas of loose suggestion. Excessive detail leaves no space for the eye to rest or imagination to wander. gathering less distinct information on the way. they emulate our experience of seeing. We never see everything at once. Compare changes of pace and focus here to the flatter finish of Summer Flowers (see pp.
Linear perspective is a marvelous device.Architecture I N THE CONTEMPORARY PRACTICES of architecture. and from West Facade of the Church of St Augustin. philosophers. with gray and brown watercolor wash. time. invaluable to understand and apply when you choose. Since Picasso and Braque's revolution of Cubism in around 1907. and writers have been breaking away from traditional forms of representation to seek new expressions of shape. the device that has since governed most of our picture-making (sec pp. Among the drawings of this chapter we look from 17th-century ecclesiastical calm. was preserved into the Renaissance where it became a foundation stone for thinking and creativity From 15thcentury Italy. once there. designers. the formula for perfection spread through Europe. At the core of their practice. European conventions of pictorial perspective have lost their monopoly on seeing. Through the animation of the screen. It is the focus of practical class in this chapter. film-set design. VICTOR BALTARD French architect employed by the city of Paris. Besides sketches of first thoughts and polished drawings of the finished look for clients. Architects have been fine-tuning their specialized branch of drawing for centuries. Yet the pursuit of divine proportion and harmony remains. space. and computer game imaging. they have the Golden Section. and architects of ancient Greece who first pursued the formula for "divine proportion. mass. It was also during the Renaissance that the architect Brunelleschi invented linear perspective.The church is still in use today. each VICTOR BALTARD . Paris 1871-74 the child's view to the infinity of the vanishing point. coupled with the importance of exercizing your imagination. which can be clearly seen in ancient Greek architecture. to 20th-century film fantasy. from political commentary to musical abstraction. which was the first church in the capital to be built entirely of metal and then clad in stone. 74-75). Perhaps in the sheer planes of some of our greatest modern buildings it is finding its clearest expression." reflecting the eye's love of unity in difference. architects. add and subtract ideas. Augustin. This harmony. and sound.This is a pencil drawing. made by the architect himself. fine artists. It was the mathematicians. filmmakers. we find the most recent steps in the evolution of graphic language. and in the 19th century it was given the name the Golden Section. of the west facade of St Augustin. they also have a diagrammatic language for communicating plans to builders. to help them create new form. drawing plans around themselves within a program as opposed to on a flat sheet of paper. Since the first flowering of Modernism in the early 20th century. architects and designers can imaginatively "climb inside" three-dimensional space and. composers. Baltard designed the Church of St. balance. Computer programs allow the virtual drawing of ideas.
1711-12 NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR . densely layered lines in mists of color weave the presence of the expected building into shape. Together they explain how interior structure and space define exterior form and shape. Gaudi's fluid architecture grew up through many kinds of drawing. and the shapes of interior domes and apses. Hawksmoor established his reputation with university and church architecture including All Souls College. relative levels. and an inscribed entablature. evoke presence. We see the modeled detail of Corinthian columns. Hampton Court Palace. pilasters. structure. Hawksmoor's drawing is both a plan and an evocation. Below it. Drawings underpin every great human-made structure like hidden linear ghosts at their core. calculate function. and balance. and Castle Howard. Blenheim Palace. Three aspects This subtle and sophisticated drawing made in pen and wash displays three distinct aspects of Hawksmoor's baptistry. Cut-away interior On the right a section cut through the center of the building reveals material thicknesses. Lines define structure while washes suggest light and atmosphere. The photograph opposite shows his studio hung with metal pendulums. he also worked on St Paul's Cathedral. describe a finished look to a client.68 ARCHITECTURE Master Builders EVERY NEW BUILDING. Oxford. St Paul's Baptistry c. and labor. and later an assistant to Vanbrugh. marks the end of a long journey from the first few marks the architect made on a sheet of paper. Finished surface On the left the finished surface of the building is given depth and emphasis by immaculate vertical and horizontal brush strokes of shadow. Architects draw for many reasons: to visualize ideas. and six London churches. materials. A student of Wren's. embodying a massive investment of ideas. testing gravity to calculate the inverted shapes of domes. and ultimately to show builders what to do. NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR One of Britain's "three great" Baroque architects (along with Sir Christopher Wren and Sir John Vanbrugh). Pillars and floor At the base of the drawing a compass-drawn plan tilted downward through 90 degrees illustrates the arrangement of pillars around a central circular floor. a three-dimensional drawing made with wires and weights.
To the right isawatercolordrawing thought to havebeenmade over a photograph ofthemodelabove. Wire and watercolor three-dimensional preferred to calculate Above is a drawing form in the made withlinkedwires and weights. embellishment.69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt c. churches. and apartment homes are distinguished by their Their and Flowering curves of stone or concrete are often encrusted with Gaudi was inspired by medieval and oriental art. light. unique organic manipulation of high shapes. Gaudi air than on paper. 1900 ANTONIO GAUDI ANTONIO GAUDI Visionary Catalan architect. This sculptural drawingenvisionsthe finished crypt glowingandethereal as if caught in thelightof red morning sun. Gaudi's cathedral in Barcelona. Guell Crypt of its at the Time Construction c. The Art Nouveau movement. and his love of music. 1910 24x181/4( 6 1 0 x 4 7 5mm) A N T O N I O GAUDI .
a refillable pen that feeds a constant supply of ink through a fine tubular nib.70 ARCHITECTURE The Order of Sound B O T H OF THESE VISIONARY DRAWINGS o c c u p y a s l e n d e r . been a natural affinity between the visual rhythms of pictures and the audible rhythms of music. flat boards. Floor space appears divided by discernible walls. Floor plan This drawing has been made with a rapidograph. and exhibitions of his drawings. He also produces urban and landscape designs. before cascading into a riot of line and sound below. There has always DANIEL LIBESKIND A Polish American architect of international acclaim. p. upright pictorial space.223). theater sets. installations. and the spaces between his windows and turrets are the visual equivalent of pauses in h i s m u s i c c o m p o s i t i o n s for p i a n o (see also Bussotti. Visual rhythms In the lower half of this drawing architectural language has broken loose: escaped and transformed into an image of rebellious pleasure. such a rapport in both of these drawings. and arched dotted lines depict the radius of doors. Libeskind studied music before transferring to architecture. The architect and musician Daniel Libeskind has drawn a stampeding cacophany of airborne architectural detail. and dotted lines. and rooms. corridors. We can imagine how a musician might interpret this drawing by looking at the abstract visual rhythms of masses composed of long straight poles. He also contributed to plans for the rebuilding of the World Trade Center site in New York. Libeskind begins quietly in the upper space of his drawing. short curved poles. Across the top and center right of the image w e perceive an almost recognizable architectural plan. Both men used rulers and pens to carefully and slowly construct their compositions. We can see. Contemporary musicians commonly collaborate with artists by interpreting images as sound. while the composer Erik Satie has made an enclosure of quiet order and grace. and in a sense hear. Arctic Flowers 1980 DANIEL LIBESKIND . Libeskind's numerous commissions include concert halls and museums. Satie draws quietly throughout.
theater. Eastern influence The upright image Eastern is reminiscent and medieval of Middle pictorial space and subject of this European drawing.ERIK SATIE F r e n c h pianist and c o m p o s e r for t h e piano. effectively additional lines in a work. H e p e r f o r m e d in cabarets. Compare the even and and the shape wall to the elegantly stylized order of the many windows of arrangement of details and the shape of the wall in Babur's Garden of Fidelity on p. lived a l o n e .narrowshape of its paper. 1 8 9 3 77/8 x 51/2 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 4 0 mm) ERIK SATIE . o f which he was the sole m e m b e r Parcel paper Satie has drawn this fantasy hotel using a ruler. Hotel de la Suzonnieres c. a conventional dip or fountain pen.H i s witty. minimalist s c o r e s scandalized a u d i e n c e s with o r c h e s t r a t i o n s f o r t h e foghorn and typewriter. Satie collaborated w i t h hisfriends J e a n C o c t e a u a n d P i c a s s o . Onpp. and founded his o w n church. a n d ballet. They definespaceand pictorial balance.Edges are how are of orientation. and ink on a fragment folded brown paper—a of everyday happened material of scrap that to be at hand. the perimeter Composition Look how well this drawingfitsand resonates with the upright. andfouredges of the paper tothecompositionand impact animage. dressed eccentrically.56—57 we discussed important the shape.50.
His celebrated imaginary buildings are characterized by pyramids.72 ARCHITECTURE T H E S E T H R E E HIGHLY DETAILED DRAWINGS Future Fictions invite us to soaring above normal life. Art director Erich Kettlehut's vertiginous design for the city of a slavelike populace had a future influence on movies such as Blade Runner.96. experiencing a fascinating conflict between curiosity and desolation. antlike mortals might have speculated upon the universe. cylinders. Among preparations for Fritz Langs film Metropolis. arched vaults. and dramatic lighting. spheres. the ominous globe exists only as a series of drawings.The lower-left section of the building appears relatively pale against a darker sky. enter the long-shadowed architecture of imaginary worlds. made in 1926. Boullee lived in Paris. This is the work of an architectural theoretician. Newton's Cenotaph 1784 153/4 x 25 in ( 4 0 2 x 635 m m ) ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE . Boullee's monolithic apparition was drawn as a monument to Sir Isaac Newton. Within it. ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE French architectural theorist. and the reverse is true on the right. we find other Utopian visions Paul Nobles epic drawing summons an imperfect and disturbing township where ruin and activity are equal and strange. and draftsman. and taught at t h e A c a d e m i e d'Architecture. We glide over exquisitely drawn wastelands of damage and abandonment. painter. Light illusions This pen-and-wash drawing shows a subtle application of the principles of illumination demonstrated with an egg on p. This shift makes the cenotaph appear three-dimensional.
Nobson Central 9 ft 1 0 in x 1 3 f t 2 in (3 x 4 m ) PAUL N O B L E 1998-99 .a r t director O t t o Hunte. and m o d e l . Kettlehut drew using a fine and relatively dry brush dipped in black.Building shapes are works can be read as text. architecture.73 ERICH KETTLEHUT Influential film a r t director. 1926 ERICH KETTLEHUT PAUL N O B L E British c o n t e m p o r a r y artist who creates m o n u m e n t a l .m a k e r In t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f Metropolis. FUTURE FICTIONS Brush and ink This is a dramatic drawing from a film that shaped the history of world cinema. draftsman. together with c i n e m a t o g r a p h e r Karl Freund. mythology. used forced perspective camera t e c h n i q u e s t o amplify t h e m a g n i t u d e o f buildings in relation t o human characters. gray. and morality o f an invented place called His satires exhibited w o r l d w i d e . Nobson political visions of humanity Newtown. Fritz Lang's Metropolis c. and white ink on brown-gray paper. Its sheerscaleengulfs the viewer and demands based time and patience to on letters and in some beread. Working on toned paper such as this gives an artist greater scope for dramatic lighting effects than if they work on white paper. Kettlehut and his c o . and are Graphite shapes Nobson Central isoneof a series of very large graphite drawings of the spoil and detritus of Nobson Newtown. intensely detailed graphite drawings explaining and questioning t h e geography.
It is also distinguished from aerial perspective (see pp. but is most easily seen and understood in pictures of buildings and interiors. Pull the thread taut and rotate it slowly above the drawing. found at the center of all converging lines. Piranesi an example of two. and those of Naive artists and children. Press the pin into Leonardo's vanishing point. and thinkers ever to have lived. LEONARDO DA VINCI One of the greatest artists. All forms of perspective are of equal value. this perspective is often an imagined bird's-eye view in which details are mapped according to logic and importance rather than how they might appear in real life. Here Leonardo provides a superb example of a single vanishing point. In his notebooks.74 ARCHITECTURE Pathways of Sight LINEAR PERSPECTIVE (also called vanishing-point perspective) is a simple device for calculating the relative size of things in pictorial space. and inventions— essential reading for inquiring minds. and age eight. Sometimes shared with Naive artists. Leonardo recorded constant streams of ideas. It can be applied to any subject. observations. Single-point perspective Tie a thread to a pin. Invented by Italian artist and architect Brunelleschi in 1413 (late in the history of art). I contribute the child's perspective. linear perspective is distinct from more ancient systems practiced in the East. scientists. Study of Perspective Adoration of the for the Magi 1481 61/2 x111/2in (165 x 290 mm) LEONARDO DA VINCI . See how the thread corresponds to each converging line. inventors. Note how architectural features conform to lines and how human figures diminish in size toward thevanishingpoint. We use it to structure illusions of depth. 206-07).
Note the rather large rabbits and pheasants the hills. It shows how children usually map large scenes in flat layers one above the other. and theoretical writing strongly influenced neoclassicism. New Forest. 1740 5 1 / 2 x 83/8 in (141 x 212 mm) G I O V A N N I B A T T I S T A PIRANESI points are located on either side of the drawing. which I saw from home every day. Children are uninhibited and problems with one element being obscured by another rarely arise. This drawing Young children typically maps ignore on and understanding of the nearby village. . issues of scale when making room for important their story. Two-point perspective Sunlight through this colonnade a great example of two-point perspective. including all they recall about the subject. at the top of each lateral column base. Mark these points with your pin and follow the converging lines of the drawing by rotating your thread. Lightly marked illuminates vanishing Two Courtyards c. Scale Our farmhouse my experience was in the woods. architect. Breamore Village.SARAH SIMBLET I made this drawing (at age 8) in response to a local bookstore's request for children to draw their village. visionary and practical understanding of ancient Rome. a points in logical narrative of memories. England 1980 9 x 16 in (228 x 405 mm) S A R A H SIMBLET GIOVANNI BATTISTA PIRANESI Italian artist. and designer Piranesi's prolific architectural drawings.
98 for an important note on oscillation. Draw each step over the preceding one to build up a single image.) . discovering the image as it progressed. you will amplify the illusion of distance. (See p. This is where we will begin. try composing your own space. Leonardo began with a grid of many lines within which he invented his scene. draw a horizon line across your paper Mark a spot on the horizon line. this is your vanishing point. This ensures that the second rectangle aligns with the shape and 4 Draw four short lines to connect the four corners of the two rectangles. Each line should pass through one corner of the rectangle. This lesson shows you how to make a simple illusion of space defined by two boxes and three flat boards. Draw four dotted lines radiating out from the vanishing point. Study these pages first before embarking on this lesson. DRAWING BOXES 1 Using a ruler and a sharp HB pencil. In contrast. Erase the dotted construction lines. On the previous page we looked at its essential mechanism through drawings by Leonardo and Piranesi. Note that if you place large structures in the foreground and smaller ones closer to your vanishing point. Surround the vanishing point with a small rectangle. imagine. You have completed your first box. using a sharp HB pencil and ruler. 2 3 corners must each touch a dotted line. corresponding to a single vanishing point. Next. Piranesi planned his drawing with only the essential lines needed.76 ARCHITECTURE Single-Point Perspective MASTERING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE i s e a s i e r t h a n y o u m a y First read through. then follow the ten steps below. Extend each dotted line to the edge of your drawing.
The four comers must each touch a dotted line to be sureitaligns with the first. The board's sides should be parallel. you can place rectangles anywhere youwishin relation to a vanishing point. draw four dotted lines radiating from your vanishing point Pass these through each comer of the new rectangle. 7 As in step 3. Repeat this to add two more boards to the composition. The larger you make your second rectangle.willhelptomake them appear more solid. Connect this to the vanishing point— again. Continue the dotted lines out toward the edge of your drawing. 1 0 Erase all ofthedottedlinestoseeyourfinishedboxes Thickeningtheiredges. N e x t draw a slanting line to mark the height of the first flat board. bottom. 8 Complete the second box with short lines as in step 4.asIhavedonehere. . 6 As in step 2. and erase the dotted lines. with two dotted lines. the closer it will appear to the viewer. draw a second. when inventing your own compositions. andfarside of this first board. Note that this does not surround the vanishing point In the future. larger rectangle. 9 Use dotted lines connecting the slanting linetothe vanishing point to locate the top.77 SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE 5 Draw a new rectangle.
" imaginary room. The m i s t a k e n belief that we s h o u l d k n o w exactly what o u r finished drawings will l o o k like before we m a k e t h e m prevents many people from ever starting. let simple lines suggest a simple space. you will find white adhesive stationery labels are useful for covering errors or changing the direction of your idea. A lot more happens when you open yourself up to the work and let yourself act and react to it. Linear perspective will support y o u by providing a frame in which to b u i l d your picture as it did for Leonardo. If using a fibertip pen as I have done for this drawing. it will take you places you never dreamed of. APPLYING PERSPECTIVE An Imagined Scaffold "Enjoy your illusion as you make it and it will become more real. it is interaction that makes the work richer. w h e t h e r it is a film or a painting. Every work talks In this class. p . draw a b o x as shown opposite." . Then follow the three given steps. artist and film director.78 ARCHITECTURE Creating an Imaginary Space T H I S CLASS USES SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE t o c r e a t e a s i m p l e to you and if you listen to it. As David Lynch. O n a fresh page in your d r a w i n g b o o k . 7 4 ) . I always start with a script but I don't follow it all the way through to the end. once said: "I never end up with what I set out to do. then let the space suggest its c o n t e n t s and purpose. It highlights the importance of having faith in your imagination and trusting your ability to invent.
With some practice.79 DRAWING A SIMPLE ROOM Essentials t o remember: objects and people dimmish in size as they move farther away. .drawthehorizonlineand vanishingpoint. you will beableto draw more complex objects orpeoplewithin them. horizontal. CREATING AN IMAGINARY SPACE 1First.There is great pleasure tobefoundin spending time inventing interiors. 2 first before adding furniture. Here. The space has become more solid and real. additional lines have established the different surfaces and how they relate to each other. and floors and ceilings also converge and rise o r lower toward the horizon. parallel planes such as walls converge toward the vanishing point. and leaning surfaces. This initial space will be transparent and open to change.Addanarray of converging lines to provide a "scaffold" for vertical. 3 Remove the construction lines with an eraser and the room will becomeclearer.
o r to the h o r i z o n . Here. verticals appear p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the g r o u n d . It is important to realize that you can have as many vanishing points as you wish. but they are not confined to this level. They could be drawn on any scale from miniature to monumental. they can be placed anywhere inspaceto describe the perspective of flyi c tilted objects. Potentially. T h i s is d e m o n s t r a t e d immediately below. located anywhere inside or outside the pictorial space. Elaborations . showing y o u h o w to draw curved surfaces and a tiled floor. Copying what you see in the work of others will help you to understand what they have done. Free vanishing points On paper we can enjoy the freedom of fantastic structural invention without limitations of solid materials or gravity. I have elaborated on the simple boxes above. To draw such a view APPLICATION Copy these drawings to see and feel how they work before inventing your own versions. 76-79). These elaborations could continue indefinitely across a sheet of paper in pursuit of complex and intricate ideas. or low and we look u p . T h i n k of standing at the top of a skyscraper and imagine h o w its parallel sides would appear to converge below you.80 ARCHITECTURE Further Aspects of Perspective W E ARE ACCUSTOMED TO SEEING our e n v i r o n m e n t from a relatively constant point of view. T h e y d o n o t have to relate to each other. Search for the application of these perspectives among works by other artists in this book and in galleries. Only when y o u might employ t h r e e .p o i n t perspective ( s h o w n opposite top). From our normal eye level. our eye level is very high and we look down. a n d this is how we have drawn them so far (see pp. do verticals appear inclined. Further aspects of three-point perspective are also illustrated opposite. That is where we e to find them. Vanishing points are commonly found on horizon—our eye level. The boxes drawn here are seen partly or entirely disassociated from a horizon line drawn across the bottom of the image.
Note that altering the distance between the three dots above will tilt the level of the floor .) By comparing this drawing t o Piranesi's example of two-point perspective on p. useful for representing steep views looking up or down tall structures. Iusedthese lines as a guide t o draw the curvature of boxes and panels flying through space. I then drew three fanned groups of lines connecting each of the three points above to the seven points below. Three-point checkered floor This d bottom floor. tostraightlines can amplify drama in a picture.Finally.75. (Turn the book around to see a view looking up.I added horizontal lines t o define the tiles. by adding a third point you can achieve a sense of incline. and therefore tension. Where thelinescross.81 FURTHER ASPECTS OF Three-point towers This drawing depicts three-point perspective. Giving curvature.Istarted with two parallel lines. An array of curved lines (drawn freehand) link the two lateral points. I marked the toplinewith three evenly spaced points and the line with seven. you will see how. three vanishing points are evenly spaced along a horizon line. PERSPECTIVE Three-point curves Here. they mark the corners of the floor tiles.
making drawings to resolve questions and express personal responses to the nature and history of anatomy. .Theaters RESEARCHING FOR MY P H D . I visited many anatomical theaters and museums. These walnut-skin ink pen and brush drawings show imagined views of theaters that do not exist but were inspired by places I studied.
Venetian Life sitting point buildings ThisP E N . . the water. The vanishing of the drawing is directly opposite as we look across The constancy of the bridge and surrounding frames the movement in the life that flows past.I N KDRAWING is one of a series I made while next to the Rialto Bridge in Venice.A N D .
Technical drawing was speedily developed as a meticulous international code of m e a s u r e m e n t and explanation. T h e Industrial Revolution c h a n g e d the traditional w a y s in w h i c h objects were designed. of light in the creation of pictorial illusions. H e has described contour and function at drawings. and a wire violin. we look at the importance are the only creatures on Earth w h o actually design and create great ranges of things. In this chapter. to record an observed detail. r an equestrian statue. even more advanced drawings are made on computers. fictional realities caster of h o w t o make it andhowit will w o r k . History will be learned from the artifacts w e leave behind. It was in this era that the blueprint was born. Birds follow instinct to make a nest. that test our logic with a sense of mystery. and the way in w h i c h the brain reacts Head and Neck Sections of Female Mold for the Sforza Horse to visual stimulus and optical illusions. 1493 117/8c81/4in (300 x 210 m m ) LEONARDO D A V I N Ccreating I . each demanding more of the other as they increased in sophistication. sculpted. too. C o m m o n items. Artists also make images of objects that can never exist. for example—whether. or to explain and present a finished concept to a client. A chair. for example. or drawing w e see Leonardo daVinci'sprecision as can be given meaning. but humans LEONARDO DA VINCI Inthisbeautiful red chalk Our items all have a purpose—practical or ornamental—and all have a meaning. hooked bars that can be pulled and tied closely form. drawings were needed to instruct workers on the factory floor. drawn. It is shaped in sections w i t h Artists have for centuries studied and expressed composition. craftsmen had held plans in their memory. color. these. In past eras.Objects and Instruments T HE THINGS WE INVENT describe our lives. from s p o o n s and pens to chairs and bicycles. making a clear instruction t o his bronzemeaning. are all made bearing the signature of our time and place. Previously. W e also explore v o l u m e and form in the classes by spinning lines to make vessels. T h e precision of engineering d r a w i n g s e v o l v e d alongside machine tools. Engineers and designers of our objects and instruments make drawings for many reasons: to test an idea that is yet to be made. Artists and actors use the meanings of things to communicate a speculative mechanic. passing them on to others through the act of making. and some apes use simple tools. have often carried great weights of allegorical once. and made. texture. and the behavior of light through making still-life paintings and together. With the sudden onset of mass production. illuminating snail shells. design. Today. H e has described a casting through metaphor. planned. drawing c. or used on stage hood for a mold t o make theheado f a horse f oas a p r o p — i m b u e d with e n o u g h energy or character can "become" a man.
and a journal jacket with words makes this drawing chatter about the moment. not to work in harmony. Opposite. There is a fragile eloquence to these objects as they drift in slow motion past our gaze. . He takes us into the bustle of the Paris cafe. Statue D'Epouvante 1913 2 f t 5 in x 3 ft 5 in (0. "I believe [it] is the most radicalattempttostampout ambiguity and to enforce one readingofthepicture—that of a manmade construction. and glass objects of exquisite elegance for only the gentlest of touch and appreciation. wood-look wallpaper.Braque marshals all the forces of perspective. T h i s is a designers drawing made to enthuse surface and style in its delicate brushing of china. still feel this projected moment. texture.. Braques "justly" arranged combination of cut black card.. Below. a colored canvas. steaming with music and conversation. and shading. perfect i n their newly made availability.90 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS Still Life THESE DRAWINGS REVEAL t w o o p p o s i t e m o t i v a t i o n s i n we can. not of place but of things. Mucha's drawing glistens with possession. charcoal. Braques image is a Cubist collage. One of the great joys of this movement in art is the musicality of its multipoint view. His work is characterized by calm and harmonious still-life compositions." La Cuitare.73 x 1 m) GEORGES BRAQUE . representing still life. Braque established Cubism in partnership with Picasso just before World War I. silverware. Clashes The art historian Ernst Gombrich said of Cubism. but to clash in virtual deadlock. Even today GEORGES BRAQUE French painter who as a young man was influenced by the work of the Fauves and of Cezanne.
Art Nouveau motifs This is a preliminary study for a subsequent print. and fish have been outlined using a sharp pencil. and also stamps and bank notes. Chicago. The three plates facing us were drawn with a compass. Background color Between the delicate shadows and highlights of these glazed and surfaces ofthebackground metal color of the Mucha we see a large amount paper. He designed the Austrian pavilion for the Paris World Fair in 1900.ALPHONSE MUCHA Czech graphic artist and painter who worked in Prague. Black watercolor washes and lines of white gouache have been added with a fine brush. For ten years Mucha designed theater posters exclusively for the actress Sarah Bernhardt. Art Nouveau curling motifs of birds. Look at the two spoons at toprightand see how has suggested that they are so brilliantly shiny they reflect the background color. He is best known for posters featuring ethereal women in typical Art Nouveau style. Study for Plate 59 from "Documents Decoratifs" 17x121/4(430 x 310 mm) ALPHONSE MUCHA 1902 . and New York.fruit.flowers. Pans.
each reflecting a view of his own world—his window. and Fellow of the University o f C a m b r i d g e . the law o f gravity. and the nature o f light and color. Their delicate construction is only as valuable as the measurements they make. Hooke's head of a drone fly seen through a microscope may represent the first time man and insect came face to face. Look how confidently he draws with ink the sphere of this wooden globe by which his telescope rotates. Transparent view Newton's reflecting telescope focused light in a parabolic mirror. a tree outside. w h e r e he developed his three greatest theories: the law o f motion. drawing is there to pin the moment down. A disembodied eye at the top of the drawing indicates where to look. He counted 1 4 . into the eyepiece. It is a diagrammatic explanation of how to catch and magnify a star in a mirrored tube. It was then reflected up inside the tube and. mathematician. Newton's 1672 ISAAC Telescope NEWTON . shape the very cause and effect of investigatory thought. 0 0 0 perfect hemispheres. Newton used this instrument to calculate the speed required to escape earth's gravity. we see drawing Instruments of Vision found among his letters. Ink lines Several drawings appear among Newton's letters. alchemist. With dotted lines Newton has drawn his arrangement of elements inside the tube. and philosopher Newton was President of the Royal Society. offering a transparent view. each one skillfully rendered with the alarmingly matter-of-fact ease of explaining the commonplace. Newton's drawing of his first reflecting telescope is ISAAC N E W T O N English scientist. astronomer. via a second mirror.92 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS by their very nature must gauge or chronicle precision. In the graphic work of these two great men of science. The power of this drawing reflects the pure passion of discovery. From the concept of capturing the infinite to the mapping of microscopic sight. and his hand moving across the light.
a breathtaking book containing many of his drawings showing some of the first microscopic and telescopic magnifications of our environment Hooke's text and illustrations carry us to the moment of discovery. and calculated the theory of combustion. 1665). universal joint a prototype respirator clock balance. It is an exhilarating read. The Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 1665 ROBERT HOOKE 111/2 x 105/8 in (294 x 270 mm) .An experimental scientist who drew many of his discoveries. ROBERT H O O K E 93 Magnifications This acutely detailed engraved drawing is taken from Hooke's Micrographia (pub. and anchor escarpment. Hooke invented the camera diaphragm.
its character. and winner of the 2004 Jerwood Drawing Prize. Two-dimensional was made This highly finished drawing ruler using a sharp pencil and on smooth white drawing paper glistening dark drawings are artificial representations of known Woodfine's two-dimensional things balanced in the world. while the tabs make us see a flat paper cut-out. Chair Cut Out 2002 22'A x 23 in (565 x 585 mm) SARAH WOODFINE . Its wobbly gait and squashed s y m m e t r y m u m b l e endless h o m e y tales about the life it has seen. it has so m u c h familiar personality that it seems to talk to us. and has drawings in numerous public and private collections. and w h e r e the chair b e l o n g s . and place in the world are truly seen. each drawn with the s a m e unfaltering lines and tones that are between reality and impossibility. Sarah Woodfines flat cut-out m o d e l plan is a witty and surprising drawing. this chair p r e s e n t s us with a clever visual contradiction: deeply drawn shadows tell us it must be solid. has published several catalogs of her work. OBJECTS AND SARAH WOODFINE British contemporary artist graduate of the Royal Academy Schools. From component parts we understand how to put it together and make it stand sensible in space. W i t h h o m e y c o n t r a s t . Bench Marks W e are left a little c o n f u s e d as to what we s h o u l d do. craft. A renegade from the p a p e r dolls' h o u s e . Drawn in more-or-less c o n v e n t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . Woodfine exhibits internationally.94 INSTRUMENTS W H E N WE DRAW A COMMON OBJECT like a chair. Van Gogh's tipsy seat is a metaphor for an absent person.
Cornfield and Sunflowers. and Starry Cypress Night. Among van Gogh's best-known canvases are Trees.hehas marked the full emotion of the subject with a fierce grip of concentration. The floor few as engagement with the chair. drawn opposite way of plan. Van Chair 1890 VINCENT VAN GOGH . inner recording while Fierce strokes This is a portrait of the mechanical drew immediately and almost harshly. His passionate brush and pencil strokes are honest and of also turmoil and growing alarm at the world around him. what direct in their he saw and describing his felt. not is made present in only strokes and is subdued to distract us from flat a meaningful chair.95 VINCENTVAN GOGH Dutch painter who produced over 800 paintings and 850 drawings in only the last ten year's of his life.
Below. The outermost edge of our vision. a n d are q u i c k to p r o p o s e ideas.At one point you will catchenoughlight lighter than the white one. Card experiment cho can gra on . a lit photograph of an egg shows essential points to observe in tonal drawing. From across the room both will appear black card and fold and retapeitwith half sticking out. Gray squares To further examine changes in tone. The rim of light on the egg is reflected light received from surrounding paper. To interpret visual s t i m u l u s . a n d m o v e m e n t . The egg's darkest region is seen against a lighter background. less developed than the center. Run The bottom-left quarter of the egg lightens slightly toward its "edge" when seen against the darker shadow cast on the paper.This effect is caused by the contrast of their surroundings. The perceived tone of a black white. one blackandone white. Three factors change it: the amount of light it receives. hence our recognition of a cartoon face c o m p o s e d of three lines. On acloudyday. The egg's lightest region is seen against a darker background. Before starting a tonal drawing of any subject.96 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Light and Illusions SEEING IS MIRACULOUS. The two tones meet without a division or outline between. perhaps.d o w n patterns of light on our retinas. We perceive one to be lighter than theother. Adjust the angleofthe protruding part and again stepback. o u r b r a i n s search for n a m e a b l e things. two identical mid-gray squares are seen against black and paler gray squares. U p s i d e . Through these we can enjoy witnessing our o w n d e c e p t i o n a n d b a f f l e m e n t a n d u n d e r s t a n d certain factors that are very useful in picture-making. Below the bottom "edge" of the egg there is a rim of light reflected onto the paper by the underside of the egg. your eye around the circumference of the egg. the adjustment of our eyes (in growing accustomed to a level of light). are translated into a world of space. and the proximity of contrasting tones. S o m e o n e passes our o p e n door. Here. try this experiment. T h e slightest recognition is instantly matched to our wealth of experience a n d expectation. We will even see things that d o not exist because minimal information suggests they are likely to be there. reads only m o v e m e n t a n d can often m a k e mistakes. w e turn our head but n o one w a s there. transmitted to the brain as chains of electrical impulses. Here w e look briefly at our perception of light a n d darkness a n d our interpretation of diagrammatic illusions. We only need small prompts. or colored surface is never constant. Are you happy LIGHT AND SHADOW with what you see? Does the light enhance the subject? Could you alter and improve it? On pp. Tape them to the glass. think about its illumination. Artists emulate and manipulate this effect in their pictures.102-03 deep shadows cast across shells make their form easier to perceive. cards the same size. a n d we can be fooled. W e learn to read light and shadow in our environment as indicators of solidity and depth of space. form. The small squares are identical in tone. gray. See how its "edge" smoothly changes from light against dark to dark against light. but do not appear so. a n d our ability to see forms in c l o u d s or fire. atmosphere.
w h i l e t h i n n e r lines recede. b u t t h e u p r i g h t o n e l o o k s t a l l e r (B). respectively. S h o r t h o r i z o n t a l lines o f identical length are m a d e t o l o o k d i f f e r e n t by c o n v e r g i n g lines beside t h e m ( C ) . A n u p r i g h t line stands in t h e c e n t e r o f a h o r i z o n t a l line. T h i s fundamental o p p o s i t e is a reason w h y l i n e a r a n d t o n a l d r a w i n g does not a l w a y s c o m b i n e w e l l in t h e s a m e i m a g e .97 LINE VERSUS TONE In l i n e a r d r a w i n g s . . by d i r e c t e d a r r o w s ( A ) . O b s e r v e h o w each white b a n d appears t h i c k e r t h a n its black c o u n t e r p a r t . T h e r e is n o obligation t o a d d b l o c k s o f t o n e t o a l i n e a r d r a w i n g . In a t o n a l d r a w i n g . B o t h are identical in length. Y o u m a y e x p e r i e n c e s o m e t h i n g similar h a p p e n i n g w h e n y o u m a k e s i n g l e . l i g h t e r surfaces s t a n d f o r w a r d w h i l e d a r k e r s u r f a c e s recede. In this t o n a l image w e read w h i t e as f a t t e r t h a n black. T h e jug d r a w n w i t h a t h i n line appears f a r t h e r away t h a n t h e j u g d r a w n w i t h a t h i c k e r line. T w o relatively t h i c k parallel lines are m a d e t o b e n d away f r o m each o t h e r as t h e y pass in f r o n t o f an a r r a y o f c o n v e r g i n g f i n e lines ( B ) . Seven parallel lines are m a d e t o tilt t o w a r d and away f r o m each o t h e r by n u m e r o u s s h o r t strokes crossing t h e m diagonally ( A ) . start o u t w i t h one. Apparent lengths T h e s e optical illusions s h o w h o w lines o f identical length can b e m a d e t o l o o k quite different f r o m each o t h e r by t h e addition o r association o f o t h e r lines.p o i n t p e r s p e c t i v e d r a w i n g s w i t h a large n u m b e r o f c o n v e r g i n g rays b e h i n d y o u r horizontals. Bending straight lines Linear distance These t w o jugs have b e e n d r a w n w i t h lines o f d i f f e r i n g thicknesses. t h i c k e r l i n e s a p p e a r t o stand forward. In this linear drawing w e read t h i c k as closer a n d t h i n as f a r t h e r away. If y o u w i s h t o m a k e a t o n a l drawing. T w o horizontal lines o f equal length are m a d e t o l o o k longer and shorter. LIGHT AND ILLUSIONS Tonal width T h e s e black a n d w h i t e bands are o f equal thickness o n e i t h e r side o f t h e i r central division. O f t e ndoingso w i l l s p o i l y o u r w o r k .
Some artists use known optical illusions to make art.116-17) to make painted figures look correct when viewed from below. It is a curious fact that w e can never see both options at once. SEEING TWO OPTIONS Sometimes. and we learn to read the styles of diverse cultures and periods. Two ways of seeing T h i s is t h e b o x c r e a t e d in t h e f o u r t h step o n p.s i d e d r e c t a n g u l a r t r a y ( b o t h are illustrated far r i g h t ) "The brain is so eager to name a fragment we see that we need only a suggestion to grasp the whole. It is possible t o r e a d i t t w o ways: as a t r u n c a t e d r e c t a n g u l a r p y r a m i d seen d i r e c t l y f r o m a b o v e . their picture could be ambiguous. o r as a s l o p i n g . made paintings that depended upon the physical sensation of our brain's reaction to known optical illusions. are still not agreeably understood." . and so calculated precisely how much to fatten columns to make them appear straight. among others.98 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Further Illusions PSYCHOLOGISTS AND PHYSIOLOGISTS have studied optical illusions for decades in pursuit of what they tell us about the brain. including some shown here. C l o s i n g t h e surface o f t h e f o r m seals o u r d e c i s i o n as t o w h i c h w a y it faces. w e can only look f r o m one t o the o t h e r If an artist is not aware this can happen in their image. w h e n drawing the outline o f a three-dimensional form. Ancient Greek architects knew parallel upright lines appeared to bend toward each other in the middle. others adjust works to avoid their effects. such as t h e dish seen h e r e o n t h e left. Michelangelo.76. it oscillates between t w o possibilities. perfected the acceleration of perspective (see pp. In the 1960's. w e will find that in terms of the direction it faces. Artists make pictorial illusions when they paint or draw. as s h o w n o n t h e right. A few suggestive marks will tip the decision one way o r the o t h e r Closing the surface W h e n a t r a n s p a r e n t elliptical o b j e c t has b e e n d r a w n . Yet many illusions. such as Bridget Riley. Artists can communicate much in few lines and the viewer will do the rest of the work. it can oscillate b e t w e e n facing t o w a r d o r a w a y f r o m us. Op(tical) artists. Today we are bombarded with images but rarely have difficulty reading them.
FURTHER ILLUSIONS Seeing things that are n o t t h e r e H e r e o n t h e left. F a m i l i a r i t y in r a n d o m s h a p e s T h e Rorschach test was established by t h e 1 9 t h . B e l o w is a b r i g h t n e s s c o n t r a s t illusion. T h e y a r e o f t e n c r e d i t e d w i t h t h e invention o f t h e c o m i c c a r t o o n . This simple five-line d r a w i n g is o f a C a p u c h i n priest asleep in his pulpit. T h e s e e x a m p l e s illustrate h o w little is n e e d e d t o c o n v e y an image.99 Impossible objects T h e s e clever configurations o f outlines and t o n a l surfaces convince us at a glance that we are seeing a solid three-dimensional triangle and a three-pronged fork. — a n d so t h e artist can create m u c h o u t o f an impression w i t h o u t overdescribing. This effect can o c c u r naturally w h e n looking at a b r i g h t l y lit w h i t e g r i d such as a w i n d o w f r a m e against t h e night sky. C o u n t t h e n u m b e r o f d a r k spots y o u can see. His highly d i s p u t e d and i m p r e c i s e science involves s h o w i n g u n p r e p a r e d p a t i e n t s t e n p a r t i c u l a r ink b l o t s a n d asking t h e m t o i n t e r p r e t w h a t t h e y see. O n l y o n closer inspection we realize that t h e s e o b j e c t s are fooling us. W e should r e m e m b e r t h a t o u r brains will always search f o r a p i c t u r e — i n ink blots. 1 6 t h .c e n t u r y Italian painters. T h e patient's answers are t h e n diagnosed as a psychological profile. . clouds. C o u p l e d w i t h t h e Rorschach b l o t above. P e r c e i v i n g a w h o l e i m a g e f r o m m i n i m a l lines T h i s is a w i d e l y r e p r o d u c e d visual j o k e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e C a r r a c c i b r o t h e r s . M u c h can b e e x p r e s s e d in o n l y a f e w marks. T h e t e s t e x p l o r e s o u r n o r m a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o find things w e can n a m e a m o n g r a n d o m shapes. Minimal-line j o k e s such as this rely u p o n t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y v i e w e r ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e shapes.c e n t u r y Swiss psychologist H e r m a n n Rorschach. smoke. N e i t h e r triangle exists. Yet still w e try resolve t h e m . S o m e artists use ink blots t o p r o m p t t h e beginning o f an image. T h e a r t i s t M. C Escher u s e d this phenomenon t o great effect in his many p o p u l a r d r a w i n g s o f puzzles and impossible buildings. b u t w e believe w e see t h e m because e n o u g h f r a g m e n t a r y i n f o r m a t i o n is given f o r o u r brains t o c o n c l u d e t h e y are v e r y likely t h e r e . this is a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f t h e viewer's b r a i n b e i n g willing t o d o a large a m o u n t o f t h e w o r k in d e c i p h e r i n g a p i c t u r e . w e see t w o overlapping triangles: o n e outlined in black b e n e a t h a n o t h e r in solid w h i t e . e t c .
Be aware. there are three common errors people stumble upon. Cubism. suggesting that the vessel is lopsided. like a disposable plastic cup that has been crushed in your hand. w e use ellipses to give a sense of perspective. smoothly. spin your hand in a relaxed circle. for example plates or bowls on a table. even if y o u r hand w o b b l e s a little at first. To make a cylindrical object appear real in our pictorial space. giving the cylinder four corners. not the paper!) As the pen touches down. as if the table surface slopes upward beneath the vessel. WHERE TO START In the air above a spacious sheet of scrap paper. since this is h o w w e experience them in e v e r y d a y use. that this is o n l y o n e w a y view. Watch the tip of your pen and see it draw an ellipse in the air Keep this movement going while gently lowering the pen onto the paper like the needle of a record player closing on the disc (only it is your lowering hand that spins. Ellipse are best d r a w n quickly. (see p.100 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS W E VISUALIZE CYLINDRICAL VESSELS. a n d in o n e bold stroke. circles change into ellipses. The first common error is to draw two pointed ellipses. COMMON ERRORS W h e n drawing cylindrical objects in perspective. keep it spinning. springlike forms like those I have drawn below. and these narrow or widen depending on the height of our view. third common error is to draw upper and lover ellipses with different-sized apertures.90) takes a different as essentially circular. while its upper rim remains level. A wobbling but confident ellipse will still be more convincing than a slow. How to Draw Ellipses of seeing. describing many sides of an object simultaneously. I have exaggerated this error here. for example. However. . w h e n seen at an angle. Don't worry if it is uneven— just try again. you will achieve steadiness with practice. hesitant one that has edged its w a y nervously around the vessel's rim. The second common error is to tilt the upper and lower ellipses at different angles. though. such as bowls and cups. Cover a sheet of paper with spinning. I have drawn these for you here.
Create a Solid Surface Once you have drawn the shape and volume of each form. thereby hiding lines that show the other sides. you can start to control your spinning ellipse to make a vessel. enlarging and diminishing the ellipse to determine the overall shape and volume. Seeing Through Allow lines to travel around each vessel as if it were transparent. . Draw quickly.101 DRAWING VESSELS Once you have mastered drawing free-hand springs. HOW TO DRAW E L L I P S E S A Single Vessel One Inside Another Grouped Together Finding Shape and Volume Draw an imagined vessel in one continuous spinning line. you can make it solid by building up highlights and tones on visible surfaces. Altering the pressure—and therefore tone—of the line as it spins gives the impression of light shining on one side. working from top to bottom.
and solid objects are all of equal importance. leaving detail until last. making complicated or subtle surfaces easier to see and understand. two opposite methods of achieving the same result. it will inhibit your perception of tone. if light shines in them. You can begin with outlines and build slowly from light to dark (see opposite top). Relaxing your eyes out of focus as you draw will help to dissolve the distraction of detail. outlines. LIGHT TO DARK DARK TO LIGHT . Draw the largest and most distinct areas of light and darkness first. Gradually hone your drawing. In the finished drawing there should be few. or you can begin with a mid-gray ground and model light out of darkness (see opposite bottom). Illuminate them with a gooseneck lamp placed very close and directed away from your eyes.22-23). and strong contrasts are easier to draw. It maximizes the range of tones between black and white. if any. t h e r e a r e p r i n c i p a l l y Dramatic lighting emphasizes texture and contour. It is important to place them on the correct side so as to draw comfortably (see pp.102 INSTRUMENTS Tonality W H E N MAKING A TONAL DRAWING. beams of light. Remember that shadows. simply shapes and subtleties of light and dark meeting each other with no divisions in between. OBJECTS AND Start by arranging a choice of shells on a sheet of paper to your left if you are right-handed (or vice versa).
DARK TO LIGHT (TONE TO TONE) 1 Using the flattened tip of an HB pencil.56-57). with broad sweeps of the eraser. boldly 2 3 Keeping your eyes out of focus. 2 3 Gentlydissolveoutlines so that areas oflightanddark meet without a line between them. Honetheshapesand angles of the shells. Use quick. Use your pencil to develop these in relation to the areas of light. Remember that its size.103 LIGHT TO DARK (LINE TO TONE) TONALITY 1 Using a sharp HB pencil. Relaxing your eyes out of focus will help to eliminate distracting details. Draw in the details last of all. shape. Let your eyes go out of focus while looking gently layer marks to create an even tone at your subject and paper: Draw the most ofmid-graywithin a rectangle. draw a rectangle. look at the main areas of darkness. Continue working between light and dark to refine the drawing. Avoid a rough significant areas of light in your gray rectangle with texture and do not press the graphite hardwhite plastic eraser Ignore all detail and draw a into thepaperor you will not be able to erase it. pale lines with equal importance. Fll in broad areas first and leave all detail until last. until you are happy frame. Treat positive form and negative space (see pp. Erase and make changes to roughly place the shells inside your with your composition. and edges definingthespacialrelationships between are important aspects of your composition them. . loose.
Seeing through a wire drawing of a known object such as a violin gives us a visual and tactile understanding of all its sides and shapes at once. On p. continuous lines. This class uses thin-gauge wire to create a threedimensional violin.69 we see how the architect Antonio Gaudi drew proposed domes using suspended wires and weights. you can create your own more ambitious works. try drawing it with a pen on paper Use bold. Place the instrument on a plain surface and illuminate it with a desk lamp to add the delicate dimension of shadows. There are essentially three lessons to be learned. . and on p.104 OBJECTS AND I N S T R U M E N T S Drawing with Wire DRAWINGS DO NOT HAVE to be two-dimensional. Third. and physical relationships between them. PEN LINES Once you have created your three-dimensional violin (opposite). The second is that after achieving this simple example. The first is that figurative and abstract drawings can be made in space. three-dimensional drawings teach us about the totality of forms in space. On p. and on p. 19 Picasso draws with a pen-light for the camera. 176 the British artists Noble and Webster draw with domestic refuse in a beam of light. When drawing anything viewed from one side on paper. They can also be made in space.220 Mamoru Abe draws with forged steel rods. our image is stronger if we understand and can visualize what is happening on the other side too. smooth.
I started with the scroll at the top and fixed the four component wires with two drawings of tuning pegs. These will hold the sides apart and help to keep the form in shape.105 SETTING UP DRAWING WITH WIRE Follow these steps to draw a three-dimensional violin Choose a gauge of wire sturdy enough to hold the shape ofyourfinished drawing. Then begin to define its uppermost surface with Scurves and the bridge. 1 Decide how big to draw your violin relative to the gauge of your wire. I used garden wire and cut it carefully with pruners. and pinch and bend it to shape the base of the instrument Repeat this process to make the identical upper side of the instrument. Here. thin wire will make a smaller drawing. and thick wire a larger one. brace the two ends of the violin with a length of wire along the back. Once you have completed the body. 4 . Join the two sides together with four short pieces of wire. 2 3 If needed. begin to shape the curvature of the fingerboard. but thin enough to be easily manipulated inyourfingers Here. Cut a length.
Artifacts and Fictions IN 1993 I WORKED with a group of schoolchildren who were responding to the astonishing objects in the collection of the Pitt Rivers Museum. some of which are shown here. . Oxford. Using found materials. I had the privilege of drawing their inventions. they invented new anthropological finds—objects that reflected the distant past and their immediate future. England.
It also looks at the representation of the b o d y b11y4o n d traditional life drawing. focus has turned to the vulnerability of flesh: how it can be damaged. the Bay Area Models' Guild h o l d s a quarterly life-drawing m a r a t h o n aprinton Kodak transfer paper with green-colored dye added celebrating the great diversity of human proportion. Artists are thought to have b e g u n drawing from the nude during the Italian Renaissance. This F finished image was produced as r a n c i s c o . artists also tried to define ideal proportions in the body. diseased. the junior workshop apprentices posed as part of their duties. Look closely at Renaissance drawings of the female b o d y and you will see that m o s t are actually y o u n g m e n with minor adjustments. much Western contemporary art. giving physical foundation undulating land. Strangely. R. These classes are popular around the world. while Leonardo opened the body to see and projected onto a woman's body draw the celebratory discover for himself our physical mechanisms. portraiture. Renaissance artists studying anatomy from dissection clinically trained and specialized as a medical illustrator. The human body. W I L L I A M S technology. Michelangelo attended dissections to made this image by light sectioning: fine beams of light perfect his understanding of surface form. During this time. In this period. Leonardo drew a man within a circle and square. and surgically rebuilt. WILLIAMS he sought perfection in the infinitesimal measurement of the body and produced four Contemporary photographer volumes of illustrated explanation. and because the female was deemed inferior. W e understand every curve and balance of to the theory that the eves are the windows of the soul. It gives physical and emotive form to religious narratives. explaining ranges e/ of materials and techniques and showing diversities of thought and purpose in making. in our privileged and comfortable society. clothed or nude. The body remains at the core of over the initially white lines. history paintings and other stories. myths and fables. This chapter addresses issues that are most commonly faced by beginners attending life-drawing classes. a n d w e d r a w o u r s e l v e s to a s s e r t o u r e x i s t e n c e . Williams were decades ahead of their medical counterparts. Artists now explore the interior of the body with new media and Lateral Contour Map of a Full-Term Primipara Produced by Light 1979 A. Drawings were usually made from the male nude to avoid offending the church. and in San could easily be transferred into three dimensions. but the study of a controlled. herimpressive presence because we are given such Life drawing no longer dominates the art school curriculum. sculptural description of her form. He even believed he had located the soul contours of her form like a cartographer's map of in the pituitary fossa beneath the brain and behind the eyes. from video and X-ray to thermal imaging. is the most c o m m o n subject in art.The Body O UR BODIES MAKE us TANGIBLE. while Durer took his research further— A. R. She the body is still essential. and anatomical and erotic art. W e are the only creatures on Earth that can make our own image. 3 x 7 in (300 x 180 .
and human defeat. filling the page with her presence.116-17). altar pieces. while Matisse used scissors and glue to cut out and paste a flat collage of brilliant color. anatomy. But the meanings of each gesture and the materials and methods by which they Postures and Poses were m a d e contrast greatly. and Vatican frescos. so that we read this drawing like a sculptural frieze. Matisse's b l u e n u d e sings with life and c e l e b r a t i o n . Muscular dramatic postures reflect the influence of Michelangelo and the Renaissance celebration of the idealized male body. Three Guards 1500-20 91/4 x143/8in (234 x 365 mm) RAPHAEL . T h e y b o t h raise one arm to cup their head in their hand. Principal figures m i r r o r e a c h other. we see the e s s e n c e of h e r b e a u t y w i t h o u t a single detail.110 T H E BODY THESE DISTINCTIVE WORKS show two strikingly different ways of modeling the body on paper. By way of contrast. Raphael drew delicate tones of black chalk on tinted paper. He trained under Perugino. while supporting the weight of their body with the other. In this highly s o p h i s t i c a t e d a b s t r a c t i o n . and studied to learn from the works of Michelangelo and Leonardo besides whom he was soon ranked. Here three male nudes are compressed into very shallow pictorial space. RAFFAELLO SANZIO (RAPHAEL) Italian High Renaissance painter: Raphael is best known for his images of the Madonna and Child. She u n f o l d s and s t r e t c h e s shapely limbs. In a single drawing we see equally o b s e r v e d studies of f o r e s h o r t e n i n g (see pp. Raphael's study of fallen m e n leaves no doubt that they are in anguish. Sculptural frieze This is a preparatory drawing for Raphael's painting of the Resurrection of Christ.
foundamong many other groups of papercut these works as an elderly man confined to his bed or wheelchair. as his w o r k matured. lifelong love of brilliant They celebrate the culmination of spectacular and sometimes drawings.111 HENRY MATISSE French painter: draftsman. a mental soother. devoid of troubling Blue Nude 1 1952 413/4 HENRY MATISSE .. freer.. Matisse became an artist after studying law..which might be. His calligraphic natural abstractions of form grew brighter. and more energetic Color and form This collage is one of a series of Blue Nudes. teacher and principal exponent o f Fauvism—a movement established in 1905 in which bold color is the most essential element.like an appeasing influence. serenity. printmaker. and Islamic art. fabric.." of is an art of balance.. his pattern.sculptor. Matisse Soothing influence This drawing expresses the achievement of Matisse's personal aim: "What I dream and depressing subject matter.or like a good armchair in which to rest from physical fatigue.designer writer..
or abruptly meeting. velvet d a r k n e s s .112 T H E BODY Choreographs T I M E IS A SIGNIFICANT E L E M E N T i n t h e m a k i n g o f a l l d r a w i n g s . only tones blending into. If Seurat had added white. and color His applied theories still influence painters in their manipulation and rendering of local. reflected. w h o sits propped in the contradictory darkness of a hot summer's day. T h e space around h i m chatters with symbols. and muddied the brilliance of the drawing. we c o m p a r e a skillful design that absorbed m u c h time in its making with the quickness of an idea marked instantly. Opposite. it would have mixed with unseen black dust. Here. Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 1883-84 91/2 x 121/4 in (241 x 312 m m GEORGES SEURAT . it is as if the very atoms of air are made visible. Seurat engaged in lifelong studies of line. and c o m p l e m e n t a r y hues. Beuys's magician. other tones. turned gray. stands in counterpoise holding a dark globe and his thoughts in m o m e n t a r y balance. agreeing to coalesce and show us the form of a waiting boy. Light is given by the paper alone. Typically. Tone and light In this black conte drawing. Seurat evolved a distinctive t e c h n i q u e called p o i n t i l l i s m — i m a g e s literally made from myriad points of color. there are no outlines. His drawings are similarly u n i q u e . 162) and an eraser to model teeming points of artificial light amid GEORGES SEURAT French painter classically educated in the Ingres school of thought. In his f a m o u s paintings of social e n g a g e m e n t . like small birds attendant on the meditation. he used b l a c k c o n t e (see p. Below. scratched in seconds. form. in a perfect e x a m p l e . Using the paper to create light is important for beginners to learn.
iodine. in different positions. transience. and drawings. Our focus joins shoulders.113 JOSEPH BEUYS One of the most influential German artists of the 20th century. and made installations. Perfectly modeled rather conventional for Joseph Focus Beuys's hand moved quickly to draw dotted lines flowing downward on either side of the figure. and blood. free from the constraint of immaculate form opposite) impetus is irrelevant to the and meaning of this work (as we see in Seurat's drawing representation. Beuys gave performances. Unbroken lines stream from his simultaneously movement. taught workshops with a cult following. His The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland UNDATED 113/4 J O S E P H BEUYS x81/4in (297 x 210 mm) . This figure is drawn intuitively. CHOREOGRAPHS the profound power materials with spiritual or of Free lines This pale pencil drawing is Beuys. Many of his other symbolic works on paper have been drawn with materials such as honey. He was a shaman who believed in intuition and in the investment of healing force. and that These aspects of the work convey fractured visibility. video art.gold.
" as seen here. 125/8x 9 in (320 x 229 mm) AUGUSTE RODIN Two Women 1911 Embracing . the fierceness of the women's kiss is beautifully matched by the tenderness of his line. We are asked to gaze u p o n her flesh. Opposite. Delicate strokes This is one of about 7.114 BODY Passion SUMMONING HUMANITY in a drawing of the nude is a subtle and emotional task. Achieving international acclaim in mid-life. sweeping lines— of either purple silk fabric or cool studio air—that imprint and amplify their past and future movements. was perceived as scandalous. Rodin produced portraits and statues of public and literary figures. THE AUGUSTE RODIN French Romantic sculptor and prolific draftsman employed as an ornamental mason until the age of 42. But what is stranger to us now is that they were also outraged by his free use of line. As here. and one of hundreds of rapid studies of nudes. We are involved not as a shabby voyeur but as a bystander engaged through our recognition of shared joy. the women are framed and caressed by long. They whisper and writhe in a brushed and sultry embrace that devours our watching. Anita Taylor has drawn her protective body hug out of the darkly glistening compression of willow charcoal and the dynamism of her shy but momentous femininity. his w o r k is characterized by deliberate un-finish and powerfully modeled emotion. In Rodins work.000 drawings shown in rotation at the Musee Rodin. flushed skin made ruddy and black with crushed cinders. Free lines Rodin's public audience was understandably shocked by the eroticism of his drawings. In both drawings. Paris. he typically drew them with a few delicate strokes of pencil and brushed watercolor. Our bodies radiate the passion of our thoughts and so become beacons of our frailty and power. its soft. Rodin employed models to move freely or pose together in his studio. Inspired by Michelangelo. His exquisite flow of paint beyond "outlines. and went on to inspire generations of artists.
draftsman. Luminosity Layered marks flicker likefirelight as they sculpt the woman's body. exposure. the impression of luminosity All and Nothing 1999 67 x447/8in (170 x 1 1 4 cm) ANITA TAYLOR . Charcoal Taylor has drawn freely with charcoal and an eraser on thick. and gaze. intimately reflecting upon the emotions and meaning of nudity. London. The sturdy surface of the sheet has allowed her to press hard when needed. and rework rich depths of light and tone. Taylor has drawn. scrutiny. textured paper. leaving her lightest marks at the deepest level of the image and applying darker marks above. This order of light below and dark above gives glowing from within.I 15 ANITA T A Y L O R Painter. A thinner sheet might have crumpled and torn under such vigorous force of making. Taylor's immense self-portraits explore the relationship between the artist as maker and the artist as model. erased and drawn again. professor and Vice Principal of Wimbledon School of Art.
more extreme examples have been made for court entertainment. or shrivelling at odd. It is not complicated. you will make inconsistent and unrelated comparisons.limbs happily receding. To avoid its effects ensure you always look flat onto the surface of your page. patience. Rome. But if we could take a scaffold and climb up to the work. and wrist joints. This is chiefly a correcting device by which figurative painters and sculptors have for centuries countered the effects of our viewing their work from far below or on the curvature of a vault. for example. Spend time making comparisons before you draw. unfathomable angles. when beginners prop their board in their lap and look down at too steep an angle. We also look at another very interesting branch called accelerated (or anamorphic) perspective. London). "Simple measured comparisons reveal surprising truths about proportion. It can also be a little demon in the life room.116 T H E BODY Measurement and Foreshortening FORESHORTENING IS AN ASPECT of perspective. elongated as if stretched across the plaster. and to draw what we see. Lock your shoulder. Move the tip of your thumb down to a second chosen point. or coming forward. which is imperceptible from below. elbow. How to make and apply these is explained below and opposite. with dramatic illusions of figures painted in normal proportion. The length of exposed pencil is your measurement. It is not so hard. rather that what we believe we know from experience. plummeting. MEASURING This is a simple method of making measured comparisons for relating the true size of one part to another This is a tool to assist observation and thinking. Accelerated perspective plays a great role in much art. 2 Hold your pencil upright. Close one eye. Return to this posture every time. we would arrive to find many of the same figures strangely distorted. persistence. There is no need to mark them all down on paper. to be translated by mirrors or seen from only one point in the room. and a few measured comparisons are key. just making them helps you see. Up close on the scaffold we would witness Michelangelo's subtle application of accelerated perspective. If your arm is not straight. and measurements do not have to be carried to the paper and slavishly drawn the same size they appear on your pencil. 3 Keep your pencil perpendicular Measure and compare at any angle. the skull in Holbein's The Ambassadors (The National Gallery. 1 Hold your arm straight. helping us to see more clearly. Imagine Michelangelo's murals in the Sistine Chapel. Align the top with a point on your subject. Smaller. In the life class it is the mechanism for ensuring that a drawn figure lies correctly in pictorial space . without taking off." .
S o o n t h e b o d y will lie d o w n in space. W e appear t o be looking d o w n o n a w o m a n s t a n d i n g b e n e a t h us. t a p e s o m e p a p e r t o a board. looking d o w n t h e p a p e r at t h e a n g l e at w h i c h I d r e w . T h i s is t h e s a m e d r a w i n g p h o t o g r a p h e d f r o m above. L o o k at y o u r m o d e l as if he o r she is a flat series o f shapes o n e o n t o p o f a n o t h e r Measure t h e height and w i d t h o f each shape and c o m p a r e it t o its neighbor. y o u r hand travels f a r t h e r than y o u expect. pleasingly f o r e s h o r t e n e d . FORESHORTENING To f o r e s h o r t e n a figure. y o u must let go o f w h a t y o u k n o w f r o m e x p e r i e n c e a b o u t t h e relative sizes o f b o d y parts and trust y o u r eyes. Stand its b o t t o m edge o n y o u r lap. Lean t h e t o p e d g e t o w a r d y o u and find a p o s i t i o n w h e r e y o u can c o m f o r t a b l y l o o k d o w n t h e p a p e r at an angle o f a b o u t 4 0 degrees. a n d thighs.117 ACCELERATED PERSPECTIVE To discover h o w this w o r k s . To m a k e f o r m s l o o k c o r r e c t . h e r p r o p o r t i o n s will appear correct. belly. W o r k a r o u n d t h e figure. P r o p o r t i o n s will only l o o k c o r r e c t f r o m t h e angle at w h i c h y o u make t h e drawing. See h o w d i f f e r e n t t h e relative heights o f t h e s e shapes are f r o m w h a t w e m i g h t e x p e c t in real life. Keep t h e b o a r d steady and draw. adjusting a n o n y m o u s shapes. C o m p a r e t h e heights o f t h e nose and eye shapes t o t h o s e o f t h e f o r e a r m . A t a c e r t a i n angle. which feels strange. . MEASUREMENT AND FORESHORTENING Tilt t h e t o p edge o f this b o o k t o w a r d you and look d o w n o n this figure f r o m a b o v e .
Start each new drawing by lightly marking the model's height with a loose line in ten seconds. make the upper body smaller give your model a high waist. and energy. and height. . and stance before honing her balance and expression. and work over t h e m with further o b s e r v a t i o n s . T h i s q u i c k e x p l o r a t o r y line does not perfectly describe shape but expresses a decision about overall flow of form. because it results in two unrelated sides drifting apart. Avoid drawing up one side and down the other. To draw this effect. height. Balance When a model stands upright on both feet. THE SEQUENCE OF POSES H e r e the model was asked to move every t w o minutes. and slightly enlarge her legs and feet. feeling. To see this. work back and forth across the body. imagine holding up a plumb line. Leave first thoughts in place. I used a sharp H B pencil and began each drawing by marking her outline. Be bold and dive into your drawing with c o n f i d e n c e . Layered lines give d e p t h . Height This pose leans away into space above our eye level. balance.118 BODY Quick Poses DRAWING QUICK POSES l o c k s y o u r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n t o what is most essential. her center of balance is normally found in a vertical line beneath her head. Outline To outline a figure. working from her center to her feet and to her head. propelling you to make immediate assessments and trust them.
119 The twist of a model is most easily and expressively captured if it is exaggerated. The tilt of the pelvis is then counter balanced by the model's shoulders tilting the other way (as seen here). . and this should be avoided Twist QUICK POSES A model standing on one leg usually drops the opposite hip. Tilt Movement Here. Most of us have a tendency to over-straighten the drawn figure. This drawing shows how different observations be overlaid to bring a drawing alive. the activity of circular lines and the repetition of limbs suggest movement.
or those of a friend. starting with the largest. Focus instead on how planes change direction across the knuckles from one side of the hand or foot to the other. Then subdivide each shape so that you w o r k from large to small. but regard these practice studies as ongoing processes of thought and observatio Add details such as nails last if you wish. This exercise is useful when struggling with proportion. and they need not be daunting to draw.120 BODY Hands and Feet THERE ARE MANY different ways of approaching h a n d s and THE of form. Group the fingers together as one mass. It also helps the beginner to progress from drawing outlines to drawing confidently across the surface of the whole form. W h e n starting. Begin by drawing lines to encompass the whole hand. general to specific. and ignore all details. Do not separate them yet. it is important to leave aside all details of the fingers and toes. drawn in relation to each other. Keep lines open to change and take measurements if they help. These planes. 3 . A mirror increases your range of views. especially the lengthwise divisions between them. and a gooseneck lamp casts shadows that clarify planes and depths GESTURES OF THE HAND Curled Fingers 1 Open Palm Start honing the shapes of the dominant planes. express structure and gesture far more successfully and easily than ten worried outlines wandering up and down between the fingers and toes. swiftly marking its essential gesture. 2 Build your drawing gradually from light to dark. Don't worry about achieving perfect solutions. Draw large shapes and their orientation. Practice by drawing your own hands and feet. feet.
however. . and rapid. these are what give a drawing its tangible structure. 2 3 Use an eraser t o refine decisions o r t o suggest areas o f light. Hew it roughly in broad. Leave aside all detail. depth. loose.121 HANDS AND FEET MOVEMENTS OF THE FOOT Flat Stance Raised Heel Instep 1 Let your first marks be light. It can be a mistake. as if with a chisel. and don't worry about accuracy t o begin with. t o remove t o o many early lines. Look for key angles without becoming distracted by detail. and spontaneity. Try t o express the whole foot and t o encapsulate its entire shape and direction in a few marks.as though out o f wood. Nowimagineyou are carving the foot insidethepaper. flattened planes.
204-05.Charcoal Hands T H E S E DRAWINGS ARE MADE in compressed charcoal. The white lines demonstrate what is often called "bracelet shading. Opposite. I also used white ink with a steel dip pen." . Compare its nature in close-up to that of willow charcoal used on pp.
HERE TRACES OF RAPID initial lines are still seen within and outside each body. and posture of the model. before honing his or her shape (see pp. 118-19). I make these lines in the first five to ten seconds of a drawing to locate the presence. Phrasing Contours . length.
perspectives. I draw in museums in support of written research and as an artist seeking answers to questions about the practicalities of image making. characters. Drawing work by another artist enables you to discover and understand the inventive hand in their composition. feeling them through the attentive movements of your own hand.The Visual Detective DRAWING FROM MASTERWORKS was once a staple component of an artist's education. Forms. It is now viewed with some skepticism and often seen as academic. . and narrative pulse become vivid when you realize them in the middle of your study.
. Walls are lined with hundreds of faintly animated body parts.3 x 3 m) made in response to La Specola. 126-27. each modeled from dissection.La Specola At17V i a Romana. there is a unique museum of 18th-century anatomical waxes. Life-size women wearing wigs recline on beds of embroidered silk in cabinets of mahogany and Venetian glass This is a detail of a compressed charcoal drawing measuring 14 x 10 ft (4. These almost life-size figures were composed from my imagination and achieved with the help af studies discussed on pp. Florence.
139). and it is very rewarding. the meaning of their face. his changes in pressure and Hitchcock length o f line. buttons. Goya's w o r k s include many royal and society p o r t r a i t s . or a glimpse of him is caught in a photograph used as a prop. you can capture the subtlety. made as he passed through the ages of man. usually strangers from past times. Movie director Alfred similarly signed his films by playing a fleeting role: he walks through an extra. Goya. and expression of the individual. We are also reassured by keeping records of ourselves. Portraits can be highly or loosely detailed. and in a few scrolling rafts of pen lines and stubbled dots. Our homes are filled with images of our loved ones and of those in our families who have gone before. character. This enlargement o f his miniature p o r t r a i treveals t h e s p e e d and agility o f his p e n and about himself. and shoulders. look directly at us. The returning image was of crucial consideration in any proposal. and social and political commentaries. bells. We can mold and animate qualities of expression out of objects and fragments of disassociated things—for example. and p r i n t m a k e r . historical. It also reminds us o f b o t h t h e intimacy and a scene as scrutiny o f an honest portrait. religious. gathered all that he knew FRANCISCO DE GOYA V i s i o n a r y Spanish painter. Once you understand Self-Portrait in a Cocked Hat c. single or of groups. and their posture can be changed with just one line. Self-portraiture gives every artist a constant. throat. Beginners often draw themselves as a way of establishing their practice. For centuries. and secular narratives. draftsman. . W h e n drawing a person. In this chapter. we use the delicate medium of silver point to look at foundation structures of the head. Halls and palaces are filled with pictures of the mighty and significant. who. painters have dropped discreet records of themselves into commissioned narratives so that they can remain a face in the crowd. compliant subject to scrutinize.Portraiture IN P O R T R A I T U R E W E MEET PEOPLE. and a handprint (see p. neck. Man Ray's self-portrait of scored lines. or whose eyes can seem to follow us around the room Portraiture is a constant. a single line can deliver an entire expression. To create a face is to see and interpret the essence of an identity. is here to both meet and look through us. and lucrative genre for artists. Past rulers sent painters across continents to bring back a likeness in advance of a prospective royal marriage. became more poignant as he progressed. and satirical or metaphorical. their stance. having been documented and preserved. live. abstract or figurative. Equally. in a miniature self-portrait magnified opposite. or past us. The truth is that we all like looking at faces and observing the billions of variations that make us individuals. 1790-92 4 x 3 in ( 1 0 2 x 7 6 m m ) F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A and memorize the basic structure that we all share. Rembrandt's famous multitude of self-portraits.
one eye already cast askew into the autumn of her life. While with longer consideration. whisking a timeless girl onto the page. Picasso has left to posterity many hundreds of magnificent line drawings. length. caught in her last moments of youth.132 PORTRAITURE Poise THE BALANCE BETWEEN a mark and a blank space is often a tantalizing form of perfection. we can enjoy and learn from them. Picasso strikes and scrolls his pencil. adding smudges of tone for weight and solidity. hand to capture something well in only Frangoise au Bandeau 1946 660 x 505 mm (26 x197/8in) PABLO PICASSO . It takes a truly accomplished a few strokes. Here the grace and beauty of two young women are held forever. stealthily using his chalk to find contours and mass. and pressure as it conducts our eye through the image. Without faltering. PABLO PICASSO Spanish Cubist painter (see also p. teetering on the brink of older age.30). We can read so much about them by studying their gaze. they serve as a great lesson that it is not always necessary to add tone to your drawing. He makes his flair and skill look easy. How could the addition of shadows have enhanced this image? Few strokes The simplicity of Picasso's line is breathtaking. The Tightness of a line is felt in its speed. We can actually count that he struck the paper 40 times. It is the portrait of a countrywoman. breadth. For the beginner. The truth is often the opposite. Her face is drawn tenderly and with a luminous glow. Through exhibitions and copies in books. There is a common misunderstanding that a drawing with only a few lines is both less finished and easier to make than a drawing with more. The aesthetic sense of a line being just right can make a drawing sing. Holbein maps the still landscape of Dorothea's body in questioning marks.
The peak of her cap clips the uppermost edge. which. he designed c o u r t costumes. made a popular series o f w o o d c u t prints titled The Dance of Death. Blended colors In this portrait drawn with colored chalks on slightly textured paper. and produced numerous society portraits such as this one here. Her folded forearms support and frame her weight above. Holbein has cropped and pinned his subject within the four outermost lines of the image—the edges of the page. and its downward slope crowns the diagonal of the composition. Cropping This regal composition fits its paper perfectly. Holbein unified the woman with her background by gently blending colors from her clothes and face into the atmosphere around her. and designer f r o m Basel.133 HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER German p o r t r a i t painter draftsman. In addition t o his numerous exquisite portraits in oil. Holbein was employed toward the end of his life by King Henry VIII of England. Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 1516 51/8 x121/4in (385 x 310 m m ) HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER . He outlined her nose but not her upper lip. presses against the binding across her face. gently flushed.
In fact. Highlights of white gouache were dry Profile Head late in the making. taught at numerous British art schools from 1962-77. . the contours of a grid. using a fine and relatively 1982 13 x 181/8 in (328 x 460 mm) VICTOR NEWSOME brush. Newsome was awarded the Prix de Rome in 1960. or defined by. Delicate muscles are integrated with the skin and fat that is to be r e m o v e d . Psychological drama is contained behind a grid. blood vessels. while white painted flecks and wisps suggest electrical illumination. Nerves. but they are irrelevant here. Contrasts Sharp. VICTOR NEWSOME British sculptor painter and draftsman. London. The style of Durelli's d r a w i n g opposite sings with the confidence of truth and precision. its highly clarified detail claiming to be d r a w n from observation. distorted. the face is one of the hardest parts to dissect. and has works in major collections including the Tate Gallery. This is one of a number of similar disembodied female heads seen behind. This is a m a r v e l o u s interpretation of the truth. dark tones of graphite blended into the paper. and glands also complicate form. perhaps applied using a tortillon. The real dissection w o u l d have been far more c o m p l e x . dark lines made with a pencil appear against smooth. confusing. Durelli has m a d e a few m i n o r mistakes. Anatomically. It floats in space. continues to exhibit regularly. N e w s o m e ' s eerily shadowed form is smooth and bears a linear grain evocative of w o o d .134 PORTRAITURE Anatomies These highly finished drawings express the emotional power and physicality of the head and neck. solid above and almost hollow below. and unpleasant to see.
It is hard to think of a more difficult medium with which to achieve such linear perfection. Red Chalk the Muscles 1837 173/8 x 145/8 in ( 4 4 0 x 3 7 2 m m ) ANTONIO DURELLI and Pencil Drawing and of Neck of the Head Little is k n o w n o f this M i l a n e s e p a i n t e r a n d engraver w h o c a m e from a family o f artists. which. and it is likely that this drawing was intended for reproduction as a print. Stylized parallel lines are reminiscent of engravings.135 ANATOMIES ANTONIO DURELLI Linear perfection This is a red chalk drawing of extraordinary accomplishment. Durelli's experience as an engraver is reflected in his stylized drawing o f muscle fibers. Pencil numbers refer to the list of muscles written beneath. w h e n contracted. pull their points o f attachment t o w a r d each other .
while his hand stabs and thrusts Revelations like a conductors baton. necks. Giacometti settled in Paris. and poet After studying in Geneva and Italy. which are characteristically elongated. Portrait de Marie-Laure de Noailles c. Similar movements sculpted the head below into its page. 1948 77/8 x 6 in (200 x 150 mm) ALBERTO GIACOMETTI .136 PORTRAITURE THESE ARE DRAWINGS of shoulders. Both works demonstrate how simple lines can be made complex by being intense. each locked into a visionary gaze. There is a film of Giacometti drawing. We are brought intimately close to this man gazing up to heaven. They confuse our perception of scale by being intimately fragile and at the same time far removed. each portrait is inscribed onto the page. painter draftsman. Without paint and with very little tone. Agitated marks make patches of tone that cut away the space around the character. Speed Giacometti probably began with an oval shape placed in relation to the proportion of the page. ALBERTO GIACOMETTI Swiss sculptor. with speed and urgency. Bellini gently conjures the features of his saint with soft marks that tease his presence out of shadows into the light. Energy This is a portrait of a woman drawn with black crayon on a plain page of a book Lines search for the essence of form. cutting and carving the paper with matted and spiraling restless energy. Opposite. and heads. Then. He is best known for his bronze sculptures of human form. They show us clearly the bones of drawing. The camera watches him at work. close enough to touch his hair and feel his breath. Flesh is built and personality carved simultaneously. and with staccato flinches his hyperactive eye moves from paper to model. as if seen from a distance. he drew over the whole image at once.
H e t a u g h t G i o r g i o n e Barbarelli and Titian. a n d c o n t e m p l a t i v e . transferring which were made in the process of the saint to his final place in the composition of a painting (see Glossary pp. H e p r e f e r r e d religious t o classical t h e m e s .G I O V A N N I BELLINI A prominent member of a large family o f V e n e t i a n painters. Mantegna. a n d his w o r k is d i s t i n c t i v e l y calm. Bellini s t u d i e d u n d e r his f a t h e r J a c o p o . These are pinholes. Transfer This delicate humorous chalk a drawing is a cartoon—not image but a type of template used to plan the composition of a larger work Look closely and you will see rows of tiny dots along every significant line in the picture. Head and Shoulders of a Man 73/8 x 21/4 in ( 1 8 6 x 5 8 UNDATED GIOVANNI BELLINI .5 9 ) . Sometimes different narrative same character was reused in compositions. lyrical. a n d b r o t h e r in-law.25 6 . Character This is one of many cartoons produced by Bellini the and his family.
and attitudes. It has proved to be a subject of piercing scrutiny. and buttons rings with surrealist wit and agile improvisation. Al Diaz. signing their work SAMO. JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT Short-lived American painter and graffiti artist who began his blazing nine-year career drawing on lower Manhattan subway trains with a friend. Self Portrait 1982 9 4 x 7 6 in (239 x 193 cm) JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT . similar to work by Cy Twombly (see p. drawn. The incandescent New York painter Jean Michel Basquiat pictured himself here in naked silhouette. Signs and symbols with symbols This painting shudders that ore written. In 1986 he traveled to Africa and showed his work in Abidjan on the Ivory Coast He also exhibited in Germany and France.138 PORTRAITURE THE MIRROR OF SELF-PORTRAITURE offers artists infinite reflections of. and indulgence. and sheet metal before being snapped up by the New York contemporary art scene. It is an opportunity to look deep without the infringement of courtesies owed to a commissioning sitter. It is an image of confrontation—the ever-controversial young artist roars at us from his abstract city-scape. Man Ray's playful silk-screen assembly of color blocks. Later Basquiat sold drawings on T-shirts. The figure's position is unequivocal and defiant while around him is in a state Without the essential of cultural and figure we would elegant belookingat a sophisticated painting of signs. made with great energy. Islands of graphic marks. humor. a tribal. The artist has finished his portrait with the signature of his hand smacked in the middle like a kiss: a declaration of existence as old as man's first drawing. skull- Self-Portraits headed. scratched lines. scrolls. spear-brandishing warrior. their most immediate and best-known subject: themselves. float and shimmer in the shallow pictorial space. and everything flux. marks. postcards. political outcry. and confrontations with.221). bells. scratched into its surface.
139 MAN RAY American surrealist photographer. During the 1920's and 30s. Black ink was printed next and then white. last of all. Frame White lines are seemingly (though not actually) scratched through ink to frame this face. Man Ray probably used his own hand. The handprint appears to be made directly. painter. printmaker and cofounder of the New York Dada movement. where he collaborated with the artist Laslo MoholyNagy. Autoportrait 1916 195/8 MAN RAY . They suggest speed and make the picture look immediate and spontaneous. The first part of the stenciled image was already marked on the silk The screen and paper were then held tightly together. They experimented with camera-free photography working directly onto photographic paper Silk and ink This is a silkscreen print made through the following process: the paper was laid on a flat surface and a frame stretched with fine silk was placed on top. Man Ray lived and worked in Paris. while a squeegee was used to drag thick lilac-brown ink across the silk pushing it though exposed areas onto the paper below. caked in thick printing ink or paint.
MATERIALS 1 Find a clean sponge and b o w l o r d e e p t r a y a n d fill it w i t h w a t e r W e t t h e p a p e r evenly in t h e t r a y o r o n t h e b o a r d . or wood. S O F T F U L L B R U S H : W h e n laying a w a s h . Gesso o r m a t t e m u l s i o n c a n a l s o b e u s e d . E m p t y mechanical pencils designed f o r t h i c k leads ( s e e p. For i m p o r t a n t a d v i c e o n p r e p a r a t i o n a n d use. M a k e s u r e i t is c o m p l e t e l y clean t o avoid u n w a n t e d streaks. Numerous early European artists also enjoyed its fine qualities (see p. Drawn across a prepared surface.s t r i p a n d use i t t o fix o n e side o f t h e p a p e r t o t h e b o a r d . Lightly s p o n g e o f f t h e excess. or ring. Pages 142 to 147 are illustrated in silver point and techniques are explained on pp. platinum. and make o r buy a holder. W e t a n d fix a s e c o n d strip t o t h e o p p o s i t e side. I t is a v a i l a b l e f r o m all a r t s h o p s .140 PORTRAITURE Silver P o i n t SILVER OR METAL POINT STRETCHING PAPER A sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has been made w e t with the strokes o f a paintbrush will buckle d u e t o its uneven expansion. Be swift and firm." Lead. purchase silver wire. Z I N C W H I T E G O U A C H E : Dilute with w a t e r A d d c o l o r i f r e q u i r e d (as opposite) 4 . it leaves a deposit. 1. 5. b u t d o n ' t w o r r y . who used it to outline initials and border characters before painting. Metal point is simply a strip of metal bound in a holder. M E T A L OBJECTS: All metal objects m a r k a p r e p a r e d surface. copper. and t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h strips a b o v e and b e l o w . To begin. laid on paper. and is therefore useful w h e n using w a t e r c o l o r as well as silver point. This is called a three-tone drawing. p a r c h m e n t . b e f o r e priming stretched paper. Historically.Tear o f f f o u r lengths o f b r o w n p a p e r g u m tape. I combined silver point with painted white gouache on a pink ground.54) can also b e used. If w o r k i n g o n an emulsion-painted wall. Metal point does not work on ordinary paper. 2 . was familiar to or eggshells with animal glue. I m a k e m y o w n f r o m o l d dip pens. and alloys work on matt emulsion. an exciting indication of how large-scale drawings could be made on a wall. 144-45. w h i t e d r a w i n g paper) and cut it t o fit y o u r d r a w i n g b o a r d w i t h a generous b o r d e r a r o u n d its edges. Lay a clean d r a w i n g b o a r d o n a flat surface. Straighten the w o r s t buckles. Opposite. SILVER P O I N T W I R E H O L D E R : T h e s e c a n b e p u r c h a s e d a n d t e n d t o b e heavy. key. and gold have also been used. the surface must be primed with a ground such as gouache. 156). which quickly oxidizes into a gray line. 2. you will need t o stretch paper and lay a wash (see right and opposite). 1 4 4 . c h o o s e a s o f t full b r u s h t h a t c a n c a r r y p l e n t y o f l i q u i d . Note h o w domestic paintwork marks with a coin. This browns with age unless sealed by fixative (see pp. bone. The most c o m m o n metal has always been silver—hence the term "silver point. artists mixed white lead. Take a sheet o f any t y p e o f p a p e r (for e x a m p l e . 3 . Stretched paper remains taut as a d r u m . illuminators of medieval m a n u s c r i p t s . SILVER W I R E : Purchase different gauge lengths f r o m a traditional a r t supplier o r jeweler. s o m e m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n o t h e r s . W e t o n e length o f g u m . Find a n i t e m t h a t y o u can h o l d a n d draw with comfortably.54-55). s e e p . o n e t o fit each side o f t h e b o a r d — t h e s e will make t h e glued f r a m e t h a t holds y o u r p a p e r in place. T h e p a p e r will l o o k b u c k l e d . S i l v e r is b e s t . choose a silver object.
stretched paper at a 45-degree angle. as the paper will be ruined by a raised ridge. v e r y little at a time. T h r e e . overlapping lines until you reach the bottom. and let tests dry before deciding to change the mixture. Runs blend into each other evenly. Keep testing on spare paper. Leave the wash to dry thoroughly before you begin to draw. leaving a smooth surface. full brush into the gouache and start in the top left corner. Mix a very wet but not weak solution of gouache in a jar with a lid (add pigment at this stage for a three-tone drawing). Make enough to cover your paper. I used a powder pigment called Caput Mortuum. Dry thoroughly before laying a wash. It will slowly straighten and become taut. Beware of the tape's coming loose at any point while drying. Here. so put newspaper under the lower edge.141 SILVER POINT 3 Leave the paper to dry flat. any extra will keep. Keep adding smooth. Make an even line across to the right. Prop up your board of dry. Dip a soft. slowly add powder pigment or gouache from a tube. Reload the brush and add a second line overlapping it beneath. The next step will make a small mess.t o n e silver point drawing of a skull . is necessary to lay a wash o Three-tone When coloring ground. LAYING A WASH It your stretched paper so as to prime it for silver point.
Head and Neck
THE HEAD AND NECK are best conceived as one unit arranged in four parts: cranium, face, neck, and throat. Each is of equal importance. The cranium is essentially egg-shaped and pivots on the first vertebra. The face is suspended beneath, like a softly curved triangle. The n e c k — a powerful, shapely column of layered muscles rigged to vertebrae—adjusts and holds the angle and expression of the head. The throat is delicate, hard, and lumpy to the touch, formed of cartilaginous rings, glands, thin muscles, and looser skin. Framing the throat, two columnar neck muscles (sternomastoids) project the head forward and also turn it to the opposite side.
This is a simple shorthand diagram representing the cranium, face, neck, and throat. It can be learned and visualized in different positions very easily, giving the novice a firm footing on which to stand and develop their drawings of the head and neck.
Cranium Begin with an egg shape. Tilt it on the paper to change the position of the head.
Face Draw a rounded triangular shape below the forward point of the egg to represent the face.
Neck This shape represents the trapezius; the largest surface muscle of the neck and shoulders.
Throat A triangular shape represents the throat. (The nose makes the diagram clearer)
After copying the diagram above, animate it. Practice drawing the cranium at different angles, add the face beneath, then the neck, shoulders, and throat. Shape your diagrams so they are more lifelike, but avoid adding detailed features too soon.
143 These three drawings demonstrate (from left to right) the following: why the cranium may be considered egg-shaped; now the face can be seen as a curved triangle suspended beneath and where the division lies between the two; and the form of sternomastoid muscles that frame thethroatsodistinctlywhen the head is turned and inclined forward.
The skull and the frame of the throat
HEAD AND NECK
Bones of the cranium are locked together by jagged joints. Sinuses in the frontal (forehead) bone between and beneath the eyebrows are larger in men, making their brows pronounced and often ridged compared to those of women.
Bones of the face house our sight, smell, taste, The skull pivots on the first vertebra or "atlas," and speech. Cartilage extending from nasal bones after the Greek god condemned to carry the shapesthenose.Pads of fat resting on the base of Earth. The jaw hinges in front of the ears. Behind, eacheyesocket support the eyeballs in position. If bony ridges give anchor to the sternomastoid thefatisreducedby old age, eyes look sunken. muscles rising from the breast- and collarbones.
Three useful generalizations
General rules about the relative positions of body parts can hinder artists as much as help them, since they are often based on classical ideals rather than thediversityoflife.However,some generalizations can help as a rough guide to start with, so long as good observation takes over as soon as possible.
In general, when the face is relaxed (not smiling or frowning), the corners of the mouth are found directly beneath the pupils of the eyes. Vertical lines can be drawn down from the pupils to meet the corners of the mouth.
The height of a young adult's ear is often the same as their nose and found on the same level. There is no general rule for growing children, and remember that ears grow again in old age, which is most obvious in men.
The height of the face is about the length of the handspan and the eye is normally halfway down the total height of the head. A common error is to draw the eyes too high up on the face.
T H E DELICACY OF SILVER POINT
(see pp. 140-41) is perfect for
such as a beach pebble. Here, I stretched drawing paper and laid a wash of white gouache (see pp.140-41). As you can see, the line and tone of silver point varies with pressure, but only slightly. Too much pressure cuts the ground. Silver point erases, but so does ground. Erased ground can be repaired gently with extra gouache. You can also use gouache to paint over mistakes and make corrections.
small, detailed drawings. The drawings below and opposite show useful observations of the head and neck, which are explained in the captions below. Each drawing was made with a silver wire held in a large-gauge mechanical pencil. Newly clipped wires are sharp and cut rather than draw. Before use, they need to be rubbed and smoothed on a stone
Here I imagined placing my silver point wire against the skin of each head and neck and, working in parallel bands from the crown downward, I traced the undulation of surfaces. Linear bands imagined around the head and neck can help you t o clearly see the tilt of the head and relative levels of the features. Ask a friend t o model for you and try this exercise life-size using a pencil and eraser
Seeing that the face is never flat
Drawings below left and center are summaries of the generalizations given on p.143. Far right is an image to remind us that the face is never flat. It slopes back to varying degrees among individuals, from the tip of the nose t o the ears. For example, note that the innermost corners of the eyes are farther forward in space than the outermost corners.
General measurements, side
General measurements, front
View from above
Male and female head and neck
Men's necks a r e g e n e r a l l y s h o r t e r a n d t h i c k e r t h a n w o m e n ' s b e c a u s e t h e angles a n d levels o f c e r t a i n b o n e s a r e d i f f e r e n t b e t w e e n t h e sexes ( i n d i c a t e d h e r e b y d o t t e d lines) a n d m e n are n o r m a l l y m o r e muscular. T h e male t h y r o i d cartilage ( A d a m ' s apple) is larger a n d m o r e visible than t h e f e m a l e . L a r g e r f e m a l e t h y r o i d glands also s o f t e n t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e t h r o a t .
The largest m u s c l e o f t h e s h o u l d e r s a n d n e c k is called the trapezius. A r r a n g e d on e i t h e r side o f t h e spine, it shapes t h e u p p e r back and neck above the s h o u l d e r blades. C o n t r a c t i n g in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h d e e p e r and surrounding muscles, it raises and l o w e r s t h e shoulders a n d d r a w s t h e h e a d backtoeitherside.
USING A SHARP 3 B PENCIL, I drew this head quickly from imagination, evolving its character and expression from the scheme of four parts: cranium, face, neck, a n d throat (see p. 142). Here, five steps show you how to practice doing the same. This approach can be used to draw from imagination or from life. Keep your wrist loose and hold your pencil away from its point (see pp.22-23). Build the layers of your drawing from pale to dark, a n d from general balance a n d form to specific detail. Remember that successful drawings are built on foundations of "seeing the whole," then dividing the whole into smaller parts, with details brought in last of all. Phrased tonal marks modeling this girls skin and hair follow the technique demonstrated by Goya in his self-portrait on p. 130. Turn to Goya's drawing and study how, in a circle beginning across his hat, moving down his hair, and around his coat, he flows lines over surfaces to describe their contour. As you build from steps 1 to 5, bring phrased groups of lines across the surfaces of your form, using their directions to capture the expression of the head and neck. If unsure, copy my steps until you gain the confidence to make your own decisions.
This drawing is the final stage of the four steps opposite. Here, I have enlarged the eye, and moved it back into the head by trimming the length of the upper lid and adding a more pronounced lower lid. It is important to set eyes far enough back from the relatively prominent nose; too close to it and the face flattens. Hair swept back and extended behind the cranium balances the regal pose. Lines shaping the hair echo those marking the cranium in step 1. Here, the lower part of step 1 comes through as wisps of hair across her face and ear
Portrait of a Young Girl
147 Building up the portrait DRAWING PORTRAITS 1 Gently spin pale lines in a softly drawn shape representing the cranium. First lines will remain visible in the final drawing. too soon. 3 Place the eye beneath the cranium. 2 Rapidly add shorthand shapes to represent the face. avoid drawing too dark.Theangle at which you draw this shape of the paper will determine the angle of the finished head. I modeled the outline of the character I imagined light shining from above and in front and adjusted the pressure of lines to reflect this. and throat. I used light to describe the upper lid first with a shadow beneath for the lower lid and open eye. Moving from the back of the neck. neck. they are also still sweeping and confident. The nose and ear begin to shape the head. over the cranium. Keep your first lines light. down the face to the throat. The eye announces the nature and expression of the emerging person. so it is important to the life of the image that while controlled. Here. 4 .
. Above all. the texture of hair. muscular tension. and gravity. be aware of the subtle differences in skin surface. empathize. a n d t h o s e w h o a r e Generations asleep (see overleaf).T o DRAW PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGES.
with a steel dip pen and acrylic ink. Madrid.Castings DRAWING IN THE PRADO MUSEUM. I used the nib upside down to gain needle-sharp precision. . Fast lines carve out the features of Goya's soup-slurping hag. seeking the dominant contours of each individual expression. Van Dyke's noble cast of characters was modeled more finely.
shapes. Samoylovich Rosenberg. c o s t u m e o f f e r s a r i c h v o c a b u l a r y of t e x t u r e s a n d c o l o r . Artists do this not so m u c h b y the style of a figure's garment. w a r m t h . and s y m b o l s that lets m e n and w o m e n in all countries and areas have w o r k i n g access to the latest fashions. dancer leaps through swaths of golden cloth. or calm u s w i t h chic. he and cofounder Serge Diaghilev took Paris by eac storm in 1910 with their production h year in the industrial f r e n z y of creating o u r image and aspirations. articulate a d a n g e r o u s satirical j o k e . Bakst's designs and costumes immediately To the fine artist. o n l y the w e a l t h y c o u l d afford to h a v e c o s t u m e s specially m a d e . Practical classes Bacchante 1911 l o o k at r a n g e s of c o l o r e d m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d i n g p a s t e l s a n d felt-tip p e n s . or b u l g e s . . for e x a m p l e — d e s i g n e d the w a r d r o b e s of p o p e s a n d k i n g s . theb u t b y the w a y it s p e a k s w i t h its flying. w h i c h in turn feed c o n s u m e r Lev. and even invisible by the w a y w e dress. In this c h a p t e r w e see h o w c l o t h i n g c a n s e e m to p o s s e s s the w e i g h t and m o n u m e n t a l i t y of stone. was a Belarussian A r t Deco theater fantasies and desires to immediately possess a version of the same.This voluptuous above all a physical p u p p e t w i t h w h i c h to animate character and narrate personality. b u t influenced Parisian fashion and interiordecor. Like it or not. Previously. variety. a n d w e will c o l l e c t patterns. charcoal. st 111/4 x 81/2 in (285 x 220 mm) u d i e d L E O NB A K S T and explore the characterization of fabric t h r o u g h m o v e m e n t . and atmosphere. and i n d e e d image b e c a m e the property also of the industrial classes. and gouache. D e s i g n e r s create m a s t e r p i e c e s of haute couture LEON BAKST for H o l l y w o o d stars. e m u l a t e textures. In psychology. of Scheherazade. Cities c h a n g e d all. g l o s s y folds. gesture. a n d c o u r t i e r tailors f o l l o w e d suit. W e dress ourselves and costume designer trained in in St. intriguing. woman was drawn by Bakst one year later for the ballet Narcisse. cool. while court p a i n t e r s — M i c h e l a n g e l o and Holbein. outrageous. c u l t u r e . P o p u l a r f a s h i o n d e s i g n e x p l o d e d w i t h the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n . and intent. so that c h o i c e . and everything w e h a v e c h o s e n for o u r w a r d r o b e s — r e f l e c t o r s of o u r taste. it is the public sign by w h i c h w e are j u d g e d . Petersburg and later exiled designers' ideas and are surprised and delighted b y their continual f l o w of inspiration. and e x u b e r a n c e . arichand unusual combination of pencil. c r u m p l e s . T h e p a p e r p a t t e r n is p e r h a p s the m o s t w i d e l y k n o w n of c o s t u m e d r a w i n g s : a formalized plan of lines. toParis. T h e rural masses w o r e h o m e s p u n simplicity. and be so expressive of temperament that it overtakes the need for an o c c u p y i n g h u m a n form. T h e e n t o u r a g e of the theatrical stage o f t e n l e a d s the c a t w a l k .As artistic director of the It is s h o c k i n g to t h i n k h o w m a n y m i l l i o n s of d r a w i n g s m u s t be m a d e a n d d i s c a r d e d Ballet Russe. known as Leon Bakst. personality. Designers all over the w o r l d c o n t i n u a l l y p e n and b r u s h lines to lash us w i t h color. a n d s u b t l e t o n e s . a n d p r o f e s s i o n — b e g a n life as a d r a w i n g . S t r u c t u r e is t h o u g h the i n v e n t i o n of shoes. fulfilling lavish and spectacular briefs.Costume W E MAKE OURSELVES EXOTIC. caricatured p l u m e s .
The quiet stillness of this image is achieved by a masterly economy of stylized line. Church and deities are drawn as JAN VAN EYCK Flemish oil p a i n t e r f r o m L i m b o u r g . Below this. the vaulted stone roof echoes and crowns the moment. Van Eyck's highly polished w o r k is c e l e b r a t e d f o r its disguised symbolism. resonate with their wearers startled expression. Maelbeke I44I Madonna 11 x 7 in (278 x 180 m m ) JAN V A N EYCK . Delicate marks Silver (or metal) point is the most delicate of traditional drawing media (see pp. Vertical lines The highly controlled lines of this drawing cascade from top to bottom of the image. Keisai Eisen's intense. delicate lines. and the kneeling abbot is a ghost by comparison. the carefully composed outline of his cloak shows us how the artist would have also begun his immaculate rendering of the Virgin's clothes. Above them. bands around the columns. Sculpted one. it is only possible to create very thin. the Madonna and her architecture are both dressed in the same manner. However. swirling printed fabrics. Short and subtle horizontal punctuations are only given in the background by sections of floor. In Van Eyck's drawing below. her marble garment holds u p the infant Christ in a fountain of compressed line. Their uninterrupted emphasis is entirely vertical. best k n o w n f o r his G h e n t altarpiece ( 1 4 3 2 ) a n d m a r r i a g e p o r t r a i t o f Giovanni A r n o l f i n i and his w i f e (1434). folds and patterns of material speak more resolutely of their wearers than any small glimpses of body we can see.156 COSTUME Cloth and Drapery EACH OF THESE FIGURES is ninety percent cloth. Opposite. dragons. With a stylus such as Van Eyck used here. and snakelike marks. Marble gown We will never know if Van Eyck considered this drawing unfinished or intended the kneeling abbot to remain transient and ghostly. Flaxmans sleeper—perhaps a pilgrim or a soldier resting between campaigns—has wedged himself into the cleft of some great building to grab a moment of peace.140-41). He has layered these slowly and carefully so as not to cut through the ground and produce a white mark just where he intended a dark one. and implied striation in the stone of the architecture. with their jagged edges. H e m e t i c u l o u s l y a r r a n g e d subjects t o c o n v e y d e e p e r meaning. Her gown is carved and polished as if made from marble.
the cloak sliding to the ground. Dante. and teacher Distinctive linear illustrations for the works of Homer. and the feet notched against the pillar tell us that A lines holds him into the cleft. he also co-edited and expanded the Ukiyo-e Ruiko (History of Prints of the Floating World). Position In this pen and ink drawing. This complex numerous blocks prepared image and may have been made with printed separately. each delivering a different part and color of the design. flat sheets of wood. designer. CLOTH AND DRAPERY Relief printing This is a woodblock print made by a relief process. an 18th-19th century document on the lives of the ukiyo-e artists. the angle of the head. writer and printmaker Keisai Eisen took his name from the masters Kano Hakkeisai and Kikugawa Eizan. The inked block is laid face-down on damp paper and pressed to make the print. which are sometimes also cut into pieces like a jigsaw puzzle. draftsman. Remaining raised areas of wood are rolled with colored inks.157 KEISAI EISEN Japanese draftsman. Koimurasaki of Tama-ya 1810-50 15 x101/4in (381 x 260 mm) KEISAI EISEN The Courtesan JOHN F L A X M A N English late 18th-century neoclassical sculptor. Respected for his sumptuous images of geisha and editions of erotic prints. Aeschylus earned Flaxman an international reputation. Images are drawn onto smooth. stone wall of downward-stroked this sleeper's position is momentary. one over the other. Parts of the image to be left unprinted are gouged out with a metal tool. and Man Lying Down in a Cloak I 787-94 21/4 JOHN FLAXMAN x 41/8 in (57 x 105 mm) .
for she would not have been amused and William Wodall might have been stretching his luck. cinema. Fine examples can be plucked from fashion. It is presumed Her Royal Highness never saw it. and even formal portraiture. Details and voices are worn externally with great imagination. cartoon. a scurrilous cartoon by a courtier of Queen Elizabeth I. Leg section Compare mid-shin the section of white boots cropped to the section of similarly cropped trousers in drawings Gruau's drawing on p. b e f o r e traveling t o Italy. He has been rendered on this olive<olored page with pen and gray wash worked over a red and black under-drawing. A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE Flemish painter and draftsman. lace. Man in Armor UNDATED 1 6 x 9 1 / 2 in ( 4 0 5 x 2 4 0 m m ) A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE . a n d w a s e m p l o y e d as c o u r t painter t o King Charles I. he c o o l e d and redefined his style. theater. The slight uncertainty of the pose and the limp cloak suggest a little more metal than man. w h e r e . Its warm surface flows in contrast to the stiff metal armor. The metal. The aged queen is compared to an overdressed bird. Flowing scarf The knight's scarf of gilded blue is drawn in a pale wash over red ink lines. cloth. Leg sections in both support the figure without taking our attention away from the main garment above. Its color is also reflected in the metal. A s a y o u n g man. where sometimes there just might not be anybody inside. Anthony Van Dyke's Man in Armor is a masterpiece of drawn surface.158 COSTUME Character Costumes an extreme form of the clothed figure. 160. Van D y k e was chief assistant t o Rubens f o r t w o years. and feather were all CHARACTER COSTUMES REPRESENT observed with closely crafted conviction. Opposite is a dangerous drawing. A flamboyant territory. In 1 6 3 2 he m o v e d p e r m a n e n t l y t o L o n d o n . all ruffs and wrinkles. t h r o u g h n u m e r o u s p o r t r a i t and C h u r c h commissions. Pen and wash In the graphic accuracy of this armored knight we see the idealized identity of a warrior from another time: a gleaming defender of the realm.
t h e Rising.159 WILLIAM W O D A L L A u t h o r and illustrator o f The Aaes of Queene a Elizabeth poem Allegorized. Northern Satire This is a quill-and-ink satire of the elderly queen's pride-As head of state and fashion. t h e B a b i n g t o n Plot. it was customary to Iron-gall ink Wodall's dangerous caricature steps daintily the written lines of her dedicated page. she is shown as a grossly disproportioned bird. and saturations showing through from the other side. hooded with an overinflated fluffy ruff eye pins us. T h e poem recounts t h e six m a j o r crises o f Elizabeth's reign: t h e Spanish A r m a d a . the queen is masterfully rebalanced by words at her feet The whole drawing's blackened.35). while a raised foot pauses to assess the next displaying a fan of daggers. here dark tawny owl. manuscript comprising six c a n t o s . A Ruffs and feathers Starched white ruffs worn at court and by society grew steadily larger as Elizabeth's reign progressed. Top-heavy. Beneath the lethal fan is the body of a bird of trimmed feathers suggest age. bitten nature. and her pride. t h e Jesuit Mission. Satire of the Queen's Dress c. t h e Ridolfi Plot. suggest the use of iron-gall ink (see p.1599 71/2 WILLIAM x 51/4 in ( 1 9 0 x 1 3 4 mm) WODALL . By her old upto three tiers supported on sticks.
Drying time in between applications ensured the colors did not run into each other.c e n t u r y haute i n n u m e r o u s m a g a z i n e s i n c l u d i n g Elle. Gruau's model regally swans to the fore with cool pride. muscular aggression. She has been drawn with brushes dipped into India ink and gouache. India ink and gouache This swish of confidence and style our enters the page turning everyone's head. possibly over a pencil outline. diving to catch us in the grip of her machine-like limbs. G r u a u ' s highly distinctive d r a w i n g s have a p p e a r e d Couture. Vogue. RENE GRUAU I t a l i a n . and both share the power of scarlet and black. a n d L'Officiel de la couture. 5 8 . demanding attention with gesture and flair. Fine lines drawn against the building behind her echo the threads on which we have all seen arachnids drop and hang. Spider-Girl leaps like an insect. Gruau uses starkly cut negative space (see pp. 158. Harpers & Queen. Composition Look how well this image is frame knee is parallel to the bottom edge spacehorizontalline cropping the trousers be outermostuprightbordersof her cuffs are similar above her head thesidesoftheimage. Airbrushed reflective surfaces further amplify our perception of speed.F r e n c h f a s h i o n i l l u s t r a t o r w h o in his l o n g and esteemed career w o r k e d with many of the g r e a t e s t d e s i g n e r s o f 2 0 t h . as is Spider-Girl opposite. Compare the compositio beneathVanDyke'sstudy of armor on p.and tilted to the same de a little deeper than sp kneestogivehergravity.5 9 ) and a three-spoke balance of cuffs and cropped trousers to create an almost flag-like emblem of power. elegant chic and svelte. and gray pigments were applied separately. ofcroppedtrousershere to the device of the w Illustration 1949 for Jacques Fath in L ' O f f i c i e l d e la C o u t u r e RENE GRUAU . Rene Gruau's bold gouache drawing of smoothly swaying sophistication captures a brilliantly cut garment and frames it with great dynamism in a white. Fashion and fantasy drawings invent prototypes of ideals and perfection—be they for the catwalk or the fast-paced pages of comic books. His model is outlined. studio-like rectangle of paper.160 COSTUME Femmes Fatales THESE DEVASTATING femmes fatales force back the onlooker with their demure. The black red.
and figure are all locked into equally shatp through the traditional process of a pencilled outline over-drawn ink. It is outside the picture frame. moon. sky. Airbrushed color and with tonal focus. Frenz has drawn for Marvel for about 20 years. This s modeling applied over the top give the image a sleek and mechanical of gravity. a great characteristic superhero comics. Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 2001-04 R O N FRENZ.RON F R E N Z Contemporary American graphic artist w h o designs and pencils the dynamic scenes of numerous superheroes featured in Marvel Comics.74-77). Single-point understand perspective To how Frenz created up therefore the effect of steeply between looking buildings—and howyou can do the same in your own work—take calculate where a ruler the and single vanishing point lies. The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones. beginning with Star Wars. In your mind's eye extend the uprights out of the top of the picture. Sharp focus black outlines in this drawing create a hyper-real dynamic. not far above the drawing. He began work on Spider-Girl in 1998. to the right of its center. MARVEL C O M I C S . Buildings. and Amazing Spider-Man. at Their extensions will meet the same single vanishing (see point pp. and has been the title's regular artist since 2003. Align your ruler to the upright of each building.
OIL PASTELS: Many colors. Try materials that are new and unfamiliar. 2. quality. Store loose pastels in dry rice to keep them clean. paper-wrapped. Often. wash. Children's wax crayons are relatives. They vary hugely in cost. Beware—some are toxic. and can be a great rediscovery for bold drawings. CHALK PASTELS: Blackboard chalk is sidewalk work. and CHALK PASTELS Pastel pencils make fine lines (as above). Pastels are finer. though lines can develop greasy stains around the edges if the paper is not first stretched and treated with a gelatin paste laid as a wash. C o n t e crayons are square-formed. They work well on PIGMENTS Pigments. fixing each layer on the front. including iridescents. Seemingly infinite choices of texture. Before making substantial investments. mixed on the paper and scratched into (as below). used to make colors. soft. and can be softened and manipulated with degrees of heat. unwrapped harder pastels. which he left unfixed to retain its brightness. Dissolve in turpentine or mineral spirits to produce oil paint or or dark paper. these work best when slightly warm. allowing it to fix slightly from behind. size. See h o w they work and return later for more of what proved best for you. the diverse are made in brands of basic member of the family. I suggest you do so. Many products are sold individually and in boxed sets. Be aware that fixative dulls pastel. great for tin . minerals. plants. 3. Degas built his pastels in layers. the finer and more subtle the texture and color should be. Pastel pencils are slender and in w o o d casing. Sticks and conte crayons make thicker marks (as below). and synthetics. and cost are laid out for our pleasure and perusal. FELT-TIP PENS: Instant-drying alcoholor water-based inks stored in the barrels of the pens are delivered via smooth nylon o r felt tips of varying shapes and thicknesses. animals. Use them to draw lightly (as above left) or thickly. are derived from many sources: rocks. chalkbased but very subtle. 4. hue. OIL PASTELS Oil-based. or wax and a binder are shaped into fine strips and encased in w o o d like a graphite pencil. Most stores leave small pads of paper on their counters for customers to test materials. COLORED PENCILS: Dry pigments ground together with chalk. insects. The nontoxic range below represents a suggested starting point for experiment. Many artists apply fixative to the back of their work. purchase a small selection of different items you think you will like. and sold in many colors. slightly oily to the touch. you may be pleasantly surprised to discover something you could not have imagined using. The higher the quality (and cost). Bright pastels are more brilliant on colored paper. 1. clay. crumbly. oily pigment. there are disparities between the apparent nature or color of what you hold in your hand and its performance on paper. except the final layer. made in about 80 colors. quality and cost T h e best are paperwrapped sticks of sumptuous.162 COSTUME Colored Materials ART STORES BRIM OVER w i t h t h e m a n y wherever permitted. intensity. colored materials available. The worst are like revolting old lipsticks that get everywhere except where you intend. and subtlety. shape.
Fine lines can be achieved (as above). Diverse brands are harder or soften greasier or chalkier in use. it is still a great champion and support for those beginners feeling shyly obligated to tone down their love of color to conform with what others say they should use.163 COLORED PENCILS These are wax. If you love smooth blocks and lines of colon felt-tip pens are perfect. so it is best to test them before buying. 111). Colors can be blended as shown right) and tones graded by altering pressure. leaving the paper to shine through for highlights (as below). Brands made for designers sold in enormous ranges of colors are far more subtle and sophisticated than those made for children. Think of Matisse's Blue Nude (see p. Some are nonsoluble. others dissolve in water or turpentine to make a wash. . FELT-TIP PENS Although not made with felt-tip pen.or clay-based thin crayons in wood casing. Some give richer lines than others.
you will need several large sheets of drawing paper. D r a w each o n e first as a solid object. the era in which we live. As artifacts in museums. REPEATED STUDY T o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s class. values. Turn t h e m in different d i r e c t i o n s and o b s e r v e t h e i r s t r u c t u r e and f o r m . S H O E S TELL LIFE STORIES. . and how we stand and walk. This class takes the shoe as its subject in building on earlier lessons concerned with seeing through objects to understand their function. Here we go one step further. style. t h e n again as if transparent. imagining y o u can see t h r o u g h it. structure. while artists have painted their boots or those of others as personal portraits and memorials.164 COSTUME Study and Design they reflect our age. Linear Outline Using fine pens. a range of colored felt-tip pens with both fine and broad tips. they record and reflect our common history. social and economic status. c o v e r a large sheet o f p a p e r w i t h line drawings o f several shoes. t o o . You. 104-07). a n d e x p e r i e n c e visible p r o g r e s s . To set up. and a selection of shoes. will discover m o r e . if y o u m a k e p l e n t y o f d r a w i n g s as o p p o s e d t o o n l y a f e w . 100-01 and pp. e n j o y i n g t h e study a n d i n v e n t i o n o f shoes. Superstitions and fetishes are attached to them: we are told never to put new shoes on a table. personality. and after studying familiar shoes we use the information learned to invent new ones. and volume in space (see pp. I m a d e n u m e r o u s s h e e t s o f d r a w i n g s . and they have been concealed in buildings to ward off misfortune.
STUDY AND DESIGN
study the surface contours using fineand broad-tipped felt-tip pens. For best results, it is important to be bold and brief. Draw firmly, fast, and with as few strokes as possible. Build up each shoe from light to dark andleavesome paper showing through to create highlights.
Design Your Own
Using what you have learned from the previous steps about the structures of your shoes, and about the use of pens, invent new designs from your imagination. Start with fine outlines and progress to colored and textured surfaces. Modify your ideas by rotating the views.
The Structure of Costume
MUSEUMS ARE AN INFINITELY
rich resource for the artist and
information given by a period style. Arrange to visit a costume museum or ask a friend to model clothes for you at home. Using fine felt-tip pens, begin with quick, pale impressions of each garment's shape before homing in on its borders and seams. Try to draw transparent views wherever possible to record the relationships between all component parts. Aim to draw enough information for it to be possible to make up a version of the garment using paper pinned to a tailor's dummy.
designer. They often give quite unexpected gems of ideas and information—whatever the subject. These drawings, made in a costume museum, demonstrate ways of recording structural information and detail for later use in the studio. They could form the basis of new designs for a fashion project or theater production, for example. Drawings of shoes on pp. 164-65 show how new designs can be evolved from the structural
It is usually best when collecting information for reference to apply the restraint of dispassionate observation. Set yourself the test of drawing facts with as little artistic license or embellishment as possible. Here I chose fine felt-tip pens because they are at their best when used swiftly, and therefore encourage bold, unhesitant decisions.
Swift lines record the hanging weight of this gentleman's coat, the relative proportions of its layers, and minimal details of the buttons and cuffs.
Thick velvet fabric is pulled tight beneath and across the bust by a single button. This transparent view shows how the fabric falls loosely in straight panels beneath the level of the sleeve.
W h e n visiting museums, be prepared f o r l o w lighting, which can make it hard t o see and draw. A book can help if attached t o your drawing board.
Adding stripes and dashes of color with a thicker pen brings out the glossy sheen and sculptural rigidity of this dress, which would have been worn over a whalebone corset. small reading light designed t o clip o n t o a
THE STRUCTURE OF COSTUME
In small drawings such as these, use thick pens to color entire sections with a few marks, as I did here down the side of the bodice.
The light, frilly bulk of this crinoline dress is propelled forward with lines. pinching its gathers and sways that are hiding a horsehair bustle. fleets of quick
THIS CLASS FOCUSES ON how to draw textures through the collection of fabric, pattern, and embroidery samples from a costume m u s e u m . This formal method, using ruled squares, can create an invaluable library of ideas a n d i n f o r m a t i o n for future r e f e r e n c e — w h e n painting a clothed figure, or preparing a textile project, for example. However, if making a book of samples for a project, remember that it is important to also include collages of f o u n d materials (see pp.230-31) To d r a w a fabric texture, b e g i n by concentrating o n h o w y o u i m a g i n e it w o u l d feel if you t o u c h e d it. Decide if it w o u l d be rough, s m o o t h , w a r m , cold, thick, thin, tough, or fragile, for example. As you draw, believe you can feel these qualities at your fingertips a n d that your pencil is responding to the sensation. Undulate the pressure of your lines and marks according to the feeling of the fabric rather than its appearance. Let your pencil enact the sensation of touching its surface.
and to experiment more loosely with mixed media.
This starchy, quilted, b o w e d creation started life as an imagined corset, I intended t o d r a w together in one sculptural f o r m a range o f t h e details opposite. T h e garment quickly got o u t o f hand. T h e r e is great e n j o y m e n t in letting y o u r imagination run wild w h e n inventing costumes. If you are unable t o visit a costume museum, many exciting fabric details and textures can be found in y o u r o w n closet o r home.
Colored pencils give precision and tonal range; they can be faded but not erased. Lightly use an HB graphite pencil if you wish to plan a design first. Pressed hard, colored pencils build up a waxy finish of brilliant color. Used lightly, they appear powdery and show the texture of the paper.
TEXTURES AND PATTERNS
Silk and braid
shape. I made a drawing book full of studies seeking to understand how he composed drama and pathos in his narratives (see also pp. Madrid. selected from different pages of my original book.Dressing Character I O N C E SPENT THREE MONTHS researching the work of Francisco de Goya at the Prado Museum. . and motivation of an individual. identity.126-27. and 252-53). look at how Goya delineated volumes of thick fabric to express the posture. These characters. 172-73.
To understand how he did this.170—71). I carefully copied the direction of each of his lines. and tangible. are copies of works by Goya in which he makes air seem heavier than flesh. as it rushes and carves fabric-wrapped forms like rivers and desert winds shaping the earth. Posture Carving also taken from my Madrid drawing book (see pp.T H E S E PENCIL STUDIES. and visible. .
in spite of how it may seem. types. we can R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter draftsman. the viewer's attention in a scene by the format of its composition. We can also use clothes. Saskia. a crowd tells the story from a distance. we can learn most about handling pen and ink. are implicated in this marital exchange made over the head of the anonymous nurse. the viewer is not directly made the finer lines of Saskia. and therefore seem to see. daily newspapers. we. With a pocket full of disposable pens we also go out and draw the expressions of gathered people. Blockbuster movies. and distance—so drawings of gathered people can be loosely arranged in three took only minutes to make and yet it lives for centuries. finding corners in crowded places to inscribe their action and energy onto the page. stares out from her gloomy sickbed. this is not the portrait of an old woman. Saskia died after childbirth. First. Washes of shadow behind engaged and as a natural voyeur can feel invisible while watching the scene. while a quill contact with. presumably while he is making this drawing. He in turn scorches the paper with his view and a certain speed of seeing all. This J u s t as there are three parts to a traditional landscape drawing—the foreground. and instantly engage with the action of the scene. Drawings selected for this chapter explore these Saskia Lying in Bedand a Nurse ranges of proximity 1638 9 x61/2in (227 x 164 mm) and a travel journal. The spaces between people and the positions they occupy on a page are vital to our understanding of the psychology or emotion of an event. As artists. but drawings of gathered people tell them most directly. and so. too. even up her were laid with a brush. and novels—our staple cultural diet—are driven by a fascination with shared experience and the detail of what happens in other people's lives. Storytelling and people-watching are obsessive human activities. comics. R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN in the delivery of narrative. Third. paintings depicting scenes from history. He is also the artist from whom props to add layers of meaning and attitude. . Later in their lives. We read tensions and exchanges between people. television documentaries. furniture. vivid portrait of his wife captures our attention. the speed and printmaker and one of the greatest and most influential density of its lines. Seeing through Rembrandt's eyes. Rembrandt's bored and frustrated wife. Her all-too-clear expression shows annoyance and irritation with her husband. the viewer. It middle. Second. and its illumination. there are no longer individuals but one significant group or mass action.Gatherings A LL DRAWINGS TELL STORIES. and other masters of Western Art. We can direct close. the direct exchange (as shown here) where one or more characters hold eye Aneedproduced the thicker lines of the nurse. Here. heighten or subdue drama with subtleties of exaggeration or caricature. soap operas.
and projectors to create their anarchic punk satires of modern life. Think about what else you could use: a laser smoke. F o r e a c h w o r k . garbage and chaos are piled a n d e x p l o d e d in r o o m s full of event.. and in. plates shatter. refuse. In one of R a c k h a m s great illustrations for Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland. and smoke billows around the agitated jives of the Duchess. t h e y select and arrange familiar items of street detritus into what appears to be an u n p l e a s a n t pile. T h e i m m a c u l a t e d r a w i n g is only r e v e a l e d w h e n t h e b e a m of a p r o j e c t o r c a s t s t h e s h a d o w Projections of the h e a p o n t o a wall.. junk. c o m p o s e d garbage p r o d u c e s a c a l m . and Alice. via the animated clutter of o u r material lives. a kitchen explodes in o u r faces. or even the office photocopier. TIM N O B L E A N D SUE W E B S T E R British artists who collaborate using neon.176 GATHERINGS SOME DRAWINGS ARE MADE e n t i r e l y o f i l l u m i n a t i o n that floods drama into the viewers gaze. and projector." (Tim Noble) Drawing with light it is important to think about what you is Here timelessly we see a in can draw with. the C o o k . hearth i m p l e m e n t s crash at o u r feet. Pencil on paper important but only the beginning of possibility the combination of three-dimensional space. and on. for example. In both works."Anything that. N o b l e a n d W e b s t e r s w i t t y a n d o f t e n s u b v e r s i v e d r a w i n g s are also c o n t e m p o r a r y art installations.kicks against the mundane things that close down your mind is a refreshing and good thing. Below. Real Life is Rubbish 2002 Dimensions variable TIM N O B L E A N D SUE WEBSTER . narrative is delivered through the air. h a l o e d portrait of the artists seated b a c k to b a c k . the Cat. Pans fly oft the stove. Here.
and Alice's shoulder. a n d an unmistakable graphic style. Find the singleperspective pp.177 ARTHUR RACKHAM British watercolorist and book illustrator.76-77) above vanishing point (see that is about3/4in (2 cm) oak converge at this point. 100 to see for make elliptical objects and pans fly through the the foreground.Stowe's ofMysteryand Queer Little Folks. This makes the story appear to leap out at us. by vivid children's Rakham's w o r k is characterized fantasy. Refer back to the drawing class how pots In drawn objects and elements that those behind. Rackham Vanishing point In this marvelous drama made with pen. humor. beams. H e is best k n o w n forillustratingIrving's Rip vanWinkle. tabletop. See how the In the Duchess's Kitchen 1907 77/8 x 6 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 5 0 m m ) ARTHUR RACKHAM . Depth Billows of smoke expand and are lighter as they come forward. ink. we find several devices already explored through our drawing classes. and watercolor. are very large compared to on p. and Poe's Tales Imagination. The wood grain acts like marks of speed behind the scene. amplifying movement outward from the vanishing point.
HENRY MOORE Crowd 1942 Looking at Tied-up Object . which still narrates vivid days in the lives of an energetic nation. a sculptor. and we. meaning. as if Moore's wrapping has been literally outstretched. This is just one of many precious artifacts from a lost time. Magnetic Fields sculpture. Moore's spectators appear to have walked a long way from nowhere to witness and wait beside this mysterious obelisque. Chalk and graphite This fog-bound but humorous gathering of souls is made in graphite and colored chalk with gray wash. and art in the landscape. audiences. join in the waiting. This is an ironic drawing from Moore.The human form w a s the vehicle o f his expression and h e w a s t h e official W o r l d W a r II artist. London. A glimmer of gold light appears from the left No explanation is given. In culture.178 GATHERINGS we have seen in the pairs and trios of drawings by masters and makers. Opposite. as fellow watchers. and composition they are polar opposites. a n d l o v e d t o d r a w in t h e BritishMuseum. and action of a buffalo hunt. M o o r e t o u r e d Italy as a young man. expressing his dry humor about O F ALL THE CONTRASTS HENRY MOORE British s c u l p t o r w h o t r a i n e d a n d taught at t h e R C A . The image stands out among his more usual graphic works in which he hones and carves semi-abstract human forms. The mournful gray landscape of Henry Moore's northern British field has gathered by night an overcoated audience to stand and wait before a wrapped and roped monument. heat. a great Shoshone drawing blazes with the color. perhaps these two are the most extreme.
Each color is evenly distributed throughout the scene. Skills are taught not center chant or dance to the beat of a drum. MAGNETIC FIELDS Horses It is interesting to note how the outstretched limbs ofthesehorses echo European images of the runningBuffalo horse before the sequence-photographer Muybridge taught us to 19TH understand their movement differently. Hunt CENTURY SHOSHONE SCHOOL . and helping our eye to dart around.179 SHOSHONE SCHOOL Stylized characters This vital image of a buffalo hunt is made with pigment Members of the Shoshone community wishing painted within dark outlines on a stretched elk hide. tolearnhow to paint a scene on a hide are and buffalo circle and charge the perimeters of a skin "field. creating harmonious balance with words but through silent demonstration." Men at the instructed to sit and watch. horses. Stylized hunters.
Blake w a s d r i v e n b y a passion f o r j u s t i c e a n d a p r o f o u n d b e l i e f in his v i s i t a t i o n s f r o m angels. w e f i n d a spiritual v i s i o n . t h e Bible. inextinguishable in its fortitude and h u m o r . color. w h i c h b y their c h o i c e a n d h a n d l i n g a c t u a l l y b e c o m e the force a n d spirit of e a c h i m a g e . a n d the gentle h u m o r of sedate r i d i c u l e . texture. The muscularity of Blake's figures was inspired by Michelangelo's works. Heath Robinson lived through the same war-torn. pale souls of the lustful are being s p u n into yet another realm of hell. m a r k . K a t h e K o l l w i t z s c r a t c h e d a n d e n g r a v e d her a r m y of c l a y . a n d f o c u s . B l a k e h a s i l l u m i n a t e d his s a d d e n e d Virgil on the s h o r e s of a d a r k w o r l d . We also see qualities of line. W I L L I A M BLAKE British visionary. w r i t e r a r t i s t . and sweetened the often bleak years with his impractical inventions.f o o t e d t r o g l o d y t e s w h o rage into w a r like a m u d s l i d e of revenge. a pink-inked cinema wobbles along with string. p o e t . era as Kollwitz. Brushed line and wash This is an ink-outlined drawing made with a fine brush on paper with added washes of watercolor The image was subsequently redrawn as a line engraving. The Circle of the (The Whirlwind 1824 of Lustful Lovers) mm) 143/4 x 207/8i n ( 3 7 4 x 5 3 0 WILLIAM BLAKE . a n d e n g r a v e r w h o p o w e r f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e d his o w n t e x t s in a d d i t i o n t o D a n t e ' s Divine Comedy. It illustrates a scene from Dante's Divine Comedy. a d e a t h c h a r g e of brutality. w h e r e he w a t c h e s a t u r b u l e n t s p i r a l of p u n i s h m e n t f o r the d a m n e d .180 GATHERINGS The Human Condition IN THE SPECTRUM of these vastly d i f f e r e n t g a t h e r i n g s of p e o p l e . Misted in translucent layers of paint. a n d o t h e r w o r k s . Opposite.
The image was scratched directly onto a metal plate. With masterful gentility. He created sincere. Ink rolled over was selectively polished off using a rag. and controlled smears on the metal surface printed as tones. and her powerful and sensitive drawings center on nurture. humor by making his characters earnest. White marks were made with a dusting of French chalk on the artist's finger to wipe away ink leaving clean metal. sculptor and draftsman. and the impact of death and war upon women. Kollwitz survived the two World Wars. British Pen and wash This is a pen-andwatercolor drawing made for a color-platereproduction in an edition of T h e Bystander. plodding along with hazy. What remained in scratched grooves printed on damp paper as lines. and clearly focused. Losbruch (The Outbreak) 1955 20 x 233/8 in (507 x 592 mm) KATHE KOLLWITZ HEATH ROBINSON humorous illustrator and a regular contributor to magazines and journals such as The Sketch and The Bystander. children. Robinson and Kollwitz (above) share almost identical life dates and their work expresses a shared history from opposite sides oftheworld wars. and the family home. HEATH ROBINSON The Kinecar 1926 103/8 x 15 in (262 x 380 mm) . poverty. THE HUMAN CONDITION Scratched lines This is a dry-point etching with monoprint. Heath Robinson shows England in a past era. however meager or ridiculous their activity. who lived in a poor district of Berlin.181 KATHE KOLLWITZ German printmaker. stoical bemusement.
Unlike pencils. dropped in your pocket and forgotten till needed.r e s i s t a n t . blob when old. G E L P E N : P r o d u c e d in b l a c k w h i t e . T h e r e w e r e c seconds t o snatch this impression b e t w e e n their emergence from one bridge and disappearance b e n e a t h t h e next. I keep quantities at home. shut your book. w a t e r . At a time like this. fibertips. they each offer distinct and sometimes unexpected qualities. I swiftly focused on gesture.182 GATHERINGS Disposable Pens (ballpoints." 1. build to a rich. 192-93) w e r e b o t h m a d e w i t h a ballpoint. t w o tourists and their gondolier drifter past m e o n a canal. gel pens) are the most convenient of all materials with which to travel. CHOICES AVAILABLE T h e r e a r e m a n y d i s p o s a b l e p e n s t o c h o o s e from. Available in blacks and ranges of colors. a ballpoint will make faint lines. p e r m a n e n t .7 7 and 214-15). or turn into washes and make monoprints if flooded with an alcohol-based substance such as hairspray. FIBER-TIP: M a n u f a c t u r e d f o r artists a n d d e s i g n e r s in a r a n g e o f w i d t h s . B A L L P O I N T : Black a n d b o l d c o l o r s o f f e r d i v e r s e qualities. turn the page. indent paper. which can snap or pierce through your clothes. including l u m i n o u s a n d m e t a l l i c . fine fiber-tip Drawing with a fine fiber-tip pen. rollerballs. in the studio. R O L L E R B A L L : A c o n s t a n t i n k flow 3 . or put the paper in your pocket instantly without fear of smudging. So many stores sell them. The f o u r i l l u s t r a t e d h e r e r e p r e s e n t a basic r a n g e . Ideal f o r precision w o r k (see p p . they can be obtained within minutes. in the car. 2.188-89) and Caravans (see pp. t h e y a r e lightfast. or idea. c h o o s e p e n s l a b e l e d " p e r m a n e n t " o r "lightfast. aiming for correct outlines would result in drawing too slowly to c a t c h the moment. Lines t h i c k e n as t h e p e n w e a r s o u t G r a n d Canal (see pp. R e m e m b e r . dark sheen. a n d pressure-sensitive. and in most pockets so I can always record a thought DISPOSABLE PENS QUICK NOTES O n a c o l d day in Venice. W h i t e gel p e n s a r e v e r y e f f e c t i v e o n d a r k papers. these pens enable you to sketch. jot notes. 7 6 . a disposable pen with its clip-on cap goes anywhere. For example. . 4. Insensitive t o p r e s s u r e : lines d o n o t v a r y in w i d t h o r t o n e . if y o u w i s h y o u r d r a w i n g s t o last a n d n o t fade o r b l u r w i t h t i m e a n d e x p o s u r e t o light. trusting shape and form to follow. a n d ranges o f colors. is d e l i v e r e d t h r o u g h a m e t a l t u b e o v e r a t i n y ball bearing. Quick-drying.
crowd of fellow travelers Fast lines These scribbled lines model the mass and shadows of heads belonging passengers packed into the boat.FROMMEMORY Here I used the same fiber-tip pen to compose a scene from memory. Compare this Klee's mules on p.31 . not form. Earlier I had witnessed a crammed en masse in a fleet of hired gondolas complete with musicians and choir. Fast lines focus on action.
Above all. However. No camera can tie you to a time or people in the same way. A curatorial assistant flies to do a chore (right). if a person was stout. angles will happen as a matter of course. make them stouter. animate them more. all action is in the line of his coat and directed by his nose. You must learn to trust your memory and to draw what impressed you most. You will make outlines. of course. Circular lines buzz around a man puzzling at the end of a train platform (left). Let the line of the flying coat fly and the hanging arm hang. if animated. Push toward caricature and this will draw out of your memory what was most important. focus on the action of the event. and companionship. Every drawing writes an indelible memory of place. activity. let it enter the stage and perform. Exaggeration helps.184 GATHERINGS The Travel Journal I CANNOT OVERSTATE THE JOY of making a travel journal. Don't worry about measuring angles. just draw the action. but they should not be what you dwell on. FLEETING MOMENTS Walking through Venice with a small. Movement . life will not slow and wait for you to catch it. pocket notebook and a fiber-tip pen. I caught fleeting glimpses of gathered people and solitary souls going about their affairs. Each line acts its part in the narrative. black. Each one was witnessed and drawn immediately from the afterimage of what I had just seen. when out drawing. not its outline.
Observation THE TRAVEL JOURNAL The same willowy assistant dashes about his work.185 A large lady is photographed in front of a delicate work of art. The rush of his legs isamplifiedby their blurred lines. Expression . eager to herd us all from his house of responsibility. In turn. I drew him three times on the same page to catch a range of his physical expressions. I am watched by the aggravated guard.
decide how faces and bodies contort. . pulls. forcing me to remain at the back and look at them. When your attention has been caught. and let every detail speak by its size. and reason for happening. and clothing or bags hang. For example. Identify the principal character and draw him or her first. For example. I took refuge in a church in Venice. flap. Place the person carefully. if they are being devious. elevate them in the pictorial space. and there met this sullen custodian. rather than the works of art they guarded. Here the custodian projects fastidious ownership of his desk and pamphlets by pushing from behind the center of the space and challenging our entry to his image. furniture leans. not outline.186 GATHERINGS Catching the Moment On A BITTERLY COLD November day. ACTION AND DETAIL W h e n drawing people. emotion. Here I have recreated my drawing in steps to show you how to set about capturing such a scene. or pushes. placement. and you decide to draw the moment. start by focusing on its action. focus on action. Be aware that their placement on the page is part of the narrative. if they are being haughty. He and his simpering assistant would not allow me in. or bulge. you might place them lower down. and involvement in the story.
Decide where t o place them t o emphasize their role. D r a w their action. continue adding characters. If drawing a more complex scene. . W i t h a few strokes. In the final step (left) I reinforced t h e custodian's desk. Here. CATCHING THE MOMENT The assistant Identify t h e antagonist ( o r second character) in t h e scene. together with any immediate props they are using. which is pushed toward us in a gesture of confrontation. I added t h e assistant.187 The custodian Identify your principal character a n d their psychological role in the scene. who is largely expressed through the shape and fall o f his raincoat and his way o f using a note pad. a pillar locates t h e scene in a depth o f space. Decide where you will place them o n the paper t o emphasize their action and intent. such as the desk and pamphlets seen here. Draw their action and props.
and buildings.Grand Canal T H E CANALS OF VENICE are bustling places full of occupation. An imminent deluge of tourists urged me to work catching no more than the skeleton of the view. I developed detailofthis drawing from memory using a ballpoint pen. . where vertical mooring poles give space and pulse to the horizontal speed of water quickly.
Venetians flow across a stepped bridge and cascade into the streets beyond. Characters in the foreground were drawn first. Each person was glimpsed in an instant. note only their most essential action and feature. and drawn immediately from memory. . then the bridge beneath them. Caricature each person slightly.Crossings DURING THIS RUSH HOUR. followed by the streets. To catch characters like this.
Sitting at a distance on a hot. quiet afternoon. I found this circus by chance in the Swiss mountains.Caravans T H E PARAPHERNALIA O F TRAVEL i s an intriguing part of circus life. . Caravans and other backstage activity convey expectations of energy and repose. and a great subject to draw. I used a ballpoint pen to compose a series of scenes.
and the sea. It is better to get up before dawn. or has cracked and fallen under the weight of water. so J o h n Russell's tour de f o r c e drawing (opposite) was a masterpiece of observation in his time. or the wind carries it away. Beginners will often choose calm. The pastel drawing was constructed from myriad telescopic observations almost 200 years before the Apollo Moon landing.Earth and the Elements I T MAY SEEM PERVERSE to start a chapter titled "Earth and the Elements" with an image of the Moon. This is the world's first accurate image of the Moon. and experiment. the sun comes out to blind it. makes his work by the act of walking. they are the animators of your subject. JOHN RUSSELL A p o r t r a i t pastelist t o King G e o r g e III o f England. Just as NASA photographs of Earth have had a profound effect on the way we view our fragile home. speculation. There is a sense of the heroic in drawing outside—we race to catch a form before the tide engulfs it. sunny days. Look closely at works by many artists and you will see that they have not represented hills. marking the ground with lines of footprints or by turning stones. as opposed the physicality of Earth. 5 f t x 5 ft 6 in ( 1 5 2 x 1 6 8 c m ) J O H N RUSSELL . pages o f softly i l l u m i n a t e d craters and lunar "seas" c o v e r e d in m a t h e m a t i c a l and s h o r t h a n d calculations. It is Earths satellite. surrounded by the bright instruments of centuries of navigation. but it can be seen as a lens to our observation of this planet. arranging them in perfect circles on the mountainside or in lines drifting out of sight beneath low clouds. are the real subjects in great landscape drawings. a contemporary environmental artist. In this chapter Moon Pastel 1795 Drawing we experiment with charcoal. the face of the Moon. and meteor impacts have scarred. how the soil is scorched. rivers. William Turner is said to have had himself lashed to a ship's mast to comprehend the storm (see p. and its draws the tides of the seas. It now hangs on the staircase of the History of Science Museum. By drawing such momentous and everyday events. Weather is essential in all landscape drawing. artists see for themselves that which is momentary and eternal. when little stirs and empty blue skies offer even less to latch lines to. and take bold steps in emulating the swell of clouds and the forces of torrential water. Oxford. and even how the Sun illuminates. a n d a n astronomer w h o dedicated 20 years t o studying t h e M o o n . These conditions are very difficult to express well. t w o e n g r a v e d m a p s k n o w n as The Lunar Planispheres. Take chances against the rain and work with the wind or fog. Russell d r e w this. The forces of nature. how the mountain cut by ice and rain is now fleetingly lit. t h e first-ever accurate image o f t h e M o o n ' s surface. England. What they have drawn is the force of nature on these properties: how the wind heaves the night ocean. to be ready to draw the new light as it breaks across the land. a n d a m o o n globe called t h e Selenographia. learning to draw light out of dark. 199). our companion. Richard Long. H e a l s o p r o d u c e d an a l b u m o f 1 8 0 exquisite pencil drawings. trees.
A hard waxy was drawn across a heavy limestone Varying definitions crayon of lire and depths of tone conspire to give volume. seeing how it shakes. the bourgeoisie. and the legal profession. Daumier's c a r t o o n shines with the brilliance of his comic memory. H O N O R E DAUMIER French satirical cartoonist lithographer. Danger of Wearing Balloon Petticoats UNDATED HONORE DAUMIER . Fluid strokes inflate the woman's dress and pin shadows to the ground. we can soon learn to draw its force. Hazy vertical marks reveal buildings into the mist. This wife. T h e great master of English seascape is c o n d u c t i n g with his graphic energy. Crayon and limestone This is a lithograph. sculptor. Flapping kimonos and an onlooker turning his b a c k have the magic of a m o m e n t caught. Dots and dashes suggest receding trees out of focus.Through political drawings he fired his sharp wit at the king. serving a prison sentence for his views. the government. and pioneer ofexpressionism. and gives motion to each image.198 EARTH AND THE E L E M E N T S Air in Motion THE GREAT INVISIBLE SUBJECT o f these d r a w i n g s is t h e w i n d . Terrifying waves of merciless nature roar across the paper. Hokusais sedate wind presses reeds a n d the j o u r n e y s o f young ladies. has b e c o m e a hysterical kite. like an umbrella forced inside-out. a scratched ghost. undramatic b u t brimming with stylized realism. and by observing its tides and eddies in our o w n environment. T h e ship. is already lost. fluttering heavily. By Turner carries us to the heart of the maelstrom. and solidity. lifts. distance. painter. Below. speed. He knew how the world bends and stutters under such gusts. a sail b r o k e n loose in a stormy marriage.
l o v e dw o r k s i n c l u d e 1 0 0 v i e w s o f M o u n t Fuji and 1 2 v o l u m e s o f Manga.i n f l u e n c e d b y examples o f W e s t e r n art obtained through D u t c h t r a d i n g in Nagasaki. leans the whole composition swells around its fateful center. Hokusai direction (from clothing from has chosen which it the right). T U R N E R British landscape. A outline scratched of a skeletal into penciled ship is while and the waves. absorbent watercolor and are Stains of splashed. seascape. W . T u r n e r w o r k e d in oils a n d w a t e r c o l o r s a n d s k e t c h e d c o p i o u s l y o n his travels. TURNER KATSUSHIKA HOKUSAI Prolific J a p a n e s e c o l o r w o o d . Ship in a Storm c.199 J. Wind direction wood-block This is a colored To represent the blows lifted flowed wind. into this very as pressed sheet The paper's through own coior is brought banks of mist and fog. T h e r e a r e m a n y stories o f his p a s s i o n a t e w o r k i n g methods. horizontally then and of the it into the stream Plants also bend and flow right to Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 1802 81/2 HOKUSAI KATSUSHIKA x 131/2 in ( 2 1 7 x 3 4 3 mm) . a n d his b e s t .M. including being lashed t o a ship's m a s t in o r d e r to study a storm.M. wind. and history painter w h o s e p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t a b o v e all w a s light. from left print. painter. H o k u s a i in t u r n has since significantly influenced European art. d e s i g n e r a n d b o o k i l l u s t r a t o r .W. Landscape a n d city life w e r e his principal subjects. 1826 91/2 x 113/4 in ( 2 4 1 x 3 0 0 m m ) J.b l o c kprintmaker. AIR IN MOTION Pencil and watercolor subdued brushed.
28). drawing was Hugo's principal means o f expression. T h e very nature of b o t h is turmoil and an interweaving of elements. and tossed o b j e c t s — a perfect subject in which artists can forget themselves. D o m e s t i c o b j e c t s we can o w n and name fall from the clouds. grab their b r u s h . fantasy palaces. His subjects include ruins. EARTH AND THE VICTOR HUGO French novelist and artist (see also p.200 ELEMENTS Storms STORMS CAN BE SEEN and drawn in two ways: first. and swim into the page. as a subject and second. Then. Le Bateau-Vision 1864 71/2 x 1 0 in ( 1 9 2 x 2 5 5 m m ) VICTOR H U G O . it is difficult to contemplate its brooding and night-soaked heart. He brings us to stare into a place that no sane human would enter. Turner (see p. leaving nothing but a glimpse of moonlight glistening on the froth below. water. composing banks of waves and dense. inks. marks. ink. By contrast. this is a writer's narrative of terror. T h e m e n a c i n g darkness of Hugo's storm b e l o w is so convincing. he blanketed the drawing in darkness. this is a b o m b a r d m e n t from o u r h o m e s . An update on biblical showers of fish and frogs. h a u n t e d shadows. In periods b e t w e e n writing. Leonardos Cloudburst of Material Possessions is o n e of his m o s t enigmatic and mysterious works. or charcoal. active surfaces of water. Opposite.198) admires the majesty of nature. with a brush. and t h e sea s t u d i e d f r o m his h o m e in Guernsey in t h e Channel Islands. as if drawn j u s t this year. lines of rain escorting them to b o u n c e and clatter. It looks so contemporary. as a gestural storm on the paper. Pen and brush Hugo drew first with pen and ink.
together with half the contents of our garage. a hook.LEONARDO DA VINCI Leonardo devised many artifacts of our modern lives. and they passed through private hands for 400 years before becoming widely known. Cloudburst of Material Possessions 1510-12 45/8 x 43/8 in ( 1 1 7 x 1 1 1 mm) L E O N A R D O DA VINCI . There is a little magic in recognizing many items from our homes something like a rake. Each item that has crashed from heaven is drawn in such a way that we can feel Leonardo's nib picking it up in the speed of a doodle. He was left-handed and wrote backwards in Italian from left to right. It is interesting to speculate how engineering might have developed if his ideas had been shared with the world earlier Ink and chalk This is a pen and ink drawing with touches of black chalk. He bequeathed his drawings to a friend. Above and below are examples of his mirror handwriting. a bell. for example). and a wheel. envisioning machines centuries before their making (helicopters and bicycles.
In a very different work (opposite above). Even distilled from all other detail. and dry marks in the foreground appear to be made with his finger. Nature Profiles Opposite below. a horizon line can trigger our recognition.202 ELEMENTS THE PROFILE OF A HORIZON is a line we immediately recognize and respond to. made inside a book. which he used to unify his compositions. C L A U D E LORRAIN French classical landscape painter draftsman. Claude is distinguished by. Claude has used a fine nib to delineate segments of land as they recede into space. atmosphere. Segments The top half of the drawing is a view as we enter the valley. Clare Bryan took panoramic photographs of the English South Downs. rapidly layering contours to shape place. transferred it to a scroll. Claude Lorrain drew directly on location. rich. watching his hand and eye at work together. or cityscape. and mood simultaneously. EARTH AND THE Bryan cut the profile of a city. She was inspired by her research of aerial plans of London and the story of an alien map butterfly (see caption). In the lower half he has walked downhill a little. it is the unique calligraphic signature of the place in which we stand.1638 85/8 x 121/2 in (219 x 320 mm) CLAUDE LORRAIN . sea-. and across to the right. cooler tones receding into the distance are applied with a brush. Paler. Views from Velletri c. and etcher who lived most of his life in 17th-century Rome. she teased away fragments of paper to illuminate her view. Drawing with a scalpel. and we can imagine standing over his shoulder. Whether land-. and famed for. and after tracing her captured line. thick. Over first lines. his unsurpassed handling of light.
On turning the pages of City.The horizon was drawn with a City Landline 2003 271/2x 59 in (70 x 150 cm) scalpel. printmaker graphic designer. and digital print-based works reflect upon the histories and poetry of "left behind and in-between spaces. progressively settlement (cropped more and more paper is drawn away to show the expansion of human page of an around the river. 2001 CLARE BRYAN C L A R E BRYAN 3ritish artist. and visiting professor at numerous art schools. specialty bookbinder.5-m)scroll.203 Scalpel-drawn This book-bound drawing was inspired by the story of a foreign butterfly wrongly to Great Britain in 1912. Her recent paper photographic. then hunted destroyed. The edges of each here) fade into the solid paper unpopulated with a scalpel landscape." Cut line This is a small section of a preparatory 5-ft(1. drawings Ideas of introduction Clare Bryan to research introduced down and led NATURE PROFILES and removal historical plans and aerial growth of London showing its population since Roman times. source workisilluminatedby standing its lower edge on a CLARE BRYAN .
Not to be confused with square conte sticks (see p. The tip snaps easily to renew a sharp edge if required. It allows you greater precision in your mark-making than if you rub away the charcoal with an eraser. Hold it over your drawing RANGE AVAILABLE Charcoal (in its several forms shown here) is loved or loathed by the beginner to whom it is often recommended because it produces pleasing results quickly. COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Machine-made. black finish.m a d e c o m p r e s s e d charcoal. Lines are achieved by d e p o s i t i n g particles in the grain o f paper. 4. leaving u n d e r t r a c e s of first thoughts. harder line. vine. they are all intended for fine work. Try itworking on big paper covering a wall. It does n o t erase easily. The same as above. it is compressed and m o l d e d at high pressure. LIFTING OUT This technique is a very easy method of drawing a crisp. only a little thicker. It is also easily erased if the maker of the mark is not happy with the result. As its name implies. a n d m o r e i n d e l i b l e by soaking it in linseed oil. R o u g h paper c a n b e loaded. it looks gray and feels like chalk. B u n d l e s o f twigs were traditionally sealed into earthenware j a r s or wet clay and heated slowly and intensely in a fire or kiln. Alternatively. you can p u r c h a s e m a c h i n e . tape. Willow is the most c o m m o n wood. fine. or fingertip.204 E A R T H AND THE E L E M E N T S Charcoal CHARCOAL IS PRODUCED from wood baked slowly without exposure to air. b e e c h . 3. Beware of cheap brands selling dyed chalk as compressed charcoal. without touching the surface. 1. Use any fine-point pen or pencil (I used a ballpoint) to draw a firm line on the back of the Big pieces are perfect for very large-scale drawings—even larger than yourself. SQUARE COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Not often sold. resulting in a stick that gives a blacker. Boxes often contain a range of thicknesses to choose for different needs. 7. maple. Artists have also used lime. MEDIUM W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 5. Essentially. so it chars b l a c k as o p p o s e d to igniting a n d turning to ash. cylindrical. sticky side down. b l a c k e r . a rag. Charcoal lifts away from paper easily with the very light touch o f an eraser. 1 Suspend a length of masking tape. a piece of fresh bread. and heavier than willow. the heel o f y o u r h a n d . but some specialists stock compressed charcoal in delicate square sticks. a n d p l u m . Then lift it away. resulting in a pale line. blacker.54). 162) or graphite (see p. . this does not exist. Smooth paper accepts few particles. THIN WILLOW CHARCOAL: I used a piece like this to make the drawing opposite. feather. and offers a rich. It c a n be m a d e duller. C h a r c o a l naturally glistens. CHARCOAL PENCIL: Types made by different manufacturers vary in quality and density of line. In use. Slightly dull the tape's stickiness before use t o prevent it from lifting out more than you intend. 6. A great find when available. 2. between your middle finger and thumb. white line into the blackor grayness of willow charcoal. CHALK CHARCOAL: Technically. 3 A white line is lifted out by the tape. THICK W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 2 Keep the tape above your drawing.
Cotton swabs also work. MASKING TAPE: An invaluable resource. sold in several widths. as is fresh (unbuttered!) bread. 9. 10.205 ERASING Thickly applied charcoal quickly o v e r c o m e s a plastic eraser A w a r m (soft and tacky) putty eraser is more effective. Use cheaper (less sticky) for lifting out. or any other dry media. Here we used a ballpoint. Lift out broader marks with a larger implement. Use high quality (very sticky) to fix paper to walls and boards. Layers can be peeled away to refresh its surface. CHARCOAL Lifting out This detail shows an example of where I used the lifting-out technique demonstrated opposite to draw flashes of lightning against rain clouds. PEN: Any fine pen or pencil can be used to draw on the back of masking tape when lifting out. Different tones seen throughout the main drawing on pp. pastels.212-13 were made by altering the pressure applied to the charcoal. graphite. Here. . T O R T I L L O N : This is a tight roll of paper used to blend charcoal. 8 . I used a plastic eraser effectively on thinly applied charcoal.
When you arrive. especially when making first excursions into aerial perspective. To experiment with drawing landscapes and the use of charcoal. and an abstract. the more you encourage the viewer's imagination to join in and see.9 9 we noted that in response to visual stimulus. Seeing tones . Ironically. MATERIALS In this first view there is only a foreground and middle distance. pack your materials (as advised below) and set off for a local view or your nearest arboretum. Successful drawings often only suggest the qualities of the scene without overdescribing them. They are also good markers of receding space. hazy distance. Landscape drawings are traditionally arranged in three parts: a detailed foreground. the less you describe. On p p . Then I drew the shape of the tonal patches I perceived. The long view is hidden behind trees. Excessive detail can be admired for its skill and achievement. details blur and colors grow paler and bluer. our brains search for nameable things and will perceive complete pictures from very little information. a less distinct middle ground composed of shapes and textures. but is often less evocative and engaging.212-13). an eraser your drawing book or a board and paper fixative (or hairspray). a reel of masking tape. Pack several thick and thin sticks of willow charcoal. 9 8 . At its worst. and a cushion in a plastic bag to sit on.206 EARTH AND THE ELEMENTS Landscapes TREES ALONE OFFER MARVELOUS shapes to draw. I relaxed my eyes out of focus to dissolve distracting detail into abstract patches of light and darkness. to contain each of your compositions. It is the visible effect of the atmosphere between where you stand and what you see in the distance. it results in flat planes of clutter. Don't worry if it is cloudy: clouds add drama and perspective and make good subjects in themselves (see pp. begin by marking out several small squares on your paper. This term simply means that as land rolls away into the distance.
Remember. full of information you can use to create what you want! Inventing drama .207 LANDSCAPES In my second square I explored a simple view contrasting soft. the trunk of a bare tree. shadows. It is better to give distinctly more pictorial space to one or the other (see below). and broke a view through the hedge into the distance with a dark sky threatening rain. your view is your inspiration. Exploring the view Redrawing the scene above. rounded. horizontal regions of grass. I have invented drama with diagonals set against each other I tilted the earth. This composition turned out a little flat because I have an almost even quantity of earth and sky. dark trees with bright.
This first drawing serves as a process of arrival. England has embedded within it the decaying skeleton of a burned fishing boat. so the paper is not made blinding and your hand cannot cast a shadow on your work. engine. I am then able to home in on what interests me most for further study. Building on earlier studies of structure in space using shoes (pp. For example. "Drawing in the round means to literally walk around your subject. your challenge now is to find a sculptural subject in the landscape. and seeing what the real choice of subject is. Circling a subject and drawing it from several views imprints on your memory a better understanding of its three-dimensional form. shade out of the glare of the sun. s e e k places in light After my first drawing. and tiller still standing proud. The mud of the tidal shore in Rye. EARTH AND THE FINDING THE SUBJECT Finding a remarkable subject is even better when you can circumnavigate it in an arena of space. taking with you your drawing book and pen. on p p . which was the flow of water over rocks. observing it from several views so as to better understand it as a whole.208 ELEMENTS Drawing in the Round WHEN DRAWING IN THE LANDSCAPE. bare ribs.1 5 my first drawing of the whole view of the Tiber led me to see the real subject of the day. 2 1 4 . I usually begin by making an image of the whole view.104-05). settling my concentration. making the scene below led me to focus on the decaying boat opposite.164-65) and a wire violin (pp." . Similarly.
unfussy lines. W h e n you have found your subject.209 SERIES OF STUDIES This stunning ghost o f a boat comes into v i e w t w i c e a day. I looked more boldly at the planes and the dynamic of the sculptural craft My lines have become darker and more forceful as confidence in my understanding of the vessel grew. character. and the order and shape of its component parts. The outline ties a shape of darkness to the boat like a weight so that it becomes part of its form. I spent equal time looking at the subject and the paper. Overleaf: Decaying Boat 4 . ROUND 2 In this tail-end view. and structure. DRAWING IN THE 1 Here. looking more at the boat than at the paper From this low position I have emphasized how the boat is swallowed in mud by outlining its shadow on the ground. 3 This impression notes the angle of the broken boat. make a series o f drawings f r o m different positions. its overall balance. I drew with quick. careful lines to establish the skeleton that gives this wreck its distinct form. w h e n t h e sea recedes. marking straight. Each n e w drawing gives a different insight.
hot-pressed drawing p a p e r (see pp. was made with gentle but unhesitating s p e e d . m a d e on s m o o t h .20-21) using a thin stick of willow charcoal. .Cloudburst THIS STORM DRAWING. I worked quickly to catch and weave the turbulent contrasts of rising wind and approaching water before the drawing could be washed away. L o o k i n g b a c k and forth from the heavens to firmly taped-down paper.
black. pocket-sized notebook. since ancient times.Notes of Force T H E GREAT FLOWING TIBER RIVER has cut through Rome. I drew with a needle-fine fiber-tip pen. shaping the city. On the pages of a small. focusing on the river's eddies. and rhythmic detail as it passed through the ancient gully of the city. pulse. .
The strong diagonal of the composition from bottom left to top right carries the eye through changes of height and focus from the foreground to the mountains beyond. I used a dip pen and waterproof India ink with brushed watercolor to draw the view.Mountains SITTING IN THE SHADE of a tree on the Greek island of Antiparos. .
liberating. People are often scared by abstraction and see it as the enemy of figurative art. picturing a stabilized world was impossible and Modernism rode forth with vigor. sounds.8 cm) A D O L F WOLFLI Abstraction is a direct. He made thousands of drawings to chronicle his complex life. actions. and poetic myth roar and cascade within his tightly framed pages. The fate of Old World thinking was finally sealed with the brutality of World War I. Swirling. only rediscovered. Artists were given a different tool—a line threaded directly from their subconscious to their hand—and with it they began to map a bold new landscape of marks and concepts that would dramatically and forever change the face of Western art. I begin every image by feeling its meaning. ADOLF WOLFLI One of the greatest masters of Art Brut. First marks. Berne. Not everything we know has a physical form in the world. many nonWestern cultures have highly sophisticated abstractions at the core of their art. poet. Museum of Fine Arts. Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape 1915 413/8 x 285/8 in (105 x 72. drawn sound. and young children show us that abstract. and emotion. From one point of view. for example. It was not invented in the 20th century. and independent means of communication. writhing torrents of color. spontaneous image-making. which are essentially abstract. and Aboriginal art. An abstract mark is often a better conductor of a thought or feeling. fictional language. As you approach the classes in this chapter. abstraction is not so easy to define. Afterward. Internal workings of the mind were suddenly free to find a new language of expression. His drawings are collected and exhibited internationally and held by the Adolf Wolfli Foundation. belief. direction. and have been making abstract drawings for centuries—Japanese calligraphy. My own work is firmly centered in figuration. Many concepts and feelings can only be expressed through marks. writer and composer who suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and was resident in the Waldau Aslyum near Berne. all pictorial representations are abstractions of reality. such as Adolf Wolfli. be brave and enjoy them. It is actually its foundation and its infrastructure. The growing rise of Darwinian ideas coupled with Freudian and Marxist perspectives forced Western society to reconsider its origins and future. precisely because it does not have to represent a physical object. Wolfli was a Swiss draftsman. and history. From another viewpoint. it is simply itself. strike the paper to find form. Indian mandalas. . don't be timid. Perhaps in Western culture we bred this intuitive freedom out of ourselves in our insistence on complex figuration. opposite. or gestures. However. Outsider artists. and it has always been with us.Abstract Lines T HE DEVELOPMENT OF W E S T E R N abstract art at the beginning of the 20th century significantly paralleled major changes in world thought. expressive marks and shapes are at the core of natural. yet my kinship to abstraction is fundamental. It also underpins and gives strength and unity to all figurative work.
and plaster in galleries and landscapes. Five forged steel shapes. rhythmically engaged with itself. tone. This the paper rest within the amplifies framelike of the floor from the ceiling. Abe works with materials such as soil. and temperature rim of floor space. The Physical Space 1990 3 0 x 30 ft ( 9 1 4 x 9 1 4 cm) MAMORU ABE . as Twombly shows us opposite. water. MAMORU ABE Japanese sculptor and installation artist. scrolling across the canvas in an intimate crescendo. brass. A Neolithic chalk tablet bears cut lines that were slowly carved. akin to stones in a Zen garden. and Assistant Professor of Fine A r t at Fukuoka University. Moisture produced rust. Mamoru Abe prepares an image that will appear through the chemistry of iron. sit in silent harmony. texture. staining redbrown lines into the white surface. forged steel. It can proclaim mood. Abe's physical drawing is a sculptural installation. and sensitivity with its thickness and pressure of touch.220 A B S T R A C T LINES Process and Harmony SOMETIMES A DRAWN LINE sings on the surface of its support. quoting ink marks on a page. Iron rods in tone. He travels widely to research ancient sacred sites. Lines. and patient watching. or. ice. salt. Changes paper. Twombly's mesmeric wax line worked over house paint is like a signature. and wood are also part of the work. it can keep reforming through the inherent repetition of a process. Below. and texture their bracing separation reaching between from beneath Pillars of the gallery are made part of this drawing by their inclusion in the paper. iron. A line can be finished in a second. Sometimes it smolders like a deep shadow. Damp Japanese paper was laid over carefully arranged iron bars. silence.
the Babylonian world map. close to Stonehenge in Wiltshire. and sensuous drawing from painting. emotive. PROCESS AND HARMONY Cut lines Chalk carves easily. Many of his graffiti-like combine abstract gestures with statements. CY TWOMBLY .000-2.241). Neolithic Chalk Tablet 3.England. This example is one of two chalk tablets found in a Late-Neolithic pit. Twombly has language works CY TWOMBLY Contemporary American artist who emerged through the 1950s New York art scene in the heyday of Abstract Expressionism and Action Painting. energetic. burials. such as the Rosetta stone.221 ANCIENT CARVINGS Many ancient cultures have made and left behind drawings and texts carved into stones or animal bone. Precise lines suggest the use of a sharp flint The framed rectangle of this image is echoed in that of Abe's installation. that challenges the separation of word from image.Twombly was presented with a Golden Lion award for lifetime achievement. theories suggest astrological observations. and the worship of the sun and ancient gods. The central pictorial space is also similarly cut and divided by the considered arrangement of straight lines. At the 2001 Venice Biennale.400BCE 21/4 x 21/4 in (58 x 58 mm) ARTIST UNKNOWN Language Over the course of fifty years. and Untitled 1970 Here we might seek to grasp letters in the turning of his line.Thesite's purpose is unknown. evolved a raw. and American Indian petroglyphs (see p.
below. abstract.222 ABSTRACT LINES Writing Time SINCE THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY. o f t e n e x p r e s s e d in v i s u a l t e r m s . The scores are also exhibited in galleries as visual art. Ink impressions When drawing nightscapes Hugo often laid paper disks in place of the moon. abstract artists and composers unique." An innovator who never fails to surprise. Marks across the center appear to be made with his fingers. Bussotti. A graphic score is a V I C T O R H U G O Hugo's abstract French novelist w h o m a d e m a n y drawings in m i x e d m e d i a ( s e e also p. Texture Compare this drawing to Hugo's octopus on p. His drawing writes the time of its own physical process by expressing the extreme concentration of the moment in which it was made. he mixed graphite into ink. Here he appears t o have saturated the cut-out moon disks with gritty pigment. have striven to break down old pictorial and musical structures to explore new and unfettered modes of expression.28). Two Impressions Paper 1853-55 VICTOR HUGO Disk from a Cut-Out . pressed them face down. o r a pattern o f elements s o unified as a w h o l e t h e y c a n n o t b e e x p l a i n e d asa s u m o f parts. and let the drying meniscus deposit granules in linear drifts such as we would see in the satellite photographic mapping of rivers. drawing here can b e described in t e r m s o f a G e r m a n philosophical idea a b o u t is t h e i n s t a n t r e c o g n i t i o n t h e p o w e r o f m o m e n t . and lifted them away to leave impressions of watery planets and seas. Similarity in gritty texture suggests that here. Both abstract drawing and composition involve the perfect sequencing of sounds and marks against space and silence. here he anticipates abstract expressionism by 100 years. said. interpret. Gestalt. music manuscript requiring instrumentalists to improvise. and inventive of his time. beautiful. Hugo. brushed night skies over them with ink then lifted the disks to reveal white moons. and participate in the composition. a configuration. "There is nothing like dream to create the future. too. broke new ground in the 1950s with graphic scores now considered among the most extreme. Gestalt o f an unnameable thing.28. opposite.
Following the notes. Sound and rhythm This flickering rondo of sound written in pen on a hand-ruled stave can be heard in our imaginations as much as seen. Compare this work to that of Libeskind on p.223 W R I T I N G TIME SYLVANO BUSSOTTI Italian avant-garde composer and principal 20thcentury exponent of the graphic score. Circular Score for "Due Voci" c. 70 in relation to Bussotti's clustered notes to the left of his rondo and open space to the right. His later works become increasingly abstract. we can feel their rhythm and easily attach sounds to them. 1958 SYLVANO BUSSOTTI . This is a page from Due Voci. a far cry from any recognized musical notation. Bussotti's first mature work.
d i p p i n g h e r fingers into a pot o f rice flour. Torn cloth This is one of two published photographs showing Marie Leib's torn cloth strips significantly placed on her cell floor. O p p o s i t e . and sufferers of psychiatric illnesses—who have always existed. This takes a form in most cultures. Cell Floor With Torn Strips of Cloth 1894 MARIE LIEB .224 A B S T R A C T LINES Chants and Prayers WHEN ABSTRACT LINES are organized in repetition. Germany. social outcasts. they m a k e a visual a n d physical e c h o that t o u c h e s s o m e deep part of the human spirit. an a n o n y m o u s w o m a n in the southeast Indian state o f Tamil Nadu m a k e s a ritual drawing o n the b r i c k courtyard o f h e r h o m e . T h e s e p h o t o g r a p h s d o c u m e n t the meditative drawings o f two w o m e n living worlds apart in different countries. Lieb is one o f countless thousands of "Outsider" artists—diverse individuals including ordinary citizens. It will protect the place from evil and make a pleasing invitation to good spirits.228-29) has been adjusted with each movement of the rags to draw a cosmos of balance and perfection. MARIE LIEB Little is known of this w o m a n for w h o m the act of drawing was essential. it is found in the regularity o f ordered lines or a pattern. She tore c l o t h into strips a n d used these to draw patterns a n d symbols o n h e r cell floor. making objects and images outside o f mainstream culture. for e x a m p l e . In the late 1 9 t h century. and c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Compositional rightness (see pp. In music it can be felt in the diversity of plainsong and African d r u m m i n g . cultures. centuries. Cloth is the simple instrument with which she has conducted and ordered her universe. Marie Lieb w a s a psychiatric patient in the Heidelberg Asylum. Visually.
among others. Skills are handed down through generations and from friend to friend. lime. and in places of worship and celebration. and birds. at the University of London and Ohio State University. Motifs are geometrical or based on plants. Painted Prayers UNDATED STEPHEN R HUYLER .225 STEPHEN P. women pride themselves on never repeating a design. or flowers are marked or arranged on the ground or on the walls of homes. Popular magazines feature new ideas each week and on special occasions there may be contests. Materials such as rice flour. lecturer on the subjects of Indian art and Indian women's identity. Huyler is the author of Painted Prayers. cultural anthropologist. Designs and motifs Rangoii (or mandalas) are ritual drawings made by many millions of women across rural India.HUYLER Photographer art historian. chalk. In daily practice. animals.000 images.Theseare widely published in journals and are the subjects of international exhibitions. and for over 30 years has traveled extensively through the Indian subcontinent creating an edited archive of 200.
free from the direct imaging of known physical things. and Fellow of Linacre College. it is ruled and contained in one dimension by its interlocking ink-lined borders. Ruskin School. With no depth of field. Untitled 2001 2001 153/4x 215/8 in ( 4 0 0 x 550 mm) BRIAN C A T L I N G . filmmaker Professor of Fine Art. figurative representation—that is. Catling's torn paper shapes and shadows spill light out of their frame like a fractured mirror. Catling's abstract drawings are usually made in series and in parallel to written poetry and sculptural installations. and water-resistant layers of spray and enamel paint on thick paper. Oxford. Klee's mathematical maze of thinly washed surface resonates with meticulous planning. Catling's works made for international galleries and museums involve drawing as a tool in their development and making. performance and installation artist. and choice of hues. BRIAN CATLING British sculptor poet. Oval moons eclipse each other and oscillate between landforms and portraiture. These two works present complex compositions with differing intensions and methods of making. Mixed media This is a collage of torn white and gray tissue paper previously stained with ink. but similarities in mood. rocks or heads in a subdued atmosphere of dream. gold paint and iridescent gouache mixed with water.226 ABSTRACT LINES Compositions ABSTRACT DRAWINGS ARE LARGELY or entirely free from using the viewer's eye to track and unfold layers of meaning. Their energy can therefore be a purer expression of an idea or emotion. They each find their pathways and equilibrium in atmosphere and suggestion. structure.
Kunstmuseum Bern PAUL KLEE . philosophized.227 PAUL K L E E Swiss painter and sculptor (see also p. Geometric harmony This is a work on paper made with a sharp ink pen.31). watercolor. and brush. and wrote copiously about the natures and relationships of color and form. and might be read as active or passive. He explained his polyphonic painting as "a harmony of several color voices" searching for a visual parallel to music. ruler. whereas tonal surfaces are perceived more immediately as a whole. Line and surface Klee observed the visual capacity of lines to push or pull within an image.97-99. Polyphon Gefasstes Weiss (White Framed Polyphonically) 1930 131/8x95/8 in (333 x 245 mm) Paul-Klee-Stiftung. We can see some diagrammatic examples of this among the optical illusions on pp. It is a geometric harmony of straight lines and tonally graded flat colors that by their arrangement draw our eyes inward to their white center. Klee painted. Klee also felt that a line represents the passing of time. drew.
their impact. the impression y o u receive from t h e m . the late garden designer Russell Page explains. they are just. Set up a sheet of paper with a rectangle drawn on it. In his b o o k The Education of a Gardener. There is a single m o m e n t w h e n all proportions. and put them o n a tray. This balance is what every artist and designer searches a n d feels for when making an image. or home. a glass. b u t e v e r y n o w a n d again you will hit on an arrangement w h i c h appears just. and an apple. s o m e will be more or less h a r m o n i o u s . a b u n c h of keys. w i l l c h a n g e w i t h e v e r y r e a r r a n g e m e n t . Take. It is found in all great art and design. and ten straight sticks painted black. regardless of style. media." ." SETTING UP Justness can be harmonious or deliberately discordant. angles. It is also found in nature. after being continuously adjusted. and elements settle in definitive balance. or degree of figuration. there is a clear feeling when. they reach a perfect position. culture. M a n y of their inter-relationships will be meaningless. or on a page. but an easy o n e to u n d e r s t a n d . W h e n m o v i n g objects around in your yard. "I have experimented endlessly with this idea.Thisexercise will help you start. Feel for it when youdraw.228 ABSTRACT LINES Being "Just" A SENSE OF "JUST" (or rightness) is a difficult concept to explain. Seek it when looking at other artists' work and in your everyday environment. "Whenall pictorial elements come together in pleasing and perfect balance. As y o u m o v e them around. for instance.
A stick touching the rectangle links the composition to the frame. 2 3 In the step above. making the composition seem to float beneath. . painted black. W h e n the composition falls into place. Feel for the rightness of their grouping and their relationships to surrounding spaces. B E I N G "JUST" 1 Arrange your ten sticks in t w o groups of five. Move the sticks out into the rectangle. horizontals dominate the lower area. Within a rectangle on a flat sheet of paper set about making a composition using no other rule than a sense of "just." Move the sticks to find alignments and imagined perspectives.229 WHERE TO START Take ten sticks of equal length. Here. In the final step (left) there is an even balance. fix it with glue.56-57). which now becomes a tight frame. horizontals dominate the top. Arrange them so they touch or cross in a series of intersecting balances. as shown here. Remember the drawn rectangle is a part of the composition (see pp. suggesting a horizon.
Once the ten painted black sticks are set and glued in place. Returning to Russell Page. he went on to say ". This principal also applies to three-dimensional drawings such as Gaudi's work with wire and weights on p. "My understanding is that every object [or shape] emanates—sends out vibrations beyond its physical body which are specific to itself.69 and Abe's installation on p. To prepare for this lesson. glue. feels "just" (see pp.220. colors. a compass. or discordance.. and tones. which is the shifting. or even strident.230 ABSTRACT LINES Collage H E R E W E EXPERIMENT with collage. hard or soft.Youwill also need spare white paper. stain and dry a sheet of tissue paper using blueink. scissors. colors and textures can be manipulated until their pictorial harmony. and black ink." overlapping placement of materials on a flat plane. harmonious. Collage offers the artist a liberating palette of SETTING UP This lesson in collage is a direct continuation of the compositional lines made in the previous class. ready-made depths and surfaces. they become a scaffold for the addition of further textures. correction fluid or white paint." (Russell Page) . an infinite range of voices and meaning. you start composing by adding or subtracting shapes and textures and using colors and tones to achieve the impression you want to m a k e — w h e t h e r dramatic or s u b d u e d ..228-29). Cut or torn layers and shapes. found or made items. Images and fragments torn from day-to-day life can be brought together to make a chorus of ideas and emotions.
correction fluid and ink marks add further dimensions.231 WHAT TO DO Lay the final step of the previous lesson (p.228) in front of you. they deepen pictorial space. four circles of blue tissue paper. draw. 2 3 Torn white paper moved over the surface adds masks of rough-edged irregular volume. and shadow to thepicture. and with a compass and scissors. In the last step (left). Cut six small rectangles the same proportion as your whole image. Glue them in place once they feel "just" Translucent circular disks of tissue paper give color tone. Obscuring the blue disks. COLLAGE 1 Regular-sized pieces of white paper are moved over the surface to disrupt the even lines. This can also give a sense of fragmentation or punctuation to the composition.The single disk that is folded with its straight edge facing up appears heavier than those that are flat. . solidity. then cut out.
Hitsuzendo drawings aspire to "breathe with the energy and vitality of eternal life" achieved through "a state of no mind—beyond thought. is the practice of Zen through the calligraphic marks of a brush dipped in carbon ink.Zen Calligraphy HITSUZENDO." [Tanchu Terayama. A MODERN JAPANESE meditative art form inspired by the teachings of Yamaoka Tesshu (1836-1888). and expectation. Zen Brushwork]. . emotion.
These vibrate against washes of shadow and pitch-black mass. I flicked spatters of ink and rubbed the paper with a wet and a dry brush to achieve these effects.Nocturnes IN THIS QUARTET of semi-abstract drawings made with India ink. discord is balanced against rhythm to create mood. . Lines made with a steel dip pen take on a scratchy nervousness.
Images we are now surrounded by bear testimony to the power and resourcefulness of their collective imagination. We then add substances we dislike: unidentified fluids. Star Wars. Feeding this demand. our eye circulates around a flutter of leather and scaly wings. movie studios now brim with as many monsters as the visual art of the Medieval and Renaissance Church. angels. wings. all of which originated as hundreds of drawings. we select details of animals farthest from ourselves and that are widely thought disturbing—reptilian and insect features. which is to have eaten a nun—it inspired the drawing on p. In the Christian churches of Europe. Here. in the cracks of walls. For example. aliens. Humans are equally troubled by the imperceptibly small and the enormous. Lord of the Rings. or in smoke. Reading the place name I momentarily glimpsed an alternative meaning. a human-animal mix that implies this could MARTIN SCHONGAUER German painter and engraver who settled to work in Colmar Alsace. When creating monsters. Fantasy is most successful when founded on strong and familiar visual logic. Be inspired by the irrational comedy of word association or puns. and damnation are found in most world faiths. . a Catherine wheel of drawn sparks spiraling around the quietly resolute saint. England. and deep fur—and we alter their scale. scales. look for images in the folds of clothing. sculptures. Neither should be slave or master. which were widely distributed and influential in his time. Monsters take advantage of both. We love our fear of the hybrid—ideally. beasts. for example. Throughout this book images are presented to excite and surprise and drawing classes created to increase your confidence. To learn to flex your imagination. our literate and more secular Western society still hungers for another world and to ravenously indulge its fascination for the marvelous.247. Schongauer is best known for his prints. The salvation of heaven and terrors of hell are represented equally—enough to make any sinner shudder. or strange. Depictions of God or of gods in the contexts of daily life. feathers. and stained-glass windows deliver powerful visual sermons to the once-illiterate populace.Gods and Monsters OUR SACRED AND SECULAR need to visualize demons. Perhaps the Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 1485 121/4 x 9 in (312 x 230 mm) MARTIN SCHONGAUER most important conclusion in this final chapter is to advise you to develop your skills in parallel with the joy of your unfolding imagination. thousands of paintings. and the Alien trilogy. serpentine tails. happen to us. paradise. Today. and the faces of God have for centuries given artists a feast for the extremes of their imagination. impossible. We watch with captivated pleasure movies such as The Fly. a collaboration between the two will ensure that your drawings glow with originality. I was on a train passing through Nuneaton.
The high. plain wall suggests a blinkered view of nothing. Saturn devouring his son. Opposite. and exposed the superstitions. rushing. barren land rising like MYRIAD CHAINS RUN THROUGH ART HISTORY. such asinine behavior can be hereditary. Other drawn versions of this image are more savage and frightening. hags. which can swamp the subject Here. to Picasso's similarly tight. Near the end of his life he made his "Black Paintings" on the walls of his home. Compare his dark. vanity. Francisco de Goya was a master of borrowing. The well-dressed mule is cumbersome. and follies of court through copious graphic works including his best-known prints. This continuity enriches the making of art and our heritage. Opposite below. Aquatint Goya has drawn a learned man as an ass. noisy seascape on p. The title "And So Was His Grandfather" adds that should we not already know. Paul Thomas's studies of Picasso and Twombly can be traced directly. crammed tightly at his desk. Los Caprichos. portraits. Goya's plainly textured gray background pushes back the space behind the illuminated simply subject. and men clubbing each other to death. He would be graceless if he stood. and church murals. we see the international icon of stupidity. In this ass. a wave to join Achilles' chase of Hector.30. Pictorially. a Shoshone seeking guidance and power meditates at the sacred site of a petroglyph. Violent white marks symbolizing Achilles' rage resonate with the energy of Twombly's script on p. In this softer aquatint he poses for his portrait Textured background The aquatint process has been used to great effect in making a gritty toned background. They depict as if by lamplight the devil and witches. whose impassioned work begins with light tapestry cartoons. deranged masses. Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 1799 81/2 x 6 in (218 x 154 mm) FRANCISCO DE GOYA . F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A Spanish court painter printmaker and draftsman. This act defines the vision and continues the line of spirit guides. Many students leave white backgrounds in their work. it allows the mule to stand forward.240 GODS AND M O N S T E R S Marks of Influence marking the influence of one artist upon another. quoting great paintings and popular culture to add cunning twists to his satires. below. Visions experienced in front of the drawing sometimes instruct the making of a new one. Goya later recorded the horrors of Napoleonic occupation. reading from a book of asses. his lover a dog.220.
Achilles Chases Hector 1996 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) PAUL THOMAS SHOSHONE PETROGLYPH The Shoshone people of Wyoming name petroglyph sites Poha Kahni. Wyoming. Wind River Reservation. of the earth. Parallel lines within the body of the figure are likely to denote power. Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range UNDATED ARTIST UNKNOWN . and personal and social struggles. It was made with a sharp implement. Thomas conducts his explorations in the mine of Greek and Roman mythology." Each sacred image drawn into rock belongs to one of three realms in the Shoshone world: the realm of the sky. perhaps a stone. or of the water Chipped image This is a sacred creature of the sky chipped onto rock at Dinwoody Lake. meaning "place of power. ideals. values. Simple wall stones cleverly state their cold solidity while also fading from our attention as the scene roars by. White marks like flashes of light are cut though graphite with an eraser to reveal the paper beneath. Graphite marks Here Achilles chases Hector around the walls of Troy before killing him. A vivid spectrum of energized graphite marks and a masterly composition give this drawing vitality and speed. by a supplicant in a trance of meditation.241 MARKS OF INFLUENCE PAUL T H O M A S British contemporary artist whose epic graphic work questions and reflects upon issues of European identity.
lifting its cranial passenger over a seascape of repose. graphic artist. Redon's eyeball balloon rises up. Redon lifted them out with some sort of eraser. the shock would be extreme. We may feel safe so long as the eye looks heavenward.and 16th-century Holland. and scuttle over all known reality. Children are also delighted to invent a monster or ghoul. ODILON REDON French painter draftsman. and writer In contrast t o the light and visual accent of contemporary Impressionism. which sometimes—half-dressed and carrying a familiar trophy— stride. to the right of the balloon. Our subconscious can be drawn with pleasure and ease.204-05 will enable you to produce a similar effect of white lines shining out of dark charcoal. The Eye Like a Strange Mounts Balloon 165/8 x131/8in (422 x 332 mm) ODILON REDON 1882 Toward Infinity . 115. They float toward us like a horrid visitation. crawl. Compare worked textures throughout the whole of this image to those found throughout Anita Taylor's charcoal drawing on p. If it were to turn and stare this way. we see parallel slanting pale marks that might have been made with fresh bread—a very effective eraser used before the wide availability of rubber or plastic. H e was influenced by his friends. below left. Techniques demonstrated on pp. Lifting out Fine strings of the hot-air balloon appear dark against the sky and light against the balloon. Here we see how he evolved their injuries into new limbs and warped proportions.242 MONSTERS of the unknown is a classical and constant occupation for the artist. T H E EXPLORATION AND DEPICTION Hauntings Grandville has drawn a scurrying zoo of half-known demons and animals that appear to have been stolen from the glass eye of the microscope. as he did the grass. GODS AND Erasure In this charcoal drawing. The monsters of Bosch grew from his observations of beggars going about their trade in 15th. the writers Joris-Karl Huysmans and Stephane Mallarme. Redon explored the darker side of the human imagination through symbols and mysticism.
Madrid. Two Monsters UNDATED 45/8 x61/2in (117 x 163 mm) HIERONYMUS BOSCH . Most of his work is in the Prado Museum. HAUNTINGS Engraving This is an engraving made so that Grandville's original drawing could be reproduced. Smiling. and Ship of Fools. Les Animaux (1840). Last Judgment. Garden of Earthly Delights. teeming with the exhilaration of unrestrained fantasy. include The Haywain. Comic little headbands of waving hair express more hysteria than fear. Light shines from the right. A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects c. Quill and ink This typical Bosch monster is a quill drawing in bistre ink The phrasing of light and contour here is masterly. The quality of the line is therefore uniform throughout. His other major works include Metamorphoses du Jour (1828). which is still available today. 1840 61/8 x41/2in ( 1 5 5 x 1 1 5 mm) GRANDVILLE HIERONYMUS BOSCH Dutch painter Bosch's highly detailed iconographic religious panel paintings.243 J E A N I G N A C E ISIDORE GERARD ("GRANDVILLE") French graphic artist and political satirist. This image is from one of Grandville's best-known publications. grimacing. sucker-faced creatures dash and trundle toward it They are drawn solidly to emphasize their earthbound weight. and he illustrated the Fables of La Fontaine and Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe.
However. In her studio. His entire drawing wrestles and weaves the viewer's eye into its retracting folds. snake. wraps and coils its lithe body ready to strike or whimper at a touch. she formed a series of ghostly pale. hatched lines. and dog. as we might expect. and marble sculptures including Pieto. Opposite. phrased over the contours of form and bridging darker areas of shadow. muscular tension is carved out of the paper using layered. gamboling copulations. Scaly. sometimes artists purposefully tie a knot in the configuration to disturb. remembering the cavernous. David. A snake eating its own tail is a universal image of the eternal and continuous. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI Florentine painter sculptor. pinnacled. architect. and engineer Among Michelangelo's great works are the painted ceiling and altar wall of the Sistine Chapel. Grimes found the genesis of her beast not among animals. but in the seductive landscape of Leonardo da Vinci's oil painting Madonna of the Rocks. and dying slaves. lion.244 GODS AND MONSTERS Convolutions THESE CONVOLUTED DRAWINGS were made almost 5 0 0 years apart. St Peter's square. a stunning hybrid of a swan. below. Two previously drawn faces become humorous antagonists to the beast. and mist-swathed land. topple. Michelangelo's dragon. Dragon 1522 10 x 133/8 in ( 2 5 4 x 3 3 8 m m ) MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI . poet. the dome of the Vatican. Grimes' delicately cavorting figures dive into and consume each other. Chalk and ink A quill dipped in brown ink was worked over black chalk on this reused sheet. They share between them the pleasures of inventing a hybrid beast. and play with its perfection and meaning.
London. her under heavy here. Grimes exhibits internationally and features in the collections of the New York Public Library and the Victoria and Albert Museum. London. and the Camberwell and Slade Schools of Fine Art. The large space around figure has been cropped Grimes drawings to flatten presses them. details evolved slowly using a drier brush.245 CONVOLUTIONS O O N A GRIMES British contemporary artist and professor of printmaking at the Ruskin School. Oxford. each one iridescent and crumbly like a weathered while oyster. The image formed directly without first making a pencil outline. How Clever of God #84 2002 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) O O N A GRIMES . It is one of a series of fragile earth figures inspired by rocks. boards finished paper. Ink-wash delicately gouache (smooth) and gouache brushed drawing on This is a and was hot-pressed Shadows The dark shadow of the Other the ink-wash earth was made with a brushstroke of ink laid into wet paper.
and wrist into a fluid and soft touch. Slightly less flexible than the squirrel-hair sword liner 9. SABLE-HAIR RIGGER: Made with very long kolinsky sable hairs. SMALL JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with sable hair. with a fine point for delicate work 4.H A I R LINER: Very responsive oriental-style liner This to the touch. needle-sharp center of kolinsky red sable hair. Some are bold. The brushes shown here are a mixture of This is a selection of riggers. 12. ideally suited to drawing. between them. this brush has a soft drawing tip and small ink-holding capacity. SYNTHETIC-HAIR LINER: This brush gives a medium line and is firm with a spring to the touch.246 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brushes T H E BRUSH IS A VOLUPTUOUS and delicate weights. LARGER JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with natural hair held in a plastic ferrule on a bamboo handle. drawing tool extending the arm. SYNTHETIC-HAIR S W O R D LINER: A lining brush with high ink-holding capacity and a fine point. ink-laden tip allow an expression that is beyond the linear. return them to their pointed shape. 10. 2. and has a fine tip for detailed work. which holds long sable hair This brush holds large amounts of ink for long lines and points well for detailed work. This design supplies the fine tip with a long continuity of ink 5. thicknesses. Some used by master calligraphers are 2-3 in (5-8 cm) in diameter 11.Theyhold plenty of ink and make continuous. 3. materials. and texture. flowing. It is capable of very fine pointing. and effects. Shorter brushes designed for other purposes run out of ink more quickly. It has exceptional painting characteristics. liners. all perfect for drawing and. and never leave them standing on their tip in a jar of water. Always clean them thoroughly. P O I N T E D T R A D I T I O N A L WRITER: The ferrule is made from a small duck quill. POINTED SQUIRREL-HAIR MOP: With a synthetic quill ferrule and extra high inkholding capacity. and hold prodigious weights of ink or paint. it has good inkholding capacity and is very flexible. This brush has a broad wash capability and can achieve a very wide range of marks. 7." 6. shape. washes. dense. S Y N T H E T I C . SABLE-HAIR LINER: Made with ordinary sable hair surrounding an extralong. Brushes vary in size. It is still relatively small in the total range of Japanese brushes. SQUIRREL-HAIR S W O R D LINER:This brush has a maximum ink-holding capacity and an extremely fine and flexible point 8. fingers. How you care for your brushes will determine how long they last.H A I R RIGGER: Made with long synthetic hair for fine-point work It has a good ink-holding capacity and is slightly more resilient than sable hair with more "snap. making rt ideally suited to Japanese painting and small-scale calligraphy. Suitable for wash techniques but also capable of very fine detail. Soaps purchased from good art supply stores will gently cleanse particles of pigment that become trapped in the hairs or ferrule. SYNTHETIC-HAIR BRUSH: Bound in a synthetic ferrule with good inkholding capacity and good spring and control. it has good wash capabilities. the very opposite of pencil or silver point. The living marks of a wet. L A R G E R S Y N T H E T I C . JAPANESE PAINTING BRUSH: Made with natural hair. giving a variety of lines. 1. M T RA S AEIL . 13. others are as fine as a whisker with a gentle touch. and very fine lines. and writers.
247 BRUSHES .
35) into two tablespoons of water in a shallow.248 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brush Marks A S I N G L E BRUSH will m a k e an e n o r m o u s range of m a r k s depending u p o n the width. and spatters. I rubbed a block of Chinese ink (see p. and type of its hairs. the texture and a b s o r b e n c y of the paper ( w h i c h m a y be d a m p or dry). the degree of pressure applied. and above all w h e t h e r the b r u s h is saturated with pigment or relatively dry. I had left the end of the ink block in the water overnight to make it easier to dissolve. w i t h m y face close.246-47). A single brush has almost balletic potential to draw fine or undulating lines and curves. length. Here I drew with a soft Japanese painting brush (see pp. the speed of the s t r o k e . It also depends on the angle at w h i c h it is held. b l o w i n g h a r d o n t h e m several t i m e s t o disperse t h e ink ( c l o s e y o u r eyes if y o u t r y this. SETTING UP Blowing spots T h e s e t h r e e s p i d e r y c r e a t u r e s (above right and below) w e r e m a d e by d r o p p i n g s p o t s o f ink f r o m a b r u s h o n t o t h e p a g e and.) I . unglazed earthenware dish. and to make pools and stains o n the page. splashes. softness.
BRUSH MARKS Wet and dry strokes A m o n g these concentrated drawings ink made into with the same w a t e r y lines.249 Gritty texture T h e details o f t h e largest creatures b e l o w and opposite s h o w the granular texture of Chinese b l o c k ink. t h e effects of the b r u s h r u n n i n g o u t o f ink. a n d b r u s h . a n d t h e w a y it d i s t r i b u t e s w h e n t h e b r u s h is d a b b e d o n its s i d e . . b l e e d i n g f r o m strokes b e l o w left. w e see fine lines and s p o t s .
until we look again.Monsters THESE LITTLE CREATURES o f i n k and i n v e n t i o n were b o r n out of animal and bird studies. . and used their detail to draw new creatures that might at first seem familiar. Oxford. I borrowed small and fragile specimens from the University Museum of Natural History.
Goya often invented his monsters out of characters seen in other painters' works. are two long. They are a pair and hang opposite each other. . With further research. Through studying and drawing these great paintings I have discovered that they are based on a pair of similarly long. Isidore. showing us that gallery study is not just for the student and beginner. Madrid. and narrative twists. thin works titled The Witches' Sabbath and The Procession of St. two of my own drawings show you how Goya's devil (below) is based on the shape of Murillo's boy on a horse (top right). formal composition. thin works made by Bartolome Murillo in Seville about 120 years earlier. Among his "Black Paintings" in the Prado Museum. Here. I found relationships between all four paintings in terms of shapes. Goya's witches have been literally drawn and evolved out of the shapes of Murillo's prophet and pilgrims.Goya's Monsters W I T H CUNNING BRILLIANCE.
Consumed THIS IS A SERIES OF CARTOONS I m a d e s o m e years ago. Sometimes drawings come out of nowhere and surprise even the artist. drawn rapidly and with great joy. little comments on politeness and sexual politics. .
A l s o c a l l e d t h e h o r i z o n line. written with a broad-nibbed pen o r brush. a n d g r a p h i t e . Erasure T h e a c t o f r e m o v i n g a n i m a g e f r o m a surface. A " s h a l l o w d e p t h o f field" m e a n s t h e p i c t u r e appears t o have only a shallow s p a c e inside i t Diffuse T o s o f t e n o r m a k e less brilliant. o f t e n d i s t o r t e d forms and vivid colors. Fixative Liquid acrylic resin a n d l a c q u e r t h i n n e r usually a p p l i e d as a n a e r o s o l s p r a y m i s t t o t h e surface o f a d r y . U s e d as a c o r r e c t i n g device o r pictorial game. Fauvism A n early 2 0 t h . so t h a t ink r e m a i n s o n l y in t h e g r o o v e s o f s c r a t c h e d lines. s u c h as a s c r e e n . n e w s p a p e r cuttings. pressurized t o o l used f o r spraying fine mists o f s m o o t h c o l o r P i g m e n t is d e l i v e r e d b y a j e t o f air n o t t h e bristles o f a brush. S o m e t i m e s f e r r u l e s a r e m a d e o f plastic o r o t h e r materials. and readymade objects arranged and stuck o n t o a flat surface. Aerial perspective The effect of the a t m o s p h e r e o v e r distance as it lightens t o n e s a n d cools c o l o r s progressively t o w a r d t h e horizon. t h e field is t h e a p p a r e n t a n d b e l i e v a b l e space inside t h e p i c t u r e . A l s o called m u s e u m g r a d e . It is p u t o n a Body color See Gouache. Fixative lightly glues t h e d r a w i n g t o t h e surface o f t h e p a p e r t o p r e v e n t smudging. o r will o n l y a p p e a r n o r m a l . Camera lucida A n optical device t h a t p r o j e c t s an image o f an o b j e c t o n t o a plain s u r f a c e so t h a t it can be traced. in w h i c h t h e subject's distinctive features o r peculiarities are deliberately exaggerated f o r c o m i c o r g r o t e s q u e effect. A l s o called r i n g l e t shading. p h o t o g r a p h s . tapestry. a n d attaches t h e m t o t h e s u p p o r t — f o r example.m a d e paper. See also Hotpressed papers. t h e l i g h t is b e h i n d h i m o r her. in w h i c h parts o f an image are depicted v e r y brightly and dramatically against d a r k n e s s . Acid-free paper P a p e r w i t h a neutral p H t h a t will n o t darken o r d e t e r i o r a t e excessively w i t h age. T h e b l a n k e t s g i v e t h e p a p e r its rough texture o r "tooth. Contre jour A F r e n c h t e r m m e a n i n g " a g a i n s t day. A p o t e n t i a l l y h a r s h m e t h o d o f p r o d u c i n g t o n e s in a d r a w i n g . m e a n i n g " t o stick" Dry media M e d i a t h a t a r e n o t w e t o r o i l y — f o r e x a m p l e . Field In a t w o ." D e s c r i b e s a p a i n t i n g in w h i c h t h e light s o u r c e is b e h i n d t h e s u b j e c t F o r e x a m p l e . a r e r o l l e d t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders. Anamorphic distortion Stretching an i m a g e across a p i c t u r e surface so t h a t it can o n l y b e u n d e r s t o o d . o r o t h e r (usually large) w o r k — s e e Pouncing. w h e n a p e r s o n is p a i n t e d standing a g a i n s t a w i n d o w . Deckle edge T h e i r r e g u l a r e d g e o f a s h e e t o f m o l d . F r o m t h e French v e r b coller.d i m e n s i o n a l i m a g e . D a m p p a p e r is laid o n t o p .c e n t u r y Italian t e r m m e a n i n g "clear-obscure. linseed oil o r egg y o l k Caricature A representation Contour line A line t h a t f o l l o w s t h e s h a p e o f a surface. It can also seal a silver p o i n t d r a w i n g t o p r e v e n t t h e oxidization (browning) o f t h e Drypoint A d r a w i n g is s c r a t c h e d directly o n t o a m e t a l plate w i t h a m e t a l t o o l h e l d like apen.256 GLOSSARY Glossary Accidental drawing Random. 2. Crosshatching Parallel lines d r a w n across o n e a n o t h e r at right angles. p r a c t i c e d meditatively w i t h a brush. Conservation grade D e s c r i b e s a range o f materials t h a t d o n o t d e c a y and cannot be broken d o w n by insects. Chiaroscuro A 1 7 t h . In t h e Far East calligraphy is a highly r e s p e c t e d a r t f o r m . charcoal. W o r d s o r symbols are Cold-pressed papers P a p e r manufactured with a "not" o r " r o u g h " surface. for example. Binder A substance t h a t holds particles o f p i g m e n t t o g e t h e r in a paint f o r m u l a t i o n .m e d i a d r a w i n g . Bleed T h e e f f e c t o f t w o w e t colors running into one another o r o n e color applied t o a w e t surface a n d a l l o w e d t o d i s p e r s e . L a t e r it c a m e t o m e a n h i g h l y c o n t r a s t e d light effects. C o p p e r p l a t e engravings w e r e widely used t o r e p r o d u c e images b e f o r e p h o t o g r a p h y . Composition T h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e p a r t s o f an i m a g e t o m a k e u p the whole.s i z e d r a w i n g m a d e for t h e purpose o f transferring a design t o a painting.The plate is t h e n r o l l e d w i t h ink a n d polished with a rag. Camera obscura A d a r k e n e d c h a m b e r i n t o w h i c h an i m a g e o f w h a t is o u t s i d e is received t h r o u g h a small o p e n i n g o r lens a n d f o c u s e d in natural c o l o r o n a facing surface. a n d given t h e n a m e Sho. Bracelet shading C u r v e d parallel lines t h a t f o l l o w t h e c o n t o u r s o f f o r m . Blending M e r g i n g t w o o r m o r e neighboring colors o r tones t o g e t h e r using a tortillon. Collage C o l l e c t e d materials such as c o l o r e d p a p e r s . pastel. F r o m t h e G r e e k kallos. t o g e t h e r w i t h a t h i c k felt b l a n k e t T h e w h o l e s a n d w i c h o f l a y e r s is t h e n railed t h r o u g h t h e press t o m a k e a p r i n t D r y p o i n t is a very portable and immediate m e t h o d o f printmaking. as o p p o s e d t o t h e s t r a i g h t e d g e o f a sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has b e e n machine-trimmed. 2. R o u g h p a p e r is m a d e b e t w e e n t w o blankets t h a t . T h e m o v e m e n t was started by a g r o u p o f French artists including H e n r i Matisse.c e n t u r y painting m o v e m e n t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e use o f b o l d . Air brush A mechanical. T h e name " n o t " simply refers t o t h e fact t h a t t h e cylinders are n o t h o t in t e m p e r a t u r e . Eye level T h e i m a g i n a r y h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e a t t h e s a m e h e i g h t as t h e a v e r a g e p e r s o n ' s eyes. A h u m o r o u s d r a w i n g o r parody. chance mark-making. In t h e W e s t p e n calligraphy is u s e d t o c r e a t e f o r m a l a n d d e c o r a t i v e t e x t s ." It w a s first given t o t o n a l paintings m a d e in o n e c o l o r — s e e Grisaille." " N o t " p r e s s e d p a p e r is r o l l e d a s e c o n d t i m e w i t h o u t blankets t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders t o p r o d u c e a s m o o t h e r b u t still slightly t e x t u r e d s u r f a c e . A g e n e r a l t e r m t h a t describes t h e various processes o f c u t t i n g a design i n t o a plate o r b l o c k o f m e t a l o r w o o d . Ferrule T h e s h o r t m e t a l t u b e t h a t s u r r o u n d s a n d g n p s t h e hairs o f a p a i n t b r u s h a n d fixes t h e m t o t h e brush handle. Engraving 1. usually at a n a c u t e angle t o t h e s u r f a c e . Blotting T h e use o f a b s o r b e n t m a t e r i a l t o lift a w a y excess liquid. T h e prints t a k e n from t h e s e plates o r blocks. Cartoon 1. Calligraphy Beautiful h a n d w r i t i n g . p r i n t i n g press face up. m e a n i n g "beauty". Also called accelerated perspective. A f u l l . A i r b r u s h e s are u s e d in t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c o m i c s . r a t h e r t h a n r e c o r d e d o n a film o r plate. s u c h as a d r a w i n g o r painting. R e m b r a n d t is a great master o f chiaroscuro. w h e n v i e w e d f r o m a specified point.
Ground A wet solution usually of gouache or gesso (chalk and animal glue) brushed onto paper board.The paper then bears a crayon impression or copy of the surface that was underneath it A number of Surrealists. Monochrome Usually refers to a black. rock. A point of interest in a drawing. Rubens used grisaille to paint small images for engravers. cadmium yellow hue. Gamut A complete range or extent Glassine A type of thin. Picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. Also refers to an additive used to control the application properties of a color Golden Section A proportion in which a straight line or rectangle is divided into two unequal parts in such a way that the ratio of the smaller part to the greater part is the same as that of the greater part to the whole. and orientation of the image. It is then peeled away. or spirit-based) is applied to a surface that is then pressed onto paper and removed to leave a print. F o r m a t T h e size.Theground provides a particular color or texture beneath the image. upright images are called "portrait which is used as a binding agent in many liquid media. or can be otherwise used to create an image—for example. oil-. and that will "escape" or change over time. mineral. F o r m The outer surface of a three-dimensional object.The degree to which detail is defined. Masking fluid Clear or opaque latex fluid developed for watercolor painting. It can be used with any wet media to isolate or protect parts of an image from further Optical blending See Pointillism. or a family of colors. format" (abbreviated to "portrait"). materials that produce marks on a surface. it is the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work Pigment Any substance used as a coloring agent—for example. Artists can paint freely over dry masking fluid. Medium A generic term for art Key A painting is said to be "high key" when the colors and tones are bright and "low key" when they are dark or somber The term is also used Gouache Opaque watercolor Also called body color. purpose. the finely ground particles of plant. which give it a smooth surface (as opposed to cold-pressed paper. Lifting out A method of creating highlights and mid-tones in a drymedia drawing (such as charcoal or graphite). the surface of the stone is made wet before being rolled with a thin film of oilbased printing ink. or canvas and allowed to dry before an image is drawn or painted. Hot-pressed papers (HP) Paper made using hot cylinders. or for wrapping and protecting a finished piece of work. Grisaille is occasionally seen in church stained-glass windows. but each print will be unique. including Max Ernst used frottage in their work. to describe a surface to which paint will adhere readily. Foreshortening A method of depicting an object at an angle to the surface of the picture.while secretion of the acacia tree. Also used by artists' materials manufacturers to indicate the use of a substitute pigment—for example. glass. shape. Grisaille A painting in gray or a grayish color Often made by students as a tonal exercise. and translucent paper—a delicate material used in collage. Hairspray is an effective and inexpensive alternative. lifting out charcoal and other dry media. Pointillism A technique of using points or dots of pure color in such a way that when the picture is viewed from a distance they react Masking tape Invaluable. used for fixing paper to walls and boards. multiH u e A term for a color. Giotto's Virtues and Vices in the Arena Chapel. or synthetic material that are suspended in a medium to constitute paint. and it has a history in enamel work. . so that (using vanishing point perspective) the object appears to change shape and become narrower or smaller as it recedes. and by artists representing stone sculptures in a painting. Objective drawing Refers to the concept of objectivity." A piece of paper is placed on top of an object or rough surface. glossy. Alternatively. then rubbed over carefully but vigorously with a crayon. enabling them to stick to paper It also helps to maintain a stable dispersion of pigment particles in water as the film of a wash dries. Plumb line A line from which a weight is suspended in order to determine verticality or depth. and masking off areas of a drawing that the artist wishes to keep untouched by media applied above or beside the tape. of the ingredients in inks and watercolors. or even a beam of light. This may be disregarded in real life. Usually an academic drawing observed from life. Padua. which has a rough surface). work. Impressing Stamping or printing. or a drawing made in any single color GLOSSARY Linear perspective A form of perspective in which parallel lines are represented as converging. This effect emulates what we see in real life. pastel. After several intervening processes. 2. sticky paper tape. Monoprinting A direct method of printing in which wet medium (water-. Papercut A type of collage in which flat sheets of paper are cut into an image. Dark tones are laid down first then an eraser or masking tape is used to lift away particles of the drawing media to reveal the lightness of the paper beneath. graphite. The ink attaches to the oil-based image and is repelled by the wet stone. A small image might be described as small format Horizontal images are often said to be "landscape format" (abbreviated G u m arabic The natural to"landscape"). are painted in grisaille and appear to be made of stone. or plastic surface. and is also used as a size. It improves the bonding properties Frottage A French term meaning "rubbing. ink. white. Focus 1 . but in picture-making it is as important as the objects/subjects themselves. This method incorporates the excitement of accidental and unpredicted marks. and gray drawing. Negative space The space between things. Paper is then pressed against the stone to take a print. Lithography A method of printmaking in which a drawing or painting is made directly onto a smooth slab of particular limestone or a metal plate using an oilbased crayon or ink. aiming to represent facts rather than an interpretation of the subject. oil-based printing ink is rolled evenly onto a smooth metal. Hatching (cross-) See Crosshatching. It is a strong adhesive.257 metal line. to give the illusion of depth and distance. Paper is laid on top and a rapid drawing is made on the back of it The paper lifts away to reveal the image on its other side. Fugitive A term given to a pigment that it is not stable. with the area beneath remaining unaffected. Lightfast A term confirming that pigment in the product will not fade with exposure to light. The surface can be reloaded or redrawn with more medium.
cut-out profile made along every outline of the usually made in black paper image. W e t media Any liquid media— for example. and flowers. Support The structure on which an image is made—for example. Strip Core of a pencil. Zen brushwork encompasses calligraphy and painting. acrylic. pencil. a point at which receding parallel lines meet Verso The back or underside of a piece of paper.Thedrawing is removed. . Sketch A quick or rough drawing. which are then called editions. fruit. whose pinpricks creates a "connect-thepersonal pastime was making dots" replica of the image on the cut-out portraits. or gouache. design. or pen. watercolor. Pouncing If a large drawing or design (called a cartoon) is to be Shadow Darkness cast by the transferred to a surface such as a obscuring of light. Spattering A mottled texture produced by drawing your fingers across the bristles of a stiff brush loaded with pigment. A term borrowed from the theater. sometimes drawn from a and leaving only the pricked sheet of shadow cast on a wall. Artists' prints are normally made in multiple. Printmaking The act of making a picture. or any physical object that can be stamped or pressed onto a surface to leave an impression." Applied to the blurring or softening of sharp outlines by the subtle and gradual blending of one tone into another Sgraffito A technique of scratching or cutting through a surface of paint. Recto The front or top side of a piece of paper. Zen paintings usually depict scenes of nature and plants such as bamboo. an ink stone usually cut from slate. Viewpoint The position from which something is observed or considered. Underdrawing A pale preliminary drawing made prior to adding layers of another medium such as oil paint or watercolor Value The extent to which a color reflects or transmits light This is the equivalent of tone in a black and white image. The crude material is called oleoresin. such as an inscribed sheet of metal. using a brush. usually diluted with water and applied with a brush. Size A weak glue used for filling the porous surface of wood or canvas in order to seal it. or ceramic glazing to reveal a different color beneath. in tone running from black to white or vice versa. ink. Although drawings can be made with wash alone. plum blossom. Serigraphy Silk-screen printing. nature of watercolor allows the white surface of the paper to Tonal scale A scale of gradations shine through. or watercolor paint. Shade A that is color mixed (or toned) with black Shading A lay term for adding tone to a drawing. Squaring up A method of enlarging and transferring an image from one surface to another. pointed roll of white paper that is used to blend dry media.Technicaldrawing has been example. Stippling Applying color or tone in areas of fine dots or flecks. orchids. pointed instrument used for marking or engraving. by imposing a grid that is then scaled up to a larger size. The translucent Tint A color mixed with white. and paperweights. and chrysanthemum—which in Chinese tradition are called "The Four Gentlemen. or wood. fine paper. Zen brushwork This is an oriental meditative art form originating in China and practised for many centuries in Japan. Sfumato An Italian term meaning "smoky. Zen A school of Mahayana Buddhism that asserts that enlightenment can come through meditation and intuition rather than faith. carbon ink. Still life A picture composed of inanimate objects such as bowls.258 GLOSSARY together optically. commonly referred to as the lead. Pounce (a fine for an unpopular 18th-century powder of charcoal or similar French politician. Vanishing point In linear perspective. Tone A degree of lightness or darkness. plaster or cloth surface beneath. creating more vibrant effects than if the same colors were physically mixed together with a brush. or point on which parallel lines converge to give the impression of receding space. Stylus A sharp. or the left-hand page in a book. tight. Subjective drawing A drawing that expresses the personal view and interpretation of the artist An invented image. in order to flick the pigment onto the image surface. to model areas of light and shade. giving it a brilliance. Etienne de material) dabbed through the Silhouette (1709-67). glasses. wall or tapestry. Props An abbreviation of the word properties. compound of water-soluble pigment." Materials for Zen brushwork include round brushes of varied size. a sheet of paper is placed beneath and pinpricks are Silhouette A flat. a tightly folded piece of cotton batting can be used for the same effect. evolved by engineers and architects for the purpose of conveying W a t e r c o l o r A painting accurate structural information. Named paper in place. Scale Describes the size of one element in relation to another Sepia A brown pigment taken from the sun-dried ink sacs of cuttlefish and used to make ink or watercolor The term is now often incorrectly used to refer to brown colors. paper or canvas. meaning objects used in setting up a life model or still life. or mark using an inked or pigment-covered surface. plaster. Squeegee A rubber-trimmed scraper used in the screenprinting process for dragging ink across a surface. Turpentine A colorless solvent distilled from the resinous sap of pine trees. Wash A technique using ink. Technical drawing A universal it is often used in conjunction language of lines and measurements with line drawings in pen and that is used to make diagrammatic ink—for images. Volume The amount of space occupied by an object or an area of space in itself. Single-point perspective The most basic form of linear perspective in which there is only one vanishing point. Tortillon A short. Alternatively. or the right-hand page in a book. "Spirits" or "oil" of turpentine refer to the volatile portion used by artists to thin or dilute oil-based paint.
9. 9 Chair (Van Gogh) 94. 165. 163. 162 character: to capture 38-39. 201 collage 111. 242 Brunelleschi. 90 colored materials 162-163 colored pencils 162. 244 head and neck 144 phrased 124-125 contrast: brightness 99 of media 30 tonal 96. 200 Bauer. 178 Cubism 67.13. 203 Landline 202. 113 bird bones 12. 202 cloth. Le (Hugo) 200. 204. (Ross-Craig) 49 to hold brush for 23 caricature 159. 94 cylindrical objects. 139 Nanha) 50. to express 39. 111. 95 Chair Cut Out (Woodfine) 94. 205 Baltard. 186 charcoal 114. 41 principal 186. 198. 160 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object (Moore) 178. center of 118 ballpoint 182. Mamaru 104. Giovanni 137 Head and Shoulders of a Man 136. 198 cartoon (preparatory drawing) 137 (satirical) 159. 220.163 body. 199 Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya (Eisen) 156. 78 aerial perspective 206 airbrushing 160. 241 action. 223 Circular Score for "Due Voce" 223 children's art 9.50. 90. 71 conte 112. 203 Buffalo Hunt (Shoshone) 178.117 Achilles Chases Hector (Thomas) 240. to model 110-111 border 51 Bosch. 52 cotton swabs 205 Coup de Vent a Asajigabare (Hokusai) 198. 13. to depict 156-157 Cloudburst of Material Possessions (Leonardo) 200.163 dry media 205 Blue Nude (Matisse) 110. 247-248 carving see lines. Franz 48 Protea nitida 48 Bellini.115 anatomical drawing 134-135 anatomical theaters 82-83 anatomical waxes 128 ancient carvings 221. 90. 221 animals. 38-39. 157 cropping 56-57. 40-41 Durer's rhinoceros 26. 242 to blend 205 compressed 122. 190 Caricature of a Woman (Daumier) 198. 179 Bussotti. Victor: West Facade of the Church of St.44-45 bird studies 12. 71 Blake.44-45. 98. 81 135. 206 checkered floor 80. 158. to draw 25. Brian 226 Untitled 2001 226 "Cave of the Hands" (Cueva de las Manas) 8. 193 in lifting out 204. 137 Besler. 28 Klee's horses 30.198.89. 72 bracelet shading 122 Braque.186 see also movement Adoration of the Magi perspective study (Leonardo) 74.31 Picasso's horse and bird 30. Hieronymus 243 Two Monsters 242. 182.162 Conte. William: The Circle of the Lustful 180. 74 brush (es) 246-247 Japanese 248 for laying a wash 140 marks 248-249 to hold 23 brush drawings 14-15 Bryan. Clare 203 City 202. 180 Circular Score for "Due Voce" (Bussotti) 223 circus scenes 192-195 City (Bryan) 202. 8 cave paintings 8. 244 and graphite 178 . 94 chalk(s) 53. 250 Bishndas and Nanha: Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity 50. Filippo 67. 204-205. to draw 100 Cypripedium calceolus L. 243 botanical drawing 48-49 Boullee. 30 sleeping dog 38-39 Stubbs's horse skeleton 26. Zen c 232-233 blended 133. 90 La Guitare.184. 222. Augustin 67 Basquiat.163 graded 227 composition 56-57.133. Nicolas-Jacques 54 contours 146.Index Page numbers in italics refer t o captions and illustrations Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity (Bishndas and 259 INDEX B bread (as eraser) 205. 50.184. Joseph 113 The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland 112.100 curves. Etienne-Louis 72 Newton's Cenotaph 72. 189. Basilius 47 Beuys. 29 Hugo's octopus 28. Georges 67. Jean Michel 138 Self-Portrait 138 Bateau-Vision. cut Catling. 133. Sylvano 222. 74. Statue d'Epouvante 90 calligraphy. to draw 80. 180 blending: color 133.212 to erase 205 to hold 23 pencils 204 willow 114.51 All and Nothing (Taylor) 114. 26 geese 38-39 Gericault's cats 28. layers 53 chalk pastels 162. 13 architectural drawing 67-71 Arctic Flowers (Libeskind) 70. 70 Art Nouveau motifs 91 Autoportrait (Ray) 138. 75. 203 Claude Lorrain 202 Views from Velletri 202. 134 costume(s) 155 character 158-159 structure of 166-167 Cottage Among Trees (Rembrandt) 52. 230 The Physical Space 220 abstract drawing 219.226.169 colors: airbrushed 161 background 91 A Abe. 81 cut-out model plan 94.27 turtles 42-43 aquatint 240 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels (Leonardo) 12. 206. 226-227 Acanthus spinosus 65 accelerated perspective 22. 230-231 Cubist 90. 75 Circle of the Lustful (Blake) 180. 128. 161 Akhlaq-I Rasul Allah manuscript 51. 116. 74. Leon: Bacchante 155 balance. 71 Bacchante (Bakst) 155 background: color 91 textured 240 Baker Matthew: Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry 32 Bakst.
Robert 93 Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 92. 25 focus 65. M.97. 29 H hands. 41 in the round 208-209 with scalpel 202. 223.157 ellipses 100.216 Durelli. 161 changing 216 Focusing on the Negative (Walter) 16 foliage 52.117 fountain pens 34.91. 240 170-173 five Ships in a Port with Lighthouse (Wallis) 11. 765 hitsuzendo drawings 233 Hokusai.112. 122 Hawksmoor.12 fixative 54. 226-227 anatomical 134-135 architectural 67-71 botanical 48-49 brush 14-15 dark to light 102. 222 Grimes. 26 Flying Fish (White) 25. position of 143.111 feet. to draw 168-169 in Goya's artworks face. 113. 161 fashion 160.102-103 drawing board 20 drawing books 20-21 drawing paper 144. 79. position of 22 Eisen.244 drawing(s): abstract 219. Ron 161 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 161 160.144 and ink 30. 222 Le Bateau-Vision 200. 242 eyes.141. 7 33 Hooke. to draw 120. 120.121 felt-tip pens 162. 93 eye level 80 Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity.109 Rhinoceros 26. 240 Black Paintings 152.103. 112. 125.160. Cheval et Oiseau (Picasso) 30. La (Braque) 90. 163. 200 F fabric. 134.244. Nicholas 68 St Paul's Baptistry 68 head and neck to draw 142-145 Head and Shoulders of a Man (Bellini) 136. 90 gouache 30.160.216. 104-105.146 from masterworks 126-127. 137 heads. 90 G Gaudi. Katsushika 199 Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 198. Sir Ernst 12. to draw 134-137 Helleborus corsicus 55 highlights 91. 69.184 165. Victor 200. 190 Middle Eastern 50-51.252-253 from memory 183. 30 Fauves/fauvism 90.103 with eraser 103. fiber-tip pen 182. 160 hitsuzendo 233 light to dark 102.69 Gerard. 160 as ground for metal point 140. 55. Francisco de 131. proportions of 143 fantasy drawings 72-73. disposable pens 182-183 dissections: botanical 48 of horse 27 distance: illusion of see perspective linear 97 tonal 97 Documents Decoratifs. 157 . 144 Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (Baker) 32. 132 Frenz. Antonio 135 Muscles of the Head and Neck 134.John 157 Man Lying Down in a Cloak 156. 245 Hugo. C . 134. 71 minimal line 99 and music 70-71 quick 38-39. 55. Statue d'Epouvante. 69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt 68.116. 223 graphite 54. Study for Plate 59 (Mucha) 90. 799 Holbein. 245 layers 30 Goya. 163. 216 foreshortening 110. 203 Hotel de la Suzonnieres (Satie) 70.189.198 Degas. 134. 220 dry brush 234 234 57. Oona 245 How Clever of God #84 244. 55.141. 37 Grandville 243 A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the Near-Microscopic World of Scale Insects 242. Antonio 68. 32 framing 139 Franfoise au Bandeau (Picasso) 132. 230 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction 68. 160 Faune. 115 Escher.101 engraving 243 erasers/erasing 55. 69. 135 Duren Albrecht 26. 52 foreground 208. 73. 124. Edgar 162 depth. 203 semi-abstract 234-237 three-dimensional 68. 170-173. 202. 241 to blend 205 and chalk 178 and ink 28. 40.37. 69 Guitare. Jean Ignace Isidore see Grandville Gericault. 162 Flaxman. drypoint 181 exaggeration 184 expressionism 198 E ye and Head of a Drone Fly (Hooke) 92.115 exploratory 17 fantasy 72-73. 240. 99 etching. 160 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction (Gaudi) 68.Theodore 29 Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 28. to draw 78. 141 tonal 96. Keisai 157 The Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya 156. 245 Gruau. 161 fashion drawings 160.260 INDEX D Dada 139 Daumien Honore 198 Caricature of a Woman 198. Hans 133 The Ambassadors 116 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 132. to suggest 177 see also perspective diagonals diffuser 55 dip pens 34.230 three-tone 140.166 170-173 Gestalt 222 Giacometti. 252 depiction of fabric monsters 252-253 Self Portrait in a Cocked Hat 130.207. 93 horizon 52.104. 136 Golden Section 67 Gombrich. 243 graphic score 222. Rene 160 Illustration for Jacques Fath E easel. 91 Dragon (Michelangelo) 36. 131 Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 240. Alberto 136 Portrait of Marie-Laure de Noailles 136. 205 drawing with 103. The 242. 77 How Clever of God #84 244. 222. 122.
103 Neolithic chalk tablet 220. Matisse. 28 Two Impressions from a Cut-out Paper Disk 222 Huyler Stephen R 225 261 Kinecar.166 La Specola. 60. 226 Modernism 67. 83 white 122 ink impressions 222 ink spatters 234 installations 176. 53 monoprint 787.112. 244 Dragon 36. 99.124. 34-35 acrylic 35 bistre 35.167 line(s) 132. 63. 230 invented creatures 106-107 250-251 invented objects 89. 789. 183 vertical 156 linear distance 97 linear perspective 69. artistic 240-241.276. 249 and gouache 30 Indian 35. 220. 242 light 96 to depict drawing with 1 76 painting with 176 . 220. 248. 73 Kigell. 135 museums 44. 185 Mucha. Charles Rennie 48.109. 36. 220. Florence 128 lighting in 167 Pitt Rivers.243 carbon 35 Chinese 30. 97 Murillo. Henri 111 Blue Nude 1110. 756 priming for 140. drawing from 183. Daniel 70 Arctic Flowers 70 Lieb. 34. 160 In the Duchess's Kitchen (Rackham) 176.109. 244 ink 36 252-253 Documents Decoratifs 90. 166. Paul 227 Polyphonic Setting for White 226. 163 pens 36 measuring 116 memory. 37 lines 118 pastel 162 pencil 31.104. 31 Klimt. David 78 M Mackintosh.96. 221 endless 31 free 113. Victor 134 Profile Head 134. 111. Gustav 49 Knopf. 76 Libeskind. 227 Newsome. Henry 178 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object 178. 73 Michelangelo Buonarroti 48. 220. 178 motifs: A r t Nouveau 9 7 stylized 51 mountains 216-217 movement: of animals 30-31 of humans 7 79. Alphonse 90. 110 Sistine Chapel ceiling 116 Middle Eastern drawing 50-51. 252 ink 16. 203.141 Metropolis (film) 72. Marie 244 cloth drawing 244. 176. 252 Muscles of the Head and Neck (Durelli) 134. Bartolome: Moses Striking the Rock ofHoreb 252. 177 influences. Kathe 181 Losbrunch (The Outbreak) 180. Phyll: hands 18 lifting out 204. 158 Man Lying Down in a Cloak (Flaxman) 156. Oxford 250 music 70-71 Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks (Knopf) 32. 227 Scene of Comical Riders 30. 205 masterworks.The (Robinson) 108. 184. 72.Pieuvre (Octopus) 28. 201 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels 12. 219 Mondrian.102. 205. 181 Klee.134 K Kettlehut. 170-173. 74-77. 225 masking tape 204. 203 landscape 206-208 brushed 14 Landscape in Hoboku Style (Sesshu) 14 layers 146 chalk 53 gouache 30 ink 28. Madrid 171 University Museum of Natural History. 54 silver point 156 leg sections 158 length. 201 head and neck sections of female mold for Sforza Horse 89 Madonna of the Rocks 244 perspective study for Adoration of the Magi 74. 53 Tree II 52. 244.182 Moore.115 98. 35. 190 metal pens see dip pens metal point 25.120.227 to "bend" straight 97 compositional 228-229 cut 202. 78 Study ofThree Male Figures 110. 757 mandalas 219.141. 234 iron-gall 35.91 Study for Plate 59 of INDEX illumination see lighting Illustration for Jacques Fath (Gruau) 160. apparent 97 Leonardo da Vinci 74. 244 lithograph 198 Losbruch (Kollwitz) 180. 13 Cloudburst of Material Possessions 200. Piet 52. drawing from 126-127. 156 magnification 93 Man in Armor (Van Dyck) 158. 49 Rose 49 Maelbeke Madonna (Van Eyck) 156. I Murderous Attacks 33 Kollwitz. 114 hatched 244 layered 118 pace of 65 pale 40 rapid 49.181 L Landline (Bryan) 202. Johan 32. Rose: Tantalus or the Future of Man 20 minimal line drawing 99 mirror use of 120 mixed media 28. Erich 73 design for Metropolis 72.33 Mysterious Affairs of the lighting 2 7. 181 luminosity 115 Lynch. 159 Japanese 35 to make 36 sepia 35 walnut 36. 33 J justness 228-229 N naive art 74 negative space 53. 77 Miller. 58-59. Oxford 106 Prado.
The (Abe) 220 Picasso. 242 reed pens 34. 75 Two Courtyards 75. 75 Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range 241 petroglyphs 221. 181 pencil(s) 54 charcoal 204 colored 762. 36. 36. 74. 28 pigment 162 bright 50 Caput Mortuum 7 4 7 for three-tone drawing 141.9 3 Schongauer. Martin 238.184 fountain 34. Erik 70.52 pen and wash 158. 164. 139 Real Life is Rubbish (Noble and Webster) 176.240. 205 pointillism 112 polyphonic painting 227 Polyphonic Setting for White (Klee) 226. 241 Physical Space. Sue 104. 205 157. 1 6 3 . 1 1 6 accelerated 2 2 . 7 70 Ray. 227 portfolios 20 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser de Noailles (Holbein) 132. 203 Scene of Comical Riders (Klee) 30.104 Pieuvre (Hugo) 28. 160. Stella 48 Cypripedium calceolus L 49 rotated view 7 65 Rubens. 7 77 three-point 80. 52 pens 36 scalpel 54 drawing with 202. 219. 7 72 Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland.141 prints/printing: aquatint 240 dry-point etching 181 engraving 243 monoprint 181. 4 8 putty eraser 55. to draw 146-147 R Rackham. Paul 73 Nobson Central 72. 243.37. J 76 nudes 114-115 to make 36 metal see dip quill 34. 76-79. 38. 772 234-237 Sesshu.262 INDEX Newton. 74-77. 230 parallel planes 79 Parisian street 86-87 pastels 162 to blend 205 to hold 23 layers 162 pencils 162 pen(s): dip 34 .Toyo: Landscape in Hoboku . Heath 181 The Kinecar 180. Peter Paul 126-127 Embracing pose(s): balanced 146 quick 118-119 positive form 103 posture: of artist 22 of subject 3 8 . Pablo 6 7 . 7 38 Ray 138. 114 rollerball 182 Rorschach blot 99 Rose (Mackintosh) 48. 239 Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 238. 2 2 0 for oil pastels 162 stained 230 to stretch 140-141 tissue 21. 239 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat (Seurat) 112.226.37 scientific instruments 9 2 . 122. 4 9 Rose of Mohammed 50.2 3 age and youth sleeping subjects 148-149 150-151 Renaissance 109 Rhinoceros (Durer) 26. 73 Noble. 161.131 Cottage Among Trees 52. and Webster. 72 Noble. 165 figure 118 filled 37 pencil 48.54 pastel 162 perspective 1 0 0 . Faune. 71 Satire of the Queen's Dress (Wodall) 158. 244 Q s Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape (Wolfli) 2 79 St. 739 semi-abstract drawings Style 14 Seurat. 1 1 7 aerial 206 linear 69. 759 P Page. Arthur 177 In the Duchess's Kitchen 176. Russell 228.36. 36 pen and brush 8 3 pen and ink 70. 78 single-point 74. 243. Man 131. 97.71 Hotel de la Suzonnieres 70. 7 73 self-portraits: Basquiat 138.176 Real Life Is Rubbish 176. Isaac 92 Telescope 92 Newton's Cenotaph (Boullee) 72.7 77 rapidograph 70 Raphael 110. 40-41. 1 6 9 to hold 2 2 . 216. 244 reed 34.199 Profile Head (Newsome) oil pastels 162. 230 paper(s) 21 colored 162 drawing 144. 159. 36. 91 outsider artists 33. 165. 212 Japanese 2 1 . 9 0 . 1 3 2 quill pens 34. 7 76 receding space 206 Redon. 30 Fran<. 234 disposable 182-183 felt-tip 162. 37 38. 224 0 layers 31. 36.40. 26 Riley. Odilon 242 The Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity 242.Tim. 57 Ross-Craig. 733 Portrait de Marie-Laure (Giacometti) 136.The (Beuys) 112. Georges 112 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 112. Auguste 114 Two Women 114. 732 influence of 240 painting with light 78. 68 Satie. 734 Protea nitida (Bauer) 48. 782 relief 757 silk-screen 739 woodblock 134. 166 fiber-tip 782. 1 1 6 . 38. 103. 34-35. 141 Piranesi. 9 8 . 162 O p A r t 98 optical illusions 96-99 outline 33. 1 2 4 priming for metal point 140. 736 portraits. 36 relief printing 757 Rembrandt van Rijn 52. 81 two-point 74. 76 plastic eraser 55. 181 Rodin. 163. Giovanni Battista 74.759.37. 36.Paul'sBaptistry (Hawksmoor) 68.oise au Bandeau 132. Bridget 98 Robinson.139 Autoportrait 138. Cheval et Oiseau 30.
69. 1 4 1 . Vincent 95 Chair 94. 115.241 s i l k . 159 Wolfli. 202 violin. Adolf: Giant-Grape Saint-Mary-Castle 219 Woman at Her Toilet ( T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c ) 74 w o o d b l o c k print 157. 2 9 wind. 65 symbols 138. G e o r g e 2 7 Skeleton of the Horse 26.41. Sarah: child's m a p 75. 97.27 skull 747.125 W o o d f i n e . 230 t h r e e . 2 3 0 tonal contrast 96 tonal distance 9 7 t o n a l d r a w i n g 9 6 . 1 7 7 free 8 0 V e n i c e . v i e w s o f 85. Paul 2 4 1 Achilles Chases Hector 2 4 0 . 141 Three Male Figures. 199 shoes 1 6 4 . 2 2 6 . drawing with 104-105 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt ( G a u d i ) 68. William 159 Satire of the Queen's Dress INDEX 226. 76. 2 1 2 . 9 2 Tesshu. 156 layers 7 5 6 priming for 140. 170 shoes 1 6 4 stylized m o t i f 51 Summer Flowers 63. 2 3 4 . 75 Skeleton of the Horse ( S t u b b s ) 26. 1 3 . 7 1 4 . 243 (Bosch) T Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos ( G o y a ) 2 4 0 . 53 trees. 2 4 7 t h r e e . 174 T w o m b l y . t o lay 1 4 0 .d i m e n s i o n a l 1 0 4 . 1 2 Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse 71. 79.1 8 5 Tree II ( M o n d r i a n ) 52. 1 4 0 . Taylor A n i t a 115 All and Nothing 1 1 4 .1 9 9 wire. Study of (Michelangelo) 110. b l o w n 248 steel p e n s see d i p p e n s still life 89. 161. Man in Armor 1 5 8 . 7 6 Two Impressions from a Cut-Out Paper Disk ( H u g o ) 2 2 2 Two Monsters 2 4 2 . 725 fabric 1 6 8 T h o m a s . 7 75 Telescope ( N e w t o n ) 9 2 .1 4 1 . 743 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City ( F r e n z ) 1 6 0 . 77. 96. t o d r a w 2 0 0 . 1 9 9 .141 S i m b l e t . 49. 199. 164. Augustin ( B a l t a r d ) 6 7 w e t and dry brush-strokes 2 4 9 Turner. 1 9 9 Two Courtyards (Piranesi) 75. Sue see N o b l e . 1 4 1 w a t e r c o l o r 25.1 4 5 . A l f r e d 1 1 . t o draw 1 9 8 . 2 2 7 Untitled 2001 ( C a t l i n g ) u 263 W h i t e . 186. 7 77.13 M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s m a l e figures 110. C y 138.d i m e n s i o n a l d r a w i n g 68. 9 0 . t o d r a w 1 0 1 viewfinder 57 Views from Velletri ( C l a u d e L o r r a i n ) 152.216 W e b s t e r .9 1 storms.s c r e e n p r i n t i n g 139 silver p o i n t 1 4 0 . 7 70 Tiber 214-215 Untitled ( T w o m b l y ) 2 2 0 . John: Focusing on the Negative 14 w a s h .1 6 5 shorthand diagram 142 Shoshone buffalo hide painting 178.2 0 1 . John 25 Flying Fish 25 Wild Striped Cat Sketches of ( G e r i c a u l t ) 28.158 158. 102-103 tonal marks.Yamaoka 233 t e x t u r e 2 2 2 . H e n r i de: Woman at Her Toilet 14 t r a n s p a r e n t v i e w 92.t o n e d r a w i n g 140.12 W a l t e r . phrased 146 tonal modeling 161 tonal range 169 t o n a l surfaces 2 2 7 tonal width 97 t o n e ( s ) 33. 6 9 Wodall. 245 sharpener 54 Ship in a Storm ( T u r n e r ) 1 9 8 . t h r e e . 241. 226 V Van Dyck.J. 1 6 6 t r a p e z i u s m u s c l e 142.2 1 3 Stubbs. 2 0 0 Ship in a Storm 1 9 8 . 57. T i m W e s t Fagade of the Church of St. 182. W . Sarah 9 4 Chair Cut Out 94. 240 Two Women Embracing ( R o d i n ) 114. 221 . 75. 2 7 studies: b i r d s 7 2 . Jan 1 5 6 Maelbeke Madonna 1 5 6 . 1 4 5 travel journal 2 0 . t o d r a w 5 2 .5 3 in l a n d s c a p e 2 0 6 . 4 4 boat 209 botanical 4 9 G e r i c a u l t ' s cats 2 9 from Goya 170-173 125. 2 4 4 . 1 4 4 .1 0 5 vision 9 6 Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects (Grandville) 242. 7 9 0 vessels. 2 4 2 w Wallis. 158 V a n Eyck.243 Leonardo's machines 12.120. 7 6 1 spots. 9 4 z Z e n calligraphy 232-233 contrast 96 t o grade 163 ink 37 pencil 5 4 t o r t i l l o n 205 T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c . 7 79 Shoshone petroglyph 240. 74. 9 5 pens 36 v a n i s h i n g p o i n t 74. 1 6 . 104-105. 69. 156 Van Gogh. A n t h o n y 152. 1 8 4 .Sforza Horse.199 tissue p a p e r 21. 2 2 0 influence o f 2 4 0 Untitled 220. M . 249 t o describe 39. 206-207 202. h e a d a n d n e c k sections o f female m o l d f o r (Leonardo) 89 shading 2 9 s h a d o w s 28. 1 8 4 .
Copyright Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens. Illustrated London News Picture Library/The Bystander (b). L o n d o n . U K . L o n d o n (t). . 176: Modem Art. Productions Clovis Prevost (c). France. K a t h r y n W i l k i n s o n . Amsterdam. London/courtesy of Stuart Shave. Julie O u g h t o n . 180: www. Angela W i l k e s . 9 4 : Sarah Woodfine. Angela Palmer. c o . Paris a n d D A C S . 1 6 1 : D C C o m i c s I n c . 9 1 : www.bridgeman. 51: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz.uk/Kettle's Yard.co. F r a n c e . J o h n Roberts. 177: Mary Evans Picture Library. O. 1 5 6 : Graphische S a m m l u n g Albertina. G e r m a n y . L e n . A . c o . C o r n e l i s o n & Son.bridgeman. 1 3 3 : Artothek/Kupferstichkabinett. L o n d o n . Patty Stansfield. Berlin/Staatsbibliothek zu A l l other images © Sarah Simblet . 9 7 6 ) . Lisbon. H . Florence/MoMA.co. Dover Publications/ISBN: 0486229912 (t). 113: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. u k / T o k y o National M u s e u m . K e v i n a n d Rebecca Slingsby. 3 1 : Tom Powel Imaging. Christopher Davis. 1 9 8 : Dover Publications. G e r m a n y .bridgeman. 1 3 5 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. B M G . 69: Institut Amatller d'Art Hispanic (tl). Staatliche Museen z u Berlin. Orientabteilung/Ruth Schacht. O o n a G r i m e s . Italy. Rocio Arnaez. 5 0 : Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (1). 68: www. A n n a P l u c i n s k a . Anders.co. 17: J o h n Walter. 1 3 6 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Centre Pompidou-MNAM-CCI.uk/British Museum. L o n d o n . M a n d y Earey. 1929 (29.a. 6 6 : w w w .bridgeman. Peter L u f f . Salisbury & South W i l t s h i r e M u s e u m ( t ) . 2 2 4 : P r i n z h o m Collection. Psychiatric Institute of the U n i v e r s i t y of Heidelberg. 7 0 : Studio Daniel L i b e s k i n d . b r i d g e m a n . Carole A s h . Jackie Douglas. K e w ft)). Carlo O r t u for picture research s u p p o r t .co. Paris a n d D A C S . Anita Taylor.co. 3 3 : Prinzhom Collection. 1879. H a y w a r d Gallery. Portugal. 157: U C L Art Collections . Anders/ © D A C S 2 0 0 5 . Paris. 9 0 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/© A D A G P .bridgeman.uk/Private Collection./Private Collection/© D A C S 2005. Inc. Germany/Joerg P. T h e R u s k i n School of D r a w i n g a n d Fine A r t . Madrid. NY. P h y l l Kiggell. K u n s t m u s e u m . 1 0 8 : Arts C o u n c i l Collection. 225: Stephen P Huyler. a n d encouragement i n m a k i n g this book: M a m o r u Abe. 112: Yale University A r t Gallery/Everett V Meeks. 2 0 1 : T h e Royal Collection © 2 0 0 2 H e r Majesty Queen Elizabeth I I . b r i d g e m a n . S i m o n L e w i s . 16: www. 2 2 0 : Mamaru Abe. 1 1 0 : www. 72: akg-images. 158: Calouste Gulbenkian Museum. Germany. B e m d Kunzig. Jean Pierre Roy. for s u p p l y i n g the d r a w i n g books. Roddy Bell.bridgeman. Diana Bell. Sammy De Grave. R o y a n d D i a n n e Simblet. H e a t h e r M c C a r r y .bridgeman. 1 3 8 : © Christie's Images Ltd/© A D AGP.uk /© Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery. 2 0 2 : © T h e British Museum. Sophie Laurimore. b r i d g e m a n . 4 6 : B r i t i s h Library. U K . A . Magdalene College Cambridge. Winthrop. Sarah Woodfine. Flossie. B . Wolfson College. (r).l. 2 1 8 : Adolf-Wdlfli-Stiftung. Havemeyer. 221: Gagosian Gallery/Private Collection (b).uk/Private Collection. 199: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee des arts asiatiquesGuimet. K u n s t m u s e u m Bern/© D A C S 2 0 0 5 . 2 2 3 : Lebrecht Music and Arts Photo Library/Ricordi. Kunstmuseum Bern. 243: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. Corporation of London. 2 7 : Royal Academy of Arts. 2 4 : © T h e British Museum. 1975 ( 1 9 7 5 . Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin/Jorg P. Paris/ © Succession Picasso / D A C S 2005.co. Psychiatric Institute of the University of Heidelberg. L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . Antonia Cunliffe Davis.100. 2 4 5 : Oona Grimes.939). 114: Musee Rodin. T o n y G r i s o n i . 139: Galerie Marion Meyer/© Man Ray Trust / A D A G P . papers. a n d D e p a r t m e n t s o f E n t o m o l o g y a n d Zoology at the University of Oxford. a n d brushes o n pp.co. L o n d o n . 132: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. 1 7 8 : © T h e British M u s e u m / H e n r y Moore F o u n d a t i o n . Picture Credits 8: Corbis/Hubert Stadler. 73: Berlin F i l m Museum (t).Strang Print Room ( b ) . Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (t). Natalie G o d w i n .bridgeman. Paul T h o m a s ( t ) . Andy Crawford.uk/Private Collection. Paris. Clare Bryan. H a m b u r g . Paris. 174: Artothek/Munich. Also.co. J o h n Walter./Galerie Sylvie Nissen. Basel. 75: © The British Museum (b). Publisher's Acknowledgments Dorling Kindersley w o u l d like to thank Caroline H u n t for editorial contribution. 2 0 3 : Clare Bryan (t)./© D A C S 2 0 0 5 ( t ) . Pamela Ellis for compiling the index. Paul T h o m a s . 2 4 0 : w w w . G i n a R o w l a n d .uk /Biblioteca Nacional. Oxford. L o n d o n . Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. 2 4 4 : Ashmolean Museum. 29: Fogg A n Museum/Collections Baron de Vita: Grenville L. 74: Corbis.co. Graphische Sammlung.co. Paris. A n d y C r a w f o r d for p h o t o g r a p h y a n d L . London 2005. J o n Roome. 5 3 : Collection of the Gemeentemuseum D e n Haag/Mondrian Trust. Agnieszka Mlicka. H e l e n S h u t t l e w o r t h . 1901. u k / L o u v r e . Paula Regan. Toulouse.uk/Musee des Augustins. University of Cambridge. 2 6 : Topfoto. 1 3 4 : © T h e British Museum. Sarah D u n c a n . Sir Brinsley F o r d . 137: © The British Museum. 115: Anita Taylor. Paris. B e r l i n . 88: www. and Tamsin Woodward Smith. 9 5 : V a n Gogh M u s e u m . 9 3 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. 2 8 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. support.uk/Guildhall Library. 1 5 9 : Bodleian Library. c o . 49: Hunterian Museum (t). 2 4 1 : Corbis/David M u e n c h ( b ) . Paris. R o s e m a r y S c o u l a r . Kirsten Norrie. 1 . R u t h P a r k i n s o n . 4 8 : T h e N a t u r a l H i s t o r y M u s e u m .20-21 a n d 246-47. 1 9 : Getty Images/© Succession Picasso / D A C S 2 0 0 5 . © Tate. 1 5 : w w w . London/Bequeathed by Charles Landseer.r. 2 4 2 : Photo Scala. 1 5 4 : akg-images/Musee National d'Art Moderne. R . B e r l i n . Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. Japan.bridgeman. 30: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. 9 2 : Science Photo L i b r a r y . 2 2 7 : Paul Klee Stiftung. 181: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. 179: www. .Paris ( b ) . 111: Fondation Beyeler/Riehen (Bale)/© Succession H Matisse/DACS 2005. L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . 130: The Metropolitan M u s e u m of Art/Robert L e h m a n Collection. University of Oxford. 13: www. 7 1 : I M E C / A r c h i v e s E r i k Satie. 2 2 2 : Pierre Georgel/Private Collection. 3 2 : Pepys Library. 5 2 : T h e Metropolitan Museum of Art/Bequest of Mrs.uk/Mucha Trust. Berlin (b). 11: www. F i n n . J a c k a n d Brian Catling. 2 0 0 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. Fund.264 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Acknowledgments Author's Acknowledgments: T h e author wishes to thank the following people for their enormous help. 1 9 6 : Museum of the History of Science. 226: Brian Catling. Paris and D A C S . 1 6 0 : Rene G R U A U s. D a w n Henderson. 2 3 8 : akg-images. Maureen Paley Interim Art (b). u k / O n Loan to the H a m b u r g Kunsthalle. George M c G a v i n .
and tone. Learn from the Masters—a rich selection of drawings illustrates different approaches to a wide range of subjects.com Discover more at . D r a w i n g C l a s s e s — d e t a i l e d step-by-step demonstrations show you how to develop your natural talents. Creating a Sketchbook—Sarah Simblet's drawings inspire you to explore different subjects and fill your own sketchbooks. discover new ideas. and silverpoint—and apply the key elements of drawing including perspective.FOR THE ARTIST T h e c o m p l e t e g u i d e to drawing—a unique blend of practical teaching and inspirational insights into classic and contemporary drawings. Materials and Techniques—how to use a variety of materials—from pencil and ink to pastel. and improve your drawing skills. shape. charcoal.dk. www.