An innovative, practical approach to drawing the world around you







LONDON • NEW YORK MELBOURNE • MUNICH • DELHI Senior Editor Paula Regan Senior Art Editor Mandy Earey Art Editor Anna Plucinska Managing Editor Julie Oughton Managing Art Editor Heather McCarry Art Director Peter Luff Publishing Director Jackie Douglas Production Joanna Bull DTP Designer Adam Walker Picture Research Sarah Smithies US Editor Christine Heilman First American Edition, 2 0 0 5 First Paperback Edition, 2 0 0 9 Published in the United States by DK Publishing 3 7 5 Hudson Street New York, New York 1 0 0 1 4 10 11 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3

6 8 20 22 Master Builders The Order of Sound Future Fictions Pathways of Sight Single-Point Perspective Creating an Imaginary Space Further Aspects of Perspective Theaters Venetian Life Parisian Street

68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86

Foreword Introduction Drawing Books and Papers Posture and Grip

Objects and Instruments

TD075-July 2009 Copyright © 2 0 0 5 Dorling Kindersley Limited Text and authors artworks © Sarah Simblet 2 0 0 4 Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited A Cataloging-in-Publication record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN 9 7 8 - 0 - 7 5 6 6 - 5 1 4 1 - 1 Color reproduction by GRB, Italy Printed and bound in China by Toppan

Still Life Instruments of Vision Bench Marks Light and Illusions Further Illusions How to Draw Ellipses Tonality Drawing with Wire Artifacts and Fictions


90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106

Documentaries Presence and Mood Movement Icon and Design Pen and Ink Drawing with Ink Capturing Character Sleeping Dogs Turtles Dry Birds

26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44

The Body
Postures and Poses Choreographs Passion Measurement and Foreshortening Quick Poses Hands and Feet Charcoal Hands Phrasing Contours The Visual Detective La Specola

110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128

Plants and Gardens
Botanical Studies Jeweled Gardens Fast Trees Graphite and Erasers Cropping and Composition Negative Space Fig Tree Summer Flowers Acanthus Spinosus

48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64

Discover more at

Projections Magnetic Fields The Human Condition Disposable Pens The Travel Journal Catching the Moment Grand Canal Crossings Caravans The Big Top

174 Abstract Lines
176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 Process and Harmony Writing Time Chants and Prayers Compositions Being "Just" Collage Zen Calligraphy Nocturnes

220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234

Poise Anatomies Revelations Self-Portraits Silver Point Head and Neck Essential Observations Drawing Portraits Generations Castings

132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 152

Earth and the Elements
Air in Motion Storms Nature Profiles Charcoal Landscapes Drawing in the Round Decaying Boat Cloudburst Notes of Force Mountains

198 200 202 204 206 208 210 212 214 216

Gods and Monsters
Marks of Influence Hauntings Convolutions Brushes Brush Marks Monsters Goya's Monsters Consumed Glossary Index Acknowledgments

240 242 244 246 248 250 252 254 256 259 264

Cloth and Drapery Character Costumes Femmes Fatales Colored Materials Study and Design The Structure of Costume Textures and Patterns Dressing Character Posture Carving

156 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172


who tells me firmly upon approach that they cannot draw. especially as travel journals. of Sketch Book for the Artist. or a quantum physicist trying to see for themselves the fluctuations of our universe. where I expect them to be discovered by some people. not only to make art. . a sculptor. from schoolchildren to senior citizens. They occupy a shelf in my studio. Augustine his notes on memory. and size. where spaces are shaped by nothing more than the objects and activities contained within them. thinking. shape. Some of my drawings cover entire walls. and in a few sessions they will be flying. By using our imaginations. I will always draw. I was training in anatomy and studying how. we have looked at. Combine these things and the possibilities are endless. It makes me feel excited to be alive. Drawing occupies a unique place in every artist and creator's life. and makers of special effects. undergraduates to fellow professors. The most rewarding challenge is always the newcomer. through history. by invitation. Chosen in any color. fashion designer. perhaps hidden on a door hinge or a street bench rail. They enfold their viewer and are made on joined sheets of paper that I reach by climbing ladders. and be slowly washed or worn away. we learn to feel truly alive. drawing is the immediate expression of seeing. Drawing is a mirror through which I understand my place in the world. We can all learn how to draw. aspirations. and feeling. geologists. I work with people of diverse ages. and local c o m m u n i t y classes. remain unseen by most. For twelve years I have enjoyed the privilege of teaching drawing. we learn to see it. It is my love of these. and through which I can see how I think. still standing by the door. and a reflector of experience. texture. night security staff. a composer notating a musical score. doctors. I also make drawing books. and experience. The very first step is to believe it. and their importance to so many artists. Some are more traditionally framed and hung in galleries for solo or group exhibitions. that inspired the title and structure MEMORY T H E A T E R S This pen-and-ink drawing was made from imagination during research for my PhD. be they a child discovering their vision and dexterity. and I refer back to them for years after they are made. art schools. a drawing book is the perfect portable private vehicle for your imminent exploration of drawing. or engineer. but because it is how I engage with and anchor myself in life. I know that with their cooperation I can soon prove them wrong. architect. I was also reading among The Confessions of St. These inspirations led me to invent museums. For me personally. Others can be held in the h a n d or. It is a tool for investigating ideas and recording knowledge. in which he describes himself flying and diving in his imagination through pictorial caverns of knowledge. are made outside as discreet installations. understood (and often misunderstood) our own bodies. a cartographer charting the land. as a visiting professor at universities.Foreword B Y DRAWING THE WORLD AROUND US.

inscribing every fresh part of it with their eager scrapes and trails. Sometimes we draw because we are bored. Rio Pinturas 13. graffiti. and patterns on our clothes. like a great canvas for them to mark. Drawing is international. They have a natural affinity to many modern graffiti signatures.000-9500 bce . not just chosen pictures on our walls but everywhere—maps. signs. in lectures. logos. and in meetings. is not afforded us by drawing. At home and at work we doodle. but more often because drawing actually helps us to focus and take in what is said. a great crowd is raising their hands in greeting.Theseancient silhouettes were drawn with earth pigments rubbed onto rock. We can always read each others drawings. Children cannot be restrained from running across the pristine white lawn of newly fallen snow. "CAVE OF THE HANDS" In this drawing. and we spend our lives reading it. The sense of relief we may feel from the information overload of modern commercial life when visiting a country in which we can no longer read every written word. irreverent to language barriers. Most adults still feel that certain exquisite pleasure on arriving at a beach to find the tide out and the sand perfect.8 INTRODUCTION Where We Begin There is a fundamental drive in our human nature to make a mark. scrawling shapes and cartoons when on the telephone. waving to us from many thousands of yearsago. Cueva de las Marios. We are surrounded by drawings in our daily lives. packaging. We are bombarded with linear and tonal pictorial information.

power. In cave paintings like the one opposite. Cave art was not made for decoration but as a fundamental part of life. I. The image above is what I gave back to my mother. and she kept it as my first step beyond the delighted realms of scrawl. reflecting my experience of looking closely at my father's face. Even though it is made by a toddler this image would be recognizable to anyone.9 WHERE WE BEGIN FIRST PORTRAIT For sorre forgotten reason. created by societies of hunter-gatherers. the hair of my first portrait was most important. had happily scribbled. an expression of existence. I was sitting with my mother. and the appearance of my strikes of colors. MAKING OUR MARK It seems reasonable to assume that we have engaged in pictorial mark-making for as long as we have made conscious use of our hands. enjoying the physical sensation of crayon on paper. like all toddlers. On a particular afternoon in September 1974. we see our oldest surviving images. at age two-anda-half. I now think this is a picture of proximity. but I had never yet attempted to figuratively picture my world. She gave me a notepad and a red crayon and asked me to draw her "a picture of Daddy. who in their day-to-day hardship made time to picture themselves and the animals on which they depended. and belonging to place. . Eyelashes take up as much of my attention as the head itself." Until this day.

for example. Young children love to draw.10 INTRODUCTION PEN-AND-INK BEE This tiny drawing has been enlarged to show its texture and composition. and this activity plays a vital role in their d e v e l o p m e n t . most of us stop. to help a stranger see their way W h e n taking first steps in relearning h o w to draw. and from that first unit build and describe the shape of something or someone we know. yet still turn to drawing w h e n their verbal language fails or is inadequate. h o w e v e r small a n d u n f o r m e d y o u believe they are. But as adolescents. b e p r o u d o f what m a k e s y o u r w o r k individual to y o u . Inhibitions creep in and ideas of good a n d b a d terminate confidence. As you progress. It was made with a few bold strokes of a steel pen dipped in ink to conjure the dried bee I was holding between my fingers on a pin. then drag o u r line into a loop. Don't b e p e r s u a d e d to draw in a w a y s o m e o n e else . PROGRESSION T h e r e is a point in all o u r lives w h e n w e first c o n t r o l o u r mark and m a k e it a line. At this point many will insist they cannot draw. Hours are lost immersed in the glorious world of imagination. it is important to value your natural abilities a n d ways of seeing. W e do n o t hesitate to draw a map.

I meet students struggling unhappily with a particular method of drawing. He used leftover ship and yacht paint with crayons on cut-out pieces of cardboard boxes. and they have never questioned why. Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse c. After experimenting and trying each new idea. 1925-42 53/8x87/8in (135 x 225 mm) ALFRED WALLIS prefers and tells you is better. Think how much would have been lost if anyone had interfered with Alfred Wallis' personal sense of proportion and perspective in the exquisite drawing above. remember that all advice is only advice. I ask them their reasons for drawing. Occasionally. The journey of every artist demands hard work and discipline. As you read this b o o k and perhaps attend art classes.11 PROGRESSION A UNIQUE SIGHT This innocent yet sophisticated drawing of boats. . Enjoy the control of your own journey. you must decide whether to keep or discard it. and which aspects of the vast wealth and diversity of graphic language would be most appropriate to their goals. what they most want to achieve. He was a retired Cornish fisherman and junk dealer who began drawing at the age of 70 "for company" after his wife died. but it does help to set out facing in the right direction. harbor and sea is one of many that Alfred Wallis made from memory while sitting at home. Someone once told them they must draw in this way.

wrote as the opening line of this great work. embedded in this book. and inspire others. clear-minded understanding of the sea. author of The Story of Art. We all see differently. When we look back at Wallis' seascape (see p. but it should be the experienced world we draw. the page bristles with the focus of ideas. and breathtaking wind of a choppy harbor. Our imaginations are the tools with which we can increase the essence of life. "There really is no such thing as Art. There are only artists.and collarbones and shoulder blades of a different bird almost become new creatures in themselves. There are countless reasons for drawing. 11). not for disguise but as a personal choice. Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels LEONARDO DA VINCI . Below. perhaps for comfort or ease as a left-hander or a habitual enjoyment of the challenge. They are also always written backward. The observed world may be our subject. is. We also see differently ourselves. If as artists we nail a subject down too hard. The art historian Professor Sir Ernst Gombrich. There should neve: be a slavish obligation to represent things exactly as we collectively agree we see them. but the child in us knows that this is an all-embracing. all raise water From the Archimedes' screw to Leonardo's own cupped wheel.12 INTRODUCTION VISION All artists see the world differently. we can drive out its spirit. the breast. depending on the occasion and our purpose. be visionary. it may not be accurate to our critical adult eye. right. and lose the very thing that attracted us to it." The clarity and empowerment of these words. I hope. boats. We BIRD STUDIES The flutter of faint scratches that dance across the pages on the right is an attempt to see the movement and bony weightlessness of a bird. His notes visually balance his drawings. IDEAS A N D I N V E N T I O N S These active machines.

Each fresh image reflects growing confidence and the experience of the preceding study. make a calculation.13 VISION should not try to know how every finished picture will look. stripped-down parts. conduct an experiment. drawing in pursuit of our own thoughts and understanding. Opposite. or illustrate a dream. I drew to understand the apparatus of flight. Leonardo drew to invent a machine. More was learned drawing the bird 18 times than would have been understood drawing it only once or twice. while below. It will be invested through your experience in the new drawing. when it looks tired and still feels wrong. Decide before you start whether you are drawing to warm up. This also applies if struggling at length with a larger picture. shout against a terrible injustice. or to discover the best use of a new material. time spent is not lost. . Don't be disheartened. it may be best to start afresh. My drawings of a housemartin (opposite top) illustrate the importance of repeated study. to express the beauty in a moment's play of light. Our drawings are annotated investigations into the mechanisms of nature and of an idea. We have both covered our paper with focused. but it is important to be clear why we are making it.

You must also think of its intrinsic nature: its purpose. This is a detail of a brush-and-ink drawing by a Japanese Buddhist monk. the unknown. and what you discover in the process of making. and we can just make out the distant stains of mountains. If you can do this. Landscape in Haboku Style 15TH CENTURY . Whatever the material— wood. metal. As your hand meets the paper to make a mark. Our position asvieweris unsteady. size. or imagine—it is not enough to only render its shape. we are advised or even required to plan our pictures. are both made of ink laid onto wet paper with speed and agile certainty. These two brush drawings. As you draw any subject—something you see. feel. your marks will become the subject on the paper. or ice—you must actually feel it beneath your fingers as you draw. created centuries and cultures apart. Know the texture. and allowed to flow through the brush. which can offer keys to other things. and spirit of each subject was held strongly but loosely between the fingertips. The physicality. balance. However.14 INTRODUCTION ALCHEMY At school. and position in space. BRUSHED LANDSCAPE FLOWING SKELETON T h e gliding poise of this walking anatomy comes as much from the feeling of movement as it does from the feeling of drawing. Each image relied upon past experience to know the probable behavior of the brush. silk. explain the composition. depth. W e float toward the quiet vista as it also moves toward us. bone. and paper. This suits many artists well and is perfectly valid. We are caught in a shifting focus that makes everything fluid. It denies the importance of accident. it should be responding to the sensation and meaning of the subject it draws. Imagine these qualities so strongly that you feel them in your mind and at your fingertips. They each allowed the energy and focus of the moment to be expressed through controlled accident and a degree of the unknown Both drawings were made trusting the marks. and how it feels to the touch. and practice each part before putting the final image together. excessive planning can get in the way of the imagination. and at speeds beyond conscious thought. fire. This is the alchemy of drawing. and an island brushed with trees. meaning. I made it almost unconsciously with a pen and a brush. and sometimes beyond. temperature. mists. water. and opacity of your subject. trusting my intuition to find a visual equivalence for the sensation of weight within my body. ink. declare the idea.


He dazzles us with flashes o f light and dabbed marks o f shadow. which evoke realities o f place and the p o w e r o f moment. stand table-sized with furniture legs attached t o b o t h sides of their jacket. gold leaf and spray paint. c. acrylic. more than 100 years after its making.1896 Woman at her Toilet 41 x 26 in (104 x 66 cm) TOULOUSE LAUTREC RIB-CAGE D R A M A Thus drama. one of many luminous works in watercolor. like folded insects. W a l t e r also makes books: some. Focusing on the Negative 2004 22 x 30 in (56 x 76 cm) J O H N WALTER . lives on. right is set inside a rib cage. pastel. left.16 INTRODUCTION PLACE A N D MOMENT The heat and teeming atmosphere o f this Parisian dressing room. Lautrec's flamboyant splashes o f petticoats and pantaloons are drawn with long sweeps of chalk and brushed oil paint. made by a young British artist who creates alphabets o f the absurd f r o m familiar childhood characters.

and mistakes are a valuable process of learning. With no help and advice at all. you will be surprised and encouraged to see how far you have come. Start by choosing a material you like the look of and cover a piece of paper with different marks. you will naturally make progress on your own in response to concentration and the decision to look and draw. FREEINGTHEHAND . Ignore these at first and allow yourself the freedom to play. As you follow lessons in this book. take your time and don't worry if you need to make several attempts to grasp a concept.17 FREEING THE HAND If you are just beginning to learn how to draw. Enjoy discovering what your hand and the material can do. Such books are personal: the territory of new exploration and experiment. at a point when you feel you are not making progress. Pages do not have to lie open for other people to inspect and comment on. Choose other materials and do the same. try not to grip your pen worrying about the technical terms you might have heard. potential ideas still forming. One of the advantages of a drawing book is that you can shut it. even those you dislike. It is yours. diary-like observations. Much will be learned on these test sheets and in your first drawings. just through the act of making. Put them away and look at them later. and miscellaneous items of inspiration. Drawing is exploratory. Try to keep all of your first drawings.

In the total wealth of these pages. The chapters of this book present 90 different artists' ways of seeing. Its sensuous and flowing line seems to drift like smoke. To these I have added my own drawings to explain elementary materials and techniques and offer introductory approaches. comes from within. when they are more experienced. Picasso is poised smiling. Imagination needs nourishment. which is held frozen in space by a camera lens. Note that the drawing classes are allocated to subjects. we still only glimpse a corner of the magnitude of this subject and the infinity of what can be achieved. it is this voice that is the subtle part of their art and something that ultimately. seek ideas in the life around you. As you draw. I was particularly attracted to their gentle articulation and understated determination. This practical journey will take you through the door into the vivid heart of drawing. 150). Picasso has just finished his drawing. It rarely flourishes in isolation. which of course he cannot see. Picasso Painting with Light at the Madoura Pottery 1949 . threedimensionally.18 INTRODUCTION THE THINKING EYE Techniques and materials are the grammar and vocabulary of drawing and can be studied and shared. the path is yours. adapting its form and occupation. and became a great subject for me. and many more reasons for drawing the world.Their elegant strength seems to summon a lifetime of drawing. it will be your creation as you discover your own personal vision. The real drawing book has yet to come. ELECTRIC BULL With a penlight. Drawing is a living language that over millennia has grown and changed. However. caught between action and repose. and enfolding new media. Look to your own experience and also learn from the work of others. Once there. staring straight through his image of a bull. A N ARTIST'S HANDS These are the hands of the artist Phyll Kiggell (see p. but not confined to them. An artist's personal voice is something that also evolves through lessons learned.


They can be very expensive in art stores. 6. study the structure of a good portfolio and make your own. 5.q u a l i t y r i n g . it is better to have them made at a lumber yard or home improvement store. c o l o r If planning t o use pencils. c h o o s e s m a l l e r h a r d . b e a w a r e t h a t p a p e r t e x t u r e effects a n d changes t h e i r marks. binding. Alternatively. A high-quality one will last a DRAWING BOOKS Select d r a w i n g b o o k s t o suit y o u r aims. H O M E M A D E : I m a d e this b o o k f r o m drawing paper that I folded. texture. thickness.B O U N D PADS: T h e s e are t h e least expensive a n d useful f o r o p e n i n g flat. color. If you intend to carry your boards for a distance. Art students often make use of printed books picked up from secondhand stores into which they draw. is perfect. Many artists invent ways o f binding their o w n books. N o t e t h e w i d e l y differing c h o i c e o f p a p e r s w i t h w h i c h t h e s e are m a d e . pastels. quality. These are perfect f o r w o r k i n g in novels. You simply need two strong boards hinged together well. Purchase a h i g h . cheap corrugated plastic ones fall apart in days. Smooth plywood. t h i s is h o w I l e a r n e d . which are also sold in an enormous range. a n d r e f e r e n c e b o o k s f o u n d in s e c o n d . It is also useful to own a portfolio. T h e hardb o a r d j a c k e t is s t r e t c h e d w i t h canvas beneath t h e p a p e r sleeve. 2. thick enough not to flex.b o u n d b o o k w i l l s o o n s h o w y o u h o w it is m a d e . 1. and handles to lift the weight of your artworks.b o u n d p a d if y o u w i s h t o keep your drawings together long-term. Most contain thin p a p e r and are perfect f o r use w i t h disposable pens.C O V E R E D H A R D B O U N D : Ideal f o r c a r r y i n g a r o u n d . F o r e v e n i n g classes. H o w e v e r r i n g bindings o f t e n break. stitched. t h e i r jackets w i l l a c t like d r a w i n g b o a r d s a n d p r o t e c t y o u r w o r k . Homemade books can be assembled easily from found materials or selections of loose sheet papers. be sure they fit comfortably under your arm. F O U N D B O O K S : O l d p r i n t e d 3 . a l e n g t h o f black elastic t i e d a r o u n d t h e m i d d l e will h o l d the contents together w h e n y o u f o l d in c o l l e c t e d items. and cost. C O L O R E D PAPERS: Large a r t supply stores o f t e n sell t h i c k b o o k s full o f c o l o r e d p a p e r s . cut. There are dozens to choose from. a n d crayons.20 INTRODUCTION Drawing Books and Papers T o BEGIN YOUR EXPLORATION o f d r a w i n g . and collage their ideas. y o u n e e d a lifetime. ties on either side to keep your papers in place. 2002 Tantalus o r The Future of Man 81/2 x61/4in (215 x 158 mm) ROSE MILLER .h a n d s t o r e s make unique subjects f o r e x p e r i m e n t s a n d collage. c h o o s e larger f o r m a t s t o give y o u s c o p e f o r e x p e r i m e n t . Sand the edges to avoid splinters. 4. BLACK P O C K E T B O O K S : Hand-sized w i t h ready-made elastic binder and a marker ribbon. Dissecting a d i s c a r d e d h a r d . F o r traveling. and glued t o a s t r i p o f bias binding. drawing book. C A N V A S .b o u n d b o o k s t h a t fit in y o u r p o c k e t o r bag. Drawing boards are invaluable. R I N G . Calculate a range of useful dimensions and have several cut at once. Gleaming store purchases vary greatly in format. catalogs.

16. C A N S O N : Inexpensive lightweight pastel paper in many colors. METALLIC PAPER: Thin paper in different metallic colors. FABRIANO R O U G H 600GMS: Very heavy.TISSUE PAPER: Place sheets between drawing book pages to keep images from printing on each other and use for delicate collage. Cotton papers are high-quality and acid-free. also good for drawing with colored pencils. T W O RIVERS GREEN 410G MS: Very heavy tinted textured cold-pressed watercolor paper See Two Rivers Yellow. T W O RIVERS Y E L L O W 410GMS: See Two Rivers Green 19. They are hand-. SAUNDERS WATERFORD N O T 300GMS: Mid-quality textured watercolor paper. cold. blocks. Cheap wood-pulp papers are acidic. Use for brushwork drawings. tough. 14. 10. mold-. mulberry. smooth.5 9 ) for explanations of rough. and other plant fibers. It is also excellent for drawing with marker pens on layered sheets. and rolls. used to imprint lines of these colors onto a surface. PAPERS . blocks. not. 100% cotton and sold in sheets. bamboo. 22. 11. color. GLASSINE: Sold as protective wrapping. Ph. from pencil to paint 9. and cost. 21. 17. For use with any media. or machine made in sheets. 12. printed on one side only. fine. yellow. It is available in white or cream. texture. FABRIANO INGRES: Thin. and hot pressed papers. C A R B O N PAPER: Available in dark and light blue. Use with a brush in clean water Water makes a dark mark like ink and becomes invisible again when dry. and cream sheets or rolls. absorbency. 7. ITALIAN PARCHMENT: Imitation-animal-skin parchment that is translucent and slightly waxy. 8. pastel paper in flecked pastel colors with a distinctive ribbed marking. 2 5 6 . and white.Papers differ in thickness (weight). it is made from rice. 20. 18. and translucent. 13. Use cheap paper for rough ideas and quality paper for work to last See the glossary ( p p . resisting deterioration. or rolls. AQUARELLE ARCHES 300GMS:The very top quality hot-pressed (smooth) watercolor paper. turning brown and brittle. MAGIC PAPER: A reusable sheet for testing ideas without creating waste. FABRIANO ACADEMIA: Standard medium-range multipurpose paper Use with any media. red. white textured paper that can take abrasive use of any medium. JAPANESE PAPER: Strong. VELIN ARCHES 250GMS: Printmaking paper available in black white. size. 15.

Ideally. This photograph illustrates how some people hold a pen to write. You do not have to dance to draw. but you need to understand that the expression of a line or mark originates in the body and flows t h r o u g h the shoulder. You cannot draw like this—your hand is locked and your fingers can barely move. If seated on a b e n c h easel (a donkey). a n d h a n d to the fingertips. a n d look to the left of it at your subject. If your hand twists to maneuver between the paper and your body. but wherever possible. flowing space between your hand. Examples are shown here. In this book we will look at parallels between drawing and music. With your hand in this position. How you hold your drawing materials is also important. 116-17). your drawing will reflect this. you Drawing classes can be cramped places. and look to the right. should be able to look comfortably straight ahead at your picture plane. Relaxed fingers: Hold the pencil away from its tip and relax your fingers. . place it on your right. strangledlooking drawings. It will also reflect discomfort if you are in any way cramped. If using an upright easel. arm. Placing your easel o n the w r o n g side folds y o u r b o d y against your drawing arm. if left-handed. place it on the correct side: if right-handed. From a distance you will spot errors you cannot see close up. Regularly step back 6-9 ft (2-3 m) to check your progress. place it on your left. you can draw lines freely and achieve a significant arc of movement. and subject. or with your drawing board angled between your lap and a chair. make sure you have enough room to back away and view your work. If your body posture is well balanced and you can move freely. SPACE TO WORK Cramped grip.22 INTRODUCTION Posture and Grip T o DRAW WELL. b u t it should n o t be forgotten that many people make remarkable a n d striking works drawing with their feet or holding their brush or pencil in their mouths. Use the side of your little fingernail as a support on the page. There are also parallels to dance. This cramped grip tires your hand and makes small. Accelerated perspective also occurs if you look down the surface steeply (see pp. your lines will distort. body. your whole relaxed b o d y should be involved. don't sit too close to the paper. Turning your drawing sideways or upside-own will also help reveal what is wrong. There should be an open.

ALL MEDIA There are no rules as to how you should hold your drawing media. Large scale: POSTURE AND GRIP U n f a m i l i a r i t y : T h e habitual movements of our handwriting style will sometimes infringe upon our drawing. arm. find an unfamiliar. Remember you can also draw just by dipping your fingers in pigment—this is how many women draw in rural India. hold your material as you find most comfortable. This can give a new lease on life to your mark-making. liquid will run down your hand. But be careful not to tense your fingers. . and body are not restricted. It is most comfortable when reaching to draw above your head. As long as your fingers. or it can spoil your work if not anticipated. depending upon what it is and how large you are working. alternative way of holding the pencil. To stop this. roughly marking out a large-scale work. If you turn a brush or dip pen up into the air to draw above your hand.23 This loose "candle" grip is very useful when drawing with your arm extended. GRAVITY Remember that gravity affects the flow of ink and paint. Brush calligraphy: This comfortable. Large amounts of ink can be applied without fear of uncontrolled running if the paper is flat. or change to the wrong hand. Soft media: Short materials such as pastels and charcoal can be accommodated in the palm.232-33). not up to the paper Brushes can be used on upright paper but dip Anticipating effects: A fully loaded pens need a level surface. upright way of holding the brush near its base is similar to the Japanese way used in Zen calligraphy (see pp. This can be used to great effect. brush pressed against an upright surface will cause a dribble of ink to run down your drawing.


This drawing is made in black lead (metal point) with watercolor Highlights of silver would have gleamed. birds. and learn how to Flying Fish c.drawe to lief one of each kinde of thing that is strange to us in England. W e have drawn them in m a n u s c r i p t s to explain our genesis and to c o u n t their species into Noah's ark. out are now oxidized and so appear black W h e n less preoccupied with understanding ourselves. their different speeds and patterns of action. W h e n lost to explain our own emotions. In medieval England. Facial features were analyzed in terms of their animal likeness. We have drawn them on the walls of caves to evoke their kinship and power. plants. we have employed artists on expeditions. dogs. 11 x91/4in (277 x 234 mm) . who described in words what White drew. and dragons. mermaids. which very likely leaped o n t o the deck of Sir Walter Raleigh's ship Tiger as it sailed north from the Caribbean to Virginia in 1585. JOHN WHITE British artist. and snakes have between them engendered harpies. After the subject of ourselves. or scampering through the initials and borders of pictures from that time. the Latin bestiary was one of the most popular picture books—an illustrated dictionary of one hundred parts. we turn and take the features of beasts. and people. In 19th-century Europe this became a "science. animals provide a perfect subject with which to begin. As children we delight in the humanized trials of Tom and Jerry and their c a r t o o n relations. For the novice artist. offer challenges and delights to draw. they are perhaps our favorite pictorial preoccupation. sleeping dogs. to be there at the m o m e n t of discovery. White's commission was to ". Here (left) we see J o h n White's exquisite record of a flying fish. In this chapter we discover the use of pens and ink through the delineation of insects.. and we still see escapees from its pages carved and grinning as the gargoyles of churches. m u s e u m . 1540.Animals H UMANS HAVE DRAWN ANIMALS from the beginning of our time. Framed in the z o o or in domestic cohabitation. and this very drawing was to endure many copies and plagiarisms after its triumphant return to the English court of Queen Elizabeth I. which are so unlike ours. " Animals perpetually feed our imaginations. fish. each dedicated to the moralized tale of an animal or monster The bestiary profoundly influenced the art of its period. 1590 J O H N WHITE capture form and movement from the m a n n e r i s m s of honking geese. and pioneer born c. bats. insects. and silent. O v e r the centuries. werewolves. floating turtles. On the Roanoke voyages of Sir Walter Raleigh.. Europeans on board had never seen such a thing." He worked with the scientist Thomas Harriot. from which personality and predicted behavior were " d e d u c e d . and to bring h o m e drawn documentaries of their finds. Together they made maps and documented animals." Paranoid newcomers c r a m m e d into swelling industrial cities used handbooks of physiognomy to identify and judge their neighbors. cartographer.m o u n t e d skeletons of birds.

The first live rhinoceros to reach Europe came from India in May 1515. Meanwhile. DURER'S RHINOCEROS AND STUBBS'S skeletal Durer. Contemporary texts related accounts of the beast as the mortal enemy of the elephant and rare relative of the "more common" unicorn. draftsman. a drawing of it arrived in Nuremberg. Durer's image changed eager hands until it was known across Europe. printmaker. and wrote four books on proportion. It is such a lifelike triumph of imagination and intelligence that for centuries zoologists never questioned its authority. It was to become the animal's only accepted likeness for 250 years. a gift to the Portuguese King. they were rejected. it is still consulted by veterinarians today. Life-like This is Durer's original quill-and-ink drawing made after an anonymous Portuguese drawing. Carefully stuffed. Converted into a print. it continued its journey to Rome. He studied the image and drew his own interpretation. Unsurpassed. naturalist.26 ANIMALS Documentaries horse are superb affirmations of the power of drawing as a recorder and communicator of knowledge. when more accurate portrayals were made without armor and scales. years after its publication. the home of ALBRECHT DURER German Renaissance painter. He in turn sent the mysterious creature to the Pope via Marseilles at the request of the King of France. writer. but the drowned animal washed ashore. Durer traveled widely to study at different European schools of art. Sailing to Rome. the ship was lost. Original Ink Drawing of a Rhinoceros 1515 ALBRECHT DURER 103/4 x 161/2 in ( 2 7 4 x 4 2 0 mm) . filled journals with ideas and observations. inspiring countless works of art and so touching people's imaginations that later. and mathematician. Stubbs's Anatomy of the Horse achieved similar documentary status.

The entire project was developed over ten years. Dissections were made over a total of 18 months. is no other work like it. Lighting Stubbs's breathtaking international work won immediate There acclaim. in t h r e e v i e w s — r e a r f r o n t . which has never diminished. knowledge of parts. Stubbs w a s o n e o f t h e first E u r o p e a n artists t o m a k e a n a c c u r a t e representation o f the rhinoceros. a n d anatomist. Anatomy of the Horse. dissecting and drawing until he understood the mechanisms of its power and grace. L o n d o n . He composed makes each horse appear so real and each plate from his three-dimensional. composed from notes and observations.GEORGE STUBBS B r i t i s h e q u i n e a n d s o c i e t y p o r t r a i t painter. naturalist. Table of the III of the Horse (rear Skeleton view) mm) 1756-58 1 4 x 7 in ( 3 5 4 x 1 8 0 GEORGE STUBBS . a n d s i d e . Dissections Stubbs took his knife and his pencil and physically climbed inside the horse. c o m p r i s e s 1 8 p l a t e s s h o w i n g d i s s e c t i o n s in l a y e r s f r o m b o n e t h r o u g h m u s c u l a t u r e t o skin. This is one of Stubbs' original finished pencil drawings. His painted p o r t r a i t o f t h e b e a s t is in t h e R o y a l C o l l e g e o f S u r g e o n s o f England. Stubbs's m o s t c e l e b r a t e d publication. He translated his own drawings into engravings for publication. and therefore invented the lighting that Compare how Stubbs and Durer both invented lighting to portray the reality of their animals.

and leader of the French Romantic movement.. more or less what I have in view.. her b o n y frame. the ominous beast unwinds from the dark of the sea and of our nightmares. A s if disturbed from its gritty b e d by our presence and curiosity. her sharp teeth. conjured b y the hand of a great author of French literary fiction. snarl. The Hunchback of Notre Layers and shadows Throughout this drawing. Gericault took a sharp p e n c i l to m a k e repeated direct o b s e r v a t i o n s f r o m life. He wrote to poet and art critic Charles-Pierre Baudelaire about his experiments.. Hugo's novels Les Miserables and Dame have become classics of film and stage. His copious drawings are characterized by mixed media. and a love of accident. By contrast. Apparently drawn in its o w n ink. drawing her again and again to pin d o w n the texture of her loose skin. sepia. Hugo's page is f l o o d e d w i t h the fearful presence of a remembered octopus. and Pieuvre 1866-69 91/2 x81/8in (242 x 207 mm) VICTOR H U G O . linseed oil soaked into the paper has made shadows and repelled the ink to create translucent tentacles. and turn. H u g o mixed his media and drew from m e m o r y and imagination to create narrative atmosphere. playwright. charcoal. I've ended up mixing in pencil. coal dust. VICTOR HUGO Poet. Mixed media Here. novelist. it silently rises to the light. ink and linseed oil on paper. Gericault's sheet a p p e a r s almost s c r a t c h e d b y the f e r o c i o u s play of his cat. He has w a t c h e d her p o u n c e . Surrounding sprays of graphite powder are stuck into washes of oil and ink to suggest glutinous depths.. and her distinctive temperament. soot. The octopus is formed in layers applied and distressed with a brush. and all sorts of bizarre concoctions which manage to convey above all in mind.". drama. saying ". Hugo used graphite powder.28 ANIMALS Presence and Mood THESE DRAWINGS HAVE BEEN CHOSEN to s h o w t w o v e r y different ways of picturing a wild animal.

and keep trying again. At the center of the page is crammed drawings the outline of a horse. parallel. Tones that do not follow surface contour is very difficult to do well. Paris.l i v e d French R o m a n t i c painter and lithographer Largely self-taught. Before paper became so cheap. Beginners are advised to follow the natural contours of form as shown on pp. undertraces unify and vitalize the composition. fiery. 144. since it can lead to a flattened form. Here. 124-25 and p.29 THEODORE GERICAULT C o n t r o v e r s i a l . Undertraces Beneath these graphite studies we see traces Tones On the top row we see clearly how Gericault laid broad areas of tone using fast. The Raft of the Medusa. H e is best k n o w n f o r his gigantic painting. facing right. Repeated study This drawing demonstrates of feeling confident repeat different the importance subject Remaining enough to isolate parts of a views. artists reused sheets and them full of studies. of previous Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 1817-18 121/2 x 151/2 in ( 3 1 9 x 3 9 8 mm) T H E O D O R E GERICAULT . standing sideways. and it can be applied to any subject (see pp. horses w e r e a favorite subject t o g e t h e r w i t h politics and history.118-119). focused upon seeing will lead to a greater understanding of the subject Much is learned from repeated study. s h o r t . of drawings Gericault erased. diagonal strokes of his pencil. displayed in the Louvre.

Picasso cofounded Cubism. gray. draftsman. or proud. taking them to guide their hand in bringing form and essence together. and scrolled lines. flapping bird. The fact that they never stand still influences the movement in his line. hooked. flattened animals composed almost entirely of movement. with George Braque (see p90). and waves breaking distantly below. Artists commonly focus on such actions. the whinnying of a frantic horse. The ink is used to make sharply defined solid. dissolving faun kneels stranded. In Picasso's drawing. In these two drawings. His powdery. noise is everywhere. the first abstract movement of the 20th century. Cheval et Oiseau 1936 173/8 x 211/4 in ( 4 4 0 x 5 4 0 m m ) PABLO PICASSO . Ink and gouache This drawing is made in black Chinese ink and gouache (opaque watercolor) applied with a brush. Klee's riders are constructed from all the gestures of greeting mules. we see semi-abstract. made only a year apart. overwhelmed by a screeching bird. These media complement and amplify each other with their brilliant contrast. printmaker ceramicist graphic and stage designer who lived in France. Faune. Gouache is brushed softly in translucent hazy layers of cool blue. slow tortoise. Both Picasso and Klee have enclosed their subjects to compress and amplify the speed of PABLO PICASSO A prolific Spanish painter sculptor. identify an animal: the fast cheetah. His hand must have shuddered and twitched just like the constant actions of this humorous meeting. quivering horse. and brown.30 ANIMALS Movement M O V E M E N T IS OFTEN THE CHARACTERISTIC b y w h i c h w e their lines and the power of their beasts.

He is a u t h o r o f The Thinking Eye (1923). violinist. The entire drawing suggests the endless small movements of horses standing still. N e u m a n n Family Collection. turning our eye and around inside the and postures of the paper- thin on pictorial space. Layers of marks In this pale Dentil drawing we see layers of' agitated marks that together present a kind of visual "itch. creatures. top all happily of each other in the Endless lines Look closely at how Klee's lines rarely leave the paper and how they are free from the constraint of finite shape.PAUL KLEE Swiss painter. and t e a c h e r at t h e Bauhaus school." They chatter around bodies in groups. Scene der Komischen of Comical Reiter Riders) (Scene 1935 161/2x111/2in ( 4 1 9 x 2 9 1 mm) M o r t o n G . well-worn copies o f w h i c h are found in m a n y art schools. sculptor. draftsman. They remain in contact with the surface of the page and scribble back and forth as they maneuver from one area to another. Chicago PAUL KLEE . W i t h his drawings Kleeb o u n d sophisticated theories to personal and often witty childlike imagery. printmaker.

Baker did not intend this. His birds stare. The fish It is likely that Baker drew with a quill dipped in irongall ink. the expression of its eye. Exquisite details in this drawing include the lips of the fish. B a k e r initiated t h e scientific p r a c t i c e o f naval a r c h i t e c t u r e and applied h y d r o d y n a m i c s . seemingly looking for our attention. Below we see his revolutionary design for an Elizabethan warship. This drawing illustrates Baker's theory. b a s e d o n his studies o f fish. In contrast to the practical clarity of Baker's thought. and blackbirds fly in formation through a mosaic of text. which in application gave strength and advantage to the English fighting the Spanish Armada. it would achieve greater speed. The ship The upper decks of the ship appear curved toward us at both ends. Baker lived in an era when ships were built without drawn plans. adding washes of color with a fine brush. He studied the anatomy of fish. Knopf's drawing opposite is the personal enigmatic expression of a mind gripped by illness. and the carefully observed gills. balance. and author o f Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (1586). and s e c t i o n s o f ships. and from them learned that if he designed his ship with a "cod's head MATTHEW BAKER Master shipwright. slim stern). and to assess our next move. and scales. t h e earliest geometrically defined elevations. later called a galleon.32 ANIMALS Icon and Design IN THESE T W O MANUSCRIPTS we discover diagrammatic and mackerel's tail" (full bow. mathematician. plans. and steerage. In just one drawing he has displayed more angles of his design than we would expect to see from a single viewpoint Fragments English 1586 101/2 x 153/8 in (270 x 390 mm) MATTHEW BAKER of Ancient Shipwrightry . It is simply how we read his perspective. fins. drawings of animals that are each held tightly in a surprising space: a giant fish wears a ship's hull.

numbered. T h e G e r m a n a r t historian Outline and tone The blackbirds illuminating this frantic manuscript are drawn in pencil. circle and the birds. appears to be stirred like water by the presence of the The Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks UNDATED 133/8 x 115/8 in (340 x 2 9 6 mm) and psychiatrist Hans Prinzhom collected this image. JOHANN KNOPF . firmly outlined.JOHANN KNOPF An " O u t s i d e r " a r t i s t w h o s u f f e r e d f r o m m e n t a l illness. and filled evenly with tone. The main group is placed in a circle drawn with a compass. written last of all.K n o p f b e l i e v e d h e c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h e language o f birds. The text. w h i c h o f t e n f e a t u r e as s y m b o l i c creatures in his drawings.

which range greatly in their handling and character of line.34 ANIMALS Pen and Ink W I T H A HANDFUL OF FEATHERS. and it is still in use today." "Gum" refers to gum arabic extracted Dip pens are essential and inexpensive drawing tools. Masters choose brands of long. The reservoir gives a constant flow of ink for very long unbroken lines and continuous bottle-free use. expressive drawing techniques such as the ones we explore in this chapter 1. 3. high-quality Chinese and Japanese inks are subtler and more complex than those produced in Europe. Only fill with suitable inks. a n d m e t a l p o i n t s . METAL PENS: Inexpensive removable steel nibs are available in a range of widths. That is an ink. s t i c k s . they are associated with rapid. spots. A German recipe of 1531 gives a simple description: "Take a wax candle. which scratch rather than draw. while metal nibs began as rare gifts in gold and silver before being perfected by the British steel industry. where reeds were gathered. Dip pens began their history in the Nile River. producing a different line. Each pen has a unique character. They fit into wooden holders. QUILLS: These are cut from the barrel of a flight or tail feather. 5 0 0 years ago. simultaneously 4 . and spatters can be made with an exotic choice of inks. distinguished manufacture. from the acacia tree. Early artists recommended raven and crow for especially fine work. F O U N T A I N PENS: These vary in quality and nib width. Today. Quills were later cut from feathers. The paste from either recipe is pressed and dried into a bar for storage. you can have great fun drawing the world around you. Responsive to slight changes in pressure. In the Far East. and hold it under a clean basin until the soot hangs to it. then pour a little warm gum water into it and temper the two together. and first used by the Egyptians. The best are goose or swan.246-47). The Chinese used animal or fish glue. light it. PENS . ink is traditionally applied with a brush (see pp. 4. the recipes for which have been handed down over centuries. Avoid needle-sharp mapping pens. REED PENS: A broad nib can be cut from bamboo or another tubular grass. Intricate or dramatic lines. The Egyptians and Chinese are credited with the invention of carbon ink. The bar is then rubbed into water on a slate block to produce ink. 2.

waterproof or non-waterproof. Waterproof types contain shellac. and can be mixed and diluted to create subtler colors and tones. C A R B O N INK: Traditionally produced from oil or resin soot (Lamp Black). charred bone (Ivory Black). 8. Excellent for drawing they are bright and non-clogging. an often misused term. roastedwine sediment (Yeast Black). iron-gall. Now we also have acrylic ranges in many colors. Crushed. Inks can be lightfast or non-lightfast. and are still in use today: carbon (Chinese and Indian). 5. dated. It dries with a sheen and clogs uncleaned pens. is the ink of a cuttlefish or squid extracted post-mortem.G A L L INK: Abnormal spherical growths caused by parasitic wasps can be collected from some oak trees in fall. I N D I A N INK: Carbon ink sold today in liquid form. and sieved. Beechwood soot is best. suspended in a binder and stored as a solid block Blocks are imported today 7. SEPIA A N D BISTRE INKS: Sepia. Non-waterproof Indian inks can be reworked with a wet brush after drying. bistre. . they produce a golden dye for drawing. reduced. They are the easiest inks to use. and most can be homemade.35 PEN AND INK Four types of ink were common before the 20th century. I R O N . or charcoal. INKS 9.36. Old stock turns solid and bottlesChina. ACRYLIC / CALLIGRAPHY INKS: Available in black and a range of colors. The complexities of traditional iron-gall ink are explained on p. from are not 6. boiled. and sepia. Bistre is the more humane use of soot scraped from the fireplace and ground into wine.

Practice to gain a feel for how materials behave. M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s d r a g o n o n p . 2 4 4 is an e x q u i s i t e e x a m p l e . crushed. Scribes o f t h e M i d d l e Ages. The lighter right Quill marks Quills carry more ink than strokes and for as reeds.36 ANIMALS Drawing With Ink To MAKE A QUILL OR REED PEN. Reed marks The darker left wing of this beetle was drawn with the wet inky stroke wing. the blade and cut away from you. Running fresh. QUILL PENS Q u i l l s a r e highly r e s p o n s i v e t o c h a n g e s in p r e s s u r e . Quills are also called D u t c h pens. Rembrandt. Some of Michelangelo's drawings are now a little eaten by their own ink. of a loaded nib. can also be collected from affected trees. Paler strokes were made where the mark has the legs and antennae the ink ran out. for example. and delicious to draw with. appears broken to show paper beneath. d r y mark. then cut a final nib (feathers. keep all your fingers behind basis of iron-gall ink. and turned brown with time. forming the REED PENS R e e dpens dispense ink quickly. Oak galls. sieved. a n d d e v e l o p e d t h e quill instead. fleshy skins that surround ripe walnuts. t h e y stick a n d j u d d e r f o r w a r d . Collect skins from the ground beneath trees once they are blackened. V a n G o g h . It also oxidized and ate or burned paper. I u s e d t h e s e qualities t o d r a w t h e w o r m s above. For centuries. galls were ground with iron sulfate to make an unstable solution.) You can make ink easily from the boiled. since t h e D u t c h w e r e t h e first t o realize t h a t they could be hardened and i m p r o v e d w i t h heat t r e a t m e n t in ash o r sand. U n d e r heavy pressure. r e s e r v e d t h e i r use f o r large c h o i r b o o k s . are surprisingly tough. Walnut ink is gloopy. giving a s h o r t . it was gray-purple. always be cautious when experimenting with recipes. Although oak galls and walnut skins are harmless. red-brown. a n d M a t i s s e also e n j o y e d t h e m . . The darkest of this grasshopper wings) were made (around the head first. T h e y give a finer. m o r e e x t e n d e d line than reed and a m o r e organic line t h a n m e t a l . and boiled to make a golden ink. finding reed p e n s unwieldy. It dried black. giving longer lines. drawn to glisten with a dryer nib. reduced.

Each layer of of the drying droplet dome the drawing was left to dry before adding more. When using dip pens. DRAWING WITH INK Filled outlines Each segment of wing was outlined. . breaking. giving a graded. marks become fine and needle-sharp. sharp. they splay to make thick o r double lines. Loaded with ink and pressed hard. it is important to feel for when the ink will run out and to know how much ink you pick up when dipping the nib. tonal Ink layers The wings of this beetle were drawn in layers using black and white ink on pale gray paper. clean strokes.37 METAL PENS Metal pens give long. The of pigment to fall to the edges effect of the shape. W h e n the nib is pressed upside down. o r being ruined as fountain pens would be under the same pressure. withstanding great pressure without sticking. particles then filled with a droplet of ink. White markings were drawn last Tones Here we see subtle tones of diluted ink beneath the undiluted black rim of a beetle's wing.

test your limits. and there is no "wrong.38 ANIMALS Capturing Character GEESE ARE EXCELLENT SUBJECTS to draw when practicing the first use of pen and ink. Take a cup and water for diluting a range of tones. Cover a sheet. Illustrating this exercise on Oxford Port Meadow. Focus on it. not on your drawing. Dip your pen in ink. Quick drawing trains you to see what is most important about a subject and to mark only its most essential expression. You cannot break the nib. Geese are nosy birds. and boldly plunge into your drawing. be bold and press firmly. and quickly draw around it using only three or four strokes. draw what the bird is doing. Attempt with a loose hand to capture their posture and outline. waddle. steel nibs are fine. Take no more than ten seconds to draw each one and make lots of drawings. That said. make another one. and a large drawing book or plenty of paper Use masking tape to secure pages against the wind. and bellyflop off the waterside." If you don't like a stroke. It teaches confidence and focus through intensive repetition. Pack plenty of tissue around a bottle of calligraphy or acrylic ink. Cover your drawing book pages in speedy responses to the geese and try to capture each bird in as few lines as possible. Focus on the geese. Empathize. Study them before drawing. to absorb blots when drawing. It happens that goose feathers also provide artists with the best type of quills. and be brave. Try to hold the whole posture in your mind's eye. there is no obligation to prepare a quill. Posture . touch the bottle's rim to drain the excess. Experiment. so pick a spot where other people can keep them entertained. Watch their heavy feathered bodies flap. I covered eleven sheets in sixty quick drawings—in less than an hour. MATERIALS NEEDED Look for a bird expressing a simple posture.

CAPTURING CHARACTER Texture Gradually allow yourself more lines to describe the texture of each bird as well as its posture and action. running. . look among the birds for more complicated actions such as shaking off water.39 Action With growing confidence. Again. Use more lines than before to express these. and don't worry about mechanical facts or accuracy. and diving. Avoid detail unless really tempted by a close-up visit Fluctuate the pressure of your pen in response to how you know the bird would feel if you touched it. draw the feeling of what you see. flapping.

The only time he remained still was when he was sleeping. Dip the nib quickly again into water and again drain it." . and personality. Then dip the nib quickly into a glass of water and drain the excess again. These drawings are not an analysis of his anatomy or breed but the expression of his satisfied comfort in a deep sleep after a night out on the together with a glass of water for diluting tones on the nib. and even then he twitched and stretched in dreams. For this class you will need one oblivious dog.40 ANIMALS Sleeping Dogs R A S WAS A GREAT CHARACTER. form. and a tissue for blotting drawn lines that appear too dark. engaged in his and everyone else's business. a dip pen and ink of your choice (see pp. This will give a medium-gray line. MAKING A PALE LINE To make a pale line. and drain the excess by touching the nib against the rim of the bottle. Ras Curled Up Asleep "Capturing the true character of a cherished companion is best achieved with objective determination rather than sentimental shyness. Sleeping animals present the artist with ideal opportunities to study their texture. a d o g w h o w a s a l w a y s town. your drawing book. Make a test sheet to discover your control of diluting on the nib. first dip your pen in ink.34-37). Now it will make a pale line.

D o not go back over lines you are pleased with—doing so dulls their lively freshness. second thoughts may be different Changing your mind is a positive aspect o f seeing and thinking. Remain focused on the whole dog and. Trust your intuition. First lines are first thoughts. quickly draw what you see.41 DRAWING YOUR DOG Be bold in this exercise. Here I marked the features of Ras's head. to emphasize how he is curled up. 2 Reload your pen with ink. 3 Gradually introduce darker tones. add more detail. and the shadows in his coat. in bold layers. this time to create a line a little darker in tone. Then. ears. To add texture. SLEEPING DOGS 1 Fix your eyes at the center of the dog. I added ink to Ras's nose. alter the pressure and moisture of your line in response to howyouknow your dog feels when you ruffle itscoat. tail. Here. . see how the animal's posture determines its whole shape. c o n c e r n e d a b o u t detail. Layers o f thoughts can bring a drawing alive. W i t h pale lies. Then I immediately rebalanced the drawing with lines around his hind quarters.It is essential when drawing any subject (even something abstract) to know how it feels andtoemulate this with your line. Character is better captured drawing quickly with confidence than w o r k i n g slowly. ignoring all detail.

swinging their limbs and shells with a slow circular movement. they stretch and paddle. THE ELONGATION AND BUOYANCY of a group of turtles is fascinating . as if caught in a camera freeze-frame. A perfect subject for the beginner. offering plenty of time for the artist to draw the pose.Turtles to observe. turtles often pause unexpectedly. Beyond the glass wall of the aquarium.


I made repeated studies of the housemartin to discover its mechanism of flight. and water. balance.Dry Birds THESE ARE THE ARTICULATED BONES o f a k i w i a n d a h o u s e - martin drawn in a museum using a steel pen. Beginning with very pale tones. and sharp. India ink. I sought to capture the form. With speed. . weightlessness of the kiwi. I darkened lines as each drawing progressed. dry.



and the drawn pages ofthesame name. and beauty. and hybridize them for our sustenance and pleasure. Later. Medieval knowledge was not gained by the first-hand observation of life but by reading. Fledgling years Botanist and apothecary who compiled the Hortus Eystettensis of scientific research bore manifold explosions of knowledge in a fever of discovery. The revolution came in the 1530s. we now have laid before us fourto show how well their colours complement each other infinite wealth of material to explore. robust. Early European illustrators were trapped within dogma that was determined by ancient scholarship. and focus.Plants and Gardens W E SHARE THIS PLANET with the more ancient. an There are close parallels between the acts of gardening and drawing. We draw them to celebrate their beauty and range. Botanical illustration is a precisely defined and scientific art. He sent boxes of plants to Nuremburgburned with the urgency and excitement of explaining every plant's form. and to ornament our lives. and texture. B A S I L I U SBESLER when botanists founded new work upon the direct study of plants. on which our lives depend. Both embrace the anticipation of evolving shape. Plants seventeenth century. Rich owners of private gardens commissioned large-format florilegiums commissioned the volume to document his private garden to immortalize their personal taste and power of acquisition. to catalog our knowledge. It was published plain in 1611 and withhand-paintedplates in poured off ships returning from the New World and were eagerly collected and 1613. form. where a number of uncredited artistsd r e wthem for Besler.000 species of plants are depicted life-size drawn. Plants are the principal inspiration of the decorative arts—from Roman Corinthian columns crowned with carved leaves of the acanthus. the punctuation of space with structure and mass. we see very different cultural visions of plants and gardens and use pencils and plants to learn the pictorial values of space. nurture. From its history there is one overriding lesson to be learned: the importance of looking and seeing with our own eyes. and diverse kingdom of plants. After Here Aconthus spinosus is combined with forget-me-nots and-a-half centuries of intensive observation. Classifications were set in367copperengravings. the microscope was refined to unfold yet another world. Botanic gardens were established and expanded.Morethan 1. In this chapter. and the Acanthus spinosus constant but exhilarating struggle to make a living image feel right. Conrad von Gemmingen. manipulations of light and shade. PriceBishopof Eichstatt specimens. Chapters are arranged by out. 1613 187/8x153/4in(480 x 400 mm) BASILIUS BESLER . Patrons funded the breeding of decorative. color. to the proliferation of floral designs with which we have dressed ourselves and furnished our homes for centuries. We collect. shape. season. infinitely vivid. as opposed to only herbal. —-the largest and most influential botanical book of the early Natural scientists accompanied explorers to document unknown finds.

W i t h bright F R A N Z BAUER An Austrian artist who trained at the Schonbrunn Imperial Gardens in Vienna. Sir Joseph Banks. Dissections Across the lower part of this drawing we can see dissections of seed pods and petals. They are counted among the most accomplished 18th-century botanical artists. T h e rest of u s are free to d r a w as w e w i s h . flowers. Botanical art c o n c e a l s the challenge of its m a k i n g . leaves." Her slipper orchid s h o w s that botanical drawing must often resolve the challenge of its subject's p r o d u c i n g parts in different seasons — r o o t s . and wilted. Each plant must b e clearly distinguished from its closest relative. petal tip over a lower leaf Protea nitida 201/4 x141/4in (513 x 362 mm) FRANZ BAUER 1796 . fruit. and seeds conventionally a p p e a r o n o n e plate. subtle union of beauty. insect-ravaged. or that were diseased. o p e n i n g a n d c l o s i n g i n the w a r m t h a n d light of the studio. naturalist explorer and advisor to King George III invited Bauer to London in 1 7 9 0 . Outline Bauer prepared a pencil outline before laying in fleshy succulent hues and tones of watercolor. Light in this drawing is given by the paleness of the paper showing between washes of darker tones. M a c k i n t o s h e x p r e s s e s the f o l d e d petals of a broken rose b u d so delicately w e can sense the perfume.48 PLANTS AND GARDENS THE SCIENTIFIC VALUE OF A BOTANICAL DRAWING lies i n its Botanical Studies were specimens that often refused to stay still. delicate. o p t i m i s m . and Franz Bauer and his brother Ferdinand were employed there to draw specimens. He has made the spatial and physical relationships in this drawing all the more real by placing a single. Here. Stella Ross-Craig said of the need to d r a w from a dried herbarium plant "I could make it live again. measured drawings. detail. It is likely Bauer would have studied these under a microscope. stems. B e h i n d detailed. s u c h as w e see here in Bauer's Protea nitida. The King was then establishing the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. and meticulous precision.

L o n d o n in 1 9 2 9 . is r e c o g n i z e d as tne m o s t c o m p l e t e a n d i m p o r t a n t work 3. Curtis's Botanical Magazine. 1970 x 81/4 in ( 3 2 5 x 2 1 0 m m ) STELLA ROSS-CRAIG . a n d he inspired. and speed depends upon the immediate perception of the essential characteristics of the plant.. as at trained botanical artist Ross-Craig Swift lines The drawing was planned in pencil and then overworked with a lithographic pen." This line drawing is one of 1. it is small and discreet. p u b l i s h e d 1 9 4 8 . Closer to fiction can come together perfectly. a m o n g o t h e r s . imagination. found among Mackintosh's than reality. S h e also o f thousands o f contributed an drawings. H e r Drawings of British Plants. A s m a n y of her drawings are kept G a r d e n s . sensual pencil drawing is later works. Pencil lines cling to. and perfect coordination of hand and eye. Rose 1894 103/4 x 83/4 in ( 2 7 5 x 2 2 1 mm) CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH STELLA ROSS-CRAIG A j o i n e d t h e staff a t t h e R o y a l B o t a n i c G a r d e n s . Ross-Craig said of her work "Plants that wither rapidly present a very difficult problem to which there is only one answer—speed. Line Drawing of Cypripedium calceolus L c. G u s t a v K l i m t In his r e t i r e m e n t Mackintosh m a d e n u m e r o u s inventive pencil a n d w a t e r c o l o r d r a w i n g s o f plants. and observation the nuance and contour of every in one image. K e w . BOTANICAL STUDIES Lines and shadows This lush.g a r d e in G e r m a n y a n d A u s t r i a . and it shows how design.7 3 in 3 1 p a r t s .000 Kew to archive accessible t o d a y v i a t h e I n t e r n e t of o n British flora.. and follow shadow.286 studies for her book Drawings of British Plants.49 C H A R L E S RENNIE MACKINTOSH Scottish a r c h i t e c t d e s i g n e r painter. a n d f o u n d e r o f t h e G l a s g o w S c h o o l o f A r t M a c k i n t o s h ' s flair h a d an e n o r m o u s i n f l u e n c e o n t h e a v a n t .

fluctuations in scale. in miniature. uniform focus. Below. and attention to detail are all shared with medieval European manuscript drawings. in the early 16th century. painting. . They used a fine brush to lay pigment over a line drawing. and calligraphy are brought together to hold the sacred names of prophets and the 99 beautiful names of God. The white of the page shines through the brilliant color. Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity c. which he personally created near Kabul. The first Mughal Emperor Babur's Garden of Fidelity (Bagh-e Vaja). anticipating their view.50 PLANTS AND GARDENS Jeweled Gardens the Middle East we find exquisite stylization of form and upright formality in pictorial space. and miraculous growth. Afghanistan. Every fiber of AMONG DRAWINGS FROM BISHNDAS A N D N A N H A Little is known of these Mughal painters who were related as uncle and nephew and commissioned to illustrate the pages of Babur's journal. Envoys chatter outside the gate. the sumptuous petals permeated with prayer and wisdom. Opposite is the Rose of Mohammed. paper is brimming with the beauty and celebration of nature. Babur directs his gardeners in the design and planting of this quartered chahar bagh. By Muslim tradition. is remembered in the pages of his journal. urgent attentive human activity. 1590 85/8 x55/8in (219 x 1 4 4 mm) BISHNDAS AND NANHA Bright pigment These pages were illuminated by Mughal artists in the late 16th century. and Nanha. a notable portrait painter drew the faces. Bishndas was probably responsible for the overall design. Upright shallow perspectives. Drawing. roses took their form in a bead of perspiration on the brow of Mohammed as he passed through his heavenly journey.

AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH This is a detail o f a page from a n 1 8 t h .c e n t u r y Turkish manuscnpt a book of religious e t h i c s w r i t t e n in the O r i e n t a l C o l l e c t i o n s of Berlin. The physical anatomy of the rosebud has been studied and translated into a repeated stylized motif. t h e Staatsbibliothek zu Arabic. fragmenting its detail in a whisper of prayers. G e r m a n y . Note how each bud is essentially the same shape. Sacred words The central rose is more solid than any other on the page. It is n o w k e p t in Border The elegant border of this drawing was mode with a pen and ruler It cleverly compresses and defines the composition. However. and how the shape has been repeated freehand. The Rose of Mohammed 1708 9 1 / 2 x 61/2 in ( 2 4 0 x 1 6 5 mm) FROM THE TURKISH M A N U S C R I P T AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH . Stylized motif A fine brush has been used throughout this drawing to apply inks and watercolors. look closely and you will see words written in gold fluttering over the form of the flower. so that overlapping petals and stems give an impression of fulfillment and abundance.



Fast Trees
IN CONTRAST TO THE QUIET, formal detail of other drawings in this chapter, these powerful fast trees enact the actions of plants. Each tree reaches out and holds its landscape with dynamism and pulse. In both drawings we find testament to the inexorable energy of growth. Rembrandt expresses a delicate quickness. Gentle lines draw a warm breeze through this remote wooded garden. Rustling in a loose foliage of soft marks, his pen evokes the weight of abundant activity on this late summer's day. Mondrian's arch of scratching branches is drawn with such force it will always be alive. We can still feel his hand storming across the paper. Set within a frame of smudged landscape, the tree possesses a musical agitation. This characteristic will increase in the artist's later abstract work. Here, we see a punctuated ordering of space. Sharp branches cut out negative shapes of winter sky.

R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter; etcher; and draftsman. Rembrandt's prolific output comprises oil paintings of historical and religious subjects together with group and self- portraits. His emotive etchings and pen and ink drawings (see also p. 174) are great resources for artists learning to understand the potential of these media.


Pen and ink lines describing foliage also tell

us the directions of sunlight and wind. An arc crossing the bottom of the drawing from one side to the other supports the scene and separates us from the landscape beyond. Compare Rembrandt's arc to that of Mondrian's. and note the similar treatment of low horizons in both works emphasizing the height and dominance of trees.

Cottage Among Trees 1648-50 63/4 x121/8in ( I 7 I x 308 mm) R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN





Atmosphere Here we see how shapes of negative space are as important as the physical subject they enclose (see pp.58-59). Mondrian has again lightly dragged his chalk on its side to evoke a wet depth of atmosphere. These passive gray marks contrast with the assertive tension of the tree.

Dutch Pure abstract painter preoccupied w i t h line and plane relationships. W i t h increasing austerity, Mondrian banished t h e subject from his drawings, in his later w o r k he also banished space, composing visual h a r m o n i e s using only straight lines a n d flat planes o f black, w h i t e , gray, o r p r i m a r y color.

Winter ground Short vertical marks along thebottomof this drawing reveal the length oftheblackchalk Mondrian used. Rubbed onitsside,itroughly blocks in the ground. Thecrudeeconomy of line is all we need tofeelthecold, wet, unwelcoming quality ofthiswinterearth.

Branches and trunk Lines shaping the branches of the tree are built up in layers. To make the trunk more dense, the artist has rubbed and smudged preliminary marks with his fingers before firmly overdrawing with new lines. Solid black lines are achieved by pressing the chalk hard. When used lightly, it shows the texture of the paper. Tree: Study for the Grey 1911 23 x 335/8 in ( 5 8 4 x 8 5 5 m m ) Tree




Graphite and Erasers

This drawing illustrates a range of achieved with graphite pencils of different grades.


Modern pencils are graded from 9H (hard and pale) to 9B (black and soft). Graphiteclay sticks are also available, together with a powder form. All possess a natural sheen and are erasable to a varying degree. Graphite drawings smudge easily, so fixative, a form of varnish, can be used to hold a drawn surface in place. It is applied as a fine mist from an aerosol can, or from a bottle using a diffuser. For the beginner, ordinary hairspray is an effective and cheaper alternative.

(to write), is a soft and brittle carbon. It was first mined in Cumbria, England, in 1 5 6 4 , and was initially used in small, pure pieces bound in lengths of string. Pencils as we know them—with their slender wood casing and "lead" of graphite—were invented in France in 1794 by Nicolas-Jaques Conte. He discovered that milled graphite mixed with clay and water, press-molded, and baked to a high temperature produces a harder and paler medium than graphite alone.

3B pencil A range of mark and textures can be achieved with a 3B pencil when you vary its pressure, speed, and direction, as this detail shows.

Here is a selection of 14 items to illustrate a basic range of pencils, graphite sticks, sharpeners, erasers, and fixative.
1. AND 2. HB AND 3B PENCILS: It is unnecessary to possess every grade of pencil. HB, the central and most common grade, is perfect for making delicate lines. 3B gives a blacker tone. A great variety of effects can be achieved with just these two. 3. WATER-SOLUBLE PENCIL Effective for atmospheric drawing, but be aware of how watery tones can dull the impact of the line. 4. AND 5. MECHANICAL PENCIL Thick or fine leads are made in a range of grades. They are particularly useful because they do not require a sharpener 6. ROUND SOLID GRAPHITE PENCIL: Excellent for large-scale drawing, producing thick bold lines. A range of grades can be honed with a craft knife or sharpener 7. THICK GRAPHITE STICK: For large-scale drawing. Graded soft, medium, and hard. It crushes to produce graphite powder 8. SQUARE GRAPHITE STICK: Useful for making broad, sweeping marks in large-scale drawing. If worn and rounded, the stick can be snapped into pieces to regain the sharp, square end. 9. CRAFT KNIFE AND BLADES: Handles are sold in two sizes to fit large or small blades, and blades are sold in a range of shapes. Perfect for sharpening pencils to a long point, to cut lines in paper or to remove areas. 10. PENCIL SHARPENER: Makes a uniform point. Keep one in your pocket for drawing outside the studio, together with an envelope for shavings.

HB and 5B Layers of tone have been built up withHBand5Bpencils. Softer pencils require less pressure to make a mark, revealing the texture of the paper surface. It is important to keep the point of the pencil sharp with either a craft knife or a sharpener.


Erasers can be used t o blend and s o f t e n lines, o r t o r e m o v e altogether. Fixative them prevents


s m u d g i n g a n d s e c u r e s lines.

Using fixative You can use fixative while drawing to hold the definition of lines you wish to gently fade but not remove entirely, for which you would use an eraser.

11. P L A S T I C E R A S E R : Avoid cheap colored erasers that may stain drawings with grease and dye. White brands are available in soft and hard versions.



W a r m it in your hand before use. It is excellent for removing powdery materials, and for making crisp sweeps of light across a delicate pencil drawing

13. D I F F U S E R : Helleborus corsicus (Corsican hellebore) fixative, or to spray mists of ink.



Cropping and Composition
M A N Y STUDENTS WILL START a d r a w i n g i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e

that its skin nearly touches the boundary. The meaning of the same drawing changes simply by its relationship to the space it occupies. The size of any subject, its placement on the page, the size of the page, and its overall proportion are all discrete and essential aspects of successful picture-making. Before you begin to draw, think carefully about where to place your subject. Are you are happy with your paper? If not, change it; add more, take some away, or turn it around. Do not just accept what you are given, adapt it to what you need.

paper. Focused on the shape and detail of their subject, they remain happily unaware that there is, or should be, any relationship between what they are drawing and the surface they are drawing it on. The paper is only paper, and the troublesome subject floats somewhere in the expanse of it. However, a single fig drawn in the middle of a large, empty square of paper gives quite a different impression from the same fig drawn on such an intimately small square


A Single Fig

"The size, shape, and orientation of the paper are so integral to the composition that they determine the impact and meaning of the drawing."

U s e it as a starting point. its illumination. its stem and shadow framing a white center. Touching the edge When the subject o f a drawing touches one edge of the paper it attaches t o it visually.O u r focus is on the white cloth supporting the figs. the uppermost edge of the drawing. running corner t o corner. they establish a tension and unity with the paper. t h e n m o v e t h e c a r d t o e x p l o r e different views. and therefore apparently suspended from. bottom-left t o top-right. and lines describing shadows cast by the fruit .57 THE VIEWFINDER T h e s e pencil drawings o f figs d e m o n s t r a t e different crops and compositions. a device to help you decide what t o draw. spaces between things are as important as the things themselves. as also shown here. This drawing hasbeencropped to emphasize space between thefruit. The angle of the fruit together with dark shadow (top left) and bright light(bottom right) suggest a diagonal division across the whole drawing. When subjects touch two or more edges. Here the left fig is attached to. A card with a small rectangle cut out o f it makes a useful viewfinder C l o s e o n e e y e t o look through the hole. CROPPING AND COMPOSITION Off-center and diagonal Here I held my viewfinder so the fig appeared upper-left in the space. Space as the subject Inallpictures.

then added a second shape. you will need a similar large-leaved plant. but if the artist does. It is an astonishingly simple device that many artists use and I strongly recommend. Remember that plants do move! Therefore it is best to complete your drawing in one sitting if possible. Unfamiliar shapes of negative space reveal the real shape of a positive subject. In your own version. unified. WHERE TO START Arrange your plant and paper so you can look back and forth by barely moving your head. and so on. tone. and a role to play. Draw a complete shape Map outward from the center Erase and adjust lines until correct . Follow these from left to right and see how I began with one complete shape between two parts of a leaf. and engaging. But how often do we look at the air between things. this ensures a consistent view. an eraser. third.The box opposite isolates an area. Viewers appreciating a finished image may not see shapes of space. Looking at negative space overrides the problem of drawing what you know. do we see myriad distinct and unique shapes of daylight or do we just see branches? Why as artists should we look at the air? Every space in a picture has a shape. position.58 PLANTS AND GARDENS Negative Space UNCONSCIOUSLY WE ASSESS spatial relationships all the time to guide ourselves through the world. a foundation stone in picture-making. remember to draw only space. and a fresh page in your drawing book. fourth. It helps to start at the center and map outward. their subject and composition will become more real. shapes of air cut out and defined by the physicality of our environment? When we look into the branches of a tree. a sharp H B pencil. which is shown in the three steps below. rather than what you see in front of you. dynamic. not leaves. erasing and adjusting lines until itlooked right. Negative space is the simple key to getting positive shape right. In following this class. The drawing opposite is of the uppermost leaves of a potted fig tree.


Here I drew only spaces, adding one to another until the leaves were revealed. Besides looking at negative space, there are two other useful things to do when a drawing feels wrong but you cannot see why: look at it in a mirror or turn it upside down. errors and suggest changes.

Spaces between leaves

Either view will


Fig Tree
WALKING IN THE ALPUJARRAS in A n d a l u c i a ,

Spain, I drew a bare fig tree clinging to the wall of an almond grove; a perfect subject for seeing negative space. I marked its essential frame of large branches first, frequently erasing lines and changing my mind until the balance felt right.

S a l v i a , RIBES, CLEMATIS, Allium, Passiflora, and Acanthus

Summer Flowers


drawn with an H pencil by observing the

negative spaces between the stems, petals, and leaves. I arranged the flowers on a sheet of paper in a cool r o o m and rapidly sketched a composition. Then I put them in water, taking the stems out one at a time to draw.


We never see everything at once. . 62-63). interfolding points of detail with areas of loose suggestion. If an artist changes the pace of their line and focus of their attention. Excessive detail leaves no space for the eye to rest or imagination to wander. gathering less distinct information on the way.Acanthus Spinosus As we LOOK AROUND. Compare changes of pace and focus here to the flatter finish of Summer Flowers (see pp. they emulate our experience of seeing. our eyes travel and adjust from one point of focus to another.


was preserved into the Renaissance where it became a foundation stone for thinking and creativity From 15thcentury Italy. to help them create new form. coupled with the importance of exercizing your imagination. from political commentary to musical abstraction. to 20th-century film fantasy. which can be clearly seen in ancient Greek architecture. designers. Baltard designed the Church of St. and in the 19th century it was given the name the Golden Section. Architects have been fine-tuning their specialized branch of drawing for centuries. space. It is the focus of practical class in this chapter. time. once there. and writers have been breaking away from traditional forms of representation to seek new expressions of shape. Among the drawings of this chapter we look from 17th-century ecclesiastical calm. Computer programs allow the virtual drawing of ideas. Since the first flowering of Modernism in the early 20th century. It was the mathematicians. Besides sketches of first thoughts and polished drawings of the finished look for clients. Paris 1871-74 the child's view to the infinity of the vanishing point.The church is still in use today. and computer game imaging. VICTOR BALTARD French architect employed by the city of Paris. the device that has since governed most of our picture-making (sec pp. At the core of their practice. of the west facade of St Augustin. add and subtract ideas. and from West Facade of the Church of St Augustin. which was the first church in the capital to be built entirely of metal and then clad in stone. Augustin.Architecture I N THE CONTEMPORARY PRACTICES of architecture. film-set design. filmmakers. we find the most recent steps in the evolution of graphic language. 74-75). composers. Through the animation of the screen. Yet the pursuit of divine proportion and harmony remains. Since Picasso and Braque's revolution of Cubism in around 1907. they have the Golden Section. fine artists." reflecting the eye's love of unity in difference. with gray and brown watercolor wash. each VICTOR BALTARD . Perhaps in the sheer planes of some of our greatest modern buildings it is finding its clearest expression. mass. the formula for perfection spread through Europe. balance. invaluable to understand and apply when you choose. It was also during the Renaissance that the architect Brunelleschi invented linear perspective. and architects of ancient Greece who first pursued the formula for "divine proportion. and sound. philosophers. This harmony. drawing plans around themselves within a program as opposed to on a flat sheet of paper. they also have a diagrammatic language for communicating plans to builders. Linear perspective is a marvelous device. architects. architects and designers can imaginatively "climb inside" three-dimensional space and. made by the architect himself. European conventions of pictorial perspective have lost their monopoly on seeing.This is a pencil drawing.

Drawings underpin every great human-made structure like hidden linear ghosts at their core. Cut-away interior On the right a section cut through the center of the building reveals material thicknesses. Lines define structure while washes suggest light and atmosphere. he also worked on St Paul's Cathedral. and balance. Hawksmoor's drawing is both a plan and an evocation. densely layered lines in mists of color weave the presence of the expected building into shape. and six London churches. Hawksmoor established his reputation with university and church architecture including All Souls College. describe a finished look to a client. We see the modeled detail of Corinthian columns. Three aspects This subtle and sophisticated drawing made in pen and wash displays three distinct aspects of Hawksmoor's baptistry. embodying a massive investment of ideas. a three-dimensional drawing made with wires and weights. and Castle Howard. marks the end of a long journey from the first few marks the architect made on a sheet of paper. calculate function. structure. materials. Oxford. Pillars and floor At the base of the drawing a compass-drawn plan tilted downward through 90 degrees illustrates the arrangement of pillars around a central circular floor. pilasters. NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR One of Britain's "three great" Baroque architects (along with Sir Christopher Wren and Sir John Vanbrugh). evoke presence. relative levels. Below it. Architects draw for many reasons: to visualize ideas. Together they explain how interior structure and space define exterior form and shape. testing gravity to calculate the inverted shapes of domes. Hampton Court Palace. and an inscribed entablature. St Paul's Baptistry c. Finished surface On the left the finished surface of the building is given depth and emphasis by immaculate vertical and horizontal brush strokes of shadow. and ultimately to show builders what to do. The photograph opposite shows his studio hung with metal pendulums.68 ARCHITECTURE Master Builders EVERY NEW BUILDING. and labor. and later an assistant to Vanbrugh. Gaudi's fluid architecture grew up through many kinds of drawing. A student of Wren's. Blenheim Palace. and the shapes of interior domes and apses. 1711-12 NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR .

Wire and watercolor three-dimensional preferred to calculate Above is a drawing form in the made withlinkedwires and weights. Gaudi's cathedral in Barcelona. embellishment. churches. 1900 ANTONIO GAUDI ANTONIO GAUDI Visionary Catalan architect. and apartment homes are distinguished by their Their and Flowering curves of stone or concrete are often encrusted with Gaudi was inspired by medieval and oriental art.69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt c. The Art Nouveau movement. To the right isawatercolordrawing thought to havebeenmade over a photograph ofthemodelabove. and his love of music. unique organic manipulation of high shapes. 1910 24x181/4( 6 1 0 x 4 7 5mm) A N T O N I O GAUDI . This sculptural drawingenvisionsthe finished crypt glowingandethereal as if caught in thelightof red morning sun. Gaudi air than on paper. Guell Crypt of its at the Time Construction c. light.

and in a sense hear. He also contributed to plans for the rebuilding of the World Trade Center site in New York. Libeskind's numerous commissions include concert halls and museums. Across the top and center right of the image w e perceive an almost recognizable architectural plan. flat boards. been a natural affinity between the visual rhythms of pictures and the audible rhythms of music. Both men used rulers and pens to carefully and slowly construct their compositions. Contemporary musicians commonly collaborate with artists by interpreting images as sound. Libeskind begins quietly in the upper space of his drawing. Floor plan This drawing has been made with a rapidograph. short curved poles. We can see. Arctic Flowers 1980 DANIEL LIBESKIND . before cascading into a riot of line and sound below. upright pictorial space. and arched dotted lines depict the radius of doors. Visual rhythms In the lower half of this drawing architectural language has broken loose: escaped and transformed into an image of rebellious pleasure. We can imagine how a musician might interpret this drawing by looking at the abstract visual rhythms of masses composed of long straight poles. a refillable pen that feeds a constant supply of ink through a fine tubular nib. Floor space appears divided by discernible walls. theater sets. and exhibitions of his drawings. while the composer Erik Satie has made an enclosure of quiet order and grace. Libeskind studied music before transferring to architecture. Satie draws quietly throughout. and rooms.70 ARCHITECTURE The Order of Sound B O T H OF THESE VISIONARY DRAWINGS o c c u p y a s l e n d e r . There has always DANIEL LIBESKIND A Polish American architect of international acclaim. He also produces urban and landscape designs. and the spaces between his windows and turrets are the visual equivalent of pauses in h i s m u s i c c o m p o s i t i o n s for p i a n o (see also Bussotti. installations.223). such a rapport in both of these drawings. and dotted lines. corridors. p. The architect and musician Daniel Libeskind has drawn a stampeding cacophany of airborne architectural detail.

theater. a conventional dip or fountain pen. Compare the even and and the shape wall to the elegantly stylized order of the many windows of arrangement of details and the shape of the wall in Babur's Garden of Fidelity on p.ERIK SATIE F r e n c h pianist and c o m p o s e r for t h e piano. Satie collaborated w i t h hisfriends J e a n C o c t e a u a n d P i c a s s o . They definespaceand pictorial balance. 1 8 9 3 77/8 x 51/2 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 4 0 mm) ERIK SATIE . a n d ballet. and ink on a fragment folded brown paper—a of everyday happened material of scrap that to be at hand. effectively additional lines in a work.H i s witty. minimalist s c o r e s scandalized a u d i e n c e s with o r c h e s t r a t i o n s f o r t h e foghorn and typewriter. Hotel de la Suzonnieres c.50.Edges are how are of orientation. dressed eccentrically. lived a l o n e . the perimeter Composition Look how well this drawingfitsand resonates with the upright. H e p e r f o r m e d in cabarets. Eastern influence The upright image Eastern is reminiscent and medieval of Middle pictorial space and subject of this European drawing.narrowshape of its paper. andfouredges of the paper tothecompositionand impact animage. Onpp. o f which he was the sole m e m b e r Parcel paper Satie has drawn this fantasy hotel using a ruler. and founded his o w n church.56—57 we discussed important the shape.

painter. arched vaults. and the reverse is true on the right. we find other Utopian visions Paul Nobles epic drawing summons an imperfect and disturbing township where ruin and activity are equal and strange. enter the long-shadowed architecture of imaginary worlds. Newton's Cenotaph 1784 153/4 x 25 in ( 4 0 2 x 635 m m ) ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE . Boullee's monolithic apparition was drawn as a monument to Sir Isaac Newton. experiencing a fascinating conflict between curiosity and desolation. spheres. Among preparations for Fritz Langs film Metropolis. and draftsman. Art director Erich Kettlehut's vertiginous design for the city of a slavelike populace had a future influence on movies such as Blade Runner.72 ARCHITECTURE T H E S E T H R E E HIGHLY DETAILED DRAWINGS Future Fictions invite us to soaring above normal life. This is the work of an architectural theoretician. Boullee lived in Paris. We glide over exquisitely drawn wastelands of damage and abandonment. ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE French architectural theorist.The lower-left section of the building appears relatively pale against a darker sky. His celebrated imaginary buildings are characterized by pyramids. and taught at t h e A c a d e m i e d'Architecture. Within it. antlike mortals might have speculated upon the universe.96. This shift makes the cenotaph appear three-dimensional. Light illusions This pen-and-wash drawing shows a subtle application of the principles of illumination demonstrated with an egg on p. cylinders. made in 1926. the ominous globe exists only as a series of drawings. and dramatic lighting.

Fritz Lang's Metropolis c. draftsman. Kettlehut drew using a fine and relatively dry brush dipped in black.m a k e r In t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f Metropolis. gray.Building shapes are works can be read as text.73 ERICH KETTLEHUT Influential film a r t director. Kettlehut and his c o . and m o d e l . Nobson political visions of humanity Newtown. together with c i n e m a t o g r a p h e r Karl Freund. used forced perspective camera t e c h n i q u e s t o amplify t h e m a g n i t u d e o f buildings in relation t o human characters.a r t director O t t o Hunte. Its sheerscaleengulfs the viewer and demands based time and patience to on letters and in some beread. mythology. FUTURE FICTIONS Brush and ink This is a dramatic drawing from a film that shaped the history of world cinema. intensely detailed graphite drawings explaining and questioning t h e geography. 1926 ERICH KETTLEHUT PAUL N O B L E British c o n t e m p o r a r y artist who creates m o n u m e n t a l . and are Graphite shapes Nobson Central isoneof a series of very large graphite drawings of the spoil and detritus of Nobson Newtown. and morality o f an invented place called His satires exhibited w o r l d w i d e . and white ink on brown-gray paper. Working on toned paper such as this gives an artist greater scope for dramatic lighting effects than if they work on white paper. architecture. Nobson Central 9 ft 1 0 in x 1 3 f t 2 in (3 x 4 m ) PAUL N O B L E 1998-99 .

this perspective is often an imagined bird's-eye view in which details are mapped according to logic and importance rather than how they might appear in real life. Study of Perspective Adoration of the for the Magi 1481 61/2 x111/2in (165 x 290 mm) LEONARDO DA VINCI . It can be applied to any subject. Here Leonardo provides a superb example of a single vanishing point. We use it to structure illusions of depth. In his notebooks. and age eight. scientists. Pull the thread taut and rotate it slowly above the drawing. but is most easily seen and understood in pictures of buildings and interiors. See how the thread corresponds to each converging line. linear perspective is distinct from more ancient systems practiced in the East. I contribute the child's perspective. 206-07). Piranesi an example of two. found at the center of all converging lines. and thinkers ever to have lived. inventors. Leonardo recorded constant streams of ideas. It is also distinguished from aerial perspective (see pp.74 ARCHITECTURE Pathways of Sight LINEAR PERSPECTIVE (also called vanishing-point perspective) is a simple device for calculating the relative size of things in pictorial space. All forms of perspective are of equal value. Note how architectural features conform to lines and how human figures diminish in size toward thevanishingpoint. Press the pin into Leonardo's vanishing point. and those of Naive artists and children. observations. and inventions— essential reading for inquiring minds. Invented by Italian artist and architect Brunelleschi in 1413 (late in the history of art). Single-point perspective Tie a thread to a pin. LEONARDO DA VINCI One of the greatest artists. Sometimes shared with Naive artists.

This drawing Young children typically maps ignore on and understanding of the nearby village. which I saw from home every day. Breamore Village.SARAH SIMBLET I made this drawing (at age 8) in response to a local bookstore's request for children to draw their village. England 1980 9 x 16 in (228 x 405 mm) S A R A H SIMBLET GIOVANNI BATTISTA PIRANESI Italian artist. issues of scale when making room for important their story. New Forest. a points in logical narrative of memories. Scale Our farmhouse my experience was in the woods. Note the rather large rabbits and pheasants the hills. It shows how children usually map large scenes in flat layers one above the other. architect. 1740 5 1 / 2 x 83/8 in (141 x 212 mm) G I O V A N N I B A T T I S T A PIRANESI points are located on either side of the drawing. Mark these points with your pin and follow the converging lines of the drawing by rotating your thread. Lightly marked illuminates vanishing Two Courtyards c. Children are uninhibited and problems with one element being obscured by another rarely arise. at the top of each lateral column base. visionary and practical understanding of ancient Rome. . Two-point perspective Sunlight through this colonnade a great example of two-point perspective. and theoretical writing strongly influenced neoclassicism. and designer Piranesi's prolific architectural drawings. including all they recall about the subject.

On the previous page we looked at its essential mechanism through drawings by Leonardo and Piranesi. imagine.98 for an important note on oscillation.) . Each line should pass through one corner of the rectangle. This lesson shows you how to make a simple illusion of space defined by two boxes and three flat boards. 2 3 corners must each touch a dotted line. Piranesi planned his drawing with only the essential lines needed. Draw each step over the preceding one to build up a single image. This is where we will begin. In contrast. corresponding to a single vanishing point. You have completed your first box. This ensures that the second rectangle aligns with the shape and 4 Draw four short lines to connect the four corners of the two rectangles. Leonardo began with a grid of many lines within which he invented his scene. then follow the ten steps below. (See p. Study these pages first before embarking on this lesson. Next. try composing your own space. Erase the dotted construction lines. discovering the image as it progressed. Extend each dotted line to the edge of your drawing.76 ARCHITECTURE Single-Point Perspective MASTERING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE i s e a s i e r t h a n y o u m a y First read through. Surround the vanishing point with a small rectangle. Draw four dotted lines radiating out from the vanishing point. this is your vanishing point. you will amplify the illusion of distance. DRAWING BOXES 1 Using a ruler and a sharp HB pencil. draw a horizon line across your paper Mark a spot on the horizon line. using a sharp HB pencil and ruler. Note that if you place large structures in the foreground and smaller ones closer to your vanishing point.

draw a second. 8 Complete the second box with short lines as in step 4. andfarside of this first board.willhelptomake them appear more solid. Note that this does not surround the vanishing point In the future. draw four dotted lines radiating from your vanishing point Pass these through each comer of the new rectangle. larger rectangle. 9 Use dotted lines connecting the slanting linetothe vanishing point to locate the top. The four comers must each touch a dotted line to be sureitaligns with the first. Connect this to the vanishing point— again. . you can place rectangles anywhere youwishin relation to a vanishing point. bottom. The board's sides should be parallel. 6 As in step 2. when inventing your own compositions. Continue the dotted lines out toward the edge of your drawing. 1 0 Erase all ofthedottedlinestoseeyourfinishedboxes Thickeningtheiredges. and erase the dotted lines. the closer it will appear to the viewer. N e x t draw a slanting line to mark the height of the first flat board. with two dotted lines. 7 As in step 3.asIhavedonehere. The larger you make your second rectangle.77 SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE 5 Draw a new rectangle. Repeat this to add two more boards to the composition.

artist and film director. let simple lines suggest a simple space." . Then follow the three given steps. w h e t h e r it is a film or a painting. Every work talks In this class. O n a fresh page in your d r a w i n g b o o k . Linear perspective will support y o u by providing a frame in which to b u i l d your picture as it did for Leonardo. I always start with a script but I don't follow it all the way through to the end. APPLYING PERSPECTIVE An Imagined Scaffold "Enjoy your illusion as you make it and it will become more real. It highlights the importance of having faith in your imagination and trusting your ability to invent. then let the space suggest its c o n t e n t s and purpose. you will find white adhesive stationery labels are useful for covering errors or changing the direction of your idea. it will take you places you never dreamed of. 7 4 ) . The m i s t a k e n belief that we s h o u l d k n o w exactly what o u r finished drawings will l o o k like before we m a k e t h e m prevents many people from ever starting. A lot more happens when you open yourself up to the work and let yourself act and react to it.78 ARCHITECTURE Creating an Imaginary Space T H I S CLASS USES SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE t o c r e a t e a s i m p l e to you and if you listen to it. draw a b o x as shown opposite. If using a fibertip pen as I have done for this drawing. p . it is interaction that makes the work richer. As David Lynch. once said: "I never end up with what I set out to do." imaginary room.

CREATING AN IMAGINARY SPACE 1First. and floors and ceilings also converge and rise o r lower toward the horizon. parallel planes such as walls converge toward the vanishing point. 2 first before adding furniture. horizontal. . 3 Remove the construction lines with an eraser and the room will becomeclearer. additional lines have established the different surfaces and how they relate to each other. Here.drawthehorizonlineand vanishingpoint.There is great pleasure tobefoundin spending time inventing interiors. The space has become more solid and real.Addanarray of converging lines to provide a "scaffold" for vertical. With some practice. and leaning surfaces.79 DRAWING A SIMPLE ROOM Essentials t o remember: objects and people dimmish in size as they move farther away. This initial space will be transparent and open to change. you will beableto draw more complex objects orpeoplewithin them.

or low and we look u p . They could be drawn on any scale from miniature to monumental.80 ARCHITECTURE Further Aspects of Perspective W E ARE ACCUSTOMED TO SEEING our e n v i r o n m e n t from a relatively constant point of view. These elaborations could continue indefinitely across a sheet of paper in pursuit of complex and intricate ideas. Here. Search for the application of these perspectives among works by other artists in this book and in galleries. Potentially. 76-79). Vanishing points are commonly found on horizon—our eye level. but they are not confined to this level. they can be placed anywhere inspaceto describe the perspective of flyi c tilted objects. T h i s is d e m o n s t r a t e d immediately below. I have elaborated on the simple boxes above. located anywhere inside or outside the pictorial space. The boxes drawn here are seen partly or entirely disassociated from a horizon line drawn across the bottom of the image. do verticals appear inclined. Free vanishing points On paper we can enjoy the freedom of fantastic structural invention without limitations of solid materials or gravity. That is where we e to find them. From our normal eye level.p o i n t perspective ( s h o w n opposite top). o r to the h o r i z o n . Only when y o u might employ t h r e e . Copying what you see in the work of others will help you to understand what they have done. It is important to realize that you can have as many vanishing points as you wish. T h i n k of standing at the top of a skyscraper and imagine h o w its parallel sides would appear to converge below you. Elaborations . Further aspects of three-point perspective are also illustrated opposite. To draw such a view APPLICATION Copy these drawings to see and feel how they work before inventing your own versions. verticals appear p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the g r o u n d . showing y o u h o w to draw curved surfaces and a tiled floor. a n d this is how we have drawn them so far (see pp. our eye level is very high and we look down. T h e y d o n o t have to relate to each other.

I added horizontal lines t o define the tiles. tostraightlines can amplify drama in a picture. I then drew three fanned groups of lines connecting each of the three points above to the seven points below. they mark the corners of the floor tiles.75. three vanishing points are evenly spaced along a horizon line. I marked the toplinewith three evenly spaced points and the line with seven.Finally. PERSPECTIVE Three-point curves Here. useful for representing steep views looking up or down tall structures. Three-point checkered floor This d bottom floor. you will see how. by adding a third point you can achieve a sense of incline. Where thelinescross. and therefore tension. (Turn the book around to see a view looking up. Giving curvature. An array of curved lines (drawn freehand) link the two lateral points.Istarted with two parallel lines. Note that altering the distance between the three dots above will tilt the level of the floor .81 FURTHER ASPECTS OF Three-point towers This drawing depicts three-point perspective. Iusedthese lines as a guide t o draw the curvature of boxes and panels flying through space.) By comparing this drawing t o Piranesi's example of two-point perspective on p.


making drawings to resolve questions and express personal responses to the nature and history of anatomy.Theaters RESEARCHING FOR MY P H D . . These walnut-skin ink pen and brush drawings show imagined views of theaters that do not exist but were inspired by places I studied. I visited many anatomical theaters and museums.


the water. . The vanishing of the drawing is directly opposite as we look across The constancy of the bridge and surrounding frames the movement in the life that flows past.Venetian Life sitting point buildings ThisP E N .A N D .I N KDRAWING is one of a series I made while next to the Rialto Bridge in Venice.




W e also explore v o l u m e and form in the classes by spinning lines to make vessels. Engineers and designers of our objects and instruments make drawings for many reasons: to test an idea that is yet to be made. passing them on to others through the act of making. and made. H e has described contour and function at drawings. texture. of light in the creation of pictorial illusions. H e has described a casting through metaphor. T h e Industrial Revolution c h a n g e d the traditional w a y s in w h i c h objects were designed. drawn. craftsmen had held plans in their memory. from s p o o n s and pens to chairs and bicycles. and the behavior of light through making still-life paintings and together. A chair. for example. have often carried great weights of allegorical once. we look at the importance are the only creatures on Earth w h o actually design and create great ranges of things. color. Artists and actors use the meanings of things to communicate a speculative mechanic. T h e precision of engineering d r a w i n g s e v o l v e d alongside machine tools. In past eras. and the way in w h i c h the brain reacts Head and Neck Sections of Female Mold for the Sforza Horse to visual stimulus and optical illusions. illuminating snail shells. It is shaped in sections w i t h Artists have for centuries studied and expressed composition. making a clear instruction t o his bronzemeaning. hooked bars that can be pulled and tied closely form. In this chapter. r an equestrian statue. Previously. and some apes use simple tools.Objects and Instruments T HE THINGS WE INVENT describe our lives. With the sudden onset of mass production. fictional realities caster of h o w t o make it andhowit will w o r k . History will be learned from the artifacts w e leave behind. 1493 117/8c81/4in (300 x 210 m m ) LEONARDO D A V I N Ccreating I . these. for example—whether. Today. each demanding more of the other as they increased in sophistication. C o m m o n items. too. that test our logic with a sense of mystery. and a wire violin. are all made bearing the signature of our time and place. drawing c. Birds follow instinct to make a nest. even more advanced drawings are made on computers. or drawing w e see Leonardo daVinci'sprecision as can be given meaning. Technical drawing was speedily developed as a meticulous international code of m e a s u r e m e n t and explanation. but humans LEONARDO DA VINCI Inthisbeautiful red chalk Our items all have a purpose—practical or ornamental—and all have a meaning. drawings were needed to instruct workers on the factory floor. or used on stage hood for a mold t o make theheado f a horse f oas a p r o p — i m b u e d with e n o u g h energy or character can "become" a man. It was in this era that the blueprint was born. to record an observed detail. sculpted. or to explain and present a finished concept to a client. Artists also make images of objects that can never exist. planned. design.

Opposite.Braque marshals all the forces of perspective. still feel this projected moment. Statue D'Epouvante 1913 2 f t 5 in x 3 ft 5 in (0. not to work in harmony. not of place but of things. and glass objects of exquisite elegance for only the gentlest of touch and appreciation. and a journal jacket with words makes this drawing chatter about the moment. Braque established Cubism in partnership with Picasso just before World War I.. a colored canvas. T h i s is a designers drawing made to enthuse surface and style in its delicate brushing of china. Clashes The art historian Ernst Gombrich said of Cubism.90 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS Still Life THESE DRAWINGS REVEAL t w o o p p o s i t e m o t i v a t i o n s i n we can." La Cuitare. Braques "justly" arranged combination of cut black card. but to clash in virtual deadlock. "I believe [it] is the most radicalattempttostampout ambiguity and to enforce one readingofthepicture—that of a manmade construction. Braques image is a Cubist collage. wood-look wallpaper. charcoal. silverware. perfect i n their newly made availability. . steaming with music and conversation. representing still life.. Mucha's drawing glistens with possession. texture. His work is characterized by calm and harmonious still-life compositions. He takes us into the bustle of the Paris cafe.73 x 1 m) GEORGES BRAQUE . Even today GEORGES BRAQUE French painter who as a young man was influenced by the work of the Fauves and of Cezanne. One of the great joys of this movement in art is the musicality of its multipoint view. and shading. There is a fragile eloquence to these objects as they drift in slow motion past our gaze. Below.

The three plates facing us were drawn with a compass. He designed the Austrian pavilion for the Paris World Fair in 1900. Chicago. Look at the two spoons at toprightand see how has suggested that they are so brilliantly shiny they reflect the background color. Background color Between the delicate shadows and highlights of these glazed and surfaces ofthebackground metal color of the Mucha we see a large amount paper. and fish have been outlined using a sharp pencil. He is best known for posters featuring ethereal women in typical Art Nouveau style. Art Nouveau motifs This is a preliminary study for a subsequent print.fruit. For ten years Mucha designed theater posters exclusively for the actress Sarah Bernhardt. and New York. Art Nouveau curling motifs of birds. Study for Plate 59 from "Documents Decoratifs" 17x121/4(430 x 310 mm) ALPHONSE MUCHA 1902 . Black watercolor washes and lines of white gouache have been added with a fine brush. and also stamps and bank notes.ALPHONSE MUCHA Czech graphic artist and painter who worked in Prague.

It was then reflected up inside the tube and. Transparent view Newton's reflecting telescope focused light in a parabolic mirror. the law o f gravity. shape the very cause and effect of investigatory thought.92 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS by their very nature must gauge or chronicle precision. each reflecting a view of his own world—his window. Newton's 1672 ISAAC Telescope NEWTON . He counted 1 4 . It is a diagrammatic explanation of how to catch and magnify a star in a mirrored tube. a tree outside. and Fellow of the University o f C a m b r i d g e . Newton's drawing of his first reflecting telescope is ISAAC N E W T O N English scientist. and the nature o f light and color. each one skillfully rendered with the alarmingly matter-of-fact ease of explaining the commonplace. Look how confidently he draws with ink the sphere of this wooden globe by which his telescope rotates. With dotted lines Newton has drawn his arrangement of elements inside the tube. via a second mirror. The power of this drawing reflects the pure passion of discovery. w h e r e he developed his three greatest theories: the law o f motion. drawing is there to pin the moment down. Newton used this instrument to calculate the speed required to escape earth's gravity. Ink lines Several drawings appear among Newton's letters. mathematician. astronomer. 0 0 0 perfect hemispheres. In the graphic work of these two great men of science. From the concept of capturing the infinite to the mapping of microscopic sight. alchemist. into the eyepiece. Hooke's head of a drone fly seen through a microscope may represent the first time man and insect came face to face. we see drawing Instruments of Vision found among his letters. and his hand moving across the light. and philosopher Newton was President of the Royal Society. Their delicate construction is only as valuable as the measurements they make. A disembodied eye at the top of the drawing indicates where to look. offering a transparent view.

and anchor escarpment. The Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 1665 ROBERT HOOKE 111/2 x 105/8 in (294 x 270 mm) . a breathtaking book containing many of his drawings showing some of the first microscopic and telescopic magnifications of our environment Hooke's text and illustrations carry us to the moment of discovery. Hooke invented the camera diaphragm. ROBERT H O O K E 93 Magnifications This acutely detailed engraved drawing is taken from Hooke's Micrographia (pub. universal joint a prototype respirator clock balance. 1665).An experimental scientist who drew many of his discoveries. and calculated the theory of combustion. It is an exhilarating read.

this chair p r e s e n t s us with a clever visual contradiction: deeply drawn shadows tell us it must be solid. Two-dimensional was made This highly finished drawing ruler using a sharp pencil and on smooth white drawing paper glistening dark drawings are artificial representations of known Woodfine's two-dimensional things balanced in the world. and winner of the 2004 Jerwood Drawing Prize. W i t h h o m e y c o n t r a s t . has published several catalogs of her work. and w h e r e the chair b e l o n g s . Its wobbly gait and squashed s y m m e t r y m u m b l e endless h o m e y tales about the life it has seen. Van Gogh's tipsy seat is a metaphor for an absent person. and has drawings in numerous public and private collections. and place in the world are truly seen. From component parts we understand how to put it together and make it stand sensible in space. OBJECTS AND SARAH WOODFINE British contemporary artist graduate of the Royal Academy Schools. Chair Cut Out 2002 22'A x 23 in (565 x 585 mm) SARAH WOODFINE . craft. it has so m u c h familiar personality that it seems to talk to us. A renegade from the p a p e r dolls' h o u s e . each drawn with the s a m e unfaltering lines and tones that are between reality and impossibility. Bench Marks W e are left a little c o n f u s e d as to what we s h o u l d do. Sarah Woodfines flat cut-out m o d e l plan is a witty and surprising drawing. Drawn in more-or-less c o n v e n t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . Woodfine exhibits internationally. its character. while the tabs make us see a flat paper cut-out.94 INSTRUMENTS W H E N WE DRAW A COMMON OBJECT like a chair.

Van Chair 1890 VINCENT VAN GOGH . The floor few as engagement with the chair.95 VINCENTVAN GOGH Dutch painter who produced over 800 paintings and 850 drawings in only the last ten year's of his life. not is made present in only strokes and is subdued to distract us from flat a meaningful chair. what direct in their he saw and describing his felt. and Starry Cypress Night. Cornfield and Sunflowers. Among van Gogh's best-known canvases are Trees. inner recording while Fierce strokes This is a portrait of the mechanical drew immediately and almost harshly. drawn opposite way of plan. His passionate brush and pencil strokes are honest and of also turmoil and growing alarm at the world around him.hehas marked the full emotion of the subject with a fierce grip of concentration.

See how its "edge" smoothly changes from light against dark to dark against light. The two tones meet without a division or outline between. Adjust the angleofthe protruding part and again stepback. The perceived tone of a black white. a lit photograph of an egg shows essential points to observe in tonal drawing. are translated into a world of space. Here. o u r b r a i n s search for n a m e a b l e things. Below the bottom "edge" of the egg there is a rim of light reflected onto the paper by the underside of the egg. On acloudyday.This effect is caused by the contrast of their surroundings.d o w n patterns of light on our retinas. think about its illumination. The rim of light on the egg is reflected light received from surrounding paper. and the proximity of contrasting tones. your eye around the circumference of the egg. w e turn our head but n o one w a s there. the adjustment of our eyes (in growing accustomed to a level of light). Gray squares To further examine changes in tone. T h e slightest recognition is instantly matched to our wealth of experience a n d expectation. Through these we can enjoy witnessing our o w n d e c e p t i o n a n d b a f f l e m e n t a n d u n d e r s t a n d certain factors that are very useful in picture-making. From across the room both will appear black card and fold and retapeitwith half sticking out. To interpret visual s t i m u l u s .At one point you will catchenoughlight lighter than the white one. We will even see things that d o not exist because minimal information suggests they are likely to be there. cards the same size. Three factors change it: the amount of light it receives. form. one blackandone white. atmosphere. transmitted to the brain as chains of electrical impulses. W e learn to read light and shadow in our environment as indicators of solidity and depth of space. Here w e look briefly at our perception of light a n d darkness a n d our interpretation of diagrammatic illusions. a n d we can be fooled. We perceive one to be lighter than theother. The egg's lightest region is seen against a darker background. Run The bottom-left quarter of the egg lightens slightly toward its "edge" when seen against the darker shadow cast on the paper. Below. less developed than the center. two identical mid-gray squares are seen against black and paler gray squares. gray. try this experiment. a n d our ability to see forms in c l o u d s or fire. Card experiment cho can gra on . hence our recognition of a cartoon face c o m p o s e d of three lines. We only need small prompts. Before starting a tonal drawing of any subject. The egg's darkest region is seen against a lighter background. The outermost edge of our vision. Artists emulate and manipulate this effect in their pictures. reads only m o v e m e n t a n d can often m a k e mistakes. a n d m o v e m e n t .96 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Light and Illusions SEEING IS MIRACULOUS. a n d are q u i c k to p r o p o s e ideas. perhaps. but do not appear so. Are you happy LIGHT AND SHADOW with what you see? Does the light enhance the subject? Could you alter and improve it? On pp. S o m e o n e passes our o p e n door.102-03 deep shadows cast across shells make their form easier to perceive. or colored surface is never constant. Tape them to the glass. U p s i d e . The small squares are identical in tone.

Bending straight lines Linear distance These t w o jugs have b e e n d r a w n w i t h lines o f d i f f e r i n g thicknesses. LIGHT AND ILLUSIONS Tonal width T h e s e black a n d w h i t e bands are o f equal thickness o n e i t h e r side o f t h e i r central division. t h i c k e r l i n e s a p p e a r t o stand forward. . T h i s fundamental o p p o s i t e is a reason w h y l i n e a r a n d t o n a l d r a w i n g does not a l w a y s c o m b i n e w e l l in t h e s a m e i m a g e . b u t t h e u p r i g h t o n e l o o k s t a l l e r (B). Apparent lengths T h e s e optical illusions s h o w h o w lines o f identical length can b e m a d e t o l o o k quite different f r o m each o t h e r by t h e addition o r association o f o t h e r lines. Y o u m a y e x p e r i e n c e s o m e t h i n g similar h a p p e n i n g w h e n y o u m a k e s i n g l e .97 LINE VERSUS TONE In l i n e a r d r a w i n g s . If y o u w i s h t o m a k e a t o n a l drawing. O b s e r v e h o w each white b a n d appears t h i c k e r t h a n its black c o u n t e r p a r t . Seven parallel lines are m a d e t o tilt t o w a r d and away f r o m each o t h e r by n u m e r o u s s h o r t strokes crossing t h e m diagonally ( A ) . by d i r e c t e d a r r o w s ( A ) . T w o relatively t h i c k parallel lines are m a d e t o b e n d away f r o m each o t h e r as t h e y pass in f r o n t o f an a r r a y o f c o n v e r g i n g f i n e lines ( B ) . In a t o n a l d r a w i n g . A n u p r i g h t line stands in t h e c e n t e r o f a h o r i z o n t a l line. In this t o n a l image w e read w h i t e as f a t t e r t h a n black. respectively. T w o horizontal lines o f equal length are m a d e t o l o o k longer and shorter. w h i l e t h i n n e r lines recede. start o u t w i t h one. B o t h are identical in length. O f t e ndoingso w i l l s p o i l y o u r w o r k . T h e jug d r a w n w i t h a t h i n line appears f a r t h e r away t h a n t h e j u g d r a w n w i t h a t h i c k e r line. l i g h t e r surfaces s t a n d f o r w a r d w h i l e d a r k e r s u r f a c e s recede.p o i n t p e r s p e c t i v e d r a w i n g s w i t h a large n u m b e r o f c o n v e r g i n g rays b e h i n d y o u r horizontals. T h e r e is n o obligation t o a d d b l o c k s o f t o n e t o a l i n e a r d r a w i n g . In this linear drawing w e read t h i c k as closer a n d t h i n as f a r t h e r away. S h o r t h o r i z o n t a l lines o f identical length are m a d e t o l o o k d i f f e r e n t by c o n v e r g i n g lines beside t h e m ( C ) .

it can oscillate b e t w e e n facing t o w a r d o r a w a y f r o m us. o r as a s l o p i n g .76. Ancient Greek architects knew parallel upright lines appeared to bend toward each other in the middle. such as t h e dish seen h e r e o n t h e left. In the 1960's. C l o s i n g t h e surface o f t h e f o r m seals o u r d e c i s i o n as t o w h i c h w a y it faces.116-17) to make painted figures look correct when viewed from below.s i d e d r e c t a n g u l a r t r a y ( b o t h are illustrated far r i g h t ) "The brain is so eager to name a fragment we see that we need only a suggestion to grasp the whole. Some artists use known optical illusions to make art. including some shown here. it oscillates between t w o possibilities. w h e n drawing the outline o f a three-dimensional form. A few suggestive marks will tip the decision one way o r the o t h e r Closing the surface W h e n a t r a n s p a r e n t elliptical o b j e c t has b e e n d r a w n . their picture could be ambiguous. Two ways of seeing T h i s is t h e b o x c r e a t e d in t h e f o u r t h step o n p. Artists make pictorial illusions when they paint or draw.98 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Further Illusions PSYCHOLOGISTS AND PHYSIOLOGISTS have studied optical illusions for decades in pursuit of what they tell us about the brain. are still not agreeably understood. Artists can communicate much in few lines and the viewer will do the rest of the work. such as Bridget Riley. and so calculated precisely how much to fatten columns to make them appear straight. among others. Michelangelo. others adjust works to avoid their effects. and we learn to read the styles of diverse cultures and periods. as s h o w n o n t h e right. Op(tical) artists. w e can only look f r o m one t o the o t h e r If an artist is not aware this can happen in their image. Today we are bombarded with images but rarely have difficulty reading them. It is a curious fact that w e can never see both options at once. perfected the acceleration of perspective (see pp." . w e will find that in terms of the direction it faces. made paintings that depended upon the physical sensation of our brain's reaction to known optical illusions. SEEING TWO OPTIONS Sometimes. It is possible t o r e a d i t t w o ways: as a t r u n c a t e d r e c t a n g u l a r p y r a m i d seen d i r e c t l y f r o m a b o v e . Yet many illusions.

C o u p l e d w i t h t h e Rorschach b l o t above.99 Impossible objects T h e s e clever configurations o f outlines and t o n a l surfaces convince us at a glance that we are seeing a solid three-dimensional triangle and a three-pronged fork. C o u n t t h e n u m b e r o f d a r k spots y o u can see. C Escher u s e d this phenomenon t o great effect in his many p o p u l a r d r a w i n g s o f puzzles and impossible buildings. 1 6 t h . b u t w e believe w e see t h e m because e n o u g h f r a g m e n t a r y i n f o r m a t i o n is given f o r o u r brains t o c o n c l u d e t h e y are v e r y likely t h e r e . T h e y a r e o f t e n c r e d i t e d w i t h t h e invention o f t h e c o m i c c a r t o o n . M u c h can b e e x p r e s s e d in o n l y a f e w marks. T h e a r t i s t M. Yet still w e try resolve t h e m . F a m i l i a r i t y in r a n d o m s h a p e s T h e Rorschach test was established by t h e 1 9 t h . T h e patient's answers are t h e n diagnosed as a psychological profile. — a n d so t h e artist can create m u c h o u t o f an impression w i t h o u t overdescribing. FURTHER ILLUSIONS Seeing things that are n o t t h e r e H e r e o n t h e left. N e i t h e r triangle exists. smoke. B e l o w is a b r i g h t n e s s c o n t r a s t illusion. His highly d i s p u t e d and i m p r e c i s e science involves s h o w i n g u n p r e p a r e d p a t i e n t s t e n p a r t i c u l a r ink b l o t s a n d asking t h e m t o i n t e r p r e t w h a t t h e y see.c e n t u r y Italian painters. P e r c e i v i n g a w h o l e i m a g e f r o m m i n i m a l lines T h i s is a w i d e l y r e p r o d u c e d visual j o k e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e C a r r a c c i b r o t h e r s . T h e t e s t e x p l o r e s o u r n o r m a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o find things w e can n a m e a m o n g r a n d o m shapes. W e should r e m e m b e r t h a t o u r brains will always search f o r a p i c t u r e — i n ink blots. S o m e artists use ink blots t o p r o m p t t h e beginning o f an image. Minimal-line j o k e s such as this rely u p o n t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y v i e w e r ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e shapes. This simple five-line d r a w i n g is o f a C a p u c h i n priest asleep in his pulpit. . clouds.c e n t u r y Swiss psychologist H e r m a n n Rorschach. O n l y o n closer inspection we realize that t h e s e o b j e c t s are fooling us. This effect can o c c u r naturally w h e n looking at a b r i g h t l y lit w h i t e g r i d such as a w i n d o w f r a m e against t h e night sky. T h e s e e x a m p l e s illustrate h o w little is n e e d e d t o c o n v e y an image. e t c . this is a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f t h e viewer's b r a i n b e i n g willing t o d o a large a m o u n t o f t h e w o r k in d e c i p h e r i n g a p i c t u r e . w e see t w o overlapping triangles: o n e outlined in black b e n e a t h a n o t h e r in solid w h i t e .

COMMON ERRORS W h e n drawing cylindrical objects in perspective. I have exaggerated this error here. However. even if y o u r hand w o b b l e s a little at first. as if the table surface slopes upward beneath the vessel. I have drawn these for you here.90) takes a different as essentially circular. while its upper rim remains level. (see p. there are three common errors people stumble upon. Cubism. Ellipse are best d r a w n quickly. smoothly. giving the cylinder four corners. keep it spinning. since this is h o w w e experience them in e v e r y d a y use. Be aware. like a disposable plastic cup that has been crushed in your hand. circles change into ellipses. w h e n seen at an angle. for example. a n d in o n e bold stroke. hesitant one that has edged its w a y nervously around the vessel's rim. for example plates or bowls on a table. you will achieve steadiness with practice. The second common error is to tilt the upper and lower ellipses at different angles. The first common error is to draw two pointed ellipses. WHERE TO START In the air above a spacious sheet of scrap paper.100 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS W E VISUALIZE CYLINDRICAL VESSELS. spin your hand in a relaxed circle. third common error is to draw upper and lover ellipses with different-sized apertures. Cover a sheet of paper with spinning. suggesting that the vessel is lopsided. springlike forms like those I have drawn below. not the paper!) As the pen touches down. describing many sides of an object simultaneously. w e use ellipses to give a sense of perspective. Watch the tip of your pen and see it draw an ellipse in the air Keep this movement going while gently lowering the pen onto the paper like the needle of a record player closing on the disc (only it is your lowering hand that spins. such as bowls and cups. A wobbling but confident ellipse will still be more convincing than a slow. . How to Draw Ellipses of seeing. To make a cylindrical object appear real in our pictorial space. though. that this is o n l y o n e w a y view. Don't worry if it is uneven— just try again. and these narrow or widen depending on the height of our view.

Altering the pressure—and therefore tone—of the line as it spins gives the impression of light shining on one side. Seeing Through Allow lines to travel around each vessel as if it were transparent.101 DRAWING VESSELS Once you have mastered drawing free-hand springs. enlarging and diminishing the ellipse to determine the overall shape and volume. Draw quickly. Create a Solid Surface Once you have drawn the shape and volume of each form. thereby hiding lines that show the other sides. working from top to bottom. you can start to control your spinning ellipse to make a vessel. . you can make it solid by building up highlights and tones on visible surfaces. HOW TO DRAW E L L I P S E S A Single Vessel One Inside Another Grouped Together Finding Shape and Volume Draw an imagined vessel in one continuous spinning line.

In the finished drawing there should be few. Illuminate them with a gooseneck lamp placed very close and directed away from your eyes. simply shapes and subtleties of light and dark meeting each other with no divisions in between. making complicated or subtle surfaces easier to see and understand. OBJECTS AND Start by arranging a choice of shells on a sheet of paper to your left if you are right-handed (or vice versa). if light shines in them. Draw the largest and most distinct areas of light and darkness first.22-23). Remember that shadows. LIGHT TO DARK DARK TO LIGHT . beams of light. It is important to place them on the correct side so as to draw comfortably (see pp. It maximizes the range of tones between black and white. two opposite methods of achieving the same result. Relaxing your eyes out of focus as you draw will help to dissolve the distraction of detail. it will inhibit your perception of tone.102 INSTRUMENTS Tonality W H E N MAKING A TONAL DRAWING. leaving detail until last. or you can begin with a mid-gray ground and model light out of darkness (see opposite bottom). if any. and strong contrasts are easier to draw. You can begin with outlines and build slowly from light to dark (see opposite top). t h e r e a r e p r i n c i p a l l y Dramatic lighting emphasizes texture and contour. outlines. Gradually hone your drawing. and solid objects are all of equal importance.

Avoid a rough significant areas of light in your gray rectangle with texture and do not press the graphite hardwhite plastic eraser Ignore all detail and draw a into thepaperor you will not be able to erase it. Use quick. .103 LIGHT TO DARK (LINE TO TONE) TONALITY 1 Using a sharp HB pencil. look at the main areas of darkness. Remember that its size. and edges definingthespacialrelationships between are important aspects of your composition them. with broad sweeps of the eraser. Use your pencil to develop these in relation to the areas of light. Relaxing your eyes out of focus will help to eliminate distracting details. Treat positive form and negative space (see pp. pale lines with equal importance. Let your eyes go out of focus while looking gently layer marks to create an even tone at your subject and paper: Draw the most ofmid-graywithin a rectangle. Erase and make changes to roughly place the shells inside your with your composition. DARK TO LIGHT (TONE TO TONE) 1 Using the flattened tip of an HB pencil. Fll in broad areas first and leave all detail until last. 2 3 Gentlydissolveoutlines so that areas oflightanddark meet without a line between them. draw a rectangle. boldly 2 3 Keeping your eyes out of focus. loose. shape. until you are happy frame. Continue working between light and dark to refine the drawing. Honetheshapesand angles of the shells.56-57). Draw in the details last of all.

The first is that figurative and abstract drawings can be made in space. our image is stronger if we understand and can visualize what is happening on the other side too. There are essentially three lessons to be learned. On p. try drawing it with a pen on paper Use bold. smooth. Third. . 19 Picasso draws with a pen-light for the camera. 176 the British artists Noble and Webster draw with domestic refuse in a beam of light. When drawing anything viewed from one side on paper. They can also be made in space. PEN LINES Once you have created your three-dimensional violin (opposite). Seeing through a wire drawing of a known object such as a violin gives us a visual and tactile understanding of all its sides and shapes at once. On p. and on p. The second is that after achieving this simple example. This class uses thin-gauge wire to create a threedimensional violin. and on p.69 we see how the architect Antonio Gaudi drew proposed domes using suspended wires and weights.104 OBJECTS AND I N S T R U M E N T S Drawing with Wire DRAWINGS DO NOT HAVE to be two-dimensional. three-dimensional drawings teach us about the totality of forms in space.220 Mamoru Abe draws with forged steel rods. you can create your own more ambitious works. and physical relationships between them. continuous lines. Place the instrument on a plain surface and illuminate it with a desk lamp to add the delicate dimension of shadows.

4 . thin wire will make a smaller drawing.105 SETTING UP DRAWING WITH WIRE Follow these steps to draw a three-dimensional violin Choose a gauge of wire sturdy enough to hold the shape ofyourfinished drawing. Here. begin to shape the curvature of the fingerboard. I used garden wire and cut it carefully with pruners. Then begin to define its uppermost surface with Scurves and the bridge. brace the two ends of the violin with a length of wire along the back. Once you have completed the body. but thin enough to be easily manipulated inyourfingers Here. 2 3 If needed. and pinch and bend it to shape the base of the instrument Repeat this process to make the identical upper side of the instrument. Cut a length. 1 Decide how big to draw your violin relative to the gauge of your wire. These will hold the sides apart and help to keep the form in shape. and thick wire a larger one. I started with the scroll at the top and fixed the four component wires with two drawings of tuning pegs. Join the two sides together with four short pieces of wire.

Using found materials. .Artifacts and Fictions IN 1993 I WORKED with a group of schoolchildren who were responding to the astonishing objects in the collection of the Pitt Rivers Museum. Oxford. they invented new anthropological finds—objects that reflected the distant past and their immediate future. some of which are shown here. I had the privilege of drawing their inventions. England.



the Bay Area Models' Guild h o l d s a quarterly life-drawing m a r a t h o n aprinton Kodak transfer paper with green-colored dye added celebrating the great diversity of human proportion. but the study of a controlled. portraiture. Michelangelo attended dissections to made this image by light sectioning: fine beams of light perfect his understanding of surface form. and surgically rebuilt. During this time. much Western contemporary art. Drawings were usually made from the male nude to avoid offending the church. She the body is still essential. Artists now explore the interior of the body with new media and Lateral Contour Map of a Full-Term Primipara Produced by Light 1979 A. Strangely. This F finished image was produced as r a n c i s c o . while Leonardo opened the body to see and projected onto a woman's body draw the celebratory discover for himself our physical mechanisms. Leonardo drew a man within a circle and square. WILLIAMS he sought perfection in the infinitesimal measurement of the body and produced four Contemporary photographer volumes of illustrated explanation. It gives physical and emotive form to religious narratives. a n d w e d r a w o u r s e l v e s to a s s e r t o u r e x i s t e n c e . Look closely at Renaissance drawings of the female b o d y and you will see that m o s t are actually y o u n g m e n with minor adjustments. and anatomical and erotic art. W I L L I A M S technology. sculptural description of her form. Artists are thought to have b e g u n drawing from the nude during the Italian Renaissance. R. In this period. from video and X-ray to thermal imaging. The human body. focus has turned to the vulnerability of flesh: how it can be damaged. He even believed he had located the soul contours of her form like a cartographer's map of in the pituitary fossa beneath the brain and behind the eyes. Renaissance artists studying anatomy from dissection clinically trained and specialized as a medical illustrator. These classes are popular around the world. while Durer took his research further— A. W e are the only creatures on Earth that can make our own image.The Body O UR BODIES MAKE us TANGIBLE. giving physical foundation undulating land. history paintings and other stories. artists also tried to define ideal proportions in the body. diseased. It also looks at the representation of the b o d y b11y4o n d traditional life drawing. R. W e understand every curve and balance of to the theory that the eves are the windows of the soul. is the most c o m m o n subject in art. clothed or nude. myths and fables. and because the female was deemed inferior. in our privileged and comfortable society. the junior workshop apprentices posed as part of their duties. explaining ranges e/ of materials and techniques and showing diversities of thought and purpose in making. This chapter addresses issues that are most commonly faced by beginners attending life-drawing classes. The body remains at the core of over the initially white lines. 3 x 7 in (300 x 180 . and in San could easily be transferred into three dimensions. herimpressive presence because we are given such Life drawing no longer dominates the art school curriculum. Williams were decades ahead of their medical counterparts.

while Matisse used scissors and glue to cut out and paste a flat collage of brilliant color. But the meanings of each gesture and the materials and methods by which they Postures and Poses were m a d e contrast greatly. Here three male nudes are compressed into very shallow pictorial space.116-17). T h e y b o t h raise one arm to cup their head in their hand. Principal figures m i r r o r e a c h other. Matisse's b l u e n u d e sings with life and c e l e b r a t i o n . Raphael's study of fallen m e n leaves no doubt that they are in anguish. By way of contrast. In this highly s o p h i s t i c a t e d a b s t r a c t i o n . we see the e s s e n c e of h e r b e a u t y w i t h o u t a single detail. altar pieces. He trained under Perugino. and studied to learn from the works of Michelangelo and Leonardo besides whom he was soon ranked. Three Guards 1500-20 91/4 x143/8in (234 x 365 mm) RAPHAEL . RAFFAELLO SANZIO (RAPHAEL) Italian High Renaissance painter: Raphael is best known for his images of the Madonna and Child. anatomy. In a single drawing we see equally o b s e r v e d studies of f o r e s h o r t e n i n g (see pp.110 T H E BODY THESE DISTINCTIVE WORKS show two strikingly different ways of modeling the body on paper. filling the page with her presence. Sculptural frieze This is a preparatory drawing for Raphael's painting of the Resurrection of Christ. Muscular dramatic postures reflect the influence of Michelangelo and the Renaissance celebration of the idealized male body. and human defeat. Raphael drew delicate tones of black chalk on tinted paper. and Vatican frescos. while supporting the weight of their body with the other. She u n f o l d s and s t r e t c h e s shapely limbs. so that we read this drawing like a sculptural frieze.

devoid of troubling Blue Nude 1 1952 413/4 HENRY MATISSE . and Islamic art. and more energetic Color and form This collage is one of a series of Blue Nudes. foundamong many other groups of papercut these works as an elderly man confined to his bed or wheelchair.111 HENRY MATISSE French painter: an appeasing influence.or like a good armchair in which to rest from physical fatigue...which might be. lifelong love of brilliant They celebrate the culmination of spectacular and sometimes drawings. Matisse became an artist after studying law. Matisse Soothing influence This drawing expresses the achievement of Matisse's personal aim: "What I dream and depressing subject matter.designer writer. serenity. a mental soother. his pattern.sculptor. printmaker.. as his w o r k matured." of is an art of balance. freer.. His calligraphic natural abstractions of form grew brighter. fabric.. teacher and principal exponent o f Fauvism—a movement established in 1905 in which bold color is the most essential element..

turned gray. and c o m p l e m e n t a r y hues. form. Tone and light In this black conte drawing. w h o sits propped in the contradictory darkness of a hot summer's day.112 T H E BODY Choreographs T I M E IS A SIGNIFICANT E L E M E N T i n t h e m a k i n g o f a l l d r a w i n g s . Seurat engaged in lifelong studies of line. it would have mixed with unseen black dust. in a perfect e x a m p l e . only tones blending into. Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 1883-84 91/2 x 121/4 in (241 x 312 m m GEORGES SEURAT . Typically. Using the paper to create light is important for beginners to learn. Here. like small birds attendant on the meditation. stands in counterpoise holding a dark globe and his thoughts in m o m e n t a r y balance. 162) and an eraser to model teeming points of artificial light amid GEORGES SEURAT French painter classically educated in the Ingres school of thought. there are no outlines. he used b l a c k c o n t e (see p. other tones. agreeing to coalesce and show us the form of a waiting boy. and muddied the brilliance of the drawing. Beuys's magician. T h e space around h i m chatters with symbols. His drawings are similarly u n i q u e . Light is given by the paper alone. Below. we c o m p a r e a skillful design that absorbed m u c h time in its making with the quickness of an idea marked instantly. If Seurat had added white. velvet d a r k n e s s . Opposite. Seurat evolved a distinctive t e c h n i q u e called p o i n t i l l i s m — i m a g e s literally made from myriad points of color. reflected. In his f a m o u s paintings of social e n g a g e m e n t . and color His applied theories still influence painters in their manipulation and rendering of local. or abruptly meeting. it is as if the very atoms of air are made visible. scratched in seconds.

Many of his other symbolic works on paper have been drawn with materials such as honey. This figure is drawn intuitively. Beuys gave performances. video art. transience. He was a shaman who believed in intuition and in the investment of healing free from the constraint of immaculate form opposite) impetus is irrelevant to the and meaning of this work (as we see in Seurat's drawing representation. Perfectly modeled rather conventional for Joseph Focus Beuys's hand moved quickly to draw dotted lines flowing downward on either side of the figure. iodine. and blood. and drawings.113 JOSEPH BEUYS One of the most influential German artists of the 20th century. and made installations. taught workshops with a cult following. Unbroken lines stream from his simultaneously movement. in different positions. Our focus joins shoulders. His The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland UNDATED 113/4 J O S E P H BEUYS x81/4in (297 x 210 mm) . and that These aspects of the work convey fractured visibility. CHOREOGRAPHS the profound power materials with spiritual or of Free lines This pale pencil drawing is Beuys.

the women are framed and caressed by long. his w o r k is characterized by deliberate un-finish and powerfully modeled emotion. Free lines Rodin's public audience was understandably shocked by the eroticism of his drawings. 125/8x 9 in (320 x 229 mm) AUGUSTE RODIN Two Women 1911 Embracing . Delicate strokes This is one of about 7. flushed skin made ruddy and black with crushed cinders.114 BODY Passion SUMMONING HUMANITY in a drawing of the nude is a subtle and emotional task. We are asked to gaze u p o n her flesh. Rodin employed models to move freely or pose together in his studio. As here. was perceived as scandalous. Paris. and went on to inspire generations of artists. They whisper and writhe in a brushed and sultry embrace that devours our watching. In both drawings. and one of hundreds of rapid studies of nudes. In Rodins work. Rodin produced portraits and statues of public and literary figures. Inspired by Michelangelo." as seen here. the fierceness of the women's kiss is beautifully matched by the tenderness of his line. Opposite. he typically drew them with a few delicate strokes of pencil and brushed watercolor. Achieving international acclaim in mid-life. Anita Taylor has drawn her protective body hug out of the darkly glistening compression of willow charcoal and the dynamism of her shy but momentous femininity. its soft. Our bodies radiate the passion of our thoughts and so become beacons of our frailty and power. But what is stranger to us now is that they were also outraged by his free use of line.000 drawings shown in rotation at the Musee Rodin. sweeping lines— of either purple silk fabric or cool studio air—that imprint and amplify their past and future movements. His exquisite flow of paint beyond "outlines. We are involved not as a shabby voyeur but as a bystander engaged through our recognition of shared joy. THE AUGUSTE RODIN French Romantic sculptor and prolific draftsman employed as an ornamental mason until the age of 42.

Luminosity Layered marks flicker likefirelight as they sculpt the woman's body. scrutiny. Taylor's immense self-portraits explore the relationship between the artist as maker and the artist as model. Charcoal Taylor has drawn freely with charcoal and an eraser on thick. Taylor has drawn. exposure. draftsman. and gaze. professor and Vice Principal of Wimbledon School of Art. This order of light below and dark above gives glowing from within. and rework rich depths of light and tone. London. leaving her lightest marks at the deepest level of the image and applying darker marks above. erased and drawn again. intimately reflecting upon the emotions and meaning of nudity.I 15 ANITA T A Y L O R Painter. The sturdy surface of the sheet has allowed her to press hard when needed. A thinner sheet might have crumpled and torn under such vigorous force of making. textured paper. the impression of luminosity All and Nothing 1999 67 x447/8in (170 x 1 1 4 cm) ANITA TAYLOR .

and wrist joints. MEASURING This is a simple method of making measured comparisons for relating the true size of one part to another This is a tool to assist observation and thinking. persistence. Align the top with a point on your subject. patience. 3 Keep your pencil perpendicular Measure and compare at any angle." . 2 Hold your pencil upright. more extreme examples have been made for court entertainment. you will make inconsistent and unrelated comparisons. helping us to see more clearly. for example. Lock your shoulder. which is imperceptible from below. Smaller. "Simple measured comparisons reveal surprising truths about proportion. unfathomable angles. Rome. This is chiefly a correcting device by which figurative painters and sculptors have for centuries countered the effects of our viewing their work from far below or on the curvature of a vault. London). without taking off. We also look at another very interesting branch called accelerated (or anamorphic) perspective. to be translated by mirrors or seen from only one point in the room. Close one eye. How to make and apply these is explained below and opposite. elongated as if stretched across the plaster. Move the tip of your thumb down to a second chosen point. Spend time making comparisons before you draw. It can also be a little demon in the life room. In the life class it is the mechanism for ensuring that a drawn figure lies correctly in pictorial space . There is no need to mark them all down on paper. the skull in Holbein's The Ambassadors (The National Gallery. 1 Hold your arm straight. just making them helps you see. or coming forward. Imagine Michelangelo's murals in the Sistine Chapel. Accelerated perspective plays a great role in much art.116 T H E BODY Measurement and Foreshortening FORESHORTENING IS AN ASPECT of perspective. or shrivelling at odd. To avoid its effects ensure you always look flat onto the surface of your page.limbs happily receding. we would arrive to find many of the same figures strangely distorted. and measurements do not have to be carried to the paper and slavishly drawn the same size they appear on your pencil. It is not so hard. and to draw what we see. It is not complicated. plummeting. Return to this posture every time. when beginners prop their board in their lap and look down at too steep an angle. and a few measured comparisons are key. Up close on the scaffold we would witness Michelangelo's subtle application of accelerated perspective. But if we could take a scaffold and climb up to the work. with dramatic illusions of figures painted in normal proportion. rather that what we believe we know from experience. If your arm is not straight. The length of exposed pencil is your measurement. elbow.

W o r k a r o u n d t h e figure. C o m p a r e t h e heights o f t h e nose and eye shapes t o t h o s e o f t h e f o r e a r m .117 ACCELERATED PERSPECTIVE To discover h o w this w o r k s . Stand its b o t t o m edge o n y o u r lap. W e appear t o be looking d o w n o n a w o m a n s t a n d i n g b e n e a t h us. Lean t h e t o p e d g e t o w a r d y o u and find a p o s i t i o n w h e r e y o u can c o m f o r t a b l y l o o k d o w n t h e p a p e r at an angle o f a b o u t 4 0 degrees. a n d thighs. A t a c e r t a i n angle. belly. To m a k e f o r m s l o o k c o r r e c t . which feels strange. S o o n t h e b o d y will lie d o w n in space. t a p e s o m e p a p e r t o a board. y o u r hand travels f a r t h e r than y o u expect. FORESHORTENING To f o r e s h o r t e n a figure. adjusting a n o n y m o u s shapes. P r o p o r t i o n s will only l o o k c o r r e c t f r o m t h e angle at w h i c h y o u make t h e drawing. MEASUREMENT AND FORESHORTENING Tilt t h e t o p edge o f this b o o k t o w a r d you and look d o w n o n this figure f r o m a b o v e . y o u must let go o f w h a t y o u k n o w f r o m e x p e r i e n c e a b o u t t h e relative sizes o f b o d y parts and trust y o u r eyes. looking d o w n t h e p a p e r at t h e a n g l e at w h i c h I d r e w . pleasingly f o r e s h o r t e n e d . T h i s is t h e s a m e d r a w i n g p h o t o g r a p h e d f r o m above. L o o k at y o u r m o d e l as if he o r she is a flat series o f shapes o n e o n t o p o f a n o t h e r Measure t h e height and w i d t h o f each shape and c o m p a r e it t o its neighbor. See h o w d i f f e r e n t t h e relative heights o f t h e s e shapes are f r o m w h a t w e m i g h t e x p e c t in real life. h e r p r o p o r t i o n s will appear correct. Keep t h e b o a r d steady and draw. .

THE SEQUENCE OF POSES H e r e the model was asked to move every t w o minutes. Outline To outline a figure. make the upper body smaller give your model a high waist. imagine holding up a plumb line. Layered lines give d e p t h . and work over t h e m with further o b s e r v a t i o n s . Leave first thoughts in place. Balance When a model stands upright on both feet. feeling. Height This pose leans away into space above our eye level. height. I used a sharp H B pencil and began each drawing by marking her outline. To draw this effect. work back and forth across the body. propelling you to make immediate assessments and trust them. her center of balance is normally found in a vertical line beneath her head. T h i s q u i c k e x p l o r a t o r y line does not perfectly describe shape but expresses a decision about overall flow of form. To see this. balance. and stance before honing her balance and expression. and slightly enlarge her legs and feet. Avoid drawing up one side and down the other. and energy. . and height. working from her center to her feet and to her head. Start each new drawing by lightly marking the model's height with a loose line in ten seconds. because it results in two unrelated sides drifting apart. Be bold and dive into your drawing with c o n f i d e n c e .118 BODY Quick Poses DRAWING QUICK POSES l o c k s y o u r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n t o what is most essential.

Most of us have a tendency to over-straighten the drawn figure. the activity of circular lines and the repetition of limbs suggest movement. Tilt Movement Here.119 The twist of a model is most easily and expressively captured if it is exaggerated. This drawing shows how different observations be overlaid to bring a drawing alive. and this should be avoided Twist QUICK POSES A model standing on one leg usually drops the opposite hip. The tilt of the pelvis is then counter balanced by the model's shoulders tilting the other way (as seen here). .

and a gooseneck lamp casts shadows that clarify planes and depths GESTURES OF THE HAND Curled Fingers 1 Open Palm Start honing the shapes of the dominant planes. drawn in relation to each other. express structure and gesture far more successfully and easily than ten worried outlines wandering up and down between the fingers and toes. Then subdivide each shape so that you w o r k from large to small.120 BODY Hands and Feet THERE ARE MANY different ways of approaching h a n d s and THE of form. especially the lengthwise divisions between them. Begin by drawing lines to encompass the whole hand. A mirror increases your range of views. feet. Group the fingers together as one mass. Don't worry about achieving perfect solutions. Do not separate them yet. and ignore all details. These planes. general to specific. or those of a friend. Focus instead on how planes change direction across the knuckles from one side of the hand or foot to the other. 2 Build your drawing gradually from light to dark. starting with the largest. it is important to leave aside all details of the fingers and toes. but regard these practice studies as ongoing processes of thought and observatio Add details such as nails last if you wish. W h e n starting. It also helps the beginner to progress from drawing outlines to drawing confidently across the surface of the whole form. swiftly marking its essential gesture. Keep lines open to change and take measurements if they help. and they need not be daunting to draw. This exercise is useful when struggling with proportion. 3 . Draw large shapes and their orientation. Practice by drawing your own hands and feet.

Nowimagineyou are carving the foot insidethepaper. these are what give a drawing its tangible structure. . flattened planes. and spontaneity. Try t o express the whole foot and t o encapsulate its entire shape and direction in a few marks. Leave aside all detail. loose.121 HANDS AND FEET MOVEMENTS OF THE FOOT Flat Stance Raised Heel Instep 1 Let your first marks be light. 2 3 Use an eraser t o refine decisions o r t o suggest areas o f light. It can be a mistake. Look for key angles without becoming distracted by detail. and don't worry about accuracy t o begin with. Hew it roughly in broad. t o remove t o o many early lines. though out o f wood. as if with a chisel. however. and rapid.

Compare its nature in close-up to that of willow charcoal used on pp." . Opposite.Charcoal Hands T H E S E DRAWINGS ARE MADE in compressed charcoal. I also used white ink with a steel dip pen. The white lines demonstrate what is often called "bracelet shading.204-05.


and posture of the model. Phrasing Contours .HERE TRACES OF RAPID initial lines are still seen within and outside each body. I make these lines in the first five to ten seconds of a drawing to locate the presence. before honing his or her shape (see pp. 118-19). length.


feeling them through the attentive movements of your own hand. perspectives. Forms. Drawing work by another artist enables you to discover and understand the inventive hand in their composition. and narrative pulse become vivid when you realize them in the middle of your study. . It is now viewed with some skepticism and often seen as academic.The Visual Detective DRAWING FROM MASTERWORKS was once a staple component of an artist's education. characters. I draw in museums in support of written research and as an artist seeking answers to questions about the practicalities of image making.


Life-size women wearing wigs recline on beds of embroidered silk in cabinets of mahogany and Venetian glass This is a detail of a compressed charcoal drawing measuring 14 x 10 ft (4.3 x 3 m) made in response to La Specola. These almost life-size figures were composed from my imagination and achieved with the help af studies discussed on pp. each modeled from dissection. Florence. .La Specola At17V i a Romana. 126-27. Walls are lined with hundreds of faintly animated body parts. there is a unique museum of 18th-century anatomical waxes.



character. In this chapter. compliant subject to scrutinize. . Our homes are filled with images of our loved ones and of those in our families who have gone before. and expression of the individual. and in a few scrolling rafts of pen lines and stubbled dots. buttons. We can mold and animate qualities of expression out of objects and fragments of disassociated things—for example. Beginners often draw themselves as a way of establishing their practice. painters have dropped discreet records of themselves into commissioned narratives so that they can remain a face in the crowd. or whose eyes can seem to follow us around the room Portraiture is a constant. made as he passed through the ages of man. and a handprint (see p. and lucrative genre for artists. Man Ray's self-portrait of scored lines. draftsman. This enlargement o f his miniature p o r t r a i treveals t h e s p e e d and agility o f his p e n and about himself. in a miniature self-portrait magnified opposite. their stance. or a glimpse of him is caught in a photograph used as a prop. abstract or figurative. look directly at us. Past rulers sent painters across continents to bring back a likeness in advance of a prospective royal marriage. Halls and palaces are filled with pictures of the mighty and significant. 1790-92 4 x 3 in ( 1 0 2 x 7 6 m m ) F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A and memorize the basic structure that we all share. historical. a single line can deliver an entire expression. his changes in pressure and Hitchcock length o f line. and satirical or metaphorical.Portraiture IN P O R T R A I T U R E W E MEET PEOPLE. having been documented and preserved. Self-portraiture gives every artist a constant. Rembrandt's famous multitude of self-portraits. and secular narratives. and their posture can be changed with just one line. Equally. who. and social and political commentaries.139). and it is very rewarding. Goya's w o r k s include many royal and society p o r t r a i t s . bells. usually strangers from past times. is here to both meet and look through us. To create a face is to see and interpret the essence of an identity. We are also reassured by keeping records of ourselves. we use the delicate medium of silver point to look at foundation structures of the head. and p r i n t m a k e r . neck. W h e n drawing a person. throat. single or of groups. Movie director Alfred similarly signed his films by playing a fleeting role: he walks through an extra. or past us. you can capture the subtlety. It also reminds us o f b o t h t h e intimacy and a scene as scrutiny o f an honest portrait. became more poignant as he progressed. the meaning of their face. gathered all that he knew FRANCISCO DE GOYA V i s i o n a r y Spanish painter. Portraits can be highly or loosely detailed. Once you understand Self-Portrait in a Cocked Hat c. The truth is that we all like looking at faces and observing the billions of variations that make us individuals. and shoulders. For centuries. Goya. religious. live. The returning image was of crucial consideration in any proposal.

PABLO PICASSO Spanish Cubist painter (see also p. one eye already cast askew into the autumn of her life.30). How could the addition of shadows have enhanced this image? Few strokes The simplicity of Picasso's line is breathtaking. For the beginner. Here the grace and beauty of two young women are held forever. There is a common misunderstanding that a drawing with only a few lines is both less finished and easier to make than a drawing with more. adding smudges of tone for weight and solidity. Without faltering. Her face is drawn tenderly and with a luminous glow. While with longer consideration.132 PORTRAITURE Poise THE BALANCE BETWEEN a mark and a blank space is often a tantalizing form of perfection. teetering on the brink of older age. We can read so much about them by studying their gaze. The aesthetic sense of a line being just right can make a drawing sing. The truth is often the opposite. they serve as a great lesson that it is not always necessary to add tone to your drawing. Holbein maps the still landscape of Dorothea's body in questioning marks. whisking a timeless girl onto the page. length. we can enjoy and learn from them. hand to capture something well in only Frangoise au Bandeau 1946 660 x 505 mm (26 x197/8in) PABLO PICASSO . Through exhibitions and copies in books. He makes his flair and skill look easy. Picasso has left to posterity many hundreds of magnificent line drawings. Picasso strikes and scrolls his pencil. stealthily using his chalk to find contours and mass. and pressure as it conducts our eye through the image. We can actually count that he struck the paper 40 times. It is the portrait of a countrywoman. It takes a truly accomplished a few strokes. caught in her last moments of youth. breadth. The Tightness of a line is felt in its speed.

The peak of her cap clips the uppermost edge. which. Holbein unified the woman with her background by gently blending colors from her clothes and face into the atmosphere around her. He outlined her nose but not her upper lip. Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 1516 51/8 x121/4in (385 x 310 m m ) HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER . and produced numerous society portraits such as this one here. Cropping This regal composition fits its paper perfectly. and its downward slope crowns the diagonal of the composition. In addition t o his numerous exquisite portraits in oil. presses against the binding across her face. Holbein has cropped and pinned his subject within the four outermost lines of the image—the edges of the page. Holbein was employed toward the end of his life by King Henry VIII of England. and designer f r o m Basel. he designed c o u r t costumes.133 HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER German p o r t r a i t painter draftsman. gently flushed. made a popular series o f w o o d c u t prints titled The Dance of Death. Blended colors In this portrait drawn with colored chalks on slightly textured paper. Her folded forearms support and frame her weight above.

the face is one of the hardest parts to dissect. confusing. It floats in space. Highlights of white gouache were dry Profile Head late in the making. Anatomically. the contours of a grid. Psychological drama is contained behind a grid. its highly clarified detail claiming to be d r a w n from observation. using a fine and relatively 1982 13 x 181/8 in (328 x 460 mm) VICTOR NEWSOME brush. London. while white painted flecks and wisps suggest electrical illumination. This is one of a number of similar disembodied female heads seen behind. The real dissection w o u l d have been far more c o m p l e x . and glands also complicate form. This is a m a r v e l o u s interpretation of the truth. perhaps applied using a tortillon. continues to exhibit regularly. Newsome was awarded the Prix de Rome in 1960. and has works in major collections including the Tate Gallery. . blood vessels. distorted. taught at numerous British art schools from 1962-77. but they are irrelevant here. or defined by. dark lines made with a pencil appear against smooth. and unpleasant to see.134 PORTRAITURE Anatomies These highly finished drawings express the emotional power and physicality of the head and neck. The style of Durelli's d r a w i n g opposite sings with the confidence of truth and precision. In fact. Delicate muscles are integrated with the skin and fat that is to be r e m o v e d . VICTOR NEWSOME British sculptor painter and draftsman. N e w s o m e ' s eerily shadowed form is smooth and bears a linear grain evocative of w o o d . Nerves. Durelli has m a d e a few m i n o r mistakes. Contrasts Sharp. dark tones of graphite blended into the paper. solid above and almost hollow below.

pull their points o f attachment t o w a r d each other . Red Chalk the Muscles 1837 173/8 x 145/8 in ( 4 4 0 x 3 7 2 m m ) ANTONIO DURELLI and Pencil Drawing and of Neck of the Head Little is k n o w n o f this M i l a n e s e p a i n t e r a n d engraver w h o c a m e from a family o f artists. and it is likely that this drawing was intended for reproduction as a print. Durelli's experience as an engraver is reflected in his stylized drawing o f muscle fibers.135 ANATOMIES ANTONIO DURELLI Linear perfection This is a red chalk drawing of extraordinary accomplishment. It is hard to think of a more difficult medium with which to achieve such linear perfection. Stylized parallel lines are reminiscent of engravings. Pencil numbers refer to the list of muscles written beneath. w h e n contracted. which.

painter draftsman. Energy This is a portrait of a woman drawn with black crayon on a plain page of a book Lines search for the essence of form. Portrait de Marie-Laure de Noailles c. while his hand stabs and thrusts Revelations like a conductors baton. he drew over the whole image at once. 1948 77/8 x 6 in (200 x 150 mm) ALBERTO GIACOMETTI . with speed and urgency. Giacometti settled in Paris.136 PORTRAITURE THESE ARE DRAWINGS of shoulders. as if seen from a distance. There is a film of Giacometti drawing. Flesh is built and personality carved simultaneously. Agitated marks make patches of tone that cut away the space around the character. and with staccato flinches his hyperactive eye moves from paper to model. and heads. They confuse our perception of scale by being intimately fragile and at the same time far removed. which are characteristically elongated. each locked into a visionary gaze. Both works demonstrate how simple lines can be made complex by being intense. ALBERTO GIACOMETTI Swiss sculptor. Speed Giacometti probably began with an oval shape placed in relation to the proportion of the page. He is best known for his bronze sculptures of human form. Opposite. necks. each portrait is inscribed onto the page. We are brought intimately close to this man gazing up to heaven. They show us clearly the bones of drawing. and poet After studying in Geneva and Italy. close enough to touch his hair and feel his breath. Similar movements sculpted the head below into its page. cutting and carving the paper with matted and spiraling restless energy. The camera watches him at work. Then. Without paint and with very little tone. Bellini gently conjures the features of his saint with soft marks that tease his presence out of shadows into the light.

a n d his w o r k is d i s t i n c t i v e l y calm. Bellini s t u d i e d u n d e r his f a t h e r J a c o p o . a n d b r o t h e r in-law. H e t a u g h t G i o r g i o n e Barbarelli and Titian. Character This is one of many cartoons produced by Bellini the and his family. Transfer This delicate humorous chalk a drawing is a cartoon—not image but a type of template used to plan the composition of a larger work Look closely and you will see rows of tiny dots along every significant line in the picture. Sometimes different narrative same character was reused in compositions. These are pinholes. Head and Shoulders of a Man 73/8 x 21/4 in ( 1 8 6 x 5 8 UNDATED GIOVANNI BELLINI . transferring which were made in the process of the saint to his final place in the composition of a painting (see Glossary pp. a n d c o n t e m p l a t i v e . H e p r e f e r r e d religious t o classical t h e m e s . lyrical. Mantegna.5 9 ) .G I O V A N N I BELLINI A prominent member of a large family o f V e n e t i a n painters.25 6 .

float and shimmer in the shallow pictorial space. Signs and symbols with symbols This painting shudders that ore written. spear-brandishing warrior. Self Portrait 1982 9 4 x 7 6 in (239 x 193 cm) JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT . The artist has finished his portrait with the signature of his hand smacked in the middle like a kiss: a declaration of existence as old as man's first drawing. scratched lines. skull- Self-Portraits headed. and sheet metal before being snapped up by the New York contemporary art scene. signing their work SAMO. and confrontations with. The figure's position is unequivocal and defiant while around him is in a state Without the essential of cultural and figure we would elegant belookingat a sophisticated painting of signs. It is an opportunity to look deep without the infringement of courtesies owed to a commissioning sitter. a tribal. Al Diaz. bells. In 1986 he traveled to Africa and showed his work in Abidjan on the Ivory Coast He also exhibited in Germany and France. scratched into its surface. marks. JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT Short-lived American painter and graffiti artist who began his blazing nine-year career drawing on lower Manhattan subway trains with a friend. It has proved to be a subject of piercing scrutiny. and indulgence. made with great energy. and buttons rings with surrealist wit and agile improvisation. Later Basquiat sold drawings on T-shirts. scrolls. similar to work by Cy Twombly (see p.221). political outcry. It is an image of confrontation—the ever-controversial young artist roars at us from his abstract city-scape. postcards. and attitudes. drawn.138 PORTRAITURE THE MIRROR OF SELF-PORTRAITURE offers artists infinite reflections of. and everything flux. humor. Man Ray's playful silk-screen assembly of color blocks. Islands of graphic marks. their most immediate and best-known subject: themselves. The incandescent New York painter Jean Michel Basquiat pictured himself here in naked silhouette.

The first part of the stenciled image was already marked on the silk The screen and paper were then held tightly together. printmaker and cofounder of the New York Dada movement. painter. caked in thick printing ink or paint. last of all. They suggest speed and make the picture look immediate and spontaneous. The handprint appears to be made directly. where he collaborated with the artist Laslo MoholyNagy. Autoportrait 1916 195/8 MAN RAY . Frame White lines are seemingly (though not actually) scratched through ink to frame this face. Black ink was printed next and then white. They experimented with camera-free photography working directly onto photographic paper Silk and ink This is a silkscreen print made through the following process: the paper was laid on a flat surface and a frame stretched with fine silk was placed on top. while a squeegee was used to drag thick lilac-brown ink across the silk pushing it though exposed areas onto the paper below. During the 1920's and 30s.139 MAN RAY American surrealist photographer. Man Ray lived and worked in Paris. Man Ray probably used his own hand.

Numerous early European artists also enjoyed its fine qualities (see p. Find a n i t e m t h a t y o u can h o l d a n d draw with comfortably. p a r c h m e n t . choose a silver object. copper. Take a sheet o f any t y p e o f p a p e r (for e x a m p l e . s e e p . Stretched paper remains taut as a d r u m . MATERIALS 1 Find a clean sponge and b o w l o r d e e p t r a y a n d fill it w i t h w a t e r W e t t h e p a p e r evenly in t h e t r a y o r o n t h e b o a r d . b u t d o n ' t w o r r y . This browns with age unless sealed by fixative (see pp. 2. Pages 142 to 147 are illustrated in silver point and techniques are explained on pp. Gesso o r m a t t e m u l s i o n c a n a l s o b e u s e d . o n e t o fit each side o f t h e b o a r d — t h e s e will make t h e glued f r a m e t h a t holds y o u r p a p e r in place. Lay a clean d r a w i n g b o a r d o n a flat surface.s t r i p a n d use i t t o fix o n e side o f t h e p a p e r t o t h e b o a r d . c h o o s e a s o f t full b r u s h t h a t c a n c a r r y p l e n t y o f l i q u i d . you will need t o stretch paper and lay a wash (see right and opposite). w h i t e d r a w i n g paper) and cut it t o fit y o u r d r a w i n g b o a r d w i t h a generous b o r d e r a r o u n d its edges. E m p t y mechanical pencils designed f o r t h i c k leads ( s e e p. or ring. I t is a v a i l a b l e f r o m all a r t s h o p s . artists mixed white lead.54-55). b e f o r e priming stretched paper. Historically. M a k e s u r e i t is c o m p l e t e l y clean t o avoid u n w a n t e d streaks. it leaves a deposit. which quickly oxidizes into a gray line. S O F T F U L L B R U S H : W h e n laying a w a s h . If w o r k i n g o n an emulsion-painted wall. I m a k e m y o w n f r o m o l d dip pens. 2 .140 PORTRAITURE Silver P o i n t SILVER OR METAL POINT STRETCHING PAPER A sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has been made w e t with the strokes o f a paintbrush will buckle d u e t o its uneven expansion. an exciting indication of how large-scale drawings could be made on a wall. and gold have also been used. and is therefore useful w h e n using w a t e r c o l o r as well as silver point. 5. Straighten the w o r s t buckles. W e t a n d fix a s e c o n d strip t o t h e o p p o s i t e side. and alloys work on matt emulsion. I combined silver point with painted white gouache on a pink ground. purchase silver wire. Note h o w domestic paintwork marks with a coin. was familiar to or eggshells with animal glue. or wood. Lightly s p o n g e o f f t h e excess. Metal point is simply a strip of metal bound in a holder. s o m e m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n o t h e r s . key. platinum." Lead. Drawn across a prepared surface. This is called a three-tone drawing. To begin. laid on paper. 3 . S i l v e r is b e s t . Be swift and firm. 1 4 4 . T h e p a p e r will l o o k b u c k l e d . illuminators of medieval m a n u s c r i p t s . 144-45. For i m p o r t a n t a d v i c e o n p r e p a r a t i o n a n d use. 1.Tear o f f f o u r lengths o f b r o w n p a p e r g u m tape. 156). bone. W e t o n e length o f g u m .54) can also b e used. who used it to outline initials and border characters before painting. SILVER W I R E : Purchase different gauge lengths f r o m a traditional a r t supplier o r jeweler. SILVER P O I N T W I R E H O L D E R : T h e s e c a n b e p u r c h a s e d a n d t e n d t o b e heavy. and make o r buy a holder. Opposite. M E T A L OBJECTS: All metal objects m a r k a p r e p a r e d surface. the surface must be primed with a ground such as gouache. The most c o m m o n metal has always been silver—hence the term "silver point. Z I N C W H I T E G O U A C H E : Dilute with w a t e r A d d c o l o r i f r e q u i r e d (as opposite) 4 . Metal point does not work on ordinary paper. and t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h strips a b o v e and b e l o w .

Beware of the tape's coming loose at any point while drying. Dry thoroughly before laying a wash. so put newspaper under the lower edge.141 SILVER POINT 3 Leave the paper to dry flat. Keep testing on spare paper. slowly add powder pigment or gouache from a tube. Keep adding smooth. I used a powder pigment called Caput Mortuum. LAYING A WASH It your stretched paper so as to prime it for silver point. T h r e e . and let tests dry before deciding to change the mixture. as the paper will be ruined by a raised ridge. v e r y little at a time. Dip a soft. Make enough to cover your paper. full brush into the gouache and start in the top left corner. Make an even line across to the right. is necessary to lay a wash o Three-tone When coloring ground. Prop up your board of dry. Here. Leave the wash to dry thoroughly before you begin to draw. It will slowly straighten and become taut. Runs blend into each other evenly. stretched paper at a 45-degree angle. leaving a smooth surface. any extra will keep. The next step will make a small mess.t o n e silver point drawing of a skull . Mix a very wet but not weak solution of gouache in a jar with a lid (add pigment at this stage for a three-tone drawing). Reload the brush and add a second line overlapping it beneath. overlapping lines until you reach the bottom.



Head and Neck
THE HEAD AND NECK are best conceived as one unit arranged in four parts: cranium, face, neck, and throat. Each is of equal importance. The cranium is essentially egg-shaped and pivots on the first vertebra. The face is suspended beneath, like a softly curved triangle. The n e c k — a powerful, shapely column of layered muscles rigged to vertebrae—adjusts and holds the angle and expression of the head. The throat is delicate, hard, and lumpy to the touch, formed of cartilaginous rings, glands, thin muscles, and looser skin. Framing the throat, two columnar neck muscles (sternomastoids) project the head forward and also turn it to the opposite side.

This is a simple shorthand diagram representing the cranium, face, neck, and throat. It can be learned and visualized in different positions very easily, giving the novice a firm footing on which to stand and develop their drawings of the head and neck.

Shorthand diagram

Cranium Begin with an egg shape. Tilt it on the paper to change the position of the head.

Face Draw a rounded triangular shape below the forward point of the egg to represent the face.

Neck This shape represents the trapezius; the largest surface muscle of the neck and shoulders.

Throat A triangular shape represents the throat. (The nose makes the diagram clearer)

Applied shorthand

After copying the diagram above, animate it. Practice drawing the cranium at different angles, add the face beneath, then the neck, shoulders, and throat. Shape your diagrams so they are more lifelike, but avoid adding detailed features too soon.

143 These three drawings demonstrate (from left to right) the following: why the cranium may be considered egg-shaped; now the face can be seen as a curved triangle suspended beneath and where the division lies between the two; and the form of sternomastoid muscles that frame thethroatsodistinctlywhen the head is turned and inclined forward.

The skull and the frame of the throat


Bones of the cranium are locked together by jagged joints. Sinuses in the frontal (forehead) bone between and beneath the eyebrows are larger in men, making their brows pronounced and often ridged compared to those of women.

Bones of the face house our sight, smell, taste, The skull pivots on the first vertebra or "atlas," and speech. Cartilage extending from nasal bones after the Greek god condemned to carry the shapesthenose.Pads of fat resting on the base of Earth. The jaw hinges in front of the ears. Behind, eacheyesocket support the eyeballs in position. If bony ridges give anchor to the sternomastoid thefatisreducedby old age, eyes look sunken. muscles rising from the breast- and collarbones.

Three useful generalizations

General rules about the relative positions of body parts can hinder artists as much as help them, since they are often based on classical ideals rather than thediversityoflife.However,some generalizations can help as a rough guide to start with, so long as good observation takes over as soon as possible.

In general, when the face is relaxed (not smiling or frowning), the corners of the mouth are found directly beneath the pupils of the eyes. Vertical lines can be drawn down from the pupils to meet the corners of the mouth.

The height of a young adult's ear is often the same as their nose and found on the same level. There is no general rule for growing children, and remember that ears grow again in old age, which is most obvious in men.

The height of the face is about the length of the handspan and the eye is normally halfway down the total height of the head. A common error is to draw the eyes too high up on the face.



Essential Observations

(see pp. 140-41) is perfect for

such as a beach pebble. Here, I stretched drawing paper and laid a wash of white gouache (see pp.140-41). As you can see, the line and tone of silver point varies with pressure, but only slightly. Too much pressure cuts the ground. Silver point erases, but so does ground. Erased ground can be repaired gently with extra gouache. You can also use gouache to paint over mistakes and make corrections.

small, detailed drawings. The drawings below and opposite show useful observations of the head and neck, which are explained in the captions below. Each drawing was made with a silver wire held in a large-gauge mechanical pencil. Newly clipped wires are sharp and cut rather than draw. Before use, they need to be rubbed and smoothed on a stone

Here I imagined placing my silver point wire against the skin of each head and neck and, working in parallel bands from the crown downward, I traced the undulation of surfaces. Linear bands imagined around the head and neck can help you t o clearly see the tilt of the head and relative levels of the features. Ask a friend t o model for you and try this exercise life-size using a pencil and eraser


Tilted forward

Tilted backward

Three-quarter view

Seeing that the face is never flat

Drawings below left and center are summaries of the generalizations given on p.143. Far right is an image to remind us that the face is never flat. It slopes back to varying degrees among individuals, from the tip of the nose t o the ears. For example, note that the innermost corners of the eyes are farther forward in space than the outermost corners.

General measurements, side

General measurements, front

View from above


Male and female head and neck
Men's necks a r e g e n e r a l l y s h o r t e r a n d t h i c k e r t h a n w o m e n ' s b e c a u s e t h e angles a n d levels o f c e r t a i n b o n e s a r e d i f f e r e n t b e t w e e n t h e sexes ( i n d i c a t e d h e r e b y d o t t e d lines) a n d m e n are n o r m a l l y m o r e muscular. T h e male t h y r o i d cartilage ( A d a m ' s apple) is larger a n d m o r e visible than t h e f e m a l e . L a r g e r f e m a l e t h y r o i d glands also s o f t e n t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e t h r o a t .

Female skull





Trapezius muscle
The largest m u s c l e o f t h e s h o u l d e r s a n d n e c k is called the trapezius. A r r a n g e d on e i t h e r side o f t h e spine, it shapes t h e u p p e r back and neck above the s h o u l d e r blades. C o n t r a c t i n g in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h d e e p e r and surrounding muscles, it raises and l o w e r s t h e shoulders a n d d r a w s t h e h e a d backtoeitherside.

The whole



half with



with head



with head


Side with


Front with




Drawing Portraits
USING A SHARP 3 B PENCIL, I drew this head quickly from imagination, evolving its character and expression from the scheme of four parts: cranium, face, neck, a n d throat (see p. 142). Here, five steps show you how to practice doing the same. This approach can be used to draw from imagination or from life. Keep your wrist loose and hold your pencil away from its point (see pp.22-23). Build the layers of your drawing from pale to dark, a n d from general balance a n d form to specific detail. Remember that successful drawings are built on foundations of "seeing the whole," then dividing the whole into smaller parts, with details brought in last of all. Phrased tonal marks modeling this girls skin and hair follow the technique demonstrated by Goya in his self-portrait on p. 130. Turn to Goya's drawing and study how, in a circle beginning across his hat, moving down his hair, and around his coat, he flows lines over surfaces to describe their contour. As you build from steps 1 to 5, bring phrased groups of lines across the surfaces of your form, using their directions to capture the expression of the head and neck. If unsure, copy my steps until you gain the confidence to make your own decisions.

This drawing is the final stage of the four steps opposite. Here, I have enlarged the eye, and moved it back into the head by trimming the length of the upper lid and adding a more pronounced lower lid. It is important to set eyes far enough back from the relatively prominent nose; too close to it and the face flattens. Hair swept back and extended behind the cranium balances the regal pose. Lines shaping the hair echo those marking the cranium in step 1. Here, the lower part of step 1 comes through as wisps of hair across her face and ear


Portrait of a Young Girl

neck. The eye announces the nature and expression of the emerging person. down the face to the throat. I modeled the outline of the character I imagined light shining from above and in front and adjusted the pressure of lines to reflect this. avoid drawing too dark. and throat. over the cranium.Theangle at which you draw this shape of the paper will determine the angle of the finished head. too soon.147 Building up the portrait DRAWING PORTRAITS 1 Gently spin pale lines in a softly drawn shape representing the cranium. 2 Rapidly add shorthand shapes to represent the face. Here. Moving from the back of the neck. Keep your first lines light. so it is important to the life of the image that while controlled. they are also still sweeping and confident. I used light to describe the upper lid first with a shadow beneath for the lower lid and open eye. 3 Place the eye beneath the cranium. First lines will remain visible in the final drawing. The nose and ear begin to shape the head. 4 .


muscular tension. . the texture of hair. be aware of the subtle differences in skin surface. a n d t h o s e w h o a r e Generations asleep (see overleaf). empathize.T o DRAW PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGES. Above all. and gravity.



with a steel dip pen and acrylic ink. Madrid.Castings DRAWING IN THE PRADO MUSEUM. I used the nib upside down to gain needle-sharp precision. Fast lines carve out the features of Goya's soup-slurping hag. Van Dyke's noble cast of characters was modeled more finely. seeking the dominant contours of each individual expression. .



o n l y the w e a l t h y c o u l d afford to h a v e c o s t u m e s specially m a d e . w a r m t h . g l o s s y folds. intriguing. and everything w e h a v e c h o s e n for o u r w a r d r o b e s — r e f l e c t o r s of o u r taste. and s y m b o l s that lets m e n and w o m e n in all countries and areas have w o r k i n g access to the latest fashions. P o p u l a r f a s h i o n d e s i g n e x p l o d e d w i t h the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n . so that c h o i c e . st 111/4 x 81/2 in (285 x 220 mm) u d i e d L E O NB A K S T and explore the characterization of fabric t h r o u g h m o v e m e n t . of Scheherazade. articulate a d a n g e r o u s satirical j o k e . D e s i g n e r s create m a s t e r p i e c e s of haute couture LEON BAKST for H o l l y w o o d stars. T h e e n t o u r a g e of the theatrical stage o f t e n l e a d s the c a t w a l k . woman was drawn by Bakst one year later for the ballet Narcisse. w h i c h in turn feed c o n s u m e r Lev. and be so expressive of temperament that it overtakes the need for an o c c u p y i n g h u m a n form. dancer leaps through swaths of golden cloth. and e x u b e r a n c e . Previously. and atmosphere. Practical classes Bacchante 1911 l o o k at r a n g e s of c o l o r e d m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d i n g p a s t e l s a n d felt-tip p e n s . or calm u s w i t h chic. fulfilling lavish and spectacular briefs. and intent. Petersburg and later exiled designers' ideas and are surprised and delighted b y their continual f l o w of inspiration. shapes. a n d s u b t l e t o n e s . S t r u c t u r e is t h o u g h the i n v e n t i o n of shoes. a n d c o u r t i e r tailors f o l l o w e d suit. variety. Artists do this not so m u c h b y the style of a figure's garment. cool. for e x a m p l e — d e s i g n e d the w a r d r o b e s of p o p e s a n d k i n g s . it is the public sign by w h i c h w e are j u d g e d .This voluptuous above all a physical p u p p e t w i t h w h i c h to animate character and narrate personality. . c r u m p l e s . arichand unusual combination of pencil. Bakst's designs and costumes immediately To the fine artist. caricatured p l u m e s . T h e p a p e r p a t t e r n is p e r h a p s the m o s t w i d e l y k n o w n of c o s t u m e d r a w i n g s : a formalized plan of lines. while court p a i n t e r s — M i c h e l a n g e l o and Holbein. c u l t u r e . theb u t b y the w a y it s p e a k s w i t h its flying. known as Leon Bakst. gesture. e m u l a t e textures. b u t influenced Parisian fashion and interiordecor.As artistic director of the It is s h o c k i n g to t h i n k h o w m a n y m i l l i o n s of d r a w i n g s m u s t be m a d e a n d d i s c a r d e d Ballet Russe. In psychology. outrageous. and i n d e e d image b e c a m e the property also of the industrial classes. a n d w e will c o l l e c t patterns. c o s t u m e o f f e r s a r i c h v o c a b u l a r y of t e x t u r e s a n d c o l o r . Cities c h a n g e d all. Like it or not. In this c h a p t e r w e see h o w c l o t h i n g c a n s e e m to p o s s e s s the w e i g h t and m o n u m e n t a l i t y of stone. Samoylovich Rosenberg.Costume W E MAKE OURSELVES EXOTIC. toParis. Designers all over the w o r l d c o n t i n u a l l y p e n and b r u s h lines to lash us w i t h color. T h e rural masses w o r e h o m e s p u n simplicity. and gouache. was a Belarussian A r t Deco theater fantasies and desires to immediately possess a version of the same. a n d p r o f e s s i o n — b e g a n life as a d r a w i n g . personality. charcoal. or b u l g e s . he and cofounder Serge Diaghilev took Paris by eac storm in 1910 with their production h year in the industrial f r e n z y of creating o u r image and aspirations. and even invisible by the w a y w e dress. W e dress ourselves and costume designer trained in in St.

Sculpted one.140-41). Above them. swirling printed fabrics. dragons. her marble garment holds u p the infant Christ in a fountain of compressed line. Their uninterrupted emphasis is entirely vertical. H e m e t i c u l o u s l y a r r a n g e d subjects t o c o n v e y d e e p e r meaning. Van Eyck's highly polished w o r k is c e l e b r a t e d f o r its disguised symbolism. With a stylus such as Van Eyck used here. Below this. folds and patterns of material speak more resolutely of their wearers than any small glimpses of body we can see. Opposite. best k n o w n f o r his G h e n t altarpiece ( 1 4 3 2 ) a n d m a r r i a g e p o r t r a i t o f Giovanni A r n o l f i n i and his w i f e (1434). it is only possible to create very thin. Delicate marks Silver (or metal) point is the most delicate of traditional drawing media (see pp. Church and deities are drawn as JAN VAN EYCK Flemish oil p a i n t e r f r o m L i m b o u r g . Flaxmans sleeper—perhaps a pilgrim or a soldier resting between campaigns—has wedged himself into the cleft of some great building to grab a moment of peace. resonate with their wearers startled expression. and implied striation in the stone of the architecture. the vaulted stone roof echoes and crowns the moment. Maelbeke I44I Madonna 11 x 7 in (278 x 180 m m ) JAN V A N EYCK .156 COSTUME Cloth and Drapery EACH OF THESE FIGURES is ninety percent cloth. bands around the columns. Keisai Eisen's intense. the carefully composed outline of his cloak shows us how the artist would have also begun his immaculate rendering of the Virgin's clothes. and the kneeling abbot is a ghost by comparison. the Madonna and her architecture are both dressed in the same manner. with their jagged edges. He has layered these slowly and carefully so as not to cut through the ground and produce a white mark just where he intended a dark one. and snakelike marks. Short and subtle horizontal punctuations are only given in the background by sections of floor. The quiet stillness of this image is achieved by a masterly economy of stylized line. However. Marble gown We will never know if Van Eyck considered this drawing unfinished or intended the kneeling abbot to remain transient and ghostly. delicate lines. Her gown is carved and polished as if made from marble. In Van Eyck's drawing below. Vertical lines The highly controlled lines of this drawing cascade from top to bottom of the image.

Respected for his sumptuous images of geisha and editions of erotic prints. an 18th-19th century document on the lives of the ukiyo-e artists. stone wall of downward-stroked this sleeper's position is momentary. CLOTH AND DRAPERY Relief printing This is a woodblock print made by a relief process. flat sheets of wood. and the feet notched against the pillar tell us that A lines holds him into the cleft. the angle of the head. Position In this pen and ink drawing. each delivering a different part and color of the design. Dante. Images are drawn onto smooth. and Man Lying Down in a Cloak I 787-94 21/4 JOHN FLAXMAN x 41/8 in (57 x 105 mm) . and teacher Distinctive linear illustrations for the works of Homer. the cloak sliding to the ground. Aeschylus earned Flaxman an international reputation. writer and printmaker Keisai Eisen took his name from the masters Kano Hakkeisai and Kikugawa Eizan. Koimurasaki of Tama-ya 1810-50 15 x101/4in (381 x 260 mm) KEISAI EISEN The Courtesan JOHN F L A X M A N English late 18th-century neoclassical sculptor.157 KEISAI EISEN Japanese draftsman. This complex numerous blocks prepared image and may have been made with printed separately. which are sometimes also cut into pieces like a jigsaw puzzle. he also co-edited and expanded the Ukiyo-e Ruiko (History of Prints of the Floating World). draftsman. one over the other. designer. The inked block is laid face-down on damp paper and pressed to make the print. Parts of the image to be left unprinted are gouged out with a metal tool. Remaining raised areas of wood are rolled with colored inks.

w h e r e . Flowing scarf The knight's scarf of gilded blue is drawn in a pale wash over red ink lines. Leg sections in both support the figure without taking our attention away from the main garment above. for she would not have been amused and William Wodall might have been stretching his luck. The aged queen is compared to an overdressed bird. Opposite is a dangerous drawing. In 1 6 3 2 he m o v e d p e r m a n e n t l y t o L o n d o n . b e f o r e traveling t o Italy. and feather were all CHARACTER COSTUMES REPRESENT observed with closely crafted conviction. cartoon. Anthony Van Dyke's Man in Armor is a masterpiece of drawn surface. A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE Flemish painter and draftsman. he c o o l e d and redefined his style. Fine examples can be plucked from fashion. A s a y o u n g man. Leg section Compare mid-shin the section of white boots cropped to the section of similarly cropped trousers in drawings Gruau's drawing on p. Its warm surface flows in contrast to the stiff metal armor. theater. The metal. The slight uncertainty of the pose and the limp cloak suggest a little more metal than man. Man in Armor UNDATED 1 6 x 9 1 / 2 in ( 4 0 5 x 2 4 0 m m ) A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE . Its color is also reflected in the metal.158 COSTUME Character Costumes an extreme form of the clothed figure. a n d w a s e m p l o y e d as c o u r t painter t o King Charles I. Details and voices are worn externally with great imagination. It is presumed Her Royal Highness never saw it. 160. Van D y k e was chief assistant t o Rubens f o r t w o years. where sometimes there just might not be anybody inside. t h r o u g h n u m e r o u s p o r t r a i t and C h u r c h commissions. cinema. a scurrilous cartoon by a courtier of Queen Elizabeth I. all ruffs and wrinkles. A flamboyant territory. and even formal portraiture. Pen and wash In the graphic accuracy of this armored knight we see the idealized identity of a warrior from another time: a gleaming defender of the realm. He has been rendered on this olive<olored page with pen and gray wash worked over a red and black under-drawing. cloth. lace.

it was customary to Iron-gall ink Wodall's dangerous caricature steps daintily the written lines of her dedicated page.1599 71/2 WILLIAM x 51/4 in ( 1 9 0 x 1 3 4 mm) WODALL . suggest the use of iron-gall ink (see p. the queen is masterfully rebalanced by words at her feet The whole drawing's blackened. while a raised foot pauses to assess the next displaying a fan of daggers. here dark tawny owl.35). Satire of the Queen's Dress c. By her old upto three tiers supported on sticks. bitten nature.159 WILLIAM W O D A L L A u t h o r and illustrator o f The Aaes of Queene a Elizabeth poem Allegorized. and her pride. Northern Satire This is a quill-and-ink satire of the elderly queen's pride-As head of state and fashion. T h e poem recounts t h e six m a j o r crises o f Elizabeth's reign: t h e Spanish A r m a d a . t h e B a b i n g t o n Plot. Top-heavy. hooded with an overinflated fluffy ruff eye pins us. A Ruffs and feathers Starched white ruffs worn at court and by society grew steadily larger as Elizabeth's reign progressed. t h e Jesuit Mission. Beneath the lethal fan is the body of a bird of trimmed feathers suggest age. she is shown as a grossly disproportioned bird. t h e Rising. t h e Ridolfi Plot. manuscript comprising six c a n t o s . and saturations showing through from the other side.

G r u a u ' s highly distinctive d r a w i n g s have a p p e a r e d Couture. ofcroppedtrousershere to the device of the w Illustration 1949 for Jacques Fath in L ' O f f i c i e l d e la C o u t u r e RENE GRUAU . Harpers & Queen. studio-like rectangle of paper. possibly over a pencil outline.F r e n c h f a s h i o n i l l u s t r a t o r w h o in his l o n g and esteemed career w o r k e d with many of the g r e a t e s t d e s i g n e r s o f 2 0 t h . His model is outlined. 5 8 . RENE GRUAU I t a l i a n . Fashion and fantasy drawings invent prototypes of ideals and perfection—be they for the catwalk or the fast-paced pages of comic books. The black red.and tilted to the same de a little deeper than sp kneestogivehergravity. She has been drawn with brushes dipped into India ink and gouache.c e n t u r y haute i n n u m e r o u s m a g a z i n e s i n c l u d i n g Elle. Fine lines drawn against the building behind her echo the threads on which we have all seen arachnids drop and hang. and gray pigments were applied separately. Composition Look how well this image is frame knee is parallel to the bottom edge spacehorizontalline cropping the trousers be outermostuprightbordersof her cuffs are similar above her head thesidesoftheimage. Vogue. Drying time in between applications ensured the colors did not run into each other. elegant chic and svelte.5 9 ) and a three-spoke balance of cuffs and cropped trousers to create an almost flag-like emblem of power. diving to catch us in the grip of her machine-like limbs. Airbrushed reflective surfaces further amplify our perception of speed. Rene Gruau's bold gouache drawing of smoothly swaying sophistication captures a brilliantly cut garment and frames it with great dynamism in a white. Spider-Girl leaps like an insect. India ink and gouache This swish of confidence and style our enters the page turning everyone's head. muscular aggression. demanding attention with gesture and flair. a n d L'Officiel de la couture. and both share the power of scarlet and black.160 COSTUME Femmes Fatales THESE DEVASTATING femmes fatales force back the onlooker with their demure. Compare the compositio beneathVanDyke'sstudy of armor on p. as is Spider-Girl opposite. Gruau's model regally swans to the fore with cool pride. Gruau uses starkly cut negative space (see pp. 158.

beginning with Star Wars. and figure are all locked into equally shatp through the traditional process of a pencilled outline over-drawn ink. Airbrushed color and with tonal focus. not far above the drawing. The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones. MARVEL C O M I C S . a great characteristic superhero comics. Frenz has drawn for Marvel for about 20 years. Single-point understand perspective To how Frenz created up therefore the effect of steeply between looking buildings—and howyou can do the same in your own work—take calculate where a ruler the and single vanishing point lies. sky. and Amazing Spider-Man. at Their extensions will meet the same single vanishing (see point pp. to the right of its center.RON F R E N Z Contemporary American graphic artist w h o designs and pencils the dynamic scenes of numerous superheroes featured in Marvel Comics.74-77). Align your ruler to the upright of each building. moon. In your mind's eye extend the uprights out of the top of the picture. Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 2001-04 R O N FRENZ. It is outside the picture frame. Sharp focus black outlines in this drawing create a hyper-real dynamic. He began work on Spider-Girl in 1998. Buildings. and has been the title's regular artist since 2003. This s modeling applied over the top give the image a sleek and mechanical of gravity.

Before making substantial investments. They work well on PIGMENTS Pigments. you may be pleasantly surprised to discover something you could not have imagined using. Children's wax crayons are relatives. Store loose pastels in dry rice to keep them clean. The nontoxic range below represents a suggested starting point for experiment. Use them to draw lightly (as above left) or thickly. I suggest you do so. The higher the quality (and cost). chalkbased but very subtle. allowing it to fix slightly from behind. insects. paper-wrapped. shape. They vary hugely in cost. and subtlety. 3. minerals. great for tin . the finer and more subtle the texture and color should be. there are disparities between the apparent nature or color of what you hold in your hand and its performance on paper. The worst are like revolting old lipsticks that get everywhere except where you intend. and cost are laid out for our pleasure and perusal. animals. and CHALK PASTELS Pastel pencils make fine lines (as above). Seemingly infinite choices of texture. slightly oily to the touch. and can be softened and manipulated with degrees of heat. soft. and synthetics. including iridescents. wash. Try materials that are new and unfamiliar. mixed on the paper and scratched into (as below). colored materials available. intensity. clay. made in about 80 colors. Pastel pencils are slender and in w o o d casing. CHALK PASTELS: Blackboard chalk is sidewalk work. or wax and a binder are shaped into fine strips and encased in w o o d like a graphite pencil. 4. Degas built his pastels in layers. these work best when slightly warm. the diverse are made in brands of basic member of the family. Many artists apply fixative to the back of their work. used to make colors. and can be a great rediscovery for bold drawings. unwrapped harder pastels. OIL PASTELS Oil-based. crumbly. 1. See h o w they work and return later for more of what proved best for you. Pastels are finer. oily pigment. COLORED PENCILS: Dry pigments ground together with chalk. hue. which he left unfixed to retain its brightness. plants. purchase a small selection of different items you think you will like. are derived from many sources: rocks. quality. Often. size. Dissolve in turpentine or mineral spirits to produce oil paint or or dark paper. fixing each layer on the front. OIL PASTELS: Many colors. except the final layer.162 COSTUME Colored Materials ART STORES BRIM OVER w i t h t h e m a n y wherever permitted. Many products are sold individually and in boxed sets. 2. Beware—some are toxic. C o n t e crayons are square-formed. FELT-TIP PENS: Instant-drying alcoholor water-based inks stored in the barrels of the pens are delivered via smooth nylon o r felt tips of varying shapes and thicknesses. and sold in many colors. Be aware that fixative dulls pastel. Sticks and conte crayons make thicker marks (as below). Bright pastels are more brilliant on colored paper. quality and cost T h e best are paperwrapped sticks of sumptuous. Most stores leave small pads of paper on their counters for customers to test materials. though lines can develop greasy stains around the edges if the paper is not first stretched and treated with a gelatin paste laid as a wash.

or clay-based thin crayons in wood casing. Diverse brands are harder or soften greasier or chalkier in use. . Some give richer lines than others. it is still a great champion and support for those beginners feeling shyly obligated to tone down their love of color to conform with what others say they should use. Brands made for designers sold in enormous ranges of colors are far more subtle and sophisticated than those made for children.163 COLORED PENCILS These are wax. others dissolve in water or turpentine to make a wash. If you love smooth blocks and lines of colon felt-tip pens are perfect. FELT-TIP PENS Although not made with felt-tip pen. Colors can be blended as shown right) and tones graded by altering pressure. Fine lines can be achieved (as above). Think of Matisse's Blue Nude (see p. so it is best to test them before buying. Some are nonsoluble. leaving the paper to shine through for highlights (as below). 111).

style. if y o u m a k e p l e n t y o f d r a w i n g s as o p p o s e d t o o n l y a f e w . t h e n again as if transparent. values. This class takes the shoe as its subject in building on earlier lessons concerned with seeing through objects to understand their function. and how we stand and walk. the era in which we live. 100-01 and pp. imagining y o u can see t h r o u g h it. REPEATED STUDY T o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s class. Linear Outline Using fine pens. As artifacts in museums. a range of colored felt-tip pens with both fine and broad tips. Turn t h e m in different d i r e c t i o n s and o b s e r v e t h e i r s t r u c t u r e and f o r m . structure. e n j o y i n g t h e study a n d i n v e n t i o n o f shoes. will discover m o r e . D r a w each o n e first as a solid object. and volume in space (see pp. . t o o . social and economic status. you will need several large sheets of drawing paper. and after studying familiar shoes we use the information learned to invent new ones.164 COSTUME Study and Design they reflect our age. and a selection of shoes. Superstitions and fetishes are attached to them: we are told never to put new shoes on a table. and they have been concealed in buildings to ward off misfortune. To set up. personality. I m a d e n u m e r o u s s h e e t s o f d r a w i n g s . You. they record and reflect our common history. 104-07). c o v e r a large sheet o f p a p e r w i t h line drawings o f several shoes. a n d e x p e r i e n c e visible p r o g r e s s . while artists have painted their boots or those of others as personal portraits and memorials. Here we go one step further. S H O E S TELL LIFE STORIES.


The Surface


study the surface contours using fineand broad-tipped felt-tip pens. For best results, it is important to be bold and brief. Draw firmly, fast, and with as few strokes as possible. Build up each shoe from light to dark andleavesome paper showing through to create highlights.

Design Your Own

Using what you have learned from the previous steps about the structures of your shoes, and about the use of pens, invent new designs from your imagination. Start with fine outlines and progress to colored and textured surfaces. Modify your ideas by rotating the views.



The Structure of Costume

rich resource for the artist and

information given by a period style. Arrange to visit a costume museum or ask a friend to model clothes for you at home. Using fine felt-tip pens, begin with quick, pale impressions of each garment's shape before homing in on its borders and seams. Try to draw transparent views wherever possible to record the relationships between all component parts. Aim to draw enough information for it to be possible to make up a version of the garment using paper pinned to a tailor's dummy.

designer. They often give quite unexpected gems of ideas and information—whatever the subject. These drawings, made in a costume museum, demonstrate ways of recording structural information and detail for later use in the studio. They could form the basis of new designs for a fashion project or theater production, for example. Drawings of shoes on pp. 164-65 show how new designs can be evolved from the structural

It is usually best when collecting information for reference to apply the restraint of dispassionate observation. Set yourself the test of drawing facts with as little artistic license or embellishment as possible. Here I chose fine felt-tip pens because they are at their best when used swiftly, and therefore encourage bold, unhesitant decisions.

Swift lines record the hanging weight of this gentleman's coat, the relative proportions of its layers, and minimal details of the buttons and cuffs.

Thick velvet fabric is pulled tight beneath and across the bust by a single button. This transparent view shows how the fabric falls loosely in straight panels beneath the level of the sleeve.


W h e n visiting museums, be prepared f o r l o w lighting, which can make it hard t o see and draw. A book can help if attached t o your drawing board.

Adding stripes and dashes of color with a thicker pen brings out the glossy sheen and sculptural rigidity of this dress, which would have been worn over a whalebone corset. small reading light designed t o clip o n t o a


In small drawings such as these, use thick pens to color entire sections with a few marks, as I did here down the side of the bodice.

The light, frilly bulk of this crinoline dress is propelled forward with lines. pinching its gathers and sways that are hiding a horsehair bustle. fleets of quick



Textures and.Patterns
THIS CLASS FOCUSES ON how to draw textures through the collection of fabric, pattern, and embroidery samples from a costume m u s e u m . This formal method, using ruled squares, can create an invaluable library of ideas a n d i n f o r m a t i o n for future r e f e r e n c e — w h e n painting a clothed figure, or preparing a textile project, for example. However, if making a book of samples for a project, remember that it is important to also include collages of f o u n d materials (see pp.230-31) To d r a w a fabric texture, b e g i n by concentrating o n h o w y o u i m a g i n e it w o u l d feel if you t o u c h e d it. Decide if it w o u l d be rough, s m o o t h , w a r m , cold, thick, thin, tough, or fragile, for example. As you draw, believe you can feel these qualities at your fingertips a n d that your pencil is responding to the sensation. Undulate the pressure of your lines and marks according to the feeling of the fabric rather than its appearance. Let your pencil enact the sensation of touching its surface.

and to experiment more loosely with mixed media.

This starchy, quilted, b o w e d creation started life as an imagined corset, I intended t o d r a w together in one sculptural f o r m a range o f t h e details opposite. T h e garment quickly got o u t o f hand. T h e r e is great e n j o y m e n t in letting y o u r imagination run wild w h e n inventing costumes. If you are unable t o visit a costume museum, many exciting fabric details and textures can be found in y o u r o w n closet o r home.


Colored pencils give precision and tonal range; they can be faded but not erased. Lightly use an HB graphite pencil if you wish to plan a design first. Pressed hard, colored pencils build up a waxy finish of brilliant color. Used lightly, they appear powdery and show the texture of the paper.


Silk and braid


Embroidered leather





Outline stitch


126-27. and 252-53). identity. . look at how Goya delineated volumes of thick fabric to express the posture. These characters. selected from different pages of my original book. and motivation of an individual. 172-73. I made a drawing book full of studies seeking to understand how he composed drama and pathos in his narratives (see also pp. Madrid.Dressing Character I O N C E SPENT THREE MONTHS researching the work of Francisco de Goya at the Prado Museum. shape.

Posture Carving also taken from my Madrid drawing book (see pp. To understand how he did this. and tangible. . as it rushes and carves fabric-wrapped forms like rivers and desert winds shaping the earth.170—71).T H E S E PENCIL STUDIES. are copies of works by Goya in which he makes air seem heavier than flesh. I carefully copied the direction of each of his lines. and visible.



With a pocket full of disposable pens we also go out and draw the expressions of gathered people. Third. He is also the artist from whom props to add layers of meaning and attitude. vivid portrait of his wife captures our attention. The spaces between people and the positions they occupy on a page are vital to our understanding of the psychology or emotion of an event. We can also use clothes. and its illumination. we can R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter draftsman. are implicated in this marital exchange made over the head of the anonymous nurse. paintings depicting scenes from history. First. Seeing through Rembrandt's eyes. Here. while a quill contact with. Washes of shadow behind engaged and as a natural voyeur can feel invisible while watching the scene. As artists. too. and other masters of Western Art. Saskia died after childbirth. Her all-too-clear expression shows annoyance and irritation with her husband. Storytelling and people-watching are obsessive human activities. Second. the viewer's attention in a scene by the format of its composition. the speed and printmaker and one of the greatest and most influential density of its lines. comics. the direct exchange (as shown here) where one or more characters hold eye Aneedproduced the thicker lines of the nurse. Later in their lives. a crowd tells the story from a distance. in spite of how it may seem. We can direct close. and instantly engage with the action of the scene. we can learn most about handling pen and ink. television documentaries. and novels—our staple cultural diet—are driven by a fascination with shared experience and the detail of what happens in other people's lives. but drawings of gathered people tell them most directly. we. Blockbuster movies. the viewer. . daily newspapers. the viewer is not directly made the finer lines of Saskia. finding corners in crowded places to inscribe their action and energy onto the page. presumably while he is making this drawing. It middle. and distance—so drawings of gathered people can be loosely arranged in three took only minutes to make and yet it lives for centuries. Saskia. soap operas. there are no longer individuals but one significant group or mass action. types.Gatherings A LL DRAWINGS TELL STORIES. and therefore seem to see. R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN in the delivery of narrative. and so. This J u s t as there are three parts to a traditional landscape drawing—the foreground. even up her were laid with a brush. furniture. We read tensions and exchanges between people. heighten or subdue drama with subtleties of exaggeration or caricature. Drawings selected for this chapter explore these Saskia Lying in Bedand a Nurse ranges of proximity 1638 9 x61/2in (227 x 164 mm) and a travel journal. this is not the portrait of an old woman. Rembrandt's bored and frustrated wife. stares out from her gloomy sickbed. He in turn scorches the paper with his view and a certain speed of seeing all.

a kitchen explodes in o u r faces. In both works. via the animated clutter of o u r material lives. Real Life is Rubbish 2002 Dimensions variable TIM N O B L E A N D SUE WEBSTER . narrative is delivered through the air. N o b l e a n d W e b s t e r s w i t t y a n d o f t e n s u b v e r s i v e d r a w i n g s are also c o n t e m p o r a r y art installations. h a l o e d portrait of the artists seated b a c k to b a c k . Pencil on paper important but only the beginning of possibility the combination of three-dimensional space.176 GATHERINGS SOME DRAWINGS ARE MADE e n t i r e l y o f i l l u m i n a t i o n that floods drama into the viewers gaze. F o r e a c h w o r k .kicks against the mundane things that close down your mind is a refreshing and good thing. T h e i m m a c u l a t e d r a w i n g is only r e v e a l e d w h e n t h e b e a m of a p r o j e c t o r c a s t s t h e s h a d o w Projections of the h e a p o n t o a wall. hearth i m p l e m e n t s crash at o u r feet. and projector. Here. garbage and chaos are piled a n d e x p l o d e d in r o o m s full of event. Pans fly oft the stove.."Anything that. the Cat. t h e y select and arrange familiar items of street detritus into what appears to be an u n p l e a s a n t pile.. or even the office photocopier. junk. and smoke billows around the agitated jives of the Duchess. the C o o k . and in. TIM N O B L E A N D SUE W E B S T E R British artists who collaborate using neon. and Alice. Below. refuse." (Tim Noble) Drawing with light it is important to think about what you is Here timelessly we see a in can draw with. Think about what else you could use: a laser smoke. c o m p o s e d garbage p r o d u c e s a c a l m . plates shatter. and on. and projectors to create their anarchic punk satires of modern life. In one of R a c k h a m s great illustrations for Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland. for example.

This makes the story appear to leap out at us.177 ARTHUR RACKHAM British watercolorist and book illustrator. amplifying movement outward from the vanishing point. H e is best k n o w n forillustratingIrving's Rip vanWinkle. and Poe's Tales Imagination. The wood grain acts like marks of speed behind the scene. beams. Refer back to the drawing class how pots In drawn objects and elements that those behind. ink.76-77) above vanishing point (see that is about3/4in (2 cm) oak converge at this point. by vivid children's Rakham's w o r k is characterized fantasy. and Alice's shoulder. are very large compared to on p. humor. tabletop.Stowe's ofMysteryand Queer Little Folks. 100 to see for make elliptical objects and pans fly through the the foreground. Rackham Vanishing point In this marvelous drama made with pen. Depth Billows of smoke expand and are lighter as they come forward. See how the In the Duchess's Kitchen 1907 77/8 x 6 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 5 0 m m ) ARTHUR RACKHAM . and watercolor. a n d an unmistakable graphic style. Find the singleperspective pp. we find several devices already explored through our drawing classes.

a sculptor. The mournful gray landscape of Henry Moore's northern British field has gathered by night an overcoated audience to stand and wait before a wrapped and roped monument. Magnetic Fields sculpture. and art in the landscape. heat. M o o r e t o u r e d Italy as a young man. perhaps these two are the most extreme. Chalk and graphite This fog-bound but humorous gathering of souls is made in graphite and colored chalk with gray wash. meaning. This is an ironic drawing from Moore. expressing his dry humor about O F ALL THE CONTRASTS HENRY MOORE British s c u l p t o r w h o t r a i n e d a n d taught at t h e R C A . In culture. London. and composition they are polar opposites. HENRY MOORE Crowd 1942 Looking at Tied-up Object . a n d l o v e d t o d r a w in t h e BritishMuseum. and we. which still narrates vivid days in the lives of an energetic nation. as fellow watchers. Opposite. A glimmer of gold light appears from the left No explanation is given. This is just one of many precious artifacts from a lost time. a great Shoshone drawing blazes with the color.178 GATHERINGS we have seen in the pairs and trios of drawings by masters and makers. join in the waiting. and action of a buffalo hunt. audiences. as if Moore's wrapping has been literally outstretched. The image stands out among his more usual graphic works in which he hones and carves semi-abstract human forms.The human form w a s the vehicle o f his expression and h e w a s t h e official W o r l d W a r II artist. Moore's spectators appear to have walked a long way from nowhere to witness and wait beside this mysterious obelisque.

and helping our eye to dart around. Hunt CENTURY SHOSHONE SCHOOL . Stylized hunters.179 SHOSHONE SCHOOL Stylized characters This vital image of a buffalo hunt is made with pigment Members of the Shoshone community wishing painted within dark outlines on a stretched elk hide. MAGNETIC FIELDS Horses It is interesting to note how the outstretched limbs ofthesehorses echo European images of the runningBuffalo horse before the sequence-photographer Muybridge taught us to 19TH understand their movement differently. horses. tolearnhow to paint a scene on a hide are and buffalo circle and charge the perimeters of a skin "field." Men at the instructed to sit and watch. creating harmonious balance with words but through silent demonstration. Each color is evenly distributed throughout the scene. Skills are taught not center chant or dance to the beat of a drum.

Blake w a s d r i v e n b y a passion f o r j u s t i c e a n d a p r o f o u n d b e l i e f in his v i s i t a t i o n s f r o m angels. a n d the gentle h u m o r of sedate r i d i c u l e . a n d f o c u s . t h e Bible. Opposite. B l a k e h a s i l l u m i n a t e d his s a d d e n e d Virgil on the s h o r e s of a d a r k w o r l d .f o o t e d t r o g l o d y t e s w h o rage into w a r like a m u d s l i d e of revenge. It illustrates a scene from Dante's Divine Comedy. color. a d e a t h c h a r g e of brutality. K a t h e K o l l w i t z s c r a t c h e d a n d e n g r a v e d her a r m y of c l a y . W I L L I A M BLAKE British visionary. w r i t e r a r t i s t . p o e t . We also see qualities of line. pale souls of the lustful are being s p u n into yet another realm of hell. w h i c h b y their c h o i c e a n d h a n d l i n g a c t u a l l y b e c o m e the force a n d spirit of e a c h i m a g e . texture. Heath Robinson lived through the same war-torn. a n d e n g r a v e r w h o p o w e r f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e d his o w n t e x t s in a d d i t i o n t o D a n t e ' s Divine Comedy. a pink-inked cinema wobbles along with string. and sweetened the often bleak years with his impractical inventions. m a r k . a n d o t h e r w o r k s . The muscularity of Blake's figures was inspired by Michelangelo's works. w h e r e he w a t c h e s a t u r b u l e n t s p i r a l of p u n i s h m e n t f o r the d a m n e d . The Circle of the (The Whirlwind 1824 of Lustful Lovers) mm) 143/4 x 207/8i n ( 3 7 4 x 5 3 0 WILLIAM BLAKE . era as Kollwitz. Misted in translucent layers of paint.180 GATHERINGS The Human Condition IN THE SPECTRUM of these vastly d i f f e r e n t g a t h e r i n g s of p e o p l e . inextinguishable in its fortitude and h u m o r . Brushed line and wash This is an ink-outlined drawing made with a fine brush on paper with added washes of watercolor The image was subsequently redrawn as a line engraving. w e f i n d a spiritual v i s i o n .

HEATH ROBINSON The Kinecar 1926 103/8 x 15 in (262 x 380 mm) . Ink rolled over was selectively polished off using a rag. What remained in scratched grooves printed on damp paper as lines. plodding along with hazy. however meager or ridiculous their activity. humor by making his characters earnest. children. Kollwitz survived the two World Wars. With masterful gentility. THE HUMAN CONDITION Scratched lines This is a dry-point etching with monoprint. sculptor and draftsman. stoical bemusement. and the impact of death and war upon women. and controlled smears on the metal surface printed as tones. and clearly focused. who lived in a poor district of Berlin. The image was scratched directly onto a metal plate. poverty. He created sincere. Robinson and Kollwitz (above) share almost identical life dates and their work expresses a shared history from opposite sides oftheworld wars. British Pen and wash This is a pen-andwatercolor drawing made for a color-platereproduction in an edition of T h e Bystander. and the family home. White marks were made with a dusting of French chalk on the artist's finger to wipe away ink leaving clean metal. Heath Robinson shows England in a past era. Losbruch (The Outbreak) 1955 20 x 233/8 in (507 x 592 mm) KATHE KOLLWITZ HEATH ROBINSON humorous illustrator and a regular contributor to magazines and journals such as The Sketch and The Bystander.181 KATHE KOLLWITZ German printmaker. and her powerful and sensitive drawings center on nurture.

2. in the studio. So many stores sell them. blob when old. aiming for correct outlines would result in drawing too slowly to c a t c h the moment. Quick-drying.188-89) and Caravans (see pp. Lines t h i c k e n as t h e p e n w e a r s o u t G r a n d Canal (see pp.7 7 and 214-15). R O L L E R B A L L : A c o n s t a n t i n k flow 3 . they each offer distinct and sometimes unexpected qualities. Unlike pencils. B A L L P O I N T : Black a n d b o l d c o l o r s o f f e r d i v e r s e qualities. p e r m a n e n t . Insensitive t o p r e s s u r e : lines d o n o t v a r y in w i d t h o r t o n e .182 GATHERINGS Disposable Pens (ballpoints. a n d ranges o f colors. rollerballs. which can snap or pierce through your clothes. w a t e r . if y o u w i s h y o u r d r a w i n g s t o last a n d n o t fade o r b l u r w i t h t i m e a n d e x p o s u r e t o light. . W h i t e gel p e n s a r e v e r y e f f e c t i v e o n d a r k papers. these pens enable you to sketch. G E L P E N : P r o d u c e d in b l a c k w h i t e . t w o tourists and their gondolier drifter past m e o n a canal. 4. t h e y a r e lightfast. turn the page. c h o o s e p e n s l a b e l e d " p e r m a n e n t " o r "lightfast. build to a rich.r e s i s t a n t . shut your book. or turn into washes and make monoprints if flooded with an alcohol-based substance such as hairspray. a disposable pen with its clip-on cap goes anywhere. is d e l i v e r e d t h r o u g h a m e t a l t u b e o v e r a t i n y ball bearing. I swiftly focused on gesture. T h e r e w e r e c seconds t o snatch this impression b e t w e e n their emergence from one bridge and disappearance b e n e a t h t h e next. CHOICES AVAILABLE T h e r e a r e m a n y d i s p o s a b l e p e n s t o c h o o s e from. or put the paper in your pocket instantly without fear of smudging. dark sheen. they can be obtained within minutes. trusting shape and form to follow. fine fiber-tip Drawing with a fine fiber-tip pen. or idea. dropped in your pocket and forgotten till needed. a n d pressure-sensitive. 7 6 . Available in blacks and ranges of colors. FIBER-TIP: M a n u f a c t u r e d f o r artists a n d d e s i g n e r s in a r a n g e o f w i d t h s . Ideal f o r precision w o r k (see p p ." 1. For example. R e m e m b e r . a ballpoint will make faint lines. 192-93) w e r e b o t h m a d e w i t h a ballpoint. and in most pockets so I can always record a thought DISPOSABLE PENS QUICK NOTES O n a c o l d day in Venice. gel pens) are the most convenient of all materials with which to travel. jot notes. indent paper. The f o u r i l l u s t r a t e d h e r e r e p r e s e n t a basic r a n g e . fibertips. I keep quantities at home. At a time like this. in the car. including l u m i n o u s a n d m e t a l l i c .

31 . crowd of fellow travelers Fast lines These scribbled lines model the mass and shadows of heads belonging passengers packed into the boat. not form. Earlier I had witnessed a crammed en masse in a fleet of hired gondolas complete with musicians and choir. Compare this Klee's mules on p. Fast lines focus on action.FROMMEMORY Here I used the same fiber-tip pen to compose a scene from memory.

if animated. Movement . angles will happen as a matter of course. I caught fleeting glimpses of gathered people and solitary souls going about their affairs. Each one was witnessed and drawn immediately from the afterimage of what I had just seen. Exaggeration helps. Above all. You must learn to trust your memory and to draw what impressed you most. You will make outlines. However. and companionship. No camera can tie you to a time or people in the same way. not its outline. Every drawing writes an indelible memory of place.184 GATHERINGS The Travel Journal I CANNOT OVERSTATE THE JOY of making a travel journal. just draw the action. Push toward caricature and this will draw out of your memory what was most important. when out drawing. Don't worry about measuring angles. activity. life will not slow and wait for you to catch it. let it enter the stage and perform. animate them more. but they should not be what you dwell on. FLEETING MOMENTS Walking through Venice with a small. A curatorial assistant flies to do a chore (right). of course. black. all action is in the line of his coat and directed by his nose. pocket notebook and a fiber-tip pen. Let the line of the flying coat fly and the hanging arm hang. focus on the action of the event. if a person was stout. make them stouter. Circular lines buzz around a man puzzling at the end of a train platform (left). Each line acts its part in the narrative.

I am watched by the aggravated guard.185 A large lady is photographed in front of a delicate work of art. The rush of his legs isamplifiedby their blurred lines. In turn. Observation THE TRAVEL JOURNAL The same willowy assistant dashes about his work. eager to herd us all from his house of responsibility. I drew him three times on the same page to catch a range of his physical expressions. Expression .

and reason for happening. and you decide to draw the moment. furniture leans. focus on action. and involvement in the story. pulls. For example. elevate them in the pictorial space. placement. Here I have recreated my drawing in steps to show you how to set about capturing such a scene. decide how faces and bodies contort. Be aware that their placement on the page is part of the narrative. start by focusing on its action. flap. emotion. For example. and let every detail speak by its size. He and his simpering assistant would not allow me in. not outline. or pushes.186 GATHERINGS Catching the Moment On A BITTERLY COLD November day. . rather than the works of art they guarded. or bulge. ACTION AND DETAIL W h e n drawing people. and clothing or bags hang. I took refuge in a church in Venice. if they are being devious. and there met this sullen custodian. you might place them lower down. Identify the principal character and draw him or her first. Here the custodian projects fastidious ownership of his desk and pamphlets by pushing from behind the center of the space and challenging our entry to his image. When your attention has been caught. forcing me to remain at the back and look at them. if they are being haughty. Place the person carefully.

W i t h a few strokes. Decide where t o place them t o emphasize their role. If drawing a more complex scene. such as the desk and pamphlets seen here. . which is pushed toward us in a gesture of confrontation. I added t h e assistant. Draw their action and props. In the final step (left) I reinforced t h e custodian's desk. continue adding characters.187 The custodian Identify your principal character a n d their psychological role in the scene. a pillar locates t h e scene in a depth o f space. Here. together with any immediate props they are using. CATCHING THE MOMENT The assistant Identify t h e antagonist ( o r second character) in t h e scene. who is largely expressed through the shape and fall o f his raincoat and his way o f using a note pad. D r a w their action. Decide where you will place them o n the paper t o emphasize their action and intent.


and buildings. where vertical mooring poles give space and pulse to the horizontal speed of water quickly. I developed detailofthis drawing from memory using a ballpoint pen. An imminent deluge of tourists urged me to work catching no more than the skeleton of the view. .Grand Canal T H E CANALS OF VENICE are bustling places full of occupation.

To catch characters like this. and drawn immediately from memory. . Venetians flow across a stepped bridge and cascade into the streets beyond. Each person was glimpsed in an instant. Caricature each person slightly. Characters in the foreground were drawn first. then the bridge beneath them. followed by the streets. note only their most essential action and feature.Crossings DURING THIS RUSH HOUR.



and a great subject to draw. quiet afternoon.Caravans T H E PARAPHERNALIA O F TRAVEL i s an intriguing part of circus life. Sitting at a distance on a hot. I found this circus by chance in the Swiss mountains. Caravans and other backstage activity convey expectations of energy and repose. I used a ballpoint pen to compose a series of scenes. .




the sun comes out to blind it. are the real subjects in great landscape drawings. or the wind carries it away. Beginners will often choose calm. It is Earths satellite. surrounded by the bright instruments of centuries of navigation. but it can be seen as a lens to our observation of this planet. arranging them in perfect circles on the mountainside or in lines drifting out of sight beneath low clouds. This is the world's first accurate image of the Moon. our companion. and the sea. speculation. or has cracked and fallen under the weight of water. a contemporary environmental artist. Look closely at works by many artists and you will see that they have not represented hills. a n d a n astronomer w h o dedicated 20 years t o studying t h e M o o n . The forces of nature. Just as NASA photographs of Earth have had a profound effect on the way we view our fragile home. makes his work by the act of walking. 199). These conditions are very difficult to express well. Richard Long. so J o h n Russell's tour de f o r c e drawing (opposite) was a masterpiece of observation in his time. England. and take bold steps in emulating the swell of clouds and the forces of torrential water. how the mountain cut by ice and rain is now fleetingly lit. pages o f softly i l l u m i n a t e d craters and lunar "seas" c o v e r e d in m a t h e m a t i c a l and s h o r t h a n d calculations. It now hangs on the staircase of the History of Science Museum. By drawing such momentous and everyday events. when little stirs and empty blue skies offer even less to latch lines to. H e a l s o p r o d u c e d an a l b u m o f 1 8 0 exquisite pencil drawings. Russell d r e w this. and its draws the tides of the seas. rivers. Oxford. t w o e n g r a v e d m a p s k n o w n as The Lunar Planispheres. t h e first-ever accurate image o f t h e M o o n ' s surface. Take chances against the rain and work with the wind or fog. marking the ground with lines of footprints or by turning stones. In this chapter Moon Pastel 1795 Drawing we experiment with charcoal. and experiment. artists see for themselves that which is momentary and eternal. There is a sense of the heroic in drawing outside—we race to catch a form before the tide engulfs it. as opposed the physicality of Earth. to be ready to draw the new light as it breaks across the land. and meteor impacts have scarred. The pastel drawing was constructed from myriad telescopic observations almost 200 years before the Apollo Moon landing. trees.Earth and the Elements I T MAY SEEM PERVERSE to start a chapter titled "Earth and the Elements" with an image of the Moon. they are the animators of your subject. sunny days. 5 f t x 5 ft 6 in ( 1 5 2 x 1 6 8 c m ) J O H N RUSSELL . JOHN RUSSELL A p o r t r a i t pastelist t o King G e o r g e III o f England. It is better to get up before dawn. the face of the Moon. William Turner is said to have had himself lashed to a ship's mast to comprehend the storm (see p. learning to draw light out of dark. What they have drawn is the force of nature on these properties: how the wind heaves the night ocean. Weather is essential in all landscape drawing. a n d a m o o n globe called t h e Selenographia. how the soil is scorched. and even how the Sun illuminates.

H O N O R E DAUMIER French satirical cartoonist lithographer. has b e c o m e a hysterical kite. He knew how the world bends and stutters under such gusts. serving a prison sentence for his views. Danger of Wearing Balloon Petticoats UNDATED HONORE DAUMIER . sculptor. Below. Crayon and limestone This is a lithograph. Hokusais sedate wind presses reeds a n d the j o u r n e y s o f young ladies. Fluid strokes inflate the woman's dress and pin shadows to the ground. and by observing its tides and eddies in our o w n environment. speed. seeing how it shakes. we can soon learn to draw its force.198 EARTH AND THE E L E M E N T S Air in Motion THE GREAT INVISIBLE SUBJECT o f these d r a w i n g s is t h e w i n d . A hard waxy was drawn across a heavy limestone Varying definitions crayon of lire and depths of tone conspire to give volume. Hazy vertical marks reveal buildings into the mist. T h e great master of English seascape is c o n d u c t i n g with his graphic energy. like an umbrella forced inside-out. and the legal profession. the government. and pioneer ofexpressionism. distance. Dots and dashes suggest receding trees out of focus. a sail b r o k e n loose in a stormy marriage. fluttering heavily. is already lost. Terrifying waves of merciless nature roar across the paper. the bourgeoisie. undramatic b u t brimming with stylized realism. and solidity. Flapping kimonos and an onlooker turning his b a c k have the magic of a m o m e n t caught. lifts. T h e ship. This wife.Through political drawings he fired his sharp wit at the king. Daumier's c a r t o o n shines with the brilliance of his comic memory. a scratched ghost. and gives motion to each image. By Turner carries us to the heart of the maelstrom. painter.

M. TURNER KATSUSHIKA HOKUSAI Prolific J a p a n e s e c o l o r w o o d .M. H o k u s a i in t u r n has since significantly influenced European art.l o v e dw o r k s i n c l u d e 1 0 0 v i e w s o f M o u n t Fuji and 1 2 v o l u m e s o f Manga. Wind direction wood-block This is a colored To represent the blows lifted flowed wind. wind. from left print. into this very as pressed sheet The paper's through own coior is brought banks of mist and fog. absorbent watercolor and are Stains of splashed. 1826 91/2 x 113/4 in ( 2 4 1 x 3 0 0 m m ) J. a n d his b e s t .b l o c kprintmaker. including being lashed t o a ship's m a s t in o r d e r to study a storm. AIR IN MOTION Pencil and watercolor subdued brushed. T h e r e a r e m a n y stories o f his p a s s i o n a t e w o r k i n g methods.i n f l u e n c e d b y examples o f W e s t e r n art obtained through D u t c h t r a d i n g in Nagasaki. T u r n e r w o r k e d in oils a n d w a t e r c o l o r s a n d s k e t c h e d c o p i o u s l y o n his travels.199 J. Hokusai direction (from clothing from has chosen which it the right). Ship in a Storm c. horizontally then and of the it into the stream Plants also bend and flow right to Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 1802 81/2 HOKUSAI KATSUSHIKA x 131/2 in ( 2 1 7 x 3 4 3 mm) . Landscape a n d city life w e r e his principal subjects. W . leans the whole composition swells around its fateful center. T U R N E R British landscape. d e s i g n e r a n d b o o k i l l u s t r a t o r . painter. and history painter w h o s e p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t a b o v e all w a s light.W. A outline scratched of a skeletal into penciled ship is while and the waves. seascape.

Pen and brush Hugo drew first with pen and ink. inks. In periods b e t w e e n writing. leaving nothing but a glimpse of moonlight glistening on the froth below. active surfaces of water.28). this is a b o m b a r d m e n t from o u r h o m e s . D o m e s t i c o b j e c t s we can o w n and name fall from the clouds. grab their b r u s h . this is a writer's narrative of terror. fantasy palaces. His subjects include ruins. and tossed o b j e c t s — a perfect subject in which artists can forget themselves. lines of rain escorting them to b o u n c e and clatter. he blanketed the drawing in darkness. h a u n t e d shadows. EARTH AND THE VICTOR HUGO French novelist and artist (see also p. it is difficult to contemplate its brooding and night-soaked heart. Then. as a gestural storm on the paper. T h e m e n a c i n g darkness of Hugo's storm b e l o w is so convincing. By contrast. drawing was Hugo's principal means o f expression. Le Bateau-Vision 1864 71/2 x 1 0 in ( 1 9 2 x 2 5 5 m m ) VICTOR H U G O . composing banks of waves and dense. or charcoal.200 ELEMENTS Storms STORMS CAN BE SEEN and drawn in two ways: first. and t h e sea s t u d i e d f r o m his h o m e in Guernsey in t h e Channel Islands. Opposite. He brings us to stare into a place that no sane human would enter. An update on biblical showers of fish and frogs. Turner (see p. and swim into the page. T h e very nature of b o t h is turmoil and an interweaving of elements. water. marks.198) admires the majesty of nature. It looks so contemporary. as a subject and second. ink. with a brush. as if drawn j u s t this year. Leonardos Cloudburst of Material Possessions is o n e of his m o s t enigmatic and mysterious works.

Each item that has crashed from heaven is drawn in such a way that we can feel Leonardo's nib picking it up in the speed of a doodle. It is interesting to speculate how engineering might have developed if his ideas had been shared with the world earlier Ink and chalk This is a pen and ink drawing with touches of black chalk. a bell. a hook. Cloudburst of Material Possessions 1510-12 45/8 x 43/8 in ( 1 1 7 x 1 1 1 mm) L E O N A R D O DA VINCI . Above and below are examples of his mirror handwriting. There is a little magic in recognizing many items from our homes something like a rake. for example). together with half the contents of our garage. He was left-handed and wrote backwards in Italian from left to right. He bequeathed his drawings to a friend. and a wheel. envisioning machines centuries before their making (helicopters and bicycles. and they passed through private hands for 400 years before becoming widely known.LEONARDO DA VINCI Leonardo devised many artifacts of our modern lives.

Nature Profiles Opposite below. In the lower half he has walked downhill a little. and dry marks in the foreground appear to be made with his finger. rich. a horizon line can trigger our recognition. it is the unique calligraphic signature of the place in which we stand. she teased away fragments of paper to illuminate her view. Claude Lorrain drew directly on location. Over first lines. Clare Bryan took panoramic photographs of the English South Downs. In a very different work (opposite above). cooler tones receding into the distance are applied with a brush. Segments The top half of the drawing is a view as we enter the valley. Views from Velletri c. which he used to unify his compositions. and after tracing her captured line. atmosphere. and etcher who lived most of his life in 17th-century Rome. his unsurpassed handling of light. C L A U D E LORRAIN French classical landscape painter draftsman. and famed for. Paler. Claude is distinguished by. sea-. and across to the right. EARTH AND THE Bryan cut the profile of a city. and we can imagine standing over his shoulder. Drawing with a scalpel.1638 85/8 x 121/2 in (219 x 320 mm) CLAUDE LORRAIN . or cityscape. transferred it to a scroll. rapidly layering contours to shape place. watching his hand and eye at work together. and mood simultaneously.202 ELEMENTS THE PROFILE OF A HORIZON is a line we immediately recognize and respond to. thick. She was inspired by her research of aerial plans of London and the story of an alien map butterfly (see caption). Claude has used a fine nib to delineate segments of land as they recede into space. made inside a book. Even distilled from all other detail. Whether land-.

203 Scalpel-drawn This book-bound drawing was inspired by the story of a foreign butterfly wrongly to Great Britain in 1912." Cut line This is a small section of a preparatory 5-ft(1. On turning the pages of City. Her recent paper photographic. progressively settlement (cropped more and more paper is drawn away to show the expansion of human page of an around the river.The horizon was drawn with a City Landline 2003 271/2x 59 in (70 x 150 cm) scalpel. drawings Ideas of introduction Clare Bryan to research introduced down and led NATURE PROFILES and removal historical plans and aerial growth of London showing its population since Roman times. then hunted destroyed.5-m)scroll. specialty bookbinder. The edges of each here) fade into the solid paper unpopulated with a scalpel landscape. and visiting professor at numerous art schools. and digital print-based works reflect upon the histories and poetry of "left behind and in-between spaces. printmaker graphic designer. 2001 CLARE BRYAN C L A R E BRYAN 3ritish artist. source workisilluminatedby standing its lower edge on a CLARE BRYAN .

a n d p l u m . cylindrical. THICK W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 2 Keep the tape above your drawing. white line into the blackor grayness of willow charcoal. you can p u r c h a s e m a c h i n e . this does not exist. resulting in a stick that gives a blacker. Not to be confused with square conte sticks (see p. Smooth paper accepts few particles. Charcoal lifts away from paper easily with the very light touch o f an eraser. Then lift it away. blacker. they are all intended for fine work. It allows you greater precision in your mark-making than if you rub away the charcoal with an eraser. 4. b l a c k e r . The same as above. It is also easily erased if the maker of the mark is not happy with the result. a rag. COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Machine-made. Artists have also used lime.m a d e c o m p r e s s e d charcoal. sticky side down.54).204 E A R T H AND THE E L E M E N T S Charcoal CHARCOAL IS PRODUCED from wood baked slowly without exposure to air. Try itworking on big paper covering a wall. Willow is the most c o m m o n wood. It c a n be m a d e duller. tape. CHALK CHARCOAL: Technically. Use any fine-point pen or pencil (I used a ballpoint) to draw a firm line on the back of the Big pieces are perfect for very large-scale drawings—even larger than yourself. . it is compressed and m o l d e d at high pressure. the heel o f y o u r h a n d . 6. Lines are achieved by d e p o s i t i n g particles in the grain o f paper. harder line. feather. without touching the surface. R o u g h paper c a n b e loaded. so it chars b l a c k as o p p o s e d to igniting a n d turning to ash. 1. 3 A white line is lifted out by the tape. leaving u n d e r t r a c e s of first thoughts. A great find when available. C h a r c o a l naturally glistens. b e e c h . Hold it over your drawing RANGE AVAILABLE Charcoal (in its several forms shown here) is loved or loathed by the beginner to whom it is often recommended because it produces pleasing results quickly. but some specialists stock compressed charcoal in delicate square sticks. 1 Suspend a length of masking tape. a n d m o r e i n d e l i b l e by soaking it in linseed oil. As its name implies. resulting in a pale line. THIN WILLOW CHARCOAL: I used a piece like this to make the drawing opposite. In use. Beware of cheap brands selling dyed chalk as compressed charcoal. maple. It does n o t erase easily. only a little thicker. it looks gray and feels like chalk. CHARCOAL PENCIL: Types made by different manufacturers vary in quality and density of line. The tip snaps easily to renew a sharp edge if required. LIFTING OUT This technique is a very easy method of drawing a crisp. 3. vine. 2. and heavier than willow. a piece of fresh bread. Alternatively. Slightly dull the tape's stickiness before use t o prevent it from lifting out more than you intend. B u n d l e s o f twigs were traditionally sealed into earthenware j a r s or wet clay and heated slowly and intensely in a fire or kiln. SQUARE COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Not often sold. Essentially. 162) or graphite (see p. and offers a rich. between your middle finger and thumb. black finish. Boxes often contain a range of thicknesses to choose for different needs. MEDIUM W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 5. or fingertip. 7. fine.

Here we used a ballpoint. 9. Here. Lift out broader marks with a larger implement. Cotton swabs also work. 10. or any other dry media. graphite. pastels. Different tones seen throughout the main drawing on pp. 8 . Use high quality (very sticky) to fix paper to walls and boards. I used a plastic eraser effectively on thinly applied charcoal.205 ERASING Thickly applied charcoal quickly o v e r c o m e s a plastic eraser A w a r m (soft and tacky) putty eraser is more effective. Use cheaper (less sticky) for lifting out. T O R T I L L O N : This is a tight roll of paper used to blend charcoal. . PEN: Any fine pen or pencil can be used to draw on the back of masking tape when lifting out.212-13 were made by altering the pressure applied to the charcoal. MASKING TAPE: An invaluable resource. sold in several widths. Layers can be peeled away to refresh its surface. as is fresh (unbuttered!) bread. CHARCOAL Lifting out This detail shows an example of where I used the lifting-out technique demonstrated opposite to draw flashes of lightning against rain clouds.

206 EARTH AND THE ELEMENTS Landscapes TREES ALONE OFFER MARVELOUS shapes to draw. This term simply means that as land rolls away into the distance. Don't worry if it is cloudy: clouds add drama and perspective and make good subjects in themselves (see pp. At its worst. Landscape drawings are traditionally arranged in three parts: a detailed foreground.212-13). They are also good markers of receding space. hazy distance. It is the visible effect of the atmosphere between where you stand and what you see in the distance. our brains search for nameable things and will perceive complete pictures from very little information. it results in flat planes of clutter. I relaxed my eyes out of focus to dissolve distracting detail into abstract patches of light and darkness. When you arrive. an eraser your drawing book or a board and paper fixative (or hairspray). Then I drew the shape of the tonal patches I perceived. details blur and colors grow paler and bluer. but is often less evocative and engaging. a less distinct middle ground composed of shapes and textures. and a cushion in a plastic bag to sit on. the less you describe. a reel of masking tape. pack your materials (as advised below) and set off for a local view or your nearest arboretum. Seeing tones . and an abstract. to contain each of your compositions. Pack several thick and thin sticks of willow charcoal. The long view is hidden behind trees. Excessive detail can be admired for its skill and achievement. Successful drawings often only suggest the qualities of the scene without overdescribing them. 9 8 . Ironically. the more you encourage the viewer's imagination to join in and see. begin by marking out several small squares on your paper. MATERIALS In this first view there is only a foreground and middle distance. To experiment with drawing landscapes and the use of charcoal. On p p .9 9 we noted that in response to visual stimulus. especially when making first excursions into aerial perspective.

and broke a view through the hedge into the distance with a dark sky threatening rain. horizontal regions of grass. the trunk of a bare tree. dark trees with bright. It is better to give distinctly more pictorial space to one or the other (see below). your view is your inspiration. shadows. Remember. I have invented drama with diagonals set against each other I tilted the earth. This composition turned out a little flat because I have an almost even quantity of earth and sky. full of information you can use to create what you want! Inventing drama .207 LANDSCAPES In my second square I explored a simple view contrasting soft. rounded. Exploring the view Redrawing the scene above.

The mud of the tidal shore in Rye. bare ribs.208 ELEMENTS Drawing in the Round WHEN DRAWING IN THE LANDSCAPE. taking with you your drawing book and pen. engine.164-65) and a wire violin (pp.1 5 my first drawing of the whole view of the Tiber led me to see the real subject of the day. England has embedded within it the decaying skeleton of a burned fishing boat. EARTH AND THE FINDING THE SUBJECT Finding a remarkable subject is even better when you can circumnavigate it in an arena of space. Building on earlier studies of structure in space using shoes (pp. I usually begin by making an image of the whole view. making the scene below led me to focus on the decaying boat opposite. For example. 2 1 4 . and tiller still standing proud. "Drawing in the round means to literally walk around your subject. I am then able to home in on what interests me most for further study.104-05). your challenge now is to find a sculptural subject in the landscape. shade out of the glare of the sun. on p p . and seeing what the real choice of subject is. Similarly. Circling a subject and drawing it from several views imprints on your memory a better understanding of its three-dimensional form. observing it from several views so as to better understand it as a whole." . so the paper is not made blinding and your hand cannot cast a shadow on your work. which was the flow of water over rocks. s e e k places in light After my first drawing. settling my concentration. This first drawing serves as a process of arrival.

and structure. ROUND 2 In this tail-end view. w h e n t h e sea recedes. I spent equal time looking at the subject and the paper. W h e n you have found your subject. Each n e w drawing gives a different insight. looking more at the boat than at the paper From this low position I have emphasized how the boat is swallowed in mud by outlining its shadow on the ground. character. unfussy lines.209 SERIES OF STUDIES This stunning ghost o f a boat comes into v i e w t w i c e a day. make a series o f drawings f r o m different positions. 3 This impression notes the angle of the broken boat. The outline ties a shape of darkness to the boat like a weight so that it becomes part of its form. DRAWING IN THE 1 Here. marking straight. Overleaf: Decaying Boat 4 . and the order and shape of its component parts. I looked more boldly at the planes and the dynamic of the sculptural craft My lines have become darker and more forceful as confidence in my understanding of the vessel grew. I drew with quick. its overall balance. careful lines to establish the skeleton that gives this wreck its distinct form.



was made with gentle but unhesitating s p e e d . I worked quickly to catch and weave the turbulent contrasts of rising wind and approaching water before the drawing could be washed away.Cloudburst THIS STORM DRAWING.20-21) using a thin stick of willow charcoal. L o o k i n g b a c k and forth from the heavens to firmly taped-down paper. m a d e on s m o o t h . . hot-pressed drawing p a p e r (see pp.


black. focusing on the river's eddies. pocket-sized notebook. and rhythmic detail as it passed through the ancient gully of the city. pulse.Notes of Force T H E GREAT FLOWING TIBER RIVER has cut through Rome. since ancient times. I drew with a needle-fine fiber-tip pen. . shaping the city. On the pages of a small.


I used a dip pen and waterproof India ink with brushed watercolor to draw the view.Mountains SITTING IN THE SHADE of a tree on the Greek island of Antiparos. The strong diagonal of the composition from bottom left to top right carries the eye through changes of height and focus from the foreground to the mountains beyond. .



It also underpins and gives strength and unity to all figurative work. It was not invented in the 20th century. First marks. or gestures. and have been making abstract drawings for centuries—Japanese calligraphy. and independent means of communication. The fate of Old World thinking was finally sealed with the brutality of World War I. don't be timid. fictional language. and young children show us that abstract. The growing rise of Darwinian ideas coupled with Freudian and Marxist perspectives forced Western society to reconsider its origins and future. My own work is firmly centered in figuration.Abstract Lines T HE DEVELOPMENT OF W E S T E R N abstract art at the beginning of the 20th century significantly paralleled major changes in world thought. drawn sound. His drawings are collected and exhibited internationally and held by the Adolf Wolfli Foundation. poet. yet my kinship to abstraction is fundamental. expressive marks and shapes are at the core of natural. belief. which are essentially abstract. precisely because it does not have to represent a physical object. . Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape 1915 413/8 x 285/8 in (105 x 72. From one point of view. Museum of Fine Arts. abstraction is not so easy to define. Outsider artists. I begin every image by feeling its meaning. spontaneous image-making. and emotion. all pictorial representations are abstractions of reality. writhing torrents of color. strike the paper to find form. picturing a stabilized world was impossible and Modernism rode forth with vigor. liberating. Artists were given a different tool—a line threaded directly from their subconscious to their hand—and with it they began to map a bold new landscape of marks and concepts that would dramatically and forever change the face of Western art. be brave and enjoy them. and history. As you approach the classes in this chapter. sounds. and poetic myth roar and cascade within his tightly framed pages. such as Adolf Wolfli. and Aboriginal art. Not everything we know has a physical form in the world. direction. However. From another viewpoint. An abstract mark is often a better conductor of a thought or feeling. writer and composer who suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and was resident in the Waldau Aslyum near Berne. Internal workings of the mind were suddenly free to find a new language of expression. actions. many nonWestern cultures have highly sophisticated abstractions at the core of their art. Wolfli was a Swiss draftsman. He made thousands of drawings to chronicle his complex life. Many concepts and feelings can only be expressed through marks. for example. ADOLF WOLFLI One of the greatest masters of Art Brut. Swirling. and it has always been with us. Afterward. only rediscovered. It is actually its foundation and its infrastructure.8 cm) A D O L F WOLFLI Abstraction is a direct. Berne. opposite. it is simply itself. Perhaps in Western culture we bred this intuitive freedom out of ourselves in our insistence on complex figuration. People are often scared by abstraction and see it as the enemy of figurative art. Indian mandalas.

Iron rods in tone. Five forged steel shapes. scrolling across the canvas in an intimate crescendo. and wood are also part of the work. A line can be finished in a second. A Neolithic chalk tablet bears cut lines that were slowly carved. ice. Abe works with materials such as soil. Damp Japanese paper was laid over carefully arranged iron bars. Moisture produced rust. Twombly's mesmeric wax line worked over house paint is like a signature. It can proclaim mood. Abe's physical drawing is a sculptural installation. it can keep reforming through the inherent repetition of a process. and texture their bracing separation reaching between from beneath Pillars of the gallery are made part of this drawing by their inclusion in the paper. iron. Changes paper.220 A B S T R A C T LINES Process and Harmony SOMETIMES A DRAWN LINE sings on the surface of its support. tone. He travels widely to research ancient sacred sites. Sometimes it smolders like a deep shadow. rhythmically engaged with itself. Mamoru Abe prepares an image that will appear through the chemistry of iron. Lines. texture. and patient watching. This the paper rest within the amplifies framelike of the floor from the ceiling. water. and Assistant Professor of Fine A r t at Fukuoka University. staining redbrown lines into the white surface. brass. and temperature rim of floor space. silence. or. as Twombly shows us opposite. sit in silent harmony. and plaster in galleries and landscapes. and sensitivity with its thickness and pressure of touch. Below. forged steel. The Physical Space 1990 3 0 x 30 ft ( 9 1 4 x 9 1 4 cm) MAMORU ABE . MAMORU ABE Japanese sculptor and installation artist. salt. akin to stones in a Zen garden. quoting ink marks on a page.

such as the Rosetta stone. PROCESS AND HARMONY Cut lines Chalk carves easily. evolved a raw.Thesite's purpose is unknown.241). CY TWOMBLY . The central pictorial space is also similarly cut and divided by the considered arrangement of straight lines. the Babylonian world map.Twombly was presented with a Golden Lion award for lifetime achievement. that challenges the separation of word from image. At the 2001 Venice Biennale. emotive.England. close to Stonehenge in Wiltshire. and sensuous drawing from painting. and Untitled 1970 Here we might seek to grasp letters in the turning of his line.400BCE 21/4 x 21/4 in (58 x 58 mm) ARTIST UNKNOWN Language Over the course of fifty years.221 ANCIENT CARVINGS Many ancient cultures have made and left behind drawings and texts carved into stones or animal bone. This example is one of two chalk tablets found in a Late-Neolithic pit. Neolithic Chalk Tablet 3. burials. theories suggest astrological observations. energetic. Twombly has language works CY TWOMBLY Contemporary American artist who emerged through the 1950s New York art scene in the heyday of Abstract Expressionism and Action Painting. and the worship of the sun and ancient gods. Many of his graffiti-like combine abstract gestures with statements. Precise lines suggest the use of a sharp flint The framed rectangle of this image is echoed in that of Abe's installation. and American Indian petroglyphs (see p.000-2.

Ink impressions When drawing nightscapes Hugo often laid paper disks in place of the moon. beautiful. below. and lifted them away to leave impressions of watery planets and seas. Marks across the center appear to be made with his fingers. said. The scores are also exhibited in galleries as visual art. o r a pattern o f elements s o unified as a w h o l e t h e y c a n n o t b e e x p l a i n e d asa s u m o f parts. too." An innovator who never fails to surprise.222 ABSTRACT LINES Writing Time SINCE THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY. Hugo. brushed night skies over them with ink then lifted the disks to reveal white moons. abstract artists and composers unique. "There is nothing like dream to create the future. a configuration.28. His drawing writes the time of its own physical process by expressing the extreme concentration of the moment in which it was made. Similarity in gritty texture suggests that here. here he anticipates abstract expressionism by 100 years. he mixed graphite into ink. and participate in the composition. and let the drying meniscus deposit granules in linear drifts such as we would see in the satellite photographic mapping of rivers. Both abstract drawing and composition involve the perfect sequencing of sounds and marks against space and silence. and inventive of his time.28). Bussotti. drawing here can b e described in t e r m s o f a G e r m a n philosophical idea a b o u t is t h e i n s t a n t r e c o g n i t i o n t h e p o w e r o f m o m e n t . Here he appears t o have saturated the cut-out moon disks with gritty pigment. Gestalt o f an unnameable thing. abstract. pressed them face down. Two Impressions Paper 1853-55 VICTOR HUGO Disk from a Cut-Out . opposite. Texture Compare this drawing to Hugo's octopus on p. o f t e n e x p r e s s e d in v i s u a l t e r m s . interpret. A graphic score is a V I C T O R H U G O Hugo's abstract French novelist w h o m a d e m a n y drawings in m i x e d m e d i a ( s e e also p. have striven to break down old pictorial and musical structures to explore new and unfettered modes of expression. Gestalt. music manuscript requiring instrumentalists to improvise. broke new ground in the 1950s with graphic scores now considered among the most extreme.

70 in relation to Bussotti's clustered notes to the left of his rondo and open space to the right. His later works become increasingly abstract. Following the notes. 1958 SYLVANO BUSSOTTI . Compare this work to that of Libeskind on p. This is a page from Due Voci.223 W R I T I N G TIME SYLVANO BUSSOTTI Italian avant-garde composer and principal 20thcentury exponent of the graphic score. Circular Score for "Due Voci" c. we can feel their rhythm and easily attach sounds to them. Bussotti's first mature work. a far cry from any recognized musical notation. Sound and rhythm This flickering rondo of sound written in pen on a hand-ruled stave can be heard in our imaginations as much as seen.

Torn cloth This is one of two published photographs showing Marie Leib's torn cloth strips significantly placed on her cell floor. In music it can be felt in the diversity of plainsong and African d r u m m i n g . Compositional rightness (see pp. centuries. In the late 1 9 t h century. MARIE LIEB Little is known of this w o m a n for w h o m the act of drawing was essential. they m a k e a visual a n d physical e c h o that t o u c h e s s o m e deep part of the human spirit. Visually. O p p o s i t e . Cell Floor With Torn Strips of Cloth 1894 MARIE LIEB . Marie Lieb w a s a psychiatric patient in the Heidelberg Asylum. Cloth is the simple instrument with which she has conducted and ordered her universe. cultures. for e x a m p l e . social outcasts. an a n o n y m o u s w o m a n in the southeast Indian state o f Tamil Nadu m a k e s a ritual drawing o n the b r i c k courtyard o f h e r h o m e . Germany.228-29) has been adjusted with each movement of the rags to draw a cosmos of balance and perfection. T h e s e p h o t o g r a p h s d o c u m e n t the meditative drawings o f two w o m e n living worlds apart in different countries. it is found in the regularity o f ordered lines or a pattern. This takes a form in most cultures. d i p p i n g h e r fingers into a pot o f rice flour. and c i r c u m s t a n c e s . and sufferers of psychiatric illnesses—who have always existed.224 A B S T R A C T LINES Chants and Prayers WHEN ABSTRACT LINES are organized in repetition. making objects and images outside o f mainstream culture. It will protect the place from evil and make a pleasing invitation to good spirits. Lieb is one o f countless thousands of "Outsider" artists—diverse individuals including ordinary citizens. She tore c l o t h into strips a n d used these to draw patterns a n d symbols o n h e r cell floor.

lecturer on the subjects of Indian art and Indian women's identity.HUYLER Photographer art historian. chalk. animals.225 STEPHEN P. Popular magazines feature new ideas each week and on special occasions there may be contests. Motifs are geometrical or based on plants. and for over 30 years has traveled extensively through the Indian subcontinent creating an edited archive of 200. Huyler is the author of Painted Prayers. In daily practice. and birds. or flowers are marked or arranged on the ground or on the walls of homes. and in places of worship and celebration. cultural anthropologist. Designs and motifs Rangoii (or mandalas) are ritual drawings made by many millions of women across rural India. at the University of London and Ohio State University. lime. Materials such as rice flour.Theseare widely published in journals and are the subjects of international exhibitions. among others. women pride themselves on never repeating a design. Painted Prayers UNDATED STEPHEN R HUYLER . Skills are handed down through generations and from friend to friend.000 images.

Untitled 2001 2001 153/4x 215/8 in ( 4 0 0 x 550 mm) BRIAN C A T L I N G . Ruskin School. Their energy can therefore be a purer expression of an idea or emotion. With no depth of field. Catling's abstract drawings are usually made in series and in parallel to written poetry and sculptural installations. rocks or heads in a subdued atmosphere of dream. and water-resistant layers of spray and enamel paint on thick paper. figurative representation—that is. Oval moons eclipse each other and oscillate between landforms and portraiture. Catling's torn paper shapes and shadows spill light out of their frame like a fractured mirror. and Fellow of Linacre College. performance and installation artist. structure. free from the direct imaging of known physical things. Catling's works made for international galleries and museums involve drawing as a tool in their development and making. and choice of hues. Klee's mathematical maze of thinly washed surface resonates with meticulous planning. They each find their pathways and equilibrium in atmosphere and suggestion. Oxford. BRIAN CATLING British sculptor poet. These two works present complex compositions with differing intensions and methods of making. filmmaker Professor of Fine Art. it is ruled and contained in one dimension by its interlocking ink-lined borders. Mixed media This is a collage of torn white and gray tissue paper previously stained with ink. but similarities in mood. gold paint and iridescent gouache mixed with water.226 ABSTRACT LINES Compositions ABSTRACT DRAWINGS ARE LARGELY or entirely free from using the viewer's eye to track and unfold layers of meaning.

and might be read as active or passive. It is a geometric harmony of straight lines and tonally graded flat colors that by their arrangement draw our eyes inward to their white center. Line and surface Klee observed the visual capacity of lines to push or pull within an image. Polyphon Gefasstes Weiss (White Framed Polyphonically) 1930 131/8x95/8 in (333 x 245 mm) Paul-Klee-Stiftung. and brush. Kunstmuseum Bern PAUL KLEE .31). watercolor. Klee painted. philosophized. and wrote copiously about the natures and relationships of color and form.227 PAUL K L E E Swiss painter and sculptor (see also p. He explained his polyphonic painting as "a harmony of several color voices" searching for a visual parallel to music. whereas tonal surfaces are perceived more immediately as a whole. ruler.97-99. Klee also felt that a line represents the passing of time. We can see some diagrammatic examples of this among the optical illusions on pp. drew. Geometric harmony This is a work on paper made with a sharp ink pen.

the late garden designer Russell Page explains. a glass. M a n y of their inter-relationships will be meaningless. and elements settle in definitive balance. "Whenall pictorial elements come together in pleasing and perfect balance. they are just. In his b o o k The Education of a Gardener. or home. w i l l c h a n g e w i t h e v e r y r e a r r a n g e m e n t . a b u n c h of keys." . there is a clear feeling when. s o m e will be more or less h a r m o n i o u s . Set up a sheet of paper with a rectangle drawn on it. culture. media. Seek it when looking at other artists' work and in your everyday environment. angles. but an easy o n e to u n d e r s t a n d . their impact. after being continuously adjusted.228 ABSTRACT LINES Being "Just" A SENSE OF "JUST" (or rightness) is a difficult concept to explain. W h e n m o v i n g objects around in your yard.Thisexercise will help you start. or degree of figuration. and put them o n a tray. b u t e v e r y n o w a n d again you will hit on an arrangement w h i c h appears just. regardless of style. This balance is what every artist and designer searches a n d feels for when making an image. and ten straight sticks painted black. the impression y o u receive from t h e m . There is a single m o m e n t w h e n all proportions. for instance. "I have experimented endlessly with this idea." SETTING UP Justness can be harmonious or deliberately discordant. Feel for it when youdraw. As y o u m o v e them around. It is also found in nature. and an apple. or on a page. It is found in all great art and design. they reach a perfect position. Take.

fix it with glue. In the final step (left) there is an even balance. which now becomes a tight frame. Feel for the rightness of their grouping and their relationships to surrounding spaces. horizontals dominate the lower area. A stick touching the rectangle links the composition to the frame.56-57). Arrange them so they touch or cross in a series of intersecting balances. Remember the drawn rectangle is a part of the composition (see pp. Move the sticks out into the rectangle. Here. as shown here. B E I N G "JUST" 1 Arrange your ten sticks in t w o groups of five. horizontals dominate the top. making the composition seem to float beneath. .229 WHERE TO START Take ten sticks of equal length. painted black. W h e n the composition falls into place. Within a rectangle on a flat sheet of paper set about making a composition using no other rule than a sense of "just. 2 3 In the step above. suggesting a horizon." Move the sticks to find alignments and imagined perspectives.

. To prepare for this lesson. Once the ten painted black sticks are set and glued in place. colors and textures can be manipulated until their pictorial harmony.228-29). scissors. a compass.Youwill also need spare white paper. stain and dry a sheet of tissue paper using blueink. an infinite range of voices and meaning. Returning to Russell Page.220. glue. or even strident. which is the shifting. This principal also applies to three-dimensional drawings such as Gaudi's work with wire and weights on p. ready-made depths and surfaces. hard or soft. feels "just" (see pp. "My understanding is that every object [or shape] emanates—sends out vibrations beyond its physical body which are specific to itself.69 and Abe's installation on p. you start composing by adding or subtracting shapes and textures and using colors and tones to achieve the impression you want to m a k e — w h e t h e r dramatic or s u b d u e d . and tones. colors." overlapping placement of materials on a flat plane. harmonious. and black ink. they become a scaffold for the addition of further textures. found or made items. Cut or torn layers and shapes. correction fluid or white paint." (Russell Page) . he went on to say ".230 ABSTRACT LINES Collage H E R E W E EXPERIMENT with collage. Images and fragments torn from day-to-day life can be brought together to make a chorus of ideas and emotions. or discordance. Collage offers the artist a liberating palette of SETTING UP This lesson in collage is a direct continuation of the compositional lines made in the previous class..

then cut out. 2 3 Torn white paper moved over the surface adds masks of rough-edged irregular volume. COLLAGE 1 Regular-sized pieces of white paper are moved over the surface to disrupt the even lines. Obscuring the blue disks. correction fluid and ink marks add further dimensions. they deepen pictorial space. four circles of blue tissue paper. draw.231 WHAT TO DO Lay the final step of the previous lesson (p.The single disk that is folded with its straight edge facing up appears heavier than those that are flat. Cut six small rectangles the same proportion as your whole image.228) in front of you. and with a compass and scissors. In the last step (left). This can also give a sense of fragmentation or punctuation to the composition. . solidity. Glue them in place once they feel "just" Translucent circular disks of tissue paper give color tone. and shadow to thepicture.


and expectation. is the practice of Zen through the calligraphic marks of a brush dipped in carbon ink." [Tanchu Terayama. Zen Brushwork].Zen Calligraphy HITSUZENDO. . A MODERN JAPANESE meditative art form inspired by the teachings of Yamaoka Tesshu (1836-1888). Hitsuzendo drawings aspire to "breathe with the energy and vitality of eternal life" achieved through "a state of no mind—beyond thought. emotion.

discord is balanced against rhythm to create mood. These vibrate against washes of shadow and pitch-black mass. I flicked spatters of ink and rubbed the paper with a wet and a dry brush to achieve these effects. Lines made with a steel dip pen take on a scratchy nervousness.Nocturnes IN THIS QUARTET of semi-abstract drawings made with India ink. .





sculptures. or in smoke. and stained-glass windows deliver powerful visual sermons to the once-illiterate populace. a human-animal mix that implies this could MARTIN SCHONGAUER German painter and engraver who settled to work in Colmar Alsace. We love our fear of the hybrid—ideally. thousands of paintings. aliens. In the Christian churches of Europe. We then add substances we dislike: unidentified fluids. Here. To learn to flex your imagination. happen to us. paradise. Humans are equally troubled by the imperceptibly small and the enormous. all of which originated as hundreds of drawings. we select details of animals farthest from ourselves and that are widely thought disturbing—reptilian and insect features. Neither should be slave or master. . or strange. our eye circulates around a flutter of leather and scaly wings. wings.247. and the Alien trilogy. Star Wars. impossible. The salvation of heaven and terrors of hell are represented equally—enough to make any sinner shudder. Perhaps the Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 1485 121/4 x 9 in (312 x 230 mm) MARTIN SCHONGAUER most important conclusion in this final chapter is to advise you to develop your skills in parallel with the joy of your unfolding imagination. and damnation are found in most world faiths. Lord of the Rings. Depictions of God or of gods in the contexts of daily life. I was on a train passing through Nuneaton. which were widely distributed and influential in his time. and the faces of God have for centuries given artists a feast for the extremes of their imagination. Monsters take advantage of both. for example. Images we are now surrounded by bear testimony to the power and resourcefulness of their collective imagination. Fantasy is most successful when founded on strong and familiar visual logic. a Catherine wheel of drawn sparks spiraling around the quietly resolute saint. For example. a collaboration between the two will ensure that your drawings glow with originality. and deep fur—and we alter their scale. Be inspired by the irrational comedy of word association or puns. Reading the place name I momentarily glimpsed an alternative meaning. England. angels. We watch with captivated pleasure movies such as The Fly. our literate and more secular Western society still hungers for another world and to ravenously indulge its fascination for the marvelous. in the cracks of walls. Schongauer is best known for his prints. When creating monsters. Today. Feeding this demand. beasts. movie studios now brim with as many monsters as the visual art of the Medieval and Renaissance Church. scales.Gods and Monsters OUR SACRED AND SECULAR need to visualize demons. Throughout this book images are presented to excite and surprise and drawing classes created to increase your confidence. look for images in the folds of clothing. which is to have eaten a nun—it inspired the drawing on p. serpentine tails. feathers.

portraits. They depict as if by lamplight the devil and witches. crammed tightly at his desk. In this ass. noisy seascape on p. deranged masses. This continuity enriches the making of art and our heritage. to Picasso's similarly tight. Opposite below. which can swamp the subject Here. plain wall suggests a blinkered view of nothing. Opposite. Los Caprichos. barren land rising like MYRIAD CHAINS RUN THROUGH ART HISTORY. Pictorially. rushing. such asinine behavior can be hereditary. and exposed the superstitions. The title "And So Was His Grandfather" adds that should we not already know. Saturn devouring his son. vanity. a Shoshone seeking guidance and power meditates at the sacred site of a petroglyph. below. Aquatint Goya has drawn a learned man as an ass. Paul Thomas's studies of Picasso and Twombly can be traced directly. Many students leave white backgrounds in their work. and church murals. Near the end of his life he made his "Black Paintings" on the walls of his home. The well-dressed mule is cumbersome. Other drawn versions of this image are more savage and frightening. The high. Francisco de Goya was a master of borrowing. In this softer aquatint he poses for his portrait Textured background The aquatint process has been used to great effect in making a gritty toned background. Violent white marks symbolizing Achilles' rage resonate with the energy of Twombly's script on p. Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 1799 81/2 x 6 in (218 x 154 mm) FRANCISCO DE GOYA . a wave to join Achilles' chase of Hector. Compare his dark. we see the international icon of stupidity. and follies of court through copious graphic works including his best-known prints.220. Goya later recorded the horrors of Napoleonic occupation.30. Visions experienced in front of the drawing sometimes instruct the making of a new one. This act defines the vision and continues the line of spirit guides. his lover a dog. and men clubbing each other to death. reading from a book of asses. F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A Spanish court painter printmaker and draftsman. hags. whose impassioned work begins with light tapestry cartoons. He would be graceless if he stood. it allows the mule to stand forward. Goya's plainly textured gray background pushes back the space behind the illuminated simply subject. quoting great paintings and popular culture to add cunning twists to his satires.240 GODS AND M O N S T E R S Marks of Influence marking the influence of one artist upon another.

" Each sacred image drawn into rock belongs to one of three realms in the Shoshone world: the realm of the sky. meaning "place of power. Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range UNDATED ARTIST UNKNOWN . by a supplicant in a trance of meditation. Achilles Chases Hector 1996 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) PAUL THOMAS SHOSHONE PETROGLYPH The Shoshone people of Wyoming name petroglyph sites Poha Kahni.241 MARKS OF INFLUENCE PAUL T H O M A S British contemporary artist whose epic graphic work questions and reflects upon issues of European identity. White marks like flashes of light are cut though graphite with an eraser to reveal the paper beneath. of the earth. Simple wall stones cleverly state their cold solidity while also fading from our attention as the scene roars by. Thomas conducts his explorations in the mine of Greek and Roman mythology. Wind River Reservation. or of the water Chipped image This is a sacred creature of the sky chipped onto rock at Dinwoody Lake. perhaps a stone. and personal and social struggles. A vivid spectrum of energized graphite marks and a masterly composition give this drawing vitality and speed. Graphite marks Here Achilles chases Hector around the walls of Troy before killing him. values. It was made with a sharp implement. ideals. Parallel lines within the body of the figure are likely to denote power. Wyoming.

which sometimes—half-dressed and carrying a familiar trophy— stride. crawl.242 MONSTERS of the unknown is a classical and constant occupation for the artist. lifting its cranial passenger over a seascape of repose. The Eye Like a Strange Mounts Balloon 165/8 x131/8in (422 x 332 mm) ODILON REDON 1882 Toward Infinity . the shock would be extreme. below left. and writer In contrast t o the light and visual accent of contemporary Impressionism. Techniques demonstrated on pp. We may feel safe so long as the eye looks heavenward. the writers Joris-Karl Huysmans and Stephane Mallarme. Redon's eyeball balloon rises up. They float toward us like a horrid visitation. GODS AND Erasure In this charcoal drawing. ODILON REDON French painter draftsman. Lifting out Fine strings of the hot-air balloon appear dark against the sky and light against the balloon. 115. we see parallel slanting pale marks that might have been made with fresh bread—a very effective eraser used before the wide availability of rubber or plastic. Redon lifted them out with some sort of eraser. Children are also delighted to invent a monster or ghoul. H e was influenced by his friends.and 16th-century Holland. Redon explored the darker side of the human imagination through symbols and mysticism.204-05 will enable you to produce a similar effect of white lines shining out of dark charcoal. The monsters of Bosch grew from his observations of beggars going about their trade in 15th. Our subconscious can be drawn with pleasure and ease. T H E EXPLORATION AND DEPICTION Hauntings Grandville has drawn a scurrying zoo of half-known demons and animals that appear to have been stolen from the glass eye of the microscope. Here we see how he evolved their injuries into new limbs and warped proportions. as he did the grass. graphic artist. and scuttle over all known reality. Compare worked textures throughout the whole of this image to those found throughout Anita Taylor's charcoal drawing on p. If it were to turn and stare this way. to the right of the balloon.

and Ship of Fools. This image is from one of Grandville's best-known publications. Smiling. include The Haywain. sucker-faced creatures dash and trundle toward it They are drawn solidly to emphasize their earthbound weight. His other major works include Metamorphoses du Jour (1828). The quality of the line is therefore uniform throughout. Two Monsters UNDATED 45/8 x61/2in (117 x 163 mm) HIERONYMUS BOSCH . Madrid. Light shines from the right. which is still available today. Garden of Earthly Delights. 1840 61/8 x41/2in ( 1 5 5 x 1 1 5 mm) GRANDVILLE HIERONYMUS BOSCH Dutch painter Bosch's highly detailed iconographic religious panel paintings. Les Animaux (1840). A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects c. Last Judgment. teeming with the exhilaration of unrestrained fantasy. Quill and ink This typical Bosch monster is a quill drawing in bistre ink The phrasing of light and contour here is masterly. Comic little headbands of waving hair express more hysteria than fear. grimacing. and he illustrated the Fables of La Fontaine and Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe.243 J E A N I G N A C E ISIDORE GERARD ("GRANDVILLE") French graphic artist and political satirist. HAUNTINGS Engraving This is an engraving made so that Grandville's original drawing could be reproduced. Most of his work is in the Prado Museum.

Grimes' delicately cavorting figures dive into and consume each other. His entire drawing wrestles and weaves the viewer's eye into its retracting folds. pinnacled. and dying slaves. she formed a series of ghostly pale. Grimes found the genesis of her beast not among animals. as we might expect. below. topple. In her studio. poet. and dog. David. Scaly. gamboling copulations. but in the seductive landscape of Leonardo da Vinci's oil painting Madonna of the Rocks. the dome of the Vatican. muscular tension is carved out of the paper using layered. However. remembering the cavernous. lion. Chalk and ink A quill dipped in brown ink was worked over black chalk on this reused sheet. and play with its perfection and meaning. They share between them the pleasures of inventing a hybrid beast. and marble sculptures including Pieto. wraps and coils its lithe body ready to strike or whimper at a touch. phrased over the contours of form and bridging darker areas of shadow. Two previously drawn faces become humorous antagonists to the beast. Michelangelo's dragon. hatched lines. snake. sometimes artists purposefully tie a knot in the configuration to disturb. Dragon 1522 10 x 133/8 in ( 2 5 4 x 3 3 8 m m ) MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI . A snake eating its own tail is a universal image of the eternal and continuous. and mist-swathed land. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI Florentine painter sculptor. and engineer Among Michelangelo's great works are the painted ceiling and altar wall of the Sistine Chapel. architect. St Peter's square. Opposite. a stunning hybrid of a swan.244 GODS AND MONSTERS Convolutions THESE CONVOLUTED DRAWINGS were made almost 5 0 0 years apart.

and the Camberwell and Slade Schools of Fine Art. Ink-wash delicately gouache (smooth) and gouache brushed drawing on This is a and was hot-pressed Shadows The dark shadow of the Other the ink-wash earth was made with a brushstroke of ink laid into wet paper. Grimes exhibits internationally and features in the collections of the New York Public Library and the Victoria and Albert Museum. London. It is one of a series of fragile earth figures inspired by rocks. The large space around figure has been cropped Grimes drawings to flatten presses them. her under heavy here. details evolved slowly using a drier brush. Oxford. boards finished paper. The image formed directly without first making a pencil outline. London. each one iridescent and crumbly like a weathered while oyster. How Clever of God #84 2002 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) O O N A GRIMES .245 CONVOLUTIONS O O N A GRIMES British contemporary artist and professor of printmaking at the Ruskin School.

SABLE-HAIR RIGGER: Made with very long kolinsky sable hairs. flowing. SYNTHETIC-HAIR LINER: This brush gives a medium line and is firm with a spring to the touch. 12.246 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brushes T H E BRUSH IS A VOLUPTUOUS and delicate weights. It is capable of very fine pointing. and never leave them standing on their tip in a jar of water. SMALL JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with sable hair. giving a variety of lines. and wrist into a fluid and soft touch. return them to their pointed shape. it has good wash capabilities. all perfect for drawing and. SYNTHETIC-HAIR BRUSH: Bound in a synthetic ferrule with good inkholding capacity and good spring and control. thicknesses. Some used by master calligraphers are 2-3 in (5-8 cm) in diameter 11.Theyhold plenty of ink and make continuous. SABLE-HAIR LINER: Made with ordinary sable hair surrounding an extralong. L A R G E R S Y N T H E T I C . ideally suited to drawing. The brushes shown here are a mixture of This is a selection of riggers. and texture. The living marks of a wet. Slightly less flexible than the squirrel-hair sword liner 9. JAPANESE PAINTING BRUSH: Made with natural hair. and hold prodigious weights of ink or paint. it has good inkholding capacity and is very flexible. 2. and very fine lines. fingers. Some are bold. and writers. Suitable for wash techniques but also capable of very fine detail. P O I N T E D T R A D I T I O N A L WRITER: The ferrule is made from a small duck quill.H A I R RIGGER: Made with long synthetic hair for fine-point work It has a good ink-holding capacity and is slightly more resilient than sable hair with more "snap. POINTED SQUIRREL-HAIR MOP: With a synthetic quill ferrule and extra high inkholding capacity. liners. SYNTHETIC-HAIR S W O R D LINER: A lining brush with high ink-holding capacity and a fine point. materials. ink-laden tip allow an expression that is beyond the linear. shape. drawing tool extending the arm. Shorter brushes designed for other purposes run out of ink more quickly. Brushes vary in size. 10. which holds long sable hair This brush holds large amounts of ink for long lines and points well for detailed work. S Y N T H E T I C . this brush has a soft drawing tip and small ink-holding capacity. 7. and effects. washes. This design supplies the fine tip with a long continuity of ink 5. This brush has a broad wash capability and can achieve a very wide range of marks. Always clean them thoroughly. M T RA S AEIL . SQUIRREL-HAIR S W O R D LINER:This brush has a maximum ink-holding capacity and an extremely fine and flexible point 8. How you care for your brushes will determine how long they last. It has exceptional painting characteristics. others are as fine as a whisker with a gentle touch." 6. the very opposite of pencil or silver point. Soaps purchased from good art supply stores will gently cleanse particles of pigment that become trapped in the hairs or ferrule. 1.H A I R LINER: Very responsive oriental-style liner This to the touch. making rt ideally suited to Japanese painting and small-scale calligraphy. and has a fine tip for detailed work. 13. dense. needle-sharp center of kolinsky red sable hair. LARGER JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with natural hair held in a plastic ferrule on a bamboo handle. between them. 3. with a fine point for delicate work 4. It is still relatively small in the total range of Japanese brushes.


softness.246-47). unglazed earthenware dish. It also depends on the angle at w h i c h it is held. length. Here I drew with a soft Japanese painting brush (see pp. and above all w h e t h e r the b r u s h is saturated with pigment or relatively dry. I rubbed a block of Chinese ink (see p. splashes. SETTING UP Blowing spots T h e s e t h r e e s p i d e r y c r e a t u r e s (above right and below) w e r e m a d e by d r o p p i n g s p o t s o f ink f r o m a b r u s h o n t o t h e p a g e and. b l o w i n g h a r d o n t h e m several t i m e s t o disperse t h e ink ( c l o s e y o u r eyes if y o u t r y this. I had left the end of the ink block in the water overnight to make it easier to dissolve.35) into two tablespoons of water in a shallow.) I . w i t h m y face close. A single brush has almost balletic potential to draw fine or undulating lines and curves. the texture and a b s o r b e n c y of the paper ( w h i c h m a y be d a m p or dry).248 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brush Marks A S I N G L E BRUSH will m a k e an e n o r m o u s range of m a r k s depending u p o n the width. the speed of the s t r o k e . and type of its hairs. and spatters. the degree of pressure applied. and to make pools and stains o n the page.

b l e e d i n g f r o m strokes b e l o w left. . t h e effects of the b r u s h r u n n i n g o u t o f ink. a n d b r u s h .249 Gritty texture T h e details o f t h e largest creatures b e l o w and opposite s h o w the granular texture of Chinese b l o c k ink. BRUSH MARKS Wet and dry strokes A m o n g these concentrated drawings ink made into with the same w a t e r y lines. a n d t h e w a y it d i s t r i b u t e s w h e n t h e b r u s h is d a b b e d o n its s i d e . w e see fine lines and s p o t s .

. I borrowed small and fragile specimens from the University Museum of Natural History. and used their detail to draw new creatures that might at first seem familiar. Oxford.Monsters THESE LITTLE CREATURES o f i n k and i n v e n t i o n were b o r n out of animal and bird studies. until we look again.


formal composition. Goya often invented his monsters out of characters seen in other painters' works. Here. Isidore. . thin works titled The Witches' Sabbath and The Procession of St. Among his "Black Paintings" in the Prado Museum. Madrid. They are a pair and hang opposite each other. Goya's witches have been literally drawn and evolved out of the shapes of Murillo's prophet and pilgrims. and narrative twists. Through studying and drawing these great paintings I have discovered that they are based on a pair of similarly long. With further research. are two long. two of my own drawings show you how Goya's devil (below) is based on the shape of Murillo's boy on a horse (top right).Goya's Monsters W I T H CUNNING BRILLIANCE. thin works made by Bartolome Murillo in Seville about 120 years earlier. showing us that gallery study is not just for the student and beginner. I found relationships between all four paintings in terms of shapes.


drawn rapidly and with great joy. . little comments on politeness and sexual politics.Consumed THIS IS A SERIES OF CARTOONS I m a d e s o m e years ago. Sometimes drawings come out of nowhere and surprise even the artist.


256 GLOSSARY Glossary Accidental drawing Random.m a d e paper. written with a broad-nibbed pen o r brush. p r a c t i c e d meditatively w i t h a brush. Erasure T h e a c t o f r e m o v i n g a n i m a g e f r o m a surface. Chiaroscuro A 1 7 t h . It is p u t o n a Body color See Gouache. s u c h as a d r a w i n g o r painting. A l s o called r i n g l e t shading. Conservation grade D e s c r i b e s a range o f materials t h a t d o n o t d e c a y and cannot be broken d o w n by insects. o r will o n l y a p p e a r n o r m a l . t h e field is t h e a p p a r e n t a n d b e l i e v a b l e space inside t h e p i c t u r e . a r e r o l l e d t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders.m e d i a d r a w i n g .The plate is t h e n r o l l e d w i t h ink a n d polished with a rag. Composition T h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e p a r t s o f an i m a g e t o m a k e u p the whole. Blotting T h e use o f a b s o r b e n t m a t e r i a l t o lift a w a y excess liquid. Acid-free paper P a p e r w i t h a neutral p H t h a t will n o t darken o r d e t e r i o r a t e excessively w i t h age. pastel. r a t h e r t h a n r e c o r d e d o n a film o r plate. Air brush A mechanical. chance mark-making. m e a n i n g " t o stick" Dry media M e d i a t h a t a r e n o t w e t o r o i l y — f o r e x a m p l e . In t h e W e s t p e n calligraphy is u s e d t o c r e a t e f o r m a l a n d d e c o r a t i v e t e x t s . Binder A substance t h a t holds particles o f p i g m e n t t o g e t h e r in a paint f o r m u l a t i o n . t o g e t h e r w i t h a t h i c k felt b l a n k e t T h e w h o l e s a n d w i c h o f l a y e r s is t h e n railed t h r o u g h t h e press t o m a k e a p r i n t D r y p o i n t is a very portable and immediate m e t h o d o f printmaking. charcoal. W o r d s o r symbols are Cold-pressed papers P a p e r manufactured with a "not" o r " r o u g h " surface. Anamorphic distortion Stretching an i m a g e across a p i c t u r e surface so t h a t it can o n l y b e u n d e r s t o o d . Blending M e r g i n g t w o o r m o r e neighboring colors o r tones t o g e t h e r using a tortillon. Bracelet shading C u r v e d parallel lines t h a t f o l l o w t h e c o n t o u r s o f f o r m . p r i n t i n g press face up. T h e name " n o t " simply refers t o t h e fact t h a t t h e cylinders are n o t h o t in t e m p e r a t u r e . Deckle edge T h e i r r e g u l a r e d g e o f a s h e e t o f m o l d . A i r b r u s h e s are u s e d in t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c o m i c s . Camera obscura A d a r k e n e d c h a m b e r i n t o w h i c h an i m a g e o f w h a t is o u t s i d e is received t h r o u g h a small o p e n i n g o r lens a n d f o c u s e d in natural c o l o r o n a facing surface. and readymade objects arranged and stuck o n t o a flat surface. in w h i c h t h e subject's distinctive features o r peculiarities are deliberately exaggerated f o r c o m i c o r g r o t e s q u e effect. F r o m t h e French v e r b coller." D e s c r i b e s a p a i n t i n g in w h i c h t h e light s o u r c e is b e h i n d t h e s u b j e c t F o r e x a m p l e . so t h a t ink r e m a i n s o n l y in t h e g r o o v e s o f s c r a t c h e d lines. Calligraphy Beautiful h a n d w r i t i n g . 2. Fauvism A n early 2 0 t h . Collage C o l l e c t e d materials such as c o l o r e d p a p e r s . a n d given t h e n a m e Sho. tapestry. Camera lucida A n optical device t h a t p r o j e c t s an image o f an o b j e c t o n t o a plain s u r f a c e so t h a t it can be traced. o f t e n d i s t o r t e d forms and vivid colors. Field In a t w o . See also Hotpressed papers. Fixative Liquid acrylic resin a n d l a c q u e r t h i n n e r usually a p p l i e d as a n a e r o s o l s p r a y m i s t t o t h e surface o f a d r y . o r o t h e r (usually large) w o r k — s e e Pouncing." " N o t " p r e s s e d p a p e r is r o l l e d a s e c o n d t i m e w i t h o u t blankets t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders t o p r o d u c e a s m o o t h e r b u t still slightly t e x t u r e d s u r f a c e . It can also seal a silver p o i n t d r a w i n g t o p r e v e n t t h e oxidization (browning) o f t h e Drypoint A d r a w i n g is s c r a t c h e d directly o n t o a m e t a l plate w i t h a m e t a l t o o l h e l d like apen. F r o m t h e G r e e k kallos. as o p p o s e d t o t h e s t r a i g h t e d g e o f a sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has b e e n machine-trimmed. S o m e t i m e s f e r r u l e s a r e m a d e o f plastic o r o t h e r materials. Aerial perspective The effect of the a t m o s p h e r e o v e r distance as it lightens t o n e s a n d cools c o l o r s progressively t o w a r d t h e horizon. a n d attaches t h e m t o t h e s u p p o r t — f o r example. p h o t o g r a p h s . U s e d as a c o r r e c t i n g device o r pictorial game. A h u m o r o u s d r a w i n g o r parody. R o u g h p a p e r is m a d e b e t w e e n t w o blankets t h a t . Eye level T h e i m a g i n a r y h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e a t t h e s a m e h e i g h t as t h e a v e r a g e p e r s o n ' s eyes.c e n t u r y Italian t e r m m e a n i n g "clear-obscure.s i z e d r a w i n g m a d e for t h e purpose o f transferring a design t o a painting. m e a n i n g "beauty". pressurized t o o l used f o r spraying fine mists o f s m o o t h c o l o r P i g m e n t is d e l i v e r e d b y a j e t o f air n o t t h e bristles o f a brush. 2. A p o t e n t i a l l y h a r s h m e t h o d o f p r o d u c i n g t o n e s in a d r a w i n g . Contre jour A F r e n c h t e r m m e a n i n g " a g a i n s t day. A g e n e r a l t e r m t h a t describes t h e various processes o f c u t t i n g a design i n t o a plate o r b l o c k o f m e t a l o r w o o d . t h e l i g h t is b e h i n d h i m o r her.c e n t u r y painting m o v e m e n t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e use o f b o l d . Engraving 1. R e m b r a n d t is a great master o f chiaroscuro. Cartoon 1.d i m e n s i o n a l i m a g e . w h e n a p e r s o n is p a i n t e d standing a g a i n s t a w i n d o w . A l s o called m u s e u m g r a d e . usually at a n a c u t e angle t o t h e s u r f a c e . linseed oil o r egg y o l k Caricature A representation Contour line A line t h a t f o l l o w s t h e s h a p e o f a surface. w h e n v i e w e d f r o m a specified point. s u c h as a s c r e e n . Crosshatching Parallel lines d r a w n across o n e a n o t h e r at right angles. D a m p p a p e r is laid o n t o p ." It w a s first given t o t o n a l paintings m a d e in o n e c o l o r — s e e Grisaille. In t h e Far East calligraphy is a highly r e s p e c t e d a r t f o r m . in w h i c h parts o f an image are depicted v e r y brightly and dramatically against d a r k n e s s . A " s h a l l o w d e p t h o f field" m e a n s t h e p i c t u r e appears t o have only a shallow s p a c e inside i t Diffuse T o s o f t e n o r m a k e less brilliant. T h e prints t a k e n from t h e s e plates o r blocks. T h e b l a n k e t s g i v e t h e p a p e r its rough texture o r "tooth. C o p p e r p l a t e engravings w e r e widely used t o r e p r o d u c e images b e f o r e p h o t o g r a p h y . Fixative lightly glues t h e d r a w i n g t o t h e surface o f t h e p a p e r t o p r e v e n t smudging. L a t e r it c a m e t o m e a n h i g h l y c o n t r a s t e d light effects. n e w s p a p e r cuttings. T h e m o v e m e n t was started by a g r o u p o f French artists including H e n r i Matisse. for example. A l s o c a l l e d t h e h o r i z o n line. Bleed T h e e f f e c t o f t w o w e t colors running into one another o r o n e color applied t o a w e t surface a n d a l l o w e d t o d i s p e r s e . Also called accelerated perspective. A f u l l . a n d g r a p h i t e . Ferrule T h e s h o r t m e t a l t u b e t h a t s u r r o u n d s a n d g n p s t h e hairs o f a p a i n t b r u s h a n d fixes t h e m t o t h e brush handle.

Negative space The space between things. Fugitive A term given to a pigment that it is not stable. Grisaille is occasionally seen in church stained-glass windows. multiH u e A term for a color. to describe a surface to which paint will adhere readily. Lithography A method of printmaking in which a drawing or painting is made directly onto a smooth slab of particular limestone or a metal plate using an oilbased crayon or ink. so that (using vanishing point perspective) the object appears to change shape and become narrower or smaller as it recedes. Papercut A type of collage in which flat sheets of paper are cut into an image. 2. Plumb line A line from which a weight is suspended in order to determine verticality or depth. Grisaille A painting in gray or a grayish color Often made by students as a tonal exercise. It is a strong adhesive. oil-. lifting out charcoal and other dry media. This may be disregarded in real life. and orientation of the image. with the area beneath remaining unaffected. It is then peeled away. or synthetic material that are suspended in a medium to constitute paint.while secretion of the acacia tree. sticky paper tape. format" (abbreviated to "portrait"). the finely ground particles of plant. which give it a smooth surface (as opposed to cold-pressed paper. or for wrapping and protecting a finished piece of work. or a drawing made in any single color GLOSSARY Linear perspective A form of perspective in which parallel lines are represented as converging. or can be otherwise used to create an image—for example. to give the illusion of depth and distance. the surface of the stone is made wet before being rolled with a thin film of oilbased printing ink. Paper is then pressed against the stone to take a print. oil-based printing ink is rolled evenly onto a smooth metal. Medium A generic term for art Key A painting is said to be "high key" when the colors and tones are bright and "low key" when they are dark or somber The term is also used Gouache Opaque watercolor Also called body color. which has a rough surface). purpose. Masking fluid Clear or opaque latex fluid developed for watercolor painting. including Max Ernst used frottage in their work. F o r m a t T h e size. glossy. used for fixing paper to walls and boards. After several intervening processes. Usually an academic drawing observed from life. work. . Ground A wet solution usually of gouache or gesso (chalk and animal glue) brushed onto paper board. A point of interest in a drawing. Foreshortening A method of depicting an object at an angle to the surface of the picture. It improves the bonding properties Frottage A French term meaning "rubbing. Rubens used grisaille to paint small images for engravers. of the ingredients in inks and watercolors. it is the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work Pigment Any substance used as a coloring agent—for example. Focus 1 . Artists can paint freely over dry masking fluid. and gray drawing. aiming to represent facts rather than an interpretation of the subject. Picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. or canvas and allowed to dry before an image is drawn or painted. This effect emulates what we see in real life. upright images are called "portrait which is used as a binding agent in many liquid media. Giotto's Virtues and Vices in the Arena Chapel. then rubbed over carefully but vigorously with a crayon. and by artists representing stone sculptures in a painting. or even a beam of light. or a family of colors. mineral. Lifting out A method of creating highlights and mid-tones in a drymedia drawing (such as charcoal or graphite). cadmium yellow hue. but in picture-making it is as important as the objects/subjects themselves. It can be used with any wet media to isolate or protect parts of an image from further Optical blending See Pointillism. and masking off areas of a drawing that the artist wishes to keep untouched by media applied above or beside the tape. and it has a history in enamel work. graphite. Hot-pressed papers (HP) Paper made using hot cylinders. enabling them to stick to paper It also helps to maintain a stable dispersion of pigment particles in water as the film of a wash dries. Paper is laid on top and a rapid drawing is made on the back of it The paper lifts away to reveal the image on its other side. rock. Pointillism A technique of using points or dots of pure color in such a way that when the picture is viewed from a distance they react Masking tape Invaluable. This method incorporates the excitement of accidental and unpredicted marks. and is also used as a size. Also used by artists' materials manufacturers to indicate the use of a substitute pigment—for example. Also refers to an additive used to control the application properties of a color Golden Section A proportion in which a straight line or rectangle is divided into two unequal parts in such a way that the ratio of the smaller part to the greater part is the same as that of the greater part to the whole. but each print will be unique. glass. The surface can be reloaded or redrawn with more medium.The paper then bears a crayon impression or copy of the surface that was underneath it A number of Surrealists. The ink attaches to the oil-based image and is repelled by the wet stone. Hairspray is an effective and inexpensive alternative. Objective drawing Refers to the concept of objectivity. or plastic surface. are painted in grisaille and appear to be made of stone. Alternatively. Lightfast A term confirming that pigment in the product will not fade with exposure to light. Gamut A complete range or extent Glassine A type of thin. and translucent paper—a delicate material used in collage.The degree to which detail is defined.257 metal line. Monochrome Usually refers to a black. or spirit-based) is applied to a surface that is then pressed onto paper and removed to leave a print. Impressing Stamping or printing. shape. white. A small image might be described as small format Horizontal images are often said to be "landscape format" (abbreviated G u m arabic The natural to"landscape")." A piece of paper is placed on top of an object or rough surface. F o r m The outer surface of a three-dimensional object. Monoprinting A direct method of printing in which wet medium (water-. Dark tones are laid down first then an eraser or masking tape is used to lift away particles of the drawing media to reveal the lightness of the paper beneath. ink. Hatching (cross-) See Crosshatching. Padua. pastel. and that will "escape" or change over time. materials that produce marks on a surface.Theground provides a particular color or texture beneath the image.

commonly referred to as the lead. in tone running from black to white or vice versa. a point at which receding parallel lines meet Verso The back or underside of a piece of paper. or pen. sometimes drawn from a and leaving only the pricked sheet of shadow cast on a wall. watercolor. Tortillon A short. which are then called editions. meaning objects used in setting up a life model or still life. Shade A that is color mixed (or toned) with black Shading A lay term for adding tone to a drawing. acrylic. or point on which parallel lines converge to give the impression of receding space. carbon ink. Scale Describes the size of one element in relation to another Sepia A brown pigment taken from the sun-dried ink sacs of cuttlefish and used to make ink or watercolor The term is now often incorrectly used to refer to brown colors. Artists' prints are normally made in multiple. and flowers. Strip Core of a pencil. Wash A technique using ink. Volume The amount of space occupied by an object or an area of space in itself. an ink stone usually cut from slate. pointed roll of white paper that is used to blend dry media. Still life A picture composed of inanimate objects such as bowls. Printmaking The act of making a picture. fruit." Applied to the blurring or softening of sharp outlines by the subtle and gradual blending of one tone into another Sgraffito A technique of scratching or cutting through a surface of paint. The crude material is called oleoresin. compound of water-soluble pigment. or the right-hand page in a book. Turpentine A colorless solvent distilled from the resinous sap of pine trees. or the left-hand page in a book. and chrysanthemum—which in Chinese tradition are called "The Four Gentlemen.Technicaldrawing has been example. Single-point perspective The most basic form of linear perspective in which there is only one vanishing point. Zen brushwork This is an oriental meditative art form originating in China and practised for many centuries in Japan. pointed instrument used for marking or engraving. Props An abbreviation of the word properties. evolved by engineers and architects for the purpose of conveying W a t e r c o l o r A painting accurate structural information. Spattering A mottled texture produced by drawing your fingers across the bristles of a stiff brush loaded with pigment. . "Spirits" or "oil" of turpentine refer to the volatile portion used by artists to thin or dilute oil-based paint. Viewpoint The position from which something is observed or considered. tight. usually diluted with water and applied with a brush. paper or canvas. Tone A degree of lightness or darkness. Serigraphy Silk-screen printing. Stippling Applying color or tone in areas of fine dots or flecks. pencil." Materials for Zen brushwork include round brushes of varied size. Alternatively. Recto The front or top side of a piece of paper. Named paper in place. and paperweights. Although drawings can be made with wash alone. a tightly folded piece of cotton batting can be used for the same effect. plaster or cloth surface beneath. Support The structure on which an image is made—for example. giving it a brilliance. or watercolor paint. fine paper. Subjective drawing A drawing that expresses the personal view and interpretation of the artist An invented image. A term borrowed from the theater. Underdrawing A pale preliminary drawing made prior to adding layers of another medium such as oil paint or watercolor Value The extent to which a color reflects or transmits light This is the equivalent of tone in a black and white image. Pouncing If a large drawing or design (called a cartoon) is to be Shadow Darkness cast by the transferred to a surface such as a obscuring of light. cut-out profile made along every outline of the usually made in black paper image. or ceramic glazing to reveal a different color beneath. Pounce (a fine for an unpopular 18th-century powder of charcoal or similar French politician. a sheet of paper is placed beneath and pinpricks are Silhouette A flat. plaster. or any physical object that can be stamped or pressed onto a surface to leave an impression. in order to flick the pigment onto the image surface. Zen brushwork encompasses calligraphy and painting. orchids. Sfumato An Italian term meaning "smoky. wall or tapestry. W e t media Any liquid media— for example.258 GLOSSARY together optically. by imposing a grid that is then scaled up to a larger size. Squeegee A rubber-trimmed scraper used in the screenprinting process for dragging ink across a surface. design. glasses. Vanishing point In linear perspective. plum blossom. Etienne de material) dabbed through the Silhouette (1709-67). or gouache. Squaring up A method of enlarging and transferring an image from one surface to another. Zen paintings usually depict scenes of nature and plants such as bamboo. using a brush. to model areas of light and shade. nature of watercolor allows the white surface of the paper to Tonal scale A scale of gradations shine through. Sketch A quick or rough drawing. Technical drawing A universal it is often used in conjunction language of lines and measurements with line drawings in pen and that is used to make diagrammatic ink—for images. creating more vibrant effects than if the same colors were physically mixed together with a brush. Zen A school of Mahayana Buddhism that asserts that enlightenment can come through meditation and intuition rather than faith. ink. The translucent Tint A color mixed with white. such as an inscribed sheet of metal. or wood. Stylus A sharp. Size A weak glue used for filling the porous surface of wood or canvas in order to seal it. or mark using an inked or pigment-covered surface. whose pinpricks creates a "connect-thepersonal pastime was making dots" replica of the image on the cut-out portraits.Thedrawing is removed.

163 dry media 205 Blue Nude (Matisse) 110. to draw 25.184. 221 animals. 242 to blend 205 compressed 122. 190 Caricature of a Woman (Daumier) 198.133. 206 checkered floor 80.31 Picasso's horse and bird 30. 74. 199 Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya (Eisen) 156. 250 Bishndas and Nanha: Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity 50. Filippo 67. 134 costume(s) 155 character 158-159 structure of 166-167 Cottage Among Trees (Rembrandt) 52. cut Catling. 13. to draw 80. William: The Circle of the Lustful 180. 9 Chair (Van Gogh) 94. 165. 74 brush (es) 246-247 Japanese 248 for laying a wash 140 marks 248-249 to hold 23 brush drawings 14-15 Bryan.27 turtles 42-43 aquatint 240 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels (Leonardo) 12. 241 action. 201 collage 111. (Ross-Craig) 49 to hold brush for 23 caricature 159. 182. 9.100 curves.44-45 bird studies 12. 161 Akhlaq-I Rasul Allah manuscript 51. 230-231 Cubist 90. 94 chalk(s) 53. Basilius 47 Beuys. 70 Art Nouveau motifs 91 Autoportrait (Ray) 138. 203 Claude Lorrain 202 Views from Velletri 202. Victor: West Facade of the Church of St. 205 Baltard. 198 cartoon (preparatory drawing) 137 (satirical) 159. 186 charcoal 114. Georges 67.117 Achilles Chases Hector (Thomas) 240. 203 Landline 202.50. to express 39. 90. 200 Bauer.184. to draw 100 Cypripedium calceolus L. 30 sleeping dog 38-39 Stubbs's horse skeleton 26. to model 110-111 border 51 Bosch.212 to erase 205 to hold 23 pencils 204 willow 114.44-45. 137 Besler. Zen c 232-233 blended 133. 8 cave paintings 8. Leon: Bacchante 155 balance. 220. 223 Circular Score for "Due Voce" 223 children's art 9.163 graded 227 composition 56-57. 243 botanical drawing 48-49 Boullee.89.13. Statue d'Epouvante 90 calligraphy. 75. 38-39.162 Conte. 71 Bacchante (Bakst) 155 background: color 91 textured 240 Baker Matthew: Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry 32 Bakst. 78 aerial perspective 206 airbrushing 160. 71 conte 112. 244 and graphite 178 . 111. 90 colored materials 162-163 colored pencils 162. 74. 244 head and neck 144 phrased 124-125 contrast: brightness 99 of media 30 tonal 96. Hieronymus 243 Two Monsters 242. Jean Michel 138 Self-Portrait 138 Bateau-Vision. 98. 160 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object (Moore) 178. 52 cotton swabs 205 Coup de Vent a Asajigabare (Hokusai) 198. 29 Hugo's octopus 28.169 colors: airbrushed 161 background 91 A Abe. 139 Nanha) 50. 230 The Physical Space 220 abstract drawing 219. 206. 222. Mamaru 104. 189.226. 41 principal 186. 133.115 anatomical drawing 134-135 anatomical theaters 82-83 anatomical waxes 128 ancient carvings 221. 158. 193 in lifting out 204. 71 Blake. Nicolas-Jacques 54 contours 146. 128. Brian 226 Untitled 2001 226 "Cave of the Hands" (Cueva de las Manas) 8. 247-248 carving see lines. Etienne-Louis 72 Newton's Cenotaph 72. 72 bracelet shading 122 Braque.163 body. 95 Chair Cut Out (Woodfine) 94. Giovanni 137 Head and Shoulders of a Man 136. 90 La Guitare. 203 Buffalo Hunt (Shoshone) 178. 90. 94 cylindrical objects.198. 242 Brunelleschi.51 All and Nothing (Taylor) 114. 226-227 Acanthus spinosus 65 accelerated perspective 22. Franz 48 Protea nitida 48 Bellini. 157 cropping 56-57. layers 53 chalk pastels 162. 28 Klee's horses 30. 50. to depict 156-157 Cloudburst of Material Possessions (Leonardo) 200. 81 cut-out model plan 94. 180 blending: color 133.Index Page numbers in italics refer t o captions and illustrations Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity (Bishndas and 259 INDEX B bread (as eraser) 205.186 see also movement Adoration of the Magi perspective study (Leonardo) 74. 116. 40-41 Durer's rhinoceros 26. Joseph 113 The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland 112. 179 Bussotti. 75 Circle of the Lustful (Blake) 180. Le (Hugo) 200. center of 118 ballpoint 182. 81 135. Augustin 67 Basquiat. 178 Cubism 67. 204-205. 113 bird bones 12. 198. Clare 203 City 202. 162 character: to capture 38-39. Sylvano 222. 180 Circular Score for "Due Voce" (Bussotti) 223 circus scenes 192-195 City (Bryan) 202. 202 cloth. 163. 13 architectural drawing 67-71 Arctic Flowers (Libeskind) 70. 26 geese 38-39 Gericault's cats 28. 204.

position of 22 Eisen. Alberto 136 Portrait of Marie-Laure de Noailles 136. 69. 93 horizon 52.115 exploratory 17 fantasy 72-73. 223.252-253 from memory 183. 162 Flaxman. 134. M. 226-227 anatomical 134-135 architectural 67-71 botanical 48-49 brush 14-15 dark to light 102. to suggest 177 see also perspective diagonals diffuser 55 dip pens 34.117 fountain pens 34. Cheval et Oiseau (Picasso) 30.184 165. 32 framing 139 Franfoise au Bandeau (Picasso) 132. fiber-tip pen 182. Antonio 135 Muscles of the Head and Neck 134. drypoint 181 exaggeration 184 expressionism 198 E ye and Head of a Drone Fly (Hooke) 92. 202.216 Durelli. 161 fashion drawings 160.109 Rhinoceros 26. 71 minimal line 99 and music 70-71 quick 38-39. 190 Middle Eastern 50-51. 125.112.189. to draw 120. 132 Frenz. 113. 93 eye level 80 Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity. 99 etching. 120. 25 focus 65. 122. 55. 136 Golden Section 67 Gombrich. Oona 245 How Clever of God #84 244. 30 Fauves/fauvism 90.157 ellipses 100. 91 Dragon (Michelangelo) 36. 55.John 157 Man Lying Down in a Cloak 156. 90 gouache 30. 203 Hotel de la Suzonnieres (Satie) 70. Rene 160 Illustration for Jacques Fath E easel. 222. 161 changing 216 Focusing on the Negative (Walter) 16 foliage 52.97. 41 in the round 208-209 with scalpel 202. 79. 799 Holbein. 765 hitsuzendo drawings 233 Hokusai. 144 Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (Baker) 32. position of 143. to draw 168-169 in Goya's artworks face. 223 graphite 54. Antonio 68. 73. La (Braque) 90.69 Gerard. 7 33 Hooke.144 and ink 30. 241 to blend 205 and chalk 178 and ink 28.160. 131 Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 240. 69 Guitare. Hans 133 The Ambassadors 116 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 132. 112. Victor 200. 160 hitsuzendo 233 light to dark 102. to draw 78. 104-105.160. 245 Hugo. 77 How Clever of God #84 244. 137 heads. 245 Gruau. 216 foreshortening 110. 200 F fabric. 134. C . 90 G Gaudi.Theodore 29 Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 28.111 feet.146 from masterworks 126-127. 222 Grimes. 160 as ground for metal point 140. 163. The 242. 37 Grandville 243 A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the Near-Microscopic World of Scale Insects 242. 115 Escher.37. Study for Plate 59 (Mucha) 90.260 INDEX D Dada 139 Daumien Honore 198 Caricature of a Woman 198. Sir Ernst 12. Jean Ignace Isidore see Grandville Gericault.116.141. 124. 163. 134. 161 fashion 160.121 felt-tip pens 162.198 Degas.104.102-103 drawing board 20 drawing books 20-21 drawing paper 144. Robert 93 Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 92. 69. Katsushika 199 Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 198. 243 graphic score 222. 160 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction (Gaudi) 68. 157 . Nicholas 68 St Paul's Baptistry 68 head and neck to draw 142-145 Head and Shoulders of a Man (Bellini) 136.103. 252 depiction of fabric monsters 252-253 Self Portrait in a Cocked Hat 130.91. disposable pens 182-183 dissections: botanical 48 of horse 27 distance: illusion of see perspective linear 97 tonal 97 Documents Decoratifs.141. 52 foreground 208. 205 drawing with 103.230 three-tone 140. 230 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction 68. 135 Duren Albrecht 26. 55.12 fixative 54. Statue d'Epouvante. Edgar 162 depth. 170-173. 242 eyes.166 170-173 Gestalt 222 Giacometti.207. 222 Le Bateau-Vision 200. Francisco de 131. 160 Faune. to draw 134-137 Helleborus corsicus 55 highlights 91. 220 dry brush 234 234 57.216. Keisai 157 The Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya 156. proportions of 143 fantasy drawings 72-73. 26 Flying Fish (White) 25. 240 170-173 five Ships in a Port with Lighthouse (Wallis) 11. 29 H hands. 203 semi-abstract 234-237 three-dimensional 68. 40. 240.101 engraving 243 erasers/erasing 55.244 drawing(s): abstract 219. 245 layers 30 Goya. 122 Hawksmoor.244. 141 tonal 96. 69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt 68. 240 Black Paintings 152.103 with eraser 103. Ron 161 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 161 160.

220. 34.96. 63. 73 Michelangelo Buonarroti 48. 789. 221 endless 31 free 113. 36. 185 Mucha. Florence 128 lighting in 167 Pitt Rivers. 201 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels 12.167 line(s) 132. Oxford 106 Prado. 176. 220. Paul 227 Polyphonic Setting for White 226. drawing from 183. 244 ink 36 252-253 Documents Decoratifs 90. 170-173.182 Moore.166 La Specola. 203. 166.109. 33 J justness 228-229 N naive art 74 negative space 53.181 L Landline (Bryan) 202. 97 Murillo. 230 invented creatures 106-107 250-251 invented objects 89.The (Robinson) 108.91 Study for Plate 59 of INDEX illumination see lighting Illustration for Jacques Fath (Gruau) 160. 31 Klimt. 114 hatched 244 layered 118 pace of 65 pale 40 rapid 49.112. 49 Rose 49 Maelbeke Madonna (Van Eyck) 156. Madrid 171 University Museum of Natural History. 58-59. 156 magnification 93 Man in Armor (Van Dyck) 158. drawing from 126-127. 242 light 96 to depict drawing with 1 76 painting with 176 . 177 influences. 220.141 Metropolis (film) 72. 77 Miller. 83 white 122 ink impressions 222 ink spatters 234 installations 176. 234 iron-gall 35. Daniel 70 Arctic Flowers 70 Lieb. Victor 134 Profile Head 134. 244 lithograph 198 Losbruch (Kollwitz) 180. 227 Newsome. 178 motifs: A r t Nouveau 9 7 stylized 51 mountains 216-217 movement: of animals 30-31 of humans 7 79. 249 and gouache 30 Indian 35.Pieuvre (Octopus) 28. 13 Cloudburst of Material Possessions 200. 205 masterworks.115 98. Henry 178 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object 178. 159 Japanese 35 to make 36 sepia 35 walnut 36. Matisse. 248.141.134 K Kettlehut. 76 Libeskind. 34-35 acrylic 35 bistre 35. 72. 756 priming for 140. 163 pens 36 measuring 116 memory. 183 vertical 156 linear distance 97 linear perspective 69. Johan 32. 226 Modernism 67. 54 silver point 156 leg sections 158 length. 28 Two Impressions from a Cut-out Paper Disk 222 Huyler Stephen R 225 261 Kinecar. Phyll: hands 18 lifting out 204. 111. 227 Scene of Comical Riders 30. Rose: Tantalus or the Future of Man 20 minimal line drawing 99 mirror use of 120 mixed media 28. 99. Marie 244 cloth drawing 244. 135 museums 44. 37 lines 118 pastel 162 pencil 31. 201 head and neck sections of female mold for Sforza Horse 89 Madonna of the Rocks 244 perspective study for Adoration of the Magi 74. 74-77. 78 Study ofThree Male Figures 110. 160 In the Duchess's Kitchen (Rackham) 176. Charles Rennie 48. Oxford 250 music 70-71 Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks (Knopf) 32.33 Mysterious Affairs of the lighting 2 7. Alphonse 90. 35. 219 Mondrian. Bartolome: Moses Striking the Rock ofHoreb 252. 53 Tree II 52. 103 Neolithic chalk tablet 220. 244. 73 Kigell. 757 mandalas 219. Kathe 181 Losbrunch (The Outbreak) 180.276. Gustav 49 Knopf. apparent 97 Leonardo da Vinci 74. 244 Dragon 36. 110 Sistine Chapel ceiling 116 Middle Eastern drawing 50-51.124. artistic 240-241.104. 205.243 carbon 35 Chinese 30. Piet 52. 252 ink 16.120.109. 181 luminosity 115 Lynch.227 to "bend" straight 97 compositional 228-229 cut 202. David 78 M Mackintosh. 252 Muscles of the Head and Neck (Durelli) 134. Henri 111 Blue Nude 1110. 158 Man Lying Down in a Cloak (Flaxman) 156. 53 monoprint 787. Erich 73 design for Metropolis 72. 203 landscape 206-208 brushed 14 Landscape in Hoboku Style (Sesshu) 14 layers 146 chalk 53 gouache 30 ink 28. 184. I Murderous Attacks 33 Kollwitz. 181 Klee.102. 60. 190 metal pens see dip pens metal point 25. 220. 225 masking tape 204.

76-79. 9 0 . Peter Paul 126-127 Embracing pose(s): balanced 146 quick 118-119 positive form 103 posture: of artist 22 of subject 3 8 . 1 1 6 . Isaac 92 Telescope 92 Newton's Cenotaph (Boullee) 72. 732 influence of 240 painting with light 78. 165 figure 118 filled 37 pencil 48. 7 76 receding space 206 Redon. 165. 68 Satie. 52 pens 36 scalpel 54 drawing with 202. 203 Scene of Comical Riders (Klee) 30. 181 Rodin. Sue 104. 772 234-237 Sesshu. 26 Riley. 36. 9 8 . 1 6 3 .71 Hotel de la Suzonnieres 70.40. Bridget 98 Robinson. 1 6 9 to hold 2 2 . 244 Q s Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape (Wolfli) 2 79 St. J 76 nudes 114-115 to make 36 metal see dip quill 34. 141 Piranesi. 7 38 Ray 138.7 77 rapidograph 70 Raphael 110. 164. Man 131. 163.141 prints/printing: aquatint 240 dry-point etching 181 engraving 243 monoprint 181. 1 1 6 accelerated 2 2 . 139 Real Life is Rubbish (Noble and Webster) 176.37 scientific instruments 9 2 . 1 3 2 quill pens 34. 36. Faune.226.Paul'sBaptistry (Hawksmoor) 68. 7 70 Ray. Erik 70.262 INDEX Newton. 97. Odilon 242 The Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity 242. 36.104 Pieuvre (Hugo) 28. 227 portfolios 20 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser de Noailles (Holbein) 132. 74.184 fountain 34. 28 pigment 162 bright 50 Caput Mortuum 7 4 7 for three-tone drawing 141. 241 Physical Space. 161. 159. Cheval et Oiseau 30. 122. 244 reed 34. 736 portraits. 224 0 layers 31. 37 38. 75 Two Courtyards 75. 30 Fran<. Russell 228. 166 fiber-tip 782.52 pen and wash 158. 733 Portrait de Marie-Laure (Giacometti) 136. 181 pencil(s) 54 charcoal 204 colored 762. Giovanni Battista 74.Tim. 205 pointillism 112 polyphonic painting 227 Polyphonic Setting for White (Klee) 226. 4 8 putty eraser 55. 219.36. and Webster. 91 outsider artists 33. 36.131 Cottage Among Trees 52. 7 77 three-point 80. Paul 73 Nobson Central 72.2 3 age and youth sleeping subjects 148-149 150-151 Renaissance 109 Rhinoceros (Durer) 26. Arthur 177 In the Duchess's Kitchen 176. 34-35. 212 Japanese 2 1 . 57 Ross-Craig. 36 relief printing 757 Rembrandt van Rijn 52. 38.199 Profile Head (Newsome) oil pastels 162. 1 1 7 aerial 206 linear 69. 782 relief 757 silk-screen 739 woodblock 134. 759 P Page. 1 2 4 priming for metal point 140.176 Real Life Is Rubbish 176.9 3 Schongauer. Auguste 114 Two Women 114.759.54 pastel 162 perspective 1 0 0 . Georges 112 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 112.Toyo: Landscape in Hoboku . to draw 146-147 R Rackham.37. 73 Noble. Pablo 6 7 . 205 157.240. 230 parallel planes 79 Parisian street 86-87 pastels 162 to blend 205 to hold 23 layers 162 pencils 162 pen(s): dip 34 . Heath 181 The Kinecar 180. 2 2 0 for oil pastels 162 stained 230 to stretch 140-141 tissue 21. 234 disposable 182-183 felt-tip 162. 7 72 Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland.139 Autoportrait 138.oise au Bandeau 132. 739 semi-abstract drawings Style 14 Seurat. 36. 71 Satire of the Queen's Dress (Wodall) 158. 734 Protea nitida (Bauer) 48. 40-41. 4 9 Rose of Mohammed 50. 162 O p A r t 98 optical illusions 96-99 outline 33. 216.The (Beuys) 112. 230 paper(s) 21 colored 162 drawing 144. 239 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat (Seurat) 112. Martin 238. 114 rollerball 182 Rorschach blot 99 Rose (Mackintosh) 48. 243. 78 single-point 74. 76 plastic eraser 55. 243. 38. 72 Noble. 74-77. 242 reed pens 34. 160. 103. 36 pen and brush 8 3 pen and ink 70. 7 73 self-portraits: Basquiat 138. 81 two-point 74. 75 Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range 241 petroglyphs 221.37. 239 Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 238. Stella 48 Cypripedium calceolus L 49 rotated view 7 65 Rubens. The (Abe) 220 Picasso.

drawing with 104-105 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt ( G a u d i ) 68. C y 138. 102-103 tonal marks. 743 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City ( F r e n z ) 1 6 0 . W . 2 2 0 influence o f 2 4 0 Untitled 220.241 s i l k . 9 0 . 6 9 Wodall. 115. John 25 Flying Fish 25 Wild Striped Cat Sketches of ( G e r i c a u l t ) 28.1 6 5 shorthand diagram 142 Shoshone buffalo hide painting 178. 75. 1 4 1 w a t e r c o l o r 25.9 1 storms.1 8 5 Tree II ( M o n d r i a n ) 52. phrased 146 tonal modeling 161 tonal range 169 t o n a l surfaces 2 2 7 tonal width 97 t o n e ( s ) 33. 1 4 5 travel journal 2 0 . 69. 156 layers 7 5 6 priming for 140. 7 6 1 spots. t o d r a w 5 2 .41. A l f r e d 1 1 . 2 1 2 . 7 77. 141 Three Male Figures. 4 4 boat 209 botanical 4 9 G e r i c a u l t ' s cats 2 9 from Goya 170-173 125. 2 4 7 t h r e e . 245 sharpener 54 Ship in a Storm ( T u r n e r ) 1 9 8 . Paul 2 4 1 Achilles Chases Hector 2 4 0 .120. 9 5 pens 36 v a n i s h i n g p o i n t 74. 1 7 7 free 8 0 V e n i c e .1 4 5 .199 tissue p a p e r 21. 2 2 6 . 230 t h r e e . 2 3 0 tonal contrast 96 tonal distance 9 7 t o n a l d r a w i n g 9 6 . Man in Armor 1 5 8 . 2 7 studies: b i r d s 7 2 . 1 8 4 . 249 t o describe 39. 1 4 4 .12 W a l t e r . 1 9 9 Two Courtyards (Piranesi) 75. 7 9 0 vessels. 241. William 159 Satire of the Queen's Dress INDEX 226.1 0 5 vision 9 6 Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects (Grandville) 242. 2 2 7 Untitled 2001 ( C a t l i n g ) u 263 W h i t e . 199 shoes 1 6 4 . b l o w n 248 steel p e n s see d i p p e n s still life 89.J. 9 4 z Z e n calligraphy 232-233 contrast 96 t o grade 163 ink 37 pencil 5 4 t o r t i l l o n 205 T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c . 199. 1 6 . 7 1 4 . 75 Skeleton of the Horse ( S t u b b s ) 26. 69. 97. 77. 202 violin. Jan 1 5 6 Maelbeke Madonna 1 5 6 . 174 T w o m b l y . 1 4 0 . 2 3 4 . t o lay 1 4 0 . Vincent 95 Chair 94. 74.d i m e n s i o n a l d r a w i n g 68.s c r e e n p r i n t i n g 139 silver p o i n t 1 4 0 . 96. 243 (Bosch) T Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos ( G o y a ) 2 4 0 . Adolf: Giant-Grape Saint-Mary-Castle 219 Woman at Her Toilet ( T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c ) 74 w o o d b l o c k print 157.d i m e n s i o n a l 1 0 4 . v i e w s o f 85. 226 V Van Dyck. 7 70 Tiber 214-215 Untitled ( T w o m b l y ) 2 2 0 . h e a d a n d n e c k sections o f female m o l d f o r (Leonardo) 89 shading 2 9 s h a d o w s 28. 1 4 1 .27 skull 747. 2 9 wind. 7 75 Telescope ( N e w t o n ) 9 2 . 2 4 2 w Wallis. 76. 221 . 7 79 Shoshone petroglyph 240. 1 3 . 9 2 Tesshu. A n t h o n y 152.Yamaoka 233 t e x t u r e 2 2 2 . Sue see N o b l e . John: Focusing on the Negative 14 w a s h . 158 V a n Eyck. 49. 1 2 Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse 71. t o d r a w 2 0 0 . 725 fabric 1 6 8 T h o m a s . Sarah 9 4 Chair Cut Out 94.158 158.243 Leonardo's machines 12.t o n e d r a w i n g 140. Augustin ( B a l t a r d ) 6 7 w e t and dry brush-strokes 2 4 9 Turner. H e n r i de: Woman at Her Toilet 14 t r a n s p a r e n t v i e w 92.216 W e b s t e r .Sforza Horse. 2 0 0 Ship in a Storm 1 9 8 . 7 6 Two Impressions from a Cut-Out Paper Disk ( H u g o ) 2 2 2 Two Monsters 2 4 2 . Study of (Michelangelo) 110. G e o r g e 2 7 Skeleton of the Horse 26.1 4 1 . 1 8 4 . 53 trees. 164. 57.1 9 9 wire.2 0 1 . 1 9 9 . Sarah: child's m a p 75. 182. t o draw 1 9 8 . 240 Two Women Embracing ( R o d i n ) 114.5 3 in l a n d s c a p e 2 0 6 . 1 6 6 t r a p e z i u s m u s c l e 142. 186.141 S i m b l e t . t o d r a w 1 0 1 viewfinder 57 Views from Velletri ( C l a u d e L o r r a i n ) 152.13 M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s m a l e figures 110.2 1 3 Stubbs. 206-207 202. 2 4 4 . Taylor A n i t a 115 All and Nothing 1 1 4 . M . T i m W e s t Fagade of the Church of St. t h r e e . 156 Van Gogh. 161. 79. 65 symbols 138.125 W o o d f i n e . 104-105. 170 shoes 1 6 4 stylized m o t i f 51 Summer Flowers 63. 159 Wolfli.

uk/British Museum. Antonia Cunliffe Davis. London/Bequeathed by Charles Landseer. 2 8 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. 139: Galerie Marion Meyer/© Man Ray Trust / A D A G P . Sammy De Grave. Germany. 1929 (29. 243: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. Sarah D u n c a n . Staatliche Museen z u Berlin. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin/Jorg P. H e l e n S h u t t l e w o r t h . 3 3 : Prinzhom Collection. 1 3 6 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Centre Pompidou-MNAM-CCI. for s u p p l y i n g the d r a w i n g books. 13: www./Galerie Sylvie Nissen. A n n a P l u c i n s k a .co. Paris/ © Succession Picasso / D A C S 2005. 4 6 : B r i t i s h Library. 1 3 5 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. 2 4 2 : Photo Scala.Strang Print Room ( b ) . 132: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. 1 5 4 : akg-images/Musee National d'Art Moderne. 1901. 2 0 2 : © T h e British Museum. Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (t). Fund. 179: www. Orientabteilung/Ruth Schacht. K u n s t m u s e u m . Paris. Pamela Ellis for compiling the index. 5 3 : Collection of the Gemeentemuseum D e n Haag/Mondrian Trust. 2 0 1 : T h e Royal Collection © 2 0 0 2 H e r Majesty Queen Elizabeth I I . 88: www. A n d y C r a w f o r d for p h o t o g r a p h y a n d L . G i n a R o w l a n d . 221: Gagosian Gallery/Private Collection (b). Corporation of London. Paris. Paula Regan. 2 4 5 : Oona Grimes.100. Paris. Andy Crawford. (r). 174: Artothek/Munich. A . Carole A s h .co.r. 1 6 0 : Rene G R U A U s. 1 9 8 : Dover Publications. and Tamsin Woodward Smith. 4 8 : T h e N a t u r a l H i s t o r y M u s e u m . 158: Calouste Gulbenkian Museum. London/courtesy of Stuart Shave. University of Cambridge. B M G . H . S i m o n L e w i s . Magdalene College Cambridge.bridgeman. K u n s t m u s e u m Bern/© D A C S 2 0 0 5 . Florence/MoMA. O o n a G r i m e s . T o n y G r i s o n i . G e r m a n y . 176: Modem London 2005. Japan. L o n d o n . K e w ft)).co. Basel. 11: Collection. H e a t h e r M c C a r r y . Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. 68: www. 51: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. J a c k a n d Brian Catling. R o s e m a r y S c o u l a r . Peter L u f f . Berlin/Staatsbibliothek zu A l l other images © Sarah Simblet . 2 2 4 : P r i n z h o m Collection. 112: Yale University A r t Gallery/Everett V Meeks.bridgeman. Patty Stansfield. Havemeyer. 9 0 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/© A D A G P . Sir Brinsley F o r d . L o n d o n . L o n d o n . 9 3 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. Diana L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . 7 0 : Studio Daniel L i b e s k i n d . Germany/Joerg 2 2 7 : Paul Klee Stiftung. Oxford. b r i d g e m a n . c o . Graphische Sammlung. 180: www. University of Oxford. Publisher's Acknowledgments Dorling Kindersley w o u l d like to thank Caroline H u n t for editorial contribution. NY. Kirsten Norrie. Portugal.bridgeman. J o h n Roberts. 9 1 :'s Yard. 115: Anita Taylor. © Tate. 111: Fondation Beyeler/Riehen (Bale)/© Succession H Matisse/DACS 2005. G e r m a n y . Wolfson College. U K . 72: akg-images. Rocio Arnaez.a. 2 2 2 : Pierre Georgel/Private Collection. 226: Brian Catling. Psychiatric Institute of the U n i v e r s i t y of Heidelberg. 1 1 0 : www. Anita Taylor. Paris./Private Collection/© D A C S 2005. K a t h r y n W i l k i n s o n . Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. 1 5 : w w w . 137: © The British B e m d Collection. D a w n Henderson. 9 4 : Sarah Woodfine. 75: © The British Museum (b). Sophie Laurimore. France.bridgeman. 2 4 4 : Ashmolean Museum. 1 5 9 : Bodleian Library. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. 74: Corbis. Jean Pierre Roy. 2 4 : © T h e British Museum. Christopher Davis. 2 4 0 : w w w .co. Kunstmuseum Bern. Paris a n d D A C S . Psychiatric Institute of the University of Heidelberg. Paul T h o m a s . a n d encouragement i n m a k i n g this book: M a m o r u Abe. J o n Roome. 2 0 0 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. F i n n . O. 1879. K e v i n a n d Rebecca Anders/ © D A C S 2 0 0 5 . . 29: Fogg A n Museum/Collections Baron de Vita: Grenville L. 199: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee des arts asiatiquesGuimet. R o y a n d D i a n n e Simblet. 1 5 6 : Graphische S a m m l u n g Albertina. /Biblioteca Nacional.l. 9 7 6 ) . Paris and D A C S . 30: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. Dover Publications/ISBN: 0486229912 (t). Copyright Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens. Natalie G o d w i n . 130: The Metropolitan M u s e u m of Art/Robert L e h m a n Collection.Paris ( b ) . 181: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. Maureen Paley Interim Art (b). Angela des Augustins. 2 2 3 : Lebrecht Music and Arts Photo Library/Ricordi. 157: U C L Art Collections . Illustrated London News Picture Library/The Bystander (b). Sarah Woodfine. . Collection. L o n d o n (t). 16: www. a n d brushes o n pp. P h y l l Kiggell. 113: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. 6 6 : w w w . Berlin (b). u k / T o k y o National M u s e u m . Clare Bryan. B . 9 2 : Science Photo L i b r a r y . Paris a n d D A C S . 1 . Paul T h o m a s ( t ) . Jackie Douglas. 7 1 : I M E C / A r c h i v e s E r i k /© Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery.bridgeman. 2 7 : Royal Academy of Arts. 2 6 : Topfoto. T h e R u s k i n School of D r a w i n g a n d Fine A r t . papers. L o n d o n . H a y w a r d Gallery. Picture Credits 8: Corbis/Hubert Stadler. J o h n Walter. H a m b u r g . L o n d o n . 5 2 : T h e Metropolitan Museum of Art/Bequest of Mrs. 3 1 : Tom Powel Imaging. L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . Italy. Paris. George M c G a v i n . 1 9 : Getty Images/© Succession Picasso / D A C S 2 0 0 5 . Paris.bridgeman. 9 5 : V a n Gogh M u s e u m .co. 49: Hunterian Museum (t). Carlo O r t u for picture research s u p p o r t .uk/Guildhall Library. 73: Berlin F i l m Museum (t). M a n d y Earey. Inc. 1 3 3 : Artothek/Kupferstichkabinett. Roddy Bell. Angela W i l k e s . L e n . 1 3 8 : © Christie's Images Ltd/© A D AGP. 1 3 4 : © T h e British Museum. Also. 1 7 8 : © T h e British M u s e u m / H e n r y Moore F o u n d a t i o n . u k / L o u v r e . support. U K . a n d D e p a r t m e n t s o f E n t o m o l o g y a n d Zoology at the University of Oxford. Winthrop. B e r l i n ./© D A C S 2 0 0 5 ( t ) . 3 2 : Pepys Library. Toulouse. c o . Amsterdam. 114: Musee Rodin. 2 4 1 : Corbis/David M u e n c h ( b ) .bridgeman. F r a n c e . Julie O u g h t o n . 225: Stephen P Huyler. 1 6 1 : D C C o m i c s I n c . 1 0 8 : Arts C o u n c i l Collection. 1 9 6 : Museum of the History of Science. 2 1 8 : Adolf-Wdlfli-Stiftung. Agnieszka Mlicka. Productions Clovis Prevost (c). b r i d g e m a n . C o r n e l i s o n & Son. 2 3 8 : akg-images. Salisbury & South W i l t s h i r e M u s e u m ( t ) . b r i d g e m a n . Lisbon. 5 0 : Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (1). 17: J o h n Walter. A . Madrid.264 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Acknowledgments Author's Acknowledgments: T h e author wishes to thank the following people for their enormous help. R u t h P a r k i n s o n . 2 0 3 : Clare Bryan (t). B e r l i n .939). 2 2 0 : Mamaru Trust. 69: Institut Amatller d'Art Hispanic (tl).20-21 a n d 246-47. 1975 ( 1 9 7 5 . u k / O n Loan to the H a m b u r g Kunsthalle. c o .bridgeman. R .bridgeman. 177: Mary Evans Picture Library.

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