An innovative, practical approach to drawing the world around you







LONDON • NEW YORK MELBOURNE • MUNICH • DELHI Senior Editor Paula Regan Senior Art Editor Mandy Earey Art Editor Anna Plucinska Managing Editor Julie Oughton Managing Art Editor Heather McCarry Art Director Peter Luff Publishing Director Jackie Douglas Production Joanna Bull DTP Designer Adam Walker Picture Research Sarah Smithies US Editor Christine Heilman First American Edition, 2 0 0 5 First Paperback Edition, 2 0 0 9 Published in the United States by DK Publishing 3 7 5 Hudson Street New York, New York 1 0 0 1 4 10 11 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3

6 8 20 22 Master Builders The Order of Sound Future Fictions Pathways of Sight Single-Point Perspective Creating an Imaginary Space Further Aspects of Perspective Theaters Venetian Life Parisian Street

68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86

Foreword Introduction Drawing Books and Papers Posture and Grip

Objects and Instruments

TD075-July 2009 Copyright © 2 0 0 5 Dorling Kindersley Limited Text and authors artworks © Sarah Simblet 2 0 0 4 Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited A Cataloging-in-Publication record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN 9 7 8 - 0 - 7 5 6 6 - 5 1 4 1 - 1 Color reproduction by GRB, Italy Printed and bound in China by Toppan

Still Life Instruments of Vision Bench Marks Light and Illusions Further Illusions How to Draw Ellipses Tonality Drawing with Wire Artifacts and Fictions


90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106

Documentaries Presence and Mood Movement Icon and Design Pen and Ink Drawing with Ink Capturing Character Sleeping Dogs Turtles Dry Birds

26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44

The Body
Postures and Poses Choreographs Passion Measurement and Foreshortening Quick Poses Hands and Feet Charcoal Hands Phrasing Contours The Visual Detective La Specola

110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128

Plants and Gardens
Botanical Studies Jeweled Gardens Fast Trees Graphite and Erasers Cropping and Composition Negative Space Fig Tree Summer Flowers Acanthus Spinosus

48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64

Discover more at

Projections Magnetic Fields The Human Condition Disposable Pens The Travel Journal Catching the Moment Grand Canal Crossings Caravans The Big Top

174 Abstract Lines
176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 Process and Harmony Writing Time Chants and Prayers Compositions Being "Just" Collage Zen Calligraphy Nocturnes

220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234

Poise Anatomies Revelations Self-Portraits Silver Point Head and Neck Essential Observations Drawing Portraits Generations Castings

132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 152

Earth and the Elements
Air in Motion Storms Nature Profiles Charcoal Landscapes Drawing in the Round Decaying Boat Cloudburst Notes of Force Mountains

198 200 202 204 206 208 210 212 214 216

Gods and Monsters
Marks of Influence Hauntings Convolutions Brushes Brush Marks Monsters Goya's Monsters Consumed Glossary Index Acknowledgments

240 242 244 246 248 250 252 254 256 259 264

Cloth and Drapery Character Costumes Femmes Fatales Colored Materials Study and Design The Structure of Costume Textures and Patterns Dressing Character Posture Carving

156 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172


It is my love of these. They enfold their viewer and are made on joined sheets of paper that I reach by climbing ladders. fashion designer. who tells me firmly upon approach that they cannot draw. and experience. where I expect them to be discovered by some people. night security staff. I will always draw. texture. and I refer back to them for years after they are made. I also make drawing books. Some are more traditionally framed and hung in galleries for solo or group exhibitions. thinking. and their importance to so many artists. It makes me feel excited to be alive. be they a child discovering their vision and dexterity. Chosen in any color. . and a reflector of experience. from schoolchildren to senior citizens. through history. or engineer. The very first step is to believe it. Others can be held in the h a n d or. architect. where spaces are shaped by nothing more than the objects and activities contained within them. especially as travel journals. and makers of special effects. and be slowly washed or worn away. aspirations. but because it is how I engage with and anchor myself in life. They occupy a shelf in my studio. and through which I can see how I think. Drawing occupies a unique place in every artist and creator's life. not only to make art. Combine these things and the possibilities are endless. a sculptor. I know that with their cooperation I can soon prove them wrong. geologists. understood (and often misunderstood) our own bodies. I was also reading among The Confessions of St. doctors. shape. we learn to see it. undergraduates to fellow professors. drawing is the immediate expression of seeing. and in a few sessions they will be flying. are made outside as discreet installations. and local c o m m u n i t y classes. perhaps hidden on a door hinge or a street bench rail.Foreword B Y DRAWING THE WORLD AROUND US. Some of my drawings cover entire walls. Augustine his notes on memory. I was training in anatomy and studying how. For twelve years I have enjoyed the privilege of teaching drawing. a cartographer charting the land. of Sketch Book for the Artist. For me personally. by invitation. remain unseen by most. a drawing book is the perfect portable private vehicle for your imminent exploration of drawing. art schools. or a quantum physicist trying to see for themselves the fluctuations of our universe. and size. By using our imaginations. in which he describes himself flying and diving in his imagination through pictorial caverns of knowledge. that inspired the title and structure MEMORY T H E A T E R S This pen-and-ink drawing was made from imagination during research for my PhD. we learn to feel truly alive. We can all learn how to draw. and feeling. The most rewarding challenge is always the newcomer. It is a tool for investigating ideas and recording knowledge. still standing by the door. a composer notating a musical score. These inspirations led me to invent museums. Drawing is a mirror through which I understand my place in the world. as a visiting professor at universities. we have looked at. I work with people of diverse ages.

waving to us from many thousands of yearsago. packaging. like a great canvas for them to mark. Rio Pinturas 13. graffiti.Theseancient silhouettes were drawn with earth pigments rubbed onto rock. We can always read each others drawings. logos. At home and at work we doodle. scrawling shapes and cartoons when on the telephone. The sense of relief we may feel from the information overload of modern commercial life when visiting a country in which we can no longer read every written word. Most adults still feel that certain exquisite pleasure on arriving at a beach to find the tide out and the sand perfect.8 INTRODUCTION Where We Begin There is a fundamental drive in our human nature to make a mark. inscribing every fresh part of it with their eager scrapes and trails. Sometimes we draw because we are bored. signs. Cueva de las Marios. Children cannot be restrained from running across the pristine white lawn of newly fallen snow. "CAVE OF THE HANDS" In this drawing. Drawing is international. and we spend our lives reading it. We are surrounded by drawings in our daily lives. and in meetings. is not afforded us by drawing. irreverent to language barriers. a great crowd is raising their hands in greeting.000-9500 bce . not just chosen pictures on our walls but everywhere—maps. They have a natural affinity to many modern graffiti signatures. We are bombarded with linear and tonal pictorial information. and patterns on our clothes. but more often because drawing actually helps us to focus and take in what is said. in lectures.

like all toddlers. . enjoying the physical sensation of crayon on paper. power. and she kept it as my first step beyond the delighted realms of scrawl. Even though it is made by a toddler this image would be recognizable to anyone. I now think this is a picture of proximity. we see our oldest surviving images. reflecting my experience of looking closely at my father's face. I. but I had never yet attempted to figuratively picture my world. who in their day-to-day hardship made time to picture themselves and the animals on which they depended. She gave me a notepad and a red crayon and asked me to draw her "a picture of Daddy. and the appearance of my strikes of colors. at age two-anda-half. In cave paintings like the one opposite." Until this day. I was sitting with my mother. MAKING OUR MARK It seems reasonable to assume that we have engaged in pictorial mark-making for as long as we have made conscious use of our hands. had happily scribbled.9 WHERE WE BEGIN FIRST PORTRAIT For sorre forgotten reason. The image above is what I gave back to my mother. the hair of my first portrait was most important. Cave art was not made for decoration but as a fundamental part of life. Eyelashes take up as much of my attention as the head itself. an expression of existence. created by societies of hunter-gatherers. On a particular afternoon in September 1974. and belonging to place.

most of us stop. As you progress. PROGRESSION T h e r e is a point in all o u r lives w h e n w e first c o n t r o l o u r mark and m a k e it a line. Inhibitions creep in and ideas of good a n d b a d terminate confidence. Hours are lost immersed in the glorious world of imagination.10 INTRODUCTION PEN-AND-INK BEE This tiny drawing has been enlarged to show its texture and composition. h o w e v e r small a n d u n f o r m e d y o u believe they are. But as adolescents. At this point many will insist they cannot draw. and this activity plays a vital role in their d e v e l o p m e n t . to help a stranger see their way W h e n taking first steps in relearning h o w to draw. W e do n o t hesitate to draw a map. Don't b e p e r s u a d e d to draw in a w a y s o m e o n e else . It was made with a few bold strokes of a steel pen dipped in ink to conjure the dried bee I was holding between my fingers on a pin. for example. yet still turn to drawing w h e n their verbal language fails or is inadequate. and from that first unit build and describe the shape of something or someone we know. b e p r o u d o f what m a k e s y o u r w o r k individual to y o u . it is important to value your natural abilities a n d ways of seeing. then drag o u r line into a loop. Young children love to draw.

1925-42 53/8x87/8in (135 x 225 mm) ALFRED WALLIS prefers and tells you is better. you must decide whether to keep or discard it. and which aspects of the vast wealth and diversity of graphic language would be most appropriate to their goals. Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse c. I meet students struggling unhappily with a particular method of drawing. . remember that all advice is only advice. After experimenting and trying each new idea. Think how much would have been lost if anyone had interfered with Alfred Wallis' personal sense of proportion and perspective in the exquisite drawing above. Occasionally. what they most want to achieve. harbor and sea is one of many that Alfred Wallis made from memory while sitting at home. and they have never questioned why. As you read this b o o k and perhaps attend art classes. I ask them their reasons for drawing.11 PROGRESSION A UNIQUE SIGHT This innocent yet sophisticated drawing of boats. but it does help to set out facing in the right direction. Enjoy the control of your own journey. The journey of every artist demands hard work and discipline. He used leftover ship and yacht paint with crayons on cut-out pieces of cardboard boxes. He was a retired Cornish fisherman and junk dealer who began drawing at the age of 70 "for company" after his wife died. Someone once told them they must draw in this way.

but the child in us knows that this is an all-embracing. We also see differently ourselves. the page bristles with the focus of ideas. right. boats. 11). There are only artists. There should neve: be a slavish obligation to represent things exactly as we collectively agree we see them. depending on the occasion and our purpose. author of The Story of Art. I hope. Below. The art historian Professor Sir Ernst Gombrich. The observed world may be our subject. perhaps for comfort or ease as a left-hander or a habitual enjoyment of the challenge. all raise water From the Archimedes' screw to Leonardo's own cupped wheel.12 INTRODUCTION VISION All artists see the world differently." The clarity and empowerment of these words. but it should be the experienced world we draw. and lose the very thing that attracted us to it. the breast. Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels LEONARDO DA VINCI . it may not be accurate to our critical adult eye. clear-minded understanding of the sea. embedded in this book. We BIRD STUDIES The flutter of faint scratches that dance across the pages on the right is an attempt to see the movement and bony weightlessness of a bird. They are also always written backward. We all see differently. If as artists we nail a subject down too hard. and breathtaking wind of a choppy harbor. is. Our imaginations are the tools with which we can increase the essence of life. "There really is no such thing as Art. IDEAS A N D I N V E N T I O N S These active machines. and inspire others.and collarbones and shoulder blades of a different bird almost become new creatures in themselves. not for disguise but as a personal choice. wrote as the opening line of this great work. we can drive out its spirit. be visionary. His notes visually balance his drawings. When we look back at Wallis' seascape (see p. There are countless reasons for drawing.

when it looks tired and still feels wrong. Don't be disheartened. conduct an experiment. time spent is not lost. Leonardo drew to invent a machine. It will be invested through your experience in the new drawing. Our drawings are annotated investigations into the mechanisms of nature and of an idea. Opposite. shout against a terrible injustice. I drew to understand the apparatus of flight. drawing in pursuit of our own thoughts and understanding. to express the beauty in a moment's play of light. or illustrate a dream. or to discover the best use of a new material. make a calculation. but it is important to be clear why we are making it. . More was learned drawing the bird 18 times than would have been understood drawing it only once or twice. Decide before you start whether you are drawing to warm up. it may be best to start afresh. My drawings of a housemartin (opposite top) illustrate the importance of repeated study. We have both covered our paper with focused. Each fresh image reflects growing confidence and the experience of the preceding study. This also applies if struggling at length with a larger picture. while below. stripped-down parts.13 VISION should not try to know how every finished picture will look.

This is the alchemy of drawing. size. Whatever the material— wood. and paper. You must also think of its intrinsic nature: its purpose. However. mists. created centuries and cultures apart. bone. and allowed to flow through the brush. and at speeds beyond conscious thought.14 INTRODUCTION ALCHEMY At school. and we can just make out the distant stains of mountains. your marks will become the subject on the paper. it should be responding to the sensation and meaning of the subject it draws. and spirit of each subject was held strongly but loosely between the fingertips. and an island brushed with trees. or imagine—it is not enough to only render its shape. It denies the importance of accident. metal. Imagine these qualities so strongly that you feel them in your mind and at your fingertips. the unknown. we are advised or even required to plan our pictures. feel. BRUSHED LANDSCAPE FLOWING SKELETON T h e gliding poise of this walking anatomy comes as much from the feeling of movement as it does from the feeling of drawing. Each image relied upon past experience to know the probable behavior of the brush. or ice—you must actually feel it beneath your fingers as you draw. As your hand meets the paper to make a mark. excessive planning can get in the way of the imagination. I made it almost unconsciously with a pen and a brush. These two brush drawings. As you draw any subject—something you see. water. and opacity of your subject. which can offer keys to other things. fire. and how it feels to the touch. and practice each part before putting the final image together. trusting my intuition to find a visual equivalence for the sensation of weight within my body. The physicality. silk. We are caught in a shifting focus that makes everything fluid. They each allowed the energy and focus of the moment to be expressed through controlled accident and a degree of the unknown Both drawings were made trusting the marks. are both made of ink laid onto wet paper with speed and agile certainty. Know the texture. and sometimes beyond. This is a detail of a brush-and-ink drawing by a Japanese Buddhist monk. and position in space. depth. and what you discover in the process of making. temperature. balance. explain the composition. Landscape in Haboku Style 15TH CENTURY . This suits many artists well and is perfectly valid. declare the idea. If you can do this. W e float toward the quiet vista as it also moves toward us. ink. meaning. Our position asvieweris unsteady.


W a l t e r also makes books: some. one of many luminous works in watercolor. like folded insects. more than 100 years after its making. lives on. He dazzles us with flashes o f light and dabbed marks o f shadow.1896 Woman at her Toilet 41 x 26 in (104 x 66 cm) TOULOUSE LAUTREC RIB-CAGE D R A M A Thus drama. right is set inside a rib cage. Lautrec's flamboyant splashes o f petticoats and pantaloons are drawn with long sweeps of chalk and brushed oil paint. acrylic. which evoke realities o f place and the p o w e r o f moment. stand table-sized with furniture legs attached t o b o t h sides of their jacket.16 INTRODUCTION PLACE A N D MOMENT The heat and teeming atmosphere o f this Parisian dressing room. made by a young British artist who creates alphabets o f the absurd f r o m familiar childhood characters. Focusing on the Negative 2004 22 x 30 in (56 x 76 cm) J O H N WALTER . c. pastel. gold leaf and spray paint. left.

Put them away and look at them later. even those you dislike.17 FREEING THE HAND If you are just beginning to learn how to draw. Drawing is exploratory. One of the advantages of a drawing book is that you can shut it. at a point when you feel you are not making progress. Pages do not have to lie open for other people to inspect and comment on. and miscellaneous items of inspiration. potential ideas still forming. and mistakes are a valuable process of learning. Choose other materials and do the same. Start by choosing a material you like the look of and cover a piece of paper with different marks. try not to grip your pen worrying about the technical terms you might have heard. Try to keep all of your first drawings. you will be surprised and encouraged to see how far you have come. Much will be learned on these test sheets and in your first drawings. FREEINGTHEHAND . Ignore these at first and allow yourself the freedom to play. take your time and don't worry if you need to make several attempts to grasp a concept. diary-like observations. Such books are personal: the territory of new exploration and experiment. you will naturally make progress on your own in response to concentration and the decision to look and draw. With no help and advice at all. As you follow lessons in this book. It is yours. Enjoy discovering what your hand and the material can do. just through the act of making.

we still only glimpse a corner of the magnitude of this subject and the infinity of what can be achieved. Its sensuous and flowing line seems to drift like smoke. Look to your own experience and also learn from the work of others. In the total wealth of these pages. seek ideas in the life around you. It rarely flourishes in isolation. staring straight through his image of a bull. Picasso Painting with Light at the Madoura Pottery 1949 . and many more reasons for drawing the world. which is held frozen in space by a camera lens. which of course he cannot see. and became a great subject for me. However. ELECTRIC BULL With a penlight. the path is yours. To these I have added my own drawings to explain elementary materials and techniques and offer introductory approaches. 150). A N ARTIST'S HANDS These are the hands of the artist Phyll Kiggell (see p. and enfolding new media. adapting its form and occupation.18 INTRODUCTION THE THINKING EYE Techniques and materials are the grammar and vocabulary of drawing and can be studied and shared. I was particularly attracted to their gentle articulation and understated determination. Imagination needs nourishment.Their elegant strength seems to summon a lifetime of drawing. Picasso is poised smiling. Once there. Picasso has just finished his drawing. The real drawing book has yet to come. it will be your creation as you discover your own personal vision. As you draw. The chapters of this book present 90 different artists' ways of seeing. threedimensionally. This practical journey will take you through the door into the vivid heart of drawing. comes from within. it is this voice that is the subtle part of their art and something that ultimately. when they are more experienced. Note that the drawing classes are allocated to subjects. Drawing is a living language that over millennia has grown and changed. but not confined to them. An artist's personal voice is something that also evolves through lessons learned. caught between action and repose.


b o u n d b o o k s t h a t fit in y o u r p o c k e t o r bag.20 INTRODUCTION Drawing Books and Papers T o BEGIN YOUR EXPLORATION o f d r a w i n g . binding. A high-quality one will last a DRAWING BOOKS Select d r a w i n g b o o k s t o suit y o u r aims. and cost. H o w e v e r r i n g bindings o f t e n break. t h i s is h o w I l e a r n e d . 1. Drawing boards are invaluable. y o u n e e d a lifetime. a l e n g t h o f black elastic t i e d a r o u n d t h e m i d d l e will h o l d the contents together w h e n y o u f o l d in c o l l e c t e d items. Many artists invent ways o f binding their o w n books. It is also useful to own a portfolio. F o r e v e n i n g classes. These are perfect f o r w o r k i n g in novels. cheap corrugated plastic ones fall apart in days. 6. stitched. T h e hardb o a r d j a c k e t is s t r e t c h e d w i t h canvas beneath t h e p a p e r sleeve. Most contain thin p a p e r and are perfect f o r use w i t h disposable pens. 2002 Tantalus o r The Future of Man 81/2 x61/4in (215 x 158 mm) ROSE MILLER . Calculate a range of useful dimensions and have several cut at once. thick enough not to flex. quality.b o u n d p a d if y o u w i s h t o keep your drawings together long-term. F O U N D B O O K S : O l d p r i n t e d 3 . c h o o s e larger f o r m a t s t o give y o u s c o p e f o r e x p e r i m e n t . Smooth plywood. pastels. it is better to have them made at a lumber yard or home improvement store. C A N V A S .b o u n d b o o k w i l l s o o n s h o w y o u h o w it is m a d e . and glued t o a s t r i p o f bias binding. and handles to lift the weight of your artworks. H O M E M A D E : I m a d e this b o o k f r o m drawing paper that I folded. R I N G . which are also sold in an enormous range. texture. Homemade books can be assembled easily from found materials or selections of loose sheet papers. color. F o r traveling. drawing book. is perfect. Sand the edges to avoid splinters. and collage their ideas. cut. N o t e t h e w i d e l y differing c h o i c e o f p a p e r s w i t h w h i c h t h e s e are m a d e . 4. There are dozens to choose from.C O V E R E D H A R D B O U N D : Ideal f o r c a r r y i n g a r o u n d .h a n d s t o r e s make unique subjects f o r e x p e r i m e n t s a n d collage. Alternatively. a n d crayons. Purchase a h i g h . Gleaming store purchases vary greatly in format. be sure they fit comfortably under your arm. Art students often make use of printed books picked up from secondhand stores into which they draw. thickness. study the structure of a good portfolio and make your own. Dissecting a d i s c a r d e d h a r d . They can be very expensive in art stores. a n d r e f e r e n c e b o o k s f o u n d in s e c o n d . If you intend to carry your boards for a distance. 5. catalogs. t h e i r jackets w i l l a c t like d r a w i n g b o a r d s a n d p r o t e c t y o u r w o r k .B O U N D PADS: T h e s e are t h e least expensive a n d useful f o r o p e n i n g flat. c h o o s e s m a l l e r h a r d . c o l o r If planning t o use pencils. ties on either side to keep your papers in place.q u a l i t y r i n g . 2. You simply need two strong boards hinged together well. b e a w a r e t h a t p a p e r t e x t u r e effects a n d changes t h e i r marks. C O L O R E D PAPERS: Large a r t supply stores o f t e n sell t h i c k b o o k s full o f c o l o r e d p a p e r s . BLACK P O C K E T B O O K S : Hand-sized w i t h ready-made elastic binder and a marker ribbon.

smooth. 22. tough. Use for brushwork drawings. 21. C A R B O N PAPER: Available in dark and light blue. For use with any media. 16. not. Use with a brush in clean water Water makes a dark mark like ink and becomes invisible again when dry. printed on one side only. GLASSINE: Sold as protective wrapping. and cost. and other plant fibers. 11. and translucent. color. and hot pressed papers. Ph. texture. size. Cheap wood-pulp papers are acidic. 20. MAGIC PAPER: A reusable sheet for testing ideas without creating waste. FABRIANO ACADEMIA: Standard medium-range multipurpose paper Use with any media. It is available in white or cream. FABRIANO R O U G H 600GMS: Very heavy. SAUNDERS WATERFORD N O T 300GMS: Mid-quality textured watercolor paper. resisting deterioration. 8. ITALIAN PARCHMENT: Imitation-animal-skin parchment that is translucent and slightly waxy. 17. 15. turning brown and brittle. yellow.TISSUE PAPER: Place sheets between drawing book pages to keep images from printing on each other and use for delicate collage. It is also excellent for drawing with marker pens on layered sheets. and cream sheets or rolls. VELIN ARCHES 250GMS: Printmaking paper available in black white. 10.5 9 ) for explanations of rough. mold-. Use cheap paper for rough ideas and quality paper for work to last See the glossary ( p p . from pencil to paint 9. also good for drawing with colored pencils. METALLIC PAPER: Thin paper in different metallic colors. FABRIANO INGRES: Thin. blocks. absorbency. used to imprint lines of these colors onto a surface. pastel paper in flecked pastel colors with a distinctive ribbed marking. 13. fine. C A N S O N : Inexpensive lightweight pastel paper in many colors. bamboo. or rolls. blocks. or machine made in sheets. 12. 2 5 6 .Papers differ in thickness (weight). cold. 14. They are hand-. T W O RIVERS Y E L L O W 410GMS: See Two Rivers Green 19. and white. AQUARELLE ARCHES 300GMS:The very top quality hot-pressed (smooth) watercolor paper. 18. white textured paper that can take abrasive use of any medium. PAPERS . JAPANESE PAPER: Strong. 7. T W O RIVERS GREEN 410G MS: Very heavy tinted textured cold-pressed watercolor paper See Two Rivers Yellow. mulberry. and rolls. Cotton papers are high-quality and acid-free. red. 100% cotton and sold in sheets. it is made from rice.

With your hand in this position. make sure you have enough room to back away and view your work. How you hold your drawing materials is also important. If your body posture is well balanced and you can move freely. In this book we will look at parallels between drawing and music.22 INTRODUCTION Posture and Grip T o DRAW WELL. but you need to understand that the expression of a line or mark originates in the body and flows t h r o u g h the shoulder. SPACE TO WORK Cramped grip. or with your drawing board angled between your lap and a chair. arm. if left-handed. Regularly step back 6-9 ft (2-3 m) to check your progress. place it on your left. you Drawing classes can be cramped places. your drawing will reflect this. 116-17). place it on your right. Use the side of your little fingernail as a support on the page. Ideally. flowing space between your hand. There are also parallels to dance. It will also reflect discomfort if you are in any way cramped. a n d h a n d to the fingertips. your lines will distort. but wherever possible. There should be an open. . This photograph illustrates how some people hold a pen to write. b u t it should n o t be forgotten that many people make remarkable a n d striking works drawing with their feet or holding their brush or pencil in their mouths. You do not have to dance to draw. you can draw lines freely and achieve a significant arc of movement. If your hand twists to maneuver between the paper and your body. and look to the right. Relaxed fingers: Hold the pencil away from its tip and relax your fingers. This cramped grip tires your hand and makes small. Examples are shown here. should be able to look comfortably straight ahead at your picture plane. Turning your drawing sideways or upside-own will also help reveal what is wrong. If using an upright easel. a n d look to the left of it at your subject. Accelerated perspective also occurs if you look down the surface steeply (see pp. and subject. strangledlooking drawings. Placing your easel o n the w r o n g side folds y o u r b o d y against your drawing arm. your whole relaxed b o d y should be involved. You cannot draw like this—your hand is locked and your fingers can barely move. place it on the correct side: if right-handed. If seated on a b e n c h easel (a donkey). body. don't sit too close to the paper. From a distance you will spot errors you cannot see close up.

Remember you can also draw just by dipping your fingers in pigment—this is how many women draw in rural India. liquid will run down your hand. depending upon what it is and how large you are working. hold your material as you find most comfortable. GRAVITY Remember that gravity affects the flow of ink and paint.232-33).23 This loose "candle" grip is very useful when drawing with your arm extended. arm. It is most comfortable when reaching to draw above your head. Soft media: Short materials such as pastels and charcoal can be accommodated in the palm. or it can spoil your work if not anticipated. Large scale: POSTURE AND GRIP U n f a m i l i a r i t y : T h e habitual movements of our handwriting style will sometimes infringe upon our drawing. brush pressed against an upright surface will cause a dribble of ink to run down your drawing. This can give a new lease on life to your mark-making. and body are not restricted. find an unfamiliar. If you turn a brush or dip pen up into the air to draw above your hand. upright way of holding the brush near its base is similar to the Japanese way used in Zen calligraphy (see pp. This can be used to great effect. not up to the paper Brushes can be used on upright paper but dip Anticipating effects: A fully loaded pens need a level surface. . Brush calligraphy: This comfortable. As long as your fingers. alternative way of holding the pencil. roughly marking out a large-scale work. or change to the wrong hand. ALL MEDIA There are no rules as to how you should hold your drawing media. But be careful not to tense your fingers. Large amounts of ink can be applied without fear of uncontrolled running if the paper is flat. To stop this.


or scampering through the initials and borders of pictures from that time. who described in words what White drew. JOHN WHITE British artist. offer challenges and delights to draw. insects. their different speeds and patterns of action. In this chapter we discover the use of pens and ink through the delineation of insects. they are perhaps our favorite pictorial preoccupation. This drawing is made in black lead (metal point) with watercolor Highlights of silver would have gleamed.drawe to lief one of each kinde of thing that is strange to us in England. Framed in the z o o or in domestic cohabitation. and people.." He worked with the scientist Thomas Harriot. For the novice artist. We have drawn them on the walls of caves to evoke their kinship and power. m u s e u m . cartographer. mermaids. and pioneer born c. which very likely leaped o n t o the deck of Sir Walter Raleigh's ship Tiger as it sailed north from the Caribbean to Virginia in 1585. Here (left) we see J o h n White's exquisite record of a flying fish. we have employed artists on expeditions.. 11 x91/4in (277 x 234 mm) . animals provide a perfect subject with which to begin. In 19th-century Europe this became a "science. out are now oxidized and so appear black W h e n less preoccupied with understanding ourselves. floating turtles. 1590 J O H N WHITE capture form and movement from the m a n n e r i s m s of honking geese. each dedicated to the moralized tale of an animal or monster The bestiary profoundly influenced the art of its period. Together they made maps and documented animals. In medieval England. O v e r the centuries. W e have drawn them in m a n u s c r i p t s to explain our genesis and to c o u n t their species into Noah's ark. On the Roanoke voyages of Sir Walter Raleigh. and we still see escapees from its pages carved and grinning as the gargoyles of churches. White's commission was to ". bats. and dragons. dogs." Paranoid newcomers c r a m m e d into swelling industrial cities used handbooks of physiognomy to identify and judge their neighbors. the Latin bestiary was one of the most popular picture books—an illustrated dictionary of one hundred parts. which are so unlike ours. " Animals perpetually feed our imaginations. and learn how to Flying Fish c. fish. and this very drawing was to endure many copies and plagiarisms after its triumphant return to the English court of Queen Elizabeth I. we turn and take the features of beasts. and silent.m o u n t e d skeletons of birds. birds. Facial features were analyzed in terms of their animal likeness.Animals H UMANS HAVE DRAWN ANIMALS from the beginning of our time. werewolves. W h e n lost to explain our own emotions. After the subject of ourselves. and snakes have between them engendered harpies. to be there at the m o m e n t of discovery. As children we delight in the humanized trials of Tom and Jerry and their c a r t o o n relations. from which personality and predicted behavior were " d e d u c e d . and to bring h o m e drawn documentaries of their finds. plants. sleeping dogs. 1540. Europeans on board had never seen such a thing.

it continued its journey to Rome. Carefully stuffed. He studied the image and drew his own interpretation. the home of ALBRECHT DURER German Renaissance painter. Meanwhile. years after its publication. and wrote four books on proportion. Life-like This is Durer's original quill-and-ink drawing made after an anonymous Portuguese drawing. filled journals with ideas and observations. Durer's image changed eager hands until it was known across Europe. Unsurpassed. the ship was lost. Durer traveled widely to study at different European schools of art. it is still consulted by veterinarians today. Contemporary texts related accounts of the beast as the mortal enemy of the elephant and rare relative of the "more common" unicorn. a drawing of it arrived in Nuremberg.26 ANIMALS Documentaries horse are superb affirmations of the power of drawing as a recorder and communicator of knowledge. He in turn sent the mysterious creature to the Pope via Marseilles at the request of the King of France. Original Ink Drawing of a Rhinoceros 1515 ALBRECHT DURER 103/4 x 161/2 in ( 2 7 4 x 4 2 0 mm) . DURER'S RHINOCEROS AND STUBBS'S skeletal Durer. when more accurate portrayals were made without armor and scales. Sailing to Rome. inspiring countless works of art and so touching people's imaginations that later. It is such a lifelike triumph of imagination and intelligence that for centuries zoologists never questioned its authority. they were rejected. and mathematician. writer. draftsman. but the drowned animal washed ashore. The first live rhinoceros to reach Europe came from India in May 1515. It was to become the animal's only accepted likeness for 250 years. Converted into a print. printmaker. Stubbs's Anatomy of the Horse achieved similar documentary status. a gift to the Portuguese King. naturalist.

Stubbs's m o s t c e l e b r a t e d publication. composed from notes and observations. is no other work like it. His painted p o r t r a i t o f t h e b e a s t is in t h e R o y a l C o l l e g e o f S u r g e o n s o f England. Dissections were made over a total of 18 months. in t h r e e v i e w s — r e a r f r o n t . which has never diminished. c o m p r i s e s 1 8 p l a t e s s h o w i n g d i s s e c t i o n s in l a y e r s f r o m b o n e t h r o u g h m u s c u l a t u r e t o skin. The entire project was developed over ten years. L o n d o n . a n d anatomist. Table of the III of the Horse (rear Skeleton view) mm) 1756-58 1 4 x 7 in ( 3 5 4 x 1 8 0 GEORGE STUBBS . knowledge of parts. Dissections Stubbs took his knife and his pencil and physically climbed inside the horse. and therefore invented the lighting that Compare how Stubbs and Durer both invented lighting to portray the reality of their animals. a n d s i d e . He translated his own drawings into engravings for publication. This is one of Stubbs' original finished pencil drawings. Lighting Stubbs's breathtaking international work won immediate There acclaim.GEORGE STUBBS B r i t i s h e q u i n e a n d s o c i e t y p o r t r a i t painter. Anatomy of the Horse. dissecting and drawing until he understood the mechanisms of its power and grace. naturalist. Stubbs w a s o n e o f t h e first E u r o p e a n artists t o m a k e a n a c c u r a t e representation o f the rhinoceros. He composed makes each horse appear so real and each plate from his three-dimensional.

playwright. Surrounding sprays of graphite powder are stuck into washes of oil and ink to suggest glutinous depths. conjured b y the hand of a great author of French literary fiction. ink and linseed oil on paper. Mixed media Here. it silently rises to the light. her b o n y frame. more or less what I have in view. H u g o mixed his media and drew from m e m o r y and imagination to create narrative atmosphere. drawing her again and again to pin d o w n the texture of her loose skin. Gericault's sheet a p p e a r s almost s c r a t c h e d b y the f e r o c i o u s play of his cat. and leader of the French Romantic movement. and turn. soot. charcoal. Hugo's page is f l o o d e d w i t h the fearful presence of a remembered octopus. and all sorts of bizarre concoctions which manage to convey above all in mind. Hugo used graphite powder. coal dust. her sharp teeth. He wrote to poet and art critic Charles-Pierre Baudelaire about his experiments. and Pieuvre 1866-69 91/2 x81/8in (242 x 207 mm) VICTOR H U G O . the ominous beast unwinds from the dark of the sea and of our nightmares. The Hunchback of Notre Layers and shadows Throughout this drawing. linseed oil soaked into the paper has made shadows and repelled the ink to create translucent tentacles.... sepia. and her distinctive temperament. VICTOR HUGO Poet. saying ". Apparently drawn in its o w n ink. Gericault took a sharp p e n c i l to m a k e repeated direct o b s e r v a t i o n s f r o m life. The octopus is formed in layers applied and distressed with a brush.".28 ANIMALS Presence and Mood THESE DRAWINGS HAVE BEEN CHOSEN to s h o w t w o v e r y different ways of picturing a wild animal.. snarl. drama. novelist. and a love of accident. He has w a t c h e d her p o u n c e . A s if disturbed from its gritty b e d by our presence and curiosity. By contrast. Hugo's novels Les Miserables and Dame have become classics of film and stage. I've ended up mixing in pencil. His copious drawings are characterized by mixed media.

and it can be applied to any subject (see pp. Undertraces Beneath these graphite studies we see traces Tones On the top row we see clearly how Gericault laid broad areas of tone using fast.118-119). H e is best k n o w n f o r his gigantic painting. Beginners are advised to follow the natural contours of form as shown on pp. since it can lead to a flattened form. of drawings Gericault erased. diagonal strokes of his pencil. displayed in the Louvre.29 THEODORE GERICAULT C o n t r o v e r s i a l . parallel. and keep trying again. fiery. The Raft of the Medusa. 144. s h o r t . Here. horses w e r e a favorite subject t o g e t h e r w i t h politics and history. 124-25 and p. Paris. undertraces unify and vitalize the composition. artists reused sheets and them full of studies. standing sideways. of previous Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 1817-18 121/2 x 151/2 in ( 3 1 9 x 3 9 8 mm) T H E O D O R E GERICAULT . Before paper became so cheap.l i v e d French R o m a n t i c painter and lithographer Largely self-taught. Tones that do not follow surface contour is very difficult to do well. focused upon seeing will lead to a greater understanding of the subject Much is learned from repeated study. At the center of the page is crammed drawings the outline of a horse. facing right. Repeated study This drawing demonstrates of feeling confident repeat different the importance subject Remaining enough to isolate parts of a views.

30 ANIMALS Movement M O V E M E N T IS OFTEN THE CHARACTERISTIC b y w h i c h w e their lines and the power of their beasts. printmaker ceramicist graphic and stage designer who lived in France. or proud. Ink and gouache This drawing is made in black Chinese ink and gouache (opaque watercolor) applied with a brush. we see semi-abstract. gray. His hand must have shuddered and twitched just like the constant actions of this humorous meeting. Cheval et Oiseau 1936 173/8 x 211/4 in ( 4 4 0 x 5 4 0 m m ) PABLO PICASSO . quivering horse. flapping bird. with George Braque (see p90). In these two drawings. Picasso cofounded Cubism. Artists commonly focus on such actions. draftsman. These media complement and amplify each other with their brilliant contrast. The fact that they never stand still influences the movement in his line. flattened animals composed almost entirely of movement. Gouache is brushed softly in translucent hazy layers of cool blue. overwhelmed by a screeching bird. Faune. taking them to guide their hand in bringing form and essence together. the first abstract movement of the 20th century. noise is everywhere. Both Picasso and Klee have enclosed their subjects to compress and amplify the speed of PABLO PICASSO A prolific Spanish painter sculptor. In Picasso's drawing. made only a year apart. Klee's riders are constructed from all the gestures of greeting mules. and brown. the whinnying of a frantic horse. and scrolled lines. identify an animal: the fast cheetah. His powdery. slow tortoise. dissolving faun kneels stranded. and waves breaking distantly below. The ink is used to make sharply defined solid. hooked.

Scene der Komischen of Comical Reiter Riders) (Scene 1935 161/2x111/2in ( 4 1 9 x 2 9 1 mm) M o r t o n G . sculptor. N e u m a n n Family Collection. well-worn copies o f w h i c h are found in m a n y art schools. W i t h his drawings Kleeb o u n d sophisticated theories to personal and often witty childlike imagery.PAUL KLEE Swiss painter. draftsman. Chicago PAUL KLEE . violinist. Layers of marks In this pale Dentil drawing we see layers of' agitated marks that together present a kind of visual "itch. top all happily of each other in the Endless lines Look closely at how Klee's lines rarely leave the paper and how they are free from the constraint of finite shape." They chatter around bodies in groups. The entire drawing suggests the endless small movements of horses standing still. turning our eye and around inside the and postures of the paper- thin on pictorial space. printmaker. He is a u t h o r o f The Thinking Eye (1923). creatures. They remain in contact with the surface of the page and scribble back and forth as they maneuver from one area to another. and t e a c h e r at t h e Bauhaus school.

This drawing illustrates Baker's theory. Knopf's drawing opposite is the personal enigmatic expression of a mind gripped by illness. and the carefully observed gills. it would achieve greater speed. B a k e r initiated t h e scientific p r a c t i c e o f naval a r c h i t e c t u r e and applied h y d r o d y n a m i c s . and s e c t i o n s o f ships. slim stern). seemingly looking for our attention. which in application gave strength and advantage to the English fighting the Spanish Armada. Below we see his revolutionary design for an Elizabethan warship. His birds stare. fins. and blackbirds fly in formation through a mosaic of text. the expression of its eye. mathematician. Exquisite details in this drawing include the lips of the fish. drawings of animals that are each held tightly in a surprising space: a giant fish wears a ship's hull. balance. and from them learned that if he designed his ship with a "cod's head MATTHEW BAKER Master shipwright. He studied the anatomy of fish. and to assess our next move. In just one drawing he has displayed more angles of his design than we would expect to see from a single viewpoint Fragments English 1586 101/2 x 153/8 in (270 x 390 mm) MATTHEW BAKER of Ancient Shipwrightry . The ship The upper decks of the ship appear curved toward us at both ends. b a s e d o n his studies o f fish. The fish It is likely that Baker drew with a quill dipped in irongall ink. Baker lived in an era when ships were built without drawn plans. Baker did not intend this.32 ANIMALS Icon and Design IN THESE T W O MANUSCRIPTS we discover diagrammatic and mackerel's tail" (full bow. It is simply how we read his perspective. In contrast to the practical clarity of Baker's thought. t h e earliest geometrically defined elevations. and scales. and steerage. and author o f Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (1586). plans. adding washes of color with a fine brush. later called a galleon.

appears to be stirred like water by the presence of the The Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks UNDATED 133/8 x 115/8 in (340 x 2 9 6 mm) and psychiatrist Hans Prinzhom collected this image. and filled evenly with tone. numbered. The text. T h e G e r m a n a r t historian Outline and tone The blackbirds illuminating this frantic manuscript are drawn in pencil. written last of all. The main group is placed in a circle drawn with a compass. w h i c h o f t e n f e a t u r e as s y m b o l i c creatures in his drawings. firmly outlined.K n o p f b e l i e v e d h e c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h e language o f birds. circle and the birds. JOHANN KNOPF .JOHANN KNOPF An " O u t s i d e r " a r t i s t w h o s u f f e r e d f r o m m e n t a l illness.

4. Masters choose brands of long. Early artists recommended raven and crow for especially fine work. A German recipe of 1531 gives a simple description: "Take a wax candle. The bar is then rubbed into water on a slate block to produce ink." "Gum" refers to gum arabic extracted Dip pens are essential and inexpensive drawing tools. which range greatly in their handling and character of line. Dip pens began their history in the Nile River. Only fill with suitable inks. F O U N T A I N PENS: These vary in quality and nib width.246-47). which scratch rather than draw. Each pen has a unique character. and it is still in use today. spots. That is an ink.34 ANIMALS Pen and Ink W I T H A HANDFUL OF FEATHERS. PENS . expressive drawing techniques such as the ones we explore in this chapter 1. 3. while metal nibs began as rare gifts in gold and silver before being perfected by the British steel industry. and spatters can be made with an exotic choice of inks. producing a different line. you can have great fun drawing the world around you. Avoid needle-sharp mapping pens. The paste from either recipe is pressed and dried into a bar for storage. The reservoir gives a constant flow of ink for very long unbroken lines and continuous bottle-free use. ink is traditionally applied with a brush (see pp. then pour a little warm gum water into it and temper the two together. The Chinese used animal or fish glue. distinguished manufacture. The best are goose or swan. Quills were later cut from feathers. where reeds were gathered. QUILLS: These are cut from the barrel of a flight or tail feather. the recipes for which have been handed down over centuries. REED PENS: A broad nib can be cut from bamboo or another tubular grass. from the acacia tree. high-quality Chinese and Japanese inks are subtler and more complex than those produced in Europe. and first used by the Egyptians. they are associated with rapid. light it. In the Far East. The Egyptians and Chinese are credited with the invention of carbon ink. 2. simultaneously 4 . 5 0 0 years ago. METAL PENS: Inexpensive removable steel nibs are available in a range of widths. Responsive to slight changes in pressure. and hold it under a clean basin until the soot hangs to it. Intricate or dramatic lines. They fit into wooden holders. Today. a n d m e t a l p o i n t s . s t i c k s .

G A L L INK: Abnormal spherical growths caused by parasitic wasps can be collected from some oak trees in fall. 8. bistre. and sepia. Excellent for drawing they are bright and non-clogging. from are not 6. C A R B O N INK: Traditionally produced from oil or resin soot (Lamp Black). and most can be homemade. 5. iron-gall. Old stock turns solid and bottlesChina. they produce a golden dye for drawing. ACRYLIC / CALLIGRAPHY INKS: Available in black and a range of colors. and sieved. I N D I A N INK: Carbon ink sold today in liquid form.36. or charcoal. Now we also have acrylic ranges in many colors. charred bone (Ivory Black). an often misused term. . and are still in use today: carbon (Chinese and Indian). dated. Waterproof types contain shellac. boiled. Beechwood soot is best. It dries with a sheen and clogs uncleaned pens. suspended in a binder and stored as a solid block Blocks are imported today 7. and can be mixed and diluted to create subtler colors and tones. I R O N . Bistre is the more humane use of soot scraped from the fireplace and ground into wine. is the ink of a cuttlefish or squid extracted post-mortem. Crushed. The complexities of traditional iron-gall ink are explained on p. waterproof or non-waterproof. reduced. SEPIA A N D BISTRE INKS: Sepia. They are the easiest inks to use. roastedwine sediment (Yeast Black). Inks can be lightfast or non-lightfast. Non-waterproof Indian inks can be reworked with a wet brush after drying.35 PEN AND INK Four types of ink were common before the 20th century. INKS 9.

red-brown. then cut a final nib (feathers. galls were ground with iron sulfate to make an unstable solution. appears broken to show paper beneath. t h e y stick a n d j u d d e r f o r w a r d . keep all your fingers behind basis of iron-gall ink. a n d d e v e l o p e d t h e quill instead. giving a s h o r t . Reed marks The darker left wing of this beetle was drawn with the wet inky stroke wing. for example. it was gray-purple. always be cautious when experimenting with recipes. I u s e d t h e s e qualities t o d r a w t h e w o r m s above. Collect skins from the ground beneath trees once they are blackened. The darkest of this grasshopper wings) were made (around the head first. giving longer lines. The lighter right Quill marks Quills carry more ink than strokes and for as reeds. drawn to glisten with a dryer nib. Oak galls. sieved. finding reed p e n s unwieldy. Although oak galls and walnut skins are harmless. M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s d r a g o n o n p . d r y mark. reduced. a n d M a t i s s e also e n j o y e d t h e m . can also be collected from affected trees. fleshy skins that surround ripe walnuts. . of a loaded nib. Quills are also called D u t c h pens. QUILL PENS Q u i l l s a r e highly r e s p o n s i v e t o c h a n g e s in p r e s s u r e . Practice to gain a feel for how materials behave. T h e y give a finer. forming the REED PENS R e e dpens dispense ink quickly. r e s e r v e d t h e i r use f o r large c h o i r b o o k s . Some of Michelangelo's drawings are now a little eaten by their own ink. and boiled to make a golden ink. Paler strokes were made where the mark has the legs and antennae the ink ran out. Running fresh. Rembrandt. crushed.36 ANIMALS Drawing With Ink To MAKE A QUILL OR REED PEN. U n d e r heavy pressure. V a n G o g h . m o r e e x t e n d e d line than reed and a m o r e organic line t h a n m e t a l . 2 4 4 is an e x q u i s i t e e x a m p l e . are surprisingly tough. For centuries. Walnut ink is gloopy. It also oxidized and ate or burned paper. and delicious to draw with. It dried black.) You can make ink easily from the boiled. the blade and cut away from you. since t h e D u t c h w e r e t h e first t o realize t h a t they could be hardened and i m p r o v e d w i t h heat t r e a t m e n t in ash o r sand. Scribes o f t h e M i d d l e Ages. and turned brown with time.

breaking. sharp. .37 METAL PENS Metal pens give long. The of pigment to fall to the edges effect of the shape. White markings were drawn last Tones Here we see subtle tones of diluted ink beneath the undiluted black rim of a beetle's wing. Each layer of of the drying droplet dome the drawing was left to dry before adding more. Loaded with ink and pressed hard. DRAWING WITH INK Filled outlines Each segment of wing was outlined. giving a graded. particles then filled with a droplet of ink. withstanding great pressure without sticking. they splay to make thick o r double lines. it is important to feel for when the ink will run out and to know how much ink you pick up when dipping the nib. W h e n the nib is pressed upside down. o r being ruined as fountain pens would be under the same pressure. clean strokes. tonal Ink layers The wings of this beetle were drawn in layers using black and white ink on pale gray paper. marks become fine and needle-sharp. When using dip pens.

Take no more than ten seconds to draw each one and make lots of drawings. Empathize. make another one. and be brave. and there is no "wrong. Dip your pen in ink. Cover your drawing book pages in speedy responses to the geese and try to capture each bird in as few lines as possible. Illustrating this exercise on Oxford Port Meadow. It teaches confidence and focus through intensive repetition. Focus on the geese. and boldly plunge into your drawing. there is no obligation to prepare a quill. not on your drawing. Attempt with a loose hand to capture their posture and outline. and quickly draw around it using only three or four strokes. Try to hold the whole posture in your mind's eye. Posture . Geese are nosy birds." If you don't like a stroke. Quick drawing trains you to see what is most important about a subject and to mark only its most essential expression. Experiment. That said. test your limits. Take a cup and water for diluting a range of tones. steel nibs are fine. be bold and press firmly. Watch their heavy feathered bodies flap. Study them before drawing. touch the bottle's rim to drain the excess. and bellyflop off the waterside. waddle. Focus on it. It happens that goose feathers also provide artists with the best type of quills. Pack plenty of tissue around a bottle of calligraphy or acrylic ink. so pick a spot where other people can keep them entertained. draw what the bird is doing. and a large drawing book or plenty of paper Use masking tape to secure pages against the wind. I covered eleven sheets in sixty quick drawings—in less than an hour. MATERIALS NEEDED Look for a bird expressing a simple posture. Cover a sheet. You cannot break the nib.38 ANIMALS Capturing Character GEESE ARE EXCELLENT SUBJECTS to draw when practicing the first use of pen and ink. to absorb blots when drawing.

Use more lines than before to express these.39 Action With growing confidence. flapping. CAPTURING CHARACTER Texture Gradually allow yourself more lines to describe the texture of each bird as well as its posture and action. . draw the feeling of what you see. look among the birds for more complicated actions such as shaking off water. and don't worry about mechanical facts or accuracy. running. and diving. Avoid detail unless really tempted by a close-up visit Fluctuate the pressure of your pen in response to how you know the bird would feel if you touched it. Again.

form. and drain the excess by touching the nib against the rim of the bottle. and personality. Dip the nib quickly again into water and again drain it. The only time he remained still was when he was sleeping. your drawing book. and even then he twitched and stretched in dreams. MAKING A PALE LINE To make a pale line. and a tissue for blotting drawn lines that appear too dark. Then dip the nib quickly into a glass of water and drain the excess again. Ras Curled Up Asleep "Capturing the true character of a cherished companion is best achieved with objective determination rather than sentimental shyness. first dip your pen in ink." . This will give a medium-gray line. engaged in his and everyone else's business. Now it will make a pale line. These drawings are not an analysis of his anatomy or breed but the expression of his satisfied comfort in a deep sleep after a night out on the together with a glass of water for diluting tones on the nib. For this class you will need one oblivious dog.34-37). a dip pen and ink of your choice (see pp. Sleeping animals present the artist with ideal opportunities to study their texture. a d o g w h o w a s a l w a y s town.40 ANIMALS Sleeping Dogs R A S WAS A GREAT CHARACTER. Make a test sheet to discover your control of diluting on the nib.

add more detail. second thoughts may be different Changing your mind is a positive aspect o f seeing and thinking. Character is better captured drawing quickly with confidence than w o r k i n g slowly. Trust your intuition. Layers o f thoughts can bring a drawing alive.It is essential when drawing any subject (even something abstract) to know how it feels andtoemulate this with your line. Then I immediately rebalanced the drawing with lines around his hind quarters. c o n c e r n e d a b o u t detail. Then. tail. see how the animal's posture determines its whole shape. alter the pressure and moisture of your line in response to howyouknow your dog feels when you ruffle itscoat. Remain focused on the whole dog and. 2 Reload your pen with ink. Here I marked the features of Ras's head. Here.41 DRAWING YOUR DOG Be bold in this exercise. 3 Gradually introduce darker tones. ears. SLEEPING DOGS 1 Fix your eyes at the center of the dog. . quickly draw what you see. this time to create a line a little darker in tone. to emphasize how he is curled up. and the shadows in his coat. D o not go back over lines you are pleased with—doing so dulls their lively freshness. To add texture. ignoring all detail. First lines are first thoughts. W i t h pale lies. I added ink to Ras's nose. in bold layers.

turtles often pause unexpectedly. swinging their limbs and shells with a slow circular movement. Beyond the glass wall of the aquarium. they stretch and paddle. A perfect subject for the beginner. THE ELONGATION AND BUOYANCY of a group of turtles is fascinating . offering plenty of time for the artist to draw the pose.Turtles to observe. as if caught in a camera freeze-frame.


balance. weightlessness of the kiwi. . and water. I darkened lines as each drawing progressed. dry. India ink. Beginning with very pale tones. and sharp. I made repeated studies of the housemartin to discover its mechanism of flight. I sought to capture the form.Dry Birds THESE ARE THE ARTICULATED BONES o f a k i w i a n d a h o u s e - martin drawn in a museum using a steel pen. With speed.



manipulations of light and shade. We collect. From its history there is one overriding lesson to be learned: the importance of looking and seeing with our own eyes. After Here Aconthus spinosus is combined with forget-me-nots and-a-half centuries of intensive observation. He sent boxes of plants to Nuremburgburned with the urgency and excitement of explaining every plant's form. We draw them to celebrate their beauty and range. PriceBishopof Eichstatt specimens. and to ornament our lives. Chapters are arranged by out. and beauty. to catalog our knowledge. the punctuation of space with structure and mass. color. Plants are the principal inspiration of the decorative arts—from Roman Corinthian columns crowned with carved leaves of the acanthus. In this chapter. to the proliferation of floral designs with which we have dressed ourselves and furnished our homes for centuries. shape. 1613 187/8x153/4in(480 x 400 mm) BASILIUS BESLER . and focus. Botanic gardens were established and expanded. Plants seventeenth century. where a number of uncredited artistsd r e wthem for Besler. Botanical illustration is a precisely defined and scientific art. and diverse kingdom of plants. as opposed to only herbal. Classifications were set in367copperengravings.Plants and Gardens W E SHARE THIS PLANET with the more ancient. we now have laid before us fourto show how well their colours complement each other infinite wealth of material to explore. infinitely vivid.000 species of plants are depicted life-size drawn. we see very different cultural visions of plants and gardens and use pencils and plants to learn the pictorial values of space. Patrons funded the breeding of decorative. and the drawn pages ofthesame name. The revolution came in the 1530s. Both embrace the anticipation of evolving shape. It was published plain in 1611 and withhand-paintedplates in poured off ships returning from the New World and were eagerly collected and 1613. —-the largest and most influential botanical book of the early Natural scientists accompanied explorers to document unknown finds. on which our lives depend. and texture. Medieval knowledge was not gained by the first-hand observation of life but by reading. robust. Early European illustrators were trapped within dogma that was determined by ancient scholarship.Morethan 1. and hybridize them for our sustenance and pleasure. the microscope was refined to unfold yet another world. nurture. Conrad von Gemmingen. season. B A S I L I U SBESLER when botanists founded new work upon the direct study of plants. Fledgling years Botanist and apothecary who compiled the Hortus Eystettensis of scientific research bore manifold explosions of knowledge in a fever of discovery. an There are close parallels between the acts of gardening and drawing. Rich owners of private gardens commissioned large-format florilegiums commissioned the volume to document his private garden to immortalize their personal taste and power of acquisition. form. and the Acanthus spinosus constant but exhilarating struggle to make a living image feel right. Later.

flowers. Here. W i t h bright F R A N Z BAUER An Austrian artist who trained at the Schonbrunn Imperial Gardens in Vienna. T h e rest of u s are free to d r a w as w e w i s h . and Franz Bauer and his brother Ferdinand were employed there to draw specimens. M a c k i n t o s h e x p r e s s e s the f o l d e d petals of a broken rose b u d so delicately w e can sense the perfume. or that were diseased. leaves. and wilted. o p t i m i s m . Light in this drawing is given by the paleness of the paper showing between washes of darker tones. subtle union of beauty. insect-ravaged. B e h i n d detailed. The King was then establishing the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. and seeds conventionally a p p e a r o n o n e plate. petal tip over a lower leaf Protea nitida 201/4 x141/4in (513 x 362 mm) FRANZ BAUER 1796 . Sir Joseph Banks. fruit." Her slipper orchid s h o w s that botanical drawing must often resolve the challenge of its subject's p r o d u c i n g parts in different seasons — r o o t s . and meticulous precision.48 PLANTS AND GARDENS THE SCIENTIFIC VALUE OF A BOTANICAL DRAWING lies i n its Botanical Studies were specimens that often refused to stay still. They are counted among the most accomplished 18th-century botanical artists. Each plant must b e clearly distinguished from its closest relative. measured drawings. It is likely Bauer would have studied these under a microscope. He has made the spatial and physical relationships in this drawing all the more real by placing a single. s u c h as w e see here in Bauer's Protea nitida. Outline Bauer prepared a pencil outline before laying in fleshy succulent hues and tones of watercolor. o p e n i n g a n d c l o s i n g i n the w a r m t h a n d light of the studio. stems. detail. naturalist explorer and advisor to King George III invited Bauer to London in 1 7 9 0 . Stella Ross-Craig said of the need to d r a w from a dried herbarium plant "I could make it live again. Botanical art c o n c e a l s the challenge of its m a k i n g . Dissections Across the lower part of this drawing we can see dissections of seed pods and petals. delicate.

p u b l i s h e d 1 9 4 8 . A s m a n y of her drawings are kept G a r d e n s . and follow shadow. Ross-Craig said of her work "Plants that wither rapidly present a very difficult problem to which there is only one answer—speed. Line Drawing of Cypripedium calceolus L c. BOTANICAL STUDIES Lines and shadows This lush. K e w . Closer to fiction can come together perfectly. S h e also o f thousands o f contributed an drawings. and perfect coordination of hand and eye.g a r d e in G e r m a n y a n d A u s t r i a . and observation the nuance and contour of every in one image.286 studies for her book Drawings of British Plants. L o n d o n in 1 9 2 9 . Curtis's Botanical Magazine.. Pencil lines cling to. G u s t a v K l i m t In his r e t i r e m e n t Mackintosh m a d e n u m e r o u s inventive pencil a n d w a t e r c o l o r d r a w i n g s o f plants.000 Kew to archive accessible t o d a y v i a t h e I n t e r n e t of o n British flora. is r e c o g n i z e d as tne m o s t c o m p l e t e a n d i m p o r t a n t work 3. 1970 x 81/4 in ( 3 2 5 x 2 1 0 m m ) STELLA ROSS-CRAIG . H e r Drawings of British Plants. and it shows how design. a m o n g o t h e r s .. found among Mackintosh's than reality. a n d he inspired.7 3 in 3 1 p a r t s . imagination. Rose 1894 103/4 x 83/4 in ( 2 7 5 x 2 2 1 mm) CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH STELLA ROSS-CRAIG A j o i n e d t h e staff a t t h e R o y a l B o t a n i c G a r d e n s . as at trained botanical artist Ross-Craig Swift lines The drawing was planned in pencil and then overworked with a lithographic pen.49 C H A R L E S RENNIE MACKINTOSH Scottish a r c h i t e c t d e s i g n e r painter. a n d f o u n d e r o f t h e G l a s g o w S c h o o l o f A r t M a c k i n t o s h ' s flair h a d an e n o r m o u s i n f l u e n c e o n t h e a v a n t . and speed depends upon the immediate perception of the essential characteristics of the plant. sensual pencil drawing is later works." This line drawing is one of 1. it is small and discreet.

anticipating their view. and attention to detail are all shared with medieval European manuscript drawings. Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity c. . in the early 16th century. Bishndas was probably responsible for the overall design. urgent attentive human activity. roses took their form in a bead of perspiration on the brow of Mohammed as he passed through his heavenly journey. the sumptuous petals permeated with prayer and wisdom. Upright shallow perspectives.50 PLANTS AND GARDENS Jeweled Gardens the Middle East we find exquisite stylization of form and upright formality in pictorial space. The white of the page shines through the brilliant color. 1590 85/8 x55/8in (219 x 1 4 4 mm) BISHNDAS AND NANHA Bright pigment These pages were illuminated by Mughal artists in the late 16th century. Below. and calligraphy are brought together to hold the sacred names of prophets and the 99 beautiful names of God. a notable portrait painter drew the faces. The first Mughal Emperor Babur's Garden of Fidelity (Bagh-e Vaja). By Muslim tradition. Drawing. and Nanha. is remembered in the pages of his journal. Opposite is the Rose of Mohammed. and miraculous growth. Envoys chatter outside the gate. Afghanistan. They used a fine brush to lay pigment over a line drawing. painting. Babur directs his gardeners in the design and planting of this quartered chahar bagh. Every fiber of AMONG DRAWINGS FROM BISHNDAS A N D N A N H A Little is known of these Mughal painters who were related as uncle and nephew and commissioned to illustrate the pages of Babur's journal. which he personally created near Kabul. fluctuations in scale. in miniature. uniform focus. paper is brimming with the beauty and celebration of nature.

The Rose of Mohammed 1708 9 1 / 2 x 61/2 in ( 2 4 0 x 1 6 5 mm) FROM THE TURKISH M A N U S C R I P T AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH .c e n t u r y Turkish manuscnpt a book of religious e t h i c s w r i t t e n in the O r i e n t a l C o l l e c t i o n s of Berlin. G e r m a n y . t h e Staatsbibliothek zu Arabic.AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH This is a detail o f a page from a n 1 8 t h . and how the shape has been repeated freehand. fragmenting its detail in a whisper of prayers. Stylized motif A fine brush has been used throughout this drawing to apply inks and watercolors. The physical anatomy of the rosebud has been studied and translated into a repeated stylized motif. Sacred words The central rose is more solid than any other on the page. look closely and you will see words written in gold fluttering over the form of the flower. However. so that overlapping petals and stems give an impression of fulfillment and abundance. Note how each bud is essentially the same shape. It is n o w k e p t in Border The elegant border of this drawing was mode with a pen and ruler It cleverly compresses and defines the composition.



Fast Trees
IN CONTRAST TO THE QUIET, formal detail of other drawings in this chapter, these powerful fast trees enact the actions of plants. Each tree reaches out and holds its landscape with dynamism and pulse. In both drawings we find testament to the inexorable energy of growth. Rembrandt expresses a delicate quickness. Gentle lines draw a warm breeze through this remote wooded garden. Rustling in a loose foliage of soft marks, his pen evokes the weight of abundant activity on this late summer's day. Mondrian's arch of scratching branches is drawn with such force it will always be alive. We can still feel his hand storming across the paper. Set within a frame of smudged landscape, the tree possesses a musical agitation. This characteristic will increase in the artist's later abstract work. Here, we see a punctuated ordering of space. Sharp branches cut out negative shapes of winter sky.

R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter; etcher; and draftsman. Rembrandt's prolific output comprises oil paintings of historical and religious subjects together with group and self- portraits. His emotive etchings and pen and ink drawings (see also p. 174) are great resources for artists learning to understand the potential of these media.


Pen and ink lines describing foliage also tell

us the directions of sunlight and wind. An arc crossing the bottom of the drawing from one side to the other supports the scene and separates us from the landscape beyond. Compare Rembrandt's arc to that of Mondrian's. and note the similar treatment of low horizons in both works emphasizing the height and dominance of trees.

Cottage Among Trees 1648-50 63/4 x121/8in ( I 7 I x 308 mm) R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN





Atmosphere Here we see how shapes of negative space are as important as the physical subject they enclose (see pp.58-59). Mondrian has again lightly dragged his chalk on its side to evoke a wet depth of atmosphere. These passive gray marks contrast with the assertive tension of the tree.

Dutch Pure abstract painter preoccupied w i t h line and plane relationships. W i t h increasing austerity, Mondrian banished t h e subject from his drawings, in his later w o r k he also banished space, composing visual h a r m o n i e s using only straight lines a n d flat planes o f black, w h i t e , gray, o r p r i m a r y color.

Winter ground Short vertical marks along thebottomof this drawing reveal the length oftheblackchalk Mondrian used. Rubbed onitsside,itroughly blocks in the ground. Thecrudeeconomy of line is all we need tofeelthecold, wet, unwelcoming quality ofthiswinterearth.

Branches and trunk Lines shaping the branches of the tree are built up in layers. To make the trunk more dense, the artist has rubbed and smudged preliminary marks with his fingers before firmly overdrawing with new lines. Solid black lines are achieved by pressing the chalk hard. When used lightly, it shows the texture of the paper. Tree: Study for the Grey 1911 23 x 335/8 in ( 5 8 4 x 8 5 5 m m ) Tree




Graphite and Erasers

This drawing illustrates a range of achieved with graphite pencils of different grades.


Modern pencils are graded from 9H (hard and pale) to 9B (black and soft). Graphiteclay sticks are also available, together with a powder form. All possess a natural sheen and are erasable to a varying degree. Graphite drawings smudge easily, so fixative, a form of varnish, can be used to hold a drawn surface in place. It is applied as a fine mist from an aerosol can, or from a bottle using a diffuser. For the beginner, ordinary hairspray is an effective and cheaper alternative.

(to write), is a soft and brittle carbon. It was first mined in Cumbria, England, in 1 5 6 4 , and was initially used in small, pure pieces bound in lengths of string. Pencils as we know them—with their slender wood casing and "lead" of graphite—were invented in France in 1794 by Nicolas-Jaques Conte. He discovered that milled graphite mixed with clay and water, press-molded, and baked to a high temperature produces a harder and paler medium than graphite alone.

3B pencil A range of mark and textures can be achieved with a 3B pencil when you vary its pressure, speed, and direction, as this detail shows.

Here is a selection of 14 items to illustrate a basic range of pencils, graphite sticks, sharpeners, erasers, and fixative.
1. AND 2. HB AND 3B PENCILS: It is unnecessary to possess every grade of pencil. HB, the central and most common grade, is perfect for making delicate lines. 3B gives a blacker tone. A great variety of effects can be achieved with just these two. 3. WATER-SOLUBLE PENCIL Effective for atmospheric drawing, but be aware of how watery tones can dull the impact of the line. 4. AND 5. MECHANICAL PENCIL Thick or fine leads are made in a range of grades. They are particularly useful because they do not require a sharpener 6. ROUND SOLID GRAPHITE PENCIL: Excellent for large-scale drawing, producing thick bold lines. A range of grades can be honed with a craft knife or sharpener 7. THICK GRAPHITE STICK: For large-scale drawing. Graded soft, medium, and hard. It crushes to produce graphite powder 8. SQUARE GRAPHITE STICK: Useful for making broad, sweeping marks in large-scale drawing. If worn and rounded, the stick can be snapped into pieces to regain the sharp, square end. 9. CRAFT KNIFE AND BLADES: Handles are sold in two sizes to fit large or small blades, and blades are sold in a range of shapes. Perfect for sharpening pencils to a long point, to cut lines in paper or to remove areas. 10. PENCIL SHARPENER: Makes a uniform point. Keep one in your pocket for drawing outside the studio, together with an envelope for shavings.

HB and 5B Layers of tone have been built up withHBand5Bpencils. Softer pencils require less pressure to make a mark, revealing the texture of the paper surface. It is important to keep the point of the pencil sharp with either a craft knife or a sharpener.


Erasers can be used t o blend and s o f t e n lines, o r t o r e m o v e altogether. Fixative them prevents


s m u d g i n g a n d s e c u r e s lines.

Using fixative You can use fixative while drawing to hold the definition of lines you wish to gently fade but not remove entirely, for which you would use an eraser.

11. P L A S T I C E R A S E R : Avoid cheap colored erasers that may stain drawings with grease and dye. White brands are available in soft and hard versions.



W a r m it in your hand before use. It is excellent for removing powdery materials, and for making crisp sweeps of light across a delicate pencil drawing

13. D I F F U S E R : Helleborus corsicus (Corsican hellebore) fixative, or to spray mists of ink.



Cropping and Composition
M A N Y STUDENTS WILL START a d r a w i n g i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e

that its skin nearly touches the boundary. The meaning of the same drawing changes simply by its relationship to the space it occupies. The size of any subject, its placement on the page, the size of the page, and its overall proportion are all discrete and essential aspects of successful picture-making. Before you begin to draw, think carefully about where to place your subject. Are you are happy with your paper? If not, change it; add more, take some away, or turn it around. Do not just accept what you are given, adapt it to what you need.

paper. Focused on the shape and detail of their subject, they remain happily unaware that there is, or should be, any relationship between what they are drawing and the surface they are drawing it on. The paper is only paper, and the troublesome subject floats somewhere in the expanse of it. However, a single fig drawn in the middle of a large, empty square of paper gives quite a different impression from the same fig drawn on such an intimately small square


A Single Fig

"The size, shape, and orientation of the paper are so integral to the composition that they determine the impact and meaning of the drawing."

they establish a tension and unity with the paper. its illumination. When subjects touch two or more edges. spaces between things are as important as the things themselves.O u r focus is on the white cloth supporting the figs. its stem and shadow framing a white center. and therefore apparently suspended from. t h e n m o v e t h e c a r d t o e x p l o r e different views. U s e it as a starting point. The angle of the fruit together with dark shadow (top left) and bright light(bottom right) suggest a diagonal division across the whole drawing. CROPPING AND COMPOSITION Off-center and diagonal Here I held my viewfinder so the fig appeared upper-left in the space. A card with a small rectangle cut out o f it makes a useful viewfinder C l o s e o n e e y e t o look through the hole. Space as the subject Inallpictures. Here the left fig is attached to.57 THE VIEWFINDER T h e s e pencil drawings o f figs d e m o n s t r a t e different crops and compositions. and lines describing shadows cast by the fruit . the uppermost edge of the drawing. This drawing hasbeencropped to emphasize space between thefruit. a device to help you decide what t o draw. bottom-left t o top-right. Touching the edge When the subject o f a drawing touches one edge of the paper it attaches t o it visually. running corner t o corner. as also shown here.

an eraser. Follow these from left to right and see how I began with one complete shape between two parts of a leaf. tone. and so on.58 PLANTS AND GARDENS Negative Space UNCONSCIOUSLY WE ASSESS spatial relationships all the time to guide ourselves through the world. this ensures a consistent view. rather than what you see in front of you. position. Viewers appreciating a finished image may not see shapes of space. and engaging. dynamic. a sharp H B pencil. Remember that plants do move! Therefore it is best to complete your drawing in one sitting if possible. It helps to start at the center and map outward. and a fresh page in your drawing book. Draw a complete shape Map outward from the center Erase and adjust lines until correct .The box opposite isolates an area. It is an astonishingly simple device that many artists use and I strongly recommend. unified. Unfamiliar shapes of negative space reveal the real shape of a positive subject. not leaves. third. you will need a similar large-leaved plant. Looking at negative space overrides the problem of drawing what you know. shapes of air cut out and defined by the physicality of our environment? When we look into the branches of a tree. In your own version. but if the artist does. But how often do we look at the air between things. a foundation stone in picture-making. remember to draw only space. In following this class. then added a second shape. do we see myriad distinct and unique shapes of daylight or do we just see branches? Why as artists should we look at the air? Every space in a picture has a shape. erasing and adjusting lines until itlooked right. fourth. Negative space is the simple key to getting positive shape right. The drawing opposite is of the uppermost leaves of a potted fig tree. which is shown in the three steps below. WHERE TO START Arrange your plant and paper so you can look back and forth by barely moving your head. and a role to play. their subject and composition will become more real.


Here I drew only spaces, adding one to another until the leaves were revealed. Besides looking at negative space, there are two other useful things to do when a drawing feels wrong but you cannot see why: look at it in a mirror or turn it upside down. errors and suggest changes.

Spaces between leaves

Either view will


Fig Tree
WALKING IN THE ALPUJARRAS in A n d a l u c i a ,

Spain, I drew a bare fig tree clinging to the wall of an almond grove; a perfect subject for seeing negative space. I marked its essential frame of large branches first, frequently erasing lines and changing my mind until the balance felt right.

S a l v i a , RIBES, CLEMATIS, Allium, Passiflora, and Acanthus

Summer Flowers


drawn with an H pencil by observing the

negative spaces between the stems, petals, and leaves. I arranged the flowers on a sheet of paper in a cool r o o m and rapidly sketched a composition. Then I put them in water, taking the stems out one at a time to draw.


We never see everything at once. . Compare changes of pace and focus here to the flatter finish of Summer Flowers (see pp. they emulate our experience of seeing. 62-63). interfolding points of detail with areas of loose suggestion. Excessive detail leaves no space for the eye to rest or imagination to wander. gathering less distinct information on the way. If an artist changes the pace of their line and focus of their attention.Acanthus Spinosus As we LOOK AROUND. our eyes travel and adjust from one point of focus to another.


coupled with the importance of exercizing your imagination. Architects have been fine-tuning their specialized branch of drawing for centuries. they have the Golden Section. Perhaps in the sheer planes of some of our greatest modern buildings it is finding its clearest expression. Paris 1871-74 the child's view to the infinity of the vanishing point. Linear perspective is a marvelous device. Baltard designed the Church of St. and from West Facade of the Church of St Augustin. Since the first flowering of Modernism in the early 20th century. and architects of ancient Greece who first pursued the formula for "divine proportion. filmmakers. This harmony. At the core of their practice. from political commentary to musical abstraction. Besides sketches of first thoughts and polished drawings of the finished look for clients. European conventions of pictorial perspective have lost their monopoly on seeing. the device that has since governed most of our picture-making (sec pp. It was also during the Renaissance that the architect Brunelleschi invented linear perspective. fine artists. composers. Computer programs allow the virtual drawing of ideas. VICTOR BALTARD French architect employed by the city of Paris. film-set design. once there. was preserved into the Renaissance where it became a foundation stone for thinking and creativity From 15thcentury Italy. drawing plans around themselves within a program as opposed to on a flat sheet of paper. Yet the pursuit of divine proportion and harmony remains.Architecture I N THE CONTEMPORARY PRACTICES of architecture. mass. the formula for perfection spread through Europe. balance. made by the architect himself. which can be clearly seen in ancient Greek architecture." reflecting the eye's love of unity in difference. architects. It was the mathematicians. we find the most recent steps in the evolution of graphic language. Since Picasso and Braque's revolution of Cubism in around 1907. and in the 19th century it was given the name the Golden Section.This is a pencil drawing. invaluable to understand and apply when you choose. Through the animation of the screen. philosophers. Augustin. and computer game imaging. and sound. each VICTOR BALTARD . It is the focus of practical class in this chapter. which was the first church in the capital to be built entirely of metal and then clad in stone. to 20th-century film fantasy. and writers have been breaking away from traditional forms of representation to seek new expressions of shape. add and subtract ideas. space. time. 74-75). designers. to help them create new form. they also have a diagrammatic language for communicating plans to builders. of the west facade of St Augustin. Among the drawings of this chapter we look from 17th-century ecclesiastical calm.The church is still in use today. with gray and brown watercolor wash. architects and designers can imaginatively "climb inside" three-dimensional space and.

Cut-away interior On the right a section cut through the center of the building reveals material thicknesses. and an inscribed entablature. and Castle Howard. pilasters. We see the modeled detail of Corinthian columns. and ultimately to show builders what to do. calculate function. A student of Wren's. embodying a massive investment of ideas. NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR One of Britain's "three great" Baroque architects (along with Sir Christopher Wren and Sir John Vanbrugh). describe a finished look to a client. marks the end of a long journey from the first few marks the architect made on a sheet of paper. structure. Drawings underpin every great human-made structure like hidden linear ghosts at their core. Below it. testing gravity to calculate the inverted shapes of domes. a three-dimensional drawing made with wires and weights. evoke presence. Hawksmoor's drawing is both a plan and an evocation. Finished surface On the left the finished surface of the building is given depth and emphasis by immaculate vertical and horizontal brush strokes of shadow. and balance. Together they explain how interior structure and space define exterior form and shape. Gaudi's fluid architecture grew up through many kinds of drawing. St Paul's Baptistry c. Hampton Court Palace. Oxford. The photograph opposite shows his studio hung with metal pendulums. Lines define structure while washes suggest light and atmosphere. and labor. materials. Three aspects This subtle and sophisticated drawing made in pen and wash displays three distinct aspects of Hawksmoor's baptistry. 1711-12 NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR . Architects draw for many reasons: to visualize ideas. densely layered lines in mists of color weave the presence of the expected building into shape. and six London churches.68 ARCHITECTURE Master Builders EVERY NEW BUILDING. Pillars and floor At the base of the drawing a compass-drawn plan tilted downward through 90 degrees illustrates the arrangement of pillars around a central circular floor. he also worked on St Paul's Cathedral. relative levels. Blenheim Palace. and later an assistant to Vanbrugh. and the shapes of interior domes and apses. Hawksmoor established his reputation with university and church architecture including All Souls College.

Gaudi air than on paper. 1900 ANTONIO GAUDI ANTONIO GAUDI Visionary Catalan architect. Guell Crypt of its at the Time Construction c. Wire and watercolor three-dimensional preferred to calculate Above is a drawing form in the made withlinkedwires and weights. This sculptural drawingenvisionsthe finished crypt glowingandethereal as if caught in thelightof red morning sun. and his love of music. The Art Nouveau movement. light.69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt c. Gaudi's cathedral in Barcelona. 1910 24x181/4( 6 1 0 x 4 7 5mm) A N T O N I O GAUDI . and apartment homes are distinguished by their Their and Flowering curves of stone or concrete are often encrusted with Gaudi was inspired by medieval and oriental art. unique organic manipulation of high shapes. To the right isawatercolordrawing thought to havebeenmade over a photograph ofthemodelabove. embellishment. churches.

Floor space appears divided by discernible walls. flat boards. before cascading into a riot of line and sound below. Contemporary musicians commonly collaborate with artists by interpreting images as sound. Libeskind's numerous commissions include concert halls and museums. p.223). Satie draws quietly throughout. and arched dotted lines depict the radius of doors. short curved poles. theater sets. We can see. Arctic Flowers 1980 DANIEL LIBESKIND . such a rapport in both of these drawings. corridors. and the spaces between his windows and turrets are the visual equivalent of pauses in h i s m u s i c c o m p o s i t i o n s for p i a n o (see also Bussotti. He also produces urban and landscape designs. Libeskind begins quietly in the upper space of his drawing. and rooms. been a natural affinity between the visual rhythms of pictures and the audible rhythms of music. upright pictorial space.70 ARCHITECTURE The Order of Sound B O T H OF THESE VISIONARY DRAWINGS o c c u p y a s l e n d e r . The architect and musician Daniel Libeskind has drawn a stampeding cacophany of airborne architectural detail. Both men used rulers and pens to carefully and slowly construct their compositions. a refillable pen that feeds a constant supply of ink through a fine tubular nib. installations. Floor plan This drawing has been made with a rapidograph. Across the top and center right of the image w e perceive an almost recognizable architectural plan. Libeskind studied music before transferring to architecture. He also contributed to plans for the rebuilding of the World Trade Center site in New York. while the composer Erik Satie has made an enclosure of quiet order and grace. and in a sense hear. and exhibitions of his drawings. There has always DANIEL LIBESKIND A Polish American architect of international acclaim. Visual rhythms In the lower half of this drawing architectural language has broken loose: escaped and transformed into an image of rebellious pleasure. and dotted lines. We can imagine how a musician might interpret this drawing by looking at the abstract visual rhythms of masses composed of long straight poles.

H e p e r f o r m e d in cabarets. and founded his o w n church.H i s witty. lived a l o n e . Onpp.Edges are how are of orientation. They definespaceand pictorial balance.narrowshape of its paper.ERIK SATIE F r e n c h pianist and c o m p o s e r for t h e piano. a conventional dip or fountain pen. dressed eccentrically.56—57 we discussed important the shape. and ink on a fragment folded brown paper—a of everyday happened material of scrap that to be at hand. andfouredges of the paper tothecompositionand impact animage. the perimeter Composition Look how well this drawingfitsand resonates with the upright. minimalist s c o r e s scandalized a u d i e n c e s with o r c h e s t r a t i o n s f o r t h e foghorn and typewriter. Satie collaborated w i t h hisfriends J e a n C o c t e a u a n d P i c a s s o . 1 8 9 3 77/8 x 51/2 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 4 0 mm) ERIK SATIE . Compare the even and and the shape wall to the elegantly stylized order of the many windows of arrangement of details and the shape of the wall in Babur's Garden of Fidelity on p. a n d ballet. effectively additional lines in a work.50. theater. o f which he was the sole m e m b e r Parcel paper Satie has drawn this fantasy hotel using a ruler. Eastern influence The upright image Eastern is reminiscent and medieval of Middle pictorial space and subject of this European drawing. Hotel de la Suzonnieres c.

spheres. Art director Erich Kettlehut's vertiginous design for the city of a slavelike populace had a future influence on movies such as Blade Runner. Within it. painter.The lower-left section of the building appears relatively pale against a darker sky. Boullee lived in Paris. Among preparations for Fritz Langs film Metropolis. This is the work of an architectural theoretician. we find other Utopian visions Paul Nobles epic drawing summons an imperfect and disturbing township where ruin and activity are equal and strange.72 ARCHITECTURE T H E S E T H R E E HIGHLY DETAILED DRAWINGS Future Fictions invite us to soaring above normal life. and draftsman. made in 1926. arched vaults. and taught at t h e A c a d e m i e d'Architecture. and the reverse is true on the right. ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE French architectural theorist. This shift makes the cenotaph appear three-dimensional. Newton's Cenotaph 1784 153/4 x 25 in ( 4 0 2 x 635 m m ) ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE . Light illusions This pen-and-wash drawing shows a subtle application of the principles of illumination demonstrated with an egg on p.96. enter the long-shadowed architecture of imaginary worlds. antlike mortals might have speculated upon the universe. His celebrated imaginary buildings are characterized by pyramids. cylinders. experiencing a fascinating conflict between curiosity and desolation. and dramatic lighting. We glide over exquisitely drawn wastelands of damage and abandonment. Boullee's monolithic apparition was drawn as a monument to Sir Isaac Newton. the ominous globe exists only as a series of drawings.

and white ink on brown-gray paper. Fritz Lang's Metropolis c. gray. and are Graphite shapes Nobson Central isoneof a series of very large graphite drawings of the spoil and detritus of Nobson Newtown. and m o d e l . Nobson Central 9 ft 1 0 in x 1 3 f t 2 in (3 x 4 m ) PAUL N O B L E 1998-99 . intensely detailed graphite drawings explaining and questioning t h e geography. Working on toned paper such as this gives an artist greater scope for dramatic lighting effects than if they work on white paper. draftsman. mythology.Building shapes are works can be read as text. together with c i n e m a t o g r a p h e r Karl Freund. architecture. Nobson political visions of humanity Newtown. and morality o f an invented place called His satires exhibited w o r l d w i d e . used forced perspective camera t e c h n i q u e s t o amplify t h e m a g n i t u d e o f buildings in relation t o human characters.a r t director O t t o Hunte. Kettlehut drew using a fine and relatively dry brush dipped in black. Kettlehut and his c o . FUTURE FICTIONS Brush and ink This is a dramatic drawing from a film that shaped the history of world cinema.m a k e r In t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f Metropolis.73 ERICH KETTLEHUT Influential film a r t director. 1926 ERICH KETTLEHUT PAUL N O B L E British c o n t e m p o r a r y artist who creates m o n u m e n t a l . Its sheerscaleengulfs the viewer and demands based time and patience to on letters and in some beread.

Sometimes shared with Naive artists. but is most easily seen and understood in pictures of buildings and interiors. 206-07). I contribute the child's perspective. See how the thread corresponds to each converging line.74 ARCHITECTURE Pathways of Sight LINEAR PERSPECTIVE (also called vanishing-point perspective) is a simple device for calculating the relative size of things in pictorial space. We use it to structure illusions of depth. Here Leonardo provides a superb example of a single vanishing point. LEONARDO DA VINCI One of the greatest artists. Press the pin into Leonardo's vanishing point. In his notebooks. and inventions— essential reading for inquiring minds. and age eight. found at the center of all converging lines. inventors. It can be applied to any subject. this perspective is often an imagined bird's-eye view in which details are mapped according to logic and importance rather than how they might appear in real life. Study of Perspective Adoration of the for the Magi 1481 61/2 x111/2in (165 x 290 mm) LEONARDO DA VINCI . observations. All forms of perspective are of equal value. Note how architectural features conform to lines and how human figures diminish in size toward thevanishingpoint. and those of Naive artists and children. linear perspective is distinct from more ancient systems practiced in the East. scientists. Invented by Italian artist and architect Brunelleschi in 1413 (late in the history of art). and thinkers ever to have lived. Pull the thread taut and rotate it slowly above the drawing. Piranesi an example of two. Leonardo recorded constant streams of ideas. It is also distinguished from aerial perspective (see pp. Single-point perspective Tie a thread to a pin.

. Note the rather large rabbits and pheasants the hills. 1740 5 1 / 2 x 83/8 in (141 x 212 mm) G I O V A N N I B A T T I S T A PIRANESI points are located on either side of the drawing. Lightly marked illuminates vanishing Two Courtyards c. Two-point perspective Sunlight through this colonnade a great example of two-point perspective. New Forest. and theoretical writing strongly influenced neoclassicism. including all they recall about the subject. visionary and practical understanding of ancient Rome. a points in logical narrative of memories. Scale Our farmhouse my experience was in the woods. Children are uninhibited and problems with one element being obscured by another rarely arise. England 1980 9 x 16 in (228 x 405 mm) S A R A H SIMBLET GIOVANNI BATTISTA PIRANESI Italian artist. It shows how children usually map large scenes in flat layers one above the other. issues of scale when making room for important their story. This drawing Young children typically maps ignore on and understanding of the nearby village. architect. Mark these points with your pin and follow the converging lines of the drawing by rotating your thread. which I saw from home every day. Breamore Village. and designer Piranesi's prolific architectural drawings.SARAH SIMBLET I made this drawing (at age 8) in response to a local bookstore's request for children to draw their village. at the top of each lateral column base.

then follow the ten steps below. (See p. corresponding to a single vanishing point. Extend each dotted line to the edge of your drawing. imagine. This ensures that the second rectangle aligns with the shape and 4 Draw four short lines to connect the four corners of the two rectangles. you will amplify the illusion of distance. Study these pages first before embarking on this lesson. Surround the vanishing point with a small rectangle. this is your vanishing point. Draw each step over the preceding one to build up a single image. This is where we will begin. 2 3 corners must each touch a dotted line. You have completed your first box.76 ARCHITECTURE Single-Point Perspective MASTERING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE i s e a s i e r t h a n y o u m a y First read through. discovering the image as it progressed. Leonardo began with a grid of many lines within which he invented his scene. using a sharp HB pencil and ruler. Piranesi planned his drawing with only the essential lines needed. draw a horizon line across your paper Mark a spot on the horizon line.) . This lesson shows you how to make a simple illusion of space defined by two boxes and three flat boards.98 for an important note on oscillation. On the previous page we looked at its essential mechanism through drawings by Leonardo and Piranesi. Draw four dotted lines radiating out from the vanishing point. DRAWING BOXES 1 Using a ruler and a sharp HB pencil. Each line should pass through one corner of the rectangle. Note that if you place large structures in the foreground and smaller ones closer to your vanishing point. try composing your own space. In contrast. Next. Erase the dotted construction lines.

you can place rectangles anywhere youwishin relation to a vanishing point. the closer it will appear to the viewer. 6 As in step 2. andfarside of this first board. when inventing your own compositions. The board's sides should be parallel. The four comers must each touch a dotted line to be sureitaligns with the first. Note that this does not surround the vanishing point In the future.77 SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE 5 Draw a new rectangle. draw a second. with two dotted lines. larger rectangle. 8 Complete the second box with short lines as in step 4.willhelptomake them appear more solid.asIhavedonehere. bottom. The larger you make your second rectangle. Connect this to the vanishing point— again. . draw four dotted lines radiating from your vanishing point Pass these through each comer of the new rectangle. 9 Use dotted lines connecting the slanting linetothe vanishing point to locate the top. Continue the dotted lines out toward the edge of your drawing. N e x t draw a slanting line to mark the height of the first flat board. and erase the dotted lines. 7 As in step 3. 1 0 Erase all ofthedottedlinestoseeyourfinishedboxes Thickeningtheiredges. Repeat this to add two more boards to the composition.

once said: "I never end up with what I set out to do. I always start with a script but I don't follow it all the way through to the end." . Linear perspective will support y o u by providing a frame in which to b u i l d your picture as it did for Leonardo. It highlights the importance of having faith in your imagination and trusting your ability to invent. then let the space suggest its c o n t e n t s and purpose. Every work talks In this class. O n a fresh page in your d r a w i n g b o o k .78 ARCHITECTURE Creating an Imaginary Space T H I S CLASS USES SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE t o c r e a t e a s i m p l e to you and if you listen to it. Then follow the three given steps. you will find white adhesive stationery labels are useful for covering errors or changing the direction of your idea. If using a fibertip pen as I have done for this drawing. 7 4 ) . let simple lines suggest a simple space. As David Lynch. it will take you places you never dreamed of. A lot more happens when you open yourself up to the work and let yourself act and react to it. APPLYING PERSPECTIVE An Imagined Scaffold "Enjoy your illusion as you make it and it will become more real. p ." imaginary room. draw a b o x as shown opposite. it is interaction that makes the work richer. The m i s t a k e n belief that we s h o u l d k n o w exactly what o u r finished drawings will l o o k like before we m a k e t h e m prevents many people from ever starting. artist and film director. w h e t h e r it is a film or a painting.

Here.79 DRAWING A SIMPLE ROOM Essentials t o remember: objects and people dimmish in size as they move farther away. parallel planes such as walls converge toward the vanishing point. horizontal. 2 first before adding furniture. This initial space will be transparent and open to change.Addanarray of converging lines to provide a "scaffold" for vertical. you will beableto draw more complex objects orpeoplewithin them. and floors and ceilings also converge and rise o r lower toward the horizon.There is great pleasure tobefoundin spending time inventing interiors. 3 Remove the construction lines with an eraser and the room will becomeclearer. additional lines have established the different surfaces and how they relate to each other.drawthehorizonlineand vanishingpoint. The space has become more solid and real. . CREATING AN IMAGINARY SPACE 1First. and leaning surfaces. With some practice.

p o i n t perspective ( s h o w n opposite top). do verticals appear inclined. Only when y o u might employ t h r e e . It is important to realize that you can have as many vanishing points as you wish. T h e y d o n o t have to relate to each other. These elaborations could continue indefinitely across a sheet of paper in pursuit of complex and intricate ideas. verticals appear p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the g r o u n d . They could be drawn on any scale from miniature to monumental. Potentially. Free vanishing points On paper we can enjoy the freedom of fantastic structural invention without limitations of solid materials or gravity. located anywhere inside or outside the pictorial space. or low and we look u p . I have elaborated on the simple boxes above. showing y o u h o w to draw curved surfaces and a tiled floor. To draw such a view APPLICATION Copy these drawings to see and feel how they work before inventing your own versions. T h i n k of standing at the top of a skyscraper and imagine h o w its parallel sides would appear to converge below you. The boxes drawn here are seen partly or entirely disassociated from a horizon line drawn across the bottom of the image. Here. Elaborations . o r to the h o r i z o n . From our normal eye level. a n d this is how we have drawn them so far (see pp. 76-79). Copying what you see in the work of others will help you to understand what they have done. but they are not confined to this level.80 ARCHITECTURE Further Aspects of Perspective W E ARE ACCUSTOMED TO SEEING our e n v i r o n m e n t from a relatively constant point of view. Further aspects of three-point perspective are also illustrated opposite. T h i s is d e m o n s t r a t e d immediately below. our eye level is very high and we look down. they can be placed anywhere inspaceto describe the perspective of flyi c tilted objects. Search for the application of these perspectives among works by other artists in this book and in galleries. That is where we e to find them. Vanishing points are commonly found on horizon—our eye level.

Iusedthese lines as a guide t o draw the curvature of boxes and panels flying through space. Note that altering the distance between the three dots above will tilt the level of the floor . and therefore tension. you will see how. (Turn the book around to see a view looking up.Istarted with two parallel lines.75.) By comparing this drawing t o Piranesi's example of two-point perspective on p. useful for representing steep views looking up or down tall structures. Giving curvature. tostraightlines can amplify drama in a picture. Three-point checkered floor This d bottom floor. An array of curved lines (drawn freehand) link the two lateral points.I added horizontal lines t o define the tiles. PERSPECTIVE Three-point curves Here. by adding a third point you can achieve a sense of incline. they mark the corners of the floor tiles. three vanishing points are evenly spaced along a horizon line. I then drew three fanned groups of lines connecting each of the three points above to the seven points below. I marked the toplinewith three evenly spaced points and the line with seven. Where thelinescross.81 FURTHER ASPECTS OF Three-point towers This drawing depicts three-point perspective.Finally.


I visited many anatomical theaters and museums. making drawings to resolve questions and express personal responses to the nature and history of anatomy. . These walnut-skin ink pen and brush drawings show imagined views of theaters that do not exist but were inspired by places I studied.Theaters RESEARCHING FOR MY P H D .


. the water.I N KDRAWING is one of a series I made while next to the Rialto Bridge in Venice. The vanishing of the drawing is directly opposite as we look across The constancy of the bridge and surrounding frames the movement in the life that flows past.Venetian Life sitting point buildings ThisP E N .A N D .




With the sudden onset of mass production. each demanding more of the other as they increased in sophistication. that test our logic with a sense of mystery. A chair. of light in the creation of pictorial illusions. drawn. passing them on to others through the act of making. too. or used on stage hood for a mold t o make theheado f a horse f oas a p r o p — i m b u e d with e n o u g h energy or character can "become" a man. or drawing w e see Leonardo daVinci'sprecision as can be given meaning. are all made bearing the signature of our time and place. but humans LEONARDO DA VINCI Inthisbeautiful red chalk Our items all have a purpose—practical or ornamental—and all have a meaning. T h e Industrial Revolution c h a n g e d the traditional w a y s in w h i c h objects were designed. and made. Today. craftsmen had held plans in their memory. color. fictional realities caster of h o w t o make it andhowit will w o r k . to record an observed detail. Artists also make images of objects that can never exist. drawings were needed to instruct workers on the factory floor. H e has described contour and function at drawings. T h e precision of engineering d r a w i n g s e v o l v e d alongside machine tools. planned. Engineers and designers of our objects and instruments make drawings for many reasons: to test an idea that is yet to be made. It is shaped in sections w i t h Artists have for centuries studied and expressed composition. Previously. for example—whether. r an equestrian statue. for example. C o m m o n items. design. we look at the importance are the only creatures on Earth w h o actually design and create great ranges of things. making a clear instruction t o his bronzemeaning. sculpted. It was in this era that the blueprint was born. Technical drawing was speedily developed as a meticulous international code of m e a s u r e m e n t and explanation. or to explain and present a finished concept to a client. illuminating snail shells. drawing c. In past eras. and the behavior of light through making still-life paintings and together. texture. even more advanced drawings are made on computers. from s p o o n s and pens to chairs and bicycles.Objects and Instruments T HE THINGS WE INVENT describe our lives. these. Birds follow instinct to make a nest. H e has described a casting through metaphor. 1493 117/8c81/4in (300 x 210 m m ) LEONARDO D A V I N Ccreating I . Artists and actors use the meanings of things to communicate a speculative mechanic. W e also explore v o l u m e and form in the classes by spinning lines to make vessels. hooked bars that can be pulled and tied closely form. In this chapter. and the way in w h i c h the brain reacts Head and Neck Sections of Female Mold for the Sforza Horse to visual stimulus and optical illusions. and some apes use simple tools. History will be learned from the artifacts w e leave behind. and a wire violin. have often carried great weights of allegorical once.

One of the great joys of this movement in art is the musicality of its multipoint view. a colored canvas. Braques "justly" arranged combination of cut black card. There is a fragile eloquence to these objects as they drift in slow motion past our gaze. Braques image is a Cubist collage. texture. He takes us into the bustle of the Paris cafe. Opposite. charcoal. not of place but of things. His work is characterized by calm and harmonious still-life compositions. "I believe [it] is the most radicalattempttostampout ambiguity and to enforce one readingofthepicture—that of a manmade construction. silverware. Braque established Cubism in partnership with Picasso just before World War I. and a journal jacket with words makes this drawing chatter about the moment.. not to work in harmony. and glass objects of exquisite elegance for only the gentlest of touch and appreciation.Braque marshals all the forces of perspective. Mucha's drawing glistens with possession. Below. Clashes The art historian Ernst Gombrich said of Cubism. wood-look wallpaper. steaming with music and conversation. Statue D'Epouvante 1913 2 f t 5 in x 3 ft 5 in (0. T h i s is a designers drawing made to enthuse surface and style in its delicate brushing of china.73 x 1 m) GEORGES BRAQUE . perfect i n their newly made availability. but to clash in virtual deadlock.. . representing still life.90 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS Still Life THESE DRAWINGS REVEAL t w o o p p o s i t e m o t i v a t i o n s i n we can. still feel this projected moment. and shading." La Cuitare. Even today GEORGES BRAQUE French painter who as a young man was influenced by the work of the Fauves and of Cezanne.

flowers. The three plates facing us were drawn with a compass. Art Nouveau motifs This is a preliminary study for a subsequent print. Study for Plate 59 from "Documents Decoratifs" 17x121/4(430 x 310 mm) ALPHONSE MUCHA 1902 .fruit. He designed the Austrian pavilion for the Paris World Fair in 1900. He is best known for posters featuring ethereal women in typical Art Nouveau style. Pans. and New York. For ten years Mucha designed theater posters exclusively for the actress Sarah Bernhardt. Art Nouveau curling motifs of birds. and also stamps and bank notes. Black watercolor washes and lines of white gouache have been added with a fine brush. Look at the two spoons at toprightand see how has suggested that they are so brilliantly shiny they reflect the background color.ALPHONSE MUCHA Czech graphic artist and painter who worked in Prague. and fish have been outlined using a sharp pencil. Chicago. Background color Between the delicate shadows and highlights of these glazed and surfaces ofthebackground metal color of the Mucha we see a large amount paper.

we see drawing Instruments of Vision found among his letters. 0 0 0 perfect hemispheres. Hooke's head of a drone fly seen through a microscope may represent the first time man and insect came face to face. Ink lines Several drawings appear among Newton's letters. alchemist. Their delicate construction is only as valuable as the measurements they make. each reflecting a view of his own world—his window. From the concept of capturing the infinite to the mapping of microscopic sight. and his hand moving across the light. It is a diagrammatic explanation of how to catch and magnify a star in a mirrored tube. drawing is there to pin the moment down. The power of this drawing reflects the pure passion of discovery. astronomer. In the graphic work of these two great men of science. mathematician. via a second mirror. and Fellow of the University o f C a m b r i d g e . A disembodied eye at the top of the drawing indicates where to look.92 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS by their very nature must gauge or chronicle precision. shape the very cause and effect of investigatory thought. and the nature o f light and color. Transparent view Newton's reflecting telescope focused light in a parabolic mirror. each one skillfully rendered with the alarmingly matter-of-fact ease of explaining the commonplace. Look how confidently he draws with ink the sphere of this wooden globe by which his telescope rotates. into the eyepiece. Newton used this instrument to calculate the speed required to escape earth's gravity. w h e r e he developed his three greatest theories: the law o f motion. With dotted lines Newton has drawn his arrangement of elements inside the tube. It was then reflected up inside the tube and. and philosopher Newton was President of the Royal Society. Newton's 1672 ISAAC Telescope NEWTON . a tree outside. He counted 1 4 . the law o f gravity. offering a transparent view. Newton's drawing of his first reflecting telescope is ISAAC N E W T O N English scientist.

It is an exhilarating read. The Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 1665 ROBERT HOOKE 111/2 x 105/8 in (294 x 270 mm) . universal joint a prototype respirator clock balance. and calculated the theory of combustion.An experimental scientist who drew many of his discoveries. and anchor escarpment. Hooke invented the camera diaphragm. ROBERT H O O K E 93 Magnifications This acutely detailed engraved drawing is taken from Hooke's Micrographia (pub. a breathtaking book containing many of his drawings showing some of the first microscopic and telescopic magnifications of our environment Hooke's text and illustrations carry us to the moment of discovery. 1665).

Sarah Woodfines flat cut-out m o d e l plan is a witty and surprising drawing. Van Gogh's tipsy seat is a metaphor for an absent person. each drawn with the s a m e unfaltering lines and tones that are between reality and impossibility. A renegade from the p a p e r dolls' h o u s e . has published several catalogs of her work. craft. OBJECTS AND SARAH WOODFINE British contemporary artist graduate of the Royal Academy Schools. this chair p r e s e n t s us with a clever visual contradiction: deeply drawn shadows tell us it must be solid. and has drawings in numerous public and private collections. it has so m u c h familiar personality that it seems to talk to us. and w h e r e the chair b e l o n g s . W i t h h o m e y c o n t r a s t . Drawn in more-or-less c o n v e n t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . Bench Marks W e are left a little c o n f u s e d as to what we s h o u l d do. and place in the world are truly seen. while the tabs make us see a flat paper cut-out. From component parts we understand how to put it together and make it stand sensible in space. Its wobbly gait and squashed s y m m e t r y m u m b l e endless h o m e y tales about the life it has seen. Chair Cut Out 2002 22'A x 23 in (565 x 585 mm) SARAH WOODFINE . its character. Woodfine exhibits internationally. and winner of the 2004 Jerwood Drawing Prize. Two-dimensional was made This highly finished drawing ruler using a sharp pencil and on smooth white drawing paper glistening dark drawings are artificial representations of known Woodfine's two-dimensional things balanced in the world.94 INSTRUMENTS W H E N WE DRAW A COMMON OBJECT like a chair.

Van Chair 1890 VINCENT VAN GOGH .hehas marked the full emotion of the subject with a fierce grip of concentration. what direct in their he saw and describing his felt. The floor few as engagement with the chair. not is made present in only strokes and is subdued to distract us from flat a meaningful chair. inner recording while Fierce strokes This is a portrait of the mechanical drew immediately and almost harshly. His passionate brush and pencil strokes are honest and of also turmoil and growing alarm at the world around him.95 VINCENTVAN GOGH Dutch painter who produced over 800 paintings and 850 drawings in only the last ten year's of his life. and Starry Cypress Night. Among van Gogh's best-known canvases are Trees. drawn opposite way of plan. Cornfield and Sunflowers.

U p s i d e . The outermost edge of our vision.102-03 deep shadows cast across shells make their form easier to perceive.96 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Light and Illusions SEEING IS MIRACULOUS. Tape them to the glass. a lit photograph of an egg shows essential points to observe in tonal drawing. cards the same size. The perceived tone of a black white. a n d are q u i c k to p r o p o s e ideas. Below the bottom "edge" of the egg there is a rim of light reflected onto the paper by the underside of the egg. The rim of light on the egg is reflected light received from surrounding paper. the adjustment of our eyes (in growing accustomed to a level of light). a n d our ability to see forms in c l o u d s or fire. Here. Are you happy LIGHT AND SHADOW with what you see? Does the light enhance the subject? Could you alter and improve it? On pp. think about its illumination.d o w n patterns of light on our retinas. The egg's darkest region is seen against a lighter background. Adjust the angleofthe protruding part and again stepback. a n d m o v e m e n t . a n d we can be fooled. Gray squares To further examine changes in tone. We will even see things that d o not exist because minimal information suggests they are likely to be there. are translated into a world of space. S o m e o n e passes our o p e n door. Three factors change it: the amount of light it receives. two identical mid-gray squares are seen against black and paler gray squares. Through these we can enjoy witnessing our o w n d e c e p t i o n a n d b a f f l e m e n t a n d u n d e r s t a n d certain factors that are very useful in picture-making. o u r b r a i n s search for n a m e a b l e things. From across the room both will appear black card and fold and retapeitwith half sticking out. The egg's lightest region is seen against a darker background. To interpret visual s t i m u l u s . try this experiment. w e turn our head but n o one w a s there. hence our recognition of a cartoon face c o m p o s e d of three lines. We only need small prompts. and the proximity of contrasting tones. your eye around the circumference of the egg. The two tones meet without a division or outline between. The small squares are identical in tone. On acloudyday. Below. Artists emulate and manipulate this effect in their pictures. gray. but do not appear so. Here w e look briefly at our perception of light a n d darkness a n d our interpretation of diagrammatic illusions. See how its "edge" smoothly changes from light against dark to dark against light. transmitted to the brain as chains of electrical impulses.This effect is caused by the contrast of their surroundings. T h e slightest recognition is instantly matched to our wealth of experience a n d expectation. We perceive one to be lighter than theother. Card experiment cho can gra on . perhaps. Before starting a tonal drawing of any subject. one blackandone white. atmosphere.At one point you will catchenoughlight lighter than the white one. Run The bottom-left quarter of the egg lightens slightly toward its "edge" when seen against the darker shadow cast on the paper. form. reads only m o v e m e n t a n d can often m a k e mistakes. or colored surface is never constant. less developed than the center. W e learn to read light and shadow in our environment as indicators of solidity and depth of space.

A n u p r i g h t line stands in t h e c e n t e r o f a h o r i z o n t a l line. S h o r t h o r i z o n t a l lines o f identical length are m a d e t o l o o k d i f f e r e n t by c o n v e r g i n g lines beside t h e m ( C ) . In this t o n a l image w e read w h i t e as f a t t e r t h a n black. T h e r e is n o obligation t o a d d b l o c k s o f t o n e t o a l i n e a r d r a w i n g . T w o relatively t h i c k parallel lines are m a d e t o b e n d away f r o m each o t h e r as t h e y pass in f r o n t o f an a r r a y o f c o n v e r g i n g f i n e lines ( B ) . respectively. LIGHT AND ILLUSIONS Tonal width T h e s e black a n d w h i t e bands are o f equal thickness o n e i t h e r side o f t h e i r central division. by d i r e c t e d a r r o w s ( A ) . t h i c k e r l i n e s a p p e a r t o stand forward. T w o horizontal lines o f equal length are m a d e t o l o o k longer and shorter. T h i s fundamental o p p o s i t e is a reason w h y l i n e a r a n d t o n a l d r a w i n g does not a l w a y s c o m b i n e w e l l in t h e s a m e i m a g e .97 LINE VERSUS TONE In l i n e a r d r a w i n g s . In this linear drawing w e read t h i c k as closer a n d t h i n as f a r t h e r away. Apparent lengths T h e s e optical illusions s h o w h o w lines o f identical length can b e m a d e t o l o o k quite different f r o m each o t h e r by t h e addition o r association o f o t h e r lines. In a t o n a l d r a w i n g . B o t h are identical in length. w h i l e t h i n n e r lines recede. Seven parallel lines are m a d e t o tilt t o w a r d and away f r o m each o t h e r by n u m e r o u s s h o r t strokes crossing t h e m diagonally ( A ) . If y o u w i s h t o m a k e a t o n a l drawing. start o u t w i t h one. O b s e r v e h o w each white b a n d appears t h i c k e r t h a n its black c o u n t e r p a r t . Bending straight lines Linear distance These t w o jugs have b e e n d r a w n w i t h lines o f d i f f e r i n g thicknesses. b u t t h e u p r i g h t o n e l o o k s t a l l e r (B).p o i n t p e r s p e c t i v e d r a w i n g s w i t h a large n u m b e r o f c o n v e r g i n g rays b e h i n d y o u r horizontals. l i g h t e r surfaces s t a n d f o r w a r d w h i l e d a r k e r s u r f a c e s recede. O f t e ndoingso w i l l s p o i l y o u r w o r k . . T h e jug d r a w n w i t h a t h i n line appears f a r t h e r away t h a n t h e j u g d r a w n w i t h a t h i c k e r line. Y o u m a y e x p e r i e n c e s o m e t h i n g similar h a p p e n i n g w h e n y o u m a k e s i n g l e .

Some artists use known optical illusions to make art. SEEING TWO OPTIONS Sometimes. and we learn to read the styles of diverse cultures and periods. their picture could be ambiguous. such as Bridget Riley. w h e n drawing the outline o f a three-dimensional form. Yet many illusions. perfected the acceleration of perspective (see pp. Michelangelo. Two ways of seeing T h i s is t h e b o x c r e a t e d in t h e f o u r t h step o n p. including some shown here. are still not agreeably understood. w e will find that in terms of the direction it faces. made paintings that depended upon the physical sensation of our brain's reaction to known optical illusions. and so calculated precisely how much to fatten columns to make them appear straight. Today we are bombarded with images but rarely have difficulty reading them. w e can only look f r o m one t o the o t h e r If an artist is not aware this can happen in their image. C l o s i n g t h e surface o f t h e f o r m seals o u r d e c i s i o n as t o w h i c h w a y it faces." . it can oscillate b e t w e e n facing t o w a r d o r a w a y f r o m us. Artists can communicate much in few lines and the viewer will do the rest of the work.76. among others.s i d e d r e c t a n g u l a r t r a y ( b o t h are illustrated far r i g h t ) "The brain is so eager to name a fragment we see that we need only a suggestion to grasp the whole. Ancient Greek architects knew parallel upright lines appeared to bend toward each other in the middle. it oscillates between t w o possibilities. In the 1960's.116-17) to make painted figures look correct when viewed from below. It is possible t o r e a d i t t w o ways: as a t r u n c a t e d r e c t a n g u l a r p y r a m i d seen d i r e c t l y f r o m a b o v e . as s h o w n o n t h e right. others adjust works to avoid their effects. A few suggestive marks will tip the decision one way o r the o t h e r Closing the surface W h e n a t r a n s p a r e n t elliptical o b j e c t has b e e n d r a w n . Artists make pictorial illusions when they paint or draw. It is a curious fact that w e can never see both options at once. Op(tical) artists. such as t h e dish seen h e r e o n t h e left.98 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Further Illusions PSYCHOLOGISTS AND PHYSIOLOGISTS have studied optical illusions for decades in pursuit of what they tell us about the brain. o r as a s l o p i n g .

N e i t h e r triangle exists. This effect can o c c u r naturally w h e n looking at a b r i g h t l y lit w h i t e g r i d such as a w i n d o w f r a m e against t h e night sky. His highly d i s p u t e d and i m p r e c i s e science involves s h o w i n g u n p r e p a r e d p a t i e n t s t e n p a r t i c u l a r ink b l o t s a n d asking t h e m t o i n t e r p r e t w h a t t h e y see. . T h e y a r e o f t e n c r e d i t e d w i t h t h e invention o f t h e c o m i c c a r t o o n .99 Impossible objects T h e s e clever configurations o f outlines and t o n a l surfaces convince us at a glance that we are seeing a solid three-dimensional triangle and a three-pronged fork. clouds.c e n t u r y Italian painters. P e r c e i v i n g a w h o l e i m a g e f r o m m i n i m a l lines T h i s is a w i d e l y r e p r o d u c e d visual j o k e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e C a r r a c c i b r o t h e r s . 1 6 t h . C Escher u s e d this phenomenon t o great effect in his many p o p u l a r d r a w i n g s o f puzzles and impossible buildings. T h e t e s t e x p l o r e s o u r n o r m a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o find things w e can n a m e a m o n g r a n d o m shapes. e t c . T h e s e e x a m p l e s illustrate h o w little is n e e d e d t o c o n v e y an image. T h e patient's answers are t h e n diagnosed as a psychological profile. W e should r e m e m b e r t h a t o u r brains will always search f o r a p i c t u r e — i n ink blots. C o u p l e d w i t h t h e Rorschach b l o t above. this is a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f t h e viewer's b r a i n b e i n g willing t o d o a large a m o u n t o f t h e w o r k in d e c i p h e r i n g a p i c t u r e .c e n t u r y Swiss psychologist H e r m a n n Rorschach. b u t w e believe w e see t h e m because e n o u g h f r a g m e n t a r y i n f o r m a t i o n is given f o r o u r brains t o c o n c l u d e t h e y are v e r y likely t h e r e . FURTHER ILLUSIONS Seeing things that are n o t t h e r e H e r e o n t h e left. — a n d so t h e artist can create m u c h o u t o f an impression w i t h o u t overdescribing. w e see t w o overlapping triangles: o n e outlined in black b e n e a t h a n o t h e r in solid w h i t e . M u c h can b e e x p r e s s e d in o n l y a f e w marks. B e l o w is a b r i g h t n e s s c o n t r a s t illusion. O n l y o n closer inspection we realize that t h e s e o b j e c t s are fooling us. F a m i l i a r i t y in r a n d o m s h a p e s T h e Rorschach test was established by t h e 1 9 t h . C o u n t t h e n u m b e r o f d a r k spots y o u can see. S o m e artists use ink blots t o p r o m p t t h e beginning o f an image. Minimal-line j o k e s such as this rely u p o n t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y v i e w e r ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e shapes. smoke. T h e a r t i s t M. Yet still w e try resolve t h e m . This simple five-line d r a w i n g is o f a C a p u c h i n priest asleep in his pulpit.

A wobbling but confident ellipse will still be more convincing than a slow. like a disposable plastic cup that has been crushed in your hand. hesitant one that has edged its w a y nervously around the vessel's rim. keep it spinning. there are three common errors people stumble upon. w e use ellipses to give a sense of perspective. The second common error is to tilt the upper and lower ellipses at different angles. circles change into ellipses. since this is h o w w e experience them in e v e r y d a y use. Cubism. spin your hand in a relaxed circle. However. The first common error is to draw two pointed ellipses. . though. for example.90) takes a different as essentially circular. describing many sides of an object simultaneously. Don't worry if it is uneven— just try again. a n d in o n e bold stroke. How to Draw Ellipses of seeing. (see p. suggesting that the vessel is lopsided.100 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS W E VISUALIZE CYLINDRICAL VESSELS. To make a cylindrical object appear real in our pictorial space. Be aware. as if the table surface slopes upward beneath the vessel. such as bowls and cups. Watch the tip of your pen and see it draw an ellipse in the air Keep this movement going while gently lowering the pen onto the paper like the needle of a record player closing on the disc (only it is your lowering hand that spins. and these narrow or widen depending on the height of our view. giving the cylinder four corners. you will achieve steadiness with practice. springlike forms like those I have drawn below. I have exaggerated this error here. even if y o u r hand w o b b l e s a little at first. smoothly. Ellipse are best d r a w n quickly. third common error is to draw upper and lover ellipses with different-sized apertures. that this is o n l y o n e w a y view. for example plates or bowls on a table. w h e n seen at an angle. COMMON ERRORS W h e n drawing cylindrical objects in perspective. Cover a sheet of paper with spinning. while its upper rim remains level. WHERE TO START In the air above a spacious sheet of scrap paper. I have drawn these for you here. not the paper!) As the pen touches down.

Seeing Through Allow lines to travel around each vessel as if it were transparent. you can start to control your spinning ellipse to make a vessel. HOW TO DRAW E L L I P S E S A Single Vessel One Inside Another Grouped Together Finding Shape and Volume Draw an imagined vessel in one continuous spinning line.101 DRAWING VESSELS Once you have mastered drawing free-hand springs. enlarging and diminishing the ellipse to determine the overall shape and volume. Altering the pressure—and therefore tone—of the line as it spins gives the impression of light shining on one side. . you can make it solid by building up highlights and tones on visible surfaces. Create a Solid Surface Once you have drawn the shape and volume of each form. Draw quickly. thereby hiding lines that show the other sides. working from top to bottom.

Draw the largest and most distinct areas of light and darkness first. outlines. and solid objects are all of equal importance. simply shapes and subtleties of light and dark meeting each other with no divisions in between. two opposite methods of achieving the same result. it will inhibit your perception of tone. Remember that shadows. leaving detail until last. In the finished drawing there should be few. Gradually hone your drawing.22-23). if light shines in them. making complicated or subtle surfaces easier to see and understand. t h e r e a r e p r i n c i p a l l y Dramatic lighting emphasizes texture and contour. LIGHT TO DARK DARK TO LIGHT . and strong contrasts are easier to draw. It is important to place them on the correct side so as to draw comfortably (see pp. You can begin with outlines and build slowly from light to dark (see opposite top). It maximizes the range of tones between black and white. Relaxing your eyes out of focus as you draw will help to dissolve the distraction of detail. or you can begin with a mid-gray ground and model light out of darkness (see opposite bottom).102 INSTRUMENTS Tonality W H E N MAKING A TONAL DRAWING. OBJECTS AND Start by arranging a choice of shells on a sheet of paper to your left if you are right-handed (or vice versa). beams of light. Illuminate them with a gooseneck lamp placed very close and directed away from your eyes. if any.

Treat positive form and negative space (see pp. until you are happy frame. Use your pencil to develop these in relation to the areas of light. .56-57). Avoid a rough significant areas of light in your gray rectangle with texture and do not press the graphite hardwhite plastic eraser Ignore all detail and draw a into thepaperor you will not be able to erase it. Let your eyes go out of focus while looking gently layer marks to create an even tone at your subject and paper: Draw the most ofmid-graywithin a rectangle. pale lines with equal importance. loose. Draw in the details last of all. Honetheshapesand angles of the shells. and edges definingthespacialrelationships between are important aspects of your composition them. shape. draw a rectangle. Remember that its size.103 LIGHT TO DARK (LINE TO TONE) TONALITY 1 Using a sharp HB pencil. Use quick. DARK TO LIGHT (TONE TO TONE) 1 Using the flattened tip of an HB pencil. Relaxing your eyes out of focus will help to eliminate distracting details. Fll in broad areas first and leave all detail until last. with broad sweeps of the eraser. Erase and make changes to roughly place the shells inside your with your composition. 2 3 Gentlydissolveoutlines so that areas oflightanddark meet without a line between them. look at the main areas of darkness. boldly 2 3 Keeping your eyes out of focus. Continue working between light and dark to refine the drawing.

19 Picasso draws with a pen-light for the camera. When drawing anything viewed from one side on paper.69 we see how the architect Antonio Gaudi drew proposed domes using suspended wires and weights. . and on p. and on p. PEN LINES Once you have created your three-dimensional violin (opposite). 176 the British artists Noble and Webster draw with domestic refuse in a beam of light.104 OBJECTS AND I N S T R U M E N T S Drawing with Wire DRAWINGS DO NOT HAVE to be two-dimensional. smooth. The second is that after achieving this simple example. try drawing it with a pen on paper Use bold. and physical relationships between them. On p. Place the instrument on a plain surface and illuminate it with a desk lamp to add the delicate dimension of shadows. They can also be made in space. There are essentially three lessons to be learned. The first is that figurative and abstract drawings can be made in space. you can create your own more ambitious works.220 Mamoru Abe draws with forged steel rods. three-dimensional drawings teach us about the totality of forms in space. On p. our image is stronger if we understand and can visualize what is happening on the other side too. This class uses thin-gauge wire to create a threedimensional violin. Third. continuous lines. Seeing through a wire drawing of a known object such as a violin gives us a visual and tactile understanding of all its sides and shapes at once.

I started with the scroll at the top and fixed the four component wires with two drawings of tuning pegs. Once you have completed the body. but thin enough to be easily manipulated inyourfingers Here. I used garden wire and cut it carefully with pruners. brace the two ends of the violin with a length of wire along the back. 1 Decide how big to draw your violin relative to the gauge of your wire. Join the two sides together with four short pieces of wire. 4 . Cut a length. Then begin to define its uppermost surface with Scurves and the bridge. thin wire will make a smaller drawing. and pinch and bend it to shape the base of the instrument Repeat this process to make the identical upper side of the instrument.105 SETTING UP DRAWING WITH WIRE Follow these steps to draw a three-dimensional violin Choose a gauge of wire sturdy enough to hold the shape ofyourfinished drawing. Here. These will hold the sides apart and help to keep the form in shape. 2 3 If needed. begin to shape the curvature of the fingerboard. and thick wire a larger one.

Artifacts and Fictions IN 1993 I WORKED with a group of schoolchildren who were responding to the astonishing objects in the collection of the Pitt Rivers Museum. . Using found materials. they invented new anthropological finds—objects that reflected the distant past and their immediate future. Oxford. I had the privilege of drawing their inventions. some of which are shown here. England.



much Western contemporary art. The body remains at the core of over the initially white lines. The human body. Look closely at Renaissance drawings of the female b o d y and you will see that m o s t are actually y o u n g m e n with minor adjustments. but the study of a controlled. focus has turned to the vulnerability of flesh: how it can be damaged. and surgically rebuilt. During this time. Williams were decades ahead of their medical counterparts. while Durer took his research further— A. sculptural description of her form. W I L L I A M S technology. These classes are popular around the world. W e are the only creatures on Earth that can make our own image. W e understand every curve and balance of to the theory that the eves are the windows of the soul. 3 x 7 in (300 x 180 . and because the female was deemed inferior. a n d w e d r a w o u r s e l v e s to a s s e r t o u r e x i s t e n c e . Drawings were usually made from the male nude to avoid offending the church. R. herimpressive presence because we are given such Life drawing no longer dominates the art school curriculum. In this period. WILLIAMS he sought perfection in the infinitesimal measurement of the body and produced four Contemporary photographer volumes of illustrated explanation. artists also tried to define ideal proportions in the body. R. This F finished image was produced as r a n c i s c o . from video and X-ray to thermal imaging. Michelangelo attended dissections to made this image by light sectioning: fine beams of light perfect his understanding of surface form. explaining ranges e/ of materials and techniques and showing diversities of thought and purpose in making. giving physical foundation undulating land. Artists are thought to have b e g u n drawing from the nude during the Italian Renaissance. Strangely. in our privileged and comfortable society. This chapter addresses issues that are most commonly faced by beginners attending life-drawing classes. the junior workshop apprentices posed as part of their duties. He even believed he had located the soul contours of her form like a cartographer's map of in the pituitary fossa beneath the brain and behind the eyes. Renaissance artists studying anatomy from dissection clinically trained and specialized as a medical illustrator. the Bay Area Models' Guild h o l d s a quarterly life-drawing m a r a t h o n aprinton Kodak transfer paper with green-colored dye added celebrating the great diversity of human proportion. is the most c o m m o n subject in art. It also looks at the representation of the b o d y b11y4o n d traditional life drawing. while Leonardo opened the body to see and projected onto a woman's body draw the celebratory discover for himself our physical mechanisms. history paintings and other stories. and anatomical and erotic art. clothed or nude. Artists now explore the interior of the body with new media and Lateral Contour Map of a Full-Term Primipara Produced by Light 1979 A. and in San could easily be transferred into three dimensions.The Body O UR BODIES MAKE us TANGIBLE. diseased. She the body is still essential. It gives physical and emotive form to religious narratives. portraiture. myths and fables. Leonardo drew a man within a circle and square.

Three Guards 1500-20 91/4 x143/8in (234 x 365 mm) RAPHAEL . He trained under Perugino. and studied to learn from the works of Michelangelo and Leonardo besides whom he was soon ranked. Muscular dramatic postures reflect the influence of Michelangelo and the Renaissance celebration of the idealized male body. She u n f o l d s and s t r e t c h e s shapely limbs. and Vatican frescos. anatomy.116-17). we see the e s s e n c e of h e r b e a u t y w i t h o u t a single detail. filling the page with her presence. By way of contrast. while Matisse used scissors and glue to cut out and paste a flat collage of brilliant color. so that we read this drawing like a sculptural frieze. while supporting the weight of their body with the other.110 T H E BODY THESE DISTINCTIVE WORKS show two strikingly different ways of modeling the body on paper. Here three male nudes are compressed into very shallow pictorial space. Matisse's b l u e n u d e sings with life and c e l e b r a t i o n . Principal figures m i r r o r e a c h other. But the meanings of each gesture and the materials and methods by which they Postures and Poses were m a d e contrast greatly. T h e y b o t h raise one arm to cup their head in their hand. In this highly s o p h i s t i c a t e d a b s t r a c t i o n . and human defeat. altar pieces. RAFFAELLO SANZIO (RAPHAEL) Italian High Renaissance painter: Raphael is best known for his images of the Madonna and Child. Raphael drew delicate tones of black chalk on tinted paper. In a single drawing we see equally o b s e r v e d studies of f o r e s h o r t e n i n g (see pp. Raphael's study of fallen m e n leaves no doubt that they are in anguish. Sculptural frieze This is a preparatory drawing for Raphael's painting of the Resurrection of Christ.

. fabric.. a mental an appeasing influence. foundamong many other groups of papercut these works as an elderly man confined to his bed or wheelchair.sculptor.. teacher and principal exponent o f Fauvism—a movement established in 1905 in which bold color is the most essential element." of is an art of balance.111 HENRY MATISSE French painter: draftsman. printmaker. Matisse became an artist after studying law. as his w o r k matured.or like a good armchair in which to rest from physical fatigue..which might be.. His calligraphic natural abstractions of form grew brighter. and more energetic Color and form This collage is one of a series of Blue Nudes. his pattern. Matisse Soothing influence This drawing expresses the achievement of Matisse's personal aim: "What I dream and depressing subject matter.designer writer. serenity.. lifelong love of brilliant They celebrate the culmination of spectacular and sometimes drawings. and Islamic art. devoid of troubling Blue Nude 1 1952 413/4 HENRY MATISSE . freer.

it is as if the very atoms of air are made visible. agreeing to coalesce and show us the form of a waiting boy. In his f a m o u s paintings of social e n g a g e m e n t . there are no outlines. or abruptly meeting. Light is given by the paper alone. Using the paper to create light is important for beginners to learn. Here.112 T H E BODY Choreographs T I M E IS A SIGNIFICANT E L E M E N T i n t h e m a k i n g o f a l l d r a w i n g s . If Seurat had added white. Below. turned gray. 162) and an eraser to model teeming points of artificial light amid GEORGES SEURAT French painter classically educated in the Ingres school of thought. scratched in seconds. Seurat engaged in lifelong studies of line. stands in counterpoise holding a dark globe and his thoughts in m o m e n t a r y balance. and color His applied theories still influence painters in their manipulation and rendering of local. Typically. other tones. form. only tones blending into. he used b l a c k c o n t e (see p. and muddied the brilliance of the drawing. and c o m p l e m e n t a r y hues. Opposite. Tone and light In this black conte drawing. Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 1883-84 91/2 x 121/4 in (241 x 312 m m GEORGES SEURAT . velvet d a r k n e s s . w h o sits propped in the contradictory darkness of a hot summer's day. like small birds attendant on the meditation. T h e space around h i m chatters with symbols. Seurat evolved a distinctive t e c h n i q u e called p o i n t i l l i s m — i m a g e s literally made from myriad points of color. Beuys's magician. it would have mixed with unseen black dust. reflected. we c o m p a r e a skillful design that absorbed m u c h time in its making with the quickness of an idea marked instantly. in a perfect e x a m p l e . His drawings are similarly u n i q u e .

This figure is drawn intuitively. transience. and that These aspects of the work convey fractured visibility. taught workshops with a cult following. and drawings.113 JOSEPH BEUYS One of the most influential German artists of the 20th century. Beuys gave performances. Many of his other symbolic works on paper have been drawn with materials such as honey. His The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland UNDATED 113/4 J O S E P H BEUYS x81/4in (297 x 210 mm) . in different positions. and blood. free from the constraint of immaculate form opposite) impetus is irrelevant to the and meaning of this work (as we see in Seurat's drawing representation. iodine. Unbroken lines stream from his simultaneously Our focus joins shoulders. and made installations. video art. Perfectly modeled rather conventional for Joseph Focus Beuys's hand moved quickly to draw dotted lines flowing downward on either side of the figure. CHOREOGRAPHS the profound power materials with spiritual or of Free lines This pale pencil drawing is Beuys. He was a shaman who believed in intuition and in the investment of healing force.

" as seen here. 125/8x 9 in (320 x 229 mm) AUGUSTE RODIN Two Women 1911 Embracing . THE AUGUSTE RODIN French Romantic sculptor and prolific draftsman employed as an ornamental mason until the age of 42.000 drawings shown in rotation at the Musee Rodin. flushed skin made ruddy and black with crushed cinders. In both drawings. was perceived as scandalous. Paris. and went on to inspire generations of artists.114 BODY Passion SUMMONING HUMANITY in a drawing of the nude is a subtle and emotional task. its soft. We are involved not as a shabby voyeur but as a bystander engaged through our recognition of shared joy. Rodin employed models to move freely or pose together in his studio. Delicate strokes This is one of about 7. his w o r k is characterized by deliberate un-finish and powerfully modeled emotion. We are asked to gaze u p o n her flesh. Free lines Rodin's public audience was understandably shocked by the eroticism of his drawings. he typically drew them with a few delicate strokes of pencil and brushed watercolor. In Rodins work. sweeping lines— of either purple silk fabric or cool studio air—that imprint and amplify their past and future movements. They whisper and writhe in a brushed and sultry embrace that devours our watching. His exquisite flow of paint beyond "outlines. Rodin produced portraits and statues of public and literary figures. But what is stranger to us now is that they were also outraged by his free use of line. Inspired by Michelangelo. As here. Our bodies radiate the passion of our thoughts and so become beacons of our frailty and power. Anita Taylor has drawn her protective body hug out of the darkly glistening compression of willow charcoal and the dynamism of her shy but momentous femininity. the women are framed and caressed by long. the fierceness of the women's kiss is beautifully matched by the tenderness of his line. and one of hundreds of rapid studies of nudes. Achieving international acclaim in mid-life. Opposite.

draftsman. scrutiny. This order of light below and dark above gives glowing from within. The sturdy surface of the sheet has allowed her to press hard when needed. the impression of luminosity All and Nothing 1999 67 x447/8in (170 x 1 1 4 cm) ANITA TAYLOR . Taylor has drawn. Charcoal Taylor has drawn freely with charcoal and an eraser on thick. textured paper. exposure.I 15 ANITA T A Y L O R Painter. professor and Vice Principal of Wimbledon School of Art. Luminosity Layered marks flicker likefirelight as they sculpt the woman's body. intimately reflecting upon the emotions and meaning of nudity. leaving her lightest marks at the deepest level of the image and applying darker marks above. Taylor's immense self-portraits explore the relationship between the artist as maker and the artist as model. and gaze. and rework rich depths of light and tone. A thinner sheet might have crumpled and torn under such vigorous force of making. London. erased and drawn again.

It is not so hard. The length of exposed pencil is your measurement. MEASURING This is a simple method of making measured comparisons for relating the true size of one part to another This is a tool to assist observation and thinking. when beginners prop their board in their lap and look down at too steep an angle.116 T H E BODY Measurement and Foreshortening FORESHORTENING IS AN ASPECT of perspective. There is no need to mark them all down on paper. In the life class it is the mechanism for ensuring that a drawn figure lies correctly in pictorial space . 1 Hold your arm straight. But if we could take a scaffold and climb up to the work. or shrivelling at odd. Rome.limbs happily receding. "Simple measured comparisons reveal surprising truths about proportion. without taking off. We also look at another very interesting branch called accelerated (or anamorphic) perspective. the skull in Holbein's The Ambassadors (The National Gallery. 2 Hold your pencil upright. It can also be a little demon in the life room. Close one eye. This is chiefly a correcting device by which figurative painters and sculptors have for centuries countered the effects of our viewing their work from far below or on the curvature of a vault. To avoid its effects ensure you always look flat onto the surface of your page. plummeting. helping us to see more clearly. Imagine Michelangelo's murals in the Sistine Chapel. persistence. How to make and apply these is explained below and opposite. Move the tip of your thumb down to a second chosen point. to be translated by mirrors or seen from only one point in the room. Accelerated perspective plays a great role in much art. just making them helps you see. or coming forward. patience. unfathomable angles. Align the top with a point on your subject. and a few measured comparisons are key. and measurements do not have to be carried to the paper and slavishly drawn the same size they appear on your pencil. with dramatic illusions of figures painted in normal proportion. If your arm is not straight. for example. more extreme examples have been made for court entertainment." . elbow. elongated as if stretched across the plaster. London). Smaller. Up close on the scaffold we would witness Michelangelo's subtle application of accelerated perspective. rather that what we believe we know from experience. we would arrive to find many of the same figures strangely distorted. and wrist joints. you will make inconsistent and unrelated comparisons. Spend time making comparisons before you draw. and to draw what we see. which is imperceptible from below. 3 Keep your pencil perpendicular Measure and compare at any angle. It is not complicated. Return to this posture every time. Lock your shoulder.

To m a k e f o r m s l o o k c o r r e c t . t a p e s o m e p a p e r t o a board. C o m p a r e t h e heights o f t h e nose and eye shapes t o t h o s e o f t h e f o r e a r m . y o u must let go o f w h a t y o u k n o w f r o m e x p e r i e n c e a b o u t t h e relative sizes o f b o d y parts and trust y o u r eyes. W e appear t o be looking d o w n o n a w o m a n s t a n d i n g b e n e a t h us. FORESHORTENING To f o r e s h o r t e n a figure. y o u r hand travels f a r t h e r than y o u expect. a n d thighs. P r o p o r t i o n s will only l o o k c o r r e c t f r o m t h e angle at w h i c h y o u make t h e drawing. L o o k at y o u r m o d e l as if he o r she is a flat series o f shapes o n e o n t o p o f a n o t h e r Measure t h e height and w i d t h o f each shape and c o m p a r e it t o its neighbor. W o r k a r o u n d t h e figure. A t a c e r t a i n angle. belly. Keep t h e b o a r d steady and draw. h e r p r o p o r t i o n s will appear correct.117 ACCELERATED PERSPECTIVE To discover h o w this w o r k s . S o o n t h e b o d y will lie d o w n in space. pleasingly f o r e s h o r t e n e d . See h o w d i f f e r e n t t h e relative heights o f t h e s e shapes are f r o m w h a t w e m i g h t e x p e c t in real life. looking d o w n t h e p a p e r at t h e a n g l e at w h i c h I d r e w . Stand its b o t t o m edge o n y o u r lap. Lean t h e t o p e d g e t o w a r d y o u and find a p o s i t i o n w h e r e y o u can c o m f o r t a b l y l o o k d o w n t h e p a p e r at an angle o f a b o u t 4 0 degrees. which feels strange. . adjusting a n o n y m o u s shapes. T h i s is t h e s a m e d r a w i n g p h o t o g r a p h e d f r o m above. MEASUREMENT AND FORESHORTENING Tilt t h e t o p edge o f this b o o k t o w a r d you and look d o w n o n this figure f r o m a b o v e .

I used a sharp H B pencil and began each drawing by marking her outline. T h i s q u i c k e x p l o r a t o r y line does not perfectly describe shape but expresses a decision about overall flow of form. To draw this effect. feeling.118 BODY Quick Poses DRAWING QUICK POSES l o c k s y o u r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n t o what is most essential. height. and height. To see this. imagine holding up a plumb line. Balance When a model stands upright on both feet. make the upper body smaller give your model a high waist. work back and forth across the body. and stance before honing her balance and expression. Start each new drawing by lightly marking the model's height with a loose line in ten seconds. Outline To outline a figure. Layered lines give d e p t h . working from her center to her feet and to her head. and energy. Be bold and dive into your drawing with c o n f i d e n c e . Height This pose leans away into space above our eye level. her center of balance is normally found in a vertical line beneath her head. THE SEQUENCE OF POSES H e r e the model was asked to move every t w o minutes. because it results in two unrelated sides drifting apart. . and work over t h e m with further o b s e r v a t i o n s . balance. propelling you to make immediate assessments and trust them. and slightly enlarge her legs and feet. Leave first thoughts in place. Avoid drawing up one side and down the other.

. This drawing shows how different observations be overlaid to bring a drawing alive. The tilt of the pelvis is then counter balanced by the model's shoulders tilting the other way (as seen here). Tilt Movement Here.119 The twist of a model is most easily and expressively captured if it is exaggerated. Most of us have a tendency to over-straighten the drawn figure. and this should be avoided Twist QUICK POSES A model standing on one leg usually drops the opposite hip. the activity of circular lines and the repetition of limbs suggest movement.

and a gooseneck lamp casts shadows that clarify planes and depths GESTURES OF THE HAND Curled Fingers 1 Open Palm Start honing the shapes of the dominant planes. general to specific. feet. Don't worry about achieving perfect solutions. but regard these practice studies as ongoing processes of thought and observatio Add details such as nails last if you wish. Do not separate them yet. swiftly marking its essential gesture. especially the lengthwise divisions between them. and ignore all details. These planes.120 BODY Hands and Feet THERE ARE MANY different ways of approaching h a n d s and THE of form. Practice by drawing your own hands and feet. starting with the largest. Group the fingers together as one mass. W h e n starting. drawn in relation to each other. Keep lines open to change and take measurements if they help. A mirror increases your range of views. It also helps the beginner to progress from drawing outlines to drawing confidently across the surface of the whole form. Draw large shapes and their orientation. Focus instead on how planes change direction across the knuckles from one side of the hand or foot to the other. it is important to leave aside all details of the fingers and toes. and they need not be daunting to draw. or those of a friend. Then subdivide each shape so that you w o r k from large to small. 2 Build your drawing gradually from light to dark. express structure and gesture far more successfully and easily than ten worried outlines wandering up and down between the fingers and toes. 3 . Begin by drawing lines to encompass the whole hand. This exercise is useful when struggling with proportion.

however. Leave aside all detail. t o remove t o o many early lines. flattened planes. and rapid.121 HANDS AND FEET MOVEMENTS OF THE FOOT Flat Stance Raised Heel Instep 1 Let your first marks be light. as if with a chisel. Hew it roughly in broad. .as though out o f wood. Look for key angles without becoming distracted by detail. these are what give a drawing its tangible structure. and spontaneity. depth. loose. 2 3 Use an eraser t o refine decisions o r t o suggest areas o f light. Try t o express the whole foot and t o encapsulate its entire shape and direction in a few marks. It can be a mistake. and don't worry about accuracy t o begin with. Nowimagineyou are carving the foot insidethepaper.

Opposite.Charcoal Hands T H E S E DRAWINGS ARE MADE in compressed charcoal. Compare its nature in close-up to that of willow charcoal used on pp." . I also used white ink with a steel dip pen.204-05. The white lines demonstrate what is often called "bracelet shading.


118-19). length.HERE TRACES OF RAPID initial lines are still seen within and outside each body. and posture of the model. before honing his or her shape (see pp. I make these lines in the first five to ten seconds of a drawing to locate the presence. Phrasing Contours .


. Forms. feeling them through the attentive movements of your own hand. Drawing work by another artist enables you to discover and understand the inventive hand in their composition. I draw in museums in support of written research and as an artist seeking answers to questions about the practicalities of image making.The Visual Detective DRAWING FROM MASTERWORKS was once a staple component of an artist's education. characters. and narrative pulse become vivid when you realize them in the middle of your study. perspectives. It is now viewed with some skepticism and often seen as academic.


Florence. each modeled from dissection. These almost life-size figures were composed from my imagination and achieved with the help af studies discussed on pp.3 x 3 m) made in response to La Specola. . Life-size women wearing wigs recline on beds of embroidered silk in cabinets of mahogany and Venetian glass This is a detail of a compressed charcoal drawing measuring 14 x 10 ft (4.La Specola At17V i a Romana. there is a unique museum of 18th-century anatomical waxes. Walls are lined with hundreds of faintly animated body parts. 126-27.



and p r i n t m a k e r . and their posture can be changed with just one line. compliant subject to scrutinize. We are also reassured by keeping records of ourselves. Man Ray's self-portrait of scored lines. a single line can deliver an entire expression. In this chapter. We can mold and animate qualities of expression out of objects and fragments of disassociated things—for example. abstract or figurative.139). or whose eyes can seem to follow us around the room Portraiture is a constant. became more poignant as he progressed. Goya's w o r k s include many royal and society p o r t r a i t s . bells. religious. and it is very rewarding. and expression of the individual. and secular narratives.Portraiture IN P O R T R A I T U R E W E MEET PEOPLE. Beginners often draw themselves as a way of establishing their practice. in a miniature self-portrait magnified opposite. . and satirical or metaphorical. having been documented and preserved. Once you understand Self-Portrait in a Cocked Hat c. Halls and palaces are filled with pictures of the mighty and significant. Past rulers sent painters across continents to bring back a likeness in advance of a prospective royal marriage. Movie director Alfred similarly signed his films by playing a fleeting role: he walks through an extra. look directly at us. usually strangers from past times. made as he passed through the ages of man. and a handprint (see p. you can capture the subtlety. the meaning of their face. Equally. single or of groups. character. and lucrative genre for artists. For centuries. W h e n drawing a person. their stance. The truth is that we all like looking at faces and observing the billions of variations that make us individuals. This enlargement o f his miniature p o r t r a i treveals t h e s p e e d and agility o f his p e n and about himself. 1790-92 4 x 3 in ( 1 0 2 x 7 6 m m ) F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A and memorize the basic structure that we all share. historical. and in a few scrolling rafts of pen lines and stubbled dots. who. Rembrandt's famous multitude of self-portraits. Self-portraiture gives every artist a constant. draftsman. and shoulders. his changes in pressure and Hitchcock length o f line. and social and political commentaries. buttons. or past us. Our homes are filled with images of our loved ones and of those in our families who have gone before. gathered all that he knew FRANCISCO DE GOYA V i s i o n a r y Spanish painter. is here to both meet and look through us. throat. painters have dropped discreet records of themselves into commissioned narratives so that they can remain a face in the crowd. Portraits can be highly or loosely detailed. we use the delicate medium of silver point to look at foundation structures of the head. Goya. or a glimpse of him is caught in a photograph used as a prop. To create a face is to see and interpret the essence of an identity. neck. It also reminds us o f b o t h t h e intimacy and a scene as scrutiny o f an honest portrait. live. The returning image was of crucial consideration in any proposal.

There is a common misunderstanding that a drawing with only a few lines is both less finished and easier to make than a drawing with more. Her face is drawn tenderly and with a luminous glow. caught in her last moments of youth. He makes his flair and skill look easy.132 PORTRAITURE Poise THE BALANCE BETWEEN a mark and a blank space is often a tantalizing form of perfection. whisking a timeless girl onto the page. hand to capture something well in only Frangoise au Bandeau 1946 660 x 505 mm (26 x197/8in) PABLO PICASSO . length. Through exhibitions and copies in books. and pressure as it conducts our eye through the image. It takes a truly accomplished a few strokes. Picasso has left to posterity many hundreds of magnificent line drawings. While with longer consideration. we can enjoy and learn from them. The truth is often the opposite. teetering on the brink of older age. How could the addition of shadows have enhanced this image? Few strokes The simplicity of Picasso's line is breathtaking. they serve as a great lesson that it is not always necessary to add tone to your drawing. The aesthetic sense of a line being just right can make a drawing sing. Here the grace and beauty of two young women are held forever. It is the portrait of a countrywoman. Picasso strikes and scrolls his pencil. For the beginner. The Tightness of a line is felt in its speed. breadth. one eye already cast askew into the autumn of her life. Without faltering. We can actually count that he struck the paper 40 times. adding smudges of tone for weight and solidity.30). stealthily using his chalk to find contours and mass. We can read so much about them by studying their gaze. PABLO PICASSO Spanish Cubist painter (see also p. Holbein maps the still landscape of Dorothea's body in questioning marks.

He outlined her nose but not her upper lip. Blended colors In this portrait drawn with colored chalks on slightly textured paper. made a popular series o f w o o d c u t prints titled The Dance of Death. which. Cropping This regal composition fits its paper perfectly. Holbein has cropped and pinned his subject within the four outermost lines of the image—the edges of the page. and produced numerous society portraits such as this one here. In addition t o his numerous exquisite portraits in oil. Her folded forearms support and frame her weight above.133 HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER German p o r t r a i t painter draftsman. he designed c o u r t costumes. Holbein unified the woman with her background by gently blending colors from her clothes and face into the atmosphere around her. and its downward slope crowns the diagonal of the composition. Holbein was employed toward the end of his life by King Henry VIII of England. The peak of her cap clips the uppermost edge. and designer f r o m Basel. Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 1516 51/8 x121/4in (385 x 310 m m ) HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER . gently flushed. presses against the binding across her face.

the face is one of the hardest parts to dissect. Contrasts Sharp. distorted. London. and glands also complicate form. and has works in major collections including the Tate Gallery. In fact. Delicate muscles are integrated with the skin and fat that is to be r e m o v e d . The real dissection w o u l d have been far more c o m p l e x . The style of Durelli's d r a w i n g opposite sings with the confidence of truth and precision. Highlights of white gouache were dry Profile Head late in the making. perhaps applied using a tortillon. blood vessels. Psychological drama is contained behind a grid. Anatomically. but they are irrelevant here. its highly clarified detail claiming to be d r a w n from observation. Newsome was awarded the Prix de Rome in 1960. and unpleasant to see. . N e w s o m e ' s eerily shadowed form is smooth and bears a linear grain evocative of w o o d .134 PORTRAITURE Anatomies These highly finished drawings express the emotional power and physicality of the head and neck. confusing. Durelli has m a d e a few m i n o r mistakes. while white painted flecks and wisps suggest electrical illumination. solid above and almost hollow below. the contours of a grid. dark tones of graphite blended into the paper. This is one of a number of similar disembodied female heads seen behind. continues to exhibit regularly. dark lines made with a pencil appear against smooth. This is a m a r v e l o u s interpretation of the truth. VICTOR NEWSOME British sculptor painter and draftsman. It floats in space. using a fine and relatively 1982 13 x 181/8 in (328 x 460 mm) VICTOR NEWSOME brush. Nerves. taught at numerous British art schools from 1962-77. or defined by.

which. Red Chalk the Muscles 1837 173/8 x 145/8 in ( 4 4 0 x 3 7 2 m m ) ANTONIO DURELLI and Pencil Drawing and of Neck of the Head Little is k n o w n o f this M i l a n e s e p a i n t e r a n d engraver w h o c a m e from a family o f artists. Durelli's experience as an engraver is reflected in his stylized drawing o f muscle fibers. It is hard to think of a more difficult medium with which to achieve such linear perfection. Pencil numbers refer to the list of muscles written beneath. Stylized parallel lines are reminiscent of engravings. w h e n contracted. pull their points o f attachment t o w a r d each other .135 ANATOMIES ANTONIO DURELLI Linear perfection This is a red chalk drawing of extraordinary accomplishment. and it is likely that this drawing was intended for reproduction as a print.

necks. Similar movements sculpted the head below into its page. each portrait is inscribed onto the page. Without paint and with very little tone. while his hand stabs and thrusts Revelations like a conductors baton. They confuse our perception of scale by being intimately fragile and at the same time far removed. Both works demonstrate how simple lines can be made complex by being intense. cutting and carving the paper with matted and spiraling restless energy. close enough to touch his hair and feel his breath. Speed Giacometti probably began with an oval shape placed in relation to the proportion of the page. and heads. We are brought intimately close to this man gazing up to heaven. The camera watches him at work. Portrait de Marie-Laure de Noailles c. They show us clearly the bones of drawing. he drew over the whole image at once. Agitated marks make patches of tone that cut away the space around the character. 1948 77/8 x 6 in (200 x 150 mm) ALBERTO GIACOMETTI . with speed and urgency. Opposite. Energy This is a portrait of a woman drawn with black crayon on a plain page of a book Lines search for the essence of form. which are characteristically elongated. and with staccato flinches his hyperactive eye moves from paper to model. He is best known for his bronze sculptures of human form. Giacometti settled in Paris. Bellini gently conjures the features of his saint with soft marks that tease his presence out of shadows into the light. and poet After studying in Geneva and Italy. each locked into a visionary gaze. ALBERTO GIACOMETTI Swiss sculptor. Then.136 PORTRAITURE THESE ARE DRAWINGS of shoulders. painter draftsman. Flesh is built and personality carved simultaneously. There is a film of Giacometti drawing. as if seen from a distance.

These are pinholes. lyrical. Head and Shoulders of a Man 73/8 x 21/4 in ( 1 8 6 x 5 8 UNDATED GIOVANNI BELLINI . Mantegna. a n d c o n t e m p l a t i v e . a n d b r o t h e r in-law. Sometimes different narrative same character was reused in compositions. a n d his w o r k is d i s t i n c t i v e l y calm. Bellini s t u d i e d u n d e r his f a t h e r J a c o p o .G I O V A N N I BELLINI A prominent member of a large family o f V e n e t i a n painters. Character This is one of many cartoons produced by Bellini the and his family. transferring which were made in the process of the saint to his final place in the composition of a painting (see Glossary pp. H e t a u g h t G i o r g i o n e Barbarelli and Titian.25 6 . Transfer This delicate humorous chalk a drawing is a cartoon—not image but a type of template used to plan the composition of a larger work Look closely and you will see rows of tiny dots along every significant line in the picture.5 9 ) . H e p r e f e r r e d religious t o classical t h e m e s .

postcards. and attitudes. and indulgence. The incandescent New York painter Jean Michel Basquiat pictured himself here in naked silhouette. and sheet metal before being snapped up by the New York contemporary art scene.138 PORTRAITURE THE MIRROR OF SELF-PORTRAITURE offers artists infinite reflections of. Man Ray's playful silk-screen assembly of color blocks. scratched lines. their most immediate and best-known subject: themselves. Self Portrait 1982 9 4 x 7 6 in (239 x 193 cm) JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT . The figure's position is unequivocal and defiant while around him is in a state Without the essential of cultural and figure we would elegant belookingat a sophisticated painting of signs. and confrontations with. JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT Short-lived American painter and graffiti artist who began his blazing nine-year career drawing on lower Manhattan subway trains with a friend. scratched into its surface. The artist has finished his portrait with the signature of his hand smacked in the middle like a kiss: a declaration of existence as old as man's first drawing. drawn. Al Diaz. political outcry. made with great energy. float and shimmer in the shallow pictorial space. bells. It has proved to be a subject of piercing scrutiny. a tribal. scrolls. and buttons rings with surrealist wit and agile improvisation. Signs and symbols with symbols This painting shudders that ore written. It is an opportunity to look deep without the infringement of courtesies owed to a commissioning sitter. marks. humor. Later Basquiat sold drawings on T-shirts. Islands of graphic marks.221). skull- Self-Portraits headed. In 1986 he traveled to Africa and showed his work in Abidjan on the Ivory Coast He also exhibited in Germany and France. spear-brandishing warrior. signing their work SAMO. similar to work by Cy Twombly (see p. It is an image of confrontation—the ever-controversial young artist roars at us from his abstract city-scape. and everything flux.

where he collaborated with the artist Laslo MoholyNagy. Autoportrait 1916 195/8 MAN RAY . last of all. The first part of the stenciled image was already marked on the silk The screen and paper were then held tightly together. They experimented with camera-free photography working directly onto photographic paper Silk and ink This is a silkscreen print made through the following process: the paper was laid on a flat surface and a frame stretched with fine silk was placed on top.139 MAN RAY American surrealist photographer. Frame White lines are seemingly (though not actually) scratched through ink to frame this face. painter. They suggest speed and make the picture look immediate and spontaneous. printmaker and cofounder of the New York Dada movement. Black ink was printed next and then white. The handprint appears to be made directly. Man Ray lived and worked in Paris. During the 1920's and 30s. Man Ray probably used his own hand. while a squeegee was used to drag thick lilac-brown ink across the silk pushing it though exposed areas onto the paper below. caked in thick printing ink or paint.

MATERIALS 1 Find a clean sponge and b o w l o r d e e p t r a y a n d fill it w i t h w a t e r W e t t h e p a p e r evenly in t h e t r a y o r o n t h e b o a r d . illuminators of medieval m a n u s c r i p t s . 1 4 4 . 156).54-55). W e t o n e length o f g u m . and gold have also been used. Find a n i t e m t h a t y o u can h o l d a n d draw with comfortably. artists mixed white lead.Tear o f f f o u r lengths o f b r o w n p a p e r g u m tape. Lightly s p o n g e o f f t h e excess. who used it to outline initials and border characters before painting. Metal point does not work on ordinary paper. 1. which quickly oxidizes into a gray line. 2. Opposite. o n e t o fit each side o f t h e b o a r d — t h e s e will make t h e glued f r a m e t h a t holds y o u r p a p e r in place.140 PORTRAITURE Silver P o i n t SILVER OR METAL POINT STRETCHING PAPER A sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has been made w e t with the strokes o f a paintbrush will buckle d u e t o its uneven expansion. and is therefore useful w h e n using w a t e r c o l o r as well as silver point. was familiar to or eggshells with animal glue. Gesso o r m a t t e m u l s i o n c a n a l s o b e u s e d .54) can also b e used. bone. and alloys work on matt emulsion. Historically. Straighten the w o r s t buckles. Lay a clean d r a w i n g b o a r d o n a flat surface. c h o o s e a s o f t full b r u s h t h a t c a n c a r r y p l e n t y o f l i q u i d . the surface must be primed with a ground such as gouache. and t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h strips a b o v e and b e l o w . w h i t e d r a w i n g paper) and cut it t o fit y o u r d r a w i n g b o a r d w i t h a generous b o r d e r a r o u n d its edges. W e t a n d fix a s e c o n d strip t o t h e o p p o s i t e side. p a r c h m e n t . choose a silver object. Metal point is simply a strip of metal bound in a holder. 2 . purchase silver wire. I m a k e m y o w n f r o m o l d dip pens. This is called a three-tone drawing. The most c o m m o n metal has always been silver—hence the term "silver point. 3 . you will need t o stretch paper and lay a wash (see right and opposite). SILVER W I R E : Purchase different gauge lengths f r o m a traditional a r t supplier o r jeweler. Be swift and firm. Note h o w domestic paintwork marks with a coin. This browns with age unless sealed by fixative (see pp. E m p t y mechanical pencils designed f o r t h i c k leads ( s e e p. b u t d o n ' t w o r r y . b e f o r e priming stretched paper. Drawn across a prepared surface. laid on paper. Pages 142 to 147 are illustrated in silver point and techniques are explained on pp. Stretched paper remains taut as a d r u m . Take a sheet o f any t y p e o f p a p e r (for e x a m p l e . S i l v e r is b e s t . and make o r buy a holder. For i m p o r t a n t a d v i c e o n p r e p a r a t i o n a n d use. S O F T F U L L B R U S H : W h e n laying a w a s h . I t is a v a i l a b l e f r o m all a r t s h o p s . 5. To begin. T h e p a p e r will l o o k b u c k l e d . or wood. s o m e m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n o t h e r s . M E T A L OBJECTS: All metal objects m a r k a p r e p a r e d surface. it leaves a deposit.s t r i p a n d use i t t o fix o n e side o f t h e p a p e r t o t h e b o a r d . s e e p . or ring. Numerous early European artists also enjoyed its fine qualities (see p. I combined silver point with painted white gouache on a pink ground. SILVER P O I N T W I R E H O L D E R : T h e s e c a n b e p u r c h a s e d a n d t e n d t o b e heavy. platinum. M a k e s u r e i t is c o m p l e t e l y clean t o avoid u n w a n t e d streaks. key. copper. an exciting indication of how large-scale drawings could be made on a wall." Lead. Z I N C W H I T E G O U A C H E : Dilute with w a t e r A d d c o l o r i f r e q u i r e d (as opposite) 4 . If w o r k i n g o n an emulsion-painted wall. 144-45.

Dip a soft. The next step will make a small mess. Make enough to cover your paper. any extra will keep.141 SILVER POINT 3 Leave the paper to dry flat. leaving a smooth surface. LAYING A WASH It your stretched paper so as to prime it for silver point. slowly add powder pigment or gouache from a tube.t o n e silver point drawing of a skull . Leave the wash to dry thoroughly before you begin to draw. Prop up your board of dry. stretched paper at a 45-degree angle. overlapping lines until you reach the bottom. Make an even line across to the right. and let tests dry before deciding to change the mixture. is necessary to lay a wash o Three-tone When coloring ground. Mix a very wet but not weak solution of gouache in a jar with a lid (add pigment at this stage for a three-tone drawing). Keep adding smooth. Reload the brush and add a second line overlapping it beneath. so put newspaper under the lower edge. Runs blend into each other evenly. T h r e e . Beware of the tape's coming loose at any point while drying. Dry thoroughly before laying a wash. full brush into the gouache and start in the top left corner. Here. v e r y little at a time. Keep testing on spare paper. It will slowly straighten and become taut. as the paper will be ruined by a raised ridge. I used a powder pigment called Caput Mortuum.



Head and Neck
THE HEAD AND NECK are best conceived as one unit arranged in four parts: cranium, face, neck, and throat. Each is of equal importance. The cranium is essentially egg-shaped and pivots on the first vertebra. The face is suspended beneath, like a softly curved triangle. The n e c k — a powerful, shapely column of layered muscles rigged to vertebrae—adjusts and holds the angle and expression of the head. The throat is delicate, hard, and lumpy to the touch, formed of cartilaginous rings, glands, thin muscles, and looser skin. Framing the throat, two columnar neck muscles (sternomastoids) project the head forward and also turn it to the opposite side.

This is a simple shorthand diagram representing the cranium, face, neck, and throat. It can be learned and visualized in different positions very easily, giving the novice a firm footing on which to stand and develop their drawings of the head and neck.

Shorthand diagram

Cranium Begin with an egg shape. Tilt it on the paper to change the position of the head.

Face Draw a rounded triangular shape below the forward point of the egg to represent the face.

Neck This shape represents the trapezius; the largest surface muscle of the neck and shoulders.

Throat A triangular shape represents the throat. (The nose makes the diagram clearer)

Applied shorthand

After copying the diagram above, animate it. Practice drawing the cranium at different angles, add the face beneath, then the neck, shoulders, and throat. Shape your diagrams so they are more lifelike, but avoid adding detailed features too soon.

143 These three drawings demonstrate (from left to right) the following: why the cranium may be considered egg-shaped; now the face can be seen as a curved triangle suspended beneath and where the division lies between the two; and the form of sternomastoid muscles that frame thethroatsodistinctlywhen the head is turned and inclined forward.

The skull and the frame of the throat


Bones of the cranium are locked together by jagged joints. Sinuses in the frontal (forehead) bone between and beneath the eyebrows are larger in men, making their brows pronounced and often ridged compared to those of women.

Bones of the face house our sight, smell, taste, The skull pivots on the first vertebra or "atlas," and speech. Cartilage extending from nasal bones after the Greek god condemned to carry the shapesthenose.Pads of fat resting on the base of Earth. The jaw hinges in front of the ears. Behind, eacheyesocket support the eyeballs in position. If bony ridges give anchor to the sternomastoid thefatisreducedby old age, eyes look sunken. muscles rising from the breast- and collarbones.

Three useful generalizations

General rules about the relative positions of body parts can hinder artists as much as help them, since they are often based on classical ideals rather than thediversityoflife.However,some generalizations can help as a rough guide to start with, so long as good observation takes over as soon as possible.

In general, when the face is relaxed (not smiling or frowning), the corners of the mouth are found directly beneath the pupils of the eyes. Vertical lines can be drawn down from the pupils to meet the corners of the mouth.

The height of a young adult's ear is often the same as their nose and found on the same level. There is no general rule for growing children, and remember that ears grow again in old age, which is most obvious in men.

The height of the face is about the length of the handspan and the eye is normally halfway down the total height of the head. A common error is to draw the eyes too high up on the face.



Essential Observations

(see pp. 140-41) is perfect for

such as a beach pebble. Here, I stretched drawing paper and laid a wash of white gouache (see pp.140-41). As you can see, the line and tone of silver point varies with pressure, but only slightly. Too much pressure cuts the ground. Silver point erases, but so does ground. Erased ground can be repaired gently with extra gouache. You can also use gouache to paint over mistakes and make corrections.

small, detailed drawings. The drawings below and opposite show useful observations of the head and neck, which are explained in the captions below. Each drawing was made with a silver wire held in a large-gauge mechanical pencil. Newly clipped wires are sharp and cut rather than draw. Before use, they need to be rubbed and smoothed on a stone

Here I imagined placing my silver point wire against the skin of each head and neck and, working in parallel bands from the crown downward, I traced the undulation of surfaces. Linear bands imagined around the head and neck can help you t o clearly see the tilt of the head and relative levels of the features. Ask a friend t o model for you and try this exercise life-size using a pencil and eraser


Tilted forward

Tilted backward

Three-quarter view

Seeing that the face is never flat

Drawings below left and center are summaries of the generalizations given on p.143. Far right is an image to remind us that the face is never flat. It slopes back to varying degrees among individuals, from the tip of the nose t o the ears. For example, note that the innermost corners of the eyes are farther forward in space than the outermost corners.

General measurements, side

General measurements, front

View from above


Male and female head and neck
Men's necks a r e g e n e r a l l y s h o r t e r a n d t h i c k e r t h a n w o m e n ' s b e c a u s e t h e angles a n d levels o f c e r t a i n b o n e s a r e d i f f e r e n t b e t w e e n t h e sexes ( i n d i c a t e d h e r e b y d o t t e d lines) a n d m e n are n o r m a l l y m o r e muscular. T h e male t h y r o i d cartilage ( A d a m ' s apple) is larger a n d m o r e visible than t h e f e m a l e . L a r g e r f e m a l e t h y r o i d glands also s o f t e n t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e t h r o a t .

Female skull





Trapezius muscle
The largest m u s c l e o f t h e s h o u l d e r s a n d n e c k is called the trapezius. A r r a n g e d on e i t h e r side o f t h e spine, it shapes t h e u p p e r back and neck above the s h o u l d e r blades. C o n t r a c t i n g in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h d e e p e r and surrounding muscles, it raises and l o w e r s t h e shoulders a n d d r a w s t h e h e a d backtoeitherside.

The whole



half with



with head



with head


Side with


Front with




Drawing Portraits
USING A SHARP 3 B PENCIL, I drew this head quickly from imagination, evolving its character and expression from the scheme of four parts: cranium, face, neck, a n d throat (see p. 142). Here, five steps show you how to practice doing the same. This approach can be used to draw from imagination or from life. Keep your wrist loose and hold your pencil away from its point (see pp.22-23). Build the layers of your drawing from pale to dark, a n d from general balance a n d form to specific detail. Remember that successful drawings are built on foundations of "seeing the whole," then dividing the whole into smaller parts, with details brought in last of all. Phrased tonal marks modeling this girls skin and hair follow the technique demonstrated by Goya in his self-portrait on p. 130. Turn to Goya's drawing and study how, in a circle beginning across his hat, moving down his hair, and around his coat, he flows lines over surfaces to describe their contour. As you build from steps 1 to 5, bring phrased groups of lines across the surfaces of your form, using their directions to capture the expression of the head and neck. If unsure, copy my steps until you gain the confidence to make your own decisions.

This drawing is the final stage of the four steps opposite. Here, I have enlarged the eye, and moved it back into the head by trimming the length of the upper lid and adding a more pronounced lower lid. It is important to set eyes far enough back from the relatively prominent nose; too close to it and the face flattens. Hair swept back and extended behind the cranium balances the regal pose. Lines shaping the hair echo those marking the cranium in step 1. Here, the lower part of step 1 comes through as wisps of hair across her face and ear


Portrait of a Young Girl

147 Building up the portrait DRAWING PORTRAITS 1 Gently spin pale lines in a softly drawn shape representing the cranium. First lines will remain visible in the final drawing. 2 Rapidly add shorthand shapes to represent the face. down the face to the throat. Here. and throat. The eye announces the nature and expression of the emerging person. 3 Place the eye beneath the cranium. The nose and ear begin to shape the head. over the cranium.Theangle at which you draw this shape of the paper will determine the angle of the finished head. Moving from the back of the neck. avoid drawing too dark. too soon. Keep your first lines light. they are also still sweeping and confident. I used light to describe the upper lid first with a shadow beneath for the lower lid and open eye. so it is important to the life of the image that while controlled. 4 . I modeled the outline of the character I imagined light shining from above and in front and adjusted the pressure of lines to reflect this. neck.


be aware of the subtle differences in skin surface. Above all. and gravity. muscular tension.T o DRAW PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGES. the texture of hair. a n d t h o s e w h o a r e Generations asleep (see overleaf). empathize. .



Madrid. .Castings DRAWING IN THE PRADO MUSEUM. Fast lines carve out the features of Goya's soup-slurping hag. I used the nib upside down to gain needle-sharp precision. Van Dyke's noble cast of characters was modeled more finely. with a steel dip pen and acrylic ink. seeking the dominant contours of each individual expression.



cool. or b u l g e s .Costume W E MAKE OURSELVES EXOTIC. caricatured p l u m e s . a n d w e will c o l l e c t patterns. S t r u c t u r e is t h o u g h the i n v e n t i o n of shoes. articulate a d a n g e r o u s satirical j o k e . e m u l a t e textures. and gouache. toParis. T h e e n t o u r a g e of the theatrical stage o f t e n l e a d s the c a t w a l k . Like it or not. shapes. charcoal. and atmosphere. st 111/4 x 81/2 in (285 x 220 mm) u d i e d L E O NB A K S T and explore the characterization of fabric t h r o u g h m o v e m e n t . he and cofounder Serge Diaghilev took Paris by eac storm in 1910 with their production h year in the industrial f r e n z y of creating o u r image and aspirations. outrageous. a n d p r o f e s s i o n — b e g a n life as a d r a w i n g . while court p a i n t e r s — M i c h e l a n g e l o and Holbein. D e s i g n e r s create m a s t e r p i e c e s of haute couture LEON BAKST for H o l l y w o o d stars. . P o p u l a r f a s h i o n d e s i g n e x p l o d e d w i t h the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n . and e x u b e r a n c e . theb u t b y the w a y it s p e a k s w i t h its flying. known as Leon Bakst. T h e rural masses w o r e h o m e s p u n simplicity. gesture. variety. and even invisible by the w a y w e dress. a n d c o u r t i e r tailors f o l l o w e d suit. g l o s s y folds. was a Belarussian A r t Deco theater fantasies and desires to immediately possess a version of the same. T h e p a p e r p a t t e r n is p e r h a p s the m o s t w i d e l y k n o w n of c o s t u m e d r a w i n g s : a formalized plan of lines. Designers all over the w o r l d c o n t i n u a l l y p e n and b r u s h lines to lash us w i t h color. a n d s u b t l e t o n e s . fulfilling lavish and spectacular briefs. of Scheherazade. and i n d e e d image b e c a m e the property also of the industrial classes. personality. and everything w e h a v e c h o s e n for o u r w a r d r o b e s — r e f l e c t o r s of o u r taste. c o s t u m e o f f e r s a r i c h v o c a b u l a r y of t e x t u r e s a n d c o l o r . c r u m p l e s . w a r m t h . and s y m b o l s that lets m e n and w o m e n in all countries and areas have w o r k i n g access to the latest fashions. Previously. Practical classes Bacchante 1911 l o o k at r a n g e s of c o l o r e d m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d i n g p a s t e l s a n d felt-tip p e n s . and intent. or calm u s w i t h chic. Artists do this not so m u c h b y the style of a figure's garment. intriguing. it is the public sign by w h i c h w e are j u d g e d . w h i c h in turn feed c o n s u m e r Lev. In this c h a p t e r w e see h o w c l o t h i n g c a n s e e m to p o s s e s s the w e i g h t and m o n u m e n t a l i t y of stone. In psychology. for e x a m p l e — d e s i g n e d the w a r d r o b e s of p o p e s a n d k i n g s .As artistic director of the It is s h o c k i n g to t h i n k h o w m a n y m i l l i o n s of d r a w i n g s m u s t be m a d e a n d d i s c a r d e d Ballet Russe. arichand unusual combination of pencil. o n l y the w e a l t h y c o u l d afford to h a v e c o s t u m e s specially m a d e . c u l t u r e . b u t influenced Parisian fashion and interiordecor. dancer leaps through swaths of golden cloth. Samoylovich Rosenberg. Bakst's designs and costumes immediately To the fine artist. Petersburg and later exiled designers' ideas and are surprised and delighted b y their continual f l o w of inspiration. woman was drawn by Bakst one year later for the ballet Narcisse. W e dress ourselves and costume designer trained in in St.This voluptuous above all a physical p u p p e t w i t h w h i c h to animate character and narrate personality. Cities c h a n g e d all. and be so expressive of temperament that it overtakes the need for an o c c u p y i n g h u m a n form. so that c h o i c e .

the Madonna and her architecture are both dressed in the same manner. the vaulted stone roof echoes and crowns the moment. with their jagged edges. and implied striation in the stone of the architecture. H e m e t i c u l o u s l y a r r a n g e d subjects t o c o n v e y d e e p e r meaning. and snakelike marks. Flaxmans sleeper—perhaps a pilgrim or a soldier resting between campaigns—has wedged himself into the cleft of some great building to grab a moment of peace. it is only possible to create very thin. resonate with their wearers startled expression. folds and patterns of material speak more resolutely of their wearers than any small glimpses of body we can see. and the kneeling abbot is a ghost by comparison. Short and subtle horizontal punctuations are only given in the background by sections of floor. Van Eyck's highly polished w o r k is c e l e b r a t e d f o r its disguised symbolism. Her gown is carved and polished as if made from marble. Their uninterrupted emphasis is entirely vertical.140-41). The quiet stillness of this image is achieved by a masterly economy of stylized line. In Van Eyck's drawing below. Sculpted one. bands around the columns. the carefully composed outline of his cloak shows us how the artist would have also begun his immaculate rendering of the Virgin's clothes. Church and deities are drawn as JAN VAN EYCK Flemish oil p a i n t e r f r o m L i m b o u r g . Keisai Eisen's intense. Maelbeke I44I Madonna 11 x 7 in (278 x 180 m m ) JAN V A N EYCK . Marble gown We will never know if Van Eyck considered this drawing unfinished or intended the kneeling abbot to remain transient and ghostly. He has layered these slowly and carefully so as not to cut through the ground and produce a white mark just where he intended a dark one. delicate lines. best k n o w n f o r his G h e n t altarpiece ( 1 4 3 2 ) a n d m a r r i a g e p o r t r a i t o f Giovanni A r n o l f i n i and his w i f e (1434). swirling printed fabrics. Delicate marks Silver (or metal) point is the most delicate of traditional drawing media (see pp. Above them. However. her marble garment holds u p the infant Christ in a fountain of compressed line. Opposite.156 COSTUME Cloth and Drapery EACH OF THESE FIGURES is ninety percent cloth. Below this. dragons. Vertical lines The highly controlled lines of this drawing cascade from top to bottom of the image. With a stylus such as Van Eyck used here.

Remaining raised areas of wood are rolled with colored inks. and the feet notched against the pillar tell us that A lines holds him into the cleft. flat sheets of wood. Aeschylus earned Flaxman an international reputation. the cloak sliding to the ground. draftsman. Dante. and Man Lying Down in a Cloak I 787-94 21/4 JOHN FLAXMAN x 41/8 in (57 x 105 mm) . an 18th-19th century document on the lives of the ukiyo-e artists. Respected for his sumptuous images of geisha and editions of erotic prints.157 KEISAI EISEN Japanese draftsman. This complex numerous blocks prepared image and may have been made with printed separately. The inked block is laid face-down on damp paper and pressed to make the print. which are sometimes also cut into pieces like a jigsaw puzzle. writer and printmaker Keisai Eisen took his name from the masters Kano Hakkeisai and Kikugawa Eizan. Koimurasaki of Tama-ya 1810-50 15 x101/4in (381 x 260 mm) KEISAI EISEN The Courtesan JOHN F L A X M A N English late 18th-century neoclassical sculptor. each delivering a different part and color of the design. and teacher Distinctive linear illustrations for the works of Homer. Position In this pen and ink drawing. he also co-edited and expanded the Ukiyo-e Ruiko (History of Prints of the Floating World). Images are drawn onto smooth. stone wall of downward-stroked this sleeper's position is momentary. CLOTH AND DRAPERY Relief printing This is a woodblock print made by a relief process. one over the other. the angle of the head. Parts of the image to be left unprinted are gouged out with a metal tool. designer.

t h r o u g h n u m e r o u s p o r t r a i t and C h u r c h commissions. b e f o r e traveling t o Italy. The aged queen is compared to an overdressed bird. cinema. a scurrilous cartoon by a courtier of Queen Elizabeth I. Fine examples can be plucked from fashion. Flowing scarf The knight's scarf of gilded blue is drawn in a pale wash over red ink lines. and even formal portraiture. A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE Flemish painter and draftsman. and feather were all CHARACTER COSTUMES REPRESENT observed with closely crafted conviction. for she would not have been amused and William Wodall might have been stretching his luck. Pen and wash In the graphic accuracy of this armored knight we see the idealized identity of a warrior from another time: a gleaming defender of the realm. The slight uncertainty of the pose and the limp cloak suggest a little more metal than man. Anthony Van Dyke's Man in Armor is a masterpiece of drawn surface. all ruffs and wrinkles. he c o o l e d and redefined his style. Details and voices are worn externally with great imagination. The metal. Its warm surface flows in contrast to the stiff metal armor. theater. cartoon. Leg section Compare mid-shin the section of white boots cropped to the section of similarly cropped trousers in drawings Gruau's drawing on p.158 COSTUME Character Costumes an extreme form of the clothed figure. Leg sections in both support the figure without taking our attention away from the main garment above. A s a y o u n g man. 160. cloth. He has been rendered on this olive<olored page with pen and gray wash worked over a red and black under-drawing. w h e r e . It is presumed Her Royal Highness never saw it. Man in Armor UNDATED 1 6 x 9 1 / 2 in ( 4 0 5 x 2 4 0 m m ) A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE . Van D y k e was chief assistant t o Rubens f o r t w o years. a n d w a s e m p l o y e d as c o u r t painter t o King Charles I. lace. A flamboyant territory. where sometimes there just might not be anybody inside. Opposite is a dangerous drawing. Its color is also reflected in the metal. In 1 6 3 2 he m o v e d p e r m a n e n t l y t o L o n d o n .

T h e poem recounts t h e six m a j o r crises o f Elizabeth's reign: t h e Spanish A r m a d a . t h e Ridolfi Plot. t h e Jesuit Mission. it was customary to Iron-gall ink Wodall's dangerous caricature steps daintily the written lines of her dedicated page. Satire of the Queen's Dress c. By her old upto three tiers supported on sticks. suggest the use of iron-gall ink (see p. and saturations showing through from the other side. manuscript comprising six c a n t o s . A Ruffs and feathers Starched white ruffs worn at court and by society grew steadily larger as Elizabeth's reign progressed. she is shown as a grossly disproportioned bird. hooded with an overinflated fluffy ruff eye pins us. bitten nature. while a raised foot pauses to assess the next displaying a fan of daggers. Northern Satire This is a quill-and-ink satire of the elderly queen's pride-As head of state and fashion. the queen is masterfully rebalanced by words at her feet The whole drawing's blackened.35). Beneath the lethal fan is the body of a bird of trimmed feathers suggest age. t h e Rising. and her pride. Top-heavy. here dark tawny owl. t h e B a b i n g t o n Plot.1599 71/2 WILLIAM x 51/4 in ( 1 9 0 x 1 3 4 mm) WODALL .159 WILLIAM W O D A L L A u t h o r and illustrator o f The Aaes of Queene a Elizabeth poem Allegorized.

Vogue. Harpers & Queen. Compare the compositio beneathVanDyke'sstudy of armor on p. Drying time in between applications ensured the colors did not run into each other. elegant chic and svelte. She has been drawn with brushes dipped into India ink and gouache. Composition Look how well this image is frame knee is parallel to the bottom edge spacehorizontalline cropping the trousers be outermostuprightbordersof her cuffs are similar above her head thesidesoftheimage. 5 8 . Spider-Girl leaps like an insect. India ink and gouache This swish of confidence and style our enters the page turning everyone's head. Gruau's model regally swans to the fore with cool pride. possibly over a pencil outline. Airbrushed reflective surfaces further amplify our perception of speed. RENE GRUAU I t a l i a n . as is Spider-Girl opposite. 158. Fine lines drawn against the building behind her echo the threads on which we have all seen arachnids drop and hang. ofcroppedtrousershere to the device of the w Illustration 1949 for Jacques Fath in L ' O f f i c i e l d e la C o u t u r e RENE GRUAU .F r e n c h f a s h i o n i l l u s t r a t o r w h o in his l o n g and esteemed career w o r k e d with many of the g r e a t e s t d e s i g n e r s o f 2 0 t h .c e n t u r y haute i n n u m e r o u s m a g a z i n e s i n c l u d i n g Elle.and tilted to the same de a little deeper than sp kneestogivehergravity. and both share the power of scarlet and black. muscular aggression. studio-like rectangle of paper.5 9 ) and a three-spoke balance of cuffs and cropped trousers to create an almost flag-like emblem of power. Gruau uses starkly cut negative space (see pp.160 COSTUME Femmes Fatales THESE DEVASTATING femmes fatales force back the onlooker with their demure. The black red. His model is outlined. Rene Gruau's bold gouache drawing of smoothly swaying sophistication captures a brilliantly cut garment and frames it with great dynamism in a white. G r u a u ' s highly distinctive d r a w i n g s have a p p e a r e d Couture. a n d L'Officiel de la couture. and gray pigments were applied separately. demanding attention with gesture and flair. diving to catch us in the grip of her machine-like limbs. Fashion and fantasy drawings invent prototypes of ideals and perfection—be they for the catwalk or the fast-paced pages of comic books.

and Amazing Spider-Man.74-77). He began work on Spider-Girl in 1998. This s modeling applied over the top give the image a sleek and mechanical of gravity. Frenz has drawn for Marvel for about 20 years. The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones. a great characteristic superhero comics. Buildings. and figure are all locked into equally shatp through the traditional process of a pencilled outline over-drawn ink. to the right of its center. It is outside the picture frame. Align your ruler to the upright of each building. beginning with Star Wars. Airbrushed color and with tonal focus. and has been the title's regular artist since 2003. moon. Sharp focus black outlines in this drawing create a hyper-real dynamic. at Their extensions will meet the same single vanishing (see point pp. In your mind's eye extend the uprights out of the top of the picture. sky. Single-point understand perspective To how Frenz created up therefore the effect of steeply between looking buildings—and howyou can do the same in your own work—take calculate where a ruler the and single vanishing point lies. not far above the drawing. Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 2001-04 R O N FRENZ.RON F R E N Z Contemporary American graphic artist w h o designs and pencils the dynamic scenes of numerous superheroes featured in Marvel Comics. MARVEL C O M I C S .

The worst are like revolting old lipsticks that get everywhere except where you intend. including iridescents. Pastel pencils are slender and in w o o d casing. and CHALK PASTELS Pastel pencils make fine lines (as above). Bright pastels are more brilliant on colored paper. See h o w they work and return later for more of what proved best for you. CHALK PASTELS: Blackboard chalk is sidewalk work. or wax and a binder are shaped into fine strips and encased in w o o d like a graphite pencil. and cost are laid out for our pleasure and perusal. size. OIL PASTELS: Many colors. crumbly. animals. and synthetics. fixing each layer on the front. are derived from many sources: rocks. the diverse are made in brands of basic member of the family. They work well on PIGMENTS Pigments. paper-wrapped. Many products are sold individually and in boxed sets. slightly oily to the touch. Before making substantial investments. 1. and subtlety. Pastels are finer. Dissolve in turpentine or mineral spirits to produce oil paint or or dark paper. insects. C o n t e crayons are square-formed. The higher the quality (and cost). Beware—some are toxic. Many artists apply fixative to the back of their work. Most stores leave small pads of paper on their counters for customers to test materials. quality. allowing it to fix slightly from behind. except the final layer. Often. COLORED PENCILS: Dry pigments ground together with chalk. Sticks and conte crayons make thicker marks (as below). great for tin . FELT-TIP PENS: Instant-drying alcoholor water-based inks stored in the barrels of the pens are delivered via smooth nylon o r felt tips of varying shapes and thicknesses. They vary hugely in cost. 2. wash. and can be a great rediscovery for bold drawings. I suggest you do so. which he left unfixed to retain its brightness. Be aware that fixative dulls pastel. oily pigment. Store loose pastels in dry rice to keep them clean. soft. mixed on the paper and scratched into (as below). 3. you may be pleasantly surprised to discover something you could not have imagined using. used to make colors. shape. though lines can develop greasy stains around the edges if the paper is not first stretched and treated with a gelatin paste laid as a wash. there are disparities between the apparent nature or color of what you hold in your hand and its performance on paper. Seemingly infinite choices of texture.162 COSTUME Colored Materials ART STORES BRIM OVER w i t h t h e m a n y wherever permitted. minerals. 4. purchase a small selection of different items you think you will like. unwrapped harder pastels. colored materials available. clay. and can be softened and manipulated with degrees of heat. plants. quality and cost T h e best are paperwrapped sticks of sumptuous. OIL PASTELS Oil-based. these work best when slightly warm. Degas built his pastels in layers. hue. the finer and more subtle the texture and color should be. made in about 80 colors. Children's wax crayons are relatives. chalkbased but very subtle. Try materials that are new and unfamiliar. and sold in many colors. The nontoxic range below represents a suggested starting point for experiment. Use them to draw lightly (as above left) or thickly. intensity.

If you love smooth blocks and lines of colon felt-tip pens are perfect. leaving the paper to shine through for highlights (as below). Think of Matisse's Blue Nude (see p. Fine lines can be achieved (as above).or clay-based thin crayons in wood casing. Colors can be blended as shown right) and tones graded by altering pressure. . Brands made for designers sold in enormous ranges of colors are far more subtle and sophisticated than those made for children. so it is best to test them before buying. FELT-TIP PENS Although not made with felt-tip pen. Some give richer lines than others. others dissolve in water or turpentine to make a wash. it is still a great champion and support for those beginners feeling shyly obligated to tone down their love of color to conform with what others say they should use. Diverse brands are harder or soften greasier or chalkier in use.163 COLORED PENCILS These are wax. 111). Some are nonsoluble.

As artifacts in museums. will discover m o r e . 104-07). the era in which we live. they record and reflect our common history. and they have been concealed in buildings to ward off misfortune. and volume in space (see pp.164 COSTUME Study and Design they reflect our age. personality. t h e n again as if transparent. This class takes the shoe as its subject in building on earlier lessons concerned with seeing through objects to understand their function. Turn t h e m in different d i r e c t i o n s and o b s e r v e t h e i r s t r u c t u r e and f o r m . and after studying familiar shoes we use the information learned to invent new ones. structure. Superstitions and fetishes are attached to them: we are told never to put new shoes on a table. To set up. D r a w each o n e first as a solid object. Linear Outline Using fine pens. I m a d e n u m e r o u s s h e e t s o f d r a w i n g s . Here we go one step further. . t o o . c o v e r a large sheet o f p a p e r w i t h line drawings o f several shoes. You. imagining y o u can see t h r o u g h it. 100-01 and pp. you will need several large sheets of drawing paper. REPEATED STUDY T o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s class. a n d e x p e r i e n c e visible p r o g r e s s . values. and how we stand and walk. and a selection of shoes. social and economic status. if y o u m a k e p l e n t y o f d r a w i n g s as o p p o s e d t o o n l y a f e w . S H O E S TELL LIFE STORIES. e n j o y i n g t h e study a n d i n v e n t i o n o f shoes. a range of colored felt-tip pens with both fine and broad tips. while artists have painted their boots or those of others as personal portraits and memorials. style.


The Surface


study the surface contours using fineand broad-tipped felt-tip pens. For best results, it is important to be bold and brief. Draw firmly, fast, and with as few strokes as possible. Build up each shoe from light to dark andleavesome paper showing through to create highlights.

Design Your Own

Using what you have learned from the previous steps about the structures of your shoes, and about the use of pens, invent new designs from your imagination. Start with fine outlines and progress to colored and textured surfaces. Modify your ideas by rotating the views.



The Structure of Costume

rich resource for the artist and

information given by a period style. Arrange to visit a costume museum or ask a friend to model clothes for you at home. Using fine felt-tip pens, begin with quick, pale impressions of each garment's shape before homing in on its borders and seams. Try to draw transparent views wherever possible to record the relationships between all component parts. Aim to draw enough information for it to be possible to make up a version of the garment using paper pinned to a tailor's dummy.

designer. They often give quite unexpected gems of ideas and information—whatever the subject. These drawings, made in a costume museum, demonstrate ways of recording structural information and detail for later use in the studio. They could form the basis of new designs for a fashion project or theater production, for example. Drawings of shoes on pp. 164-65 show how new designs can be evolved from the structural

It is usually best when collecting information for reference to apply the restraint of dispassionate observation. Set yourself the test of drawing facts with as little artistic license or embellishment as possible. Here I chose fine felt-tip pens because they are at their best when used swiftly, and therefore encourage bold, unhesitant decisions.

Swift lines record the hanging weight of this gentleman's coat, the relative proportions of its layers, and minimal details of the buttons and cuffs.

Thick velvet fabric is pulled tight beneath and across the bust by a single button. This transparent view shows how the fabric falls loosely in straight panels beneath the level of the sleeve.


W h e n visiting museums, be prepared f o r l o w lighting, which can make it hard t o see and draw. A book can help if attached t o your drawing board.

Adding stripes and dashes of color with a thicker pen brings out the glossy sheen and sculptural rigidity of this dress, which would have been worn over a whalebone corset. small reading light designed t o clip o n t o a


In small drawings such as these, use thick pens to color entire sections with a few marks, as I did here down the side of the bodice.

The light, frilly bulk of this crinoline dress is propelled forward with lines. pinching its gathers and sways that are hiding a horsehair bustle. fleets of quick



Textures and.Patterns
THIS CLASS FOCUSES ON how to draw textures through the collection of fabric, pattern, and embroidery samples from a costume m u s e u m . This formal method, using ruled squares, can create an invaluable library of ideas a n d i n f o r m a t i o n for future r e f e r e n c e — w h e n painting a clothed figure, or preparing a textile project, for example. However, if making a book of samples for a project, remember that it is important to also include collages of f o u n d materials (see pp.230-31) To d r a w a fabric texture, b e g i n by concentrating o n h o w y o u i m a g i n e it w o u l d feel if you t o u c h e d it. Decide if it w o u l d be rough, s m o o t h , w a r m , cold, thick, thin, tough, or fragile, for example. As you draw, believe you can feel these qualities at your fingertips a n d that your pencil is responding to the sensation. Undulate the pressure of your lines and marks according to the feeling of the fabric rather than its appearance. Let your pencil enact the sensation of touching its surface.

and to experiment more loosely with mixed media.

This starchy, quilted, b o w e d creation started life as an imagined corset, I intended t o d r a w together in one sculptural f o r m a range o f t h e details opposite. T h e garment quickly got o u t o f hand. T h e r e is great e n j o y m e n t in letting y o u r imagination run wild w h e n inventing costumes. If you are unable t o visit a costume museum, many exciting fabric details and textures can be found in y o u r o w n closet o r home.


Colored pencils give precision and tonal range; they can be faded but not erased. Lightly use an HB graphite pencil if you wish to plan a design first. Pressed hard, colored pencils build up a waxy finish of brilliant color. Used lightly, they appear powdery and show the texture of the paper.


Silk and braid


Embroidered leather





Outline stitch


126-27. . 172-73. These characters. look at how Goya delineated volumes of thick fabric to express the posture. I made a drawing book full of studies seeking to understand how he composed drama and pathos in his narratives (see also pp. shape. and 252-53). selected from different pages of my original book.Dressing Character I O N C E SPENT THREE MONTHS researching the work of Francisco de Goya at the Prado Museum. and motivation of an individual. identity. Madrid.

. as it rushes and carves fabric-wrapped forms like rivers and desert winds shaping the earth.T H E S E PENCIL STUDIES. To understand how he did this. Posture Carving also taken from my Madrid drawing book (see pp. are copies of works by Goya in which he makes air seem heavier than flesh. and tangible. and visible. I carefully copied the direction of each of his lines.170—71).



the viewer is not directly made the finer lines of Saskia. a crowd tells the story from a distance. we can R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter draftsman. soap operas. As artists. there are no longer individuals but one significant group or mass action. This J u s t as there are three parts to a traditional landscape drawing—the foreground. and distance—so drawings of gathered people can be loosely arranged in three took only minutes to make and yet it lives for centuries. but drawings of gathered people tell them most directly. He is also the artist from whom props to add layers of meaning and attitude. the viewer. and novels—our staple cultural diet—are driven by a fascination with shared experience and the detail of what happens in other people's lives.Gatherings A LL DRAWINGS TELL STORIES. this is not the portrait of an old woman. R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN in the delivery of narrative. We can also use clothes. Third. comics. finding corners in crowded places to inscribe their action and energy onto the page. presumably while he is making this drawing. while a quill contact with. Saskia. Second. daily newspapers. and its illumination. in spite of how it may seem. too. heighten or subdue drama with subtleties of exaggeration or caricature. With a pocket full of disposable pens we also go out and draw the expressions of gathered people. and instantly engage with the action of the scene. Blockbuster movies. Washes of shadow behind engaged and as a natural voyeur can feel invisible while watching the scene. the viewer's attention in a scene by the format of its composition. Here. and therefore seem to see. stares out from her gloomy sickbed. vivid portrait of his wife captures our attention. Storytelling and people-watching are obsessive human activities. . paintings depicting scenes from history. we. furniture. Rembrandt's bored and frustrated wife. Her all-too-clear expression shows annoyance and irritation with her husband. He in turn scorches the paper with his view and a certain speed of seeing all. Later in their lives. television documentaries. We read tensions and exchanges between people. The spaces between people and the positions they occupy on a page are vital to our understanding of the psychology or emotion of an event. We can direct close. Drawings selected for this chapter explore these Saskia Lying in Bedand a Nurse ranges of proximity 1638 9 x61/2in (227 x 164 mm) and a travel journal. we can learn most about handling pen and ink. and so. Saskia died after childbirth. First. It middle. even up her were laid with a brush. the speed and printmaker and one of the greatest and most influential density of its lines. and other masters of Western Art. types. Seeing through Rembrandt's eyes. the direct exchange (as shown here) where one or more characters hold eye Aneedproduced the thicker lines of the nurse. are implicated in this marital exchange made over the head of the anonymous nurse.

T h e i m m a c u l a t e d r a w i n g is only r e v e a l e d w h e n t h e b e a m of a p r o j e c t o r c a s t s t h e s h a d o w Projections of the h e a p o n t o a wall. and in. In both works. t h e y select and arrange familiar items of street detritus into what appears to be an u n p l e a s a n t pile. c o m p o s e d garbage p r o d u c e s a c a l m . narrative is delivered through the air. Real Life is Rubbish 2002 Dimensions variable TIM N O B L E A N D SUE WEBSTER .kicks against the mundane things that close down your mind is a refreshing and good thing.. the C o o k . N o b l e a n d W e b s t e r s w i t t y a n d o f t e n s u b v e r s i v e d r a w i n g s are also c o n t e m p o r a r y art installations. Pencil on paper important but only the beginning of possibility the combination of three-dimensional space. the Cat. or even the office photocopier.."Anything that. via the animated clutter of o u r material lives. F o r e a c h w o r k . Think about what else you could use: a laser smoke. garbage and chaos are piled a n d e x p l o d e d in r o o m s full of event. and projector. hearth i m p l e m e n t s crash at o u r feet. h a l o e d portrait of the artists seated b a c k to b a c k . refuse. plates shatter. and Alice." (Tim Noble) Drawing with light it is important to think about what you is Here timelessly we see a in can draw with. Pans fly oft the stove. TIM N O B L E A N D SUE W E B S T E R British artists who collaborate using neon. and smoke billows around the agitated jives of the Duchess.176 GATHERINGS SOME DRAWINGS ARE MADE e n t i r e l y o f i l l u m i n a t i o n that floods drama into the viewers gaze. and projectors to create their anarchic punk satires of modern life. a kitchen explodes in o u r faces. Here. In one of R a c k h a m s great illustrations for Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland. and on. Below. junk. for example.

amplifying movement outward from the vanishing point. The wood grain acts like marks of speed behind the scene. beams. and Alice's shoulder. Depth Billows of smoke expand and are lighter as they come forward. See how the In the Duchess's Kitchen 1907 77/8 x 6 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 5 0 m m ) ARTHUR RACKHAM . by vivid children's Rakham's w o r k is characterized fantasy. This makes the story appear to leap out at us. we find several devices already explored through our drawing classes. a n d an unmistakable graphic style. tabletop. and Poe's Tales Imagination. Rackham Vanishing point In this marvelous drama made with pen.177 ARTHUR RACKHAM British watercolorist and book illustrator. Find the singleperspective pp.76-77) above vanishing point (see that is about3/4in (2 cm) oak converge at this point. are very large compared to on p.Stowe's ofMysteryand Queer Little Folks. ink. humor. Refer back to the drawing class how pots In drawn objects and elements that those behind. and watercolor. 100 to see for make elliptical objects and pans fly through the the foreground. H e is best k n o w n forillustratingIrving's Rip vanWinkle.

and art in the landscape. a sculptor. perhaps these two are the most extreme. and action of a buffalo hunt. HENRY MOORE Crowd 1942 Looking at Tied-up Object .178 GATHERINGS we have seen in the pairs and trios of drawings by masters and makers. The mournful gray landscape of Henry Moore's northern British field has gathered by night an overcoated audience to stand and wait before a wrapped and roped monument. a n d l o v e d t o d r a w in t h e BritishMuseum. Opposite. a great Shoshone drawing blazes with the color. In culture. A glimmer of gold light appears from the left No explanation is given.The human form w a s the vehicle o f his expression and h e w a s t h e official W o r l d W a r II artist. and we. London. Chalk and graphite This fog-bound but humorous gathering of souls is made in graphite and colored chalk with gray wash. and composition they are polar opposites. as fellow watchers. M o o r e t o u r e d Italy as a young man. meaning. expressing his dry humor about O F ALL THE CONTRASTS HENRY MOORE British s c u l p t o r w h o t r a i n e d a n d taught at t h e R C A . This is an ironic drawing from Moore. as if Moore's wrapping has been literally outstretched. Moore's spectators appear to have walked a long way from nowhere to witness and wait beside this mysterious obelisque. The image stands out among his more usual graphic works in which he hones and carves semi-abstract human forms. join in the waiting. heat. Magnetic Fields sculpture. audiences. which still narrates vivid days in the lives of an energetic nation. This is just one of many precious artifacts from a lost time.

Hunt CENTURY SHOSHONE SCHOOL . Skills are taught not center chant or dance to the beat of a drum.179 SHOSHONE SCHOOL Stylized characters This vital image of a buffalo hunt is made with pigment Members of the Shoshone community wishing painted within dark outlines on a stretched elk hide." Men at the instructed to sit and watch. Each color is evenly distributed throughout the scene. creating harmonious balance with words but through silent demonstration. horses. tolearnhow to paint a scene on a hide are and buffalo circle and charge the perimeters of a skin "field. Stylized hunters. MAGNETIC FIELDS Horses It is interesting to note how the outstretched limbs ofthesehorses echo European images of the runningBuffalo horse before the sequence-photographer Muybridge taught us to 19TH understand their movement differently. and helping our eye to dart around.

Heath Robinson lived through the same war-torn. w e f i n d a spiritual v i s i o n . The Circle of the (The Whirlwind 1824 of Lustful Lovers) mm) 143/4 x 207/8i n ( 3 7 4 x 5 3 0 WILLIAM BLAKE . Opposite. pale souls of the lustful are being s p u n into yet another realm of hell.180 GATHERINGS The Human Condition IN THE SPECTRUM of these vastly d i f f e r e n t g a t h e r i n g s of p e o p l e . a pink-inked cinema wobbles along with string. texture. It illustrates a scene from Dante's Divine Comedy. a d e a t h c h a r g e of brutality. w h i c h b y their c h o i c e a n d h a n d l i n g a c t u a l l y b e c o m e the force a n d spirit of e a c h i m a g e . inextinguishable in its fortitude and h u m o r . m a r k . K a t h e K o l l w i t z s c r a t c h e d a n d e n g r a v e d her a r m y of c l a y . era as Kollwitz.f o o t e d t r o g l o d y t e s w h o rage into w a r like a m u d s l i d e of revenge. We also see qualities of line. W I L L I A M BLAKE British visionary. Blake w a s d r i v e n b y a passion f o r j u s t i c e a n d a p r o f o u n d b e l i e f in his v i s i t a t i o n s f r o m angels. w r i t e r a r t i s t . a n d f o c u s . w h e r e he w a t c h e s a t u r b u l e n t s p i r a l of p u n i s h m e n t f o r the d a m n e d . a n d o t h e r w o r k s . Brushed line and wash This is an ink-outlined drawing made with a fine brush on paper with added washes of watercolor The image was subsequently redrawn as a line engraving. color. p o e t . The muscularity of Blake's figures was inspired by Michelangelo's works. t h e Bible. a n d the gentle h u m o r of sedate r i d i c u l e . Misted in translucent layers of paint. B l a k e h a s i l l u m i n a t e d his s a d d e n e d Virgil on the s h o r e s of a d a r k w o r l d . a n d e n g r a v e r w h o p o w e r f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e d his o w n t e x t s in a d d i t i o n t o D a n t e ' s Divine Comedy. and sweetened the often bleak years with his impractical inventions.

British Pen and wash This is a pen-andwatercolor drawing made for a color-platereproduction in an edition of T h e Bystander. Robinson and Kollwitz (above) share almost identical life dates and their work expresses a shared history from opposite sides oftheworld wars. and the family home. Heath Robinson shows England in a past era. With masterful gentility. HEATH ROBINSON The Kinecar 1926 103/8 x 15 in (262 x 380 mm) . humor by making his characters earnest. Losbruch (The Outbreak) 1955 20 x 233/8 in (507 x 592 mm) KATHE KOLLWITZ HEATH ROBINSON humorous illustrator and a regular contributor to magazines and journals such as The Sketch and The Bystander. sculptor and draftsman. however meager or ridiculous their activity. poverty. Ink rolled over was selectively polished off using a rag. and her powerful and sensitive drawings center on nurture. Kollwitz survived the two World Wars. The image was scratched directly onto a metal plate. and controlled smears on the metal surface printed as tones.181 KATHE KOLLWITZ German printmaker. THE HUMAN CONDITION Scratched lines This is a dry-point etching with monoprint. children. who lived in a poor district of Berlin. stoical bemusement. What remained in scratched grooves printed on damp paper as lines. plodding along with hazy. and clearly focused. White marks were made with a dusting of French chalk on the artist's finger to wipe away ink leaving clean metal. and the impact of death and war upon women. He created sincere.

they can be obtained within minutes. if y o u w i s h y o u r d r a w i n g s t o last a n d n o t fade o r b l u r w i t h t i m e a n d e x p o s u r e t o light." 1. 2. or idea.7 7 and 214-15). a disposable pen with its clip-on cap goes anywhere. For example. and in most pockets so I can always record a thought DISPOSABLE PENS QUICK NOTES O n a c o l d day in Venice. R e m e m b e r . t w o tourists and their gondolier drifter past m e o n a canal. I keep quantities at home. At a time like this. gel pens) are the most convenient of all materials with which to travel. in the car. T h e r e w e r e c seconds t o snatch this impression b e t w e e n their emergence from one bridge and disappearance b e n e a t h t h e next. p e r m a n e n t . build to a rich. FIBER-TIP: M a n u f a c t u r e d f o r artists a n d d e s i g n e r s in a r a n g e o f w i d t h s .182 GATHERINGS Disposable Pens (ballpoints. w a t e r . a ballpoint will make faint lines. they each offer distinct and sometimes unexpected qualities.r e s i s t a n t . fibertips. dropped in your pocket and forgotten till needed. jot notes. which can snap or pierce through your clothes.188-89) and Caravans (see pp. 192-93) w e r e b o t h m a d e w i t h a ballpoint. in the studio. 4. or put the paper in your pocket instantly without fear of smudging. Quick-drying. these pens enable you to sketch. shut your book. t h e y a r e lightfast. including l u m i n o u s a n d m e t a l l i c . Unlike pencils. fine fiber-tip Drawing with a fine fiber-tip pen. Lines t h i c k e n as t h e p e n w e a r s o u t G r a n d Canal (see pp. Ideal f o r precision w o r k (see p p . W h i t e gel p e n s a r e v e r y e f f e c t i v e o n d a r k papers. 7 6 . G E L P E N : P r o d u c e d in b l a c k w h i t e . indent paper. is d e l i v e r e d t h r o u g h a m e t a l t u b e o v e r a t i n y ball bearing. c h o o s e p e n s l a b e l e d " p e r m a n e n t " o r "lightfast. a n d ranges o f colors. R O L L E R B A L L : A c o n s t a n t i n k flow 3 . aiming for correct outlines would result in drawing too slowly to c a t c h the moment. CHOICES AVAILABLE T h e r e a r e m a n y d i s p o s a b l e p e n s t o c h o o s e from. or turn into washes and make monoprints if flooded with an alcohol-based substance such as hairspray. The f o u r i l l u s t r a t e d h e r e r e p r e s e n t a basic r a n g e . dark sheen. turn the page. a n d pressure-sensitive. Available in blacks and ranges of colors. trusting shape and form to follow. B A L L P O I N T : Black a n d b o l d c o l o r s o f f e r d i v e r s e qualities. rollerballs. . I swiftly focused on gesture. Insensitive t o p r e s s u r e : lines d o n o t v a r y in w i d t h o r t o n e . blob when old. So many stores sell them.

crowd of fellow travelers Fast lines These scribbled lines model the mass and shadows of heads belonging passengers packed into the boat. Fast lines focus on action. Compare this Klee's mules on p.FROMMEMORY Here I used the same fiber-tip pen to compose a scene from memory. Earlier I had witnessed a crammed en masse in a fleet of hired gondolas complete with musicians and choir. not form.31 .

FLEETING MOMENTS Walking through Venice with a small. A curatorial assistant flies to do a chore (right). and companionship. of course. not its outline. black. You will make outlines. life will not slow and wait for you to catch it. when out drawing. Each one was witnessed and drawn immediately from the afterimage of what I had just seen. all action is in the line of his coat and directed by his nose. You must learn to trust your memory and to draw what impressed you most. make them stouter. Movement . No camera can tie you to a time or people in the same way. Don't worry about measuring angles. Each line acts its part in the narrative. Circular lines buzz around a man puzzling at the end of a train platform (left). However. Exaggeration helps. if animated. animate them more. focus on the action of the event. activity. Above all. pocket notebook and a fiber-tip pen. let it enter the stage and perform. Every drawing writes an indelible memory of place. but they should not be what you dwell on. I caught fleeting glimpses of gathered people and solitary souls going about their affairs. angles will happen as a matter of course.184 GATHERINGS The Travel Journal I CANNOT OVERSTATE THE JOY of making a travel journal. Let the line of the flying coat fly and the hanging arm hang. if a person was stout. just draw the action. Push toward caricature and this will draw out of your memory what was most important.

I am watched by the aggravated guard. eager to herd us all from his house of responsibility. I drew him three times on the same page to catch a range of his physical expressions.185 A large lady is photographed in front of a delicate work of art. Observation THE TRAVEL JOURNAL The same willowy assistant dashes about his work. The rush of his legs isamplifiedby their blurred lines. Expression . In turn.

. For example. ACTION AND DETAIL W h e n drawing people. pulls. or bulge. elevate them in the pictorial space. placement. Here the custodian projects fastidious ownership of his desk and pamphlets by pushing from behind the center of the space and challenging our entry to his image. or pushes. if they are being haughty. I took refuge in a church in Venice. and let every detail speak by its size. He and his simpering assistant would not allow me in. start by focusing on its action. and there met this sullen custodian. and clothing or bags hang. Identify the principal character and draw him or her first. you might place them lower down. Place the person carefully. and you decide to draw the moment. not outline. and involvement in the story. flap. focus on action. When your attention has been caught.186 GATHERINGS Catching the Moment On A BITTERLY COLD November day. furniture leans. forcing me to remain at the back and look at them. Be aware that their placement on the page is part of the narrative. decide how faces and bodies contort. Here I have recreated my drawing in steps to show you how to set about capturing such a scene. if they are being devious. and reason for happening. For example. emotion. rather than the works of art they guarded.

I added t h e assistant. such as the desk and pamphlets seen here.187 The custodian Identify your principal character a n d their psychological role in the scene. Here. CATCHING THE MOMENT The assistant Identify t h e antagonist ( o r second character) in t h e scene. W i t h a few strokes. D r a w their action. together with any immediate props they are using. Draw their action and props. which is pushed toward us in a gesture of confrontation. If drawing a more complex scene. who is largely expressed through the shape and fall o f his raincoat and his way o f using a note pad. Decide where t o place them t o emphasize their role. . continue adding characters. Decide where you will place them o n the paper t o emphasize their action and intent. In the final step (left) I reinforced t h e custodian's desk. a pillar locates t h e scene in a depth o f space.


and buildings. An imminent deluge of tourists urged me to work catching no more than the skeleton of the view. I developed detailofthis drawing from memory using a ballpoint pen.Grand Canal T H E CANALS OF VENICE are bustling places full of occupation. . where vertical mooring poles give space and pulse to the horizontal speed of water quickly.

then the bridge beneath them. Each person was glimpsed in an instant. followed by the streets. Caricature each person slightly. Venetians flow across a stepped bridge and cascade into the streets beyond. To catch characters like this. note only their most essential action and feature. . and drawn immediately from memory. Characters in the foreground were drawn first.Crossings DURING THIS RUSH HOUR.



. and a great subject to draw.Caravans T H E PARAPHERNALIA O F TRAVEL i s an intriguing part of circus life. quiet afternoon. Caravans and other backstage activity convey expectations of energy and repose. I used a ballpoint pen to compose a series of scenes. Sitting at a distance on a hot. I found this circus by chance in the Swiss mountains.




so J o h n Russell's tour de f o r c e drawing (opposite) was a masterpiece of observation in his time. makes his work by the act of walking. marking the ground with lines of footprints or by turning stones. they are the animators of your subject. pages o f softly i l l u m i n a t e d craters and lunar "seas" c o v e r e d in m a t h e m a t i c a l and s h o r t h a n d calculations. how the soil is scorched. and experiment. t h e first-ever accurate image o f t h e M o o n ' s surface. These conditions are very difficult to express well. to be ready to draw the new light as it breaks across the land. England. JOHN RUSSELL A p o r t r a i t pastelist t o King G e o r g e III o f England. or has cracked and fallen under the weight of water. the face of the Moon. but it can be seen as a lens to our observation of this planet. In this chapter Moon Pastel 1795 Drawing we experiment with charcoal. and take bold steps in emulating the swell of clouds and the forces of torrential water. Beginners will often choose calm. our companion. By drawing such momentous and everyday events. when little stirs and empty blue skies offer even less to latch lines to. surrounded by the bright instruments of centuries of navigation. 5 f t x 5 ft 6 in ( 1 5 2 x 1 6 8 c m ) J O H N RUSSELL . as opposed the physicality of Earth. 199). a n d a n astronomer w h o dedicated 20 years t o studying t h e M o o n . t w o e n g r a v e d m a p s k n o w n as The Lunar Planispheres. are the real subjects in great landscape drawings. Just as NASA photographs of Earth have had a profound effect on the way we view our fragile home. how the mountain cut by ice and rain is now fleetingly lit. and even how the Sun illuminates. This is the world's first accurate image of the Moon. a contemporary environmental artist. rivers. trees. and the sea.Earth and the Elements I T MAY SEEM PERVERSE to start a chapter titled "Earth and the Elements" with an image of the Moon. The forces of nature. Russell d r e w this. artists see for themselves that which is momentary and eternal. It now hangs on the staircase of the History of Science Museum. Oxford. learning to draw light out of dark. a n d a m o o n globe called t h e Selenographia. There is a sense of the heroic in drawing outside—we race to catch a form before the tide engulfs it. speculation. Richard Long. the sun comes out to blind it. Look closely at works by many artists and you will see that they have not represented hills. What they have drawn is the force of nature on these properties: how the wind heaves the night ocean. The pastel drawing was constructed from myriad telescopic observations almost 200 years before the Apollo Moon landing. sunny days. William Turner is said to have had himself lashed to a ship's mast to comprehend the storm (see p. Take chances against the rain and work with the wind or fog. H e a l s o p r o d u c e d an a l b u m o f 1 8 0 exquisite pencil drawings. It is better to get up before dawn. arranging them in perfect circles on the mountainside or in lines drifting out of sight beneath low clouds. It is Earths satellite. or the wind carries it away. Weather is essential in all landscape drawing. and its draws the tides of the seas. and meteor impacts have scarred.

By Turner carries us to the heart of the maelstrom. fluttering heavily. Crayon and limestone This is a lithograph. Fluid strokes inflate the woman's dress and pin shadows to the ground. Flapping kimonos and an onlooker turning his b a c k have the magic of a m o m e n t caught. seeing how it shakes. Below. A hard waxy was drawn across a heavy limestone Varying definitions crayon of lire and depths of tone conspire to give volume. H O N O R E DAUMIER French satirical cartoonist lithographer. distance. undramatic b u t brimming with stylized realism. we can soon learn to draw its force. Daumier's c a r t o o n shines with the brilliance of his comic memory. a scratched ghost. This wife. Hazy vertical marks reveal buildings into the mist. sculptor. is already lost. T h e great master of English seascape is c o n d u c t i n g with his graphic energy. like an umbrella forced inside-out. Danger of Wearing Balloon Petticoats UNDATED HONORE DAUMIER . has b e c o m e a hysterical kite. and pioneer ofexpressionism. Hokusais sedate wind presses reeds a n d the j o u r n e y s o f young ladies.Through political drawings he fired his sharp wit at the king. T h e ship. the bourgeoisie. He knew how the world bends and stutters under such gusts. and solidity. Dots and dashes suggest receding trees out of focus. lifts. and gives motion to each image. and the legal profession. the government. Terrifying waves of merciless nature roar across the paper. a sail b r o k e n loose in a stormy marriage. and by observing its tides and eddies in our o w n environment. serving a prison sentence for his views.198 EARTH AND THE E L E M E N T S Air in Motion THE GREAT INVISIBLE SUBJECT o f these d r a w i n g s is t h e w i n d . speed. painter.

T U R N E R British landscape. and history painter w h o s e p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t a b o v e all w a s light. a n d his b e s t .b l o c kprintmaker. horizontally then and of the it into the stream Plants also bend and flow right to Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 1802 81/2 HOKUSAI KATSUSHIKA x 131/2 in ( 2 1 7 x 3 4 3 mm) . T h e r e a r e m a n y stories o f his p a s s i o n a t e w o r k i n g methods. including being lashed t o a ship's m a s t in o r d e r to study a storm.l o v e dw o r k s i n c l u d e 1 0 0 v i e w s o f M o u n t Fuji and 1 2 v o l u m e s o f Manga. A outline scratched of a skeletal into penciled ship is while and the waves.W. Ship in a Storm c. W . AIR IN MOTION Pencil and watercolor subdued brushed.M. from left print. leans the whole composition swells around its fateful center. d e s i g n e r a n d b o o k i l l u s t r a t o r .199 J. Hokusai direction (from clothing from has chosen which it the right). T u r n e r w o r k e d in oils a n d w a t e r c o l o r s a n d s k e t c h e d c o p i o u s l y o n his travels. painter. absorbent watercolor and are Stains of splashed. Wind direction wood-block This is a colored To represent the blows lifted flowed wind.M. wind. 1826 91/2 x 113/4 in ( 2 4 1 x 3 0 0 m m ) J. Landscape a n d city life w e r e his principal subjects.i n f l u e n c e d b y examples o f W e s t e r n art obtained through D u t c h t r a d i n g in Nagasaki. seascape. TURNER KATSUSHIKA HOKUSAI Prolific J a p a n e s e c o l o r w o o d . into this very as pressed sheet The paper's through own coior is brought banks of mist and fog. H o k u s a i in t u r n has since significantly influenced European art.

He brings us to stare into a place that no sane human would enter. Pen and brush Hugo drew first with pen and ink. EARTH AND THE VICTOR HUGO French novelist and artist (see also p. active surfaces of water. Leonardos Cloudburst of Material Possessions is o n e of his m o s t enigmatic and mysterious works. drawing was Hugo's principal means o f expression. this is a b o m b a r d m e n t from o u r h o m e s . h a u n t e d shadows. In periods b e t w e e n writing. as if drawn j u s t this year. D o m e s t i c o b j e c t s we can o w n and name fall from the clouds. By contrast. or charcoal. ink. inks. Le Bateau-Vision 1864 71/2 x 1 0 in ( 1 9 2 x 2 5 5 m m ) VICTOR H U G O . Turner (see p. Then. as a gestural storm on the paper. water.198) admires the majesty of nature. with a brush. he blanketed the drawing in darkness. marks. fantasy palaces. lines of rain escorting them to b o u n c e and clatter. and swim into the page. leaving nothing but a glimpse of moonlight glistening on the froth below. as a subject and second. An update on biblical showers of fish and frogs. T h e very nature of b o t h is turmoil and an interweaving of elements.28).200 ELEMENTS Storms STORMS CAN BE SEEN and drawn in two ways: first. His subjects include ruins. and tossed o b j e c t s — a perfect subject in which artists can forget themselves. composing banks of waves and dense. T h e m e n a c i n g darkness of Hugo's storm b e l o w is so convincing. It looks so contemporary. this is a writer's narrative of terror. grab their b r u s h . Opposite. and t h e sea s t u d i e d f r o m his h o m e in Guernsey in t h e Channel Islands. it is difficult to contemplate its brooding and night-soaked heart.

Cloudburst of Material Possessions 1510-12 45/8 x 43/8 in ( 1 1 7 x 1 1 1 mm) L E O N A R D O DA VINCI . a hook. Each item that has crashed from heaven is drawn in such a way that we can feel Leonardo's nib picking it up in the speed of a doodle. and they passed through private hands for 400 years before becoming widely known. There is a little magic in recognizing many items from our homes something like a rake. and a wheel.LEONARDO DA VINCI Leonardo devised many artifacts of our modern lives. Above and below are examples of his mirror handwriting. for example). together with half the contents of our garage. a bell. envisioning machines centuries before their making (helicopters and bicycles. He bequeathed his drawings to a friend. He was left-handed and wrote backwards in Italian from left to right. It is interesting to speculate how engineering might have developed if his ideas had been shared with the world earlier Ink and chalk This is a pen and ink drawing with touches of black chalk.

cooler tones receding into the distance are applied with a brush. Claude is distinguished by. she teased away fragments of paper to illuminate her view. and dry marks in the foreground appear to be made with his finger. Even distilled from all other detail. sea-. Nature Profiles Opposite below. Whether land-.202 ELEMENTS THE PROFILE OF A HORIZON is a line we immediately recognize and respond to. atmosphere. and we can imagine standing over his shoulder. Clare Bryan took panoramic photographs of the English South Downs. In a very different work (opposite above). In the lower half he has walked downhill a little. Claude has used a fine nib to delineate segments of land as they recede into space. transferred it to a scroll. his unsurpassed handling of light. Views from Velletri c. Over first lines. C L A U D E LORRAIN French classical landscape painter draftsman. and after tracing her captured line. which he used to unify his compositions. and etcher who lived most of his life in 17th-century Rome. Segments The top half of the drawing is a view as we enter the valley. and across to the right. EARTH AND THE Bryan cut the profile of a city. Claude Lorrain drew directly on location. made inside a book. or cityscape. and mood simultaneously. and famed for. it is the unique calligraphic signature of the place in which we stand. rich. watching his hand and eye at work together. rapidly layering contours to shape place. thick. Paler. Drawing with a scalpel.1638 85/8 x 121/2 in (219 x 320 mm) CLAUDE LORRAIN . a horizon line can trigger our recognition. She was inspired by her research of aerial plans of London and the story of an alien map butterfly (see caption).

The horizon was drawn with a City Landline 2003 271/2x 59 in (70 x 150 cm) scalpel. Her recent paper photographic.203 Scalpel-drawn This book-bound drawing was inspired by the story of a foreign butterfly wrongly to Great Britain in 1912. On turning the pages of City. printmaker graphic designer. progressively settlement (cropped more and more paper is drawn away to show the expansion of human page of an around the river. drawings Ideas of introduction Clare Bryan to research introduced down and led NATURE PROFILES and removal historical plans and aerial growth of London showing its population since Roman times. and visiting professor at numerous art schools.5-m)scroll. The edges of each here) fade into the solid paper unpopulated with a scalpel landscape. source workisilluminatedby standing its lower edge on a CLARE BRYAN . 2001 CLARE BRYAN C L A R E BRYAN 3ritish artist. and digital print-based works reflect upon the histories and poetry of "left behind and in-between spaces. specialty bookbinder." Cut line This is a small section of a preparatory 5-ft(1. then hunted destroyed.

54). A great find when available. . C h a r c o a l naturally glistens. black finish. Not to be confused with square conte sticks (see p. CHARCOAL PENCIL: Types made by different manufacturers vary in quality and density of line. CHALK CHARCOAL: Technically. LIFTING OUT This technique is a very easy method of drawing a crisp. COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Machine-made. Use any fine-point pen or pencil (I used a ballpoint) to draw a firm line on the back of the Big pieces are perfect for very large-scale drawings—even larger than yourself. fine. Alternatively. the heel o f y o u r h a n d . feather. Lines are achieved by d e p o s i t i n g particles in the grain o f paper. It is also easily erased if the maker of the mark is not happy with the result. a n d m o r e i n d e l i b l e by soaking it in linseed oil. tape. between your middle finger and thumb. leaving u n d e r t r a c e s of first thoughts. B u n d l e s o f twigs were traditionally sealed into earthenware j a r s or wet clay and heated slowly and intensely in a fire or kiln. cylindrical.m a d e c o m p r e s s e d charcoal. Hold it over your drawing RANGE AVAILABLE Charcoal (in its several forms shown here) is loved or loathed by the beginner to whom it is often recommended because it produces pleasing results quickly. As its name implies. so it chars b l a c k as o p p o s e d to igniting a n d turning to ash. Try itworking on big paper covering a wall. sticky side down. Smooth paper accepts few particles. 7. R o u g h paper c a n b e loaded. or fingertip. 3 A white line is lifted out by the tape. resulting in a pale line. Charcoal lifts away from paper easily with the very light touch o f an eraser. a n d p l u m . maple. 4. b l a c k e r .204 E A R T H AND THE E L E M E N T S Charcoal CHARCOAL IS PRODUCED from wood baked slowly without exposure to air. only a little thicker. without touching the surface. it looks gray and feels like chalk. Willow is the most c o m m o n wood. It does n o t erase easily. they are all intended for fine work. Beware of cheap brands selling dyed chalk as compressed charcoal. It allows you greater precision in your mark-making than if you rub away the charcoal with an eraser. Essentially. but some specialists stock compressed charcoal in delicate square sticks. The tip snaps easily to renew a sharp edge if required. you can p u r c h a s e m a c h i n e . It c a n be m a d e duller. 2. Boxes often contain a range of thicknesses to choose for different needs. a rag. 6. white line into the blackor grayness of willow charcoal. THICK W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 2 Keep the tape above your drawing. In use. 1. it is compressed and m o l d e d at high pressure. Then lift it away. this does not exist. 3. THIN WILLOW CHARCOAL: I used a piece like this to make the drawing opposite. blacker. MEDIUM W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 5. The same as above. b e e c h . vine. and offers a rich. 1 Suspend a length of masking tape. and heavier than willow. SQUARE COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Not often sold. a piece of fresh bread. Slightly dull the tape's stickiness before use t o prevent it from lifting out more than you intend. Artists have also used lime. 162) or graphite (see p. resulting in a stick that gives a blacker. harder line.

Layers can be peeled away to refresh its surface. graphite. Different tones seen throughout the main drawing on pp. or any other dry media. . 9. 8 . sold in several widths. Use cheaper (less sticky) for lifting out. PEN: Any fine pen or pencil can be used to draw on the back of masking tape when lifting out.212-13 were made by altering the pressure applied to the charcoal. T O R T I L L O N : This is a tight roll of paper used to blend charcoal. as is fresh (unbuttered!) bread. MASKING TAPE: An invaluable resource. Lift out broader marks with a larger implement. CHARCOAL Lifting out This detail shows an example of where I used the lifting-out technique demonstrated opposite to draw flashes of lightning against rain clouds. pastels.205 ERASING Thickly applied charcoal quickly o v e r c o m e s a plastic eraser A w a r m (soft and tacky) putty eraser is more effective. I used a plastic eraser effectively on thinly applied charcoal. Cotton swabs also work. 10. Here we used a ballpoint. Use high quality (very sticky) to fix paper to walls and boards. Here.

our brains search for nameable things and will perceive complete pictures from very little information. Excessive detail can be admired for its skill and achievement. it results in flat planes of clutter. MATERIALS In this first view there is only a foreground and middle distance. The long view is hidden behind trees. but is often less evocative and engaging. 9 8 . When you arrive. a reel of masking tape. Ironically. To experiment with drawing landscapes and the use of charcoal. Successful drawings often only suggest the qualities of the scene without overdescribing them. This term simply means that as land rolls away into the distance. Don't worry if it is cloudy: clouds add drama and perspective and make good subjects in themselves (see pp. Seeing tones . the more you encourage the viewer's imagination to join in and see.9 9 we noted that in response to visual stimulus. and a cushion in a plastic bag to sit on. the less you describe. to contain each of your compositions. Landscape drawings are traditionally arranged in three parts: a detailed foreground. especially when making first excursions into aerial perspective. a less distinct middle ground composed of shapes and textures. pack your materials (as advised below) and set off for a local view or your nearest arboretum. details blur and colors grow paler and bluer. and an abstract. It is the visible effect of the atmosphere between where you stand and what you see in the distance. On p p . I relaxed my eyes out of focus to dissolve distracting detail into abstract patches of light and darkness.212-13). At its worst. They are also good markers of receding space. Then I drew the shape of the tonal patches I perceived.206 EARTH AND THE ELEMENTS Landscapes TREES ALONE OFFER MARVELOUS shapes to draw. hazy distance. begin by marking out several small squares on your paper. Pack several thick and thin sticks of willow charcoal. an eraser your drawing book or a board and paper fixative (or hairspray).

full of information you can use to create what you want! Inventing drama . Remember. your view is your inspiration. rounded. dark trees with bright. I have invented drama with diagonals set against each other I tilted the earth. horizontal regions of grass.207 LANDSCAPES In my second square I explored a simple view contrasting soft. Exploring the view Redrawing the scene above. It is better to give distinctly more pictorial space to one or the other (see below). This composition turned out a little flat because I have an almost even quantity of earth and sky. and broke a view through the hedge into the distance with a dark sky threatening rain. the trunk of a bare tree. shadows.

1 5 my first drawing of the whole view of the Tiber led me to see the real subject of the day. I am then able to home in on what interests me most for further study. 2 1 4 . Similarly. Circling a subject and drawing it from several views imprints on your memory a better understanding of its three-dimensional form. on p p . Building on earlier studies of structure in space using shoes (pp. so the paper is not made blinding and your hand cannot cast a shadow on your work. s e e k places in light After my first drawing.104-05). "Drawing in the round means to literally walk around your subject. I usually begin by making an image of the whole view. shade out of the glare of the sun. settling my concentration.164-65) and a wire violin (pp. your challenge now is to find a sculptural subject in the landscape. bare ribs. England has embedded within it the decaying skeleton of a burned fishing boat. engine." . and tiller still standing proud. which was the flow of water over rocks. This first drawing serves as a process of arrival. making the scene below led me to focus on the decaying boat opposite. and seeing what the real choice of subject is.208 ELEMENTS Drawing in the Round WHEN DRAWING IN THE LANDSCAPE. EARTH AND THE FINDING THE SUBJECT Finding a remarkable subject is even better when you can circumnavigate it in an arena of space. For example. The mud of the tidal shore in Rye. taking with you your drawing book and pen. observing it from several views so as to better understand it as a whole.

careful lines to establish the skeleton that gives this wreck its distinct form. unfussy lines. I spent equal time looking at the subject and the paper. w h e n t h e sea recedes. DRAWING IN THE 1 Here. character. I drew with quick. marking straight. make a series o f drawings f r o m different positions. W h e n you have found your subject. looking more at the boat than at the paper From this low position I have emphasized how the boat is swallowed in mud by outlining its shadow on the ground. its overall balance. and structure. ROUND 2 In this tail-end view. 3 This impression notes the angle of the broken boat. The outline ties a shape of darkness to the boat like a weight so that it becomes part of its form. I looked more boldly at the planes and the dynamic of the sculptural craft My lines have become darker and more forceful as confidence in my understanding of the vessel grew.209 SERIES OF STUDIES This stunning ghost o f a boat comes into v i e w t w i c e a day. Each n e w drawing gives a different insight. Overleaf: Decaying Boat 4 . and the order and shape of its component parts.



hot-pressed drawing p a p e r (see pp.Cloudburst THIS STORM DRAWING. m a d e on s m o o t h . . I worked quickly to catch and weave the turbulent contrasts of rising wind and approaching water before the drawing could be washed away.20-21) using a thin stick of willow charcoal. L o o k i n g b a c k and forth from the heavens to firmly taped-down paper. was made with gentle but unhesitating s p e e d .


pulse.Notes of Force T H E GREAT FLOWING TIBER RIVER has cut through Rome. shaping the city. since ancient times. . On the pages of a small. black. and rhythmic detail as it passed through the ancient gully of the city. I drew with a needle-fine fiber-tip pen. focusing on the river's eddies. pocket-sized notebook.


The strong diagonal of the composition from bottom left to top right carries the eye through changes of height and focus from the foreground to the mountains beyond. I used a dip pen and waterproof India ink with brushed watercolor to draw the view. .Mountains SITTING IN THE SHADE of a tree on the Greek island of Antiparos.



People are often scared by abstraction and see it as the enemy of figurative art. sounds. strike the paper to find form. Afterward. Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape 1915 413/8 x 285/8 in (105 x 72. As you approach the classes in this chapter. An abstract mark is often a better conductor of a thought or feeling. which are essentially abstract. it is simply itself. writhing torrents of color. He made thousands of drawings to chronicle his complex life. spontaneous image-making. many nonWestern cultures have highly sophisticated abstractions at the core of their art. picturing a stabilized world was impossible and Modernism rode forth with vigor. expressive marks and shapes are at the core of natural. Not everything we know has a physical form in the world. actions. ADOLF WOLFLI One of the greatest masters of Art Brut. be brave and enjoy them. It is actually its foundation and its infrastructure. Internal workings of the mind were suddenly free to find a new language of expression. writer and composer who suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and was resident in the Waldau Aslyum near Berne. Many concepts and feelings can only be expressed through marks. and history. The fate of Old World thinking was finally sealed with the brutality of World War I. It was not invented in the 20th century. First marks. poet. My own work is firmly centered in figuration. and independent means of communication. and emotion. direction. Wolfli was a Swiss draftsman.8 cm) A D O L F WOLFLI Abstraction is a direct. precisely because it does not have to represent a physical object. Artists were given a different tool—a line threaded directly from their subconscious to their hand—and with it they began to map a bold new landscape of marks and concepts that would dramatically and forever change the face of Western art. and have been making abstract drawings for centuries—Japanese calligraphy. and poetic myth roar and cascade within his tightly framed pages. Perhaps in Western culture we bred this intuitive freedom out of ourselves in our insistence on complex figuration. Berne. drawn sound. liberating. However. I begin every image by feeling its meaning. abstraction is not so easy to define. such as Adolf Wolfli. and Aboriginal art. fictional language. Indian mandalas. and it has always been with us. Museum of Fine Arts. only rediscovered. don't be timid. all pictorial representations are abstractions of reality. The growing rise of Darwinian ideas coupled with Freudian and Marxist perspectives forced Western society to reconsider its origins and future. His drawings are collected and exhibited internationally and held by the Adolf Wolfli Foundation. and young children show us that abstract. Outsider artists. . belief. opposite. yet my kinship to abstraction is fundamental. It also underpins and gives strength and unity to all figurative work. Swirling. From another viewpoint.Abstract Lines T HE DEVELOPMENT OF W E S T E R N abstract art at the beginning of the 20th century significantly paralleled major changes in world thought. From one point of view. or gestures. for example.

Damp Japanese paper was laid over carefully arranged iron bars. and patient watching. iron. Changes paper. Mamoru Abe prepares an image that will appear through the chemistry of iron. akin to stones in a Zen garden. The Physical Space 1990 3 0 x 30 ft ( 9 1 4 x 9 1 4 cm) MAMORU ABE . and temperature rim of floor space. silence. quoting ink marks on a page. it can keep reforming through the inherent repetition of a process. tone. Below. scrolling across the canvas in an intimate crescendo. Sometimes it smolders like a deep shadow. rhythmically engaged with itself. ice. sit in silent harmony. Twombly's mesmeric wax line worked over house paint is like a signature. A Neolithic chalk tablet bears cut lines that were slowly carved. A line can be finished in a second. Abe's physical drawing is a sculptural installation. Lines. forged steel. Moisture produced rust. as Twombly shows us opposite. Five forged steel shapes. and sensitivity with its thickness and pressure of touch. MAMORU ABE Japanese sculptor and installation artist. and wood are also part of the work. This the paper rest within the amplifies framelike of the floor from the ceiling. and plaster in galleries and landscapes.220 A B S T R A C T LINES Process and Harmony SOMETIMES A DRAWN LINE sings on the surface of its support. or. brass. He travels widely to research ancient sacred sites. texture. and texture their bracing separation reaching between from beneath Pillars of the gallery are made part of this drawing by their inclusion in the paper. Iron rods in tone. It can proclaim mood. Abe works with materials such as soil. salt. staining redbrown lines into the white surface. and Assistant Professor of Fine A r t at Fukuoka University. water.

that challenges the separation of word from image.Thesite's purpose is unknown. and the worship of the sun and ancient gods. energetic. Neolithic Chalk Tablet 3. and American Indian petroglyphs (see p. Twombly has language works CY TWOMBLY Contemporary American artist who emerged through the 1950s New York art scene in the heyday of Abstract Expressionism and Action Painting. Many of his graffiti-like combine abstract gestures with statements.221 ANCIENT CARVINGS Many ancient cultures have made and left behind drawings and texts carved into stones or animal bone. and Untitled 1970 Here we might seek to grasp letters in the turning of his line. and sensuous drawing from painting. Precise lines suggest the use of a sharp flint The framed rectangle of this image is echoed in that of Abe's installation. evolved a raw.England.Twombly was presented with a Golden Lion award for lifetime achievement. PROCESS AND HARMONY Cut lines Chalk carves easily. This example is one of two chalk tablets found in a Late-Neolithic pit. theories suggest astrological observations. such as the Rosetta stone.400BCE 21/4 x 21/4 in (58 x 58 mm) ARTIST UNKNOWN Language Over the course of fifty years.000-2. burials. The central pictorial space is also similarly cut and divided by the considered arrangement of straight lines.241). At the 2001 Venice Biennale. the Babylonian world map. close to Stonehenge in Wiltshire. CY TWOMBLY . emotive.

said. beautiful. and participate in the composition. music manuscript requiring instrumentalists to improvise. His drawing writes the time of its own physical process by expressing the extreme concentration of the moment in which it was made.222 ABSTRACT LINES Writing Time SINCE THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY. opposite. brushed night skies over them with ink then lifted the disks to reveal white moons. here he anticipates abstract expressionism by 100 years. Similarity in gritty texture suggests that here. broke new ground in the 1950s with graphic scores now considered among the most extreme. Here he appears t o have saturated the cut-out moon disks with gritty pigment. abstract. o r a pattern o f elements s o unified as a w h o l e t h e y c a n n o t b e e x p l a i n e d asa s u m o f parts. interpret. and let the drying meniscus deposit granules in linear drifts such as we would see in the satellite photographic mapping of rivers. and lifted them away to leave impressions of watery planets and seas." An innovator who never fails to surprise. o f t e n e x p r e s s e d in v i s u a l t e r m s . Two Impressions Paper 1853-55 VICTOR HUGO Disk from a Cut-Out .28. abstract artists and composers unique. have striven to break down old pictorial and musical structures to explore new and unfettered modes of expression. below. Ink impressions When drawing nightscapes Hugo often laid paper disks in place of the moon. The scores are also exhibited in galleries as visual art. A graphic score is a V I C T O R H U G O Hugo's abstract French novelist w h o m a d e m a n y drawings in m i x e d m e d i a ( s e e also p. drawing here can b e described in t e r m s o f a G e r m a n philosophical idea a b o u t is t h e i n s t a n t r e c o g n i t i o n t h e p o w e r o f m o m e n t . too. Texture Compare this drawing to Hugo's octopus on p. Marks across the center appear to be made with his fingers. "There is nothing like dream to create the future. a configuration. Gestalt o f an unnameable thing. Hugo. pressed them face down. Gestalt. he mixed graphite into ink. Both abstract drawing and composition involve the perfect sequencing of sounds and marks against space and silence.28). Bussotti. and inventive of his time.

Compare this work to that of Libeskind on p. 1958 SYLVANO BUSSOTTI . 70 in relation to Bussotti's clustered notes to the left of his rondo and open space to the right. Circular Score for "Due Voci" c. Following the notes. His later works become increasingly abstract. This is a page from Due Voci.223 W R I T I N G TIME SYLVANO BUSSOTTI Italian avant-garde composer and principal 20thcentury exponent of the graphic score. Sound and rhythm This flickering rondo of sound written in pen on a hand-ruled stave can be heard in our imaginations as much as seen. we can feel their rhythm and easily attach sounds to them. a far cry from any recognized musical notation. Bussotti's first mature work.

and sufferers of psychiatric illnesses—who have always existed. In the late 1 9 t h century.224 A B S T R A C T LINES Chants and Prayers WHEN ABSTRACT LINES are organized in repetition. Visually. Germany. making objects and images outside o f mainstream culture. O p p o s i t e . This takes a form in most cultures. Cell Floor With Torn Strips of Cloth 1894 MARIE LIEB . T h e s e p h o t o g r a p h s d o c u m e n t the meditative drawings o f two w o m e n living worlds apart in different countries. it is found in the regularity o f ordered lines or a pattern. they m a k e a visual a n d physical e c h o that t o u c h e s s o m e deep part of the human spirit. an a n o n y m o u s w o m a n in the southeast Indian state o f Tamil Nadu m a k e s a ritual drawing o n the b r i c k courtyard o f h e r h o m e .228-29) has been adjusted with each movement of the rags to draw a cosmos of balance and perfection. Torn cloth This is one of two published photographs showing Marie Leib's torn cloth strips significantly placed on her cell floor. and c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Marie Lieb w a s a psychiatric patient in the Heidelberg Asylum. In music it can be felt in the diversity of plainsong and African d r u m m i n g . social outcasts. centuries. Compositional rightness (see pp. Lieb is one o f countless thousands of "Outsider" artists—diverse individuals including ordinary citizens. Cloth is the simple instrument with which she has conducted and ordered her universe. cultures. It will protect the place from evil and make a pleasing invitation to good spirits. for e x a m p l e . MARIE LIEB Little is known of this w o m a n for w h o m the act of drawing was essential. d i p p i n g h e r fingers into a pot o f rice flour. She tore c l o t h into strips a n d used these to draw patterns a n d symbols o n h e r cell floor.

lecturer on the subjects of Indian art and Indian women's identity. among others. In daily practice. and for over 30 years has traveled extensively through the Indian subcontinent creating an edited archive of 200. lime.HUYLER Photographer art historian. and birds. cultural anthropologist.Theseare widely published in journals and are the subjects of international exhibitions. Painted Prayers UNDATED STEPHEN R HUYLER . at the University of London and Ohio State University. Huyler is the author of Painted Prayers. Designs and motifs Rangoii (or mandalas) are ritual drawings made by many millions of women across rural India. Skills are handed down through generations and from friend to friend. women pride themselves on never repeating a design. and in places of worship and celebration. animals. Materials such as rice flour. Popular magazines feature new ideas each week and on special occasions there may be contests.000 images.225 STEPHEN P. or flowers are marked or arranged on the ground or on the walls of homes. chalk. Motifs are geometrical or based on plants.

and water-resistant layers of spray and enamel paint on thick paper. and Fellow of Linacre College. gold paint and iridescent gouache mixed with water. it is ruled and contained in one dimension by its interlocking ink-lined borders. With no depth of field. Their energy can therefore be a purer expression of an idea or emotion. rocks or heads in a subdued atmosphere of dream. Klee's mathematical maze of thinly washed surface resonates with meticulous planning. performance and installation artist. figurative representation—that is. These two works present complex compositions with differing intensions and methods of making. but similarities in mood. Ruskin School. BRIAN CATLING British sculptor poet. They each find their pathways and equilibrium in atmosphere and suggestion. Catling's torn paper shapes and shadows spill light out of their frame like a fractured mirror. free from the direct imaging of known physical things. Untitled 2001 2001 153/4x 215/8 in ( 4 0 0 x 550 mm) BRIAN C A T L I N G . structure. Catling's works made for international galleries and museums involve drawing as a tool in their development and making.226 ABSTRACT LINES Compositions ABSTRACT DRAWINGS ARE LARGELY or entirely free from using the viewer's eye to track and unfold layers of meaning. filmmaker Professor of Fine Art. Catling's abstract drawings are usually made in series and in parallel to written poetry and sculptural installations. Mixed media This is a collage of torn white and gray tissue paper previously stained with ink. and choice of hues. Oval moons eclipse each other and oscillate between landforms and portraiture. Oxford.

and wrote copiously about the natures and relationships of color and form. ruler. watercolor. whereas tonal surfaces are perceived more immediately as a whole. Klee also felt that a line represents the passing of time. He explained his polyphonic painting as "a harmony of several color voices" searching for a visual parallel to music. Line and surface Klee observed the visual capacity of lines to push or pull within an image. We can see some diagrammatic examples of this among the optical illusions on pp. Klee painted.97-99. philosophized. and might be read as active or passive.31).227 PAUL K L E E Swiss painter and sculptor (see also p. and brush. Polyphon Gefasstes Weiss (White Framed Polyphonically) 1930 131/8x95/8 in (333 x 245 mm) Paul-Klee-Stiftung. Kunstmuseum Bern PAUL KLEE . It is a geometric harmony of straight lines and tonally graded flat colors that by their arrangement draw our eyes inward to their white center. drew. Geometric harmony This is a work on paper made with a sharp ink pen.

As y o u m o v e them around. they are just. and ten straight sticks painted black. Seek it when looking at other artists' work and in your everyday environment. and put them o n a tray.Thisexercise will help you start. or home. for instance. There is a single m o m e n t w h e n all proportions. after being continuously adjusted. culture. Set up a sheet of paper with a rectangle drawn on it. w i l l c h a n g e w i t h e v e r y r e a r r a n g e m e n t . Take. they reach a perfect position. there is a clear feeling when. Feel for it when youdraw. M a n y of their inter-relationships will be meaningless. a b u n c h of keys. the impression y o u receive from t h e m ." SETTING UP Justness can be harmonious or deliberately discordant. their impact. angles. s o m e will be more or less h a r m o n i o u s . It is also found in nature." . regardless of style. In his b o o k The Education of a Gardener. b u t e v e r y n o w a n d again you will hit on an arrangement w h i c h appears just.228 ABSTRACT LINES Being "Just" A SENSE OF "JUST" (or rightness) is a difficult concept to explain. media. "I have experimented endlessly with this idea. and elements settle in definitive balance. This balance is what every artist and designer searches a n d feels for when making an image. or on a page. W h e n m o v i n g objects around in your yard. or degree of figuration. the late garden designer Russell Page explains. It is found in all great art and design. "Whenall pictorial elements come together in pleasing and perfect balance. a glass. but an easy o n e to u n d e r s t a n d . and an apple.

fix it with glue. which now becomes a tight frame. Here. . Move the sticks out into the rectangle. painted black. Within a rectangle on a flat sheet of paper set about making a composition using no other rule than a sense of "just. A stick touching the rectangle links the composition to the frame. horizontals dominate the lower area. Feel for the rightness of their grouping and their relationships to surrounding spaces. making the composition seem to float beneath.56-57). as shown here. 2 3 In the step above.229 WHERE TO START Take ten sticks of equal length. Remember the drawn rectangle is a part of the composition (see pp. B E I N G "JUST" 1 Arrange your ten sticks in t w o groups of five." Move the sticks to find alignments and imagined perspectives. In the final step (left) there is an even balance. Arrange them so they touch or cross in a series of intersecting balances. suggesting a horizon. W h e n the composition falls into place. horizontals dominate the top.

220. harmonious." overlapping placement of materials on a flat plane. colors.. colors and textures can be manipulated until their pictorial harmony. or even strident. Once the ten painted black sticks are set and glued in place. an infinite range of voices and meaning. scissors. you start composing by adding or subtracting shapes and textures and using colors and tones to achieve the impression you want to m a k e — w h e t h e r dramatic or s u b d u e d . Returning to Russell Page. ready-made depths and surfaces. correction fluid or white paint. feels "just" (see pp. or discordance.69 and Abe's installation on p." (Russell Page) . "My understanding is that every object [or shape] emanates—sends out vibrations beyond its physical body which are specific to itself. a compass.228-29). he went on to say ".Youwill also need spare white paper. This principal also applies to three-dimensional drawings such as Gaudi's work with wire and weights on p. To prepare for this lesson. glue. Images and fragments torn from day-to-day life can be brought together to make a chorus of ideas and emotions. found or made items. which is the shifting. they become a scaffold for the addition of further textures. and black ink. and tones. hard or soft.. stain and dry a sheet of tissue paper using blueink. Cut or torn layers and shapes.230 ABSTRACT LINES Collage H E R E W E EXPERIMENT with collage. Collage offers the artist a liberating palette of SETTING UP This lesson in collage is a direct continuation of the compositional lines made in the previous class.

This can also give a sense of fragmentation or punctuation to the composition. then cut out. COLLAGE 1 Regular-sized pieces of white paper are moved over the surface to disrupt the even lines. Obscuring the blue disks. and with a compass and scissors. and shadow to thepicture. In the last step (left).231 WHAT TO DO Lay the final step of the previous lesson (p.The single disk that is folded with its straight edge facing up appears heavier than those that are flat. . Glue them in place once they feel "just" Translucent circular disks of tissue paper give color tone. they deepen pictorial space. four circles of blue tissue paper. 2 3 Torn white paper moved over the surface adds masks of rough-edged irregular volume. correction fluid and ink marks add further dimensions. solidity. draw.228) in front of you. Cut six small rectangles the same proportion as your whole image.


A MODERN JAPANESE meditative art form inspired by the teachings of Yamaoka Tesshu (1836-1888)." [Tanchu Terayama. Hitsuzendo drawings aspire to "breathe with the energy and vitality of eternal life" achieved through "a state of no mind—beyond thought.Zen Calligraphy HITSUZENDO. emotion. Zen Brushwork]. is the practice of Zen through the calligraphic marks of a brush dipped in carbon ink. . and expectation.

Nocturnes IN THIS QUARTET of semi-abstract drawings made with India ink. Lines made with a steel dip pen take on a scratchy nervousness. I flicked spatters of ink and rubbed the paper with a wet and a dry brush to achieve these effects. discord is balanced against rhythm to create mood. These vibrate against washes of shadow and pitch-black mass. .





Monsters take advantage of both. Here. thousands of paintings. we select details of animals farthest from ourselves and that are widely thought disturbing—reptilian and insect features. . sculptures. I was on a train passing through Nuneaton. When creating monsters. Star Wars. Fantasy is most successful when founded on strong and familiar visual logic. a collaboration between the two will ensure that your drawings glow with originality. our eye circulates around a flutter of leather and scaly wings. which were widely distributed and influential in his time. which is to have eaten a nun—it inspired the drawing on p. Feeding this demand. and stained-glass windows deliver powerful visual sermons to the once-illiterate populace. Schongauer is best known for his prints. Throughout this book images are presented to excite and surprise and drawing classes created to increase your confidence. or in smoke. wings. feathers.247. To learn to flex your imagination. We then add substances we dislike: unidentified fluids. and deep fur—and we alter their scale. We watch with captivated pleasure movies such as The Fly. or strange. Today. Reading the place name I momentarily glimpsed an alternative meaning.Gods and Monsters OUR SACRED AND SECULAR need to visualize demons. Images we are now surrounded by bear testimony to the power and resourcefulness of their collective imagination. and the faces of God have for centuries given artists a feast for the extremes of their imagination. happen to us. angels. Be inspired by the irrational comedy of word association or puns. The salvation of heaven and terrors of hell are represented equally—enough to make any sinner shudder. beasts. movie studios now brim with as many monsters as the visual art of the Medieval and Renaissance Church. look for images in the folds of clothing. and the Alien trilogy. our literate and more secular Western society still hungers for another world and to ravenously indulge its fascination for the marvelous. for example. serpentine tails. England. Depictions of God or of gods in the contexts of daily life. in the cracks of walls. scales. For example. and damnation are found in most world faiths. We love our fear of the hybrid—ideally. Lord of the Rings. impossible. paradise. Neither should be slave or master. In the Christian churches of Europe. Perhaps the Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 1485 121/4 x 9 in (312 x 230 mm) MARTIN SCHONGAUER most important conclusion in this final chapter is to advise you to develop your skills in parallel with the joy of your unfolding imagination. aliens. a Catherine wheel of drawn sparks spiraling around the quietly resolute saint. Humans are equally troubled by the imperceptibly small and the enormous. all of which originated as hundreds of drawings. a human-animal mix that implies this could MARTIN SCHONGAUER German painter and engraver who settled to work in Colmar Alsace.

Many students leave white backgrounds in their work. Aquatint Goya has drawn a learned man as an ass. and men clubbing each other to death. This act defines the vision and continues the line of spirit guides. noisy seascape on p. Francisco de Goya was a master of borrowing. Violent white marks symbolizing Achilles' rage resonate with the energy of Twombly's script on p. quoting great paintings and popular culture to add cunning twists to his satires. Other drawn versions of this image are more savage and frightening. He would be graceless if he stood. Goya later recorded the horrors of Napoleonic occupation.220. barren land rising like MYRIAD CHAINS RUN THROUGH ART HISTORY. The title "And So Was His Grandfather" adds that should we not already know. his lover a dog. Visions experienced in front of the drawing sometimes instruct the making of a new one. This continuity enriches the making of art and our heritage. In this ass. In this softer aquatint he poses for his portrait Textured background The aquatint process has been used to great effect in making a gritty toned background. Goya's plainly textured gray background pushes back the space behind the illuminated simply subject. Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 1799 81/2 x 6 in (218 x 154 mm) FRANCISCO DE GOYA . Pictorially. Paul Thomas's studies of Picasso and Twombly can be traced directly. The well-dressed mule is cumbersome. Opposite. such asinine behavior can be hereditary. They depict as if by lamplight the devil and witches. whose impassioned work begins with light tapestry cartoons. Compare his dark. which can swamp the subject Here. a Shoshone seeking guidance and power meditates at the sacred site of a petroglyph. we see the international icon of stupidity. rushing. plain wall suggests a blinkered view of nothing. to Picasso's similarly tight. portraits.240 GODS AND M O N S T E R S Marks of Influence marking the influence of one artist upon another. below. Saturn devouring his son. The high. crammed tightly at his desk. and church murals. reading from a book of asses. hags. and exposed the superstitions. Opposite below.30. Los Caprichos. and follies of court through copious graphic works including his best-known prints. F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A Spanish court painter printmaker and draftsman. vanity. it allows the mule to stand forward. deranged masses. Near the end of his life he made his "Black Paintings" on the walls of his home. a wave to join Achilles' chase of Hector.

perhaps a stone. of the earth. It was made with a sharp implement. meaning "place of power. A vivid spectrum of energized graphite marks and a masterly composition give this drawing vitality and speed. Graphite marks Here Achilles chases Hector around the walls of Troy before killing him. Thomas conducts his explorations in the mine of Greek and Roman mythology. Wind River Reservation." Each sacred image drawn into rock belongs to one of three realms in the Shoshone world: the realm of the sky. ideals.241 MARKS OF INFLUENCE PAUL T H O M A S British contemporary artist whose epic graphic work questions and reflects upon issues of European identity. Wyoming. Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range UNDATED ARTIST UNKNOWN . by a supplicant in a trance of meditation. Parallel lines within the body of the figure are likely to denote power. or of the water Chipped image This is a sacred creature of the sky chipped onto rock at Dinwoody Lake. and personal and social struggles. Achilles Chases Hector 1996 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) PAUL THOMAS SHOSHONE PETROGLYPH The Shoshone people of Wyoming name petroglyph sites Poha Kahni. Simple wall stones cleverly state their cold solidity while also fading from our attention as the scene roars by. values. White marks like flashes of light are cut though graphite with an eraser to reveal the paper beneath.

below left. Techniques demonstrated on pp. GODS AND Erasure In this charcoal drawing. graphic artist.242 MONSTERS of the unknown is a classical and constant occupation for the artist. Redon lifted them out with some sort of eraser. 115. Children are also delighted to invent a monster or ghoul. Lifting out Fine strings of the hot-air balloon appear dark against the sky and light against the balloon. the writers Joris-Karl Huysmans and Stephane Mallarme. to the right of the balloon. as he did the grass. and scuttle over all known reality. If it were to turn and stare this way. the shock would be extreme. Redon explored the darker side of the human imagination through symbols and mysticism. The Eye Like a Strange Mounts Balloon 165/8 x131/8in (422 x 332 mm) ODILON REDON 1882 Toward Infinity . which sometimes—half-dressed and carrying a familiar trophy— stride. lifting its cranial passenger over a seascape of repose. We may feel safe so long as the eye looks heavenward.204-05 will enable you to produce a similar effect of white lines shining out of dark charcoal.and 16th-century Holland. H e was influenced by his friends. we see parallel slanting pale marks that might have been made with fresh bread—a very effective eraser used before the wide availability of rubber or plastic. Compare worked textures throughout the whole of this image to those found throughout Anita Taylor's charcoal drawing on p. Our subconscious can be drawn with pleasure and ease. crawl. T H E EXPLORATION AND DEPICTION Hauntings Grandville has drawn a scurrying zoo of half-known demons and animals that appear to have been stolen from the glass eye of the microscope. ODILON REDON French painter draftsman. and writer In contrast t o the light and visual accent of contemporary Impressionism. Redon's eyeball balloon rises up. The monsters of Bosch grew from his observations of beggars going about their trade in 15th. Here we see how he evolved their injuries into new limbs and warped proportions. They float toward us like a horrid visitation.

Garden of Earthly Delights. Quill and ink This typical Bosch monster is a quill drawing in bistre ink The phrasing of light and contour here is masterly. Most of his work is in the Prado Museum. 1840 61/8 x41/2in ( 1 5 5 x 1 1 5 mm) GRANDVILLE HIERONYMUS BOSCH Dutch painter Bosch's highly detailed iconographic religious panel paintings. Comic little headbands of waving hair express more hysteria than fear. His other major works include Metamorphoses du Jour (1828). Madrid. teeming with the exhilaration of unrestrained fantasy. sucker-faced creatures dash and trundle toward it They are drawn solidly to emphasize their earthbound weight. grimacing. This image is from one of Grandville's best-known publications. The quality of the line is therefore uniform throughout. Two Monsters UNDATED 45/8 x61/2in (117 x 163 mm) HIERONYMUS BOSCH . A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects c. which is still available today. Light shines from the right. Last Judgment.243 J E A N I G N A C E ISIDORE GERARD ("GRANDVILLE") French graphic artist and political satirist. include The Haywain. and he illustrated the Fables of La Fontaine and Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe. Les Animaux (1840). HAUNTINGS Engraving This is an engraving made so that Grandville's original drawing could be reproduced. and Ship of Fools. Smiling.

sometimes artists purposefully tie a knot in the configuration to disturb. David. the dome of the Vatican. muscular tension is carved out of the paper using layered. In her studio. wraps and coils its lithe body ready to strike or whimper at a touch. A snake eating its own tail is a universal image of the eternal and continuous. and dying slaves. phrased over the contours of form and bridging darker areas of shadow. remembering the cavernous. His entire drawing wrestles and weaves the viewer's eye into its retracting folds. Two previously drawn faces become humorous antagonists to the beast. and engineer Among Michelangelo's great works are the painted ceiling and altar wall of the Sistine Chapel. a stunning hybrid of a swan. Scaly. and marble sculptures including Pieto. Grimes found the genesis of her beast not among animals.244 GODS AND MONSTERS Convolutions THESE CONVOLUTED DRAWINGS were made almost 5 0 0 years apart. Grimes' delicately cavorting figures dive into and consume each other. snake. she formed a series of ghostly pale. and play with its perfection and meaning. However. but in the seductive landscape of Leonardo da Vinci's oil painting Madonna of the Rocks. lion. Opposite. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI Florentine painter sculptor. St Peter's square. and mist-swathed land. poet. Michelangelo's dragon. pinnacled. as we might expect. They share between them the pleasures of inventing a hybrid beast. below. architect. Chalk and ink A quill dipped in brown ink was worked over black chalk on this reused sheet. gamboling copulations. topple. hatched lines. Dragon 1522 10 x 133/8 in ( 2 5 4 x 3 3 8 m m ) MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI . and dog.

London. details evolved slowly using a drier brush. The image formed directly without first making a pencil outline. Grimes exhibits internationally and features in the collections of the New York Public Library and the Victoria and Albert Museum. It is one of a series of fragile earth figures inspired by rocks. and the Camberwell and Slade Schools of Fine Art. her under heavy here. Ink-wash delicately gouache (smooth) and gouache brushed drawing on This is a and was hot-pressed Shadows The dark shadow of the Other the ink-wash earth was made with a brushstroke of ink laid into wet paper. London. Oxford. How Clever of God #84 2002 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) O O N A GRIMES . The large space around figure has been cropped Grimes drawings to flatten presses them. each one iridescent and crumbly like a weathered while oyster. boards finished paper.245 CONVOLUTIONS O O N A GRIMES British contemporary artist and professor of printmaking at the Ruskin School.

and hold prodigious weights of ink or paint. SYNTHETIC-HAIR BRUSH: Bound in a synthetic ferrule with good inkholding capacity and good spring and control. this brush has a soft drawing tip and small ink-holding capacity. washes.H A I R RIGGER: Made with long synthetic hair for fine-point work It has a good ink-holding capacity and is slightly more resilient than sable hair with more "snap. giving a variety of lines. L A R G E R S Y N T H E T I C . Shorter brushes designed for other purposes run out of ink more quickly. It is still relatively small in the total range of Japanese brushes. it has good wash capabilities. 12. SMALL JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with sable hair.246 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brushes T H E BRUSH IS A VOLUPTUOUS and delicate weights. ink-laden tip allow an expression that is beyond the linear. others are as fine as a whisker with a gentle touch. Some used by master calligraphers are 2-3 in (5-8 cm) in diameter 11. Slightly less flexible than the squirrel-hair sword liner 9. and has a fine tip for detailed work. between them. 3. SQUIRREL-HAIR S W O R D LINER:This brush has a maximum ink-holding capacity and an extremely fine and flexible point 8. shape. with a fine point for delicate work 4. M T RA S AEIL . SYNTHETIC-HAIR S W O R D LINER: A lining brush with high ink-holding capacity and a fine point. and wrist into a fluid and soft touch. 13. which holds long sable hair This brush holds large amounts of ink for long lines and points well for detailed work. dense. and never leave them standing on their tip in a jar of water. 7. This brush has a broad wash capability and can achieve a very wide range of marks. Always clean them thoroughly. S Y N T H E T I C . 2. LARGER JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with natural hair held in a plastic ferrule on a bamboo handle. It is capable of very fine pointing. It has exceptional painting characteristics." 6. SABLE-HAIR LINER: Made with ordinary sable hair surrounding an extralong. How you care for your brushes will determine how long they last. SABLE-HAIR RIGGER: Made with very long kolinsky sable hairs. SYNTHETIC-HAIR LINER: This brush gives a medium line and is firm with a spring to the touch. This design supplies the fine tip with a long continuity of ink 5. making rt ideally suited to Japanese painting and small-scale calligraphy. and writers.H A I R LINER: Very responsive oriental-style liner This to the touch. flowing. liners. drawing tool extending the arm. ideally suited to drawing. thicknesses. return them to their pointed shape. POINTED SQUIRREL-HAIR MOP: With a synthetic quill ferrule and extra high inkholding capacity. and effects. Suitable for wash techniques but also capable of very fine detail. needle-sharp center of kolinsky red sable hair. The brushes shown here are a mixture of This is a selection of riggers.Theyhold plenty of ink and make continuous. it has good inkholding capacity and is very flexible. 1. fingers. Some are bold. the very opposite of pencil or silver point. all perfect for drawing and. materials. Soaps purchased from good art supply stores will gently cleanse particles of pigment that become trapped in the hairs or ferrule. The living marks of a wet. and very fine lines. and texture. Brushes vary in size. JAPANESE PAINTING BRUSH: Made with natural hair. 10. P O I N T E D T R A D I T I O N A L WRITER: The ferrule is made from a small duck quill.


the degree of pressure applied.) I . I rubbed a block of Chinese ink (see p. w i t h m y face close. softness. length. the texture and a b s o r b e n c y of the paper ( w h i c h m a y be d a m p or dry). splashes. It also depends on the angle at w h i c h it is held. and above all w h e t h e r the b r u s h is saturated with pigment or relatively dry. and spatters. unglazed earthenware dish. A single brush has almost balletic potential to draw fine or undulating lines and curves. SETTING UP Blowing spots T h e s e t h r e e s p i d e r y c r e a t u r e s (above right and below) w e r e m a d e by d r o p p i n g s p o t s o f ink f r o m a b r u s h o n t o t h e p a g e and.35) into two tablespoons of water in a shallow. b l o w i n g h a r d o n t h e m several t i m e s t o disperse t h e ink ( c l o s e y o u r eyes if y o u t r y this. Here I drew with a soft Japanese painting brush (see pp. I had left the end of the ink block in the water overnight to make it easier to dissolve.246-47). and type of its hairs. and to make pools and stains o n the page.248 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brush Marks A S I N G L E BRUSH will m a k e an e n o r m o u s range of m a r k s depending u p o n the width. the speed of the s t r o k e .

. a n d b r u s h .249 Gritty texture T h e details o f t h e largest creatures b e l o w and opposite s h o w the granular texture of Chinese b l o c k ink. BRUSH MARKS Wet and dry strokes A m o n g these concentrated drawings ink made into with the same w a t e r y lines. a n d t h e w a y it d i s t r i b u t e s w h e n t h e b r u s h is d a b b e d o n its s i d e . t h e effects of the b r u s h r u n n i n g o u t o f ink. b l e e d i n g f r o m strokes b e l o w left. w e see fine lines and s p o t s .

Monsters THESE LITTLE CREATURES o f i n k and i n v e n t i o n were b o r n out of animal and bird studies. Oxford. I borrowed small and fragile specimens from the University Museum of Natural History. . and used their detail to draw new creatures that might at first seem familiar. until we look again.


and narrative twists. showing us that gallery study is not just for the student and beginner.Goya's Monsters W I T H CUNNING BRILLIANCE. formal composition. I found relationships between all four paintings in terms of shapes. They are a pair and hang opposite each other. With further research. Madrid. Among his "Black Paintings" in the Prado Museum. . Here. are two long. two of my own drawings show you how Goya's devil (below) is based on the shape of Murillo's boy on a horse (top right). Goya often invented his monsters out of characters seen in other painters' works. thin works made by Bartolome Murillo in Seville about 120 years earlier. Through studying and drawing these great paintings I have discovered that they are based on a pair of similarly long. Goya's witches have been literally drawn and evolved out of the shapes of Murillo's prophet and pilgrims. Isidore. thin works titled The Witches' Sabbath and The Procession of St.


Sometimes drawings come out of nowhere and surprise even the artist. drawn rapidly and with great joy. little comments on politeness and sexual politics. .Consumed THIS IS A SERIES OF CARTOONS I m a d e s o m e years ago.


Bracelet shading C u r v e d parallel lines t h a t f o l l o w t h e c o n t o u r s o f f o r m . Bleed T h e e f f e c t o f t w o w e t colors running into one another o r o n e color applied t o a w e t surface a n d a l l o w e d t o d i s p e r s e . linseed oil o r egg y o l k Caricature A representation Contour line A line t h a t f o l l o w s t h e s h a p e o f a surface. p r a c t i c e d meditatively w i t h a brush." " N o t " p r e s s e d p a p e r is r o l l e d a s e c o n d t i m e w i t h o u t blankets t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders t o p r o d u c e a s m o o t h e r b u t still slightly t e x t u r e d s u r f a c e . r a t h e r t h a n r e c o r d e d o n a film o r plate. m e a n i n g " t o stick" Dry media M e d i a t h a t a r e n o t w e t o r o i l y — f o r e x a m p l e . o r o t h e r (usually large) w o r k — s e e Pouncing. A f u l l . in w h i c h parts o f an image are depicted v e r y brightly and dramatically against d a r k n e s s . T h e name " n o t " simply refers t o t h e fact t h a t t h e cylinders are n o t h o t in t e m p e r a t u r e .s i z e d r a w i n g m a d e for t h e purpose o f transferring a design t o a painting. and readymade objects arranged and stuck o n t o a flat surface. usually at a n a c u t e angle t o t h e s u r f a c e . Anamorphic distortion Stretching an i m a g e across a p i c t u r e surface so t h a t it can o n l y b e u n d e r s t o o d . T h e m o v e m e n t was started by a g r o u p o f French artists including H e n r i Matisse. so t h a t ink r e m a i n s o n l y in t h e g r o o v e s o f s c r a t c h e d lines. a r e r o l l e d t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders. W o r d s o r symbols are Cold-pressed papers P a p e r manufactured with a "not" o r " r o u g h " surface. w h e n a p e r s o n is p a i n t e d standing a g a i n s t a w i n d o w . Aerial perspective The effect of the a t m o s p h e r e o v e r distance as it lightens t o n e s a n d cools c o l o r s progressively t o w a r d t h e horizon. A l s o called r i n g l e t shading.m a d e paper. In t h e Far East calligraphy is a highly r e s p e c t e d a r t f o r m . a n d given t h e n a m e Sho. Contre jour A F r e n c h t e r m m e a n i n g " a g a i n s t day. Field In a t w o . 2. R o u g h p a p e r is m a d e b e t w e e n t w o blankets t h a t . A g e n e r a l t e r m t h a t describes t h e various processes o f c u t t i n g a design i n t o a plate o r b l o c k o f m e t a l o r w o o d . A l s o called m u s e u m g r a d e . charcoal. Cartoon 1.c e n t u r y Italian t e r m m e a n i n g "clear-obscure. t h e field is t h e a p p a r e n t a n d b e l i e v a b l e space inside t h e p i c t u r e . o f t e n d i s t o r t e d forms and vivid colors. See also Hotpressed papers. T h e b l a n k e t s g i v e t h e p a p e r its rough texture o r "tooth. n e w s p a p e r cuttings. Chiaroscuro A 1 7 t h . Calligraphy Beautiful h a n d w r i t i n g . Camera obscura A d a r k e n e d c h a m b e r i n t o w h i c h an i m a g e o f w h a t is o u t s i d e is received t h r o u g h a small o p e n i n g o r lens a n d f o c u s e d in natural c o l o r o n a facing surface. Eye level T h e i m a g i n a r y h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e a t t h e s a m e h e i g h t as t h e a v e r a g e p e r s o n ' s eyes. Collage C o l l e c t e d materials such as c o l o r e d p a p e r s . Camera lucida A n optical device t h a t p r o j e c t s an image o f an o b j e c t o n t o a plain s u r f a c e so t h a t it can be traced. A " s h a l l o w d e p t h o f field" m e a n s t h e p i c t u r e appears t o have only a shallow s p a c e inside i t Diffuse T o s o f t e n o r m a k e less brilliant. pastel.d i m e n s i o n a l i m a g e . tapestry. t h e l i g h t is b e h i n d h i m o r her. S o m e t i m e s f e r r u l e s a r e m a d e o f plastic o r o t h e r materials. w h e n v i e w e d f r o m a specified point. A l s o c a l l e d t h e h o r i z o n line. Deckle edge T h e i r r e g u l a r e d g e o f a s h e e t o f m o l d .256 GLOSSARY Glossary Accidental drawing Random. It can also seal a silver p o i n t d r a w i n g t o p r e v e n t t h e oxidization (browning) o f t h e Drypoint A d r a w i n g is s c r a t c h e d directly o n t o a m e t a l plate w i t h a m e t a l t o o l h e l d like apen. t o g e t h e r w i t h a t h i c k felt b l a n k e t T h e w h o l e s a n d w i c h o f l a y e r s is t h e n railed t h r o u g h t h e press t o m a k e a p r i n t D r y p o i n t is a very portable and immediate m e t h o d o f printmaking. chance mark-making. p h o t o g r a p h s .c e n t u r y painting m o v e m e n t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e use o f b o l d . Fauvism A n early 2 0 t h . s u c h as a d r a w i n g o r painting. Binder A substance t h a t holds particles o f p i g m e n t t o g e t h e r in a paint f o r m u l a t i o n . Crosshatching Parallel lines d r a w n across o n e a n o t h e r at right angles. in w h i c h t h e subject's distinctive features o r peculiarities are deliberately exaggerated f o r c o m i c o r g r o t e s q u e effect. pressurized t o o l used f o r spraying fine mists o f s m o o t h c o l o r P i g m e n t is d e l i v e r e d b y a j e t o f air n o t t h e bristles o f a brush. Acid-free paper P a p e r w i t h a neutral p H t h a t will n o t darken o r d e t e r i o r a t e excessively w i t h age. s u c h as a s c r e e n . F r o m t h e French v e r b coller. Erasure T h e a c t o f r e m o v i n g a n i m a g e f r o m a surface. A i r b r u s h e s are u s e d in t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c o m i c s . p r i n t i n g press face up. Composition T h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e p a r t s o f an i m a g e t o m a k e u p the whole. T h e prints t a k e n from t h e s e plates o r blocks. Air brush A mechanical. Conservation grade D e s c r i b e s a range o f materials t h a t d o n o t d e c a y and cannot be broken d o w n by insects. U s e d as a c o r r e c t i n g device o r pictorial game. as o p p o s e d t o t h e s t r a i g h t e d g e o f a sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has b e e n machine-trimmed. A h u m o r o u s d r a w i n g o r parody. C o p p e r p l a t e engravings w e r e widely used t o r e p r o d u c e images b e f o r e p h o t o g r a p h y . A p o t e n t i a l l y h a r s h m e t h o d o f p r o d u c i n g t o n e s in a d r a w i n g . It is p u t o n a Body color See Gouache. L a t e r it c a m e t o m e a n h i g h l y c o n t r a s t e d light effects. Engraving 1. for example.The plate is t h e n r o l l e d w i t h ink a n d polished with a rag. R e m b r a n d t is a great master o f chiaroscuro. Also called accelerated perspective." D e s c r i b e s a p a i n t i n g in w h i c h t h e light s o u r c e is b e h i n d t h e s u b j e c t F o r e x a m p l e . Fixative Liquid acrylic resin a n d l a c q u e r t h i n n e r usually a p p l i e d as a n a e r o s o l s p r a y m i s t t o t h e surface o f a d r y . a n d g r a p h i t e . Ferrule T h e s h o r t m e t a l t u b e t h a t s u r r o u n d s a n d g n p s t h e hairs o f a p a i n t b r u s h a n d fixes t h e m t o t h e brush handle. D a m p p a p e r is laid o n t o p . written with a broad-nibbed pen o r brush. m e a n i n g "beauty". Fixative lightly glues t h e d r a w i n g t o t h e surface o f t h e p a p e r t o p r e v e n t smudging. In t h e W e s t p e n calligraphy is u s e d t o c r e a t e f o r m a l a n d d e c o r a t i v e t e x t s . 2. Blotting T h e use o f a b s o r b e n t m a t e r i a l t o lift a w a y excess liquid.m e d i a d r a w i n g . o r will o n l y a p p e a r n o r m a l . Blending M e r g i n g t w o o r m o r e neighboring colors o r tones t o g e t h e r using a tortillon. F r o m t h e G r e e k kallos." It w a s first given t o t o n a l paintings m a d e in o n e c o l o r — s e e Grisaille. a n d attaches t h e m t o t h e s u p p o r t — f o r example.

white. Lifting out A method of creating highlights and mid-tones in a drymedia drawing (such as charcoal or graphite). are painted in grisaille and appear to be made of stone. The ink attaches to the oil-based image and is repelled by the wet stone. or spirit-based) is applied to a surface that is then pressed onto paper and removed to leave a print. Alternatively. Focus 1 . Also used by artists' materials manufacturers to indicate the use of a substitute pigment—for example. shape.Theground provides a particular color or texture beneath the image. materials that produce marks on a surface. A small image might be described as small format Horizontal images are often said to be "landscape format" (abbreviated G u m arabic The natural to"landscape"). Fugitive A term given to a pigment that it is not stable. Lithography A method of printmaking in which a drawing or painting is made directly onto a smooth slab of particular limestone or a metal plate using an oilbased crayon or ink. Masking fluid Clear or opaque latex fluid developed for watercolor painting. used for fixing paper to walls and boards. graphite. Ground A wet solution usually of gouache or gesso (chalk and animal glue) brushed onto paper board. or even a beam of light. Monochrome Usually refers to a black. oil-. Negative space The space between things. Picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. oil-based printing ink is rolled evenly onto a smooth metal. enabling them to stick to paper It also helps to maintain a stable dispersion of pigment particles in water as the film of a wash dries. Grisaille is occasionally seen in church stained-glass windows. or a drawing made in any single color GLOSSARY Linear perspective A form of perspective in which parallel lines are represented as converging. This may be disregarded in real life. but in picture-making it is as important as the objects/subjects themselves. the finely ground particles of plant. It is a strong adhesive. Rubens used grisaille to paint small images for engravers. including Max Ernst used frottage in their work. glossy. and it has a history in enamel work. Objective drawing Refers to the concept of objectivity. Hairspray is an effective and inexpensive alternative. or plastic surface. Medium A generic term for art Key A painting is said to be "high key" when the colors and tones are bright and "low key" when they are dark or somber The term is also used Gouache Opaque watercolor Also called body color. then rubbed over carefully but vigorously with a crayon. Giotto's Virtues and Vices in the Arena Chapel. Foreshortening A method of depicting an object at an angle to the surface of the picture. . Padua. Pointillism A technique of using points or dots of pure color in such a way that when the picture is viewed from a distance they react Masking tape Invaluable. or can be otherwise used to create an image—for example. and orientation of the image.while secretion of the acacia tree. and is also used as a size. 2. glass. purpose. Lightfast A term confirming that pigment in the product will not fade with exposure to light. Gamut A complete range or extent Glassine A type of thin. of the ingredients in inks and watercolors. work. the surface of the stone is made wet before being rolled with a thin film of oilbased printing ink. Papercut A type of collage in which flat sheets of paper are cut into an image. and masking off areas of a drawing that the artist wishes to keep untouched by media applied above or beside the tape. This method incorporates the excitement of accidental and unpredicted marks. to describe a surface to which paint will adhere readily. Monoprinting A direct method of printing in which wet medium (water-. and that will "escape" or change over time. or synthetic material that are suspended in a medium to constitute paint. which has a rough surface). and translucent paper—a delicate material used in collage.The degree to which detail is defined. upright images are called "portrait which is used as a binding agent in many liquid media. It improves the bonding properties Frottage A French term meaning "rubbing. Paper is then pressed against the stone to take a print. or for wrapping and protecting a finished piece of work. Also refers to an additive used to control the application properties of a color Golden Section A proportion in which a straight line or rectangle is divided into two unequal parts in such a way that the ratio of the smaller part to the greater part is the same as that of the greater part to the whole. aiming to represent facts rather than an interpretation of the subject. it is the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work Pigment Any substance used as a coloring agent—for example. ink. F o r m a t T h e size. Plumb line A line from which a weight is suspended in order to determine verticality or depth. sticky paper tape. Hatching (cross-) See Crosshatching. Impressing Stamping or printing. Hot-pressed papers (HP) Paper made using hot cylinders.The paper then bears a crayon impression or copy of the surface that was underneath it A number of Surrealists. Artists can paint freely over dry masking fluid. pastel. lifting out charcoal and other dry media." A piece of paper is placed on top of an object or rough surface. or canvas and allowed to dry before an image is drawn or painted. After several intervening processes. and gray drawing. mineral. Grisaille A painting in gray or a grayish color Often made by students as a tonal exercise. to give the illusion of depth and distance. Paper is laid on top and a rapid drawing is made on the back of it The paper lifts away to reveal the image on its other side. cadmium yellow hue. format" (abbreviated to "portrait"). The surface can be reloaded or redrawn with more medium. A point of interest in a drawing. rock. with the area beneath remaining unaffected. It can be used with any wet media to isolate or protect parts of an image from further Optical blending See Pointillism. but each print will be unique. This effect emulates what we see in real life. or a family of colors. It is then peeled away. which give it a smooth surface (as opposed to cold-pressed paper. multiH u e A term for a color. and by artists representing stone sculptures in a painting. Dark tones are laid down first then an eraser or masking tape is used to lift away particles of the drawing media to reveal the lightness of the paper beneath.257 metal line. Usually an academic drawing observed from life. F o r m The outer surface of a three-dimensional object. so that (using vanishing point perspective) the object appears to change shape and become narrower or smaller as it recedes.

Pouncing If a large drawing or design (called a cartoon) is to be Shadow Darkness cast by the transferred to a surface such as a obscuring of light. such as an inscribed sheet of metal. in tone running from black to white or vice versa. plum blossom." Materials for Zen brushwork include round brushes of varied size. meaning objects used in setting up a life model or still life. W e t media Any liquid media— for example.258 GLOSSARY together optically. carbon ink. The crude material is called oleoresin. Etienne de material) dabbed through the Silhouette (1709-67). or watercolor paint. Vanishing point In linear perspective. using a brush. design. giving it a brilliance. an ink stone usually cut from slate. Wash A technique using ink. Scale Describes the size of one element in relation to another Sepia A brown pigment taken from the sun-dried ink sacs of cuttlefish and used to make ink or watercolor The term is now often incorrectly used to refer to brown colors. Artists' prints are normally made in multiple. cut-out profile made along every outline of the usually made in black paper image. Squaring up A method of enlarging and transferring an image from one surface to another. Although drawings can be made with wash alone. Sketch A quick or rough drawing. Sfumato An Italian term meaning "smoky. Single-point perspective The most basic form of linear perspective in which there is only one vanishing point. Squeegee A rubber-trimmed scraper used in the screenprinting process for dragging ink across a surface. Zen brushwork This is an oriental meditative art form originating in China and practised for many centuries in Japan. and flowers. tight. Printmaking The act of making a picture. ink. orchids. or wood. usually diluted with water and applied with a brush. or the left-hand page in a book. plaster or cloth surface beneath. and chrysanthemum—which in Chinese tradition are called "The Four Gentlemen. or point on which parallel lines converge to give the impression of receding space. A term borrowed from the theater. Props An abbreviation of the word properties. Serigraphy Silk-screen printing. fine paper. paper or canvas. . or mark using an inked or pigment-covered surface. Still life A picture composed of inanimate objects such as bowls. fruit. Stippling Applying color or tone in areas of fine dots or flecks. watercolor. nature of watercolor allows the white surface of the paper to Tonal scale A scale of gradations shine through. pointed roll of white paper that is used to blend dry media. Zen brushwork encompasses calligraphy and painting. Zen A school of Mahayana Buddhism that asserts that enlightenment can come through meditation and intuition rather than faith. Pounce (a fine for an unpopular 18th-century powder of charcoal or similar French politician. or gouache. Viewpoint The position from which something is observed or considered. or the right-hand page in a book. in order to flick the pigment onto the image surface. which are then called editions. Tortillon A short. or ceramic glazing to reveal a different color beneath. creating more vibrant effects than if the same colors were physically mixed together with a brush.Technicaldrawing has been example. whose pinpricks creates a "connect-thepersonal pastime was making dots" replica of the image on the cut-out portraits. a point at which receding parallel lines meet Verso The back or underside of a piece of paper. glasses. Shade A that is color mixed (or toned) with black Shading A lay term for adding tone to a drawing. wall or tapestry. to model areas of light and shade. The translucent Tint A color mixed with white.Thedrawing is removed. or any physical object that can be stamped or pressed onto a surface to leave an impression. or pen. Spattering A mottled texture produced by drawing your fingers across the bristles of a stiff brush loaded with pigment. by imposing a grid that is then scaled up to a larger size. Tone A degree of lightness or darkness. a tightly folded piece of cotton batting can be used for the same effect." Applied to the blurring or softening of sharp outlines by the subtle and gradual blending of one tone into another Sgraffito A technique of scratching or cutting through a surface of paint. compound of water-soluble pigment. Strip Core of a pencil. Alternatively. plaster. commonly referred to as the lead. Size A weak glue used for filling the porous surface of wood or canvas in order to seal it. acrylic. Support The structure on which an image is made—for example. Volume The amount of space occupied by an object or an area of space in itself. evolved by engineers and architects for the purpose of conveying W a t e r c o l o r A painting accurate structural information. "Spirits" or "oil" of turpentine refer to the volatile portion used by artists to thin or dilute oil-based paint. pencil. Named paper in place. pointed instrument used for marking or engraving. Underdrawing A pale preliminary drawing made prior to adding layers of another medium such as oil paint or watercolor Value The extent to which a color reflects or transmits light This is the equivalent of tone in a black and white image. Technical drawing A universal it is often used in conjunction language of lines and measurements with line drawings in pen and that is used to make diagrammatic ink—for images. Recto The front or top side of a piece of paper. sometimes drawn from a and leaving only the pricked sheet of shadow cast on a wall. Stylus A sharp. Turpentine A colorless solvent distilled from the resinous sap of pine trees. and paperweights. Zen paintings usually depict scenes of nature and plants such as bamboo. a sheet of paper is placed beneath and pinpricks are Silhouette A flat. Subjective drawing A drawing that expresses the personal view and interpretation of the artist An invented image.

242 to blend 205 compressed 122. 28 Klee's horses 30. 38-39. 200 Bauer. to draw 80.198. 186 charcoal 114. to model 110-111 border 51 Bosch. 30 sleeping dog 38-39 Stubbs's horse skeleton 26. 94 cylindrical objects.169 colors: airbrushed 161 background 91 A Abe.100 curves. layers 53 chalk pastels 162. 182.31 Picasso's horse and bird 30. 133. 201 collage 111. 190 Caricature of a Woman (Daumier) 198. 241 action. 205 Baltard. Joseph 113 The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland 112. 75. 95 Chair Cut Out (Woodfine) 94. Clare 203 City 202. 204. 221 animals.50.89. 223 Circular Score for "Due Voce" 223 children's art 9. Mamaru 104. 178 Cubism 67. Giovanni 137 Head and Shoulders of a Man 136. to depict 156-157 Cloudburst of Material Possessions (Leonardo) 200.27 turtles 42-43 aquatint 240 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels (Leonardo) 12. 74. 137 Besler. 81 cut-out model plan 94.162 Conte.13.163 dry media 205 Blue Nude (Matisse) 110. 70 Art Nouveau motifs 91 Autoportrait (Ray) 138. 78 aerial perspective 206 airbrushing 160. 242 Brunelleschi. 74. 29 Hugo's octopus 28. 94 chalk(s) 53. 9 Chair (Van Gogh) 94. Zen c 232-233 blended 133.212 to erase 205 to hold 23 pencils 204 willow 114.44-45 bird studies 12. 180 Circular Score for "Due Voce" (Bussotti) 223 circus scenes 192-195 City (Bryan) 202. 111. 116. 244 and graphite 178 . 206 checkered floor 80. 71 Bacchante (Bakst) 155 background: color 91 textured 240 Baker Matthew: Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry 32 Bakst. William: The Circle of the Lustful 180. 72 bracelet shading 122 Braque. 157 cropping 56-57. Leon: Bacchante 155 balance. 230-231 Cubist 90. 206.163 body. 98. 134 costume(s) 155 character 158-159 structure of 166-167 Cottage Among Trees (Rembrandt) 52.115 anatomical drawing 134-135 anatomical theaters 82-83 anatomical waxes 128 ancient carvings 221. 90.226. 250 Bishndas and Nanha: Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity 50. 81 135. 204-205. 203 Buffalo Hunt (Shoshone) 178. Victor: West Facade of the Church of St. 226-227 Acanthus spinosus 65 accelerated perspective 22. 13.186 see also movement Adoration of the Magi perspective study (Leonardo) 74. 161 Akhlaq-I Rasul Allah manuscript 51.Index Page numbers in italics refer t o captions and illustrations Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity (Bishndas and 259 INDEX B bread (as eraser) 205. 162 character: to capture 38-39. to draw 25. 199 Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya (Eisen) 156. 203 Claude Lorrain 202 Views from Velletri 202. 203 Landline 202. to express 39. Basilius 47 Beuys. 247-248 carving see lines. 41 principal 186. 198. 193 in lifting out 204. Augustin 67 Basquiat. 189.163 graded 227 composition 56-57. cut Catling. Brian 226 Untitled 2001 226 "Cave of the Hands" (Cueva de las Manas) 8. 75 Circle of the Lustful (Blake) 180. 90 La Guitare. 243 botanical drawing 48-49 Boullee. Jean Michel 138 Self-Portrait 138 Bateau-Vision. 222. 71 Blake. 179 Bussotti. 52 cotton swabs 205 Coup de Vent a Asajigabare (Hokusai) 198. 139 Nanha) 50. 163. (Ross-Craig) 49 to hold brush for 23 caricature 159. 13 architectural drawing 67-71 Arctic Flowers (Libeskind) 70. 128. 158. Nicolas-Jacques 54 contours 146. 26 geese 38-39 Gericault's cats 28. 160 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object (Moore) 178. 9. 180 blending: color 133.51 All and Nothing (Taylor) 114. 165. 90 colored materials 162-163 colored pencils 162. 198 cartoon (preparatory drawing) 137 (satirical) 159. 90. 50. Statue d'Epouvante 90 calligraphy. 113 bird bones 12. Franz 48 Protea nitida 48 Bellini. 8 cave paintings 8. 202 cloth. 230 The Physical Space 220 abstract drawing 219.44-45. 220. Hieronymus 243 Two Monsters 242. Le (Hugo) 200. center of 118 ballpoint 182. Etienne-Louis 72 Newton's Cenotaph 72. Sylvano 222. 244 head and neck 144 phrased 124-125 contrast: brightness 99 of media 30 tonal 96. Georges 67. Filippo 67. 71 conte 112. 40-41 Durer's rhinoceros Achilles Chases Hector (Thomas) 240. 74 brush (es) 246-247 Japanese 248 for laying a wash 140 marks 248-249 to hold 23 brush drawings 14-15 Bryan. to draw 100 Cypripedium calceolus L.

252 depiction of fabric monsters 252-253 Self Portrait in a Cocked Hat 130. 200 F fabric.216. 69.166 170-173 Gestalt 222 Giacometti. Study for Plate 59 (Mucha) 90. 41 in the round 208-209 with scalpel 202. 113. Keisai 157 The Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya 156. Victor 200. 163.230 three-tone 140.69 Gerard. 55. 160 hitsuzendo 233 light to dark 102. La (Braque) 90. 137 heads.198 Degas. 122 Hawksmoor. 134. 223 graphite 54.109 Rhinoceros 26.121 felt-tip pens 162. to draw 168-169 in Goya's artworks face. Alberto 136 Portrait of Marie-Laure de Noailles 136. Antonio 68. 220 dry brush 234 234 57.97. Hans 133 The Ambassadors 116 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 132. 243 graphic score 222. 222. 77 How Clever of God #84 244. 135 Duren Albrecht 26.103.207. 52 foreground 208. 161 fashion drawings 160. 124. 25 focus 65.184 165. Robert 93 Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 92. 765 hitsuzendo drawings 233 Hokusai.244 drawing(s): abstract 219.117 fountain pens 34.John 157 Man Lying Down in a Cloak 156. 202. 55.146 from masterworks 126-127. 203 semi-abstract 234-237 three-dimensional 68. 134. 104-105.216 Durelli.157 ellipses 100. 203 Hotel de la Suzonnieres (Satie) 70. 216 foreshortening 110.144 and ink 30. The 242. 160 Faune.260 INDEX D Dada 139 Daumien Honore 198 Caricature of a Woman 198.115 exploratory 17 fantasy 72-73. 131 Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 240. 71 minimal line 99 and music 70-71 quick 38-39. 136 Golden Section 67 Gombrich. 141 tonal 96.37. Edgar 162 depth.160. to suggest 177 see also perspective diagonals diffuser 55 dip pens 34. 26 Flying Fish (White) 25.252-253 from memory 183.91. Statue d'Epouvante. 73. Nicholas 68 St Paul's Baptistry 68 head and neck to draw 142-145 Head and Shoulders of a Man (Bellini) 136. disposable pens 182-183 dissections: botanical 48 of horse 27 distance: illusion of see perspective linear 97 tonal 97 Documents Decoratifs. 40. 134. position of 143. 115 Escher. 69 Guitare. 125. 32 framing 139 Franfoise au Bandeau (Picasso) 132. 222 Le Bateau-Vision 200.Theodore 29 Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 28. Ron 161 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 161 160. 99 etching. 30 Fauves/fauvism 90. 245 layers 30 Goya. 144 Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (Baker) 32. 162 Flaxman. to draw 120. 222 Grimes.244. 93 horizon 52. 161 fashion 160. Rene 160 Illustration for Jacques Fath E easel. 157 . 163. fiber-tip pen 182. Sir Ernst 12. 241 to blend 205 and chalk 178 and ink 28. 7 33 Hooke. Katsushika 199 Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 198. 240.189. 122. Francisco de 131.116.103 with eraser 103. to draw 134-137 Helleborus corsicus 55 highlights 91. 91 Dragon (Michelangelo) 36. Oona 245 How Clever of God #84 244.101 engraving 243 erasers/erasing 55. drypoint 181 exaggeration 184 expressionism 198 E ye and Head of a Drone Fly (Hooke) 92. position of 22 Eisen. proportions of 143 fantasy drawings 72-73. 93 eye level 80 Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity. 132 Frenz. 69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt 68. Antonio 135 Muscles of the Head and Neck 134. 170-173. 69. M.12 fixative 54. 230 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction 68. 240 Black Paintings 152. 245 Hugo.102-103 drawing board 20 drawing books 20-21 drawing paper 144.111 feet. 90 G Gaudi. Cheval et Oiseau (Picasso) 30. 190 Middle Eastern 50-51.141. C . 90 gouache 30. 223. 205 drawing with 103. 240 170-173 five Ships in a Port with Lighthouse (Wallis) 11. 29 H hands. 799 Holbein. 160 as ground for metal point 140. 242 eyes.112. 161 changing 216 Focusing on the Negative (Walter) 16 foliage 52. 245 Gruau. 55. 79. Jean Ignace Isidore see Grandville Gericault.160. 226-227 anatomical 134-135 architectural 67-71 botanical 48-49 brush 14-15 dark to light 102. to draw 78.104. 37 Grandville 243 A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the Near-Microscopic World of Scale Insects 242.141. 160 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction (Gaudi) 68. 120. 112.

35. 205. 234 iron-gall 35. 170-173. 230 invented creatures 106-107 250-251 invented objects 89. Victor 134 Profile Head 134. 185 Mucha. Phyll: hands 18 lifting out 204. 83 white 122 ink impressions 222 ink spatters 234 installations 176. 114 hatched 244 layered 118 pace of 65 pale 40 rapid 49. 789. 252 ink 16. 53 Tree II 52. Johan 32. Matisse. artistic 240-241. 181 Klee. 249 and gouache 30 Indian 35. 99. Gustav 49 Knopf. 201 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels 12. 226 Modernism 67.124. David 78 M Mackintosh. 244. 156 magnification 93 Man in Armor (Van Dyck) 158. 31 Klimt. 184. 221 endless 31 free 113. 58-59. 76 Libeskind.243 carbon 35 Chinese 30. 203. 201 head and neck sections of female mold for Sforza Horse 89 Madonna of the Rocks 244 perspective study for Adoration of the Magi 74.182 Moore. 244 lithograph 198 Losbruch (Kollwitz) 180. I Murderous Attacks 33 Kollwitz. 166.112.102. 219 Mondrian. 28 Two Impressions from a Cut-out Paper Disk 222 Huyler Stephen R 225 261 Kinecar. Oxford 250 music 70-71 Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks (Knopf) 32. Marie 244 cloth drawing 244. Henry 178 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object 178.120.33 Mysterious Affairs of the lighting 2 7.109. 227 Scene of Comical Riders 30. 33 J justness 228-229 N naive art 74 negative space 53. Piet 52. Bartolome: Moses Striking the Rock ofHoreb 252.134 K Kettlehut. Kathe 181 Losbrunch (The Outbreak) 180. Paul 227 Polyphonic Setting for White 226. 34-35 acrylic 35 bistre 35. 756 priming for 140. 60. 77 Miller. 227 Newsome.109. Henri 111 Blue Nude 1110. 103 Neolithic chalk tablet 220.115 98. 203 landscape 206-208 brushed 14 Landscape in Hoboku Style (Sesshu) 14 layers 146 chalk 53 gouache 30 ink 28. 74-77. 158 Man Lying Down in a Cloak (Flaxman) 156. 72. 111. 178 motifs: A r t Nouveau 9 7 stylized 51 mountains 216-217 movement: of animals 30-31 of humans 7 79. 160 In the Duchess's Kitchen (Rackham) 176. 163 pens 36 measuring 116 memory.Pieuvre (Octopus) 28. 225 masking tape 204. 97 Murillo.141. Florence 128 lighting in 167 Pitt Rivers. 244 ink 36 252-253 Documents Decoratifs 90. 244 Dragon 36.The (Robinson) 108. 252 Muscles of the Head and Neck (Durelli) line(s) 132. 220. 36. Rose: Tantalus or the Future of Man 20 minimal line drawing 99 mirror use of 120 mixed media 28. 63. Erich 73 design for Metropolis 72. 34.104. 181 luminosity 115 Lynch. 176. 49 Rose 49 Maelbeke Madonna (Van Eyck) 156. 13 Cloudburst of Material Possessions 200.141 Metropolis (film) 72. 220. Alphonse 90.181 L Landline (Bryan) 202. 190 metal pens see dip pens metal point 25. 73 Michelangelo Buonarroti 48. 78 Study ofThree Male Figures 110. 248. 205 masterworks. 159 Japanese 35 to make 36 sepia 35 walnut 36. drawing from 126-127. 220. 242 light 96 to depict drawing with 1 76 painting with 176 .227 to "bend" straight 97 compositional 228-229 cut 202. Oxford 106 Prado. Charles Rennie 48. 37 lines 118 pastel 162 pencil 31. drawing from 183. 54 silver point 156 leg sections 158 length. Madrid 171 University Museum of Natural History. 183 vertical 156 linear distance 97 linear perspective 69. Daniel 70 Arctic Flowers 70 Lieb. 110 Sistine Chapel ceiling 116 Middle Eastern drawing 50-51. 757 mandalas 219.166 La Specola. 53 monoprint 787. apparent 97 Leonardo da Vinci 74.91 Study for Plate 59 of INDEX illumination see lighting Illustration for Jacques Fath (Gruau) 160. 177 influences. 73 Kigell. 135 museums 44. 220.

Giovanni Battista 74.36. 734 Protea nitida (Bauer) 48. 36. 9 0 . 37 38. 164. 1 6 9 to hold 2 2 . 1 3 2 quill pens 34. 4 9 Rose of Mohammed 50. 74-77. Erik 70. 76 plastic eraser 55. 38. 165 figure 118 filled 37 pencil 48. 782 relief 757 silk-screen 739 woodblock 134. 739 semi-abstract drawings Style 14 Seurat. 230 paper(s) 21 colored 162 drawing 144. 114 rollerball 182 Rorschach blot 99 Rose (Mackintosh) 48.37. 7 72 Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland. 165. Odilon 242 The Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity 242. to draw 146-147 R Rackham. 239 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat (Seurat) 112. 772 234-237 Sesshu. 243.40. 139 Real Life is Rubbish (Noble and Webster) 176. 36. Faune.The (Beuys) 112. 7 38 Ray 138. 36. Heath 181 The Kinecar 180. 36 relief printing 757 Rembrandt van Rijn 52. 91 outsider artists 33.176 Real Life Is Rubbish 176. 244 Q s Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape (Wolfli) 2 79 St. 1 1 6 . 9 8 .240. 28 pigment 162 bright 50 Caput Mortuum 7 4 7 for three-tone drawing 141. 244 reed 34. Peter Paul 126-127 Embracing pose(s): balanced 146 quick 118-119 positive form 103 posture: of artist 22 of subject 3 8 . 181 pencil(s) 54 charcoal 204 colored 762.52 pen and wash 158. 1 2 4 priming for metal point 140. 759 P Page. 1 1 7 aerial 206 linear 69. 36. 2 2 0 for oil pastels 162 stained 230 to stretch 140-141 tissue 21.Paul'sBaptistry (Hawksmoor) 68. 7 70 Ray. Georges 112 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 112.37 scientific instruments 9 2 . 75 Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range 241 petroglyphs 221. 75 Two Courtyards 75.71 Hotel de la Suzonnieres 70.226. and Webster.Tim. 732 influence of 240 painting with light 78.262 INDEX Newton. 68 Satie. 97. 162 O p A r t 98 optical illusions 96-99 outline 33. 141 Piranesi. 227 portfolios 20 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser de Noailles (Holbein) 132. 1 1 6 accelerated 2 2 . 234 disposable 182-183 felt-tip 162. Russell 228.141 prints/printing: aquatint 240 dry-point etching 181 engraving 243 monoprint 181. 205 pointillism 112 polyphonic painting 227 Polyphonic Setting for White (Klee) 226.131 Cottage Among Trees 52. 103. 38. Isaac 92 Telescope 92 Newton's Cenotaph (Boullee) 72. 243. 212 Japanese 2 1 . 181 Rodin.9 3 Schongauer. Auguste 114 Two Women 114.Toyo: Landscape in Hoboku . 203 Scene of Comical Riders (Klee) 30. 242 reed pens 34.7 77 rapidograph 70 Raphael 110.104 Pieuvre (Hugo) 28.oise au Bandeau 132. 4 8 putty eraser 55. The (Abe) 220 Picasso. Martin 238. 161. Arthur 177 In the Duchess's Kitchen 176. 74. 52 pens 36 scalpel 54 drawing with 202. 205 157. 163. 160. 230 parallel planes 79 Parisian street 86-87 pastels 162 to blend 205 to hold 23 layers 162 pencils 162 pen(s): dip 34 . 78 single-point 74. Pablo 6 7 . 26 Riley.199 Profile Head (Newsome) oil pastels 162. 73 Noble. 736 portraits. 1 6 3 . 72 Noble.37. Cheval et Oiseau 30. 216.184 fountain 34.139 Autoportrait 138. 159. Sue 104. 122. 30 Fran<. 239 Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 238.759. 57 Ross-Craig. Stella 48 Cypripedium calceolus L 49 rotated view 7 65 Rubens. 7 77 three-point 80. Man 131. 224 0 layers 31. 40-41. 34-35. 36. 7 73 self-portraits: Basquiat 138. 71 Satire of the Queen's Dress (Wodall) 158. 219. 76-79. J 76 nudes 114-115 to make 36 metal see dip quill 34. Bridget 98 Robinson. 241 Physical Space. Paul 73 Nobson Central 72. 733 Portrait de Marie-Laure (Giacometti) 136. 7 76 receding space 206 Redon. 166 fiber-tip 782. 81 two-point 74.54 pastel 162 perspective 1 0 0 .2 3 age and youth sleeping subjects 148-149 150-151 Renaissance 109 Rhinoceros (Durer) 26. 36 pen and brush 8 3 pen and ink 70.

9 4 z Z e n calligraphy 232-233 contrast 96 t o grade 163 ink 37 pencil 5 4 t o r t i l l o n 205 T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c . 159 Wolfli. G e o r g e 2 7 Skeleton of the Horse 26. t o d r a w 2 0 0 . 2 4 7 t h r e e . 141 Three Male Figures. phrased 146 tonal modeling 161 tonal range 169 t o n a l surfaces 2 2 7 tonal width 97 t o n e ( s ) 33. 77. 1 3 . 1 2 Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse 71.s c r e e n p r i n t i n g 139 silver p o i n t 1 4 0 . Man in Armor 1 5 8 .2 0 1 . 1 9 9 Two Courtyards (Piranesi) 75. 164. t o d r a w 1 0 1 viewfinder 57 Views from Velletri ( C l a u d e L o r r a i n ) 152. John: Focusing on the Negative 14 w a s h . C y 138. 725 fabric 1 6 8 T h o m a s .1 0 5 vision 9 6 Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects (Grandville) 242. 7 6 Two Impressions from a Cut-Out Paper Disk ( H u g o ) 2 2 2 Two Monsters 2 4 2 . 69.5 3 in l a n d s c a p e 2 0 6 . 75. 57. William 159 Satire of the Queen's Dress INDEX 226.1 6 5 shorthand diagram 142 Shoshone buffalo hide painting 178. Sarah: child's m a p 75. 75 Skeleton of the Horse ( S t u b b s ) 26. Sarah 9 4 Chair Cut Out 94. Adolf: Giant-Grape Saint-Mary-Castle 219 Woman at Her Toilet ( T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c ) 74 w o o d b l o c k print 157. 9 0 .1 8 5 Tree II ( M o n d r i a n ) 52.141 S i m b l e t .1 4 5 . 174 T w o m b l y .t o n e d r a w i n g 140. 1 4 0 .216 W e b s t e r . 7 1 4 . 2 2 7 Untitled 2001 ( C a t l i n g ) u 263 W h i t e . 7 75 Telescope ( N e w t o n ) 9 2 . M .199 tissue p a p e r 21. 1 7 7 free 8 0 V e n i c e . 1 8 4 .d i m e n s i o n a l 1 0 4 . Taylor A n i t a 115 All and Nothing 1 1 4 . 49. 1 9 9 . 2 2 6 . 7 77. 1 8 4 . Augustin ( B a l t a r d ) 6 7 w e t and dry brush-strokes 2 4 9 Turner. 221 . 4 4 boat 209 botanical 4 9 G e r i c a u l t ' s cats 2 9 from Goya 170-173 125. 2 3 0 tonal contrast 96 tonal distance 9 7 t o n a l d r a w i n g 9 6 .d i m e n s i o n a l d r a w i n g 68. 206-207 202. Study of (Michelangelo) 110. 2 2 0 influence o f 2 4 0 Untitled 220. t h r e e . 161. Sue see N o b l e . 65 symbols 138. 2 3 4 . 199. h e a d a n d n e c k sections o f female m o l d f o r (Leonardo) 89 shading 2 9 s h a d o w s 28.125 W o o d f i n e .J. 102-103 tonal marks. 79. 9 5 pens 36 v a n i s h i n g p o i n t 74. 182. drawing with 104-105 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt ( G a u d i ) 68. 170 shoes 1 6 4 stylized m o t i f 51 Summer Flowers 63. 7 70 Tiber 214-215 Untitled ( T w o m b l y ) 2 2 0 . 97.Sforza Horse. 2 1 2 . T i m W e s t Fagade of the Church of St. 96. t o lay 1 4 0 . 156 Van Gogh. John 25 Flying Fish 25 Wild Striped Cat Sketches of ( G e r i c a u l t ) 28. Jan 1 5 6 Maelbeke Madonna 1 5 6 . 241. 2 0 0 Ship in a Storm 1 9 8 .120. 76. 199 shoes 1 6 4 .9 1 storms. 1 4 5 travel journal 2 0 . 2 4 2 w Wallis.2 1 3 Stubbs. 743 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City ( F r e n z ) 1 6 0 . 6 9 Wodall. 1 4 4 . t o draw 1 9 8 . 156 layers 7 5 6 priming for 140. t o d r a w 5 2 . 7 6 1 spots. H e n r i de: Woman at Her Toilet 14 t r a n s p a r e n t v i e w 92. 7 79 Shoshone petroglyph 240. 202 violin.241 s i l k . 7 9 0 vessels. 2 7 studies: b i r d s 7 2 . 158 V a n Eyck. b l o w n 248 steel p e n s see d i p p e n s still life 89. Paul 2 4 1 Achilles Chases Hector 2 4 0 . 245 sharpener 54 Ship in a Storm ( T u r n e r ) 1 9 8 . 1 6 . 249 t o describe 39. 1 4 1 w a t e r c o l o r 25.1 4 1 . 2 4 4 .27 skull 747. A l f r e d 1 1 .13 M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s m a l e figures 110. 1 6 6 t r a p e z i u s m u s c l e 142. Vincent 95 Chair 94.41.243 Leonardo's machines 12.1 9 9 wire. A n t h o n y 152. 53 trees. 230 t h r e e . 226 V Van Dyck. 9 2 Tesshu. 1 4 1 . 240 Two Women Embracing ( R o d i n ) 114. 104-105. 115.158 158. 74. 186.12 W a l t e r . W . v i e w s o f 85. 2 9 wind. 243 (Bosch) T Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos ( G o y a ) 2 4 0 . 69.Yamaoka 233 t e x t u r e 2 2 2 .

Peter L u f f . K e v i n a n d Rebecca Slingsby. Paris. Paul T h o m a s ( t ) . Basel. K u n s t m u s e u m Bern/© D A C S 2 0 0 5 . A . 49: Hunterian Museum (t). 1 3 4 : © T h e British Museum. 1 3 3 : Artothek/Kupferstichkabinett. Berlin/Staatsbibliothek zu A l l other images © Sarah Simblet . 2 4 5 : Oona Grimes. a n d brushes o n pp. 7 1 : I M E C / A r c h i v e s E r i k Satie. Paula Regan. 72: akg-images. 3 1 : Tom Powel Imaging. T o n y G r i s o n i . Anders/ © D A C S 2 0 0 5 . b r i d g e m a n . London/courtesy of Stuart Shave. 1 3 5 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. Berlin (b). 11: www. Christopher Davis. 2 4 2 : Photo Scala./Private Collection/© D A C S Trust.bridgeman. B . 243: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz.l. Angela W i l k e s .uk/Private Collection. M a n d y Earey. NY./Galerie Sylvie Nissen. Florence/MoMA. H a y w a r d Gallery. Germany. Japan. 1 0 8 : Arts C o u n c i l Collection. Picture Credits 8: Corbis/Hubert Stadler. Psychiatric Institute of the University of Heidelberg. O o n a G r i m e s . 199: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee des arts asiatiquesGuimet. u k / O n Loan to the H a m b u r g Kunsthalle. G e r m a n y . 115: Anita Taylor. B e r l i n . 2 0 2 : © T h e British Museum. 2 2 0 : Mamaru Abe. 1 5 : w w w . 13: www. Diana Bell. Salisbury & South W i l t s h i r e M u s e u m ( t ) . B M G . Staatliche Museen z u Berlin. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. George M c G a v i n . Winthrop.bridgeman. G i n a R o w l a n d .co. L e n . Amsterdam. Jackie Douglas. Psychiatric Institute of the U n i v e r s i t y of Heidelberg. C o r n e l i s o n & Son. 9 1 : www. R u t h P a r k i n s o n . (r). 74: Corbis.a. 1 7 8 : © T h e British M u s e u m / H e n r y Moore F o u n d a t i o n . J o h n Walter. support. 5 0 : Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (1). L o n d o n (t). F r a n c e . J o h n Roberts. 2 8 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. Kunstmuseum Bern. 9 0 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/© A D A G P . 130: The Metropolitan M u s e u m of Art/Robert L e h m a n Collection. Andy Crawford. u k / T o k y o National M u s e u m . Productions Clovis Prevost (c). Paris and D A C S . 51: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. 2 0 1 : T h e Royal Collection © 2 0 0 2 H e r Majesty Queen Elizabeth I I . 1929 (29. 179: www. 17: J o h n Walter. 1 6 0 : Rene G R U A U 113: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. Havemeyer. 1 3 8 : © Christie's Images Ltd/© A D AGP. . Paris. London/Bequeathed by Charles Landseer. 1 1 0 : www. Maureen Paley Interim Art (b). H . 9 2 : Science Photo L i b r a r y . and Tamsin Woodward Smith. 221: Gagosian Gallery/Private Collection (b). Paris. Sarah Woodfine. 1 9 8 : Dover Publications. 158: Calouste Gulbenkian Museum. Agnieszka Mlicka. Inc.bridgeman. a n d encouragement i n m a k i n g this book: M a m o r u Abe.20-21 a n d 246-47. c o . 6 6 : w w w . 2 2 4 : P r i n z h o m Collection. Berlin/'s Yard. H e l e n S h u t t l e w o r t h . University of Oxford. 1 6 1 : D C C o m i c s I n c . J o n Roome. H a m b u r g . Sammy De des Augustins. 1 9 : Getty Images/© Succession Picasso / D A C S 2 0 0 5 . Germany/Joerg P. P h y l l Kiggell. Roddy Bell.bridgeman./© D A C S 2 0 0 5 ( t ) .co. F i n n .co. Natalie G o d w i n . Corporation of London. D a w n Henderson.264 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Acknowledgments Author's Acknowledgments: T h e author wishes to thank the following people for their enormous help. 29: Fogg A n Museum/Collections Baron de Vita: Grenville L. papers.bridgeman. 69: Institut Amatller d'Art Hispanic (tl).bridgeman. 2 4 : © T h e British Museum. 181: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. 174: Artothek/Munich. Orientabteilung/Ruth Schacht. 4 6 : B r i t i s h Library. 9 7 6 ) . 2 7 : Royal Academy of Arts. 75: © The British Museum (b). Antonia Cunliffe Davis. O. J a c k a n d Brian Catling. K u n s t m u s e u m . 1879. 1 5 4 : akg-images/Musee National d'Art Moderne. Sir Brinsley F o r d . L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 .co. Kirsten Norrie. Paris a n d D A C S .uk/Private Collection. Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (t). B e m d Kunzig. Toulouse. Paris a n d D A C S . Pamela Ellis for compiling the index. K e w ft)). 3 3 : Prinzhom Collection.bridgeman. Paris. 2 2 2 : Pierre Georgel/Private Collection. U K .uk/British Museum. Lisbon. 157: U C L Art Collections . Carole A s h . © Tate. Oxford. 2 2 3 : Lebrecht Music and Arts Photo Library/ Library. a n d D e p a r t m e n t s o f E n t o m o l o g y a n d Zoology at the University of Oxford. c o . 1 3 6 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Centre Pompidou-MNAM-CCI.bridgeman. L o n d o n .939). A .bridgeman. 9 5 : V a n Gogh M u s e u m . Flossie. L o n d o n . R o s e m a r y S c o u l a r . Paris/ © Succession Picasso / D A C S 2005. L o n d o n . Copyright Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens. for s u p p l y i n g the d r a w i n g books. 9 4 : Sarah Woodfine. 1 5 6 : Graphische S a m m l u n g Albertina. A n d y C r a w f o r d for p h o t o g r a p h y a n d L . 2 4 1 : Corbis/David M u e n c h ( b ) . 132: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. Wolfson College. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. G e r m a n y . Staatliche Museen z u Berlin/Jorg P. K a t h r y n W i l k i n s o n . u k / L o u v r e .uk /Biblioteca Nacional. 1901. 1 5 9 : Bodleian Library. Patty Stansfield. B e r l i n . Anders.100. Magdalene College Cambridge. Publisher's Acknowledgments Dorling Kindersley w o u l d like to thank Caroline H u n t for editorial contribution. Graphische Sammlung. H e a t h e r M c C a r r y .Strang Print Room ( b ) . Sarah D u n c a n . b r i d g e m a n . 2 0 3 : Clare Bryan (t). R o y a n d D i a n n e Simblet. Paul T h o m a s . Julie O u g h t o n .Paris ( b ) . Paris. 1 . L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . 112: Yale University A r t Gallery/Everett V Meeks. 16: www. 2 6 : Topfoto. 68: www. U K . S i m o n L e w i s . Also. Sophie Laurimore. 226: Brian Catling. 2 4 0 : w w w . 7 0 : Studio Daniel L i b e s k i n d . 139: Galerie Marion Meyer/© Man Ray Trust / A D A G P . 3 2 : Pepys 2 2 7 : Paul Klee Stiftung. 114: Musee Rodin. Jean Pierre Roy. 177: Mary Evans Picture Library. 176: Modem Art. c o . 4 8 : T h e N a t u r a l H i s t o r y M u s e u m . 225: Stephen P /© Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery. 180: www. 5 3 : Collection of the Gemeentemuseum D e n Haag/Mondrian Trust. A n n a P l u c i n s k a . R . Clare 73: Berlin F i l m Museum (t). Portugal. London 2005. Rocio Collection. 2 3 8 : akg-images. 30: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. 88: www. Madrid. University of Cambridge. Fund. 5 2 : T h e Metropolitan Museum of Art/Bequest of Mrs. . T h e R u s k i n School of D r a w i n g a n d Fine A r t .r. L o n d o n . 137: © The British Angela Palmer. 1 9 6 : Museum of the History of Science. Italy. 2 4 4 : Ashmolean Museum. L o n d o n .co. b r i d g e m a n . France. Anita Taylor. 9 3 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. 2 0 0 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. Illustrated London News Picture Library/The Bystander (b). Dover Publications/ISBN: 0486229912 (t). 2 1 8 : Adolf-Wdlfli-Stiftung. Carlo O r t u for picture research s u p p o r t . 1975 ( 1 9 7 5 . 111: Fondation Beyeler/Riehen (Bale)/© Succession H Matisse/DACS 2005.

com Discover more at . www. and silverpoint—and apply the key elements of drawing including perspective. Learn from the Masters—a rich selection of drawings illustrates different approaches to a wide range of subjects. charcoal. Creating a Sketchbook—Sarah Simblet's drawings inspire you to explore different subjects and fill your own sketchbooks. and tone. D r a w i n g C l a s s e s — d e t a i l e d step-by-step demonstrations show you how to develop your natural talents. and improve your drawing discover new ideas. Materials and Techniques—how to use a variety of materials—from pencil and ink to pastel. shape.FOR THE ARTIST T h e c o m p l e t e g u i d e to drawing—a unique blend of practical teaching and inspirational insights into classic and contemporary drawings.

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