An innovative, practical approach to drawing the world around you

SARAH SIMBLET

BOOK
FOR T H E ARTIST

BOOK

FOR THE ARTIST

SARAH SIMBLET

DK PUBLISHING

CONTENTS
LONDON • NEW YORK MELBOURNE • MUNICH • DELHI Senior Editor Paula Regan Senior Art Editor Mandy Earey Art Editor Anna Plucinska Managing Editor Julie Oughton Managing Art Editor Heather McCarry Art Director Peter Luff Publishing Director Jackie Douglas Production Joanna Bull DTP Designer Adam Walker Picture Research Sarah Smithies US Editor Christine Heilman First American Edition, 2 0 0 5 First Paperback Edition, 2 0 0 9 Published in the United States by DK Publishing 3 7 5 Hudson Street New York, New York 1 0 0 1 4 10 11 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3

Architecture
6 8 20 22 Master Builders The Order of Sound Future Fictions Pathways of Sight Single-Point Perspective Creating an Imaginary Space Further Aspects of Perspective Theaters Venetian Life Parisian Street

66
68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86

Foreword Introduction Drawing Books and Papers Posture and Grip

Objects and Instruments

TD075-July 2009 Copyright © 2 0 0 5 Dorling Kindersley Limited Text and authors artworks © Sarah Simblet 2 0 0 4 Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited A Cataloging-in-Publication record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN 9 7 8 - 0 - 7 5 6 6 - 5 1 4 1 - 1 Color reproduction by GRB, Italy Printed and bound in China by Toppan

Still Life Instruments of Vision Bench Marks Light and Illusions Further Illusions How to Draw Ellipses Tonality Drawing with Wire Artifacts and Fictions

88

90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106

Animals
Documentaries Presence and Mood Movement Icon and Design Pen and Ink Drawing with Ink Capturing Character Sleeping Dogs Turtles Dry Birds

24
26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44

The Body
Postures and Poses Choreographs Passion Measurement and Foreshortening Quick Poses Hands and Feet Charcoal Hands Phrasing Contours The Visual Detective La Specola

108
110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128

Plants and Gardens
Botanical Studies Jeweled Gardens Fast Trees Graphite and Erasers Cropping and Composition Negative Space Fig Tree Summer Flowers Acanthus Spinosus

46
48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64

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Gatherings
Projections Magnetic Fields The Human Condition Disposable Pens The Travel Journal Catching the Moment Grand Canal Crossings Caravans The Big Top

174 Abstract Lines
176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 Process and Harmony Writing Time Chants and Prayers Compositions Being "Just" Collage Zen Calligraphy Nocturnes

218
220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234

Portraiture
Poise Anatomies Revelations Self-Portraits Silver Point Head and Neck Essential Observations Drawing Portraits Generations Castings

130
132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 152

Earth and the Elements
Air in Motion Storms Nature Profiles Charcoal Landscapes Drawing in the Round Decaying Boat Cloudburst Notes of Force Mountains

196
198 200 202 204 206 208 210 212 214 216

Gods and Monsters
Marks of Influence Hauntings Convolutions Brushes Brush Marks Monsters Goya's Monsters Consumed Glossary Index Acknowledgments

238
240 242 244 246 248 250 252 254 256 259 264

Costume
Cloth and Drapery Character Costumes Femmes Fatales Colored Materials Study and Design The Structure of Costume Textures and Patterns Dressing Character Posture Carving

154
156 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172

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I was also reading among The Confessions of St. and feeling. or engineer. and I refer back to them for years after they are made. and a reflector of experience. from schoolchildren to senior citizens. in which he describes himself flying and diving in his imagination through pictorial caverns of knowledge. The most rewarding challenge is always the newcomer. . For twelve years I have enjoyed the privilege of teaching drawing. perhaps hidden on a door hinge or a street bench rail. especially as travel journals. It is a tool for investigating ideas and recording knowledge. I was training in anatomy and studying how. as a visiting professor at universities. thinking. Drawing occupies a unique place in every artist and creator's life. Drawing is a mirror through which I understand my place in the world. not only to make art. aspirations. a cartographer charting the land. who tells me firmly upon approach that they cannot draw. For me personally. I will always draw. Chosen in any color. that inspired the title and structure MEMORY T H E A T E R S This pen-and-ink drawing was made from imagination during research for my PhD. I know that with their cooperation I can soon prove them wrong. art schools. shape. architect. and makers of special effects. where spaces are shaped by nothing more than the objects and activities contained within them. of Sketch Book for the Artist. still standing by the door. and be slowly washed or worn away. Others can be held in the h a n d or. where I expect them to be discovered by some people. geologists. drawing is the immediate expression of seeing. understood (and often misunderstood) our own bodies.Foreword B Y DRAWING THE WORLD AROUND US. a sculptor. are made outside as discreet installations. Augustine his notes on memory. we learn to see it. remain unseen by most. Some are more traditionally framed and hung in galleries for solo or group exhibitions. I work with people of diverse ages. we have looked at. These inspirations led me to invent museums. undergraduates to fellow professors. and their importance to so many artists. It is my love of these. a composer notating a musical score. or a quantum physicist trying to see for themselves the fluctuations of our universe. texture. fashion designer. through history. a drawing book is the perfect portable private vehicle for your imminent exploration of drawing. and in a few sessions they will be flying. doctors. The very first step is to believe it. be they a child discovering their vision and dexterity. Some of my drawings cover entire walls. and local c o m m u n i t y classes. Combine these things and the possibilities are endless. and through which I can see how I think. I also make drawing books. It makes me feel excited to be alive. They enfold their viewer and are made on joined sheets of paper that I reach by climbing ladders. but because it is how I engage with and anchor myself in life. By using our imaginations. We can all learn how to draw. and size. night security staff. we learn to feel truly alive. and experience. by invitation. They occupy a shelf in my studio.

packaging. We are bombarded with linear and tonal pictorial information. graffiti. They have a natural affinity to many modern graffiti signatures. and in meetings. is not afforded us by drawing. At home and at work we doodle. Sometimes we draw because we are bored. waving to us from many thousands of yearsago. Rio Pinturas 13. signs. in lectures. and patterns on our clothes. logos. but more often because drawing actually helps us to focus and take in what is said. Most adults still feel that certain exquisite pleasure on arriving at a beach to find the tide out and the sand perfect. Cueva de las Marios. We are surrounded by drawings in our daily lives.Theseancient silhouettes were drawn with earth pigments rubbed onto rock. irreverent to language barriers. "CAVE OF THE HANDS" In this drawing.000-9500 bce . The sense of relief we may feel from the information overload of modern commercial life when visiting a country in which we can no longer read every written word. inscribing every fresh part of it with their eager scrapes and trails. scrawling shapes and cartoons when on the telephone. not just chosen pictures on our walls but everywhere—maps. and we spend our lives reading it. like a great canvas for them to mark. Drawing is international. We can always read each others drawings. a great crowd is raising their hands in greeting. Children cannot be restrained from running across the pristine white lawn of newly fallen snow.8 INTRODUCTION Where We Begin There is a fundamental drive in our human nature to make a mark.

like all toddlers. and she kept it as my first step beyond the delighted realms of scrawl. an expression of existence. Cave art was not made for decoration but as a fundamental part of life. and belonging to place. I was sitting with my mother. we see our oldest surviving images. Even though it is made by a toddler this image would be recognizable to anyone. created by societies of hunter-gatherers. the hair of my first portrait was most important. MAKING OUR MARK It seems reasonable to assume that we have engaged in pictorial mark-making for as long as we have made conscious use of our hands. had happily scribbled. On a particular afternoon in September 1974. She gave me a notepad and a red crayon and asked me to draw her "a picture of Daddy. who in their day-to-day hardship made time to picture themselves and the animals on which they depended. but I had never yet attempted to figuratively picture my world. and the appearance of my strikes of colors.9 WHERE WE BEGIN FIRST PORTRAIT For sorre forgotten reason. The image above is what I gave back to my mother. I now think this is a picture of proximity. reflecting my experience of looking closely at my father's face. ." Until this day. In cave paintings like the one opposite. power. at age two-anda-half. enjoying the physical sensation of crayon on paper. I. Eyelashes take up as much of my attention as the head itself.

h o w e v e r small a n d u n f o r m e d y o u believe they are. Young children love to draw. then drag o u r line into a loop. Don't b e p e r s u a d e d to draw in a w a y s o m e o n e else . for example. W e do n o t hesitate to draw a map.10 INTRODUCTION PEN-AND-INK BEE This tiny drawing has been enlarged to show its texture and composition. Hours are lost immersed in the glorious world of imagination. most of us stop. But as adolescents. yet still turn to drawing w h e n their verbal language fails or is inadequate. and this activity plays a vital role in their d e v e l o p m e n t . It was made with a few bold strokes of a steel pen dipped in ink to conjure the dried bee I was holding between my fingers on a pin. and from that first unit build and describe the shape of something or someone we know. it is important to value your natural abilities a n d ways of seeing. At this point many will insist they cannot draw. b e p r o u d o f what m a k e s y o u r w o r k individual to y o u . Inhibitions creep in and ideas of good a n d b a d terminate confidence. PROGRESSION T h e r e is a point in all o u r lives w h e n w e first c o n t r o l o u r mark and m a k e it a line. As you progress. to help a stranger see their way W h e n taking first steps in relearning h o w to draw.

He was a retired Cornish fisherman and junk dealer who began drawing at the age of 70 "for company" after his wife died. but it does help to set out facing in the right direction. and they have never questioned why. remember that all advice is only advice. harbor and sea is one of many that Alfred Wallis made from memory while sitting at home. what they most want to achieve. and which aspects of the vast wealth and diversity of graphic language would be most appropriate to their goals. I ask them their reasons for drawing. He used leftover ship and yacht paint with crayons on cut-out pieces of cardboard boxes.11 PROGRESSION A UNIQUE SIGHT This innocent yet sophisticated drawing of boats. The journey of every artist demands hard work and discipline. you must decide whether to keep or discard it. Occasionally. I meet students struggling unhappily with a particular method of drawing. As you read this b o o k and perhaps attend art classes. After experimenting and trying each new idea. Someone once told them they must draw in this way. Enjoy the control of your own journey. 1925-42 53/8x87/8in (135 x 225 mm) ALFRED WALLIS prefers and tells you is better. Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse c. Think how much would have been lost if anyone had interfered with Alfred Wallis' personal sense of proportion and perspective in the exquisite drawing above. .

We also see differently ourselves. wrote as the opening line of this great work. There are only artists. right.and collarbones and shoulder blades of a different bird almost become new creatures in themselves. but the child in us knows that this is an all-embracing. "There really is no such thing as Art. There should neve: be a slavish obligation to represent things exactly as we collectively agree we see them. and lose the very thing that attracted us to it. the page bristles with the focus of ideas. perhaps for comfort or ease as a left-hander or a habitual enjoyment of the challenge. depending on the occasion and our purpose. we can drive out its spirit. clear-minded understanding of the sea. but it should be the experienced world we draw. all raise water From the Archimedes' screw to Leonardo's own cupped wheel. The art historian Professor Sir Ernst Gombrich. We all see differently. His notes visually balance his drawings. embedded in this book. and inspire others. We BIRD STUDIES The flutter of faint scratches that dance across the pages on the right is an attempt to see the movement and bony weightlessness of a bird. 11).12 INTRODUCTION VISION All artists see the world differently. boats. There are countless reasons for drawing. be visionary. The observed world may be our subject. IDEAS A N D I N V E N T I O N S These active machines. Our imaginations are the tools with which we can increase the essence of life. I hope. Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels LEONARDO DA VINCI . the breast. When we look back at Wallis' seascape (see p. it may not be accurate to our critical adult eye. If as artists we nail a subject down too hard. is. They are also always written backward. not for disguise but as a personal choice." The clarity and empowerment of these words. Below. and breathtaking wind of a choppy harbor. author of The Story of Art.

or to discover the best use of a new material. shout against a terrible injustice. stripped-down parts. drawing in pursuit of our own thoughts and understanding. It will be invested through your experience in the new drawing. it may be best to start afresh. time spent is not lost. conduct an experiment. . I drew to understand the apparatus of flight. while below. Decide before you start whether you are drawing to warm up. Each fresh image reflects growing confidence and the experience of the preceding study. More was learned drawing the bird 18 times than would have been understood drawing it only once or twice. to express the beauty in a moment's play of light. Don't be disheartened. This also applies if struggling at length with a larger picture. when it looks tired and still feels wrong. Opposite. Leonardo drew to invent a machine. My drawings of a housemartin (opposite top) illustrate the importance of repeated study. but it is important to be clear why we are making it. We have both covered our paper with focused.13 VISION should not try to know how every finished picture will look. Our drawings are annotated investigations into the mechanisms of nature and of an idea. make a calculation. or illustrate a dream.

I made it almost unconsciously with a pen and a brush. and spirit of each subject was held strongly but loosely between the fingertips. This suits many artists well and is perfectly valid. water. Whatever the material— wood. This is a detail of a brush-and-ink drawing by a Japanese Buddhist monk. However. and opacity of your subject. your marks will become the subject on the paper. Imagine these qualities so strongly that you feel them in your mind and at your fingertips. Know the texture. balance. depth. These two brush drawings. and sometimes beyond. size. we are advised or even required to plan our pictures. silk. metal. trusting my intuition to find a visual equivalence for the sensation of weight within my body. Our position asvieweris unsteady. mists. and allowed to flow through the brush. and what you discover in the process of making. created centuries and cultures apart. it should be responding to the sensation and meaning of the subject it draws. Landscape in Haboku Style 15TH CENTURY . and paper. They each allowed the energy and focus of the moment to be expressed through controlled accident and a degree of the unknown Both drawings were made trusting the marks. temperature. It denies the importance of accident. fire. bone. excessive planning can get in the way of the imagination. and an island brushed with trees. You must also think of its intrinsic nature: its purpose. explain the composition. As your hand meets the paper to make a mark. or imagine—it is not enough to only render its shape. As you draw any subject—something you see. the unknown. W e float toward the quiet vista as it also moves toward us. The physicality. BRUSHED LANDSCAPE FLOWING SKELETON T h e gliding poise of this walking anatomy comes as much from the feeling of movement as it does from the feeling of drawing. or ice—you must actually feel it beneath your fingers as you draw. feel. and how it feels to the touch. ink. and we can just make out the distant stains of mountains. We are caught in a shifting focus that makes everything fluid.14 INTRODUCTION ALCHEMY At school. are both made of ink laid onto wet paper with speed and agile certainty. declare the idea. This is the alchemy of drawing. Each image relied upon past experience to know the probable behavior of the brush. and at speeds beyond conscious thought. and position in space. and practice each part before putting the final image together. If you can do this. which can offer keys to other things. meaning.

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He dazzles us with flashes o f light and dabbed marks o f shadow. stand table-sized with furniture legs attached t o b o t h sides of their jacket. right is set inside a rib cage. which evoke realities o f place and the p o w e r o f moment. one of many luminous works in watercolor. Lautrec's flamboyant splashes o f petticoats and pantaloons are drawn with long sweeps of chalk and brushed oil paint. Focusing on the Negative 2004 22 x 30 in (56 x 76 cm) J O H N WALTER . made by a young British artist who creates alphabets o f the absurd f r o m familiar childhood characters. W a l t e r also makes books: some. lives on. left. acrylic. gold leaf and spray paint. pastel. like folded insects.16 INTRODUCTION PLACE A N D MOMENT The heat and teeming atmosphere o f this Parisian dressing room. more than 100 years after its making. c.1896 Woman at her Toilet 41 x 26 in (104 x 66 cm) TOULOUSE LAUTREC RIB-CAGE D R A M A Thus drama.

and miscellaneous items of inspiration. you will naturally make progress on your own in response to concentration and the decision to look and draw. Enjoy discovering what your hand and the material can do. It is yours. take your time and don't worry if you need to make several attempts to grasp a concept. Drawing is exploratory. Pages do not have to lie open for other people to inspect and comment on.17 FREEING THE HAND If you are just beginning to learn how to draw. try not to grip your pen worrying about the technical terms you might have heard. As you follow lessons in this book. and mistakes are a valuable process of learning. Put them away and look at them later. you will be surprised and encouraged to see how far you have come. Much will be learned on these test sheets and in your first drawings. One of the advantages of a drawing book is that you can shut it. Start by choosing a material you like the look of and cover a piece of paper with different marks. diary-like observations. even those you dislike. Ignore these at first and allow yourself the freedom to play. FREEINGTHEHAND . Try to keep all of your first drawings. With no help and advice at all. potential ideas still forming. at a point when you feel you are not making progress. Such books are personal: the territory of new exploration and experiment. just through the act of making. Choose other materials and do the same.

the path is yours. The chapters of this book present 90 different artists' ways of seeing. Picasso is poised smiling. To these I have added my own drawings to explain elementary materials and techniques and offer introductory approaches. Picasso has just finished his drawing. when they are more experienced. staring straight through his image of a bull. Imagination needs nourishment. Drawing is a living language that over millennia has grown and changed. Note that the drawing classes are allocated to subjects. threedimensionally. Look to your own experience and also learn from the work of others. The real drawing book has yet to come. which of course he cannot see. and enfolding new media. it is this voice that is the subtle part of their art and something that ultimately. A N ARTIST'S HANDS These are the hands of the artist Phyll Kiggell (see p. and many more reasons for drawing the world.18 INTRODUCTION THE THINKING EYE Techniques and materials are the grammar and vocabulary of drawing and can be studied and shared. ELECTRIC BULL With a penlight.Their elegant strength seems to summon a lifetime of drawing. 150). caught between action and repose. It rarely flourishes in isolation. and became a great subject for me. This practical journey will take you through the door into the vivid heart of drawing. An artist's personal voice is something that also evolves through lessons learned. However. Once there. it will be your creation as you discover your own personal vision. Its sensuous and flowing line seems to drift like smoke. but not confined to them. Picasso Painting with Light at the Madoura Pottery 1949 . I was particularly attracted to their gentle articulation and understated determination. which is held frozen in space by a camera lens. we still only glimpse a corner of the magnitude of this subject and the infinity of what can be achieved. In the total wealth of these pages. comes from within. adapting its form and occupation. As you draw. seek ideas in the life around you.

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b e a w a r e t h a t p a p e r t e x t u r e effects a n d changes t h e i r marks.q u a l i t y r i n g . Smooth plywood. and collage their ideas. Many artists invent ways o f binding their o w n books. BLACK P O C K E T B O O K S : Hand-sized w i t h ready-made elastic binder and a marker ribbon. ties on either side to keep your papers in place. Alternatively. H o w e v e r r i n g bindings o f t e n break. c o l o r If planning t o use pencils. There are dozens to choose from. study the structure of a good portfolio and make your own. A high-quality one will last a DRAWING BOOKS Select d r a w i n g b o o k s t o suit y o u r aims.20 INTRODUCTION Drawing Books and Papers T o BEGIN YOUR EXPLORATION o f d r a w i n g .b o u n d b o o k s t h a t fit in y o u r p o c k e t o r bag. Gleaming store purchases vary greatly in format. y o u n e e d a lifetime. If you intend to carry your boards for a distance.B O U N D PADS: T h e s e are t h e least expensive a n d useful f o r o p e n i n g flat. be sure they fit comfortably under your arm. Calculate a range of useful dimensions and have several cut at once. F o r e v e n i n g classes. pastels.C O V E R E D H A R D B O U N D : Ideal f o r c a r r y i n g a r o u n d . color. a l e n g t h o f black elastic t i e d a r o u n d t h e m i d d l e will h o l d the contents together w h e n y o u f o l d in c o l l e c t e d items. Most contain thin p a p e r and are perfect f o r use w i t h disposable pens. 4. t h i s is h o w I l e a r n e d . Sand the edges to avoid splinters. a n d r e f e r e n c e b o o k s f o u n d in s e c o n d . is perfect. and handles to lift the weight of your artworks.h a n d s t o r e s make unique subjects f o r e x p e r i m e n t s a n d collage. which are also sold in an enormous range. quality. 6. cheap corrugated plastic ones fall apart in days. it is better to have them made at a lumber yard or home improvement store.b o u n d p a d if y o u w i s h t o keep your drawings together long-term. thick enough not to flex. 2. These are perfect f o r w o r k i n g in novels. C A N V A S . t h e i r jackets w i l l a c t like d r a w i n g b o a r d s a n d p r o t e c t y o u r w o r k . thickness. c h o o s e larger f o r m a t s t o give y o u s c o p e f o r e x p e r i m e n t .b o u n d b o o k w i l l s o o n s h o w y o u h o w it is m a d e . 5. F o r traveling. 1. T h e hardb o a r d j a c k e t is s t r e t c h e d w i t h canvas beneath t h e p a p e r sleeve. stitched. You simply need two strong boards hinged together well. Art students often make use of printed books picked up from secondhand stores into which they draw. catalogs. R I N G . drawing book. c h o o s e s m a l l e r h a r d . F O U N D B O O K S : O l d p r i n t e d 3 . Dissecting a d i s c a r d e d h a r d . and cost. It is also useful to own a portfolio. a n d crayons. texture. Purchase a h i g h . C O L O R E D PAPERS: Large a r t supply stores o f t e n sell t h i c k b o o k s full o f c o l o r e d p a p e r s . N o t e t h e w i d e l y differing c h o i c e o f p a p e r s w i t h w h i c h t h e s e are m a d e . Homemade books can be assembled easily from found materials or selections of loose sheet papers. cut. binding. 2002 Tantalus o r The Future of Man 81/2 x61/4in (215 x 158 mm) ROSE MILLER . H O M E M A D E : I m a d e this b o o k f r o m drawing paper that I folded. Drawing boards are invaluable. and glued t o a s t r i p o f bias binding. They can be very expensive in art stores.

2 5 6 . also good for drawing with colored pencils. absorbency. blocks. and hot pressed papers. or rolls. FABRIANO ACADEMIA: Standard medium-range multipurpose paper Use with any media. used to imprint lines of these colors onto a surface. 12. AQUARELLE ARCHES 300GMS:The very top quality hot-pressed (smooth) watercolor paper. MAGIC PAPER: A reusable sheet for testing ideas without creating waste. pastel paper in flecked pastel colors with a distinctive ribbed marking. and other plant fibers. 11. color. 20. For use with any media. 16. and rolls. size. Cotton papers are high-quality and acid-free. C A R B O N PAPER: Available in dark and light blue.TISSUE PAPER: Place sheets between drawing book pages to keep images from printing on each other and use for delicate collage. red. 17. 18. fine. C A N S O N : Inexpensive lightweight pastel paper in many colors. Use with a brush in clean water Water makes a dark mark like ink and becomes invisible again when dry. it is made from rice.5 9 ) for explanations of rough. 21. and white. FABRIANO R O U G H 600GMS: Very heavy. resisting deterioration. Use for brushwork drawings. printed on one side only. SAUNDERS WATERFORD N O T 300GMS: Mid-quality textured watercolor paper. 22. ITALIAN PARCHMENT: Imitation-animal-skin parchment that is translucent and slightly waxy. and translucent. They are hand-. 10. 8. texture. bamboo. FABRIANO INGRES: Thin. 14. smooth. from pencil to paint 9. VELIN ARCHES 250GMS: Printmaking paper available in black white. mulberry. and cost. mold-. 100% cotton and sold in sheets. T W O RIVERS GREEN 410G MS: Very heavy tinted textured cold-pressed watercolor paper See Two Rivers Yellow. Use cheap paper for rough ideas and quality paper for work to last See the glossary ( p p . 13. Ph. It is also excellent for drawing with marker pens on layered sheets. tough. GLASSINE: Sold as protective wrapping. yellow. Cheap wood-pulp papers are acidic. blocks. and cream sheets or rolls. T W O RIVERS Y E L L O W 410GMS: See Two Rivers Green 19. It is available in white or cream.Papers differ in thickness (weight). turning brown and brittle. cold. not. METALLIC PAPER: Thin paper in different metallic colors. 15. white textured paper that can take abrasive use of any medium. 7. PAPERS . or machine made in sheets. JAPANESE PAPER: Strong.

SPACE TO WORK Cramped grip. Regularly step back 6-9 ft (2-3 m) to check your progress. Ideally. don't sit too close to the paper. and subject. Examples are shown here. you Drawing classes can be cramped places. place it on the correct side: if right-handed. There should be an open. a n d look to the left of it at your subject. Relaxed fingers: Hold the pencil away from its tip and relax your fingers. but you need to understand that the expression of a line or mark originates in the body and flows t h r o u g h the shoulder. arm. How you hold your drawing materials is also important. . or with your drawing board angled between your lap and a chair. In this book we will look at parallels between drawing and music. make sure you have enough room to back away and view your work. body. Placing your easel o n the w r o n g side folds y o u r b o d y against your drawing arm. If your hand twists to maneuver between the paper and your body. your drawing will reflect this. if left-handed. flowing space between your hand. 116-17). It will also reflect discomfort if you are in any way cramped. There are also parallels to dance. Accelerated perspective also occurs if you look down the surface steeply (see pp. your whole relaxed b o d y should be involved. You cannot draw like this—your hand is locked and your fingers can barely move. should be able to look comfortably straight ahead at your picture plane. If using an upright easel. If your body posture is well balanced and you can move freely. a n d h a n d to the fingertips. With your hand in this position. Use the side of your little fingernail as a support on the page. You do not have to dance to draw. but wherever possible. This cramped grip tires your hand and makes small. you can draw lines freely and achieve a significant arc of movement. From a distance you will spot errors you cannot see close up. your lines will distort. This photograph illustrates how some people hold a pen to write. If seated on a b e n c h easel (a donkey). place it on your right. place it on your left.22 INTRODUCTION Posture and Grip T o DRAW WELL. and look to the right. strangledlooking drawings. Turning your drawing sideways or upside-own will also help reveal what is wrong. b u t it should n o t be forgotten that many people make remarkable a n d striking works drawing with their feet or holding their brush or pencil in their mouths.

Remember you can also draw just by dipping your fingers in pigment—this is how many women draw in rural India. find an unfamiliar. upright way of holding the brush near its base is similar to the Japanese way used in Zen calligraphy (see pp. This can give a new lease on life to your mark-making. not up to the paper Brushes can be used on upright paper but dip Anticipating effects: A fully loaded pens need a level surface. alternative way of holding the pencil. roughly marking out a large-scale work. or change to the wrong hand. or it can spoil your work if not anticipated. depending upon what it is and how large you are working.23 This loose "candle" grip is very useful when drawing with your arm extended. Brush calligraphy: This comfortable. As long as your fingers. But be careful not to tense your fingers. arm. This can be used to great effect.232-33). hold your material as you find most comfortable. . To stop this. It is most comfortable when reaching to draw above your head. brush pressed against an upright surface will cause a dribble of ink to run down your drawing. liquid will run down your hand. ALL MEDIA There are no rules as to how you should hold your drawing media. GRAVITY Remember that gravity affects the flow of ink and paint. Large amounts of ink can be applied without fear of uncontrolled running if the paper is flat. If you turn a brush or dip pen up into the air to draw above your hand. Large scale: POSTURE AND GRIP U n f a m i l i a r i t y : T h e habitual movements of our handwriting style will sometimes infringe upon our drawing. Soft media: Short materials such as pastels and charcoal can be accommodated in the palm. and body are not restricted.

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who described in words what White drew." Paranoid newcomers c r a m m e d into swelling industrial cities used handbooks of physiognomy to identify and judge their neighbors. birds. m u s e u m .Animals H UMANS HAVE DRAWN ANIMALS from the beginning of our time. we have employed artists on expeditions. to be there at the m o m e n t of discovery. 1590 J O H N WHITE capture form and movement from the m a n n e r i s m s of honking geese. Facial features were analyzed in terms of their animal likeness. Here (left) we see J o h n White's exquisite record of a flying fish. they are perhaps our favorite pictorial preoccupation. 11 x91/4in (277 x 234 mm) . sleeping dogs. floating turtles. This drawing is made in black lead (metal point) with watercolor Highlights of silver would have gleamed. O v e r the centuries. from which personality and predicted behavior were " d e d u c e d . dogs. For the novice artist. As children we delight in the humanized trials of Tom and Jerry and their c a r t o o n relations. and we still see escapees from its pages carved and grinning as the gargoyles of churches. We have drawn them on the walls of caves to evoke their kinship and power. which very likely leaped o n t o the deck of Sir Walter Raleigh's ship Tiger as it sailed north from the Caribbean to Virginia in 1585.. and dragons. and people. Framed in the z o o or in domestic cohabitation. 1540. In this chapter we discover the use of pens and ink through the delineation of insects. After the subject of ourselves.. and pioneer born c. Together they made maps and documented animals. each dedicated to the moralized tale of an animal or monster The bestiary profoundly influenced the art of its period. and learn how to Flying Fish c. the Latin bestiary was one of the most popular picture books—an illustrated dictionary of one hundred parts. cartographer. In medieval England. fish. offer challenges and delights to draw. werewolves.m o u n t e d skeletons of birds. insects.drawe to lief one of each kinde of thing that is strange to us in England. W e have drawn them in m a n u s c r i p t s to explain our genesis and to c o u n t their species into Noah's ark. plants. " Animals perpetually feed our imaginations. In 19th-century Europe this became a "science. their different speeds and patterns of action. and to bring h o m e drawn documentaries of their finds." He worked with the scientist Thomas Harriot. and silent. On the Roanoke voyages of Sir Walter Raleigh. JOHN WHITE British artist. we turn and take the features of beasts. animals provide a perfect subject with which to begin. bats. Europeans on board had never seen such a thing. White's commission was to ". which are so unlike ours. and this very drawing was to endure many copies and plagiarisms after its triumphant return to the English court of Queen Elizabeth I. out are now oxidized and so appear black W h e n less preoccupied with understanding ourselves. mermaids. or scampering through the initials and borders of pictures from that time. and snakes have between them engendered harpies. W h e n lost to explain our own emotions.

naturalist. a gift to the Portuguese King. Sailing to Rome. it continued its journey to Rome. and wrote four books on proportion. Meanwhile. writer. filled journals with ideas and observations. printmaker. but the drowned animal washed ashore. Original Ink Drawing of a Rhinoceros 1515 ALBRECHT DURER 103/4 x 161/2 in ( 2 7 4 x 4 2 0 mm) . the ship was lost. years after its publication. Converted into a print.26 ANIMALS Documentaries horse are superb affirmations of the power of drawing as a recorder and communicator of knowledge. Unsurpassed. it is still consulted by veterinarians today. when more accurate portrayals were made without armor and scales. they were rejected. draftsman. a drawing of it arrived in Nuremberg. DURER'S RHINOCEROS AND STUBBS'S skeletal Durer. the home of ALBRECHT DURER German Renaissance painter. He in turn sent the mysterious creature to the Pope via Marseilles at the request of the King of France. The first live rhinoceros to reach Europe came from India in May 1515. Durer's image changed eager hands until it was known across Europe. He studied the image and drew his own interpretation. It was to become the animal's only accepted likeness for 250 years. Stubbs's Anatomy of the Horse achieved similar documentary status. Durer traveled widely to study at different European schools of art. It is such a lifelike triumph of imagination and intelligence that for centuries zoologists never questioned its authority. and mathematician. Life-like This is Durer's original quill-and-ink drawing made after an anonymous Portuguese drawing. inspiring countless works of art and so touching people's imaginations that later. Contemporary texts related accounts of the beast as the mortal enemy of the elephant and rare relative of the "more common" unicorn. Carefully stuffed.

naturalist. which has never diminished. The entire project was developed over ten years. dissecting and drawing until he understood the mechanisms of its power and grace. c o m p r i s e s 1 8 p l a t e s s h o w i n g d i s s e c t i o n s in l a y e r s f r o m b o n e t h r o u g h m u s c u l a t u r e t o skin. composed from notes and observations. is no other work like it. in t h r e e v i e w s — r e a r f r o n t . Table of the III of the Horse (rear Skeleton view) mm) 1756-58 1 4 x 7 in ( 3 5 4 x 1 8 0 GEORGE STUBBS . knowledge of parts. Dissections were made over a total of 18 months. Lighting Stubbs's breathtaking international work won immediate There acclaim. a n d s i d e . Anatomy of the Horse.GEORGE STUBBS B r i t i s h e q u i n e a n d s o c i e t y p o r t r a i t painter. Stubbs w a s o n e o f t h e first E u r o p e a n artists t o m a k e a n a c c u r a t e representation o f the rhinoceros. Stubbs's m o s t c e l e b r a t e d publication. This is one of Stubbs' original finished pencil drawings. Dissections Stubbs took his knife and his pencil and physically climbed inside the horse. He translated his own drawings into engravings for publication. and therefore invented the lighting that Compare how Stubbs and Durer both invented lighting to portray the reality of their animals. L o n d o n . a n d anatomist. He composed makes each horse appear so real and each plate from his three-dimensional. His painted p o r t r a i t o f t h e b e a s t is in t h e R o y a l C o l l e g e o f S u r g e o n s o f England.

the ominous beast unwinds from the dark of the sea and of our nightmares. Hugo's novels Les Miserables and Dame have become classics of film and stage. and a love of accident. By contrast. her b o n y frame. and turn.. drawing her again and again to pin d o w n the texture of her loose skin. The Hunchback of Notre Layers and shadows Throughout this drawing. Gericault's sheet a p p e a r s almost s c r a t c h e d b y the f e r o c i o u s play of his cat. He has w a t c h e d her p o u n c e . Mixed media Here. VICTOR HUGO Poet. Gericault took a sharp p e n c i l to m a k e repeated direct o b s e r v a t i o n s f r o m life. Hugo's page is f l o o d e d w i t h the fearful presence of a remembered octopus. coal dust. and leader of the French Romantic movement. and Pieuvre 1866-69 91/2 x81/8in (242 x 207 mm) VICTOR H U G O ... it silently rises to the light. drama. H u g o mixed his media and drew from m e m o r y and imagination to create narrative atmosphere. His copious drawings are characterized by mixed media. playwright. saying ". snarl. Apparently drawn in its o w n ink.. and all sorts of bizarre concoctions which manage to convey above all in mind. A s if disturbed from its gritty b e d by our presence and curiosity. her sharp teeth. more or less what I have in view. ink and linseed oil on paper. The octopus is formed in layers applied and distressed with a brush. charcoal. and her distinctive temperament. conjured b y the hand of a great author of French literary fiction. He wrote to poet and art critic Charles-Pierre Baudelaire about his experiments. I've ended up mixing in pencil. soot. Hugo used graphite powder.". sepia. linseed oil soaked into the paper has made shadows and repelled the ink to create translucent tentacles.28 ANIMALS Presence and Mood THESE DRAWINGS HAVE BEEN CHOSEN to s h o w t w o v e r y different ways of picturing a wild animal. novelist. Surrounding sprays of graphite powder are stuck into washes of oil and ink to suggest glutinous depths.

118-119). artists reused sheets and them full of studies. diagonal strokes of his pencil. The Raft of the Medusa. fiery. Tones that do not follow surface contour is very difficult to do well. of drawings Gericault erased. H e is best k n o w n f o r his gigantic painting. focused upon seeing will lead to a greater understanding of the subject Much is learned from repeated study. Repeated study This drawing demonstrates of feeling confident repeat different the importance subject Remaining enough to isolate parts of a views. Paris. displayed in the Louvre. Before paper became so cheap. Undertraces Beneath these graphite studies we see traces Tones On the top row we see clearly how Gericault laid broad areas of tone using fast. 144. of previous Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 1817-18 121/2 x 151/2 in ( 3 1 9 x 3 9 8 mm) T H E O D O R E GERICAULT . 124-25 and p.l i v e d French R o m a n t i c painter and lithographer Largely self-taught. and keep trying again. Here. parallel. horses w e r e a favorite subject t o g e t h e r w i t h politics and history. At the center of the page is crammed drawings the outline of a horse. s h o r t . undertraces unify and vitalize the composition. facing right. standing sideways. since it can lead to a flattened form. Beginners are advised to follow the natural contours of form as shown on pp.29 THEODORE GERICAULT C o n t r o v e r s i a l . and it can be applied to any subject (see pp.

Artists commonly focus on such actions. Picasso cofounded Cubism. hooked. His hand must have shuddered and twitched just like the constant actions of this humorous meeting. Gouache is brushed softly in translucent hazy layers of cool blue. Klee's riders are constructed from all the gestures of greeting mules. The ink is used to make sharply defined solid. with George Braque (see p90). and brown. These media complement and amplify each other with their brilliant contrast. His powdery. the whinnying of a frantic horse. slow tortoise. gray. overwhelmed by a screeching bird. In Picasso's drawing. taking them to guide their hand in bringing form and essence together. flapping bird. In these two drawings. quivering horse. flattened animals composed almost entirely of movement. dissolving faun kneels stranded. noise is everywhere. and waves breaking distantly below. printmaker ceramicist graphic and stage designer who lived in France. Faune. made only a year apart. The fact that they never stand still influences the movement in his line.30 ANIMALS Movement M O V E M E N T IS OFTEN THE CHARACTERISTIC b y w h i c h w e their lines and the power of their beasts. draftsman. we see semi-abstract. identify an animal: the fast cheetah. or proud. and scrolled lines. Both Picasso and Klee have enclosed their subjects to compress and amplify the speed of PABLO PICASSO A prolific Spanish painter sculptor. Cheval et Oiseau 1936 173/8 x 211/4 in ( 4 4 0 x 5 4 0 m m ) PABLO PICASSO . Ink and gouache This drawing is made in black Chinese ink and gouache (opaque watercolor) applied with a brush. the first abstract movement of the 20th century.

draftsman. Chicago PAUL KLEE . and t e a c h e r at t h e Bauhaus school. printmaker. violinist. Scene der Komischen of Comical Reiter Riders) (Scene 1935 161/2x111/2in ( 4 1 9 x 2 9 1 mm) M o r t o n G . W i t h his drawings Kleeb o u n d sophisticated theories to personal and often witty childlike imagery. top all happily of each other in the Endless lines Look closely at how Klee's lines rarely leave the paper and how they are free from the constraint of finite shape. Layers of marks In this pale Dentil drawing we see layers of' agitated marks that together present a kind of visual "itch. They remain in contact with the surface of the page and scribble back and forth as they maneuver from one area to another. creatures. well-worn copies o f w h i c h are found in m a n y art schools. N e u m a n n Family Collection. He is a u t h o r o f The Thinking Eye (1923). turning our eye and around inside the and postures of the paper- thin on pictorial space. sculptor. The entire drawing suggests the endless small movements of horses standing still." They chatter around bodies in groups.PAUL KLEE Swiss painter.

plans.32 ANIMALS Icon and Design IN THESE T W O MANUSCRIPTS we discover diagrammatic and mackerel's tail" (full bow. t h e earliest geometrically defined elevations. His birds stare. The ship The upper decks of the ship appear curved toward us at both ends. Baker lived in an era when ships were built without drawn plans. and to assess our next move. In just one drawing he has displayed more angles of his design than we would expect to see from a single viewpoint Fragments English 1586 101/2 x 153/8 in (270 x 390 mm) MATTHEW BAKER of Ancient Shipwrightry . This drawing illustrates Baker's theory. slim stern). B a k e r initiated t h e scientific p r a c t i c e o f naval a r c h i t e c t u r e and applied h y d r o d y n a m i c s . and the carefully observed gills. fins. which in application gave strength and advantage to the English fighting the Spanish Armada. mathematician. The fish It is likely that Baker drew with a quill dipped in irongall ink. In contrast to the practical clarity of Baker's thought. balance. b a s e d o n his studies o f fish. adding washes of color with a fine brush. Knopf's drawing opposite is the personal enigmatic expression of a mind gripped by illness. later called a galleon. and author o f Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (1586). and scales. and blackbirds fly in formation through a mosaic of text. Exquisite details in this drawing include the lips of the fish. it would achieve greater speed. drawings of animals that are each held tightly in a surprising space: a giant fish wears a ship's hull. and s e c t i o n s o f ships. He studied the anatomy of fish. and from them learned that if he designed his ship with a "cod's head MATTHEW BAKER Master shipwright. seemingly looking for our attention. It is simply how we read his perspective. Baker did not intend this. Below we see his revolutionary design for an Elizabethan warship. the expression of its eye. and steerage.

firmly outlined. circle and the birds. numbered. appears to be stirred like water by the presence of the The Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks UNDATED 133/8 x 115/8 in (340 x 2 9 6 mm) and psychiatrist Hans Prinzhom collected this image. The text. w h i c h o f t e n f e a t u r e as s y m b o l i c creatures in his drawings. The main group is placed in a circle drawn with a compass.K n o p f b e l i e v e d h e c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h e language o f birds. T h e G e r m a n a r t historian Outline and tone The blackbirds illuminating this frantic manuscript are drawn in pencil.JOHANN KNOPF An " O u t s i d e r " a r t i s t w h o s u f f e r e d f r o m m e n t a l illness. JOHANN KNOPF . and filled evenly with tone. written last of all.

The paste from either recipe is pressed and dried into a bar for storage. light it. which scratch rather than draw. distinguished manufacture. the recipes for which have been handed down over centuries." "Gum" refers to gum arabic extracted Dip pens are essential and inexpensive drawing tools. you can have great fun drawing the world around you. expressive drawing techniques such as the ones we explore in this chapter 1. simultaneously 4 . from the acacia tree. ink is traditionally applied with a brush (see pp. Masters choose brands of long. They fit into wooden holders. That is an ink. producing a different line. The Egyptians and Chinese are credited with the invention of carbon ink. The bar is then rubbed into water on a slate block to produce ink. Quills were later cut from feathers. while metal nibs began as rare gifts in gold and silver before being perfected by the British steel industry. REED PENS: A broad nib can be cut from bamboo or another tubular grass. 4. The best are goose or swan. Dip pens began their history in the Nile River. Avoid needle-sharp mapping pens. PENS . where reeds were gathered. they are associated with rapid. Intricate or dramatic lines. s t i c k s . Responsive to slight changes in pressure. and it is still in use today. The reservoir gives a constant flow of ink for very long unbroken lines and continuous bottle-free use. A German recipe of 1531 gives a simple description: "Take a wax candle. Each pen has a unique character. 5 0 0 years ago. spots. and hold it under a clean basin until the soot hangs to it. Early artists recommended raven and crow for especially fine work. and spatters can be made with an exotic choice of inks. The Chinese used animal or fish glue. Only fill with suitable inks. METAL PENS: Inexpensive removable steel nibs are available in a range of widths. a n d m e t a l p o i n t s . QUILLS: These are cut from the barrel of a flight or tail feather. then pour a little warm gum water into it and temper the two together. high-quality Chinese and Japanese inks are subtler and more complex than those produced in Europe. Today. 3.34 ANIMALS Pen and Ink W I T H A HANDFUL OF FEATHERS. F O U N T A I N PENS: These vary in quality and nib width. 2. In the Far East. and first used by the Egyptians. which range greatly in their handling and character of line.246-47).

dated. Bistre is the more humane use of soot scraped from the fireplace and ground into wine. suspended in a binder and stored as a solid block Blocks are imported today 7. They are the easiest inks to use. or charcoal. Inks can be lightfast or non-lightfast. iron-gall. C A R B O N INK: Traditionally produced from oil or resin soot (Lamp Black). is the ink of a cuttlefish or squid extracted post-mortem. and are still in use today: carbon (Chinese and Indian). I N D I A N INK: Carbon ink sold today in liquid form. Waterproof types contain shellac. I R O N . Old stock turns solid and bottlesChina. bistre. ACRYLIC / CALLIGRAPHY INKS: Available in black and a range of colors. INKS 9. charred bone (Ivory Black). Now we also have acrylic ranges in many colors. waterproof or non-waterproof. The complexities of traditional iron-gall ink are explained on p. reduced. and sepia. SEPIA A N D BISTRE INKS: Sepia.35 PEN AND INK Four types of ink were common before the 20th century. they produce a golden dye for drawing. and most can be homemade. an often misused term. Excellent for drawing they are bright and non-clogging. and sieved. . Beechwood soot is best. 8. boiled. Non-waterproof Indian inks can be reworked with a wet brush after drying. It dries with a sheen and clogs uncleaned pens. and can be mixed and diluted to create subtler colors and tones. 5.G A L L INK: Abnormal spherical growths caused by parasitic wasps can be collected from some oak trees in fall. roastedwine sediment (Yeast Black). Crushed. from are not 6.36.

forming the REED PENS R e e dpens dispense ink quickly. a n d d e v e l o p e d t h e quill instead. the blade and cut away from you. It also oxidized and ate or burned paper. The lighter right Quill marks Quills carry more ink than strokes and for as reeds. t h e y stick a n d j u d d e r f o r w a r d . Some of Michelangelo's drawings are now a little eaten by their own ink. Although oak galls and walnut skins are harmless. V a n G o g h . Paler strokes were made where the mark has the legs and antennae the ink ran out. Rembrandt. Scribes o f t h e M i d d l e Ages. fleshy skins that surround ripe walnuts. Running fresh. drawn to glisten with a dryer nib. keep all your fingers behind basis of iron-gall ink. always be cautious when experimenting with recipes. galls were ground with iron sulfate to make an unstable solution.36 ANIMALS Drawing With Ink To MAKE A QUILL OR REED PEN. I u s e d t h e s e qualities t o d r a w t h e w o r m s above. Oak galls. reduced. The darkest of this grasshopper wings) were made (around the head first. appears broken to show paper beneath. . T h e y give a finer. Quills are also called D u t c h pens. QUILL PENS Q u i l l s a r e highly r e s p o n s i v e t o c h a n g e s in p r e s s u r e . M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s d r a g o n o n p . sieved. red-brown. Walnut ink is gloopy. Reed marks The darker left wing of this beetle was drawn with the wet inky stroke wing. crushed. r e s e r v e d t h e i r use f o r large c h o i r b o o k s . d r y mark. and turned brown with time. U n d e r heavy pressure. It dried black. a n d M a t i s s e also e n j o y e d t h e m . are surprisingly tough. then cut a final nib (feathers. Practice to gain a feel for how materials behave. for example. 2 4 4 is an e x q u i s i t e e x a m p l e . Collect skins from the ground beneath trees once they are blackened. of a loaded nib. finding reed p e n s unwieldy. giving a s h o r t . and delicious to draw with. giving longer lines. it was gray-purple. For centuries. and boiled to make a golden ink.) You can make ink easily from the boiled. m o r e e x t e n d e d line than reed and a m o r e organic line t h a n m e t a l . since t h e D u t c h w e r e t h e first t o realize t h a t they could be hardened and i m p r o v e d w i t h heat t r e a t m e n t in ash o r sand. can also be collected from affected trees.

When using dip pens. they splay to make thick o r double lines. withstanding great pressure without sticking. DRAWING WITH INK Filled outlines Each segment of wing was outlined. o r being ruined as fountain pens would be under the same pressure. giving a graded. White markings were drawn last Tones Here we see subtle tones of diluted ink beneath the undiluted black rim of a beetle's wing. The of pigment to fall to the edges effect of the shape. tonal Ink layers The wings of this beetle were drawn in layers using black and white ink on pale gray paper. W h e n the nib is pressed upside down. marks become fine and needle-sharp. sharp. Each layer of of the drying droplet dome the drawing was left to dry before adding more. it is important to feel for when the ink will run out and to know how much ink you pick up when dipping the nib. particles then filled with a droplet of ink. clean strokes.37 METAL PENS Metal pens give long. . Loaded with ink and pressed hard. breaking.

MATERIALS NEEDED Look for a bird expressing a simple posture. Attempt with a loose hand to capture their posture and outline. waddle. Take no more than ten seconds to draw each one and make lots of drawings. Posture . Quick drawing trains you to see what is most important about a subject and to mark only its most essential expression. and quickly draw around it using only three or four strokes. It happens that goose feathers also provide artists with the best type of quills. Take a cup and water for diluting a range of tones. so pick a spot where other people can keep them entertained. Dip your pen in ink. and there is no "wrong. Experiment. steel nibs are fine. draw what the bird is doing. Try to hold the whole posture in your mind's eye. be bold and press firmly. Study them before drawing. make another one. and bellyflop off the waterside. to absorb blots when drawing. Illustrating this exercise on Oxford Port Meadow. Empathize. touch the bottle's rim to drain the excess. Pack plenty of tissue around a bottle of calligraphy or acrylic ink. Cover a sheet." If you don't like a stroke. and be brave. there is no obligation to prepare a quill. and boldly plunge into your drawing. Focus on the geese. It teaches confidence and focus through intensive repetition.38 ANIMALS Capturing Character GEESE ARE EXCELLENT SUBJECTS to draw when practicing the first use of pen and ink. Geese are nosy birds. test your limits. Watch their heavy feathered bodies flap. That said. Cover your drawing book pages in speedy responses to the geese and try to capture each bird in as few lines as possible. You cannot break the nib. not on your drawing. I covered eleven sheets in sixty quick drawings—in less than an hour. and a large drawing book or plenty of paper Use masking tape to secure pages against the wind. Focus on it.

Again. Use more lines than before to express these. Avoid detail unless really tempted by a close-up visit Fluctuate the pressure of your pen in response to how you know the bird would feel if you touched it.39 Action With growing confidence. flapping. running. look among the birds for more complicated actions such as shaking off water. . draw the feeling of what you see. and diving. and don't worry about mechanical facts or accuracy. CAPTURING CHARACTER Texture Gradually allow yourself more lines to describe the texture of each bird as well as its posture and action.

This will give a medium-gray line. Then dip the nib quickly into a glass of water and drain the excess again. a d o g w h o w a s a l w a y s town. For this class you will need one oblivious dog. and drain the excess by touching the nib against the rim of the bottle. Dip the nib quickly again into water and again drain it.34-37). and a tissue for blotting drawn lines that appear too dark. a dip pen and ink of your choice (see pp. Now it will make a pale line. and even then he twitched and stretched in dreams. form. and personality. Ras Curled Up Asleep "Capturing the true character of a cherished companion is best achieved with objective determination rather than sentimental shyness. The only time he remained still was when he was sleeping. MAKING A PALE LINE To make a pale line. Make a test sheet to discover your control of diluting on the nib. These drawings are not an analysis of his anatomy or breed but the expression of his satisfied comfort in a deep sleep after a night out on the together with a glass of water for diluting tones on the nib. first dip your pen in ink. your drawing book." . Sleeping animals present the artist with ideal opportunities to study their texture. engaged in his and everyone else's business.40 ANIMALS Sleeping Dogs R A S WAS A GREAT CHARACTER.

see how the animal's posture determines its whole shape. c o n c e r n e d a b o u t detail. Then. second thoughts may be different Changing your mind is a positive aspect o f seeing and thinking. this time to create a line a little darker in tone. First lines are first thoughts. tail. Layers o f thoughts can bring a drawing alive. ears. D o not go back over lines you are pleased with—doing so dulls their lively freshness. 2 Reload your pen with ink. Trust your intuition. ignoring all detail. 3 Gradually introduce darker tones. Remain focused on the whole dog and.41 DRAWING YOUR DOG Be bold in this exercise. in bold layers. and the shadows in his coat. Here. Then I immediately rebalanced the drawing with lines around his hind quarters. Here I marked the features of Ras's head. alter the pressure and moisture of your line in response to howyouknow your dog feels when you ruffle itscoat. quickly draw what you see. SLEEPING DOGS 1 Fix your eyes at the center of the dog. Character is better captured drawing quickly with confidence than w o r k i n g slowly. to emphasize how he is curled up. add more detail.It is essential when drawing any subject (even something abstract) to know how it feels andtoemulate this with your line. . I added ink to Ras's nose. W i t h pale lies. To add texture.

THE ELONGATION AND BUOYANCY of a group of turtles is fascinating . Beyond the glass wall of the aquarium. offering plenty of time for the artist to draw the pose. swinging their limbs and shells with a slow circular movement. turtles often pause unexpectedly. A perfect subject for the beginner. as if caught in a camera freeze-frame.Turtles to observe. they stretch and paddle.

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balance. I sought to capture the form. dry. I darkened lines as each drawing progressed. weightlessness of the kiwi. India ink.Dry Birds THESE ARE THE ARTICULATED BONES o f a k i w i a n d a h o u s e - martin drawn in a museum using a steel pen. I made repeated studies of the housemartin to discover its mechanism of flight. and sharp. With speed. and water. . Beginning with very pale tones.

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we see very different cultural visions of plants and gardens and use pencils and plants to learn the pictorial values of space. Medieval knowledge was not gained by the first-hand observation of life but by reading. 1613 187/8x153/4in(480 x 400 mm) BASILIUS BESLER . manipulations of light and shade. Conrad von Gemmingen. infinitely vivid. We collect. Plants are the principal inspiration of the decorative arts—from Roman Corinthian columns crowned with carved leaves of the acanthus. We draw them to celebrate their beauty and range. and texture. form. It was published plain in 1611 and withhand-paintedplates in poured off ships returning from the New World and were eagerly collected and 1613. Botanic gardens were established and expanded. where a number of uncredited artistsd r e wthem for Besler. Early European illustrators were trapped within dogma that was determined by ancient scholarship. and the Acanthus spinosus constant but exhilarating struggle to make a living image feel right. and to ornament our lives. to the proliferation of floral designs with which we have dressed ourselves and furnished our homes for centuries. Chapters are arranged by out.000 species of plants are depicted life-size drawn. Fledgling years Botanist and apothecary who compiled the Hortus Eystettensis of scientific research bore manifold explosions of knowledge in a fever of discovery. robust. shape. After Here Aconthus spinosus is combined with forget-me-nots and-a-half centuries of intensive observation. Botanical illustration is a precisely defined and scientific art. From its history there is one overriding lesson to be learned: the importance of looking and seeing with our own eyes. and beauty. and focus.Morethan 1. as opposed to only herbal. to catalog our knowledge. the microscope was refined to unfold yet another world. B A S I L I U SBESLER when botanists founded new work upon the direct study of plants.Plants and Gardens W E SHARE THIS PLANET with the more ancient. PriceBishopof Eichstatt specimens. and the drawn pages ofthesame name. season. the punctuation of space with structure and mass. In this chapter. Plants seventeenth century. we now have laid before us fourto show how well their colours complement each other infinite wealth of material to explore. an There are close parallels between the acts of gardening and drawing. on which our lives depend. Later. Both embrace the anticipation of evolving shape. He sent boxes of plants to Nuremburgburned with the urgency and excitement of explaining every plant's form. and hybridize them for our sustenance and pleasure. Classifications were set in367copperengravings. Patrons funded the breeding of decorative. —-the largest and most influential botanical book of the early Natural scientists accompanied explorers to document unknown finds. color. and diverse kingdom of plants. The revolution came in the 1530s. nurture. Rich owners of private gardens commissioned large-format florilegiums commissioned the volume to document his private garden to immortalize their personal taste and power of acquisition.

leaves. delicate. and meticulous precision.48 PLANTS AND GARDENS THE SCIENTIFIC VALUE OF A BOTANICAL DRAWING lies i n its Botanical Studies were specimens that often refused to stay still. M a c k i n t o s h e x p r e s s e s the f o l d e d petals of a broken rose b u d so delicately w e can sense the perfume. T h e rest of u s are free to d r a w as w e w i s h . B e h i n d detailed. Light in this drawing is given by the paleness of the paper showing between washes of darker tones. and wilted. flowers. detail. They are counted among the most accomplished 18th-century botanical artists. naturalist explorer and advisor to King George III invited Bauer to London in 1 7 9 0 . and seeds conventionally a p p e a r o n o n e plate. fruit. s u c h as w e see here in Bauer's Protea nitida. Each plant must b e clearly distinguished from its closest relative. petal tip over a lower leaf Protea nitida 201/4 x141/4in (513 x 362 mm) FRANZ BAUER 1796 . and Franz Bauer and his brother Ferdinand were employed there to draw specimens. W i t h bright F R A N Z BAUER An Austrian artist who trained at the Schonbrunn Imperial Gardens in Vienna. o p e n i n g a n d c l o s i n g i n the w a r m t h a n d light of the studio. measured drawings. o p t i m i s m . Stella Ross-Craig said of the need to d r a w from a dried herbarium plant "I could make it live again." Her slipper orchid s h o w s that botanical drawing must often resolve the challenge of its subject's p r o d u c i n g parts in different seasons — r o o t s . subtle union of beauty. Botanical art c o n c e a l s the challenge of its m a k i n g . stems. insect-ravaged. The King was then establishing the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. or that were diseased. He has made the spatial and physical relationships in this drawing all the more real by placing a single. Sir Joseph Banks. Dissections Across the lower part of this drawing we can see dissections of seed pods and petals. Outline Bauer prepared a pencil outline before laying in fleshy succulent hues and tones of watercolor. Here. It is likely Bauer would have studied these under a microscope.

is r e c o g n i z e d as tne m o s t c o m p l e t e a n d i m p o r t a n t work 3. Curtis's Botanical Magazine. H e r Drawings of British Plants. and observation the nuance and contour of every in one image.. imagination. and perfect coordination of hand and eye.286 studies for her book Drawings of British Plants. found among Mackintosh's than reality.7 3 in 3 1 p a r t s . S h e also o f thousands o f contributed an drawings. and it shows how design." This line drawing is one of 1. a n d f o u n d e r o f t h e G l a s g o w S c h o o l o f A r t M a c k i n t o s h ' s flair h a d an e n o r m o u s i n f l u e n c e o n t h e a v a n t . and follow shadow.000 Kew to archive accessible t o d a y v i a t h e I n t e r n e t of o n British flora. Closer to fiction can come together perfectly. and speed depends upon the immediate perception of the essential characteristics of the plant. Rose 1894 103/4 x 83/4 in ( 2 7 5 x 2 2 1 mm) CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH STELLA ROSS-CRAIG A j o i n e d t h e staff a t t h e R o y a l B o t a n i c G a r d e n s . Line Drawing of Cypripedium calceolus L c. p u b l i s h e d 1 9 4 8 . BOTANICAL STUDIES Lines and shadows This lush. a m o n g o t h e r s . it is small and discreet.g a r d e in G e r m a n y a n d A u s t r i a . L o n d o n in 1 9 2 9 . as at trained botanical artist Ross-Craig Swift lines The drawing was planned in pencil and then overworked with a lithographic pen. A s m a n y of her drawings are kept G a r d e n s . Ross-Craig said of her work "Plants that wither rapidly present a very difficult problem to which there is only one answer—speed. sensual pencil drawing is later works. 1970 x 81/4 in ( 3 2 5 x 2 1 0 m m ) STELLA ROSS-CRAIG .49 C H A R L E S RENNIE MACKINTOSH Scottish a r c h i t e c t d e s i g n e r painter.. Pencil lines cling to. K e w . G u s t a v K l i m t In his r e t i r e m e n t Mackintosh m a d e n u m e r o u s inventive pencil a n d w a t e r c o l o r d r a w i n g s o f plants. a n d he inspired.

Bishndas was probably responsible for the overall design. and miraculous growth. Drawing. Envoys chatter outside the gate. They used a fine brush to lay pigment over a line drawing. By Muslim tradition. urgent attentive human activity. uniform focus. Opposite is the Rose of Mohammed. and attention to detail are all shared with medieval European manuscript drawings. Afghanistan. roses took their form in a bead of perspiration on the brow of Mohammed as he passed through his heavenly journey. and calligraphy are brought together to hold the sacred names of prophets and the 99 beautiful names of God. in the early 16th century. Every fiber of AMONG DRAWINGS FROM BISHNDAS A N D N A N H A Little is known of these Mughal painters who were related as uncle and nephew and commissioned to illustrate the pages of Babur's journal. which he personally created near Kabul. painting.50 PLANTS AND GARDENS Jeweled Gardens the Middle East we find exquisite stylization of form and upright formality in pictorial space. a notable portrait painter drew the faces. and Nanha. fluctuations in scale. in miniature. Babur directs his gardeners in the design and planting of this quartered chahar bagh. anticipating their view. Upright shallow perspectives. . the sumptuous petals permeated with prayer and wisdom. The white of the page shines through the brilliant color. paper is brimming with the beauty and celebration of nature. The first Mughal Emperor Babur's Garden of Fidelity (Bagh-e Vaja). Below. Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity c. 1590 85/8 x55/8in (219 x 1 4 4 mm) BISHNDAS AND NANHA Bright pigment These pages were illuminated by Mughal artists in the late 16th century. is remembered in the pages of his journal.

c e n t u r y Turkish manuscnpt a book of religious e t h i c s w r i t t e n in the O r i e n t a l C o l l e c t i o n s of Berlin. However. look closely and you will see words written in gold fluttering over the form of the flower. so that overlapping petals and stems give an impression of fulfillment and abundance. Stylized motif A fine brush has been used throughout this drawing to apply inks and watercolors. The Rose of Mohammed 1708 9 1 / 2 x 61/2 in ( 2 4 0 x 1 6 5 mm) FROM THE TURKISH M A N U S C R I P T AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH . The physical anatomy of the rosebud has been studied and translated into a repeated stylized motif. fragmenting its detail in a whisper of prayers. and how the shape has been repeated freehand. G e r m a n y . Sacred words The central rose is more solid than any other on the page. Note how each bud is essentially the same shape. It is n o w k e p t in Border The elegant border of this drawing was mode with a pen and ruler It cleverly compresses and defines the composition.AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH This is a detail o f a page from a n 1 8 t h . t h e Staatsbibliothek zu Arabic.

52

PLANTS AND GARDENS

Fast Trees
IN CONTRAST TO THE QUIET, formal detail of other drawings in this chapter, these powerful fast trees enact the actions of plants. Each tree reaches out and holds its landscape with dynamism and pulse. In both drawings we find testament to the inexorable energy of growth. Rembrandt expresses a delicate quickness. Gentle lines draw a warm breeze through this remote wooded garden. Rustling in a loose foliage of soft marks, his pen evokes the weight of abundant activity on this late summer's day. Mondrian's arch of scratching branches is drawn with such force it will always be alive. We can still feel his hand storming across the paper. Set within a frame of smudged landscape, the tree possesses a musical agitation. This characteristic will increase in the artist's later abstract work. Here, we see a punctuated ordering of space. Sharp branches cut out negative shapes of winter sky.

R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter; etcher; and draftsman. Rembrandt's prolific output comprises oil paintings of historical and religious subjects together with group and self- portraits. His emotive etchings and pen and ink drawings (see also p. 174) are great resources for artists learning to understand the potential of these media.

Horizon

Pen and ink lines describing foliage also tell

us the directions of sunlight and wind. An arc crossing the bottom of the drawing from one side to the other supports the scene and separates us from the landscape beyond. Compare Rembrandt's arc to that of Mondrian's. and note the similar treatment of low horizons in both works emphasizing the height and dominance of trees.

Cottage Among Trees 1648-50 63/4 x121/8in ( I 7 I x 308 mm) R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN

53

FAST TREES

PIET

MONDRIAN

Atmosphere Here we see how shapes of negative space are as important as the physical subject they enclose (see pp.58-59). Mondrian has again lightly dragged his chalk on its side to evoke a wet depth of atmosphere. These passive gray marks contrast with the assertive tension of the tree.

Dutch Pure abstract painter preoccupied w i t h line and plane relationships. W i t h increasing austerity, Mondrian banished t h e subject from his drawings, in his later w o r k he also banished space, composing visual h a r m o n i e s using only straight lines a n d flat planes o f black, w h i t e , gray, o r p r i m a r y color.

Winter ground Short vertical marks along thebottomof this drawing reveal the length oftheblackchalk Mondrian used. Rubbed onitsside,itroughly blocks in the ground. Thecrudeeconomy of line is all we need tofeelthecold, wet, unwelcoming quality ofthiswinterearth.

Branches and trunk Lines shaping the branches of the tree are built up in layers. To make the trunk more dense, the artist has rubbed and smudged preliminary marks with his fingers before firmly overdrawing with new lines. Solid black lines are achieved by pressing the chalk hard. When used lightly, it shows the texture of the paper. Tree: Study for the Grey 1911 23 x 335/8 in ( 5 8 4 x 8 5 5 m m ) Tree

PIET MONDRIAN

54

PLANTS AND GARDENS

Graphite and Erasers
GRAPHITE, FROM THE G R E E K word

USING GRAPHITE
This drawing illustrates a range of achieved with graphite pencils of different grades.

graphein

Modern pencils are graded from 9H (hard and pale) to 9B (black and soft). Graphiteclay sticks are also available, together with a powder form. All possess a natural sheen and are erasable to a varying degree. Graphite drawings smudge easily, so fixative, a form of varnish, can be used to hold a drawn surface in place. It is applied as a fine mist from an aerosol can, or from a bottle using a diffuser. For the beginner, ordinary hairspray is an effective and cheaper alternative.

(to write), is a soft and brittle carbon. It was first mined in Cumbria, England, in 1 5 6 4 , and was initially used in small, pure pieces bound in lengths of string. Pencils as we know them—with their slender wood casing and "lead" of graphite—were invented in France in 1794 by Nicolas-Jaques Conte. He discovered that milled graphite mixed with clay and water, press-molded, and baked to a high temperature produces a harder and paler medium than graphite alone.

3B pencil A range of mark and textures can be achieved with a 3B pencil when you vary its pressure, speed, and direction, as this detail shows.

MATERIALS
Here is a selection of 14 items to illustrate a basic range of pencils, graphite sticks, sharpeners, erasers, and fixative.
1. AND 2. HB AND 3B PENCILS: It is unnecessary to possess every grade of pencil. HB, the central and most common grade, is perfect for making delicate lines. 3B gives a blacker tone. A great variety of effects can be achieved with just these two. 3. WATER-SOLUBLE PENCIL Effective for atmospheric drawing, but be aware of how watery tones can dull the impact of the line. 4. AND 5. MECHANICAL PENCIL Thick or fine leads are made in a range of grades. They are particularly useful because they do not require a sharpener 6. ROUND SOLID GRAPHITE PENCIL: Excellent for large-scale drawing, producing thick bold lines. A range of grades can be honed with a craft knife or sharpener 7. THICK GRAPHITE STICK: For large-scale drawing. Graded soft, medium, and hard. It crushes to produce graphite powder 8. SQUARE GRAPHITE STICK: Useful for making broad, sweeping marks in large-scale drawing. If worn and rounded, the stick can be snapped into pieces to regain the sharp, square end. 9. CRAFT KNIFE AND BLADES: Handles are sold in two sizes to fit large or small blades, and blades are sold in a range of shapes. Perfect for sharpening pencils to a long point, to cut lines in paper or to remove areas. 10. PENCIL SHARPENER: Makes a uniform point. Keep one in your pocket for drawing outside the studio, together with an envelope for shavings.

HB and 5B Layers of tone have been built up withHBand5Bpencils. Softer pencils require less pressure to make a mark, revealing the texture of the paper surface. It is important to keep the point of the pencil sharp with either a craft knife or a sharpener.

55

ERASING AND FIXING
Erasers can be used t o blend and s o f t e n lines, o r t o r e m o v e altogether. Fixative them prevents

GRAPHITE AND ERASERS

s m u d g i n g a n d s e c u r e s lines.

Using fixative You can use fixative while drawing to hold the definition of lines you wish to gently fade but not remove entirely, for which you would use an eraser.

11. P L A S T I C E R A S E R : Avoid cheap colored erasers that may stain drawings with grease and dye. White brands are available in soft and hard versions.

12.

P U T T Y RUBBER:

W a r m it in your hand before use. It is excellent for removing powdery materials, and for making crisp sweeps of light across a delicate pencil drawing

13. D I F F U S E R : Helleborus corsicus (Corsican hellebore) fixative, or to spray mists of ink.

56

PLANTS AND GARDENS

Cropping and Composition
M A N Y STUDENTS WILL START a d r a w i n g i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e

that its skin nearly touches the boundary. The meaning of the same drawing changes simply by its relationship to the space it occupies. The size of any subject, its placement on the page, the size of the page, and its overall proportion are all discrete and essential aspects of successful picture-making. Before you begin to draw, think carefully about where to place your subject. Are you are happy with your paper? If not, change it; add more, take some away, or turn it around. Do not just accept what you are given, adapt it to what you need.

paper. Focused on the shape and detail of their subject, they remain happily unaware that there is, or should be, any relationship between what they are drawing and the surface they are drawing it on. The paper is only paper, and the troublesome subject floats somewhere in the expanse of it. However, a single fig drawn in the middle of a large, empty square of paper gives quite a different impression from the same fig drawn on such an intimately small square

CHOOSING A VIEW

A Single Fig

"The size, shape, and orientation of the paper are so integral to the composition that they determine the impact and meaning of the drawing."

CROPPING AND COMPOSITION Off-center and diagonal Here I held my viewfinder so the fig appeared upper-left in the space.57 THE VIEWFINDER T h e s e pencil drawings o f figs d e m o n s t r a t e different crops and compositions. spaces between things are as important as the things themselves. bottom-left t o top-right. Touching the edge When the subject o f a drawing touches one edge of the paper it attaches t o it visually. U s e it as a starting point. The angle of the fruit together with dark shadow (top left) and bright light(bottom right) suggest a diagonal division across the whole drawing. running corner t o corner. t h e n m o v e t h e c a r d t o e x p l o r e different views. its stem and shadow framing a white center. and lines describing shadows cast by the fruit . the uppermost edge of the drawing. and therefore apparently suspended from. Here the left fig is attached to. Space as the subject Inallpictures. a device to help you decide what t o draw. as also shown here.O u r focus is on the white cloth supporting the figs. This drawing hasbeencropped to emphasize space between thefruit. A card with a small rectangle cut out o f it makes a useful viewfinder C l o s e o n e e y e t o look through the hole. they establish a tension and unity with the paper. When subjects touch two or more edges. its illumination.

and a role to play. The drawing opposite is of the uppermost leaves of a potted fig tree. But how often do we look at the air between things. In following this class. you will need a similar large-leaved plant. WHERE TO START Arrange your plant and paper so you can look back and forth by barely moving your head. position. a sharp H B pencil. dynamic. shapes of air cut out and defined by the physicality of our environment? When we look into the branches of a tree. and a fresh page in your drawing book. erasing and adjusting lines until itlooked right. third. and engaging. then added a second shape. their subject and composition will become more real. Viewers appreciating a finished image may not see shapes of space. In your own version. remember to draw only space. It helps to start at the center and map outward. tone. Unfamiliar shapes of negative space reveal the real shape of a positive subject. and so on. Looking at negative space overrides the problem of drawing what you know. Negative space is the simple key to getting positive shape right. fourth. not leaves. an eraser. unified.58 PLANTS AND GARDENS Negative Space UNCONSCIOUSLY WE ASSESS spatial relationships all the time to guide ourselves through the world. It is an astonishingly simple device that many artists use and I strongly recommend. Draw a complete shape Map outward from the center Erase and adjust lines until correct . which is shown in the three steps below. Remember that plants do move! Therefore it is best to complete your drawing in one sitting if possible.The box opposite isolates an area. this ensures a consistent view. but if the artist does. Follow these from left to right and see how I began with one complete shape between two parts of a leaf. rather than what you see in front of you. do we see myriad distinct and unique shapes of daylight or do we just see branches? Why as artists should we look at the air? Every space in a picture has a shape. a foundation stone in picture-making.

59

Here I drew only spaces, adding one to another until the leaves were revealed. Besides looking at negative space, there are two other useful things to do when a drawing feels wrong but you cannot see why: look at it in a mirror or turn it upside down. errors and suggest changes.

Spaces between leaves

Either view will

NEGATIVE SPACE

Fig Tree
WALKING IN THE ALPUJARRAS in A n d a l u c i a ,

Spain, I drew a bare fig tree clinging to the wall of an almond grove; a perfect subject for seeing negative space. I marked its essential frame of large branches first, frequently erasing lines and changing my mind until the balance felt right.

S a l v i a , RIBES, CLEMATIS, Allium, Passiflora, and Acanthus

Summer Flowers

Alchemilla,

drawn with an H pencil by observing the

negative spaces between the stems, petals, and leaves. I arranged the flowers on a sheet of paper in a cool r o o m and rapidly sketched a composition. Then I put them in water, taking the stems out one at a time to draw.

.

Compare changes of pace and focus here to the flatter finish of Summer Flowers (see pp.Acanthus Spinosus As we LOOK AROUND. our eyes travel and adjust from one point of focus to another. We never see everything at once. If an artist changes the pace of their line and focus of their attention. 62-63). Excessive detail leaves no space for the eye to rest or imagination to wander. they emulate our experience of seeing. interfolding points of detail with areas of loose suggestion. gathering less distinct information on the way. .

.

we find the most recent steps in the evolution of graphic language. It was the mathematicians. architects and designers can imaginatively "climb inside" three-dimensional space and. to help them create new form. and from West Facade of the Church of St Augustin. Since the first flowering of Modernism in the early 20th century. VICTOR BALTARD French architect employed by the city of Paris. coupled with the importance of exercizing your imagination. Paris 1871-74 the child's view to the infinity of the vanishing point. Yet the pursuit of divine proportion and harmony remains. of the west facade of St Augustin.This is a pencil drawing. filmmakers. Baltard designed the Church of St. which can be clearly seen in ancient Greek architecture. balance. Besides sketches of first thoughts and polished drawings of the finished look for clients. Since Picasso and Braque's revolution of Cubism in around 1907. European conventions of pictorial perspective have lost their monopoly on seeing. to 20th-century film fantasy. Augustin. Through the animation of the screen. they have the Golden Section. from political commentary to musical abstraction. Perhaps in the sheer planes of some of our greatest modern buildings it is finding its clearest expression. It is the focus of practical class in this chapter.Architecture I N THE CONTEMPORARY PRACTICES of architecture. drawing plans around themselves within a program as opposed to on a flat sheet of paper. and computer game imaging. with gray and brown watercolor wash. composers. Linear perspective is a marvelous device. 74-75). architects. At the core of their practice. and sound. Architects have been fine-tuning their specialized branch of drawing for centuries." reflecting the eye's love of unity in difference. Computer programs allow the virtual drawing of ideas. invaluable to understand and apply when you choose. they also have a diagrammatic language for communicating plans to builders. philosophers. designers. and writers have been breaking away from traditional forms of representation to seek new expressions of shape. fine artists. film-set design.The church is still in use today. each VICTOR BALTARD . the formula for perfection spread through Europe. was preserved into the Renaissance where it became a foundation stone for thinking and creativity From 15thcentury Italy. Among the drawings of this chapter we look from 17th-century ecclesiastical calm. mass. It was also during the Renaissance that the architect Brunelleschi invented linear perspective. time. made by the architect himself. which was the first church in the capital to be built entirely of metal and then clad in stone. and in the 19th century it was given the name the Golden Section. add and subtract ideas. and architects of ancient Greece who first pursued the formula for "divine proportion. once there. the device that has since governed most of our picture-making (sec pp. space. This harmony.

evoke presence. he also worked on St Paul's Cathedral. A student of Wren's. Hampton Court Palace. pilasters. and balance. Cut-away interior On the right a section cut through the center of the building reveals material thicknesses. The photograph opposite shows his studio hung with metal pendulums. relative levels. Architects draw for many reasons: to visualize ideas. and later an assistant to Vanbrugh. Blenheim Palace.68 ARCHITECTURE Master Builders EVERY NEW BUILDING. testing gravity to calculate the inverted shapes of domes. and an inscribed entablature. Finished surface On the left the finished surface of the building is given depth and emphasis by immaculate vertical and horizontal brush strokes of shadow. St Paul's Baptistry c. Below it. and labor. and the shapes of interior domes and apses. 1711-12 NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR . marks the end of a long journey from the first few marks the architect made on a sheet of paper. Hawksmoor established his reputation with university and church architecture including All Souls College. structure. Drawings underpin every great human-made structure like hidden linear ghosts at their core. and six London churches. describe a finished look to a client. a three-dimensional drawing made with wires and weights. materials. embodying a massive investment of ideas. Three aspects This subtle and sophisticated drawing made in pen and wash displays three distinct aspects of Hawksmoor's baptistry. Together they explain how interior structure and space define exterior form and shape. Gaudi's fluid architecture grew up through many kinds of drawing. Hawksmoor's drawing is both a plan and an evocation. NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR One of Britain's "three great" Baroque architects (along with Sir Christopher Wren and Sir John Vanbrugh). Lines define structure while washes suggest light and atmosphere. We see the modeled detail of Corinthian columns. Pillars and floor At the base of the drawing a compass-drawn plan tilted downward through 90 degrees illustrates the arrangement of pillars around a central circular floor. Oxford. calculate function. and ultimately to show builders what to do. densely layered lines in mists of color weave the presence of the expected building into shape. and Castle Howard.

Gaudi air than on paper. 1900 ANTONIO GAUDI ANTONIO GAUDI Visionary Catalan architect. unique organic manipulation of high shapes. 1910 24x181/4( 6 1 0 x 4 7 5mm) A N T O N I O GAUDI . and his love of music. and apartment homes are distinguished by their Their and Flowering curves of stone or concrete are often encrusted with Gaudi was inspired by medieval and oriental art. light. churches. Guell Crypt of its at the Time Construction c. The Art Nouveau movement. embellishment. This sculptural drawingenvisionsthe finished crypt glowingandethereal as if caught in thelightof red morning sun. To the right isawatercolordrawing thought to havebeenmade over a photograph ofthemodelabove. Wire and watercolor three-dimensional preferred to calculate Above is a drawing form in the made withlinkedwires and weights. Gaudi's cathedral in Barcelona.69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt c.

installations. He also produces urban and landscape designs. and arched dotted lines depict the radius of doors. The architect and musician Daniel Libeskind has drawn a stampeding cacophany of airborne architectural detail. upright pictorial space. and exhibitions of his drawings. and the spaces between his windows and turrets are the visual equivalent of pauses in h i s m u s i c c o m p o s i t i o n s for p i a n o (see also Bussotti. We can see. such a rapport in both of these drawings. Satie draws quietly throughout.223). Across the top and center right of the image w e perceive an almost recognizable architectural plan. flat boards. short curved poles. Both men used rulers and pens to carefully and slowly construct their compositions.70 ARCHITECTURE The Order of Sound B O T H OF THESE VISIONARY DRAWINGS o c c u p y a s l e n d e r . p. and in a sense hear. a refillable pen that feeds a constant supply of ink through a fine tubular nib. been a natural affinity between the visual rhythms of pictures and the audible rhythms of music. Floor space appears divided by discernible walls. There has always DANIEL LIBESKIND A Polish American architect of international acclaim. before cascading into a riot of line and sound below. He also contributed to plans for the rebuilding of the World Trade Center site in New York. Visual rhythms In the lower half of this drawing architectural language has broken loose: escaped and transformed into an image of rebellious pleasure. while the composer Erik Satie has made an enclosure of quiet order and grace. Libeskind's numerous commissions include concert halls and museums. Libeskind begins quietly in the upper space of his drawing. Floor plan This drawing has been made with a rapidograph. and dotted lines. theater sets. We can imagine how a musician might interpret this drawing by looking at the abstract visual rhythms of masses composed of long straight poles. Libeskind studied music before transferring to architecture. corridors. and rooms. Arctic Flowers 1980 DANIEL LIBESKIND . Contemporary musicians commonly collaborate with artists by interpreting images as sound.

Onpp. effectively additional lines in a work.56—57 we discussed important the shape.H i s witty. Eastern influence The upright image Eastern is reminiscent and medieval of Middle pictorial space and subject of this European drawing. minimalist s c o r e s scandalized a u d i e n c e s with o r c h e s t r a t i o n s f o r t h e foghorn and typewriter. lived a l o n e . andfouredges of the paper tothecompositionand impact animage.Edges are how are of orientation. Hotel de la Suzonnieres c. 1 8 9 3 77/8 x 51/2 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 4 0 mm) ERIK SATIE . the perimeter Composition Look how well this drawingfitsand resonates with the upright. Satie collaborated w i t h hisfriends J e a n C o c t e a u a n d P i c a s s o . They definespaceand pictorial balance. Compare the even and and the shape wall to the elegantly stylized order of the many windows of arrangement of details and the shape of the wall in Babur's Garden of Fidelity on p.narrowshape of its paper. o f which he was the sole m e m b e r Parcel paper Satie has drawn this fantasy hotel using a ruler.50. H e p e r f o r m e d in cabarets. a conventional dip or fountain pen. and founded his o w n church.ERIK SATIE F r e n c h pianist and c o m p o s e r for t h e piano. and ink on a fragment folded brown paper—a of everyday happened material of scrap that to be at hand. a n d ballet. dressed eccentrically. theater.

The lower-left section of the building appears relatively pale against a darker sky. and dramatic lighting. painter. Within it. and the reverse is true on the right. His celebrated imaginary buildings are characterized by pyramids. This is the work of an architectural theoretician. Among preparations for Fritz Langs film Metropolis. the ominous globe exists only as a series of drawings.96. Boullee's monolithic apparition was drawn as a monument to Sir Isaac Newton. cylinders. we find other Utopian visions Paul Nobles epic drawing summons an imperfect and disturbing township where ruin and activity are equal and strange. and draftsman. antlike mortals might have speculated upon the universe.72 ARCHITECTURE T H E S E T H R E E HIGHLY DETAILED DRAWINGS Future Fictions invite us to soaring above normal life. arched vaults. Boullee lived in Paris. made in 1926. Newton's Cenotaph 1784 153/4 x 25 in ( 4 0 2 x 635 m m ) ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE . ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE French architectural theorist. enter the long-shadowed architecture of imaginary worlds. Art director Erich Kettlehut's vertiginous design for the city of a slavelike populace had a future influence on movies such as Blade Runner. and taught at t h e A c a d e m i e d'Architecture. spheres. We glide over exquisitely drawn wastelands of damage and abandonment. This shift makes the cenotaph appear three-dimensional. Light illusions This pen-and-wash drawing shows a subtle application of the principles of illumination demonstrated with an egg on p. experiencing a fascinating conflict between curiosity and desolation.

Its sheerscaleengulfs the viewer and demands based time and patience to on letters and in some beread. Nobson Central 9 ft 1 0 in x 1 3 f t 2 in (3 x 4 m ) PAUL N O B L E 1998-99 . used forced perspective camera t e c h n i q u e s t o amplify t h e m a g n i t u d e o f buildings in relation t o human characters. Kettlehut and his c o . together with c i n e m a t o g r a p h e r Karl Freund. and white ink on brown-gray paper. 1926 ERICH KETTLEHUT PAUL N O B L E British c o n t e m p o r a r y artist who creates m o n u m e n t a l . gray. and morality o f an invented place called His satires exhibited w o r l d w i d e . mythology. draftsman. architecture. Fritz Lang's Metropolis c. Kettlehut drew using a fine and relatively dry brush dipped in black. Working on toned paper such as this gives an artist greater scope for dramatic lighting effects than if they work on white paper. Nobson political visions of humanity Newtown.73 ERICH KETTLEHUT Influential film a r t director. and are Graphite shapes Nobson Central isoneof a series of very large graphite drawings of the spoil and detritus of Nobson Newtown. intensely detailed graphite drawings explaining and questioning t h e geography.a r t director O t t o Hunte. and m o d e l .Building shapes are works can be read as text.m a k e r In t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f Metropolis. FUTURE FICTIONS Brush and ink This is a dramatic drawing from a film that shaped the history of world cinema.

74 ARCHITECTURE Pathways of Sight LINEAR PERSPECTIVE (also called vanishing-point perspective) is a simple device for calculating the relative size of things in pictorial space. linear perspective is distinct from more ancient systems practiced in the East. It is also distinguished from aerial perspective (see pp. Invented by Italian artist and architect Brunelleschi in 1413 (late in the history of art). Single-point perspective Tie a thread to a pin. and thinkers ever to have lived. It can be applied to any subject. Study of Perspective Adoration of the for the Magi 1481 61/2 x111/2in (165 x 290 mm) LEONARDO DA VINCI . Press the pin into Leonardo's vanishing point. Piranesi an example of two. LEONARDO DA VINCI One of the greatest artists. I contribute the child's perspective. inventors. All forms of perspective are of equal value. found at the center of all converging lines. Leonardo recorded constant streams of ideas. but is most easily seen and understood in pictures of buildings and interiors. We use it to structure illusions of depth. 206-07). and inventions— essential reading for inquiring minds. this perspective is often an imagined bird's-eye view in which details are mapped according to logic and importance rather than how they might appear in real life. scientists. Here Leonardo provides a superb example of a single vanishing point. In his notebooks. and those of Naive artists and children. Sometimes shared with Naive artists. observations. Note how architectural features conform to lines and how human figures diminish in size toward thevanishingpoint. and age eight. See how the thread corresponds to each converging line. Pull the thread taut and rotate it slowly above the drawing.

at the top of each lateral column base. a points in logical narrative of memories. . architect. Breamore Village. which I saw from home every day. Mark these points with your pin and follow the converging lines of the drawing by rotating your thread. and theoretical writing strongly influenced neoclassicism. England 1980 9 x 16 in (228 x 405 mm) S A R A H SIMBLET GIOVANNI BATTISTA PIRANESI Italian artist. It shows how children usually map large scenes in flat layers one above the other. visionary and practical understanding of ancient Rome.SARAH SIMBLET I made this drawing (at age 8) in response to a local bookstore's request for children to draw their village. Children are uninhibited and problems with one element being obscured by another rarely arise. including all they recall about the subject. Scale Our farmhouse my experience was in the woods. and designer Piranesi's prolific architectural drawings. Two-point perspective Sunlight through this colonnade a great example of two-point perspective. Lightly marked illuminates vanishing Two Courtyards c. New Forest. issues of scale when making room for important their story. 1740 5 1 / 2 x 83/8 in (141 x 212 mm) G I O V A N N I B A T T I S T A PIRANESI points are located on either side of the drawing. This drawing Young children typically maps ignore on and understanding of the nearby village. Note the rather large rabbits and pheasants the hills.

This lesson shows you how to make a simple illusion of space defined by two boxes and three flat boards. discovering the image as it progressed. 2 3 corners must each touch a dotted line. Surround the vanishing point with a small rectangle. this is your vanishing point. try composing your own space. then follow the ten steps below. draw a horizon line across your paper Mark a spot on the horizon line. Next.) . This ensures that the second rectangle aligns with the shape and 4 Draw four short lines to connect the four corners of the two rectangles. Study these pages first before embarking on this lesson.98 for an important note on oscillation. Leonardo began with a grid of many lines within which he invented his scene. Draw four dotted lines radiating out from the vanishing point. This is where we will begin. On the previous page we looked at its essential mechanism through drawings by Leonardo and Piranesi. In contrast. DRAWING BOXES 1 Using a ruler and a sharp HB pencil.76 ARCHITECTURE Single-Point Perspective MASTERING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE i s e a s i e r t h a n y o u m a y First read through. corresponding to a single vanishing point. Extend each dotted line to the edge of your drawing. Erase the dotted construction lines. Note that if you place large structures in the foreground and smaller ones closer to your vanishing point. imagine. you will amplify the illusion of distance. Piranesi planned his drawing with only the essential lines needed. Draw each step over the preceding one to build up a single image. using a sharp HB pencil and ruler. You have completed your first box. Each line should pass through one corner of the rectangle. (See p.

you can place rectangles anywhere youwishin relation to a vanishing point. The larger you make your second rectangle. Continue the dotted lines out toward the edge of your drawing. the closer it will appear to the viewer. The board's sides should be parallel. 9 Use dotted lines connecting the slanting linetothe vanishing point to locate the top. Connect this to the vanishing point— again. andfarside of this first board. 8 Complete the second box with short lines as in step 4. draw four dotted lines radiating from your vanishing point Pass these through each comer of the new rectangle. when inventing your own compositions. bottom. draw a second. Note that this does not surround the vanishing point In the future. larger rectangle. 1 0 Erase all ofthedottedlinestoseeyourfinishedboxes Thickeningtheiredges. and erase the dotted lines. N e x t draw a slanting line to mark the height of the first flat board. The four comers must each touch a dotted line to be sureitaligns with the first. Repeat this to add two more boards to the composition.asIhavedonehere. 6 As in step 2. 7 As in step 3.77 SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE 5 Draw a new rectangle. with two dotted lines. .willhelptomake them appear more solid.

then let the space suggest its c o n t e n t s and purpose. 7 4 ) . Linear perspective will support y o u by providing a frame in which to b u i l d your picture as it did for Leonardo." imaginary room. It highlights the importance of having faith in your imagination and trusting your ability to invent. A lot more happens when you open yourself up to the work and let yourself act and react to it. you will find white adhesive stationery labels are useful for covering errors or changing the direction of your idea. Then follow the three given steps. let simple lines suggest a simple space. APPLYING PERSPECTIVE An Imagined Scaffold "Enjoy your illusion as you make it and it will become more real. once said: "I never end up with what I set out to do. I always start with a script but I don't follow it all the way through to the end. w h e t h e r it is a film or a painting. O n a fresh page in your d r a w i n g b o o k . p . As David Lynch. artist and film director.78 ARCHITECTURE Creating an Imaginary Space T H I S CLASS USES SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE t o c r e a t e a s i m p l e to you and if you listen to it. it is interaction that makes the work richer." . draw a b o x as shown opposite. The m i s t a k e n belief that we s h o u l d k n o w exactly what o u r finished drawings will l o o k like before we m a k e t h e m prevents many people from ever starting. Every work talks In this class. it will take you places you never dreamed of. If using a fibertip pen as I have done for this drawing.

Here. additional lines have established the different surfaces and how they relate to each other. This initial space will be transparent and open to change. With some practice. 3 Remove the construction lines with an eraser and the room will becomeclearer. horizontal. 2 first before adding furniture. and floors and ceilings also converge and rise o r lower toward the horizon.drawthehorizonlineand vanishingpoint. CREATING AN IMAGINARY SPACE 1First. parallel planes such as walls converge toward the vanishing point. The space has become more solid and real. you will beableto draw more complex objects orpeoplewithin them. and leaning surfaces.79 DRAWING A SIMPLE ROOM Essentials t o remember: objects and people dimmish in size as they move farther away.There is great pleasure tobefoundin spending time inventing interiors.Addanarray of converging lines to provide a "scaffold" for vertical. .

showing y o u h o w to draw curved surfaces and a tiled floor. I have elaborated on the simple boxes above. Potentially. Search for the application of these perspectives among works by other artists in this book and in galleries. The boxes drawn here are seen partly or entirely disassociated from a horizon line drawn across the bottom of the image. T h i n k of standing at the top of a skyscraper and imagine h o w its parallel sides would appear to converge below you. Further aspects of three-point perspective are also illustrated opposite. These elaborations could continue indefinitely across a sheet of paper in pursuit of complex and intricate ideas.p o i n t perspective ( s h o w n opposite top). do verticals appear inclined. They could be drawn on any scale from miniature to monumental. From our normal eye level. Free vanishing points On paper we can enjoy the freedom of fantastic structural invention without limitations of solid materials or gravity. or low and we look u p . To draw such a view APPLICATION Copy these drawings to see and feel how they work before inventing your own versions. T h e y d o n o t have to relate to each other. they can be placed anywhere inspaceto describe the perspective of flyi c tilted objects. Copying what you see in the work of others will help you to understand what they have done. but they are not confined to this level. Vanishing points are commonly found on horizon—our eye level. a n d this is how we have drawn them so far (see pp. 76-79).80 ARCHITECTURE Further Aspects of Perspective W E ARE ACCUSTOMED TO SEEING our e n v i r o n m e n t from a relatively constant point of view. our eye level is very high and we look down. That is where we e to find them. o r to the h o r i z o n . Here. Elaborations . verticals appear p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the g r o u n d . Only when y o u might employ t h r e e . It is important to realize that you can have as many vanishing points as you wish. T h i s is d e m o n s t r a t e d immediately below. located anywhere inside or outside the pictorial space.

I then drew three fanned groups of lines connecting each of the three points above to the seven points below. Iusedthese lines as a guide t o draw the curvature of boxes and panels flying through space. Giving curvature. PERSPECTIVE Three-point curves Here.I added horizontal lines t o define the tiles.Istarted with two parallel lines.81 FURTHER ASPECTS OF Three-point towers This drawing depicts three-point perspective. and therefore tension. they mark the corners of the floor tiles. I marked the toplinewith three evenly spaced points and the line with seven.Finally. you will see how. by adding a third point you can achieve a sense of incline. useful for representing steep views looking up or down tall structures. (Turn the book around to see a view looking up. three vanishing points are evenly spaced along a horizon line.75. Note that altering the distance between the three dots above will tilt the level of the floor . Three-point checkered floor This d bottom floor. tostraightlines can amplify drama in a picture. An array of curved lines (drawn freehand) link the two lateral points.) By comparing this drawing t o Piranesi's example of two-point perspective on p. Where thelinescross.

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These walnut-skin ink pen and brush drawings show imagined views of theaters that do not exist but were inspired by places I studied. I visited many anatomical theaters and museums.Theaters RESEARCHING FOR MY P H D . . making drawings to resolve questions and express personal responses to the nature and history of anatomy.

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A N D .I N KDRAWING is one of a series I made while next to the Rialto Bridge in Venice. the water. .Venetian Life sitting point buildings ThisP E N . The vanishing of the drawing is directly opposite as we look across The constancy of the bridge and surrounding frames the movement in the life that flows past.

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H e has described a casting through metaphor. craftsmen had held plans in their memory. that test our logic with a sense of mystery. we look at the importance are the only creatures on Earth w h o actually design and create great ranges of things. passing them on to others through the act of making. T h e precision of engineering d r a w i n g s e v o l v e d alongside machine tools. Today. hooked bars that can be pulled and tied closely form. even more advanced drawings are made on computers. these. or to explain and present a finished concept to a client. too. from s p o o n s and pens to chairs and bicycles. A chair. r an equestrian statue. design. Technical drawing was speedily developed as a meticulous international code of m e a s u r e m e n t and explanation. of light in the creation of pictorial illusions. and made. or used on stage hood for a mold t o make theheado f a horse f oas a p r o p — i m b u e d with e n o u g h energy or character can "become" a man. In past eras. or drawing w e see Leonardo daVinci'sprecision as can be given meaning. illuminating snail shells. It is shaped in sections w i t h Artists have for centuries studied and expressed composition. With the sudden onset of mass production. and some apes use simple tools. History will be learned from the artifacts w e leave behind. H e has described contour and function at drawings. each demanding more of the other as they increased in sophistication. Artists and actors use the meanings of things to communicate a speculative mechanic. Previously. W e also explore v o l u m e and form in the classes by spinning lines to make vessels. fictional realities caster of h o w t o make it andhowit will w o r k . planned. but humans LEONARDO DA VINCI Inthisbeautiful red chalk Our items all have a purpose—practical or ornamental—and all have a meaning. In this chapter. Birds follow instinct to make a nest. drawn. T h e Industrial Revolution c h a n g e d the traditional w a y s in w h i c h objects were designed. C o m m o n items. sculpted. and the way in w h i c h the brain reacts Head and Neck Sections of Female Mold for the Sforza Horse to visual stimulus and optical illusions. for example. drawings were needed to instruct workers on the factory floor. are all made bearing the signature of our time and place. 1493 117/8c81/4in (300 x 210 m m ) LEONARDO D A V I N Ccreating I . Engineers and designers of our objects and instruments make drawings for many reasons: to test an idea that is yet to be made. have often carried great weights of allegorical once. for example—whether. Artists also make images of objects that can never exist. and the behavior of light through making still-life paintings and together. and a wire violin. making a clear instruction t o his bronzemeaning. color. texture. to record an observed detail.Objects and Instruments T HE THINGS WE INVENT describe our lives. drawing c. It was in this era that the blueprint was born.

and a journal jacket with words makes this drawing chatter about the moment. perfect i n their newly made availability. and glass objects of exquisite elegance for only the gentlest of touch and appreciation. Below. and shading. silverware. "I believe [it] is the most radicalattempttostampout ambiguity and to enforce one readingofthepicture—that of a manmade construction. He takes us into the bustle of the Paris cafe. Clashes The art historian Ernst Gombrich said of Cubism. texture. Mucha's drawing glistens with possession. steaming with music and conversation. Opposite. Even today GEORGES BRAQUE French painter who as a young man was influenced by the work of the Fauves and of Cezanne. Braques image is a Cubist collage. not of place but of things.Braque marshals all the forces of perspective. There is a fragile eloquence to these objects as they drift in slow motion past our gaze. One of the great joys of this movement in art is the musicality of its multipoint view. wood-look wallpaper. Statue D'Epouvante 1913 2 f t 5 in x 3 ft 5 in (0. .. His work is characterized by calm and harmonious still-life compositions. T h i s is a designers drawing made to enthuse surface and style in its delicate brushing of china. still feel this projected moment. Braque established Cubism in partnership with Picasso just before World War I. but to clash in virtual deadlock. not to work in harmony. charcoal." La Cuitare.. Braques "justly" arranged combination of cut black card. representing still life.90 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS Still Life THESE DRAWINGS REVEAL t w o o p p o s i t e m o t i v a t i o n s i n we can. a colored canvas.73 x 1 m) GEORGES BRAQUE .

Study for Plate 59 from "Documents Decoratifs" 17x121/4(430 x 310 mm) ALPHONSE MUCHA 1902 .fruit. For ten years Mucha designed theater posters exclusively for the actress Sarah Bernhardt. Black watercolor washes and lines of white gouache have been added with a fine brush. Chicago. Look at the two spoons at toprightand see how has suggested that they are so brilliantly shiny they reflect the background color. Background color Between the delicate shadows and highlights of these glazed and surfaces ofthebackground metal color of the Mucha we see a large amount paper. and fish have been outlined using a sharp pencil. He is best known for posters featuring ethereal women in typical Art Nouveau style.ALPHONSE MUCHA Czech graphic artist and painter who worked in Prague. Art Nouveau motifs This is a preliminary study for a subsequent print. The three plates facing us were drawn with a compass. Pans. and New York. Art Nouveau curling motifs of birds. He designed the Austrian pavilion for the Paris World Fair in 1900.flowers. and also stamps and bank notes.

and philosopher Newton was President of the Royal Society. Hooke's head of a drone fly seen through a microscope may represent the first time man and insect came face to face. Look how confidently he draws with ink the sphere of this wooden globe by which his telescope rotates. and his hand moving across the light. A disembodied eye at the top of the drawing indicates where to look. Newton's drawing of his first reflecting telescope is ISAAC N E W T O N English scientist. each one skillfully rendered with the alarmingly matter-of-fact ease of explaining the commonplace. It is a diagrammatic explanation of how to catch and magnify a star in a mirrored tube. into the eyepiece. and Fellow of the University o f C a m b r i d g e . Newton used this instrument to calculate the speed required to escape earth's gravity. Newton's 1672 ISAAC Telescope NEWTON . 0 0 0 perfect hemispheres. offering a transparent view. astronomer. Their delicate construction is only as valuable as the measurements they make. shape the very cause and effect of investigatory thought. w h e r e he developed his three greatest theories: the law o f motion. The power of this drawing reflects the pure passion of discovery. a tree outside. With dotted lines Newton has drawn his arrangement of elements inside the tube. drawing is there to pin the moment down. In the graphic work of these two great men of science.92 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS by their very nature must gauge or chronicle precision. and the nature o f light and color. mathematician. Ink lines Several drawings appear among Newton's letters. each reflecting a view of his own world—his window. Transparent view Newton's reflecting telescope focused light in a parabolic mirror. alchemist. He counted 1 4 . From the concept of capturing the infinite to the mapping of microscopic sight. It was then reflected up inside the tube and. via a second mirror. the law o f gravity. we see drawing Instruments of Vision found among his letters.

An experimental scientist who drew many of his discoveries. universal joint a prototype respirator clock balance. Hooke invented the camera diaphragm. and anchor escarpment. The Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 1665 ROBERT HOOKE 111/2 x 105/8 in (294 x 270 mm) . and calculated the theory of combustion. ROBERT H O O K E 93 Magnifications This acutely detailed engraved drawing is taken from Hooke's Micrographia (pub. 1665). It is an exhilarating read. a breathtaking book containing many of his drawings showing some of the first microscopic and telescopic magnifications of our environment Hooke's text and illustrations carry us to the moment of discovery.

and winner of the 2004 Jerwood Drawing Prize. and has drawings in numerous public and private collections. Its wobbly gait and squashed s y m m e t r y m u m b l e endless h o m e y tales about the life it has seen. W i t h h o m e y c o n t r a s t . Chair Cut Out 2002 22'A x 23 in (565 x 585 mm) SARAH WOODFINE . craft. Woodfine exhibits internationally.94 INSTRUMENTS W H E N WE DRAW A COMMON OBJECT like a chair. From component parts we understand how to put it together and make it stand sensible in space. Two-dimensional was made This highly finished drawing ruler using a sharp pencil and on smooth white drawing paper glistening dark drawings are artificial representations of known Woodfine's two-dimensional things balanced in the world. has published several catalogs of her work. it has so m u c h familiar personality that it seems to talk to us. each drawn with the s a m e unfaltering lines and tones that are between reality and impossibility. and w h e r e the chair b e l o n g s . A renegade from the p a p e r dolls' h o u s e . Drawn in more-or-less c o n v e n t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . this chair p r e s e n t s us with a clever visual contradiction: deeply drawn shadows tell us it must be solid. Van Gogh's tipsy seat is a metaphor for an absent person. OBJECTS AND SARAH WOODFINE British contemporary artist graduate of the Royal Academy Schools. while the tabs make us see a flat paper cut-out. Bench Marks W e are left a little c o n f u s e d as to what we s h o u l d do. and place in the world are truly seen. its character. Sarah Woodfines flat cut-out m o d e l plan is a witty and surprising drawing.

and Starry Cypress Night. inner recording while Fierce strokes This is a portrait of the mechanical drew immediately and almost harshly.95 VINCENTVAN GOGH Dutch painter who produced over 800 paintings and 850 drawings in only the last ten year's of his life. The floor few as engagement with the chair. what direct in their he saw and describing his felt. not is made present in only strokes and is subdued to distract us from flat a meaningful chair.hehas marked the full emotion of the subject with a fierce grip of concentration. Cornfield and Sunflowers. Among van Gogh's best-known canvases are Trees. Van Chair 1890 VINCENT VAN GOGH . drawn opposite way of plan. His passionate brush and pencil strokes are honest and of also turmoil and growing alarm at the world around him.

Artists emulate and manipulate this effect in their pictures.102-03 deep shadows cast across shells make their form easier to perceive. T h e slightest recognition is instantly matched to our wealth of experience a n d expectation. S o m e o n e passes our o p e n door. try this experiment. We will even see things that d o not exist because minimal information suggests they are likely to be there. See how its "edge" smoothly changes from light against dark to dark against light. but do not appear so. Run The bottom-left quarter of the egg lightens slightly toward its "edge" when seen against the darker shadow cast on the paper. reads only m o v e m e n t a n d can often m a k e mistakes.96 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Light and Illusions SEEING IS MIRACULOUS. Card experiment cho can gra on .This effect is caused by the contrast of their surroundings. or colored surface is never constant. The egg's lightest region is seen against a darker background. less developed than the center. Here w e look briefly at our perception of light a n d darkness a n d our interpretation of diagrammatic illusions. Gray squares To further examine changes in tone. think about its illumination.d o w n patterns of light on our retinas.At one point you will catchenoughlight lighter than the white one. form. a n d we can be fooled. w e turn our head but n o one w a s there. o u r b r a i n s search for n a m e a b l e things. Here. Adjust the angleofthe protruding part and again stepback. a n d m o v e m e n t . the adjustment of our eyes (in growing accustomed to a level of light). Are you happy LIGHT AND SHADOW with what you see? Does the light enhance the subject? Could you alter and improve it? On pp. perhaps. two identical mid-gray squares are seen against black and paler gray squares. From across the room both will appear black card and fold and retapeitwith half sticking out. To interpret visual s t i m u l u s . your eye around the circumference of the egg. The rim of light on the egg is reflected light received from surrounding paper. Below. are translated into a world of space. The two tones meet without a division or outline between. one blackandone white. Through these we can enjoy witnessing our o w n d e c e p t i o n a n d b a f f l e m e n t a n d u n d e r s t a n d certain factors that are very useful in picture-making. We only need small prompts. On acloudyday. The egg's darkest region is seen against a lighter background. and the proximity of contrasting tones. a n d our ability to see forms in c l o u d s or fire. The small squares are identical in tone. a n d are q u i c k to p r o p o s e ideas. Before starting a tonal drawing of any subject. hence our recognition of a cartoon face c o m p o s e d of three lines. The outermost edge of our vision. W e learn to read light and shadow in our environment as indicators of solidity and depth of space. atmosphere. Tape them to the glass. a lit photograph of an egg shows essential points to observe in tonal drawing. cards the same size. Below the bottom "edge" of the egg there is a rim of light reflected onto the paper by the underside of the egg. The perceived tone of a black white. We perceive one to be lighter than theother. U p s i d e . transmitted to the brain as chains of electrical impulses. gray. Three factors change it: the amount of light it receives.

T h e r e is n o obligation t o a d d b l o c k s o f t o n e t o a l i n e a r d r a w i n g . T w o relatively t h i c k parallel lines are m a d e t o b e n d away f r o m each o t h e r as t h e y pass in f r o n t o f an a r r a y o f c o n v e r g i n g f i n e lines ( B ) . B o t h are identical in length.97 LINE VERSUS TONE In l i n e a r d r a w i n g s . In this t o n a l image w e read w h i t e as f a t t e r t h a n black. In a t o n a l d r a w i n g . w h i l e t h i n n e r lines recede. start o u t w i t h one. respectively. S h o r t h o r i z o n t a l lines o f identical length are m a d e t o l o o k d i f f e r e n t by c o n v e r g i n g lines beside t h e m ( C ) . t h i c k e r l i n e s a p p e a r t o stand forward. Seven parallel lines are m a d e t o tilt t o w a r d and away f r o m each o t h e r by n u m e r o u s s h o r t strokes crossing t h e m diagonally ( A ) . by d i r e c t e d a r r o w s ( A ) . l i g h t e r surfaces s t a n d f o r w a r d w h i l e d a r k e r s u r f a c e s recede. T h i s fundamental o p p o s i t e is a reason w h y l i n e a r a n d t o n a l d r a w i n g does not a l w a y s c o m b i n e w e l l in t h e s a m e i m a g e . T w o horizontal lines o f equal length are m a d e t o l o o k longer and shorter. O b s e r v e h o w each white b a n d appears t h i c k e r t h a n its black c o u n t e r p a r t .p o i n t p e r s p e c t i v e d r a w i n g s w i t h a large n u m b e r o f c o n v e r g i n g rays b e h i n d y o u r horizontals. If y o u w i s h t o m a k e a t o n a l drawing. T h e jug d r a w n w i t h a t h i n line appears f a r t h e r away t h a n t h e j u g d r a w n w i t h a t h i c k e r line. Apparent lengths T h e s e optical illusions s h o w h o w lines o f identical length can b e m a d e t o l o o k quite different f r o m each o t h e r by t h e addition o r association o f o t h e r lines. b u t t h e u p r i g h t o n e l o o k s t a l l e r (B). Y o u m a y e x p e r i e n c e s o m e t h i n g similar h a p p e n i n g w h e n y o u m a k e s i n g l e . In this linear drawing w e read t h i c k as closer a n d t h i n as f a r t h e r away. A n u p r i g h t line stands in t h e c e n t e r o f a h o r i z o n t a l line. Bending straight lines Linear distance These t w o jugs have b e e n d r a w n w i t h lines o f d i f f e r i n g thicknesses. LIGHT AND ILLUSIONS Tonal width T h e s e black a n d w h i t e bands are o f equal thickness o n e i t h e r side o f t h e i r central division. . O f t e ndoingso w i l l s p o i l y o u r w o r k .

others adjust works to avoid their effects. C l o s i n g t h e surface o f t h e f o r m seals o u r d e c i s i o n as t o w h i c h w a y it faces. such as t h e dish seen h e r e o n t h e left. It is possible t o r e a d i t t w o ways: as a t r u n c a t e d r e c t a n g u l a r p y r a m i d seen d i r e c t l y f r o m a b o v e . Michelangelo. made paintings that depended upon the physical sensation of our brain's reaction to known optical illusions. w h e n drawing the outline o f a three-dimensional form. and so calculated precisely how much to fatten columns to make them appear straight. and we learn to read the styles of diverse cultures and periods. In the 1960's." . Some artists use known optical illusions to make art. as s h o w n o n t h e right. SEEING TWO OPTIONS Sometimes. It is a curious fact that w e can never see both options at once. perfected the acceleration of perspective (see pp. it can oscillate b e t w e e n facing t o w a r d o r a w a y f r o m us. Ancient Greek architects knew parallel upright lines appeared to bend toward each other in the middle. such as Bridget Riley. are still not agreeably understood. w e will find that in terms of the direction it faces. Yet many illusions. it oscillates between t w o possibilities. Two ways of seeing T h i s is t h e b o x c r e a t e d in t h e f o u r t h step o n p.98 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Further Illusions PSYCHOLOGISTS AND PHYSIOLOGISTS have studied optical illusions for decades in pursuit of what they tell us about the brain. A few suggestive marks will tip the decision one way o r the o t h e r Closing the surface W h e n a t r a n s p a r e n t elliptical o b j e c t has b e e n d r a w n . Artists make pictorial illusions when they paint or draw. w e can only look f r o m one t o the o t h e r If an artist is not aware this can happen in their image. among others.76.116-17) to make painted figures look correct when viewed from below. their picture could be ambiguous. Today we are bombarded with images but rarely have difficulty reading them. o r as a s l o p i n g . including some shown here. Artists can communicate much in few lines and the viewer will do the rest of the work.s i d e d r e c t a n g u l a r t r a y ( b o t h are illustrated far r i g h t ) "The brain is so eager to name a fragment we see that we need only a suggestion to grasp the whole. Op(tical) artists.

N e i t h e r triangle exists. C o u p l e d w i t h t h e Rorschach b l o t above. S o m e artists use ink blots t o p r o m p t t h e beginning o f an image. His highly d i s p u t e d and i m p r e c i s e science involves s h o w i n g u n p r e p a r e d p a t i e n t s t e n p a r t i c u l a r ink b l o t s a n d asking t h e m t o i n t e r p r e t w h a t t h e y see. O n l y o n closer inspection we realize that t h e s e o b j e c t s are fooling us. this is a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f t h e viewer's b r a i n b e i n g willing t o d o a large a m o u n t o f t h e w o r k in d e c i p h e r i n g a p i c t u r e . Yet still w e try resolve t h e m . T h e a r t i s t M. C o u n t t h e n u m b e r o f d a r k spots y o u can see.99 Impossible objects T h e s e clever configurations o f outlines and t o n a l surfaces convince us at a glance that we are seeing a solid three-dimensional triangle and a three-pronged fork. w e see t w o overlapping triangles: o n e outlined in black b e n e a t h a n o t h e r in solid w h i t e . — a n d so t h e artist can create m u c h o u t o f an impression w i t h o u t overdescribing. . 1 6 t h . b u t w e believe w e see t h e m because e n o u g h f r a g m e n t a r y i n f o r m a t i o n is given f o r o u r brains t o c o n c l u d e t h e y are v e r y likely t h e r e .c e n t u r y Italian painters. This simple five-line d r a w i n g is o f a C a p u c h i n priest asleep in his pulpit. M u c h can b e e x p r e s s e d in o n l y a f e w marks. T h e y a r e o f t e n c r e d i t e d w i t h t h e invention o f t h e c o m i c c a r t o o n . smoke. W e should r e m e m b e r t h a t o u r brains will always search f o r a p i c t u r e — i n ink blots. C Escher u s e d this phenomenon t o great effect in his many p o p u l a r d r a w i n g s o f puzzles and impossible buildings. T h e s e e x a m p l e s illustrate h o w little is n e e d e d t o c o n v e y an image. This effect can o c c u r naturally w h e n looking at a b r i g h t l y lit w h i t e g r i d such as a w i n d o w f r a m e against t h e night sky. P e r c e i v i n g a w h o l e i m a g e f r o m m i n i m a l lines T h i s is a w i d e l y r e p r o d u c e d visual j o k e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e C a r r a c c i b r o t h e r s . clouds. F a m i l i a r i t y in r a n d o m s h a p e s T h e Rorschach test was established by t h e 1 9 t h . Minimal-line j o k e s such as this rely u p o n t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y v i e w e r ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e shapes. B e l o w is a b r i g h t n e s s c o n t r a s t illusion. T h e patient's answers are t h e n diagnosed as a psychological profile. T h e t e s t e x p l o r e s o u r n o r m a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o find things w e can n a m e a m o n g r a n d o m shapes. FURTHER ILLUSIONS Seeing things that are n o t t h e r e H e r e o n t h e left.c e n t u r y Swiss psychologist H e r m a n n Rorschach. e t c .

like a disposable plastic cup that has been crushed in your hand. for example plates or bowls on a table. WHERE TO START In the air above a spacious sheet of scrap paper. spin your hand in a relaxed circle. a n d in o n e bold stroke. such as bowls and cups. hesitant one that has edged its w a y nervously around the vessel's rim. keep it spinning. for example. circles change into ellipses. To make a cylindrical object appear real in our pictorial space. there are three common errors people stumble upon. Cover a sheet of paper with spinning. giving the cylinder four corners. w h e n seen at an angle. Ellipse are best d r a w n quickly. . smoothly. while its upper rim remains level. Watch the tip of your pen and see it draw an ellipse in the air Keep this movement going while gently lowering the pen onto the paper like the needle of a record player closing on the disc (only it is your lowering hand that spins. How to Draw Ellipses of seeing. I have drawn these for you here. (see p. springlike forms like those I have drawn below. though. describing many sides of an object simultaneously. as if the table surface slopes upward beneath the vessel. COMMON ERRORS W h e n drawing cylindrical objects in perspective. and these narrow or widen depending on the height of our view.90) takes a different as essentially circular. not the paper!) As the pen touches down. Be aware. Cubism. that this is o n l y o n e w a y view. I have exaggerated this error here. The first common error is to draw two pointed ellipses. However. Don't worry if it is uneven— just try again. w e use ellipses to give a sense of perspective.100 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS W E VISUALIZE CYLINDRICAL VESSELS. you will achieve steadiness with practice. A wobbling but confident ellipse will still be more convincing than a slow. suggesting that the vessel is lopsided. even if y o u r hand w o b b l e s a little at first. The second common error is to tilt the upper and lower ellipses at different angles. since this is h o w w e experience them in e v e r y d a y use. third common error is to draw upper and lover ellipses with different-sized apertures.

working from top to bottom. Draw quickly. Create a Solid Surface Once you have drawn the shape and volume of each form.101 DRAWING VESSELS Once you have mastered drawing free-hand springs. Altering the pressure—and therefore tone—of the line as it spins gives the impression of light shining on one side. you can make it solid by building up highlights and tones on visible surfaces. thereby hiding lines that show the other sides. you can start to control your spinning ellipse to make a vessel. Seeing Through Allow lines to travel around each vessel as if it were transparent. enlarging and diminishing the ellipse to determine the overall shape and volume. . HOW TO DRAW E L L I P S E S A Single Vessel One Inside Another Grouped Together Finding Shape and Volume Draw an imagined vessel in one continuous spinning line.

outlines. Relaxing your eyes out of focus as you draw will help to dissolve the distraction of detail. Draw the largest and most distinct areas of light and darkness first. It maximizes the range of tones between black and white. It is important to place them on the correct side so as to draw comfortably (see pp. Illuminate them with a gooseneck lamp placed very close and directed away from your eyes. if light shines in them. simply shapes and subtleties of light and dark meeting each other with no divisions in between. Remember that shadows. making complicated or subtle surfaces easier to see and understand. You can begin with outlines and build slowly from light to dark (see opposite top). or you can begin with a mid-gray ground and model light out of darkness (see opposite bottom). In the finished drawing there should be few.102 INSTRUMENTS Tonality W H E N MAKING A TONAL DRAWING. Gradually hone your drawing.22-23). and strong contrasts are easier to draw. it will inhibit your perception of tone. OBJECTS AND Start by arranging a choice of shells on a sheet of paper to your left if you are right-handed (or vice versa). beams of light. leaving detail until last. if any. and solid objects are all of equal importance. two opposite methods of achieving the same result. LIGHT TO DARK DARK TO LIGHT . t h e r e a r e p r i n c i p a l l y Dramatic lighting emphasizes texture and contour.

draw a rectangle. Honetheshapesand angles of the shells. until you are happy frame. shape. Use your pencil to develop these in relation to the areas of light. with broad sweeps of the eraser. 2 3 Gentlydissolveoutlines so that areas oflightanddark meet without a line between them. DARK TO LIGHT (TONE TO TONE) 1 Using the flattened tip of an HB pencil. Use quick.103 LIGHT TO DARK (LINE TO TONE) TONALITY 1 Using a sharp HB pencil. Erase and make changes to roughly place the shells inside your with your composition. Fll in broad areas first and leave all detail until last. Continue working between light and dark to refine the drawing. boldly 2 3 Keeping your eyes out of focus. Treat positive form and negative space (see pp. . pale lines with equal importance. Let your eyes go out of focus while looking gently layer marks to create an even tone at your subject and paper: Draw the most ofmid-graywithin a rectangle. look at the main areas of darkness. Avoid a rough significant areas of light in your gray rectangle with texture and do not press the graphite hardwhite plastic eraser Ignore all detail and draw a into thepaperor you will not be able to erase it. Remember that its size. Relaxing your eyes out of focus will help to eliminate distracting details. Draw in the details last of all.56-57). and edges definingthespacialrelationships between are important aspects of your composition them. loose.

There are essentially three lessons to be learned. 19 Picasso draws with a pen-light for the camera. . PEN LINES Once you have created your three-dimensional violin (opposite).69 we see how the architect Antonio Gaudi drew proposed domes using suspended wires and weights. and on p. 176 the British artists Noble and Webster draw with domestic refuse in a beam of light. you can create your own more ambitious works. This class uses thin-gauge wire to create a threedimensional violin. They can also be made in space. smooth. When drawing anything viewed from one side on paper. On p. Seeing through a wire drawing of a known object such as a violin gives us a visual and tactile understanding of all its sides and shapes at once. continuous lines.220 Mamoru Abe draws with forged steel rods. and physical relationships between them. and on p. Place the instrument on a plain surface and illuminate it with a desk lamp to add the delicate dimension of shadows. three-dimensional drawings teach us about the totality of forms in space. our image is stronger if we understand and can visualize what is happening on the other side too. On p. The second is that after achieving this simple example.104 OBJECTS AND I N S T R U M E N T S Drawing with Wire DRAWINGS DO NOT HAVE to be two-dimensional. try drawing it with a pen on paper Use bold. Third. The first is that figurative and abstract drawings can be made in space.

but thin enough to be easily manipulated inyourfingers Here. These will hold the sides apart and help to keep the form in shape. and pinch and bend it to shape the base of the instrument Repeat this process to make the identical upper side of the instrument. thin wire will make a smaller drawing. and thick wire a larger one. I started with the scroll at the top and fixed the four component wires with two drawings of tuning pegs. I used garden wire and cut it carefully with pruners. 2 3 If needed. Cut a length. brace the two ends of the violin with a length of wire along the back.105 SETTING UP DRAWING WITH WIRE Follow these steps to draw a three-dimensional violin Choose a gauge of wire sturdy enough to hold the shape ofyourfinished drawing. Here. Once you have completed the body. 4 . 1 Decide how big to draw your violin relative to the gauge of your wire. begin to shape the curvature of the fingerboard. Join the two sides together with four short pieces of wire. Then begin to define its uppermost surface with Scurves and the bridge.

Artifacts and Fictions IN 1993 I WORKED with a group of schoolchildren who were responding to the astonishing objects in the collection of the Pitt Rivers Museum. England. Oxford. Using found materials. they invented new anthropological finds—objects that reflected the distant past and their immediate future. I had the privilege of drawing their inventions. . some of which are shown here.

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It also looks at the representation of the b o d y b11y4o n d traditional life drawing. is the most c o m m o n subject in art. Artists are thought to have b e g u n drawing from the nude during the Italian Renaissance. clothed or nude. Artists now explore the interior of the body with new media and Lateral Contour Map of a Full-Term Primipara Produced by Light 1979 A. The body remains at the core of over the initially white lines. This chapter addresses issues that are most commonly faced by beginners attending life-drawing classes. These classes are popular around the world. in our privileged and comfortable society. from video and X-ray to thermal imaging. and surgically rebuilt. while Durer took his research further— A. Renaissance artists studying anatomy from dissection clinically trained and specialized as a medical illustrator. Drawings were usually made from the male nude to avoid offending the church. Look closely at Renaissance drawings of the female b o d y and you will see that m o s t are actually y o u n g m e n with minor adjustments. focus has turned to the vulnerability of flesh: how it can be damaged. R. Leonardo drew a man within a circle and square. but the study of a controlled. sculptural description of her form. He even believed he had located the soul contours of her form like a cartographer's map of in the pituitary fossa beneath the brain and behind the eyes. She the body is still essential. herimpressive presence because we are given such Life drawing no longer dominates the art school curriculum. WILLIAMS he sought perfection in the infinitesimal measurement of the body and produced four Contemporary photographer volumes of illustrated explanation. It gives physical and emotive form to religious narratives. R. The human body. diseased. portraiture. the junior workshop apprentices posed as part of their duties. myths and fables. the Bay Area Models' Guild h o l d s a quarterly life-drawing m a r a t h o n aprinton Kodak transfer paper with green-colored dye added celebrating the great diversity of human proportion. Michelangelo attended dissections to made this image by light sectioning: fine beams of light perfect his understanding of surface form. W e understand every curve and balance of to the theory that the eves are the windows of the soul. history paintings and other stories. artists also tried to define ideal proportions in the body. During this time. much Western contemporary art. 3 x 7 in (300 x 180 . and because the female was deemed inferior. giving physical foundation undulating land. Williams were decades ahead of their medical counterparts. W I L L I A M S technology.The Body O UR BODIES MAKE us TANGIBLE. and anatomical and erotic art. In this period. while Leonardo opened the body to see and projected onto a woman's body draw the celebratory discover for himself our physical mechanisms. This F finished image was produced as r a n c i s c o . and in San could easily be transferred into three dimensions. explaining ranges e/ of materials and techniques and showing diversities of thought and purpose in making. W e are the only creatures on Earth that can make our own image. Strangely. a n d w e d r a w o u r s e l v e s to a s s e r t o u r e x i s t e n c e .

T h e y b o t h raise one arm to cup their head in their hand. By way of contrast. altar pieces. She u n f o l d s and s t r e t c h e s shapely limbs. Muscular dramatic postures reflect the influence of Michelangelo and the Renaissance celebration of the idealized male body. and Vatican frescos. RAFFAELLO SANZIO (RAPHAEL) Italian High Renaissance painter: Raphael is best known for his images of the Madonna and Child. Here three male nudes are compressed into very shallow pictorial space. Raphael's study of fallen m e n leaves no doubt that they are in anguish.110 T H E BODY THESE DISTINCTIVE WORKS show two strikingly different ways of modeling the body on paper. Matisse's b l u e n u d e sings with life and c e l e b r a t i o n . anatomy. Three Guards 1500-20 91/4 x143/8in (234 x 365 mm) RAPHAEL . Principal figures m i r r o r e a c h other. In this highly s o p h i s t i c a t e d a b s t r a c t i o n . while Matisse used scissors and glue to cut out and paste a flat collage of brilliant color. But the meanings of each gesture and the materials and methods by which they Postures and Poses were m a d e contrast greatly. while supporting the weight of their body with the other. we see the e s s e n c e of h e r b e a u t y w i t h o u t a single detail. Raphael drew delicate tones of black chalk on tinted paper. In a single drawing we see equally o b s e r v e d studies of f o r e s h o r t e n i n g (see pp. and studied to learn from the works of Michelangelo and Leonardo besides whom he was soon ranked. filling the page with her presence. He trained under Perugino. Sculptural frieze This is a preparatory drawing for Raphael's painting of the Resurrection of Christ. so that we read this drawing like a sculptural frieze. and human defeat.116-17).

... Matisse became an artist after studying law. and more energetic Color and form This collage is one of a series of Blue Nudes." of is an art of balance.sculptor.111 HENRY MATISSE French painter: draftsman..like an appeasing influence.. printmaker.designer writer. foundamong many other groups of papercut these works as an elderly man confined to his bed or wheelchair. devoid of troubling Blue Nude 1 1952 413/4 HENRY MATISSE . serenity. as his w o r k matured.. freer. fabric. a mental soother. teacher and principal exponent o f Fauvism—a movement established in 1905 in which bold color is the most essential element. Matisse Soothing influence This drawing expresses the achievement of Matisse's personal aim: "What I dream and depressing subject matter. His calligraphic natural abstractions of form grew brighter.or like a good armchair in which to rest from physical fatigue.which might be. lifelong love of brilliant They celebrate the culmination of spectacular and sometimes drawings. and Islamic art. his pattern.

Opposite. Below. Typically. Seurat evolved a distinctive t e c h n i q u e called p o i n t i l l i s m — i m a g e s literally made from myriad points of color. we c o m p a r e a skillful design that absorbed m u c h time in its making with the quickness of an idea marked instantly. and color His applied theories still influence painters in their manipulation and rendering of local.112 T H E BODY Choreographs T I M E IS A SIGNIFICANT E L E M E N T i n t h e m a k i n g o f a l l d r a w i n g s . turned gray. w h o sits propped in the contradictory darkness of a hot summer's day. and muddied the brilliance of the drawing. in a perfect e x a m p l e . scratched in seconds. like small birds attendant on the meditation. Seurat engaged in lifelong studies of line. If Seurat had added white. velvet d a r k n e s s . Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 1883-84 91/2 x 121/4 in (241 x 312 m m GEORGES SEURAT . Beuys's magician. 162) and an eraser to model teeming points of artificial light amid GEORGES SEURAT French painter classically educated in the Ingres school of thought. T h e space around h i m chatters with symbols. Light is given by the paper alone. Using the paper to create light is important for beginners to learn. Tone and light In this black conte drawing. agreeing to coalesce and show us the form of a waiting boy. His drawings are similarly u n i q u e . In his f a m o u s paintings of social e n g a g e m e n t . stands in counterpoise holding a dark globe and his thoughts in m o m e n t a r y balance. Here. it is as if the very atoms of air are made visible. reflected. other tones. or abruptly meeting. only tones blending into. there are no outlines. it would have mixed with unseen black dust. he used b l a c k c o n t e (see p. form. and c o m p l e m e n t a r y hues.

Beuys gave performances.gold. CHOREOGRAPHS the profound power materials with spiritual or of Free lines This pale pencil drawing is Beuys. free from the constraint of immaculate form opposite) impetus is irrelevant to the and meaning of this work (as we see in Seurat's drawing representation. and that These aspects of the work convey fractured visibility. video art. He was a shaman who believed in intuition and in the investment of healing force. Many of his other symbolic works on paper have been drawn with materials such as honey. and made installations. and blood. iodine. transience. and drawings. in different positions.113 JOSEPH BEUYS One of the most influential German artists of the 20th century. His The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland UNDATED 113/4 J O S E P H BEUYS x81/4in (297 x 210 mm) . taught workshops with a cult following. This figure is drawn intuitively. Unbroken lines stream from his simultaneously movement. Our focus joins shoulders. Perfectly modeled rather conventional for Joseph Focus Beuys's hand moved quickly to draw dotted lines flowing downward on either side of the figure.

Anita Taylor has drawn her protective body hug out of the darkly glistening compression of willow charcoal and the dynamism of her shy but momentous femininity.000 drawings shown in rotation at the Musee Rodin. 125/8x 9 in (320 x 229 mm) AUGUSTE RODIN Two Women 1911 Embracing . he typically drew them with a few delicate strokes of pencil and brushed watercolor. In both drawings." as seen here. flushed skin made ruddy and black with crushed cinders. As here. We are involved not as a shabby voyeur but as a bystander engaged through our recognition of shared joy. Paris. his w o r k is characterized by deliberate un-finish and powerfully modeled emotion. Opposite. sweeping lines— of either purple silk fabric or cool studio air—that imprint and amplify their past and future movements. We are asked to gaze u p o n her flesh. Free lines Rodin's public audience was understandably shocked by the eroticism of his drawings. its soft. and one of hundreds of rapid studies of nudes. Our bodies radiate the passion of our thoughts and so become beacons of our frailty and power.114 BODY Passion SUMMONING HUMANITY in a drawing of the nude is a subtle and emotional task. and went on to inspire generations of artists. His exquisite flow of paint beyond "outlines. In Rodins work. the women are framed and caressed by long. was perceived as scandalous. THE AUGUSTE RODIN French Romantic sculptor and prolific draftsman employed as an ornamental mason until the age of 42. Delicate strokes This is one of about 7. But what is stranger to us now is that they were also outraged by his free use of line. Achieving international acclaim in mid-life. the fierceness of the women's kiss is beautifully matched by the tenderness of his line. They whisper and writhe in a brushed and sultry embrace that devours our watching. Rodin employed models to move freely or pose together in his studio. Rodin produced portraits and statues of public and literary figures. Inspired by Michelangelo.

Charcoal Taylor has drawn freely with charcoal and an eraser on thick. the impression of luminosity All and Nothing 1999 67 x447/8in (170 x 1 1 4 cm) ANITA TAYLOR . professor and Vice Principal of Wimbledon School of Art. The sturdy surface of the sheet has allowed her to press hard when needed. This order of light below and dark above gives glowing from within. Taylor's immense self-portraits explore the relationship between the artist as maker and the artist as model. erased and drawn again. textured paper. and gaze. London. intimately reflecting upon the emotions and meaning of nudity. draftsman. A thinner sheet might have crumpled and torn under such vigorous force of making. scrutiny. Taylor has drawn. Luminosity Layered marks flicker likefirelight as they sculpt the woman's body. exposure.I 15 ANITA T A Y L O R Painter. leaving her lightest marks at the deepest level of the image and applying darker marks above. and rework rich depths of light and tone.

elongated as if stretched across the plaster. Lock your shoulder. or coming forward. just making them helps you see. and to draw what we see. we would arrive to find many of the same figures strangely distorted. 1 Hold your arm straight. Move the tip of your thumb down to a second chosen point. To avoid its effects ensure you always look flat onto the surface of your page. It can also be a little demon in the life room. and a few measured comparisons are key. with dramatic illusions of figures painted in normal proportion. Smaller. helping us to see more clearly. Imagine Michelangelo's murals in the Sistine Chapel. rather that what we believe we know from experience." . If your arm is not straight. to be translated by mirrors or seen from only one point in the room. How to make and apply these is explained below and opposite.limbs happily receding. Up close on the scaffold we would witness Michelangelo's subtle application of accelerated perspective. or shrivelling at odd. Align the top with a point on your subject. you will make inconsistent and unrelated comparisons. It is not so hard. 2 Hold your pencil upright. "Simple measured comparisons reveal surprising truths about proportion. This is chiefly a correcting device by which figurative painters and sculptors have for centuries countered the effects of our viewing their work from far below or on the curvature of a vault. The length of exposed pencil is your measurement. which is imperceptible from below. more extreme examples have been made for court entertainment. patience. Accelerated perspective plays a great role in much art. Rome. We also look at another very interesting branch called accelerated (or anamorphic) perspective. There is no need to mark them all down on paper. elbow. when beginners prop their board in their lap and look down at too steep an angle. 3 Keep your pencil perpendicular Measure and compare at any angle. It is not complicated. Return to this posture every time. Close one eye. for example. London). Spend time making comparisons before you draw. MEASURING This is a simple method of making measured comparisons for relating the true size of one part to another This is a tool to assist observation and thinking. unfathomable angles. and measurements do not have to be carried to the paper and slavishly drawn the same size they appear on your pencil. the skull in Holbein's The Ambassadors (The National Gallery. plummeting. without taking off.116 T H E BODY Measurement and Foreshortening FORESHORTENING IS AN ASPECT of perspective. In the life class it is the mechanism for ensuring that a drawn figure lies correctly in pictorial space . persistence. But if we could take a scaffold and climb up to the work. and wrist joints.

y o u must let go o f w h a t y o u k n o w f r o m e x p e r i e n c e a b o u t t h e relative sizes o f b o d y parts and trust y o u r eyes. Lean t h e t o p e d g e t o w a r d y o u and find a p o s i t i o n w h e r e y o u can c o m f o r t a b l y l o o k d o w n t h e p a p e r at an angle o f a b o u t 4 0 degrees. looking d o w n t h e p a p e r at t h e a n g l e at w h i c h I d r e w . FORESHORTENING To f o r e s h o r t e n a figure. L o o k at y o u r m o d e l as if he o r she is a flat series o f shapes o n e o n t o p o f a n o t h e r Measure t h e height and w i d t h o f each shape and c o m p a r e it t o its neighbor. which feels strange. W e appear t o be looking d o w n o n a w o m a n s t a n d i n g b e n e a t h us. pleasingly f o r e s h o r t e n e d . W o r k a r o u n d t h e figure. See h o w d i f f e r e n t t h e relative heights o f t h e s e shapes are f r o m w h a t w e m i g h t e x p e c t in real life. belly.117 ACCELERATED PERSPECTIVE To discover h o w this w o r k s . A t a c e r t a i n angle. C o m p a r e t h e heights o f t h e nose and eye shapes t o t h o s e o f t h e f o r e a r m . a n d thighs. Stand its b o t t o m edge o n y o u r lap. . y o u r hand travels f a r t h e r than y o u expect. T h i s is t h e s a m e d r a w i n g p h o t o g r a p h e d f r o m above. t a p e s o m e p a p e r t o a board. S o o n t h e b o d y will lie d o w n in space. P r o p o r t i o n s will only l o o k c o r r e c t f r o m t h e angle at w h i c h y o u make t h e drawing. h e r p r o p o r t i o n s will appear correct. adjusting a n o n y m o u s shapes. To m a k e f o r m s l o o k c o r r e c t . Keep t h e b o a r d steady and draw. MEASUREMENT AND FORESHORTENING Tilt t h e t o p edge o f this b o o k t o w a r d you and look d o w n o n this figure f r o m a b o v e .

and slightly enlarge her legs and feet. Leave first thoughts in place. T h i s q u i c k e x p l o r a t o r y line does not perfectly describe shape but expresses a decision about overall flow of form. feeling. imagine holding up a plumb line. To draw this effect. balance. propelling you to make immediate assessments and trust them. and work over t h e m with further o b s e r v a t i o n s . Layered lines give d e p t h . Be bold and dive into your drawing with c o n f i d e n c e . her center of balance is normally found in a vertical line beneath her head. Balance When a model stands upright on both feet. Avoid drawing up one side and down the other. I used a sharp H B pencil and began each drawing by marking her outline. and stance before honing her balance and expression.118 BODY Quick Poses DRAWING QUICK POSES l o c k s y o u r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n t o what is most essential. Height This pose leans away into space above our eye level. and energy. Outline To outline a figure. and height. To see this. THE SEQUENCE OF POSES H e r e the model was asked to move every t w o minutes. Start each new drawing by lightly marking the model's height with a loose line in ten seconds. because it results in two unrelated sides drifting apart. . work back and forth across the body. working from her center to her feet and to her head. height. make the upper body smaller give your model a high waist.

the activity of circular lines and the repetition of limbs suggest movement. This drawing shows how different observations be overlaid to bring a drawing alive. Tilt Movement Here. and this should be avoided Twist QUICK POSES A model standing on one leg usually drops the opposite hip. Most of us have a tendency to over-straighten the drawn figure. . The tilt of the pelvis is then counter balanced by the model's shoulders tilting the other way (as seen here).119 The twist of a model is most easily and expressively captured if it is exaggerated.

especially the lengthwise divisions between them. It also helps the beginner to progress from drawing outlines to drawing confidently across the surface of the whole form. 3 . swiftly marking its essential gesture. but regard these practice studies as ongoing processes of thought and observatio Add details such as nails last if you wish. Group the fingers together as one mass. or those of a friend. 2 Build your drawing gradually from light to dark. W h e n starting. Practice by drawing your own hands and feet. starting with the largest. and they need not be daunting to draw. feet. drawn in relation to each other. and a gooseneck lamp casts shadows that clarify planes and depths GESTURES OF THE HAND Curled Fingers 1 Open Palm Start honing the shapes of the dominant planes. Then subdivide each shape so that you w o r k from large to small. These planes. Keep lines open to change and take measurements if they help. A mirror increases your range of views. Do not separate them yet. general to specific. it is important to leave aside all details of the fingers and toes. express structure and gesture far more successfully and easily than ten worried outlines wandering up and down between the fingers and toes.120 BODY Hands and Feet THERE ARE MANY different ways of approaching h a n d s and THE of form. Focus instead on how planes change direction across the knuckles from one side of the hand or foot to the other. This exercise is useful when struggling with proportion. Begin by drawing lines to encompass the whole hand. Draw large shapes and their orientation. and ignore all details. Don't worry about achieving perfect solutions.

Look for key angles without becoming distracted by detail. Leave aside all detail. however. . as if with a chisel. Try t o express the whole foot and t o encapsulate its entire shape and direction in a few marks. t o remove t o o many early lines. these are what give a drawing its tangible structure. flattened planes.as though out o f wood. Nowimagineyou are carving the foot insidethepaper. and don't worry about accuracy t o begin with.121 HANDS AND FEET MOVEMENTS OF THE FOOT Flat Stance Raised Heel Instep 1 Let your first marks be light. 2 3 Use an eraser t o refine decisions o r t o suggest areas o f light. depth. and spontaneity. Hew it roughly in broad. loose. It can be a mistake. and rapid.

Charcoal Hands T H E S E DRAWINGS ARE MADE in compressed charcoal." . I also used white ink with a steel dip pen. The white lines demonstrate what is often called "bracelet shading. Opposite. Compare its nature in close-up to that of willow charcoal used on pp.204-05.

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length. before honing his or her shape (see pp. I make these lines in the first five to ten seconds of a drawing to locate the presence. and posture of the model.HERE TRACES OF RAPID initial lines are still seen within and outside each body. Phrasing Contours . 118-19).

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The Visual Detective DRAWING FROM MASTERWORKS was once a staple component of an artist's education. I draw in museums in support of written research and as an artist seeking answers to questions about the practicalities of image making. and narrative pulse become vivid when you realize them in the middle of your study. Drawing work by another artist enables you to discover and understand the inventive hand in their composition. perspectives. characters. Forms. . feeling them through the attentive movements of your own hand. It is now viewed with some skepticism and often seen as academic.

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there is a unique museum of 18th-century anatomical waxes.3 x 3 m) made in response to La Specola. Florence. Life-size women wearing wigs recline on beds of embroidered silk in cabinets of mahogany and Venetian glass This is a detail of a compressed charcoal drawing measuring 14 x 10 ft (4. These almost life-size figures were composed from my imagination and achieved with the help af studies discussed on pp. 126-27. each modeled from dissection. .La Specola At17V i a Romana. Walls are lined with hundreds of faintly animated body parts.

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usually strangers from past times. Movie director Alfred similarly signed his films by playing a fleeting role: he walks through an extra. and satirical or metaphorical. and secular narratives. their stance. Rembrandt's famous multitude of self-portraits.Portraiture IN P O R T R A I T U R E W E MEET PEOPLE. Halls and palaces are filled with pictures of the mighty and significant. and it is very rewarding. In this chapter. Portraits can be highly or loosely detailed. and p r i n t m a k e r . Our homes are filled with images of our loved ones and of those in our families who have gone before. throat. This enlargement o f his miniature p o r t r a i treveals t h e s p e e d and agility o f his p e n and about himself. the meaning of their face. painters have dropped discreet records of themselves into commissioned narratives so that they can remain a face in the crowd. you can capture the subtlety.139). neck. having been documented and preserved. or past us. and shoulders. character. buttons. Self-portraiture gives every artist a constant. Past rulers sent painters across continents to bring back a likeness in advance of a prospective royal marriage. Goya. we use the delicate medium of silver point to look at foundation structures of the head. and a handprint (see p. historical. abstract or figurative. gathered all that he knew FRANCISCO DE GOYA V i s i o n a r y Spanish painter. W h e n drawing a person. look directly at us. . It also reminds us o f b o t h t h e intimacy and a scene as scrutiny o f an honest portrait. Goya's w o r k s include many royal and society p o r t r a i t s . and in a few scrolling rafts of pen lines and stubbled dots. compliant subject to scrutinize. or whose eyes can seem to follow us around the room Portraiture is a constant. bells. in a miniature self-portrait magnified opposite. and social and political commentaries. and their posture can be changed with just one line. single or of groups. We are also reassured by keeping records of ourselves. draftsman. his changes in pressure and Hitchcock length o f line. To create a face is to see and interpret the essence of an identity. The returning image was of crucial consideration in any proposal. a single line can deliver an entire expression. 1790-92 4 x 3 in ( 1 0 2 x 7 6 m m ) F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A and memorize the basic structure that we all share. Man Ray's self-portrait of scored lines. For centuries. and expression of the individual. made as he passed through the ages of man. The truth is that we all like looking at faces and observing the billions of variations that make us individuals. or a glimpse of him is caught in a photograph used as a prop. and lucrative genre for artists. Once you understand Self-Portrait in a Cocked Hat c. We can mold and animate qualities of expression out of objects and fragments of disassociated things—for example. who. religious. live. is here to both meet and look through us. Equally. became more poignant as he progressed. Beginners often draw themselves as a way of establishing their practice.

PABLO PICASSO Spanish Cubist painter (see also p. Picasso has left to posterity many hundreds of magnificent line drawings. we can enjoy and learn from them. caught in her last moments of youth. whisking a timeless girl onto the page. The aesthetic sense of a line being just right can make a drawing sing. While with longer consideration. We can actually count that he struck the paper 40 times. they serve as a great lesson that it is not always necessary to add tone to your drawing. It is the portrait of a countrywoman.30). length. There is a common misunderstanding that a drawing with only a few lines is both less finished and easier to make than a drawing with more. Here the grace and beauty of two young women are held forever. Through exhibitions and copies in books. hand to capture something well in only Frangoise au Bandeau 1946 660 x 505 mm (26 x197/8in) PABLO PICASSO .132 PORTRAITURE Poise THE BALANCE BETWEEN a mark and a blank space is often a tantalizing form of perfection. How could the addition of shadows have enhanced this image? Few strokes The simplicity of Picasso's line is breathtaking. Her face is drawn tenderly and with a luminous glow. stealthily using his chalk to find contours and mass. and pressure as it conducts our eye through the image. teetering on the brink of older age. one eye already cast askew into the autumn of her life. Holbein maps the still landscape of Dorothea's body in questioning marks. The Tightness of a line is felt in its speed. We can read so much about them by studying their gaze. Without faltering. adding smudges of tone for weight and solidity. breadth. Picasso strikes and scrolls his pencil. It takes a truly accomplished a few strokes. For the beginner. He makes his flair and skill look easy. The truth is often the opposite.

Cropping This regal composition fits its paper perfectly. presses against the binding across her face. The peak of her cap clips the uppermost edge.133 HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER German p o r t r a i t painter draftsman. Holbein unified the woman with her background by gently blending colors from her clothes and face into the atmosphere around her. made a popular series o f w o o d c u t prints titled The Dance of Death. Her folded forearms support and frame her weight above. which. gently flushed. and designer f r o m Basel. Holbein has cropped and pinned his subject within the four outermost lines of the image—the edges of the page. he designed c o u r t costumes. Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 1516 51/8 x121/4in (385 x 310 m m ) HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER . and its downward slope crowns the diagonal of the composition. Holbein was employed toward the end of his life by King Henry VIII of England. In addition t o his numerous exquisite portraits in oil. He outlined her nose but not her upper lip. and produced numerous society portraits such as this one here. Blended colors In this portrait drawn with colored chalks on slightly textured paper.

distorted. continues to exhibit regularly. its highly clarified detail claiming to be d r a w n from observation. Newsome was awarded the Prix de Rome in 1960. Contrasts Sharp. blood vessels. VICTOR NEWSOME British sculptor painter and draftsman. . and unpleasant to see. Nerves. London. Highlights of white gouache were dry Profile Head late in the making. solid above and almost hollow below. while white painted flecks and wisps suggest electrical illumination. and has works in major collections including the Tate Gallery. confusing. and glands also complicate form. This is one of a number of similar disembodied female heads seen behind. Anatomically. or defined by. The style of Durelli's d r a w i n g opposite sings with the confidence of truth and precision. using a fine and relatively 1982 13 x 181/8 in (328 x 460 mm) VICTOR NEWSOME brush. N e w s o m e ' s eerily shadowed form is smooth and bears a linear grain evocative of w o o d . The real dissection w o u l d have been far more c o m p l e x . In fact. Durelli has m a d e a few m i n o r mistakes. dark lines made with a pencil appear against smooth. but they are irrelevant here. It floats in space. Psychological drama is contained behind a grid.134 PORTRAITURE Anatomies These highly finished drawings express the emotional power and physicality of the head and neck. Delicate muscles are integrated with the skin and fat that is to be r e m o v e d . perhaps applied using a tortillon. the contours of a grid. the face is one of the hardest parts to dissect. This is a m a r v e l o u s interpretation of the truth. dark tones of graphite blended into the paper. taught at numerous British art schools from 1962-77.

Stylized parallel lines are reminiscent of engravings. Red Chalk the Muscles 1837 173/8 x 145/8 in ( 4 4 0 x 3 7 2 m m ) ANTONIO DURELLI and Pencil Drawing and of Neck of the Head Little is k n o w n o f this M i l a n e s e p a i n t e r a n d engraver w h o c a m e from a family o f artists.135 ANATOMIES ANTONIO DURELLI Linear perfection This is a red chalk drawing of extraordinary accomplishment. It is hard to think of a more difficult medium with which to achieve such linear perfection. Durelli's experience as an engraver is reflected in his stylized drawing o f muscle fibers. w h e n contracted. which. and it is likely that this drawing was intended for reproduction as a print. Pencil numbers refer to the list of muscles written beneath. pull their points o f attachment t o w a r d each other .

painter draftsman. 1948 77/8 x 6 in (200 x 150 mm) ALBERTO GIACOMETTI . Portrait de Marie-Laure de Noailles c. and poet After studying in Geneva and Italy. Opposite. as if seen from a distance. Both works demonstrate how simple lines can be made complex by being intense. There is a film of Giacometti drawing. ALBERTO GIACOMETTI Swiss sculptor. close enough to touch his hair and feel his breath. with speed and urgency. Bellini gently conjures the features of his saint with soft marks that tease his presence out of shadows into the light.136 PORTRAITURE THESE ARE DRAWINGS of shoulders. he drew over the whole image at once. Flesh is built and personality carved simultaneously. and with staccato flinches his hyperactive eye moves from paper to model. We are brought intimately close to this man gazing up to heaven. Similar movements sculpted the head below into its page. Then. Without paint and with very little tone. cutting and carving the paper with matted and spiraling restless energy. and heads. They confuse our perception of scale by being intimately fragile and at the same time far removed. The camera watches him at work. Speed Giacometti probably began with an oval shape placed in relation to the proportion of the page. while his hand stabs and thrusts Revelations like a conductors baton. which are characteristically elongated. Giacometti settled in Paris. necks. They show us clearly the bones of drawing. Agitated marks make patches of tone that cut away the space around the character. He is best known for his bronze sculptures of human form. each portrait is inscribed onto the page. each locked into a visionary gaze. Energy This is a portrait of a woman drawn with black crayon on a plain page of a book Lines search for the essence of form.

a n d b r o t h e r in-law. These are pinholes. H e t a u g h t G i o r g i o n e Barbarelli and Titian. Mantegna. Sometimes different narrative same character was reused in compositions. Head and Shoulders of a Man 73/8 x 21/4 in ( 1 8 6 x 5 8 UNDATED GIOVANNI BELLINI .25 6 . a n d his w o r k is d i s t i n c t i v e l y calm. Character This is one of many cartoons produced by Bellini the and his family.5 9 ) .G I O V A N N I BELLINI A prominent member of a large family o f V e n e t i a n painters. transferring which were made in the process of the saint to his final place in the composition of a painting (see Glossary pp. Transfer This delicate humorous chalk a drawing is a cartoon—not image but a type of template used to plan the composition of a larger work Look closely and you will see rows of tiny dots along every significant line in the picture. lyrical. H e p r e f e r r e d religious t o classical t h e m e s . Bellini s t u d i e d u n d e r his f a t h e r J a c o p o . a n d c o n t e m p l a t i v e .

drawn. their most immediate and best-known subject: themselves. and buttons rings with surrealist wit and agile improvisation. The artist has finished his portrait with the signature of his hand smacked in the middle like a kiss: a declaration of existence as old as man's first drawing.221). JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT Short-lived American painter and graffiti artist who began his blazing nine-year career drawing on lower Manhattan subway trains with a friend. Later Basquiat sold drawings on T-shirts. and confrontations with. It is an image of confrontation—the ever-controversial young artist roars at us from his abstract city-scape. humor. Self Portrait 1982 9 4 x 7 6 in (239 x 193 cm) JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT . postcards. It has proved to be a subject of piercing scrutiny. scratched lines. political outcry. In 1986 he traveled to Africa and showed his work in Abidjan on the Ivory Coast He also exhibited in Germany and France. The incandescent New York painter Jean Michel Basquiat pictured himself here in naked silhouette. similar to work by Cy Twombly (see p. It is an opportunity to look deep without the infringement of courtesies owed to a commissioning sitter. Signs and symbols with symbols This painting shudders that ore written. scratched into its surface. and everything flux. bells. The figure's position is unequivocal and defiant while around him is in a state Without the essential of cultural and figure we would elegant belookingat a sophisticated painting of signs. scrolls. Al Diaz. and attitudes. float and shimmer in the shallow pictorial space. a tribal. and sheet metal before being snapped up by the New York contemporary art scene.138 PORTRAITURE THE MIRROR OF SELF-PORTRAITURE offers artists infinite reflections of. made with great energy. marks. Man Ray's playful silk-screen assembly of color blocks. signing their work SAMO. Islands of graphic marks. and indulgence. spear-brandishing warrior. skull- Self-Portraits headed.

Frame White lines are seemingly (though not actually) scratched through ink to frame this face. They suggest speed and make the picture look immediate and spontaneous. They experimented with camera-free photography working directly onto photographic paper Silk and ink This is a silkscreen print made through the following process: the paper was laid on a flat surface and a frame stretched with fine silk was placed on top. The handprint appears to be made directly.139 MAN RAY American surrealist photographer. printmaker and cofounder of the New York Dada movement. while a squeegee was used to drag thick lilac-brown ink across the silk pushing it though exposed areas onto the paper below. Man Ray probably used his own hand. The first part of the stenciled image was already marked on the silk The screen and paper were then held tightly together. Man Ray lived and worked in Paris. During the 1920's and 30s. painter. last of all. Black ink was printed next and then white. Autoportrait 1916 195/8 MAN RAY . where he collaborated with the artist Laslo MoholyNagy. caked in thick printing ink or paint.

an exciting indication of how large-scale drawings could be made on a wall. Be swift and firm. Z I N C W H I T E G O U A C H E : Dilute with w a t e r A d d c o l o r i f r e q u i r e d (as opposite) 4 . Numerous early European artists also enjoyed its fine qualities (see p. S i l v e r is b e s t . E m p t y mechanical pencils designed f o r t h i c k leads ( s e e p. Find a n i t e m t h a t y o u can h o l d a n d draw with comfortably. s o m e m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n o t h e r s . T h e p a p e r will l o o k b u c k l e d . To begin. Lightly s p o n g e o f f t h e excess. the surface must be primed with a ground such as gouache. artists mixed white lead. W e t o n e length o f g u m . 156). Stretched paper remains taut as a d r u m . illuminators of medieval m a n u s c r i p t s . it leaves a deposit. The most c o m m o n metal has always been silver—hence the term "silver point. or wood. Metal point is simply a strip of metal bound in a holder. 144-45. and is therefore useful w h e n using w a t e r c o l o r as well as silver point. bone. This browns with age unless sealed by fixative (see pp. you will need t o stretch paper and lay a wash (see right and opposite). laid on paper. purchase silver wire. M a k e s u r e i t is c o m p l e t e l y clean t o avoid u n w a n t e d streaks. Take a sheet o f any t y p e o f p a p e r (for e x a m p l e . w h i t e d r a w i n g paper) and cut it t o fit y o u r d r a w i n g b o a r d w i t h a generous b o r d e r a r o u n d its edges. Lay a clean d r a w i n g b o a r d o n a flat surface. Historically. SILVER W I R E : Purchase different gauge lengths f r o m a traditional a r t supplier o r jeweler. which quickly oxidizes into a gray line. who used it to outline initials and border characters before painting.54-55). p a r c h m e n t . Straighten the w o r s t buckles. SILVER P O I N T W I R E H O L D E R : T h e s e c a n b e p u r c h a s e d a n d t e n d t o b e heavy. Note h o w domestic paintwork marks with a coin. or ring. 1.s t r i p a n d use i t t o fix o n e side o f t h e p a p e r t o t h e b o a r d . Pages 142 to 147 are illustrated in silver point and techniques are explained on pp. was familiar to or eggshells with animal glue. S O F T F U L L B R U S H : W h e n laying a w a s h . b e f o r e priming stretched paper. If w o r k i n g o n an emulsion-painted wall. 2. Gesso o r m a t t e m u l s i o n c a n a l s o b e u s e d . and alloys work on matt emulsion. and make o r buy a holder. c h o o s e a s o f t full b r u s h t h a t c a n c a r r y p l e n t y o f l i q u i d . For i m p o r t a n t a d v i c e o n p r e p a r a t i o n a n d use. key.54) can also b e used. M E T A L OBJECTS: All metal objects m a r k a p r e p a r e d surface. I t is a v a i l a b l e f r o m all a r t s h o p s . 5. Drawn across a prepared surface.140 PORTRAITURE Silver P o i n t SILVER OR METAL POINT STRETCHING PAPER A sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has been made w e t with the strokes o f a paintbrush will buckle d u e t o its uneven expansion. I combined silver point with painted white gouache on a pink ground. b u t d o n ' t w o r r y . copper. 2 . and t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h strips a b o v e and b e l o w . Opposite. choose a silver object. This is called a three-tone drawing.Tear o f f f o u r lengths o f b r o w n p a p e r g u m tape. o n e t o fit each side o f t h e b o a r d — t h e s e will make t h e glued f r a m e t h a t holds y o u r p a p e r in place. and gold have also been used." Lead. W e t a n d fix a s e c o n d strip t o t h e o p p o s i t e side. Metal point does not work on ordinary paper. platinum. s e e p . 1 4 4 . I m a k e m y o w n f r o m o l d dip pens. MATERIALS 1 Find a clean sponge and b o w l o r d e e p t r a y a n d fill it w i t h w a t e r W e t t h e p a p e r evenly in t h e t r a y o r o n t h e b o a r d . 3 .

Runs blend into each other evenly. v e r y little at a time. overlapping lines until you reach the bottom. so put newspaper under the lower edge. leaving a smooth surface. stretched paper at a 45-degree angle. and let tests dry before deciding to change the mixture. It will slowly straighten and become taut. Keep adding smooth. T h r e e . is necessary to lay a wash o Three-tone When coloring ground. I used a powder pigment called Caput Mortuum. Prop up your board of dry. as the paper will be ruined by a raised ridge. any extra will keep. Dry thoroughly before laying a wash. Make an even line across to the right. Keep testing on spare paper. full brush into the gouache and start in the top left corner. LAYING A WASH It your stretched paper so as to prime it for silver point. Mix a very wet but not weak solution of gouache in a jar with a lid (add pigment at this stage for a three-tone drawing). Beware of the tape's coming loose at any point while drying. The next step will make a small mess.t o n e silver point drawing of a skull . Here. Dip a soft. slowly add powder pigment or gouache from a tube. Reload the brush and add a second line overlapping it beneath.141 SILVER POINT 3 Leave the paper to dry flat. Leave the wash to dry thoroughly before you begin to draw. Make enough to cover your paper.

142

PORTRAITURE

Head and Neck
THE HEAD AND NECK are best conceived as one unit arranged in four parts: cranium, face, neck, and throat. Each is of equal importance. The cranium is essentially egg-shaped and pivots on the first vertebra. The face is suspended beneath, like a softly curved triangle. The n e c k — a powerful, shapely column of layered muscles rigged to vertebrae—adjusts and holds the angle and expression of the head. The throat is delicate, hard, and lumpy to the touch, formed of cartilaginous rings, glands, thin muscles, and looser skin. Framing the throat, two columnar neck muscles (sternomastoids) project the head forward and also turn it to the opposite side.

This is a simple shorthand diagram representing the cranium, face, neck, and throat. It can be learned and visualized in different positions very easily, giving the novice a firm footing on which to stand and develop their drawings of the head and neck.

Shorthand diagram

Cranium Begin with an egg shape. Tilt it on the paper to change the position of the head.

Face Draw a rounded triangular shape below the forward point of the egg to represent the face.

Neck This shape represents the trapezius; the largest surface muscle of the neck and shoulders.

Throat A triangular shape represents the throat. (The nose makes the diagram clearer)

Applied shorthand

After copying the diagram above, animate it. Practice drawing the cranium at different angles, add the face beneath, then the neck, shoulders, and throat. Shape your diagrams so they are more lifelike, but avoid adding detailed features too soon.

143 These three drawings demonstrate (from left to right) the following: why the cranium may be considered egg-shaped; now the face can be seen as a curved triangle suspended beneath and where the division lies between the two; and the form of sternomastoid muscles that frame thethroatsodistinctlywhen the head is turned and inclined forward.

The skull and the frame of the throat

HEAD AND NECK

Bones of the cranium are locked together by jagged joints. Sinuses in the frontal (forehead) bone between and beneath the eyebrows are larger in men, making their brows pronounced and often ridged compared to those of women.

Bones of the face house our sight, smell, taste, The skull pivots on the first vertebra or "atlas," and speech. Cartilage extending from nasal bones after the Greek god condemned to carry the shapesthenose.Pads of fat resting on the base of Earth. The jaw hinges in front of the ears. Behind, eacheyesocket support the eyeballs in position. If bony ridges give anchor to the sternomastoid thefatisreducedby old age, eyes look sunken. muscles rising from the breast- and collarbones.

Three useful generalizations

General rules about the relative positions of body parts can hinder artists as much as help them, since they are often based on classical ideals rather than thediversityoflife.However,some generalizations can help as a rough guide to start with, so long as good observation takes over as soon as possible.

In general, when the face is relaxed (not smiling or frowning), the corners of the mouth are found directly beneath the pupils of the eyes. Vertical lines can be drawn down from the pupils to meet the corners of the mouth.

The height of a young adult's ear is often the same as their nose and found on the same level. There is no general rule for growing children, and remember that ears grow again in old age, which is most obvious in men.

The height of the face is about the length of the handspan and the eye is normally halfway down the total height of the head. A common error is to draw the eyes too high up on the face.

144

PORTRAITURE

Essential Observations
T H E DELICACY OF SILVER POINT

(see pp. 140-41) is perfect for

such as a beach pebble. Here, I stretched drawing paper and laid a wash of white gouache (see pp.140-41). As you can see, the line and tone of silver point varies with pressure, but only slightly. Too much pressure cuts the ground. Silver point erases, but so does ground. Erased ground can be repaired gently with extra gouache. You can also use gouache to paint over mistakes and make corrections.

small, detailed drawings. The drawings below and opposite show useful observations of the head and neck, which are explained in the captions below. Each drawing was made with a silver wire held in a large-gauge mechanical pencil. Newly clipped wires are sharp and cut rather than draw. Before use, they need to be rubbed and smoothed on a stone

Here I imagined placing my silver point wire against the skin of each head and neck and, working in parallel bands from the crown downward, I traced the undulation of surfaces. Linear bands imagined around the head and neck can help you t o clearly see the tilt of the head and relative levels of the features. Ask a friend t o model for you and try this exercise life-size using a pencil and eraser

Contours

Tilted forward

Tilted backward

Three-quarter view

Seeing that the face is never flat

Drawings below left and center are summaries of the generalizations given on p.143. Far right is an image to remind us that the face is never flat. It slopes back to varying degrees among individuals, from the tip of the nose t o the ears. For example, note that the innermost corners of the eyes are farther forward in space than the outermost corners.

General measurements, side

General measurements, front

View from above

145

Male and female head and neck
Men's necks a r e g e n e r a l l y s h o r t e r a n d t h i c k e r t h a n w o m e n ' s b e c a u s e t h e angles a n d levels o f c e r t a i n b o n e s a r e d i f f e r e n t b e t w e e n t h e sexes ( i n d i c a t e d h e r e b y d o t t e d lines) a n d m e n are n o r m a l l y m o r e muscular. T h e male t h y r o i d cartilage ( A d a m ' s apple) is larger a n d m o r e visible than t h e f e m a l e . L a r g e r f e m a l e t h y r o i d glands also s o f t e n t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e t h r o a t .

ESSENTIAL OBSERVATIONS
Female skull

Male

skeleton

Male

skull

Trapezius muscle
The largest m u s c l e o f t h e s h o u l d e r s a n d n e c k is called the trapezius. A r r a n g e d on e i t h e r side o f t h e spine, it shapes t h e u p p e r back and neck above the s h o u l d e r blades. C o n t r a c t i n g in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h d e e p e r and surrounding muscles, it raises and l o w e r s t h e shoulders a n d d r a w s t h e h e a d backtoeitherside.

The whole

muscle

Upper

half with

sternomastoids

Above

with head

straight

Above

with head

forward

Side with

sternomastoid

Front with

sternomastoid

146

PORTRAITURE

Drawing Portraits
USING A SHARP 3 B PENCIL, I drew this head quickly from imagination, evolving its character and expression from the scheme of four parts: cranium, face, neck, a n d throat (see p. 142). Here, five steps show you how to practice doing the same. This approach can be used to draw from imagination or from life. Keep your wrist loose and hold your pencil away from its point (see pp.22-23). Build the layers of your drawing from pale to dark, a n d from general balance a n d form to specific detail. Remember that successful drawings are built on foundations of "seeing the whole," then dividing the whole into smaller parts, with details brought in last of all. Phrased tonal marks modeling this girls skin and hair follow the technique demonstrated by Goya in his self-portrait on p. 130. Turn to Goya's drawing and study how, in a circle beginning across his hat, moving down his hair, and around his coat, he flows lines over surfaces to describe their contour. As you build from steps 1 to 5, bring phrased groups of lines across the surfaces of your form, using their directions to capture the expression of the head and neck. If unsure, copy my steps until you gain the confidence to make your own decisions.

This drawing is the final stage of the four steps opposite. Here, I have enlarged the eye, and moved it back into the head by trimming the length of the upper lid and adding a more pronounced lower lid. It is important to set eyes far enough back from the relatively prominent nose; too close to it and the face flattens. Hair swept back and extended behind the cranium balances the regal pose. Lines shaping the hair echo those marking the cranium in step 1. Here, the lower part of step 1 comes through as wisps of hair across her face and ear

BALANCED POSE

Portrait of a Young Girl

The nose and ear begin to shape the head. too soon.Theangle at which you draw this shape of the paper will determine the angle of the finished head. Here. Keep your first lines light. I modeled the outline of the character I imagined light shining from above and in front and adjusted the pressure of lines to reflect this. First lines will remain visible in the final drawing. I used light to describe the upper lid first with a shadow beneath for the lower lid and open eye. so it is important to the life of the image that while controlled. 3 Place the eye beneath the cranium. over the cranium. 2 Rapidly add shorthand shapes to represent the face. Moving from the back of the neck. The eye announces the nature and expression of the emerging person. neck. they are also still sweeping and confident. avoid drawing too dark. and throat.147 Building up the portrait DRAWING PORTRAITS 1 Gently spin pale lines in a softly drawn shape representing the cranium. 4 . down the face to the throat.

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the texture of hair.T o DRAW PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGES. Above all. be aware of the subtle differences in skin surface. muscular tension. a n d t h o s e w h o a r e Generations asleep (see overleaf). . empathize. and gravity.

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Fast lines carve out the features of Goya's soup-slurping hag. Van Dyke's noble cast of characters was modeled more finely.Castings DRAWING IN THE PRADO MUSEUM. with a steel dip pen and acrylic ink. Madrid. I used the nib upside down to gain needle-sharp precision. seeking the dominant contours of each individual expression. .

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while court p a i n t e r s — M i c h e l a n g e l o and Holbein. P o p u l a r f a s h i o n d e s i g n e x p l o d e d w i t h the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n . w a r m t h . e m u l a t e textures. D e s i g n e r s create m a s t e r p i e c e s of haute couture LEON BAKST for H o l l y w o o d stars. and be so expressive of temperament that it overtakes the need for an o c c u p y i n g h u m a n form. intriguing. known as Leon Bakst. Samoylovich Rosenberg. Practical classes Bacchante 1911 l o o k at r a n g e s of c o l o r e d m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d i n g p a s t e l s a n d felt-tip p e n s . and gouache. woman was drawn by Bakst one year later for the ballet Narcisse. cool. a n d s u b t l e t o n e s . outrageous. W e dress ourselves and costume designer trained in in St. arichand unusual combination of pencil. gesture. Designers all over the w o r l d c o n t i n u a l l y p e n and b r u s h lines to lash us w i t h color. variety. c r u m p l e s . personality. st 111/4 x 81/2 in (285 x 220 mm) u d i e d L E O NB A K S T and explore the characterization of fabric t h r o u g h m o v e m e n t . Cities c h a n g e d all. dancer leaps through swaths of golden cloth. Artists do this not so m u c h b y the style of a figure's garment. or b u l g e s . T h e e n t o u r a g e of the theatrical stage o f t e n l e a d s the c a t w a l k . a n d w e will c o l l e c t patterns. it is the public sign by w h i c h w e are j u d g e d . for e x a m p l e — d e s i g n e d the w a r d r o b e s of p o p e s a n d k i n g s . and everything w e h a v e c h o s e n for o u r w a r d r o b e s — r e f l e c t o r s of o u r taste. and s y m b o l s that lets m e n and w o m e n in all countries and areas have w o r k i n g access to the latest fashions. charcoal. In this c h a p t e r w e see h o w c l o t h i n g c a n s e e m to p o s s e s s the w e i g h t and m o n u m e n t a l i t y of stone. c u l t u r e . Petersburg and later exiled designers' ideas and are surprised and delighted b y their continual f l o w of inspiration. theb u t b y the w a y it s p e a k s w i t h its flying.Costume W E MAKE OURSELVES EXOTIC. toParis. Previously. o n l y the w e a l t h y c o u l d afford to h a v e c o s t u m e s specially m a d e . Like it or not.As artistic director of the It is s h o c k i n g to t h i n k h o w m a n y m i l l i o n s of d r a w i n g s m u s t be m a d e a n d d i s c a r d e d Ballet Russe. c o s t u m e o f f e r s a r i c h v o c a b u l a r y of t e x t u r e s a n d c o l o r . a n d p r o f e s s i o n — b e g a n life as a d r a w i n g . articulate a d a n g e r o u s satirical j o k e . and intent. . g l o s s y folds. and e x u b e r a n c e . T h e rural masses w o r e h o m e s p u n simplicity. was a Belarussian A r t Deco theater fantasies and desires to immediately possess a version of the same. w h i c h in turn feed c o n s u m e r Lev. T h e p a p e r p a t t e r n is p e r h a p s the m o s t w i d e l y k n o w n of c o s t u m e d r a w i n g s : a formalized plan of lines. fulfilling lavish and spectacular briefs. or calm u s w i t h chic. and i n d e e d image b e c a m e the property also of the industrial classes. Bakst's designs and costumes immediately To the fine artist. and atmosphere. of Scheherazade. he and cofounder Serge Diaghilev took Paris by eac storm in 1910 with their production h year in the industrial f r e n z y of creating o u r image and aspirations. shapes. a n d c o u r t i e r tailors f o l l o w e d suit. so that c h o i c e . In psychology. and even invisible by the w a y w e dress. S t r u c t u r e is t h o u g h the i n v e n t i o n of shoes. b u t influenced Parisian fashion and interiordecor.This voluptuous above all a physical p u p p e t w i t h w h i c h to animate character and narrate personality. caricatured p l u m e s .

folds and patterns of material speak more resolutely of their wearers than any small glimpses of body we can see. Opposite. Marble gown We will never know if Van Eyck considered this drawing unfinished or intended the kneeling abbot to remain transient and ghostly. Sculpted one. the Madonna and her architecture are both dressed in the same manner. Keisai Eisen's intense.140-41). and implied striation in the stone of the architecture. it is only possible to create very thin.156 COSTUME Cloth and Drapery EACH OF THESE FIGURES is ninety percent cloth. Flaxmans sleeper—perhaps a pilgrim or a soldier resting between campaigns—has wedged himself into the cleft of some great building to grab a moment of peace. Delicate marks Silver (or metal) point is the most delicate of traditional drawing media (see pp. The quiet stillness of this image is achieved by a masterly economy of stylized line. With a stylus such as Van Eyck used here. H e m e t i c u l o u s l y a r r a n g e d subjects t o c o n v e y d e e p e r meaning. swirling printed fabrics. Church and deities are drawn as JAN VAN EYCK Flemish oil p a i n t e r f r o m L i m b o u r g . He has layered these slowly and carefully so as not to cut through the ground and produce a white mark just where he intended a dark one. Maelbeke I44I Madonna 11 x 7 in (278 x 180 m m ) JAN V A N EYCK . and snakelike marks. best k n o w n f o r his G h e n t altarpiece ( 1 4 3 2 ) a n d m a r r i a g e p o r t r a i t o f Giovanni A r n o l f i n i and his w i f e (1434). In Van Eyck's drawing below. Van Eyck's highly polished w o r k is c e l e b r a t e d f o r its disguised symbolism. Their uninterrupted emphasis is entirely vertical. bands around the columns. Short and subtle horizontal punctuations are only given in the background by sections of floor. with their jagged edges. the vaulted stone roof echoes and crowns the moment. her marble garment holds u p the infant Christ in a fountain of compressed line. However. and the kneeling abbot is a ghost by comparison. Above them. Below this. Vertical lines The highly controlled lines of this drawing cascade from top to bottom of the image. delicate lines. Her gown is carved and polished as if made from marble. the carefully composed outline of his cloak shows us how the artist would have also begun his immaculate rendering of the Virgin's clothes. resonate with their wearers startled expression. dragons.

an 18th-19th century document on the lives of the ukiyo-e artists. Position In this pen and ink drawing.157 KEISAI EISEN Japanese draftsman. stone wall of downward-stroked this sleeper's position is momentary. each delivering a different part and color of the design. Images are drawn onto smooth. which are sometimes also cut into pieces like a jigsaw puzzle. the cloak sliding to the ground. he also co-edited and expanded the Ukiyo-e Ruiko (History of Prints of the Floating World). the angle of the head. Dante. designer. Aeschylus earned Flaxman an international reputation. and Man Lying Down in a Cloak I 787-94 21/4 JOHN FLAXMAN x 41/8 in (57 x 105 mm) . Remaining raised areas of wood are rolled with colored inks. and teacher Distinctive linear illustrations for the works of Homer. Koimurasaki of Tama-ya 1810-50 15 x101/4in (381 x 260 mm) KEISAI EISEN The Courtesan JOHN F L A X M A N English late 18th-century neoclassical sculptor. Parts of the image to be left unprinted are gouged out with a metal tool. The inked block is laid face-down on damp paper and pressed to make the print. and the feet notched against the pillar tell us that A lines holds him into the cleft. This complex numerous blocks prepared image and may have been made with printed separately. writer and printmaker Keisai Eisen took his name from the masters Kano Hakkeisai and Kikugawa Eizan. draftsman. CLOTH AND DRAPERY Relief printing This is a woodblock print made by a relief process. Respected for his sumptuous images of geisha and editions of erotic prints. one over the other. flat sheets of wood.

Anthony Van Dyke's Man in Armor is a masterpiece of drawn surface. A s a y o u n g man. The slight uncertainty of the pose and the limp cloak suggest a little more metal than man. and even formal portraiture. a n d w a s e m p l o y e d as c o u r t painter t o King Charles I. Flowing scarf The knight's scarf of gilded blue is drawn in a pale wash over red ink lines. Details and voices are worn externally with great imagination. He has been rendered on this olive<olored page with pen and gray wash worked over a red and black under-drawing. Leg section Compare mid-shin the section of white boots cropped to the section of similarly cropped trousers in drawings Gruau's drawing on p. and feather were all CHARACTER COSTUMES REPRESENT observed with closely crafted conviction. all ruffs and wrinkles. he c o o l e d and redefined his style. The aged queen is compared to an overdressed bird. Man in Armor UNDATED 1 6 x 9 1 / 2 in ( 4 0 5 x 2 4 0 m m ) A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE .158 COSTUME Character Costumes an extreme form of the clothed figure. for she would not have been amused and William Wodall might have been stretching his luck. The metal. Its warm surface flows in contrast to the stiff metal armor. Leg sections in both support the figure without taking our attention away from the main garment above. cartoon. Van D y k e was chief assistant t o Rubens f o r t w o years. b e f o r e traveling t o Italy. Fine examples can be plucked from fashion. It is presumed Her Royal Highness never saw it. cloth. cinema. A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE Flemish painter and draftsman. A flamboyant territory. a scurrilous cartoon by a courtier of Queen Elizabeth I. Its color is also reflected in the metal. w h e r e . where sometimes there just might not be anybody inside. lace. Pen and wash In the graphic accuracy of this armored knight we see the idealized identity of a warrior from another time: a gleaming defender of the realm. Opposite is a dangerous drawing. theater. 160. In 1 6 3 2 he m o v e d p e r m a n e n t l y t o L o n d o n . t h r o u g h n u m e r o u s p o r t r a i t and C h u r c h commissions.

it was customary to Iron-gall ink Wodall's dangerous caricature steps daintily the written lines of her dedicated page. By her old upto three tiers supported on sticks. t h e Jesuit Mission.159 WILLIAM W O D A L L A u t h o r and illustrator o f The Aaes of Queene a Elizabeth poem Allegorized. Top-heavy. while a raised foot pauses to assess the next displaying a fan of daggers. and her pride. hooded with an overinflated fluffy ruff eye pins us. here dark tawny owl. the queen is masterfully rebalanced by words at her feet The whole drawing's blackened. she is shown as a grossly disproportioned bird. T h e poem recounts t h e six m a j o r crises o f Elizabeth's reign: t h e Spanish A r m a d a . A Ruffs and feathers Starched white ruffs worn at court and by society grew steadily larger as Elizabeth's reign progressed. Satire of the Queen's Dress c. and saturations showing through from the other side. t h e Ridolfi Plot.35). t h e B a b i n g t o n Plot. suggest the use of iron-gall ink (see p. t h e Rising. Beneath the lethal fan is the body of a bird of trimmed feathers suggest age.1599 71/2 WILLIAM x 51/4 in ( 1 9 0 x 1 3 4 mm) WODALL . manuscript comprising six c a n t o s . Northern Satire This is a quill-and-ink satire of the elderly queen's pride-As head of state and fashion. bitten nature.

158. G r u a u ' s highly distinctive d r a w i n g s have a p p e a r e d Couture.and tilted to the same de a little deeper than sp kneestogivehergravity. Rene Gruau's bold gouache drawing of smoothly swaying sophistication captures a brilliantly cut garment and frames it with great dynamism in a white. Drying time in between applications ensured the colors did not run into each other. She has been drawn with brushes dipped into India ink and gouache. RENE GRUAU I t a l i a n . diving to catch us in the grip of her machine-like limbs. and gray pigments were applied separately. studio-like rectangle of paper.160 COSTUME Femmes Fatales THESE DEVASTATING femmes fatales force back the onlooker with their demure. and both share the power of scarlet and black.5 9 ) and a three-spoke balance of cuffs and cropped trousers to create an almost flag-like emblem of power.F r e n c h f a s h i o n i l l u s t r a t o r w h o in his l o n g and esteemed career w o r k e d with many of the g r e a t e s t d e s i g n e r s o f 2 0 t h . Gruau uses starkly cut negative space (see pp. elegant chic and svelte. Airbrushed reflective surfaces further amplify our perception of speed. Gruau's model regally swans to the fore with cool pride. Vogue. a n d L'Officiel de la couture. His model is outlined. Spider-Girl leaps like an insect. 5 8 . Compare the compositio beneathVanDyke'sstudy of armor on p. Fine lines drawn against the building behind her echo the threads on which we have all seen arachnids drop and hang. Harpers & Queen. Composition Look how well this image is frame knee is parallel to the bottom edge spacehorizontalline cropping the trousers be outermostuprightbordersof her cuffs are similar above her head thesidesoftheimage. demanding attention with gesture and flair. Fashion and fantasy drawings invent prototypes of ideals and perfection—be they for the catwalk or the fast-paced pages of comic books.c e n t u r y haute i n n u m e r o u s m a g a z i n e s i n c l u d i n g Elle. India ink and gouache This swish of confidence and style our enters the page turning everyone's head. ofcroppedtrousershere to the device of the w Illustration 1949 for Jacques Fath in L ' O f f i c i e l d e la C o u t u r e RENE GRUAU . The black red. as is Spider-Girl opposite. possibly over a pencil outline. muscular aggression.

Sharp focus black outlines in this drawing create a hyper-real dynamic. Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 2001-04 R O N FRENZ. In your mind's eye extend the uprights out of the top of the picture. not far above the drawing. Airbrushed color and with tonal focus. and has been the title's regular artist since 2003. Align your ruler to the upright of each building. and figure are all locked into equally shatp through the traditional process of a pencilled outline over-drawn ink.RON F R E N Z Contemporary American graphic artist w h o designs and pencils the dynamic scenes of numerous superheroes featured in Marvel Comics. Buildings. MARVEL C O M I C S . and Amazing Spider-Man. beginning with Star Wars. The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones.74-77). Single-point understand perspective To how Frenz created up therefore the effect of steeply between looking buildings—and howyou can do the same in your own work—take calculate where a ruler the and single vanishing point lies. at Their extensions will meet the same single vanishing (see point pp. a great characteristic superhero comics. sky. It is outside the picture frame. Frenz has drawn for Marvel for about 20 years. to the right of its center. He began work on Spider-Girl in 1998. moon. This s modeling applied over the top give the image a sleek and mechanical of gravity.

slightly oily to the touch. COLORED PENCILS: Dry pigments ground together with chalk. Dissolve in turpentine or mineral spirits to produce oil paint or or dark paper. and synthetics. quality. Most stores leave small pads of paper on their counters for customers to test materials. I suggest you do so. chalkbased but very subtle. or wax and a binder are shaped into fine strips and encased in w o o d like a graphite pencil. 3. you may be pleasantly surprised to discover something you could not have imagined using. intensity. animals. unwrapped harder pastels. Many artists apply fixative to the back of their work. Seemingly infinite choices of texture. made in about 80 colors. Children's wax crayons are relatives. FELT-TIP PENS: Instant-drying alcoholor water-based inks stored in the barrels of the pens are delivered via smooth nylon o r felt tips of varying shapes and thicknesses. crumbly. 1. and sold in many colors. and can be a great rediscovery for bold drawings. paper-wrapped. Bright pastels are more brilliant on colored paper. Use them to draw lightly (as above left) or thickly. which he left unfixed to retain its brightness. clay. these work best when slightly warm. including iridescents. C o n t e crayons are square-formed. Be aware that fixative dulls pastel. OIL PASTELS Oil-based. They work well on PIGMENTS Pigments. except the final layer. Pastel pencils are slender and in w o o d casing. CHALK PASTELS: Blackboard chalk is sidewalk work. the diverse are made in brands of basic member of the family. though lines can develop greasy stains around the edges if the paper is not first stretched and treated with a gelatin paste laid as a wash. Degas built his pastels in layers. Pastels are finer. quality and cost T h e best are paperwrapped sticks of sumptuous. the finer and more subtle the texture and color should be. and CHALK PASTELS Pastel pencils make fine lines (as above). hue. The higher the quality (and cost). Many products are sold individually and in boxed sets. They vary hugely in cost. The worst are like revolting old lipsticks that get everywhere except where you intend. allowing it to fix slightly from behind. are derived from many sources: rocks. mixed on the paper and scratched into (as below). and can be softened and manipulated with degrees of heat. and cost are laid out for our pleasure and perusal. Store loose pastels in dry rice to keep them clean. insects. Try materials that are new and unfamiliar. Beware—some are toxic. 4. used to make colors. great for tin . plants. size. OIL PASTELS: Many colors. soft. Before making substantial investments. See h o w they work and return later for more of what proved best for you. Sticks and conte crayons make thicker marks (as below). and subtlety. The nontoxic range below represents a suggested starting point for experiment. oily pigment. there are disparities between the apparent nature or color of what you hold in your hand and its performance on paper. Often. wash. shape.162 COSTUME Colored Materials ART STORES BRIM OVER w i t h t h e m a n y wherever permitted. fixing each layer on the front. colored materials available. 2. minerals. purchase a small selection of different items you think you will like.

others dissolve in water or turpentine to make a wash. Some are nonsoluble. Some give richer lines than others. Diverse brands are harder or soften greasier or chalkier in use. Brands made for designers sold in enormous ranges of colors are far more subtle and sophisticated than those made for children. .or clay-based thin crayons in wood casing. 111).163 COLORED PENCILS These are wax. Colors can be blended as shown right) and tones graded by altering pressure. it is still a great champion and support for those beginners feeling shyly obligated to tone down their love of color to conform with what others say they should use. Fine lines can be achieved (as above). FELT-TIP PENS Although not made with felt-tip pen. leaving the paper to shine through for highlights (as below). Think of Matisse's Blue Nude (see p. If you love smooth blocks and lines of colon felt-tip pens are perfect. so it is best to test them before buying.

they record and reflect our common history. and volume in space (see pp. and they have been concealed in buildings to ward off misfortune. and a selection of shoes. This class takes the shoe as its subject in building on earlier lessons concerned with seeing through objects to understand their function. . You. t o o . the era in which we live. imagining y o u can see t h r o u g h it. style. Turn t h e m in different d i r e c t i o n s and o b s e r v e t h e i r s t r u c t u r e and f o r m . D r a w each o n e first as a solid object. t h e n again as if transparent. e n j o y i n g t h e study a n d i n v e n t i o n o f shoes. while artists have painted their boots or those of others as personal portraits and memorials. c o v e r a large sheet o f p a p e r w i t h line drawings o f several shoes. Superstitions and fetishes are attached to them: we are told never to put new shoes on a table. if y o u m a k e p l e n t y o f d r a w i n g s as o p p o s e d t o o n l y a f e w . personality. a n d e x p e r i e n c e visible p r o g r e s s . Linear Outline Using fine pens. social and economic status. As artifacts in museums. 100-01 and pp. a range of colored felt-tip pens with both fine and broad tips. S H O E S TELL LIFE STORIES. you will need several large sheets of drawing paper. and how we stand and walk. Here we go one step further. will discover m o r e . values. To set up. REPEATED STUDY T o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s class. 104-07). I m a d e n u m e r o u s s h e e t s o f d r a w i n g s .164 COSTUME Study and Design they reflect our age. and after studying familiar shoes we use the information learned to invent new ones. structure.

165

The Surface
Next,

STUDY AND DESIGN

study the surface contours using fineand broad-tipped felt-tip pens. For best results, it is important to be bold and brief. Draw firmly, fast, and with as few strokes as possible. Build up each shoe from light to dark andleavesome paper showing through to create highlights.

Design Your Own

Using what you have learned from the previous steps about the structures of your shoes, and about the use of pens, invent new designs from your imagination. Start with fine outlines and progress to colored and textured surfaces. Modify your ideas by rotating the views.

166

COSTUME

The Structure of Costume
MUSEUMS ARE AN INFINITELY

rich resource for the artist and

information given by a period style. Arrange to visit a costume museum or ask a friend to model clothes for you at home. Using fine felt-tip pens, begin with quick, pale impressions of each garment's shape before homing in on its borders and seams. Try to draw transparent views wherever possible to record the relationships between all component parts. Aim to draw enough information for it to be possible to make up a version of the garment using paper pinned to a tailor's dummy.

designer. They often give quite unexpected gems of ideas and information—whatever the subject. These drawings, made in a costume museum, demonstrate ways of recording structural information and detail for later use in the studio. They could form the basis of new designs for a fashion project or theater production, for example. Drawings of shoes on pp. 164-65 show how new designs can be evolved from the structural

OBSERVATION
It is usually best when collecting information for reference to apply the restraint of dispassionate observation. Set yourself the test of drawing facts with as little artistic license or embellishment as possible. Here I chose fine felt-tip pens because they are at their best when used swiftly, and therefore encourage bold, unhesitant decisions.

Swift lines record the hanging weight of this gentleman's coat, the relative proportions of its layers, and minimal details of the buttons and cuffs.

Thick velvet fabric is pulled tight beneath and across the bust by a single button. This transparent view shows how the fabric falls loosely in straight panels beneath the level of the sleeve.

167

LIGHTING
W h e n visiting museums, be prepared f o r l o w lighting, which can make it hard t o see and draw. A book can help if attached t o your drawing board.

Adding stripes and dashes of color with a thicker pen brings out the glossy sheen and sculptural rigidity of this dress, which would have been worn over a whalebone corset. small reading light designed t o clip o n t o a

THE STRUCTURE OF COSTUME

In small drawings such as these, use thick pens to color entire sections with a few marks, as I did here down the side of the bodice.

The light, frilly bulk of this crinoline dress is propelled forward with lines. pinching its gathers and sways that are hiding a horsehair bustle. fleets of quick

168

COSTUME

Textures and.Patterns
THIS CLASS FOCUSES ON how to draw textures through the collection of fabric, pattern, and embroidery samples from a costume m u s e u m . This formal method, using ruled squares, can create an invaluable library of ideas a n d i n f o r m a t i o n for future r e f e r e n c e — w h e n painting a clothed figure, or preparing a textile project, for example. However, if making a book of samples for a project, remember that it is important to also include collages of f o u n d materials (see pp.230-31) To d r a w a fabric texture, b e g i n by concentrating o n h o w y o u i m a g i n e it w o u l d feel if you t o u c h e d it. Decide if it w o u l d be rough, s m o o t h , w a r m , cold, thick, thin, tough, or fragile, for example. As you draw, believe you can feel these qualities at your fingertips a n d that your pencil is responding to the sensation. Undulate the pressure of your lines and marks according to the feeling of the fabric rather than its appearance. Let your pencil enact the sensation of touching its surface.

and to experiment more loosely with mixed media.

INVENTING COSTUMES
This starchy, quilted, b o w e d creation started life as an imagined corset, I intended t o d r a w together in one sculptural f o r m a range o f t h e details opposite. T h e garment quickly got o u t o f hand. T h e r e is great e n j o y m e n t in letting y o u r imagination run wild w h e n inventing costumes. If you are unable t o visit a costume museum, many exciting fabric details and textures can be found in y o u r o w n closet o r home.

169

COLORED PENCILS
Colored pencils give precision and tonal range; they can be faded but not erased. Lightly use an HB graphite pencil if you wish to plan a design first. Pressed hard, colored pencils build up a waxy finish of brilliant color. Used lightly, they appear powdery and show the texture of the paper.

TEXTURES AND PATTERNS
Wool

Silk and braid

Ribbon

Embroidered leather

Feathers

Pearls

Knit

Tassels

Outline stitch

.

I made a drawing book full of studies seeking to understand how he composed drama and pathos in his narratives (see also pp.Dressing Character I O N C E SPENT THREE MONTHS researching the work of Francisco de Goya at the Prado Museum. 172-73.126-27. These characters. look at how Goya delineated volumes of thick fabric to express the posture. identity. . and 252-53). shape. selected from different pages of my original book. Madrid. and motivation of an individual.

as it rushes and carves fabric-wrapped forms like rivers and desert winds shaping the earth. . and visible.T H E S E PENCIL STUDIES. Posture Carving also taken from my Madrid drawing book (see pp. I carefully copied the direction of each of his lines. are copies of works by Goya in which he makes air seem heavier than flesh. To understand how he did this.170—71). and tangible.

.

.

daily newspapers. the speed and printmaker and one of the greatest and most influential density of its lines. Here. With a pocket full of disposable pens we also go out and draw the expressions of gathered people. and instantly engage with the action of the scene. R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN in the delivery of narrative. Rembrandt's bored and frustrated wife. we. Later in their lives. a crowd tells the story from a distance. Drawings selected for this chapter explore these Saskia Lying in Bedand a Nurse ranges of proximity 1638 9 x61/2in (227 x 164 mm) and a travel journal. First. Blockbuster movies. presumably while he is making this drawing. and novels—our staple cultural diet—are driven by a fascination with shared experience and the detail of what happens in other people's lives. heighten or subdue drama with subtleties of exaggeration or caricature. stares out from her gloomy sickbed.Gatherings A LL DRAWINGS TELL STORIES. television documentaries. . the viewer is not directly made the finer lines of Saskia. while a quill contact with. and its illumination. types. the viewer's attention in a scene by the format of its composition. He is also the artist from whom props to add layers of meaning and attitude. The spaces between people and the positions they occupy on a page are vital to our understanding of the psychology or emotion of an event. We can direct close. It middle. furniture. we can R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter draftsman. and distance—so drawings of gathered people can be loosely arranged in three took only minutes to make and yet it lives for centuries. but drawings of gathered people tell them most directly. and therefore seem to see. paintings depicting scenes from history. Third. the viewer. Saskia died after childbirth. Washes of shadow behind engaged and as a natural voyeur can feel invisible while watching the scene. even up her were laid with a brush. vivid portrait of his wife captures our attention. we can learn most about handling pen and ink. too. comics. As artists. soap operas. and so. and other masters of Western Art. are implicated in this marital exchange made over the head of the anonymous nurse. Her all-too-clear expression shows annoyance and irritation with her husband. Saskia. Second. We read tensions and exchanges between people. this is not the portrait of an old woman. in spite of how it may seem. He in turn scorches the paper with his view and a certain speed of seeing all. the direct exchange (as shown here) where one or more characters hold eye Aneedproduced the thicker lines of the nurse. Seeing through Rembrandt's eyes. We can also use clothes. there are no longer individuals but one significant group or mass action. Storytelling and people-watching are obsessive human activities. This J u s t as there are three parts to a traditional landscape drawing—the foreground. finding corners in crowded places to inscribe their action and energy onto the page.

for example. via the animated clutter of o u r material lives. In both works. T h e i m m a c u l a t e d r a w i n g is only r e v e a l e d w h e n t h e b e a m of a p r o j e c t o r c a s t s t h e s h a d o w Projections of the h e a p o n t o a wall. and on. Pans fly oft the stove. a kitchen explodes in o u r faces. c o m p o s e d garbage p r o d u c e s a c a l m . Below. and projectors to create their anarchic punk satires of modern life. garbage and chaos are piled a n d e x p l o d e d in r o o m s full of event. F o r e a c h w o r k .. and Alice."Anything that. t h e y select and arrange familiar items of street detritus into what appears to be an u n p l e a s a n t pile." (Tim Noble) Drawing with light it is important to think about what you is Here timelessly we see a in can draw with.kicks against the mundane things that close down your mind is a refreshing and good thing. narrative is delivered through the air. Pencil on paper important but only the beginning of possibility the combination of three-dimensional space. and in. junk. refuse. hearth i m p l e m e n t s crash at o u r feet. TIM N O B L E A N D SUE W E B S T E R British artists who collaborate using neon. In one of R a c k h a m s great illustrations for Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland. N o b l e a n d W e b s t e r s w i t t y a n d o f t e n s u b v e r s i v e d r a w i n g s are also c o n t e m p o r a r y art installations. the C o o k . and smoke billows around the agitated jives of the Duchess. Here. or even the office photocopier. and projector. the Cat. Think about what else you could use: a laser smoke. Real Life is Rubbish 2002 Dimensions variable TIM N O B L E A N D SUE WEBSTER . h a l o e d portrait of the artists seated b a c k to b a c k ..176 GATHERINGS SOME DRAWINGS ARE MADE e n t i r e l y o f i l l u m i n a t i o n that floods drama into the viewers gaze. plates shatter.

beams. Refer back to the drawing class how pots In drawn objects and elements that those behind. Rackham Vanishing point In this marvelous drama made with pen. H e is best k n o w n forillustratingIrving's Rip vanWinkle. humor. ink.177 ARTHUR RACKHAM British watercolorist and book illustrator. Depth Billows of smoke expand and are lighter as they come forward. we find several devices already explored through our drawing classes. This makes the story appear to leap out at us. and watercolor. are very large compared to on p.Stowe's ofMysteryand Queer Little Folks. by vivid children's Rakham's w o r k is characterized fantasy. tabletop. and Poe's Tales Imagination. Find the singleperspective pp. and Alice's shoulder.76-77) above vanishing point (see that is about3/4in (2 cm) oak converge at this point. The wood grain acts like marks of speed behind the scene. 100 to see for make elliptical objects and pans fly through the the foreground. See how the In the Duchess's Kitchen 1907 77/8 x 6 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 5 0 m m ) ARTHUR RACKHAM . amplifying movement outward from the vanishing point. a n d an unmistakable graphic style.

which still narrates vivid days in the lives of an energetic nation. In culture. This is an ironic drawing from Moore. audiences. Opposite. and action of a buffalo hunt. as fellow watchers. join in the waiting. and we.178 GATHERINGS we have seen in the pairs and trios of drawings by masters and makers. perhaps these two are the most extreme. and composition they are polar opposites. meaning. Moore's spectators appear to have walked a long way from nowhere to witness and wait beside this mysterious obelisque. and art in the landscape. Magnetic Fields sculpture.The human form w a s the vehicle o f his expression and h e w a s t h e official W o r l d W a r II artist. a n d l o v e d t o d r a w in t h e BritishMuseum. heat. a sculptor. expressing his dry humor about O F ALL THE CONTRASTS HENRY MOORE British s c u l p t o r w h o t r a i n e d a n d taught at t h e R C A . Chalk and graphite This fog-bound but humorous gathering of souls is made in graphite and colored chalk with gray wash. A glimmer of gold light appears from the left No explanation is given. This is just one of many precious artifacts from a lost time. HENRY MOORE Crowd 1942 Looking at Tied-up Object . a great Shoshone drawing blazes with the color. London. The mournful gray landscape of Henry Moore's northern British field has gathered by night an overcoated audience to stand and wait before a wrapped and roped monument. as if Moore's wrapping has been literally outstretched. M o o r e t o u r e d Italy as a young man. The image stands out among his more usual graphic works in which he hones and carves semi-abstract human forms.

Stylized hunters. tolearnhow to paint a scene on a hide are and buffalo circle and charge the perimeters of a skin "field. and helping our eye to dart around." Men at the instructed to sit and watch. Each color is evenly distributed throughout the scene. MAGNETIC FIELDS Horses It is interesting to note how the outstretched limbs ofthesehorses echo European images of the runningBuffalo horse before the sequence-photographer Muybridge taught us to 19TH understand their movement differently. horses.179 SHOSHONE SCHOOL Stylized characters This vital image of a buffalo hunt is made with pigment Members of the Shoshone community wishing painted within dark outlines on a stretched elk hide. Skills are taught not center chant or dance to the beat of a drum. Hunt CENTURY SHOSHONE SCHOOL . creating harmonious balance with words but through silent demonstration.

w e f i n d a spiritual v i s i o n . pale souls of the lustful are being s p u n into yet another realm of hell. B l a k e h a s i l l u m i n a t e d his s a d d e n e d Virgil on the s h o r e s of a d a r k w o r l d .180 GATHERINGS The Human Condition IN THE SPECTRUM of these vastly d i f f e r e n t g a t h e r i n g s of p e o p l e . The Circle of the (The Whirlwind 1824 of Lustful Lovers) mm) 143/4 x 207/8i n ( 3 7 4 x 5 3 0 WILLIAM BLAKE . and sweetened the often bleak years with his impractical inventions. a n d e n g r a v e r w h o p o w e r f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e d his o w n t e x t s in a d d i t i o n t o D a n t e ' s Divine Comedy. a n d f o c u s . It illustrates a scene from Dante's Divine Comedy. a n d o t h e r w o r k s . inextinguishable in its fortitude and h u m o r .f o o t e d t r o g l o d y t e s w h o rage into w a r like a m u d s l i d e of revenge. K a t h e K o l l w i t z s c r a t c h e d a n d e n g r a v e d her a r m y of c l a y . w h i c h b y their c h o i c e a n d h a n d l i n g a c t u a l l y b e c o m e the force a n d spirit of e a c h i m a g e . Brushed line and wash This is an ink-outlined drawing made with a fine brush on paper with added washes of watercolor The image was subsequently redrawn as a line engraving. The muscularity of Blake's figures was inspired by Michelangelo's works. Blake w a s d r i v e n b y a passion f o r j u s t i c e a n d a p r o f o u n d b e l i e f in his v i s i t a t i o n s f r o m angels. color. era as Kollwitz. Opposite. W I L L I A M BLAKE British visionary. w h e r e he w a t c h e s a t u r b u l e n t s p i r a l of p u n i s h m e n t f o r the d a m n e d . We also see qualities of line. Heath Robinson lived through the same war-torn. a n d the gentle h u m o r of sedate r i d i c u l e . Misted in translucent layers of paint. a pink-inked cinema wobbles along with string. texture. p o e t . m a r k . t h e Bible. w r i t e r a r t i s t . a d e a t h c h a r g e of brutality.

181 KATHE KOLLWITZ German printmaker. and the impact of death and war upon women. and clearly focused. HEATH ROBINSON The Kinecar 1926 103/8 x 15 in (262 x 380 mm) . poverty. Robinson and Kollwitz (above) share almost identical life dates and their work expresses a shared history from opposite sides oftheworld wars. sculptor and draftsman. Ink rolled over was selectively polished off using a rag. however meager or ridiculous their activity. British Pen and wash This is a pen-andwatercolor drawing made for a color-platereproduction in an edition of T h e Bystander. and the family home. and her powerful and sensitive drawings center on nurture. White marks were made with a dusting of French chalk on the artist's finger to wipe away ink leaving clean metal. Losbruch (The Outbreak) 1955 20 x 233/8 in (507 x 592 mm) KATHE KOLLWITZ HEATH ROBINSON humorous illustrator and a regular contributor to magazines and journals such as The Sketch and The Bystander. and controlled smears on the metal surface printed as tones. With masterful gentility. He created sincere. plodding along with hazy. who lived in a poor district of Berlin. What remained in scratched grooves printed on damp paper as lines. Kollwitz survived the two World Wars. stoical bemusement. The image was scratched directly onto a metal plate. children. THE HUMAN CONDITION Scratched lines This is a dry-point etching with monoprint. humor by making his characters earnest. Heath Robinson shows England in a past era.

R e m e m b e r . or idea. . or put the paper in your pocket instantly without fear of smudging. fine fiber-tip Drawing with a fine fiber-tip pen. and in most pockets so I can always record a thought DISPOSABLE PENS QUICK NOTES O n a c o l d day in Venice.r e s i s t a n t . t h e y a r e lightfast. So many stores sell them. I swiftly focused on gesture. For example. Ideal f o r precision w o r k (see p p . aiming for correct outlines would result in drawing too slowly to c a t c h the moment.182 GATHERINGS Disposable Pens (ballpoints. rollerballs. trusting shape and form to follow. The f o u r i l l u s t r a t e d h e r e r e p r e s e n t a basic r a n g e . in the studio.188-89) and Caravans (see pp.7 7 and 214-15). dropped in your pocket and forgotten till needed. T h e r e w e r e c seconds t o snatch this impression b e t w e e n their emergence from one bridge and disappearance b e n e a t h t h e next. W h i t e gel p e n s a r e v e r y e f f e c t i v e o n d a r k papers. build to a rich. 2. Unlike pencils. Lines t h i c k e n as t h e p e n w e a r s o u t G r a n d Canal (see pp. B A L L P O I N T : Black a n d b o l d c o l o r s o f f e r d i v e r s e qualities. fibertips. 7 6 . gel pens) are the most convenient of all materials with which to travel. CHOICES AVAILABLE T h e r e a r e m a n y d i s p o s a b l e p e n s t o c h o o s e from. they each offer distinct and sometimes unexpected qualities. w a t e r . 192-93) w e r e b o t h m a d e w i t h a ballpoint. Available in blacks and ranges of colors. in the car. FIBER-TIP: M a n u f a c t u r e d f o r artists a n d d e s i g n e r s in a r a n g e o f w i d t h s . t w o tourists and their gondolier drifter past m e o n a canal. if y o u w i s h y o u r d r a w i n g s t o last a n d n o t fade o r b l u r w i t h t i m e a n d e x p o s u r e t o light. turn the page. R O L L E R B A L L : A c o n s t a n t i n k flow 3 . which can snap or pierce through your clothes. Insensitive t o p r e s s u r e : lines d o n o t v a r y in w i d t h o r t o n e . a ballpoint will make faint lines. these pens enable you to sketch. c h o o s e p e n s l a b e l e d " p e r m a n e n t " o r "lightfast. dark sheen. G E L P E N : P r o d u c e d in b l a c k w h i t e . indent paper. p e r m a n e n t . they can be obtained within minutes. At a time like this. Quick-drying. 4. or turn into washes and make monoprints if flooded with an alcohol-based substance such as hairspray. a disposable pen with its clip-on cap goes anywhere. a n d pressure-sensitive. including l u m i n o u s a n d m e t a l l i c . a n d ranges o f colors. blob when old. is d e l i v e r e d t h r o u g h a m e t a l t u b e o v e r a t i n y ball bearing. jot notes. shut your book." 1. I keep quantities at home.

Earlier I had witnessed a crammed en masse in a fleet of hired gondolas complete with musicians and choir. Fast lines focus on action. crowd of fellow travelers Fast lines These scribbled lines model the mass and shadows of heads belonging passengers packed into the boat.FROMMEMORY Here I used the same fiber-tip pen to compose a scene from memory.31 . Compare this Klee's mules on p. not form.

if a person was stout. You must learn to trust your memory and to draw what impressed you most. Every drawing writes an indelible memory of place. let it enter the stage and perform. black. animate them more. activity. Movement . and companionship. if animated. but they should not be what you dwell on. not its outline. Each one was witnessed and drawn immediately from the afterimage of what I had just seen. I caught fleeting glimpses of gathered people and solitary souls going about their affairs. Push toward caricature and this will draw out of your memory what was most important. all action is in the line of his coat and directed by his nose. of course. just draw the action. focus on the action of the event. Exaggeration helps. angles will happen as a matter of course. Don't worry about measuring angles.184 GATHERINGS The Travel Journal I CANNOT OVERSTATE THE JOY of making a travel journal. FLEETING MOMENTS Walking through Venice with a small. when out drawing. However. Above all. make them stouter. Let the line of the flying coat fly and the hanging arm hang. pocket notebook and a fiber-tip pen. Each line acts its part in the narrative. life will not slow and wait for you to catch it. No camera can tie you to a time or people in the same way. Circular lines buzz around a man puzzling at the end of a train platform (left). A curatorial assistant flies to do a chore (right). You will make outlines.

The rush of his legs isamplifiedby their blurred lines. Expression . eager to herd us all from his house of responsibility. I am watched by the aggravated guard. Observation THE TRAVEL JOURNAL The same willowy assistant dashes about his work. In turn.185 A large lady is photographed in front of a delicate work of art. I drew him three times on the same page to catch a range of his physical expressions.

Here the custodian projects fastidious ownership of his desk and pamphlets by pushing from behind the center of the space and challenging our entry to his image. decide how faces and bodies contort. furniture leans. not outline. Place the person carefully. rather than the works of art they guarded. if they are being devious. flap. . For example. Here I have recreated my drawing in steps to show you how to set about capturing such a scene. or bulge. you might place them lower down. and you decide to draw the moment. focus on action. When your attention has been caught. and let every detail speak by its size. Identify the principal character and draw him or her first. For example. elevate them in the pictorial space. ACTION AND DETAIL W h e n drawing people. emotion. and involvement in the story.186 GATHERINGS Catching the Moment On A BITTERLY COLD November day. start by focusing on its action. pulls. I took refuge in a church in Venice. if they are being haughty. or pushes. He and his simpering assistant would not allow me in. and clothing or bags hang. Be aware that their placement on the page is part of the narrative. placement. forcing me to remain at the back and look at them. and there met this sullen custodian. and reason for happening.

continue adding characters. W i t h a few strokes. If drawing a more complex scene. Decide where t o place them t o emphasize their role. . Draw their action and props. Here. I added t h e assistant. together with any immediate props they are using. D r a w their action. which is pushed toward us in a gesture of confrontation. In the final step (left) I reinforced t h e custodian's desk. who is largely expressed through the shape and fall o f his raincoat and his way o f using a note pad. such as the desk and pamphlets seen here. CATCHING THE MOMENT The assistant Identify t h e antagonist ( o r second character) in t h e scene. Decide where you will place them o n the paper t o emphasize their action and intent. a pillar locates t h e scene in a depth o f space.187 The custodian Identify your principal character a n d their psychological role in the scene.

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An imminent deluge of tourists urged me to work catching no more than the skeleton of the view. where vertical mooring poles give space and pulse to the horizontal speed of water quickly.Grand Canal T H E CANALS OF VENICE are bustling places full of occupation. . and buildings. I developed detailofthis drawing from memory using a ballpoint pen.

note only their most essential action and feature. followed by the streets. Characters in the foreground were drawn first. Caricature each person slightly. and drawn immediately from memory. Venetians flow across a stepped bridge and cascade into the streets beyond. then the bridge beneath them. To catch characters like this. . Each person was glimpsed in an instant.Crossings DURING THIS RUSH HOUR.

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.Caravans T H E PARAPHERNALIA O F TRAVEL i s an intriguing part of circus life. quiet afternoon. I found this circus by chance in the Swiss mountains. Caravans and other backstage activity convey expectations of energy and repose. and a great subject to draw. Sitting at a distance on a hot. I used a ballpoint pen to compose a series of scenes.

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Just as NASA photographs of Earth have had a profound effect on the way we view our fragile home. England. It now hangs on the staircase of the History of Science Museum. to be ready to draw the new light as it breaks across the land. they are the animators of your subject. This is the world's first accurate image of the Moon. Oxford. and take bold steps in emulating the swell of clouds and the forces of torrential water. There is a sense of the heroic in drawing outside—we race to catch a form before the tide engulfs it. It is Earths satellite. H e a l s o p r o d u c e d an a l b u m o f 1 8 0 exquisite pencil drawings. By drawing such momentous and everyday events. These conditions are very difficult to express well. our companion. and its draws the tides of the seas. trees. a contemporary environmental artist. learning to draw light out of dark. William Turner is said to have had himself lashed to a ship's mast to comprehend the storm (see p. In this chapter Moon Pastel 1795 Drawing we experiment with charcoal. t w o e n g r a v e d m a p s k n o w n as The Lunar Planispheres. speculation. Richard Long. a n d a n astronomer w h o dedicated 20 years t o studying t h e M o o n . so J o h n Russell's tour de f o r c e drawing (opposite) was a masterpiece of observation in his time. marking the ground with lines of footprints or by turning stones. Beginners will often choose calm. the sun comes out to blind it. or has cracked and fallen under the weight of water. Russell d r e w this. arranging them in perfect circles on the mountainside or in lines drifting out of sight beneath low clouds. and the sea. how the soil is scorched. t h e first-ever accurate image o f t h e M o o n ' s surface. 199). Weather is essential in all landscape drawing. artists see for themselves that which is momentary and eternal. rivers. makes his work by the act of walking. and meteor impacts have scarred. or the wind carries it away. sunny days. The pastel drawing was constructed from myriad telescopic observations almost 200 years before the Apollo Moon landing. The forces of nature. a n d a m o o n globe called t h e Selenographia. It is better to get up before dawn. when little stirs and empty blue skies offer even less to latch lines to. surrounded by the bright instruments of centuries of navigation. What they have drawn is the force of nature on these properties: how the wind heaves the night ocean. how the mountain cut by ice and rain is now fleetingly lit. and experiment. Look closely at works by many artists and you will see that they have not represented hills. and even how the Sun illuminates. the face of the Moon. Take chances against the rain and work with the wind or fog. pages o f softly i l l u m i n a t e d craters and lunar "seas" c o v e r e d in m a t h e m a t i c a l and s h o r t h a n d calculations. JOHN RUSSELL A p o r t r a i t pastelist t o King G e o r g e III o f England.Earth and the Elements I T MAY SEEM PERVERSE to start a chapter titled "Earth and the Elements" with an image of the Moon. 5 f t x 5 ft 6 in ( 1 5 2 x 1 6 8 c m ) J O H N RUSSELL . are the real subjects in great landscape drawings. as opposed the physicality of Earth. but it can be seen as a lens to our observation of this planet.

a scratched ghost. T h e great master of English seascape is c o n d u c t i n g with his graphic energy. By Turner carries us to the heart of the maelstrom. the bourgeoisie. Below. seeing how it shakes. sculptor.198 EARTH AND THE E L E M E N T S Air in Motion THE GREAT INVISIBLE SUBJECT o f these d r a w i n g s is t h e w i n d . lifts. and by observing its tides and eddies in our o w n environment. is already lost. Crayon and limestone This is a lithograph. fluttering heavily. serving a prison sentence for his views. speed. He knew how the world bends and stutters under such gusts. and solidity. Daumier's c a r t o o n shines with the brilliance of his comic memory. This wife. Fluid strokes inflate the woman's dress and pin shadows to the ground. Hazy vertical marks reveal buildings into the mist. Flapping kimonos and an onlooker turning his b a c k have the magic of a m o m e n t caught. A hard waxy was drawn across a heavy limestone Varying definitions crayon of lire and depths of tone conspire to give volume. the government. distance. Hokusais sedate wind presses reeds a n d the j o u r n e y s o f young ladies. has b e c o m e a hysterical kite. Terrifying waves of merciless nature roar across the paper. a sail b r o k e n loose in a stormy marriage. and the legal profession. Danger of Wearing Balloon Petticoats UNDATED HONORE DAUMIER . Dots and dashes suggest receding trees out of focus. painter. undramatic b u t brimming with stylized realism. we can soon learn to draw its force. T h e ship. and gives motion to each image. H O N O R E DAUMIER French satirical cartoonist lithographer. and pioneer ofexpressionism.Through political drawings he fired his sharp wit at the king. like an umbrella forced inside-out.

Wind direction wood-block This is a colored To represent the blows lifted flowed wind. into this very as pressed sheet The paper's through own coior is brought banks of mist and fog. AIR IN MOTION Pencil and watercolor subdued brushed. T u r n e r w o r k e d in oils a n d w a t e r c o l o r s a n d s k e t c h e d c o p i o u s l y o n his travels. 1826 91/2 x 113/4 in ( 2 4 1 x 3 0 0 m m ) J. horizontally then and of the it into the stream Plants also bend and flow right to Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 1802 81/2 HOKUSAI KATSUSHIKA x 131/2 in ( 2 1 7 x 3 4 3 mm) .M. H o k u s a i in t u r n has since significantly influenced European art.M. TURNER KATSUSHIKA HOKUSAI Prolific J a p a n e s e c o l o r w o o d . T h e r e a r e m a n y stories o f his p a s s i o n a t e w o r k i n g methods. leans the whole composition swells around its fateful center. Hokusai direction (from clothing from has chosen which it the right). Landscape a n d city life w e r e his principal subjects. A outline scratched of a skeletal into penciled ship is while and the waves. a n d his b e s t . and history painter w h o s e p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t a b o v e all w a s light.i n f l u e n c e d b y examples o f W e s t e r n art obtained through D u t c h t r a d i n g in Nagasaki.l o v e dw o r k s i n c l u d e 1 0 0 v i e w s o f M o u n t Fuji and 1 2 v o l u m e s o f Manga.b l o c kprintmaker. seascape. painter. d e s i g n e r a n d b o o k i l l u s t r a t o r . W . absorbent watercolor and are Stains of splashed. including being lashed t o a ship's m a s t in o r d e r to study a storm.W.199 J. Ship in a Storm c. T U R N E R British landscape. wind. from left print.

It looks so contemporary. h a u n t e d shadows. leaving nothing but a glimpse of moonlight glistening on the froth below.28). His subjects include ruins. Leonardos Cloudburst of Material Possessions is o n e of his m o s t enigmatic and mysterious works. EARTH AND THE VICTOR HUGO French novelist and artist (see also p. T h e very nature of b o t h is turmoil and an interweaving of elements. D o m e s t i c o b j e c t s we can o w n and name fall from the clouds. drawing was Hugo's principal means o f expression. Turner (see p. He brings us to stare into a place that no sane human would enter. ink. and swim into the page. with a brush. Pen and brush Hugo drew first with pen and ink.198) admires the majesty of nature. By contrast. T h e m e n a c i n g darkness of Hugo's storm b e l o w is so convincing. this is a b o m b a r d m e n t from o u r h o m e s . or charcoal. In periods b e t w e e n writing. marks. inks. lines of rain escorting them to b o u n c e and clatter. water. and tossed o b j e c t s — a perfect subject in which artists can forget themselves. Opposite. he blanketed the drawing in darkness. Le Bateau-Vision 1864 71/2 x 1 0 in ( 1 9 2 x 2 5 5 m m ) VICTOR H U G O . this is a writer's narrative of terror. it is difficult to contemplate its brooding and night-soaked heart.200 ELEMENTS Storms STORMS CAN BE SEEN and drawn in two ways: first. fantasy palaces. as if drawn j u s t this year. composing banks of waves and dense. as a subject and second. active surfaces of water. An update on biblical showers of fish and frogs. as a gestural storm on the paper. Then. grab their b r u s h . and t h e sea s t u d i e d f r o m his h o m e in Guernsey in t h e Channel Islands.

envisioning machines centuries before their making (helicopters and bicycles. and they passed through private hands for 400 years before becoming widely known. It is interesting to speculate how engineering might have developed if his ideas had been shared with the world earlier Ink and chalk This is a pen and ink drawing with touches of black chalk. for example). He bequeathed his drawings to a friend. There is a little magic in recognizing many items from our homes something like a rake. Above and below are examples of his mirror handwriting. and a wheel. together with half the contents of our garage. Each item that has crashed from heaven is drawn in such a way that we can feel Leonardo's nib picking it up in the speed of a doodle. a bell. He was left-handed and wrote backwards in Italian from left to right.LEONARDO DA VINCI Leonardo devised many artifacts of our modern lives. a hook. Cloudburst of Material Possessions 1510-12 45/8 x 43/8 in ( 1 1 7 x 1 1 1 mm) L E O N A R D O DA VINCI .

and mood simultaneously. she teased away fragments of paper to illuminate her view. She was inspired by her research of aerial plans of London and the story of an alien map butterfly (see caption). a horizon line can trigger our recognition. Claude is distinguished by. his unsurpassed handling of light. cooler tones receding into the distance are applied with a brush. Clare Bryan took panoramic photographs of the English South Downs. EARTH AND THE Bryan cut the profile of a city. Over first lines. atmosphere. In the lower half he has walked downhill a little. Claude Lorrain drew directly on location. Drawing with a scalpel. and famed for. made inside a book.202 ELEMENTS THE PROFILE OF A HORIZON is a line we immediately recognize and respond to. rapidly layering contours to shape place. it is the unique calligraphic signature of the place in which we stand.1638 85/8 x 121/2 in (219 x 320 mm) CLAUDE LORRAIN . Paler. and etcher who lived most of his life in 17th-century Rome. and after tracing her captured line. Whether land-. sea-. which he used to unify his compositions. Views from Velletri c. Nature Profiles Opposite below. Even distilled from all other detail. and we can imagine standing over his shoulder. watching his hand and eye at work together. Segments The top half of the drawing is a view as we enter the valley. In a very different work (opposite above). and across to the right. transferred it to a scroll. and dry marks in the foreground appear to be made with his finger. thick. C L A U D E LORRAIN French classical landscape painter draftsman. rich. or cityscape. Claude has used a fine nib to delineate segments of land as they recede into space.

5-m)scroll. On turning the pages of City." Cut line This is a small section of a preparatory 5-ft(1. progressively settlement (cropped more and more paper is drawn away to show the expansion of human page of an around the river. then hunted destroyed. and visiting professor at numerous art schools. specialty bookbinder. drawings Ideas of introduction Clare Bryan to research introduced down and led NATURE PROFILES and removal historical plans and aerial growth of London showing its population since Roman times. The edges of each here) fade into the solid paper unpopulated with a scalpel landscape. Her recent paper photographic. 2001 CLARE BRYAN C L A R E BRYAN 3ritish artist. source workisilluminatedby standing its lower edge on a CLARE BRYAN . and digital print-based works reflect upon the histories and poetry of "left behind and in-between spaces. printmaker graphic designer.The horizon was drawn with a City Landline 2003 271/2x 59 in (70 x 150 cm) scalpel.203 Scalpel-drawn This book-bound drawing was inspired by the story of a foreign butterfly wrongly to Great Britain in 1912.

resulting in a stick that gives a blacker. Boxes often contain a range of thicknesses to choose for different needs. b e e c h . between your middle finger and thumb. maple. but some specialists stock compressed charcoal in delicate square sticks. 1 Suspend a length of masking tape. only a little thicker. 6. blacker. Try itworking on big paper covering a wall. black finish. sticky side down. It is also easily erased if the maker of the mark is not happy with the result. tape. harder line. you can p u r c h a s e m a c h i n e . The same as above. It does n o t erase easily. 7. so it chars b l a c k as o p p o s e d to igniting a n d turning to ash. CHALK CHARCOAL: Technically. feather. A great find when available. In use. Essentially. It allows you greater precision in your mark-making than if you rub away the charcoal with an eraser. it looks gray and feels like chalk. without touching the surface. R o u g h paper c a n b e loaded.54). they are all intended for fine work. resulting in a pale line. the heel o f y o u r h a n d . 3. a rag. or fingertip. Charcoal lifts away from paper easily with the very light touch o f an eraser. Alternatively. THIN WILLOW CHARCOAL: I used a piece like this to make the drawing opposite. SQUARE COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Not often sold. COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Machine-made.m a d e c o m p r e s s e d charcoal. and offers a rich. 3 A white line is lifted out by the tape. and heavier than willow. MEDIUM W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 5. Lines are achieved by d e p o s i t i n g particles in the grain o f paper. fine. Smooth paper accepts few particles. Beware of cheap brands selling dyed chalk as compressed charcoal. It c a n be m a d e duller. Willow is the most c o m m o n wood. this does not exist. a n d p l u m . . it is compressed and m o l d e d at high pressure. Use any fine-point pen or pencil (I used a ballpoint) to draw a firm line on the back of the Big pieces are perfect for very large-scale drawings—even larger than yourself. b l a c k e r . Slightly dull the tape's stickiness before use t o prevent it from lifting out more than you intend. Hold it over your drawing RANGE AVAILABLE Charcoal (in its several forms shown here) is loved or loathed by the beginner to whom it is often recommended because it produces pleasing results quickly. LIFTING OUT This technique is a very easy method of drawing a crisp. B u n d l e s o f twigs were traditionally sealed into earthenware j a r s or wet clay and heated slowly and intensely in a fire or kiln. As its name implies. a n d m o r e i n d e l i b l e by soaking it in linseed oil.204 E A R T H AND THE E L E M E N T S Charcoal CHARCOAL IS PRODUCED from wood baked slowly without exposure to air. cylindrical. Not to be confused with square conte sticks (see p. The tip snaps easily to renew a sharp edge if required. vine. leaving u n d e r t r a c e s of first thoughts. Artists have also used lime. white line into the blackor grayness of willow charcoal. 4. THICK W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 2 Keep the tape above your drawing. C h a r c o a l naturally glistens. CHARCOAL PENCIL: Types made by different manufacturers vary in quality and density of line. 1. Then lift it away. 2. 162) or graphite (see p. a piece of fresh bread.

CHARCOAL Lifting out This detail shows an example of where I used the lifting-out technique demonstrated opposite to draw flashes of lightning against rain clouds. Lift out broader marks with a larger implement. or any other dry media. Different tones seen throughout the main drawing on pp. I used a plastic eraser effectively on thinly applied charcoal.212-13 were made by altering the pressure applied to the charcoal. 8 . Here we used a ballpoint. 10. Layers can be peeled away to refresh its surface. graphite. . sold in several widths. pastels. T O R T I L L O N : This is a tight roll of paper used to blend charcoal. Cotton swabs also work. Use high quality (very sticky) to fix paper to walls and boards. Use cheaper (less sticky) for lifting out. as is fresh (unbuttered!) bread.205 ERASING Thickly applied charcoal quickly o v e r c o m e s a plastic eraser A w a r m (soft and tacky) putty eraser is more effective. PEN: Any fine pen or pencil can be used to draw on the back of masking tape when lifting out. MASKING TAPE: An invaluable resource. Here. 9.

and an abstract. Seeing tones . Ironically. a less distinct middle ground composed of shapes and textures. and a cushion in a plastic bag to sit on. pack your materials (as advised below) and set off for a local view or your nearest arboretum. an eraser your drawing book or a board and paper fixative (or hairspray). They are also good markers of receding space. MATERIALS In this first view there is only a foreground and middle distance. hazy distance. The long view is hidden behind trees. To experiment with drawing landscapes and the use of charcoal. Successful drawings often only suggest the qualities of the scene without overdescribing them.212-13). I relaxed my eyes out of focus to dissolve distracting detail into abstract patches of light and darkness. to contain each of your compositions. Don't worry if it is cloudy: clouds add drama and perspective and make good subjects in themselves (see pp. it results in flat planes of clutter. our brains search for nameable things and will perceive complete pictures from very little information. a reel of masking tape. 9 8 . Landscape drawings are traditionally arranged in three parts: a detailed foreground. This term simply means that as land rolls away into the distance.9 9 we noted that in response to visual stimulus. details blur and colors grow paler and bluer. When you arrive. the more you encourage the viewer's imagination to join in and see. especially when making first excursions into aerial perspective. but is often less evocative and engaging. At its worst. Excessive detail can be admired for its skill and achievement. Then I drew the shape of the tonal patches I perceived. It is the visible effect of the atmosphere between where you stand and what you see in the distance.206 EARTH AND THE ELEMENTS Landscapes TREES ALONE OFFER MARVELOUS shapes to draw. On p p . begin by marking out several small squares on your paper. the less you describe. Pack several thick and thin sticks of willow charcoal.

shadows. horizontal regions of grass. Exploring the view Redrawing the scene above. rounded. your view is your inspiration. It is better to give distinctly more pictorial space to one or the other (see below). Remember.207 LANDSCAPES In my second square I explored a simple view contrasting soft. This composition turned out a little flat because I have an almost even quantity of earth and sky. the trunk of a bare tree. I have invented drama with diagonals set against each other I tilted the earth. full of information you can use to create what you want! Inventing drama . and broke a view through the hedge into the distance with a dark sky threatening rain. dark trees with bright.

Building on earlier studies of structure in space using shoes (pp. England has embedded within it the decaying skeleton of a burned fishing boat. 2 1 4 .164-65) and a wire violin (pp. bare ribs. observing it from several views so as to better understand it as a whole. Similarly." . your challenge now is to find a sculptural subject in the landscape. making the scene below led me to focus on the decaying boat opposite. This first drawing serves as a process of arrival. which was the flow of water over rocks. shade out of the glare of the sun. and seeing what the real choice of subject is. EARTH AND THE FINDING THE SUBJECT Finding a remarkable subject is even better when you can circumnavigate it in an arena of space. on p p . settling my concentration.1 5 my first drawing of the whole view of the Tiber led me to see the real subject of the day. The mud of the tidal shore in Rye.104-05). s e e k places in light After my first drawing.208 ELEMENTS Drawing in the Round WHEN DRAWING IN THE LANDSCAPE. and tiller still standing proud. taking with you your drawing book and pen. For example. "Drawing in the round means to literally walk around your subject. I usually begin by making an image of the whole view. Circling a subject and drawing it from several views imprints on your memory a better understanding of its three-dimensional form. so the paper is not made blinding and your hand cannot cast a shadow on your work. I am then able to home in on what interests me most for further study. engine.

its overall balance. 3 This impression notes the angle of the broken boat. Overleaf: Decaying Boat 4 . w h e n t h e sea recedes. and the order and shape of its component parts. The outline ties a shape of darkness to the boat like a weight so that it becomes part of its form. ROUND 2 In this tail-end view. I looked more boldly at the planes and the dynamic of the sculptural craft My lines have become darker and more forceful as confidence in my understanding of the vessel grew. I drew with quick. make a series o f drawings f r o m different positions.209 SERIES OF STUDIES This stunning ghost o f a boat comes into v i e w t w i c e a day. looking more at the boat than at the paper From this low position I have emphasized how the boat is swallowed in mud by outlining its shadow on the ground. I spent equal time looking at the subject and the paper. W h e n you have found your subject. Each n e w drawing gives a different insight. marking straight. character. unfussy lines. and structure. careful lines to establish the skeleton that gives this wreck its distinct form. DRAWING IN THE 1 Here.

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L o o k i n g b a c k and forth from the heavens to firmly taped-down paper. was made with gentle but unhesitating s p e e d . hot-pressed drawing p a p e r (see pp. I worked quickly to catch and weave the turbulent contrasts of rising wind and approaching water before the drawing could be washed away.Cloudburst THIS STORM DRAWING. m a d e on s m o o t h . .20-21) using a thin stick of willow charcoal.

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Notes of Force T H E GREAT FLOWING TIBER RIVER has cut through Rome. . I drew with a needle-fine fiber-tip pen. shaping the city. pulse. and rhythmic detail as it passed through the ancient gully of the city. pocket-sized notebook. On the pages of a small. since ancient times. black. focusing on the river's eddies.

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Mountains SITTING IN THE SHADE of a tree on the Greek island of Antiparos. I used a dip pen and waterproof India ink with brushed watercolor to draw the view. The strong diagonal of the composition from bottom left to top right carries the eye through changes of height and focus from the foreground to the mountains beyond. .

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First marks. and emotion. precisely because it does not have to represent a physical object. strike the paper to find form. Indian mandalas. People are often scared by abstraction and see it as the enemy of figurative art. Wolfli was a Swiss draftsman. poet. My own work is firmly centered in figuration. writhing torrents of color. I begin every image by feeling its meaning. Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape 1915 413/8 x 285/8 in (105 x 72. The fate of Old World thinking was finally sealed with the brutality of World War I. picturing a stabilized world was impossible and Modernism rode forth with vigor. It is actually its foundation and its infrastructure. It was not invented in the 20th century. opposite. such as Adolf Wolfli. yet my kinship to abstraction is fundamental. all pictorial representations are abstractions of reality. which are essentially abstract. writer and composer who suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and was resident in the Waldau Aslyum near Berne. From another viewpoint. for example. spontaneous image-making. expressive marks and shapes are at the core of natural. Many concepts and feelings can only be expressed through marks.8 cm) A D O L F WOLFLI Abstraction is a direct. . don't be timid. From one point of view. Berne. sounds. Artists were given a different tool—a line threaded directly from their subconscious to their hand—and with it they began to map a bold new landscape of marks and concepts that would dramatically and forever change the face of Western art. The growing rise of Darwinian ideas coupled with Freudian and Marxist perspectives forced Western society to reconsider its origins and future. direction. liberating. or gestures. He made thousands of drawings to chronicle his complex life. abstraction is not so easy to define. fictional language. As you approach the classes in this chapter. An abstract mark is often a better conductor of a thought or feeling. Swirling. many nonWestern cultures have highly sophisticated abstractions at the core of their art. and independent means of communication. Afterward. and have been making abstract drawings for centuries—Japanese calligraphy. actions. ADOLF WOLFLI One of the greatest masters of Art Brut. drawn sound. belief. and history. However. Museum of Fine Arts. His drawings are collected and exhibited internationally and held by the Adolf Wolfli Foundation. and young children show us that abstract. be brave and enjoy them.Abstract Lines T HE DEVELOPMENT OF W E S T E R N abstract art at the beginning of the 20th century significantly paralleled major changes in world thought. it is simply itself. It also underpins and gives strength and unity to all figurative work. Outsider artists. Not everything we know has a physical form in the world. and Aboriginal art. and it has always been with us. Perhaps in Western culture we bred this intuitive freedom out of ourselves in our insistence on complex figuration. Internal workings of the mind were suddenly free to find a new language of expression. only rediscovered. and poetic myth roar and cascade within his tightly framed pages.

scrolling across the canvas in an intimate crescendo. quoting ink marks on a page. Below. salt. A Neolithic chalk tablet bears cut lines that were slowly carved. water. Mamoru Abe prepares an image that will appear through the chemistry of iron. Damp Japanese paper was laid over carefully arranged iron bars. akin to stones in a Zen garden. and plaster in galleries and landscapes. Abe works with materials such as soil. it can keep reforming through the inherent repetition of a process. iron. and patient watching. This the paper rest within the amplifies framelike of the floor from the ceiling. and wood are also part of the work. and texture their bracing separation reaching between from beneath Pillars of the gallery are made part of this drawing by their inclusion in the paper. It can proclaim mood. Sometimes it smolders like a deep shadow. A line can be finished in a second. He travels widely to research ancient sacred sites. and sensitivity with its thickness and pressure of touch. silence. rhythmically engaged with itself. The Physical Space 1990 3 0 x 30 ft ( 9 1 4 x 9 1 4 cm) MAMORU ABE . Five forged steel shapes. brass.220 A B S T R A C T LINES Process and Harmony SOMETIMES A DRAWN LINE sings on the surface of its support. tone. and Assistant Professor of Fine A r t at Fukuoka University. as Twombly shows us opposite. Changes paper. texture. or. sit in silent harmony. Abe's physical drawing is a sculptural installation. MAMORU ABE Japanese sculptor and installation artist. Iron rods in tone. and temperature rim of floor space. ice. Lines. forged steel. Moisture produced rust. staining redbrown lines into the white surface. Twombly's mesmeric wax line worked over house paint is like a signature.

400BCE 21/4 x 21/4 in (58 x 58 mm) ARTIST UNKNOWN Language Over the course of fifty years.241). Many of his graffiti-like combine abstract gestures with statements. Neolithic Chalk Tablet 3. the Babylonian world map.000-2. and American Indian petroglyphs (see p. close to Stonehenge in Wiltshire. evolved a raw. At the 2001 Venice Biennale.Thesite's purpose is unknown. and sensuous drawing from painting. CY TWOMBLY . and Untitled 1970 Here we might seek to grasp letters in the turning of his line. The central pictorial space is also similarly cut and divided by the considered arrangement of straight lines. energetic.England. Precise lines suggest the use of a sharp flint The framed rectangle of this image is echoed in that of Abe's installation.221 ANCIENT CARVINGS Many ancient cultures have made and left behind drawings and texts carved into stones or animal bone. Twombly has language works CY TWOMBLY Contemporary American artist who emerged through the 1950s New York art scene in the heyday of Abstract Expressionism and Action Painting. This example is one of two chalk tablets found in a Late-Neolithic pit. such as the Rosetta stone. PROCESS AND HARMONY Cut lines Chalk carves easily. that challenges the separation of word from image. burials.Twombly was presented with a Golden Lion award for lifetime achievement. emotive. and the worship of the sun and ancient gods. theories suggest astrological observations.

Ink impressions When drawing nightscapes Hugo often laid paper disks in place of the moon. he mixed graphite into ink. below. The scores are also exhibited in galleries as visual art. brushed night skies over them with ink then lifted the disks to reveal white moons. and participate in the composition. pressed them face down." An innovator who never fails to surprise. opposite.28).28. "There is nothing like dream to create the future. Similarity in gritty texture suggests that here. His drawing writes the time of its own physical process by expressing the extreme concentration of the moment in which it was made. Two Impressions Paper 1853-55 VICTOR HUGO Disk from a Cut-Out . Hugo. too.222 ABSTRACT LINES Writing Time SINCE THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY. and let the drying meniscus deposit granules in linear drifts such as we would see in the satellite photographic mapping of rivers. interpret. o r a pattern o f elements s o unified as a w h o l e t h e y c a n n o t b e e x p l a i n e d asa s u m o f parts. Gestalt o f an unnameable thing. music manuscript requiring instrumentalists to improvise. abstract. Both abstract drawing and composition involve the perfect sequencing of sounds and marks against space and silence. Bussotti. a configuration. drawing here can b e described in t e r m s o f a G e r m a n philosophical idea a b o u t is t h e i n s t a n t r e c o g n i t i o n t h e p o w e r o f m o m e n t . and inventive of his time. and lifted them away to leave impressions of watery planets and seas. broke new ground in the 1950s with graphic scores now considered among the most extreme. Here he appears t o have saturated the cut-out moon disks with gritty pigment. o f t e n e x p r e s s e d in v i s u a l t e r m s . here he anticipates abstract expressionism by 100 years. abstract artists and composers unique. said. Texture Compare this drawing to Hugo's octopus on p. A graphic score is a V I C T O R H U G O Hugo's abstract French novelist w h o m a d e m a n y drawings in m i x e d m e d i a ( s e e also p. Marks across the center appear to be made with his fingers. Gestalt. have striven to break down old pictorial and musical structures to explore new and unfettered modes of expression. beautiful.

Bussotti's first mature work. Sound and rhythm This flickering rondo of sound written in pen on a hand-ruled stave can be heard in our imaginations as much as seen. a far cry from any recognized musical notation. Following the notes.223 W R I T I N G TIME SYLVANO BUSSOTTI Italian avant-garde composer and principal 20thcentury exponent of the graphic score. Compare this work to that of Libeskind on p. His later works become increasingly abstract. Circular Score for "Due Voci" c. we can feel their rhythm and easily attach sounds to them. 1958 SYLVANO BUSSOTTI . 70 in relation to Bussotti's clustered notes to the left of his rondo and open space to the right. This is a page from Due Voci.

centuries. In the late 1 9 t h century. Torn cloth This is one of two published photographs showing Marie Leib's torn cloth strips significantly placed on her cell floor.228-29) has been adjusted with each movement of the rags to draw a cosmos of balance and perfection. it is found in the regularity o f ordered lines or a pattern. Visually. MARIE LIEB Little is known of this w o m a n for w h o m the act of drawing was essential. Compositional rightness (see pp. for e x a m p l e . Marie Lieb w a s a psychiatric patient in the Heidelberg Asylum. Cell Floor With Torn Strips of Cloth 1894 MARIE LIEB . Germany. O p p o s i t e . It will protect the place from evil and make a pleasing invitation to good spirits. She tore c l o t h into strips a n d used these to draw patterns a n d symbols o n h e r cell floor. This takes a form in most cultures.224 A B S T R A C T LINES Chants and Prayers WHEN ABSTRACT LINES are organized in repetition. an a n o n y m o u s w o m a n in the southeast Indian state o f Tamil Nadu m a k e s a ritual drawing o n the b r i c k courtyard o f h e r h o m e . Lieb is one o f countless thousands of "Outsider" artists—diverse individuals including ordinary citizens. they m a k e a visual a n d physical e c h o that t o u c h e s s o m e deep part of the human spirit. and c i r c u m s t a n c e s . T h e s e p h o t o g r a p h s d o c u m e n t the meditative drawings o f two w o m e n living worlds apart in different countries. Cloth is the simple instrument with which she has conducted and ordered her universe. d i p p i n g h e r fingers into a pot o f rice flour. making objects and images outside o f mainstream culture. social outcasts. and sufferers of psychiatric illnesses—who have always existed. In music it can be felt in the diversity of plainsong and African d r u m m i n g . cultures.

000 images. Materials such as rice flour.Theseare widely published in journals and are the subjects of international exhibitions. and in places of worship and celebration. Skills are handed down through generations and from friend to friend. and for over 30 years has traveled extensively through the Indian subcontinent creating an edited archive of 200. at the University of London and Ohio State University. among others. women pride themselves on never repeating a design. Designs and motifs Rangoii (or mandalas) are ritual drawings made by many millions of women across rural India. Painted Prayers UNDATED STEPHEN R HUYLER . and birds. or flowers are marked or arranged on the ground or on the walls of homes. In daily practice.HUYLER Photographer art historian. Popular magazines feature new ideas each week and on special occasions there may be contests. chalk. Motifs are geometrical or based on plants. animals. lecturer on the subjects of Indian art and Indian women's identity. Huyler is the author of Painted Prayers. lime. cultural anthropologist.225 STEPHEN P.

These two works present complex compositions with differing intensions and methods of making. Oxford. and choice of hues. Oval moons eclipse each other and oscillate between landforms and portraiture. it is ruled and contained in one dimension by its interlocking ink-lined borders. BRIAN CATLING British sculptor poet. They each find their pathways and equilibrium in atmosphere and suggestion. and Fellow of Linacre College. Untitled 2001 2001 153/4x 215/8 in ( 4 0 0 x 550 mm) BRIAN C A T L I N G . Catling's works made for international galleries and museums involve drawing as a tool in their development and making. but similarities in mood. Klee's mathematical maze of thinly washed surface resonates with meticulous planning. Catling's abstract drawings are usually made in series and in parallel to written poetry and sculptural installations. With no depth of field. figurative representation—that is. Their energy can therefore be a purer expression of an idea or emotion. rocks or heads in a subdued atmosphere of dream. performance and installation artist.226 ABSTRACT LINES Compositions ABSTRACT DRAWINGS ARE LARGELY or entirely free from using the viewer's eye to track and unfold layers of meaning. free from the direct imaging of known physical things. Ruskin School. filmmaker Professor of Fine Art. and water-resistant layers of spray and enamel paint on thick paper. structure. Mixed media This is a collage of torn white and gray tissue paper previously stained with ink. Catling's torn paper shapes and shadows spill light out of their frame like a fractured mirror. gold paint and iridescent gouache mixed with water.

227 PAUL K L E E Swiss painter and sculptor (see also p. watercolor. Polyphon Gefasstes Weiss (White Framed Polyphonically) 1930 131/8x95/8 in (333 x 245 mm) Paul-Klee-Stiftung. and wrote copiously about the natures and relationships of color and form. It is a geometric harmony of straight lines and tonally graded flat colors that by their arrangement draw our eyes inward to their white center. philosophized. Kunstmuseum Bern PAUL KLEE . Klee also felt that a line represents the passing of time.31). and brush. Line and surface Klee observed the visual capacity of lines to push or pull within an image. drew. and might be read as active or passive. Klee painted.97-99. Geometric harmony This is a work on paper made with a sharp ink pen. whereas tonal surfaces are perceived more immediately as a whole. ruler. We can see some diagrammatic examples of this among the optical illusions on pp. He explained his polyphonic painting as "a harmony of several color voices" searching for a visual parallel to music.

228 ABSTRACT LINES Being "Just" A SENSE OF "JUST" (or rightness) is a difficult concept to explain. M a n y of their inter-relationships will be meaningless. W h e n m o v i n g objects around in your yard. after being continuously adjusted. or on a page. or degree of figuration." . and ten straight sticks painted black. "I have experimented endlessly with this idea. "Whenall pictorial elements come together in pleasing and perfect balance. As y o u m o v e them around. w i l l c h a n g e w i t h e v e r y r e a r r a n g e m e n t . a glass. they reach a perfect position. b u t e v e r y n o w a n d again you will hit on an arrangement w h i c h appears just. there is a clear feeling when. the late garden designer Russell Page explains. for instance. Set up a sheet of paper with a rectangle drawn on it. regardless of style. Take. In his b o o k The Education of a Gardener. culture. media. angles. and an apple. the impression y o u receive from t h e m . their impact. and elements settle in definitive balance. There is a single m o m e n t w h e n all proportions. s o m e will be more or less h a r m o n i o u s . Feel for it when youdraw. This balance is what every artist and designer searches a n d feels for when making an image. Seek it when looking at other artists' work and in your everyday environment. and put them o n a tray.Thisexercise will help you start. or home. a b u n c h of keys. they are just. It is also found in nature. but an easy o n e to u n d e r s t a n d . It is found in all great art and design." SETTING UP Justness can be harmonious or deliberately discordant.

Within a rectangle on a flat sheet of paper set about making a composition using no other rule than a sense of "just. as shown here. which now becomes a tight frame." Move the sticks to find alignments and imagined perspectives. Arrange them so they touch or cross in a series of intersecting balances. Move the sticks out into the rectangle.229 WHERE TO START Take ten sticks of equal length. Here. making the composition seem to float beneath. suggesting a horizon. W h e n the composition falls into place. fix it with glue. Feel for the rightness of their grouping and their relationships to surrounding spaces. Remember the drawn rectangle is a part of the composition (see pp. 2 3 In the step above. painted black. A stick touching the rectangle links the composition to the frame. horizontals dominate the lower area. horizontals dominate the top. B E I N G "JUST" 1 Arrange your ten sticks in t w o groups of five.56-57). . In the final step (left) there is an even balance.

or even strident. feels "just" (see pp." overlapping placement of materials on a flat plane. scissors. Once the ten painted black sticks are set and glued in place. he went on to say ". ready-made depths and surfaces. hard or soft.228-29).220.230 ABSTRACT LINES Collage H E R E W E EXPERIMENT with collage.. glue. or discordance.Youwill also need spare white paper. a compass. they become a scaffold for the addition of further textures. and black ink. This principal also applies to three-dimensional drawings such as Gaudi's work with wire and weights on p. you start composing by adding or subtracting shapes and textures and using colors and tones to achieve the impression you want to m a k e — w h e t h e r dramatic or s u b d u e d . Collage offers the artist a liberating palette of SETTING UP This lesson in collage is a direct continuation of the compositional lines made in the previous class. which is the shifting. and tones.. Returning to Russell Page." (Russell Page) .69 and Abe's installation on p. "My understanding is that every object [or shape] emanates—sends out vibrations beyond its physical body which are specific to itself. stain and dry a sheet of tissue paper using blueink. Cut or torn layers and shapes. colors. colors and textures can be manipulated until their pictorial harmony. correction fluid or white paint. harmonious. found or made items. Images and fragments torn from day-to-day life can be brought together to make a chorus of ideas and emotions. an infinite range of voices and meaning. To prepare for this lesson.

draw. correction fluid and ink marks add further dimensions. then cut out. they deepen pictorial space.231 WHAT TO DO Lay the final step of the previous lesson (p.The single disk that is folded with its straight edge facing up appears heavier than those that are flat. COLLAGE 1 Regular-sized pieces of white paper are moved over the surface to disrupt the even lines. and with a compass and scissors.228) in front of you. In the last step (left). This can also give a sense of fragmentation or punctuation to the composition. and shadow to thepicture. solidity. 2 3 Torn white paper moved over the surface adds masks of rough-edged irregular volume. Glue them in place once they feel "just" Translucent circular disks of tissue paper give color tone. . Cut six small rectangles the same proportion as your whole image. Obscuring the blue disks. four circles of blue tissue paper.

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emotion. is the practice of Zen through the calligraphic marks of a brush dipped in carbon ink. and expectation." [Tanchu Terayama. Zen Brushwork]. . Hitsuzendo drawings aspire to "breathe with the energy and vitality of eternal life" achieved through "a state of no mind—beyond thought. A MODERN JAPANESE meditative art form inspired by the teachings of Yamaoka Tesshu (1836-1888).Zen Calligraphy HITSUZENDO.

These vibrate against washes of shadow and pitch-black mass. Lines made with a steel dip pen take on a scratchy nervousness. . I flicked spatters of ink and rubbed the paper with a wet and a dry brush to achieve these effects. discord is balanced against rhythm to create mood.Nocturnes IN THIS QUARTET of semi-abstract drawings made with India ink.

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and deep fur—and we alter their scale. our eye circulates around a flutter of leather and scaly wings. When creating monsters. or strange. beasts. sculptures. a human-animal mix that implies this could MARTIN SCHONGAUER German painter and engraver who settled to work in Colmar Alsace. Throughout this book images are presented to excite and surprise and drawing classes created to increase your confidence. aliens. Images we are now surrounded by bear testimony to the power and resourcefulness of their collective imagination. We love our fear of the hybrid—ideally. which is to have eaten a nun—it inspired the drawing on p. . Lord of the Rings. Today. Monsters take advantage of both. feathers. Humans are equally troubled by the imperceptibly small and the enormous. Schongauer is best known for his prints. happen to us. all of which originated as hundreds of drawings. a collaboration between the two will ensure that your drawings glow with originality.Gods and Monsters OUR SACRED AND SECULAR need to visualize demons. We then add substances we dislike: unidentified fluids. wings. which were widely distributed and influential in his time. Feeding this demand. look for images in the folds of clothing. our literate and more secular Western society still hungers for another world and to ravenously indulge its fascination for the marvelous. Reading the place name I momentarily glimpsed an alternative meaning. Fantasy is most successful when founded on strong and familiar visual logic. a Catherine wheel of drawn sparks spiraling around the quietly resolute saint. In the Christian churches of Europe. Depictions of God or of gods in the contexts of daily life. in the cracks of walls. or in smoke. and stained-glass windows deliver powerful visual sermons to the once-illiterate populace. England. and the Alien trilogy. we select details of animals farthest from ourselves and that are widely thought disturbing—reptilian and insect features. thousands of paintings. angels.247. impossible. Star Wars. We watch with captivated pleasure movies such as The Fly. To learn to flex your imagination. For example. Perhaps the Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 1485 121/4 x 9 in (312 x 230 mm) MARTIN SCHONGAUER most important conclusion in this final chapter is to advise you to develop your skills in parallel with the joy of your unfolding imagination. Here. Neither should be slave or master. and the faces of God have for centuries given artists a feast for the extremes of their imagination. serpentine tails. Be inspired by the irrational comedy of word association or puns. movie studios now brim with as many monsters as the visual art of the Medieval and Renaissance Church. and damnation are found in most world faiths. scales. for example. paradise. The salvation of heaven and terrors of hell are represented equally—enough to make any sinner shudder. I was on a train passing through Nuneaton.

Paul Thomas's studies of Picasso and Twombly can be traced directly. and men clubbing each other to death. a Shoshone seeking guidance and power meditates at the sacred site of a petroglyph. and follies of court through copious graphic works including his best-known prints. and church murals. deranged masses. to Picasso's similarly tight. Compare his dark. a wave to join Achilles' chase of Hector. and exposed the superstitions. we see the international icon of stupidity.240 GODS AND M O N S T E R S Marks of Influence marking the influence of one artist upon another. quoting great paintings and popular culture to add cunning twists to his satires. He would be graceless if he stood. They depict as if by lamplight the devil and witches. noisy seascape on p. This continuity enriches the making of art and our heritage. crammed tightly at his desk. below. whose impassioned work begins with light tapestry cartoons. The well-dressed mule is cumbersome. Saturn devouring his son. Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 1799 81/2 x 6 in (218 x 154 mm) FRANCISCO DE GOYA . Francisco de Goya was a master of borrowing. vanity. In this ass. Pictorially. hags. Opposite. rushing. The title "And So Was His Grandfather" adds that should we not already know. Other drawn versions of this image are more savage and frightening. The high. which can swamp the subject Here. Violent white marks symbolizing Achilles' rage resonate with the energy of Twombly's script on p. Many students leave white backgrounds in their work. This act defines the vision and continues the line of spirit guides. Goya later recorded the horrors of Napoleonic occupation. portraits. Los Caprichos.30. Opposite below. Visions experienced in front of the drawing sometimes instruct the making of a new one. Goya's plainly textured gray background pushes back the space behind the illuminated simply subject. his lover a dog. Near the end of his life he made his "Black Paintings" on the walls of his home. it allows the mule to stand forward. plain wall suggests a blinkered view of nothing. In this softer aquatint he poses for his portrait Textured background The aquatint process has been used to great effect in making a gritty toned background. barren land rising like MYRIAD CHAINS RUN THROUGH ART HISTORY.220. F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A Spanish court painter printmaker and draftsman. reading from a book of asses. such asinine behavior can be hereditary. Aquatint Goya has drawn a learned man as an ass.

A vivid spectrum of energized graphite marks and a masterly composition give this drawing vitality and speed. perhaps a stone. Simple wall stones cleverly state their cold solidity while also fading from our attention as the scene roars by. Graphite marks Here Achilles chases Hector around the walls of Troy before killing him. by a supplicant in a trance of meditation.241 MARKS OF INFLUENCE PAUL T H O M A S British contemporary artist whose epic graphic work questions and reflects upon issues of European identity. Wyoming." Each sacred image drawn into rock belongs to one of three realms in the Shoshone world: the realm of the sky. It was made with a sharp implement. or of the water Chipped image This is a sacred creature of the sky chipped onto rock at Dinwoody Lake. Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range UNDATED ARTIST UNKNOWN . White marks like flashes of light are cut though graphite with an eraser to reveal the paper beneath. Parallel lines within the body of the figure are likely to denote power. Thomas conducts his explorations in the mine of Greek and Roman mythology. values. Achilles Chases Hector 1996 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) PAUL THOMAS SHOSHONE PETROGLYPH The Shoshone people of Wyoming name petroglyph sites Poha Kahni. meaning "place of power. of the earth. and personal and social struggles. Wind River Reservation. ideals.

T H E EXPLORATION AND DEPICTION Hauntings Grandville has drawn a scurrying zoo of half-known demons and animals that appear to have been stolen from the glass eye of the microscope. Techniques demonstrated on pp. If it were to turn and stare this way. the writers Joris-Karl Huysmans and Stephane Mallarme. crawl. Children are also delighted to invent a monster or ghoul. 115. Redon explored the darker side of the human imagination through symbols and mysticism. Compare worked textures throughout the whole of this image to those found throughout Anita Taylor's charcoal drawing on p. Here we see how he evolved their injuries into new limbs and warped proportions. GODS AND Erasure In this charcoal drawing. we see parallel slanting pale marks that might have been made with fresh bread—a very effective eraser used before the wide availability of rubber or plastic. We may feel safe so long as the eye looks heavenward. Our subconscious can be drawn with pleasure and ease.and 16th-century Holland. Redon's eyeball balloon rises up. which sometimes—half-dressed and carrying a familiar trophy— stride. They float toward us like a horrid visitation. The monsters of Bosch grew from his observations of beggars going about their trade in 15th. Lifting out Fine strings of the hot-air balloon appear dark against the sky and light against the balloon. H e was influenced by his friends. as he did the grass. graphic artist. and scuttle over all known reality. Redon lifted them out with some sort of eraser. ODILON REDON French painter draftsman. below left. to the right of the balloon.242 MONSTERS of the unknown is a classical and constant occupation for the artist.204-05 will enable you to produce a similar effect of white lines shining out of dark charcoal. The Eye Like a Strange Mounts Balloon 165/8 x131/8in (422 x 332 mm) ODILON REDON 1882 Toward Infinity . the shock would be extreme. and writer In contrast t o the light and visual accent of contemporary Impressionism. lifting its cranial passenger over a seascape of repose.

Two Monsters UNDATED 45/8 x61/2in (117 x 163 mm) HIERONYMUS BOSCH . which is still available today. Quill and ink This typical Bosch monster is a quill drawing in bistre ink The phrasing of light and contour here is masterly. sucker-faced creatures dash and trundle toward it They are drawn solidly to emphasize their earthbound weight. His other major works include Metamorphoses du Jour (1828). Most of his work is in the Prado Museum. grimacing. A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects c. include The Haywain. HAUNTINGS Engraving This is an engraving made so that Grandville's original drawing could be reproduced. Last Judgment. Light shines from the right.243 J E A N I G N A C E ISIDORE GERARD ("GRANDVILLE") French graphic artist and political satirist. teeming with the exhilaration of unrestrained fantasy. Les Animaux (1840). Madrid. and Ship of Fools. 1840 61/8 x41/2in ( 1 5 5 x 1 1 5 mm) GRANDVILLE HIERONYMUS BOSCH Dutch painter Bosch's highly detailed iconographic religious panel paintings. Comic little headbands of waving hair express more hysteria than fear. Smiling. The quality of the line is therefore uniform throughout. Garden of Earthly Delights. and he illustrated the Fables of La Fontaine and Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe. This image is from one of Grandville's best-known publications.

MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI Florentine painter sculptor. St Peter's square. Dragon 1522 10 x 133/8 in ( 2 5 4 x 3 3 8 m m ) MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI . pinnacled. However. Michelangelo's dragon. muscular tension is carved out of the paper using layered. remembering the cavernous. a stunning hybrid of a swan. and play with its perfection and meaning. Grimes found the genesis of her beast not among animals. Two previously drawn faces become humorous antagonists to the beast. below. gamboling copulations. and mist-swathed land. A snake eating its own tail is a universal image of the eternal and continuous. topple. snake. the dome of the Vatican. They share between them the pleasures of inventing a hybrid beast. Opposite. and dying slaves. sometimes artists purposefully tie a knot in the configuration to disturb. she formed a series of ghostly pale. architect. In her studio. David. Chalk and ink A quill dipped in brown ink was worked over black chalk on this reused sheet. but in the seductive landscape of Leonardo da Vinci's oil painting Madonna of the Rocks. and marble sculptures including Pieto. and dog. Grimes' delicately cavorting figures dive into and consume each other. His entire drawing wrestles and weaves the viewer's eye into its retracting folds. Scaly. and engineer Among Michelangelo's great works are the painted ceiling and altar wall of the Sistine Chapel. as we might expect. phrased over the contours of form and bridging darker areas of shadow.244 GODS AND MONSTERS Convolutions THESE CONVOLUTED DRAWINGS were made almost 5 0 0 years apart. hatched lines. lion. wraps and coils its lithe body ready to strike or whimper at a touch. poet.

each one iridescent and crumbly like a weathered while oyster. The large space around figure has been cropped Grimes drawings to flatten presses them. London. Grimes exhibits internationally and features in the collections of the New York Public Library and the Victoria and Albert Museum. It is one of a series of fragile earth figures inspired by rocks. boards finished paper. London. Oxford. Ink-wash delicately gouache (smooth) and gouache brushed drawing on This is a and was hot-pressed Shadows The dark shadow of the Other the ink-wash earth was made with a brushstroke of ink laid into wet paper.245 CONVOLUTIONS O O N A GRIMES British contemporary artist and professor of printmaking at the Ruskin School. details evolved slowly using a drier brush. and the Camberwell and Slade Schools of Fine Art. her under heavy here. The image formed directly without first making a pencil outline. How Clever of God #84 2002 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) O O N A GRIMES .

P O I N T E D T R A D I T I O N A L WRITER: The ferrule is made from a small duck quill. Shorter brushes designed for other purposes run out of ink more quickly. thicknesses. the very opposite of pencil or silver point. and hold prodigious weights of ink or paint. materials. Soaps purchased from good art supply stores will gently cleanse particles of pigment that become trapped in the hairs or ferrule. which holds long sable hair This brush holds large amounts of ink for long lines and points well for detailed work. Some used by master calligraphers are 2-3 in (5-8 cm) in diameter 11. it has good wash capabilities. 13. 1. Brushes vary in size. needle-sharp center of kolinsky red sable hair. drawing tool extending the arm. and wrist into a fluid and soft touch. washes. and has a fine tip for detailed work. and never leave them standing on their tip in a jar of water. Suitable for wash techniques but also capable of very fine detail. return them to their pointed shape. M T RA S AEIL . ideally suited to drawing. SYNTHETIC-HAIR BRUSH: Bound in a synthetic ferrule with good inkholding capacity and good spring and control. ink-laden tip allow an expression that is beyond the linear.H A I R LINER: Very responsive oriental-style liner This to the touch.246 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brushes T H E BRUSH IS A VOLUPTUOUS and delicate weights. 2. The living marks of a wet. flowing. L A R G E R S Y N T H E T I C ." 6. S Y N T H E T I C . It has exceptional painting characteristics. It is still relatively small in the total range of Japanese brushes. Always clean them thoroughly. SYNTHETIC-HAIR S W O R D LINER: A lining brush with high ink-holding capacity and a fine point. This brush has a broad wash capability and can achieve a very wide range of marks. Some are bold. It is capable of very fine pointing. JAPANESE PAINTING BRUSH: Made with natural hair. it has good inkholding capacity and is very flexible. Slightly less flexible than the squirrel-hair sword liner 9. POINTED SQUIRREL-HAIR MOP: With a synthetic quill ferrule and extra high inkholding capacity. with a fine point for delicate work 4. 12. The brushes shown here are a mixture of This is a selection of riggers. and texture. LARGER JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with natural hair held in a plastic ferrule on a bamboo handle. SQUIRREL-HAIR S W O R D LINER:This brush has a maximum ink-holding capacity and an extremely fine and flexible point 8.H A I R RIGGER: Made with long synthetic hair for fine-point work It has a good ink-holding capacity and is slightly more resilient than sable hair with more "snap. making rt ideally suited to Japanese painting and small-scale calligraphy. SYNTHETIC-HAIR LINER: This brush gives a medium line and is firm with a spring to the touch. and effects. How you care for your brushes will determine how long they last. 10. 3. and very fine lines. SABLE-HAIR LINER: Made with ordinary sable hair surrounding an extralong. fingers.Theyhold plenty of ink and make continuous. shape. This design supplies the fine tip with a long continuity of ink 5. this brush has a soft drawing tip and small ink-holding capacity. dense. liners. SMALL JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with sable hair. others are as fine as a whisker with a gentle touch. 7. all perfect for drawing and. between them. SABLE-HAIR RIGGER: Made with very long kolinsky sable hairs. and writers. giving a variety of lines.

247 BRUSHES .

) I . softness. unglazed earthenware dish. I rubbed a block of Chinese ink (see p. I had left the end of the ink block in the water overnight to make it easier to dissolve. and type of its hairs. and above all w h e t h e r the b r u s h is saturated with pigment or relatively dry. A single brush has almost balletic potential to draw fine or undulating lines and curves. length. b l o w i n g h a r d o n t h e m several t i m e s t o disperse t h e ink ( c l o s e y o u r eyes if y o u t r y this. and to make pools and stains o n the page. SETTING UP Blowing spots T h e s e t h r e e s p i d e r y c r e a t u r e s (above right and below) w e r e m a d e by d r o p p i n g s p o t s o f ink f r o m a b r u s h o n t o t h e p a g e and.248 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brush Marks A S I N G L E BRUSH will m a k e an e n o r m o u s range of m a r k s depending u p o n the width. splashes. Here I drew with a soft Japanese painting brush (see pp. the speed of the s t r o k e . the texture and a b s o r b e n c y of the paper ( w h i c h m a y be d a m p or dry). the degree of pressure applied. It also depends on the angle at w h i c h it is held.246-47). and spatters.35) into two tablespoons of water in a shallow. w i t h m y face close.

249 Gritty texture T h e details o f t h e largest creatures b e l o w and opposite s h o w the granular texture of Chinese b l o c k ink. t h e effects of the b r u s h r u n n i n g o u t o f ink. a n d t h e w a y it d i s t r i b u t e s w h e n t h e b r u s h is d a b b e d o n its s i d e . w e see fine lines and s p o t s . BRUSH MARKS Wet and dry strokes A m o n g these concentrated drawings ink made into with the same w a t e r y lines. a n d b r u s h . . b l e e d i n g f r o m strokes b e l o w left.

. and used their detail to draw new creatures that might at first seem familiar. Oxford. until we look again.Monsters THESE LITTLE CREATURES o f i n k and i n v e n t i o n were b o r n out of animal and bird studies. I borrowed small and fragile specimens from the University Museum of Natural History.

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showing us that gallery study is not just for the student and beginner. Through studying and drawing these great paintings I have discovered that they are based on a pair of similarly long. and narrative twists. Among his "Black Paintings" in the Prado Museum.Goya's Monsters W I T H CUNNING BRILLIANCE. two of my own drawings show you how Goya's devil (below) is based on the shape of Murillo's boy on a horse (top right). Goya often invented his monsters out of characters seen in other painters' works. Here. I found relationships between all four paintings in terms of shapes. thin works made by Bartolome Murillo in Seville about 120 years earlier. Isidore. They are a pair and hang opposite each other. thin works titled The Witches' Sabbath and The Procession of St. formal composition. With further research. . Madrid. Goya's witches have been literally drawn and evolved out of the shapes of Murillo's prophet and pilgrims. are two long.

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little comments on politeness and sexual politics. Sometimes drawings come out of nowhere and surprise even the artist. drawn rapidly and with great joy.Consumed THIS IS A SERIES OF CARTOONS I m a d e s o m e years ago. .

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Contre jour A F r e n c h t e r m m e a n i n g " a g a i n s t day. linseed oil o r egg y o l k Caricature A representation Contour line A line t h a t f o l l o w s t h e s h a p e o f a surface. In t h e Far East calligraphy is a highly r e s p e c t e d a r t f o r m . F r o m t h e French v e r b coller. o r o t h e r (usually large) w o r k — s e e Pouncing. Camera lucida A n optical device t h a t p r o j e c t s an image o f an o b j e c t o n t o a plain s u r f a c e so t h a t it can be traced. and readymade objects arranged and stuck o n t o a flat surface.m e d i a d r a w i n g . R o u g h p a p e r is m a d e b e t w e e n t w o blankets t h a t . chance mark-making. p h o t o g r a p h s . R e m b r a n d t is a great master o f chiaroscuro. Chiaroscuro A 1 7 t h . A g e n e r a l t e r m t h a t describes t h e various processes o f c u t t i n g a design i n t o a plate o r b l o c k o f m e t a l o r w o o d . r a t h e r t h a n r e c o r d e d o n a film o r plate. t h e field is t h e a p p a r e n t a n d b e l i e v a b l e space inside t h e p i c t u r e ." " N o t " p r e s s e d p a p e r is r o l l e d a s e c o n d t i m e w i t h o u t blankets t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders t o p r o d u c e a s m o o t h e r b u t still slightly t e x t u r e d s u r f a c e .c e n t u r y Italian t e r m m e a n i n g "clear-obscure.m a d e paper. T h e name " n o t " simply refers t o t h e fact t h a t t h e cylinders are n o t h o t in t e m p e r a t u r e . o r will o n l y a p p e a r n o r m a l .256 GLOSSARY Glossary Accidental drawing Random. o f t e n d i s t o r t e d forms and vivid colors. t o g e t h e r w i t h a t h i c k felt b l a n k e t T h e w h o l e s a n d w i c h o f l a y e r s is t h e n railed t h r o u g h t h e press t o m a k e a p r i n t D r y p o i n t is a very portable and immediate m e t h o d o f printmaking. in w h i c h t h e subject's distinctive features o r peculiarities are deliberately exaggerated f o r c o m i c o r g r o t e s q u e effect. U s e d as a c o r r e c t i n g device o r pictorial game." D e s c r i b e s a p a i n t i n g in w h i c h t h e light s o u r c e is b e h i n d t h e s u b j e c t F o r e x a m p l e . A i r b r u s h e s are u s e d in t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c o m i c s . Aerial perspective The effect of the a t m o s p h e r e o v e r distance as it lightens t o n e s a n d cools c o l o r s progressively t o w a r d t h e horizon. Blotting T h e use o f a b s o r b e n t m a t e r i a l t o lift a w a y excess liquid. 2. as o p p o s e d t o t h e s t r a i g h t e d g e o f a sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has b e e n machine-trimmed. Erasure T h e a c t o f r e m o v i n g a n i m a g e f r o m a surface. Camera obscura A d a r k e n e d c h a m b e r i n t o w h i c h an i m a g e o f w h a t is o u t s i d e is received t h r o u g h a small o p e n i n g o r lens a n d f o c u s e d in natural c o l o r o n a facing surface. See also Hotpressed papers. A l s o called r i n g l e t shading. T h e b l a n k e t s g i v e t h e p a p e r its rough texture o r "tooth. 2. Calligraphy Beautiful h a n d w r i t i n g . A " s h a l l o w d e p t h o f field" m e a n s t h e p i c t u r e appears t o have only a shallow s p a c e inside i t Diffuse T o s o f t e n o r m a k e less brilliant. S o m e t i m e s f e r r u l e s a r e m a d e o f plastic o r o t h e r materials. tapestry. a n d attaches t h e m t o t h e s u p p o r t — f o r example. F r o m t h e G r e e k kallos. Fixative Liquid acrylic resin a n d l a c q u e r t h i n n e r usually a p p l i e d as a n a e r o s o l s p r a y m i s t t o t h e surface o f a d r y . Fixative lightly glues t h e d r a w i n g t o t h e surface o f t h e p a p e r t o p r e v e n t smudging. Bracelet shading C u r v e d parallel lines t h a t f o l l o w t h e c o n t o u r s o f f o r m . m e a n i n g " t o stick" Dry media M e d i a t h a t a r e n o t w e t o r o i l y — f o r e x a m p l e . T h e prints t a k e n from t h e s e plates o r blocks. Anamorphic distortion Stretching an i m a g e across a p i c t u r e surface so t h a t it can o n l y b e u n d e r s t o o d . Ferrule T h e s h o r t m e t a l t u b e t h a t s u r r o u n d s a n d g n p s t h e hairs o f a p a i n t b r u s h a n d fixes t h e m t o t h e brush handle. Cartoon 1. s u c h as a d r a w i n g o r painting. Engraving 1.The plate is t h e n r o l l e d w i t h ink a n d polished with a rag. w h e n a p e r s o n is p a i n t e d standing a g a i n s t a w i n d o w . a r e r o l l e d t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders. A h u m o r o u s d r a w i n g o r parody. s u c h as a s c r e e n .s i z e d r a w i n g m a d e for t h e purpose o f transferring a design t o a painting. a n d given t h e n a m e Sho. T h e m o v e m e n t was started by a g r o u p o f French artists including H e n r i Matisse. Eye level T h e i m a g i n a r y h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e a t t h e s a m e h e i g h t as t h e a v e r a g e p e r s o n ' s eyes. p r a c t i c e d meditatively w i t h a brush. pastel. in w h i c h parts o f an image are depicted v e r y brightly and dramatically against d a r k n e s s . n e w s p a p e r cuttings. Also called accelerated perspective. Conservation grade D e s c r i b e s a range o f materials t h a t d o n o t d e c a y and cannot be broken d o w n by insects. written with a broad-nibbed pen o r brush. A l s o c a l l e d t h e h o r i z o n line. t h e l i g h t is b e h i n d h i m o r her. Collage C o l l e c t e d materials such as c o l o r e d p a p e r s . pressurized t o o l used f o r spraying fine mists o f s m o o t h c o l o r P i g m e n t is d e l i v e r e d b y a j e t o f air n o t t h e bristles o f a brush. Field In a t w o . p r i n t i n g press face up. A f u l l . so t h a t ink r e m a i n s o n l y in t h e g r o o v e s o f s c r a t c h e d lines. for example. L a t e r it c a m e t o m e a n h i g h l y c o n t r a s t e d light effects. W o r d s o r symbols are Cold-pressed papers P a p e r manufactured with a "not" o r " r o u g h " surface. D a m p p a p e r is laid o n t o p ." It w a s first given t o t o n a l paintings m a d e in o n e c o l o r — s e e Grisaille. A p o t e n t i a l l y h a r s h m e t h o d o f p r o d u c i n g t o n e s in a d r a w i n g . Composition T h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e p a r t s o f an i m a g e t o m a k e u p the whole. Fauvism A n early 2 0 t h . Crosshatching Parallel lines d r a w n across o n e a n o t h e r at right angles. Binder A substance t h a t holds particles o f p i g m e n t t o g e t h e r in a paint f o r m u l a t i o n . usually at a n a c u t e angle t o t h e s u r f a c e . Blending M e r g i n g t w o o r m o r e neighboring colors o r tones t o g e t h e r using a tortillon. Deckle edge T h e i r r e g u l a r e d g e o f a s h e e t o f m o l d . In t h e W e s t p e n calligraphy is u s e d t o c r e a t e f o r m a l a n d d e c o r a t i v e t e x t s . Bleed T h e e f f e c t o f t w o w e t colors running into one another o r o n e color applied t o a w e t surface a n d a l l o w e d t o d i s p e r s e . Air brush A mechanical. It is p u t o n a Body color See Gouache. Acid-free paper P a p e r w i t h a neutral p H t h a t will n o t darken o r d e t e r i o r a t e excessively w i t h age. charcoal. A l s o called m u s e u m g r a d e . It can also seal a silver p o i n t d r a w i n g t o p r e v e n t t h e oxidization (browning) o f t h e Drypoint A d r a w i n g is s c r a t c h e d directly o n t o a m e t a l plate w i t h a m e t a l t o o l h e l d like apen. a n d g r a p h i t e .d i m e n s i o n a l i m a g e . m e a n i n g "beauty". C o p p e r p l a t e engravings w e r e widely used t o r e p r o d u c e images b e f o r e p h o t o g r a p h y .c e n t u r y painting m o v e m e n t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e use o f b o l d . w h e n v i e w e d f r o m a specified point.

are painted in grisaille and appear to be made of stone. and it has a history in enamel work. oil-based printing ink is rolled evenly onto a smooth metal.Theground provides a particular color or texture beneath the image.The paper then bears a crayon impression or copy of the surface that was underneath it A number of Surrealists. F o r m a t T h e size. . mineral. Masking fluid Clear or opaque latex fluid developed for watercolor painting. used for fixing paper to walls and boards. and is also used as a size. cadmium yellow hue. of the ingredients in inks and watercolors. ink.while secretion of the acacia tree. A small image might be described as small format Horizontal images are often said to be "landscape format" (abbreviated G u m arabic The natural to"landscape").The degree to which detail is defined. or a drawing made in any single color GLOSSARY Linear perspective A form of perspective in which parallel lines are represented as converging. Ground A wet solution usually of gouache or gesso (chalk and animal glue) brushed onto paper board. This may be disregarded in real life. It is a strong adhesive. Plumb line A line from which a weight is suspended in order to determine verticality or depth. then rubbed over carefully but vigorously with a crayon. The surface can be reloaded or redrawn with more medium. Papercut A type of collage in which flat sheets of paper are cut into an image. white. Foreshortening A method of depicting an object at an angle to the surface of the picture. lifting out charcoal and other dry media. Paper is laid on top and a rapid drawing is made on the back of it The paper lifts away to reveal the image on its other side. Grisaille A painting in gray or a grayish color Often made by students as a tonal exercise. materials that produce marks on a surface. Also refers to an additive used to control the application properties of a color Golden Section A proportion in which a straight line or rectangle is divided into two unequal parts in such a way that the ratio of the smaller part to the greater part is the same as that of the greater part to the whole. shape.257 metal line. rock. multiH u e A term for a color. Monochrome Usually refers to a black. Medium A generic term for art Key A painting is said to be "high key" when the colors and tones are bright and "low key" when they are dark or somber The term is also used Gouache Opaque watercolor Also called body color. or even a beam of light. Dark tones are laid down first then an eraser or masking tape is used to lift away particles of the drawing media to reveal the lightness of the paper beneath. and by artists representing stone sculptures in a painting. or spirit-based) is applied to a surface that is then pressed onto paper and removed to leave a print. so that (using vanishing point perspective) the object appears to change shape and become narrower or smaller as it recedes. glossy. which give it a smooth surface (as opposed to cold-pressed paper. It can be used with any wet media to isolate or protect parts of an image from further Optical blending See Pointillism. Hairspray is an effective and inexpensive alternative. A point of interest in a drawing. Negative space The space between things. Fugitive A term given to a pigment that it is not stable. Picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. and masking off areas of a drawing that the artist wishes to keep untouched by media applied above or beside the tape. Gamut A complete range or extent Glassine A type of thin. or plastic surface. enabling them to stick to paper It also helps to maintain a stable dispersion of pigment particles in water as the film of a wash dries. or a family of colors. format" (abbreviated to "portrait"). but in picture-making it is as important as the objects/subjects themselves. Hatching (cross-) See Crosshatching. aiming to represent facts rather than an interpretation of the subject. Paper is then pressed against the stone to take a print. This method incorporates the excitement of accidental and unpredicted marks. Padua. or for wrapping and protecting a finished piece of work. graphite. Pointillism A technique of using points or dots of pure color in such a way that when the picture is viewed from a distance they react Masking tape Invaluable. This effect emulates what we see in real life. upright images are called "portrait which is used as a binding agent in many liquid media. and orientation of the image. the surface of the stone is made wet before being rolled with a thin film of oilbased printing ink. it is the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work Pigment Any substance used as a coloring agent—for example. Lithography A method of printmaking in which a drawing or painting is made directly onto a smooth slab of particular limestone or a metal plate using an oilbased crayon or ink." A piece of paper is placed on top of an object or rough surface. but each print will be unique. Impressing Stamping or printing. Artists can paint freely over dry masking fluid. Objective drawing Refers to the concept of objectivity. and gray drawing. the finely ground particles of plant. to describe a surface to which paint will adhere readily. 2. or can be otherwise used to create an image—for example. Monoprinting A direct method of printing in which wet medium (water-. and that will "escape" or change over time. or synthetic material that are suspended in a medium to constitute paint. It improves the bonding properties Frottage A French term meaning "rubbing. Lifting out A method of creating highlights and mid-tones in a drymedia drawing (such as charcoal or graphite). oil-. It is then peeled away. Giotto's Virtues and Vices in the Arena Chapel. Hot-pressed papers (HP) Paper made using hot cylinders. and translucent paper—a delicate material used in collage. F o r m The outer surface of a three-dimensional object. Rubens used grisaille to paint small images for engravers. Also used by artists' materials manufacturers to indicate the use of a substitute pigment—for example. purpose. After several intervening processes. pastel. work. Focus 1 . Alternatively. with the area beneath remaining unaffected. or canvas and allowed to dry before an image is drawn or painted. sticky paper tape. Lightfast A term confirming that pigment in the product will not fade with exposure to light. The ink attaches to the oil-based image and is repelled by the wet stone. glass. which has a rough surface). to give the illusion of depth and distance. Usually an academic drawing observed from life. including Max Ernst used frottage in their work. Grisaille is occasionally seen in church stained-glass windows.

or any physical object that can be stamped or pressed onto a surface to leave an impression. compound of water-soluble pigment. Etienne de material) dabbed through the Silhouette (1709-67). in order to flick the pigment onto the image surface. Technical drawing A universal it is often used in conjunction language of lines and measurements with line drawings in pen and that is used to make diagrammatic ink—for images. pencil. or pen. Wash A technique using ink. Squeegee A rubber-trimmed scraper used in the screenprinting process for dragging ink across a surface. Zen brushwork This is an oriental meditative art form originating in China and practised for many centuries in Japan. a sheet of paper is placed beneath and pinpricks are Silhouette A flat. glasses. "Spirits" or "oil" of turpentine refer to the volatile portion used by artists to thin or dilute oil-based paint. The crude material is called oleoresin. pointed instrument used for marking or engraving. Recto The front or top side of a piece of paper. carbon ink. or gouache. Props An abbreviation of the word properties. Zen A school of Mahayana Buddhism that asserts that enlightenment can come through meditation and intuition rather than faith. sometimes drawn from a and leaving only the pricked sheet of shadow cast on a wall. acrylic.Technicaldrawing has been example. or the left-hand page in a book. fine paper. Subjective drawing A drawing that expresses the personal view and interpretation of the artist An invented image. Named paper in place. Spattering A mottled texture produced by drawing your fingers across the bristles of a stiff brush loaded with pigment.Thedrawing is removed. such as an inscribed sheet of metal. meaning objects used in setting up a life model or still life. Artists' prints are normally made in multiple. Support The structure on which an image is made—for example. plum blossom. Shade A that is color mixed (or toned) with black Shading A lay term for adding tone to a drawing. Printmaking The act of making a picture. Tortillon A short. Tone A degree of lightness or darkness. orchids. Pouncing If a large drawing or design (called a cartoon) is to be Shadow Darkness cast by the transferred to a surface such as a obscuring of light. Sfumato An Italian term meaning "smoky. and paperweights. design. pointed roll of white paper that is used to blend dry media. or mark using an inked or pigment-covered surface. W e t media Any liquid media— for example. Scale Describes the size of one element in relation to another Sepia A brown pigment taken from the sun-dried ink sacs of cuttlefish and used to make ink or watercolor The term is now often incorrectly used to refer to brown colors. or point on which parallel lines converge to give the impression of receding space. or wood. Underdrawing A pale preliminary drawing made prior to adding layers of another medium such as oil paint or watercolor Value The extent to which a color reflects or transmits light This is the equivalent of tone in a black and white image. a point at which receding parallel lines meet Verso The back or underside of a piece of paper." Applied to the blurring or softening of sharp outlines by the subtle and gradual blending of one tone into another Sgraffito A technique of scratching or cutting through a surface of paint. cut-out profile made along every outline of the usually made in black paper image. tight. Sketch A quick or rough drawing. Stylus A sharp. by imposing a grid that is then scaled up to a larger size. Stippling Applying color or tone in areas of fine dots or flecks. Still life A picture composed of inanimate objects such as bowls. Alternatively. Pounce (a fine for an unpopular 18th-century powder of charcoal or similar French politician. or ceramic glazing to reveal a different color beneath. Zen paintings usually depict scenes of nature and plants such as bamboo. evolved by engineers and architects for the purpose of conveying W a t e r c o l o r A painting accurate structural information. Single-point perspective The most basic form of linear perspective in which there is only one vanishing point. giving it a brilliance. plaster. Vanishing point In linear perspective. and chrysanthemum—which in Chinese tradition are called "The Four Gentlemen. usually diluted with water and applied with a brush. Serigraphy Silk-screen printing. The translucent Tint A color mixed with white. plaster or cloth surface beneath. in tone running from black to white or vice versa. Zen brushwork encompasses calligraphy and painting. Size A weak glue used for filling the porous surface of wood or canvas in order to seal it. Squaring up A method of enlarging and transferring an image from one surface to another. nature of watercolor allows the white surface of the paper to Tonal scale A scale of gradations shine through. paper or canvas. fruit. commonly referred to as the lead. A term borrowed from the theater. creating more vibrant effects than if the same colors were physically mixed together with a brush.258 GLOSSARY together optically. or the right-hand page in a book. an ink stone usually cut from slate. Volume The amount of space occupied by an object or an area of space in itself." Materials for Zen brushwork include round brushes of varied size. which are then called editions. wall or tapestry. a tightly folded piece of cotton batting can be used for the same effect. using a brush. Turpentine A colorless solvent distilled from the resinous sap of pine trees. Viewpoint The position from which something is observed or considered. watercolor. whose pinpricks creates a "connect-thepersonal pastime was making dots" replica of the image on the cut-out portraits. to model areas of light and shade. ink. . and flowers. Although drawings can be made with wash alone. or watercolor paint. Strip Core of a pencil.

243 botanical drawing 48-49 Boullee.162 Conte. 193 in lifting out 204.31 Picasso's horse and bird 30. Le (Hugo) 200. William: The Circle of the Lustful 180. 8 cave paintings 8. 205 Baltard. 116. 137 Besler. 38-39. 242 to blend 205 compressed 122. 94 chalk(s) 53. 13. 222. 223 Circular Score for "Due Voce" 223 children's art 9. 29 Hugo's octopus 28. 202 cloth. 90 colored materials 162-163 colored pencils 162. 206 checkered floor 80. 71 Blake. 9 Chair (Van Gogh) 94. 30 sleeping dog 38-39 Stubbs's horse skeleton 26. Jean Michel 138 Self-Portrait 138 Bateau-Vision. 9. 160 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object (Moore) 178. 190 Caricature of a Woman (Daumier) 198. 244 and graphite 178 . 74. Statue d'Epouvante 90 calligraphy.186 see also movement Adoration of the Magi perspective study (Leonardo) 74. cut Catling. 72 bracelet shading 122 Braque.115 anatomical drawing 134-135 anatomical theaters 82-83 anatomical waxes 128 ancient carvings 221.226. Leon: Bacchante 155 balance. 241 action. 78 aerial perspective 206 airbrushing 160. 75 Circle of the Lustful (Blake) 180.50. 50. to depict 156-157 Cloudburst of Material Possessions (Leonardo) 200.117 Achilles Chases Hector (Thomas) 240. 111. 13 architectural drawing 67-71 Arctic Flowers (Libeskind) 70.169 colors: airbrushed 161 background 91 A Abe. Franz 48 Protea nitida 48 Bellini. 198. 165. 26 geese 38-39 Gericault's cats 28. 204-205.212 to erase 205 to hold 23 pencils 204 willow 114. 74. 134 costume(s) 155 character 158-159 structure of 166-167 Cottage Among Trees (Rembrandt) 52. 178 Cubism 67.133. 226-227 Acanthus spinosus 65 accelerated perspective 22. 189.163 dry media 205 Blue Nude (Matisse) 110. 201 collage 111. (Ross-Craig) 49 to hold brush for 23 caricature 159.44-45 bird studies 12.184. 28 Klee's horses 30. 75.44-45. 242 Brunelleschi.163 graded 227 composition 56-57. Victor: West Facade of the Church of St. 220. 199 Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya (Eisen) 156.27 turtles 42-43 aquatint 240 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels (Leonardo) 12.163 body. Mamaru 104.198. 158. 186 charcoal 114. Clare 203 City 202. 81 cut-out model plan 94. 198 cartoon (preparatory drawing) 137 (satirical) 159. center of 118 ballpoint 182. 90. Zen c 232-233 blended 133.Index Page numbers in italics refer t o captions and illustrations Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity (Bishndas and 259 INDEX B bread (as eraser) 205. 95 Chair Cut Out (Woodfine) 94.184. 244 head and neck 144 phrased 124-125 contrast: brightness 99 of media 30 tonal 96. 163. 139 Nanha) 50. Sylvano 222. Nicolas-Jacques 54 contours 146.89. to draw 80. Giovanni 137 Head and Shoulders of a Man 136. 247-248 carving see lines. 221 animals. 133. 70 Art Nouveau motifs 91 Autoportrait (Ray) 138. 180 Circular Score for "Due Voce" (Bussotti) 223 circus scenes 192-195 City (Bryan) 202. 128. layers 53 chalk pastels 162.100 curves. Augustin 67 Basquiat. 90 La Guitare. 203 Claude Lorrain 202 Views from Velletri 202. 182. 200 Bauer.13. 180 blending: color 133. 206. 113 bird bones 12. 162 character: to capture 38-39. 203 Buffalo Hunt (Shoshone) 178. 161 Akhlaq-I Rasul Allah manuscript 51. Basilius 47 Beuys. to express 39. to model 110-111 border 51 Bosch. 98. Filippo 67. 74 brush (es) 246-247 Japanese 248 for laying a wash 140 marks 248-249 to hold 23 brush drawings 14-15 Bryan. 81 135. 40-41 Durer's rhinoceros 26. Brian 226 Untitled 2001 226 "Cave of the Hands" (Cueva de las Manas) 8. 71 conte 112. 250 Bishndas and Nanha: Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity 50. to draw 100 Cypripedium calceolus L. 157 cropping 56-57. 94 cylindrical objects. 52 cotton swabs 205 Coup de Vent a Asajigabare (Hokusai) 198. Hieronymus 243 Two Monsters 242. Joseph 113 The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland 112.51 All and Nothing (Taylor) 114. 41 principal 186. 230 The Physical Space 220 abstract drawing 219. to draw 25. 71 Bacchante (Bakst) 155 background: color 91 textured 240 Baker Matthew: Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry 32 Bakst. Etienne-Louis 72 Newton's Cenotaph 72. 179 Bussotti. 90. Georges 67. 204. 203 Landline 202. 230-231 Cubist 90.

160. 73. Keisai 157 The Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya 156. 245 layers 30 Goya. 112. 134.John 157 Man Lying Down in a Cloak 156. 226-227 anatomical 134-135 architectural 67-71 botanical 48-49 brush 14-15 dark to light 102. 40. Edgar 162 depth. 162 Flaxman. La (Braque) 90.104. 99 etching. 25 focus 65. 190 Middle Eastern 50-51. 69 Guitare.Theodore 29 Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 28. Sir Ernst 12. 69. 241 to blend 205 and chalk 178 and ink 28. Study for Plate 59 (Mucha) 90. 41 in the round 208-209 with scalpel 202. position of 22 Eisen. Oona 245 How Clever of God #84 244.115 exploratory 17 fantasy 72-73. 93 horizon 52. 203 semi-abstract 234-237 three-dimensional 68. 37 Grandville 243 A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the Near-Microscopic World of Scale Insects 242.112. 252 depiction of fabric monsters 252-253 Self Portrait in a Cocked Hat 130. 160 hitsuzendo 233 light to dark 102. 160 Faune. 79. Hans 133 The Ambassadors 116 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 132. C . 26 Flying Fish (White) 25. M.216 Durelli. 29 H hands. 90 G Gaudi.103. Francisco de 131.141.146 from masterworks 126-127. 242 eyes. 170-173. 203 Hotel de la Suzonnieres (Satie) 70. to draw 168-169 in Goya's artworks face. 122. 7 33 Hooke. 240 170-173 five Ships in a Port with Lighthouse (Wallis) 11.198 Degas. 55. 160 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction (Gaudi) 68. 799 Holbein.117 fountain pens 34. 124. 93 eye level 80 Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity. 205 drawing with 103.207.166 170-173 Gestalt 222 Giacometti. drypoint 181 exaggeration 184 expressionism 198 E ye and Head of a Drone Fly (Hooke) 92. 136 Golden Section 67 Gombrich. 161 changing 216 Focusing on the Negative (Walter) 16 foliage 52. 113. 134. 223 graphite 54. 144 Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (Baker) 32. 137 heads. 77 How Clever of God #84 244.69 Gerard.121 felt-tip pens 162. Alberto 136 Portrait of Marie-Laure de Noailles 136.116. Katsushika 199 Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 198. 125. Robert 93 Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 92. 222. 245 Hugo. 55. 132 Frenz. 765 hitsuzendo drawings 233 Hokusai. to draw 134-137 Helleborus corsicus 55 highlights 91. 32 framing 139 Franfoise au Bandeau (Picasso) 132.244. 222 Le Bateau-Vision 200. to suggest 177 see also perspective diagonals diffuser 55 dip pens 34. 216 foreshortening 110. 163. 71 minimal line 99 and music 70-71 quick 38-39. 200 F fabric. Rene 160 Illustration for Jacques Fath E easel. 90 gouache 30. Ron 161 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 161 160. position of 143. Statue d'Epouvante. 240. 230 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction 68.101 engraving 243 erasers/erasing 55.102-103 drawing board 20 drawing books 20-21 drawing paper 144. Cheval et Oiseau (Picasso) 30.252-253 from memory 183. 120.230 three-tone 140.144 and ink 30. Antonio 135 Muscles of the Head and Neck 134. 141 tonal 96. 69.141.91.37. 115 Escher. 243 graphic score 222. 223.184 165. proportions of 143 fantasy drawings 72-73. 30 Fauves/fauvism 90.12 fixative 54. The 242. 245 Gruau. 135 Duren Albrecht 26. 161 fashion drawings 160. 69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt 68. to draw 78. 104-105.244 drawing(s): abstract 219.260 INDEX D Dada 139 Daumien Honore 198 Caricature of a Woman 198.97. 160 as ground for metal point 140. 163.189. 222 Grimes. 122 Hawksmoor. Jean Ignace Isidore see Grandville Gericault. 52 foreground 208. fiber-tip pen 182.111 feet. 240 Black Paintings 152. 134. Antonio 68. 202. 91 Dragon (Michelangelo) 36.109 Rhinoceros 26.103 with eraser 103. 131 Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 240.160. 55. 220 dry brush 234 234 57.157 ellipses 100. Victor 200. 161 fashion 160. to draw 120. Nicholas 68 St Paul's Baptistry 68 head and neck to draw 142-145 Head and Shoulders of a Man (Bellini) 136. disposable pens 182-183 dissections: botanical 48 of horse 27 distance: illusion of see perspective linear 97 tonal 97 Documents Decoratifs.216. 157 .

205 masterworks. 183 vertical 156 linear distance 97 linear perspective 69. 72. Johan 32.104. 97 Murillo. Paul 227 Polyphonic Setting for White 226. David 78 M Mackintosh. 163 pens 36 measuring 116 memory. 220. 73 Kigell. 33 J justness 228-229 N naive art 74 negative space 53. Henri 111 Blue Nude 1110. 177 influences. I Murderous Attacks 33 Kollwitz. 176. 63.276. Charles Rennie 48. Florence 128 lighting in 167 Pitt Rivers.33 Mysterious Affairs of the lighting 2 7.115 98. Erich 73 design for Metropolis 72. 221 endless 31 free 113. Gustav 49 Knopf.124. 36. 244 ink 36 252-253 Documents Decoratifs 90. 53 monoprint 787. 13 Cloudburst of Material Possessions 200.The (Robinson) 108.102. 74-77. 201 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels 12. Matisse. 34. 185 Mucha. 244 lithograph 198 Losbruch (Kollwitz) 180. 205. 190 metal pens see dip pens metal point 25.134 K Kettlehut. Alphonse 90. 73 Michelangelo Buonarroti 48.182 Moore. 201 head and neck sections of female mold for Sforza Horse 89 Madonna of the Rocks 244 perspective study for Adoration of the Magi 74. Henry 178 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object 178. Kathe 181 Losbrunch (The Outbreak) 180.112.96. 158 Man Lying Down in a Cloak (Flaxman) 156. 230 invented creatures 106-107 250-251 invented objects 89.227 to "bend" straight 97 compositional 228-229 cut 202. 178 motifs: A r t Nouveau 9 7 stylized 51 mountains 216-217 movement: of animals 30-31 of humans 7 79. Rose: Tantalus or the Future of Man 20 minimal line drawing 99 mirror use of 120 mixed media 28. 252 Muscles of the Head and Neck (Durelli) 134. 103 Neolithic chalk tablet 220. Bartolome: Moses Striking the Rock ofHoreb 252. Oxford 106 Prado.243 carbon 35 Chinese 30. drawing from 183. 225 masking tape 204. 160 In the Duchess's Kitchen (Rackham) 176. artistic 240-241. 114 hatched 244 layered 118 pace of 65 pale 40 rapid 49. 249 and gouache 30 Indian 35. apparent 97 Leonardo da Vinci 74. 234 iron-gall 35. 58-59. 35. Madrid 171 University Museum of Natural History. 203.109. 77 Miller. 111. 227 Scene of Comical Riders 30.181 L Landline (Bryan) 202. 31 Klimt. Phyll: hands 18 lifting out 204.91 Study for Plate 59 of INDEX illumination see lighting Illustration for Jacques Fath (Gruau) 160. 244 Dragon 36.167 line(s) 132. Oxford 250 music 70-71 Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks (Knopf) 32. 181 Klee. 244. 34-35 acrylic 35 bistre 35. Marie 244 cloth drawing 244.141.166 La Specola. Victor 134 Profile Head 134. 184. 37 lines 118 pastel 162 pencil 31. 170-173.120. 220. 156 magnification 93 Man in Armor (Van Dyck) 158. 220. 76 Libeskind. 166. 181 luminosity 115 Lynch.141 Metropolis (film) 72. 53 Tree II 52. 219 Mondrian. 252 ink 16. 756 priming for 140. 757 mandalas 219. 203 landscape 206-208 brushed 14 Landscape in Hoboku Style (Sesshu) 14 layers 146 chalk 53 gouache 30 ink 28. 49 Rose 49 Maelbeke Madonna (Van Eyck) 156. 159 Japanese 35 to make 36 sepia 35 walnut 36. 83 white 122 ink impressions 222 ink spatters 234 installations 176. 789. 99. Piet 52.109. 78 Study ofThree Male Figures 110. Daniel 70 Arctic Flowers 70 Lieb. 227 Newsome. 242 light 96 to depict drawing with 1 76 painting with 176 . 110 Sistine Chapel ceiling 116 Middle Eastern drawing 50-51.Pieuvre (Octopus) 28. 220. 135 museums 44. 60. 248. 28 Two Impressions from a Cut-out Paper Disk 222 Huyler Stephen R 225 261 Kinecar. 54 silver point 156 leg sections 158 length. 226 Modernism 67. drawing from 126-127.

52 pen and wash 158. 759 P Page. 1 1 6 . 239 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat (Seurat) 112. 7 77 three-point 80. 163.141 prints/printing: aquatint 240 dry-point etching 181 engraving 243 monoprint 181. 36 relief printing 757 Rembrandt van Rijn 52. Martin 238. 7 76 receding space 206 Redon. 73 Noble. 122. Man 131. 38. 68 Satie. 1 3 2 quill pens 34. 216. 244 reed 34. 7 70 Ray. J 76 nudes 114-115 to make 36 metal see dip quill 34. 52 pens 36 scalpel 54 drawing with 202. 7 72 Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland. 165. 159. 26 Riley. 205 pointillism 112 polyphonic painting 227 Polyphonic Setting for White (Klee) 226. 9 8 . 1 6 9 to hold 2 2 . 736 portraits.Tim. 733 Portrait de Marie-Laure (Giacometti) 136. Sue 104. 1 1 6 accelerated 2 2 . 114 rollerball 182 Rorschach blot 99 Rose (Mackintosh) 48. Heath 181 The Kinecar 180. Arthur 177 In the Duchess's Kitchen 176. 40-41. 241 Physical Space.37. Erik 70. The (Abe) 220 Picasso. 81 two-point 74. 162 O p A r t 98 optical illusions 96-99 outline 33. 244 Q s Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape (Wolfli) 2 79 St. 230 parallel planes 79 Parisian street 86-87 pastels 162 to blend 205 to hold 23 layers 162 pencils 162 pen(s): dip 34 .139 Autoportrait 138. 30 Fran<. 139 Real Life is Rubbish (Noble and Webster) 176. 234 disposable 182-183 felt-tip 162.176 Real Life Is Rubbish 176. 91 outsider artists 33. 103. 242 reed pens 34. Georges 112 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 112.240. 732 influence of 240 painting with light 78.The (Beuys) 112. 38. 37 38. 772 234-237 Sesshu.199 Profile Head (Newsome) oil pastels 162. 161. 181 Rodin. 205 157. Odilon 242 The Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity 242. Stella 48 Cypripedium calceolus L 49 rotated view 7 65 Rubens.759.131 Cottage Among Trees 52. 36.7 77 rapidograph 70 Raphael 110.226. 212 Japanese 2 1 . 203 Scene of Comical Riders (Klee) 30.37 scientific instruments 9 2 . 166 fiber-tip 782. 141 Piranesi. 224 0 layers 31. Auguste 114 Two Women 114. 76 plastic eraser 55. 243. 734 Protea nitida (Bauer) 48. Cheval et Oiseau 30.36.40. Isaac 92 Telescope 92 Newton's Cenotaph (Boullee) 72.262 INDEX Newton. 36. 227 portfolios 20 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser de Noailles (Holbein) 132. 230 paper(s) 21 colored 162 drawing 144.37. 4 9 Rose of Mohammed 50. 28 pigment 162 bright 50 Caput Mortuum 7 4 7 for three-tone drawing 141.71 Hotel de la Suzonnieres 70. to draw 146-147 R Rackham.Toyo: Landscape in Hoboku .Paul'sBaptistry (Hawksmoor) 68.9 3 Schongauer. 164. 36 pen and brush 8 3 pen and ink 70. 1 6 3 . 76-79. 219. 1 1 7 aerial 206 linear 69. 1 2 4 priming for metal point 140. Paul 73 Nobson Central 72. 243. 36. 239 Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 238. 97.104 Pieuvre (Hugo) 28. Peter Paul 126-127 Embracing pose(s): balanced 146 quick 118-119 positive form 103 posture: of artist 22 of subject 3 8 . 36. 2 2 0 for oil pastels 162 stained 230 to stretch 140-141 tissue 21. 36. Giovanni Battista 74. 4 8 putty eraser 55. 74. 782 relief 757 silk-screen 739 woodblock 134. Russell 228. 160. 7 73 self-portraits: Basquiat 138. 739 semi-abstract drawings Style 14 Seurat. 9 0 . 71 Satire of the Queen's Dress (Wodall) 158. Bridget 98 Robinson. 75 Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range 241 petroglyphs 221.184 fountain 34. 165 figure 118 filled 37 pencil 48. 7 38 Ray 138. and Webster. 78 single-point 74. 72 Noble. 57 Ross-Craig.54 pastel 162 perspective 1 0 0 . Faune.2 3 age and youth sleeping subjects 148-149 150-151 Renaissance 109 Rhinoceros (Durer) 26. Pablo 6 7 . 74-77.oise au Bandeau 132. 181 pencil(s) 54 charcoal 204 colored 762. 34-35. 75 Two Courtyards 75.

49. t o lay 1 4 0 . phrased 146 tonal modeling 161 tonal range 169 t o n a l surfaces 2 2 7 tonal width 97 t o n e ( s ) 33. 2 1 2 . 226 V Van Dyck.1 4 5 . 69. 161. Study of (Michelangelo) 110.243 Leonardo's machines 12. 170 shoes 1 6 4 stylized m o t i f 51 Summer Flowers 63.41. 69. 2 4 2 w Wallis. 7 70 Tiber 214-215 Untitled ( T w o m b l y ) 2 2 0 . 9 4 z Z e n calligraphy 232-233 contrast 96 t o grade 163 ink 37 pencil 5 4 t o r t i l l o n 205 T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c . 1 6 . 2 2 0 influence o f 2 4 0 Untitled 220. 241. Sarah: child's m a p 75. Augustin ( B a l t a r d ) 6 7 w e t and dry brush-strokes 2 4 9 Turner. M . 74.1 9 9 wire. 221 . 9 0 . 7 9 0 vessels. 158 V a n Eyck. 202 violin. 1 4 0 . 240 Two Women Embracing ( R o d i n ) 114. T i m W e s t Fagade of the Church of St. 9 2 Tesshu. 115. 243 (Bosch) T Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos ( G o y a ) 2 4 0 . 7 79 Shoshone petroglyph 240. t o d r a w 5 2 . Paul 2 4 1 Achilles Chases Hector 2 4 0 . 1 8 4 . 77. 53 trees.t o n e d r a w i n g 140.d i m e n s i o n a l 1 0 4 . 7 6 1 spots. A n t h o n y 152. h e a d a n d n e c k sections o f female m o l d f o r (Leonardo) 89 shading 2 9 s h a d o w s 28. 206-207 202.2 0 1 . 7 1 4 . 199 shoes 1 6 4 . W . C y 138. Man in Armor 1 5 8 . 156 Van Gogh.27 skull 747. 156 layers 7 5 6 priming for 140.125 W o o d f i n e . 102-103 tonal marks. 7 6 Two Impressions from a Cut-Out Paper Disk ( H u g o ) 2 2 2 Two Monsters 2 4 2 .1 4 1 .d i m e n s i o n a l d r a w i n g 68.1 6 5 shorthand diagram 142 Shoshone buffalo hide painting 178. 75. William 159 Satire of the Queen's Dress INDEX 226.J.1 0 5 vision 9 6 Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects (Grandville) 242. 249 t o describe 39. 75 Skeleton of the Horse ( S t u b b s ) 26. 6 9 Wodall. 2 9 wind. 1 4 1 w a t e r c o l o r 25. t o d r a w 1 0 1 viewfinder 57 Views from Velletri ( C l a u d e L o r r a i n ) 152. 1 4 5 travel journal 2 0 . 9 5 pens 36 v a n i s h i n g p o i n t 74. 2 7 studies: b i r d s 7 2 . G e o r g e 2 7 Skeleton of the Horse 26. 7 77. t o d r a w 2 0 0 . 2 2 7 Untitled 2001 ( C a t l i n g ) u 263 W h i t e . 96. 743 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City ( F r e n z ) 1 6 0 .158 158.120. 1 3 . 1 2 Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse 71. Vincent 95 Chair 94. b l o w n 248 steel p e n s see d i p p e n s still life 89. 1 8 4 . Adolf: Giant-Grape Saint-Mary-Castle 219 Woman at Her Toilet ( T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c ) 74 w o o d b l o c k print 157. John: Focusing on the Negative 14 w a s h . 725 fabric 1 6 8 T h o m a s . v i e w s o f 85. 1 9 9 .Yamaoka 233 t e x t u r e 2 2 2 . Jan 1 5 6 Maelbeke Madonna 1 5 6 . drawing with 104-105 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt ( G a u d i ) 68. 2 3 4 . 2 2 6 . 230 t h r e e . 186. 4 4 boat 209 botanical 4 9 G e r i c a u l t ' s cats 2 9 from Goya 170-173 125.12 W a l t e r . 164. 97. 159 Wolfli.13 M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s m a l e figures 110.216 W e b s t e r .241 s i l k . H e n r i de: Woman at Her Toilet 14 t r a n s p a r e n t v i e w 92. John 25 Flying Fish 25 Wild Striped Cat Sketches of ( G e r i c a u l t ) 28. 1 9 9 Two Courtyards (Piranesi) 75. t h r e e . 1 7 7 free 8 0 V e n i c e . 2 0 0 Ship in a Storm 1 9 8 .2 1 3 Stubbs.5 3 in l a n d s c a p e 2 0 6 .Sforza Horse.1 8 5 Tree II ( M o n d r i a n ) 52. 2 3 0 tonal contrast 96 tonal distance 9 7 t o n a l d r a w i n g 9 6 . 141 Three Male Figures.199 tissue p a p e r 21. A l f r e d 1 1 .s c r e e n p r i n t i n g 139 silver p o i n t 1 4 0 . 1 4 1 . 1 6 6 t r a p e z i u s m u s c l e 142. Sue see N o b l e .9 1 storms. 182. 79. 76. t o draw 1 9 8 . 57. 2 4 7 t h r e e . Taylor A n i t a 115 All and Nothing 1 1 4 . Sarah 9 4 Chair Cut Out 94. 7 75 Telescope ( N e w t o n ) 9 2 . 245 sharpener 54 Ship in a Storm ( T u r n e r ) 1 9 8 . 65 symbols 138. 174 T w o m b l y . 104-105.141 S i m b l e t . 1 4 4 . 199. 2 4 4 .

Strang Print Room ( b ) . 177: Mary Evans Picture Library. G i n a R o w l a n d . 73: Berlin F i l m Museum (t). Copyright Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens. 2 0 3 : Clare Bryan (t). 1 9 6 : Museum of the History of Science./© D A C S 2 0 0 5 ( t ) . 75: © The British Museum (b). 243: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. Kirsten Norrie./Galerie Sylvie Nissen. Paris/ © Succession Picasso / D A C S 2005. Picture Credits 8: Corbis/Hubert Stadler. Anders/ © D A C S 2 0 0 5 .bridgeman. Magdalene College Cambridge. Japan. 9 1 : www. 1 1 0 : www. J o h n Roberts. Productions Clovis Prevost (c). 1 5 9 : Bodleian Library. 1 3 4 : © T h e British Museum.co. 17: J o h n Walter. 2 6 : Topfoto. 2 2 4 : P r i n z h o m Collection. 5 0 : Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (1). for s u p p l y i n g the d r a w i n g books. F i n n . b r i d g e m a n . B e r l i n . 30: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. University of Cambridge. 7 0 : Studio Daniel L i b e s k i n d . A n d y C r a w f o r d for p h o t o g r a p h y a n d L . .uk/Mucha Trust. B e m d Kunzig. L o n d o n . Paul T h o m a s ( t ) . Rocio Arnaez. 13: www. 4 6 : B r i t i s h Library. G e r m a n y . Sarah Woodfine. Andy Crawford.bridgeman. 9 5 : V a n Gogh M u s e u m .bridgeman. B . Sir Brinsley F o r d . L o n d o n .bridgeman. 199: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee des arts asiatiquesGuimet. London 2005. 2 0 2 : © T h e British Museum.bridgeman. Sammy De Grave. 114: Musee Rodin.264 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Acknowledgments Author's Acknowledgments: T h e author wishes to thank the following people for their enormous help. NY. 1 3 3 : Artothek/Kupferstichkabinett.co. Anders. K a t h r y n W i l k i n s o n . 221: Gagosian Gallery/Private Collection (b). 181: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. 2 4 : © T h e British Museum. 2 3 8 : akg-images. A n n a P l u c i n s k a . L o n d o n (t). Amsterdam. and Tamsin Woodward Smith. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett.co. F r a n c e . Germany/Joerg P. O o n a G r i m e s . Jean Pierre Roy. 2 0 1 : T h e Royal Collection © 2 0 0 2 H e r Majesty Queen Elizabeth I I . b r i d g e m a n . K u n s t m u s e u m .co. Winthrop. Flossie. u k / T o k y o National M u s e u m . Peter L u f f .uk/Guildhall Library. 49: Hunterian Museum (t). K e v i n a n d Rebecca Slingsby. Pamela Ellis for compiling the index. 9 7 6 ) . 16: www. 158: Calouste Gulbenkian Museum.l. L o n d o n . Staatliche Museen z u Berlin/Jorg P. Diana Bell. 115: Anita Taylor. Sarah D u n c a n . a n d encouragement i n m a k i n g this book: M a m o r u Abe.100. a n d D e p a r t m e n t s o f E n t o m o l o g y a n d Zoology at the University of Oxford. © Tate. H a y w a r d Gallery. 1879. 9 4 : Sarah Woodfine. Antonia Cunliffe Davis. H e a t h e r M c C a r r y . J a c k a n d Brian Catling.uk/Kettle's Yard. 226: Brian Catling. 2 4 0 : w w w . a n d brushes o n pp.co. Berlin (b). 4 8 : T h e N a t u r a l H i s t o r y M u s e u m .uk/British Museum. 2 2 7 : Paul Klee Stiftung. Paris. A .bridgeman. 9 3 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. papers. 1901. C o r n e l i s o n & Son. 2 4 4 : Ashmolean Museum. 157: U C L Art Collections . O./Private Collection/© D A C S 2005. J o h n Walter. M a n d y Earey. 111: Fondation Beyeler/Riehen (Bale)/© Succession H Matisse/DACS 2005. 88: www. 1 6 1 : D C C o m i c s I n c .bridgeman. Maureen Paley Interim Art (b). 3 2 : Pepys Library. 3 1 : Tom Powel Imaging. 9 2 : Science Photo L i b r a r y . Dover Publications/ISBN: 0486229912 (t). 180: www. R u t h P a r k i n s o n . 132: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. 2 8 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. 74: Corbis. 2 4 5 : Oona Grimes. Madrid.a. 1 3 6 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Centre Pompidou-MNAM-CCI. Portugal. u k / O n Loan to the H a m b u r g Kunsthalle. 113: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. H . Clare Bryan. 1 . K e w ft)). L e n . Angela W i l k e s . 1 5 6 : Graphische S a m m l u n g Albertina. P h y l l Kiggell. 11: www.uk/Private Collection. 29: Fogg A n Museum/Collections Baron de Vita: Grenville L. Basel. H e l e n S h u t t l e w o r t h .939). c o . Paris. 1 5 : w w w . Also. R o s e m a r y S c o u l a r . 2 2 3 : Lebrecht Music and Arts Photo Library/Ricordi. J o n Roome. 130: The Metropolitan M u s e u m of Art/Robert L e h m a n Collection. 1 9 : Getty Images/© Succession Picasso / D A C S 2 0 0 5 . Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. K u n s t m u s e u m Bern/© D A C S 2 0 0 5 . Corporation of London. Roddy Bell. Natalie G o d w i n . Agnieszka Mlicka. Kunstmuseum Bern. A . B e r l i n . U K . 7 1 : I M E C / A r c h i v e s E r i k Satie. Publisher's Acknowledgments Dorling Kindersley w o u l d like to thank Caroline H u n t for editorial contribution.bridgeman. Italy. T o n y G r i s o n i . Sophie Laurimore. b r i d g e m a n . Psychiatric Institute of the U n i v e r s i t y of Heidelberg. 2 2 0 : Mamaru Abe. University of Oxford. Christopher Davis. 3 3 : Prinzhom Collection. Fund. 225: Stephen P Huyler. Psychiatric Institute of the University of Heidelberg. 112: Yale University A r t Gallery/Everett V Meeks. L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . 1975 ( 1 9 7 5 . 1 3 8 : © Christie's Images Ltd/© A D AGP. Patty Stansfield. D a w n Henderson. 174: Artothek/Munich. R . Staatliche Museen z u Berlin. Germany. Paris a n d D A C S . 137: © The British Museum. R o y a n d D i a n n e Simblet. 9 0 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/© A D A G P . Salisbury & South W i l t s h i r e M u s e u m ( t ) . Inc. 1 5 4 : akg-images/Musee National d'Art Moderne. 1 3 5 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. . 1 7 8 : © T h e British M u s e u m / H e n r y Moore F o u n d a t i o n .20-21 a n d 246-47. 1 6 0 : Rene G R U A U s. Orientabteilung/Ruth Schacht. Paris and D A C S . Wolfson College.co. 5 3 : Collection of the Gemeentemuseum D e n Haag/Mondrian Trust. G e r m a n y . Paris. Angela Palmer. 179: www. 51: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. London/courtesy of Stuart Shave. George M c G a v i n . B M G . Carlo O r t u for picture research s u p p o r t . Oxford. 2 0 0 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. Carole A s h . 176: Modem Art.r. L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . H a m b u r g . Julie O u g h t o n . 2 4 1 : Corbis/David M u e n c h ( b ) .bridgeman. L o n d o n . 2 1 8 : Adolf-Wdlfli-Stiftung. Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (t).co. 1 9 8 : Dover Publications. 5 2 : T h e Metropolitan Museum of Art/Bequest of Mrs. Paris. 2 4 2 : Photo Scala. 72: akg-images.co. T h e R u s k i n School of D r a w i n g a n d Fine A r t . support. Paris.uk/Musee des Augustins. Florence/MoMA. 1929 (29. Graphische Sammlung.uk/Private Collection.Paris ( b ) . u k / L o u v r e . Illustrated London News Picture Library/The Bystander (b). L o n d o n . Toulouse.uk /Biblioteca Nacional. Anita Taylor. U K . Paris. Paris a n d D A C S . 1 0 8 : Arts C o u n c i l Collection. 2 7 : Royal Academy of Arts. 6 6 : w w w . c o . Lisbon. Havemeyer. Paul T h o m a s . France. 69: Institut Amatller d'Art Hispanic (tl). 139: Galerie Marion Meyer/© Man Ray Trust / A D A G P .co. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett.co. (r). Jackie Douglas. London/Bequeathed by Charles Landseer. S i m o n L e w i s . c o . 68: www. 2 2 2 : Pierre Georgel/Private Collection. Berlin/Staatsbibliothek zu A l l other images © Sarah Simblet .uk /© Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery. Paula Regan.uk/Private Collection.

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