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FOR T H E ARTIST
FOR THE ARTIST
LONDON • NEW YORK MELBOURNE • MUNICH • DELHI Senior Editor Paula Regan Senior Art Editor Mandy Earey Art Editor Anna Plucinska Managing Editor Julie Oughton Managing Art Editor Heather McCarry Art Director Peter Luff Publishing Director Jackie Douglas Production Joanna Bull DTP Designer Adam Walker Picture Research Sarah Smithies US Editor Christine Heilman First American Edition, 2 0 0 5 First Paperback Edition, 2 0 0 9 Published in the United States by DK Publishing 3 7 5 Hudson Street New York, New York 1 0 0 1 4 10 11 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3
6 8 20 22 Master Builders The Order of Sound Future Fictions Pathways of Sight Single-Point Perspective Creating an Imaginary Space Further Aspects of Perspective Theaters Venetian Life Parisian Street
68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86
Foreword Introduction Drawing Books and Papers Posture and Grip
Objects and Instruments
TD075-July 2009 Copyright © 2 0 0 5 Dorling Kindersley Limited Text and authors artworks © Sarah Simblet 2 0 0 4 Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited A Cataloging-in-Publication record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN 9 7 8 - 0 - 7 5 6 6 - 5 1 4 1 - 1 Color reproduction by GRB, Italy Printed and bound in China by Toppan
Still Life Instruments of Vision Bench Marks Light and Illusions Further Illusions How to Draw Ellipses Tonality Drawing with Wire Artifacts and Fictions
90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106
Documentaries Presence and Mood Movement Icon and Design Pen and Ink Drawing with Ink Capturing Character Sleeping Dogs Turtles Dry Birds
26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44
Postures and Poses Choreographs Passion Measurement and Foreshortening Quick Poses Hands and Feet Charcoal Hands Phrasing Contours The Visual Detective La Specola
110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128
Plants and Gardens
Botanical Studies Jeweled Gardens Fast Trees Graphite and Erasers Cropping and Composition Negative Space Fig Tree Summer Flowers Acanthus Spinosus
48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64
Discover more at
Projections Magnetic Fields The Human Condition Disposable Pens The Travel Journal Catching the Moment Grand Canal Crossings Caravans The Big Top
174 Abstract Lines
176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 Process and Harmony Writing Time Chants and Prayers Compositions Being "Just" Collage Zen Calligraphy Nocturnes
220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234
Poise Anatomies Revelations Self-Portraits Silver Point Head and Neck Essential Observations Drawing Portraits Generations Castings
132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 152
Earth and the Elements
Air in Motion Storms Nature Profiles Charcoal Landscapes Drawing in the Round Decaying Boat Cloudburst Notes of Force Mountains
198 200 202 204 206 208 210 212 214 216
Gods and Monsters
Marks of Influence Hauntings Convolutions Brushes Brush Marks Monsters Goya's Monsters Consumed Glossary Index Acknowledgments
240 242 244 246 248 250 252 254 256 259 264
Cloth and Drapery Character Costumes Femmes Fatales Colored Materials Study and Design The Structure of Costume Textures and Patterns Dressing Character Posture Carving
156 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172
and their importance to so many artists. . a cartographer charting the land. I work with people of diverse ages. Drawing is a mirror through which I understand my place in the world. by invitation. from schoolchildren to senior citizens. I know that with their cooperation I can soon prove them wrong. It makes me feel excited to be alive. doctors. through history. For me personally. we have looked at. I was training in anatomy and studying how. and feeling. It is my love of these. texture. and experience. we learn to see it. a drawing book is the perfect portable private vehicle for your imminent exploration of drawing. It is a tool for investigating ideas and recording knowledge. especially as travel journals. or a quantum physicist trying to see for themselves the fluctuations of our universe. remain unseen by most. night security staff. who tells me firmly upon approach that they cannot draw. are made outside as discreet installations. or engineer. and I refer back to them for years after they are made. Drawing occupies a unique place in every artist and creator's life. and through which I can see how I think. Chosen in any color. shape. These inspirations led me to invent museums. Augustine his notes on memory. By using our imaginations. They occupy a shelf in my studio. architect. but because it is how I engage with and anchor myself in life. where spaces are shaped by nothing more than the objects and activities contained within them. drawing is the immediate expression of seeing. and local c o m m u n i t y classes. that inspired the title and structure MEMORY T H E A T E R S This pen-and-ink drawing was made from imagination during research for my PhD. and size. Some of my drawings cover entire walls. of Sketch Book for the Artist. understood (and often misunderstood) our own bodies.Foreword B Y DRAWING THE WORLD AROUND US. Some are more traditionally framed and hung in galleries for solo or group exhibitions. and be slowly washed or worn away. as a visiting professor at universities. The most rewarding challenge is always the newcomer. Others can be held in the h a n d or. fashion designer. in which he describes himself flying and diving in his imagination through pictorial caverns of knowledge. perhaps hidden on a door hinge or a street bench rail. a composer notating a musical score. I also make drawing books. and a reflector of experience. be they a child discovering their vision and dexterity. The very first step is to believe it. geologists. still standing by the door. we learn to feel truly alive. aspirations. and makers of special effects. thinking. not only to make art. art schools. and in a few sessions they will be flying. where I expect them to be discovered by some people. Combine these things and the possibilities are endless. undergraduates to fellow professors. I was also reading among The Confessions of St. For twelve years I have enjoyed the privilege of teaching drawing. I will always draw. They enfold their viewer and are made on joined sheets of paper that I reach by climbing ladders. We can all learn how to draw. a sculptor.
000-9500 bce . Sometimes we draw because we are bored. The sense of relief we may feel from the information overload of modern commercial life when visiting a country in which we can no longer read every written word. not just chosen pictures on our walls but everywhere—maps. Cueva de las Marios. At home and at work we doodle. logos. and in meetings. We can always read each others drawings. in lectures.Theseancient silhouettes were drawn with earth pigments rubbed onto rock. graffiti. We are surrounded by drawings in our daily lives.8 INTRODUCTION Where We Begin There is a fundamental drive in our human nature to make a mark. We are bombarded with linear and tonal pictorial information. inscribing every fresh part of it with their eager scrapes and trails. signs. is not afforded us by drawing. Most adults still feel that certain exquisite pleasure on arriving at a beach to find the tide out and the sand perfect. irreverent to language barriers. and patterns on our clothes. Drawing is international. and we spend our lives reading it. scrawling shapes and cartoons when on the telephone. packaging. like a great canvas for them to mark. Rio Pinturas 13. Children cannot be restrained from running across the pristine white lawn of newly fallen snow. a great crowd is raising their hands in greeting. waving to us from many thousands of yearsago. They have a natural affinity to many modern graffiti signatures. but more often because drawing actually helps us to focus and take in what is said. "CAVE OF THE HANDS" In this drawing.
I now think this is a picture of proximity. reflecting my experience of looking closely at my father's face. In cave paintings like the one opposite. and she kept it as my first step beyond the delighted realms of scrawl. MAKING OUR MARK It seems reasonable to assume that we have engaged in pictorial mark-making for as long as we have made conscious use of our hands. had happily scribbled. . Cave art was not made for decoration but as a fundamental part of life. She gave me a notepad and a red crayon and asked me to draw her "a picture of Daddy.9 WHERE WE BEGIN FIRST PORTRAIT For sorre forgotten reason. Eyelashes take up as much of my attention as the head itself. but I had never yet attempted to figuratively picture my world. at age two-anda-half. the hair of my first portrait was most important. power. The image above is what I gave back to my mother. I. and the appearance of my strikes of colors. we see our oldest surviving images. like all toddlers. and belonging to place. On a particular afternoon in September 1974. who in their day-to-day hardship made time to picture themselves and the animals on which they depended. enjoying the physical sensation of crayon on paper." Until this day. Even though it is made by a toddler this image would be recognizable to anyone. I was sitting with my mother. an expression of existence. created by societies of hunter-gatherers.
At this point many will insist they cannot draw. It was made with a few bold strokes of a steel pen dipped in ink to conjure the dried bee I was holding between my fingers on a pin. But as adolescents. and from that first unit build and describe the shape of something or someone we know. b e p r o u d o f what m a k e s y o u r w o r k individual to y o u . Don't b e p e r s u a d e d to draw in a w a y s o m e o n e else . for example. yet still turn to drawing w h e n their verbal language fails or is inadequate. Young children love to draw. W e do n o t hesitate to draw a map. PROGRESSION T h e r e is a point in all o u r lives w h e n w e first c o n t r o l o u r mark and m a k e it a line. it is important to value your natural abilities a n d ways of seeing. h o w e v e r small a n d u n f o r m e d y o u believe they are. Hours are lost immersed in the glorious world of imagination. and this activity plays a vital role in their d e v e l o p m e n t . Inhibitions creep in and ideas of good a n d b a d terminate confidence. As you progress. most of us stop. then drag o u r line into a loop.10 INTRODUCTION PEN-AND-INK BEE This tiny drawing has been enlarged to show its texture and composition. to help a stranger see their way W h e n taking first steps in relearning h o w to draw.
11 PROGRESSION A UNIQUE SIGHT This innocent yet sophisticated drawing of boats. As you read this b o o k and perhaps attend art classes. He used leftover ship and yacht paint with crayons on cut-out pieces of cardboard boxes. Occasionally. Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse c. you must decide whether to keep or discard it. Think how much would have been lost if anyone had interfered with Alfred Wallis' personal sense of proportion and perspective in the exquisite drawing above. He was a retired Cornish fisherman and junk dealer who began drawing at the age of 70 "for company" after his wife died. I meet students struggling unhappily with a particular method of drawing. and which aspects of the vast wealth and diversity of graphic language would be most appropriate to their goals. but it does help to set out facing in the right direction. remember that all advice is only advice. . 1925-42 53/8x87/8in (135 x 225 mm) ALFRED WALLIS prefers and tells you is better. After experimenting and trying each new idea. Enjoy the control of your own journey. and they have never questioned why. Someone once told them they must draw in this way. The journey of every artist demands hard work and discipline. harbor and sea is one of many that Alfred Wallis made from memory while sitting at home. what they most want to achieve. I ask them their reasons for drawing.
be visionary. all raise water From the Archimedes' screw to Leonardo's own cupped wheel. We BIRD STUDIES The flutter of faint scratches that dance across the pages on the right is an attempt to see the movement and bony weightlessness of a bird. Our imaginations are the tools with which we can increase the essence of life. it may not be accurate to our critical adult eye. right. the page bristles with the focus of ideas. but it should be the experienced world we draw. author of The Story of Art. The observed world may be our subject. They are also always written backward. perhaps for comfort or ease as a left-hander or a habitual enjoyment of the challenge. 11). IDEAS A N D I N V E N T I O N S These active machines. embedded in this book. wrote as the opening line of this great work. clear-minded understanding of the sea. Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels LEONARDO DA VINCI . There are only artists. we can drive out its spirit. and breathtaking wind of a choppy harbor. the breast. There are countless reasons for drawing. not for disguise but as a personal choice. but the child in us knows that this is an all-embracing. boats. I hope. We also see differently ourselves. depending on the occasion and our purpose. is. Below. We all see differently. There should neve: be a slavish obligation to represent things exactly as we collectively agree we see them. If as artists we nail a subject down too hard.12 INTRODUCTION VISION All artists see the world differently." The clarity and empowerment of these words. and lose the very thing that attracted us to it.and collarbones and shoulder blades of a different bird almost become new creatures in themselves. "There really is no such thing as Art. When we look back at Wallis' seascape (see p. The art historian Professor Sir Ernst Gombrich. His notes visually balance his drawings. and inspire others.
Decide before you start whether you are drawing to warm up. while below.13 VISION should not try to know how every finished picture will look. or illustrate a dream. shout against a terrible injustice. or to discover the best use of a new material. Opposite. drawing in pursuit of our own thoughts and understanding. Leonardo drew to invent a machine. when it looks tired and still feels wrong. We have both covered our paper with focused. make a calculation. to express the beauty in a moment's play of light. stripped-down parts. it may be best to start afresh. . It will be invested through your experience in the new drawing. Our drawings are annotated investigations into the mechanisms of nature and of an idea. Don't be disheartened. I drew to understand the apparatus of flight. More was learned drawing the bird 18 times than would have been understood drawing it only once or twice. time spent is not lost. Each fresh image reflects growing confidence and the experience of the preceding study. This also applies if struggling at length with a larger picture. conduct an experiment. My drawings of a housemartin (opposite top) illustrate the importance of repeated study. but it is important to be clear why we are making it.
and allowed to flow through the brush. the unknown. are both made of ink laid onto wet paper with speed and agile certainty. W e float toward the quiet vista as it also moves toward us. fire. mists. As your hand meets the paper to make a mark. Landscape in Haboku Style 15TH CENTURY . Imagine these qualities so strongly that you feel them in your mind and at your fingertips. meaning. Know the texture. created centuries and cultures apart. declare the idea. and opacity of your subject.14 INTRODUCTION ALCHEMY At school. trusting my intuition to find a visual equivalence for the sensation of weight within my body. ink. I made it almost unconsciously with a pen and a brush. temperature. and we can just make out the distant stains of mountains. feel. and position in space. or ice—you must actually feel it beneath your fingers as you draw. The physicality. and paper. Our position asvieweris unsteady. If you can do this. we are advised or even required to plan our pictures. As you draw any subject—something you see. your marks will become the subject on the paper. depth. However. You must also think of its intrinsic nature: its purpose. metal. This is the alchemy of drawing. it should be responding to the sensation and meaning of the subject it draws. It denies the importance of accident. size. and sometimes beyond. or imagine—it is not enough to only render its shape. which can offer keys to other things. and practice each part before putting the final image together. They each allowed the energy and focus of the moment to be expressed through controlled accident and a degree of the unknown Both drawings were made trusting the marks. and spirit of each subject was held strongly but loosely between the fingertips. balance. bone. We are caught in a shifting focus that makes everything fluid. This is a detail of a brush-and-ink drawing by a Japanese Buddhist monk. explain the composition. and at speeds beyond conscious thought. These two brush drawings. and how it feels to the touch. and an island brushed with trees. This suits many artists well and is perfectly valid. excessive planning can get in the way of the imagination. and what you discover in the process of making. BRUSHED LANDSCAPE FLOWING SKELETON T h e gliding poise of this walking anatomy comes as much from the feeling of movement as it does from the feeling of drawing. silk. Each image relied upon past experience to know the probable behavior of the brush. water. Whatever the material— wood.
W a l t e r also makes books: some. lives on. like folded insects. left. c. acrylic. gold leaf and spray paint. one of many luminous works in watercolor. Focusing on the Negative 2004 22 x 30 in (56 x 76 cm) J O H N WALTER . pastel. Lautrec's flamboyant splashes o f petticoats and pantaloons are drawn with long sweeps of chalk and brushed oil paint.16 INTRODUCTION PLACE A N D MOMENT The heat and teeming atmosphere o f this Parisian dressing room. He dazzles us with flashes o f light and dabbed marks o f shadow. more than 100 years after its making. which evoke realities o f place and the p o w e r o f moment. right is set inside a rib cage. made by a young British artist who creates alphabets o f the absurd f r o m familiar childhood characters. stand table-sized with furniture legs attached t o b o t h sides of their jacket.1896 Woman at her Toilet 41 x 26 in (104 x 66 cm) TOULOUSE LAUTREC RIB-CAGE D R A M A Thus drama.
and mistakes are a valuable process of learning. potential ideas still forming. Much will be learned on these test sheets and in your first drawings. FREEINGTHEHAND . you will naturally make progress on your own in response to concentration and the decision to look and draw. even those you dislike. diary-like observations. you will be surprised and encouraged to see how far you have come. Choose other materials and do the same. take your time and don't worry if you need to make several attempts to grasp a concept. and miscellaneous items of inspiration. Pages do not have to lie open for other people to inspect and comment on. Ignore these at first and allow yourself the freedom to play. try not to grip your pen worrying about the technical terms you might have heard. Enjoy discovering what your hand and the material can do. just through the act of making. As you follow lessons in this book. It is yours. Put them away and look at them later. With no help and advice at all.17 FREEING THE HAND If you are just beginning to learn how to draw. Drawing is exploratory. One of the advantages of a drawing book is that you can shut it. Such books are personal: the territory of new exploration and experiment. Try to keep all of your first drawings. Start by choosing a material you like the look of and cover a piece of paper with different marks. at a point when you feel you are not making progress.
Their elegant strength seems to summon a lifetime of drawing. it is this voice that is the subtle part of their art and something that ultimately. we still only glimpse a corner of the magnitude of this subject and the infinity of what can be achieved. Look to your own experience and also learn from the work of others. ELECTRIC BULL With a penlight. the path is yours. Note that the drawing classes are allocated to subjects. To these I have added my own drawings to explain elementary materials and techniques and offer introductory approaches. staring straight through his image of a bull. Picasso Painting with Light at the Madoura Pottery 1949 . when they are more experienced. and many more reasons for drawing the world. A N ARTIST'S HANDS These are the hands of the artist Phyll Kiggell (see p. An artist's personal voice is something that also evolves through lessons learned. Imagination needs nourishment. In the total wealth of these pages. This practical journey will take you through the door into the vivid heart of drawing. Its sensuous and flowing line seems to drift like smoke. seek ideas in the life around you. As you draw.18 INTRODUCTION THE THINKING EYE Techniques and materials are the grammar and vocabulary of drawing and can be studied and shared. it will be your creation as you discover your own personal vision. Drawing is a living language that over millennia has grown and changed. which of course he cannot see. The chapters of this book present 90 different artists' ways of seeing. but not confined to them. Picasso is poised smiling. and enfolding new media. which is held frozen in space by a camera lens. comes from within. However. and became a great subject for me. 150). threedimensionally. caught between action and repose. Once there. Picasso has just finished his drawing. The real drawing book has yet to come. I was particularly attracted to their gentle articulation and understated determination. adapting its form and occupation. It rarely flourishes in isolation.
which are also sold in an enormous range. binding. BLACK P O C K E T B O O K S : Hand-sized w i t h ready-made elastic binder and a marker ribbon. study the structure of a good portfolio and make your own. 5.20 INTRODUCTION Drawing Books and Papers T o BEGIN YOUR EXPLORATION o f d r a w i n g . Sand the edges to avoid splinters. They can be very expensive in art stores. R I N G . and cost. N o t e t h e w i d e l y differing c h o i c e o f p a p e r s w i t h w h i c h t h e s e are m a d e . 2.B O U N D PADS: T h e s e are t h e least expensive a n d useful f o r o p e n i n g flat. and glued t o a s t r i p o f bias binding. t h i s is h o w I l e a r n e d . F o r traveling. is perfect. T h e hardb o a r d j a c k e t is s t r e t c h e d w i t h canvas beneath t h e p a p e r sleeve. 4. and collage their ideas. cheap corrugated plastic ones fall apart in days. Calculate a range of useful dimensions and have several cut at once. a n d crayons. You simply need two strong boards hinged together well. H o w e v e r r i n g bindings o f t e n break. c h o o s e larger f o r m a t s t o give y o u s c o p e f o r e x p e r i m e n t . A high-quality one will last a DRAWING BOOKS Select d r a w i n g b o o k s t o suit y o u r aims. quality. ties on either side to keep your papers in place.b o u n d b o o k w i l l s o o n s h o w y o u h o w it is m a d e . There are dozens to choose from. be sure they fit comfortably under your arm. F o r e v e n i n g classes. 2002 Tantalus o r The Future of Man 81/2 x61/4in (215 x 158 mm) ROSE MILLER . thickness. and handles to lift the weight of your artworks. If you intend to carry your boards for a distance. color. cut. Purchase a h i g h . it is better to have them made at a lumber yard or home improvement store. Homemade books can be assembled easily from found materials or selections of loose sheet papers. Many artists invent ways o f binding their o w n books. catalogs. H O M E M A D E : I m a d e this b o o k f r o m drawing paper that I folded. c h o o s e s m a l l e r h a r d .h a n d s t o r e s make unique subjects f o r e x p e r i m e n t s a n d collage. F O U N D B O O K S : O l d p r i n t e d 3 . Alternatively.b o u n d p a d if y o u w i s h t o keep your drawings together long-term. c o l o r If planning t o use pencils. C A N V A S . drawing book. Drawing boards are invaluable. thick enough not to flex. pastels. Most contain thin p a p e r and are perfect f o r use w i t h disposable pens. These are perfect f o r w o r k i n g in novels.q u a l i t y r i n g . 6. Dissecting a d i s c a r d e d h a r d . Gleaming store purchases vary greatly in format. 1. stitched. y o u n e e d a lifetime. b e a w a r e t h a t p a p e r t e x t u r e effects a n d changes t h e i r marks.C O V E R E D H A R D B O U N D : Ideal f o r c a r r y i n g a r o u n d . Smooth plywood.b o u n d b o o k s t h a t fit in y o u r p o c k e t o r bag. a l e n g t h o f black elastic t i e d a r o u n d t h e m i d d l e will h o l d the contents together w h e n y o u f o l d in c o l l e c t e d items. t h e i r jackets w i l l a c t like d r a w i n g b o a r d s a n d p r o t e c t y o u r w o r k . Art students often make use of printed books picked up from secondhand stores into which they draw. texture. a n d r e f e r e n c e b o o k s f o u n d in s e c o n d . It is also useful to own a portfolio. C O L O R E D PAPERS: Large a r t supply stores o f t e n sell t h i c k b o o k s full o f c o l o r e d p a p e r s .
and cream sheets or rolls. SAUNDERS WATERFORD N O T 300GMS: Mid-quality textured watercolor paper. 22. 15. 14. 13. resisting deterioration. Cotton papers are high-quality and acid-free. FABRIANO ACADEMIA: Standard medium-range multipurpose paper Use with any media. GLASSINE: Sold as protective wrapping. METALLIC PAPER: Thin paper in different metallic colors. For use with any media. ITALIAN PARCHMENT: Imitation-animal-skin parchment that is translucent and slightly waxy. 20. it is made from rice. C A N S O N : Inexpensive lightweight pastel paper in many colors. not. and hot pressed papers. pastel paper in flecked pastel colors with a distinctive ribbed marking. 100% cotton and sold in sheets. or machine made in sheets. 18. and translucent. Ph. smooth. cold. blocks. AQUARELLE ARCHES 300GMS:The very top quality hot-pressed (smooth) watercolor paper. JAPANESE PAPER: Strong. fine. Use with a brush in clean water Water makes a dark mark like ink and becomes invisible again when dry. FABRIANO R O U G H 600GMS: Very heavy. T W O RIVERS Y E L L O W 410GMS: See Two Rivers Green 19. texture. and rolls. C A R B O N PAPER: Available in dark and light blue. absorbency. Use cheap paper for rough ideas and quality paper for work to last See the glossary ( p p . 8. turning brown and brittle. 21. 2 5 6 . VELIN ARCHES 250GMS: Printmaking paper available in black white. FABRIANO INGRES: Thin. MAGIC PAPER: A reusable sheet for testing ideas without creating waste. red. 12. Cheap wood-pulp papers are acidic. PAPERS . 7. Use for brushwork drawings.Papers differ in thickness (weight). bamboo. blocks. and other plant fibers. printed on one side only. mulberry.5 9 ) for explanations of rough. 16. It is also excellent for drawing with marker pens on layered sheets. white textured paper that can take abrasive use of any medium. 11. It is available in white or cream. 17. and white. and cost. tough.TISSUE PAPER: Place sheets between drawing book pages to keep images from printing on each other and use for delicate collage. 10. T W O RIVERS GREEN 410G MS: Very heavy tinted textured cold-pressed watercolor paper See Two Rivers Yellow. used to imprint lines of these colors onto a surface. mold-. color. size. also good for drawing with colored pencils. They are hand-. from pencil to paint 9. or rolls. yellow.
How you hold your drawing materials is also important. With your hand in this position. strangledlooking drawings. If your body posture is well balanced and you can move freely. There are also parallels to dance. or with your drawing board angled between your lap and a chair. your whole relaxed b o d y should be involved. but you need to understand that the expression of a line or mark originates in the body and flows t h r o u g h the shoulder. place it on the correct side: if right-handed. If seated on a b e n c h easel (a donkey). body. You cannot draw like this—your hand is locked and your fingers can barely move. You do not have to dance to draw. Examples are shown here. if left-handed. and look to the right. There should be an open. This photograph illustrates how some people hold a pen to write. . From a distance you will spot errors you cannot see close up. make sure you have enough room to back away and view your work. Ideally. should be able to look comfortably straight ahead at your picture plane. SPACE TO WORK Cramped grip. arm. don't sit too close to the paper. a n d h a n d to the fingertips. If using an upright easel. your drawing will reflect this. It will also reflect discomfort if you are in any way cramped. but wherever possible. you can draw lines freely and achieve a significant arc of movement. In this book we will look at parallels between drawing and music. place it on your left. 116-17).22 INTRODUCTION Posture and Grip T o DRAW WELL. you Drawing classes can be cramped places. a n d look to the left of it at your subject. and subject. Placing your easel o n the w r o n g side folds y o u r b o d y against your drawing arm. Turning your drawing sideways or upside-own will also help reveal what is wrong. This cramped grip tires your hand and makes small. Regularly step back 6-9 ft (2-3 m) to check your progress. b u t it should n o t be forgotten that many people make remarkable a n d striking works drawing with their feet or holding their brush or pencil in their mouths. Accelerated perspective also occurs if you look down the surface steeply (see pp. your lines will distort. Relaxed fingers: Hold the pencil away from its tip and relax your fingers. flowing space between your hand. Use the side of your little fingernail as a support on the page. place it on your right. If your hand twists to maneuver between the paper and your body.
upright way of holding the brush near its base is similar to the Japanese way used in Zen calligraphy (see pp. As long as your fingers. Remember you can also draw just by dipping your fingers in pigment—this is how many women draw in rural India. If you turn a brush or dip pen up into the air to draw above your hand. It is most comfortable when reaching to draw above your head. Brush calligraphy: This comfortable. brush pressed against an upright surface will cause a dribble of ink to run down your drawing. arm.23 This loose "candle" grip is very useful when drawing with your arm extended. hold your material as you find most comfortable. GRAVITY Remember that gravity affects the flow of ink and paint. depending upon what it is and how large you are working. liquid will run down your hand. To stop this. Large scale: POSTURE AND GRIP U n f a m i l i a r i t y : T h e habitual movements of our handwriting style will sometimes infringe upon our drawing. This can give a new lease on life to your mark-making. alternative way of holding the pencil. not up to the paper Brushes can be used on upright paper but dip Anticipating effects: A fully loaded pens need a level surface. Large amounts of ink can be applied without fear of uncontrolled running if the paper is flat.232-33). find an unfamiliar. and body are not restricted. roughly marking out a large-scale work. Soft media: Short materials such as pastels and charcoal can be accommodated in the palm. This can be used to great effect. But be careful not to tense your fingers. ALL MEDIA There are no rules as to how you should hold your drawing media. or change to the wrong hand. . or it can spoil your work if not anticipated.
and learn how to Flying Fish c. Framed in the z o o or in domestic cohabitation. In 19th-century Europe this became a "science. As children we delight in the humanized trials of Tom and Jerry and their c a r t o o n relations. they are perhaps our favorite pictorial preoccupation. to be there at the m o m e n t of discovery. On the Roanoke voyages of Sir Walter Raleigh. mermaids. fish. cartographer. White's commission was to ". 1540. and this very drawing was to endure many copies and plagiarisms after its triumphant return to the English court of Queen Elizabeth I..m o u n t e d skeletons of birds. the Latin bestiary was one of the most popular picture books—an illustrated dictionary of one hundred parts. offer challenges and delights to draw. Here (left) we see J o h n White's exquisite record of a flying fish. Europeans on board had never seen such a thing. This drawing is made in black lead (metal point) with watercolor Highlights of silver would have gleamed. sleeping dogs. animals provide a perfect subject with which to begin. each dedicated to the moralized tale of an animal or monster The bestiary profoundly influenced the art of its period. W h e n lost to explain our own emotions.Animals H UMANS HAVE DRAWN ANIMALS from the beginning of our time." He worked with the scientist Thomas Harriot. and snakes have between them engendered harpies. we have employed artists on expeditions." Paranoid newcomers c r a m m e d into swelling industrial cities used handbooks of physiognomy to identify and judge their neighbors. For the novice artist. or scampering through the initials and borders of pictures from that time. Facial features were analyzed in terms of their animal likeness.drawe to lief one of each kinde of thing that is strange to us in England. In medieval England. who described in words what White drew. JOHN WHITE British artist. After the subject of ourselves. birds. In this chapter we discover the use of pens and ink through the delineation of insects. m u s e u m . and silent. their different speeds and patterns of action. which are so unlike ours.. bats. 1590 J O H N WHITE capture form and movement from the m a n n e r i s m s of honking geese. and pioneer born c. and people. and dragons. and to bring h o m e drawn documentaries of their finds. werewolves. We have drawn them on the walls of caves to evoke their kinship and power. we turn and take the features of beasts. floating turtles. 11 x91/4in (277 x 234 mm) . Together they made maps and documented animals. from which personality and predicted behavior were " d e d u c e d . out are now oxidized and so appear black W h e n less preoccupied with understanding ourselves. W e have drawn them in m a n u s c r i p t s to explain our genesis and to c o u n t their species into Noah's ark. " Animals perpetually feed our imaginations. dogs. insects. and we still see escapees from its pages carved and grinning as the gargoyles of churches. O v e r the centuries. which very likely leaped o n t o the deck of Sir Walter Raleigh's ship Tiger as it sailed north from the Caribbean to Virginia in 1585. plants.
Unsurpassed. but the drowned animal washed ashore. they were rejected. Meanwhile. and mathematician. He in turn sent the mysterious creature to the Pope via Marseilles at the request of the King of France. The first live rhinoceros to reach Europe came from India in May 1515. Contemporary texts related accounts of the beast as the mortal enemy of the elephant and rare relative of the "more common" unicorn. and wrote four books on proportion. it is still consulted by veterinarians today. inspiring countless works of art and so touching people's imaginations that later. Carefully stuffed. Life-like This is Durer's original quill-and-ink drawing made after an anonymous Portuguese drawing. Durer traveled widely to study at different European schools of art. the home of ALBRECHT DURER German Renaissance painter. draftsman. it continued its journey to Rome. a drawing of it arrived in Nuremberg. filled journals with ideas and observations. Durer's image changed eager hands until it was known across Europe. Stubbs's Anatomy of the Horse achieved similar documentary status. writer. printmaker. Original Ink Drawing of a Rhinoceros 1515 ALBRECHT DURER 103/4 x 161/2 in ( 2 7 4 x 4 2 0 mm) . DURER'S RHINOCEROS AND STUBBS'S skeletal Durer. He studied the image and drew his own interpretation. the ship was lost. a gift to the Portuguese King. It is such a lifelike triumph of imagination and intelligence that for centuries zoologists never questioned its authority. Sailing to Rome. years after its publication. naturalist.26 ANIMALS Documentaries horse are superb affirmations of the power of drawing as a recorder and communicator of knowledge. It was to become the animal's only accepted likeness for 250 years. Converted into a print. when more accurate portrayals were made without armor and scales.
a n d anatomist. Dissections were made over a total of 18 months. He composed makes each horse appear so real and each plate from his three-dimensional. His painted p o r t r a i t o f t h e b e a s t is in t h e R o y a l C o l l e g e o f S u r g e o n s o f England. in t h r e e v i e w s — r e a r f r o n t .GEORGE STUBBS B r i t i s h e q u i n e a n d s o c i e t y p o r t r a i t painter. L o n d o n . and therefore invented the lighting that Compare how Stubbs and Durer both invented lighting to portray the reality of their animals. Stubbs w a s o n e o f t h e first E u r o p e a n artists t o m a k e a n a c c u r a t e representation o f the rhinoceros. which has never diminished. composed from notes and observations. knowledge of parts. naturalist. Dissections Stubbs took his knife and his pencil and physically climbed inside the horse. a n d s i d e . Stubbs's m o s t c e l e b r a t e d publication. dissecting and drawing until he understood the mechanisms of its power and grace. Lighting Stubbs's breathtaking international work won immediate There acclaim. He translated his own drawings into engravings for publication. c o m p r i s e s 1 8 p l a t e s s h o w i n g d i s s e c t i o n s in l a y e r s f r o m b o n e t h r o u g h m u s c u l a t u r e t o skin. This is one of Stubbs' original finished pencil drawings. Anatomy of the Horse. Table of the III of the Horse (rear Skeleton view) mm) 1756-58 1 4 x 7 in ( 3 5 4 x 1 8 0 GEORGE STUBBS . The entire project was developed over ten years. is no other work like it.
ink and linseed oil on paper. and turn. The octopus is formed in layers applied and distressed with a brush.". her b o n y frame. soot. and Pieuvre 1866-69 91/2 x81/8in (242 x 207 mm) VICTOR H U G O . it silently rises to the light. Gericault took a sharp p e n c i l to m a k e repeated direct o b s e r v a t i o n s f r o m life. A s if disturbed from its gritty b e d by our presence and curiosity. playwright.. drawing her again and again to pin d o w n the texture of her loose skin. novelist. and her distinctive temperament.28 ANIMALS Presence and Mood THESE DRAWINGS HAVE BEEN CHOSEN to s h o w t w o v e r y different ways of picturing a wild animal. charcoal. I've ended up mixing in pencil. drama. more or less what I have in view. and leader of the French Romantic movement. He wrote to poet and art critic Charles-Pierre Baudelaire about his experiments. sepia. The Hunchback of Notre Layers and shadows Throughout this drawing. By contrast. His copious drawings are characterized by mixed media. saying ". coal dust. Gericault's sheet a p p e a r s almost s c r a t c h e d b y the f e r o c i o u s play of his cat. snarl. Mixed media Here. Surrounding sprays of graphite powder are stuck into washes of oil and ink to suggest glutinous depths. and a love of accident.. Apparently drawn in its o w n ink.. linseed oil soaked into the paper has made shadows and repelled the ink to create translucent tentacles. and all sorts of bizarre concoctions which manage to convey above all in mind.. He has w a t c h e d her p o u n c e . Hugo used graphite powder. VICTOR HUGO Poet. the ominous beast unwinds from the dark of the sea and of our nightmares. her sharp teeth. H u g o mixed his media and drew from m e m o r y and imagination to create narrative atmosphere. Hugo's novels Les Miserables and Dame have become classics of film and stage. conjured b y the hand of a great author of French literary fiction. Hugo's page is f l o o d e d w i t h the fearful presence of a remembered octopus.
The Raft of the Medusa. Repeated study This drawing demonstrates of feeling confident repeat different the importance subject Remaining enough to isolate parts of a views. parallel. fiery. horses w e r e a favorite subject t o g e t h e r w i t h politics and history. of previous Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 1817-18 121/2 x 151/2 in ( 3 1 9 x 3 9 8 mm) T H E O D O R E GERICAULT . At the center of the page is crammed drawings the outline of a horse. and it can be applied to any subject (see pp.118-119). Here. of drawings Gericault erased. s h o r t . Tones that do not follow surface contour is very difficult to do well. Beginners are advised to follow the natural contours of form as shown on pp. Undertraces Beneath these graphite studies we see traces Tones On the top row we see clearly how Gericault laid broad areas of tone using fast. artists reused sheets and them full of studies. and keep trying again. since it can lead to a flattened form. H e is best k n o w n f o r his gigantic painting.29 THEODORE GERICAULT C o n t r o v e r s i a l . facing right. standing sideways. 124-25 and p.l i v e d French R o m a n t i c painter and lithographer Largely self-taught. displayed in the Louvre. diagonal strokes of his pencil. Before paper became so cheap. undertraces unify and vitalize the composition. 144. focused upon seeing will lead to a greater understanding of the subject Much is learned from repeated study. Paris.
Picasso cofounded Cubism. The ink is used to make sharply defined solid. slow tortoise. Faune. His powdery. Klee's riders are constructed from all the gestures of greeting mules.30 ANIMALS Movement M O V E M E N T IS OFTEN THE CHARACTERISTIC b y w h i c h w e their lines and the power of their beasts. Gouache is brushed softly in translucent hazy layers of cool blue. Cheval et Oiseau 1936 173/8 x 211/4 in ( 4 4 0 x 5 4 0 m m ) PABLO PICASSO . flapping bird. flattened animals composed almost entirely of movement. the whinnying of a frantic horse. His hand must have shuddered and twitched just like the constant actions of this humorous meeting. quivering horse. The fact that they never stand still influences the movement in his line. dissolving faun kneels stranded. Both Picasso and Klee have enclosed their subjects to compress and amplify the speed of PABLO PICASSO A prolific Spanish painter sculptor. with George Braque (see p90). made only a year apart. taking them to guide their hand in bringing form and essence together. noise is everywhere. we see semi-abstract. and brown. Ink and gouache This drawing is made in black Chinese ink and gouache (opaque watercolor) applied with a brush. the first abstract movement of the 20th century. or proud. In these two drawings. printmaker ceramicist graphic and stage designer who lived in France. These media complement and amplify each other with their brilliant contrast. identify an animal: the fast cheetah. gray. Artists commonly focus on such actions. and waves breaking distantly below. In Picasso's drawing. overwhelmed by a screeching bird. draftsman. hooked. and scrolled lines.
Scene der Komischen of Comical Reiter Riders) (Scene 1935 161/2x111/2in ( 4 1 9 x 2 9 1 mm) M o r t o n G . printmaker." They chatter around bodies in groups. He is a u t h o r o f The Thinking Eye (1923). and t e a c h e r at t h e Bauhaus school. W i t h his drawings Kleeb o u n d sophisticated theories to personal and often witty childlike imagery. well-worn copies o f w h i c h are found in m a n y art schools. sculptor. violinist. They remain in contact with the surface of the page and scribble back and forth as they maneuver from one area to another. The entire drawing suggests the endless small movements of horses standing still. draftsman. Layers of marks In this pale Dentil drawing we see layers of' agitated marks that together present a kind of visual "itch. turning our eye and around inside the and postures of the paper- thin on pictorial space. creatures. top all happily of each other in the Endless lines Look closely at how Klee's lines rarely leave the paper and how they are free from the constraint of finite shape.PAUL KLEE Swiss painter. Chicago PAUL KLEE . N e u m a n n Family Collection.
32 ANIMALS Icon and Design IN THESE T W O MANUSCRIPTS we discover diagrammatic and mackerel's tail" (full bow. plans. and to assess our next move. mathematician. seemingly looking for our attention. In contrast to the practical clarity of Baker's thought. fins. and from them learned that if he designed his ship with a "cod's head MATTHEW BAKER Master shipwright. Baker did not intend this. In just one drawing he has displayed more angles of his design than we would expect to see from a single viewpoint Fragments English 1586 101/2 x 153/8 in (270 x 390 mm) MATTHEW BAKER of Ancient Shipwrightry . the expression of its eye. and scales. Exquisite details in this drawing include the lips of the fish. It is simply how we read his perspective. balance. it would achieve greater speed. He studied the anatomy of fish. Knopf's drawing opposite is the personal enigmatic expression of a mind gripped by illness. adding washes of color with a fine brush. t h e earliest geometrically defined elevations. drawings of animals that are each held tightly in a surprising space: a giant fish wears a ship's hull. B a k e r initiated t h e scientific p r a c t i c e o f naval a r c h i t e c t u r e and applied h y d r o d y n a m i c s . which in application gave strength and advantage to the English fighting the Spanish Armada. and the carefully observed gills. This drawing illustrates Baker's theory. Baker lived in an era when ships were built without drawn plans. The fish It is likely that Baker drew with a quill dipped in irongall ink. and blackbirds fly in formation through a mosaic of text. and steerage. later called a galleon. The ship The upper decks of the ship appear curved toward us at both ends. Below we see his revolutionary design for an Elizabethan warship. His birds stare. and s e c t i o n s o f ships. and author o f Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (1586). slim stern). b a s e d o n his studies o f fish.
numbered. and filled evenly with tone. T h e G e r m a n a r t historian Outline and tone The blackbirds illuminating this frantic manuscript are drawn in pencil. appears to be stirred like water by the presence of the The Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks UNDATED 133/8 x 115/8 in (340 x 2 9 6 mm) and psychiatrist Hans Prinzhom collected this image. JOHANN KNOPF . circle and the birds. The text.JOHANN KNOPF An " O u t s i d e r " a r t i s t w h o s u f f e r e d f r o m m e n t a l illness. firmly outlined. The main group is placed in a circle drawn with a compass.K n o p f b e l i e v e d h e c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h e language o f birds. written last of all. w h i c h o f t e n f e a t u r e as s y m b o l i c creatures in his drawings.
5 0 0 years ago. which scratch rather than draw. In the Far East. a n d m e t a l p o i n t s . 4. the recipes for which have been handed down over centuries. from the acacia tree. and spatters can be made with an exotic choice of inks. high-quality Chinese and Japanese inks are subtler and more complex than those produced in Europe. producing a different line. Intricate or dramatic lines. The bar is then rubbed into water on a slate block to produce ink. and first used by the Egyptians. 2. That is an ink.246-47). 3. Dip pens began their history in the Nile River. and it is still in use today. light it. Masters choose brands of long. The paste from either recipe is pressed and dried into a bar for storage. Only fill with suitable inks. The reservoir gives a constant flow of ink for very long unbroken lines and continuous bottle-free use. F O U N T A I N PENS: These vary in quality and nib width. PENS . simultaneously 4 . Quills were later cut from feathers. s t i c k s . The Egyptians and Chinese are credited with the invention of carbon ink. A German recipe of 1531 gives a simple description: "Take a wax candle. The best are goose or swan. spots. where reeds were gathered. METAL PENS: Inexpensive removable steel nibs are available in a range of widths. Early artists recommended raven and crow for especially fine work. they are associated with rapid. REED PENS: A broad nib can be cut from bamboo or another tubular grass. Today. and hold it under a clean basin until the soot hangs to it. then pour a little warm gum water into it and temper the two together. Each pen has a unique character. ink is traditionally applied with a brush (see pp. expressive drawing techniques such as the ones we explore in this chapter 1. QUILLS: These are cut from the barrel of a flight or tail feather." "Gum" refers to gum arabic extracted Dip pens are essential and inexpensive drawing tools. Responsive to slight changes in pressure. distinguished manufacture. Avoid needle-sharp mapping pens. They fit into wooden holders. The Chinese used animal or fish glue. while metal nibs began as rare gifts in gold and silver before being perfected by the British steel industry.34 ANIMALS Pen and Ink W I T H A HANDFUL OF FEATHERS. which range greatly in their handling and character of line. you can have great fun drawing the world around you.
INKS 9. Non-waterproof Indian inks can be reworked with a wet brush after drying. and sepia. and are still in use today: carbon (Chinese and Indian). Inks can be lightfast or non-lightfast. charred bone (Ivory Black). is the ink of a cuttlefish or squid extracted post-mortem. waterproof or non-waterproof. iron-gall. or charcoal. dated. 8. and sieved.G A L L INK: Abnormal spherical growths caused by parasitic wasps can be collected from some oak trees in fall. from are not 6. and most can be homemade. Bistre is the more humane use of soot scraped from the fireplace and ground into wine. C A R B O N INK: Traditionally produced from oil or resin soot (Lamp Black). They are the easiest inks to use. reduced. Now we also have acrylic ranges in many colors. Old stock turns solid and bottlesChina.36. an often misused term. Excellent for drawing they are bright and non-clogging. they produce a golden dye for drawing. Waterproof types contain shellac. It dries with a sheen and clogs uncleaned pens. I R O N . Beechwood soot is best. . I N D I A N INK: Carbon ink sold today in liquid form. roastedwine sediment (Yeast Black). The complexities of traditional iron-gall ink are explained on p. SEPIA A N D BISTRE INKS: Sepia. boiled. and can be mixed and diluted to create subtler colors and tones. bistre.35 PEN AND INK Four types of ink were common before the 20th century. Crushed. suspended in a binder and stored as a solid block Blocks are imported today 7. ACRYLIC / CALLIGRAPHY INKS: Available in black and a range of colors. 5.
galls were ground with iron sulfate to make an unstable solution. QUILL PENS Q u i l l s a r e highly r e s p o n s i v e t o c h a n g e s in p r e s s u r e . t h e y stick a n d j u d d e r f o r w a r d . Quills are also called D u t c h pens. Walnut ink is gloopy. Rembrandt. and delicious to draw with. and boiled to make a golden ink. the blade and cut away from you. Paler strokes were made where the mark has the legs and antennae the ink ran out. giving a s h o r t . Oak galls. Running fresh. M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s d r a g o n o n p . For centuries. Although oak galls and walnut skins are harmless. keep all your fingers behind basis of iron-gall ink. It also oxidized and ate or burned paper. red-brown. sieved. reduced. then cut a final nib (feathers. fleshy skins that surround ripe walnuts. . I u s e d t h e s e qualities t o d r a w t h e w o r m s above. The lighter right Quill marks Quills carry more ink than strokes and for as reeds. Practice to gain a feel for how materials behave. forming the REED PENS R e e dpens dispense ink quickly. 2 4 4 is an e x q u i s i t e e x a m p l e . can also be collected from affected trees. crushed. Collect skins from the ground beneath trees once they are blackened. of a loaded nib. d r y mark. giving longer lines. T h e y give a finer. U n d e r heavy pressure. r e s e r v e d t h e i r use f o r large c h o i r b o o k s . Scribes o f t h e M i d d l e Ages. Some of Michelangelo's drawings are now a little eaten by their own ink. for example. m o r e e x t e n d e d line than reed and a m o r e organic line t h a n m e t a l . Reed marks The darker left wing of this beetle was drawn with the wet inky stroke wing. a n d d e v e l o p e d t h e quill instead. The darkest of this grasshopper wings) were made (around the head first.36 ANIMALS Drawing With Ink To MAKE A QUILL OR REED PEN. are surprisingly tough. V a n G o g h . finding reed p e n s unwieldy. since t h e D u t c h w e r e t h e first t o realize t h a t they could be hardened and i m p r o v e d w i t h heat t r e a t m e n t in ash o r sand. a n d M a t i s s e also e n j o y e d t h e m . always be cautious when experimenting with recipes. appears broken to show paper beneath. It dried black. and turned brown with time. drawn to glisten with a dryer nib.) You can make ink easily from the boiled. it was gray-purple.
clean strokes. withstanding great pressure without sticking. giving a graded. Loaded with ink and pressed hard. it is important to feel for when the ink will run out and to know how much ink you pick up when dipping the nib. DRAWING WITH INK Filled outlines Each segment of wing was outlined. o r being ruined as fountain pens would be under the same pressure. marks become fine and needle-sharp. W h e n the nib is pressed upside down. Each layer of of the drying droplet dome the drawing was left to dry before adding more. The of pigment to fall to the edges effect of the shape. sharp. particles then filled with a droplet of ink. . breaking. they splay to make thick o r double lines. White markings were drawn last Tones Here we see subtle tones of diluted ink beneath the undiluted black rim of a beetle's wing. tonal Ink layers The wings of this beetle were drawn in layers using black and white ink on pale gray paper.37 METAL PENS Metal pens give long. When using dip pens.
Take no more than ten seconds to draw each one and make lots of drawings. not on your drawing. so pick a spot where other people can keep them entertained. Focus on the geese. You cannot break the nib. It happens that goose feathers also provide artists with the best type of quills. Cover a sheet. be bold and press firmly. Study them before drawing. Focus on it. and a large drawing book or plenty of paper Use masking tape to secure pages against the wind. steel nibs are fine. to absorb blots when drawing. Try to hold the whole posture in your mind's eye. I covered eleven sheets in sixty quick drawings—in less than an hour. draw what the bird is doing. make another one. Geese are nosy birds. and be brave. Experiment. That said. Illustrating this exercise on Oxford Port Meadow. Posture . and there is no "wrong. Empathize. and boldly plunge into your drawing. Watch their heavy feathered bodies flap. Dip your pen in ink. Pack plenty of tissue around a bottle of calligraphy or acrylic ink. Attempt with a loose hand to capture their posture and outline. Take a cup and water for diluting a range of tones. touch the bottle's rim to drain the excess. waddle. and bellyflop off the waterside. there is no obligation to prepare a quill. test your limits. and quickly draw around it using only three or four strokes. It teaches confidence and focus through intensive repetition. Cover your drawing book pages in speedy responses to the geese and try to capture each bird in as few lines as possible. Quick drawing trains you to see what is most important about a subject and to mark only its most essential expression.38 ANIMALS Capturing Character GEESE ARE EXCELLENT SUBJECTS to draw when practicing the first use of pen and ink. MATERIALS NEEDED Look for a bird expressing a simple posture." If you don't like a stroke.
draw the feeling of what you see. and diving. . Again. flapping. running. look among the birds for more complicated actions such as shaking off water. Avoid detail unless really tempted by a close-up visit Fluctuate the pressure of your pen in response to how you know the bird would feel if you touched it. Use more lines than before to express these. and don't worry about mechanical facts or accuracy. CAPTURING CHARACTER Texture Gradually allow yourself more lines to describe the texture of each bird as well as its posture and action.39 Action With growing confidence.
Ras Curled Up Asleep "Capturing the true character of a cherished companion is best achieved with objective determination rather than sentimental shyness. a dip pen and ink of your choice (see pp. first dip your pen in ink. and even then he twitched and stretched in dreams. Then dip the nib quickly into a glass of water and drain the excess again.40 ANIMALS Sleeping Dogs R A S WAS A GREAT CHARACTER.34-37). and drain the excess by touching the nib against the rim of the bottle. Dip the nib quickly again into water and again drain it. a d o g w h o w a s a l w a y s town. engaged in his and everyone else's business. form. and personality. MAKING A PALE LINE To make a pale line." . Make a test sheet to discover your control of diluting on the nib. Now it will make a pale line. This will give a medium-gray line. These drawings are not an analysis of his anatomy or breed but the expression of his satisfied comfort in a deep sleep after a night out on the together with a glass of water for diluting tones on the nib. For this class you will need one oblivious dog. and a tissue for blotting drawn lines that appear too dark. The only time he remained still was when he was sleeping. your drawing book. Sleeping animals present the artist with ideal opportunities to study their texture.
First lines are first thoughts. Trust your intuition. Remain focused on the whole dog and. in bold layers. Layers o f thoughts can bring a drawing alive. tail. Then. second thoughts may be different Changing your mind is a positive aspect o f seeing and thinking. . quickly draw what you see.41 DRAWING YOUR DOG Be bold in this exercise. Character is better captured drawing quickly with confidence than w o r k i n g slowly. alter the pressure and moisture of your line in response to howyouknow your dog feels when you ruffle itscoat. Here I marked the features of Ras's head. I added ink to Ras's nose.It is essential when drawing any subject (even something abstract) to know how it feels andtoemulate this with your line. see how the animal's posture determines its whole shape. Then I immediately rebalanced the drawing with lines around his hind quarters. To add texture. SLEEPING DOGS 1 Fix your eyes at the center of the dog. 3 Gradually introduce darker tones. D o not go back over lines you are pleased with—doing so dulls their lively freshness. c o n c e r n e d a b o u t detail. this time to create a line a little darker in tone. 2 Reload your pen with ink. add more detail. and the shadows in his coat. to emphasize how he is curled up. ears. W i t h pale lies. ignoring all detail. Here.
Turtles to observe. A perfect subject for the beginner. offering plenty of time for the artist to draw the pose. THE ELONGATION AND BUOYANCY of a group of turtles is fascinating . they stretch and paddle. swinging their limbs and shells with a slow circular movement. as if caught in a camera freeze-frame. Beyond the glass wall of the aquarium. turtles often pause unexpectedly.
With speed. I darkened lines as each drawing progressed. I sought to capture the form. . and sharp. balance. dry. Beginning with very pale tones. India ink. and water.Dry Birds THESE ARE THE ARTICULATED BONES o f a k i w i a n d a h o u s e - martin drawn in a museum using a steel pen. weightlessness of the kiwi. I made repeated studies of the housemartin to discover its mechanism of flight.
Plants seventeenth century. to the proliferation of floral designs with which we have dressed ourselves and furnished our homes for centuries. Classifications were set in367copperengravings. After Here Aconthus spinosus is combined with forget-me-nots and-a-half centuries of intensive observation. we now have laid before us fourto show how well their colours complement each other infinite wealth of material to explore.Morethan 1.000 species of plants are depicted life-size drawn. Patrons funded the breeding of decorative. Plants are the principal inspiration of the decorative arts—from Roman Corinthian columns crowned with carved leaves of the acanthus. and hybridize them for our sustenance and pleasure. From its history there is one overriding lesson to be learned: the importance of looking and seeing with our own eyes. We collect. and diverse kingdom of plants. shape. B A S I L I U SBESLER when botanists founded new work upon the direct study of plants. Fledgling years Botanist and apothecary who compiled the Hortus Eystettensis of scientific research bore manifold explosions of knowledge in a fever of discovery. an There are close parallels between the acts of gardening and drawing. form. as opposed to only herbal. and to ornament our lives. to catalog our knowledge. season.Plants and Gardens W E SHARE THIS PLANET with the more ancient. Botanic gardens were established and expanded. Both embrace the anticipation of evolving shape. nurture. Later. infinitely vivid. color. and the drawn pages ofthesame name. on which our lives depend. Chapters are arranged by out. and focus. In this chapter. We draw them to celebrate their beauty and range. and the Acanthus spinosus constant but exhilarating struggle to make a living image feel right. It was published plain in 1611 and withhand-paintedplates in poured off ships returning from the New World and were eagerly collected and 1613. we see very different cultural visions of plants and gardens and use pencils and plants to learn the pictorial values of space. and beauty. the microscope was refined to unfold yet another world. manipulations of light and shade. Conrad von Gemmingen. PriceBishopof Eichstatt specimens. —-the largest and most influential botanical book of the early Natural scientists accompanied explorers to document unknown finds. Rich owners of private gardens commissioned large-format florilegiums commissioned the volume to document his private garden to immortalize their personal taste and power of acquisition. and texture. Early European illustrators were trapped within dogma that was determined by ancient scholarship. where a number of uncredited artistsd r e wthem for Besler. Botanical illustration is a precisely defined and scientific art. He sent boxes of plants to Nuremburgburned with the urgency and excitement of explaining every plant's form. 1613 187/8x153/4in(480 x 400 mm) BASILIUS BESLER . robust. The revolution came in the 1530s. Medieval knowledge was not gained by the first-hand observation of life but by reading. the punctuation of space with structure and mass.
The King was then establishing the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. Sir Joseph Banks. Here. flowers. measured drawings. and Franz Bauer and his brother Ferdinand were employed there to draw specimens. o p t i m i s m . detail. petal tip over a lower leaf Protea nitida 201/4 x141/4in (513 x 362 mm) FRANZ BAUER 1796 . and seeds conventionally a p p e a r o n o n e plate. Dissections Across the lower part of this drawing we can see dissections of seed pods and petals." Her slipper orchid s h o w s that botanical drawing must often resolve the challenge of its subject's p r o d u c i n g parts in different seasons — r o o t s . They are counted among the most accomplished 18th-century botanical artists. It is likely Bauer would have studied these under a microscope. naturalist explorer and advisor to King George III invited Bauer to London in 1 7 9 0 . Outline Bauer prepared a pencil outline before laying in fleshy succulent hues and tones of watercolor. and meticulous precision. fruit. subtle union of beauty. or that were diseased. M a c k i n t o s h e x p r e s s e s the f o l d e d petals of a broken rose b u d so delicately w e can sense the perfume. s u c h as w e see here in Bauer's Protea nitida. stems. o p e n i n g a n d c l o s i n g i n the w a r m t h a n d light of the studio. Stella Ross-Craig said of the need to d r a w from a dried herbarium plant "I could make it live again. and wilted. leaves. Each plant must b e clearly distinguished from its closest relative.48 PLANTS AND GARDENS THE SCIENTIFIC VALUE OF A BOTANICAL DRAWING lies i n its Botanical Studies were specimens that often refused to stay still. W i t h bright F R A N Z BAUER An Austrian artist who trained at the Schonbrunn Imperial Gardens in Vienna. B e h i n d detailed. insect-ravaged. Botanical art c o n c e a l s the challenge of its m a k i n g . T h e rest of u s are free to d r a w as w e w i s h . delicate. He has made the spatial and physical relationships in this drawing all the more real by placing a single. Light in this drawing is given by the paleness of the paper showing between washes of darker tones.
g a r d e in G e r m a n y a n d A u s t r i a .. Pencil lines cling to. Line Drawing of Cypripedium calceolus L c. is r e c o g n i z e d as tne m o s t c o m p l e t e a n d i m p o r t a n t work 3.49 C H A R L E S RENNIE MACKINTOSH Scottish a r c h i t e c t d e s i g n e r painter. a m o n g o t h e r s . Rose 1894 103/4 x 83/4 in ( 2 7 5 x 2 2 1 mm) CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH STELLA ROSS-CRAIG A j o i n e d t h e staff a t t h e R o y a l B o t a n i c G a r d e n s . Curtis's Botanical Magazine. as at trained botanical artist Ross-Craig Swift lines The drawing was planned in pencil and then overworked with a lithographic pen." This line drawing is one of 1. L o n d o n in 1 9 2 9 . G u s t a v K l i m t In his r e t i r e m e n t Mackintosh m a d e n u m e r o u s inventive pencil a n d w a t e r c o l o r d r a w i n g s o f plants. p u b l i s h e d 1 9 4 8 . and it shows how design. Ross-Craig said of her work "Plants that wither rapidly present a very difficult problem to which there is only one answer—speed. 1970 x 81/4 in ( 3 2 5 x 2 1 0 m m ) STELLA ROSS-CRAIG . H e r Drawings of British Plants. sensual pencil drawing is later works. it is small and discreet. imagination. found among Mackintosh's than reality. K e w . BOTANICAL STUDIES Lines and shadows This lush. A s m a n y of her drawings are kept G a r d e n s . a n d he inspired.286 studies for her book Drawings of British Plants. Closer to fiction can come together perfectly. and follow shadow. and speed depends upon the immediate perception of the essential characteristics of the plant.. S h e also o f thousands o f contributed an drawings. and perfect coordination of hand and eye. a n d f o u n d e r o f t h e G l a s g o w S c h o o l o f A r t M a c k i n t o s h ' s flair h a d an e n o r m o u s i n f l u e n c e o n t h e a v a n t .7 3 in 3 1 p a r t s . and observation the nuance and contour of every in one image.000 Kew to archive accessible t o d a y v i a t h e I n t e r n e t of o n British flora.
They used a fine brush to lay pigment over a line drawing. Below. and Nanha. and attention to detail are all shared with medieval European manuscript drawings. The white of the page shines through the brilliant color. uniform focus. roses took their form in a bead of perspiration on the brow of Mohammed as he passed through his heavenly journey. . 1590 85/8 x55/8in (219 x 1 4 4 mm) BISHNDAS AND NANHA Bright pigment These pages were illuminated by Mughal artists in the late 16th century. a notable portrait painter drew the faces. fluctuations in scale. By Muslim tradition. and calligraphy are brought together to hold the sacred names of prophets and the 99 beautiful names of God. urgent attentive human activity. Babur directs his gardeners in the design and planting of this quartered chahar bagh.50 PLANTS AND GARDENS Jeweled Gardens the Middle East we find exquisite stylization of form and upright formality in pictorial space. Envoys chatter outside the gate. painting. Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity c. Drawing. in the early 16th century. anticipating their view. which he personally created near Kabul. and miraculous growth. is remembered in the pages of his journal. Afghanistan. in miniature. The first Mughal Emperor Babur's Garden of Fidelity (Bagh-e Vaja). Bishndas was probably responsible for the overall design. Every fiber of AMONG DRAWINGS FROM BISHNDAS A N D N A N H A Little is known of these Mughal painters who were related as uncle and nephew and commissioned to illustrate the pages of Babur's journal. Upright shallow perspectives. Opposite is the Rose of Mohammed. paper is brimming with the beauty and celebration of nature. the sumptuous petals permeated with prayer and wisdom.
and how the shape has been repeated freehand.AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH This is a detail o f a page from a n 1 8 t h . Stylized motif A fine brush has been used throughout this drawing to apply inks and watercolors. The Rose of Mohammed 1708 9 1 / 2 x 61/2 in ( 2 4 0 x 1 6 5 mm) FROM THE TURKISH M A N U S C R I P T AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH . Sacred words The central rose is more solid than any other on the page.c e n t u r y Turkish manuscnpt a book of religious e t h i c s w r i t t e n in the O r i e n t a l C o l l e c t i o n s of Berlin. so that overlapping petals and stems give an impression of fulfillment and abundance. fragmenting its detail in a whisper of prayers. The physical anatomy of the rosebud has been studied and translated into a repeated stylized motif. Note how each bud is essentially the same shape. look closely and you will see words written in gold fluttering over the form of the flower. G e r m a n y . t h e Staatsbibliothek zu Arabic. It is n o w k e p t in Border The elegant border of this drawing was mode with a pen and ruler It cleverly compresses and defines the composition. However.
PLANTS AND GARDENS
IN CONTRAST TO THE QUIET, formal detail of other drawings in this chapter, these powerful fast trees enact the actions of plants. Each tree reaches out and holds its landscape with dynamism and pulse. In both drawings we find testament to the inexorable energy of growth. Rembrandt expresses a delicate quickness. Gentle lines draw a warm breeze through this remote wooded garden. Rustling in a loose foliage of soft marks, his pen evokes the weight of abundant activity on this late summer's day. Mondrian's arch of scratching branches is drawn with such force it will always be alive. We can still feel his hand storming across the paper. Set within a frame of smudged landscape, the tree possesses a musical agitation. This characteristic will increase in the artist's later abstract work. Here, we see a punctuated ordering of space. Sharp branches cut out negative shapes of winter sky.
R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter; etcher; and draftsman. Rembrandt's prolific output comprises oil paintings of historical and religious subjects together with group and self- portraits. His emotive etchings and pen and ink drawings (see also p. 174) are great resources for artists learning to understand the potential of these media.
Pen and ink lines describing foliage also tell
us the directions of sunlight and wind. An arc crossing the bottom of the drawing from one side to the other supports the scene and separates us from the landscape beyond. Compare Rembrandt's arc to that of Mondrian's. and note the similar treatment of low horizons in both works emphasizing the height and dominance of trees.
Cottage Among Trees 1648-50 63/4 x121/8in ( I 7 I x 308 mm) R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN
Atmosphere Here we see how shapes of negative space are as important as the physical subject they enclose (see pp.58-59). Mondrian has again lightly dragged his chalk on its side to evoke a wet depth of atmosphere. These passive gray marks contrast with the assertive tension of the tree.
Dutch Pure abstract painter preoccupied w i t h line and plane relationships. W i t h increasing austerity, Mondrian banished t h e subject from his drawings, in his later w o r k he also banished space, composing visual h a r m o n i e s using only straight lines a n d flat planes o f black, w h i t e , gray, o r p r i m a r y color.
Winter ground Short vertical marks along thebottomof this drawing reveal the length oftheblackchalk Mondrian used. Rubbed onitsside,itroughly blocks in the ground. Thecrudeeconomy of line is all we need tofeelthecold, wet, unwelcoming quality ofthiswinterearth.
Branches and trunk Lines shaping the branches of the tree are built up in layers. To make the trunk more dense, the artist has rubbed and smudged preliminary marks with his fingers before firmly overdrawing with new lines. Solid black lines are achieved by pressing the chalk hard. When used lightly, it shows the texture of the paper. Tree: Study for the Grey 1911 23 x 335/8 in ( 5 8 4 x 8 5 5 m m ) Tree
PLANTS AND GARDENS
Graphite and Erasers
GRAPHITE, FROM THE G R E E K word
This drawing illustrates a range of achieved with graphite pencils of different grades.
Modern pencils are graded from 9H (hard and pale) to 9B (black and soft). Graphiteclay sticks are also available, together with a powder form. All possess a natural sheen and are erasable to a varying degree. Graphite drawings smudge easily, so fixative, a form of varnish, can be used to hold a drawn surface in place. It is applied as a fine mist from an aerosol can, or from a bottle using a diffuser. For the beginner, ordinary hairspray is an effective and cheaper alternative.
(to write), is a soft and brittle carbon. It was first mined in Cumbria, England, in 1 5 6 4 , and was initially used in small, pure pieces bound in lengths of string. Pencils as we know them—with their slender wood casing and "lead" of graphite—were invented in France in 1794 by Nicolas-Jaques Conte. He discovered that milled graphite mixed with clay and water, press-molded, and baked to a high temperature produces a harder and paler medium than graphite alone.
3B pencil A range of mark and textures can be achieved with a 3B pencil when you vary its pressure, speed, and direction, as this detail shows.
Here is a selection of 14 items to illustrate a basic range of pencils, graphite sticks, sharpeners, erasers, and fixative.
1. AND 2. HB AND 3B PENCILS: It is unnecessary to possess every grade of pencil. HB, the central and most common grade, is perfect for making delicate lines. 3B gives a blacker tone. A great variety of effects can be achieved with just these two. 3. WATER-SOLUBLE PENCIL Effective for atmospheric drawing, but be aware of how watery tones can dull the impact of the line. 4. AND 5. MECHANICAL PENCIL Thick or fine leads are made in a range of grades. They are particularly useful because they do not require a sharpener 6. ROUND SOLID GRAPHITE PENCIL: Excellent for large-scale drawing, producing thick bold lines. A range of grades can be honed with a craft knife or sharpener 7. THICK GRAPHITE STICK: For large-scale drawing. Graded soft, medium, and hard. It crushes to produce graphite powder 8. SQUARE GRAPHITE STICK: Useful for making broad, sweeping marks in large-scale drawing. If worn and rounded, the stick can be snapped into pieces to regain the sharp, square end. 9. CRAFT KNIFE AND BLADES: Handles are sold in two sizes to fit large or small blades, and blades are sold in a range of shapes. Perfect for sharpening pencils to a long point, to cut lines in paper or to remove areas. 10. PENCIL SHARPENER: Makes a uniform point. Keep one in your pocket for drawing outside the studio, together with an envelope for shavings.
HB and 5B Layers of tone have been built up withHBand5Bpencils. Softer pencils require less pressure to make a mark, revealing the texture of the paper surface. It is important to keep the point of the pencil sharp with either a craft knife or a sharpener.
ERASING AND FIXING
Erasers can be used t o blend and s o f t e n lines, o r t o r e m o v e altogether. Fixative them prevents
GRAPHITE AND ERASERS
s m u d g i n g a n d s e c u r e s lines.
Using fixative You can use fixative while drawing to hold the definition of lines you wish to gently fade but not remove entirely, for which you would use an eraser.
11. P L A S T I C E R A S E R : Avoid cheap colored erasers that may stain drawings with grease and dye. White brands are available in soft and hard versions.
P U T T Y RUBBER:
W a r m it in your hand before use. It is excellent for removing powdery materials, and for making crisp sweeps of light across a delicate pencil drawing
13. D I F F U S E R : Helleborus corsicus (Corsican hellebore) fixative, or to spray mists of ink.
PLANTS AND GARDENS
Cropping and Composition
M A N Y STUDENTS WILL START a d r a w i n g i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e
that its skin nearly touches the boundary. The meaning of the same drawing changes simply by its relationship to the space it occupies. The size of any subject, its placement on the page, the size of the page, and its overall proportion are all discrete and essential aspects of successful picture-making. Before you begin to draw, think carefully about where to place your subject. Are you are happy with your paper? If not, change it; add more, take some away, or turn it around. Do not just accept what you are given, adapt it to what you need.
paper. Focused on the shape and detail of their subject, they remain happily unaware that there is, or should be, any relationship between what they are drawing and the surface they are drawing it on. The paper is only paper, and the troublesome subject floats somewhere in the expanse of it. However, a single fig drawn in the middle of a large, empty square of paper gives quite a different impression from the same fig drawn on such an intimately small square
CHOOSING A VIEW
A Single Fig
"The size, shape, and orientation of the paper are so integral to the composition that they determine the impact and meaning of the drawing."
The angle of the fruit together with dark shadow (top left) and bright light(bottom right) suggest a diagonal division across the whole drawing. spaces between things are as important as the things themselves. its stem and shadow framing a white center. When subjects touch two or more edges. A card with a small rectangle cut out o f it makes a useful viewfinder C l o s e o n e e y e t o look through the hole. running corner t o corner. they establish a tension and unity with the paper. as also shown here. bottom-left t o top-right. and lines describing shadows cast by the fruit . t h e n m o v e t h e c a r d t o e x p l o r e different views. its illumination. Here the left fig is attached to. and therefore apparently suspended from. a device to help you decide what t o draw. This drawing hasbeencropped to emphasize space between thefruit. U s e it as a starting point. Touching the edge When the subject o f a drawing touches one edge of the paper it attaches t o it visually. Space as the subject Inallpictures.57 THE VIEWFINDER T h e s e pencil drawings o f figs d e m o n s t r a t e different crops and compositions. CROPPING AND COMPOSITION Off-center and diagonal Here I held my viewfinder so the fig appeared upper-left in the space.O u r focus is on the white cloth supporting the figs. the uppermost edge of the drawing.
a foundation stone in picture-making. then added a second shape. their subject and composition will become more real. Draw a complete shape Map outward from the center Erase and adjust lines until correct . Follow these from left to right and see how I began with one complete shape between two parts of a leaf. but if the artist does. shapes of air cut out and defined by the physicality of our environment? When we look into the branches of a tree. rather than what you see in front of you. and a fresh page in your drawing book. this ensures a consistent view. Negative space is the simple key to getting positive shape right. dynamic. It is an astonishingly simple device that many artists use and I strongly recommend. erasing and adjusting lines until itlooked right. do we see myriad distinct and unique shapes of daylight or do we just see branches? Why as artists should we look at the air? Every space in a picture has a shape. an eraser. you will need a similar large-leaved plant. Unfamiliar shapes of negative space reveal the real shape of a positive subject. In your own version. WHERE TO START Arrange your plant and paper so you can look back and forth by barely moving your head. tone. and so on. and a role to play. position. a sharp H B pencil.The box opposite isolates an area. In following this class. unified. which is shown in the three steps below. not leaves. The drawing opposite is of the uppermost leaves of a potted fig tree. Looking at negative space overrides the problem of drawing what you know. Remember that plants do move! Therefore it is best to complete your drawing in one sitting if possible. third. remember to draw only space. But how often do we look at the air between things.58 PLANTS AND GARDENS Negative Space UNCONSCIOUSLY WE ASSESS spatial relationships all the time to guide ourselves through the world. and engaging. Viewers appreciating a finished image may not see shapes of space. It helps to start at the center and map outward. fourth.
Here I drew only spaces, adding one to another until the leaves were revealed. Besides looking at negative space, there are two other useful things to do when a drawing feels wrong but you cannot see why: look at it in a mirror or turn it upside down. errors and suggest changes.
Spaces between leaves
Either view will
WALKING IN THE ALPUJARRAS in A n d a l u c i a ,
Spain, I drew a bare fig tree clinging to the wall of an almond grove; a perfect subject for seeing negative space. I marked its essential frame of large branches first, frequently erasing lines and changing my mind until the balance felt right.
S a l v i a , RIBES, CLEMATIS, Allium, Passiflora, and Acanthus
drawn with an H pencil by observing the
negative spaces between the stems, petals, and leaves. I arranged the flowers on a sheet of paper in a cool r o o m and rapidly sketched a composition. Then I put them in water, taking the stems out one at a time to draw.
62-63).Acanthus Spinosus As we LOOK AROUND. . Excessive detail leaves no space for the eye to rest or imagination to wander. gathering less distinct information on the way. interfolding points of detail with areas of loose suggestion. We never see everything at once. If an artist changes the pace of their line and focus of their attention. our eyes travel and adjust from one point of focus to another. Compare changes of pace and focus here to the flatter finish of Summer Flowers (see pp. they emulate our experience of seeing.
to help them create new form. European conventions of pictorial perspective have lost their monopoly on seeing. add and subtract ideas. we find the most recent steps in the evolution of graphic language. the device that has since governed most of our picture-making (sec pp. the formula for perfection spread through Europe. architects. fine artists. Perhaps in the sheer planes of some of our greatest modern buildings it is finding its clearest expression. Since the first flowering of Modernism in the early 20th century. from political commentary to musical abstraction. film-set design. which was the first church in the capital to be built entirely of metal and then clad in stone. and from West Facade of the Church of St Augustin. invaluable to understand and apply when you choose. of the west facade of St Augustin. composers. VICTOR BALTARD French architect employed by the city of Paris. It is the focus of practical class in this chapter. time. to 20th-century film fantasy. made by the architect himself. and architects of ancient Greece who first pursued the formula for "divine proportion. with gray and brown watercolor wash. which can be clearly seen in ancient Greek architecture. Paris 1871-74 the child's view to the infinity of the vanishing point. Besides sketches of first thoughts and polished drawings of the finished look for clients. filmmakers. Through the animation of the screen. and computer game imaging. once there. balance." reflecting the eye's love of unity in difference. and writers have been breaking away from traditional forms of representation to seek new expressions of shape.Architecture I N THE CONTEMPORARY PRACTICES of architecture. they also have a diagrammatic language for communicating plans to builders. designers. and sound. architects and designers can imaginatively "climb inside" three-dimensional space and. Computer programs allow the virtual drawing of ideas. Augustin. philosophers. space. each VICTOR BALTARD . coupled with the importance of exercizing your imagination. It was the mathematicians. Linear perspective is a marvelous device. Among the drawings of this chapter we look from 17th-century ecclesiastical calm. was preserved into the Renaissance where it became a foundation stone for thinking and creativity From 15thcentury Italy. Since Picasso and Braque's revolution of Cubism in around 1907. Architects have been fine-tuning their specialized branch of drawing for centuries.The church is still in use today. drawing plans around themselves within a program as opposed to on a flat sheet of paper. mass. Baltard designed the Church of St. It was also during the Renaissance that the architect Brunelleschi invented linear perspective. 74-75).This is a pencil drawing. and in the 19th century it was given the name the Golden Section. they have the Golden Section. This harmony. At the core of their practice. Yet the pursuit of divine proportion and harmony remains.
testing gravity to calculate the inverted shapes of domes. he also worked on St Paul's Cathedral. NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR One of Britain's "three great" Baroque architects (along with Sir Christopher Wren and Sir John Vanbrugh). a three-dimensional drawing made with wires and weights. embodying a massive investment of ideas. and balance. Below it. materials. Hawksmoor established his reputation with university and church architecture including All Souls College. and an inscribed entablature.68 ARCHITECTURE Master Builders EVERY NEW BUILDING. St Paul's Baptistry c. A student of Wren's. Architects draw for many reasons: to visualize ideas. Hawksmoor's drawing is both a plan and an evocation. and the shapes of interior domes and apses. Finished surface On the left the finished surface of the building is given depth and emphasis by immaculate vertical and horizontal brush strokes of shadow. Hampton Court Palace. densely layered lines in mists of color weave the presence of the expected building into shape. describe a finished look to a client. Together they explain how interior structure and space define exterior form and shape. and ultimately to show builders what to do. and Castle Howard. Blenheim Palace. Three aspects This subtle and sophisticated drawing made in pen and wash displays three distinct aspects of Hawksmoor's baptistry. calculate function. Pillars and floor At the base of the drawing a compass-drawn plan tilted downward through 90 degrees illustrates the arrangement of pillars around a central circular floor. relative levels. Gaudi's fluid architecture grew up through many kinds of drawing. 1711-12 NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR . pilasters. We see the modeled detail of Corinthian columns. marks the end of a long journey from the first few marks the architect made on a sheet of paper. Drawings underpin every great human-made structure like hidden linear ghosts at their core. Oxford. and later an assistant to Vanbrugh. evoke presence. structure. Lines define structure while washes suggest light and atmosphere. Cut-away interior On the right a section cut through the center of the building reveals material thicknesses. and six London churches. The photograph opposite shows his studio hung with metal pendulums. and labor.
69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt c. 1900 ANTONIO GAUDI ANTONIO GAUDI Visionary Catalan architect. Guell Crypt of its at the Time Construction c. This sculptural drawingenvisionsthe finished crypt glowingandethereal as if caught in thelightof red morning sun. embellishment. Wire and watercolor three-dimensional preferred to calculate Above is a drawing form in the made withlinkedwires and weights. unique organic manipulation of high shapes. Gaudi air than on paper. churches. To the right isawatercolordrawing thought to havebeenmade over a photograph ofthemodelabove. light. and his love of music. Gaudi's cathedral in Barcelona. The Art Nouveau movement. 1910 24x181/4( 6 1 0 x 4 7 5mm) A N T O N I O GAUDI . and apartment homes are distinguished by their Their and Flowering curves of stone or concrete are often encrusted with Gaudi was inspired by medieval and oriental art.
a refillable pen that feeds a constant supply of ink through a fine tubular nib. Floor space appears divided by discernible walls. We can imagine how a musician might interpret this drawing by looking at the abstract visual rhythms of masses composed of long straight poles. and the spaces between his windows and turrets are the visual equivalent of pauses in h i s m u s i c c o m p o s i t i o n s for p i a n o (see also Bussotti. such a rapport in both of these drawings. flat boards. upright pictorial space. Both men used rulers and pens to carefully and slowly construct their compositions. and rooms. There has always DANIEL LIBESKIND A Polish American architect of international acclaim. Arctic Flowers 1980 DANIEL LIBESKIND . and dotted lines. corridors. Floor plan This drawing has been made with a rapidograph. We can see.70 ARCHITECTURE The Order of Sound B O T H OF THESE VISIONARY DRAWINGS o c c u p y a s l e n d e r . Libeskind begins quietly in the upper space of his drawing. and exhibitions of his drawings. p. theater sets. Libeskind studied music before transferring to architecture. and arched dotted lines depict the radius of doors. He also produces urban and landscape designs.223). Across the top and center right of the image w e perceive an almost recognizable architectural plan. installations. Libeskind's numerous commissions include concert halls and museums. been a natural affinity between the visual rhythms of pictures and the audible rhythms of music. Contemporary musicians commonly collaborate with artists by interpreting images as sound. before cascading into a riot of line and sound below. while the composer Erik Satie has made an enclosure of quiet order and grace. He also contributed to plans for the rebuilding of the World Trade Center site in New York. The architect and musician Daniel Libeskind has drawn a stampeding cacophany of airborne architectural detail. Visual rhythms In the lower half of this drawing architectural language has broken loose: escaped and transformed into an image of rebellious pleasure. Satie draws quietly throughout. and in a sense hear. short curved poles.
Satie collaborated w i t h hisfriends J e a n C o c t e a u a n d P i c a s s o . They definespaceand pictorial balance. o f which he was the sole m e m b e r Parcel paper Satie has drawn this fantasy hotel using a ruler.H i s witty. the perimeter Composition Look how well this drawingfitsand resonates with the upright. theater. minimalist s c o r e s scandalized a u d i e n c e s with o r c h e s t r a t i o n s f o r t h e foghorn and typewriter. effectively additional lines in a work. Eastern influence The upright image Eastern is reminiscent and medieval of Middle pictorial space and subject of this European drawing. Compare the even and and the shape wall to the elegantly stylized order of the many windows of arrangement of details and the shape of the wall in Babur's Garden of Fidelity on p. and founded his o w n church.50. a conventional dip or fountain pen. dressed eccentrically. Hotel de la Suzonnieres c. H e p e r f o r m e d in cabarets.56—57 we discussed important the shape.ERIK SATIE F r e n c h pianist and c o m p o s e r for t h e piano. Onpp.narrowshape of its paper. 1 8 9 3 77/8 x 51/2 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 4 0 mm) ERIK SATIE . a n d ballet. and ink on a fragment folded brown paper—a of everyday happened material of scrap that to be at hand.Edges are how are of orientation. andfouredges of the paper tothecompositionand impact animage. lived a l o n e .
Light illusions This pen-and-wash drawing shows a subtle application of the principles of illumination demonstrated with an egg on p. Among preparations for Fritz Langs film Metropolis. painter. We glide over exquisitely drawn wastelands of damage and abandonment.The lower-left section of the building appears relatively pale against a darker sky. This is the work of an architectural theoretician. arched vaults. Boullee's monolithic apparition was drawn as a monument to Sir Isaac Newton. and draftsman. and taught at t h e A c a d e m i e d'Architecture. This shift makes the cenotaph appear three-dimensional. experiencing a fascinating conflict between curiosity and desolation. Within it. spheres. cylinders. ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE French architectural theorist. Art director Erich Kettlehut's vertiginous design for the city of a slavelike populace had a future influence on movies such as Blade Runner. Newton's Cenotaph 1784 153/4 x 25 in ( 4 0 2 x 635 m m ) ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE .96. and the reverse is true on the right. antlike mortals might have speculated upon the universe.72 ARCHITECTURE T H E S E T H R E E HIGHLY DETAILED DRAWINGS Future Fictions invite us to soaring above normal life. Boullee lived in Paris. enter the long-shadowed architecture of imaginary worlds. the ominous globe exists only as a series of drawings. and dramatic lighting. we find other Utopian visions Paul Nobles epic drawing summons an imperfect and disturbing township where ruin and activity are equal and strange. His celebrated imaginary buildings are characterized by pyramids. made in 1926.
Nobson political visions of humanity Newtown. and m o d e l . and morality o f an invented place called His satires exhibited w o r l d w i d e . Nobson Central 9 ft 1 0 in x 1 3 f t 2 in (3 x 4 m ) PAUL N O B L E 1998-99 . gray. mythology. Kettlehut drew using a fine and relatively dry brush dipped in black. together with c i n e m a t o g r a p h e r Karl Freund. Kettlehut and his c o . and are Graphite shapes Nobson Central isoneof a series of very large graphite drawings of the spoil and detritus of Nobson Newtown. and white ink on brown-gray paper. Its sheerscaleengulfs the viewer and demands based time and patience to on letters and in some beread.Building shapes are works can be read as text. Fritz Lang's Metropolis c. draftsman.a r t director O t t o Hunte. Working on toned paper such as this gives an artist greater scope for dramatic lighting effects than if they work on white paper. intensely detailed graphite drawings explaining and questioning t h e geography. 1926 ERICH KETTLEHUT PAUL N O B L E British c o n t e m p o r a r y artist who creates m o n u m e n t a l . architecture.73 ERICH KETTLEHUT Influential film a r t director.m a k e r In t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f Metropolis. FUTURE FICTIONS Brush and ink This is a dramatic drawing from a film that shaped the history of world cinema. used forced perspective camera t e c h n i q u e s t o amplify t h e m a g n i t u d e o f buildings in relation t o human characters.
and inventions— essential reading for inquiring minds. We use it to structure illusions of depth. Here Leonardo provides a superb example of a single vanishing point. scientists. Pull the thread taut and rotate it slowly above the drawing. See how the thread corresponds to each converging line. It can be applied to any subject. Study of Perspective Adoration of the for the Magi 1481 61/2 x111/2in (165 x 290 mm) LEONARDO DA VINCI . observations. 206-07). Piranesi an example of two. linear perspective is distinct from more ancient systems practiced in the East. Note how architectural features conform to lines and how human figures diminish in size toward thevanishingpoint. inventors. I contribute the child's perspective. Single-point perspective Tie a thread to a pin. and thinkers ever to have lived. LEONARDO DA VINCI One of the greatest artists. All forms of perspective are of equal value. In his notebooks.74 ARCHITECTURE Pathways of Sight LINEAR PERSPECTIVE (also called vanishing-point perspective) is a simple device for calculating the relative size of things in pictorial space. Invented by Italian artist and architect Brunelleschi in 1413 (late in the history of art). found at the center of all converging lines. this perspective is often an imagined bird's-eye view in which details are mapped according to logic and importance rather than how they might appear in real life. Sometimes shared with Naive artists. and those of Naive artists and children. It is also distinguished from aerial perspective (see pp. but is most easily seen and understood in pictures of buildings and interiors. Leonardo recorded constant streams of ideas. and age eight. Press the pin into Leonardo's vanishing point.
It shows how children usually map large scenes in flat layers one above the other. Note the rather large rabbits and pheasants the hills. Children are uninhibited and problems with one element being obscured by another rarely arise. Breamore Village. Two-point perspective Sunlight through this colonnade a great example of two-point perspective. Scale Our farmhouse my experience was in the woods. which I saw from home every day. including all they recall about the subject. . visionary and practical understanding of ancient Rome. and theoretical writing strongly influenced neoclassicism. issues of scale when making room for important their story. England 1980 9 x 16 in (228 x 405 mm) S A R A H SIMBLET GIOVANNI BATTISTA PIRANESI Italian artist. a points in logical narrative of memories. Lightly marked illuminates vanishing Two Courtyards c. This drawing Young children typically maps ignore on and understanding of the nearby village. Mark these points with your pin and follow the converging lines of the drawing by rotating your thread. at the top of each lateral column base.SARAH SIMBLET I made this drawing (at age 8) in response to a local bookstore's request for children to draw their village. architect. 1740 5 1 / 2 x 83/8 in (141 x 212 mm) G I O V A N N I B A T T I S T A PIRANESI points are located on either side of the drawing. New Forest. and designer Piranesi's prolific architectural drawings.
2 3 corners must each touch a dotted line. then follow the ten steps below. (See p. Erase the dotted construction lines. This ensures that the second rectangle aligns with the shape and 4 Draw four short lines to connect the four corners of the two rectangles. Next. draw a horizon line across your paper Mark a spot on the horizon line. you will amplify the illusion of distance. Piranesi planned his drawing with only the essential lines needed. In contrast. discovering the image as it progressed. Leonardo began with a grid of many lines within which he invented his scene. DRAWING BOXES 1 Using a ruler and a sharp HB pencil. imagine. corresponding to a single vanishing point. Surround the vanishing point with a small rectangle. this is your vanishing point.76 ARCHITECTURE Single-Point Perspective MASTERING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE i s e a s i e r t h a n y o u m a y First read through. Draw four dotted lines radiating out from the vanishing point.98 for an important note on oscillation. try composing your own space. Draw each step over the preceding one to build up a single image. using a sharp HB pencil and ruler. You have completed your first box. This lesson shows you how to make a simple illusion of space defined by two boxes and three flat boards. Each line should pass through one corner of the rectangle.) . Note that if you place large structures in the foreground and smaller ones closer to your vanishing point. On the previous page we looked at its essential mechanism through drawings by Leonardo and Piranesi. Extend each dotted line to the edge of your drawing. Study these pages first before embarking on this lesson. This is where we will begin.
N e x t draw a slanting line to mark the height of the first flat board.asIhavedonehere. Note that this does not surround the vanishing point In the future. 9 Use dotted lines connecting the slanting linetothe vanishing point to locate the top. Repeat this to add two more boards to the composition.77 SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE 5 Draw a new rectangle. when inventing your own compositions. Connect this to the vanishing point— again. 1 0 Erase all ofthedottedlinestoseeyourfinishedboxes Thickeningtheiredges. 7 As in step 3. with two dotted lines. and erase the dotted lines. . Continue the dotted lines out toward the edge of your drawing. andfarside of this first board. draw a second. you can place rectangles anywhere youwishin relation to a vanishing point. The board's sides should be parallel. The four comers must each touch a dotted line to be sureitaligns with the first. larger rectangle. 6 As in step 2. The larger you make your second rectangle. 8 Complete the second box with short lines as in step 4. draw four dotted lines radiating from your vanishing point Pass these through each comer of the new rectangle.willhelptomake them appear more solid. the closer it will appear to the viewer. bottom.
p . let simple lines suggest a simple space. A lot more happens when you open yourself up to the work and let yourself act and react to it. As David Lynch. APPLYING PERSPECTIVE An Imagined Scaffold "Enjoy your illusion as you make it and it will become more real. then let the space suggest its c o n t e n t s and purpose. 7 4 ) . Linear perspective will support y o u by providing a frame in which to b u i l d your picture as it did for Leonardo. draw a b o x as shown opposite. once said: "I never end up with what I set out to do. it will take you places you never dreamed of. you will find white adhesive stationery labels are useful for covering errors or changing the direction of your idea. artist and film director. The m i s t a k e n belief that we s h o u l d k n o w exactly what o u r finished drawings will l o o k like before we m a k e t h e m prevents many people from ever starting. It highlights the importance of having faith in your imagination and trusting your ability to invent. O n a fresh page in your d r a w i n g b o o k ." imaginary room." .78 ARCHITECTURE Creating an Imaginary Space T H I S CLASS USES SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE t o c r e a t e a s i m p l e to you and if you listen to it. w h e t h e r it is a film or a painting. Every work talks In this class. If using a fibertip pen as I have done for this drawing. it is interaction that makes the work richer. Then follow the three given steps. I always start with a script but I don't follow it all the way through to the end.
With some practice. The space has become more solid and real.Addanarray of converging lines to provide a "scaffold" for vertical. . 3 Remove the construction lines with an eraser and the room will becomeclearer.79 DRAWING A SIMPLE ROOM Essentials t o remember: objects and people dimmish in size as they move farther away. and leaning surfaces.There is great pleasure tobefoundin spending time inventing interiors. you will beableto draw more complex objects orpeoplewithin them. and floors and ceilings also converge and rise o r lower toward the horizon. Here. 2 first before adding furniture.drawthehorizonlineand vanishingpoint. This initial space will be transparent and open to change. horizontal. CREATING AN IMAGINARY SPACE 1First. additional lines have established the different surfaces and how they relate to each other. parallel planes such as walls converge toward the vanishing point.
Only when y o u might employ t h r e e . or low and we look u p . a n d this is how we have drawn them so far (see pp. From our normal eye level. Further aspects of three-point perspective are also illustrated opposite. showing y o u h o w to draw curved surfaces and a tiled floor. The boxes drawn here are seen partly or entirely disassociated from a horizon line drawn across the bottom of the image. T h e y d o n o t have to relate to each other. Potentially. Elaborations . I have elaborated on the simple boxes above. These elaborations could continue indefinitely across a sheet of paper in pursuit of complex and intricate ideas. T h i n k of standing at the top of a skyscraper and imagine h o w its parallel sides would appear to converge below you.p o i n t perspective ( s h o w n opposite top). To draw such a view APPLICATION Copy these drawings to see and feel how they work before inventing your own versions. Copying what you see in the work of others will help you to understand what they have done. Vanishing points are commonly found on horizon—our eye level. 76-79). Here. T h i s is d e m o n s t r a t e d immediately below. located anywhere inside or outside the pictorial space. They could be drawn on any scale from miniature to monumental. Free vanishing points On paper we can enjoy the freedom of fantastic structural invention without limitations of solid materials or gravity. they can be placed anywhere inspaceto describe the perspective of flyi c tilted objects. It is important to realize that you can have as many vanishing points as you wish. but they are not confined to this level.80 ARCHITECTURE Further Aspects of Perspective W E ARE ACCUSTOMED TO SEEING our e n v i r o n m e n t from a relatively constant point of view. o r to the h o r i z o n . Search for the application of these perspectives among works by other artists in this book and in galleries. verticals appear p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the g r o u n d . do verticals appear inclined. our eye level is very high and we look down. That is where we e to find them.
tostraightlines can amplify drama in a picture. Giving curvature. I then drew three fanned groups of lines connecting each of the three points above to the seven points below. they mark the corners of the floor tiles.Finally. I marked the toplinewith three evenly spaced points and the line with seven. three vanishing points are evenly spaced along a horizon line. Where thelinescross. you will see how. An array of curved lines (drawn freehand) link the two lateral points.75.Istarted with two parallel lines.) By comparing this drawing t o Piranesi's example of two-point perspective on p. by adding a third point you can achieve a sense of incline. PERSPECTIVE Three-point curves Here. useful for representing steep views looking up or down tall structures. Iusedthese lines as a guide t o draw the curvature of boxes and panels flying through space.81 FURTHER ASPECTS OF Three-point towers This drawing depicts three-point perspective.I added horizontal lines t o define the tiles. and therefore tension. Note that altering the distance between the three dots above will tilt the level of the floor . (Turn the book around to see a view looking up. Three-point checkered floor This d bottom floor.
Theaters RESEARCHING FOR MY P H D . I visited many anatomical theaters and museums. . These walnut-skin ink pen and brush drawings show imagined views of theaters that do not exist but were inspired by places I studied. making drawings to resolve questions and express personal responses to the nature and history of anatomy.
. The vanishing of the drawing is directly opposite as we look across The constancy of the bridge and surrounding frames the movement in the life that flows past.Venetian Life sitting point buildings ThisP E N .I N KDRAWING is one of a series I made while next to the Rialto Bridge in Venice. the water.A N D .
even more advanced drawings are made on computers. too. T h e Industrial Revolution c h a n g e d the traditional w a y s in w h i c h objects were designed. A chair. color. making a clear instruction t o his bronzemeaning. Birds follow instinct to make a nest. drawings were needed to instruct workers on the factory floor. or to explain and present a finished concept to a client. planned. to record an observed detail. H e has described a casting through metaphor. for example. Artists also make images of objects that can never exist. r an equestrian statue. With the sudden onset of mass production. but humans LEONARDO DA VINCI Inthisbeautiful red chalk Our items all have a purpose—practical or ornamental—and all have a meaning. of light in the creation of pictorial illusions. and some apes use simple tools. W e also explore v o l u m e and form in the classes by spinning lines to make vessels. In past eras. and a wire violin. drawing c. In this chapter. from s p o o n s and pens to chairs and bicycles. History will be learned from the artifacts w e leave behind. passing them on to others through the act of making. 1493 117/8c81/4in (300 x 210 m m ) LEONARDO D A V I N Ccreating I . Technical drawing was speedily developed as a meticulous international code of m e a s u r e m e n t and explanation. are all made bearing the signature of our time and place. fictional realities caster of h o w t o make it andhowit will w o r k . we look at the importance are the only creatures on Earth w h o actually design and create great ranges of things. T h e precision of engineering d r a w i n g s e v o l v e d alongside machine tools. sculpted. Today. Engineers and designers of our objects and instruments make drawings for many reasons: to test an idea that is yet to be made. and the way in w h i c h the brain reacts Head and Neck Sections of Female Mold for the Sforza Horse to visual stimulus and optical illusions. each demanding more of the other as they increased in sophistication. these. C o m m o n items. that test our logic with a sense of mystery. for example—whether. hooked bars that can be pulled and tied closely form. illuminating snail shells. Artists and actors use the meanings of things to communicate a speculative mechanic. and the behavior of light through making still-life paintings and together. Previously. or used on stage hood for a mold t o make theheado f a horse f oas a p r o p — i m b u e d with e n o u g h energy or character can "become" a man. and made. It is shaped in sections w i t h Artists have for centuries studied and expressed composition. texture. It was in this era that the blueprint was born. drawn. H e has described contour and function at drawings. craftsmen had held plans in their memory. have often carried great weights of allegorical once. design.Objects and Instruments T HE THINGS WE INVENT describe our lives. or drawing w e see Leonardo daVinci'sprecision as can be given meaning.
. One of the great joys of this movement in art is the musicality of its multipoint view. steaming with music and conversation. a colored canvas. Braques "justly" arranged combination of cut black card. There is a fragile eloquence to these objects as they drift in slow motion past our gaze. not of place but of things. representing still life. silverware. and a journal jacket with words makes this drawing chatter about the moment.90 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS Still Life THESE DRAWINGS REVEAL t w o o p p o s i t e m o t i v a t i o n s i n we can.. not to work in harmony. and shading. Clashes The art historian Ernst Gombrich said of Cubism. texture. still feel this projected moment. Braque established Cubism in partnership with Picasso just before World War I. Opposite. T h i s is a designers drawing made to enthuse surface and style in its delicate brushing of china. Statue D'Epouvante 1913 2 f t 5 in x 3 ft 5 in (0. Even today GEORGES BRAQUE French painter who as a young man was influenced by the work of the Fauves and of Cezanne.Braque marshals all the forces of perspective. wood-look wallpaper. perfect i n their newly made availability. and glass objects of exquisite elegance for only the gentlest of touch and appreciation. but to clash in virtual deadlock. charcoal.73 x 1 m) GEORGES BRAQUE . Below. His work is characterized by calm and harmonious still-life compositions. "I believe [it] is the most radicalattempttostampout ambiguity and to enforce one readingofthepicture—that of a manmade construction. Mucha's drawing glistens with possession." La Cuitare.. He takes us into the bustle of the Paris cafe. Braques image is a Cubist collage.
and New York. Study for Plate 59 from "Documents Decoratifs" 17x121/4(430 x 310 mm) ALPHONSE MUCHA 1902 . Art Nouveau motifs This is a preliminary study for a subsequent print. Black watercolor washes and lines of white gouache have been added with a fine brush. and also stamps and bank notes. Pans. For ten years Mucha designed theater posters exclusively for the actress Sarah Bernhardt. Chicago.ALPHONSE MUCHA Czech graphic artist and painter who worked in Prague. Art Nouveau curling motifs of birds. and fish have been outlined using a sharp pencil. He designed the Austrian pavilion for the Paris World Fair in 1900.fruit.flowers. He is best known for posters featuring ethereal women in typical Art Nouveau style. Background color Between the delicate shadows and highlights of these glazed and surfaces ofthebackground metal color of the Mucha we see a large amount paper. Look at the two spoons at toprightand see how has suggested that they are so brilliantly shiny they reflect the background color. The three plates facing us were drawn with a compass.
He counted 1 4 . shape the very cause and effect of investigatory thought. Look how confidently he draws with ink the sphere of this wooden globe by which his telescope rotates. and philosopher Newton was President of the Royal Society. and his hand moving across the light. Newton's 1672 ISAAC Telescope NEWTON . and the nature o f light and color. Their delicate construction is only as valuable as the measurements they make. Transparent view Newton's reflecting telescope focused light in a parabolic mirror. 0 0 0 perfect hemispheres. astronomer. each one skillfully rendered with the alarmingly matter-of-fact ease of explaining the commonplace. It is a diagrammatic explanation of how to catch and magnify a star in a mirrored tube. The power of this drawing reflects the pure passion of discovery. It was then reflected up inside the tube and. w h e r e he developed his three greatest theories: the law o f motion. With dotted lines Newton has drawn his arrangement of elements inside the tube. and Fellow of the University o f C a m b r i d g e . we see drawing Instruments of Vision found among his letters. into the eyepiece. a tree outside. Hooke's head of a drone fly seen through a microscope may represent the first time man and insect came face to face. each reflecting a view of his own world—his window. Ink lines Several drawings appear among Newton's letters. In the graphic work of these two great men of science. Newton's drawing of his first reflecting telescope is ISAAC N E W T O N English scientist. the law o f gravity. mathematician.92 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS by their very nature must gauge or chronicle precision. offering a transparent view. via a second mirror. A disembodied eye at the top of the drawing indicates where to look. drawing is there to pin the moment down. alchemist. From the concept of capturing the infinite to the mapping of microscopic sight. Newton used this instrument to calculate the speed required to escape earth's gravity.
1665). universal joint a prototype respirator clock balance. and anchor escarpment. ROBERT H O O K E 93 Magnifications This acutely detailed engraved drawing is taken from Hooke's Micrographia (pub. The Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 1665 ROBERT HOOKE 111/2 x 105/8 in (294 x 270 mm) .An experimental scientist who drew many of his discoveries. It is an exhilarating read. a breathtaking book containing many of his drawings showing some of the first microscopic and telescopic magnifications of our environment Hooke's text and illustrations carry us to the moment of discovery. and calculated the theory of combustion. Hooke invented the camera diaphragm.
each drawn with the s a m e unfaltering lines and tones that are between reality and impossibility. Sarah Woodfines flat cut-out m o d e l plan is a witty and surprising drawing. and has drawings in numerous public and private collections.94 INSTRUMENTS W H E N WE DRAW A COMMON OBJECT like a chair. Two-dimensional was made This highly finished drawing ruler using a sharp pencil and on smooth white drawing paper glistening dark drawings are artificial representations of known Woodfine's two-dimensional things balanced in the world. this chair p r e s e n t s us with a clever visual contradiction: deeply drawn shadows tell us it must be solid. it has so m u c h familiar personality that it seems to talk to us. craft. Bench Marks W e are left a little c o n f u s e d as to what we s h o u l d do. and place in the world are truly seen. Its wobbly gait and squashed s y m m e t r y m u m b l e endless h o m e y tales about the life it has seen. Chair Cut Out 2002 22'A x 23 in (565 x 585 mm) SARAH WOODFINE . Woodfine exhibits internationally. Van Gogh's tipsy seat is a metaphor for an absent person. has published several catalogs of her work. while the tabs make us see a flat paper cut-out. and winner of the 2004 Jerwood Drawing Prize. From component parts we understand how to put it together and make it stand sensible in space. and w h e r e the chair b e l o n g s . Drawn in more-or-less c o n v e n t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . A renegade from the p a p e r dolls' h o u s e . W i t h h o m e y c o n t r a s t . OBJECTS AND SARAH WOODFINE British contemporary artist graduate of the Royal Academy Schools. its character.
Cornfield and Sunflowers. Among van Gogh's best-known canvases are Trees. Van Chair 1890 VINCENT VAN GOGH .95 VINCENTVAN GOGH Dutch painter who produced over 800 paintings and 850 drawings in only the last ten year's of his life. inner recording while Fierce strokes This is a portrait of the mechanical drew immediately and almost harshly. and Starry Cypress Night. not is made present in only strokes and is subdued to distract us from flat a meaningful chair. The floor few as engagement with the chair. His passionate brush and pencil strokes are honest and of also turmoil and growing alarm at the world around him.hehas marked the full emotion of the subject with a fierce grip of concentration. drawn opposite way of plan. what direct in their he saw and describing his felt.
To interpret visual s t i m u l u s .At one point you will catchenoughlight lighter than the white one. but do not appear so. Card experiment cho can gra on . S o m e o n e passes our o p e n door. form. a n d m o v e m e n t . The egg's lightest region is seen against a darker background. one blackandone white. T h e slightest recognition is instantly matched to our wealth of experience a n d expectation. two identical mid-gray squares are seen against black and paler gray squares. U p s i d e . Before starting a tonal drawing of any subject. w e turn our head but n o one w a s there. transmitted to the brain as chains of electrical impulses. The perceived tone of a black white. a n d are q u i c k to p r o p o s e ideas. Are you happy LIGHT AND SHADOW with what you see? Does the light enhance the subject? Could you alter and improve it? On pp. atmosphere. From across the room both will appear black card and fold and retapeitwith half sticking out.This effect is caused by the contrast of their surroundings. Here. cards the same size. Gray squares To further examine changes in tone. W e learn to read light and shadow in our environment as indicators of solidity and depth of space. less developed than the center. gray. a n d our ability to see forms in c l o u d s or fire. are translated into a world of space. On acloudyday. Tape them to the glass. try this experiment. Adjust the angleofthe protruding part and again stepback. think about its illumination. Through these we can enjoy witnessing our o w n d e c e p t i o n a n d b a f f l e m e n t a n d u n d e r s t a n d certain factors that are very useful in picture-making. o u r b r a i n s search for n a m e a b l e things. the adjustment of our eyes (in growing accustomed to a level of light). We only need small prompts. The outermost edge of our vision. The rim of light on the egg is reflected light received from surrounding paper. The egg's darkest region is seen against a lighter background. See how its "edge" smoothly changes from light against dark to dark against light. your eye around the circumference of the egg. hence our recognition of a cartoon face c o m p o s e d of three lines.d o w n patterns of light on our retinas. We will even see things that d o not exist because minimal information suggests they are likely to be there. Run The bottom-left quarter of the egg lightens slightly toward its "edge" when seen against the darker shadow cast on the paper.96 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Light and Illusions SEEING IS MIRACULOUS. Below the bottom "edge" of the egg there is a rim of light reflected onto the paper by the underside of the egg. The small squares are identical in tone. and the proximity of contrasting tones. Artists emulate and manipulate this effect in their pictures. Below. We perceive one to be lighter than theother. Here w e look briefly at our perception of light a n d darkness a n d our interpretation of diagrammatic illusions. The two tones meet without a division or outline between. a lit photograph of an egg shows essential points to observe in tonal drawing. a n d we can be fooled. reads only m o v e m e n t a n d can often m a k e mistakes. Three factors change it: the amount of light it receives. or colored surface is never constant. perhaps.102-03 deep shadows cast across shells make their form easier to perceive.
Bending straight lines Linear distance These t w o jugs have b e e n d r a w n w i t h lines o f d i f f e r i n g thicknesses. start o u t w i t h one. O f t e ndoingso w i l l s p o i l y o u r w o r k . O b s e r v e h o w each white b a n d appears t h i c k e r t h a n its black c o u n t e r p a r t . respectively. T h e r e is n o obligation t o a d d b l o c k s o f t o n e t o a l i n e a r d r a w i n g . Apparent lengths T h e s e optical illusions s h o w h o w lines o f identical length can b e m a d e t o l o o k quite different f r o m each o t h e r by t h e addition o r association o f o t h e r lines. w h i l e t h i n n e r lines recede. S h o r t h o r i z o n t a l lines o f identical length are m a d e t o l o o k d i f f e r e n t by c o n v e r g i n g lines beside t h e m ( C ) . B o t h are identical in length. T h e jug d r a w n w i t h a t h i n line appears f a r t h e r away t h a n t h e j u g d r a w n w i t h a t h i c k e r line. b u t t h e u p r i g h t o n e l o o k s t a l l e r (B). by d i r e c t e d a r r o w s ( A ) . In a t o n a l d r a w i n g . t h i c k e r l i n e s a p p e a r t o stand forward. In this t o n a l image w e read w h i t e as f a t t e r t h a n black. Y o u m a y e x p e r i e n c e s o m e t h i n g similar h a p p e n i n g w h e n y o u m a k e s i n g l e . Seven parallel lines are m a d e t o tilt t o w a r d and away f r o m each o t h e r by n u m e r o u s s h o r t strokes crossing t h e m diagonally ( A ) . T w o horizontal lines o f equal length are m a d e t o l o o k longer and shorter. In this linear drawing w e read t h i c k as closer a n d t h i n as f a r t h e r away. T h i s fundamental o p p o s i t e is a reason w h y l i n e a r a n d t o n a l d r a w i n g does not a l w a y s c o m b i n e w e l l in t h e s a m e i m a g e . If y o u w i s h t o m a k e a t o n a l drawing. l i g h t e r surfaces s t a n d f o r w a r d w h i l e d a r k e r s u r f a c e s recede. A n u p r i g h t line stands in t h e c e n t e r o f a h o r i z o n t a l line. .97 LINE VERSUS TONE In l i n e a r d r a w i n g s .p o i n t p e r s p e c t i v e d r a w i n g s w i t h a large n u m b e r o f c o n v e r g i n g rays b e h i n d y o u r horizontals. T w o relatively t h i c k parallel lines are m a d e t o b e n d away f r o m each o t h e r as t h e y pass in f r o n t o f an a r r a y o f c o n v e r g i n g f i n e lines ( B ) . LIGHT AND ILLUSIONS Tonal width T h e s e black a n d w h i t e bands are o f equal thickness o n e i t h e r side o f t h e i r central division.
perfected the acceleration of perspective (see pp. Op(tical) artists. C l o s i n g t h e surface o f t h e f o r m seals o u r d e c i s i o n as t o w h i c h w a y it faces. such as Bridget Riley. as s h o w n o n t h e right. such as t h e dish seen h e r e o n t h e left. SEEING TWO OPTIONS Sometimes. their picture could be ambiguous. It is a curious fact that w e can never see both options at once. and we learn to read the styles of diverse cultures and periods. others adjust works to avoid their effects. Yet many illusions. w e will find that in terms of the direction it faces. w h e n drawing the outline o f a three-dimensional form.s i d e d r e c t a n g u l a r t r a y ( b o t h are illustrated far r i g h t ) "The brain is so eager to name a fragment we see that we need only a suggestion to grasp the whole.76. In the 1960's. made paintings that depended upon the physical sensation of our brain's reaction to known optical illusions. It is possible t o r e a d i t t w o ways: as a t r u n c a t e d r e c t a n g u l a r p y r a m i d seen d i r e c t l y f r o m a b o v e . including some shown here." .116-17) to make painted figures look correct when viewed from below. are still not agreeably understood. Ancient Greek architects knew parallel upright lines appeared to bend toward each other in the middle. Some artists use known optical illusions to make art. Artists make pictorial illusions when they paint or draw. w e can only look f r o m one t o the o t h e r If an artist is not aware this can happen in their image. it oscillates between t w o possibilities. Today we are bombarded with images but rarely have difficulty reading them.98 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Further Illusions PSYCHOLOGISTS AND PHYSIOLOGISTS have studied optical illusions for decades in pursuit of what they tell us about the brain. and so calculated precisely how much to fatten columns to make them appear straight. Michelangelo. o r as a s l o p i n g . it can oscillate b e t w e e n facing t o w a r d o r a w a y f r o m us. Two ways of seeing T h i s is t h e b o x c r e a t e d in t h e f o u r t h step o n p. among others. A few suggestive marks will tip the decision one way o r the o t h e r Closing the surface W h e n a t r a n s p a r e n t elliptical o b j e c t has b e e n d r a w n . Artists can communicate much in few lines and the viewer will do the rest of the work.
c e n t u r y Italian painters. this is a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f t h e viewer's b r a i n b e i n g willing t o d o a large a m o u n t o f t h e w o r k in d e c i p h e r i n g a p i c t u r e .99 Impossible objects T h e s e clever configurations o f outlines and t o n a l surfaces convince us at a glance that we are seeing a solid three-dimensional triangle and a three-pronged fork. C o u p l e d w i t h t h e Rorschach b l o t above. N e i t h e r triangle exists. O n l y o n closer inspection we realize that t h e s e o b j e c t s are fooling us. This effect can o c c u r naturally w h e n looking at a b r i g h t l y lit w h i t e g r i d such as a w i n d o w f r a m e against t h e night sky. S o m e artists use ink blots t o p r o m p t t h e beginning o f an image. T h e patient's answers are t h e n diagnosed as a psychological profile. w e see t w o overlapping triangles: o n e outlined in black b e n e a t h a n o t h e r in solid w h i t e . Minimal-line j o k e s such as this rely u p o n t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y v i e w e r ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e shapes. clouds. e t c . C Escher u s e d this phenomenon t o great effect in his many p o p u l a r d r a w i n g s o f puzzles and impossible buildings. .c e n t u r y Swiss psychologist H e r m a n n Rorschach. His highly d i s p u t e d and i m p r e c i s e science involves s h o w i n g u n p r e p a r e d p a t i e n t s t e n p a r t i c u l a r ink b l o t s a n d asking t h e m t o i n t e r p r e t w h a t t h e y see. C o u n t t h e n u m b e r o f d a r k spots y o u can see. W e should r e m e m b e r t h a t o u r brains will always search f o r a p i c t u r e — i n ink blots. T h e y a r e o f t e n c r e d i t e d w i t h t h e invention o f t h e c o m i c c a r t o o n . Yet still w e try resolve t h e m . T h e s e e x a m p l e s illustrate h o w little is n e e d e d t o c o n v e y an image. 1 6 t h . T h e t e s t e x p l o r e s o u r n o r m a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o find things w e can n a m e a m o n g r a n d o m shapes. — a n d so t h e artist can create m u c h o u t o f an impression w i t h o u t overdescribing. B e l o w is a b r i g h t n e s s c o n t r a s t illusion. b u t w e believe w e see t h e m because e n o u g h f r a g m e n t a r y i n f o r m a t i o n is given f o r o u r brains t o c o n c l u d e t h e y are v e r y likely t h e r e . M u c h can b e e x p r e s s e d in o n l y a f e w marks. F a m i l i a r i t y in r a n d o m s h a p e s T h e Rorschach test was established by t h e 1 9 t h . FURTHER ILLUSIONS Seeing things that are n o t t h e r e H e r e o n t h e left. T h e a r t i s t M. P e r c e i v i n g a w h o l e i m a g e f r o m m i n i m a l lines T h i s is a w i d e l y r e p r o d u c e d visual j o k e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e C a r r a c c i b r o t h e r s . This simple five-line d r a w i n g is o f a C a p u c h i n priest asleep in his pulpit. smoke.
w e use ellipses to give a sense of perspective. Don't worry if it is uneven— just try again. WHERE TO START In the air above a spacious sheet of scrap paper. not the paper!) As the pen touches down. Ellipse are best d r a w n quickly. spin your hand in a relaxed circle. However. Cover a sheet of paper with spinning. circles change into ellipses. Watch the tip of your pen and see it draw an ellipse in the air Keep this movement going while gently lowering the pen onto the paper like the needle of a record player closing on the disc (only it is your lowering hand that spins. keep it spinning. you will achieve steadiness with practice. as if the table surface slopes upward beneath the vessel. The second common error is to tilt the upper and lower ellipses at different angles. like a disposable plastic cup that has been crushed in your hand.90) takes a different as essentially circular. for example plates or bowls on a table. springlike forms like those I have drawn below. Cubism. I have drawn these for you here. while its upper rim remains level. (see p. The first common error is to draw two pointed ellipses. Be aware. How to Draw Ellipses of seeing. describing many sides of an object simultaneously. giving the cylinder four corners. there are three common errors people stumble upon. a n d in o n e bold stroke.100 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS W E VISUALIZE CYLINDRICAL VESSELS. though. and these narrow or widen depending on the height of our view. for example. COMMON ERRORS W h e n drawing cylindrical objects in perspective. since this is h o w w e experience them in e v e r y d a y use. A wobbling but confident ellipse will still be more convincing than a slow. . hesitant one that has edged its w a y nervously around the vessel's rim. suggesting that the vessel is lopsided. third common error is to draw upper and lover ellipses with different-sized apertures. To make a cylindrical object appear real in our pictorial space. that this is o n l y o n e w a y view. such as bowls and cups. even if y o u r hand w o b b l e s a little at first. I have exaggerated this error here. smoothly. w h e n seen at an angle.
you can start to control your spinning ellipse to make a vessel. Altering the pressure—and therefore tone—of the line as it spins gives the impression of light shining on one side. enlarging and diminishing the ellipse to determine the overall shape and volume. Seeing Through Allow lines to travel around each vessel as if it were transparent. . Draw quickly. HOW TO DRAW E L L I P S E S A Single Vessel One Inside Another Grouped Together Finding Shape and Volume Draw an imagined vessel in one continuous spinning line. thereby hiding lines that show the other sides.101 DRAWING VESSELS Once you have mastered drawing free-hand springs. Create a Solid Surface Once you have drawn the shape and volume of each form. working from top to bottom. you can make it solid by building up highlights and tones on visible surfaces.
if light shines in them. making complicated or subtle surfaces easier to see and understand. Relaxing your eyes out of focus as you draw will help to dissolve the distraction of detail. and solid objects are all of equal importance. Remember that shadows. OBJECTS AND Start by arranging a choice of shells on a sheet of paper to your left if you are right-handed (or vice versa). Gradually hone your drawing. You can begin with outlines and build slowly from light to dark (see opposite top). Draw the largest and most distinct areas of light and darkness first. or you can begin with a mid-gray ground and model light out of darkness (see opposite bottom). if any. t h e r e a r e p r i n c i p a l l y Dramatic lighting emphasizes texture and contour. It is important to place them on the correct side so as to draw comfortably (see pp. In the finished drawing there should be few.22-23). and strong contrasts are easier to draw. it will inhibit your perception of tone. Illuminate them with a gooseneck lamp placed very close and directed away from your eyes. two opposite methods of achieving the same result. simply shapes and subtleties of light and dark meeting each other with no divisions in between. LIGHT TO DARK DARK TO LIGHT . It maximizes the range of tones between black and white. outlines.102 INSTRUMENTS Tonality W H E N MAKING A TONAL DRAWING. leaving detail until last. beams of light.
2 3 Gentlydissolveoutlines so that areas oflightanddark meet without a line between them. Continue working between light and dark to refine the drawing. Relaxing your eyes out of focus will help to eliminate distracting details. pale lines with equal importance. . Erase and make changes to roughly place the shells inside your with your composition. Let your eyes go out of focus while looking gently layer marks to create an even tone at your subject and paper: Draw the most ofmid-graywithin a rectangle. look at the main areas of darkness. and edges definingthespacialrelationships between are important aspects of your composition them. DARK TO LIGHT (TONE TO TONE) 1 Using the flattened tip of an HB pencil. Use your pencil to develop these in relation to the areas of light. with broad sweeps of the eraser. shape. draw a rectangle. Use quick. Avoid a rough significant areas of light in your gray rectangle with texture and do not press the graphite hardwhite plastic eraser Ignore all detail and draw a into thepaperor you will not be able to erase it. boldly 2 3 Keeping your eyes out of focus. loose.56-57). Fll in broad areas first and leave all detail until last. until you are happy frame.103 LIGHT TO DARK (LINE TO TONE) TONALITY 1 Using a sharp HB pencil. Draw in the details last of all. Remember that its size. Honetheshapesand angles of the shells. Treat positive form and negative space (see pp.
our image is stronger if we understand and can visualize what is happening on the other side too. When drawing anything viewed from one side on paper. and on p. PEN LINES Once you have created your three-dimensional violin (opposite). There are essentially three lessons to be learned. continuous lines. 19 Picasso draws with a pen-light for the camera.220 Mamoru Abe draws with forged steel rods. The second is that after achieving this simple example. and on p. try drawing it with a pen on paper Use bold. The first is that figurative and abstract drawings can be made in space. On p. This class uses thin-gauge wire to create a threedimensional violin. 176 the British artists Noble and Webster draw with domestic refuse in a beam of light. Place the instrument on a plain surface and illuminate it with a desk lamp to add the delicate dimension of shadows.69 we see how the architect Antonio Gaudi drew proposed domes using suspended wires and weights. Third. On p. Seeing through a wire drawing of a known object such as a violin gives us a visual and tactile understanding of all its sides and shapes at once. smooth. They can also be made in space. you can create your own more ambitious works. and physical relationships between them. .104 OBJECTS AND I N S T R U M E N T S Drawing with Wire DRAWINGS DO NOT HAVE to be two-dimensional. three-dimensional drawings teach us about the totality of forms in space.
2 3 If needed. thin wire will make a smaller drawing. 1 Decide how big to draw your violin relative to the gauge of your wire. and thick wire a larger one. brace the two ends of the violin with a length of wire along the back. but thin enough to be easily manipulated inyourfingers Here. and pinch and bend it to shape the base of the instrument Repeat this process to make the identical upper side of the instrument.105 SETTING UP DRAWING WITH WIRE Follow these steps to draw a three-dimensional violin Choose a gauge of wire sturdy enough to hold the shape ofyourfinished drawing. Join the two sides together with four short pieces of wire. Then begin to define its uppermost surface with Scurves and the bridge. These will hold the sides apart and help to keep the form in shape. I used garden wire and cut it carefully with pruners. Here. I started with the scroll at the top and fixed the four component wires with two drawings of tuning pegs. Cut a length. 4 . begin to shape the curvature of the fingerboard. Once you have completed the body.
they invented new anthropological finds—objects that reflected the distant past and their immediate future. some of which are shown here. Oxford. England.Artifacts and Fictions IN 1993 I WORKED with a group of schoolchildren who were responding to the astonishing objects in the collection of the Pitt Rivers Museum. I had the privilege of drawing their inventions. Using found materials. .
Williams were decades ahead of their medical counterparts. diseased. much Western contemporary art. The human body. myths and fables. but the study of a controlled. the Bay Area Models' Guild h o l d s a quarterly life-drawing m a r a t h o n aprinton Kodak transfer paper with green-colored dye added celebrating the great diversity of human proportion. 3 x 7 in (300 x 180 . portraiture. in our privileged and comfortable society. It gives physical and emotive form to religious narratives. explaining ranges e/ of materials and techniques and showing diversities of thought and purpose in making. from video and X-ray to thermal imaging. and in San could easily be transferred into three dimensions. WILLIAMS he sought perfection in the infinitesimal measurement of the body and produced four Contemporary photographer volumes of illustrated explanation. Look closely at Renaissance drawings of the female b o d y and you will see that m o s t are actually y o u n g m e n with minor adjustments. This F finished image was produced as r a n c i s c o . It also looks at the representation of the b o d y b11y4o n d traditional life drawing. The body remains at the core of over the initially white lines. In this period. and surgically rebuilt. artists also tried to define ideal proportions in the body. W e understand every curve and balance of to the theory that the eves are the windows of the soul. These classes are popular around the world. Drawings were usually made from the male nude to avoid offending the church. the junior workshop apprentices posed as part of their duties. This chapter addresses issues that are most commonly faced by beginners attending life-drawing classes. a n d w e d r a w o u r s e l v e s to a s s e r t o u r e x i s t e n c e . sculptural description of her form. and because the female was deemed inferior. Strangely. is the most c o m m o n subject in art. R. Artists now explore the interior of the body with new media and Lateral Contour Map of a Full-Term Primipara Produced by Light 1979 A. and anatomical and erotic art. history paintings and other stories. while Leonardo opened the body to see and projected onto a woman's body draw the celebratory discover for himself our physical mechanisms. herimpressive presence because we are given such Life drawing no longer dominates the art school curriculum. During this time. focus has turned to the vulnerability of flesh: how it can be damaged.The Body O UR BODIES MAKE us TANGIBLE. while Durer took his research further— A. R. Leonardo drew a man within a circle and square. W e are the only creatures on Earth that can make our own image. giving physical foundation undulating land. Renaissance artists studying anatomy from dissection clinically trained and specialized as a medical illustrator. She the body is still essential. Michelangelo attended dissections to made this image by light sectioning: fine beams of light perfect his understanding of surface form. W I L L I A M S technology. Artists are thought to have b e g u n drawing from the nude during the Italian Renaissance. He even believed he had located the soul contours of her form like a cartographer's map of in the pituitary fossa beneath the brain and behind the eyes. clothed or nude.
we see the e s s e n c e of h e r b e a u t y w i t h o u t a single detail. Here three male nudes are compressed into very shallow pictorial space. By way of contrast. Raphael drew delicate tones of black chalk on tinted paper. He trained under Perugino. and human defeat. and Vatican frescos. so that we read this drawing like a sculptural frieze. filling the page with her presence. Muscular dramatic postures reflect the influence of Michelangelo and the Renaissance celebration of the idealized male body. anatomy. while Matisse used scissors and glue to cut out and paste a flat collage of brilliant color. She u n f o l d s and s t r e t c h e s shapely limbs.116-17). But the meanings of each gesture and the materials and methods by which they Postures and Poses were m a d e contrast greatly. Sculptural frieze This is a preparatory drawing for Raphael's painting of the Resurrection of Christ. In a single drawing we see equally o b s e r v e d studies of f o r e s h o r t e n i n g (see pp. Three Guards 1500-20 91/4 x143/8in (234 x 365 mm) RAPHAEL . Matisse's b l u e n u d e sings with life and c e l e b r a t i o n . Principal figures m i r r o r e a c h other. RAFFAELLO SANZIO (RAPHAEL) Italian High Renaissance painter: Raphael is best known for his images of the Madonna and Child. while supporting the weight of their body with the other. Raphael's study of fallen m e n leaves no doubt that they are in anguish. In this highly s o p h i s t i c a t e d a b s t r a c t i o n . and studied to learn from the works of Michelangelo and Leonardo besides whom he was soon ranked. altar pieces.110 T H E BODY THESE DISTINCTIVE WORKS show two strikingly different ways of modeling the body on paper. T h e y b o t h raise one arm to cup their head in their hand.
111 HENRY MATISSE French painter: draftsman.which might be. freer. His calligraphic natural abstractions of form grew brighter. Matisse became an artist after studying law. and Islamic art. a mental soother.like an appeasing influence.. fabric.. printmaker. and more energetic Color and form This collage is one of a series of Blue Nudes. lifelong love of brilliant They celebrate the culmination of spectacular and sometimes drawings. Matisse Soothing influence This drawing expresses the achievement of Matisse's personal aim: "What I dream and depressing subject matter. teacher and principal exponent o f Fauvism—a movement established in 1905 in which bold color is the most essential element.sculptor. foundamong many other groups of papercut these works as an elderly man confined to his bed or wheelchair. his pattern. as his w o r k matured. serenity.." of is an art of balance.designer writer... devoid of troubling Blue Nude 1 1952 413/4 HENRY MATISSE .or like a good armchair in which to rest from physical fatigue..
w h o sits propped in the contradictory darkness of a hot summer's day. and color His applied theories still influence painters in their manipulation and rendering of local. Seurat engaged in lifelong studies of line. Tone and light In this black conte drawing. like small birds attendant on the meditation. Opposite. 162) and an eraser to model teeming points of artificial light amid GEORGES SEURAT French painter classically educated in the Ingres school of thought. and c o m p l e m e n t a r y hues. other tones. Beuys's magician.112 T H E BODY Choreographs T I M E IS A SIGNIFICANT E L E M E N T i n t h e m a k i n g o f a l l d r a w i n g s . only tones blending into. form. In his f a m o u s paintings of social e n g a g e m e n t . reflected. velvet d a r k n e s s . Light is given by the paper alone. Typically. it is as if the very atoms of air are made visible. there are no outlines. Using the paper to create light is important for beginners to learn. stands in counterpoise holding a dark globe and his thoughts in m o m e n t a r y balance. in a perfect e x a m p l e . Seurat evolved a distinctive t e c h n i q u e called p o i n t i l l i s m — i m a g e s literally made from myriad points of color. and muddied the brilliance of the drawing. it would have mixed with unseen black dust. agreeing to coalesce and show us the form of a waiting boy. we c o m p a r e a skillful design that absorbed m u c h time in its making with the quickness of an idea marked instantly. or abruptly meeting. turned gray. T h e space around h i m chatters with symbols. Here. Below. he used b l a c k c o n t e (see p. If Seurat had added white. scratched in seconds. His drawings are similarly u n i q u e . Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 1883-84 91/2 x 121/4 in (241 x 312 m m GEORGES SEURAT .
CHOREOGRAPHS the profound power materials with spiritual or of Free lines This pale pencil drawing is Beuys. He was a shaman who believed in intuition and in the investment of healing force. This figure is drawn intuitively. and drawings. Many of his other symbolic works on paper have been drawn with materials such as honey. His The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland UNDATED 113/4 J O S E P H BEUYS x81/4in (297 x 210 mm) . Perfectly modeled rather conventional for Joseph Focus Beuys's hand moved quickly to draw dotted lines flowing downward on either side of the figure.113 JOSEPH BEUYS One of the most influential German artists of the 20th century. Our focus joins shoulders. and made installations. in different positions. and that These aspects of the work convey fractured visibility. taught workshops with a cult following. video art. free from the constraint of immaculate form opposite) impetus is irrelevant to the and meaning of this work (as we see in Seurat's drawing representation. transience. and blood.gold. Beuys gave performances. Unbroken lines stream from his simultaneously movement. iodine.
Achieving international acclaim in mid-life. and one of hundreds of rapid studies of nudes. Inspired by Michelangelo. But what is stranger to us now is that they were also outraged by his free use of line. 125/8x 9 in (320 x 229 mm) AUGUSTE RODIN Two Women 1911 Embracing . In both drawings. the fierceness of the women's kiss is beautifully matched by the tenderness of his line. As here. Rodin produced portraits and statues of public and literary figures.114 BODY Passion SUMMONING HUMANITY in a drawing of the nude is a subtle and emotional task. Our bodies radiate the passion of our thoughts and so become beacons of our frailty and power. Rodin employed models to move freely or pose together in his studio. His exquisite flow of paint beyond "outlines." as seen here. its soft. and went on to inspire generations of artists. he typically drew them with a few delicate strokes of pencil and brushed watercolor. They whisper and writhe in a brushed and sultry embrace that devours our watching. We are involved not as a shabby voyeur but as a bystander engaged through our recognition of shared joy. Opposite. We are asked to gaze u p o n her flesh. Free lines Rodin's public audience was understandably shocked by the eroticism of his drawings. Paris. sweeping lines— of either purple silk fabric or cool studio air—that imprint and amplify their past and future movements. his w o r k is characterized by deliberate un-finish and powerfully modeled emotion. Anita Taylor has drawn her protective body hug out of the darkly glistening compression of willow charcoal and the dynamism of her shy but momentous femininity.000 drawings shown in rotation at the Musee Rodin. the women are framed and caressed by long. Delicate strokes This is one of about 7. In Rodins work. THE AUGUSTE RODIN French Romantic sculptor and prolific draftsman employed as an ornamental mason until the age of 42. was perceived as scandalous. flushed skin made ruddy and black with crushed cinders.
Taylor's immense self-portraits explore the relationship between the artist as maker and the artist as model. A thinner sheet might have crumpled and torn under such vigorous force of making. exposure. Taylor has drawn. and gaze. erased and drawn again. London. the impression of luminosity All and Nothing 1999 67 x447/8in (170 x 1 1 4 cm) ANITA TAYLOR . This order of light below and dark above gives glowing from within. intimately reflecting upon the emotions and meaning of nudity.I 15 ANITA T A Y L O R Painter. professor and Vice Principal of Wimbledon School of Art. Charcoal Taylor has drawn freely with charcoal and an eraser on thick. draftsman. and rework rich depths of light and tone. leaving her lightest marks at the deepest level of the image and applying darker marks above. Luminosity Layered marks flicker likefirelight as they sculpt the woman's body. The sturdy surface of the sheet has allowed her to press hard when needed. scrutiny. textured paper.
Up close on the scaffold we would witness Michelangelo's subtle application of accelerated perspective. elongated as if stretched across the plaster. or coming forward. If your arm is not straight. persistence. How to make and apply these is explained below and opposite. There is no need to mark them all down on paper. and wrist joints. to be translated by mirrors or seen from only one point in the room. Align the top with a point on your subject. We also look at another very interesting branch called accelerated (or anamorphic) perspective. we would arrive to find many of the same figures strangely distorted. more extreme examples have been made for court entertainment. and measurements do not have to be carried to the paper and slavishly drawn the same size they appear on your pencil. MEASURING This is a simple method of making measured comparisons for relating the true size of one part to another This is a tool to assist observation and thinking. Spend time making comparisons before you draw. or shrivelling at odd. just making them helps you see. This is chiefly a correcting device by which figurative painters and sculptors have for centuries countered the effects of our viewing their work from far below or on the curvature of a vault. you will make inconsistent and unrelated comparisons. Move the tip of your thumb down to a second chosen point. But if we could take a scaffold and climb up to the work.limbs happily receding. "Simple measured comparisons reveal surprising truths about proportion." . The length of exposed pencil is your measurement. In the life class it is the mechanism for ensuring that a drawn figure lies correctly in pictorial space . To avoid its effects ensure you always look flat onto the surface of your page. without taking off. plummeting. It is not complicated. London).116 T H E BODY Measurement and Foreshortening FORESHORTENING IS AN ASPECT of perspective. patience. unfathomable angles. the skull in Holbein's The Ambassadors (The National Gallery. for example. and to draw what we see. 3 Keep your pencil perpendicular Measure and compare at any angle. Accelerated perspective plays a great role in much art. Rome. Close one eye. helping us to see more clearly. which is imperceptible from below. and a few measured comparisons are key. when beginners prop their board in their lap and look down at too steep an angle. It can also be a little demon in the life room. Imagine Michelangelo's murals in the Sistine Chapel. 1 Hold your arm straight. It is not so hard. with dramatic illusions of figures painted in normal proportion. 2 Hold your pencil upright. rather that what we believe we know from experience. Smaller. Return to this posture every time. Lock your shoulder. elbow.
L o o k at y o u r m o d e l as if he o r she is a flat series o f shapes o n e o n t o p o f a n o t h e r Measure t h e height and w i d t h o f each shape and c o m p a r e it t o its neighbor. . Keep t h e b o a r d steady and draw. See h o w d i f f e r e n t t h e relative heights o f t h e s e shapes are f r o m w h a t w e m i g h t e x p e c t in real life. S o o n t h e b o d y will lie d o w n in space. P r o p o r t i o n s will only l o o k c o r r e c t f r o m t h e angle at w h i c h y o u make t h e drawing. h e r p r o p o r t i o n s will appear correct. W e appear t o be looking d o w n o n a w o m a n s t a n d i n g b e n e a t h us. adjusting a n o n y m o u s shapes. y o u must let go o f w h a t y o u k n o w f r o m e x p e r i e n c e a b o u t t h e relative sizes o f b o d y parts and trust y o u r eyes.117 ACCELERATED PERSPECTIVE To discover h o w this w o r k s . belly. C o m p a r e t h e heights o f t h e nose and eye shapes t o t h o s e o f t h e f o r e a r m . t a p e s o m e p a p e r t o a board. To m a k e f o r m s l o o k c o r r e c t . y o u r hand travels f a r t h e r than y o u expect. Lean t h e t o p e d g e t o w a r d y o u and find a p o s i t i o n w h e r e y o u can c o m f o r t a b l y l o o k d o w n t h e p a p e r at an angle o f a b o u t 4 0 degrees. a n d thighs. T h i s is t h e s a m e d r a w i n g p h o t o g r a p h e d f r o m above. Stand its b o t t o m edge o n y o u r lap. W o r k a r o u n d t h e figure. MEASUREMENT AND FORESHORTENING Tilt t h e t o p edge o f this b o o k t o w a r d you and look d o w n o n this figure f r o m a b o v e . pleasingly f o r e s h o r t e n e d . A t a c e r t a i n angle. looking d o w n t h e p a p e r at t h e a n g l e at w h i c h I d r e w . FORESHORTENING To f o r e s h o r t e n a figure. which feels strange.
propelling you to make immediate assessments and trust them. and slightly enlarge her legs and feet. THE SEQUENCE OF POSES H e r e the model was asked to move every t w o minutes. and stance before honing her balance and expression. because it results in two unrelated sides drifting apart. feeling. I used a sharp H B pencil and began each drawing by marking her outline. T h i s q u i c k e x p l o r a t o r y line does not perfectly describe shape but expresses a decision about overall flow of form. . Leave first thoughts in place. To see this. height. imagine holding up a plumb line. her center of balance is normally found in a vertical line beneath her head. and height. Layered lines give d e p t h . Avoid drawing up one side and down the other. balance. To draw this effect. working from her center to her feet and to her head. and energy. Start each new drawing by lightly marking the model's height with a loose line in ten seconds. Outline To outline a figure. and work over t h e m with further o b s e r v a t i o n s .118 BODY Quick Poses DRAWING QUICK POSES l o c k s y o u r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n t o what is most essential. Balance When a model stands upright on both feet. make the upper body smaller give your model a high waist. work back and forth across the body. Be bold and dive into your drawing with c o n f i d e n c e . Height This pose leans away into space above our eye level.
and this should be avoided Twist QUICK POSES A model standing on one leg usually drops the opposite hip. This drawing shows how different observations be overlaid to bring a drawing alive. The tilt of the pelvis is then counter balanced by the model's shoulders tilting the other way (as seen here).119 The twist of a model is most easily and expressively captured if it is exaggerated. Tilt Movement Here. Most of us have a tendency to over-straighten the drawn figure. . the activity of circular lines and the repetition of limbs suggest movement.
starting with the largest. Group the fingers together as one mass. feet. Practice by drawing your own hands and feet. it is important to leave aside all details of the fingers and toes. Do not separate them yet. These planes. 3 . and a gooseneck lamp casts shadows that clarify planes and depths GESTURES OF THE HAND Curled Fingers 1 Open Palm Start honing the shapes of the dominant planes. Keep lines open to change and take measurements if they help. especially the lengthwise divisions between them. express structure and gesture far more successfully and easily than ten worried outlines wandering up and down between the fingers and toes. general to specific. swiftly marking its essential gesture. Draw large shapes and their orientation. A mirror increases your range of views.120 BODY Hands and Feet THERE ARE MANY different ways of approaching h a n d s and THE of form. or those of a friend. but regard these practice studies as ongoing processes of thought and observatio Add details such as nails last if you wish. and ignore all details. Focus instead on how planes change direction across the knuckles from one side of the hand or foot to the other. 2 Build your drawing gradually from light to dark. It also helps the beginner to progress from drawing outlines to drawing confidently across the surface of the whole form. Then subdivide each shape so that you w o r k from large to small. drawn in relation to each other. Begin by drawing lines to encompass the whole hand. and they need not be daunting to draw. Don't worry about achieving perfect solutions. W h e n starting. This exercise is useful when struggling with proportion.
2 3 Use an eraser t o refine decisions o r t o suggest areas o f light. loose. . however. depth.as though out o f wood. Try t o express the whole foot and t o encapsulate its entire shape and direction in a few marks. as if with a chisel. and rapid. Leave aside all detail. t o remove t o o many early lines. It can be a mistake. Hew it roughly in broad. and don't worry about accuracy t o begin with. and spontaneity. these are what give a drawing its tangible structure.121 HANDS AND FEET MOVEMENTS OF THE FOOT Flat Stance Raised Heel Instep 1 Let your first marks be light. flattened planes. Look for key angles without becoming distracted by detail. Nowimagineyou are carving the foot insidethepaper.
Charcoal Hands T H E S E DRAWINGS ARE MADE in compressed charcoal." . The white lines demonstrate what is often called "bracelet shading.204-05. Compare its nature in close-up to that of willow charcoal used on pp. I also used white ink with a steel dip pen. Opposite.
HERE TRACES OF RAPID initial lines are still seen within and outside each body. I make these lines in the first five to ten seconds of a drawing to locate the presence. and posture of the model. 118-19). length. Phrasing Contours . before honing his or her shape (see pp.
Forms. and narrative pulse become vivid when you realize them in the middle of your study. feeling them through the attentive movements of your own hand. It is now viewed with some skepticism and often seen as academic. perspectives. characters. Drawing work by another artist enables you to discover and understand the inventive hand in their composition. .The Visual Detective DRAWING FROM MASTERWORKS was once a staple component of an artist's education. I draw in museums in support of written research and as an artist seeking answers to questions about the practicalities of image making.
there is a unique museum of 18th-century anatomical waxes. These almost life-size figures were composed from my imagination and achieved with the help af studies discussed on pp.La Specola At17V i a Romana. Florence. Life-size women wearing wigs recline on beds of embroidered silk in cabinets of mahogany and Venetian glass This is a detail of a compressed charcoal drawing measuring 14 x 10 ft (4.3 x 3 m) made in response to La Specola. 126-27. Walls are lined with hundreds of faintly animated body parts. . each modeled from dissection.
and in a few scrolling rafts of pen lines and stubbled dots. Goya. Rembrandt's famous multitude of self-portraits. and expression of the individual. This enlargement o f his miniature p o r t r a i treveals t h e s p e e d and agility o f his p e n and about himself. For centuries. who. usually strangers from past times. We are also reassured by keeping records of ourselves. character. 1790-92 4 x 3 in ( 1 0 2 x 7 6 m m ) F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A and memorize the basic structure that we all share. having been documented and preserved. compliant subject to scrutinize. and their posture can be changed with just one line. and satirical or metaphorical. painters have dropped discreet records of themselves into commissioned narratives so that they can remain a face in the crowd. Movie director Alfred similarly signed his films by playing a fleeting role: he walks through an extra. Portraits can be highly or loosely detailed. and secular narratives. you can capture the subtlety. or past us. single or of groups. live. Our homes are filled with images of our loved ones and of those in our families who have gone before. his changes in pressure and Hitchcock length o f line. a single line can deliver an entire expression. in a miniature self-portrait magnified opposite. Self-portraiture gives every artist a constant. . or a glimpse of him is caught in a photograph used as a prop. abstract or figurative. and it is very rewarding. draftsman. Man Ray's self-portrait of scored lines. The truth is that we all like looking at faces and observing the billions of variations that make us individuals. and p r i n t m a k e r . we use the delicate medium of silver point to look at foundation structures of the head. Equally. is here to both meet and look through us. bells. The returning image was of crucial consideration in any proposal. and social and political commentaries. their stance. became more poignant as he progressed. Beginners often draw themselves as a way of establishing their practice. the meaning of their face. Halls and palaces are filled with pictures of the mighty and significant. or whose eyes can seem to follow us around the room Portraiture is a constant. W h e n drawing a person.139). We can mold and animate qualities of expression out of objects and fragments of disassociated things—for example. throat. and lucrative genre for artists. made as he passed through the ages of man. gathered all that he knew FRANCISCO DE GOYA V i s i o n a r y Spanish painter. religious. neck. In this chapter. Past rulers sent painters across continents to bring back a likeness in advance of a prospective royal marriage. historical. To create a face is to see and interpret the essence of an identity. buttons. look directly at us. It also reminds us o f b o t h t h e intimacy and a scene as scrutiny o f an honest portrait. and a handprint (see p.Portraiture IN P O R T R A I T U R E W E MEET PEOPLE. Once you understand Self-Portrait in a Cocked Hat c. and shoulders. Goya's w o r k s include many royal and society p o r t r a i t s .
whisking a timeless girl onto the page. hand to capture something well in only Frangoise au Bandeau 1946 660 x 505 mm (26 x197/8in) PABLO PICASSO . We can actually count that he struck the paper 40 times. Her face is drawn tenderly and with a luminous glow. It is the portrait of a countrywoman. caught in her last moments of youth. and pressure as it conducts our eye through the image.30). It takes a truly accomplished a few strokes. He makes his flair and skill look easy. breadth. they serve as a great lesson that it is not always necessary to add tone to your drawing. Picasso has left to posterity many hundreds of magnificent line drawings. PABLO PICASSO Spanish Cubist painter (see also p. Without faltering. one eye already cast askew into the autumn of her life.132 PORTRAITURE Poise THE BALANCE BETWEEN a mark and a blank space is often a tantalizing form of perfection. stealthily using his chalk to find contours and mass. The aesthetic sense of a line being just right can make a drawing sing. we can enjoy and learn from them. teetering on the brink of older age. Holbein maps the still landscape of Dorothea's body in questioning marks. length. Here the grace and beauty of two young women are held forever. There is a common misunderstanding that a drawing with only a few lines is both less finished and easier to make than a drawing with more. How could the addition of shadows have enhanced this image? Few strokes The simplicity of Picasso's line is breathtaking. Through exhibitions and copies in books. The truth is often the opposite. We can read so much about them by studying their gaze. While with longer consideration. Picasso strikes and scrolls his pencil. adding smudges of tone for weight and solidity. The Tightness of a line is felt in its speed. For the beginner.
Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 1516 51/8 x121/4in (385 x 310 m m ) HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER . which. and its downward slope crowns the diagonal of the composition.133 HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER German p o r t r a i t painter draftsman. gently flushed. He outlined her nose but not her upper lip. Her folded forearms support and frame her weight above. Holbein unified the woman with her background by gently blending colors from her clothes and face into the atmosphere around her. and designer f r o m Basel. In addition t o his numerous exquisite portraits in oil. presses against the binding across her face. and produced numerous society portraits such as this one here. made a popular series o f w o o d c u t prints titled The Dance of Death. Holbein has cropped and pinned his subject within the four outermost lines of the image—the edges of the page. Holbein was employed toward the end of his life by King Henry VIII of England. Cropping This regal composition fits its paper perfectly. Blended colors In this portrait drawn with colored chalks on slightly textured paper. The peak of her cap clips the uppermost edge. he designed c o u r t costumes.
the face is one of the hardest parts to dissect.134 PORTRAITURE Anatomies These highly finished drawings express the emotional power and physicality of the head and neck. Delicate muscles are integrated with the skin and fat that is to be r e m o v e d . The style of Durelli's d r a w i n g opposite sings with the confidence of truth and precision. Durelli has m a d e a few m i n o r mistakes. taught at numerous British art schools from 1962-77. Psychological drama is contained behind a grid. dark tones of graphite blended into the paper. dark lines made with a pencil appear against smooth. Contrasts Sharp. and unpleasant to see. N e w s o m e ' s eerily shadowed form is smooth and bears a linear grain evocative of w o o d . distorted. Newsome was awarded the Prix de Rome in 1960. continues to exhibit regularly. In fact. This is one of a number of similar disembodied female heads seen behind. The real dissection w o u l d have been far more c o m p l e x . using a fine and relatively 1982 13 x 181/8 in (328 x 460 mm) VICTOR NEWSOME brush. Anatomically. blood vessels. It floats in space. . This is a m a r v e l o u s interpretation of the truth. confusing. perhaps applied using a tortillon. London. VICTOR NEWSOME British sculptor painter and draftsman. the contours of a grid. Nerves. while white painted flecks and wisps suggest electrical illumination. but they are irrelevant here. or defined by. Highlights of white gouache were dry Profile Head late in the making. solid above and almost hollow below. and glands also complicate form. its highly clarified detail claiming to be d r a w n from observation. and has works in major collections including the Tate Gallery.
135 ANATOMIES ANTONIO DURELLI Linear perfection This is a red chalk drawing of extraordinary accomplishment. and it is likely that this drawing was intended for reproduction as a print. Stylized parallel lines are reminiscent of engravings. It is hard to think of a more difficult medium with which to achieve such linear perfection. Pencil numbers refer to the list of muscles written beneath. pull their points o f attachment t o w a r d each other . Durelli's experience as an engraver is reflected in his stylized drawing o f muscle fibers. which. w h e n contracted. Red Chalk the Muscles 1837 173/8 x 145/8 in ( 4 4 0 x 3 7 2 m m ) ANTONIO DURELLI and Pencil Drawing and of Neck of the Head Little is k n o w n o f this M i l a n e s e p a i n t e r a n d engraver w h o c a m e from a family o f artists.
Speed Giacometti probably began with an oval shape placed in relation to the proportion of the page. Opposite. cutting and carving the paper with matted and spiraling restless energy. Bellini gently conjures the features of his saint with soft marks that tease his presence out of shadows into the light. 1948 77/8 x 6 in (200 x 150 mm) ALBERTO GIACOMETTI .136 PORTRAITURE THESE ARE DRAWINGS of shoulders. Giacometti settled in Paris. each portrait is inscribed onto the page. The camera watches him at work. Portrait de Marie-Laure de Noailles c. which are characteristically elongated. necks. as if seen from a distance. He is best known for his bronze sculptures of human form. They show us clearly the bones of drawing. each locked into a visionary gaze. We are brought intimately close to this man gazing up to heaven. Then. Agitated marks make patches of tone that cut away the space around the character. Energy This is a portrait of a woman drawn with black crayon on a plain page of a book Lines search for the essence of form. ALBERTO GIACOMETTI Swiss sculptor. and poet After studying in Geneva and Italy. and heads. Flesh is built and personality carved simultaneously. while his hand stabs and thrusts Revelations like a conductors baton. he drew over the whole image at once. close enough to touch his hair and feel his breath. with speed and urgency. There is a film of Giacometti drawing. painter draftsman. They confuse our perception of scale by being intimately fragile and at the same time far removed. and with staccato flinches his hyperactive eye moves from paper to model. Similar movements sculpted the head below into its page. Without paint and with very little tone. Both works demonstrate how simple lines can be made complex by being intense.
5 9 ) . Transfer This delicate humorous chalk a drawing is a cartoon—not image but a type of template used to plan the composition of a larger work Look closely and you will see rows of tiny dots along every significant line in the picture. H e p r e f e r r e d religious t o classical t h e m e s . Sometimes different narrative same character was reused in compositions.25 6 . Mantegna. a n d b r o t h e r in-law. transferring which were made in the process of the saint to his final place in the composition of a painting (see Glossary pp. Bellini s t u d i e d u n d e r his f a t h e r J a c o p o . a n d his w o r k is d i s t i n c t i v e l y calm. a n d c o n t e m p l a t i v e . H e t a u g h t G i o r g i o n e Barbarelli and Titian. lyrical. Character This is one of many cartoons produced by Bellini the and his family. These are pinholes. Head and Shoulders of a Man 73/8 x 21/4 in ( 1 8 6 x 5 8 UNDATED GIOVANNI BELLINI .G I O V A N N I BELLINI A prominent member of a large family o f V e n e t i a n painters.
bells. Self Portrait 1982 9 4 x 7 6 in (239 x 193 cm) JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT .221). JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT Short-lived American painter and graffiti artist who began his blazing nine-year career drawing on lower Manhattan subway trains with a friend. The artist has finished his portrait with the signature of his hand smacked in the middle like a kiss: a declaration of existence as old as man's first drawing. and everything flux. Al Diaz. Islands of graphic marks. and confrontations with. It is an opportunity to look deep without the infringement of courtesies owed to a commissioning sitter. It is an image of confrontation—the ever-controversial young artist roars at us from his abstract city-scape. drawn. The incandescent New York painter Jean Michel Basquiat pictured himself here in naked silhouette. postcards. The figure's position is unequivocal and defiant while around him is in a state Without the essential of cultural and figure we would elegant belookingat a sophisticated painting of signs. In 1986 he traveled to Africa and showed his work in Abidjan on the Ivory Coast He also exhibited in Germany and France. spear-brandishing warrior. marks. scratched into its surface. scratched lines. and indulgence. It has proved to be a subject of piercing scrutiny. political outcry. Signs and symbols with symbols This painting shudders that ore written. made with great energy.138 PORTRAITURE THE MIRROR OF SELF-PORTRAITURE offers artists infinite reflections of. skull- Self-Portraits headed. signing their work SAMO. a tribal. and buttons rings with surrealist wit and agile improvisation. and attitudes. Man Ray's playful silk-screen assembly of color blocks. similar to work by Cy Twombly (see p. their most immediate and best-known subject: themselves. and sheet metal before being snapped up by the New York contemporary art scene. float and shimmer in the shallow pictorial space. Later Basquiat sold drawings on T-shirts. humor. scrolls.
caked in thick printing ink or paint. Man Ray probably used his own hand. Frame White lines are seemingly (though not actually) scratched through ink to frame this face. Autoportrait 1916 195/8 MAN RAY . During the 1920's and 30s. last of all. The handprint appears to be made directly. Black ink was printed next and then white. The first part of the stenciled image was already marked on the silk The screen and paper were then held tightly together. They suggest speed and make the picture look immediate and spontaneous. Man Ray lived and worked in Paris. printmaker and cofounder of the New York Dada movement.139 MAN RAY American surrealist photographer. They experimented with camera-free photography working directly onto photographic paper Silk and ink This is a silkscreen print made through the following process: the paper was laid on a flat surface and a frame stretched with fine silk was placed on top. while a squeegee was used to drag thick lilac-brown ink across the silk pushing it though exposed areas onto the paper below. painter. where he collaborated with the artist Laslo MoholyNagy.
140 PORTRAITURE Silver P o i n t SILVER OR METAL POINT STRETCHING PAPER A sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has been made w e t with the strokes o f a paintbrush will buckle d u e t o its uneven expansion. The most c o m m o n metal has always been silver—hence the term "silver point.s t r i p a n d use i t t o fix o n e side o f t h e p a p e r t o t h e b o a r d . I m a k e m y o w n f r o m o l d dip pens.54) can also b e used. Find a n i t e m t h a t y o u can h o l d a n d draw with comfortably. purchase silver wire. key. M a k e s u r e i t is c o m p l e t e l y clean t o avoid u n w a n t e d streaks. For i m p o r t a n t a d v i c e o n p r e p a r a t i o n a n d use. bone. Be swift and firm. 2. and t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h strips a b o v e and b e l o w . SILVER W I R E : Purchase different gauge lengths f r o m a traditional a r t supplier o r jeweler. S i l v e r is b e s t . I t is a v a i l a b l e f r o m all a r t s h o p s . Take a sheet o f any t y p e o f p a p e r (for e x a m p l e .Tear o f f f o u r lengths o f b r o w n p a p e r g u m tape. T h e p a p e r will l o o k b u c k l e d . and is therefore useful w h e n using w a t e r c o l o r as well as silver point. it leaves a deposit. 5. b u t d o n ' t w o r r y . b e f o r e priming stretched paper. c h o o s e a s o f t full b r u s h t h a t c a n c a r r y p l e n t y o f l i q u i d . or wood. and alloys work on matt emulsion. I combined silver point with painted white gouache on a pink ground. artists mixed white lead. 1 4 4 . s e e p . S O F T F U L L B R U S H : W h e n laying a w a s h . Gesso o r m a t t e m u l s i o n c a n a l s o b e u s e d . 3 . Opposite. and make o r buy a holder. laid on paper. you will need t o stretch paper and lay a wash (see right and opposite). w h i t e d r a w i n g paper) and cut it t o fit y o u r d r a w i n g b o a r d w i t h a generous b o r d e r a r o u n d its edges. Pages 142 to 147 are illustrated in silver point and techniques are explained on pp. an exciting indication of how large-scale drawings could be made on a wall. Lightly s p o n g e o f f t h e excess. platinum. Numerous early European artists also enjoyed its fine qualities (see p. W e t o n e length o f g u m . To begin. Straighten the w o r s t buckles. MATERIALS 1 Find a clean sponge and b o w l o r d e e p t r a y a n d fill it w i t h w a t e r W e t t h e p a p e r evenly in t h e t r a y o r o n t h e b o a r d . p a r c h m e n t . Historically. 2 . 156). was familiar to or eggshells with animal glue." Lead. who used it to outline initials and border characters before painting. illuminators of medieval m a n u s c r i p t s . This is called a three-tone drawing. Metal point is simply a strip of metal bound in a holder. and gold have also been used. Metal point does not work on ordinary paper. choose a silver object. Drawn across a prepared surface. s o m e m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n o t h e r s . SILVER P O I N T W I R E H O L D E R : T h e s e c a n b e p u r c h a s e d a n d t e n d t o b e heavy. Note h o w domestic paintwork marks with a coin. the surface must be primed with a ground such as gouache. E m p t y mechanical pencils designed f o r t h i c k leads ( s e e p. 144-45. W e t a n d fix a s e c o n d strip t o t h e o p p o s i t e side. o n e t o fit each side o f t h e b o a r d — t h e s e will make t h e glued f r a m e t h a t holds y o u r p a p e r in place. copper.54-55). This browns with age unless sealed by fixative (see pp. Z I N C W H I T E G O U A C H E : Dilute with w a t e r A d d c o l o r i f r e q u i r e d (as opposite) 4 . Lay a clean d r a w i n g b o a r d o n a flat surface. Stretched paper remains taut as a d r u m . 1. which quickly oxidizes into a gray line. If w o r k i n g o n an emulsion-painted wall. M E T A L OBJECTS: All metal objects m a r k a p r e p a r e d surface. or ring.
Prop up your board of dry. overlapping lines until you reach the bottom. Keep adding smooth. Here. v e r y little at a time. is necessary to lay a wash o Three-tone When coloring ground. and let tests dry before deciding to change the mixture. LAYING A WASH It your stretched paper so as to prime it for silver point. slowly add powder pigment or gouache from a tube. Dry thoroughly before laying a wash. The next step will make a small mess. Runs blend into each other evenly. leaving a smooth surface. Leave the wash to dry thoroughly before you begin to draw. any extra will keep. as the paper will be ruined by a raised ridge. so put newspaper under the lower edge. It will slowly straighten and become taut. I used a powder pigment called Caput Mortuum. Mix a very wet but not weak solution of gouache in a jar with a lid (add pigment at this stage for a three-tone drawing). Make enough to cover your paper. Dip a soft. Keep testing on spare paper. full brush into the gouache and start in the top left corner. Reload the brush and add a second line overlapping it beneath.141 SILVER POINT 3 Leave the paper to dry flat. stretched paper at a 45-degree angle. Make an even line across to the right. Beware of the tape's coming loose at any point while drying. T h r e e .t o n e silver point drawing of a skull .
Head and Neck
THE HEAD AND NECK are best conceived as one unit arranged in four parts: cranium, face, neck, and throat. Each is of equal importance. The cranium is essentially egg-shaped and pivots on the first vertebra. The face is suspended beneath, like a softly curved triangle. The n e c k — a powerful, shapely column of layered muscles rigged to vertebrae—adjusts and holds the angle and expression of the head. The throat is delicate, hard, and lumpy to the touch, formed of cartilaginous rings, glands, thin muscles, and looser skin. Framing the throat, two columnar neck muscles (sternomastoids) project the head forward and also turn it to the opposite side.
This is a simple shorthand diagram representing the cranium, face, neck, and throat. It can be learned and visualized in different positions very easily, giving the novice a firm footing on which to stand and develop their drawings of the head and neck.
Cranium Begin with an egg shape. Tilt it on the paper to change the position of the head.
Face Draw a rounded triangular shape below the forward point of the egg to represent the face.
Neck This shape represents the trapezius; the largest surface muscle of the neck and shoulders.
Throat A triangular shape represents the throat. (The nose makes the diagram clearer)
After copying the diagram above, animate it. Practice drawing the cranium at different angles, add the face beneath, then the neck, shoulders, and throat. Shape your diagrams so they are more lifelike, but avoid adding detailed features too soon.
143 These three drawings demonstrate (from left to right) the following: why the cranium may be considered egg-shaped; now the face can be seen as a curved triangle suspended beneath and where the division lies between the two; and the form of sternomastoid muscles that frame thethroatsodistinctlywhen the head is turned and inclined forward.
The skull and the frame of the throat
HEAD AND NECK
Bones of the cranium are locked together by jagged joints. Sinuses in the frontal (forehead) bone between and beneath the eyebrows are larger in men, making their brows pronounced and often ridged compared to those of women.
Bones of the face house our sight, smell, taste, The skull pivots on the first vertebra or "atlas," and speech. Cartilage extending from nasal bones after the Greek god condemned to carry the shapesthenose.Pads of fat resting on the base of Earth. The jaw hinges in front of the ears. Behind, eacheyesocket support the eyeballs in position. If bony ridges give anchor to the sternomastoid thefatisreducedby old age, eyes look sunken. muscles rising from the breast- and collarbones.
Three useful generalizations
General rules about the relative positions of body parts can hinder artists as much as help them, since they are often based on classical ideals rather than thediversityoflife.However,some generalizations can help as a rough guide to start with, so long as good observation takes over as soon as possible.
In general, when the face is relaxed (not smiling or frowning), the corners of the mouth are found directly beneath the pupils of the eyes. Vertical lines can be drawn down from the pupils to meet the corners of the mouth.
The height of a young adult's ear is often the same as their nose and found on the same level. There is no general rule for growing children, and remember that ears grow again in old age, which is most obvious in men.
The height of the face is about the length of the handspan and the eye is normally halfway down the total height of the head. A common error is to draw the eyes too high up on the face.
T H E DELICACY OF SILVER POINT
(see pp. 140-41) is perfect for
such as a beach pebble. Here, I stretched drawing paper and laid a wash of white gouache (see pp.140-41). As you can see, the line and tone of silver point varies with pressure, but only slightly. Too much pressure cuts the ground. Silver point erases, but so does ground. Erased ground can be repaired gently with extra gouache. You can also use gouache to paint over mistakes and make corrections.
small, detailed drawings. The drawings below and opposite show useful observations of the head and neck, which are explained in the captions below. Each drawing was made with a silver wire held in a large-gauge mechanical pencil. Newly clipped wires are sharp and cut rather than draw. Before use, they need to be rubbed and smoothed on a stone
Here I imagined placing my silver point wire against the skin of each head and neck and, working in parallel bands from the crown downward, I traced the undulation of surfaces. Linear bands imagined around the head and neck can help you t o clearly see the tilt of the head and relative levels of the features. Ask a friend t o model for you and try this exercise life-size using a pencil and eraser
Seeing that the face is never flat
Drawings below left and center are summaries of the generalizations given on p.143. Far right is an image to remind us that the face is never flat. It slopes back to varying degrees among individuals, from the tip of the nose t o the ears. For example, note that the innermost corners of the eyes are farther forward in space than the outermost corners.
General measurements, side
General measurements, front
View from above
Male and female head and neck
Men's necks a r e g e n e r a l l y s h o r t e r a n d t h i c k e r t h a n w o m e n ' s b e c a u s e t h e angles a n d levels o f c e r t a i n b o n e s a r e d i f f e r e n t b e t w e e n t h e sexes ( i n d i c a t e d h e r e b y d o t t e d lines) a n d m e n are n o r m a l l y m o r e muscular. T h e male t h y r o i d cartilage ( A d a m ' s apple) is larger a n d m o r e visible than t h e f e m a l e . L a r g e r f e m a l e t h y r o i d glands also s o f t e n t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e t h r o a t .
The largest m u s c l e o f t h e s h o u l d e r s a n d n e c k is called the trapezius. A r r a n g e d on e i t h e r side o f t h e spine, it shapes t h e u p p e r back and neck above the s h o u l d e r blades. C o n t r a c t i n g in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h d e e p e r and surrounding muscles, it raises and l o w e r s t h e shoulders a n d d r a w s t h e h e a d backtoeitherside.
USING A SHARP 3 B PENCIL, I drew this head quickly from imagination, evolving its character and expression from the scheme of four parts: cranium, face, neck, a n d throat (see p. 142). Here, five steps show you how to practice doing the same. This approach can be used to draw from imagination or from life. Keep your wrist loose and hold your pencil away from its point (see pp.22-23). Build the layers of your drawing from pale to dark, a n d from general balance a n d form to specific detail. Remember that successful drawings are built on foundations of "seeing the whole," then dividing the whole into smaller parts, with details brought in last of all. Phrased tonal marks modeling this girls skin and hair follow the technique demonstrated by Goya in his self-portrait on p. 130. Turn to Goya's drawing and study how, in a circle beginning across his hat, moving down his hair, and around his coat, he flows lines over surfaces to describe their contour. As you build from steps 1 to 5, bring phrased groups of lines across the surfaces of your form, using their directions to capture the expression of the head and neck. If unsure, copy my steps until you gain the confidence to make your own decisions.
This drawing is the final stage of the four steps opposite. Here, I have enlarged the eye, and moved it back into the head by trimming the length of the upper lid and adding a more pronounced lower lid. It is important to set eyes far enough back from the relatively prominent nose; too close to it and the face flattens. Hair swept back and extended behind the cranium balances the regal pose. Lines shaping the hair echo those marking the cranium in step 1. Here, the lower part of step 1 comes through as wisps of hair across her face and ear
Portrait of a Young Girl
The eye announces the nature and expression of the emerging person.Theangle at which you draw this shape of the paper will determine the angle of the finished head. First lines will remain visible in the final drawing. and throat. 4 . neck. too soon. 2 Rapidly add shorthand shapes to represent the face. avoid drawing too dark.147 Building up the portrait DRAWING PORTRAITS 1 Gently spin pale lines in a softly drawn shape representing the cranium. I modeled the outline of the character I imagined light shining from above and in front and adjusted the pressure of lines to reflect this. Keep your first lines light. Here. The nose and ear begin to shape the head. down the face to the throat. Moving from the back of the neck. they are also still sweeping and confident. 3 Place the eye beneath the cranium. over the cranium. so it is important to the life of the image that while controlled. I used light to describe the upper lid first with a shadow beneath for the lower lid and open eye.
Above all.T o DRAW PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGES. be aware of the subtle differences in skin surface. a n d t h o s e w h o a r e Generations asleep (see overleaf). empathize. . the texture of hair. and gravity. muscular tension.
with a steel dip pen and acrylic ink. seeking the dominant contours of each individual expression. . Madrid. I used the nib upside down to gain needle-sharp precision.Castings DRAWING IN THE PRADO MUSEUM. Van Dyke's noble cast of characters was modeled more finely. Fast lines carve out the features of Goya's soup-slurping hag.
As artistic director of the It is s h o c k i n g to t h i n k h o w m a n y m i l l i o n s of d r a w i n g s m u s t be m a d e a n d d i s c a r d e d Ballet Russe. T h e rural masses w o r e h o m e s p u n simplicity. personality. caricatured p l u m e s . T h e p a p e r p a t t e r n is p e r h a p s the m o s t w i d e l y k n o w n of c o s t u m e d r a w i n g s : a formalized plan of lines. arichand unusual combination of pencil. he and cofounder Serge Diaghilev took Paris by eac storm in 1910 with their production h year in the industrial f r e n z y of creating o u r image and aspirations. Samoylovich Rosenberg. st 111/4 x 81/2 in (285 x 220 mm) u d i e d L E O NB A K S T and explore the characterization of fabric t h r o u g h m o v e m e n t . articulate a d a n g e r o u s satirical j o k e . fulfilling lavish and spectacular briefs. dancer leaps through swaths of golden cloth. and gouache. D e s i g n e r s create m a s t e r p i e c e s of haute couture LEON BAKST for H o l l y w o o d stars. Practical classes Bacchante 1911 l o o k at r a n g e s of c o l o r e d m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d i n g p a s t e l s a n d felt-tip p e n s . c u l t u r e . and s y m b o l s that lets m e n and w o m e n in all countries and areas have w o r k i n g access to the latest fashions. cool. shapes.Costume W E MAKE OURSELVES EXOTIC. so that c h o i c e . Previously. Designers all over the w o r l d c o n t i n u a l l y p e n and b r u s h lines to lash us w i t h color. Bakst's designs and costumes immediately To the fine artist. . a n d w e will c o l l e c t patterns. W e dress ourselves and costume designer trained in in St. T h e e n t o u r a g e of the theatrical stage o f t e n l e a d s the c a t w a l k . g l o s s y folds. w a r m t h . In psychology. woman was drawn by Bakst one year later for the ballet Narcisse. toParis. a n d s u b t l e t o n e s . Petersburg and later exiled designers' ideas and are surprised and delighted b y their continual f l o w of inspiration. and atmosphere. intriguing. theb u t b y the w a y it s p e a k s w i t h its flying. P o p u l a r f a s h i o n d e s i g n e x p l o d e d w i t h the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n . In this c h a p t e r w e see h o w c l o t h i n g c a n s e e m to p o s s e s s the w e i g h t and m o n u m e n t a l i t y of stone. Cities c h a n g e d all. was a Belarussian A r t Deco theater fantasies and desires to immediately possess a version of the same. a n d c o u r t i e r tailors f o l l o w e d suit. it is the public sign by w h i c h w e are j u d g e d . c o s t u m e o f f e r s a r i c h v o c a b u l a r y of t e x t u r e s a n d c o l o r . Like it or not. b u t influenced Parisian fashion and interiordecor. known as Leon Bakst. variety. of Scheherazade. and even invisible by the w a y w e dress. while court p a i n t e r s — M i c h e l a n g e l o and Holbein. Artists do this not so m u c h b y the style of a figure's garment. o n l y the w e a l t h y c o u l d afford to h a v e c o s t u m e s specially m a d e . e m u l a t e textures. w h i c h in turn feed c o n s u m e r Lev. and everything w e h a v e c h o s e n for o u r w a r d r o b e s — r e f l e c t o r s of o u r taste. outrageous. charcoal. and intent.This voluptuous above all a physical p u p p e t w i t h w h i c h to animate character and narrate personality. or calm u s w i t h chic. a n d p r o f e s s i o n — b e g a n life as a d r a w i n g . c r u m p l e s . and i n d e e d image b e c a m e the property also of the industrial classes. and e x u b e r a n c e . gesture. or b u l g e s . S t r u c t u r e is t h o u g h the i n v e n t i o n of shoes. and be so expressive of temperament that it overtakes the need for an o c c u p y i n g h u m a n form. for e x a m p l e — d e s i g n e d the w a r d r o b e s of p o p e s a n d k i n g s .
Flaxmans sleeper—perhaps a pilgrim or a soldier resting between campaigns—has wedged himself into the cleft of some great building to grab a moment of peace. Church and deities are drawn as JAN VAN EYCK Flemish oil p a i n t e r f r o m L i m b o u r g . Her gown is carved and polished as if made from marble. Marble gown We will never know if Van Eyck considered this drawing unfinished or intended the kneeling abbot to remain transient and ghostly. dragons. Above them. delicate lines. folds and patterns of material speak more resolutely of their wearers than any small glimpses of body we can see. However. swirling printed fabrics. Opposite. With a stylus such as Van Eyck used here. it is only possible to create very thin. the vaulted stone roof echoes and crowns the moment. the Madonna and her architecture are both dressed in the same manner. Van Eyck's highly polished w o r k is c e l e b r a t e d f o r its disguised symbolism. with their jagged edges. the carefully composed outline of his cloak shows us how the artist would have also begun his immaculate rendering of the Virgin's clothes. and implied striation in the stone of the architecture. and the kneeling abbot is a ghost by comparison. bands around the columns. her marble garment holds u p the infant Christ in a fountain of compressed line. He has layered these slowly and carefully so as not to cut through the ground and produce a white mark just where he intended a dark one. and snakelike marks. H e m e t i c u l o u s l y a r r a n g e d subjects t o c o n v e y d e e p e r meaning. Keisai Eisen's intense. best k n o w n f o r his G h e n t altarpiece ( 1 4 3 2 ) a n d m a r r i a g e p o r t r a i t o f Giovanni A r n o l f i n i and his w i f e (1434). The quiet stillness of this image is achieved by a masterly economy of stylized line. Maelbeke I44I Madonna 11 x 7 in (278 x 180 m m ) JAN V A N EYCK . In Van Eyck's drawing below. Their uninterrupted emphasis is entirely vertical.140-41). Sculpted one. Short and subtle horizontal punctuations are only given in the background by sections of floor. resonate with their wearers startled expression. Delicate marks Silver (or metal) point is the most delicate of traditional drawing media (see pp. Vertical lines The highly controlled lines of this drawing cascade from top to bottom of the image. Below this.156 COSTUME Cloth and Drapery EACH OF THESE FIGURES is ninety percent cloth.
Dante. the angle of the head. he also co-edited and expanded the Ukiyo-e Ruiko (History of Prints of the Floating World). Parts of the image to be left unprinted are gouged out with a metal tool. and Man Lying Down in a Cloak I 787-94 21/4 JOHN FLAXMAN x 41/8 in (57 x 105 mm) . writer and printmaker Keisai Eisen took his name from the masters Kano Hakkeisai and Kikugawa Eizan. designer. each delivering a different part and color of the design. Koimurasaki of Tama-ya 1810-50 15 x101/4in (381 x 260 mm) KEISAI EISEN The Courtesan JOHN F L A X M A N English late 18th-century neoclassical sculptor. Images are drawn onto smooth. draftsman. Position In this pen and ink drawing. and teacher Distinctive linear illustrations for the works of Homer. and the feet notched against the pillar tell us that A lines holds him into the cleft. the cloak sliding to the ground. CLOTH AND DRAPERY Relief printing This is a woodblock print made by a relief process. This complex numerous blocks prepared image and may have been made with printed separately. which are sometimes also cut into pieces like a jigsaw puzzle. Aeschylus earned Flaxman an international reputation. Remaining raised areas of wood are rolled with colored inks. stone wall of downward-stroked this sleeper's position is momentary. flat sheets of wood. an 18th-19th century document on the lives of the ukiyo-e artists. The inked block is laid face-down on damp paper and pressed to make the print.157 KEISAI EISEN Japanese draftsman. Respected for his sumptuous images of geisha and editions of erotic prints. one over the other.
he c o o l e d and redefined his style. and feather were all CHARACTER COSTUMES REPRESENT observed with closely crafted conviction. 160. Fine examples can be plucked from fashion. Leg sections in both support the figure without taking our attention away from the main garment above. He has been rendered on this olive<olored page with pen and gray wash worked over a red and black under-drawing. Anthony Van Dyke's Man in Armor is a masterpiece of drawn surface. The slight uncertainty of the pose and the limp cloak suggest a little more metal than man. w h e r e . theater. lace. The metal. Opposite is a dangerous drawing. Pen and wash In the graphic accuracy of this armored knight we see the idealized identity of a warrior from another time: a gleaming defender of the realm. A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE Flemish painter and draftsman. cinema. Its warm surface flows in contrast to the stiff metal armor. A flamboyant territory. Leg section Compare mid-shin the section of white boots cropped to the section of similarly cropped trousers in drawings Gruau's drawing on p. A s a y o u n g man. a n d w a s e m p l o y e d as c o u r t painter t o King Charles I. and even formal portraiture. It is presumed Her Royal Highness never saw it. In 1 6 3 2 he m o v e d p e r m a n e n t l y t o L o n d o n . where sometimes there just might not be anybody inside. Van D y k e was chief assistant t o Rubens f o r t w o years. all ruffs and wrinkles. Flowing scarf The knight's scarf of gilded blue is drawn in a pale wash over red ink lines. for she would not have been amused and William Wodall might have been stretching his luck. Man in Armor UNDATED 1 6 x 9 1 / 2 in ( 4 0 5 x 2 4 0 m m ) A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE . Its color is also reflected in the metal.158 COSTUME Character Costumes an extreme form of the clothed figure. t h r o u g h n u m e r o u s p o r t r a i t and C h u r c h commissions. cloth. a scurrilous cartoon by a courtier of Queen Elizabeth I. Details and voices are worn externally with great imagination. cartoon. The aged queen is compared to an overdressed bird. b e f o r e traveling t o Italy.
suggest the use of iron-gall ink (see p. it was customary to Iron-gall ink Wodall's dangerous caricature steps daintily the written lines of her dedicated page. A Ruffs and feathers Starched white ruffs worn at court and by society grew steadily larger as Elizabeth's reign progressed.1599 71/2 WILLIAM x 51/4 in ( 1 9 0 x 1 3 4 mm) WODALL . bitten nature. Top-heavy. t h e Ridolfi Plot. t h e Rising. t h e Jesuit Mission. Northern Satire This is a quill-and-ink satire of the elderly queen's pride-As head of state and fashion. while a raised foot pauses to assess the next displaying a fan of daggers. and her pride. she is shown as a grossly disproportioned bird. hooded with an overinflated fluffy ruff eye pins us. and saturations showing through from the other side. T h e poem recounts t h e six m a j o r crises o f Elizabeth's reign: t h e Spanish A r m a d a . t h e B a b i n g t o n Plot. Beneath the lethal fan is the body of a bird of trimmed feathers suggest age. here dark tawny owl.159 WILLIAM W O D A L L A u t h o r and illustrator o f The Aaes of Queene a Elizabeth poem Allegorized. By her old upto three tiers supported on sticks. Satire of the Queen's Dress c. the queen is masterfully rebalanced by words at her feet The whole drawing's blackened. manuscript comprising six c a n t o s .35).
Fine lines drawn against the building behind her echo the threads on which we have all seen arachnids drop and hang.and tilted to the same de a little deeper than sp kneestogivehergravity. diving to catch us in the grip of her machine-like limbs.160 COSTUME Femmes Fatales THESE DEVASTATING femmes fatales force back the onlooker with their demure. Spider-Girl leaps like an insect. and both share the power of scarlet and black. elegant chic and svelte. Drying time in between applications ensured the colors did not run into each other. Gruau's model regally swans to the fore with cool pride.5 9 ) and a three-spoke balance of cuffs and cropped trousers to create an almost flag-like emblem of power.c e n t u r y haute i n n u m e r o u s m a g a z i n e s i n c l u d i n g Elle. RENE GRUAU I t a l i a n . 158.F r e n c h f a s h i o n i l l u s t r a t o r w h o in his l o n g and esteemed career w o r k e d with many of the g r e a t e s t d e s i g n e r s o f 2 0 t h . G r u a u ' s highly distinctive d r a w i n g s have a p p e a r e d Couture. Harpers & Queen. The black red. Compare the compositio beneathVanDyke'sstudy of armor on p. Airbrushed reflective surfaces further amplify our perception of speed. muscular aggression. and gray pigments were applied separately. Rene Gruau's bold gouache drawing of smoothly swaying sophistication captures a brilliantly cut garment and frames it with great dynamism in a white. Vogue. She has been drawn with brushes dipped into India ink and gouache. demanding attention with gesture and flair. Fashion and fantasy drawings invent prototypes of ideals and perfection—be they for the catwalk or the fast-paced pages of comic books. 5 8 . ofcroppedtrousershere to the device of the w Illustration 1949 for Jacques Fath in L ' O f f i c i e l d e la C o u t u r e RENE GRUAU . as is Spider-Girl opposite. a n d L'Officiel de la couture. possibly over a pencil outline. studio-like rectangle of paper. Composition Look how well this image is frame knee is parallel to the bottom edge spacehorizontalline cropping the trousers be outermostuprightbordersof her cuffs are similar above her head thesidesoftheimage. India ink and gouache This swish of confidence and style our enters the page turning everyone's head. Gruau uses starkly cut negative space (see pp. His model is outlined.
and has been the title's regular artist since 2003. Single-point understand perspective To how Frenz created up therefore the effect of steeply between looking buildings—and howyou can do the same in your own work—take calculate where a ruler the and single vanishing point lies. The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones. Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 2001-04 R O N FRENZ. a great characteristic superhero comics.RON F R E N Z Contemporary American graphic artist w h o designs and pencils the dynamic scenes of numerous superheroes featured in Marvel Comics. Sharp focus black outlines in this drawing create a hyper-real dynamic. Align your ruler to the upright of each building. moon. sky. Frenz has drawn for Marvel for about 20 years. This s modeling applied over the top give the image a sleek and mechanical of gravity. Buildings. and Amazing Spider-Man. In your mind's eye extend the uprights out of the top of the picture.74-77). and figure are all locked into equally shatp through the traditional process of a pencilled outline over-drawn ink. beginning with Star Wars. It is outside the picture frame. to the right of its center. not far above the drawing. Airbrushed color and with tonal focus. at Their extensions will meet the same single vanishing (see point pp. MARVEL C O M I C S . He began work on Spider-Girl in 1998.
and CHALK PASTELS Pastel pencils make fine lines (as above). except the final layer. paper-wrapped. The higher the quality (and cost). CHALK PASTELS: Blackboard chalk is sidewalk work. allowing it to fix slightly from behind. Often. though lines can develop greasy stains around the edges if the paper is not first stretched and treated with a gelatin paste laid as a wash. Store loose pastels in dry rice to keep them clean. Pastels are finer. See h o w they work and return later for more of what proved best for you. wash. great for tin . and can be softened and manipulated with degrees of heat. and subtlety. OIL PASTELS: Many colors. Seemingly infinite choices of texture. 1. Try materials that are new and unfamiliar. insects. Be aware that fixative dulls pastel. Degas built his pastels in layers. Before making substantial investments. you may be pleasantly surprised to discover something you could not have imagined using. Children's wax crayons are relatives. hue. FELT-TIP PENS: Instant-drying alcoholor water-based inks stored in the barrels of the pens are delivered via smooth nylon o r felt tips of varying shapes and thicknesses. I suggest you do so. fixing each layer on the front. slightly oily to the touch. Pastel pencils are slender and in w o o d casing. animals. Dissolve in turpentine or mineral spirits to produce oil paint or or dark paper. Sticks and conte crayons make thicker marks (as below). They vary hugely in cost. clay. OIL PASTELS Oil-based. Use them to draw lightly (as above left) or thickly. The worst are like revolting old lipsticks that get everywhere except where you intend. Beware—some are toxic. the finer and more subtle the texture and color should be. plants. quality. They work well on PIGMENTS Pigments. made in about 80 colors. including iridescents. and cost are laid out for our pleasure and perusal. chalkbased but very subtle. C o n t e crayons are square-formed. colored materials available. used to make colors. oily pigment. shape. size. intensity. 2. minerals. mixed on the paper and scratched into (as below). and sold in many colors. and synthetics. unwrapped harder pastels. quality and cost T h e best are paperwrapped sticks of sumptuous. Bright pastels are more brilliant on colored paper. Many artists apply fixative to the back of their work. COLORED PENCILS: Dry pigments ground together with chalk. are derived from many sources: rocks. there are disparities between the apparent nature or color of what you hold in your hand and its performance on paper. and can be a great rediscovery for bold drawings. 3. or wax and a binder are shaped into fine strips and encased in w o o d like a graphite pencil. the diverse are made in brands of basic member of the family. these work best when slightly warm. which he left unfixed to retain its brightness. soft. Many products are sold individually and in boxed sets. Most stores leave small pads of paper on their counters for customers to test materials. crumbly. purchase a small selection of different items you think you will like. The nontoxic range below represents a suggested starting point for experiment. 4.162 COSTUME Colored Materials ART STORES BRIM OVER w i t h t h e m a n y wherever permitted.
If you love smooth blocks and lines of colon felt-tip pens are perfect. others dissolve in water or turpentine to make a wash. Think of Matisse's Blue Nude (see p. Brands made for designers sold in enormous ranges of colors are far more subtle and sophisticated than those made for children. . Fine lines can be achieved (as above). so it is best to test them before buying. Colors can be blended as shown right) and tones graded by altering pressure. it is still a great champion and support for those beginners feeling shyly obligated to tone down their love of color to conform with what others say they should use. Diverse brands are harder or soften greasier or chalkier in use. 111). leaving the paper to shine through for highlights (as below). FELT-TIP PENS Although not made with felt-tip pen. Some are nonsoluble. Some give richer lines than others.or clay-based thin crayons in wood casing.163 COLORED PENCILS These are wax.
structure. if y o u m a k e p l e n t y o f d r a w i n g s as o p p o s e d t o o n l y a f e w . 100-01 and pp. Superstitions and fetishes are attached to them: we are told never to put new shoes on a table. imagining y o u can see t h r o u g h it. t o o . and they have been concealed in buildings to ward off misfortune. t h e n again as if transparent. This class takes the shoe as its subject in building on earlier lessons concerned with seeing through objects to understand their function. social and economic status. 104-07). and after studying familiar shoes we use the information learned to invent new ones. a n d e x p e r i e n c e visible p r o g r e s s . You.164 COSTUME Study and Design they reflect our age. REPEATED STUDY T o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s class. a range of colored felt-tip pens with both fine and broad tips. e n j o y i n g t h e study a n d i n v e n t i o n o f shoes. D r a w each o n e first as a solid object. they record and reflect our common history. and volume in space (see pp. Here we go one step further. S H O E S TELL LIFE STORIES. As artifacts in museums. you will need several large sheets of drawing paper. style. and how we stand and walk. To set up. will discover m o r e . values. the era in which we live. . I m a d e n u m e r o u s s h e e t s o f d r a w i n g s . and a selection of shoes. Turn t h e m in different d i r e c t i o n s and o b s e r v e t h e i r s t r u c t u r e and f o r m . Linear Outline Using fine pens. while artists have painted their boots or those of others as personal portraits and memorials. personality. c o v e r a large sheet o f p a p e r w i t h line drawings o f several shoes.
STUDY AND DESIGN
study the surface contours using fineand broad-tipped felt-tip pens. For best results, it is important to be bold and brief. Draw firmly, fast, and with as few strokes as possible. Build up each shoe from light to dark andleavesome paper showing through to create highlights.
Design Your Own
Using what you have learned from the previous steps about the structures of your shoes, and about the use of pens, invent new designs from your imagination. Start with fine outlines and progress to colored and textured surfaces. Modify your ideas by rotating the views.
The Structure of Costume
MUSEUMS ARE AN INFINITELY
rich resource for the artist and
information given by a period style. Arrange to visit a costume museum or ask a friend to model clothes for you at home. Using fine felt-tip pens, begin with quick, pale impressions of each garment's shape before homing in on its borders and seams. Try to draw transparent views wherever possible to record the relationships between all component parts. Aim to draw enough information for it to be possible to make up a version of the garment using paper pinned to a tailor's dummy.
designer. They often give quite unexpected gems of ideas and information—whatever the subject. These drawings, made in a costume museum, demonstrate ways of recording structural information and detail for later use in the studio. They could form the basis of new designs for a fashion project or theater production, for example. Drawings of shoes on pp. 164-65 show how new designs can be evolved from the structural
It is usually best when collecting information for reference to apply the restraint of dispassionate observation. Set yourself the test of drawing facts with as little artistic license or embellishment as possible. Here I chose fine felt-tip pens because they are at their best when used swiftly, and therefore encourage bold, unhesitant decisions.
Swift lines record the hanging weight of this gentleman's coat, the relative proportions of its layers, and minimal details of the buttons and cuffs.
Thick velvet fabric is pulled tight beneath and across the bust by a single button. This transparent view shows how the fabric falls loosely in straight panels beneath the level of the sleeve.
W h e n visiting museums, be prepared f o r l o w lighting, which can make it hard t o see and draw. A book can help if attached t o your drawing board.
Adding stripes and dashes of color with a thicker pen brings out the glossy sheen and sculptural rigidity of this dress, which would have been worn over a whalebone corset. small reading light designed t o clip o n t o a
THE STRUCTURE OF COSTUME
In small drawings such as these, use thick pens to color entire sections with a few marks, as I did here down the side of the bodice.
The light, frilly bulk of this crinoline dress is propelled forward with lines. pinching its gathers and sways that are hiding a horsehair bustle. fleets of quick
THIS CLASS FOCUSES ON how to draw textures through the collection of fabric, pattern, and embroidery samples from a costume m u s e u m . This formal method, using ruled squares, can create an invaluable library of ideas a n d i n f o r m a t i o n for future r e f e r e n c e — w h e n painting a clothed figure, or preparing a textile project, for example. However, if making a book of samples for a project, remember that it is important to also include collages of f o u n d materials (see pp.230-31) To d r a w a fabric texture, b e g i n by concentrating o n h o w y o u i m a g i n e it w o u l d feel if you t o u c h e d it. Decide if it w o u l d be rough, s m o o t h , w a r m , cold, thick, thin, tough, or fragile, for example. As you draw, believe you can feel these qualities at your fingertips a n d that your pencil is responding to the sensation. Undulate the pressure of your lines and marks according to the feeling of the fabric rather than its appearance. Let your pencil enact the sensation of touching its surface.
and to experiment more loosely with mixed media.
This starchy, quilted, b o w e d creation started life as an imagined corset, I intended t o d r a w together in one sculptural f o r m a range o f t h e details opposite. T h e garment quickly got o u t o f hand. T h e r e is great e n j o y m e n t in letting y o u r imagination run wild w h e n inventing costumes. If you are unable t o visit a costume museum, many exciting fabric details and textures can be found in y o u r o w n closet o r home.
Colored pencils give precision and tonal range; they can be faded but not erased. Lightly use an HB graphite pencil if you wish to plan a design first. Pressed hard, colored pencils build up a waxy finish of brilliant color. Used lightly, they appear powdery and show the texture of the paper.
TEXTURES AND PATTERNS
Silk and braid
126-27. 172-73.Dressing Character I O N C E SPENT THREE MONTHS researching the work of Francisco de Goya at the Prado Museum. identity. I made a drawing book full of studies seeking to understand how he composed drama and pathos in his narratives (see also pp. selected from different pages of my original book. shape. . and 252-53). look at how Goya delineated volumes of thick fabric to express the posture. and motivation of an individual. These characters. Madrid.
Posture Carving also taken from my Madrid drawing book (see pp. are copies of works by Goya in which he makes air seem heavier than flesh. To understand how he did this. and visible. I carefully copied the direction of each of his lines. as it rushes and carves fabric-wrapped forms like rivers and desert winds shaping the earth.170—71).T H E S E PENCIL STUDIES. . and tangible.
the direct exchange (as shown here) where one or more characters hold eye Aneedproduced the thicker lines of the nurse. we can learn most about handling pen and ink. even up her were laid with a brush. It middle. are implicated in this marital exchange made over the head of the anonymous nurse. R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN in the delivery of narrative. furniture. television documentaries. too. the speed and printmaker and one of the greatest and most influential density of its lines. the viewer's attention in a scene by the format of its composition. a crowd tells the story from a distance. comics. we can R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter draftsman. and its illumination. Rembrandt's bored and frustrated wife. Washes of shadow behind engaged and as a natural voyeur can feel invisible while watching the scene. With a pocket full of disposable pens we also go out and draw the expressions of gathered people. As artists. types. He in turn scorches the paper with his view and a certain speed of seeing all. we. First. Storytelling and people-watching are obsessive human activities. this is not the portrait of an old woman. but drawings of gathered people tell them most directly. there are no longer individuals but one significant group or mass action. We can direct close. the viewer is not directly made the finer lines of Saskia. . presumably while he is making this drawing. in spite of how it may seem. vivid portrait of his wife captures our attention. He is also the artist from whom props to add layers of meaning and attitude. and novels—our staple cultural diet—are driven by a fascination with shared experience and the detail of what happens in other people's lives. soap operas. heighten or subdue drama with subtleties of exaggeration or caricature. Seeing through Rembrandt's eyes. and distance—so drawings of gathered people can be loosely arranged in three took only minutes to make and yet it lives for centuries. and so. We read tensions and exchanges between people. daily newspapers. Drawings selected for this chapter explore these Saskia Lying in Bedand a Nurse ranges of proximity 1638 9 x61/2in (227 x 164 mm) and a travel journal. the viewer. while a quill contact with. stares out from her gloomy sickbed. Later in their lives. paintings depicting scenes from history. Third. We can also use clothes. finding corners in crowded places to inscribe their action and energy onto the page. Second.Gatherings A LL DRAWINGS TELL STORIES. Blockbuster movies. and instantly engage with the action of the scene. Saskia died after childbirth. The spaces between people and the positions they occupy on a page are vital to our understanding of the psychology or emotion of an event. Her all-too-clear expression shows annoyance and irritation with her husband. and other masters of Western Art. This J u s t as there are three parts to a traditional landscape drawing—the foreground. and therefore seem to see. Saskia. Here.
h a l o e d portrait of the artists seated b a c k to b a c k . the C o o k . and Alice. t h e y select and arrange familiar items of street detritus into what appears to be an u n p l e a s a n t pile. or even the office photocopier. the Cat. TIM N O B L E A N D SUE W E B S T E R British artists who collaborate using neon. and on. Below. plates shatter. and smoke billows around the agitated jives of the Duchess. c o m p o s e d garbage p r o d u c e s a c a l m .. T h e i m m a c u l a t e d r a w i n g is only r e v e a l e d w h e n t h e b e a m of a p r o j e c t o r c a s t s t h e s h a d o w Projections of the h e a p o n t o a wall. refuse. garbage and chaos are piled a n d e x p l o d e d in r o o m s full of event. a kitchen explodes in o u r faces. N o b l e a n d W e b s t e r s w i t t y a n d o f t e n s u b v e r s i v e d r a w i n g s are also c o n t e m p o r a r y art installations. and in. In one of R a c k h a m s great illustrations for Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland. and projector. via the animated clutter of o u r material lives. hearth i m p l e m e n t s crash at o u r feet. junk."Anything that.176 GATHERINGS SOME DRAWINGS ARE MADE e n t i r e l y o f i l l u m i n a t i o n that floods drama into the viewers gaze. Pencil on paper important but only the beginning of possibility the combination of three-dimensional space. for example..kicks against the mundane things that close down your mind is a refreshing and good thing. and projectors to create their anarchic punk satires of modern life. In both works. Real Life is Rubbish 2002 Dimensions variable TIM N O B L E A N D SUE WEBSTER . Think about what else you could use: a laser smoke. F o r e a c h w o r k ." (Tim Noble) Drawing with light it is important to think about what you is Here timelessly we see a in can draw with. Pans fly oft the stove. narrative is delivered through the air. Here.
humor. Rackham Vanishing point In this marvelous drama made with pen.76-77) above vanishing point (see that is about3/4in (2 cm) oak converge at this point. we find several devices already explored through our drawing classes. H e is best k n o w n forillustratingIrving's Rip vanWinkle. by vivid children's Rakham's w o r k is characterized fantasy. 100 to see for make elliptical objects and pans fly through the the foreground. amplifying movement outward from the vanishing point. tabletop. ink. This makes the story appear to leap out at us.177 ARTHUR RACKHAM British watercolorist and book illustrator.Stowe's ofMysteryand Queer Little Folks. See how the In the Duchess's Kitchen 1907 77/8 x 6 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 5 0 m m ) ARTHUR RACKHAM . beams. Depth Billows of smoke expand and are lighter as they come forward. The wood grain acts like marks of speed behind the scene. Find the singleperspective pp. and Poe's Tales Imagination. and watercolor. and Alice's shoulder. a n d an unmistakable graphic style. are very large compared to on p. Refer back to the drawing class how pots In drawn objects and elements that those behind.
a sculptor. This is an ironic drawing from Moore. and art in the landscape. as if Moore's wrapping has been literally outstretched. The mournful gray landscape of Henry Moore's northern British field has gathered by night an overcoated audience to stand and wait before a wrapped and roped monument. and we. HENRY MOORE Crowd 1942 Looking at Tied-up Object . meaning. heat. join in the waiting. The image stands out among his more usual graphic works in which he hones and carves semi-abstract human forms. Opposite.178 GATHERINGS we have seen in the pairs and trios of drawings by masters and makers. London. which still narrates vivid days in the lives of an energetic nation. This is just one of many precious artifacts from a lost time. Moore's spectators appear to have walked a long way from nowhere to witness and wait beside this mysterious obelisque. A glimmer of gold light appears from the left No explanation is given. audiences. Magnetic Fields sculpture.The human form w a s the vehicle o f his expression and h e w a s t h e official W o r l d W a r II artist. as fellow watchers. In culture. and composition they are polar opposites. perhaps these two are the most extreme. a great Shoshone drawing blazes with the color. expressing his dry humor about O F ALL THE CONTRASTS HENRY MOORE British s c u l p t o r w h o t r a i n e d a n d taught at t h e R C A . Chalk and graphite This fog-bound but humorous gathering of souls is made in graphite and colored chalk with gray wash. and action of a buffalo hunt. a n d l o v e d t o d r a w in t h e BritishMuseum. M o o r e t o u r e d Italy as a young man.
MAGNETIC FIELDS Horses It is interesting to note how the outstretched limbs ofthesehorses echo European images of the runningBuffalo horse before the sequence-photographer Muybridge taught us to 19TH understand their movement differently. Hunt CENTURY SHOSHONE SCHOOL . tolearnhow to paint a scene on a hide are and buffalo circle and charge the perimeters of a skin "field. Each color is evenly distributed throughout the scene." Men at the instructed to sit and watch.179 SHOSHONE SCHOOL Stylized characters This vital image of a buffalo hunt is made with pigment Members of the Shoshone community wishing painted within dark outlines on a stretched elk hide. and helping our eye to dart around. Skills are taught not center chant or dance to the beat of a drum. Stylized hunters. creating harmonious balance with words but through silent demonstration. horses.
t h e Bible. a n d f o c u s . m a r k . a d e a t h c h a r g e of brutality. a n d o t h e r w o r k s . color. It illustrates a scene from Dante's Divine Comedy. w h i c h b y their c h o i c e a n d h a n d l i n g a c t u a l l y b e c o m e the force a n d spirit of e a c h i m a g e . a n d the gentle h u m o r of sedate r i d i c u l e . W I L L I A M BLAKE British visionary. B l a k e h a s i l l u m i n a t e d his s a d d e n e d Virgil on the s h o r e s of a d a r k w o r l d . p o e t .f o o t e d t r o g l o d y t e s w h o rage into w a r like a m u d s l i d e of revenge. K a t h e K o l l w i t z s c r a t c h e d a n d e n g r a v e d her a r m y of c l a y . Misted in translucent layers of paint. Blake w a s d r i v e n b y a passion f o r j u s t i c e a n d a p r o f o u n d b e l i e f in his v i s i t a t i o n s f r o m angels. w r i t e r a r t i s t . era as Kollwitz. w h e r e he w a t c h e s a t u r b u l e n t s p i r a l of p u n i s h m e n t f o r the d a m n e d . The Circle of the (The Whirlwind 1824 of Lustful Lovers) mm) 143/4 x 207/8i n ( 3 7 4 x 5 3 0 WILLIAM BLAKE . a pink-inked cinema wobbles along with string. Brushed line and wash This is an ink-outlined drawing made with a fine brush on paper with added washes of watercolor The image was subsequently redrawn as a line engraving. a n d e n g r a v e r w h o p o w e r f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e d his o w n t e x t s in a d d i t i o n t o D a n t e ' s Divine Comedy. pale souls of the lustful are being s p u n into yet another realm of hell. Heath Robinson lived through the same war-torn. The muscularity of Blake's figures was inspired by Michelangelo's works. Opposite. w e f i n d a spiritual v i s i o n . texture. inextinguishable in its fortitude and h u m o r . We also see qualities of line. and sweetened the often bleak years with his impractical inventions.180 GATHERINGS The Human Condition IN THE SPECTRUM of these vastly d i f f e r e n t g a t h e r i n g s of p e o p l e .
Ink rolled over was selectively polished off using a rag.181 KATHE KOLLWITZ German printmaker. stoical bemusement. THE HUMAN CONDITION Scratched lines This is a dry-point etching with monoprint. children. The image was scratched directly onto a metal plate. and the impact of death and war upon women. and clearly focused. humor by making his characters earnest. sculptor and draftsman. poverty. who lived in a poor district of Berlin. plodding along with hazy. British Pen and wash This is a pen-andwatercolor drawing made for a color-platereproduction in an edition of T h e Bystander. Losbruch (The Outbreak) 1955 20 x 233/8 in (507 x 592 mm) KATHE KOLLWITZ HEATH ROBINSON humorous illustrator and a regular contributor to magazines and journals such as The Sketch and The Bystander. With masterful gentility. and the family home. Robinson and Kollwitz (above) share almost identical life dates and their work expresses a shared history from opposite sides oftheworld wars. and controlled smears on the metal surface printed as tones. What remained in scratched grooves printed on damp paper as lines. and her powerful and sensitive drawings center on nurture. Kollwitz survived the two World Wars. HEATH ROBINSON The Kinecar 1926 103/8 x 15 in (262 x 380 mm) . Heath Robinson shows England in a past era. He created sincere. White marks were made with a dusting of French chalk on the artist's finger to wipe away ink leaving clean metal. however meager or ridiculous their activity.
I swiftly focused on gesture. if y o u w i s h y o u r d r a w i n g s t o last a n d n o t fade o r b l u r w i t h t i m e a n d e x p o s u r e t o light. build to a rich. in the car. aiming for correct outlines would result in drawing too slowly to c a t c h the moment. these pens enable you to sketch. Insensitive t o p r e s s u r e : lines d o n o t v a r y in w i d t h o r t o n e . fibertips. CHOICES AVAILABLE T h e r e a r e m a n y d i s p o s a b l e p e n s t o c h o o s e from. is d e l i v e r e d t h r o u g h a m e t a l t u b e o v e r a t i n y ball bearing. Available in blacks and ranges of colors. gel pens) are the most convenient of all materials with which to travel.r e s i s t a n t ." 1. p e r m a n e n t . . a n d ranges o f colors. a disposable pen with its clip-on cap goes anywhere.188-89) and Caravans (see pp. turn the page. which can snap or pierce through your clothes. they can be obtained within minutes. c h o o s e p e n s l a b e l e d " p e r m a n e n t " o r "lightfast. FIBER-TIP: M a n u f a c t u r e d f o r artists a n d d e s i g n e r s in a r a n g e o f w i d t h s . R O L L E R B A L L : A c o n s t a n t i n k flow 3 . Ideal f o r precision w o r k (see p p . 2. jot notes. T h e r e w e r e c seconds t o snatch this impression b e t w e e n their emergence from one bridge and disappearance b e n e a t h t h e next. t h e y a r e lightfast. t w o tourists and their gondolier drifter past m e o n a canal. G E L P E N : P r o d u c e d in b l a c k w h i t e . For example. or turn into washes and make monoprints if flooded with an alcohol-based substance such as hairspray. dropped in your pocket and forgotten till needed. The f o u r i l l u s t r a t e d h e r e r e p r e s e n t a basic r a n g e . shut your book. Quick-drying. 4. a ballpoint will make faint lines. R e m e m b e r . 7 6 . W h i t e gel p e n s a r e v e r y e f f e c t i v e o n d a r k papers. a n d pressure-sensitive. and in most pockets so I can always record a thought DISPOSABLE PENS QUICK NOTES O n a c o l d day in Venice. in the studio. blob when old. At a time like this. rollerballs. trusting shape and form to follow. or put the paper in your pocket instantly without fear of smudging.7 7 and 214-15). dark sheen. B A L L P O I N T : Black a n d b o l d c o l o r s o f f e r d i v e r s e qualities. 192-93) w e r e b o t h m a d e w i t h a ballpoint. indent paper. or idea. w a t e r . they each offer distinct and sometimes unexpected qualities.182 GATHERINGS Disposable Pens (ballpoints. I keep quantities at home. So many stores sell them. including l u m i n o u s a n d m e t a l l i c . fine fiber-tip Drawing with a fine fiber-tip pen. Lines t h i c k e n as t h e p e n w e a r s o u t G r a n d Canal (see pp. Unlike pencils.
FROMMEMORY Here I used the same fiber-tip pen to compose a scene from memory. Compare this Klee's mules on p. Fast lines focus on action.31 . crowd of fellow travelers Fast lines These scribbled lines model the mass and shadows of heads belonging passengers packed into the boat. not form. Earlier I had witnessed a crammed en masse in a fleet of hired gondolas complete with musicians and choir.
184 GATHERINGS The Travel Journal I CANNOT OVERSTATE THE JOY of making a travel journal. if a person was stout. angles will happen as a matter of course. black. Each one was witnessed and drawn immediately from the afterimage of what I had just seen. when out drawing. I caught fleeting glimpses of gathered people and solitary souls going about their affairs. and companionship. Each line acts its part in the narrative. Don't worry about measuring angles. You must learn to trust your memory and to draw what impressed you most. life will not slow and wait for you to catch it. but they should not be what you dwell on. Circular lines buzz around a man puzzling at the end of a train platform (left). animate them more. of course. Push toward caricature and this will draw out of your memory what was most important. pocket notebook and a fiber-tip pen. all action is in the line of his coat and directed by his nose. FLEETING MOMENTS Walking through Venice with a small. focus on the action of the event. No camera can tie you to a time or people in the same way. Movement . if animated. However. make them stouter. Exaggeration helps. not its outline. activity. Above all. Every drawing writes an indelible memory of place. Let the line of the flying coat fly and the hanging arm hang. A curatorial assistant flies to do a chore (right). let it enter the stage and perform. just draw the action. You will make outlines.
I am watched by the aggravated guard.185 A large lady is photographed in front of a delicate work of art. Observation THE TRAVEL JOURNAL The same willowy assistant dashes about his work. The rush of his legs isamplifiedby their blurred lines. Expression . eager to herd us all from his house of responsibility. I drew him three times on the same page to catch a range of his physical expressions. In turn.
start by focusing on its action. flap. and there met this sullen custodian. furniture leans. When your attention has been caught.186 GATHERINGS Catching the Moment On A BITTERLY COLD November day. Identify the principal character and draw him or her first. Here I have recreated my drawing in steps to show you how to set about capturing such a scene. or bulge. emotion. placement. or pushes. For example. and let every detail speak by its size. decide how faces and bodies contort. pulls. For example. rather than the works of art they guarded. ACTION AND DETAIL W h e n drawing people. and reason for happening. elevate them in the pictorial space. focus on action. if they are being devious. and involvement in the story. . He and his simpering assistant would not allow me in. not outline. and clothing or bags hang. Here the custodian projects fastidious ownership of his desk and pamphlets by pushing from behind the center of the space and challenging our entry to his image. Place the person carefully. forcing me to remain at the back and look at them. if they are being haughty. you might place them lower down. Be aware that their placement on the page is part of the narrative. and you decide to draw the moment. I took refuge in a church in Venice.
If drawing a more complex scene. Decide where you will place them o n the paper t o emphasize their action and intent. which is pushed toward us in a gesture of confrontation. . Draw their action and props. W i t h a few strokes. D r a w their action. Here. Decide where t o place them t o emphasize their role. who is largely expressed through the shape and fall o f his raincoat and his way o f using a note pad. I added t h e assistant. together with any immediate props they are using. a pillar locates t h e scene in a depth o f space. In the final step (left) I reinforced t h e custodian's desk. such as the desk and pamphlets seen here. continue adding characters.187 The custodian Identify your principal character a n d their psychological role in the scene. CATCHING THE MOMENT The assistant Identify t h e antagonist ( o r second character) in t h e scene.
I developed detailofthis drawing from memory using a ballpoint pen. and buildings.Grand Canal T H E CANALS OF VENICE are bustling places full of occupation. where vertical mooring poles give space and pulse to the horizontal speed of water quickly. . An imminent deluge of tourists urged me to work catching no more than the skeleton of the view.
Crossings DURING THIS RUSH HOUR. . Caricature each person slightly. and drawn immediately from memory. Venetians flow across a stepped bridge and cascade into the streets beyond. Each person was glimpsed in an instant. Characters in the foreground were drawn first. then the bridge beneath them. To catch characters like this. followed by the streets. note only their most essential action and feature.
quiet afternoon. I used a ballpoint pen to compose a series of scenes. . Sitting at a distance on a hot. Caravans and other backstage activity convey expectations of energy and repose. I found this circus by chance in the Swiss mountains.Caravans T H E PARAPHERNALIA O F TRAVEL i s an intriguing part of circus life. and a great subject to draw.
This is the world's first accurate image of the Moon. 199). It is Earths satellite. a n d a m o o n globe called t h e Selenographia. Oxford. are the real subjects in great landscape drawings. Beginners will often choose calm. surrounded by the bright instruments of centuries of navigation. Look closely at works by many artists and you will see that they have not represented hills. and meteor impacts have scarred. and take bold steps in emulating the swell of clouds and the forces of torrential water. learning to draw light out of dark. It now hangs on the staircase of the History of Science Museum. or the wind carries it away. and experiment. Weather is essential in all landscape drawing. when little stirs and empty blue skies offer even less to latch lines to. It is better to get up before dawn. sunny days. artists see for themselves that which is momentary and eternal. and the sea. how the soil is scorched. a n d a n astronomer w h o dedicated 20 years t o studying t h e M o o n . These conditions are very difficult to express well. pages o f softly i l l u m i n a t e d craters and lunar "seas" c o v e r e d in m a t h e m a t i c a l and s h o r t h a n d calculations. rivers. Russell d r e w this. and even how the Sun illuminates. makes his work by the act of walking. In this chapter Moon Pastel 1795 Drawing we experiment with charcoal. marking the ground with lines of footprints or by turning stones. Richard Long. how the mountain cut by ice and rain is now fleetingly lit. but it can be seen as a lens to our observation of this planet. our companion. t h e first-ever accurate image o f t h e M o o n ' s surface. William Turner is said to have had himself lashed to a ship's mast to comprehend the storm (see p. the face of the Moon. so J o h n Russell's tour de f o r c e drawing (opposite) was a masterpiece of observation in his time. t w o e n g r a v e d m a p s k n o w n as The Lunar Planispheres. and its draws the tides of the seas. or has cracked and fallen under the weight of water. 5 f t x 5 ft 6 in ( 1 5 2 x 1 6 8 c m ) J O H N RUSSELL . arranging them in perfect circles on the mountainside or in lines drifting out of sight beneath low clouds. they are the animators of your subject. to be ready to draw the new light as it breaks across the land. JOHN RUSSELL A p o r t r a i t pastelist t o King G e o r g e III o f England. England. Take chances against the rain and work with the wind or fog. the sun comes out to blind it. What they have drawn is the force of nature on these properties: how the wind heaves the night ocean. Just as NASA photographs of Earth have had a profound effect on the way we view our fragile home.Earth and the Elements I T MAY SEEM PERVERSE to start a chapter titled "Earth and the Elements" with an image of the Moon. a contemporary environmental artist. H e a l s o p r o d u c e d an a l b u m o f 1 8 0 exquisite pencil drawings. There is a sense of the heroic in drawing outside—we race to catch a form before the tide engulfs it. speculation. The pastel drawing was constructed from myriad telescopic observations almost 200 years before the Apollo Moon landing. By drawing such momentous and everyday events. The forces of nature. as opposed the physicality of Earth. trees.
a scratched ghost. painter. speed. and gives motion to each image. the government. like an umbrella forced inside-out.198 EARTH AND THE E L E M E N T S Air in Motion THE GREAT INVISIBLE SUBJECT o f these d r a w i n g s is t h e w i n d . and solidity. Dots and dashes suggest receding trees out of focus. Terrifying waves of merciless nature roar across the paper. He knew how the world bends and stutters under such gusts. lifts.Through political drawings he fired his sharp wit at the king. and pioneer ofexpressionism. fluttering heavily. Hazy vertical marks reveal buildings into the mist. a sail b r o k e n loose in a stormy marriage. we can soon learn to draw its force. Below. Hokusais sedate wind presses reeds a n d the j o u r n e y s o f young ladies. is already lost. Flapping kimonos and an onlooker turning his b a c k have the magic of a m o m e n t caught. undramatic b u t brimming with stylized realism. seeing how it shakes. and the legal profession. Fluid strokes inflate the woman's dress and pin shadows to the ground. has b e c o m e a hysterical kite. the bourgeoisie. This wife. Daumier's c a r t o o n shines with the brilliance of his comic memory. distance. T h e great master of English seascape is c o n d u c t i n g with his graphic energy. Crayon and limestone This is a lithograph. By Turner carries us to the heart of the maelstrom. T h e ship. and by observing its tides and eddies in our o w n environment. Danger of Wearing Balloon Petticoats UNDATED HONORE DAUMIER . A hard waxy was drawn across a heavy limestone Varying definitions crayon of lire and depths of tone conspire to give volume. serving a prison sentence for his views. sculptor. H O N O R E DAUMIER French satirical cartoonist lithographer.
painter. H o k u s a i in t u r n has since significantly influenced European art. horizontally then and of the it into the stream Plants also bend and flow right to Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 1802 81/2 HOKUSAI KATSUSHIKA x 131/2 in ( 2 1 7 x 3 4 3 mm) . from left print. Ship in a Storm c.M. W . A outline scratched of a skeletal into penciled ship is while and the waves. leans the whole composition swells around its fateful center.l o v e dw o r k s i n c l u d e 1 0 0 v i e w s o f M o u n t Fuji and 1 2 v o l u m e s o f Manga. TURNER KATSUSHIKA HOKUSAI Prolific J a p a n e s e c o l o r w o o d .W.M. T u r n e r w o r k e d in oils a n d w a t e r c o l o r s a n d s k e t c h e d c o p i o u s l y o n his travels. a n d his b e s t . seascape. including being lashed t o a ship's m a s t in o r d e r to study a storm. d e s i g n e r a n d b o o k i l l u s t r a t o r .b l o c kprintmaker. Landscape a n d city life w e r e his principal subjects. wind. AIR IN MOTION Pencil and watercolor subdued brushed. Wind direction wood-block This is a colored To represent the blows lifted flowed wind. absorbent watercolor and are Stains of splashed. and history painter w h o s e p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t a b o v e all w a s light. T h e r e a r e m a n y stories o f his p a s s i o n a t e w o r k i n g methods. into this very as pressed sheet The paper's through own coior is brought banks of mist and fog.i n f l u e n c e d b y examples o f W e s t e r n art obtained through D u t c h t r a d i n g in Nagasaki. T U R N E R British landscape. 1826 91/2 x 113/4 in ( 2 4 1 x 3 0 0 m m ) J.199 J. Hokusai direction (from clothing from has chosen which it the right).
and tossed o b j e c t s — a perfect subject in which artists can forget themselves. and t h e sea s t u d i e d f r o m his h o m e in Guernsey in t h e Channel Islands.200 ELEMENTS Storms STORMS CAN BE SEEN and drawn in two ways: first. lines of rain escorting them to b o u n c e and clatter. it is difficult to contemplate its brooding and night-soaked heart.28). as a subject and second. Leonardos Cloudburst of Material Possessions is o n e of his m o s t enigmatic and mysterious works. ink. as a gestural storm on the paper. He brings us to stare into a place that no sane human would enter. this is a b o m b a r d m e n t from o u r h o m e s . drawing was Hugo's principal means o f expression. In periods b e t w e e n writing. His subjects include ruins. composing banks of waves and dense. T h e very nature of b o t h is turmoil and an interweaving of elements. h a u n t e d shadows. this is a writer's narrative of terror. he blanketed the drawing in darkness. Le Bateau-Vision 1864 71/2 x 1 0 in ( 1 9 2 x 2 5 5 m m ) VICTOR H U G O . EARTH AND THE VICTOR HUGO French novelist and artist (see also p. An update on biblical showers of fish and frogs. active surfaces of water. or charcoal. fantasy palaces. inks. as if drawn j u s t this year. It looks so contemporary. with a brush. grab their b r u s h . Pen and brush Hugo drew first with pen and ink. Turner (see p. leaving nothing but a glimpse of moonlight glistening on the froth below. By contrast. water. D o m e s t i c o b j e c t s we can o w n and name fall from the clouds. and swim into the page. marks. T h e m e n a c i n g darkness of Hugo's storm b e l o w is so convincing. Opposite. Then.198) admires the majesty of nature.
Cloudburst of Material Possessions 1510-12 45/8 x 43/8 in ( 1 1 7 x 1 1 1 mm) L E O N A R D O DA VINCI . There is a little magic in recognizing many items from our homes something like a rake. together with half the contents of our garage. a bell. He bequeathed his drawings to a friend. envisioning machines centuries before their making (helicopters and bicycles. and a wheel. for example).LEONARDO DA VINCI Leonardo devised many artifacts of our modern lives. He was left-handed and wrote backwards in Italian from left to right. a hook. Each item that has crashed from heaven is drawn in such a way that we can feel Leonardo's nib picking it up in the speed of a doodle. It is interesting to speculate how engineering might have developed if his ideas had been shared with the world earlier Ink and chalk This is a pen and ink drawing with touches of black chalk. Above and below are examples of his mirror handwriting. and they passed through private hands for 400 years before becoming widely known.
thick. Claude is distinguished by. rich. and we can imagine standing over his shoulder. Whether land-. it is the unique calligraphic signature of the place in which we stand. C L A U D E LORRAIN French classical landscape painter draftsman. Segments The top half of the drawing is a view as we enter the valley. sea-. Nature Profiles Opposite below. EARTH AND THE Bryan cut the profile of a city. watching his hand and eye at work together. transferred it to a scroll. Over first lines. Even distilled from all other detail. She was inspired by her research of aerial plans of London and the story of an alien map butterfly (see caption). and dry marks in the foreground appear to be made with his finger. Paler. she teased away fragments of paper to illuminate her view. cooler tones receding into the distance are applied with a brush. In a very different work (opposite above).202 ELEMENTS THE PROFILE OF A HORIZON is a line we immediately recognize and respond to. a horizon line can trigger our recognition. In the lower half he has walked downhill a little. rapidly layering contours to shape place. or cityscape. atmosphere. and across to the right. which he used to unify his compositions.1638 85/8 x 121/2 in (219 x 320 mm) CLAUDE LORRAIN . Claude has used a fine nib to delineate segments of land as they recede into space. and mood simultaneously. Clare Bryan took panoramic photographs of the English South Downs. his unsurpassed handling of light. Claude Lorrain drew directly on location. and after tracing her captured line. and etcher who lived most of his life in 17th-century Rome. Views from Velletri c. made inside a book. Drawing with a scalpel. and famed for.
drawings Ideas of introduction Clare Bryan to research introduced down and led NATURE PROFILES and removal historical plans and aerial growth of London showing its population since Roman times. progressively settlement (cropped more and more paper is drawn away to show the expansion of human page of an around the river. and digital print-based works reflect upon the histories and poetry of "left behind and in-between spaces.203 Scalpel-drawn This book-bound drawing was inspired by the story of a foreign butterfly wrongly to Great Britain in 1912. source workisilluminatedby standing its lower edge on a CLARE BRYAN .The horizon was drawn with a City Landline 2003 271/2x 59 in (70 x 150 cm) scalpel. specialty bookbinder. 2001 CLARE BRYAN C L A R E BRYAN 3ritish artist.5-m)scroll. On turning the pages of City. printmaker graphic designer. Her recent paper photographic." Cut line This is a small section of a preparatory 5-ft(1. then hunted destroyed. The edges of each here) fade into the solid paper unpopulated with a scalpel landscape. and visiting professor at numerous art schools.
harder line. Artists have also used lime. tape. without touching the surface. Hold it over your drawing RANGE AVAILABLE Charcoal (in its several forms shown here) is loved or loathed by the beginner to whom it is often recommended because it produces pleasing results quickly. MEDIUM W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 5. B u n d l e s o f twigs were traditionally sealed into earthenware j a r s or wet clay and heated slowly and intensely in a fire or kiln. feather. THICK W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 2 Keep the tape above your drawing. Use any fine-point pen or pencil (I used a ballpoint) to draw a firm line on the back of the Big pieces are perfect for very large-scale drawings—even larger than yourself. LIFTING OUT This technique is a very easy method of drawing a crisp. b e e c h . 3 A white line is lifted out by the tape. In use. The same as above.204 E A R T H AND THE E L E M E N T S Charcoal CHARCOAL IS PRODUCED from wood baked slowly without exposure to air. Then lift it away. resulting in a pale line. Beware of cheap brands selling dyed chalk as compressed charcoal. 2. or fingertip. Not to be confused with square conte sticks (see p.54). a n d p l u m . CHALK CHARCOAL: Technically. but some specialists stock compressed charcoal in delicate square sticks. It is also easily erased if the maker of the mark is not happy with the result. CHARCOAL PENCIL: Types made by different manufacturers vary in quality and density of line. As its name implies. Boxes often contain a range of thicknesses to choose for different needs. they are all intended for fine work. between your middle finger and thumb. b l a c k e r . this does not exist. 1 Suspend a length of masking tape. Smooth paper accepts few particles. Alternatively. Lines are achieved by d e p o s i t i n g particles in the grain o f paper. and heavier than willow. sticky side down. 4. so it chars b l a c k as o p p o s e d to igniting a n d turning to ash. and offers a rich. Willow is the most c o m m o n wood. Essentially. it looks gray and feels like chalk. THIN WILLOW CHARCOAL: I used a piece like this to make the drawing opposite. black finish. 162) or graphite (see p. a n d m o r e i n d e l i b l e by soaking it in linseed oil. SQUARE COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Not often sold. 6. a rag. It c a n be m a d e duller. C h a r c o a l naturally glistens.m a d e c o m p r e s s e d charcoal. it is compressed and m o l d e d at high pressure. vine. Slightly dull the tape's stickiness before use t o prevent it from lifting out more than you intend. a piece of fresh bread. 7. It allows you greater precision in your mark-making than if you rub away the charcoal with an eraser. maple. the heel o f y o u r h a n d . . R o u g h paper c a n b e loaded. white line into the blackor grayness of willow charcoal. 3. A great find when available. It does n o t erase easily. blacker. fine. The tip snaps easily to renew a sharp edge if required. Try itworking on big paper covering a wall. leaving u n d e r t r a c e s of first thoughts. cylindrical. Charcoal lifts away from paper easily with the very light touch o f an eraser. resulting in a stick that gives a blacker. you can p u r c h a s e m a c h i n e . 1. COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Machine-made. only a little thicker.
9. pastels. .212-13 were made by altering the pressure applied to the charcoal. Layers can be peeled away to refresh its surface. 8 . T O R T I L L O N : This is a tight roll of paper used to blend charcoal. graphite. as is fresh (unbuttered!) bread. Different tones seen throughout the main drawing on pp. or any other dry media. Use cheaper (less sticky) for lifting out. Cotton swabs also work. I used a plastic eraser effectively on thinly applied charcoal. PEN: Any fine pen or pencil can be used to draw on the back of masking tape when lifting out. sold in several widths. Here. Lift out broader marks with a larger implement. 10. MASKING TAPE: An invaluable resource. Here we used a ballpoint. Use high quality (very sticky) to fix paper to walls and boards.205 ERASING Thickly applied charcoal quickly o v e r c o m e s a plastic eraser A w a r m (soft and tacky) putty eraser is more effective. CHARCOAL Lifting out This detail shows an example of where I used the lifting-out technique demonstrated opposite to draw flashes of lightning against rain clouds.
It is the visible effect of the atmosphere between where you stand and what you see in the distance. the more you encourage the viewer's imagination to join in and see. a less distinct middle ground composed of shapes and textures. an eraser your drawing book or a board and paper fixative (or hairspray).206 EARTH AND THE ELEMENTS Landscapes TREES ALONE OFFER MARVELOUS shapes to draw. Don't worry if it is cloudy: clouds add drama and perspective and make good subjects in themselves (see pp. MATERIALS In this first view there is only a foreground and middle distance. When you arrive. Pack several thick and thin sticks of willow charcoal.9 9 we noted that in response to visual stimulus. Excessive detail can be admired for its skill and achievement. our brains search for nameable things and will perceive complete pictures from very little information. but is often less evocative and engaging. and a cushion in a plastic bag to sit on. 9 8 . At its worst. Then I drew the shape of the tonal patches I perceived. it results in flat planes of clutter. begin by marking out several small squares on your paper. a reel of masking tape. Seeing tones . pack your materials (as advised below) and set off for a local view or your nearest arboretum. I relaxed my eyes out of focus to dissolve distracting detail into abstract patches of light and darkness. On p p . Ironically. especially when making first excursions into aerial perspective. to contain each of your compositions. The long view is hidden behind trees. This term simply means that as land rolls away into the distance. They are also good markers of receding space. and an abstract.212-13). Successful drawings often only suggest the qualities of the scene without overdescribing them. Landscape drawings are traditionally arranged in three parts: a detailed foreground. To experiment with drawing landscapes and the use of charcoal. details blur and colors grow paler and bluer. the less you describe. hazy distance.
It is better to give distinctly more pictorial space to one or the other (see below).207 LANDSCAPES In my second square I explored a simple view contrasting soft. your view is your inspiration. Exploring the view Redrawing the scene above. rounded. horizontal regions of grass. shadows. and broke a view through the hedge into the distance with a dark sky threatening rain. I have invented drama with diagonals set against each other I tilted the earth. the trunk of a bare tree. This composition turned out a little flat because I have an almost even quantity of earth and sky. Remember. dark trees with bright. full of information you can use to create what you want! Inventing drama .
For example. This first drawing serves as a process of arrival." . Circling a subject and drawing it from several views imprints on your memory a better understanding of its three-dimensional form. engine. s e e k places in light After my first drawing.104-05). England has embedded within it the decaying skeleton of a burned fishing boat. bare ribs.164-65) and a wire violin (pp. I am then able to home in on what interests me most for further study. Building on earlier studies of structure in space using shoes (pp. shade out of the glare of the sun.208 ELEMENTS Drawing in the Round WHEN DRAWING IN THE LANDSCAPE. 2 1 4 . your challenge now is to find a sculptural subject in the landscape. observing it from several views so as to better understand it as a whole. so the paper is not made blinding and your hand cannot cast a shadow on your work. making the scene below led me to focus on the decaying boat opposite. "Drawing in the round means to literally walk around your subject.1 5 my first drawing of the whole view of the Tiber led me to see the real subject of the day. settling my concentration. I usually begin by making an image of the whole view. EARTH AND THE FINDING THE SUBJECT Finding a remarkable subject is even better when you can circumnavigate it in an arena of space. taking with you your drawing book and pen. and seeing what the real choice of subject is. which was the flow of water over rocks. and tiller still standing proud. on p p . The mud of the tidal shore in Rye. Similarly.
careful lines to establish the skeleton that gives this wreck its distinct form. ROUND 2 In this tail-end view. Overleaf: Decaying Boat 4 . unfussy lines. its overall balance. Each n e w drawing gives a different insight. w h e n t h e sea recedes. DRAWING IN THE 1 Here. character. W h e n you have found your subject. looking more at the boat than at the paper From this low position I have emphasized how the boat is swallowed in mud by outlining its shadow on the ground. and structure. marking straight. 3 This impression notes the angle of the broken boat. and the order and shape of its component parts. I drew with quick. I spent equal time looking at the subject and the paper.209 SERIES OF STUDIES This stunning ghost o f a boat comes into v i e w t w i c e a day. The outline ties a shape of darkness to the boat like a weight so that it becomes part of its form. I looked more boldly at the planes and the dynamic of the sculptural craft My lines have become darker and more forceful as confidence in my understanding of the vessel grew. make a series o f drawings f r o m different positions.
I worked quickly to catch and weave the turbulent contrasts of rising wind and approaching water before the drawing could be washed away.Cloudburst THIS STORM DRAWING. hot-pressed drawing p a p e r (see pp. . was made with gentle but unhesitating s p e e d . m a d e on s m o o t h .20-21) using a thin stick of willow charcoal. L o o k i n g b a c k and forth from the heavens to firmly taped-down paper.
I drew with a needle-fine fiber-tip pen.Notes of Force T H E GREAT FLOWING TIBER RIVER has cut through Rome. . pocket-sized notebook. black. focusing on the river's eddies. and rhythmic detail as it passed through the ancient gully of the city. shaping the city. since ancient times. pulse. On the pages of a small.
.Mountains SITTING IN THE SHADE of a tree on the Greek island of Antiparos. The strong diagonal of the composition from bottom left to top right carries the eye through changes of height and focus from the foreground to the mountains beyond. I used a dip pen and waterproof India ink with brushed watercolor to draw the view.
or gestures. Wolfli was a Swiss draftsman. ADOLF WOLFLI One of the greatest masters of Art Brut. belief. which are essentially abstract. His drawings are collected and exhibited internationally and held by the Adolf Wolfli Foundation. Outsider artists. Perhaps in Western culture we bred this intuitive freedom out of ourselves in our insistence on complex figuration. many nonWestern cultures have highly sophisticated abstractions at the core of their art. It was not invented in the 20th century. From another viewpoint. opposite. and young children show us that abstract. expressive marks and shapes are at the core of natural. abstraction is not so easy to define. such as Adolf Wolfli. However. all pictorial representations are abstractions of reality. strike the paper to find form. My own work is firmly centered in figuration. and history. Many concepts and feelings can only be expressed through marks. liberating. It is actually its foundation and its infrastructure. Swirling. From one point of view. for example. sounds. Afterward. He made thousands of drawings to chronicle his complex life. spontaneous image-making. It also underpins and gives strength and unity to all figurative work. don't be timid. . As you approach the classes in this chapter. Internal workings of the mind were suddenly free to find a new language of expression. People are often scared by abstraction and see it as the enemy of figurative art. and Aboriginal art. Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape 1915 413/8 x 285/8 in (105 x 72. yet my kinship to abstraction is fundamental.8 cm) A D O L F WOLFLI Abstraction is a direct. precisely because it does not have to represent a physical object. be brave and enjoy them. Artists were given a different tool—a line threaded directly from their subconscious to their hand—and with it they began to map a bold new landscape of marks and concepts that would dramatically and forever change the face of Western art. picturing a stabilized world was impossible and Modernism rode forth with vigor. it is simply itself. and have been making abstract drawings for centuries—Japanese calligraphy. and poetic myth roar and cascade within his tightly framed pages. Berne. poet. The fate of Old World thinking was finally sealed with the brutality of World War I. direction. actions. The growing rise of Darwinian ideas coupled with Freudian and Marxist perspectives forced Western society to reconsider its origins and future. writer and composer who suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and was resident in the Waldau Aslyum near Berne.Abstract Lines T HE DEVELOPMENT OF W E S T E R N abstract art at the beginning of the 20th century significantly paralleled major changes in world thought. Not everything we know has a physical form in the world. and independent means of communication. drawn sound. fictional language. I begin every image by feeling its meaning. and it has always been with us. Museum of Fine Arts. writhing torrents of color. Indian mandalas. First marks. only rediscovered. An abstract mark is often a better conductor of a thought or feeling. and emotion.
It can proclaim mood. staining redbrown lines into the white surface. scrolling across the canvas in an intimate crescendo. Lines. Changes paper. rhythmically engaged with itself. A Neolithic chalk tablet bears cut lines that were slowly carved. as Twombly shows us opposite. Moisture produced rust. Abe works with materials such as soil. ice. This the paper rest within the amplifies framelike of the floor from the ceiling. and wood are also part of the work. Mamoru Abe prepares an image that will appear through the chemistry of iron.220 A B S T R A C T LINES Process and Harmony SOMETIMES A DRAWN LINE sings on the surface of its support. Twombly's mesmeric wax line worked over house paint is like a signature. quoting ink marks on a page. The Physical Space 1990 3 0 x 30 ft ( 9 1 4 x 9 1 4 cm) MAMORU ABE . iron. or. water. Below. and texture their bracing separation reaching between from beneath Pillars of the gallery are made part of this drawing by their inclusion in the paper. silence. and sensitivity with its thickness and pressure of touch. Iron rods in tone. Abe's physical drawing is a sculptural installation. and Assistant Professor of Fine A r t at Fukuoka University. Five forged steel shapes. forged steel. A line can be finished in a second. Sometimes it smolders like a deep shadow. texture. He travels widely to research ancient sacred sites. brass. it can keep reforming through the inherent repetition of a process. and patient watching. and temperature rim of floor space. and plaster in galleries and landscapes. salt. tone. sit in silent harmony. akin to stones in a Zen garden. MAMORU ABE Japanese sculptor and installation artist. Damp Japanese paper was laid over carefully arranged iron bars.
burials. PROCESS AND HARMONY Cut lines Chalk carves easily.Thesite's purpose is unknown.400BCE 21/4 x 21/4 in (58 x 58 mm) ARTIST UNKNOWN Language Over the course of fifty years. close to Stonehenge in Wiltshire.Twombly was presented with a Golden Lion award for lifetime achievement. such as the Rosetta stone. Precise lines suggest the use of a sharp flint The framed rectangle of this image is echoed in that of Abe's installation. This example is one of two chalk tablets found in a Late-Neolithic pit. that challenges the separation of word from image.England.000-2. CY TWOMBLY . At the 2001 Venice Biennale. and sensuous drawing from painting. Many of his graffiti-like combine abstract gestures with statements. Neolithic Chalk Tablet 3.221 ANCIENT CARVINGS Many ancient cultures have made and left behind drawings and texts carved into stones or animal bone. and American Indian petroglyphs (see p. emotive. The central pictorial space is also similarly cut and divided by the considered arrangement of straight lines. energetic. and the worship of the sun and ancient gods. theories suggest astrological observations. and Untitled 1970 Here we might seek to grasp letters in the turning of his line. Twombly has language works CY TWOMBLY Contemporary American artist who emerged through the 1950s New York art scene in the heyday of Abstract Expressionism and Action Painting. evolved a raw. the Babylonian world map.241).
broke new ground in the 1950s with graphic scores now considered among the most extreme. beautiful. Hugo. a configuration. A graphic score is a V I C T O R H U G O Hugo's abstract French novelist w h o m a d e m a n y drawings in m i x e d m e d i a ( s e e also p. said. interpret. His drawing writes the time of its own physical process by expressing the extreme concentration of the moment in which it was made. o f t e n e x p r e s s e d in v i s u a l t e r m s . have striven to break down old pictorial and musical structures to explore new and unfettered modes of expression.28).28. o r a pattern o f elements s o unified as a w h o l e t h e y c a n n o t b e e x p l a i n e d asa s u m o f parts. and let the drying meniscus deposit granules in linear drifts such as we would see in the satellite photographic mapping of rivers. Two Impressions Paper 1853-55 VICTOR HUGO Disk from a Cut-Out . Ink impressions When drawing nightscapes Hugo often laid paper disks in place of the moon. music manuscript requiring instrumentalists to improvise. abstract artists and composers unique. Similarity in gritty texture suggests that here. Bussotti. "There is nothing like dream to create the future. and participate in the composition. brushed night skies over them with ink then lifted the disks to reveal white moons. below. Here he appears t o have saturated the cut-out moon disks with gritty pigment. Both abstract drawing and composition involve the perfect sequencing of sounds and marks against space and silence. and inventive of his time. Marks across the center appear to be made with his fingers.222 ABSTRACT LINES Writing Time SINCE THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY." An innovator who never fails to surprise. The scores are also exhibited in galleries as visual art. Gestalt. here he anticipates abstract expressionism by 100 years. pressed them face down. Gestalt o f an unnameable thing. Texture Compare this drawing to Hugo's octopus on p. and lifted them away to leave impressions of watery planets and seas. abstract. drawing here can b e described in t e r m s o f a G e r m a n philosophical idea a b o u t is t h e i n s t a n t r e c o g n i t i o n t h e p o w e r o f m o m e n t . he mixed graphite into ink. opposite. too.
This is a page from Due Voci. we can feel their rhythm and easily attach sounds to them. Compare this work to that of Libeskind on p. Following the notes. Sound and rhythm This flickering rondo of sound written in pen on a hand-ruled stave can be heard in our imaginations as much as seen. 1958 SYLVANO BUSSOTTI . Circular Score for "Due Voci" c. Bussotti's first mature work.223 W R I T I N G TIME SYLVANO BUSSOTTI Italian avant-garde composer and principal 20thcentury exponent of the graphic score. His later works become increasingly abstract. a far cry from any recognized musical notation. 70 in relation to Bussotti's clustered notes to the left of his rondo and open space to the right.
MARIE LIEB Little is known of this w o m a n for w h o m the act of drawing was essential. Marie Lieb w a s a psychiatric patient in the Heidelberg Asylum. Germany. Visually.228-29) has been adjusted with each movement of the rags to draw a cosmos of balance and perfection. In music it can be felt in the diversity of plainsong and African d r u m m i n g . It will protect the place from evil and make a pleasing invitation to good spirits. an a n o n y m o u s w o m a n in the southeast Indian state o f Tamil Nadu m a k e s a ritual drawing o n the b r i c k courtyard o f h e r h o m e . cultures. centuries. making objects and images outside o f mainstream culture. Compositional rightness (see pp. they m a k e a visual a n d physical e c h o that t o u c h e s s o m e deep part of the human spirit. and c i r c u m s t a n c e s . for e x a m p l e . In the late 1 9 t h century. Cell Floor With Torn Strips of Cloth 1894 MARIE LIEB . d i p p i n g h e r fingers into a pot o f rice flour. Cloth is the simple instrument with which she has conducted and ordered her universe. This takes a form in most cultures. O p p o s i t e .224 A B S T R A C T LINES Chants and Prayers WHEN ABSTRACT LINES are organized in repetition. Torn cloth This is one of two published photographs showing Marie Leib's torn cloth strips significantly placed on her cell floor. and sufferers of psychiatric illnesses—who have always existed. Lieb is one o f countless thousands of "Outsider" artists—diverse individuals including ordinary citizens. T h e s e p h o t o g r a p h s d o c u m e n t the meditative drawings o f two w o m e n living worlds apart in different countries. social outcasts. it is found in the regularity o f ordered lines or a pattern. She tore c l o t h into strips a n d used these to draw patterns a n d symbols o n h e r cell floor.
animals. among others. Popular magazines feature new ideas each week and on special occasions there may be contests.000 images.HUYLER Photographer art historian. at the University of London and Ohio State University. Painted Prayers UNDATED STEPHEN R HUYLER . Materials such as rice flour. and for over 30 years has traveled extensively through the Indian subcontinent creating an edited archive of 200. Huyler is the author of Painted Prayers. lime. or flowers are marked or arranged on the ground or on the walls of homes. and in places of worship and celebration. In daily practice. Motifs are geometrical or based on plants. Skills are handed down through generations and from friend to friend.Theseare widely published in journals and are the subjects of international exhibitions.225 STEPHEN P. lecturer on the subjects of Indian art and Indian women's identity. cultural anthropologist. women pride themselves on never repeating a design. chalk. Designs and motifs Rangoii (or mandalas) are ritual drawings made by many millions of women across rural India. and birds.
They each find their pathways and equilibrium in atmosphere and suggestion. Oval moons eclipse each other and oscillate between landforms and portraiture. it is ruled and contained in one dimension by its interlocking ink-lined borders. BRIAN CATLING British sculptor poet. and choice of hues. but similarities in mood. and water-resistant layers of spray and enamel paint on thick paper. structure. With no depth of field. Ruskin School. and Fellow of Linacre College. Their energy can therefore be a purer expression of an idea or emotion. free from the direct imaging of known physical things. These two works present complex compositions with differing intensions and methods of making. rocks or heads in a subdued atmosphere of dream. Catling's works made for international galleries and museums involve drawing as a tool in their development and making. gold paint and iridescent gouache mixed with water. Untitled 2001 2001 153/4x 215/8 in ( 4 0 0 x 550 mm) BRIAN C A T L I N G . performance and installation artist. filmmaker Professor of Fine Art. Catling's abstract drawings are usually made in series and in parallel to written poetry and sculptural installations.226 ABSTRACT LINES Compositions ABSTRACT DRAWINGS ARE LARGELY or entirely free from using the viewer's eye to track and unfold layers of meaning. Mixed media This is a collage of torn white and gray tissue paper previously stained with ink. Oxford. Catling's torn paper shapes and shadows spill light out of their frame like a fractured mirror. figurative representation—that is. Klee's mathematical maze of thinly washed surface resonates with meticulous planning.
and brush. Line and surface Klee observed the visual capacity of lines to push or pull within an image. ruler. whereas tonal surfaces are perceived more immediately as a whole.97-99.227 PAUL K L E E Swiss painter and sculptor (see also p. Polyphon Gefasstes Weiss (White Framed Polyphonically) 1930 131/8x95/8 in (333 x 245 mm) Paul-Klee-Stiftung. and might be read as active or passive.31). Klee painted. and wrote copiously about the natures and relationships of color and form. Kunstmuseum Bern PAUL KLEE . It is a geometric harmony of straight lines and tonally graded flat colors that by their arrangement draw our eyes inward to their white center. He explained his polyphonic painting as "a harmony of several color voices" searching for a visual parallel to music. Geometric harmony This is a work on paper made with a sharp ink pen. We can see some diagrammatic examples of this among the optical illusions on pp. philosophized. Klee also felt that a line represents the passing of time. watercolor. drew.
Thisexercise will help you start. Feel for it when youdraw. "Whenall pictorial elements come together in pleasing and perfect balance. Set up a sheet of paper with a rectangle drawn on it. It is also found in nature. and ten straight sticks painted black. As y o u m o v e them around. s o m e will be more or less h a r m o n i o u s . they are just. a b u n c h of keys. M a n y of their inter-relationships will be meaningless. W h e n m o v i n g objects around in your yard. In his b o o k The Education of a Gardener. or degree of figuration. a glass. media. regardless of style. or on a page. there is a clear feeling when. w i l l c h a n g e w i t h e v e r y r e a r r a n g e m e n t . Seek it when looking at other artists' work and in your everyday environment. and put them o n a tray. Take. the late garden designer Russell Page explains. culture. It is found in all great art and design. their impact. There is a single m o m e n t w h e n all proportions. angles. after being continuously adjusted. and an apple. but an easy o n e to u n d e r s t a n d . the impression y o u receive from t h e m . for instance. and elements settle in definitive balance. "I have experimented endlessly with this idea." . This balance is what every artist and designer searches a n d feels for when making an image. they reach a perfect position. or home.228 ABSTRACT LINES Being "Just" A SENSE OF "JUST" (or rightness) is a difficult concept to explain." SETTING UP Justness can be harmonious or deliberately discordant. b u t e v e r y n o w a n d again you will hit on an arrangement w h i c h appears just.
A stick touching the rectangle links the composition to the frame. 2 3 In the step above." Move the sticks to find alignments and imagined perspectives. Within a rectangle on a flat sheet of paper set about making a composition using no other rule than a sense of "just. as shown here. W h e n the composition falls into place. Here. Feel for the rightness of their grouping and their relationships to surrounding spaces. horizontals dominate the top. Arrange them so they touch or cross in a series of intersecting balances. horizontals dominate the lower area. In the final step (left) there is an even balance.229 WHERE TO START Take ten sticks of equal length.56-57). fix it with glue. making the composition seem to float beneath. painted black. B E I N G "JUST" 1 Arrange your ten sticks in t w o groups of five. suggesting a horizon. which now becomes a tight frame. Move the sticks out into the rectangle. Remember the drawn rectangle is a part of the composition (see pp. .
220.. or discordance.Youwill also need spare white paper. stain and dry a sheet of tissue paper using blueink.230 ABSTRACT LINES Collage H E R E W E EXPERIMENT with collage. or even strident. feels "just" (see pp. and tones. which is the shifting. "My understanding is that every object [or shape] emanates—sends out vibrations beyond its physical body which are specific to itself. Returning to Russell Page. correction fluid or white paint. scissors. a compass. they become a scaffold for the addition of further textures. harmonious. Images and fragments torn from day-to-day life can be brought together to make a chorus of ideas and emotions. hard or soft.69 and Abe's installation on p. To prepare for this lesson.. This principal also applies to three-dimensional drawings such as Gaudi's work with wire and weights on p. he went on to say ". Cut or torn layers and shapes. ready-made depths and surfaces. colors. Collage offers the artist a liberating palette of SETTING UP This lesson in collage is a direct continuation of the compositional lines made in the previous class. found or made items. an infinite range of voices and meaning." overlapping placement of materials on a flat plane. Once the ten painted black sticks are set and glued in place. you start composing by adding or subtracting shapes and textures and using colors and tones to achieve the impression you want to m a k e — w h e t h e r dramatic or s u b d u e d . and black ink.228-29). glue. colors and textures can be manipulated until their pictorial harmony." (Russell Page) .
solidity. draw.228) in front of you. This can also give a sense of fragmentation or punctuation to the composition. COLLAGE 1 Regular-sized pieces of white paper are moved over the surface to disrupt the even lines. Obscuring the blue disks. . they deepen pictorial space. and with a compass and scissors. correction fluid and ink marks add further dimensions. four circles of blue tissue paper. In the last step (left).The single disk that is folded with its straight edge facing up appears heavier than those that are flat. and shadow to thepicture. Cut six small rectangles the same proportion as your whole image.231 WHAT TO DO Lay the final step of the previous lesson (p. Glue them in place once they feel "just" Translucent circular disks of tissue paper give color tone. 2 3 Torn white paper moved over the surface adds masks of rough-edged irregular volume. then cut out.
and expectation." [Tanchu Terayama. .Zen Calligraphy HITSUZENDO. is the practice of Zen through the calligraphic marks of a brush dipped in carbon ink. Hitsuzendo drawings aspire to "breathe with the energy and vitality of eternal life" achieved through "a state of no mind—beyond thought. Zen Brushwork]. A MODERN JAPANESE meditative art form inspired by the teachings of Yamaoka Tesshu (1836-1888). emotion.
I flicked spatters of ink and rubbed the paper with a wet and a dry brush to achieve these effects. discord is balanced against rhythm to create mood. .Nocturnes IN THIS QUARTET of semi-abstract drawings made with India ink. Lines made with a steel dip pen take on a scratchy nervousness. These vibrate against washes of shadow and pitch-black mass.
sculptures. and the faces of God have for centuries given artists a feast for the extremes of their imagination. or in smoke. We watch with captivated pleasure movies such as The Fly. a Catherine wheel of drawn sparks spiraling around the quietly resolute saint. happen to us. our literate and more secular Western society still hungers for another world and to ravenously indulge its fascination for the marvelous. impossible. all of which originated as hundreds of drawings. I was on a train passing through Nuneaton. a collaboration between the two will ensure that your drawings glow with originality. look for images in the folds of clothing. . We love our fear of the hybrid—ideally.Gods and Monsters OUR SACRED AND SECULAR need to visualize demons. Neither should be slave or master. scales. in the cracks of walls. aliens. Perhaps the Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 1485 121/4 x 9 in (312 x 230 mm) MARTIN SCHONGAUER most important conclusion in this final chapter is to advise you to develop your skills in parallel with the joy of your unfolding imagination. To learn to flex your imagination. and stained-glass windows deliver powerful visual sermons to the once-illiterate populace. Star Wars. Monsters take advantage of both. and the Alien trilogy. a human-animal mix that implies this could MARTIN SCHONGAUER German painter and engraver who settled to work in Colmar Alsace. Reading the place name I momentarily glimpsed an alternative meaning. which were widely distributed and influential in his time. beasts. feathers. which is to have eaten a nun—it inspired the drawing on p. movie studios now brim with as many monsters as the visual art of the Medieval and Renaissance Church. thousands of paintings. we select details of animals farthest from ourselves and that are widely thought disturbing—reptilian and insect features. When creating monsters. paradise. Depictions of God or of gods in the contexts of daily life. Throughout this book images are presented to excite and surprise and drawing classes created to increase your confidence. serpentine tails. our eye circulates around a flutter of leather and scaly wings. For example. We then add substances we dislike: unidentified fluids. Humans are equally troubled by the imperceptibly small and the enormous. Be inspired by the irrational comedy of word association or puns. Here. Fantasy is most successful when founded on strong and familiar visual logic.247. The salvation of heaven and terrors of hell are represented equally—enough to make any sinner shudder. Images we are now surrounded by bear testimony to the power and resourcefulness of their collective imagination. Lord of the Rings. England. In the Christian churches of Europe. for example. angels. and damnation are found in most world faiths. and deep fur—and we alter their scale. Schongauer is best known for his prints. Today. or strange. wings. Feeding this demand.
Other drawn versions of this image are more savage and frightening. reading from a book of asses. This continuity enriches the making of art and our heritage. plain wall suggests a blinkered view of nothing. The high. The well-dressed mule is cumbersome. Opposite below. hags. a wave to join Achilles' chase of Hector. we see the international icon of stupidity. This act defines the vision and continues the line of spirit guides. In this softer aquatint he poses for his portrait Textured background The aquatint process has been used to great effect in making a gritty toned background. whose impassioned work begins with light tapestry cartoons. Goya later recorded the horrors of Napoleonic occupation. and follies of court through copious graphic works including his best-known prints. Aquatint Goya has drawn a learned man as an ass. it allows the mule to stand forward. barren land rising like MYRIAD CHAINS RUN THROUGH ART HISTORY. Saturn devouring his son. Many students leave white backgrounds in their work. and men clubbing each other to death. and exposed the superstitions. In this ass. portraits. Los Caprichos. Pictorially. F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A Spanish court painter printmaker and draftsman. which can swamp the subject Here. a Shoshone seeking guidance and power meditates at the sacred site of a petroglyph. below. and church murals. Visions experienced in front of the drawing sometimes instruct the making of a new one. Near the end of his life he made his "Black Paintings" on the walls of his home. deranged masses. Violent white marks symbolizing Achilles' rage resonate with the energy of Twombly's script on p.30. rushing. They depict as if by lamplight the devil and witches. to Picasso's similarly tight. Goya's plainly textured gray background pushes back the space behind the illuminated simply subject. Compare his dark. Opposite. his lover a dog. Paul Thomas's studies of Picasso and Twombly can be traced directly. noisy seascape on p.240 GODS AND M O N S T E R S Marks of Influence marking the influence of one artist upon another. vanity. crammed tightly at his desk. such asinine behavior can be hereditary. Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 1799 81/2 x 6 in (218 x 154 mm) FRANCISCO DE GOYA .220. The title "And So Was His Grandfather" adds that should we not already know. quoting great paintings and popular culture to add cunning twists to his satires. Francisco de Goya was a master of borrowing. He would be graceless if he stood.
Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range UNDATED ARTIST UNKNOWN . or of the water Chipped image This is a sacred creature of the sky chipped onto rock at Dinwoody Lake. It was made with a sharp implement. Achilles Chases Hector 1996 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) PAUL THOMAS SHOSHONE PETROGLYPH The Shoshone people of Wyoming name petroglyph sites Poha Kahni. White marks like flashes of light are cut though graphite with an eraser to reveal the paper beneath. Wyoming. Graphite marks Here Achilles chases Hector around the walls of Troy before killing him. ideals. perhaps a stone. A vivid spectrum of energized graphite marks and a masterly composition give this drawing vitality and speed. meaning "place of power. Simple wall stones cleverly state their cold solidity while also fading from our attention as the scene roars by. Wind River Reservation. Thomas conducts his explorations in the mine of Greek and Roman mythology. of the earth. Parallel lines within the body of the figure are likely to denote power.241 MARKS OF INFLUENCE PAUL T H O M A S British contemporary artist whose epic graphic work questions and reflects upon issues of European identity. values. and personal and social struggles." Each sacred image drawn into rock belongs to one of three realms in the Shoshone world: the realm of the sky. by a supplicant in a trance of meditation.
we see parallel slanting pale marks that might have been made with fresh bread—a very effective eraser used before the wide availability of rubber or plastic. They float toward us like a horrid visitation. and writer In contrast t o the light and visual accent of contemporary Impressionism. We may feel safe so long as the eye looks heavenward. the writers Joris-Karl Huysmans and Stephane Mallarme. Compare worked textures throughout the whole of this image to those found throughout Anita Taylor's charcoal drawing on p. and scuttle over all known reality. The monsters of Bosch grew from his observations of beggars going about their trade in 15th. The Eye Like a Strange Mounts Balloon 165/8 x131/8in (422 x 332 mm) ODILON REDON 1882 Toward Infinity . Here we see how he evolved their injuries into new limbs and warped proportions. lifting its cranial passenger over a seascape of repose. ODILON REDON French painter draftsman. which sometimes—half-dressed and carrying a familiar trophy— stride. Our subconscious can be drawn with pleasure and ease. Redon's eyeball balloon rises up. crawl.204-05 will enable you to produce a similar effect of white lines shining out of dark charcoal. Redon explored the darker side of the human imagination through symbols and mysticism. as he did the grass.and 16th-century Holland. Techniques demonstrated on pp. graphic artist. 115. Children are also delighted to invent a monster or ghoul.242 MONSTERS of the unknown is a classical and constant occupation for the artist. T H E EXPLORATION AND DEPICTION Hauntings Grandville has drawn a scurrying zoo of half-known demons and animals that appear to have been stolen from the glass eye of the microscope. the shock would be extreme. H e was influenced by his friends. GODS AND Erasure In this charcoal drawing. below left. Redon lifted them out with some sort of eraser. Lifting out Fine strings of the hot-air balloon appear dark against the sky and light against the balloon. to the right of the balloon. If it were to turn and stare this way.
This image is from one of Grandville's best-known publications. sucker-faced creatures dash and trundle toward it They are drawn solidly to emphasize their earthbound weight. include The Haywain. and Ship of Fools. Quill and ink This typical Bosch monster is a quill drawing in bistre ink The phrasing of light and contour here is masterly. 1840 61/8 x41/2in ( 1 5 5 x 1 1 5 mm) GRANDVILLE HIERONYMUS BOSCH Dutch painter Bosch's highly detailed iconographic religious panel paintings. teeming with the exhilaration of unrestrained fantasy. HAUNTINGS Engraving This is an engraving made so that Grandville's original drawing could be reproduced. Garden of Earthly Delights. Most of his work is in the Prado Museum. Smiling. The quality of the line is therefore uniform throughout. His other major works include Metamorphoses du Jour (1828). A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects c.243 J E A N I G N A C E ISIDORE GERARD ("GRANDVILLE") French graphic artist and political satirist. grimacing. which is still available today. and he illustrated the Fables of La Fontaine and Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe. Light shines from the right. Comic little headbands of waving hair express more hysteria than fear. Les Animaux (1840). Last Judgment. Madrid. Two Monsters UNDATED 45/8 x61/2in (117 x 163 mm) HIERONYMUS BOSCH .
hatched lines. and dog. remembering the cavernous. In her studio. Grimes' delicately cavorting figures dive into and consume each other. poet. and engineer Among Michelangelo's great works are the painted ceiling and altar wall of the Sistine Chapel. Michelangelo's dragon. However. A snake eating its own tail is a universal image of the eternal and continuous. lion. snake. and mist-swathed land. Chalk and ink A quill dipped in brown ink was worked over black chalk on this reused sheet. pinnacled. a stunning hybrid of a swan. Scaly. but in the seductive landscape of Leonardo da Vinci's oil painting Madonna of the Rocks. and marble sculptures including Pieto. gamboling copulations. as we might expect. and play with its perfection and meaning. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI Florentine painter sculptor. Two previously drawn faces become humorous antagonists to the beast. wraps and coils its lithe body ready to strike or whimper at a touch. below. They share between them the pleasures of inventing a hybrid beast. muscular tension is carved out of the paper using layered.244 GODS AND MONSTERS Convolutions THESE CONVOLUTED DRAWINGS were made almost 5 0 0 years apart. Opposite. the dome of the Vatican. His entire drawing wrestles and weaves the viewer's eye into its retracting folds. Dragon 1522 10 x 133/8 in ( 2 5 4 x 3 3 8 m m ) MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI . architect. sometimes artists purposefully tie a knot in the configuration to disturb. she formed a series of ghostly pale. St Peter's square. and dying slaves. phrased over the contours of form and bridging darker areas of shadow. Grimes found the genesis of her beast not among animals. topple. David.
boards finished paper. details evolved slowly using a drier brush.245 CONVOLUTIONS O O N A GRIMES British contemporary artist and professor of printmaking at the Ruskin School. Ink-wash delicately gouache (smooth) and gouache brushed drawing on This is a and was hot-pressed Shadows The dark shadow of the Other the ink-wash earth was made with a brushstroke of ink laid into wet paper. Grimes exhibits internationally and features in the collections of the New York Public Library and the Victoria and Albert Museum. London. each one iridescent and crumbly like a weathered while oyster. Oxford. her under heavy here. It is one of a series of fragile earth figures inspired by rocks. and the Camberwell and Slade Schools of Fine Art. London. How Clever of God #84 2002 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) O O N A GRIMES . The image formed directly without first making a pencil outline. The large space around figure has been cropped Grimes drawings to flatten presses them.
SABLE-HAIR LINER: Made with ordinary sable hair surrounding an extralong. Always clean them thoroughly. Soaps purchased from good art supply stores will gently cleanse particles of pigment that become trapped in the hairs or ferrule. dense. materials. SABLE-HAIR RIGGER: Made with very long kolinsky sable hairs." 6. others are as fine as a whisker with a gentle touch. It is still relatively small in the total range of Japanese brushes. and hold prodigious weights of ink or paint. S Y N T H E T I C . 2.H A I R LINER: Very responsive oriental-style liner This to the touch. thicknesses. drawing tool extending the arm. which holds long sable hair This brush holds large amounts of ink for long lines and points well for detailed work. POINTED SQUIRREL-HAIR MOP: With a synthetic quill ferrule and extra high inkholding capacity. making rt ideally suited to Japanese painting and small-scale calligraphy. L A R G E R S Y N T H E T I C . 7. with a fine point for delicate work 4. SYNTHETIC-HAIR BRUSH: Bound in a synthetic ferrule with good inkholding capacity and good spring and control. and never leave them standing on their tip in a jar of water. It has exceptional painting characteristics.Theyhold plenty of ink and make continuous. SQUIRREL-HAIR S W O R D LINER:This brush has a maximum ink-holding capacity and an extremely fine and flexible point 8. LARGER JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with natural hair held in a plastic ferrule on a bamboo handle. P O I N T E D T R A D I T I O N A L WRITER: The ferrule is made from a small duck quill. washes. Slightly less flexible than the squirrel-hair sword liner 9. SMALL JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with sable hair. SYNTHETIC-HAIR LINER: This brush gives a medium line and is firm with a spring to the touch.H A I R RIGGER: Made with long synthetic hair for fine-point work It has a good ink-holding capacity and is slightly more resilient than sable hair with more "snap. fingers. needle-sharp center of kolinsky red sable hair. and texture. ink-laden tip allow an expression that is beyond the linear. The living marks of a wet. Shorter brushes designed for other purposes run out of ink more quickly. 10. all perfect for drawing and. Suitable for wash techniques but also capable of very fine detail. flowing. This brush has a broad wash capability and can achieve a very wide range of marks. M T RA S AEIL . JAPANESE PAINTING BRUSH: Made with natural hair. liners. and effects. between them. 3. this brush has a soft drawing tip and small ink-holding capacity. 13.246 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brushes T H E BRUSH IS A VOLUPTUOUS and delicate weights. 12. Some used by master calligraphers are 2-3 in (5-8 cm) in diameter 11. SYNTHETIC-HAIR S W O R D LINER: A lining brush with high ink-holding capacity and a fine point. and writers. and very fine lines. The brushes shown here are a mixture of This is a selection of riggers. return them to their pointed shape. it has good wash capabilities. the very opposite of pencil or silver point. and has a fine tip for detailed work. Some are bold. 1. How you care for your brushes will determine how long they last. and wrist into a fluid and soft touch. shape. Brushes vary in size. giving a variety of lines. This design supplies the fine tip with a long continuity of ink 5. It is capable of very fine pointing. ideally suited to drawing. it has good inkholding capacity and is very flexible.
247 BRUSHES .
It also depends on the angle at w h i c h it is held. the speed of the s t r o k e . and spatters. length. unglazed earthenware dish.) I . the texture and a b s o r b e n c y of the paper ( w h i c h m a y be d a m p or dry). w i t h m y face close. I rubbed a block of Chinese ink (see p.35) into two tablespoons of water in a shallow.248 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brush Marks A S I N G L E BRUSH will m a k e an e n o r m o u s range of m a r k s depending u p o n the width. SETTING UP Blowing spots T h e s e t h r e e s p i d e r y c r e a t u r e s (above right and below) w e r e m a d e by d r o p p i n g s p o t s o f ink f r o m a b r u s h o n t o t h e p a g e and. and to make pools and stains o n the page. and type of its hairs. I had left the end of the ink block in the water overnight to make it easier to dissolve. the degree of pressure applied. splashes.246-47). and above all w h e t h e r the b r u s h is saturated with pigment or relatively dry. Here I drew with a soft Japanese painting brush (see pp. A single brush has almost balletic potential to draw fine or undulating lines and curves. b l o w i n g h a r d o n t h e m several t i m e s t o disperse t h e ink ( c l o s e y o u r eyes if y o u t r y this. softness.
a n d b r u s h . b l e e d i n g f r o m strokes b e l o w left. BRUSH MARKS Wet and dry strokes A m o n g these concentrated drawings ink made into with the same w a t e r y lines. w e see fine lines and s p o t s .249 Gritty texture T h e details o f t h e largest creatures b e l o w and opposite s h o w the granular texture of Chinese b l o c k ink. . a n d t h e w a y it d i s t r i b u t e s w h e n t h e b r u s h is d a b b e d o n its s i d e . t h e effects of the b r u s h r u n n i n g o u t o f ink.
. I borrowed small and fragile specimens from the University Museum of Natural History.Monsters THESE LITTLE CREATURES o f i n k and i n v e n t i o n were b o r n out of animal and bird studies. Oxford. until we look again. and used their detail to draw new creatures that might at first seem familiar.
Madrid. . They are a pair and hang opposite each other. two of my own drawings show you how Goya's devil (below) is based on the shape of Murillo's boy on a horse (top right). I found relationships between all four paintings in terms of shapes.Goya's Monsters W I T H CUNNING BRILLIANCE. thin works titled The Witches' Sabbath and The Procession of St. formal composition. Goya often invented his monsters out of characters seen in other painters' works. Here. Through studying and drawing these great paintings I have discovered that they are based on a pair of similarly long. Goya's witches have been literally drawn and evolved out of the shapes of Murillo's prophet and pilgrims. showing us that gallery study is not just for the student and beginner. are two long. thin works made by Bartolome Murillo in Seville about 120 years earlier. Among his "Black Paintings" in the Prado Museum. and narrative twists. With further research. Isidore.
drawn rapidly and with great joy. . Sometimes drawings come out of nowhere and surprise even the artist.Consumed THIS IS A SERIES OF CARTOONS I m a d e s o m e years ago. little comments on politeness and sexual politics.
o f t e n d i s t o r t e d forms and vivid colors.m e d i a d r a w i n g . Bleed T h e e f f e c t o f t w o w e t colors running into one another o r o n e color applied t o a w e t surface a n d a l l o w e d t o d i s p e r s e . Erasure T h e a c t o f r e m o v i n g a n i m a g e f r o m a surface. F r o m t h e G r e e k kallos.The plate is t h e n r o l l e d w i t h ink a n d polished with a rag. Engraving 1. tapestry. D a m p p a p e r is laid o n t o p . w h e n a p e r s o n is p a i n t e d standing a g a i n s t a w i n d o w .m a d e paper. and readymade objects arranged and stuck o n t o a flat surface. linseed oil o r egg y o l k Caricature A representation Contour line A line t h a t f o l l o w s t h e s h a p e o f a surface. Contre jour A F r e n c h t e r m m e a n i n g " a g a i n s t day. A " s h a l l o w d e p t h o f field" m e a n s t h e p i c t u r e appears t o have only a shallow s p a c e inside i t Diffuse T o s o f t e n o r m a k e less brilliant. Calligraphy Beautiful h a n d w r i t i n g . See also Hotpressed papers. U s e d as a c o r r e c t i n g device o r pictorial game. T h e m o v e m e n t was started by a g r o u p o f French artists including H e n r i Matisse. pressurized t o o l used f o r spraying fine mists o f s m o o t h c o l o r P i g m e n t is d e l i v e r e d b y a j e t o f air n o t t h e bristles o f a brush. a r e r o l l e d t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders. w h e n v i e w e d f r o m a specified point. r a t h e r t h a n r e c o r d e d o n a film o r plate. It can also seal a silver p o i n t d r a w i n g t o p r e v e n t t h e oxidization (browning) o f t h e Drypoint A d r a w i n g is s c r a t c h e d directly o n t o a m e t a l plate w i t h a m e t a l t o o l h e l d like apen. charcoal. t h e l i g h t is b e h i n d h i m o r her. A p o t e n t i a l l y h a r s h m e t h o d o f p r o d u c i n g t o n e s in a d r a w i n g . A l s o c a l l e d t h e h o r i z o n line. Anamorphic distortion Stretching an i m a g e across a p i c t u r e surface so t h a t it can o n l y b e u n d e r s t o o d .c e n t u r y Italian t e r m m e a n i n g "clear-obscure. Fixative Liquid acrylic resin a n d l a c q u e r t h i n n e r usually a p p l i e d as a n a e r o s o l s p r a y m i s t t o t h e surface o f a d r y . o r o t h e r (usually large) w o r k — s e e Pouncing. Camera lucida A n optical device t h a t p r o j e c t s an image o f an o b j e c t o n t o a plain s u r f a c e so t h a t it can be traced. In t h e Far East calligraphy is a highly r e s p e c t e d a r t f o r m .c e n t u r y painting m o v e m e n t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e use o f b o l d . A l s o called r i n g l e t shading. S o m e t i m e s f e r r u l e s a r e m a d e o f plastic o r o t h e r materials. a n d given t h e n a m e Sho. Eye level T h e i m a g i n a r y h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e a t t h e s a m e h e i g h t as t h e a v e r a g e p e r s o n ' s eyes. Fauvism A n early 2 0 t h . usually at a n a c u t e angle t o t h e s u r f a c e . m e a n i n g " t o stick" Dry media M e d i a t h a t a r e n o t w e t o r o i l y — f o r e x a m p l e . a n d attaches t h e m t o t h e s u p p o r t — f o r example. Aerial perspective The effect of the a t m o s p h e r e o v e r distance as it lightens t o n e s a n d cools c o l o r s progressively t o w a r d t h e horizon. T h e b l a n k e t s g i v e t h e p a p e r its rough texture o r "tooth. T h e name " n o t " simply refers t o t h e fact t h a t t h e cylinders are n o t h o t in t e m p e r a t u r e . L a t e r it c a m e t o m e a n h i g h l y c o n t r a s t e d light effects. Composition T h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e p a r t s o f an i m a g e t o m a k e u p the whole. Acid-free paper P a p e r w i t h a neutral p H t h a t will n o t darken o r d e t e r i o r a t e excessively w i t h age. Collage C o l l e c t e d materials such as c o l o r e d p a p e r s . t h e field is t h e a p p a r e n t a n d b e l i e v a b l e space inside t h e p i c t u r e . s u c h as a d r a w i n g o r painting. t o g e t h e r w i t h a t h i c k felt b l a n k e t T h e w h o l e s a n d w i c h o f l a y e r s is t h e n railed t h r o u g h t h e press t o m a k e a p r i n t D r y p o i n t is a very portable and immediate m e t h o d o f printmaking. Cartoon 1. Camera obscura A d a r k e n e d c h a m b e r i n t o w h i c h an i m a g e o f w h a t is o u t s i d e is received t h r o u g h a small o p e n i n g o r lens a n d f o c u s e d in natural c o l o r o n a facing surface. A i r b r u s h e s are u s e d in t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c o m i c s . It is p u t o n a Body color See Gouache. Blending M e r g i n g t w o o r m o r e neighboring colors o r tones t o g e t h e r using a tortillon. W o r d s o r symbols are Cold-pressed papers P a p e r manufactured with a "not" o r " r o u g h " surface. in w h i c h parts o f an image are depicted v e r y brightly and dramatically against d a r k n e s s . Ferrule T h e s h o r t m e t a l t u b e t h a t s u r r o u n d s a n d g n p s t h e hairs o f a p a i n t b r u s h a n d fixes t h e m t o t h e brush handle. for example. Fixative lightly glues t h e d r a w i n g t o t h e surface o f t h e p a p e r t o p r e v e n t smudging. T h e prints t a k e n from t h e s e plates o r blocks.d i m e n s i o n a l i m a g e . written with a broad-nibbed pen o r brush. Chiaroscuro A 1 7 t h . chance mark-making. a n d g r a p h i t e . Conservation grade D e s c r i b e s a range o f materials t h a t d o n o t d e c a y and cannot be broken d o w n by insects. Field In a t w o .256 GLOSSARY Glossary Accidental drawing Random. pastel. in w h i c h t h e subject's distinctive features o r peculiarities are deliberately exaggerated f o r c o m i c o r g r o t e s q u e effect. 2. 2." It w a s first given t o t o n a l paintings m a d e in o n e c o l o r — s e e Grisaille. s u c h as a s c r e e n . R e m b r a n d t is a great master o f chiaroscuro. p r i n t i n g press face up." D e s c r i b e s a p a i n t i n g in w h i c h t h e light s o u r c e is b e h i n d t h e s u b j e c t F o r e x a m p l e ." " N o t " p r e s s e d p a p e r is r o l l e d a s e c o n d t i m e w i t h o u t blankets t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders t o p r o d u c e a s m o o t h e r b u t still slightly t e x t u r e d s u r f a c e . C o p p e r p l a t e engravings w e r e widely used t o r e p r o d u c e images b e f o r e p h o t o g r a p h y . Also called accelerated perspective. Crosshatching Parallel lines d r a w n across o n e a n o t h e r at right angles. Blotting T h e use o f a b s o r b e n t m a t e r i a l t o lift a w a y excess liquid. p h o t o g r a p h s . as o p p o s e d t o t h e s t r a i g h t e d g e o f a sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has b e e n machine-trimmed. A l s o called m u s e u m g r a d e . so t h a t ink r e m a i n s o n l y in t h e g r o o v e s o f s c r a t c h e d lines. m e a n i n g "beauty". R o u g h p a p e r is m a d e b e t w e e n t w o blankets t h a t . A h u m o r o u s d r a w i n g o r parody. Bracelet shading C u r v e d parallel lines t h a t f o l l o w t h e c o n t o u r s o f f o r m . Binder A substance t h a t holds particles o f p i g m e n t t o g e t h e r in a paint f o r m u l a t i o n . n e w s p a p e r cuttings. A f u l l . p r a c t i c e d meditatively w i t h a brush. Deckle edge T h e i r r e g u l a r e d g e o f a s h e e t o f m o l d . F r o m t h e French v e r b coller. A g e n e r a l t e r m t h a t describes t h e various processes o f c u t t i n g a design i n t o a plate o r b l o c k o f m e t a l o r w o o d . In t h e W e s t p e n calligraphy is u s e d t o c r e a t e f o r m a l a n d d e c o r a t i v e t e x t s . Air brush A mechanical.s i z e d r a w i n g m a d e for t h e purpose o f transferring a design t o a painting. o r will o n l y a p p e a r n o r m a l .
and masking off areas of a drawing that the artist wishes to keep untouched by media applied above or beside the tape. oil-based printing ink is rolled evenly onto a smooth metal. Fugitive A term given to a pigment that it is not stable. It is then peeled away. white. Padua.257 metal line. 2. rock. Medium A generic term for art Key A painting is said to be "high key" when the colors and tones are bright and "low key" when they are dark or somber The term is also used Gouache Opaque watercolor Also called body color. Impressing Stamping or printing. Grisaille is occasionally seen in church stained-glass windows. lifting out charcoal and other dry media." A piece of paper is placed on top of an object or rough surface. glossy. Paper is laid on top and a rapid drawing is made on the back of it The paper lifts away to reveal the image on its other side. are painted in grisaille and appear to be made of stone. or plastic surface. glass. graphite. Lithography A method of printmaking in which a drawing or painting is made directly onto a smooth slab of particular limestone or a metal plate using an oilbased crayon or ink. but in picture-making it is as important as the objects/subjects themselves. and gray drawing. This method incorporates the excitement of accidental and unpredicted marks. but each print will be unique. or can be otherwise used to create an image—for example. Also refers to an additive used to control the application properties of a color Golden Section A proportion in which a straight line or rectangle is divided into two unequal parts in such a way that the ratio of the smaller part to the greater part is the same as that of the greater part to the whole. or even a beam of light. the surface of the stone is made wet before being rolled with a thin film of oilbased printing ink. Usually an academic drawing observed from life. or synthetic material that are suspended in a medium to constitute paint. Lifting out A method of creating highlights and mid-tones in a drymedia drawing (such as charcoal or graphite). ink. or spirit-based) is applied to a surface that is then pressed onto paper and removed to leave a print. and that will "escape" or change over time. Alternatively. then rubbed over carefully but vigorously with a crayon. Objective drawing Refers to the concept of objectivity. aiming to represent facts rather than an interpretation of the subject. F o r m The outer surface of a three-dimensional object. Also used by artists' materials manufacturers to indicate the use of a substitute pigment—for example. Negative space The space between things. purpose. Paper is then pressed against the stone to take a print. pastel. with the area beneath remaining unaffected. the finely ground particles of plant.The degree to which detail is defined. oil-. enabling them to stick to paper It also helps to maintain a stable dispersion of pigment particles in water as the film of a wash dries. Hot-pressed papers (HP) Paper made using hot cylinders. which give it a smooth surface (as opposed to cold-pressed paper. Foreshortening A method of depicting an object at an angle to the surface of the picture. or a drawing made in any single color GLOSSARY Linear perspective A form of perspective in which parallel lines are represented as converging. or a family of colors. used for fixing paper to walls and boards. upright images are called "portrait which is used as a binding agent in many liquid media. It can be used with any wet media to isolate or protect parts of an image from further Optical blending See Pointillism. After several intervening processes. This effect emulates what we see in real life. Monochrome Usually refers to a black. Monoprinting A direct method of printing in which wet medium (water-. Dark tones are laid down first then an eraser or masking tape is used to lift away particles of the drawing media to reveal the lightness of the paper beneath. Masking fluid Clear or opaque latex fluid developed for watercolor painting. shape. Picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. to give the illusion of depth and distance. . Plumb line A line from which a weight is suspended in order to determine verticality or depth. Rubens used grisaille to paint small images for engravers. including Max Ernst used frottage in their work. and it has a history in enamel work. and by artists representing stone sculptures in a painting. Lightfast A term confirming that pigment in the product will not fade with exposure to light. mineral. and orientation of the image. It improves the bonding properties Frottage A French term meaning "rubbing.Theground provides a particular color or texture beneath the image. Hairspray is an effective and inexpensive alternative. or for wrapping and protecting a finished piece of work. This may be disregarded in real life. multiH u e A term for a color. Giotto's Virtues and Vices in the Arena Chapel.while secretion of the acacia tree. cadmium yellow hue. A small image might be described as small format Horizontal images are often said to be "landscape format" (abbreviated G u m arabic The natural to"landscape"). Grisaille A painting in gray or a grayish color Often made by students as a tonal exercise. Artists can paint freely over dry masking fluid. of the ingredients in inks and watercolors. Ground A wet solution usually of gouache or gesso (chalk and animal glue) brushed onto paper board. and translucent paper—a delicate material used in collage. Focus 1 . The surface can be reloaded or redrawn with more medium. The ink attaches to the oil-based image and is repelled by the wet stone. materials that produce marks on a surface. so that (using vanishing point perspective) the object appears to change shape and become narrower or smaller as it recedes. Pointillism A technique of using points or dots of pure color in such a way that when the picture is viewed from a distance they react Masking tape Invaluable. Hatching (cross-) See Crosshatching. It is a strong adhesive. F o r m a t T h e size. and is also used as a size. A point of interest in a drawing. it is the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work Pigment Any substance used as a coloring agent—for example.The paper then bears a crayon impression or copy of the surface that was underneath it A number of Surrealists. or canvas and allowed to dry before an image is drawn or painted. format" (abbreviated to "portrait"). which has a rough surface). Papercut A type of collage in which flat sheets of paper are cut into an image. to describe a surface to which paint will adhere readily. sticky paper tape. work. Gamut A complete range or extent Glassine A type of thin.
in tone running from black to white or vice versa. tight. or point on which parallel lines converge to give the impression of receding space. "Spirits" or "oil" of turpentine refer to the volatile portion used by artists to thin or dilute oil-based paint. Strip Core of a pencil. fine paper. Props An abbreviation of the word properties. Turpentine A colorless solvent distilled from the resinous sap of pine trees. Shade A that is color mixed (or toned) with black Shading A lay term for adding tone to a drawing. meaning objects used in setting up a life model or still life. A term borrowed from the theater. . W e t media Any liquid media— for example. Serigraphy Silk-screen printing. Stippling Applying color or tone in areas of fine dots or flecks. Subjective drawing A drawing that expresses the personal view and interpretation of the artist An invented image. Single-point perspective The most basic form of linear perspective in which there is only one vanishing point. Etienne de material) dabbed through the Silhouette (1709-67). Stylus A sharp. Sketch A quick or rough drawing. a sheet of paper is placed beneath and pinpricks are Silhouette A flat. Zen brushwork encompasses calligraphy and painting. Viewpoint The position from which something is observed or considered. design. Alternatively. carbon ink. paper or canvas. or the left-hand page in a book. Technical drawing A universal it is often used in conjunction language of lines and measurements with line drawings in pen and that is used to make diagrammatic ink—for images. to model areas of light and shade. a tightly folded piece of cotton batting can be used for the same effect. or any physical object that can be stamped or pressed onto a surface to leave an impression. Zen brushwork This is an oriental meditative art form originating in China and practised for many centuries in Japan. and chrysanthemum—which in Chinese tradition are called "The Four Gentlemen. in order to flick the pigment onto the image surface. or ceramic glazing to reveal a different color beneath. Named paper in place. Zen A school of Mahayana Buddhism that asserts that enlightenment can come through meditation and intuition rather than faith. Underdrawing A pale preliminary drawing made prior to adding layers of another medium such as oil paint or watercolor Value The extent to which a color reflects or transmits light This is the equivalent of tone in a black and white image. Squaring up A method of enlarging and transferring an image from one surface to another. such as an inscribed sheet of metal. Tortillon A short. Recto The front or top side of a piece of paper. giving it a brilliance. creating more vibrant effects than if the same colors were physically mixed together with a brush." Applied to the blurring or softening of sharp outlines by the subtle and gradual blending of one tone into another Sgraffito A technique of scratching or cutting through a surface of paint. an ink stone usually cut from slate.Technicaldrawing has been example. Scale Describes the size of one element in relation to another Sepia A brown pigment taken from the sun-dried ink sacs of cuttlefish and used to make ink or watercolor The term is now often incorrectly used to refer to brown colors. compound of water-soluble pigment. watercolor. by imposing a grid that is then scaled up to a larger size. a point at which receding parallel lines meet Verso The back or underside of a piece of paper. and paperweights. or wood. cut-out profile made along every outline of the usually made in black paper image. sometimes drawn from a and leaving only the pricked sheet of shadow cast on a wall. wall or tapestry. Spattering A mottled texture produced by drawing your fingers across the bristles of a stiff brush loaded with pigment. The translucent Tint A color mixed with white. pointed roll of white paper that is used to blend dry media. orchids. Squeegee A rubber-trimmed scraper used in the screenprinting process for dragging ink across a surface. pencil. plaster or cloth surface beneath. evolved by engineers and architects for the purpose of conveying W a t e r c o l o r A painting accurate structural information. or pen. Pounce (a fine for an unpopular 18th-century powder of charcoal or similar French politician. or watercolor paint. Volume The amount of space occupied by an object or an area of space in itself. Zen paintings usually depict scenes of nature and plants such as bamboo. and flowers. fruit. plum blossom.Thedrawing is removed. Tone A degree of lightness or darkness. Support The structure on which an image is made—for example. or gouache. plaster.258 GLOSSARY together optically. Sfumato An Italian term meaning "smoky. Although drawings can be made with wash alone. ink. The crude material is called oleoresin. acrylic. Size A weak glue used for filling the porous surface of wood or canvas in order to seal it. whose pinpricks creates a "connect-thepersonal pastime was making dots" replica of the image on the cut-out portraits. or mark using an inked or pigment-covered surface. Wash A technique using ink. Printmaking The act of making a picture. nature of watercolor allows the white surface of the paper to Tonal scale A scale of gradations shine through. Still life A picture composed of inanimate objects such as bowls. glasses. commonly referred to as the lead." Materials for Zen brushwork include round brushes of varied size. Artists' prints are normally made in multiple. pointed instrument used for marking or engraving. Vanishing point In linear perspective. using a brush. usually diluted with water and applied with a brush. which are then called editions. Pouncing If a large drawing or design (called a cartoon) is to be Shadow Darkness cast by the transferred to a surface such as a obscuring of light. or the right-hand page in a book.
202 cloth. Georges 67. 223 Circular Score for "Due Voce" 223 children's art 9. 178 Cubism 67. 244 head and neck 144 phrased 124-125 contrast: brightness 99 of media 30 tonal 96.186 see also movement Adoration of the Magi perspective study (Leonardo) 74. 182. Mamaru 104. 250 Bishndas and Nanha: Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity 50. (Ross-Craig) 49 to hold brush for 23 caricature 159.117 Achilles Chases Hector (Thomas) 240. 111.184. 70 Art Nouveau motifs 91 Autoportrait (Ray) 138. Hieronymus 243 Two Monsters 242.133. 134 costume(s) 155 character 158-159 structure of 166-167 Cottage Among Trees (Rembrandt) 52. Sylvano 222. 40-41 Durer's rhinoceros 26. center of 118 ballpoint 182.Index Page numbers in italics refer t o captions and illustrations Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity (Bishndas and 259 INDEX B bread (as eraser) 205. 206 checkered floor 80. 41 principal 186. 50. Filippo 67. 163. 74 brush (es) 246-247 Japanese 248 for laying a wash 140 marks 248-249 to hold 23 brush drawings 14-15 Bryan. to depict 156-157 Cloudburst of Material Possessions (Leonardo) 200. 90 colored materials 162-163 colored pencils 162. 162 character: to capture 38-39.163 graded 227 composition 56-57. 220. Augustin 67 Basquiat. 26 geese 38-39 Gericault's cats 28. 198 cartoon (preparatory drawing) 137 (satirical) 159.44-45. 38-39. Etienne-Louis 72 Newton's Cenotaph 72. 160 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object (Moore) 178. 98. 186 charcoal 114. Leon: Bacchante 155 balance.198. 29 Hugo's octopus 28. 242 to blend 205 compressed 122. 242 Brunelleschi. Giovanni 137 Head and Shoulders of a Man 136.162 Conte. 221 animals. 230-231 Cubist 90. 206. Basilius 47 Beuys. Jean Michel 138 Self-Portrait 138 Bateau-Vision. 203 Claude Lorrain 202 Views from Velletri 202. 90 La Guitare. 226-227 Acanthus spinosus 65 accelerated perspective 22. 90. 81 cut-out model plan 94. 179 Bussotti. 52 cotton swabs 205 Coup de Vent a Asajigabare (Hokusai) 198. to express 39. 116. 13 architectural drawing 67-71 Arctic Flowers (Libeskind) 70. 193 in lifting out 204. 9. 201 collage 111. 205 Baltard. William: The Circle of the Lustful 180.115 anatomical drawing 134-135 anatomical theaters 82-83 anatomical waxes 128 ancient carvings 221. 75. 71 Blake. 241 action. 137 Besler.100 curves.212 to erase 205 to hold 23 pencils 204 willow 114. 13. 190 Caricature of a Woman (Daumier) 198. 71 Bacchante (Bakst) 155 background: color 91 textured 240 Baker Matthew: Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry 32 Bakst. 180 Circular Score for "Due Voce" (Bussotti) 223 circus scenes 192-195 City (Bryan) 202. 198. 203 Buffalo Hunt (Shoshone) 178. layers 53 chalk pastels 162. 199 Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya (Eisen) 156. 222. Victor: West Facade of the Church of St. 78 aerial perspective 206 airbrushing 160.50. Clare 203 City 202. 113 bird bones 12. 244 and graphite 178 . to model 110-111 border 51 Bosch.163 dry media 205 Blue Nude (Matisse) 110. 180 blending: color 133.184. Franz 48 Protea nitida 48 Bellini. 71 conte 112. 28 Klee's horses 30. 243 botanical drawing 48-49 Boullee. to draw 80. 165. 81 135. Zen c 232-233 blended 133. 203 Landline 202.27 turtles 42-43 aquatint 240 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels (Leonardo) 12.89. 30 sleeping dog 38-39 Stubbs's horse skeleton 26. to draw 25. 95 Chair Cut Out (Woodfine) 94. 128. Statue d'Epouvante 90 calligraphy. 8 cave paintings 8.226.51 All and Nothing (Taylor) 114. 74. 247-248 carving see lines. 74. 204-205.44-45 bird studies 12. Le (Hugo) 200. 230 The Physical Space 220 abstract drawing 219. 94 chalk(s) 53. 9 Chair (Van Gogh) 94. 139 Nanha) 50. 157 cropping 56-57.31 Picasso's horse and bird 30. 200 Bauer. Brian 226 Untitled 2001 226 "Cave of the Hands" (Cueva de las Manas) 8. 189. 75 Circle of the Lustful (Blake) 180. 90.169 colors: airbrushed 161 background 91 A Abe. 158. 94 cylindrical objects. 161 Akhlaq-I Rasul Allah manuscript 51. cut Catling. 72 bracelet shading 122 Braque. Joseph 113 The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland 112. 204. Nicolas-Jacques 54 contours 146. 133. to draw 100 Cypripedium calceolus L.13.163 body.
103 with eraser 103. 160 Faune. Nicholas 68 St Paul's Baptistry 68 head and neck to draw 142-145 Head and Shoulders of a Man (Bellini) 136. The 242. Statue d'Epouvante. 137 heads. 141 tonal 96.260 INDEX D Dada 139 Daumien Honore 198 Caricature of a Woman 198. Rene 160 Illustration for Jacques Fath E easel.115 exploratory 17 fantasy 72-73. 112. 93 eye level 80 Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity.69 Gerard.109 Rhinoceros 26. 242 eyes. 132 Frenz.144 and ink 30. 223. Katsushika 199 Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 198. 69. 30 Fauves/fauvism 90. 26 Flying Fish (White) 25. 73. 134. 90 G Gaudi. 91 Dragon (Michelangelo) 36. 163. 55.104. 25 focus 65. 230 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction 68. Antonio 135 Muscles of the Head and Neck 134. 226-227 anatomical 134-135 architectural 67-71 botanical 48-49 brush 14-15 dark to light 102. 160 hitsuzendo 233 light to dark 102. Jean Ignace Isidore see Grandville Gericault. 125.37. 200 F fabric. 52 foreground 208. to draw 78.141.121 felt-tip pens 162.117 fountain pens 34. 135 Duren Albrecht 26. Cheval et Oiseau (Picasso) 30.166 170-173 Gestalt 222 Giacometti.252-253 from memory 183.12 fixative 54.91. 157 . 240. 220 dry brush 234 234 57. to draw 134-137 Helleborus corsicus 55 highlights 91.111 feet.198 Degas. 115 Escher. 104-105. 222 Grimes. to suggest 177 see also perspective diagonals diffuser 55 dip pens 34. 122 Hawksmoor. 223 graphite 54. 7 33 Hooke. fiber-tip pen 182. 222. 69 Guitare. 252 depiction of fabric monsters 252-253 Self Portrait in a Cocked Hat 130. 124. Study for Plate 59 (Mucha) 90. Victor 200. proportions of 143 fantasy drawings 72-73. Antonio 68.112.141. 69. Robert 93 Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 92. 245 Hugo.146 from masterworks 126-127. 162 Flaxman. 222 Le Bateau-Vision 200. 37 Grandville 243 A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the Near-Microscopic World of Scale Insects 242. Sir Ernst 12. 77 How Clever of God #84 244. C . 136 Golden Section 67 Gombrich. 245 layers 30 Goya.John 157 Man Lying Down in a Cloak 156.116. 131 Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 240. 241 to blend 205 and chalk 178 and ink 28. 122. 32 framing 139 Franfoise au Bandeau (Picasso) 132. 144 Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (Baker) 32. 90 gouache 30. 240 170-173 five Ships in a Port with Lighthouse (Wallis) 11. M. 41 in the round 208-209 with scalpel 202.244. 160 as ground for metal point 140. 190 Middle Eastern 50-51. 203 semi-abstract 234-237 three-dimensional 68. 205 drawing with 103.189. 163. 134. to draw 168-169 in Goya's artworks face. 93 horizon 52. 113. drypoint 181 exaggeration 184 expressionism 198 E ye and Head of a Drone Fly (Hooke) 92. Francisco de 131.157 ellipses 100.Theodore 29 Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 28. 29 H hands.207.244 drawing(s): abstract 219.184 165. 202.103. position of 143.97.160. 243 graphic score 222.216. 161 fashion 160. 99 etching. 216 foreshortening 110. 799 Holbein. Hans 133 The Ambassadors 116 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 132. 240 Black Paintings 152. Ron 161 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 161 160.230 three-tone 140. 79. Oona 245 How Clever of God #84 244. 765 hitsuzendo drawings 233 Hokusai. 160 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction (Gaudi) 68. disposable pens 182-183 dissections: botanical 48 of horse 27 distance: illusion of see perspective linear 97 tonal 97 Documents Decoratifs.160. Edgar 162 depth. 203 Hotel de la Suzonnieres (Satie) 70. position of 22 Eisen. 55. 134. 245 Gruau. La (Braque) 90. 71 minimal line 99 and music 70-71 quick 38-39. Keisai 157 The Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya 156. 161 fashion drawings 160. Alberto 136 Portrait of Marie-Laure de Noailles 136. 120.216 Durelli. 170-173. 69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt 68. 40. 161 changing 216 Focusing on the Negative (Walter) 16 foliage 52.102-103 drawing board 20 drawing books 20-21 drawing paper 144. to draw 120. 55.101 engraving 243 erasers/erasing 55.
120. 220.181 L Landline (Bryan) 202. 114 hatched 244 layered 118 pace of 65 pale 40 rapid 49. 58-59. Florence 128 lighting in 167 Pitt Rivers. 103 Neolithic chalk tablet 220. 242 light 96 to depict drawing with 1 76 painting with 176 . 35.124.91 Study for Plate 59 of INDEX illumination see lighting Illustration for Jacques Fath (Gruau) 160. Oxford 106 Prado. 73 Michelangelo Buonarroti 48.115 98.182 Moore. 72. 34-35 acrylic 35 bistre 35. Madrid 171 University Museum of Natural History. 76 Libeskind.227 to "bend" straight 97 compositional 228-229 cut 202. 244 ink 36 252-253 Documents Decoratifs 90. 219 Mondrian.112. 33 J justness 228-229 N naive art 74 negative space 53. Henry 178 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object 178. 53 Tree II 52. 73 Kigell. 225 masking tape 204. 53 monoprint 787. 60. 160 In the Duchess's Kitchen (Rackham) 176. Rose: Tantalus or the Future of Man 20 minimal line drawing 99 mirror use of 120 mixed media 28. Bartolome: Moses Striking the Rock ofHoreb 252.167 line(s) 132. 184. apparent 97 Leonardo da Vinci 74. 99. 227 Newsome. 158 Man Lying Down in a Cloak (Flaxman) 156. 36. Erich 73 design for Metropolis 72. 28 Two Impressions from a Cut-out Paper Disk 222 Huyler Stephen R 225 261 Kinecar. 63. 203 landscape 206-208 brushed 14 Landscape in Hoboku Style (Sesshu) 14 layers 146 chalk 53 gouache 30 ink 28. 757 mandalas 219. 163 pens 36 measuring 116 memory. 78 Study ofThree Male Figures 110.276. 203. 205 masterworks. Henri 111 Blue Nude 1110. 74-77. Victor 134 Profile Head 134. 226 Modernism 67.96. 159 Japanese 35 to make 36 sepia 35 walnut 36. 156 magnification 93 Man in Armor (Van Dyck) 158.104. 205. 227 Scene of Comical Riders 30. 252 ink 16. Phyll: hands 18 lifting out 204.Pieuvre (Octopus) 28. 176. Kathe 181 Losbrunch (The Outbreak) 180. David 78 M Mackintosh. 34. 244 lithograph 198 Losbruch (Kollwitz) 180. Gustav 49 Knopf. 54 silver point 156 leg sections 158 length. 177 influences.The (Robinson) 108. 170-173. 244. drawing from 183. 230 invented creatures 106-107 250-251 invented objects 89. 111. 190 metal pens see dip pens metal point 25. 248. I Murderous Attacks 33 Kollwitz. 83 white 122 ink impressions 222 ink spatters 234 installations 176. Alphonse 90. 37 lines 118 pastel 162 pencil 31. 756 priming for 140. 252 Muscles of the Head and Neck (Durelli) 134. Oxford 250 music 70-71 Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks (Knopf) 32. Matisse. Piet 52. 181 Klee. artistic 240-241. Johan 32. 201 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels 12.243 carbon 35 Chinese 30.33 Mysterious Affairs of the lighting 2 7. 181 luminosity 115 Lynch.141 Metropolis (film) 72. drawing from 126-127. 185 Mucha. 178 motifs: A r t Nouveau 9 7 stylized 51 mountains 216-217 movement: of animals 30-31 of humans 7 79. 183 vertical 156 linear distance 97 linear perspective 69. 249 and gouache 30 Indian 35. 110 Sistine Chapel ceiling 116 Middle Eastern drawing 50-51. Paul 227 Polyphonic Setting for White 226.134 K Kettlehut. 220.166 La Specola.109. 49 Rose 49 Maelbeke Madonna (Van Eyck) 156.141. 135 museums 44. 789. 31 Klimt. 244 Dragon 36. 77 Miller. Charles Rennie 48. Marie 244 cloth drawing 244. 166. 201 head and neck sections of female mold for Sforza Horse 89 Madonna of the Rocks 244 perspective study for Adoration of the Magi 74.102. 234 iron-gall 35. 13 Cloudburst of Material Possessions 200. 220. 221 endless 31 free 113. 220. 97 Murillo. Daniel 70 Arctic Flowers 70 Lieb.109.
243.37. Pablo 6 7 . J 76 nudes 114-115 to make 36 metal see dip quill 34. Cheval et Oiseau 30. 30 Fran<. 76-79. 739 semi-abstract drawings Style 14 Seurat. 7 72 Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland. 7 70 Ray. to draw 146-147 R Rackham.759. 772 234-237 Sesshu. 76 plastic eraser 55. Man 131. 1 1 6 . 243. 759 P Page. 9 8 . 103. 7 73 self-portraits: Basquiat 138. 7 77 three-point 80. 166 fiber-tip 782. 160. 71 Satire of the Queen's Dress (Wodall) 158. 734 Protea nitida (Bauer) 48. 34-35. Bridget 98 Robinson. Martin 238. 52 pens 36 scalpel 54 drawing with 202. 74. 181 pencil(s) 54 charcoal 204 colored 762. 141 Piranesi. The (Abe) 220 Picasso. Russell 228. 74-77.36. 36. 782 relief 757 silk-screen 739 woodblock 134.37 scientific instruments 9 2 . 163. Odilon 242 The Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity 242. 139 Real Life is Rubbish (Noble and Webster) 176. 36 pen and brush 8 3 pen and ink 70. 68 Satie. Stella 48 Cypripedium calceolus L 49 rotated view 7 65 Rubens.52 pen and wash 158. 216. 205 157. 241 Physical Space. 114 rollerball 182 Rorschach blot 99 Rose (Mackintosh) 48.54 pastel 162 perspective 1 0 0 .37. 7 38 Ray 138. 36 relief printing 757 Rembrandt van Rijn 52. Peter Paul 126-127 Embracing pose(s): balanced 146 quick 118-119 positive form 103 posture: of artist 22 of subject 3 8 . 1 6 9 to hold 2 2 . 224 0 layers 31. 75 Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range 241 petroglyphs 221.139 Autoportrait 138.Tim.Paul'sBaptistry (Hawksmoor) 68. 239 Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 238. 4 8 putty eraser 55. 38. 91 outsider artists 33. 36. 733 Portrait de Marie-Laure (Giacometti) 136. 230 parallel planes 79 Parisian street 86-87 pastels 162 to blend 205 to hold 23 layers 162 pencils 162 pen(s): dip 34 . 732 influence of 240 painting with light 78. Isaac 92 Telescope 92 Newton's Cenotaph (Boullee) 72. Erik 70.262 INDEX Newton. 205 pointillism 112 polyphonic painting 227 Polyphonic Setting for White (Klee) 226. 38.176 Real Life Is Rubbish 176. 1 1 7 aerial 206 linear 69.40. 1 2 4 priming for metal point 140. 1 3 2 quill pens 34.131 Cottage Among Trees 52. 36.Toyo: Landscape in Hoboku . 161. 230 paper(s) 21 colored 162 drawing 144. 78 single-point 74. Giovanni Battista 74. 4 9 Rose of Mohammed 50. 81 two-point 74. 159. 75 Two Courtyards 75. 37 38. 1 6 3 . 242 reed pens 34. 736 portraits. 165.7 77 rapidograph 70 Raphael 110. Auguste 114 Two Women 114. 219. 162 O p A r t 98 optical illusions 96-99 outline 33. 244 reed 34.104 Pieuvre (Hugo) 28. 227 portfolios 20 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser de Noailles (Holbein) 132. 7 76 receding space 206 Redon. Arthur 177 In the Duchess's Kitchen 176. and Webster. 9 0 . Heath 181 The Kinecar 180. 73 Noble. 72 Noble. 1 1 6 accelerated 2 2 . 36.2 3 age and youth sleeping subjects 148-149 150-151 Renaissance 109 Rhinoceros (Durer) 26.71 Hotel de la Suzonnieres 70. 165 figure 118 filled 37 pencil 48.oise au Bandeau 132. 97. 212 Japanese 2 1 . 164. Paul 73 Nobson Central 72. 26 Riley.184 fountain 34. 203 Scene of Comical Riders (Klee) 30. Georges 112 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 112. 122. 28 pigment 162 bright 50 Caput Mortuum 7 4 7 for three-tone drawing 141. Sue 104.199 Profile Head (Newsome) oil pastels 162. 36. Faune.141 prints/printing: aquatint 240 dry-point etching 181 engraving 243 monoprint 181. 57 Ross-Craig. 239 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat (Seurat) 112.226. 40-41.9 3 Schongauer. 2 2 0 for oil pastels 162 stained 230 to stretch 140-141 tissue 21. 234 disposable 182-183 felt-tip 162. 181 Rodin.240. 244 Q s Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape (Wolfli) 2 79 St.The (Beuys) 112.
s c r e e n p r i n t i n g 139 silver p o i n t 1 4 0 . 75. 7 77. T i m W e s t Fagade of the Church of St. 1 8 4 . 243 (Bosch) T Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos ( G o y a ) 2 4 0 . 6 9 Wodall.2 0 1 . 9 5 pens 36 v a n i s h i n g p o i n t 74. 2 4 4 . William 159 Satire of the Queen's Dress INDEX 226.158 158. 74. W . 75 Skeleton of the Horse ( S t u b b s ) 26. Jan 1 5 6 Maelbeke Madonna 1 5 6 . 2 4 7 t h r e e . 65 symbols 138.13 M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s m a l e figures 110. 174 T w o m b l y . 2 2 7 Untitled 2001 ( C a t l i n g ) u 263 W h i t e . 2 3 0 tonal contrast 96 tonal distance 9 7 t o n a l d r a w i n g 9 6 . 9 2 Tesshu. 221 . 156 Van Gogh.1 0 5 vision 9 6 Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects (Grandville) 242. 161. 79. 57.1 4 5 . t o d r a w 5 2 . 115.5 3 in l a n d s c a p e 2 0 6 .Sforza Horse. 159 Wolfli. John 25 Flying Fish 25 Wild Striped Cat Sketches of ( G e r i c a u l t ) 28.2 1 3 Stubbs. 1 9 9 .t o n e d r a w i n g 140. 2 1 2 . M . phrased 146 tonal modeling 161 tonal range 169 t o n a l surfaces 2 2 7 tonal width 97 t o n e ( s ) 33. 96.d i m e n s i o n a l 1 0 4 . 4 4 boat 209 botanical 4 9 G e r i c a u l t ' s cats 2 9 from Goya 170-173 125. Sarah 9 4 Chair Cut Out 94. v i e w s o f 85. 158 V a n Eyck.141 S i m b l e t . Taylor A n i t a 115 All and Nothing 1 1 4 . 7 1 4 . 245 sharpener 54 Ship in a Storm ( T u r n e r ) 1 9 8 .9 1 storms. 2 2 6 . G e o r g e 2 7 Skeleton of the Horse 26. 1 9 9 Two Courtyards (Piranesi) 75. 104-105. 1 4 1 .1 9 9 wire. 241. 199 shoes 1 6 4 . C y 138.241 s i l k . 141 Three Male Figures. 170 shoes 1 6 4 stylized m o t i f 51 Summer Flowers 63. 1 6 . drawing with 104-105 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt ( G a u d i ) 68. 1 4 1 w a t e r c o l o r 25. 1 4 5 travel journal 2 0 . 2 4 2 w Wallis. Vincent 95 Chair 94. 164.216 W e b s t e r . 7 75 Telescope ( N e w t o n ) 9 2 . t o lay 1 4 0 . 156 layers 7 5 6 priming for 140. 249 t o describe 39. 206-207 202. 7 6 1 spots. Sarah: child's m a p 75. t o d r a w 2 0 0 . John: Focusing on the Negative 14 w a s h . A l f r e d 1 1 . 2 7 studies: b i r d s 7 2 . 199.1 8 5 Tree II ( M o n d r i a n ) 52. t o draw 1 9 8 . 9 4 z Z e n calligraphy 232-233 contrast 96 t o grade 163 ink 37 pencil 5 4 t o r t i l l o n 205 T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c . 7 70 Tiber 214-215 Untitled ( T w o m b l y ) 2 2 0 . 1 4 4 .120.199 tissue p a p e r 21. 2 0 0 Ship in a Storm 1 9 8 . 97. 1 3 .41.27 skull 747. 7 6 Two Impressions from a Cut-Out Paper Disk ( H u g o ) 2 2 2 Two Monsters 2 4 2 . Sue see N o b l e . 1 6 6 t r a p e z i u s m u s c l e 142. 77. 7 9 0 vessels.243 Leonardo's machines 12. Paul 2 4 1 Achilles Chases Hector 2 4 0 .Yamaoka 233 t e x t u r e 2 2 2 . 1 7 7 free 8 0 V e n i c e . Study of (Michelangelo) 110. t h r e e . 230 t h r e e . 49. 102-103 tonal marks.J. 226 V Van Dyck. b l o w n 248 steel p e n s see d i p p e n s still life 89. Augustin ( B a l t a r d ) 6 7 w e t and dry brush-strokes 2 4 9 Turner. 186. 725 fabric 1 6 8 T h o m a s . Adolf: Giant-Grape Saint-Mary-Castle 219 Woman at Her Toilet ( T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c ) 74 w o o d b l o c k print 157. 69. 1 8 4 . 2 3 4 . 2 9 wind. A n t h o n y 152. 743 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City ( F r e n z ) 1 6 0 .12 W a l t e r . 182. 202 violin. Man in Armor 1 5 8 . 1 2 Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse 71.125 W o o d f i n e . 7 79 Shoshone petroglyph 240. 53 trees.d i m e n s i o n a l d r a w i n g 68. 69. 1 4 0 . t o d r a w 1 0 1 viewfinder 57 Views from Velletri ( C l a u d e L o r r a i n ) 152. 2 2 0 influence o f 2 4 0 Untitled 220.1 6 5 shorthand diagram 142 Shoshone buffalo hide painting 178. 76. 240 Two Women Embracing ( R o d i n ) 114. 9 0 . h e a d a n d n e c k sections o f female m o l d f o r (Leonardo) 89 shading 2 9 s h a d o w s 28. H e n r i de: Woman at Her Toilet 14 t r a n s p a r e n t v i e w 92.1 4 1 .
J o n Roome. George M c G a v i n . u k / O n Loan to the H a m b u r g Kunsthalle. 2 0 0 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. Patty Stansfield. 4 8 : T h e N a t u r a l H i s t o r y M u s e u m ./Galerie Sylvie Nissen. G e r m a n y . 1 5 4 : akg-images/Musee National d'Art Moderne. Paris. Clare Bryan. 115: Anita Taylor. Germany/Joerg P. 1 5 6 : Graphische S a m m l u n g Albertina. 2 8 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. Paris a n d D A C S . J a c k a n d Brian Catling. Sir Brinsley F o r d . 226: Brian Catling. F r a n c e . 5 2 : T h e Metropolitan Museum of Art/Bequest of Mrs.l. 176: Modem Art. A n n a P l u c i n s k a . T o n y G r i s o n i . 177: Mary Evans Picture Library. H e l e n S h u t t l e w o r t h . 1 9 8 : Dover Publications. Paris. L o n d o n (t). 137: © The British Museum. Carole A s h .Strang Print Room ( b ) . 9 0 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/© A D A G P . 11: www. a n d D e p a r t m e n t s o f E n t o m o l o g y a n d Zoology at the University of Oxford. Paris/ © Succession Picasso / D A C S 2005. 130: The Metropolitan M u s e u m of Art/Robert L e h m a n Collection. 1 0 8 : Arts C o u n c i l Collection. Maureen Paley Interim Art (b). 13: www. Sophie Laurimore. Graphische Sammlung. H e a t h e r M c C a r r y . 179: www. G i n a R o w l a n d . O o n a G r i m e s . 132: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. 51: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. D a w n Henderson. 1 3 5 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. c o .uk/Musee des Augustins. 9 4 : Sarah Woodfine. H a y w a r d Gallery. 2 7 : Royal Academy of Arts. Anders. K e v i n a n d Rebecca Slingsby. 1929 (29.uk/Private Collection.uk/Kettle's Yard. 74: Corbis. 69: Institut Amatller d'Art Hispanic (tl). Inc.bridgeman. K u n s t m u s e u m . Natalie G o d w i n . (r). for s u p p l y i n g the d r a w i n g books. K a t h r y n W i l k i n s o n .co. Paris. Salisbury & South W i l t s h i r e M u s e u m ( t ) . Publisher's Acknowledgments Dorling Kindersley w o u l d like to thank Caroline H u n t for editorial contribution. T h e R u s k i n School of D r a w i n g a n d Fine A r t .co. . B e m d Kunzig.r. 9 2 : Science Photo L i b r a r y . 6 6 : w w w .uk /Biblioteca Nacional. U K . c o . 7 1 : I M E C / A r c h i v e s E r i k Satie. Havemeyer. 2 4 : © T h e British Museum.100. 2 0 3 : Clare Bryan (t)./© D A C S 2 0 0 5 ( t ) . Sarah D u n c a n .uk/Private Collection. London/Bequeathed by Charles Landseer. 1901. 75: © The British Museum (b). Orientabteilung/Ruth Schacht. Also. O. 3 2 : Pepys Library.uk /© Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery. A n d y C r a w f o r d for p h o t o g r a p h y a n d L . Copyright Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens. Paul T h o m a s . Roddy Bell. L o n d o n . 2 4 1 : Corbis/David M u e n c h ( b ) .co. R o s e m a r y S c o u l a r . 2 4 4 : Ashmolean Museum. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin/Jorg P. A . 4 6 : B r i t i s h Library. G e r m a n y . 1 . 1 7 8 : © T h e British M u s e u m / H e n r y Moore F o u n d a t i o n . F i n n .co. 2 2 0 : Mamaru Abe. Japan. and Tamsin Woodward Smith. 1 1 0 : www. Paris. 9 7 6 ) . 9 5 : V a n Gogh M u s e u m . b r i d g e m a n . S i m o n L e w i s . Jackie Douglas. Germany. Oxford. 17: J o h n Walter.uk/Guildhall Library.uk/British Museum.bridgeman.bridgeman. Wolfson College. Magdalene College Cambridge. L o n d o n . 2 4 0 : w w w . K e w ft)). 2 0 2 : © T h e British Museum. Pamela Ellis for compiling the index. a n d brushes o n pp. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett./Private Collection/© D A C S 2005. B . Christopher Davis. NY.co. 180: www. 9 3 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. Corporation of London. 114: Musee Rodin. a n d encouragement i n m a k i n g this book: M a m o r u Abe. b r i d g e m a n . 112: Yale University A r t Gallery/Everett V Meeks. Jean Pierre Roy. London 2005. 1 9 : Getty Images/© Succession Picasso / D A C S 2 0 0 5 . 29: Fogg A n Museum/Collections Baron de Vita: Grenville L. 2 2 4 : P r i n z h o m Collection. 5 0 : Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (1). 5 3 : Collection of the Gemeentemuseum D e n Haag/Mondrian Trust. Andy Crawford. Toulouse.co. 73: Berlin F i l m Museum (t). Kirsten Norrie. 2 4 2 : Photo Scala. 3 3 : Prinzhom Collection. papers.939). 158: Calouste Gulbenkian Museum. 221: Gagosian Gallery/Private Collection (b). Italy. Sarah Woodfine. Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (t). 111: Fondation Beyeler/Riehen (Bale)/© Succession H Matisse/DACS 2005. B e r l i n . 181: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. C o r n e l i s o n & Son. 3 1 : Tom Powel Imaging. Basel. 9 1 : www.uk/Mucha Trust. 225: Stephen P Huyler.a. Fund. Sammy De Grave. Rocio Arnaez. 2 0 1 : T h e Royal Collection © 2 0 0 2 H e r Majesty Queen Elizabeth I I .20-21 a n d 246-47. u k / L o u v r e . 1 5 : w w w .bridgeman. H a m b u r g . L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . 2 1 8 : Adolf-Wdlfli-Stiftung. A . Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. R . 16: www. 1 3 4 : © T h e British Museum. Anders/ © D A C S 2 0 0 5 . 1 3 8 : © Christie's Images Ltd/© A D AGP. c o .264 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Acknowledgments Author's Acknowledgments: T h e author wishes to thank the following people for their enormous help. Agnieszka Mlicka. P h y l l Kiggell. Anita Taylor. 139: Galerie Marion Meyer/© Man Ray Trust / A D A G P .co. Paris and D A C S . University of Oxford. 174: Artothek/Munich. M a n d y Earey.bridgeman. 1975 ( 1 9 7 5 . R o y a n d D i a n n e Simblet. 88: www. Angela Palmer. L e n . support. 1 3 3 : Artothek/Kupferstichkabinett. H . Kunstmuseum Bern. Berlin/Staatsbibliothek zu A l l other images © Sarah Simblet . L o n d o n . Madrid. K u n s t m u s e u m Bern/© D A C S 2 0 0 5 . 2 6 : Topfoto. © Tate. Psychiatric Institute of the U n i v e r s i t y of Heidelberg. Peter L u f f . Florence/MoMA. Carlo O r t u for picture research s u p p o r t . 2 2 3 : Lebrecht Music and Arts Photo Library/Ricordi. 113: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. 2 2 2 : Pierre Georgel/Private Collection. Portugal.co. Paris. Dover Publications/ISBN: 0486229912 (t).co. 49: Hunterian Museum (t). 30: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin. 243: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. Paula Regan. L o n d o n . 1 3 6 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Centre Pompidou-MNAM-CCI. L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. J o h n Walter.bridgeman. Antonia Cunliffe Davis.Paris ( b ) .uk/Private Collection.co. 2 2 7 : Paul Klee Stiftung. Angela W i l k e s . France. Picture Credits 8: Corbis/Hubert Stadler.bridgeman. 2 4 5 : Oona Grimes. 157: U C L Art Collections . 1 9 6 : Museum of the History of Science.bridgeman. Paris. University of Cambridge. u k / T o k y o National M u s e u m . 2 3 8 : akg-images. Productions Clovis Prevost (c). Psychiatric Institute of the University of Heidelberg. L o n d o n . . 1 6 0 : Rene G R U A U s. Berlin (b). b r i d g e m a n . Paris a n d D A C S . Illustrated London News Picture Library/The Bystander (b). London/courtesy of Stuart Shave. 68: www. Paul T h o m a s ( t ) . B e r l i n . 1 5 9 : Bodleian Library. J o h n Roberts. 199: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee des arts asiatiquesGuimet. Julie O u g h t o n . Winthrop. R u t h P a r k i n s o n . Diana Bell. Lisbon. U K . 1879. Amsterdam. 72: akg-images. B M G . 7 0 : Studio Daniel L i b e s k i n d . 1 6 1 : D C C o m i c s I n c .bridgeman. Flossie.
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