An innovative, practical approach to drawing the world around you







LONDON • NEW YORK MELBOURNE • MUNICH • DELHI Senior Editor Paula Regan Senior Art Editor Mandy Earey Art Editor Anna Plucinska Managing Editor Julie Oughton Managing Art Editor Heather McCarry Art Director Peter Luff Publishing Director Jackie Douglas Production Joanna Bull DTP Designer Adam Walker Picture Research Sarah Smithies US Editor Christine Heilman First American Edition, 2 0 0 5 First Paperback Edition, 2 0 0 9 Published in the United States by DK Publishing 3 7 5 Hudson Street New York, New York 1 0 0 1 4 10 11 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3

6 8 20 22 Master Builders The Order of Sound Future Fictions Pathways of Sight Single-Point Perspective Creating an Imaginary Space Further Aspects of Perspective Theaters Venetian Life Parisian Street

68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86

Foreword Introduction Drawing Books and Papers Posture and Grip

Objects and Instruments

TD075-July 2009 Copyright © 2 0 0 5 Dorling Kindersley Limited Text and authors artworks © Sarah Simblet 2 0 0 4 Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited A Cataloging-in-Publication record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN 9 7 8 - 0 - 7 5 6 6 - 5 1 4 1 - 1 Color reproduction by GRB, Italy Printed and bound in China by Toppan

Still Life Instruments of Vision Bench Marks Light and Illusions Further Illusions How to Draw Ellipses Tonality Drawing with Wire Artifacts and Fictions


90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106

Documentaries Presence and Mood Movement Icon and Design Pen and Ink Drawing with Ink Capturing Character Sleeping Dogs Turtles Dry Birds

26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44

The Body
Postures and Poses Choreographs Passion Measurement and Foreshortening Quick Poses Hands and Feet Charcoal Hands Phrasing Contours The Visual Detective La Specola

110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128

Plants and Gardens
Botanical Studies Jeweled Gardens Fast Trees Graphite and Erasers Cropping and Composition Negative Space Fig Tree Summer Flowers Acanthus Spinosus

48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64

Discover more at

Projections Magnetic Fields The Human Condition Disposable Pens The Travel Journal Catching the Moment Grand Canal Crossings Caravans The Big Top

174 Abstract Lines
176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 Process and Harmony Writing Time Chants and Prayers Compositions Being "Just" Collage Zen Calligraphy Nocturnes

220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234

Poise Anatomies Revelations Self-Portraits Silver Point Head and Neck Essential Observations Drawing Portraits Generations Castings

132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 152

Earth and the Elements
Air in Motion Storms Nature Profiles Charcoal Landscapes Drawing in the Round Decaying Boat Cloudburst Notes of Force Mountains

198 200 202 204 206 208 210 212 214 216

Gods and Monsters
Marks of Influence Hauntings Convolutions Brushes Brush Marks Monsters Goya's Monsters Consumed Glossary Index Acknowledgments

240 242 244 246 248 250 252 254 256 259 264

Cloth and Drapery Character Costumes Femmes Fatales Colored Materials Study and Design The Structure of Costume Textures and Patterns Dressing Character Posture Carving

156 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172


as a visiting professor at universities. and their importance to so many artists. Chosen in any color. For twelve years I have enjoyed the privilege of teaching drawing. geologists. where I expect them to be discovered by some people. architect. be they a child discovering their vision and dexterity. understood (and often misunderstood) our own bodies. are made outside as discreet installations. It is my love of these. Augustine his notes on memory. I work with people of diverse ages. undergraduates to fellow professors. texture. a composer notating a musical score. and be slowly washed or worn away. Drawing occupies a unique place in every artist and creator's life. and a reflector of experience. and feeling. and makers of special effects. through history. By using our imaginations.Foreword B Y DRAWING THE WORLD AROUND US. aspirations. These inspirations led me to invent museums. who tells me firmly upon approach that they cannot draw. that inspired the title and structure MEMORY T H E A T E R S This pen-and-ink drawing was made from imagination during research for my PhD. art schools. perhaps hidden on a door hinge or a street bench rail. of Sketch Book for the Artist. and local c o m m u n i t y classes. They occupy a shelf in my studio. a drawing book is the perfect portable private vehicle for your imminent exploration of drawing. from schoolchildren to senior citizens. drawing is the immediate expression of seeing. It is a tool for investigating ideas and recording knowledge. a sculptor. we learn to see it. we learn to feel truly alive. Some of my drawings cover entire walls. and through which I can see how I think. or a quantum physicist trying to see for themselves the fluctuations of our universe. in which he describes himself flying and diving in his imagination through pictorial caverns of knowledge. where spaces are shaped by nothing more than the objects and activities contained within them. night security staff. doctors. I know that with their cooperation I can soon prove them wrong. I was also reading among The Confessions of St. They enfold their viewer and are made on joined sheets of paper that I reach by climbing ladders. or engineer. and in a few sessions they will be flying. I also make drawing books. still standing by the door. remain unseen by most. and size. . and I refer back to them for years after they are made. not only to make art. we have looked at. I will always draw. The very first step is to believe it. Some are more traditionally framed and hung in galleries for solo or group exhibitions. a cartographer charting the land. shape. especially as travel journals. I was training in anatomy and studying how. thinking. and experience. Others can be held in the h a n d or. We can all learn how to draw. but because it is how I engage with and anchor myself in life. Combine these things and the possibilities are endless. Drawing is a mirror through which I understand my place in the world. It makes me feel excited to be alive. fashion designer. by invitation. For me personally. The most rewarding challenge is always the newcomer.

waving to us from many thousands of yearsago. We are bombarded with linear and tonal pictorial information. Most adults still feel that certain exquisite pleasure on arriving at a beach to find the tide out and the sand perfect. The sense of relief we may feel from the information overload of modern commercial life when visiting a country in which we can no longer read every written word.Theseancient silhouettes were drawn with earth pigments rubbed onto rock. At home and at work we doodle. and patterns on our clothes. Drawing is international. like a great canvas for them to mark. irreverent to language barriers. a great crowd is raising their hands in greeting.8 INTRODUCTION Where We Begin There is a fundamental drive in our human nature to make a mark. inscribing every fresh part of it with their eager scrapes and trails. Children cannot be restrained from running across the pristine white lawn of newly fallen snow. "CAVE OF THE HANDS" In this drawing. We can always read each others drawings. They have a natural affinity to many modern graffiti signatures. scrawling shapes and cartoons when on the telephone. Sometimes we draw because we are bored. not just chosen pictures on our walls but everywhere—maps. Rio Pinturas 13. is not afforded us by drawing. signs. in lectures. graffiti. and in meetings. Cueva de las Marios. and we spend our lives reading it.000-9500 bce . logos. but more often because drawing actually helps us to focus and take in what is said. We are surrounded by drawings in our daily lives. packaging.

created by societies of hunter-gatherers." Until this day. and she kept it as my first step beyond the delighted realms of scrawl. Cave art was not made for decoration but as a fundamental part of life.9 WHERE WE BEGIN FIRST PORTRAIT For sorre forgotten reason. I. power. The image above is what I gave back to my mother. and the appearance of my strikes of colors. Eyelashes take up as much of my attention as the head itself. Even though it is made by a toddler this image would be recognizable to anyone. MAKING OUR MARK It seems reasonable to assume that we have engaged in pictorial mark-making for as long as we have made conscious use of our hands. She gave me a notepad and a red crayon and asked me to draw her "a picture of Daddy. like all toddlers. at age two-anda-half. enjoying the physical sensation of crayon on paper. had happily scribbled. who in their day-to-day hardship made time to picture themselves and the animals on which they depended. . I was sitting with my mother. but I had never yet attempted to figuratively picture my world. we see our oldest surviving images. reflecting my experience of looking closely at my father's face. I now think this is a picture of proximity. In cave paintings like the one opposite. and belonging to place. On a particular afternoon in September 1974. an expression of existence. the hair of my first portrait was most important.

Inhibitions creep in and ideas of good a n d b a d terminate confidence. PROGRESSION T h e r e is a point in all o u r lives w h e n w e first c o n t r o l o u r mark and m a k e it a line. h o w e v e r small a n d u n f o r m e d y o u believe they are. As you progress. to help a stranger see their way W h e n taking first steps in relearning h o w to draw. for example. it is important to value your natural abilities a n d ways of seeing. Young children love to draw. W e do n o t hesitate to draw a map. and this activity plays a vital role in their d e v e l o p m e n t . At this point many will insist they cannot draw. b e p r o u d o f what m a k e s y o u r w o r k individual to y o u . It was made with a few bold strokes of a steel pen dipped in ink to conjure the dried bee I was holding between my fingers on a pin.10 INTRODUCTION PEN-AND-INK BEE This tiny drawing has been enlarged to show its texture and composition. But as adolescents. and from that first unit build and describe the shape of something or someone we know. then drag o u r line into a loop. Hours are lost immersed in the glorious world of imagination. most of us stop. Don't b e p e r s u a d e d to draw in a w a y s o m e o n e else . yet still turn to drawing w h e n their verbal language fails or is inadequate.

Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse c. and they have never questioned why. After experimenting and trying each new idea. The journey of every artist demands hard work and discipline.11 PROGRESSION A UNIQUE SIGHT This innocent yet sophisticated drawing of boats. As you read this b o o k and perhaps attend art classes. Someone once told them they must draw in this way. you must decide whether to keep or discard it. but it does help to set out facing in the right direction. Think how much would have been lost if anyone had interfered with Alfred Wallis' personal sense of proportion and perspective in the exquisite drawing above. He was a retired Cornish fisherman and junk dealer who began drawing at the age of 70 "for company" after his wife died. remember that all advice is only advice. what they most want to achieve. I ask them their reasons for drawing. He used leftover ship and yacht paint with crayons on cut-out pieces of cardboard boxes. and which aspects of the vast wealth and diversity of graphic language would be most appropriate to their goals. harbor and sea is one of many that Alfred Wallis made from memory while sitting at home. I meet students struggling unhappily with a particular method of drawing. . 1925-42 53/8x87/8in (135 x 225 mm) ALFRED WALLIS prefers and tells you is better. Enjoy the control of your own journey. Occasionally.

boats. There should neve: be a slavish obligation to represent things exactly as we collectively agree we see them. embedded in this book. We BIRD STUDIES The flutter of faint scratches that dance across the pages on the right is an attempt to see the movement and bony weightlessness of a bird. clear-minded understanding of the sea. perhaps for comfort or ease as a left-hander or a habitual enjoyment of the challenge. wrote as the opening line of this great work. When we look back at Wallis' seascape (see p. and inspire others." The clarity and empowerment of these words. is. all raise water From the Archimedes' screw to Leonardo's own cupped wheel.12 INTRODUCTION VISION All artists see the world differently. They are also always written backward. be visionary. If as artists we nail a subject down too hard. Our imaginations are the tools with which we can increase the essence of life. but the child in us knows that this is an all-embracing. right. We all see differently. The observed world may be our subject. The art historian Professor Sir Ernst Gombrich. it may not be accurate to our critical adult eye.and collarbones and shoulder blades of a different bird almost become new creatures in themselves. 11). There are only artists. Below. the breast. There are countless reasons for drawing. and lose the very thing that attracted us to it. His notes visually balance his drawings. author of The Story of Art. Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels LEONARDO DA VINCI . "There really is no such thing as Art. I hope. but it should be the experienced world we draw. We also see differently ourselves. the page bristles with the focus of ideas. depending on the occasion and our purpose. and breathtaking wind of a choppy harbor. not for disguise but as a personal choice. IDEAS A N D I N V E N T I O N S These active machines. we can drive out its spirit.

make a calculation. time spent is not lost. while below. We have both covered our paper with focused. . or illustrate a dream. shout against a terrible injustice. This also applies if struggling at length with a larger picture. drawing in pursuit of our own thoughts and understanding. Decide before you start whether you are drawing to warm up. conduct an experiment.13 VISION should not try to know how every finished picture will look. More was learned drawing the bird 18 times than would have been understood drawing it only once or twice. My drawings of a housemartin (opposite top) illustrate the importance of repeated study. Opposite. it may be best to start afresh. It will be invested through your experience in the new drawing. or to discover the best use of a new material. stripped-down parts. when it looks tired and still feels wrong. Our drawings are annotated investigations into the mechanisms of nature and of an idea. Don't be disheartened. Leonardo drew to invent a machine. Each fresh image reflects growing confidence and the experience of the preceding study. to express the beauty in a moment's play of light. I drew to understand the apparatus of flight. but it is important to be clear why we are making it.

the unknown. balance. Each image relied upon past experience to know the probable behavior of the brush. and sometimes beyond. W e float toward the quiet vista as it also moves toward us. Whatever the material— wood. We are caught in a shifting focus that makes everything fluid. This suits many artists well and is perfectly valid. As you draw any subject—something you see. As your hand meets the paper to make a mark. we are advised or even required to plan our pictures. You must also think of its intrinsic nature: its purpose. size. which can offer keys to other things.14 INTRODUCTION ALCHEMY At school. bone. metal. and paper. depth. These two brush drawings. Landscape in Haboku Style 15TH CENTURY . and practice each part before putting the final image together. Know the texture. fire. water. I made it almost unconsciously with a pen and a brush. excessive planning can get in the way of the imagination. it should be responding to the sensation and meaning of the subject it draws. This is a detail of a brush-and-ink drawing by a Japanese Buddhist monk. and how it feels to the touch. trusting my intuition to find a visual equivalence for the sensation of weight within my body. Imagine these qualities so strongly that you feel them in your mind and at your fingertips. This is the alchemy of drawing. and opacity of your subject. It denies the importance of accident. feel. However. declare the idea. mists. are both made of ink laid onto wet paper with speed and agile certainty. or ice—you must actually feel it beneath your fingers as you draw. created centuries and cultures apart. your marks will become the subject on the paper. meaning. BRUSHED LANDSCAPE FLOWING SKELETON T h e gliding poise of this walking anatomy comes as much from the feeling of movement as it does from the feeling of drawing. temperature. If you can do this. explain the composition. and position in space. and at speeds beyond conscious thought. silk. and we can just make out the distant stains of mountains. or imagine—it is not enough to only render its shape. and spirit of each subject was held strongly but loosely between the fingertips. They each allowed the energy and focus of the moment to be expressed through controlled accident and a degree of the unknown Both drawings were made trusting the marks. Our position asvieweris unsteady. and allowed to flow through the brush. and what you discover in the process of making. The physicality. and an island brushed with trees. ink.


left.1896 Woman at her Toilet 41 x 26 in (104 x 66 cm) TOULOUSE LAUTREC RIB-CAGE D R A M A Thus drama.16 INTRODUCTION PLACE A N D MOMENT The heat and teeming atmosphere o f this Parisian dressing room. like folded insects. one of many luminous works in watercolor. W a l t e r also makes books: some. pastel. more than 100 years after its making. made by a young British artist who creates alphabets o f the absurd f r o m familiar childhood characters. right is set inside a rib cage. He dazzles us with flashes o f light and dabbed marks o f shadow. Focusing on the Negative 2004 22 x 30 in (56 x 76 cm) J O H N WALTER . gold leaf and spray paint. c. stand table-sized with furniture legs attached t o b o t h sides of their jacket. acrylic. lives on. Lautrec's flamboyant splashes o f petticoats and pantaloons are drawn with long sweeps of chalk and brushed oil paint. which evoke realities o f place and the p o w e r o f moment.

and mistakes are a valuable process of learning.17 FREEING THE HAND If you are just beginning to learn how to draw. Try to keep all of your first drawings. Enjoy discovering what your hand and the material can do. at a point when you feel you are not making progress. diary-like observations. As you follow lessons in this book. you will be surprised and encouraged to see how far you have come. Much will be learned on these test sheets and in your first drawings. you will naturally make progress on your own in response to concentration and the decision to look and draw. just through the act of making. Such books are personal: the territory of new exploration and experiment. Drawing is exploratory. Put them away and look at them later. and miscellaneous items of inspiration. try not to grip your pen worrying about the technical terms you might have heard. With no help and advice at all. FREEINGTHEHAND . even those you dislike. Start by choosing a material you like the look of and cover a piece of paper with different marks. Ignore these at first and allow yourself the freedom to play. take your time and don't worry if you need to make several attempts to grasp a concept. It is yours. Pages do not have to lie open for other people to inspect and comment on. Choose other materials and do the same. One of the advantages of a drawing book is that you can shut it. potential ideas still forming.

we still only glimpse a corner of the magnitude of this subject and the infinity of what can be achieved. It rarely flourishes in isolation. In the total wealth of these pages. Note that the drawing classes are allocated to subjects. To these I have added my own drawings to explain elementary materials and techniques and offer introductory approaches. Drawing is a living language that over millennia has grown and changed. and became a great subject for me. staring straight through his image of a bull. Picasso is poised smiling. threedimensionally. the path is yours. and enfolding new media. However. Picasso has just finished his drawing. seek ideas in the life around you. A N ARTIST'S HANDS These are the hands of the artist Phyll Kiggell (see p. it is this voice that is the subtle part of their art and something that ultimately. The real drawing book has yet to come. which of course he cannot see. Imagination needs nourishment. caught between action and repose. it will be your creation as you discover your own personal vision. An artist's personal voice is something that also evolves through lessons learned. Picasso Painting with Light at the Madoura Pottery 1949 . when they are more experienced. but not confined to them. 150).Their elegant strength seems to summon a lifetime of drawing. Once there. As you draw. adapting its form and occupation. I was particularly attracted to their gentle articulation and understated determination. This practical journey will take you through the door into the vivid heart of drawing.18 INTRODUCTION THE THINKING EYE Techniques and materials are the grammar and vocabulary of drawing and can be studied and shared. ELECTRIC BULL With a penlight. The chapters of this book present 90 different artists' ways of seeing. which is held frozen in space by a camera lens. and many more reasons for drawing the world. comes from within. Look to your own experience and also learn from the work of others. Its sensuous and flowing line seems to drift like smoke.


it is better to have them made at a lumber yard or home improvement store. F o r traveling.C O V E R E D H A R D B O U N D : Ideal f o r c a r r y i n g a r o u n d . It is also useful to own a portfolio. c h o o s e s m a l l e r h a r d . F o r e v e n i n g classes. 4. catalogs. a n d crayons. thickness. You simply need two strong boards hinged together well. Many artists invent ways o f binding their o w n books.b o u n d b o o k w i l l s o o n s h o w y o u h o w it is m a d e . t h e i r jackets w i l l a c t like d r a w i n g b o a r d s a n d p r o t e c t y o u r w o r k . 1. pastels. Homemade books can be assembled easily from found materials or selections of loose sheet papers. a n d r e f e r e n c e b o o k s f o u n d in s e c o n d .20 INTRODUCTION Drawing Books and Papers T o BEGIN YOUR EXPLORATION o f d r a w i n g . T h e hardb o a r d j a c k e t is s t r e t c h e d w i t h canvas beneath t h e p a p e r sleeve. H o w e v e r r i n g bindings o f t e n break. cheap corrugated plastic ones fall apart in days. and cost. 6.b o u n d b o o k s t h a t fit in y o u r p o c k e t o r bag. 2. These are perfect f o r w o r k i n g in novels. Dissecting a d i s c a r d e d h a r d . Purchase a h i g h . There are dozens to choose from. and glued t o a s t r i p o f bias binding. cut. a l e n g t h o f black elastic t i e d a r o u n d t h e m i d d l e will h o l d the contents together w h e n y o u f o l d in c o l l e c t e d items. 2002 Tantalus o r The Future of Man 81/2 x61/4in (215 x 158 mm) ROSE MILLER . C O L O R E D PAPERS: Large a r t supply stores o f t e n sell t h i c k b o o k s full o f c o l o r e d p a p e r s . color. Alternatively. BLACK P O C K E T B O O K S : Hand-sized w i t h ready-made elastic binder and a marker ribbon. drawing book. 5. Sand the edges to avoid splinters. Gleaming store purchases vary greatly in format. c h o o s e larger f o r m a t s t o give y o u s c o p e f o r e x p e r i m e n t . and collage their ideas. binding. t h i s is h o w I l e a r n e d . N o t e t h e w i d e l y differing c h o i c e o f p a p e r s w i t h w h i c h t h e s e are m a d e . y o u n e e d a lifetime. ties on either side to keep your papers in place. C A N V A S . quality. Art students often make use of printed books picked up from secondhand stores into which they draw. Calculate a range of useful dimensions and have several cut at once. study the structure of a good portfolio and make your own. and handles to lift the weight of your artworks. H O M E M A D E : I m a d e this b o o k f r o m drawing paper that I folded. They can be very expensive in art stores. F O U N D B O O K S : O l d p r i n t e d 3 . stitched.b o u n d p a d if y o u w i s h t o keep your drawings together long-term. R I N G . thick enough not to flex. Smooth plywood. texture. A high-quality one will last a DRAWING BOOKS Select d r a w i n g b o o k s t o suit y o u r aims. b e a w a r e t h a t p a p e r t e x t u r e effects a n d changes t h e i r marks. which are also sold in an enormous range.q u a l i t y r i n g . be sure they fit comfortably under your arm. If you intend to carry your boards for a distance. c o l o r If planning t o use pencils.h a n d s t o r e s make unique subjects f o r e x p e r i m e n t s a n d collage. Drawing boards are invaluable. Most contain thin p a p e r and are perfect f o r use w i t h disposable pens. is perfect.B O U N D PADS: T h e s e are t h e least expensive a n d useful f o r o p e n i n g flat.

and translucent. absorbency. Use with a brush in clean water Water makes a dark mark like ink and becomes invisible again when dry. 8. T W O RIVERS Y E L L O W 410GMS: See Two Rivers Green 19. FABRIANO ACADEMIA: Standard medium-range multipurpose paper Use with any media. resisting deterioration. Cotton papers are high-quality and acid-free. and cream sheets or rolls. printed on one side only. Use for brushwork drawings. tough. 12. mold-. from pencil to paint 9. MAGIC PAPER: A reusable sheet for testing ideas without creating waste. not. size. also good for drawing with colored pencils. or machine made in sheets. 100% cotton and sold in sheets. SAUNDERS WATERFORD N O T 300GMS: Mid-quality textured watercolor paper. and cost. GLASSINE: Sold as protective wrapping.TISSUE PAPER: Place sheets between drawing book pages to keep images from printing on each other and use for delicate collage. white textured paper that can take abrasive use of any medium. Ph. used to imprint lines of these colors onto a surface. T W O RIVERS GREEN 410G MS: Very heavy tinted textured cold-pressed watercolor paper See Two Rivers Yellow. smooth. pastel paper in flecked pastel colors with a distinctive ribbed marking. METALLIC PAPER: Thin paper in different metallic colors. 20.Papers differ in thickness (weight). Use cheap paper for rough ideas and quality paper for work to last See the glossary ( p p . Cheap wood-pulp papers are acidic. or rolls. AQUARELLE ARCHES 300GMS:The very top quality hot-pressed (smooth) watercolor paper. and rolls. 10. 11. and other plant fibers. 17. 21. mulberry. For use with any media. VELIN ARCHES 250GMS: Printmaking paper available in black white. 22. It is also excellent for drawing with marker pens on layered sheets. 13. it is made from rice. yellow. C A R B O N PAPER: Available in dark and light blue. JAPANESE PAPER: Strong. C A N S O N : Inexpensive lightweight pastel paper in many colors. PAPERS . It is available in white or cream. texture. bamboo. fine. cold. They are hand-. red. 16. 18. and hot pressed papers. turning brown and brittle. FABRIANO R O U G H 600GMS: Very heavy. and white. ITALIAN PARCHMENT: Imitation-animal-skin parchment that is translucent and slightly waxy. FABRIANO INGRES: Thin. 15.5 9 ) for explanations of rough. blocks. 14. blocks. 7. 2 5 6 . color.

your whole relaxed b o d y should be involved. make sure you have enough room to back away and view your work. It will also reflect discomfort if you are in any way cramped. Placing your easel o n the w r o n g side folds y o u r b o d y against your drawing arm. There are also parallels to dance. You cannot draw like this—your hand is locked and your fingers can barely move. SPACE TO WORK Cramped grip. With your hand in this position. arm. In this book we will look at parallels between drawing and music. If your body posture is well balanced and you can move freely. don't sit too close to the paper. place it on your right. if left-handed. Accelerated perspective also occurs if you look down the surface steeply (see pp. If your hand twists to maneuver between the paper and your body. and subject. This cramped grip tires your hand and makes small. your drawing will reflect this. body. place it on the correct side: if right-handed. and look to the right. Regularly step back 6-9 ft (2-3 m) to check your progress.22 INTRODUCTION Posture and Grip T o DRAW WELL. or with your drawing board angled between your lap and a chair. your lines will distort. you Drawing classes can be cramped places. place it on your left. strangledlooking drawings. Use the side of your little fingernail as a support on the page. you can draw lines freely and achieve a significant arc of movement. should be able to look comfortably straight ahead at your picture plane. but you need to understand that the expression of a line or mark originates in the body and flows t h r o u g h the shoulder. Turning your drawing sideways or upside-own will also help reveal what is wrong. but wherever possible. flowing space between your hand. . Examples are shown here. b u t it should n o t be forgotten that many people make remarkable a n d striking works drawing with their feet or holding their brush or pencil in their mouths. If seated on a b e n c h easel (a donkey). You do not have to dance to draw. Ideally. Relaxed fingers: Hold the pencil away from its tip and relax your fingers. There should be an open. a n d look to the left of it at your subject. From a distance you will spot errors you cannot see close up. How you hold your drawing materials is also important. 116-17). This photograph illustrates how some people hold a pen to write. a n d h a n d to the fingertips. If using an upright easel.

Large scale: POSTURE AND GRIP U n f a m i l i a r i t y : T h e habitual movements of our handwriting style will sometimes infringe upon our drawing. or it can spoil your work if not anticipated. and body are not restricted. Large amounts of ink can be applied without fear of uncontrolled running if the paper is flat. brush pressed against an upright surface will cause a dribble of ink to run down your drawing. As long as your fingers. depending upon what it is and how large you are working. . hold your material as you find most comfortable. upright way of holding the brush near its base is similar to the Japanese way used in Zen calligraphy (see pp. find an unfamiliar. If you turn a brush or dip pen up into the air to draw above your hand. alternative way of holding the pencil. ALL MEDIA There are no rules as to how you should hold your drawing media. It is most comfortable when reaching to draw above your head. roughly marking out a large-scale work. To stop this. But be careful not to tense your fingers. Soft media: Short materials such as pastels and charcoal can be accommodated in the palm. Remember you can also draw just by dipping your fingers in pigment—this is how many women draw in rural India.232-33). This can give a new lease on life to your mark-making. Brush calligraphy: This comfortable.23 This loose "candle" grip is very useful when drawing with your arm extended. not up to the paper Brushes can be used on upright paper but dip Anticipating effects: A fully loaded pens need a level surface. This can be used to great effect. liquid will run down your hand. arm. or change to the wrong hand. GRAVITY Remember that gravity affects the flow of ink and paint.


This drawing is made in black lead (metal point) with watercolor Highlights of silver would have gleamed. mermaids. offer challenges and delights to draw.drawe to lief one of each kinde of thing that is strange to us in England. we turn and take the features of beasts. birds. insects. dogs. their different speeds and patterns of action. and learn how to Flying Fish c.. to be there at the m o m e n t of discovery." Paranoid newcomers c r a m m e d into swelling industrial cities used handbooks of physiognomy to identify and judge their neighbors. Framed in the z o o or in domestic cohabitation. which are so unlike ours. and to bring h o m e drawn documentaries of their finds. sleeping dogs. " Animals perpetually feed our imaginations.. Europeans on board had never seen such a thing. who described in words what White drew.Animals H UMANS HAVE DRAWN ANIMALS from the beginning of our time. they are perhaps our favorite pictorial preoccupation. or scampering through the initials and borders of pictures from that time. bats. As children we delight in the humanized trials of Tom and Jerry and their c a r t o o n relations. and this very drawing was to endure many copies and plagiarisms after its triumphant return to the English court of Queen Elizabeth I. m u s e u m . from which personality and predicted behavior were " d e d u c e d . floating turtles. the Latin bestiary was one of the most popular picture books—an illustrated dictionary of one hundred parts. and snakes have between them engendered harpies. and people. In 19th-century Europe this became a "science. which very likely leaped o n t o the deck of Sir Walter Raleigh's ship Tiger as it sailed north from the Caribbean to Virginia in 1585. 1540. Here (left) we see J o h n White's exquisite record of a flying fish." He worked with the scientist Thomas Harriot. werewolves. W h e n lost to explain our own emotions. and dragons. plants. and pioneer born c. On the Roanoke voyages of Sir Walter Raleigh. JOHN WHITE British artist.m o u n t e d skeletons of birds. In this chapter we discover the use of pens and ink through the delineation of insects. For the novice artist. and we still see escapees from its pages carved and grinning as the gargoyles of churches. animals provide a perfect subject with which to begin. Facial features were analyzed in terms of their animal likeness. Together they made maps and documented animals. each dedicated to the moralized tale of an animal or monster The bestiary profoundly influenced the art of its period. fish. out are now oxidized and so appear black W h e n less preoccupied with understanding ourselves. After the subject of ourselves. W e have drawn them in m a n u s c r i p t s to explain our genesis and to c o u n t their species into Noah's ark. and silent. We have drawn them on the walls of caves to evoke their kinship and power. 1590 J O H N WHITE capture form and movement from the m a n n e r i s m s of honking geese. O v e r the centuries. 11 x91/4in (277 x 234 mm) . cartographer. White's commission was to ". In medieval England. we have employed artists on expeditions.

26 ANIMALS Documentaries horse are superb affirmations of the power of drawing as a recorder and communicator of knowledge. Contemporary texts related accounts of the beast as the mortal enemy of the elephant and rare relative of the "more common" unicorn. Durer traveled widely to study at different European schools of art. but the drowned animal washed ashore. The first live rhinoceros to reach Europe came from India in May 1515. filled journals with ideas and observations. Carefully stuffed. they were rejected. a drawing of it arrived in Nuremberg. Sailing to Rome. Meanwhile. It was to become the animal's only accepted likeness for 250 years. Original Ink Drawing of a Rhinoceros 1515 ALBRECHT DURER 103/4 x 161/2 in ( 2 7 4 x 4 2 0 mm) . a gift to the Portuguese King. Durer's image changed eager hands until it was known across Europe. years after its publication. Life-like This is Durer's original quill-and-ink drawing made after an anonymous Portuguese drawing. printmaker. it is still consulted by veterinarians today. and mathematician. draftsman. naturalist. Unsurpassed. writer. DURER'S RHINOCEROS AND STUBBS'S skeletal Durer. Stubbs's Anatomy of the Horse achieved similar documentary status. the ship was lost. It is such a lifelike triumph of imagination and intelligence that for centuries zoologists never questioned its authority. inspiring countless works of art and so touching people's imaginations that later. it continued its journey to Rome. He studied the image and drew his own interpretation. He in turn sent the mysterious creature to the Pope via Marseilles at the request of the King of France. and wrote four books on proportion. the home of ALBRECHT DURER German Renaissance painter. when more accurate portrayals were made without armor and scales. Converted into a print.

He composed makes each horse appear so real and each plate from his three-dimensional. Dissections Stubbs took his knife and his pencil and physically climbed inside the horse. Lighting Stubbs's breathtaking international work won immediate There acclaim. knowledge of parts. Anatomy of the Horse. a n d anatomist. is no other work like it. His painted p o r t r a i t o f t h e b e a s t is in t h e R o y a l C o l l e g e o f S u r g e o n s o f England. L o n d o n . dissecting and drawing until he understood the mechanisms of its power and grace. Stubbs w a s o n e o f t h e first E u r o p e a n artists t o m a k e a n a c c u r a t e representation o f the rhinoceros. The entire project was developed over ten years. which has never diminished. Stubbs's m o s t c e l e b r a t e d publication. He translated his own drawings into engravings for publication. Table of the III of the Horse (rear Skeleton view) mm) 1756-58 1 4 x 7 in ( 3 5 4 x 1 8 0 GEORGE STUBBS . Dissections were made over a total of 18 months. in t h r e e v i e w s — r e a r f r o n t . This is one of Stubbs' original finished pencil drawings.GEORGE STUBBS B r i t i s h e q u i n e a n d s o c i e t y p o r t r a i t painter. c o m p r i s e s 1 8 p l a t e s s h o w i n g d i s s e c t i o n s in l a y e r s f r o m b o n e t h r o u g h m u s c u l a t u r e t o skin. composed from notes and observations. and therefore invented the lighting that Compare how Stubbs and Durer both invented lighting to portray the reality of their animals. a n d s i d e . naturalist.

He has w a t c h e d her p o u n c e . her b o n y frame.. and turn. By contrast. charcoal.. soot. H u g o mixed his media and drew from m e m o r y and imagination to create narrative atmosphere. coal dust. I've ended up mixing in pencil. her sharp teeth. more or less what I have in view. Hugo's page is f l o o d e d w i t h the fearful presence of a remembered octopus. drama. the ominous beast unwinds from the dark of the sea and of our nightmares. and Pieuvre 1866-69 91/2 x81/8in (242 x 207 mm) VICTOR H U G O . The octopus is formed in layers applied and distressed with a brush. Gericault took a sharp p e n c i l to m a k e repeated direct o b s e r v a t i o n s f r o m life. drawing her again and again to pin d o w n the texture of her loose skin. and her distinctive temperament. A s if disturbed from its gritty b e d by our presence and curiosity. ink and linseed oil on paper. Gericault's sheet a p p e a r s almost s c r a t c h e d b y the f e r o c i o u s play of his cat. Hugo's novels Les Miserables and Dame have become classics of film and stage. and a love of accident.. novelist. Surrounding sprays of graphite powder are stuck into washes of oil and ink to suggest glutinous depths. and all sorts of bizarre concoctions which manage to convey above all in mind. it silently rises to the light.. conjured b y the hand of a great author of French literary fiction. sepia. He wrote to poet and art critic Charles-Pierre Baudelaire about his experiments. VICTOR HUGO Poet. Apparently drawn in its o w n ink. The Hunchback of Notre Layers and shadows Throughout this drawing.". Hugo used graphite powder. playwright. and leader of the French Romantic movement.28 ANIMALS Presence and Mood THESE DRAWINGS HAVE BEEN CHOSEN to s h o w t w o v e r y different ways of picturing a wild animal. His copious drawings are characterized by mixed media. saying ". snarl. linseed oil soaked into the paper has made shadows and repelled the ink to create translucent tentacles. Mixed media Here.

of drawings Gericault erased. Repeated study This drawing demonstrates of feeling confident repeat different the importance subject Remaining enough to isolate parts of a views. of previous Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 1817-18 121/2 x 151/2 in ( 3 1 9 x 3 9 8 mm) T H E O D O R E GERICAULT .118-119). undertraces unify and vitalize the composition. Before paper became so cheap. displayed in the Louvre. Here. 144. horses w e r e a favorite subject t o g e t h e r w i t h politics and history. Paris. The Raft of the Medusa. and it can be applied to any subject (see pp. parallel. 124-25 and p. Undertraces Beneath these graphite studies we see traces Tones On the top row we see clearly how Gericault laid broad areas of tone using fast. At the center of the page is crammed drawings the outline of a horse. and keep trying again. diagonal strokes of his pencil. s h o r t .l i v e d French R o m a n t i c painter and lithographer Largely self-taught. focused upon seeing will lead to a greater understanding of the subject Much is learned from repeated study.29 THEODORE GERICAULT C o n t r o v e r s i a l . fiery. facing right. Tones that do not follow surface contour is very difficult to do well. since it can lead to a flattened form. standing sideways. Beginners are advised to follow the natural contours of form as shown on pp. H e is best k n o w n f o r his gigantic painting. artists reused sheets and them full of studies.

His hand must have shuddered and twitched just like the constant actions of this humorous meeting. or proud.30 ANIMALS Movement M O V E M E N T IS OFTEN THE CHARACTERISTIC b y w h i c h w e their lines and the power of their beasts. flapping bird. slow tortoise. the whinnying of a frantic horse. In Picasso's drawing. taking them to guide their hand in bringing form and essence together. In these two drawings. and waves breaking distantly below. Picasso cofounded Cubism. we see semi-abstract. quivering horse. Artists commonly focus on such actions. Cheval et Oiseau 1936 173/8 x 211/4 in ( 4 4 0 x 5 4 0 m m ) PABLO PICASSO . and scrolled lines. The fact that they never stand still influences the movement in his line. Gouache is brushed softly in translucent hazy layers of cool blue. made only a year apart. Faune. identify an animal: the fast cheetah. Both Picasso and Klee have enclosed their subjects to compress and amplify the speed of PABLO PICASSO A prolific Spanish painter sculptor. overwhelmed by a screeching bird. the first abstract movement of the 20th century. Klee's riders are constructed from all the gestures of greeting mules. draftsman. His powdery. gray. hooked. flattened animals composed almost entirely of movement. with George Braque (see p90). noise is everywhere. printmaker ceramicist graphic and stage designer who lived in France. dissolving faun kneels stranded. and brown. The ink is used to make sharply defined solid. Ink and gouache This drawing is made in black Chinese ink and gouache (opaque watercolor) applied with a brush. These media complement and amplify each other with their brilliant contrast.

They remain in contact with the surface of the page and scribble back and forth as they maneuver from one area to another. draftsman. sculptor." They chatter around bodies in groups. Layers of marks In this pale Dentil drawing we see layers of' agitated marks that together present a kind of visual "itch. Scene der Komischen of Comical Reiter Riders) (Scene 1935 161/2x111/2in ( 4 1 9 x 2 9 1 mm) M o r t o n G . turning our eye and around inside the and postures of the paper- thin on pictorial space. Chicago PAUL KLEE . top all happily of each other in the Endless lines Look closely at how Klee's lines rarely leave the paper and how they are free from the constraint of finite shape. creatures. W i t h his drawings Kleeb o u n d sophisticated theories to personal and often witty childlike imagery. He is a u t h o r o f The Thinking Eye (1923). violinist. well-worn copies o f w h i c h are found in m a n y art schools.PAUL KLEE Swiss painter. printmaker. and t e a c h e r at t h e Bauhaus school. N e u m a n n Family Collection. The entire drawing suggests the endless small movements of horses standing still.

It is simply how we read his perspective. Baker lived in an era when ships were built without drawn plans. and steerage. seemingly looking for our attention. In contrast to the practical clarity of Baker's thought. The fish It is likely that Baker drew with a quill dipped in irongall ink. later called a galleon. Knopf's drawing opposite is the personal enigmatic expression of a mind gripped by illness. In just one drawing he has displayed more angles of his design than we would expect to see from a single viewpoint Fragments English 1586 101/2 x 153/8 in (270 x 390 mm) MATTHEW BAKER of Ancient Shipwrightry . adding washes of color with a fine brush. His birds stare. which in application gave strength and advantage to the English fighting the Spanish Armada. and to assess our next move. plans. This drawing illustrates Baker's theory. slim stern). fins. and scales. and from them learned that if he designed his ship with a "cod's head MATTHEW BAKER Master shipwright. B a k e r initiated t h e scientific p r a c t i c e o f naval a r c h i t e c t u r e and applied h y d r o d y n a m i c s . t h e earliest geometrically defined elevations. balance. Baker did not intend this. Below we see his revolutionary design for an Elizabethan warship. b a s e d o n his studies o f fish. and s e c t i o n s o f ships. and the carefully observed gills. it would achieve greater speed. mathematician. He studied the anatomy of fish. Exquisite details in this drawing include the lips of the fish. drawings of animals that are each held tightly in a surprising space: a giant fish wears a ship's hull. and blackbirds fly in formation through a mosaic of text. The ship The upper decks of the ship appear curved toward us at both ends. and author o f Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (1586).32 ANIMALS Icon and Design IN THESE T W O MANUSCRIPTS we discover diagrammatic and mackerel's tail" (full bow. the expression of its eye.

JOHANN KNOPF An " O u t s i d e r " a r t i s t w h o s u f f e r e d f r o m m e n t a l illness. JOHANN KNOPF . The text. written last of all. and filled evenly with tone. appears to be stirred like water by the presence of the The Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks UNDATED 133/8 x 115/8 in (340 x 2 9 6 mm) and psychiatrist Hans Prinzhom collected this image. The main group is placed in a circle drawn with a compass. numbered. T h e G e r m a n a r t historian Outline and tone The blackbirds illuminating this frantic manuscript are drawn in pencil. firmly outlined. circle and the birds.K n o p f b e l i e v e d h e c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h e language o f birds. w h i c h o f t e n f e a t u r e as s y m b o l i c creatures in his drawings.

REED PENS: A broad nib can be cut from bamboo or another tubular grass. 3. The reservoir gives a constant flow of ink for very long unbroken lines and continuous bottle-free use.246-47). which scratch rather than draw. A German recipe of 1531 gives a simple description: "Take a wax candle. high-quality Chinese and Japanese inks are subtler and more complex than those produced in Europe. The Chinese used animal or fish glue. the recipes for which have been handed down over centuries. ink is traditionally applied with a brush (see pp. expressive drawing techniques such as the ones we explore in this chapter 1. distinguished manufacture. and spatters can be made with an exotic choice of inks. which range greatly in their handling and character of line. light it. Masters choose brands of long. and it is still in use today. s t i c k s . Intricate or dramatic lines. Today. Avoid needle-sharp mapping pens. they are associated with rapid." "Gum" refers to gum arabic extracted Dip pens are essential and inexpensive drawing tools. from the acacia tree. Each pen has a unique character. Early artists recommended raven and crow for especially fine work. QUILLS: These are cut from the barrel of a flight or tail feather. In the Far East. then pour a little warm gum water into it and temper the two together. 4. F O U N T A I N PENS: These vary in quality and nib width. you can have great fun drawing the world around you. simultaneously 4 . The bar is then rubbed into water on a slate block to produce ink. The paste from either recipe is pressed and dried into a bar for storage. and first used by the Egyptians. 5 0 0 years ago. producing a different line. Only fill with suitable inks. a n d m e t a l p o i n t s . spots. Dip pens began their history in the Nile River. PENS . The Egyptians and Chinese are credited with the invention of carbon ink. They fit into wooden holders.34 ANIMALS Pen and Ink W I T H A HANDFUL OF FEATHERS. and hold it under a clean basin until the soot hangs to it. Responsive to slight changes in pressure. Quills were later cut from feathers. That is an ink. METAL PENS: Inexpensive removable steel nibs are available in a range of widths. where reeds were gathered. The best are goose or swan. 2. while metal nibs began as rare gifts in gold and silver before being perfected by the British steel industry.

Now we also have acrylic ranges in many colors. bistre. Non-waterproof Indian inks can be reworked with a wet brush after drying.36. suspended in a binder and stored as a solid block Blocks are imported today 7. dated. they produce a golden dye for drawing. Excellent for drawing they are bright and non-clogging. waterproof or non-waterproof. boiled. reduced. INKS 9. I R O N . It dries with a sheen and clogs uncleaned pens. The complexities of traditional iron-gall ink are explained on p. and most can be homemade. I N D I A N INK: Carbon ink sold today in liquid form. roastedwine sediment (Yeast Black). or charcoal. and sieved. an often misused term. 5. Crushed. and sepia.35 PEN AND INK Four types of ink were common before the 20th century. Old stock turns solid and bottlesChina. . Beechwood soot is best. ACRYLIC / CALLIGRAPHY INKS: Available in black and a range of colors. and can be mixed and diluted to create subtler colors and tones. 8. is the ink of a cuttlefish or squid extracted post-mortem. Inks can be lightfast or non-lightfast. They are the easiest inks to use. C A R B O N INK: Traditionally produced from oil or resin soot (Lamp Black). Waterproof types contain shellac. iron-gall. from are not 6. SEPIA A N D BISTRE INKS: Sepia.G A L L INK: Abnormal spherical growths caused by parasitic wasps can be collected from some oak trees in fall. and are still in use today: carbon (Chinese and Indian). charred bone (Ivory Black). Bistre is the more humane use of soot scraped from the fireplace and ground into wine.

crushed. Oak galls. a n d d e v e l o p e d t h e quill instead. t h e y stick a n d j u d d e r f o r w a r d . reduced. It also oxidized and ate or burned paper. it was gray-purple. forming the REED PENS R e e dpens dispense ink quickly. the blade and cut away from you. since t h e D u t c h w e r e t h e first t o realize t h a t they could be hardened and i m p r o v e d w i t h heat t r e a t m e n t in ash o r sand. galls were ground with iron sulfate to make an unstable solution. Paler strokes were made where the mark has the legs and antennae the ink ran out. Quills are also called D u t c h pens. and turned brown with time. T h e y give a finer. . The darkest of this grasshopper wings) were made (around the head first. drawn to glisten with a dryer nib. For centuries. and boiled to make a golden ink. Walnut ink is gloopy. I u s e d t h e s e qualities t o d r a w t h e w o r m s above.36 ANIMALS Drawing With Ink To MAKE A QUILL OR REED PEN. Some of Michelangelo's drawings are now a little eaten by their own ink. appears broken to show paper beneath. It dried black. red-brown. Rembrandt. of a loaded nib.) You can make ink easily from the boiled. m o r e e x t e n d e d line than reed and a m o r e organic line t h a n m e t a l . V a n G o g h . then cut a final nib (feathers. d r y mark. fleshy skins that surround ripe walnuts. giving a s h o r t . Although oak galls and walnut skins are harmless. M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s d r a g o n o n p . can also be collected from affected trees. a n d M a t i s s e also e n j o y e d t h e m . Collect skins from the ground beneath trees once they are blackened. Scribes o f t h e M i d d l e Ages. Reed marks The darker left wing of this beetle was drawn with the wet inky stroke wing. Running fresh. always be cautious when experimenting with recipes. giving longer lines. The lighter right Quill marks Quills carry more ink than strokes and for as reeds. Practice to gain a feel for how materials behave. QUILL PENS Q u i l l s a r e highly r e s p o n s i v e t o c h a n g e s in p r e s s u r e . sieved. are surprisingly tough. 2 4 4 is an e x q u i s i t e e x a m p l e . U n d e r heavy pressure. and delicious to draw with. finding reed p e n s unwieldy. r e s e r v e d t h e i r use f o r large c h o i r b o o k s . keep all your fingers behind basis of iron-gall ink. for example.

giving a graded. The of pigment to fall to the edges effect of the shape. marks become fine and needle-sharp. withstanding great pressure without sticking. W h e n the nib is pressed upside down. particles then filled with a droplet of ink. tonal Ink layers The wings of this beetle were drawn in layers using black and white ink on pale gray paper. Loaded with ink and pressed hard. breaking.37 METAL PENS Metal pens give long. it is important to feel for when the ink will run out and to know how much ink you pick up when dipping the nib. o r being ruined as fountain pens would be under the same pressure. When using dip pens. clean strokes. DRAWING WITH INK Filled outlines Each segment of wing was outlined. . sharp. they splay to make thick o r double lines. Each layer of of the drying droplet dome the drawing was left to dry before adding more. White markings were drawn last Tones Here we see subtle tones of diluted ink beneath the undiluted black rim of a beetle's wing.

steel nibs are fine. draw what the bird is doing. so pick a spot where other people can keep them entertained. Posture . there is no obligation to prepare a quill. Experiment. Attempt with a loose hand to capture their posture and outline. and boldly plunge into your drawing. Focus on the geese. and be brave. make another one. Try to hold the whole posture in your mind's eye. not on your drawing. It happens that goose feathers also provide artists with the best type of quills. I covered eleven sheets in sixty quick drawings—in less than an hour. You cannot break the nib. Quick drawing trains you to see what is most important about a subject and to mark only its most essential expression. Cover your drawing book pages in speedy responses to the geese and try to capture each bird in as few lines as possible. Geese are nosy birds. MATERIALS NEEDED Look for a bird expressing a simple posture. and bellyflop off the waterside. test your limits. waddle. Watch their heavy feathered bodies flap. and a large drawing book or plenty of paper Use masking tape to secure pages against the wind. Study them before drawing. Cover a sheet. Dip your pen in ink." If you don't like a stroke. and quickly draw around it using only three or four strokes. Illustrating this exercise on Oxford Port Meadow. Empathize. to absorb blots when drawing. Take no more than ten seconds to draw each one and make lots of drawings. touch the bottle's rim to drain the excess. Pack plenty of tissue around a bottle of calligraphy or acrylic ink. Focus on it. and there is no "wrong.38 ANIMALS Capturing Character GEESE ARE EXCELLENT SUBJECTS to draw when practicing the first use of pen and ink. be bold and press firmly. That said. It teaches confidence and focus through intensive repetition. Take a cup and water for diluting a range of tones.

look among the birds for more complicated actions such as shaking off water. and don't worry about mechanical facts or accuracy. Avoid detail unless really tempted by a close-up visit Fluctuate the pressure of your pen in response to how you know the bird would feel if you touched it.39 Action With growing confidence. draw the feeling of what you see. Again. and diving. Use more lines than before to express these. . flapping. CAPTURING CHARACTER Texture Gradually allow yourself more lines to describe the texture of each bird as well as its posture and action. running.

form.34-37). Make a test sheet to discover your control of diluting on the nib. Dip the nib quickly again into water and again drain it. These drawings are not an analysis of his anatomy or breed but the expression of his satisfied comfort in a deep sleep after a night out on the together with a glass of water for diluting tones on the nib. Then dip the nib quickly into a glass of water and drain the excess again. and even then he twitched and stretched in dreams. and a tissue for blotting drawn lines that appear too dark.40 ANIMALS Sleeping Dogs R A S WAS A GREAT CHARACTER. a dip pen and ink of your choice (see pp. The only time he remained still was when he was sleeping. your drawing book. This will give a medium-gray line. Sleeping animals present the artist with ideal opportunities to study their texture. first dip your pen in ink. Now it will make a pale line. MAKING A PALE LINE To make a pale line." . engaged in his and everyone else's business. a d o g w h o w a s a l w a y s town. and drain the excess by touching the nib against the rim of the bottle. For this class you will need one oblivious dog. Ras Curled Up Asleep "Capturing the true character of a cherished companion is best achieved with objective determination rather than sentimental shyness. and personality.

alter the pressure and moisture of your line in response to howyouknow your dog feels when you ruffle itscoat. To add texture. and the shadows in his coat. ignoring all detail. Then I immediately rebalanced the drawing with lines around his hind quarters. c o n c e r n e d a b o u t detail. in bold layers.41 DRAWING YOUR DOG Be bold in this exercise. tail. 3 Gradually introduce darker tones. quickly draw what you see. add more detail. 2 Reload your pen with ink.It is essential when drawing any subject (even something abstract) to know how it feels andtoemulate this with your line. this time to create a line a little darker in tone. Here. SLEEPING DOGS 1 Fix your eyes at the center of the dog. second thoughts may be different Changing your mind is a positive aspect o f seeing and thinking. Here I marked the features of Ras's head. Character is better captured drawing quickly with confidence than w o r k i n g slowly. D o not go back over lines you are pleased with—doing so dulls their lively freshness. to emphasize how he is curled up. First lines are first thoughts. Then. see how the animal's posture determines its whole shape. W i t h pale lies. Remain focused on the whole dog and. Layers o f thoughts can bring a drawing alive. Trust your intuition. ears. . I added ink to Ras's nose.

THE ELONGATION AND BUOYANCY of a group of turtles is fascinating . turtles often pause unexpectedly. swinging their limbs and shells with a slow circular movement. offering plenty of time for the artist to draw the pose.Turtles to observe. they stretch and paddle. as if caught in a camera freeze-frame. A perfect subject for the beginner. Beyond the glass wall of the aquarium.


and water. I sought to capture the form. . India ink. balance. and sharp. I made repeated studies of the housemartin to discover its mechanism of flight. dry. I darkened lines as each drawing progressed. With speed.Dry Birds THESE ARE THE ARTICULATED BONES o f a k i w i a n d a h o u s e - martin drawn in a museum using a steel pen. weightlessness of the kiwi. Beginning with very pale tones.



to catalog our knowledge. season. and to ornament our lives. and hybridize them for our sustenance and pleasure. and beauty. Botanical illustration is a precisely defined and scientific art. Conrad von Gemmingen. Both embrace the anticipation of evolving shape. Classifications were set in367copperengravings. PriceBishopof Eichstatt specimens. we now have laid before us fourto show how well their colours complement each other infinite wealth of material to explore. Later. Early European illustrators were trapped within dogma that was determined by ancient scholarship. —-the largest and most influential botanical book of the early Natural scientists accompanied explorers to document unknown finds. to the proliferation of floral designs with which we have dressed ourselves and furnished our homes for centuries. Rich owners of private gardens commissioned large-format florilegiums commissioned the volume to document his private garden to immortalize their personal taste and power of acquisition. color. He sent boxes of plants to Nuremburgburned with the urgency and excitement of explaining every plant's form. After Here Aconthus spinosus is combined with forget-me-nots and-a-half centuries of intensive observation. We draw them to celebrate their beauty and range. It was published plain in 1611 and withhand-paintedplates in poured off ships returning from the New World and were eagerly collected and 1613. an There are close parallels between the acts of gardening and drawing. on which our lives depend. From its history there is one overriding lesson to be learned: the importance of looking and seeing with our own eyes. In this chapter. The revolution came in the 1530s. manipulations of light and shade. We collect. robust. Plants are the principal inspiration of the decorative arts—from Roman Corinthian columns crowned with carved leaves of the acanthus. where a number of uncredited artistsd r e wthem for Besler. we see very different cultural visions of plants and gardens and use pencils and plants to learn the pictorial values of space.000 species of plants are depicted life-size drawn. and diverse kingdom of plants. shape. Botanic gardens were established and expanded. Plants seventeenth century. 1613 187/8x153/4in(480 x 400 mm) BASILIUS BESLER . and texture. and focus. the punctuation of space with structure and mass.Morethan 1. as opposed to only herbal. Patrons funded the breeding of decorative. Fledgling years Botanist and apothecary who compiled the Hortus Eystettensis of scientific research bore manifold explosions of knowledge in a fever of discovery. form. infinitely vivid. Medieval knowledge was not gained by the first-hand observation of life but by reading. nurture. B A S I L I U SBESLER when botanists founded new work upon the direct study of plants. the microscope was refined to unfold yet another world. and the Acanthus spinosus constant but exhilarating struggle to make a living image feel right. and the drawn pages ofthesame name. Chapters are arranged by out.Plants and Gardens W E SHARE THIS PLANET with the more ancient.

Outline Bauer prepared a pencil outline before laying in fleshy succulent hues and tones of watercolor. M a c k i n t o s h e x p r e s s e s the f o l d e d petals of a broken rose b u d so delicately w e can sense the perfume. subtle union of beauty. T h e rest of u s are free to d r a w as w e w i s h . o p t i m i s m . leaves. Sir Joseph Banks. and seeds conventionally a p p e a r o n o n e plate. They are counted among the most accomplished 18th-century botanical artists. Each plant must b e clearly distinguished from its closest relative. Stella Ross-Craig said of the need to d r a w from a dried herbarium plant "I could make it live again. B e h i n d detailed. detail. Light in this drawing is given by the paleness of the paper showing between washes of darker tones. measured drawings." Her slipper orchid s h o w s that botanical drawing must often resolve the challenge of its subject's p r o d u c i n g parts in different seasons — r o o t s . flowers. stems. or that were diseased. o p e n i n g a n d c l o s i n g i n the w a r m t h a n d light of the studio. He has made the spatial and physical relationships in this drawing all the more real by placing a single. The King was then establishing the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew.48 PLANTS AND GARDENS THE SCIENTIFIC VALUE OF A BOTANICAL DRAWING lies i n its Botanical Studies were specimens that often refused to stay still. Botanical art c o n c e a l s the challenge of its m a k i n g . naturalist explorer and advisor to King George III invited Bauer to London in 1 7 9 0 . Dissections Across the lower part of this drawing we can see dissections of seed pods and petals. Here. fruit. petal tip over a lower leaf Protea nitida 201/4 x141/4in (513 x 362 mm) FRANZ BAUER 1796 . and wilted. W i t h bright F R A N Z BAUER An Austrian artist who trained at the Schonbrunn Imperial Gardens in Vienna. and Franz Bauer and his brother Ferdinand were employed there to draw specimens. insect-ravaged. delicate. s u c h as w e see here in Bauer's Protea nitida. It is likely Bauer would have studied these under a microscope. and meticulous precision.

imagination. G u s t a v K l i m t In his r e t i r e m e n t Mackintosh m a d e n u m e r o u s inventive pencil a n d w a t e r c o l o r d r a w i n g s o f plants. and observation the nuance and contour of every in one image.49 C H A R L E S RENNIE MACKINTOSH Scottish a r c h i t e c t d e s i g n e r painter. found among Mackintosh's than reality. BOTANICAL STUDIES Lines and shadows This lush. and it shows how design. a n d he inspired. A s m a n y of her drawings are kept G a r d e n s . Ross-Craig said of her work "Plants that wither rapidly present a very difficult problem to which there is only one answer—speed. Line Drawing of Cypripedium calceolus L c.286 studies for her book Drawings of British Plants. and speed depends upon the immediate perception of the essential characteristics of the plant. and follow shadow. S h e also o f thousands o f contributed an drawings. p u b l i s h e d 1 9 4 8 . K e w ." This line drawing is one of 1. is r e c o g n i z e d as tne m o s t c o m p l e t e a n d i m p o r t a n t work 3. a n d f o u n d e r o f t h e G l a s g o w S c h o o l o f A r t M a c k i n t o s h ' s flair h a d an e n o r m o u s i n f l u e n c e o n t h e a v a n t . sensual pencil drawing is later works. it is small and discreet.7 3 in 3 1 p a r t s . 1970 x 81/4 in ( 3 2 5 x 2 1 0 m m ) STELLA ROSS-CRAIG . Curtis's Botanical Magazine. H e r Drawings of British Plants..000 Kew to archive accessible t o d a y v i a t h e I n t e r n e t of o n British flora.g a r d e in G e r m a n y a n d A u s t r i a . a m o n g o t h e r s . and perfect coordination of hand and eye. Rose 1894 103/4 x 83/4 in ( 2 7 5 x 2 2 1 mm) CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH STELLA ROSS-CRAIG A j o i n e d t h e staff a t t h e R o y a l B o t a n i c G a r d e n s . Pencil lines cling to. as at trained botanical artist Ross-Craig Swift lines The drawing was planned in pencil and then overworked with a lithographic pen. Closer to fiction can come together perfectly. L o n d o n in 1 9 2 9 ..

painting. in miniature. and miraculous growth. which he personally created near Kabul. uniform focus. anticipating their view. Below. Opposite is the Rose of Mohammed. is remembered in the pages of his journal. and Nanha. the sumptuous petals permeated with prayer and wisdom. Upright shallow perspectives. fluctuations in scale. Bishndas was probably responsible for the overall design. urgent attentive human activity. They used a fine brush to lay pigment over a line drawing. paper is brimming with the beauty and celebration of nature. roses took their form in a bead of perspiration on the brow of Mohammed as he passed through his heavenly journey.50 PLANTS AND GARDENS Jeweled Gardens the Middle East we find exquisite stylization of form and upright formality in pictorial space. Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity c. a notable portrait painter drew the faces. 1590 85/8 x55/8in (219 x 1 4 4 mm) BISHNDAS AND NANHA Bright pigment These pages were illuminated by Mughal artists in the late 16th century. The first Mughal Emperor Babur's Garden of Fidelity (Bagh-e Vaja). Envoys chatter outside the gate. . and calligraphy are brought together to hold the sacred names of prophets and the 99 beautiful names of God. Every fiber of AMONG DRAWINGS FROM BISHNDAS A N D N A N H A Little is known of these Mughal painters who were related as uncle and nephew and commissioned to illustrate the pages of Babur's journal. Afghanistan. in the early 16th century. and attention to detail are all shared with medieval European manuscript drawings. By Muslim tradition. Babur directs his gardeners in the design and planting of this quartered chahar bagh. Drawing. The white of the page shines through the brilliant color.

c e n t u r y Turkish manuscnpt a book of religious e t h i c s w r i t t e n in the O r i e n t a l C o l l e c t i o n s of Berlin. fragmenting its detail in a whisper of prayers. The physical anatomy of the rosebud has been studied and translated into a repeated stylized motif. It is n o w k e p t in Border The elegant border of this drawing was mode with a pen and ruler It cleverly compresses and defines the composition. Sacred words The central rose is more solid than any other on the page.AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH This is a detail o f a page from a n 1 8 t h . The Rose of Mohammed 1708 9 1 / 2 x 61/2 in ( 2 4 0 x 1 6 5 mm) FROM THE TURKISH M A N U S C R I P T AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH . so that overlapping petals and stems give an impression of fulfillment and abundance. look closely and you will see words written in gold fluttering over the form of the flower. However. G e r m a n y . Note how each bud is essentially the same shape. Stylized motif A fine brush has been used throughout this drawing to apply inks and watercolors. t h e Staatsbibliothek zu Arabic. and how the shape has been repeated freehand.



Fast Trees
IN CONTRAST TO THE QUIET, formal detail of other drawings in this chapter, these powerful fast trees enact the actions of plants. Each tree reaches out and holds its landscape with dynamism and pulse. In both drawings we find testament to the inexorable energy of growth. Rembrandt expresses a delicate quickness. Gentle lines draw a warm breeze through this remote wooded garden. Rustling in a loose foliage of soft marks, his pen evokes the weight of abundant activity on this late summer's day. Mondrian's arch of scratching branches is drawn with such force it will always be alive. We can still feel his hand storming across the paper. Set within a frame of smudged landscape, the tree possesses a musical agitation. This characteristic will increase in the artist's later abstract work. Here, we see a punctuated ordering of space. Sharp branches cut out negative shapes of winter sky.

R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter; etcher; and draftsman. Rembrandt's prolific output comprises oil paintings of historical and religious subjects together with group and self- portraits. His emotive etchings and pen and ink drawings (see also p. 174) are great resources for artists learning to understand the potential of these media.


Pen and ink lines describing foliage also tell

us the directions of sunlight and wind. An arc crossing the bottom of the drawing from one side to the other supports the scene and separates us from the landscape beyond. Compare Rembrandt's arc to that of Mondrian's. and note the similar treatment of low horizons in both works emphasizing the height and dominance of trees.

Cottage Among Trees 1648-50 63/4 x121/8in ( I 7 I x 308 mm) R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN





Atmosphere Here we see how shapes of negative space are as important as the physical subject they enclose (see pp.58-59). Mondrian has again lightly dragged his chalk on its side to evoke a wet depth of atmosphere. These passive gray marks contrast with the assertive tension of the tree.

Dutch Pure abstract painter preoccupied w i t h line and plane relationships. W i t h increasing austerity, Mondrian banished t h e subject from his drawings, in his later w o r k he also banished space, composing visual h a r m o n i e s using only straight lines a n d flat planes o f black, w h i t e , gray, o r p r i m a r y color.

Winter ground Short vertical marks along thebottomof this drawing reveal the length oftheblackchalk Mondrian used. Rubbed onitsside,itroughly blocks in the ground. Thecrudeeconomy of line is all we need tofeelthecold, wet, unwelcoming quality ofthiswinterearth.

Branches and trunk Lines shaping the branches of the tree are built up in layers. To make the trunk more dense, the artist has rubbed and smudged preliminary marks with his fingers before firmly overdrawing with new lines. Solid black lines are achieved by pressing the chalk hard. When used lightly, it shows the texture of the paper. Tree: Study for the Grey 1911 23 x 335/8 in ( 5 8 4 x 8 5 5 m m ) Tree




Graphite and Erasers

This drawing illustrates a range of achieved with graphite pencils of different grades.


Modern pencils are graded from 9H (hard and pale) to 9B (black and soft). Graphiteclay sticks are also available, together with a powder form. All possess a natural sheen and are erasable to a varying degree. Graphite drawings smudge easily, so fixative, a form of varnish, can be used to hold a drawn surface in place. It is applied as a fine mist from an aerosol can, or from a bottle using a diffuser. For the beginner, ordinary hairspray is an effective and cheaper alternative.

(to write), is a soft and brittle carbon. It was first mined in Cumbria, England, in 1 5 6 4 , and was initially used in small, pure pieces bound in lengths of string. Pencils as we know them—with their slender wood casing and "lead" of graphite—were invented in France in 1794 by Nicolas-Jaques Conte. He discovered that milled graphite mixed with clay and water, press-molded, and baked to a high temperature produces a harder and paler medium than graphite alone.

3B pencil A range of mark and textures can be achieved with a 3B pencil when you vary its pressure, speed, and direction, as this detail shows.

Here is a selection of 14 items to illustrate a basic range of pencils, graphite sticks, sharpeners, erasers, and fixative.
1. AND 2. HB AND 3B PENCILS: It is unnecessary to possess every grade of pencil. HB, the central and most common grade, is perfect for making delicate lines. 3B gives a blacker tone. A great variety of effects can be achieved with just these two. 3. WATER-SOLUBLE PENCIL Effective for atmospheric drawing, but be aware of how watery tones can dull the impact of the line. 4. AND 5. MECHANICAL PENCIL Thick or fine leads are made in a range of grades. They are particularly useful because they do not require a sharpener 6. ROUND SOLID GRAPHITE PENCIL: Excellent for large-scale drawing, producing thick bold lines. A range of grades can be honed with a craft knife or sharpener 7. THICK GRAPHITE STICK: For large-scale drawing. Graded soft, medium, and hard. It crushes to produce graphite powder 8. SQUARE GRAPHITE STICK: Useful for making broad, sweeping marks in large-scale drawing. If worn and rounded, the stick can be snapped into pieces to regain the sharp, square end. 9. CRAFT KNIFE AND BLADES: Handles are sold in two sizes to fit large or small blades, and blades are sold in a range of shapes. Perfect for sharpening pencils to a long point, to cut lines in paper or to remove areas. 10. PENCIL SHARPENER: Makes a uniform point. Keep one in your pocket for drawing outside the studio, together with an envelope for shavings.

HB and 5B Layers of tone have been built up withHBand5Bpencils. Softer pencils require less pressure to make a mark, revealing the texture of the paper surface. It is important to keep the point of the pencil sharp with either a craft knife or a sharpener.


Erasers can be used t o blend and s o f t e n lines, o r t o r e m o v e altogether. Fixative them prevents


s m u d g i n g a n d s e c u r e s lines.

Using fixative You can use fixative while drawing to hold the definition of lines you wish to gently fade but not remove entirely, for which you would use an eraser.

11. P L A S T I C E R A S E R : Avoid cheap colored erasers that may stain drawings with grease and dye. White brands are available in soft and hard versions.



W a r m it in your hand before use. It is excellent for removing powdery materials, and for making crisp sweeps of light across a delicate pencil drawing

13. D I F F U S E R : Helleborus corsicus (Corsican hellebore) fixative, or to spray mists of ink.



Cropping and Composition
M A N Y STUDENTS WILL START a d r a w i n g i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e

that its skin nearly touches the boundary. The meaning of the same drawing changes simply by its relationship to the space it occupies. The size of any subject, its placement on the page, the size of the page, and its overall proportion are all discrete and essential aspects of successful picture-making. Before you begin to draw, think carefully about where to place your subject. Are you are happy with your paper? If not, change it; add more, take some away, or turn it around. Do not just accept what you are given, adapt it to what you need.

paper. Focused on the shape and detail of their subject, they remain happily unaware that there is, or should be, any relationship between what they are drawing and the surface they are drawing it on. The paper is only paper, and the troublesome subject floats somewhere in the expanse of it. However, a single fig drawn in the middle of a large, empty square of paper gives quite a different impression from the same fig drawn on such an intimately small square


A Single Fig

"The size, shape, and orientation of the paper are so integral to the composition that they determine the impact and meaning of the drawing."

its illumination. Here the left fig is attached to. Touching the edge When the subject o f a drawing touches one edge of the paper it attaches t o it visually. its stem and shadow framing a white center.57 THE VIEWFINDER T h e s e pencil drawings o f figs d e m o n s t r a t e different crops and compositions. a device to help you decide what t o draw. the uppermost edge of the drawing. U s e it as a starting point. This drawing hasbeencropped to emphasize space between thefruit. and therefore apparently suspended from. When subjects touch two or more edges. they establish a tension and unity with the paper. and lines describing shadows cast by the fruit . The angle of the fruit together with dark shadow (top left) and bright light(bottom right) suggest a diagonal division across the whole drawing. CROPPING AND COMPOSITION Off-center and diagonal Here I held my viewfinder so the fig appeared upper-left in the space. A card with a small rectangle cut out o f it makes a useful viewfinder C l o s e o n e e y e t o look through the hole.O u r focus is on the white cloth supporting the figs. as also shown here. running corner t o corner. bottom-left t o top-right. spaces between things are as important as the things themselves. Space as the subject Inallpictures. t h e n m o v e t h e c a r d t o e x p l o r e different views.

unified. third. a foundation stone in picture-making. It is an astonishingly simple device that many artists use and I strongly recommend. this ensures a consistent view. a sharp H B pencil.58 PLANTS AND GARDENS Negative Space UNCONSCIOUSLY WE ASSESS spatial relationships all the time to guide ourselves through the world. But how often do we look at the air between things. Unfamiliar shapes of negative space reveal the real shape of a positive subject. and engaging. Remember that plants do move! Therefore it is best to complete your drawing in one sitting if possible. then added a second shape. position. In following this class. shapes of air cut out and defined by the physicality of our environment? When we look into the branches of a tree. but if the artist does. and a role to play. The drawing opposite is of the uppermost leaves of a potted fig tree. do we see myriad distinct and unique shapes of daylight or do we just see branches? Why as artists should we look at the air? Every space in a picture has a shape. erasing and adjusting lines until itlooked right. In your own version.The box opposite isolates an area. remember to draw only space. Negative space is the simple key to getting positive shape right. Viewers appreciating a finished image may not see shapes of space. and a fresh page in your drawing book. fourth. tone. an eraser. Follow these from left to right and see how I began with one complete shape between two parts of a leaf. dynamic. and so on. their subject and composition will become more real. Looking at negative space overrides the problem of drawing what you know. you will need a similar large-leaved plant. which is shown in the three steps below. rather than what you see in front of you. Draw a complete shape Map outward from the center Erase and adjust lines until correct . It helps to start at the center and map outward. not leaves. WHERE TO START Arrange your plant and paper so you can look back and forth by barely moving your head.


Here I drew only spaces, adding one to another until the leaves were revealed. Besides looking at negative space, there are two other useful things to do when a drawing feels wrong but you cannot see why: look at it in a mirror or turn it upside down. errors and suggest changes.

Spaces between leaves

Either view will


Fig Tree
WALKING IN THE ALPUJARRAS in A n d a l u c i a ,

Spain, I drew a bare fig tree clinging to the wall of an almond grove; a perfect subject for seeing negative space. I marked its essential frame of large branches first, frequently erasing lines and changing my mind until the balance felt right.

S a l v i a , RIBES, CLEMATIS, Allium, Passiflora, and Acanthus

Summer Flowers


drawn with an H pencil by observing the

negative spaces between the stems, petals, and leaves. I arranged the flowers on a sheet of paper in a cool r o o m and rapidly sketched a composition. Then I put them in water, taking the stems out one at a time to draw.


Compare changes of pace and focus here to the flatter finish of Summer Flowers (see pp. our eyes travel and adjust from one point of focus to another. We never see everything at once. If an artist changes the pace of their line and focus of their attention. 62-63). .Acanthus Spinosus As we LOOK AROUND. Excessive detail leaves no space for the eye to rest or imagination to wander. gathering less distinct information on the way. they emulate our experience of seeing. interfolding points of detail with areas of loose suggestion.


time. once there. was preserved into the Renaissance where it became a foundation stone for thinking and creativity From 15thcentury Italy. It is the focus of practical class in this chapter. philosophers. 74-75). space.The church is still in use today. which was the first church in the capital to be built entirely of metal and then clad in stone. we find the most recent steps in the evolution of graphic language. each VICTOR BALTARD . with gray and brown watercolor wash. Baltard designed the Church of St. Since Picasso and Braque's revolution of Cubism in around 1907. At the core of their practice. the device that has since governed most of our picture-making (sec pp. It was also during the Renaissance that the architect Brunelleschi invented linear perspective. This harmony. Augustin. they also have a diagrammatic language for communicating plans to builders. Linear perspective is a marvelous device. and writers have been breaking away from traditional forms of representation to seek new expressions of shape. architects. architects and designers can imaginatively "climb inside" three-dimensional space and. balance. Since the first flowering of Modernism in the early 20th century.Architecture I N THE CONTEMPORARY PRACTICES of architecture. It was the mathematicians. designers. and from West Facade of the Church of St Augustin. fine artists. VICTOR BALTARD French architect employed by the city of Paris. coupled with the importance of exercizing your imagination. invaluable to understand and apply when you choose. and in the 19th century it was given the name the Golden Section. to help them create new form.This is a pencil drawing. Architects have been fine-tuning their specialized branch of drawing for centuries. and architects of ancient Greece who first pursued the formula for "divine proportion. European conventions of pictorial perspective have lost their monopoly on seeing. composers. drawing plans around themselves within a program as opposed to on a flat sheet of paper. Perhaps in the sheer planes of some of our greatest modern buildings it is finding its clearest expression. Paris 1871-74 the child's view to the infinity of the vanishing point. of the west facade of St Augustin." reflecting the eye's love of unity in difference. Yet the pursuit of divine proportion and harmony remains. the formula for perfection spread through Europe. Besides sketches of first thoughts and polished drawings of the finished look for clients. film-set design. from political commentary to musical abstraction. they have the Golden Section. to 20th-century film fantasy. add and subtract ideas. mass. which can be clearly seen in ancient Greek architecture. Through the animation of the screen. filmmakers. made by the architect himself. Computer programs allow the virtual drawing of ideas. Among the drawings of this chapter we look from 17th-century ecclesiastical calm. and computer game imaging. and sound.

describe a finished look to a client. Below it. densely layered lines in mists of color weave the presence of the expected building into shape. materials. We see the modeled detail of Corinthian columns. and six London churches. and an inscribed entablature. Hawksmoor established his reputation with university and church architecture including All Souls College. Gaudi's fluid architecture grew up through many kinds of drawing. pilasters. a three-dimensional drawing made with wires and weights. Oxford. A student of Wren's. and Castle Howard. NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR One of Britain's "three great" Baroque architects (along with Sir Christopher Wren and Sir John Vanbrugh). calculate function.68 ARCHITECTURE Master Builders EVERY NEW BUILDING. Pillars and floor At the base of the drawing a compass-drawn plan tilted downward through 90 degrees illustrates the arrangement of pillars around a central circular floor. Hawksmoor's drawing is both a plan and an evocation. Hampton Court Palace. Three aspects This subtle and sophisticated drawing made in pen and wash displays three distinct aspects of Hawksmoor's baptistry. and later an assistant to Vanbrugh. and the shapes of interior domes and apses. Finished surface On the left the finished surface of the building is given depth and emphasis by immaculate vertical and horizontal brush strokes of shadow. Blenheim Palace. and balance. 1711-12 NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR . Lines define structure while washes suggest light and atmosphere. The photograph opposite shows his studio hung with metal pendulums. he also worked on St Paul's Cathedral. St Paul's Baptistry c. embodying a massive investment of ideas. relative levels. evoke presence. and ultimately to show builders what to do. Architects draw for many reasons: to visualize ideas. Together they explain how interior structure and space define exterior form and shape. marks the end of a long journey from the first few marks the architect made on a sheet of paper. Drawings underpin every great human-made structure like hidden linear ghosts at their core. structure. Cut-away interior On the right a section cut through the center of the building reveals material thicknesses. testing gravity to calculate the inverted shapes of domes. and labor.

69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt c. The Art Nouveau movement. Guell Crypt of its at the Time Construction c. unique organic manipulation of high shapes. This sculptural drawingenvisionsthe finished crypt glowingandethereal as if caught in thelightof red morning sun. light. To the right isawatercolordrawing thought to havebeenmade over a photograph ofthemodelabove. and his love of music. Gaudi air than on paper. 1900 ANTONIO GAUDI ANTONIO GAUDI Visionary Catalan architect. and apartment homes are distinguished by their Their and Flowering curves of stone or concrete are often encrusted with Gaudi was inspired by medieval and oriental art. embellishment. Gaudi's cathedral in Barcelona. Wire and watercolor three-dimensional preferred to calculate Above is a drawing form in the made withlinkedwires and weights. 1910 24x181/4( 6 1 0 x 4 7 5mm) A N T O N I O GAUDI . churches.

short curved poles. Across the top and center right of the image w e perceive an almost recognizable architectural plan. p. Floor space appears divided by discernible walls. and in a sense hear. been a natural affinity between the visual rhythms of pictures and the audible rhythms of music. such a rapport in both of these drawings. upright pictorial space. There has always DANIEL LIBESKIND A Polish American architect of international acclaim. He also produces urban and landscape designs. corridors. He also contributed to plans for the rebuilding of the World Trade Center site in New York. Libeskind studied music before transferring to architecture. a refillable pen that feeds a constant supply of ink through a fine tubular nib. and dotted lines. and the spaces between his windows and turrets are the visual equivalent of pauses in h i s m u s i c c o m p o s i t i o n s for p i a n o (see also Bussotti. The architect and musician Daniel Libeskind has drawn a stampeding cacophany of airborne architectural detail. and arched dotted lines depict the radius of doors. Satie draws quietly throughout. We can imagine how a musician might interpret this drawing by looking at the abstract visual rhythms of masses composed of long straight poles. Libeskind's numerous commissions include concert halls and museums. Arctic Flowers 1980 DANIEL LIBESKIND . while the composer Erik Satie has made an enclosure of quiet order and grace. before cascading into a riot of line and sound below.70 ARCHITECTURE The Order of Sound B O T H OF THESE VISIONARY DRAWINGS o c c u p y a s l e n d e r . installations. Libeskind begins quietly in the upper space of his drawing. We can see. Contemporary musicians commonly collaborate with artists by interpreting images as sound. Floor plan This drawing has been made with a rapidograph. Both men used rulers and pens to carefully and slowly construct their compositions. and rooms. flat boards.223). Visual rhythms In the lower half of this drawing architectural language has broken loose: escaped and transformed into an image of rebellious pleasure. theater sets. and exhibitions of his drawings.

andfouredges of the paper tothecompositionand impact animage. effectively additional lines in a work. the perimeter Composition Look how well this drawingfitsand resonates with the upright. theater. dressed eccentrically. 1 8 9 3 77/8 x 51/2 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 4 0 mm) ERIK SATIE . H e p e r f o r m e d in cabarets. Satie collaborated w i t h hisfriends J e a n C o c t e a u a n d P i c a s s o . a n d ballet. lived a l o n e . They definespaceand pictorial balance. Compare the even and and the shape wall to the elegantly stylized order of the many windows of arrangement of details and the shape of the wall in Babur's Garden of Fidelity on p. Eastern influence The upright image Eastern is reminiscent and medieval of Middle pictorial space and subject of this European drawing. and ink on a fragment folded brown paper—a of everyday happened material of scrap that to be at hand. minimalist s c o r e s scandalized a u d i e n c e s with o r c h e s t r a t i o n s f o r t h e foghorn and typewriter. Hotel de la Suzonnieres c. o f which he was the sole m e m b e r Parcel paper Satie has drawn this fantasy hotel using a ruler.50.56—57 we discussed important the shape. Onpp.narrowshape of its paper.ERIK SATIE F r e n c h pianist and c o m p o s e r for t h e piano.Edges are how are of orientation.H i s witty. and founded his o w n church. a conventional dip or fountain pen.

enter the long-shadowed architecture of imaginary worlds. This is the work of an architectural theoretician. Boullee lived in Paris.The lower-left section of the building appears relatively pale against a darker sky. His celebrated imaginary buildings are characterized by pyramids. Boullee's monolithic apparition was drawn as a monument to Sir Isaac Newton. antlike mortals might have speculated upon the universe. and draftsman. We glide over exquisitely drawn wastelands of damage and abandonment. Art director Erich Kettlehut's vertiginous design for the city of a slavelike populace had a future influence on movies such as Blade Runner. arched vaults. the ominous globe exists only as a series of drawings. we find other Utopian visions Paul Nobles epic drawing summons an imperfect and disturbing township where ruin and activity are equal and strange. made in 1926. and dramatic lighting. and the reverse is true on the right. cylinders. This shift makes the cenotaph appear three-dimensional. experiencing a fascinating conflict between curiosity and desolation. spheres. ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE French architectural theorist. Within it.72 ARCHITECTURE T H E S E T H R E E HIGHLY DETAILED DRAWINGS Future Fictions invite us to soaring above normal life. Newton's Cenotaph 1784 153/4 x 25 in ( 4 0 2 x 635 m m ) ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE . Light illusions This pen-and-wash drawing shows a subtle application of the principles of illumination demonstrated with an egg on p. Among preparations for Fritz Langs film Metropolis.96. and taught at t h e A c a d e m i e d'Architecture. painter.

and morality o f an invented place called His satires exhibited w o r l d w i d e . intensely detailed graphite drawings explaining and questioning t h e geography. FUTURE FICTIONS Brush and ink This is a dramatic drawing from a film that shaped the history of world cinema. 1926 ERICH KETTLEHUT PAUL N O B L E British c o n t e m p o r a r y artist who creates m o n u m e n t a l . mythology.Building shapes are works can be read as text. draftsman. Kettlehut drew using a fine and relatively dry brush dipped in black. and are Graphite shapes Nobson Central isoneof a series of very large graphite drawings of the spoil and detritus of Nobson Newtown.73 ERICH KETTLEHUT Influential film a r t director.a r t director O t t o Hunte. together with c i n e m a t o g r a p h e r Karl Freund. gray. Working on toned paper such as this gives an artist greater scope for dramatic lighting effects than if they work on white paper. used forced perspective camera t e c h n i q u e s t o amplify t h e m a g n i t u d e o f buildings in relation t o human characters. Nobson Central 9 ft 1 0 in x 1 3 f t 2 in (3 x 4 m ) PAUL N O B L E 1998-99 . Its sheerscaleengulfs the viewer and demands based time and patience to on letters and in some beread. Fritz Lang's Metropolis c. architecture. and white ink on brown-gray paper.m a k e r In t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f Metropolis. and m o d e l . Kettlehut and his c o . Nobson political visions of humanity Newtown.

It can be applied to any subject. Pull the thread taut and rotate it slowly above the drawing. Leonardo recorded constant streams of ideas. Piranesi an example of two. observations. Note how architectural features conform to lines and how human figures diminish in size toward thevanishingpoint. this perspective is often an imagined bird's-eye view in which details are mapped according to logic and importance rather than how they might appear in real life. and those of Naive artists and children. I contribute the child's perspective. LEONARDO DA VINCI One of the greatest artists. Press the pin into Leonardo's vanishing point. and thinkers ever to have lived. In his notebooks. found at the center of all converging lines. and inventions— essential reading for inquiring minds. Study of Perspective Adoration of the for the Magi 1481 61/2 x111/2in (165 x 290 mm) LEONARDO DA VINCI . Sometimes shared with Naive artists. and age eight. It is also distinguished from aerial perspective (see pp. inventors. Single-point perspective Tie a thread to a pin. 206-07). but is most easily seen and understood in pictures of buildings and interiors. All forms of perspective are of equal value. scientists. Invented by Italian artist and architect Brunelleschi in 1413 (late in the history of art). linear perspective is distinct from more ancient systems practiced in the East. Here Leonardo provides a superb example of a single vanishing point. See how the thread corresponds to each converging line. We use it to structure illusions of depth.74 ARCHITECTURE Pathways of Sight LINEAR PERSPECTIVE (also called vanishing-point perspective) is a simple device for calculating the relative size of things in pictorial space.

SARAH SIMBLET I made this drawing (at age 8) in response to a local bookstore's request for children to draw their village. Children are uninhibited and problems with one element being obscured by another rarely arise. England 1980 9 x 16 in (228 x 405 mm) S A R A H SIMBLET GIOVANNI BATTISTA PIRANESI Italian artist. This drawing Young children typically maps ignore on and understanding of the nearby village. . visionary and practical understanding of ancient Rome. Two-point perspective Sunlight through this colonnade a great example of two-point perspective. Lightly marked illuminates vanishing Two Courtyards c. at the top of each lateral column base. Breamore Village. issues of scale when making room for important their story. architect. It shows how children usually map large scenes in flat layers one above the other. including all they recall about the subject. Note the rather large rabbits and pheasants the hills. 1740 5 1 / 2 x 83/8 in (141 x 212 mm) G I O V A N N I B A T T I S T A PIRANESI points are located on either side of the drawing. and theoretical writing strongly influenced neoclassicism. and designer Piranesi's prolific architectural drawings. Mark these points with your pin and follow the converging lines of the drawing by rotating your thread. Scale Our farmhouse my experience was in the woods. a points in logical narrative of memories. which I saw from home every day. New Forest.

corresponding to a single vanishing point. Each line should pass through one corner of the rectangle. This ensures that the second rectangle aligns with the shape and 4 Draw four short lines to connect the four corners of the two rectangles.76 ARCHITECTURE Single-Point Perspective MASTERING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE i s e a s i e r t h a n y o u m a y First read through. Next. imagine. Note that if you place large structures in the foreground and smaller ones closer to your vanishing point. Extend each dotted line to the edge of your drawing. you will amplify the illusion of distance. Surround the vanishing point with a small rectangle. Piranesi planned his drawing with only the essential lines needed. This is where we will begin. You have completed your first box. This lesson shows you how to make a simple illusion of space defined by two boxes and three flat boards. Leonardo began with a grid of many lines within which he invented his scene. using a sharp HB pencil and ruler. this is your vanishing point. draw a horizon line across your paper Mark a spot on the horizon line. 2 3 corners must each touch a dotted line. Draw each step over the preceding one to build up a single image. Erase the dotted construction lines. Draw four dotted lines radiating out from the vanishing point.98 for an important note on oscillation. On the previous page we looked at its essential mechanism through drawings by Leonardo and Piranesi. DRAWING BOXES 1 Using a ruler and a sharp HB pencil. Study these pages first before embarking on this lesson. (See p. discovering the image as it progressed. In contrast.) . then follow the ten steps below. try composing your own space.

willhelptomake them appear more solid. andfarside of this first board. 7 As in step 3. draw four dotted lines radiating from your vanishing point Pass these through each comer of the new rectangle. Continue the dotted lines out toward the edge of your drawing. the closer it will appear to the viewer. The four comers must each touch a dotted line to be sureitaligns with the first. Connect this to the vanishing point— again. The larger you make your second rectangle. . when inventing your own compositions. 6 As in step 2. Repeat this to add two more boards to the composition. you can place rectangles anywhere youwishin relation to a vanishing point.77 SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE 5 Draw a new rectangle. larger rectangle. Note that this does not surround the vanishing point In the future. bottom. N e x t draw a slanting line to mark the height of the first flat board. 8 Complete the second box with short lines as in step 4. 9 Use dotted lines connecting the slanting linetothe vanishing point to locate the top. The board's sides should be parallel. with two dotted lines. and erase the dotted lines. 1 0 Erase all ofthedottedlinestoseeyourfinishedboxes Thickeningtheiredges.asIhavedonehere. draw a second.

7 4 ) . APPLYING PERSPECTIVE An Imagined Scaffold "Enjoy your illusion as you make it and it will become more real. artist and film director. As David Lynch. If using a fibertip pen as I have done for this drawing. A lot more happens when you open yourself up to the work and let yourself act and react to it. you will find white adhesive stationery labels are useful for covering errors or changing the direction of your idea. once said: "I never end up with what I set out to do. Every work talks In this class. let simple lines suggest a simple space.78 ARCHITECTURE Creating an Imaginary Space T H I S CLASS USES SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE t o c r e a t e a s i m p l e to you and if you listen to it. it is interaction that makes the work richer. draw a b o x as shown opposite. I always start with a script but I don't follow it all the way through to the end. then let the space suggest its c o n t e n t s and purpose. The m i s t a k e n belief that we s h o u l d k n o w exactly what o u r finished drawings will l o o k like before we m a k e t h e m prevents many people from ever starting. O n a fresh page in your d r a w i n g b o o k . w h e t h e r it is a film or a painting." imaginary room." . It highlights the importance of having faith in your imagination and trusting your ability to invent. Then follow the three given steps. p . Linear perspective will support y o u by providing a frame in which to b u i l d your picture as it did for Leonardo. it will take you places you never dreamed of.

drawthehorizonlineand vanishingpoint. and leaning surfaces. Here. CREATING AN IMAGINARY SPACE 1First. parallel planes such as walls converge toward the vanishing point.79 DRAWING A SIMPLE ROOM Essentials t o remember: objects and people dimmish in size as they move farther away. and floors and ceilings also converge and rise o r lower toward the horizon. This initial space will be transparent and open to change. horizontal. additional lines have established the different surfaces and how they relate to each other. 2 first before adding furniture. .Addanarray of converging lines to provide a "scaffold" for vertical. you will beableto draw more complex objects orpeoplewithin them. 3 Remove the construction lines with an eraser and the room will becomeclearer. With some practice.There is great pleasure tobefoundin spending time inventing interiors. The space has become more solid and real.

our eye level is very high and we look down. Only when y o u might employ t h r e e .80 ARCHITECTURE Further Aspects of Perspective W E ARE ACCUSTOMED TO SEEING our e n v i r o n m e n t from a relatively constant point of view. That is where we e to find them. From our normal eye level. Potentially. Copying what you see in the work of others will help you to understand what they have done. verticals appear p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the g r o u n d . These elaborations could continue indefinitely across a sheet of paper in pursuit of complex and intricate ideas. 76-79). Here. They could be drawn on any scale from miniature to monumental. T h i n k of standing at the top of a skyscraper and imagine h o w its parallel sides would appear to converge below you. do verticals appear inclined. I have elaborated on the simple boxes above.p o i n t perspective ( s h o w n opposite top). a n d this is how we have drawn them so far (see pp. or low and we look u p . o r to the h o r i z o n . located anywhere inside or outside the pictorial space. To draw such a view APPLICATION Copy these drawings to see and feel how they work before inventing your own versions. Further aspects of three-point perspective are also illustrated opposite. It is important to realize that you can have as many vanishing points as you wish. but they are not confined to this level. Elaborations . Free vanishing points On paper we can enjoy the freedom of fantastic structural invention without limitations of solid materials or gravity. they can be placed anywhere inspaceto describe the perspective of flyi c tilted objects. T h i s is d e m o n s t r a t e d immediately below. Vanishing points are commonly found on horizon—our eye level. T h e y d o n o t have to relate to each other. The boxes drawn here are seen partly or entirely disassociated from a horizon line drawn across the bottom of the image. showing y o u h o w to draw curved surfaces and a tiled floor. Search for the application of these perspectives among works by other artists in this book and in galleries.

Finally.) By comparing this drawing t o Piranesi's example of two-point perspective on p.81 FURTHER ASPECTS OF Three-point towers This drawing depicts three-point perspective. Giving curvature. and therefore tension. I marked the toplinewith three evenly spaced points and the line with seven.Istarted with two parallel lines.I added horizontal lines t o define the tiles. Three-point checkered floor This d bottom floor. three vanishing points are evenly spaced along a horizon line. tostraightlines can amplify drama in a picture. (Turn the book around to see a view looking up. Where thelinescross. by adding a third point you can achieve a sense of incline. An array of curved lines (drawn freehand) link the two lateral points. PERSPECTIVE Three-point curves Here. you will see how. Iusedthese lines as a guide t o draw the curvature of boxes and panels flying through space. I then drew three fanned groups of lines connecting each of the three points above to the seven points below. they mark the corners of the floor tiles. Note that altering the distance between the three dots above will tilt the level of the floor . useful for representing steep views looking up or down tall structures.75.


These walnut-skin ink pen and brush drawings show imagined views of theaters that do not exist but were inspired by places I studied. I visited many anatomical theaters and museums. making drawings to resolve questions and express personal responses to the nature and history of anatomy.Theaters RESEARCHING FOR MY P H D . .


I N KDRAWING is one of a series I made while next to the Rialto Bridge in Venice. . the water.Venetian Life sitting point buildings ThisP E N .A N D . The vanishing of the drawing is directly opposite as we look across The constancy of the bridge and surrounding frames the movement in the life that flows past.




have often carried great weights of allegorical once. making a clear instruction t o his bronzemeaning. It was in this era that the blueprint was born. but humans LEONARDO DA VINCI Inthisbeautiful red chalk Our items all have a purpose—practical or ornamental—and all have a meaning. C o m m o n items. r an equestrian statue. In past eras. and made. we look at the importance are the only creatures on Earth w h o actually design and create great ranges of things. drawings were needed to instruct workers on the factory floor. craftsmen had held plans in their memory. Engineers and designers of our objects and instruments make drawings for many reasons: to test an idea that is yet to be made. each demanding more of the other as they increased in sophistication. sculpted. of light in the creation of pictorial illusions. hooked bars that can be pulled and tied closely form. even more advanced drawings are made on computers. H e has described a casting through metaphor. drawing c.Objects and Instruments T HE THINGS WE INVENT describe our lives. drawn. Birds follow instinct to make a nest. 1493 117/8c81/4in (300 x 210 m m ) LEONARDO D A V I N Ccreating I . are all made bearing the signature of our time and place. or drawing w e see Leonardo daVinci'sprecision as can be given meaning. In this chapter. H e has described contour and function at drawings. Artists also make images of objects that can never exist. to record an observed detail. T h e Industrial Revolution c h a n g e d the traditional w a y s in w h i c h objects were designed. History will be learned from the artifacts w e leave behind. W e also explore v o l u m e and form in the classes by spinning lines to make vessels. and a wire violin. these. or to explain and present a finished concept to a client. too. and the behavior of light through making still-life paintings and together. illuminating snail shells. planned. Today. T h e precision of engineering d r a w i n g s e v o l v e d alongside machine tools. fictional realities caster of h o w t o make it andhowit will w o r k . that test our logic with a sense of mystery. or used on stage hood for a mold t o make theheado f a horse f oas a p r o p — i m b u e d with e n o u g h energy or character can "become" a man. from s p o o n s and pens to chairs and bicycles. for example. A chair. With the sudden onset of mass production. It is shaped in sections w i t h Artists have for centuries studied and expressed composition. design. and some apes use simple tools. for example—whether. texture. Artists and actors use the meanings of things to communicate a speculative mechanic. and the way in w h i c h the brain reacts Head and Neck Sections of Female Mold for the Sforza Horse to visual stimulus and optical illusions. Technical drawing was speedily developed as a meticulous international code of m e a s u r e m e n t and explanation. color. passing them on to others through the act of making. Previously.

There is a fragile eloquence to these objects as they drift in slow motion past our gaze. and shading. a colored canvas. "I believe [it] is the most radicalattempttostampout ambiguity and to enforce one readingofthepicture—that of a manmade construction. He takes us into the bustle of the Paris cafe. silverware. Braque established Cubism in partnership with Picasso just before World War I. Braques image is a Cubist collage. Even today GEORGES BRAQUE French painter who as a young man was influenced by the work of the Fauves and of Cezanne. and glass objects of exquisite elegance for only the gentlest of touch and appreciation. but to clash in virtual deadlock. T h i s is a designers drawing made to enthuse surface and style in its delicate brushing of china. not of place but of things. Clashes The art historian Ernst Gombrich said of Cubism. not to work in harmony. and a journal jacket with words makes this drawing chatter about the moment. Statue D'Epouvante 1913 2 f t 5 in x 3 ft 5 in (0. Below. Mucha's drawing glistens with possession. charcoal.Braque marshals all the forces of perspective. representing still life. Braques "justly" arranged combination of cut black card. His work is characterized by calm and harmonious still-life compositions.73 x 1 m) GEORGES BRAQUE ." La Cuitare. texture. still feel this projected moment... steaming with music and conversation. perfect i n their newly made availability. . One of the great joys of this movement in art is the musicality of its multipoint view. Opposite. wood-look wallpaper.90 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS Still Life THESE DRAWINGS REVEAL t w o o p p o s i t e m o t i v a t i o n s i n we can.

The three plates facing us were drawn with a Look at the two spoons at toprightand see how has suggested that they are so brilliantly shiny they reflect the background color. Chicago. and fish have been outlined using a sharp pencil. Study for Plate 59 from "Documents Decoratifs" 17x121/4(430 x 310 mm) ALPHONSE MUCHA 1902 . For ten years Mucha designed theater posters exclusively for the actress Sarah Bernhardt. He designed the Austrian pavilion for the Paris World Fair in 1900. Art Nouveau motifs This is a preliminary study for a subsequent print. Pans. Art Nouveau curling motifs of birds. and also stamps and bank notes.ALPHONSE MUCHA Czech graphic artist and painter who worked in Prague. and New York.fruit. Background color Between the delicate shadows and highlights of these glazed and surfaces ofthebackground metal color of the Mucha we see a large amount paper. Black watercolor washes and lines of white gouache have been added with a fine brush. He is best known for posters featuring ethereal women in typical Art Nouveau style.

w h e r e he developed his three greatest theories: the law o f motion. alchemist. Hooke's head of a drone fly seen through a microscope may represent the first time man and insect came face to face. the law o f gravity. Look how confidently he draws with ink the sphere of this wooden globe by which his telescope rotates. A disembodied eye at the top of the drawing indicates where to look. and philosopher Newton was President of the Royal Society. drawing is there to pin the moment down. into the eyepiece. and Fellow of the University o f C a m b r i d g e . He counted 1 4 .92 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS by their very nature must gauge or chronicle precision. Newton used this instrument to calculate the speed required to escape earth's gravity. Ink lines Several drawings appear among Newton's letters. The power of this drawing reflects the pure passion of discovery. It is a diagrammatic explanation of how to catch and magnify a star in a mirrored tube. mathematician. Newton's drawing of his first reflecting telescope is ISAAC N E W T O N English scientist. and his hand moving across the light. Their delicate construction is only as valuable as the measurements they make. astronomer. via a second mirror. and the nature o f light and color. Transparent view Newton's reflecting telescope focused light in a parabolic mirror. It was then reflected up inside the tube and. offering a transparent view. 0 0 0 perfect hemispheres. a tree outside. each reflecting a view of his own world—his window. From the concept of capturing the infinite to the mapping of microscopic sight. shape the very cause and effect of investigatory thought. each one skillfully rendered with the alarmingly matter-of-fact ease of explaining the commonplace. Newton's 1672 ISAAC Telescope NEWTON . we see drawing Instruments of Vision found among his letters. With dotted lines Newton has drawn his arrangement of elements inside the tube. In the graphic work of these two great men of science.

universal joint a prototype respirator clock balance. and anchor escarpment. The Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 1665 ROBERT HOOKE 111/2 x 105/8 in (294 x 270 mm) . It is an exhilarating read. a breathtaking book containing many of his drawings showing some of the first microscopic and telescopic magnifications of our environment Hooke's text and illustrations carry us to the moment of discovery. Hooke invented the camera diaphragm. and calculated the theory of combustion.An experimental scientist who drew many of his discoveries. ROBERT H O O K E 93 Magnifications This acutely detailed engraved drawing is taken from Hooke's Micrographia (pub. 1665).

Its wobbly gait and squashed s y m m e t r y m u m b l e endless h o m e y tales about the life it has seen. Two-dimensional was made This highly finished drawing ruler using a sharp pencil and on smooth white drawing paper glistening dark drawings are artificial representations of known Woodfine's two-dimensional things balanced in the world. Sarah Woodfines flat cut-out m o d e l plan is a witty and surprising drawing. Woodfine exhibits internationally. Drawn in more-or-less c o n v e n t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . Van Gogh's tipsy seat is a metaphor for an absent person. OBJECTS AND SARAH WOODFINE British contemporary artist graduate of the Royal Academy Schools. its character. while the tabs make us see a flat paper cut-out. and winner of the 2004 Jerwood Drawing Prize. Chair Cut Out 2002 22'A x 23 in (565 x 585 mm) SARAH WOODFINE . each drawn with the s a m e unfaltering lines and tones that are between reality and impossibility. this chair p r e s e n t s us with a clever visual contradiction: deeply drawn shadows tell us it must be solid. From component parts we understand how to put it together and make it stand sensible in space. craft. and w h e r e the chair b e l o n g s . and place in the world are truly seen. has published several catalogs of her work. and has drawings in numerous public and private collections. W i t h h o m e y c o n t r a s t . it has so m u c h familiar personality that it seems to talk to us. A renegade from the p a p e r dolls' h o u s e .94 INSTRUMENTS W H E N WE DRAW A COMMON OBJECT like a chair. Bench Marks W e are left a little c o n f u s e d as to what we s h o u l d do.

what direct in their he saw and describing his felt. The floor few as engagement with the chair. not is made present in only strokes and is subdued to distract us from flat a meaningful chair. Cornfield and Sunflowers.95 VINCENTVAN GOGH Dutch painter who produced over 800 paintings and 850 drawings in only the last ten year's of his life. Van Chair 1890 VINCENT VAN GOGH . drawn opposite way of plan. and Starry Cypress Night. inner recording while Fierce strokes This is a portrait of the mechanical drew immediately and almost harshly. His passionate brush and pencil strokes are honest and of also turmoil and growing alarm at the world around him. Among van Gogh's best-known canvases are Trees.hehas marked the full emotion of the subject with a fierce grip of concentration.

Adjust the angleofthe protruding part and again stepback. Before starting a tonal drawing of any subject. Below. or colored surface is never constant. Here w e look briefly at our perception of light a n d darkness a n d our interpretation of diagrammatic illusions. less developed than the center. Below the bottom "edge" of the egg there is a rim of light reflected onto the paper by the underside of the egg. a n d are q u i c k to p r o p o s e ideas. two identical mid-gray squares are seen against black and paler gray squares. gray. Gray squares To further examine changes in tone. To interpret visual s t i m u l u s . From across the room both will appear black card and fold and retapeitwith half sticking out. a lit photograph of an egg shows essential points to observe in tonal drawing. cards the same size. The two tones meet without a division or outline between. perhaps. the adjustment of our eyes (in growing accustomed to a level of light). S o m e o n e passes our o p e n door. w e turn our head but n o one w a s there.This effect is caused by the contrast of their surroundings. Artists emulate and manipulate this effect in their pictures. Card experiment cho can gra on . See how its "edge" smoothly changes from light against dark to dark against light. The perceived tone of a black white. but do not appear so. form. We will even see things that d o not exist because minimal information suggests they are likely to be there. The outermost edge of our vision. are translated into a world of space.d o w n patterns of light on our retinas. Three factors change it: the amount of light it receives. W e learn to read light and shadow in our environment as indicators of solidity and depth of space. transmitted to the brain as chains of electrical impulses. Are you happy LIGHT AND SHADOW with what you see? Does the light enhance the subject? Could you alter and improve it? On pp. try this experiment. hence our recognition of a cartoon face c o m p o s e d of three lines. a n d we can be fooled. a n d our ability to see forms in c l o u d s or fire. The egg's lightest region is seen against a darker background. atmosphere. Run The bottom-left quarter of the egg lightens slightly toward its "edge" when seen against the darker shadow cast on the paper. Through these we can enjoy witnessing our o w n d e c e p t i o n a n d b a f f l e m e n t a n d u n d e r s t a n d certain factors that are very useful in picture-making. your eye around the circumference of the egg. On acloudyday. The egg's darkest region is seen against a lighter background. The small squares are identical in tone. one blackandone white. think about its illumination. and the proximity of contrasting tones. We perceive one to be lighter than theother. o u r b r a i n s search for n a m e a b l e things. U p s i d e . a n d m o v e m e n t . reads only m o v e m e n t a n d can often m a k e mistakes. T h e slightest recognition is instantly matched to our wealth of experience a n d expectation. The rim of light on the egg is reflected light received from surrounding paper.96 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Light and Illusions SEEING IS MIRACULOUS.102-03 deep shadows cast across shells make their form easier to perceive.At one point you will catchenoughlight lighter than the white one. We only need small prompts. Here. Tape them to the glass.

Y o u m a y e x p e r i e n c e s o m e t h i n g similar h a p p e n i n g w h e n y o u m a k e s i n g l e . T h e r e is n o obligation t o a d d b l o c k s o f t o n e t o a l i n e a r d r a w i n g . T h i s fundamental o p p o s i t e is a reason w h y l i n e a r a n d t o n a l d r a w i n g does not a l w a y s c o m b i n e w e l l in t h e s a m e i m a g e . In this linear drawing w e read t h i c k as closer a n d t h i n as f a r t h e r away. S h o r t h o r i z o n t a l lines o f identical length are m a d e t o l o o k d i f f e r e n t by c o n v e r g i n g lines beside t h e m ( C ) . B o t h are identical in length. If y o u w i s h t o m a k e a t o n a l drawing. start o u t w i t h one. T h e jug d r a w n w i t h a t h i n line appears f a r t h e r away t h a n t h e j u g d r a w n w i t h a t h i c k e r line. T w o horizontal lines o f equal length are m a d e t o l o o k longer and shorter. b u t t h e u p r i g h t o n e l o o k s t a l l e r (B). Apparent lengths T h e s e optical illusions s h o w h o w lines o f identical length can b e m a d e t o l o o k quite different f r o m each o t h e r by t h e addition o r association o f o t h e r lines.97 LINE VERSUS TONE In l i n e a r d r a w i n g s . . t h i c k e r l i n e s a p p e a r t o stand forward. respectively. T w o relatively t h i c k parallel lines are m a d e t o b e n d away f r o m each o t h e r as t h e y pass in f r o n t o f an a r r a y o f c o n v e r g i n g f i n e lines ( B ) . l i g h t e r surfaces s t a n d f o r w a r d w h i l e d a r k e r s u r f a c e s recede. O f t e ndoingso w i l l s p o i l y o u r w o r k . w h i l e t h i n n e r lines recede. In a t o n a l d r a w i n g . A n u p r i g h t line stands in t h e c e n t e r o f a h o r i z o n t a l line. In this t o n a l image w e read w h i t e as f a t t e r t h a n black. O b s e r v e h o w each white b a n d appears t h i c k e r t h a n its black c o u n t e r p a r t .p o i n t p e r s p e c t i v e d r a w i n g s w i t h a large n u m b e r o f c o n v e r g i n g rays b e h i n d y o u r horizontals. Seven parallel lines are m a d e t o tilt t o w a r d and away f r o m each o t h e r by n u m e r o u s s h o r t strokes crossing t h e m diagonally ( A ) . LIGHT AND ILLUSIONS Tonal width T h e s e black a n d w h i t e bands are o f equal thickness o n e i t h e r side o f t h e i r central division. by d i r e c t e d a r r o w s ( A ) . Bending straight lines Linear distance These t w o jugs have b e e n d r a w n w i t h lines o f d i f f e r i n g thicknesses.

others adjust works to avoid their effects. it can oscillate b e t w e e n facing t o w a r d o r a w a y f r o m us. Today we are bombarded with images but rarely have difficulty reading them. A few suggestive marks will tip the decision one way o r the o t h e r Closing the surface W h e n a t r a n s p a r e n t elliptical o b j e c t has b e e n d r a w n . w h e n drawing the outline o f a three-dimensional form. w e can only look f r o m one t o the o t h e r If an artist is not aware this can happen in their image. it oscillates between t w o possibilities. Artists can communicate much in few lines and the viewer will do the rest of the work. as s h o w n o n t h e right. made paintings that depended upon the physical sensation of our brain's reaction to known optical illusions. C l o s i n g t h e surface o f t h e f o r m seals o u r d e c i s i o n as t o w h i c h w a y it faces.s i d e d r e c t a n g u l a r t r a y ( b o t h are illustrated far r i g h t ) "The brain is so eager to name a fragment we see that we need only a suggestion to grasp the whole. Artists make pictorial illusions when they paint or draw. It is possible t o r e a d i t t w o ways: as a t r u n c a t e d r e c t a n g u l a r p y r a m i d seen d i r e c t l y f r o m a b o v e . perfected the acceleration of perspective (see pp. Two ways of seeing T h i s is t h e b o x c r e a t e d in t h e f o u r t h step o n p. such as t h e dish seen h e r e o n t h e left. SEEING TWO OPTIONS Sometimes. Op(tical) artists. and we learn to read the styles of diverse cultures and periods. o r as a s l o p i n g . are still not agreeably understood. It is a curious fact that w e can never see both options at once. including some shown here. among others." . their picture could be ambiguous. and so calculated precisely how much to fatten columns to make them appear straight. such as Bridget Riley.76. Some artists use known optical illusions to make art. In the 1960's. Michelangelo. Yet many illusions.98 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Further Illusions PSYCHOLOGISTS AND PHYSIOLOGISTS have studied optical illusions for decades in pursuit of what they tell us about the brain. w e will find that in terms of the direction it faces.116-17) to make painted figures look correct when viewed from below. Ancient Greek architects knew parallel upright lines appeared to bend toward each other in the middle.

C o u n t t h e n u m b e r o f d a r k spots y o u can see. T h e t e s t e x p l o r e s o u r n o r m a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o find things w e can n a m e a m o n g r a n d o m shapes. T h e patient's answers are t h e n diagnosed as a psychological profile. FURTHER ILLUSIONS Seeing things that are n o t t h e r e H e r e o n t h e left. this is a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f t h e viewer's b r a i n b e i n g willing t o d o a large a m o u n t o f t h e w o r k in d e c i p h e r i n g a p i c t u r e . . T h e a r t i s t M. e t c . T h e y a r e o f t e n c r e d i t e d w i t h t h e invention o f t h e c o m i c c a r t o o n . b u t w e believe w e see t h e m because e n o u g h f r a g m e n t a r y i n f o r m a t i o n is given f o r o u r brains t o c o n c l u d e t h e y are v e r y likely t h e r e . Yet still w e try resolve t h e m .99 Impossible objects T h e s e clever configurations o f outlines and t o n a l surfaces convince us at a glance that we are seeing a solid three-dimensional triangle and a three-pronged fork. F a m i l i a r i t y in r a n d o m s h a p e s T h e Rorschach test was established by t h e 1 9 t h . w e see t w o overlapping triangles: o n e outlined in black b e n e a t h a n o t h e r in solid w h i t e .c e n t u r y Swiss psychologist H e r m a n n Rorschach. His highly d i s p u t e d and i m p r e c i s e science involves s h o w i n g u n p r e p a r e d p a t i e n t s t e n p a r t i c u l a r ink b l o t s a n d asking t h e m t o i n t e r p r e t w h a t t h e y see.c e n t u r y Italian painters. O n l y o n closer inspection we realize that t h e s e o b j e c t s are fooling us. Minimal-line j o k e s such as this rely u p o n t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y v i e w e r ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e shapes. T h e s e e x a m p l e s illustrate h o w little is n e e d e d t o c o n v e y an image. B e l o w is a b r i g h t n e s s c o n t r a s t illusion. N e i t h e r triangle exists. smoke. C Escher u s e d this phenomenon t o great effect in his many p o p u l a r d r a w i n g s o f puzzles and impossible buildings. This simple five-line d r a w i n g is o f a C a p u c h i n priest asleep in his pulpit. M u c h can b e e x p r e s s e d in o n l y a f e w marks. 1 6 t h . clouds. P e r c e i v i n g a w h o l e i m a g e f r o m m i n i m a l lines T h i s is a w i d e l y r e p r o d u c e d visual j o k e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e C a r r a c c i b r o t h e r s . S o m e artists use ink blots t o p r o m p t t h e beginning o f an image. W e should r e m e m b e r t h a t o u r brains will always search f o r a p i c t u r e — i n ink blots. — a n d so t h e artist can create m u c h o u t o f an impression w i t h o u t overdescribing. C o u p l e d w i t h t h e Rorschach b l o t above. This effect can o c c u r naturally w h e n looking at a b r i g h t l y lit w h i t e g r i d such as a w i n d o w f r a m e against t h e night sky.

Cubism. even if y o u r hand w o b b l e s a little at first. The second common error is to tilt the upper and lower ellipses at different angles. though. The first common error is to draw two pointed ellipses. I have drawn these for you here. that this is o n l y o n e w a y view. third common error is to draw upper and lover ellipses with different-sized apertures. keep it spinning.100 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS W E VISUALIZE CYLINDRICAL VESSELS. and these narrow or widen depending on the height of our view. smoothly. you will achieve steadiness with practice. since this is h o w w e experience them in e v e r y d a y use. A wobbling but confident ellipse will still be more convincing than a slow. Be aware. hesitant one that has edged its w a y nervously around the vessel's rim. circles change into ellipses. there are three common errors people stumble upon. as if the table surface slopes upward beneath the vessel. for example. I have exaggerated this error here. giving the cylinder four corners. . for example plates or bowls on a table. not the paper!) As the pen touches down. spin your hand in a relaxed circle. suggesting that the vessel is lopsided. Watch the tip of your pen and see it draw an ellipse in the air Keep this movement going while gently lowering the pen onto the paper like the needle of a record player closing on the disc (only it is your lowering hand that spins. (see p. COMMON ERRORS W h e n drawing cylindrical objects in perspective. Ellipse are best d r a w n quickly. while its upper rim remains level. To make a cylindrical object appear real in our pictorial space. w e use ellipses to give a sense of perspective. such as bowls and cups. WHERE TO START In the air above a spacious sheet of scrap paper. w h e n seen at an angle. How to Draw Ellipses of seeing. Cover a sheet of paper with spinning. like a disposable plastic cup that has been crushed in your hand. springlike forms like those I have drawn below.90) takes a different as essentially circular. Don't worry if it is uneven— just try again. describing many sides of an object simultaneously. However. a n d in o n e bold stroke.

Seeing Through Allow lines to travel around each vessel as if it were transparent. HOW TO DRAW E L L I P S E S A Single Vessel One Inside Another Grouped Together Finding Shape and Volume Draw an imagined vessel in one continuous spinning line. enlarging and diminishing the ellipse to determine the overall shape and volume. you can start to control your spinning ellipse to make a vessel. Create a Solid Surface Once you have drawn the shape and volume of each form. thereby hiding lines that show the other sides. Draw quickly. you can make it solid by building up highlights and tones on visible surfaces. . working from top to bottom. Altering the pressure—and therefore tone—of the line as it spins gives the impression of light shining on one side.101 DRAWING VESSELS Once you have mastered drawing free-hand springs.

leaving detail until last. and strong contrasts are easier to draw.22-23). You can begin with outlines and build slowly from light to dark (see opposite top). In the finished drawing there should be few. simply shapes and subtleties of light and dark meeting each other with no divisions in between. t h e r e a r e p r i n c i p a l l y Dramatic lighting emphasizes texture and contour. if any. Remember that shadows.102 INSTRUMENTS Tonality W H E N MAKING A TONAL DRAWING. Illuminate them with a gooseneck lamp placed very close and directed away from your eyes. Relaxing your eyes out of focus as you draw will help to dissolve the distraction of detail. It is important to place them on the correct side so as to draw comfortably (see pp. OBJECTS AND Start by arranging a choice of shells on a sheet of paper to your left if you are right-handed (or vice versa). two opposite methods of achieving the same result. or you can begin with a mid-gray ground and model light out of darkness (see opposite bottom). Draw the largest and most distinct areas of light and darkness first. It maximizes the range of tones between black and white. it will inhibit your perception of tone. if light shines in them. Gradually hone your drawing. making complicated or subtle surfaces easier to see and understand. outlines. beams of light. and solid objects are all of equal importance. LIGHT TO DARK DARK TO LIGHT .

Remember that its size. pale lines with equal importance. draw a rectangle.103 LIGHT TO DARK (LINE TO TONE) TONALITY 1 Using a sharp HB pencil. until you are happy frame. Avoid a rough significant areas of light in your gray rectangle with texture and do not press the graphite hardwhite plastic eraser Ignore all detail and draw a into thepaperor you will not be able to erase it. DARK TO LIGHT (TONE TO TONE) 1 Using the flattened tip of an HB pencil. boldly 2 3 Keeping your eyes out of focus. Fll in broad areas first and leave all detail until last. Use your pencil to develop these in relation to the areas of light. Treat positive form and negative space (see pp. loose. Relaxing your eyes out of focus will help to eliminate distracting details. with broad sweeps of the eraser.56-57). Honetheshapesand angles of the shells. Use quick. look at the main areas of darkness. Let your eyes go out of focus while looking gently layer marks to create an even tone at your subject and paper: Draw the most ofmid-graywithin a rectangle. Continue working between light and dark to refine the drawing. Erase and make changes to roughly place the shells inside your with your composition. shape. and edges definingthespacialrelationships between are important aspects of your composition them. . 2 3 Gentlydissolveoutlines so that areas oflightanddark meet without a line between them. Draw in the details last of all.

you can create your own more ambitious works. 176 the British artists Noble and Webster draw with domestic refuse in a beam of light.69 we see how the architect Antonio Gaudi drew proposed domes using suspended wires and weights. 19 Picasso draws with a pen-light for the camera. . The second is that after achieving this simple example. Seeing through a wire drawing of a known object such as a violin gives us a visual and tactile understanding of all its sides and shapes at once. When drawing anything viewed from one side on paper. try drawing it with a pen on paper Use bold. Third. On p. and on p. continuous lines. On p. PEN LINES Once you have created your three-dimensional violin (opposite). three-dimensional drawings teach us about the totality of forms in space.220 Mamoru Abe draws with forged steel rods. Place the instrument on a plain surface and illuminate it with a desk lamp to add the delicate dimension of shadows. The first is that figurative and abstract drawings can be made in space. They can also be made in space. smooth. This class uses thin-gauge wire to create a threedimensional violin. our image is stronger if we understand and can visualize what is happening on the other side too. and on p. There are essentially three lessons to be learned. and physical relationships between them.104 OBJECTS AND I N S T R U M E N T S Drawing with Wire DRAWINGS DO NOT HAVE to be two-dimensional.

thin wire will make a smaller drawing. and pinch and bend it to shape the base of the instrument Repeat this process to make the identical upper side of the instrument. 2 3 If needed. begin to shape the curvature of the fingerboard. 4 .105 SETTING UP DRAWING WITH WIRE Follow these steps to draw a three-dimensional violin Choose a gauge of wire sturdy enough to hold the shape ofyourfinished drawing. These will hold the sides apart and help to keep the form in shape. I used garden wire and cut it carefully with pruners. and thick wire a larger one. but thin enough to be easily manipulated inyourfingers Here. 1 Decide how big to draw your violin relative to the gauge of your wire. Once you have completed the body. Then begin to define its uppermost surface with Scurves and the bridge. Cut a length. Join the two sides together with four short pieces of wire. Here. brace the two ends of the violin with a length of wire along the back. I started with the scroll at the top and fixed the four component wires with two drawings of tuning pegs.

England. Oxford. some of which are shown here. they invented new anthropological finds—objects that reflected the distant past and their immediate future. I had the privilege of drawing their inventions.Artifacts and Fictions IN 1993 I WORKED with a group of schoolchildren who were responding to the astonishing objects in the collection of the Pitt Rivers Museum. Using found materials. .



is the most c o m m o n subject in art. much Western contemporary art. portraiture. a n d w e d r a w o u r s e l v e s to a s s e r t o u r e x i s t e n c e . He even believed he had located the soul contours of her form like a cartographer's map of in the pituitary fossa beneath the brain and behind the eyes. while Durer took his research further— A. the junior workshop apprentices posed as part of their duties. Strangely. R. She the body is still essential. in our privileged and comfortable society. Artists now explore the interior of the body with new media and Lateral Contour Map of a Full-Term Primipara Produced by Light 1979 A. W I L L I A M S technology. W e understand every curve and balance of to the theory that the eves are the windows of the soul. Drawings were usually made from the male nude to avoid offending the church. R. and surgically rebuilt. Look closely at Renaissance drawings of the female b o d y and you will see that m o s t are actually y o u n g m e n with minor adjustments. herimpressive presence because we are given such Life drawing no longer dominates the art school curriculum. and in San could easily be transferred into three dimensions. while Leonardo opened the body to see and projected onto a woman's body draw the celebratory discover for himself our physical mechanisms. These classes are popular around the world. During this time. but the study of a controlled. from video and X-ray to thermal imaging. In this period. myths and fables. diseased. W e are the only creatures on Earth that can make our own image. Renaissance artists studying anatomy from dissection clinically trained and specialized as a medical illustrator. The human body. 3 x 7 in (300 x 180 . This chapter addresses issues that are most commonly faced by beginners attending life-drawing classes. Michelangelo attended dissections to made this image by light sectioning: fine beams of light perfect his understanding of surface form.The Body O UR BODIES MAKE us TANGIBLE. Leonardo drew a man within a circle and square. and anatomical and erotic art. giving physical foundation undulating land. The body remains at the core of over the initially white lines. This F finished image was produced as r a n c i s c o . It also looks at the representation of the b o d y b11y4o n d traditional life drawing. explaining ranges e/ of materials and techniques and showing diversities of thought and purpose in making. history paintings and other stories. and because the female was deemed inferior. clothed or nude. It gives physical and emotive form to religious narratives. focus has turned to the vulnerability of flesh: how it can be damaged. artists also tried to define ideal proportions in the body. the Bay Area Models' Guild h o l d s a quarterly life-drawing m a r a t h o n aprinton Kodak transfer paper with green-colored dye added celebrating the great diversity of human proportion. Artists are thought to have b e g u n drawing from the nude during the Italian Renaissance. Williams were decades ahead of their medical counterparts. WILLIAMS he sought perfection in the infinitesimal measurement of the body and produced four Contemporary photographer volumes of illustrated explanation. sculptural description of her form.

so that we read this drawing like a sculptural frieze.110 T H E BODY THESE DISTINCTIVE WORKS show two strikingly different ways of modeling the body on paper. we see the e s s e n c e of h e r b e a u t y w i t h o u t a single detail. Muscular dramatic postures reflect the influence of Michelangelo and the Renaissance celebration of the idealized male body. Principal figures m i r r o r e a c h other.116-17). Raphael drew delicate tones of black chalk on tinted paper. Raphael's study of fallen m e n leaves no doubt that they are in anguish. Matisse's b l u e n u d e sings with life and c e l e b r a t i o n . while Matisse used scissors and glue to cut out and paste a flat collage of brilliant color. filling the page with her presence. In a single drawing we see equally o b s e r v e d studies of f o r e s h o r t e n i n g (see pp. But the meanings of each gesture and the materials and methods by which they Postures and Poses were m a d e contrast greatly. and studied to learn from the works of Michelangelo and Leonardo besides whom he was soon ranked. altar pieces. T h e y b o t h raise one arm to cup their head in their hand. RAFFAELLO SANZIO (RAPHAEL) Italian High Renaissance painter: Raphael is best known for his images of the Madonna and Child. Three Guards 1500-20 91/4 x143/8in (234 x 365 mm) RAPHAEL . He trained under Perugino. while supporting the weight of their body with the other. In this highly s o p h i s t i c a t e d a b s t r a c t i o n . Here three male nudes are compressed into very shallow pictorial space. By way of contrast. She u n f o l d s and s t r e t c h e s shapely limbs. and human defeat. anatomy. Sculptural frieze This is a preparatory drawing for Raphael's painting of the Resurrection of Christ. and Vatican frescos.

printmaker. His calligraphic natural abstractions of form grew brighter. a mental soother.. Matisse became an artist after studying law. and more energetic Color and form This collage is one of a series of Blue an appeasing influence.sculptor..designer writer.. lifelong love of brilliant They celebrate the culmination of spectacular and sometimes drawings.. Matisse Soothing influence This drawing expresses the achievement of Matisse's personal aim: "What I dream and depressing subject matter. freer.111 HENRY MATISSE French painter: draftsman. as his w o r k matured. fabric.or like a good armchair in which to rest from physical fatigue. and Islamic art.which might be." of is an art of balance. foundamong many other groups of papercut these works as an elderly man confined to his bed or wheelchair. devoid of troubling Blue Nude 1 1952 413/4 HENRY MATISSE .. teacher and principal exponent o f Fauvism—a movement established in 1905 in which bold color is the most essential element. his pattern.. serenity.

other tones. and muddied the brilliance of the drawing. and c o m p l e m e n t a r y hues. Light is given by the paper alone. only tones blending into. If Seurat had added white. agreeing to coalesce and show us the form of a waiting boy. and color His applied theories still influence painters in their manipulation and rendering of local. reflected. w h o sits propped in the contradictory darkness of a hot summer's day. turned gray. Here.112 T H E BODY Choreographs T I M E IS A SIGNIFICANT E L E M E N T i n t h e m a k i n g o f a l l d r a w i n g s . T h e space around h i m chatters with symbols. in a perfect e x a m p l e . form. he used b l a c k c o n t e (see p. 162) and an eraser to model teeming points of artificial light amid GEORGES SEURAT French painter classically educated in the Ingres school of thought. or abruptly meeting. Beuys's magician. it is as if the very atoms of air are made visible. like small birds attendant on the meditation. In his f a m o u s paintings of social e n g a g e m e n t . Tone and light In this black conte drawing. Seurat evolved a distinctive t e c h n i q u e called p o i n t i l l i s m — i m a g e s literally made from myriad points of color. stands in counterpoise holding a dark globe and his thoughts in m o m e n t a r y balance. Typically. Seurat engaged in lifelong studies of line. we c o m p a r e a skillful design that absorbed m u c h time in its making with the quickness of an idea marked instantly. Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 1883-84 91/2 x 121/4 in (241 x 312 m m GEORGES SEURAT . scratched in seconds. Opposite. Using the paper to create light is important for beginners to learn. Below. His drawings are similarly u n i q u e . velvet d a r k n e s s . it would have mixed with unseen black dust. there are no outlines.

in different positions. Beuys gave performances. and that These aspects of the work convey fractured visibility. He was a shaman who believed in intuition and in the investment of healing force. taught workshops with a cult following. Many of his other symbolic works on paper have been drawn with materials such as honey. and drawings. free from the constraint of immaculate form opposite) impetus is irrelevant to the and meaning of this work (as we see in Seurat's drawing representation. CHOREOGRAPHS the profound power materials with spiritual or of Free lines This pale pencil drawing is Beuys. transience.113 JOSEPH BEUYS One of the most influential German artists of the 20th century. His The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland UNDATED 113/4 J O S E P H BEUYS x81/4in (297 x 210 mm) . and blood. and made installations. Our focus joins shoulders. video art. This figure is drawn intuitively. iodine. Unbroken lines stream from his simultaneously movement. Perfectly modeled rather conventional for Joseph Focus Beuys's hand moved quickly to draw dotted lines flowing downward on either side of the

its soft. sweeping lines— of either purple silk fabric or cool studio air—that imprint and amplify their past and future movements. and one of hundreds of rapid studies of nudes. Delicate strokes This is one of about 7. Rodin employed models to move freely or pose together in his studio. the fierceness of the women's kiss is beautifully matched by the tenderness of his line. His exquisite flow of paint beyond "outlines.000 drawings shown in rotation at the Musee Rodin." as seen here. As here. the women are framed and caressed by long. Inspired by Michelangelo.114 BODY Passion SUMMONING HUMANITY in a drawing of the nude is a subtle and emotional task. Achieving international acclaim in mid-life. Rodin produced portraits and statues of public and literary figures. 125/8x 9 in (320 x 229 mm) AUGUSTE RODIN Two Women 1911 Embracing . They whisper and writhe in a brushed and sultry embrace that devours our watching. Paris. Our bodies radiate the passion of our thoughts and so become beacons of our frailty and power. In both drawings. Opposite. But what is stranger to us now is that they were also outraged by his free use of line. THE AUGUSTE RODIN French Romantic sculptor and prolific draftsman employed as an ornamental mason until the age of 42. In Rodins work. was perceived as scandalous. Free lines Rodin's public audience was understandably shocked by the eroticism of his drawings. he typically drew them with a few delicate strokes of pencil and brushed watercolor. Anita Taylor has drawn her protective body hug out of the darkly glistening compression of willow charcoal and the dynamism of her shy but momentous femininity. and went on to inspire generations of artists. We are asked to gaze u p o n her flesh. flushed skin made ruddy and black with crushed cinders. We are involved not as a shabby voyeur but as a bystander engaged through our recognition of shared joy. his w o r k is characterized by deliberate un-finish and powerfully modeled emotion.

the impression of luminosity All and Nothing 1999 67 x447/8in (170 x 1 1 4 cm) ANITA TAYLOR . A thinner sheet might have crumpled and torn under such vigorous force of making. Taylor's immense self-portraits explore the relationship between the artist as maker and the artist as model. erased and drawn again. Taylor has drawn. and rework rich depths of light and tone. professor and Vice Principal of Wimbledon School of Art. Charcoal Taylor has drawn freely with charcoal and an eraser on thick.I 15 ANITA T A Y L O R Painter. leaving her lightest marks at the deepest level of the image and applying darker marks above. draftsman. Luminosity Layered marks flicker likefirelight as they sculpt the woman's body. and gaze. This order of light below and dark above gives glowing from within. exposure. The sturdy surface of the sheet has allowed her to press hard when needed. textured paper. intimately reflecting upon the emotions and meaning of nudity. London. scrutiny.

"Simple measured comparisons reveal surprising truths about proportion. more extreme examples have been made for court entertainment. and to draw what we see. Close one eye. the skull in Holbein's The Ambassadors (The National Gallery. It can also be a little demon in the life room. persistence. Smaller. helping us to see more clearly. To avoid its effects ensure you always look flat onto the surface of your page. or coming forward. London). In the life class it is the mechanism for ensuring that a drawn figure lies correctly in pictorial space . and measurements do not have to be carried to the paper and slavishly drawn the same size they appear on your pencil. Align the top with a point on your subject. when beginners prop their board in their lap and look down at too steep an angle. But if we could take a scaffold and climb up to the work. and a few measured comparisons are key. Rome. We also look at another very interesting branch called accelerated (or anamorphic) perspective. or shrivelling at odd. 3 Keep your pencil perpendicular Measure and compare at any angle. Spend time making comparisons before you draw. Lock your shoulder.116 T H E BODY Measurement and Foreshortening FORESHORTENING IS AN ASPECT of perspective. elbow. elongated as if stretched across the plaster. 1 Hold your arm straight. for example. unfathomable angles. MEASURING This is a simple method of making measured comparisons for relating the true size of one part to another This is a tool to assist observation and thinking. This is chiefly a correcting device by which figurative painters and sculptors have for centuries countered the effects of our viewing their work from far below or on the curvature of a vault. plummeting. rather that what we believe we know from experience. which is imperceptible from below. Up close on the scaffold we would witness Michelangelo's subtle application of accelerated perspective. and wrist joints." . you will make inconsistent and unrelated comparisons. Imagine Michelangelo's murals in the Sistine Chapel. with dramatic illusions of figures painted in normal proportion.limbs happily receding. There is no need to mark them all down on paper. How to make and apply these is explained below and opposite. we would arrive to find many of the same figures strangely distorted. 2 Hold your pencil upright. patience. Move the tip of your thumb down to a second chosen point. Return to this posture every time. It is not complicated. The length of exposed pencil is your measurement. If your arm is not straight. Accelerated perspective plays a great role in much art. just making them helps you see. without taking off. to be translated by mirrors or seen from only one point in the room. It is not so hard.

S o o n t h e b o d y will lie d o w n in space.117 ACCELERATED PERSPECTIVE To discover h o w this w o r k s . which feels strange. . Stand its b o t t o m edge o n y o u r lap. T h i s is t h e s a m e d r a w i n g p h o t o g r a p h e d f r o m above. W o r k a r o u n d t h e figure. a n d thighs. MEASUREMENT AND FORESHORTENING Tilt t h e t o p edge o f this b o o k t o w a r d you and look d o w n o n this figure f r o m a b o v e . belly. L o o k at y o u r m o d e l as if he o r she is a flat series o f shapes o n e o n t o p o f a n o t h e r Measure t h e height and w i d t h o f each shape and c o m p a r e it t o its neighbor. C o m p a r e t h e heights o f t h e nose and eye shapes t o t h o s e o f t h e f o r e a r m . looking d o w n t h e p a p e r at t h e a n g l e at w h i c h I d r e w . y o u r hand travels f a r t h e r than y o u expect. y o u must let go o f w h a t y o u k n o w f r o m e x p e r i e n c e a b o u t t h e relative sizes o f b o d y parts and trust y o u r eyes. See h o w d i f f e r e n t t h e relative heights o f t h e s e shapes are f r o m w h a t w e m i g h t e x p e c t in real life. t a p e s o m e p a p e r t o a board. To m a k e f o r m s l o o k c o r r e c t . pleasingly f o r e s h o r t e n e d . adjusting a n o n y m o u s shapes. h e r p r o p o r t i o n s will appear correct. A t a c e r t a i n angle. P r o p o r t i o n s will only l o o k c o r r e c t f r o m t h e angle at w h i c h y o u make t h e drawing. Keep t h e b o a r d steady and draw. Lean t h e t o p e d g e t o w a r d y o u and find a p o s i t i o n w h e r e y o u can c o m f o r t a b l y l o o k d o w n t h e p a p e r at an angle o f a b o u t 4 0 degrees. FORESHORTENING To f o r e s h o r t e n a figure. W e appear t o be looking d o w n o n a w o m a n s t a n d i n g b e n e a t h us.

feeling. propelling you to make immediate assessments and trust them. Avoid drawing up one side and down the other. imagine holding up a plumb line. height. I used a sharp H B pencil and began each drawing by marking her outline. and height. To see this. THE SEQUENCE OF POSES H e r e the model was asked to move every t w o minutes.118 BODY Quick Poses DRAWING QUICK POSES l o c k s y o u r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n t o what is most essential. . Layered lines give d e p t h . balance. and work over t h e m with further o b s e r v a t i o n s . T h i s q u i c k e x p l o r a t o r y line does not perfectly describe shape but expresses a decision about overall flow of form. Start each new drawing by lightly marking the model's height with a loose line in ten seconds. Be bold and dive into your drawing with c o n f i d e n c e . Leave first thoughts in place. working from her center to her feet and to her head. because it results in two unrelated sides drifting apart. make the upper body smaller give your model a high waist. Outline To outline a figure. To draw this effect. her center of balance is normally found in a vertical line beneath her head. Height This pose leans away into space above our eye level. and energy. and slightly enlarge her legs and feet. work back and forth across the body. and stance before honing her balance and expression. Balance When a model stands upright on both feet.

the activity of circular lines and the repetition of limbs suggest movement. Most of us have a tendency to over-straighten the drawn figure. .119 The twist of a model is most easily and expressively captured if it is exaggerated. Tilt Movement Here. and this should be avoided Twist QUICK POSES A model standing on one leg usually drops the opposite hip. This drawing shows how different observations be overlaid to bring a drawing alive. The tilt of the pelvis is then counter balanced by the model's shoulders tilting the other way (as seen here).

feet. swiftly marking its essential gesture. Group the fingers together as one mass. Don't worry about achieving perfect solutions. but regard these practice studies as ongoing processes of thought and observatio Add details such as nails last if you wish. W h e n starting. or those of a friend.120 BODY Hands and Feet THERE ARE MANY different ways of approaching h a n d s and THE of form. Focus instead on how planes change direction across the knuckles from one side of the hand or foot to the other. This exercise is useful when struggling with proportion. Then subdivide each shape so that you w o r k from large to small. drawn in relation to each other. 3 . it is important to leave aside all details of the fingers and toes. These planes. especially the lengthwise divisions between them. 2 Build your drawing gradually from light to dark. Begin by drawing lines to encompass the whole hand. and they need not be daunting to draw. and a gooseneck lamp casts shadows that clarify planes and depths GESTURES OF THE HAND Curled Fingers 1 Open Palm Start honing the shapes of the dominant planes. starting with the largest. Keep lines open to change and take measurements if they help. Do not separate them yet. general to specific. express structure and gesture far more successfully and easily than ten worried outlines wandering up and down between the fingers and toes. Draw large shapes and their orientation. Practice by drawing your own hands and feet. and ignore all details. A mirror increases your range of views. It also helps the beginner to progress from drawing outlines to drawing confidently across the surface of the whole form.

Nowimagineyou are carving the foot though out o f wood. and don't worry about accuracy t o begin with. and spontaneity. loose. Leave aside all detail. as if with a chisel. however. these are what give a drawing its tangible structure. t o remove t o o many early lines. Look for key angles without becoming distracted by detail. 2 3 Use an eraser t o refine decisions o r t o suggest areas o f light. flattened planes. Try t o express the whole foot and t o encapsulate its entire shape and direction in a few marks. depth.121 HANDS AND FEET MOVEMENTS OF THE FOOT Flat Stance Raised Heel Instep 1 Let your first marks be light. Hew it roughly in broad. and rapid. . It can be a mistake.

Opposite. Compare its nature in close-up to that of willow charcoal used on pp. I also used white ink with a steel dip pen.Charcoal Hands T H E S E DRAWINGS ARE MADE in compressed charcoal." . The white lines demonstrate what is often called "bracelet shading.204-05.


length. before honing his or her shape (see pp. Phrasing Contours . I make these lines in the first five to ten seconds of a drawing to locate the presence. 118-19).HERE TRACES OF RAPID initial lines are still seen within and outside each body. and posture of the model.


The Visual Detective DRAWING FROM MASTERWORKS was once a staple component of an artist's education. I draw in museums in support of written research and as an artist seeking answers to questions about the practicalities of image making. feeling them through the attentive movements of your own hand. and narrative pulse become vivid when you realize them in the middle of your study. perspectives. Forms. It is now viewed with some skepticism and often seen as academic. . characters. Drawing work by another artist enables you to discover and understand the inventive hand in their composition.


Florence. there is a unique museum of 18th-century anatomical waxes. Walls are lined with hundreds of faintly animated body parts. 126-27. each modeled from dissection. .La Specola At17V i a Romana.3 x 3 m) made in response to La Specola. These almost life-size figures were composed from my imagination and achieved with the help af studies discussed on pp. Life-size women wearing wigs recline on beds of embroidered silk in cabinets of mahogany and Venetian glass This is a detail of a compressed charcoal drawing measuring 14 x 10 ft (4.



throat. religious. Goya's w o r k s include many royal and society p o r t r a i t s . historical. and satirical or metaphorical. we use the delicate medium of silver point to look at foundation structures of the head. is here to both meet and look through us. or a glimpse of him is caught in a photograph used as a prop. The returning image was of crucial consideration in any proposal. Equally. or past us. you can capture the subtlety. draftsman. look directly at us. and their posture can be changed with just one line. usually strangers from past times. and shoulders. Rembrandt's famous multitude of self-portraits. bells. and expression of the individual. the meaning of their face. Man Ray's self-portrait of scored lines. neck. Beginners often draw themselves as a way of establishing their practice. became more poignant as he progressed. Movie director Alfred similarly signed his films by playing a fleeting role: he walks through an extra. live. and in a few scrolling rafts of pen lines and stubbled dots. For centuries. his changes in pressure and Hitchcock length o f line. To create a face is to see and interpret the essence of an identity. made as he passed through the ages of man. or whose eyes can seem to follow us around the room Portraiture is a constant. single or of groups. W h e n drawing a person. Halls and palaces are filled with pictures of the mighty and significant. We are also reassured by keeping records of ourselves.Portraiture IN P O R T R A I T U R E W E MEET PEOPLE. and secular narratives. .139). gathered all that he knew FRANCISCO DE GOYA V i s i o n a r y Spanish painter. having been documented and preserved. in a miniature self-portrait magnified opposite. Goya. We can mold and animate qualities of expression out of objects and fragments of disassociated things—for example. who. compliant subject to scrutinize. 1790-92 4 x 3 in ( 1 0 2 x 7 6 m m ) F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A and memorize the basic structure that we all share. and a handprint (see p. their stance. Past rulers sent painters across continents to bring back a likeness in advance of a prospective royal marriage. a single line can deliver an entire expression. In this chapter. character. abstract or figurative. Self-portraiture gives every artist a constant. and social and political commentaries. Once you understand Self-Portrait in a Cocked Hat c. buttons. Portraits can be highly or loosely detailed. It also reminds us o f b o t h t h e intimacy and a scene as scrutiny o f an honest portrait. This enlargement o f his miniature p o r t r a i treveals t h e s p e e d and agility o f his p e n and about himself. Our homes are filled with images of our loved ones and of those in our families who have gone before. and it is very rewarding. and p r i n t m a k e r . and lucrative genre for artists. The truth is that we all like looking at faces and observing the billions of variations that make us individuals. painters have dropped discreet records of themselves into commissioned narratives so that they can remain a face in the crowd.

whisking a timeless girl onto the page. We can actually count that he struck the paper 40 times. We can read so much about them by studying their gaze.30). Holbein maps the still landscape of Dorothea's body in questioning marks. PABLO PICASSO Spanish Cubist painter (see also p. stealthily using his chalk to find contours and mass. length. While with longer consideration. The Tightness of a line is felt in its speed. one eye already cast askew into the autumn of her life. Through exhibitions and copies in books. He makes his flair and skill look easy. caught in her last moments of youth. It takes a truly accomplished a few strokes. teetering on the brink of older age. Picasso has left to posterity many hundreds of magnificent line drawings. Here the grace and beauty of two young women are held forever. Picasso strikes and scrolls his pencil. hand to capture something well in only Frangoise au Bandeau 1946 660 x 505 mm (26 x197/8in) PABLO PICASSO . adding smudges of tone for weight and solidity. The aesthetic sense of a line being just right can make a drawing sing. It is the portrait of a countrywoman. For the beginner. Her face is drawn tenderly and with a luminous glow. There is a common misunderstanding that a drawing with only a few lines is both less finished and easier to make than a drawing with more. and pressure as it conducts our eye through the image. The truth is often the opposite. How could the addition of shadows have enhanced this image? Few strokes The simplicity of Picasso's line is breathtaking. they serve as a great lesson that it is not always necessary to add tone to your drawing.132 PORTRAITURE Poise THE BALANCE BETWEEN a mark and a blank space is often a tantalizing form of perfection. breadth. we can enjoy and learn from them. Without faltering.

and designer f r o m Basel. Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 1516 51/8 x121/4in (385 x 310 m m ) HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER . Blended colors In this portrait drawn with colored chalks on slightly textured paper. Holbein was employed toward the end of his life by King Henry VIII of England. The peak of her cap clips the uppermost edge. Holbein unified the woman with her background by gently blending colors from her clothes and face into the atmosphere around her. He outlined her nose but not her upper lip. Her folded forearms support and frame her weight above. gently flushed.133 HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER German p o r t r a i t painter draftsman. and produced numerous society portraits such as this one here. In addition t o his numerous exquisite portraits in oil. made a popular series o f w o o d c u t prints titled The Dance of Death. which. he designed c o u r t costumes. Cropping This regal composition fits its paper perfectly. Holbein has cropped and pinned his subject within the four outermost lines of the image—the edges of the page. presses against the binding across her face. and its downward slope crowns the diagonal of the composition.

VICTOR NEWSOME British sculptor painter and draftsman. London. The real dissection w o u l d have been far more c o m p l e x . using a fine and relatively 1982 13 x 181/8 in (328 x 460 mm) VICTOR NEWSOME brush. and has works in major collections including the Tate Gallery. confusing. blood vessels. N e w s o m e ' s eerily shadowed form is smooth and bears a linear grain evocative of w o o d . The style of Durelli's d r a w i n g opposite sings with the confidence of truth and precision. solid above and almost hollow below. Delicate muscles are integrated with the skin and fat that is to be r e m o v e d . Nerves. the contours of a grid. . but they are irrelevant here. while white painted flecks and wisps suggest electrical illumination. continues to exhibit regularly. taught at numerous British art schools from 1962-77. Highlights of white gouache were dry Profile Head late in the making.134 PORTRAITURE Anatomies These highly finished drawings express the emotional power and physicality of the head and neck. It floats in space. This is a m a r v e l o u s interpretation of the truth. and glands also complicate form. Anatomically. This is one of a number of similar disembodied female heads seen behind. dark lines made with a pencil appear against smooth. the face is one of the hardest parts to dissect. perhaps applied using a tortillon. Newsome was awarded the Prix de Rome in 1960. and unpleasant to see. Contrasts Sharp. Psychological drama is contained behind a grid. distorted. dark tones of graphite blended into the paper. or defined by. its highly clarified detail claiming to be d r a w n from observation. In fact. Durelli has m a d e a few m i n o r mistakes.

Pencil numbers refer to the list of muscles written beneath.135 ANATOMIES ANTONIO DURELLI Linear perfection This is a red chalk drawing of extraordinary accomplishment. Stylized parallel lines are reminiscent of engravings. which. Durelli's experience as an engraver is reflected in his stylized drawing o f muscle fibers. and it is likely that this drawing was intended for reproduction as a print. w h e n contracted. pull their points o f attachment t o w a r d each other . Red Chalk the Muscles 1837 173/8 x 145/8 in ( 4 4 0 x 3 7 2 m m ) ANTONIO DURELLI and Pencil Drawing and of Neck of the Head Little is k n o w n o f this M i l a n e s e p a i n t e r a n d engraver w h o c a m e from a family o f artists. It is hard to think of a more difficult medium with which to achieve such linear perfection.

which are characteristically elongated. Energy This is a portrait of a woman drawn with black crayon on a plain page of a book Lines search for the essence of form. They show us clearly the bones of drawing. He is best known for his bronze sculptures of human form. he drew over the whole image at once. Both works demonstrate how simple lines can be made complex by being intense. each locked into a visionary gaze. cutting and carving the paper with matted and spiraling restless energy. We are brought intimately close to this man gazing up to heaven. 1948 77/8 x 6 in (200 x 150 mm) ALBERTO GIACOMETTI . close enough to touch his hair and feel his breath. Then. Without paint and with very little tone. Opposite. necks. Agitated marks make patches of tone that cut away the space around the character. with speed and urgency. Flesh is built and personality carved simultaneously. ALBERTO GIACOMETTI Swiss sculptor. Bellini gently conjures the features of his saint with soft marks that tease his presence out of shadows into the light. each portrait is inscribed onto the page. Giacometti settled in Paris. There is a film of Giacometti drawing. and with staccato flinches his hyperactive eye moves from paper to model. Portrait de Marie-Laure de Noailles c. as if seen from a distance. and poet After studying in Geneva and Italy. Similar movements sculpted the head below into its page.136 PORTRAITURE THESE ARE DRAWINGS of shoulders. while his hand stabs and thrusts Revelations like a conductors baton. Speed Giacometti probably began with an oval shape placed in relation to the proportion of the page. painter draftsman. They confuse our perception of scale by being intimately fragile and at the same time far removed. The camera watches him at work. and heads.

H e p r e f e r r e d religious t o classical t h e m e s . Head and Shoulders of a Man 73/8 x 21/4 in ( 1 8 6 x 5 8 UNDATED GIOVANNI BELLINI . Transfer This delicate humorous chalk a drawing is a cartoon—not image but a type of template used to plan the composition of a larger work Look closely and you will see rows of tiny dots along every significant line in the picture.G I O V A N N I BELLINI A prominent member of a large family o f V e n e t i a n painters. Sometimes different narrative same character was reused in compositions.5 9 ) . Character This is one of many cartoons produced by Bellini the and his family. Bellini s t u d i e d u n d e r his f a t h e r J a c o p o .25 6 . H e t a u g h t G i o r g i o n e Barbarelli and Titian. a n d his w o r k is d i s t i n c t i v e l y calm. These are pinholes. lyrical. a n d b r o t h e r in-law. Mantegna. transferring which were made in the process of the saint to his final place in the composition of a painting (see Glossary pp. a n d c o n t e m p l a t i v e .

skull- Self-Portraits headed. Islands of graphic marks. Signs and symbols with symbols This painting shudders that ore written. and attitudes. scrolls. signing their work SAMO. The incandescent New York painter Jean Michel Basquiat pictured himself here in naked silhouette. and indulgence. Al Diaz. It has proved to be a subject of piercing scrutiny. marks. and everything flux. Later Basquiat sold drawings on T-shirts. and sheet metal before being snapped up by the New York contemporary art scene. In 1986 he traveled to Africa and showed his work in Abidjan on the Ivory Coast He also exhibited in Germany and France. their most immediate and best-known subject: themselves. postcards. political outcry. It is an opportunity to look deep without the infringement of courtesies owed to a commissioning sitter. humor. float and shimmer in the shallow pictorial space. scratched into its surface. The artist has finished his portrait with the signature of his hand smacked in the middle like a kiss: a declaration of existence as old as man's first drawing. made with great energy. drawn. scratched lines. JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT Short-lived American painter and graffiti artist who began his blazing nine-year career drawing on lower Manhattan subway trains with a friend. spear-brandishing warrior. It is an image of confrontation—the ever-controversial young artist roars at us from his abstract city-scape. The figure's position is unequivocal and defiant while around him is in a state Without the essential of cultural and figure we would elegant belookingat a sophisticated painting of signs. a tribal.138 PORTRAITURE THE MIRROR OF SELF-PORTRAITURE offers artists infinite reflections of. Self Portrait 1982 9 4 x 7 6 in (239 x 193 cm) JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT . similar to work by Cy Twombly (see p.221). and confrontations with. Man Ray's playful silk-screen assembly of color blocks. bells. and buttons rings with surrealist wit and agile improvisation.

Black ink was printed next and then white. last of all. while a squeegee was used to drag thick lilac-brown ink across the silk pushing it though exposed areas onto the paper below. They experimented with camera-free photography working directly onto photographic paper Silk and ink This is a silkscreen print made through the following process: the paper was laid on a flat surface and a frame stretched with fine silk was placed on top. caked in thick printing ink or paint. The handprint appears to be made directly. Frame White lines are seemingly (though not actually) scratched through ink to frame this face. Man Ray lived and worked in Paris. where he collaborated with the artist Laslo MoholyNagy. Autoportrait 1916 195/8 MAN RAY . printmaker and cofounder of the New York Dada movement. They suggest speed and make the picture look immediate and spontaneous. During the 1920's and 30s. painter. Man Ray probably used his own hand. The first part of the stenciled image was already marked on the silk The screen and paper were then held tightly together.139 MAN RAY American surrealist photographer.

54) can also b e used. M E T A L OBJECTS: All metal objects m a r k a p r e p a r e d surface. Metal point is simply a strip of metal bound in a holder. For i m p o r t a n t a d v i c e o n p r e p a r a t i o n a n d use. Metal point does not work on ordinary paper.s t r i p a n d use i t t o fix o n e side o f t h e p a p e r t o t h e b o a r d . or wood. 156). Be swift and firm. laid on paper. W e t a n d fix a s e c o n d strip t o t h e o p p o s i t e side. was familiar to or eggshells with animal glue. c h o o s e a s o f t full b r u s h t h a t c a n c a r r y p l e n t y o f l i q u i d .140 PORTRAITURE Silver P o i n t SILVER OR METAL POINT STRETCHING PAPER A sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has been made w e t with the strokes o f a paintbrush will buckle d u e t o its uneven expansion. key. SILVER W I R E : Purchase different gauge lengths f r o m a traditional a r t supplier o r jeweler. an exciting indication of how large-scale drawings could be made on a wall. bone. SILVER P O I N T W I R E H O L D E R : T h e s e c a n b e p u r c h a s e d a n d t e n d t o b e heavy. Historically. you will need t o stretch paper and lay a wash (see right and opposite). MATERIALS 1 Find a clean sponge and b o w l o r d e e p t r a y a n d fill it w i t h w a t e r W e t t h e p a p e r evenly in t h e t r a y o r o n t h e b o a r d . Drawn across a prepared surface. S O F T F U L L B R U S H : W h e n laying a w a s h . T h e p a p e r will l o o k b u c k l e d . If w o r k i n g o n an emulsion-painted wall. Find a n i t e m t h a t y o u can h o l d a n d draw with comfortably. illuminators of medieval m a n u s c r i p t s . b e f o r e priming stretched paper. it leaves a deposit. 3 . To begin. s o m e m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n o t h e r s . Pages 142 to 147 are illustrated in silver point and techniques are explained on pp. Note h o w domestic paintwork marks with a coin. s e e p . E m p t y mechanical pencils designed f o r t h i c k leads ( s e e p. b u t d o n ' t w o r r y . and make o r buy a holder. 1 4 4 . 1. Straighten the w o r s t buckles. This is called a three-tone drawing. choose a silver object. I m a k e m y o w n f r o m o l d dip pens. Lightly s p o n g e o f f t h e excess. or ring. Gesso o r m a t t e m u l s i o n c a n a l s o b e u s e d . and is therefore useful w h e n using w a t e r c o l o r as well as silver point. I t is a v a i l a b l e f r o m all a r t s h o p s .54-55). and gold have also been used. Take a sheet o f any t y p e o f p a p e r (for e x a m p l e . Stretched paper remains taut as a d r u m . p a r c h m e n t . Numerous early European artists also enjoyed its fine qualities (see p. which quickly oxidizes into a gray line. The most c o m m o n metal has always been silver—hence the term "silver point. Lay a clean d r a w i n g b o a r d o n a flat surface. 5.Tear o f f f o u r lengths o f b r o w n p a p e r g u m tape." Lead. and t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h strips a b o v e and b e l o w . w h i t e d r a w i n g paper) and cut it t o fit y o u r d r a w i n g b o a r d w i t h a generous b o r d e r a r o u n d its edges. This browns with age unless sealed by fixative (see pp. Opposite. who used it to outline initials and border characters before painting. artists mixed white lead. W e t o n e length o f g u m . 2 . copper. the surface must be primed with a ground such as gouache. platinum. M a k e s u r e i t is c o m p l e t e l y clean t o avoid u n w a n t e d streaks. 2. 144-45. o n e t o fit each side o f t h e b o a r d — t h e s e will make t h e glued f r a m e t h a t holds y o u r p a p e r in place. I combined silver point with painted white gouache on a pink ground. purchase silver wire. Z I N C W H I T E G O U A C H E : Dilute with w a t e r A d d c o l o r i f r e q u i r e d (as opposite) 4 . S i l v e r is b e s t . and alloys work on matt emulsion.

Dip a soft. LAYING A WASH It your stretched paper so as to prime it for silver point. as the paper will be ruined by a raised ridge. The next step will make a small mess. is necessary to lay a wash o Three-tone When coloring ground. Beware of the tape's coming loose at any point while drying. Keep testing on spare paper. so put newspaper under the lower edge. full brush into the gouache and start in the top left corner.141 SILVER POINT 3 Leave the paper to dry flat. Reload the brush and add a second line overlapping it beneath. Keep adding smooth. Mix a very wet but not weak solution of gouache in a jar with a lid (add pigment at this stage for a three-tone drawing). It will slowly straighten and become taut. Here. overlapping lines until you reach the bottom.t o n e silver point drawing of a skull . T h r e e . Dry thoroughly before laying a wash. any extra will keep. Leave the wash to dry thoroughly before you begin to draw. stretched paper at a 45-degree angle. Runs blend into each other evenly. v e r y little at a time. leaving a smooth surface. slowly add powder pigment or gouache from a tube. Make an even line across to the right. I used a powder pigment called Caput Mortuum. Prop up your board of dry. Make enough to cover your paper. and let tests dry before deciding to change the mixture.



Head and Neck
THE HEAD AND NECK are best conceived as one unit arranged in four parts: cranium, face, neck, and throat. Each is of equal importance. The cranium is essentially egg-shaped and pivots on the first vertebra. The face is suspended beneath, like a softly curved triangle. The n e c k — a powerful, shapely column of layered muscles rigged to vertebrae—adjusts and holds the angle and expression of the head. The throat is delicate, hard, and lumpy to the touch, formed of cartilaginous rings, glands, thin muscles, and looser skin. Framing the throat, two columnar neck muscles (sternomastoids) project the head forward and also turn it to the opposite side.

This is a simple shorthand diagram representing the cranium, face, neck, and throat. It can be learned and visualized in different positions very easily, giving the novice a firm footing on which to stand and develop their drawings of the head and neck.

Shorthand diagram

Cranium Begin with an egg shape. Tilt it on the paper to change the position of the head.

Face Draw a rounded triangular shape below the forward point of the egg to represent the face.

Neck This shape represents the trapezius; the largest surface muscle of the neck and shoulders.

Throat A triangular shape represents the throat. (The nose makes the diagram clearer)

Applied shorthand

After copying the diagram above, animate it. Practice drawing the cranium at different angles, add the face beneath, then the neck, shoulders, and throat. Shape your diagrams so they are more lifelike, but avoid adding detailed features too soon.

143 These three drawings demonstrate (from left to right) the following: why the cranium may be considered egg-shaped; now the face can be seen as a curved triangle suspended beneath and where the division lies between the two; and the form of sternomastoid muscles that frame thethroatsodistinctlywhen the head is turned and inclined forward.

The skull and the frame of the throat


Bones of the cranium are locked together by jagged joints. Sinuses in the frontal (forehead) bone between and beneath the eyebrows are larger in men, making their brows pronounced and often ridged compared to those of women.

Bones of the face house our sight, smell, taste, The skull pivots on the first vertebra or "atlas," and speech. Cartilage extending from nasal bones after the Greek god condemned to carry the shapesthenose.Pads of fat resting on the base of Earth. The jaw hinges in front of the ears. Behind, eacheyesocket support the eyeballs in position. If bony ridges give anchor to the sternomastoid thefatisreducedby old age, eyes look sunken. muscles rising from the breast- and collarbones.

Three useful generalizations

General rules about the relative positions of body parts can hinder artists as much as help them, since they are often based on classical ideals rather than thediversityoflife.However,some generalizations can help as a rough guide to start with, so long as good observation takes over as soon as possible.

In general, when the face is relaxed (not smiling or frowning), the corners of the mouth are found directly beneath the pupils of the eyes. Vertical lines can be drawn down from the pupils to meet the corners of the mouth.

The height of a young adult's ear is often the same as their nose and found on the same level. There is no general rule for growing children, and remember that ears grow again in old age, which is most obvious in men.

The height of the face is about the length of the handspan and the eye is normally halfway down the total height of the head. A common error is to draw the eyes too high up on the face.



Essential Observations

(see pp. 140-41) is perfect for

such as a beach pebble. Here, I stretched drawing paper and laid a wash of white gouache (see pp.140-41). As you can see, the line and tone of silver point varies with pressure, but only slightly. Too much pressure cuts the ground. Silver point erases, but so does ground. Erased ground can be repaired gently with extra gouache. You can also use gouache to paint over mistakes and make corrections.

small, detailed drawings. The drawings below and opposite show useful observations of the head and neck, which are explained in the captions below. Each drawing was made with a silver wire held in a large-gauge mechanical pencil. Newly clipped wires are sharp and cut rather than draw. Before use, they need to be rubbed and smoothed on a stone

Here I imagined placing my silver point wire against the skin of each head and neck and, working in parallel bands from the crown downward, I traced the undulation of surfaces. Linear bands imagined around the head and neck can help you t o clearly see the tilt of the head and relative levels of the features. Ask a friend t o model for you and try this exercise life-size using a pencil and eraser


Tilted forward

Tilted backward

Three-quarter view

Seeing that the face is never flat

Drawings below left and center are summaries of the generalizations given on p.143. Far right is an image to remind us that the face is never flat. It slopes back to varying degrees among individuals, from the tip of the nose t o the ears. For example, note that the innermost corners of the eyes are farther forward in space than the outermost corners.

General measurements, side

General measurements, front

View from above


Male and female head and neck
Men's necks a r e g e n e r a l l y s h o r t e r a n d t h i c k e r t h a n w o m e n ' s b e c a u s e t h e angles a n d levels o f c e r t a i n b o n e s a r e d i f f e r e n t b e t w e e n t h e sexes ( i n d i c a t e d h e r e b y d o t t e d lines) a n d m e n are n o r m a l l y m o r e muscular. T h e male t h y r o i d cartilage ( A d a m ' s apple) is larger a n d m o r e visible than t h e f e m a l e . L a r g e r f e m a l e t h y r o i d glands also s o f t e n t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e t h r o a t .

Female skull





Trapezius muscle
The largest m u s c l e o f t h e s h o u l d e r s a n d n e c k is called the trapezius. A r r a n g e d on e i t h e r side o f t h e spine, it shapes t h e u p p e r back and neck above the s h o u l d e r blades. C o n t r a c t i n g in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h d e e p e r and surrounding muscles, it raises and l o w e r s t h e shoulders a n d d r a w s t h e h e a d backtoeitherside.

The whole



half with



with head



with head


Side with


Front with




Drawing Portraits
USING A SHARP 3 B PENCIL, I drew this head quickly from imagination, evolving its character and expression from the scheme of four parts: cranium, face, neck, a n d throat (see p. 142). Here, five steps show you how to practice doing the same. This approach can be used to draw from imagination or from life. Keep your wrist loose and hold your pencil away from its point (see pp.22-23). Build the layers of your drawing from pale to dark, a n d from general balance a n d form to specific detail. Remember that successful drawings are built on foundations of "seeing the whole," then dividing the whole into smaller parts, with details brought in last of all. Phrased tonal marks modeling this girls skin and hair follow the technique demonstrated by Goya in his self-portrait on p. 130. Turn to Goya's drawing and study how, in a circle beginning across his hat, moving down his hair, and around his coat, he flows lines over surfaces to describe their contour. As you build from steps 1 to 5, bring phrased groups of lines across the surfaces of your form, using their directions to capture the expression of the head and neck. If unsure, copy my steps until you gain the confidence to make your own decisions.

This drawing is the final stage of the four steps opposite. Here, I have enlarged the eye, and moved it back into the head by trimming the length of the upper lid and adding a more pronounced lower lid. It is important to set eyes far enough back from the relatively prominent nose; too close to it and the face flattens. Hair swept back and extended behind the cranium balances the regal pose. Lines shaping the hair echo those marking the cranium in step 1. Here, the lower part of step 1 comes through as wisps of hair across her face and ear


Portrait of a Young Girl

147 Building up the portrait DRAWING PORTRAITS 1 Gently spin pale lines in a softly drawn shape representing the cranium. First lines will remain visible in the final drawing. The nose and ear begin to shape the head. too soon. avoid drawing too dark. The eye announces the nature and expression of the emerging person. Keep your first lines light. 3 Place the eye beneath the cranium. I used light to describe the upper lid first with a shadow beneath for the lower lid and open eye. down the face to the throat. Here. Moving from the back of the neck. and throat. I modeled the outline of the character I imagined light shining from above and in front and adjusted the pressure of lines to reflect this. they are also still sweeping and confident. so it is important to the life of the image that while controlled.Theangle at which you draw this shape of the paper will determine the angle of the finished head. neck. 2 Rapidly add shorthand shapes to represent the face. 4 . over the cranium.


the texture of hair. be aware of the subtle differences in skin surface. . and gravity. muscular tension. Above all.T o DRAW PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGES. a n d t h o s e w h o a r e Generations asleep (see overleaf). empathize.



I used the nib upside down to gain needle-sharp precision. seeking the dominant contours of each individual expression. Van Dyke's noble cast of characters was modeled more finely. Madrid. with a steel dip pen and acrylic ink. .Castings DRAWING IN THE PRADO MUSEUM. Fast lines carve out the features of Goya's soup-slurping hag.



. or calm u s w i t h chic. Practical classes Bacchante 1911 l o o k at r a n g e s of c o l o r e d m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d i n g p a s t e l s a n d felt-tip p e n s . w h i c h in turn feed c o n s u m e r Lev. cool. and atmosphere. g l o s s y folds. and s y m b o l s that lets m e n and w o m e n in all countries and areas have w o r k i n g access to the latest fashions. W e dress ourselves and costume designer trained in in St.This voluptuous above all a physical p u p p e t w i t h w h i c h to animate character and narrate personality. Designers all over the w o r l d c o n t i n u a l l y p e n and b r u s h lines to lash us w i t h color. D e s i g n e r s create m a s t e r p i e c e s of haute couture LEON BAKST for H o l l y w o o d stars. c o s t u m e o f f e r s a r i c h v o c a b u l a r y of t e x t u r e s a n d c o l o r . known as Leon Bakst. fulfilling lavish and spectacular briefs. of Scheherazade. st 111/4 x 81/2 in (285 x 220 mm) u d i e d L E O NB A K S T and explore the characterization of fabric t h r o u g h m o v e m e n t . T h e rural masses w o r e h o m e s p u n simplicity. Samoylovich Rosenberg. T h e e n t o u r a g e of the theatrical stage o f t e n l e a d s the c a t w a l k . b u t influenced Parisian fashion and interiordecor. intriguing. personality. and intent. outrageous. shapes. Artists do this not so m u c h b y the style of a figure's garment. P o p u l a r f a s h i o n d e s i g n e x p l o d e d w i t h the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n . T h e p a p e r p a t t e r n is p e r h a p s the m o s t w i d e l y k n o w n of c o s t u m e d r a w i n g s : a formalized plan of lines. S t r u c t u r e is t h o u g h the i n v e n t i o n of shoes. c r u m p l e s . variety. for e x a m p l e — d e s i g n e d the w a r d r o b e s of p o p e s a n d k i n g s . and even invisible by the w a y w e dress. was a Belarussian A r t Deco theater fantasies and desires to immediately possess a version of the same. dancer leaps through swaths of golden cloth.As artistic director of the It is s h o c k i n g to t h i n k h o w m a n y m i l l i o n s of d r a w i n g s m u s t be m a d e a n d d i s c a r d e d Ballet Russe. while court p a i n t e r s — M i c h e l a n g e l o and Holbein. articulate a d a n g e r o u s satirical j o k e . w a r m t h . caricatured p l u m e s . In psychology. so that c h o i c e . gesture. theb u t b y the w a y it s p e a k s w i t h its flying. and gouache. and everything w e h a v e c h o s e n for o u r w a r d r o b e s — r e f l e c t o r s of o u r taste.Costume W E MAKE OURSELVES EXOTIC. and i n d e e d image b e c a m e the property also of the industrial classes. he and cofounder Serge Diaghilev took Paris by eac storm in 1910 with their production h year in the industrial f r e n z y of creating o u r image and aspirations. and e x u b e r a n c e . c u l t u r e . Like it or not. e m u l a t e textures. Bakst's designs and costumes immediately To the fine artist. or b u l g e s . a n d w e will c o l l e c t patterns. Cities c h a n g e d all. In this c h a p t e r w e see h o w c l o t h i n g c a n s e e m to p o s s e s s the w e i g h t and m o n u m e n t a l i t y of stone. a n d s u b t l e t o n e s . Petersburg and later exiled designers' ideas and are surprised and delighted b y their continual f l o w of inspiration. it is the public sign by w h i c h w e are j u d g e d . and be so expressive of temperament that it overtakes the need for an o c c u p y i n g h u m a n form. Previously. woman was drawn by Bakst one year later for the ballet Narcisse. toParis. a n d c o u r t i e r tailors f o l l o w e d suit. charcoal. a n d p r o f e s s i o n — b e g a n life as a d r a w i n g . o n l y the w e a l t h y c o u l d afford to h a v e c o s t u m e s specially m a d e . arichand unusual combination of pencil.

With a stylus such as Van Eyck used here. Vertical lines The highly controlled lines of this drawing cascade from top to bottom of the image. H e m e t i c u l o u s l y a r r a n g e d subjects t o c o n v e y d e e p e r meaning. and implied striation in the stone of the architecture. Short and subtle horizontal punctuations are only given in the background by sections of floor. folds and patterns of material speak more resolutely of their wearers than any small glimpses of body we can see. Her gown is carved and polished as if made from marble. Below this. it is only possible to create very thin. In Van Eyck's drawing below. the carefully composed outline of his cloak shows us how the artist would have also begun his immaculate rendering of the Virgin's clothes. Delicate marks Silver (or metal) point is the most delicate of traditional drawing media (see pp. Van Eyck's highly polished w o r k is c e l e b r a t e d f o r its disguised symbolism. delicate lines. Above them.156 COSTUME Cloth and Drapery EACH OF THESE FIGURES is ninety percent cloth.140-41). The quiet stillness of this image is achieved by a masterly economy of stylized line. bands around the columns. Keisai Eisen's intense. Maelbeke I44I Madonna 11 x 7 in (278 x 180 m m ) JAN V A N EYCK . the vaulted stone roof echoes and crowns the moment. the Madonna and her architecture are both dressed in the same manner. Sculpted one. and snakelike marks. with their jagged edges. However. swirling printed fabrics. best k n o w n f o r his G h e n t altarpiece ( 1 4 3 2 ) a n d m a r r i a g e p o r t r a i t o f Giovanni A r n o l f i n i and his w i f e (1434). He has layered these slowly and carefully so as not to cut through the ground and produce a white mark just where he intended a dark one. her marble garment holds u p the infant Christ in a fountain of compressed line. Marble gown We will never know if Van Eyck considered this drawing unfinished or intended the kneeling abbot to remain transient and ghostly. Church and deities are drawn as JAN VAN EYCK Flemish oil p a i n t e r f r o m L i m b o u r g . Opposite. and the kneeling abbot is a ghost by comparison. dragons. resonate with their wearers startled expression. Their uninterrupted emphasis is entirely vertical. Flaxmans sleeper—perhaps a pilgrim or a soldier resting between campaigns—has wedged himself into the cleft of some great building to grab a moment of peace.

and teacher Distinctive linear illustrations for the works of Homer. writer and printmaker Keisai Eisen took his name from the masters Kano Hakkeisai and Kikugawa Eizan. Images are drawn onto smooth. stone wall of downward-stroked this sleeper's position is momentary. and Man Lying Down in a Cloak I 787-94 21/4 JOHN FLAXMAN x 41/8 in (57 x 105 mm) . designer. This complex numerous blocks prepared image and may have been made with printed separately. Respected for his sumptuous images of geisha and editions of erotic prints. the cloak sliding to the ground. Koimurasaki of Tama-ya 1810-50 15 x101/4in (381 x 260 mm) KEISAI EISEN The Courtesan JOHN F L A X M A N English late 18th-century neoclassical sculptor. CLOTH AND DRAPERY Relief printing This is a woodblock print made by a relief process. which are sometimes also cut into pieces like a jigsaw puzzle. he also co-edited and expanded the Ukiyo-e Ruiko (History of Prints of the Floating World). flat sheets of wood.157 KEISAI EISEN Japanese draftsman. an 18th-19th century document on the lives of the ukiyo-e artists. and the feet notched against the pillar tell us that A lines holds him into the cleft. draftsman. Parts of the image to be left unprinted are gouged out with a metal tool. the angle of the head. The inked block is laid face-down on damp paper and pressed to make the print. Aeschylus earned Flaxman an international reputation. each delivering a different part and color of the design. Position In this pen and ink drawing. Dante. one over the other. Remaining raised areas of wood are rolled with colored inks.

Anthony Van Dyke's Man in Armor is a masterpiece of drawn surface. theater. cinema. b e f o r e traveling t o Italy. a n d w a s e m p l o y e d as c o u r t painter t o King Charles I. The metal. he c o o l e d and redefined his style. He has been rendered on this olive<olored page with pen and gray wash worked over a red and black under-drawing. Its warm surface flows in contrast to the stiff metal armor. Opposite is a dangerous drawing. Leg section Compare mid-shin the section of white boots cropped to the section of similarly cropped trousers in drawings Gruau's drawing on p. lace. and even formal portraiture. Fine examples can be plucked from fashion. Its color is also reflected in the metal. Flowing scarf The knight's scarf of gilded blue is drawn in a pale wash over red ink lines.158 COSTUME Character Costumes an extreme form of the clothed figure. A flamboyant territory. A s a y o u n g man. all ruffs and wrinkles. cartoon. Leg sections in both support the figure without taking our attention away from the main garment above. In 1 6 3 2 he m o v e d p e r m a n e n t l y t o L o n d o n . a scurrilous cartoon by a courtier of Queen Elizabeth I. A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE Flemish painter and draftsman. Pen and wash In the graphic accuracy of this armored knight we see the idealized identity of a warrior from another time: a gleaming defender of the realm. Man in Armor UNDATED 1 6 x 9 1 / 2 in ( 4 0 5 x 2 4 0 m m ) A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE . Details and voices are worn externally with great imagination. It is presumed Her Royal Highness never saw it. w h e r e . Van D y k e was chief assistant t o Rubens f o r t w o years. t h r o u g h n u m e r o u s p o r t r a i t and C h u r c h commissions. and feather were all CHARACTER COSTUMES REPRESENT observed with closely crafted conviction. 160. for she would not have been amused and William Wodall might have been stretching his luck. The slight uncertainty of the pose and the limp cloak suggest a little more metal than man. cloth. where sometimes there just might not be anybody inside. The aged queen is compared to an overdressed bird.

the queen is masterfully rebalanced by words at her feet The whole drawing's blackened.1599 71/2 WILLIAM x 51/4 in ( 1 9 0 x 1 3 4 mm) WODALL . suggest the use of iron-gall ink (see p. and saturations showing through from the other side. hooded with an overinflated fluffy ruff eye pins us. she is shown as a grossly disproportioned bird. Beneath the lethal fan is the body of a bird of trimmed feathers suggest age. it was customary to Iron-gall ink Wodall's dangerous caricature steps daintily the written lines of her dedicated page. Satire of the Queen's Dress c. t h e Jesuit Mission. A Ruffs and feathers Starched white ruffs worn at court and by society grew steadily larger as Elizabeth's reign progressed. here dark tawny owl. Top-heavy. Northern Satire This is a quill-and-ink satire of the elderly queen's pride-As head of state and fashion. t h e Rising. manuscript comprising six c a n t o s . t h e Ridolfi Plot. while a raised foot pauses to assess the next displaying a fan of daggers.159 WILLIAM W O D A L L A u t h o r and illustrator o f The Aaes of Queene a Elizabeth poem Allegorized. t h e B a b i n g t o n Plot. and her pride. By her old upto three tiers supported on sticks. T h e poem recounts t h e six m a j o r crises o f Elizabeth's reign: t h e Spanish A r m a d a . bitten nature.35).

G r u a u ' s highly distinctive d r a w i n g s have a p p e a r e d Couture. as is Spider-Girl opposite. 158. His model is outlined. Spider-Girl leaps like an insect. and gray pigments were applied separately.c e n t u r y haute i n n u m e r o u s m a g a z i n e s i n c l u d i n g Elle. elegant chic and svelte. Fashion and fantasy drawings invent prototypes of ideals and perfection—be they for the catwalk or the fast-paced pages of comic books. Compare the compositio beneathVanDyke'sstudy of armor on p. Airbrushed reflective surfaces further amplify our perception of speed. Gruau's model regally swans to the fore with cool pride. studio-like rectangle of paper. muscular aggression. demanding attention with gesture and flair. India ink and gouache This swish of confidence and style our enters the page turning everyone's head. Harpers & Queen. Drying time in between applications ensured the colors did not run into each other. Fine lines drawn against the building behind her echo the threads on which we have all seen arachnids drop and hang. Gruau uses starkly cut negative space (see pp. RENE GRUAU I t a l i a n . a n d L'Officiel de la couture.160 COSTUME Femmes Fatales THESE DEVASTATING femmes fatales force back the onlooker with their demure. Composition Look how well this image is frame knee is parallel to the bottom edge spacehorizontalline cropping the trousers be outermostuprightbordersof her cuffs are similar above her head thesidesoftheimage.F r e n c h f a s h i o n i l l u s t r a t o r w h o in his l o n g and esteemed career w o r k e d with many of the g r e a t e s t d e s i g n e r s o f 2 0 t h . and both share the power of scarlet and black. possibly over a pencil outline.and tilted to the same de a little deeper than sp kneestogivehergravity. The black red. Vogue. diving to catch us in the grip of her machine-like limbs. 5 8 .5 9 ) and a three-spoke balance of cuffs and cropped trousers to create an almost flag-like emblem of power. ofcroppedtrousershere to the device of the w Illustration 1949 for Jacques Fath in L ' O f f i c i e l d e la C o u t u r e RENE GRUAU . She has been drawn with brushes dipped into India ink and gouache. Rene Gruau's bold gouache drawing of smoothly swaying sophistication captures a brilliantly cut garment and frames it with great dynamism in a white.

In your mind's eye extend the uprights out of the top of the picture. and has been the title's regular artist since 2003. Align your ruler to the upright of each building. sky. and figure are all locked into equally shatp through the traditional process of a pencilled outline over-drawn ink. He began work on Spider-Girl in 1998.74-77). not far above the drawing. moon. Sharp focus black outlines in this drawing create a hyper-real dynamic. and Amazing Spider-Man.RON F R E N Z Contemporary American graphic artist w h o designs and pencils the dynamic scenes of numerous superheroes featured in Marvel Comics. It is outside the picture frame. to the right of its center. Buildings. beginning with Star Wars. MARVEL C O M I C S . at Their extensions will meet the same single vanishing (see point pp. Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 2001-04 R O N FRENZ. Single-point understand perspective To how Frenz created up therefore the effect of steeply between looking buildings—and howyou can do the same in your own work—take calculate where a ruler the and single vanishing point lies. The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones. a great characteristic superhero comics. Frenz has drawn for Marvel for about 20 years. This s modeling applied over the top give the image a sleek and mechanical of gravity. Airbrushed color and with tonal focus.

or wax and a binder are shaped into fine strips and encased in w o o d like a graphite pencil. FELT-TIP PENS: Instant-drying alcoholor water-based inks stored in the barrels of the pens are delivered via smooth nylon o r felt tips of varying shapes and thicknesses. Often. They vary hugely in cost. I suggest you do so. oily pigment. mixed on the paper and scratched into (as below). Pastels are finer. which he left unfixed to retain its brightness. and CHALK PASTELS Pastel pencils make fine lines (as above). except the final layer. and can be softened and manipulated with degrees of heat. made in about 80 colors. slightly oily to the touch. chalkbased but very subtle. shape. the finer and more subtle the texture and color should be. 2. Pastel pencils are slender and in w o o d casing. and cost are laid out for our pleasure and perusal. quality and cost T h e best are paperwrapped sticks of sumptuous. The nontoxic range below represents a suggested starting point for experiment. allowing it to fix slightly from behind. OIL PASTELS Oil-based. Degas built his pastels in layers. See h o w they work and return later for more of what proved best for you. soft. CHALK PASTELS: Blackboard chalk is sidewalk work. Store loose pastels in dry rice to keep them clean. COLORED PENCILS: Dry pigments ground together with chalk. Beware—some are toxic. animals. and synthetics. these work best when slightly warm. Sticks and conte crayons make thicker marks (as below). Many products are sold individually and in boxed sets. are derived from many sources: rocks. intensity. insects. crumbly. fixing each layer on the front. 3. 1. Many artists apply fixative to the back of their work. The worst are like revolting old lipsticks that get everywhere except where you intend. Use them to draw lightly (as above left) or thickly. OIL PASTELS: Many colors. colored materials available. and sold in many colors. They work well on PIGMENTS Pigments. Try materials that are new and unfamiliar. including iridescents. size. hue. Before making substantial investments. 4. quality. and subtlety. though lines can develop greasy stains around the edges if the paper is not first stretched and treated with a gelatin paste laid as a wash. there are disparities between the apparent nature or color of what you hold in your hand and its performance on paper. unwrapped harder pastels. Seemingly infinite choices of texture. and can be a great rediscovery for bold drawings. the diverse are made in brands of basic member of the family. Children's wax crayons are relatives. Bright pastels are more brilliant on colored paper. you may be pleasantly surprised to discover something you could not have imagined using. great for tin . minerals. Most stores leave small pads of paper on their counters for customers to test materials. used to make colors. clay. purchase a small selection of different items you think you will like. The higher the quality (and cost). Be aware that fixative dulls pastel. C o n t e crayons are square-formed. paper-wrapped. plants. Dissolve in turpentine or mineral spirits to produce oil paint or or dark paper. wash.162 COSTUME Colored Materials ART STORES BRIM OVER w i t h t h e m a n y wherever permitted.

111). Some give richer lines than others. Some are nonsoluble. Think of Matisse's Blue Nude (see p. Fine lines can be achieved (as above). If you love smooth blocks and lines of colon felt-tip pens are perfect.163 COLORED PENCILS These are wax. it is still a great champion and support for those beginners feeling shyly obligated to tone down their love of color to conform with what others say they should use.or clay-based thin crayons in wood casing. so it is best to test them before buying. . others dissolve in water or turpentine to make a wash. Brands made for designers sold in enormous ranges of colors are far more subtle and sophisticated than those made for children. leaving the paper to shine through for highlights (as below). Colors can be blended as shown right) and tones graded by altering pressure. Diverse brands are harder or soften greasier or chalkier in use. FELT-TIP PENS Although not made with felt-tip pen.

164 COSTUME Study and Design they reflect our age. imagining y o u can see t h r o u g h it. . you will need several large sheets of drawing paper. while artists have painted their boots or those of others as personal portraits and memorials. t o o . structure. personality. Here we go one step further. and a selection of shoes. I m a d e n u m e r o u s s h e e t s o f d r a w i n g s . 100-01 and pp. if y o u m a k e p l e n t y o f d r a w i n g s as o p p o s e d t o o n l y a f e w . social and economic status. Superstitions and fetishes are attached to them: we are told never to put new shoes on a table. To set up. c o v e r a large sheet o f p a p e r w i t h line drawings o f several shoes. Turn t h e m in different d i r e c t i o n s and o b s e r v e t h e i r s t r u c t u r e and f o r m . and they have been concealed in buildings to ward off misfortune. S H O E S TELL LIFE STORIES. This class takes the shoe as its subject in building on earlier lessons concerned with seeing through objects to understand their function. and after studying familiar shoes we use the information learned to invent new ones. the era in which we live. e n j o y i n g t h e study a n d i n v e n t i o n o f shoes. and volume in space (see pp. Linear Outline Using fine pens. t h e n again as if transparent. As artifacts in museums. they record and reflect our common history. a n d e x p e r i e n c e visible p r o g r e s s . D r a w each o n e first as a solid object. and how we stand and walk. a range of colored felt-tip pens with both fine and broad tips. 104-07). You. style. REPEATED STUDY T o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s class. will discover m o r e . values.


The Surface


study the surface contours using fineand broad-tipped felt-tip pens. For best results, it is important to be bold and brief. Draw firmly, fast, and with as few strokes as possible. Build up each shoe from light to dark andleavesome paper showing through to create highlights.

Design Your Own

Using what you have learned from the previous steps about the structures of your shoes, and about the use of pens, invent new designs from your imagination. Start with fine outlines and progress to colored and textured surfaces. Modify your ideas by rotating the views.



The Structure of Costume

rich resource for the artist and

information given by a period style. Arrange to visit a costume museum or ask a friend to model clothes for you at home. Using fine felt-tip pens, begin with quick, pale impressions of each garment's shape before homing in on its borders and seams. Try to draw transparent views wherever possible to record the relationships between all component parts. Aim to draw enough information for it to be possible to make up a version of the garment using paper pinned to a tailor's dummy.

designer. They often give quite unexpected gems of ideas and information—whatever the subject. These drawings, made in a costume museum, demonstrate ways of recording structural information and detail for later use in the studio. They could form the basis of new designs for a fashion project or theater production, for example. Drawings of shoes on pp. 164-65 show how new designs can be evolved from the structural

It is usually best when collecting information for reference to apply the restraint of dispassionate observation. Set yourself the test of drawing facts with as little artistic license or embellishment as possible. Here I chose fine felt-tip pens because they are at their best when used swiftly, and therefore encourage bold, unhesitant decisions.

Swift lines record the hanging weight of this gentleman's coat, the relative proportions of its layers, and minimal details of the buttons and cuffs.

Thick velvet fabric is pulled tight beneath and across the bust by a single button. This transparent view shows how the fabric falls loosely in straight panels beneath the level of the sleeve.


W h e n visiting museums, be prepared f o r l o w lighting, which can make it hard t o see and draw. A book can help if attached t o your drawing board.

Adding stripes and dashes of color with a thicker pen brings out the glossy sheen and sculptural rigidity of this dress, which would have been worn over a whalebone corset. small reading light designed t o clip o n t o a


In small drawings such as these, use thick pens to color entire sections with a few marks, as I did here down the side of the bodice.

The light, frilly bulk of this crinoline dress is propelled forward with lines. pinching its gathers and sways that are hiding a horsehair bustle. fleets of quick



Textures and.Patterns
THIS CLASS FOCUSES ON how to draw textures through the collection of fabric, pattern, and embroidery samples from a costume m u s e u m . This formal method, using ruled squares, can create an invaluable library of ideas a n d i n f o r m a t i o n for future r e f e r e n c e — w h e n painting a clothed figure, or preparing a textile project, for example. However, if making a book of samples for a project, remember that it is important to also include collages of f o u n d materials (see pp.230-31) To d r a w a fabric texture, b e g i n by concentrating o n h o w y o u i m a g i n e it w o u l d feel if you t o u c h e d it. Decide if it w o u l d be rough, s m o o t h , w a r m , cold, thick, thin, tough, or fragile, for example. As you draw, believe you can feel these qualities at your fingertips a n d that your pencil is responding to the sensation. Undulate the pressure of your lines and marks according to the feeling of the fabric rather than its appearance. Let your pencil enact the sensation of touching its surface.

and to experiment more loosely with mixed media.

This starchy, quilted, b o w e d creation started life as an imagined corset, I intended t o d r a w together in one sculptural f o r m a range o f t h e details opposite. T h e garment quickly got o u t o f hand. T h e r e is great e n j o y m e n t in letting y o u r imagination run wild w h e n inventing costumes. If you are unable t o visit a costume museum, many exciting fabric details and textures can be found in y o u r o w n closet o r home.


Colored pencils give precision and tonal range; they can be faded but not erased. Lightly use an HB graphite pencil if you wish to plan a design first. Pressed hard, colored pencils build up a waxy finish of brilliant color. Used lightly, they appear powdery and show the texture of the paper.


Silk and braid


Embroidered leather





Outline stitch


126-27. I made a drawing book full of studies seeking to understand how he composed drama and pathos in his narratives (see also pp. and 252-53). . and motivation of an individual. 172-73. Madrid.Dressing Character I O N C E SPENT THREE MONTHS researching the work of Francisco de Goya at the Prado Museum. shape. identity. These characters. look at how Goya delineated volumes of thick fabric to express the posture. selected from different pages of my original book.

and visible. I carefully copied the direction of each of his lines. are copies of works by Goya in which he makes air seem heavier than flesh. . Posture Carving also taken from my Madrid drawing book (see pp. and tangible. as it rushes and carves fabric-wrapped forms like rivers and desert winds shaping the earth.170—71). To understand how he did this.T H E S E PENCIL STUDIES.



and other masters of Western Art. paintings depicting scenes from history. the viewer's attention in a scene by the format of its composition. while a quill contact with. With a pocket full of disposable pens we also go out and draw the expressions of gathered people. are implicated in this marital exchange made over the head of the anonymous nurse. we can R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter draftsman. Her all-too-clear expression shows annoyance and irritation with her husband. He is also the artist from whom props to add layers of meaning and attitude. . we. the direct exchange (as shown here) where one or more characters hold eye Aneedproduced the thicker lines of the nurse. television documentaries. the viewer. He in turn scorches the paper with his view and a certain speed of seeing all. soap operas. presumably while he is making this drawing. We can direct close. Blockbuster movies. We read tensions and exchanges between people.Gatherings A LL DRAWINGS TELL STORIES. too. a crowd tells the story from a distance. We can also use clothes. First. the viewer is not directly made the finer lines of Saskia. Seeing through Rembrandt's eyes. Rembrandt's bored and frustrated wife. comics. types. the speed and printmaker and one of the greatest and most influential density of its lines. Storytelling and people-watching are obsessive human activities. Saskia died after childbirth. and instantly engage with the action of the scene. but drawings of gathered people tell them most directly. heighten or subdue drama with subtleties of exaggeration or caricature. furniture. and so. and therefore seem to see. stares out from her gloomy sickbed. daily newspapers. this is not the portrait of an old woman. even up her were laid with a brush. Here. Saskia. It middle. and novels—our staple cultural diet—are driven by a fascination with shared experience and the detail of what happens in other people's lives. This J u s t as there are three parts to a traditional landscape drawing—the foreground. Washes of shadow behind engaged and as a natural voyeur can feel invisible while watching the scene. Second. vivid portrait of his wife captures our attention. Drawings selected for this chapter explore these Saskia Lying in Bedand a Nurse ranges of proximity 1638 9 x61/2in (227 x 164 mm) and a travel journal. we can learn most about handling pen and ink. Later in their lives. finding corners in crowded places to inscribe their action and energy onto the page. in spite of how it may seem. and distance—so drawings of gathered people can be loosely arranged in three took only minutes to make and yet it lives for centuries. The spaces between people and the positions they occupy on a page are vital to our understanding of the psychology or emotion of an event. As artists. there are no longer individuals but one significant group or mass action. Third. and its illumination. R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN in the delivery of narrative.

plates shatter. Think about what else you could use: a laser smoke. In both works. the Cat. hearth i m p l e m e n t s crash at o u r feet. a kitchen explodes in o u r faces. via the animated clutter of o u r material lives.. and Alice. In one of R a c k h a m s great illustrations for Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland. and on. TIM N O B L E A N D SUE W E B S T E R British artists who collaborate using neon. and projectors to create their anarchic punk satires of modern life.kicks against the mundane things that close down your mind is a refreshing and good thing. T h e i m m a c u l a t e d r a w i n g is only r e v e a l e d w h e n t h e b e a m of a p r o j e c t o r c a s t s t h e s h a d o w Projections of the h e a p o n t o a wall. N o b l e a n d W e b s t e r s w i t t y a n d o f t e n s u b v e r s i v e d r a w i n g s are also c o n t e m p o r a r y art installations. Pans fly oft the stove. h a l o e d portrait of the artists seated b a c k to b a c k ." (Tim Noble) Drawing with light it is important to think about what you is Here timelessly we see a in can draw with. refuse. junk. F o r e a c h w o r k . t h e y select and arrange familiar items of street detritus into what appears to be an u n p l e a s a n t pile. narrative is delivered through the air. Below. for example."Anything that. garbage and chaos are piled a n d e x p l o d e d in r o o m s full of event. or even the office photocopier. Pencil on paper important but only the beginning of possibility the combination of three-dimensional space.176 GATHERINGS SOME DRAWINGS ARE MADE e n t i r e l y o f i l l u m i n a t i o n that floods drama into the viewers gaze. and smoke billows around the agitated jives of the Duchess. Real Life is Rubbish 2002 Dimensions variable TIM N O B L E A N D SUE WEBSTER . the C o o k . and projector. and in. Here.. c o m p o s e d garbage p r o d u c e s a c a l m .

H e is best k n o w n forillustratingIrving's Rip vanWinkle. a n d an unmistakable graphic style. and Poe's Tales Imagination. See how the In the Duchess's Kitchen 1907 77/8 x 6 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 5 0 m m ) ARTHUR RACKHAM . and Alice's shoulder. beams.Stowe's ofMysteryand Queer Little Folks.177 ARTHUR RACKHAM British watercolorist and book illustrator. by vivid children's Rakham's w o r k is characterized fantasy. Rackham Vanishing point In this marvelous drama made with pen. are very large compared to on p. we find several devices already explored through our drawing classes. and watercolor. amplifying movement outward from the vanishing point. tabletop. The wood grain acts like marks of speed behind the scene. ink.76-77) above vanishing point (see that is about3/4in (2 cm) oak converge at this point. This makes the story appear to leap out at us. Depth Billows of smoke expand and are lighter as they come forward. Refer back to the drawing class how pots In drawn objects and elements that those behind. humor. Find the singleperspective pp. 100 to see for make elliptical objects and pans fly through the the foreground.

a n d l o v e d t o d r a w in t h e BritishMuseum. perhaps these two are the most extreme. expressing his dry humor about O F ALL THE CONTRASTS HENRY MOORE British s c u l p t o r w h o t r a i n e d a n d taught at t h e R C A .The human form w a s the vehicle o f his expression and h e w a s t h e official W o r l d W a r II artist. This is just one of many precious artifacts from a lost time. and action of a buffalo hunt. audiences. Chalk and graphite This fog-bound but humorous gathering of souls is made in graphite and colored chalk with gray wash. This is an ironic drawing from Moore. which still narrates vivid days in the lives of an energetic nation. The mournful gray landscape of Henry Moore's northern British field has gathered by night an overcoated audience to stand and wait before a wrapped and roped monument. and composition they are polar opposites. Moore's spectators appear to have walked a long way from nowhere to witness and wait beside this mysterious obelisque. as if Moore's wrapping has been literally outstretched. and art in the landscape. In culture. join in the waiting. A glimmer of gold light appears from the left No explanation is given. meaning. and we. as fellow watchers. M o o r e t o u r e d Italy as a young man. a sculptor. a great Shoshone drawing blazes with the color.178 GATHERINGS we have seen in the pairs and trios of drawings by masters and makers. The image stands out among his more usual graphic works in which he hones and carves semi-abstract human forms. HENRY MOORE Crowd 1942 Looking at Tied-up Object . Opposite. London. heat. Magnetic Fields sculpture.

179 SHOSHONE SCHOOL Stylized characters This vital image of a buffalo hunt is made with pigment Members of the Shoshone community wishing painted within dark outlines on a stretched elk hide. horses." Men at the instructed to sit and watch. tolearnhow to paint a scene on a hide are and buffalo circle and charge the perimeters of a skin "field. Skills are taught not center chant or dance to the beat of a drum. creating harmonious balance with words but through silent demonstration. Hunt CENTURY SHOSHONE SCHOOL . and helping our eye to dart around. Each color is evenly distributed throughout the scene. Stylized hunters. MAGNETIC FIELDS Horses It is interesting to note how the outstretched limbs ofthesehorses echo European images of the runningBuffalo horse before the sequence-photographer Muybridge taught us to 19TH understand their movement differently.

m a r k . Blake w a s d r i v e n b y a passion f o r j u s t i c e a n d a p r o f o u n d b e l i e f in his v i s i t a t i o n s f r o m angels. a d e a t h c h a r g e of brutality. We also see qualities of line. w h i c h b y their c h o i c e a n d h a n d l i n g a c t u a l l y b e c o m e the force a n d spirit of e a c h i m a g e . a pink-inked cinema wobbles along with string. p o e t . era as Kollwitz. It illustrates a scene from Dante's Divine Comedy. The Circle of the (The Whirlwind 1824 of Lustful Lovers) mm) 143/4 x 207/8i n ( 3 7 4 x 5 3 0 WILLIAM BLAKE . B l a k e h a s i l l u m i n a t e d his s a d d e n e d Virgil on the s h o r e s of a d a r k w o r l d . w r i t e r a r t i s t . Brushed line and wash This is an ink-outlined drawing made with a fine brush on paper with added washes of watercolor The image was subsequently redrawn as a line engraving. a n d e n g r a v e r w h o p o w e r f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e d his o w n t e x t s in a d d i t i o n t o D a n t e ' s Divine Comedy. a n d the gentle h u m o r of sedate r i d i c u l e . w e f i n d a spiritual v i s i o n . The muscularity of Blake's figures was inspired by Michelangelo's works. W I L L I A M BLAKE British visionary. t h e Bible. texture. Opposite. a n d f o c u s . K a t h e K o l l w i t z s c r a t c h e d a n d e n g r a v e d her a r m y of c l a y . a n d o t h e r w o r k s . color.f o o t e d t r o g l o d y t e s w h o rage into w a r like a m u d s l i d e of revenge.180 GATHERINGS The Human Condition IN THE SPECTRUM of these vastly d i f f e r e n t g a t h e r i n g s of p e o p l e . inextinguishable in its fortitude and h u m o r . Misted in translucent layers of paint. pale souls of the lustful are being s p u n into yet another realm of hell. and sweetened the often bleak years with his impractical inventions. Heath Robinson lived through the same war-torn. w h e r e he w a t c h e s a t u r b u l e n t s p i r a l of p u n i s h m e n t f o r the d a m n e d .

THE HUMAN CONDITION Scratched lines This is a dry-point etching with monoprint. and her powerful and sensitive drawings center on nurture. With masterful gentility. British Pen and wash This is a pen-andwatercolor drawing made for a color-platereproduction in an edition of T h e Bystander. Heath Robinson shows England in a past era.181 KATHE KOLLWITZ German printmaker. poverty. however meager or ridiculous their activity. humor by making his characters earnest. HEATH ROBINSON The Kinecar 1926 103/8 x 15 in (262 x 380 mm) . What remained in scratched grooves printed on damp paper as lines. He created sincere. Ink rolled over was selectively polished off using a rag. sculptor and draftsman. The image was scratched directly onto a metal plate. and controlled smears on the metal surface printed as tones. and clearly focused. Robinson and Kollwitz (above) share almost identical life dates and their work expresses a shared history from opposite sides oftheworld wars. stoical bemusement. who lived in a poor district of Berlin. Losbruch (The Outbreak) 1955 20 x 233/8 in (507 x 592 mm) KATHE KOLLWITZ HEATH ROBINSON humorous illustrator and a regular contributor to magazines and journals such as The Sketch and The Bystander. and the impact of death and war upon women. Kollwitz survived the two World Wars. plodding along with hazy. White marks were made with a dusting of French chalk on the artist's finger to wipe away ink leaving clean metal. children. and the family home.

blob when old. a n d pressure-sensitive. they can be obtained within minutes. gel pens) are the most convenient of all materials with which to travel. is d e l i v e r e d t h r o u g h a m e t a l t u b e o v e r a t i n y ball bearing. 2. For example. Quick-drying. t h e y a r e lightfast." 1.r e s i s t a n t . fine fiber-tip Drawing with a fine fiber-tip pen. Lines t h i c k e n as t h e p e n w e a r s o u t G r a n d Canal (see pp.182 GATHERINGS Disposable Pens (ballpoints. if y o u w i s h y o u r d r a w i n g s t o last a n d n o t fade o r b l u r w i t h t i m e a n d e x p o s u r e t o light. and in most pockets so I can always record a thought DISPOSABLE PENS QUICK NOTES O n a c o l d day in Venice. G E L P E N : P r o d u c e d in b l a c k w h i t e . or idea. dark sheen. 4. . a n d ranges o f colors. FIBER-TIP: M a n u f a c t u r e d f o r artists a n d d e s i g n e r s in a r a n g e o f w i d t h s . Insensitive t o p r e s s u r e : lines d o n o t v a r y in w i d t h o r t o n e . fibertips. R O L L E R B A L L : A c o n s t a n t i n k flow 3 . rollerballs. including l u m i n o u s a n d m e t a l l i c . Available in blacks and ranges of colors. 7 6 . At a time like this. t w o tourists and their gondolier drifter past m e o n a canal. turn the page. aiming for correct outlines would result in drawing too slowly to c a t c h the moment.188-89) and Caravans (see pp. 192-93) w e r e b o t h m a d e w i t h a ballpoint. B A L L P O I N T : Black a n d b o l d c o l o r s o f f e r d i v e r s e qualities. they each offer distinct and sometimes unexpected qualities. The f o u r i l l u s t r a t e d h e r e r e p r e s e n t a basic r a n g e . CHOICES AVAILABLE T h e r e a r e m a n y d i s p o s a b l e p e n s t o c h o o s e from. p e r m a n e n t . or put the paper in your pocket instantly without fear of smudging. a ballpoint will make faint lines. R e m e m b e r . build to a rich. trusting shape and form to follow. jot notes. T h e r e w e r e c seconds t o snatch this impression b e t w e e n their emergence from one bridge and disappearance b e n e a t h t h e next. Ideal f o r precision w o r k (see p p . in the studio. w a t e r . I swiftly focused on gesture.7 7 and 214-15). Unlike pencils. a disposable pen with its clip-on cap goes anywhere. I keep quantities at home. So many stores sell them. indent paper. W h i t e gel p e n s a r e v e r y e f f e c t i v e o n d a r k papers. shut your book. or turn into washes and make monoprints if flooded with an alcohol-based substance such as hairspray. which can snap or pierce through your clothes. c h o o s e p e n s l a b e l e d " p e r m a n e n t " o r "lightfast. in the car. dropped in your pocket and forgotten till needed. these pens enable you to sketch.

crowd of fellow travelers Fast lines These scribbled lines model the mass and shadows of heads belonging passengers packed into the boat. Earlier I had witnessed a crammed en masse in a fleet of hired gondolas complete with musicians and choir. Fast lines focus on action. not form.FROMMEMORY Here I used the same fiber-tip pen to compose a scene from memory. Compare this Klee's mules on p.31 .

Don't worry about measuring angles. not its outline. Movement . animate them more. of course. Circular lines buzz around a man puzzling at the end of a train platform (left). Above all.184 GATHERINGS The Travel Journal I CANNOT OVERSTATE THE JOY of making a travel journal. if animated. activity. let it enter the stage and perform. Each line acts its part in the narrative. and companionship. However. pocket notebook and a fiber-tip pen. A curatorial assistant flies to do a chore (right). black. life will not slow and wait for you to catch it. but they should not be what you dwell on. You will make outlines. just draw the action. I caught fleeting glimpses of gathered people and solitary souls going about their affairs. Every drawing writes an indelible memory of place. all action is in the line of his coat and directed by his nose. Push toward caricature and this will draw out of your memory what was most important. FLEETING MOMENTS Walking through Venice with a small. angles will happen as a matter of course. if a person was stout. Let the line of the flying coat fly and the hanging arm hang. make them stouter. You must learn to trust your memory and to draw what impressed you most. when out drawing. Exaggeration helps. Each one was witnessed and drawn immediately from the afterimage of what I had just seen. focus on the action of the event. No camera can tie you to a time or people in the same way.

eager to herd us all from his house of responsibility. I am watched by the aggravated guard.185 A large lady is photographed in front of a delicate work of art. The rush of his legs isamplifiedby their blurred lines. In turn. I drew him three times on the same page to catch a range of his physical expressions. Expression . Observation THE TRAVEL JOURNAL The same willowy assistant dashes about his work.

forcing me to remain at the back and look at them.186 GATHERINGS Catching the Moment On A BITTERLY COLD November day. Here I have recreated my drawing in steps to show you how to set about capturing such a scene. Here the custodian projects fastidious ownership of his desk and pamphlets by pushing from behind the center of the space and challenging our entry to his image. placement. Place the person carefully. rather than the works of art they guarded. and involvement in the story. decide how faces and bodies contort. elevate them in the pictorial space. and reason for happening. and you decide to draw the moment. pulls. He and his simpering assistant would not allow me in. and there met this sullen custodian. emotion. ACTION AND DETAIL W h e n drawing people. and let every detail speak by its size. not outline. and clothing or bags hang. For example. Be aware that their placement on the page is part of the narrative. Identify the principal character and draw him or her first. When your attention has been caught. if they are being haughty. or bulge. flap. I took refuge in a church in Venice. For example. focus on action. you might place them lower down. . if they are being devious. or pushes. furniture leans. start by focusing on its action.

Decide where t o place them t o emphasize their role. CATCHING THE MOMENT The assistant Identify t h e antagonist ( o r second character) in t h e scene. such as the desk and pamphlets seen here. Here. which is pushed toward us in a gesture of confrontation. W i t h a few strokes. . who is largely expressed through the shape and fall o f his raincoat and his way o f using a note pad. If drawing a more complex scene. Draw their action and props. Decide where you will place them o n the paper t o emphasize their action and intent. In the final step (left) I reinforced t h e custodian's desk. D r a w their action. I added t h e assistant. together with any immediate props they are using. a pillar locates t h e scene in a depth o f space. continue adding characters.187 The custodian Identify your principal character a n d their psychological role in the scene.


.Grand Canal T H E CANALS OF VENICE are bustling places full of occupation. and buildings. I developed detailofthis drawing from memory using a ballpoint pen. where vertical mooring poles give space and pulse to the horizontal speed of water quickly. An imminent deluge of tourists urged me to work catching no more than the skeleton of the view.

Characters in the foreground were drawn first.Crossings DURING THIS RUSH HOUR. Venetians flow across a stepped bridge and cascade into the streets beyond. Caricature each person slightly. followed by the streets. then the bridge beneath them. . and drawn immediately from memory. Each person was glimpsed in an instant. To catch characters like this. note only their most essential action and feature.



Sitting at a distance on a hot. I used a ballpoint pen to compose a series of scenes. . quiet afternoon.Caravans T H E PARAPHERNALIA O F TRAVEL i s an intriguing part of circus life. I found this circus by chance in the Swiss mountains. and a great subject to draw. Caravans and other backstage activity convey expectations of energy and repose.




trees. t h e first-ever accurate image o f t h e M o o n ' s surface. as opposed the physicality of Earth. to be ready to draw the new light as it breaks across the land. but it can be seen as a lens to our observation of this planet. Take chances against the rain and work with the wind or fog. they are the animators of your subject. and experiment. Beginners will often choose calm. and meteor impacts have scarred. our companion. sunny days. makes his work by the act of walking. and even how the Sun illuminates. or the wind carries it away. and take bold steps in emulating the swell of clouds and the forces of torrential water. It is Earths satellite. a contemporary environmental artist. H e a l s o p r o d u c e d an a l b u m o f 1 8 0 exquisite pencil drawings. arranging them in perfect circles on the mountainside or in lines drifting out of sight beneath low clouds. so J o h n Russell's tour de f o r c e drawing (opposite) was a masterpiece of observation in his time. rivers. Richard Long. It now hangs on the staircase of the History of Science Museum. It is better to get up before dawn. Oxford. the sun comes out to blind it. 199). Just as NASA photographs of Earth have had a profound effect on the way we view our fragile home. By drawing such momentous and everyday events. a n d a n astronomer w h o dedicated 20 years t o studying t h e M o o n . Look closely at works by many artists and you will see that they have not represented hills. These conditions are very difficult to express well. and the sea. William Turner is said to have had himself lashed to a ship's mast to comprehend the storm (see p. In this chapter Moon Pastel 1795 Drawing we experiment with charcoal. England. 5 f t x 5 ft 6 in ( 1 5 2 x 1 6 8 c m ) J O H N RUSSELL . t w o e n g r a v e d m a p s k n o w n as The Lunar Planispheres. The forces of nature. speculation. and its draws the tides of the seas. or has cracked and fallen under the weight of water. Russell d r e w this. The pastel drawing was constructed from myriad telescopic observations almost 200 years before the Apollo Moon landing. learning to draw light out of dark. surrounded by the bright instruments of centuries of navigation. when little stirs and empty blue skies offer even less to latch lines to. Weather is essential in all landscape drawing. What they have drawn is the force of nature on these properties: how the wind heaves the night ocean. JOHN RUSSELL A p o r t r a i t pastelist t o King G e o r g e III o f England. how the mountain cut by ice and rain is now fleetingly lit. There is a sense of the heroic in drawing outside—we race to catch a form before the tide engulfs it. how the soil is scorched. marking the ground with lines of footprints or by turning stones. pages o f softly i l l u m i n a t e d craters and lunar "seas" c o v e r e d in m a t h e m a t i c a l and s h o r t h a n d calculations.Earth and the Elements I T MAY SEEM PERVERSE to start a chapter titled "Earth and the Elements" with an image of the Moon. the face of the Moon. are the real subjects in great landscape drawings. This is the world's first accurate image of the Moon. artists see for themselves that which is momentary and eternal. a n d a m o o n globe called t h e Selenographia.

sculptor. H O N O R E DAUMIER French satirical cartoonist lithographer. By Turner carries us to the heart of the maelstrom. and pioneer ofexpressionism. Danger of Wearing Balloon Petticoats UNDATED HONORE DAUMIER .Through political drawings he fired his sharp wit at the king. and solidity. like an umbrella forced inside-out. serving a prison sentence for his views. the bourgeoisie. and gives motion to each image. Flapping kimonos and an onlooker turning his b a c k have the magic of a m o m e n t caught. we can soon learn to draw its force. the government. and by observing its tides and eddies in our o w n environment. This wife. painter. Terrifying waves of merciless nature roar across the paper.198 EARTH AND THE E L E M E N T S Air in Motion THE GREAT INVISIBLE SUBJECT o f these d r a w i n g s is t h e w i n d . seeing how it shakes. Crayon and limestone This is a lithograph. a scratched ghost. Fluid strokes inflate the woman's dress and pin shadows to the ground. T h e great master of English seascape is c o n d u c t i n g with his graphic energy. fluttering heavily. a sail b r o k e n loose in a stormy marriage. Hokusais sedate wind presses reeds a n d the j o u r n e y s o f young ladies. lifts. Dots and dashes suggest receding trees out of focus. A hard waxy was drawn across a heavy limestone Varying definitions crayon of lire and depths of tone conspire to give volume. Hazy vertical marks reveal buildings into the mist. is already lost. undramatic b u t brimming with stylized realism. Below. has b e c o m e a hysterical kite. T h e ship. distance. He knew how the world bends and stutters under such gusts. and the legal profession. speed. Daumier's c a r t o o n shines with the brilliance of his comic memory.

A outline scratched of a skeletal into penciled ship is while and the waves.W. horizontally then and of the it into the stream Plants also bend and flow right to Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 1802 81/2 HOKUSAI KATSUSHIKA x 131/2 in ( 2 1 7 x 3 4 3 mm) . H o k u s a i in t u r n has since significantly influenced European art. including being lashed t o a ship's m a s t in o r d e r to study a storm. seascape. W . Landscape a n d city life w e r e his principal subjects. leans the whole composition swells around its fateful center. and history painter w h o s e p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t a b o v e all w a s light. into this very as pressed sheet The paper's through own coior is brought banks of mist and fog. T h e r e a r e m a n y stories o f his p a s s i o n a t e w o r k i n g methods. TURNER KATSUSHIKA HOKUSAI Prolific J a p a n e s e c o l o r w o o d . Wind direction wood-block This is a colored To represent the blows lifted flowed wind. 1826 91/2 x 113/4 in ( 2 4 1 x 3 0 0 m m ) J. painter.M. from left print. Hokusai direction (from clothing from has chosen which it the right). d e s i g n e r a n d b o o k i l l u s t r a t o r .l o v e dw o r k s i n c l u d e 1 0 0 v i e w s o f M o u n t Fuji and 1 2 v o l u m e s o f Manga. absorbent watercolor and are Stains of splashed. T U R N E R British landscape. Ship in a Storm c.M. AIR IN MOTION Pencil and watercolor subdued brushed. wind. T u r n e r w o r k e d in oils a n d w a t e r c o l o r s a n d s k e t c h e d c o p i o u s l y o n his travels.199 J. a n d his b e s t .b l o c kprintmaker.i n f l u e n c e d b y examples o f W e s t e r n art obtained through D u t c h t r a d i n g in Nagasaki.

198) admires the majesty of nature. water. EARTH AND THE VICTOR HUGO French novelist and artist (see also p. as a subject and second. fantasy palaces. grab their b r u s h . Pen and brush Hugo drew first with pen and ink. and swim into the page. Opposite. He brings us to stare into a place that no sane human would enter. h a u n t e d shadows. Then. active surfaces of water. Turner (see p. Leonardos Cloudburst of Material Possessions is o n e of his m o s t enigmatic and mysterious works. composing banks of waves and dense. ink. T h e m e n a c i n g darkness of Hugo's storm b e l o w is so convincing.200 ELEMENTS Storms STORMS CAN BE SEEN and drawn in two ways: first. as if drawn j u s t this year. His subjects include ruins. this is a writer's narrative of terror. or charcoal. By contrast. drawing was Hugo's principal means o f expression. with a brush. and tossed o b j e c t s — a perfect subject in which artists can forget themselves. leaving nothing but a glimpse of moonlight glistening on the froth below. he blanketed the drawing in darkness. It looks so contemporary. T h e very nature of b o t h is turmoil and an interweaving of elements. it is difficult to contemplate its brooding and night-soaked heart. as a gestural storm on the paper. In periods b e t w e e n writing. Le Bateau-Vision 1864 71/2 x 1 0 in ( 1 9 2 x 2 5 5 m m ) VICTOR H U G O . this is a b o m b a r d m e n t from o u r h o m e s . and t h e sea s t u d i e d f r o m his h o m e in Guernsey in t h e Channel Islands. D o m e s t i c o b j e c t s we can o w n and name fall from the clouds. inks.28). lines of rain escorting them to b o u n c e and clatter. An update on biblical showers of fish and frogs. marks.

Each item that has crashed from heaven is drawn in such a way that we can feel Leonardo's nib picking it up in the speed of a doodle. a bell. He bequeathed his drawings to a friend. Cloudburst of Material Possessions 1510-12 45/8 x 43/8 in ( 1 1 7 x 1 1 1 mm) L E O N A R D O DA VINCI . and they passed through private hands for 400 years before becoming widely known. together with half the contents of our garage. envisioning machines centuries before their making (helicopters and bicycles. There is a little magic in recognizing many items from our homes something like a rake. for example).LEONARDO DA VINCI Leonardo devised many artifacts of our modern lives. and a wheel. It is interesting to speculate how engineering might have developed if his ideas had been shared with the world earlier Ink and chalk This is a pen and ink drawing with touches of black chalk. He was left-handed and wrote backwards in Italian from left to right. a hook. Above and below are examples of his mirror handwriting.

watching his hand and eye at work together. and across to the right. Even distilled from all other detail. Claude is distinguished by. cooler tones receding into the distance are applied with a brush. Whether land-. sea-. made inside a book. and dry marks in the foreground appear to be made with his finger. it is the unique calligraphic signature of the place in which we stand. Claude has used a fine nib to delineate segments of land as they recede into space. In the lower half he has walked downhill a little. a horizon line can trigger our recognition. Over first lines. C L A U D E LORRAIN French classical landscape painter draftsman. Segments The top half of the drawing is a view as we enter the valley. and famed for. which he used to unify his compositions. and after tracing her captured line. She was inspired by her research of aerial plans of London and the story of an alien map butterfly (see caption). thick. and mood simultaneously. atmosphere. or cityscape.202 ELEMENTS THE PROFILE OF A HORIZON is a line we immediately recognize and respond to. transferred it to a scroll. Clare Bryan took panoramic photographs of the English South Downs. she teased away fragments of paper to illuminate her view. rapidly layering contours to shape place. and etcher who lived most of his life in 17th-century Rome. his unsurpassed handling of light. In a very different work (opposite above).1638 85/8 x 121/2 in (219 x 320 mm) CLAUDE LORRAIN . Paler. Claude Lorrain drew directly on location. Views from Velletri c. rich. Nature Profiles Opposite below. Drawing with a scalpel. EARTH AND THE Bryan cut the profile of a city. and we can imagine standing over his shoulder.

2001 CLARE BRYAN C L A R E BRYAN 3ritish artist.The horizon was drawn with a City Landline 2003 271/2x 59 in (70 x 150 cm) scalpel. progressively settlement (cropped more and more paper is drawn away to show the expansion of human page of an around the river. then hunted destroyed. On turning the pages of City.203 Scalpel-drawn This book-bound drawing was inspired by the story of a foreign butterfly wrongly to Great Britain in 1912. and visiting professor at numerous art schools. printmaker graphic designer. source workisilluminatedby standing its lower edge on a CLARE BRYAN . Her recent paper photographic. specialty bookbinder." Cut line This is a small section of a preparatory 5-ft(1. drawings Ideas of introduction Clare Bryan to research introduced down and led NATURE PROFILES and removal historical plans and aerial growth of London showing its population since Roman times. and digital print-based works reflect upon the histories and poetry of "left behind and in-between spaces. The edges of each here) fade into the solid paper unpopulated with a scalpel landscape.5-m)scroll.

a piece of fresh bread. 2. a n d p l u m . fine. resulting in a stick that gives a blacker. Charcoal lifts away from paper easily with the very light touch o f an eraser.204 E A R T H AND THE E L E M E N T S Charcoal CHARCOAL IS PRODUCED from wood baked slowly without exposure to air. 7. this does not exist. 162) or graphite (see p. R o u g h paper c a n b e loaded. In use. or fingertip. resulting in a pale line. and offers a rich. Not to be confused with square conte sticks (see p. Then lift it away.m a d e c o m p r e s s e d charcoal. C h a r c o a l naturally glistens. Slightly dull the tape's stickiness before use t o prevent it from lifting out more than you intend. Boxes often contain a range of thicknesses to choose for different needs. Lines are achieved by d e p o s i t i n g particles in the grain o f paper. Hold it over your drawing RANGE AVAILABLE Charcoal (in its several forms shown here) is loved or loathed by the beginner to whom it is often recommended because it produces pleasing results quickly. a n d m o r e i n d e l i b l e by soaking it in linseed oil. they are all intended for fine work. As its name implies. THICK W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 2 Keep the tape above your drawing. Beware of cheap brands selling dyed chalk as compressed charcoal. Use any fine-point pen or pencil (I used a ballpoint) to draw a firm line on the back of the Big pieces are perfect for very large-scale drawings—even larger than yourself. A great find when available. b e e c h . 3 A white line is lifted out by the tape. B u n d l e s o f twigs were traditionally sealed into earthenware j a r s or wet clay and heated slowly and intensely in a fire or kiln. black finish. The same as above. It does n o t erase easily. It allows you greater precision in your mark-making than if you rub away the charcoal with an eraser. The tip snaps easily to renew a sharp edge if required. 3. Artists have also used lime. harder line. COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Machine-made. between your middle finger and thumb. maple. sticky side down. it looks gray and feels like chalk. Alternatively. the heel o f y o u r h a n d . but some specialists stock compressed charcoal in delicate square sticks. Try itworking on big paper covering a wall. 1. MEDIUM W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 5. 4. CHALK CHARCOAL: Technically. It c a n be m a d e duller. 6. 1 Suspend a length of masking tape. white line into the blackor grayness of willow charcoal. SQUARE COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Not often sold. it is compressed and m o l d e d at high pressure. Smooth paper accepts few particles. you can p u r c h a s e m a c h i n e . . without touching the surface. Essentially. It is also easily erased if the maker of the mark is not happy with the result. tape. THIN WILLOW CHARCOAL: I used a piece like this to make the drawing opposite. blacker. cylindrical. LIFTING OUT This technique is a very easy method of drawing a crisp.54). feather. only a little thicker. vine. b l a c k e r . so it chars b l a c k as o p p o s e d to igniting a n d turning to ash. and heavier than willow. leaving u n d e r t r a c e s of first thoughts. CHARCOAL PENCIL: Types made by different manufacturers vary in quality and density of line. Willow is the most c o m m o n wood. a rag.

Use high quality (very sticky) to fix paper to walls and boards. Different tones seen throughout the main drawing on pp.212-13 were made by altering the pressure applied to the charcoal. Use cheaper (less sticky) for lifting out. Layers can be peeled away to refresh its surface. MASKING TAPE: An invaluable resource. or any other dry media. Here. PEN: Any fine pen or pencil can be used to draw on the back of masking tape when lifting out. pastels. T O R T I L L O N : This is a tight roll of paper used to blend charcoal. graphite. I used a plastic eraser effectively on thinly applied charcoal. CHARCOAL Lifting out This detail shows an example of where I used the lifting-out technique demonstrated opposite to draw flashes of lightning against rain clouds. 10. as is fresh (unbuttered!) bread. Lift out broader marks with a larger implement. sold in several widths. 9. .205 ERASING Thickly applied charcoal quickly o v e r c o m e s a plastic eraser A w a r m (soft and tacky) putty eraser is more effective. Cotton swabs also work. Here we used a ballpoint. 8 .

a reel of masking tape. On p p . Landscape drawings are traditionally arranged in three parts: a detailed foreground. hazy distance. the less you describe. an eraser your drawing book or a board and paper fixative (or hairspray). MATERIALS In this first view there is only a foreground and middle distance.212-13). 9 8 . it results in flat planes of clutter. Successful drawings often only suggest the qualities of the scene without overdescribing them. but is often less evocative and engaging. pack your materials (as advised below) and set off for a local view or your nearest arboretum. our brains search for nameable things and will perceive complete pictures from very little information. I relaxed my eyes out of focus to dissolve distracting detail into abstract patches of light and darkness. Don't worry if it is cloudy: clouds add drama and perspective and make good subjects in themselves (see pp. begin by marking out several small squares on your paper. When you arrive. and a cushion in a plastic bag to sit on. To experiment with drawing landscapes and the use of charcoal.206 EARTH AND THE ELEMENTS Landscapes TREES ALONE OFFER MARVELOUS shapes to draw. Then I drew the shape of the tonal patches I perceived. especially when making first excursions into aerial perspective. and an abstract.9 9 we noted that in response to visual stimulus. The long view is hidden behind trees. a less distinct middle ground composed of shapes and textures. It is the visible effect of the atmosphere between where you stand and what you see in the distance. Excessive detail can be admired for its skill and achievement. At its worst. This term simply means that as land rolls away into the distance. to contain each of your compositions. They are also good markers of receding space. Ironically. the more you encourage the viewer's imagination to join in and see. details blur and colors grow paler and bluer. Pack several thick and thin sticks of willow charcoal. Seeing tones .

your view is your inspiration.207 LANDSCAPES In my second square I explored a simple view contrasting soft. I have invented drama with diagonals set against each other I tilted the earth. horizontal regions of grass. the trunk of a bare tree. shadows. full of information you can use to create what you want! Inventing drama . rounded. Exploring the view Redrawing the scene above. This composition turned out a little flat because I have an almost even quantity of earth and sky. It is better to give distinctly more pictorial space to one or the other (see below). dark trees with bright. and broke a view through the hedge into the distance with a dark sky threatening rain. Remember.

"Drawing in the round means to literally walk around your subject. This first drawing serves as a process of arrival. on p p . EARTH AND THE FINDING THE SUBJECT Finding a remarkable subject is even better when you can circumnavigate it in an arena of space. shade out of the glare of the sun. 2 1 4 . your challenge now is to find a sculptural subject in the landscape.104-05). England has embedded within it the decaying skeleton of a burned fishing boat. observing it from several views so as to better understand it as a whole. Building on earlier studies of structure in space using shoes (pp. engine. and tiller still standing proud. which was the flow of water over rocks. Circling a subject and drawing it from several views imprints on your memory a better understanding of its three-dimensional form." . I usually begin by making an image of the whole view. The mud of the tidal shore in Rye.208 ELEMENTS Drawing in the Round WHEN DRAWING IN THE LANDSCAPE. bare ribs. I am then able to home in on what interests me most for further study. making the scene below led me to focus on the decaying boat opposite. and seeing what the real choice of subject is. s e e k places in light After my first drawing.1 5 my first drawing of the whole view of the Tiber led me to see the real subject of the day. For example. so the paper is not made blinding and your hand cannot cast a shadow on your work.164-65) and a wire violin (pp. Similarly. settling my concentration. taking with you your drawing book and pen.

209 SERIES OF STUDIES This stunning ghost o f a boat comes into v i e w t w i c e a day. Overleaf: Decaying Boat 4 . unfussy lines. DRAWING IN THE 1 Here. and structure. its overall balance. character. make a series o f drawings f r o m different positions. marking straight. careful lines to establish the skeleton that gives this wreck its distinct form. ROUND 2 In this tail-end view. I spent equal time looking at the subject and the paper. 3 This impression notes the angle of the broken boat. and the order and shape of its component parts. looking more at the boat than at the paper From this low position I have emphasized how the boat is swallowed in mud by outlining its shadow on the ground. Each n e w drawing gives a different insight. w h e n t h e sea recedes. W h e n you have found your subject. The outline ties a shape of darkness to the boat like a weight so that it becomes part of its form. I looked more boldly at the planes and the dynamic of the sculptural craft My lines have become darker and more forceful as confidence in my understanding of the vessel grew. I drew with quick.



Cloudburst THIS STORM DRAWING. L o o k i n g b a c k and forth from the heavens to firmly taped-down paper.20-21) using a thin stick of willow charcoal. was made with gentle but unhesitating s p e e d . . hot-pressed drawing p a p e r (see pp. m a d e on s m o o t h . I worked quickly to catch and weave the turbulent contrasts of rising wind and approaching water before the drawing could be washed away.


Notes of Force T H E GREAT FLOWING TIBER RIVER has cut through Rome. . since ancient times. pocket-sized notebook. shaping the city. On the pages of a small. focusing on the river's eddies. black. and rhythmic detail as it passed through the ancient gully of the city. I drew with a needle-fine fiber-tip pen. pulse.


Mountains SITTING IN THE SHADE of a tree on the Greek island of Antiparos. The strong diagonal of the composition from bottom left to top right carries the eye through changes of height and focus from the foreground to the mountains beyond. I used a dip pen and waterproof India ink with brushed watercolor to draw the view. .



and it has always been with us. picturing a stabilized world was impossible and Modernism rode forth with vigor. He made thousands of drawings to chronicle his complex life. However. The growing rise of Darwinian ideas coupled with Freudian and Marxist perspectives forced Western society to reconsider its origins and future. opposite. An abstract mark is often a better conductor of a thought or feeling. drawn sound. belief. yet my kinship to abstraction is fundamental. It also underpins and gives strength and unity to all figurative work. Outsider artists. strike the paper to find form. sounds. writer and composer who suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and was resident in the Waldau Aslyum near Berne. First marks. and Aboriginal art. and independent means of communication. fictional language. direction. and poetic myth roar and cascade within his tightly framed pages. and history. spontaneous image-making. Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape 1915 413/8 x 285/8 in (105 x 72. be brave and enjoy them. . Artists were given a different tool—a line threaded directly from their subconscious to their hand—and with it they began to map a bold new landscape of marks and concepts that would dramatically and forever change the face of Western art. it is simply itself. don't be timid. which are essentially abstract. actions. I begin every image by feeling its meaning. Afterward. Many concepts and feelings can only be expressed through marks. poet. writhing torrents of color. or gestures.8 cm) A D O L F WOLFLI Abstraction is a direct. liberating. It was not invented in the 20th century. ADOLF WOLFLI One of the greatest masters of Art Brut.Abstract Lines T HE DEVELOPMENT OF W E S T E R N abstract art at the beginning of the 20th century significantly paralleled major changes in world thought. His drawings are collected and exhibited internationally and held by the Adolf Wolfli Foundation. Swirling. Internal workings of the mind were suddenly free to find a new language of expression. Perhaps in Western culture we bred this intuitive freedom out of ourselves in our insistence on complex figuration. only rediscovered. all pictorial representations are abstractions of reality. It is actually its foundation and its infrastructure. Not everything we know has a physical form in the world. abstraction is not so easy to define. many nonWestern cultures have highly sophisticated abstractions at the core of their art. From one point of view. expressive marks and shapes are at the core of natural. and young children show us that abstract. precisely because it does not have to represent a physical object. My own work is firmly centered in figuration. and emotion. such as Adolf Wolfli. People are often scared by abstraction and see it as the enemy of figurative art. As you approach the classes in this chapter. Indian mandalas. for example. From another viewpoint. Wolfli was a Swiss draftsman. Berne. The fate of Old World thinking was finally sealed with the brutality of World War I. and have been making abstract drawings for centuries—Japanese calligraphy. Museum of Fine Arts.

silence. sit in silent harmony. scrolling across the canvas in an intimate crescendo. MAMORU ABE Japanese sculptor and installation artist. and plaster in galleries and landscapes. Changes paper. and temperature rim of floor space. This the paper rest within the amplifies framelike of the floor from the ceiling. water. and patient watching. Iron rods in tone. Abe works with materials such as soil. texture. and wood are also part of the work. and Assistant Professor of Fine A r t at Fukuoka University. A line can be finished in a second. and sensitivity with its thickness and pressure of touch. Below. and texture their bracing separation reaching between from beneath Pillars of the gallery are made part of this drawing by their inclusion in the paper. staining redbrown lines into the white surface. Mamoru Abe prepares an image that will appear through the chemistry of iron. quoting ink marks on a page. it can keep reforming through the inherent repetition of a process. salt. iron. Five forged steel shapes. A Neolithic chalk tablet bears cut lines that were slowly carved. tone. It can proclaim mood. Abe's physical drawing is a sculptural installation. Damp Japanese paper was laid over carefully arranged iron bars. Moisture produced rust. Sometimes it smolders like a deep shadow. forged steel. as Twombly shows us opposite. rhythmically engaged with itself. or. akin to stones in a Zen garden. He travels widely to research ancient sacred sites. ice. brass.220 A B S T R A C T LINES Process and Harmony SOMETIMES A DRAWN LINE sings on the surface of its support. The Physical Space 1990 3 0 x 30 ft ( 9 1 4 x 9 1 4 cm) MAMORU ABE . Lines. Twombly's mesmeric wax line worked over house paint is like a signature.

evolved a raw. The central pictorial space is also similarly cut and divided by the considered arrangement of straight lines. energetic.England. This example is one of two chalk tablets found in a Late-Neolithic pit. Precise lines suggest the use of a sharp flint The framed rectangle of this image is echoed in that of Abe's installation. At the 2001 Venice Biennale.241). and sensuous drawing from painting. and American Indian petroglyphs (see p.221 ANCIENT CARVINGS Many ancient cultures have made and left behind drawings and texts carved into stones or animal bone. Many of his graffiti-like combine abstract gestures with statements.Twombly was presented with a Golden Lion award for lifetime achievement. and the worship of the sun and ancient gods. theories suggest astrological observations. the Babylonian world map. that challenges the separation of word from image. CY TWOMBLY . Neolithic Chalk Tablet 3. and Untitled 1970 Here we might seek to grasp letters in the turning of his line. Twombly has language works CY TWOMBLY Contemporary American artist who emerged through the 1950s New York art scene in the heyday of Abstract Expressionism and Action Painting. close to Stonehenge in Wiltshire.Thesite's purpose is unknown. PROCESS AND HARMONY Cut lines Chalk carves easily.400BCE 21/4 x 21/4 in (58 x 58 mm) ARTIST UNKNOWN Language Over the course of fifty years. such as the Rosetta stone.000-2. burials. emotive.

abstract artists and composers unique. music manuscript requiring instrumentalists to improvise. and lifted them away to leave impressions of watery planets and seas. pressed them face down. said. A graphic score is a V I C T O R H U G O Hugo's abstract French novelist w h o m a d e m a n y drawings in m i x e d m e d i a ( s e e also p. below. a configuration. have striven to break down old pictorial and musical structures to explore new and unfettered modes of expression. broke new ground in the 1950s with graphic scores now considered among the most extreme. opposite. drawing here can b e described in t e r m s o f a G e r m a n philosophical idea a b o u t is t h e i n s t a n t r e c o g n i t i o n t h e p o w e r o f m o m e n t . o f t e n e x p r e s s e d in v i s u a l t e r m s . Two Impressions Paper 1853-55 VICTOR HUGO Disk from a Cut-Out . and inventive of his time. Bussotti. Gestalt o f an unnameable thing. His drawing writes the time of its own physical process by expressing the extreme concentration of the moment in which it was made. abstract. Marks across the center appear to be made with his fingers. interpret. here he anticipates abstract expressionism by 100 years.28. Hugo. Here he appears t o have saturated the cut-out moon disks with gritty pigment. Similarity in gritty texture suggests that here." An innovator who never fails to surprise.222 ABSTRACT LINES Writing Time SINCE THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY. brushed night skies over them with ink then lifted the disks to reveal white moons. and participate in the composition. too. and let the drying meniscus deposit granules in linear drifts such as we would see in the satellite photographic mapping of rivers. he mixed graphite into ink. Ink impressions When drawing nightscapes Hugo often laid paper disks in place of the moon. Texture Compare this drawing to Hugo's octopus on p. beautiful. Both abstract drawing and composition involve the perfect sequencing of sounds and marks against space and silence. "There is nothing like dream to create the future. o r a pattern o f elements s o unified as a w h o l e t h e y c a n n o t b e e x p l a i n e d asa s u m o f parts. The scores are also exhibited in galleries as visual art. Gestalt.28).

we can feel their rhythm and easily attach sounds to them. 1958 SYLVANO BUSSOTTI . Sound and rhythm This flickering rondo of sound written in pen on a hand-ruled stave can be heard in our imaginations as much as seen. Circular Score for "Due Voci" c. This is a page from Due Voci. Compare this work to that of Libeskind on p. His later works become increasingly abstract. 70 in relation to Bussotti's clustered notes to the left of his rondo and open space to the right.223 W R I T I N G TIME SYLVANO BUSSOTTI Italian avant-garde composer and principal 20thcentury exponent of the graphic score. Bussotti's first mature work. a far cry from any recognized musical notation. Following the notes.

and c i r c u m s t a n c e s . for e x a m p l e . Cell Floor With Torn Strips of Cloth 1894 MARIE LIEB . making objects and images outside o f mainstream culture. cultures. It will protect the place from evil and make a pleasing invitation to good spirits. Germany. Cloth is the simple instrument with which she has conducted and ordered her universe. it is found in the regularity o f ordered lines or a pattern. O p p o s i t e . social outcasts. MARIE LIEB Little is known of this w o m a n for w h o m the act of drawing was essential. In music it can be felt in the diversity of plainsong and African d r u m m i n g . She tore c l o t h into strips a n d used these to draw patterns a n d symbols o n h e r cell floor. Lieb is one o f countless thousands of "Outsider" artists—diverse individuals including ordinary citizens. centuries.228-29) has been adjusted with each movement of the rags to draw a cosmos of balance and perfection.224 A B S T R A C T LINES Chants and Prayers WHEN ABSTRACT LINES are organized in repetition. d i p p i n g h e r fingers into a pot o f rice flour. Compositional rightness (see pp. they m a k e a visual a n d physical e c h o that t o u c h e s s o m e deep part of the human spirit. In the late 1 9 t h century. This takes a form in most cultures. Torn cloth This is one of two published photographs showing Marie Leib's torn cloth strips significantly placed on her cell floor. T h e s e p h o t o g r a p h s d o c u m e n t the meditative drawings o f two w o m e n living worlds apart in different countries. Marie Lieb w a s a psychiatric patient in the Heidelberg Asylum. an a n o n y m o u s w o m a n in the southeast Indian state o f Tamil Nadu m a k e s a ritual drawing o n the b r i c k courtyard o f h e r h o m e . Visually. and sufferers of psychiatric illnesses—who have always existed.

Theseare widely published in journals and are the subjects of international exhibitions.225 STEPHEN P. Materials such as rice flour. Designs and motifs Rangoii (or mandalas) are ritual drawings made by many millions of women across rural India. and birds. at the University of London and Ohio State University. Motifs are geometrical or based on plants. lime.000 images. Painted Prayers UNDATED STEPHEN R HUYLER . Huyler is the author of Painted Prayers. and for over 30 years has traveled extensively through the Indian subcontinent creating an edited archive of 200. Popular magazines feature new ideas each week and on special occasions there may be contests. Skills are handed down through generations and from friend to friend. or flowers are marked or arranged on the ground or on the walls of homes. and in places of worship and celebration. cultural anthropologist. chalk. women pride themselves on never repeating a design.HUYLER Photographer art historian. lecturer on the subjects of Indian art and Indian women's identity. among others. animals. In daily practice.

Oval moons eclipse each other and oscillate between landforms and portraiture. and choice of hues. Klee's mathematical maze of thinly washed surface resonates with meticulous planning. gold paint and iridescent gouache mixed with water. With no depth of field.226 ABSTRACT LINES Compositions ABSTRACT DRAWINGS ARE LARGELY or entirely free from using the viewer's eye to track and unfold layers of meaning. They each find their pathways and equilibrium in atmosphere and suggestion. Their energy can therefore be a purer expression of an idea or emotion. figurative representation—that is. Catling's abstract drawings are usually made in series and in parallel to written poetry and sculptural installations. and water-resistant layers of spray and enamel paint on thick paper. structure. BRIAN CATLING British sculptor poet. These two works present complex compositions with differing intensions and methods of making. Catling's torn paper shapes and shadows spill light out of their frame like a fractured mirror. Ruskin School. rocks or heads in a subdued atmosphere of dream. and Fellow of Linacre College. filmmaker Professor of Fine Art. Mixed media This is a collage of torn white and gray tissue paper previously stained with ink. Catling's works made for international galleries and museums involve drawing as a tool in their development and making. it is ruled and contained in one dimension by its interlocking ink-lined borders. but similarities in mood. performance and installation artist. Untitled 2001 2001 153/4x 215/8 in ( 4 0 0 x 550 mm) BRIAN C A T L I N G . free from the direct imaging of known physical things. Oxford.

227 PAUL K L E E Swiss painter and sculptor (see also p.31). Geometric harmony This is a work on paper made with a sharp ink pen. watercolor. and brush. Polyphon Gefasstes Weiss (White Framed Polyphonically) 1930 131/8x95/8 in (333 x 245 mm) Paul-Klee-Stiftung. and might be read as active or passive. Klee painted.97-99. Line and surface Klee observed the visual capacity of lines to push or pull within an image. whereas tonal surfaces are perceived more immediately as a whole. Kunstmuseum Bern PAUL KLEE . He explained his polyphonic painting as "a harmony of several color voices" searching for a visual parallel to music. It is a geometric harmony of straight lines and tonally graded flat colors that by their arrangement draw our eyes inward to their white center. drew. We can see some diagrammatic examples of this among the optical illusions on pp. and wrote copiously about the natures and relationships of color and form. ruler. Klee also felt that a line represents the passing of time. philosophized.

It is found in all great art and design. and an apple. w i l l c h a n g e w i t h e v e r y r e a r r a n g e m e n t . regardless of style. a glass. or home. and put them o n a tray. but an easy o n e to u n d e r s t a n d . they reach a perfect position. and ten straight sticks painted black. M a n y of their inter-relationships will be meaningless. "Whenall pictorial elements come together in pleasing and perfect balance. "I have experimented endlessly with this idea. for instance. W h e n m o v i n g objects around in your yard. angles. culture. there is a clear feeling when. s o m e will be more or less h a r m o n i o u s . Set up a sheet of paper with a rectangle drawn on it. or on a page. or degree of figuration. This balance is what every artist and designer searches a n d feels for when making an image.Thisexercise will help you start. Seek it when looking at other artists' work and in your everyday environment. the impression y o u receive from t h e m . their impact." . they are just. and elements settle in definitive balance. As y o u m o v e them around. after being continuously adjusted. In his b o o k The Education of a Gardener." SETTING UP Justness can be harmonious or deliberately discordant. It is also found in nature.228 ABSTRACT LINES Being "Just" A SENSE OF "JUST" (or rightness) is a difficult concept to explain. b u t e v e r y n o w a n d again you will hit on an arrangement w h i c h appears just. Feel for it when youdraw. media. a b u n c h of keys. Take. There is a single m o m e n t w h e n all proportions. the late garden designer Russell Page explains.

Arrange them so they touch or cross in a series of intersecting balances. A stick touching the rectangle links the composition to the frame. W h e n the composition falls into place. Remember the drawn rectangle is a part of the composition (see pp. making the composition seem to float beneath. Feel for the rightness of their grouping and their relationships to surrounding spaces. which now becomes a tight frame. 2 3 In the step above. Here. suggesting a horizon. . In the final step (left) there is an even balance." Move the sticks to find alignments and imagined perspectives. horizontals dominate the top. B E I N G "JUST" 1 Arrange your ten sticks in t w o groups of five. horizontals dominate the lower area. fix it with glue.56-57). as shown here. Within a rectangle on a flat sheet of paper set about making a composition using no other rule than a sense of "just.229 WHERE TO START Take ten sticks of equal length. Move the sticks out into the rectangle. painted black.

scissors." (Russell Page) .230 ABSTRACT LINES Collage H E R E W E EXPERIMENT with collage. and black ink.69 and Abe's installation on p.Youwill also need spare white paper. stain and dry a sheet of tissue paper using blueink. Once the ten painted black sticks are set and glued in place.220. Collage offers the artist a liberating palette of SETTING UP This lesson in collage is a direct continuation of the compositional lines made in the previous class.. colors. Returning to Russell Page. or discordance. found or made items. ready-made depths and surfaces. they become a scaffold for the addition of further textures. an infinite range of voices and meaning." overlapping placement of materials on a flat plane. which is the shifting. or even strident. Cut or torn layers and shapes. Images and fragments torn from day-to-day life can be brought together to make a chorus of ideas and emotions. hard or soft. you start composing by adding or subtracting shapes and textures and using colors and tones to achieve the impression you want to m a k e — w h e t h e r dramatic or s u b d u e d . This principal also applies to three-dimensional drawings such as Gaudi's work with wire and weights on p. glue.228-29). "My understanding is that every object [or shape] emanates—sends out vibrations beyond its physical body which are specific to itself.. To prepare for this lesson. harmonious. a compass. colors and textures can be manipulated until their pictorial harmony. he went on to say ". and tones. feels "just" (see pp. correction fluid or white paint.

then cut out. four circles of blue tissue paper.228) in front of you. correction fluid and ink marks add further dimensions. and with a compass and scissors. Obscuring the blue disks. they deepen pictorial space. In the last step (left). and shadow to thepicture. 2 3 Torn white paper moved over the surface adds masks of rough-edged irregular volume. solidity. COLLAGE 1 Regular-sized pieces of white paper are moved over the surface to disrupt the even lines. Cut six small rectangles the same proportion as your whole image.231 WHAT TO DO Lay the final step of the previous lesson (p.The single disk that is folded with its straight edge facing up appears heavier than those that are flat. This can also give a sense of fragmentation or punctuation to the composition. draw. . Glue them in place once they feel "just" Translucent circular disks of tissue paper give color tone.


" [Tanchu Terayama. Zen Brushwork].Zen Calligraphy HITSUZENDO. emotion. . is the practice of Zen through the calligraphic marks of a brush dipped in carbon ink. and expectation. A MODERN JAPANESE meditative art form inspired by the teachings of Yamaoka Tesshu (1836-1888). Hitsuzendo drawings aspire to "breathe with the energy and vitality of eternal life" achieved through "a state of no mind—beyond thought.

These vibrate against washes of shadow and pitch-black mass. Lines made with a steel dip pen take on a scratchy nervousness. I flicked spatters of ink and rubbed the paper with a wet and a dry brush to achieve these effects.Nocturnes IN THIS QUARTET of semi-abstract drawings made with India ink. . discord is balanced against rhythm to create mood.





Depictions of God or of gods in the contexts of daily life. all of which originated as hundreds of drawings. Perhaps the Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 1485 121/4 x 9 in (312 x 230 mm) MARTIN SCHONGAUER most important conclusion in this final chapter is to advise you to develop your skills in parallel with the joy of your unfolding imagination. scales. which were widely distributed and influential in his time. a human-animal mix that implies this could MARTIN SCHONGAUER German painter and engraver who settled to work in Colmar Alsace. wings. For example. sculptures. a collaboration between the two will ensure that your drawings glow with originality. in the cracks of walls. . To learn to flex your imagination. Reading the place name I momentarily glimpsed an alternative meaning. Humans are equally troubled by the imperceptibly small and the enormous. impossible. Be inspired by the irrational comedy of word association or puns. We watch with captivated pleasure movies such as The Fly. movie studios now brim with as many monsters as the visual art of the Medieval and Renaissance Church. paradise. our literate and more secular Western society still hungers for another world and to ravenously indulge its fascination for the marvelous. our eye circulates around a flutter of leather and scaly wings. Lord of the Rings. Images we are now surrounded by bear testimony to the power and resourcefulness of their collective imagination. We love our fear of the hybrid—ideally. or in smoke. The salvation of heaven and terrors of hell are represented equally—enough to make any sinner shudder.247. and deep fur—and we alter their scale. Neither should be slave or master. We then add substances we dislike: unidentified fluids. Fantasy is most successful when founded on strong and familiar visual logic. we select details of animals farthest from ourselves and that are widely thought disturbing—reptilian and insect features. I was on a train passing through Nuneaton. thousands of paintings. England.Gods and Monsters OUR SACRED AND SECULAR need to visualize demons. which is to have eaten a nun—it inspired the drawing on p. When creating monsters. for example. aliens. Monsters take advantage of both. Star Wars. look for images in the folds of clothing. angels. Feeding this demand. and the Alien trilogy. Schongauer is best known for his prints. happen to us. feathers. beasts. or strange. Here. and stained-glass windows deliver powerful visual sermons to the once-illiterate populace. In the Christian churches of Europe. Throughout this book images are presented to excite and surprise and drawing classes created to increase your confidence. Today. serpentine tails. and damnation are found in most world faiths. and the faces of God have for centuries given artists a feast for the extremes of their imagination. a Catherine wheel of drawn sparks spiraling around the quietly resolute saint.

portraits. a Shoshone seeking guidance and power meditates at the sacred site of a petroglyph. his lover a dog. Los Caprichos. noisy seascape on p. Paul Thomas's studies of Picasso and Twombly can be traced directly.220. vanity. The high. Violent white marks symbolizing Achilles' rage resonate with the energy of Twombly's script on p. hags. to Picasso's similarly tight. The title "And So Was His Grandfather" adds that should we not already know. F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A Spanish court painter printmaker and draftsman.240 GODS AND M O N S T E R S Marks of Influence marking the influence of one artist upon another. Goya's plainly textured gray background pushes back the space behind the illuminated simply subject. barren land rising like MYRIAD CHAINS RUN THROUGH ART HISTORY. Saturn devouring his son. This act defines the vision and continues the line of spirit guides.30. below. crammed tightly at his desk. it allows the mule to stand forward. Francisco de Goya was a master of borrowing. The well-dressed mule is cumbersome. and church murals. a wave to join Achilles' chase of Hector. Visions experienced in front of the drawing sometimes instruct the making of a new one. Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 1799 81/2 x 6 in (218 x 154 mm) FRANCISCO DE GOYA . whose impassioned work begins with light tapestry cartoons. Opposite. Many students leave white backgrounds in their work. He would be graceless if he stood. Opposite below. plain wall suggests a blinkered view of nothing. In this ass. and follies of court through copious graphic works including his best-known prints. we see the international icon of stupidity. and exposed the superstitions. Aquatint Goya has drawn a learned man as an ass. reading from a book of asses. and men clubbing each other to death. Near the end of his life he made his "Black Paintings" on the walls of his home. Pictorially. Goya later recorded the horrors of Napoleonic occupation. This continuity enriches the making of art and our heritage. quoting great paintings and popular culture to add cunning twists to his satires. which can swamp the subject Here. Compare his dark. They depict as if by lamplight the devil and witches. rushing. such asinine behavior can be hereditary. In this softer aquatint he poses for his portrait Textured background The aquatint process has been used to great effect in making a gritty toned background. Other drawn versions of this image are more savage and frightening. deranged masses.

Parallel lines within the body of the figure are likely to denote power. Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range UNDATED ARTIST UNKNOWN . or of the water Chipped image This is a sacred creature of the sky chipped onto rock at Dinwoody Lake. by a supplicant in a trance of meditation." Each sacred image drawn into rock belongs to one of three realms in the Shoshone world: the realm of the sky. It was made with a sharp implement. of the earth. Thomas conducts his explorations in the mine of Greek and Roman mythology. White marks like flashes of light are cut though graphite with an eraser to reveal the paper beneath. and personal and social struggles. Wyoming. A vivid spectrum of energized graphite marks and a masterly composition give this drawing vitality and speed. Wind River Reservation. Simple wall stones cleverly state their cold solidity while also fading from our attention as the scene roars by. values. Achilles Chases Hector 1996 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) PAUL THOMAS SHOSHONE PETROGLYPH The Shoshone people of Wyoming name petroglyph sites Poha Kahni. Graphite marks Here Achilles chases Hector around the walls of Troy before killing him.241 MARKS OF INFLUENCE PAUL T H O M A S British contemporary artist whose epic graphic work questions and reflects upon issues of European identity. meaning "place of power. perhaps a stone. ideals.

If it were to turn and stare this way. They float toward us like a horrid visitation. GODS AND Erasure In this charcoal drawing. Redon's eyeball balloon rises up. which sometimes—half-dressed and carrying a familiar trophy— stride. crawl. as he did the grass. the shock would be extreme. Redon explored the darker side of the human imagination through symbols and mysticism. to the right of the balloon. The Eye Like a Strange Mounts Balloon 165/8 x131/8in (422 x 332 mm) ODILON REDON 1882 Toward Infinity . Lifting out Fine strings of the hot-air balloon appear dark against the sky and light against the balloon. the writers Joris-Karl Huysmans and Stephane Mallarme.and 16th-century Holland. Compare worked textures throughout the whole of this image to those found throughout Anita Taylor's charcoal drawing on p. Our subconscious can be drawn with pleasure and ease. lifting its cranial passenger over a seascape of repose. We may feel safe so long as the eye looks heavenward. Here we see how he evolved their injuries into new limbs and warped proportions. below left. and scuttle over all known reality. ODILON REDON French painter draftsman. 115. and writer In contrast t o the light and visual accent of contemporary Impressionism. The monsters of Bosch grew from his observations of beggars going about their trade in 15th.242 MONSTERS of the unknown is a classical and constant occupation for the artist. we see parallel slanting pale marks that might have been made with fresh bread—a very effective eraser used before the wide availability of rubber or plastic. H e was influenced by his friends. T H E EXPLORATION AND DEPICTION Hauntings Grandville has drawn a scurrying zoo of half-known demons and animals that appear to have been stolen from the glass eye of the microscope. Redon lifted them out with some sort of eraser. Children are also delighted to invent a monster or ghoul.204-05 will enable you to produce a similar effect of white lines shining out of dark charcoal. Techniques demonstrated on pp. graphic artist.

Last Judgment. sucker-faced creatures dash and trundle toward it They are drawn solidly to emphasize their earthbound weight. Garden of Earthly Delights. Smiling. This image is from one of Grandville's best-known publications. Comic little headbands of waving hair express more hysteria than fear. Light shines from the right. 1840 61/8 x41/2in ( 1 5 5 x 1 1 5 mm) GRANDVILLE HIERONYMUS BOSCH Dutch painter Bosch's highly detailed iconographic religious panel paintings. grimacing. Les Animaux (1840). Two Monsters UNDATED 45/8 x61/2in (117 x 163 mm) HIERONYMUS BOSCH .243 J E A N I G N A C E ISIDORE GERARD ("GRANDVILLE") French graphic artist and political satirist. A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects c. which is still available today. Most of his work is in the Prado Museum. include The Haywain. Madrid. HAUNTINGS Engraving This is an engraving made so that Grandville's original drawing could be reproduced. Quill and ink This typical Bosch monster is a quill drawing in bistre ink The phrasing of light and contour here is masterly. His other major works include Metamorphoses du Jour (1828). teeming with the exhilaration of unrestrained fantasy. and he illustrated the Fables of La Fontaine and Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe. The quality of the line is therefore uniform throughout. and Ship of Fools.

A snake eating its own tail is a universal image of the eternal and continuous. pinnacled. the dome of the Vatican. and mist-swathed land. poet. Michelangelo's dragon. sometimes artists purposefully tie a knot in the configuration to disturb. and dog. below. Grimes found the genesis of her beast not among animals. hatched lines. and engineer Among Michelangelo's great works are the painted ceiling and altar wall of the Sistine Chapel. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI Florentine painter sculptor. Grimes' delicately cavorting figures dive into and consume each other. snake. and marble sculptures including Pieto. wraps and coils its lithe body ready to strike or whimper at a touch. and dying slaves. Dragon 1522 10 x 133/8 in ( 2 5 4 x 3 3 8 m m ) MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI . David. In her studio. St Peter's square. lion. but in the seductive landscape of Leonardo da Vinci's oil painting Madonna of the Rocks. muscular tension is carved out of the paper using layered. and play with its perfection and meaning. Two previously drawn faces become humorous antagonists to the beast. topple. They share between them the pleasures of inventing a hybrid beast.244 GODS AND MONSTERS Convolutions THESE CONVOLUTED DRAWINGS were made almost 5 0 0 years apart. However. Chalk and ink A quill dipped in brown ink was worked over black chalk on this reused sheet. His entire drawing wrestles and weaves the viewer's eye into its retracting folds. Opposite. as we might expect. Scaly. gamboling copulations. architect. she formed a series of ghostly pale. remembering the cavernous. phrased over the contours of form and bridging darker areas of shadow. a stunning hybrid of a swan.

245 CONVOLUTIONS O O N A GRIMES British contemporary artist and professor of printmaking at the Ruskin School. The image formed directly without first making a pencil outline. Oxford. It is one of a series of fragile earth figures inspired by rocks. How Clever of God #84 2002 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) O O N A GRIMES . and the Camberwell and Slade Schools of Fine Art. The large space around figure has been cropped Grimes drawings to flatten presses them. London. boards finished paper. her under heavy here. London. Grimes exhibits internationally and features in the collections of the New York Public Library and the Victoria and Albert Museum. Ink-wash delicately gouache (smooth) and gouache brushed drawing on This is a and was hot-pressed Shadows The dark shadow of the Other the ink-wash earth was made with a brushstroke of ink laid into wet paper. details evolved slowly using a drier brush. each one iridescent and crumbly like a weathered while oyster.

It has exceptional painting characteristics. flowing. The brushes shown here are a mixture of This is a selection of riggers.Theyhold plenty of ink and make continuous. 12. Suitable for wash techniques but also capable of very fine detail. with a fine point for delicate work 4. 10. and writers. M T RA S AEIL . It is capable of very fine pointing. 1. ideally suited to drawing. Some are bold. materials. the very opposite of pencil or silver point. and never leave them standing on their tip in a jar of water.246 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brushes T H E BRUSH IS A VOLUPTUOUS and delicate weights. SYNTHETIC-HAIR S W O R D LINER: A lining brush with high ink-holding capacity and a fine point. It is still relatively small in the total range of Japanese brushes. SYNTHETIC-HAIR LINER: This brush gives a medium line and is firm with a spring to the touch. 13. and wrist into a fluid and soft touch. liners. S Y N T H E T I C . giving a variety of lines. and effects. 7. The living marks of a wet. between them. dense. washes. Shorter brushes designed for other purposes run out of ink more quickly. Always clean them thoroughly. 2. this brush has a soft drawing tip and small ink-holding capacity. 3. it has good inkholding capacity and is very flexible. needle-sharp center of kolinsky red sable hair. and hold prodigious weights of ink or paint. making rt ideally suited to Japanese painting and small-scale calligraphy. SYNTHETIC-HAIR BRUSH: Bound in a synthetic ferrule with good inkholding capacity and good spring and control. Slightly less flexible than the squirrel-hair sword liner 9. and very fine lines. How you care for your brushes will determine how long they last. SABLE-HAIR LINER: Made with ordinary sable hair surrounding an extralong.H A I R RIGGER: Made with long synthetic hair for fine-point work It has a good ink-holding capacity and is slightly more resilient than sable hair with more "snap. This design supplies the fine tip with a long continuity of ink 5. This brush has a broad wash capability and can achieve a very wide range of marks. JAPANESE PAINTING BRUSH: Made with natural hair. it has good wash capabilities. SQUIRREL-HAIR S W O R D LINER:This brush has a maximum ink-holding capacity and an extremely fine and flexible point 8. and has a fine tip for detailed work. SABLE-HAIR RIGGER: Made with very long kolinsky sable hairs. ink-laden tip allow an expression that is beyond the linear. L A R G E R S Y N T H E T I C . others are as fine as a whisker with a gentle touch. Soaps purchased from good art supply stores will gently cleanse particles of pigment that become trapped in the hairs or ferrule. shape.H A I R LINER: Very responsive oriental-style liner This to the touch. POINTED SQUIRREL-HAIR MOP: With a synthetic quill ferrule and extra high inkholding capacity." 6. P O I N T E D T R A D I T I O N A L WRITER: The ferrule is made from a small duck quill. drawing tool extending the arm. thicknesses. SMALL JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with sable hair. LARGER JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with natural hair held in a plastic ferrule on a bamboo handle. and texture. Brushes vary in size. fingers. all perfect for drawing and. Some used by master calligraphers are 2-3 in (5-8 cm) in diameter 11. return them to their pointed shape. which holds long sable hair This brush holds large amounts of ink for long lines and points well for detailed work.


A single brush has almost balletic potential to draw fine or undulating lines and curves. unglazed earthenware dish. and type of its hairs. the speed of the s t r o k e . and above all w h e t h e r the b r u s h is saturated with pigment or relatively dry. the texture and a b s o r b e n c y of the paper ( w h i c h m a y be d a m p or dry).) I .35) into two tablespoons of water in a shallow. splashes. length.248 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brush Marks A S I N G L E BRUSH will m a k e an e n o r m o u s range of m a r k s depending u p o n the width. the degree of pressure applied. It also depends on the angle at w h i c h it is held.246-47). I had left the end of the ink block in the water overnight to make it easier to dissolve. I rubbed a block of Chinese ink (see p. b l o w i n g h a r d o n t h e m several t i m e s t o disperse t h e ink ( c l o s e y o u r eyes if y o u t r y this. Here I drew with a soft Japanese painting brush (see pp. SETTING UP Blowing spots T h e s e t h r e e s p i d e r y c r e a t u r e s (above right and below) w e r e m a d e by d r o p p i n g s p o t s o f ink f r o m a b r u s h o n t o t h e p a g e and. and spatters. and to make pools and stains o n the page. softness. w i t h m y face close.

a n d b r u s h . BRUSH MARKS Wet and dry strokes A m o n g these concentrated drawings ink made into with the same w a t e r y lines. t h e effects of the b r u s h r u n n i n g o u t o f ink. .249 Gritty texture T h e details o f t h e largest creatures b e l o w and opposite s h o w the granular texture of Chinese b l o c k ink. a n d t h e w a y it d i s t r i b u t e s w h e n t h e b r u s h is d a b b e d o n its s i d e . b l e e d i n g f r o m strokes b e l o w left. w e see fine lines and s p o t s .

. I borrowed small and fragile specimens from the University Museum of Natural History.Monsters THESE LITTLE CREATURES o f i n k and i n v e n t i o n were b o r n out of animal and bird studies. Oxford. until we look again. and used their detail to draw new creatures that might at first seem familiar.


thin works made by Bartolome Murillo in Seville about 120 years earlier. Through studying and drawing these great paintings I have discovered that they are based on a pair of similarly long. They are a pair and hang opposite each other. thin works titled The Witches' Sabbath and The Procession of St. formal composition. showing us that gallery study is not just for the student and beginner. I found relationships between all four paintings in terms of shapes.Goya's Monsters W I T H CUNNING BRILLIANCE. Here. . Goya often invented his monsters out of characters seen in other painters' works. Isidore. Among his "Black Paintings" in the Prado Museum. are two long. With further research. Madrid. and narrative twists. two of my own drawings show you how Goya's devil (below) is based on the shape of Murillo's boy on a horse (top right). Goya's witches have been literally drawn and evolved out of the shapes of Murillo's prophet and pilgrims.


Sometimes drawings come out of nowhere and surprise even the artist.Consumed THIS IS A SERIES OF CARTOONS I m a d e s o m e years ago. . little comments on politeness and sexual politics. drawn rapidly and with great joy.


S o m e t i m e s f e r r u l e s a r e m a d e o f plastic o r o t h e r materials.m a d e paper. F r o m t h e G r e e k kallos. Binder A substance t h a t holds particles o f p i g m e n t t o g e t h e r in a paint f o r m u l a t i o n . Composition T h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e p a r t s o f an i m a g e t o m a k e u p the whole. usually at a n a c u t e angle t o t h e s u r f a c e . r a t h e r t h a n r e c o r d e d o n a film o r plate.c e n t u r y painting m o v e m e n t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e use o f b o l d .c e n t u r y Italian t e r m m e a n i n g "clear-obscure. Eye level T h e i m a g i n a r y h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e a t t h e s a m e h e i g h t as t h e a v e r a g e p e r s o n ' s eyes.The plate is t h e n r o l l e d w i t h ink a n d polished with a rag. A g e n e r a l t e r m t h a t describes t h e various processes o f c u t t i n g a design i n t o a plate o r b l o c k o f m e t a l o r w o o d . a n d attaches t h e m t o t h e s u p p o r t — f o r example. F r o m t h e French v e r b coller. pastel. as o p p o s e d t o t h e s t r a i g h t e d g e o f a sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has b e e n machine-trimmed. Contre jour A F r e n c h t e r m m e a n i n g " a g a i n s t day. Aerial perspective The effect of the a t m o s p h e r e o v e r distance as it lightens t o n e s a n d cools c o l o r s progressively t o w a r d t h e horizon. Blotting T h e use o f a b s o r b e n t m a t e r i a l t o lift a w a y excess liquid. a n d g r a p h i t e . Collage C o l l e c t e d materials such as c o l o r e d p a p e r s ." " N o t " p r e s s e d p a p e r is r o l l e d a s e c o n d t i m e w i t h o u t blankets t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders t o p r o d u c e a s m o o t h e r b u t still slightly t e x t u r e d s u r f a c e . In t h e W e s t p e n calligraphy is u s e d t o c r e a t e f o r m a l a n d d e c o r a t i v e t e x t s . T h e b l a n k e t s g i v e t h e p a p e r its rough texture o r "tooth. Fauvism A n early 2 0 t h . It can also seal a silver p o i n t d r a w i n g t o p r e v e n t t h e oxidization (browning) o f t h e Drypoint A d r a w i n g is s c r a t c h e d directly o n t o a m e t a l plate w i t h a m e t a l t o o l h e l d like apen.256 GLOSSARY Glossary Accidental drawing Random. Ferrule T h e s h o r t m e t a l t u b e t h a t s u r r o u n d s a n d g n p s t h e hairs o f a p a i n t b r u s h a n d fixes t h e m t o t h e brush handle. o r o t h e r (usually large) w o r k — s e e Pouncing. A l s o c a l l e d t h e h o r i z o n line.s i z e d r a w i n g m a d e for t h e purpose o f transferring a design t o a painting. 2. R o u g h p a p e r is m a d e b e t w e e n t w o blankets t h a t . so t h a t ink r e m a i n s o n l y in t h e g r o o v e s o f s c r a t c h e d lines. Crosshatching Parallel lines d r a w n across o n e a n o t h e r at right angles. n e w s p a p e r cuttings. A p o t e n t i a l l y h a r s h m e t h o d o f p r o d u c i n g t o n e s in a d r a w i n g . o r will o n l y a p p e a r n o r m a l . p h o t o g r a p h s . Acid-free paper P a p e r w i t h a neutral p H t h a t will n o t darken o r d e t e r i o r a t e excessively w i t h age. in w h i c h t h e subject's distinctive features o r peculiarities are deliberately exaggerated f o r c o m i c o r g r o t e s q u e effect. Cartoon 1. Field In a t w o . Deckle edge T h e i r r e g u l a r e d g e o f a s h e e t o f m o l d . T h e name " n o t " simply refers t o t h e fact t h a t t h e cylinders are n o t h o t in t e m p e r a t u r e . and readymade objects arranged and stuck o n t o a flat surface. C o p p e r p l a t e engravings w e r e widely used t o r e p r o d u c e images b e f o r e p h o t o g r a p h y . linseed oil o r egg y o l k Caricature A representation Contour line A line t h a t f o l l o w s t h e s h a p e o f a surface. p r a c t i c e d meditatively w i t h a brush. Blending M e r g i n g t w o o r m o r e neighboring colors o r tones t o g e t h e r using a tortillon. s u c h as a s c r e e n . A l s o called m u s e u m g r a d e . A f u l l . chance mark-making. Chiaroscuro A 1 7 t h . o f t e n d i s t o r t e d forms and vivid colors. D a m p p a p e r is laid o n t o p . L a t e r it c a m e t o m e a n h i g h l y c o n t r a s t e d light effects. s u c h as a d r a w i n g o r painting. in w h i c h parts o f an image are depicted v e r y brightly and dramatically against d a r k n e s s . See also Hotpressed papers. Fixative Liquid acrylic resin a n d l a c q u e r t h i n n e r usually a p p l i e d as a n a e r o s o l s p r a y m i s t t o t h e surface o f a d r y . Also called accelerated perspective. written with a broad-nibbed pen o r brush. Camera obscura A d a r k e n e d c h a m b e r i n t o w h i c h an i m a g e o f w h a t is o u t s i d e is received t h r o u g h a small o p e n i n g o r lens a n d f o c u s e d in natural c o l o r o n a facing surface. a r e r o l l e d t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders. w h e n v i e w e d f r o m a specified point. a n d given t h e n a m e Sho. Anamorphic distortion Stretching an i m a g e across a p i c t u r e surface so t h a t it can o n l y b e u n d e r s t o o d . R e m b r a n d t is a great master o f chiaroscuro. Bracelet shading C u r v e d parallel lines t h a t f o l l o w t h e c o n t o u r s o f f o r m . A h u m o r o u s d r a w i n g o r parody. for example. t h e l i g h t is b e h i n d h i m o r her. m e a n i n g "beauty". A l s o called r i n g l e t shading. p r i n t i n g press face up. It is p u t o n a Body color See Gouache. 2. Erasure T h e a c t o f r e m o v i n g a n i m a g e f r o m a surface. U s e d as a c o r r e c t i n g device o r pictorial game. pressurized t o o l used f o r spraying fine mists o f s m o o t h c o l o r P i g m e n t is d e l i v e r e d b y a j e t o f air n o t t h e bristles o f a brush. t h e field is t h e a p p a r e n t a n d b e l i e v a b l e space inside t h e p i c t u r e ." It w a s first given t o t o n a l paintings m a d e in o n e c o l o r — s e e Grisaille. Air brush A mechanical. A i r b r u s h e s are u s e d in t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c o m i c s . Conservation grade D e s c r i b e s a range o f materials t h a t d o n o t d e c a y and cannot be broken d o w n by insects. t o g e t h e r w i t h a t h i c k felt b l a n k e t T h e w h o l e s a n d w i c h o f l a y e r s is t h e n railed t h r o u g h t h e press t o m a k e a p r i n t D r y p o i n t is a very portable and immediate m e t h o d o f printmaking. Engraving 1. m e a n i n g " t o stick" Dry media M e d i a t h a t a r e n o t w e t o r o i l y — f o r e x a m p l e . W o r d s o r symbols are Cold-pressed papers P a p e r manufactured with a "not" o r " r o u g h " surface.m e d i a d r a w i n g ." D e s c r i b e s a p a i n t i n g in w h i c h t h e light s o u r c e is b e h i n d t h e s u b j e c t F o r e x a m p l e . w h e n a p e r s o n is p a i n t e d standing a g a i n s t a w i n d o w . Fixative lightly glues t h e d r a w i n g t o t h e surface o f t h e p a p e r t o p r e v e n t smudging. T h e prints t a k e n from t h e s e plates o r blocks. tapestry. Camera lucida A n optical device t h a t p r o j e c t s an image o f an o b j e c t o n t o a plain s u r f a c e so t h a t it can be traced. Bleed T h e e f f e c t o f t w o w e t colors running into one another o r o n e color applied t o a w e t surface a n d a l l o w e d t o d i s p e r s e . charcoal.d i m e n s i o n a l i m a g e . T h e m o v e m e n t was started by a g r o u p o f French artists including H e n r i Matisse. In t h e Far East calligraphy is a highly r e s p e c t e d a r t f o r m . Calligraphy Beautiful h a n d w r i t i n g . A " s h a l l o w d e p t h o f field" m e a n s t h e p i c t u r e appears t o have only a shallow s p a c e inside i t Diffuse T o s o f t e n o r m a k e less brilliant.

The degree to which detail is defined. A small image might be described as small format Horizontal images are often said to be "landscape format" (abbreviated G u m arabic The natural to"landscape"). and gray drawing. Pointillism A technique of using points or dots of pure color in such a way that when the picture is viewed from a distance they react Masking tape Invaluable. to give the illusion of depth and distance. or a family of colors. or plastic surface. but in picture-making it is as important as the objects/subjects themselves. Fugitive A term given to a pigment that it is not stable. graphite. or spirit-based) is applied to a surface that is then pressed onto paper and removed to leave a print. F o r m The outer surface of a three-dimensional object. Gamut A complete range or extent Glassine A type of thin. with the area beneath remaining unaffected. shape. Hairspray is an effective and inexpensive alternative. ink. Picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. Also refers to an additive used to control the application properties of a color Golden Section A proportion in which a straight line or rectangle is divided into two unequal parts in such a way that the ratio of the smaller part to the greater part is the same as that of the greater part to the whole. The surface can be reloaded or redrawn with more medium. Artists can paint freely over dry masking fluid. Impressing Stamping or printing. lifting out charcoal and other dry media. or can be otherwise used to create an image—for example. Plumb line A line from which a weight is suspended in order to determine verticality or depth. and it has a history in enamel work. Hatching (cross-) See Crosshatching. 2. Grisaille is occasionally seen in church stained-glass windows. format" (abbreviated to "portrait"). enabling them to stick to paper It also helps to maintain a stable dispersion of pigment particles in water as the film of a wash dries. the finely ground particles of plant. and translucent paper—a delicate material used in collage. which has a rough surface). oil-based printing ink is rolled evenly onto a smooth metal. white. It is then peeled away. are painted in grisaille and appear to be made of stone. or for wrapping and protecting a finished piece of work. . Masking fluid Clear or opaque latex fluid developed for watercolor painting. then rubbed over carefully but vigorously with a crayon. A point of interest in a drawing. Focus 1 . rock. including Max Ernst used frottage in their work. Padua. and is also used as a size. oil-. of the ingredients in inks and watercolors. sticky paper tape. Dark tones are laid down first then an eraser or masking tape is used to lift away particles of the drawing media to reveal the lightness of the paper beneath. Grisaille A painting in gray or a grayish color Often made by students as a tonal exercise. multiH u e A term for a color. to describe a surface to which paint will adhere readily. Also used by artists' materials manufacturers to indicate the use of a substitute pigment—for example. Lightfast A term confirming that pigment in the product will not fade with exposure to light. it is the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work Pigment Any substance used as a coloring agent—for example.The paper then bears a crayon impression or copy of the surface that was underneath it A number of Surrealists. This effect emulates what we see in real life. and masking off areas of a drawing that the artist wishes to keep untouched by media applied above or beside the tape. or canvas and allowed to dry before an image is drawn or painted. or even a beam of light. Lithography A method of printmaking in which a drawing or painting is made directly onto a smooth slab of particular limestone or a metal plate using an oilbased crayon or ink. Monoprinting A direct method of printing in which wet medium (water-. Usually an academic drawing observed from life. or synthetic material that are suspended in a medium to constitute paint.257 metal line. It improves the bonding properties Frottage A French term meaning "rubbing. Negative space The space between things. work. aiming to represent facts rather than an interpretation of the subject. Lifting out A method of creating highlights and mid-tones in a drymedia drawing (such as charcoal or graphite). Giotto's Virtues and Vices in the Arena Chapel. It can be used with any wet media to isolate or protect parts of an image from further Optical blending See Pointillism." A piece of paper is placed on top of an object or rough surface. which give it a smooth surface (as opposed to cold-pressed paper. Papercut A type of collage in which flat sheets of paper are cut into an image. glossy. cadmium yellow hue. After several intervening processes. It is a strong adhesive. the surface of the stone is made wet before being rolled with a thin film of oilbased printing ink. Foreshortening A method of depicting an object at an angle to the surface of the picture. so that (using vanishing point perspective) the object appears to change shape and become narrower or smaller as it recedes. Paper is then pressed against the stone to take a print. Monochrome Usually refers to a black. This may be disregarded in real life. Paper is laid on top and a rapid drawing is made on the back of it The paper lifts away to reveal the image on its other side. and that will "escape" or change over time. Objective drawing Refers to the concept of objectivity. or a drawing made in any single color GLOSSARY Linear perspective A form of perspective in which parallel lines are represented as converging. mineral. Medium A generic term for art Key A painting is said to be "high key" when the colors and tones are bright and "low key" when they are dark or somber The term is also used Gouache Opaque watercolor Also called body color. and by artists representing stone sculptures in a painting. purpose. Rubens used grisaille to paint small images for engravers. Alternatively. but each print will be unique.while secretion of the acacia tree.Theground provides a particular color or texture beneath the image. This method incorporates the excitement of accidental and unpredicted marks. glass. upright images are called "portrait which is used as a binding agent in many liquid media. used for fixing paper to walls and boards. F o r m a t T h e size. Ground A wet solution usually of gouache or gesso (chalk and animal glue) brushed onto paper board. Hot-pressed papers (HP) Paper made using hot cylinders. pastel. The ink attaches to the oil-based image and is repelled by the wet stone. and orientation of the image. materials that produce marks on a surface.

Pouncing If a large drawing or design (called a cartoon) is to be Shadow Darkness cast by the transferred to a surface such as a obscuring of light. or the right-hand page in a book. Serigraphy Silk-screen printing. or mark using an inked or pigment-covered surface. or any physical object that can be stamped or pressed onto a surface to leave an impression." Materials for Zen brushwork include round brushes of varied size. sometimes drawn from a and leaving only the pricked sheet of shadow cast on a wall. Zen A school of Mahayana Buddhism that asserts that enlightenment can come through meditation and intuition rather than faith. Named paper in place. giving it a brilliance. cut-out profile made along every outline of the usually made in black paper image. or wood. a sheet of paper is placed beneath and pinpricks are Silhouette A flat. or the left-hand page in a book. pointed roll of white paper that is used to blend dry media. fruit. carbon ink. A term borrowed from the theater. and chrysanthemum—which in Chinese tradition are called "The Four Gentlemen. Zen brushwork This is an oriental meditative art form originating in China and practised for many centuries in Japan. Squaring up A method of enlarging and transferring an image from one surface to another. Recto The front or top side of a piece of paper. or ceramic glazing to reveal a different color beneath. plaster or cloth surface beneath. acrylic.258 GLOSSARY together optically.Thedrawing is removed. such as an inscribed sheet of metal. Single-point perspective The most basic form of linear perspective in which there is only one vanishing point. Artists' prints are normally made in multiple. to model areas of light and shade. Support The structure on which an image is made—for example. pencil. Stylus A sharp. The translucent Tint A color mixed with white. which are then called editions. or pen. plum blossom. tight. . Size A weak glue used for filling the porous surface of wood or canvas in order to seal it. orchids. Etienne de material) dabbed through the Silhouette (1709-67). Shade A that is color mixed (or toned) with black Shading A lay term for adding tone to a drawing. an ink stone usually cut from slate." Applied to the blurring or softening of sharp outlines by the subtle and gradual blending of one tone into another Sgraffito A technique of scratching or cutting through a surface of paint. in order to flick the pigment onto the image surface. The crude material is called oleoresin. watercolor. Sketch A quick or rough drawing. Wash A technique using ink. "Spirits" or "oil" of turpentine refer to the volatile portion used by artists to thin or dilute oil-based paint. Underdrawing A pale preliminary drawing made prior to adding layers of another medium such as oil paint or watercolor Value The extent to which a color reflects or transmits light This is the equivalent of tone in a black and white image. usually diluted with water and applied with a brush. Sfumato An Italian term meaning "smoky. Tone A degree of lightness or darkness. commonly referred to as the lead. and flowers. Props An abbreviation of the word properties. Still life A picture composed of inanimate objects such as bowls. nature of watercolor allows the white surface of the paper to Tonal scale A scale of gradations shine through. Zen paintings usually depict scenes of nature and plants such as bamboo. Tortillon A short. using a brush. Alternatively. Although drawings can be made with wash alone. compound of water-soluble pigment. a point at which receding parallel lines meet Verso The back or underside of a piece of paper. or gouache. in tone running from black to white or vice versa. ink.Technicaldrawing has been example. Vanishing point In linear perspective. paper or canvas. fine paper. or point on which parallel lines converge to give the impression of receding space. Printmaking The act of making a picture. Spattering A mottled texture produced by drawing your fingers across the bristles of a stiff brush loaded with pigment. Scale Describes the size of one element in relation to another Sepia A brown pigment taken from the sun-dried ink sacs of cuttlefish and used to make ink or watercolor The term is now often incorrectly used to refer to brown colors. evolved by engineers and architects for the purpose of conveying W a t e r c o l o r A painting accurate structural information. Turpentine A colorless solvent distilled from the resinous sap of pine trees. glasses. Viewpoint The position from which something is observed or considered. Squeegee A rubber-trimmed scraper used in the screenprinting process for dragging ink across a surface. Volume The amount of space occupied by an object or an area of space in itself. creating more vibrant effects than if the same colors were physically mixed together with a brush. Subjective drawing A drawing that expresses the personal view and interpretation of the artist An invented image. Zen brushwork encompasses calligraphy and painting. and paperweights. W e t media Any liquid media— for example. design. Technical drawing A universal it is often used in conjunction language of lines and measurements with line drawings in pen and that is used to make diagrammatic ink—for images. pointed instrument used for marking or engraving. or watercolor paint. Stippling Applying color or tone in areas of fine dots or flecks. Pounce (a fine for an unpopular 18th-century powder of charcoal or similar French politician. whose pinpricks creates a "connect-thepersonal pastime was making dots" replica of the image on the cut-out portraits. Strip Core of a pencil. plaster. by imposing a grid that is then scaled up to a larger size. wall or tapestry. a tightly folded piece of cotton batting can be used for the same effect. meaning objects used in setting up a life model or still life.

204. 204-205.115 anatomical drawing 134-135 anatomical theaters 82-83 anatomical waxes 128 ancient carvings 221. 94 cylindrical objects.184. Brian 226 Untitled 2001 226 "Cave of the Hands" (Cueva de las Manas) 8. Georges 67. 52 cotton swabs 205 Coup de Vent a Asajigabare (Hokusai) 198. 160 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object (Moore) 178. 243 botanical drawing 48-49 Boullee. 180 blending: color 133. 182.212 to erase 205 to hold 23 pencils 204 willow 114. 8 cave paintings 8. 198 cartoon (preparatory drawing) 137 (satirical) 159.51 All and Nothing (Taylor) 114. 30 sleeping dog 38-39 Stubbs's horse skeleton 26. 201 collage 111. 139 Nanha) 50. 9. Sylvano 222.163 dry media 205 Blue Nude (Matisse) 110.44-45 bird studies 12. 81 cut-out model plan 94. 190 Caricature of a Woman (Daumier) 198. Victor: West Facade of the Church of St.100 curves. 70 Art Nouveau motifs 91 Autoportrait (Ray) 138. 95 Chair Cut Out (Woodfine) 94. Franz 48 Protea nitida 48 Bellini. Statue d'Epouvante 90 calligraphy.27 turtles 42-43 aquatint 240 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels (Leonardo) 12.186 see also movement Adoration of the Magi perspective study (Leonardo) 74. 74 brush (es) 246-247 Japanese 248 for laying a wash 140 marks 248-249 to hold 23 brush drawings 14-15 Bryan.163 graded 227 composition 56-57. Nicolas-Jacques 54 contours 146. 220. 90 La Guitare. layers 53 chalk pastels 162. 165. 90. 157 cropping 56-57.89. 203 Landline 202. Etienne-Louis 72 Newton's Cenotaph 72.133. (Ross-Craig) 49 to hold brush for 23 caricature 159. to draw 100 Cypripedium calceolus L.226. 203 Claude Lorrain 202 Views from Velletri 202.163 body. 74. 75. William: The Circle of the Lustful 180. 50. Augustin 67 Basquiat. 244 and graphite 178 . Clare 203 City 202. 200 Bauer. 71 conte 112. 178 Cubism 67. 71 Blake. 221 animals. 206 checkered floor 80. 113 bird bones 12. 111. 75 Circle of the Lustful (Blake) 180. 137 Besler. 180 Circular Score for "Due Voce" (Bussotti) 223 circus scenes 192-195 City (Bryan) 202. Jean Michel 138 Self-Portrait 138 Bateau-Vision.Index Page numbers in italics refer t o captions and illustrations Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity (Bishndas and 259 INDEX B bread (as eraser) 205. 81 135.31 Picasso's horse and bird 30.13. 230-231 Cubist 90. 162 character: to capture 38-39. 38-39. 223 Circular Score for "Due Voce" 223 children's art 9. 241 action. 78 aerial perspective 206 airbrushing 160. 203 Buffalo Hunt (Shoshone) 178. 13 architectural drawing 67-71 Arctic Flowers (Libeskind) 70. 226-227 Acanthus spinosus 65 accelerated perspective 22. to express 39. 244 head and neck 144 phrased 124-125 contrast: brightness 99 of media 30 tonal 96. 222. 13. Joseph 113 The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland 112. center of 118 ballpoint 182. 26 geese 38-39 Gericault's cats 28. cut Catling. Hieronymus 243 Two Monsters 242. 163. 40-41 Durer's rhinoceros 26. Le (Hugo) 200. to depict 156-157 Cloudburst of Material Possessions (Leonardo) 200. to model 110-111 border 51 Bosch. 133. 205 Baltard. 250 Bishndas and Nanha: Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity 50. 9 Chair (Van Gogh) 94.184. 198. to draw 25. 189. to draw 80. Zen c 232-233 blended 133.169 colors: airbrushed 161 background 91 A Abe. 90 colored materials 162-163 colored pencils 162. 29 Hugo's octopus 28. 90.162 Conte. 74. 186 charcoal 114.198.50. 94 chalk(s) 53. 71 Bacchante (Bakst) 155 background: color 91 textured 240 Baker Matthew: Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry 32 Bakst. Filippo 67. 158. 247-248 carving see lines. 72 bracelet shading 122 Braque. 206. 134 costume(s) 155 character 158-159 structure of 166-167 Cottage Among Trees (Rembrandt) 52. 179 Bussotti. 161 Akhlaq-I Rasul Allah manuscript 51. 41 principal 186. 199 Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya (Eisen) 156. 98. 242 Brunelleschi.117 Achilles Chases Hector (Thomas) 240. Leon: Bacchante 155 balance. Mamaru 104. 116. 128.44-45. Basilius 47 Beuys. 202 cloth. 230 The Physical Space 220 abstract drawing 219. Giovanni 137 Head and Shoulders of a Man 136. 193 in lifting out 204. 28 Klee's horses 30. 242 to blend 205 compressed 122.

136 Golden Section 67 Gombrich. 242 eyes. 69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt 68. Cheval et Oiseau (Picasso) 30. 223. Francisco de 131. 69 Guitare. 69. Hans 133 The Ambassadors 116 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 132. 122 Hawksmoor. 77 How Clever of God #84 244. 40. 131 Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 240.116. Robert 93 Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 92. 90 G Gaudi. position of 22 Eisen. fiber-tip pen 182.252-253 from memory 183. Antonio 68. 132 Frenz.160. Katsushika 199 Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 198. 202. 79. 134. 93 horizon 52. 7 33 Hooke.121 felt-tip pens 162. 32 framing 139 Franfoise au Bandeau (Picasso) 132.109 Rhinoceros 26. The 242.160. 222 Le Bateau-Vision 200.166 170-173 Gestalt 222 Giacometti. 37 Grandville 243 A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the Near-Microscopic World of Scale Insects 242. 205 drawing with 103. Study for Plate 59 (Mucha) 90. 240 Black Paintings 152.69 Gerard. 216 foreshortening 110. 160 as ground for metal point 140.102-103 drawing board 20 drawing books 20-21 drawing paper 144. 161 changing 216 Focusing on the Negative (Walter) 16 foliage 52. 222 Grimes. 162 Flaxman. Keisai 157 The Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya 156. 113. 222. 93 eye level 80 Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity. 115 Escher. 55. to suggest 177 see also perspective diagonals diffuser 55 dip pens 34.12 fixative 54. Sir Ernst 12.103 with eraser 103. 226-227 anatomical 134-135 architectural 67-71 botanical 48-49 brush 14-15 dark to light 102.104. La (Braque) 90. 90 gouache 30. 243 graphic score 222.216. 137 heads. 160 hitsuzendo 233 light to dark 102. 141 tonal 96.260 INDEX D Dada 139 Daumien Honore 198 Caricature of a Woman 198. to draw 168-169 in Goya's artworks face. drypoint 181 exaggeration 184 expressionism 198 E ye and Head of a Drone Fly (Hooke) 92. 203 Hotel de la Suzonnieres (Satie) 70. 170-173. to draw 134-137 Helleborus corsicus 55 highlights 91. Victor 200. Ron 161 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 161 160. to draw 120.117 fountain pens 34. 161 fashion 160. 124.157 ellipses 100.111 feet. 203 semi-abstract 234-237 three-dimensional 68.115 exploratory 17 fantasy 72-73. 230 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction 68. Nicholas 68 St Paul's Baptistry 68 head and neck to draw 142-145 Head and Shoulders of a Man (Bellini) 136. 144 Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (Baker) 32. 245 Hugo.189. C . 30 Fauves/fauvism 90. 252 depiction of fabric monsters 252-253 Self Portrait in a Cocked Hat 130. 73.184 165.37. 245 Gruau.144 and ink 30. 223 graphite 54. 99 etching. 163. 71 minimal line 99 and music 70-71 quick 38-39.101 engraving 243 erasers/erasing 55. 52 foreground 208. Rene 160 Illustration for Jacques Fath E easel. 55. 765 hitsuzendo drawings 233 Hokusai. 134. disposable pens 182-183 dissections: botanical 48 of horse 27 distance: illusion of see perspective linear 97 tonal 97 Documents Decoratifs. 157 . 160 Faune. 122. 26 Flying Fish (White) 25. to draw 78. 69.216 Durelli. 135 Duren Albrecht 26. position of 143. Antonio 135 Muscles of the Head and Neck 134. 91 Dragon (Michelangelo) 36. 241 to blend 205 and chalk 178 and ink 28.103. M. 220 dry brush 234 234 57.230 three-tone 140. 240 170-173 five Ships in a Port with Lighthouse (Wallis) 11. Alberto 136 Portrait of Marie-Laure de Noailles 136.141. 163. Jean Ignace Isidore see Grandville Gericault. Statue d'Epouvante.198 Degas.207. 134. proportions of 143 fantasy drawings 72-73.112.Theodore 29 Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 28. 41 in the round 208-209 with scalpel 202.97. 120.244 drawing(s): abstract 219.John 157 Man Lying Down in a Cloak 156.141. 190 Middle Eastern 50-51.146 from masterworks 126-127.91. 245 layers 30 Goya. 29 H hands. 25 focus 65. 799 Holbein. 240. 125.244. 104-105. 160 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction (Gaudi) 68. 200 F fabric. Oona 245 How Clever of God #84 244. Edgar 162 depth. 55. 112. 161 fashion drawings 160.

252 Muscles of the Head and Neck (Durelli) 134. 34. 220. 183 vertical 156 linear distance 97 linear perspective 69.141 Metropolis (film) 72. 53 Tree II 52. Charles Rennie 48. Gustav 49 Knopf. Kathe 181 Losbrunch (The Outbreak) 180. 33 J justness 228-229 N naive art 74 negative space 53. David 78 M Mackintosh.The (Robinson) 108.104. Alphonse 90.91 Study for Plate 59 of INDEX illumination see lighting Illustration for Jacques Fath (Gruau) 160. 35. Bartolome: Moses Striking the Rock ofHoreb 252. Daniel 70 Arctic Flowers 70 Lieb. Oxford 250 music 70-71 Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks (Knopf) 32. 73 Kigell. Rose: Tantalus or the Future of Man 20 minimal line drawing 99 mirror use of 120 mixed media 28. 227 Newsome. apparent 97 Leonardo da Vinci 74. 31 Klimt. 244 Dragon 36. 177 influences. 757 mandalas 219. 111. 181 luminosity 115 Lynch. Henry 178 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object 178. 184. 103 Neolithic chalk tablet 220. 78 Study ofThree Male Figures 110. I Murderous Attacks 33 Kollwitz. 234 iron-gall 35.120. 77 Miller. 220. Henri 111 Blue Nude 1110. 72.115 98. 34-35 acrylic 35 bistre 35.276.167 line(s) 132.134 K Kettlehut. 244. 160 In the Duchess's Kitchen (Rackham) 176. Marie 244 cloth drawing 244. 76 Libeskind. 227 Scene of Comical Riders 30. 99.182 Moore. drawing from 126-127. 73 Michelangelo Buonarroti 48. 225 masking tape 204. drawing from 183. 244 ink 36 252-253 Documents Decoratifs 90. 178 motifs: A r t Nouveau 9 7 stylized 51 mountains 216-217 movement: of animals 30-31 of humans 7 79. 242 light 96 to depict drawing with 1 76 painting with 176 . 244 lithograph 198 Losbruch (Kollwitz) 180. 252 ink 16.181 L Landline (Bryan) 202.141. artistic 240-241. 201 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels 12. Phyll: hands 18 lifting out 204. Oxford 106 Prado. Piet 52.109. Victor 134 Profile Head 134. 219 Mondrian. Mysterious Affairs of the lighting 2 7.109. 226 Modernism 67. Madrid 171 University Museum of Natural History. 74-77. 201 head and neck sections of female mold for Sforza Horse 89 Madonna of the Rocks 244 perspective study for Adoration of the Magi 74. 83 white 122 ink impressions 222 ink spatters 234 installations 176. 163 pens 36 measuring 116 memory. 114 hatched 244 layered 118 pace of 65 pale 40 rapid 49.102. 36. 176. 205. 110 Sistine Chapel ceiling 116 Middle Eastern drawing 50-51. 135 museums 44. Florence 128 lighting in 167 Pitt Rivers. 49 Rose 49 Maelbeke Madonna (Van Eyck) 156. 789. 185 Mucha. 28 Two Impressions from a Cut-out Paper Disk 222 Huyler Stephen R 225 261 Kinecar. 170-173. 58-59. 60. 205 masterworks.166 La Specola. 203 landscape 206-208 brushed 14 Landscape in Hoboku Style (Sesshu) 14 layers 146 chalk 53 gouache 30 ink 28. 203. Matisse. 158 Man Lying Down in a Cloak (Flaxman) 156.Pieuvre (Octopus) 28. 230 invented creatures 106-107 250-251 invented objects 89. 249 and gouache 30 Indian 35. 166. 756 priming for 140. 248. 220. 220. 156 magnification 93 Man in Armor (Van Dyck) 158. 37 lines 118 pastel 162 pencil 31. Paul 227 Polyphonic Setting for White 226. 63.227 to "bend" straight 97 compositional 228-229 cut 202. 181 Klee. 159 Japanese 35 to make 36 sepia 35 walnut 36. Erich 73 design for Metropolis 72. 54 silver point 156 leg sections 158 length. Johan 32. 97 Murillo.243 carbon 35 Chinese 30. 13 Cloudburst of Material Possessions 200. 190 metal pens see dip pens metal point 25. 53 monoprint 787. 221 endless 31 free 113.

7 38 Ray 138.52 pen and wash 158. Russell 228. 97. 36. 230 paper(s) 21 colored 162 drawing 144. 1 1 6 . 161. 57 Ross-Craig. 212 Japanese 2 1 . 205 pointillism 112 polyphonic painting 227 Polyphonic Setting for White (Klee) 226.40. Man 131. 30 Fran<. 1 6 9 to hold 2 2 . 2 2 0 for oil pastels 162 stained 230 to stretch 140-141 tissue 21. 736 portraits. 36 pen and brush 8 3 pen and ink 70. 9 8 . 224 0 layers 31. 1 1 6 accelerated 2 2 . 7 72 Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland. 163.199 Profile Head (Newsome) oil pastels 162. 159. 205 157. Arthur 177 In the Duchess's Kitchen 176.54 pastel 162 perspective 1 0 0 . 122. 243. 165. 78 single-point 74.71 Hotel de la Suzonnieres 70. Erik 70.Tim. 219. 242 reed pens 34. 241 Physical Space.Paul'sBaptistry (Hawksmoor) 68. 71 Satire of the Queen's Dress (Wodall) 158. 4 8 putty eraser 55.The (Beuys) 112. 9 0 . 75 Two Courtyards 75.36. 1 6 3 . 91 outsider artists 33. Georges 112 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 112.37.2 3 age and youth sleeping subjects 148-149 150-151 Renaissance 109 Rhinoceros (Durer) 26.9 3 Schongauer. Sue 104. 26 Riley. 772 234-237 Sesshu. 28 pigment 162 bright 50 Caput Mortuum 7 4 7 for three-tone drawing 141.759. 139 Real Life is Rubbish (Noble and Webster) 176. and Webster. 74. 76 plastic eraser 55. 227 portfolios 20 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser de Noailles (Holbein) 132. 1 1 7 aerial 206 linear 69. J 76 nudes 114-115 to make 36 metal see dip quill 34. Peter Paul 126-127 Embracing pose(s): balanced 146 quick 118-119 positive form 103 posture: of artist 22 of subject 3 8 . 243.184 fountain 34. 7 76 receding space 206 Redon. 36. 38. 73 Noble. Odilon 242 The Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity 242. 216. Faune. 40-41. The (Abe) 220 Picasso. 7 73 self-portraits: Basquiat 138. Heath 181 The Kinecar 180. 7 77 three-point 80. 230 parallel planes 79 Parisian street 86-87 pastels 162 to blend 205 to hold 23 layers 162 pencils 162 pen(s): dip 34 . 1 3 2 quill pens 34.176 Real Life Is Rubbish 176. 34-35. 234 disposable 182-183 felt-tip 162. 165 figure 118 filled 37 pencil 48. Giovanni Battista 74.240. 75 Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range 241 petroglyphs 221. 203 Scene of Comical Riders (Klee) 30.226.139 Autoportrait 138. 37 38. 734 Protea nitida (Bauer) 48. 732 influence of 240 painting with light 78. 162 O p A r t 98 optical illusions 96-99 outline 33. 739 semi-abstract drawings Style 14 Seurat.7 77 rapidograph 70 Raphael 110.oise au Bandeau 132.141 prints/printing: aquatint 240 dry-point etching 181 engraving 243 monoprint 181.37 scientific instruments 9 2 . Auguste 114 Two Women 114. 244 Q s Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape (Wolfli) 2 79 St. 36. 160. Martin 238. 68 Satie.104 Pieuvre (Hugo) 28. Stella 48 Cypripedium calceolus L 49 rotated view 7 65 Rubens. 103. 36. 1 2 4 priming for metal point 140. 181 Rodin. Isaac 92 Telescope 92 Newton's Cenotaph (Boullee) 72. 76-79. 782 relief 757 silk-screen 739 woodblock 134. 239 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat (Seurat) 112. 759 P Page. 36. 141 Piranesi. Cheval et Oiseau 30. 74-77. Pablo 6 7 .131 Cottage Among Trees 52. 166 fiber-tip 782. 38. 239 Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 238. 52 pens 36 scalpel 54 drawing with 202. 164.Toyo: Landscape in Hoboku . Bridget 98 Robinson. 733 Portrait de Marie-Laure (Giacometti) 136. 81 two-point 74.37.262 INDEX Newton. Paul 73 Nobson Central 72. 114 rollerball 182 Rorschach blot 99 Rose (Mackintosh) 48. 181 pencil(s) 54 charcoal 204 colored 762. 36 relief printing 757 Rembrandt van Rijn 52. 7 70 Ray. 72 Noble. to draw 146-147 R Rackham. 244 reed 34. 4 9 Rose of Mohammed 50.

b l o w n 248 steel p e n s see d i p p e n s still life 89. A n t h o n y 152. 115. 1 4 1 w a t e r c o l o r 25. 245 sharpener 54 Ship in a Storm ( T u r n e r ) 1 9 8 . 79. 49. 1 2 Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse 71. Vincent 95 Chair 94.1 4 5 .120.1 4 1 . Augustin ( B a l t a r d ) 6 7 w e t and dry brush-strokes 2 4 9 Turner.d i m e n s i o n a l 1 0 4 . Taylor A n i t a 115 All and Nothing 1 1 4 . 2 0 0 Ship in a Storm 1 9 8 . G e o r g e 2 7 Skeleton of the Horse 26. 1 9 9 Two Courtyards (Piranesi) 75. Sue see N o b l e .199 tissue p a p e r 21. 104-105. 6 9 Wodall. 7 75 Telescope ( N e w t o n ) 9 2 . 9 0 . 7 6 Two Impressions from a Cut-Out Paper Disk ( H u g o ) 2 2 2 Two Monsters 2 4 2 . 1 3 .216 W e b s t e r . 1 8 4 . 2 7 studies: b i r d s 7 2 . 1 7 7 free 8 0 V e n i c e .241 s i l k . 7 77. 199 shoes 1 6 4 . 1 6 . h e a d a n d n e c k sections o f female m o l d f o r (Leonardo) 89 shading 2 9 s h a d o w s 28. 206-207 202. t o d r a w 2 0 0 . 2 3 4 . 2 4 4 . 1 4 0 . 241. 7 6 1 spots. 76. 164. 249 t o describe 39. 1 6 6 t r a p e z i u s m u s c l e 142.141 S i m b l e t . Adolf: Giant-Grape Saint-Mary-Castle 219 Woman at Her Toilet ( T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c ) 74 w o o d b l o c k print 157. 170 shoes 1 6 4 stylized m o t i f 51 Summer Flowers 63. drawing with 104-105 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt ( G a u d i ) 68.t o n e d r a w i n g 140.1 6 5 shorthand diagram 142 Shoshone buffalo hide painting 178. 2 9 wind. 75 Skeleton of the Horse ( S t u b b s ) 26. Paul 2 4 1 Achilles Chases Hector 2 4 0 .5 3 in l a n d s c a p e 2 0 6 . M . 7 79 Shoshone petroglyph 240.27 skull 747. 743 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City ( F r e n z ) 1 6 0 . 9 2 Tesshu. 75. 53 trees. 96. 158 V a n Eyck. 156 Van Gogh.d i m e n s i o n a l d r a w i n g 68. 221 . 9 5 pens 36 v a n i s h i n g p o i n t 74. Jan 1 5 6 Maelbeke Madonna 1 5 6 . 2 2 7 Untitled 2001 ( C a t l i n g ) u 263 W h i t e . 97. 240 Two Women Embracing ( R o d i n ) 114. 7 9 0 vessels. 2 4 2 w Wallis. 57.13 M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s m a l e figures 110. 7 1 4 . v i e w s o f 85. 7 70 Tiber 214-215 Untitled ( T w o m b l y ) 2 2 0 . 2 2 0 influence o f 2 4 0 Untitled 220.125 W o o d f i n e . T i m W e s t Fagade of the Church of St. 1 4 4 . 141 Three Male Figures. t o d r a w 1 0 1 viewfinder 57 Views from Velletri ( C l a u d e L o r r a i n ) 152. t o draw 1 9 8 .J. 2 4 7 t h r e e . 2 1 2 . 9 4 z Z e n calligraphy 232-233 contrast 96 t o grade 163 ink 37 pencil 5 4 t o r t i l l o n 205 T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c . 243 (Bosch) T Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos ( G o y a ) 2 4 0 . 77. 102-103 tonal marks. 226 V Van Dyck. 182. 1 8 4 .41. 2 2 6 . 2 3 0 tonal contrast 96 tonal distance 9 7 t o n a l d r a w i n g 9 6 .9 1 storms. 161.243 Leonardo's machines 12. 1 4 1 . C y 138. 159 Wolfli. Sarah 9 4 Chair Cut Out 94.1 8 5 Tree II ( M o n d r i a n ) 52.2 0 1 .Yamaoka 233 t e x t u r e 2 2 2 .s c r e e n p r i n t i n g 139 silver p o i n t 1 4 0 . 4 4 boat 209 botanical 4 9 G e r i c a u l t ' s cats 2 9 from Goya 170-173 125. W . 1 4 5 travel journal 2 0 .12 W a l t e r . 230 t h r e e . 69. William 159 Satire of the Queen's Dress INDEX 226. 725 fabric 1 6 8 T h o m a s .158 158. 69. 65 symbols 138. 74. Study of (Michelangelo) 110. 174 T w o m b l y .2 1 3 Stubbs.1 9 9 wire. 156 layers 7 5 6 priming for 140. phrased 146 tonal modeling 161 tonal range 169 t o n a l surfaces 2 2 7 tonal width 97 t o n e ( s ) 33. 186. t h r e e . A l f r e d 1 1 . 202 violin. 199. 1 9 9 . t o lay 1 4 0 . Man in Armor 1 5 8 . H e n r i de: Woman at Her Toilet 14 t r a n s p a r e n t v i e w 92. John: Focusing on the Negative 14 w a s h .Sforza Horse.1 0 5 vision 9 6 Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects (Grandville) 242. Sarah: child's m a p 75. t o d r a w 5 2 . John 25 Flying Fish 25 Wild Striped Cat Sketches of ( G e r i c a u l t ) 28.

130: The Metropolitan M u s e u m of Art/Robert L e h m a n Collection. 221: Gagosian Gallery/Private Collection (b). c o . 1 0 8 : Arts C o u n c i l Collection. Also. 226: Brian Catling. Paris. 1 .co. 158: Calouste Gulbenkian 181: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. H a y w a r d Gallery. Dover Publications/ISBN: 0486229912 (t).100. London/Bequeathed by Charles Landseer. 5 3 : Collection of the Gemeentemuseum D e n Haag/Mondrian Trust. Japan. Diana Bell. 1 6 0 : Rene G R U A U s. A . 111: Fondation Beyeler/Riehen (Bale)/© Succession H Matisse/DACS 2005. J o h n Roberts. Inc. 2 2 4 : P r i n z h o m Collection. R o y a n d D i a n n e Simblet. Toulouse. 3 2 : Pepys Library. 49: Hunterian Museum (t). Madrid. Germany.r. 1929 (29. F r a n c e . for s u p p l y i n g the d r a w i n g books. Angela Palmer. 139: Galerie Marion Meyer/© Man Ray Trust / A D A G P . 1 1 0 : www. Flossie. papers. 9 7 6 ) . L o n d o n . Carole A s h . 2 8 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. A . . Berlin (b). 11: www. H e l e n S h u t t l e w o r t h . Sophie Trust.Strang Print Room ( b ) . F i n n .co. 2 6 : Topfoto.a. 30: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. Germany/Joerg P. Publisher's Acknowledgments Dorling Kindersley w o u l d like to thank Caroline H u n t for editorial contribution. 2 3 8 : akg-images. 2 0 2 : © T h e British Museum. u k / O n Loan to the H a m b u r g Kunsthalle. 2 2 3 : Lebrecht Music and Arts Photo Library/Ricordi. Corporation of London.bridgeman.bridgeman. Psychiatric Institute of the University of Heidelberg. 2 0 0 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. A n n a P l u c i n s k a . 69: Institut Amatller d'Art Hispanic (tl).20-21 a n d 246-47. 2 2 0 : Mamaru Abe. Peter L u f f .uk /© Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery. 4 8 : T h e N a t u r a l H i s t o r y M u s e u m . 179: www. Julie O u g h t o n . J a c k a n d Brian Winthrop. L o n d o n . L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . L o n d o n . 176: Modem Art. K a t h r y n W i l k i n s o n . Wolfson College. Pamela Ellis for compiling the index. Berlin/ Kunstmuseum Bern. U K . 1 5 9 : Bodleian Library. 5 2 : T h e Metropolitan Museum of Art/Bequest of Mrs. b r i d g e m a n . Amsterdam. H a m b u r g . 3 1 : Tom Powel Imaging. 9 4 : Sarah Woodfine. 2 4 : © T h e British Museum. 2 4 0 : w w w .co. u k / L o u v r e . Florence/MoMA. 1901. R o s e m a r y S c o u l a r . J o n Roome. (r). c o . Jean Pierre Roy. Illustrated London News Picture Library/The Bystander (b). K e v i n a n d Rebecca Slingsby. 2 0 1 : T h e Royal Collection © 2 0 0 2 H e r Majesty Queen Elizabeth I I . 114: Musee Rodin. T o n y G r i s o n i . L o n d o n . Basel. 2 0 3 : Clare Bryan (t). D a w n Henderson. Jackie Douglas. J o h n Walter. Salisbury & South W i l t s h i r e M u s e u m ( t ) . 7 0 : Studio Daniel L i b e s k i n d . London 2005. L e n . Anders. support. 2 1 8 : Adolf-Wdlfli-Stiftung. 6 6 : w w w . 2 4 4 : Ashmolean Museum. b r i d g e m a n .uk/Kettle's Yard. Magdalene College Cambridge. O o n a G r i m e s . Paris. 2 7 : Royal Academy of 9 5 : V a n Gogh M u s e u m . Agnieszka Mlicka. Paris and D A C S . 1 9 : Getty Images/© Succession Picasso / D A C S 2 0 0 5 . University of Oxford. 157: U C L Art Collections . G e r m a n y . Fund. Oxford. Anders/ © D A C S 2 0 0 5 . 9 0 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/© A D A G P . Paris a n d D A C S . Picture Credits 8: Corbis/Hubert Stadler. 2 4 2 : Photo Scala. Paris. Portugal. 1 3 8 : © Christie's Images Ltd/© A D AGP. 1 5 : w w w . Andy Crawford. 1 3 6 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Centre Pompidou-MNAM-CCI.Paris ( b ) . 9 1 : www. Christopher Davis. Paris. b r i d g e m a n . Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. Natalie G o d w i n . Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (t). Anita Taylor. 174: Artothek/Munich. 73: Berlin F i l m Museum (t).uk/Private Collection. Roddy Bell. Sir Brinsley F o r d . 1 5 6 : Graphische S a m m l u n g Albertina. P h y l l Kiggell. © Tate. H e a t h e r M c C a r r y . 177: Mary Evans Picture Kirsten Norrie. L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . C o r n e l i s o n & Son. B e r l i n . /Biblioteca Nacional. 13: www.l. Copyright Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens. K u n s t m u s e u m Bern/© D A C S 2 0 0 5 .bridgeman. Paris. R u t h P a r k i n s o n . R . 17: J o h n Walter. George M c G a v i n . 180: www. A n d y C r a w f o r d for p h o t o g r a p h y a n d L . Sarah Psychiatric Institute of the U n i v e r s i t y of Heidelberg. 75: © The British Museum (b).bridgeman. 7 1 : I M E C / A r c h i v e s E r i k Satie. L o n d o n .uk/Private Collection. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin/Jorg P. 16: www. 72: akg-images. Paula Regan. 2 2 7 : Paul Klee Stiftung. 115: Anita Taylor. S i m o n L e w i s . 2 4 1 : Corbis/David M u e n c h ( b ) . Lisbon. 9 2 : Science Photo L i b r a r y . a n d D e p a r t m e n t s o f E n t o m o l o g y a n d Zoology at the University of Oxford. B e r l i n . Paris/ © Succession Picasso / D A C S 2005. des Augustins. 113: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. H . 29: Fogg A n Museum/Collections Baron de Vita: Grenville L. B M G . Orientabteilung/Ruth Schacht. 9 3 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. 243: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. 1 7 8 : © T h e British M u s e u m / H e n r y Moore F o u n d a t i o n .uk/British Museum. 3 3 : Prinzhom Collection. Rocio Library.264 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Acknowledgments Author's Acknowledgments: T h e author wishes to thank the following people for their enormous help. U K . Paul T h o m a s ( t ) . London/courtesy of Stuart Shave./© D A C S 2 0 0 5 ( t ) . 68: www. 1 3 3 : Artothek/Kupferstichkabinett. T h e R u s k i n School of D r a w i n g a n d Fine A r t . Paul T h o m a s . and Tamsin Woodward Smith. 4 6 : B r i t i s h Library. University of Cambridge.939). . 5 0 : Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (1). Paris a n d D A C S . M a n d y Earey. 1 6 1 : D C C o m i c s I n c . Italy. 1 9 6 : Museum of the History of Science. 51: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. B e m d Kunzig. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. Sarah D u n c a n . Antonia Cunliffe Davis./Private Collection/© D A C S 2005. 88: www. Angela W i l k e s . Berlin/Staatsbibliothek zu A l l other images © Sarah Simblet . Carlo O r t u for picture research s u p p o r t . 1 9 8 : Dover Publications. 132: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso.bridgeman./Galerie Sylvie Nissen. c o . 2 4 5 : Oona Grimes. Maureen Paley Interim Art (b). 137: © The British Museum. 225: Stephen P Huyler. a n d brushes o n pp. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin. B .bridgeman.bridgeman. a n d encouragement i n m a k i n g this book: M a m o r u Abe. Clare Bryan. K e w ft)). 199: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee des arts asiatiquesGuimet. Productions Clovis Prevost (c). u k / T o k y o National M u s e u m . 112: Yale University A r t Gallery/Everett V Meeks. 74: Corbis. NY. Paris. 1 5 4 : akg-images/Musee National d'Art Moderne. Graphische Sammlung. 2 2 2 : Pierre Georgel/Private Collection. G e r m a n y .co. G i n a R o w l a n d . Havemeyer. L o n d o n (t). 1 3 5 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. K u n s t m u s e u m . 1975 ( 1 9 7 5 . Sammy De Grave. 1 3 4 : © T h e British Museum. Patty Stansfield. O.bridgeman.

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