An innovative, practical approach to drawing the world around you







LONDON • NEW YORK MELBOURNE • MUNICH • DELHI Senior Editor Paula Regan Senior Art Editor Mandy Earey Art Editor Anna Plucinska Managing Editor Julie Oughton Managing Art Editor Heather McCarry Art Director Peter Luff Publishing Director Jackie Douglas Production Joanna Bull DTP Designer Adam Walker Picture Research Sarah Smithies US Editor Christine Heilman First American Edition, 2 0 0 5 First Paperback Edition, 2 0 0 9 Published in the United States by DK Publishing 3 7 5 Hudson Street New York, New York 1 0 0 1 4 10 11 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3

6 8 20 22 Master Builders The Order of Sound Future Fictions Pathways of Sight Single-Point Perspective Creating an Imaginary Space Further Aspects of Perspective Theaters Venetian Life Parisian Street

68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86

Foreword Introduction Drawing Books and Papers Posture and Grip

Objects and Instruments

TD075-July 2009 Copyright © 2 0 0 5 Dorling Kindersley Limited Text and authors artworks © Sarah Simblet 2 0 0 4 Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited A Cataloging-in-Publication record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN 9 7 8 - 0 - 7 5 6 6 - 5 1 4 1 - 1 Color reproduction by GRB, Italy Printed and bound in China by Toppan

Still Life Instruments of Vision Bench Marks Light and Illusions Further Illusions How to Draw Ellipses Tonality Drawing with Wire Artifacts and Fictions


90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106

Documentaries Presence and Mood Movement Icon and Design Pen and Ink Drawing with Ink Capturing Character Sleeping Dogs Turtles Dry Birds

26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44

The Body
Postures and Poses Choreographs Passion Measurement and Foreshortening Quick Poses Hands and Feet Charcoal Hands Phrasing Contours The Visual Detective La Specola

110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128

Plants and Gardens
Botanical Studies Jeweled Gardens Fast Trees Graphite and Erasers Cropping and Composition Negative Space Fig Tree Summer Flowers Acanthus Spinosus

48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64

Discover more at

Projections Magnetic Fields The Human Condition Disposable Pens The Travel Journal Catching the Moment Grand Canal Crossings Caravans The Big Top

174 Abstract Lines
176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 Process and Harmony Writing Time Chants and Prayers Compositions Being "Just" Collage Zen Calligraphy Nocturnes

220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234

Poise Anatomies Revelations Self-Portraits Silver Point Head and Neck Essential Observations Drawing Portraits Generations Castings

132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 152

Earth and the Elements
Air in Motion Storms Nature Profiles Charcoal Landscapes Drawing in the Round Decaying Boat Cloudburst Notes of Force Mountains

198 200 202 204 206 208 210 212 214 216

Gods and Monsters
Marks of Influence Hauntings Convolutions Brushes Brush Marks Monsters Goya's Monsters Consumed Glossary Index Acknowledgments

240 242 244 246 248 250 252 254 256 259 264

Cloth and Drapery Character Costumes Femmes Fatales Colored Materials Study and Design The Structure of Costume Textures and Patterns Dressing Character Posture Carving

156 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172


Drawing occupies a unique place in every artist and creator's life. For twelve years I have enjoyed the privilege of teaching drawing. and a reflector of experience. thinking. architect. from schoolchildren to senior citizens. and through which I can see how I think. and their importance to so many artists. and experience. or a quantum physicist trying to see for themselves the fluctuations of our universe. I was training in anatomy and studying how. who tells me firmly upon approach that they cannot draw. undergraduates to fellow professors. and be slowly washed or worn away. drawing is the immediate expression of seeing. Others can be held in the h a n d or. and I refer back to them for years after they are made. are made outside as discreet installations. I will always draw. still standing by the door. It is a tool for investigating ideas and recording knowledge. through history. not only to make art. Some of my drawings cover entire walls. a drawing book is the perfect portable private vehicle for your imminent exploration of drawing. They enfold their viewer and are made on joined sheets of paper that I reach by climbing ladders. and local c o m m u n i t y classes. remain unseen by most. They occupy a shelf in my studio. Combine these things and the possibilities are endless. art schools. I know that with their cooperation I can soon prove them wrong. Some are more traditionally framed and hung in galleries for solo or group exhibitions. I also make drawing books. we have looked at. It makes me feel excited to be alive. by invitation. a cartographer charting the land. we learn to feel truly alive. and size. Chosen in any color. and in a few sessions they will be flying. of Sketch Book for the Artist.Foreword B Y DRAWING THE WORLD AROUND US. fashion designer. geologists. perhaps hidden on a door hinge or a street bench rail. especially as travel journals. where I expect them to be discovered by some people. The very first step is to believe it. . These inspirations led me to invent museums. doctors. aspirations. where spaces are shaped by nothing more than the objects and activities contained within them. Drawing is a mirror through which I understand my place in the world. a sculptor. I was also reading among The Confessions of St. We can all learn how to draw. or engineer. By using our imaginations. texture. For me personally. but because it is how I engage with and anchor myself in life. Augustine his notes on memory. a composer notating a musical score. that inspired the title and structure MEMORY T H E A T E R S This pen-and-ink drawing was made from imagination during research for my PhD. The most rewarding challenge is always the newcomer. and makers of special effects. night security staff. It is my love of these. shape. understood (and often misunderstood) our own bodies. and feeling. in which he describes himself flying and diving in his imagination through pictorial caverns of knowledge. we learn to see it. as a visiting professor at universities. I work with people of diverse ages. be they a child discovering their vision and dexterity.

8 INTRODUCTION Where We Begin There is a fundamental drive in our human nature to make a mark. The sense of relief we may feel from the information overload of modern commercial life when visiting a country in which we can no longer read every written word. They have a natural affinity to many modern graffiti signatures. Drawing is international. irreverent to language barriers. packaging. graffiti. not just chosen pictures on our walls but everywhere—maps.000-9500 bce . Rio Pinturas 13. in lectures. inscribing every fresh part of it with their eager scrapes and trails. We are bombarded with linear and tonal pictorial information. and patterns on our clothes. but more often because drawing actually helps us to focus and take in what is said. Sometimes we draw because we are bored. and we spend our lives reading it. logos.Theseancient silhouettes were drawn with earth pigments rubbed onto rock. Most adults still feel that certain exquisite pleasure on arriving at a beach to find the tide out and the sand perfect. We are surrounded by drawings in our daily lives. is not afforded us by drawing. We can always read each others drawings. a great crowd is raising their hands in greeting. At home and at work we doodle. scrawling shapes and cartoons when on the telephone. Cueva de las Marios. and in meetings. "CAVE OF THE HANDS" In this drawing. signs. waving to us from many thousands of yearsago. Children cannot be restrained from running across the pristine white lawn of newly fallen snow. like a great canvas for them to mark.

but I had never yet attempted to figuratively picture my world. and she kept it as my first step beyond the delighted realms of scrawl. I. On a particular afternoon in September 1974." Until this day. who in their day-to-day hardship made time to picture themselves and the animals on which they depended. I now think this is a picture of proximity. created by societies of hunter-gatherers. She gave me a notepad and a red crayon and asked me to draw her "a picture of Daddy. the hair of my first portrait was most important. In cave paintings like the one opposite. we see our oldest surviving images. enjoying the physical sensation of crayon on paper. an expression of existence. . The image above is what I gave back to my mother. at age two-anda-half. like all toddlers. I was sitting with my mother. MAKING OUR MARK It seems reasonable to assume that we have engaged in pictorial mark-making for as long as we have made conscious use of our hands.9 WHERE WE BEGIN FIRST PORTRAIT For sorre forgotten reason. and the appearance of my strikes of colors. had happily scribbled. Cave art was not made for decoration but as a fundamental part of life. Eyelashes take up as much of my attention as the head itself. and belonging to place. power. Even though it is made by a toddler this image would be recognizable to anyone. reflecting my experience of looking closely at my father's face.

yet still turn to drawing w h e n their verbal language fails or is inadequate. to help a stranger see their way W h e n taking first steps in relearning h o w to draw. b e p r o u d o f what m a k e s y o u r w o r k individual to y o u . It was made with a few bold strokes of a steel pen dipped in ink to conjure the dried bee I was holding between my fingers on a pin. and from that first unit build and describe the shape of something or someone we know. Young children love to draw. PROGRESSION T h e r e is a point in all o u r lives w h e n w e first c o n t r o l o u r mark and m a k e it a line. Don't b e p e r s u a d e d to draw in a w a y s o m e o n e else . for example. then drag o u r line into a loop. h o w e v e r small a n d u n f o r m e d y o u believe they are.10 INTRODUCTION PEN-AND-INK BEE This tiny drawing has been enlarged to show its texture and composition. it is important to value your natural abilities a n d ways of seeing. Inhibitions creep in and ideas of good a n d b a d terminate confidence. As you progress. most of us stop. Hours are lost immersed in the glorious world of imagination. But as adolescents. and this activity plays a vital role in their d e v e l o p m e n t . W e do n o t hesitate to draw a map. At this point many will insist they cannot draw.

Enjoy the control of your own journey. The journey of every artist demands hard work and discipline. He was a retired Cornish fisherman and junk dealer who began drawing at the age of 70 "for company" after his wife died. After experimenting and trying each new idea. remember that all advice is only advice.11 PROGRESSION A UNIQUE SIGHT This innocent yet sophisticated drawing of boats. 1925-42 53/8x87/8in (135 x 225 mm) ALFRED WALLIS prefers and tells you is better. what they most want to achieve. harbor and sea is one of many that Alfred Wallis made from memory while sitting at home. I ask them their reasons for drawing. I meet students struggling unhappily with a particular method of drawing. and which aspects of the vast wealth and diversity of graphic language would be most appropriate to their goals. and they have never questioned why. Think how much would have been lost if anyone had interfered with Alfred Wallis' personal sense of proportion and perspective in the exquisite drawing above. you must decide whether to keep or discard it. . Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse c. Occasionally. As you read this b o o k and perhaps attend art classes. He used leftover ship and yacht paint with crayons on cut-out pieces of cardboard boxes. Someone once told them they must draw in this way. but it does help to set out facing in the right direction.

and inspire others. clear-minded understanding of the sea. author of The Story of Art. There should neve: be a slavish obligation to represent things exactly as we collectively agree we see them. be visionary. is. "There really is no such thing as Art. The observed world may be our subject. right. it may not be accurate to our critical adult eye. IDEAS A N D I N V E N T I O N S These active machines. I hope. If as artists we nail a subject down too hard.12 INTRODUCTION VISION All artists see the world differently. but the child in us knows that this is an all-embracing. 11).and collarbones and shoulder blades of a different bird almost become new creatures in themselves. the breast. Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels LEONARDO DA VINCI . not for disguise but as a personal choice. There are only artists. There are countless reasons for drawing. embedded in this book. the page bristles with the focus of ideas." The clarity and empowerment of these words. and breathtaking wind of a choppy harbor. depending on the occasion and our purpose. The art historian Professor Sir Ernst Gombrich. boats. and lose the very thing that attracted us to it. They are also always written backward. We all see differently. His notes visually balance his drawings. When we look back at Wallis' seascape (see p. all raise water From the Archimedes' screw to Leonardo's own cupped wheel. we can drive out its spirit. We also see differently ourselves. perhaps for comfort or ease as a left-hander or a habitual enjoyment of the challenge. Our imaginations are the tools with which we can increase the essence of life. We BIRD STUDIES The flutter of faint scratches that dance across the pages on the right is an attempt to see the movement and bony weightlessness of a bird. wrote as the opening line of this great work. Below. but it should be the experienced world we draw.

but it is important to be clear why we are making it. to express the beauty in a moment's play of light. or illustrate a dream. We have both covered our paper with focused. time spent is not lost. it may be best to start afresh. shout against a terrible injustice.13 VISION should not try to know how every finished picture will look. My drawings of a housemartin (opposite top) illustrate the importance of repeated study. make a calculation. Leonardo drew to invent a machine. drawing in pursuit of our own thoughts and understanding. stripped-down parts. . Don't be disheartened. Opposite. This also applies if struggling at length with a larger picture. Each fresh image reflects growing confidence and the experience of the preceding study. when it looks tired and still feels wrong. or to discover the best use of a new material. conduct an experiment. Our drawings are annotated investigations into the mechanisms of nature and of an idea. I drew to understand the apparatus of flight. while below. Decide before you start whether you are drawing to warm up. It will be invested through your experience in the new drawing. More was learned drawing the bird 18 times than would have been understood drawing it only once or twice.

temperature. meaning. and allowed to flow through the brush. BRUSHED LANDSCAPE FLOWING SKELETON T h e gliding poise of this walking anatomy comes as much from the feeling of movement as it does from the feeling of drawing. we are advised or even required to plan our pictures. explain the composition. and position in space. feel. and an island brushed with trees. balance. water. You must also think of its intrinsic nature: its purpose. The physicality. and what you discover in the process of making. Know the texture. and opacity of your subject. If you can do this. As you draw any subject—something you see. As your hand meets the paper to make a mark. and practice each part before putting the final image together. fire. size. bone. your marks will become the subject on the paper. I made it almost unconsciously with a pen and a brush. Whatever the material— wood. are both made of ink laid onto wet paper with speed and agile certainty. silk. This suits many artists well and is perfectly valid. Our position asvieweris unsteady. It denies the importance of accident. or imagine—it is not enough to only render its shape. This is a detail of a brush-and-ink drawing by a Japanese Buddhist monk. trusting my intuition to find a visual equivalence for the sensation of weight within my body. excessive planning can get in the way of the imagination. However. declare the idea. it should be responding to the sensation and meaning of the subject it draws. or ice—you must actually feel it beneath your fingers as you draw. These two brush drawings. depth. mists. and paper. metal. Landscape in Haboku Style 15TH CENTURY . This is the alchemy of drawing. They each allowed the energy and focus of the moment to be expressed through controlled accident and a degree of the unknown Both drawings were made trusting the marks. which can offer keys to other things. and at speeds beyond conscious thought. and we can just make out the distant stains of mountains. ink. Imagine these qualities so strongly that you feel them in your mind and at your fingertips.14 INTRODUCTION ALCHEMY At school. W e float toward the quiet vista as it also moves toward us. Each image relied upon past experience to know the probable behavior of the brush. created centuries and cultures apart. and spirit of each subject was held strongly but loosely between the fingertips. We are caught in a shifting focus that makes everything fluid. the unknown. and how it feels to the touch. and sometimes beyond.


c. W a l t e r also makes books: some. which evoke realities o f place and the p o w e r o f moment. gold leaf and spray paint. acrylic. like folded insects. left. Lautrec's flamboyant splashes o f petticoats and pantaloons are drawn with long sweeps of chalk and brushed oil paint.16 INTRODUCTION PLACE A N D MOMENT The heat and teeming atmosphere o f this Parisian dressing room. made by a young British artist who creates alphabets o f the absurd f r o m familiar childhood characters.1896 Woman at her Toilet 41 x 26 in (104 x 66 cm) TOULOUSE LAUTREC RIB-CAGE D R A M A Thus drama. Focusing on the Negative 2004 22 x 30 in (56 x 76 cm) J O H N WALTER . right is set inside a rib cage. pastel. lives on. more than 100 years after its making. He dazzles us with flashes o f light and dabbed marks o f shadow. stand table-sized with furniture legs attached t o b o t h sides of their jacket. one of many luminous works in watercolor.

take your time and don't worry if you need to make several attempts to grasp a concept. Put them away and look at them later. As you follow lessons in this book. Ignore these at first and allow yourself the freedom to play. Try to keep all of your first drawings. and mistakes are a valuable process of learning. just through the act of making. potential ideas still forming. FREEINGTHEHAND . at a point when you feel you are not making progress. you will be surprised and encouraged to see how far you have come. try not to grip your pen worrying about the technical terms you might have heard. even those you dislike. Start by choosing a material you like the look of and cover a piece of paper with different marks. Drawing is exploratory. Much will be learned on these test sheets and in your first drawings. diary-like observations. With no help and advice at all.17 FREEING THE HAND If you are just beginning to learn how to draw. Enjoy discovering what your hand and the material can do. Such books are personal: the territory of new exploration and experiment. One of the advantages of a drawing book is that you can shut it. and miscellaneous items of inspiration. Choose other materials and do the same. you will naturally make progress on your own in response to concentration and the decision to look and draw. Pages do not have to lie open for other people to inspect and comment on. It is yours.

It rarely flourishes in isolation. caught between action and repose. A N ARTIST'S HANDS These are the hands of the artist Phyll Kiggell (see p. and many more reasons for drawing the world. the path is yours. seek ideas in the life around you. Picasso has just finished his drawing. Picasso Painting with Light at the Madoura Pottery 1949 . Note that the drawing classes are allocated to subjects. Drawing is a living language that over millennia has grown and changed. This practical journey will take you through the door into the vivid heart of drawing. To these I have added my own drawings to explain elementary materials and techniques and offer introductory approaches. However. Imagination needs nourishment. Once there. and enfolding new media. The real drawing book has yet to come. The chapters of this book present 90 different artists' ways of seeing. An artist's personal voice is something that also evolves through lessons learned. Look to your own experience and also learn from the work of others. I was particularly attracted to their gentle articulation and understated determination. Its sensuous and flowing line seems to drift like smoke. ELECTRIC BULL With a penlight. Picasso is poised smiling. we still only glimpse a corner of the magnitude of this subject and the infinity of what can be achieved. As you draw. which of course he cannot see. threedimensionally. 150).Their elegant strength seems to summon a lifetime of drawing. In the total wealth of these pages.18 INTRODUCTION THE THINKING EYE Techniques and materials are the grammar and vocabulary of drawing and can be studied and shared. it will be your creation as you discover your own personal vision. staring straight through his image of a bull. it is this voice that is the subtle part of their art and something that ultimately. and became a great subject for me. which is held frozen in space by a camera lens. comes from within. when they are more experienced. adapting its form and occupation. but not confined to them.


H O M E M A D E : I m a d e this b o o k f r o m drawing paper that I folded. Many artists invent ways o f binding their o w n books. Art students often make use of printed books picked up from secondhand stores into which they draw. cheap corrugated plastic ones fall apart in days. If you intend to carry your boards for a distance. N o t e t h e w i d e l y differing c h o i c e o f p a p e r s w i t h w h i c h t h e s e are m a d e . be sure they fit comfortably under your arm. H o w e v e r r i n g bindings o f t e n break. color.20 INTRODUCTION Drawing Books and Papers T o BEGIN YOUR EXPLORATION o f d r a w i n g . Drawing boards are invaluable. 1. C O L O R E D PAPERS: Large a r t supply stores o f t e n sell t h i c k b o o k s full o f c o l o r e d p a p e r s . 6. C A N V A S . BLACK P O C K E T B O O K S : Hand-sized w i t h ready-made elastic binder and a marker ribbon. and cost. is perfect.h a n d s t o r e s make unique subjects f o r e x p e r i m e n t s a n d collage. They can be very expensive in art stores. drawing book. and collage their ideas. Calculate a range of useful dimensions and have several cut at once. R I N G . It is also useful to own a portfolio. t h e i r jackets w i l l a c t like d r a w i n g b o a r d s a n d p r o t e c t y o u r w o r k . stitched. study the structure of a good portfolio and make your own. and handles to lift the weight of your artworks. Alternatively. y o u n e e d a lifetime. There are dozens to choose from. Purchase a h i g h . thickness. A high-quality one will last a DRAWING BOOKS Select d r a w i n g b o o k s t o suit y o u r aims. Gleaming store purchases vary greatly in format. quality. Dissecting a d i s c a r d e d h a r d . a n d crayons.b o u n d b o o k s t h a t fit in y o u r p o c k e t o r bag. cut. F o r traveling. Sand the edges to avoid splinters. ties on either side to keep your papers in place. c h o o s e s m a l l e r h a r d . F o r e v e n i n g classes. c h o o s e larger f o r m a t s t o give y o u s c o p e f o r e x p e r i m e n t .C O V E R E D H A R D B O U N D : Ideal f o r c a r r y i n g a r o u n d . it is better to have them made at a lumber yard or home improvement store. You simply need two strong boards hinged together well. F O U N D B O O K S : O l d p r i n t e d 3 . a l e n g t h o f black elastic t i e d a r o u n d t h e m i d d l e will h o l d the contents together w h e n y o u f o l d in c o l l e c t e d items. texture. and glued t o a s t r i p o f bias binding. binding.B O U N D PADS: T h e s e are t h e least expensive a n d useful f o r o p e n i n g flat. These are perfect f o r w o r k i n g in novels. catalogs.b o u n d b o o k w i l l s o o n s h o w y o u h o w it is m a d e . 5. a n d r e f e r e n c e b o o k s f o u n d in s e c o n d . pastels. 4. b e a w a r e t h a t p a p e r t e x t u r e effects a n d changes t h e i r marks. which are also sold in an enormous range. 2002 Tantalus o r The Future of Man 81/2 x61/4in (215 x 158 mm) ROSE MILLER . t h i s is h o w I l e a r n e d . Homemade books can be assembled easily from found materials or selections of loose sheet papers.q u a l i t y r i n g . c o l o r If planning t o use pencils. Smooth plywood. 2. thick enough not to flex. T h e hardb o a r d j a c k e t is s t r e t c h e d w i t h canvas beneath t h e p a p e r sleeve. Most contain thin p a p e r and are perfect f o r use w i t h disposable pens.b o u n d p a d if y o u w i s h t o keep your drawings together long-term.

turning brown and brittle. Ph. 22. 100% cotton and sold in sheets. FABRIANO INGRES: Thin. or machine made in sheets. and cream sheets or rolls. resisting deterioration. SAUNDERS WATERFORD N O T 300GMS: Mid-quality textured watercolor paper. 7. pastel paper in flecked pastel colors with a distinctive ribbed marking. and other plant fibers. Cotton papers are high-quality and acid-free. not. and hot pressed papers. and translucent. mulberry.5 9 ) for explanations of rough. 17. white textured paper that can take abrasive use of any medium. red. texture. C A N S O N : Inexpensive lightweight pastel paper in many colors. Use for brushwork drawings. and white. bamboo. also good for drawing with colored pencils. METALLIC PAPER: Thin paper in different metallic colors. Use with a brush in clean water Water makes a dark mark like ink and becomes invisible again when dry. It is also excellent for drawing with marker pens on layered sheets. Use cheap paper for rough ideas and quality paper for work to last See the glossary ( p p . 11. They are hand-. ITALIAN PARCHMENT: Imitation-animal-skin parchment that is translucent and slightly waxy. or rolls. blocks. T W O RIVERS Y E L L O W 410GMS: See Two Rivers Green 19. GLASSINE: Sold as protective wrapping. Cheap wood-pulp papers are acidic. absorbency.TISSUE PAPER: Place sheets between drawing book pages to keep images from printing on each other and use for delicate collage. blocks. 15. and cost. cold.Papers differ in thickness (weight). and rolls. it is made from rice. 18. from pencil to paint 9. fine. 14. 12. It is available in white or cream. printed on one side only. tough. 16. mold-. color. 2 5 6 . C A R B O N PAPER: Available in dark and light blue. size. used to imprint lines of these colors onto a surface. 20. yellow. 21. 10. FABRIANO ACADEMIA: Standard medium-range multipurpose paper Use with any media. 8. MAGIC PAPER: A reusable sheet for testing ideas without creating waste. JAPANESE PAPER: Strong. For use with any media. 13. FABRIANO R O U G H 600GMS: Very heavy. PAPERS . AQUARELLE ARCHES 300GMS:The very top quality hot-pressed (smooth) watercolor paper. T W O RIVERS GREEN 410G MS: Very heavy tinted textured cold-pressed watercolor paper See Two Rivers Yellow. smooth. VELIN ARCHES 250GMS: Printmaking paper available in black white.

b u t it should n o t be forgotten that many people make remarkable a n d striking works drawing with their feet or holding their brush or pencil in their mouths. With your hand in this position. How you hold your drawing materials is also important. your whole relaxed b o d y should be involved. place it on the correct side: if right-handed. There should be an open. should be able to look comfortably straight ahead at your picture plane. It will also reflect discomfort if you are in any way cramped. if left-handed. you Drawing classes can be cramped places. In this book we will look at parallels between drawing and music. place it on your left. This photograph illustrates how some people hold a pen to write. . arm. There are also parallels to dance. but wherever possible. and look to the right. your drawing will reflect this. Regularly step back 6-9 ft (2-3 m) to check your progress. From a distance you will spot errors you cannot see close up. but you need to understand that the expression of a line or mark originates in the body and flows t h r o u g h the shoulder. don't sit too close to the paper. If using an upright easel. Turning your drawing sideways or upside-own will also help reveal what is wrong. and subject. This cramped grip tires your hand and makes small. strangledlooking drawings. Placing your easel o n the w r o n g side folds y o u r b o d y against your drawing arm. place it on your right. Relaxed fingers: Hold the pencil away from its tip and relax your fingers. Accelerated perspective also occurs if you look down the surface steeply (see pp. Examples are shown here. make sure you have enough room to back away and view your work.22 INTRODUCTION Posture and Grip T o DRAW WELL. Use the side of your little fingernail as a support on the page. Ideally. If your hand twists to maneuver between the paper and your body. body. If your body posture is well balanced and you can move freely. or with your drawing board angled between your lap and a chair. 116-17). You do not have to dance to draw. SPACE TO WORK Cramped grip. your lines will distort. If seated on a b e n c h easel (a donkey). a n d look to the left of it at your subject. a n d h a n d to the fingertips. you can draw lines freely and achieve a significant arc of movement. You cannot draw like this—your hand is locked and your fingers can barely move. flowing space between your hand.

depending upon what it is and how large you are working. This can give a new lease on life to your mark-making. ALL MEDIA There are no rules as to how you should hold your drawing media. find an unfamiliar. Soft media: Short materials such as pastels and charcoal can be accommodated in the palm. brush pressed against an upright surface will cause a dribble of ink to run down your drawing. or change to the wrong hand. or it can spoil your work if not anticipated. arm.23 This loose "candle" grip is very useful when drawing with your arm extended. liquid will run down your hand. To stop this. . As long as your fingers. It is most comfortable when reaching to draw above your head. upright way of holding the brush near its base is similar to the Japanese way used in Zen calligraphy (see pp. Large amounts of ink can be applied without fear of uncontrolled running if the paper is flat. But be careful not to tense your fingers. not up to the paper Brushes can be used on upright paper but dip Anticipating effects: A fully loaded pens need a level surface. If you turn a brush or dip pen up into the air to draw above your hand. hold your material as you find most comfortable. GRAVITY Remember that gravity affects the flow of ink and paint. Remember you can also draw just by dipping your fingers in pigment—this is how many women draw in rural India. Brush calligraphy: This comfortable.232-33). roughly marking out a large-scale work. and body are not restricted. This can be used to great effect. alternative way of holding the pencil. Large scale: POSTURE AND GRIP U n f a m i l i a r i t y : T h e habitual movements of our handwriting style will sometimes infringe upon our drawing.


" Paranoid newcomers c r a m m e d into swelling industrial cities used handbooks of physiognomy to identify and judge their neighbors. which are so unlike ours. In 19th-century Europe this became a "science. they are perhaps our favorite pictorial preoccupation. we have employed artists on expeditions. and pioneer born c.drawe to lief one of each kinde of thing that is strange to us in England.. fish.Animals H UMANS HAVE DRAWN ANIMALS from the beginning of our time. On the Roanoke voyages of Sir Walter Raleigh. In medieval England. and this very drawing was to endure many copies and plagiarisms after its triumphant return to the English court of Queen Elizabeth I. Facial features were analyzed in terms of their animal likeness. insects. Together they made maps and documented animals. and people. and we still see escapees from its pages carved and grinning as the gargoyles of churches.m o u n t e d skeletons of birds. and learn how to Flying Fish c. " Animals perpetually feed our imaginations. out are now oxidized and so appear black W h e n less preoccupied with understanding ourselves. birds. For the novice artist. 1590 J O H N WHITE capture form and movement from the m a n n e r i s m s of honking geese. This drawing is made in black lead (metal point) with watercolor Highlights of silver would have gleamed. their different speeds and patterns of action. W e have drawn them in m a n u s c r i p t s to explain our genesis and to c o u n t their species into Noah's ark. JOHN WHITE British artist. Here (left) we see J o h n White's exquisite record of a flying fish. W h e n lost to explain our own emotions. offer challenges and delights to draw. and dragons. the Latin bestiary was one of the most popular picture books—an illustrated dictionary of one hundred parts. plants. O v e r the centuries. to be there at the m o m e n t of discovery. from which personality and predicted behavior were " d e d u c e d . After the subject of ourselves. mermaids. As children we delight in the humanized trials of Tom and Jerry and their c a r t o o n relations. 1540. bats. who described in words what White drew. which very likely leaped o n t o the deck of Sir Walter Raleigh's ship Tiger as it sailed north from the Caribbean to Virginia in 1585. cartographer. Europeans on board had never seen such a thing. and silent. In this chapter we discover the use of pens and ink through the delineation of insects. floating turtles. each dedicated to the moralized tale of an animal or monster The bestiary profoundly influenced the art of its period. White's commission was to ". sleeping dogs. and snakes have between them engendered harpies. m u s e u m . Framed in the z o o or in domestic cohabitation. we turn and take the features of beasts. animals provide a perfect subject with which to begin. dogs." He worked with the scientist Thomas Harriot.. and to bring h o m e drawn documentaries of their finds. 11 x91/4in (277 x 234 mm) . or scampering through the initials and borders of pictures from that time. werewolves. We have drawn them on the walls of caves to evoke their kinship and power.

inspiring countless works of art and so touching people's imaginations that later. Meanwhile. filled journals with ideas and observations. Durer's image changed eager hands until it was known across Europe. years after its publication. the home of ALBRECHT DURER German Renaissance painter. it continued its journey to Rome. it is still consulted by veterinarians today. Contemporary texts related accounts of the beast as the mortal enemy of the elephant and rare relative of the "more common" unicorn. Converted into a print. a drawing of it arrived in Nuremberg. Sailing to Rome. Carefully stuffed. the ship was lost. DURER'S RHINOCEROS AND STUBBS'S skeletal Durer. they were rejected. but the drowned animal washed ashore. He in turn sent the mysterious creature to the Pope via Marseilles at the request of the King of France. It is such a lifelike triumph of imagination and intelligence that for centuries zoologists never questioned its authority. a gift to the Portuguese King. and mathematician. writer. naturalist.26 ANIMALS Documentaries horse are superb affirmations of the power of drawing as a recorder and communicator of knowledge. when more accurate portrayals were made without armor and scales. It was to become the animal's only accepted likeness for 250 years. Life-like This is Durer's original quill-and-ink drawing made after an anonymous Portuguese drawing. Durer traveled widely to study at different European schools of art. The first live rhinoceros to reach Europe came from India in May 1515. Stubbs's Anatomy of the Horse achieved similar documentary status. Unsurpassed. He studied the image and drew his own interpretation. and wrote four books on proportion. Original Ink Drawing of a Rhinoceros 1515 ALBRECHT DURER 103/4 x 161/2 in ( 2 7 4 x 4 2 0 mm) . draftsman. printmaker.

c o m p r i s e s 1 8 p l a t e s s h o w i n g d i s s e c t i o n s in l a y e r s f r o m b o n e t h r o u g h m u s c u l a t u r e t o skin. Lighting Stubbs's breathtaking international work won immediate There acclaim. a n d s i d e . a n d anatomist. and therefore invented the lighting that Compare how Stubbs and Durer both invented lighting to portray the reality of their animals. dissecting and drawing until he understood the mechanisms of its power and grace. His painted p o r t r a i t o f t h e b e a s t is in t h e R o y a l C o l l e g e o f S u r g e o n s o f England. Dissections Stubbs took his knife and his pencil and physically climbed inside the horse.GEORGE STUBBS B r i t i s h e q u i n e a n d s o c i e t y p o r t r a i t painter. He translated his own drawings into engravings for publication. Anatomy of the Horse. The entire project was developed over ten years. composed from notes and observations. This is one of Stubbs' original finished pencil drawings. Stubbs w a s o n e o f t h e first E u r o p e a n artists t o m a k e a n a c c u r a t e representation o f the rhinoceros. Stubbs's m o s t c e l e b r a t e d publication. Table of the III of the Horse (rear Skeleton view) mm) 1756-58 1 4 x 7 in ( 3 5 4 x 1 8 0 GEORGE STUBBS . in t h r e e v i e w s — r e a r f r o n t . He composed makes each horse appear so real and each plate from his three-dimensional. which has never diminished. Dissections were made over a total of 18 months. naturalist. knowledge of parts. is no other work like it. L o n d o n .

and leader of the French Romantic movement. and her distinctive temperament. snarl. coal dust. Gericault took a sharp p e n c i l to m a k e repeated direct o b s e r v a t i o n s f r o m life. He has w a t c h e d her p o u n c e . sepia. novelist. conjured b y the hand of a great author of French literary fiction. more or less what I have in view. I've ended up mixing in pencil.28 ANIMALS Presence and Mood THESE DRAWINGS HAVE BEEN CHOSEN to s h o w t w o v e r y different ways of picturing a wild animal. Hugo's novels Les Miserables and Dame have become classics of film and stage. He wrote to poet and art critic Charles-Pierre Baudelaire about his experiments. VICTOR HUGO Poet.. H u g o mixed his media and drew from m e m o r y and imagination to create narrative atmosphere. Surrounding sprays of graphite powder are stuck into washes of oil and ink to suggest glutinous depths. Mixed media Here. ink and linseed oil on paper. Hugo's page is f l o o d e d w i t h the fearful presence of a remembered octopus.. and Pieuvre 1866-69 91/2 x81/8in (242 x 207 mm) VICTOR H U G O . playwright. Hugo used graphite powder. it silently rises to the light. drama. The Hunchback of Notre Layers and shadows Throughout this drawing. The octopus is formed in layers applied and distressed with a brush.. His copious drawings are characterized by mixed media.. her b o n y frame. soot. Apparently drawn in its o w n ink. and a love of accident. drawing her again and again to pin d o w n the texture of her loose skin. linseed oil soaked into the paper has made shadows and repelled the ink to create translucent tentacles. and turn. By contrast.". charcoal. Gericault's sheet a p p e a r s almost s c r a t c h e d b y the f e r o c i o u s play of his cat. and all sorts of bizarre concoctions which manage to convey above all in mind. the ominous beast unwinds from the dark of the sea and of our nightmares. her sharp teeth. saying ". A s if disturbed from its gritty b e d by our presence and curiosity.

horses w e r e a favorite subject t o g e t h e r w i t h politics and history. parallel. Repeated study This drawing demonstrates of feeling confident repeat different the importance subject Remaining enough to isolate parts of a views. At the center of the page is crammed drawings the outline of a horse. 144. Here. 124-25 and p. of drawings Gericault erased. and keep trying again. artists reused sheets and them full of studies. Before paper became so cheap. focused upon seeing will lead to a greater understanding of the subject Much is learned from repeated study. fiery.29 THEODORE GERICAULT C o n t r o v e r s i a l . displayed in the Louvre.l i v e d French R o m a n t i c painter and lithographer Largely self-taught. The Raft of the Medusa. diagonal strokes of his pencil. s h o r t . Tones that do not follow surface contour is very difficult to do well. H e is best k n o w n f o r his gigantic painting. Undertraces Beneath these graphite studies we see traces Tones On the top row we see clearly how Gericault laid broad areas of tone using fast. Paris. standing sideways. and it can be applied to any subject (see pp. of previous Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 1817-18 121/2 x 151/2 in ( 3 1 9 x 3 9 8 mm) T H E O D O R E GERICAULT .118-119). Beginners are advised to follow the natural contours of form as shown on pp. since it can lead to a flattened form. facing right. undertraces unify and vitalize the composition.

flapping bird. quivering horse. His powdery. These media complement and amplify each other with their brilliant contrast. Ink and gouache This drawing is made in black Chinese ink and gouache (opaque watercolor) applied with a brush. slow tortoise. Artists commonly focus on such actions. Klee's riders are constructed from all the gestures of greeting mules. or proud. In Picasso's drawing. Faune. gray. dissolving faun kneels stranded. In these two drawings. Gouache is brushed softly in translucent hazy layers of cool blue. and waves breaking distantly below. Cheval et Oiseau 1936 173/8 x 211/4 in ( 4 4 0 x 5 4 0 m m ) PABLO PICASSO . flattened animals composed almost entirely of movement. Picasso cofounded Cubism. His hand must have shuddered and twitched just like the constant actions of this humorous meeting. overwhelmed by a screeching bird. and scrolled lines. noise is everywhere. the whinnying of a frantic horse. draftsman. Both Picasso and Klee have enclosed their subjects to compress and amplify the speed of PABLO PICASSO A prolific Spanish painter sculptor. taking them to guide their hand in bringing form and essence together. the first abstract movement of the 20th century. The fact that they never stand still influences the movement in his line. identify an animal: the fast cheetah. The ink is used to make sharply defined solid. hooked. made only a year apart.30 ANIMALS Movement M O V E M E N T IS OFTEN THE CHARACTERISTIC b y w h i c h w e their lines and the power of their beasts. with George Braque (see p90). and brown. we see semi-abstract. printmaker ceramicist graphic and stage designer who lived in France.

and t e a c h e r at t h e Bauhaus school. turning our eye and around inside the and postures of the paper- thin on pictorial space. violinist. sculptor. draftsman. Chicago PAUL KLEE . He is a u t h o r o f The Thinking Eye (1923)." They chatter around bodies in groups. They remain in contact with the surface of the page and scribble back and forth as they maneuver from one area to another. top all happily of each other in the Endless lines Look closely at how Klee's lines rarely leave the paper and how they are free from the constraint of finite shape. Layers of marks In this pale Dentil drawing we see layers of' agitated marks that together present a kind of visual "itch. printmaker. The entire drawing suggests the endless small movements of horses standing still. Scene der Komischen of Comical Reiter Riders) (Scene 1935 161/2x111/2in ( 4 1 9 x 2 9 1 mm) M o r t o n G . creatures. W i t h his drawings Kleeb o u n d sophisticated theories to personal and often witty childlike imagery. N e u m a n n Family Collection. well-worn copies o f w h i c h are found in m a n y art schools.PAUL KLEE Swiss painter.

the expression of its eye. mathematician. Knopf's drawing opposite is the personal enigmatic expression of a mind gripped by illness. Below we see his revolutionary design for an Elizabethan warship. B a k e r initiated t h e scientific p r a c t i c e o f naval a r c h i t e c t u r e and applied h y d r o d y n a m i c s . This drawing illustrates Baker's theory. Exquisite details in this drawing include the lips of the fish. and s e c t i o n s o f ships. It is simply how we read his perspective. Baker did not intend this. adding washes of color with a fine brush. plans. fins. In just one drawing he has displayed more angles of his design than we would expect to see from a single viewpoint Fragments English 1586 101/2 x 153/8 in (270 x 390 mm) MATTHEW BAKER of Ancient Shipwrightry . which in application gave strength and advantage to the English fighting the Spanish Armada. The ship The upper decks of the ship appear curved toward us at both ends. Baker lived in an era when ships were built without drawn plans. and to assess our next move. later called a galleon. slim stern). it would achieve greater speed. t h e earliest geometrically defined elevations. drawings of animals that are each held tightly in a surprising space: a giant fish wears a ship's hull. and blackbirds fly in formation through a mosaic of text. and scales. His birds stare. balance. seemingly looking for our attention. and author o f Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (1586). and from them learned that if he designed his ship with a "cod's head MATTHEW BAKER Master shipwright. and the carefully observed gills.32 ANIMALS Icon and Design IN THESE T W O MANUSCRIPTS we discover diagrammatic and mackerel's tail" (full bow. In contrast to the practical clarity of Baker's thought. and steerage. The fish It is likely that Baker drew with a quill dipped in irongall ink. b a s e d o n his studies o f fish. He studied the anatomy of fish.

firmly outlined. circle and the birds. T h e G e r m a n a r t historian Outline and tone The blackbirds illuminating this frantic manuscript are drawn in pencil. appears to be stirred like water by the presence of the The Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks UNDATED 133/8 x 115/8 in (340 x 2 9 6 mm) and psychiatrist Hans Prinzhom collected this image. JOHANN KNOPF . and filled evenly with tone.K n o p f b e l i e v e d h e c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h e language o f birds. written last of all. The main group is placed in a circle drawn with a compass.JOHANN KNOPF An " O u t s i d e r " a r t i s t w h o s u f f e r e d f r o m m e n t a l illness. w h i c h o f t e n f e a t u r e as s y m b o l i c creatures in his drawings. numbered. The text.

Avoid needle-sharp mapping pens. Dip pens began their history in the Nile River. Masters choose brands of long. PENS . The Egyptians and Chinese are credited with the invention of carbon ink. METAL PENS: Inexpensive removable steel nibs are available in a range of widths.34 ANIMALS Pen and Ink W I T H A HANDFUL OF FEATHERS. while metal nibs began as rare gifts in gold and silver before being perfected by the British steel industry. simultaneously 4 . F O U N T A I N PENS: These vary in quality and nib width.246-47). The bar is then rubbed into water on a slate block to produce ink. they are associated with rapid. and spatters can be made with an exotic choice of inks. 2. A German recipe of 1531 gives a simple description: "Take a wax candle. Today. 4. s t i c k s . expressive drawing techniques such as the ones we explore in this chapter 1. They fit into wooden holders. and it is still in use today. The Chinese used animal or fish glue. from the acacia tree. the recipes for which have been handed down over centuries. Quills were later cut from feathers. Only fill with suitable inks. spots. 3. In the Far East. The best are goose or swan. you can have great fun drawing the world around you. light it. The paste from either recipe is pressed and dried into a bar for storage. distinguished manufacture. and hold it under a clean basin until the soot hangs to it. which range greatly in their handling and character of line. and first used by the Egyptians. REED PENS: A broad nib can be cut from bamboo or another tubular grass. a n d m e t a l p o i n t s . Early artists recommended raven and crow for especially fine work. 5 0 0 years ago." "Gum" refers to gum arabic extracted Dip pens are essential and inexpensive drawing tools. That is an ink. The reservoir gives a constant flow of ink for very long unbroken lines and continuous bottle-free use. Responsive to slight changes in pressure. Intricate or dramatic lines. high-quality Chinese and Japanese inks are subtler and more complex than those produced in Europe. Each pen has a unique character. which scratch rather than draw. QUILLS: These are cut from the barrel of a flight or tail feather. producing a different line. ink is traditionally applied with a brush (see pp. then pour a little warm gum water into it and temper the two together. where reeds were gathered.

C A R B O N INK: Traditionally produced from oil or resin soot (Lamp Black). and can be mixed and diluted to create subtler colors and tones. they produce a golden dye for drawing. The complexities of traditional iron-gall ink are explained on p. and most can be homemade. . Now we also have acrylic ranges in many colors. charred bone (Ivory Black). an often misused term. They are the easiest inks to use. ACRYLIC / CALLIGRAPHY INKS: Available in black and a range of colors. Excellent for drawing they are bright and non-clogging. Old stock turns solid and bottlesChina. suspended in a binder and stored as a solid block Blocks are imported today 7. dated. Waterproof types contain shellac. boiled. roastedwine sediment (Yeast Black).35 PEN AND INK Four types of ink were common before the 20th century. 8. 5. INKS 9.36. I R O N . SEPIA A N D BISTRE INKS: Sepia. Bistre is the more humane use of soot scraped from the fireplace and ground into wine. Beechwood soot is best.G A L L INK: Abnormal spherical growths caused by parasitic wasps can be collected from some oak trees in fall. is the ink of a cuttlefish or squid extracted post-mortem. iron-gall. and sieved. Inks can be lightfast or non-lightfast. waterproof or non-waterproof. It dries with a sheen and clogs uncleaned pens. reduced. Crushed. and sepia. or charcoal. Non-waterproof Indian inks can be reworked with a wet brush after drying. bistre. and are still in use today: carbon (Chinese and Indian). from are not 6. I N D I A N INK: Carbon ink sold today in liquid form.

appears broken to show paper beneath. reduced. For centuries. of a loaded nib. can also be collected from affected trees. Oak galls. Scribes o f t h e M i d d l e Ages. giving longer lines. a n d d e v e l o p e d t h e quill instead. crushed.36 ANIMALS Drawing With Ink To MAKE A QUILL OR REED PEN. Paler strokes were made where the mark has the legs and antennae the ink ran out. Walnut ink is gloopy. d r y mark. I u s e d t h e s e qualities t o d r a w t h e w o r m s above. forming the REED PENS R e e dpens dispense ink quickly. 2 4 4 is an e x q u i s i t e e x a m p l e . Quills are also called D u t c h pens. and delicious to draw with. giving a s h o r t . red-brown. t h e y stick a n d j u d d e r f o r w a r d . always be cautious when experimenting with recipes. for example. Rembrandt. It dried black.) You can make ink easily from the boiled. r e s e r v e d t h e i r use f o r large c h o i r b o o k s . Some of Michelangelo's drawings are now a little eaten by their own ink. Practice to gain a feel for how materials behave. . T h e y give a finer. U n d e r heavy pressure. a n d M a t i s s e also e n j o y e d t h e m . and turned brown with time. M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s d r a g o n o n p . Running fresh. V a n G o g h . QUILL PENS Q u i l l s a r e highly r e s p o n s i v e t o c h a n g e s in p r e s s u r e . the blade and cut away from you. The darkest of this grasshopper wings) were made (around the head first. drawn to glisten with a dryer nib. Reed marks The darker left wing of this beetle was drawn with the wet inky stroke wing. and boiled to make a golden ink. are surprisingly tough. it was gray-purple. finding reed p e n s unwieldy. Although oak galls and walnut skins are harmless. fleshy skins that surround ripe walnuts. galls were ground with iron sulfate to make an unstable solution. then cut a final nib (feathers. The lighter right Quill marks Quills carry more ink than strokes and for as reeds. sieved. since t h e D u t c h w e r e t h e first t o realize t h a t they could be hardened and i m p r o v e d w i t h heat t r e a t m e n t in ash o r sand. keep all your fingers behind basis of iron-gall ink. It also oxidized and ate or burned paper. Collect skins from the ground beneath trees once they are blackened. m o r e e x t e n d e d line than reed and a m o r e organic line t h a n m e t a l .

it is important to feel for when the ink will run out and to know how much ink you pick up when dipping the nib. breaking. clean strokes. giving a graded. they splay to make thick o r double lines. withstanding great pressure without sticking. . DRAWING WITH INK Filled outlines Each segment of wing was outlined. tonal Ink layers The wings of this beetle were drawn in layers using black and white ink on pale gray paper. particles then filled with a droplet of ink. When using dip pens.37 METAL PENS Metal pens give long. The of pigment to fall to the edges effect of the shape. Each layer of of the drying droplet dome the drawing was left to dry before adding more. White markings were drawn last Tones Here we see subtle tones of diluted ink beneath the undiluted black rim of a beetle's wing. W h e n the nib is pressed upside down. o r being ruined as fountain pens would be under the same pressure. marks become fine and needle-sharp. Loaded with ink and pressed hard. sharp.

Cover a sheet. make another one. Take a cup and water for diluting a range of tones. Focus on the geese. It happens that goose feathers also provide artists with the best type of quills. Focus on it. and a large drawing book or plenty of paper Use masking tape to secure pages against the wind." If you don't like a stroke. MATERIALS NEEDED Look for a bird expressing a simple posture. draw what the bird is doing. Pack plenty of tissue around a bottle of calligraphy or acrylic ink. Take no more than ten seconds to draw each one and make lots of drawings. and be brave. Watch their heavy feathered bodies flap. That said. to absorb blots when drawing. so pick a spot where other people can keep them entertained. It teaches confidence and focus through intensive repetition. not on your drawing. there is no obligation to prepare a quill. test your limits.38 ANIMALS Capturing Character GEESE ARE EXCELLENT SUBJECTS to draw when practicing the first use of pen and ink. Experiment. You cannot break the nib. and there is no "wrong. and bellyflop off the waterside. and boldly plunge into your drawing. Empathize. touch the bottle's rim to drain the excess. Cover your drawing book pages in speedy responses to the geese and try to capture each bird in as few lines as possible. Try to hold the whole posture in your mind's eye. I covered eleven sheets in sixty quick drawings—in less than an hour. Study them before drawing. Illustrating this exercise on Oxford Port Meadow. Posture . Dip your pen in ink. Geese are nosy birds. steel nibs are fine. Attempt with a loose hand to capture their posture and outline. be bold and press firmly. waddle. Quick drawing trains you to see what is most important about a subject and to mark only its most essential expression. and quickly draw around it using only three or four strokes.

running. Use more lines than before to express these. flapping. Avoid detail unless really tempted by a close-up visit Fluctuate the pressure of your pen in response to how you know the bird would feel if you touched it. look among the birds for more complicated actions such as shaking off water. CAPTURING CHARACTER Texture Gradually allow yourself more lines to describe the texture of each bird as well as its posture and action.39 Action With growing confidence. . and diving. draw the feeling of what you see. and don't worry about mechanical facts or accuracy. Again.

Make a test sheet to discover your control of diluting on the nib. Dip the nib quickly again into water and again drain it. and drain the excess by touching the nib against the rim of the bottle. Now it will make a pale line. and personality. Then dip the nib quickly into a glass of water and drain the excess again. your drawing book. and a tissue for blotting drawn lines that appear too dark." . first dip your pen in ink.34-37). form. Sleeping animals present the artist with ideal opportunities to study their texture. engaged in his and everyone else's business. a dip pen and ink of your choice (see pp. This will give a medium-gray line. These drawings are not an analysis of his anatomy or breed but the expression of his satisfied comfort in a deep sleep after a night out on the together with a glass of water for diluting tones on the nib. MAKING A PALE LINE To make a pale line. a d o g w h o w a s a l w a y s town. and even then he twitched and stretched in dreams. For this class you will need one oblivious dog. Ras Curled Up Asleep "Capturing the true character of a cherished companion is best achieved with objective determination rather than sentimental shyness. The only time he remained still was when he was sleeping.40 ANIMALS Sleeping Dogs R A S WAS A GREAT CHARACTER.

Layers o f thoughts can bring a drawing alive. see how the animal's posture determines its whole shape. D o not go back over lines you are pleased with—doing so dulls their lively freshness. in bold layers.41 DRAWING YOUR DOG Be bold in this exercise. tail. second thoughts may be different Changing your mind is a positive aspect o f seeing and thinking. 3 Gradually introduce darker tones. quickly draw what you see. c o n c e r n e d a b o u t detail. 2 Reload your pen with ink. W i t h pale lies. Remain focused on the whole dog and. this time to create a line a little darker in tone. Character is better captured drawing quickly with confidence than w o r k i n g slowly.It is essential when drawing any subject (even something abstract) to know how it feels andtoemulate this with your line. Trust your intuition. Here. ears. and the shadows in his coat. Then I immediately rebalanced the drawing with lines around his hind quarters. ignoring all detail. SLEEPING DOGS 1 Fix your eyes at the center of the dog. to emphasize how he is curled up. Here I marked the features of Ras's head. First lines are first thoughts. I added ink to Ras's nose. Then. alter the pressure and moisture of your line in response to howyouknow your dog feels when you ruffle itscoat. To add texture. add more detail. .

THE ELONGATION AND BUOYANCY of a group of turtles is fascinating . offering plenty of time for the artist to draw the pose. Beyond the glass wall of the aquarium. turtles often pause unexpectedly. as if caught in a camera freeze-frame. A perfect subject for the beginner. swinging their limbs and shells with a slow circular movement. they stretch and paddle.Turtles to observe.


balance. With speed. and sharp. I made repeated studies of the housemartin to discover its mechanism of flight. I darkened lines as each drawing progressed. I sought to capture the form. Beginning with very pale tones. and water. dry. India ink.Dry Birds THESE ARE THE ARTICULATED BONES o f a k i w i a n d a h o u s e - martin drawn in a museum using a steel pen. weightlessness of the kiwi. .



an There are close parallels between the acts of gardening and drawing. Fledgling years Botanist and apothecary who compiled the Hortus Eystettensis of scientific research bore manifold explosions of knowledge in a fever of discovery. PriceBishopof Eichstatt specimens. He sent boxes of plants to Nuremburgburned with the urgency and excitement of explaining every plant's form. From its history there is one overriding lesson to be learned: the importance of looking and seeing with our own eyes. and focus. season. 1613 187/8x153/4in(480 x 400 mm) BASILIUS BESLER . The revolution came in the 1530s. Chapters are arranged by out. the punctuation of space with structure and mass. Plants are the principal inspiration of the decorative arts—from Roman Corinthian columns crowned with carved leaves of the acanthus. B A S I L I U SBESLER when botanists founded new work upon the direct study of plants. shape.Morethan 1. to the proliferation of floral designs with which we have dressed ourselves and furnished our homes for centuries.Plants and Gardens W E SHARE THIS PLANET with the more ancient. the microscope was refined to unfold yet another world. manipulations of light and shade. and beauty. Early European illustrators were trapped within dogma that was determined by ancient scholarship. to catalog our knowledge. we see very different cultural visions of plants and gardens and use pencils and plants to learn the pictorial values of space. Patrons funded the breeding of decorative. robust. After Here Aconthus spinosus is combined with forget-me-nots and-a-half centuries of intensive observation. and the Acanthus spinosus constant but exhilarating struggle to make a living image feel right. nurture. and diverse kingdom of plants. color.000 species of plants are depicted life-size drawn. It was published plain in 1611 and withhand-paintedplates in poured off ships returning from the New World and were eagerly collected and 1613. infinitely vivid. and hybridize them for our sustenance and pleasure. Botanical illustration is a precisely defined and scientific art. Rich owners of private gardens commissioned large-format florilegiums commissioned the volume to document his private garden to immortalize their personal taste and power of acquisition. —-the largest and most influential botanical book of the early Natural scientists accompanied explorers to document unknown finds. and to ornament our lives. Later. In this chapter. We collect. Conrad von Gemmingen. Classifications were set in367copperengravings. Plants seventeenth century. as opposed to only herbal. We draw them to celebrate their beauty and range. and texture. Botanic gardens were established and expanded. Both embrace the anticipation of evolving shape. and the drawn pages ofthesame name. form. where a number of uncredited artistsd r e wthem for Besler. we now have laid before us fourto show how well their colours complement each other infinite wealth of material to explore. on which our lives depend. Medieval knowledge was not gained by the first-hand observation of life but by reading.

Outline Bauer prepared a pencil outline before laying in fleshy succulent hues and tones of watercolor.48 PLANTS AND GARDENS THE SCIENTIFIC VALUE OF A BOTANICAL DRAWING lies i n its Botanical Studies were specimens that often refused to stay still. Here. It is likely Bauer would have studied these under a microscope. Stella Ross-Craig said of the need to d r a w from a dried herbarium plant "I could make it live again." Her slipper orchid s h o w s that botanical drawing must often resolve the challenge of its subject's p r o d u c i n g parts in different seasons — r o o t s . or that were diseased. fruit. o p t i m i s m . insect-ravaged. delicate. W i t h bright F R A N Z BAUER An Austrian artist who trained at the Schonbrunn Imperial Gardens in Vienna. and wilted. naturalist explorer and advisor to King George III invited Bauer to London in 1 7 9 0 . subtle union of beauty. and seeds conventionally a p p e a r o n o n e plate. The King was then establishing the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. Light in this drawing is given by the paleness of the paper showing between washes of darker tones. leaves. and meticulous precision. stems. detail. B e h i n d detailed. o p e n i n g a n d c l o s i n g i n the w a r m t h a n d light of the studio. He has made the spatial and physical relationships in this drawing all the more real by placing a single. petal tip over a lower leaf Protea nitida 201/4 x141/4in (513 x 362 mm) FRANZ BAUER 1796 . s u c h as w e see here in Bauer's Protea nitida. flowers. M a c k i n t o s h e x p r e s s e s the f o l d e d petals of a broken rose b u d so delicately w e can sense the perfume. They are counted among the most accomplished 18th-century botanical artists. T h e rest of u s are free to d r a w as w e w i s h . Sir Joseph Banks. and Franz Bauer and his brother Ferdinand were employed there to draw specimens. Dissections Across the lower part of this drawing we can see dissections of seed pods and petals. measured drawings. Each plant must b e clearly distinguished from its closest relative. Botanical art c o n c e a l s the challenge of its m a k i n g .

a m o n g o t h e r s .. p u b l i s h e d 1 9 4 8 . sensual pencil drawing is later works. K e w . A s m a n y of her drawings are kept G a r d e n s .000 Kew to archive accessible t o d a y v i a t h e I n t e r n e t of o n British flora..7 3 in 3 1 p a r t s . 1970 x 81/4 in ( 3 2 5 x 2 1 0 m m ) STELLA ROSS-CRAIG . Pencil lines cling to. Ross-Craig said of her work "Plants that wither rapidly present a very difficult problem to which there is only one answer—speed. found among Mackintosh's than reality. and it shows how design." This line drawing is one of 1. and follow shadow. BOTANICAL STUDIES Lines and shadows This lush. Curtis's Botanical Magazine. is r e c o g n i z e d as tne m o s t c o m p l e t e a n d i m p o r t a n t work 3. imagination. a n d he inspired. a n d f o u n d e r o f t h e G l a s g o w S c h o o l o f A r t M a c k i n t o s h ' s flair h a d an e n o r m o u s i n f l u e n c e o n t h e a v a n t . H e r Drawings of British Plants. Rose 1894 103/4 x 83/4 in ( 2 7 5 x 2 2 1 mm) CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH STELLA ROSS-CRAIG A j o i n e d t h e staff a t t h e R o y a l B o t a n i c G a r d e n s .g a r d e in G e r m a n y a n d A u s t r i a . L o n d o n in 1 9 2 9 . Closer to fiction can come together perfectly. G u s t a v K l i m t In his r e t i r e m e n t Mackintosh m a d e n u m e r o u s inventive pencil a n d w a t e r c o l o r d r a w i n g s o f plants.286 studies for her book Drawings of British Plants. Line Drawing of Cypripedium calceolus L c.49 C H A R L E S RENNIE MACKINTOSH Scottish a r c h i t e c t d e s i g n e r painter. it is small and discreet. as at trained botanical artist Ross-Craig Swift lines The drawing was planned in pencil and then overworked with a lithographic pen. and observation the nuance and contour of every in one image. S h e also o f thousands o f contributed an drawings. and speed depends upon the immediate perception of the essential characteristics of the plant. and perfect coordination of hand and eye.

The first Mughal Emperor Babur's Garden of Fidelity (Bagh-e Vaja). is remembered in the pages of his journal. Babur directs his gardeners in the design and planting of this quartered chahar bagh. Drawing. roses took their form in a bead of perspiration on the brow of Mohammed as he passed through his heavenly journey. Envoys chatter outside the gate. the sumptuous petals permeated with prayer and wisdom. and attention to detail are all shared with medieval European manuscript drawings. Below. The white of the page shines through the brilliant color. By Muslim tradition. Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity c.50 PLANTS AND GARDENS Jeweled Gardens the Middle East we find exquisite stylization of form and upright formality in pictorial space. 1590 85/8 x55/8in (219 x 1 4 4 mm) BISHNDAS AND NANHA Bright pigment These pages were illuminated by Mughal artists in the late 16th century. and calligraphy are brought together to hold the sacred names of prophets and the 99 beautiful names of God. urgent attentive human activity. in miniature. painting. Upright shallow perspectives. in the early 16th century. They used a fine brush to lay pigment over a line drawing. paper is brimming with the beauty and celebration of nature. fluctuations in scale. and miraculous growth. . and Nanha. Bishndas was probably responsible for the overall design. anticipating their view. Opposite is the Rose of Mohammed. a notable portrait painter drew the faces. which he personally created near Kabul. Afghanistan. uniform focus. Every fiber of AMONG DRAWINGS FROM BISHNDAS A N D N A N H A Little is known of these Mughal painters who were related as uncle and nephew and commissioned to illustrate the pages of Babur's journal.

fragmenting its detail in a whisper of prayers. G e r m a n y . Sacred words The central rose is more solid than any other on the page. so that overlapping petals and stems give an impression of fulfillment and abundance. and how the shape has been repeated freehand. look closely and you will see words written in gold fluttering over the form of the flower. However. t h e Staatsbibliothek zu Arabic. The Rose of Mohammed 1708 9 1 / 2 x 61/2 in ( 2 4 0 x 1 6 5 mm) FROM THE TURKISH M A N U S C R I P T AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH . The physical anatomy of the rosebud has been studied and translated into a repeated stylized motif. Stylized motif A fine brush has been used throughout this drawing to apply inks and watercolors.AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH This is a detail o f a page from a n 1 8 t h .c e n t u r y Turkish manuscnpt a book of religious e t h i c s w r i t t e n in the O r i e n t a l C o l l e c t i o n s of Berlin. It is n o w k e p t in Border The elegant border of this drawing was mode with a pen and ruler It cleverly compresses and defines the composition. Note how each bud is essentially the same shape.



Fast Trees
IN CONTRAST TO THE QUIET, formal detail of other drawings in this chapter, these powerful fast trees enact the actions of plants. Each tree reaches out and holds its landscape with dynamism and pulse. In both drawings we find testament to the inexorable energy of growth. Rembrandt expresses a delicate quickness. Gentle lines draw a warm breeze through this remote wooded garden. Rustling in a loose foliage of soft marks, his pen evokes the weight of abundant activity on this late summer's day. Mondrian's arch of scratching branches is drawn with such force it will always be alive. We can still feel his hand storming across the paper. Set within a frame of smudged landscape, the tree possesses a musical agitation. This characteristic will increase in the artist's later abstract work. Here, we see a punctuated ordering of space. Sharp branches cut out negative shapes of winter sky.

R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter; etcher; and draftsman. Rembrandt's prolific output comprises oil paintings of historical and religious subjects together with group and self- portraits. His emotive etchings and pen and ink drawings (see also p. 174) are great resources for artists learning to understand the potential of these media.


Pen and ink lines describing foliage also tell

us the directions of sunlight and wind. An arc crossing the bottom of the drawing from one side to the other supports the scene and separates us from the landscape beyond. Compare Rembrandt's arc to that of Mondrian's. and note the similar treatment of low horizons in both works emphasizing the height and dominance of trees.

Cottage Among Trees 1648-50 63/4 x121/8in ( I 7 I x 308 mm) R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN





Atmosphere Here we see how shapes of negative space are as important as the physical subject they enclose (see pp.58-59). Mondrian has again lightly dragged his chalk on its side to evoke a wet depth of atmosphere. These passive gray marks contrast with the assertive tension of the tree.

Dutch Pure abstract painter preoccupied w i t h line and plane relationships. W i t h increasing austerity, Mondrian banished t h e subject from his drawings, in his later w o r k he also banished space, composing visual h a r m o n i e s using only straight lines a n d flat planes o f black, w h i t e , gray, o r p r i m a r y color.

Winter ground Short vertical marks along thebottomof this drawing reveal the length oftheblackchalk Mondrian used. Rubbed onitsside,itroughly blocks in the ground. Thecrudeeconomy of line is all we need tofeelthecold, wet, unwelcoming quality ofthiswinterearth.

Branches and trunk Lines shaping the branches of the tree are built up in layers. To make the trunk more dense, the artist has rubbed and smudged preliminary marks with his fingers before firmly overdrawing with new lines. Solid black lines are achieved by pressing the chalk hard. When used lightly, it shows the texture of the paper. Tree: Study for the Grey 1911 23 x 335/8 in ( 5 8 4 x 8 5 5 m m ) Tree




Graphite and Erasers

This drawing illustrates a range of achieved with graphite pencils of different grades.


Modern pencils are graded from 9H (hard and pale) to 9B (black and soft). Graphiteclay sticks are also available, together with a powder form. All possess a natural sheen and are erasable to a varying degree. Graphite drawings smudge easily, so fixative, a form of varnish, can be used to hold a drawn surface in place. It is applied as a fine mist from an aerosol can, or from a bottle using a diffuser. For the beginner, ordinary hairspray is an effective and cheaper alternative.

(to write), is a soft and brittle carbon. It was first mined in Cumbria, England, in 1 5 6 4 , and was initially used in small, pure pieces bound in lengths of string. Pencils as we know them—with their slender wood casing and "lead" of graphite—were invented in France in 1794 by Nicolas-Jaques Conte. He discovered that milled graphite mixed with clay and water, press-molded, and baked to a high temperature produces a harder and paler medium than graphite alone.

3B pencil A range of mark and textures can be achieved with a 3B pencil when you vary its pressure, speed, and direction, as this detail shows.

Here is a selection of 14 items to illustrate a basic range of pencils, graphite sticks, sharpeners, erasers, and fixative.
1. AND 2. HB AND 3B PENCILS: It is unnecessary to possess every grade of pencil. HB, the central and most common grade, is perfect for making delicate lines. 3B gives a blacker tone. A great variety of effects can be achieved with just these two. 3. WATER-SOLUBLE PENCIL Effective for atmospheric drawing, but be aware of how watery tones can dull the impact of the line. 4. AND 5. MECHANICAL PENCIL Thick or fine leads are made in a range of grades. They are particularly useful because they do not require a sharpener 6. ROUND SOLID GRAPHITE PENCIL: Excellent for large-scale drawing, producing thick bold lines. A range of grades can be honed with a craft knife or sharpener 7. THICK GRAPHITE STICK: For large-scale drawing. Graded soft, medium, and hard. It crushes to produce graphite powder 8. SQUARE GRAPHITE STICK: Useful for making broad, sweeping marks in large-scale drawing. If worn and rounded, the stick can be snapped into pieces to regain the sharp, square end. 9. CRAFT KNIFE AND BLADES: Handles are sold in two sizes to fit large or small blades, and blades are sold in a range of shapes. Perfect for sharpening pencils to a long point, to cut lines in paper or to remove areas. 10. PENCIL SHARPENER: Makes a uniform point. Keep one in your pocket for drawing outside the studio, together with an envelope for shavings.

HB and 5B Layers of tone have been built up withHBand5Bpencils. Softer pencils require less pressure to make a mark, revealing the texture of the paper surface. It is important to keep the point of the pencil sharp with either a craft knife or a sharpener.


Erasers can be used t o blend and s o f t e n lines, o r t o r e m o v e altogether. Fixative them prevents


s m u d g i n g a n d s e c u r e s lines.

Using fixative You can use fixative while drawing to hold the definition of lines you wish to gently fade but not remove entirely, for which you would use an eraser.

11. P L A S T I C E R A S E R : Avoid cheap colored erasers that may stain drawings with grease and dye. White brands are available in soft and hard versions.



W a r m it in your hand before use. It is excellent for removing powdery materials, and for making crisp sweeps of light across a delicate pencil drawing

13. D I F F U S E R : Helleborus corsicus (Corsican hellebore) fixative, or to spray mists of ink.



Cropping and Composition
M A N Y STUDENTS WILL START a d r a w i n g i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e

that its skin nearly touches the boundary. The meaning of the same drawing changes simply by its relationship to the space it occupies. The size of any subject, its placement on the page, the size of the page, and its overall proportion are all discrete and essential aspects of successful picture-making. Before you begin to draw, think carefully about where to place your subject. Are you are happy with your paper? If not, change it; add more, take some away, or turn it around. Do not just accept what you are given, adapt it to what you need.

paper. Focused on the shape and detail of their subject, they remain happily unaware that there is, or should be, any relationship between what they are drawing and the surface they are drawing it on. The paper is only paper, and the troublesome subject floats somewhere in the expanse of it. However, a single fig drawn in the middle of a large, empty square of paper gives quite a different impression from the same fig drawn on such an intimately small square


A Single Fig

"The size, shape, and orientation of the paper are so integral to the composition that they determine the impact and meaning of the drawing."

a device to help you decide what t o draw. When subjects touch two or more edges. Space as the subject Inallpictures. A card with a small rectangle cut out o f it makes a useful viewfinder C l o s e o n e e y e t o look through the hole. U s e it as a starting point. spaces between things are as important as the things themselves. running corner t o corner. CROPPING AND COMPOSITION Off-center and diagonal Here I held my viewfinder so the fig appeared upper-left in the space. Touching the edge When the subject o f a drawing touches one edge of the paper it attaches t o it visually. they establish a tension and unity with the paper. This drawing hasbeencropped to emphasize space between thefruit. and therefore apparently suspended from. Here the left fig is attached to.57 THE VIEWFINDER T h e s e pencil drawings o f figs d e m o n s t r a t e different crops and compositions. and lines describing shadows cast by the fruit . t h e n m o v e t h e c a r d t o e x p l o r e different views. the uppermost edge of the drawing. its illumination. bottom-left t o top-right. its stem and shadow framing a white center. The angle of the fruit together with dark shadow (top left) and bright light(bottom right) suggest a diagonal division across the whole drawing. as also shown here.O u r focus is on the white cloth supporting the figs.

It is an astonishingly simple device that many artists use and I strongly recommend. and so on. Follow these from left to right and see how I began with one complete shape between two parts of a leaf. do we see myriad distinct and unique shapes of daylight or do we just see branches? Why as artists should we look at the air? Every space in a picture has a shape. third. you will need a similar large-leaved plant. a sharp H B pencil. a foundation stone in picture-making. and a fresh page in your drawing book. which is shown in the three steps below. Remember that plants do move! Therefore it is best to complete your drawing in one sitting if possible. But how often do we look at the air between things. rather than what you see in front of you. their subject and composition will become more real. and a role to play. Draw a complete shape Map outward from the center Erase and adjust lines until correct . this ensures a consistent view. not leaves. then added a second shape. tone. dynamic. WHERE TO START Arrange your plant and paper so you can look back and forth by barely moving your head. remember to draw only space. but if the artist does. Unfamiliar shapes of negative space reveal the real shape of a positive subject. fourth. unified. position. Looking at negative space overrides the problem of drawing what you know. It helps to start at the center and map outward. In your own version. shapes of air cut out and defined by the physicality of our environment? When we look into the branches of a tree. Negative space is the simple key to getting positive shape right.58 PLANTS AND GARDENS Negative Space UNCONSCIOUSLY WE ASSESS spatial relationships all the time to guide ourselves through the world. and engaging.The box opposite isolates an area. The drawing opposite is of the uppermost leaves of a potted fig tree. erasing and adjusting lines until itlooked right. an eraser. Viewers appreciating a finished image may not see shapes of space. In following this class.


Here I drew only spaces, adding one to another until the leaves were revealed. Besides looking at negative space, there are two other useful things to do when a drawing feels wrong but you cannot see why: look at it in a mirror or turn it upside down. errors and suggest changes.

Spaces between leaves

Either view will


Fig Tree
WALKING IN THE ALPUJARRAS in A n d a l u c i a ,

Spain, I drew a bare fig tree clinging to the wall of an almond grove; a perfect subject for seeing negative space. I marked its essential frame of large branches first, frequently erasing lines and changing my mind until the balance felt right.

S a l v i a , RIBES, CLEMATIS, Allium, Passiflora, and Acanthus

Summer Flowers


drawn with an H pencil by observing the

negative spaces between the stems, petals, and leaves. I arranged the flowers on a sheet of paper in a cool r o o m and rapidly sketched a composition. Then I put them in water, taking the stems out one at a time to draw.


interfolding points of detail with areas of loose suggestion. they emulate our experience of seeing. If an artist changes the pace of their line and focus of their attention. Compare changes of pace and focus here to the flatter finish of Summer Flowers (see pp. 62-63). Excessive detail leaves no space for the eye to rest or imagination to wander. . gathering less distinct information on the way.Acanthus Spinosus As we LOOK AROUND. our eyes travel and adjust from one point of focus to another. We never see everything at once.


and from West Facade of the Church of St Augustin. European conventions of pictorial perspective have lost their monopoly on seeing. architects and designers can imaginatively "climb inside" three-dimensional space and. VICTOR BALTARD French architect employed by the city of Paris. drawing plans around themselves within a program as opposed to on a flat sheet of paper. philosophers. was preserved into the Renaissance where it became a foundation stone for thinking and creativity From 15thcentury Italy. filmmakers. Since the first flowering of Modernism in the early 20th century. Perhaps in the sheer planes of some of our greatest modern buildings it is finding its clearest expression." reflecting the eye's love of unity in difference. composers. Since Picasso and Braque's revolution of Cubism in around 1907. Baltard designed the Church of St.Architecture I N THE CONTEMPORARY PRACTICES of architecture. and sound. the formula for perfection spread through Europe. Augustin. designers. which can be clearly seen in ancient Greek architecture. Besides sketches of first thoughts and polished drawings of the finished look for clients. Architects have been fine-tuning their specialized branch of drawing for centuries.This is a pencil drawing.The church is still in use today. from political commentary to musical abstraction. Computer programs allow the virtual drawing of ideas. space. they have the Golden Section. Among the drawings of this chapter we look from 17th-century ecclesiastical calm. to help them create new form. 74-75). This harmony. we find the most recent steps in the evolution of graphic language. invaluable to understand and apply when you choose. It was also during the Renaissance that the architect Brunelleschi invented linear perspective. and architects of ancient Greece who first pursued the formula for "divine proportion. Through the animation of the screen. of the west facade of St Augustin. It was the mathematicians. and computer game imaging. the device that has since governed most of our picture-making (sec pp. architects. Linear perspective is a marvelous device. At the core of their practice. fine artists. add and subtract ideas. mass. once there. coupled with the importance of exercizing your imagination. which was the first church in the capital to be built entirely of metal and then clad in stone. Paris 1871-74 the child's view to the infinity of the vanishing point. with gray and brown watercolor wash. they also have a diagrammatic language for communicating plans to builders. each VICTOR BALTARD . time. film-set design. Yet the pursuit of divine proportion and harmony remains. made by the architect himself. It is the focus of practical class in this chapter. balance. and writers have been breaking away from traditional forms of representation to seek new expressions of shape. to 20th-century film fantasy. and in the 19th century it was given the name the Golden Section.

evoke presence. Below it. testing gravity to calculate the inverted shapes of domes. structure. Finished surface On the left the finished surface of the building is given depth and emphasis by immaculate vertical and horizontal brush strokes of shadow. and labor. and later an assistant to Vanbrugh. Hawksmoor established his reputation with university and church architecture including All Souls College. Three aspects This subtle and sophisticated drawing made in pen and wash displays three distinct aspects of Hawksmoor's baptistry. and Castle Howard. Lines define structure while washes suggest light and atmosphere. Hampton Court Palace. pilasters. A student of Wren's. densely layered lines in mists of color weave the presence of the expected building into shape. Cut-away interior On the right a section cut through the center of the building reveals material thicknesses. Hawksmoor's drawing is both a plan and an evocation. We see the modeled detail of Corinthian columns. a three-dimensional drawing made with wires and weights. Architects draw for many reasons: to visualize ideas. Drawings underpin every great human-made structure like hidden linear ghosts at their core. Pillars and floor At the base of the drawing a compass-drawn plan tilted downward through 90 degrees illustrates the arrangement of pillars around a central circular floor. calculate function. Gaudi's fluid architecture grew up through many kinds of drawing. materials. and ultimately to show builders what to do. St Paul's Baptistry c. and the shapes of interior domes and apses. Blenheim Palace. Oxford. 1711-12 NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR . he also worked on St Paul's Cathedral. embodying a massive investment of ideas. The photograph opposite shows his studio hung with metal pendulums. and balance. and an inscribed entablature. NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR One of Britain's "three great" Baroque architects (along with Sir Christopher Wren and Sir John Vanbrugh). describe a finished look to a client. relative levels. marks the end of a long journey from the first few marks the architect made on a sheet of paper. Together they explain how interior structure and space define exterior form and shape. and six London churches.68 ARCHITECTURE Master Builders EVERY NEW BUILDING.

and apartment homes are distinguished by their Their and Flowering curves of stone or concrete are often encrusted with Gaudi was inspired by medieval and oriental art. unique organic manipulation of high shapes.69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt c. 1910 24x181/4( 6 1 0 x 4 7 5mm) A N T O N I O GAUDI . and his love of music. embellishment. To the right isawatercolordrawing thought to havebeenmade over a photograph ofthemodelabove. Wire and watercolor three-dimensional preferred to calculate Above is a drawing form in the made withlinkedwires and weights. Guell Crypt of its at the Time Construction c. Gaudi air than on paper. churches. The Art Nouveau movement. Gaudi's cathedral in Barcelona. This sculptural drawingenvisionsthe finished crypt glowingandethereal as if caught in thelightof red morning sun. light. 1900 ANTONIO GAUDI ANTONIO GAUDI Visionary Catalan architect.

before cascading into a riot of line and sound below. corridors. while the composer Erik Satie has made an enclosure of quiet order and grace.223). The architect and musician Daniel Libeskind has drawn a stampeding cacophany of airborne architectural detail. and exhibitions of his drawings. and the spaces between his windows and turrets are the visual equivalent of pauses in h i s m u s i c c o m p o s i t i o n s for p i a n o (see also Bussotti. We can imagine how a musician might interpret this drawing by looking at the abstract visual rhythms of masses composed of long straight poles. Libeskind's numerous commissions include concert halls and museums. flat boards. installations. Visual rhythms In the lower half of this drawing architectural language has broken loose: escaped and transformed into an image of rebellious pleasure. We can see. theater sets.70 ARCHITECTURE The Order of Sound B O T H OF THESE VISIONARY DRAWINGS o c c u p y a s l e n d e r . short curved poles. and dotted lines. a refillable pen that feeds a constant supply of ink through a fine tubular nib. Across the top and center right of the image w e perceive an almost recognizable architectural plan. Arctic Flowers 1980 DANIEL LIBESKIND . Floor plan This drawing has been made with a rapidograph. such a rapport in both of these drawings. and rooms. Libeskind begins quietly in the upper space of his drawing. Satie draws quietly throughout. Libeskind studied music before transferring to architecture. upright pictorial space. Floor space appears divided by discernible walls. p. and in a sense hear. Both men used rulers and pens to carefully and slowly construct their compositions. There has always DANIEL LIBESKIND A Polish American architect of international acclaim. He also contributed to plans for the rebuilding of the World Trade Center site in New York. and arched dotted lines depict the radius of doors. He also produces urban and landscape designs. Contemporary musicians commonly collaborate with artists by interpreting images as sound. been a natural affinity between the visual rhythms of pictures and the audible rhythms of music.

dressed eccentrically. lived a l o n e . andfouredges of the paper tothecompositionand impact animage.56—57 we discussed important the shape.ERIK SATIE F r e n c h pianist and c o m p o s e r for t h e piano. a n d ballet. theater. a conventional dip or fountain pen. the perimeter Composition Look how well this drawingfitsand resonates with the upright. minimalist s c o r e s scandalized a u d i e n c e s with o r c h e s t r a t i o n s f o r t h e foghorn and typewriter. o f which he was the sole m e m b e r Parcel paper Satie has drawn this fantasy hotel using a ruler. 1 8 9 3 77/8 x 51/2 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 4 0 mm) ERIK SATIE . and founded his o w n church. effectively additional lines in a work. Hotel de la Suzonnieres c. Onpp.narrowshape of its paper. Compare the even and and the shape wall to the elegantly stylized order of the many windows of arrangement of details and the shape of the wall in Babur's Garden of Fidelity on p. Eastern influence The upright image Eastern is reminiscent and medieval of Middle pictorial space and subject of this European drawing. and ink on a fragment folded brown paper—a of everyday happened material of scrap that to be at hand.50. Satie collaborated w i t h hisfriends J e a n C o c t e a u a n d P i c a s s o . H e p e r f o r m e d in cabarets. They definespaceand pictorial balance.Edges are how are of orientation.H i s witty.

96. Newton's Cenotaph 1784 153/4 x 25 in ( 4 0 2 x 635 m m ) ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE . enter the long-shadowed architecture of imaginary worlds. Boullee lived in Paris. painter. we find other Utopian visions Paul Nobles epic drawing summons an imperfect and disturbing township where ruin and activity are equal and strange. arched vaults. Among preparations for Fritz Langs film Metropolis. the ominous globe exists only as a series of drawings. This is the work of an architectural theoretician. ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE French architectural theorist. made in 1926. cylinders. Light illusions This pen-and-wash drawing shows a subtle application of the principles of illumination demonstrated with an egg on p. and the reverse is true on the right. We glide over exquisitely drawn wastelands of damage and abandonment. spheres. antlike mortals might have speculated upon the universe. and dramatic lighting.72 ARCHITECTURE T H E S E T H R E E HIGHLY DETAILED DRAWINGS Future Fictions invite us to soaring above normal life. This shift makes the cenotaph appear three-dimensional. and draftsman. Within it. experiencing a fascinating conflict between curiosity and desolation.The lower-left section of the building appears relatively pale against a darker sky. Boullee's monolithic apparition was drawn as a monument to Sir Isaac Newton. and taught at t h e A c a d e m i e d'Architecture. Art director Erich Kettlehut's vertiginous design for the city of a slavelike populace had a future influence on movies such as Blade Runner. His celebrated imaginary buildings are characterized by pyramids.

73 ERICH KETTLEHUT Influential film a r t director. 1926 ERICH KETTLEHUT PAUL N O B L E British c o n t e m p o r a r y artist who creates m o n u m e n t a l . and are Graphite shapes Nobson Central isoneof a series of very large graphite drawings of the spoil and detritus of Nobson Newtown.Building shapes are works can be read as text. intensely detailed graphite drawings explaining and questioning t h e geography. and morality o f an invented place called His satires exhibited w o r l d w i d e .a r t director O t t o Hunte. Kettlehut and his c o . architecture. used forced perspective camera t e c h n i q u e s t o amplify t h e m a g n i t u d e o f buildings in relation t o human characters. gray. FUTURE FICTIONS Brush and ink This is a dramatic drawing from a film that shaped the history of world cinema. Its sheerscaleengulfs the viewer and demands based time and patience to on letters and in some beread. Nobson political visions of humanity Newtown. and white ink on brown-gray paper.m a k e r In t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f Metropolis. and m o d e l . Kettlehut drew using a fine and relatively dry brush dipped in black. draftsman. together with c i n e m a t o g r a p h e r Karl Freund. Fritz Lang's Metropolis c. mythology. Working on toned paper such as this gives an artist greater scope for dramatic lighting effects than if they work on white paper. Nobson Central 9 ft 1 0 in x 1 3 f t 2 in (3 x 4 m ) PAUL N O B L E 1998-99 .

and thinkers ever to have lived. Press the pin into Leonardo's vanishing point. inventors. but is most easily seen and understood in pictures of buildings and interiors. It can be applied to any subject. Note how architectural features conform to lines and how human figures diminish in size toward thevanishingpoint. Invented by Italian artist and architect Brunelleschi in 1413 (late in the history of art). Here Leonardo provides a superb example of a single vanishing point. and age eight. We use it to structure illusions of depth. Leonardo recorded constant streams of ideas. Piranesi an example of two. and inventions— essential reading for inquiring minds. and those of Naive artists and children. It is also distinguished from aerial perspective (see pp. linear perspective is distinct from more ancient systems practiced in the East. Study of Perspective Adoration of the for the Magi 1481 61/2 x111/2in (165 x 290 mm) LEONARDO DA VINCI .74 ARCHITECTURE Pathways of Sight LINEAR PERSPECTIVE (also called vanishing-point perspective) is a simple device for calculating the relative size of things in pictorial space. In his notebooks. scientists. Pull the thread taut and rotate it slowly above the drawing. LEONARDO DA VINCI One of the greatest artists. All forms of perspective are of equal value. found at the center of all converging lines. Single-point perspective Tie a thread to a pin. See how the thread corresponds to each converging line. this perspective is often an imagined bird's-eye view in which details are mapped according to logic and importance rather than how they might appear in real life. Sometimes shared with Naive artists. observations. I contribute the child's perspective. 206-07).

England 1980 9 x 16 in (228 x 405 mm) S A R A H SIMBLET GIOVANNI BATTISTA PIRANESI Italian artist. Children are uninhibited and problems with one element being obscured by another rarely arise. 1740 5 1 / 2 x 83/8 in (141 x 212 mm) G I O V A N N I B A T T I S T A PIRANESI points are located on either side of the drawing. New Forest. Scale Our farmhouse my experience was in the woods. and designer Piranesi's prolific architectural drawings. It shows how children usually map large scenes in flat layers one above the other. Two-point perspective Sunlight through this colonnade a great example of two-point perspective. at the top of each lateral column base. Mark these points with your pin and follow the converging lines of the drawing by rotating your thread. and theoretical writing strongly influenced neoclassicism.SARAH SIMBLET I made this drawing (at age 8) in response to a local bookstore's request for children to draw their village. architect. a points in logical narrative of memories. . visionary and practical understanding of ancient Rome. Lightly marked illuminates vanishing Two Courtyards c. Note the rather large rabbits and pheasants the hills. This drawing Young children typically maps ignore on and understanding of the nearby village. Breamore Village. issues of scale when making room for important their story. which I saw from home every day. including all they recall about the subject.

DRAWING BOXES 1 Using a ruler and a sharp HB pencil. imagine. Leonardo began with a grid of many lines within which he invented his scene. Next. Extend each dotted line to the edge of your drawing. 2 3 corners must each touch a dotted line. This is where we will begin. Erase the dotted construction lines. Note that if you place large structures in the foreground and smaller ones closer to your vanishing point. In contrast. This lesson shows you how to make a simple illusion of space defined by two boxes and three flat boards. corresponding to a single vanishing point. Piranesi planned his drawing with only the essential lines needed. you will amplify the illusion of distance. Draw four dotted lines radiating out from the vanishing point. On the previous page we looked at its essential mechanism through drawings by Leonardo and Piranesi. You have completed your first box. (See p.98 for an important note on oscillation. Draw each step over the preceding one to build up a single image. This ensures that the second rectangle aligns with the shape and 4 Draw four short lines to connect the four corners of the two rectangles.) . then follow the ten steps below. discovering the image as it progressed. using a sharp HB pencil and ruler. Surround the vanishing point with a small rectangle. draw a horizon line across your paper Mark a spot on the horizon line. try composing your own space.76 ARCHITECTURE Single-Point Perspective MASTERING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE i s e a s i e r t h a n y o u m a y First read through. this is your vanishing point. Study these pages first before embarking on this lesson. Each line should pass through one corner of the rectangle.

with two dotted lines. Note that this does not surround the vanishing point In the future. 1 0 Erase all ofthedottedlinestoseeyourfinishedboxes Thickeningtheiredges.willhelptomake them appear more solid. Continue the dotted lines out toward the edge of your drawing. The four comers must each touch a dotted line to be sureitaligns with the first. The board's sides should be parallel.asIhavedonehere. larger rectangle. 6 As in step 2. when inventing your own compositions. draw four dotted lines radiating from your vanishing point Pass these through each comer of the new rectangle. The larger you make your second rectangle. bottom.77 SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE 5 Draw a new rectangle. andfarside of this first board. Repeat this to add two more boards to the composition. 7 As in step 3. 8 Complete the second box with short lines as in step 4. and erase the dotted lines. Connect this to the vanishing point— again. the closer it will appear to the viewer. N e x t draw a slanting line to mark the height of the first flat board. you can place rectangles anywhere youwishin relation to a vanishing point. . 9 Use dotted lines connecting the slanting linetothe vanishing point to locate the top. draw a second.

" imaginary room. it will take you places you never dreamed of." . let simple lines suggest a simple space. If using a fibertip pen as I have done for this drawing. 7 4 ) . Then follow the three given steps. Every work talks In this class. A lot more happens when you open yourself up to the work and let yourself act and react to it.78 ARCHITECTURE Creating an Imaginary Space T H I S CLASS USES SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE t o c r e a t e a s i m p l e to you and if you listen to it. it is interaction that makes the work richer. you will find white adhesive stationery labels are useful for covering errors or changing the direction of your idea. artist and film director. w h e t h e r it is a film or a painting. once said: "I never end up with what I set out to do. O n a fresh page in your d r a w i n g b o o k . APPLYING PERSPECTIVE An Imagined Scaffold "Enjoy your illusion as you make it and it will become more real. p . As David Lynch. draw a b o x as shown opposite. It highlights the importance of having faith in your imagination and trusting your ability to invent. then let the space suggest its c o n t e n t s and purpose. Linear perspective will support y o u by providing a frame in which to b u i l d your picture as it did for Leonardo. The m i s t a k e n belief that we s h o u l d k n o w exactly what o u r finished drawings will l o o k like before we m a k e t h e m prevents many people from ever starting. I always start with a script but I don't follow it all the way through to the end.

parallel planes such as walls converge toward the vanishing point.79 DRAWING A SIMPLE ROOM Essentials t o remember: objects and people dimmish in size as they move farther away. 3 Remove the construction lines with an eraser and the room will becomeclearer. . Here.Addanarray of converging lines to provide a "scaffold" for vertical. horizontal. additional lines have established the different surfaces and how they relate to each other. CREATING AN IMAGINARY SPACE 1First. With some practice.drawthehorizonlineand vanishingpoint. and leaning surfaces. The space has become more solid and real. 2 first before adding furniture. and floors and ceilings also converge and rise o r lower toward the horizon. This initial space will be transparent and open to change. you will beableto draw more complex objects orpeoplewithin them.There is great pleasure tobefoundin spending time inventing interiors.

Only when y o u might employ t h r e e . That is where we e to find them. o r to the h o r i z o n . but they are not confined to this level. Here. The boxes drawn here are seen partly or entirely disassociated from a horizon line drawn across the bottom of the image. a n d this is how we have drawn them so far (see pp. T h i n k of standing at the top of a skyscraper and imagine h o w its parallel sides would appear to converge below you. showing y o u h o w to draw curved surfaces and a tiled floor. Potentially. From our normal eye level. They could be drawn on any scale from miniature to monumental. our eye level is very high and we look down. located anywhere inside or outside the pictorial space. It is important to realize that you can have as many vanishing points as you wish. Free vanishing points On paper we can enjoy the freedom of fantastic structural invention without limitations of solid materials or gravity. Copying what you see in the work of others will help you to understand what they have done. 76-79). do verticals appear inclined. Elaborations . T h i s is d e m o n s t r a t e d immediately below. Search for the application of these perspectives among works by other artists in this book and in galleries. These elaborations could continue indefinitely across a sheet of paper in pursuit of complex and intricate ideas.80 ARCHITECTURE Further Aspects of Perspective W E ARE ACCUSTOMED TO SEEING our e n v i r o n m e n t from a relatively constant point of view. or low and we look u p . Vanishing points are commonly found on horizon—our eye level. I have elaborated on the simple boxes above. they can be placed anywhere inspaceto describe the perspective of flyi c tilted objects. T h e y d o n o t have to relate to each other.p o i n t perspective ( s h o w n opposite top). Further aspects of three-point perspective are also illustrated opposite. verticals appear p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the g r o u n d . To draw such a view APPLICATION Copy these drawings to see and feel how they work before inventing your own versions.

and therefore tension.75. Giving curvature. PERSPECTIVE Three-point curves Here.I added horizontal lines t o define the tiles. tostraightlines can amplify drama in a picture. I marked the toplinewith three evenly spaced points and the line with seven. three vanishing points are evenly spaced along a horizon line. by adding a third point you can achieve a sense of incline.81 FURTHER ASPECTS OF Three-point towers This drawing depicts three-point perspective. useful for representing steep views looking up or down tall structures. they mark the corners of the floor tiles.) By comparing this drawing t o Piranesi's example of two-point perspective on p. you will see how. Where thelinescross. Three-point checkered floor This d bottom floor.Istarted with two parallel lines. I then drew three fanned groups of lines connecting each of the three points above to the seven points below.Finally. Iusedthese lines as a guide t o draw the curvature of boxes and panels flying through space. Note that altering the distance between the three dots above will tilt the level of the floor . An array of curved lines (drawn freehand) link the two lateral points. (Turn the book around to see a view looking up.


I visited many anatomical theaters and museums.Theaters RESEARCHING FOR MY P H D . making drawings to resolve questions and express personal responses to the nature and history of anatomy. . These walnut-skin ink pen and brush drawings show imagined views of theaters that do not exist but were inspired by places I studied.


Venetian Life sitting point buildings ThisP E N . . the water.I N KDRAWING is one of a series I made while next to the Rialto Bridge in Venice.A N D . The vanishing of the drawing is directly opposite as we look across The constancy of the bridge and surrounding frames the movement in the life that flows past.




Artists and actors use the meanings of things to communicate a speculative mechanic. making a clear instruction t o his bronzemeaning. Birds follow instinct to make a nest. or to explain and present a finished concept to a client. and some apes use simple tools. T h e Industrial Revolution c h a n g e d the traditional w a y s in w h i c h objects were designed. Technical drawing was speedily developed as a meticulous international code of m e a s u r e m e n t and explanation. that test our logic with a sense of mystery. from s p o o n s and pens to chairs and bicycles. and a wire violin. H e has described a casting through metaphor. to record an observed detail. H e has described contour and function at drawings. these. texture. sculpted. W e also explore v o l u m e and form in the classes by spinning lines to make vessels. Today. color. and made. T h e precision of engineering d r a w i n g s e v o l v e d alongside machine tools. for example. are all made bearing the signature of our time and place. or used on stage hood for a mold t o make theheado f a horse f oas a p r o p — i m b u e d with e n o u g h energy or character can "become" a man. too. hooked bars that can be pulled and tied closely form. even more advanced drawings are made on computers. drawn. or drawing w e see Leonardo daVinci'sprecision as can be given meaning. C o m m o n items. Artists also make images of objects that can never exist. It was in this era that the blueprint was born.Objects and Instruments T HE THINGS WE INVENT describe our lives. and the way in w h i c h the brain reacts Head and Neck Sections of Female Mold for the Sforza Horse to visual stimulus and optical illusions. 1493 117/8c81/4in (300 x 210 m m ) LEONARDO D A V I N Ccreating I . Engineers and designers of our objects and instruments make drawings for many reasons: to test an idea that is yet to be made. passing them on to others through the act of making. but humans LEONARDO DA VINCI Inthisbeautiful red chalk Our items all have a purpose—practical or ornamental—and all have a meaning. have often carried great weights of allegorical once. drawings were needed to instruct workers on the factory floor. for example—whether. In this chapter. It is shaped in sections w i t h Artists have for centuries studied and expressed composition. and the behavior of light through making still-life paintings and together. With the sudden onset of mass production. drawing c. r an equestrian statue. craftsmen had held plans in their memory. illuminating snail shells. design. History will be learned from the artifacts w e leave behind. planned. of light in the creation of pictorial illusions. A chair. fictional realities caster of h o w t o make it andhowit will w o r k . In past eras. each demanding more of the other as they increased in sophistication. Previously. we look at the importance are the only creatures on Earth w h o actually design and create great ranges of things.

"I believe [it] is the most radicalattempttostampout ambiguity and to enforce one readingofthepicture—that of a manmade construction. perfect i n their newly made availability.73 x 1 m) GEORGES BRAQUE . wood-look wallpaper. Braques "justly" arranged combination of cut black card. His work is characterized by calm and harmonious still-life compositions. not to work in harmony. texture. still feel this projected moment. charcoal. but to clash in virtual deadlock. Opposite. Mucha's drawing glistens with possession.. silverware. not of place but of things. and shading. Braques image is a Cubist collage.90 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS Still Life THESE DRAWINGS REVEAL t w o o p p o s i t e m o t i v a t i o n s i n we can. and glass objects of exquisite elegance for only the gentlest of touch and appreciation. and a journal jacket with words makes this drawing chatter about the moment.. Statue D'Epouvante 1913 2 f t 5 in x 3 ft 5 in (0. Below. There is a fragile eloquence to these objects as they drift in slow motion past our gaze." La Cuitare.Braque marshals all the forces of perspective. Clashes The art historian Ernst Gombrich said of Cubism. a colored canvas. Braque established Cubism in partnership with Picasso just before World War I. T h i s is a designers drawing made to enthuse surface and style in its delicate brushing of china. One of the great joys of this movement in art is the musicality of its multipoint view. . Even today GEORGES BRAQUE French painter who as a young man was influenced by the work of the Fauves and of Cezanne. steaming with music and conversation. He takes us into the bustle of the Paris cafe. representing still life.

fruit. Look at the two spoons at toprightand see how has suggested that they are so brilliantly shiny they reflect the background color.ALPHONSE MUCHA Czech graphic artist and painter who worked in Prague. and New York. and fish have been outlined using a sharp pencil. Black watercolor washes and lines of white gouache have been added with a fine brush. He is best known for posters featuring ethereal women in typical Art Nouveau style. Pans. and also stamps and bank notes. Study for Plate 59 from "Documents Decoratifs" 17x121/4(430 x 310 mm) ALPHONSE MUCHA 1902 . For ten years Mucha designed theater posters exclusively for the actress Sarah Bernhardt. He designed the Austrian pavilion for the Paris World Fair in 1900. Background color Between the delicate shadows and highlights of these glazed and surfaces ofthebackground metal color of the Mucha we see a large amount The three plates facing us were drawn with a compass. Chicago. Art Nouveau motifs This is a preliminary study for a subsequent print. Art Nouveau curling motifs of birds.

via a second mirror. Ink lines Several drawings appear among Newton's letters. It is a diagrammatic explanation of how to catch and magnify a star in a mirrored tube. Transparent view Newton's reflecting telescope focused light in a parabolic mirror. offering a transparent view. Newton's drawing of his first reflecting telescope is ISAAC N E W T O N English scientist. alchemist. Hooke's head of a drone fly seen through a microscope may represent the first time man and insect came face to face. Newton used this instrument to calculate the speed required to escape earth's gravity. A disembodied eye at the top of the drawing indicates where to look. Newton's 1672 ISAAC Telescope NEWTON . we see drawing Instruments of Vision found among his letters. With dotted lines Newton has drawn his arrangement of elements inside the tube. and his hand moving across the light. each reflecting a view of his own world—his window. drawing is there to pin the moment down. w h e r e he developed his three greatest theories: the law o f motion. and Fellow of the University o f C a m b r i d g e . 0 0 0 perfect hemispheres. Look how confidently he draws with ink the sphere of this wooden globe by which his telescope rotates. From the concept of capturing the infinite to the mapping of microscopic sight. He counted 1 4 . Their delicate construction is only as valuable as the measurements they make. shape the very cause and effect of investigatory thought. and the nature o f light and color. the law o f gravity. and philosopher Newton was President of the Royal Society.92 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS by their very nature must gauge or chronicle precision. into the eyepiece. each one skillfully rendered with the alarmingly matter-of-fact ease of explaining the commonplace. a tree outside. astronomer. It was then reflected up inside the tube and. In the graphic work of these two great men of science. The power of this drawing reflects the pure passion of discovery. mathematician.

a breathtaking book containing many of his drawings showing some of the first microscopic and telescopic magnifications of our environment Hooke's text and illustrations carry us to the moment of discovery. ROBERT H O O K E 93 Magnifications This acutely detailed engraved drawing is taken from Hooke's Micrographia (pub. and anchor escarpment. Hooke invented the camera diaphragm. The Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 1665 ROBERT HOOKE 111/2 x 105/8 in (294 x 270 mm) . universal joint a prototype respirator clock balance. 1665).An experimental scientist who drew many of his discoveries. It is an exhilarating read. and calculated the theory of combustion.

Its wobbly gait and squashed s y m m e t r y m u m b l e endless h o m e y tales about the life it has seen. Woodfine exhibits internationally. each drawn with the s a m e unfaltering lines and tones that are between reality and impossibility. Van Gogh's tipsy seat is a metaphor for an absent person.94 INSTRUMENTS W H E N WE DRAW A COMMON OBJECT like a chair. and w h e r e the chair b e l o n g s . Sarah Woodfines flat cut-out m o d e l plan is a witty and surprising drawing. Two-dimensional was made This highly finished drawing ruler using a sharp pencil and on smooth white drawing paper glistening dark drawings are artificial representations of known Woodfine's two-dimensional things balanced in the world. this chair p r e s e n t s us with a clever visual contradiction: deeply drawn shadows tell us it must be solid. and has drawings in numerous public and private collections. it has so m u c h familiar personality that it seems to talk to us. its character. From component parts we understand how to put it together and make it stand sensible in space. A renegade from the p a p e r dolls' h o u s e . Bench Marks W e are left a little c o n f u s e d as to what we s h o u l d do. W i t h h o m e y c o n t r a s t . has published several catalogs of her work. craft. Chair Cut Out 2002 22'A x 23 in (565 x 585 mm) SARAH WOODFINE . and place in the world are truly seen. OBJECTS AND SARAH WOODFINE British contemporary artist graduate of the Royal Academy Schools. while the tabs make us see a flat paper cut-out. and winner of the 2004 Jerwood Drawing Prize. Drawn in more-or-less c o n v e n t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e .

Van Chair 1890 VINCENT VAN GOGH .95 VINCENTVAN GOGH Dutch painter who produced over 800 paintings and 850 drawings in only the last ten year's of his life.hehas marked the full emotion of the subject with a fierce grip of concentration. The floor few as engagement with the chair. drawn opposite way of plan. not is made present in only strokes and is subdued to distract us from flat a meaningful chair. Among van Gogh's best-known canvases are Trees. what direct in their he saw and describing his felt. Cornfield and Sunflowers. inner recording while Fierce strokes This is a portrait of the mechanical drew immediately and almost harshly. His passionate brush and pencil strokes are honest and of also turmoil and growing alarm at the world around him. and Starry Cypress Night.

The perceived tone of a black white. a n d m o v e m e n t . The egg's darkest region is seen against a lighter background. The outermost edge of our vision. We perceive one to be lighter than theother. W e learn to read light and shadow in our environment as indicators of solidity and depth of space. The egg's lightest region is seen against a darker background.d o w n patterns of light on our retinas. your eye around the circumference of the egg. a n d our ability to see forms in c l o u d s or fire. are translated into a world of space. try this experiment. On acloudyday. Run The bottom-left quarter of the egg lightens slightly toward its "edge" when seen against the darker shadow cast on the paper. Artists emulate and manipulate this effect in their pictures. think about its illumination.102-03 deep shadows cast across shells make their form easier to perceive. We only need small prompts. Gray squares To further examine changes in tone. From across the room both will appear black card and fold and retapeitwith half sticking out. Here. or colored surface is never constant. reads only m o v e m e n t a n d can often m a k e mistakes. Adjust the angleofthe protruding part and again stepback. two identical mid-gray squares are seen against black and paler gray squares. but do not appear so. Tape them to the glass. transmitted to the brain as chains of electrical impulses. a lit photograph of an egg shows essential points to observe in tonal drawing. The small squares are identical in tone. U p s i d e . o u r b r a i n s search for n a m e a b l e things.At one point you will catchenoughlight lighter than the white one. See how its "edge" smoothly changes from light against dark to dark against light. The two tones meet without a division or outline between. Before starting a tonal drawing of any subject. a n d we can be fooled. form. w e turn our head but n o one w a s there. The rim of light on the egg is reflected light received from surrounding paper. We will even see things that d o not exist because minimal information suggests they are likely to be there. Card experiment cho can gra on . perhaps. Below. one blackandone white. cards the same size. S o m e o n e passes our o p e n door. the adjustment of our eyes (in growing accustomed to a level of light). and the proximity of contrasting tones.96 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Light and Illusions SEEING IS MIRACULOUS. hence our recognition of a cartoon face c o m p o s e d of three lines. gray. To interpret visual s t i m u l u s . Through these we can enjoy witnessing our o w n d e c e p t i o n a n d b a f f l e m e n t a n d u n d e r s t a n d certain factors that are very useful in picture-making. Are you happy LIGHT AND SHADOW with what you see? Does the light enhance the subject? Could you alter and improve it? On pp. Three factors change it: the amount of light it receives. atmosphere. less developed than the center. a n d are q u i c k to p r o p o s e ideas.This effect is caused by the contrast of their surroundings. Here w e look briefly at our perception of light a n d darkness a n d our interpretation of diagrammatic illusions. Below the bottom "edge" of the egg there is a rim of light reflected onto the paper by the underside of the egg. T h e slightest recognition is instantly matched to our wealth of experience a n d expectation.

w h i l e t h i n n e r lines recede. by d i r e c t e d a r r o w s ( A ) .p o i n t p e r s p e c t i v e d r a w i n g s w i t h a large n u m b e r o f c o n v e r g i n g rays b e h i n d y o u r horizontals. S h o r t h o r i z o n t a l lines o f identical length are m a d e t o l o o k d i f f e r e n t by c o n v e r g i n g lines beside t h e m ( C ) .97 LINE VERSUS TONE In l i n e a r d r a w i n g s . Seven parallel lines are m a d e t o tilt t o w a r d and away f r o m each o t h e r by n u m e r o u s s h o r t strokes crossing t h e m diagonally ( A ) . respectively. l i g h t e r surfaces s t a n d f o r w a r d w h i l e d a r k e r s u r f a c e s recede. A n u p r i g h t line stands in t h e c e n t e r o f a h o r i z o n t a l line. If y o u w i s h t o m a k e a t o n a l drawing. O b s e r v e h o w each white b a n d appears t h i c k e r t h a n its black c o u n t e r p a r t . B o t h are identical in length. Apparent lengths T h e s e optical illusions s h o w h o w lines o f identical length can b e m a d e t o l o o k quite different f r o m each o t h e r by t h e addition o r association o f o t h e r lines. t h i c k e r l i n e s a p p e a r t o stand forward. T w o horizontal lines o f equal length are m a d e t o l o o k longer and shorter. T w o relatively t h i c k parallel lines are m a d e t o b e n d away f r o m each o t h e r as t h e y pass in f r o n t o f an a r r a y o f c o n v e r g i n g f i n e lines ( B ) . T h i s fundamental o p p o s i t e is a reason w h y l i n e a r a n d t o n a l d r a w i n g does not a l w a y s c o m b i n e w e l l in t h e s a m e i m a g e . In a t o n a l d r a w i n g . O f t e ndoingso w i l l s p o i l y o u r w o r k . LIGHT AND ILLUSIONS Tonal width T h e s e black a n d w h i t e bands are o f equal thickness o n e i t h e r side o f t h e i r central division. In this linear drawing w e read t h i c k as closer a n d t h i n as f a r t h e r away. In this t o n a l image w e read w h i t e as f a t t e r t h a n black. Bending straight lines Linear distance These t w o jugs have b e e n d r a w n w i t h lines o f d i f f e r i n g thicknesses. Y o u m a y e x p e r i e n c e s o m e t h i n g similar h a p p e n i n g w h e n y o u m a k e s i n g l e . T h e jug d r a w n w i t h a t h i n line appears f a r t h e r away t h a n t h e j u g d r a w n w i t h a t h i c k e r line. T h e r e is n o obligation t o a d d b l o c k s o f t o n e t o a l i n e a r d r a w i n g . start o u t w i t h one. . b u t t h e u p r i g h t o n e l o o k s t a l l e r (B).

o r as a s l o p i n g . it oscillates between t w o possibilities. such as t h e dish seen h e r e o n t h e left. as s h o w n o n t h e right. C l o s i n g t h e surface o f t h e f o r m seals o u r d e c i s i o n as t o w h i c h w a y it faces. Artists make pictorial illusions when they paint or draw. In the 1960's. and we learn to read the styles of diverse cultures and periods. Michelangelo. their picture could be ambiguous. Yet many illusions. perfected the acceleration of perspective (see pp. Artists can communicate much in few lines and the viewer will do the rest of the work. SEEING TWO OPTIONS Sometimes. such as Bridget Riley. and so calculated precisely how much to fatten columns to make them appear straight." . others adjust works to avoid their effects. including some shown here.116-17) to make painted figures look correct when viewed from below. made paintings that depended upon the physical sensation of our brain's reaction to known optical illusions.76. Today we are bombarded with images but rarely have difficulty reading them. It is a curious fact that w e can never see both options at once. It is possible t o r e a d i t t w o ways: as a t r u n c a t e d r e c t a n g u l a r p y r a m i d seen d i r e c t l y f r o m a b o v e . among others. w e will find that in terms of the direction it faces. A few suggestive marks will tip the decision one way o r the o t h e r Closing the surface W h e n a t r a n s p a r e n t elliptical o b j e c t has b e e n d r a w n . Some artists use known optical illusions to make art. Op(tical) artists. w e can only look f r o m one t o the o t h e r If an artist is not aware this can happen in their image. Two ways of seeing T h i s is t h e b o x c r e a t e d in t h e f o u r t h step o n p.s i d e d r e c t a n g u l a r t r a y ( b o t h are illustrated far r i g h t ) "The brain is so eager to name a fragment we see that we need only a suggestion to grasp the whole. w h e n drawing the outline o f a three-dimensional form. are still not agreeably understood. it can oscillate b e t w e e n facing t o w a r d o r a w a y f r o m us.98 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Further Illusions PSYCHOLOGISTS AND PHYSIOLOGISTS have studied optical illusions for decades in pursuit of what they tell us about the brain. Ancient Greek architects knew parallel upright lines appeared to bend toward each other in the middle.

B e l o w is a b r i g h t n e s s c o n t r a s t illusion. C Escher u s e d this phenomenon t o great effect in his many p o p u l a r d r a w i n g s o f puzzles and impossible buildings. b u t w e believe w e see t h e m because e n o u g h f r a g m e n t a r y i n f o r m a t i o n is given f o r o u r brains t o c o n c l u d e t h e y are v e r y likely t h e r e . this is a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f t h e viewer's b r a i n b e i n g willing t o d o a large a m o u n t o f t h e w o r k in d e c i p h e r i n g a p i c t u r e . . W e should r e m e m b e r t h a t o u r brains will always search f o r a p i c t u r e — i n ink blots.c e n t u r y Italian painters. e t c . — a n d so t h e artist can create m u c h o u t o f an impression w i t h o u t overdescribing. clouds. smoke. P e r c e i v i n g a w h o l e i m a g e f r o m m i n i m a l lines T h i s is a w i d e l y r e p r o d u c e d visual j o k e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e C a r r a c c i b r o t h e r s .c e n t u r y Swiss psychologist H e r m a n n Rorschach. w e see t w o overlapping triangles: o n e outlined in black b e n e a t h a n o t h e r in solid w h i t e . F a m i l i a r i t y in r a n d o m s h a p e s T h e Rorschach test was established by t h e 1 9 t h . M u c h can b e e x p r e s s e d in o n l y a f e w marks. C o u n t t h e n u m b e r o f d a r k spots y o u can see. This effect can o c c u r naturally w h e n looking at a b r i g h t l y lit w h i t e g r i d such as a w i n d o w f r a m e against t h e night sky. T h e t e s t e x p l o r e s o u r n o r m a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o find things w e can n a m e a m o n g r a n d o m shapes. FURTHER ILLUSIONS Seeing things that are n o t t h e r e H e r e o n t h e left.99 Impossible objects T h e s e clever configurations o f outlines and t o n a l surfaces convince us at a glance that we are seeing a solid three-dimensional triangle and a three-pronged fork. T h e s e e x a m p l e s illustrate h o w little is n e e d e d t o c o n v e y an image. T h e patient's answers are t h e n diagnosed as a psychological profile. This simple five-line d r a w i n g is o f a C a p u c h i n priest asleep in his pulpit. T h e a r t i s t M. Minimal-line j o k e s such as this rely u p o n t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y v i e w e r ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e shapes. T h e y a r e o f t e n c r e d i t e d w i t h t h e invention o f t h e c o m i c c a r t o o n . C o u p l e d w i t h t h e Rorschach b l o t above. Yet still w e try resolve t h e m . His highly d i s p u t e d and i m p r e c i s e science involves s h o w i n g u n p r e p a r e d p a t i e n t s t e n p a r t i c u l a r ink b l o t s a n d asking t h e m t o i n t e r p r e t w h a t t h e y see. O n l y o n closer inspection we realize that t h e s e o b j e c t s are fooling us. S o m e artists use ink blots t o p r o m p t t h e beginning o f an image. 1 6 t h . N e i t h e r triangle exists.

WHERE TO START In the air above a spacious sheet of scrap paper. like a disposable plastic cup that has been crushed in your hand. as if the table surface slopes upward beneath the vessel. w h e n seen at an angle. (see p. To make a cylindrical object appear real in our pictorial space. . keep it spinning. I have drawn these for you here. spin your hand in a relaxed circle.90) takes a different as essentially circular. circles change into ellipses. Don't worry if it is uneven— just try again. However. a n d in o n e bold stroke. I have exaggerated this error here. The second common error is to tilt the upper and lower ellipses at different angles. there are three common errors people stumble upon. How to Draw Ellipses of seeing. that this is o n l y o n e w a y view. though. suggesting that the vessel is lopsided. for example. Watch the tip of your pen and see it draw an ellipse in the air Keep this movement going while gently lowering the pen onto the paper like the needle of a record player closing on the disc (only it is your lowering hand that spins. COMMON ERRORS W h e n drawing cylindrical objects in perspective. A wobbling but confident ellipse will still be more convincing than a slow. giving the cylinder four corners. for example plates or bowls on a table. Cubism. w e use ellipses to give a sense of perspective.100 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS W E VISUALIZE CYLINDRICAL VESSELS. since this is h o w w e experience them in e v e r y d a y use. Be aware. The first common error is to draw two pointed ellipses. Cover a sheet of paper with spinning. not the paper!) As the pen touches down. hesitant one that has edged its w a y nervously around the vessel's rim. while its upper rim remains level. you will achieve steadiness with practice. springlike forms like those I have drawn below. such as bowls and cups. Ellipse are best d r a w n quickly. even if y o u r hand w o b b l e s a little at first. third common error is to draw upper and lover ellipses with different-sized apertures. describing many sides of an object simultaneously. smoothly. and these narrow or widen depending on the height of our view.

you can make it solid by building up highlights and tones on visible surfaces. Create a Solid Surface Once you have drawn the shape and volume of each form. working from top to bottom. thereby hiding lines that show the other sides. Altering the pressure—and therefore tone—of the line as it spins gives the impression of light shining on one side. HOW TO DRAW E L L I P S E S A Single Vessel One Inside Another Grouped Together Finding Shape and Volume Draw an imagined vessel in one continuous spinning line.101 DRAWING VESSELS Once you have mastered drawing free-hand springs. Seeing Through Allow lines to travel around each vessel as if it were transparent. Draw quickly. enlarging and diminishing the ellipse to determine the overall shape and volume. . you can start to control your spinning ellipse to make a vessel.

In the finished drawing there should be few.102 INSTRUMENTS Tonality W H E N MAKING A TONAL DRAWING. OBJECTS AND Start by arranging a choice of shells on a sheet of paper to your left if you are right-handed (or vice versa). It is important to place them on the correct side so as to draw comfortably (see pp. it will inhibit your perception of tone. Gradually hone your drawing. Draw the largest and most distinct areas of light and darkness first. if any. and strong contrasts are easier to draw. t h e r e a r e p r i n c i p a l l y Dramatic lighting emphasizes texture and contour. or you can begin with a mid-gray ground and model light out of darkness (see opposite bottom). simply shapes and subtleties of light and dark meeting each other with no divisions in between. two opposite methods of achieving the same result. Remember that shadows. Illuminate them with a gooseneck lamp placed very close and directed away from your eyes. and solid objects are all of equal importance. Relaxing your eyes out of focus as you draw will help to dissolve the distraction of detail. if light shines in them. beams of light.22-23). You can begin with outlines and build slowly from light to dark (see opposite top). leaving detail until last. outlines. LIGHT TO DARK DARK TO LIGHT . It maximizes the range of tones between black and white. making complicated or subtle surfaces easier to see and understand.

draw a rectangle. Use your pencil to develop these in relation to the areas of light. Fll in broad areas first and leave all detail until last. boldly 2 3 Keeping your eyes out of focus. Honetheshapesand angles of the shells. look at the main areas of darkness. DARK TO LIGHT (TONE TO TONE) 1 Using the flattened tip of an HB pencil. Continue working between light and dark to refine the drawing. until you are happy frame.103 LIGHT TO DARK (LINE TO TONE) TONALITY 1 Using a sharp HB pencil. with broad sweeps of the eraser. and edges definingthespacialrelationships between are important aspects of your composition them.56-57). 2 3 Gentlydissolveoutlines so that areas oflightanddark meet without a line between them. Draw in the details last of all. loose. Let your eyes go out of focus while looking gently layer marks to create an even tone at your subject and paper: Draw the most ofmid-graywithin a rectangle. Use quick. pale lines with equal importance. Avoid a rough significant areas of light in your gray rectangle with texture and do not press the graphite hardwhite plastic eraser Ignore all detail and draw a into thepaperor you will not be able to erase it. Erase and make changes to roughly place the shells inside your with your composition. Relaxing your eyes out of focus will help to eliminate distracting details. Treat positive form and negative space (see pp. . Remember that its size. shape.

The second is that after achieving this simple example. Third. smooth. our image is stronger if we understand and can visualize what is happening on the other side too. . you can create your own more ambitious works. On p.69 we see how the architect Antonio Gaudi drew proposed domes using suspended wires and weights. continuous lines. 19 Picasso draws with a pen-light for the camera. three-dimensional drawings teach us about the totality of forms in space. When drawing anything viewed from one side on paper. 176 the British artists Noble and Webster draw with domestic refuse in a beam of light. There are essentially three lessons to be learned.104 OBJECTS AND I N S T R U M E N T S Drawing with Wire DRAWINGS DO NOT HAVE to be two-dimensional. and physical relationships between them. try drawing it with a pen on paper Use bold. The first is that figurative and abstract drawings can be made in space. and on p.220 Mamoru Abe draws with forged steel rods. and on p. On p. Place the instrument on a plain surface and illuminate it with a desk lamp to add the delicate dimension of shadows. This class uses thin-gauge wire to create a threedimensional violin. Seeing through a wire drawing of a known object such as a violin gives us a visual and tactile understanding of all its sides and shapes at once. They can also be made in space. PEN LINES Once you have created your three-dimensional violin (opposite).

I used garden wire and cut it carefully with pruners. brace the two ends of the violin with a length of wire along the back. 2 3 If needed. 1 Decide how big to draw your violin relative to the gauge of your wire. and thick wire a larger one. Cut a length. Once you have completed the body. Here. Join the two sides together with four short pieces of wire. Then begin to define its uppermost surface with Scurves and the bridge. and pinch and bend it to shape the base of the instrument Repeat this process to make the identical upper side of the instrument. thin wire will make a smaller drawing. begin to shape the curvature of the fingerboard.105 SETTING UP DRAWING WITH WIRE Follow these steps to draw a three-dimensional violin Choose a gauge of wire sturdy enough to hold the shape ofyourfinished drawing. These will hold the sides apart and help to keep the form in shape. 4 . but thin enough to be easily manipulated inyourfingers Here. I started with the scroll at the top and fixed the four component wires with two drawings of tuning pegs.

Oxford. Using found materials. I had the privilege of drawing their inventions. they invented new anthropological finds—objects that reflected the distant past and their immediate future.Artifacts and Fictions IN 1993 I WORKED with a group of schoolchildren who were responding to the astonishing objects in the collection of the Pitt Rivers Museum. some of which are shown here. England. .



This chapter addresses issues that are most commonly faced by beginners attending life-drawing classes. while Durer took his research further— A. diseased. It also looks at the representation of the b o d y b11y4o n d traditional life drawing. These classes are popular around the world. The body remains at the core of over the initially white lines. The human body. Artists now explore the interior of the body with new media and Lateral Contour Map of a Full-Term Primipara Produced by Light 1979 A. She the body is still essential. Look closely at Renaissance drawings of the female b o d y and you will see that m o s t are actually y o u n g m e n with minor adjustments. W I L L I A M S technology. but the study of a controlled. In this period. This F finished image was produced as r a n c i s c o . Strangely. giving physical foundation undulating land. Drawings were usually made from the male nude to avoid offending the church.The Body O UR BODIES MAKE us TANGIBLE. Artists are thought to have b e g u n drawing from the nude during the Italian Renaissance. focus has turned to the vulnerability of flesh: how it can be damaged. Renaissance artists studying anatomy from dissection clinically trained and specialized as a medical illustrator. while Leonardo opened the body to see and projected onto a woman's body draw the celebratory discover for himself our physical mechanisms. During this time. 3 x 7 in (300 x 180 . the junior workshop apprentices posed as part of their duties. W e understand every curve and balance of to the theory that the eves are the windows of the soul. explaining ranges e/ of materials and techniques and showing diversities of thought and purpose in making. sculptural description of her form. and anatomical and erotic art. myths and fables. He even believed he had located the soul contours of her form like a cartographer's map of in the pituitary fossa beneath the brain and behind the eyes. the Bay Area Models' Guild h o l d s a quarterly life-drawing m a r a t h o n aprinton Kodak transfer paper with green-colored dye added celebrating the great diversity of human proportion. Williams were decades ahead of their medical counterparts. and because the female was deemed inferior. history paintings and other stories. WILLIAMS he sought perfection in the infinitesimal measurement of the body and produced four Contemporary photographer volumes of illustrated explanation. It gives physical and emotive form to religious narratives. from video and X-ray to thermal imaging. artists also tried to define ideal proportions in the body. portraiture. and surgically rebuilt. Michelangelo attended dissections to made this image by light sectioning: fine beams of light perfect his understanding of surface form. W e are the only creatures on Earth that can make our own image. and in San could easily be transferred into three dimensions. is the most c o m m o n subject in art. R. in our privileged and comfortable society. R. much Western contemporary art. a n d w e d r a w o u r s e l v e s to a s s e r t o u r e x i s t e n c e . clothed or nude. herimpressive presence because we are given such Life drawing no longer dominates the art school curriculum. Leonardo drew a man within a circle and square.

T h e y b o t h raise one arm to cup their head in their hand. Raphael drew delicate tones of black chalk on tinted paper. we see the e s s e n c e of h e r b e a u t y w i t h o u t a single detail.116-17). and Vatican frescos. anatomy. Muscular dramatic postures reflect the influence of Michelangelo and the Renaissance celebration of the idealized male body. Matisse's b l u e n u d e sings with life and c e l e b r a t i o n . But the meanings of each gesture and the materials and methods by which they Postures and Poses were m a d e contrast greatly. Three Guards 1500-20 91/4 x143/8in (234 x 365 mm) RAPHAEL . She u n f o l d s and s t r e t c h e s shapely limbs. Principal figures m i r r o r e a c h other. RAFFAELLO SANZIO (RAPHAEL) Italian High Renaissance painter: Raphael is best known for his images of the Madonna and Child. while supporting the weight of their body with the other. In a single drawing we see equally o b s e r v e d studies of f o r e s h o r t e n i n g (see pp. Here three male nudes are compressed into very shallow pictorial space. By way of contrast. Sculptural frieze This is a preparatory drawing for Raphael's painting of the Resurrection of Christ. He trained under Perugino. and human defeat. filling the page with her presence.110 T H E BODY THESE DISTINCTIVE WORKS show two strikingly different ways of modeling the body on paper. and studied to learn from the works of Michelangelo and Leonardo besides whom he was soon ranked. while Matisse used scissors and glue to cut out and paste a flat collage of brilliant color. altar pieces. Raphael's study of fallen m e n leaves no doubt that they are in anguish. so that we read this drawing like a sculptural frieze. In this highly s o p h i s t i c a t e d a b s t r a c t i o n .

. lifelong love of brilliant They celebrate the culmination of spectacular and sometimes drawings. Matisse Soothing influence This drawing expresses the achievement of Matisse's personal aim: "What I dream and depressing subject matter. his pattern.which might be.. and Islamic art. foundamong many other groups of papercut these works as an elderly man confined to his bed or wheelchair. His calligraphic natural abstractions of form grew brighter. freer.111 HENRY MATISSE French painter: draftsman. serenity. devoid of troubling Blue Nude 1 1952 413/4 HENRY MATISSE .. teacher and principal exponent o f Fauvism—a movement established in 1905 in which bold color is the most essential element... fabric..designer writer.or like a good armchair in which to rest from physical an appeasing influence. printmaker. as his w o r k matured. and more energetic Color and form This collage is one of a series of Blue Nudes." of is an art of balance.sculptor. a mental soother. Matisse became an artist after studying law.

only tones blending into. he used b l a c k c o n t e (see p. and muddied the brilliance of the drawing. other tones. w h o sits propped in the contradictory darkness of a hot summer's day. If Seurat had added white. Typically. and color His applied theories still influence painters in their manipulation and rendering of local. form.112 T H E BODY Choreographs T I M E IS A SIGNIFICANT E L E M E N T i n t h e m a k i n g o f a l l d r a w i n g s . we c o m p a r e a skillful design that absorbed m u c h time in its making with the quickness of an idea marked instantly. Using the paper to create light is important for beginners to learn. In his f a m o u s paintings of social e n g a g e m e n t . turned gray. stands in counterpoise holding a dark globe and his thoughts in m o m e n t a r y balance. Below. agreeing to coalesce and show us the form of a waiting boy. and c o m p l e m e n t a r y hues. Here. Seurat engaged in lifelong studies of line. it is as if the very atoms of air are made visible. or abruptly meeting. like small birds attendant on the meditation. Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 1883-84 91/2 x 121/4 in (241 x 312 m m GEORGES SEURAT . T h e space around h i m chatters with symbols. reflected. there are no outlines. in a perfect e x a m p l e . His drawings are similarly u n i q u e . Seurat evolved a distinctive t e c h n i q u e called p o i n t i l l i s m — i m a g e s literally made from myriad points of color. it would have mixed with unseen black dust. velvet d a r k n e s s . Tone and light In this black conte drawing. 162) and an eraser to model teeming points of artificial light amid GEORGES SEURAT French painter classically educated in the Ingres school of thought. Beuys's magician. Opposite. scratched in seconds. Light is given by the paper alone.

113 JOSEPH BEUYS One of the most influential German artists of the 20th century. and drawings. video art. iodine. and that These aspects of the work convey fractured visibility. taught workshops with a cult following. CHOREOGRAPHS the profound power materials with spiritual or of Free lines This pale pencil drawing is Beuys. free from the constraint of immaculate form opposite) impetus is irrelevant to the and meaning of this work (as we see in Seurat's drawing representation. Many of his other symbolic works on paper have been drawn with materials such as honey. and blood. Our focus joins shoulders. Unbroken lines stream from his simultaneously movement. in different positions. He was a shaman who believed in intuition and in the investment of healing force. Perfectly modeled rather conventional for Joseph Focus Beuys's hand moved quickly to draw dotted lines flowing downward on either side of the figure. His The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland UNDATED 113/4 J O S E P H BEUYS x81/4in (297 x 210 mm) . Beuys gave performances. This figure is drawn and made installations. transience.

Our bodies radiate the passion of our thoughts and so become beacons of our frailty and power. was perceived as scandalous. its soft. the fierceness of the women's kiss is beautifully matched by the tenderness of his line. and went on to inspire generations of artists. Opposite. His exquisite flow of paint beyond "outlines. We are involved not as a shabby voyeur but as a bystander engaged through our recognition of shared joy. the women are framed and caressed by long. Inspired by Michelangelo. and one of hundreds of rapid studies of nudes. 125/8x 9 in (320 x 229 mm) AUGUSTE RODIN Two Women 1911 Embracing . Achieving international acclaim in mid-life. But what is stranger to us now is that they were also outraged by his free use of line. sweeping lines— of either purple silk fabric or cool studio air—that imprint and amplify their past and future movements. Delicate strokes This is one of about 7.000 drawings shown in rotation at the Musee Rodin. In both drawings. flushed skin made ruddy and black with crushed cinders. Paris. Rodin employed models to move freely or pose together in his studio. his w o r k is characterized by deliberate un-finish and powerfully modeled emotion. In Rodins work. As here. We are asked to gaze u p o n her flesh.114 BODY Passion SUMMONING HUMANITY in a drawing of the nude is a subtle and emotional task." as seen here. THE AUGUSTE RODIN French Romantic sculptor and prolific draftsman employed as an ornamental mason until the age of 42. Rodin produced portraits and statues of public and literary figures. They whisper and writhe in a brushed and sultry embrace that devours our watching. Anita Taylor has drawn her protective body hug out of the darkly glistening compression of willow charcoal and the dynamism of her shy but momentous femininity. he typically drew them with a few delicate strokes of pencil and brushed watercolor. Free lines Rodin's public audience was understandably shocked by the eroticism of his drawings.

scrutiny. Charcoal Taylor has drawn freely with charcoal and an eraser on thick. and gaze.I 15 ANITA T A Y L O R Painter. textured paper. draftsman. London. leaving her lightest marks at the deepest level of the image and applying darker marks above. the impression of luminosity All and Nothing 1999 67 x447/8in (170 x 1 1 4 cm) ANITA TAYLOR . The sturdy surface of the sheet has allowed her to press hard when needed. This order of light below and dark above gives glowing from within. and rework rich depths of light and tone. intimately reflecting upon the emotions and meaning of nudity. A thinner sheet might have crumpled and torn under such vigorous force of making. Taylor's immense self-portraits explore the relationship between the artist as maker and the artist as model. Taylor has drawn. professor and Vice Principal of Wimbledon School of Art. exposure. erased and drawn again. Luminosity Layered marks flicker likefirelight as they sculpt the woman's body.

just making them helps you see. patience. without taking off. 3 Keep your pencil perpendicular Measure and compare at any angle. with dramatic illusions of figures painted in normal proportion. and measurements do not have to be carried to the paper and slavishly drawn the same size they appear on your pencil. It is not so hard. MEASURING This is a simple method of making measured comparisons for relating the true size of one part to another This is a tool to assist observation and thinking. How to make and apply these is explained below and opposite. Move the tip of your thumb down to a second chosen point. the skull in Holbein's The Ambassadors (The National Gallery. Smaller. and a few measured comparisons are key. plummeting. London). 1 Hold your arm straight. "Simple measured comparisons reveal surprising truths about proportion. rather that what we believe we know from experience. Up close on the scaffold we would witness Michelangelo's subtle application of accelerated perspective. when beginners prop their board in their lap and look down at too steep an angle. more extreme examples have been made for court entertainment." . helping us to see more clearly. you will make inconsistent and unrelated comparisons.limbs happily receding. But if we could take a scaffold and climb up to the work. Close one eye. 2 Hold your pencil upright. Imagine Michelangelo's murals in the Sistine Chapel. persistence. If your arm is not straight. It is not complicated. In the life class it is the mechanism for ensuring that a drawn figure lies correctly in pictorial space . we would arrive to find many of the same figures strangely distorted.116 T H E BODY Measurement and Foreshortening FORESHORTENING IS AN ASPECT of perspective. to be translated by mirrors or seen from only one point in the room. There is no need to mark them all down on paper. To avoid its effects ensure you always look flat onto the surface of your page. It can also be a little demon in the life room. Accelerated perspective plays a great role in much art. elbow. or shrivelling at odd. We also look at another very interesting branch called accelerated (or anamorphic) perspective. Rome. for example. or coming forward. The length of exposed pencil is your measurement. This is chiefly a correcting device by which figurative painters and sculptors have for centuries countered the effects of our viewing their work from far below or on the curvature of a vault. and wrist joints. and to draw what we see. which is imperceptible from below. Lock your shoulder. Return to this posture every time. elongated as if stretched across the plaster. Align the top with a point on your subject. unfathomable angles. Spend time making comparisons before you draw.

belly. T h i s is t h e s a m e d r a w i n g p h o t o g r a p h e d f r o m above. t a p e s o m e p a p e r t o a board. FORESHORTENING To f o r e s h o r t e n a figure. . which feels strange. pleasingly f o r e s h o r t e n e d . See h o w d i f f e r e n t t h e relative heights o f t h e s e shapes are f r o m w h a t w e m i g h t e x p e c t in real life. Lean t h e t o p e d g e t o w a r d y o u and find a p o s i t i o n w h e r e y o u can c o m f o r t a b l y l o o k d o w n t h e p a p e r at an angle o f a b o u t 4 0 degrees.117 ACCELERATED PERSPECTIVE To discover h o w this w o r k s . adjusting a n o n y m o u s shapes. a n d thighs. L o o k at y o u r m o d e l as if he o r she is a flat series o f shapes o n e o n t o p o f a n o t h e r Measure t h e height and w i d t h o f each shape and c o m p a r e it t o its neighbor. y o u r hand travels f a r t h e r than y o u expect. Stand its b o t t o m edge o n y o u r lap. looking d o w n t h e p a p e r at t h e a n g l e at w h i c h I d r e w . h e r p r o p o r t i o n s will appear correct. To m a k e f o r m s l o o k c o r r e c t . y o u must let go o f w h a t y o u k n o w f r o m e x p e r i e n c e a b o u t t h e relative sizes o f b o d y parts and trust y o u r eyes. MEASUREMENT AND FORESHORTENING Tilt t h e t o p edge o f this b o o k t o w a r d you and look d o w n o n this figure f r o m a b o v e . P r o p o r t i o n s will only l o o k c o r r e c t f r o m t h e angle at w h i c h y o u make t h e drawing. W e appear t o be looking d o w n o n a w o m a n s t a n d i n g b e n e a t h us. Keep t h e b o a r d steady and draw. W o r k a r o u n d t h e figure. C o m p a r e t h e heights o f t h e nose and eye shapes t o t h o s e o f t h e f o r e a r m . S o o n t h e b o d y will lie d o w n in space. A t a c e r t a i n angle.

height. Layered lines give d e p t h . and stance before honing her balance and expression. feeling. because it results in two unrelated sides drifting apart. Leave first thoughts in place. her center of balance is normally found in a vertical line beneath her head. imagine holding up a plumb line.118 BODY Quick Poses DRAWING QUICK POSES l o c k s y o u r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n t o what is most essential. Outline To outline a figure. To see this. Height This pose leans away into space above our eye level. T h i s q u i c k e x p l o r a t o r y line does not perfectly describe shape but expresses a decision about overall flow of form. make the upper body smaller give your model a high waist. and height. Avoid drawing up one side and down the other. and work over t h e m with further o b s e r v a t i o n s . I used a sharp H B pencil and began each drawing by marking her outline. Be bold and dive into your drawing with c o n f i d e n c e . . balance. propelling you to make immediate assessments and trust them. Start each new drawing by lightly marking the model's height with a loose line in ten seconds. THE SEQUENCE OF POSES H e r e the model was asked to move every t w o minutes. working from her center to her feet and to her head. To draw this effect. and energy. work back and forth across the body. Balance When a model stands upright on both feet. and slightly enlarge her legs and feet.

This drawing shows how different observations be overlaid to bring a drawing alive. Most of us have a tendency to over-straighten the drawn figure. The tilt of the pelvis is then counter balanced by the model's shoulders tilting the other way (as seen here). and this should be avoided Twist QUICK POSES A model standing on one leg usually drops the opposite hip. the activity of circular lines and the repetition of limbs suggest movement. .119 The twist of a model is most easily and expressively captured if it is exaggerated. Tilt Movement Here.

swiftly marking its essential gesture. This exercise is useful when struggling with proportion. Group the fingers together as one mass. express structure and gesture far more successfully and easily than ten worried outlines wandering up and down between the fingers and toes. 3 . These planes. Keep lines open to change and take measurements if they help. and they need not be daunting to draw. feet. A mirror increases your range of views. starting with the largest. It also helps the beginner to progress from drawing outlines to drawing confidently across the surface of the whole form. Begin by drawing lines to encompass the whole hand. and a gooseneck lamp casts shadows that clarify planes and depths GESTURES OF THE HAND Curled Fingers 1 Open Palm Start honing the shapes of the dominant planes. Practice by drawing your own hands and feet.120 BODY Hands and Feet THERE ARE MANY different ways of approaching h a n d s and THE of form. drawn in relation to each other. but regard these practice studies as ongoing processes of thought and observatio Add details such as nails last if you wish. it is important to leave aside all details of the fingers and toes. Do not separate them yet. or those of a friend. especially the lengthwise divisions between them. W h e n starting. general to specific. Draw large shapes and their orientation. 2 Build your drawing gradually from light to dark. Don't worry about achieving perfect solutions. Then subdivide each shape so that you w o r k from large to small. Focus instead on how planes change direction across the knuckles from one side of the hand or foot to the other. and ignore all details.

and spontaneity. as if with a chisel. and rapid. Leave aside all detail. 2 3 Use an eraser t o refine decisions o r t o suggest areas o f light. these are what give a drawing its tangible structure. however. and don't worry about accuracy t o begin though out o f wood. Look for key angles without becoming distracted by detail. depth. Try t o express the whole foot and t o encapsulate its entire shape and direction in a few marks. . It can be a mistake. loose. Nowimagineyou are carving the foot insidethepaper.121 HANDS AND FEET MOVEMENTS OF THE FOOT Flat Stance Raised Heel Instep 1 Let your first marks be light. t o remove t o o many early lines. Hew it roughly in broad. flattened planes.

Charcoal Hands T H E S E DRAWINGS ARE MADE in compressed charcoal. The white lines demonstrate what is often called "bracelet shading. Opposite.204-05. Compare its nature in close-up to that of willow charcoal used on pp. I also used white ink with a steel dip pen." .


before honing his or her shape (see pp. length. Phrasing Contours . 118-19). and posture of the model. I make these lines in the first five to ten seconds of a drawing to locate the presence.HERE TRACES OF RAPID initial lines are still seen within and outside each body.


and narrative pulse become vivid when you realize them in the middle of your study. feeling them through the attentive movements of your own hand. characters. perspectives. Drawing work by another artist enables you to discover and understand the inventive hand in their composition. . It is now viewed with some skepticism and often seen as academic.The Visual Detective DRAWING FROM MASTERWORKS was once a staple component of an artist's education. Forms. I draw in museums in support of written research and as an artist seeking answers to questions about the practicalities of image making.


there is a unique museum of 18th-century anatomical waxes. 126-27. . each modeled from dissection. Life-size women wearing wigs recline on beds of embroidered silk in cabinets of mahogany and Venetian glass This is a detail of a compressed charcoal drawing measuring 14 x 10 ft (4.La Specola At17V i a Romana. Walls are lined with hundreds of faintly animated body parts.3 x 3 m) made in response to La Specola. These almost life-size figures were composed from my imagination and achieved with the help af studies discussed on pp. Florence.



bells. Beginners often draw themselves as a way of establishing their practice. buttons. and social and political commentaries. abstract or figurative. The truth is that we all like looking at faces and observing the billions of variations that make us individuals. 1790-92 4 x 3 in ( 1 0 2 x 7 6 m m ) F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A and memorize the basic structure that we all share. painters have dropped discreet records of themselves into commissioned narratives so that they can remain a face in the crowd. and lucrative genre for artists. Past rulers sent painters across continents to bring back a likeness in advance of a prospective royal marriage. . historical. Movie director Alfred similarly signed his films by playing a fleeting role: he walks through an extra. a single line can deliver an entire expression. and in a few scrolling rafts of pen lines and stubbled dots. who. look directly at us. and their posture can be changed with just one line. neck. and p r i n t m a k e r . and shoulders. Portraits can be highly or loosely detailed. Goya. or past us. We can mold and animate qualities of expression out of objects and fragments of disassociated things—for example. religious. It also reminds us o f b o t h t h e intimacy and a scene as scrutiny o f an honest portrait. This enlargement o f his miniature p o r t r a i treveals t h e s p e e d and agility o f his p e n and about himself. and expression of the individual. single or of groups. gathered all that he knew FRANCISCO DE GOYA V i s i o n a r y Spanish painter. in a miniature self-portrait magnified opposite. In this chapter. Halls and palaces are filled with pictures of the mighty and significant. character. throat. To create a face is to see and interpret the essence of an identity. Our homes are filled with images of our loved ones and of those in our families who have gone before. and satirical or metaphorical. Self-portraiture gives every artist a constant. and a handprint (see p. The returning image was of crucial consideration in any proposal. usually strangers from past times. W h e n drawing a person. We are also reassured by keeping records of ourselves. their stance. we use the delicate medium of silver point to look at foundation structures of the head. Man Ray's self-portrait of scored lines. Once you understand Self-Portrait in a Cocked Hat c. his changes in pressure and Hitchcock length o f line. made as he passed through the ages of man. and it is very rewarding. or whose eyes can seem to follow us around the room Portraiture is a constant. you can capture the subtlety. For centuries.Portraiture IN P O R T R A I T U R E W E MEET PEOPLE.139). compliant subject to scrutinize. is here to both meet and look through us. became more poignant as he progressed. Equally. the meaning of their face. having been documented and preserved. Goya's w o r k s include many royal and society p o r t r a i t s . Rembrandt's famous multitude of self-portraits. and secular narratives. live. draftsman. or a glimpse of him is caught in a photograph used as a prop.

It is the portrait of a countrywoman. The Tightness of a line is felt in its speed. caught in her last moments of youth. The truth is often the opposite. PABLO PICASSO Spanish Cubist painter (see also p. Picasso strikes and scrolls his pencil. hand to capture something well in only Frangoise au Bandeau 1946 660 x 505 mm (26 x197/8in) PABLO PICASSO . We can actually count that he struck the paper 40 times. and pressure as it conducts our eye through the image. Without faltering. one eye already cast askew into the autumn of her life. How could the addition of shadows have enhanced this image? Few strokes The simplicity of Picasso's line is breathtaking. While with longer consideration. length. Her face is drawn tenderly and with a luminous glow. Holbein maps the still landscape of Dorothea's body in questioning marks. they serve as a great lesson that it is not always necessary to add tone to your drawing. whisking a timeless girl onto the page. For the beginner.30). teetering on the brink of older age. It takes a truly accomplished a few strokes. breadth. Through exhibitions and copies in books. We can read so much about them by studying their gaze. Picasso has left to posterity many hundreds of magnificent line drawings. The aesthetic sense of a line being just right can make a drawing sing. He makes his flair and skill look easy. There is a common misunderstanding that a drawing with only a few lines is both less finished and easier to make than a drawing with more. Here the grace and beauty of two young women are held forever. stealthily using his chalk to find contours and mass.132 PORTRAITURE Poise THE BALANCE BETWEEN a mark and a blank space is often a tantalizing form of perfection. we can enjoy and learn from them. adding smudges of tone for weight and solidity.

gently flushed. The peak of her cap clips the uppermost edge. made a popular series o f w o o d c u t prints titled The Dance of Death. Holbein has cropped and pinned his subject within the four outermost lines of the image—the edges of the page. Cropping This regal composition fits its paper perfectly. presses against the binding across her face. He outlined her nose but not her upper lip. which. Holbein was employed toward the end of his life by King Henry VIII of England. and designer f r o m Basel. Blended colors In this portrait drawn with colored chalks on slightly textured paper. Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 1516 51/8 x121/4in (385 x 310 m m ) HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER . In addition t o his numerous exquisite portraits in oil.133 HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER German p o r t r a i t painter draftsman. Holbein unified the woman with her background by gently blending colors from her clothes and face into the atmosphere around her. and produced numerous society portraits such as this one here. Her folded forearms support and frame her weight above. he designed c o u r t costumes. and its downward slope crowns the diagonal of the composition.

. its highly clarified detail claiming to be d r a w n from observation. blood vessels. or defined by. In fact. Highlights of white gouache were dry Profile Head late in the making. VICTOR NEWSOME British sculptor painter and draftsman. The real dissection w o u l d have been far more c o m p l e x . Delicate muscles are integrated with the skin and fat that is to be r e m o v e d . but they are irrelevant here. dark lines made with a pencil appear against smooth. London. the face is one of the hardest parts to dissect. and glands also complicate form. distorted. Durelli has m a d e a few m i n o r mistakes. solid above and almost hollow below. continues to exhibit regularly. This is one of a number of similar disembodied female heads seen behind. Contrasts Sharp. This is a m a r v e l o u s interpretation of the truth. N e w s o m e ' s eerily shadowed form is smooth and bears a linear grain evocative of w o o d .134 PORTRAITURE Anatomies These highly finished drawings express the emotional power and physicality of the head and neck. taught at numerous British art schools from 1962-77. and unpleasant to see. It floats in space. Nerves. confusing. while white painted flecks and wisps suggest electrical illumination. the contours of a grid. perhaps applied using a tortillon. Newsome was awarded the Prix de Rome in 1960. and has works in major collections including the Tate Gallery. The style of Durelli's d r a w i n g opposite sings with the confidence of truth and precision. Psychological drama is contained behind a grid. dark tones of graphite blended into the paper. using a fine and relatively 1982 13 x 181/8 in (328 x 460 mm) VICTOR NEWSOME brush. Anatomically.

Stylized parallel lines are reminiscent of engravings. Pencil numbers refer to the list of muscles written beneath. which.135 ANATOMIES ANTONIO DURELLI Linear perfection This is a red chalk drawing of extraordinary accomplishment. and it is likely that this drawing was intended for reproduction as a print. Durelli's experience as an engraver is reflected in his stylized drawing o f muscle fibers. It is hard to think of a more difficult medium with which to achieve such linear perfection. w h e n contracted. pull their points o f attachment t o w a r d each other . Red Chalk the Muscles 1837 173/8 x 145/8 in ( 4 4 0 x 3 7 2 m m ) ANTONIO DURELLI and Pencil Drawing and of Neck of the Head Little is k n o w n o f this M i l a n e s e p a i n t e r a n d engraver w h o c a m e from a family o f artists.

each locked into a visionary gaze. Without paint and with very little tone. Portrait de Marie-Laure de Noailles c. ALBERTO GIACOMETTI Swiss sculptor. There is a film of Giacometti drawing. each portrait is inscribed onto the page. and heads. They confuse our perception of scale by being intimately fragile and at the same time far removed. Then. Agitated marks make patches of tone that cut away the space around the character. Similar movements sculpted the head below into its page. We are brought intimately close to this man gazing up to heaven. with speed and urgency. Energy This is a portrait of a woman drawn with black crayon on a plain page of a book Lines search for the essence of form. Bellini gently conjures the features of his saint with soft marks that tease his presence out of shadows into the light. close enough to touch his hair and feel his breath. Both works demonstrate how simple lines can be made complex by being intense. They show us clearly the bones of drawing. Flesh is built and personality carved simultaneously. 1948 77/8 x 6 in (200 x 150 mm) ALBERTO GIACOMETTI . Giacometti settled in Paris. as if seen from a distance. He is best known for his bronze sculptures of human form. necks. painter draftsman. while his hand stabs and thrusts Revelations like a conductors baton. Speed Giacometti probably began with an oval shape placed in relation to the proportion of the page. and with staccato flinches his hyperactive eye moves from paper to model. he drew over the whole image at once. Opposite. which are characteristically elongated.136 PORTRAITURE THESE ARE DRAWINGS of shoulders. The camera watches him at work. cutting and carving the paper with matted and spiraling restless energy. and poet After studying in Geneva and Italy.

5 9 ) . Head and Shoulders of a Man 73/8 x 21/4 in ( 1 8 6 x 5 8 UNDATED GIOVANNI BELLINI . lyrical.25 6 . a n d his w o r k is d i s t i n c t i v e l y calm. Transfer This delicate humorous chalk a drawing is a cartoon—not image but a type of template used to plan the composition of a larger work Look closely and you will see rows of tiny dots along every significant line in the picture. a n d b r o t h e r in-law. Mantegna.G I O V A N N I BELLINI A prominent member of a large family o f V e n e t i a n painters. transferring which were made in the process of the saint to his final place in the composition of a painting (see Glossary pp. Sometimes different narrative same character was reused in compositions. H e t a u g h t G i o r g i o n e Barbarelli and Titian. Bellini s t u d i e d u n d e r his f a t h e r J a c o p o . Character This is one of many cartoons produced by Bellini the and his family. a n d c o n t e m p l a t i v e . These are pinholes. H e p r e f e r r e d religious t o classical t h e m e s .

scrolls. and confrontations with. It is an opportunity to look deep without the infringement of courtesies owed to a commissioning sitter. scratched into its surface. JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT Short-lived American painter and graffiti artist who began his blazing nine-year career drawing on lower Manhattan subway trains with a friend. The artist has finished his portrait with the signature of his hand smacked in the middle like a kiss: a declaration of existence as old as man's first drawing. The incandescent New York painter Jean Michel Basquiat pictured himself here in naked silhouette. and buttons rings with surrealist wit and agile improvisation. a tribal. and indulgence. The figure's position is unequivocal and defiant while around him is in a state Without the essential of cultural and figure we would elegant belookingat a sophisticated painting of signs. In 1986 he traveled to Africa and showed his work in Abidjan on the Ivory Coast He also exhibited in Germany and France. spear-brandishing warrior. and everything flux. Signs and symbols with symbols This painting shudders that ore written. humor. Islands of graphic marks. float and shimmer in the shallow pictorial space. bells. political outcry. scratched lines. signing their work SAMO. Later Basquiat sold drawings on T-shirts. drawn. marks. their most immediate and best-known subject: themselves.221). similar to work by Cy Twombly (see p. made with great energy. It is an image of confrontation—the ever-controversial young artist roars at us from his abstract city-scape. Al Diaz. Self Portrait 1982 9 4 x 7 6 in (239 x 193 cm) JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT . skull- Self-Portraits headed. postcards. and sheet metal before being snapped up by the New York contemporary art scene. and attitudes.138 PORTRAITURE THE MIRROR OF SELF-PORTRAITURE offers artists infinite reflections of. It has proved to be a subject of piercing scrutiny. Man Ray's playful silk-screen assembly of color blocks.

Autoportrait 1916 195/8 MAN RAY . Man Ray probably used his own hand. They experimented with camera-free photography working directly onto photographic paper Silk and ink This is a silkscreen print made through the following process: the paper was laid on a flat surface and a frame stretched with fine silk was placed on top.139 MAN RAY American surrealist photographer. Black ink was printed next and then white. During the 1920's and 30s. Man Ray lived and worked in Paris. The first part of the stenciled image was already marked on the silk The screen and paper were then held tightly together. last of all. printmaker and cofounder of the New York Dada movement. while a squeegee was used to drag thick lilac-brown ink across the silk pushing it though exposed areas onto the paper below. caked in thick printing ink or paint. where he collaborated with the artist Laslo MoholyNagy. They suggest speed and make the picture look immediate and spontaneous. Frame White lines are seemingly (though not actually) scratched through ink to frame this face. The handprint appears to be made directly. painter.

54-55). or ring. it leaves a deposit. b e f o r e priming stretched paper. Find a n i t e m t h a t y o u can h o l d a n d draw with comfortably. 2 . bone. Note h o w domestic paintwork marks with a coin. and gold have also been used. Gesso o r m a t t e m u l s i o n c a n a l s o b e u s e d . SILVER W I R E : Purchase different gauge lengths f r o m a traditional a r t supplier o r jeweler. 3 . 5. and t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h strips a b o v e and b e l o w . artists mixed white lead. Stretched paper remains taut as a d r u m . Opposite. o n e t o fit each side o f t h e b o a r d — t h e s e will make t h e glued f r a m e t h a t holds y o u r p a p e r in place. Metal point does not work on ordinary paper.54) can also b e used. I t is a v a i l a b l e f r o m all a r t s h o p s . 144-45. W e t a n d fix a s e c o n d strip t o t h e o p p o s i t e side. This browns with age unless sealed by fixative (see pp. purchase silver wire. or wood. E m p t y mechanical pencils designed f o r t h i c k leads ( s e e p. To begin.Tear o f f f o u r lengths o f b r o w n p a p e r g u m tape. s o m e m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n o t h e r s . and alloys work on matt emulsion. If w o r k i n g o n an emulsion-painted wall. Lightly s p o n g e o f f t h e excess. Historically. W e t o n e length o f g u m .140 PORTRAITURE Silver P o i n t SILVER OR METAL POINT STRETCHING PAPER A sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has been made w e t with the strokes o f a paintbrush will buckle d u e t o its uneven expansion. p a r c h m e n t . b u t d o n ' t w o r r y . and make o r buy a holder. w h i t e d r a w i n g paper) and cut it t o fit y o u r d r a w i n g b o a r d w i t h a generous b o r d e r a r o u n d its edges. T h e p a p e r will l o o k b u c k l e d . M E T A L OBJECTS: All metal objects m a r k a p r e p a r e d surface. Take a sheet o f any t y p e o f p a p e r (for e x a m p l e . SILVER P O I N T W I R E H O L D E R : T h e s e c a n b e p u r c h a s e d a n d t e n d t o b e heavy. key. which quickly oxidizes into a gray line." Lead. Straighten the w o r s t buckles. Z I N C W H I T E G O U A C H E : Dilute with w a t e r A d d c o l o r i f r e q u i r e d (as opposite) 4 . S i l v e r is b e s t .s t r i p a n d use i t t o fix o n e side o f t h e p a p e r t o t h e b o a r d . Be swift and firm. illuminators of medieval m a n u s c r i p t s . 156). an exciting indication of how large-scale drawings could be made on a wall. 1 4 4 . who used it to outline initials and border characters before painting. Pages 142 to 147 are illustrated in silver point and techniques are explained on pp. you will need t o stretch paper and lay a wash (see right and opposite). 1. platinum. Metal point is simply a strip of metal bound in a holder. Numerous early European artists also enjoyed its fine qualities (see p. I combined silver point with painted white gouache on a pink ground. Drawn across a prepared surface. MATERIALS 1 Find a clean sponge and b o w l o r d e e p t r a y a n d fill it w i t h w a t e r W e t t h e p a p e r evenly in t h e t r a y o r o n t h e b o a r d . the surface must be primed with a ground such as gouache. S O F T F U L L B R U S H : W h e n laying a w a s h . s e e p . For i m p o r t a n t a d v i c e o n p r e p a r a t i o n a n d use. 2. laid on paper. Lay a clean d r a w i n g b o a r d o n a flat surface. copper. was familiar to or eggshells with animal glue. c h o o s e a s o f t full b r u s h t h a t c a n c a r r y p l e n t y o f l i q u i d . M a k e s u r e i t is c o m p l e t e l y clean t o avoid u n w a n t e d streaks. I m a k e m y o w n f r o m o l d dip pens. The most c o m m o n metal has always been silver—hence the term "silver point. This is called a three-tone drawing. and is therefore useful w h e n using w a t e r c o l o r as well as silver point. choose a silver object.

leaving a smooth surface. It will slowly straighten and become taut. full brush into the gouache and start in the top left corner. stretched paper at a 45-degree angle. Mix a very wet but not weak solution of gouache in a jar with a lid (add pigment at this stage for a three-tone drawing). Prop up your board of dry. Beware of the tape's coming loose at any point while drying. slowly add powder pigment or gouache from a tube. I used a powder pigment called Caput Mortuum. Reload the brush and add a second line overlapping it beneath. Here. overlapping lines until you reach the bottom. v e r y little at a time. Dip a soft. so put newspaper under the lower edge. Keep adding smooth. Make an even line across to the right.141 SILVER POINT 3 Leave the paper to dry flat. LAYING A WASH It your stretched paper so as to prime it for silver point. Dry thoroughly before laying a wash. The next step will make a small mess. any extra will keep. Runs blend into each other evenly. Leave the wash to dry thoroughly before you begin to draw. is necessary to lay a wash o Three-tone When coloring ground.t o n e silver point drawing of a skull . and let tests dry before deciding to change the mixture. Keep testing on spare paper. as the paper will be ruined by a raised ridge. Make enough to cover your paper. T h r e e .



Head and Neck
THE HEAD AND NECK are best conceived as one unit arranged in four parts: cranium, face, neck, and throat. Each is of equal importance. The cranium is essentially egg-shaped and pivots on the first vertebra. The face is suspended beneath, like a softly curved triangle. The n e c k — a powerful, shapely column of layered muscles rigged to vertebrae—adjusts and holds the angle and expression of the head. The throat is delicate, hard, and lumpy to the touch, formed of cartilaginous rings, glands, thin muscles, and looser skin. Framing the throat, two columnar neck muscles (sternomastoids) project the head forward and also turn it to the opposite side.

This is a simple shorthand diagram representing the cranium, face, neck, and throat. It can be learned and visualized in different positions very easily, giving the novice a firm footing on which to stand and develop their drawings of the head and neck.

Shorthand diagram

Cranium Begin with an egg shape. Tilt it on the paper to change the position of the head.

Face Draw a rounded triangular shape below the forward point of the egg to represent the face.

Neck This shape represents the trapezius; the largest surface muscle of the neck and shoulders.

Throat A triangular shape represents the throat. (The nose makes the diagram clearer)

Applied shorthand

After copying the diagram above, animate it. Practice drawing the cranium at different angles, add the face beneath, then the neck, shoulders, and throat. Shape your diagrams so they are more lifelike, but avoid adding detailed features too soon.

143 These three drawings demonstrate (from left to right) the following: why the cranium may be considered egg-shaped; now the face can be seen as a curved triangle suspended beneath and where the division lies between the two; and the form of sternomastoid muscles that frame thethroatsodistinctlywhen the head is turned and inclined forward.

The skull and the frame of the throat


Bones of the cranium are locked together by jagged joints. Sinuses in the frontal (forehead) bone between and beneath the eyebrows are larger in men, making their brows pronounced and often ridged compared to those of women.

Bones of the face house our sight, smell, taste, The skull pivots on the first vertebra or "atlas," and speech. Cartilage extending from nasal bones after the Greek god condemned to carry the shapesthenose.Pads of fat resting on the base of Earth. The jaw hinges in front of the ears. Behind, eacheyesocket support the eyeballs in position. If bony ridges give anchor to the sternomastoid thefatisreducedby old age, eyes look sunken. muscles rising from the breast- and collarbones.

Three useful generalizations

General rules about the relative positions of body parts can hinder artists as much as help them, since they are often based on classical ideals rather than thediversityoflife.However,some generalizations can help as a rough guide to start with, so long as good observation takes over as soon as possible.

In general, when the face is relaxed (not smiling or frowning), the corners of the mouth are found directly beneath the pupils of the eyes. Vertical lines can be drawn down from the pupils to meet the corners of the mouth.

The height of a young adult's ear is often the same as their nose and found on the same level. There is no general rule for growing children, and remember that ears grow again in old age, which is most obvious in men.

The height of the face is about the length of the handspan and the eye is normally halfway down the total height of the head. A common error is to draw the eyes too high up on the face.



Essential Observations

(see pp. 140-41) is perfect for

such as a beach pebble. Here, I stretched drawing paper and laid a wash of white gouache (see pp.140-41). As you can see, the line and tone of silver point varies with pressure, but only slightly. Too much pressure cuts the ground. Silver point erases, but so does ground. Erased ground can be repaired gently with extra gouache. You can also use gouache to paint over mistakes and make corrections.

small, detailed drawings. The drawings below and opposite show useful observations of the head and neck, which are explained in the captions below. Each drawing was made with a silver wire held in a large-gauge mechanical pencil. Newly clipped wires are sharp and cut rather than draw. Before use, they need to be rubbed and smoothed on a stone

Here I imagined placing my silver point wire against the skin of each head and neck and, working in parallel bands from the crown downward, I traced the undulation of surfaces. Linear bands imagined around the head and neck can help you t o clearly see the tilt of the head and relative levels of the features. Ask a friend t o model for you and try this exercise life-size using a pencil and eraser


Tilted forward

Tilted backward

Three-quarter view

Seeing that the face is never flat

Drawings below left and center are summaries of the generalizations given on p.143. Far right is an image to remind us that the face is never flat. It slopes back to varying degrees among individuals, from the tip of the nose t o the ears. For example, note that the innermost corners of the eyes are farther forward in space than the outermost corners.

General measurements, side

General measurements, front

View from above


Male and female head and neck
Men's necks a r e g e n e r a l l y s h o r t e r a n d t h i c k e r t h a n w o m e n ' s b e c a u s e t h e angles a n d levels o f c e r t a i n b o n e s a r e d i f f e r e n t b e t w e e n t h e sexes ( i n d i c a t e d h e r e b y d o t t e d lines) a n d m e n are n o r m a l l y m o r e muscular. T h e male t h y r o i d cartilage ( A d a m ' s apple) is larger a n d m o r e visible than t h e f e m a l e . L a r g e r f e m a l e t h y r o i d glands also s o f t e n t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e t h r o a t .

Female skull





Trapezius muscle
The largest m u s c l e o f t h e s h o u l d e r s a n d n e c k is called the trapezius. A r r a n g e d on e i t h e r side o f t h e spine, it shapes t h e u p p e r back and neck above the s h o u l d e r blades. C o n t r a c t i n g in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h d e e p e r and surrounding muscles, it raises and l o w e r s t h e shoulders a n d d r a w s t h e h e a d backtoeitherside.

The whole



half with



with head



with head


Side with


Front with




Drawing Portraits
USING A SHARP 3 B PENCIL, I drew this head quickly from imagination, evolving its character and expression from the scheme of four parts: cranium, face, neck, a n d throat (see p. 142). Here, five steps show you how to practice doing the same. This approach can be used to draw from imagination or from life. Keep your wrist loose and hold your pencil away from its point (see pp.22-23). Build the layers of your drawing from pale to dark, a n d from general balance a n d form to specific detail. Remember that successful drawings are built on foundations of "seeing the whole," then dividing the whole into smaller parts, with details brought in last of all. Phrased tonal marks modeling this girls skin and hair follow the technique demonstrated by Goya in his self-portrait on p. 130. Turn to Goya's drawing and study how, in a circle beginning across his hat, moving down his hair, and around his coat, he flows lines over surfaces to describe their contour. As you build from steps 1 to 5, bring phrased groups of lines across the surfaces of your form, using their directions to capture the expression of the head and neck. If unsure, copy my steps until you gain the confidence to make your own decisions.

This drawing is the final stage of the four steps opposite. Here, I have enlarged the eye, and moved it back into the head by trimming the length of the upper lid and adding a more pronounced lower lid. It is important to set eyes far enough back from the relatively prominent nose; too close to it and the face flattens. Hair swept back and extended behind the cranium balances the regal pose. Lines shaping the hair echo those marking the cranium in step 1. Here, the lower part of step 1 comes through as wisps of hair across her face and ear


Portrait of a Young Girl

The eye announces the nature and expression of the emerging person.Theangle at which you draw this shape of the paper will determine the angle of the finished head. Moving from the back of the neck. 3 Place the eye beneath the cranium. 4 . I used light to describe the upper lid first with a shadow beneath for the lower lid and open eye. 2 Rapidly add shorthand shapes to represent the face. over the cranium. down the face to the throat. The nose and ear begin to shape the head. Here. avoid drawing too dark.147 Building up the portrait DRAWING PORTRAITS 1 Gently spin pale lines in a softly drawn shape representing the cranium. and throat. I modeled the outline of the character I imagined light shining from above and in front and adjusted the pressure of lines to reflect this. they are also still sweeping and confident. too soon. First lines will remain visible in the final drawing. Keep your first lines light. neck. so it is important to the life of the image that while controlled.


.T o DRAW PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGES. a n d t h o s e w h o a r e Generations asleep (see overleaf). the texture of hair. empathize. Above all. be aware of the subtle differences in skin surface. muscular tension. and gravity.



Fast lines carve out the features of Goya's soup-slurping hag. Madrid. .Castings DRAWING IN THE PRADO MUSEUM. I used the nib upside down to gain needle-sharp precision. with a steel dip pen and acrylic ink. seeking the dominant contours of each individual expression. Van Dyke's noble cast of characters was modeled more finely.



known as Leon Bakst. Petersburg and later exiled designers' ideas and are surprised and delighted b y their continual f l o w of inspiration. st 111/4 x 81/2 in (285 x 220 mm) u d i e d L E O NB A K S T and explore the characterization of fabric t h r o u g h m o v e m e n t . c u l t u r e . and atmosphere. . Bakst's designs and costumes immediately To the fine artist. shapes. of Scheherazade. T h e e n t o u r a g e of the theatrical stage o f t e n l e a d s the c a t w a l k . Designers all over the w o r l d c o n t i n u a l l y p e n and b r u s h lines to lash us w i t h color. and i n d e e d image b e c a m e the property also of the industrial classes. was a Belarussian A r t Deco theater fantasies and desires to immediately possess a version of the same. c r u m p l e s . Like it or not. a n d c o u r t i e r tailors f o l l o w e d suit. b u t influenced Parisian fashion and interiordecor. or calm u s w i t h chic. Practical classes Bacchante 1911 l o o k at r a n g e s of c o l o r e d m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d i n g p a s t e l s a n d felt-tip p e n s . and even invisible by the w a y w e dress. and gouache. fulfilling lavish and spectacular briefs. a n d p r o f e s s i o n — b e g a n life as a d r a w i n g . theb u t b y the w a y it s p e a k s w i t h its flying. In this c h a p t e r w e see h o w c l o t h i n g c a n s e e m to p o s s e s s the w e i g h t and m o n u m e n t a l i t y of stone. w h i c h in turn feed c o n s u m e r Lev. T h e rural masses w o r e h o m e s p u n simplicity. while court p a i n t e r s — M i c h e l a n g e l o and Holbein. charcoal. e m u l a t e textures. dancer leaps through swaths of golden cloth. arichand unusual combination of pencil. P o p u l a r f a s h i o n d e s i g n e x p l o d e d w i t h the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n . articulate a d a n g e r o u s satirical j o k e . and e x u b e r a n c e . o n l y the w e a l t h y c o u l d afford to h a v e c o s t u m e s specially m a d e . In psychology. D e s i g n e r s create m a s t e r p i e c e s of haute couture LEON BAKST for H o l l y w o o d stars. and everything w e h a v e c h o s e n for o u r w a r d r o b e s — r e f l e c t o r s of o u r taste. S t r u c t u r e is t h o u g h the i n v e n t i o n of shoes. intriguing. outrageous. for e x a m p l e — d e s i g n e d the w a r d r o b e s of p o p e s a n d k i n g s . or b u l g e s .As artistic director of the It is s h o c k i n g to t h i n k h o w m a n y m i l l i o n s of d r a w i n g s m u s t be m a d e a n d d i s c a r d e d Ballet Russe. and s y m b o l s that lets m e n and w o m e n in all countries and areas have w o r k i n g access to the latest fashions. and be so expressive of temperament that it overtakes the need for an o c c u p y i n g h u m a n form. caricatured p l u m e s . Previously. a n d w e will c o l l e c t patterns. g l o s s y folds. variety. gesture. cool. personality. w a r m t h . T h e p a p e r p a t t e r n is p e r h a p s the m o s t w i d e l y k n o w n of c o s t u m e d r a w i n g s : a formalized plan of lines.Costume W E MAKE OURSELVES EXOTIC. and intent. c o s t u m e o f f e r s a r i c h v o c a b u l a r y of t e x t u r e s a n d c o l o r . Samoylovich Rosenberg. woman was drawn by Bakst one year later for the ballet Narcisse. W e dress ourselves and costume designer trained in in St. it is the public sign by w h i c h w e are j u d g e d . a n d s u b t l e t o n e s . Artists do this not so m u c h b y the style of a figure's garment. he and cofounder Serge Diaghilev took Paris by eac storm in 1910 with their production h year in the industrial f r e n z y of creating o u r image and aspirations. so that c h o i c e . Cities c h a n g e d all. toParis.This voluptuous above all a physical p u p p e t w i t h w h i c h to animate character and narrate personality.

Her gown is carved and polished as if made from marble. and the kneeling abbot is a ghost by comparison. Keisai Eisen's intense. H e m e t i c u l o u s l y a r r a n g e d subjects t o c o n v e y d e e p e r meaning. With a stylus such as Van Eyck used here. and implied striation in the stone of the architecture. delicate lines. dragons. the carefully composed outline of his cloak shows us how the artist would have also begun his immaculate rendering of the Virgin's clothes. However. her marble garment holds u p the infant Christ in a fountain of compressed line. bands around the columns. swirling printed fabrics. the vaulted stone roof echoes and crowns the moment. He has layered these slowly and carefully so as not to cut through the ground and produce a white mark just where he intended a dark one. The quiet stillness of this image is achieved by a masterly economy of stylized line. Flaxmans sleeper—perhaps a pilgrim or a soldier resting between campaigns—has wedged himself into the cleft of some great building to grab a moment of peace. Opposite. Vertical lines The highly controlled lines of this drawing cascade from top to bottom of the image. best k n o w n f o r his G h e n t altarpiece ( 1 4 3 2 ) a n d m a r r i a g e p o r t r a i t o f Giovanni A r n o l f i n i and his w i f e (1434). Short and subtle horizontal punctuations are only given in the background by sections of floor.140-41). Maelbeke I44I Madonna 11 x 7 in (278 x 180 m m ) JAN V A N EYCK . In Van Eyck's drawing below. Marble gown We will never know if Van Eyck considered this drawing unfinished or intended the kneeling abbot to remain transient and ghostly. Delicate marks Silver (or metal) point is the most delicate of traditional drawing media (see pp.156 COSTUME Cloth and Drapery EACH OF THESE FIGURES is ninety percent cloth. Below this. Sculpted one. Their uninterrupted emphasis is entirely vertical. resonate with their wearers startled expression. with their jagged edges. and snakelike marks. the Madonna and her architecture are both dressed in the same manner. Above them. it is only possible to create very thin. Van Eyck's highly polished w o r k is c e l e b r a t e d f o r its disguised symbolism. folds and patterns of material speak more resolutely of their wearers than any small glimpses of body we can see. Church and deities are drawn as JAN VAN EYCK Flemish oil p a i n t e r f r o m L i m b o u r g .

he also co-edited and expanded the Ukiyo-e Ruiko (History of Prints of the Floating World). an 18th-19th century document on the lives of the ukiyo-e artists. the angle of the head. Koimurasaki of Tama-ya 1810-50 15 x101/4in (381 x 260 mm) KEISAI EISEN The Courtesan JOHN F L A X M A N English late 18th-century neoclassical sculptor. flat sheets of wood. and Man Lying Down in a Cloak I 787-94 21/4 JOHN FLAXMAN x 41/8 in (57 x 105 mm) . one over the other. each delivering a different part and color of the design. and the feet notched against the pillar tell us that A lines holds him into the cleft. and teacher Distinctive linear illustrations for the works of Homer. This complex numerous blocks prepared image and may have been made with printed separately. The inked block is laid face-down on damp paper and pressed to make the print. Remaining raised areas of wood are rolled with colored inks. Images are drawn onto smooth. designer. Aeschylus earned Flaxman an international reputation. which are sometimes also cut into pieces like a jigsaw puzzle. Respected for his sumptuous images of geisha and editions of erotic prints. stone wall of downward-stroked this sleeper's position is momentary. Parts of the image to be left unprinted are gouged out with a metal tool. writer and printmaker Keisai Eisen took his name from the masters Kano Hakkeisai and Kikugawa Eizan.157 KEISAI EISEN Japanese draftsman. draftsman. Dante. Position In this pen and ink drawing. CLOTH AND DRAPERY Relief printing This is a woodblock print made by a relief process. the cloak sliding to the ground.

Its color is also reflected in the metal. Leg sections in both support the figure without taking our attention away from the main garment above. Anthony Van Dyke's Man in Armor is a masterpiece of drawn surface. cloth. He has been rendered on this olive<olored page with pen and gray wash worked over a red and black under-drawing. t h r o u g h n u m e r o u s p o r t r a i t and C h u r c h commissions. a scurrilous cartoon by a courtier of Queen Elizabeth I. 160. A s a y o u n g man. Man in Armor UNDATED 1 6 x 9 1 / 2 in ( 4 0 5 x 2 4 0 m m ) A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE . The slight uncertainty of the pose and the limp cloak suggest a little more metal than man. for she would not have been amused and William Wodall might have been stretching his luck. Its warm surface flows in contrast to the stiff metal armor. A flamboyant territory. The aged queen is compared to an overdressed bird. a n d w a s e m p l o y e d as c o u r t painter t o King Charles I. b e f o r e traveling t o Italy. Leg section Compare mid-shin the section of white boots cropped to the section of similarly cropped trousers in drawings Gruau's drawing on p. he c o o l e d and redefined his style. Opposite is a dangerous drawing. theater. In 1 6 3 2 he m o v e d p e r m a n e n t l y t o L o n d o n . cinema. It is presumed Her Royal Highness never saw it. The metal. and feather were all CHARACTER COSTUMES REPRESENT observed with closely crafted conviction. all ruffs and wrinkles. cartoon. and even formal portraiture. A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE Flemish painter and draftsman. Flowing scarf The knight's scarf of gilded blue is drawn in a pale wash over red ink lines. Details and voices are worn externally with great imagination. Pen and wash In the graphic accuracy of this armored knight we see the idealized identity of a warrior from another time: a gleaming defender of the realm. w h e r e . lace. Fine examples can be plucked from fashion. Van D y k e was chief assistant t o Rubens f o r t w o years. where sometimes there just might not be anybody inside.158 COSTUME Character Costumes an extreme form of the clothed figure.

A Ruffs and feathers Starched white ruffs worn at court and by society grew steadily larger as Elizabeth's reign progressed. while a raised foot pauses to assess the next displaying a fan of daggers. the queen is masterfully rebalanced by words at her feet The whole drawing's blackened. and her pride. here dark tawny owl. and saturations showing through from the other side.159 WILLIAM W O D A L L A u t h o r and illustrator o f The Aaes of Queene a Elizabeth poem Allegorized. T h e poem recounts t h e six m a j o r crises o f Elizabeth's reign: t h e Spanish A r m a d a . t h e Rising. manuscript comprising six c a n t o s . Top-heavy. Beneath the lethal fan is the body of a bird of trimmed feathers suggest age. she is shown as a grossly disproportioned bird. t h e B a b i n g t o n Plot. Satire of the Queen's Dress c. By her old upto three tiers supported on sticks. t h e Jesuit Mission. Northern Satire This is a quill-and-ink satire of the elderly queen's pride-As head of state and fashion. hooded with an overinflated fluffy ruff eye pins us.35).1599 71/2 WILLIAM x 51/4 in ( 1 9 0 x 1 3 4 mm) WODALL . bitten nature. it was customary to Iron-gall ink Wodall's dangerous caricature steps daintily the written lines of her dedicated page. suggest the use of iron-gall ink (see p. t h e Ridolfi Plot.

muscular aggression. a n d L'Officiel de la couture. elegant chic and svelte. G r u a u ' s highly distinctive d r a w i n g s have a p p e a r e d Couture. studio-like rectangle of paper. ofcroppedtrousershere to the device of the w Illustration 1949 for Jacques Fath in L ' O f f i c i e l d e la C o u t u r e RENE GRUAU . She has been drawn with brushes dipped into India ink and gouache. Vogue. The black red. as is Spider-Girl opposite.and tilted to the same de a little deeper than sp kneestogivehergravity. Drying time in between applications ensured the colors did not run into each other. Rene Gruau's bold gouache drawing of smoothly swaying sophistication captures a brilliantly cut garment and frames it with great dynamism in a white.F r e n c h f a s h i o n i l l u s t r a t o r w h o in his l o n g and esteemed career w o r k e d with many of the g r e a t e s t d e s i g n e r s o f 2 0 t h .c e n t u r y haute i n n u m e r o u s m a g a z i n e s i n c l u d i n g Elle. possibly over a pencil outline. His model is outlined.5 9 ) and a three-spoke balance of cuffs and cropped trousers to create an almost flag-like emblem of power. Spider-Girl leaps like an insect. Gruau's model regally swans to the fore with cool pride. RENE GRUAU I t a l i a n . 5 8 . Fine lines drawn against the building behind her echo the threads on which we have all seen arachnids drop and hang. Compare the compositio beneathVanDyke'sstudy of armor on p. and both share the power of scarlet and black. and gray pigments were applied separately. demanding attention with gesture and flair. 158. Gruau uses starkly cut negative space (see pp. Fashion and fantasy drawings invent prototypes of ideals and perfection—be they for the catwalk or the fast-paced pages of comic books. Composition Look how well this image is frame knee is parallel to the bottom edge spacehorizontalline cropping the trousers be outermostuprightbordersof her cuffs are similar above her head thesidesoftheimage. Airbrushed reflective surfaces further amplify our perception of speed. diving to catch us in the grip of her machine-like limbs.160 COSTUME Femmes Fatales THESE DEVASTATING femmes fatales force back the onlooker with their demure. India ink and gouache This swish of confidence and style our enters the page turning everyone's head. Harpers & Queen.

at Their extensions will meet the same single vanishing (see point pp. and figure are all locked into equally shatp through the traditional process of a pencilled outline over-drawn ink.RON F R E N Z Contemporary American graphic artist w h o designs and pencils the dynamic scenes of numerous superheroes featured in Marvel Comics. a great characteristic superhero comics. It is outside the picture frame. MARVEL C O M I C S . Airbrushed color and with tonal focus. In your mind's eye extend the uprights out of the top of the picture. Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 2001-04 R O N FRENZ. Sharp focus black outlines in this drawing create a hyper-real dynamic. sky. and Amazing Spider-Man. The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones. Frenz has drawn for Marvel for about 20 years. to the right of its center. Align your ruler to the upright of each building. This s modeling applied over the top give the image a sleek and mechanical of gravity. beginning with Star Wars. moon. Buildings. and has been the title's regular artist since 2003. Single-point understand perspective To how Frenz created up therefore the effect of steeply between looking buildings—and howyou can do the same in your own work—take calculate where a ruler the and single vanishing point lies.74-77). not far above the drawing. He began work on Spider-Girl in 1998.

the finer and more subtle the texture and color should be. soft. I suggest you do so. Children's wax crayons are relatives. allowing it to fix slightly from behind. size. and can be a great rediscovery for bold drawings. COLORED PENCILS: Dry pigments ground together with chalk. OIL PASTELS Oil-based. purchase a small selection of different items you think you will like. you may be pleasantly surprised to discover something you could not have imagined using. minerals. Dissolve in turpentine or mineral spirits to produce oil paint or or dark paper. except the final layer. Beware—some are toxic. clay. crumbly. these work best when slightly warm. Many products are sold individually and in boxed sets. which he left unfixed to retain its brightness. 2. there are disparities between the apparent nature or color of what you hold in your hand and its performance on paper. shape. They work well on PIGMENTS Pigments. and synthetics. including iridescents. They vary hugely in cost. Try materials that are new and unfamiliar. paper-wrapped. used to make colors. though lines can develop greasy stains around the edges if the paper is not first stretched and treated with a gelatin paste laid as a wash. Pastel pencils are slender and in w o o d casing. Sticks and conte crayons make thicker marks (as below). insects. intensity. and can be softened and manipulated with degrees of heat. 1. 4. The worst are like revolting old lipsticks that get everywhere except where you intend. Store loose pastels in dry rice to keep them clean. unwrapped harder pastels. C o n t e crayons are square-formed. Be aware that fixative dulls pastel. quality and cost T h e best are paperwrapped sticks of sumptuous. wash. See h o w they work and return later for more of what proved best for you. The nontoxic range below represents a suggested starting point for experiment. made in about 80 colors. chalkbased but very subtle. The higher the quality (and cost). are derived from many sources: rocks. the diverse are made in brands of basic member of the family. Often.162 COSTUME Colored Materials ART STORES BRIM OVER w i t h t h e m a n y wherever permitted. OIL PASTELS: Many colors. CHALK PASTELS: Blackboard chalk is sidewalk work. mixed on the paper and scratched into (as below). or wax and a binder are shaped into fine strips and encased in w o o d like a graphite pencil. fixing each layer on the front. Before making substantial investments. Most stores leave small pads of paper on their counters for customers to test materials. and sold in many colors. slightly oily to the touch. oily pigment. animals. FELT-TIP PENS: Instant-drying alcoholor water-based inks stored in the barrels of the pens are delivered via smooth nylon o r felt tips of varying shapes and thicknesses. 3. Many artists apply fixative to the back of their work. quality. hue. Pastels are finer. plants. and cost are laid out for our pleasure and perusal. Use them to draw lightly (as above left) or thickly. Seemingly infinite choices of texture. Bright pastels are more brilliant on colored paper. colored materials available. Degas built his pastels in layers. great for tin . and subtlety. and CHALK PASTELS Pastel pencils make fine lines (as above).

Brands made for designers sold in enormous ranges of colors are far more subtle and sophisticated than those made for children. Some are nonsoluble. FELT-TIP PENS Although not made with felt-tip pen. . others dissolve in water or turpentine to make a wash. 111). so it is best to test them before buying. Some give richer lines than others. Fine lines can be achieved (as above).163 COLORED PENCILS These are wax. leaving the paper to shine through for highlights (as below). If you love smooth blocks and lines of colon felt-tip pens are perfect. Colors can be blended as shown right) and tones graded by altering pressure. Diverse brands are harder or soften greasier or chalkier in use. it is still a great champion and support for those beginners feeling shyly obligated to tone down their love of color to conform with what others say they should use.or clay-based thin crayons in wood casing. Think of Matisse's Blue Nude (see p.

Linear Outline Using fine pens. 100-01 and pp. . structure. personality. Superstitions and fetishes are attached to them: we are told never to put new shoes on a table. e n j o y i n g t h e study a n d i n v e n t i o n o f shoes. and a selection of shoes. This class takes the shoe as its subject in building on earlier lessons concerned with seeing through objects to understand their function. To set up. the era in which we live. values. you will need several large sheets of drawing paper. t h e n again as if transparent. You. REPEATED STUDY T o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s class. c o v e r a large sheet o f p a p e r w i t h line drawings o f several shoes. style. t o o . and they have been concealed in buildings to ward off misfortune. a range of colored felt-tip pens with both fine and broad tips.164 COSTUME Study and Design they reflect our age. social and economic status. while artists have painted their boots or those of others as personal portraits and memorials. imagining y o u can see t h r o u g h it. D r a w each o n e first as a solid object. a n d e x p e r i e n c e visible p r o g r e s s . As artifacts in museums. Here we go one step further. and how we stand and walk. they record and reflect our common history. and after studying familiar shoes we use the information learned to invent new ones. I m a d e n u m e r o u s s h e e t s o f d r a w i n g s . 104-07). will discover m o r e . if y o u m a k e p l e n t y o f d r a w i n g s as o p p o s e d t o o n l y a f e w . and volume in space (see pp. S H O E S TELL LIFE STORIES. Turn t h e m in different d i r e c t i o n s and o b s e r v e t h e i r s t r u c t u r e and f o r m .


The Surface


study the surface contours using fineand broad-tipped felt-tip pens. For best results, it is important to be bold and brief. Draw firmly, fast, and with as few strokes as possible. Build up each shoe from light to dark andleavesome paper showing through to create highlights.

Design Your Own

Using what you have learned from the previous steps about the structures of your shoes, and about the use of pens, invent new designs from your imagination. Start with fine outlines and progress to colored and textured surfaces. Modify your ideas by rotating the views.



The Structure of Costume

rich resource for the artist and

information given by a period style. Arrange to visit a costume museum or ask a friend to model clothes for you at home. Using fine felt-tip pens, begin with quick, pale impressions of each garment's shape before homing in on its borders and seams. Try to draw transparent views wherever possible to record the relationships between all component parts. Aim to draw enough information for it to be possible to make up a version of the garment using paper pinned to a tailor's dummy.

designer. They often give quite unexpected gems of ideas and information—whatever the subject. These drawings, made in a costume museum, demonstrate ways of recording structural information and detail for later use in the studio. They could form the basis of new designs for a fashion project or theater production, for example. Drawings of shoes on pp. 164-65 show how new designs can be evolved from the structural

It is usually best when collecting information for reference to apply the restraint of dispassionate observation. Set yourself the test of drawing facts with as little artistic license or embellishment as possible. Here I chose fine felt-tip pens because they are at their best when used swiftly, and therefore encourage bold, unhesitant decisions.

Swift lines record the hanging weight of this gentleman's coat, the relative proportions of its layers, and minimal details of the buttons and cuffs.

Thick velvet fabric is pulled tight beneath and across the bust by a single button. This transparent view shows how the fabric falls loosely in straight panels beneath the level of the sleeve.


W h e n visiting museums, be prepared f o r l o w lighting, which can make it hard t o see and draw. A book can help if attached t o your drawing board.

Adding stripes and dashes of color with a thicker pen brings out the glossy sheen and sculptural rigidity of this dress, which would have been worn over a whalebone corset. small reading light designed t o clip o n t o a


In small drawings such as these, use thick pens to color entire sections with a few marks, as I did here down the side of the bodice.

The light, frilly bulk of this crinoline dress is propelled forward with lines. pinching its gathers and sways that are hiding a horsehair bustle. fleets of quick



Textures and.Patterns
THIS CLASS FOCUSES ON how to draw textures through the collection of fabric, pattern, and embroidery samples from a costume m u s e u m . This formal method, using ruled squares, can create an invaluable library of ideas a n d i n f o r m a t i o n for future r e f e r e n c e — w h e n painting a clothed figure, or preparing a textile project, for example. However, if making a book of samples for a project, remember that it is important to also include collages of f o u n d materials (see pp.230-31) To d r a w a fabric texture, b e g i n by concentrating o n h o w y o u i m a g i n e it w o u l d feel if you t o u c h e d it. Decide if it w o u l d be rough, s m o o t h , w a r m , cold, thick, thin, tough, or fragile, for example. As you draw, believe you can feel these qualities at your fingertips a n d that your pencil is responding to the sensation. Undulate the pressure of your lines and marks according to the feeling of the fabric rather than its appearance. Let your pencil enact the sensation of touching its surface.

and to experiment more loosely with mixed media.

This starchy, quilted, b o w e d creation started life as an imagined corset, I intended t o d r a w together in one sculptural f o r m a range o f t h e details opposite. T h e garment quickly got o u t o f hand. T h e r e is great e n j o y m e n t in letting y o u r imagination run wild w h e n inventing costumes. If you are unable t o visit a costume museum, many exciting fabric details and textures can be found in y o u r o w n closet o r home.


Colored pencils give precision and tonal range; they can be faded but not erased. Lightly use an HB graphite pencil if you wish to plan a design first. Pressed hard, colored pencils build up a waxy finish of brilliant color. Used lightly, they appear powdery and show the texture of the paper.


Silk and braid


Embroidered leather





Outline stitch


identity. I made a drawing book full of studies seeking to understand how he composed drama and pathos in his narratives (see also pp. Madrid. 172-73. These characters. look at how Goya delineated volumes of thick fabric to express the posture.Dressing Character I O N C E SPENT THREE MONTHS researching the work of Francisco de Goya at the Prado Museum. and motivation of an individual. .126-27. selected from different pages of my original book. and 252-53). shape.

. are copies of works by Goya in which he makes air seem heavier than flesh. To understand how he did this. and tangible.170—71).T H E S E PENCIL STUDIES. and visible. as it rushes and carves fabric-wrapped forms like rivers and desert winds shaping the earth. Posture Carving also taken from my Madrid drawing book (see pp. I carefully copied the direction of each of his lines.



Second. the viewer. Seeing through Rembrandt's eyes. comics. and therefore seem to see. we can learn most about handling pen and ink. television documentaries. and instantly engage with the action of the scene. but drawings of gathered people tell them most directly. daily newspapers. Rembrandt's bored and frustrated wife. and its illumination. and other masters of Western Art. the viewer is not directly made the finer lines of Saskia. in spite of how it may seem. and distance—so drawings of gathered people can be loosely arranged in three took only minutes to make and yet it lives for centuries. We can direct close. This J u s t as there are three parts to a traditional landscape drawing—the foreground. The spaces between people and the positions they occupy on a page are vital to our understanding of the psychology or emotion of an event. We read tensions and exchanges between people. It middle. we can R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter draftsman. Here. we. while a quill contact with. and novels—our staple cultural diet—are driven by a fascination with shared experience and the detail of what happens in other people's lives. and so. there are no longer individuals but one significant group or mass action. First. the speed and printmaker and one of the greatest and most influential density of its lines. Third. R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN in the delivery of narrative. finding corners in crowded places to inscribe their action and energy onto the page. As artists. With a pocket full of disposable pens we also go out and draw the expressions of gathered people. soap operas. the viewer's attention in a scene by the format of its composition. are implicated in this marital exchange made over the head of the anonymous nurse. Storytelling and people-watching are obsessive human activities. Saskia. types. vivid portrait of his wife captures our attention. He is also the artist from whom props to add layers of meaning and attitude. stares out from her gloomy sickbed. paintings depicting scenes from history. Drawings selected for this chapter explore these Saskia Lying in Bedand a Nurse ranges of proximity 1638 9 x61/2in (227 x 164 mm) and a travel journal. this is not the portrait of an old woman. too. presumably while he is making this drawing. heighten or subdue drama with subtleties of exaggeration or caricature. Saskia died after childbirth. Her all-too-clear expression shows annoyance and irritation with her husband. the direct exchange (as shown here) where one or more characters hold eye Aneedproduced the thicker lines of the nurse. even up her were laid with a brush. We can also use clothes. Washes of shadow behind engaged and as a natural voyeur can feel invisible while watching the scene. furniture. a crowd tells the story from a distance. Blockbuster movies.Gatherings A LL DRAWINGS TELL STORIES. He in turn scorches the paper with his view and a certain speed of seeing all. . Later in their lives.

and Alice.kicks against the mundane things that close down your mind is a refreshing and good thing. and projector. plates shatter. TIM N O B L E A N D SUE W E B S T E R British artists who collaborate using neon. the Cat. and in. Think about what else you could use: a laser smoke. for example. In both works. or even the office photocopier. and smoke billows around the agitated jives of the Duchess. h a l o e d portrait of the artists seated b a c k to b a c k . c o m p o s e d garbage p r o d u c e s a c a l m . Pencil on paper important but only the beginning of possibility the combination of three-dimensional space. F o r e a c h w o r k . hearth i m p l e m e n t s crash at o u r feet. Pans fly oft the stove. and on." (Tim Noble) Drawing with light it is important to think about what you is Here timelessly we see a in can draw with.. T h e i m m a c u l a t e d r a w i n g is only r e v e a l e d w h e n t h e b e a m of a p r o j e c t o r c a s t s t h e s h a d o w Projections of the h e a p o n t o a wall. a kitchen explodes in o u r faces.176 GATHERINGS SOME DRAWINGS ARE MADE e n t i r e l y o f i l l u m i n a t i o n that floods drama into the viewers gaze. Below. N o b l e a n d W e b s t e r s w i t t y a n d o f t e n s u b v e r s i v e d r a w i n g s are also c o n t e m p o r a r y art installations. junk."Anything that. In one of R a c k h a m s great illustrations for Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland. the C o o k . Real Life is Rubbish 2002 Dimensions variable TIM N O B L E A N D SUE WEBSTER . narrative is delivered through the air. and projectors to create their anarchic punk satires of modern life.. via the animated clutter of o u r material lives. Here. t h e y select and arrange familiar items of street detritus into what appears to be an u n p l e a s a n t pile. refuse. garbage and chaos are piled a n d e x p l o d e d in r o o m s full of event.

we find several devices already explored through our drawing classes. 100 to see for make elliptical objects and pans fly through the the foreground. and watercolor.Stowe's ofMysteryand Queer Little Folks. This makes the story appear to leap out at us. Refer back to the drawing class how pots In drawn objects and elements that those behind. Find the singleperspective pp. H e is best k n o w n forillustratingIrving's Rip vanWinkle. humor. See how the In the Duchess's Kitchen 1907 77/8 x 6 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 5 0 m m ) ARTHUR RACKHAM . are very large compared to on p. tabletop. The wood grain acts like marks of speed behind the scene. Rackham Vanishing point In this marvelous drama made with pen. amplifying movement outward from the vanishing point. ink. a n d an unmistakable graphic style.76-77) above vanishing point (see that is about3/4in (2 cm) oak converge at this point. and Alice's shoulder.177 ARTHUR RACKHAM British watercolorist and book illustrator. by vivid children's Rakham's w o r k is characterized fantasy. and Poe's Tales Imagination. Depth Billows of smoke expand and are lighter as they come forward. beams.

a sculptor. This is an ironic drawing from Moore. HENRY MOORE Crowd 1942 Looking at Tied-up Object . heat. meaning. join in the waiting. and composition they are polar opposites. audiences. In culture. as fellow watchers. This is just one of many precious artifacts from a lost time. and action of a buffalo hunt. Chalk and graphite This fog-bound but humorous gathering of souls is made in graphite and colored chalk with gray wash. The image stands out among his more usual graphic works in which he hones and carves semi-abstract human forms.The human form w a s the vehicle o f his expression and h e w a s t h e official W o r l d W a r II artist. M o o r e t o u r e d Italy as a young man. perhaps these two are the most extreme. Magnetic Fields sculpture. as if Moore's wrapping has been literally outstretched. Opposite. The mournful gray landscape of Henry Moore's northern British field has gathered by night an overcoated audience to stand and wait before a wrapped and roped monument. a n d l o v e d t o d r a w in t h e BritishMuseum.178 GATHERINGS we have seen in the pairs and trios of drawings by masters and makers. a great Shoshone drawing blazes with the color. which still narrates vivid days in the lives of an energetic nation. and art in the landscape. London. and we. expressing his dry humor about O F ALL THE CONTRASTS HENRY MOORE British s c u l p t o r w h o t r a i n e d a n d taught at t h e R C A . A glimmer of gold light appears from the left No explanation is given. Moore's spectators appear to have walked a long way from nowhere to witness and wait beside this mysterious obelisque.

MAGNETIC FIELDS Horses It is interesting to note how the outstretched limbs ofthesehorses echo European images of the runningBuffalo horse before the sequence-photographer Muybridge taught us to 19TH understand their movement differently. horses. tolearnhow to paint a scene on a hide are and buffalo circle and charge the perimeters of a skin "field. Skills are taught not center chant or dance to the beat of a drum. creating harmonious balance with words but through silent demonstration. and helping our eye to dart around." Men at the instructed to sit and watch. Each color is evenly distributed throughout the scene.179 SHOSHONE SCHOOL Stylized characters This vital image of a buffalo hunt is made with pigment Members of the Shoshone community wishing painted within dark outlines on a stretched elk hide. Stylized hunters. Hunt CENTURY SHOSHONE SCHOOL .

t h e Bible. Heath Robinson lived through the same war-torn. a pink-inked cinema wobbles along with string. w r i t e r a r t i s t . p o e t . m a r k . and sweetened the often bleak years with his impractical inventions. Misted in translucent layers of paint. Blake w a s d r i v e n b y a passion f o r j u s t i c e a n d a p r o f o u n d b e l i e f in his v i s i t a t i o n s f r o m angels.180 GATHERINGS The Human Condition IN THE SPECTRUM of these vastly d i f f e r e n t g a t h e r i n g s of p e o p l e . pale souls of the lustful are being s p u n into yet another realm of hell. a n d f o c u s . a n d o t h e r w o r k s . a d e a t h c h a r g e of brutality. color. It illustrates a scene from Dante's Divine Comedy. Opposite. We also see qualities of line. B l a k e h a s i l l u m i n a t e d his s a d d e n e d Virgil on the s h o r e s of a d a r k w o r l d . w h i c h b y their c h o i c e a n d h a n d l i n g a c t u a l l y b e c o m e the force a n d spirit of e a c h i m a g e . K a t h e K o l l w i t z s c r a t c h e d a n d e n g r a v e d her a r m y of c l a y .f o o t e d t r o g l o d y t e s w h o rage into w a r like a m u d s l i d e of revenge. era as Kollwitz. inextinguishable in its fortitude and h u m o r . w h e r e he w a t c h e s a t u r b u l e n t s p i r a l of p u n i s h m e n t f o r the d a m n e d . texture. W I L L I A M BLAKE British visionary. a n d e n g r a v e r w h o p o w e r f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e d his o w n t e x t s in a d d i t i o n t o D a n t e ' s Divine Comedy. w e f i n d a spiritual v i s i o n . a n d the gentle h u m o r of sedate r i d i c u l e . The muscularity of Blake's figures was inspired by Michelangelo's works. Brushed line and wash This is an ink-outlined drawing made with a fine brush on paper with added washes of watercolor The image was subsequently redrawn as a line engraving. The Circle of the (The Whirlwind 1824 of Lustful Lovers) mm) 143/4 x 207/8i n ( 3 7 4 x 5 3 0 WILLIAM BLAKE .

who lived in a poor district of Berlin. Heath Robinson shows England in a past era. however meager or ridiculous their activity. Ink rolled over was selectively polished off using a rag. Losbruch (The Outbreak) 1955 20 x 233/8 in (507 x 592 mm) KATHE KOLLWITZ HEATH ROBINSON humorous illustrator and a regular contributor to magazines and journals such as The Sketch and The Bystander. and the impact of death and war upon women. Robinson and Kollwitz (above) share almost identical life dates and their work expresses a shared history from opposite sides oftheworld wars. He created sincere. The image was scratched directly onto a metal plate. plodding along with hazy. Kollwitz survived the two World Wars. sculptor and draftsman. children. humor by making his characters earnest. and clearly focused. White marks were made with a dusting of French chalk on the artist's finger to wipe away ink leaving clean metal.181 KATHE KOLLWITZ German printmaker. and the family home. THE HUMAN CONDITION Scratched lines This is a dry-point etching with monoprint. British Pen and wash This is a pen-andwatercolor drawing made for a color-platereproduction in an edition of T h e Bystander. What remained in scratched grooves printed on damp paper as lines. With masterful gentility. poverty. stoical bemusement. HEATH ROBINSON The Kinecar 1926 103/8 x 15 in (262 x 380 mm) . and controlled smears on the metal surface printed as tones. and her powerful and sensitive drawings center on nurture.

G E L P E N : P r o d u c e d in b l a c k w h i t e . or put the paper in your pocket instantly without fear of smudging. At a time like this. Unlike pencils. 192-93) w e r e b o t h m a d e w i t h a ballpoint. CHOICES AVAILABLE T h e r e a r e m a n y d i s p o s a b l e p e n s t o c h o o s e from. I swiftly focused on gesture. including l u m i n o u s a n d m e t a l l i c . in the car. dropped in your pocket and forgotten till needed. a disposable pen with its clip-on cap goes anywhere. or turn into washes and make monoprints if flooded with an alcohol-based substance such as hairspray. a ballpoint will make faint lines. fibertips. R e m e m b e r . gel pens) are the most convenient of all materials with which to travel. I keep quantities at home. these pens enable you to sketch. c h o o s e p e n s l a b e l e d " p e r m a n e n t " o r "lightfast. in the studio. B A L L P O I N T : Black a n d b o l d c o l o r s o f f e r d i v e r s e qualities. they can be obtained within minutes." 1. a n d pressure-sensitive. is d e l i v e r e d t h r o u g h a m e t a l t u b e o v e r a t i n y ball bearing. trusting shape and form to follow. 2. w a t e r . which can snap or pierce through your clothes. Ideal f o r precision w o r k (see p p . 4. For example. a n d ranges o f colors. Available in blacks and ranges of colors. Quick-drying. 7 6 . . and in most pockets so I can always record a thought DISPOSABLE PENS QUICK NOTES O n a c o l d day in Venice. R O L L E R B A L L : A c o n s t a n t i n k flow 3 . or idea. rollerballs. if y o u w i s h y o u r d r a w i n g s t o last a n d n o t fade o r b l u r w i t h t i m e a n d e x p o s u r e t o light. FIBER-TIP: M a n u f a c t u r e d f o r artists a n d d e s i g n e r s in a r a n g e o f w i d t h s . build to a rich. indent paper. t w o tourists and their gondolier drifter past m e o n a canal. So many stores sell them.7 7 and 214-15). turn the page. they each offer distinct and sometimes unexpected qualities. shut your book. p e r m a n e n t . fine fiber-tip Drawing with a fine fiber-tip pen. The f o u r i l l u s t r a t e d h e r e r e p r e s e n t a basic r a n g e . Lines t h i c k e n as t h e p e n w e a r s o u t G r a n d Canal (see pp. t h e y a r e lightfast.r e s i s t a n t . dark sheen. Insensitive t o p r e s s u r e : lines d o n o t v a r y in w i d t h o r t o n e . W h i t e gel p e n s a r e v e r y e f f e c t i v e o n d a r k papers. blob when old.182 GATHERINGS Disposable Pens (ballpoints.188-89) and Caravans (see pp. aiming for correct outlines would result in drawing too slowly to c a t c h the moment. T h e r e w e r e c seconds t o snatch this impression b e t w e e n their emergence from one bridge and disappearance b e n e a t h t h e next. jot notes.

not form. Fast lines focus on action.31 . crowd of fellow travelers Fast lines These scribbled lines model the mass and shadows of heads belonging passengers packed into the boat. Compare this Klee's mules on p.FROMMEMORY Here I used the same fiber-tip pen to compose a scene from memory. Earlier I had witnessed a crammed en masse in a fleet of hired gondolas complete with musicians and choir.

black. but they should not be what you dwell on. However. A curatorial assistant flies to do a chore (right). make them stouter. I caught fleeting glimpses of gathered people and solitary souls going about their affairs. if a person was stout. Each line acts its part in the narrative. pocket notebook and a fiber-tip pen. Don't worry about measuring angles. focus on the action of the event. FLEETING MOMENTS Walking through Venice with a small. all action is in the line of his coat and directed by his nose. Circular lines buzz around a man puzzling at the end of a train platform (left). animate them more. Each one was witnessed and drawn immediately from the afterimage of what I had just seen. of course. You must learn to trust your memory and to draw what impressed you most. not its outline. and companionship. when out drawing. Push toward caricature and this will draw out of your memory what was most important. No camera can tie you to a time or people in the same way. Above all. Exaggeration helps.184 GATHERINGS The Travel Journal I CANNOT OVERSTATE THE JOY of making a travel journal. if animated. Every drawing writes an indelible memory of place. activity. angles will happen as a matter of course. just draw the action. You will make outlines. let it enter the stage and perform. Movement . Let the line of the flying coat fly and the hanging arm hang. life will not slow and wait for you to catch it.

I am watched by the aggravated guard. The rush of his legs isamplifiedby their blurred lines.185 A large lady is photographed in front of a delicate work of art. Observation THE TRAVEL JOURNAL The same willowy assistant dashes about his work. Expression . In turn. eager to herd us all from his house of responsibility. I drew him three times on the same page to catch a range of his physical expressions.

. For example. Be aware that their placement on the page is part of the narrative. He and his simpering assistant would not allow me in. and reason for happening. Identify the principal character and draw him or her first. and there met this sullen custodian. you might place them lower down. start by focusing on its action.186 GATHERINGS Catching the Moment On A BITTERLY COLD November day. not outline. and you decide to draw the moment. pulls. I took refuge in a church in Venice. furniture leans. and involvement in the story. flap. Here the custodian projects fastidious ownership of his desk and pamphlets by pushing from behind the center of the space and challenging our entry to his image. if they are being devious. ACTION AND DETAIL W h e n drawing people. emotion. and let every detail speak by its size. or bulge. elevate them in the pictorial space. Here I have recreated my drawing in steps to show you how to set about capturing such a scene. focus on action. rather than the works of art they guarded. and clothing or bags hang. placement. if they are being haughty. decide how faces and bodies contort. forcing me to remain at the back and look at them. or pushes. Place the person carefully. For example. When your attention has been caught.

Draw their action and props. W i t h a few strokes. . If drawing a more complex scene.187 The custodian Identify your principal character a n d their psychological role in the scene. continue adding characters. Decide where you will place them o n the paper t o emphasize their action and intent. Decide where t o place them t o emphasize their role. which is pushed toward us in a gesture of confrontation. I added t h e assistant. together with any immediate props they are using. D r a w their action. CATCHING THE MOMENT The assistant Identify t h e antagonist ( o r second character) in t h e scene. such as the desk and pamphlets seen here. In the final step (left) I reinforced t h e custodian's desk. who is largely expressed through the shape and fall o f his raincoat and his way o f using a note pad. a pillar locates t h e scene in a depth o f space. Here.


and buildings.Grand Canal T H E CANALS OF VENICE are bustling places full of occupation. An imminent deluge of tourists urged me to work catching no more than the skeleton of the view. where vertical mooring poles give space and pulse to the horizontal speed of water quickly. . I developed detailofthis drawing from memory using a ballpoint pen.

Caricature each person slightly. followed by the streets. To catch characters like this. then the bridge beneath them. Characters in the foreground were drawn first. . Venetians flow across a stepped bridge and cascade into the streets beyond.Crossings DURING THIS RUSH HOUR. and drawn immediately from memory. Each person was glimpsed in an instant. note only their most essential action and feature.



and a great subject to draw. quiet afternoon. I found this circus by chance in the Swiss mountains. Caravans and other backstage activity convey expectations of energy and repose.Caravans T H E PARAPHERNALIA O F TRAVEL i s an intriguing part of circus life. Sitting at a distance on a hot. I used a ballpoint pen to compose a series of scenes. .




This is the world's first accurate image of the Moon. It now hangs on the staircase of the History of Science Museum. makes his work by the act of walking. learning to draw light out of dark. are the real subjects in great landscape drawings. a n d a m o o n globe called t h e Selenographia. as opposed the physicality of Earth. marking the ground with lines of footprints or by turning stones. By drawing such momentous and everyday events. Richard Long. the face of the Moon. and even how the Sun illuminates. so J o h n Russell's tour de f o r c e drawing (opposite) was a masterpiece of observation in his time. JOHN RUSSELL A p o r t r a i t pastelist t o King G e o r g e III o f England. The pastel drawing was constructed from myriad telescopic observations almost 200 years before the Apollo Moon landing. Beginners will often choose calm. These conditions are very difficult to express well. and meteor impacts have scarred. 199). Weather is essential in all landscape drawing. Take chances against the rain and work with the wind or fog. It is better to get up before dawn. and take bold steps in emulating the swell of clouds and the forces of torrential water. t w o e n g r a v e d m a p s k n o w n as The Lunar Planispheres. when little stirs and empty blue skies offer even less to latch lines to. In this chapter Moon Pastel 1795 Drawing we experiment with charcoal. trees. but it can be seen as a lens to our observation of this planet. a contemporary environmental artist. or has cracked and fallen under the weight of water. Oxford. It is Earths satellite. rivers. and the sea. t h e first-ever accurate image o f t h e M o o n ' s surface. Russell d r e w this. There is a sense of the heroic in drawing outside—we race to catch a form before the tide engulfs it. Just as NASA photographs of Earth have had a profound effect on the way we view our fragile home. pages o f softly i l l u m i n a t e d craters and lunar "seas" c o v e r e d in m a t h e m a t i c a l and s h o r t h a n d calculations. William Turner is said to have had himself lashed to a ship's mast to comprehend the storm (see p. surrounded by the bright instruments of centuries of navigation. The forces of nature. What they have drawn is the force of nature on these properties: how the wind heaves the night ocean. they are the animators of your subject. the sun comes out to blind it. Look closely at works by many artists and you will see that they have not represented hills. 5 f t x 5 ft 6 in ( 1 5 2 x 1 6 8 c m ) J O H N RUSSELL . a n d a n astronomer w h o dedicated 20 years t o studying t h e M o o n . England. to be ready to draw the new light as it breaks across the land. and experiment. or the wind carries it away. artists see for themselves that which is momentary and eternal. how the mountain cut by ice and rain is now fleetingly lit. sunny days. our companion. arranging them in perfect circles on the mountainside or in lines drifting out of sight beneath low clouds. and its draws the tides of the seas. how the soil is scorched. H e a l s o p r o d u c e d an a l b u m o f 1 8 0 exquisite pencil drawings.Earth and the Elements I T MAY SEEM PERVERSE to start a chapter titled "Earth and the Elements" with an image of the Moon. speculation.

lifts. Terrifying waves of merciless nature roar across the paper. By Turner carries us to the heart of the maelstrom.Through political drawings he fired his sharp wit at the king. we can soon learn to draw its force. Flapping kimonos and an onlooker turning his b a c k have the magic of a m o m e n t caught. seeing how it shakes. the bourgeoisie. the government. and gives motion to each image. has b e c o m e a hysterical kite. H O N O R E DAUMIER French satirical cartoonist lithographer. T h e ship. sculptor. like an umbrella forced inside-out. A hard waxy was drawn across a heavy limestone Varying definitions crayon of lire and depths of tone conspire to give volume. painter. He knew how the world bends and stutters under such gusts. speed. serving a prison sentence for his views. Daumier's c a r t o o n shines with the brilliance of his comic memory. a sail b r o k e n loose in a stormy marriage. and the legal profession. Fluid strokes inflate the woman's dress and pin shadows to the ground. Crayon and limestone This is a lithograph.198 EARTH AND THE E L E M E N T S Air in Motion THE GREAT INVISIBLE SUBJECT o f these d r a w i n g s is t h e w i n d . fluttering heavily. Hokusais sedate wind presses reeds a n d the j o u r n e y s o f young ladies. Dots and dashes suggest receding trees out of focus. Danger of Wearing Balloon Petticoats UNDATED HONORE DAUMIER . T h e great master of English seascape is c o n d u c t i n g with his graphic energy. This wife. distance. undramatic b u t brimming with stylized realism. is already lost. a scratched ghost. Below. Hazy vertical marks reveal buildings into the mist. and solidity. and by observing its tides and eddies in our o w n environment. and pioneer ofexpressionism.

Ship in a Storm c. Wind direction wood-block This is a colored To represent the blows lifted flowed wind.M. W . T U R N E R British landscape. AIR IN MOTION Pencil and watercolor subdued brushed. T u r n e r w o r k e d in oils a n d w a t e r c o l o r s a n d s k e t c h e d c o p i o u s l y o n his travels. d e s i g n e r a n d b o o k i l l u s t r a t o r . seascape. Landscape a n d city life w e r e his principal subjects.l o v e dw o r k s i n c l u d e 1 0 0 v i e w s o f M o u n t Fuji and 1 2 v o l u m e s o f Manga.b l o c kprintmaker.i n f l u e n c e d b y examples o f W e s t e r n art obtained through D u t c h t r a d i n g in Nagasaki. absorbent watercolor and are Stains of splashed. horizontally then and of the it into the stream Plants also bend and flow right to Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 1802 81/2 HOKUSAI KATSUSHIKA x 131/2 in ( 2 1 7 x 3 4 3 mm) . T h e r e a r e m a n y stories o f his p a s s i o n a t e w o r k i n g methods.W. wind. a n d his b e s t . including being lashed t o a ship's m a s t in o r d e r to study a storm.M. into this very as pressed sheet The paper's through own coior is brought banks of mist and fog. H o k u s a i in t u r n has since significantly influenced European art. leans the whole composition swells around its fateful center. painter. TURNER KATSUSHIKA HOKUSAI Prolific J a p a n e s e c o l o r w o o d . A outline scratched of a skeletal into penciled ship is while and the waves. from left print.199 J. Hokusai direction (from clothing from has chosen which it the right). and history painter w h o s e p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t a b o v e all w a s light. 1826 91/2 x 113/4 in ( 2 4 1 x 3 0 0 m m ) J.

EARTH AND THE VICTOR HUGO French novelist and artist (see also p. fantasy palaces. and swim into the page. as if drawn j u s t this year. with a brush. inks. Turner (see p. as a gestural storm on the paper. or charcoal. It looks so contemporary. drawing was Hugo's principal means o f expression. T h e very nature of b o t h is turmoil and an interweaving of elements. active surfaces of water. he blanketed the drawing in darkness. Le Bateau-Vision 1864 71/2 x 1 0 in ( 1 9 2 x 2 5 5 m m ) VICTOR H U G O . marks. and t h e sea s t u d i e d f r o m his h o m e in Guernsey in t h e Channel Islands. Opposite. His subjects include ruins. Pen and brush Hugo drew first with pen and ink. By contrast. lines of rain escorting them to b o u n c e and clatter. h a u n t e d shadows. this is a b o m b a r d m e n t from o u r h o m e s . D o m e s t i c o b j e c t s we can o w n and name fall from the clouds. He brings us to stare into a place that no sane human would enter.200 ELEMENTS Storms STORMS CAN BE SEEN and drawn in two ways: first. Leonardos Cloudburst of Material Possessions is o n e of his m o s t enigmatic and mysterious works. as a subject and second. grab their b r u s h . composing banks of waves and dense. leaving nothing but a glimpse of moonlight glistening on the froth below. and tossed o b j e c t s — a perfect subject in which artists can forget themselves.28). it is difficult to contemplate its brooding and night-soaked heart. An update on biblical showers of fish and frogs. Then. ink. T h e m e n a c i n g darkness of Hugo's storm b e l o w is so convincing. water. In periods b e t w e e n writing. this is a writer's narrative of terror.198) admires the majesty of nature.

There is a little magic in recognizing many items from our homes something like a rake. and they passed through private hands for 400 years before becoming widely known. and a wheel. Cloudburst of Material Possessions 1510-12 45/8 x 43/8 in ( 1 1 7 x 1 1 1 mm) L E O N A R D O DA VINCI . It is interesting to speculate how engineering might have developed if his ideas had been shared with the world earlier Ink and chalk This is a pen and ink drawing with touches of black chalk. Above and below are examples of his mirror handwriting.LEONARDO DA VINCI Leonardo devised many artifacts of our modern lives. a bell. He bequeathed his drawings to a friend. together with half the contents of our garage. envisioning machines centuries before their making (helicopters and bicycles. for example). Each item that has crashed from heaven is drawn in such a way that we can feel Leonardo's nib picking it up in the speed of a doodle. He was left-handed and wrote backwards in Italian from left to right. a hook.

C L A U D E LORRAIN French classical landscape painter draftsman. watching his hand and eye at work together. and famed for. Segments The top half of the drawing is a view as we enter the valley. which he used to unify his compositions. rapidly layering contours to shape place. and we can imagine standing over his shoulder. Whether land-. Claude Lorrain drew directly on location. transferred it to a scroll. she teased away fragments of paper to illuminate her view. Drawing with a scalpel. sea-.1638 85/8 x 121/2 in (219 x 320 mm) CLAUDE LORRAIN . a horizon line can trigger our recognition. and etcher who lived most of his life in 17th-century Rome. made inside a book. thick. EARTH AND THE Bryan cut the profile of a city. his unsurpassed handling of light. Clare Bryan took panoramic photographs of the English South Downs. Even distilled from all other detail. In a very different work (opposite above). and after tracing her captured line. Nature Profiles Opposite below. Views from Velletri c. Claude has used a fine nib to delineate segments of land as they recede into space. In the lower half he has walked downhill a little. cooler tones receding into the distance are applied with a brush. She was inspired by her research of aerial plans of London and the story of an alien map butterfly (see caption). and across to the right. Claude is distinguished by. it is the unique calligraphic signature of the place in which we stand. Over first lines. and mood simultaneously. Paler. rich. atmosphere. or cityscape.202 ELEMENTS THE PROFILE OF A HORIZON is a line we immediately recognize and respond to. and dry marks in the foreground appear to be made with his finger.

drawings Ideas of introduction Clare Bryan to research introduced down and led NATURE PROFILES and removal historical plans and aerial growth of London showing its population since Roman times. and digital print-based works reflect upon the histories and poetry of "left behind and in-between spaces. printmaker graphic designer.The horizon was drawn with a City Landline 2003 271/2x 59 in (70 x 150 cm) scalpel. and visiting professor at numerous art schools. progressively settlement (cropped more and more paper is drawn away to show the expansion of human page of an around the river." Cut line This is a small section of a preparatory 5-ft(1. 2001 CLARE BRYAN C L A R E BRYAN 3ritish artist. Her recent paper photographic.5-m)scroll.203 Scalpel-drawn This book-bound drawing was inspired by the story of a foreign butterfly wrongly to Great Britain in 1912. source workisilluminatedby standing its lower edge on a CLARE BRYAN . The edges of each here) fade into the solid paper unpopulated with a scalpel landscape. On turning the pages of City. then hunted destroyed. specialty bookbinder.

The tip snaps easily to renew a sharp edge if required. harder line. the heel o f y o u r h a n d . Lines are achieved by d e p o s i t i n g particles in the grain o f paper. Boxes often contain a range of thicknesses to choose for different needs. R o u g h paper c a n b e loaded. It c a n be m a d e duller. Essentially. 3. it is compressed and m o l d e d at high pressure. A great find when available. Then lift it away. a piece of fresh bread. so it chars b l a c k as o p p o s e d to igniting a n d turning to ash. b l a c k e r . white line into the blackor grayness of willow charcoal. It allows you greater precision in your mark-making than if you rub away the charcoal with an eraser. . THIN WILLOW CHARCOAL: I used a piece like this to make the drawing opposite. Artists have also used lime. Alternatively. 1 Suspend a length of masking tape. It does n o t erase easily. and heavier than willow. CHALK CHARCOAL: Technically. MEDIUM W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 5. C h a r c o a l naturally glistens. THICK W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 2 Keep the tape above your drawing. leaving u n d e r t r a c e s of first thoughts. they are all intended for fine work. LIFTING OUT This technique is a very easy method of drawing a crisp. cylindrical. It is also easily erased if the maker of the mark is not happy with the result. The same as above. 2. tape. black finish. but some specialists stock compressed charcoal in delicate square sticks.m a d e c o m p r e s s e d charcoal. this does not exist. 4. 3 A white line is lifted out by the tape. a rag. resulting in a pale line. Beware of cheap brands selling dyed chalk as compressed charcoal. without touching the surface. Charcoal lifts away from paper easily with the very light touch o f an eraser. Try itworking on big paper covering a wall. As its name implies. b e e c h . 1. 6. sticky side down. SQUARE COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Not often sold. a n d p l u m . between your middle finger and thumb. you can p u r c h a s e m a c h i n e . it looks gray and feels like chalk. feather. vine. 162) or graphite (see p. and offers a rich. resulting in a stick that gives a blacker. Use any fine-point pen or pencil (I used a ballpoint) to draw a firm line on the back of the Big pieces are perfect for very large-scale drawings—even larger than yourself. Slightly dull the tape's stickiness before use t o prevent it from lifting out more than you intend. fine. COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Machine-made. a n d m o r e i n d e l i b l e by soaking it in linseed oil. only a little thicker. Not to be confused with square conte sticks (see p. Hold it over your drawing RANGE AVAILABLE Charcoal (in its several forms shown here) is loved or loathed by the beginner to whom it is often recommended because it produces pleasing results quickly. Smooth paper accepts few particles. or fingertip. Willow is the most c o m m o n wood. In use. 7. B u n d l e s o f twigs were traditionally sealed into earthenware j a r s or wet clay and heated slowly and intensely in a fire or kiln. blacker. maple.204 E A R T H AND THE E L E M E N T S Charcoal CHARCOAL IS PRODUCED from wood baked slowly without exposure to air. CHARCOAL PENCIL: Types made by different manufacturers vary in quality and density of line.54).

8 . CHARCOAL Lifting out This detail shows an example of where I used the lifting-out technique demonstrated opposite to draw flashes of lightning against rain clouds. 9. Lift out broader marks with a larger implement. PEN: Any fine pen or pencil can be used to draw on the back of masking tape when lifting out. MASKING TAPE: An invaluable resource. Here we used a ballpoint. I used a plastic eraser effectively on thinly applied charcoal. graphite.205 ERASING Thickly applied charcoal quickly o v e r c o m e s a plastic eraser A w a r m (soft and tacky) putty eraser is more effective. Layers can be peeled away to refresh its surface. or any other dry media. Use cheaper (less sticky) for lifting out. pastels. Different tones seen throughout the main drawing on pp.212-13 were made by altering the pressure applied to the charcoal. Here. Use high quality (very sticky) to fix paper to walls and boards. . 10. Cotton swabs also work. as is fresh (unbuttered!) bread. T O R T I L L O N : This is a tight roll of paper used to blend charcoal. sold in several widths.

9 8 . At its worst. and a cushion in a plastic bag to sit on. To experiment with drawing landscapes and the use of charcoal. When you arrive.9 9 we noted that in response to visual stimulus. our brains search for nameable things and will perceive complete pictures from very little information. Ironically. I relaxed my eyes out of focus to dissolve distracting detail into abstract patches of light and darkness. The long view is hidden behind trees. pack your materials (as advised below) and set off for a local view or your nearest arboretum. Pack several thick and thin sticks of willow charcoal. It is the visible effect of the atmosphere between where you stand and what you see in the distance. a reel of masking tape. MATERIALS In this first view there is only a foreground and middle distance. begin by marking out several small squares on your paper.206 EARTH AND THE ELEMENTS Landscapes TREES ALONE OFFER MARVELOUS shapes to draw. This term simply means that as land rolls away into the distance. details blur and colors grow paler and bluer. Don't worry if it is cloudy: clouds add drama and perspective and make good subjects in themselves (see pp. to contain each of your compositions. the more you encourage the viewer's imagination to join in and see.212-13). hazy distance. They are also good markers of receding space. Seeing tones . Landscape drawings are traditionally arranged in three parts: a detailed foreground. especially when making first excursions into aerial perspective. but is often less evocative and engaging. Then I drew the shape of the tonal patches I perceived. it results in flat planes of clutter. an eraser your drawing book or a board and paper fixative (or hairspray). Excessive detail can be admired for its skill and achievement. Successful drawings often only suggest the qualities of the scene without overdescribing them. On p p . a less distinct middle ground composed of shapes and textures. the less you describe. and an abstract.

This composition turned out a little flat because I have an almost even quantity of earth and sky.207 LANDSCAPES In my second square I explored a simple view contrasting soft. and broke a view through the hedge into the distance with a dark sky threatening rain. horizontal regions of grass. I have invented drama with diagonals set against each other I tilted the earth. rounded. Remember. the trunk of a bare tree. your view is your inspiration. Exploring the view Redrawing the scene above. dark trees with bright. It is better to give distinctly more pictorial space to one or the other (see below). shadows. full of information you can use to create what you want! Inventing drama .

2 1 4 ." . observing it from several views so as to better understand it as a whole. shade out of the glare of the sun.104-05). I am then able to home in on what interests me most for further study. s e e k places in light After my first drawing.164-65) and a wire violin (pp. EARTH AND THE FINDING THE SUBJECT Finding a remarkable subject is even better when you can circumnavigate it in an arena of space. bare ribs. For example. This first drawing serves as a process of arrival. your challenge now is to find a sculptural subject in the landscape. making the scene below led me to focus on the decaying boat opposite. "Drawing in the round means to literally walk around your subject. I usually begin by making an image of the whole view. so the paper is not made blinding and your hand cannot cast a shadow on your work. and seeing what the real choice of subject is.1 5 my first drawing of the whole view of the Tiber led me to see the real subject of the day. taking with you your drawing book and pen. The mud of the tidal shore in Rye. Similarly.208 ELEMENTS Drawing in the Round WHEN DRAWING IN THE LANDSCAPE. on p p . and tiller still standing proud. which was the flow of water over rocks. Building on earlier studies of structure in space using shoes (pp. Circling a subject and drawing it from several views imprints on your memory a better understanding of its three-dimensional form. settling my concentration. engine. England has embedded within it the decaying skeleton of a burned fishing boat.

W h e n you have found your subject. marking straight. and the order and shape of its component parts. its overall balance. w h e n t h e sea recedes. and structure. I drew with quick. character. Overleaf: Decaying Boat 4 . DRAWING IN THE 1 Here. I looked more boldly at the planes and the dynamic of the sculptural craft My lines have become darker and more forceful as confidence in my understanding of the vessel grew. ROUND 2 In this tail-end view. 3 This impression notes the angle of the broken boat. I spent equal time looking at the subject and the paper. looking more at the boat than at the paper From this low position I have emphasized how the boat is swallowed in mud by outlining its shadow on the ground.209 SERIES OF STUDIES This stunning ghost o f a boat comes into v i e w t w i c e a day. Each n e w drawing gives a different insight. careful lines to establish the skeleton that gives this wreck its distinct form. make a series o f drawings f r o m different positions. The outline ties a shape of darkness to the boat like a weight so that it becomes part of its form. unfussy lines.



Cloudburst THIS STORM DRAWING. hot-pressed drawing p a p e r (see pp. was made with gentle but unhesitating s p e e d . . L o o k i n g b a c k and forth from the heavens to firmly taped-down paper.20-21) using a thin stick of willow charcoal. I worked quickly to catch and weave the turbulent contrasts of rising wind and approaching water before the drawing could be washed away. m a d e on s m o o t h .


pocket-sized notebook. and rhythmic detail as it passed through the ancient gully of the city. pulse. On the pages of a small. since ancient times. . black. shaping the city.Notes of Force T H E GREAT FLOWING TIBER RIVER has cut through Rome. focusing on the river's eddies. I drew with a needle-fine fiber-tip pen.


I used a dip pen and waterproof India ink with brushed watercolor to draw the view. .Mountains SITTING IN THE SHADE of a tree on the Greek island of Antiparos. The strong diagonal of the composition from bottom left to top right carries the eye through changes of height and focus from the foreground to the mountains beyond.



First marks. yet my kinship to abstraction is fundamental. many nonWestern cultures have highly sophisticated abstractions at the core of their art. for example. and young children show us that abstract. precisely because it does not have to represent a physical object. An abstract mark is often a better conductor of a thought or feeling. such as Adolf Wolfli. Museum of Fine Arts. writhing torrents of color. drawn sound.8 cm) A D O L F WOLFLI Abstraction is a direct. liberating. spontaneous image-making. People are often scared by abstraction and see it as the enemy of figurative art. Afterward. Perhaps in Western culture we bred this intuitive freedom out of ourselves in our insistence on complex figuration. and poetic myth roar and cascade within his tightly framed pages. Indian mandalas. and it has always been with us. It was not invented in the 20th century. be brave and enjoy them. Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape 1915 413/8 x 285/8 in (105 x 72. ADOLF WOLFLI One of the greatest masters of Art Brut. It is actually its foundation and its infrastructure. only rediscovered. which are essentially abstract. Internal workings of the mind were suddenly free to find a new language of expression. and emotion. poet. From another viewpoint. expressive marks and shapes are at the core of natural. fictional language. and history. sounds. abstraction is not so easy to define. and independent means of communication. Artists were given a different tool—a line threaded directly from their subconscious to their hand—and with it they began to map a bold new landscape of marks and concepts that would dramatically and forever change the face of Western art. don't be timid. However. Outsider artists. Not everything we know has a physical form in the world. Wolfli was a Swiss draftsman. writer and composer who suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and was resident in the Waldau Aslyum near Berne. He made thousands of drawings to chronicle his complex life. Many concepts and feelings can only be expressed through marks. picturing a stabilized world was impossible and Modernism rode forth with vigor. it is simply itself. all pictorial representations are abstractions of reality. The growing rise of Darwinian ideas coupled with Freudian and Marxist perspectives forced Western society to reconsider its origins and future.Abstract Lines T HE DEVELOPMENT OF W E S T E R N abstract art at the beginning of the 20th century significantly paralleled major changes in world thought. Berne. His drawings are collected and exhibited internationally and held by the Adolf Wolfli Foundation. and have been making abstract drawings for centuries—Japanese calligraphy. As you approach the classes in this chapter. I begin every image by feeling its meaning. It also underpins and gives strength and unity to all figurative work. The fate of Old World thinking was finally sealed with the brutality of World War I. or gestures. direction. strike the paper to find form. actions. From one point of view. . Swirling. belief. opposite. My own work is firmly centered in figuration. and Aboriginal art.

and plaster in galleries and landscapes. sit in silent harmony. and wood are also part of the work. tone. A line can be finished in a second. It can proclaim mood. Damp Japanese paper was laid over carefully arranged iron bars. He travels widely to research ancient sacred sites. akin to stones in a Zen garden. forged steel. The Physical Space 1990 3 0 x 30 ft ( 9 1 4 x 9 1 4 cm) MAMORU ABE . This the paper rest within the amplifies framelike of the floor from the ceiling. or. and sensitivity with its thickness and pressure of touch. quoting ink marks on a page. staining redbrown lines into the white surface. iron. Twombly's mesmeric wax line worked over house paint is like a signature. Mamoru Abe prepares an image that will appear through the chemistry of iron. ice. scrolling across the canvas in an intimate crescendo. Lines. it can keep reforming through the inherent repetition of a process. and Assistant Professor of Fine A r t at Fukuoka University. brass. water. Sometimes it smolders like a deep shadow. A Neolithic chalk tablet bears cut lines that were slowly carved. Abe works with materials such as soil. as Twombly shows us opposite. Abe's physical drawing is a sculptural installation. rhythmically engaged with itself. silence. texture.220 A B S T R A C T LINES Process and Harmony SOMETIMES A DRAWN LINE sings on the surface of its support. salt. and temperature rim of floor space. Five forged steel shapes. and patient watching. Moisture produced rust. Iron rods in tone. Changes paper. and texture their bracing separation reaching between from beneath Pillars of the gallery are made part of this drawing by their inclusion in the paper. Below. MAMORU ABE Japanese sculptor and installation artist.

PROCESS AND HARMONY Cut lines Chalk carves easily. emotive. The central pictorial space is also similarly cut and divided by the considered arrangement of straight lines.Thesite's purpose is unknown. such as the Rosetta stone. and sensuous drawing from painting. and Untitled 1970 Here we might seek to grasp letters in the turning of his line. that challenges the separation of word from image.000-2.241).England. and American Indian petroglyphs (see p. and the worship of the sun and ancient gods. Twombly has language works CY TWOMBLY Contemporary American artist who emerged through the 1950s New York art scene in the heyday of Abstract Expressionism and Action Painting. Neolithic Chalk Tablet 3. CY TWOMBLY . evolved a raw. Precise lines suggest the use of a sharp flint The framed rectangle of this image is echoed in that of Abe's installation. burials. theories suggest astrological observations. energetic.Twombly was presented with a Golden Lion award for lifetime achievement. At the 2001 Venice Biennale.221 ANCIENT CARVINGS Many ancient cultures have made and left behind drawings and texts carved into stones or animal bone. Many of his graffiti-like combine abstract gestures with statements.400BCE 21/4 x 21/4 in (58 x 58 mm) ARTIST UNKNOWN Language Over the course of fifty years. close to Stonehenge in Wiltshire. This example is one of two chalk tablets found in a Late-Neolithic pit. the Babylonian world map.

His drawing writes the time of its own physical process by expressing the extreme concentration of the moment in which it was made. abstract artists and composers unique. interpret. Similarity in gritty texture suggests that here. and participate in the composition. brushed night skies over them with ink then lifted the disks to reveal white moons. and inventive of his time. "There is nothing like dream to create the future. Two Impressions Paper 1853-55 VICTOR HUGO Disk from a Cut-Out . Hugo. he mixed graphite into ink. Ink impressions When drawing nightscapes Hugo often laid paper disks in place of the moon." An innovator who never fails to surprise. A graphic score is a V I C T O R H U G O Hugo's abstract French novelist w h o m a d e m a n y drawings in m i x e d m e d i a ( s e e also p. Bussotti. broke new ground in the 1950s with graphic scores now considered among the most extreme. o r a pattern o f elements s o unified as a w h o l e t h e y c a n n o t b e e x p l a i n e d asa s u m o f parts. Gestalt. and let the drying meniscus deposit granules in linear drifts such as we would see in the satellite photographic mapping of rivers. too. here he anticipates abstract expressionism by 100 years. pressed them face down. below.28). beautiful. drawing here can b e described in t e r m s o f a G e r m a n philosophical idea a b o u t is t h e i n s t a n t r e c o g n i t i o n t h e p o w e r o f m o m e n t . Both abstract drawing and composition involve the perfect sequencing of sounds and marks against space and silence. music manuscript requiring instrumentalists to improvise. said. a configuration. o f t e n e x p r e s s e d in v i s u a l t e r m s .222 ABSTRACT LINES Writing Time SINCE THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY. The scores are also exhibited in galleries as visual art. Marks across the center appear to be made with his fingers. abstract. Gestalt o f an unnameable thing. and lifted them away to leave impressions of watery planets and seas.28. opposite. Here he appears t o have saturated the cut-out moon disks with gritty pigment. Texture Compare this drawing to Hugo's octopus on p. have striven to break down old pictorial and musical structures to explore new and unfettered modes of expression.

223 W R I T I N G TIME SYLVANO BUSSOTTI Italian avant-garde composer and principal 20thcentury exponent of the graphic score. 1958 SYLVANO BUSSOTTI . we can feel their rhythm and easily attach sounds to them. 70 in relation to Bussotti's clustered notes to the left of his rondo and open space to the right. Circular Score for "Due Voci" c. Sound and rhythm This flickering rondo of sound written in pen on a hand-ruled stave can be heard in our imaginations as much as seen. a far cry from any recognized musical notation. Bussotti's first mature work. His later works become increasingly abstract. Compare this work to that of Libeskind on p. This is a page from Due Voci. Following the notes.

224 A B S T R A C T LINES Chants and Prayers WHEN ABSTRACT LINES are organized in repetition. Compositional rightness (see pp. In music it can be felt in the diversity of plainsong and African d r u m m i n g . they m a k e a visual a n d physical e c h o that t o u c h e s s o m e deep part of the human spirit. MARIE LIEB Little is known of this w o m a n for w h o m the act of drawing was essential. Cell Floor With Torn Strips of Cloth 1894 MARIE LIEB . She tore c l o t h into strips a n d used these to draw patterns a n d symbols o n h e r cell floor. Lieb is one o f countless thousands of "Outsider" artists—diverse individuals including ordinary citizens. it is found in the regularity o f ordered lines or a pattern. Germany. and sufferers of psychiatric illnesses—who have always existed. cultures. T h e s e p h o t o g r a p h s d o c u m e n t the meditative drawings o f two w o m e n living worlds apart in different countries. It will protect the place from evil and make a pleasing invitation to good spirits. O p p o s i t e . Cloth is the simple instrument with which she has conducted and ordered her universe. In the late 1 9 t h century. d i p p i n g h e r fingers into a pot o f rice flour.228-29) has been adjusted with each movement of the rags to draw a cosmos of balance and perfection. Marie Lieb w a s a psychiatric patient in the Heidelberg Asylum. This takes a form in most cultures. an a n o n y m o u s w o m a n in the southeast Indian state o f Tamil Nadu m a k e s a ritual drawing o n the b r i c k courtyard o f h e r h o m e . and c i r c u m s t a n c e s . making objects and images outside o f mainstream culture. social outcasts. centuries. Visually. for e x a m p l e . Torn cloth This is one of two published photographs showing Marie Leib's torn cloth strips significantly placed on her cell floor.

cultural anthropologist. Huyler is the author of Painted Prayers. Designs and motifs Rangoii (or mandalas) are ritual drawings made by many millions of women across rural India. at the University of London and Ohio State University. among others. and in places of worship and celebration. Motifs are geometrical or based on plants. animals.Theseare widely published in journals and are the subjects of international exhibitions. lecturer on the subjects of Indian art and Indian women's identity. and birds. chalk.225 STEPHEN P.000 images. women pride themselves on never repeating a design. lime. Painted Prayers UNDATED STEPHEN R HUYLER . and for over 30 years has traveled extensively through the Indian subcontinent creating an edited archive of 200.HUYLER Photographer art historian. Skills are handed down through generations and from friend to friend. or flowers are marked or arranged on the ground or on the walls of homes. In daily practice. Materials such as rice flour. Popular magazines feature new ideas each week and on special occasions there may be contests.

Oval moons eclipse each other and oscillate between landforms and portraiture. and water-resistant layers of spray and enamel paint on thick paper. performance and installation artist. Untitled 2001 2001 153/4x 215/8 in ( 4 0 0 x 550 mm) BRIAN C A T L I N G . free from the direct imaging of known physical things. it is ruled and contained in one dimension by its interlocking ink-lined borders.226 ABSTRACT LINES Compositions ABSTRACT DRAWINGS ARE LARGELY or entirely free from using the viewer's eye to track and unfold layers of meaning. BRIAN CATLING British sculptor poet. Their energy can therefore be a purer expression of an idea or emotion. figurative representation—that is. and choice of hues. Klee's mathematical maze of thinly washed surface resonates with meticulous planning. With no depth of field. Oxford. gold paint and iridescent gouache mixed with water. These two works present complex compositions with differing intensions and methods of making. Catling's works made for international galleries and museums involve drawing as a tool in their development and making. Mixed media This is a collage of torn white and gray tissue paper previously stained with ink. filmmaker Professor of Fine Art. Catling's torn paper shapes and shadows spill light out of their frame like a fractured mirror. rocks or heads in a subdued atmosphere of dream. Catling's abstract drawings are usually made in series and in parallel to written poetry and sculptural installations. Ruskin School. and Fellow of Linacre College. but similarities in mood. They each find their pathways and equilibrium in atmosphere and suggestion. structure.

227 PAUL K L E E Swiss painter and sculptor (see also p. and might be read as active or passive. whereas tonal surfaces are perceived more immediately as a whole. ruler.97-99.31). Klee also felt that a line represents the passing of time. Polyphon Gefasstes Weiss (White Framed Polyphonically) 1930 131/8x95/8 in (333 x 245 mm) Paul-Klee-Stiftung. Line and surface Klee observed the visual capacity of lines to push or pull within an image. and brush. Geometric harmony This is a work on paper made with a sharp ink pen. We can see some diagrammatic examples of this among the optical illusions on pp. It is a geometric harmony of straight lines and tonally graded flat colors that by their arrangement draw our eyes inward to their white center. philosophized. Kunstmuseum Bern PAUL KLEE . watercolor. He explained his polyphonic painting as "a harmony of several color voices" searching for a visual parallel to music. Klee painted. drew. and wrote copiously about the natures and relationships of color and form.

Seek it when looking at other artists' work and in your everyday environment. and put them o n a tray. It is found in all great art and design. "Whenall pictorial elements come together in pleasing and perfect balance. a glass. W h e n m o v i n g objects around in your yard. There is a single m o m e n t w h e n all proportions. media. M a n y of their inter-relationships will be meaningless. the late garden designer Russell Page explains. after being continuously adjusted. they are just. This balance is what every artist and designer searches a n d feels for when making an image. As y o u m o v e them around. or on a page. s o m e will be more or less h a r m o n i o u s . and an apple. and ten straight sticks painted black. a b u n c h of keys. Feel for it when youdraw. In his b o o k The Education of a Gardener. angles. culture. regardless of style. their impact. "I have experimented endlessly with this idea. b u t e v e r y n o w a n d again you will hit on an arrangement w h i c h appears just. there is a clear feeling when. but an easy o n e to u n d e r s t a n d . Set up a sheet of paper with a rectangle drawn on it.Thisexercise will help you start. they reach a perfect position. the impression y o u receive from t h e m . or home. w i l l c h a n g e w i t h e v e r y r e a r r a n g e m e n t . Take." . or degree of figuration. and elements settle in definitive balance." SETTING UP Justness can be harmonious or deliberately discordant. It is also found in nature. for instance.228 ABSTRACT LINES Being "Just" A SENSE OF "JUST" (or rightness) is a difficult concept to explain.

56-57). Arrange them so they touch or cross in a series of intersecting balances.229 WHERE TO START Take ten sticks of equal length. W h e n the composition falls into place. horizontals dominate the lower area. fix it with glue. Move the sticks out into the rectangle. suggesting a horizon. B E I N G "JUST" 1 Arrange your ten sticks in t w o groups of five. Feel for the rightness of their grouping and their relationships to surrounding spaces." Move the sticks to find alignments and imagined perspectives. Here. Remember the drawn rectangle is a part of the composition (see pp. . A stick touching the rectangle links the composition to the frame. In the final step (left) there is an even balance. as shown here. painted black. horizontals dominate the top. which now becomes a tight frame. making the composition seem to float beneath. Within a rectangle on a flat sheet of paper set about making a composition using no other rule than a sense of "just. 2 3 In the step above.

stain and dry a sheet of tissue paper using blueink. and black ink." (Russell Page) . Returning to Russell Page. correction fluid or white paint. which is the shifting. glue. found or made items. To prepare for this lesson. he went on to say ". colors.. a compass. an infinite range of voices and meaning." overlapping placement of materials on a flat plane.220. hard or soft. "My understanding is that every object [or shape] emanates—sends out vibrations beyond its physical body which are specific to itself.230 ABSTRACT LINES Collage H E R E W E EXPERIMENT with collage. Collage offers the artist a liberating palette of SETTING UP This lesson in collage is a direct continuation of the compositional lines made in the previous class. Once the ten painted black sticks are set and glued in place.. you start composing by adding or subtracting shapes and textures and using colors and tones to achieve the impression you want to m a k e — w h e t h e r dramatic or s u b d u e d . Images and fragments torn from day-to-day life can be brought together to make a chorus of ideas and emotions.69 and Abe's installation on p.Youwill also need spare white paper. Cut or torn layers and shapes. harmonious. colors and textures can be manipulated until their pictorial harmony. ready-made depths and surfaces. and tones. or discordance. This principal also applies to three-dimensional drawings such as Gaudi's work with wire and weights on p. scissors. or even strident. feels "just" (see pp. they become a scaffold for the addition of further textures.228-29).

solidity. draw.231 WHAT TO DO Lay the final step of the previous lesson (p. In the last step (left). This can also give a sense of fragmentation or punctuation to the composition. they deepen pictorial space. then cut out.228) in front of you. Obscuring the blue disks. correction fluid and ink marks add further dimensions. . four circles of blue tissue paper. COLLAGE 1 Regular-sized pieces of white paper are moved over the surface to disrupt the even lines. 2 3 Torn white paper moved over the surface adds masks of rough-edged irregular volume. and with a compass and scissors. Glue them in place once they feel "just" Translucent circular disks of tissue paper give color tone. and shadow to thepicture. Cut six small rectangles the same proportion as your whole image.The single disk that is folded with its straight edge facing up appears heavier than those that are flat.


is the practice of Zen through the calligraphic marks of a brush dipped in carbon ink. Hitsuzendo drawings aspire to "breathe with the energy and vitality of eternal life" achieved through "a state of no mind—beyond thought. and expectation. . Zen Brushwork]." [Tanchu Terayama. emotion.Zen Calligraphy HITSUZENDO. A MODERN JAPANESE meditative art form inspired by the teachings of Yamaoka Tesshu (1836-1888).

Lines made with a steel dip pen take on a scratchy nervousness.Nocturnes IN THIS QUARTET of semi-abstract drawings made with India ink. I flicked spatters of ink and rubbed the paper with a wet and a dry brush to achieve these effects. . These vibrate against washes of shadow and pitch-black mass. discord is balanced against rhythm to create mood.





and damnation are found in most world faiths. Reading the place name I momentarily glimpsed an alternative meaning. Lord of the Rings. our literate and more secular Western society still hungers for another world and to ravenously indulge its fascination for the marvelous. sculptures. beasts. a Catherine wheel of drawn sparks spiraling around the quietly resolute saint. Depictions of God or of gods in the contexts of daily life. When creating monsters. Feeding this demand. Humans are equally troubled by the imperceptibly small and the enormous. Here. and the Alien trilogy. or strange. aliens. Be inspired by the irrational comedy of word association or puns. for example. in the cracks of walls. For example. movie studios now brim with as many monsters as the visual art of the Medieval and Renaissance Church.Gods and Monsters OUR SACRED AND SECULAR need to visualize demons. or in smoke. I was on a train passing through Nuneaton. We watch with captivated pleasure movies such as The Fly.247. all of which originated as hundreds of drawings. impossible. which is to have eaten a nun—it inspired the drawing on p. happen to us. To learn to flex your imagination. a human-animal mix that implies this could MARTIN SCHONGAUER German painter and engraver who settled to work in Colmar Alsace. . The salvation of heaven and terrors of hell are represented equally—enough to make any sinner shudder. serpentine tails. Neither should be slave or master. Monsters take advantage of both. feathers. scales. We love our fear of the hybrid—ideally. Schongauer is best known for his prints. and stained-glass windows deliver powerful visual sermons to the once-illiterate populace. Today. thousands of paintings. which were widely distributed and influential in his time. and deep fur—and we alter their scale. paradise. Fantasy is most successful when founded on strong and familiar visual logic. Perhaps the Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 1485 121/4 x 9 in (312 x 230 mm) MARTIN SCHONGAUER most important conclusion in this final chapter is to advise you to develop your skills in parallel with the joy of your unfolding imagination. In the Christian churches of Europe. Star Wars. angels. We then add substances we dislike: unidentified fluids. wings. Images we are now surrounded by bear testimony to the power and resourcefulness of their collective imagination. England. we select details of animals farthest from ourselves and that are widely thought disturbing—reptilian and insect features. our eye circulates around a flutter of leather and scaly wings. look for images in the folds of clothing. Throughout this book images are presented to excite and surprise and drawing classes created to increase your confidence. and the faces of God have for centuries given artists a feast for the extremes of their imagination. a collaboration between the two will ensure that your drawings glow with originality.

Goya's plainly textured gray background pushes back the space behind the illuminated simply subject. a wave to join Achilles' chase of Hector. He would be graceless if he stood. Violent white marks symbolizing Achilles' rage resonate with the energy of Twombly's script on p. barren land rising like MYRIAD CHAINS RUN THROUGH ART HISTORY. quoting great paintings and popular culture to add cunning twists to his satires. hags. plain wall suggests a blinkered view of nothing. Aquatint Goya has drawn a learned man as an ass. reading from a book of asses. Pictorially. Other drawn versions of this image are more savage and frightening. Opposite below. Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 1799 81/2 x 6 in (218 x 154 mm) FRANCISCO DE GOYA . whose impassioned work begins with light tapestry cartoons. portraits. Francisco de Goya was a master of borrowing. and exposed the superstitions. They depict as if by lamplight the devil and witches. such asinine behavior can be hereditary. Saturn devouring his son. Near the end of his life he made his "Black Paintings" on the walls of his home. below. Paul Thomas's studies of Picasso and Twombly can be traced directly. In this softer aquatint he poses for his portrait Textured background The aquatint process has been used to great effect in making a gritty toned background. The title "And So Was His Grandfather" adds that should we not already know. rushing.30. Los Caprichos.220. Many students leave white backgrounds in their work. vanity. and church murals. a Shoshone seeking guidance and power meditates at the sacred site of a petroglyph. This continuity enriches the making of art and our heritage. Visions experienced in front of the drawing sometimes instruct the making of a new one. Opposite. deranged masses. it allows the mule to stand forward. which can swamp the subject Here. we see the international icon of stupidity. crammed tightly at his desk. and men clubbing each other to death. his lover a dog. The well-dressed mule is cumbersome. noisy seascape on p. and follies of court through copious graphic works including his best-known prints.240 GODS AND M O N S T E R S Marks of Influence marking the influence of one artist upon another. The high. Compare his dark. Goya later recorded the horrors of Napoleonic occupation. F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A Spanish court painter printmaker and draftsman. In this ass. This act defines the vision and continues the line of spirit guides. to Picasso's similarly tight.

by a supplicant in a trance of meditation.241 MARKS OF INFLUENCE PAUL T H O M A S British contemporary artist whose epic graphic work questions and reflects upon issues of European identity. Parallel lines within the body of the figure are likely to denote power. Achilles Chases Hector 1996 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) PAUL THOMAS SHOSHONE PETROGLYPH The Shoshone people of Wyoming name petroglyph sites Poha Kahni. A vivid spectrum of energized graphite marks and a masterly composition give this drawing vitality and speed." Each sacred image drawn into rock belongs to one of three realms in the Shoshone world: the realm of the sky. of the earth. Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range UNDATED ARTIST UNKNOWN . meaning "place of power. Simple wall stones cleverly state their cold solidity while also fading from our attention as the scene roars by. or of the water Chipped image This is a sacred creature of the sky chipped onto rock at Dinwoody Lake. Thomas conducts his explorations in the mine of Greek and Roman mythology. values. and personal and social struggles. White marks like flashes of light are cut though graphite with an eraser to reveal the paper beneath. Wind River Reservation. Wyoming. It was made with a sharp implement. perhaps a stone. ideals. Graphite marks Here Achilles chases Hector around the walls of Troy before killing him.

graphic artist. and scuttle over all known reality. and writer In contrast t o the light and visual accent of contemporary Impressionism. Lifting out Fine strings of the hot-air balloon appear dark against the sky and light against the balloon. Our subconscious can be drawn with pleasure and ease. lifting its cranial passenger over a seascape of repose. Techniques demonstrated on pp. The monsters of Bosch grew from his observations of beggars going about their trade in 15th. T H E EXPLORATION AND DEPICTION Hauntings Grandville has drawn a scurrying zoo of half-known demons and animals that appear to have been stolen from the glass eye of the microscope. We may feel safe so long as the eye looks heavenward. Children are also delighted to invent a monster or ghoul. crawl. we see parallel slanting pale marks that might have been made with fresh bread—a very effective eraser used before the wide availability of rubber or plastic.and 16th-century Holland. to the right of the balloon. below left. Redon's eyeball balloon rises up. Compare worked textures throughout the whole of this image to those found throughout Anita Taylor's charcoal drawing on p. The Eye Like a Strange Mounts Balloon 165/8 x131/8in (422 x 332 mm) ODILON REDON 1882 Toward Infinity . 115. the shock would be extreme. Redon explored the darker side of the human imagination through symbols and mysticism. They float toward us like a horrid visitation. as he did the grass. GODS AND Erasure In this charcoal drawing. the writers Joris-Karl Huysmans and Stephane Mallarme. ODILON REDON French painter draftsman. H e was influenced by his friends.204-05 will enable you to produce a similar effect of white lines shining out of dark charcoal. which sometimes—half-dressed and carrying a familiar trophy— stride. Redon lifted them out with some sort of eraser.242 MONSTERS of the unknown is a classical and constant occupation for the artist. If it were to turn and stare this way. Here we see how he evolved their injuries into new limbs and warped proportions.

sucker-faced creatures dash and trundle toward it They are drawn solidly to emphasize their earthbound weight. Last Judgment. include The Haywain. 1840 61/8 x41/2in ( 1 5 5 x 1 1 5 mm) GRANDVILLE HIERONYMUS BOSCH Dutch painter Bosch's highly detailed iconographic religious panel paintings. Most of his work is in the Prado Museum. which is still available today. The quality of the line is therefore uniform throughout. This image is from one of Grandville's best-known publications. and he illustrated the Fables of La Fontaine and Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe. Les Animaux (1840). and Ship of Fools. Quill and ink This typical Bosch monster is a quill drawing in bistre ink The phrasing of light and contour here is masterly. grimacing. Madrid. Two Monsters UNDATED 45/8 x61/2in (117 x 163 mm) HIERONYMUS BOSCH . teeming with the exhilaration of unrestrained fantasy. Light shines from the right.243 J E A N I G N A C E ISIDORE GERARD ("GRANDVILLE") French graphic artist and political satirist. His other major works include Metamorphoses du Jour (1828). Smiling. Garden of Earthly Delights. HAUNTINGS Engraving This is an engraving made so that Grandville's original drawing could be reproduced. Comic little headbands of waving hair express more hysteria than fear. A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects c.

Dragon 1522 10 x 133/8 in ( 2 5 4 x 3 3 8 m m ) MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI . His entire drawing wrestles and weaves the viewer's eye into its retracting folds. Chalk and ink A quill dipped in brown ink was worked over black chalk on this reused sheet. Michelangelo's dragon. Opposite. They share between them the pleasures of inventing a hybrid beast. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI Florentine painter sculptor. she formed a series of ghostly pale. wraps and coils its lithe body ready to strike or whimper at a touch. topple. and marble sculptures including Pieto. and dog. remembering the cavernous. the dome of the Vatican. David. gamboling copulations. Scaly. phrased over the contours of form and bridging darker areas of shadow. A snake eating its own tail is a universal image of the eternal and continuous. snake. hatched lines. In her studio. St Peter's square.244 GODS AND MONSTERS Convolutions THESE CONVOLUTED DRAWINGS were made almost 5 0 0 years apart. poet. and mist-swathed land. and play with its perfection and meaning. and engineer Among Michelangelo's great works are the painted ceiling and altar wall of the Sistine Chapel. muscular tension is carved out of the paper using layered. Grimes found the genesis of her beast not among animals. Two previously drawn faces become humorous antagonists to the beast. below. sometimes artists purposefully tie a knot in the configuration to disturb. Grimes' delicately cavorting figures dive into and consume each other. but in the seductive landscape of Leonardo da Vinci's oil painting Madonna of the Rocks. a stunning hybrid of a swan. architect. lion. and dying slaves. However. as we might expect. pinnacled.

Ink-wash delicately gouache (smooth) and gouache brushed drawing on This is a and was hot-pressed Shadows The dark shadow of the Other the ink-wash earth was made with a brushstroke of ink laid into wet paper. How Clever of God #84 2002 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) O O N A GRIMES .245 CONVOLUTIONS O O N A GRIMES British contemporary artist and professor of printmaking at the Ruskin School. It is one of a series of fragile earth figures inspired by rocks. Oxford. Grimes exhibits internationally and features in the collections of the New York Public Library and the Victoria and Albert Museum. boards finished paper. each one iridescent and crumbly like a weathered while oyster. London. The large space around figure has been cropped Grimes drawings to flatten presses them. London. The image formed directly without first making a pencil outline. her under heavy here. details evolved slowly using a drier brush. and the Camberwell and Slade Schools of Fine Art.

The living marks of a wet.Theyhold plenty of ink and make continuous. thicknesses. SABLE-HAIR LINER: Made with ordinary sable hair surrounding an extralong. ideally suited to drawing. LARGER JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with natural hair held in a plastic ferrule on a bamboo handle. and wrist into a fluid and soft touch. POINTED SQUIRREL-HAIR MOP: With a synthetic quill ferrule and extra high inkholding capacity. How you care for your brushes will determine how long they last. Suitable for wash techniques but also capable of very fine detail. and effects. needle-sharp center of kolinsky red sable hair. drawing tool extending the arm. shape. washes. 10. ink-laden tip allow an expression that is beyond the linear. 13. and hold prodigious weights of ink or paint. all perfect for drawing and." 6. S Y N T H E T I C . Always clean them thoroughly. P O I N T E D T R A D I T I O N A L WRITER: The ferrule is made from a small duck quill. it has good wash capabilities. which holds long sable hair This brush holds large amounts of ink for long lines and points well for detailed work. Slightly less flexible than the squirrel-hair sword liner 9. 3. It is capable of very fine pointing. this brush has a soft drawing tip and small ink-holding capacity. with a fine point for delicate work 4. This design supplies the fine tip with a long continuity of ink 5. Some are bold. and has a fine tip for detailed work. Brushes vary in size. 7. and never leave them standing on their tip in a jar of water. 12. Some used by master calligraphers are 2-3 in (5-8 cm) in diameter 11. 2. 1. SABLE-HAIR RIGGER: Made with very long kolinsky sable hairs. Soaps purchased from good art supply stores will gently cleanse particles of pigment that become trapped in the hairs or ferrule. SQUIRREL-HAIR S W O R D LINER:This brush has a maximum ink-holding capacity and an extremely fine and flexible point 8. SMALL JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with sable hair. liners. and writers. SYNTHETIC-HAIR LINER: This brush gives a medium line and is firm with a spring to the touch. SYNTHETIC-HAIR BRUSH: Bound in a synthetic ferrule with good inkholding capacity and good spring and control.H A I R LINER: Very responsive oriental-style liner This to the touch. L A R G E R S Y N T H E T I C . SYNTHETIC-HAIR S W O R D LINER: A lining brush with high ink-holding capacity and a fine point. return them to their pointed shape. It has exceptional painting characteristics. flowing. between them. it has good inkholding capacity and is very flexible. materials.H A I R RIGGER: Made with long synthetic hair for fine-point work It has a good ink-holding capacity and is slightly more resilient than sable hair with more "snap. M T RA S AEIL . the very opposite of pencil or silver point. Shorter brushes designed for other purposes run out of ink more quickly. giving a variety of lines. dense. JAPANESE PAINTING BRUSH: Made with natural hair. This brush has a broad wash capability and can achieve a very wide range of marks. making rt ideally suited to Japanese painting and small-scale calligraphy. The brushes shown here are a mixture of This is a selection of riggers. and very fine lines. fingers. It is still relatively small in the total range of Japanese brushes. and texture.246 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brushes T H E BRUSH IS A VOLUPTUOUS and delicate weights. others are as fine as a whisker with a gentle touch.


I rubbed a block of Chinese ink (see p. length. the degree of pressure applied. A single brush has almost balletic potential to draw fine or undulating lines and curves.35) into two tablespoons of water in a shallow. w i t h m y face close. unglazed earthenware dish.248 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brush Marks A S I N G L E BRUSH will m a k e an e n o r m o u s range of m a r k s depending u p o n the width. Here I drew with a soft Japanese painting brush (see pp. the texture and a b s o r b e n c y of the paper ( w h i c h m a y be d a m p or dry). and to make pools and stains o n the page.246-47). the speed of the s t r o k e .) I . and above all w h e t h e r the b r u s h is saturated with pigment or relatively dry. I had left the end of the ink block in the water overnight to make it easier to dissolve. and spatters. It also depends on the angle at w h i c h it is held. splashes. b l o w i n g h a r d o n t h e m several t i m e s t o disperse t h e ink ( c l o s e y o u r eyes if y o u t r y this. softness. and type of its hairs. SETTING UP Blowing spots T h e s e t h r e e s p i d e r y c r e a t u r e s (above right and below) w e r e m a d e by d r o p p i n g s p o t s o f ink f r o m a b r u s h o n t o t h e p a g e and.

w e see fine lines and s p o t s .249 Gritty texture T h e details o f t h e largest creatures b e l o w and opposite s h o w the granular texture of Chinese b l o c k ink. . t h e effects of the b r u s h r u n n i n g o u t o f ink. a n d t h e w a y it d i s t r i b u t e s w h e n t h e b r u s h is d a b b e d o n its s i d e . b l e e d i n g f r o m strokes b e l o w left. BRUSH MARKS Wet and dry strokes A m o n g these concentrated drawings ink made into with the same w a t e r y lines. a n d b r u s h .

Monsters THESE LITTLE CREATURES o f i n k and i n v e n t i o n were b o r n out of animal and bird studies. until we look again. Oxford. . and used their detail to draw new creatures that might at first seem familiar. I borrowed small and fragile specimens from the University Museum of Natural History.


Goya's witches have been literally drawn and evolved out of the shapes of Murillo's prophet and pilgrims. Goya often invented his monsters out of characters seen in other painters' works. Here.Goya's Monsters W I T H CUNNING BRILLIANCE. Through studying and drawing these great paintings I have discovered that they are based on a pair of similarly long. I found relationships between all four paintings in terms of shapes. Among his "Black Paintings" in the Prado Museum. thin works made by Bartolome Murillo in Seville about 120 years earlier. They are a pair and hang opposite each other. Isidore. and narrative twists. . formal composition. are two long. showing us that gallery study is not just for the student and beginner. Madrid. two of my own drawings show you how Goya's devil (below) is based on the shape of Murillo's boy on a horse (top right). With further research. thin works titled The Witches' Sabbath and The Procession of St.


.Consumed THIS IS A SERIES OF CARTOONS I m a d e s o m e years ago. drawn rapidly and with great joy. little comments on politeness and sexual politics. Sometimes drawings come out of nowhere and surprise even the artist.


Crosshatching Parallel lines d r a w n across o n e a n o t h e r at right angles. A " s h a l l o w d e p t h o f field" m e a n s t h e p i c t u r e appears t o have only a shallow s p a c e inside i t Diffuse T o s o f t e n o r m a k e less brilliant. p r i n t i n g press face up. Composition T h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e p a r t s o f an i m a g e t o m a k e u p the whole. T h e prints t a k e n from t h e s e plates o r blocks. Blending M e r g i n g t w o o r m o r e neighboring colors o r tones t o g e t h e r using a tortillon. C o p p e r p l a t e engravings w e r e widely used t o r e p r o d u c e images b e f o r e p h o t o g r a p h y . Aerial perspective The effect of the a t m o s p h e r e o v e r distance as it lightens t o n e s a n d cools c o l o r s progressively t o w a r d t h e horizon. See also Hotpressed papers. and readymade objects arranged and stuck o n t o a flat surface. A f u l l ." " N o t " p r e s s e d p a p e r is r o l l e d a s e c o n d t i m e w i t h o u t blankets t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders t o p r o d u c e a s m o o t h e r b u t still slightly t e x t u r e d s u r f a c e . Erasure T h e a c t o f r e m o v i n g a n i m a g e f r o m a surface. F r o m t h e G r e e k kallos. F r o m t h e French v e r b coller. n e w s p a p e r cuttings." D e s c r i b e s a p a i n t i n g in w h i c h t h e light s o u r c e is b e h i n d t h e s u b j e c t F o r e x a m p l e . s u c h as a s c r e e n . 2. T h e b l a n k e t s g i v e t h e p a p e r its rough texture o r "tooth. T h e m o v e m e n t was started by a g r o u p o f French artists including H e n r i Matisse. Conservation grade D e s c r i b e s a range o f materials t h a t d o n o t d e c a y and cannot be broken d o w n by insects. Bleed T h e e f f e c t o f t w o w e t colors running into one another o r o n e color applied t o a w e t surface a n d a l l o w e d t o d i s p e r s e . t h e field is t h e a p p a r e n t a n d b e l i e v a b l e space inside t h e p i c t u r e . a n d given t h e n a m e Sho. o r o t h e r (usually large) w o r k — s e e Pouncing. s u c h as a d r a w i n g o r painting. chance mark-making. in w h i c h t h e subject's distinctive features o r peculiarities are deliberately exaggerated f o r c o m i c o r g r o t e s q u e effect. Binder A substance t h a t holds particles o f p i g m e n t t o g e t h e r in a paint f o r m u l a t i o n . Acid-free paper P a p e r w i t h a neutral p H t h a t will n o t darken o r d e t e r i o r a t e excessively w i t h age. t h e l i g h t is b e h i n d h i m o r her. as o p p o s e d t o t h e s t r a i g h t e d g e o f a sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has b e e n machine-trimmed. tapestry. Eye level T h e i m a g i n a r y h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e a t t h e s a m e h e i g h t as t h e a v e r a g e p e r s o n ' s eyes. T h e name " n o t " simply refers t o t h e fact t h a t t h e cylinders are n o t h o t in t e m p e r a t u r e . In t h e Far East calligraphy is a highly r e s p e c t e d a r t f o r m . U s e d as a c o r r e c t i n g device o r pictorial game. R o u g h p a p e r is m a d e b e t w e e n t w o blankets t h a t . linseed oil o r egg y o l k Caricature A representation Contour line A line t h a t f o l l o w s t h e s h a p e o f a surface. m e a n i n g " t o stick" Dry media M e d i a t h a t a r e n o t w e t o r o i l y — f o r e x a m p l e . Fixative Liquid acrylic resin a n d l a c q u e r t h i n n e r usually a p p l i e d as a n a e r o s o l s p r a y m i s t t o t h e surface o f a d r y . A i r b r u s h e s are u s e d in t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c o m i c s . A h u m o r o u s d r a w i n g o r parody. Chiaroscuro A 1 7 t h . Also called accelerated perspective. W o r d s o r symbols are Cold-pressed papers P a p e r manufactured with a "not" o r " r o u g h " surface.The plate is t h e n r o l l e d w i t h ink a n d polished with a rag.d i m e n s i o n a l i m a g e . Anamorphic distortion Stretching an i m a g e across a p i c t u r e surface so t h a t it can o n l y b e u n d e r s t o o d . so t h a t ink r e m a i n s o n l y in t h e g r o o v e s o f s c r a t c h e d lines. It is p u t o n a Body color See Gouache. m e a n i n g "beauty".m e d i a d r a w i n g . o f t e n d i s t o r t e d forms and vivid colors. w h e n a p e r s o n is p a i n t e d standing a g a i n s t a w i n d o w ." It w a s first given t o t o n a l paintings m a d e in o n e c o l o r — s e e Grisaille. It can also seal a silver p o i n t d r a w i n g t o p r e v e n t t h e oxidization (browning) o f t h e Drypoint A d r a w i n g is s c r a t c h e d directly o n t o a m e t a l plate w i t h a m e t a l t o o l h e l d like apen. A p o t e n t i a l l y h a r s h m e t h o d o f p r o d u c i n g t o n e s in a d r a w i n g . Camera lucida A n optical device t h a t p r o j e c t s an image o f an o b j e c t o n t o a plain s u r f a c e so t h a t it can be traced. w h e n v i e w e d f r o m a specified point. Calligraphy Beautiful h a n d w r i t i n g . D a m p p a p e r is laid o n t o p . Contre jour A F r e n c h t e r m m e a n i n g " a g a i n s t day.256 GLOSSARY Glossary Accidental drawing Random. In t h e W e s t p e n calligraphy is u s e d t o c r e a t e f o r m a l a n d d e c o r a t i v e t e x t s .s i z e d r a w i n g m a d e for t h e purpose o f transferring a design t o a painting. A l s o called r i n g l e t shading. o r will o n l y a p p e a r n o r m a l . written with a broad-nibbed pen o r brush. a r e r o l l e d t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders. p r a c t i c e d meditatively w i t h a brush. Bracelet shading C u r v e d parallel lines t h a t f o l l o w t h e c o n t o u r s o f f o r m . Fauvism A n early 2 0 t h . A l s o c a l l e d t h e h o r i z o n line. Ferrule T h e s h o r t m e t a l t u b e t h a t s u r r o u n d s a n d g n p s t h e hairs o f a p a i n t b r u s h a n d fixes t h e m t o t h e brush handle.c e n t u r y painting m o v e m e n t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e use o f b o l d . a n d g r a p h i t e .c e n t u r y Italian t e r m m e a n i n g "clear-obscure. Deckle edge T h e i r r e g u l a r e d g e o f a s h e e t o f m o l d . in w h i c h parts o f an image are depicted v e r y brightly and dramatically against d a r k n e s s . pressurized t o o l used f o r spraying fine mists o f s m o o t h c o l o r P i g m e n t is d e l i v e r e d b y a j e t o f air n o t t h e bristles o f a brush. S o m e t i m e s f e r r u l e s a r e m a d e o f plastic o r o t h e r materials.m a d e paper. a n d attaches t h e m t o t h e s u p p o r t — f o r example. usually at a n a c u t e angle t o t h e s u r f a c e . Cartoon 1. Air brush A mechanical. Camera obscura A d a r k e n e d c h a m b e r i n t o w h i c h an i m a g e o f w h a t is o u t s i d e is received t h r o u g h a small o p e n i n g o r lens a n d f o c u s e d in natural c o l o r o n a facing surface. p h o t o g r a p h s . r a t h e r t h a n r e c o r d e d o n a film o r plate. Collage C o l l e c t e d materials such as c o l o r e d p a p e r s . 2. t o g e t h e r w i t h a t h i c k felt b l a n k e t T h e w h o l e s a n d w i c h o f l a y e r s is t h e n railed t h r o u g h t h e press t o m a k e a p r i n t D r y p o i n t is a very portable and immediate m e t h o d o f printmaking. Field In a t w o . Blotting T h e use o f a b s o r b e n t m a t e r i a l t o lift a w a y excess liquid. charcoal. A l s o called m u s e u m g r a d e . A g e n e r a l t e r m t h a t describes t h e various processes o f c u t t i n g a design i n t o a plate o r b l o c k o f m e t a l o r w o o d . L a t e r it c a m e t o m e a n h i g h l y c o n t r a s t e d light effects. Fixative lightly glues t h e d r a w i n g t o t h e surface o f t h e p a p e r t o p r e v e n t smudging. R e m b r a n d t is a great master o f chiaroscuro. for example. pastel. Engraving 1.

of the ingredients in inks and watercolors. and masking off areas of a drawing that the artist wishes to keep untouched by media applied above or beside the tape. or for wrapping and protecting a finished piece of work. or a family of colors. . Hot-pressed papers (HP) Paper made using hot cylinders. Masking fluid Clear or opaque latex fluid developed for watercolor painting. Grisaille A painting in gray or a grayish color Often made by students as a tonal exercise. Paper is laid on top and a rapid drawing is made on the back of it The paper lifts away to reveal the image on its other side. and by artists representing stone sculptures in a painting. or even a beam of light. work. shape. then rubbed over carefully but vigorously with a crayon. Focus 1 .while secretion of the acacia tree. white. so that (using vanishing point perspective) the object appears to change shape and become narrower or smaller as it recedes. Also refers to an additive used to control the application properties of a color Golden Section A proportion in which a straight line or rectangle is divided into two unequal parts in such a way that the ratio of the smaller part to the greater part is the same as that of the greater part to the whole. graphite. Lithography A method of printmaking in which a drawing or painting is made directly onto a smooth slab of particular limestone or a metal plate using an oilbased crayon or ink. upright images are called "portrait which is used as a binding agent in many liquid media. Papercut A type of collage in which flat sheets of paper are cut into an image. but in picture-making it is as important as the objects/subjects themselves.Theground provides a particular color or texture beneath the image. materials that produce marks on a surface. Giotto's Virtues and Vices in the Arena Chapel. This method incorporates the excitement of accidental and unpredicted marks. Monochrome Usually refers to a black. format" (abbreviated to "portrait").257 metal line. Medium A generic term for art Key A painting is said to be "high key" when the colors and tones are bright and "low key" when they are dark or somber The term is also used Gouache Opaque watercolor Also called body color. lifting out charcoal and other dry media. but each print will be unique. and gray drawing. purpose. F o r m The outer surface of a three-dimensional object. It is a strong adhesive. ink. Artists can paint freely over dry masking fluid. Picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. which give it a smooth surface (as opposed to cold-pressed paper. The surface can be reloaded or redrawn with more medium.The degree to which detail is defined. or can be otherwise used to create an image—for example. and that will "escape" or change over time. After several intervening processes. cadmium yellow hue. Alternatively. or spirit-based) is applied to a surface that is then pressed onto paper and removed to leave a print. to give the illusion of depth and distance. Ground A wet solution usually of gouache or gesso (chalk and animal glue) brushed onto paper board." A piece of paper is placed on top of an object or rough surface. aiming to represent facts rather than an interpretation of the subject. It is then peeled away. oil-based printing ink is rolled evenly onto a smooth metal. Also used by artists' materials manufacturers to indicate the use of a substitute pigment—for example. rock. glass. It can be used with any wet media to isolate or protect parts of an image from further Optical blending See Pointillism. This may be disregarded in real life. which has a rough surface). This effect emulates what we see in real life. sticky paper tape. Hairspray is an effective and inexpensive alternative. Objective drawing Refers to the concept of objectivity. Grisaille is occasionally seen in church stained-glass windows. Impressing Stamping or printing. Lifting out A method of creating highlights and mid-tones in a drymedia drawing (such as charcoal or graphite). A point of interest in a drawing. it is the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work Pigment Any substance used as a coloring agent—for example. oil-. F o r m a t T h e size. with the area beneath remaining unaffected. are painted in grisaille and appear to be made of stone. A small image might be described as small format Horizontal images are often said to be "landscape format" (abbreviated G u m arabic The natural to"landscape"). glossy. including Max Ernst used frottage in their work. mineral. the finely ground particles of plant. and orientation of the image. It improves the bonding properties Frottage A French term meaning "rubbing. Dark tones are laid down first then an eraser or masking tape is used to lift away particles of the drawing media to reveal the lightness of the paper beneath. the surface of the stone is made wet before being rolled with a thin film of oilbased printing ink. Fugitive A term given to a pigment that it is not stable. Hatching (cross-) See Crosshatching. multiH u e A term for a color. and it has a history in enamel work. Pointillism A technique of using points or dots of pure color in such a way that when the picture is viewed from a distance they react Masking tape Invaluable.The paper then bears a crayon impression or copy of the surface that was underneath it A number of Surrealists. to describe a surface to which paint will adhere readily. and translucent paper—a delicate material used in collage. used for fixing paper to walls and boards. Monoprinting A direct method of printing in which wet medium (water-. Negative space The space between things. or canvas and allowed to dry before an image is drawn or painted. Usually an academic drawing observed from life. or synthetic material that are suspended in a medium to constitute paint. Padua. pastel. Rubens used grisaille to paint small images for engravers. Plumb line A line from which a weight is suspended in order to determine verticality or depth. or plastic surface. or a drawing made in any single color GLOSSARY Linear perspective A form of perspective in which parallel lines are represented as converging. enabling them to stick to paper It also helps to maintain a stable dispersion of pigment particles in water as the film of a wash dries. Paper is then pressed against the stone to take a print. The ink attaches to the oil-based image and is repelled by the wet stone. Lightfast A term confirming that pigment in the product will not fade with exposure to light. 2. Foreshortening A method of depicting an object at an angle to the surface of the picture. and is also used as a size. Gamut A complete range or extent Glassine A type of thin.

Tortillon A short. Wash A technique using ink. Sketch A quick or rough drawing.Thedrawing is removed. Props An abbreviation of the word properties. Strip Core of a pencil. or pen. by imposing a grid that is then scaled up to a larger size. such as an inscribed sheet of metal. meaning objects used in setting up a life model or still life. creating more vibrant effects than if the same colors were physically mixed together with a brush. Viewpoint The position from which something is observed or considered. pointed roll of white paper that is used to blend dry media. or any physical object that can be stamped or pressed onto a surface to leave an impression. Stylus A sharp. cut-out profile made along every outline of the usually made in black paper image. Vanishing point In linear perspective. design. Etienne de material) dabbed through the Silhouette (1709-67).258 GLOSSARY together optically. or the right-hand page in a book. acrylic. Alternatively. Named paper in place. an ink stone usually cut from slate." Materials for Zen brushwork include round brushes of varied size. compound of water-soluble pigment. evolved by engineers and architects for the purpose of conveying W a t e r c o l o r A painting accurate structural information. Printmaking The act of making a picture. in tone running from black to white or vice versa. Sfumato An Italian term meaning "smoky. . Zen A school of Mahayana Buddhism that asserts that enlightenment can come through meditation and intuition rather than faith. or point on which parallel lines converge to give the impression of receding space. in order to flick the pigment onto the image surface. W e t media Any liquid media— for example. Zen brushwork This is an oriental meditative art form originating in China and practised for many centuries in Japan. pointed instrument used for marking or engraving. Scale Describes the size of one element in relation to another Sepia A brown pigment taken from the sun-dried ink sacs of cuttlefish and used to make ink or watercolor The term is now often incorrectly used to refer to brown colors. Spattering A mottled texture produced by drawing your fingers across the bristles of a stiff brush loaded with pigment." Applied to the blurring or softening of sharp outlines by the subtle and gradual blending of one tone into another Sgraffito A technique of scratching or cutting through a surface of paint. Stippling Applying color or tone in areas of fine dots or flecks. Tone A degree of lightness or darkness. The crude material is called oleoresin. Pounce (a fine for an unpopular 18th-century powder of charcoal or similar French politician. wall or tapestry. Underdrawing A pale preliminary drawing made prior to adding layers of another medium such as oil paint or watercolor Value The extent to which a color reflects or transmits light This is the equivalent of tone in a black and white image. which are then called editions. paper or canvas. nature of watercolor allows the white surface of the paper to Tonal scale A scale of gradations shine through. a sheet of paper is placed beneath and pinpricks are Silhouette A flat. Recto The front or top side of a piece of paper. Volume The amount of space occupied by an object or an area of space in itself. or gouache. a tightly folded piece of cotton batting can be used for the same effect. Zen brushwork encompasses calligraphy and painting. pencil. Zen paintings usually depict scenes of nature and plants such as bamboo. or wood. carbon ink. usually diluted with water and applied with a brush. The translucent Tint A color mixed with white. or the left-hand page in a book. sometimes drawn from a and leaving only the pricked sheet of shadow cast on a wall. Artists' prints are normally made in multiple. or watercolor paint. Although drawings can be made with wash alone. to model areas of light and shade. Subjective drawing A drawing that expresses the personal view and interpretation of the artist An invented image. and paperweights. a point at which receding parallel lines meet Verso The back or underside of a piece of paper. "Spirits" or "oil" of turpentine refer to the volatile portion used by artists to thin or dilute oil-based paint. Turpentine A colorless solvent distilled from the resinous sap of pine trees. or ceramic glazing to reveal a different color beneath.Technicaldrawing has been example. or mark using an inked or pigment-covered surface. glasses. and flowers. plaster. Squeegee A rubber-trimmed scraper used in the screenprinting process for dragging ink across a surface. Support The structure on which an image is made—for example. Still life A picture composed of inanimate objects such as bowls. fruit. and chrysanthemum—which in Chinese tradition are called "The Four Gentlemen. Technical drawing A universal it is often used in conjunction language of lines and measurements with line drawings in pen and that is used to make diagrammatic ink—for images. Serigraphy Silk-screen printing. Size A weak glue used for filling the porous surface of wood or canvas in order to seal it. Shade A that is color mixed (or toned) with black Shading A lay term for adding tone to a drawing. A term borrowed from the theater. plaster or cloth surface beneath. using a brush. Squaring up A method of enlarging and transferring an image from one surface to another. Single-point perspective The most basic form of linear perspective in which there is only one vanishing point. giving it a brilliance. commonly referred to as the lead. tight. ink. orchids. whose pinpricks creates a "connect-thepersonal pastime was making dots" replica of the image on the cut-out portraits. fine paper. Pouncing If a large drawing or design (called a cartoon) is to be Shadow Darkness cast by the transferred to a surface such as a obscuring of light. plum blossom. watercolor.

198 cartoon (preparatory drawing) 137 (satirical) 159. 13 architectural drawing 67-71 Arctic Flowers (Libeskind) 70. 26 geese 38-39 Gericault's cats 28. Victor: West Facade of the Church of St. 29 Hugo's octopus 28. 193 in lifting out 204.198. 13.44-45. 190 Caricature of a Woman (Daumier) 198. 226-227 Acanthus spinosus 65 accelerated perspective 22. 223 Circular Score for "Due Voce" 223 children's art 9. 90 colored materials 162-163 colored pencils 162. 38-39. 243 botanical drawing 48-49 Boullee. 94 cylindrical objects. 71 Bacchante (Bakst) 155 background: color 91 textured 240 Baker Matthew: Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry 32 Bakst. 242 to blend 205 compressed 122. 74 brush (es) 246-247 Japanese 248 for laying a wash 140 marks 248-249 to hold 23 brush drawings 14-15 Bryan. 242 Brunelleschi. 220. Sylvano 222. to model 110-111 border 51 Bosch. 221 animals. 52 cotton swabs 205 Coup de Vent a Asajigabare (Hokusai) 198. 179 Bussotti.184. 247-248 carving see lines.Index Page numbers in italics refer t o captions and illustrations Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity (Bishndas and 259 INDEX B bread (as eraser) 205. 222. Franz 48 Protea nitida 48 Bellini. layers 53 chalk pastels 162.51 All and Nothing (Taylor) 114. 182. William: The Circle of the Lustful 180. 165. Giovanni 137 Head and Shoulders of a Man 136.162 Conte. Basilius 47 Beuys. 74. Nicolas-Jacques 54 contours 146. 157 cropping 56-57. 116. 95 Chair Cut Out (Woodfine) 94. 203 Buffalo Hunt (Shoshone) 178. 75. 186 charcoal 114. 70 Art Nouveau motifs 91 Autoportrait (Ray) 138. 162 character: to capture 38-39. 41 principal 186. Zen c 232-233 blended 133.133. 8 cave paintings 8. 71 conte 112. Mamaru 104. 90. 90 La Guitare. Clare 203 City 202. 206. 134 costume(s) 155 character 158-159 structure of 166-167 Cottage Among Trees (Rembrandt) 52. center of 118 ballpoint 182. 230 The Physical Space 220 abstract drawing 219. 75 Circle of the Lustful (Blake) 180. 250 Bishndas and Nanha: Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity 50. 74. 198.115 anatomical drawing 134-135 anatomical theaters 82-83 anatomical waxes 128 ancient carvings 221. Statue d'Epouvante 90 calligraphy. 94 chalk(s) 53. Leon: Bacchante 155 balance.27 turtles 42-43 aquatint 240 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels (Leonardo) 12. 230-231 Cubist 90. to express 39.31 Picasso's horse and bird 30.89.226. Le (Hugo) 200. Augustin 67 Basquiat. 113 bird bones 12. Etienne-Louis 72 Newton's Cenotaph 72. 178 Cubism 67. Hieronymus 243 Two Monsters 242. cut Catling. 199 Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya (Eisen) 156. (Ross-Craig) 49 to hold brush for 23 caricature 159. 9. 205 Baltard. 204. 200 Bauer. 204-205. 90. 111.44-45 bird studies 12. 139 Nanha) 50.163 graded 227 composition 56-57. 180 Circular Score for "Due Voce" (Bussotti) 223 circus scenes 192-195 City (Bryan) 202.186 see also movement Adoration of the Magi perspective study (Leonardo) 74. 128. 206 checkered floor 80. Filippo 67. 244 head and neck 144 phrased 124-125 contrast: brightness 99 of media 30 tonal 96. 180 blending: color 133. 203 Landline 202. Georges 67. 137 Besler.163 body. 241 action. 203 Claude Lorrain 202 Views from Velletri 202. to draw 100 Cypripedium calceolus L. Brian 226 Untitled 2001 226 "Cave of the Hands" (Cueva de las Manas) 8. 244 and graphite 178 . 81 135. 158. 189. 50. 133. 98.184. 30 sleeping dog 38-39 Stubbs's horse skeleton 26. 160 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object (Moore) 178. 161 Akhlaq-I Rasul Allah manuscript 51. to depict 156-157 Cloudburst of Material Possessions (Leonardo) 200. 202 cloth. 9 Chair (Van Gogh) 94.50. 163.13. 201 collage 111. to draw 80. 78 aerial perspective 206 airbrushing 160.117 Achilles Chases Hector (Thomas) 240.100 curves. 72 bracelet shading 122 Braque.169 colors: airbrushed 161 background 91 A Abe. to draw 25.163 dry media 205 Blue Nude (Matisse) 110. 28 Klee's horses 30.212 to erase 205 to hold 23 pencils 204 willow 114. 71 Blake. Jean Michel 138 Self-Portrait 138 Bateau-Vision. 81 cut-out model plan 94. 40-41 Durer's rhinoceros 26. Joseph 113 The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland 112.

32 framing 139 Franfoise au Bandeau (Picasso) 132. Oona 245 How Clever of God #84 244.117 fountain pens 34. 69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt 68.115 exploratory 17 fantasy 72-73. Hans 133 The Ambassadors 116 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 132. 30 Fauves/fauvism 90.109 Rhinoceros 26.216 Durelli. 122 Hawksmoor. 141 tonal 96. 25 focus 65. position of 143.12 fixative 54. 125. 230 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction 68.166 170-173 Gestalt 222 Giacometti. 69. Francisco de 131.216. 226-227 anatomical 134-135 architectural 67-71 botanical 48-49 brush 14-15 dark to light 102. disposable pens 182-183 dissections: botanical 48 of horse 27 distance: illusion of see perspective linear 97 tonal 97 Documents Decoratifs.198 Degas. 113. 242 eyes. 245 Gruau.103 with eraser 103.101 engraving 243 erasers/erasing 55. 765 hitsuzendo drawings 233 Hokusai. Cheval et Oiseau (Picasso) 30. 163. 203 semi-abstract 234-237 three-dimensional 68. 161 fashion drawings 160. 203 Hotel de la Suzonnieres (Satie) 70.244 drawing(s): abstract 219. position of 22 Eisen.103. Study for Plate 59 (Mucha) 90. proportions of 143 fantasy drawings 72-73. Alberto 136 Portrait of Marie-Laure de Noailles 136. 223 graphite 54. 243 graphic score 222. 245 Hugo. 240 Black Paintings 152.260 INDEX D Dada 139 Daumien Honore 198 Caricature of a Woman 198. 93 horizon 52. 134.184 165. to draw 168-169 in Goya's artworks face.69 Gerard. 40.252-253 from memory 183. 73. 205 drawing with 103. Jean Ignace Isidore see Grandville Gericault. 137 heads.112. Ron 161 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 161 160.189. 241 to blend 205 and chalk 178 and ink 28. Victor 200.146 from masterworks 126-127. C . 134. 799 Holbein.160. Keisai 157 The Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya 156. 69 Guitare. 124. 240 170-173 five Ships in a Port with Lighthouse (Wallis) 11. 90 gouache 30. 135 Duren Albrecht 26. Rene 160 Illustration for Jacques Fath E easel. 240.121 felt-tip pens 162. 223. La (Braque) 90. Edgar 162 depth. 55. 245 layers 30 Goya.144 and ink 30. 160 as ground for metal point 140. 160 Faune.John 157 Man Lying Down in a Cloak 156. to draw 78.230 three-tone 140.160. 252 depiction of fabric monsters 252-253 Self Portrait in a Cocked Hat 130. to draw 120. 190 Middle Eastern 50-51. 26 Flying Fish (White) 25. 161 fashion 160. Robert 93 Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 92. 157 . 41 in the round 208-209 with scalpel 202.157 ellipses 100. The 242. to suggest 177 see also perspective diagonals diffuser 55 dip pens 34.141. 160 hitsuzendo 233 light to dark 102.91. 37 Grandville 243 A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the Near-Microscopic World of Scale Insects 242. 71 minimal line 99 and music 70-71 quick 38-39. 77 How Clever of God #84 244.37. 122. 222 Grimes. 136 Golden Section 67 Gombrich.207. Nicholas 68 St Paul's Baptistry 68 head and neck to draw 142-145 Head and Shoulders of a Man (Bellini) 136. 144 Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (Baker) 32. 160 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction (Gaudi) 68. 69. 79. 200 F fabric.116. to draw 134-137 Helleborus corsicus 55 highlights 91. 202. Statue d'Epouvante. 131 Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 240. 7 33 Hooke. 120. 162 Flaxman.Theodore 29 Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 28. 55. 134.104.141. Sir Ernst 12.97. 55. Antonio 135 Muscles of the Head and Neck 134. 93 eye level 80 Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity. 170-173. 99 etching. 90 G Gaudi. 29 H hands. fiber-tip pen 182.111 feet. Antonio 68. 163. drypoint 181 exaggeration 184 expressionism 198 E ye and Head of a Drone Fly (Hooke) 92. 222. 112. 91 Dragon (Michelangelo) 36. 115 Escher. Katsushika 199 Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 198. 161 changing 216 Focusing on the Negative (Walter) 16 foliage 52. 132 Frenz. 104-105. 52 foreground 208. 222 Le Bateau-Vision 200. 220 dry brush 234 234 57. 216 foreshortening 110. M.244.102-103 drawing board 20 drawing books 20-21 drawing paper 144.

220. 74-77.The (Robinson) 108. 13 Cloudburst of Material Possessions 200.167 line(s) 132. 220. 244 ink 36 252-253 Documents Decoratifs 90.115 98. 756 priming for 140. Piet 52. Marie 244 cloth drawing 244. 226 Modernism 67. 181 Klee. 184. 53 Tree II 52.112. Alphonse 90. Daniel 70 Arctic Flowers 70 Lieb. 205 masterworks. 36. David 78 M Mackintosh. 97 Murillo. 34.109. 181 luminosity 115 Lynch.134 K Kettlehut. 170-173. 220. drawing from 126-127.227 to "bend" straight 97 compositional 228-229 cut 202.141 Metropolis (film) 72. 159 Japanese 35 to make 36 sepia 35 walnut 36. 248. Henri 111 Blue Nude 1110. 49 Rose 49 Maelbeke Madonna (Van Eyck) 156. 77 Miller. 252 ink 16. Erich 73 design for Metropolis 72.182 Moore. apparent 97 Leonardo da Vinci 74. Oxford 250 music 70-71 Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks (Knopf) 32. 156 magnification 93 Man in Armor (Van Dyck) 158. 789. 201 head and neck sections of female mold for Sforza Horse 89 Madonna of the Rocks 244 perspective study for Adoration of the Magi 74.166 La Specola. 185 Mucha. Oxford 106 Prado. 111.109.141. 63. Bartolome: Moses Striking the Rock ofHoreb 252. Gustav 49 Knopf. artistic 240-241. I Murderous Attacks 33 Kollwitz. 31 Klimt. 103 Neolithic chalk tablet 220. 220. 183 vertical 156 linear distance 97 linear perspective 69.96. Florence 128 lighting in 167 Pitt Rivers.104. 190 metal pens see dip pens metal point 25. 203. Rose: Tantalus or the Future of Man 20 minimal line drawing 99 mirror use of 120 mixed media 28.120. 244 Dragon 36. 244 lithograph 198 Losbruch (Kollwitz) 180. 221 endless 31 free 113. 176. Matisse. 219 Mondrian. 757 mandalas 219. Henry 178 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object 178.102. 205. 234 iron-gall 35. Madrid 171 University Museum of Natural History. 73 Kigell.124. Paul 227 Polyphonic Setting for White 226. 201 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels 12. 203 landscape 206-208 brushed 14 Landscape in Hoboku Style (Sesshu) 14 layers 146 chalk 53 gouache 30 ink 28. 178 motifs: A r t Nouveau 9 7 stylized 51 mountains 216-217 movement: of animals 30-31 of humans 7 79. 33 J justness 228-229 N naive art 74 negative space 53. 244. Kathe 181 Losbrunch (The Outbreak) 180. 252 Muscles of the Head and Neck (Durelli) 134. 76 Libeskind. 249 and gouache 30 Indian 35. 225 masking tape 204. 72. 78 Study ofThree Male Figures 110. 83 white 122 ink impressions 222 ink spatters 234 installations 176.33 Mysterious Affairs of the lighting 2 7.276. 158 Man Lying Down in a Cloak (Flaxman) 156. 73 Michelangelo Buonarroti 48. 230 invented creatures 106-107 250-251 invented objects 89. drawing from 183. 54 silver point 156 leg sections 158 length. 114 hatched 244 layered 118 pace of 65 pale 40 rapid 49. Victor 134 Profile Head 134. 60. Phyll: hands 18 lifting out 204.Pieuvre (Octopus) 28. 242 light 96 to depict drawing with 1 76 painting with 176 . 34-35 acrylic 35 bistre 35. 160 In the Duchess's Kitchen (Rackham) 176.181 L Landline (Bryan) 202. 37 lines 118 pastel 162 pencil 31.243 carbon 35 Chinese 30. 53 monoprint 787. 166. 135 museums 44. 110 Sistine Chapel ceiling 116 Middle Eastern drawing 50-51. 177 influences. Charles Rennie 48.91 Study for Plate 59 of INDEX illumination see lighting Illustration for Jacques Fath (Gruau) 160. 58-59. 35. Johan 32. 99. 227 Scene of Comical Riders 30. 227 Newsome. 28 Two Impressions from a Cut-out Paper Disk 222 Huyler Stephen R 225 261 Kinecar. 163 pens 36 measuring 116 memory.

28 pigment 162 bright 50 Caput Mortuum 7 4 7 for three-tone drawing 141. 7 72 Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland. 91 outsider artists 33. Odilon 242 The Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity 242. 26 Riley.40.141 prints/printing: aquatint 240 dry-point etching 181 engraving 243 monoprint 181. 736 portraits. Faune. Giovanni Battista 74. 68 Satie. Stella 48 Cypripedium calceolus L 49 rotated view 7 65 Rubens. 97. 241 Physical Space. 230 paper(s) 21 colored 162 drawing 144. 34-35. 38. Peter Paul 126-127 Embracing pose(s): balanced 146 quick 118-119 positive form 103 posture: of artist 22 of subject 3 8 .131 Cottage Among Trees 52. 164.759.262 INDEX Newton.199 Profile Head (Newsome) oil pastels 162. 734 Protea nitida (Bauer) 48. Cheval et Oiseau 30. 74-77. 782 relief 757 silk-screen 739 woodblock 134. 76-79. 72 Noble. 122.37.Paul'sBaptistry (Hawksmoor) 68. Bridget 98 Robinson.The (Beuys) 112. 205 157.54 pastel 162 perspective 1 0 0 . 73 Noble. 1 1 7 aerial 206 linear 69. The (Abe) 220 Picasso. 234 disposable 182-183 felt-tip 162. 160. 114 rollerball 182 Rorschach blot 99 Rose (Mackintosh) 48.71 Hotel de la Suzonnieres 70. 1 2 4 priming for metal point 140. 141 Piranesi. 772 234-237 Sesshu.Toyo: Landscape in Hoboku . 205 pointillism 112 polyphonic painting 227 Polyphonic Setting for White (Klee) 226. Isaac 92 Telescope 92 Newton's Cenotaph (Boullee) 72. 36. 1 6 3 . J 76 nudes 114-115 to make 36 metal see dip quill 34. 230 parallel planes 79 Parisian street 86-87 pastels 162 to blend 205 to hold 23 layers 162 pencils 162 pen(s): dip 34 .Tim. 76 plastic eraser 55. Russell 228. 9 0 . 227 portfolios 20 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser de Noailles (Holbein) 132. to draw 146-147 R Rackham. Sue 104. 4 8 putty eraser 55. and Webster. 36. 216. 181 Rodin. 2 2 0 for oil pastels 162 stained 230 to stretch 140-141 tissue 21. 242 reed pens 34. 71 Satire of the Queen's Dress (Wodall) 158. Georges 112 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 112. 163. Arthur 177 In the Duchess's Kitchen 176. 1 3 2 quill pens 34.52 pen and wash 158. 36.104 Pieuvre (Hugo) 28.oise au Bandeau 132. 74. 75 Two Courtyards 75. 75 Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range 241 petroglyphs 221.36.37. 4 9 Rose of Mohammed 50. 244 reed 34. 162 O p A r t 98 optical illusions 96-99 outline 33. 239 Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 238. 759 P Page. 52 pens 36 scalpel 54 drawing with 202. 203 Scene of Comical Riders (Klee) 30. 57 Ross-Craig. Pablo 6 7 . 36 relief printing 757 Rembrandt van Rijn 52.2 3 age and youth sleeping subjects 148-149 150-151 Renaissance 109 Rhinoceros (Durer) 26. 243. Paul 73 Nobson Central 72.9 3 Schongauer.37 scientific instruments 9 2 . 7 38 Ray 138. 36 pen and brush 8 3 pen and ink 70. Erik 70. 181 pencil(s) 54 charcoal 204 colored 762. 166 fiber-tip 782. 212 Japanese 2 1 . Heath 181 The Kinecar 180. 7 70 Ray. 239 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat (Seurat) 112. 1 1 6 .226. 159. Martin 238. 30 Fran<. 81 two-point 74. 733 Portrait de Marie-Laure (Giacometti) 136. 1 6 9 to hold 2 2 . 7 77 three-point 80. 165.184 fountain 34. 139 Real Life is Rubbish (Noble and Webster) 176. 36. 103. 161. 244 Q s Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape (Wolfli) 2 79 St. Auguste 114 Two Women 114. 37 38.240.7 77 rapidograph 70 Raphael 110. 38. Man 131. 36. 219.176 Real Life Is Rubbish 176. 9 8 . 165 figure 118 filled 37 pencil 48. 7 73 self-portraits: Basquiat 138. 739 semi-abstract drawings Style 14 Seurat. 732 influence of 240 painting with light 78. 40-41. 78 single-point 74. 1 1 6 accelerated 2 2 . 224 0 layers 31. 243.139 Autoportrait 138. 7 76 receding space 206 Redon.

1 4 1 w a t e r c o l o r 25. 7 6 Two Impressions from a Cut-Out Paper Disk ( H u g o ) 2 2 2 Two Monsters 2 4 2 . t o d r a w 5 2 . Paul 2 4 1 Achilles Chases Hector 2 4 0 .27 skull 747. 158 V a n Eyck. 49. 7 6 1 spots. 226 V Van Dyck. 174 T w o m b l y . 170 shoes 1 6 4 stylized m o t i f 51 Summer Flowers 63. 156 Van Gogh. 2 2 0 influence o f 2 4 0 Untitled 220. 7 79 Shoshone petroglyph 240. 1 2 Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse 71.41.1 6 5 shorthand diagram 142 Shoshone buffalo hide painting 178. 164.141 S i m b l e t . Jan 1 5 6 Maelbeke Madonna 1 5 6 . 9 2 Tesshu. H e n r i de: Woman at Her Toilet 14 t r a n s p a r e n t v i e w 92. 57. t o d r a w 2 0 0 . 7 1 4 . 2 2 6 . 2 3 4 . W . phrased 146 tonal modeling 161 tonal range 169 t o n a l surfaces 2 2 7 tonal width 97 t o n e ( s ) 33.2 1 3 Stubbs. 240 Two Women Embracing ( R o d i n ) 114. Man in Armor 1 5 8 .241 s i l k .5 3 in l a n d s c a p e 2 0 6 . t o lay 1 4 0 . h e a d a n d n e c k sections o f female m o l d f o r (Leonardo) 89 shading 2 9 s h a d o w s 28. 76. 69. 202 violin. 79. Sarah: child's m a p 75.Yamaoka 233 t e x t u r e 2 2 2 . William 159 Satire of the Queen's Dress INDEX 226.243 Leonardo's machines 12.158 158. 2 7 studies: b i r d s 7 2 . 230 t h r e e .9 1 storms. 65 symbols 138. 115. 221 .s c r e e n p r i n t i n g 139 silver p o i n t 1 4 0 . 1 8 4 . 245 sharpener 54 Ship in a Storm ( T u r n e r ) 1 9 8 .125 W o o d f i n e . b l o w n 248 steel p e n s see d i p p e n s still life 89. 97. v i e w s o f 85. t o d r a w 1 0 1 viewfinder 57 Views from Velletri ( C l a u d e L o r r a i n ) 152. 161. Sue see N o b l e . 199 shoes 1 6 4 . 7 70 Tiber 214-215 Untitled ( T w o m b l y ) 2 2 0 . 1 9 9 . 156 layers 7 5 6 priming for 140. 4 4 boat 209 botanical 4 9 G e r i c a u l t ' s cats 2 9 from Goya 170-173 125.2 0 1 . 2 2 7 Untitled 2001 ( C a t l i n g ) u 263 W h i t e . 96. Study of (Michelangelo) 110. 1 3 . 6 9 Wodall. 1 4 0 . A l f r e d 1 1 . 2 4 4 .1 9 9 wire. 102-103 tonal marks. M . 2 4 2 w Wallis. 186. 1 6 6 t r a p e z i u s m u s c l e 142. 1 9 9 Two Courtyards (Piranesi) 75. 2 4 7 t h r e e .Sforza Horse. 7 77.1 4 1 . Augustin ( B a l t a r d ) 6 7 w e t and dry brush-strokes 2 4 9 Turner.120. 7 9 0 vessels. 69. G e o r g e 2 7 Skeleton of the Horse 26. Adolf: Giant-Grape Saint-Mary-Castle 219 Woman at Her Toilet ( T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c ) 74 w o o d b l o c k print 157. 53 trees.216 W e b s t e r . 77. drawing with 104-105 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt ( G a u d i ) 68. 7 75 Telescope ( N e w t o n ) 9 2 . 104-105. 199. 2 1 2 . 2 0 0 Ship in a Storm 1 9 8 . C y 138.12 W a l t e r . 725 fabric 1 6 8 T h o m a s . 206-207 202. 75. 141 Three Male Figures. 249 t o describe 39.d i m e n s i o n a l d r a w i n g 68. 9 0 . 75 Skeleton of the Horse ( S t u b b s ) 26.J. t o draw 1 9 8 . Vincent 95 Chair 94. 2 3 0 tonal contrast 96 tonal distance 9 7 t o n a l d r a w i n g 9 6 . 74. 1 6 . 2 9 wind. 1 4 5 travel journal 2 0 .1 8 5 Tree II ( M o n d r i a n ) 52. 241.t o n e d r a w i n g 140. 1 4 4 . 9 4 z Z e n calligraphy 232-233 contrast 96 t o grade 163 ink 37 pencil 5 4 t o r t i l l o n 205 T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c . 1 8 4 . Sarah 9 4 Chair Cut Out 94. t h r e e .d i m e n s i o n a l 1 0 4 . 243 (Bosch) T Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos ( G o y a ) 2 4 0 .1 4 5 . Taylor A n i t a 115 All and Nothing 1 1 4 . T i m W e s t Fagade of the Church of St. 1 4 1 . John 25 Flying Fish 25 Wild Striped Cat Sketches of ( G e r i c a u l t ) 28. 743 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City ( F r e n z ) 1 6 0 . 182. 159 Wolfli. John: Focusing on the Negative 14 w a s h .13 M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s m a l e figures 110. 9 5 pens 36 v a n i s h i n g p o i n t 74. 1 7 7 free 8 0 V e n i c e .199 tissue p a p e r 21. A n t h o n y 152.1 0 5 vision 9 6 Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects (Grandville) 242.

a n d brushes o n pp.l. P h y l l Kiggell. 4 8 : T h e N a t u r a l H i s t o r y M u s e u m . b r i d g e m a n . Paris and D A C S . 72: akg-images. G e r m a n y . 5 0 : Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (1). O o n a G r i m e s . 181: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. 9 3 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. A . Italy. R . 88: www.r. Patty Stansfield. . Havemeyer. L o n d o n . D a w n Henderson. 2 2 2 : Pierre Georgel/Private Collection. Jackie Douglas. 1 . Paris a n d D A C S . c o .Paris ( b ) . 17: J o h n Walter. K u n s t m u s e u m . 6 6 : w w w . 137: © The British Museum. (r). Sophie Laurimore. Sammy De Grave. B e r l i n . Psychiatric Institute of the University of Heidelberg. Paula Regan. R o s e m a r y S c o u l a r . 2 7 : Royal Academy of Arts. 49: Hunterian Museum (t). J o h n Walter. University of Oxford. O. c o . Angela Palmer. 1 0 8 : Arts C o u n c i l /Biblioteca Nacional. Germany/Joerg P. K e w ft)). 199: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee des arts asiatiquesGuimet. 13: www. M a n d y Earey. 115: Anita Taylor. 158: Calouste Gulbenkian Museum. Paris a n d D A C S . 16: www.bridgeman. Productions Clovis Prevost (c).bridgeman. J a c k a n d Brian Catling. 1 6 1 : D C C o m i c s I n c .bridgeman. Berlin/Staatsbibliothek zu A l l other images © Sarah Simblet . 1879. 68: www. L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 .bridgeman. G e r m a n y . Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. Wolfson College. b r i d g e m a n . B . 221: Gagosian Gallery/Private Collection (b). A n n a P l u c i n s k a . 1 3 8 : © Christie's Images Ltd/© A D AGP.264 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Acknowledgments Author's Acknowledgments: T h e author wishes to thank the following people for their enormous help. 180: www. 2 2 0 : Mamaru Abe. H a m b u r g . u k / L o u v r e . 5 3 : Collection of the Gemeentemuseum D e n Haag/Mondrian Trust. 174: Artothek/Munich. B M G . A n d y C r a w f o r d for p h o t o g r a p h y a n d L . 29: Fogg A n Museum/Collections Baron de Vita: Grenville Collection. 2 8 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. 1 3 6 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Centre Pompidou-MNAM-CCI. 1 3 4 : © T h e British Museum. G i n a R o w l a n d . Peter L u f f . U K . 1 6 0 : Rene G R U A U s. 243: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin/Jorg P. 9 7 6 ) .bridgeman. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. c o . 132: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso.bridgeman. © K a t h r y n W i l k i n s o n . Flossie. 1 5 : w w w . Staatliche Museen z u Berlin. 11: www. Inc. Paris. 9 2 : Science Photo L i b r a r y . Oxford. Paris. 112: Yale University A r t Gallery/Everett V Meeks. Lisbon. Psychiatric Institute of the U n i v e r s i t y of Heidelberg.a. 51: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. H ./Private Collection/© D A C S 2005. Paris. Anders/ © D A C S 2 0 0 5 .uk/Musee des Augustins. 139: Galerie Marion Meyer/© Man Ray Trust / A D A G P . Paris. Fund. Julie O u g h t o n . Sarah Woodfine. for s u p p l y i n g the d r a w i n g books. Andy Crawford. L o n d o n .uk/Private /© Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery. 73: Berlin F i l m Museum (t).co. Toulouse. Roddy Bell. Sarah D u n c a n . Orientabteilung/Ruth Schacht. Illustrated London News Picture Library/The Bystander (b). Rocio Arnaez. 75: © The British Museum (b). Basel. Clare Bryan. 1 7 8 : © T h e British M u s e u m / H e n r y Moore F o u n d a t i o n . 3 3 : Prinzhom Collection. L o n d o n . R u t h P a r k i n s o n .Strang Print Room ( b ) . 74: Corbis. 113: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. 1 1 0 : www. Kirsten Norrie. A . 2 2 7 : Paul Klee Stiftung. 2 0 0 : Bibliotheque Nationale De Maureen Paley Interim Art (b).20-21 a n d 246-47. Winthrop. Paul T h o m a s . S i m o n L e w i s . T o n y G r i s o n i . Portugal. 7 1 : I M E C / A r c h i v e s E r i k Satie. 1 9 6 : Museum of the History of Science. 2 1 8 : Adolf-Wdlfli-Stiftung. Sir Brinsley F o r d . H e l e n S h u t t l e w o r t h . 3 2 : Pepys Library. 2 2 3 : Lebrecht Music and Arts Photo Library/Ricordi. 2 6 : Trust. Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (t). 1 5 4 : akg-images/Musee National d'Art Moderne. F i n n .co. L o n d o n (t). 2 3 8 : akg-images. L o n d o n . J o h n Roberts. H e a t h e r M c C a r r y . K e v i n a n d Rebecca Slingsby. 9 5 : V a n Gogh M u s e u m .100. 2 4 0 : w w w . 9 0 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/© A D A G P . L o n d o n . 2 4 2 : Photo Scala. Antonia Cunliffe Davis. a n d D e p a r t m e n t s o f E n t o m o l o g y a n d Zoology at the University of Oxford. Anita France. 5 2 : T h e Metropolitan Museum of Art/Bequest of Mrs. 2 2 4 : P r i n z h o m Collection. 2 0 1 : T h e Royal Collection © 2 0 0 2 H e r Majesty Queen Elizabeth I I .co. and Tamsin Woodward Smith. Berlin (b). Picture Credits 8: Corbis/Hubert Stadler. Paris/ © Succession Picasso / D A C S 2005. Agnieszka Mlicka. H a y w a r d Gallery. 179: www. Kunstmuseum Bern. K u n s t m u s e u m Bern/© D A C S 2 0 0 5 . 1 9 8 : Dover Publications. 2 0 3 : Clare Bryan (t). 2 4 4 : Ashmolean 30: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. Corporation of London. 1929 (29. Carole A s h . support. C o r n e l i s o n & Son. London/courtesy of Stuart Shave. London/Bequeathed by Charles 225: Stephen P Huyler. 114: Musee Natalie G o d w i n . Angela W i l k e s . 2 4 : © T h e British Museum. London 2005. 130: The Metropolitan M u s e u m of Art/Robert L e h m a n Collection. .bridgeman. 1 3 5 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. 176: Modem Art. NY. J o n Roome. papers. 1975 ( 1 9 7 5 . 226: Brian Catling. B e m d Collection. u k / O n Loan to the H a m b u r g Kunsthalle. Paris. Diana Bell.939). Madrid. University of Cambridge. 1 3 3 : Artothek/Kupferstichkabinett. 1901. 177: Mary Evans Picture Library. 3 1 : Tom Powel Imaging. Japan. Copyright Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens. 4 6 : B r i t i s h Library. U K .uk/British Museum.bridgeman. b r i d g e m a n . B e r l i n . Christopher Davis. Also. Graphische Sammlung. 111: Fondation Beyeler/Riehen (Bale)/© Succession H Matisse/DACS 2005. 2 0 2 : © T h e British Museum./Galerie Sylvie Nissen. R o y a n d D i a n n e Simblet.bridgeman. F r a n c e .uk/Kettle's Yard. George M c G a v i n . 2 4 5 : Oona Grimes. Magdalene College Cambridge. Carlo O r t u for picture research s u p p o r t . 69: Institut Amatller d'Art Hispanic (tl). Salisbury & South W i l t s h i r e M u s e u m ( t ) . 9 4 : Sarah Woodfine. u k / T o k y o National M u s e u m . 9 1 : www. T h e R u s k i n School of D r a w i n g a n d Fine A r t . Paris. L e n . Dover Publications/ISBN: 0486229912 (t). Publisher's Acknowledgments Dorling Kindersley w o u l d like to thank Caroline H u n t for editorial contribution. a n d encouragement i n m a k i n g this book: M a m o r u Abe. L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . 1 9 : Getty Images/© Succession Picasso / D A C S 2 0 0 5 . Paul T h o m a s ( t ) . 1 5 9 : Bodleian Library. Jean Pierre Roy. Germany./© D A C S 2 0 0 5 ( t ) . Pamela Ellis for compiling the index. 1 5 6 : Graphische S a m m l u n g Albertina. Florence/MoMA. Anders. 7 0 : Studio Daniel L i b e s k i n d . 157: U C L Art Collections . 2 4 1 : Corbis/David M u e n c h ( b ) .

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