An innovative, practical approach to drawing the world around you

SARAH SIMBLET

BOOK
FOR T H E ARTIST

BOOK

FOR THE ARTIST

SARAH SIMBLET

DK PUBLISHING

CONTENTS
LONDON • NEW YORK MELBOURNE • MUNICH • DELHI Senior Editor Paula Regan Senior Art Editor Mandy Earey Art Editor Anna Plucinska Managing Editor Julie Oughton Managing Art Editor Heather McCarry Art Director Peter Luff Publishing Director Jackie Douglas Production Joanna Bull DTP Designer Adam Walker Picture Research Sarah Smithies US Editor Christine Heilman First American Edition, 2 0 0 5 First Paperback Edition, 2 0 0 9 Published in the United States by DK Publishing 3 7 5 Hudson Street New York, New York 1 0 0 1 4 10 11 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3

Architecture
6 8 20 22 Master Builders The Order of Sound Future Fictions Pathways of Sight Single-Point Perspective Creating an Imaginary Space Further Aspects of Perspective Theaters Venetian Life Parisian Street

66
68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86

Foreword Introduction Drawing Books and Papers Posture and Grip

Objects and Instruments

TD075-July 2009 Copyright © 2 0 0 5 Dorling Kindersley Limited Text and authors artworks © Sarah Simblet 2 0 0 4 Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited A Cataloging-in-Publication record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN 9 7 8 - 0 - 7 5 6 6 - 5 1 4 1 - 1 Color reproduction by GRB, Italy Printed and bound in China by Toppan

Still Life Instruments of Vision Bench Marks Light and Illusions Further Illusions How to Draw Ellipses Tonality Drawing with Wire Artifacts and Fictions

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90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106

Animals
Documentaries Presence and Mood Movement Icon and Design Pen and Ink Drawing with Ink Capturing Character Sleeping Dogs Turtles Dry Birds

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26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44

The Body
Postures and Poses Choreographs Passion Measurement and Foreshortening Quick Poses Hands and Feet Charcoal Hands Phrasing Contours The Visual Detective La Specola

108
110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128

Plants and Gardens
Botanical Studies Jeweled Gardens Fast Trees Graphite and Erasers Cropping and Composition Negative Space Fig Tree Summer Flowers Acanthus Spinosus

46
48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64

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Gatherings
Projections Magnetic Fields The Human Condition Disposable Pens The Travel Journal Catching the Moment Grand Canal Crossings Caravans The Big Top

174 Abstract Lines
176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 Process and Harmony Writing Time Chants and Prayers Compositions Being "Just" Collage Zen Calligraphy Nocturnes

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220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234

Portraiture
Poise Anatomies Revelations Self-Portraits Silver Point Head and Neck Essential Observations Drawing Portraits Generations Castings

130
132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 152

Earth and the Elements
Air in Motion Storms Nature Profiles Charcoal Landscapes Drawing in the Round Decaying Boat Cloudburst Notes of Force Mountains

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198 200 202 204 206 208 210 212 214 216

Gods and Monsters
Marks of Influence Hauntings Convolutions Brushes Brush Marks Monsters Goya's Monsters Consumed Glossary Index Acknowledgments

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240 242 244 246 248 250 252 254 256 259 264

Costume
Cloth and Drapery Character Costumes Femmes Fatales Colored Materials Study and Design The Structure of Costume Textures and Patterns Dressing Character Posture Carving

154
156 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172

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a drawing book is the perfect portable private vehicle for your imminent exploration of drawing. They occupy a shelf in my studio. where spaces are shaped by nothing more than the objects and activities contained within them. but because it is how I engage with and anchor myself in life. Chosen in any color. and be slowly washed or worn away. of Sketch Book for the Artist. architect. For twelve years I have enjoyed the privilege of teaching drawing. By using our imaginations. fashion designer. I was training in anatomy and studying how. who tells me firmly upon approach that they cannot draw. especially as travel journals. These inspirations led me to invent museums. Some of my drawings cover entire walls. understood (and often misunderstood) our own bodies. and I refer back to them for years after they are made. I work with people of diverse ages. by invitation. and feeling. For me personally. remain unseen by most. as a visiting professor at universities. a sculptor. and experience. through history. or a quantum physicist trying to see for themselves the fluctuations of our universe.Foreword B Y DRAWING THE WORLD AROUND US. still standing by the door. It makes me feel excited to be alive. The most rewarding challenge is always the newcomer. geologists. are made outside as discreet installations. Drawing occupies a unique place in every artist and creator's life. We can all learn how to draw. Some are more traditionally framed and hung in galleries for solo or group exhibitions. and a reflector of experience. It is my love of these. be they a child discovering their vision and dexterity. that inspired the title and structure MEMORY T H E A T E R S This pen-and-ink drawing was made from imagination during research for my PhD. and makers of special effects. and local c o m m u n i t y classes. texture. I will always draw. and size. we learn to see it. The very first step is to believe it. aspirations. thinking. we learn to feel truly alive. and in a few sessions they will be flying. not only to make art. shape. a cartographer charting the land. and their importance to so many artists. doctors. It is a tool for investigating ideas and recording knowledge. They enfold their viewer and are made on joined sheets of paper that I reach by climbing ladders. from schoolchildren to senior citizens. Augustine his notes on memory. art schools. or engineer. I was also reading among The Confessions of St. night security staff. undergraduates to fellow professors. where I expect them to be discovered by some people. we have looked at. drawing is the immediate expression of seeing. and through which I can see how I think. Drawing is a mirror through which I understand my place in the world. a composer notating a musical score. I also make drawing books. Combine these things and the possibilities are endless. I know that with their cooperation I can soon prove them wrong. Others can be held in the h a n d or. . perhaps hidden on a door hinge or a street bench rail. in which he describes himself flying and diving in his imagination through pictorial caverns of knowledge.

in lectures. and we spend our lives reading it. Cueva de las Marios.Theseancient silhouettes were drawn with earth pigments rubbed onto rock. They have a natural affinity to many modern graffiti signatures. waving to us from many thousands of yearsago. scrawling shapes and cartoons when on the telephone. At home and at work we doodle. not just chosen pictures on our walls but everywhere—maps. Sometimes we draw because we are bored. is not afforded us by drawing. and patterns on our clothes. Drawing is international. The sense of relief we may feel from the information overload of modern commercial life when visiting a country in which we can no longer read every written word.000-9500 bce . We are surrounded by drawings in our daily lives. but more often because drawing actually helps us to focus and take in what is said. graffiti. We can always read each others drawings. Most adults still feel that certain exquisite pleasure on arriving at a beach to find the tide out and the sand perfect. and in meetings. a great crowd is raising their hands in greeting. packaging. like a great canvas for them to mark. logos. signs. "CAVE OF THE HANDS" In this drawing. irreverent to language barriers. Children cannot be restrained from running across the pristine white lawn of newly fallen snow. inscribing every fresh part of it with their eager scrapes and trails. Rio Pinturas 13.8 INTRODUCTION Where We Begin There is a fundamental drive in our human nature to make a mark. We are bombarded with linear and tonal pictorial information.

I. enjoying the physical sensation of crayon on paper. In cave paintings like the one opposite. and she kept it as my first step beyond the delighted realms of scrawl. had happily scribbled. power. and belonging to place. an expression of existence. created by societies of hunter-gatherers. I was sitting with my mother. and the appearance of my strikes of colors. but I had never yet attempted to figuratively picture my world. the hair of my first portrait was most important. I now think this is a picture of proximity. reflecting my experience of looking closely at my father's face. She gave me a notepad and a red crayon and asked me to draw her "a picture of Daddy. who in their day-to-day hardship made time to picture themselves and the animals on which they depended.9 WHERE WE BEGIN FIRST PORTRAIT For sorre forgotten reason. Even though it is made by a toddler this image would be recognizable to anyone. Cave art was not made for decoration but as a fundamental part of life. Eyelashes take up as much of my attention as the head itself. MAKING OUR MARK It seems reasonable to assume that we have engaged in pictorial mark-making for as long as we have made conscious use of our hands. On a particular afternoon in September 1974. The image above is what I gave back to my mother. like all toddlers. we see our oldest surviving images." Until this day. at age two-anda-half. .

to help a stranger see their way W h e n taking first steps in relearning h o w to draw. and from that first unit build and describe the shape of something or someone we know. W e do n o t hesitate to draw a map. b e p r o u d o f what m a k e s y o u r w o r k individual to y o u . It was made with a few bold strokes of a steel pen dipped in ink to conjure the dried bee I was holding between my fingers on a pin. most of us stop. Don't b e p e r s u a d e d to draw in a w a y s o m e o n e else . At this point many will insist they cannot draw. h o w e v e r small a n d u n f o r m e d y o u believe they are. Inhibitions creep in and ideas of good a n d b a d terminate confidence. yet still turn to drawing w h e n their verbal language fails or is inadequate. Hours are lost immersed in the glorious world of imagination. As you progress. it is important to value your natural abilities a n d ways of seeing. then drag o u r line into a loop. PROGRESSION T h e r e is a point in all o u r lives w h e n w e first c o n t r o l o u r mark and m a k e it a line. But as adolescents. and this activity plays a vital role in their d e v e l o p m e n t . for example. Young children love to draw.10 INTRODUCTION PEN-AND-INK BEE This tiny drawing has been enlarged to show its texture and composition.

I meet students struggling unhappily with a particular method of drawing. but it does help to set out facing in the right direction. Think how much would have been lost if anyone had interfered with Alfred Wallis' personal sense of proportion and perspective in the exquisite drawing above. you must decide whether to keep or discard it. Enjoy the control of your own journey.11 PROGRESSION A UNIQUE SIGHT This innocent yet sophisticated drawing of boats. Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse c. The journey of every artist demands hard work and discipline. I ask them their reasons for drawing. 1925-42 53/8x87/8in (135 x 225 mm) ALFRED WALLIS prefers and tells you is better. harbor and sea is one of many that Alfred Wallis made from memory while sitting at home. and they have never questioned why. He used leftover ship and yacht paint with crayons on cut-out pieces of cardboard boxes. . Someone once told them they must draw in this way. what they most want to achieve. and which aspects of the vast wealth and diversity of graphic language would be most appropriate to their goals. After experimenting and trying each new idea. remember that all advice is only advice. As you read this b o o k and perhaps attend art classes. Occasionally. He was a retired Cornish fisherman and junk dealer who began drawing at the age of 70 "for company" after his wife died.

and inspire others. right. "There really is no such thing as Art. There should neve: be a slavish obligation to represent things exactly as we collectively agree we see them. Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels LEONARDO DA VINCI . embedded in this book. and lose the very thing that attracted us to it. Our imaginations are the tools with which we can increase the essence of life. depending on the occasion and our purpose. the page bristles with the focus of ideas. be visionary.12 INTRODUCTION VISION All artists see the world differently. is. the breast. but it should be the experienced world we draw. 11). We also see differently ourselves. it may not be accurate to our critical adult eye. They are also always written backward. Below. We all see differently. perhaps for comfort or ease as a left-hander or a habitual enjoyment of the challenge. we can drive out its spirit." The clarity and empowerment of these words. When we look back at Wallis' seascape (see p. not for disguise but as a personal choice. There are only artists. If as artists we nail a subject down too hard. and breathtaking wind of a choppy harbor. clear-minded understanding of the sea. IDEAS A N D I N V E N T I O N S These active machines. There are countless reasons for drawing. boats.and collarbones and shoulder blades of a different bird almost become new creatures in themselves. The art historian Professor Sir Ernst Gombrich. author of The Story of Art. The observed world may be our subject. wrote as the opening line of this great work. We BIRD STUDIES The flutter of faint scratches that dance across the pages on the right is an attempt to see the movement and bony weightlessness of a bird. all raise water From the Archimedes' screw to Leonardo's own cupped wheel. I hope. His notes visually balance his drawings. but the child in us knows that this is an all-embracing.

shout against a terrible injustice. make a calculation. More was learned drawing the bird 18 times than would have been understood drawing it only once or twice. stripped-down parts. time spent is not lost. We have both covered our paper with focused. I drew to understand the apparatus of flight. Each fresh image reflects growing confidence and the experience of the preceding study. to express the beauty in a moment's play of light. My drawings of a housemartin (opposite top) illustrate the importance of repeated study. while below. Leonardo drew to invent a machine. but it is important to be clear why we are making it. drawing in pursuit of our own thoughts and understanding. It will be invested through your experience in the new drawing. when it looks tired and still feels wrong. it may be best to start afresh. conduct an experiment. Don't be disheartened. or illustrate a dream.13 VISION should not try to know how every finished picture will look. or to discover the best use of a new material. Decide before you start whether you are drawing to warm up. This also applies if struggling at length with a larger picture. Our drawings are annotated investigations into the mechanisms of nature and of an idea. Opposite. .

mists. We are caught in a shifting focus that makes everything fluid. It denies the importance of accident. and paper. are both made of ink laid onto wet paper with speed and agile certainty. balance. silk. bone. These two brush drawings. and we can just make out the distant stains of mountains. which can offer keys to other things. it should be responding to the sensation and meaning of the subject it draws. and sometimes beyond. Know the texture. If you can do this. metal. Each image relied upon past experience to know the probable behavior of the brush. and at speeds beyond conscious thought. and practice each part before putting the final image together. and how it feels to the touch. W e float toward the quiet vista as it also moves toward us. However. depth. and opacity of your subject. declare the idea. ink. As you draw any subject—something you see. You must also think of its intrinsic nature: its purpose. BRUSHED LANDSCAPE FLOWING SKELETON T h e gliding poise of this walking anatomy comes as much from the feeling of movement as it does from the feeling of drawing. temperature. or imagine—it is not enough to only render its shape. explain the composition. and allowed to flow through the brush. size. Imagine these qualities so strongly that you feel them in your mind and at your fingertips.14 INTRODUCTION ALCHEMY At school. excessive planning can get in the way of the imagination. your marks will become the subject on the paper. As your hand meets the paper to make a mark. I made it almost unconsciously with a pen and a brush. created centuries and cultures apart. Whatever the material— wood. This suits many artists well and is perfectly valid. Landscape in Haboku Style 15TH CENTURY . Our position asvieweris unsteady. This is a detail of a brush-and-ink drawing by a Japanese Buddhist monk. trusting my intuition to find a visual equivalence for the sensation of weight within my body. we are advised or even required to plan our pictures. or ice—you must actually feel it beneath your fingers as you draw. and position in space. and what you discover in the process of making. the unknown. The physicality. fire. They each allowed the energy and focus of the moment to be expressed through controlled accident and a degree of the unknown Both drawings were made trusting the marks. feel. and spirit of each subject was held strongly but loosely between the fingertips. water. meaning. and an island brushed with trees. This is the alchemy of drawing.

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right is set inside a rib cage. made by a young British artist who creates alphabets o f the absurd f r o m familiar childhood characters. one of many luminous works in watercolor. which evoke realities o f place and the p o w e r o f moment. He dazzles us with flashes o f light and dabbed marks o f shadow. acrylic. lives on. left. Focusing on the Negative 2004 22 x 30 in (56 x 76 cm) J O H N WALTER . like folded insects. more than 100 years after its making. pastel. gold leaf and spray paint. Lautrec's flamboyant splashes o f petticoats and pantaloons are drawn with long sweeps of chalk and brushed oil paint. c.16 INTRODUCTION PLACE A N D MOMENT The heat and teeming atmosphere o f this Parisian dressing room. stand table-sized with furniture legs attached t o b o t h sides of their jacket.1896 Woman at her Toilet 41 x 26 in (104 x 66 cm) TOULOUSE LAUTREC RIB-CAGE D R A M A Thus drama. W a l t e r also makes books: some.

Enjoy discovering what your hand and the material can do. FREEINGTHEHAND . As you follow lessons in this book. you will be surprised and encouraged to see how far you have come. take your time and don't worry if you need to make several attempts to grasp a concept. Much will be learned on these test sheets and in your first drawings. Choose other materials and do the same. even those you dislike. potential ideas still forming. With no help and advice at all. diary-like observations. Start by choosing a material you like the look of and cover a piece of paper with different marks. Such books are personal: the territory of new exploration and experiment. and miscellaneous items of inspiration. you will naturally make progress on your own in response to concentration and the decision to look and draw. One of the advantages of a drawing book is that you can shut it. try not to grip your pen worrying about the technical terms you might have heard. Drawing is exploratory. at a point when you feel you are not making progress. Put them away and look at them later. Ignore these at first and allow yourself the freedom to play. and mistakes are a valuable process of learning. Pages do not have to lie open for other people to inspect and comment on.17 FREEING THE HAND If you are just beginning to learn how to draw. It is yours. Try to keep all of your first drawings. just through the act of making.

In the total wealth of these pages. 150). when they are more experienced. we still only glimpse a corner of the magnitude of this subject and the infinity of what can be achieved. which of course he cannot see. adapting its form and occupation. and many more reasons for drawing the world. This practical journey will take you through the door into the vivid heart of drawing. Note that the drawing classes are allocated to subjects. and became a great subject for me. caught between action and repose. threedimensionally. seek ideas in the life around you. Imagination needs nourishment. Its sensuous and flowing line seems to drift like smoke. the path is yours. and enfolding new media. Drawing is a living language that over millennia has grown and changed. An artist's personal voice is something that also evolves through lessons learned. Look to your own experience and also learn from the work of others. which is held frozen in space by a camera lens. As you draw.Their elegant strength seems to summon a lifetime of drawing.18 INTRODUCTION THE THINKING EYE Techniques and materials are the grammar and vocabulary of drawing and can be studied and shared. Picasso is poised smiling. Picasso Painting with Light at the Madoura Pottery 1949 . To these I have added my own drawings to explain elementary materials and techniques and offer introductory approaches. it is this voice that is the subtle part of their art and something that ultimately. ELECTRIC BULL With a penlight. The real drawing book has yet to come. A N ARTIST'S HANDS These are the hands of the artist Phyll Kiggell (see p. comes from within. but not confined to them. Once there. It rarely flourishes in isolation. I was particularly attracted to their gentle articulation and understated determination. The chapters of this book present 90 different artists' ways of seeing. Picasso has just finished his drawing. it will be your creation as you discover your own personal vision. However. staring straight through his image of a bull.

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be sure they fit comfortably under your arm. which are also sold in an enormous range. BLACK P O C K E T B O O K S : Hand-sized w i t h ready-made elastic binder and a marker ribbon. it is better to have them made at a lumber yard or home improvement store. C A N V A S . Art students often make use of printed books picked up from secondhand stores into which they draw. binding. Calculate a range of useful dimensions and have several cut at once. Sand the edges to avoid splinters. Smooth plywood. 4. thick enough not to flex. c o l o r If planning t o use pencils. b e a w a r e t h a t p a p e r t e x t u r e effects a n d changes t h e i r marks. texture. stitched. catalogs. There are dozens to choose from.h a n d s t o r e s make unique subjects f o r e x p e r i m e n t s a n d collage. They can be very expensive in art stores. and glued t o a s t r i p o f bias binding. F O U N D B O O K S : O l d p r i n t e d 3 . and handles to lift the weight of your artworks. You simply need two strong boards hinged together well. A high-quality one will last a DRAWING BOOKS Select d r a w i n g b o o k s t o suit y o u r aims. cut. study the structure of a good portfolio and make your own.b o u n d b o o k s t h a t fit in y o u r p o c k e t o r bag. These are perfect f o r w o r k i n g in novels. N o t e t h e w i d e l y differing c h o i c e o f p a p e r s w i t h w h i c h t h e s e are m a d e . H o w e v e r r i n g bindings o f t e n break. Homemade books can be assembled easily from found materials or selections of loose sheet papers. Many artists invent ways o f binding their o w n books. T h e hardb o a r d j a c k e t is s t r e t c h e d w i t h canvas beneath t h e p a p e r sleeve.q u a l i t y r i n g .b o u n d p a d if y o u w i s h t o keep your drawings together long-term. and cost.B O U N D PADS: T h e s e are t h e least expensive a n d useful f o r o p e n i n g flat. If you intend to carry your boards for a distance. F o r e v e n i n g classes. Drawing boards are invaluable. 2. c h o o s e s m a l l e r h a r d . 6. pastels.C O V E R E D H A R D B O U N D : Ideal f o r c a r r y i n g a r o u n d . a n d r e f e r e n c e b o o k s f o u n d in s e c o n d .b o u n d b o o k w i l l s o o n s h o w y o u h o w it is m a d e . Alternatively. Purchase a h i g h . color. cheap corrugated plastic ones fall apart in days. It is also useful to own a portfolio. H O M E M A D E : I m a d e this b o o k f r o m drawing paper that I folded. and collage their ideas. Most contain thin p a p e r and are perfect f o r use w i t h disposable pens. Dissecting a d i s c a r d e d h a r d . drawing book. y o u n e e d a lifetime. C O L O R E D PAPERS: Large a r t supply stores o f t e n sell t h i c k b o o k s full o f c o l o r e d p a p e r s . a l e n g t h o f black elastic t i e d a r o u n d t h e m i d d l e will h o l d the contents together w h e n y o u f o l d in c o l l e c t e d items. 2002 Tantalus o r The Future of Man 81/2 x61/4in (215 x 158 mm) ROSE MILLER . thickness. ties on either side to keep your papers in place.20 INTRODUCTION Drawing Books and Papers T o BEGIN YOUR EXPLORATION o f d r a w i n g . a n d crayons. R I N G . quality. t h i s is h o w I l e a r n e d . c h o o s e larger f o r m a t s t o give y o u s c o p e f o r e x p e r i m e n t . F o r traveling. t h e i r jackets w i l l a c t like d r a w i n g b o a r d s a n d p r o t e c t y o u r w o r k . 5. 1. Gleaming store purchases vary greatly in format. is perfect.

For use with any media. resisting deterioration. blocks. 10.TISSUE PAPER: Place sheets between drawing book pages to keep images from printing on each other and use for delicate collage. and other plant fibers. 14. Ph. Use cheap paper for rough ideas and quality paper for work to last See the glossary ( p p . VELIN ARCHES 250GMS: Printmaking paper available in black white. pastel paper in flecked pastel colors with a distinctive ribbed marking. mulberry. and rolls. turning brown and brittle.Papers differ in thickness (weight). or machine made in sheets. T W O RIVERS GREEN 410G MS: Very heavy tinted textured cold-pressed watercolor paper See Two Rivers Yellow. 16. and cream sheets or rolls. it is made from rice. 20. Cheap wood-pulp papers are acidic. ITALIAN PARCHMENT: Imitation-animal-skin parchment that is translucent and slightly waxy. FABRIANO ACADEMIA: Standard medium-range multipurpose paper Use with any media. C A N S O N : Inexpensive lightweight pastel paper in many colors. 13. cold. Use with a brush in clean water Water makes a dark mark like ink and becomes invisible again when dry. mold-. MAGIC PAPER: A reusable sheet for testing ideas without creating waste. SAUNDERS WATERFORD N O T 300GMS: Mid-quality textured watercolor paper. used to imprint lines of these colors onto a surface. red. absorbency. and hot pressed papers. 17. FABRIANO INGRES: Thin. 21. 18. tough. or rolls. 15. Use for brushwork drawings. and cost. 2 5 6 . printed on one side only. They are hand-. AQUARELLE ARCHES 300GMS:The very top quality hot-pressed (smooth) watercolor paper. C A R B O N PAPER: Available in dark and light blue. white textured paper that can take abrasive use of any medium. yellow. 8. texture. METALLIC PAPER: Thin paper in different metallic colors. color. blocks. 11. bamboo. not. size. fine. T W O RIVERS Y E L L O W 410GMS: See Two Rivers Green 19. PAPERS . JAPANESE PAPER: Strong. 100% cotton and sold in sheets. also good for drawing with colored pencils. FABRIANO R O U G H 600GMS: Very heavy. It is also excellent for drawing with marker pens on layered sheets. 12. 22. It is available in white or cream. GLASSINE: Sold as protective wrapping. from pencil to paint 9. and white.5 9 ) for explanations of rough. and translucent. 7. smooth. Cotton papers are high-quality and acid-free.

Examples are shown here. If using an upright easel. Accelerated perspective also occurs if you look down the surface steeply (see pp. With your hand in this position. flowing space between your hand. you Drawing classes can be cramped places. Relaxed fingers: Hold the pencil away from its tip and relax your fingers. If your hand twists to maneuver between the paper and your body. if left-handed. In this book we will look at parallels between drawing and music. your whole relaxed b o d y should be involved. make sure you have enough room to back away and view your work. you can draw lines freely and achieve a significant arc of movement. strangledlooking drawings. If seated on a b e n c h easel (a donkey). This cramped grip tires your hand and makes small. You cannot draw like this—your hand is locked and your fingers can barely move. or with your drawing board angled between your lap and a chair. don't sit too close to the paper. From a distance you will spot errors you cannot see close up. but wherever possible. Turning your drawing sideways or upside-own will also help reveal what is wrong. . If your body posture is well balanced and you can move freely. You do not have to dance to draw. your lines will distort. and subject. Placing your easel o n the w r o n g side folds y o u r b o d y against your drawing arm. How you hold your drawing materials is also important. your drawing will reflect this. place it on the correct side: if right-handed. and look to the right. place it on your left. Regularly step back 6-9 ft (2-3 m) to check your progress. SPACE TO WORK Cramped grip. There should be an open.22 INTRODUCTION Posture and Grip T o DRAW WELL. It will also reflect discomfort if you are in any way cramped. Ideally. This photograph illustrates how some people hold a pen to write. Use the side of your little fingernail as a support on the page. should be able to look comfortably straight ahead at your picture plane. b u t it should n o t be forgotten that many people make remarkable a n d striking works drawing with their feet or holding their brush or pencil in their mouths. place it on your right. body. but you need to understand that the expression of a line or mark originates in the body and flows t h r o u g h the shoulder. a n d look to the left of it at your subject. 116-17). arm. a n d h a n d to the fingertips. There are also parallels to dance.

This can be used to great effect. If you turn a brush or dip pen up into the air to draw above your hand. ALL MEDIA There are no rules as to how you should hold your drawing media. depending upon what it is and how large you are working. hold your material as you find most comfortable.232-33). Large scale: POSTURE AND GRIP U n f a m i l i a r i t y : T h e habitual movements of our handwriting style will sometimes infringe upon our drawing. not up to the paper Brushes can be used on upright paper but dip Anticipating effects: A fully loaded pens need a level surface. .23 This loose "candle" grip is very useful when drawing with your arm extended. alternative way of holding the pencil. This can give a new lease on life to your mark-making. It is most comfortable when reaching to draw above your head. Soft media: Short materials such as pastels and charcoal can be accommodated in the palm. liquid will run down your hand. arm. upright way of holding the brush near its base is similar to the Japanese way used in Zen calligraphy (see pp. As long as your fingers. and body are not restricted. brush pressed against an upright surface will cause a dribble of ink to run down your drawing. roughly marking out a large-scale work. find an unfamiliar. GRAVITY Remember that gravity affects the flow of ink and paint. But be careful not to tense your fingers. or change to the wrong hand. or it can spoil your work if not anticipated. Remember you can also draw just by dipping your fingers in pigment—this is how many women draw in rural India. Brush calligraphy: This comfortable. To stop this. Large amounts of ink can be applied without fear of uncontrolled running if the paper is flat.

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11 x91/4in (277 x 234 mm) . offer challenges and delights to draw. we have employed artists on expeditions. dogs. W h e n lost to explain our own emotions. cartographer. Europeans on board had never seen such a thing. This drawing is made in black lead (metal point) with watercolor Highlights of silver would have gleamed. sleeping dogs. each dedicated to the moralized tale of an animal or monster The bestiary profoundly influenced the art of its period. After the subject of ourselves. floating turtles. In medieval England. 1590 J O H N WHITE capture form and movement from the m a n n e r i s m s of honking geese. they are perhaps our favorite pictorial preoccupation. and to bring h o m e drawn documentaries of their finds. and dragons. birds. insects. 1540. Together they made maps and documented animals. Here (left) we see J o h n White's exquisite record of a flying fish. or scampering through the initials and borders of pictures from that time. m u s e u m . In this chapter we discover the use of pens and ink through the delineation of insects. For the novice artist. and silent.. As children we delight in the humanized trials of Tom and Jerry and their c a r t o o n relations. and people." He worked with the scientist Thomas Harriot. who described in words what White drew. from which personality and predicted behavior were " d e d u c e d . White's commission was to "." Paranoid newcomers c r a m m e d into swelling industrial cities used handbooks of physiognomy to identify and judge their neighbors. and we still see escapees from its pages carved and grinning as the gargoyles of churches. we turn and take the features of beasts. the Latin bestiary was one of the most popular picture books—an illustrated dictionary of one hundred parts.Animals H UMANS HAVE DRAWN ANIMALS from the beginning of our time.drawe to lief one of each kinde of thing that is strange to us in England. and this very drawing was to endure many copies and plagiarisms after its triumphant return to the English court of Queen Elizabeth I. plants. fish. We have drawn them on the walls of caves to evoke their kinship and power. to be there at the m o m e n t of discovery. and learn how to Flying Fish c. which are so unlike ours. werewolves. and snakes have between them engendered harpies. their different speeds and patterns of action. W e have drawn them in m a n u s c r i p t s to explain our genesis and to c o u n t their species into Noah's ark. animals provide a perfect subject with which to begin. O v e r the centuries. which very likely leaped o n t o the deck of Sir Walter Raleigh's ship Tiger as it sailed north from the Caribbean to Virginia in 1585. and pioneer born c. On the Roanoke voyages of Sir Walter Raleigh..m o u n t e d skeletons of birds. Facial features were analyzed in terms of their animal likeness. bats. out are now oxidized and so appear black W h e n less preoccupied with understanding ourselves. Framed in the z o o or in domestic cohabitation. In 19th-century Europe this became a "science. mermaids. JOHN WHITE British artist. " Animals perpetually feed our imaginations.

Life-like This is Durer's original quill-and-ink drawing made after an anonymous Portuguese drawing. but the drowned animal washed ashore. Contemporary texts related accounts of the beast as the mortal enemy of the elephant and rare relative of the "more common" unicorn. It was to become the animal's only accepted likeness for 250 years. and wrote four books on proportion. printmaker. they were rejected. filled journals with ideas and observations. it continued its journey to Rome. He studied the image and drew his own interpretation. Converted into a print. it is still consulted by veterinarians today. Durer traveled widely to study at different European schools of art. Carefully stuffed. Original Ink Drawing of a Rhinoceros 1515 ALBRECHT DURER 103/4 x 161/2 in ( 2 7 4 x 4 2 0 mm) . a gift to the Portuguese King. and mathematician. Sailing to Rome. the home of ALBRECHT DURER German Renaissance painter. years after its publication. when more accurate portrayals were made without armor and scales. the ship was lost. It is such a lifelike triumph of imagination and intelligence that for centuries zoologists never questioned its authority. inspiring countless works of art and so touching people's imaginations that later. DURER'S RHINOCEROS AND STUBBS'S skeletal Durer. Meanwhile. naturalist. a drawing of it arrived in Nuremberg. draftsman. writer.26 ANIMALS Documentaries horse are superb affirmations of the power of drawing as a recorder and communicator of knowledge. Unsurpassed. He in turn sent the mysterious creature to the Pope via Marseilles at the request of the King of France. Stubbs's Anatomy of the Horse achieved similar documentary status. Durer's image changed eager hands until it was known across Europe. The first live rhinoceros to reach Europe came from India in May 1515.

Stubbs's m o s t c e l e b r a t e d publication. He translated his own drawings into engravings for publication. Lighting Stubbs's breathtaking international work won immediate There acclaim. The entire project was developed over ten years. a n d s i d e . dissecting and drawing until he understood the mechanisms of its power and grace. Dissections Stubbs took his knife and his pencil and physically climbed inside the horse. L o n d o n . composed from notes and observations. Stubbs w a s o n e o f t h e first E u r o p e a n artists t o m a k e a n a c c u r a t e representation o f the rhinoceros. He composed makes each horse appear so real and each plate from his three-dimensional. knowledge of parts. Table of the III of the Horse (rear Skeleton view) mm) 1756-58 1 4 x 7 in ( 3 5 4 x 1 8 0 GEORGE STUBBS .GEORGE STUBBS B r i t i s h e q u i n e a n d s o c i e t y p o r t r a i t painter. and therefore invented the lighting that Compare how Stubbs and Durer both invented lighting to portray the reality of their animals. a n d anatomist. His painted p o r t r a i t o f t h e b e a s t is in t h e R o y a l C o l l e g e o f S u r g e o n s o f England. Dissections were made over a total of 18 months. naturalist. is no other work like it. Anatomy of the Horse. which has never diminished. in t h r e e v i e w s — r e a r f r o n t . This is one of Stubbs' original finished pencil drawings. c o m p r i s e s 1 8 p l a t e s s h o w i n g d i s s e c t i o n s in l a y e r s f r o m b o n e t h r o u g h m u s c u l a t u r e t o skin.

and leader of the French Romantic movement. Surrounding sprays of graphite powder are stuck into washes of oil and ink to suggest glutinous depths. the ominous beast unwinds from the dark of the sea and of our nightmares. Mixed media Here. drama. saying ". By contrast. A s if disturbed from its gritty b e d by our presence and curiosity. sepia. novelist. H u g o mixed his media and drew from m e m o r y and imagination to create narrative atmosphere.". soot. He wrote to poet and art critic Charles-Pierre Baudelaire about his experiments. drawing her again and again to pin d o w n the texture of her loose skin. Hugo's page is f l o o d e d w i t h the fearful presence of a remembered octopus. Hugo's novels Les Miserables and Dame have become classics of film and stage. He has w a t c h e d her p o u n c e . her sharp teeth. playwright. The octopus is formed in layers applied and distressed with a brush. and turn.. conjured b y the hand of a great author of French literary fiction. her b o n y frame. The Hunchback of Notre Layers and shadows Throughout this drawing. I've ended up mixing in pencil. Apparently drawn in its o w n ink. coal dust. charcoal.28 ANIMALS Presence and Mood THESE DRAWINGS HAVE BEEN CHOSEN to s h o w t w o v e r y different ways of picturing a wild animal. and Pieuvre 1866-69 91/2 x81/8in (242 x 207 mm) VICTOR H U G O . VICTOR HUGO Poet.. Gericault took a sharp p e n c i l to m a k e repeated direct o b s e r v a t i o n s f r o m life. and a love of accident. linseed oil soaked into the paper has made shadows and repelled the ink to create translucent tentacles. ink and linseed oil on paper. and her distinctive temperament. Hugo used graphite powder.. Gericault's sheet a p p e a r s almost s c r a t c h e d b y the f e r o c i o u s play of his cat. His copious drawings are characterized by mixed media.. it silently rises to the light. snarl. more or less what I have in view. and all sorts of bizarre concoctions which manage to convey above all in mind.

of previous Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 1817-18 121/2 x 151/2 in ( 3 1 9 x 3 9 8 mm) T H E O D O R E GERICAULT . Tones that do not follow surface contour is very difficult to do well. Here.29 THEODORE GERICAULT C o n t r o v e r s i a l . 124-25 and p. and keep trying again. fiery. diagonal strokes of his pencil.118-119). Before paper became so cheap. since it can lead to a flattened form. The Raft of the Medusa. Beginners are advised to follow the natural contours of form as shown on pp. parallel. facing right. s h o r t . displayed in the Louvre. Paris. artists reused sheets and them full of studies. horses w e r e a favorite subject t o g e t h e r w i t h politics and history. standing sideways. H e is best k n o w n f o r his gigantic painting. and it can be applied to any subject (see pp. 144. At the center of the page is crammed drawings the outline of a horse. focused upon seeing will lead to a greater understanding of the subject Much is learned from repeated study.l i v e d French R o m a n t i c painter and lithographer Largely self-taught. Undertraces Beneath these graphite studies we see traces Tones On the top row we see clearly how Gericault laid broad areas of tone using fast. Repeated study This drawing demonstrates of feeling confident repeat different the importance subject Remaining enough to isolate parts of a views. of drawings Gericault erased. undertraces unify and vitalize the composition.

printmaker ceramicist graphic and stage designer who lived in France. flapping bird. In these two drawings. and scrolled lines. hooked. or proud. made only a year apart. Gouache is brushed softly in translucent hazy layers of cool blue. and brown. Ink and gouache This drawing is made in black Chinese ink and gouache (opaque watercolor) applied with a brush.30 ANIMALS Movement M O V E M E N T IS OFTEN THE CHARACTERISTIC b y w h i c h w e their lines and the power of their beasts. His powdery. The fact that they never stand still influences the movement in his line. overwhelmed by a screeching bird. the whinnying of a frantic horse. Cheval et Oiseau 1936 173/8 x 211/4 in ( 4 4 0 x 5 4 0 m m ) PABLO PICASSO . Picasso cofounded Cubism. draftsman. slow tortoise. In Picasso's drawing. the first abstract movement of the 20th century. quivering horse. Klee's riders are constructed from all the gestures of greeting mules. Artists commonly focus on such actions. noise is everywhere. identify an animal: the fast cheetah. Both Picasso and Klee have enclosed their subjects to compress and amplify the speed of PABLO PICASSO A prolific Spanish painter sculptor. gray. we see semi-abstract. These media complement and amplify each other with their brilliant contrast. taking them to guide their hand in bringing form and essence together. and waves breaking distantly below. flattened animals composed almost entirely of movement. The ink is used to make sharply defined solid. His hand must have shuddered and twitched just like the constant actions of this humorous meeting. Faune. dissolving faun kneels stranded. with George Braque (see p90).

PAUL KLEE Swiss painter. violinist. sculptor. and t e a c h e r at t h e Bauhaus school. draftsman. They remain in contact with the surface of the page and scribble back and forth as they maneuver from one area to another. N e u m a n n Family Collection. W i t h his drawings Kleeb o u n d sophisticated theories to personal and often witty childlike imagery. Scene der Komischen of Comical Reiter Riders) (Scene 1935 161/2x111/2in ( 4 1 9 x 2 9 1 mm) M o r t o n G . The entire drawing suggests the endless small movements of horses standing still. turning our eye and around inside the and postures of the paper- thin on pictorial space. creatures." They chatter around bodies in groups. Layers of marks In this pale Dentil drawing we see layers of' agitated marks that together present a kind of visual "itch. well-worn copies o f w h i c h are found in m a n y art schools. Chicago PAUL KLEE . He is a u t h o r o f The Thinking Eye (1923). top all happily of each other in the Endless lines Look closely at how Klee's lines rarely leave the paper and how they are free from the constraint of finite shape. printmaker.

fins. and author o f Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (1586). and from them learned that if he designed his ship with a "cod's head MATTHEW BAKER Master shipwright. and blackbirds fly in formation through a mosaic of text. Baker did not intend this. and steerage. In contrast to the practical clarity of Baker's thought. which in application gave strength and advantage to the English fighting the Spanish Armada. plans. adding washes of color with a fine brush. balance. In just one drawing he has displayed more angles of his design than we would expect to see from a single viewpoint Fragments English 1586 101/2 x 153/8 in (270 x 390 mm) MATTHEW BAKER of Ancient Shipwrightry . The fish It is likely that Baker drew with a quill dipped in irongall ink. slim stern). Knopf's drawing opposite is the personal enigmatic expression of a mind gripped by illness. The ship The upper decks of the ship appear curved toward us at both ends. B a k e r initiated t h e scientific p r a c t i c e o f naval a r c h i t e c t u r e and applied h y d r o d y n a m i c s .32 ANIMALS Icon and Design IN THESE T W O MANUSCRIPTS we discover diagrammatic and mackerel's tail" (full bow. He studied the anatomy of fish. drawings of animals that are each held tightly in a surprising space: a giant fish wears a ship's hull. It is simply how we read his perspective. and s e c t i o n s o f ships. seemingly looking for our attention. mathematician. b a s e d o n his studies o f fish. and scales. later called a galleon. it would achieve greater speed. the expression of its eye. Exquisite details in this drawing include the lips of the fish. and to assess our next move. This drawing illustrates Baker's theory. and the carefully observed gills. t h e earliest geometrically defined elevations. Baker lived in an era when ships were built without drawn plans. His birds stare. Below we see his revolutionary design for an Elizabethan warship.

circle and the birds. numbered. written last of all.K n o p f b e l i e v e d h e c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h e language o f birds. firmly outlined. T h e G e r m a n a r t historian Outline and tone The blackbirds illuminating this frantic manuscript are drawn in pencil. The text. w h i c h o f t e n f e a t u r e as s y m b o l i c creatures in his drawings. and filled evenly with tone.JOHANN KNOPF An " O u t s i d e r " a r t i s t w h o s u f f e r e d f r o m m e n t a l illness. appears to be stirred like water by the presence of the The Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks UNDATED 133/8 x 115/8 in (340 x 2 9 6 mm) and psychiatrist Hans Prinzhom collected this image. The main group is placed in a circle drawn with a compass. JOHANN KNOPF .

from the acacia tree. where reeds were gathered. 4. They fit into wooden holders. which range greatly in their handling and character of line. high-quality Chinese and Japanese inks are subtler and more complex than those produced in Europe." "Gum" refers to gum arabic extracted Dip pens are essential and inexpensive drawing tools. and first used by the Egyptians. The best are goose or swan. ink is traditionally applied with a brush (see pp. then pour a little warm gum water into it and temper the two together. which scratch rather than draw. That is an ink. and hold it under a clean basin until the soot hangs to it. distinguished manufacture. In the Far East. METAL PENS: Inexpensive removable steel nibs are available in a range of widths.246-47). The reservoir gives a constant flow of ink for very long unbroken lines and continuous bottle-free use. The paste from either recipe is pressed and dried into a bar for storage. they are associated with rapid. Intricate or dramatic lines. producing a different line. Each pen has a unique character.34 ANIMALS Pen and Ink W I T H A HANDFUL OF FEATHERS. while metal nibs began as rare gifts in gold and silver before being perfected by the British steel industry. expressive drawing techniques such as the ones we explore in this chapter 1. The Egyptians and Chinese are credited with the invention of carbon ink. light it. A German recipe of 1531 gives a simple description: "Take a wax candle. Avoid needle-sharp mapping pens. REED PENS: A broad nib can be cut from bamboo or another tubular grass. The bar is then rubbed into water on a slate block to produce ink. spots. F O U N T A I N PENS: These vary in quality and nib width. Today. Masters choose brands of long. Early artists recommended raven and crow for especially fine work. a n d m e t a l p o i n t s . Dip pens began their history in the Nile River. the recipes for which have been handed down over centuries. Quills were later cut from feathers. s t i c k s . 5 0 0 years ago. QUILLS: These are cut from the barrel of a flight or tail feather. simultaneously 4 . and spatters can be made with an exotic choice of inks. Only fill with suitable inks. Responsive to slight changes in pressure. 3. 2. you can have great fun drawing the world around you. and it is still in use today. PENS . The Chinese used animal or fish glue.

Now we also have acrylic ranges in many colors. and sepia. reduced. an often misused term. 8. Non-waterproof Indian inks can be reworked with a wet brush after drying. Bistre is the more humane use of soot scraped from the fireplace and ground into wine. roastedwine sediment (Yeast Black). I N D I A N INK: Carbon ink sold today in liquid form. from are not 6. ACRYLIC / CALLIGRAPHY INKS: Available in black and a range of colors. and are still in use today: carbon (Chinese and Indian). is the ink of a cuttlefish or squid extracted post-mortem. charred bone (Ivory Black). Crushed. It dries with a sheen and clogs uncleaned pens. SEPIA A N D BISTRE INKS: Sepia. iron-gall. or charcoal.35 PEN AND INK Four types of ink were common before the 20th century. . They are the easiest inks to use. I R O N .G A L L INK: Abnormal spherical growths caused by parasitic wasps can be collected from some oak trees in fall. dated. Excellent for drawing they are bright and non-clogging. bistre. boiled.36. suspended in a binder and stored as a solid block Blocks are imported today 7. INKS 9. and sieved. they produce a golden dye for drawing. and can be mixed and diluted to create subtler colors and tones. C A R B O N INK: Traditionally produced from oil or resin soot (Lamp Black). The complexities of traditional iron-gall ink are explained on p. Inks can be lightfast or non-lightfast. Waterproof types contain shellac. waterproof or non-waterproof. Old stock turns solid and bottlesChina. Beechwood soot is best. 5. and most can be homemade.

. d r y mark. The lighter right Quill marks Quills carry more ink than strokes and for as reeds. It dried black. reduced. QUILL PENS Q u i l l s a r e highly r e s p o n s i v e t o c h a n g e s in p r e s s u r e . since t h e D u t c h w e r e t h e first t o realize t h a t they could be hardened and i m p r o v e d w i t h heat t r e a t m e n t in ash o r sand. then cut a final nib (feathers. M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s d r a g o n o n p . For centuries. Although oak galls and walnut skins are harmless. T h e y give a finer. U n d e r heavy pressure. the blade and cut away from you. Oak galls. Some of Michelangelo's drawings are now a little eaten by their own ink. for example. drawn to glisten with a dryer nib. It also oxidized and ate or burned paper. crushed. it was gray-purple. giving longer lines. red-brown. m o r e e x t e n d e d line than reed and a m o r e organic line t h a n m e t a l . I u s e d t h e s e qualities t o d r a w t h e w o r m s above. t h e y stick a n d j u d d e r f o r w a r d . Reed marks The darker left wing of this beetle was drawn with the wet inky stroke wing. Rembrandt. and delicious to draw with. and turned brown with time.) You can make ink easily from the boiled. and boiled to make a golden ink. of a loaded nib. Walnut ink is gloopy. The darkest of this grasshopper wings) were made (around the head first. are surprisingly tough. a n d d e v e l o p e d t h e quill instead. V a n G o g h . forming the REED PENS R e e dpens dispense ink quickly. fleshy skins that surround ripe walnuts. Collect skins from the ground beneath trees once they are blackened. Running fresh. appears broken to show paper beneath. 2 4 4 is an e x q u i s i t e e x a m p l e . r e s e r v e d t h e i r use f o r large c h o i r b o o k s .36 ANIMALS Drawing With Ink To MAKE A QUILL OR REED PEN. giving a s h o r t . a n d M a t i s s e also e n j o y e d t h e m . keep all your fingers behind basis of iron-gall ink. Scribes o f t h e M i d d l e Ages. Paler strokes were made where the mark has the legs and antennae the ink ran out. Practice to gain a feel for how materials behave. sieved. finding reed p e n s unwieldy. can also be collected from affected trees. Quills are also called D u t c h pens. always be cautious when experimenting with recipes. galls were ground with iron sulfate to make an unstable solution.

DRAWING WITH INK Filled outlines Each segment of wing was outlined.37 METAL PENS Metal pens give long. particles then filled with a droplet of ink. it is important to feel for when the ink will run out and to know how much ink you pick up when dipping the nib. W h e n the nib is pressed upside down. . Loaded with ink and pressed hard. withstanding great pressure without sticking. marks become fine and needle-sharp. The of pigment to fall to the edges effect of the shape. giving a graded. White markings were drawn last Tones Here we see subtle tones of diluted ink beneath the undiluted black rim of a beetle's wing. tonal Ink layers The wings of this beetle were drawn in layers using black and white ink on pale gray paper. o r being ruined as fountain pens would be under the same pressure. Each layer of of the drying droplet dome the drawing was left to dry before adding more. When using dip pens. sharp. breaking. they splay to make thick o r double lines. clean strokes.

and bellyflop off the waterside. there is no obligation to prepare a quill. Try to hold the whole posture in your mind's eye. and a large drawing book or plenty of paper Use masking tape to secure pages against the wind. draw what the bird is doing. Study them before drawing. so pick a spot where other people can keep them entertained. Watch their heavy feathered bodies flap. Take no more than ten seconds to draw each one and make lots of drawings. It teaches confidence and focus through intensive repetition. Pack plenty of tissue around a bottle of calligraphy or acrylic ink. Focus on the geese. Cover a sheet.38 ANIMALS Capturing Character GEESE ARE EXCELLENT SUBJECTS to draw when practicing the first use of pen and ink. Focus on it. test your limits. It happens that goose feathers also provide artists with the best type of quills. touch the bottle's rim to drain the excess. Illustrating this exercise on Oxford Port Meadow. and there is no "wrong. Geese are nosy birds. MATERIALS NEEDED Look for a bird expressing a simple posture. waddle. steel nibs are fine. be bold and press firmly. You cannot break the nib. Experiment. make another one. and boldly plunge into your drawing. Dip your pen in ink. and be brave. Posture ." If you don't like a stroke. not on your drawing. I covered eleven sheets in sixty quick drawings—in less than an hour. Take a cup and water for diluting a range of tones. Cover your drawing book pages in speedy responses to the geese and try to capture each bird in as few lines as possible. Quick drawing trains you to see what is most important about a subject and to mark only its most essential expression. to absorb blots when drawing. Empathize. That said. Attempt with a loose hand to capture their posture and outline. and quickly draw around it using only three or four strokes.

look among the birds for more complicated actions such as shaking off water. Use more lines than before to express these. and don't worry about mechanical facts or accuracy. Avoid detail unless really tempted by a close-up visit Fluctuate the pressure of your pen in response to how you know the bird would feel if you touched it. CAPTURING CHARACTER Texture Gradually allow yourself more lines to describe the texture of each bird as well as its posture and action. draw the feeling of what you see. . flapping. running. Again.39 Action With growing confidence. and diving.

Now it will make a pale line. engaged in his and everyone else's business. and personality.40 ANIMALS Sleeping Dogs R A S WAS A GREAT CHARACTER. Dip the nib quickly again into water and again drain it. and a tissue for blotting drawn lines that appear too dark. Then dip the nib quickly into a glass of water and drain the excess again. These drawings are not an analysis of his anatomy or breed but the expression of his satisfied comfort in a deep sleep after a night out on the together with a glass of water for diluting tones on the nib. form. The only time he remained still was when he was sleeping. MAKING A PALE LINE To make a pale line.34-37). Ras Curled Up Asleep "Capturing the true character of a cherished companion is best achieved with objective determination rather than sentimental shyness. Sleeping animals present the artist with ideal opportunities to study their texture. and even then he twitched and stretched in dreams. and drain the excess by touching the nib against the rim of the bottle. first dip your pen in ink. Make a test sheet to discover your control of diluting on the nib." . a dip pen and ink of your choice (see pp. a d o g w h o w a s a l w a y s town. This will give a medium-gray line. For this class you will need one oblivious dog. your drawing book.

to emphasize how he is curled up. in bold layers. alter the pressure and moisture of your line in response to howyouknow your dog feels when you ruffle itscoat. ignoring all detail. . Here. see how the animal's posture determines its whole shape. ears.It is essential when drawing any subject (even something abstract) to know how it feels andtoemulate this with your line.41 DRAWING YOUR DOG Be bold in this exercise. this time to create a line a little darker in tone. 3 Gradually introduce darker tones. second thoughts may be different Changing your mind is a positive aspect o f seeing and thinking. Layers o f thoughts can bring a drawing alive. Here I marked the features of Ras's head. Trust your intuition. and the shadows in his coat. W i t h pale lies. Character is better captured drawing quickly with confidence than w o r k i n g slowly. I added ink to Ras's nose. Remain focused on the whole dog and. Then I immediately rebalanced the drawing with lines around his hind quarters. Then. SLEEPING DOGS 1 Fix your eyes at the center of the dog. add more detail. D o not go back over lines you are pleased with—doing so dulls their lively freshness. First lines are first thoughts. To add texture. tail. 2 Reload your pen with ink. quickly draw what you see. c o n c e r n e d a b o u t detail.

THE ELONGATION AND BUOYANCY of a group of turtles is fascinating . they stretch and paddle. as if caught in a camera freeze-frame. A perfect subject for the beginner.Turtles to observe. swinging their limbs and shells with a slow circular movement. turtles often pause unexpectedly. offering plenty of time for the artist to draw the pose. Beyond the glass wall of the aquarium.

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. balance.Dry Birds THESE ARE THE ARTICULATED BONES o f a k i w i a n d a h o u s e - martin drawn in a museum using a steel pen. With speed. and sharp. and water. India ink. I made repeated studies of the housemartin to discover its mechanism of flight. Beginning with very pale tones. weightlessness of the kiwi. dry. I sought to capture the form. I darkened lines as each drawing progressed.

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We collect. Classifications were set in367copperengravings. and texture. the punctuation of space with structure and mass. and to ornament our lives. and the Acanthus spinosus constant but exhilarating struggle to make a living image feel right. season. B A S I L I U SBESLER when botanists founded new work upon the direct study of plants.Plants and Gardens W E SHARE THIS PLANET with the more ancient. Botanical illustration is a precisely defined and scientific art. Patrons funded the breeding of decorative.Morethan 1. to the proliferation of floral designs with which we have dressed ourselves and furnished our homes for centuries. After Here Aconthus spinosus is combined with forget-me-nots and-a-half centuries of intensive observation. and the drawn pages ofthesame name. Both embrace the anticipation of evolving shape. and hybridize them for our sustenance and pleasure. From its history there is one overriding lesson to be learned: the importance of looking and seeing with our own eyes.000 species of plants are depicted life-size drawn. Rich owners of private gardens commissioned large-format florilegiums commissioned the volume to document his private garden to immortalize their personal taste and power of acquisition. robust. nurture. Botanic gardens were established and expanded. 1613 187/8x153/4in(480 x 400 mm) BASILIUS BESLER . —-the largest and most influential botanical book of the early Natural scientists accompanied explorers to document unknown finds. The revolution came in the 1530s. Early European illustrators were trapped within dogma that was determined by ancient scholarship. the microscope was refined to unfold yet another world. Fledgling years Botanist and apothecary who compiled the Hortus Eystettensis of scientific research bore manifold explosions of knowledge in a fever of discovery. PriceBishopof Eichstatt specimens. Medieval knowledge was not gained by the first-hand observation of life but by reading. Plants seventeenth century. on which our lives depend. shape. an There are close parallels between the acts of gardening and drawing. color. Chapters are arranged by out. we now have laid before us fourto show how well their colours complement each other infinite wealth of material to explore. to catalog our knowledge. and beauty. He sent boxes of plants to Nuremburgburned with the urgency and excitement of explaining every plant's form. we see very different cultural visions of plants and gardens and use pencils and plants to learn the pictorial values of space. as opposed to only herbal. We draw them to celebrate their beauty and range. Later. infinitely vivid. Conrad von Gemmingen. It was published plain in 1611 and withhand-paintedplates in poured off ships returning from the New World and were eagerly collected and 1613. manipulations of light and shade. and diverse kingdom of plants. form. Plants are the principal inspiration of the decorative arts—from Roman Corinthian columns crowned with carved leaves of the acanthus. where a number of uncredited artistsd r e wthem for Besler. In this chapter. and focus.

insect-ravaged. and seeds conventionally a p p e a r o n o n e plate. s u c h as w e see here in Bauer's Protea nitida. Each plant must b e clearly distinguished from its closest relative.48 PLANTS AND GARDENS THE SCIENTIFIC VALUE OF A BOTANICAL DRAWING lies i n its Botanical Studies were specimens that often refused to stay still. or that were diseased. W i t h bright F R A N Z BAUER An Austrian artist who trained at the Schonbrunn Imperial Gardens in Vienna. He has made the spatial and physical relationships in this drawing all the more real by placing a single. They are counted among the most accomplished 18th-century botanical artists. o p e n i n g a n d c l o s i n g i n the w a r m t h a n d light of the studio. It is likely Bauer would have studied these under a microscope. Outline Bauer prepared a pencil outline before laying in fleshy succulent hues and tones of watercolor. B e h i n d detailed. T h e rest of u s are free to d r a w as w e w i s h . M a c k i n t o s h e x p r e s s e s the f o l d e d petals of a broken rose b u d so delicately w e can sense the perfume. and meticulous precision. The King was then establishing the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. leaves. o p t i m i s m ." Her slipper orchid s h o w s that botanical drawing must often resolve the challenge of its subject's p r o d u c i n g parts in different seasons — r o o t s . measured drawings. stems. petal tip over a lower leaf Protea nitida 201/4 x141/4in (513 x 362 mm) FRANZ BAUER 1796 . flowers. Here. Stella Ross-Craig said of the need to d r a w from a dried herbarium plant "I could make it live again. Botanical art c o n c e a l s the challenge of its m a k i n g . detail. Sir Joseph Banks. and wilted. naturalist explorer and advisor to King George III invited Bauer to London in 1 7 9 0 . Dissections Across the lower part of this drawing we can see dissections of seed pods and petals. subtle union of beauty. delicate. and Franz Bauer and his brother Ferdinand were employed there to draw specimens. fruit. Light in this drawing is given by the paleness of the paper showing between washes of darker tones.

49 C H A R L E S RENNIE MACKINTOSH Scottish a r c h i t e c t d e s i g n e r painter. a m o n g o t h e r s .000 Kew to archive accessible t o d a y v i a t h e I n t e r n e t of o n British flora. Closer to fiction can come together perfectly.286 studies for her book Drawings of British Plants. A s m a n y of her drawings are kept G a r d e n s . K e w . 1970 x 81/4 in ( 3 2 5 x 2 1 0 m m ) STELLA ROSS-CRAIG .7 3 in 3 1 p a r t s . Pencil lines cling to." This line drawing is one of 1. a n d f o u n d e r o f t h e G l a s g o w S c h o o l o f A r t M a c k i n t o s h ' s flair h a d an e n o r m o u s i n f l u e n c e o n t h e a v a n t . S h e also o f thousands o f contributed an drawings. is r e c o g n i z e d as tne m o s t c o m p l e t e a n d i m p o r t a n t work 3. BOTANICAL STUDIES Lines and shadows This lush. and follow shadow. and speed depends upon the immediate perception of the essential characteristics of the plant. p u b l i s h e d 1 9 4 8 . as at trained botanical artist Ross-Craig Swift lines The drawing was planned in pencil and then overworked with a lithographic pen. Curtis's Botanical Magazine. imagination. G u s t a v K l i m t In his r e t i r e m e n t Mackintosh m a d e n u m e r o u s inventive pencil a n d w a t e r c o l o r d r a w i n g s o f plants. Ross-Craig said of her work "Plants that wither rapidly present a very difficult problem to which there is only one answer—speed. Line Drawing of Cypripedium calceolus L c.. sensual pencil drawing is later works. and perfect coordination of hand and eye.. H e r Drawings of British Plants. a n d he inspired. Rose 1894 103/4 x 83/4 in ( 2 7 5 x 2 2 1 mm) CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH STELLA ROSS-CRAIG A j o i n e d t h e staff a t t h e R o y a l B o t a n i c G a r d e n s . found among Mackintosh's than reality. L o n d o n in 1 9 2 9 . it is small and discreet. and it shows how design.g a r d e in G e r m a n y a n d A u s t r i a . and observation the nuance and contour of every in one image.

and Nanha. and calligraphy are brought together to hold the sacred names of prophets and the 99 beautiful names of God. . Drawing. and attention to detail are all shared with medieval European manuscript drawings. the sumptuous petals permeated with prayer and wisdom. uniform focus. and miraculous growth. in miniature. They used a fine brush to lay pigment over a line drawing. in the early 16th century. Upright shallow perspectives. which he personally created near Kabul. is remembered in the pages of his journal. paper is brimming with the beauty and celebration of nature. 1590 85/8 x55/8in (219 x 1 4 4 mm) BISHNDAS AND NANHA Bright pigment These pages were illuminated by Mughal artists in the late 16th century. Bishndas was probably responsible for the overall design. anticipating their view.50 PLANTS AND GARDENS Jeweled Gardens the Middle East we find exquisite stylization of form and upright formality in pictorial space. The first Mughal Emperor Babur's Garden of Fidelity (Bagh-e Vaja). Below. Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity c. Opposite is the Rose of Mohammed. a notable portrait painter drew the faces. The white of the page shines through the brilliant color. Babur directs his gardeners in the design and planting of this quartered chahar bagh. painting. By Muslim tradition. Afghanistan. Envoys chatter outside the gate. roses took their form in a bead of perspiration on the brow of Mohammed as he passed through his heavenly journey. fluctuations in scale. urgent attentive human activity. Every fiber of AMONG DRAWINGS FROM BISHNDAS A N D N A N H A Little is known of these Mughal painters who were related as uncle and nephew and commissioned to illustrate the pages of Babur's journal.

It is n o w k e p t in Border The elegant border of this drawing was mode with a pen and ruler It cleverly compresses and defines the composition. look closely and you will see words written in gold fluttering over the form of the flower. and how the shape has been repeated freehand. Note how each bud is essentially the same shape. The Rose of Mohammed 1708 9 1 / 2 x 61/2 in ( 2 4 0 x 1 6 5 mm) FROM THE TURKISH M A N U S C R I P T AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH . However.c e n t u r y Turkish manuscnpt a book of religious e t h i c s w r i t t e n in the O r i e n t a l C o l l e c t i o n s of Berlin.AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH This is a detail o f a page from a n 1 8 t h . Stylized motif A fine brush has been used throughout this drawing to apply inks and watercolors. t h e Staatsbibliothek zu Arabic. fragmenting its detail in a whisper of prayers. so that overlapping petals and stems give an impression of fulfillment and abundance. G e r m a n y . Sacred words The central rose is more solid than any other on the page. The physical anatomy of the rosebud has been studied and translated into a repeated stylized motif.

52

PLANTS AND GARDENS

Fast Trees
IN CONTRAST TO THE QUIET, formal detail of other drawings in this chapter, these powerful fast trees enact the actions of plants. Each tree reaches out and holds its landscape with dynamism and pulse. In both drawings we find testament to the inexorable energy of growth. Rembrandt expresses a delicate quickness. Gentle lines draw a warm breeze through this remote wooded garden. Rustling in a loose foliage of soft marks, his pen evokes the weight of abundant activity on this late summer's day. Mondrian's arch of scratching branches is drawn with such force it will always be alive. We can still feel his hand storming across the paper. Set within a frame of smudged landscape, the tree possesses a musical agitation. This characteristic will increase in the artist's later abstract work. Here, we see a punctuated ordering of space. Sharp branches cut out negative shapes of winter sky.

R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter; etcher; and draftsman. Rembrandt's prolific output comprises oil paintings of historical and religious subjects together with group and self- portraits. His emotive etchings and pen and ink drawings (see also p. 174) are great resources for artists learning to understand the potential of these media.

Horizon

Pen and ink lines describing foliage also tell

us the directions of sunlight and wind. An arc crossing the bottom of the drawing from one side to the other supports the scene and separates us from the landscape beyond. Compare Rembrandt's arc to that of Mondrian's. and note the similar treatment of low horizons in both works emphasizing the height and dominance of trees.

Cottage Among Trees 1648-50 63/4 x121/8in ( I 7 I x 308 mm) R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN

53

FAST TREES

PIET

MONDRIAN

Atmosphere Here we see how shapes of negative space are as important as the physical subject they enclose (see pp.58-59). Mondrian has again lightly dragged his chalk on its side to evoke a wet depth of atmosphere. These passive gray marks contrast with the assertive tension of the tree.

Dutch Pure abstract painter preoccupied w i t h line and plane relationships. W i t h increasing austerity, Mondrian banished t h e subject from his drawings, in his later w o r k he also banished space, composing visual h a r m o n i e s using only straight lines a n d flat planes o f black, w h i t e , gray, o r p r i m a r y color.

Winter ground Short vertical marks along thebottomof this drawing reveal the length oftheblackchalk Mondrian used. Rubbed onitsside,itroughly blocks in the ground. Thecrudeeconomy of line is all we need tofeelthecold, wet, unwelcoming quality ofthiswinterearth.

Branches and trunk Lines shaping the branches of the tree are built up in layers. To make the trunk more dense, the artist has rubbed and smudged preliminary marks with his fingers before firmly overdrawing with new lines. Solid black lines are achieved by pressing the chalk hard. When used lightly, it shows the texture of the paper. Tree: Study for the Grey 1911 23 x 335/8 in ( 5 8 4 x 8 5 5 m m ) Tree

PIET MONDRIAN

54

PLANTS AND GARDENS

Graphite and Erasers
GRAPHITE, FROM THE G R E E K word

USING GRAPHITE
This drawing illustrates a range of achieved with graphite pencils of different grades.

graphein

Modern pencils are graded from 9H (hard and pale) to 9B (black and soft). Graphiteclay sticks are also available, together with a powder form. All possess a natural sheen and are erasable to a varying degree. Graphite drawings smudge easily, so fixative, a form of varnish, can be used to hold a drawn surface in place. It is applied as a fine mist from an aerosol can, or from a bottle using a diffuser. For the beginner, ordinary hairspray is an effective and cheaper alternative.

(to write), is a soft and brittle carbon. It was first mined in Cumbria, England, in 1 5 6 4 , and was initially used in small, pure pieces bound in lengths of string. Pencils as we know them—with their slender wood casing and "lead" of graphite—were invented in France in 1794 by Nicolas-Jaques Conte. He discovered that milled graphite mixed with clay and water, press-molded, and baked to a high temperature produces a harder and paler medium than graphite alone.

3B pencil A range of mark and textures can be achieved with a 3B pencil when you vary its pressure, speed, and direction, as this detail shows.

MATERIALS
Here is a selection of 14 items to illustrate a basic range of pencils, graphite sticks, sharpeners, erasers, and fixative.
1. AND 2. HB AND 3B PENCILS: It is unnecessary to possess every grade of pencil. HB, the central and most common grade, is perfect for making delicate lines. 3B gives a blacker tone. A great variety of effects can be achieved with just these two. 3. WATER-SOLUBLE PENCIL Effective for atmospheric drawing, but be aware of how watery tones can dull the impact of the line. 4. AND 5. MECHANICAL PENCIL Thick or fine leads are made in a range of grades. They are particularly useful because they do not require a sharpener 6. ROUND SOLID GRAPHITE PENCIL: Excellent for large-scale drawing, producing thick bold lines. A range of grades can be honed with a craft knife or sharpener 7. THICK GRAPHITE STICK: For large-scale drawing. Graded soft, medium, and hard. It crushes to produce graphite powder 8. SQUARE GRAPHITE STICK: Useful for making broad, sweeping marks in large-scale drawing. If worn and rounded, the stick can be snapped into pieces to regain the sharp, square end. 9. CRAFT KNIFE AND BLADES: Handles are sold in two sizes to fit large or small blades, and blades are sold in a range of shapes. Perfect for sharpening pencils to a long point, to cut lines in paper or to remove areas. 10. PENCIL SHARPENER: Makes a uniform point. Keep one in your pocket for drawing outside the studio, together with an envelope for shavings.

HB and 5B Layers of tone have been built up withHBand5Bpencils. Softer pencils require less pressure to make a mark, revealing the texture of the paper surface. It is important to keep the point of the pencil sharp with either a craft knife or a sharpener.

55

ERASING AND FIXING
Erasers can be used t o blend and s o f t e n lines, o r t o r e m o v e altogether. Fixative them prevents

GRAPHITE AND ERASERS

s m u d g i n g a n d s e c u r e s lines.

Using fixative You can use fixative while drawing to hold the definition of lines you wish to gently fade but not remove entirely, for which you would use an eraser.

11. P L A S T I C E R A S E R : Avoid cheap colored erasers that may stain drawings with grease and dye. White brands are available in soft and hard versions.

12.

P U T T Y RUBBER:

W a r m it in your hand before use. It is excellent for removing powdery materials, and for making crisp sweeps of light across a delicate pencil drawing

13. D I F F U S E R : Helleborus corsicus (Corsican hellebore) fixative, or to spray mists of ink.

56

PLANTS AND GARDENS

Cropping and Composition
M A N Y STUDENTS WILL START a d r a w i n g i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e

that its skin nearly touches the boundary. The meaning of the same drawing changes simply by its relationship to the space it occupies. The size of any subject, its placement on the page, the size of the page, and its overall proportion are all discrete and essential aspects of successful picture-making. Before you begin to draw, think carefully about where to place your subject. Are you are happy with your paper? If not, change it; add more, take some away, or turn it around. Do not just accept what you are given, adapt it to what you need.

paper. Focused on the shape and detail of their subject, they remain happily unaware that there is, or should be, any relationship between what they are drawing and the surface they are drawing it on. The paper is only paper, and the troublesome subject floats somewhere in the expanse of it. However, a single fig drawn in the middle of a large, empty square of paper gives quite a different impression from the same fig drawn on such an intimately small square

CHOOSING A VIEW

A Single Fig

"The size, shape, and orientation of the paper are so integral to the composition that they determine the impact and meaning of the drawing."

bottom-left t o top-right. Touching the edge When the subject o f a drawing touches one edge of the paper it attaches t o it visually.57 THE VIEWFINDER T h e s e pencil drawings o f figs d e m o n s t r a t e different crops and compositions. The angle of the fruit together with dark shadow (top left) and bright light(bottom right) suggest a diagonal division across the whole drawing. and lines describing shadows cast by the fruit . they establish a tension and unity with the paper. When subjects touch two or more edges. spaces between things are as important as the things themselves. Here the left fig is attached to. This drawing hasbeencropped to emphasize space between thefruit. Space as the subject Inallpictures. A card with a small rectangle cut out o f it makes a useful viewfinder C l o s e o n e e y e t o look through the hole. its stem and shadow framing a white center. running corner t o corner. and therefore apparently suspended from. t h e n m o v e t h e c a r d t o e x p l o r e different views. its illumination. CROPPING AND COMPOSITION Off-center and diagonal Here I held my viewfinder so the fig appeared upper-left in the space. U s e it as a starting point. the uppermost edge of the drawing. a device to help you decide what t o draw.O u r focus is on the white cloth supporting the figs. as also shown here.

Remember that plants do move! Therefore it is best to complete your drawing in one sitting if possible. dynamic. but if the artist does. Draw a complete shape Map outward from the center Erase and adjust lines until correct . and a fresh page in your drawing book. which is shown in the three steps below. this ensures a consistent view. In your own version. WHERE TO START Arrange your plant and paper so you can look back and forth by barely moving your head. not leaves. unified. and so on. you will need a similar large-leaved plant. a sharp H B pencil. and a role to play. third.58 PLANTS AND GARDENS Negative Space UNCONSCIOUSLY WE ASSESS spatial relationships all the time to guide ourselves through the world. then added a second shape. a foundation stone in picture-making. remember to draw only space. Viewers appreciating a finished image may not see shapes of space. position. tone. and engaging. Negative space is the simple key to getting positive shape right. Follow these from left to right and see how I began with one complete shape between two parts of a leaf. an eraser. Unfamiliar shapes of negative space reveal the real shape of a positive subject. The drawing opposite is of the uppermost leaves of a potted fig tree. fourth. erasing and adjusting lines until itlooked right. their subject and composition will become more real. It is an astonishingly simple device that many artists use and I strongly recommend. Looking at negative space overrides the problem of drawing what you know. It helps to start at the center and map outward. shapes of air cut out and defined by the physicality of our environment? When we look into the branches of a tree. In following this class. But how often do we look at the air between things.The box opposite isolates an area. do we see myriad distinct and unique shapes of daylight or do we just see branches? Why as artists should we look at the air? Every space in a picture has a shape. rather than what you see in front of you.

59

Here I drew only spaces, adding one to another until the leaves were revealed. Besides looking at negative space, there are two other useful things to do when a drawing feels wrong but you cannot see why: look at it in a mirror or turn it upside down. errors and suggest changes.

Spaces between leaves

Either view will

NEGATIVE SPACE

Fig Tree
WALKING IN THE ALPUJARRAS in A n d a l u c i a ,

Spain, I drew a bare fig tree clinging to the wall of an almond grove; a perfect subject for seeing negative space. I marked its essential frame of large branches first, frequently erasing lines and changing my mind until the balance felt right.

S a l v i a , RIBES, CLEMATIS, Allium, Passiflora, and Acanthus

Summer Flowers

Alchemilla,

drawn with an H pencil by observing the

negative spaces between the stems, petals, and leaves. I arranged the flowers on a sheet of paper in a cool r o o m and rapidly sketched a composition. Then I put them in water, taking the stems out one at a time to draw.

.

interfolding points of detail with areas of loose suggestion. gathering less distinct information on the way. If an artist changes the pace of their line and focus of their attention. Compare changes of pace and focus here to the flatter finish of Summer Flowers (see pp. . they emulate our experience of seeing.Acanthus Spinosus As we LOOK AROUND. 62-63). our eyes travel and adjust from one point of focus to another. Excessive detail leaves no space for the eye to rest or imagination to wander. We never see everything at once.

.

European conventions of pictorial perspective have lost their monopoly on seeing. each VICTOR BALTARD . composers. At the core of their practice. designers. Since the first flowering of Modernism in the early 20th century. and architects of ancient Greece who first pursued the formula for "divine proportion. and from West Facade of the Church of St Augustin. with gray and brown watercolor wash. fine artists. Computer programs allow the virtual drawing of ideas. once there. It was the mathematicians. they have the Golden Section. filmmakers. It is the focus of practical class in this chapter. architects and designers can imaginatively "climb inside" three-dimensional space and. made by the architect himself. we find the most recent steps in the evolution of graphic language. to 20th-century film fantasy. VICTOR BALTARD French architect employed by the city of Paris. add and subtract ideas.Architecture I N THE CONTEMPORARY PRACTICES of architecture. 74-75).The church is still in use today. Architects have been fine-tuning their specialized branch of drawing for centuries. Augustin. philosophers. the formula for perfection spread through Europe. Perhaps in the sheer planes of some of our greatest modern buildings it is finding its clearest expression. mass. Baltard designed the Church of St. drawing plans around themselves within a program as opposed to on a flat sheet of paper. and sound. invaluable to understand and apply when you choose. and in the 19th century it was given the name the Golden Section. the device that has since governed most of our picture-making (sec pp.This is a pencil drawing. from political commentary to musical abstraction. Linear perspective is a marvelous device. which was the first church in the capital to be built entirely of metal and then clad in stone. time. they also have a diagrammatic language for communicating plans to builders. coupled with the importance of exercizing your imagination. architects. Through the animation of the screen. Besides sketches of first thoughts and polished drawings of the finished look for clients." reflecting the eye's love of unity in difference. and writers have been breaking away from traditional forms of representation to seek new expressions of shape. and computer game imaging. Among the drawings of this chapter we look from 17th-century ecclesiastical calm. balance. was preserved into the Renaissance where it became a foundation stone for thinking and creativity From 15thcentury Italy. film-set design. space. This harmony. Yet the pursuit of divine proportion and harmony remains. to help them create new form. Paris 1871-74 the child's view to the infinity of the vanishing point. It was also during the Renaissance that the architect Brunelleschi invented linear perspective. of the west facade of St Augustin. which can be clearly seen in ancient Greek architecture. Since Picasso and Braque's revolution of Cubism in around 1907.

Below it. a three-dimensional drawing made with wires and weights. Hawksmoor's drawing is both a plan and an evocation. embodying a massive investment of ideas. materials. Lines define structure while washes suggest light and atmosphere. 1711-12 NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR . describe a finished look to a client. Hampton Court Palace. Drawings underpin every great human-made structure like hidden linear ghosts at their core. and labor. Three aspects This subtle and sophisticated drawing made in pen and wash displays three distinct aspects of Hawksmoor's baptistry. The photograph opposite shows his studio hung with metal pendulums. relative levels. Finished surface On the left the finished surface of the building is given depth and emphasis by immaculate vertical and horizontal brush strokes of shadow. evoke presence. testing gravity to calculate the inverted shapes of domes. Architects draw for many reasons: to visualize ideas. and Castle Howard. calculate function. Oxford. Together they explain how interior structure and space define exterior form and shape. and the shapes of interior domes and apses. Blenheim Palace. and six London churches. and later an assistant to Vanbrugh. Pillars and floor At the base of the drawing a compass-drawn plan tilted downward through 90 degrees illustrates the arrangement of pillars around a central circular floor. Gaudi's fluid architecture grew up through many kinds of drawing. Cut-away interior On the right a section cut through the center of the building reveals material thicknesses. St Paul's Baptistry c.68 ARCHITECTURE Master Builders EVERY NEW BUILDING. densely layered lines in mists of color weave the presence of the expected building into shape. NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR One of Britain's "three great" Baroque architects (along with Sir Christopher Wren and Sir John Vanbrugh). pilasters. he also worked on St Paul's Cathedral. A student of Wren's. structure. marks the end of a long journey from the first few marks the architect made on a sheet of paper. We see the modeled detail of Corinthian columns. and balance. Hawksmoor established his reputation with university and church architecture including All Souls College. and ultimately to show builders what to do. and an inscribed entablature.

To the right isawatercolordrawing thought to havebeenmade over a photograph ofthemodelabove. This sculptural drawingenvisionsthe finished crypt glowingandethereal as if caught in thelightof red morning sun. Gaudi air than on paper. Guell Crypt of its at the Time Construction c. 1910 24x181/4( 6 1 0 x 4 7 5mm) A N T O N I O GAUDI . Gaudi's cathedral in Barcelona.69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt c. embellishment. churches. Wire and watercolor three-dimensional preferred to calculate Above is a drawing form in the made withlinkedwires and weights. 1900 ANTONIO GAUDI ANTONIO GAUDI Visionary Catalan architect. light. and apartment homes are distinguished by their Their and Flowering curves of stone or concrete are often encrusted with Gaudi was inspired by medieval and oriental art. The Art Nouveau movement. and his love of music. unique organic manipulation of high shapes.

before cascading into a riot of line and sound below. Across the top and center right of the image w e perceive an almost recognizable architectural plan. Contemporary musicians commonly collaborate with artists by interpreting images as sound.70 ARCHITECTURE The Order of Sound B O T H OF THESE VISIONARY DRAWINGS o c c u p y a s l e n d e r . corridors. upright pictorial space. Libeskind studied music before transferring to architecture. and rooms. and dotted lines. The architect and musician Daniel Libeskind has drawn a stampeding cacophany of airborne architectural detail.223). flat boards. and the spaces between his windows and turrets are the visual equivalent of pauses in h i s m u s i c c o m p o s i t i o n s for p i a n o (see also Bussotti. been a natural affinity between the visual rhythms of pictures and the audible rhythms of music. installations. Visual rhythms In the lower half of this drawing architectural language has broken loose: escaped and transformed into an image of rebellious pleasure. Floor plan This drawing has been made with a rapidograph. Floor space appears divided by discernible walls. Arctic Flowers 1980 DANIEL LIBESKIND . We can imagine how a musician might interpret this drawing by looking at the abstract visual rhythms of masses composed of long straight poles. short curved poles. There has always DANIEL LIBESKIND A Polish American architect of international acclaim. and exhibitions of his drawings. Both men used rulers and pens to carefully and slowly construct their compositions. We can see. theater sets. and arched dotted lines depict the radius of doors. p. Libeskind's numerous commissions include concert halls and museums. while the composer Erik Satie has made an enclosure of quiet order and grace. Libeskind begins quietly in the upper space of his drawing. and in a sense hear. a refillable pen that feeds a constant supply of ink through a fine tubular nib. He also contributed to plans for the rebuilding of the World Trade Center site in New York. such a rapport in both of these drawings. He also produces urban and landscape designs. Satie draws quietly throughout.

lived a l o n e . the perimeter Composition Look how well this drawingfitsand resonates with the upright.narrowshape of its paper. a conventional dip or fountain pen.H i s witty.50. Satie collaborated w i t h hisfriends J e a n C o c t e a u a n d P i c a s s o . and ink on a fragment folded brown paper—a of everyday happened material of scrap that to be at hand.ERIK SATIE F r e n c h pianist and c o m p o s e r for t h e piano. Onpp. minimalist s c o r e s scandalized a u d i e n c e s with o r c h e s t r a t i o n s f o r t h e foghorn and typewriter. dressed eccentrically. andfouredges of the paper tothecompositionand impact animage. and founded his o w n church.Edges are how are of orientation. 1 8 9 3 77/8 x 51/2 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 4 0 mm) ERIK SATIE . o f which he was the sole m e m b e r Parcel paper Satie has drawn this fantasy hotel using a ruler. Compare the even and and the shape wall to the elegantly stylized order of the many windows of arrangement of details and the shape of the wall in Babur's Garden of Fidelity on p. a n d ballet. effectively additional lines in a work.56—57 we discussed important the shape. They definespaceand pictorial balance. H e p e r f o r m e d in cabarets. Eastern influence The upright image Eastern is reminiscent and medieval of Middle pictorial space and subject of this European drawing. Hotel de la Suzonnieres c. theater.

The lower-left section of the building appears relatively pale against a darker sky. painter. antlike mortals might have speculated upon the universe. ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE French architectural theorist. This is the work of an architectural theoretician. Boullee's monolithic apparition was drawn as a monument to Sir Isaac Newton. and the reverse is true on the right. made in 1926.96. enter the long-shadowed architecture of imaginary worlds. Boullee lived in Paris. and taught at t h e A c a d e m i e d'Architecture. Within it. This shift makes the cenotaph appear three-dimensional. We glide over exquisitely drawn wastelands of damage and abandonment. Art director Erich Kettlehut's vertiginous design for the city of a slavelike populace had a future influence on movies such as Blade Runner. Newton's Cenotaph 1784 153/4 x 25 in ( 4 0 2 x 635 m m ) ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE . the ominous globe exists only as a series of drawings. cylinders. and dramatic lighting. arched vaults. Among preparations for Fritz Langs film Metropolis. spheres.72 ARCHITECTURE T H E S E T H R E E HIGHLY DETAILED DRAWINGS Future Fictions invite us to soaring above normal life. experiencing a fascinating conflict between curiosity and desolation. His celebrated imaginary buildings are characterized by pyramids. Light illusions This pen-and-wash drawing shows a subtle application of the principles of illumination demonstrated with an egg on p. we find other Utopian visions Paul Nobles epic drawing summons an imperfect and disturbing township where ruin and activity are equal and strange. and draftsman.

and are Graphite shapes Nobson Central isoneof a series of very large graphite drawings of the spoil and detritus of Nobson Newtown. and white ink on brown-gray paper. Kettlehut and his c o . Its sheerscaleengulfs the viewer and demands based time and patience to on letters and in some beread. Nobson Central 9 ft 1 0 in x 1 3 f t 2 in (3 x 4 m ) PAUL N O B L E 1998-99 . Kettlehut drew using a fine and relatively dry brush dipped in black.m a k e r In t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f Metropolis. FUTURE FICTIONS Brush and ink This is a dramatic drawing from a film that shaped the history of world cinema.73 ERICH KETTLEHUT Influential film a r t director. draftsman. and m o d e l . used forced perspective camera t e c h n i q u e s t o amplify t h e m a g n i t u d e o f buildings in relation t o human characters. Nobson political visions of humanity Newtown. Fritz Lang's Metropolis c. intensely detailed graphite drawings explaining and questioning t h e geography.Building shapes are works can be read as text. and morality o f an invented place called His satires exhibited w o r l d w i d e . together with c i n e m a t o g r a p h e r Karl Freund. architecture.a r t director O t t o Hunte. Working on toned paper such as this gives an artist greater scope for dramatic lighting effects than if they work on white paper. gray. 1926 ERICH KETTLEHUT PAUL N O B L E British c o n t e m p o r a r y artist who creates m o n u m e n t a l . mythology.

and inventions— essential reading for inquiring minds. Note how architectural features conform to lines and how human figures diminish in size toward thevanishingpoint. this perspective is often an imagined bird's-eye view in which details are mapped according to logic and importance rather than how they might appear in real life. Here Leonardo provides a superb example of a single vanishing point. It can be applied to any subject. All forms of perspective are of equal value. linear perspective is distinct from more ancient systems practiced in the East. Piranesi an example of two. but is most easily seen and understood in pictures of buildings and interiors. In his notebooks. See how the thread corresponds to each converging line. Single-point perspective Tie a thread to a pin. found at the center of all converging lines. Press the pin into Leonardo's vanishing point. scientists. It is also distinguished from aerial perspective (see pp. observations. inventors. Invented by Italian artist and architect Brunelleschi in 1413 (late in the history of art). Pull the thread taut and rotate it slowly above the drawing. Study of Perspective Adoration of the for the Magi 1481 61/2 x111/2in (165 x 290 mm) LEONARDO DA VINCI . and age eight. We use it to structure illusions of depth. 206-07). Sometimes shared with Naive artists.74 ARCHITECTURE Pathways of Sight LINEAR PERSPECTIVE (also called vanishing-point perspective) is a simple device for calculating the relative size of things in pictorial space. LEONARDO DA VINCI One of the greatest artists. and those of Naive artists and children. I contribute the child's perspective. Leonardo recorded constant streams of ideas. and thinkers ever to have lived.

Scale Our farmhouse my experience was in the woods. Children are uninhibited and problems with one element being obscured by another rarely arise. Mark these points with your pin and follow the converging lines of the drawing by rotating your thread. at the top of each lateral column base.SARAH SIMBLET I made this drawing (at age 8) in response to a local bookstore's request for children to draw their village. Breamore Village. which I saw from home every day. England 1980 9 x 16 in (228 x 405 mm) S A R A H SIMBLET GIOVANNI BATTISTA PIRANESI Italian artist. Note the rather large rabbits and pheasants the hills. issues of scale when making room for important their story. a points in logical narrative of memories. This drawing Young children typically maps ignore on and understanding of the nearby village. and theoretical writing strongly influenced neoclassicism. architect. . It shows how children usually map large scenes in flat layers one above the other. 1740 5 1 / 2 x 83/8 in (141 x 212 mm) G I O V A N N I B A T T I S T A PIRANESI points are located on either side of the drawing. Two-point perspective Sunlight through this colonnade a great example of two-point perspective. Lightly marked illuminates vanishing Two Courtyards c. New Forest. and designer Piranesi's prolific architectural drawings. visionary and practical understanding of ancient Rome. including all they recall about the subject.

This ensures that the second rectangle aligns with the shape and 4 Draw four short lines to connect the four corners of the two rectangles. Study these pages first before embarking on this lesson. Extend each dotted line to the edge of your drawing. Erase the dotted construction lines. you will amplify the illusion of distance. this is your vanishing point. Each line should pass through one corner of the rectangle. Leonardo began with a grid of many lines within which he invented his scene. Note that if you place large structures in the foreground and smaller ones closer to your vanishing point.) . Draw four dotted lines radiating out from the vanishing point. try composing your own space. corresponding to a single vanishing point. Piranesi planned his drawing with only the essential lines needed. imagine. In contrast. then follow the ten steps below. This lesson shows you how to make a simple illusion of space defined by two boxes and three flat boards. You have completed your first box. draw a horizon line across your paper Mark a spot on the horizon line. This is where we will begin.98 for an important note on oscillation. discovering the image as it progressed. On the previous page we looked at its essential mechanism through drawings by Leonardo and Piranesi. Next. using a sharp HB pencil and ruler. DRAWING BOXES 1 Using a ruler and a sharp HB pencil.76 ARCHITECTURE Single-Point Perspective MASTERING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE i s e a s i e r t h a n y o u m a y First read through. (See p. Surround the vanishing point with a small rectangle. 2 3 corners must each touch a dotted line. Draw each step over the preceding one to build up a single image.

willhelptomake them appear more solid. N e x t draw a slanting line to mark the height of the first flat board. bottom. draw four dotted lines radiating from your vanishing point Pass these through each comer of the new rectangle. and erase the dotted lines. draw a second. larger rectangle. with two dotted lines. 7 As in step 3. 1 0 Erase all ofthedottedlinestoseeyourfinishedboxes Thickeningtheiredges. 9 Use dotted lines connecting the slanting linetothe vanishing point to locate the top. 8 Complete the second box with short lines as in step 4. the closer it will appear to the viewer. The larger you make your second rectangle. Connect this to the vanishing point— again.asIhavedonehere. Note that this does not surround the vanishing point In the future. andfarside of this first board. Continue the dotted lines out toward the edge of your drawing. when inventing your own compositions. The board's sides should be parallel. Repeat this to add two more boards to the composition.77 SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE 5 Draw a new rectangle. you can place rectangles anywhere youwishin relation to a vanishing point. 6 As in step 2. The four comers must each touch a dotted line to be sureitaligns with the first. .

Linear perspective will support y o u by providing a frame in which to b u i l d your picture as it did for Leonardo.78 ARCHITECTURE Creating an Imaginary Space T H I S CLASS USES SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE t o c r e a t e a s i m p l e to you and if you listen to it. A lot more happens when you open yourself up to the work and let yourself act and react to it. Then follow the three given steps. The m i s t a k e n belief that we s h o u l d k n o w exactly what o u r finished drawings will l o o k like before we m a k e t h e m prevents many people from ever starting. O n a fresh page in your d r a w i n g b o o k . it will take you places you never dreamed of. If using a fibertip pen as I have done for this drawing." . it is interaction that makes the work richer. APPLYING PERSPECTIVE An Imagined Scaffold "Enjoy your illusion as you make it and it will become more real. I always start with a script but I don't follow it all the way through to the end. once said: "I never end up with what I set out to do. let simple lines suggest a simple space. p . draw a b o x as shown opposite. then let the space suggest its c o n t e n t s and purpose. It highlights the importance of having faith in your imagination and trusting your ability to invent. 7 4 ) . w h e t h e r it is a film or a painting." imaginary room. Every work talks In this class. you will find white adhesive stationery labels are useful for covering errors or changing the direction of your idea. artist and film director. As David Lynch.

2 first before adding furniture. 3 Remove the construction lines with an eraser and the room will becomeclearer. The space has become more solid and real. CREATING AN IMAGINARY SPACE 1First. With some practice. This initial space will be transparent and open to change.drawthehorizonlineand vanishingpoint. and leaning surfaces.There is great pleasure tobefoundin spending time inventing interiors. horizontal. Here.79 DRAWING A SIMPLE ROOM Essentials t o remember: objects and people dimmish in size as they move farther away. additional lines have established the different surfaces and how they relate to each other. and floors and ceilings also converge and rise o r lower toward the horizon. .Addanarray of converging lines to provide a "scaffold" for vertical. parallel planes such as walls converge toward the vanishing point. you will beableto draw more complex objects orpeoplewithin them.

Elaborations . To draw such a view APPLICATION Copy these drawings to see and feel how they work before inventing your own versions. verticals appear p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the g r o u n d . Further aspects of three-point perspective are also illustrated opposite. They could be drawn on any scale from miniature to monumental. or low and we look u p .80 ARCHITECTURE Further Aspects of Perspective W E ARE ACCUSTOMED TO SEEING our e n v i r o n m e n t from a relatively constant point of view. Only when y o u might employ t h r e e . T h e y d o n o t have to relate to each other. Copying what you see in the work of others will help you to understand what they have done. 76-79). It is important to realize that you can have as many vanishing points as you wish. but they are not confined to this level.p o i n t perspective ( s h o w n opposite top). located anywhere inside or outside the pictorial space. From our normal eye level. The boxes drawn here are seen partly or entirely disassociated from a horizon line drawn across the bottom of the image. Search for the application of these perspectives among works by other artists in this book and in galleries. I have elaborated on the simple boxes above. our eye level is very high and we look down. Vanishing points are commonly found on horizon—our eye level. Here. Free vanishing points On paper we can enjoy the freedom of fantastic structural invention without limitations of solid materials or gravity. do verticals appear inclined. That is where we e to find them. T h i n k of standing at the top of a skyscraper and imagine h o w its parallel sides would appear to converge below you. o r to the h o r i z o n . showing y o u h o w to draw curved surfaces and a tiled floor. they can be placed anywhere inspaceto describe the perspective of flyi c tilted objects. Potentially. These elaborations could continue indefinitely across a sheet of paper in pursuit of complex and intricate ideas. a n d this is how we have drawn them so far (see pp. T h i s is d e m o n s t r a t e d immediately below.

Giving curvature. by adding a third point you can achieve a sense of incline. An array of curved lines (drawn freehand) link the two lateral points. Iusedthese lines as a guide t o draw the curvature of boxes and panels flying through space. they mark the corners of the floor tiles. Note that altering the distance between the three dots above will tilt the level of the floor . you will see how. Three-point checkered floor This d bottom floor.81 FURTHER ASPECTS OF Three-point towers This drawing depicts three-point perspective. three vanishing points are evenly spaced along a horizon line.Istarted with two parallel lines. PERSPECTIVE Three-point curves Here. I marked the toplinewith three evenly spaced points and the line with seven. I then drew three fanned groups of lines connecting each of the three points above to the seven points below. useful for representing steep views looking up or down tall structures. Where thelinescross.Finally.75. tostraightlines can amplify drama in a picture. (Turn the book around to see a view looking up.I added horizontal lines t o define the tiles. and therefore tension.) By comparing this drawing t o Piranesi's example of two-point perspective on p.

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making drawings to resolve questions and express personal responses to the nature and history of anatomy. . I visited many anatomical theaters and museums. These walnut-skin ink pen and brush drawings show imagined views of theaters that do not exist but were inspired by places I studied.Theaters RESEARCHING FOR MY P H D .

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the water.Venetian Life sitting point buildings ThisP E N . . The vanishing of the drawing is directly opposite as we look across The constancy of the bridge and surrounding frames the movement in the life that flows past.A N D .I N KDRAWING is one of a series I made while next to the Rialto Bridge in Venice.

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drawings were needed to instruct workers on the factory floor. these. H e has described contour and function at drawings. In this chapter. color. H e has described a casting through metaphor. texture. design. are all made bearing the signature of our time and place. It was in this era that the blueprint was born. for example. T h e Industrial Revolution c h a n g e d the traditional w a y s in w h i c h objects were designed. drawn. Engineers and designers of our objects and instruments make drawings for many reasons: to test an idea that is yet to be made. craftsmen had held plans in their memory. In past eras. we look at the importance are the only creatures on Earth w h o actually design and create great ranges of things. drawing c. for example—whether. of light in the creation of pictorial illusions. 1493 117/8c81/4in (300 x 210 m m ) LEONARDO D A V I N Ccreating I . C o m m o n items. r an equestrian statue. Artists and actors use the meanings of things to communicate a speculative mechanic. passing them on to others through the act of making. and some apes use simple tools. With the sudden onset of mass production. W e also explore v o l u m e and form in the classes by spinning lines to make vessels. Today. Birds follow instinct to make a nest. hooked bars that can be pulled and tied closely form. T h e precision of engineering d r a w i n g s e v o l v e d alongside machine tools. even more advanced drawings are made on computers. and a wire violin. too. sculpted. or used on stage hood for a mold t o make theheado f a horse f oas a p r o p — i m b u e d with e n o u g h energy or character can "become" a man. to record an observed detail. each demanding more of the other as they increased in sophistication. and the behavior of light through making still-life paintings and together. Technical drawing was speedily developed as a meticulous international code of m e a s u r e m e n t and explanation. Previously.Objects and Instruments T HE THINGS WE INVENT describe our lives. illuminating snail shells. but humans LEONARDO DA VINCI Inthisbeautiful red chalk Our items all have a purpose—practical or ornamental—and all have a meaning. that test our logic with a sense of mystery. or drawing w e see Leonardo daVinci'sprecision as can be given meaning. making a clear instruction t o his bronzemeaning. It is shaped in sections w i t h Artists have for centuries studied and expressed composition. have often carried great weights of allegorical once. from s p o o n s and pens to chairs and bicycles. Artists also make images of objects that can never exist. A chair. planned. and the way in w h i c h the brain reacts Head and Neck Sections of Female Mold for the Sforza Horse to visual stimulus and optical illusions. or to explain and present a finished concept to a client. and made. History will be learned from the artifacts w e leave behind. fictional realities caster of h o w t o make it andhowit will w o r k .

There is a fragile eloquence to these objects as they drift in slow motion past our gaze. not of place but of things.90 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS Still Life THESE DRAWINGS REVEAL t w o o p p o s i t e m o t i v a t i o n s i n we can." La Cuitare. steaming with music and conversation. "I believe [it] is the most radicalattempttostampout ambiguity and to enforce one readingofthepicture—that of a manmade construction.. charcoal. texture. Braques "justly" arranged combination of cut black card.. One of the great joys of this movement in art is the musicality of its multipoint view. He takes us into the bustle of the Paris cafe.Braque marshals all the forces of perspective. Braque established Cubism in partnership with Picasso just before World War I. and a journal jacket with words makes this drawing chatter about the moment. and shading. wood-look wallpaper. silverware. and glass objects of exquisite elegance for only the gentlest of touch and appreciation. . Even today GEORGES BRAQUE French painter who as a young man was influenced by the work of the Fauves and of Cezanne. Mucha's drawing glistens with possession.73 x 1 m) GEORGES BRAQUE . His work is characterized by calm and harmonious still-life compositions. Clashes The art historian Ernst Gombrich said of Cubism. T h i s is a designers drawing made to enthuse surface and style in its delicate brushing of china. Statue D'Epouvante 1913 2 f t 5 in x 3 ft 5 in (0. not to work in harmony. Braques image is a Cubist collage. Opposite. a colored canvas. perfect i n their newly made availability. still feel this projected moment. Below. representing still life. but to clash in virtual deadlock.

ALPHONSE MUCHA Czech graphic artist and painter who worked in Prague. He is best known for posters featuring ethereal women in typical Art Nouveau style. Art Nouveau motifs This is a preliminary study for a subsequent print. Black watercolor washes and lines of white gouache have been added with a fine brush. The three plates facing us were drawn with a compass. Look at the two spoons at toprightand see how has suggested that they are so brilliantly shiny they reflect the background color. Pans. Background color Between the delicate shadows and highlights of these glazed and surfaces ofthebackground metal color of the Mucha we see a large amount paper. and New York. Art Nouveau curling motifs of birds. Chicago. and fish have been outlined using a sharp pencil.flowers. Study for Plate 59 from "Documents Decoratifs" 17x121/4(430 x 310 mm) ALPHONSE MUCHA 1902 .fruit. and also stamps and bank notes. For ten years Mucha designed theater posters exclusively for the actress Sarah Bernhardt. He designed the Austrian pavilion for the Paris World Fair in 1900.

and the nature o f light and color.92 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS by their very nature must gauge or chronicle precision. astronomer. Newton's 1672 ISAAC Telescope NEWTON . each reflecting a view of his own world—his window. we see drawing Instruments of Vision found among his letters. and philosopher Newton was President of the Royal Society. w h e r e he developed his three greatest theories: the law o f motion. From the concept of capturing the infinite to the mapping of microscopic sight. The power of this drawing reflects the pure passion of discovery. Hooke's head of a drone fly seen through a microscope may represent the first time man and insect came face to face. via a second mirror. Look how confidently he draws with ink the sphere of this wooden globe by which his telescope rotates. the law o f gravity. into the eyepiece. 0 0 0 perfect hemispheres. Transparent view Newton's reflecting telescope focused light in a parabolic mirror. With dotted lines Newton has drawn his arrangement of elements inside the tube. and Fellow of the University o f C a m b r i d g e . a tree outside. drawing is there to pin the moment down. It was then reflected up inside the tube and. Ink lines Several drawings appear among Newton's letters. He counted 1 4 . offering a transparent view. Newton's drawing of his first reflecting telescope is ISAAC N E W T O N English scientist. Their delicate construction is only as valuable as the measurements they make. A disembodied eye at the top of the drawing indicates where to look. In the graphic work of these two great men of science. and his hand moving across the light. mathematician. Newton used this instrument to calculate the speed required to escape earth's gravity. each one skillfully rendered with the alarmingly matter-of-fact ease of explaining the commonplace. It is a diagrammatic explanation of how to catch and magnify a star in a mirrored tube. alchemist. shape the very cause and effect of investigatory thought.

1665).An experimental scientist who drew many of his discoveries. a breathtaking book containing many of his drawings showing some of the first microscopic and telescopic magnifications of our environment Hooke's text and illustrations carry us to the moment of discovery. and anchor escarpment. and calculated the theory of combustion. ROBERT H O O K E 93 Magnifications This acutely detailed engraved drawing is taken from Hooke's Micrographia (pub. Hooke invented the camera diaphragm. The Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 1665 ROBERT HOOKE 111/2 x 105/8 in (294 x 270 mm) . universal joint a prototype respirator clock balance. It is an exhilarating read.

each drawn with the s a m e unfaltering lines and tones that are between reality and impossibility. Sarah Woodfines flat cut-out m o d e l plan is a witty and surprising drawing. has published several catalogs of her work. and w h e r e the chair b e l o n g s . Woodfine exhibits internationally. Van Gogh's tipsy seat is a metaphor for an absent person. and place in the world are truly seen. its character. it has so m u c h familiar personality that it seems to talk to us. while the tabs make us see a flat paper cut-out. W i t h h o m e y c o n t r a s t . Chair Cut Out 2002 22'A x 23 in (565 x 585 mm) SARAH WOODFINE . and winner of the 2004 Jerwood Drawing Prize. craft. this chair p r e s e n t s us with a clever visual contradiction: deeply drawn shadows tell us it must be solid. Two-dimensional was made This highly finished drawing ruler using a sharp pencil and on smooth white drawing paper glistening dark drawings are artificial representations of known Woodfine's two-dimensional things balanced in the world. OBJECTS AND SARAH WOODFINE British contemporary artist graduate of the Royal Academy Schools. A renegade from the p a p e r dolls' h o u s e .94 INSTRUMENTS W H E N WE DRAW A COMMON OBJECT like a chair. Drawn in more-or-less c o n v e n t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . and has drawings in numerous public and private collections. From component parts we understand how to put it together and make it stand sensible in space. Bench Marks W e are left a little c o n f u s e d as to what we s h o u l d do. Its wobbly gait and squashed s y m m e t r y m u m b l e endless h o m e y tales about the life it has seen.

inner recording while Fierce strokes This is a portrait of the mechanical drew immediately and almost harshly. Cornfield and Sunflowers. and Starry Cypress Night. Among van Gogh's best-known canvases are Trees. Van Chair 1890 VINCENT VAN GOGH . His passionate brush and pencil strokes are honest and of also turmoil and growing alarm at the world around him.hehas marked the full emotion of the subject with a fierce grip of concentration. what direct in their he saw and describing his felt. not is made present in only strokes and is subdued to distract us from flat a meaningful chair. The floor few as engagement with the chair.95 VINCENTVAN GOGH Dutch painter who produced over 800 paintings and 850 drawings in only the last ten year's of his life. drawn opposite way of plan.

We will even see things that d o not exist because minimal information suggests they are likely to be there. transmitted to the brain as chains of electrical impulses. W e learn to read light and shadow in our environment as indicators of solidity and depth of space. Run The bottom-left quarter of the egg lightens slightly toward its "edge" when seen against the darker shadow cast on the paper. one blackandone white. Three factors change it: the amount of light it receives. the adjustment of our eyes (in growing accustomed to a level of light). gray. form.This effect is caused by the contrast of their surroundings. Gray squares To further examine changes in tone. are translated into a world of space. To interpret visual s t i m u l u s . T h e slightest recognition is instantly matched to our wealth of experience a n d expectation. atmosphere. Are you happy LIGHT AND SHADOW with what you see? Does the light enhance the subject? Could you alter and improve it? On pp. perhaps. Artists emulate and manipulate this effect in their pictures. Card experiment cho can gra on . Tape them to the glass. and the proximity of contrasting tones. On acloudyday. a n d are q u i c k to p r o p o s e ideas. a n d m o v e m e n t . reads only m o v e m e n t a n d can often m a k e mistakes. try this experiment. We only need small prompts. o u r b r a i n s search for n a m e a b l e things. Through these we can enjoy witnessing our o w n d e c e p t i o n a n d b a f f l e m e n t a n d u n d e r s t a n d certain factors that are very useful in picture-making. U p s i d e . Before starting a tonal drawing of any subject. but do not appear so. Adjust the angleofthe protruding part and again stepback. The egg's darkest region is seen against a lighter background. w e turn our head but n o one w a s there.d o w n patterns of light on our retinas. The egg's lightest region is seen against a darker background. cards the same size. two identical mid-gray squares are seen against black and paler gray squares. or colored surface is never constant. From across the room both will appear black card and fold and retapeitwith half sticking out.96 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Light and Illusions SEEING IS MIRACULOUS. The perceived tone of a black white. hence our recognition of a cartoon face c o m p o s e d of three lines. The two tones meet without a division or outline between.At one point you will catchenoughlight lighter than the white one. a n d our ability to see forms in c l o u d s or fire. less developed than the center. think about its illumination. your eye around the circumference of the egg. Here. a n d we can be fooled. See how its "edge" smoothly changes from light against dark to dark against light. Below. The rim of light on the egg is reflected light received from surrounding paper. Here w e look briefly at our perception of light a n d darkness a n d our interpretation of diagrammatic illusions. The outermost edge of our vision.102-03 deep shadows cast across shells make their form easier to perceive. a lit photograph of an egg shows essential points to observe in tonal drawing. Below the bottom "edge" of the egg there is a rim of light reflected onto the paper by the underside of the egg. The small squares are identical in tone. S o m e o n e passes our o p e n door. We perceive one to be lighter than theother.

O b s e r v e h o w each white b a n d appears t h i c k e r t h a n its black c o u n t e r p a r t . LIGHT AND ILLUSIONS Tonal width T h e s e black a n d w h i t e bands are o f equal thickness o n e i t h e r side o f t h e i r central division. T h e jug d r a w n w i t h a t h i n line appears f a r t h e r away t h a n t h e j u g d r a w n w i t h a t h i c k e r line. In this linear drawing w e read t h i c k as closer a n d t h i n as f a r t h e r away. In this t o n a l image w e read w h i t e as f a t t e r t h a n black. respectively. O f t e ndoingso w i l l s p o i l y o u r w o r k . B o t h are identical in length. T h e r e is n o obligation t o a d d b l o c k s o f t o n e t o a l i n e a r d r a w i n g . A n u p r i g h t line stands in t h e c e n t e r o f a h o r i z o n t a l line. Bending straight lines Linear distance These t w o jugs have b e e n d r a w n w i t h lines o f d i f f e r i n g thicknesses. . T w o horizontal lines o f equal length are m a d e t o l o o k longer and shorter. b u t t h e u p r i g h t o n e l o o k s t a l l e r (B).p o i n t p e r s p e c t i v e d r a w i n g s w i t h a large n u m b e r o f c o n v e r g i n g rays b e h i n d y o u r horizontals. t h i c k e r l i n e s a p p e a r t o stand forward. Y o u m a y e x p e r i e n c e s o m e t h i n g similar h a p p e n i n g w h e n y o u m a k e s i n g l e . Apparent lengths T h e s e optical illusions s h o w h o w lines o f identical length can b e m a d e t o l o o k quite different f r o m each o t h e r by t h e addition o r association o f o t h e r lines. S h o r t h o r i z o n t a l lines o f identical length are m a d e t o l o o k d i f f e r e n t by c o n v e r g i n g lines beside t h e m ( C ) . T h i s fundamental o p p o s i t e is a reason w h y l i n e a r a n d t o n a l d r a w i n g does not a l w a y s c o m b i n e w e l l in t h e s a m e i m a g e . w h i l e t h i n n e r lines recede. In a t o n a l d r a w i n g . start o u t w i t h one. l i g h t e r surfaces s t a n d f o r w a r d w h i l e d a r k e r s u r f a c e s recede. Seven parallel lines are m a d e t o tilt t o w a r d and away f r o m each o t h e r by n u m e r o u s s h o r t strokes crossing t h e m diagonally ( A ) . by d i r e c t e d a r r o w s ( A ) . If y o u w i s h t o m a k e a t o n a l drawing. T w o relatively t h i c k parallel lines are m a d e t o b e n d away f r o m each o t h e r as t h e y pass in f r o n t o f an a r r a y o f c o n v e r g i n g f i n e lines ( B ) .97 LINE VERSUS TONE In l i n e a r d r a w i n g s .

Artists can communicate much in few lines and the viewer will do the rest of the work. and so calculated precisely how much to fatten columns to make them appear straight. SEEING TWO OPTIONS Sometimes.s i d e d r e c t a n g u l a r t r a y ( b o t h are illustrated far r i g h t ) "The brain is so eager to name a fragment we see that we need only a suggestion to grasp the whole. Some artists use known optical illusions to make art. made paintings that depended upon the physical sensation of our brain's reaction to known optical illusions. Artists make pictorial illusions when they paint or draw. A few suggestive marks will tip the decision one way o r the o t h e r Closing the surface W h e n a t r a n s p a r e n t elliptical o b j e c t has b e e n d r a w n . their picture could be ambiguous. In the 1960's. such as Bridget Riley. Yet many illusions. and we learn to read the styles of diverse cultures and periods. perfected the acceleration of perspective (see pp. others adjust works to avoid their effects. Two ways of seeing T h i s is t h e b o x c r e a t e d in t h e f o u r t h step o n p. it oscillates between t w o possibilities. w h e n drawing the outline o f a three-dimensional form.76. among others. It is a curious fact that w e can never see both options at once. w e will find that in terms of the direction it faces. C l o s i n g t h e surface o f t h e f o r m seals o u r d e c i s i o n as t o w h i c h w a y it faces. It is possible t o r e a d i t t w o ways: as a t r u n c a t e d r e c t a n g u l a r p y r a m i d seen d i r e c t l y f r o m a b o v e .116-17) to make painted figures look correct when viewed from below. o r as a s l o p i n g . Today we are bombarded with images but rarely have difficulty reading them. Op(tical) artists. including some shown here." . such as t h e dish seen h e r e o n t h e left.98 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Further Illusions PSYCHOLOGISTS AND PHYSIOLOGISTS have studied optical illusions for decades in pursuit of what they tell us about the brain. are still not agreeably understood. as s h o w n o n t h e right. Ancient Greek architects knew parallel upright lines appeared to bend toward each other in the middle. Michelangelo. it can oscillate b e t w e e n facing t o w a r d o r a w a y f r o m us. w e can only look f r o m one t o the o t h e r If an artist is not aware this can happen in their image.

99 Impossible objects T h e s e clever configurations o f outlines and t o n a l surfaces convince us at a glance that we are seeing a solid three-dimensional triangle and a three-pronged fork. T h e t e s t e x p l o r e s o u r n o r m a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o find things w e can n a m e a m o n g r a n d o m shapes. w e see t w o overlapping triangles: o n e outlined in black b e n e a t h a n o t h e r in solid w h i t e . B e l o w is a b r i g h t n e s s c o n t r a s t illusion. e t c . Yet still w e try resolve t h e m .c e n t u r y Swiss psychologist H e r m a n n Rorschach. this is a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f t h e viewer's b r a i n b e i n g willing t o d o a large a m o u n t o f t h e w o r k in d e c i p h e r i n g a p i c t u r e . O n l y o n closer inspection we realize that t h e s e o b j e c t s are fooling us. FURTHER ILLUSIONS Seeing things that are n o t t h e r e H e r e o n t h e left. b u t w e believe w e see t h e m because e n o u g h f r a g m e n t a r y i n f o r m a t i o n is given f o r o u r brains t o c o n c l u d e t h e y are v e r y likely t h e r e . T h e patient's answers are t h e n diagnosed as a psychological profile. . C o u p l e d w i t h t h e Rorschach b l o t above. This simple five-line d r a w i n g is o f a C a p u c h i n priest asleep in his pulpit. T h e y a r e o f t e n c r e d i t e d w i t h t h e invention o f t h e c o m i c c a r t o o n . M u c h can b e e x p r e s s e d in o n l y a f e w marks. smoke. T h e s e e x a m p l e s illustrate h o w little is n e e d e d t o c o n v e y an image. His highly d i s p u t e d and i m p r e c i s e science involves s h o w i n g u n p r e p a r e d p a t i e n t s t e n p a r t i c u l a r ink b l o t s a n d asking t h e m t o i n t e r p r e t w h a t t h e y see. P e r c e i v i n g a w h o l e i m a g e f r o m m i n i m a l lines T h i s is a w i d e l y r e p r o d u c e d visual j o k e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e C a r r a c c i b r o t h e r s . S o m e artists use ink blots t o p r o m p t t h e beginning o f an image. C o u n t t h e n u m b e r o f d a r k spots y o u can see. This effect can o c c u r naturally w h e n looking at a b r i g h t l y lit w h i t e g r i d such as a w i n d o w f r a m e against t h e night sky. C Escher u s e d this phenomenon t o great effect in his many p o p u l a r d r a w i n g s o f puzzles and impossible buildings. 1 6 t h . — a n d so t h e artist can create m u c h o u t o f an impression w i t h o u t overdescribing. W e should r e m e m b e r t h a t o u r brains will always search f o r a p i c t u r e — i n ink blots. clouds. N e i t h e r triangle exists. T h e a r t i s t M.c e n t u r y Italian painters. Minimal-line j o k e s such as this rely u p o n t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y v i e w e r ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e shapes. F a m i l i a r i t y in r a n d o m s h a p e s T h e Rorschach test was established by t h e 1 9 t h .

How to Draw Ellipses of seeing. there are three common errors people stumble upon. WHERE TO START In the air above a spacious sheet of scrap paper. I have drawn these for you here. suggesting that the vessel is lopsided. Watch the tip of your pen and see it draw an ellipse in the air Keep this movement going while gently lowering the pen onto the paper like the needle of a record player closing on the disc (only it is your lowering hand that spins. A wobbling but confident ellipse will still be more convincing than a slow. I have exaggerated this error here. for example. keep it spinning. as if the table surface slopes upward beneath the vessel. hesitant one that has edged its w a y nervously around the vessel's rim. . since this is h o w w e experience them in e v e r y d a y use. COMMON ERRORS W h e n drawing cylindrical objects in perspective. circles change into ellipses. Don't worry if it is uneven— just try again. not the paper!) As the pen touches down. The first common error is to draw two pointed ellipses. (see p. you will achieve steadiness with practice. third common error is to draw upper and lover ellipses with different-sized apertures.90) takes a different as essentially circular.100 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS W E VISUALIZE CYLINDRICAL VESSELS. even if y o u r hand w o b b l e s a little at first. smoothly. To make a cylindrical object appear real in our pictorial space. though. while its upper rim remains level. The second common error is to tilt the upper and lower ellipses at different angles. w e use ellipses to give a sense of perspective. like a disposable plastic cup that has been crushed in your hand. w h e n seen at an angle. Ellipse are best d r a w n quickly. describing many sides of an object simultaneously. such as bowls and cups. spin your hand in a relaxed circle. However. a n d in o n e bold stroke. Cubism. springlike forms like those I have drawn below. giving the cylinder four corners. that this is o n l y o n e w a y view. for example plates or bowls on a table. and these narrow or widen depending on the height of our view. Cover a sheet of paper with spinning. Be aware.

Create a Solid Surface Once you have drawn the shape and volume of each form. Draw quickly. you can make it solid by building up highlights and tones on visible surfaces. HOW TO DRAW E L L I P S E S A Single Vessel One Inside Another Grouped Together Finding Shape and Volume Draw an imagined vessel in one continuous spinning line. enlarging and diminishing the ellipse to determine the overall shape and volume. you can start to control your spinning ellipse to make a vessel. Altering the pressure—and therefore tone—of the line as it spins gives the impression of light shining on one side. . working from top to bottom.101 DRAWING VESSELS Once you have mastered drawing free-hand springs. thereby hiding lines that show the other sides. Seeing Through Allow lines to travel around each vessel as if it were transparent.

You can begin with outlines and build slowly from light to dark (see opposite top). and strong contrasts are easier to draw. leaving detail until last. Remember that shadows. OBJECTS AND Start by arranging a choice of shells on a sheet of paper to your left if you are right-handed (or vice versa). Draw the largest and most distinct areas of light and darkness first. Illuminate them with a gooseneck lamp placed very close and directed away from your eyes. t h e r e a r e p r i n c i p a l l y Dramatic lighting emphasizes texture and contour. LIGHT TO DARK DARK TO LIGHT . simply shapes and subtleties of light and dark meeting each other with no divisions in between. Relaxing your eyes out of focus as you draw will help to dissolve the distraction of detail. In the finished drawing there should be few. and solid objects are all of equal importance. It is important to place them on the correct side so as to draw comfortably (see pp. outlines. Gradually hone your drawing.22-23). beams of light. two opposite methods of achieving the same result. or you can begin with a mid-gray ground and model light out of darkness (see opposite bottom). if light shines in them. It maximizes the range of tones between black and white. making complicated or subtle surfaces easier to see and understand. it will inhibit your perception of tone.102 INSTRUMENTS Tonality W H E N MAKING A TONAL DRAWING. if any.

. Treat positive form and negative space (see pp. Relaxing your eyes out of focus will help to eliminate distracting details. boldly 2 3 Keeping your eyes out of focus. pale lines with equal importance. until you are happy frame. Remember that its size. Draw in the details last of all. Continue working between light and dark to refine the drawing. DARK TO LIGHT (TONE TO TONE) 1 Using the flattened tip of an HB pencil.56-57).103 LIGHT TO DARK (LINE TO TONE) TONALITY 1 Using a sharp HB pencil. Honetheshapesand angles of the shells. Fll in broad areas first and leave all detail until last. with broad sweeps of the eraser. Let your eyes go out of focus while looking gently layer marks to create an even tone at your subject and paper: Draw the most ofmid-graywithin a rectangle. shape. and edges definingthespacialrelationships between are important aspects of your composition them. Avoid a rough significant areas of light in your gray rectangle with texture and do not press the graphite hardwhite plastic eraser Ignore all detail and draw a into thepaperor you will not be able to erase it. Erase and make changes to roughly place the shells inside your with your composition. 2 3 Gentlydissolveoutlines so that areas oflightanddark meet without a line between them. draw a rectangle. Use your pencil to develop these in relation to the areas of light. look at the main areas of darkness. Use quick. loose.

Seeing through a wire drawing of a known object such as a violin gives us a visual and tactile understanding of all its sides and shapes at once. 176 the British artists Noble and Webster draw with domestic refuse in a beam of light. This class uses thin-gauge wire to create a threedimensional violin. 19 Picasso draws with a pen-light for the camera.69 we see how the architect Antonio Gaudi drew proposed domes using suspended wires and weights. and on p. smooth. and physical relationships between them. . you can create your own more ambitious works. PEN LINES Once you have created your three-dimensional violin (opposite). continuous lines.220 Mamoru Abe draws with forged steel rods. On p. When drawing anything viewed from one side on paper. They can also be made in space. three-dimensional drawings teach us about the totality of forms in space. On p. There are essentially three lessons to be learned. and on p.104 OBJECTS AND I N S T R U M E N T S Drawing with Wire DRAWINGS DO NOT HAVE to be two-dimensional. try drawing it with a pen on paper Use bold. Third. The first is that figurative and abstract drawings can be made in space. The second is that after achieving this simple example. Place the instrument on a plain surface and illuminate it with a desk lamp to add the delicate dimension of shadows. our image is stronger if we understand and can visualize what is happening on the other side too.

4 . Here. I started with the scroll at the top and fixed the four component wires with two drawings of tuning pegs. Then begin to define its uppermost surface with Scurves and the bridge. thin wire will make a smaller drawing. Once you have completed the body. Cut a length. I used garden wire and cut it carefully with pruners. begin to shape the curvature of the fingerboard. These will hold the sides apart and help to keep the form in shape. and pinch and bend it to shape the base of the instrument Repeat this process to make the identical upper side of the instrument. but thin enough to be easily manipulated inyourfingers Here. brace the two ends of the violin with a length of wire along the back.105 SETTING UP DRAWING WITH WIRE Follow these steps to draw a three-dimensional violin Choose a gauge of wire sturdy enough to hold the shape ofyourfinished drawing. 1 Decide how big to draw your violin relative to the gauge of your wire. and thick wire a larger one. Join the two sides together with four short pieces of wire. 2 3 If needed.

England. . Using found materials. I had the privilege of drawing their inventions. they invented new anthropological finds—objects that reflected the distant past and their immediate future. Oxford. some of which are shown here.Artifacts and Fictions IN 1993 I WORKED with a group of schoolchildren who were responding to the astonishing objects in the collection of the Pitt Rivers Museum.

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This F finished image was produced as r a n c i s c o . diseased. WILLIAMS he sought perfection in the infinitesimal measurement of the body and produced four Contemporary photographer volumes of illustrated explanation. During this time. She the body is still essential. 3 x 7 in (300 x 180 . the junior workshop apprentices posed as part of their duties. while Leonardo opened the body to see and projected onto a woman's body draw the celebratory discover for himself our physical mechanisms. is the most c o m m o n subject in art. giving physical foundation undulating land. Renaissance artists studying anatomy from dissection clinically trained and specialized as a medical illustrator. Drawings were usually made from the male nude to avoid offending the church. Strangely. W e understand every curve and balance of to the theory that the eves are the windows of the soul. from video and X-ray to thermal imaging. Michelangelo attended dissections to made this image by light sectioning: fine beams of light perfect his understanding of surface form. and in San could easily be transferred into three dimensions. R.The Body O UR BODIES MAKE us TANGIBLE. Leonardo drew a man within a circle and square. Look closely at Renaissance drawings of the female b o d y and you will see that m o s t are actually y o u n g m e n with minor adjustments. and surgically rebuilt. In this period. herimpressive presence because we are given such Life drawing no longer dominates the art school curriculum. a n d w e d r a w o u r s e l v e s to a s s e r t o u r e x i s t e n c e . R. sculptural description of her form. This chapter addresses issues that are most commonly faced by beginners attending life-drawing classes. He even believed he had located the soul contours of her form like a cartographer's map of in the pituitary fossa beneath the brain and behind the eyes. much Western contemporary art. W e are the only creatures on Earth that can make our own image. clothed or nude. myths and fables. The human body. but the study of a controlled. and anatomical and erotic art. artists also tried to define ideal proportions in the body. These classes are popular around the world. Artists now explore the interior of the body with new media and Lateral Contour Map of a Full-Term Primipara Produced by Light 1979 A. W I L L I A M S technology. while Durer took his research further— A. It also looks at the representation of the b o d y b11y4o n d traditional life drawing. Williams were decades ahead of their medical counterparts. and because the female was deemed inferior. the Bay Area Models' Guild h o l d s a quarterly life-drawing m a r a t h o n aprinton Kodak transfer paper with green-colored dye added celebrating the great diversity of human proportion. It gives physical and emotive form to religious narratives. in our privileged and comfortable society. focus has turned to the vulnerability of flesh: how it can be damaged. explaining ranges e/ of materials and techniques and showing diversities of thought and purpose in making. history paintings and other stories. The body remains at the core of over the initially white lines. Artists are thought to have b e g u n drawing from the nude during the Italian Renaissance. portraiture.

anatomy. Raphael's study of fallen m e n leaves no doubt that they are in anguish.116-17). Muscular dramatic postures reflect the influence of Michelangelo and the Renaissance celebration of the idealized male body. Sculptural frieze This is a preparatory drawing for Raphael's painting of the Resurrection of Christ. By way of contrast. He trained under Perugino. altar pieces. and human defeat. She u n f o l d s and s t r e t c h e s shapely limbs. Principal figures m i r r o r e a c h other. Matisse's b l u e n u d e sings with life and c e l e b r a t i o n .110 T H E BODY THESE DISTINCTIVE WORKS show two strikingly different ways of modeling the body on paper. and Vatican frescos. we see the e s s e n c e of h e r b e a u t y w i t h o u t a single detail. Here three male nudes are compressed into very shallow pictorial space. so that we read this drawing like a sculptural frieze. Three Guards 1500-20 91/4 x143/8in (234 x 365 mm) RAPHAEL . while Matisse used scissors and glue to cut out and paste a flat collage of brilliant color. and studied to learn from the works of Michelangelo and Leonardo besides whom he was soon ranked. while supporting the weight of their body with the other. RAFFAELLO SANZIO (RAPHAEL) Italian High Renaissance painter: Raphael is best known for his images of the Madonna and Child. But the meanings of each gesture and the materials and methods by which they Postures and Poses were m a d e contrast greatly. Raphael drew delicate tones of black chalk on tinted paper. T h e y b o t h raise one arm to cup their head in their hand. In this highly s o p h i s t i c a t e d a b s t r a c t i o n . In a single drawing we see equally o b s e r v e d studies of f o r e s h o r t e n i n g (see pp. filling the page with her presence.

freer.designer writer." of is an art of balance.. His calligraphic natural abstractions of form grew brighter.or like a good armchair in which to rest from physical fatigue. fabric. serenity. a mental soother. devoid of troubling Blue Nude 1 1952 413/4 HENRY MATISSE .111 HENRY MATISSE French painter: draftsman. printmaker..sculptor.which might be. lifelong love of brilliant They celebrate the culmination of spectacular and sometimes drawings. and Islamic art. his pattern.like an appeasing influence. Matisse became an artist after studying law.. teacher and principal exponent o f Fauvism—a movement established in 1905 in which bold color is the most essential element... as his w o r k matured.. and more energetic Color and form This collage is one of a series of Blue Nudes. Matisse Soothing influence This drawing expresses the achievement of Matisse's personal aim: "What I dream and depressing subject matter. foundamong many other groups of papercut these works as an elderly man confined to his bed or wheelchair.

Here. His drawings are similarly u n i q u e . like small birds attendant on the meditation. stands in counterpoise holding a dark globe and his thoughts in m o m e n t a r y balance. it would have mixed with unseen black dust. only tones blending into. In his f a m o u s paintings of social e n g a g e m e n t . or abruptly meeting. w h o sits propped in the contradictory darkness of a hot summer's day. Typically. Seurat engaged in lifelong studies of line. and muddied the brilliance of the drawing. agreeing to coalesce and show us the form of a waiting boy. Opposite. Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 1883-84 91/2 x 121/4 in (241 x 312 m m GEORGES SEURAT . velvet d a r k n e s s . reflected. T h e space around h i m chatters with symbols. turned gray. there are no outlines. Light is given by the paper alone. Seurat evolved a distinctive t e c h n i q u e called p o i n t i l l i s m — i m a g e s literally made from myriad points of color. Using the paper to create light is important for beginners to learn. form.112 T H E BODY Choreographs T I M E IS A SIGNIFICANT E L E M E N T i n t h e m a k i n g o f a l l d r a w i n g s . he used b l a c k c o n t e (see p. scratched in seconds. If Seurat had added white. 162) and an eraser to model teeming points of artificial light amid GEORGES SEURAT French painter classically educated in the Ingres school of thought. Tone and light In this black conte drawing. Beuys's magician. other tones. in a perfect e x a m p l e . and color His applied theories still influence painters in their manipulation and rendering of local. it is as if the very atoms of air are made visible. Below. and c o m p l e m e n t a r y hues. we c o m p a r e a skillful design that absorbed m u c h time in its making with the quickness of an idea marked instantly.

free from the constraint of immaculate form opposite) impetus is irrelevant to the and meaning of this work (as we see in Seurat's drawing representation.113 JOSEPH BEUYS One of the most influential German artists of the 20th century.gold. in different positions. Many of his other symbolic works on paper have been drawn with materials such as honey. and blood. Perfectly modeled rather conventional for Joseph Focus Beuys's hand moved quickly to draw dotted lines flowing downward on either side of the figure. His The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland UNDATED 113/4 J O S E P H BEUYS x81/4in (297 x 210 mm) . and that These aspects of the work convey fractured visibility. iodine. This figure is drawn intuitively. Beuys gave performances. and made installations. Unbroken lines stream from his simultaneously movement. CHOREOGRAPHS the profound power materials with spiritual or of Free lines This pale pencil drawing is Beuys. taught workshops with a cult following. He was a shaman who believed in intuition and in the investment of healing force. Our focus joins shoulders. transience. video art. and drawings.

Paris. His exquisite flow of paint beyond "outlines.000 drawings shown in rotation at the Musee Rodin. Rodin employed models to move freely or pose together in his studio. flushed skin made ruddy and black with crushed cinders." as seen here. Achieving international acclaim in mid-life. Inspired by Michelangelo. As here. In Rodins work. Free lines Rodin's public audience was understandably shocked by the eroticism of his drawings. THE AUGUSTE RODIN French Romantic sculptor and prolific draftsman employed as an ornamental mason until the age of 42. Our bodies radiate the passion of our thoughts and so become beacons of our frailty and power. the women are framed and caressed by long. We are asked to gaze u p o n her flesh. its soft. They whisper and writhe in a brushed and sultry embrace that devours our watching. Delicate strokes This is one of about 7. he typically drew them with a few delicate strokes of pencil and brushed watercolor. In both drawings. and went on to inspire generations of artists. Rodin produced portraits and statues of public and literary figures. and one of hundreds of rapid studies of nudes. But what is stranger to us now is that they were also outraged by his free use of line. Opposite. the fierceness of the women's kiss is beautifully matched by the tenderness of his line. sweeping lines— of either purple silk fabric or cool studio air—that imprint and amplify their past and future movements. Anita Taylor has drawn her protective body hug out of the darkly glistening compression of willow charcoal and the dynamism of her shy but momentous femininity.114 BODY Passion SUMMONING HUMANITY in a drawing of the nude is a subtle and emotional task. 125/8x 9 in (320 x 229 mm) AUGUSTE RODIN Two Women 1911 Embracing . We are involved not as a shabby voyeur but as a bystander engaged through our recognition of shared joy. his w o r k is characterized by deliberate un-finish and powerfully modeled emotion. was perceived as scandalous.

exposure. London. professor and Vice Principal of Wimbledon School of Art. erased and drawn again. scrutiny. and gaze. Taylor's immense self-portraits explore the relationship between the artist as maker and the artist as model. textured paper. Charcoal Taylor has drawn freely with charcoal and an eraser on thick. the impression of luminosity All and Nothing 1999 67 x447/8in (170 x 1 1 4 cm) ANITA TAYLOR . This order of light below and dark above gives glowing from within.I 15 ANITA T A Y L O R Painter. Luminosity Layered marks flicker likefirelight as they sculpt the woman's body. leaving her lightest marks at the deepest level of the image and applying darker marks above. The sturdy surface of the sheet has allowed her to press hard when needed. Taylor has drawn. and rework rich depths of light and tone. A thinner sheet might have crumpled and torn under such vigorous force of making. intimately reflecting upon the emotions and meaning of nudity. draftsman.

we would arrive to find many of the same figures strangely distorted. "Simple measured comparisons reveal surprising truths about proportion. the skull in Holbein's The Ambassadors (The National Gallery. helping us to see more clearly. Move the tip of your thumb down to a second chosen point. patience. It can also be a little demon in the life room. This is chiefly a correcting device by which figurative painters and sculptors have for centuries countered the effects of our viewing their work from far below or on the curvature of a vault." . 1 Hold your arm straight. to be translated by mirrors or seen from only one point in the room. plummeting. persistence. without taking off. elbow. and a few measured comparisons are key. Lock your shoulder. and measurements do not have to be carried to the paper and slavishly drawn the same size they appear on your pencil.limbs happily receding. Smaller. There is no need to mark them all down on paper. 2 Hold your pencil upright. Align the top with a point on your subject. It is not so hard. London). Imagine Michelangelo's murals in the Sistine Chapel. Spend time making comparisons before you draw. which is imperceptible from below. unfathomable angles. It is not complicated.116 T H E BODY Measurement and Foreshortening FORESHORTENING IS AN ASPECT of perspective. To avoid its effects ensure you always look flat onto the surface of your page. or shrivelling at odd. If your arm is not straight. We also look at another very interesting branch called accelerated (or anamorphic) perspective. Return to this posture every time. elongated as if stretched across the plaster. and wrist joints. In the life class it is the mechanism for ensuring that a drawn figure lies correctly in pictorial space . rather that what we believe we know from experience. The length of exposed pencil is your measurement. and to draw what we see. just making them helps you see. But if we could take a scaffold and climb up to the work. more extreme examples have been made for court entertainment. for example. Rome. you will make inconsistent and unrelated comparisons. when beginners prop their board in their lap and look down at too steep an angle. MEASURING This is a simple method of making measured comparisons for relating the true size of one part to another This is a tool to assist observation and thinking. Accelerated perspective plays a great role in much art. with dramatic illusions of figures painted in normal proportion. or coming forward. How to make and apply these is explained below and opposite. 3 Keep your pencil perpendicular Measure and compare at any angle. Close one eye. Up close on the scaffold we would witness Michelangelo's subtle application of accelerated perspective.

S o o n t h e b o d y will lie d o w n in space. See h o w d i f f e r e n t t h e relative heights o f t h e s e shapes are f r o m w h a t w e m i g h t e x p e c t in real life. Lean t h e t o p e d g e t o w a r d y o u and find a p o s i t i o n w h e r e y o u can c o m f o r t a b l y l o o k d o w n t h e p a p e r at an angle o f a b o u t 4 0 degrees. . y o u must let go o f w h a t y o u k n o w f r o m e x p e r i e n c e a b o u t t h e relative sizes o f b o d y parts and trust y o u r eyes. MEASUREMENT AND FORESHORTENING Tilt t h e t o p edge o f this b o o k t o w a r d you and look d o w n o n this figure f r o m a b o v e . y o u r hand travels f a r t h e r than y o u expect. which feels strange. T h i s is t h e s a m e d r a w i n g p h o t o g r a p h e d f r o m above. L o o k at y o u r m o d e l as if he o r she is a flat series o f shapes o n e o n t o p o f a n o t h e r Measure t h e height and w i d t h o f each shape and c o m p a r e it t o its neighbor. P r o p o r t i o n s will only l o o k c o r r e c t f r o m t h e angle at w h i c h y o u make t h e drawing. belly. To m a k e f o r m s l o o k c o r r e c t . Stand its b o t t o m edge o n y o u r lap. C o m p a r e t h e heights o f t h e nose and eye shapes t o t h o s e o f t h e f o r e a r m . FORESHORTENING To f o r e s h o r t e n a figure. Keep t h e b o a r d steady and draw. A t a c e r t a i n angle. a n d thighs. W o r k a r o u n d t h e figure. t a p e s o m e p a p e r t o a board. h e r p r o p o r t i o n s will appear correct. looking d o w n t h e p a p e r at t h e a n g l e at w h i c h I d r e w . W e appear t o be looking d o w n o n a w o m a n s t a n d i n g b e n e a t h us. adjusting a n o n y m o u s shapes.117 ACCELERATED PERSPECTIVE To discover h o w this w o r k s . pleasingly f o r e s h o r t e n e d .

working from her center to her feet and to her head. Leave first thoughts in place. T h i s q u i c k e x p l o r a t o r y line does not perfectly describe shape but expresses a decision about overall flow of form. work back and forth across the body. To draw this effect. I used a sharp H B pencil and began each drawing by marking her outline. To see this. Height This pose leans away into space above our eye level. Outline To outline a figure. THE SEQUENCE OF POSES H e r e the model was asked to move every t w o minutes. Start each new drawing by lightly marking the model's height with a loose line in ten seconds. and energy. Balance When a model stands upright on both feet. . feeling. propelling you to make immediate assessments and trust them.118 BODY Quick Poses DRAWING QUICK POSES l o c k s y o u r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n t o what is most essential. Layered lines give d e p t h . Avoid drawing up one side and down the other. Be bold and dive into your drawing with c o n f i d e n c e . her center of balance is normally found in a vertical line beneath her head. make the upper body smaller give your model a high waist. balance. and slightly enlarge her legs and feet. height. because it results in two unrelated sides drifting apart. and height. imagine holding up a plumb line. and work over t h e m with further o b s e r v a t i o n s . and stance before honing her balance and expression.

The tilt of the pelvis is then counter balanced by the model's shoulders tilting the other way (as seen here). . the activity of circular lines and the repetition of limbs suggest movement. and this should be avoided Twist QUICK POSES A model standing on one leg usually drops the opposite hip. Most of us have a tendency to over-straighten the drawn figure. This drawing shows how different observations be overlaid to bring a drawing alive. Tilt Movement Here.119 The twist of a model is most easily and expressively captured if it is exaggerated.

Practice by drawing your own hands and feet. swiftly marking its essential gesture. Group the fingers together as one mass. especially the lengthwise divisions between them. Focus instead on how planes change direction across the knuckles from one side of the hand or foot to the other. or those of a friend. starting with the largest. This exercise is useful when struggling with proportion. drawn in relation to each other. These planes. Draw large shapes and their orientation. 3 . Begin by drawing lines to encompass the whole hand. A mirror increases your range of views. and ignore all details. It also helps the beginner to progress from drawing outlines to drawing confidently across the surface of the whole form. Do not separate them yet. Then subdivide each shape so that you w o r k from large to small. and they need not be daunting to draw. express structure and gesture far more successfully and easily than ten worried outlines wandering up and down between the fingers and toes. feet.120 BODY Hands and Feet THERE ARE MANY different ways of approaching h a n d s and THE of form. Don't worry about achieving perfect solutions. 2 Build your drawing gradually from light to dark. Keep lines open to change and take measurements if they help. it is important to leave aside all details of the fingers and toes. W h e n starting. general to specific. and a gooseneck lamp casts shadows that clarify planes and depths GESTURES OF THE HAND Curled Fingers 1 Open Palm Start honing the shapes of the dominant planes. but regard these practice studies as ongoing processes of thought and observatio Add details such as nails last if you wish.

It can be a mistake. Try t o express the whole foot and t o encapsulate its entire shape and direction in a few marks. and don't worry about accuracy t o begin with. however. Leave aside all detail. Look for key angles without becoming distracted by detail. 2 3 Use an eraser t o refine decisions o r t o suggest areas o f light. depth. Hew it roughly in broad. flattened planes. and rapid. . these are what give a drawing its tangible structure. loose.as though out o f wood. t o remove t o o many early lines. Nowimagineyou are carving the foot insidethepaper. and spontaneity.121 HANDS AND FEET MOVEMENTS OF THE FOOT Flat Stance Raised Heel Instep 1 Let your first marks be light. as if with a chisel.

204-05. Compare its nature in close-up to that of willow charcoal used on pp. The white lines demonstrate what is often called "bracelet shading. Opposite. I also used white ink with a steel dip pen." .Charcoal Hands T H E S E DRAWINGS ARE MADE in compressed charcoal.

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and posture of the model.HERE TRACES OF RAPID initial lines are still seen within and outside each body. length. I make these lines in the first five to ten seconds of a drawing to locate the presence. 118-19). Phrasing Contours . before honing his or her shape (see pp.

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Forms. characters. perspectives. and narrative pulse become vivid when you realize them in the middle of your study. It is now viewed with some skepticism and often seen as academic.The Visual Detective DRAWING FROM MASTERWORKS was once a staple component of an artist's education. . I draw in museums in support of written research and as an artist seeking answers to questions about the practicalities of image making. feeling them through the attentive movements of your own hand. Drawing work by another artist enables you to discover and understand the inventive hand in their composition.

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Walls are lined with hundreds of faintly animated body parts. Life-size women wearing wigs recline on beds of embroidered silk in cabinets of mahogany and Venetian glass This is a detail of a compressed charcoal drawing measuring 14 x 10 ft (4. 126-27. there is a unique museum of 18th-century anatomical waxes. each modeled from dissection.3 x 3 m) made in response to La Specola. These almost life-size figures were composed from my imagination and achieved with the help af studies discussed on pp. Florence. .La Specola At17V i a Romana.

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compliant subject to scrutinize. and secular narratives. bells. made as he passed through the ages of man.139). The returning image was of crucial consideration in any proposal. his changes in pressure and Hitchcock length o f line. Once you understand Self-Portrait in a Cocked Hat c. character. or whose eyes can seem to follow us around the room Portraiture is a constant. . single or of groups. Man Ray's self-portrait of scored lines. We are also reassured by keeping records of ourselves. Movie director Alfred similarly signed his films by playing a fleeting role: he walks through an extra. or a glimpse of him is caught in a photograph used as a prop. draftsman. This enlargement o f his miniature p o r t r a i treveals t h e s p e e d and agility o f his p e n and about himself. Self-portraiture gives every artist a constant. we use the delicate medium of silver point to look at foundation structures of the head. Past rulers sent painters across continents to bring back a likeness in advance of a prospective royal marriage. In this chapter. buttons. 1790-92 4 x 3 in ( 1 0 2 x 7 6 m m ) F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A and memorize the basic structure that we all share. and social and political commentaries. and their posture can be changed with just one line. and lucrative genre for artists. having been documented and preserved. Beginners often draw themselves as a way of establishing their practice. throat. usually strangers from past times. painters have dropped discreet records of themselves into commissioned narratives so that they can remain a face in the crowd. Halls and palaces are filled with pictures of the mighty and significant. abstract or figurative. Rembrandt's famous multitude of self-portraits.Portraiture IN P O R T R A I T U R E W E MEET PEOPLE. To create a face is to see and interpret the essence of an identity. W h e n drawing a person. and it is very rewarding. is here to both meet and look through us. historical. and a handprint (see p. live. Our homes are filled with images of our loved ones and of those in our families who have gone before. Goya's w o r k s include many royal and society p o r t r a i t s . a single line can deliver an entire expression. Equally. and in a few scrolling rafts of pen lines and stubbled dots. look directly at us. It also reminds us o f b o t h t h e intimacy and a scene as scrutiny o f an honest portrait. gathered all that he knew FRANCISCO DE GOYA V i s i o n a r y Spanish painter. the meaning of their face. and shoulders. Goya. neck. you can capture the subtlety. and satirical or metaphorical. and p r i n t m a k e r . who. in a miniature self-portrait magnified opposite. We can mold and animate qualities of expression out of objects and fragments of disassociated things—for example. and expression of the individual. The truth is that we all like looking at faces and observing the billions of variations that make us individuals. religious. or past us. Portraits can be highly or loosely detailed. For centuries. became more poignant as he progressed. their stance.

Holbein maps the still landscape of Dorothea's body in questioning marks. Without faltering. For the beginner. It is the portrait of a countrywoman. adding smudges of tone for weight and solidity. caught in her last moments of youth. Here the grace and beauty of two young women are held forever. The aesthetic sense of a line being just right can make a drawing sing.132 PORTRAITURE Poise THE BALANCE BETWEEN a mark and a blank space is often a tantalizing form of perfection. How could the addition of shadows have enhanced this image? Few strokes The simplicity of Picasso's line is breathtaking. Through exhibitions and copies in books. The Tightness of a line is felt in its speed. Her face is drawn tenderly and with a luminous glow. hand to capture something well in only Frangoise au Bandeau 1946 660 x 505 mm (26 x197/8in) PABLO PICASSO . There is a common misunderstanding that a drawing with only a few lines is both less finished and easier to make than a drawing with more. Picasso strikes and scrolls his pencil. PABLO PICASSO Spanish Cubist painter (see also p. We can actually count that he struck the paper 40 times. stealthily using his chalk to find contours and mass. they serve as a great lesson that it is not always necessary to add tone to your drawing. breadth. whisking a timeless girl onto the page. we can enjoy and learn from them.30). one eye already cast askew into the autumn of her life. length. While with longer consideration. He makes his flair and skill look easy. We can read so much about them by studying their gaze. The truth is often the opposite. and pressure as it conducts our eye through the image. teetering on the brink of older age. Picasso has left to posterity many hundreds of magnificent line drawings. It takes a truly accomplished a few strokes.

and its downward slope crowns the diagonal of the composition. Her folded forearms support and frame her weight above. and produced numerous society portraits such as this one here. Holbein has cropped and pinned his subject within the four outermost lines of the image—the edges of the page. gently flushed. Cropping This regal composition fits its paper perfectly. The peak of her cap clips the uppermost edge. Holbein unified the woman with her background by gently blending colors from her clothes and face into the atmosphere around her. made a popular series o f w o o d c u t prints titled The Dance of Death. he designed c o u r t costumes. In addition t o his numerous exquisite portraits in oil. and designer f r o m Basel. presses against the binding across her face. Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 1516 51/8 x121/4in (385 x 310 m m ) HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER .133 HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER German p o r t r a i t painter draftsman. He outlined her nose but not her upper lip. Blended colors In this portrait drawn with colored chalks on slightly textured paper. which. Holbein was employed toward the end of his life by King Henry VIII of England.

solid above and almost hollow below. Anatomically. It floats in space. Psychological drama is contained behind a grid. continues to exhibit regularly. VICTOR NEWSOME British sculptor painter and draftsman. Newsome was awarded the Prix de Rome in 1960. This is a m a r v e l o u s interpretation of the truth. Contrasts Sharp. . perhaps applied using a tortillon. the face is one of the hardest parts to dissect. In fact. while white painted flecks and wisps suggest electrical illumination. its highly clarified detail claiming to be d r a w n from observation. Delicate muscles are integrated with the skin and fat that is to be r e m o v e d . but they are irrelevant here. Nerves. The real dissection w o u l d have been far more c o m p l e x . the contours of a grid. dark tones of graphite blended into the paper. and glands also complicate form. London. and unpleasant to see. N e w s o m e ' s eerily shadowed form is smooth and bears a linear grain evocative of w o o d . blood vessels. or defined by. Durelli has m a d e a few m i n o r mistakes. confusing. Highlights of white gouache were dry Profile Head late in the making.134 PORTRAITURE Anatomies These highly finished drawings express the emotional power and physicality of the head and neck. distorted. This is one of a number of similar disembodied female heads seen behind. dark lines made with a pencil appear against smooth. and has works in major collections including the Tate Gallery. The style of Durelli's d r a w i n g opposite sings with the confidence of truth and precision. taught at numerous British art schools from 1962-77. using a fine and relatively 1982 13 x 181/8 in (328 x 460 mm) VICTOR NEWSOME brush.

Pencil numbers refer to the list of muscles written beneath. pull their points o f attachment t o w a r d each other . w h e n contracted. Durelli's experience as an engraver is reflected in his stylized drawing o f muscle fibers. It is hard to think of a more difficult medium with which to achieve such linear perfection. and it is likely that this drawing was intended for reproduction as a print. Stylized parallel lines are reminiscent of engravings. which.135 ANATOMIES ANTONIO DURELLI Linear perfection This is a red chalk drawing of extraordinary accomplishment. Red Chalk the Muscles 1837 173/8 x 145/8 in ( 4 4 0 x 3 7 2 m m ) ANTONIO DURELLI and Pencil Drawing and of Neck of the Head Little is k n o w n o f this M i l a n e s e p a i n t e r a n d engraver w h o c a m e from a family o f artists.

Portrait de Marie-Laure de Noailles c. Similar movements sculpted the head below into its page. necks. with speed and urgency. Opposite. They show us clearly the bones of drawing. Energy This is a portrait of a woman drawn with black crayon on a plain page of a book Lines search for the essence of form. He is best known for his bronze sculptures of human form. each portrait is inscribed onto the page. The camera watches him at work. painter draftsman. each locked into a visionary gaze. and heads. There is a film of Giacometti drawing. and with staccato flinches his hyperactive eye moves from paper to model. They confuse our perception of scale by being intimately fragile and at the same time far removed. he drew over the whole image at once. Agitated marks make patches of tone that cut away the space around the character. Then.136 PORTRAITURE THESE ARE DRAWINGS of shoulders. and poet After studying in Geneva and Italy. while his hand stabs and thrusts Revelations like a conductors baton. which are characteristically elongated. close enough to touch his hair and feel his breath. cutting and carving the paper with matted and spiraling restless energy. as if seen from a distance. Both works demonstrate how simple lines can be made complex by being intense. Without paint and with very little tone. Speed Giacometti probably began with an oval shape placed in relation to the proportion of the page. ALBERTO GIACOMETTI Swiss sculptor. 1948 77/8 x 6 in (200 x 150 mm) ALBERTO GIACOMETTI . We are brought intimately close to this man gazing up to heaven. Flesh is built and personality carved simultaneously. Bellini gently conjures the features of his saint with soft marks that tease his presence out of shadows into the light. Giacometti settled in Paris.

25 6 .5 9 ) .G I O V A N N I BELLINI A prominent member of a large family o f V e n e t i a n painters. a n d b r o t h e r in-law. a n d his w o r k is d i s t i n c t i v e l y calm. transferring which were made in the process of the saint to his final place in the composition of a painting (see Glossary pp. Transfer This delicate humorous chalk a drawing is a cartoon—not image but a type of template used to plan the composition of a larger work Look closely and you will see rows of tiny dots along every significant line in the picture. H e t a u g h t G i o r g i o n e Barbarelli and Titian. a n d c o n t e m p l a t i v e . These are pinholes. Head and Shoulders of a Man 73/8 x 21/4 in ( 1 8 6 x 5 8 UNDATED GIOVANNI BELLINI . H e p r e f e r r e d religious t o classical t h e m e s . lyrical. Sometimes different narrative same character was reused in compositions. Character This is one of many cartoons produced by Bellini the and his family. Bellini s t u d i e d u n d e r his f a t h e r J a c o p o . Mantegna.

Self Portrait 1982 9 4 x 7 6 in (239 x 193 cm) JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT . Man Ray's playful silk-screen assembly of color blocks. The artist has finished his portrait with the signature of his hand smacked in the middle like a kiss: a declaration of existence as old as man's first drawing. marks. and sheet metal before being snapped up by the New York contemporary art scene. and confrontations with. and buttons rings with surrealist wit and agile improvisation. humor. political outcry. It has proved to be a subject of piercing scrutiny. and attitudes.138 PORTRAITURE THE MIRROR OF SELF-PORTRAITURE offers artists infinite reflections of. scrolls. In 1986 he traveled to Africa and showed his work in Abidjan on the Ivory Coast He also exhibited in Germany and France. bells. made with great energy. Signs and symbols with symbols This painting shudders that ore written. Later Basquiat sold drawings on T-shirts. their most immediate and best-known subject: themselves. and everything flux. The figure's position is unequivocal and defiant while around him is in a state Without the essential of cultural and figure we would elegant belookingat a sophisticated painting of signs. float and shimmer in the shallow pictorial space. postcards. a tribal.221). scratched into its surface. It is an image of confrontation—the ever-controversial young artist roars at us from his abstract city-scape. Islands of graphic marks. The incandescent New York painter Jean Michel Basquiat pictured himself here in naked silhouette. Al Diaz. signing their work SAMO. drawn. scratched lines. and indulgence. JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT Short-lived American painter and graffiti artist who began his blazing nine-year career drawing on lower Manhattan subway trains with a friend. spear-brandishing warrior. skull- Self-Portraits headed. similar to work by Cy Twombly (see p. It is an opportunity to look deep without the infringement of courtesies owed to a commissioning sitter.

During the 1920's and 30s. Autoportrait 1916 195/8 MAN RAY . printmaker and cofounder of the New York Dada movement. painter. Man Ray lived and worked in Paris. They suggest speed and make the picture look immediate and spontaneous. The handprint appears to be made directly. Man Ray probably used his own hand. They experimented with camera-free photography working directly onto photographic paper Silk and ink This is a silkscreen print made through the following process: the paper was laid on a flat surface and a frame stretched with fine silk was placed on top. Black ink was printed next and then white.139 MAN RAY American surrealist photographer. Frame White lines are seemingly (though not actually) scratched through ink to frame this face. while a squeegee was used to drag thick lilac-brown ink across the silk pushing it though exposed areas onto the paper below. where he collaborated with the artist Laslo MoholyNagy. The first part of the stenciled image was already marked on the silk The screen and paper were then held tightly together. caked in thick printing ink or paint. last of all.

and t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h strips a b o v e and b e l o w . M a k e s u r e i t is c o m p l e t e l y clean t o avoid u n w a n t e d streaks. Numerous early European artists also enjoyed its fine qualities (see p. E m p t y mechanical pencils designed f o r t h i c k leads ( s e e p. b u t d o n ' t w o r r y . Drawn across a prepared surface. and gold have also been used. laid on paper. b e f o r e priming stretched paper. Gesso o r m a t t e m u l s i o n c a n a l s o b e u s e d . This is called a three-tone drawing. Lay a clean d r a w i n g b o a r d o n a flat surface. Z I N C W H I T E G O U A C H E : Dilute with w a t e r A d d c o l o r i f r e q u i r e d (as opposite) 4 . I combined silver point with painted white gouache on a pink ground. bone. and is therefore useful w h e n using w a t e r c o l o r as well as silver point. Metal point does not work on ordinary paper. Historically. s o m e m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n o t h e r s . illuminators of medieval m a n u s c r i p t s . The most c o m m o n metal has always been silver—hence the term "silver point. you will need t o stretch paper and lay a wash (see right and opposite). Stretched paper remains taut as a d r u m .54) can also b e used. Pages 142 to 147 are illustrated in silver point and techniques are explained on pp. W e t a n d fix a s e c o n d strip t o t h e o p p o s i t e side. Straighten the w o r s t buckles. 2. choose a silver object. SILVER P O I N T W I R E H O L D E R : T h e s e c a n b e p u r c h a s e d a n d t e n d t o b e heavy. s e e p . platinum. Metal point is simply a strip of metal bound in a holder. p a r c h m e n t . Be swift and firm. I t is a v a i l a b l e f r o m all a r t s h o p s . If w o r k i n g o n an emulsion-painted wall. it leaves a deposit. 1 4 4 . or wood. artists mixed white lead. o n e t o fit each side o f t h e b o a r d — t h e s e will make t h e glued f r a m e t h a t holds y o u r p a p e r in place. key. copper. 2 .54-55). was familiar to or eggshells with animal glue. Note h o w domestic paintwork marks with a coin. which quickly oxidizes into a gray line. the surface must be primed with a ground such as gouache. SILVER W I R E : Purchase different gauge lengths f r o m a traditional a r t supplier o r jeweler. purchase silver wire.Tear o f f f o u r lengths o f b r o w n p a p e r g u m tape. MATERIALS 1 Find a clean sponge and b o w l o r d e e p t r a y a n d fill it w i t h w a t e r W e t t h e p a p e r evenly in t h e t r a y o r o n t h e b o a r d . S i l v e r is b e s t . who used it to outline initials and border characters before painting. M E T A L OBJECTS: All metal objects m a r k a p r e p a r e d surface. To begin. T h e p a p e r will l o o k b u c k l e d . Lightly s p o n g e o f f t h e excess. Find a n i t e m t h a t y o u can h o l d a n d draw with comfortably. c h o o s e a s o f t full b r u s h t h a t c a n c a r r y p l e n t y o f l i q u i d . an exciting indication of how large-scale drawings could be made on a wall. 144-45.s t r i p a n d use i t t o fix o n e side o f t h e p a p e r t o t h e b o a r d . or ring. This browns with age unless sealed by fixative (see pp. I m a k e m y o w n f r o m o l d dip pens. w h i t e d r a w i n g paper) and cut it t o fit y o u r d r a w i n g b o a r d w i t h a generous b o r d e r a r o u n d its edges.140 PORTRAITURE Silver P o i n t SILVER OR METAL POINT STRETCHING PAPER A sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has been made w e t with the strokes o f a paintbrush will buckle d u e t o its uneven expansion. Take a sheet o f any t y p e o f p a p e r (for e x a m p l e . 156). Opposite. 1. 3 ." Lead. S O F T F U L L B R U S H : W h e n laying a w a s h . and alloys work on matt emulsion. and make o r buy a holder. For i m p o r t a n t a d v i c e o n p r e p a r a t i o n a n d use. 5. W e t o n e length o f g u m .

Leave the wash to dry thoroughly before you begin to draw. full brush into the gouache and start in the top left corner. Prop up your board of dry. Reload the brush and add a second line overlapping it beneath.141 SILVER POINT 3 Leave the paper to dry flat. v e r y little at a time. and let tests dry before deciding to change the mixture. as the paper will be ruined by a raised ridge. so put newspaper under the lower edge. Keep adding smooth. Dry thoroughly before laying a wash. any extra will keep. leaving a smooth surface. stretched paper at a 45-degree angle. slowly add powder pigment or gouache from a tube. Beware of the tape's coming loose at any point while drying. The next step will make a small mess. Dip a soft. overlapping lines until you reach the bottom. Mix a very wet but not weak solution of gouache in a jar with a lid (add pigment at this stage for a three-tone drawing). Make enough to cover your paper. is necessary to lay a wash o Three-tone When coloring ground. Runs blend into each other evenly. Keep testing on spare paper. LAYING A WASH It your stretched paper so as to prime it for silver point.t o n e silver point drawing of a skull . It will slowly straighten and become taut. T h r e e . Make an even line across to the right. Here. I used a powder pigment called Caput Mortuum.

142

PORTRAITURE

Head and Neck
THE HEAD AND NECK are best conceived as one unit arranged in four parts: cranium, face, neck, and throat. Each is of equal importance. The cranium is essentially egg-shaped and pivots on the first vertebra. The face is suspended beneath, like a softly curved triangle. The n e c k — a powerful, shapely column of layered muscles rigged to vertebrae—adjusts and holds the angle and expression of the head. The throat is delicate, hard, and lumpy to the touch, formed of cartilaginous rings, glands, thin muscles, and looser skin. Framing the throat, two columnar neck muscles (sternomastoids) project the head forward and also turn it to the opposite side.

This is a simple shorthand diagram representing the cranium, face, neck, and throat. It can be learned and visualized in different positions very easily, giving the novice a firm footing on which to stand and develop their drawings of the head and neck.

Shorthand diagram

Cranium Begin with an egg shape. Tilt it on the paper to change the position of the head.

Face Draw a rounded triangular shape below the forward point of the egg to represent the face.

Neck This shape represents the trapezius; the largest surface muscle of the neck and shoulders.

Throat A triangular shape represents the throat. (The nose makes the diagram clearer)

Applied shorthand

After copying the diagram above, animate it. Practice drawing the cranium at different angles, add the face beneath, then the neck, shoulders, and throat. Shape your diagrams so they are more lifelike, but avoid adding detailed features too soon.

143 These three drawings demonstrate (from left to right) the following: why the cranium may be considered egg-shaped; now the face can be seen as a curved triangle suspended beneath and where the division lies between the two; and the form of sternomastoid muscles that frame thethroatsodistinctlywhen the head is turned and inclined forward.

The skull and the frame of the throat

HEAD AND NECK

Bones of the cranium are locked together by jagged joints. Sinuses in the frontal (forehead) bone between and beneath the eyebrows are larger in men, making their brows pronounced and often ridged compared to those of women.

Bones of the face house our sight, smell, taste, The skull pivots on the first vertebra or "atlas," and speech. Cartilage extending from nasal bones after the Greek god condemned to carry the shapesthenose.Pads of fat resting on the base of Earth. The jaw hinges in front of the ears. Behind, eacheyesocket support the eyeballs in position. If bony ridges give anchor to the sternomastoid thefatisreducedby old age, eyes look sunken. muscles rising from the breast- and collarbones.

Three useful generalizations

General rules about the relative positions of body parts can hinder artists as much as help them, since they are often based on classical ideals rather than thediversityoflife.However,some generalizations can help as a rough guide to start with, so long as good observation takes over as soon as possible.

In general, when the face is relaxed (not smiling or frowning), the corners of the mouth are found directly beneath the pupils of the eyes. Vertical lines can be drawn down from the pupils to meet the corners of the mouth.

The height of a young adult's ear is often the same as their nose and found on the same level. There is no general rule for growing children, and remember that ears grow again in old age, which is most obvious in men.

The height of the face is about the length of the handspan and the eye is normally halfway down the total height of the head. A common error is to draw the eyes too high up on the face.

144

PORTRAITURE

Essential Observations
T H E DELICACY OF SILVER POINT

(see pp. 140-41) is perfect for

such as a beach pebble. Here, I stretched drawing paper and laid a wash of white gouache (see pp.140-41). As you can see, the line and tone of silver point varies with pressure, but only slightly. Too much pressure cuts the ground. Silver point erases, but so does ground. Erased ground can be repaired gently with extra gouache. You can also use gouache to paint over mistakes and make corrections.

small, detailed drawings. The drawings below and opposite show useful observations of the head and neck, which are explained in the captions below. Each drawing was made with a silver wire held in a large-gauge mechanical pencil. Newly clipped wires are sharp and cut rather than draw. Before use, they need to be rubbed and smoothed on a stone

Here I imagined placing my silver point wire against the skin of each head and neck and, working in parallel bands from the crown downward, I traced the undulation of surfaces. Linear bands imagined around the head and neck can help you t o clearly see the tilt of the head and relative levels of the features. Ask a friend t o model for you and try this exercise life-size using a pencil and eraser

Contours

Tilted forward

Tilted backward

Three-quarter view

Seeing that the face is never flat

Drawings below left and center are summaries of the generalizations given on p.143. Far right is an image to remind us that the face is never flat. It slopes back to varying degrees among individuals, from the tip of the nose t o the ears. For example, note that the innermost corners of the eyes are farther forward in space than the outermost corners.

General measurements, side

General measurements, front

View from above

145

Male and female head and neck
Men's necks a r e g e n e r a l l y s h o r t e r a n d t h i c k e r t h a n w o m e n ' s b e c a u s e t h e angles a n d levels o f c e r t a i n b o n e s a r e d i f f e r e n t b e t w e e n t h e sexes ( i n d i c a t e d h e r e b y d o t t e d lines) a n d m e n are n o r m a l l y m o r e muscular. T h e male t h y r o i d cartilage ( A d a m ' s apple) is larger a n d m o r e visible than t h e f e m a l e . L a r g e r f e m a l e t h y r o i d glands also s o f t e n t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e t h r o a t .

ESSENTIAL OBSERVATIONS
Female skull

Male

skeleton

Male

skull

Trapezius muscle
The largest m u s c l e o f t h e s h o u l d e r s a n d n e c k is called the trapezius. A r r a n g e d on e i t h e r side o f t h e spine, it shapes t h e u p p e r back and neck above the s h o u l d e r blades. C o n t r a c t i n g in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h d e e p e r and surrounding muscles, it raises and l o w e r s t h e shoulders a n d d r a w s t h e h e a d backtoeitherside.

The whole

muscle

Upper

half with

sternomastoids

Above

with head

straight

Above

with head

forward

Side with

sternomastoid

Front with

sternomastoid

146

PORTRAITURE

Drawing Portraits
USING A SHARP 3 B PENCIL, I drew this head quickly from imagination, evolving its character and expression from the scheme of four parts: cranium, face, neck, a n d throat (see p. 142). Here, five steps show you how to practice doing the same. This approach can be used to draw from imagination or from life. Keep your wrist loose and hold your pencil away from its point (see pp.22-23). Build the layers of your drawing from pale to dark, a n d from general balance a n d form to specific detail. Remember that successful drawings are built on foundations of "seeing the whole," then dividing the whole into smaller parts, with details brought in last of all. Phrased tonal marks modeling this girls skin and hair follow the technique demonstrated by Goya in his self-portrait on p. 130. Turn to Goya's drawing and study how, in a circle beginning across his hat, moving down his hair, and around his coat, he flows lines over surfaces to describe their contour. As you build from steps 1 to 5, bring phrased groups of lines across the surfaces of your form, using their directions to capture the expression of the head and neck. If unsure, copy my steps until you gain the confidence to make your own decisions.

This drawing is the final stage of the four steps opposite. Here, I have enlarged the eye, and moved it back into the head by trimming the length of the upper lid and adding a more pronounced lower lid. It is important to set eyes far enough back from the relatively prominent nose; too close to it and the face flattens. Hair swept back and extended behind the cranium balances the regal pose. Lines shaping the hair echo those marking the cranium in step 1. Here, the lower part of step 1 comes through as wisps of hair across her face and ear

BALANCED POSE

Portrait of a Young Girl

2 Rapidly add shorthand shapes to represent the face. The eye announces the nature and expression of the emerging person. over the cranium. down the face to the throat. and throat. so it is important to the life of the image that while controlled. 4 . avoid drawing too dark. Here. Keep your first lines light.Theangle at which you draw this shape of the paper will determine the angle of the finished head. 3 Place the eye beneath the cranium. I used light to describe the upper lid first with a shadow beneath for the lower lid and open eye. neck.147 Building up the portrait DRAWING PORTRAITS 1 Gently spin pale lines in a softly drawn shape representing the cranium. First lines will remain visible in the final drawing. they are also still sweeping and confident. Moving from the back of the neck. I modeled the outline of the character I imagined light shining from above and in front and adjusted the pressure of lines to reflect this. too soon. The nose and ear begin to shape the head.

.

be aware of the subtle differences in skin surface. . Above all.T o DRAW PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGES. a n d t h o s e w h o a r e Generations asleep (see overleaf). and gravity. muscular tension. the texture of hair. empathize.

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Van Dyke's noble cast of characters was modeled more finely.Castings DRAWING IN THE PRADO MUSEUM. Fast lines carve out the features of Goya's soup-slurping hag. Madrid. I used the nib upside down to gain needle-sharp precision. with a steel dip pen and acrylic ink. seeking the dominant contours of each individual expression. .

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Samoylovich Rosenberg. and atmosphere. toParis. Bakst's designs and costumes immediately To the fine artist. caricatured p l u m e s . Cities c h a n g e d all. and intent. while court p a i n t e r s — M i c h e l a n g e l o and Holbein. variety. T h e p a p e r p a t t e r n is p e r h a p s the m o s t w i d e l y k n o w n of c o s t u m e d r a w i n g s : a formalized plan of lines. and i n d e e d image b e c a m e the property also of the industrial classes. st 111/4 x 81/2 in (285 x 220 mm) u d i e d L E O NB A K S T and explore the characterization of fabric t h r o u g h m o v e m e n t . In this c h a p t e r w e see h o w c l o t h i n g c a n s e e m to p o s s e s s the w e i g h t and m o n u m e n t a l i t y of stone. W e dress ourselves and costume designer trained in in St. and s y m b o l s that lets m e n and w o m e n in all countries and areas have w o r k i n g access to the latest fashions. T h e rural masses w o r e h o m e s p u n simplicity. was a Belarussian A r t Deco theater fantasies and desires to immediately possess a version of the same. and e x u b e r a n c e . D e s i g n e r s create m a s t e r p i e c e s of haute couture LEON BAKST for H o l l y w o o d stars. for e x a m p l e — d e s i g n e d the w a r d r o b e s of p o p e s a n d k i n g s .Costume W E MAKE OURSELVES EXOTIC. w h i c h in turn feed c o n s u m e r Lev. outrageous. and even invisible by the w a y w e dress. Designers all over the w o r l d c o n t i n u a l l y p e n and b r u s h lines to lash us w i t h color.This voluptuous above all a physical p u p p e t w i t h w h i c h to animate character and narrate personality. o n l y the w e a l t h y c o u l d afford to h a v e c o s t u m e s specially m a d e . g l o s s y folds. known as Leon Bakst. . theb u t b y the w a y it s p e a k s w i t h its flying. he and cofounder Serge Diaghilev took Paris by eac storm in 1910 with their production h year in the industrial f r e n z y of creating o u r image and aspirations. articulate a d a n g e r o u s satirical j o k e . it is the public sign by w h i c h w e are j u d g e d . or b u l g e s . cool. dancer leaps through swaths of golden cloth. or calm u s w i t h chic. woman was drawn by Bakst one year later for the ballet Narcisse. Like it or not. and be so expressive of temperament that it overtakes the need for an o c c u p y i n g h u m a n form. b u t influenced Parisian fashion and interiordecor. fulfilling lavish and spectacular briefs. Artists do this not so m u c h b y the style of a figure's garment. Petersburg and later exiled designers' ideas and are surprised and delighted b y their continual f l o w of inspiration. a n d p r o f e s s i o n — b e g a n life as a d r a w i n g . P o p u l a r f a s h i o n d e s i g n e x p l o d e d w i t h the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n . T h e e n t o u r a g e of the theatrical stage o f t e n l e a d s the c a t w a l k . c u l t u r e . arichand unusual combination of pencil. a n d w e will c o l l e c t patterns. e m u l a t e textures. S t r u c t u r e is t h o u g h the i n v e n t i o n of shoes. w a r m t h . c o s t u m e o f f e r s a r i c h v o c a b u l a r y of t e x t u r e s a n d c o l o r . charcoal. In psychology. and gouache. so that c h o i c e . personality. a n d s u b t l e t o n e s . Practical classes Bacchante 1911 l o o k at r a n g e s of c o l o r e d m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d i n g p a s t e l s a n d felt-tip p e n s . and everything w e h a v e c h o s e n for o u r w a r d r o b e s — r e f l e c t o r s of o u r taste.As artistic director of the It is s h o c k i n g to t h i n k h o w m a n y m i l l i o n s of d r a w i n g s m u s t be m a d e a n d d i s c a r d e d Ballet Russe. intriguing. a n d c o u r t i e r tailors f o l l o w e d suit. c r u m p l e s . of Scheherazade. gesture. shapes. Previously.

H e m e t i c u l o u s l y a r r a n g e d subjects t o c o n v e y d e e p e r meaning. bands around the columns. Maelbeke I44I Madonna 11 x 7 in (278 x 180 m m ) JAN V A N EYCK . Flaxmans sleeper—perhaps a pilgrim or a soldier resting between campaigns—has wedged himself into the cleft of some great building to grab a moment of peace. Delicate marks Silver (or metal) point is the most delicate of traditional drawing media (see pp. In Van Eyck's drawing below. best k n o w n f o r his G h e n t altarpiece ( 1 4 3 2 ) a n d m a r r i a g e p o r t r a i t o f Giovanni A r n o l f i n i and his w i f e (1434).140-41). Below this. her marble garment holds u p the infant Christ in a fountain of compressed line. Keisai Eisen's intense. The quiet stillness of this image is achieved by a masterly economy of stylized line. With a stylus such as Van Eyck used here. and snakelike marks. Sculpted one. Marble gown We will never know if Van Eyck considered this drawing unfinished or intended the kneeling abbot to remain transient and ghostly. Above them. swirling printed fabrics. He has layered these slowly and carefully so as not to cut through the ground and produce a white mark just where he intended a dark one.156 COSTUME Cloth and Drapery EACH OF THESE FIGURES is ninety percent cloth. dragons. resonate with their wearers startled expression. Opposite. the carefully composed outline of his cloak shows us how the artist would have also begun his immaculate rendering of the Virgin's clothes. and the kneeling abbot is a ghost by comparison. the vaulted stone roof echoes and crowns the moment. and implied striation in the stone of the architecture. folds and patterns of material speak more resolutely of their wearers than any small glimpses of body we can see. Short and subtle horizontal punctuations are only given in the background by sections of floor. the Madonna and her architecture are both dressed in the same manner. Church and deities are drawn as JAN VAN EYCK Flemish oil p a i n t e r f r o m L i m b o u r g . with their jagged edges. delicate lines. However. Their uninterrupted emphasis is entirely vertical. Her gown is carved and polished as if made from marble. it is only possible to create very thin. Van Eyck's highly polished w o r k is c e l e b r a t e d f o r its disguised symbolism. Vertical lines The highly controlled lines of this drawing cascade from top to bottom of the image.

one over the other. an 18th-19th century document on the lives of the ukiyo-e artists. and teacher Distinctive linear illustrations for the works of Homer. The inked block is laid face-down on damp paper and pressed to make the print. Koimurasaki of Tama-ya 1810-50 15 x101/4in (381 x 260 mm) KEISAI EISEN The Courtesan JOHN F L A X M A N English late 18th-century neoclassical sculptor. writer and printmaker Keisai Eisen took his name from the masters Kano Hakkeisai and Kikugawa Eizan. designer. Remaining raised areas of wood are rolled with colored inks. which are sometimes also cut into pieces like a jigsaw puzzle.157 KEISAI EISEN Japanese draftsman. stone wall of downward-stroked this sleeper's position is momentary. draftsman. he also co-edited and expanded the Ukiyo-e Ruiko (History of Prints of the Floating World). Images are drawn onto smooth. Aeschylus earned Flaxman an international reputation. Position In this pen and ink drawing. and the feet notched against the pillar tell us that A lines holds him into the cleft. This complex numerous blocks prepared image and may have been made with printed separately. the angle of the head. flat sheets of wood. Respected for his sumptuous images of geisha and editions of erotic prints. and Man Lying Down in a Cloak I 787-94 21/4 JOHN FLAXMAN x 41/8 in (57 x 105 mm) . Dante. CLOTH AND DRAPERY Relief printing This is a woodblock print made by a relief process. each delivering a different part and color of the design. Parts of the image to be left unprinted are gouged out with a metal tool. the cloak sliding to the ground.

Details and voices are worn externally with great imagination. Flowing scarf The knight's scarf of gilded blue is drawn in a pale wash over red ink lines. A flamboyant territory. cloth.158 COSTUME Character Costumes an extreme form of the clothed figure. A s a y o u n g man. Its warm surface flows in contrast to the stiff metal armor. The aged queen is compared to an overdressed bird. Anthony Van Dyke's Man in Armor is a masterpiece of drawn surface. 160. Fine examples can be plucked from fashion. and feather were all CHARACTER COSTUMES REPRESENT observed with closely crafted conviction. He has been rendered on this olive<olored page with pen and gray wash worked over a red and black under-drawing. lace. a scurrilous cartoon by a courtier of Queen Elizabeth I. Van D y k e was chief assistant t o Rubens f o r t w o years. Pen and wash In the graphic accuracy of this armored knight we see the idealized identity of a warrior from another time: a gleaming defender of the realm. In 1 6 3 2 he m o v e d p e r m a n e n t l y t o L o n d o n . he c o o l e d and redefined his style. where sometimes there just might not be anybody inside. Man in Armor UNDATED 1 6 x 9 1 / 2 in ( 4 0 5 x 2 4 0 m m ) A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE . Leg sections in both support the figure without taking our attention away from the main garment above. Its color is also reflected in the metal. The metal. Leg section Compare mid-shin the section of white boots cropped to the section of similarly cropped trousers in drawings Gruau's drawing on p. It is presumed Her Royal Highness never saw it. cinema. for she would not have been amused and William Wodall might have been stretching his luck. theater. The slight uncertainty of the pose and the limp cloak suggest a little more metal than man. w h e r e . t h r o u g h n u m e r o u s p o r t r a i t and C h u r c h commissions. all ruffs and wrinkles. a n d w a s e m p l o y e d as c o u r t painter t o King Charles I. b e f o r e traveling t o Italy. A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE Flemish painter and draftsman. and even formal portraiture. cartoon. Opposite is a dangerous drawing.

1599 71/2 WILLIAM x 51/4 in ( 1 9 0 x 1 3 4 mm) WODALL . while a raised foot pauses to assess the next displaying a fan of daggers. A Ruffs and feathers Starched white ruffs worn at court and by society grew steadily larger as Elizabeth's reign progressed. t h e Rising. bitten nature. and her pride. Satire of the Queen's Dress c. t h e Jesuit Mission. t h e Ridolfi Plot. Beneath the lethal fan is the body of a bird of trimmed feathers suggest age. By her old upto three tiers supported on sticks. she is shown as a grossly disproportioned bird. it was customary to Iron-gall ink Wodall's dangerous caricature steps daintily the written lines of her dedicated page. hooded with an overinflated fluffy ruff eye pins us.35). suggest the use of iron-gall ink (see p. manuscript comprising six c a n t o s . the queen is masterfully rebalanced by words at her feet The whole drawing's blackened. Northern Satire This is a quill-and-ink satire of the elderly queen's pride-As head of state and fashion.159 WILLIAM W O D A L L A u t h o r and illustrator o f The Aaes of Queene a Elizabeth poem Allegorized. and saturations showing through from the other side. t h e B a b i n g t o n Plot. here dark tawny owl. T h e poem recounts t h e six m a j o r crises o f Elizabeth's reign: t h e Spanish A r m a d a . Top-heavy.

Fine lines drawn against the building behind her echo the threads on which we have all seen arachnids drop and hang. G r u a u ' s highly distinctive d r a w i n g s have a p p e a r e d Couture. Airbrushed reflective surfaces further amplify our perception of speed.F r e n c h f a s h i o n i l l u s t r a t o r w h o in his l o n g and esteemed career w o r k e d with many of the g r e a t e s t d e s i g n e r s o f 2 0 t h . diving to catch us in the grip of her machine-like limbs. Gruau's model regally swans to the fore with cool pride. elegant chic and svelte. muscular aggression. Rene Gruau's bold gouache drawing of smoothly swaying sophistication captures a brilliantly cut garment and frames it with great dynamism in a white. RENE GRUAU I t a l i a n . She has been drawn with brushes dipped into India ink and gouache. Spider-Girl leaps like an insect. Fashion and fantasy drawings invent prototypes of ideals and perfection—be they for the catwalk or the fast-paced pages of comic books. Harpers & Queen. Gruau uses starkly cut negative space (see pp. studio-like rectangle of paper.160 COSTUME Femmes Fatales THESE DEVASTATING femmes fatales force back the onlooker with their demure.and tilted to the same de a little deeper than sp kneestogivehergravity. as is Spider-Girl opposite. 5 8 . Compare the compositio beneathVanDyke'sstudy of armor on p. a n d L'Officiel de la couture. Drying time in between applications ensured the colors did not run into each other. demanding attention with gesture and flair. ofcroppedtrousershere to the device of the w Illustration 1949 for Jacques Fath in L ' O f f i c i e l d e la C o u t u r e RENE GRUAU . Composition Look how well this image is frame knee is parallel to the bottom edge spacehorizontalline cropping the trousers be outermostuprightbordersof her cuffs are similar above her head thesidesoftheimage. possibly over a pencil outline. India ink and gouache This swish of confidence and style our enters the page turning everyone's head.5 9 ) and a three-spoke balance of cuffs and cropped trousers to create an almost flag-like emblem of power. Vogue. and both share the power of scarlet and black.c e n t u r y haute i n n u m e r o u s m a g a z i n e s i n c l u d i n g Elle. and gray pigments were applied separately. His model is outlined. 158. The black red.

It is outside the picture frame. and figure are all locked into equally shatp through the traditional process of a pencilled outline over-drawn ink. This s modeling applied over the top give the image a sleek and mechanical of gravity. In your mind's eye extend the uprights out of the top of the picture. and Amazing Spider-Man.74-77). Single-point understand perspective To how Frenz created up therefore the effect of steeply between looking buildings—and howyou can do the same in your own work—take calculate where a ruler the and single vanishing point lies. Frenz has drawn for Marvel for about 20 years. sky. a great characteristic superhero comics. Buildings. Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 2001-04 R O N FRENZ. at Their extensions will meet the same single vanishing (see point pp. He began work on Spider-Girl in 1998. beginning with Star Wars. to the right of its center. moon.RON F R E N Z Contemporary American graphic artist w h o designs and pencils the dynamic scenes of numerous superheroes featured in Marvel Comics. Airbrushed color and with tonal focus. Align your ruler to the upright of each building. The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones. MARVEL C O M I C S . not far above the drawing. and has been the title's regular artist since 2003. Sharp focus black outlines in this drawing create a hyper-real dynamic.

OIL PASTELS Oil-based. animals. oily pigment. colored materials available. and can be a great rediscovery for bold drawings. made in about 80 colors. the diverse are made in brands of basic member of the family. Try materials that are new and unfamiliar. Many products are sold individually and in boxed sets. you may be pleasantly surprised to discover something you could not have imagined using. and sold in many colors. size. which he left unfixed to retain its brightness. clay. Pastels are finer. these work best when slightly warm. Bright pastels are more brilliant on colored paper. chalkbased but very subtle. minerals. and can be softened and manipulated with degrees of heat. allowing it to fix slightly from behind. there are disparities between the apparent nature or color of what you hold in your hand and its performance on paper. insects. Sticks and conte crayons make thicker marks (as below). See h o w they work and return later for more of what proved best for you. OIL PASTELS: Many colors. wash. The nontoxic range below represents a suggested starting point for experiment. Be aware that fixative dulls pastel. crumbly. though lines can develop greasy stains around the edges if the paper is not first stretched and treated with a gelatin paste laid as a wash. Dissolve in turpentine or mineral spirits to produce oil paint or or dark paper. intensity. Seemingly infinite choices of texture. They vary hugely in cost. and subtlety. except the final layer. Beware—some are toxic. purchase a small selection of different items you think you will like. plants. unwrapped harder pastels.162 COSTUME Colored Materials ART STORES BRIM OVER w i t h t h e m a n y wherever permitted. quality. great for tin . including iridescents. Often. C o n t e crayons are square-formed. I suggest you do so. Children's wax crayons are relatives. They work well on PIGMENTS Pigments. or wax and a binder are shaped into fine strips and encased in w o o d like a graphite pencil. Most stores leave small pads of paper on their counters for customers to test materials. Pastel pencils are slender and in w o o d casing. mixed on the paper and scratched into (as below). slightly oily to the touch. and CHALK PASTELS Pastel pencils make fine lines (as above). FELT-TIP PENS: Instant-drying alcoholor water-based inks stored in the barrels of the pens are delivered via smooth nylon o r felt tips of varying shapes and thicknesses. used to make colors. Degas built his pastels in layers. The higher the quality (and cost). soft. 3. 2. and synthetics. Before making substantial investments. Use them to draw lightly (as above left) or thickly. quality and cost T h e best are paperwrapped sticks of sumptuous. 1. 4. Many artists apply fixative to the back of their work. The worst are like revolting old lipsticks that get everywhere except where you intend. shape. and cost are laid out for our pleasure and perusal. CHALK PASTELS: Blackboard chalk is sidewalk work. hue. the finer and more subtle the texture and color should be. Store loose pastels in dry rice to keep them clean. COLORED PENCILS: Dry pigments ground together with chalk. are derived from many sources: rocks. paper-wrapped. fixing each layer on the front.

it is still a great champion and support for those beginners feeling shyly obligated to tone down their love of color to conform with what others say they should use. leaving the paper to shine through for highlights (as below).or clay-based thin crayons in wood casing. Colors can be blended as shown right) and tones graded by altering pressure. so it is best to test them before buying. 111). . Some give richer lines than others. others dissolve in water or turpentine to make a wash. Think of Matisse's Blue Nude (see p. If you love smooth blocks and lines of colon felt-tip pens are perfect. Brands made for designers sold in enormous ranges of colors are far more subtle and sophisticated than those made for children. Diverse brands are harder or soften greasier or chalkier in use. Some are nonsoluble.163 COLORED PENCILS These are wax. Fine lines can be achieved (as above). FELT-TIP PENS Although not made with felt-tip pen.

I m a d e n u m e r o u s s h e e t s o f d r a w i n g s . . personality. Superstitions and fetishes are attached to them: we are told never to put new shoes on a table. Linear Outline Using fine pens. and volume in space (see pp. Turn t h e m in different d i r e c t i o n s and o b s e r v e t h e i r s t r u c t u r e and f o r m . you will need several large sheets of drawing paper. style.164 COSTUME Study and Design they reflect our age. c o v e r a large sheet o f p a p e r w i t h line drawings o f several shoes. social and economic status. D r a w each o n e first as a solid object. imagining y o u can see t h r o u g h it. the era in which we live. S H O E S TELL LIFE STORIES. 100-01 and pp. values. REPEATED STUDY T o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s class. structure. e n j o y i n g t h e study a n d i n v e n t i o n o f shoes. if y o u m a k e p l e n t y o f d r a w i n g s as o p p o s e d t o o n l y a f e w . and after studying familiar shoes we use the information learned to invent new ones. You. while artists have painted their boots or those of others as personal portraits and memorials. t h e n again as if transparent. a n d e x p e r i e n c e visible p r o g r e s s . To set up. a range of colored felt-tip pens with both fine and broad tips. will discover m o r e . 104-07). t o o . This class takes the shoe as its subject in building on earlier lessons concerned with seeing through objects to understand their function. and they have been concealed in buildings to ward off misfortune. and a selection of shoes. As artifacts in museums. they record and reflect our common history. Here we go one step further. and how we stand and walk.

165

The Surface
Next,

STUDY AND DESIGN

study the surface contours using fineand broad-tipped felt-tip pens. For best results, it is important to be bold and brief. Draw firmly, fast, and with as few strokes as possible. Build up each shoe from light to dark andleavesome paper showing through to create highlights.

Design Your Own

Using what you have learned from the previous steps about the structures of your shoes, and about the use of pens, invent new designs from your imagination. Start with fine outlines and progress to colored and textured surfaces. Modify your ideas by rotating the views.

166

COSTUME

The Structure of Costume
MUSEUMS ARE AN INFINITELY

rich resource for the artist and

information given by a period style. Arrange to visit a costume museum or ask a friend to model clothes for you at home. Using fine felt-tip pens, begin with quick, pale impressions of each garment's shape before homing in on its borders and seams. Try to draw transparent views wherever possible to record the relationships between all component parts. Aim to draw enough information for it to be possible to make up a version of the garment using paper pinned to a tailor's dummy.

designer. They often give quite unexpected gems of ideas and information—whatever the subject. These drawings, made in a costume museum, demonstrate ways of recording structural information and detail for later use in the studio. They could form the basis of new designs for a fashion project or theater production, for example. Drawings of shoes on pp. 164-65 show how new designs can be evolved from the structural

OBSERVATION
It is usually best when collecting information for reference to apply the restraint of dispassionate observation. Set yourself the test of drawing facts with as little artistic license or embellishment as possible. Here I chose fine felt-tip pens because they are at their best when used swiftly, and therefore encourage bold, unhesitant decisions.

Swift lines record the hanging weight of this gentleman's coat, the relative proportions of its layers, and minimal details of the buttons and cuffs.

Thick velvet fabric is pulled tight beneath and across the bust by a single button. This transparent view shows how the fabric falls loosely in straight panels beneath the level of the sleeve.

167

LIGHTING
W h e n visiting museums, be prepared f o r l o w lighting, which can make it hard t o see and draw. A book can help if attached t o your drawing board.

Adding stripes and dashes of color with a thicker pen brings out the glossy sheen and sculptural rigidity of this dress, which would have been worn over a whalebone corset. small reading light designed t o clip o n t o a

THE STRUCTURE OF COSTUME

In small drawings such as these, use thick pens to color entire sections with a few marks, as I did here down the side of the bodice.

The light, frilly bulk of this crinoline dress is propelled forward with lines. pinching its gathers and sways that are hiding a horsehair bustle. fleets of quick

168

COSTUME

Textures and.Patterns
THIS CLASS FOCUSES ON how to draw textures through the collection of fabric, pattern, and embroidery samples from a costume m u s e u m . This formal method, using ruled squares, can create an invaluable library of ideas a n d i n f o r m a t i o n for future r e f e r e n c e — w h e n painting a clothed figure, or preparing a textile project, for example. However, if making a book of samples for a project, remember that it is important to also include collages of f o u n d materials (see pp.230-31) To d r a w a fabric texture, b e g i n by concentrating o n h o w y o u i m a g i n e it w o u l d feel if you t o u c h e d it. Decide if it w o u l d be rough, s m o o t h , w a r m , cold, thick, thin, tough, or fragile, for example. As you draw, believe you can feel these qualities at your fingertips a n d that your pencil is responding to the sensation. Undulate the pressure of your lines and marks according to the feeling of the fabric rather than its appearance. Let your pencil enact the sensation of touching its surface.

and to experiment more loosely with mixed media.

INVENTING COSTUMES
This starchy, quilted, b o w e d creation started life as an imagined corset, I intended t o d r a w together in one sculptural f o r m a range o f t h e details opposite. T h e garment quickly got o u t o f hand. T h e r e is great e n j o y m e n t in letting y o u r imagination run wild w h e n inventing costumes. If you are unable t o visit a costume museum, many exciting fabric details and textures can be found in y o u r o w n closet o r home.

169

COLORED PENCILS
Colored pencils give precision and tonal range; they can be faded but not erased. Lightly use an HB graphite pencil if you wish to plan a design first. Pressed hard, colored pencils build up a waxy finish of brilliant color. Used lightly, they appear powdery and show the texture of the paper.

TEXTURES AND PATTERNS
Wool

Silk and braid

Ribbon

Embroidered leather

Feathers

Pearls

Knit

Tassels

Outline stitch

.

These characters. I made a drawing book full of studies seeking to understand how he composed drama and pathos in his narratives (see also pp. and motivation of an individual. look at how Goya delineated volumes of thick fabric to express the posture. .Dressing Character I O N C E SPENT THREE MONTHS researching the work of Francisco de Goya at the Prado Museum. Madrid. selected from different pages of my original book. shape. and 252-53). 172-73.126-27. identity.

T H E S E PENCIL STUDIES. are copies of works by Goya in which he makes air seem heavier than flesh. as it rushes and carves fabric-wrapped forms like rivers and desert winds shaping the earth. . To understand how he did this. Posture Carving also taken from my Madrid drawing book (see pp. I carefully copied the direction of each of his lines. and tangible.170—71). and visible.

.

.

the viewer's attention in a scene by the format of its composition. television documentaries. Saskia died after childbirth. we can learn most about handling pen and ink. Blockbuster movies. even up her were laid with a brush. presumably while he is making this drawing. He in turn scorches the paper with his view and a certain speed of seeing all. As artists. and instantly engage with the action of the scene. Second. comics. the viewer is not directly made the finer lines of Saskia. Washes of shadow behind engaged and as a natural voyeur can feel invisible while watching the scene. R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN in the delivery of narrative. the direct exchange (as shown here) where one or more characters hold eye Aneedproduced the thicker lines of the nurse. stares out from her gloomy sickbed. the viewer. Here. finding corners in crowded places to inscribe their action and energy onto the page. furniture. Drawings selected for this chapter explore these Saskia Lying in Bedand a Nurse ranges of proximity 1638 9 x61/2in (227 x 164 mm) and a travel journal. we can R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter draftsman. and so. Seeing through Rembrandt's eyes. while a quill contact with. are implicated in this marital exchange made over the head of the anonymous nurse. and its illumination. Third. Saskia. we. We read tensions and exchanges between people. vivid portrait of his wife captures our attention. We can also use clothes. With a pocket full of disposable pens we also go out and draw the expressions of gathered people. It middle. We can direct close. but drawings of gathered people tell them most directly. the speed and printmaker and one of the greatest and most influential density of its lines. This J u s t as there are three parts to a traditional landscape drawing—the foreground. too. Later in their lives. types. a crowd tells the story from a distance. and other masters of Western Art.Gatherings A LL DRAWINGS TELL STORIES. and therefore seem to see. daily newspapers. The spaces between people and the positions they occupy on a page are vital to our understanding of the psychology or emotion of an event. He is also the artist from whom props to add layers of meaning and attitude. and novels—our staple cultural diet—are driven by a fascination with shared experience and the detail of what happens in other people's lives. soap operas. in spite of how it may seem. heighten or subdue drama with subtleties of exaggeration or caricature. Rembrandt's bored and frustrated wife. Storytelling and people-watching are obsessive human activities. paintings depicting scenes from history. there are no longer individuals but one significant group or mass action. this is not the portrait of an old woman. First. and distance—so drawings of gathered people can be loosely arranged in three took only minutes to make and yet it lives for centuries. Her all-too-clear expression shows annoyance and irritation with her husband. .

In one of R a c k h a m s great illustrations for Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland.. via the animated clutter of o u r material lives. Real Life is Rubbish 2002 Dimensions variable TIM N O B L E A N D SUE WEBSTER . a kitchen explodes in o u r faces. the Cat. Pans fly oft the stove. c o m p o s e d garbage p r o d u c e s a c a l m . and in. Think about what else you could use: a laser smoke. Here. garbage and chaos are piled a n d e x p l o d e d in r o o m s full of event. hearth i m p l e m e n t s crash at o u r feet.176 GATHERINGS SOME DRAWINGS ARE MADE e n t i r e l y o f i l l u m i n a t i o n that floods drama into the viewers gaze. and smoke billows around the agitated jives of the Duchess. junk. and on. TIM N O B L E A N D SUE W E B S T E R British artists who collaborate using neon. Pencil on paper important but only the beginning of possibility the combination of three-dimensional space. the C o o k . h a l o e d portrait of the artists seated b a c k to b a c k .kicks against the mundane things that close down your mind is a refreshing and good thing. t h e y select and arrange familiar items of street detritus into what appears to be an u n p l e a s a n t pile.. and Alice. for example." (Tim Noble) Drawing with light it is important to think about what you is Here timelessly we see a in can draw with. In both works. narrative is delivered through the air. and projector. refuse. Below. plates shatter. and projectors to create their anarchic punk satires of modern life. or even the office photocopier. T h e i m m a c u l a t e d r a w i n g is only r e v e a l e d w h e n t h e b e a m of a p r o j e c t o r c a s t s t h e s h a d o w Projections of the h e a p o n t o a wall."Anything that. N o b l e a n d W e b s t e r s w i t t y a n d o f t e n s u b v e r s i v e d r a w i n g s are also c o n t e m p o r a r y art installations. F o r e a c h w o r k .

and Alice's shoulder. by vivid children's Rakham's w o r k is characterized fantasy. a n d an unmistakable graphic style. and Poe's Tales Imagination. Refer back to the drawing class how pots In drawn objects and elements that those behind. beams. and watercolor. H e is best k n o w n forillustratingIrving's Rip vanWinkle. This makes the story appear to leap out at us. ink. are very large compared to on p. The wood grain acts like marks of speed behind the scene. amplifying movement outward from the vanishing point. Rackham Vanishing point In this marvelous drama made with pen. 100 to see for make elliptical objects and pans fly through the the foreground. Depth Billows of smoke expand and are lighter as they come forward. See how the In the Duchess's Kitchen 1907 77/8 x 6 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 5 0 m m ) ARTHUR RACKHAM . humor. we find several devices already explored through our drawing classes.177 ARTHUR RACKHAM British watercolorist and book illustrator. Find the singleperspective pp.76-77) above vanishing point (see that is about3/4in (2 cm) oak converge at this point.Stowe's ofMysteryand Queer Little Folks. tabletop.

and composition they are polar opposites. A glimmer of gold light appears from the left No explanation is given.The human form w a s the vehicle o f his expression and h e w a s t h e official W o r l d W a r II artist. Moore's spectators appear to have walked a long way from nowhere to witness and wait beside this mysterious obelisque. The image stands out among his more usual graphic works in which he hones and carves semi-abstract human forms. join in the waiting. a sculptor. HENRY MOORE Crowd 1942 Looking at Tied-up Object . and art in the landscape. which still narrates vivid days in the lives of an energetic nation. In culture. as if Moore's wrapping has been literally outstretched. expressing his dry humor about O F ALL THE CONTRASTS HENRY MOORE British s c u l p t o r w h o t r a i n e d a n d taught at t h e R C A . a n d l o v e d t o d r a w in t h e BritishMuseum. and we.178 GATHERINGS we have seen in the pairs and trios of drawings by masters and makers. heat. This is just one of many precious artifacts from a lost time. audiences. This is an ironic drawing from Moore. as fellow watchers. perhaps these two are the most extreme. Chalk and graphite This fog-bound but humorous gathering of souls is made in graphite and colored chalk with gray wash. a great Shoshone drawing blazes with the color. The mournful gray landscape of Henry Moore's northern British field has gathered by night an overcoated audience to stand and wait before a wrapped and roped monument. Opposite. London. meaning. Magnetic Fields sculpture. M o o r e t o u r e d Italy as a young man. and action of a buffalo hunt.

creating harmonious balance with words but through silent demonstration. horses. and helping our eye to dart around. Hunt CENTURY SHOSHONE SCHOOL . Skills are taught not center chant or dance to the beat of a drum. tolearnhow to paint a scene on a hide are and buffalo circle and charge the perimeters of a skin "field." Men at the instructed to sit and watch.179 SHOSHONE SCHOOL Stylized characters This vital image of a buffalo hunt is made with pigment Members of the Shoshone community wishing painted within dark outlines on a stretched elk hide. Stylized hunters. Each color is evenly distributed throughout the scene. MAGNETIC FIELDS Horses It is interesting to note how the outstretched limbs ofthesehorses echo European images of the runningBuffalo horse before the sequence-photographer Muybridge taught us to 19TH understand their movement differently.

Opposite. K a t h e K o l l w i t z s c r a t c h e d a n d e n g r a v e d her a r m y of c l a y . Brushed line and wash This is an ink-outlined drawing made with a fine brush on paper with added washes of watercolor The image was subsequently redrawn as a line engraving. m a r k . p o e t . Misted in translucent layers of paint. It illustrates a scene from Dante's Divine Comedy. a n d o t h e r w o r k s . w r i t e r a r t i s t . a n d e n g r a v e r w h o p o w e r f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e d his o w n t e x t s in a d d i t i o n t o D a n t e ' s Divine Comedy. color. era as Kollwitz. w h i c h b y their c h o i c e a n d h a n d l i n g a c t u a l l y b e c o m e the force a n d spirit of e a c h i m a g e .180 GATHERINGS The Human Condition IN THE SPECTRUM of these vastly d i f f e r e n t g a t h e r i n g s of p e o p l e . Blake w a s d r i v e n b y a passion f o r j u s t i c e a n d a p r o f o u n d b e l i e f in his v i s i t a t i o n s f r o m angels.f o o t e d t r o g l o d y t e s w h o rage into w a r like a m u d s l i d e of revenge. a n d the gentle h u m o r of sedate r i d i c u l e . inextinguishable in its fortitude and h u m o r . pale souls of the lustful are being s p u n into yet another realm of hell. We also see qualities of line. w h e r e he w a t c h e s a t u r b u l e n t s p i r a l of p u n i s h m e n t f o r the d a m n e d . a pink-inked cinema wobbles along with string. and sweetened the often bleak years with his impractical inventions. The muscularity of Blake's figures was inspired by Michelangelo's works. W I L L I A M BLAKE British visionary. The Circle of the (The Whirlwind 1824 of Lustful Lovers) mm) 143/4 x 207/8i n ( 3 7 4 x 5 3 0 WILLIAM BLAKE . texture. w e f i n d a spiritual v i s i o n . t h e Bible. a n d f o c u s . Heath Robinson lived through the same war-torn. B l a k e h a s i l l u m i n a t e d his s a d d e n e d Virgil on the s h o r e s of a d a r k w o r l d . a d e a t h c h a r g e of brutality.

who lived in a poor district of Berlin. British Pen and wash This is a pen-andwatercolor drawing made for a color-platereproduction in an edition of T h e Bystander. THE HUMAN CONDITION Scratched lines This is a dry-point etching with monoprint. stoical bemusement. humor by making his characters earnest. and the family home. Losbruch (The Outbreak) 1955 20 x 233/8 in (507 x 592 mm) KATHE KOLLWITZ HEATH ROBINSON humorous illustrator and a regular contributor to magazines and journals such as The Sketch and The Bystander. He created sincere. sculptor and draftsman. Ink rolled over was selectively polished off using a rag. What remained in scratched grooves printed on damp paper as lines. and controlled smears on the metal surface printed as tones. and the impact of death and war upon women.181 KATHE KOLLWITZ German printmaker. The image was scratched directly onto a metal plate. Heath Robinson shows England in a past era. plodding along with hazy. White marks were made with a dusting of French chalk on the artist's finger to wipe away ink leaving clean metal. poverty. however meager or ridiculous their activity. With masterful gentility. HEATH ROBINSON The Kinecar 1926 103/8 x 15 in (262 x 380 mm) . and her powerful and sensitive drawings center on nurture. children. and clearly focused. Robinson and Kollwitz (above) share almost identical life dates and their work expresses a shared history from opposite sides oftheworld wars. Kollwitz survived the two World Wars.

7 6 . a n d ranges o f colors. which can snap or pierce through your clothes. For example. dropped in your pocket and forgotten till needed. So many stores sell them. Available in blacks and ranges of colors. G E L P E N : P r o d u c e d in b l a c k w h i t e . FIBER-TIP: M a n u f a c t u r e d f o r artists a n d d e s i g n e r s in a r a n g e o f w i d t h s . they each offer distinct and sometimes unexpected qualities. w a t e r . a disposable pen with its clip-on cap goes anywhere. T h e r e w e r e c seconds t o snatch this impression b e t w e e n their emergence from one bridge and disappearance b e n e a t h t h e next. R O L L E R B A L L : A c o n s t a n t i n k flow 3 . trusting shape and form to follow. p e r m a n e n t . 4. a ballpoint will make faint lines. I swiftly focused on gesture. build to a rich. At a time like this. I keep quantities at home. rollerballs. W h i t e gel p e n s a r e v e r y e f f e c t i v e o n d a r k papers." 1. and in most pockets so I can always record a thought DISPOSABLE PENS QUICK NOTES O n a c o l d day in Venice. dark sheen. they can be obtained within minutes. jot notes. in the studio. blob when old. Insensitive t o p r e s s u r e : lines d o n o t v a r y in w i d t h o r t o n e .r e s i s t a n t . CHOICES AVAILABLE T h e r e a r e m a n y d i s p o s a b l e p e n s t o c h o o s e from.188-89) and Caravans (see pp. or put the paper in your pocket instantly without fear of smudging. shut your book.182 GATHERINGS Disposable Pens (ballpoints. fine fiber-tip Drawing with a fine fiber-tip pen. c h o o s e p e n s l a b e l e d " p e r m a n e n t " o r "lightfast. Quick-drying. t w o tourists and their gondolier drifter past m e o n a canal. aiming for correct outlines would result in drawing too slowly to c a t c h the moment. in the car. B A L L P O I N T : Black a n d b o l d c o l o r s o f f e r d i v e r s e qualities. Unlike pencils. 2. indent paper. R e m e m b e r . a n d pressure-sensitive. t h e y a r e lightfast. or idea. fibertips. including l u m i n o u s a n d m e t a l l i c . these pens enable you to sketch. Ideal f o r precision w o r k (see p p . turn the page. gel pens) are the most convenient of all materials with which to travel. or turn into washes and make monoprints if flooded with an alcohol-based substance such as hairspray. Lines t h i c k e n as t h e p e n w e a r s o u t G r a n d Canal (see pp. is d e l i v e r e d t h r o u g h a m e t a l t u b e o v e r a t i n y ball bearing. if y o u w i s h y o u r d r a w i n g s t o last a n d n o t fade o r b l u r w i t h t i m e a n d e x p o s u r e t o light. The f o u r i l l u s t r a t e d h e r e r e p r e s e n t a basic r a n g e . 192-93) w e r e b o t h m a d e w i t h a ballpoint.7 7 and 214-15). .

Fast lines focus on action. not form. Earlier I had witnessed a crammed en masse in a fleet of hired gondolas complete with musicians and choir.31 . Compare this Klee's mules on p. crowd of fellow travelers Fast lines These scribbled lines model the mass and shadows of heads belonging passengers packed into the boat.FROMMEMORY Here I used the same fiber-tip pen to compose a scene from memory.

but they should not be what you dwell on. animate them more. Each line acts its part in the narrative. life will not slow and wait for you to catch it. FLEETING MOMENTS Walking through Venice with a small. You must learn to trust your memory and to draw what impressed you most. if a person was stout. Each one was witnessed and drawn immediately from the afterimage of what I had just seen. of course. Don't worry about measuring angles. and companionship. make them stouter. A curatorial assistant flies to do a chore (right). black. I caught fleeting glimpses of gathered people and solitary souls going about their affairs. let it enter the stage and perform. You will make outlines. No camera can tie you to a time or people in the same way. focus on the action of the event. Above all. just draw the action. all action is in the line of his coat and directed by his nose. Circular lines buzz around a man puzzling at the end of a train platform (left). pocket notebook and a fiber-tip pen. However. activity. Exaggeration helps. not its outline. if animated. Push toward caricature and this will draw out of your memory what was most important. when out drawing. Let the line of the flying coat fly and the hanging arm hang. Every drawing writes an indelible memory of place.184 GATHERINGS The Travel Journal I CANNOT OVERSTATE THE JOY of making a travel journal. Movement . angles will happen as a matter of course.

I am watched by the aggravated guard.185 A large lady is photographed in front of a delicate work of art. Expression . The rush of his legs isamplifiedby their blurred lines. eager to herd us all from his house of responsibility. In turn. I drew him three times on the same page to catch a range of his physical expressions. Observation THE TRAVEL JOURNAL The same willowy assistant dashes about his work.

Here the custodian projects fastidious ownership of his desk and pamphlets by pushing from behind the center of the space and challenging our entry to his image. forcing me to remain at the back and look at them. Here I have recreated my drawing in steps to show you how to set about capturing such a scene. and let every detail speak by its size. Be aware that their placement on the page is part of the narrative. furniture leans. pulls. emotion. I took refuge in a church in Venice. start by focusing on its action. flap. if they are being haughty. or bulge. placement. He and his simpering assistant would not allow me in. When your attention has been caught. if they are being devious. ACTION AND DETAIL W h e n drawing people. focus on action. and involvement in the story. Place the person carefully. .186 GATHERINGS Catching the Moment On A BITTERLY COLD November day. elevate them in the pictorial space. and reason for happening. not outline. decide how faces and bodies contort. rather than the works of art they guarded. For example. and there met this sullen custodian. For example. or pushes. Identify the principal character and draw him or her first. you might place them lower down. and you decide to draw the moment. and clothing or bags hang.

a pillar locates t h e scene in a depth o f space. Here. Decide where you will place them o n the paper t o emphasize their action and intent. D r a w their action. W i t h a few strokes. continue adding characters. I added t h e assistant. together with any immediate props they are using. Decide where t o place them t o emphasize their role.187 The custodian Identify your principal character a n d their psychological role in the scene. Draw their action and props. which is pushed toward us in a gesture of confrontation. who is largely expressed through the shape and fall o f his raincoat and his way o f using a note pad. In the final step (left) I reinforced t h e custodian's desk. If drawing a more complex scene. CATCHING THE MOMENT The assistant Identify t h e antagonist ( o r second character) in t h e scene. such as the desk and pamphlets seen here. .

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I developed detailofthis drawing from memory using a ballpoint pen. and buildings. . An imminent deluge of tourists urged me to work catching no more than the skeleton of the view. where vertical mooring poles give space and pulse to the horizontal speed of water quickly.Grand Canal T H E CANALS OF VENICE are bustling places full of occupation.

Each person was glimpsed in an instant. Characters in the foreground were drawn first. To catch characters like this. followed by the streets. and drawn immediately from memory.Crossings DURING THIS RUSH HOUR. Venetians flow across a stepped bridge and cascade into the streets beyond. then the bridge beneath them. . note only their most essential action and feature. Caricature each person slightly.

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Caravans and other backstage activity convey expectations of energy and repose. quiet afternoon.Caravans T H E PARAPHERNALIA O F TRAVEL i s an intriguing part of circus life. Sitting at a distance on a hot. I used a ballpoint pen to compose a series of scenes. . I found this circus by chance in the Swiss mountains. and a great subject to draw.

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t w o e n g r a v e d m a p s k n o w n as The Lunar Planispheres.Earth and the Elements I T MAY SEEM PERVERSE to start a chapter titled "Earth and the Elements" with an image of the Moon. This is the world's first accurate image of the Moon. the sun comes out to blind it. Richard Long. Just as NASA photographs of Earth have had a profound effect on the way we view our fragile home. artists see for themselves that which is momentary and eternal. These conditions are very difficult to express well. so J o h n Russell's tour de f o r c e drawing (opposite) was a masterpiece of observation in his time. or the wind carries it away. JOHN RUSSELL A p o r t r a i t pastelist t o King G e o r g e III o f England. the face of the Moon. Beginners will often choose calm. Look closely at works by many artists and you will see that they have not represented hills. t h e first-ever accurate image o f t h e M o o n ' s surface. speculation. rivers. how the mountain cut by ice and rain is now fleetingly lit. surrounded by the bright instruments of centuries of navigation. H e a l s o p r o d u c e d an a l b u m o f 1 8 0 exquisite pencil drawings. arranging them in perfect circles on the mountainside or in lines drifting out of sight beneath low clouds. as opposed the physicality of Earth. makes his work by the act of walking. marking the ground with lines of footprints or by turning stones. The pastel drawing was constructed from myriad telescopic observations almost 200 years before the Apollo Moon landing. It is Earths satellite. but it can be seen as a lens to our observation of this planet. The forces of nature. 199). or has cracked and fallen under the weight of water. It now hangs on the staircase of the History of Science Museum. learning to draw light out of dark. to be ready to draw the new light as it breaks across the land. and even how the Sun illuminates. a n d a m o o n globe called t h e Selenographia. a contemporary environmental artist. and meteor impacts have scarred. Oxford. and experiment. when little stirs and empty blue skies offer even less to latch lines to. William Turner is said to have had himself lashed to a ship's mast to comprehend the storm (see p. 5 f t x 5 ft 6 in ( 1 5 2 x 1 6 8 c m ) J O H N RUSSELL . trees. our companion. In this chapter Moon Pastel 1795 Drawing we experiment with charcoal. Weather is essential in all landscape drawing. and take bold steps in emulating the swell of clouds and the forces of torrential water. how the soil is scorched. they are the animators of your subject. What they have drawn is the force of nature on these properties: how the wind heaves the night ocean. are the real subjects in great landscape drawings. It is better to get up before dawn. and the sea. Russell d r e w this. England. By drawing such momentous and everyday events. sunny days. pages o f softly i l l u m i n a t e d craters and lunar "seas" c o v e r e d in m a t h e m a t i c a l and s h o r t h a n d calculations. Take chances against the rain and work with the wind or fog. and its draws the tides of the seas. There is a sense of the heroic in drawing outside—we race to catch a form before the tide engulfs it. a n d a n astronomer w h o dedicated 20 years t o studying t h e M o o n .

A hard waxy was drawn across a heavy limestone Varying definitions crayon of lire and depths of tone conspire to give volume. the bourgeoisie. fluttering heavily. and pioneer ofexpressionism. the government. a sail b r o k e n loose in a stormy marriage.198 EARTH AND THE E L E M E N T S Air in Motion THE GREAT INVISIBLE SUBJECT o f these d r a w i n g s is t h e w i n d . undramatic b u t brimming with stylized realism. distance. Terrifying waves of merciless nature roar across the paper. Crayon and limestone This is a lithograph. speed. T h e ship. H O N O R E DAUMIER French satirical cartoonist lithographer. painter. sculptor. Danger of Wearing Balloon Petticoats UNDATED HONORE DAUMIER . seeing how it shakes.Through political drawings he fired his sharp wit at the king. Hokusais sedate wind presses reeds a n d the j o u r n e y s o f young ladies. Daumier's c a r t o o n shines with the brilliance of his comic memory. has b e c o m e a hysterical kite. we can soon learn to draw its force. is already lost. Fluid strokes inflate the woman's dress and pin shadows to the ground. Hazy vertical marks reveal buildings into the mist. like an umbrella forced inside-out. Dots and dashes suggest receding trees out of focus. Flapping kimonos and an onlooker turning his b a c k have the magic of a m o m e n t caught. lifts. T h e great master of English seascape is c o n d u c t i n g with his graphic energy. and by observing its tides and eddies in our o w n environment. Below. and solidity. He knew how the world bends and stutters under such gusts. serving a prison sentence for his views. and gives motion to each image. and the legal profession. a scratched ghost. By Turner carries us to the heart of the maelstrom. This wife.

M. T U R N E R British landscape. and history painter w h o s e p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t a b o v e all w a s light. W . Landscape a n d city life w e r e his principal subjects. d e s i g n e r a n d b o o k i l l u s t r a t o r .b l o c kprintmaker.199 J. wind. into this very as pressed sheet The paper's through own coior is brought banks of mist and fog. 1826 91/2 x 113/4 in ( 2 4 1 x 3 0 0 m m ) J. seascape. Ship in a Storm c. T u r n e r w o r k e d in oils a n d w a t e r c o l o r s a n d s k e t c h e d c o p i o u s l y o n his travels. leans the whole composition swells around its fateful center.M.l o v e dw o r k s i n c l u d e 1 0 0 v i e w s o f M o u n t Fuji and 1 2 v o l u m e s o f Manga. TURNER KATSUSHIKA HOKUSAI Prolific J a p a n e s e c o l o r w o o d . including being lashed t o a ship's m a s t in o r d e r to study a storm.W. T h e r e a r e m a n y stories o f his p a s s i o n a t e w o r k i n g methods. absorbent watercolor and are Stains of splashed. Wind direction wood-block This is a colored To represent the blows lifted flowed wind. a n d his b e s t . AIR IN MOTION Pencil and watercolor subdued brushed. A outline scratched of a skeletal into penciled ship is while and the waves. Hokusai direction (from clothing from has chosen which it the right). horizontally then and of the it into the stream Plants also bend and flow right to Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 1802 81/2 HOKUSAI KATSUSHIKA x 131/2 in ( 2 1 7 x 3 4 3 mm) . painter. H o k u s a i in t u r n has since significantly influenced European art.i n f l u e n c e d b y examples o f W e s t e r n art obtained through D u t c h t r a d i n g in Nagasaki. from left print.

Opposite. active surfaces of water. drawing was Hugo's principal means o f expression. Pen and brush Hugo drew first with pen and ink. It looks so contemporary. it is difficult to contemplate its brooding and night-soaked heart. h a u n t e d shadows. as a subject and second. as if drawn j u s t this year. he blanketed the drawing in darkness. Leonardos Cloudburst of Material Possessions is o n e of his m o s t enigmatic and mysterious works. T h e very nature of b o t h is turmoil and an interweaving of elements.198) admires the majesty of nature. grab their b r u s h . as a gestural storm on the paper. Then. this is a writer's narrative of terror. fantasy palaces. An update on biblical showers of fish and frogs. In periods b e t w e e n writing. inks. T h e m e n a c i n g darkness of Hugo's storm b e l o w is so convincing.28). or charcoal. His subjects include ruins. D o m e s t i c o b j e c t s we can o w n and name fall from the clouds. with a brush. and swim into the page. and t h e sea s t u d i e d f r o m his h o m e in Guernsey in t h e Channel Islands. ink. Le Bateau-Vision 1864 71/2 x 1 0 in ( 1 9 2 x 2 5 5 m m ) VICTOR H U G O . EARTH AND THE VICTOR HUGO French novelist and artist (see also p. water. lines of rain escorting them to b o u n c e and clatter. this is a b o m b a r d m e n t from o u r h o m e s . He brings us to stare into a place that no sane human would enter. leaving nothing but a glimpse of moonlight glistening on the froth below. composing banks of waves and dense. and tossed o b j e c t s — a perfect subject in which artists can forget themselves. Turner (see p. marks. By contrast.200 ELEMENTS Storms STORMS CAN BE SEEN and drawn in two ways: first.

a hook. Above and below are examples of his mirror handwriting. It is interesting to speculate how engineering might have developed if his ideas had been shared with the world earlier Ink and chalk This is a pen and ink drawing with touches of black chalk. He was left-handed and wrote backwards in Italian from left to right. Each item that has crashed from heaven is drawn in such a way that we can feel Leonardo's nib picking it up in the speed of a doodle. and a wheel. a bell.LEONARDO DA VINCI Leonardo devised many artifacts of our modern lives. He bequeathed his drawings to a friend. and they passed through private hands for 400 years before becoming widely known. Cloudburst of Material Possessions 1510-12 45/8 x 43/8 in ( 1 1 7 x 1 1 1 mm) L E O N A R D O DA VINCI . There is a little magic in recognizing many items from our homes something like a rake. envisioning machines centuries before their making (helicopters and bicycles. for example). together with half the contents of our garage.

C L A U D E LORRAIN French classical landscape painter draftsman. She was inspired by her research of aerial plans of London and the story of an alien map butterfly (see caption). Segments The top half of the drawing is a view as we enter the valley. or cityscape. Paler. Claude Lorrain drew directly on location. it is the unique calligraphic signature of the place in which we stand. Claude is distinguished by. and etcher who lived most of his life in 17th-century Rome. Whether land-.1638 85/8 x 121/2 in (219 x 320 mm) CLAUDE LORRAIN . and after tracing her captured line. Even distilled from all other detail. cooler tones receding into the distance are applied with a brush. sea-. she teased away fragments of paper to illuminate her view. and mood simultaneously. transferred it to a scroll. a horizon line can trigger our recognition. watching his hand and eye at work together. Clare Bryan took panoramic photographs of the English South Downs. and famed for. made inside a book.202 ELEMENTS THE PROFILE OF A HORIZON is a line we immediately recognize and respond to. In the lower half he has walked downhill a little. EARTH AND THE Bryan cut the profile of a city. which he used to unify his compositions. Over first lines. Drawing with a scalpel. rich. Claude has used a fine nib to delineate segments of land as they recede into space. rapidly layering contours to shape place. thick. Nature Profiles Opposite below. and we can imagine standing over his shoulder. and across to the right. his unsurpassed handling of light. and dry marks in the foreground appear to be made with his finger. In a very different work (opposite above). atmosphere. Views from Velletri c.

The edges of each here) fade into the solid paper unpopulated with a scalpel landscape. source workisilluminatedby standing its lower edge on a CLARE BRYAN . progressively settlement (cropped more and more paper is drawn away to show the expansion of human page of an around the river. and digital print-based works reflect upon the histories and poetry of "left behind and in-between spaces.The horizon was drawn with a City Landline 2003 271/2x 59 in (70 x 150 cm) scalpel. and visiting professor at numerous art schools.203 Scalpel-drawn This book-bound drawing was inspired by the story of a foreign butterfly wrongly to Great Britain in 1912. 2001 CLARE BRYAN C L A R E BRYAN 3ritish artist. On turning the pages of City. specialty bookbinder. Her recent paper photographic." Cut line This is a small section of a preparatory 5-ft(1. printmaker graphic designer. then hunted destroyed.5-m)scroll. drawings Ideas of introduction Clare Bryan to research introduced down and led NATURE PROFILES and removal historical plans and aerial growth of London showing its population since Roman times.

m a d e c o m p r e s s e d charcoal. A great find when available. SQUARE COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Not often sold. Smooth paper accepts few particles. Use any fine-point pen or pencil (I used a ballpoint) to draw a firm line on the back of the Big pieces are perfect for very large-scale drawings—even larger than yourself. CHALK CHARCOAL: Technically. sticky side down. 1. As its name implies. MEDIUM W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 5. between your middle finger and thumb. it is compressed and m o l d e d at high pressure. it looks gray and feels like chalk. Not to be confused with square conte sticks (see p. a rag. CHARCOAL PENCIL: Types made by different manufacturers vary in quality and density of line. resulting in a pale line. 3 A white line is lifted out by the tape. 6. Try itworking on big paper covering a wall. you can p u r c h a s e m a c h i n e . Charcoal lifts away from paper easily with the very light touch o f an eraser. LIFTING OUT This technique is a very easy method of drawing a crisp. feather. R o u g h paper c a n b e loaded. vine. The same as above. blacker. Willow is the most c o m m o n wood. C h a r c o a l naturally glistens. cylindrical. In use. the heel o f y o u r h a n d . a n d p l u m . Then lift it away. 7. resulting in a stick that gives a blacker. tape. b l a c k e r . 162) or graphite (see p. Slightly dull the tape's stickiness before use t o prevent it from lifting out more than you intend. B u n d l e s o f twigs were traditionally sealed into earthenware j a r s or wet clay and heated slowly and intensely in a fire or kiln. a piece of fresh bread. . COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Machine-made. It is also easily erased if the maker of the mark is not happy with the result. maple. harder line. this does not exist. fine. white line into the blackor grayness of willow charcoal. Hold it over your drawing RANGE AVAILABLE Charcoal (in its several forms shown here) is loved or loathed by the beginner to whom it is often recommended because it produces pleasing results quickly. and offers a rich. only a little thicker. leaving u n d e r t r a c e s of first thoughts. Alternatively. Boxes often contain a range of thicknesses to choose for different needs. or fingertip. and heavier than willow. so it chars b l a c k as o p p o s e d to igniting a n d turning to ash. The tip snaps easily to renew a sharp edge if required. 1 Suspend a length of masking tape.54). 3. THIN WILLOW CHARCOAL: I used a piece like this to make the drawing opposite. black finish. but some specialists stock compressed charcoal in delicate square sticks. It does n o t erase easily. a n d m o r e i n d e l i b l e by soaking it in linseed oil. Artists have also used lime.204 E A R T H AND THE E L E M E N T S Charcoal CHARCOAL IS PRODUCED from wood baked slowly without exposure to air. b e e c h . It allows you greater precision in your mark-making than if you rub away the charcoal with an eraser. Beware of cheap brands selling dyed chalk as compressed charcoal. without touching the surface. 2. Essentially. they are all intended for fine work. 4. It c a n be m a d e duller. THICK W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 2 Keep the tape above your drawing. Lines are achieved by d e p o s i t i n g particles in the grain o f paper.

PEN: Any fine pen or pencil can be used to draw on the back of masking tape when lifting out. or any other dry media. graphite. 10. pastels. Lift out broader marks with a larger implement. Cotton swabs also work. sold in several widths. I used a plastic eraser effectively on thinly applied charcoal. 9.212-13 were made by altering the pressure applied to the charcoal.205 ERASING Thickly applied charcoal quickly o v e r c o m e s a plastic eraser A w a r m (soft and tacky) putty eraser is more effective. Different tones seen throughout the main drawing on pp. Use cheaper (less sticky) for lifting out. Here. as is fresh (unbuttered!) bread. Use high quality (very sticky) to fix paper to walls and boards. Layers can be peeled away to refresh its surface. 8 . MASKING TAPE: An invaluable resource. Here we used a ballpoint. CHARCOAL Lifting out This detail shows an example of where I used the lifting-out technique demonstrated opposite to draw flashes of lightning against rain clouds. . T O R T I L L O N : This is a tight roll of paper used to blend charcoal.

Landscape drawings are traditionally arranged in three parts: a detailed foreground. Don't worry if it is cloudy: clouds add drama and perspective and make good subjects in themselves (see pp. When you arrive. and a cushion in a plastic bag to sit on. Pack several thick and thin sticks of willow charcoal. especially when making first excursions into aerial perspective. to contain each of your compositions. On p p .212-13). begin by marking out several small squares on your paper. Excessive detail can be admired for its skill and achievement. the more you encourage the viewer's imagination to join in and see. At its worst. pack your materials (as advised below) and set off for a local view or your nearest arboretum. and an abstract. details blur and colors grow paler and bluer. Ironically. Successful drawings often only suggest the qualities of the scene without overdescribing them. it results in flat planes of clutter. MATERIALS In this first view there is only a foreground and middle distance.206 EARTH AND THE ELEMENTS Landscapes TREES ALONE OFFER MARVELOUS shapes to draw. To experiment with drawing landscapes and the use of charcoal. a reel of masking tape.9 9 we noted that in response to visual stimulus. This term simply means that as land rolls away into the distance. I relaxed my eyes out of focus to dissolve distracting detail into abstract patches of light and darkness. hazy distance. It is the visible effect of the atmosphere between where you stand and what you see in the distance. an eraser your drawing book or a board and paper fixative (or hairspray). but is often less evocative and engaging. The long view is hidden behind trees. Seeing tones . the less you describe. Then I drew the shape of the tonal patches I perceived. a less distinct middle ground composed of shapes and textures. 9 8 . our brains search for nameable things and will perceive complete pictures from very little information. They are also good markers of receding space.

the trunk of a bare tree. your view is your inspiration. shadows. Remember. horizontal regions of grass. This composition turned out a little flat because I have an almost even quantity of earth and sky. I have invented drama with diagonals set against each other I tilted the earth. It is better to give distinctly more pictorial space to one or the other (see below).207 LANDSCAPES In my second square I explored a simple view contrasting soft. Exploring the view Redrawing the scene above. rounded. dark trees with bright. and broke a view through the hedge into the distance with a dark sky threatening rain. full of information you can use to create what you want! Inventing drama .

and tiller still standing proud. EARTH AND THE FINDING THE SUBJECT Finding a remarkable subject is even better when you can circumnavigate it in an arena of space. I usually begin by making an image of the whole view. This first drawing serves as a process of arrival. For example. observing it from several views so as to better understand it as a whole. so the paper is not made blinding and your hand cannot cast a shadow on your work. shade out of the glare of the sun. 2 1 4 . your challenge now is to find a sculptural subject in the landscape. s e e k places in light After my first drawing.104-05). Building on earlier studies of structure in space using shoes (pp. engine. on p p . bare ribs." . settling my concentration. The mud of the tidal shore in Rye. and seeing what the real choice of subject is. Circling a subject and drawing it from several views imprints on your memory a better understanding of its three-dimensional form.164-65) and a wire violin (pp. which was the flow of water over rocks. I am then able to home in on what interests me most for further study.1 5 my first drawing of the whole view of the Tiber led me to see the real subject of the day. making the scene below led me to focus on the decaying boat opposite. England has embedded within it the decaying skeleton of a burned fishing boat. "Drawing in the round means to literally walk around your subject.208 ELEMENTS Drawing in the Round WHEN DRAWING IN THE LANDSCAPE. Similarly. taking with you your drawing book and pen.

and the order and shape of its component parts. its overall balance. make a series o f drawings f r o m different positions. DRAWING IN THE 1 Here. w h e n t h e sea recedes. I spent equal time looking at the subject and the paper. I looked more boldly at the planes and the dynamic of the sculptural craft My lines have become darker and more forceful as confidence in my understanding of the vessel grew. careful lines to establish the skeleton that gives this wreck its distinct form. unfussy lines. character.209 SERIES OF STUDIES This stunning ghost o f a boat comes into v i e w t w i c e a day. and structure. 3 This impression notes the angle of the broken boat. looking more at the boat than at the paper From this low position I have emphasized how the boat is swallowed in mud by outlining its shadow on the ground. I drew with quick. Overleaf: Decaying Boat 4 . marking straight. The outline ties a shape of darkness to the boat like a weight so that it becomes part of its form. ROUND 2 In this tail-end view. Each n e w drawing gives a different insight. W h e n you have found your subject.

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. I worked quickly to catch and weave the turbulent contrasts of rising wind and approaching water before the drawing could be washed away.20-21) using a thin stick of willow charcoal.Cloudburst THIS STORM DRAWING. L o o k i n g b a c k and forth from the heavens to firmly taped-down paper. hot-pressed drawing p a p e r (see pp. m a d e on s m o o t h . was made with gentle but unhesitating s p e e d .

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Notes of Force T H E GREAT FLOWING TIBER RIVER has cut through Rome. pocket-sized notebook. shaping the city. . and rhythmic detail as it passed through the ancient gully of the city. I drew with a needle-fine fiber-tip pen. focusing on the river's eddies. On the pages of a small. pulse. black. since ancient times.

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Mountains SITTING IN THE SHADE of a tree on the Greek island of Antiparos. I used a dip pen and waterproof India ink with brushed watercolor to draw the view. The strong diagonal of the composition from bottom left to top right carries the eye through changes of height and focus from the foreground to the mountains beyond. .

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be brave and enjoy them. As you approach the classes in this chapter. and Aboriginal art. actions. and have been making abstract drawings for centuries—Japanese calligraphy. and young children show us that abstract. belief. Internal workings of the mind were suddenly free to find a new language of expression. I begin every image by feeling its meaning. My own work is firmly centered in figuration. It was not invented in the 20th century. and history. Museum of Fine Arts. many nonWestern cultures have highly sophisticated abstractions at the core of their art. for example. Not everything we know has a physical form in the world. Berne. spontaneous image-making. The fate of Old World thinking was finally sealed with the brutality of World War I. It also underpins and gives strength and unity to all figurative work. The growing rise of Darwinian ideas coupled with Freudian and Marxist perspectives forced Western society to reconsider its origins and future. poet.Abstract Lines T HE DEVELOPMENT OF W E S T E R N abstract art at the beginning of the 20th century significantly paralleled major changes in world thought. Swirling. People are often scared by abstraction and see it as the enemy of figurative art. strike the paper to find form. and independent means of communication. Perhaps in Western culture we bred this intuitive freedom out of ourselves in our insistence on complex figuration. It is actually its foundation and its infrastructure. Artists were given a different tool—a line threaded directly from their subconscious to their hand—and with it they began to map a bold new landscape of marks and concepts that would dramatically and forever change the face of Western art. and poetic myth roar and cascade within his tightly framed pages. His drawings are collected and exhibited internationally and held by the Adolf Wolfli Foundation. abstraction is not so easy to define. opposite. or gestures. drawn sound. Outsider artists. Wolfli was a Swiss draftsman. yet my kinship to abstraction is fundamental. expressive marks and shapes are at the core of natural.8 cm) A D O L F WOLFLI Abstraction is a direct. He made thousands of drawings to chronicle his complex life. fictional language. such as Adolf Wolfli. sounds. precisely because it does not have to represent a physical object. Afterward. liberating. Indian mandalas. Many concepts and feelings can only be expressed through marks. which are essentially abstract. From another viewpoint. First marks. don't be timid. Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape 1915 413/8 x 285/8 in (105 x 72. only rediscovered. picturing a stabilized world was impossible and Modernism rode forth with vigor. ADOLF WOLFLI One of the greatest masters of Art Brut. it is simply itself. . writhing torrents of color. However. An abstract mark is often a better conductor of a thought or feeling. and emotion. and it has always been with us. writer and composer who suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and was resident in the Waldau Aslyum near Berne. From one point of view. direction. all pictorial representations are abstractions of reality.

Five forged steel shapes. It can proclaim mood. water. Damp Japanese paper was laid over carefully arranged iron bars. and plaster in galleries and landscapes. or. staining redbrown lines into the white surface.220 A B S T R A C T LINES Process and Harmony SOMETIMES A DRAWN LINE sings on the surface of its support. Abe's physical drawing is a sculptural installation. ice. silence. iron. Lines. Twombly's mesmeric wax line worked over house paint is like a signature. and sensitivity with its thickness and pressure of touch. salt. Mamoru Abe prepares an image that will appear through the chemistry of iron. and patient watching. This the paper rest within the amplifies framelike of the floor from the ceiling. Moisture produced rust. sit in silent harmony. quoting ink marks on a page. tone. The Physical Space 1990 3 0 x 30 ft ( 9 1 4 x 9 1 4 cm) MAMORU ABE . Below. scrolling across the canvas in an intimate crescendo. Sometimes it smolders like a deep shadow. Abe works with materials such as soil. forged steel. as Twombly shows us opposite. He travels widely to research ancient sacred sites. akin to stones in a Zen garden. A Neolithic chalk tablet bears cut lines that were slowly carved. A line can be finished in a second. and temperature rim of floor space. it can keep reforming through the inherent repetition of a process. and wood are also part of the work. and texture their bracing separation reaching between from beneath Pillars of the gallery are made part of this drawing by their inclusion in the paper. Iron rods in tone. texture. Changes paper. rhythmically engaged with itself. brass. and Assistant Professor of Fine A r t at Fukuoka University. MAMORU ABE Japanese sculptor and installation artist.

This example is one of two chalk tablets found in a Late-Neolithic pit. CY TWOMBLY .241). emotive. At the 2001 Venice Biennale.Thesite's purpose is unknown. energetic.221 ANCIENT CARVINGS Many ancient cultures have made and left behind drawings and texts carved into stones or animal bone. PROCESS AND HARMONY Cut lines Chalk carves easily. burials.England. and Untitled 1970 Here we might seek to grasp letters in the turning of his line. Many of his graffiti-like combine abstract gestures with statements. evolved a raw. and sensuous drawing from painting.400BCE 21/4 x 21/4 in (58 x 58 mm) ARTIST UNKNOWN Language Over the course of fifty years.000-2. Precise lines suggest the use of a sharp flint The framed rectangle of this image is echoed in that of Abe's installation. theories suggest astrological observations.Twombly was presented with a Golden Lion award for lifetime achievement. Neolithic Chalk Tablet 3. The central pictorial space is also similarly cut and divided by the considered arrangement of straight lines. the Babylonian world map. close to Stonehenge in Wiltshire. and the worship of the sun and ancient gods. and American Indian petroglyphs (see p. Twombly has language works CY TWOMBLY Contemporary American artist who emerged through the 1950s New York art scene in the heyday of Abstract Expressionism and Action Painting. that challenges the separation of word from image. such as the Rosetta stone.

o f t e n e x p r e s s e d in v i s u a l t e r m s . and participate in the composition. music manuscript requiring instrumentalists to improvise. "There is nothing like dream to create the future. said. abstract artists and composers unique. and inventive of his time. too. Two Impressions Paper 1853-55 VICTOR HUGO Disk from a Cut-Out . pressed them face down.222 ABSTRACT LINES Writing Time SINCE THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY.28). a configuration. Marks across the center appear to be made with his fingers. His drawing writes the time of its own physical process by expressing the extreme concentration of the moment in which it was made. The scores are also exhibited in galleries as visual art. Hugo. o r a pattern o f elements s o unified as a w h o l e t h e y c a n n o t b e e x p l a i n e d asa s u m o f parts. A graphic score is a V I C T O R H U G O Hugo's abstract French novelist w h o m a d e m a n y drawings in m i x e d m e d i a ( s e e also p. drawing here can b e described in t e r m s o f a G e r m a n philosophical idea a b o u t is t h e i n s t a n t r e c o g n i t i o n t h e p o w e r o f m o m e n t . below. opposite. have striven to break down old pictorial and musical structures to explore new and unfettered modes of expression.28. Bussotti. and let the drying meniscus deposit granules in linear drifts such as we would see in the satellite photographic mapping of rivers. interpret. he mixed graphite into ink. brushed night skies over them with ink then lifted the disks to reveal white moons. beautiful. here he anticipates abstract expressionism by 100 years. Both abstract drawing and composition involve the perfect sequencing of sounds and marks against space and silence. broke new ground in the 1950s with graphic scores now considered among the most extreme. abstract." An innovator who never fails to surprise. Texture Compare this drawing to Hugo's octopus on p. Gestalt o f an unnameable thing. Ink impressions When drawing nightscapes Hugo often laid paper disks in place of the moon. and lifted them away to leave impressions of watery planets and seas. Gestalt. Here he appears t o have saturated the cut-out moon disks with gritty pigment. Similarity in gritty texture suggests that here.

Bussotti's first mature work. Circular Score for "Due Voci" c. Sound and rhythm This flickering rondo of sound written in pen on a hand-ruled stave can be heard in our imaginations as much as seen. Following the notes. a far cry from any recognized musical notation. 1958 SYLVANO BUSSOTTI . we can feel their rhythm and easily attach sounds to them. His later works become increasingly abstract.223 W R I T I N G TIME SYLVANO BUSSOTTI Italian avant-garde composer and principal 20thcentury exponent of the graphic score. This is a page from Due Voci. 70 in relation to Bussotti's clustered notes to the left of his rondo and open space to the right. Compare this work to that of Libeskind on p.

In music it can be felt in the diversity of plainsong and African d r u m m i n g . centuries. and c i r c u m s t a n c e s . and sufferers of psychiatric illnesses—who have always existed. making objects and images outside o f mainstream culture. Lieb is one o f countless thousands of "Outsider" artists—diverse individuals including ordinary citizens. Cell Floor With Torn Strips of Cloth 1894 MARIE LIEB . It will protect the place from evil and make a pleasing invitation to good spirits. She tore c l o t h into strips a n d used these to draw patterns a n d symbols o n h e r cell floor. d i p p i n g h e r fingers into a pot o f rice flour. Germany. Visually. it is found in the regularity o f ordered lines or a pattern. T h e s e p h o t o g r a p h s d o c u m e n t the meditative drawings o f two w o m e n living worlds apart in different countries. for e x a m p l e . social outcasts. MARIE LIEB Little is known of this w o m a n for w h o m the act of drawing was essential. cultures. Marie Lieb w a s a psychiatric patient in the Heidelberg Asylum. This takes a form in most cultures. Torn cloth This is one of two published photographs showing Marie Leib's torn cloth strips significantly placed on her cell floor.228-29) has been adjusted with each movement of the rags to draw a cosmos of balance and perfection. they m a k e a visual a n d physical e c h o that t o u c h e s s o m e deep part of the human spirit. O p p o s i t e . Cloth is the simple instrument with which she has conducted and ordered her universe. In the late 1 9 t h century. Compositional rightness (see pp. an a n o n y m o u s w o m a n in the southeast Indian state o f Tamil Nadu m a k e s a ritual drawing o n the b r i c k courtyard o f h e r h o m e .224 A B S T R A C T LINES Chants and Prayers WHEN ABSTRACT LINES are organized in repetition.

and in places of worship and celebration. and for over 30 years has traveled extensively through the Indian subcontinent creating an edited archive of 200. and birds. at the University of London and Ohio State University. lime. Materials such as rice flour.225 STEPHEN P.Theseare widely published in journals and are the subjects of international exhibitions. animals. Designs and motifs Rangoii (or mandalas) are ritual drawings made by many millions of women across rural India. among others. Painted Prayers UNDATED STEPHEN R HUYLER . cultural anthropologist. In daily practice. lecturer on the subjects of Indian art and Indian women's identity. Popular magazines feature new ideas each week and on special occasions there may be contests.HUYLER Photographer art historian.000 images. chalk. Skills are handed down through generations and from friend to friend. Huyler is the author of Painted Prayers. or flowers are marked or arranged on the ground or on the walls of homes. women pride themselves on never repeating a design. Motifs are geometrical or based on plants.

Their energy can therefore be a purer expression of an idea or emotion. Catling's abstract drawings are usually made in series and in parallel to written poetry and sculptural installations. performance and installation artist. and Fellow of Linacre College. Ruskin School. Untitled 2001 2001 153/4x 215/8 in ( 4 0 0 x 550 mm) BRIAN C A T L I N G . Mixed media This is a collage of torn white and gray tissue paper previously stained with ink. rocks or heads in a subdued atmosphere of dream. free from the direct imaging of known physical things. Klee's mathematical maze of thinly washed surface resonates with meticulous planning. Oval moons eclipse each other and oscillate between landforms and portraiture. figurative representation—that is. BRIAN CATLING British sculptor poet. Catling's works made for international galleries and museums involve drawing as a tool in their development and making. it is ruled and contained in one dimension by its interlocking ink-lined borders. structure. With no depth of field. gold paint and iridescent gouache mixed with water. and choice of hues. Catling's torn paper shapes and shadows spill light out of their frame like a fractured mirror. These two works present complex compositions with differing intensions and methods of making. filmmaker Professor of Fine Art. They each find their pathways and equilibrium in atmosphere and suggestion. but similarities in mood.226 ABSTRACT LINES Compositions ABSTRACT DRAWINGS ARE LARGELY or entirely free from using the viewer's eye to track and unfold layers of meaning. Oxford. and water-resistant layers of spray and enamel paint on thick paper.

drew.97-99. philosophized. Klee painted. ruler. It is a geometric harmony of straight lines and tonally graded flat colors that by their arrangement draw our eyes inward to their white center. Line and surface Klee observed the visual capacity of lines to push or pull within an image. We can see some diagrammatic examples of this among the optical illusions on pp. and brush. Polyphon Gefasstes Weiss (White Framed Polyphonically) 1930 131/8x95/8 in (333 x 245 mm) Paul-Klee-Stiftung. Klee also felt that a line represents the passing of time. and might be read as active or passive. Kunstmuseum Bern PAUL KLEE .31). Geometric harmony This is a work on paper made with a sharp ink pen. He explained his polyphonic painting as "a harmony of several color voices" searching for a visual parallel to music. and wrote copiously about the natures and relationships of color and form.227 PAUL K L E E Swiss painter and sculptor (see also p. watercolor. whereas tonal surfaces are perceived more immediately as a whole.

after being continuously adjusted. Set up a sheet of paper with a rectangle drawn on it. As y o u m o v e them around. media. b u t e v e r y n o w a n d again you will hit on an arrangement w h i c h appears just. "I have experimented endlessly with this idea. and an apple. regardless of style. Seek it when looking at other artists' work and in your everyday environment. or home.228 ABSTRACT LINES Being "Just" A SENSE OF "JUST" (or rightness) is a difficult concept to explain. Take. the impression y o u receive from t h e m . or on a page. Feel for it when youdraw. and put them o n a tray. and ten straight sticks painted black. a glass. a b u n c h of keys. It is also found in nature. they are just." SETTING UP Justness can be harmonious or deliberately discordant. their impact. w i l l c h a n g e w i t h e v e r y r e a r r a n g e m e n t . "Whenall pictorial elements come together in pleasing and perfect balance. This balance is what every artist and designer searches a n d feels for when making an image." . culture. for instance. but an easy o n e to u n d e r s t a n d . There is a single m o m e n t w h e n all proportions. angles. they reach a perfect position. It is found in all great art and design.Thisexercise will help you start. s o m e will be more or less h a r m o n i o u s . W h e n m o v i n g objects around in your yard. there is a clear feeling when. or degree of figuration. M a n y of their inter-relationships will be meaningless. and elements settle in definitive balance. In his b o o k The Education of a Gardener. the late garden designer Russell Page explains.

A stick touching the rectangle links the composition to the frame. Arrange them so they touch or cross in a series of intersecting balances. Here. painted black. B E I N G "JUST" 1 Arrange your ten sticks in t w o groups of five. fix it with glue.56-57). Remember the drawn rectangle is a part of the composition (see pp. . W h e n the composition falls into place. In the final step (left) there is an even balance." Move the sticks to find alignments and imagined perspectives. horizontals dominate the top. Feel for the rightness of their grouping and their relationships to surrounding spaces. which now becomes a tight frame. as shown here. Move the sticks out into the rectangle. Within a rectangle on a flat sheet of paper set about making a composition using no other rule than a sense of "just. 2 3 In the step above. horizontals dominate the lower area. suggesting a horizon.229 WHERE TO START Take ten sticks of equal length. making the composition seem to float beneath.

or even strident. they become a scaffold for the addition of further textures. and tones.. hard or soft.. "My understanding is that every object [or shape] emanates—sends out vibrations beyond its physical body which are specific to itself. or discordance. Returning to Russell Page. which is the shifting. Collage offers the artist a liberating palette of SETTING UP This lesson in collage is a direct continuation of the compositional lines made in the previous class. feels "just" (see pp. To prepare for this lesson.69 and Abe's installation on p.Youwill also need spare white paper. correction fluid or white paint. harmonious.220. a compass. found or made items. scissors.230 ABSTRACT LINES Collage H E R E W E EXPERIMENT with collage. glue. ready-made depths and surfaces. stain and dry a sheet of tissue paper using blueink." (Russell Page) . Cut or torn layers and shapes.228-29). Once the ten painted black sticks are set and glued in place. colors and textures can be manipulated until their pictorial harmony. This principal also applies to three-dimensional drawings such as Gaudi's work with wire and weights on p. you start composing by adding or subtracting shapes and textures and using colors and tones to achieve the impression you want to m a k e — w h e t h e r dramatic or s u b d u e d . he went on to say ". colors." overlapping placement of materials on a flat plane. an infinite range of voices and meaning. and black ink. Images and fragments torn from day-to-day life can be brought together to make a chorus of ideas and emotions.

This can also give a sense of fragmentation or punctuation to the composition. 2 3 Torn white paper moved over the surface adds masks of rough-edged irregular volume. solidity. correction fluid and ink marks add further dimensions. four circles of blue tissue paper. and with a compass and scissors.228) in front of you. . and shadow to thepicture. In the last step (left). then cut out. Cut six small rectangles the same proportion as your whole image. COLLAGE 1 Regular-sized pieces of white paper are moved over the surface to disrupt the even lines.231 WHAT TO DO Lay the final step of the previous lesson (p.The single disk that is folded with its straight edge facing up appears heavier than those that are flat. Glue them in place once they feel "just" Translucent circular disks of tissue paper give color tone. draw. Obscuring the blue disks. they deepen pictorial space.

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" [Tanchu Terayama. and expectation. Zen Brushwork]. is the practice of Zen through the calligraphic marks of a brush dipped in carbon ink. emotion. Hitsuzendo drawings aspire to "breathe with the energy and vitality of eternal life" achieved through "a state of no mind—beyond thought. . A MODERN JAPANESE meditative art form inspired by the teachings of Yamaoka Tesshu (1836-1888).Zen Calligraphy HITSUZENDO.

Nocturnes IN THIS QUARTET of semi-abstract drawings made with India ink. Lines made with a steel dip pen take on a scratchy nervousness. I flicked spatters of ink and rubbed the paper with a wet and a dry brush to achieve these effects. . discord is balanced against rhythm to create mood. These vibrate against washes of shadow and pitch-black mass.

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and damnation are found in most world faiths. We love our fear of the hybrid—ideally. aliens. Feeding this demand. a human-animal mix that implies this could MARTIN SCHONGAUER German painter and engraver who settled to work in Colmar Alsace. or strange. which is to have eaten a nun—it inspired the drawing on p. or in smoke. look for images in the folds of clothing. thousands of paintings. and stained-glass windows deliver powerful visual sermons to the once-illiterate populace. feathers. Be inspired by the irrational comedy of word association or puns. happen to us. Here. and deep fur—and we alter their scale. We watch with captivated pleasure movies such as The Fly. Depictions of God or of gods in the contexts of daily life. impossible. Monsters take advantage of both. When creating monsters. our eye circulates around a flutter of leather and scaly wings. . a collaboration between the two will ensure that your drawings glow with originality. Today. beasts. Lord of the Rings. which were widely distributed and influential in his time. we select details of animals farthest from ourselves and that are widely thought disturbing—reptilian and insect features. a Catherine wheel of drawn sparks spiraling around the quietly resolute saint. for example. Reading the place name I momentarily glimpsed an alternative meaning. Humans are equally troubled by the imperceptibly small and the enormous. To learn to flex your imagination. wings. and the Alien trilogy. all of which originated as hundreds of drawings. angels. England. Schongauer is best known for his prints. sculptures. scales. The salvation of heaven and terrors of hell are represented equally—enough to make any sinner shudder. In the Christian churches of Europe. in the cracks of walls.247. Perhaps the Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 1485 121/4 x 9 in (312 x 230 mm) MARTIN SCHONGAUER most important conclusion in this final chapter is to advise you to develop your skills in parallel with the joy of your unfolding imagination. Star Wars. Fantasy is most successful when founded on strong and familiar visual logic. our literate and more secular Western society still hungers for another world and to ravenously indulge its fascination for the marvelous. I was on a train passing through Nuneaton. movie studios now brim with as many monsters as the visual art of the Medieval and Renaissance Church. For example. Throughout this book images are presented to excite and surprise and drawing classes created to increase your confidence. Neither should be slave or master. paradise. We then add substances we dislike: unidentified fluids.Gods and Monsters OUR SACRED AND SECULAR need to visualize demons. Images we are now surrounded by bear testimony to the power and resourcefulness of their collective imagination. serpentine tails. and the faces of God have for centuries given artists a feast for the extremes of their imagination.

and exposed the superstitions. and follies of court through copious graphic works including his best-known prints. we see the international icon of stupidity. Goya later recorded the horrors of Napoleonic occupation. Visions experienced in front of the drawing sometimes instruct the making of a new one. whose impassioned work begins with light tapestry cartoons. noisy seascape on p. and men clubbing each other to death. crammed tightly at his desk. a Shoshone seeking guidance and power meditates at the sacred site of a petroglyph. Saturn devouring his son. Violent white marks symbolizing Achilles' rage resonate with the energy of Twombly's script on p. Pictorially. which can swamp the subject Here. He would be graceless if he stood.30. Near the end of his life he made his "Black Paintings" on the walls of his home. Other drawn versions of this image are more savage and frightening. Opposite. Francisco de Goya was a master of borrowing. a wave to join Achilles' chase of Hector. Compare his dark. Aquatint Goya has drawn a learned man as an ass. In this softer aquatint he poses for his portrait Textured background The aquatint process has been used to great effect in making a gritty toned background. portraits. and church murals. Paul Thomas's studies of Picasso and Twombly can be traced directly. This act defines the vision and continues the line of spirit guides. They depict as if by lamplight the devil and witches. hags. The well-dressed mule is cumbersome. F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A Spanish court painter printmaker and draftsman. it allows the mule to stand forward. Goya's plainly textured gray background pushes back the space behind the illuminated simply subject. such asinine behavior can be hereditary. below. The title "And So Was His Grandfather" adds that should we not already know. reading from a book of asses. Los Caprichos. to Picasso's similarly tight. plain wall suggests a blinkered view of nothing. his lover a dog. barren land rising like MYRIAD CHAINS RUN THROUGH ART HISTORY.220.240 GODS AND M O N S T E R S Marks of Influence marking the influence of one artist upon another. quoting great paintings and popular culture to add cunning twists to his satires. This continuity enriches the making of art and our heritage. The high. In this ass. Opposite below. Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 1799 81/2 x 6 in (218 x 154 mm) FRANCISCO DE GOYA . vanity. deranged masses. Many students leave white backgrounds in their work. rushing.

values. of the earth. and personal and social struggles. perhaps a stone." Each sacred image drawn into rock belongs to one of three realms in the Shoshone world: the realm of the sky. meaning "place of power. Wind River Reservation. by a supplicant in a trance of meditation. Graphite marks Here Achilles chases Hector around the walls of Troy before killing him. Achilles Chases Hector 1996 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) PAUL THOMAS SHOSHONE PETROGLYPH The Shoshone people of Wyoming name petroglyph sites Poha Kahni. Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range UNDATED ARTIST UNKNOWN . Thomas conducts his explorations in the mine of Greek and Roman mythology. A vivid spectrum of energized graphite marks and a masterly composition give this drawing vitality and speed. Wyoming. Simple wall stones cleverly state their cold solidity while also fading from our attention as the scene roars by. Parallel lines within the body of the figure are likely to denote power. or of the water Chipped image This is a sacred creature of the sky chipped onto rock at Dinwoody Lake. It was made with a sharp implement. White marks like flashes of light are cut though graphite with an eraser to reveal the paper beneath. ideals.241 MARKS OF INFLUENCE PAUL T H O M A S British contemporary artist whose epic graphic work questions and reflects upon issues of European identity.

we see parallel slanting pale marks that might have been made with fresh bread—a very effective eraser used before the wide availability of rubber or plastic. H e was influenced by his friends.204-05 will enable you to produce a similar effect of white lines shining out of dark charcoal. as he did the grass. lifting its cranial passenger over a seascape of repose. the shock would be extreme. 115. Redon lifted them out with some sort of eraser. The monsters of Bosch grew from his observations of beggars going about their trade in 15th. graphic artist. below left. and writer In contrast t o the light and visual accent of contemporary Impressionism. which sometimes—half-dressed and carrying a familiar trophy— stride. The Eye Like a Strange Mounts Balloon 165/8 x131/8in (422 x 332 mm) ODILON REDON 1882 Toward Infinity . They float toward us like a horrid visitation. Our subconscious can be drawn with pleasure and ease. If it were to turn and stare this way. T H E EXPLORATION AND DEPICTION Hauntings Grandville has drawn a scurrying zoo of half-known demons and animals that appear to have been stolen from the glass eye of the microscope. crawl. Techniques demonstrated on pp.and 16th-century Holland. Redon's eyeball balloon rises up. GODS AND Erasure In this charcoal drawing. Redon explored the darker side of the human imagination through symbols and mysticism. the writers Joris-Karl Huysmans and Stephane Mallarme. to the right of the balloon. Compare worked textures throughout the whole of this image to those found throughout Anita Taylor's charcoal drawing on p. Lifting out Fine strings of the hot-air balloon appear dark against the sky and light against the balloon. ODILON REDON French painter draftsman. Children are also delighted to invent a monster or ghoul. We may feel safe so long as the eye looks heavenward.242 MONSTERS of the unknown is a classical and constant occupation for the artist. and scuttle over all known reality. Here we see how he evolved their injuries into new limbs and warped proportions.

Two Monsters UNDATED 45/8 x61/2in (117 x 163 mm) HIERONYMUS BOSCH . Light shines from the right. teeming with the exhilaration of unrestrained fantasy. and he illustrated the Fables of La Fontaine and Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe. include The Haywain. Garden of Earthly Delights. which is still available today. Most of his work is in the Prado Museum. Last Judgment. The quality of the line is therefore uniform throughout. Comic little headbands of waving hair express more hysteria than fear. Quill and ink This typical Bosch monster is a quill drawing in bistre ink The phrasing of light and contour here is masterly. His other major works include Metamorphoses du Jour (1828). This image is from one of Grandville's best-known publications. sucker-faced creatures dash and trundle toward it They are drawn solidly to emphasize their earthbound weight. Les Animaux (1840). Madrid. HAUNTINGS Engraving This is an engraving made so that Grandville's original drawing could be reproduced.243 J E A N I G N A C E ISIDORE GERARD ("GRANDVILLE") French graphic artist and political satirist. A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects c. grimacing. and Ship of Fools. Smiling. 1840 61/8 x41/2in ( 1 5 5 x 1 1 5 mm) GRANDVILLE HIERONYMUS BOSCH Dutch painter Bosch's highly detailed iconographic religious panel paintings.

Opposite. Scaly. and marble sculptures including Pieto. hatched lines. and play with its perfection and meaning. However. a stunning hybrid of a swan. Chalk and ink A quill dipped in brown ink was worked over black chalk on this reused sheet. Two previously drawn faces become humorous antagonists to the beast. the dome of the Vatican. pinnacled. and dying slaves. gamboling copulations. snake.244 GODS AND MONSTERS Convolutions THESE CONVOLUTED DRAWINGS were made almost 5 0 0 years apart. phrased over the contours of form and bridging darker areas of shadow. remembering the cavernous. David. lion. In her studio. muscular tension is carved out of the paper using layered. architect. and mist-swathed land. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI Florentine painter sculptor. poet. sometimes artists purposefully tie a knot in the configuration to disturb. and engineer Among Michelangelo's great works are the painted ceiling and altar wall of the Sistine Chapel. Grimes found the genesis of her beast not among animals. A snake eating its own tail is a universal image of the eternal and continuous. wraps and coils its lithe body ready to strike or whimper at a touch. as we might expect. St Peter's square. she formed a series of ghostly pale. topple. and dog. but in the seductive landscape of Leonardo da Vinci's oil painting Madonna of the Rocks. below. Grimes' delicately cavorting figures dive into and consume each other. Michelangelo's dragon. His entire drawing wrestles and weaves the viewer's eye into its retracting folds. They share between them the pleasures of inventing a hybrid beast. Dragon 1522 10 x 133/8 in ( 2 5 4 x 3 3 8 m m ) MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI .

details evolved slowly using a drier brush. each one iridescent and crumbly like a weathered while oyster. The image formed directly without first making a pencil outline. How Clever of God #84 2002 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) O O N A GRIMES . her under heavy here. and the Camberwell and Slade Schools of Fine Art. London. It is one of a series of fragile earth figures inspired by rocks. Oxford. London. Grimes exhibits internationally and features in the collections of the New York Public Library and the Victoria and Albert Museum. Ink-wash delicately gouache (smooth) and gouache brushed drawing on This is a and was hot-pressed Shadows The dark shadow of the Other the ink-wash earth was made with a brushstroke of ink laid into wet paper. The large space around figure has been cropped Grimes drawings to flatten presses them. boards finished paper.245 CONVOLUTIONS O O N A GRIMES British contemporary artist and professor of printmaking at the Ruskin School.

and never leave them standing on their tip in a jar of water. thicknesses. giving a variety of lines. It is capable of very fine pointing. Brushes vary in size. The living marks of a wet. JAPANESE PAINTING BRUSH: Made with natural hair. It has exceptional painting characteristics. dense. SYNTHETIC-HAIR LINER: This brush gives a medium line and is firm with a spring to the touch. others are as fine as a whisker with a gentle touch. SYNTHETIC-HAIR S W O R D LINER: A lining brush with high ink-holding capacity and a fine point. liners. SMALL JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with sable hair. S Y N T H E T I C . 12. flowing. 1. this brush has a soft drawing tip and small ink-holding capacity. LARGER JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with natural hair held in a plastic ferrule on a bamboo handle. Always clean them thoroughly. It is still relatively small in the total range of Japanese brushes. Shorter brushes designed for other purposes run out of ink more quickly. Slightly less flexible than the squirrel-hair sword liner 9. This brush has a broad wash capability and can achieve a very wide range of marks. SQUIRREL-HAIR S W O R D LINER:This brush has a maximum ink-holding capacity and an extremely fine and flexible point 8. 13. drawing tool extending the arm. SABLE-HAIR RIGGER: Made with very long kolinsky sable hairs. the very opposite of pencil or silver point. materials. fingers. shape. making rt ideally suited to Japanese painting and small-scale calligraphy. with a fine point for delicate work 4.246 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brushes T H E BRUSH IS A VOLUPTUOUS and delicate weights. 10. ink-laden tip allow an expression that is beyond the linear. Some are bold. 3. Suitable for wash techniques but also capable of very fine detail." 6. L A R G E R S Y N T H E T I C . and has a fine tip for detailed work. ideally suited to drawing. POINTED SQUIRREL-HAIR MOP: With a synthetic quill ferrule and extra high inkholding capacity. and very fine lines. between them. all perfect for drawing and. washes. and hold prodigious weights of ink or paint. return them to their pointed shape. This design supplies the fine tip with a long continuity of ink 5. SABLE-HAIR LINER: Made with ordinary sable hair surrounding an extralong. Some used by master calligraphers are 2-3 in (5-8 cm) in diameter 11. and texture.H A I R LINER: Very responsive oriental-style liner This to the touch. 7.Theyhold plenty of ink and make continuous. The brushes shown here are a mixture of This is a selection of riggers. M T RA S AEIL . it has good inkholding capacity and is very flexible. needle-sharp center of kolinsky red sable hair. P O I N T E D T R A D I T I O N A L WRITER: The ferrule is made from a small duck quill. and effects. and writers.H A I R RIGGER: Made with long synthetic hair for fine-point work It has a good ink-holding capacity and is slightly more resilient than sable hair with more "snap. 2. and wrist into a fluid and soft touch. How you care for your brushes will determine how long they last. SYNTHETIC-HAIR BRUSH: Bound in a synthetic ferrule with good inkholding capacity and good spring and control. which holds long sable hair This brush holds large amounts of ink for long lines and points well for detailed work. it has good wash capabilities. Soaps purchased from good art supply stores will gently cleanse particles of pigment that become trapped in the hairs or ferrule.

247 BRUSHES .

and spatters. softness. and to make pools and stains o n the page. splashes. SETTING UP Blowing spots T h e s e t h r e e s p i d e r y c r e a t u r e s (above right and below) w e r e m a d e by d r o p p i n g s p o t s o f ink f r o m a b r u s h o n t o t h e p a g e and. Here I drew with a soft Japanese painting brush (see pp. A single brush has almost balletic potential to draw fine or undulating lines and curves. the speed of the s t r o k e . and above all w h e t h e r the b r u s h is saturated with pigment or relatively dry. the texture and a b s o r b e n c y of the paper ( w h i c h m a y be d a m p or dry).35) into two tablespoons of water in a shallow. I had left the end of the ink block in the water overnight to make it easier to dissolve. length. w i t h m y face close.246-47). the degree of pressure applied. It also depends on the angle at w h i c h it is held. I rubbed a block of Chinese ink (see p.248 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brush Marks A S I N G L E BRUSH will m a k e an e n o r m o u s range of m a r k s depending u p o n the width.) I . b l o w i n g h a r d o n t h e m several t i m e s t o disperse t h e ink ( c l o s e y o u r eyes if y o u t r y this. unglazed earthenware dish. and type of its hairs.

a n d t h e w a y it d i s t r i b u t e s w h e n t h e b r u s h is d a b b e d o n its s i d e . BRUSH MARKS Wet and dry strokes A m o n g these concentrated drawings ink made into with the same w a t e r y lines. b l e e d i n g f r o m strokes b e l o w left. . t h e effects of the b r u s h r u n n i n g o u t o f ink. w e see fine lines and s p o t s .249 Gritty texture T h e details o f t h e largest creatures b e l o w and opposite s h o w the granular texture of Chinese b l o c k ink. a n d b r u s h .

until we look again.Monsters THESE LITTLE CREATURES o f i n k and i n v e n t i o n were b o r n out of animal and bird studies. . I borrowed small and fragile specimens from the University Museum of Natural History. Oxford. and used their detail to draw new creatures that might at first seem familiar.

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Isidore. Among his "Black Paintings" in the Prado Museum. Through studying and drawing these great paintings I have discovered that they are based on a pair of similarly long. two of my own drawings show you how Goya's devil (below) is based on the shape of Murillo's boy on a horse (top right). Goya often invented his monsters out of characters seen in other painters' works. They are a pair and hang opposite each other. .Goya's Monsters W I T H CUNNING BRILLIANCE. thin works made by Bartolome Murillo in Seville about 120 years earlier. are two long. I found relationships between all four paintings in terms of shapes. Madrid. formal composition. and narrative twists. showing us that gallery study is not just for the student and beginner. Here. Goya's witches have been literally drawn and evolved out of the shapes of Murillo's prophet and pilgrims. thin works titled The Witches' Sabbath and The Procession of St. With further research.

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Consumed THIS IS A SERIES OF CARTOONS I m a d e s o m e years ago. little comments on politeness and sexual politics. drawn rapidly and with great joy. . Sometimes drawings come out of nowhere and surprise even the artist.

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m a d e paper.c e n t u r y painting m o v e m e n t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e use o f b o l d . t h e field is t h e a p p a r e n t a n d b e l i e v a b l e space inside t h e p i c t u r e . Collage C o l l e c t e d materials such as c o l o r e d p a p e r s .256 GLOSSARY Glossary Accidental drawing Random. Cartoon 1. written with a broad-nibbed pen o r brush. Bracelet shading C u r v e d parallel lines t h a t f o l l o w t h e c o n t o u r s o f f o r m . Chiaroscuro A 1 7 t h . A h u m o r o u s d r a w i n g o r parody.The plate is t h e n r o l l e d w i t h ink a n d polished with a rag. A g e n e r a l t e r m t h a t describes t h e various processes o f c u t t i n g a design i n t o a plate o r b l o c k o f m e t a l o r w o o d . a n d g r a p h i t e . S o m e t i m e s f e r r u l e s a r e m a d e o f plastic o r o t h e r materials. Deckle edge T h e i r r e g u l a r e d g e o f a s h e e t o f m o l d . Camera lucida A n optical device t h a t p r o j e c t s an image o f an o b j e c t o n t o a plain s u r f a c e so t h a t it can be traced. Anamorphic distortion Stretching an i m a g e across a p i c t u r e surface so t h a t it can o n l y b e u n d e r s t o o d . linseed oil o r egg y o l k Caricature A representation Contour line A line t h a t f o l l o w s t h e s h a p e o f a surface. Acid-free paper P a p e r w i t h a neutral p H t h a t will n o t darken o r d e t e r i o r a t e excessively w i t h age. 2. Contre jour A F r e n c h t e r m m e a n i n g " a g a i n s t day. w h e n v i e w e d f r o m a specified point. o f t e n d i s t o r t e d forms and vivid colors. It is p u t o n a Body color See Gouache. a r e r o l l e d t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders. Bleed T h e e f f e c t o f t w o w e t colors running into one another o r o n e color applied t o a w e t surface a n d a l l o w e d t o d i s p e r s e . w h e n a p e r s o n is p a i n t e d standing a g a i n s t a w i n d o w . o r will o n l y a p p e a r n o r m a l . as o p p o s e d t o t h e s t r a i g h t e d g e o f a sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has b e e n machine-trimmed. usually at a n a c u t e angle t o t h e s u r f a c e . Also called accelerated perspective. p h o t o g r a p h s . Field In a t w o . Fixative lightly glues t h e d r a w i n g t o t h e surface o f t h e p a p e r t o p r e v e n t smudging. a n d given t h e n a m e Sho. o r o t h e r (usually large) w o r k — s e e Pouncing. 2.d i m e n s i o n a l i m a g e . p r a c t i c e d meditatively w i t h a brush. Crosshatching Parallel lines d r a w n across o n e a n o t h e r at right angles.s i z e d r a w i n g m a d e for t h e purpose o f transferring a design t o a painting. D a m p p a p e r is laid o n t o p . Fixative Liquid acrylic resin a n d l a c q u e r t h i n n e r usually a p p l i e d as a n a e r o s o l s p r a y m i s t t o t h e surface o f a d r y . See also Hotpressed papers. T h e name " n o t " simply refers t o t h e fact t h a t t h e cylinders are n o t h o t in t e m p e r a t u r e . n e w s p a p e r cuttings. Blotting T h e use o f a b s o r b e n t m a t e r i a l t o lift a w a y excess liquid. Binder A substance t h a t holds particles o f p i g m e n t t o g e t h e r in a paint f o r m u l a t i o n . A i r b r u s h e s are u s e d in t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c o m i c s . Blending M e r g i n g t w o o r m o r e neighboring colors o r tones t o g e t h e r using a tortillon. Calligraphy Beautiful h a n d w r i t i n g . A l s o called r i n g l e t shading. m e a n i n g " t o stick" Dry media M e d i a t h a t a r e n o t w e t o r o i l y — f o r e x a m p l e ." " N o t " p r e s s e d p a p e r is r o l l e d a s e c o n d t i m e w i t h o u t blankets t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders t o p r o d u c e a s m o o t h e r b u t still slightly t e x t u r e d s u r f a c e . T h e b l a n k e t s g i v e t h e p a p e r its rough texture o r "tooth. It can also seal a silver p o i n t d r a w i n g t o p r e v e n t t h e oxidization (browning) o f t h e Drypoint A d r a w i n g is s c r a t c h e d directly o n t o a m e t a l plate w i t h a m e t a l t o o l h e l d like apen. T h e m o v e m e n t was started by a g r o u p o f French artists including H e n r i Matisse. Erasure T h e a c t o f r e m o v i n g a n i m a g e f r o m a surface. t h e l i g h t is b e h i n d h i m o r her.m e d i a d r a w i n g . R o u g h p a p e r is m a d e b e t w e e n t w o blankets t h a t . Engraving 1. in w h i c h parts o f an image are depicted v e r y brightly and dramatically against d a r k n e s s . C o p p e r p l a t e engravings w e r e widely used t o r e p r o d u c e images b e f o r e p h o t o g r a p h y . charcoal. F r o m t h e French v e r b coller. Air brush A mechanical. pastel. m e a n i n g "beauty"." It w a s first given t o t o n a l paintings m a d e in o n e c o l o r — s e e Grisaille. s u c h as a d r a w i n g o r painting. t o g e t h e r w i t h a t h i c k felt b l a n k e t T h e w h o l e s a n d w i c h o f l a y e r s is t h e n railed t h r o u g h t h e press t o m a k e a p r i n t D r y p o i n t is a very portable and immediate m e t h o d o f printmaking. A " s h a l l o w d e p t h o f field" m e a n s t h e p i c t u r e appears t o have only a shallow s p a c e inside i t Diffuse T o s o f t e n o r m a k e less brilliant. Aerial perspective The effect of the a t m o s p h e r e o v e r distance as it lightens t o n e s a n d cools c o l o r s progressively t o w a r d t h e horizon. Ferrule T h e s h o r t m e t a l t u b e t h a t s u r r o u n d s a n d g n p s t h e hairs o f a p a i n t b r u s h a n d fixes t h e m t o t h e brush handle. pressurized t o o l used f o r spraying fine mists o f s m o o t h c o l o r P i g m e n t is d e l i v e r e d b y a j e t o f air n o t t h e bristles o f a brush. A l s o called m u s e u m g r a d e . A p o t e n t i a l l y h a r s h m e t h o d o f p r o d u c i n g t o n e s in a d r a w i n g . for example." D e s c r i b e s a p a i n t i n g in w h i c h t h e light s o u r c e is b e h i n d t h e s u b j e c t F o r e x a m p l e . W o r d s o r symbols are Cold-pressed papers P a p e r manufactured with a "not" o r " r o u g h " surface. chance mark-making. R e m b r a n d t is a great master o f chiaroscuro. Eye level T h e i m a g i n a r y h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e a t t h e s a m e h e i g h t as t h e a v e r a g e p e r s o n ' s eyes. s u c h as a s c r e e n . r a t h e r t h a n r e c o r d e d o n a film o r plate. tapestry. A l s o c a l l e d t h e h o r i z o n line. a n d attaches t h e m t o t h e s u p p o r t — f o r example. p r i n t i n g press face up. so t h a t ink r e m a i n s o n l y in t h e g r o o v e s o f s c r a t c h e d lines. T h e prints t a k e n from t h e s e plates o r blocks. Composition T h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e p a r t s o f an i m a g e t o m a k e u p the whole. and readymade objects arranged and stuck o n t o a flat surface. in w h i c h t h e subject's distinctive features o r peculiarities are deliberately exaggerated f o r c o m i c o r g r o t e s q u e effect. A f u l l . In t h e W e s t p e n calligraphy is u s e d t o c r e a t e f o r m a l a n d d e c o r a t i v e t e x t s . U s e d as a c o r r e c t i n g device o r pictorial game. L a t e r it c a m e t o m e a n h i g h l y c o n t r a s t e d light effects. Fauvism A n early 2 0 t h .c e n t u r y Italian t e r m m e a n i n g "clear-obscure. Conservation grade D e s c r i b e s a range o f materials t h a t d o n o t d e c a y and cannot be broken d o w n by insects. In t h e Far East calligraphy is a highly r e s p e c t e d a r t f o r m . Camera obscura A d a r k e n e d c h a m b e r i n t o w h i c h an i m a g e o f w h a t is o u t s i d e is received t h r o u g h a small o p e n i n g o r lens a n d f o c u s e d in natural c o l o r o n a facing surface. F r o m t h e G r e e k kallos.

but in picture-making it is as important as the objects/subjects themselves. After several intervening processes. Giotto's Virtues and Vices in the Arena Chapel. or synthetic material that are suspended in a medium to constitute paint. Artists can paint freely over dry masking fluid. Grisaille A painting in gray or a grayish color Often made by students as a tonal exercise. This method incorporates the excitement of accidental and unpredicted marks. rock. Fugitive A term given to a pigment that it is not stable.The degree to which detail is defined. and translucent paper—a delicate material used in collage. This effect emulates what we see in real life. or even a beam of light. with the area beneath remaining unaffected. including Max Ernst used frottage in their work. but each print will be unique. enabling them to stick to paper It also helps to maintain a stable dispersion of pigment particles in water as the film of a wash dries. . to give the illusion of depth and distance. cadmium yellow hue. This may be disregarded in real life. Lithography A method of printmaking in which a drawing or painting is made directly onto a smooth slab of particular limestone or a metal plate using an oilbased crayon or ink. A point of interest in a drawing. The ink attaches to the oil-based image and is repelled by the wet stone. or a family of colors. purpose. sticky paper tape. Hatching (cross-) See Crosshatching. or plastic surface. and orientation of the image. Medium A generic term for art Key A painting is said to be "high key" when the colors and tones are bright and "low key" when they are dark or somber The term is also used Gouache Opaque watercolor Also called body color. glass. shape. oil-. upright images are called "portrait which is used as a binding agent in many liquid media. It improves the bonding properties Frottage A French term meaning "rubbing. format" (abbreviated to "portrait"). It is then peeled away. F o r m a t T h e size. materials that produce marks on a surface. Plumb line A line from which a weight is suspended in order to determine verticality or depth. It can be used with any wet media to isolate or protect parts of an image from further Optical blending See Pointillism. and by artists representing stone sculptures in a painting. It is a strong adhesive. F o r m The outer surface of a three-dimensional object. pastel. Monoprinting A direct method of printing in which wet medium (water-. or canvas and allowed to dry before an image is drawn or painted. which has a rough surface). oil-based printing ink is rolled evenly onto a smooth metal. work. and gray drawing. so that (using vanishing point perspective) the object appears to change shape and become narrower or smaller as it recedes. Lifting out A method of creating highlights and mid-tones in a drymedia drawing (such as charcoal or graphite). Pointillism A technique of using points or dots of pure color in such a way that when the picture is viewed from a distance they react Masking tape Invaluable. Rubens used grisaille to paint small images for engravers. Papercut A type of collage in which flat sheets of paper are cut into an image. and that will "escape" or change over time. glossy. Paper is then pressed against the stone to take a print. then rubbed over carefully but vigorously with a crayon. of the ingredients in inks and watercolors. Monochrome Usually refers to a black. it is the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work Pigment Any substance used as a coloring agent—for example. used for fixing paper to walls and boards. and is also used as a size. lifting out charcoal and other dry media. Objective drawing Refers to the concept of objectivity. to describe a surface to which paint will adhere readily. 2. Foreshortening A method of depicting an object at an angle to the surface of the picture. ink. Focus 1 . or a drawing made in any single color GLOSSARY Linear perspective A form of perspective in which parallel lines are represented as converging. which give it a smooth surface (as opposed to cold-pressed paper. graphite. or for wrapping and protecting a finished piece of work. or spirit-based) is applied to a surface that is then pressed onto paper and removed to leave a print. multiH u e A term for a color. Gamut A complete range or extent Glassine A type of thin. the finely ground particles of plant. Padua. Hot-pressed papers (HP) Paper made using hot cylinders. white. A small image might be described as small format Horizontal images are often said to be "landscape format" (abbreviated G u m arabic The natural to"landscape"). are painted in grisaille and appear to be made of stone. aiming to represent facts rather than an interpretation of the subject. Dark tones are laid down first then an eraser or masking tape is used to lift away particles of the drawing media to reveal the lightness of the paper beneath. Also refers to an additive used to control the application properties of a color Golden Section A proportion in which a straight line or rectangle is divided into two unequal parts in such a way that the ratio of the smaller part to the greater part is the same as that of the greater part to the whole. Lightfast A term confirming that pigment in the product will not fade with exposure to light. and masking off areas of a drawing that the artist wishes to keep untouched by media applied above or beside the tape. Masking fluid Clear or opaque latex fluid developed for watercolor painting. Picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. Usually an academic drawing observed from life. Ground A wet solution usually of gouache or gesso (chalk and animal glue) brushed onto paper board. The surface can be reloaded or redrawn with more medium.The paper then bears a crayon impression or copy of the surface that was underneath it A number of Surrealists. Grisaille is occasionally seen in church stained-glass windows. and it has a history in enamel work." A piece of paper is placed on top of an object or rough surface. Negative space The space between things. Impressing Stamping or printing.Theground provides a particular color or texture beneath the image.while secretion of the acacia tree. Alternatively. Paper is laid on top and a rapid drawing is made on the back of it The paper lifts away to reveal the image on its other side. mineral. Also used by artists' materials manufacturers to indicate the use of a substitute pigment—for example.257 metal line. the surface of the stone is made wet before being rolled with a thin film of oilbased printing ink. Hairspray is an effective and inexpensive alternative. or can be otherwise used to create an image—for example.

Turpentine A colorless solvent distilled from the resinous sap of pine trees. evolved by engineers and architects for the purpose of conveying W a t e r c o l o r A painting accurate structural information. paper or canvas. fruit. Still life A picture composed of inanimate objects such as bowls. a tightly folded piece of cotton batting can be used for the same effect. glasses. or ceramic glazing to reveal a different color beneath. Spattering A mottled texture produced by drawing your fingers across the bristles of a stiff brush loaded with pigment. wall or tapestry. The crude material is called oleoresin. pointed roll of white paper that is used to blend dry media. such as an inscribed sheet of metal. or watercolor paint.258 GLOSSARY together optically. nature of watercolor allows the white surface of the paper to Tonal scale A scale of gradations shine through. plum blossom. Pounce (a fine for an unpopular 18th-century powder of charcoal or similar French politician. Although drawings can be made with wash alone. in order to flick the pigment onto the image surface. and chrysanthemum—which in Chinese tradition are called "The Four Gentlemen. Tortillon A short. Squaring up A method of enlarging and transferring an image from one surface to another. ink. Props An abbreviation of the word properties.Thedrawing is removed. or the right-hand page in a book. orchids. Scale Describes the size of one element in relation to another Sepia A brown pigment taken from the sun-dried ink sacs of cuttlefish and used to make ink or watercolor The term is now often incorrectly used to refer to brown colors. cut-out profile made along every outline of the usually made in black paper image." Materials for Zen brushwork include round brushes of varied size. a point at which receding parallel lines meet Verso The back or underside of a piece of paper. Technical drawing A universal it is often used in conjunction language of lines and measurements with line drawings in pen and that is used to make diagrammatic ink—for images. usually diluted with water and applied with a brush. Zen brushwork encompasses calligraphy and painting. which are then called editions. "Spirits" or "oil" of turpentine refer to the volatile portion used by artists to thin or dilute oil-based paint. and paperweights. an ink stone usually cut from slate. W e t media Any liquid media— for example. by imposing a grid that is then scaled up to a larger size. commonly referred to as the lead.Technicaldrawing has been example. or pen. Printmaking The act of making a picture. compound of water-soluble pigment. watercolor. Artists' prints are normally made in multiple. plaster. Underdrawing A pale preliminary drawing made prior to adding layers of another medium such as oil paint or watercolor Value The extent to which a color reflects or transmits light This is the equivalent of tone in a black and white image. Stippling Applying color or tone in areas of fine dots or flecks. Size A weak glue used for filling the porous surface of wood or canvas in order to seal it. tight. Wash A technique using ink. Subjective drawing A drawing that expresses the personal view and interpretation of the artist An invented image. plaster or cloth surface beneath. Zen A school of Mahayana Buddhism that asserts that enlightenment can come through meditation and intuition rather than faith. meaning objects used in setting up a life model or still life. Squeegee A rubber-trimmed scraper used in the screenprinting process for dragging ink across a surface. or any physical object that can be stamped or pressed onto a surface to leave an impression. fine paper. Etienne de material) dabbed through the Silhouette (1709-67). a sheet of paper is placed beneath and pinpricks are Silhouette A flat." Applied to the blurring or softening of sharp outlines by the subtle and gradual blending of one tone into another Sgraffito A technique of scratching or cutting through a surface of paint. creating more vibrant effects than if the same colors were physically mixed together with a brush. Sketch A quick or rough drawing. sometimes drawn from a and leaving only the pricked sheet of shadow cast on a wall. The translucent Tint A color mixed with white. or the left-hand page in a book. Named paper in place. or gouache. Sfumato An Italian term meaning "smoky. to model areas of light and shade. or mark using an inked or pigment-covered surface. whose pinpricks creates a "connect-thepersonal pastime was making dots" replica of the image on the cut-out portraits. Pouncing If a large drawing or design (called a cartoon) is to be Shadow Darkness cast by the transferred to a surface such as a obscuring of light. or wood. Alternatively. Zen paintings usually depict scenes of nature and plants such as bamboo. Zen brushwork This is an oriental meditative art form originating in China and practised for many centuries in Japan. Single-point perspective The most basic form of linear perspective in which there is only one vanishing point. pointed instrument used for marking or engraving. A term borrowed from the theater. Shade A that is color mixed (or toned) with black Shading A lay term for adding tone to a drawing. pencil. Volume The amount of space occupied by an object or an area of space in itself. Support The structure on which an image is made—for example. in tone running from black to white or vice versa. Tone A degree of lightness or darkness. or point on which parallel lines converge to give the impression of receding space. and flowers. Serigraphy Silk-screen printing. using a brush. . Strip Core of a pencil. acrylic. Viewpoint The position from which something is observed or considered. Stylus A sharp. Recto The front or top side of a piece of paper. giving it a brilliance. carbon ink. Vanishing point In linear perspective. design.

Augustin 67 Basquiat. 75. 161 Akhlaq-I Rasul Allah manuscript 51. cut Catling. 221 animals. 247-248 carving see lines.44-45 bird studies 12. 128.212 to erase 205 to hold 23 pencils 204 willow 114. 182. 70 Art Nouveau motifs 91 Autoportrait (Ray) 138.198. 189.163 graded 227 composition 56-57. Etienne-Louis 72 Newton's Cenotaph 72. 81 135.89. Statue d'Epouvante 90 calligraphy. 95 Chair Cut Out (Woodfine) 94.117 Achilles Chases Hector (Thomas) 240. 137 Besler. 190 Caricature of a Woman (Daumier) 198. 186 charcoal 114.163 body. to model 110-111 border 51 Bosch. 241 action. 40-41 Durer's rhinoceros 26. 250 Bishndas and Nanha: Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity 50. 134 costume(s) 155 character 158-159 structure of 166-167 Cottage Among Trees (Rembrandt) 52.27 turtles 42-43 aquatint 240 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels (Leonardo) 12.Index Page numbers in italics refer t o captions and illustrations Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity (Bishndas and 259 INDEX B bread (as eraser) 205. 78 aerial perspective 206 airbrushing 160.50. Le (Hugo) 200.115 anatomical drawing 134-135 anatomical theaters 82-83 anatomical waxes 128 ancient carvings 221.186 see also movement Adoration of the Magi perspective study (Leonardo) 74.13. 29 Hugo's octopus 28. 178 Cubism 67.226. 71 Blake. 8 cave paintings 8. Franz 48 Protea nitida 48 Bellini. 244 head and neck 144 phrased 124-125 contrast: brightness 99 of media 30 tonal 96. to draw 100 Cypripedium calceolus L. 38-39. 90 colored materials 162-163 colored pencils 162.184. Brian 226 Untitled 2001 226 "Cave of the Hands" (Cueva de las Manas) 8. 74 brush (es) 246-247 Japanese 248 for laying a wash 140 marks 248-249 to hold 23 brush drawings 14-15 Bryan. 243 botanical drawing 48-49 Boullee.31 Picasso's horse and bird 30. Giovanni 137 Head and Shoulders of a Man 136. 157 cropping 56-57. 9 Chair (Van Gogh) 94. (Ross-Craig) 49 to hold brush for 23 caricature 159. 165. Zen c 232-233 blended 133. center of 118 ballpoint 182. Georges 67.133. 230-231 Cubist 90. 244 and graphite 178 . 52 cotton swabs 205 Coup de Vent a Asajigabare (Hokusai) 198. Mamaru 104. 90. 50. 28 Klee's horses 30. Victor: West Facade of the Church of St. 116. 198 cartoon (preparatory drawing) 137 (satirical) 159. 75 Circle of the Lustful (Blake) 180. 204. to draw 25.162 Conte. 203 Landline 202. layers 53 chalk pastels 162. Nicolas-Jacques 54 contours 146. Filippo 67. 13. Joseph 113 The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland 112. 206. 226-227 Acanthus spinosus 65 accelerated perspective 22. 199 Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya (Eisen) 156. 41 principal 186.44-45. 71 conte 112. 193 in lifting out 204. Basilius 47 Beuys. 206 checkered floor 80. Hieronymus 243 Two Monsters 242.51 All and Nothing (Taylor) 114. Clare 203 City 202. 179 Bussotti. 94 chalk(s) 53. 9. 98. Jean Michel 138 Self-Portrait 138 Bateau-Vision. 204-205. Leon: Bacchante 155 balance. 200 Bauer. 74. 180 Circular Score for "Due Voce" (Bussotti) 223 circus scenes 192-195 City (Bryan) 202. 242 to blend 205 compressed 122. 71 Bacchante (Bakst) 155 background: color 91 textured 240 Baker Matthew: Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry 32 Bakst.100 curves. 133. 158. 81 cut-out model plan 94. 74. 113 bird bones 12. 162 character: to capture 38-39. William: The Circle of the Lustful 180.169 colors: airbrushed 161 background 91 A Abe. 90. 223 Circular Score for "Due Voce" 223 children's art 9. 160 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object (Moore) 178.184. 72 bracelet shading 122 Braque. 26 geese 38-39 Gericault's cats 28. 180 blending: color 133. 230 The Physical Space 220 abstract drawing 219. 94 cylindrical objects. 13 architectural drawing 67-71 Arctic Flowers (Libeskind) 70. 242 Brunelleschi. 198. 201 collage 111. 205 Baltard. 222. 90 La Guitare.163 dry media 205 Blue Nude (Matisse) 110. 202 cloth. 163. 139 Nanha) 50. 220. to depict 156-157 Cloudburst of Material Possessions (Leonardo) 200. to draw 80. 111. to express 39. 30 sleeping dog 38-39 Stubbs's horse skeleton 26. 203 Claude Lorrain 202 Views from Velletri 202. Sylvano 222. 203 Buffalo Hunt (Shoshone) 178.

Theodore 29 Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 28. 240. 55. 71 minimal line 99 and music 70-71 quick 38-39. 242 eyes. Katsushika 199 Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 198. 240 Black Paintings 152. 226-227 anatomical 134-135 architectural 67-71 botanical 48-49 brush 14-15 dark to light 102. 7 33 Hooke. 120.115 exploratory 17 fantasy 72-73.198 Degas. 112. 241 to blend 205 and chalk 178 and ink 28.252-253 from memory 183.189. Francisco de 131. 243 graphic score 222. 157 . The 242. La (Braque) 90.69 Gerard.160. 136 Golden Section 67 Gombrich. Cheval et Oiseau (Picasso) 30. 220 dry brush 234 234 57. 99 etching. 245 Hugo. Oona 245 How Clever of God #84 244.102-103 drawing board 20 drawing books 20-21 drawing paper 144.216 Durelli.157 ellipses 100. Edgar 162 depth. 93 eye level 80 Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity. position of 143. 203 semi-abstract 234-237 three-dimensional 68. 69.260 INDEX D Dada 139 Daumien Honore 198 Caricature of a Woman 198. 32 framing 139 Franfoise au Bandeau (Picasso) 132. 160 as ground for metal point 140. 79.244 drawing(s): abstract 219. Keisai 157 The Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya 156.101 engraving 243 erasers/erasing 55. to draw 134-137 Helleborus corsicus 55 highlights 91. Study for Plate 59 (Mucha) 90. 230 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction 68.216. 93 horizon 52. C . 203 Hotel de la Suzonnieres (Satie) 70.166 170-173 Gestalt 222 Giacometti. 40. 115 Escher.144 and ink 30. proportions of 143 fantasy drawings 72-73. 69. Rene 160 Illustration for Jacques Fath E easel. 163.12 fixative 54. 202.91. 765 hitsuzendo drawings 233 Hokusai. 141 tonal 96. 90 G Gaudi.112. 132 Frenz.109 Rhinoceros 26. 190 Middle Eastern 50-51. 124. Nicholas 68 St Paul's Baptistry 68 head and neck to draw 142-145 Head and Shoulders of a Man (Bellini) 136. 69 Guitare. 216 foreshortening 110. 41 in the round 208-209 with scalpel 202. 245 layers 30 Goya. Statue d'Epouvante. to suggest 177 see also perspective diagonals diffuser 55 dip pens 34. 90 gouache 30. fiber-tip pen 182. 91 Dragon (Michelangelo) 36.230 three-tone 140. 26 Flying Fish (White) 25. 77 How Clever of God #84 244. to draw 120. 205 drawing with 103. 799 Holbein.146 from masterworks 126-127. 160 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction (Gaudi) 68. Ron 161 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 161 160.111 feet. 125.184 165. to draw 168-169 in Goya's artworks face. Victor 200. 73. 69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt 68. 134. drypoint 181 exaggeration 184 expressionism 198 E ye and Head of a Drone Fly (Hooke) 92. 29 H hands. Robert 93 Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 92. 135 Duren Albrecht 26.244.160. 222. 245 Gruau. 137 heads. 161 changing 216 Focusing on the Negative (Walter) 16 foliage 52. Antonio 68.117 fountain pens 34. 223 graphite 54. 162 Flaxman. 160 hitsuzendo 233 light to dark 102. 52 foreground 208. 134. 222 Grimes. 163. 25 focus 65. 104-105. 200 F fabric. position of 22 Eisen. 55. 134. 131 Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 240. Antonio 135 Muscles of the Head and Neck 134. 30 Fauves/fauvism 90.37. 144 Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (Baker) 32. 161 fashion drawings 160. 160 Faune.141.141. 252 depiction of fabric monsters 252-253 Self Portrait in a Cocked Hat 130. 37 Grandville 243 A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the Near-Microscopic World of Scale Insects 242. disposable pens 182-183 dissections: botanical 48 of horse 27 distance: illusion of see perspective linear 97 tonal 97 Documents Decoratifs. 223. to draw 78. 113.104.207. 55. 122.John 157 Man Lying Down in a Cloak 156. 122 Hawksmoor. 161 fashion 160.121 felt-tip pens 162.103 with eraser 103. 240 170-173 five Ships in a Port with Lighthouse (Wallis) 11. Sir Ernst 12.97. 170-173. Hans 133 The Ambassadors 116 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 132.116. M.103. Jean Ignace Isidore see Grandville Gericault. 222 Le Bateau-Vision 200. Alberto 136 Portrait of Marie-Laure de Noailles 136.

36. 234 iron-gall 35. Johan 32.112. 13 Cloudburst of Material Possessions 200. 183 vertical 156 linear distance 97 linear perspective 69.141. 226 Modernism 67. 248. apparent 97 Leonardo da Vinci 74.276. Madrid 171 University Museum of Natural History. 53 monoprint 787. 181 Klee. 160 In the Duchess's Kitchen (Rackham) 176. Oxford 106 Prado. 76 Libeskind. 60. 58-59. 201 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels 12.141 Metropolis (film) 72. 184. 73 Michelangelo Buonarroti 48. 205 masterworks.104. 227 Scene of Comical Riders 30. 166. 49 Rose 49 Maelbeke Madonna (Van Eyck) 156. 220.167 line(s) 132.181 L Landline (Bryan) 202.33 Mysterious Affairs of the lighting 2 7. 244 ink 36 252-253 Documents Decoratifs 90. 34. 220. Bartolome: Moses Striking the Rock ofHoreb 252. 220. 220. 205. 219 Mondrian. 203. 35. 201 head and neck sections of female mold for Sforza Horse 89 Madonna of the Rocks 244 perspective study for Adoration of the Magi 74. 83 white 122 ink impressions 222 ink spatters 234 installations 176.120. 190 metal pens see dip pens metal point 25.134 K Kettlehut. 181 luminosity 115 Lynch. 74-77.166 La Specola.124. Gustav 49 Knopf. 757 mandalas 219. 163 pens 36 measuring 116 memory. 170-173. Henri 111 Blue Nude 1110.The (Robinson) 108. 244 Dragon 36.91 Study for Plate 59 of INDEX illumination see lighting Illustration for Jacques Fath (Gruau) 160. 230 invented creatures 106-107 250-251 invented objects 89.109. 110 Sistine Chapel ceiling 116 Middle Eastern drawing 50-51. 111. Phyll: hands 18 lifting out 204. 103 Neolithic chalk tablet 220.243 carbon 35 Chinese 30. Henry 178 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object 178. 756 priming for 140.115 98. 225 masking tape 204. 72. 177 influences.182 Moore. I Murderous Attacks 33 Kollwitz.Pieuvre (Octopus) 28. 53 Tree II 52. drawing from 126-127. Oxford 250 music 70-71 Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks (Knopf) 32.96. 37 lines 118 pastel 162 pencil 31. Alphonse 90. Florence 128 lighting in 167 Pitt Rivers. 156 magnification 93 Man in Armor (Van Dyck) 158. Charles Rennie 48. Daniel 70 Arctic Flowers 70 Lieb. 34-35 acrylic 35 bistre 35. 242 light 96 to depict drawing with 1 76 painting with 176 . 73 Kigell. artistic 240-241. Kathe 181 Losbrunch (The Outbreak) 180. 159 Japanese 35 to make 36 sepia 35 walnut 36. 135 museums 44. 244 lithograph 198 Losbruch (Kollwitz) 180. 252 ink 16. Rose: Tantalus or the Future of Man 20 minimal line drawing 99 mirror use of 120 mixed media 28. 78 Study ofThree Male Figures 110. 31 Klimt. 97 Murillo. Marie 244 cloth drawing 244. Matisse. 178 motifs: A r t Nouveau 9 7 stylized 51 mountains 216-217 movement: of animals 30-31 of humans 7 79. 789. 221 endless 31 free 113. 176.227 to "bend" straight 97 compositional 228-229 cut 202. drawing from 183. 28 Two Impressions from a Cut-out Paper Disk 222 Huyler Stephen R 225 261 Kinecar. 158 Man Lying Down in a Cloak (Flaxman) 156. 33 J justness 228-229 N naive art 74 negative space 53. Piet 52. 185 Mucha. 54 silver point 156 leg sections 158 length. Erich 73 design for Metropolis 72.102. David 78 M Mackintosh.109. 77 Miller. 252 Muscles of the Head and Neck (Durelli) 134. 114 hatched 244 layered 118 pace of 65 pale 40 rapid 49. 249 and gouache 30 Indian 35. 244. 227 Newsome. 63. 99. 203 landscape 206-208 brushed 14 Landscape in Hoboku Style (Sesshu) 14 layers 146 chalk 53 gouache 30 ink 28. Paul 227 Polyphonic Setting for White 226. Victor 134 Profile Head 134.

733 Portrait de Marie-Laure (Giacometti) 136. 139 Real Life is Rubbish (Noble and Webster) 176.Tim. 7 72 Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland. Stella 48 Cypripedium calceolus L 49 rotated view 7 65 Rubens. Georges 112 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 112.7 77 rapidograph 70 Raphael 110. 7 73 self-portraits: Basquiat 138. Peter Paul 126-127 Embracing pose(s): balanced 146 quick 118-119 positive form 103 posture: of artist 22 of subject 3 8 . 1 1 6 accelerated 2 2 . 1 6 3 . Arthur 177 In the Duchess's Kitchen 176. 97. 244 reed 34. 239 Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 238. 73 Noble. 34-35. and Webster. 243. 71 Satire of the Queen's Dress (Wodall) 158. 141 Piranesi. Erik 70. 2 2 0 for oil pastels 162 stained 230 to stretch 140-141 tissue 21. Isaac 92 Telescope 92 Newton's Cenotaph (Boullee) 72.176 Real Life Is Rubbish 176. Man 131.199 Profile Head (Newsome) oil pastels 162. Paul 73 Nobson Central 72. 4 8 putty eraser 55. 52 pens 36 scalpel 54 drawing with 202. 1 2 4 priming for metal point 140. 1 6 9 to hold 2 2 . 160. The (Abe) 220 Picasso.Paul'sBaptistry (Hawksmoor) 68. 162 O p A r t 98 optical illusions 96-99 outline 33. 7 77 three-point 80. 38. 1 1 6 . 205 pointillism 112 polyphonic painting 227 Polyphonic Setting for White (Klee) 226. 161. 159.139 Autoportrait 138.37.Toyo: Landscape in Hoboku . to draw 146-147 R Rackham. 241 Physical Space.54 pastel 162 perspective 1 0 0 . 227 portfolios 20 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser de Noailles (Holbein) 132. 242 reed pens 34. 36 relief printing 757 Rembrandt van Rijn 52. 734 Protea nitida (Bauer) 48. 212 Japanese 2 1 . 7 38 Ray 138. 205 157. 230 parallel planes 79 Parisian street 86-87 pastels 162 to blend 205 to hold 23 layers 162 pencils 162 pen(s): dip 34 . 739 semi-abstract drawings Style 14 Seurat. Russell 228. 163. 103.184 fountain 34. 164. 36. 216. 36. 78 single-point 74.262 INDEX Newton.The (Beuys) 112. 9 8 . 37 38.36. 234 disposable 182-183 felt-tip 162. 91 outsider artists 33. 230 paper(s) 21 colored 162 drawing 144.759. J 76 nudes 114-115 to make 36 metal see dip quill 34. 74. Pablo 6 7 . Bridget 98 Robinson. Sue 104. 736 portraits. 28 pigment 162 bright 50 Caput Mortuum 7 4 7 for three-tone drawing 141. 203 Scene of Comical Riders (Klee) 30. 36.2 3 age and youth sleeping subjects 148-149 150-151 Renaissance 109 Rhinoceros (Durer) 26. 165 figure 118 filled 37 pencil 48. 81 two-point 74. 243. Faune. 36 pen and brush 8 3 pen and ink 70. 7 70 Ray. 57 Ross-Craig.71 Hotel de la Suzonnieres 70. Giovanni Battista 74. Cheval et Oiseau 30. 75 Two Courtyards 75. 72 Noble. 114 rollerball 182 Rorschach blot 99 Rose (Mackintosh) 48. 181 pencil(s) 54 charcoal 204 colored 762. 4 9 Rose of Mohammed 50. 224 0 layers 31. 75 Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range 241 petroglyphs 221. 68 Satie. 782 relief 757 silk-screen 739 woodblock 134. Odilon 242 The Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity 242. 239 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat (Seurat) 112.oise au Bandeau 132. Martin 238. 122. 36. 772 234-237 Sesshu. 165. 7 76 receding space 206 Redon.37.141 prints/printing: aquatint 240 dry-point etching 181 engraving 243 monoprint 181.37 scientific instruments 9 2 . 76-79.104 Pieuvre (Hugo) 28. 732 influence of 240 painting with light 78. 36. 26 Riley. 181 Rodin. 244 Q s Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape (Wolfli) 2 79 St. Heath 181 The Kinecar 180.52 pen and wash 158. 30 Fran<. Auguste 114 Two Women 114.240.9 3 Schongauer. 759 P Page.131 Cottage Among Trees 52. 1 1 7 aerial 206 linear 69. 1 3 2 quill pens 34.40. 9 0 . 40-41. 76 plastic eraser 55. 38. 219.226. 74-77. 166 fiber-tip 782.

Sue see N o b l e . 1 8 4 .141 S i m b l e t . 53 trees. Man in Armor 1 5 8 . 7 70 Tiber 214-215 Untitled ( T w o m b l y ) 2 2 0 . 202 violin.1 6 5 shorthand diagram 142 Shoshone buffalo hide painting 178. 2 3 0 tonal contrast 96 tonal distance 9 7 t o n a l d r a w i n g 9 6 . 1 7 7 free 8 0 V e n i c e . 79.27 skull 747.2 1 3 Stubbs.125 W o o d f i n e . 1 6 6 t r a p e z i u s m u s c l e 142. 49.12 W a l t e r . v i e w s o f 85. John: Focusing on the Negative 14 w a s h . 7 1 4 .241 s i l k . 186. 1 4 0 . 249 t o describe 39. 156 Van Gogh. G e o r g e 2 7 Skeleton of the Horse 26. 9 2 Tesshu. 97. t o d r a w 5 2 . 1 6 .1 0 5 vision 9 6 Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects (Grandville) 242. 6 9 Wodall. 240 Two Women Embracing ( R o d i n ) 114. 75. 241. 104-105. 1 2 Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse 71. C y 138. 141 Three Male Figures.120. t o lay 1 4 0 . 4 4 boat 209 botanical 4 9 G e r i c a u l t ' s cats 2 9 from Goya 170-173 125. 2 2 7 Untitled 2001 ( C a t l i n g ) u 263 W h i t e .13 M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s m a l e figures 110. t o d r a w 2 0 0 . 65 symbols 138. t o draw 1 9 8 . 96.1 4 5 . 7 6 1 spots. 170 shoes 1 6 4 stylized m o t i f 51 Summer Flowers 63. 199 shoes 1 6 4 . Study of (Michelangelo) 110. 221 . 158 V a n Eyck. Sarah 9 4 Chair Cut Out 94. 2 4 2 w Wallis. John 25 Flying Fish 25 Wild Striped Cat Sketches of ( G e r i c a u l t ) 28.1 4 1 . 77. 1 9 9 Two Courtyards (Piranesi) 75.Yamaoka 233 t e x t u r e 2 2 2 .t o n e d r a w i n g 140. 9 0 . A l f r e d 1 1 . 115. 102-103 tonal marks. 1 4 4 . 1 4 5 travel journal 2 0 . 743 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City ( F r e n z ) 1 6 0 . 1 3 . 230 t h r e e .158 158. phrased 146 tonal modeling 161 tonal range 169 t o n a l surfaces 2 2 7 tonal width 97 t o n e ( s ) 33.1 9 9 wire.s c r e e n p r i n t i n g 139 silver p o i n t 1 4 0 .199 tissue p a p e r 21. 2 4 7 t h r e e . 1 8 4 . 9 5 pens 36 v a n i s h i n g p o i n t 74. 75 Skeleton of the Horse ( S t u b b s ) 26. 245 sharpener 54 Ship in a Storm ( T u r n e r ) 1 9 8 . 74. H e n r i de: Woman at Her Toilet 14 t r a n s p a r e n t v i e w 92.d i m e n s i o n a l 1 0 4 . 159 Wolfli. 174 T w o m b l y . 7 79 Shoshone petroglyph 240.2 0 1 . William 159 Satire of the Queen's Dress INDEX 226. 2 0 0 Ship in a Storm 1 9 8 . 1 4 1 . 2 2 0 influence o f 2 4 0 Untitled 220.41. 199. Adolf: Giant-Grape Saint-Mary-Castle 219 Woman at Her Toilet ( T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c ) 74 w o o d b l o c k print 157. 164. T i m W e s t Fagade of the Church of St. t o d r a w 1 0 1 viewfinder 57 Views from Velletri ( C l a u d e L o r r a i n ) 152. b l o w n 248 steel p e n s see d i p p e n s still life 89. Paul 2 4 1 Achilles Chases Hector 2 4 0 .9 1 storms. 182. 2 3 4 . 2 9 wind. 57. 69.5 3 in l a n d s c a p e 2 0 6 . 7 9 0 vessels.Sforza Horse.1 8 5 Tree II ( M o n d r i a n ) 52. 1 9 9 . Jan 1 5 6 Maelbeke Madonna 1 5 6 . W . 2 7 studies: b i r d s 7 2 . Augustin ( B a l t a r d ) 6 7 w e t and dry brush-strokes 2 4 9 Turner. 7 77. 7 75 Telescope ( N e w t o n ) 9 2 . 226 V Van Dyck. 1 4 1 w a t e r c o l o r 25. 161. 243 (Bosch) T Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos ( G o y a ) 2 4 0 . t h r e e . 2 4 4 . 156 layers 7 5 6 priming for 140. A n t h o n y 152.J. h e a d a n d n e c k sections o f female m o l d f o r (Leonardo) 89 shading 2 9 s h a d o w s 28.d i m e n s i o n a l d r a w i n g 68. Sarah: child's m a p 75. Vincent 95 Chair 94. 725 fabric 1 6 8 T h o m a s . 9 4 z Z e n calligraphy 232-233 contrast 96 t o grade 163 ink 37 pencil 5 4 t o r t i l l o n 205 T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c . M . 2 2 6 . 2 1 2 . 69. 76. drawing with 104-105 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt ( G a u d i ) 68. 7 6 Two Impressions from a Cut-Out Paper Disk ( H u g o ) 2 2 2 Two Monsters 2 4 2 .243 Leonardo's machines 12. 206-207 202. Taylor A n i t a 115 All and Nothing 1 1 4 .216 W e b s t e r .

a. 72: akg-images. 2 2 0 : Mamaru Abe. H a m b u r g . 9 2 : Science Photo L i b r a r y . 1 5 9 : Bodleian Library. b r i d g e m a n . 7 0 : Studio Daniel L i b e s k i n d . R o s e m a r y S c o u l a r . Maureen Paley Interim Art (b). 225: Stephen P Huyler. Florence/MoMA. Pamela Ellis for compiling the index. 3 2 : Pepys Library. K e v i n a n d Rebecca Slingsby. 221: Gagosian Gallery/Private Collection (b). 2 1 8 : Adolf-Wdlfli-Stiftung. 5 2 : T h e Metropolitan Museum of Art/Bequest of Mrs. Italy. 174: Artothek/Munich. Paris. J a c k a n d Brian Catling. Paul T h o m a s . K u n s t m u s e u m . Paris a n d D A C S . D a w n Henderson. Paris. Basel.uk/Guildhall Library. 6 6 : w w w . R u t h P a r k i n s o n . 4 6 : B r i t i s h Library. Paris a n d D A C S . a n d D e p a r t m e n t s o f E n t o m o l o g y a n d Zoology at the University of Oxford. 179: www. Roddy Bell. NY. M a n d y Earey. K e w ft)). Copyright Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens.20-21 a n d 246-47. 17: J o h n Walter.co. B e r l i n . Psychiatric Institute of the U n i v e r s i t y of Heidelberg. 1 3 3 : Artothek/Kupferstichkabinett. Angela Palmer.Paris ( b ) . 1 5 6 : Graphische S a m m l u n g Albertina. c o . 2 2 4 : P r i n z h o m Collection. support. Anders/ © D A C S 2 0 0 5 . Berlin (b). . 2 4 1 : Corbis/David M u e n c h ( b ) . T o n y G r i s o n i . 113: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. Dover Publications/ISBN: 0486229912 (t). 2 0 2 : © T h e British Museum. 2 0 3 : Clare Bryan (t). Oxford. F i n n . 177: Mary Evans Picture Library. 2 2 3 : Lebrecht Music and Arts Photo Library/Ricordi. 9 7 6 ) .uk/British Museum. 9 1 : www. 1 7 8 : © T h e British M u s e u m / H e n r y Moore F o u n d a t i o n . 11: www. Salisbury & South W i l t s h i r e M u s e u m ( t ) .uk/Private Collection. Publisher's Acknowledgments Dorling Kindersley w o u l d like to thank Caroline H u n t for editorial contribution. O o n a G r i m e s . B M G .bridgeman. 181: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. Corporation of London. Graphische Sammlung. Sarah D u n c a n .co. 1 6 1 : D C C o m i c s I n c . J o h n Walter.bridgeman. a n d brushes o n pp. 139: Galerie Marion Meyer/© Man Ray Trust / A D A G P . Sarah Woodfine. Germany/Joerg P. G e r m a n y . 2 3 8 : akg-images. A n d y C r a w f o r d for p h o t o g r a p h y a n d L . Anita Taylor. u k / O n Loan to the H a m b u r g Kunsthalle. 3 3 : Prinzhom Collection.Strang Print Room ( b ) . A . Paula Regan. Clare Bryan. Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (t). 1 6 0 : Rene G R U A U s. G i n a R o w l a n d . 1 3 5 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. Inc. L o n d o n .r. and Tamsin Woodward Smith.bridgeman.co. 49: Hunterian Museum (t).co. London 2005. 176: Modem Art. Paris. 68: www.uk /© Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery. 2 4 : © T h e British Museum. Kunstmuseum Bern. 1 3 6 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Centre Pompidou-MNAM-CCI. 1 3 4 : © T h e British Museum. 9 4 : Sarah Woodfine. Illustrated London News Picture Library/The Bystander (b). Angela W i l k e s . T h e R u s k i n School of D r a w i n g a n d Fine A r t . 1 3 8 : © Christie's Images Ltd/© A D AGP. L e n . L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . Paul T h o m a s ( t ) . Paris. Carlo O r t u for picture research s u p p o r t . c o . University of Oxford. 158: Calouste Gulbenkian Museum. B e m d Kunzig. Fund.uk/Private Collection. A . Julie O u g h t o n . 2 7 : Royal Academy of Arts. Antonia Cunliffe Davis.bridgeman. Berlin/Staatsbibliothek zu A l l other images © Sarah Simblet . J o h n Roberts. Havemeyer. Magdalene College Cambridge. b r i d g e m a n . Paris. 16: www. 1879. 1 9 : Getty Images/© Succession Picasso / D A C S 2 0 0 5 . 2 4 0 : w w w . 88: www. 157: U C L Art Collections . George M c G a v i n . Picture Credits 8: Corbis/Hubert Stadler. C o r n e l i s o n & Son. 2 0 1 : T h e Royal Collection © 2 0 0 2 H e r Majesty Queen Elizabeth I I .uk/Mucha Trust. Jean Pierre Roy.bridgeman. 115: Anita Taylor. G e r m a n y . 69: Institut Amatller d'Art Hispanic (tl). K a t h r y n W i l k i n s o n . 1 5 : w w w . 5 0 : Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (1). Winthrop. Germany. Paris/ © Succession Picasso / D A C S 2005.uk/Private Collection. L o n d o n . u k / T o k y o National M u s e u m . H a y w a r d Gallery. Also. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. Orientabteilung/Ruth Schacht. 1 . Flossie. F r a n c e .co. 112: Yale University A r t Gallery/Everett V Meeks. France. P h y l l Kiggell. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin/Jorg P.100.co. Diana Bell. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. a n d encouragement i n m a k i n g this book: M a m o r u Abe. Anders. 3 1 : Tom Powel Imaging. 74: Corbis. Sophie Laurimore.uk/Kettle's Yard. 2 4 2 : Photo Scala. L o n d o n (t). 2 4 5 : Oona Grimes. J o n Roome. 1 5 4 : akg-images/Musee National d'Art Moderne. (r). 7 1 : I M E C / A r c h i v e s E r i k Satie. London/courtesy of Stuart Shave. 180: www. 2 2 2 : Pierre Georgel/Private Collection. Kirsten Norrie. Toulouse.939).264 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Acknowledgments Author's Acknowledgments: T h e author wishes to thank the following people for their enormous help. Sammy De Grave. H e l e n S h u t t l e w o r t h . A n n a P l u c i n s k a ./Private Collection/© D A C S 2005. B e r l i n . 9 3 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. Natalie G o d w i n . 226: Brian Catling. for s u p p l y i n g the d r a w i n g books. U K . 1 9 8 : Dover Publications.co. 1 0 8 : Arts C o u n c i l Collection. 1929 (29.uk /Biblioteca Nacional. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett./© D A C S 2 0 0 5 ( t ) . 30: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. R . 9 0 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/© A D A G P . Patty Stansfield.co. Wolfson College. Paris. 2 4 4 : Ashmolean Museum. 1 1 0 : www. c o .bridgeman. University of Cambridge. H .bridgeman. 2 8 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. 13: www. L o n d o n . b r i d g e m a n . © Tate. Psychiatric Institute of the University of Heidelberg. 2 2 7 : Paul Klee Stiftung. 114: Musee Rodin. L o n d o n . 75: © The British Museum (b). 1 9 6 : Museum of the History of Science. 1901.uk/Musee des Augustins. u k / L o u v r e . U K . 130: The Metropolitan M u s e u m of Art/Robert L e h m a n Collection. L o n d o n . Lisbon. Portugal. 132: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. 9 5 : V a n Gogh M u s e u m . 243: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. Rocio Arnaez.bridgeman. papers. 1975 ( 1 9 7 5 . London/Bequeathed by Charles Landseer. Sir Brinsley F o r d . 5 3 : Collection of the Gemeentemuseum D e n Haag/Mondrian Trust. K u n s t m u s e u m Bern/© D A C S 2 0 0 5 . H e a t h e r M c C a r r y . 4 8 : T h e N a t u r a l H i s t o r y M u s e u m . S i m o n L e w i s . 111: Fondation Beyeler/Riehen (Bale)/© Succession H Matisse/DACS 2005.l. 137: © The British Museum. Japan. Jackie Douglas. 2 0 0 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. Andy Crawford. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin. Peter L u f f . 2 6 : Topfoto. B .co. R o y a n d D i a n n e Simblet. Productions Clovis Prevost (c). L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . 51: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. Madrid. 73: Berlin F i l m Museum (t). Paris and D A C S . Christopher Davis. .co. Amsterdam. Agnieszka Mlicka. 199: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee des arts asiatiquesGuimet. Carole A s h ./Galerie Sylvie Nissen. O.bridgeman. 29: Fogg A n Museum/Collections Baron de Vita: Grenville L.

Learn from the Masters—a rich selection of drawings illustrates different approaches to a wide range of subjects. Creating a Sketchbook—Sarah Simblet's drawings inspire you to explore different subjects and fill your own sketchbooks. discover new ideas.FOR THE ARTIST T h e c o m p l e t e g u i d e to drawing—a unique blend of practical teaching and inspirational insights into classic and contemporary drawings. D r a w i n g C l a s s e s — d e t a i l e d step-by-step demonstrations show you how to develop your natural talents. Materials and Techniques—how to use a variety of materials—from pencil and ink to pastel. charcoal. and silverpoint—and apply the key elements of drawing including perspective. shape. and improve your drawing skills.com Discover more at .dk. and tone. www.

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