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FOR T H E ARTIST
FOR THE ARTIST
LONDON • NEW YORK MELBOURNE • MUNICH • DELHI Senior Editor Paula Regan Senior Art Editor Mandy Earey Art Editor Anna Plucinska Managing Editor Julie Oughton Managing Art Editor Heather McCarry Art Director Peter Luff Publishing Director Jackie Douglas Production Joanna Bull DTP Designer Adam Walker Picture Research Sarah Smithies US Editor Christine Heilman First American Edition, 2 0 0 5 First Paperback Edition, 2 0 0 9 Published in the United States by DK Publishing 3 7 5 Hudson Street New York, New York 1 0 0 1 4 10 11 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3
6 8 20 22 Master Builders The Order of Sound Future Fictions Pathways of Sight Single-Point Perspective Creating an Imaginary Space Further Aspects of Perspective Theaters Venetian Life Parisian Street
68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86
Foreword Introduction Drawing Books and Papers Posture and Grip
Objects and Instruments
TD075-July 2009 Copyright © 2 0 0 5 Dorling Kindersley Limited Text and authors artworks © Sarah Simblet 2 0 0 4 Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited A Cataloging-in-Publication record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN 9 7 8 - 0 - 7 5 6 6 - 5 1 4 1 - 1 Color reproduction by GRB, Italy Printed and bound in China by Toppan
Still Life Instruments of Vision Bench Marks Light and Illusions Further Illusions How to Draw Ellipses Tonality Drawing with Wire Artifacts and Fictions
90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106
Documentaries Presence and Mood Movement Icon and Design Pen and Ink Drawing with Ink Capturing Character Sleeping Dogs Turtles Dry Birds
26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44
Postures and Poses Choreographs Passion Measurement and Foreshortening Quick Poses Hands and Feet Charcoal Hands Phrasing Contours The Visual Detective La Specola
110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128
Plants and Gardens
Botanical Studies Jeweled Gardens Fast Trees Graphite and Erasers Cropping and Composition Negative Space Fig Tree Summer Flowers Acanthus Spinosus
48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64
Discover more at
Projections Magnetic Fields The Human Condition Disposable Pens The Travel Journal Catching the Moment Grand Canal Crossings Caravans The Big Top
174 Abstract Lines
176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 Process and Harmony Writing Time Chants and Prayers Compositions Being "Just" Collage Zen Calligraphy Nocturnes
220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234
Poise Anatomies Revelations Self-Portraits Silver Point Head and Neck Essential Observations Drawing Portraits Generations Castings
132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 152
Earth and the Elements
Air in Motion Storms Nature Profiles Charcoal Landscapes Drawing in the Round Decaying Boat Cloudburst Notes of Force Mountains
198 200 202 204 206 208 210 212 214 216
Gods and Monsters
Marks of Influence Hauntings Convolutions Brushes Brush Marks Monsters Goya's Monsters Consumed Glossary Index Acknowledgments
240 242 244 246 248 250 252 254 256 259 264
Cloth and Drapery Character Costumes Femmes Fatales Colored Materials Study and Design The Structure of Costume Textures and Patterns Dressing Character Posture Carving
156 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172
as a visiting professor at universities. Some of my drawings cover entire walls. or engineer. where spaces are shaped by nothing more than the objects and activities contained within them. I know that with their cooperation I can soon prove them wrong. It makes me feel excited to be alive. Drawing occupies a unique place in every artist and creator's life. we learn to feel truly alive. drawing is the immediate expression of seeing. of Sketch Book for the Artist. They occupy a shelf in my studio. that inspired the title and structure MEMORY T H E A T E R S This pen-and-ink drawing was made from imagination during research for my PhD. Augustine his notes on memory. we have looked at. we learn to see it. fashion designer. understood (and often misunderstood) our own bodies. in which he describes himself flying and diving in his imagination through pictorial caverns of knowledge. They enfold their viewer and are made on joined sheets of paper that I reach by climbing ladders. These inspirations led me to invent museums. It is my love of these. shape. doctors. a drawing book is the perfect portable private vehicle for your imminent exploration of drawing. are made outside as discreet installations. Drawing is a mirror through which I understand my place in the world. a composer notating a musical score. Chosen in any color. Others can be held in the h a n d or. and through which I can see how I think. The very first step is to believe it. night security staff. I also make drawing books. and size. Some are more traditionally framed and hung in galleries for solo or group exhibitions. a sculptor. I was training in anatomy and studying how. thinking. By using our imaginations.Foreword B Y DRAWING THE WORLD AROUND US. from schoolchildren to senior citizens. and be slowly washed or worn away. architect. where I expect them to be discovered by some people. a cartographer charting the land. not only to make art. and I refer back to them for years after they are made. and a reflector of experience. . by invitation. and local c o m m u n i t y classes. art schools. We can all learn how to draw. and experience. especially as travel journals. remain unseen by most. texture. I was also reading among The Confessions of St. and in a few sessions they will be flying. through history. geologists. and makers of special effects. Combine these things and the possibilities are endless. who tells me firmly upon approach that they cannot draw. perhaps hidden on a door hinge or a street bench rail. and feeling. undergraduates to fellow professors. still standing by the door. aspirations. or a quantum physicist trying to see for themselves the fluctuations of our universe. be they a child discovering their vision and dexterity. It is a tool for investigating ideas and recording knowledge. I will always draw. but because it is how I engage with and anchor myself in life. and their importance to so many artists. The most rewarding challenge is always the newcomer. I work with people of diverse ages. For twelve years I have enjoyed the privilege of teaching drawing. For me personally.
is not afforded us by drawing. graffiti. "CAVE OF THE HANDS" In this drawing. and in meetings. packaging. We can always read each others drawings. not just chosen pictures on our walls but everywhere—maps. Rio Pinturas 13. Drawing is international. We are surrounded by drawings in our daily lives. and we spend our lives reading it. scrawling shapes and cartoons when on the telephone. We are bombarded with linear and tonal pictorial information.8 INTRODUCTION Where We Begin There is a fundamental drive in our human nature to make a mark. They have a natural affinity to many modern graffiti signatures. in lectures. The sense of relief we may feel from the information overload of modern commercial life when visiting a country in which we can no longer read every written word. logos. At home and at work we doodle. a great crowd is raising their hands in greeting.000-9500 bce . signs. like a great canvas for them to mark. Children cannot be restrained from running across the pristine white lawn of newly fallen snow. Cueva de las Marios. and patterns on our clothes. waving to us from many thousands of yearsago. Sometimes we draw because we are bored. irreverent to language barriers. Most adults still feel that certain exquisite pleasure on arriving at a beach to find the tide out and the sand perfect. inscribing every fresh part of it with their eager scrapes and trails. but more often because drawing actually helps us to focus and take in what is said.Theseancient silhouettes were drawn with earth pigments rubbed onto rock.
like all toddlers. I now think this is a picture of proximity. She gave me a notepad and a red crayon and asked me to draw her "a picture of Daddy. In cave paintings like the one opposite. but I had never yet attempted to figuratively picture my world. and she kept it as my first step beyond the delighted realms of scrawl. . On a particular afternoon in September 1974." Until this day. MAKING OUR MARK It seems reasonable to assume that we have engaged in pictorial mark-making for as long as we have made conscious use of our hands. Eyelashes take up as much of my attention as the head itself. we see our oldest surviving images. the hair of my first portrait was most important. The image above is what I gave back to my mother. at age two-anda-half. and belonging to place. power. enjoying the physical sensation of crayon on paper. and the appearance of my strikes of colors. I was sitting with my mother. had happily scribbled. created by societies of hunter-gatherers. Cave art was not made for decoration but as a fundamental part of life. an expression of existence. reflecting my experience of looking closely at my father's face. I. Even though it is made by a toddler this image would be recognizable to anyone. who in their day-to-day hardship made time to picture themselves and the animals on which they depended.9 WHERE WE BEGIN FIRST PORTRAIT For sorre forgotten reason.
Inhibitions creep in and ideas of good a n d b a d terminate confidence. It was made with a few bold strokes of a steel pen dipped in ink to conjure the dried bee I was holding between my fingers on a pin. Don't b e p e r s u a d e d to draw in a w a y s o m e o n e else . At this point many will insist they cannot draw.10 INTRODUCTION PEN-AND-INK BEE This tiny drawing has been enlarged to show its texture and composition. b e p r o u d o f what m a k e s y o u r w o r k individual to y o u . for example. yet still turn to drawing w h e n their verbal language fails or is inadequate. W e do n o t hesitate to draw a map. Young children love to draw. and this activity plays a vital role in their d e v e l o p m e n t . But as adolescents. PROGRESSION T h e r e is a point in all o u r lives w h e n w e first c o n t r o l o u r mark and m a k e it a line. then drag o u r line into a loop. and from that first unit build and describe the shape of something or someone we know. h o w e v e r small a n d u n f o r m e d y o u believe they are. As you progress. most of us stop. to help a stranger see their way W h e n taking first steps in relearning h o w to draw. Hours are lost immersed in the glorious world of imagination. it is important to value your natural abilities a n d ways of seeing.
. Think how much would have been lost if anyone had interfered with Alfred Wallis' personal sense of proportion and perspective in the exquisite drawing above. what they most want to achieve. remember that all advice is only advice. I ask them their reasons for drawing. Occasionally. harbor and sea is one of many that Alfred Wallis made from memory while sitting at home. but it does help to set out facing in the right direction. As you read this b o o k and perhaps attend art classes. He used leftover ship and yacht paint with crayons on cut-out pieces of cardboard boxes. and they have never questioned why. I meet students struggling unhappily with a particular method of drawing.11 PROGRESSION A UNIQUE SIGHT This innocent yet sophisticated drawing of boats. Someone once told them they must draw in this way. The journey of every artist demands hard work and discipline. After experimenting and trying each new idea. 1925-42 53/8x87/8in (135 x 225 mm) ALFRED WALLIS prefers and tells you is better. Enjoy the control of your own journey. you must decide whether to keep or discard it. He was a retired Cornish fisherman and junk dealer who began drawing at the age of 70 "for company" after his wife died. Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse c. and which aspects of the vast wealth and diversity of graphic language would be most appropriate to their goals.
and inspire others. IDEAS A N D I N V E N T I O N S These active machines. We also see differently ourselves. I hope. but the child in us knows that this is an all-embracing. the page bristles with the focus of ideas. There should neve: be a slavish obligation to represent things exactly as we collectively agree we see them. embedded in this book. perhaps for comfort or ease as a left-hander or a habitual enjoyment of the challenge." The clarity and empowerment of these words. The art historian Professor Sir Ernst Gombrich. it may not be accurate to our critical adult eye. There are countless reasons for drawing. is. They are also always written backward. be visionary. The observed world may be our subject. When we look back at Wallis' seascape (see p. Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels LEONARDO DA VINCI . "There really is no such thing as Art. wrote as the opening line of this great work.and collarbones and shoulder blades of a different bird almost become new creatures in themselves. author of The Story of Art. Our imaginations are the tools with which we can increase the essence of life. but it should be the experienced world we draw. Below. There are only artists. all raise water From the Archimedes' screw to Leonardo's own cupped wheel. We all see differently. and lose the very thing that attracted us to it. We BIRD STUDIES The flutter of faint scratches that dance across the pages on the right is an attempt to see the movement and bony weightlessness of a bird. right. His notes visually balance his drawings. depending on the occasion and our purpose. clear-minded understanding of the sea.12 INTRODUCTION VISION All artists see the world differently. the breast. boats. If as artists we nail a subject down too hard. 11). not for disguise but as a personal choice. we can drive out its spirit. and breathtaking wind of a choppy harbor.
Leonardo drew to invent a machine. shout against a terrible injustice. My drawings of a housemartin (opposite top) illustrate the importance of repeated study.13 VISION should not try to know how every finished picture will look. Each fresh image reflects growing confidence and the experience of the preceding study. Our drawings are annotated investigations into the mechanisms of nature and of an idea. drawing in pursuit of our own thoughts and understanding. This also applies if struggling at length with a larger picture. it may be best to start afresh. conduct an experiment. or illustrate a dream. Don't be disheartened. We have both covered our paper with focused. but it is important to be clear why we are making it. time spent is not lost. Decide before you start whether you are drawing to warm up. while below. to express the beauty in a moment's play of light. . I drew to understand the apparatus of flight. or to discover the best use of a new material. More was learned drawing the bird 18 times than would have been understood drawing it only once or twice. stripped-down parts. Opposite. make a calculation. when it looks tired and still feels wrong. It will be invested through your experience in the new drawing.
ink. mists. feel. your marks will become the subject on the paper. As your hand meets the paper to make a mark. or imagine—it is not enough to only render its shape. which can offer keys to other things. This is a detail of a brush-and-ink drawing by a Japanese Buddhist monk. They each allowed the energy and focus of the moment to be expressed through controlled accident and a degree of the unknown Both drawings were made trusting the marks. and spirit of each subject was held strongly but loosely between the fingertips. metal. are both made of ink laid onto wet paper with speed and agile certainty. You must also think of its intrinsic nature: its purpose. trusting my intuition to find a visual equivalence for the sensation of weight within my body. and opacity of your subject. bone. and allowed to flow through the brush. Know the texture. However. BRUSHED LANDSCAPE FLOWING SKELETON T h e gliding poise of this walking anatomy comes as much from the feeling of movement as it does from the feeling of drawing. depth. and position in space. we are advised or even required to plan our pictures. temperature. Whatever the material— wood. and an island brushed with trees. and paper. and how it feels to the touch. or ice—you must actually feel it beneath your fingers as you draw. If you can do this. This suits many artists well and is perfectly valid. and at speeds beyond conscious thought. It denies the importance of accident. Imagine these qualities so strongly that you feel them in your mind and at your fingertips. it should be responding to the sensation and meaning of the subject it draws. Each image relied upon past experience to know the probable behavior of the brush. created centuries and cultures apart. water. We are caught in a shifting focus that makes everything fluid. size. and practice each part before putting the final image together. Our position asvieweris unsteady. This is the alchemy of drawing. and we can just make out the distant stains of mountains. and sometimes beyond. fire. meaning. the unknown. These two brush drawings. explain the composition. and what you discover in the process of making. As you draw any subject—something you see. excessive planning can get in the way of the imagination. declare the idea. silk. I made it almost unconsciously with a pen and a brush. W e float toward the quiet vista as it also moves toward us.14 INTRODUCTION ALCHEMY At school. balance. Landscape in Haboku Style 15TH CENTURY . The physicality.
acrylic.16 INTRODUCTION PLACE A N D MOMENT The heat and teeming atmosphere o f this Parisian dressing room. lives on. gold leaf and spray paint. stand table-sized with furniture legs attached t o b o t h sides of their jacket. which evoke realities o f place and the p o w e r o f moment. Lautrec's flamboyant splashes o f petticoats and pantaloons are drawn with long sweeps of chalk and brushed oil paint.1896 Woman at her Toilet 41 x 26 in (104 x 66 cm) TOULOUSE LAUTREC RIB-CAGE D R A M A Thus drama. pastel. He dazzles us with flashes o f light and dabbed marks o f shadow. c. W a l t e r also makes books: some. right is set inside a rib cage. made by a young British artist who creates alphabets o f the absurd f r o m familiar childhood characters. like folded insects. more than 100 years after its making. one of many luminous works in watercolor. Focusing on the Negative 2004 22 x 30 in (56 x 76 cm) J O H N WALTER . left.
Much will be learned on these test sheets and in your first drawings. you will naturally make progress on your own in response to concentration and the decision to look and draw. Ignore these at first and allow yourself the freedom to play. It is yours. Enjoy discovering what your hand and the material can do. With no help and advice at all. diary-like observations. even those you dislike. just through the act of making. Choose other materials and do the same. and mistakes are a valuable process of learning. potential ideas still forming. Start by choosing a material you like the look of and cover a piece of paper with different marks. One of the advantages of a drawing book is that you can shut it. Put them away and look at them later. and miscellaneous items of inspiration. As you follow lessons in this book. Such books are personal: the territory of new exploration and experiment. take your time and don't worry if you need to make several attempts to grasp a concept. you will be surprised and encouraged to see how far you have come. FREEINGTHEHAND . at a point when you feel you are not making progress. try not to grip your pen worrying about the technical terms you might have heard. Drawing is exploratory.17 FREEING THE HAND If you are just beginning to learn how to draw. Try to keep all of your first drawings. Pages do not have to lie open for other people to inspect and comment on.
Look to your own experience and also learn from the work of others. Its sensuous and flowing line seems to drift like smoke. In the total wealth of these pages. However. It rarely flourishes in isolation. threedimensionally. Drawing is a living language that over millennia has grown and changed. it is this voice that is the subtle part of their art and something that ultimately. it will be your creation as you discover your own personal vision. ELECTRIC BULL With a penlight. comes from within. Once there. but not confined to them. This practical journey will take you through the door into the vivid heart of drawing. The chapters of this book present 90 different artists' ways of seeing. Note that the drawing classes are allocated to subjects. which of course he cannot see. Imagination needs nourishment. and many more reasons for drawing the world. and became a great subject for me. An artist's personal voice is something that also evolves through lessons learned. caught between action and repose. Picasso has just finished his drawing. and enfolding new media. Picasso is poised smiling. The real drawing book has yet to come. Picasso Painting with Light at the Madoura Pottery 1949 . the path is yours. staring straight through his image of a bull. As you draw. A N ARTIST'S HANDS These are the hands of the artist Phyll Kiggell (see p.Their elegant strength seems to summon a lifetime of drawing. adapting its form and occupation. which is held frozen in space by a camera lens. we still only glimpse a corner of the magnitude of this subject and the infinity of what can be achieved. To these I have added my own drawings to explain elementary materials and techniques and offer introductory approaches. when they are more experienced. 150). seek ideas in the life around you. I was particularly attracted to their gentle articulation and understated determination.18 INTRODUCTION THE THINKING EYE Techniques and materials are the grammar and vocabulary of drawing and can be studied and shared.
be sure they fit comfortably under your arm. a l e n g t h o f black elastic t i e d a r o u n d t h e m i d d l e will h o l d the contents together w h e n y o u f o l d in c o l l e c t e d items. R I N G . 5. A high-quality one will last a DRAWING BOOKS Select d r a w i n g b o o k s t o suit y o u r aims. C A N V A S . a n d r e f e r e n c e b o o k s f o u n d in s e c o n d . Many artists invent ways o f binding their o w n books.B O U N D PADS: T h e s e are t h e least expensive a n d useful f o r o p e n i n g flat. t h e i r jackets w i l l a c t like d r a w i n g b o a r d s a n d p r o t e c t y o u r w o r k . it is better to have them made at a lumber yard or home improvement store. t h i s is h o w I l e a r n e d .b o u n d p a d if y o u w i s h t o keep your drawings together long-term. binding. H O M E M A D E : I m a d e this b o o k f r o m drawing paper that I folded. b e a w a r e t h a t p a p e r t e x t u r e effects a n d changes t h e i r marks.C O V E R E D H A R D B O U N D : Ideal f o r c a r r y i n g a r o u n d . F O U N D B O O K S : O l d p r i n t e d 3 .b o u n d b o o k s t h a t fit in y o u r p o c k e t o r bag. Dissecting a d i s c a r d e d h a r d . C O L O R E D PAPERS: Large a r t supply stores o f t e n sell t h i c k b o o k s full o f c o l o r e d p a p e r s . ties on either side to keep your papers in place. study the structure of a good portfolio and make your own. stitched. It is also useful to own a portfolio. T h e hardb o a r d j a c k e t is s t r e t c h e d w i t h canvas beneath t h e p a p e r sleeve.20 INTRODUCTION Drawing Books and Papers T o BEGIN YOUR EXPLORATION o f d r a w i n g . Homemade books can be assembled easily from found materials or selections of loose sheet papers. 2002 Tantalus o r The Future of Man 81/2 x61/4in (215 x 158 mm) ROSE MILLER . You simply need two strong boards hinged together well. F o r traveling. drawing book. c h o o s e s m a l l e r h a r d . They can be very expensive in art stores. cheap corrugated plastic ones fall apart in days. c h o o s e larger f o r m a t s t o give y o u s c o p e f o r e x p e r i m e n t . Sand the edges to avoid splinters. catalogs. 2.b o u n d b o o k w i l l s o o n s h o w y o u h o w it is m a d e . color. 1. and handles to lift the weight of your artworks. 6. y o u n e e d a lifetime. Purchase a h i g h . a n d crayons. Calculate a range of useful dimensions and have several cut at once. Drawing boards are invaluable. Art students often make use of printed books picked up from secondhand stores into which they draw. quality. 4. Most contain thin p a p e r and are perfect f o r use w i t h disposable pens.h a n d s t o r e s make unique subjects f o r e x p e r i m e n t s a n d collage. texture. If you intend to carry your boards for a distance. cut. and collage their ideas. thick enough not to flex. Smooth plywood. which are also sold in an enormous range. F o r e v e n i n g classes. These are perfect f o r w o r k i n g in novels. pastels.q u a l i t y r i n g . Alternatively. thickness. c o l o r If planning t o use pencils. H o w e v e r r i n g bindings o f t e n break. and cost. and glued t o a s t r i p o f bias binding. Gleaming store purchases vary greatly in format. is perfect. There are dozens to choose from. BLACK P O C K E T B O O K S : Hand-sized w i t h ready-made elastic binder and a marker ribbon. N o t e t h e w i d e l y differing c h o i c e o f p a p e r s w i t h w h i c h t h e s e are m a d e .
fine. texture. Cheap wood-pulp papers are acidic. Use with a brush in clean water Water makes a dark mark like ink and becomes invisible again when dry. blocks. VELIN ARCHES 250GMS: Printmaking paper available in black white. JAPANESE PAPER: Strong.Papers differ in thickness (weight). and rolls. used to imprint lines of these colors onto a surface. AQUARELLE ARCHES 300GMS:The very top quality hot-pressed (smooth) watercolor paper. blocks. white textured paper that can take abrasive use of any medium. resisting deterioration. ITALIAN PARCHMENT: Imitation-animal-skin parchment that is translucent and slightly waxy. turning brown and brittle. Ph. mulberry. and cost. 21. mold-. from pencil to paint 9. For use with any media. size. C A R B O N PAPER: Available in dark and light blue. SAUNDERS WATERFORD N O T 300GMS: Mid-quality textured watercolor paper. 16. 14. or machine made in sheets. Use for brushwork drawings. FABRIANO ACADEMIA: Standard medium-range multipurpose paper Use with any media. cold. 100% cotton and sold in sheets. 13. pastel paper in flecked pastel colors with a distinctive ribbed marking. tough. Use cheap paper for rough ideas and quality paper for work to last See the glossary ( p p . printed on one side only. 12. and cream sheets or rolls. 20. and white. It is available in white or cream. Cotton papers are high-quality and acid-free. 17. 11. MAGIC PAPER: A reusable sheet for testing ideas without creating waste. bamboo. 7. FABRIANO R O U G H 600GMS: Very heavy. color. 2 5 6 . METALLIC PAPER: Thin paper in different metallic colors. and other plant fibers. GLASSINE: Sold as protective wrapping. 8. 10. not. it is made from rice. T W O RIVERS GREEN 410G MS: Very heavy tinted textured cold-pressed watercolor paper See Two Rivers Yellow.5 9 ) for explanations of rough. C A N S O N : Inexpensive lightweight pastel paper in many colors. 15. yellow.TISSUE PAPER: Place sheets between drawing book pages to keep images from printing on each other and use for delicate collage. red. 18. It is also excellent for drawing with marker pens on layered sheets. T W O RIVERS Y E L L O W 410GMS: See Two Rivers Green 19. 22. or rolls. also good for drawing with colored pencils. smooth. absorbency. PAPERS . and hot pressed papers. FABRIANO INGRES: Thin. They are hand-. and translucent.
If using an upright easel. don't sit too close to the paper. There are also parallels to dance. If seated on a b e n c h easel (a donkey). you Drawing classes can be cramped places. place it on the correct side: if right-handed. b u t it should n o t be forgotten that many people make remarkable a n d striking works drawing with their feet or holding their brush or pencil in their mouths. With your hand in this position. This photograph illustrates how some people hold a pen to write. There should be an open. This cramped grip tires your hand and makes small. your whole relaxed b o d y should be involved. 116-17). or with your drawing board angled between your lap and a chair. body. From a distance you will spot errors you cannot see close up. How you hold your drawing materials is also important. a n d h a n d to the fingertips. a n d look to the left of it at your subject. but wherever possible. Placing your easel o n the w r o n g side folds y o u r b o d y against your drawing arm. your lines will distort. Regularly step back 6-9 ft (2-3 m) to check your progress. Relaxed fingers: Hold the pencil away from its tip and relax your fingers. SPACE TO WORK Cramped grip. should be able to look comfortably straight ahead at your picture plane. You do not have to dance to draw. You cannot draw like this—your hand is locked and your fingers can barely move. If your hand twists to maneuver between the paper and your body. If your body posture is well balanced and you can move freely. strangledlooking drawings. if left-handed. make sure you have enough room to back away and view your work. arm. . In this book we will look at parallels between drawing and music.22 INTRODUCTION Posture and Grip T o DRAW WELL. flowing space between your hand. Turning your drawing sideways or upside-own will also help reveal what is wrong. you can draw lines freely and achieve a significant arc of movement. place it on your left. Examples are shown here. your drawing will reflect this. Use the side of your little fingernail as a support on the page. and subject. and look to the right. Ideally. It will also reflect discomfort if you are in any way cramped. but you need to understand that the expression of a line or mark originates in the body and flows t h r o u g h the shoulder. Accelerated perspective also occurs if you look down the surface steeply (see pp. place it on your right.
or it can spoil your work if not anticipated. Remember you can also draw just by dipping your fingers in pigment—this is how many women draw in rural India. GRAVITY Remember that gravity affects the flow of ink and paint. To stop this. alternative way of holding the pencil. ALL MEDIA There are no rules as to how you should hold your drawing media. But be careful not to tense your fingers. It is most comfortable when reaching to draw above your head.232-33). and body are not restricted. hold your material as you find most comfortable. depending upon what it is and how large you are working. Large amounts of ink can be applied without fear of uncontrolled running if the paper is flat. arm.23 This loose "candle" grip is very useful when drawing with your arm extended. If you turn a brush or dip pen up into the air to draw above your hand. brush pressed against an upright surface will cause a dribble of ink to run down your drawing. . liquid will run down your hand. roughly marking out a large-scale work. This can be used to great effect. As long as your fingers. not up to the paper Brushes can be used on upright paper but dip Anticipating effects: A fully loaded pens need a level surface. This can give a new lease on life to your mark-making. or change to the wrong hand. upright way of holding the brush near its base is similar to the Japanese way used in Zen calligraphy (see pp. Large scale: POSTURE AND GRIP U n f a m i l i a r i t y : T h e habitual movements of our handwriting style will sometimes infringe upon our drawing. Brush calligraphy: This comfortable. Soft media: Short materials such as pastels and charcoal can be accommodated in the palm. find an unfamiliar.
1590 J O H N WHITE capture form and movement from the m a n n e r i s m s of honking geese. which are so unlike ours. White's commission was to "." Paranoid newcomers c r a m m e d into swelling industrial cities used handbooks of physiognomy to identify and judge their neighbors. out are now oxidized and so appear black W h e n less preoccupied with understanding ourselves. and to bring h o m e drawn documentaries of their finds. Framed in the z o o or in domestic cohabitation. sleeping dogs. bats. we have employed artists on expeditions. insects.. werewolves. which very likely leaped o n t o the deck of Sir Walter Raleigh's ship Tiger as it sailed north from the Caribbean to Virginia in 1585. m u s e u m . and dragons. and silent. O v e r the centuries. 1540. birds. Facial features were analyzed in terms of their animal likeness. W e have drawn them in m a n u s c r i p t s to explain our genesis and to c o u n t their species into Noah's ark. Europeans on board had never seen such a thing. After the subject of ourselves. and pioneer born c. and this very drawing was to endure many copies and plagiarisms after its triumphant return to the English court of Queen Elizabeth I. As children we delight in the humanized trials of Tom and Jerry and their c a r t o o n relations. dogs. who described in words what White drew. mermaids. For the novice artist.Animals H UMANS HAVE DRAWN ANIMALS from the beginning of our time. In medieval England. On the Roanoke voyages of Sir Walter Raleigh. This drawing is made in black lead (metal point) with watercolor Highlights of silver would have gleamed. each dedicated to the moralized tale of an animal or monster The bestiary profoundly influenced the art of its period. " Animals perpetually feed our imaginations. and learn how to Flying Fish c. cartographer. their different speeds and patterns of action. offer challenges and delights to draw. animals provide a perfect subject with which to begin. and snakes have between them engendered harpies. Together they made maps and documented animals. plants. fish. JOHN WHITE British artist. and people. we turn and take the features of beasts. the Latin bestiary was one of the most popular picture books—an illustrated dictionary of one hundred parts.drawe to lief one of each kinde of thing that is strange to us in England. floating turtles. We have drawn them on the walls of caves to evoke their kinship and power. to be there at the m o m e n t of discovery. W h e n lost to explain our own emotions. and we still see escapees from its pages carved and grinning as the gargoyles of churches." He worked with the scientist Thomas Harriot. or scampering through the initials and borders of pictures from that time. In this chapter we discover the use of pens and ink through the delineation of insects.m o u n t e d skeletons of birds. they are perhaps our favorite pictorial preoccupation.. 11 x91/4in (277 x 234 mm) . Here (left) we see J o h n White's exquisite record of a flying fish. In 19th-century Europe this became a "science. from which personality and predicted behavior were " d e d u c e d .
Converted into a print. Stubbs's Anatomy of the Horse achieved similar documentary status. Life-like This is Durer's original quill-and-ink drawing made after an anonymous Portuguese drawing. filled journals with ideas and observations. He in turn sent the mysterious creature to the Pope via Marseilles at the request of the King of France. It is such a lifelike triumph of imagination and intelligence that for centuries zoologists never questioned its authority. Unsurpassed. Durer traveled widely to study at different European schools of art. It was to become the animal's only accepted likeness for 250 years. a gift to the Portuguese King. He studied the image and drew his own interpretation. draftsman.26 ANIMALS Documentaries horse are superb affirmations of the power of drawing as a recorder and communicator of knowledge. Original Ink Drawing of a Rhinoceros 1515 ALBRECHT DURER 103/4 x 161/2 in ( 2 7 4 x 4 2 0 mm) . a drawing of it arrived in Nuremberg. and wrote four books on proportion. it continued its journey to Rome. they were rejected. printmaker. when more accurate portrayals were made without armor and scales. Durer's image changed eager hands until it was known across Europe. Sailing to Rome. Meanwhile. Contemporary texts related accounts of the beast as the mortal enemy of the elephant and rare relative of the "more common" unicorn. Carefully stuffed. inspiring countless works of art and so touching people's imaginations that later. years after its publication. but the drowned animal washed ashore. it is still consulted by veterinarians today. and mathematician. writer. The first live rhinoceros to reach Europe came from India in May 1515. naturalist. DURER'S RHINOCEROS AND STUBBS'S skeletal Durer. the home of ALBRECHT DURER German Renaissance painter. the ship was lost.
Lighting Stubbs's breathtaking international work won immediate There acclaim. His painted p o r t r a i t o f t h e b e a s t is in t h e R o y a l C o l l e g e o f S u r g e o n s o f England. He translated his own drawings into engravings for publication. composed from notes and observations. and therefore invented the lighting that Compare how Stubbs and Durer both invented lighting to portray the reality of their animals. This is one of Stubbs' original finished pencil drawings. a n d s i d e . Dissections Stubbs took his knife and his pencil and physically climbed inside the horse. in t h r e e v i e w s — r e a r f r o n t . Table of the III of the Horse (rear Skeleton view) mm) 1756-58 1 4 x 7 in ( 3 5 4 x 1 8 0 GEORGE STUBBS . knowledge of parts. Stubbs w a s o n e o f t h e first E u r o p e a n artists t o m a k e a n a c c u r a t e representation o f the rhinoceros. c o m p r i s e s 1 8 p l a t e s s h o w i n g d i s s e c t i o n s in l a y e r s f r o m b o n e t h r o u g h m u s c u l a t u r e t o skin. Dissections were made over a total of 18 months. He composed makes each horse appear so real and each plate from his three-dimensional. Anatomy of the Horse. Stubbs's m o s t c e l e b r a t e d publication. a n d anatomist. L o n d o n . which has never diminished. is no other work like it. The entire project was developed over ten years. dissecting and drawing until he understood the mechanisms of its power and grace. naturalist.GEORGE STUBBS B r i t i s h e q u i n e a n d s o c i e t y p o r t r a i t painter.
Mixed media Here. and leader of the French Romantic movement. A s if disturbed from its gritty b e d by our presence and curiosity. drawing her again and again to pin d o w n the texture of her loose skin. charcoal. and all sorts of bizarre concoctions which manage to convey above all in mind.. Surrounding sprays of graphite powder are stuck into washes of oil and ink to suggest glutinous depths. coal dust.". Hugo's novels Les Miserables and Dame have become classics of film and stage. I've ended up mixing in pencil. it silently rises to the light. ink and linseed oil on paper. Apparently drawn in its o w n ink. playwright. Hugo used graphite powder. drama. By contrast. He has w a t c h e d her p o u n c e . novelist.28 ANIMALS Presence and Mood THESE DRAWINGS HAVE BEEN CHOSEN to s h o w t w o v e r y different ways of picturing a wild animal. the ominous beast unwinds from the dark of the sea and of our nightmares.. Gericault's sheet a p p e a r s almost s c r a t c h e d b y the f e r o c i o u s play of his cat. linseed oil soaked into the paper has made shadows and repelled the ink to create translucent tentacles. The octopus is formed in layers applied and distressed with a brush. Gericault took a sharp p e n c i l to m a k e repeated direct o b s e r v a t i o n s f r o m life. He wrote to poet and art critic Charles-Pierre Baudelaire about his experiments. snarl. sepia. saying ". and turn. H u g o mixed his media and drew from m e m o r y and imagination to create narrative atmosphere.. her sharp teeth. and her distinctive temperament. Hugo's page is f l o o d e d w i t h the fearful presence of a remembered octopus. her b o n y frame.. conjured b y the hand of a great author of French literary fiction. VICTOR HUGO Poet. more or less what I have in view. The Hunchback of Notre Layers and shadows Throughout this drawing. His copious drawings are characterized by mixed media. soot. and Pieuvre 1866-69 91/2 x81/8in (242 x 207 mm) VICTOR H U G O . and a love of accident.
horses w e r e a favorite subject t o g e t h e r w i t h politics and history. of previous Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 1817-18 121/2 x 151/2 in ( 3 1 9 x 3 9 8 mm) T H E O D O R E GERICAULT . and it can be applied to any subject (see pp.118-119). The Raft of the Medusa. 144. Beginners are advised to follow the natural contours of form as shown on pp. facing right. fiery. Tones that do not follow surface contour is very difficult to do well. At the center of the page is crammed drawings the outline of a horse. Repeated study This drawing demonstrates of feeling confident repeat different the importance subject Remaining enough to isolate parts of a views. Paris.l i v e d French R o m a n t i c painter and lithographer Largely self-taught. of drawings Gericault erased. standing sideways. since it can lead to a flattened form. Before paper became so cheap. H e is best k n o w n f o r his gigantic painting. diagonal strokes of his pencil. artists reused sheets and them full of studies. parallel. Here. and keep trying again.29 THEODORE GERICAULT C o n t r o v e r s i a l . Undertraces Beneath these graphite studies we see traces Tones On the top row we see clearly how Gericault laid broad areas of tone using fast. 124-25 and p. displayed in the Louvre. s h o r t . focused upon seeing will lead to a greater understanding of the subject Much is learned from repeated study. undertraces unify and vitalize the composition.
and brown. printmaker ceramicist graphic and stage designer who lived in France. gray. The fact that they never stand still influences the movement in his line. The ink is used to make sharply defined solid. slow tortoise. made only a year apart. In Picasso's drawing. Both Picasso and Klee have enclosed their subjects to compress and amplify the speed of PABLO PICASSO A prolific Spanish painter sculptor. Klee's riders are constructed from all the gestures of greeting mules. flattened animals composed almost entirely of movement. we see semi-abstract. These media complement and amplify each other with their brilliant contrast. with George Braque (see p90). flapping bird. the first abstract movement of the 20th century. draftsman. His hand must have shuddered and twitched just like the constant actions of this humorous meeting. Cheval et Oiseau 1936 173/8 x 211/4 in ( 4 4 0 x 5 4 0 m m ) PABLO PICASSO . quivering horse. noise is everywhere. and scrolled lines. Faune. the whinnying of a frantic horse. In these two drawings. overwhelmed by a screeching bird.30 ANIMALS Movement M O V E M E N T IS OFTEN THE CHARACTERISTIC b y w h i c h w e their lines and the power of their beasts. Artists commonly focus on such actions. Gouache is brushed softly in translucent hazy layers of cool blue. Picasso cofounded Cubism. Ink and gouache This drawing is made in black Chinese ink and gouache (opaque watercolor) applied with a brush. or proud. identify an animal: the fast cheetah. dissolving faun kneels stranded. taking them to guide their hand in bringing form and essence together. hooked. and waves breaking distantly below. His powdery.
and t e a c h e r at t h e Bauhaus school. Layers of marks In this pale Dentil drawing we see layers of' agitated marks that together present a kind of visual "itch. well-worn copies o f w h i c h are found in m a n y art schools. sculptor. W i t h his drawings Kleeb o u n d sophisticated theories to personal and often witty childlike imagery. printmaker. N e u m a n n Family Collection. top all happily of each other in the Endless lines Look closely at how Klee's lines rarely leave the paper and how they are free from the constraint of finite shape. draftsman. creatures. Chicago PAUL KLEE . Scene der Komischen of Comical Reiter Riders) (Scene 1935 161/2x111/2in ( 4 1 9 x 2 9 1 mm) M o r t o n G . They remain in contact with the surface of the page and scribble back and forth as they maneuver from one area to another." They chatter around bodies in groups. violinist. He is a u t h o r o f The Thinking Eye (1923). turning our eye and around inside the and postures of the paper- thin on pictorial space.PAUL KLEE Swiss painter. The entire drawing suggests the endless small movements of horses standing still.
plans. b a s e d o n his studies o f fish. seemingly looking for our attention. This drawing illustrates Baker's theory. and steerage. Below we see his revolutionary design for an Elizabethan warship. Knopf's drawing opposite is the personal enigmatic expression of a mind gripped by illness. drawings of animals that are each held tightly in a surprising space: a giant fish wears a ship's hull.32 ANIMALS Icon and Design IN THESE T W O MANUSCRIPTS we discover diagrammatic and mackerel's tail" (full bow. and author o f Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (1586). and blackbirds fly in formation through a mosaic of text. Baker lived in an era when ships were built without drawn plans. He studied the anatomy of fish. The fish It is likely that Baker drew with a quill dipped in irongall ink. mathematician. His birds stare. The ship The upper decks of the ship appear curved toward us at both ends. and s e c t i o n s o f ships. slim stern). balance. t h e earliest geometrically defined elevations. In contrast to the practical clarity of Baker's thought. the expression of its eye. Baker did not intend this. and scales. and to assess our next move. B a k e r initiated t h e scientific p r a c t i c e o f naval a r c h i t e c t u r e and applied h y d r o d y n a m i c s . It is simply how we read his perspective. which in application gave strength and advantage to the English fighting the Spanish Armada. it would achieve greater speed. Exquisite details in this drawing include the lips of the fish. fins. later called a galleon. adding washes of color with a fine brush. and from them learned that if he designed his ship with a "cod's head MATTHEW BAKER Master shipwright. In just one drawing he has displayed more angles of his design than we would expect to see from a single viewpoint Fragments English 1586 101/2 x 153/8 in (270 x 390 mm) MATTHEW BAKER of Ancient Shipwrightry . and the carefully observed gills.
JOHANN KNOPF An " O u t s i d e r " a r t i s t w h o s u f f e r e d f r o m m e n t a l illness. numbered. The text. T h e G e r m a n a r t historian Outline and tone The blackbirds illuminating this frantic manuscript are drawn in pencil. written last of all. w h i c h o f t e n f e a t u r e as s y m b o l i c creatures in his drawings. The main group is placed in a circle drawn with a compass. appears to be stirred like water by the presence of the The Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks UNDATED 133/8 x 115/8 in (340 x 2 9 6 mm) and psychiatrist Hans Prinzhom collected this image. firmly outlined. circle and the birds. JOHANN KNOPF . and filled evenly with tone.K n o p f b e l i e v e d h e c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h e language o f birds.
The best are goose or swan. The paste from either recipe is pressed and dried into a bar for storage. and spatters can be made with an exotic choice of inks. simultaneously 4 . expressive drawing techniques such as the ones we explore in this chapter 1. and hold it under a clean basin until the soot hangs to it. Responsive to slight changes in pressure. ink is traditionally applied with a brush (see pp. and first used by the Egyptians. they are associated with rapid. The bar is then rubbed into water on a slate block to produce ink. while metal nibs began as rare gifts in gold and silver before being perfected by the British steel industry. Dip pens began their history in the Nile River. from the acacia tree. Early artists recommended raven and crow for especially fine work. PENS . 5 0 0 years ago. which scratch rather than draw. They fit into wooden holders. F O U N T A I N PENS: These vary in quality and nib width. and it is still in use today. The reservoir gives a constant flow of ink for very long unbroken lines and continuous bottle-free use.34 ANIMALS Pen and Ink W I T H A HANDFUL OF FEATHERS. Intricate or dramatic lines. Only fill with suitable inks. The Egyptians and Chinese are credited with the invention of carbon ink. Quills were later cut from feathers. you can have great fun drawing the world around you. Masters choose brands of long." "Gum" refers to gum arabic extracted Dip pens are essential and inexpensive drawing tools. Avoid needle-sharp mapping pens. producing a different line. The Chinese used animal or fish glue. 4. high-quality Chinese and Japanese inks are subtler and more complex than those produced in Europe. s t i c k s . QUILLS: These are cut from the barrel of a flight or tail feather. 2. where reeds were gathered. which range greatly in their handling and character of line. In the Far East. A German recipe of 1531 gives a simple description: "Take a wax candle. a n d m e t a l p o i n t s . REED PENS: A broad nib can be cut from bamboo or another tubular grass.246-47). light it. METAL PENS: Inexpensive removable steel nibs are available in a range of widths. distinguished manufacture. 3. the recipes for which have been handed down over centuries. Each pen has a unique character. Today. spots. then pour a little warm gum water into it and temper the two together. That is an ink.
waterproof or non-waterproof. they produce a golden dye for drawing. and sieved. SEPIA A N D BISTRE INKS: Sepia.35 PEN AND INK Four types of ink were common before the 20th century. 8. I N D I A N INK: Carbon ink sold today in liquid form. Now we also have acrylic ranges in many colors. Non-waterproof Indian inks can be reworked with a wet brush after drying. iron-gall. The complexities of traditional iron-gall ink are explained on p. Waterproof types contain shellac. boiled. bistre. Excellent for drawing they are bright and non-clogging. and are still in use today: carbon (Chinese and Indian). INKS 9. an often misused term. I R O N . 5. . ACRYLIC / CALLIGRAPHY INKS: Available in black and a range of colors. C A R B O N INK: Traditionally produced from oil or resin soot (Lamp Black). Inks can be lightfast or non-lightfast. roastedwine sediment (Yeast Black).G A L L INK: Abnormal spherical growths caused by parasitic wasps can be collected from some oak trees in fall. suspended in a binder and stored as a solid block Blocks are imported today 7. Bistre is the more humane use of soot scraped from the fireplace and ground into wine. or charcoal. Old stock turns solid and bottlesChina.36. is the ink of a cuttlefish or squid extracted post-mortem. Beechwood soot is best. and most can be homemade. Crushed. reduced. dated. and sepia. It dries with a sheen and clogs uncleaned pens. and can be mixed and diluted to create subtler colors and tones. charred bone (Ivory Black). from are not 6. They are the easiest inks to use.
Running fresh. sieved. Paler strokes were made where the mark has the legs and antennae the ink ran out. then cut a final nib (feathers. forming the REED PENS R e e dpens dispense ink quickly. The lighter right Quill marks Quills carry more ink than strokes and for as reeds. reduced. Walnut ink is gloopy. finding reed p e n s unwieldy. a n d M a t i s s e also e n j o y e d t h e m . galls were ground with iron sulfate to make an unstable solution. It dried black. it was gray-purple. Although oak galls and walnut skins are harmless. a n d d e v e l o p e d t h e quill instead. U n d e r heavy pressure. fleshy skins that surround ripe walnuts. Rembrandt. keep all your fingers behind basis of iron-gall ink. Practice to gain a feel for how materials behave. It also oxidized and ate or burned paper. t h e y stick a n d j u d d e r f o r w a r d . 2 4 4 is an e x q u i s i t e e x a m p l e . of a loaded nib. always be cautious when experimenting with recipes. m o r e e x t e n d e d line than reed and a m o r e organic line t h a n m e t a l . and turned brown with time. r e s e r v e d t h e i r use f o r large c h o i r b o o k s . crushed. Scribes o f t h e M i d d l e Ages. For centuries. The darkest of this grasshopper wings) were made (around the head first. the blade and cut away from you. . are surprisingly tough. T h e y give a finer. can also be collected from affected trees. V a n G o g h . Collect skins from the ground beneath trees once they are blackened. Reed marks The darker left wing of this beetle was drawn with the wet inky stroke wing. giving longer lines. drawn to glisten with a dryer nib. Some of Michelangelo's drawings are now a little eaten by their own ink. M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s d r a g o n o n p . for example. Oak galls. QUILL PENS Q u i l l s a r e highly r e s p o n s i v e t o c h a n g e s in p r e s s u r e . appears broken to show paper beneath.) You can make ink easily from the boiled.36 ANIMALS Drawing With Ink To MAKE A QUILL OR REED PEN. d r y mark. giving a s h o r t . and delicious to draw with. since t h e D u t c h w e r e t h e first t o realize t h a t they could be hardened and i m p r o v e d w i t h heat t r e a t m e n t in ash o r sand. and boiled to make a golden ink. Quills are also called D u t c h pens. red-brown. I u s e d t h e s e qualities t o d r a w t h e w o r m s above.
DRAWING WITH INK Filled outlines Each segment of wing was outlined. breaking. particles then filled with a droplet of ink. o r being ruined as fountain pens would be under the same pressure. it is important to feel for when the ink will run out and to know how much ink you pick up when dipping the nib. When using dip pens. Loaded with ink and pressed hard. marks become fine and needle-sharp. clean strokes. The of pigment to fall to the edges effect of the shape. sharp. giving a graded. withstanding great pressure without sticking. W h e n the nib is pressed upside down. White markings were drawn last Tones Here we see subtle tones of diluted ink beneath the undiluted black rim of a beetle's wing. tonal Ink layers The wings of this beetle were drawn in layers using black and white ink on pale gray paper. Each layer of of the drying droplet dome the drawing was left to dry before adding more.37 METAL PENS Metal pens give long. they splay to make thick o r double lines. .
It teaches confidence and focus through intensive repetition. Geese are nosy birds. I covered eleven sheets in sixty quick drawings—in less than an hour. Illustrating this exercise on Oxford Port Meadow. and bellyflop off the waterside. not on your drawing. Try to hold the whole posture in your mind's eye. so pick a spot where other people can keep them entertained. You cannot break the nib. and boldly plunge into your drawing. Focus on it. touch the bottle's rim to drain the excess. and there is no "wrong. waddle. Study them before drawing. test your limits. and quickly draw around it using only three or four strokes. be bold and press firmly. make another one. Posture . Focus on the geese. That said.38 ANIMALS Capturing Character GEESE ARE EXCELLENT SUBJECTS to draw when practicing the first use of pen and ink. Cover a sheet. MATERIALS NEEDED Look for a bird expressing a simple posture. Empathize. draw what the bird is doing. Quick drawing trains you to see what is most important about a subject and to mark only its most essential expression. Cover your drawing book pages in speedy responses to the geese and try to capture each bird in as few lines as possible. Experiment. Attempt with a loose hand to capture their posture and outline. Take no more than ten seconds to draw each one and make lots of drawings. Pack plenty of tissue around a bottle of calligraphy or acrylic ink. Watch their heavy feathered bodies flap. to absorb blots when drawing. steel nibs are fine." If you don't like a stroke. and be brave. there is no obligation to prepare a quill. and a large drawing book or plenty of paper Use masking tape to secure pages against the wind. Take a cup and water for diluting a range of tones. It happens that goose feathers also provide artists with the best type of quills. Dip your pen in ink.
look among the birds for more complicated actions such as shaking off water. Avoid detail unless really tempted by a close-up visit Fluctuate the pressure of your pen in response to how you know the bird would feel if you touched it.39 Action With growing confidence. draw the feeling of what you see. and diving. flapping. CAPTURING CHARACTER Texture Gradually allow yourself more lines to describe the texture of each bird as well as its posture and action. running. . and don't worry about mechanical facts or accuracy. Again. Use more lines than before to express these.
For this class you will need one oblivious dog. a d o g w h o w a s a l w a y s town. Make a test sheet to discover your control of diluting on the nib. Ras Curled Up Asleep "Capturing the true character of a cherished companion is best achieved with objective determination rather than sentimental shyness. a dip pen and ink of your choice (see pp. Sleeping animals present the artist with ideal opportunities to study their texture. These drawings are not an analysis of his anatomy or breed but the expression of his satisfied comfort in a deep sleep after a night out on the together with a glass of water for diluting tones on the nib. Dip the nib quickly again into water and again drain it.34-37). your drawing book. Then dip the nib quickly into a glass of water and drain the excess again. engaged in his and everyone else's business. form. Now it will make a pale line. and personality. MAKING A PALE LINE To make a pale line. and a tissue for blotting drawn lines that appear too dark. This will give a medium-gray line.40 ANIMALS Sleeping Dogs R A S WAS A GREAT CHARACTER. first dip your pen in ink. and even then he twitched and stretched in dreams. The only time he remained still was when he was sleeping. and drain the excess by touching the nib against the rim of the bottle." .
in bold layers. ignoring all detail. First lines are first thoughts. this time to create a line a little darker in tone.It is essential when drawing any subject (even something abstract) to know how it feels andtoemulate this with your line. Trust your intuition. Here. To add texture. D o not go back over lines you are pleased with—doing so dulls their lively freshness. tail.41 DRAWING YOUR DOG Be bold in this exercise. to emphasize how he is curled up. Then. Remain focused on the whole dog and. see how the animal's posture determines its whole shape. add more detail. 2 Reload your pen with ink. second thoughts may be different Changing your mind is a positive aspect o f seeing and thinking. . SLEEPING DOGS 1 Fix your eyes at the center of the dog. and the shadows in his coat. W i t h pale lies. 3 Gradually introduce darker tones. Layers o f thoughts can bring a drawing alive. Character is better captured drawing quickly with confidence than w o r k i n g slowly. Then I immediately rebalanced the drawing with lines around his hind quarters. ears. c o n c e r n e d a b o u t detail. Here I marked the features of Ras's head. quickly draw what you see. alter the pressure and moisture of your line in response to howyouknow your dog feels when you ruffle itscoat. I added ink to Ras's nose.
THE ELONGATION AND BUOYANCY of a group of turtles is fascinating .Turtles to observe. offering plenty of time for the artist to draw the pose. they stretch and paddle. turtles often pause unexpectedly. swinging their limbs and shells with a slow circular movement. A perfect subject for the beginner. as if caught in a camera freeze-frame. Beyond the glass wall of the aquarium.
. India ink. balance. and water. and sharp.Dry Birds THESE ARE THE ARTICULATED BONES o f a k i w i a n d a h o u s e - martin drawn in a museum using a steel pen. weightlessness of the kiwi. dry. I sought to capture the form. I made repeated studies of the housemartin to discover its mechanism of flight. I darkened lines as each drawing progressed. Beginning with very pale tones. With speed.
and hybridize them for our sustenance and pleasure. and beauty. 1613 187/8x153/4in(480 x 400 mm) BASILIUS BESLER .Plants and Gardens W E SHARE THIS PLANET with the more ancient. we now have laid before us fourto show how well their colours complement each other infinite wealth of material to explore. and to ornament our lives. It was published plain in 1611 and withhand-paintedplates in poured off ships returning from the New World and were eagerly collected and 1613. Plants are the principal inspiration of the decorative arts—from Roman Corinthian columns crowned with carved leaves of the acanthus. and texture. He sent boxes of plants to Nuremburgburned with the urgency and excitement of explaining every plant's form. on which our lives depend. and focus. Both embrace the anticipation of evolving shape. robust. and the Acanthus spinosus constant but exhilarating struggle to make a living image feel right. manipulations of light and shade. we see very different cultural visions of plants and gardens and use pencils and plants to learn the pictorial values of space. where a number of uncredited artistsd r e wthem for Besler.000 species of plants are depicted life-size drawn. Fledgling years Botanist and apothecary who compiled the Hortus Eystettensis of scientific research bore manifold explosions of knowledge in a fever of discovery. We collect. Plants seventeenth century. —-the largest and most influential botanical book of the early Natural scientists accompanied explorers to document unknown finds. Early European illustrators were trapped within dogma that was determined by ancient scholarship. From its history there is one overriding lesson to be learned: the importance of looking and seeing with our own eyes. Patrons funded the breeding of decorative. Botanical illustration is a precisely defined and scientific art. an There are close parallels between the acts of gardening and drawing. color. to the proliferation of floral designs with which we have dressed ourselves and furnished our homes for centuries. infinitely vivid. shape. The revolution came in the 1530s. Chapters are arranged by out. Botanic gardens were established and expanded. the microscope was refined to unfold yet another world. nurture. B A S I L I U SBESLER when botanists founded new work upon the direct study of plants. We draw them to celebrate their beauty and range. Rich owners of private gardens commissioned large-format florilegiums commissioned the volume to document his private garden to immortalize their personal taste and power of acquisition. After Here Aconthus spinosus is combined with forget-me-nots and-a-half centuries of intensive observation. and diverse kingdom of plants. Conrad von Gemmingen. and the drawn pages ofthesame name. form. PriceBishopof Eichstatt specimens. In this chapter. to catalog our knowledge. Later. the punctuation of space with structure and mass. Classifications were set in367copperengravings.Morethan 1. season. Medieval knowledge was not gained by the first-hand observation of life but by reading. as opposed to only herbal.
and wilted. leaves. s u c h as w e see here in Bauer's Protea nitida. and meticulous precision. stems. The King was then establishing the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. They are counted among the most accomplished 18th-century botanical artists. o p e n i n g a n d c l o s i n g i n the w a r m t h a n d light of the studio. Stella Ross-Craig said of the need to d r a w from a dried herbarium plant "I could make it live again. insect-ravaged. o p t i m i s m . measured drawings. W i t h bright F R A N Z BAUER An Austrian artist who trained at the Schonbrunn Imperial Gardens in Vienna. delicate." Her slipper orchid s h o w s that botanical drawing must often resolve the challenge of its subject's p r o d u c i n g parts in different seasons — r o o t s . Here. Light in this drawing is given by the paleness of the paper showing between washes of darker tones. Sir Joseph Banks. Outline Bauer prepared a pencil outline before laying in fleshy succulent hues and tones of watercolor. T h e rest of u s are free to d r a w as w e w i s h . naturalist explorer and advisor to King George III invited Bauer to London in 1 7 9 0 . or that were diseased. and Franz Bauer and his brother Ferdinand were employed there to draw specimens. B e h i n d detailed. fruit.48 PLANTS AND GARDENS THE SCIENTIFIC VALUE OF A BOTANICAL DRAWING lies i n its Botanical Studies were specimens that often refused to stay still. He has made the spatial and physical relationships in this drawing all the more real by placing a single. Each plant must b e clearly distinguished from its closest relative. and seeds conventionally a p p e a r o n o n e plate. detail. Botanical art c o n c e a l s the challenge of its m a k i n g . Dissections Across the lower part of this drawing we can see dissections of seed pods and petals. It is likely Bauer would have studied these under a microscope. petal tip over a lower leaf Protea nitida 201/4 x141/4in (513 x 362 mm) FRANZ BAUER 1796 . M a c k i n t o s h e x p r e s s e s the f o l d e d petals of a broken rose b u d so delicately w e can sense the perfume. subtle union of beauty. flowers.
H e r Drawings of British Plants. and perfect coordination of hand and eye. a m o n g o t h e r s . Closer to fiction can come together perfectly.49 C H A R L E S RENNIE MACKINTOSH Scottish a r c h i t e c t d e s i g n e r painter. and it shows how design. a n d f o u n d e r o f t h e G l a s g o w S c h o o l o f A r t M a c k i n t o s h ' s flair h a d an e n o r m o u s i n f l u e n c e o n t h e a v a n t . and follow shadow. K e w . Line Drawing of Cypripedium calceolus L c. G u s t a v K l i m t In his r e t i r e m e n t Mackintosh m a d e n u m e r o u s inventive pencil a n d w a t e r c o l o r d r a w i n g s o f plants. and speed depends upon the immediate perception of the essential characteristics of the plant. a n d he inspired.7 3 in 3 1 p a r t s .g a r d e in G e r m a n y a n d A u s t r i a . p u b l i s h e d 1 9 4 8 . sensual pencil drawing is later works. A s m a n y of her drawings are kept G a r d e n s . and observation the nuance and contour of every in one image. 1970 x 81/4 in ( 3 2 5 x 2 1 0 m m ) STELLA ROSS-CRAIG . Ross-Craig said of her work "Plants that wither rapidly present a very difficult problem to which there is only one answer—speed. Pencil lines cling to. L o n d o n in 1 9 2 9 .." This line drawing is one of 1.000 Kew to archive accessible t o d a y v i a t h e I n t e r n e t of o n British flora. imagination. it is small and discreet. found among Mackintosh's than reality.286 studies for her book Drawings of British Plants. is r e c o g n i z e d as tne m o s t c o m p l e t e a n d i m p o r t a n t work 3. as at trained botanical artist Ross-Craig Swift lines The drawing was planned in pencil and then overworked with a lithographic pen.. Curtis's Botanical Magazine. Rose 1894 103/4 x 83/4 in ( 2 7 5 x 2 2 1 mm) CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH STELLA ROSS-CRAIG A j o i n e d t h e staff a t t h e R o y a l B o t a n i c G a r d e n s . BOTANICAL STUDIES Lines and shadows This lush. S h e also o f thousands o f contributed an drawings.
50 PLANTS AND GARDENS Jeweled Gardens the Middle East we find exquisite stylization of form and upright formality in pictorial space. They used a fine brush to lay pigment over a line drawing. Envoys chatter outside the gate. Afghanistan. Every fiber of AMONG DRAWINGS FROM BISHNDAS A N D N A N H A Little is known of these Mughal painters who were related as uncle and nephew and commissioned to illustrate the pages of Babur's journal. Bishndas was probably responsible for the overall design. The white of the page shines through the brilliant color. a notable portrait painter drew the faces. in miniature. Drawing. By Muslim tradition. paper is brimming with the beauty and celebration of nature. Below. The first Mughal Emperor Babur's Garden of Fidelity (Bagh-e Vaja). 1590 85/8 x55/8in (219 x 1 4 4 mm) BISHNDAS AND NANHA Bright pigment These pages were illuminated by Mughal artists in the late 16th century. the sumptuous petals permeated with prayer and wisdom. is remembered in the pages of his journal. painting. Upright shallow perspectives. which he personally created near Kabul. and Nanha. uniform focus. and miraculous growth. Opposite is the Rose of Mohammed. fluctuations in scale. Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity c. and calligraphy are brought together to hold the sacred names of prophets and the 99 beautiful names of God. and attention to detail are all shared with medieval European manuscript drawings. in the early 16th century. anticipating their view. urgent attentive human activity. . roses took their form in a bead of perspiration on the brow of Mohammed as he passed through his heavenly journey. Babur directs his gardeners in the design and planting of this quartered chahar bagh.
The physical anatomy of the rosebud has been studied and translated into a repeated stylized motif. Note how each bud is essentially the same shape. G e r m a n y . and how the shape has been repeated freehand. fragmenting its detail in a whisper of prayers. t h e Staatsbibliothek zu Arabic. The Rose of Mohammed 1708 9 1 / 2 x 61/2 in ( 2 4 0 x 1 6 5 mm) FROM THE TURKISH M A N U S C R I P T AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH .AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH This is a detail o f a page from a n 1 8 t h . so that overlapping petals and stems give an impression of fulfillment and abundance. Stylized motif A fine brush has been used throughout this drawing to apply inks and watercolors.c e n t u r y Turkish manuscnpt a book of religious e t h i c s w r i t t e n in the O r i e n t a l C o l l e c t i o n s of Berlin. look closely and you will see words written in gold fluttering over the form of the flower. It is n o w k e p t in Border The elegant border of this drawing was mode with a pen and ruler It cleverly compresses and defines the composition. Sacred words The central rose is more solid than any other on the page. However.
PLANTS AND GARDENS
IN CONTRAST TO THE QUIET, formal detail of other drawings in this chapter, these powerful fast trees enact the actions of plants. Each tree reaches out and holds its landscape with dynamism and pulse. In both drawings we find testament to the inexorable energy of growth. Rembrandt expresses a delicate quickness. Gentle lines draw a warm breeze through this remote wooded garden. Rustling in a loose foliage of soft marks, his pen evokes the weight of abundant activity on this late summer's day. Mondrian's arch of scratching branches is drawn with such force it will always be alive. We can still feel his hand storming across the paper. Set within a frame of smudged landscape, the tree possesses a musical agitation. This characteristic will increase in the artist's later abstract work. Here, we see a punctuated ordering of space. Sharp branches cut out negative shapes of winter sky.
R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter; etcher; and draftsman. Rembrandt's prolific output comprises oil paintings of historical and religious subjects together with group and self- portraits. His emotive etchings and pen and ink drawings (see also p. 174) are great resources for artists learning to understand the potential of these media.
Pen and ink lines describing foliage also tell
us the directions of sunlight and wind. An arc crossing the bottom of the drawing from one side to the other supports the scene and separates us from the landscape beyond. Compare Rembrandt's arc to that of Mondrian's. and note the similar treatment of low horizons in both works emphasizing the height and dominance of trees.
Cottage Among Trees 1648-50 63/4 x121/8in ( I 7 I x 308 mm) R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN
Atmosphere Here we see how shapes of negative space are as important as the physical subject they enclose (see pp.58-59). Mondrian has again lightly dragged his chalk on its side to evoke a wet depth of atmosphere. These passive gray marks contrast with the assertive tension of the tree.
Dutch Pure abstract painter preoccupied w i t h line and plane relationships. W i t h increasing austerity, Mondrian banished t h e subject from his drawings, in his later w o r k he also banished space, composing visual h a r m o n i e s using only straight lines a n d flat planes o f black, w h i t e , gray, o r p r i m a r y color.
Winter ground Short vertical marks along thebottomof this drawing reveal the length oftheblackchalk Mondrian used. Rubbed onitsside,itroughly blocks in the ground. Thecrudeeconomy of line is all we need tofeelthecold, wet, unwelcoming quality ofthiswinterearth.
Branches and trunk Lines shaping the branches of the tree are built up in layers. To make the trunk more dense, the artist has rubbed and smudged preliminary marks with his fingers before firmly overdrawing with new lines. Solid black lines are achieved by pressing the chalk hard. When used lightly, it shows the texture of the paper. Tree: Study for the Grey 1911 23 x 335/8 in ( 5 8 4 x 8 5 5 m m ) Tree
PLANTS AND GARDENS
Graphite and Erasers
GRAPHITE, FROM THE G R E E K word
This drawing illustrates a range of achieved with graphite pencils of different grades.
Modern pencils are graded from 9H (hard and pale) to 9B (black and soft). Graphiteclay sticks are also available, together with a powder form. All possess a natural sheen and are erasable to a varying degree. Graphite drawings smudge easily, so fixative, a form of varnish, can be used to hold a drawn surface in place. It is applied as a fine mist from an aerosol can, or from a bottle using a diffuser. For the beginner, ordinary hairspray is an effective and cheaper alternative.
(to write), is a soft and brittle carbon. It was first mined in Cumbria, England, in 1 5 6 4 , and was initially used in small, pure pieces bound in lengths of string. Pencils as we know them—with their slender wood casing and "lead" of graphite—were invented in France in 1794 by Nicolas-Jaques Conte. He discovered that milled graphite mixed with clay and water, press-molded, and baked to a high temperature produces a harder and paler medium than graphite alone.
3B pencil A range of mark and textures can be achieved with a 3B pencil when you vary its pressure, speed, and direction, as this detail shows.
Here is a selection of 14 items to illustrate a basic range of pencils, graphite sticks, sharpeners, erasers, and fixative.
1. AND 2. HB AND 3B PENCILS: It is unnecessary to possess every grade of pencil. HB, the central and most common grade, is perfect for making delicate lines. 3B gives a blacker tone. A great variety of effects can be achieved with just these two. 3. WATER-SOLUBLE PENCIL Effective for atmospheric drawing, but be aware of how watery tones can dull the impact of the line. 4. AND 5. MECHANICAL PENCIL Thick or fine leads are made in a range of grades. They are particularly useful because they do not require a sharpener 6. ROUND SOLID GRAPHITE PENCIL: Excellent for large-scale drawing, producing thick bold lines. A range of grades can be honed with a craft knife or sharpener 7. THICK GRAPHITE STICK: For large-scale drawing. Graded soft, medium, and hard. It crushes to produce graphite powder 8. SQUARE GRAPHITE STICK: Useful for making broad, sweeping marks in large-scale drawing. If worn and rounded, the stick can be snapped into pieces to regain the sharp, square end. 9. CRAFT KNIFE AND BLADES: Handles are sold in two sizes to fit large or small blades, and blades are sold in a range of shapes. Perfect for sharpening pencils to a long point, to cut lines in paper or to remove areas. 10. PENCIL SHARPENER: Makes a uniform point. Keep one in your pocket for drawing outside the studio, together with an envelope for shavings.
HB and 5B Layers of tone have been built up withHBand5Bpencils. Softer pencils require less pressure to make a mark, revealing the texture of the paper surface. It is important to keep the point of the pencil sharp with either a craft knife or a sharpener.
ERASING AND FIXING
Erasers can be used t o blend and s o f t e n lines, o r t o r e m o v e altogether. Fixative them prevents
GRAPHITE AND ERASERS
s m u d g i n g a n d s e c u r e s lines.
Using fixative You can use fixative while drawing to hold the definition of lines you wish to gently fade but not remove entirely, for which you would use an eraser.
11. P L A S T I C E R A S E R : Avoid cheap colored erasers that may stain drawings with grease and dye. White brands are available in soft and hard versions.
P U T T Y RUBBER:
W a r m it in your hand before use. It is excellent for removing powdery materials, and for making crisp sweeps of light across a delicate pencil drawing
13. D I F F U S E R : Helleborus corsicus (Corsican hellebore) fixative, or to spray mists of ink.
PLANTS AND GARDENS
Cropping and Composition
M A N Y STUDENTS WILL START a d r a w i n g i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e
that its skin nearly touches the boundary. The meaning of the same drawing changes simply by its relationship to the space it occupies. The size of any subject, its placement on the page, the size of the page, and its overall proportion are all discrete and essential aspects of successful picture-making. Before you begin to draw, think carefully about where to place your subject. Are you are happy with your paper? If not, change it; add more, take some away, or turn it around. Do not just accept what you are given, adapt it to what you need.
paper. Focused on the shape and detail of their subject, they remain happily unaware that there is, or should be, any relationship between what they are drawing and the surface they are drawing it on. The paper is only paper, and the troublesome subject floats somewhere in the expanse of it. However, a single fig drawn in the middle of a large, empty square of paper gives quite a different impression from the same fig drawn on such an intimately small square
CHOOSING A VIEW
A Single Fig
"The size, shape, and orientation of the paper are so integral to the composition that they determine the impact and meaning of the drawing."
spaces between things are as important as the things themselves.57 THE VIEWFINDER T h e s e pencil drawings o f figs d e m o n s t r a t e different crops and compositions. bottom-left t o top-right. running corner t o corner. a device to help you decide what t o draw. its illumination. U s e it as a starting point. and lines describing shadows cast by the fruit . and therefore apparently suspended from. A card with a small rectangle cut out o f it makes a useful viewfinder C l o s e o n e e y e t o look through the hole. This drawing hasbeencropped to emphasize space between thefruit. its stem and shadow framing a white center. Here the left fig is attached to. the uppermost edge of the drawing. t h e n m o v e t h e c a r d t o e x p l o r e different views.O u r focus is on the white cloth supporting the figs. The angle of the fruit together with dark shadow (top left) and bright light(bottom right) suggest a diagonal division across the whole drawing. CROPPING AND COMPOSITION Off-center and diagonal Here I held my viewfinder so the fig appeared upper-left in the space. they establish a tension and unity with the paper. Space as the subject Inallpictures. Touching the edge When the subject o f a drawing touches one edge of the paper it attaches t o it visually. as also shown here. When subjects touch two or more edges.
you will need a similar large-leaved plant. Looking at negative space overrides the problem of drawing what you know. Remember that plants do move! Therefore it is best to complete your drawing in one sitting if possible. position. third. The drawing opposite is of the uppermost leaves of a potted fig tree. tone. It is an astonishingly simple device that many artists use and I strongly recommend. rather than what you see in front of you. their subject and composition will become more real. fourth. Draw a complete shape Map outward from the center Erase and adjust lines until correct . Viewers appreciating a finished image may not see shapes of space.58 PLANTS AND GARDENS Negative Space UNCONSCIOUSLY WE ASSESS spatial relationships all the time to guide ourselves through the world. In following this class. Follow these from left to right and see how I began with one complete shape between two parts of a leaf. and a fresh page in your drawing book. and so on. a foundation stone in picture-making. which is shown in the three steps below. not leaves. But how often do we look at the air between things. do we see myriad distinct and unique shapes of daylight or do we just see branches? Why as artists should we look at the air? Every space in a picture has a shape. a sharp H B pencil. dynamic. Negative space is the simple key to getting positive shape right. remember to draw only space. this ensures a consistent view. erasing and adjusting lines until itlooked right. It helps to start at the center and map outward. unified. and a role to play. an eraser. In your own version. but if the artist does. WHERE TO START Arrange your plant and paper so you can look back and forth by barely moving your head.The box opposite isolates an area. shapes of air cut out and defined by the physicality of our environment? When we look into the branches of a tree. and engaging. then added a second shape. Unfamiliar shapes of negative space reveal the real shape of a positive subject.
Here I drew only spaces, adding one to another until the leaves were revealed. Besides looking at negative space, there are two other useful things to do when a drawing feels wrong but you cannot see why: look at it in a mirror or turn it upside down. errors and suggest changes.
Spaces between leaves
Either view will
WALKING IN THE ALPUJARRAS in A n d a l u c i a ,
Spain, I drew a bare fig tree clinging to the wall of an almond grove; a perfect subject for seeing negative space. I marked its essential frame of large branches first, frequently erasing lines and changing my mind until the balance felt right.
S a l v i a , RIBES, CLEMATIS, Allium, Passiflora, and Acanthus
drawn with an H pencil by observing the
negative spaces between the stems, petals, and leaves. I arranged the flowers on a sheet of paper in a cool r o o m and rapidly sketched a composition. Then I put them in water, taking the stems out one at a time to draw.
gathering less distinct information on the way.Acanthus Spinosus As we LOOK AROUND. We never see everything at once. . interfolding points of detail with areas of loose suggestion. our eyes travel and adjust from one point of focus to another. 62-63). Compare changes of pace and focus here to the flatter finish of Summer Flowers (see pp. Excessive detail leaves no space for the eye to rest or imagination to wander. they emulate our experience of seeing. If an artist changes the pace of their line and focus of their attention.
designers. and computer game imaging. which was the first church in the capital to be built entirely of metal and then clad in stone. and in the 19th century it was given the name the Golden Section. we find the most recent steps in the evolution of graphic language. philosophers. and sound.The church is still in use today." reflecting the eye's love of unity in difference. 74-75). to help them create new form. and from West Facade of the Church of St Augustin. film-set design. the device that has since governed most of our picture-making (sec pp. to 20th-century film fantasy. It was also during the Renaissance that the architect Brunelleschi invented linear perspective. Architects have been fine-tuning their specialized branch of drawing for centuries. which can be clearly seen in ancient Greek architecture. once there. and writers have been breaking away from traditional forms of representation to seek new expressions of shape. drawing plans around themselves within a program as opposed to on a flat sheet of paper. Among the drawings of this chapter we look from 17th-century ecclesiastical calm. Perhaps in the sheer planes of some of our greatest modern buildings it is finding its clearest expression. composers. balance. At the core of their practice. space. they also have a diagrammatic language for communicating plans to builders. they have the Golden Section. add and subtract ideas. mass.This is a pencil drawing. This harmony. It is the focus of practical class in this chapter. each VICTOR BALTARD . Paris 1871-74 the child's view to the infinity of the vanishing point. of the west facade of St Augustin.Architecture I N THE CONTEMPORARY PRACTICES of architecture. invaluable to understand and apply when you choose. Yet the pursuit of divine proportion and harmony remains. coupled with the importance of exercizing your imagination. made by the architect himself. the formula for perfection spread through Europe. Since Picasso and Braque's revolution of Cubism in around 1907. Baltard designed the Church of St. VICTOR BALTARD French architect employed by the city of Paris. with gray and brown watercolor wash. filmmakers. European conventions of pictorial perspective have lost their monopoly on seeing. Linear perspective is a marvelous device. Besides sketches of first thoughts and polished drawings of the finished look for clients. Through the animation of the screen. Augustin. was preserved into the Renaissance where it became a foundation stone for thinking and creativity From 15thcentury Italy. time. architects and designers can imaginatively "climb inside" three-dimensional space and. fine artists. from political commentary to musical abstraction. architects. Since the first flowering of Modernism in the early 20th century. and architects of ancient Greece who first pursued the formula for "divine proportion. Computer programs allow the virtual drawing of ideas. It was the mathematicians.
Three aspects This subtle and sophisticated drawing made in pen and wash displays three distinct aspects of Hawksmoor's baptistry. Pillars and floor At the base of the drawing a compass-drawn plan tilted downward through 90 degrees illustrates the arrangement of pillars around a central circular floor. calculate function. Together they explain how interior structure and space define exterior form and shape. and balance. Architects draw for many reasons: to visualize ideas. embodying a massive investment of ideas. We see the modeled detail of Corinthian columns. relative levels. The photograph opposite shows his studio hung with metal pendulums. Lines define structure while washes suggest light and atmosphere. materials. marks the end of a long journey from the first few marks the architect made on a sheet of paper. structure.68 ARCHITECTURE Master Builders EVERY NEW BUILDING. describe a finished look to a client. St Paul's Baptistry c. A student of Wren's. Below it. Cut-away interior On the right a section cut through the center of the building reveals material thicknesses. Blenheim Palace. densely layered lines in mists of color weave the presence of the expected building into shape. and an inscribed entablature. Hampton Court Palace. and labor. NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR One of Britain's "three great" Baroque architects (along with Sir Christopher Wren and Sir John Vanbrugh). Gaudi's fluid architecture grew up through many kinds of drawing. Hawksmoor established his reputation with university and church architecture including All Souls College. Drawings underpin every great human-made structure like hidden linear ghosts at their core. Finished surface On the left the finished surface of the building is given depth and emphasis by immaculate vertical and horizontal brush strokes of shadow. and ultimately to show builders what to do. and later an assistant to Vanbrugh. Hawksmoor's drawing is both a plan and an evocation. and Castle Howard. 1711-12 NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR . and six London churches. a three-dimensional drawing made with wires and weights. Oxford. testing gravity to calculate the inverted shapes of domes. and the shapes of interior domes and apses. pilasters. evoke presence. he also worked on St Paul's Cathedral.
1910 24x181/4( 6 1 0 x 4 7 5mm) A N T O N I O GAUDI . To the right isawatercolordrawing thought to havebeenmade over a photograph ofthemodelabove. Gaudi air than on paper. Guell Crypt of its at the Time Construction c. and his love of music.69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt c. embellishment. 1900 ANTONIO GAUDI ANTONIO GAUDI Visionary Catalan architect. The Art Nouveau movement. light. This sculptural drawingenvisionsthe finished crypt glowingandethereal as if caught in thelightof red morning sun. Wire and watercolor three-dimensional preferred to calculate Above is a drawing form in the made withlinkedwires and weights. Gaudi's cathedral in Barcelona. unique organic manipulation of high shapes. and apartment homes are distinguished by their Their and Flowering curves of stone or concrete are often encrusted with Gaudi was inspired by medieval and oriental art. churches.
before cascading into a riot of line and sound below. He also contributed to plans for the rebuilding of the World Trade Center site in New York. Libeskind studied music before transferring to architecture. Libeskind begins quietly in the upper space of his drawing. Arctic Flowers 1980 DANIEL LIBESKIND . Floor space appears divided by discernible walls. and arched dotted lines depict the radius of doors. and the spaces between his windows and turrets are the visual equivalent of pauses in h i s m u s i c c o m p o s i t i o n s for p i a n o (see also Bussotti. and exhibitions of his drawings. Contemporary musicians commonly collaborate with artists by interpreting images as sound. been a natural affinity between the visual rhythms of pictures and the audible rhythms of music. Libeskind's numerous commissions include concert halls and museums. installations.223). and rooms. corridors. We can imagine how a musician might interpret this drawing by looking at the abstract visual rhythms of masses composed of long straight poles. and dotted lines. Floor plan This drawing has been made with a rapidograph. flat boards. We can see. He also produces urban and landscape designs. p. Visual rhythms In the lower half of this drawing architectural language has broken loose: escaped and transformed into an image of rebellious pleasure.70 ARCHITECTURE The Order of Sound B O T H OF THESE VISIONARY DRAWINGS o c c u p y a s l e n d e r . Across the top and center right of the image w e perceive an almost recognizable architectural plan. There has always DANIEL LIBESKIND A Polish American architect of international acclaim. Satie draws quietly throughout. a refillable pen that feeds a constant supply of ink through a fine tubular nib. The architect and musician Daniel Libeskind has drawn a stampeding cacophany of airborne architectural detail. upright pictorial space. Both men used rulers and pens to carefully and slowly construct their compositions. theater sets. and in a sense hear. such a rapport in both of these drawings. while the composer Erik Satie has made an enclosure of quiet order and grace. short curved poles.
narrowshape of its paper. a n d ballet. a conventional dip or fountain pen. Hotel de la Suzonnieres c. Onpp. minimalist s c o r e s scandalized a u d i e n c e s with o r c h e s t r a t i o n s f o r t h e foghorn and typewriter. dressed eccentrically. and ink on a fragment folded brown paper—a of everyday happened material of scrap that to be at hand. andfouredges of the paper tothecompositionand impact animage.H i s witty. H e p e r f o r m e d in cabarets.56—57 we discussed important the shape. Satie collaborated w i t h hisfriends J e a n C o c t e a u a n d P i c a s s o . the perimeter Composition Look how well this drawingfitsand resonates with the upright.Edges are how are of orientation.ERIK SATIE F r e n c h pianist and c o m p o s e r for t h e piano. o f which he was the sole m e m b e r Parcel paper Satie has drawn this fantasy hotel using a ruler. 1 8 9 3 77/8 x 51/2 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 4 0 mm) ERIK SATIE . lived a l o n e . and founded his o w n church. Compare the even and and the shape wall to the elegantly stylized order of the many windows of arrangement of details and the shape of the wall in Babur's Garden of Fidelity on p. theater. Eastern influence The upright image Eastern is reminiscent and medieval of Middle pictorial space and subject of this European drawing. They definespaceand pictorial balance.50. effectively additional lines in a work.
spheres. Light illusions This pen-and-wash drawing shows a subtle application of the principles of illumination demonstrated with an egg on p. This shift makes the cenotaph appear three-dimensional. antlike mortals might have speculated upon the universe. Boullee lived in Paris. We glide over exquisitely drawn wastelands of damage and abandonment. ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE French architectural theorist. Within it. made in 1926. Newton's Cenotaph 1784 153/4 x 25 in ( 4 0 2 x 635 m m ) ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE . painter. cylinders. Boullee's monolithic apparition was drawn as a monument to Sir Isaac Newton. Art director Erich Kettlehut's vertiginous design for the city of a slavelike populace had a future influence on movies such as Blade Runner. and taught at t h e A c a d e m i e d'Architecture.The lower-left section of the building appears relatively pale against a darker sky. arched vaults. This is the work of an architectural theoretician. the ominous globe exists only as a series of drawings. and dramatic lighting. and draftsman. we find other Utopian visions Paul Nobles epic drawing summons an imperfect and disturbing township where ruin and activity are equal and strange. enter the long-shadowed architecture of imaginary worlds. experiencing a fascinating conflict between curiosity and desolation.72 ARCHITECTURE T H E S E T H R E E HIGHLY DETAILED DRAWINGS Future Fictions invite us to soaring above normal life.96. Among preparations for Fritz Langs film Metropolis. and the reverse is true on the right. His celebrated imaginary buildings are characterized by pyramids.
73 ERICH KETTLEHUT Influential film a r t director. draftsman. gray. architecture. Working on toned paper such as this gives an artist greater scope for dramatic lighting effects than if they work on white paper.Building shapes are works can be read as text.a r t director O t t o Hunte. Kettlehut drew using a fine and relatively dry brush dipped in black. 1926 ERICH KETTLEHUT PAUL N O B L E British c o n t e m p o r a r y artist who creates m o n u m e n t a l . and morality o f an invented place called His satires exhibited w o r l d w i d e . FUTURE FICTIONS Brush and ink This is a dramatic drawing from a film that shaped the history of world cinema. and white ink on brown-gray paper. and m o d e l .m a k e r In t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f Metropolis. used forced perspective camera t e c h n i q u e s t o amplify t h e m a g n i t u d e o f buildings in relation t o human characters. Fritz Lang's Metropolis c. Nobson political visions of humanity Newtown. Kettlehut and his c o . intensely detailed graphite drawings explaining and questioning t h e geography. together with c i n e m a t o g r a p h e r Karl Freund. Nobson Central 9 ft 1 0 in x 1 3 f t 2 in (3 x 4 m ) PAUL N O B L E 1998-99 . mythology. Its sheerscaleengulfs the viewer and demands based time and patience to on letters and in some beread. and are Graphite shapes Nobson Central isoneof a series of very large graphite drawings of the spoil and detritus of Nobson Newtown.
and age eight. In his notebooks. and thinkers ever to have lived. All forms of perspective are of equal value. See how the thread corresponds to each converging line. linear perspective is distinct from more ancient systems practiced in the East. Invented by Italian artist and architect Brunelleschi in 1413 (late in the history of art). inventors. and inventions— essential reading for inquiring minds. It is also distinguished from aerial perspective (see pp. found at the center of all converging lines. scientists. 206-07). Note how architectural features conform to lines and how human figures diminish in size toward thevanishingpoint. LEONARDO DA VINCI One of the greatest artists. It can be applied to any subject. and those of Naive artists and children. Leonardo recorded constant streams of ideas. Study of Perspective Adoration of the for the Magi 1481 61/2 x111/2in (165 x 290 mm) LEONARDO DA VINCI . Piranesi an example of two. I contribute the child's perspective.74 ARCHITECTURE Pathways of Sight LINEAR PERSPECTIVE (also called vanishing-point perspective) is a simple device for calculating the relative size of things in pictorial space. We use it to structure illusions of depth. but is most easily seen and understood in pictures of buildings and interiors. Press the pin into Leonardo's vanishing point. observations. this perspective is often an imagined bird's-eye view in which details are mapped according to logic and importance rather than how they might appear in real life. Pull the thread taut and rotate it slowly above the drawing. Here Leonardo provides a superb example of a single vanishing point. Single-point perspective Tie a thread to a pin. Sometimes shared with Naive artists.
Scale Our farmhouse my experience was in the woods. This drawing Young children typically maps ignore on and understanding of the nearby village.SARAH SIMBLET I made this drawing (at age 8) in response to a local bookstore's request for children to draw their village. . a points in logical narrative of memories. Mark these points with your pin and follow the converging lines of the drawing by rotating your thread. and designer Piranesi's prolific architectural drawings. New Forest. architect. Note the rather large rabbits and pheasants the hills. 1740 5 1 / 2 x 83/8 in (141 x 212 mm) G I O V A N N I B A T T I S T A PIRANESI points are located on either side of the drawing. England 1980 9 x 16 in (228 x 405 mm) S A R A H SIMBLET GIOVANNI BATTISTA PIRANESI Italian artist. at the top of each lateral column base. and theoretical writing strongly influenced neoclassicism. Lightly marked illuminates vanishing Two Courtyards c. issues of scale when making room for important their story. Two-point perspective Sunlight through this colonnade a great example of two-point perspective. Children are uninhibited and problems with one element being obscured by another rarely arise. It shows how children usually map large scenes in flat layers one above the other. Breamore Village. which I saw from home every day. visionary and practical understanding of ancient Rome. including all they recall about the subject.
try composing your own space. Draw each step over the preceding one to build up a single image. Draw four dotted lines radiating out from the vanishing point. Leonardo began with a grid of many lines within which he invented his scene.76 ARCHITECTURE Single-Point Perspective MASTERING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE i s e a s i e r t h a n y o u m a y First read through. Extend each dotted line to the edge of your drawing. corresponding to a single vanishing point. In contrast. Erase the dotted construction lines. discovering the image as it progressed. then follow the ten steps below. Piranesi planned his drawing with only the essential lines needed. Next. you will amplify the illusion of distance. using a sharp HB pencil and ruler. (See p. 2 3 corners must each touch a dotted line. draw a horizon line across your paper Mark a spot on the horizon line. This is where we will begin. DRAWING BOXES 1 Using a ruler and a sharp HB pencil. Surround the vanishing point with a small rectangle. Each line should pass through one corner of the rectangle. This ensures that the second rectangle aligns with the shape and 4 Draw four short lines to connect the four corners of the two rectangles. Study these pages first before embarking on this lesson. imagine.98 for an important note on oscillation. On the previous page we looked at its essential mechanism through drawings by Leonardo and Piranesi. This lesson shows you how to make a simple illusion of space defined by two boxes and three flat boards.) . You have completed your first box. Note that if you place large structures in the foreground and smaller ones closer to your vanishing point. this is your vanishing point.
Connect this to the vanishing point— again. you can place rectangles anywhere youwishin relation to a vanishing point. Repeat this to add two more boards to the composition. and erase the dotted lines. 6 As in step 2. draw four dotted lines radiating from your vanishing point Pass these through each comer of the new rectangle.asIhavedonehere. bottom. when inventing your own compositions. larger rectangle. Note that this does not surround the vanishing point In the future.willhelptomake them appear more solid. N e x t draw a slanting line to mark the height of the first flat board. draw a second. the closer it will appear to the viewer. The larger you make your second rectangle. with two dotted lines. 9 Use dotted lines connecting the slanting linetothe vanishing point to locate the top. 1 0 Erase all ofthedottedlinestoseeyourfinishedboxes Thickeningtheiredges. 8 Complete the second box with short lines as in step 4. The four comers must each touch a dotted line to be sureitaligns with the first. . andfarside of this first board. Continue the dotted lines out toward the edge of your drawing. 7 As in step 3.77 SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE 5 Draw a new rectangle. The board's sides should be parallel.
then let the space suggest its c o n t e n t s and purpose.78 ARCHITECTURE Creating an Imaginary Space T H I S CLASS USES SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE t o c r e a t e a s i m p l e to you and if you listen to it. If using a fibertip pen as I have done for this drawing. w h e t h e r it is a film or a painting. artist and film director. 7 4 ) . Every work talks In this class. p . The m i s t a k e n belief that we s h o u l d k n o w exactly what o u r finished drawings will l o o k like before we m a k e t h e m prevents many people from ever starting." imaginary room. APPLYING PERSPECTIVE An Imagined Scaffold "Enjoy your illusion as you make it and it will become more real. A lot more happens when you open yourself up to the work and let yourself act and react to it. I always start with a script but I don't follow it all the way through to the end. O n a fresh page in your d r a w i n g b o o k . it will take you places you never dreamed of. once said: "I never end up with what I set out to do. It highlights the importance of having faith in your imagination and trusting your ability to invent. Then follow the three given steps. As David Lynch. it is interaction that makes the work richer. Linear perspective will support y o u by providing a frame in which to b u i l d your picture as it did for Leonardo. let simple lines suggest a simple space." . you will find white adhesive stationery labels are useful for covering errors or changing the direction of your idea. draw a b o x as shown opposite.
Addanarray of converging lines to provide a "scaffold" for vertical.There is great pleasure tobefoundin spending time inventing interiors. horizontal. additional lines have established the different surfaces and how they relate to each other. . parallel planes such as walls converge toward the vanishing point. you will beableto draw more complex objects orpeoplewithin them. This initial space will be transparent and open to change. Here. 3 Remove the construction lines with an eraser and the room will becomeclearer.drawthehorizonlineand vanishingpoint. With some practice.79 DRAWING A SIMPLE ROOM Essentials t o remember: objects and people dimmish in size as they move farther away. and floors and ceilings also converge and rise o r lower toward the horizon. 2 first before adding furniture. The space has become more solid and real. CREATING AN IMAGINARY SPACE 1First. and leaning surfaces.
p o i n t perspective ( s h o w n opposite top). or low and we look u p . They could be drawn on any scale from miniature to monumental. Free vanishing points On paper we can enjoy the freedom of fantastic structural invention without limitations of solid materials or gravity. The boxes drawn here are seen partly or entirely disassociated from a horizon line drawn across the bottom of the image. T h i n k of standing at the top of a skyscraper and imagine h o w its parallel sides would appear to converge below you. To draw such a view APPLICATION Copy these drawings to see and feel how they work before inventing your own versions. These elaborations could continue indefinitely across a sheet of paper in pursuit of complex and intricate ideas. I have elaborated on the simple boxes above. Only when y o u might employ t h r e e . It is important to realize that you can have as many vanishing points as you wish. From our normal eye level. Elaborations . but they are not confined to this level.80 ARCHITECTURE Further Aspects of Perspective W E ARE ACCUSTOMED TO SEEING our e n v i r o n m e n t from a relatively constant point of view. located anywhere inside or outside the pictorial space. Further aspects of three-point perspective are also illustrated opposite. T h e y d o n o t have to relate to each other. T h i s is d e m o n s t r a t e d immediately below. they can be placed anywhere inspaceto describe the perspective of flyi c tilted objects. our eye level is very high and we look down. do verticals appear inclined. That is where we e to find them. Search for the application of these perspectives among works by other artists in this book and in galleries. Copying what you see in the work of others will help you to understand what they have done. o r to the h o r i z o n . showing y o u h o w to draw curved surfaces and a tiled floor. a n d this is how we have drawn them so far (see pp. verticals appear p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the g r o u n d . Vanishing points are commonly found on horizon—our eye level. 76-79). Here. Potentially.
) By comparing this drawing t o Piranesi's example of two-point perspective on p. and therefore tension.Istarted with two parallel lines. I then drew three fanned groups of lines connecting each of the three points above to the seven points below. Giving curvature. I marked the toplinewith three evenly spaced points and the line with seven. useful for representing steep views looking up or down tall structures.81 FURTHER ASPECTS OF Three-point towers This drawing depicts three-point perspective. they mark the corners of the floor tiles. Note that altering the distance between the three dots above will tilt the level of the floor . you will see how. Where thelinescross. Three-point checkered floor This d bottom floor. three vanishing points are evenly spaced along a horizon line. (Turn the book around to see a view looking up.I added horizontal lines t o define the tiles. PERSPECTIVE Three-point curves Here. An array of curved lines (drawn freehand) link the two lateral points.75.Finally. tostraightlines can amplify drama in a picture. by adding a third point you can achieve a sense of incline. Iusedthese lines as a guide t o draw the curvature of boxes and panels flying through space.
.Theaters RESEARCHING FOR MY P H D . These walnut-skin ink pen and brush drawings show imagined views of theaters that do not exist but were inspired by places I studied. making drawings to resolve questions and express personal responses to the nature and history of anatomy. I visited many anatomical theaters and museums.
A N D . the water.Venetian Life sitting point buildings ThisP E N .I N KDRAWING is one of a series I made while next to the Rialto Bridge in Venice. The vanishing of the drawing is directly opposite as we look across The constancy of the bridge and surrounding frames the movement in the life that flows past. .
drawings were needed to instruct workers on the factory floor. or drawing w e see Leonardo daVinci'sprecision as can be given meaning. Artists also make images of objects that can never exist. these. design. fictional realities caster of h o w t o make it andhowit will w o r k . for example—whether. color. have often carried great weights of allegorical once. too. drawing c. for example. planned. or used on stage hood for a mold t o make theheado f a horse f oas a p r o p — i m b u e d with e n o u g h energy or character can "become" a man. r an equestrian statue. and made. Technical drawing was speedily developed as a meticulous international code of m e a s u r e m e n t and explanation.Objects and Instruments T HE THINGS WE INVENT describe our lives. passing them on to others through the act of making. Today. drawn. and the behavior of light through making still-life paintings and together. Previously. In this chapter. It is shaped in sections w i t h Artists have for centuries studied and expressed composition. History will be learned from the artifacts w e leave behind. that test our logic with a sense of mystery. T h e precision of engineering d r a w i n g s e v o l v e d alongside machine tools. even more advanced drawings are made on computers. and the way in w h i c h the brain reacts Head and Neck Sections of Female Mold for the Sforza Horse to visual stimulus and optical illusions. or to explain and present a finished concept to a client. illuminating snail shells. A chair. Artists and actors use the meanings of things to communicate a speculative mechanic. texture. C o m m o n items. H e has described a casting through metaphor. but humans LEONARDO DA VINCI Inthisbeautiful red chalk Our items all have a purpose—practical or ornamental—and all have a meaning. With the sudden onset of mass production. sculpted. 1493 117/8c81/4in (300 x 210 m m ) LEONARDO D A V I N Ccreating I . T h e Industrial Revolution c h a n g e d the traditional w a y s in w h i c h objects were designed. to record an observed detail. each demanding more of the other as they increased in sophistication. W e also explore v o l u m e and form in the classes by spinning lines to make vessels. hooked bars that can be pulled and tied closely form. and some apes use simple tools. from s p o o n s and pens to chairs and bicycles. In past eras. and a wire violin. of light in the creation of pictorial illusions. craftsmen had held plans in their memory. H e has described contour and function at drawings. Birds follow instinct to make a nest. are all made bearing the signature of our time and place. we look at the importance are the only creatures on Earth w h o actually design and create great ranges of things. It was in this era that the blueprint was born. Engineers and designers of our objects and instruments make drawings for many reasons: to test an idea that is yet to be made. making a clear instruction t o his bronzemeaning.
Braque established Cubism in partnership with Picasso just before World War I. still feel this projected moment. and glass objects of exquisite elegance for only the gentlest of touch and appreciation. and shading. . Braques image is a Cubist collage. Mucha's drawing glistens with possession. Below.90 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS Still Life THESE DRAWINGS REVEAL t w o o p p o s i t e m o t i v a t i o n s i n we can. He takes us into the bustle of the Paris cafe." La Cuitare. Clashes The art historian Ernst Gombrich said of Cubism. but to clash in virtual deadlock. not of place but of things. and a journal jacket with words makes this drawing chatter about the moment. There is a fragile eloquence to these objects as they drift in slow motion past our gaze.. His work is characterized by calm and harmonious still-life compositions. T h i s is a designers drawing made to enthuse surface and style in its delicate brushing of china. texture.73 x 1 m) GEORGES BRAQUE . steaming with music and conversation. "I believe [it] is the most radicalattempttostampout ambiguity and to enforce one readingofthepicture—that of a manmade construction. Statue D'Epouvante 1913 2 f t 5 in x 3 ft 5 in (0. wood-look wallpaper. Braques "justly" arranged combination of cut black card.Braque marshals all the forces of perspective.. representing still life. perfect i n their newly made availability. silverware. Even today GEORGES BRAQUE French painter who as a young man was influenced by the work of the Fauves and of Cezanne. Opposite. a colored canvas. charcoal. not to work in harmony. One of the great joys of this movement in art is the musicality of its multipoint view.
flowers. Black watercolor washes and lines of white gouache have been added with a fine brush.fruit. Art Nouveau curling motifs of birds. He designed the Austrian pavilion for the Paris World Fair in 1900. Background color Between the delicate shadows and highlights of these glazed and surfaces ofthebackground metal color of the Mucha we see a large amount paper. and fish have been outlined using a sharp pencil. Study for Plate 59 from "Documents Decoratifs" 17x121/4(430 x 310 mm) ALPHONSE MUCHA 1902 . Pans. and New York. Look at the two spoons at toprightand see how has suggested that they are so brilliantly shiny they reflect the background color. He is best known for posters featuring ethereal women in typical Art Nouveau style. For ten years Mucha designed theater posters exclusively for the actress Sarah Bernhardt. Art Nouveau motifs This is a preliminary study for a subsequent print. The three plates facing us were drawn with a compass.ALPHONSE MUCHA Czech graphic artist and painter who worked in Prague. and also stamps and bank notes. Chicago.
Transparent view Newton's reflecting telescope focused light in a parabolic mirror. alchemist. In the graphic work of these two great men of science. Newton's 1672 ISAAC Telescope NEWTON . w h e r e he developed his three greatest theories: the law o f motion. and Fellow of the University o f C a m b r i d g e . It was then reflected up inside the tube and. the law o f gravity. shape the very cause and effect of investigatory thought. and philosopher Newton was President of the Royal Society. astronomer. Newton's drawing of his first reflecting telescope is ISAAC N E W T O N English scientist. It is a diagrammatic explanation of how to catch and magnify a star in a mirrored tube. each one skillfully rendered with the alarmingly matter-of-fact ease of explaining the commonplace. Hooke's head of a drone fly seen through a microscope may represent the first time man and insect came face to face. He counted 1 4 . a tree outside.92 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS by their very nature must gauge or chronicle precision. drawing is there to pin the moment down. The power of this drawing reflects the pure passion of discovery. With dotted lines Newton has drawn his arrangement of elements inside the tube. Newton used this instrument to calculate the speed required to escape earth's gravity. A disembodied eye at the top of the drawing indicates where to look. each reflecting a view of his own world—his window. into the eyepiece. 0 0 0 perfect hemispheres. mathematician. Look how confidently he draws with ink the sphere of this wooden globe by which his telescope rotates. we see drawing Instruments of Vision found among his letters. and the nature o f light and color. Ink lines Several drawings appear among Newton's letters. Their delicate construction is only as valuable as the measurements they make. From the concept of capturing the infinite to the mapping of microscopic sight. via a second mirror. offering a transparent view. and his hand moving across the light.
It is an exhilarating read. a breathtaking book containing many of his drawings showing some of the first microscopic and telescopic magnifications of our environment Hooke's text and illustrations carry us to the moment of discovery. 1665). ROBERT H O O K E 93 Magnifications This acutely detailed engraved drawing is taken from Hooke's Micrographia (pub. universal joint a prototype respirator clock balance. The Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 1665 ROBERT HOOKE 111/2 x 105/8 in (294 x 270 mm) . Hooke invented the camera diaphragm. and anchor escarpment.An experimental scientist who drew many of his discoveries. and calculated the theory of combustion.
Woodfine exhibits internationally. Two-dimensional was made This highly finished drawing ruler using a sharp pencil and on smooth white drawing paper glistening dark drawings are artificial representations of known Woodfine's two-dimensional things balanced in the world. A renegade from the p a p e r dolls' h o u s e . and has drawings in numerous public and private collections. Its wobbly gait and squashed s y m m e t r y m u m b l e endless h o m e y tales about the life it has seen. while the tabs make us see a flat paper cut-out. Chair Cut Out 2002 22'A x 23 in (565 x 585 mm) SARAH WOODFINE . and winner of the 2004 Jerwood Drawing Prize. OBJECTS AND SARAH WOODFINE British contemporary artist graduate of the Royal Academy Schools. craft. and place in the world are truly seen. its character. Bench Marks W e are left a little c o n f u s e d as to what we s h o u l d do. Drawn in more-or-less c o n v e n t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . this chair p r e s e n t s us with a clever visual contradiction: deeply drawn shadows tell us it must be solid.94 INSTRUMENTS W H E N WE DRAW A COMMON OBJECT like a chair. and w h e r e the chair b e l o n g s . has published several catalogs of her work. From component parts we understand how to put it together and make it stand sensible in space. each drawn with the s a m e unfaltering lines and tones that are between reality and impossibility. it has so m u c h familiar personality that it seems to talk to us. W i t h h o m e y c o n t r a s t . Van Gogh's tipsy seat is a metaphor for an absent person. Sarah Woodfines flat cut-out m o d e l plan is a witty and surprising drawing.
The floor few as engagement with the chair. and Starry Cypress Night.95 VINCENTVAN GOGH Dutch painter who produced over 800 paintings and 850 drawings in only the last ten year's of his life.hehas marked the full emotion of the subject with a fierce grip of concentration. drawn opposite way of plan. His passionate brush and pencil strokes are honest and of also turmoil and growing alarm at the world around him. inner recording while Fierce strokes This is a portrait of the mechanical drew immediately and almost harshly. what direct in their he saw and describing his felt. Van Chair 1890 VINCENT VAN GOGH . Among van Gogh's best-known canvases are Trees. Cornfield and Sunflowers. not is made present in only strokes and is subdued to distract us from flat a meaningful chair.
From across the room both will appear black card and fold and retapeitwith half sticking out.102-03 deep shadows cast across shells make their form easier to perceive. We will even see things that d o not exist because minimal information suggests they are likely to be there. Here. a n d are q u i c k to p r o p o s e ideas. form. the adjustment of our eyes (in growing accustomed to a level of light).At one point you will catchenoughlight lighter than the white one. Run The bottom-left quarter of the egg lightens slightly toward its "edge" when seen against the darker shadow cast on the paper. The small squares are identical in tone. The outermost edge of our vision. Here w e look briefly at our perception of light a n d darkness a n d our interpretation of diagrammatic illusions. reads only m o v e m e n t a n d can often m a k e mistakes. The egg's darkest region is seen against a lighter background. a n d m o v e m e n t . and the proximity of contrasting tones. transmitted to the brain as chains of electrical impulses. a lit photograph of an egg shows essential points to observe in tonal drawing. hence our recognition of a cartoon face c o m p o s e d of three lines. Gray squares To further examine changes in tone. Through these we can enjoy witnessing our o w n d e c e p t i o n a n d b a f f l e m e n t a n d u n d e r s t a n d certain factors that are very useful in picture-making.This effect is caused by the contrast of their surroundings.d o w n patterns of light on our retinas. The egg's lightest region is seen against a darker background. The perceived tone of a black white. a n d we can be fooled. We only need small prompts. less developed than the center. gray. a n d our ability to see forms in c l o u d s or fire. are translated into a world of space. Before starting a tonal drawing of any subject. Below the bottom "edge" of the egg there is a rim of light reflected onto the paper by the underside of the egg. try this experiment. W e learn to read light and shadow in our environment as indicators of solidity and depth of space. w e turn our head but n o one w a s there. Three factors change it: the amount of light it receives. Are you happy LIGHT AND SHADOW with what you see? Does the light enhance the subject? Could you alter and improve it? On pp. two identical mid-gray squares are seen against black and paler gray squares. On acloudyday. U p s i d e . or colored surface is never constant. cards the same size. Below. Tape them to the glass. Artists emulate and manipulate this effect in their pictures. atmosphere. Card experiment cho can gra on . o u r b r a i n s search for n a m e a b l e things. The rim of light on the egg is reflected light received from surrounding paper. We perceive one to be lighter than theother. To interpret visual s t i m u l u s . S o m e o n e passes our o p e n door. See how its "edge" smoothly changes from light against dark to dark against light. but do not appear so. perhaps. your eye around the circumference of the egg. think about its illumination. Adjust the angleofthe protruding part and again stepback. T h e slightest recognition is instantly matched to our wealth of experience a n d expectation.96 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Light and Illusions SEEING IS MIRACULOUS. The two tones meet without a division or outline between. one blackandone white.
O f t e ndoingso w i l l s p o i l y o u r w o r k . . In a t o n a l d r a w i n g . Y o u m a y e x p e r i e n c e s o m e t h i n g similar h a p p e n i n g w h e n y o u m a k e s i n g l e . w h i l e t h i n n e r lines recede. start o u t w i t h one. Apparent lengths T h e s e optical illusions s h o w h o w lines o f identical length can b e m a d e t o l o o k quite different f r o m each o t h e r by t h e addition o r association o f o t h e r lines. by d i r e c t e d a r r o w s ( A ) .97 LINE VERSUS TONE In l i n e a r d r a w i n g s . If y o u w i s h t o m a k e a t o n a l drawing. T w o horizontal lines o f equal length are m a d e t o l o o k longer and shorter. Seven parallel lines are m a d e t o tilt t o w a r d and away f r o m each o t h e r by n u m e r o u s s h o r t strokes crossing t h e m diagonally ( A ) . A n u p r i g h t line stands in t h e c e n t e r o f a h o r i z o n t a l line. In this t o n a l image w e read w h i t e as f a t t e r t h a n black. l i g h t e r surfaces s t a n d f o r w a r d w h i l e d a r k e r s u r f a c e s recede. T h i s fundamental o p p o s i t e is a reason w h y l i n e a r a n d t o n a l d r a w i n g does not a l w a y s c o m b i n e w e l l in t h e s a m e i m a g e . T h e jug d r a w n w i t h a t h i n line appears f a r t h e r away t h a n t h e j u g d r a w n w i t h a t h i c k e r line. t h i c k e r l i n e s a p p e a r t o stand forward. LIGHT AND ILLUSIONS Tonal width T h e s e black a n d w h i t e bands are o f equal thickness o n e i t h e r side o f t h e i r central division. In this linear drawing w e read t h i c k as closer a n d t h i n as f a r t h e r away. T h e r e is n o obligation t o a d d b l o c k s o f t o n e t o a l i n e a r d r a w i n g . B o t h are identical in length. Bending straight lines Linear distance These t w o jugs have b e e n d r a w n w i t h lines o f d i f f e r i n g thicknesses. T w o relatively t h i c k parallel lines are m a d e t o b e n d away f r o m each o t h e r as t h e y pass in f r o n t o f an a r r a y o f c o n v e r g i n g f i n e lines ( B ) . respectively. S h o r t h o r i z o n t a l lines o f identical length are m a d e t o l o o k d i f f e r e n t by c o n v e r g i n g lines beside t h e m ( C ) . O b s e r v e h o w each white b a n d appears t h i c k e r t h a n its black c o u n t e r p a r t . b u t t h e u p r i g h t o n e l o o k s t a l l e r (B).p o i n t p e r s p e c t i v e d r a w i n g s w i t h a large n u m b e r o f c o n v e r g i n g rays b e h i n d y o u r horizontals.
76. Artists make pictorial illusions when they paint or draw. In the 1960's. it can oscillate b e t w e e n facing t o w a r d o r a w a y f r o m us. including some shown here. w e will find that in terms of the direction it faces. are still not agreeably understood. o r as a s l o p i n g . Michelangelo. among others. Yet many illusions. Two ways of seeing T h i s is t h e b o x c r e a t e d in t h e f o u r t h step o n p. and we learn to read the styles of diverse cultures and periods. such as t h e dish seen h e r e o n t h e left. others adjust works to avoid their effects. w e can only look f r o m one t o the o t h e r If an artist is not aware this can happen in their image. It is possible t o r e a d i t t w o ways: as a t r u n c a t e d r e c t a n g u l a r p y r a m i d seen d i r e c t l y f r o m a b o v e . It is a curious fact that w e can never see both options at once. SEEING TWO OPTIONS Sometimes." .s i d e d r e c t a n g u l a r t r a y ( b o t h are illustrated far r i g h t ) "The brain is so eager to name a fragment we see that we need only a suggestion to grasp the whole. perfected the acceleration of perspective (see pp.98 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Further Illusions PSYCHOLOGISTS AND PHYSIOLOGISTS have studied optical illusions for decades in pursuit of what they tell us about the brain. C l o s i n g t h e surface o f t h e f o r m seals o u r d e c i s i o n as t o w h i c h w a y it faces. Ancient Greek architects knew parallel upright lines appeared to bend toward each other in the middle. such as Bridget Riley. made paintings that depended upon the physical sensation of our brain's reaction to known optical illusions. A few suggestive marks will tip the decision one way o r the o t h e r Closing the surface W h e n a t r a n s p a r e n t elliptical o b j e c t has b e e n d r a w n . Artists can communicate much in few lines and the viewer will do the rest of the work. Today we are bombarded with images but rarely have difficulty reading them.116-17) to make painted figures look correct when viewed from below. Some artists use known optical illusions to make art. it oscillates between t w o possibilities. Op(tical) artists. their picture could be ambiguous. w h e n drawing the outline o f a three-dimensional form. as s h o w n o n t h e right. and so calculated precisely how much to fatten columns to make them appear straight.
T h e s e e x a m p l e s illustrate h o w little is n e e d e d t o c o n v e y an image.99 Impossible objects T h e s e clever configurations o f outlines and t o n a l surfaces convince us at a glance that we are seeing a solid three-dimensional triangle and a three-pronged fork. T h e patient's answers are t h e n diagnosed as a psychological profile. T h e t e s t e x p l o r e s o u r n o r m a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o find things w e can n a m e a m o n g r a n d o m shapes. This simple five-line d r a w i n g is o f a C a p u c h i n priest asleep in his pulpit. C o u n t t h e n u m b e r o f d a r k spots y o u can see. His highly d i s p u t e d and i m p r e c i s e science involves s h o w i n g u n p r e p a r e d p a t i e n t s t e n p a r t i c u l a r ink b l o t s a n d asking t h e m t o i n t e r p r e t w h a t t h e y see. . This effect can o c c u r naturally w h e n looking at a b r i g h t l y lit w h i t e g r i d such as a w i n d o w f r a m e against t h e night sky. FURTHER ILLUSIONS Seeing things that are n o t t h e r e H e r e o n t h e left. N e i t h e r triangle exists. F a m i l i a r i t y in r a n d o m s h a p e s T h e Rorschach test was established by t h e 1 9 t h . W e should r e m e m b e r t h a t o u r brains will always search f o r a p i c t u r e — i n ink blots.c e n t u r y Italian painters. clouds.c e n t u r y Swiss psychologist H e r m a n n Rorschach. T h e a r t i s t M. B e l o w is a b r i g h t n e s s c o n t r a s t illusion. this is a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f t h e viewer's b r a i n b e i n g willing t o d o a large a m o u n t o f t h e w o r k in d e c i p h e r i n g a p i c t u r e . w e see t w o overlapping triangles: o n e outlined in black b e n e a t h a n o t h e r in solid w h i t e . C o u p l e d w i t h t h e Rorschach b l o t above. Yet still w e try resolve t h e m . 1 6 t h . — a n d so t h e artist can create m u c h o u t o f an impression w i t h o u t overdescribing. Minimal-line j o k e s such as this rely u p o n t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y v i e w e r ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e shapes. C Escher u s e d this phenomenon t o great effect in his many p o p u l a r d r a w i n g s o f puzzles and impossible buildings. S o m e artists use ink blots t o p r o m p t t h e beginning o f an image. P e r c e i v i n g a w h o l e i m a g e f r o m m i n i m a l lines T h i s is a w i d e l y r e p r o d u c e d visual j o k e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e C a r r a c c i b r o t h e r s . smoke. O n l y o n closer inspection we realize that t h e s e o b j e c t s are fooling us. T h e y a r e o f t e n c r e d i t e d w i t h t h e invention o f t h e c o m i c c a r t o o n . M u c h can b e e x p r e s s e d in o n l y a f e w marks. b u t w e believe w e see t h e m because e n o u g h f r a g m e n t a r y i n f o r m a t i o n is given f o r o u r brains t o c o n c l u d e t h e y are v e r y likely t h e r e . e t c .
Be aware. springlike forms like those I have drawn below. you will achieve steadiness with practice. Ellipse are best d r a w n quickly. I have drawn these for you here. there are three common errors people stumble upon. hesitant one that has edged its w a y nervously around the vessel's rim.100 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS W E VISUALIZE CYLINDRICAL VESSELS. third common error is to draw upper and lover ellipses with different-sized apertures. a n d in o n e bold stroke. . How to Draw Ellipses of seeing. Don't worry if it is uneven— just try again. Watch the tip of your pen and see it draw an ellipse in the air Keep this movement going while gently lowering the pen onto the paper like the needle of a record player closing on the disc (only it is your lowering hand that spins. A wobbling but confident ellipse will still be more convincing than a slow. for example plates or bowls on a table. while its upper rim remains level. I have exaggerated this error here.90) takes a different as essentially circular. even if y o u r hand w o b b l e s a little at first. (see p. The second common error is to tilt the upper and lower ellipses at different angles. w e use ellipses to give a sense of perspective. Cover a sheet of paper with spinning. spin your hand in a relaxed circle. though. keep it spinning. that this is o n l y o n e w a y view. COMMON ERRORS W h e n drawing cylindrical objects in perspective. w h e n seen at an angle. describing many sides of an object simultaneously. WHERE TO START In the air above a spacious sheet of scrap paper. since this is h o w w e experience them in e v e r y d a y use. for example. and these narrow or widen depending on the height of our view. not the paper!) As the pen touches down. suggesting that the vessel is lopsided. However. such as bowls and cups. To make a cylindrical object appear real in our pictorial space. like a disposable plastic cup that has been crushed in your hand. Cubism. smoothly. circles change into ellipses. giving the cylinder four corners. as if the table surface slopes upward beneath the vessel. The first common error is to draw two pointed ellipses.
you can make it solid by building up highlights and tones on visible surfaces. Seeing Through Allow lines to travel around each vessel as if it were transparent. Draw quickly. working from top to bottom.101 DRAWING VESSELS Once you have mastered drawing free-hand springs. . Create a Solid Surface Once you have drawn the shape and volume of each form. thereby hiding lines that show the other sides. Altering the pressure—and therefore tone—of the line as it spins gives the impression of light shining on one side. enlarging and diminishing the ellipse to determine the overall shape and volume. HOW TO DRAW E L L I P S E S A Single Vessel One Inside Another Grouped Together Finding Shape and Volume Draw an imagined vessel in one continuous spinning line. you can start to control your spinning ellipse to make a vessel.
It maximizes the range of tones between black and white. Draw the largest and most distinct areas of light and darkness first. making complicated or subtle surfaces easier to see and understand. and solid objects are all of equal importance. or you can begin with a mid-gray ground and model light out of darkness (see opposite bottom).22-23). OBJECTS AND Start by arranging a choice of shells on a sheet of paper to your left if you are right-handed (or vice versa). two opposite methods of achieving the same result. simply shapes and subtleties of light and dark meeting each other with no divisions in between. if any. Relaxing your eyes out of focus as you draw will help to dissolve the distraction of detail. it will inhibit your perception of tone. Gradually hone your drawing. Remember that shadows. It is important to place them on the correct side so as to draw comfortably (see pp. leaving detail until last.102 INSTRUMENTS Tonality W H E N MAKING A TONAL DRAWING. Illuminate them with a gooseneck lamp placed very close and directed away from your eyes. In the finished drawing there should be few. and strong contrasts are easier to draw. beams of light. t h e r e a r e p r i n c i p a l l y Dramatic lighting emphasizes texture and contour. if light shines in them. outlines. You can begin with outlines and build slowly from light to dark (see opposite top). LIGHT TO DARK DARK TO LIGHT .
Erase and make changes to roughly place the shells inside your with your composition. Continue working between light and dark to refine the drawing. Remember that its size. Avoid a rough significant areas of light in your gray rectangle with texture and do not press the graphite hardwhite plastic eraser Ignore all detail and draw a into thepaperor you will not be able to erase it. DARK TO LIGHT (TONE TO TONE) 1 Using the flattened tip of an HB pencil. Use quick. until you are happy frame. draw a rectangle. with broad sweeps of the eraser. Let your eyes go out of focus while looking gently layer marks to create an even tone at your subject and paper: Draw the most ofmid-graywithin a rectangle. Treat positive form and negative space (see pp. Use your pencil to develop these in relation to the areas of light. Relaxing your eyes out of focus will help to eliminate distracting details. pale lines with equal importance. Fll in broad areas first and leave all detail until last. and edges definingthespacialrelationships between are important aspects of your composition them.103 LIGHT TO DARK (LINE TO TONE) TONALITY 1 Using a sharp HB pencil. shape. boldly 2 3 Keeping your eyes out of focus. 2 3 Gentlydissolveoutlines so that areas oflightanddark meet without a line between them. Honetheshapesand angles of the shells. look at the main areas of darkness. . loose.56-57). Draw in the details last of all.
and physical relationships between them. smooth. On p.69 we see how the architect Antonio Gaudi drew proposed domes using suspended wires and weights. continuous lines. 19 Picasso draws with a pen-light for the camera. This class uses thin-gauge wire to create a threedimensional violin. you can create your own more ambitious works. On p. . They can also be made in space. The first is that figurative and abstract drawings can be made in space. Seeing through a wire drawing of a known object such as a violin gives us a visual and tactile understanding of all its sides and shapes at once. The second is that after achieving this simple example. 176 the British artists Noble and Webster draw with domestic refuse in a beam of light. Place the instrument on a plain surface and illuminate it with a desk lamp to add the delicate dimension of shadows. PEN LINES Once you have created your three-dimensional violin (opposite).104 OBJECTS AND I N S T R U M E N T S Drawing with Wire DRAWINGS DO NOT HAVE to be two-dimensional. try drawing it with a pen on paper Use bold. and on p. three-dimensional drawings teach us about the totality of forms in space. Third. There are essentially three lessons to be learned. When drawing anything viewed from one side on paper. and on p. our image is stronger if we understand and can visualize what is happening on the other side too.220 Mamoru Abe draws with forged steel rods.
brace the two ends of the violin with a length of wire along the back. and pinch and bend it to shape the base of the instrument Repeat this process to make the identical upper side of the instrument. Then begin to define its uppermost surface with Scurves and the bridge. 4 . 1 Decide how big to draw your violin relative to the gauge of your wire. Join the two sides together with four short pieces of wire. I used garden wire and cut it carefully with pruners. thin wire will make a smaller drawing. begin to shape the curvature of the fingerboard. but thin enough to be easily manipulated inyourfingers Here. and thick wire a larger one. Here. 2 3 If needed. I started with the scroll at the top and fixed the four component wires with two drawings of tuning pegs.105 SETTING UP DRAWING WITH WIRE Follow these steps to draw a three-dimensional violin Choose a gauge of wire sturdy enough to hold the shape ofyourfinished drawing. Cut a length. These will hold the sides apart and help to keep the form in shape. Once you have completed the body.
they invented new anthropological finds—objects that reflected the distant past and their immediate future. Oxford. . I had the privilege of drawing their inventions. Using found materials. some of which are shown here.Artifacts and Fictions IN 1993 I WORKED with a group of schoolchildren who were responding to the astonishing objects in the collection of the Pitt Rivers Museum. England.
from video and X-ray to thermal imaging. He even believed he had located the soul contours of her form like a cartographer's map of in the pituitary fossa beneath the brain and behind the eyes. Leonardo drew a man within a circle and square. the junior workshop apprentices posed as part of their duties. W I L L I A M S technology. Michelangelo attended dissections to made this image by light sectioning: fine beams of light perfect his understanding of surface form. The body remains at the core of over the initially white lines. It gives physical and emotive form to religious narratives. Artists are thought to have b e g u n drawing from the nude during the Italian Renaissance. is the most c o m m o n subject in art. portraiture. Artists now explore the interior of the body with new media and Lateral Contour Map of a Full-Term Primipara Produced by Light 1979 A. R. W e are the only creatures on Earth that can make our own image. Renaissance artists studying anatomy from dissection clinically trained and specialized as a medical illustrator. diseased. explaining ranges e/ of materials and techniques and showing diversities of thought and purpose in making. artists also tried to define ideal proportions in the body. and surgically rebuilt. R. This chapter addresses issues that are most commonly faced by beginners attending life-drawing classes. clothed or nude. and because the female was deemed inferior. Look closely at Renaissance drawings of the female b o d y and you will see that m o s t are actually y o u n g m e n with minor adjustments. giving physical foundation undulating land. history paintings and other stories. During this time. myths and fables. She the body is still essential. while Durer took his research further— A. focus has turned to the vulnerability of flesh: how it can be damaged. The human body.The Body O UR BODIES MAKE us TANGIBLE. 3 x 7 in (300 x 180 . WILLIAMS he sought perfection in the infinitesimal measurement of the body and produced four Contemporary photographer volumes of illustrated explanation. sculptural description of her form. while Leonardo opened the body to see and projected onto a woman's body draw the celebratory discover for himself our physical mechanisms. These classes are popular around the world. It also looks at the representation of the b o d y b11y4o n d traditional life drawing. much Western contemporary art. In this period. Strangely. This F finished image was produced as r a n c i s c o . Drawings were usually made from the male nude to avoid offending the church. the Bay Area Models' Guild h o l d s a quarterly life-drawing m a r a t h o n aprinton Kodak transfer paper with green-colored dye added celebrating the great diversity of human proportion. a n d w e d r a w o u r s e l v e s to a s s e r t o u r e x i s t e n c e . W e understand every curve and balance of to the theory that the eves are the windows of the soul. herimpressive presence because we are given such Life drawing no longer dominates the art school curriculum. but the study of a controlled. and in San could easily be transferred into three dimensions. and anatomical and erotic art. in our privileged and comfortable society. Williams were decades ahead of their medical counterparts.
But the meanings of each gesture and the materials and methods by which they Postures and Poses were m a d e contrast greatly. In this highly s o p h i s t i c a t e d a b s t r a c t i o n . By way of contrast. while supporting the weight of their body with the other. Three Guards 1500-20 91/4 x143/8in (234 x 365 mm) RAPHAEL . anatomy. Matisse's b l u e n u d e sings with life and c e l e b r a t i o n . T h e y b o t h raise one arm to cup their head in their hand. RAFFAELLO SANZIO (RAPHAEL) Italian High Renaissance painter: Raphael is best known for his images of the Madonna and Child. Raphael's study of fallen m e n leaves no doubt that they are in anguish. Raphael drew delicate tones of black chalk on tinted paper. In a single drawing we see equally o b s e r v e d studies of f o r e s h o r t e n i n g (see pp. while Matisse used scissors and glue to cut out and paste a flat collage of brilliant color. we see the e s s e n c e of h e r b e a u t y w i t h o u t a single detail. and human defeat. Principal figures m i r r o r e a c h other. so that we read this drawing like a sculptural frieze.110 T H E BODY THESE DISTINCTIVE WORKS show two strikingly different ways of modeling the body on paper.116-17). and studied to learn from the works of Michelangelo and Leonardo besides whom he was soon ranked. Here three male nudes are compressed into very shallow pictorial space. Sculptural frieze This is a preparatory drawing for Raphael's painting of the Resurrection of Christ. She u n f o l d s and s t r e t c h e s shapely limbs. Muscular dramatic postures reflect the influence of Michelangelo and the Renaissance celebration of the idealized male body. He trained under Perugino. altar pieces. and Vatican frescos. filling the page with her presence.
sculptor. as his w o r k matured. devoid of troubling Blue Nude 1 1952 413/4 HENRY MATISSE . freer.which might be. foundamong many other groups of papercut these works as an elderly man confined to his bed or wheelchair... fabric. His calligraphic natural abstractions of form grew brighter.. serenity. teacher and principal exponent o f Fauvism—a movement established in 1905 in which bold color is the most essential element. and Islamic art." of is an art of balance..designer writer. lifelong love of brilliant They celebrate the culmination of spectacular and sometimes drawings. Matisse Soothing influence This drawing expresses the achievement of Matisse's personal aim: "What I dream and depressing subject matter. and more energetic Color and form This collage is one of a series of Blue Nudes.111 HENRY MATISSE French painter: draftsman. printmaker.. a mental soother.like an appeasing influence. his pattern.or like a good armchair in which to rest from physical fatigue. Matisse became an artist after studying law..
112 T H E BODY Choreographs T I M E IS A SIGNIFICANT E L E M E N T i n t h e m a k i n g o f a l l d r a w i n g s . in a perfect e x a m p l e . Opposite. we c o m p a r e a skillful design that absorbed m u c h time in its making with the quickness of an idea marked instantly. In his f a m o u s paintings of social e n g a g e m e n t . scratched in seconds. Beuys's magician. Using the paper to create light is important for beginners to learn. reflected. it is as if the very atoms of air are made visible. Light is given by the paper alone. If Seurat had added white. and muddied the brilliance of the drawing. T h e space around h i m chatters with symbols. form. Here. velvet d a r k n e s s . Seurat engaged in lifelong studies of line. only tones blending into. w h o sits propped in the contradictory darkness of a hot summer's day. like small birds attendant on the meditation. turned gray. and c o m p l e m e n t a r y hues. His drawings are similarly u n i q u e . stands in counterpoise holding a dark globe and his thoughts in m o m e n t a r y balance. Tone and light In this black conte drawing. Seurat evolved a distinctive t e c h n i q u e called p o i n t i l l i s m — i m a g e s literally made from myriad points of color. it would have mixed with unseen black dust. Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 1883-84 91/2 x 121/4 in (241 x 312 m m GEORGES SEURAT . and color His applied theories still influence painters in their manipulation and rendering of local. or abruptly meeting. Below. other tones. Typically. 162) and an eraser to model teeming points of artificial light amid GEORGES SEURAT French painter classically educated in the Ingres school of thought. he used b l a c k c o n t e (see p. agreeing to coalesce and show us the form of a waiting boy. there are no outlines.
gold. Unbroken lines stream from his simultaneously movement.113 JOSEPH BEUYS One of the most influential German artists of the 20th century. and made installations. taught workshops with a cult following. Our focus joins shoulders. free from the constraint of immaculate form opposite) impetus is irrelevant to the and meaning of this work (as we see in Seurat's drawing representation. He was a shaman who believed in intuition and in the investment of healing force. iodine. and that These aspects of the work convey fractured visibility. video art. Perfectly modeled rather conventional for Joseph Focus Beuys's hand moved quickly to draw dotted lines flowing downward on either side of the figure. CHOREOGRAPHS the profound power materials with spiritual or of Free lines This pale pencil drawing is Beuys. This figure is drawn intuitively. and drawings. transience. in different positions. Beuys gave performances. and blood. Many of his other symbolic works on paper have been drawn with materials such as honey. His The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland UNDATED 113/4 J O S E P H BEUYS x81/4in (297 x 210 mm) .
125/8x 9 in (320 x 229 mm) AUGUSTE RODIN Two Women 1911 Embracing ." as seen here. We are involved not as a shabby voyeur but as a bystander engaged through our recognition of shared joy. Opposite. Rodin employed models to move freely or pose together in his studio. flushed skin made ruddy and black with crushed cinders. In both drawings. In Rodins work. They whisper and writhe in a brushed and sultry embrace that devours our watching. Inspired by Michelangelo. Rodin produced portraits and statues of public and literary figures. was perceived as scandalous. its soft.000 drawings shown in rotation at the Musee Rodin. But what is stranger to us now is that they were also outraged by his free use of line. We are asked to gaze u p o n her flesh. the fierceness of the women's kiss is beautifully matched by the tenderness of his line. Paris. Our bodies radiate the passion of our thoughts and so become beacons of our frailty and power. and one of hundreds of rapid studies of nudes. his w o r k is characterized by deliberate un-finish and powerfully modeled emotion. he typically drew them with a few delicate strokes of pencil and brushed watercolor. Delicate strokes This is one of about 7. As here. and went on to inspire generations of artists. Achieving international acclaim in mid-life.114 BODY Passion SUMMONING HUMANITY in a drawing of the nude is a subtle and emotional task. THE AUGUSTE RODIN French Romantic sculptor and prolific draftsman employed as an ornamental mason until the age of 42. His exquisite flow of paint beyond "outlines. Anita Taylor has drawn her protective body hug out of the darkly glistening compression of willow charcoal and the dynamism of her shy but momentous femininity. Free lines Rodin's public audience was understandably shocked by the eroticism of his drawings. sweeping lines— of either purple silk fabric or cool studio air—that imprint and amplify their past and future movements. the women are framed and caressed by long.
intimately reflecting upon the emotions and meaning of nudity. Taylor's immense self-portraits explore the relationship between the artist as maker and the artist as model. London. A thinner sheet might have crumpled and torn under such vigorous force of making. and rework rich depths of light and tone. This order of light below and dark above gives glowing from within. professor and Vice Principal of Wimbledon School of Art. and gaze.I 15 ANITA T A Y L O R Painter. The sturdy surface of the sheet has allowed her to press hard when needed. leaving her lightest marks at the deepest level of the image and applying darker marks above. Luminosity Layered marks flicker likefirelight as they sculpt the woman's body. Charcoal Taylor has drawn freely with charcoal and an eraser on thick. scrutiny. exposure. textured paper. Taylor has drawn. erased and drawn again. the impression of luminosity All and Nothing 1999 67 x447/8in (170 x 1 1 4 cm) ANITA TAYLOR . draftsman.
If your arm is not straight. Imagine Michelangelo's murals in the Sistine Chapel. How to make and apply these is explained below and opposite. Return to this posture every time. But if we could take a scaffold and climb up to the work. or coming forward. and measurements do not have to be carried to the paper and slavishly drawn the same size they appear on your pencil. plummeting. The length of exposed pencil is your measurement. just making them helps you see. Spend time making comparisons before you draw. We also look at another very interesting branch called accelerated (or anamorphic) perspective. helping us to see more clearly. and to draw what we see.limbs happily receding. when beginners prop their board in their lap and look down at too steep an angle. Close one eye. or shrivelling at odd. with dramatic illusions of figures painted in normal proportion. London). unfathomable angles. It is not so hard. 1 Hold your arm straight. which is imperceptible from below. to be translated by mirrors or seen from only one point in the room. rather that what we believe we know from experience. without taking off. Align the top with a point on your subject. There is no need to mark them all down on paper. and a few measured comparisons are key. the skull in Holbein's The Ambassadors (The National Gallery. elbow. 3 Keep your pencil perpendicular Measure and compare at any angle. Rome. It is not complicated. and wrist joints. Lock your shoulder. for example. This is chiefly a correcting device by which figurative painters and sculptors have for centuries countered the effects of our viewing their work from far below or on the curvature of a vault. Move the tip of your thumb down to a second chosen point. MEASURING This is a simple method of making measured comparisons for relating the true size of one part to another This is a tool to assist observation and thinking. "Simple measured comparisons reveal surprising truths about proportion. 2 Hold your pencil upright.116 T H E BODY Measurement and Foreshortening FORESHORTENING IS AN ASPECT of perspective. It can also be a little demon in the life room. we would arrive to find many of the same figures strangely distorted. Accelerated perspective plays a great role in much art. Smaller. elongated as if stretched across the plaster. In the life class it is the mechanism for ensuring that a drawn figure lies correctly in pictorial space . Up close on the scaffold we would witness Michelangelo's subtle application of accelerated perspective." . persistence. patience. more extreme examples have been made for court entertainment. you will make inconsistent and unrelated comparisons. To avoid its effects ensure you always look flat onto the surface of your page.
L o o k at y o u r m o d e l as if he o r she is a flat series o f shapes o n e o n t o p o f a n o t h e r Measure t h e height and w i d t h o f each shape and c o m p a r e it t o its neighbor. h e r p r o p o r t i o n s will appear correct. T h i s is t h e s a m e d r a w i n g p h o t o g r a p h e d f r o m above. W o r k a r o u n d t h e figure. C o m p a r e t h e heights o f t h e nose and eye shapes t o t h o s e o f t h e f o r e a r m . y o u must let go o f w h a t y o u k n o w f r o m e x p e r i e n c e a b o u t t h e relative sizes o f b o d y parts and trust y o u r eyes. adjusting a n o n y m o u s shapes. See h o w d i f f e r e n t t h e relative heights o f t h e s e shapes are f r o m w h a t w e m i g h t e x p e c t in real life. MEASUREMENT AND FORESHORTENING Tilt t h e t o p edge o f this b o o k t o w a r d you and look d o w n o n this figure f r o m a b o v e . a n d thighs. y o u r hand travels f a r t h e r than y o u expect.117 ACCELERATED PERSPECTIVE To discover h o w this w o r k s . belly. FORESHORTENING To f o r e s h o r t e n a figure. Keep t h e b o a r d steady and draw. Lean t h e t o p e d g e t o w a r d y o u and find a p o s i t i o n w h e r e y o u can c o m f o r t a b l y l o o k d o w n t h e p a p e r at an angle o f a b o u t 4 0 degrees. To m a k e f o r m s l o o k c o r r e c t . P r o p o r t i o n s will only l o o k c o r r e c t f r o m t h e angle at w h i c h y o u make t h e drawing. pleasingly f o r e s h o r t e n e d . which feels strange. looking d o w n t h e p a p e r at t h e a n g l e at w h i c h I d r e w . t a p e s o m e p a p e r t o a board. A t a c e r t a i n angle. Stand its b o t t o m edge o n y o u r lap. . W e appear t o be looking d o w n o n a w o m a n s t a n d i n g b e n e a t h us. S o o n t h e b o d y will lie d o w n in space.
Height This pose leans away into space above our eye level. T h i s q u i c k e x p l o r a t o r y line does not perfectly describe shape but expresses a decision about overall flow of form. working from her center to her feet and to her head. Start each new drawing by lightly marking the model's height with a loose line in ten seconds. her center of balance is normally found in a vertical line beneath her head. propelling you to make immediate assessments and trust them. Avoid drawing up one side and down the other. THE SEQUENCE OF POSES H e r e the model was asked to move every t w o minutes. balance. imagine holding up a plumb line. I used a sharp H B pencil and began each drawing by marking her outline. and work over t h e m with further o b s e r v a t i o n s . and slightly enlarge her legs and feet. work back and forth across the body. To see this. Be bold and dive into your drawing with c o n f i d e n c e . Balance When a model stands upright on both feet. and stance before honing her balance and expression. feeling. To draw this effect. and energy. Layered lines give d e p t h . Outline To outline a figure. because it results in two unrelated sides drifting apart. height. Leave first thoughts in place. and height.118 BODY Quick Poses DRAWING QUICK POSES l o c k s y o u r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n t o what is most essential. make the upper body smaller give your model a high waist. .
and this should be avoided Twist QUICK POSES A model standing on one leg usually drops the opposite hip. This drawing shows how different observations be overlaid to bring a drawing alive. . The tilt of the pelvis is then counter balanced by the model's shoulders tilting the other way (as seen here). Tilt Movement Here.119 The twist of a model is most easily and expressively captured if it is exaggerated. Most of us have a tendency to over-straighten the drawn figure. the activity of circular lines and the repetition of limbs suggest movement.
A mirror increases your range of views. and they need not be daunting to draw. 2 Build your drawing gradually from light to dark. or those of a friend. Practice by drawing your own hands and feet. These planes. feet. Focus instead on how planes change direction across the knuckles from one side of the hand or foot to the other. This exercise is useful when struggling with proportion. Begin by drawing lines to encompass the whole hand. it is important to leave aside all details of the fingers and toes. and a gooseneck lamp casts shadows that clarify planes and depths GESTURES OF THE HAND Curled Fingers 1 Open Palm Start honing the shapes of the dominant planes. but regard these practice studies as ongoing processes of thought and observatio Add details such as nails last if you wish. and ignore all details. It also helps the beginner to progress from drawing outlines to drawing confidently across the surface of the whole form.120 BODY Hands and Feet THERE ARE MANY different ways of approaching h a n d s and THE of form. Group the fingers together as one mass. general to specific. Then subdivide each shape so that you w o r k from large to small. especially the lengthwise divisions between them. Keep lines open to change and take measurements if they help. Do not separate them yet. express structure and gesture far more successfully and easily than ten worried outlines wandering up and down between the fingers and toes. swiftly marking its essential gesture. W h e n starting. Don't worry about achieving perfect solutions. 3 . drawn in relation to each other. starting with the largest. Draw large shapes and their orientation.
these are what give a drawing its tangible structure. Leave aside all detail. Try t o express the whole foot and t o encapsulate its entire shape and direction in a few marks. depth. flattened planes. t o remove t o o many early lines. however. Nowimagineyou are carving the foot insidethepaper. as if with a chisel. Look for key angles without becoming distracted by detail.as though out o f wood. and rapid. 2 3 Use an eraser t o refine decisions o r t o suggest areas o f light. It can be a mistake.121 HANDS AND FEET MOVEMENTS OF THE FOOT Flat Stance Raised Heel Instep 1 Let your first marks be light. . loose. Hew it roughly in broad. and spontaneity. and don't worry about accuracy t o begin with.
204-05. Compare its nature in close-up to that of willow charcoal used on pp. I also used white ink with a steel dip pen." .Charcoal Hands T H E S E DRAWINGS ARE MADE in compressed charcoal. The white lines demonstrate what is often called "bracelet shading. Opposite.
and posture of the model.HERE TRACES OF RAPID initial lines are still seen within and outside each body. Phrasing Contours . 118-19). I make these lines in the first five to ten seconds of a drawing to locate the presence. length. before honing his or her shape (see pp.
I draw in museums in support of written research and as an artist seeking answers to questions about the practicalities of image making. Drawing work by another artist enables you to discover and understand the inventive hand in their composition.The Visual Detective DRAWING FROM MASTERWORKS was once a staple component of an artist's education. . characters. perspectives. Forms. feeling them through the attentive movements of your own hand. It is now viewed with some skepticism and often seen as academic. and narrative pulse become vivid when you realize them in the middle of your study.
there is a unique museum of 18th-century anatomical waxes. each modeled from dissection. 126-27. Life-size women wearing wigs recline on beds of embroidered silk in cabinets of mahogany and Venetian glass This is a detail of a compressed charcoal drawing measuring 14 x 10 ft (4. Florence.3 x 3 m) made in response to La Specola. These almost life-size figures were composed from my imagination and achieved with the help af studies discussed on pp. Walls are lined with hundreds of faintly animated body parts.La Specola At17V i a Romana. .
single or of groups. Rembrandt's famous multitude of self-portraits. or whose eyes can seem to follow us around the room Portraiture is a constant. character. abstract or figurative. In this chapter. their stance. 1790-92 4 x 3 in ( 1 0 2 x 7 6 m m ) F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A and memorize the basic structure that we all share. in a miniature self-portrait magnified opposite. and it is very rewarding. Portraits can be highly or loosely detailed. having been documented and preserved. historical. usually strangers from past times. We are also reassured by keeping records of ourselves. you can capture the subtlety. and satirical or metaphorical. Goya's w o r k s include many royal and society p o r t r a i t s . and social and political commentaries. Our homes are filled with images of our loved ones and of those in our families who have gone before. and shoulders. became more poignant as he progressed. and lucrative genre for artists. The truth is that we all like looking at faces and observing the billions of variations that make us individuals. or a glimpse of him is caught in a photograph used as a prop. painters have dropped discreet records of themselves into commissioned narratives so that they can remain a face in the crowd.139). and in a few scrolling rafts of pen lines and stubbled dots. live. We can mold and animate qualities of expression out of objects and fragments of disassociated things—for example. a single line can deliver an entire expression. his changes in pressure and Hitchcock length o f line. For centuries. Equally. and secular narratives. W h e n drawing a person. Once you understand Self-Portrait in a Cocked Hat c. Movie director Alfred similarly signed his films by playing a fleeting role: he walks through an extra. Past rulers sent painters across continents to bring back a likeness in advance of a prospective royal marriage. religious. look directly at us. we use the delicate medium of silver point to look at foundation structures of the head. or past us. Beginners often draw themselves as a way of establishing their practice. buttons. and expression of the individual. Goya. neck. It also reminds us o f b o t h t h e intimacy and a scene as scrutiny o f an honest portrait. gathered all that he knew FRANCISCO DE GOYA V i s i o n a r y Spanish painter.Portraiture IN P O R T R A I T U R E W E MEET PEOPLE. and a handprint (see p. . draftsman. This enlargement o f his miniature p o r t r a i treveals t h e s p e e d and agility o f his p e n and about himself. is here to both meet and look through us. To create a face is to see and interpret the essence of an identity. bells. Self-portraiture gives every artist a constant. throat. Halls and palaces are filled with pictures of the mighty and significant. who. and their posture can be changed with just one line. compliant subject to scrutinize. made as he passed through the ages of man. the meaning of their face. Man Ray's self-portrait of scored lines. and p r i n t m a k e r . The returning image was of crucial consideration in any proposal.
they serve as a great lesson that it is not always necessary to add tone to your drawing. caught in her last moments of youth. we can enjoy and learn from them. It is the portrait of a countrywoman. and pressure as it conducts our eye through the image. How could the addition of shadows have enhanced this image? Few strokes The simplicity of Picasso's line is breathtaking. Through exhibitions and copies in books. He makes his flair and skill look easy. For the beginner. Without faltering. PABLO PICASSO Spanish Cubist painter (see also p. While with longer consideration. There is a common misunderstanding that a drawing with only a few lines is both less finished and easier to make than a drawing with more. stealthily using his chalk to find contours and mass.132 PORTRAITURE Poise THE BALANCE BETWEEN a mark and a blank space is often a tantalizing form of perfection. whisking a timeless girl onto the page. We can actually count that he struck the paper 40 times. breadth. The Tightness of a line is felt in its speed. Picasso has left to posterity many hundreds of magnificent line drawings.30). hand to capture something well in only Frangoise au Bandeau 1946 660 x 505 mm (26 x197/8in) PABLO PICASSO . The truth is often the opposite. We can read so much about them by studying their gaze. It takes a truly accomplished a few strokes. Picasso strikes and scrolls his pencil. Here the grace and beauty of two young women are held forever. Her face is drawn tenderly and with a luminous glow. length. The aesthetic sense of a line being just right can make a drawing sing. teetering on the brink of older age. Holbein maps the still landscape of Dorothea's body in questioning marks. adding smudges of tone for weight and solidity. one eye already cast askew into the autumn of her life.
Holbein has cropped and pinned his subject within the four outermost lines of the image—the edges of the page. The peak of her cap clips the uppermost edge. Her folded forearms support and frame her weight above. Cropping This regal composition fits its paper perfectly. In addition t o his numerous exquisite portraits in oil. and designer f r o m Basel. he designed c o u r t costumes. Blended colors In this portrait drawn with colored chalks on slightly textured paper. which.133 HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER German p o r t r a i t painter draftsman. and produced numerous society portraits such as this one here. He outlined her nose but not her upper lip. Holbein unified the woman with her background by gently blending colors from her clothes and face into the atmosphere around her. gently flushed. Holbein was employed toward the end of his life by King Henry VIII of England. Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 1516 51/8 x121/4in (385 x 310 m m ) HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER . presses against the binding across her face. and its downward slope crowns the diagonal of the composition. made a popular series o f w o o d c u t prints titled The Dance of Death.
VICTOR NEWSOME British sculptor painter and draftsman. Durelli has m a d e a few m i n o r mistakes. the contours of a grid. the face is one of the hardest parts to dissect. London. continues to exhibit regularly. blood vessels. but they are irrelevant here. dark lines made with a pencil appear against smooth. dark tones of graphite blended into the paper. Psychological drama is contained behind a grid. perhaps applied using a tortillon. and unpleasant to see. and glands also complicate form. Highlights of white gouache were dry Profile Head late in the making. Contrasts Sharp. . Nerves. while white painted flecks and wisps suggest electrical illumination. confusing. N e w s o m e ' s eerily shadowed form is smooth and bears a linear grain evocative of w o o d . or defined by.134 PORTRAITURE Anatomies These highly finished drawings express the emotional power and physicality of the head and neck. This is a m a r v e l o u s interpretation of the truth. distorted. Anatomically. its highly clarified detail claiming to be d r a w n from observation. It floats in space. The real dissection w o u l d have been far more c o m p l e x . taught at numerous British art schools from 1962-77. using a fine and relatively 1982 13 x 181/8 in (328 x 460 mm) VICTOR NEWSOME brush. Delicate muscles are integrated with the skin and fat that is to be r e m o v e d . This is one of a number of similar disembodied female heads seen behind. and has works in major collections including the Tate Gallery. Newsome was awarded the Prix de Rome in 1960. The style of Durelli's d r a w i n g opposite sings with the confidence of truth and precision. solid above and almost hollow below. In fact.
Stylized parallel lines are reminiscent of engravings.135 ANATOMIES ANTONIO DURELLI Linear perfection This is a red chalk drawing of extraordinary accomplishment. and it is likely that this drawing was intended for reproduction as a print. Red Chalk the Muscles 1837 173/8 x 145/8 in ( 4 4 0 x 3 7 2 m m ) ANTONIO DURELLI and Pencil Drawing and of Neck of the Head Little is k n o w n o f this M i l a n e s e p a i n t e r a n d engraver w h o c a m e from a family o f artists. pull their points o f attachment t o w a r d each other . Durelli's experience as an engraver is reflected in his stylized drawing o f muscle fibers. It is hard to think of a more difficult medium with which to achieve such linear perfection. Pencil numbers refer to the list of muscles written beneath. which. w h e n contracted.
each portrait is inscribed onto the page. and heads. Portrait de Marie-Laure de Noailles c. ALBERTO GIACOMETTI Swiss sculptor. Without paint and with very little tone. Both works demonstrate how simple lines can be made complex by being intense. Energy This is a portrait of a woman drawn with black crayon on a plain page of a book Lines search for the essence of form. We are brought intimately close to this man gazing up to heaven. There is a film of Giacometti drawing. 1948 77/8 x 6 in (200 x 150 mm) ALBERTO GIACOMETTI . and poet After studying in Geneva and Italy. necks. painter draftsman. Giacometti settled in Paris. Flesh is built and personality carved simultaneously.136 PORTRAITURE THESE ARE DRAWINGS of shoulders. cutting and carving the paper with matted and spiraling restless energy. and with staccato flinches his hyperactive eye moves from paper to model. They confuse our perception of scale by being intimately fragile and at the same time far removed. Agitated marks make patches of tone that cut away the space around the character. close enough to touch his hair and feel his breath. Similar movements sculpted the head below into its page. Then. he drew over the whole image at once. while his hand stabs and thrusts Revelations like a conductors baton. The camera watches him at work. Opposite. each locked into a visionary gaze. with speed and urgency. Bellini gently conjures the features of his saint with soft marks that tease his presence out of shadows into the light. They show us clearly the bones of drawing. as if seen from a distance. which are characteristically elongated. He is best known for his bronze sculptures of human form. Speed Giacometti probably began with an oval shape placed in relation to the proportion of the page.
Bellini s t u d i e d u n d e r his f a t h e r J a c o p o . Mantegna. a n d his w o r k is d i s t i n c t i v e l y calm. a n d c o n t e m p l a t i v e . Head and Shoulders of a Man 73/8 x 21/4 in ( 1 8 6 x 5 8 UNDATED GIOVANNI BELLINI . H e p r e f e r r e d religious t o classical t h e m e s . Sometimes different narrative same character was reused in compositions. transferring which were made in the process of the saint to his final place in the composition of a painting (see Glossary pp. lyrical. Transfer This delicate humorous chalk a drawing is a cartoon—not image but a type of template used to plan the composition of a larger work Look closely and you will see rows of tiny dots along every significant line in the picture.5 9 ) . a n d b r o t h e r in-law.25 6 .G I O V A N N I BELLINI A prominent member of a large family o f V e n e t i a n painters. These are pinholes. H e t a u g h t G i o r g i o n e Barbarelli and Titian. Character This is one of many cartoons produced by Bellini the and his family.
and confrontations with. Islands of graphic marks. The artist has finished his portrait with the signature of his hand smacked in the middle like a kiss: a declaration of existence as old as man's first drawing. and buttons rings with surrealist wit and agile improvisation. drawn. their most immediate and best-known subject: themselves. The incandescent New York painter Jean Michel Basquiat pictured himself here in naked silhouette. bells. Man Ray's playful silk-screen assembly of color blocks. Later Basquiat sold drawings on T-shirts. The figure's position is unequivocal and defiant while around him is in a state Without the essential of cultural and figure we would elegant belookingat a sophisticated painting of signs. and everything flux. Al Diaz. It is an opportunity to look deep without the infringement of courtesies owed to a commissioning sitter. and attitudes. and indulgence.221). humor. scrolls. spear-brandishing warrior. a tribal. JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT Short-lived American painter and graffiti artist who began his blazing nine-year career drawing on lower Manhattan subway trains with a friend. scratched lines. made with great energy. postcards. and sheet metal before being snapped up by the New York contemporary art scene. Self Portrait 1982 9 4 x 7 6 in (239 x 193 cm) JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT . float and shimmer in the shallow pictorial space. In 1986 he traveled to Africa and showed his work in Abidjan on the Ivory Coast He also exhibited in Germany and France. It is an image of confrontation—the ever-controversial young artist roars at us from his abstract city-scape. scratched into its surface. marks.138 PORTRAITURE THE MIRROR OF SELF-PORTRAITURE offers artists infinite reflections of. signing their work SAMO. skull- Self-Portraits headed. political outcry. It has proved to be a subject of piercing scrutiny. similar to work by Cy Twombly (see p. Signs and symbols with symbols This painting shudders that ore written.
while a squeegee was used to drag thick lilac-brown ink across the silk pushing it though exposed areas onto the paper below. During the 1920's and 30s. last of all. Autoportrait 1916 195/8 MAN RAY . Man Ray probably used his own hand. caked in thick printing ink or paint.139 MAN RAY American surrealist photographer. The handprint appears to be made directly. Man Ray lived and worked in Paris. They experimented with camera-free photography working directly onto photographic paper Silk and ink This is a silkscreen print made through the following process: the paper was laid on a flat surface and a frame stretched with fine silk was placed on top. where he collaborated with the artist Laslo MoholyNagy. printmaker and cofounder of the New York Dada movement. painter. They suggest speed and make the picture look immediate and spontaneous. The first part of the stenciled image was already marked on the silk The screen and paper were then held tightly together. Frame White lines are seemingly (though not actually) scratched through ink to frame this face. Black ink was printed next and then white.
For i m p o r t a n t a d v i c e o n p r e p a r a t i o n a n d use. b u t d o n ' t w o r r y . I t is a v a i l a b l e f r o m all a r t s h o p s . S i l v e r is b e s t . Be swift and firm. If w o r k i n g o n an emulsion-painted wall. S O F T F U L L B R U S H : W h e n laying a w a s h . s e e p . 144-45. it leaves a deposit. or ring. b e f o r e priming stretched paper. 2 . key. SILVER P O I N T W I R E H O L D E R : T h e s e c a n b e p u r c h a s e d a n d t e n d t o b e heavy. choose a silver object. copper. c h o o s e a s o f t full b r u s h t h a t c a n c a r r y p l e n t y o f l i q u i d . To begin. 156). and is therefore useful w h e n using w a t e r c o l o r as well as silver point. purchase silver wire. Lightly s p o n g e o f f t h e excess. illuminators of medieval m a n u s c r i p t s . T h e p a p e r will l o o k b u c k l e d . artists mixed white lead. an exciting indication of how large-scale drawings could be made on a wall. and t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h strips a b o v e and b e l o w . Historically. I m a k e m y o w n f r o m o l d dip pens. 3 . W e t o n e length o f g u m .Tear o f f f o u r lengths o f b r o w n p a p e r g u m tape. and make o r buy a holder. Pages 142 to 147 are illustrated in silver point and techniques are explained on pp. Find a n i t e m t h a t y o u can h o l d a n d draw with comfortably. laid on paper. Gesso o r m a t t e m u l s i o n c a n a l s o b e u s e d . Note h o w domestic paintwork marks with a coin. who used it to outline initials and border characters before painting. 1. Z I N C W H I T E G O U A C H E : Dilute with w a t e r A d d c o l o r i f r e q u i r e d (as opposite) 4 . MATERIALS 1 Find a clean sponge and b o w l o r d e e p t r a y a n d fill it w i t h w a t e r W e t t h e p a p e r evenly in t h e t r a y o r o n t h e b o a r d . and gold have also been used. The most c o m m o n metal has always been silver—hence the term "silver point. M E T A L OBJECTS: All metal objects m a r k a p r e p a r e d surface." Lead. E m p t y mechanical pencils designed f o r t h i c k leads ( s e e p.54-55). I combined silver point with painted white gouache on a pink ground. Metal point is simply a strip of metal bound in a holder. s o m e m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n o t h e r s . 1 4 4 . SILVER W I R E : Purchase different gauge lengths f r o m a traditional a r t supplier o r jeweler. M a k e s u r e i t is c o m p l e t e l y clean t o avoid u n w a n t e d streaks. Drawn across a prepared surface. Lay a clean d r a w i n g b o a r d o n a flat surface. 5. o n e t o fit each side o f t h e b o a r d — t h e s e will make t h e glued f r a m e t h a t holds y o u r p a p e r in place. and alloys work on matt emulsion.s t r i p a n d use i t t o fix o n e side o f t h e p a p e r t o t h e b o a r d . Stretched paper remains taut as a d r u m . Metal point does not work on ordinary paper. Straighten the w o r s t buckles. you will need t o stretch paper and lay a wash (see right and opposite). platinum. bone.54) can also b e used. Numerous early European artists also enjoyed its fine qualities (see p. p a r c h m e n t .140 PORTRAITURE Silver P o i n t SILVER OR METAL POINT STRETCHING PAPER A sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has been made w e t with the strokes o f a paintbrush will buckle d u e t o its uneven expansion. was familiar to or eggshells with animal glue. w h i t e d r a w i n g paper) and cut it t o fit y o u r d r a w i n g b o a r d w i t h a generous b o r d e r a r o u n d its edges. Opposite. the surface must be primed with a ground such as gouache. This browns with age unless sealed by fixative (see pp. Take a sheet o f any t y p e o f p a p e r (for e x a m p l e . or wood. 2. W e t a n d fix a s e c o n d strip t o t h e o p p o s i t e side. This is called a three-tone drawing. which quickly oxidizes into a gray line.
Dry thoroughly before laying a wash. T h r e e . any extra will keep. It will slowly straighten and become taut. Leave the wash to dry thoroughly before you begin to draw.141 SILVER POINT 3 Leave the paper to dry flat. I used a powder pigment called Caput Mortuum. Keep adding smooth. Dip a soft.t o n e silver point drawing of a skull . Reload the brush and add a second line overlapping it beneath. is necessary to lay a wash o Three-tone When coloring ground. Beware of the tape's coming loose at any point while drying. Keep testing on spare paper. v e r y little at a time. Here. LAYING A WASH It your stretched paper so as to prime it for silver point. as the paper will be ruined by a raised ridge. Prop up your board of dry. Runs blend into each other evenly. Make enough to cover your paper. slowly add powder pigment or gouache from a tube. full brush into the gouache and start in the top left corner. Make an even line across to the right. Mix a very wet but not weak solution of gouache in a jar with a lid (add pigment at this stage for a three-tone drawing). leaving a smooth surface. and let tests dry before deciding to change the mixture. stretched paper at a 45-degree angle. The next step will make a small mess. overlapping lines until you reach the bottom. so put newspaper under the lower edge.
Head and Neck
THE HEAD AND NECK are best conceived as one unit arranged in four parts: cranium, face, neck, and throat. Each is of equal importance. The cranium is essentially egg-shaped and pivots on the first vertebra. The face is suspended beneath, like a softly curved triangle. The n e c k — a powerful, shapely column of layered muscles rigged to vertebrae—adjusts and holds the angle and expression of the head. The throat is delicate, hard, and lumpy to the touch, formed of cartilaginous rings, glands, thin muscles, and looser skin. Framing the throat, two columnar neck muscles (sternomastoids) project the head forward and also turn it to the opposite side.
This is a simple shorthand diagram representing the cranium, face, neck, and throat. It can be learned and visualized in different positions very easily, giving the novice a firm footing on which to stand and develop their drawings of the head and neck.
Cranium Begin with an egg shape. Tilt it on the paper to change the position of the head.
Face Draw a rounded triangular shape below the forward point of the egg to represent the face.
Neck This shape represents the trapezius; the largest surface muscle of the neck and shoulders.
Throat A triangular shape represents the throat. (The nose makes the diagram clearer)
After copying the diagram above, animate it. Practice drawing the cranium at different angles, add the face beneath, then the neck, shoulders, and throat. Shape your diagrams so they are more lifelike, but avoid adding detailed features too soon.
143 These three drawings demonstrate (from left to right) the following: why the cranium may be considered egg-shaped; now the face can be seen as a curved triangle suspended beneath and where the division lies between the two; and the form of sternomastoid muscles that frame thethroatsodistinctlywhen the head is turned and inclined forward.
The skull and the frame of the throat
HEAD AND NECK
Bones of the cranium are locked together by jagged joints. Sinuses in the frontal (forehead) bone between and beneath the eyebrows are larger in men, making their brows pronounced and often ridged compared to those of women.
Bones of the face house our sight, smell, taste, The skull pivots on the first vertebra or "atlas," and speech. Cartilage extending from nasal bones after the Greek god condemned to carry the shapesthenose.Pads of fat resting on the base of Earth. The jaw hinges in front of the ears. Behind, eacheyesocket support the eyeballs in position. If bony ridges give anchor to the sternomastoid thefatisreducedby old age, eyes look sunken. muscles rising from the breast- and collarbones.
Three useful generalizations
General rules about the relative positions of body parts can hinder artists as much as help them, since they are often based on classical ideals rather than thediversityoflife.However,some generalizations can help as a rough guide to start with, so long as good observation takes over as soon as possible.
In general, when the face is relaxed (not smiling or frowning), the corners of the mouth are found directly beneath the pupils of the eyes. Vertical lines can be drawn down from the pupils to meet the corners of the mouth.
The height of a young adult's ear is often the same as their nose and found on the same level. There is no general rule for growing children, and remember that ears grow again in old age, which is most obvious in men.
The height of the face is about the length of the handspan and the eye is normally halfway down the total height of the head. A common error is to draw the eyes too high up on the face.
T H E DELICACY OF SILVER POINT
(see pp. 140-41) is perfect for
such as a beach pebble. Here, I stretched drawing paper and laid a wash of white gouache (see pp.140-41). As you can see, the line and tone of silver point varies with pressure, but only slightly. Too much pressure cuts the ground. Silver point erases, but so does ground. Erased ground can be repaired gently with extra gouache. You can also use gouache to paint over mistakes and make corrections.
small, detailed drawings. The drawings below and opposite show useful observations of the head and neck, which are explained in the captions below. Each drawing was made with a silver wire held in a large-gauge mechanical pencil. Newly clipped wires are sharp and cut rather than draw. Before use, they need to be rubbed and smoothed on a stone
Here I imagined placing my silver point wire against the skin of each head and neck and, working in parallel bands from the crown downward, I traced the undulation of surfaces. Linear bands imagined around the head and neck can help you t o clearly see the tilt of the head and relative levels of the features. Ask a friend t o model for you and try this exercise life-size using a pencil and eraser
Seeing that the face is never flat
Drawings below left and center are summaries of the generalizations given on p.143. Far right is an image to remind us that the face is never flat. It slopes back to varying degrees among individuals, from the tip of the nose t o the ears. For example, note that the innermost corners of the eyes are farther forward in space than the outermost corners.
General measurements, side
General measurements, front
View from above
Male and female head and neck
Men's necks a r e g e n e r a l l y s h o r t e r a n d t h i c k e r t h a n w o m e n ' s b e c a u s e t h e angles a n d levels o f c e r t a i n b o n e s a r e d i f f e r e n t b e t w e e n t h e sexes ( i n d i c a t e d h e r e b y d o t t e d lines) a n d m e n are n o r m a l l y m o r e muscular. T h e male t h y r o i d cartilage ( A d a m ' s apple) is larger a n d m o r e visible than t h e f e m a l e . L a r g e r f e m a l e t h y r o i d glands also s o f t e n t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e t h r o a t .
The largest m u s c l e o f t h e s h o u l d e r s a n d n e c k is called the trapezius. A r r a n g e d on e i t h e r side o f t h e spine, it shapes t h e u p p e r back and neck above the s h o u l d e r blades. C o n t r a c t i n g in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h d e e p e r and surrounding muscles, it raises and l o w e r s t h e shoulders a n d d r a w s t h e h e a d backtoeitherside.
USING A SHARP 3 B PENCIL, I drew this head quickly from imagination, evolving its character and expression from the scheme of four parts: cranium, face, neck, a n d throat (see p. 142). Here, five steps show you how to practice doing the same. This approach can be used to draw from imagination or from life. Keep your wrist loose and hold your pencil away from its point (see pp.22-23). Build the layers of your drawing from pale to dark, a n d from general balance a n d form to specific detail. Remember that successful drawings are built on foundations of "seeing the whole," then dividing the whole into smaller parts, with details brought in last of all. Phrased tonal marks modeling this girls skin and hair follow the technique demonstrated by Goya in his self-portrait on p. 130. Turn to Goya's drawing and study how, in a circle beginning across his hat, moving down his hair, and around his coat, he flows lines over surfaces to describe their contour. As you build from steps 1 to 5, bring phrased groups of lines across the surfaces of your form, using their directions to capture the expression of the head and neck. If unsure, copy my steps until you gain the confidence to make your own decisions.
This drawing is the final stage of the four steps opposite. Here, I have enlarged the eye, and moved it back into the head by trimming the length of the upper lid and adding a more pronounced lower lid. It is important to set eyes far enough back from the relatively prominent nose; too close to it and the face flattens. Hair swept back and extended behind the cranium balances the regal pose. Lines shaping the hair echo those marking the cranium in step 1. Here, the lower part of step 1 comes through as wisps of hair across her face and ear
Portrait of a Young Girl
I modeled the outline of the character I imagined light shining from above and in front and adjusted the pressure of lines to reflect this. Moving from the back of the neck. The eye announces the nature and expression of the emerging person.147 Building up the portrait DRAWING PORTRAITS 1 Gently spin pale lines in a softly drawn shape representing the cranium. so it is important to the life of the image that while controlled. neck. and throat. 4 . over the cranium. too soon. they are also still sweeping and confident. 3 Place the eye beneath the cranium. Here. I used light to describe the upper lid first with a shadow beneath for the lower lid and open eye. down the face to the throat. Keep your first lines light.Theangle at which you draw this shape of the paper will determine the angle of the finished head. The nose and ear begin to shape the head. 2 Rapidly add shorthand shapes to represent the face. First lines will remain visible in the final drawing. avoid drawing too dark.
muscular tension. be aware of the subtle differences in skin surface. . the texture of hair. empathize. and gravity.T o DRAW PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGES. Above all. a n d t h o s e w h o a r e Generations asleep (see overleaf).
Fast lines carve out the features of Goya's soup-slurping hag. Madrid. I used the nib upside down to gain needle-sharp precision.Castings DRAWING IN THE PRADO MUSEUM. Van Dyke's noble cast of characters was modeled more finely. . with a steel dip pen and acrylic ink. seeking the dominant contours of each individual expression.
a n d w e will c o l l e c t patterns. P o p u l a r f a s h i o n d e s i g n e x p l o d e d w i t h the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n . Like it or not. of Scheherazade. and even invisible by the w a y w e dress. personality. g l o s s y folds. known as Leon Bakst. Petersburg and later exiled designers' ideas and are surprised and delighted b y their continual f l o w of inspiration. articulate a d a n g e r o u s satirical j o k e . e m u l a t e textures. and gouache. dancer leaps through swaths of golden cloth. and i n d e e d image b e c a m e the property also of the industrial classes. it is the public sign by w h i c h w e are j u d g e d . arichand unusual combination of pencil. while court p a i n t e r s — M i c h e l a n g e l o and Holbein. was a Belarussian A r t Deco theater fantasies and desires to immediately possess a version of the same. caricatured p l u m e s . and s y m b o l s that lets m e n and w o m e n in all countries and areas have w o r k i n g access to the latest fashions. w h i c h in turn feed c o n s u m e r Lev. or calm u s w i t h chic. Previously. fulfilling lavish and spectacular briefs. T h e e n t o u r a g e of the theatrical stage o f t e n l e a d s the c a t w a l k . he and cofounder Serge Diaghilev took Paris by eac storm in 1910 with their production h year in the industrial f r e n z y of creating o u r image and aspirations. and atmosphere. a n d s u b t l e t o n e s . shapes. gesture. w a r m t h . st 111/4 x 81/2 in (285 x 220 mm) u d i e d L E O NB A K S T and explore the characterization of fabric t h r o u g h m o v e m e n t . a n d p r o f e s s i o n — b e g a n life as a d r a w i n g . In this c h a p t e r w e see h o w c l o t h i n g c a n s e e m to p o s s e s s the w e i g h t and m o n u m e n t a l i t y of stone. T h e p a p e r p a t t e r n is p e r h a p s the m o s t w i d e l y k n o w n of c o s t u m e d r a w i n g s : a formalized plan of lines.Costume W E MAKE OURSELVES EXOTIC. S t r u c t u r e is t h o u g h the i n v e n t i o n of shoes. D e s i g n e r s create m a s t e r p i e c e s of haute couture LEON BAKST for H o l l y w o o d stars. Cities c h a n g e d all. c o s t u m e o f f e r s a r i c h v o c a b u l a r y of t e x t u r e s a n d c o l o r . a n d c o u r t i e r tailors f o l l o w e d suit. Bakst's designs and costumes immediately To the fine artist. . Practical classes Bacchante 1911 l o o k at r a n g e s of c o l o r e d m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d i n g p a s t e l s a n d felt-tip p e n s . and intent. woman was drawn by Bakst one year later for the ballet Narcisse. theb u t b y the w a y it s p e a k s w i t h its flying.This voluptuous above all a physical p u p p e t w i t h w h i c h to animate character and narrate personality. o n l y the w e a l t h y c o u l d afford to h a v e c o s t u m e s specially m a d e . In psychology. for e x a m p l e — d e s i g n e d the w a r d r o b e s of p o p e s a n d k i n g s . toParis. T h e rural masses w o r e h o m e s p u n simplicity. so that c h o i c e . W e dress ourselves and costume designer trained in in St. and be so expressive of temperament that it overtakes the need for an o c c u p y i n g h u m a n form. intriguing. outrageous. charcoal. Designers all over the w o r l d c o n t i n u a l l y p e n and b r u s h lines to lash us w i t h color. cool.As artistic director of the It is s h o c k i n g to t h i n k h o w m a n y m i l l i o n s of d r a w i n g s m u s t be m a d e a n d d i s c a r d e d Ballet Russe. and everything w e h a v e c h o s e n for o u r w a r d r o b e s — r e f l e c t o r s of o u r taste. b u t influenced Parisian fashion and interiordecor. c u l t u r e . Samoylovich Rosenberg. Artists do this not so m u c h b y the style of a figure's garment. variety. or b u l g e s . c r u m p l e s . and e x u b e r a n c e .
swirling printed fabrics. Van Eyck's highly polished w o r k is c e l e b r a t e d f o r its disguised symbolism.140-41). Opposite. Keisai Eisen's intense. Sculpted one. and the kneeling abbot is a ghost by comparison. the vaulted stone roof echoes and crowns the moment. However. Their uninterrupted emphasis is entirely vertical. Vertical lines The highly controlled lines of this drawing cascade from top to bottom of the image. and snakelike marks. resonate with their wearers startled expression. the Madonna and her architecture are both dressed in the same manner. bands around the columns. and implied striation in the stone of the architecture. He has layered these slowly and carefully so as not to cut through the ground and produce a white mark just where he intended a dark one. Church and deities are drawn as JAN VAN EYCK Flemish oil p a i n t e r f r o m L i m b o u r g . Delicate marks Silver (or metal) point is the most delicate of traditional drawing media (see pp. Maelbeke I44I Madonna 11 x 7 in (278 x 180 m m ) JAN V A N EYCK . dragons. The quiet stillness of this image is achieved by a masterly economy of stylized line. Marble gown We will never know if Van Eyck considered this drawing unfinished or intended the kneeling abbot to remain transient and ghostly. her marble garment holds u p the infant Christ in a fountain of compressed line. Her gown is carved and polished as if made from marble. it is only possible to create very thin. folds and patterns of material speak more resolutely of their wearers than any small glimpses of body we can see. H e m e t i c u l o u s l y a r r a n g e d subjects t o c o n v e y d e e p e r meaning. In Van Eyck's drawing below. best k n o w n f o r his G h e n t altarpiece ( 1 4 3 2 ) a n d m a r r i a g e p o r t r a i t o f Giovanni A r n o l f i n i and his w i f e (1434). the carefully composed outline of his cloak shows us how the artist would have also begun his immaculate rendering of the Virgin's clothes. with their jagged edges. Short and subtle horizontal punctuations are only given in the background by sections of floor. Flaxmans sleeper—perhaps a pilgrim or a soldier resting between campaigns—has wedged himself into the cleft of some great building to grab a moment of peace. Below this.156 COSTUME Cloth and Drapery EACH OF THESE FIGURES is ninety percent cloth. delicate lines. Above them. With a stylus such as Van Eyck used here.
he also co-edited and expanded the Ukiyo-e Ruiko (History of Prints of the Floating World). and teacher Distinctive linear illustrations for the works of Homer. each delivering a different part and color of the design. and Man Lying Down in a Cloak I 787-94 21/4 JOHN FLAXMAN x 41/8 in (57 x 105 mm) . designer. Parts of the image to be left unprinted are gouged out with a metal tool. Aeschylus earned Flaxman an international reputation. Respected for his sumptuous images of geisha and editions of erotic prints. the cloak sliding to the ground. Images are drawn onto smooth.157 KEISAI EISEN Japanese draftsman. one over the other. Koimurasaki of Tama-ya 1810-50 15 x101/4in (381 x 260 mm) KEISAI EISEN The Courtesan JOHN F L A X M A N English late 18th-century neoclassical sculptor. This complex numerous blocks prepared image and may have been made with printed separately. and the feet notched against the pillar tell us that A lines holds him into the cleft. Position In this pen and ink drawing. an 18th-19th century document on the lives of the ukiyo-e artists. which are sometimes also cut into pieces like a jigsaw puzzle. Remaining raised areas of wood are rolled with colored inks. stone wall of downward-stroked this sleeper's position is momentary. flat sheets of wood. writer and printmaker Keisai Eisen took his name from the masters Kano Hakkeisai and Kikugawa Eizan. Dante. the angle of the head. CLOTH AND DRAPERY Relief printing This is a woodblock print made by a relief process. draftsman. The inked block is laid face-down on damp paper and pressed to make the print.
he c o o l e d and redefined his style. Leg sections in both support the figure without taking our attention away from the main garment above. t h r o u g h n u m e r o u s p o r t r a i t and C h u r c h commissions. Its color is also reflected in the metal. cinema.158 COSTUME Character Costumes an extreme form of the clothed figure. a n d w a s e m p l o y e d as c o u r t painter t o King Charles I. A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE Flemish painter and draftsman. a scurrilous cartoon by a courtier of Queen Elizabeth I. Its warm surface flows in contrast to the stiff metal armor. cartoon. It is presumed Her Royal Highness never saw it. and feather were all CHARACTER COSTUMES REPRESENT observed with closely crafted conviction. where sometimes there just might not be anybody inside. The aged queen is compared to an overdressed bird. The slight uncertainty of the pose and the limp cloak suggest a little more metal than man. for she would not have been amused and William Wodall might have been stretching his luck. He has been rendered on this olive<olored page with pen and gray wash worked over a red and black under-drawing. Anthony Van Dyke's Man in Armor is a masterpiece of drawn surface. In 1 6 3 2 he m o v e d p e r m a n e n t l y t o L o n d o n . w h e r e . 160. theater. b e f o r e traveling t o Italy. lace. all ruffs and wrinkles. Pen and wash In the graphic accuracy of this armored knight we see the idealized identity of a warrior from another time: a gleaming defender of the realm. Opposite is a dangerous drawing. Man in Armor UNDATED 1 6 x 9 1 / 2 in ( 4 0 5 x 2 4 0 m m ) A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE . A s a y o u n g man. A flamboyant territory. and even formal portraiture. Leg section Compare mid-shin the section of white boots cropped to the section of similarly cropped trousers in drawings Gruau's drawing on p. cloth. Van D y k e was chief assistant t o Rubens f o r t w o years. Flowing scarf The knight's scarf of gilded blue is drawn in a pale wash over red ink lines. Details and voices are worn externally with great imagination. Fine examples can be plucked from fashion. The metal.
Satire of the Queen's Dress c. manuscript comprising six c a n t o s . suggest the use of iron-gall ink (see p.1599 71/2 WILLIAM x 51/4 in ( 1 9 0 x 1 3 4 mm) WODALL . Northern Satire This is a quill-and-ink satire of the elderly queen's pride-As head of state and fashion. and saturations showing through from the other side. t h e Rising. she is shown as a grossly disproportioned bird. it was customary to Iron-gall ink Wodall's dangerous caricature steps daintily the written lines of her dedicated page. T h e poem recounts t h e six m a j o r crises o f Elizabeth's reign: t h e Spanish A r m a d a . A Ruffs and feathers Starched white ruffs worn at court and by society grew steadily larger as Elizabeth's reign progressed. and her pride. bitten nature. hooded with an overinflated fluffy ruff eye pins us. By her old upto three tiers supported on sticks. Beneath the lethal fan is the body of a bird of trimmed feathers suggest age. t h e B a b i n g t o n Plot. t h e Jesuit Mission.159 WILLIAM W O D A L L A u t h o r and illustrator o f The Aaes of Queene a Elizabeth poem Allegorized. Top-heavy.35). while a raised foot pauses to assess the next displaying a fan of daggers. t h e Ridolfi Plot. here dark tawny owl. the queen is masterfully rebalanced by words at her feet The whole drawing's blackened.
RENE GRUAU I t a l i a n . as is Spider-Girl opposite. 158. Gruau uses starkly cut negative space (see pp. Compare the compositio beneathVanDyke'sstudy of armor on p.5 9 ) and a three-spoke balance of cuffs and cropped trousers to create an almost flag-like emblem of power. Composition Look how well this image is frame knee is parallel to the bottom edge spacehorizontalline cropping the trousers be outermostuprightbordersof her cuffs are similar above her head thesidesoftheimage. 5 8 .c e n t u r y haute i n n u m e r o u s m a g a z i n e s i n c l u d i n g Elle. Vogue. Harpers & Queen. Fashion and fantasy drawings invent prototypes of ideals and perfection—be they for the catwalk or the fast-paced pages of comic books. She has been drawn with brushes dipped into India ink and gouache. Spider-Girl leaps like an insect.and tilted to the same de a little deeper than sp kneestogivehergravity. G r u a u ' s highly distinctive d r a w i n g s have a p p e a r e d Couture. possibly over a pencil outline. Gruau's model regally swans to the fore with cool pride. Fine lines drawn against the building behind her echo the threads on which we have all seen arachnids drop and hang. India ink and gouache This swish of confidence and style our enters the page turning everyone's head. and gray pigments were applied separately. demanding attention with gesture and flair. and both share the power of scarlet and black.160 COSTUME Femmes Fatales THESE DEVASTATING femmes fatales force back the onlooker with their demure. ofcroppedtrousershere to the device of the w Illustration 1949 for Jacques Fath in L ' O f f i c i e l d e la C o u t u r e RENE GRUAU . muscular aggression. The black red. His model is outlined.F r e n c h f a s h i o n i l l u s t r a t o r w h o in his l o n g and esteemed career w o r k e d with many of the g r e a t e s t d e s i g n e r s o f 2 0 t h . a n d L'Officiel de la couture. Drying time in between applications ensured the colors did not run into each other. studio-like rectangle of paper. diving to catch us in the grip of her machine-like limbs. elegant chic and svelte. Airbrushed reflective surfaces further amplify our perception of speed. Rene Gruau's bold gouache drawing of smoothly swaying sophistication captures a brilliantly cut garment and frames it with great dynamism in a white.
Frenz has drawn for Marvel for about 20 years. Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 2001-04 R O N FRENZ.74-77). Align your ruler to the upright of each building. not far above the drawing. and has been the title's regular artist since 2003. Single-point understand perspective To how Frenz created up therefore the effect of steeply between looking buildings—and howyou can do the same in your own work—take calculate where a ruler the and single vanishing point lies. In your mind's eye extend the uprights out of the top of the picture. sky. The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones. He began work on Spider-Girl in 1998. and figure are all locked into equally shatp through the traditional process of a pencilled outline over-drawn ink.RON F R E N Z Contemporary American graphic artist w h o designs and pencils the dynamic scenes of numerous superheroes featured in Marvel Comics. beginning with Star Wars. to the right of its center. a great characteristic superhero comics. It is outside the picture frame. moon. Buildings. Airbrushed color and with tonal focus. Sharp focus black outlines in this drawing create a hyper-real dynamic. and Amazing Spider-Man. MARVEL C O M I C S . at Their extensions will meet the same single vanishing (see point pp. This s modeling applied over the top give the image a sleek and mechanical of gravity.
these work best when slightly warm. The worst are like revolting old lipsticks that get everywhere except where you intend. Pastel pencils are slender and in w o o d casing. Store loose pastels in dry rice to keep them clean. the diverse are made in brands of basic member of the family. and can be a great rediscovery for bold drawings. Most stores leave small pads of paper on their counters for customers to test materials. COLORED PENCILS: Dry pigments ground together with chalk. allowing it to fix slightly from behind. which he left unfixed to retain its brightness. FELT-TIP PENS: Instant-drying alcoholor water-based inks stored in the barrels of the pens are delivered via smooth nylon o r felt tips of varying shapes and thicknesses. Many artists apply fixative to the back of their work. chalkbased but very subtle. and CHALK PASTELS Pastel pencils make fine lines (as above). and synthetics. Bright pastels are more brilliant on colored paper. Dissolve in turpentine or mineral spirits to produce oil paint or or dark paper. slightly oily to the touch. great for tin . colored materials available. Many products are sold individually and in boxed sets. Before making substantial investments. See h o w they work and return later for more of what proved best for you. fixing each layer on the front. crumbly. oily pigment. there are disparities between the apparent nature or color of what you hold in your hand and its performance on paper. quality. and can be softened and manipulated with degrees of heat. Be aware that fixative dulls pastel. Use them to draw lightly (as above left) or thickly. Pastels are finer. Seemingly infinite choices of texture. are derived from many sources: rocks. except the final layer. plants. Sticks and conte crayons make thicker marks (as below). used to make colors. hue. Beware—some are toxic. animals. wash. shape. Often. quality and cost T h e best are paperwrapped sticks of sumptuous. insects.162 COSTUME Colored Materials ART STORES BRIM OVER w i t h t h e m a n y wherever permitted. purchase a small selection of different items you think you will like. The nontoxic range below represents a suggested starting point for experiment. 1. Degas built his pastels in layers. you may be pleasantly surprised to discover something you could not have imagined using. size. 2. They vary hugely in cost. paper-wrapped. 3. and sold in many colors. the finer and more subtle the texture and color should be. made in about 80 colors. OIL PASTELS: Many colors. clay. OIL PASTELS Oil-based. though lines can develop greasy stains around the edges if the paper is not first stretched and treated with a gelatin paste laid as a wash. Children's wax crayons are relatives. The higher the quality (and cost). soft. and subtlety. I suggest you do so. and cost are laid out for our pleasure and perusal. They work well on PIGMENTS Pigments. minerals. C o n t e crayons are square-formed. Try materials that are new and unfamiliar. or wax and a binder are shaped into fine strips and encased in w o o d like a graphite pencil. including iridescents. CHALK PASTELS: Blackboard chalk is sidewalk work. intensity. mixed on the paper and scratched into (as below). unwrapped harder pastels. 4.
others dissolve in water or turpentine to make a wash. Think of Matisse's Blue Nude (see p.163 COLORED PENCILS These are wax. If you love smooth blocks and lines of colon felt-tip pens are perfect.or clay-based thin crayons in wood casing. leaving the paper to shine through for highlights (as below). Some give richer lines than others. Fine lines can be achieved (as above). . Colors can be blended as shown right) and tones graded by altering pressure. Diverse brands are harder or soften greasier or chalkier in use. Brands made for designers sold in enormous ranges of colors are far more subtle and sophisticated than those made for children. Some are nonsoluble. it is still a great champion and support for those beginners feeling shyly obligated to tone down their love of color to conform with what others say they should use. FELT-TIP PENS Although not made with felt-tip pen. so it is best to test them before buying. 111).
D r a w each o n e first as a solid object. c o v e r a large sheet o f p a p e r w i t h line drawings o f several shoes. structure. social and economic status. Superstitions and fetishes are attached to them: we are told never to put new shoes on a table. This class takes the shoe as its subject in building on earlier lessons concerned with seeing through objects to understand their function. Here we go one step further. t h e n again as if transparent. As artifacts in museums. and after studying familiar shoes we use the information learned to invent new ones. . I m a d e n u m e r o u s s h e e t s o f d r a w i n g s . you will need several large sheets of drawing paper. 100-01 and pp. they record and reflect our common history. and they have been concealed in buildings to ward off misfortune. a n d e x p e r i e n c e visible p r o g r e s s . To set up.164 COSTUME Study and Design they reflect our age. Turn t h e m in different d i r e c t i o n s and o b s e r v e t h e i r s t r u c t u r e and f o r m . if y o u m a k e p l e n t y o f d r a w i n g s as o p p o s e d t o o n l y a f e w . will discover m o r e . Linear Outline Using fine pens. a range of colored felt-tip pens with both fine and broad tips. style. and a selection of shoes. values. imagining y o u can see t h r o u g h it. REPEATED STUDY T o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s class. while artists have painted their boots or those of others as personal portraits and memorials. 104-07). t o o . S H O E S TELL LIFE STORIES. the era in which we live. e n j o y i n g t h e study a n d i n v e n t i o n o f shoes. personality. You. and volume in space (see pp. and how we stand and walk.
STUDY AND DESIGN
study the surface contours using fineand broad-tipped felt-tip pens. For best results, it is important to be bold and brief. Draw firmly, fast, and with as few strokes as possible. Build up each shoe from light to dark andleavesome paper showing through to create highlights.
Design Your Own
Using what you have learned from the previous steps about the structures of your shoes, and about the use of pens, invent new designs from your imagination. Start with fine outlines and progress to colored and textured surfaces. Modify your ideas by rotating the views.
The Structure of Costume
MUSEUMS ARE AN INFINITELY
rich resource for the artist and
information given by a period style. Arrange to visit a costume museum or ask a friend to model clothes for you at home. Using fine felt-tip pens, begin with quick, pale impressions of each garment's shape before homing in on its borders and seams. Try to draw transparent views wherever possible to record the relationships between all component parts. Aim to draw enough information for it to be possible to make up a version of the garment using paper pinned to a tailor's dummy.
designer. They often give quite unexpected gems of ideas and information—whatever the subject. These drawings, made in a costume museum, demonstrate ways of recording structural information and detail for later use in the studio. They could form the basis of new designs for a fashion project or theater production, for example. Drawings of shoes on pp. 164-65 show how new designs can be evolved from the structural
It is usually best when collecting information for reference to apply the restraint of dispassionate observation. Set yourself the test of drawing facts with as little artistic license or embellishment as possible. Here I chose fine felt-tip pens because they are at their best when used swiftly, and therefore encourage bold, unhesitant decisions.
Swift lines record the hanging weight of this gentleman's coat, the relative proportions of its layers, and minimal details of the buttons and cuffs.
Thick velvet fabric is pulled tight beneath and across the bust by a single button. This transparent view shows how the fabric falls loosely in straight panels beneath the level of the sleeve.
W h e n visiting museums, be prepared f o r l o w lighting, which can make it hard t o see and draw. A book can help if attached t o your drawing board.
Adding stripes and dashes of color with a thicker pen brings out the glossy sheen and sculptural rigidity of this dress, which would have been worn over a whalebone corset. small reading light designed t o clip o n t o a
THE STRUCTURE OF COSTUME
In small drawings such as these, use thick pens to color entire sections with a few marks, as I did here down the side of the bodice.
The light, frilly bulk of this crinoline dress is propelled forward with lines. pinching its gathers and sways that are hiding a horsehair bustle. fleets of quick
THIS CLASS FOCUSES ON how to draw textures through the collection of fabric, pattern, and embroidery samples from a costume m u s e u m . This formal method, using ruled squares, can create an invaluable library of ideas a n d i n f o r m a t i o n for future r e f e r e n c e — w h e n painting a clothed figure, or preparing a textile project, for example. However, if making a book of samples for a project, remember that it is important to also include collages of f o u n d materials (see pp.230-31) To d r a w a fabric texture, b e g i n by concentrating o n h o w y o u i m a g i n e it w o u l d feel if you t o u c h e d it. Decide if it w o u l d be rough, s m o o t h , w a r m , cold, thick, thin, tough, or fragile, for example. As you draw, believe you can feel these qualities at your fingertips a n d that your pencil is responding to the sensation. Undulate the pressure of your lines and marks according to the feeling of the fabric rather than its appearance. Let your pencil enact the sensation of touching its surface.
and to experiment more loosely with mixed media.
This starchy, quilted, b o w e d creation started life as an imagined corset, I intended t o d r a w together in one sculptural f o r m a range o f t h e details opposite. T h e garment quickly got o u t o f hand. T h e r e is great e n j o y m e n t in letting y o u r imagination run wild w h e n inventing costumes. If you are unable t o visit a costume museum, many exciting fabric details and textures can be found in y o u r o w n closet o r home.
Colored pencils give precision and tonal range; they can be faded but not erased. Lightly use an HB graphite pencil if you wish to plan a design first. Pressed hard, colored pencils build up a waxy finish of brilliant color. Used lightly, they appear powdery and show the texture of the paper.
TEXTURES AND PATTERNS
Silk and braid
and 252-53). identity. shape. and motivation of an individual. These characters.126-27. I made a drawing book full of studies seeking to understand how he composed drama and pathos in his narratives (see also pp. look at how Goya delineated volumes of thick fabric to express the posture. selected from different pages of my original book. . 172-73. Madrid.Dressing Character I O N C E SPENT THREE MONTHS researching the work of Francisco de Goya at the Prado Museum.
. as it rushes and carves fabric-wrapped forms like rivers and desert winds shaping the earth. and tangible. are copies of works by Goya in which he makes air seem heavier than flesh.170—71). I carefully copied the direction of each of his lines. To understand how he did this.T H E S E PENCIL STUDIES. Posture Carving also taken from my Madrid drawing book (see pp. and visible.
Her all-too-clear expression shows annoyance and irritation with her husband. With a pocket full of disposable pens we also go out and draw the expressions of gathered people. comics. This J u s t as there are three parts to a traditional landscape drawing—the foreground. Saskia. Seeing through Rembrandt's eyes. paintings depicting scenes from history. are implicated in this marital exchange made over the head of the anonymous nurse. First. stares out from her gloomy sickbed.Gatherings A LL DRAWINGS TELL STORIES. vivid portrait of his wife captures our attention. and so. we can learn most about handling pen and ink. He is also the artist from whom props to add layers of meaning and attitude. heighten or subdue drama with subtleties of exaggeration or caricature. Here. . R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN in the delivery of narrative. and its illumination. We can direct close. We can also use clothes. finding corners in crowded places to inscribe their action and energy onto the page. we can R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter draftsman. Rembrandt's bored and frustrated wife. too. in spite of how it may seem. We read tensions and exchanges between people. The spaces between people and the positions they occupy on a page are vital to our understanding of the psychology or emotion of an event. the viewer is not directly made the finer lines of Saskia. Later in their lives. we. Blockbuster movies. presumably while he is making this drawing. soap operas. the direct exchange (as shown here) where one or more characters hold eye Aneedproduced the thicker lines of the nurse. It middle. and other masters of Western Art. and novels—our staple cultural diet—are driven by a fascination with shared experience and the detail of what happens in other people's lives. As artists. this is not the portrait of an old woman. there are no longer individuals but one significant group or mass action. Storytelling and people-watching are obsessive human activities. and instantly engage with the action of the scene. and distance—so drawings of gathered people can be loosely arranged in three took only minutes to make and yet it lives for centuries. furniture. a crowd tells the story from a distance. the speed and printmaker and one of the greatest and most influential density of its lines. and therefore seem to see. while a quill contact with. the viewer. Third. Drawings selected for this chapter explore these Saskia Lying in Bedand a Nurse ranges of proximity 1638 9 x61/2in (227 x 164 mm) and a travel journal. Second. television documentaries. the viewer's attention in a scene by the format of its composition. He in turn scorches the paper with his view and a certain speed of seeing all. even up her were laid with a brush. but drawings of gathered people tell them most directly. Saskia died after childbirth. daily newspapers. types. Washes of shadow behind engaged and as a natural voyeur can feel invisible while watching the scene.
Real Life is Rubbish 2002 Dimensions variable TIM N O B L E A N D SUE WEBSTER . Here. hearth i m p l e m e n t s crash at o u r feet. Below. for example. the C o o k . a kitchen explodes in o u r faces. t h e y select and arrange familiar items of street detritus into what appears to be an u n p l e a s a n t pile. N o b l e a n d W e b s t e r s w i t t y a n d o f t e n s u b v e r s i v e d r a w i n g s are also c o n t e m p o r a r y art installations.kicks against the mundane things that close down your mind is a refreshing and good thing. In both works. the Cat. and smoke billows around the agitated jives of the Duchess.. TIM N O B L E A N D SUE W E B S T E R British artists who collaborate using neon. garbage and chaos are piled a n d e x p l o d e d in r o o m s full of event.. Think about what else you could use: a laser smoke. narrative is delivered through the air. and on." (Tim Noble) Drawing with light it is important to think about what you is Here timelessly we see a in can draw with. and projector. c o m p o s e d garbage p r o d u c e s a c a l m . plates shatter. In one of R a c k h a m s great illustrations for Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland. F o r e a c h w o r k . and Alice."Anything that. refuse. via the animated clutter of o u r material lives. and in. Pans fly oft the stove. T h e i m m a c u l a t e d r a w i n g is only r e v e a l e d w h e n t h e b e a m of a p r o j e c t o r c a s t s t h e s h a d o w Projections of the h e a p o n t o a wall.176 GATHERINGS SOME DRAWINGS ARE MADE e n t i r e l y o f i l l u m i n a t i o n that floods drama into the viewers gaze. and projectors to create their anarchic punk satires of modern life. or even the office photocopier. h a l o e d portrait of the artists seated b a c k to b a c k . Pencil on paper important but only the beginning of possibility the combination of three-dimensional space. junk.
177 ARTHUR RACKHAM British watercolorist and book illustrator. tabletop. Depth Billows of smoke expand and are lighter as they come forward. beams. This makes the story appear to leap out at us. and Poe's Tales Imagination. amplifying movement outward from the vanishing point. Rackham Vanishing point In this marvelous drama made with pen. Refer back to the drawing class how pots In drawn objects and elements that those behind. See how the In the Duchess's Kitchen 1907 77/8 x 6 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 5 0 m m ) ARTHUR RACKHAM . humor. and Alice's shoulder. we find several devices already explored through our drawing classes.76-77) above vanishing point (see that is about3/4in (2 cm) oak converge at this point. by vivid children's Rakham's w o r k is characterized fantasy. are very large compared to on p. 100 to see for make elliptical objects and pans fly through the the foreground. a n d an unmistakable graphic style.Stowe's ofMysteryand Queer Little Folks. Find the singleperspective pp. and watercolor. H e is best k n o w n forillustratingIrving's Rip vanWinkle. ink. The wood grain acts like marks of speed behind the scene.
audiences. as if Moore's wrapping has been literally outstretched. A glimmer of gold light appears from the left No explanation is given. Magnetic Fields sculpture. a sculptor. Moore's spectators appear to have walked a long way from nowhere to witness and wait beside this mysterious obelisque. This is just one of many precious artifacts from a lost time. expressing his dry humor about O F ALL THE CONTRASTS HENRY MOORE British s c u l p t o r w h o t r a i n e d a n d taught at t h e R C A . join in the waiting. meaning. Opposite.178 GATHERINGS we have seen in the pairs and trios of drawings by masters and makers. a great Shoshone drawing blazes with the color.The human form w a s the vehicle o f his expression and h e w a s t h e official W o r l d W a r II artist. This is an ironic drawing from Moore. The image stands out among his more usual graphic works in which he hones and carves semi-abstract human forms. In culture. perhaps these two are the most extreme. and action of a buffalo hunt. a n d l o v e d t o d r a w in t h e BritishMuseum. HENRY MOORE Crowd 1942 Looking at Tied-up Object . heat. as fellow watchers. Chalk and graphite This fog-bound but humorous gathering of souls is made in graphite and colored chalk with gray wash. and composition they are polar opposites. The mournful gray landscape of Henry Moore's northern British field has gathered by night an overcoated audience to stand and wait before a wrapped and roped monument. M o o r e t o u r e d Italy as a young man. and we. London. and art in the landscape. which still narrates vivid days in the lives of an energetic nation.
creating harmonious balance with words but through silent demonstration.179 SHOSHONE SCHOOL Stylized characters This vital image of a buffalo hunt is made with pigment Members of the Shoshone community wishing painted within dark outlines on a stretched elk hide. Skills are taught not center chant or dance to the beat of a drum. Each color is evenly distributed throughout the scene. tolearnhow to paint a scene on a hide are and buffalo circle and charge the perimeters of a skin "field. Stylized hunters. horses." Men at the instructed to sit and watch. Hunt CENTURY SHOSHONE SCHOOL . and helping our eye to dart around. MAGNETIC FIELDS Horses It is interesting to note how the outstretched limbs ofthesehorses echo European images of the runningBuffalo horse before the sequence-photographer Muybridge taught us to 19TH understand their movement differently.
a d e a t h c h a r g e of brutality. a n d f o c u s . W I L L I A M BLAKE British visionary. w h e r e he w a t c h e s a t u r b u l e n t s p i r a l of p u n i s h m e n t f o r the d a m n e d . w h i c h b y their c h o i c e a n d h a n d l i n g a c t u a l l y b e c o m e the force a n d spirit of e a c h i m a g e . a pink-inked cinema wobbles along with string. inextinguishable in its fortitude and h u m o r . color. and sweetened the often bleak years with his impractical inventions. m a r k . The Circle of the (The Whirlwind 1824 of Lustful Lovers) mm) 143/4 x 207/8i n ( 3 7 4 x 5 3 0 WILLIAM BLAKE . w e f i n d a spiritual v i s i o n . Blake w a s d r i v e n b y a passion f o r j u s t i c e a n d a p r o f o u n d b e l i e f in his v i s i t a t i o n s f r o m angels. a n d o t h e r w o r k s . K a t h e K o l l w i t z s c r a t c h e d a n d e n g r a v e d her a r m y of c l a y . The muscularity of Blake's figures was inspired by Michelangelo's works. p o e t .180 GATHERINGS The Human Condition IN THE SPECTRUM of these vastly d i f f e r e n t g a t h e r i n g s of p e o p l e . Misted in translucent layers of paint. era as Kollwitz. a n d the gentle h u m o r of sedate r i d i c u l e . texture. w r i t e r a r t i s t . It illustrates a scene from Dante's Divine Comedy. Brushed line and wash This is an ink-outlined drawing made with a fine brush on paper with added washes of watercolor The image was subsequently redrawn as a line engraving. a n d e n g r a v e r w h o p o w e r f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e d his o w n t e x t s in a d d i t i o n t o D a n t e ' s Divine Comedy.f o o t e d t r o g l o d y t e s w h o rage into w a r like a m u d s l i d e of revenge. We also see qualities of line. t h e Bible. Opposite. Heath Robinson lived through the same war-torn. pale souls of the lustful are being s p u n into yet another realm of hell. B l a k e h a s i l l u m i n a t e d his s a d d e n e d Virgil on the s h o r e s of a d a r k w o r l d .
and clearly focused. What remained in scratched grooves printed on damp paper as lines. He created sincere. White marks were made with a dusting of French chalk on the artist's finger to wipe away ink leaving clean metal. humor by making his characters earnest. The image was scratched directly onto a metal plate. Robinson and Kollwitz (above) share almost identical life dates and their work expresses a shared history from opposite sides oftheworld wars. Kollwitz survived the two World Wars. poverty. plodding along with hazy. and the impact of death and war upon women. who lived in a poor district of Berlin. stoical bemusement. Heath Robinson shows England in a past era. British Pen and wash This is a pen-andwatercolor drawing made for a color-platereproduction in an edition of T h e Bystander. Losbruch (The Outbreak) 1955 20 x 233/8 in (507 x 592 mm) KATHE KOLLWITZ HEATH ROBINSON humorous illustrator and a regular contributor to magazines and journals such as The Sketch and The Bystander. sculptor and draftsman. and her powerful and sensitive drawings center on nurture. however meager or ridiculous their activity. THE HUMAN CONDITION Scratched lines This is a dry-point etching with monoprint. With masterful gentility. children. and controlled smears on the metal surface printed as tones. Ink rolled over was selectively polished off using a rag. HEATH ROBINSON The Kinecar 1926 103/8 x 15 in (262 x 380 mm) .181 KATHE KOLLWITZ German printmaker. and the family home.
indent paper. a n d pressure-sensitive. Lines t h i c k e n as t h e p e n w e a r s o u t G r a n d Canal (see pp. W h i t e gel p e n s a r e v e r y e f f e c t i v e o n d a r k papers. p e r m a n e n t . is d e l i v e r e d t h r o u g h a m e t a l t u b e o v e r a t i n y ball bearing. a ballpoint will make faint lines. R O L L E R B A L L : A c o n s t a n t i n k flow 3 . and in most pockets so I can always record a thought DISPOSABLE PENS QUICK NOTES O n a c o l d day in Venice. a n d ranges o f colors. I swiftly focused on gesture. G E L P E N : P r o d u c e d in b l a c k w h i t e ." 1. CHOICES AVAILABLE T h e r e a r e m a n y d i s p o s a b l e p e n s t o c h o o s e from. B A L L P O I N T : Black a n d b o l d c o l o r s o f f e r d i v e r s e qualities.7 7 and 214-15). they can be obtained within minutes. they each offer distinct and sometimes unexpected qualities.182 GATHERINGS Disposable Pens (ballpoints. w a t e r . 2. aiming for correct outlines would result in drawing too slowly to c a t c h the moment. in the studio. At a time like this. these pens enable you to sketch. . or idea. in the car. T h e r e w e r e c seconds t o snatch this impression b e t w e e n their emergence from one bridge and disappearance b e n e a t h t h e next. Insensitive t o p r e s s u r e : lines d o n o t v a r y in w i d t h o r t o n e . fibertips. turn the page. build to a rich.188-89) and Caravans (see pp. c h o o s e p e n s l a b e l e d " p e r m a n e n t " o r "lightfast. So many stores sell them. trusting shape and form to follow. Unlike pencils. FIBER-TIP: M a n u f a c t u r e d f o r artists a n d d e s i g n e r s in a r a n g e o f w i d t h s . t w o tourists and their gondolier drifter past m e o n a canal. jot notes. 192-93) w e r e b o t h m a d e w i t h a ballpoint. fine fiber-tip Drawing with a fine fiber-tip pen. t h e y a r e lightfast. a disposable pen with its clip-on cap goes anywhere.r e s i s t a n t . Ideal f o r precision w o r k (see p p . including l u m i n o u s a n d m e t a l l i c . or turn into washes and make monoprints if flooded with an alcohol-based substance such as hairspray. blob when old. 7 6 . R e m e m b e r . dropped in your pocket and forgotten till needed. For example. shut your book. if y o u w i s h y o u r d r a w i n g s t o last a n d n o t fade o r b l u r w i t h t i m e a n d e x p o s u r e t o light. gel pens) are the most convenient of all materials with which to travel. Quick-drying. or put the paper in your pocket instantly without fear of smudging. I keep quantities at home. The f o u r i l l u s t r a t e d h e r e r e p r e s e n t a basic r a n g e . 4. which can snap or pierce through your clothes. rollerballs. Available in blacks and ranges of colors. dark sheen.
crowd of fellow travelers Fast lines These scribbled lines model the mass and shadows of heads belonging passengers packed into the boat.31 . Compare this Klee's mules on p. Fast lines focus on action. Earlier I had witnessed a crammed en masse in a fleet of hired gondolas complete with musicians and choir. not form.FROMMEMORY Here I used the same fiber-tip pen to compose a scene from memory.
black. animate them more. Above all. You must learn to trust your memory and to draw what impressed you most.184 GATHERINGS The Travel Journal I CANNOT OVERSTATE THE JOY of making a travel journal. of course. focus on the action of the event. make them stouter. let it enter the stage and perform. A curatorial assistant flies to do a chore (right). Each line acts its part in the narrative. No camera can tie you to a time or people in the same way. but they should not be what you dwell on. Circular lines buzz around a man puzzling at the end of a train platform (left). life will not slow and wait for you to catch it. Movement . Each one was witnessed and drawn immediately from the afterimage of what I had just seen. just draw the action. pocket notebook and a fiber-tip pen. and companionship. not its outline. However. angles will happen as a matter of course. Let the line of the flying coat fly and the hanging arm hang. if a person was stout. activity. Every drawing writes an indelible memory of place. if animated. I caught fleeting glimpses of gathered people and solitary souls going about their affairs. Don't worry about measuring angles. Push toward caricature and this will draw out of your memory what was most important. Exaggeration helps. FLEETING MOMENTS Walking through Venice with a small. You will make outlines. when out drawing. all action is in the line of his coat and directed by his nose.
Observation THE TRAVEL JOURNAL The same willowy assistant dashes about his work.185 A large lady is photographed in front of a delicate work of art. I drew him three times on the same page to catch a range of his physical expressions. eager to herd us all from his house of responsibility. The rush of his legs isamplifiedby their blurred lines. I am watched by the aggravated guard. Expression . In turn.
forcing me to remain at the back and look at them. For example. pulls. if they are being devious. emotion. and reason for happening.186 GATHERINGS Catching the Moment On A BITTERLY COLD November day. or pushes. I took refuge in a church in Venice. elevate them in the pictorial space. He and his simpering assistant would not allow me in. and there met this sullen custodian. ACTION AND DETAIL W h e n drawing people. furniture leans. . Here the custodian projects fastidious ownership of his desk and pamphlets by pushing from behind the center of the space and challenging our entry to his image. not outline. For example. rather than the works of art they guarded. Be aware that their placement on the page is part of the narrative. flap. Here I have recreated my drawing in steps to show you how to set about capturing such a scene. When your attention has been caught. you might place them lower down. Place the person carefully. and you decide to draw the moment. Identify the principal character and draw him or her first. focus on action. decide how faces and bodies contort. and let every detail speak by its size. or bulge. start by focusing on its action. placement. and involvement in the story. and clothing or bags hang. if they are being haughty.
such as the desk and pamphlets seen here. continue adding characters.187 The custodian Identify your principal character a n d their psychological role in the scene. D r a w their action. . CATCHING THE MOMENT The assistant Identify t h e antagonist ( o r second character) in t h e scene. a pillar locates t h e scene in a depth o f space. Here. Decide where t o place them t o emphasize their role. W i t h a few strokes. who is largely expressed through the shape and fall o f his raincoat and his way o f using a note pad. In the final step (left) I reinforced t h e custodian's desk. If drawing a more complex scene. Decide where you will place them o n the paper t o emphasize their action and intent. together with any immediate props they are using. Draw their action and props. I added t h e assistant. which is pushed toward us in a gesture of confrontation.
An imminent deluge of tourists urged me to work catching no more than the skeleton of the view. .Grand Canal T H E CANALS OF VENICE are bustling places full of occupation. where vertical mooring poles give space and pulse to the horizontal speed of water quickly. and buildings. I developed detailofthis drawing from memory using a ballpoint pen.
. then the bridge beneath them. Characters in the foreground were drawn first.Crossings DURING THIS RUSH HOUR. followed by the streets. note only their most essential action and feature. Each person was glimpsed in an instant. Venetians flow across a stepped bridge and cascade into the streets beyond. Caricature each person slightly. To catch characters like this. and drawn immediately from memory.
. quiet afternoon. Caravans and other backstage activity convey expectations of energy and repose.Caravans T H E PARAPHERNALIA O F TRAVEL i s an intriguing part of circus life. and a great subject to draw. I found this circus by chance in the Swiss mountains. I used a ballpoint pen to compose a series of scenes. Sitting at a distance on a hot.
to be ready to draw the new light as it breaks across the land.Earth and the Elements I T MAY SEEM PERVERSE to start a chapter titled "Earth and the Elements" with an image of the Moon. and even how the Sun illuminates. Richard Long. England. arranging them in perfect circles on the mountainside or in lines drifting out of sight beneath low clouds. the face of the Moon. so J o h n Russell's tour de f o r c e drawing (opposite) was a masterpiece of observation in his time. Look closely at works by many artists and you will see that they have not represented hills. Oxford. There is a sense of the heroic in drawing outside—we race to catch a form before the tide engulfs it. trees. Beginners will often choose calm. Just as NASA photographs of Earth have had a profound effect on the way we view our fragile home. t h e first-ever accurate image o f t h e M o o n ' s surface. 5 f t x 5 ft 6 in ( 1 5 2 x 1 6 8 c m ) J O H N RUSSELL . and the sea. are the real subjects in great landscape drawings. a n d a m o o n globe called t h e Selenographia. makes his work by the act of walking. surrounded by the bright instruments of centuries of navigation. and meteor impacts have scarred. This is the world's first accurate image of the Moon. By drawing such momentous and everyday events. It is better to get up before dawn. sunny days. and its draws the tides of the seas. The forces of nature. The pastel drawing was constructed from myriad telescopic observations almost 200 years before the Apollo Moon landing. t w o e n g r a v e d m a p s k n o w n as The Lunar Planispheres. and take bold steps in emulating the swell of clouds and the forces of torrential water. speculation. These conditions are very difficult to express well. and experiment. artists see for themselves that which is momentary and eternal. the sun comes out to blind it. our companion. but it can be seen as a lens to our observation of this planet. learning to draw light out of dark. marking the ground with lines of footprints or by turning stones. how the soil is scorched. how the mountain cut by ice and rain is now fleetingly lit. 199). when little stirs and empty blue skies offer even less to latch lines to. It now hangs on the staircase of the History of Science Museum. pages o f softly i l l u m i n a t e d craters and lunar "seas" c o v e r e d in m a t h e m a t i c a l and s h o r t h a n d calculations. It is Earths satellite. a n d a n astronomer w h o dedicated 20 years t o studying t h e M o o n . a contemporary environmental artist. In this chapter Moon Pastel 1795 Drawing we experiment with charcoal. as opposed the physicality of Earth. What they have drawn is the force of nature on these properties: how the wind heaves the night ocean. JOHN RUSSELL A p o r t r a i t pastelist t o King G e o r g e III o f England. Take chances against the rain and work with the wind or fog. or the wind carries it away. they are the animators of your subject. William Turner is said to have had himself lashed to a ship's mast to comprehend the storm (see p. or has cracked and fallen under the weight of water. H e a l s o p r o d u c e d an a l b u m o f 1 8 0 exquisite pencil drawings. Weather is essential in all landscape drawing. Russell d r e w this. rivers.
is already lost. Hokusais sedate wind presses reeds a n d the j o u r n e y s o f young ladies. Fluid strokes inflate the woman's dress and pin shadows to the ground. Danger of Wearing Balloon Petticoats UNDATED HONORE DAUMIER . Daumier's c a r t o o n shines with the brilliance of his comic memory. and gives motion to each image. H O N O R E DAUMIER French satirical cartoonist lithographer. a sail b r o k e n loose in a stormy marriage. Crayon and limestone This is a lithograph. serving a prison sentence for his views. the bourgeoisie. Flapping kimonos and an onlooker turning his b a c k have the magic of a m o m e n t caught.Through political drawings he fired his sharp wit at the king. Hazy vertical marks reveal buildings into the mist. we can soon learn to draw its force. like an umbrella forced inside-out. Terrifying waves of merciless nature roar across the paper. He knew how the world bends and stutters under such gusts. and by observing its tides and eddies in our o w n environment. Dots and dashes suggest receding trees out of focus. and the legal profession. fluttering heavily. T h e great master of English seascape is c o n d u c t i n g with his graphic energy. and pioneer ofexpressionism. lifts. sculptor. painter. has b e c o m e a hysterical kite. speed. seeing how it shakes.198 EARTH AND THE E L E M E N T S Air in Motion THE GREAT INVISIBLE SUBJECT o f these d r a w i n g s is t h e w i n d . undramatic b u t brimming with stylized realism. and solidity. A hard waxy was drawn across a heavy limestone Varying definitions crayon of lire and depths of tone conspire to give volume. Below. By Turner carries us to the heart of the maelstrom. This wife. the government. a scratched ghost. T h e ship. distance.
T U R N E R British landscape. Landscape a n d city life w e r e his principal subjects. A outline scratched of a skeletal into penciled ship is while and the waves. leans the whole composition swells around its fateful center. TURNER KATSUSHIKA HOKUSAI Prolific J a p a n e s e c o l o r w o o d . a n d his b e s t . painter. H o k u s a i in t u r n has since significantly influenced European art. d e s i g n e r a n d b o o k i l l u s t r a t o r . W . 1826 91/2 x 113/4 in ( 2 4 1 x 3 0 0 m m ) J.M.199 J. Ship in a Storm c.W.M. and history painter w h o s e p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t a b o v e all w a s light. including being lashed t o a ship's m a s t in o r d e r to study a storm. T h e r e a r e m a n y stories o f his p a s s i o n a t e w o r k i n g methods. horizontally then and of the it into the stream Plants also bend and flow right to Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 1802 81/2 HOKUSAI KATSUSHIKA x 131/2 in ( 2 1 7 x 3 4 3 mm) .i n f l u e n c e d b y examples o f W e s t e r n art obtained through D u t c h t r a d i n g in Nagasaki. from left print. wind. seascape. into this very as pressed sheet The paper's through own coior is brought banks of mist and fog. AIR IN MOTION Pencil and watercolor subdued brushed.b l o c kprintmaker. Hokusai direction (from clothing from has chosen which it the right). Wind direction wood-block This is a colored To represent the blows lifted flowed wind.l o v e dw o r k s i n c l u d e 1 0 0 v i e w s o f M o u n t Fuji and 1 2 v o l u m e s o f Manga. absorbent watercolor and are Stains of splashed. T u r n e r w o r k e d in oils a n d w a t e r c o l o r s a n d s k e t c h e d c o p i o u s l y o n his travels.
An update on biblical showers of fish and frogs. grab their b r u s h . this is a b o m b a r d m e n t from o u r h o m e s . as if drawn j u s t this year. ink. Le Bateau-Vision 1864 71/2 x 1 0 in ( 1 9 2 x 2 5 5 m m ) VICTOR H U G O .198) admires the majesty of nature. this is a writer's narrative of terror. it is difficult to contemplate its brooding and night-soaked heart. active surfaces of water. fantasy palaces. Turner (see p. EARTH AND THE VICTOR HUGO French novelist and artist (see also p. Leonardos Cloudburst of Material Possessions is o n e of his m o s t enigmatic and mysterious works. His subjects include ruins. and t h e sea s t u d i e d f r o m his h o m e in Guernsey in t h e Channel Islands.28). and swim into the page. He brings us to stare into a place that no sane human would enter. D o m e s t i c o b j e c t s we can o w n and name fall from the clouds. or charcoal. composing banks of waves and dense. he blanketed the drawing in darkness. By contrast. leaving nothing but a glimpse of moonlight glistening on the froth below. inks. with a brush. drawing was Hugo's principal means o f expression. as a gestural storm on the paper. T h e very nature of b o t h is turmoil and an interweaving of elements. marks. Pen and brush Hugo drew first with pen and ink. In periods b e t w e e n writing. Then. lines of rain escorting them to b o u n c e and clatter. water. and tossed o b j e c t s — a perfect subject in which artists can forget themselves. T h e m e n a c i n g darkness of Hugo's storm b e l o w is so convincing.200 ELEMENTS Storms STORMS CAN BE SEEN and drawn in two ways: first. It looks so contemporary. h a u n t e d shadows. Opposite. as a subject and second.
a hook. envisioning machines centuries before their making (helicopters and bicycles. He bequeathed his drawings to a friend. There is a little magic in recognizing many items from our homes something like a rake. and a wheel. and they passed through private hands for 400 years before becoming widely known. He was left-handed and wrote backwards in Italian from left to right. a bell. It is interesting to speculate how engineering might have developed if his ideas had been shared with the world earlier Ink and chalk This is a pen and ink drawing with touches of black chalk. together with half the contents of our garage.LEONARDO DA VINCI Leonardo devised many artifacts of our modern lives. Above and below are examples of his mirror handwriting. Each item that has crashed from heaven is drawn in such a way that we can feel Leonardo's nib picking it up in the speed of a doodle. Cloudburst of Material Possessions 1510-12 45/8 x 43/8 in ( 1 1 7 x 1 1 1 mm) L E O N A R D O DA VINCI . for example).
transferred it to a scroll. watching his hand and eye at work together. sea-. and famed for. In a very different work (opposite above). a horizon line can trigger our recognition. EARTH AND THE Bryan cut the profile of a city. his unsurpassed handling of light. it is the unique calligraphic signature of the place in which we stand.1638 85/8 x 121/2 in (219 x 320 mm) CLAUDE LORRAIN . atmosphere. and we can imagine standing over his shoulder. Views from Velletri c. and after tracing her captured line. Segments The top half of the drawing is a view as we enter the valley. C L A U D E LORRAIN French classical landscape painter draftsman. Paler. and across to the right. thick. and etcher who lived most of his life in 17th-century Rome. or cityscape. which he used to unify his compositions. Nature Profiles Opposite below. Whether land-. Drawing with a scalpel. She was inspired by her research of aerial plans of London and the story of an alien map butterfly (see caption). Clare Bryan took panoramic photographs of the English South Downs. and dry marks in the foreground appear to be made with his finger. Claude has used a fine nib to delineate segments of land as they recede into space. In the lower half he has walked downhill a little. Claude is distinguished by.202 ELEMENTS THE PROFILE OF A HORIZON is a line we immediately recognize and respond to. rich. Over first lines. she teased away fragments of paper to illuminate her view. rapidly layering contours to shape place. Even distilled from all other detail. and mood simultaneously. made inside a book. Claude Lorrain drew directly on location. cooler tones receding into the distance are applied with a brush.
" Cut line This is a small section of a preparatory 5-ft(1. 2001 CLARE BRYAN C L A R E BRYAN 3ritish artist. progressively settlement (cropped more and more paper is drawn away to show the expansion of human page of an around the river. printmaker graphic designer. The edges of each here) fade into the solid paper unpopulated with a scalpel landscape. specialty bookbinder. and visiting professor at numerous art schools.5-m)scroll.The horizon was drawn with a City Landline 2003 271/2x 59 in (70 x 150 cm) scalpel. drawings Ideas of introduction Clare Bryan to research introduced down and led NATURE PROFILES and removal historical plans and aerial growth of London showing its population since Roman times. then hunted destroyed. and digital print-based works reflect upon the histories and poetry of "left behind and in-between spaces. source workisilluminatedby standing its lower edge on a CLARE BRYAN . Her recent paper photographic.203 Scalpel-drawn This book-bound drawing was inspired by the story of a foreign butterfly wrongly to Great Britain in 1912. On turning the pages of City.
they are all intended for fine work. R o u g h paper c a n b e loaded. 7. white line into the blackor grayness of willow charcoal. and offers a rich. C h a r c o a l naturally glistens. The same as above. 6. sticky side down. feather. Try itworking on big paper covering a wall. a piece of fresh bread. and heavier than willow. The tip snaps easily to renew a sharp edge if required. a n d p l u m . the heel o f y o u r h a n d . b l a c k e r . but some specialists stock compressed charcoal in delicate square sticks. . 3 A white line is lifted out by the tape. 4. Essentially. 2. In use. a rag. Hold it over your drawing RANGE AVAILABLE Charcoal (in its several forms shown here) is loved or loathed by the beginner to whom it is often recommended because it produces pleasing results quickly.54). cylindrical. 1 Suspend a length of masking tape. so it chars b l a c k as o p p o s e d to igniting a n d turning to ash. It c a n be m a d e duller. leaving u n d e r t r a c e s of first thoughts. tape. THICK W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 2 Keep the tape above your drawing. Slightly dull the tape's stickiness before use t o prevent it from lifting out more than you intend. only a little thicker. Not to be confused with square conte sticks (see p. a n d m o r e i n d e l i b l e by soaking it in linseed oil. blacker. Beware of cheap brands selling dyed chalk as compressed charcoal. 162) or graphite (see p. Boxes often contain a range of thicknesses to choose for different needs.204 E A R T H AND THE E L E M E N T S Charcoal CHARCOAL IS PRODUCED from wood baked slowly without exposure to air. maple. Charcoal lifts away from paper easily with the very light touch o f an eraser. 1. It does n o t erase easily. or fingertip. A great find when available. CHALK CHARCOAL: Technically. THIN WILLOW CHARCOAL: I used a piece like this to make the drawing opposite. As its name implies. it is compressed and m o l d e d at high pressure. resulting in a stick that gives a blacker. fine. 3. resulting in a pale line. harder line. B u n d l e s o f twigs were traditionally sealed into earthenware j a r s or wet clay and heated slowly and intensely in a fire or kiln.m a d e c o m p r e s s e d charcoal. Lines are achieved by d e p o s i t i n g particles in the grain o f paper. without touching the surface. Then lift it away. vine. COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Machine-made. it looks gray and feels like chalk. b e e c h . between your middle finger and thumb. SQUARE COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Not often sold. black finish. you can p u r c h a s e m a c h i n e . It is also easily erased if the maker of the mark is not happy with the result. LIFTING OUT This technique is a very easy method of drawing a crisp. Smooth paper accepts few particles. Alternatively. Willow is the most c o m m o n wood. this does not exist. MEDIUM W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 5. CHARCOAL PENCIL: Types made by different manufacturers vary in quality and density of line. Artists have also used lime. It allows you greater precision in your mark-making than if you rub away the charcoal with an eraser. Use any fine-point pen or pencil (I used a ballpoint) to draw a firm line on the back of the Big pieces are perfect for very large-scale drawings—even larger than yourself.
. 9.205 ERASING Thickly applied charcoal quickly o v e r c o m e s a plastic eraser A w a r m (soft and tacky) putty eraser is more effective. Here. MASKING TAPE: An invaluable resource. 10. 8 . I used a plastic eraser effectively on thinly applied charcoal. Use cheaper (less sticky) for lifting out.212-13 were made by altering the pressure applied to the charcoal. as is fresh (unbuttered!) bread. sold in several widths. Layers can be peeled away to refresh its surface. Cotton swabs also work. pastels. Lift out broader marks with a larger implement. CHARCOAL Lifting out This detail shows an example of where I used the lifting-out technique demonstrated opposite to draw flashes of lightning against rain clouds. PEN: Any fine pen or pencil can be used to draw on the back of masking tape when lifting out. Here we used a ballpoint. Different tones seen throughout the main drawing on pp. or any other dry media. T O R T I L L O N : This is a tight roll of paper used to blend charcoal. graphite. Use high quality (very sticky) to fix paper to walls and boards.
9 9 we noted that in response to visual stimulus. 9 8 . Seeing tones . pack your materials (as advised below) and set off for a local view or your nearest arboretum. an eraser your drawing book or a board and paper fixative (or hairspray). When you arrive. a reel of masking tape. At its worst.212-13). the more you encourage the viewer's imagination to join in and see. Excessive detail can be admired for its skill and achievement. It is the visible effect of the atmosphere between where you stand and what you see in the distance. Then I drew the shape of the tonal patches I perceived. Successful drawings often only suggest the qualities of the scene without overdescribing them. our brains search for nameable things and will perceive complete pictures from very little information. hazy distance. Don't worry if it is cloudy: clouds add drama and perspective and make good subjects in themselves (see pp. especially when making first excursions into aerial perspective. a less distinct middle ground composed of shapes and textures. To experiment with drawing landscapes and the use of charcoal. This term simply means that as land rolls away into the distance. I relaxed my eyes out of focus to dissolve distracting detail into abstract patches of light and darkness. and an abstract.206 EARTH AND THE ELEMENTS Landscapes TREES ALONE OFFER MARVELOUS shapes to draw. and a cushion in a plastic bag to sit on. On p p . it results in flat planes of clutter. MATERIALS In this first view there is only a foreground and middle distance. begin by marking out several small squares on your paper. to contain each of your compositions. Ironically. The long view is hidden behind trees. Pack several thick and thin sticks of willow charcoal. details blur and colors grow paler and bluer. the less you describe. They are also good markers of receding space. Landscape drawings are traditionally arranged in three parts: a detailed foreground. but is often less evocative and engaging.
Exploring the view Redrawing the scene above. dark trees with bright. your view is your inspiration. Remember. horizontal regions of grass. full of information you can use to create what you want! Inventing drama . This composition turned out a little flat because I have an almost even quantity of earth and sky. rounded. I have invented drama with diagonals set against each other I tilted the earth. shadows. the trunk of a bare tree. and broke a view through the hedge into the distance with a dark sky threatening rain. It is better to give distinctly more pictorial space to one or the other (see below).207 LANDSCAPES In my second square I explored a simple view contrasting soft.
For example. on p p . and tiller still standing proud. taking with you your drawing book and pen.1 5 my first drawing of the whole view of the Tiber led me to see the real subject of the day. so the paper is not made blinding and your hand cannot cast a shadow on your work.104-05). The mud of the tidal shore in Rye. and seeing what the real choice of subject is. England has embedded within it the decaying skeleton of a burned fishing boat. observing it from several views so as to better understand it as a whole. s e e k places in light After my first drawing. engine. Building on earlier studies of structure in space using shoes (pp.164-65) and a wire violin (pp. I am then able to home in on what interests me most for further study. making the scene below led me to focus on the decaying boat opposite. your challenge now is to find a sculptural subject in the landscape. Similarly." . settling my concentration. "Drawing in the round means to literally walk around your subject. I usually begin by making an image of the whole view. which was the flow of water over rocks.208 ELEMENTS Drawing in the Round WHEN DRAWING IN THE LANDSCAPE. EARTH AND THE FINDING THE SUBJECT Finding a remarkable subject is even better when you can circumnavigate it in an arena of space. shade out of the glare of the sun. Circling a subject and drawing it from several views imprints on your memory a better understanding of its three-dimensional form. This first drawing serves as a process of arrival. 2 1 4 . bare ribs.
I looked more boldly at the planes and the dynamic of the sculptural craft My lines have become darker and more forceful as confidence in my understanding of the vessel grew. The outline ties a shape of darkness to the boat like a weight so that it becomes part of its form. make a series o f drawings f r o m different positions. and structure. w h e n t h e sea recedes.209 SERIES OF STUDIES This stunning ghost o f a boat comes into v i e w t w i c e a day. Overleaf: Decaying Boat 4 . marking straight. ROUND 2 In this tail-end view. I spent equal time looking at the subject and the paper. W h e n you have found your subject. its overall balance. Each n e w drawing gives a different insight. and the order and shape of its component parts. 3 This impression notes the angle of the broken boat. looking more at the boat than at the paper From this low position I have emphasized how the boat is swallowed in mud by outlining its shadow on the ground. character. I drew with quick. unfussy lines. careful lines to establish the skeleton that gives this wreck its distinct form. DRAWING IN THE 1 Here.
I worked quickly to catch and weave the turbulent contrasts of rising wind and approaching water before the drawing could be washed away. .Cloudburst THIS STORM DRAWING.20-21) using a thin stick of willow charcoal. L o o k i n g b a c k and forth from the heavens to firmly taped-down paper. m a d e on s m o o t h . was made with gentle but unhesitating s p e e d . hot-pressed drawing p a p e r (see pp.
since ancient times. . pulse. focusing on the river's eddies. On the pages of a small. I drew with a needle-fine fiber-tip pen. black. shaping the city. and rhythmic detail as it passed through the ancient gully of the city. pocket-sized notebook.Notes of Force T H E GREAT FLOWING TIBER RIVER has cut through Rome.
The strong diagonal of the composition from bottom left to top right carries the eye through changes of height and focus from the foreground to the mountains beyond. I used a dip pen and waterproof India ink with brushed watercolor to draw the view.Mountains SITTING IN THE SHADE of a tree on the Greek island of Antiparos. .
As you approach the classes in this chapter. and have been making abstract drawings for centuries—Japanese calligraphy. Museum of Fine Arts. Many concepts and feelings can only be expressed through marks. Artists were given a different tool—a line threaded directly from their subconscious to their hand—and with it they began to map a bold new landscape of marks and concepts that would dramatically and forever change the face of Western art. spontaneous image-making. Swirling. It also underpins and gives strength and unity to all figurative work. all pictorial representations are abstractions of reality. and independent means of communication. liberating. writer and composer who suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and was resident in the Waldau Aslyum near Berne. An abstract mark is often a better conductor of a thought or feeling. and it has always been with us. Indian mandalas. The growing rise of Darwinian ideas coupled with Freudian and Marxist perspectives forced Western society to reconsider its origins and future. for example. From another viewpoint. precisely because it does not have to represent a physical object. such as Adolf Wolfli. It was not invented in the 20th century. be brave and enjoy them. yet my kinship to abstraction is fundamental. From one point of view. it is simply itself. picturing a stabilized world was impossible and Modernism rode forth with vigor. expressive marks and shapes are at the core of natural. fictional language.8 cm) A D O L F WOLFLI Abstraction is a direct. and poetic myth roar and cascade within his tightly framed pages. People are often scared by abstraction and see it as the enemy of figurative art. Afterward. and Aboriginal art. and young children show us that abstract. belief. poet. Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape 1915 413/8 x 285/8 in (105 x 72. First marks. The fate of Old World thinking was finally sealed with the brutality of World War I. He made thousands of drawings to chronicle his complex life. Wolfli was a Swiss draftsman. However. only rediscovered. sounds. Internal workings of the mind were suddenly free to find a new language of expression. and emotion. It is actually its foundation and its infrastructure. drawn sound. direction.Abstract Lines T HE DEVELOPMENT OF W E S T E R N abstract art at the beginning of the 20th century significantly paralleled major changes in world thought. . Perhaps in Western culture we bred this intuitive freedom out of ourselves in our insistence on complex figuration. strike the paper to find form. which are essentially abstract. I begin every image by feeling its meaning. abstraction is not so easy to define. Berne. many nonWestern cultures have highly sophisticated abstractions at the core of their art. or gestures. My own work is firmly centered in figuration. Outsider artists. and history. don't be timid. actions. opposite. ADOLF WOLFLI One of the greatest masters of Art Brut. Not everything we know has a physical form in the world. His drawings are collected and exhibited internationally and held by the Adolf Wolfli Foundation. writhing torrents of color.
silence. Five forged steel shapes. water. Mamoru Abe prepares an image that will appear through the chemistry of iron. Lines. or. Abe works with materials such as soil. and patient watching. The Physical Space 1990 3 0 x 30 ft ( 9 1 4 x 9 1 4 cm) MAMORU ABE . MAMORU ABE Japanese sculptor and installation artist. Changes paper. and sensitivity with its thickness and pressure of touch. as Twombly shows us opposite. Damp Japanese paper was laid over carefully arranged iron bars. He travels widely to research ancient sacred sites. A Neolithic chalk tablet bears cut lines that were slowly carved. Sometimes it smolders like a deep shadow. Moisture produced rust. staining redbrown lines into the white surface. it can keep reforming through the inherent repetition of a process. and plaster in galleries and landscapes. Twombly's mesmeric wax line worked over house paint is like a signature. and temperature rim of floor space. Below. This the paper rest within the amplifies framelike of the floor from the ceiling. and texture their bracing separation reaching between from beneath Pillars of the gallery are made part of this drawing by their inclusion in the paper. iron. and wood are also part of the work. tone. Abe's physical drawing is a sculptural installation. and Assistant Professor of Fine A r t at Fukuoka University. forged steel. Iron rods in tone. akin to stones in a Zen garden. rhythmically engaged with itself. scrolling across the canvas in an intimate crescendo.220 A B S T R A C T LINES Process and Harmony SOMETIMES A DRAWN LINE sings on the surface of its support. sit in silent harmony. It can proclaim mood. salt. ice. A line can be finished in a second. quoting ink marks on a page. texture. brass.
theories suggest astrological observations. Twombly has language works CY TWOMBLY Contemporary American artist who emerged through the 1950s New York art scene in the heyday of Abstract Expressionism and Action Painting. and sensuous drawing from painting. CY TWOMBLY . evolved a raw. and Untitled 1970 Here we might seek to grasp letters in the turning of his line.241). Many of his graffiti-like combine abstract gestures with statements. and American Indian petroglyphs (see p. and the worship of the sun and ancient gods. energetic.400BCE 21/4 x 21/4 in (58 x 58 mm) ARTIST UNKNOWN Language Over the course of fifty years. This example is one of two chalk tablets found in a Late-Neolithic pit. that challenges the separation of word from image. Precise lines suggest the use of a sharp flint The framed rectangle of this image is echoed in that of Abe's installation. The central pictorial space is also similarly cut and divided by the considered arrangement of straight lines. burials. close to Stonehenge in Wiltshire. At the 2001 Venice Biennale. the Babylonian world map. emotive.England. PROCESS AND HARMONY Cut lines Chalk carves easily. such as the Rosetta stone.000-2.Thesite's purpose is unknown. Neolithic Chalk Tablet 3.221 ANCIENT CARVINGS Many ancient cultures have made and left behind drawings and texts carved into stones or animal bone.Twombly was presented with a Golden Lion award for lifetime achievement.
Ink impressions When drawing nightscapes Hugo often laid paper disks in place of the moon. o f t e n e x p r e s s e d in v i s u a l t e r m s . and participate in the composition. Similarity in gritty texture suggests that here. and inventive of his time. A graphic score is a V I C T O R H U G O Hugo's abstract French novelist w h o m a d e m a n y drawings in m i x e d m e d i a ( s e e also p. Both abstract drawing and composition involve the perfect sequencing of sounds and marks against space and silence. a configuration. interpret. said." An innovator who never fails to surprise. here he anticipates abstract expressionism by 100 years. abstract. broke new ground in the 1950s with graphic scores now considered among the most extreme. he mixed graphite into ink. too.222 ABSTRACT LINES Writing Time SINCE THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY. beautiful. abstract artists and composers unique. o r a pattern o f elements s o unified as a w h o l e t h e y c a n n o t b e e x p l a i n e d asa s u m o f parts. Bussotti.28. Marks across the center appear to be made with his fingers. and let the drying meniscus deposit granules in linear drifts such as we would see in the satellite photographic mapping of rivers. "There is nothing like dream to create the future.28). and lifted them away to leave impressions of watery planets and seas. music manuscript requiring instrumentalists to improvise. have striven to break down old pictorial and musical structures to explore new and unfettered modes of expression. opposite. The scores are also exhibited in galleries as visual art. brushed night skies over them with ink then lifted the disks to reveal white moons. Here he appears t o have saturated the cut-out moon disks with gritty pigment. drawing here can b e described in t e r m s o f a G e r m a n philosophical idea a b o u t is t h e i n s t a n t r e c o g n i t i o n t h e p o w e r o f m o m e n t . His drawing writes the time of its own physical process by expressing the extreme concentration of the moment in which it was made. below. pressed them face down. Gestalt o f an unnameable thing. Gestalt. Two Impressions Paper 1853-55 VICTOR HUGO Disk from a Cut-Out . Hugo. Texture Compare this drawing to Hugo's octopus on p.
we can feel their rhythm and easily attach sounds to them. 1958 SYLVANO BUSSOTTI . His later works become increasingly abstract. Bussotti's first mature work. This is a page from Due Voci. Following the notes.223 W R I T I N G TIME SYLVANO BUSSOTTI Italian avant-garde composer and principal 20thcentury exponent of the graphic score. Compare this work to that of Libeskind on p. Sound and rhythm This flickering rondo of sound written in pen on a hand-ruled stave can be heard in our imaginations as much as seen. Circular Score for "Due Voci" c. 70 in relation to Bussotti's clustered notes to the left of his rondo and open space to the right. a far cry from any recognized musical notation.
Torn cloth This is one of two published photographs showing Marie Leib's torn cloth strips significantly placed on her cell floor. it is found in the regularity o f ordered lines or a pattern. T h e s e p h o t o g r a p h s d o c u m e n t the meditative drawings o f two w o m e n living worlds apart in different countries. Visually. and sufferers of psychiatric illnesses—who have always existed. It will protect the place from evil and make a pleasing invitation to good spirits. This takes a form in most cultures. Germany. Lieb is one o f countless thousands of "Outsider" artists—diverse individuals including ordinary citizens. they m a k e a visual a n d physical e c h o that t o u c h e s s o m e deep part of the human spirit. an a n o n y m o u s w o m a n in the southeast Indian state o f Tamil Nadu m a k e s a ritual drawing o n the b r i c k courtyard o f h e r h o m e . Compositional rightness (see pp. MARIE LIEB Little is known of this w o m a n for w h o m the act of drawing was essential. social outcasts. for e x a m p l e .224 A B S T R A C T LINES Chants and Prayers WHEN ABSTRACT LINES are organized in repetition. O p p o s i t e . and c i r c u m s t a n c e s . making objects and images outside o f mainstream culture. Cloth is the simple instrument with which she has conducted and ordered her universe. cultures. In music it can be felt in the diversity of plainsong and African d r u m m i n g . Cell Floor With Torn Strips of Cloth 1894 MARIE LIEB . d i p p i n g h e r fingers into a pot o f rice flour. In the late 1 9 t h century.228-29) has been adjusted with each movement of the rags to draw a cosmos of balance and perfection. She tore c l o t h into strips a n d used these to draw patterns a n d symbols o n h e r cell floor. centuries. Marie Lieb w a s a psychiatric patient in the Heidelberg Asylum.
lime.000 images. among others.HUYLER Photographer art historian. Painted Prayers UNDATED STEPHEN R HUYLER . Popular magazines feature new ideas each week and on special occasions there may be contests. Motifs are geometrical or based on plants. Materials such as rice flour. Huyler is the author of Painted Prayers. lecturer on the subjects of Indian art and Indian women's identity. In daily practice.225 STEPHEN P. Skills are handed down through generations and from friend to friend. at the University of London and Ohio State University. chalk. cultural anthropologist. and birds. and for over 30 years has traveled extensively through the Indian subcontinent creating an edited archive of 200. and in places of worship and celebration. animals. or flowers are marked or arranged on the ground or on the walls of homes.Theseare widely published in journals and are the subjects of international exhibitions. Designs and motifs Rangoii (or mandalas) are ritual drawings made by many millions of women across rural India. women pride themselves on never repeating a design.
but similarities in mood. Ruskin School. Mixed media This is a collage of torn white and gray tissue paper previously stained with ink. Oxford. rocks or heads in a subdued atmosphere of dream. Catling's abstract drawings are usually made in series and in parallel to written poetry and sculptural installations. filmmaker Professor of Fine Art. and Fellow of Linacre College. They each find their pathways and equilibrium in atmosphere and suggestion. it is ruled and contained in one dimension by its interlocking ink-lined borders. Catling's torn paper shapes and shadows spill light out of their frame like a fractured mirror.226 ABSTRACT LINES Compositions ABSTRACT DRAWINGS ARE LARGELY or entirely free from using the viewer's eye to track and unfold layers of meaning. These two works present complex compositions with differing intensions and methods of making. and choice of hues. Catling's works made for international galleries and museums involve drawing as a tool in their development and making. free from the direct imaging of known physical things. performance and installation artist. figurative representation—that is. BRIAN CATLING British sculptor poet. Their energy can therefore be a purer expression of an idea or emotion. and water-resistant layers of spray and enamel paint on thick paper. Oval moons eclipse each other and oscillate between landforms and portraiture. Untitled 2001 2001 153/4x 215/8 in ( 4 0 0 x 550 mm) BRIAN C A T L I N G . With no depth of field. Klee's mathematical maze of thinly washed surface resonates with meticulous planning. gold paint and iridescent gouache mixed with water. structure.
Line and surface Klee observed the visual capacity of lines to push or pull within an image. Kunstmuseum Bern PAUL KLEE . Geometric harmony This is a work on paper made with a sharp ink pen. ruler. Polyphon Gefasstes Weiss (White Framed Polyphonically) 1930 131/8x95/8 in (333 x 245 mm) Paul-Klee-Stiftung. and wrote copiously about the natures and relationships of color and form. drew.97-99. He explained his polyphonic painting as "a harmony of several color voices" searching for a visual parallel to music. Klee painted. philosophized. We can see some diagrammatic examples of this among the optical illusions on pp. It is a geometric harmony of straight lines and tonally graded flat colors that by their arrangement draw our eyes inward to their white center. and brush.227 PAUL K L E E Swiss painter and sculptor (see also p. and might be read as active or passive. Klee also felt that a line represents the passing of time. watercolor. whereas tonal surfaces are perceived more immediately as a whole.31).
the impression y o u receive from t h e m . Feel for it when youdraw. As y o u m o v e them around. Seek it when looking at other artists' work and in your everyday environment. It is also found in nature. they reach a perfect position. and elements settle in definitive balance. It is found in all great art and design.228 ABSTRACT LINES Being "Just" A SENSE OF "JUST" (or rightness) is a difficult concept to explain. media." . In his b o o k The Education of a Gardener. There is a single m o m e n t w h e n all proportions. This balance is what every artist and designer searches a n d feels for when making an image. and ten straight sticks painted black. b u t e v e r y n o w a n d again you will hit on an arrangement w h i c h appears just. or on a page. s o m e will be more or less h a r m o n i o u s . regardless of style. angles. "Whenall pictorial elements come together in pleasing and perfect balance. W h e n m o v i n g objects around in your yard. w i l l c h a n g e w i t h e v e r y r e a r r a n g e m e n t .Thisexercise will help you start. and an apple. a glass. culture. a b u n c h of keys. they are just. but an easy o n e to u n d e r s t a n d . Set up a sheet of paper with a rectangle drawn on it. the late garden designer Russell Page explains. there is a clear feeling when. or degree of figuration. for instance. M a n y of their inter-relationships will be meaningless." SETTING UP Justness can be harmonious or deliberately discordant. and put them o n a tray. after being continuously adjusted. "I have experimented endlessly with this idea. or home. their impact. Take.
229 WHERE TO START Take ten sticks of equal length. Move the sticks out into the rectangle. which now becomes a tight frame. B E I N G "JUST" 1 Arrange your ten sticks in t w o groups of five. W h e n the composition falls into place. horizontals dominate the lower area." Move the sticks to find alignments and imagined perspectives. Arrange them so they touch or cross in a series of intersecting balances. suggesting a horizon. horizontals dominate the top. Feel for the rightness of their grouping and their relationships to surrounding spaces. Here. Remember the drawn rectangle is a part of the composition (see pp. A stick touching the rectangle links the composition to the frame. 2 3 In the step above. making the composition seem to float beneath.56-57). In the final step (left) there is an even balance. painted black. . as shown here. fix it with glue. Within a rectangle on a flat sheet of paper set about making a composition using no other rule than a sense of "just.
Youwill also need spare white paper. This principal also applies to three-dimensional drawings such as Gaudi's work with wire and weights on p. stain and dry a sheet of tissue paper using blueink... glue. ready-made depths and surfaces. Images and fragments torn from day-to-day life can be brought together to make a chorus of ideas and emotions.228-29). scissors. harmonious. "My understanding is that every object [or shape] emanates—sends out vibrations beyond its physical body which are specific to itself.230 ABSTRACT LINES Collage H E R E W E EXPERIMENT with collage. found or made items. an infinite range of voices and meaning. colors. and tones." (Russell Page) . or even strident. you start composing by adding or subtracting shapes and textures and using colors and tones to achieve the impression you want to m a k e — w h e t h e r dramatic or s u b d u e d . which is the shifting. they become a scaffold for the addition of further textures. correction fluid or white paint." overlapping placement of materials on a flat plane. and black ink.69 and Abe's installation on p. Once the ten painted black sticks are set and glued in place.220. a compass. or discordance. Cut or torn layers and shapes. feels "just" (see pp. To prepare for this lesson. colors and textures can be manipulated until their pictorial harmony. Returning to Russell Page. hard or soft. he went on to say ". Collage offers the artist a liberating palette of SETTING UP This lesson in collage is a direct continuation of the compositional lines made in the previous class.
Obscuring the blue disks. solidity. then cut out. 2 3 Torn white paper moved over the surface adds masks of rough-edged irregular volume. This can also give a sense of fragmentation or punctuation to the composition. Cut six small rectangles the same proportion as your whole image. and shadow to thepicture. they deepen pictorial space. . In the last step (left).231 WHAT TO DO Lay the final step of the previous lesson (p. four circles of blue tissue paper. correction fluid and ink marks add further dimensions. and with a compass and scissors.The single disk that is folded with its straight edge facing up appears heavier than those that are flat. draw. Glue them in place once they feel "just" Translucent circular disks of tissue paper give color tone. COLLAGE 1 Regular-sized pieces of white paper are moved over the surface to disrupt the even lines.228) in front of you.
Hitsuzendo drawings aspire to "breathe with the energy and vitality of eternal life" achieved through "a state of no mind—beyond thought.Zen Calligraphy HITSUZENDO." [Tanchu Terayama. is the practice of Zen through the calligraphic marks of a brush dipped in carbon ink. . Zen Brushwork]. emotion. and expectation. A MODERN JAPANESE meditative art form inspired by the teachings of Yamaoka Tesshu (1836-1888).
. discord is balanced against rhythm to create mood. These vibrate against washes of shadow and pitch-black mass. Lines made with a steel dip pen take on a scratchy nervousness.Nocturnes IN THIS QUARTET of semi-abstract drawings made with India ink. I flicked spatters of ink and rubbed the paper with a wet and a dry brush to achieve these effects.
Reading the place name I momentarily glimpsed an alternative meaning. which were widely distributed and influential in his time. and the faces of God have for centuries given artists a feast for the extremes of their imagination. Perhaps the Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 1485 121/4 x 9 in (312 x 230 mm) MARTIN SCHONGAUER most important conclusion in this final chapter is to advise you to develop your skills in parallel with the joy of your unfolding imagination. Fantasy is most successful when founded on strong and familiar visual logic. a Catherine wheel of drawn sparks spiraling around the quietly resolute saint. in the cracks of walls.Gods and Monsters OUR SACRED AND SECULAR need to visualize demons. which is to have eaten a nun—it inspired the drawing on p. scales. wings. we select details of animals farthest from ourselves and that are widely thought disturbing—reptilian and insect features. Humans are equally troubled by the imperceptibly small and the enormous. and deep fur—and we alter their scale. Neither should be slave or master. We watch with captivated pleasure movies such as The Fly. For example. Here. movie studios now brim with as many monsters as the visual art of the Medieval and Renaissance Church. sculptures. paradise. We then add substances we dislike: unidentified fluids. for example. Be inspired by the irrational comedy of word association or puns. aliens. a human-animal mix that implies this could MARTIN SCHONGAUER German painter and engraver who settled to work in Colmar Alsace. . England. Schongauer is best known for his prints. Star Wars. In the Christian churches of Europe. or strange. I was on a train passing through Nuneaton. angels. happen to us. We love our fear of the hybrid—ideally. Images we are now surrounded by bear testimony to the power and resourcefulness of their collective imagination. Depictions of God or of gods in the contexts of daily life. all of which originated as hundreds of drawings. To learn to flex your imagination. thousands of paintings. look for images in the folds of clothing. impossible. Lord of the Rings. and damnation are found in most world faiths. a collaboration between the two will ensure that your drawings glow with originality. Today. and stained-glass windows deliver powerful visual sermons to the once-illiterate populace. our eye circulates around a flutter of leather and scaly wings. our literate and more secular Western society still hungers for another world and to ravenously indulge its fascination for the marvelous. beasts. Throughout this book images are presented to excite and surprise and drawing classes created to increase your confidence. serpentine tails. feathers. or in smoke. The salvation of heaven and terrors of hell are represented equally—enough to make any sinner shudder.247. Monsters take advantage of both. and the Alien trilogy. When creating monsters. Feeding this demand.
In this ass. Many students leave white backgrounds in their work. Other drawn versions of this image are more savage and frightening. Francisco de Goya was a master of borrowing. which can swamp the subject Here. Saturn devouring his son. Los Caprichos. vanity. deranged masses. a wave to join Achilles' chase of Hector. whose impassioned work begins with light tapestry cartoons. and church murals. reading from a book of asses. Goya's plainly textured gray background pushes back the space behind the illuminated simply subject. it allows the mule to stand forward. He would be graceless if he stood. noisy seascape on p. Near the end of his life he made his "Black Paintings" on the walls of his home. such asinine behavior can be hereditary. below.220. Opposite. and exposed the superstitions. Opposite below. hags. They depict as if by lamplight the devil and witches. Goya later recorded the horrors of Napoleonic occupation. Compare his dark.240 GODS AND M O N S T E R S Marks of Influence marking the influence of one artist upon another. This act defines the vision and continues the line of spirit guides. Pictorially. Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 1799 81/2 x 6 in (218 x 154 mm) FRANCISCO DE GOYA . F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A Spanish court painter printmaker and draftsman. The high. In this softer aquatint he poses for his portrait Textured background The aquatint process has been used to great effect in making a gritty toned background. his lover a dog. Aquatint Goya has drawn a learned man as an ass. Paul Thomas's studies of Picasso and Twombly can be traced directly. This continuity enriches the making of art and our heritage. Visions experienced in front of the drawing sometimes instruct the making of a new one. quoting great paintings and popular culture to add cunning twists to his satires. we see the international icon of stupidity.30. and follies of court through copious graphic works including his best-known prints. and men clubbing each other to death. The title "And So Was His Grandfather" adds that should we not already know. barren land rising like MYRIAD CHAINS RUN THROUGH ART HISTORY. crammed tightly at his desk. rushing. portraits. a Shoshone seeking guidance and power meditates at the sacred site of a petroglyph. to Picasso's similarly tight. The well-dressed mule is cumbersome. Violent white marks symbolizing Achilles' rage resonate with the energy of Twombly's script on p. plain wall suggests a blinkered view of nothing.
" Each sacred image drawn into rock belongs to one of three realms in the Shoshone world: the realm of the sky. values. Parallel lines within the body of the figure are likely to denote power. Wind River Reservation. meaning "place of power. A vivid spectrum of energized graphite marks and a masterly composition give this drawing vitality and speed. ideals. by a supplicant in a trance of meditation. White marks like flashes of light are cut though graphite with an eraser to reveal the paper beneath. Achilles Chases Hector 1996 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) PAUL THOMAS SHOSHONE PETROGLYPH The Shoshone people of Wyoming name petroglyph sites Poha Kahni. of the earth. Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range UNDATED ARTIST UNKNOWN . It was made with a sharp implement. perhaps a stone. Wyoming. Simple wall stones cleverly state their cold solidity while also fading from our attention as the scene roars by. Graphite marks Here Achilles chases Hector around the walls of Troy before killing him. and personal and social struggles.241 MARKS OF INFLUENCE PAUL T H O M A S British contemporary artist whose epic graphic work questions and reflects upon issues of European identity. Thomas conducts his explorations in the mine of Greek and Roman mythology. or of the water Chipped image This is a sacred creature of the sky chipped onto rock at Dinwoody Lake.
and 16th-century Holland. Compare worked textures throughout the whole of this image to those found throughout Anita Taylor's charcoal drawing on p. We may feel safe so long as the eye looks heavenward. graphic artist. H e was influenced by his friends. the writers Joris-Karl Huysmans and Stephane Mallarme. crawl. The monsters of Bosch grew from his observations of beggars going about their trade in 15th.242 MONSTERS of the unknown is a classical and constant occupation for the artist. Redon explored the darker side of the human imagination through symbols and mysticism. The Eye Like a Strange Mounts Balloon 165/8 x131/8in (422 x 332 mm) ODILON REDON 1882 Toward Infinity . They float toward us like a horrid visitation. GODS AND Erasure In this charcoal drawing. ODILON REDON French painter draftsman. the shock would be extreme. Redon lifted them out with some sort of eraser. which sometimes—half-dressed and carrying a familiar trophy— stride. Children are also delighted to invent a monster or ghoul. to the right of the balloon. lifting its cranial passenger over a seascape of repose. and writer In contrast t o the light and visual accent of contemporary Impressionism. Techniques demonstrated on pp. and scuttle over all known reality. we see parallel slanting pale marks that might have been made with fresh bread—a very effective eraser used before the wide availability of rubber or plastic. T H E EXPLORATION AND DEPICTION Hauntings Grandville has drawn a scurrying zoo of half-known demons and animals that appear to have been stolen from the glass eye of the microscope. as he did the grass. Here we see how he evolved their injuries into new limbs and warped proportions. below left. Lifting out Fine strings of the hot-air balloon appear dark against the sky and light against the balloon. 115. Our subconscious can be drawn with pleasure and ease. Redon's eyeball balloon rises up. If it were to turn and stare this way.204-05 will enable you to produce a similar effect of white lines shining out of dark charcoal.
grimacing. The quality of the line is therefore uniform throughout. HAUNTINGS Engraving This is an engraving made so that Grandville's original drawing could be reproduced. Comic little headbands of waving hair express more hysteria than fear. Garden of Earthly Delights. and he illustrated the Fables of La Fontaine and Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe. sucker-faced creatures dash and trundle toward it They are drawn solidly to emphasize their earthbound weight. include The Haywain.243 J E A N I G N A C E ISIDORE GERARD ("GRANDVILLE") French graphic artist and political satirist. 1840 61/8 x41/2in ( 1 5 5 x 1 1 5 mm) GRANDVILLE HIERONYMUS BOSCH Dutch painter Bosch's highly detailed iconographic religious panel paintings. and Ship of Fools. Last Judgment. which is still available today. teeming with the exhilaration of unrestrained fantasy. A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects c. Smiling. His other major works include Metamorphoses du Jour (1828). Most of his work is in the Prado Museum. Light shines from the right. Les Animaux (1840). Quill and ink This typical Bosch monster is a quill drawing in bistre ink The phrasing of light and contour here is masterly. Madrid. Two Monsters UNDATED 45/8 x61/2in (117 x 163 mm) HIERONYMUS BOSCH . This image is from one of Grandville's best-known publications.
pinnacled. hatched lines. Dragon 1522 10 x 133/8 in ( 2 5 4 x 3 3 8 m m ) MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI . architect. and marble sculptures including Pieto. In her studio. Grimes' delicately cavorting figures dive into and consume each other. A snake eating its own tail is a universal image of the eternal and continuous. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI Florentine painter sculptor. Two previously drawn faces become humorous antagonists to the beast. she formed a series of ghostly pale. a stunning hybrid of a swan. David. However. snake. lion. and dying slaves. but in the seductive landscape of Leonardo da Vinci's oil painting Madonna of the Rocks. as we might expect. sometimes artists purposefully tie a knot in the configuration to disturb. gamboling copulations. They share between them the pleasures of inventing a hybrid beast. below. remembering the cavernous.244 GODS AND MONSTERS Convolutions THESE CONVOLUTED DRAWINGS were made almost 5 0 0 years apart. Michelangelo's dragon. Scaly. and engineer Among Michelangelo's great works are the painted ceiling and altar wall of the Sistine Chapel. muscular tension is carved out of the paper using layered. topple. Grimes found the genesis of her beast not among animals. phrased over the contours of form and bridging darker areas of shadow. wraps and coils its lithe body ready to strike or whimper at a touch. His entire drawing wrestles and weaves the viewer's eye into its retracting folds. Chalk and ink A quill dipped in brown ink was worked over black chalk on this reused sheet. the dome of the Vatican. and dog. Opposite. and play with its perfection and meaning. St Peter's square. poet. and mist-swathed land.
245 CONVOLUTIONS O O N A GRIMES British contemporary artist and professor of printmaking at the Ruskin School. each one iridescent and crumbly like a weathered while oyster. It is one of a series of fragile earth figures inspired by rocks. her under heavy here. Grimes exhibits internationally and features in the collections of the New York Public Library and the Victoria and Albert Museum. The image formed directly without first making a pencil outline. The large space around figure has been cropped Grimes drawings to flatten presses them. How Clever of God #84 2002 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) O O N A GRIMES . Ink-wash delicately gouache (smooth) and gouache brushed drawing on This is a and was hot-pressed Shadows The dark shadow of the Other the ink-wash earth was made with a brushstroke of ink laid into wet paper. boards finished paper. and the Camberwell and Slade Schools of Fine Art. details evolved slowly using a drier brush. Oxford. London. London.
3. Shorter brushes designed for other purposes run out of ink more quickly.H A I R LINER: Very responsive oriental-style liner This to the touch. P O I N T E D T R A D I T I O N A L WRITER: The ferrule is made from a small duck quill. It is capable of very fine pointing. SMALL JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with sable hair. and very fine lines. 2. Always clean them thoroughly. 12. flowing. and has a fine tip for detailed work. This design supplies the fine tip with a long continuity of ink 5. S Y N T H E T I C . How you care for your brushes will determine how long they last. and wrist into a fluid and soft touch. SYNTHETIC-HAIR S W O R D LINER: A lining brush with high ink-holding capacity and a fine point. POINTED SQUIRREL-HAIR MOP: With a synthetic quill ferrule and extra high inkholding capacity. between them. L A R G E R S Y N T H E T I C . all perfect for drawing and. Some used by master calligraphers are 2-3 in (5-8 cm) in diameter 11. ideally suited to drawing. This brush has a broad wash capability and can achieve a very wide range of marks.246 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brushes T H E BRUSH IS A VOLUPTUOUS and delicate weights. It is still relatively small in the total range of Japanese brushes. and texture. thicknesses. LARGER JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with natural hair held in a plastic ferrule on a bamboo handle. M T RA S AEIL . 10. making rt ideally suited to Japanese painting and small-scale calligraphy. with a fine point for delicate work 4. washes. SABLE-HAIR LINER: Made with ordinary sable hair surrounding an extralong. it has good wash capabilities. drawing tool extending the arm. the very opposite of pencil or silver point. SQUIRREL-HAIR S W O R D LINER:This brush has a maximum ink-holding capacity and an extremely fine and flexible point 8. Slightly less flexible than the squirrel-hair sword liner 9. 7. fingers. Some are bold. giving a variety of lines. The living marks of a wet. Suitable for wash techniques but also capable of very fine detail. SABLE-HAIR RIGGER: Made with very long kolinsky sable hairs. Brushes vary in size. it has good inkholding capacity and is very flexible. It has exceptional painting characteristics. and effects. others are as fine as a whisker with a gentle touch. needle-sharp center of kolinsky red sable hair. which holds long sable hair This brush holds large amounts of ink for long lines and points well for detailed work. shape. dense. JAPANESE PAINTING BRUSH: Made with natural hair.H A I R RIGGER: Made with long synthetic hair for fine-point work It has a good ink-holding capacity and is slightly more resilient than sable hair with more "snap. Soaps purchased from good art supply stores will gently cleanse particles of pigment that become trapped in the hairs or ferrule. 13. materials. liners. return them to their pointed shape. and hold prodigious weights of ink or paint. this brush has a soft drawing tip and small ink-holding capacity. SYNTHETIC-HAIR BRUSH: Bound in a synthetic ferrule with good inkholding capacity and good spring and control. ink-laden tip allow an expression that is beyond the linear. and never leave them standing on their tip in a jar of water. SYNTHETIC-HAIR LINER: This brush gives a medium line and is firm with a spring to the touch. and writers. 1." 6. The brushes shown here are a mixture of This is a selection of riggers.Theyhold plenty of ink and make continuous.
247 BRUSHES .
softness. and above all w h e t h e r the b r u s h is saturated with pigment or relatively dry. b l o w i n g h a r d o n t h e m several t i m e s t o disperse t h e ink ( c l o s e y o u r eyes if y o u t r y this. the texture and a b s o r b e n c y of the paper ( w h i c h m a y be d a m p or dry). It also depends on the angle at w h i c h it is held.35) into two tablespoons of water in a shallow. SETTING UP Blowing spots T h e s e t h r e e s p i d e r y c r e a t u r e s (above right and below) w e r e m a d e by d r o p p i n g s p o t s o f ink f r o m a b r u s h o n t o t h e p a g e and. splashes.246-47). I had left the end of the ink block in the water overnight to make it easier to dissolve. unglazed earthenware dish. A single brush has almost balletic potential to draw fine or undulating lines and curves. and type of its hairs. and spatters.) I . I rubbed a block of Chinese ink (see p. w i t h m y face close.248 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brush Marks A S I N G L E BRUSH will m a k e an e n o r m o u s range of m a r k s depending u p o n the width. the degree of pressure applied. Here I drew with a soft Japanese painting brush (see pp. and to make pools and stains o n the page. the speed of the s t r o k e . length.
w e see fine lines and s p o t s . BRUSH MARKS Wet and dry strokes A m o n g these concentrated drawings ink made into with the same w a t e r y lines. b l e e d i n g f r o m strokes b e l o w left. a n d b r u s h .249 Gritty texture T h e details o f t h e largest creatures b e l o w and opposite s h o w the granular texture of Chinese b l o c k ink. t h e effects of the b r u s h r u n n i n g o u t o f ink. . a n d t h e w a y it d i s t r i b u t e s w h e n t h e b r u s h is d a b b e d o n its s i d e .
Oxford. and used their detail to draw new creatures that might at first seem familiar. I borrowed small and fragile specimens from the University Museum of Natural History. .Monsters THESE LITTLE CREATURES o f i n k and i n v e n t i o n were b o r n out of animal and bird studies. until we look again.
showing us that gallery study is not just for the student and beginner. two of my own drawings show you how Goya's devil (below) is based on the shape of Murillo's boy on a horse (top right). . thin works made by Bartolome Murillo in Seville about 120 years earlier. and narrative twists. Among his "Black Paintings" in the Prado Museum. With further research. Here. Goya often invented his monsters out of characters seen in other painters' works. thin works titled The Witches' Sabbath and The Procession of St. Isidore. formal composition. Madrid. I found relationships between all four paintings in terms of shapes.Goya's Monsters W I T H CUNNING BRILLIANCE. Goya's witches have been literally drawn and evolved out of the shapes of Murillo's prophet and pilgrims. are two long. Through studying and drawing these great paintings I have discovered that they are based on a pair of similarly long. They are a pair and hang opposite each other.
. little comments on politeness and sexual politics.Consumed THIS IS A SERIES OF CARTOONS I m a d e s o m e years ago. Sometimes drawings come out of nowhere and surprise even the artist. drawn rapidly and with great joy.
A l s o called r i n g l e t shading. a n d given t h e n a m e Sho. tapestry. w h e n v i e w e d f r o m a specified point. t h e field is t h e a p p a r e n t a n d b e l i e v a b l e space inside t h e p i c t u r e . In t h e Far East calligraphy is a highly r e s p e c t e d a r t f o r m . T h e m o v e m e n t was started by a g r o u p o f French artists including H e n r i Matisse. A i r b r u s h e s are u s e d in t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c o m i c s . Bleed T h e e f f e c t o f t w o w e t colors running into one another o r o n e color applied t o a w e t surface a n d a l l o w e d t o d i s p e r s e . chance mark-making." D e s c r i b e s a p a i n t i n g in w h i c h t h e light s o u r c e is b e h i n d t h e s u b j e c t F o r e x a m p l e .m e d i a d r a w i n g . s u c h as a d r a w i n g o r painting. W o r d s o r symbols are Cold-pressed papers P a p e r manufactured with a "not" o r " r o u g h " surface. D a m p p a p e r is laid o n t o p . 2. Acid-free paper P a p e r w i t h a neutral p H t h a t will n o t darken o r d e t e r i o r a t e excessively w i t h age. See also Hotpressed papers. written with a broad-nibbed pen o r brush. n e w s p a p e r cuttings. Engraving 1. T h e name " n o t " simply refers t o t h e fact t h a t t h e cylinders are n o t h o t in t e m p e r a t u r e . Collage C o l l e c t e d materials such as c o l o r e d p a p e r s . p h o t o g r a p h s . Fixative Liquid acrylic resin a n d l a c q u e r t h i n n e r usually a p p l i e d as a n a e r o s o l s p r a y m i s t t o t h e surface o f a d r y . t o g e t h e r w i t h a t h i c k felt b l a n k e t T h e w h o l e s a n d w i c h o f l a y e r s is t h e n railed t h r o u g h t h e press t o m a k e a p r i n t D r y p o i n t is a very portable and immediate m e t h o d o f printmaking. L a t e r it c a m e t o m e a n h i g h l y c o n t r a s t e d light effects. for example. Crosshatching Parallel lines d r a w n across o n e a n o t h e r at right angles. and readymade objects arranged and stuck o n t o a flat surface.m a d e paper. a n d g r a p h i t e .The plate is t h e n r o l l e d w i t h ink a n d polished with a rag. T h e prints t a k e n from t h e s e plates o r blocks. A l s o c a l l e d t h e h o r i z o n line. Blotting T h e use o f a b s o r b e n t m a t e r i a l t o lift a w a y excess liquid. w h e n a p e r s o n is p a i n t e d standing a g a i n s t a w i n d o w . Camera obscura A d a r k e n e d c h a m b e r i n t o w h i c h an i m a g e o f w h a t is o u t s i d e is received t h r o u g h a small o p e n i n g o r lens a n d f o c u s e d in natural c o l o r o n a facing surface. U s e d as a c o r r e c t i n g device o r pictorial game. F r o m t h e G r e e k kallos. A f u l l . a n d attaches t h e m t o t h e s u p p o r t — f o r example. Conservation grade D e s c r i b e s a range o f materials t h a t d o n o t d e c a y and cannot be broken d o w n by insects. Deckle edge T h e i r r e g u l a r e d g e o f a s h e e t o f m o l d . usually at a n a c u t e angle t o t h e s u r f a c e . Blending M e r g i n g t w o o r m o r e neighboring colors o r tones t o g e t h e r using a tortillon.s i z e d r a w i n g m a d e for t h e purpose o f transferring a design t o a painting. Air brush A mechanical. in w h i c h parts o f an image are depicted v e r y brightly and dramatically against d a r k n e s s . Composition T h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e p a r t s o f an i m a g e t o m a k e u p the whole. Also called accelerated perspective. pressurized t o o l used f o r spraying fine mists o f s m o o t h c o l o r P i g m e n t is d e l i v e r e d b y a j e t o f air n o t t h e bristles o f a brush. in w h i c h t h e subject's distinctive features o r peculiarities are deliberately exaggerated f o r c o m i c o r g r o t e s q u e effect. Fixative lightly glues t h e d r a w i n g t o t h e surface o f t h e p a p e r t o p r e v e n t smudging. o r will o n l y a p p e a r n o r m a l . Fauvism A n early 2 0 t h . Field In a t w o . T h e b l a n k e t s g i v e t h e p a p e r its rough texture o r "tooth. F r o m t h e French v e r b coller. S o m e t i m e s f e r r u l e s a r e m a d e o f plastic o r o t h e r materials.c e n t u r y Italian t e r m m e a n i n g "clear-obscure." It w a s first given t o t o n a l paintings m a d e in o n e c o l o r — s e e Grisaille. m e a n i n g "beauty".c e n t u r y painting m o v e m e n t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e use o f b o l d . Calligraphy Beautiful h a n d w r i t i n g . as o p p o s e d t o t h e s t r a i g h t e d g e o f a sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has b e e n machine-trimmed. Bracelet shading C u r v e d parallel lines t h a t f o l l o w t h e c o n t o u r s o f f o r m . t h e l i g h t is b e h i n d h i m o r her. Eye level T h e i m a g i n a r y h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e a t t h e s a m e h e i g h t as t h e a v e r a g e p e r s o n ' s eyes. r a t h e r t h a n r e c o r d e d o n a film o r plate. p r a c t i c e d meditatively w i t h a brush. 2. A g e n e r a l t e r m t h a t describes t h e various processes o f c u t t i n g a design i n t o a plate o r b l o c k o f m e t a l o r w o o d .256 GLOSSARY Glossary Accidental drawing Random. Binder A substance t h a t holds particles o f p i g m e n t t o g e t h e r in a paint f o r m u l a t i o n . A l s o called m u s e u m g r a d e . It can also seal a silver p o i n t d r a w i n g t o p r e v e n t t h e oxidization (browning) o f t h e Drypoint A d r a w i n g is s c r a t c h e d directly o n t o a m e t a l plate w i t h a m e t a l t o o l h e l d like apen. pastel. A " s h a l l o w d e p t h o f field" m e a n s t h e p i c t u r e appears t o have only a shallow s p a c e inside i t Diffuse T o s o f t e n o r m a k e less brilliant. a r e r o l l e d t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders. o r o t h e r (usually large) w o r k — s e e Pouncing. so t h a t ink r e m a i n s o n l y in t h e g r o o v e s o f s c r a t c h e d lines. A h u m o r o u s d r a w i n g o r parody. A p o t e n t i a l l y h a r s h m e t h o d o f p r o d u c i n g t o n e s in a d r a w i n g . Cartoon 1." " N o t " p r e s s e d p a p e r is r o l l e d a s e c o n d t i m e w i t h o u t blankets t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders t o p r o d u c e a s m o o t h e r b u t still slightly t e x t u r e d s u r f a c e . p r i n t i n g press face up. Chiaroscuro A 1 7 t h . s u c h as a s c r e e n . R e m b r a n d t is a great master o f chiaroscuro. o f t e n d i s t o r t e d forms and vivid colors. It is p u t o n a Body color See Gouache. C o p p e r p l a t e engravings w e r e widely used t o r e p r o d u c e images b e f o r e p h o t o g r a p h y . Ferrule T h e s h o r t m e t a l t u b e t h a t s u r r o u n d s a n d g n p s t h e hairs o f a p a i n t b r u s h a n d fixes t h e m t o t h e brush handle. Anamorphic distortion Stretching an i m a g e across a p i c t u r e surface so t h a t it can o n l y b e u n d e r s t o o d . charcoal. Aerial perspective The effect of the a t m o s p h e r e o v e r distance as it lightens t o n e s a n d cools c o l o r s progressively t o w a r d t h e horizon. Erasure T h e a c t o f r e m o v i n g a n i m a g e f r o m a surface. Camera lucida A n optical device t h a t p r o j e c t s an image o f an o b j e c t o n t o a plain s u r f a c e so t h a t it can be traced. Contre jour A F r e n c h t e r m m e a n i n g " a g a i n s t day.d i m e n s i o n a l i m a g e . m e a n i n g " t o stick" Dry media M e d i a t h a t a r e n o t w e t o r o i l y — f o r e x a m p l e . linseed oil o r egg y o l k Caricature A representation Contour line A line t h a t f o l l o w s t h e s h a p e o f a surface. In t h e W e s t p e n calligraphy is u s e d t o c r e a t e f o r m a l a n d d e c o r a t i v e t e x t s . R o u g h p a p e r is m a d e b e t w e e n t w o blankets t h a t .
The surface can be reloaded or redrawn with more medium. the surface of the stone is made wet before being rolled with a thin film of oilbased printing ink. which give it a smooth surface (as opposed to cold-pressed paper. purpose. Hot-pressed papers (HP) Paper made using hot cylinders. A small image might be described as small format Horizontal images are often said to be "landscape format" (abbreviated G u m arabic The natural to"landscape"). and by artists representing stone sculptures in a painting. or synthetic material that are suspended in a medium to constitute paint. Lifting out A method of creating highlights and mid-tones in a drymedia drawing (such as charcoal or graphite). Dark tones are laid down first then an eraser or masking tape is used to lift away particles of the drawing media to reveal the lightness of the paper beneath. Artists can paint freely over dry masking fluid. Masking fluid Clear or opaque latex fluid developed for watercolor painting. Also refers to an additive used to control the application properties of a color Golden Section A proportion in which a straight line or rectangle is divided into two unequal parts in such a way that the ratio of the smaller part to the greater part is the same as that of the greater part to the whole. or spirit-based) is applied to a surface that is then pressed onto paper and removed to leave a print.The paper then bears a crayon impression or copy of the surface that was underneath it A number of Surrealists. graphite. Lightfast A term confirming that pigment in the product will not fade with exposure to light. with the area beneath remaining unaffected. oil-based printing ink is rolled evenly onto a smooth metal. Hatching (cross-) See Crosshatching. Giotto's Virtues and Vices in the Arena Chapel. it is the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work Pigment Any substance used as a coloring agent—for example.The degree to which detail is defined. Grisaille A painting in gray or a grayish color Often made by students as a tonal exercise. The ink attaches to the oil-based image and is repelled by the wet stone. Rubens used grisaille to paint small images for engravers. Picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. Gamut A complete range or extent Glassine A type of thin. Ground A wet solution usually of gouache or gesso (chalk and animal glue) brushed onto paper board. It improves the bonding properties Frottage A French term meaning "rubbing. Plumb line A line from which a weight is suspended in order to determine verticality or depth. rock. cadmium yellow hue. Pointillism A technique of using points or dots of pure color in such a way that when the picture is viewed from a distance they react Masking tape Invaluable. but each print will be unique. Negative space The space between things. to give the illusion of depth and distance. or can be otherwise used to create an image—for example. materials that produce marks on a surface.Theground provides a particular color or texture beneath the image. to describe a surface to which paint will adhere readily. pastel. glossy. which has a rough surface). enabling them to stick to paper It also helps to maintain a stable dispersion of pigment particles in water as the film of a wash dries. Objective drawing Refers to the concept of objectivity. or even a beam of light. Usually an academic drawing observed from life. After several intervening processes. format" (abbreviated to "portrait"). but in picture-making it is as important as the objects/subjects themselves. white.257 metal line. Monoprinting A direct method of printing in which wet medium (water-. . It is then peeled away. then rubbed over carefully but vigorously with a crayon. and is also used as a size. F o r m The outer surface of a three-dimensional object. Padua. shape. Lithography A method of printmaking in which a drawing or painting is made directly onto a smooth slab of particular limestone or a metal plate using an oilbased crayon or ink. Foreshortening A method of depicting an object at an angle to the surface of the picture. and it has a history in enamel work. including Max Ernst used frottage in their work. It is a strong adhesive. oil-. and translucent paper—a delicate material used in collage. Impressing Stamping or printing. This may be disregarded in real life. F o r m a t T h e size. This effect emulates what we see in real life. ink. Also used by artists' materials manufacturers to indicate the use of a substitute pigment—for example." A piece of paper is placed on top of an object or rough surface. Paper is then pressed against the stone to take a print. lifting out charcoal and other dry media. mineral.while secretion of the acacia tree. Alternatively. are painted in grisaille and appear to be made of stone. or a family of colors. Hairspray is an effective and inexpensive alternative. 2. A point of interest in a drawing. of the ingredients in inks and watercolors. and orientation of the image. sticky paper tape. Fugitive A term given to a pigment that it is not stable. Focus 1 . and gray drawing. work. used for fixing paper to walls and boards. Medium A generic term for art Key A painting is said to be "high key" when the colors and tones are bright and "low key" when they are dark or somber The term is also used Gouache Opaque watercolor Also called body color. and masking off areas of a drawing that the artist wishes to keep untouched by media applied above or beside the tape. so that (using vanishing point perspective) the object appears to change shape and become narrower or smaller as it recedes. Grisaille is occasionally seen in church stained-glass windows. This method incorporates the excitement of accidental and unpredicted marks. multiH u e A term for a color. Paper is laid on top and a rapid drawing is made on the back of it The paper lifts away to reveal the image on its other side. upright images are called "portrait which is used as a binding agent in many liquid media. or plastic surface. Papercut A type of collage in which flat sheets of paper are cut into an image. or for wrapping and protecting a finished piece of work. Monochrome Usually refers to a black. aiming to represent facts rather than an interpretation of the subject. It can be used with any wet media to isolate or protect parts of an image from further Optical blending See Pointillism. or canvas and allowed to dry before an image is drawn or painted. the finely ground particles of plant. and that will "escape" or change over time. glass. or a drawing made in any single color GLOSSARY Linear perspective A form of perspective in which parallel lines are represented as converging.
or the right-hand page in a book. Recto The front or top side of a piece of paper. Tortillon A short. Scale Describes the size of one element in relation to another Sepia A brown pigment taken from the sun-dried ink sacs of cuttlefish and used to make ink or watercolor The term is now often incorrectly used to refer to brown colors. nature of watercolor allows the white surface of the paper to Tonal scale A scale of gradations shine through. tight. Zen A school of Mahayana Buddhism that asserts that enlightenment can come through meditation and intuition rather than faith. Turpentine A colorless solvent distilled from the resinous sap of pine trees. watercolor. Zen brushwork encompasses calligraphy and painting. such as an inscribed sheet of metal.Thedrawing is removed. acrylic. glasses. using a brush. evolved by engineers and architects for the purpose of conveying W a t e r c o l o r A painting accurate structural information. pointed roll of white paper that is used to blend dry media. paper or canvas. Single-point perspective The most basic form of linear perspective in which there is only one vanishing point. Shade A that is color mixed (or toned) with black Shading A lay term for adding tone to a drawing. plum blossom. Sfumato An Italian term meaning "smoky. creating more vibrant effects than if the same colors were physically mixed together with a brush. or wood. Squaring up A method of enlarging and transferring an image from one surface to another. Although drawings can be made with wash alone. "Spirits" or "oil" of turpentine refer to the volatile portion used by artists to thin or dilute oil-based paint. pencil." Applied to the blurring or softening of sharp outlines by the subtle and gradual blending of one tone into another Sgraffito A technique of scratching or cutting through a surface of paint. or any physical object that can be stamped or pressed onto a surface to leave an impression." Materials for Zen brushwork include round brushes of varied size. Squeegee A rubber-trimmed scraper used in the screenprinting process for dragging ink across a surface. Still life A picture composed of inanimate objects such as bowls. Etienne de material) dabbed through the Silhouette (1709-67). Strip Core of a pencil. W e t media Any liquid media— for example. Pounce (a fine for an unpopular 18th-century powder of charcoal or similar French politician. and paperweights. Spattering A mottled texture produced by drawing your fingers across the bristles of a stiff brush loaded with pigment. plaster or cloth surface beneath. Vanishing point In linear perspective. and flowers. Underdrawing A pale preliminary drawing made prior to adding layers of another medium such as oil paint or watercolor Value The extent to which a color reflects or transmits light This is the equivalent of tone in a black and white image. Sketch A quick or rough drawing. Props An abbreviation of the word properties. in order to flick the pigment onto the image surface. a tightly folded piece of cotton batting can be used for the same effect. or ceramic glazing to reveal a different color beneath. Stippling Applying color or tone in areas of fine dots or flecks. in tone running from black to white or vice versa. Support The structure on which an image is made—for example. a point at which receding parallel lines meet Verso The back or underside of a piece of paper. or point on which parallel lines converge to give the impression of receding space. or mark using an inked or pigment-covered surface. orchids.258 GLOSSARY together optically. fruit. Technical drawing A universal it is often used in conjunction language of lines and measurements with line drawings in pen and that is used to make diagrammatic ink—for images. Zen paintings usually depict scenes of nature and plants such as bamboo. compound of water-soluble pigment. cut-out profile made along every outline of the usually made in black paper image. sometimes drawn from a and leaving only the pricked sheet of shadow cast on a wall. Volume The amount of space occupied by an object or an area of space in itself. Serigraphy Silk-screen printing. Size A weak glue used for filling the porous surface of wood or canvas in order to seal it. Subjective drawing A drawing that expresses the personal view and interpretation of the artist An invented image.Technicaldrawing has been example. commonly referred to as the lead. or watercolor paint. Viewpoint The position from which something is observed or considered. usually diluted with water and applied with a brush. design. Alternatively. Artists' prints are normally made in multiple. Pouncing If a large drawing or design (called a cartoon) is to be Shadow Darkness cast by the transferred to a surface such as a obscuring of light. A term borrowed from the theater. an ink stone usually cut from slate. a sheet of paper is placed beneath and pinpricks are Silhouette A flat. . The translucent Tint A color mixed with white. carbon ink. by imposing a grid that is then scaled up to a larger size. pointed instrument used for marking or engraving. or gouache. or the left-hand page in a book. Tone A degree of lightness or darkness. or pen. which are then called editions. Stylus A sharp. The crude material is called oleoresin. Wash A technique using ink. whose pinpricks creates a "connect-thepersonal pastime was making dots" replica of the image on the cut-out portraits. and chrysanthemum—which in Chinese tradition are called "The Four Gentlemen. to model areas of light and shade. Printmaking The act of making a picture. Zen brushwork This is an oriental meditative art form originating in China and practised for many centuries in Japan. wall or tapestry. ink. plaster. Named paper in place. meaning objects used in setting up a life model or still life. fine paper. giving it a brilliance.
to draw 80. 230 The Physical Space 220 abstract drawing 219. 242 to blend 205 compressed 122.13. 242 Brunelleschi. Basilius 47 Beuys. 220. 40-41 Durer's rhinoceros 26. 71 Blake. 180 Circular Score for "Due Voce" (Bussotti) 223 circus scenes 192-195 City (Bryan) 202. to draw 100 Cypripedium calceolus L. 205 Baltard. Statue d'Epouvante 90 calligraphy. 74.226. 241 action. 41 principal 186.163 body. 81 135. 243 botanical drawing 48-49 Boullee. 94 cylindrical objects.100 curves. 190 Caricature of a Woman (Daumier) 198. 113 bird bones 12.184.115 anatomical drawing 134-135 anatomical theaters 82-83 anatomical waxes 128 ancient carvings 221. 95 Chair Cut Out (Woodfine) 94. Brian 226 Untitled 2001 226 "Cave of the Hands" (Cueva de las Manas) 8. 90.133. 226-227 Acanthus spinosus 65 accelerated perspective 22. 202 cloth. 160 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object (Moore) 178. 203 Buffalo Hunt (Shoshone) 178. 180 blending: color 133. Augustin 67 Basquiat. 74 brush (es) 246-247 Japanese 248 for laying a wash 140 marks 248-249 to hold 23 brush drawings 14-15 Bryan. 81 cut-out model plan 94. 200 Bauer. 206.162 Conte. to express 39. 29 Hugo's octopus 28. 71 conte 112. 9 Chair (Van Gogh) 94.184. 26 geese 38-39 Gericault's cats 28. 38-39. William: The Circle of the Lustful 180. 247-248 carving see lines.50. Zen c 232-233 blended 133.51 All and Nothing (Taylor) 114. Mamaru 104. 13 architectural drawing 67-71 Arctic Flowers (Libeskind) 70. 204-205. 90 La Guitare.44-45 bird studies 12. 72 bracelet shading 122 Braque. to depict 156-157 Cloudburst of Material Possessions (Leonardo) 200.31 Picasso's horse and bird 30. 204. Victor: West Facade of the Church of St. 223 Circular Score for "Due Voce" 223 children's art 9. Etienne-Louis 72 Newton's Cenotaph 72. 75 Circle of the Lustful (Blake) 180. Leon: Bacchante 155 balance. 206 checkered floor 80. Franz 48 Protea nitida 48 Bellini. 250 Bishndas and Nanha: Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity 50. 244 head and neck 144 phrased 124-125 contrast: brightness 99 of media 30 tonal 96. 193 in lifting out 204. Nicolas-Jacques 54 contours 146. 157 cropping 56-57.117 Achilles Chases Hector (Thomas) 240. 30 sleeping dog 38-39 Stubbs's horse skeleton 26. 158. 13. 78 aerial perspective 206 airbrushing 160. 133. Joseph 113 The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland 112. 134 costume(s) 155 character 158-159 structure of 166-167 Cottage Among Trees (Rembrandt) 52. 71 Bacchante (Bakst) 155 background: color 91 textured 240 Baker Matthew: Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry 32 Bakst. center of 118 ballpoint 182.27 turtles 42-43 aquatint 240 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels (Leonardo) 12.198. 203 Landline 202. 244 and graphite 178 . 162 character: to capture 38-39.212 to erase 205 to hold 23 pencils 204 willow 114. 94 chalk(s) 53. Clare 203 City 202. 186 charcoal 114. 201 collage 111. 198 cartoon (preparatory drawing) 137 (satirical) 159. Giovanni 137 Head and Shoulders of a Man 136. 198. to model 110-111 border 51 Bosch. Filippo 67. 221 animals. Sylvano 222. 161 Akhlaq-I Rasul Allah manuscript 51. 137 Besler. 28 Klee's horses 30. 178 Cubism 67. 8 cave paintings 8.186 see also movement Adoration of the Magi perspective study (Leonardo) 74. 90. to draw 25. layers 53 chalk pastels 162. 9. 52 cotton swabs 205 Coup de Vent a Asajigabare (Hokusai) 198. 74. 128. 116. 111. 90 colored materials 162-163 colored pencils 162. 75.169 colors: airbrushed 161 background 91 A Abe. Hieronymus 243 Two Monsters 242. 139 Nanha) 50. (Ross-Craig) 49 to hold brush for 23 caricature 159.Index Page numbers in italics refer t o captions and illustrations Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity (Bishndas and 259 INDEX B bread (as eraser) 205. 179 Bussotti. 182. 222. 50.163 dry media 205 Blue Nude (Matisse) 110. Le (Hugo) 200. 165.44-45.89.163 graded 227 composition 56-57. 203 Claude Lorrain 202 Views from Velletri 202. Georges 67. cut Catling. 70 Art Nouveau motifs 91 Autoportrait (Ray) 138. 163. 199 Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya (Eisen) 156. 98. 189. 230-231 Cubist 90. Jean Michel 138 Self-Portrait 138 Bateau-Vision.
103 with eraser 103.69 Gerard. 162 Flaxman. 203 Hotel de la Suzonnieres (Satie) 70. 222 Grimes. Katsushika 199 Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 198.216 Durelli. 230 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction 68. 220 dry brush 234 234 57. Hans 133 The Ambassadors 116 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 132.109 Rhinoceros 26.116. 160 Faune. 223 graphite 54. Study for Plate 59 (Mucha) 90. 163. 799 Holbein. 99 etching. 160 as ground for metal point 140. Ron 161 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 161 160. Francisco de 131. 136 Golden Section 67 Gombrich.101 engraving 243 erasers/erasing 55. Victor 200. 7 33 Hooke. 223. 160 hitsuzendo 233 light to dark 102. 240 170-173 five Ships in a Port with Lighthouse (Wallis) 11. 765 hitsuzendo drawings 233 Hokusai.207. 205 drawing with 103. M. 77 How Clever of God #84 244. 160 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction (Gaudi) 68. Antonio 68. 71 minimal line 99 and music 70-71 quick 38-39. Oona 245 How Clever of God #84 244. 242 eyes.John 157 Man Lying Down in a Cloak 156. 222. 243 graphic score 222.112.37. 55. 55. 25 focus 65. 93 horizon 52. to draw 134-137 Helleborus corsicus 55 highlights 91. proportions of 143 fantasy drawings 72-73.115 exploratory 17 fantasy 72-73.160. Edgar 162 depth. 134. 29 H hands. 30 Fauves/fauvism 90.230 three-tone 140. 122.216. 141 tonal 96. to suggest 177 see also perspective diagonals diffuser 55 dip pens 34.198 Degas. 55. 240 Black Paintings 152. 122 Hawksmoor. Jean Ignace Isidore see Grandville Gericault.Theodore 29 Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 28.104. 135 Duren Albrecht 26.189. 252 depiction of fabric monsters 252-253 Self Portrait in a Cocked Hat 130. position of 22 Eisen. 137 heads.157 ellipses 100.121 felt-tip pens 162. 69. 91 Dragon (Michelangelo) 36. disposable pens 182-183 dissections: botanical 48 of horse 27 distance: illusion of see perspective linear 97 tonal 97 Documents Decoratifs. 226-227 anatomical 134-135 architectural 67-71 botanical 48-49 brush 14-15 dark to light 102. La (Braque) 90.184 165. drypoint 181 exaggeration 184 expressionism 198 E ye and Head of a Drone Fly (Hooke) 92. 69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt 68. 104-105. Robert 93 Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 92. 144 Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (Baker) 32.97. 69 Guitare.146 from masterworks 126-127. Nicholas 68 St Paul's Baptistry 68 head and neck to draw 142-145 Head and Shoulders of a Man (Bellini) 136.111 feet. 131 Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 240.244. 170-173. 113. 161 fashion 160. to draw 78. 79.252-253 from memory 183. 26 Flying Fish (White) 25.141. 163. 222 Le Bateau-Vision 200. fiber-tip pen 182. 52 foreground 208.91. position of 143. 69. Cheval et Oiseau (Picasso) 30. to draw 120. The 242. Antonio 135 Muscles of the Head and Neck 134. C . 241 to blend 205 and chalk 178 and ink 28. Statue d'Epouvante. 120. 161 changing 216 Focusing on the Negative (Walter) 16 foliage 52. 157 .103. 40. Rene 160 Illustration for Jacques Fath E easel.260 INDEX D Dada 139 Daumien Honore 198 Caricature of a Woman 198. to draw 168-169 in Goya's artworks face. Alberto 136 Portrait of Marie-Laure de Noailles 136.12 fixative 54.141. 37 Grandville 243 A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the Near-Microscopic World of Scale Insects 242.117 fountain pens 34. 124. 200 F fabric. 115 Escher.102-103 drawing board 20 drawing books 20-21 drawing paper 144. 112. 240. 161 fashion drawings 160. 134.244 drawing(s): abstract 219. 73. 216 foreshortening 110. 93 eye level 80 Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity.144 and ink 30. 245 Hugo.166 170-173 Gestalt 222 Giacometti. 203 semi-abstract 234-237 three-dimensional 68. 245 layers 30 Goya. 190 Middle Eastern 50-51. Sir Ernst 12. 245 Gruau. 90 G Gaudi. 125. 134. 41 in the round 208-209 with scalpel 202. Keisai 157 The Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya 156. 90 gouache 30. 202. 132 Frenz.160. 32 framing 139 Franfoise au Bandeau (Picasso) 132.
104. 220. 103 Neolithic chalk tablet 220.243 carbon 35 Chinese 30. Rose: Tantalus or the Future of Man 20 minimal line drawing 99 mirror use of 120 mixed media 28. 54 silver point 156 leg sections 158 length. Johan 32.182 Moore. Gustav 49 Knopf. 184. 35.134 K Kettlehut. 227 Newsome. 244. 178 motifs: A r t Nouveau 9 7 stylized 51 mountains 216-217 movement: of animals 30-31 of humans 7 79. Victor 134 Profile Head 134. 110 Sistine Chapel ceiling 116 Middle Eastern drawing 50-51. 156 magnification 93 Man in Armor (Van Dyck) 158. 49 Rose 49 Maelbeke Madonna (Van Eyck) 156.120. 111. Oxford 250 music 70-71 Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks (Knopf) 32. 203 landscape 206-208 brushed 14 Landscape in Hoboku Style (Sesshu) 14 layers 146 chalk 53 gouache 30 ink 28. Marie 244 cloth drawing 244. 230 invented creatures 106-107 250-251 invented objects 89. 28 Two Impressions from a Cut-out Paper Disk 222 Huyler Stephen R 225 261 Kinecar. 252 ink 16. 220. 53 Tree II 52. 97 Murillo. 220. 225 masking tape 204.Pieuvre (Octopus) 28.276. 34-35 acrylic 35 bistre 35. artistic 240-241. 33 J justness 228-229 N naive art 74 negative space 53. 60.The (Robinson) 108.167 line(s) 132. Daniel 70 Arctic Flowers 70 Lieb. Charles Rennie 48. Erich 73 design for Metropolis 72. 31 Klimt. 756 priming for 140. 37 lines 118 pastel 162 pencil 31. 219 Mondrian. 234 iron-gall 35. 242 light 96 to depict drawing with 1 76 painting with 176 . 181 Klee. I Murderous Attacks 33 Kollwitz. 248. 789. Henri 111 Blue Nude 1110. 36. Alphonse 90. 72. 181 luminosity 115 Lynch. 13 Cloudburst of Material Possessions 200. 160 In the Duchess's Kitchen (Rackham) 176. 158 Man Lying Down in a Cloak (Flaxman) 156. Matisse. drawing from 126-127. 176. Florence 128 lighting in 167 Pitt Rivers. 190 metal pens see dip pens metal point 25. David 78 M Mackintosh. Bartolome: Moses Striking the Rock ofHoreb 252. 177 influences.227 to "bend" straight 97 compositional 228-229 cut 202. 166. 78 Study ofThree Male Figures 110. 163 pens 36 measuring 116 memory. 757 mandalas 219. 252 Muscles of the Head and Neck (Durelli) 134. Henry 178 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object 178. 227 Scene of Comical Riders 30.96. 183 vertical 156 linear distance 97 linear perspective 69. 205 masterworks. 135 museums 44. 244 Dragon 36.112. 99.141 Metropolis (film) 72. 205. drawing from 183. 58-59. 226 Modernism 67. 159 Japanese 35 to make 36 sepia 35 walnut 36.91 Study for Plate 59 of INDEX illumination see lighting Illustration for Jacques Fath (Gruau) 160. Phyll: hands 18 lifting out 204.124.141. 201 head and neck sections of female mold for Sforza Horse 89 Madonna of the Rocks 244 perspective study for Adoration of the Magi 74. 201 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels 12. 63. 73 Kigell.115 98. 249 and gouache 30 Indian 35. Piet 52. 220. Oxford 106 Prado. 83 white 122 ink impressions 222 ink spatters 234 installations 176.102. 34.181 L Landline (Bryan) 202. Kathe 181 Losbrunch (The Outbreak) 180. 221 endless 31 free 113. 244 ink 36 252-253 Documents Decoratifs 90. apparent 97 Leonardo da Vinci 74. 77 Miller. 203. 114 hatched 244 layered 118 pace of 65 pale 40 rapid 49. 73 Michelangelo Buonarroti 48.33 Mysterious Affairs of the lighting 2 7. 244 lithograph 198 Losbruch (Kollwitz) 180. 74-77. 185 Mucha. Paul 227 Polyphonic Setting for White 226. 53 monoprint 787.109. 170-173.166 La Specola. Madrid 171 University Museum of Natural History. 76 Libeskind.109.
165. 4 8 putty eraser 55. 7 73 self-portraits: Basquiat 138. 219. 7 70 Ray.104 Pieuvre (Hugo) 28.37 scientific instruments 9 2 . 164. 782 relief 757 silk-screen 739 woodblock 134. 75 Two Courtyards 75. 242 reed pens 34. 38. 7 77 three-point 80.176 Real Life Is Rubbish 176. 1 1 7 aerial 206 linear 69. 40-41.2 3 age and youth sleeping subjects 148-149 150-151 Renaissance 109 Rhinoceros (Durer) 26. 203 Scene of Comical Riders (Klee) 30. 224 0 layers 31. Martin 238. 160.131 Cottage Among Trees 52. Isaac 92 Telescope 92 Newton's Cenotaph (Boullee) 72. 9 8 .36. 7 72 Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland. 732 influence of 240 painting with light 78. Bridget 98 Robinson. Cheval et Oiseau 30.199 Profile Head (Newsome) oil pastels 162. 227 portfolios 20 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser de Noailles (Holbein) 132. 36 pen and brush 8 3 pen and ink 70. 1 6 9 to hold 2 2 . 162 O p A r t 98 optical illusions 96-99 outline 33. 74. 1 1 6 accelerated 2 2 . Man 131. J 76 nudes 114-115 to make 36 metal see dip quill 34.54 pastel 162 perspective 1 0 0 . Georges 112 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 112. 36. Russell 228. 230 paper(s) 21 colored 162 drawing 144.Paul'sBaptistry (Hawksmoor) 68. 38.37. 2 2 0 for oil pastels 162 stained 230 to stretch 140-141 tissue 21. 243.141 prints/printing: aquatint 240 dry-point etching 181 engraving 243 monoprint 181. 244 reed 34. 241 Physical Space. 36. 36. Odilon 242 The Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity 242. Auguste 114 Two Women 114. 1 1 6 . 26 Riley. 1 6 3 . 78 single-point 74.37. 72 Noble. The (Abe) 220 Picasso. 734 Protea nitida (Bauer) 48. 76-79.240. Giovanni Battista 74. 9 0 . 28 pigment 162 bright 50 Caput Mortuum 7 4 7 for three-tone drawing 141. 739 semi-abstract drawings Style 14 Seurat. 736 portraits. 181 Rodin. 97. 141 Piranesi. Stella 48 Cypripedium calceolus L 49 rotated view 7 65 Rubens. 122. 163. Heath 181 The Kinecar 180. Peter Paul 126-127 Embracing pose(s): balanced 146 quick 118-119 positive form 103 posture: of artist 22 of subject 3 8 . 212 Japanese 2 1 . 76 plastic eraser 55.Tim.262 INDEX Newton. 759 P Page. 4 9 Rose of Mohammed 50. 91 outsider artists 33. Erik 70. 244 Q s Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape (Wolfli) 2 79 St.Toyo: Landscape in Hoboku .7 77 rapidograph 70 Raphael 110. 230 parallel planes 79 Parisian street 86-87 pastels 162 to blend 205 to hold 23 layers 162 pencils 162 pen(s): dip 34 . 36 relief printing 757 Rembrandt van Rijn 52. 37 38. 239 Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 238. 114 rollerball 182 Rorschach blot 99 Rose (Mackintosh) 48. 74-77. 7 76 receding space 206 Redon.52 pen and wash 158. 68 Satie. Faune. 57 Ross-Craig. 181 pencil(s) 54 charcoal 204 colored 762. 161.The (Beuys) 112. 71 Satire of the Queen's Dress (Wodall) 158. 52 pens 36 scalpel 54 drawing with 202. 243. 205 pointillism 112 polyphonic painting 227 Polyphonic Setting for White (Klee) 226.759. 36. 73 Noble. 159. Paul 73 Nobson Central 72. 1 3 2 quill pens 34. 166 fiber-tip 782. 772 234-237 Sesshu.71 Hotel de la Suzonnieres 70. 1 2 4 priming for metal point 140.oise au Bandeau 132. 733 Portrait de Marie-Laure (Giacometti) 136. 75 Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range 241 petroglyphs 221.226. 30 Fran<. 81 two-point 74. 165 figure 118 filled 37 pencil 48. 139 Real Life is Rubbish (Noble and Webster) 176. Sue 104. 216. 7 38 Ray 138. and Webster. to draw 146-147 R Rackham. 234 disposable 182-183 felt-tip 162. 239 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat (Seurat) 112. Arthur 177 In the Duchess's Kitchen 176.139 Autoportrait 138. 36.9 3 Schongauer. Pablo 6 7 . 205 157. 103.40. 34-35.184 fountain 34.
27 skull 747. 1 3 . 226 V Van Dyck. 202 violin.158 158. Jan 1 5 6 Maelbeke Madonna 1 5 6 . t o d r a w 5 2 .13 M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s m a l e figures 110. 75. 2 3 4 . 249 t o describe 39. W . v i e w s o f 85. 7 6 Two Impressions from a Cut-Out Paper Disk ( H u g o ) 2 2 2 Two Monsters 2 4 2 . 2 9 wind.1 9 9 wire. 9 2 Tesshu. 230 t h r e e . h e a d a n d n e c k sections o f female m o l d f o r (Leonardo) 89 shading 2 9 s h a d o w s 28. 2 4 4 . 2 4 2 w Wallis. M . 7 1 4 . 158 V a n Eyck. Sarah: child's m a p 75. 245 sharpener 54 Ship in a Storm ( T u r n e r ) 1 9 8 . Taylor A n i t a 115 All and Nothing 1 1 4 . 9 4 z Z e n calligraphy 232-233 contrast 96 t o grade 163 ink 37 pencil 5 4 t o r t i l l o n 205 T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c . phrased 146 tonal modeling 161 tonal range 169 t o n a l surfaces 2 2 7 tonal width 97 t o n e ( s ) 33. 161. 2 1 2 . 743 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City ( F r e n z ) 1 6 0 . 1 4 4 . 79. 65 symbols 138. 221 .1 4 5 .t o n e d r a w i n g 140. H e n r i de: Woman at Her Toilet 14 t r a n s p a r e n t v i e w 92. 206-207 202. 1 8 4 . t o d r a w 1 0 1 viewfinder 57 Views from Velletri ( C l a u d e L o r r a i n ) 152. 241. Man in Armor 1 5 8 .1 0 5 vision 9 6 Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects (Grandville) 242. 1 8 4 . 4 4 boat 209 botanical 4 9 G e r i c a u l t ' s cats 2 9 from Goya 170-173 125. John: Focusing on the Negative 14 w a s h . t h r e e . 199 shoes 1 6 4 . Vincent 95 Chair 94. 2 3 0 tonal contrast 96 tonal distance 9 7 t o n a l d r a w i n g 9 6 . 1 2 Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse 71. 240 Two Women Embracing ( R o d i n ) 114. Sue see N o b l e .41. 6 9 Wodall. t o d r a w 2 0 0 . 69. 102-103 tonal marks. 7 77. A n t h o n y 152. 57. 170 shoes 1 6 4 stylized m o t i f 51 Summer Flowers 63. 1 4 1 . t o draw 1 9 8 .Yamaoka 233 t e x t u r e 2 2 2 .Sforza Horse.1 4 1 . 76. 2 7 studies: b i r d s 7 2 .125 W o o d f i n e . 1 4 5 travel journal 2 0 . 104-105. 199. Paul 2 4 1 Achilles Chases Hector 2 4 0 . 174 T w o m b l y .s c r e e n p r i n t i n g 139 silver p o i n t 1 4 0 .2 1 3 Stubbs. A l f r e d 1 1 .1 6 5 shorthand diagram 142 Shoshone buffalo hide painting 178. 7 75 Telescope ( N e w t o n ) 9 2 . Augustin ( B a l t a r d ) 6 7 w e t and dry brush-strokes 2 4 9 Turner. 96. 7 70 Tiber 214-215 Untitled ( T w o m b l y ) 2 2 0 . 7 79 Shoshone petroglyph 240. Adolf: Giant-Grape Saint-Mary-Castle 219 Woman at Her Toilet ( T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c ) 74 w o o d b l o c k print 157. drawing with 104-105 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt ( G a u d i ) 68. 9 5 pens 36 v a n i s h i n g p o i n t 74. 156 layers 7 5 6 priming for 140. 725 fabric 1 6 8 T h o m a s . 1 4 0 . 49. 156 Van Gogh. William 159 Satire of the Queen's Dress INDEX 226. 159 Wolfli.9 1 storms.243 Leonardo's machines 12. 1 9 9 . 1 4 1 w a t e r c o l o r 25.216 W e b s t e r .12 W a l t e r . 7 9 0 vessels. 75 Skeleton of the Horse ( S t u b b s ) 26. 2 2 0 influence o f 2 4 0 Untitled 220.2 0 1 . 97. 74. John 25 Flying Fish 25 Wild Striped Cat Sketches of ( G e r i c a u l t ) 28. 7 6 1 spots. t o lay 1 4 0 . Study of (Michelangelo) 110. 53 trees. 77.5 3 in l a n d s c a p e 2 0 6 .199 tissue p a p e r 21. 1 7 7 free 8 0 V e n i c e .1 8 5 Tree II ( M o n d r i a n ) 52. b l o w n 248 steel p e n s see d i p p e n s still life 89. C y 138. G e o r g e 2 7 Skeleton of the Horse 26. 243 (Bosch) T Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos ( G o y a ) 2 4 0 . 1 9 9 Two Courtyards (Piranesi) 75.241 s i l k . 69.d i m e n s i o n a l 1 0 4 . 2 2 7 Untitled 2001 ( C a t l i n g ) u 263 W h i t e . Sarah 9 4 Chair Cut Out 94. 1 6 .d i m e n s i o n a l d r a w i n g 68. 9 0 . T i m W e s t Fagade of the Church of St. 164. 2 0 0 Ship in a Storm 1 9 8 . 141 Three Male Figures. 1 6 6 t r a p e z i u s m u s c l e 142.120.J. 115.141 S i m b l e t . 2 4 7 t h r e e . 182. 186. 2 2 6 .
2 4 5 : Oona Grimes. O o n a G r i m e s . S i m o n L e w i s .co. Copyright Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens. 226: Brian Catling. 115: Anita Taylor. © Tate. Anders/ © D A C S 2 0 0 5 . Diana Bell. 2 7 : Royal Academy of Arts. H a m b u r g . c o . L o n d o n (t). K e w ft)). L o n d o n . u k / T o k y o National M u s e u m . London/Bequeathed by Charles Landseer. 9 0 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/© A D A G P . M a n d y Earey. 7 0 : Studio Daniel L i b e s k i n d . Paris and D A C S . Patty Stansfield.bridgeman. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. Carole A s h .a. Illustrated London News Picture Library/The Bystander (b). D a w n Henderson. 1 3 8 : © Christie's Images Ltd/© A D AGP. for s u p p l y i n g the d r a w i n g books. F i n n . Paris. 9 7 6 ) . u k / O n Loan to the H a m b u r g Kunsthalle. . c o . R . Sir Brinsley F o r d .co. 9 1 : www. B M G . 9 4 : Sarah Woodfine. Angela Palmer. Rocio Arnaez. 6 6 : w w w . 1929 (29. Pamela Ellis for compiling the index.co.bridgeman. 72: akg-images. 177: Mary Evans Picture Library. Antonia Cunliffe Davis. 1 3 5 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. 2 6 : Topfoto. H e a t h e r M c C a r r y . Madrid. 2 2 3 : Lebrecht Music and Arts Photo Library/Ricordi. T o n y G r i s o n i . Jackie Douglas. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. Germany/Joerg P. Paris. 51: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. and Tamsin Woodward Smith. Havemeyer. 13: www. L o n d o n . 1 3 4 : © T h e British Museum. J a c k a n d Brian Catling. 5 0 : Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (1). b r i d g e m a n . G i n a R o w l a n d . Flossie.bridgeman. Toulouse.bridgeman.uk/British Museum. 9 3 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. 9 5 : V a n Gogh M u s e u m .939). 111: Fondation Beyeler/Riehen (Bale)/© Succession H Matisse/DACS 2005. Paula Regan. 73: Berlin F i l m Museum (t).co. Sarah Woodfine.co. Basel. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin/Jorg P.uk/Musee des Augustins. Corporation of London. 1 0 8 : Arts C o u n c i l Collection. 2 4 : © T h e British Museum. Germany. 1 3 6 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Centre Pompidou-MNAM-CCI. 176: Modem Art. G e r m a n y .uk/Mucha Trust. H . 3 1 : Tom Powel Imaging.co. 199: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee des arts asiatiquesGuimet.264 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Acknowledgments Author's Acknowledgments: T h e author wishes to thank the following people for their enormous help. A n n a P l u c i n s k a . H e l e n S h u t t l e w o r t h . F r a n c e .uk/Private Collection. T h e R u s k i n School of D r a w i n g a n d Fine A r t . Orientabteilung/Ruth Schacht. L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . Paris. 69: Institut Amatller d'Art Hispanic (tl). Portugal. P h y l l Kiggell. Fund./© D A C S 2 0 0 5 ( t ) . 1 . George M c G a v i n . Peter L u f f . 2 1 8 : Adolf-Wdlfli-Stiftung. Dover Publications/ISBN: 0486229912 (t). Berlin/Staatsbibliothek zu A l l other images © Sarah Simblet . 2 0 1 : T h e Royal Collection © 2 0 0 2 H e r Majesty Queen Elizabeth I I . University of Cambridge. Productions Clovis Prevost (c).bridgeman. Paris. 130: The Metropolitan M u s e u m of Art/Robert L e h m a n Collection. B e r l i n . 3 3 : Prinzhom Collection. L e n .Strang Print Room ( b ) . 2 0 0 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. Sammy De Grave. Kunstmuseum Bern. A . Paris. J o h n Walter. 49: Hunterian Museum (t). Also.bridgeman. Julie O u g h t o n . 2 4 0 : w w w . a n d encouragement i n m a k i n g this book: M a m o r u Abe. 5 3 : Collection of the Gemeentemuseum D e n Haag/Mondrian Trust.uk/Private Collection. 2 3 8 : akg-images. 1 5 : w w w . Andy Crawford. Maureen Paley Interim Art (b).bridgeman. . 2 2 4 : P r i n z h o m Collection.bridgeman. Winthrop. J o n Roome. Wolfson College. support. 221: Gagosian Gallery/Private Collection (b). Paris/ © Succession Picasso / D A C S 2005. A n d y C r a w f o r d for p h o t o g r a p h y a n d L . Agnieszka Mlicka. O. K u n s t m u s e u m Bern/© D A C S 2 0 0 5 .uk /Biblioteca Nacional. Florence/MoMA. 158: Calouste Gulbenkian Museum. 75: © The British Museum (b).100. Paris. b r i d g e m a n . Clare Bryan.uk/Guildhall Library. Natalie G o d w i n . Japan. Carlo O r t u for picture research s u p p o r t ./Galerie Sylvie Nissen. 243: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. Anita Taylor. University of Oxford. London/courtesy of Stuart Shave. R o s e m a r y S c o u l a r .co./Private Collection/© D A C S 2005. 2 0 2 : © T h e British Museum. 29: Fogg A n Museum/Collections Baron de Vita: Grenville L.co. 1 5 6 : Graphische S a m m l u n g Albertina. Christopher Davis. 1 6 0 : Rene G R U A U s. Magdalene College Cambridge. 157: U C L Art Collections . Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. 1 1 0 : www. L o n d o n . NY. K e v i n a n d Rebecca Slingsby. K u n s t m u s e u m . a n d brushes o n pp. J o h n Roberts. Psychiatric Institute of the University of Heidelberg. 2 4 4 : Ashmolean Museum. 1 7 8 : © T h e British M u s e u m / H e n r y Moore F o u n d a t i o n . 2 2 7 : Paul Klee Stiftung. 4 6 : B r i t i s h Library. 30: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. Picture Credits 8: Corbis/Hubert Stadler. 225: Stephen P Huyler. Kirsten Norrie. Amsterdam. 1 9 8 : Dover Publications. 132: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. B e m d Kunzig. 88: www. 1 9 6 : Museum of the History of Science.Paris ( b ) . Oxford. 181: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. Psychiatric Institute of the U n i v e r s i t y of Heidelberg. A . Berlin (b). 2 0 3 : Clare Bryan (t).bridgeman. B e r l i n . 1 6 1 : D C C o m i c s I n c . U K . Paris a n d D A C S . 174: Artothek/Munich. Sophie Laurimore.uk/Kettle's Yard.co. G e r m a n y . 1 3 3 : Artothek/Kupferstichkabinett. 112: Yale University A r t Gallery/Everett V Meeks. 2 2 2 : Pierre Georgel/Private Collection.uk/Private Collection. Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (t). 2 4 1 : Corbis/David M u e n c h ( b ) . 3 2 : Pepys Library.co. Paul T h o m a s ( t ) . Paris a n d D A C S . 139: Galerie Marion Meyer/© Man Ray Trust / A D A G P . b r i d g e m a n .20-21 a n d 246-47. Publisher's Acknowledgments Dorling Kindersley w o u l d like to thank Caroline H u n t for editorial contribution. Sarah D u n c a n . c o . Staatliche Museen z u Berlin. H a y w a r d Gallery. London 2005. K a t h r y n W i l k i n s o n . 1975 ( 1 9 7 5 . R o y a n d D i a n n e Simblet. (r). Roddy Bell. 114: Musee Rodin. Inc. Jean Pierre Roy. L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . 1879. 7 1 : I M E C / A r c h i v e s E r i k Satie.uk /© Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery. 113: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. Graphische Sammlung. France. 1901. 2 4 2 : Photo Scala. L o n d o n . 137: © The British Museum. Angela W i l k e s . 68: www. 1 9 : Getty Images/© Succession Picasso / D A C S 2 0 0 5 . 9 2 : Science Photo L i b r a r y . Salisbury & South W i l t s h i r e M u s e u m ( t ) . 5 2 : T h e Metropolitan Museum of Art/Bequest of Mrs. Paul T h o m a s . Lisbon. 1 5 4 : akg-images/Musee National d'Art Moderne. papers. Anders. 16: www. 74: Corbis. 4 8 : T h e N a t u r a l H i s t o r y M u s e u m . C o r n e l i s o n & Son. U K . 11: www. 2 2 0 : Mamaru Abe. Italy. u k / L o u v r e . R u t h P a r k i n s o n . 179: www. 180: www.l. a n d D e p a r t m e n t s o f E n t o m o l o g y a n d Zoology at the University of Oxford. L o n d o n . 1 5 9 : Bodleian Library. B . 2 8 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. 17: J o h n Walter.r.
and tone. Learn from the Masters—a rich selection of drawings illustrates different approaches to a wide range of subjects.com Discover more at . Materials and Techniques—how to use a variety of materials—from pencil and ink to pastel.FOR THE ARTIST T h e c o m p l e t e g u i d e to drawing—a unique blend of practical teaching and inspirational insights into classic and contemporary drawings. discover new ideas. and silverpoint—and apply the key elements of drawing including perspective. and improve your drawing skills. Creating a Sketchbook—Sarah Simblet's drawings inspire you to explore different subjects and fill your own sketchbooks. shape.dk. www. D r a w i n g C l a s s e s — d e t a i l e d step-by-step demonstrations show you how to develop your natural talents. charcoal.
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