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FOR T H E ARTIST
FOR THE ARTIST
LONDON • NEW YORK MELBOURNE • MUNICH • DELHI Senior Editor Paula Regan Senior Art Editor Mandy Earey Art Editor Anna Plucinska Managing Editor Julie Oughton Managing Art Editor Heather McCarry Art Director Peter Luff Publishing Director Jackie Douglas Production Joanna Bull DTP Designer Adam Walker Picture Research Sarah Smithies US Editor Christine Heilman First American Edition, 2 0 0 5 First Paperback Edition, 2 0 0 9 Published in the United States by DK Publishing 3 7 5 Hudson Street New York, New York 1 0 0 1 4 10 11 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3
6 8 20 22 Master Builders The Order of Sound Future Fictions Pathways of Sight Single-Point Perspective Creating an Imaginary Space Further Aspects of Perspective Theaters Venetian Life Parisian Street
68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86
Foreword Introduction Drawing Books and Papers Posture and Grip
Objects and Instruments
TD075-July 2009 Copyright © 2 0 0 5 Dorling Kindersley Limited Text and authors artworks © Sarah Simblet 2 0 0 4 Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited A Cataloging-in-Publication record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN 9 7 8 - 0 - 7 5 6 6 - 5 1 4 1 - 1 Color reproduction by GRB, Italy Printed and bound in China by Toppan
Still Life Instruments of Vision Bench Marks Light and Illusions Further Illusions How to Draw Ellipses Tonality Drawing with Wire Artifacts and Fictions
90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106
Documentaries Presence and Mood Movement Icon and Design Pen and Ink Drawing with Ink Capturing Character Sleeping Dogs Turtles Dry Birds
26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44
Postures and Poses Choreographs Passion Measurement and Foreshortening Quick Poses Hands and Feet Charcoal Hands Phrasing Contours The Visual Detective La Specola
110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128
Plants and Gardens
Botanical Studies Jeweled Gardens Fast Trees Graphite and Erasers Cropping and Composition Negative Space Fig Tree Summer Flowers Acanthus Spinosus
48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64
Discover more at
Projections Magnetic Fields The Human Condition Disposable Pens The Travel Journal Catching the Moment Grand Canal Crossings Caravans The Big Top
174 Abstract Lines
176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 Process and Harmony Writing Time Chants and Prayers Compositions Being "Just" Collage Zen Calligraphy Nocturnes
220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234
Poise Anatomies Revelations Self-Portraits Silver Point Head and Neck Essential Observations Drawing Portraits Generations Castings
132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 152
Earth and the Elements
Air in Motion Storms Nature Profiles Charcoal Landscapes Drawing in the Round Decaying Boat Cloudburst Notes of Force Mountains
198 200 202 204 206 208 210 212 214 216
Gods and Monsters
Marks of Influence Hauntings Convolutions Brushes Brush Marks Monsters Goya's Monsters Consumed Glossary Index Acknowledgments
240 242 244 246 248 250 252 254 256 259 264
Cloth and Drapery Character Costumes Femmes Fatales Colored Materials Study and Design The Structure of Costume Textures and Patterns Dressing Character Posture Carving
156 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172
aspirations. night security staff. Chosen in any color. a composer notating a musical score. as a visiting professor at universities. These inspirations led me to invent museums. or a quantum physicist trying to see for themselves the fluctuations of our universe. It is my love of these. Drawing occupies a unique place in every artist and creator's life. a sculptor. art schools. I also make drawing books. and local c o m m u n i t y classes. Drawing is a mirror through which I understand my place in the world. It makes me feel excited to be alive. and size. Augustine his notes on memory. remain unseen by most. we have looked at. and a reflector of experience. not only to make art. a cartographer charting the land. Some are more traditionally framed and hung in galleries for solo or group exhibitions. and I refer back to them for years after they are made. They occupy a shelf in my studio. especially as travel journals. Others can be held in the h a n d or. I was training in anatomy and studying how. where spaces are shaped by nothing more than the objects and activities contained within them. doctors. perhaps hidden on a door hinge or a street bench rail. and their importance to so many artists. Some of my drawings cover entire walls. shape. I work with people of diverse ages. Combine these things and the possibilities are endless. and experience. texture. but because it is how I engage with and anchor myself in life. The very first step is to believe it.Foreword B Y DRAWING THE WORLD AROUND US. are made outside as discreet installations. thinking. where I expect them to be discovered by some people. I was also reading among The Confessions of St. still standing by the door. we learn to feel truly alive. I will always draw. by invitation. a drawing book is the perfect portable private vehicle for your imminent exploration of drawing. undergraduates to fellow professors. For me personally. It is a tool for investigating ideas and recording knowledge. who tells me firmly upon approach that they cannot draw. . through history. be they a child discovering their vision and dexterity. and feeling. or engineer. in which he describes himself flying and diving in his imagination through pictorial caverns of knowledge. drawing is the immediate expression of seeing. By using our imaginations. we learn to see it. and through which I can see how I think. I know that with their cooperation I can soon prove them wrong. and in a few sessions they will be flying. For twelve years I have enjoyed the privilege of teaching drawing. of Sketch Book for the Artist. geologists. from schoolchildren to senior citizens. They enfold their viewer and are made on joined sheets of paper that I reach by climbing ladders. We can all learn how to draw. and be slowly washed or worn away. that inspired the title and structure MEMORY T H E A T E R S This pen-and-ink drawing was made from imagination during research for my PhD. fashion designer. understood (and often misunderstood) our own bodies. and makers of special effects. architect. The most rewarding challenge is always the newcomer.
000-9500 bce . scrawling shapes and cartoons when on the telephone. and in meetings. Rio Pinturas 13. waving to us from many thousands of yearsago. logos.8 INTRODUCTION Where We Begin There is a fundamental drive in our human nature to make a mark. We can always read each others drawings. Children cannot be restrained from running across the pristine white lawn of newly fallen snow. irreverent to language barriers. but more often because drawing actually helps us to focus and take in what is said. is not afforded us by drawing. not just chosen pictures on our walls but everywhere—maps. graffiti. and we spend our lives reading it. At home and at work we doodle. Drawing is international. a great crowd is raising their hands in greeting. "CAVE OF THE HANDS" In this drawing. We are surrounded by drawings in our daily lives. packaging. in lectures. and patterns on our clothes. Cueva de las Marios. inscribing every fresh part of it with their eager scrapes and trails. They have a natural affinity to many modern graffiti signatures. like a great canvas for them to mark.Theseancient silhouettes were drawn with earth pigments rubbed onto rock. Sometimes we draw because we are bored. The sense of relief we may feel from the information overload of modern commercial life when visiting a country in which we can no longer read every written word. Most adults still feel that certain exquisite pleasure on arriving at a beach to find the tide out and the sand perfect. We are bombarded with linear and tonal pictorial information. signs.
reflecting my experience of looking closely at my father's face. On a particular afternoon in September 1974. we see our oldest surviving images. and the appearance of my strikes of colors. Eyelashes take up as much of my attention as the head itself. Cave art was not made for decoration but as a fundamental part of life. and belonging to place. like all toddlers. an expression of existence. power. enjoying the physical sensation of crayon on paper." Until this day. I now think this is a picture of proximity. the hair of my first portrait was most important.9 WHERE WE BEGIN FIRST PORTRAIT For sorre forgotten reason. . In cave paintings like the one opposite. and she kept it as my first step beyond the delighted realms of scrawl. She gave me a notepad and a red crayon and asked me to draw her "a picture of Daddy. Even though it is made by a toddler this image would be recognizable to anyone. The image above is what I gave back to my mother. had happily scribbled. who in their day-to-day hardship made time to picture themselves and the animals on which they depended. but I had never yet attempted to figuratively picture my world. MAKING OUR MARK It seems reasonable to assume that we have engaged in pictorial mark-making for as long as we have made conscious use of our hands. I. I was sitting with my mother. created by societies of hunter-gatherers. at age two-anda-half.
and this activity plays a vital role in their d e v e l o p m e n t . to help a stranger see their way W h e n taking first steps in relearning h o w to draw. b e p r o u d o f what m a k e s y o u r w o r k individual to y o u . and from that first unit build and describe the shape of something or someone we know. Hours are lost immersed in the glorious world of imagination. But as adolescents. Inhibitions creep in and ideas of good a n d b a d terminate confidence. most of us stop. As you progress.10 INTRODUCTION PEN-AND-INK BEE This tiny drawing has been enlarged to show its texture and composition. it is important to value your natural abilities a n d ways of seeing. W e do n o t hesitate to draw a map. for example. then drag o u r line into a loop. At this point many will insist they cannot draw. PROGRESSION T h e r e is a point in all o u r lives w h e n w e first c o n t r o l o u r mark and m a k e it a line. Don't b e p e r s u a d e d to draw in a w a y s o m e o n e else . It was made with a few bold strokes of a steel pen dipped in ink to conjure the dried bee I was holding between my fingers on a pin. h o w e v e r small a n d u n f o r m e d y o u believe they are. yet still turn to drawing w h e n their verbal language fails or is inadequate. Young children love to draw.
Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse c. Think how much would have been lost if anyone had interfered with Alfred Wallis' personal sense of proportion and perspective in the exquisite drawing above. I ask them their reasons for drawing. but it does help to set out facing in the right direction. 1925-42 53/8x87/8in (135 x 225 mm) ALFRED WALLIS prefers and tells you is better. . and which aspects of the vast wealth and diversity of graphic language would be most appropriate to their goals. The journey of every artist demands hard work and discipline.11 PROGRESSION A UNIQUE SIGHT This innocent yet sophisticated drawing of boats. and they have never questioned why. remember that all advice is only advice. He was a retired Cornish fisherman and junk dealer who began drawing at the age of 70 "for company" after his wife died. I meet students struggling unhappily with a particular method of drawing. He used leftover ship and yacht paint with crayons on cut-out pieces of cardboard boxes. what they most want to achieve. Occasionally. you must decide whether to keep or discard it. After experimenting and trying each new idea. harbor and sea is one of many that Alfred Wallis made from memory while sitting at home. As you read this b o o k and perhaps attend art classes. Enjoy the control of your own journey. Someone once told them they must draw in this way.
and collarbones and shoulder blades of a different bird almost become new creatures in themselves. We BIRD STUDIES The flutter of faint scratches that dance across the pages on the right is an attempt to see the movement and bony weightlessness of a bird. boats. but it should be the experienced world we draw. IDEAS A N D I N V E N T I O N S These active machines. clear-minded understanding of the sea. There should neve: be a slavish obligation to represent things exactly as we collectively agree we see them. 11). We also see differently ourselves. They are also always written backward. There are countless reasons for drawing. If as artists we nail a subject down too hard. we can drive out its spirit. and inspire others. and lose the very thing that attracted us to it. not for disguise but as a personal choice. perhaps for comfort or ease as a left-hander or a habitual enjoyment of the challenge. His notes visually balance his drawings. all raise water From the Archimedes' screw to Leonardo's own cupped wheel. the breast. The observed world may be our subject. The art historian Professor Sir Ernst Gombrich." The clarity and empowerment of these words. the page bristles with the focus of ideas. Below. but the child in us knows that this is an all-embracing. I hope. it may not be accurate to our critical adult eye. wrote as the opening line of this great work. and breathtaking wind of a choppy harbor. depending on the occasion and our purpose. Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels LEONARDO DA VINCI . right. be visionary. Our imaginations are the tools with which we can increase the essence of life. author of The Story of Art. "There really is no such thing as Art. is. There are only artists. We all see differently.12 INTRODUCTION VISION All artists see the world differently. When we look back at Wallis' seascape (see p. embedded in this book.
or to discover the best use of a new material. but it is important to be clear why we are making it. Don't be disheartened. This also applies if struggling at length with a larger picture. Decide before you start whether you are drawing to warm up. Opposite. to express the beauty in a moment's play of light. My drawings of a housemartin (opposite top) illustrate the importance of repeated study.13 VISION should not try to know how every finished picture will look. Our drawings are annotated investigations into the mechanisms of nature and of an idea. . We have both covered our paper with focused. make a calculation. conduct an experiment. it may be best to start afresh. while below. when it looks tired and still feels wrong. time spent is not lost. or illustrate a dream. drawing in pursuit of our own thoughts and understanding. stripped-down parts. Leonardo drew to invent a machine. It will be invested through your experience in the new drawing. shout against a terrible injustice. Each fresh image reflects growing confidence and the experience of the preceding study. I drew to understand the apparatus of flight. More was learned drawing the bird 18 times than would have been understood drawing it only once or twice.
14 INTRODUCTION ALCHEMY At school. it should be responding to the sensation and meaning of the subject it draws. we are advised or even required to plan our pictures. This is the alchemy of drawing. It denies the importance of accident. silk. and at speeds beyond conscious thought. These two brush drawings. balance. If you can do this. which can offer keys to other things. meaning. and an island brushed with trees. As you draw any subject—something you see. mists. I made it almost unconsciously with a pen and a brush. excessive planning can get in the way of the imagination. Know the texture. temperature. The physicality. are both made of ink laid onto wet paper with speed and agile certainty. This is a detail of a brush-and-ink drawing by a Japanese Buddhist monk. and how it feels to the touch. feel. and sometimes beyond. trusting my intuition to find a visual equivalence for the sensation of weight within my body. Imagine these qualities so strongly that you feel them in your mind and at your fingertips. and spirit of each subject was held strongly but loosely between the fingertips. Landscape in Haboku Style 15TH CENTURY . and what you discover in the process of making. However. declare the idea. ink. Whatever the material— wood. and allowed to flow through the brush. You must also think of its intrinsic nature: its purpose. BRUSHED LANDSCAPE FLOWING SKELETON T h e gliding poise of this walking anatomy comes as much from the feeling of movement as it does from the feeling of drawing. or imagine—it is not enough to only render its shape. and position in space. fire. size. W e float toward the quiet vista as it also moves toward us. This suits many artists well and is perfectly valid. and practice each part before putting the final image together. the unknown. your marks will become the subject on the paper. and opacity of your subject. As your hand meets the paper to make a mark. water. metal. Our position asvieweris unsteady. or ice—you must actually feel it beneath your fingers as you draw. They each allowed the energy and focus of the moment to be expressed through controlled accident and a degree of the unknown Both drawings were made trusting the marks. explain the composition. and paper. We are caught in a shifting focus that makes everything fluid. Each image relied upon past experience to know the probable behavior of the brush. and we can just make out the distant stains of mountains. bone. created centuries and cultures apart. depth.
which evoke realities o f place and the p o w e r o f moment. left. like folded insects. He dazzles us with flashes o f light and dabbed marks o f shadow. acrylic. lives on.1896 Woman at her Toilet 41 x 26 in (104 x 66 cm) TOULOUSE LAUTREC RIB-CAGE D R A M A Thus drama. Focusing on the Negative 2004 22 x 30 in (56 x 76 cm) J O H N WALTER .16 INTRODUCTION PLACE A N D MOMENT The heat and teeming atmosphere o f this Parisian dressing room. pastel. more than 100 years after its making. Lautrec's flamboyant splashes o f petticoats and pantaloons are drawn with long sweeps of chalk and brushed oil paint. W a l t e r also makes books: some. gold leaf and spray paint. one of many luminous works in watercolor. c. stand table-sized with furniture legs attached t o b o t h sides of their jacket. right is set inside a rib cage. made by a young British artist who creates alphabets o f the absurd f r o m familiar childhood characters.
diary-like observations. just through the act of making. you will be surprised and encouraged to see how far you have come. Much will be learned on these test sheets and in your first drawings. Ignore these at first and allow yourself the freedom to play. Enjoy discovering what your hand and the material can do. take your time and don't worry if you need to make several attempts to grasp a concept. Start by choosing a material you like the look of and cover a piece of paper with different marks. Such books are personal: the territory of new exploration and experiment. As you follow lessons in this book. even those you dislike. Drawing is exploratory. you will naturally make progress on your own in response to concentration and the decision to look and draw.17 FREEING THE HAND If you are just beginning to learn how to draw. and miscellaneous items of inspiration. One of the advantages of a drawing book is that you can shut it. Put them away and look at them later. Choose other materials and do the same. and mistakes are a valuable process of learning. Pages do not have to lie open for other people to inspect and comment on. FREEINGTHEHAND . at a point when you feel you are not making progress. With no help and advice at all. try not to grip your pen worrying about the technical terms you might have heard. potential ideas still forming. Try to keep all of your first drawings. It is yours.
and became a great subject for me. we still only glimpse a corner of the magnitude of this subject and the infinity of what can be achieved. which is held frozen in space by a camera lens. and enfolding new media. In the total wealth of these pages. 150). caught between action and repose. adapting its form and occupation. staring straight through his image of a bull.18 INTRODUCTION THE THINKING EYE Techniques and materials are the grammar and vocabulary of drawing and can be studied and shared. The chapters of this book present 90 different artists' ways of seeing. seek ideas in the life around you. Picasso has just finished his drawing. but not confined to them. Note that the drawing classes are allocated to subjects. and many more reasons for drawing the world. An artist's personal voice is something that also evolves through lessons learned. It rarely flourishes in isolation. the path is yours. Drawing is a living language that over millennia has grown and changed. Look to your own experience and also learn from the work of others. threedimensionally.Their elegant strength seems to summon a lifetime of drawing. comes from within. To these I have added my own drawings to explain elementary materials and techniques and offer introductory approaches. Picasso Painting with Light at the Madoura Pottery 1949 . The real drawing book has yet to come. However. it will be your creation as you discover your own personal vision. This practical journey will take you through the door into the vivid heart of drawing. when they are more experienced. ELECTRIC BULL With a penlight. which of course he cannot see. As you draw. I was particularly attracted to their gentle articulation and understated determination. Once there. Its sensuous and flowing line seems to drift like smoke. Imagination needs nourishment. Picasso is poised smiling. it is this voice that is the subtle part of their art and something that ultimately. A N ARTIST'S HANDS These are the hands of the artist Phyll Kiggell (see p.
2. y o u n e e d a lifetime. H o w e v e r r i n g bindings o f t e n break. If you intend to carry your boards for a distance. They can be very expensive in art stores. Dissecting a d i s c a r d e d h a r d . pastels. be sure they fit comfortably under your arm. which are also sold in an enormous range. thickness. Most contain thin p a p e r and are perfect f o r use w i t h disposable pens. catalogs. cut. 6. cheap corrugated plastic ones fall apart in days. BLACK P O C K E T B O O K S : Hand-sized w i t h ready-made elastic binder and a marker ribbon.20 INTRODUCTION Drawing Books and Papers T o BEGIN YOUR EXPLORATION o f d r a w i n g . A high-quality one will last a DRAWING BOOKS Select d r a w i n g b o o k s t o suit y o u r aims. These are perfect f o r w o r k i n g in novels. Art students often make use of printed books picked up from secondhand stores into which they draw. drawing book.B O U N D PADS: T h e s e are t h e least expensive a n d useful f o r o p e n i n g flat. quality. N o t e t h e w i d e l y differing c h o i c e o f p a p e r s w i t h w h i c h t h e s e are m a d e . Calculate a range of useful dimensions and have several cut at once. Homemade books can be assembled easily from found materials or selections of loose sheet papers. F O U N D B O O K S : O l d p r i n t e d 3 . You simply need two strong boards hinged together well.C O V E R E D H A R D B O U N D : Ideal f o r c a r r y i n g a r o u n d . binding. is perfect. T h e hardb o a r d j a c k e t is s t r e t c h e d w i t h canvas beneath t h e p a p e r sleeve. study the structure of a good portfolio and make your own. c h o o s e s m a l l e r h a r d . It is also useful to own a portfolio. 5. F o r traveling. a n d crayons. Drawing boards are invaluable.b o u n d p a d if y o u w i s h t o keep your drawings together long-term. Smooth plywood.b o u n d b o o k w i l l s o o n s h o w y o u h o w it is m a d e . color. There are dozens to choose from. 1. t h e i r jackets w i l l a c t like d r a w i n g b o a r d s a n d p r o t e c t y o u r w o r k . F o r e v e n i n g classes. c h o o s e larger f o r m a t s t o give y o u s c o p e f o r e x p e r i m e n t . a n d r e f e r e n c e b o o k s f o u n d in s e c o n d . b e a w a r e t h a t p a p e r t e x t u r e effects a n d changes t h e i r marks. Gleaming store purchases vary greatly in format. texture. C O L O R E D PAPERS: Large a r t supply stores o f t e n sell t h i c k b o o k s full o f c o l o r e d p a p e r s . and handles to lift the weight of your artworks.h a n d s t o r e s make unique subjects f o r e x p e r i m e n t s a n d collage.b o u n d b o o k s t h a t fit in y o u r p o c k e t o r bag. and cost. a l e n g t h o f black elastic t i e d a r o u n d t h e m i d d l e will h o l d the contents together w h e n y o u f o l d in c o l l e c t e d items. c o l o r If planning t o use pencils.q u a l i t y r i n g . H O M E M A D E : I m a d e this b o o k f r o m drawing paper that I folded. t h i s is h o w I l e a r n e d . C A N V A S . Purchase a h i g h . and glued t o a s t r i p o f bias binding. 2002 Tantalus o r The Future of Man 81/2 x61/4in (215 x 158 mm) ROSE MILLER . R I N G . Alternatively. ties on either side to keep your papers in place. Many artists invent ways o f binding their o w n books. it is better to have them made at a lumber yard or home improvement store. stitched. Sand the edges to avoid splinters. 4. and collage their ideas. thick enough not to flex.
18. yellow.Papers differ in thickness (weight). and white. 8. 21. used to imprint lines of these colors onto a surface. tough. 10. Use with a brush in clean water Water makes a dark mark like ink and becomes invisible again when dry. also good for drawing with colored pencils. C A R B O N PAPER: Available in dark and light blue. from pencil to paint 9. resisting deterioration. Use cheap paper for rough ideas and quality paper for work to last See the glossary ( p p . and translucent. and cream sheets or rolls. it is made from rice. color. It is available in white or cream. mulberry. white textured paper that can take abrasive use of any medium. Cheap wood-pulp papers are acidic. and rolls. SAUNDERS WATERFORD N O T 300GMS: Mid-quality textured watercolor paper. 7. 22. texture. GLASSINE: Sold as protective wrapping. They are hand-. C A N S O N : Inexpensive lightweight pastel paper in many colors. FABRIANO ACADEMIA: Standard medium-range multipurpose paper Use with any media. ITALIAN PARCHMENT: Imitation-animal-skin parchment that is translucent and slightly waxy. Cotton papers are high-quality and acid-free. turning brown and brittle.5 9 ) for explanations of rough. 11. 100% cotton and sold in sheets. VELIN ARCHES 250GMS: Printmaking paper available in black white. AQUARELLE ARCHES 300GMS:The very top quality hot-pressed (smooth) watercolor paper. bamboo. FABRIANO INGRES: Thin. red. JAPANESE PAPER: Strong. pastel paper in flecked pastel colors with a distinctive ribbed marking. size. mold-. blocks. 13. 20. cold. blocks. METALLIC PAPER: Thin paper in different metallic colors. or machine made in sheets. absorbency. Ph. and cost. Use for brushwork drawings. 15. fine. FABRIANO R O U G H 600GMS: Very heavy. T W O RIVERS Y E L L O W 410GMS: See Two Rivers Green 19. and other plant fibers. and hot pressed papers. smooth.TISSUE PAPER: Place sheets between drawing book pages to keep images from printing on each other and use for delicate collage. 17. T W O RIVERS GREEN 410G MS: Very heavy tinted textured cold-pressed watercolor paper See Two Rivers Yellow. 14. MAGIC PAPER: A reusable sheet for testing ideas without creating waste. It is also excellent for drawing with marker pens on layered sheets. 12. 16. not. printed on one side only. For use with any media. 2 5 6 . PAPERS . or rolls.
but you need to understand that the expression of a line or mark originates in the body and flows t h r o u g h the shoulder. . Examples are shown here. Regularly step back 6-9 ft (2-3 m) to check your progress. If your hand twists to maneuver between the paper and your body. With your hand in this position. From a distance you will spot errors you cannot see close up. body. 116-17). Relaxed fingers: Hold the pencil away from its tip and relax your fingers. arm. Use the side of your little fingernail as a support on the page. and look to the right. your drawing will reflect this. you can draw lines freely and achieve a significant arc of movement. a n d look to the left of it at your subject. There are also parallels to dance. if left-handed. You cannot draw like this—your hand is locked and your fingers can barely move. your lines will distort. strangledlooking drawings. There should be an open. This photograph illustrates how some people hold a pen to write. you Drawing classes can be cramped places. Accelerated perspective also occurs if you look down the surface steeply (see pp. You do not have to dance to draw. don't sit too close to the paper. It will also reflect discomfort if you are in any way cramped. In this book we will look at parallels between drawing and music. make sure you have enough room to back away and view your work.22 INTRODUCTION Posture and Grip T o DRAW WELL. a n d h a n d to the fingertips. and subject. If using an upright easel. should be able to look comfortably straight ahead at your picture plane. How you hold your drawing materials is also important. Ideally. flowing space between your hand. place it on your right. If your body posture is well balanced and you can move freely. or with your drawing board angled between your lap and a chair. place it on the correct side: if right-handed. Turning your drawing sideways or upside-own will also help reveal what is wrong. This cramped grip tires your hand and makes small. but wherever possible. your whole relaxed b o d y should be involved. Placing your easel o n the w r o n g side folds y o u r b o d y against your drawing arm. If seated on a b e n c h easel (a donkey). place it on your left. b u t it should n o t be forgotten that many people make remarkable a n d striking works drawing with their feet or holding their brush or pencil in their mouths. SPACE TO WORK Cramped grip.
This can be used to great effect. alternative way of holding the pencil. If you turn a brush or dip pen up into the air to draw above your hand. roughly marking out a large-scale work. or change to the wrong hand. As long as your fingers. This can give a new lease on life to your mark-making. It is most comfortable when reaching to draw above your head. GRAVITY Remember that gravity affects the flow of ink and paint. and body are not restricted. Large scale: POSTURE AND GRIP U n f a m i l i a r i t y : T h e habitual movements of our handwriting style will sometimes infringe upon our drawing. liquid will run down your hand. depending upon what it is and how large you are working.232-33). To stop this. upright way of holding the brush near its base is similar to the Japanese way used in Zen calligraphy (see pp. But be careful not to tense your fingers. hold your material as you find most comfortable. arm. ALL MEDIA There are no rules as to how you should hold your drawing media. Soft media: Short materials such as pastels and charcoal can be accommodated in the palm. Brush calligraphy: This comfortable. find an unfamiliar. brush pressed against an upright surface will cause a dribble of ink to run down your drawing. Large amounts of ink can be applied without fear of uncontrolled running if the paper is flat. Remember you can also draw just by dipping your fingers in pigment—this is how many women draw in rural India. or it can spoil your work if not anticipated. not up to the paper Brushes can be used on upright paper but dip Anticipating effects: A fully loaded pens need a level surface.23 This loose "candle" grip is very useful when drawing with your arm extended. .
For the novice artist. and we still see escapees from its pages carved and grinning as the gargoyles of churches. In 19th-century Europe this became a "science. and silent. to be there at the m o m e n t of discovery. White's commission was to ". and pioneer born c. 1590 J O H N WHITE capture form and movement from the m a n n e r i s m s of honking geese. from which personality and predicted behavior were " d e d u c e d . and people. In medieval England. who described in words what White drew. we turn and take the features of beasts. dogs. cartographer. Framed in the z o o or in domestic cohabitation. and snakes have between them engendered harpies. their different speeds and patterns of action. Here (left) we see J o h n White's exquisite record of a flying fish. and learn how to Flying Fish c. This drawing is made in black lead (metal point) with watercolor Highlights of silver would have gleamed. we have employed artists on expeditions. animals provide a perfect subject with which to begin." He worked with the scientist Thomas Harriot. In this chapter we discover the use of pens and ink through the delineation of insects. O v e r the centuries. W e have drawn them in m a n u s c r i p t s to explain our genesis and to c o u n t their species into Noah's ark. bats. plants. offer challenges and delights to draw. Europeans on board had never seen such a thing. they are perhaps our favorite pictorial preoccupation. which very likely leaped o n t o the deck of Sir Walter Raleigh's ship Tiger as it sailed north from the Caribbean to Virginia in 1585. We have drawn them on the walls of caves to evoke their kinship and power.drawe to lief one of each kinde of thing that is strange to us in England. W h e n lost to explain our own emotions.m o u n t e d skeletons of birds.. After the subject of ourselves. 1540. fish. which are so unlike ours. and dragons. " Animals perpetually feed our imaginations. and to bring h o m e drawn documentaries of their finds. out are now oxidized and so appear black W h e n less preoccupied with understanding ourselves. Facial features were analyzed in terms of their animal likeness. the Latin bestiary was one of the most popular picture books—an illustrated dictionary of one hundred parts. or scampering through the initials and borders of pictures from that time. JOHN WHITE British artist. insects. 11 x91/4in (277 x 234 mm) .Animals H UMANS HAVE DRAWN ANIMALS from the beginning of our time. m u s e u m . each dedicated to the moralized tale of an animal or monster The bestiary profoundly influenced the art of its period." Paranoid newcomers c r a m m e d into swelling industrial cities used handbooks of physiognomy to identify and judge their neighbors. On the Roanoke voyages of Sir Walter Raleigh. As children we delight in the humanized trials of Tom and Jerry and their c a r t o o n relations. Together they made maps and documented animals. and this very drawing was to endure many copies and plagiarisms after its triumphant return to the English court of Queen Elizabeth I. birds. floating turtles. mermaids. werewolves. sleeping dogs..
the home of ALBRECHT DURER German Renaissance painter. they were rejected. it is still consulted by veterinarians today. Life-like This is Durer's original quill-and-ink drawing made after an anonymous Portuguese drawing. but the drowned animal washed ashore. He studied the image and drew his own interpretation. Converted into a print. it continued its journey to Rome. Contemporary texts related accounts of the beast as the mortal enemy of the elephant and rare relative of the "more common" unicorn. Durer traveled widely to study at different European schools of art. It was to become the animal's only accepted likeness for 250 years. Original Ink Drawing of a Rhinoceros 1515 ALBRECHT DURER 103/4 x 161/2 in ( 2 7 4 x 4 2 0 mm) . Unsurpassed. He in turn sent the mysterious creature to the Pope via Marseilles at the request of the King of France. the ship was lost. Stubbs's Anatomy of the Horse achieved similar documentary status. writer. Carefully stuffed. when more accurate portrayals were made without armor and scales. filled journals with ideas and observations. It is such a lifelike triumph of imagination and intelligence that for centuries zoologists never questioned its authority. Sailing to Rome. DURER'S RHINOCEROS AND STUBBS'S skeletal Durer. inspiring countless works of art and so touching people's imaginations that later. and wrote four books on proportion.26 ANIMALS Documentaries horse are superb affirmations of the power of drawing as a recorder and communicator of knowledge. Meanwhile. draftsman. years after its publication. a gift to the Portuguese King. Durer's image changed eager hands until it was known across Europe. naturalist. a drawing of it arrived in Nuremberg. and mathematician. The first live rhinoceros to reach Europe came from India in May 1515. printmaker.
naturalist. in t h r e e v i e w s — r e a r f r o n t . Anatomy of the Horse. is no other work like it. composed from notes and observations. Stubbs w a s o n e o f t h e first E u r o p e a n artists t o m a k e a n a c c u r a t e representation o f the rhinoceros. L o n d o n . Stubbs's m o s t c e l e b r a t e d publication. a n d s i d e . He composed makes each horse appear so real and each plate from his three-dimensional. Dissections were made over a total of 18 months. The entire project was developed over ten years. a n d anatomist. Dissections Stubbs took his knife and his pencil and physically climbed inside the horse. dissecting and drawing until he understood the mechanisms of its power and grace. This is one of Stubbs' original finished pencil drawings. and therefore invented the lighting that Compare how Stubbs and Durer both invented lighting to portray the reality of their animals. He translated his own drawings into engravings for publication. His painted p o r t r a i t o f t h e b e a s t is in t h e R o y a l C o l l e g e o f S u r g e o n s o f England. c o m p r i s e s 1 8 p l a t e s s h o w i n g d i s s e c t i o n s in l a y e r s f r o m b o n e t h r o u g h m u s c u l a t u r e t o skin. which has never diminished. Lighting Stubbs's breathtaking international work won immediate There acclaim. knowledge of parts.GEORGE STUBBS B r i t i s h e q u i n e a n d s o c i e t y p o r t r a i t painter. Table of the III of the Horse (rear Skeleton view) mm) 1756-58 1 4 x 7 in ( 3 5 4 x 1 8 0 GEORGE STUBBS .
charcoal. her sharp teeth. and all sorts of bizarre concoctions which manage to convey above all in mind. Gericault's sheet a p p e a r s almost s c r a t c h e d b y the f e r o c i o u s play of his cat..28 ANIMALS Presence and Mood THESE DRAWINGS HAVE BEEN CHOSEN to s h o w t w o v e r y different ways of picturing a wild animal. H u g o mixed his media and drew from m e m o r y and imagination to create narrative atmosphere.. He wrote to poet and art critic Charles-Pierre Baudelaire about his experiments. more or less what I have in view.". By contrast. Hugo used graphite powder. and Pieuvre 1866-69 91/2 x81/8in (242 x 207 mm) VICTOR H U G O . linseed oil soaked into the paper has made shadows and repelled the ink to create translucent tentacles. drawing her again and again to pin d o w n the texture of her loose skin. The Hunchback of Notre Layers and shadows Throughout this drawing. and turn. coal dust. and her distinctive temperament. the ominous beast unwinds from the dark of the sea and of our nightmares. playwright. A s if disturbed from its gritty b e d by our presence and curiosity. and a love of accident. soot. Gericault took a sharp p e n c i l to m a k e repeated direct o b s e r v a t i o n s f r o m life. conjured b y the hand of a great author of French literary fiction. ink and linseed oil on paper. sepia. VICTOR HUGO Poet. Surrounding sprays of graphite powder are stuck into washes of oil and ink to suggest glutinous depths. novelist. I've ended up mixing in pencil. Apparently drawn in its o w n ink. Mixed media Here. and leader of the French Romantic movement. it silently rises to the light. The octopus is formed in layers applied and distressed with a brush. Hugo's page is f l o o d e d w i t h the fearful presence of a remembered octopus. saying ".. He has w a t c h e d her p o u n c e . snarl. drama. His copious drawings are characterized by mixed media. Hugo's novels Les Miserables and Dame have become classics of film and stage. her b o n y frame..
of previous Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 1817-18 121/2 x 151/2 in ( 3 1 9 x 3 9 8 mm) T H E O D O R E GERICAULT . 144. artists reused sheets and them full of studies. Beginners are advised to follow the natural contours of form as shown on pp. Undertraces Beneath these graphite studies we see traces Tones On the top row we see clearly how Gericault laid broad areas of tone using fast. Paris. since it can lead to a flattened form. fiery. and it can be applied to any subject (see pp.l i v e d French R o m a n t i c painter and lithographer Largely self-taught. and keep trying again. Repeated study This drawing demonstrates of feeling confident repeat different the importance subject Remaining enough to isolate parts of a views. The Raft of the Medusa. H e is best k n o w n f o r his gigantic painting. 124-25 and p. of drawings Gericault erased. undertraces unify and vitalize the composition. Tones that do not follow surface contour is very difficult to do well. s h o r t . Before paper became so cheap.118-119). displayed in the Louvre. focused upon seeing will lead to a greater understanding of the subject Much is learned from repeated study. standing sideways. diagonal strokes of his pencil.29 THEODORE GERICAULT C o n t r o v e r s i a l . Here. facing right. horses w e r e a favorite subject t o g e t h e r w i t h politics and history. parallel. At the center of the page is crammed drawings the outline of a horse.
flattened animals composed almost entirely of movement. In these two drawings. overwhelmed by a screeching bird. His hand must have shuddered and twitched just like the constant actions of this humorous meeting. Both Picasso and Klee have enclosed their subjects to compress and amplify the speed of PABLO PICASSO A prolific Spanish painter sculptor. slow tortoise. Klee's riders are constructed from all the gestures of greeting mules.30 ANIMALS Movement M O V E M E N T IS OFTEN THE CHARACTERISTIC b y w h i c h w e their lines and the power of their beasts. gray. hooked. draftsman. flapping bird. made only a year apart. The ink is used to make sharply defined solid. and scrolled lines. we see semi-abstract. and waves breaking distantly below. Gouache is brushed softly in translucent hazy layers of cool blue. noise is everywhere. In Picasso's drawing. Faune. printmaker ceramicist graphic and stage designer who lived in France. The fact that they never stand still influences the movement in his line. Picasso cofounded Cubism. taking them to guide their hand in bringing form and essence together. or proud. His powdery. the first abstract movement of the 20th century. quivering horse. Ink and gouache This drawing is made in black Chinese ink and gouache (opaque watercolor) applied with a brush. with George Braque (see p90). dissolving faun kneels stranded. Cheval et Oiseau 1936 173/8 x 211/4 in ( 4 4 0 x 5 4 0 m m ) PABLO PICASSO . Artists commonly focus on such actions. identify an animal: the fast cheetah. and brown. the whinnying of a frantic horse. These media complement and amplify each other with their brilliant contrast.
W i t h his drawings Kleeb o u n d sophisticated theories to personal and often witty childlike imagery. turning our eye and around inside the and postures of the paper- thin on pictorial space. N e u m a n n Family Collection. The entire drawing suggests the endless small movements of horses standing still. He is a u t h o r o f The Thinking Eye (1923). top all happily of each other in the Endless lines Look closely at how Klee's lines rarely leave the paper and how they are free from the constraint of finite shape.PAUL KLEE Swiss painter." They chatter around bodies in groups. draftsman. Chicago PAUL KLEE . sculptor. printmaker. violinist. They remain in contact with the surface of the page and scribble back and forth as they maneuver from one area to another. creatures. Layers of marks In this pale Dentil drawing we see layers of' agitated marks that together present a kind of visual "itch. Scene der Komischen of Comical Reiter Riders) (Scene 1935 161/2x111/2in ( 4 1 9 x 2 9 1 mm) M o r t o n G . well-worn copies o f w h i c h are found in m a n y art schools. and t e a c h e r at t h e Bauhaus school.
and steerage. He studied the anatomy of fish.32 ANIMALS Icon and Design IN THESE T W O MANUSCRIPTS we discover diagrammatic and mackerel's tail" (full bow. t h e earliest geometrically defined elevations. the expression of its eye. plans. and to assess our next move. and blackbirds fly in formation through a mosaic of text. In contrast to the practical clarity of Baker's thought. His birds stare. slim stern). Below we see his revolutionary design for an Elizabethan warship. The ship The upper decks of the ship appear curved toward us at both ends. it would achieve greater speed. and the carefully observed gills. This drawing illustrates Baker's theory. Baker lived in an era when ships were built without drawn plans. b a s e d o n his studies o f fish. fins. Baker did not intend this. Knopf's drawing opposite is the personal enigmatic expression of a mind gripped by illness. seemingly looking for our attention. later called a galleon. Exquisite details in this drawing include the lips of the fish. and author o f Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (1586). It is simply how we read his perspective. The fish It is likely that Baker drew with a quill dipped in irongall ink. and scales. adding washes of color with a fine brush. drawings of animals that are each held tightly in a surprising space: a giant fish wears a ship's hull. In just one drawing he has displayed more angles of his design than we would expect to see from a single viewpoint Fragments English 1586 101/2 x 153/8 in (270 x 390 mm) MATTHEW BAKER of Ancient Shipwrightry . balance. which in application gave strength and advantage to the English fighting the Spanish Armada. B a k e r initiated t h e scientific p r a c t i c e o f naval a r c h i t e c t u r e and applied h y d r o d y n a m i c s . and from them learned that if he designed his ship with a "cod's head MATTHEW BAKER Master shipwright. mathematician. and s e c t i o n s o f ships.
circle and the birds. JOHANN KNOPF . and filled evenly with tone. firmly outlined. written last of all. appears to be stirred like water by the presence of the The Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks UNDATED 133/8 x 115/8 in (340 x 2 9 6 mm) and psychiatrist Hans Prinzhom collected this image. The text.K n o p f b e l i e v e d h e c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h e language o f birds. numbered.JOHANN KNOPF An " O u t s i d e r " a r t i s t w h o s u f f e r e d f r o m m e n t a l illness. T h e G e r m a n a r t historian Outline and tone The blackbirds illuminating this frantic manuscript are drawn in pencil. w h i c h o f t e n f e a t u r e as s y m b o l i c creatures in his drawings. The main group is placed in a circle drawn with a compass.
simultaneously 4 . distinguished manufacture. The paste from either recipe is pressed and dried into a bar for storage. and it is still in use today. Quills were later cut from feathers. Avoid needle-sharp mapping pens. and spatters can be made with an exotic choice of inks. and first used by the Egyptians. The Chinese used animal or fish glue. while metal nibs began as rare gifts in gold and silver before being perfected by the British steel industry. 5 0 0 years ago. The best are goose or swan. and hold it under a clean basin until the soot hangs to it. Responsive to slight changes in pressure. you can have great fun drawing the world around you. QUILLS: These are cut from the barrel of a flight or tail feather. The bar is then rubbed into water on a slate block to produce ink. from the acacia tree.34 ANIMALS Pen and Ink W I T H A HANDFUL OF FEATHERS. a n d m e t a l p o i n t s . 3. they are associated with rapid. 4. Intricate or dramatic lines. That is an ink." "Gum" refers to gum arabic extracted Dip pens are essential and inexpensive drawing tools. The Egyptians and Chinese are credited with the invention of carbon ink. The reservoir gives a constant flow of ink for very long unbroken lines and continuous bottle-free use. F O U N T A I N PENS: These vary in quality and nib width. They fit into wooden holders. Only fill with suitable inks. ink is traditionally applied with a brush (see pp. then pour a little warm gum water into it and temper the two together. A German recipe of 1531 gives a simple description: "Take a wax candle. METAL PENS: Inexpensive removable steel nibs are available in a range of widths. the recipes for which have been handed down over centuries. In the Far East. Today. Masters choose brands of long. where reeds were gathered. PENS . expressive drawing techniques such as the ones we explore in this chapter 1. producing a different line. which scratch rather than draw. light it.246-47). REED PENS: A broad nib can be cut from bamboo or another tubular grass. 2. Each pen has a unique character. high-quality Chinese and Japanese inks are subtler and more complex than those produced in Europe. s t i c k s . Dip pens began their history in the Nile River. spots. which range greatly in their handling and character of line. Early artists recommended raven and crow for especially fine work.
They are the easiest inks to use. and sieved. bistre. Excellent for drawing they are bright and non-clogging. C A R B O N INK: Traditionally produced from oil or resin soot (Lamp Black). I R O N . reduced. Bistre is the more humane use of soot scraped from the fireplace and ground into wine. Crushed. I N D I A N INK: Carbon ink sold today in liquid form. they produce a golden dye for drawing. 5. an often misused term. . iron-gall. and are still in use today: carbon (Chinese and Indian). It dries with a sheen and clogs uncleaned pens. boiled. roastedwine sediment (Yeast Black). dated. 8. suspended in a binder and stored as a solid block Blocks are imported today 7. SEPIA A N D BISTRE INKS: Sepia. The complexities of traditional iron-gall ink are explained on p. or charcoal.36. Non-waterproof Indian inks can be reworked with a wet brush after drying.G A L L INK: Abnormal spherical growths caused by parasitic wasps can be collected from some oak trees in fall. and can be mixed and diluted to create subtler colors and tones. ACRYLIC / CALLIGRAPHY INKS: Available in black and a range of colors. Waterproof types contain shellac. from are not 6. charred bone (Ivory Black). and sepia. waterproof or non-waterproof. Beechwood soot is best.35 PEN AND INK Four types of ink were common before the 20th century. Old stock turns solid and bottlesChina. Now we also have acrylic ranges in many colors. is the ink of a cuttlefish or squid extracted post-mortem. Inks can be lightfast or non-lightfast. INKS 9. and most can be homemade.
finding reed p e n s unwieldy. The darkest of this grasshopper wings) were made (around the head first. a n d d e v e l o p e d t h e quill instead. and turned brown with time. keep all your fingers behind basis of iron-gall ink. the blade and cut away from you. are surprisingly tough. Some of Michelangelo's drawings are now a little eaten by their own ink. of a loaded nib. since t h e D u t c h w e r e t h e first t o realize t h a t they could be hardened and i m p r o v e d w i t h heat t r e a t m e n t in ash o r sand. Quills are also called D u t c h pens. . red-brown. a n d M a t i s s e also e n j o y e d t h e m . Running fresh. Practice to gain a feel for how materials behave. galls were ground with iron sulfate to make an unstable solution.) You can make ink easily from the boiled. and delicious to draw with. t h e y stick a n d j u d d e r f o r w a r d . QUILL PENS Q u i l l s a r e highly r e s p o n s i v e t o c h a n g e s in p r e s s u r e . U n d e r heavy pressure. Oak galls. sieved. Walnut ink is gloopy. It dried black. Reed marks The darker left wing of this beetle was drawn with the wet inky stroke wing. giving a s h o r t .36 ANIMALS Drawing With Ink To MAKE A QUILL OR REED PEN. giving longer lines. Scribes o f t h e M i d d l e Ages. M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s d r a g o n o n p . The lighter right Quill marks Quills carry more ink than strokes and for as reeds. I u s e d t h e s e qualities t o d r a w t h e w o r m s above. m o r e e x t e n d e d line than reed and a m o r e organic line t h a n m e t a l . always be cautious when experimenting with recipes. d r y mark. it was gray-purple. appears broken to show paper beneath. fleshy skins that surround ripe walnuts. It also oxidized and ate or burned paper. 2 4 4 is an e x q u i s i t e e x a m p l e . reduced. Collect skins from the ground beneath trees once they are blackened. Although oak galls and walnut skins are harmless. drawn to glisten with a dryer nib. for example. r e s e r v e d t h e i r use f o r large c h o i r b o o k s . For centuries. forming the REED PENS R e e dpens dispense ink quickly. T h e y give a finer. Rembrandt. crushed. then cut a final nib (feathers. V a n G o g h . Paler strokes were made where the mark has the legs and antennae the ink ran out. can also be collected from affected trees. and boiled to make a golden ink.
sharp.37 METAL PENS Metal pens give long. Each layer of of the drying droplet dome the drawing was left to dry before adding more. clean strokes. breaking. tonal Ink layers The wings of this beetle were drawn in layers using black and white ink on pale gray paper. When using dip pens. particles then filled with a droplet of ink. . marks become fine and needle-sharp. White markings were drawn last Tones Here we see subtle tones of diluted ink beneath the undiluted black rim of a beetle's wing. W h e n the nib is pressed upside down. o r being ruined as fountain pens would be under the same pressure. they splay to make thick o r double lines. giving a graded. withstanding great pressure without sticking. The of pigment to fall to the edges effect of the shape. it is important to feel for when the ink will run out and to know how much ink you pick up when dipping the nib. Loaded with ink and pressed hard. DRAWING WITH INK Filled outlines Each segment of wing was outlined.
and boldly plunge into your drawing. so pick a spot where other people can keep them entertained. there is no obligation to prepare a quill. and quickly draw around it using only three or four strokes. Focus on the geese. be bold and press firmly. Attempt with a loose hand to capture their posture and outline. Experiment. Try to hold the whole posture in your mind's eye. Take a cup and water for diluting a range of tones. draw what the bird is doing. Pack plenty of tissue around a bottle of calligraphy or acrylic ink. That said. to absorb blots when drawing. steel nibs are fine. Quick drawing trains you to see what is most important about a subject and to mark only its most essential expression. Cover your drawing book pages in speedy responses to the geese and try to capture each bird in as few lines as possible. Geese are nosy birds. test your limits. Take no more than ten seconds to draw each one and make lots of drawings. Focus on it. Cover a sheet. and a large drawing book or plenty of paper Use masking tape to secure pages against the wind. It happens that goose feathers also provide artists with the best type of quills. MATERIALS NEEDED Look for a bird expressing a simple posture. and bellyflop off the waterside. and be brave. Watch their heavy feathered bodies flap. touch the bottle's rim to drain the excess. not on your drawing. You cannot break the nib.38 ANIMALS Capturing Character GEESE ARE EXCELLENT SUBJECTS to draw when practicing the first use of pen and ink. and there is no "wrong. waddle. make another one." If you don't like a stroke. It teaches confidence and focus through intensive repetition. Study them before drawing. Empathize. Illustrating this exercise on Oxford Port Meadow. I covered eleven sheets in sixty quick drawings—in less than an hour. Posture . Dip your pen in ink.
and diving. Use more lines than before to express these. . and don't worry about mechanical facts or accuracy. draw the feeling of what you see. CAPTURING CHARACTER Texture Gradually allow yourself more lines to describe the texture of each bird as well as its posture and action. Avoid detail unless really tempted by a close-up visit Fluctuate the pressure of your pen in response to how you know the bird would feel if you touched it. running. look among the birds for more complicated actions such as shaking off water.39 Action With growing confidence. Again. flapping.
" . These drawings are not an analysis of his anatomy or breed but the expression of his satisfied comfort in a deep sleep after a night out on the together with a glass of water for diluting tones on the nib.40 ANIMALS Sleeping Dogs R A S WAS A GREAT CHARACTER. Ras Curled Up Asleep "Capturing the true character of a cherished companion is best achieved with objective determination rather than sentimental shyness. and even then he twitched and stretched in dreams. For this class you will need one oblivious dog. Make a test sheet to discover your control of diluting on the nib. your drawing book. and personality.34-37). a d o g w h o w a s a l w a y s town. This will give a medium-gray line. form. The only time he remained still was when he was sleeping. engaged in his and everyone else's business. Dip the nib quickly again into water and again drain it. Sleeping animals present the artist with ideal opportunities to study their texture. Now it will make a pale line. Then dip the nib quickly into a glass of water and drain the excess again. MAKING A PALE LINE To make a pale line. a dip pen and ink of your choice (see pp. and a tissue for blotting drawn lines that appear too dark. and drain the excess by touching the nib against the rim of the bottle. first dip your pen in ink.
Then. I added ink to Ras's nose. Character is better captured drawing quickly with confidence than w o r k i n g slowly. ears. W i t h pale lies. Here I marked the features of Ras's head. To add texture. and the shadows in his coat. in bold layers. add more detail. 3 Gradually introduce darker tones. this time to create a line a little darker in tone. alter the pressure and moisture of your line in response to howyouknow your dog feels when you ruffle itscoat. to emphasize how he is curled up. Then I immediately rebalanced the drawing with lines around his hind quarters. First lines are first thoughts. ignoring all detail. Remain focused on the whole dog and. D o not go back over lines you are pleased with—doing so dulls their lively freshness. c o n c e r n e d a b o u t detail. Layers o f thoughts can bring a drawing alive. second thoughts may be different Changing your mind is a positive aspect o f seeing and thinking. Trust your intuition.41 DRAWING YOUR DOG Be bold in this exercise. SLEEPING DOGS 1 Fix your eyes at the center of the dog. . tail.It is essential when drawing any subject (even something abstract) to know how it feels andtoemulate this with your line. see how the animal's posture determines its whole shape. quickly draw what you see. Here. 2 Reload your pen with ink.
as if caught in a camera freeze-frame. turtles often pause unexpectedly. offering plenty of time for the artist to draw the pose.Turtles to observe. A perfect subject for the beginner. THE ELONGATION AND BUOYANCY of a group of turtles is fascinating . they stretch and paddle. Beyond the glass wall of the aquarium. swinging their limbs and shells with a slow circular movement.
dry. . I darkened lines as each drawing progressed. balance. With speed. and sharp. Beginning with very pale tones. weightlessness of the kiwi.Dry Birds THESE ARE THE ARTICULATED BONES o f a k i w i a n d a h o u s e - martin drawn in a museum using a steel pen. and water. India ink. I sought to capture the form. I made repeated studies of the housemartin to discover its mechanism of flight.
Morethan 1. He sent boxes of plants to Nuremburgburned with the urgency and excitement of explaining every plant's form. Fledgling years Botanist and apothecary who compiled the Hortus Eystettensis of scientific research bore manifold explosions of knowledge in a fever of discovery. Plants seventeenth century. In this chapter. Early European illustrators were trapped within dogma that was determined by ancient scholarship. form. It was published plain in 1611 and withhand-paintedplates in poured off ships returning from the New World and were eagerly collected and 1613. After Here Aconthus spinosus is combined with forget-me-nots and-a-half centuries of intensive observation. season. We collect. Both embrace the anticipation of evolving shape. and to ornament our lives. Patrons funded the breeding of decorative. as opposed to only herbal. manipulations of light and shade. color. and the drawn pages ofthesame name. shape. Rich owners of private gardens commissioned large-format florilegiums commissioned the volume to document his private garden to immortalize their personal taste and power of acquisition. —-the largest and most influential botanical book of the early Natural scientists accompanied explorers to document unknown finds.000 species of plants are depicted life-size drawn. The revolution came in the 1530s. we see very different cultural visions of plants and gardens and use pencils and plants to learn the pictorial values of space. an There are close parallels between the acts of gardening and drawing. we now have laid before us fourto show how well their colours complement each other infinite wealth of material to explore. infinitely vivid. Botanic gardens were established and expanded. on which our lives depend. robust. the microscope was refined to unfold yet another world. nurture. and the Acanthus spinosus constant but exhilarating struggle to make a living image feel right.Plants and Gardens W E SHARE THIS PLANET with the more ancient. Later. Chapters are arranged by out. Plants are the principal inspiration of the decorative arts—from Roman Corinthian columns crowned with carved leaves of the acanthus. and focus. where a number of uncredited artistsd r e wthem for Besler. 1613 187/8x153/4in(480 x 400 mm) BASILIUS BESLER . From its history there is one overriding lesson to be learned: the importance of looking and seeing with our own eyes. Medieval knowledge was not gained by the first-hand observation of life but by reading. the punctuation of space with structure and mass. and hybridize them for our sustenance and pleasure. to catalog our knowledge. Conrad von Gemmingen. and texture. Botanical illustration is a precisely defined and scientific art. Classifications were set in367copperengravings. and beauty. to the proliferation of floral designs with which we have dressed ourselves and furnished our homes for centuries. and diverse kingdom of plants. B A S I L I U SBESLER when botanists founded new work upon the direct study of plants. PriceBishopof Eichstatt specimens. We draw them to celebrate their beauty and range.
delicate. T h e rest of u s are free to d r a w as w e w i s h . Stella Ross-Craig said of the need to d r a w from a dried herbarium plant "I could make it live again. B e h i n d detailed. stems. o p e n i n g a n d c l o s i n g i n the w a r m t h a n d light of the studio. They are counted among the most accomplished 18th-century botanical artists. flowers. and seeds conventionally a p p e a r o n o n e plate. s u c h as w e see here in Bauer's Protea nitida." Her slipper orchid s h o w s that botanical drawing must often resolve the challenge of its subject's p r o d u c i n g parts in different seasons — r o o t s . It is likely Bauer would have studied these under a microscope. detail. o p t i m i s m . naturalist explorer and advisor to King George III invited Bauer to London in 1 7 9 0 . Botanical art c o n c e a l s the challenge of its m a k i n g . He has made the spatial and physical relationships in this drawing all the more real by placing a single. and Franz Bauer and his brother Ferdinand were employed there to draw specimens. Light in this drawing is given by the paleness of the paper showing between washes of darker tones. The King was then establishing the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. measured drawings. Here. leaves. Outline Bauer prepared a pencil outline before laying in fleshy succulent hues and tones of watercolor. petal tip over a lower leaf Protea nitida 201/4 x141/4in (513 x 362 mm) FRANZ BAUER 1796 . fruit. Each plant must b e clearly distinguished from its closest relative. or that were diseased. M a c k i n t o s h e x p r e s s e s the f o l d e d petals of a broken rose b u d so delicately w e can sense the perfume. subtle union of beauty. and meticulous precision. and wilted.48 PLANTS AND GARDENS THE SCIENTIFIC VALUE OF A BOTANICAL DRAWING lies i n its Botanical Studies were specimens that often refused to stay still. W i t h bright F R A N Z BAUER An Austrian artist who trained at the Schonbrunn Imperial Gardens in Vienna. Dissections Across the lower part of this drawing we can see dissections of seed pods and petals. Sir Joseph Banks. insect-ravaged.
. and speed depends upon the immediate perception of the essential characteristics of the plant. Curtis's Botanical Magazine. a n d f o u n d e r o f t h e G l a s g o w S c h o o l o f A r t M a c k i n t o s h ' s flair h a d an e n o r m o u s i n f l u e n c e o n t h e a v a n t . K e w ." This line drawing is one of 1.000 Kew to archive accessible t o d a y v i a t h e I n t e r n e t of o n British flora. as at trained botanical artist Ross-Craig Swift lines The drawing was planned in pencil and then overworked with a lithographic pen. sensual pencil drawing is later works. p u b l i s h e d 1 9 4 8 . Rose 1894 103/4 x 83/4 in ( 2 7 5 x 2 2 1 mm) CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH STELLA ROSS-CRAIG A j o i n e d t h e staff a t t h e R o y a l B o t a n i c G a r d e n s . G u s t a v K l i m t In his r e t i r e m e n t Mackintosh m a d e n u m e r o u s inventive pencil a n d w a t e r c o l o r d r a w i n g s o f plants. it is small and discreet. A s m a n y of her drawings are kept G a r d e n s .7 3 in 3 1 p a r t s . 1970 x 81/4 in ( 3 2 5 x 2 1 0 m m ) STELLA ROSS-CRAIG . a n d he inspired. and observation the nuance and contour of every in one image.49 C H A R L E S RENNIE MACKINTOSH Scottish a r c h i t e c t d e s i g n e r painter. BOTANICAL STUDIES Lines and shadows This lush. imagination.g a r d e in G e r m a n y a n d A u s t r i a . and follow shadow.286 studies for her book Drawings of British Plants. Pencil lines cling to. L o n d o n in 1 9 2 9 . H e r Drawings of British Plants. Line Drawing of Cypripedium calceolus L c. found among Mackintosh's than reality. and it shows how design. and perfect coordination of hand and eye. a m o n g o t h e r s .. S h e also o f thousands o f contributed an drawings. is r e c o g n i z e d as tne m o s t c o m p l e t e a n d i m p o r t a n t work 3. Ross-Craig said of her work "Plants that wither rapidly present a very difficult problem to which there is only one answer—speed. Closer to fiction can come together perfectly.
urgent attentive human activity. The first Mughal Emperor Babur's Garden of Fidelity (Bagh-e Vaja). and miraculous growth. Opposite is the Rose of Mohammed. . in miniature. is remembered in the pages of his journal.50 PLANTS AND GARDENS Jeweled Gardens the Middle East we find exquisite stylization of form and upright formality in pictorial space. Babur directs his gardeners in the design and planting of this quartered chahar bagh. Afghanistan. Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity c. paper is brimming with the beauty and celebration of nature. Drawing. They used a fine brush to lay pigment over a line drawing. uniform focus. and calligraphy are brought together to hold the sacred names of prophets and the 99 beautiful names of God. 1590 85/8 x55/8in (219 x 1 4 4 mm) BISHNDAS AND NANHA Bright pigment These pages were illuminated by Mughal artists in the late 16th century. the sumptuous petals permeated with prayer and wisdom. and attention to detail are all shared with medieval European manuscript drawings. Bishndas was probably responsible for the overall design. painting. which he personally created near Kabul. roses took their form in a bead of perspiration on the brow of Mohammed as he passed through his heavenly journey. The white of the page shines through the brilliant color. Envoys chatter outside the gate. fluctuations in scale. anticipating their view. Upright shallow perspectives. in the early 16th century. Every fiber of AMONG DRAWINGS FROM BISHNDAS A N D N A N H A Little is known of these Mughal painters who were related as uncle and nephew and commissioned to illustrate the pages of Babur's journal. Below. and Nanha. By Muslim tradition. a notable portrait painter drew the faces.
Stylized motif A fine brush has been used throughout this drawing to apply inks and watercolors. G e r m a n y . The Rose of Mohammed 1708 9 1 / 2 x 61/2 in ( 2 4 0 x 1 6 5 mm) FROM THE TURKISH M A N U S C R I P T AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH . Sacred words The central rose is more solid than any other on the page. and how the shape has been repeated freehand. look closely and you will see words written in gold fluttering over the form of the flower. It is n o w k e p t in Border The elegant border of this drawing was mode with a pen and ruler It cleverly compresses and defines the composition. t h e Staatsbibliothek zu Arabic. However. The physical anatomy of the rosebud has been studied and translated into a repeated stylized motif.c e n t u r y Turkish manuscnpt a book of religious e t h i c s w r i t t e n in the O r i e n t a l C o l l e c t i o n s of Berlin. fragmenting its detail in a whisper of prayers.AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH This is a detail o f a page from a n 1 8 t h . Note how each bud is essentially the same shape. so that overlapping petals and stems give an impression of fulfillment and abundance.
PLANTS AND GARDENS
IN CONTRAST TO THE QUIET, formal detail of other drawings in this chapter, these powerful fast trees enact the actions of plants. Each tree reaches out and holds its landscape with dynamism and pulse. In both drawings we find testament to the inexorable energy of growth. Rembrandt expresses a delicate quickness. Gentle lines draw a warm breeze through this remote wooded garden. Rustling in a loose foliage of soft marks, his pen evokes the weight of abundant activity on this late summer's day. Mondrian's arch of scratching branches is drawn with such force it will always be alive. We can still feel his hand storming across the paper. Set within a frame of smudged landscape, the tree possesses a musical agitation. This characteristic will increase in the artist's later abstract work. Here, we see a punctuated ordering of space. Sharp branches cut out negative shapes of winter sky.
R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter; etcher; and draftsman. Rembrandt's prolific output comprises oil paintings of historical and religious subjects together with group and self- portraits. His emotive etchings and pen and ink drawings (see also p. 174) are great resources for artists learning to understand the potential of these media.
Pen and ink lines describing foliage also tell
us the directions of sunlight and wind. An arc crossing the bottom of the drawing from one side to the other supports the scene and separates us from the landscape beyond. Compare Rembrandt's arc to that of Mondrian's. and note the similar treatment of low horizons in both works emphasizing the height and dominance of trees.
Cottage Among Trees 1648-50 63/4 x121/8in ( I 7 I x 308 mm) R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN
Atmosphere Here we see how shapes of negative space are as important as the physical subject they enclose (see pp.58-59). Mondrian has again lightly dragged his chalk on its side to evoke a wet depth of atmosphere. These passive gray marks contrast with the assertive tension of the tree.
Dutch Pure abstract painter preoccupied w i t h line and plane relationships. W i t h increasing austerity, Mondrian banished t h e subject from his drawings, in his later w o r k he also banished space, composing visual h a r m o n i e s using only straight lines a n d flat planes o f black, w h i t e , gray, o r p r i m a r y color.
Winter ground Short vertical marks along thebottomof this drawing reveal the length oftheblackchalk Mondrian used. Rubbed onitsside,itroughly blocks in the ground. Thecrudeeconomy of line is all we need tofeelthecold, wet, unwelcoming quality ofthiswinterearth.
Branches and trunk Lines shaping the branches of the tree are built up in layers. To make the trunk more dense, the artist has rubbed and smudged preliminary marks with his fingers before firmly overdrawing with new lines. Solid black lines are achieved by pressing the chalk hard. When used lightly, it shows the texture of the paper. Tree: Study for the Grey 1911 23 x 335/8 in ( 5 8 4 x 8 5 5 m m ) Tree
PLANTS AND GARDENS
Graphite and Erasers
GRAPHITE, FROM THE G R E E K word
This drawing illustrates a range of achieved with graphite pencils of different grades.
Modern pencils are graded from 9H (hard and pale) to 9B (black and soft). Graphiteclay sticks are also available, together with a powder form. All possess a natural sheen and are erasable to a varying degree. Graphite drawings smudge easily, so fixative, a form of varnish, can be used to hold a drawn surface in place. It is applied as a fine mist from an aerosol can, or from a bottle using a diffuser. For the beginner, ordinary hairspray is an effective and cheaper alternative.
(to write), is a soft and brittle carbon. It was first mined in Cumbria, England, in 1 5 6 4 , and was initially used in small, pure pieces bound in lengths of string. Pencils as we know them—with their slender wood casing and "lead" of graphite—were invented in France in 1794 by Nicolas-Jaques Conte. He discovered that milled graphite mixed with clay and water, press-molded, and baked to a high temperature produces a harder and paler medium than graphite alone.
3B pencil A range of mark and textures can be achieved with a 3B pencil when you vary its pressure, speed, and direction, as this detail shows.
Here is a selection of 14 items to illustrate a basic range of pencils, graphite sticks, sharpeners, erasers, and fixative.
1. AND 2. HB AND 3B PENCILS: It is unnecessary to possess every grade of pencil. HB, the central and most common grade, is perfect for making delicate lines. 3B gives a blacker tone. A great variety of effects can be achieved with just these two. 3. WATER-SOLUBLE PENCIL Effective for atmospheric drawing, but be aware of how watery tones can dull the impact of the line. 4. AND 5. MECHANICAL PENCIL Thick or fine leads are made in a range of grades. They are particularly useful because they do not require a sharpener 6. ROUND SOLID GRAPHITE PENCIL: Excellent for large-scale drawing, producing thick bold lines. A range of grades can be honed with a craft knife or sharpener 7. THICK GRAPHITE STICK: For large-scale drawing. Graded soft, medium, and hard. It crushes to produce graphite powder 8. SQUARE GRAPHITE STICK: Useful for making broad, sweeping marks in large-scale drawing. If worn and rounded, the stick can be snapped into pieces to regain the sharp, square end. 9. CRAFT KNIFE AND BLADES: Handles are sold in two sizes to fit large or small blades, and blades are sold in a range of shapes. Perfect for sharpening pencils to a long point, to cut lines in paper or to remove areas. 10. PENCIL SHARPENER: Makes a uniform point. Keep one in your pocket for drawing outside the studio, together with an envelope for shavings.
HB and 5B Layers of tone have been built up withHBand5Bpencils. Softer pencils require less pressure to make a mark, revealing the texture of the paper surface. It is important to keep the point of the pencil sharp with either a craft knife or a sharpener.
ERASING AND FIXING
Erasers can be used t o blend and s o f t e n lines, o r t o r e m o v e altogether. Fixative them prevents
GRAPHITE AND ERASERS
s m u d g i n g a n d s e c u r e s lines.
Using fixative You can use fixative while drawing to hold the definition of lines you wish to gently fade but not remove entirely, for which you would use an eraser.
11. P L A S T I C E R A S E R : Avoid cheap colored erasers that may stain drawings with grease and dye. White brands are available in soft and hard versions.
P U T T Y RUBBER:
W a r m it in your hand before use. It is excellent for removing powdery materials, and for making crisp sweeps of light across a delicate pencil drawing
13. D I F F U S E R : Helleborus corsicus (Corsican hellebore) fixative, or to spray mists of ink.
PLANTS AND GARDENS
Cropping and Composition
M A N Y STUDENTS WILL START a d r a w i n g i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e
that its skin nearly touches the boundary. The meaning of the same drawing changes simply by its relationship to the space it occupies. The size of any subject, its placement on the page, the size of the page, and its overall proportion are all discrete and essential aspects of successful picture-making. Before you begin to draw, think carefully about where to place your subject. Are you are happy with your paper? If not, change it; add more, take some away, or turn it around. Do not just accept what you are given, adapt it to what you need.
paper. Focused on the shape and detail of their subject, they remain happily unaware that there is, or should be, any relationship between what they are drawing and the surface they are drawing it on. The paper is only paper, and the troublesome subject floats somewhere in the expanse of it. However, a single fig drawn in the middle of a large, empty square of paper gives quite a different impression from the same fig drawn on such an intimately small square
CHOOSING A VIEW
A Single Fig
"The size, shape, and orientation of the paper are so integral to the composition that they determine the impact and meaning of the drawing."
its stem and shadow framing a white center. and therefore apparently suspended from. CROPPING AND COMPOSITION Off-center and diagonal Here I held my viewfinder so the fig appeared upper-left in the space. Space as the subject Inallpictures. Touching the edge When the subject o f a drawing touches one edge of the paper it attaches t o it visually. bottom-left t o top-right. U s e it as a starting point. t h e n m o v e t h e c a r d t o e x p l o r e different views. spaces between things are as important as the things themselves. and lines describing shadows cast by the fruit . A card with a small rectangle cut out o f it makes a useful viewfinder C l o s e o n e e y e t o look through the hole.57 THE VIEWFINDER T h e s e pencil drawings o f figs d e m o n s t r a t e different crops and compositions. the uppermost edge of the drawing. Here the left fig is attached to. they establish a tension and unity with the paper. its illumination. When subjects touch two or more edges. This drawing hasbeencropped to emphasize space between thefruit.O u r focus is on the white cloth supporting the figs. as also shown here. The angle of the fruit together with dark shadow (top left) and bright light(bottom right) suggest a diagonal division across the whole drawing. a device to help you decide what t o draw. running corner t o corner.
position. In following this class.The box opposite isolates an area. Negative space is the simple key to getting positive shape right. you will need a similar large-leaved plant. Draw a complete shape Map outward from the center Erase and adjust lines until correct . dynamic. which is shown in the three steps below. and engaging. Remember that plants do move! Therefore it is best to complete your drawing in one sitting if possible. unified. but if the artist does. not leaves.58 PLANTS AND GARDENS Negative Space UNCONSCIOUSLY WE ASSESS spatial relationships all the time to guide ourselves through the world. Viewers appreciating a finished image may not see shapes of space. then added a second shape. Looking at negative space overrides the problem of drawing what you know. and a fresh page in your drawing book. But how often do we look at the air between things. It is an astonishingly simple device that many artists use and I strongly recommend. WHERE TO START Arrange your plant and paper so you can look back and forth by barely moving your head. shapes of air cut out and defined by the physicality of our environment? When we look into the branches of a tree. an eraser. and so on. their subject and composition will become more real. do we see myriad distinct and unique shapes of daylight or do we just see branches? Why as artists should we look at the air? Every space in a picture has a shape. this ensures a consistent view. erasing and adjusting lines until itlooked right. a foundation stone in picture-making. In your own version. remember to draw only space. fourth. Unfamiliar shapes of negative space reveal the real shape of a positive subject. It helps to start at the center and map outward. tone. The drawing opposite is of the uppermost leaves of a potted fig tree. third. and a role to play. rather than what you see in front of you. a sharp H B pencil. Follow these from left to right and see how I began with one complete shape between two parts of a leaf.
Here I drew only spaces, adding one to another until the leaves were revealed. Besides looking at negative space, there are two other useful things to do when a drawing feels wrong but you cannot see why: look at it in a mirror or turn it upside down. errors and suggest changes.
Spaces between leaves
Either view will
WALKING IN THE ALPUJARRAS in A n d a l u c i a ,
Spain, I drew a bare fig tree clinging to the wall of an almond grove; a perfect subject for seeing negative space. I marked its essential frame of large branches first, frequently erasing lines and changing my mind until the balance felt right.
S a l v i a , RIBES, CLEMATIS, Allium, Passiflora, and Acanthus
drawn with an H pencil by observing the
negative spaces between the stems, petals, and leaves. I arranged the flowers on a sheet of paper in a cool r o o m and rapidly sketched a composition. Then I put them in water, taking the stems out one at a time to draw.
gathering less distinct information on the way.Acanthus Spinosus As we LOOK AROUND. If an artist changes the pace of their line and focus of their attention. they emulate our experience of seeing. Compare changes of pace and focus here to the flatter finish of Summer Flowers (see pp. . interfolding points of detail with areas of loose suggestion. We never see everything at once. Excessive detail leaves no space for the eye to rest or imagination to wander. 62-63). our eyes travel and adjust from one point of focus to another.
to 20th-century film fantasy. composers. architects and designers can imaginatively "climb inside" three-dimensional space and. Linear perspective is a marvelous device. they have the Golden Section. filmmakers. and writers have been breaking away from traditional forms of representation to seek new expressions of shape. was preserved into the Renaissance where it became a foundation stone for thinking and creativity From 15thcentury Italy. European conventions of pictorial perspective have lost their monopoly on seeing. time. architects. to help them create new form. It is the focus of practical class in this chapter. Augustin. once there. we find the most recent steps in the evolution of graphic language. Paris 1871-74 the child's view to the infinity of the vanishing point. of the west facade of St Augustin. Since the first flowering of Modernism in the early 20th century. space." reflecting the eye's love of unity in difference. Since Picasso and Braque's revolution of Cubism in around 1907. and computer game imaging. they also have a diagrammatic language for communicating plans to builders. fine artists. 74-75). Perhaps in the sheer planes of some of our greatest modern buildings it is finding its clearest expression. film-set design. add and subtract ideas. each VICTOR BALTARD .Architecture I N THE CONTEMPORARY PRACTICES of architecture. invaluable to understand and apply when you choose. It was the mathematicians. It was also during the Renaissance that the architect Brunelleschi invented linear perspective. which can be clearly seen in ancient Greek architecture. made by the architect himself. VICTOR BALTARD French architect employed by the city of Paris. designers. Besides sketches of first thoughts and polished drawings of the finished look for clients. drawing plans around themselves within a program as opposed to on a flat sheet of paper.The church is still in use today. which was the first church in the capital to be built entirely of metal and then clad in stone. with gray and brown watercolor wash. mass. philosophers. coupled with the importance of exercizing your imagination. This harmony. and in the 19th century it was given the name the Golden Section. the device that has since governed most of our picture-making (sec pp. Through the animation of the screen. Architects have been fine-tuning their specialized branch of drawing for centuries. Yet the pursuit of divine proportion and harmony remains. the formula for perfection spread through Europe. Among the drawings of this chapter we look from 17th-century ecclesiastical calm. and from West Facade of the Church of St Augustin. balance.This is a pencil drawing. and sound. At the core of their practice. Computer programs allow the virtual drawing of ideas. Baltard designed the Church of St. and architects of ancient Greece who first pursued the formula for "divine proportion. from political commentary to musical abstraction.
Architects draw for many reasons: to visualize ideas. NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR One of Britain's "three great" Baroque architects (along with Sir Christopher Wren and Sir John Vanbrugh). describe a finished look to a client.68 ARCHITECTURE Master Builders EVERY NEW BUILDING. St Paul's Baptistry c. materials. and an inscribed entablature. marks the end of a long journey from the first few marks the architect made on a sheet of paper. Three aspects This subtle and sophisticated drawing made in pen and wash displays three distinct aspects of Hawksmoor's baptistry. embodying a massive investment of ideas. and labor. a three-dimensional drawing made with wires and weights. We see the modeled detail of Corinthian columns. Pillars and floor At the base of the drawing a compass-drawn plan tilted downward through 90 degrees illustrates the arrangement of pillars around a central circular floor. and balance. Drawings underpin every great human-made structure like hidden linear ghosts at their core. evoke presence. Gaudi's fluid architecture grew up through many kinds of drawing. densely layered lines in mists of color weave the presence of the expected building into shape. and ultimately to show builders what to do. Lines define structure while washes suggest light and atmosphere. A student of Wren's. Cut-away interior On the right a section cut through the center of the building reveals material thicknesses. The photograph opposite shows his studio hung with metal pendulums. Together they explain how interior structure and space define exterior form and shape. and Castle Howard. Hawksmoor established his reputation with university and church architecture including All Souls College. and later an assistant to Vanbrugh. Blenheim Palace. 1711-12 NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR . calculate function. and six London churches. structure. and the shapes of interior domes and apses. Oxford. Below it. he also worked on St Paul's Cathedral. testing gravity to calculate the inverted shapes of domes. Hampton Court Palace. relative levels. Finished surface On the left the finished surface of the building is given depth and emphasis by immaculate vertical and horizontal brush strokes of shadow. pilasters. Hawksmoor's drawing is both a plan and an evocation.
This sculptural drawingenvisionsthe finished crypt glowingandethereal as if caught in thelightof red morning sun. churches. embellishment. Wire and watercolor three-dimensional preferred to calculate Above is a drawing form in the made withlinkedwires and weights.69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt c. 1900 ANTONIO GAUDI ANTONIO GAUDI Visionary Catalan architect. 1910 24x181/4( 6 1 0 x 4 7 5mm) A N T O N I O GAUDI . unique organic manipulation of high shapes. light. Gaudi's cathedral in Barcelona. The Art Nouveau movement. and his love of music. Gaudi air than on paper. Guell Crypt of its at the Time Construction c. and apartment homes are distinguished by their Their and Flowering curves of stone or concrete are often encrusted with Gaudi was inspired by medieval and oriental art. To the right isawatercolordrawing thought to havebeenmade over a photograph ofthemodelabove.
Floor space appears divided by discernible walls. and arched dotted lines depict the radius of doors. and rooms. Across the top and center right of the image w e perceive an almost recognizable architectural plan. and in a sense hear. Floor plan This drawing has been made with a rapidograph. Satie draws quietly throughout. The architect and musician Daniel Libeskind has drawn a stampeding cacophany of airborne architectural detail. corridors. Libeskind studied music before transferring to architecture. We can imagine how a musician might interpret this drawing by looking at the abstract visual rhythms of masses composed of long straight poles. and the spaces between his windows and turrets are the visual equivalent of pauses in h i s m u s i c c o m p o s i t i o n s for p i a n o (see also Bussotti. theater sets. He also contributed to plans for the rebuilding of the World Trade Center site in New York. a refillable pen that feeds a constant supply of ink through a fine tubular nib. He also produces urban and landscape designs.70 ARCHITECTURE The Order of Sound B O T H OF THESE VISIONARY DRAWINGS o c c u p y a s l e n d e r . Libeskind's numerous commissions include concert halls and museums. Arctic Flowers 1980 DANIEL LIBESKIND . and dotted lines. and exhibitions of his drawings. Both men used rulers and pens to carefully and slowly construct their compositions. flat boards. There has always DANIEL LIBESKIND A Polish American architect of international acclaim. been a natural affinity between the visual rhythms of pictures and the audible rhythms of music. while the composer Erik Satie has made an enclosure of quiet order and grace. such a rapport in both of these drawings. Visual rhythms In the lower half of this drawing architectural language has broken loose: escaped and transformed into an image of rebellious pleasure. before cascading into a riot of line and sound below. upright pictorial space. installations. We can see. Contemporary musicians commonly collaborate with artists by interpreting images as sound. p. Libeskind begins quietly in the upper space of his drawing. short curved poles.223).
the perimeter Composition Look how well this drawingfitsand resonates with the upright. theater.narrowshape of its paper.56—57 we discussed important the shape. o f which he was the sole m e m b e r Parcel paper Satie has drawn this fantasy hotel using a ruler. Hotel de la Suzonnieres c. effectively additional lines in a work. Eastern influence The upright image Eastern is reminiscent and medieval of Middle pictorial space and subject of this European drawing. a n d ballet.50.H i s witty. H e p e r f o r m e d in cabarets. 1 8 9 3 77/8 x 51/2 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 4 0 mm) ERIK SATIE . and founded his o w n church. andfouredges of the paper tothecompositionand impact animage. They definespaceand pictorial balance.ERIK SATIE F r e n c h pianist and c o m p o s e r for t h e piano. dressed eccentrically. Onpp. and ink on a fragment folded brown paper—a of everyday happened material of scrap that to be at hand.Edges are how are of orientation. minimalist s c o r e s scandalized a u d i e n c e s with o r c h e s t r a t i o n s f o r t h e foghorn and typewriter. a conventional dip or fountain pen. Compare the even and and the shape wall to the elegantly stylized order of the many windows of arrangement of details and the shape of the wall in Babur's Garden of Fidelity on p. lived a l o n e . Satie collaborated w i t h hisfriends J e a n C o c t e a u a n d P i c a s s o .
His celebrated imaginary buildings are characterized by pyramids. enter the long-shadowed architecture of imaginary worlds. cylinders. experiencing a fascinating conflict between curiosity and desolation. and the reverse is true on the right. Within it.96.72 ARCHITECTURE T H E S E T H R E E HIGHLY DETAILED DRAWINGS Future Fictions invite us to soaring above normal life. made in 1926.The lower-left section of the building appears relatively pale against a darker sky. arched vaults. and dramatic lighting. This is the work of an architectural theoretician. Among preparations for Fritz Langs film Metropolis. Boullee's monolithic apparition was drawn as a monument to Sir Isaac Newton. Light illusions This pen-and-wash drawing shows a subtle application of the principles of illumination demonstrated with an egg on p. the ominous globe exists only as a series of drawings. and taught at t h e A c a d e m i e d'Architecture. we find other Utopian visions Paul Nobles epic drawing summons an imperfect and disturbing township where ruin and activity are equal and strange. ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE French architectural theorist. and draftsman. antlike mortals might have speculated upon the universe. spheres. This shift makes the cenotaph appear three-dimensional. We glide over exquisitely drawn wastelands of damage and abandonment. Newton's Cenotaph 1784 153/4 x 25 in ( 4 0 2 x 635 m m ) ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE . painter. Boullee lived in Paris. Art director Erich Kettlehut's vertiginous design for the city of a slavelike populace had a future influence on movies such as Blade Runner.
draftsman.a r t director O t t o Hunte. Its sheerscaleengulfs the viewer and demands based time and patience to on letters and in some beread. intensely detailed graphite drawings explaining and questioning t h e geography. Nobson Central 9 ft 1 0 in x 1 3 f t 2 in (3 x 4 m ) PAUL N O B L E 1998-99 . Working on toned paper such as this gives an artist greater scope for dramatic lighting effects than if they work on white paper. mythology. and m o d e l . 1926 ERICH KETTLEHUT PAUL N O B L E British c o n t e m p o r a r y artist who creates m o n u m e n t a l . and morality o f an invented place called His satires exhibited w o r l d w i d e .Building shapes are works can be read as text.73 ERICH KETTLEHUT Influential film a r t director. together with c i n e m a t o g r a p h e r Karl Freund.m a k e r In t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f Metropolis. and white ink on brown-gray paper. gray. Kettlehut and his c o . Kettlehut drew using a fine and relatively dry brush dipped in black. used forced perspective camera t e c h n i q u e s t o amplify t h e m a g n i t u d e o f buildings in relation t o human characters. Nobson political visions of humanity Newtown. and are Graphite shapes Nobson Central isoneof a series of very large graphite drawings of the spoil and detritus of Nobson Newtown. FUTURE FICTIONS Brush and ink This is a dramatic drawing from a film that shaped the history of world cinema. Fritz Lang's Metropolis c. architecture.
It can be applied to any subject. I contribute the child's perspective. We use it to structure illusions of depth. Study of Perspective Adoration of the for the Magi 1481 61/2 x111/2in (165 x 290 mm) LEONARDO DA VINCI .74 ARCHITECTURE Pathways of Sight LINEAR PERSPECTIVE (also called vanishing-point perspective) is a simple device for calculating the relative size of things in pictorial space. and thinkers ever to have lived. and those of Naive artists and children. linear perspective is distinct from more ancient systems practiced in the East. Piranesi an example of two. Note how architectural features conform to lines and how human figures diminish in size toward thevanishingpoint. Invented by Italian artist and architect Brunelleschi in 1413 (late in the history of art). Pull the thread taut and rotate it slowly above the drawing. It is also distinguished from aerial perspective (see pp. See how the thread corresponds to each converging line. In his notebooks. scientists. 206-07). but is most easily seen and understood in pictures of buildings and interiors. All forms of perspective are of equal value. Sometimes shared with Naive artists. and age eight. found at the center of all converging lines. observations. Leonardo recorded constant streams of ideas. and inventions— essential reading for inquiring minds. Press the pin into Leonardo's vanishing point. this perspective is often an imagined bird's-eye view in which details are mapped according to logic and importance rather than how they might appear in real life. LEONARDO DA VINCI One of the greatest artists. Single-point perspective Tie a thread to a pin. Here Leonardo provides a superb example of a single vanishing point. inventors.
Breamore Village. architect. . This drawing Young children typically maps ignore on and understanding of the nearby village. Scale Our farmhouse my experience was in the woods. visionary and practical understanding of ancient Rome. Two-point perspective Sunlight through this colonnade a great example of two-point perspective. Children are uninhibited and problems with one element being obscured by another rarely arise. New Forest. It shows how children usually map large scenes in flat layers one above the other. Lightly marked illuminates vanishing Two Courtyards c. issues of scale when making room for important their story. Mark these points with your pin and follow the converging lines of the drawing by rotating your thread. and designer Piranesi's prolific architectural drawings. a points in logical narrative of memories. including all they recall about the subject. 1740 5 1 / 2 x 83/8 in (141 x 212 mm) G I O V A N N I B A T T I S T A PIRANESI points are located on either side of the drawing. England 1980 9 x 16 in (228 x 405 mm) S A R A H SIMBLET GIOVANNI BATTISTA PIRANESI Italian artist. and theoretical writing strongly influenced neoclassicism. Note the rather large rabbits and pheasants the hills.SARAH SIMBLET I made this drawing (at age 8) in response to a local bookstore's request for children to draw their village. at the top of each lateral column base. which I saw from home every day.
you will amplify the illusion of distance. (See p. DRAWING BOXES 1 Using a ruler and a sharp HB pencil. corresponding to a single vanishing point.98 for an important note on oscillation. try composing your own space. Extend each dotted line to the edge of your drawing. imagine. This lesson shows you how to make a simple illusion of space defined by two boxes and three flat boards. Next. Each line should pass through one corner of the rectangle. discovering the image as it progressed. You have completed your first box. 2 3 corners must each touch a dotted line. Study these pages first before embarking on this lesson. Erase the dotted construction lines. Draw each step over the preceding one to build up a single image. using a sharp HB pencil and ruler. Piranesi planned his drawing with only the essential lines needed.76 ARCHITECTURE Single-Point Perspective MASTERING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE i s e a s i e r t h a n y o u m a y First read through. this is your vanishing point. then follow the ten steps below. draw a horizon line across your paper Mark a spot on the horizon line. On the previous page we looked at its essential mechanism through drawings by Leonardo and Piranesi. This ensures that the second rectangle aligns with the shape and 4 Draw four short lines to connect the four corners of the two rectangles. Note that if you place large structures in the foreground and smaller ones closer to your vanishing point. Surround the vanishing point with a small rectangle. In contrast. Draw four dotted lines radiating out from the vanishing point. This is where we will begin.) . Leonardo began with a grid of many lines within which he invented his scene.
when inventing your own compositions. the closer it will appear to the viewer.willhelptomake them appear more solid. 7 As in step 3.77 SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE 5 Draw a new rectangle. Repeat this to add two more boards to the composition. and erase the dotted lines. Note that this does not surround the vanishing point In the future. The board's sides should be parallel. 9 Use dotted lines connecting the slanting linetothe vanishing point to locate the top. 8 Complete the second box with short lines as in step 4. The larger you make your second rectangle. The four comers must each touch a dotted line to be sureitaligns with the first. . draw a second. Continue the dotted lines out toward the edge of your drawing. you can place rectangles anywhere youwishin relation to a vanishing point. 1 0 Erase all ofthedottedlinestoseeyourfinishedboxes Thickeningtheiredges. bottom. with two dotted lines. andfarside of this first board. draw four dotted lines radiating from your vanishing point Pass these through each comer of the new rectangle. Connect this to the vanishing point— again. larger rectangle. N e x t draw a slanting line to mark the height of the first flat board. 6 As in step 2.asIhavedonehere.
" . it will take you places you never dreamed of. let simple lines suggest a simple space. Every work talks In this class. w h e t h e r it is a film or a painting." imaginary room. draw a b o x as shown opposite. If using a fibertip pen as I have done for this drawing. I always start with a script but I don't follow it all the way through to the end. Then follow the three given steps. 7 4 ) . It highlights the importance of having faith in your imagination and trusting your ability to invent. artist and film director. once said: "I never end up with what I set out to do. O n a fresh page in your d r a w i n g b o o k . A lot more happens when you open yourself up to the work and let yourself act and react to it. As David Lynch. you will find white adhesive stationery labels are useful for covering errors or changing the direction of your idea. it is interaction that makes the work richer. The m i s t a k e n belief that we s h o u l d k n o w exactly what o u r finished drawings will l o o k like before we m a k e t h e m prevents many people from ever starting.78 ARCHITECTURE Creating an Imaginary Space T H I S CLASS USES SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE t o c r e a t e a s i m p l e to you and if you listen to it. APPLYING PERSPECTIVE An Imagined Scaffold "Enjoy your illusion as you make it and it will become more real. then let the space suggest its c o n t e n t s and purpose. Linear perspective will support y o u by providing a frame in which to b u i l d your picture as it did for Leonardo. p .
you will beableto draw more complex objects orpeoplewithin them. The space has become more solid and real. 2 first before adding furniture. This initial space will be transparent and open to change. parallel planes such as walls converge toward the vanishing point. CREATING AN IMAGINARY SPACE 1First.drawthehorizonlineand vanishingpoint. horizontal. With some practice. additional lines have established the different surfaces and how they relate to each other. Here. and leaning surfaces.79 DRAWING A SIMPLE ROOM Essentials t o remember: objects and people dimmish in size as they move farther away. .Addanarray of converging lines to provide a "scaffold" for vertical.There is great pleasure tobefoundin spending time inventing interiors. 3 Remove the construction lines with an eraser and the room will becomeclearer. and floors and ceilings also converge and rise o r lower toward the horizon.
To draw such a view APPLICATION Copy these drawings to see and feel how they work before inventing your own versions. Vanishing points are commonly found on horizon—our eye level. verticals appear p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the g r o u n d .80 ARCHITECTURE Further Aspects of Perspective W E ARE ACCUSTOMED TO SEEING our e n v i r o n m e n t from a relatively constant point of view. Further aspects of three-point perspective are also illustrated opposite.p o i n t perspective ( s h o w n opposite top). Copying what you see in the work of others will help you to understand what they have done. The boxes drawn here are seen partly or entirely disassociated from a horizon line drawn across the bottom of the image. Only when y o u might employ t h r e e . These elaborations could continue indefinitely across a sheet of paper in pursuit of complex and intricate ideas. our eye level is very high and we look down. 76-79). but they are not confined to this level. they can be placed anywhere inspaceto describe the perspective of flyi c tilted objects. I have elaborated on the simple boxes above. Here. T h e y d o n o t have to relate to each other. They could be drawn on any scale from miniature to monumental. Elaborations . Potentially. located anywhere inside or outside the pictorial space. do verticals appear inclined. T h i n k of standing at the top of a skyscraper and imagine h o w its parallel sides would appear to converge below you. or low and we look u p . showing y o u h o w to draw curved surfaces and a tiled floor. a n d this is how we have drawn them so far (see pp. T h i s is d e m o n s t r a t e d immediately below. From our normal eye level. That is where we e to find them. Free vanishing points On paper we can enjoy the freedom of fantastic structural invention without limitations of solid materials or gravity. Search for the application of these perspectives among works by other artists in this book and in galleries. It is important to realize that you can have as many vanishing points as you wish. o r to the h o r i z o n .
An array of curved lines (drawn freehand) link the two lateral points. you will see how. I then drew three fanned groups of lines connecting each of the three points above to the seven points below. Giving curvature. three vanishing points are evenly spaced along a horizon line. and therefore tension. (Turn the book around to see a view looking up. by adding a third point you can achieve a sense of incline. Where thelinescross. Iusedthese lines as a guide t o draw the curvature of boxes and panels flying through space. I marked the toplinewith three evenly spaced points and the line with seven.81 FURTHER ASPECTS OF Three-point towers This drawing depicts three-point perspective. they mark the corners of the floor tiles. useful for representing steep views looking up or down tall structures. tostraightlines can amplify drama in a picture.I added horizontal lines t o define the tiles.) By comparing this drawing t o Piranesi's example of two-point perspective on p. Three-point checkered floor This d bottom floor.Finally. PERSPECTIVE Three-point curves Here.Istarted with two parallel lines. Note that altering the distance between the three dots above will tilt the level of the floor .75.
I visited many anatomical theaters and museums.Theaters RESEARCHING FOR MY P H D . making drawings to resolve questions and express personal responses to the nature and history of anatomy. These walnut-skin ink pen and brush drawings show imagined views of theaters that do not exist but were inspired by places I studied. .
. The vanishing of the drawing is directly opposite as we look across The constancy of the bridge and surrounding frames the movement in the life that flows past.A N D . the water.I N KDRAWING is one of a series I made while next to the Rialto Bridge in Venice.Venetian Life sitting point buildings ThisP E N .
Artists and actors use the meanings of things to communicate a speculative mechanic. color. T h e Industrial Revolution c h a n g e d the traditional w a y s in w h i c h objects were designed. for example—whether. Birds follow instinct to make a nest. and made. are all made bearing the signature of our time and place. sculpted. to record an observed detail. drawn. or to explain and present a finished concept to a client.Objects and Instruments T HE THINGS WE INVENT describe our lives. Previously. History will be learned from the artifacts w e leave behind. fictional realities caster of h o w t o make it andhowit will w o r k . each demanding more of the other as they increased in sophistication. or used on stage hood for a mold t o make theheado f a horse f oas a p r o p — i m b u e d with e n o u g h energy or character can "become" a man. or drawing w e see Leonardo daVinci'sprecision as can be given meaning. Artists also make images of objects that can never exist. even more advanced drawings are made on computers. passing them on to others through the act of making. r an equestrian statue. H e has described contour and function at drawings. have often carried great weights of allegorical once. but humans LEONARDO DA VINCI Inthisbeautiful red chalk Our items all have a purpose—practical or ornamental—and all have a meaning. and the behavior of light through making still-life paintings and together. of light in the creation of pictorial illusions. these. 1493 117/8c81/4in (300 x 210 m m ) LEONARDO D A V I N Ccreating I . illuminating snail shells. too. In past eras. and some apes use simple tools. drawing c. A chair. In this chapter. for example. hooked bars that can be pulled and tied closely form. texture. craftsmen had held plans in their memory. design. drawings were needed to instruct workers on the factory floor. H e has described a casting through metaphor. T h e precision of engineering d r a w i n g s e v o l v e d alongside machine tools. With the sudden onset of mass production. we look at the importance are the only creatures on Earth w h o actually design and create great ranges of things. W e also explore v o l u m e and form in the classes by spinning lines to make vessels. planned. It is shaped in sections w i t h Artists have for centuries studied and expressed composition. It was in this era that the blueprint was born. Engineers and designers of our objects and instruments make drawings for many reasons: to test an idea that is yet to be made. making a clear instruction t o his bronzemeaning. and the way in w h i c h the brain reacts Head and Neck Sections of Female Mold for the Sforza Horse to visual stimulus and optical illusions. that test our logic with a sense of mystery. C o m m o n items. and a wire violin. Technical drawing was speedily developed as a meticulous international code of m e a s u r e m e n t and explanation. Today. from s p o o n s and pens to chairs and bicycles.
There is a fragile eloquence to these objects as they drift in slow motion past our gaze. charcoal. Braques image is a Cubist collage. wood-look wallpaper. silverware. He takes us into the bustle of the Paris cafe.Braque marshals all the forces of perspective.73 x 1 m) GEORGES BRAQUE . His work is characterized by calm and harmonious still-life compositions.. T h i s is a designers drawing made to enthuse surface and style in its delicate brushing of china. representing still life. Below. a colored canvas. Clashes The art historian Ernst Gombrich said of Cubism. . "I believe [it] is the most radicalattempttostampout ambiguity and to enforce one readingofthepicture—that of a manmade construction. Opposite. One of the great joys of this movement in art is the musicality of its multipoint view. steaming with music and conversation." La Cuitare. Statue D'Epouvante 1913 2 f t 5 in x 3 ft 5 in (0. but to clash in virtual deadlock. still feel this projected moment. and glass objects of exquisite elegance for only the gentlest of touch and appreciation. Braque established Cubism in partnership with Picasso just before World War I. and a journal jacket with words makes this drawing chatter about the moment.90 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS Still Life THESE DRAWINGS REVEAL t w o o p p o s i t e m o t i v a t i o n s i n we can. and shading. texture. not to work in harmony. perfect i n their newly made availability. Braques "justly" arranged combination of cut black card. Even today GEORGES BRAQUE French painter who as a young man was influenced by the work of the Fauves and of Cezanne. Mucha's drawing glistens with possession. not of place but of things..
Art Nouveau motifs This is a preliminary study for a subsequent print.ALPHONSE MUCHA Czech graphic artist and painter who worked in Prague. Background color Between the delicate shadows and highlights of these glazed and surfaces ofthebackground metal color of the Mucha we see a large amount paper. He is best known for posters featuring ethereal women in typical Art Nouveau style. Look at the two spoons at toprightand see how has suggested that they are so brilliantly shiny they reflect the background color. and New York. Art Nouveau curling motifs of birds. Black watercolor washes and lines of white gouache have been added with a fine brush. The three plates facing us were drawn with a compass. and also stamps and bank notes. For ten years Mucha designed theater posters exclusively for the actress Sarah Bernhardt.fruit. Chicago.flowers. Study for Plate 59 from "Documents Decoratifs" 17x121/4(430 x 310 mm) ALPHONSE MUCHA 1902 . and fish have been outlined using a sharp pencil. He designed the Austrian pavilion for the Paris World Fair in 1900. Pans.
and Fellow of the University o f C a m b r i d g e . Transparent view Newton's reflecting telescope focused light in a parabolic mirror. and the nature o f light and color. From the concept of capturing the infinite to the mapping of microscopic sight. He counted 1 4 . alchemist. It was then reflected up inside the tube and. Look how confidently he draws with ink the sphere of this wooden globe by which his telescope rotates. Their delicate construction is only as valuable as the measurements they make. drawing is there to pin the moment down. A disembodied eye at the top of the drawing indicates where to look. It is a diagrammatic explanation of how to catch and magnify a star in a mirrored tube. Hooke's head of a drone fly seen through a microscope may represent the first time man and insect came face to face. each reflecting a view of his own world—his window. 0 0 0 perfect hemispheres. astronomer. shape the very cause and effect of investigatory thought. and his hand moving across the light. the law o f gravity.92 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS by their very nature must gauge or chronicle precision. we see drawing Instruments of Vision found among his letters. via a second mirror. The power of this drawing reflects the pure passion of discovery. Ink lines Several drawings appear among Newton's letters. In the graphic work of these two great men of science. Newton's drawing of his first reflecting telescope is ISAAC N E W T O N English scientist. each one skillfully rendered with the alarmingly matter-of-fact ease of explaining the commonplace. With dotted lines Newton has drawn his arrangement of elements inside the tube. a tree outside. mathematician. into the eyepiece. w h e r e he developed his three greatest theories: the law o f motion. Newton's 1672 ISAAC Telescope NEWTON . and philosopher Newton was President of the Royal Society. Newton used this instrument to calculate the speed required to escape earth's gravity. offering a transparent view.
ROBERT H O O K E 93 Magnifications This acutely detailed engraved drawing is taken from Hooke's Micrographia (pub. It is an exhilarating read. universal joint a prototype respirator clock balance.An experimental scientist who drew many of his discoveries. and anchor escarpment. and calculated the theory of combustion. 1665). Hooke invented the camera diaphragm. a breathtaking book containing many of his drawings showing some of the first microscopic and telescopic magnifications of our environment Hooke's text and illustrations carry us to the moment of discovery. The Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 1665 ROBERT HOOKE 111/2 x 105/8 in (294 x 270 mm) .
it has so m u c h familiar personality that it seems to talk to us. and has drawings in numerous public and private collections. Drawn in more-or-less c o n v e n t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . Bench Marks W e are left a little c o n f u s e d as to what we s h o u l d do. Its wobbly gait and squashed s y m m e t r y m u m b l e endless h o m e y tales about the life it has seen. W i t h h o m e y c o n t r a s t . this chair p r e s e n t s us with a clever visual contradiction: deeply drawn shadows tell us it must be solid. From component parts we understand how to put it together and make it stand sensible in space. A renegade from the p a p e r dolls' h o u s e . Van Gogh's tipsy seat is a metaphor for an absent person.94 INSTRUMENTS W H E N WE DRAW A COMMON OBJECT like a chair. has published several catalogs of her work. while the tabs make us see a flat paper cut-out. Sarah Woodfines flat cut-out m o d e l plan is a witty and surprising drawing. Woodfine exhibits internationally. and place in the world are truly seen. and w h e r e the chair b e l o n g s . OBJECTS AND SARAH WOODFINE British contemporary artist graduate of the Royal Academy Schools. Two-dimensional was made This highly finished drawing ruler using a sharp pencil and on smooth white drawing paper glistening dark drawings are artificial representations of known Woodfine's two-dimensional things balanced in the world. Chair Cut Out 2002 22'A x 23 in (565 x 585 mm) SARAH WOODFINE . and winner of the 2004 Jerwood Drawing Prize. craft. each drawn with the s a m e unfaltering lines and tones that are between reality and impossibility. its character.
and Starry Cypress Night. not is made present in only strokes and is subdued to distract us from flat a meaningful chair.95 VINCENTVAN GOGH Dutch painter who produced over 800 paintings and 850 drawings in only the last ten year's of his life. His passionate brush and pencil strokes are honest and of also turmoil and growing alarm at the world around him. what direct in their he saw and describing his felt. The floor few as engagement with the chair.hehas marked the full emotion of the subject with a fierce grip of concentration. Van Chair 1890 VINCENT VAN GOGH . Among van Gogh's best-known canvases are Trees. Cornfield and Sunflowers. inner recording while Fierce strokes This is a portrait of the mechanical drew immediately and almost harshly. drawn opposite way of plan.
Gray squares To further examine changes in tone. a n d our ability to see forms in c l o u d s or fire. T h e slightest recognition is instantly matched to our wealth of experience a n d expectation. Before starting a tonal drawing of any subject. one blackandone white. Tape them to the glass. hence our recognition of a cartoon face c o m p o s e d of three lines. a n d we can be fooled. less developed than the center.This effect is caused by the contrast of their surroundings. are translated into a world of space. The egg's darkest region is seen against a lighter background. transmitted to the brain as chains of electrical impulses. a n d m o v e m e n t . two identical mid-gray squares are seen against black and paler gray squares. form. To interpret visual s t i m u l u s . We perceive one to be lighter than theother. W e learn to read light and shadow in our environment as indicators of solidity and depth of space. gray.d o w n patterns of light on our retinas. or colored surface is never constant. w e turn our head but n o one w a s there. o u r b r a i n s search for n a m e a b l e things. cards the same size. Are you happy LIGHT AND SHADOW with what you see? Does the light enhance the subject? Could you alter and improve it? On pp. We will even see things that d o not exist because minimal information suggests they are likely to be there. a n d are q u i c k to p r o p o s e ideas. We only need small prompts. Here w e look briefly at our perception of light a n d darkness a n d our interpretation of diagrammatic illusions. Adjust the angleofthe protruding part and again stepback. try this experiment. Through these we can enjoy witnessing our o w n d e c e p t i o n a n d b a f f l e m e n t a n d u n d e r s t a n d certain factors that are very useful in picture-making. U p s i d e . The outermost edge of our vision. perhaps. but do not appear so. The two tones meet without a division or outline between. The rim of light on the egg is reflected light received from surrounding paper. your eye around the circumference of the egg. think about its illumination. The small squares are identical in tone. a lit photograph of an egg shows essential points to observe in tonal drawing. The perceived tone of a black white. Run The bottom-left quarter of the egg lightens slightly toward its "edge" when seen against the darker shadow cast on the paper. atmosphere. S o m e o n e passes our o p e n door. Card experiment cho can gra on .At one point you will catchenoughlight lighter than the white one. the adjustment of our eyes (in growing accustomed to a level of light).96 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Light and Illusions SEEING IS MIRACULOUS. Three factors change it: the amount of light it receives. See how its "edge" smoothly changes from light against dark to dark against light. reads only m o v e m e n t a n d can often m a k e mistakes. Below the bottom "edge" of the egg there is a rim of light reflected onto the paper by the underside of the egg. Below. From across the room both will appear black card and fold and retapeitwith half sticking out. Here.102-03 deep shadows cast across shells make their form easier to perceive. Artists emulate and manipulate this effect in their pictures. On acloudyday. and the proximity of contrasting tones. The egg's lightest region is seen against a darker background.
Bending straight lines Linear distance These t w o jugs have b e e n d r a w n w i t h lines o f d i f f e r i n g thicknesses. In this linear drawing w e read t h i c k as closer a n d t h i n as f a r t h e r away. A n u p r i g h t line stands in t h e c e n t e r o f a h o r i z o n t a l line. In this t o n a l image w e read w h i t e as f a t t e r t h a n black. Y o u m a y e x p e r i e n c e s o m e t h i n g similar h a p p e n i n g w h e n y o u m a k e s i n g l e . . B o t h are identical in length. S h o r t h o r i z o n t a l lines o f identical length are m a d e t o l o o k d i f f e r e n t by c o n v e r g i n g lines beside t h e m ( C ) . t h i c k e r l i n e s a p p e a r t o stand forward. In a t o n a l d r a w i n g . Seven parallel lines are m a d e t o tilt t o w a r d and away f r o m each o t h e r by n u m e r o u s s h o r t strokes crossing t h e m diagonally ( A ) . LIGHT AND ILLUSIONS Tonal width T h e s e black a n d w h i t e bands are o f equal thickness o n e i t h e r side o f t h e i r central division. O f t e ndoingso w i l l s p o i l y o u r w o r k . T w o horizontal lines o f equal length are m a d e t o l o o k longer and shorter.p o i n t p e r s p e c t i v e d r a w i n g s w i t h a large n u m b e r o f c o n v e r g i n g rays b e h i n d y o u r horizontals. T h e r e is n o obligation t o a d d b l o c k s o f t o n e t o a l i n e a r d r a w i n g . O b s e r v e h o w each white b a n d appears t h i c k e r t h a n its black c o u n t e r p a r t . T w o relatively t h i c k parallel lines are m a d e t o b e n d away f r o m each o t h e r as t h e y pass in f r o n t o f an a r r a y o f c o n v e r g i n g f i n e lines ( B ) . T h e jug d r a w n w i t h a t h i n line appears f a r t h e r away t h a n t h e j u g d r a w n w i t h a t h i c k e r line. If y o u w i s h t o m a k e a t o n a l drawing.97 LINE VERSUS TONE In l i n e a r d r a w i n g s . w h i l e t h i n n e r lines recede. T h i s fundamental o p p o s i t e is a reason w h y l i n e a r a n d t o n a l d r a w i n g does not a l w a y s c o m b i n e w e l l in t h e s a m e i m a g e . Apparent lengths T h e s e optical illusions s h o w h o w lines o f identical length can b e m a d e t o l o o k quite different f r o m each o t h e r by t h e addition o r association o f o t h e r lines. respectively. by d i r e c t e d a r r o w s ( A ) . b u t t h e u p r i g h t o n e l o o k s t a l l e r (B). l i g h t e r surfaces s t a n d f o r w a r d w h i l e d a r k e r s u r f a c e s recede. start o u t w i t h one.
such as t h e dish seen h e r e o n t h e left.76. such as Bridget Riley. Michelangelo. Today we are bombarded with images but rarely have difficulty reading them.s i d e d r e c t a n g u l a r t r a y ( b o t h are illustrated far r i g h t ) "The brain is so eager to name a fragment we see that we need only a suggestion to grasp the whole. w e will find that in terms of the direction it faces. Artists make pictorial illusions when they paint or draw. it can oscillate b e t w e e n facing t o w a r d o r a w a y f r o m us. Artists can communicate much in few lines and the viewer will do the rest of the work. It is possible t o r e a d i t t w o ways: as a t r u n c a t e d r e c t a n g u l a r p y r a m i d seen d i r e c t l y f r o m a b o v e . Two ways of seeing T h i s is t h e b o x c r e a t e d in t h e f o u r t h step o n p. A few suggestive marks will tip the decision one way o r the o t h e r Closing the surface W h e n a t r a n s p a r e n t elliptical o b j e c t has b e e n d r a w n . among others.116-17) to make painted figures look correct when viewed from below. as s h o w n o n t h e right.98 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Further Illusions PSYCHOLOGISTS AND PHYSIOLOGISTS have studied optical illusions for decades in pursuit of what they tell us about the brain." . their picture could be ambiguous. w e can only look f r o m one t o the o t h e r If an artist is not aware this can happen in their image. w h e n drawing the outline o f a three-dimensional form. Yet many illusions. and so calculated precisely how much to fatten columns to make them appear straight. it oscillates between t w o possibilities. SEEING TWO OPTIONS Sometimes. perfected the acceleration of perspective (see pp. Some artists use known optical illusions to make art. including some shown here. C l o s i n g t h e surface o f t h e f o r m seals o u r d e c i s i o n as t o w h i c h w a y it faces. others adjust works to avoid their effects. are still not agreeably understood. o r as a s l o p i n g . Ancient Greek architects knew parallel upright lines appeared to bend toward each other in the middle. Op(tical) artists. It is a curious fact that w e can never see both options at once. In the 1960's. made paintings that depended upon the physical sensation of our brain's reaction to known optical illusions. and we learn to read the styles of diverse cultures and periods.
This effect can o c c u r naturally w h e n looking at a b r i g h t l y lit w h i t e g r i d such as a w i n d o w f r a m e against t h e night sky. C o u n t t h e n u m b e r o f d a r k spots y o u can see. B e l o w is a b r i g h t n e s s c o n t r a s t illusion. P e r c e i v i n g a w h o l e i m a g e f r o m m i n i m a l lines T h i s is a w i d e l y r e p r o d u c e d visual j o k e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e C a r r a c c i b r o t h e r s . T h e s e e x a m p l e s illustrate h o w little is n e e d e d t o c o n v e y an image. M u c h can b e e x p r e s s e d in o n l y a f e w marks. C o u p l e d w i t h t h e Rorschach b l o t above.c e n t u r y Swiss psychologist H e r m a n n Rorschach. C Escher u s e d this phenomenon t o great effect in his many p o p u l a r d r a w i n g s o f puzzles and impossible buildings. . e t c . T h e patient's answers are t h e n diagnosed as a psychological profile. clouds. b u t w e believe w e see t h e m because e n o u g h f r a g m e n t a r y i n f o r m a t i o n is given f o r o u r brains t o c o n c l u d e t h e y are v e r y likely t h e r e . T h e a r t i s t M. This simple five-line d r a w i n g is o f a C a p u c h i n priest asleep in his pulpit. Minimal-line j o k e s such as this rely u p o n t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y v i e w e r ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e shapes. smoke. — a n d so t h e artist can create m u c h o u t o f an impression w i t h o u t overdescribing. T h e y a r e o f t e n c r e d i t e d w i t h t h e invention o f t h e c o m i c c a r t o o n . F a m i l i a r i t y in r a n d o m s h a p e s T h e Rorschach test was established by t h e 1 9 t h . T h e t e s t e x p l o r e s o u r n o r m a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o find things w e can n a m e a m o n g r a n d o m shapes. Yet still w e try resolve t h e m . O n l y o n closer inspection we realize that t h e s e o b j e c t s are fooling us.c e n t u r y Italian painters. 1 6 t h . FURTHER ILLUSIONS Seeing things that are n o t t h e r e H e r e o n t h e left. His highly d i s p u t e d and i m p r e c i s e science involves s h o w i n g u n p r e p a r e d p a t i e n t s t e n p a r t i c u l a r ink b l o t s a n d asking t h e m t o i n t e r p r e t w h a t t h e y see.99 Impossible objects T h e s e clever configurations o f outlines and t o n a l surfaces convince us at a glance that we are seeing a solid three-dimensional triangle and a three-pronged fork. N e i t h e r triangle exists. w e see t w o overlapping triangles: o n e outlined in black b e n e a t h a n o t h e r in solid w h i t e . S o m e artists use ink blots t o p r o m p t t h e beginning o f an image. W e should r e m e m b e r t h a t o u r brains will always search f o r a p i c t u r e — i n ink blots. this is a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f t h e viewer's b r a i n b e i n g willing t o d o a large a m o u n t o f t h e w o r k in d e c i p h e r i n g a p i c t u r e .
as if the table surface slopes upward beneath the vessel. The second common error is to tilt the upper and lower ellipses at different angles. like a disposable plastic cup that has been crushed in your hand. you will achieve steadiness with practice. third common error is to draw upper and lover ellipses with different-sized apertures. The first common error is to draw two pointed ellipses. A wobbling but confident ellipse will still be more convincing than a slow. I have drawn these for you here. springlike forms like those I have drawn below. WHERE TO START In the air above a spacious sheet of scrap paper. (see p. such as bowls and cups. keep it spinning. I have exaggerated this error here. even if y o u r hand w o b b l e s a little at first. Be aware. and these narrow or widen depending on the height of our view. w h e n seen at an angle.90) takes a different as essentially circular. hesitant one that has edged its w a y nervously around the vessel's rim. smoothly. giving the cylinder four corners. COMMON ERRORS W h e n drawing cylindrical objects in perspective.100 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS W E VISUALIZE CYLINDRICAL VESSELS. a n d in o n e bold stroke. that this is o n l y o n e w a y view. Don't worry if it is uneven— just try again. Watch the tip of your pen and see it draw an ellipse in the air Keep this movement going while gently lowering the pen onto the paper like the needle of a record player closing on the disc (only it is your lowering hand that spins. while its upper rim remains level. Cubism. for example. spin your hand in a relaxed circle. though. . since this is h o w w e experience them in e v e r y d a y use. How to Draw Ellipses of seeing. However. there are three common errors people stumble upon. describing many sides of an object simultaneously. suggesting that the vessel is lopsided. To make a cylindrical object appear real in our pictorial space. for example plates or bowls on a table. w e use ellipses to give a sense of perspective. circles change into ellipses. not the paper!) As the pen touches down. Ellipse are best d r a w n quickly. Cover a sheet of paper with spinning.
enlarging and diminishing the ellipse to determine the overall shape and volume. you can start to control your spinning ellipse to make a vessel. . working from top to bottom. Create a Solid Surface Once you have drawn the shape and volume of each form. Seeing Through Allow lines to travel around each vessel as if it were transparent. Draw quickly. thereby hiding lines that show the other sides. you can make it solid by building up highlights and tones on visible surfaces. HOW TO DRAW E L L I P S E S A Single Vessel One Inside Another Grouped Together Finding Shape and Volume Draw an imagined vessel in one continuous spinning line.101 DRAWING VESSELS Once you have mastered drawing free-hand springs. Altering the pressure—and therefore tone—of the line as it spins gives the impression of light shining on one side.
outlines. beams of light. Draw the largest and most distinct areas of light and darkness first. OBJECTS AND Start by arranging a choice of shells on a sheet of paper to your left if you are right-handed (or vice versa).22-23). and strong contrasts are easier to draw. it will inhibit your perception of tone. Gradually hone your drawing.102 INSTRUMENTS Tonality W H E N MAKING A TONAL DRAWING. LIGHT TO DARK DARK TO LIGHT . or you can begin with a mid-gray ground and model light out of darkness (see opposite bottom). Illuminate them with a gooseneck lamp placed very close and directed away from your eyes. if any. In the finished drawing there should be few. making complicated or subtle surfaces easier to see and understand. Relaxing your eyes out of focus as you draw will help to dissolve the distraction of detail. You can begin with outlines and build slowly from light to dark (see opposite top). and solid objects are all of equal importance. two opposite methods of achieving the same result. t h e r e a r e p r i n c i p a l l y Dramatic lighting emphasizes texture and contour. leaving detail until last. It is important to place them on the correct side so as to draw comfortably (see pp. if light shines in them. simply shapes and subtleties of light and dark meeting each other with no divisions in between. Remember that shadows. It maximizes the range of tones between black and white.
Use your pencil to develop these in relation to the areas of light.103 LIGHT TO DARK (LINE TO TONE) TONALITY 1 Using a sharp HB pencil. pale lines with equal importance. Relaxing your eyes out of focus will help to eliminate distracting details. draw a rectangle. Erase and make changes to roughly place the shells inside your with your composition. DARK TO LIGHT (TONE TO TONE) 1 Using the flattened tip of an HB pencil. with broad sweeps of the eraser. Honetheshapesand angles of the shells. . shape. 2 3 Gentlydissolveoutlines so that areas oflightanddark meet without a line between them. Remember that its size. look at the main areas of darkness. Use quick. Let your eyes go out of focus while looking gently layer marks to create an even tone at your subject and paper: Draw the most ofmid-graywithin a rectangle. Treat positive form and negative space (see pp. and edges definingthespacialrelationships between are important aspects of your composition them. Avoid a rough significant areas of light in your gray rectangle with texture and do not press the graphite hardwhite plastic eraser Ignore all detail and draw a into thepaperor you will not be able to erase it. Fll in broad areas first and leave all detail until last. until you are happy frame. Draw in the details last of all. loose. Continue working between light and dark to refine the drawing.56-57). boldly 2 3 Keeping your eyes out of focus.
19 Picasso draws with a pen-light for the camera.220 Mamoru Abe draws with forged steel rods. PEN LINES Once you have created your three-dimensional violin (opposite).104 OBJECTS AND I N S T R U M E N T S Drawing with Wire DRAWINGS DO NOT HAVE to be two-dimensional. our image is stronger if we understand and can visualize what is happening on the other side too. Seeing through a wire drawing of a known object such as a violin gives us a visual and tactile understanding of all its sides and shapes at once. smooth. This class uses thin-gauge wire to create a threedimensional violin. try drawing it with a pen on paper Use bold. continuous lines. They can also be made in space.69 we see how the architect Antonio Gaudi drew proposed domes using suspended wires and weights. The second is that after achieving this simple example. On p. you can create your own more ambitious works. On p. three-dimensional drawings teach us about the totality of forms in space. 176 the British artists Noble and Webster draw with domestic refuse in a beam of light. When drawing anything viewed from one side on paper. Place the instrument on a plain surface and illuminate it with a desk lamp to add the delicate dimension of shadows. and on p. Third. and physical relationships between them. There are essentially three lessons to be learned. . The first is that figurative and abstract drawings can be made in space. and on p.
2 3 If needed. 4 . Cut a length. brace the two ends of the violin with a length of wire along the back. These will hold the sides apart and help to keep the form in shape. Then begin to define its uppermost surface with Scurves and the bridge. but thin enough to be easily manipulated inyourfingers Here. Join the two sides together with four short pieces of wire. I started with the scroll at the top and fixed the four component wires with two drawings of tuning pegs. Once you have completed the body. and pinch and bend it to shape the base of the instrument Repeat this process to make the identical upper side of the instrument. begin to shape the curvature of the fingerboard. thin wire will make a smaller drawing. 1 Decide how big to draw your violin relative to the gauge of your wire. I used garden wire and cut it carefully with pruners. and thick wire a larger one. Here.105 SETTING UP DRAWING WITH WIRE Follow these steps to draw a three-dimensional violin Choose a gauge of wire sturdy enough to hold the shape ofyourfinished drawing.
Artifacts and Fictions IN 1993 I WORKED with a group of schoolchildren who were responding to the astonishing objects in the collection of the Pitt Rivers Museum. Using found materials. I had the privilege of drawing their inventions. they invented new anthropological finds—objects that reflected the distant past and their immediate future. Oxford. some of which are shown here. . England.
artists also tried to define ideal proportions in the body. Renaissance artists studying anatomy from dissection clinically trained and specialized as a medical illustrator. These classes are popular around the world. is the most c o m m o n subject in art. but the study of a controlled. explaining ranges e/ of materials and techniques and showing diversities of thought and purpose in making. Strangely. She the body is still essential. The human body. clothed or nude. W I L L I A M S technology. in our privileged and comfortable society. R. myths and fables. much Western contemporary art. portraiture. focus has turned to the vulnerability of flesh: how it can be damaged. a n d w e d r a w o u r s e l v e s to a s s e r t o u r e x i s t e n c e . It also looks at the representation of the b o d y b11y4o n d traditional life drawing. It gives physical and emotive form to religious narratives. Artists now explore the interior of the body with new media and Lateral Contour Map of a Full-Term Primipara Produced by Light 1979 A. sculptural description of her form. 3 x 7 in (300 x 180 . herimpressive presence because we are given such Life drawing no longer dominates the art school curriculum. During this time. and in San could easily be transferred into three dimensions. R. WILLIAMS he sought perfection in the infinitesimal measurement of the body and produced four Contemporary photographer volumes of illustrated explanation. and anatomical and erotic art. the junior workshop apprentices posed as part of their duties. Drawings were usually made from the male nude to avoid offending the church. giving physical foundation undulating land. He even believed he had located the soul contours of her form like a cartographer's map of in the pituitary fossa beneath the brain and behind the eyes. the Bay Area Models' Guild h o l d s a quarterly life-drawing m a r a t h o n aprinton Kodak transfer paper with green-colored dye added celebrating the great diversity of human proportion.The Body O UR BODIES MAKE us TANGIBLE. diseased. Leonardo drew a man within a circle and square. Williams were decades ahead of their medical counterparts. history paintings and other stories. This chapter addresses issues that are most commonly faced by beginners attending life-drawing classes. W e understand every curve and balance of to the theory that the eves are the windows of the soul. and because the female was deemed inferior. while Durer took his research further— A. In this period. Look closely at Renaissance drawings of the female b o d y and you will see that m o s t are actually y o u n g m e n with minor adjustments. W e are the only creatures on Earth that can make our own image. while Leonardo opened the body to see and projected onto a woman's body draw the celebratory discover for himself our physical mechanisms. The body remains at the core of over the initially white lines. from video and X-ray to thermal imaging. This F finished image was produced as r a n c i s c o . Michelangelo attended dissections to made this image by light sectioning: fine beams of light perfect his understanding of surface form. Artists are thought to have b e g u n drawing from the nude during the Italian Renaissance. and surgically rebuilt.
so that we read this drawing like a sculptural frieze. But the meanings of each gesture and the materials and methods by which they Postures and Poses were m a d e contrast greatly. RAFFAELLO SANZIO (RAPHAEL) Italian High Renaissance painter: Raphael is best known for his images of the Madonna and Child. we see the e s s e n c e of h e r b e a u t y w i t h o u t a single detail. He trained under Perugino. Raphael's study of fallen m e n leaves no doubt that they are in anguish. filling the page with her presence.110 T H E BODY THESE DISTINCTIVE WORKS show two strikingly different ways of modeling the body on paper. In a single drawing we see equally o b s e r v e d studies of f o r e s h o r t e n i n g (see pp. Matisse's b l u e n u d e sings with life and c e l e b r a t i o n . Sculptural frieze This is a preparatory drawing for Raphael's painting of the Resurrection of Christ. Principal figures m i r r o r e a c h other. altar pieces. Here three male nudes are compressed into very shallow pictorial space. while Matisse used scissors and glue to cut out and paste a flat collage of brilliant color. and human defeat. She u n f o l d s and s t r e t c h e s shapely limbs. and studied to learn from the works of Michelangelo and Leonardo besides whom he was soon ranked. Raphael drew delicate tones of black chalk on tinted paper. T h e y b o t h raise one arm to cup their head in their hand. anatomy.116-17). Muscular dramatic postures reflect the influence of Michelangelo and the Renaissance celebration of the idealized male body. while supporting the weight of their body with the other. Three Guards 1500-20 91/4 x143/8in (234 x 365 mm) RAPHAEL . By way of contrast. and Vatican frescos. In this highly s o p h i s t i c a t e d a b s t r a c t i o n .
His calligraphic natural abstractions of form grew brighter..or like a good armchair in which to rest from physical fatigue.like an appeasing influence.. a mental soother. lifelong love of brilliant They celebrate the culmination of spectacular and sometimes drawings. foundamong many other groups of papercut these works as an elderly man confined to his bed or wheelchair. Matisse Soothing influence This drawing expresses the achievement of Matisse's personal aim: "What I dream and depressing subject matter...111 HENRY MATISSE French painter: draftsman. Matisse became an artist after studying law. as his w o r k matured.which might be. serenity. freer. printmaker." of is an art of balance. and more energetic Color and form This collage is one of a series of Blue Nudes.sculptor. teacher and principal exponent o f Fauvism—a movement established in 1905 in which bold color is the most essential element. fabric...designer writer. devoid of troubling Blue Nude 1 1952 413/4 HENRY MATISSE . and Islamic art. his pattern.
and c o m p l e m e n t a r y hues. it would have mixed with unseen black dust. Below. we c o m p a r e a skillful design that absorbed m u c h time in its making with the quickness of an idea marked instantly. there are no outlines. w h o sits propped in the contradictory darkness of a hot summer's day. Using the paper to create light is important for beginners to learn. form. Light is given by the paper alone. in a perfect e x a m p l e . Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 1883-84 91/2 x 121/4 in (241 x 312 m m GEORGES SEURAT . scratched in seconds.112 T H E BODY Choreographs T I M E IS A SIGNIFICANT E L E M E N T i n t h e m a k i n g o f a l l d r a w i n g s . turned gray. only tones blending into. and color His applied theories still influence painters in their manipulation and rendering of local. agreeing to coalesce and show us the form of a waiting boy. Opposite. it is as if the very atoms of air are made visible. reflected. 162) and an eraser to model teeming points of artificial light amid GEORGES SEURAT French painter classically educated in the Ingres school of thought. stands in counterpoise holding a dark globe and his thoughts in m o m e n t a r y balance. or abruptly meeting. like small birds attendant on the meditation. His drawings are similarly u n i q u e . Beuys's magician. Seurat engaged in lifelong studies of line. velvet d a r k n e s s . Tone and light In this black conte drawing. other tones. If Seurat had added white. Here. Typically. Seurat evolved a distinctive t e c h n i q u e called p o i n t i l l i s m — i m a g e s literally made from myriad points of color. he used b l a c k c o n t e (see p. and muddied the brilliance of the drawing. T h e space around h i m chatters with symbols. In his f a m o u s paintings of social e n g a g e m e n t .
and blood. Many of his other symbolic works on paper have been drawn with materials such as honey. Our focus joins shoulders. and that These aspects of the work convey fractured visibility. This figure is drawn intuitively. free from the constraint of immaculate form opposite) impetus is irrelevant to the and meaning of this work (as we see in Seurat's drawing representation. iodine. CHOREOGRAPHS the profound power materials with spiritual or of Free lines This pale pencil drawing is Beuys. in different positions. Perfectly modeled rather conventional for Joseph Focus Beuys's hand moved quickly to draw dotted lines flowing downward on either side of the figure.113 JOSEPH BEUYS One of the most influential German artists of the 20th century. and made installations. taught workshops with a cult following. He was a shaman who believed in intuition and in the investment of healing force. Unbroken lines stream from his simultaneously movement. His The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland UNDATED 113/4 J O S E P H BEUYS x81/4in (297 x 210 mm) . Beuys gave performances.gold. video art. and drawings. transience.
Our bodies radiate the passion of our thoughts and so become beacons of our frailty and power. His exquisite flow of paint beyond "outlines. sweeping lines— of either purple silk fabric or cool studio air—that imprint and amplify their past and future movements. his w o r k is characterized by deliberate un-finish and powerfully modeled emotion. and one of hundreds of rapid studies of nudes. But what is stranger to us now is that they were also outraged by his free use of line. We are asked to gaze u p o n her flesh. Rodin produced portraits and statues of public and literary figures. flushed skin made ruddy and black with crushed cinders." as seen here. Inspired by Michelangelo. THE AUGUSTE RODIN French Romantic sculptor and prolific draftsman employed as an ornamental mason until the age of 42. As here. he typically drew them with a few delicate strokes of pencil and brushed watercolor. the women are framed and caressed by long.114 BODY Passion SUMMONING HUMANITY in a drawing of the nude is a subtle and emotional task. was perceived as scandalous. We are involved not as a shabby voyeur but as a bystander engaged through our recognition of shared joy. and went on to inspire generations of artists. Free lines Rodin's public audience was understandably shocked by the eroticism of his drawings. Achieving international acclaim in mid-life.000 drawings shown in rotation at the Musee Rodin. Delicate strokes This is one of about 7. the fierceness of the women's kiss is beautifully matched by the tenderness of his line. Paris. They whisper and writhe in a brushed and sultry embrace that devours our watching. Rodin employed models to move freely or pose together in his studio. Anita Taylor has drawn her protective body hug out of the darkly glistening compression of willow charcoal and the dynamism of her shy but momentous femininity. In both drawings. Opposite. its soft. In Rodins work. 125/8x 9 in (320 x 229 mm) AUGUSTE RODIN Two Women 1911 Embracing .
The sturdy surface of the sheet has allowed her to press hard when needed. leaving her lightest marks at the deepest level of the image and applying darker marks above. draftsman. scrutiny. Charcoal Taylor has drawn freely with charcoal and an eraser on thick. textured paper. Taylor's immense self-portraits explore the relationship between the artist as maker and the artist as model. A thinner sheet might have crumpled and torn under such vigorous force of making. exposure. This order of light below and dark above gives glowing from within. the impression of luminosity All and Nothing 1999 67 x447/8in (170 x 1 1 4 cm) ANITA TAYLOR . London. professor and Vice Principal of Wimbledon School of Art. intimately reflecting upon the emotions and meaning of nudity. erased and drawn again. and rework rich depths of light and tone. and gaze. Luminosity Layered marks flicker likefirelight as they sculpt the woman's body.I 15 ANITA T A Y L O R Painter. Taylor has drawn.
London). patience. persistence. just making them helps you see. The length of exposed pencil is your measurement. unfathomable angles. There is no need to mark them all down on paper.116 T H E BODY Measurement and Foreshortening FORESHORTENING IS AN ASPECT of perspective. or coming forward. If your arm is not straight. or shrivelling at odd. Move the tip of your thumb down to a second chosen point. rather that what we believe we know from experience. It is not complicated. 1 Hold your arm straight. helping us to see more clearly. which is imperceptible from below. Lock your shoulder. the skull in Holbein's The Ambassadors (The National Gallery. and a few measured comparisons are key. Smaller. Return to this posture every time. But if we could take a scaffold and climb up to the work.limbs happily receding. We also look at another very interesting branch called accelerated (or anamorphic) perspective. It is not so hard. with dramatic illusions of figures painted in normal proportion. for example. This is chiefly a correcting device by which figurative painters and sculptors have for centuries countered the effects of our viewing their work from far below or on the curvature of a vault. and to draw what we see. Rome. Close one eye. and wrist joints. we would arrive to find many of the same figures strangely distorted. Imagine Michelangelo's murals in the Sistine Chapel. plummeting. "Simple measured comparisons reveal surprising truths about proportion. Accelerated perspective plays a great role in much art. It can also be a little demon in the life room. MEASURING This is a simple method of making measured comparisons for relating the true size of one part to another This is a tool to assist observation and thinking. Align the top with a point on your subject. to be translated by mirrors or seen from only one point in the room. and measurements do not have to be carried to the paper and slavishly drawn the same size they appear on your pencil. Up close on the scaffold we would witness Michelangelo's subtle application of accelerated perspective. when beginners prop their board in their lap and look down at too steep an angle. elongated as if stretched across the plaster. To avoid its effects ensure you always look flat onto the surface of your page. 3 Keep your pencil perpendicular Measure and compare at any angle. Spend time making comparisons before you draw. 2 Hold your pencil upright. without taking off. In the life class it is the mechanism for ensuring that a drawn figure lies correctly in pictorial space . more extreme examples have been made for court entertainment." . elbow. How to make and apply these is explained below and opposite. you will make inconsistent and unrelated comparisons.
looking d o w n t h e p a p e r at t h e a n g l e at w h i c h I d r e w . t a p e s o m e p a p e r t o a board. . T h i s is t h e s a m e d r a w i n g p h o t o g r a p h e d f r o m above. MEASUREMENT AND FORESHORTENING Tilt t h e t o p edge o f this b o o k t o w a r d you and look d o w n o n this figure f r o m a b o v e . belly. L o o k at y o u r m o d e l as if he o r she is a flat series o f shapes o n e o n t o p o f a n o t h e r Measure t h e height and w i d t h o f each shape and c o m p a r e it t o its neighbor. To m a k e f o r m s l o o k c o r r e c t .117 ACCELERATED PERSPECTIVE To discover h o w this w o r k s . A t a c e r t a i n angle. y o u must let go o f w h a t y o u k n o w f r o m e x p e r i e n c e a b o u t t h e relative sizes o f b o d y parts and trust y o u r eyes. W e appear t o be looking d o w n o n a w o m a n s t a n d i n g b e n e a t h us. FORESHORTENING To f o r e s h o r t e n a figure. h e r p r o p o r t i o n s will appear correct. S o o n t h e b o d y will lie d o w n in space. pleasingly f o r e s h o r t e n e d . C o m p a r e t h e heights o f t h e nose and eye shapes t o t h o s e o f t h e f o r e a r m . which feels strange. y o u r hand travels f a r t h e r than y o u expect. Lean t h e t o p e d g e t o w a r d y o u and find a p o s i t i o n w h e r e y o u can c o m f o r t a b l y l o o k d o w n t h e p a p e r at an angle o f a b o u t 4 0 degrees. a n d thighs. adjusting a n o n y m o u s shapes. P r o p o r t i o n s will only l o o k c o r r e c t f r o m t h e angle at w h i c h y o u make t h e drawing. W o r k a r o u n d t h e figure. Stand its b o t t o m edge o n y o u r lap. See h o w d i f f e r e n t t h e relative heights o f t h e s e shapes are f r o m w h a t w e m i g h t e x p e c t in real life. Keep t h e b o a r d steady and draw.
her center of balance is normally found in a vertical line beneath her head. Avoid drawing up one side and down the other.118 BODY Quick Poses DRAWING QUICK POSES l o c k s y o u r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n t o what is most essential. working from her center to her feet and to her head. propelling you to make immediate assessments and trust them. THE SEQUENCE OF POSES H e r e the model was asked to move every t w o minutes. and stance before honing her balance and expression. balance. . Height This pose leans away into space above our eye level. T h i s q u i c k e x p l o r a t o r y line does not perfectly describe shape but expresses a decision about overall flow of form. To draw this effect. feeling. and height. and work over t h e m with further o b s e r v a t i o n s . I used a sharp H B pencil and began each drawing by marking her outline. imagine holding up a plumb line. make the upper body smaller give your model a high waist. height. and energy. Be bold and dive into your drawing with c o n f i d e n c e . because it results in two unrelated sides drifting apart. To see this. Balance When a model stands upright on both feet. work back and forth across the body. Outline To outline a figure. Start each new drawing by lightly marking the model's height with a loose line in ten seconds. and slightly enlarge her legs and feet. Leave first thoughts in place. Layered lines give d e p t h .
Tilt Movement Here. and this should be avoided Twist QUICK POSES A model standing on one leg usually drops the opposite hip. . the activity of circular lines and the repetition of limbs suggest movement.119 The twist of a model is most easily and expressively captured if it is exaggerated. Most of us have a tendency to over-straighten the drawn figure. This drawing shows how different observations be overlaid to bring a drawing alive. The tilt of the pelvis is then counter balanced by the model's shoulders tilting the other way (as seen here).
and they need not be daunting to draw. These planes. swiftly marking its essential gesture. Draw large shapes and their orientation. feet. 3 . especially the lengthwise divisions between them. Focus instead on how planes change direction across the knuckles from one side of the hand or foot to the other. or those of a friend. Group the fingers together as one mass. This exercise is useful when struggling with proportion. Don't worry about achieving perfect solutions. 2 Build your drawing gradually from light to dark. drawn in relation to each other.120 BODY Hands and Feet THERE ARE MANY different ways of approaching h a n d s and THE of form. Practice by drawing your own hands and feet. Do not separate them yet. A mirror increases your range of views. Then subdivide each shape so that you w o r k from large to small. but regard these practice studies as ongoing processes of thought and observatio Add details such as nails last if you wish. W h e n starting. general to specific. and ignore all details. It also helps the beginner to progress from drawing outlines to drawing confidently across the surface of the whole form. Begin by drawing lines to encompass the whole hand. it is important to leave aside all details of the fingers and toes. express structure and gesture far more successfully and easily than ten worried outlines wandering up and down between the fingers and toes. starting with the largest. and a gooseneck lamp casts shadows that clarify planes and depths GESTURES OF THE HAND Curled Fingers 1 Open Palm Start honing the shapes of the dominant planes. Keep lines open to change and take measurements if they help.
however. as if with a chisel. flattened planes. these are what give a drawing its tangible structure. t o remove t o o many early lines. and rapid. and spontaneity. 2 3 Use an eraser t o refine decisions o r t o suggest areas o f light. Look for key angles without becoming distracted by detail. loose. . Try t o express the whole foot and t o encapsulate its entire shape and direction in a few marks.121 HANDS AND FEET MOVEMENTS OF THE FOOT Flat Stance Raised Heel Instep 1 Let your first marks be light. depth. Hew it roughly in broad.as though out o f wood. Leave aside all detail. and don't worry about accuracy t o begin with. It can be a mistake. Nowimagineyou are carving the foot insidethepaper.
Charcoal Hands T H E S E DRAWINGS ARE MADE in compressed charcoal.204-05. I also used white ink with a steel dip pen. Compare its nature in close-up to that of willow charcoal used on pp. Opposite." . The white lines demonstrate what is often called "bracelet shading.
length. and posture of the model. before honing his or her shape (see pp.HERE TRACES OF RAPID initial lines are still seen within and outside each body. I make these lines in the first five to ten seconds of a drawing to locate the presence. 118-19). Phrasing Contours .
. characters. perspectives.The Visual Detective DRAWING FROM MASTERWORKS was once a staple component of an artist's education. feeling them through the attentive movements of your own hand. I draw in museums in support of written research and as an artist seeking answers to questions about the practicalities of image making. Forms. Drawing work by another artist enables you to discover and understand the inventive hand in their composition. and narrative pulse become vivid when you realize them in the middle of your study. It is now viewed with some skepticism and often seen as academic.
Florence. there is a unique museum of 18th-century anatomical waxes. Walls are lined with hundreds of faintly animated body parts.3 x 3 m) made in response to La Specola. 126-27. These almost life-size figures were composed from my imagination and achieved with the help af studies discussed on pp.La Specola At17V i a Romana. Life-size women wearing wigs recline on beds of embroidered silk in cabinets of mahogany and Venetian glass This is a detail of a compressed charcoal drawing measuring 14 x 10 ft (4. each modeled from dissection. .
their stance. Self-portraiture gives every artist a constant. 1790-92 4 x 3 in ( 1 0 2 x 7 6 m m ) F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A and memorize the basic structure that we all share. and social and political commentaries. and in a few scrolling rafts of pen lines and stubbled dots. Beginners often draw themselves as a way of establishing their practice. and their posture can be changed with just one line. and secular narratives. compliant subject to scrutinize. you can capture the subtlety. and satirical or metaphorical. Past rulers sent painters across continents to bring back a likeness in advance of a prospective royal marriage. his changes in pressure and Hitchcock length o f line. or past us. made as he passed through the ages of man. painters have dropped discreet records of themselves into commissioned narratives so that they can remain a face in the crowd. religious. This enlargement o f his miniature p o r t r a i treveals t h e s p e e d and agility o f his p e n and about himself. Goya's w o r k s include many royal and society p o r t r a i t s . Rembrandt's famous multitude of self-portraits. became more poignant as he progressed. Movie director Alfred similarly signed his films by playing a fleeting role: he walks through an extra. Our homes are filled with images of our loved ones and of those in our families who have gone before. Goya. Halls and palaces are filled with pictures of the mighty and significant. live.139). . We can mold and animate qualities of expression out of objects and fragments of disassociated things—for example. bells. single or of groups. look directly at us. To create a face is to see and interpret the essence of an identity. historical. and a handprint (see p. Man Ray's self-portrait of scored lines. Portraits can be highly or loosely detailed. Equally. and shoulders. a single line can deliver an entire expression. the meaning of their face. or whose eyes can seem to follow us around the room Portraiture is a constant. W h e n drawing a person. buttons. gathered all that he knew FRANCISCO DE GOYA V i s i o n a r y Spanish painter. The returning image was of crucial consideration in any proposal. abstract or figurative. throat. and p r i n t m a k e r . we use the delicate medium of silver point to look at foundation structures of the head. having been documented and preserved. and it is very rewarding. character. and expression of the individual. We are also reassured by keeping records of ourselves. in a miniature self-portrait magnified opposite.Portraiture IN P O R T R A I T U R E W E MEET PEOPLE. or a glimpse of him is caught in a photograph used as a prop. In this chapter. neck. is here to both meet and look through us. Once you understand Self-Portrait in a Cocked Hat c. It also reminds us o f b o t h t h e intimacy and a scene as scrutiny o f an honest portrait. usually strangers from past times. The truth is that we all like looking at faces and observing the billions of variations that make us individuals. and lucrative genre for artists. who. For centuries. draftsman.
adding smudges of tone for weight and solidity. Without faltering. Through exhibitions and copies in books. Holbein maps the still landscape of Dorothea's body in questioning marks. It is the portrait of a countrywoman. breadth. teetering on the brink of older age. How could the addition of shadows have enhanced this image? Few strokes The simplicity of Picasso's line is breathtaking. Her face is drawn tenderly and with a luminous glow. The Tightness of a line is felt in its speed. whisking a timeless girl onto the page. We can actually count that he struck the paper 40 times. Here the grace and beauty of two young women are held forever. they serve as a great lesson that it is not always necessary to add tone to your drawing. While with longer consideration. and pressure as it conducts our eye through the image.30). PABLO PICASSO Spanish Cubist painter (see also p. It takes a truly accomplished a few strokes. We can read so much about them by studying their gaze. we can enjoy and learn from them. There is a common misunderstanding that a drawing with only a few lines is both less finished and easier to make than a drawing with more.132 PORTRAITURE Poise THE BALANCE BETWEEN a mark and a blank space is often a tantalizing form of perfection. hand to capture something well in only Frangoise au Bandeau 1946 660 x 505 mm (26 x197/8in) PABLO PICASSO . The aesthetic sense of a line being just right can make a drawing sing. The truth is often the opposite. stealthily using his chalk to find contours and mass. one eye already cast askew into the autumn of her life. caught in her last moments of youth. Picasso has left to posterity many hundreds of magnificent line drawings. For the beginner. length. He makes his flair and skill look easy. Picasso strikes and scrolls his pencil.
Blended colors In this portrait drawn with colored chalks on slightly textured paper. he designed c o u r t costumes. Cropping This regal composition fits its paper perfectly. and produced numerous society portraits such as this one here. gently flushed.133 HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER German p o r t r a i t painter draftsman. Holbein has cropped and pinned his subject within the four outermost lines of the image—the edges of the page. Holbein unified the woman with her background by gently blending colors from her clothes and face into the atmosphere around her. Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 1516 51/8 x121/4in (385 x 310 m m ) HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER . and its downward slope crowns the diagonal of the composition. The peak of her cap clips the uppermost edge. and designer f r o m Basel. presses against the binding across her face. which. He outlined her nose but not her upper lip. Her folded forearms support and frame her weight above. made a popular series o f w o o d c u t prints titled The Dance of Death. In addition t o his numerous exquisite portraits in oil. Holbein was employed toward the end of his life by King Henry VIII of England.
solid above and almost hollow below. dark lines made with a pencil appear against smooth. confusing. and glands also complicate form. N e w s o m e ' s eerily shadowed form is smooth and bears a linear grain evocative of w o o d . its highly clarified detail claiming to be d r a w n from observation. continues to exhibit regularly. dark tones of graphite blended into the paper.134 PORTRAITURE Anatomies These highly finished drawings express the emotional power and physicality of the head and neck. and unpleasant to see. perhaps applied using a tortillon. Highlights of white gouache were dry Profile Head late in the making. but they are irrelevant here. Anatomically. In fact. Durelli has m a d e a few m i n o r mistakes. The real dissection w o u l d have been far more c o m p l e x . VICTOR NEWSOME British sculptor painter and draftsman. It floats in space. Contrasts Sharp. using a fine and relatively 1982 13 x 181/8 in (328 x 460 mm) VICTOR NEWSOME brush. This is a m a r v e l o u s interpretation of the truth. distorted. or defined by. The style of Durelli's d r a w i n g opposite sings with the confidence of truth and precision. Delicate muscles are integrated with the skin and fat that is to be r e m o v e d . London. the face is one of the hardest parts to dissect. Psychological drama is contained behind a grid. blood vessels. taught at numerous British art schools from 1962-77. This is one of a number of similar disembodied female heads seen behind. . while white painted flecks and wisps suggest electrical illumination. Newsome was awarded the Prix de Rome in 1960. Nerves. and has works in major collections including the Tate Gallery. the contours of a grid.
and it is likely that this drawing was intended for reproduction as a print. w h e n contracted. Pencil numbers refer to the list of muscles written beneath. Red Chalk the Muscles 1837 173/8 x 145/8 in ( 4 4 0 x 3 7 2 m m ) ANTONIO DURELLI and Pencil Drawing and of Neck of the Head Little is k n o w n o f this M i l a n e s e p a i n t e r a n d engraver w h o c a m e from a family o f artists. pull their points o f attachment t o w a r d each other .135 ANATOMIES ANTONIO DURELLI Linear perfection This is a red chalk drawing of extraordinary accomplishment. It is hard to think of a more difficult medium with which to achieve such linear perfection. Stylized parallel lines are reminiscent of engravings. Durelli's experience as an engraver is reflected in his stylized drawing o f muscle fibers. which.
Bellini gently conjures the features of his saint with soft marks that tease his presence out of shadows into the light. ALBERTO GIACOMETTI Swiss sculptor. Giacometti settled in Paris. and heads. He is best known for his bronze sculptures of human form. The camera watches him at work. We are brought intimately close to this man gazing up to heaven. with speed and urgency. Both works demonstrate how simple lines can be made complex by being intense. as if seen from a distance. 1948 77/8 x 6 in (200 x 150 mm) ALBERTO GIACOMETTI . which are characteristically elongated. Agitated marks make patches of tone that cut away the space around the character. Energy This is a portrait of a woman drawn with black crayon on a plain page of a book Lines search for the essence of form. close enough to touch his hair and feel his breath. he drew over the whole image at once. There is a film of Giacometti drawing. painter draftsman. Then. necks. Flesh is built and personality carved simultaneously. cutting and carving the paper with matted and spiraling restless energy. Opposite. Speed Giacometti probably began with an oval shape placed in relation to the proportion of the page. They show us clearly the bones of drawing. Similar movements sculpted the head below into its page. Without paint and with very little tone.136 PORTRAITURE THESE ARE DRAWINGS of shoulders. each locked into a visionary gaze. while his hand stabs and thrusts Revelations like a conductors baton. and with staccato flinches his hyperactive eye moves from paper to model. and poet After studying in Geneva and Italy. Portrait de Marie-Laure de Noailles c. each portrait is inscribed onto the page. They confuse our perception of scale by being intimately fragile and at the same time far removed.
Sometimes different narrative same character was reused in compositions. transferring which were made in the process of the saint to his final place in the composition of a painting (see Glossary pp. These are pinholes. Bellini s t u d i e d u n d e r his f a t h e r J a c o p o . Mantegna.G I O V A N N I BELLINI A prominent member of a large family o f V e n e t i a n painters.5 9 ) . Transfer This delicate humorous chalk a drawing is a cartoon—not image but a type of template used to plan the composition of a larger work Look closely and you will see rows of tiny dots along every significant line in the picture. Head and Shoulders of a Man 73/8 x 21/4 in ( 1 8 6 x 5 8 UNDATED GIOVANNI BELLINI . a n d b r o t h e r in-law. a n d his w o r k is d i s t i n c t i v e l y calm.25 6 . Character This is one of many cartoons produced by Bellini the and his family. H e p r e f e r r e d religious t o classical t h e m e s . a n d c o n t e m p l a t i v e . lyrical. H e t a u g h t G i o r g i o n e Barbarelli and Titian.
made with great energy.138 PORTRAITURE THE MIRROR OF SELF-PORTRAITURE offers artists infinite reflections of. Man Ray's playful silk-screen assembly of color blocks. Later Basquiat sold drawings on T-shirts. and buttons rings with surrealist wit and agile improvisation.221). scrolls. bells. and everything flux. their most immediate and best-known subject: themselves. humor. spear-brandishing warrior. postcards. The incandescent New York painter Jean Michel Basquiat pictured himself here in naked silhouette. Self Portrait 1982 9 4 x 7 6 in (239 x 193 cm) JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT . marks. and indulgence. It is an opportunity to look deep without the infringement of courtesies owed to a commissioning sitter. In 1986 he traveled to Africa and showed his work in Abidjan on the Ivory Coast He also exhibited in Germany and France. Signs and symbols with symbols This painting shudders that ore written. drawn. and attitudes. skull- Self-Portraits headed. float and shimmer in the shallow pictorial space. similar to work by Cy Twombly (see p. JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT Short-lived American painter and graffiti artist who began his blazing nine-year career drawing on lower Manhattan subway trains with a friend. signing their work SAMO. The artist has finished his portrait with the signature of his hand smacked in the middle like a kiss: a declaration of existence as old as man's first drawing. It has proved to be a subject of piercing scrutiny. scratched lines. and confrontations with. It is an image of confrontation—the ever-controversial young artist roars at us from his abstract city-scape. and sheet metal before being snapped up by the New York contemporary art scene. Islands of graphic marks. The figure's position is unequivocal and defiant while around him is in a state Without the essential of cultural and figure we would elegant belookingat a sophisticated painting of signs. Al Diaz. scratched into its surface. political outcry. a tribal.
Autoportrait 1916 195/8 MAN RAY . During the 1920's and 30s. printmaker and cofounder of the New York Dada movement.139 MAN RAY American surrealist photographer. Black ink was printed next and then white. The handprint appears to be made directly. Frame White lines are seemingly (though not actually) scratched through ink to frame this face. They suggest speed and make the picture look immediate and spontaneous. Man Ray probably used his own hand. where he collaborated with the artist Laslo MoholyNagy. painter. The first part of the stenciled image was already marked on the silk The screen and paper were then held tightly together. They experimented with camera-free photography working directly onto photographic paper Silk and ink This is a silkscreen print made through the following process: the paper was laid on a flat surface and a frame stretched with fine silk was placed on top. caked in thick printing ink or paint. Man Ray lived and worked in Paris. last of all. while a squeegee was used to drag thick lilac-brown ink across the silk pushing it though exposed areas onto the paper below.
s o m e m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n o t h e r s . The most c o m m o n metal has always been silver—hence the term "silver point. 2 . c h o o s e a s o f t full b r u s h t h a t c a n c a r r y p l e n t y o f l i q u i d . which quickly oxidizes into a gray line. Find a n i t e m t h a t y o u can h o l d a n d draw with comfortably. Straighten the w o r s t buckles. E m p t y mechanical pencils designed f o r t h i c k leads ( s e e p. 3 . and t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h strips a b o v e and b e l o w . b u t d o n ' t w o r r y . artists mixed white lead. 1. and alloys work on matt emulsion. I combined silver point with painted white gouache on a pink ground. S i l v e r is b e s t .140 PORTRAITURE Silver P o i n t SILVER OR METAL POINT STRETCHING PAPER A sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has been made w e t with the strokes o f a paintbrush will buckle d u e t o its uneven expansion. Take a sheet o f any t y p e o f p a p e r (for e x a m p l e . W e t a n d fix a s e c o n d strip t o t h e o p p o s i t e side. Historically. I t is a v a i l a b l e f r o m all a r t s h o p s . s e e p . choose a silver object.Tear o f f f o u r lengths o f b r o w n p a p e r g u m tape. Lay a clean d r a w i n g b o a r d o n a flat surface. p a r c h m e n t . and gold have also been used. Stretched paper remains taut as a d r u m .54) can also b e used. w h i t e d r a w i n g paper) and cut it t o fit y o u r d r a w i n g b o a r d w i t h a generous b o r d e r a r o u n d its edges. Z I N C W H I T E G O U A C H E : Dilute with w a t e r A d d c o l o r i f r e q u i r e d (as opposite) 4 ." Lead. 144-45. key. Metal point does not work on ordinary paper. T h e p a p e r will l o o k b u c k l e d . purchase silver wire. platinum. the surface must be primed with a ground such as gouache. or ring. laid on paper. and is therefore useful w h e n using w a t e r c o l o r as well as silver point. M E T A L OBJECTS: All metal objects m a r k a p r e p a r e d surface. 2. SILVER P O I N T W I R E H O L D E R : T h e s e c a n b e p u r c h a s e d a n d t e n d t o b e heavy. was familiar to or eggshells with animal glue. b e f o r e priming stretched paper. Lightly s p o n g e o f f t h e excess. Be swift and firm. For i m p o r t a n t a d v i c e o n p r e p a r a t i o n a n d use. I m a k e m y o w n f r o m o l d dip pens. 1 4 4 . o n e t o fit each side o f t h e b o a r d — t h e s e will make t h e glued f r a m e t h a t holds y o u r p a p e r in place. who used it to outline initials and border characters before painting. Gesso o r m a t t e m u l s i o n c a n a l s o b e u s e d . or wood. M a k e s u r e i t is c o m p l e t e l y clean t o avoid u n w a n t e d streaks. Note h o w domestic paintwork marks with a coin. Metal point is simply a strip of metal bound in a holder. S O F T F U L L B R U S H : W h e n laying a w a s h . an exciting indication of how large-scale drawings could be made on a wall. This browns with age unless sealed by fixative (see pp. If w o r k i n g o n an emulsion-painted wall. Opposite. Numerous early European artists also enjoyed its fine qualities (see p. illuminators of medieval m a n u s c r i p t s . it leaves a deposit. SILVER W I R E : Purchase different gauge lengths f r o m a traditional a r t supplier o r jeweler. copper. To begin.54-55). and make o r buy a holder. bone. This is called a three-tone drawing. you will need t o stretch paper and lay a wash (see right and opposite). 156). Pages 142 to 147 are illustrated in silver point and techniques are explained on pp. Drawn across a prepared surface.s t r i p a n d use i t t o fix o n e side o f t h e p a p e r t o t h e b o a r d . 5. MATERIALS 1 Find a clean sponge and b o w l o r d e e p t r a y a n d fill it w i t h w a t e r W e t t h e p a p e r evenly in t h e t r a y o r o n t h e b o a r d . W e t o n e length o f g u m .
Here. and let tests dry before deciding to change the mixture. Keep adding smooth. so put newspaper under the lower edge. T h r e e . Beware of the tape's coming loose at any point while drying.141 SILVER POINT 3 Leave the paper to dry flat. v e r y little at a time. any extra will keep. Reload the brush and add a second line overlapping it beneath. The next step will make a small mess. Runs blend into each other evenly. stretched paper at a 45-degree angle. as the paper will be ruined by a raised ridge. Make an even line across to the right. Leave the wash to dry thoroughly before you begin to draw. Dry thoroughly before laying a wash. LAYING A WASH It your stretched paper so as to prime it for silver point. Keep testing on spare paper. is necessary to lay a wash o Three-tone When coloring ground. overlapping lines until you reach the bottom. Prop up your board of dry. full brush into the gouache and start in the top left corner. Make enough to cover your paper. Dip a soft. It will slowly straighten and become taut. I used a powder pigment called Caput Mortuum. Mix a very wet but not weak solution of gouache in a jar with a lid (add pigment at this stage for a three-tone drawing). leaving a smooth surface.t o n e silver point drawing of a skull . slowly add powder pigment or gouache from a tube.
Head and Neck
THE HEAD AND NECK are best conceived as one unit arranged in four parts: cranium, face, neck, and throat. Each is of equal importance. The cranium is essentially egg-shaped and pivots on the first vertebra. The face is suspended beneath, like a softly curved triangle. The n e c k — a powerful, shapely column of layered muscles rigged to vertebrae—adjusts and holds the angle and expression of the head. The throat is delicate, hard, and lumpy to the touch, formed of cartilaginous rings, glands, thin muscles, and looser skin. Framing the throat, two columnar neck muscles (sternomastoids) project the head forward and also turn it to the opposite side.
This is a simple shorthand diagram representing the cranium, face, neck, and throat. It can be learned and visualized in different positions very easily, giving the novice a firm footing on which to stand and develop their drawings of the head and neck.
Cranium Begin with an egg shape. Tilt it on the paper to change the position of the head.
Face Draw a rounded triangular shape below the forward point of the egg to represent the face.
Neck This shape represents the trapezius; the largest surface muscle of the neck and shoulders.
Throat A triangular shape represents the throat. (The nose makes the diagram clearer)
After copying the diagram above, animate it. Practice drawing the cranium at different angles, add the face beneath, then the neck, shoulders, and throat. Shape your diagrams so they are more lifelike, but avoid adding detailed features too soon.
143 These three drawings demonstrate (from left to right) the following: why the cranium may be considered egg-shaped; now the face can be seen as a curved triangle suspended beneath and where the division lies between the two; and the form of sternomastoid muscles that frame thethroatsodistinctlywhen the head is turned and inclined forward.
The skull and the frame of the throat
HEAD AND NECK
Bones of the cranium are locked together by jagged joints. Sinuses in the frontal (forehead) bone between and beneath the eyebrows are larger in men, making their brows pronounced and often ridged compared to those of women.
Bones of the face house our sight, smell, taste, The skull pivots on the first vertebra or "atlas," and speech. Cartilage extending from nasal bones after the Greek god condemned to carry the shapesthenose.Pads of fat resting on the base of Earth. The jaw hinges in front of the ears. Behind, eacheyesocket support the eyeballs in position. If bony ridges give anchor to the sternomastoid thefatisreducedby old age, eyes look sunken. muscles rising from the breast- and collarbones.
Three useful generalizations
General rules about the relative positions of body parts can hinder artists as much as help them, since they are often based on classical ideals rather than thediversityoflife.However,some generalizations can help as a rough guide to start with, so long as good observation takes over as soon as possible.
In general, when the face is relaxed (not smiling or frowning), the corners of the mouth are found directly beneath the pupils of the eyes. Vertical lines can be drawn down from the pupils to meet the corners of the mouth.
The height of a young adult's ear is often the same as their nose and found on the same level. There is no general rule for growing children, and remember that ears grow again in old age, which is most obvious in men.
The height of the face is about the length of the handspan and the eye is normally halfway down the total height of the head. A common error is to draw the eyes too high up on the face.
T H E DELICACY OF SILVER POINT
(see pp. 140-41) is perfect for
such as a beach pebble. Here, I stretched drawing paper and laid a wash of white gouache (see pp.140-41). As you can see, the line and tone of silver point varies with pressure, but only slightly. Too much pressure cuts the ground. Silver point erases, but so does ground. Erased ground can be repaired gently with extra gouache. You can also use gouache to paint over mistakes and make corrections.
small, detailed drawings. The drawings below and opposite show useful observations of the head and neck, which are explained in the captions below. Each drawing was made with a silver wire held in a large-gauge mechanical pencil. Newly clipped wires are sharp and cut rather than draw. Before use, they need to be rubbed and smoothed on a stone
Here I imagined placing my silver point wire against the skin of each head and neck and, working in parallel bands from the crown downward, I traced the undulation of surfaces. Linear bands imagined around the head and neck can help you t o clearly see the tilt of the head and relative levels of the features. Ask a friend t o model for you and try this exercise life-size using a pencil and eraser
Seeing that the face is never flat
Drawings below left and center are summaries of the generalizations given on p.143. Far right is an image to remind us that the face is never flat. It slopes back to varying degrees among individuals, from the tip of the nose t o the ears. For example, note that the innermost corners of the eyes are farther forward in space than the outermost corners.
General measurements, side
General measurements, front
View from above
Male and female head and neck
Men's necks a r e g e n e r a l l y s h o r t e r a n d t h i c k e r t h a n w o m e n ' s b e c a u s e t h e angles a n d levels o f c e r t a i n b o n e s a r e d i f f e r e n t b e t w e e n t h e sexes ( i n d i c a t e d h e r e b y d o t t e d lines) a n d m e n are n o r m a l l y m o r e muscular. T h e male t h y r o i d cartilage ( A d a m ' s apple) is larger a n d m o r e visible than t h e f e m a l e . L a r g e r f e m a l e t h y r o i d glands also s o f t e n t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e t h r o a t .
The largest m u s c l e o f t h e s h o u l d e r s a n d n e c k is called the trapezius. A r r a n g e d on e i t h e r side o f t h e spine, it shapes t h e u p p e r back and neck above the s h o u l d e r blades. C o n t r a c t i n g in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h d e e p e r and surrounding muscles, it raises and l o w e r s t h e shoulders a n d d r a w s t h e h e a d backtoeitherside.
USING A SHARP 3 B PENCIL, I drew this head quickly from imagination, evolving its character and expression from the scheme of four parts: cranium, face, neck, a n d throat (see p. 142). Here, five steps show you how to practice doing the same. This approach can be used to draw from imagination or from life. Keep your wrist loose and hold your pencil away from its point (see pp.22-23). Build the layers of your drawing from pale to dark, a n d from general balance a n d form to specific detail. Remember that successful drawings are built on foundations of "seeing the whole," then dividing the whole into smaller parts, with details brought in last of all. Phrased tonal marks modeling this girls skin and hair follow the technique demonstrated by Goya in his self-portrait on p. 130. Turn to Goya's drawing and study how, in a circle beginning across his hat, moving down his hair, and around his coat, he flows lines over surfaces to describe their contour. As you build from steps 1 to 5, bring phrased groups of lines across the surfaces of your form, using their directions to capture the expression of the head and neck. If unsure, copy my steps until you gain the confidence to make your own decisions.
This drawing is the final stage of the four steps opposite. Here, I have enlarged the eye, and moved it back into the head by trimming the length of the upper lid and adding a more pronounced lower lid. It is important to set eyes far enough back from the relatively prominent nose; too close to it and the face flattens. Hair swept back and extended behind the cranium balances the regal pose. Lines shaping the hair echo those marking the cranium in step 1. Here, the lower part of step 1 comes through as wisps of hair across her face and ear
Portrait of a Young Girl
3 Place the eye beneath the cranium. First lines will remain visible in the final drawing. I modeled the outline of the character I imagined light shining from above and in front and adjusted the pressure of lines to reflect this. down the face to the throat. Keep your first lines light. 2 Rapidly add shorthand shapes to represent the face. and throat. avoid drawing too dark. over the cranium.Theangle at which you draw this shape of the paper will determine the angle of the finished head. Moving from the back of the neck. The eye announces the nature and expression of the emerging person. neck. Here. so it is important to the life of the image that while controlled. they are also still sweeping and confident. too soon.147 Building up the portrait DRAWING PORTRAITS 1 Gently spin pale lines in a softly drawn shape representing the cranium. I used light to describe the upper lid first with a shadow beneath for the lower lid and open eye. The nose and ear begin to shape the head. 4 .
empathize. Above all. and gravity. be aware of the subtle differences in skin surface.T o DRAW PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGES. . muscular tension. a n d t h o s e w h o a r e Generations asleep (see overleaf). the texture of hair.
Van Dyke's noble cast of characters was modeled more finely.Castings DRAWING IN THE PRADO MUSEUM. . Madrid. I used the nib upside down to gain needle-sharp precision. with a steel dip pen and acrylic ink. Fast lines carve out the features of Goya's soup-slurping hag. seeking the dominant contours of each individual expression.
so that c h o i c e . or b u l g e s . c o s t u m e o f f e r s a r i c h v o c a b u l a r y of t e x t u r e s a n d c o l o r . caricatured p l u m e s . a n d c o u r t i e r tailors f o l l o w e d suit. Previously. arichand unusual combination of pencil. and everything w e h a v e c h o s e n for o u r w a r d r o b e s — r e f l e c t o r s of o u r taste. for e x a m p l e — d e s i g n e d the w a r d r o b e s of p o p e s a n d k i n g s . and i n d e e d image b e c a m e the property also of the industrial classes. w a r m t h . b u t influenced Parisian fashion and interiordecor. of Scheherazade. personality. fulfilling lavish and spectacular briefs. Practical classes Bacchante 1911 l o o k at r a n g e s of c o l o r e d m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d i n g p a s t e l s a n d felt-tip p e n s . T h e rural masses w o r e h o m e s p u n simplicity. woman was drawn by Bakst one year later for the ballet Narcisse. P o p u l a r f a s h i o n d e s i g n e x p l o d e d w i t h the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n . Samoylovich Rosenberg. and s y m b o l s that lets m e n and w o m e n in all countries and areas have w o r k i n g access to the latest fashions. variety. and even invisible by the w a y w e dress. w h i c h in turn feed c o n s u m e r Lev. c r u m p l e s . T h e p a p e r p a t t e r n is p e r h a p s the m o s t w i d e l y k n o w n of c o s t u m e d r a w i n g s : a formalized plan of lines. toParis. Bakst's designs and costumes immediately To the fine artist. he and cofounder Serge Diaghilev took Paris by eac storm in 1910 with their production h year in the industrial f r e n z y of creating o u r image and aspirations. theb u t b y the w a y it s p e a k s w i t h its flying. shapes. it is the public sign by w h i c h w e are j u d g e d . o n l y the w e a l t h y c o u l d afford to h a v e c o s t u m e s specially m a d e . Like it or not. known as Leon Bakst. and atmosphere. T h e e n t o u r a g e of the theatrical stage o f t e n l e a d s the c a t w a l k . or calm u s w i t h chic. while court p a i n t e r s — M i c h e l a n g e l o and Holbein. intriguing. Artists do this not so m u c h b y the style of a figure's garment. gesture. S t r u c t u r e is t h o u g h the i n v e n t i o n of shoes. Designers all over the w o r l d c o n t i n u a l l y p e n and b r u s h lines to lash us w i t h color. W e dress ourselves and costume designer trained in in St. cool. . was a Belarussian A r t Deco theater fantasies and desires to immediately possess a version of the same. In this c h a p t e r w e see h o w c l o t h i n g c a n s e e m to p o s s e s s the w e i g h t and m o n u m e n t a l i t y of stone. In psychology.As artistic director of the It is s h o c k i n g to t h i n k h o w m a n y m i l l i o n s of d r a w i n g s m u s t be m a d e a n d d i s c a r d e d Ballet Russe. st 111/4 x 81/2 in (285 x 220 mm) u d i e d L E O NB A K S T and explore the characterization of fabric t h r o u g h m o v e m e n t . e m u l a t e textures. charcoal. a n d p r o f e s s i o n — b e g a n life as a d r a w i n g . a n d w e will c o l l e c t patterns.This voluptuous above all a physical p u p p e t w i t h w h i c h to animate character and narrate personality. g l o s s y folds. D e s i g n e r s create m a s t e r p i e c e s of haute couture LEON BAKST for H o l l y w o o d stars. and intent. and e x u b e r a n c e . a n d s u b t l e t o n e s . Petersburg and later exiled designers' ideas and are surprised and delighted b y their continual f l o w of inspiration. articulate a d a n g e r o u s satirical j o k e . outrageous. c u l t u r e . and gouache. Cities c h a n g e d all. and be so expressive of temperament that it overtakes the need for an o c c u p y i n g h u m a n form.Costume W E MAKE OURSELVES EXOTIC. dancer leaps through swaths of golden cloth.
and snakelike marks.140-41). With a stylus such as Van Eyck used here. Keisai Eisen's intense.156 COSTUME Cloth and Drapery EACH OF THESE FIGURES is ninety percent cloth. it is only possible to create very thin. Maelbeke I44I Madonna 11 x 7 in (278 x 180 m m ) JAN V A N EYCK . Van Eyck's highly polished w o r k is c e l e b r a t e d f o r its disguised symbolism. However. best k n o w n f o r his G h e n t altarpiece ( 1 4 3 2 ) a n d m a r r i a g e p o r t r a i t o f Giovanni A r n o l f i n i and his w i f e (1434). He has layered these slowly and carefully so as not to cut through the ground and produce a white mark just where he intended a dark one. Church and deities are drawn as JAN VAN EYCK Flemish oil p a i n t e r f r o m L i m b o u r g . and the kneeling abbot is a ghost by comparison. Above them. bands around the columns. Short and subtle horizontal punctuations are only given in the background by sections of floor. and implied striation in the stone of the architecture. Vertical lines The highly controlled lines of this drawing cascade from top to bottom of the image. the Madonna and her architecture are both dressed in the same manner. Sculpted one. Flaxmans sleeper—perhaps a pilgrim or a soldier resting between campaigns—has wedged himself into the cleft of some great building to grab a moment of peace. The quiet stillness of this image is achieved by a masterly economy of stylized line. H e m e t i c u l o u s l y a r r a n g e d subjects t o c o n v e y d e e p e r meaning. Delicate marks Silver (or metal) point is the most delicate of traditional drawing media (see pp. Below this. delicate lines. folds and patterns of material speak more resolutely of their wearers than any small glimpses of body we can see. the vaulted stone roof echoes and crowns the moment. In Van Eyck's drawing below. swirling printed fabrics. Her gown is carved and polished as if made from marble. the carefully composed outline of his cloak shows us how the artist would have also begun his immaculate rendering of the Virgin's clothes. Opposite. Marble gown We will never know if Van Eyck considered this drawing unfinished or intended the kneeling abbot to remain transient and ghostly. dragons. Their uninterrupted emphasis is entirely vertical. her marble garment holds u p the infant Christ in a fountain of compressed line. resonate with their wearers startled expression. with their jagged edges.
each delivering a different part and color of the design. designer. stone wall of downward-stroked this sleeper's position is momentary. Position In this pen and ink drawing. The inked block is laid face-down on damp paper and pressed to make the print. and the feet notched against the pillar tell us that A lines holds him into the cleft. draftsman. flat sheets of wood. he also co-edited and expanded the Ukiyo-e Ruiko (History of Prints of the Floating World). the cloak sliding to the ground. Aeschylus earned Flaxman an international reputation. Images are drawn onto smooth. Koimurasaki of Tama-ya 1810-50 15 x101/4in (381 x 260 mm) KEISAI EISEN The Courtesan JOHN F L A X M A N English late 18th-century neoclassical sculptor. Respected for his sumptuous images of geisha and editions of erotic prints. Remaining raised areas of wood are rolled with colored inks. Parts of the image to be left unprinted are gouged out with a metal tool. an 18th-19th century document on the lives of the ukiyo-e artists. writer and printmaker Keisai Eisen took his name from the masters Kano Hakkeisai and Kikugawa Eizan. This complex numerous blocks prepared image and may have been made with printed separately. and teacher Distinctive linear illustrations for the works of Homer. CLOTH AND DRAPERY Relief printing This is a woodblock print made by a relief process. one over the other. and Man Lying Down in a Cloak I 787-94 21/4 JOHN FLAXMAN x 41/8 in (57 x 105 mm) . Dante.157 KEISAI EISEN Japanese draftsman. which are sometimes also cut into pieces like a jigsaw puzzle. the angle of the head.
160. lace. Fine examples can be plucked from fashion. A s a y o u n g man. theater. Details and voices are worn externally with great imagination. Man in Armor UNDATED 1 6 x 9 1 / 2 in ( 4 0 5 x 2 4 0 m m ) A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE . cartoon. A flamboyant territory. Pen and wash In the graphic accuracy of this armored knight we see the idealized identity of a warrior from another time: a gleaming defender of the realm. Opposite is a dangerous drawing. Leg sections in both support the figure without taking our attention away from the main garment above. cinema. he c o o l e d and redefined his style. t h r o u g h n u m e r o u s p o r t r a i t and C h u r c h commissions. and feather were all CHARACTER COSTUMES REPRESENT observed with closely crafted conviction. A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE Flemish painter and draftsman. where sometimes there just might not be anybody inside. In 1 6 3 2 he m o v e d p e r m a n e n t l y t o L o n d o n . for she would not have been amused and William Wodall might have been stretching his luck. and even formal portraiture. He has been rendered on this olive<olored page with pen and gray wash worked over a red and black under-drawing. The slight uncertainty of the pose and the limp cloak suggest a little more metal than man. It is presumed Her Royal Highness never saw it. Leg section Compare mid-shin the section of white boots cropped to the section of similarly cropped trousers in drawings Gruau's drawing on p.158 COSTUME Character Costumes an extreme form of the clothed figure. Van D y k e was chief assistant t o Rubens f o r t w o years. Flowing scarf The knight's scarf of gilded blue is drawn in a pale wash over red ink lines. b e f o r e traveling t o Italy. Its color is also reflected in the metal. The metal. The aged queen is compared to an overdressed bird. Anthony Van Dyke's Man in Armor is a masterpiece of drawn surface. all ruffs and wrinkles. Its warm surface flows in contrast to the stiff metal armor. cloth. w h e r e . a n d w a s e m p l o y e d as c o u r t painter t o King Charles I. a scurrilous cartoon by a courtier of Queen Elizabeth I.
t h e Rising. t h e Jesuit Mission. t h e B a b i n g t o n Plot. T h e poem recounts t h e six m a j o r crises o f Elizabeth's reign: t h e Spanish A r m a d a . the queen is masterfully rebalanced by words at her feet The whole drawing's blackened. while a raised foot pauses to assess the next displaying a fan of daggers. Satire of the Queen's Dress c. it was customary to Iron-gall ink Wodall's dangerous caricature steps daintily the written lines of her dedicated page. hooded with an overinflated fluffy ruff eye pins us. t h e Ridolfi Plot. By her old upto three tiers supported on sticks. here dark tawny owl.159 WILLIAM W O D A L L A u t h o r and illustrator o f The Aaes of Queene a Elizabeth poem Allegorized. suggest the use of iron-gall ink (see p.35). bitten nature. and saturations showing through from the other side.1599 71/2 WILLIAM x 51/4 in ( 1 9 0 x 1 3 4 mm) WODALL . Beneath the lethal fan is the body of a bird of trimmed feathers suggest age. Top-heavy. manuscript comprising six c a n t o s . and her pride. Northern Satire This is a quill-and-ink satire of the elderly queen's pride-As head of state and fashion. she is shown as a grossly disproportioned bird. A Ruffs and feathers Starched white ruffs worn at court and by society grew steadily larger as Elizabeth's reign progressed.
Compare the compositio beneathVanDyke'sstudy of armor on p. Spider-Girl leaps like an insect. diving to catch us in the grip of her machine-like limbs.and tilted to the same de a little deeper than sp kneestogivehergravity. Airbrushed reflective surfaces further amplify our perception of speed. and gray pigments were applied separately. a n d L'Officiel de la couture. Rene Gruau's bold gouache drawing of smoothly swaying sophistication captures a brilliantly cut garment and frames it with great dynamism in a white.160 COSTUME Femmes Fatales THESE DEVASTATING femmes fatales force back the onlooker with their demure. muscular aggression. RENE GRUAU I t a l i a n . 158. Drying time in between applications ensured the colors did not run into each other. possibly over a pencil outline. as is Spider-Girl opposite. 5 8 . Gruau uses starkly cut negative space (see pp. G r u a u ' s highly distinctive d r a w i n g s have a p p e a r e d Couture. Fashion and fantasy drawings invent prototypes of ideals and perfection—be they for the catwalk or the fast-paced pages of comic books. She has been drawn with brushes dipped into India ink and gouache. studio-like rectangle of paper.5 9 ) and a three-spoke balance of cuffs and cropped trousers to create an almost flag-like emblem of power. Gruau's model regally swans to the fore with cool pride.c e n t u r y haute i n n u m e r o u s m a g a z i n e s i n c l u d i n g Elle. elegant chic and svelte. and both share the power of scarlet and black. India ink and gouache This swish of confidence and style our enters the page turning everyone's head. Harpers & Queen. Composition Look how well this image is frame knee is parallel to the bottom edge spacehorizontalline cropping the trousers be outermostuprightbordersof her cuffs are similar above her head thesidesoftheimage. His model is outlined. Fine lines drawn against the building behind her echo the threads on which we have all seen arachnids drop and hang. Vogue. The black red. demanding attention with gesture and flair. ofcroppedtrousershere to the device of the w Illustration 1949 for Jacques Fath in L ' O f f i c i e l d e la C o u t u r e RENE GRUAU .F r e n c h f a s h i o n i l l u s t r a t o r w h o in his l o n g and esteemed career w o r k e d with many of the g r e a t e s t d e s i g n e r s o f 2 0 t h .
Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 2001-04 R O N FRENZ.74-77). moon.RON F R E N Z Contemporary American graphic artist w h o designs and pencils the dynamic scenes of numerous superheroes featured in Marvel Comics. Sharp focus black outlines in this drawing create a hyper-real dynamic. Buildings. sky. beginning with Star Wars. Airbrushed color and with tonal focus. and Amazing Spider-Man. It is outside the picture frame. and has been the title's regular artist since 2003. MARVEL C O M I C S . He began work on Spider-Girl in 1998. a great characteristic superhero comics. to the right of its center. at Their extensions will meet the same single vanishing (see point pp. This s modeling applied over the top give the image a sleek and mechanical of gravity. and figure are all locked into equally shatp through the traditional process of a pencilled outline over-drawn ink. Align your ruler to the upright of each building. not far above the drawing. The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones. In your mind's eye extend the uprights out of the top of the picture. Single-point understand perspective To how Frenz created up therefore the effect of steeply between looking buildings—and howyou can do the same in your own work—take calculate where a ruler the and single vanishing point lies. Frenz has drawn for Marvel for about 20 years.
insects. C o n t e crayons are square-formed. plants. including iridescents. and synthetics. 3. Try materials that are new and unfamiliar. CHALK PASTELS: Blackboard chalk is sidewalk work. you may be pleasantly surprised to discover something you could not have imagined using. chalkbased but very subtle. except the final layer. Children's wax crayons are relatives. Pastel pencils are slender and in w o o d casing. these work best when slightly warm. there are disparities between the apparent nature or color of what you hold in your hand and its performance on paper. used to make colors. Pastels are finer. Often. colored materials available. Most stores leave small pads of paper on their counters for customers to test materials. They work well on PIGMENTS Pigments. FELT-TIP PENS: Instant-drying alcoholor water-based inks stored in the barrels of the pens are delivered via smooth nylon o r felt tips of varying shapes and thicknesses. Dissolve in turpentine or mineral spirits to produce oil paint or or dark paper. intensity. shape. I suggest you do so. which he left unfixed to retain its brightness. Seemingly infinite choices of texture. 1. paper-wrapped. allowing it to fix slightly from behind. the finer and more subtle the texture and color should be. The worst are like revolting old lipsticks that get everywhere except where you intend. The nontoxic range below represents a suggested starting point for experiment. Degas built his pastels in layers. Beware—some are toxic. soft. and cost are laid out for our pleasure and perusal. Use them to draw lightly (as above left) or thickly. See h o w they work and return later for more of what proved best for you. Sticks and conte crayons make thicker marks (as below). minerals. quality. slightly oily to the touch. Store loose pastels in dry rice to keep them clean. hue. COLORED PENCILS: Dry pigments ground together with chalk. and subtlety. size. and can be a great rediscovery for bold drawings. clay. mixed on the paper and scratched into (as below). fixing each layer on the front. the diverse are made in brands of basic member of the family. 4. unwrapped harder pastels. and can be softened and manipulated with degrees of heat. wash. great for tin . The higher the quality (and cost). animals. crumbly. 2. Before making substantial investments. Many products are sold individually and in boxed sets. They vary hugely in cost. and sold in many colors. Many artists apply fixative to the back of their work. are derived from many sources: rocks.162 COSTUME Colored Materials ART STORES BRIM OVER w i t h t h e m a n y wherever permitted. and CHALK PASTELS Pastel pencils make fine lines (as above). made in about 80 colors. or wax and a binder are shaped into fine strips and encased in w o o d like a graphite pencil. purchase a small selection of different items you think you will like. Be aware that fixative dulls pastel. OIL PASTELS: Many colors. quality and cost T h e best are paperwrapped sticks of sumptuous. Bright pastels are more brilliant on colored paper. OIL PASTELS Oil-based. though lines can develop greasy stains around the edges if the paper is not first stretched and treated with a gelatin paste laid as a wash. oily pigment.
Brands made for designers sold in enormous ranges of colors are far more subtle and sophisticated than those made for children. Some are nonsoluble. it is still a great champion and support for those beginners feeling shyly obligated to tone down their love of color to conform with what others say they should use. Some give richer lines than others.or clay-based thin crayons in wood casing. FELT-TIP PENS Although not made with felt-tip pen. If you love smooth blocks and lines of colon felt-tip pens are perfect. Colors can be blended as shown right) and tones graded by altering pressure. others dissolve in water or turpentine to make a wash. Diverse brands are harder or soften greasier or chalkier in use. leaving the paper to shine through for highlights (as below). Think of Matisse's Blue Nude (see p. so it is best to test them before buying. 111).163 COLORED PENCILS These are wax. . Fine lines can be achieved (as above).
I m a d e n u m e r o u s s h e e t s o f d r a w i n g s . social and economic status. Turn t h e m in different d i r e c t i o n s and o b s e r v e t h e i r s t r u c t u r e and f o r m . . and a selection of shoes.164 COSTUME Study and Design they reflect our age. Superstitions and fetishes are attached to them: we are told never to put new shoes on a table. To set up. a n d e x p e r i e n c e visible p r o g r e s s . t h e n again as if transparent. the era in which we live. will discover m o r e . imagining y o u can see t h r o u g h it. e n j o y i n g t h e study a n d i n v e n t i o n o f shoes. while artists have painted their boots or those of others as personal portraits and memorials. personality. As artifacts in museums. style. and how we stand and walk. S H O E S TELL LIFE STORIES. D r a w each o n e first as a solid object. you will need several large sheets of drawing paper. if y o u m a k e p l e n t y o f d r a w i n g s as o p p o s e d t o o n l y a f e w . structure. c o v e r a large sheet o f p a p e r w i t h line drawings o f several shoes. and they have been concealed in buildings to ward off misfortune. 104-07). values. REPEATED STUDY T o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s class. they record and reflect our common history. This class takes the shoe as its subject in building on earlier lessons concerned with seeing through objects to understand their function. and volume in space (see pp. You. and after studying familiar shoes we use the information learned to invent new ones. Here we go one step further. a range of colored felt-tip pens with both fine and broad tips. 100-01 and pp. Linear Outline Using fine pens. t o o .
STUDY AND DESIGN
study the surface contours using fineand broad-tipped felt-tip pens. For best results, it is important to be bold and brief. Draw firmly, fast, and with as few strokes as possible. Build up each shoe from light to dark andleavesome paper showing through to create highlights.
Design Your Own
Using what you have learned from the previous steps about the structures of your shoes, and about the use of pens, invent new designs from your imagination. Start with fine outlines and progress to colored and textured surfaces. Modify your ideas by rotating the views.
The Structure of Costume
MUSEUMS ARE AN INFINITELY
rich resource for the artist and
information given by a period style. Arrange to visit a costume museum or ask a friend to model clothes for you at home. Using fine felt-tip pens, begin with quick, pale impressions of each garment's shape before homing in on its borders and seams. Try to draw transparent views wherever possible to record the relationships between all component parts. Aim to draw enough information for it to be possible to make up a version of the garment using paper pinned to a tailor's dummy.
designer. They often give quite unexpected gems of ideas and information—whatever the subject. These drawings, made in a costume museum, demonstrate ways of recording structural information and detail for later use in the studio. They could form the basis of new designs for a fashion project or theater production, for example. Drawings of shoes on pp. 164-65 show how new designs can be evolved from the structural
It is usually best when collecting information for reference to apply the restraint of dispassionate observation. Set yourself the test of drawing facts with as little artistic license or embellishment as possible. Here I chose fine felt-tip pens because they are at their best when used swiftly, and therefore encourage bold, unhesitant decisions.
Swift lines record the hanging weight of this gentleman's coat, the relative proportions of its layers, and minimal details of the buttons and cuffs.
Thick velvet fabric is pulled tight beneath and across the bust by a single button. This transparent view shows how the fabric falls loosely in straight panels beneath the level of the sleeve.
W h e n visiting museums, be prepared f o r l o w lighting, which can make it hard t o see and draw. A book can help if attached t o your drawing board.
Adding stripes and dashes of color with a thicker pen brings out the glossy sheen and sculptural rigidity of this dress, which would have been worn over a whalebone corset. small reading light designed t o clip o n t o a
THE STRUCTURE OF COSTUME
In small drawings such as these, use thick pens to color entire sections with a few marks, as I did here down the side of the bodice.
The light, frilly bulk of this crinoline dress is propelled forward with lines. pinching its gathers and sways that are hiding a horsehair bustle. fleets of quick
THIS CLASS FOCUSES ON how to draw textures through the collection of fabric, pattern, and embroidery samples from a costume m u s e u m . This formal method, using ruled squares, can create an invaluable library of ideas a n d i n f o r m a t i o n for future r e f e r e n c e — w h e n painting a clothed figure, or preparing a textile project, for example. However, if making a book of samples for a project, remember that it is important to also include collages of f o u n d materials (see pp.230-31) To d r a w a fabric texture, b e g i n by concentrating o n h o w y o u i m a g i n e it w o u l d feel if you t o u c h e d it. Decide if it w o u l d be rough, s m o o t h , w a r m , cold, thick, thin, tough, or fragile, for example. As you draw, believe you can feel these qualities at your fingertips a n d that your pencil is responding to the sensation. Undulate the pressure of your lines and marks according to the feeling of the fabric rather than its appearance. Let your pencil enact the sensation of touching its surface.
and to experiment more loosely with mixed media.
This starchy, quilted, b o w e d creation started life as an imagined corset, I intended t o d r a w together in one sculptural f o r m a range o f t h e details opposite. T h e garment quickly got o u t o f hand. T h e r e is great e n j o y m e n t in letting y o u r imagination run wild w h e n inventing costumes. If you are unable t o visit a costume museum, many exciting fabric details and textures can be found in y o u r o w n closet o r home.
Colored pencils give precision and tonal range; they can be faded but not erased. Lightly use an HB graphite pencil if you wish to plan a design first. Pressed hard, colored pencils build up a waxy finish of brilliant color. Used lightly, they appear powdery and show the texture of the paper.
TEXTURES AND PATTERNS
Silk and braid
172-73. These characters. look at how Goya delineated volumes of thick fabric to express the posture. Madrid. and motivation of an individual. shape. and 252-53). I made a drawing book full of studies seeking to understand how he composed drama and pathos in his narratives (see also pp.126-27. identity.Dressing Character I O N C E SPENT THREE MONTHS researching the work of Francisco de Goya at the Prado Museum. selected from different pages of my original book. .
and tangible.T H E S E PENCIL STUDIES. are copies of works by Goya in which he makes air seem heavier than flesh. To understand how he did this. Posture Carving also taken from my Madrid drawing book (see pp. as it rushes and carves fabric-wrapped forms like rivers and desert winds shaping the earth. I carefully copied the direction of each of his lines. . and visible.170—71).
soap operas. and its illumination. the direct exchange (as shown here) where one or more characters hold eye Aneedproduced the thicker lines of the nurse. finding corners in crowded places to inscribe their action and energy onto the page. in spite of how it may seem. Seeing through Rembrandt's eyes. the speed and printmaker and one of the greatest and most influential density of its lines. vivid portrait of his wife captures our attention. heighten or subdue drama with subtleties of exaggeration or caricature. First. a crowd tells the story from a distance. presumably while he is making this drawing. Her all-too-clear expression shows annoyance and irritation with her husband. stares out from her gloomy sickbed. while a quill contact with. Rembrandt's bored and frustrated wife. This J u s t as there are three parts to a traditional landscape drawing—the foreground. We can direct close. Second. are implicated in this marital exchange made over the head of the anonymous nurse. Washes of shadow behind engaged and as a natural voyeur can feel invisible while watching the scene. daily newspapers. we can learn most about handling pen and ink. the viewer. He in turn scorches the paper with his view and a certain speed of seeing all. Storytelling and people-watching are obsessive human activities. Later in their lives. Blockbuster movies. We read tensions and exchanges between people. and novels—our staple cultural diet—are driven by a fascination with shared experience and the detail of what happens in other people's lives. R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN in the delivery of narrative. . we. television documentaries. Saskia died after childbirth. We can also use clothes. types. Here. and distance—so drawings of gathered people can be loosely arranged in three took only minutes to make and yet it lives for centuries. With a pocket full of disposable pens we also go out and draw the expressions of gathered people. Third. this is not the portrait of an old woman. and therefore seem to see. furniture. Saskia. Drawings selected for this chapter explore these Saskia Lying in Bedand a Nurse ranges of proximity 1638 9 x61/2in (227 x 164 mm) and a travel journal. the viewer's attention in a scene by the format of its composition. and other masters of Western Art. there are no longer individuals but one significant group or mass action. and instantly engage with the action of the scene.Gatherings A LL DRAWINGS TELL STORIES. As artists. He is also the artist from whom props to add layers of meaning and attitude. too. paintings depicting scenes from history. but drawings of gathered people tell them most directly. the viewer is not directly made the finer lines of Saskia. we can R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter draftsman. and so. even up her were laid with a brush. The spaces between people and the positions they occupy on a page are vital to our understanding of the psychology or emotion of an event. comics. It middle.
or even the office photocopier. the Cat. and in. and Alice. N o b l e a n d W e b s t e r s w i t t y a n d o f t e n s u b v e r s i v e d r a w i n g s are also c o n t e m p o r a r y art installations. In both works. T h e i m m a c u l a t e d r a w i n g is only r e v e a l e d w h e n t h e b e a m of a p r o j e c t o r c a s t s t h e s h a d o w Projections of the h e a p o n t o a wall. and projectors to create their anarchic punk satires of modern life. TIM N O B L E A N D SUE W E B S T E R British artists who collaborate using neon. narrative is delivered through the air. Here.. junk. a kitchen explodes in o u r faces. hearth i m p l e m e n t s crash at o u r feet."Anything that. In one of R a c k h a m s great illustrations for Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland. and on.176 GATHERINGS SOME DRAWINGS ARE MADE e n t i r e l y o f i l l u m i n a t i o n that floods drama into the viewers gaze. via the animated clutter of o u r material lives. Pencil on paper important but only the beginning of possibility the combination of three-dimensional space. h a l o e d portrait of the artists seated b a c k to b a c k . plates shatter. Think about what else you could use: a laser smoke. Pans fly oft the stove. Below. c o m p o s e d garbage p r o d u c e s a c a l m . the C o o k ." (Tim Noble) Drawing with light it is important to think about what you is Here timelessly we see a in can draw with. t h e y select and arrange familiar items of street detritus into what appears to be an u n p l e a s a n t pile..kicks against the mundane things that close down your mind is a refreshing and good thing. and projector. F o r e a c h w o r k . and smoke billows around the agitated jives of the Duchess. refuse. garbage and chaos are piled a n d e x p l o d e d in r o o m s full of event. Real Life is Rubbish 2002 Dimensions variable TIM N O B L E A N D SUE WEBSTER . for example.
100 to see for make elliptical objects and pans fly through the the foreground. by vivid children's Rakham's w o r k is characterized fantasy.76-77) above vanishing point (see that is about3/4in (2 cm) oak converge at this point. Rackham Vanishing point In this marvelous drama made with pen. tabletop. Find the singleperspective pp. and Poe's Tales Imagination. and Alice's shoulder.177 ARTHUR RACKHAM British watercolorist and book illustrator. See how the In the Duchess's Kitchen 1907 77/8 x 6 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 5 0 m m ) ARTHUR RACKHAM . Refer back to the drawing class how pots In drawn objects and elements that those behind. ink. a n d an unmistakable graphic style. we find several devices already explored through our drawing classes. H e is best k n o w n forillustratingIrving's Rip vanWinkle. humor. are very large compared to on p. This makes the story appear to leap out at us. beams.Stowe's ofMysteryand Queer Little Folks. amplifying movement outward from the vanishing point. The wood grain acts like marks of speed behind the scene. and watercolor. Depth Billows of smoke expand and are lighter as they come forward.
The human form w a s the vehicle o f his expression and h e w a s t h e official W o r l d W a r II artist. In culture.178 GATHERINGS we have seen in the pairs and trios of drawings by masters and makers. M o o r e t o u r e d Italy as a young man. The image stands out among his more usual graphic works in which he hones and carves semi-abstract human forms. Chalk and graphite This fog-bound but humorous gathering of souls is made in graphite and colored chalk with gray wash. as if Moore's wrapping has been literally outstretched. Magnetic Fields sculpture. and we. which still narrates vivid days in the lives of an energetic nation. A glimmer of gold light appears from the left No explanation is given. This is an ironic drawing from Moore. Opposite. as fellow watchers. HENRY MOORE Crowd 1942 Looking at Tied-up Object . expressing his dry humor about O F ALL THE CONTRASTS HENRY MOORE British s c u l p t o r w h o t r a i n e d a n d taught at t h e R C A . a sculptor. perhaps these two are the most extreme. join in the waiting. Moore's spectators appear to have walked a long way from nowhere to witness and wait beside this mysterious obelisque. meaning. heat. a n d l o v e d t o d r a w in t h e BritishMuseum. This is just one of many precious artifacts from a lost time. London. The mournful gray landscape of Henry Moore's northern British field has gathered by night an overcoated audience to stand and wait before a wrapped and roped monument. and action of a buffalo hunt. audiences. a great Shoshone drawing blazes with the color. and art in the landscape. and composition they are polar opposites.
MAGNETIC FIELDS Horses It is interesting to note how the outstretched limbs ofthesehorses echo European images of the runningBuffalo horse before the sequence-photographer Muybridge taught us to 19TH understand their movement differently.179 SHOSHONE SCHOOL Stylized characters This vital image of a buffalo hunt is made with pigment Members of the Shoshone community wishing painted within dark outlines on a stretched elk hide. Hunt CENTURY SHOSHONE SCHOOL . and helping our eye to dart around. Stylized hunters." Men at the instructed to sit and watch. tolearnhow to paint a scene on a hide are and buffalo circle and charge the perimeters of a skin "field. Skills are taught not center chant or dance to the beat of a drum. Each color is evenly distributed throughout the scene. horses. creating harmonious balance with words but through silent demonstration.
B l a k e h a s i l l u m i n a t e d his s a d d e n e d Virgil on the s h o r e s of a d a r k w o r l d . a n d the gentle h u m o r of sedate r i d i c u l e . era as Kollwitz. w r i t e r a r t i s t . We also see qualities of line. inextinguishable in its fortitude and h u m o r . p o e t . w e f i n d a spiritual v i s i o n . K a t h e K o l l w i t z s c r a t c h e d a n d e n g r a v e d her a r m y of c l a y . a d e a t h c h a r g e of brutality. t h e Bible. a pink-inked cinema wobbles along with string. texture.180 GATHERINGS The Human Condition IN THE SPECTRUM of these vastly d i f f e r e n t g a t h e r i n g s of p e o p l e . The muscularity of Blake's figures was inspired by Michelangelo's works. a n d o t h e r w o r k s . It illustrates a scene from Dante's Divine Comedy. a n d f o c u s . and sweetened the often bleak years with his impractical inventions. The Circle of the (The Whirlwind 1824 of Lustful Lovers) mm) 143/4 x 207/8i n ( 3 7 4 x 5 3 0 WILLIAM BLAKE . Blake w a s d r i v e n b y a passion f o r j u s t i c e a n d a p r o f o u n d b e l i e f in his v i s i t a t i o n s f r o m angels. a n d e n g r a v e r w h o p o w e r f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e d his o w n t e x t s in a d d i t i o n t o D a n t e ' s Divine Comedy. Heath Robinson lived through the same war-torn.f o o t e d t r o g l o d y t e s w h o rage into w a r like a m u d s l i d e of revenge. color. W I L L I A M BLAKE British visionary. m a r k . Opposite. Misted in translucent layers of paint. pale souls of the lustful are being s p u n into yet another realm of hell. w h e r e he w a t c h e s a t u r b u l e n t s p i r a l of p u n i s h m e n t f o r the d a m n e d . w h i c h b y their c h o i c e a n d h a n d l i n g a c t u a l l y b e c o m e the force a n d spirit of e a c h i m a g e . Brushed line and wash This is an ink-outlined drawing made with a fine brush on paper with added washes of watercolor The image was subsequently redrawn as a line engraving.
British Pen and wash This is a pen-andwatercolor drawing made for a color-platereproduction in an edition of T h e Bystander. and controlled smears on the metal surface printed as tones. and the impact of death and war upon women.181 KATHE KOLLWITZ German printmaker. and clearly focused. With masterful gentility. poverty. and her powerful and sensitive drawings center on nurture. THE HUMAN CONDITION Scratched lines This is a dry-point etching with monoprint. White marks were made with a dusting of French chalk on the artist's finger to wipe away ink leaving clean metal. What remained in scratched grooves printed on damp paper as lines. Robinson and Kollwitz (above) share almost identical life dates and their work expresses a shared history from opposite sides oftheworld wars. plodding along with hazy. Ink rolled over was selectively polished off using a rag. however meager or ridiculous their activity. He created sincere. humor by making his characters earnest. who lived in a poor district of Berlin. Heath Robinson shows England in a past era. Kollwitz survived the two World Wars. stoical bemusement. The image was scratched directly onto a metal plate. Losbruch (The Outbreak) 1955 20 x 233/8 in (507 x 592 mm) KATHE KOLLWITZ HEATH ROBINSON humorous illustrator and a regular contributor to magazines and journals such as The Sketch and The Bystander. sculptor and draftsman. HEATH ROBINSON The Kinecar 1926 103/8 x 15 in (262 x 380 mm) . and the family home. children.
Insensitive t o p r e s s u r e : lines d o n o t v a r y in w i d t h o r t o n e . c h o o s e p e n s l a b e l e d " p e r m a n e n t " o r "lightfast. jot notes. indent paper. if y o u w i s h y o u r d r a w i n g s t o last a n d n o t fade o r b l u r w i t h t i m e a n d e x p o s u r e t o light. w a t e r . Available in blacks and ranges of colors. I keep quantities at home. W h i t e gel p e n s a r e v e r y e f f e c t i v e o n d a r k papers. 192-93) w e r e b o t h m a d e w i t h a ballpoint. At a time like this. CHOICES AVAILABLE T h e r e a r e m a n y d i s p o s a b l e p e n s t o c h o o s e from. 7 6 . fine fiber-tip Drawing with a fine fiber-tip pen. t w o tourists and their gondolier drifter past m e o n a canal.7 7 and 214-15). in the studio. aiming for correct outlines would result in drawing too slowly to c a t c h the moment." 1. and in most pockets so I can always record a thought DISPOSABLE PENS QUICK NOTES O n a c o l d day in Venice. rollerballs. is d e l i v e r e d t h r o u g h a m e t a l t u b e o v e r a t i n y ball bearing.188-89) and Caravans (see pp. which can snap or pierce through your clothes. in the car. B A L L P O I N T : Black a n d b o l d c o l o r s o f f e r d i v e r s e qualities. blob when old. including l u m i n o u s a n d m e t a l l i c . dropped in your pocket and forgotten till needed. The f o u r i l l u s t r a t e d h e r e r e p r e s e n t a basic r a n g e . gel pens) are the most convenient of all materials with which to travel.r e s i s t a n t . . T h e r e w e r e c seconds t o snatch this impression b e t w e e n their emergence from one bridge and disappearance b e n e a t h t h e next. dark sheen. R e m e m b e r . build to a rich. they each offer distinct and sometimes unexpected qualities. they can be obtained within minutes. trusting shape and form to follow. shut your book. these pens enable you to sketch. For example. a n d pressure-sensitive. So many stores sell them. Unlike pencils. turn the page. 4. a ballpoint will make faint lines.182 GATHERINGS Disposable Pens (ballpoints. 2. Ideal f o r precision w o r k (see p p . FIBER-TIP: M a n u f a c t u r e d f o r artists a n d d e s i g n e r s in a r a n g e o f w i d t h s . a n d ranges o f colors. p e r m a n e n t . fibertips. R O L L E R B A L L : A c o n s t a n t i n k flow 3 . t h e y a r e lightfast. I swiftly focused on gesture. G E L P E N : P r o d u c e d in b l a c k w h i t e . a disposable pen with its clip-on cap goes anywhere. or put the paper in your pocket instantly without fear of smudging. Lines t h i c k e n as t h e p e n w e a r s o u t G r a n d Canal (see pp. or idea. or turn into washes and make monoprints if flooded with an alcohol-based substance such as hairspray. Quick-drying.
Compare this Klee's mules on p. not form.31 . Earlier I had witnessed a crammed en masse in a fleet of hired gondolas complete with musicians and choir.FROMMEMORY Here I used the same fiber-tip pen to compose a scene from memory. Fast lines focus on action. crowd of fellow travelers Fast lines These scribbled lines model the mass and shadows of heads belonging passengers packed into the boat.
Above all. Each one was witnessed and drawn immediately from the afterimage of what I had just seen. You must learn to trust your memory and to draw what impressed you most. A curatorial assistant flies to do a chore (right).184 GATHERINGS The Travel Journal I CANNOT OVERSTATE THE JOY of making a travel journal. but they should not be what you dwell on. when out drawing. life will not slow and wait for you to catch it. Don't worry about measuring angles. and companionship. Push toward caricature and this will draw out of your memory what was most important. Let the line of the flying coat fly and the hanging arm hang. just draw the action. I caught fleeting glimpses of gathered people and solitary souls going about their affairs. black. if a person was stout. Movement . animate them more. of course. Each line acts its part in the narrative. angles will happen as a matter of course. FLEETING MOMENTS Walking through Venice with a small. make them stouter. No camera can tie you to a time or people in the same way. However. activity. let it enter the stage and perform. Every drawing writes an indelible memory of place. if animated. all action is in the line of his coat and directed by his nose. focus on the action of the event. Circular lines buzz around a man puzzling at the end of a train platform (left). pocket notebook and a fiber-tip pen. not its outline. Exaggeration helps. You will make outlines.
The rush of his legs isamplifiedby their blurred lines. In turn. Observation THE TRAVEL JOURNAL The same willowy assistant dashes about his work. I am watched by the aggravated guard. Expression .185 A large lady is photographed in front of a delicate work of art. I drew him three times on the same page to catch a range of his physical expressions. eager to herd us all from his house of responsibility.
furniture leans. Be aware that their placement on the page is part of the narrative. and involvement in the story. For example. and there met this sullen custodian. decide how faces and bodies contort. elevate them in the pictorial space.186 GATHERINGS Catching the Moment On A BITTERLY COLD November day. emotion. if they are being haughty. ACTION AND DETAIL W h e n drawing people. I took refuge in a church in Venice. When your attention has been caught. flap. or pushes. Identify the principal character and draw him or her first. forcing me to remain at the back and look at them. pulls. and you decide to draw the moment. Here I have recreated my drawing in steps to show you how to set about capturing such a scene. He and his simpering assistant would not allow me in. rather than the works of art they guarded. and clothing or bags hang. focus on action. or bulge. you might place them lower down. not outline. Place the person carefully. Here the custodian projects fastidious ownership of his desk and pamphlets by pushing from behind the center of the space and challenging our entry to his image. . start by focusing on its action. and let every detail speak by its size. placement. and reason for happening. For example. if they are being devious.
W i t h a few strokes. Draw their action and props. a pillar locates t h e scene in a depth o f space. In the final step (left) I reinforced t h e custodian's desk. who is largely expressed through the shape and fall o f his raincoat and his way o f using a note pad. Here. continue adding characters. which is pushed toward us in a gesture of confrontation. CATCHING THE MOMENT The assistant Identify t h e antagonist ( o r second character) in t h e scene. I added t h e assistant.187 The custodian Identify your principal character a n d their psychological role in the scene. together with any immediate props they are using. Decide where you will place them o n the paper t o emphasize their action and intent. such as the desk and pamphlets seen here. . If drawing a more complex scene. Decide where t o place them t o emphasize their role. D r a w their action.
An imminent deluge of tourists urged me to work catching no more than the skeleton of the view. I developed detailofthis drawing from memory using a ballpoint pen. . and buildings. where vertical mooring poles give space and pulse to the horizontal speed of water quickly.Grand Canal T H E CANALS OF VENICE are bustling places full of occupation.
and drawn immediately from memory. then the bridge beneath them. Each person was glimpsed in an instant.Crossings DURING THIS RUSH HOUR. Characters in the foreground were drawn first. To catch characters like this. note only their most essential action and feature. followed by the streets. Venetians flow across a stepped bridge and cascade into the streets beyond. Caricature each person slightly. .
quiet afternoon. I used a ballpoint pen to compose a series of scenes. Caravans and other backstage activity convey expectations of energy and repose. . and a great subject to draw. Sitting at a distance on a hot.Caravans T H E PARAPHERNALIA O F TRAVEL i s an intriguing part of circus life. I found this circus by chance in the Swiss mountains.
the sun comes out to blind it. It is Earths satellite. JOHN RUSSELL A p o r t r a i t pastelist t o King G e o r g e III o f England. and its draws the tides of the seas. are the real subjects in great landscape drawings. By drawing such momentous and everyday events. how the soil is scorched. trees. a n d a n astronomer w h o dedicated 20 years t o studying t h e M o o n . pages o f softly i l l u m i n a t e d craters and lunar "seas" c o v e r e d in m a t h e m a t i c a l and s h o r t h a n d calculations. speculation. and take bold steps in emulating the swell of clouds and the forces of torrential water. a n d a m o o n globe called t h e Selenographia. marking the ground with lines of footprints or by turning stones. Look closely at works by many artists and you will see that they have not represented hills. or the wind carries it away. In this chapter Moon Pastel 1795 Drawing we experiment with charcoal. makes his work by the act of walking. surrounded by the bright instruments of centuries of navigation. William Turner is said to have had himself lashed to a ship's mast to comprehend the storm (see p. It is better to get up before dawn. and even how the Sun illuminates. Weather is essential in all landscape drawing. t h e first-ever accurate image o f t h e M o o n ' s surface. how the mountain cut by ice and rain is now fleetingly lit. to be ready to draw the new light as it breaks across the land. t w o e n g r a v e d m a p s k n o w n as The Lunar Planispheres. Just as NASA photographs of Earth have had a profound effect on the way we view our fragile home. and experiment. England. artists see for themselves that which is momentary and eternal. when little stirs and empty blue skies offer even less to latch lines to. 199). as opposed the physicality of Earth. so J o h n Russell's tour de f o r c e drawing (opposite) was a masterpiece of observation in his time. Take chances against the rain and work with the wind or fog. learning to draw light out of dark. H e a l s o p r o d u c e d an a l b u m o f 1 8 0 exquisite pencil drawings. It now hangs on the staircase of the History of Science Museum. 5 f t x 5 ft 6 in ( 1 5 2 x 1 6 8 c m ) J O H N RUSSELL . sunny days. but it can be seen as a lens to our observation of this planet. our companion. they are the animators of your subject. Beginners will often choose calm. a contemporary environmental artist. The forces of nature. arranging them in perfect circles on the mountainside or in lines drifting out of sight beneath low clouds. and meteor impacts have scarred. The pastel drawing was constructed from myriad telescopic observations almost 200 years before the Apollo Moon landing. Russell d r e w this. the face of the Moon. and the sea. These conditions are very difficult to express well. rivers. Richard Long. This is the world's first accurate image of the Moon.Earth and the Elements I T MAY SEEM PERVERSE to start a chapter titled "Earth and the Elements" with an image of the Moon. or has cracked and fallen under the weight of water. There is a sense of the heroic in drawing outside—we race to catch a form before the tide engulfs it. Oxford. What they have drawn is the force of nature on these properties: how the wind heaves the night ocean.
and by observing its tides and eddies in our o w n environment. seeing how it shakes. lifts. like an umbrella forced inside-out. This wife. fluttering heavily. H O N O R E DAUMIER French satirical cartoonist lithographer. T h e ship. and gives motion to each image. sculptor. He knew how the world bends and stutters under such gusts. is already lost. has b e c o m e a hysterical kite. and pioneer ofexpressionism. speed. painter. a sail b r o k e n loose in a stormy marriage. By Turner carries us to the heart of the maelstrom. undramatic b u t brimming with stylized realism. distance. we can soon learn to draw its force. and the legal profession. Hazy vertical marks reveal buildings into the mist.198 EARTH AND THE E L E M E N T S Air in Motion THE GREAT INVISIBLE SUBJECT o f these d r a w i n g s is t h e w i n d . Flapping kimonos and an onlooker turning his b a c k have the magic of a m o m e n t caught. Below. the bourgeoisie. and solidity. Crayon and limestone This is a lithograph. A hard waxy was drawn across a heavy limestone Varying definitions crayon of lire and depths of tone conspire to give volume. serving a prison sentence for his views. Daumier's c a r t o o n shines with the brilliance of his comic memory.Through political drawings he fired his sharp wit at the king. Fluid strokes inflate the woman's dress and pin shadows to the ground. Dots and dashes suggest receding trees out of focus. Hokusais sedate wind presses reeds a n d the j o u r n e y s o f young ladies. T h e great master of English seascape is c o n d u c t i n g with his graphic energy. Terrifying waves of merciless nature roar across the paper. Danger of Wearing Balloon Petticoats UNDATED HONORE DAUMIER . a scratched ghost. the government.
T u r n e r w o r k e d in oils a n d w a t e r c o l o r s a n d s k e t c h e d c o p i o u s l y o n his travels. T h e r e a r e m a n y stories o f his p a s s i o n a t e w o r k i n g methods. including being lashed t o a ship's m a s t in o r d e r to study a storm. 1826 91/2 x 113/4 in ( 2 4 1 x 3 0 0 m m ) J. W . painter. horizontally then and of the it into the stream Plants also bend and flow right to Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 1802 81/2 HOKUSAI KATSUSHIKA x 131/2 in ( 2 1 7 x 3 4 3 mm) .199 J. from left print.l o v e dw o r k s i n c l u d e 1 0 0 v i e w s o f M o u n t Fuji and 1 2 v o l u m e s o f Manga.b l o c kprintmaker. Wind direction wood-block This is a colored To represent the blows lifted flowed wind. and history painter w h o s e p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t a b o v e all w a s light. Ship in a Storm c. Landscape a n d city life w e r e his principal subjects. wind. into this very as pressed sheet The paper's through own coior is brought banks of mist and fog.W.M. d e s i g n e r a n d b o o k i l l u s t r a t o r .i n f l u e n c e d b y examples o f W e s t e r n art obtained through D u t c h t r a d i n g in Nagasaki. T U R N E R British landscape. H o k u s a i in t u r n has since significantly influenced European art.M. A outline scratched of a skeletal into penciled ship is while and the waves. AIR IN MOTION Pencil and watercolor subdued brushed. absorbent watercolor and are Stains of splashed. a n d his b e s t . Hokusai direction (from clothing from has chosen which it the right). TURNER KATSUSHIKA HOKUSAI Prolific J a p a n e s e c o l o r w o o d . leans the whole composition swells around its fateful center. seascape.
and swim into the page. this is a writer's narrative of terror. composing banks of waves and dense. T h e very nature of b o t h is turmoil and an interweaving of elements. Opposite. T h e m e n a c i n g darkness of Hugo's storm b e l o w is so convincing. and tossed o b j e c t s — a perfect subject in which artists can forget themselves.200 ELEMENTS Storms STORMS CAN BE SEEN and drawn in two ways: first. this is a b o m b a r d m e n t from o u r h o m e s . An update on biblical showers of fish and frogs. as a gestural storm on the paper. EARTH AND THE VICTOR HUGO French novelist and artist (see also p. His subjects include ruins. water. it is difficult to contemplate its brooding and night-soaked heart. He brings us to stare into a place that no sane human would enter. Turner (see p. as a subject and second. grab their b r u s h . lines of rain escorting them to b o u n c e and clatter. active surfaces of water. fantasy palaces.198) admires the majesty of nature. ink. marks. Le Bateau-Vision 1864 71/2 x 1 0 in ( 1 9 2 x 2 5 5 m m ) VICTOR H U G O . Leonardos Cloudburst of Material Possessions is o n e of his m o s t enigmatic and mysterious works. D o m e s t i c o b j e c t s we can o w n and name fall from the clouds.28). with a brush. as if drawn j u s t this year. he blanketed the drawing in darkness. By contrast. inks. leaving nothing but a glimpse of moonlight glistening on the froth below. Then. or charcoal. h a u n t e d shadows. and t h e sea s t u d i e d f r o m his h o m e in Guernsey in t h e Channel Islands. It looks so contemporary. In periods b e t w e e n writing. Pen and brush Hugo drew first with pen and ink. drawing was Hugo's principal means o f expression.
LEONARDO DA VINCI Leonardo devised many artifacts of our modern lives. for example). Above and below are examples of his mirror handwriting. and a wheel. It is interesting to speculate how engineering might have developed if his ideas had been shared with the world earlier Ink and chalk This is a pen and ink drawing with touches of black chalk. together with half the contents of our garage. and they passed through private hands for 400 years before becoming widely known. There is a little magic in recognizing many items from our homes something like a rake. Each item that has crashed from heaven is drawn in such a way that we can feel Leonardo's nib picking it up in the speed of a doodle. He was left-handed and wrote backwards in Italian from left to right. a hook. a bell. envisioning machines centuries before their making (helicopters and bicycles. He bequeathed his drawings to a friend. Cloudburst of Material Possessions 1510-12 45/8 x 43/8 in ( 1 1 7 x 1 1 1 mm) L E O N A R D O DA VINCI .
or cityscape. made inside a book. In a very different work (opposite above). Whether land-. Clare Bryan took panoramic photographs of the English South Downs. cooler tones receding into the distance are applied with a brush. atmosphere. Claude has used a fine nib to delineate segments of land as they recede into space.202 ELEMENTS THE PROFILE OF A HORIZON is a line we immediately recognize and respond to. Paler. Claude is distinguished by. his unsurpassed handling of light. Segments The top half of the drawing is a view as we enter the valley. and etcher who lived most of his life in 17th-century Rome. Over first lines. Views from Velletri c. Even distilled from all other detail. and we can imagine standing over his shoulder. sea-. In the lower half he has walked downhill a little. thick. and famed for. Drawing with a scalpel. and dry marks in the foreground appear to be made with his finger. EARTH AND THE Bryan cut the profile of a city.1638 85/8 x 121/2 in (219 x 320 mm) CLAUDE LORRAIN . C L A U D E LORRAIN French classical landscape painter draftsman. and mood simultaneously. it is the unique calligraphic signature of the place in which we stand. She was inspired by her research of aerial plans of London and the story of an alien map butterfly (see caption). Nature Profiles Opposite below. Claude Lorrain drew directly on location. and across to the right. rich. and after tracing her captured line. which he used to unify his compositions. rapidly layering contours to shape place. transferred it to a scroll. watching his hand and eye at work together. she teased away fragments of paper to illuminate her view. a horizon line can trigger our recognition.
source workisilluminatedby standing its lower edge on a CLARE BRYAN . and visiting professor at numerous art schools.203 Scalpel-drawn This book-bound drawing was inspired by the story of a foreign butterfly wrongly to Great Britain in 1912. 2001 CLARE BRYAN C L A R E BRYAN 3ritish artist.5-m)scroll." Cut line This is a small section of a preparatory 5-ft(1. progressively settlement (cropped more and more paper is drawn away to show the expansion of human page of an around the river. and digital print-based works reflect upon the histories and poetry of "left behind and in-between spaces.The horizon was drawn with a City Landline 2003 271/2x 59 in (70 x 150 cm) scalpel. drawings Ideas of introduction Clare Bryan to research introduced down and led NATURE PROFILES and removal historical plans and aerial growth of London showing its population since Roman times. On turning the pages of City. then hunted destroyed. printmaker graphic designer. The edges of each here) fade into the solid paper unpopulated with a scalpel landscape. Her recent paper photographic. specialty bookbinder.
Beware of cheap brands selling dyed chalk as compressed charcoal. 7. Try itworking on big paper covering a wall. LIFTING OUT This technique is a very easy method of drawing a crisp. b e e c h . Smooth paper accepts few particles. 3. vine. tape. Alternatively. It is also easily erased if the maker of the mark is not happy with the result. Use any fine-point pen or pencil (I used a ballpoint) to draw a firm line on the back of the Big pieces are perfect for very large-scale drawings—even larger than yourself. 6. fine. 1. It allows you greater precision in your mark-making than if you rub away the charcoal with an eraser. COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Machine-made. white line into the blackor grayness of willow charcoal. 1 Suspend a length of masking tape. A great find when available. a n d p l u m . it is compressed and m o l d e d at high pressure. 2. As its name implies. The tip snaps easily to renew a sharp edge if required. Then lift it away. THICK W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 2 Keep the tape above your drawing. b l a c k e r . a rag. without touching the surface. Lines are achieved by d e p o s i t i n g particles in the grain o f paper. Boxes often contain a range of thicknesses to choose for different needs. harder line. C h a r c o a l naturally glistens. 162) or graphite (see p. the heel o f y o u r h a n d . blacker. MEDIUM W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 5. It c a n be m a d e duller. THIN WILLOW CHARCOAL: I used a piece like this to make the drawing opposite. sticky side down. resulting in a pale line. cylindrical. feather. The same as above. In use.54). CHALK CHARCOAL: Technically. maple. this does not exist. a n d m o r e i n d e l i b l e by soaking it in linseed oil. you can p u r c h a s e m a c h i n e .m a d e c o m p r e s s e d charcoal. between your middle finger and thumb. Not to be confused with square conte sticks (see p. It does n o t erase easily. Artists have also used lime. but some specialists stock compressed charcoal in delicate square sticks. black finish. resulting in a stick that gives a blacker. and heavier than willow. Willow is the most c o m m o n wood.204 E A R T H AND THE E L E M E N T S Charcoal CHARCOAL IS PRODUCED from wood baked slowly without exposure to air. or fingertip. Hold it over your drawing RANGE AVAILABLE Charcoal (in its several forms shown here) is loved or loathed by the beginner to whom it is often recommended because it produces pleasing results quickly. 4. Slightly dull the tape's stickiness before use t o prevent it from lifting out more than you intend. leaving u n d e r t r a c e s of first thoughts. they are all intended for fine work. only a little thicker. Charcoal lifts away from paper easily with the very light touch o f an eraser. a piece of fresh bread. and offers a rich. SQUARE COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Not often sold. Essentially. . so it chars b l a c k as o p p o s e d to igniting a n d turning to ash. B u n d l e s o f twigs were traditionally sealed into earthenware j a r s or wet clay and heated slowly and intensely in a fire or kiln. 3 A white line is lifted out by the tape. R o u g h paper c a n b e loaded. it looks gray and feels like chalk. CHARCOAL PENCIL: Types made by different manufacturers vary in quality and density of line.
sold in several widths. Cotton swabs also work. Use high quality (very sticky) to fix paper to walls and boards. as is fresh (unbuttered!) bread.212-13 were made by altering the pressure applied to the charcoal. Here we used a ballpoint. 9. Different tones seen throughout the main drawing on pp. I used a plastic eraser effectively on thinly applied charcoal. . Use cheaper (less sticky) for lifting out. or any other dry media.205 ERASING Thickly applied charcoal quickly o v e r c o m e s a plastic eraser A w a r m (soft and tacky) putty eraser is more effective. CHARCOAL Lifting out This detail shows an example of where I used the lifting-out technique demonstrated opposite to draw flashes of lightning against rain clouds. 8 . MASKING TAPE: An invaluable resource. Here. graphite. PEN: Any fine pen or pencil can be used to draw on the back of masking tape when lifting out. Layers can be peeled away to refresh its surface. pastels. 10. T O R T I L L O N : This is a tight roll of paper used to blend charcoal. Lift out broader marks with a larger implement.
begin by marking out several small squares on your paper. a less distinct middle ground composed of shapes and textures. MATERIALS In this first view there is only a foreground and middle distance. Then I drew the shape of the tonal patches I perceived. They are also good markers of receding space. At its worst.9 9 we noted that in response to visual stimulus. especially when making first excursions into aerial perspective. and an abstract. When you arrive. 9 8 . Seeing tones . Pack several thick and thin sticks of willow charcoal. Excessive detail can be admired for its skill and achievement. This term simply means that as land rolls away into the distance. To experiment with drawing landscapes and the use of charcoal. the less you describe. hazy distance. The long view is hidden behind trees. I relaxed my eyes out of focus to dissolve distracting detail into abstract patches of light and darkness. the more you encourage the viewer's imagination to join in and see. details blur and colors grow paler and bluer. it results in flat planes of clutter. Don't worry if it is cloudy: clouds add drama and perspective and make good subjects in themselves (see pp. and a cushion in a plastic bag to sit on. Ironically. an eraser your drawing book or a board and paper fixative (or hairspray). pack your materials (as advised below) and set off for a local view or your nearest arboretum. It is the visible effect of the atmosphere between where you stand and what you see in the distance. but is often less evocative and engaging. a reel of masking tape. Landscape drawings are traditionally arranged in three parts: a detailed foreground.212-13). to contain each of your compositions. Successful drawings often only suggest the qualities of the scene without overdescribing them. On p p .206 EARTH AND THE ELEMENTS Landscapes TREES ALONE OFFER MARVELOUS shapes to draw. our brains search for nameable things and will perceive complete pictures from very little information.
full of information you can use to create what you want! Inventing drama . It is better to give distinctly more pictorial space to one or the other (see below). your view is your inspiration. Exploring the view Redrawing the scene above. This composition turned out a little flat because I have an almost even quantity of earth and sky. I have invented drama with diagonals set against each other I tilted the earth. dark trees with bright. and broke a view through the hedge into the distance with a dark sky threatening rain.207 LANDSCAPES In my second square I explored a simple view contrasting soft. the trunk of a bare tree. Remember. shadows. horizontal regions of grass. rounded.
I am then able to home in on what interests me most for further study. Similarly. s e e k places in light After my first drawing. The mud of the tidal shore in Rye. making the scene below led me to focus on the decaying boat opposite. and tiller still standing proud. your challenge now is to find a sculptural subject in the landscape.104-05). so the paper is not made blinding and your hand cannot cast a shadow on your work. engine. I usually begin by making an image of the whole view. taking with you your drawing book and pen.164-65) and a wire violin (pp. observing it from several views so as to better understand it as a whole.1 5 my first drawing of the whole view of the Tiber led me to see the real subject of the day. For example. EARTH AND THE FINDING THE SUBJECT Finding a remarkable subject is even better when you can circumnavigate it in an arena of space. 2 1 4 . settling my concentration. and seeing what the real choice of subject is. which was the flow of water over rocks. "Drawing in the round means to literally walk around your subject." . Circling a subject and drawing it from several views imprints on your memory a better understanding of its three-dimensional form. England has embedded within it the decaying skeleton of a burned fishing boat.208 ELEMENTS Drawing in the Round WHEN DRAWING IN THE LANDSCAPE. on p p . Building on earlier studies of structure in space using shoes (pp. shade out of the glare of the sun. This first drawing serves as a process of arrival. bare ribs.
I spent equal time looking at the subject and the paper. marking straight. and the order and shape of its component parts. its overall balance. and structure. character. Each n e w drawing gives a different insight. ROUND 2 In this tail-end view. looking more at the boat than at the paper From this low position I have emphasized how the boat is swallowed in mud by outlining its shadow on the ground. careful lines to establish the skeleton that gives this wreck its distinct form. make a series o f drawings f r o m different positions. W h e n you have found your subject. w h e n t h e sea recedes. 3 This impression notes the angle of the broken boat. The outline ties a shape of darkness to the boat like a weight so that it becomes part of its form. Overleaf: Decaying Boat 4 . I drew with quick.209 SERIES OF STUDIES This stunning ghost o f a boat comes into v i e w t w i c e a day. I looked more boldly at the planes and the dynamic of the sculptural craft My lines have become darker and more forceful as confidence in my understanding of the vessel grew. DRAWING IN THE 1 Here. unfussy lines.
L o o k i n g b a c k and forth from the heavens to firmly taped-down paper. . hot-pressed drawing p a p e r (see pp.20-21) using a thin stick of willow charcoal. was made with gentle but unhesitating s p e e d .Cloudburst THIS STORM DRAWING. I worked quickly to catch and weave the turbulent contrasts of rising wind and approaching water before the drawing could be washed away. m a d e on s m o o t h .
since ancient times. pocket-sized notebook. shaping the city. focusing on the river's eddies.Notes of Force T H E GREAT FLOWING TIBER RIVER has cut through Rome. and rhythmic detail as it passed through the ancient gully of the city. black. pulse. On the pages of a small. . I drew with a needle-fine fiber-tip pen.
The strong diagonal of the composition from bottom left to top right carries the eye through changes of height and focus from the foreground to the mountains beyond. .Mountains SITTING IN THE SHADE of a tree on the Greek island of Antiparos. I used a dip pen and waterproof India ink with brushed watercolor to draw the view.
all pictorial representations are abstractions of reality. Perhaps in Western culture we bred this intuitive freedom out of ourselves in our insistence on complex figuration. poet. Museum of Fine Arts. Berne. belief. Wolfli was a Swiss draftsman. strike the paper to find form. fictional language. It is actually its foundation and its infrastructure. The growing rise of Darwinian ideas coupled with Freudian and Marxist perspectives forced Western society to reconsider its origins and future. and young children show us that abstract. ADOLF WOLFLI One of the greatest masters of Art Brut. From one point of view. picturing a stabilized world was impossible and Modernism rode forth with vigor. abstraction is not so easy to define. Internal workings of the mind were suddenly free to find a new language of expression. He made thousands of drawings to chronicle his complex life. My own work is firmly centered in figuration. Many concepts and feelings can only be expressed through marks. From another viewpoint.8 cm) A D O L F WOLFLI Abstraction is a direct. People are often scared by abstraction and see it as the enemy of figurative art. His drawings are collected and exhibited internationally and held by the Adolf Wolfli Foundation. and independent means of communication. Artists were given a different tool—a line threaded directly from their subconscious to their hand—and with it they began to map a bold new landscape of marks and concepts that would dramatically and forever change the face of Western art. Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape 1915 413/8 x 285/8 in (105 x 72. opposite. Indian mandalas. be brave and enjoy them. precisely because it does not have to represent a physical object. and history. and emotion. many nonWestern cultures have highly sophisticated abstractions at the core of their art. . Not everything we know has a physical form in the world. It also underpins and gives strength and unity to all figurative work. Afterward. which are essentially abstract. such as Adolf Wolfli.Abstract Lines T HE DEVELOPMENT OF W E S T E R N abstract art at the beginning of the 20th century significantly paralleled major changes in world thought. Outsider artists. sounds. or gestures. it is simply itself. I begin every image by feeling its meaning. and Aboriginal art. expressive marks and shapes are at the core of natural. for example. direction. don't be timid. writhing torrents of color. liberating. First marks. It was not invented in the 20th century. only rediscovered. and it has always been with us. As you approach the classes in this chapter. Swirling. and poetic myth roar and cascade within his tightly framed pages. However. yet my kinship to abstraction is fundamental. drawn sound. An abstract mark is often a better conductor of a thought or feeling. actions. and have been making abstract drawings for centuries—Japanese calligraphy. The fate of Old World thinking was finally sealed with the brutality of World War I. writer and composer who suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and was resident in the Waldau Aslyum near Berne. spontaneous image-making.
or. MAMORU ABE Japanese sculptor and installation artist. it can keep reforming through the inherent repetition of a process. and temperature rim of floor space. This the paper rest within the amplifies framelike of the floor from the ceiling. Below. akin to stones in a Zen garden. and sensitivity with its thickness and pressure of touch. and patient watching. He travels widely to research ancient sacred sites. scrolling across the canvas in an intimate crescendo. as Twombly shows us opposite. Damp Japanese paper was laid over carefully arranged iron bars. forged steel. and texture their bracing separation reaching between from beneath Pillars of the gallery are made part of this drawing by their inclusion in the paper. It can proclaim mood. A line can be finished in a second. brass. tone.220 A B S T R A C T LINES Process and Harmony SOMETIMES A DRAWN LINE sings on the surface of its support. staining redbrown lines into the white surface. Iron rods in tone. and plaster in galleries and landscapes. and wood are also part of the work. Abe works with materials such as soil. sit in silent harmony. Changes paper. Sometimes it smolders like a deep shadow. The Physical Space 1990 3 0 x 30 ft ( 9 1 4 x 9 1 4 cm) MAMORU ABE . water. Abe's physical drawing is a sculptural installation. Moisture produced rust. salt. Five forged steel shapes. iron. Lines. silence. rhythmically engaged with itself. Mamoru Abe prepares an image that will appear through the chemistry of iron. texture. and Assistant Professor of Fine A r t at Fukuoka University. ice. Twombly's mesmeric wax line worked over house paint is like a signature. quoting ink marks on a page. A Neolithic chalk tablet bears cut lines that were slowly carved.
CY TWOMBLY . that challenges the separation of word from image.241). and American Indian petroglyphs (see p.England. Neolithic Chalk Tablet 3. such as the Rosetta stone. Precise lines suggest the use of a sharp flint The framed rectangle of this image is echoed in that of Abe's installation. and sensuous drawing from painting. emotive.Thesite's purpose is unknown.400BCE 21/4 x 21/4 in (58 x 58 mm) ARTIST UNKNOWN Language Over the course of fifty years. the Babylonian world map. and Untitled 1970 Here we might seek to grasp letters in the turning of his line. burials. evolved a raw. Twombly has language works CY TWOMBLY Contemporary American artist who emerged through the 1950s New York art scene in the heyday of Abstract Expressionism and Action Painting. and the worship of the sun and ancient gods.000-2.221 ANCIENT CARVINGS Many ancient cultures have made and left behind drawings and texts carved into stones or animal bone. theories suggest astrological observations. At the 2001 Venice Biennale. energetic. close to Stonehenge in Wiltshire. PROCESS AND HARMONY Cut lines Chalk carves easily.Twombly was presented with a Golden Lion award for lifetime achievement. Many of his graffiti-like combine abstract gestures with statements. The central pictorial space is also similarly cut and divided by the considered arrangement of straight lines. This example is one of two chalk tablets found in a Late-Neolithic pit.
a configuration.28). and let the drying meniscus deposit granules in linear drifts such as we would see in the satellite photographic mapping of rivers. and lifted them away to leave impressions of watery planets and seas. Bussotti. abstract artists and composers unique. beautiful. Here he appears t o have saturated the cut-out moon disks with gritty pigment. Hugo. pressed them face down. he mixed graphite into ink. abstract. o f t e n e x p r e s s e d in v i s u a l t e r m s . too. brushed night skies over them with ink then lifted the disks to reveal white moons.28. Two Impressions Paper 1853-55 VICTOR HUGO Disk from a Cut-Out ." An innovator who never fails to surprise. A graphic score is a V I C T O R H U G O Hugo's abstract French novelist w h o m a d e m a n y drawings in m i x e d m e d i a ( s e e also p. and inventive of his time. "There is nothing like dream to create the future. Texture Compare this drawing to Hugo's octopus on p. Similarity in gritty texture suggests that here. Marks across the center appear to be made with his fingers. His drawing writes the time of its own physical process by expressing the extreme concentration of the moment in which it was made. The scores are also exhibited in galleries as visual art. broke new ground in the 1950s with graphic scores now considered among the most extreme. and participate in the composition. drawing here can b e described in t e r m s o f a G e r m a n philosophical idea a b o u t is t h e i n s t a n t r e c o g n i t i o n t h e p o w e r o f m o m e n t . below. interpret.222 ABSTRACT LINES Writing Time SINCE THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY. Ink impressions When drawing nightscapes Hugo often laid paper disks in place of the moon. here he anticipates abstract expressionism by 100 years. music manuscript requiring instrumentalists to improvise. said. Gestalt o f an unnameable thing. have striven to break down old pictorial and musical structures to explore new and unfettered modes of expression. Gestalt. Both abstract drawing and composition involve the perfect sequencing of sounds and marks against space and silence. o r a pattern o f elements s o unified as a w h o l e t h e y c a n n o t b e e x p l a i n e d asa s u m o f parts. opposite.
1958 SYLVANO BUSSOTTI . His later works become increasingly abstract. This is a page from Due Voci. a far cry from any recognized musical notation. Compare this work to that of Libeskind on p. Bussotti's first mature work. 70 in relation to Bussotti's clustered notes to the left of his rondo and open space to the right. Sound and rhythm This flickering rondo of sound written in pen on a hand-ruled stave can be heard in our imaginations as much as seen.223 W R I T I N G TIME SYLVANO BUSSOTTI Italian avant-garde composer and principal 20thcentury exponent of the graphic score. Circular Score for "Due Voci" c. Following the notes. we can feel their rhythm and easily attach sounds to them.
making objects and images outside o f mainstream culture.228-29) has been adjusted with each movement of the rags to draw a cosmos of balance and perfection. In music it can be felt in the diversity of plainsong and African d r u m m i n g . MARIE LIEB Little is known of this w o m a n for w h o m the act of drawing was essential. Torn cloth This is one of two published photographs showing Marie Leib's torn cloth strips significantly placed on her cell floor.224 A B S T R A C T LINES Chants and Prayers WHEN ABSTRACT LINES are organized in repetition. Germany. Cell Floor With Torn Strips of Cloth 1894 MARIE LIEB . d i p p i n g h e r fingers into a pot o f rice flour. cultures. Marie Lieb w a s a psychiatric patient in the Heidelberg Asylum. social outcasts. and c i r c u m s t a n c e s . for e x a m p l e . T h e s e p h o t o g r a p h s d o c u m e n t the meditative drawings o f two w o m e n living worlds apart in different countries. It will protect the place from evil and make a pleasing invitation to good spirits. In the late 1 9 t h century. Cloth is the simple instrument with which she has conducted and ordered her universe. O p p o s i t e . Visually. Compositional rightness (see pp. She tore c l o t h into strips a n d used these to draw patterns a n d symbols o n h e r cell floor. it is found in the regularity o f ordered lines or a pattern. and sufferers of psychiatric illnesses—who have always existed. Lieb is one o f countless thousands of "Outsider" artists—diverse individuals including ordinary citizens. This takes a form in most cultures. they m a k e a visual a n d physical e c h o that t o u c h e s s o m e deep part of the human spirit. an a n o n y m o u s w o m a n in the southeast Indian state o f Tamil Nadu m a k e s a ritual drawing o n the b r i c k courtyard o f h e r h o m e . centuries.
Designs and motifs Rangoii (or mandalas) are ritual drawings made by many millions of women across rural India. or flowers are marked or arranged on the ground or on the walls of homes. lime.225 STEPHEN P. lecturer on the subjects of Indian art and Indian women's identity. and in places of worship and celebration. Painted Prayers UNDATED STEPHEN R HUYLER . In daily practice. and birds.Theseare widely published in journals and are the subjects of international exhibitions. cultural anthropologist. among others. Skills are handed down through generations and from friend to friend. animals.HUYLER Photographer art historian. women pride themselves on never repeating a design. and for over 30 years has traveled extensively through the Indian subcontinent creating an edited archive of 200. Materials such as rice flour.000 images. Huyler is the author of Painted Prayers. at the University of London and Ohio State University. Popular magazines feature new ideas each week and on special occasions there may be contests. Motifs are geometrical or based on plants. chalk.
it is ruled and contained in one dimension by its interlocking ink-lined borders. They each find their pathways and equilibrium in atmosphere and suggestion. These two works present complex compositions with differing intensions and methods of making. Mixed media This is a collage of torn white and gray tissue paper previously stained with ink. Klee's mathematical maze of thinly washed surface resonates with meticulous planning. Ruskin School. performance and installation artist. Oxford. Oval moons eclipse each other and oscillate between landforms and portraiture. and water-resistant layers of spray and enamel paint on thick paper. Catling's works made for international galleries and museums involve drawing as a tool in their development and making. gold paint and iridescent gouache mixed with water.226 ABSTRACT LINES Compositions ABSTRACT DRAWINGS ARE LARGELY or entirely free from using the viewer's eye to track and unfold layers of meaning. but similarities in mood. rocks or heads in a subdued atmosphere of dream. filmmaker Professor of Fine Art. and choice of hues. free from the direct imaging of known physical things. figurative representation—that is. Untitled 2001 2001 153/4x 215/8 in ( 4 0 0 x 550 mm) BRIAN C A T L I N G . BRIAN CATLING British sculptor poet. Their energy can therefore be a purer expression of an idea or emotion. With no depth of field. Catling's torn paper shapes and shadows spill light out of their frame like a fractured mirror. Catling's abstract drawings are usually made in series and in parallel to written poetry and sculptural installations. and Fellow of Linacre College. structure.
He explained his polyphonic painting as "a harmony of several color voices" searching for a visual parallel to music. Line and surface Klee observed the visual capacity of lines to push or pull within an image. It is a geometric harmony of straight lines and tonally graded flat colors that by their arrangement draw our eyes inward to their white center. whereas tonal surfaces are perceived more immediately as a whole. watercolor. Polyphon Gefasstes Weiss (White Framed Polyphonically) 1930 131/8x95/8 in (333 x 245 mm) Paul-Klee-Stiftung. Klee painted. and brush. ruler.97-99. Klee also felt that a line represents the passing of time. Geometric harmony This is a work on paper made with a sharp ink pen. We can see some diagrammatic examples of this among the optical illusions on pp. and wrote copiously about the natures and relationships of color and form. philosophized.31). Kunstmuseum Bern PAUL KLEE . drew.227 PAUL K L E E Swiss painter and sculptor (see also p. and might be read as active or passive.
their impact. or home. Take. after being continuously adjusted. angles. s o m e will be more or less h a r m o n i o u s . culture.228 ABSTRACT LINES Being "Just" A SENSE OF "JUST" (or rightness) is a difficult concept to explain. the impression y o u receive from t h e m . W h e n m o v i n g objects around in your yard. "Whenall pictorial elements come together in pleasing and perfect balance. There is a single m o m e n t w h e n all proportions. b u t e v e r y n o w a n d again you will hit on an arrangement w h i c h appears just. regardless of style. It is also found in nature. Seek it when looking at other artists' work and in your everyday environment. a glass. a b u n c h of keys. and elements settle in definitive balance." SETTING UP Justness can be harmonious or deliberately discordant. they reach a perfect position. As y o u m o v e them around. "I have experimented endlessly with this idea. w i l l c h a n g e w i t h e v e r y r e a r r a n g e m e n t . In his b o o k The Education of a Gardener. and put them o n a tray.Thisexercise will help you start. they are just. for instance. M a n y of their inter-relationships will be meaningless. but an easy o n e to u n d e r s t a n d . and an apple. Set up a sheet of paper with a rectangle drawn on it. Feel for it when youdraw. there is a clear feeling when. and ten straight sticks painted black." . or degree of figuration. This balance is what every artist and designer searches a n d feels for when making an image. media. or on a page. It is found in all great art and design. the late garden designer Russell Page explains.
In the final step (left) there is an even balance. Move the sticks out into the rectangle. Arrange them so they touch or cross in a series of intersecting balances. suggesting a horizon. painted black.56-57). W h e n the composition falls into place. Within a rectangle on a flat sheet of paper set about making a composition using no other rule than a sense of "just. which now becomes a tight frame. making the composition seem to float beneath. fix it with glue. 2 3 In the step above. Remember the drawn rectangle is a part of the composition (see pp. as shown here. Here. horizontals dominate the lower area. A stick touching the rectangle links the composition to the frame. . Feel for the rightness of their grouping and their relationships to surrounding spaces." Move the sticks to find alignments and imagined perspectives.229 WHERE TO START Take ten sticks of equal length. B E I N G "JUST" 1 Arrange your ten sticks in t w o groups of five. horizontals dominate the top.
To prepare for this lesson. a compass. found or made items. and tones. Collage offers the artist a liberating palette of SETTING UP This lesson in collage is a direct continuation of the compositional lines made in the previous class. scissors. colors and textures can be manipulated until their pictorial harmony. colors. ready-made depths and surfaces. stain and dry a sheet of tissue paper using blueink.. harmonious.69 and Abe's installation on p. Returning to Russell Page. Once the ten painted black sticks are set and glued in place.Youwill also need spare white paper. or even strident. an infinite range of voices and meaning. correction fluid or white paint. hard or soft. This principal also applies to three-dimensional drawings such as Gaudi's work with wire and weights on p. Images and fragments torn from day-to-day life can be brought together to make a chorus of ideas and emotions.230 ABSTRACT LINES Collage H E R E W E EXPERIMENT with collage. and black ink. or discordance. feels "just" (see pp. glue." overlapping placement of materials on a flat plane." (Russell Page) . you start composing by adding or subtracting shapes and textures and using colors and tones to achieve the impression you want to m a k e — w h e t h e r dramatic or s u b d u e d . which is the shifting. Cut or torn layers and shapes.220. "My understanding is that every object [or shape] emanates—sends out vibrations beyond its physical body which are specific to itself. he went on to say ".228-29).. they become a scaffold for the addition of further textures.
231 WHAT TO DO Lay the final step of the previous lesson (p. solidity. and shadow to thepicture. correction fluid and ink marks add further dimensions. In the last step (left). Cut six small rectangles the same proportion as your whole image. draw. Obscuring the blue disks. COLLAGE 1 Regular-sized pieces of white paper are moved over the surface to disrupt the even lines. . This can also give a sense of fragmentation or punctuation to the composition. then cut out. 2 3 Torn white paper moved over the surface adds masks of rough-edged irregular volume. Glue them in place once they feel "just" Translucent circular disks of tissue paper give color tone. and with a compass and scissors. they deepen pictorial space.The single disk that is folded with its straight edge facing up appears heavier than those that are flat. four circles of blue tissue paper.228) in front of you.
and expectation. is the practice of Zen through the calligraphic marks of a brush dipped in carbon ink. emotion." [Tanchu Terayama. . Zen Brushwork]. Hitsuzendo drawings aspire to "breathe with the energy and vitality of eternal life" achieved through "a state of no mind—beyond thought. A MODERN JAPANESE meditative art form inspired by the teachings of Yamaoka Tesshu (1836-1888).Zen Calligraphy HITSUZENDO.
Nocturnes IN THIS QUARTET of semi-abstract drawings made with India ink. . Lines made with a steel dip pen take on a scratchy nervousness. I flicked spatters of ink and rubbed the paper with a wet and a dry brush to achieve these effects. These vibrate against washes of shadow and pitch-black mass. discord is balanced against rhythm to create mood.
a collaboration between the two will ensure that your drawings glow with originality. Today. impossible. which were widely distributed and influential in his time. Be inspired by the irrational comedy of word association or puns. I was on a train passing through Nuneaton. We watch with captivated pleasure movies such as The Fly. feathers. Humans are equally troubled by the imperceptibly small and the enormous. movie studios now brim with as many monsters as the visual art of the Medieval and Renaissance Church. our eye circulates around a flutter of leather and scaly wings. a Catherine wheel of drawn sparks spiraling around the quietly resolute saint.247. The salvation of heaven and terrors of hell are represented equally—enough to make any sinner shudder. we select details of animals farthest from ourselves and that are widely thought disturbing—reptilian and insect features. Throughout this book images are presented to excite and surprise and drawing classes created to increase your confidence. Reading the place name I momentarily glimpsed an alternative meaning. paradise. Lord of the Rings. England. happen to us. or in smoke. our literate and more secular Western society still hungers for another world and to ravenously indulge its fascination for the marvelous. We then add substances we dislike: unidentified fluids. When creating monsters. for example. In the Christian churches of Europe. . and the faces of God have for centuries given artists a feast for the extremes of their imagination. and damnation are found in most world faiths. For example. To learn to flex your imagination. in the cracks of walls. look for images in the folds of clothing. aliens. and deep fur—and we alter their scale. all of which originated as hundreds of drawings. Star Wars. sculptures. Fantasy is most successful when founded on strong and familiar visual logic. and stained-glass windows deliver powerful visual sermons to the once-illiterate populace. Depictions of God or of gods in the contexts of daily life. thousands of paintings. Neither should be slave or master. which is to have eaten a nun—it inspired the drawing on p. and the Alien trilogy. angels. Images we are now surrounded by bear testimony to the power and resourcefulness of their collective imagination. We love our fear of the hybrid—ideally. or strange. Schongauer is best known for his prints. wings. scales. beasts. Feeding this demand. Perhaps the Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 1485 121/4 x 9 in (312 x 230 mm) MARTIN SCHONGAUER most important conclusion in this final chapter is to advise you to develop your skills in parallel with the joy of your unfolding imagination. a human-animal mix that implies this could MARTIN SCHONGAUER German painter and engraver who settled to work in Colmar Alsace. serpentine tails. Monsters take advantage of both.Gods and Monsters OUR SACRED AND SECULAR need to visualize demons. Here.
portraits. Compare his dark. and exposed the superstitions. noisy seascape on p. The high. This act defines the vision and continues the line of spirit guides. deranged masses. They depict as if by lamplight the devil and witches. plain wall suggests a blinkered view of nothing. such asinine behavior can be hereditary. which can swamp the subject Here. a wave to join Achilles' chase of Hector. Paul Thomas's studies of Picasso and Twombly can be traced directly. Saturn devouring his son. and follies of court through copious graphic works including his best-known prints. Many students leave white backgrounds in their work. Visions experienced in front of the drawing sometimes instruct the making of a new one.240 GODS AND M O N S T E R S Marks of Influence marking the influence of one artist upon another. and church murals. Opposite below. The well-dressed mule is cumbersome. to Picasso's similarly tight. Los Caprichos. Goya's plainly textured gray background pushes back the space behind the illuminated simply subject. quoting great paintings and popular culture to add cunning twists to his satires. In this ass. we see the international icon of stupidity. hags. Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 1799 81/2 x 6 in (218 x 154 mm) FRANCISCO DE GOYA . The title "And So Was His Grandfather" adds that should we not already know. below. F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A Spanish court painter printmaker and draftsman. a Shoshone seeking guidance and power meditates at the sacred site of a petroglyph.30. crammed tightly at his desk. Near the end of his life he made his "Black Paintings" on the walls of his home. Goya later recorded the horrors of Napoleonic occupation. barren land rising like MYRIAD CHAINS RUN THROUGH ART HISTORY. whose impassioned work begins with light tapestry cartoons. it allows the mule to stand forward. In this softer aquatint he poses for his portrait Textured background The aquatint process has been used to great effect in making a gritty toned background. This continuity enriches the making of art and our heritage. Other drawn versions of this image are more savage and frightening. and men clubbing each other to death. his lover a dog. Francisco de Goya was a master of borrowing. rushing. reading from a book of asses. Pictorially. vanity. Aquatint Goya has drawn a learned man as an ass. Opposite. He would be graceless if he stood.220. Violent white marks symbolizing Achilles' rage resonate with the energy of Twombly's script on p.
of the earth. White marks like flashes of light are cut though graphite with an eraser to reveal the paper beneath. Graphite marks Here Achilles chases Hector around the walls of Troy before killing him. ideals. Thomas conducts his explorations in the mine of Greek and Roman mythology. Achilles Chases Hector 1996 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) PAUL THOMAS SHOSHONE PETROGLYPH The Shoshone people of Wyoming name petroglyph sites Poha Kahni. and personal and social struggles. A vivid spectrum of energized graphite marks and a masterly composition give this drawing vitality and speed. Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range UNDATED ARTIST UNKNOWN . perhaps a stone. values. Simple wall stones cleverly state their cold solidity while also fading from our attention as the scene roars by." Each sacred image drawn into rock belongs to one of three realms in the Shoshone world: the realm of the sky. Wyoming. It was made with a sharp implement. meaning "place of power.241 MARKS OF INFLUENCE PAUL T H O M A S British contemporary artist whose epic graphic work questions and reflects upon issues of European identity. Wind River Reservation. or of the water Chipped image This is a sacred creature of the sky chipped onto rock at Dinwoody Lake. Parallel lines within the body of the figure are likely to denote power. by a supplicant in a trance of meditation.
to the right of the balloon. Compare worked textures throughout the whole of this image to those found throughout Anita Taylor's charcoal drawing on p.and 16th-century Holland. Techniques demonstrated on pp. Our subconscious can be drawn with pleasure and ease. We may feel safe so long as the eye looks heavenward.242 MONSTERS of the unknown is a classical and constant occupation for the artist. GODS AND Erasure In this charcoal drawing. The Eye Like a Strange Mounts Balloon 165/8 x131/8in (422 x 332 mm) ODILON REDON 1882 Toward Infinity . Here we see how he evolved their injuries into new limbs and warped proportions. They float toward us like a horrid visitation. the shock would be extreme. crawl. Redon explored the darker side of the human imagination through symbols and mysticism. the writers Joris-Karl Huysmans and Stephane Mallarme. and writer In contrast t o the light and visual accent of contemporary Impressionism. H e was influenced by his friends. Lifting out Fine strings of the hot-air balloon appear dark against the sky and light against the balloon. Redon lifted them out with some sort of eraser. as he did the grass. lifting its cranial passenger over a seascape of repose. below left. 115. The monsters of Bosch grew from his observations of beggars going about their trade in 15th. Children are also delighted to invent a monster or ghoul. which sometimes—half-dressed and carrying a familiar trophy— stride. graphic artist. If it were to turn and stare this way. Redon's eyeball balloon rises up.204-05 will enable you to produce a similar effect of white lines shining out of dark charcoal. T H E EXPLORATION AND DEPICTION Hauntings Grandville has drawn a scurrying zoo of half-known demons and animals that appear to have been stolen from the glass eye of the microscope. we see parallel slanting pale marks that might have been made with fresh bread—a very effective eraser used before the wide availability of rubber or plastic. ODILON REDON French painter draftsman. and scuttle over all known reality.
243 J E A N I G N A C E ISIDORE GERARD ("GRANDVILLE") French graphic artist and political satirist. grimacing. Light shines from the right. Two Monsters UNDATED 45/8 x61/2in (117 x 163 mm) HIERONYMUS BOSCH . Smiling. which is still available today. His other major works include Metamorphoses du Jour (1828). Last Judgment. Comic little headbands of waving hair express more hysteria than fear. Les Animaux (1840). HAUNTINGS Engraving This is an engraving made so that Grandville's original drawing could be reproduced. sucker-faced creatures dash and trundle toward it They are drawn solidly to emphasize their earthbound weight. Madrid. The quality of the line is therefore uniform throughout. This image is from one of Grandville's best-known publications. include The Haywain. Quill and ink This typical Bosch monster is a quill drawing in bistre ink The phrasing of light and contour here is masterly. Most of his work is in the Prado Museum. and he illustrated the Fables of La Fontaine and Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe. teeming with the exhilaration of unrestrained fantasy. A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects c. and Ship of Fools. Garden of Earthly Delights. 1840 61/8 x41/2in ( 1 5 5 x 1 1 5 mm) GRANDVILLE HIERONYMUS BOSCH Dutch painter Bosch's highly detailed iconographic religious panel paintings.
wraps and coils its lithe body ready to strike or whimper at a touch. muscular tension is carved out of the paper using layered. and mist-swathed land. a stunning hybrid of a swan. Michelangelo's dragon. architect. and engineer Among Michelangelo's great works are the painted ceiling and altar wall of the Sistine Chapel. snake. poet. sometimes artists purposefully tie a knot in the configuration to disturb. and dog. Dragon 1522 10 x 133/8 in ( 2 5 4 x 3 3 8 m m ) MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI . pinnacled. Scaly. Two previously drawn faces become humorous antagonists to the beast. and marble sculptures including Pieto. hatched lines. St Peter's square.244 GODS AND MONSTERS Convolutions THESE CONVOLUTED DRAWINGS were made almost 5 0 0 years apart. gamboling copulations. In her studio. Chalk and ink A quill dipped in brown ink was worked over black chalk on this reused sheet. A snake eating its own tail is a universal image of the eternal and continuous. below. David. phrased over the contours of form and bridging darker areas of shadow. However. They share between them the pleasures of inventing a hybrid beast. Grimes found the genesis of her beast not among animals. remembering the cavernous. but in the seductive landscape of Leonardo da Vinci's oil painting Madonna of the Rocks. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI Florentine painter sculptor. topple. lion. and dying slaves. the dome of the Vatican. Grimes' delicately cavorting figures dive into and consume each other. as we might expect. His entire drawing wrestles and weaves the viewer's eye into its retracting folds. Opposite. she formed a series of ghostly pale. and play with its perfection and meaning.
How Clever of God #84 2002 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) O O N A GRIMES . Oxford. and the Camberwell and Slade Schools of Fine Art. Grimes exhibits internationally and features in the collections of the New York Public Library and the Victoria and Albert Museum. Ink-wash delicately gouache (smooth) and gouache brushed drawing on This is a and was hot-pressed Shadows The dark shadow of the Other the ink-wash earth was made with a brushstroke of ink laid into wet paper. her under heavy here. The large space around figure has been cropped Grimes drawings to flatten presses them. The image formed directly without first making a pencil outline. London. details evolved slowly using a drier brush. London. It is one of a series of fragile earth figures inspired by rocks.245 CONVOLUTIONS O O N A GRIMES British contemporary artist and professor of printmaking at the Ruskin School. boards finished paper. each one iridescent and crumbly like a weathered while oyster.
Some used by master calligraphers are 2-3 in (5-8 cm) in diameter 11. with a fine point for delicate work 4. This brush has a broad wash capability and can achieve a very wide range of marks. SYNTHETIC-HAIR BRUSH: Bound in a synthetic ferrule with good inkholding capacity and good spring and control." 6. SABLE-HAIR LINER: Made with ordinary sable hair surrounding an extralong. materials. It is still relatively small in the total range of Japanese brushes. 3. Always clean them thoroughly.246 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brushes T H E BRUSH IS A VOLUPTUOUS and delicate weights. Soaps purchased from good art supply stores will gently cleanse particles of pigment that become trapped in the hairs or ferrule. needle-sharp center of kolinsky red sable hair. Shorter brushes designed for other purposes run out of ink more quickly. dense. L A R G E R S Y N T H E T I C . How you care for your brushes will determine how long they last. Slightly less flexible than the squirrel-hair sword liner 9. S Y N T H E T I C . making rt ideally suited to Japanese painting and small-scale calligraphy. all perfect for drawing and. ideally suited to drawing. P O I N T E D T R A D I T I O N A L WRITER: The ferrule is made from a small duck quill. JAPANESE PAINTING BRUSH: Made with natural hair. and effects. and wrist into a fluid and soft touch. LARGER JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with natural hair held in a plastic ferrule on a bamboo handle. SYNTHETIC-HAIR S W O R D LINER: A lining brush with high ink-holding capacity and a fine point. giving a variety of lines. It has exceptional painting characteristics. the very opposite of pencil or silver point. and very fine lines. fingers. it has good inkholding capacity and is very flexible. Suitable for wash techniques but also capable of very fine detail. 7. 10. 1. SABLE-HAIR RIGGER: Made with very long kolinsky sable hairs. it has good wash capabilities. shape. Some are bold. M T RA S AEIL . thicknesses. drawing tool extending the arm. liners. POINTED SQUIRREL-HAIR MOP: With a synthetic quill ferrule and extra high inkholding capacity. This design supplies the fine tip with a long continuity of ink 5. others are as fine as a whisker with a gentle touch. and texture. 13. and hold prodigious weights of ink or paint. washes. and has a fine tip for detailed work. ink-laden tip allow an expression that is beyond the linear. SQUIRREL-HAIR S W O R D LINER:This brush has a maximum ink-holding capacity and an extremely fine and flexible point 8. The brushes shown here are a mixture of This is a selection of riggers.H A I R RIGGER: Made with long synthetic hair for fine-point work It has a good ink-holding capacity and is slightly more resilient than sable hair with more "snap. SYNTHETIC-HAIR LINER: This brush gives a medium line and is firm with a spring to the touch.H A I R LINER: Very responsive oriental-style liner This to the touch. SMALL JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with sable hair. this brush has a soft drawing tip and small ink-holding capacity. The living marks of a wet. It is capable of very fine pointing. and never leave them standing on their tip in a jar of water.Theyhold plenty of ink and make continuous. 2. and writers. which holds long sable hair This brush holds large amounts of ink for long lines and points well for detailed work. 12. return them to their pointed shape. between them. Brushes vary in size. flowing.
247 BRUSHES .
splashes.35) into two tablespoons of water in a shallow. length. SETTING UP Blowing spots T h e s e t h r e e s p i d e r y c r e a t u r e s (above right and below) w e r e m a d e by d r o p p i n g s p o t s o f ink f r o m a b r u s h o n t o t h e p a g e and. and to make pools and stains o n the page. I rubbed a block of Chinese ink (see p. I had left the end of the ink block in the water overnight to make it easier to dissolve.) I . A single brush has almost balletic potential to draw fine or undulating lines and curves. the degree of pressure applied. softness. the speed of the s t r o k e . and spatters.248 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brush Marks A S I N G L E BRUSH will m a k e an e n o r m o u s range of m a r k s depending u p o n the width. the texture and a b s o r b e n c y of the paper ( w h i c h m a y be d a m p or dry). It also depends on the angle at w h i c h it is held. Here I drew with a soft Japanese painting brush (see pp. w i t h m y face close. b l o w i n g h a r d o n t h e m several t i m e s t o disperse t h e ink ( c l o s e y o u r eyes if y o u t r y this. and above all w h e t h e r the b r u s h is saturated with pigment or relatively dry. unglazed earthenware dish. and type of its hairs.246-47).
BRUSH MARKS Wet and dry strokes A m o n g these concentrated drawings ink made into with the same w a t e r y lines. a n d t h e w a y it d i s t r i b u t e s w h e n t h e b r u s h is d a b b e d o n its s i d e . t h e effects of the b r u s h r u n n i n g o u t o f ink. .249 Gritty texture T h e details o f t h e largest creatures b e l o w and opposite s h o w the granular texture of Chinese b l o c k ink. a n d b r u s h . b l e e d i n g f r o m strokes b e l o w left. w e see fine lines and s p o t s .
and used their detail to draw new creatures that might at first seem familiar. I borrowed small and fragile specimens from the University Museum of Natural History.Monsters THESE LITTLE CREATURES o f i n k and i n v e n t i o n were b o r n out of animal and bird studies. . Oxford. until we look again.
Goya often invented his monsters out of characters seen in other painters' works. thin works made by Bartolome Murillo in Seville about 120 years earlier. Here. They are a pair and hang opposite each other. I found relationships between all four paintings in terms of shapes. Madrid. are two long. formal composition. Goya's witches have been literally drawn and evolved out of the shapes of Murillo's prophet and pilgrims. Through studying and drawing these great paintings I have discovered that they are based on a pair of similarly long. and narrative twists. With further research. Isidore. two of my own drawings show you how Goya's devil (below) is based on the shape of Murillo's boy on a horse (top right). thin works titled The Witches' Sabbath and The Procession of St. Among his "Black Paintings" in the Prado Museum. showing us that gallery study is not just for the student and beginner.Goya's Monsters W I T H CUNNING BRILLIANCE. .
Consumed THIS IS A SERIES OF CARTOONS I m a d e s o m e years ago. . Sometimes drawings come out of nowhere and surprise even the artist. drawn rapidly and with great joy. little comments on politeness and sexual politics.
m e d i a d r a w i n g . p r i n t i n g press face up. so t h a t ink r e m a i n s o n l y in t h e g r o o v e s o f s c r a t c h e d lines. t o g e t h e r w i t h a t h i c k felt b l a n k e t T h e w h o l e s a n d w i c h o f l a y e r s is t h e n railed t h r o u g h t h e press t o m a k e a p r i n t D r y p o i n t is a very portable and immediate m e t h o d o f printmaking. in w h i c h parts o f an image are depicted v e r y brightly and dramatically against d a r k n e s s . t h e l i g h t is b e h i n d h i m o r her. m e a n i n g "beauty". written with a broad-nibbed pen o r brush. T h e name " n o t " simply refers t o t h e fact t h a t t h e cylinders are n o t h o t in t e m p e r a t u r e . Ferrule T h e s h o r t m e t a l t u b e t h a t s u r r o u n d s a n d g n p s t h e hairs o f a p a i n t b r u s h a n d fixes t h e m t o t h e brush handle. Fauvism A n early 2 0 t h . a r e r o l l e d t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders. charcoal. U s e d as a c o r r e c t i n g device o r pictorial game. D a m p p a p e r is laid o n t o p . It can also seal a silver p o i n t d r a w i n g t o p r e v e n t t h e oxidization (browning) o f t h e Drypoint A d r a w i n g is s c r a t c h e d directly o n t o a m e t a l plate w i t h a m e t a l t o o l h e l d like apen. S o m e t i m e s f e r r u l e s a r e m a d e o f plastic o r o t h e r materials. Blending M e r g i n g t w o o r m o r e neighboring colors o r tones t o g e t h e r using a tortillon. tapestry. Binder A substance t h a t holds particles o f p i g m e n t t o g e t h e r in a paint f o r m u l a t i o n . F r o m t h e G r e e k kallos. a n d attaches t h e m t o t h e s u p p o r t — f o r example. Air brush A mechanical. p h o t o g r a p h s . T h e prints t a k e n from t h e s e plates o r blocks. Bracelet shading C u r v e d parallel lines t h a t f o l l o w t h e c o n t o u r s o f f o r m .c e n t u r y painting m o v e m e n t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e use o f b o l d . a n d given t h e n a m e Sho. o f t e n d i s t o r t e d forms and vivid colors.256 GLOSSARY Glossary Accidental drawing Random. m e a n i n g " t o stick" Dry media M e d i a t h a t a r e n o t w e t o r o i l y — f o r e x a m p l e . Fixative lightly glues t h e d r a w i n g t o t h e surface o f t h e p a p e r t o p r e v e n t smudging. as o p p o s e d t o t h e s t r a i g h t e d g e o f a sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has b e e n machine-trimmed. Camera lucida A n optical device t h a t p r o j e c t s an image o f an o b j e c t o n t o a plain s u r f a c e so t h a t it can be traced. It is p u t o n a Body color See Gouache. for example. r a t h e r t h a n r e c o r d e d o n a film o r plate." It w a s first given t o t o n a l paintings m a d e in o n e c o l o r — s e e Grisaille. w h e n v i e w e d f r o m a specified point. F r o m t h e French v e r b coller. Collage C o l l e c t e d materials such as c o l o r e d p a p e r s . Bleed T h e e f f e c t o f t w o w e t colors running into one another o r o n e color applied t o a w e t surface a n d a l l o w e d t o d i s p e r s e . A i r b r u s h e s are u s e d in t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c o m i c s ." " N o t " p r e s s e d p a p e r is r o l l e d a s e c o n d t i m e w i t h o u t blankets t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders t o p r o d u c e a s m o o t h e r b u t still slightly t e x t u r e d s u r f a c e . Aerial perspective The effect of the a t m o s p h e r e o v e r distance as it lightens t o n e s a n d cools c o l o r s progressively t o w a r d t h e horizon. Also called accelerated perspective. W o r d s o r symbols are Cold-pressed papers P a p e r manufactured with a "not" o r " r o u g h " surface. 2. Camera obscura A d a r k e n e d c h a m b e r i n t o w h i c h an i m a g e o f w h a t is o u t s i d e is received t h r o u g h a small o p e n i n g o r lens a n d f o c u s e d in natural c o l o r o n a facing surface. p r a c t i c e d meditatively w i t h a brush. C o p p e r p l a t e engravings w e r e widely used t o r e p r o d u c e images b e f o r e p h o t o g r a p h y . pastel. Anamorphic distortion Stretching an i m a g e across a p i c t u r e surface so t h a t it can o n l y b e u n d e r s t o o d . Conservation grade D e s c r i b e s a range o f materials t h a t d o n o t d e c a y and cannot be broken d o w n by insects. T h e m o v e m e n t was started by a g r o u p o f French artists including H e n r i Matisse. A l s o called m u s e u m g r a d e .The plate is t h e n r o l l e d w i t h ink a n d polished with a rag. A f u l l . chance mark-making. in w h i c h t h e subject's distinctive features o r peculiarities are deliberately exaggerated f o r c o m i c o r g r o t e s q u e effect. s u c h as a d r a w i n g o r painting. A " s h a l l o w d e p t h o f field" m e a n s t h e p i c t u r e appears t o have only a shallow s p a c e inside i t Diffuse T o s o f t e n o r m a k e less brilliant. T h e b l a n k e t s g i v e t h e p a p e r its rough texture o r "tooth. Chiaroscuro A 1 7 t h . Composition T h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e p a r t s o f an i m a g e t o m a k e u p the whole. s u c h as a s c r e e n . See also Hotpressed papers." D e s c r i b e s a p a i n t i n g in w h i c h t h e light s o u r c e is b e h i n d t h e s u b j e c t F o r e x a m p l e . linseed oil o r egg y o l k Caricature A representation Contour line A line t h a t f o l l o w s t h e s h a p e o f a surface.m a d e paper. a n d g r a p h i t e .c e n t u r y Italian t e r m m e a n i n g "clear-obscure. o r will o n l y a p p e a r n o r m a l . Engraving 1. A l s o c a l l e d t h e h o r i z o n line. w h e n a p e r s o n is p a i n t e d standing a g a i n s t a w i n d o w . Contre jour A F r e n c h t e r m m e a n i n g " a g a i n s t day. In t h e Far East calligraphy is a highly r e s p e c t e d a r t f o r m . R e m b r a n d t is a great master o f chiaroscuro. A p o t e n t i a l l y h a r s h m e t h o d o f p r o d u c i n g t o n e s in a d r a w i n g . Erasure T h e a c t o f r e m o v i n g a n i m a g e f r o m a surface. Blotting T h e use o f a b s o r b e n t m a t e r i a l t o lift a w a y excess liquid. and readymade objects arranged and stuck o n t o a flat surface. usually at a n a c u t e angle t o t h e s u r f a c e . n e w s p a p e r cuttings. R o u g h p a p e r is m a d e b e t w e e n t w o blankets t h a t . A l s o called r i n g l e t shading. o r o t h e r (usually large) w o r k — s e e Pouncing. pressurized t o o l used f o r spraying fine mists o f s m o o t h c o l o r P i g m e n t is d e l i v e r e d b y a j e t o f air n o t t h e bristles o f a brush. Deckle edge T h e i r r e g u l a r e d g e o f a s h e e t o f m o l d .s i z e d r a w i n g m a d e for t h e purpose o f transferring a design t o a painting. 2. In t h e W e s t p e n calligraphy is u s e d t o c r e a t e f o r m a l a n d d e c o r a t i v e t e x t s . Acid-free paper P a p e r w i t h a neutral p H t h a t will n o t darken o r d e t e r i o r a t e excessively w i t h age. Crosshatching Parallel lines d r a w n across o n e a n o t h e r at right angles. t h e field is t h e a p p a r e n t a n d b e l i e v a b l e space inside t h e p i c t u r e . A g e n e r a l t e r m t h a t describes t h e various processes o f c u t t i n g a design i n t o a plate o r b l o c k o f m e t a l o r w o o d . Eye level T h e i m a g i n a r y h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e a t t h e s a m e h e i g h t as t h e a v e r a g e p e r s o n ' s eyes. Cartoon 1. A h u m o r o u s d r a w i n g o r parody. Calligraphy Beautiful h a n d w r i t i n g .d i m e n s i o n a l i m a g e . L a t e r it c a m e t o m e a n h i g h l y c o n t r a s t e d light effects. Fixative Liquid acrylic resin a n d l a c q u e r t h i n n e r usually a p p l i e d as a n a e r o s o l s p r a y m i s t t o t h e surface o f a d r y . Field In a t w o .
so that (using vanishing point perspective) the object appears to change shape and become narrower or smaller as it recedes. It can be used with any wet media to isolate or protect parts of an image from further Optical blending See Pointillism. or canvas and allowed to dry before an image is drawn or painted. with the area beneath remaining unaffected. Lightfast A term confirming that pigment in the product will not fade with exposure to light. Paper is laid on top and a rapid drawing is made on the back of it The paper lifts away to reveal the image on its other side. Grisaille is occasionally seen in church stained-glass windows. including Max Ernst used frottage in their work. Monochrome Usually refers to a black. Papercut A type of collage in which flat sheets of paper are cut into an image. and by artists representing stone sculptures in a painting. purpose. Medium A generic term for art Key A painting is said to be "high key" when the colors and tones are bright and "low key" when they are dark or somber The term is also used Gouache Opaque watercolor Also called body color. aiming to represent facts rather than an interpretation of the subject. Masking fluid Clear or opaque latex fluid developed for watercolor painting. Monoprinting A direct method of printing in which wet medium (water-. Alternatively. This method incorporates the excitement of accidental and unpredicted marks. Foreshortening A method of depicting an object at an angle to the surface of the picture.Theground provides a particular color or texture beneath the image. A small image might be described as small format Horizontal images are often said to be "landscape format" (abbreviated G u m arabic The natural to"landscape"). oil-. and gray drawing. Hot-pressed papers (HP) Paper made using hot cylinders. and masking off areas of a drawing that the artist wishes to keep untouched by media applied above or beside the tape. This effect emulates what we see in real life. and orientation of the image. Also used by artists' materials manufacturers to indicate the use of a substitute pigment—for example. which has a rough surface). A point of interest in a drawing. but each print will be unique. 2. Artists can paint freely over dry masking fluid. Hairspray is an effective and inexpensive alternative. Gamut A complete range or extent Glassine A type of thin. Also refers to an additive used to control the application properties of a color Golden Section A proportion in which a straight line or rectangle is divided into two unequal parts in such a way that the ratio of the smaller part to the greater part is the same as that of the greater part to the whole. and it has a history in enamel work. of the ingredients in inks and watercolors. Padua. Negative space The space between things.257 metal line. Lithography A method of printmaking in which a drawing or painting is made directly onto a smooth slab of particular limestone or a metal plate using an oilbased crayon or ink. mineral. white. to give the illusion of depth and distance. the surface of the stone is made wet before being rolled with a thin film of oilbased printing ink. It is then peeled away. work.The paper then bears a crayon impression or copy of the surface that was underneath it A number of Surrealists. Focus 1 . sticky paper tape. . it is the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work Pigment Any substance used as a coloring agent—for example. Plumb line A line from which a weight is suspended in order to determine verticality or depth. glass." A piece of paper is placed on top of an object or rough surface. F o r m The outer surface of a three-dimensional object. are painted in grisaille and appear to be made of stone. rock. ink. Rubens used grisaille to paint small images for engravers. format" (abbreviated to "portrait"). Fugitive A term given to a pigment that it is not stable. This may be disregarded in real life. the finely ground particles of plant. Lifting out A method of creating highlights and mid-tones in a drymedia drawing (such as charcoal or graphite). Ground A wet solution usually of gouache or gesso (chalk and animal glue) brushed onto paper board. or synthetic material that are suspended in a medium to constitute paint. to describe a surface to which paint will adhere readily. F o r m a t T h e size. Usually an academic drawing observed from life. glossy. pastel. The ink attaches to the oil-based image and is repelled by the wet stone. and is also used as a size. or a family of colors. or a drawing made in any single color GLOSSARY Linear perspective A form of perspective in which parallel lines are represented as converging. After several intervening processes. or plastic surface.while secretion of the acacia tree. graphite.The degree to which detail is defined. or even a beam of light. Impressing Stamping or printing. oil-based printing ink is rolled evenly onto a smooth metal. but in picture-making it is as important as the objects/subjects themselves. cadmium yellow hue. then rubbed over carefully but vigorously with a crayon. or spirit-based) is applied to a surface that is then pressed onto paper and removed to leave a print. which give it a smooth surface (as opposed to cold-pressed paper. multiH u e A term for a color. Dark tones are laid down first then an eraser or masking tape is used to lift away particles of the drawing media to reveal the lightness of the paper beneath. used for fixing paper to walls and boards. or can be otherwise used to create an image—for example. lifting out charcoal and other dry media. Paper is then pressed against the stone to take a print. It improves the bonding properties Frottage A French term meaning "rubbing. It is a strong adhesive. enabling them to stick to paper It also helps to maintain a stable dispersion of pigment particles in water as the film of a wash dries. and translucent paper—a delicate material used in collage. The surface can be reloaded or redrawn with more medium. Hatching (cross-) See Crosshatching. and that will "escape" or change over time. or for wrapping and protecting a finished piece of work. shape. Grisaille A painting in gray or a grayish color Often made by students as a tonal exercise. Giotto's Virtues and Vices in the Arena Chapel. Picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. materials that produce marks on a surface. Objective drawing Refers to the concept of objectivity. Pointillism A technique of using points or dots of pure color in such a way that when the picture is viewed from a distance they react Masking tape Invaluable. upright images are called "portrait which is used as a binding agent in many liquid media.
Pounce (a fine for an unpopular 18th-century powder of charcoal or similar French politician. nature of watercolor allows the white surface of the paper to Tonal scale A scale of gradations shine through. Artists' prints are normally made in multiple. .Technicaldrawing has been example. or watercolor paint. a sheet of paper is placed beneath and pinpricks are Silhouette A flat. which are then called editions. carbon ink. whose pinpricks creates a "connect-thepersonal pastime was making dots" replica of the image on the cut-out portraits. Turpentine A colorless solvent distilled from the resinous sap of pine trees. Alternatively. paper or canvas. Sfumato An Italian term meaning "smoky. or the left-hand page in a book. Serigraphy Silk-screen printing. and paperweights. Zen paintings usually depict scenes of nature and plants such as bamboo." Applied to the blurring or softening of sharp outlines by the subtle and gradual blending of one tone into another Sgraffito A technique of scratching or cutting through a surface of paint. The translucent Tint A color mixed with white. Viewpoint The position from which something is observed or considered. Size A weak glue used for filling the porous surface of wood or canvas in order to seal it. A term borrowed from the theater. or any physical object that can be stamped or pressed onto a surface to leave an impression. ink. Tortillon A short. and chrysanthemum—which in Chinese tradition are called "The Four Gentlemen. plaster or cloth surface beneath. evolved by engineers and architects for the purpose of conveying W a t e r c o l o r A painting accurate structural information. Zen brushwork encompasses calligraphy and painting. Recto The front or top side of a piece of paper. and flowers. a point at which receding parallel lines meet Verso The back or underside of a piece of paper. glasses. creating more vibrant effects than if the same colors were physically mixed together with a brush." Materials for Zen brushwork include round brushes of varied size. watercolor. Stylus A sharp. or wood. or ceramic glazing to reveal a different color beneath. cut-out profile made along every outline of the usually made in black paper image. Sketch A quick or rough drawing. tight. Named paper in place. Pouncing If a large drawing or design (called a cartoon) is to be Shadow Darkness cast by the transferred to a surface such as a obscuring of light. design. Vanishing point In linear perspective. Stippling Applying color or tone in areas of fine dots or flecks. or point on which parallel lines converge to give the impression of receding space. Props An abbreviation of the word properties. Technical drawing A universal it is often used in conjunction language of lines and measurements with line drawings in pen and that is used to make diagrammatic ink—for images. The crude material is called oleoresin. wall or tapestry. Wash A technique using ink. pointed roll of white paper that is used to blend dry media. Zen A school of Mahayana Buddhism that asserts that enlightenment can come through meditation and intuition rather than faith. commonly referred to as the lead. Single-point perspective The most basic form of linear perspective in which there is only one vanishing point. such as an inscribed sheet of metal. acrylic. or pen. Zen brushwork This is an oriental meditative art form originating in China and practised for many centuries in Japan.Thedrawing is removed. or the right-hand page in a book. Scale Describes the size of one element in relation to another Sepia A brown pigment taken from the sun-dried ink sacs of cuttlefish and used to make ink or watercolor The term is now often incorrectly used to refer to brown colors. W e t media Any liquid media— for example. usually diluted with water and applied with a brush. by imposing a grid that is then scaled up to a larger size. Shade A that is color mixed (or toned) with black Shading A lay term for adding tone to a drawing. fine paper. in tone running from black to white or vice versa. plaster. meaning objects used in setting up a life model or still life. giving it a brilliance. sometimes drawn from a and leaving only the pricked sheet of shadow cast on a wall. Strip Core of a pencil. plum blossom. pointed instrument used for marking or engraving. fruit. orchids. Still life A picture composed of inanimate objects such as bowls. Etienne de material) dabbed through the Silhouette (1709-67). using a brush. Volume The amount of space occupied by an object or an area of space in itself. Tone A degree of lightness or darkness. or gouache. Subjective drawing A drawing that expresses the personal view and interpretation of the artist An invented image. compound of water-soluble pigment. Although drawings can be made with wash alone. Spattering A mottled texture produced by drawing your fingers across the bristles of a stiff brush loaded with pigment. an ink stone usually cut from slate. Support The structure on which an image is made—for example. to model areas of light and shade. or mark using an inked or pigment-covered surface. Underdrawing A pale preliminary drawing made prior to adding layers of another medium such as oil paint or watercolor Value The extent to which a color reflects or transmits light This is the equivalent of tone in a black and white image. in order to flick the pigment onto the image surface. pencil.258 GLOSSARY together optically. Squeegee A rubber-trimmed scraper used in the screenprinting process for dragging ink across a surface. Squaring up A method of enlarging and transferring an image from one surface to another. "Spirits" or "oil" of turpentine refer to the volatile portion used by artists to thin or dilute oil-based paint. Printmaking The act of making a picture. a tightly folded piece of cotton batting can be used for the same effect.
226. 111. 165. William: The Circle of the Lustful 180. 203 Landline 202. 52 cotton swabs 205 Coup de Vent a Asajigabare (Hokusai) 198. 9. 200 Bauer. Basilius 47 Beuys. 242 Brunelleschi. Filippo 67. 203 Claude Lorrain 202 Views from Velletri 202.212 to erase 205 to hold 23 pencils 204 willow 114. 8 cave paintings 8.184. 70 Art Nouveau motifs 91 Autoportrait (Ray) 138. Statue d'Epouvante 90 calligraphy. 40-41 Durer's rhinoceros 26. 95 Chair Cut Out (Woodfine) 94. 75 Circle of the Lustful (Blake) 180. 38-39. 78 aerial perspective 206 airbrushing 160. 204-205. 128. 204. 206. 221 animals. 205 Baltard.133.27 turtles 42-43 aquatint 240 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels (Leonardo) 12. 113 bird bones 12. Giovanni 137 Head and Shoulders of a Man 136. 74 brush (es) 246-247 Japanese 248 for laying a wash 140 marks 248-249 to hold 23 brush drawings 14-15 Bryan. 198 cartoon (preparatory drawing) 137 (satirical) 159. 230 The Physical Space 220 abstract drawing 219.13.115 anatomical drawing 134-135 anatomical theaters 82-83 anatomical waxes 128 ancient carvings 221. 90 colored materials 162-163 colored pencils 162. cut Catling. 41 principal 186. 72 bracelet shading 122 Braque. 90 La Guitare.44-45. 244 head and neck 144 phrased 124-125 contrast: brightness 99 of media 30 tonal 96. 137 Besler. 158.163 graded 227 composition 56-57. Sylvano 222. to depict 156-157 Cloudburst of Material Possessions (Leonardo) 200.162 Conte.31 Picasso's horse and bird 30.184. 193 in lifting out 204. 243 botanical drawing 48-49 Boullee. 81 cut-out model plan 94.100 curves. 134 costume(s) 155 character 158-159 structure of 166-167 Cottage Among Trees (Rembrandt) 52. 98. Nicolas-Jacques 54 contours 146. 178 Cubism 67. 90. to draw 80. 247-248 carving see lines. 223 Circular Score for "Due Voce" 223 children's art 9. 220. 94 chalk(s) 53.44-45 bird studies 12. Jean Michel 138 Self-Portrait 138 Bateau-Vision. 182. 81 135. to model 110-111 border 51 Bosch. Clare 203 City 202. 241 action. 242 to blend 205 compressed 122. 222. Le (Hugo) 200. 201 collage 111. 50. 94 cylindrical objects. to draw 25. 71 conte 112. Brian 226 Untitled 2001 226 "Cave of the Hands" (Cueva de las Manas) 8. 75. 180 blending: color 133. 157 cropping 56-57. Victor: West Facade of the Church of St. 160 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object (Moore) 178. 74.51 All and Nothing (Taylor) 114. 133. Leon: Bacchante 155 balance. Zen c 232-233 blended 133. to draw 100 Cypripedium calceolus L. 74. 139 Nanha) 50.89.Index Page numbers in italics refer t o captions and illustrations Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity (Bishndas and 259 INDEX B bread (as eraser) 205. 226-227 Acanthus spinosus 65 accelerated perspective 22. 13. 13 architectural drawing 67-71 Arctic Flowers (Libeskind) 70. 180 Circular Score for "Due Voce" (Bussotti) 223 circus scenes 192-195 City (Bryan) 202. 163. 179 Bussotti. 9 Chair (Van Gogh) 94. 186 charcoal 114.198. 28 Klee's horses 30.163 body. Etienne-Louis 72 Newton's Cenotaph 72. 199 Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya (Eisen) 156. Joseph 113 The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland 112. 162 character: to capture 38-39. 30 sleeping dog 38-39 Stubbs's horse skeleton 26.169 colors: airbrushed 161 background 91 A Abe. 206 checkered floor 80. 198. 244 and graphite 178 . Mamaru 104. 116. 161 Akhlaq-I Rasul Allah manuscript 51. (Ross-Craig) 49 to hold brush for 23 caricature 159. Augustin 67 Basquiat. 189.186 see also movement Adoration of the Magi perspective study (Leonardo) 74. Georges 67. layers 53 chalk pastels 162. center of 118 ballpoint 182. 202 cloth. Hieronymus 243 Two Monsters 242. 190 Caricature of a Woman (Daumier) 198. 71 Blake.50. to express 39. 26 geese 38-39 Gericault's cats 28.163 dry media 205 Blue Nude (Matisse) 110. 250 Bishndas and Nanha: Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity 50. Franz 48 Protea nitida 48 Bellini.117 Achilles Chases Hector (Thomas) 240. 71 Bacchante (Bakst) 155 background: color 91 textured 240 Baker Matthew: Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry 32 Bakst. 90. 203 Buffalo Hunt (Shoshone) 178. 29 Hugo's octopus 28. 230-231 Cubist 90.
190 Middle Eastern 50-51. 55.244 drawing(s): abstract 219.198 Degas. Rene 160 Illustration for Jacques Fath E easel. to draw 134-137 Helleborus corsicus 55 highlights 91.103 with eraser 103. fiber-tip pen 182.141. 161 fashion drawings 160. 203 Hotel de la Suzonnieres (Satie) 70. 222. 163. 141 tonal 96. 160 Faune.207.12 fixative 54. 245 Hugo. 112. 93 horizon 52. 26 Flying Fish (White) 25. 137 heads. 41 in the round 208-209 with scalpel 202.69 Gerard.Theodore 29 Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 28. 205 drawing with 103. 52 foreground 208.184 165. 240 Black Paintings 152. 135 Duren Albrecht 26. position of 22 Eisen. proportions of 143 fantasy drawings 72-73.115 exploratory 17 fantasy 72-73. M. 122 Hawksmoor.112.121 felt-tip pens 162. 252 depiction of fabric monsters 252-253 Self Portrait in a Cocked Hat 130. 79. 163.116. C .216 Durelli.97. Antonio 135 Muscles of the Head and Neck 134. 55. 32 framing 139 Franfoise au Bandeau (Picasso) 132.102-103 drawing board 20 drawing books 20-21 drawing paper 144.230 three-tone 140.260 INDEX D Dada 139 Daumien Honore 198 Caricature of a Woman 198. 241 to blend 205 and chalk 178 and ink 28. 136 Golden Section 67 Gombrich. 160 hitsuzendo 233 light to dark 102. 203 semi-abstract 234-237 three-dimensional 68. position of 143. 69 Guitare. Antonio 68. The 242. 122. 124. 69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt 68. Ron 161 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 161 160.166 170-173 Gestalt 222 Giacometti. 222 Le Bateau-Vision 200. to draw 78. 104-105. 69.216. Katsushika 199 Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 198. 73.189.John 157 Man Lying Down in a Cloak 156. Keisai 157 The Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya 156. 132 Frenz. 240. Study for Plate 59 (Mucha) 90. 160 as ground for metal point 140. 125. 91 Dragon (Michelangelo) 36. 223 graphite 54.252-253 from memory 183. Francisco de 131.111 feet. Oona 245 How Clever of God #84 244. Sir Ernst 12. drypoint 181 exaggeration 184 expressionism 198 E ye and Head of a Drone Fly (Hooke) 92. 55. 134. 220 dry brush 234 234 57. 144 Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (Baker) 32. 99 etching. 90 G Gaudi. Victor 200. Hans 133 The Ambassadors 116 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 132. Edgar 162 depth. 223. 200 F fabric. 162 Flaxman. 37 Grandville 243 A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the Near-Microscopic World of Scale Insects 242. 170-173. 245 layers 30 Goya. 40.244. La (Braque) 90. Nicholas 68 St Paul's Baptistry 68 head and neck to draw 142-145 Head and Shoulders of a Man (Bellini) 136. 115 Escher. Cheval et Oiseau (Picasso) 30.37. 30 Fauves/fauvism 90. 134. 71 minimal line 99 and music 70-71 quick 38-39. 134. 245 Gruau. 131 Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 240. Statue d'Epouvante.157 ellipses 100. disposable pens 182-183 dissections: botanical 48 of horse 27 distance: illusion of see perspective linear 97 tonal 97 Documents Decoratifs. 240 170-173 five Ships in a Port with Lighthouse (Wallis) 11. 230 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction 68.91. 160 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction (Gaudi) 68. 799 Holbein. 216 foreshortening 110. 226-227 anatomical 134-135 architectural 67-71 botanical 48-49 brush 14-15 dark to light 102.117 fountain pens 34.146 from masterworks 126-127. 120.103. Alberto 136 Portrait of Marie-Laure de Noailles 136.141. 222 Grimes. 161 changing 216 Focusing on the Negative (Walter) 16 foliage 52.144 and ink 30. to draw 168-169 in Goya's artworks face.160. 161 fashion 160. Jean Ignace Isidore see Grandville Gericault. 29 H hands. 157 .101 engraving 243 erasers/erasing 55.104. 242 eyes. 93 eye level 80 Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity.160. 243 graphic score 222. 765 hitsuzendo drawings 233 Hokusai. Robert 93 Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 92. 113. 202. 90 gouache 30. 77 How Clever of God #84 244.109 Rhinoceros 26. 25 focus 65. to draw 120. 7 33 Hooke. to suggest 177 see also perspective diagonals diffuser 55 dip pens 34. 69.
53 monoprint 787. 220. 176. Alphonse 90.The (Robinson) 108. 230 invented creatures 106-107 250-251 invented objects 89. 227 Scene of Comical Riders 30. 244 ink 36 252-253 Documents Decoratifs 90. 177 influences. Marie 244 cloth drawing 244. Gustav 49 Knopf. 77 Miller. 252 ink 16. Oxford 106 Prado. Henri 111 Blue Nude 1110. 37 lines 118 pastel 162 pencil 31.109. 110 Sistine Chapel ceiling 116 Middle Eastern drawing 50-51.Pieuvre (Octopus) 28. 221 endless 31 free 113. drawing from 126-127. 73 Michelangelo Buonarroti 48. 114 hatched 244 layered 118 pace of 65 pale 40 rapid 49. Daniel 70 Arctic Flowers 70 Lieb. 34. 158 Man Lying Down in a Cloak (Flaxman) 156.104. 166. 103 Neolithic chalk tablet 220. artistic 240-241. 74-77.134 K Kettlehut. Johan 32.243 carbon 35 Chinese 30. 226 Modernism 67. 756 priming for 140. 73 Kigell.91 Study for Plate 59 of INDEX illumination see lighting Illustration for Jacques Fath (Gruau) 160. 58-59. 249 and gouache 30 Indian 35. Charles Rennie 48. 252 Muscles of the Head and Neck (Durelli) 134.96. 181 luminosity 115 Lynch. 183 vertical 156 linear distance 97 linear perspective 69. 34-35 acrylic 35 bistre 35.181 L Landline (Bryan) 202. 203. 111. 234 iron-gall 35. 185 Mucha. 201 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels 12.141 Metropolis (film) 72. 244. 156 magnification 93 Man in Armor (Van Dyck) 158. Madrid 171 University Museum of Natural History. 49 Rose 49 Maelbeke Madonna (Van Eyck) 156. 220. 78 Study ofThree Male Figures 110. 159 Japanese 35 to make 36 sepia 35 walnut 36.182 Moore. 28 Two Impressions from a Cut-out Paper Disk 222 Huyler Stephen R 225 261 Kinecar. 63.102. 220. 201 head and neck sections of female mold for Sforza Horse 89 Madonna of the Rocks 244 perspective study for Adoration of the Magi 74. David 78 M Mackintosh. 205 masterworks. 244 lithograph 198 Losbruch (Kollwitz) 180.120. Kathe 181 Losbrunch (The Outbreak) 180. 35. Florence 128 lighting in 167 Pitt Rivers.167 line(s) 132. 205. 178 motifs: A r t Nouveau 9 7 stylized 51 mountains 216-217 movement: of animals 30-31 of humans 7 79. Phyll: hands 18 lifting out 204. Oxford 250 music 70-71 Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks (Knopf) 32. 13 Cloudburst of Material Possessions 200. 170-173. 53 Tree II 52. 242 light 96 to depict drawing with 1 76 painting with 176 . Piet 52. 248. 99. Henry 178 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object 178.141. 76 Libeskind.115 98.124. 72. I Murderous Attacks 33 Kollwitz. drawing from 183. 135 museums 44. 31 Klimt. 789. Victor 134 Profile Head 134. 33 J justness 228-229 N naive art 74 negative space 53.112. 225 masking tape 204. 190 metal pens see dip pens metal point 25. 757 mandalas 219. 244 Dragon 36. Rose: Tantalus or the Future of Man 20 minimal line drawing 99 mirror use of 120 mixed media 28. apparent 97 Leonardo da Vinci 74. 203 landscape 206-208 brushed 14 Landscape in Hoboku Style (Sesshu) 14 layers 146 chalk 53 gouache 30 ink 28. 36.33 Mysterious Affairs of the lighting 2 7.227 to "bend" straight 97 compositional 228-229 cut 202. 60.166 La Specola. 163 pens 36 measuring 116 memory. 97 Murillo.109. 83 white 122 ink impressions 222 ink spatters 234 installations 176. 160 In the Duchess's Kitchen (Rackham) 176.276. Bartolome: Moses Striking the Rock ofHoreb 252. 219 Mondrian. 227 Newsome. 181 Klee. Paul 227 Polyphonic Setting for White 226. Erich 73 design for Metropolis 72. Matisse. 54 silver point 156 leg sections 158 length. 220. 184.
34-35. Stella 48 Cypripedium calceolus L 49 rotated view 7 65 Rubens. 782 relief 757 silk-screen 739 woodblock 134.52 pen and wash 158. 122. 7 73 self-portraits: Basquiat 138.9 3 Schongauer. 165. 166 fiber-tip 782. 9 0 .oise au Bandeau 132. 38. 40-41. Pablo 6 7 . 227 portfolios 20 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser de Noailles (Holbein) 132. 163. 68 Satie. 1 1 6 accelerated 2 2 . 224 0 layers 31. 74-77. 230 paper(s) 21 colored 162 drawing 144. Heath 181 The Kinecar 180. 75 Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range 241 petroglyphs 221. Isaac 92 Telescope 92 Newton's Cenotaph (Boullee) 72. 732 influence of 240 painting with light 78.240. Cheval et Oiseau 30. Man 131. 219. 72 Noble.Paul'sBaptistry (Hawksmoor) 68. 71 Satire of the Queen's Dress (Wodall) 158. 57 Ross-Craig.184 fountain 34. 162 O p A r t 98 optical illusions 96-99 outline 33.37 scientific instruments 9 2 .139 Autoportrait 138. 734 Protea nitida (Bauer) 48. 36. to draw 146-147 R Rackham. 7 76 receding space 206 Redon. 239 Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 238.141 prints/printing: aquatint 240 dry-point etching 181 engraving 243 monoprint 181. 733 Portrait de Marie-Laure (Giacometti) 136. 114 rollerball 182 Rorschach blot 99 Rose (Mackintosh) 48. 739 semi-abstract drawings Style 14 Seurat. 81 two-point 74. 36 relief printing 757 Rembrandt van Rijn 52. 1 1 7 aerial 206 linear 69. 241 Physical Space. 205 pointillism 112 polyphonic painting 227 Polyphonic Setting for White (Klee) 226. 9 8 . Sue 104.54 pastel 162 perspective 1 0 0 . 73 Noble. 1 6 3 .226. 76-79. 4 8 putty eraser 55. 203 Scene of Comical Riders (Klee) 30.262 INDEX Newton. Bridget 98 Robinson. Martin 238. Arthur 177 In the Duchess's Kitchen 176. 36.199 Profile Head (Newsome) oil pastels 162. Russell 228. 772 234-237 Sesshu. 239 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat (Seurat) 112. 37 38. J 76 nudes 114-115 to make 36 metal see dip quill 34. Georges 112 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 112. 30 Fran<. 36. 244 reed 34. Paul 73 Nobson Central 72. 2 2 0 for oil pastels 162 stained 230 to stretch 140-141 tissue 21. 4 9 Rose of Mohammed 50. 234 disposable 182-183 felt-tip 162.131 Cottage Among Trees 52. 181 Rodin. 103.759. 216. 74. 7 38 Ray 138. 26 Riley.37. 7 72 Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland. The (Abe) 220 Picasso.176 Real Life Is Rubbish 176. 91 outsider artists 33. 159. 38. Odilon 242 The Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity 242. 160. 736 portraits.Toyo: Landscape in Hoboku . 7 70 Ray. 1 6 9 to hold 2 2 . 75 Two Courtyards 75.71 Hotel de la Suzonnieres 70.Tim. 164. 244 Q s Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape (Wolfli) 2 79 St. 7 77 three-point 80. 141 Piranesi. and Webster. Auguste 114 Two Women 114. 243. Erik 70. 97. 759 P Page.37.104 Pieuvre (Hugo) 28. 28 pigment 162 bright 50 Caput Mortuum 7 4 7 for three-tone drawing 141. 1 1 6 . 1 2 4 priming for metal point 140. 52 pens 36 scalpel 54 drawing with 202. 243.7 77 rapidograph 70 Raphael 110. 76 plastic eraser 55. 205 157. Faune. 242 reed pens 34.36. 36 pen and brush 8 3 pen and ink 70.2 3 age and youth sleeping subjects 148-149 150-151 Renaissance 109 Rhinoceros (Durer) 26. 161. 139 Real Life is Rubbish (Noble and Webster) 176. 165 figure 118 filled 37 pencil 48. Peter Paul 126-127 Embracing pose(s): balanced 146 quick 118-119 positive form 103 posture: of artist 22 of subject 3 8 . 78 single-point 74. 230 parallel planes 79 Parisian street 86-87 pastels 162 to blend 205 to hold 23 layers 162 pencils 162 pen(s): dip 34 . Giovanni Battista 74. 36.The (Beuys) 112. 36.40. 1 3 2 quill pens 34. 212 Japanese 2 1 . 181 pencil(s) 54 charcoal 204 colored 762.
57.158 158. 725 fabric 1 6 8 T h o m a s . 245 sharpener 54 Ship in a Storm ( T u r n e r ) 1 9 8 . 743 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City ( F r e n z ) 1 6 0 . 159 Wolfli. 156 layers 7 5 6 priming for 140. 186. Jan 1 5 6 Maelbeke Madonna 1 5 6 . 1 4 1 . A l f r e d 1 1 . 1 9 9 . 240 Two Women Embracing ( R o d i n ) 114. Vincent 95 Chair 94. 156 Van Gogh. 2 4 2 w Wallis. 65 symbols 138. t o draw 1 9 8 .27 skull 747. 1 4 5 travel journal 2 0 . 75 Skeleton of the Horse ( S t u b b s ) 26. 7 6 Two Impressions from a Cut-Out Paper Disk ( H u g o ) 2 2 2 Two Monsters 2 4 2 . William 159 Satire of the Queen's Dress INDEX 226. 4 4 boat 209 botanical 4 9 G e r i c a u l t ' s cats 2 9 from Goya 170-173 125. 69. 1 8 4 .Sforza Horse. 199 shoes 1 6 4 .141 S i m b l e t . 2 0 0 Ship in a Storm 1 9 8 . 161.Yamaoka 233 t e x t u r e 2 2 2 . 230 t h r e e . 2 9 wind.199 tissue p a p e r 21. 226 V Van Dyck. Study of (Michelangelo) 110. H e n r i de: Woman at Her Toilet 14 t r a n s p a r e n t v i e w 92. 2 3 0 tonal contrast 96 tonal distance 9 7 t o n a l d r a w i n g 9 6 . 249 t o describe 39.216 W e b s t e r . Augustin ( B a l t a r d ) 6 7 w e t and dry brush-strokes 2 4 9 Turner. 7 1 4 .1 4 1 . C y 138. 2 7 studies: b i r d s 7 2 . 1 6 . T i m W e s t Fagade of the Church of St. 76. Adolf: Giant-Grape Saint-Mary-Castle 219 Woman at Her Toilet ( T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c ) 74 w o o d b l o c k print 157.13 M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s m a l e figures 110. Sarah 9 4 Chair Cut Out 94. 2 1 2 . John: Focusing on the Negative 14 w a s h .t o n e d r a w i n g 140.2 0 1 .J. Sarah: child's m a p 75. 74.1 6 5 shorthand diagram 142 Shoshone buffalo hide painting 178. 141 Three Male Figures. 79. 1 9 9 Two Courtyards (Piranesi) 75.1 8 5 Tree II ( M o n d r i a n ) 52. t o d r a w 5 2 . G e o r g e 2 7 Skeleton of the Horse 26. 2 2 0 influence o f 2 4 0 Untitled 220. 9 0 . 182. 158 V a n Eyck. 2 3 4 . t h r e e .2 1 3 Stubbs. 202 violin. 164. 77.125 W o o d f i n e . 7 77. 243 (Bosch) T Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos ( G o y a ) 2 4 0 . 97. 7 75 Telescope ( N e w t o n ) 9 2 . 2 4 4 . phrased 146 tonal modeling 161 tonal range 169 t o n a l surfaces 2 2 7 tonal width 97 t o n e ( s ) 33. 115.120. 2 2 6 . 170 shoes 1 6 4 stylized m o t i f 51 Summer Flowers 63. 1 4 1 w a t e r c o l o r 25. 241.1 4 5 . v i e w s o f 85. 2 2 7 Untitled 2001 ( C a t l i n g ) u 263 W h i t e . Man in Armor 1 5 8 . 1 2 Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse 71.1 9 9 wire. 1 6 6 t r a p e z i u s m u s c l e 142.41. 49. Sue see N o b l e . t o lay 1 4 0 .d i m e n s i o n a l d r a w i n g 68. 1 4 4 . 96. 7 9 0 vessels. 1 3 . 2 4 7 t h r e e . John 25 Flying Fish 25 Wild Striped Cat Sketches of ( G e r i c a u l t ) 28. drawing with 104-105 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt ( G a u d i ) 68. 9 2 Tesshu.12 W a l t e r . 1 8 4 .243 Leonardo's machines 12. 53 trees. 1 4 0 .d i m e n s i o n a l 1 0 4 . A n t h o n y 152. Taylor A n i t a 115 All and Nothing 1 1 4 . 69.s c r e e n p r i n t i n g 139 silver p o i n t 1 4 0 . 9 4 z Z e n calligraphy 232-233 contrast 96 t o grade 163 ink 37 pencil 5 4 t o r t i l l o n 205 T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c . W . 6 9 Wodall. 199.5 3 in l a n d s c a p e 2 0 6 . 7 79 Shoshone petroglyph 240. t o d r a w 2 0 0 .241 s i l k . t o d r a w 1 0 1 viewfinder 57 Views from Velletri ( C l a u d e L o r r a i n ) 152. Paul 2 4 1 Achilles Chases Hector 2 4 0 .9 1 storms. 1 7 7 free 8 0 V e n i c e . 221 . 104-105. 75. h e a d a n d n e c k sections o f female m o l d f o r (Leonardo) 89 shading 2 9 s h a d o w s 28. M . 102-103 tonal marks. b l o w n 248 steel p e n s see d i p p e n s still life 89. 174 T w o m b l y . 7 70 Tiber 214-215 Untitled ( T w o m b l y ) 2 2 0 . 206-207 202.1 0 5 vision 9 6 Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects (Grandville) 242. 7 6 1 spots. 9 5 pens 36 v a n i s h i n g p o i n t 74.
9 7 6 ) . A n n a P l u c i n s k a ./© D A C S 2 0 0 5 ( t ) . 1 3 3 : Artothek/Kupferstichkabinett. support. a n d encouragement i n m a k i n g this book: M a m o r u Abe. Amsterdam. 1929 (29. Magdalene College Cambridge. 51: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz.uk/Private Collection. 111: Fondation Beyeler/Riehen (Bale)/© Succession H Matisse/DACS 2005. L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . Julie O u g h t o n . M a n d y Earey. 176: Modem Art. Clare Bryan. 112: Yale University A r t Gallery/Everett V Meeks. F r a n c e . Peter L u f f . 225: Stephen P Huyler. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin/Jorg P. 5 3 : Collection of the Gemeentemuseum D e n Haag/Mondrian Trust. Inc. 2 4 0 : w w w . Toulouse. Angela W i l k e s . Lisbon. C o r n e l i s o n & Son. Sarah D u n c a n . Andy Crawford.co. 1 5 6 : Graphische S a m m l u n g Albertina. France. Havemeyer. Paris/ © Succession Picasso / D A C S 2005. B M G . H e a t h e r M c C a r r y . 2 4 4 : Ashmolean Museum. Angela Palmer. J a c k a n d Brian Catling. 2 2 4 : P r i n z h o m Collection.bridgeman. Florence/MoMA. 1 6 1 : D C C o m i c s I n c . 158: Calouste Gulbenkian Museum. 88: www. 243: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. 4 8 : T h e N a t u r a l H i s t o r y M u s e u m . 5 2 : T h e Metropolitan Museum of Art/Bequest of Mrs. 1 7 8 : © T h e British M u s e u m / H e n r y Moore F o u n d a t i o n . Illustrated London News Picture Library/The Bystander (b). Carlo O r t u for picture research s u p p o r t . 13: www. Germany. S i m o n L e w i s . G e r m a n y . Paul T h o m a s ( t ) . L e n .Paris ( b ) . 5 0 : Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (1). NY. L o n d o n . Paris. Winthrop. 49: Hunterian Museum (t). Publisher's Acknowledgments Dorling Kindersley w o u l d like to thank Caroline H u n t for editorial contribution. T h e R u s k i n School of D r a w i n g a n d Fine A r t . P h y l l Kiggell. H . R . 174: Artothek/Munich. 1 0 8 : Arts C o u n c i l Collection. 2 3 8 : akg-images.bridgeman.20-21 a n d 246-47. Oxford. 11: www. 16: www. for s u p p l y i n g the d r a w i n g books.264 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Acknowledgments Author's Acknowledgments: T h e author wishes to thank the following people for their enormous help.bridgeman. 72: akg-images. B e r l i n . Salisbury & South W i l t s h i r e M u s e u m ( t ) . London/Bequeathed by Charles Landseer. Productions Clovis Prevost (c). Berlin (b).co. 1 3 6 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Centre Pompidou-MNAM-CCI. Italy.l. 2 2 7 : Paul Klee Stiftung.bridgeman. 73: Berlin F i l m Museum (t). 1879.co. Also. B e m d Kunzig. Agnieszka Mlicka. B e r l i n . K e v i n a n d Rebecca Slingsby. L o n d o n . J o h n Walter. 2 2 3 : Lebrecht Music and Arts Photo Library/Ricordi.uk/British Museum. R u t h P a r k i n s o n . c o . Anita Taylor. London/courtesy of Stuart Shave. 1 3 4 : © T h e British Museum. 139: Galerie Marion Meyer/© Man Ray Trust / A D A G P . University of Oxford. Germany/Joerg P. 132: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso./Galerie Sylvie Nissen. Kunstmuseum Bern. 1 6 0 : Rene G R U A U s. J o h n Roberts. Natalie G o d w i n . u k / T o k y o National M u s e u m . Paris. 226: Brian Catling. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. 9 5 : V a n Gogh M u s e u m . 130: The Metropolitan M u s e u m of Art/Robert L e h m a n Collection. a n d D e p a r t m e n t s o f E n t o m o l o g y a n d Zoology at the University of Oxford. u k / L o u v r e . Corporation of London. Graphische Sammlung. K a t h r y n W i l k i n s o n . Paul T h o m a s . Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (t). T o n y G r i s o n i . L o n d o n (t).uk/Musee des Augustins. 9 2 : Science Photo L i b r a r y . Orientabteilung/Ruth Schacht.bridgeman.co. 179: www. London 2005. 1 1 0 : www. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. 115: Anita Taylor. Basel. 2 1 8 : Adolf-Wdlfli-Stiftung. 2 2 0 : Mamaru Abe. Paris a n d D A C S . 221: Gagosian Gallery/Private Collection (b).Strang Print Room ( b ) . 6 6 : w w w . B .co. O o n a G r i m e s . A . Psychiatric Institute of the U n i v e r s i t y of Heidelberg. Paris and D A C S . Anders. c o . 2 0 2 : © T h e British Museum. Picture Credits 8: Corbis/Hubert Stadler.bridgeman. Roddy Bell. Paris. b r i d g e m a n .bridgeman. 2 0 3 : Clare Bryan (t). 2 2 2 : Pierre Georgel/Private Collection. H e l e n S h u t t l e w o r t h . and Tamsin Woodward Smith. 113: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. Paris a n d D A C S . Paris.co. 75: © The British Museum (b). Sarah Woodfine. Wolfson College. 29: Fogg A n Museum/Collections Baron de Vita: Grenville L. 1901. A n d y C r a w f o r d for p h o t o g r a p h y a n d L . Anders/ © D A C S 2 0 0 5 . 2 0 1 : T h e Royal Collection © 2 0 0 2 H e r Majesty Queen Elizabeth I I .uk/Private Collection. 2 7 : Royal Academy of Arts. u k / O n Loan to the H a m b u r g Kunsthalle. L o n d o n . 137: © The British Museum. R o y a n d D i a n n e Simblet. a n d brushes o n pp. Paris.uk/Mucha Trust. George M c G a v i n . Dover Publications/ISBN: 0486229912 (t).bridgeman. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin. 17: J o h n Walter. 1 5 4 : akg-images/Musee National d'Art Moderne.co. Jackie Douglas. b r i d g e m a n .uk /© Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery. Pamela Ellis for compiling the index. L o n d o n . Patty Stansfield. 74: Corbis. b r i d g e m a n . K u n s t m u s e u m . 2 4 1 : Corbis/David M u e n c h ( b ) . K u n s t m u s e u m Bern/© D A C S 2 0 0 5 . U K . Paris. Madrid. Flossie. L o n d o n . 1 3 5 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. 9 0 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/© A D A G P . 180: www.bridgeman. Christopher Davis. Maureen Paley Interim Art (b).co. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. 1 3 8 : © Christie's Images Ltd/© A D AGP. Diana Bell. University of Cambridge.uk /Biblioteca Nacional. Copyright Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens. 177: Mary Evans Picture Library. 9 4 : Sarah Woodfine. G e r m a n y ./Private Collection/© D A C S 2005. 1 9 : Getty Images/© Succession Picasso / D A C S 2 0 0 5 . Portugal. A . © Tate. 7 1 : I M E C / A r c h i v e s E r i k Satie. D a w n Henderson. F i n n . 30: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. 181: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz.uk/Kettle's Yard. J o n Roome. Jean Pierre Roy. 114: Musee Rodin. 2 4 : © T h e British Museum. 9 1 : www.co. 1 5 9 : Bodleian Library. 3 1 : Tom Powel Imaging. 2 4 5 : Oona Grimes. papers. K e w ft)). c o . 3 3 : Prinzhom Collection. 2 6 : Topfoto. 1975 ( 1 9 7 5 . Psychiatric Institute of the University of Heidelberg. Kirsten Norrie. 4 6 : B r i t i s h Library. Japan. . 68: www. Carole A s h .a.r. 1 9 6 : Museum of the History of Science.939). 9 3 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. Rocio Arnaez. 2 0 0 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. Fund. 7 0 : Studio Daniel L i b e s k i n d . Sophie Laurimore. 2 4 2 : Photo Scala. O. 157: U C L Art Collections . R o s e m a r y S c o u l a r . H a y w a r d Gallery. 69: Institut Amatller d'Art Hispanic (tl). 2 8 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. Sir Brinsley F o r d . 1 5 : w w w . Antonia Cunliffe Davis. 199: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee des arts asiatiquesGuimet. 1 .uk/Private Collection. 3 2 : Pepys Library.100. U K .uk/Guildhall Library. L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . Berlin/Staatsbibliothek zu A l l other images © Sarah Simblet . . 1 9 8 : Dover Publications. Paula Regan. (r).co. G i n a R o w l a n d . Sammy De Grave. H a m b u r g .
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