An innovative, practical approach to drawing the world around you

SARAH SIMBLET

BOOK
FOR T H E ARTIST

BOOK

FOR THE ARTIST

SARAH SIMBLET

DK PUBLISHING

CONTENTS
LONDON • NEW YORK MELBOURNE • MUNICH • DELHI Senior Editor Paula Regan Senior Art Editor Mandy Earey Art Editor Anna Plucinska Managing Editor Julie Oughton Managing Art Editor Heather McCarry Art Director Peter Luff Publishing Director Jackie Douglas Production Joanna Bull DTP Designer Adam Walker Picture Research Sarah Smithies US Editor Christine Heilman First American Edition, 2 0 0 5 First Paperback Edition, 2 0 0 9 Published in the United States by DK Publishing 3 7 5 Hudson Street New York, New York 1 0 0 1 4 10 11 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3

Architecture
6 8 20 22 Master Builders The Order of Sound Future Fictions Pathways of Sight Single-Point Perspective Creating an Imaginary Space Further Aspects of Perspective Theaters Venetian Life Parisian Street

66
68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86

Foreword Introduction Drawing Books and Papers Posture and Grip

Objects and Instruments

TD075-July 2009 Copyright © 2 0 0 5 Dorling Kindersley Limited Text and authors artworks © Sarah Simblet 2 0 0 4 Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited A Cataloging-in-Publication record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN 9 7 8 - 0 - 7 5 6 6 - 5 1 4 1 - 1 Color reproduction by GRB, Italy Printed and bound in China by Toppan

Still Life Instruments of Vision Bench Marks Light and Illusions Further Illusions How to Draw Ellipses Tonality Drawing with Wire Artifacts and Fictions

88

90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106

Animals
Documentaries Presence and Mood Movement Icon and Design Pen and Ink Drawing with Ink Capturing Character Sleeping Dogs Turtles Dry Birds

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26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44

The Body
Postures and Poses Choreographs Passion Measurement and Foreshortening Quick Poses Hands and Feet Charcoal Hands Phrasing Contours The Visual Detective La Specola

108
110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128

Plants and Gardens
Botanical Studies Jeweled Gardens Fast Trees Graphite and Erasers Cropping and Composition Negative Space Fig Tree Summer Flowers Acanthus Spinosus

46
48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64

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Gatherings
Projections Magnetic Fields The Human Condition Disposable Pens The Travel Journal Catching the Moment Grand Canal Crossings Caravans The Big Top

174 Abstract Lines
176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 Process and Harmony Writing Time Chants and Prayers Compositions Being "Just" Collage Zen Calligraphy Nocturnes

218
220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234

Portraiture
Poise Anatomies Revelations Self-Portraits Silver Point Head and Neck Essential Observations Drawing Portraits Generations Castings

130
132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 152

Earth and the Elements
Air in Motion Storms Nature Profiles Charcoal Landscapes Drawing in the Round Decaying Boat Cloudburst Notes of Force Mountains

196
198 200 202 204 206 208 210 212 214 216

Gods and Monsters
Marks of Influence Hauntings Convolutions Brushes Brush Marks Monsters Goya's Monsters Consumed Glossary Index Acknowledgments

238
240 242 244 246 248 250 252 254 256 259 264

Costume
Cloth and Drapery Character Costumes Femmes Fatales Colored Materials Study and Design The Structure of Costume Textures and Patterns Dressing Character Posture Carving

154
156 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172

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be they a child discovering their vision and dexterity. and be slowly washed or worn away. as a visiting professor at universities. . I know that with their cooperation I can soon prove them wrong. remain unseen by most. especially as travel journals. where spaces are shaped by nothing more than the objects and activities contained within them. and a reflector of experience. night security staff. by invitation. Augustine his notes on memory. we learn to see it. geologists. It is my love of these. Some of my drawings cover entire walls. The very first step is to believe it. I also make drawing books. where I expect them to be discovered by some people. By using our imaginations. It is a tool for investigating ideas and recording knowledge. we learn to feel truly alive. from schoolchildren to senior citizens. or a quantum physicist trying to see for themselves the fluctuations of our universe. not only to make art. but because it is how I engage with and anchor myself in life. aspirations. a sculptor. of Sketch Book for the Artist. through history. Some are more traditionally framed and hung in galleries for solo or group exhibitions. and through which I can see how I think. a cartographer charting the land. The most rewarding challenge is always the newcomer. and size. and makers of special effects. a drawing book is the perfect portable private vehicle for your imminent exploration of drawing. They occupy a shelf in my studio. art schools. shape. They enfold their viewer and are made on joined sheets of paper that I reach by climbing ladders. architect. doctors. I will always draw. undergraduates to fellow professors.Foreword B Y DRAWING THE WORLD AROUND US. a composer notating a musical score. and local c o m m u n i t y classes. texture. who tells me firmly upon approach that they cannot draw. It makes me feel excited to be alive. thinking. I was training in anatomy and studying how. Chosen in any color. and I refer back to them for years after they are made. perhaps hidden on a door hinge or a street bench rail. For twelve years I have enjoyed the privilege of teaching drawing. and feeling. are made outside as discreet installations. and in a few sessions they will be flying. Combine these things and the possibilities are endless. We can all learn how to draw. in which he describes himself flying and diving in his imagination through pictorial caverns of knowledge. we have looked at. and their importance to so many artists. For me personally. fashion designer. or engineer. drawing is the immediate expression of seeing. Drawing is a mirror through which I understand my place in the world. and experience. that inspired the title and structure MEMORY T H E A T E R S This pen-and-ink drawing was made from imagination during research for my PhD. Others can be held in the h a n d or. These inspirations led me to invent museums. still standing by the door. I work with people of diverse ages. Drawing occupies a unique place in every artist and creator's life. I was also reading among The Confessions of St. understood (and often misunderstood) our own bodies.

8 INTRODUCTION Where We Begin There is a fundamental drive in our human nature to make a mark. The sense of relief we may feel from the information overload of modern commercial life when visiting a country in which we can no longer read every written word.Theseancient silhouettes were drawn with earth pigments rubbed onto rock. scrawling shapes and cartoons when on the telephone. and we spend our lives reading it. We are bombarded with linear and tonal pictorial information. and in meetings. They have a natural affinity to many modern graffiti signatures. Most adults still feel that certain exquisite pleasure on arriving at a beach to find the tide out and the sand perfect. not just chosen pictures on our walls but everywhere—maps. At home and at work we doodle. We can always read each others drawings. in lectures. packaging. Drawing is international. signs. a great crowd is raising their hands in greeting. like a great canvas for them to mark. graffiti. Children cannot be restrained from running across the pristine white lawn of newly fallen snow. Sometimes we draw because we are bored. inscribing every fresh part of it with their eager scrapes and trails. Rio Pinturas 13. but more often because drawing actually helps us to focus and take in what is said.000-9500 bce . "CAVE OF THE HANDS" In this drawing. We are surrounded by drawings in our daily lives. and patterns on our clothes. waving to us from many thousands of yearsago. logos. irreverent to language barriers. is not afforded us by drawing. Cueva de las Marios.

She gave me a notepad and a red crayon and asked me to draw her "a picture of Daddy. an expression of existence. I. I now think this is a picture of proximity. Even though it is made by a toddler this image would be recognizable to anyone. Cave art was not made for decoration but as a fundamental part of life. reflecting my experience of looking closely at my father's face. On a particular afternoon in September 1974. MAKING OUR MARK It seems reasonable to assume that we have engaged in pictorial mark-making for as long as we have made conscious use of our hands. and she kept it as my first step beyond the delighted realms of scrawl. I was sitting with my mother. In cave paintings like the one opposite. like all toddlers. who in their day-to-day hardship made time to picture themselves and the animals on which they depended. had happily scribbled." Until this day. the hair of my first portrait was most important. at age two-anda-half. and belonging to place.9 WHERE WE BEGIN FIRST PORTRAIT For sorre forgotten reason. power. but I had never yet attempted to figuratively picture my world. The image above is what I gave back to my mother. Eyelashes take up as much of my attention as the head itself. we see our oldest surviving images. . created by societies of hunter-gatherers. enjoying the physical sensation of crayon on paper. and the appearance of my strikes of colors.

then drag o u r line into a loop. most of us stop. and this activity plays a vital role in their d e v e l o p m e n t . h o w e v e r small a n d u n f o r m e d y o u believe they are. yet still turn to drawing w h e n their verbal language fails or is inadequate. to help a stranger see their way W h e n taking first steps in relearning h o w to draw. it is important to value your natural abilities a n d ways of seeing. Inhibitions creep in and ideas of good a n d b a d terminate confidence. As you progress. Young children love to draw. But as adolescents. Hours are lost immersed in the glorious world of imagination. b e p r o u d o f what m a k e s y o u r w o r k individual to y o u . It was made with a few bold strokes of a steel pen dipped in ink to conjure the dried bee I was holding between my fingers on a pin. for example.10 INTRODUCTION PEN-AND-INK BEE This tiny drawing has been enlarged to show its texture and composition. PROGRESSION T h e r e is a point in all o u r lives w h e n w e first c o n t r o l o u r mark and m a k e it a line. W e do n o t hesitate to draw a map. and from that first unit build and describe the shape of something or someone we know. Don't b e p e r s u a d e d to draw in a w a y s o m e o n e else . At this point many will insist they cannot draw.

you must decide whether to keep or discard it. Enjoy the control of your own journey. Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse c. but it does help to set out facing in the right direction. He was a retired Cornish fisherman and junk dealer who began drawing at the age of 70 "for company" after his wife died. Someone once told them they must draw in this way. Think how much would have been lost if anyone had interfered with Alfred Wallis' personal sense of proportion and perspective in the exquisite drawing above. what they most want to achieve. remember that all advice is only advice. and which aspects of the vast wealth and diversity of graphic language would be most appropriate to their goals.11 PROGRESSION A UNIQUE SIGHT This innocent yet sophisticated drawing of boats. I meet students struggling unhappily with a particular method of drawing. He used leftover ship and yacht paint with crayons on cut-out pieces of cardboard boxes. Occasionally. As you read this b o o k and perhaps attend art classes. . After experimenting and trying each new idea. 1925-42 53/8x87/8in (135 x 225 mm) ALFRED WALLIS prefers and tells you is better. The journey of every artist demands hard work and discipline. harbor and sea is one of many that Alfred Wallis made from memory while sitting at home. and they have never questioned why. I ask them their reasons for drawing.

wrote as the opening line of this great work. His notes visually balance his drawings. and breathtaking wind of a choppy harbor. They are also always written backward. right. boats. the breast." The clarity and empowerment of these words. We also see differently ourselves. I hope. We BIRD STUDIES The flutter of faint scratches that dance across the pages on the right is an attempt to see the movement and bony weightlessness of a bird. Below. perhaps for comfort or ease as a left-hander or a habitual enjoyment of the challenge. Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels LEONARDO DA VINCI . is. we can drive out its spirit. Our imaginations are the tools with which we can increase the essence of life. but it should be the experienced world we draw. be visionary. embedded in this book. IDEAS A N D I N V E N T I O N S These active machines. clear-minded understanding of the sea. There are only artists. The art historian Professor Sir Ernst Gombrich. not for disguise but as a personal choice. author of The Story of Art. all raise water From the Archimedes' screw to Leonardo's own cupped wheel. There should neve: be a slavish obligation to represent things exactly as we collectively agree we see them. When we look back at Wallis' seascape (see p.and collarbones and shoulder blades of a different bird almost become new creatures in themselves. 11). The observed world may be our subject. If as artists we nail a subject down too hard. but the child in us knows that this is an all-embracing. depending on the occasion and our purpose.12 INTRODUCTION VISION All artists see the world differently. and inspire others. and lose the very thing that attracted us to it. it may not be accurate to our critical adult eye. "There really is no such thing as Art. There are countless reasons for drawing. We all see differently. the page bristles with the focus of ideas.

conduct an experiment. Each fresh image reflects growing confidence and the experience of the preceding study. Our drawings are annotated investigations into the mechanisms of nature and of an idea. I drew to understand the apparatus of flight. We have both covered our paper with focused. while below.13 VISION should not try to know how every finished picture will look. More was learned drawing the bird 18 times than would have been understood drawing it only once or twice. or illustrate a dream. This also applies if struggling at length with a larger picture. but it is important to be clear why we are making it. it may be best to start afresh. Leonardo drew to invent a machine. Don't be disheartened. make a calculation. time spent is not lost. or to discover the best use of a new material. Opposite. shout against a terrible injustice. to express the beauty in a moment's play of light. Decide before you start whether you are drawing to warm up. when it looks tired and still feels wrong. stripped-down parts. It will be invested through your experience in the new drawing. My drawings of a housemartin (opposite top) illustrate the importance of repeated study. drawing in pursuit of our own thoughts and understanding. .

Our position asvieweris unsteady.14 INTRODUCTION ALCHEMY At school. and paper. silk. and allowed to flow through the brush. explain the composition. This suits many artists well and is perfectly valid. and opacity of your subject. Each image relied upon past experience to know the probable behavior of the brush. and sometimes beyond. or ice—you must actually feel it beneath your fingers as you draw. However. it should be responding to the sensation and meaning of the subject it draws. This is a detail of a brush-and-ink drawing by a Japanese Buddhist monk. temperature. or imagine—it is not enough to only render its shape. This is the alchemy of drawing. We are caught in a shifting focus that makes everything fluid. excessive planning can get in the way of the imagination. meaning. bone. balance. fire. and spirit of each subject was held strongly but loosely between the fingertips. and practice each part before putting the final image together. Know the texture. You must also think of its intrinsic nature: its purpose. and an island brushed with trees. declare the idea. created centuries and cultures apart. which can offer keys to other things. metal. your marks will become the subject on the paper. and what you discover in the process of making. ink. Whatever the material— wood. are both made of ink laid onto wet paper with speed and agile certainty. mists. As you draw any subject—something you see. BRUSHED LANDSCAPE FLOWING SKELETON T h e gliding poise of this walking anatomy comes as much from the feeling of movement as it does from the feeling of drawing. The physicality. These two brush drawings. W e float toward the quiet vista as it also moves toward us. the unknown. size. water. It denies the importance of accident. They each allowed the energy and focus of the moment to be expressed through controlled accident and a degree of the unknown Both drawings were made trusting the marks. trusting my intuition to find a visual equivalence for the sensation of weight within my body. feel. we are advised or even required to plan our pictures. As your hand meets the paper to make a mark. and position in space. and we can just make out the distant stains of mountains. and at speeds beyond conscious thought. depth. If you can do this. I made it almost unconsciously with a pen and a brush. Landscape in Haboku Style 15TH CENTURY . and how it feels to the touch. Imagine these qualities so strongly that you feel them in your mind and at your fingertips.

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left. stand table-sized with furniture legs attached t o b o t h sides of their jacket. He dazzles us with flashes o f light and dabbed marks o f shadow. like folded insects. one of many luminous works in watercolor. gold leaf and spray paint. right is set inside a rib cage.1896 Woman at her Toilet 41 x 26 in (104 x 66 cm) TOULOUSE LAUTREC RIB-CAGE D R A M A Thus drama. acrylic. more than 100 years after its making. c. Lautrec's flamboyant splashes o f petticoats and pantaloons are drawn with long sweeps of chalk and brushed oil paint. pastel. made by a young British artist who creates alphabets o f the absurd f r o m familiar childhood characters. which evoke realities o f place and the p o w e r o f moment. Focusing on the Negative 2004 22 x 30 in (56 x 76 cm) J O H N WALTER . lives on. W a l t e r also makes books: some.16 INTRODUCTION PLACE A N D MOMENT The heat and teeming atmosphere o f this Parisian dressing room.

and mistakes are a valuable process of learning. Such books are personal: the territory of new exploration and experiment. It is yours. Drawing is exploratory. Ignore these at first and allow yourself the freedom to play. try not to grip your pen worrying about the technical terms you might have heard.17 FREEING THE HAND If you are just beginning to learn how to draw. Put them away and look at them later. even those you dislike. One of the advantages of a drawing book is that you can shut it. Try to keep all of your first drawings. Choose other materials and do the same. potential ideas still forming. Start by choosing a material you like the look of and cover a piece of paper with different marks. take your time and don't worry if you need to make several attempts to grasp a concept. FREEINGTHEHAND . diary-like observations. just through the act of making. As you follow lessons in this book. With no help and advice at all. Enjoy discovering what your hand and the material can do. Pages do not have to lie open for other people to inspect and comment on. and miscellaneous items of inspiration. you will naturally make progress on your own in response to concentration and the decision to look and draw. you will be surprised and encouraged to see how far you have come. Much will be learned on these test sheets and in your first drawings. at a point when you feel you are not making progress.

we still only glimpse a corner of the magnitude of this subject and the infinity of what can be achieved. and became a great subject for me. it is this voice that is the subtle part of their art and something that ultimately. and enfolding new media. Picasso Painting with Light at the Madoura Pottery 1949 . adapting its form and occupation. comes from within. This practical journey will take you through the door into the vivid heart of drawing. Its sensuous and flowing line seems to drift like smoke. threedimensionally. when they are more experienced. caught between action and repose. Once there. the path is yours. It rarely flourishes in isolation. As you draw. Picasso has just finished his drawing. which of course he cannot see. A N ARTIST'S HANDS These are the hands of the artist Phyll Kiggell (see p. However. Imagination needs nourishment.18 INTRODUCTION THE THINKING EYE Techniques and materials are the grammar and vocabulary of drawing and can be studied and shared. seek ideas in the life around you. To these I have added my own drawings to explain elementary materials and techniques and offer introductory approaches. The real drawing book has yet to come. staring straight through his image of a bull. Note that the drawing classes are allocated to subjects.Their elegant strength seems to summon a lifetime of drawing. 150). An artist's personal voice is something that also evolves through lessons learned. Look to your own experience and also learn from the work of others. which is held frozen in space by a camera lens. In the total wealth of these pages. The chapters of this book present 90 different artists' ways of seeing. it will be your creation as you discover your own personal vision. ELECTRIC BULL With a penlight. but not confined to them. and many more reasons for drawing the world. Picasso is poised smiling. Drawing is a living language that over millennia has grown and changed. I was particularly attracted to their gentle articulation and understated determination.

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F o r e v e n i n g classes. cheap corrugated plastic ones fall apart in days. quality. be sure they fit comfortably under your arm. Most contain thin p a p e r and are perfect f o r use w i t h disposable pens. It is also useful to own a portfolio. c o l o r If planning t o use pencils. You simply need two strong boards hinged together well. Purchase a h i g h . Dissecting a d i s c a r d e d h a r d . t h e i r jackets w i l l a c t like d r a w i n g b o a r d s a n d p r o t e c t y o u r w o r k . binding. Alternatively. F O U N D B O O K S : O l d p r i n t e d 3 . and handles to lift the weight of your artworks. pastels. y o u n e e d a lifetime. and cost. Calculate a range of useful dimensions and have several cut at once. Drawing boards are invaluable.b o u n d b o o k s t h a t fit in y o u r p o c k e t o r bag. Sand the edges to avoid splinters. C A N V A S . texture. cut. A high-quality one will last a DRAWING BOOKS Select d r a w i n g b o o k s t o suit y o u r aims. 5. drawing book. color. BLACK P O C K E T B O O K S : Hand-sized w i t h ready-made elastic binder and a marker ribbon. 6. and glued t o a s t r i p o f bias binding. N o t e t h e w i d e l y differing c h o i c e o f p a p e r s w i t h w h i c h t h e s e are m a d e . Art students often make use of printed books picked up from secondhand stores into which they draw. and collage their ideas. study the structure of a good portfolio and make your own. a n d crayons.20 INTRODUCTION Drawing Books and Papers T o BEGIN YOUR EXPLORATION o f d r a w i n g . 1. catalogs. b e a w a r e t h a t p a p e r t e x t u r e effects a n d changes t h e i r marks. 2002 Tantalus o r The Future of Man 81/2 x61/4in (215 x 158 mm) ROSE MILLER . They can be very expensive in art stores. t h i s is h o w I l e a r n e d . H o w e v e r r i n g bindings o f t e n break.h a n d s t o r e s make unique subjects f o r e x p e r i m e n t s a n d collage. Many artists invent ways o f binding their o w n books.b o u n d b o o k w i l l s o o n s h o w y o u h o w it is m a d e . There are dozens to choose from. which are also sold in an enormous range. c h o o s e larger f o r m a t s t o give y o u s c o p e f o r e x p e r i m e n t .B O U N D PADS: T h e s e are t h e least expensive a n d useful f o r o p e n i n g flat. C O L O R E D PAPERS: Large a r t supply stores o f t e n sell t h i c k b o o k s full o f c o l o r e d p a p e r s . Smooth plywood. a l e n g t h o f black elastic t i e d a r o u n d t h e m i d d l e will h o l d the contents together w h e n y o u f o l d in c o l l e c t e d items. stitched. These are perfect f o r w o r k i n g in novels. F o r traveling.C O V E R E D H A R D B O U N D : Ideal f o r c a r r y i n g a r o u n d . 2. it is better to have them made at a lumber yard or home improvement store. Homemade books can be assembled easily from found materials or selections of loose sheet papers. Gleaming store purchases vary greatly in format. is perfect. a n d r e f e r e n c e b o o k s f o u n d in s e c o n d . H O M E M A D E : I m a d e this b o o k f r o m drawing paper that I folded. T h e hardb o a r d j a c k e t is s t r e t c h e d w i t h canvas beneath t h e p a p e r sleeve. R I N G .b o u n d p a d if y o u w i s h t o keep your drawings together long-term. c h o o s e s m a l l e r h a r d . If you intend to carry your boards for a distance.q u a l i t y r i n g . 4. thick enough not to flex. ties on either side to keep your papers in place. thickness.

blocks. 20. mold-. 10. mulberry. 8. 22. ITALIAN PARCHMENT: Imitation-animal-skin parchment that is translucent and slightly waxy. For use with any media. red. white textured paper that can take abrasive use of any medium. it is made from rice. It is available in white or cream. It is also excellent for drawing with marker pens on layered sheets. printed on one side only. also good for drawing with colored pencils. T W O RIVERS Y E L L O W 410GMS: See Two Rivers Green 19. 2 5 6 . 14. 17. size. AQUARELLE ARCHES 300GMS:The very top quality hot-pressed (smooth) watercolor paper. JAPANESE PAPER: Strong. yellow. tough. FABRIANO R O U G H 600GMS: Very heavy. MAGIC PAPER: A reusable sheet for testing ideas without creating waste. GLASSINE: Sold as protective wrapping. 18. Use cheap paper for rough ideas and quality paper for work to last See the glossary ( p p . not. SAUNDERS WATERFORD N O T 300GMS: Mid-quality textured watercolor paper.TISSUE PAPER: Place sheets between drawing book pages to keep images from printing on each other and use for delicate collage. 15. T W O RIVERS GREEN 410G MS: Very heavy tinted textured cold-pressed watercolor paper See Two Rivers Yellow.5 9 ) for explanations of rough. bamboo. Cheap wood-pulp papers are acidic. 7. smooth. and cream sheets or rolls. They are hand-. 11. resisting deterioration. C A N S O N : Inexpensive lightweight pastel paper in many colors. METALLIC PAPER: Thin paper in different metallic colors. and translucent. pastel paper in flecked pastel colors with a distinctive ribbed marking. and white. and cost. FABRIANO ACADEMIA: Standard medium-range multipurpose paper Use with any media. 21. cold. FABRIANO INGRES: Thin. or rolls. and other plant fibers. PAPERS . 12. from pencil to paint 9. color. 13. VELIN ARCHES 250GMS: Printmaking paper available in black white. and rolls. Use for brushwork drawings. Cotton papers are high-quality and acid-free. used to imprint lines of these colors onto a surface. or machine made in sheets. C A R B O N PAPER: Available in dark and light blue.Papers differ in thickness (weight). Use with a brush in clean water Water makes a dark mark like ink and becomes invisible again when dry. fine. turning brown and brittle. Ph. texture. 16. 100% cotton and sold in sheets. absorbency. blocks. and hot pressed papers.

strangledlooking drawings. It will also reflect discomfort if you are in any way cramped. Examples are shown here. but wherever possible. arm. flowing space between your hand. How you hold your drawing materials is also important. make sure you have enough room to back away and view your work. You do not have to dance to draw. place it on your right. your drawing will reflect this. . If seated on a b e n c h easel (a donkey). don't sit too close to the paper. if left-handed. If your body posture is well balanced and you can move freely. Regularly step back 6-9 ft (2-3 m) to check your progress. b u t it should n o t be forgotten that many people make remarkable a n d striking works drawing with their feet or holding their brush or pencil in their mouths. You cannot draw like this—your hand is locked and your fingers can barely move. should be able to look comfortably straight ahead at your picture plane. you Drawing classes can be cramped places. place it on your left. This photograph illustrates how some people hold a pen to write. In this book we will look at parallels between drawing and music. There should be an open. place it on the correct side: if right-handed. you can draw lines freely and achieve a significant arc of movement. If your hand twists to maneuver between the paper and your body. body.22 INTRODUCTION Posture and Grip T o DRAW WELL. or with your drawing board angled between your lap and a chair. Ideally. Placing your easel o n the w r o n g side folds y o u r b o d y against your drawing arm. your lines will distort. and look to the right. and subject. From a distance you will spot errors you cannot see close up. a n d look to the left of it at your subject. SPACE TO WORK Cramped grip. 116-17). Use the side of your little fingernail as a support on the page. This cramped grip tires your hand and makes small. Accelerated perspective also occurs if you look down the surface steeply (see pp. Relaxed fingers: Hold the pencil away from its tip and relax your fingers. There are also parallels to dance. your whole relaxed b o d y should be involved. If using an upright easel. but you need to understand that the expression of a line or mark originates in the body and flows t h r o u g h the shoulder. With your hand in this position. Turning your drawing sideways or upside-own will also help reveal what is wrong. a n d h a n d to the fingertips.

depending upon what it is and how large you are working. and body are not restricted. arm. not up to the paper Brushes can be used on upright paper but dip Anticipating effects: A fully loaded pens need a level surface. alternative way of holding the pencil. roughly marking out a large-scale work.232-33). find an unfamiliar. or it can spoil your work if not anticipated.23 This loose "candle" grip is very useful when drawing with your arm extended. Remember you can also draw just by dipping your fingers in pigment—this is how many women draw in rural India. GRAVITY Remember that gravity affects the flow of ink and paint. liquid will run down your hand. It is most comfortable when reaching to draw above your head. brush pressed against an upright surface will cause a dribble of ink to run down your drawing. ALL MEDIA There are no rules as to how you should hold your drawing media. As long as your fingers. Brush calligraphy: This comfortable. To stop this. upright way of holding the brush near its base is similar to the Japanese way used in Zen calligraphy (see pp. Large scale: POSTURE AND GRIP U n f a m i l i a r i t y : T h e habitual movements of our handwriting style will sometimes infringe upon our drawing. Soft media: Short materials such as pastels and charcoal can be accommodated in the palm. This can give a new lease on life to your mark-making. This can be used to great effect. But be careful not to tense your fingers. hold your material as you find most comfortable. or change to the wrong hand. . If you turn a brush or dip pen up into the air to draw above your hand. Large amounts of ink can be applied without fear of uncontrolled running if the paper is flat.

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Together they made maps and documented animals. W h e n lost to explain our own emotions. We have drawn them on the walls of caves to evoke their kinship and power. out are now oxidized and so appear black W h e n less preoccupied with understanding ourselves. which very likely leaped o n t o the deck of Sir Walter Raleigh's ship Tiger as it sailed north from the Caribbean to Virginia in 1585. m u s e u m . and pioneer born c. or scampering through the initials and borders of pictures from that time. dogs. we have employed artists on expeditions. and people. who described in words what White drew. they are perhaps our favorite pictorial preoccupation. which are so unlike ours. mermaids. As children we delight in the humanized trials of Tom and Jerry and their c a r t o o n relations. plants." He worked with the scientist Thomas Harriot. White's commission was to ". Here (left) we see J o h n White's exquisite record of a flying fish. In this chapter we discover the use of pens and ink through the delineation of insects. fish. In 19th-century Europe this became a "science. O v e r the centuries. animals provide a perfect subject with which to begin. After the subject of ourselves. birds. 11 x91/4in (277 x 234 mm) ." Paranoid newcomers c r a m m e d into swelling industrial cities used handbooks of physiognomy to identify and judge their neighbors. and silent. W e have drawn them in m a n u s c r i p t s to explain our genesis and to c o u n t their species into Noah's ark. and to bring h o m e drawn documentaries of their finds. Europeans on board had never seen such a thing. Facial features were analyzed in terms of their animal likeness. from which personality and predicted behavior were " d e d u c e d . JOHN WHITE British artist. and snakes have between them engendered harpies. their different speeds and patterns of action.m o u n t e d skeletons of birds. we turn and take the features of beasts.drawe to lief one of each kinde of thing that is strange to us in England. 1540. and learn how to Flying Fish c. sleeping dogs.. bats. offer challenges and delights to draw. In medieval England. and dragons. werewolves. and this very drawing was to endure many copies and plagiarisms after its triumphant return to the English court of Queen Elizabeth I. insects.Animals H UMANS HAVE DRAWN ANIMALS from the beginning of our time. the Latin bestiary was one of the most popular picture books—an illustrated dictionary of one hundred parts. to be there at the m o m e n t of discovery.. For the novice artist. On the Roanoke voyages of Sir Walter Raleigh. and we still see escapees from its pages carved and grinning as the gargoyles of churches. floating turtles. This drawing is made in black lead (metal point) with watercolor Highlights of silver would have gleamed. Framed in the z o o or in domestic cohabitation. each dedicated to the moralized tale of an animal or monster The bestiary profoundly influenced the art of its period. " Animals perpetually feed our imaginations. cartographer. 1590 J O H N WHITE capture form and movement from the m a n n e r i s m s of honking geese.

It was to become the animal's only accepted likeness for 250 years. Converted into a print. it is still consulted by veterinarians today. Contemporary texts related accounts of the beast as the mortal enemy of the elephant and rare relative of the "more common" unicorn. it continued its journey to Rome. they were rejected. Stubbs's Anatomy of the Horse achieved similar documentary status. He studied the image and drew his own interpretation. It is such a lifelike triumph of imagination and intelligence that for centuries zoologists never questioned its authority. filled journals with ideas and observations. He in turn sent the mysterious creature to the Pope via Marseilles at the request of the King of France. years after its publication. Original Ink Drawing of a Rhinoceros 1515 ALBRECHT DURER 103/4 x 161/2 in ( 2 7 4 x 4 2 0 mm) . inspiring countless works of art and so touching people's imaginations that later. and wrote four books on proportion.26 ANIMALS Documentaries horse are superb affirmations of the power of drawing as a recorder and communicator of knowledge. draftsman. Unsurpassed. a drawing of it arrived in Nuremberg. Life-like This is Durer's original quill-and-ink drawing made after an anonymous Portuguese drawing. DURER'S RHINOCEROS AND STUBBS'S skeletal Durer. and mathematician. writer. printmaker. The first live rhinoceros to reach Europe came from India in May 1515. the home of ALBRECHT DURER German Renaissance painter. Sailing to Rome. but the drowned animal washed ashore. Durer's image changed eager hands until it was known across Europe. the ship was lost. Meanwhile. a gift to the Portuguese King. Durer traveled widely to study at different European schools of art. Carefully stuffed. naturalist. when more accurate portrayals were made without armor and scales.

in t h r e e v i e w s — r e a r f r o n t . This is one of Stubbs' original finished pencil drawings.GEORGE STUBBS B r i t i s h e q u i n e a n d s o c i e t y p o r t r a i t painter. a n d anatomist. Table of the III of the Horse (rear Skeleton view) mm) 1756-58 1 4 x 7 in ( 3 5 4 x 1 8 0 GEORGE STUBBS . Dissections Stubbs took his knife and his pencil and physically climbed inside the horse. Lighting Stubbs's breathtaking international work won immediate There acclaim. and therefore invented the lighting that Compare how Stubbs and Durer both invented lighting to portray the reality of their animals. Stubbs w a s o n e o f t h e first E u r o p e a n artists t o m a k e a n a c c u r a t e representation o f the rhinoceros. composed from notes and observations. Dissections were made over a total of 18 months. Stubbs's m o s t c e l e b r a t e d publication. knowledge of parts. The entire project was developed over ten years. L o n d o n . naturalist. which has never diminished. c o m p r i s e s 1 8 p l a t e s s h o w i n g d i s s e c t i o n s in l a y e r s f r o m b o n e t h r o u g h m u s c u l a t u r e t o skin. a n d s i d e . He translated his own drawings into engravings for publication. dissecting and drawing until he understood the mechanisms of its power and grace. is no other work like it. He composed makes each horse appear so real and each plate from his three-dimensional. His painted p o r t r a i t o f t h e b e a s t is in t h e R o y a l C o l l e g e o f S u r g e o n s o f England. Anatomy of the Horse.

Hugo's novels Les Miserables and Dame have become classics of film and stage. and a love of accident. the ominous beast unwinds from the dark of the sea and of our nightmares. Surrounding sprays of graphite powder are stuck into washes of oil and ink to suggest glutinous depths. A s if disturbed from its gritty b e d by our presence and curiosity. soot. saying ". and all sorts of bizarre concoctions which manage to convey above all in mind. drawing her again and again to pin d o w n the texture of her loose skin. By contrast.. He has w a t c h e d her p o u n c e . conjured b y the hand of a great author of French literary fiction. ink and linseed oil on paper. linseed oil soaked into the paper has made shadows and repelled the ink to create translucent tentacles. sepia. and turn. VICTOR HUGO Poet. Hugo used graphite powder. Hugo's page is f l o o d e d w i t h the fearful presence of a remembered octopus. coal dust. more or less what I have in view. The octopus is formed in layers applied and distressed with a brush. Apparently drawn in its o w n ink. and leader of the French Romantic movement.. charcoal. snarl. it silently rises to the light. her sharp teeth. novelist. He wrote to poet and art critic Charles-Pierre Baudelaire about his experiments.28 ANIMALS Presence and Mood THESE DRAWINGS HAVE BEEN CHOSEN to s h o w t w o v e r y different ways of picturing a wild animal. The Hunchback of Notre Layers and shadows Throughout this drawing. and her distinctive temperament. Gericault's sheet a p p e a r s almost s c r a t c h e d b y the f e r o c i o u s play of his cat. drama. I've ended up mixing in pencil. H u g o mixed his media and drew from m e m o r y and imagination to create narrative atmosphere. playwright.. Gericault took a sharp p e n c i l to m a k e repeated direct o b s e r v a t i o n s f r o m life. her b o n y frame..". His copious drawings are characterized by mixed media. and Pieuvre 1866-69 91/2 x81/8in (242 x 207 mm) VICTOR H U G O . Mixed media Here.

of drawings Gericault erased. s h o r t . 124-25 and p.118-119). standing sideways. Undertraces Beneath these graphite studies we see traces Tones On the top row we see clearly how Gericault laid broad areas of tone using fast. and keep trying again. displayed in the Louvre. H e is best k n o w n f o r his gigantic painting. undertraces unify and vitalize the composition. horses w e r e a favorite subject t o g e t h e r w i t h politics and history. Here. diagonal strokes of his pencil. Beginners are advised to follow the natural contours of form as shown on pp. Paris.l i v e d French R o m a n t i c painter and lithographer Largely self-taught. parallel. Before paper became so cheap. fiery. Tones that do not follow surface contour is very difficult to do well. 144. Repeated study This drawing demonstrates of feeling confident repeat different the importance subject Remaining enough to isolate parts of a views. since it can lead to a flattened form. and it can be applied to any subject (see pp. focused upon seeing will lead to a greater understanding of the subject Much is learned from repeated study. facing right. of previous Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 1817-18 121/2 x 151/2 in ( 3 1 9 x 3 9 8 mm) T H E O D O R E GERICAULT . The Raft of the Medusa.29 THEODORE GERICAULT C o n t r o v e r s i a l . artists reused sheets and them full of studies. At the center of the page is crammed drawings the outline of a horse.

Cheval et Oiseau 1936 173/8 x 211/4 in ( 4 4 0 x 5 4 0 m m ) PABLO PICASSO . hooked. His powdery. In these two drawings. gray. Artists commonly focus on such actions. identify an animal: the fast cheetah. draftsman. noise is everywhere. printmaker ceramicist graphic and stage designer who lived in France. In Picasso's drawing. quivering horse. and brown. dissolving faun kneels stranded. flapping bird. flattened animals composed almost entirely of movement. These media complement and amplify each other with their brilliant contrast. Ink and gouache This drawing is made in black Chinese ink and gouache (opaque watercolor) applied with a brush. we see semi-abstract. The ink is used to make sharply defined solid. The fact that they never stand still influences the movement in his line. the first abstract movement of the 20th century. Klee's riders are constructed from all the gestures of greeting mules. Picasso cofounded Cubism. with George Braque (see p90). slow tortoise. His hand must have shuddered and twitched just like the constant actions of this humorous meeting. or proud. taking them to guide their hand in bringing form and essence together.30 ANIMALS Movement M O V E M E N T IS OFTEN THE CHARACTERISTIC b y w h i c h w e their lines and the power of their beasts. the whinnying of a frantic horse. Faune. overwhelmed by a screeching bird. Both Picasso and Klee have enclosed their subjects to compress and amplify the speed of PABLO PICASSO A prolific Spanish painter sculptor. made only a year apart. and scrolled lines. Gouache is brushed softly in translucent hazy layers of cool blue. and waves breaking distantly below.

N e u m a n n Family Collection. Scene der Komischen of Comical Reiter Riders) (Scene 1935 161/2x111/2in ( 4 1 9 x 2 9 1 mm) M o r t o n G . sculptor. well-worn copies o f w h i c h are found in m a n y art schools." They chatter around bodies in groups. creatures. and t e a c h e r at t h e Bauhaus school. Chicago PAUL KLEE . They remain in contact with the surface of the page and scribble back and forth as they maneuver from one area to another. W i t h his drawings Kleeb o u n d sophisticated theories to personal and often witty childlike imagery. draftsman. turning our eye and around inside the and postures of the paper- thin on pictorial space.PAUL KLEE Swiss painter. printmaker. violinist. top all happily of each other in the Endless lines Look closely at how Klee's lines rarely leave the paper and how they are free from the constraint of finite shape. Layers of marks In this pale Dentil drawing we see layers of' agitated marks that together present a kind of visual "itch. He is a u t h o r o f The Thinking Eye (1923). The entire drawing suggests the endless small movements of horses standing still.

Baker lived in an era when ships were built without drawn plans. drawings of animals that are each held tightly in a surprising space: a giant fish wears a ship's hull. and steerage. balance. The fish It is likely that Baker drew with a quill dipped in irongall ink. Baker did not intend this. the expression of its eye. B a k e r initiated t h e scientific p r a c t i c e o f naval a r c h i t e c t u r e and applied h y d r o d y n a m i c s . and the carefully observed gills. mathematician. which in application gave strength and advantage to the English fighting the Spanish Armada. It is simply how we read his perspective. it would achieve greater speed. and author o f Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (1586). later called a galleon. and from them learned that if he designed his ship with a "cod's head MATTHEW BAKER Master shipwright. seemingly looking for our attention. and blackbirds fly in formation through a mosaic of text. and scales. plans. fins. His birds stare. b a s e d o n his studies o f fish. Below we see his revolutionary design for an Elizabethan warship. He studied the anatomy of fish. slim stern). This drawing illustrates Baker's theory. In contrast to the practical clarity of Baker's thought. and s e c t i o n s o f ships. and to assess our next move. Knopf's drawing opposite is the personal enigmatic expression of a mind gripped by illness. In just one drawing he has displayed more angles of his design than we would expect to see from a single viewpoint Fragments English 1586 101/2 x 153/8 in (270 x 390 mm) MATTHEW BAKER of Ancient Shipwrightry . adding washes of color with a fine brush.32 ANIMALS Icon and Design IN THESE T W O MANUSCRIPTS we discover diagrammatic and mackerel's tail" (full bow. t h e earliest geometrically defined elevations. The ship The upper decks of the ship appear curved toward us at both ends. Exquisite details in this drawing include the lips of the fish.

circle and the birds. The text.JOHANN KNOPF An " O u t s i d e r " a r t i s t w h o s u f f e r e d f r o m m e n t a l illness. w h i c h o f t e n f e a t u r e as s y m b o l i c creatures in his drawings. written last of all. appears to be stirred like water by the presence of the The Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks UNDATED 133/8 x 115/8 in (340 x 2 9 6 mm) and psychiatrist Hans Prinzhom collected this image.K n o p f b e l i e v e d h e c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h e language o f birds. The main group is placed in a circle drawn with a compass. JOHANN KNOPF . numbered. and filled evenly with tone. T h e G e r m a n a r t historian Outline and tone The blackbirds illuminating this frantic manuscript are drawn in pencil. firmly outlined.

high-quality Chinese and Japanese inks are subtler and more complex than those produced in Europe. Avoid needle-sharp mapping pens. and hold it under a clean basin until the soot hangs to it. ink is traditionally applied with a brush (see pp. 2. In the Far East.246-47). QUILLS: These are cut from the barrel of a flight or tail feather. then pour a little warm gum water into it and temper the two together. 3. from the acacia tree. The best are goose or swan. and it is still in use today. The Chinese used animal or fish glue. simultaneously 4 . The paste from either recipe is pressed and dried into a bar for storage. producing a different line. light it. The bar is then rubbed into water on a slate block to produce ink. while metal nibs began as rare gifts in gold and silver before being perfected by the British steel industry. The Egyptians and Chinese are credited with the invention of carbon ink. The reservoir gives a constant flow of ink for very long unbroken lines and continuous bottle-free use. F O U N T A I N PENS: These vary in quality and nib width. Dip pens began their history in the Nile River. you can have great fun drawing the world around you. A German recipe of 1531 gives a simple description: "Take a wax candle. Masters choose brands of long. they are associated with rapid. PENS . which scratch rather than draw. and spatters can be made with an exotic choice of inks. where reeds were gathered. They fit into wooden holders. 5 0 0 years ago. Intricate or dramatic lines. distinguished manufacture. which range greatly in their handling and character of line. a n d m e t a l p o i n t s . the recipes for which have been handed down over centuries. and first used by the Egyptians. spots. Only fill with suitable inks. That is an ink. Each pen has a unique character. Early artists recommended raven and crow for especially fine work. METAL PENS: Inexpensive removable steel nibs are available in a range of widths. REED PENS: A broad nib can be cut from bamboo or another tubular grass. expressive drawing techniques such as the ones we explore in this chapter 1. 4. Today. Quills were later cut from feathers. Responsive to slight changes in pressure.34 ANIMALS Pen and Ink W I T H A HANDFUL OF FEATHERS. s t i c k s ." "Gum" refers to gum arabic extracted Dip pens are essential and inexpensive drawing tools.

and sieved. charred bone (Ivory Black). I N D I A N INK: Carbon ink sold today in liquid form. suspended in a binder and stored as a solid block Blocks are imported today 7. bistre. or charcoal. INKS 9. Beechwood soot is best. It dries with a sheen and clogs uncleaned pens. dated. 5.G A L L INK: Abnormal spherical growths caused by parasitic wasps can be collected from some oak trees in fall. Inks can be lightfast or non-lightfast.35 PEN AND INK Four types of ink were common before the 20th century. reduced. ACRYLIC / CALLIGRAPHY INKS: Available in black and a range of colors. . Waterproof types contain shellac. C A R B O N INK: Traditionally produced from oil or resin soot (Lamp Black). from are not 6. an often misused term. The complexities of traditional iron-gall ink are explained on p. They are the easiest inks to use. is the ink of a cuttlefish or squid extracted post-mortem. roastedwine sediment (Yeast Black). waterproof or non-waterproof. and most can be homemade. Bistre is the more humane use of soot scraped from the fireplace and ground into wine.36. Non-waterproof Indian inks can be reworked with a wet brush after drying. and sepia. Excellent for drawing they are bright and non-clogging. boiled. 8. Crushed. and are still in use today: carbon (Chinese and Indian). SEPIA A N D BISTRE INKS: Sepia. and can be mixed and diluted to create subtler colors and tones. iron-gall. Now we also have acrylic ranges in many colors. Old stock turns solid and bottlesChina. they produce a golden dye for drawing. I R O N .

) You can make ink easily from the boiled. fleshy skins that surround ripe walnuts. . giving a s h o r t . Quills are also called D u t c h pens. d r y mark. Practice to gain a feel for how materials behave. Although oak galls and walnut skins are harmless. a n d d e v e l o p e d t h e quill instead. 2 4 4 is an e x q u i s i t e e x a m p l e . keep all your fingers behind basis of iron-gall ink. reduced. The lighter right Quill marks Quills carry more ink than strokes and for as reeds. can also be collected from affected trees. red-brown. QUILL PENS Q u i l l s a r e highly r e s p o n s i v e t o c h a n g e s in p r e s s u r e . t h e y stick a n d j u d d e r f o r w a r d . Collect skins from the ground beneath trees once they are blackened. Walnut ink is gloopy. T h e y give a finer. It also oxidized and ate or burned paper. drawn to glisten with a dryer nib. of a loaded nib. finding reed p e n s unwieldy. Reed marks The darker left wing of this beetle was drawn with the wet inky stroke wing. Running fresh. Paler strokes were made where the mark has the legs and antennae the ink ran out. the blade and cut away from you. m o r e e x t e n d e d line than reed and a m o r e organic line t h a n m e t a l . and delicious to draw with.36 ANIMALS Drawing With Ink To MAKE A QUILL OR REED PEN. M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s d r a g o n o n p . galls were ground with iron sulfate to make an unstable solution. sieved. and turned brown with time. a n d M a t i s s e also e n j o y e d t h e m . are surprisingly tough. giving longer lines. r e s e r v e d t h e i r use f o r large c h o i r b o o k s . since t h e D u t c h w e r e t h e first t o realize t h a t they could be hardened and i m p r o v e d w i t h heat t r e a t m e n t in ash o r sand. U n d e r heavy pressure. then cut a final nib (feathers. it was gray-purple. V a n G o g h . for example. appears broken to show paper beneath. always be cautious when experimenting with recipes. Oak galls. and boiled to make a golden ink. Rembrandt. forming the REED PENS R e e dpens dispense ink quickly. The darkest of this grasshopper wings) were made (around the head first. For centuries. It dried black. Some of Michelangelo's drawings are now a little eaten by their own ink. crushed. Scribes o f t h e M i d d l e Ages. I u s e d t h e s e qualities t o d r a w t h e w o r m s above.

W h e n the nib is pressed upside down. DRAWING WITH INK Filled outlines Each segment of wing was outlined. sharp. tonal Ink layers The wings of this beetle were drawn in layers using black and white ink on pale gray paper. marks become fine and needle-sharp. White markings were drawn last Tones Here we see subtle tones of diluted ink beneath the undiluted black rim of a beetle's wing. When using dip pens. giving a graded.37 METAL PENS Metal pens give long. breaking. Loaded with ink and pressed hard. withstanding great pressure without sticking. The of pigment to fall to the edges effect of the shape. they splay to make thick o r double lines. o r being ruined as fountain pens would be under the same pressure. particles then filled with a droplet of ink. it is important to feel for when the ink will run out and to know how much ink you pick up when dipping the nib. . Each layer of of the drying droplet dome the drawing was left to dry before adding more. clean strokes.

and there is no "wrong. Cover a sheet. Study them before drawing. and a large drawing book or plenty of paper Use masking tape to secure pages against the wind. there is no obligation to prepare a quill. Empathize. Take no more than ten seconds to draw each one and make lots of drawings. and boldly plunge into your drawing. It happens that goose feathers also provide artists with the best type of quills. Attempt with a loose hand to capture their posture and outline. so pick a spot where other people can keep them entertained. That said. MATERIALS NEEDED Look for a bird expressing a simple posture. steel nibs are fine. waddle.38 ANIMALS Capturing Character GEESE ARE EXCELLENT SUBJECTS to draw when practicing the first use of pen and ink. Experiment. test your limits. to absorb blots when drawing. Focus on it. be bold and press firmly. Quick drawing trains you to see what is most important about a subject and to mark only its most essential expression. draw what the bird is doing. and bellyflop off the waterside. Cover your drawing book pages in speedy responses to the geese and try to capture each bird in as few lines as possible. Dip your pen in ink. and be brave. touch the bottle's rim to drain the excess. and quickly draw around it using only three or four strokes. Illustrating this exercise on Oxford Port Meadow. Watch their heavy feathered bodies flap. Try to hold the whole posture in your mind's eye. Posture . You cannot break the nib. Take a cup and water for diluting a range of tones. not on your drawing. make another one. Pack plenty of tissue around a bottle of calligraphy or acrylic ink. I covered eleven sheets in sixty quick drawings—in less than an hour. It teaches confidence and focus through intensive repetition." If you don't like a stroke. Geese are nosy birds. Focus on the geese.

and diving. running. draw the feeling of what you see. . Again. look among the birds for more complicated actions such as shaking off water.39 Action With growing confidence. flapping. CAPTURING CHARACTER Texture Gradually allow yourself more lines to describe the texture of each bird as well as its posture and action. and don't worry about mechanical facts or accuracy. Avoid detail unless really tempted by a close-up visit Fluctuate the pressure of your pen in response to how you know the bird would feel if you touched it. Use more lines than before to express these.

and a tissue for blotting drawn lines that appear too dark.40 ANIMALS Sleeping Dogs R A S WAS A GREAT CHARACTER. Dip the nib quickly again into water and again drain it. Then dip the nib quickly into a glass of water and drain the excess again. MAKING A PALE LINE To make a pale line. your drawing book. and drain the excess by touching the nib against the rim of the bottle. For this class you will need one oblivious dog. and even then he twitched and stretched in dreams." . and personality. Sleeping animals present the artist with ideal opportunities to study their texture. form. a dip pen and ink of your choice (see pp. These drawings are not an analysis of his anatomy or breed but the expression of his satisfied comfort in a deep sleep after a night out on the together with a glass of water for diluting tones on the nib. This will give a medium-gray line.34-37). first dip your pen in ink. Now it will make a pale line. engaged in his and everyone else's business. Make a test sheet to discover your control of diluting on the nib. Ras Curled Up Asleep "Capturing the true character of a cherished companion is best achieved with objective determination rather than sentimental shyness. The only time he remained still was when he was sleeping. a d o g w h o w a s a l w a y s town.

to emphasize how he is curled up. W i t h pale lies. Remain focused on the whole dog and. Then. add more detail. D o not go back over lines you are pleased with—doing so dulls their lively freshness. tail. second thoughts may be different Changing your mind is a positive aspect o f seeing and thinking. Character is better captured drawing quickly with confidence than w o r k i n g slowly. and the shadows in his coat. this time to create a line a little darker in tone. ears. Layers o f thoughts can bring a drawing alive. Then I immediately rebalanced the drawing with lines around his hind quarters. 3 Gradually introduce darker tones. First lines are first thoughts. Here. Here I marked the features of Ras's head. in bold layers. Trust your intuition. SLEEPING DOGS 1 Fix your eyes at the center of the dog.41 DRAWING YOUR DOG Be bold in this exercise. 2 Reload your pen with ink. . c o n c e r n e d a b o u t detail. alter the pressure and moisture of your line in response to howyouknow your dog feels when you ruffle itscoat. quickly draw what you see. see how the animal's posture determines its whole shape. ignoring all detail. To add texture.It is essential when drawing any subject (even something abstract) to know how it feels andtoemulate this with your line. I added ink to Ras's nose.

offering plenty of time for the artist to draw the pose. THE ELONGATION AND BUOYANCY of a group of turtles is fascinating . swinging their limbs and shells with a slow circular movement. they stretch and paddle.Turtles to observe. turtles often pause unexpectedly. Beyond the glass wall of the aquarium. as if caught in a camera freeze-frame. A perfect subject for the beginner.

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weightlessness of the kiwi. dry.Dry Birds THESE ARE THE ARTICULATED BONES o f a k i w i a n d a h o u s e - martin drawn in a museum using a steel pen. and water. I darkened lines as each drawing progressed. With speed. balance. India ink. and sharp. . Beginning with very pale tones. I made repeated studies of the housemartin to discover its mechanism of flight. I sought to capture the form.

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infinitely vivid. Rich owners of private gardens commissioned large-format florilegiums commissioned the volume to document his private garden to immortalize their personal taste and power of acquisition. on which our lives depend. Patrons funded the breeding of decorative. Chapters are arranged by out. In this chapter. and focus. as opposed to only herbal. The revolution came in the 1530s. the microscope was refined to unfold yet another world. and to ornament our lives. Classifications were set in367copperengravings. Botanic gardens were established and expanded. we see very different cultural visions of plants and gardens and use pencils and plants to learn the pictorial values of space. PriceBishopof Eichstatt specimens. Early European illustrators were trapped within dogma that was determined by ancient scholarship. season. After Here Aconthus spinosus is combined with forget-me-nots and-a-half centuries of intensive observation. and the Acanthus spinosus constant but exhilarating struggle to make a living image feel right.000 species of plants are depicted life-size drawn. and diverse kingdom of plants. and texture. Both embrace the anticipation of evolving shape. shape. He sent boxes of plants to Nuremburgburned with the urgency and excitement of explaining every plant's form. Plants seventeenth century. form. to catalog our knowledge. Fledgling years Botanist and apothecary who compiled the Hortus Eystettensis of scientific research bore manifold explosions of knowledge in a fever of discovery. and the drawn pages ofthesame name. color. robust. 1613 187/8x153/4in(480 x 400 mm) BASILIUS BESLER . to the proliferation of floral designs with which we have dressed ourselves and furnished our homes for centuries. where a number of uncredited artistsd r e wthem for Besler. an There are close parallels between the acts of gardening and drawing. —-the largest and most influential botanical book of the early Natural scientists accompanied explorers to document unknown finds. Botanical illustration is a precisely defined and scientific art. Conrad von Gemmingen. Medieval knowledge was not gained by the first-hand observation of life but by reading. Later. From its history there is one overriding lesson to be learned: the importance of looking and seeing with our own eyes. manipulations of light and shade. It was published plain in 1611 and withhand-paintedplates in poured off ships returning from the New World and were eagerly collected and 1613. B A S I L I U SBESLER when botanists founded new work upon the direct study of plants. the punctuation of space with structure and mass.Plants and Gardens W E SHARE THIS PLANET with the more ancient. and hybridize them for our sustenance and pleasure. Plants are the principal inspiration of the decorative arts—from Roman Corinthian columns crowned with carved leaves of the acanthus. We collect. we now have laid before us fourto show how well their colours complement each other infinite wealth of material to explore. nurture. and beauty. We draw them to celebrate their beauty and range.Morethan 1.

It is likely Bauer would have studied these under a microscope. The King was then establishing the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. Dissections Across the lower part of this drawing we can see dissections of seed pods and petals." Her slipper orchid s h o w s that botanical drawing must often resolve the challenge of its subject's p r o d u c i n g parts in different seasons — r o o t s .48 PLANTS AND GARDENS THE SCIENTIFIC VALUE OF A BOTANICAL DRAWING lies i n its Botanical Studies were specimens that often refused to stay still. W i t h bright F R A N Z BAUER An Austrian artist who trained at the Schonbrunn Imperial Gardens in Vienna. Sir Joseph Banks. or that were diseased. Light in this drawing is given by the paleness of the paper showing between washes of darker tones. flowers. o p e n i n g a n d c l o s i n g i n the w a r m t h a n d light of the studio. and seeds conventionally a p p e a r o n o n e plate. and meticulous precision. He has made the spatial and physical relationships in this drawing all the more real by placing a single. naturalist explorer and advisor to King George III invited Bauer to London in 1 7 9 0 . petal tip over a lower leaf Protea nitida 201/4 x141/4in (513 x 362 mm) FRANZ BAUER 1796 . B e h i n d detailed. delicate. They are counted among the most accomplished 18th-century botanical artists. measured drawings. o p t i m i s m . and wilted. leaves. stems. Stella Ross-Craig said of the need to d r a w from a dried herbarium plant "I could make it live again. fruit. Each plant must b e clearly distinguished from its closest relative. and Franz Bauer and his brother Ferdinand were employed there to draw specimens. Outline Bauer prepared a pencil outline before laying in fleshy succulent hues and tones of watercolor. s u c h as w e see here in Bauer's Protea nitida. T h e rest of u s are free to d r a w as w e w i s h . Here. insect-ravaged. Botanical art c o n c e a l s the challenge of its m a k i n g . detail. subtle union of beauty. M a c k i n t o s h e x p r e s s e s the f o l d e d petals of a broken rose b u d so delicately w e can sense the perfume.

as at trained botanical artist Ross-Craig Swift lines The drawing was planned in pencil and then overworked with a lithographic pen. and follow shadow. it is small and discreet. sensual pencil drawing is later works. BOTANICAL STUDIES Lines and shadows This lush. Closer to fiction can come together perfectly.. Rose 1894 103/4 x 83/4 in ( 2 7 5 x 2 2 1 mm) CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH STELLA ROSS-CRAIG A j o i n e d t h e staff a t t h e R o y a l B o t a n i c G a r d e n s . a n d f o u n d e r o f t h e G l a s g o w S c h o o l o f A r t M a c k i n t o s h ' s flair h a d an e n o r m o u s i n f l u e n c e o n t h e a v a n t . 1970 x 81/4 in ( 3 2 5 x 2 1 0 m m ) STELLA ROSS-CRAIG .000 Kew to archive accessible t o d a y v i a t h e I n t e r n e t of o n British flora. and it shows how design.286 studies for her book Drawings of British Plants. Curtis's Botanical Magazine. and observation the nuance and contour of every in one image. p u b l i s h e d 1 9 4 8 .. L o n d o n in 1 9 2 9 . K e w . imagination. and speed depends upon the immediate perception of the essential characteristics of the plant. Pencil lines cling to.g a r d e in G e r m a n y a n d A u s t r i a . found among Mackintosh's than reality. G u s t a v K l i m t In his r e t i r e m e n t Mackintosh m a d e n u m e r o u s inventive pencil a n d w a t e r c o l o r d r a w i n g s o f plants. and perfect coordination of hand and eye. a m o n g o t h e r s . Ross-Craig said of her work "Plants that wither rapidly present a very difficult problem to which there is only one answer—speed. is r e c o g n i z e d as tne m o s t c o m p l e t e a n d i m p o r t a n t work 3. A s m a n y of her drawings are kept G a r d e n s .7 3 in 3 1 p a r t s . S h e also o f thousands o f contributed an drawings. H e r Drawings of British Plants. Line Drawing of Cypripedium calceolus L c." This line drawing is one of 1. a n d he inspired.49 C H A R L E S RENNIE MACKINTOSH Scottish a r c h i t e c t d e s i g n e r painter.

and miraculous growth. a notable portrait painter drew the faces. The first Mughal Emperor Babur's Garden of Fidelity (Bagh-e Vaja). in the early 16th century. By Muslim tradition. and Nanha. roses took their form in a bead of perspiration on the brow of Mohammed as he passed through his heavenly journey. Drawing. Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity c. They used a fine brush to lay pigment over a line drawing. Opposite is the Rose of Mohammed. the sumptuous petals permeated with prayer and wisdom. painting. 1590 85/8 x55/8in (219 x 1 4 4 mm) BISHNDAS AND NANHA Bright pigment These pages were illuminated by Mughal artists in the late 16th century. is remembered in the pages of his journal. and calligraphy are brought together to hold the sacred names of prophets and the 99 beautiful names of God. Every fiber of AMONG DRAWINGS FROM BISHNDAS A N D N A N H A Little is known of these Mughal painters who were related as uncle and nephew and commissioned to illustrate the pages of Babur's journal. in miniature. . Envoys chatter outside the gate. and attention to detail are all shared with medieval European manuscript drawings. Babur directs his gardeners in the design and planting of this quartered chahar bagh.50 PLANTS AND GARDENS Jeweled Gardens the Middle East we find exquisite stylization of form and upright formality in pictorial space. Bishndas was probably responsible for the overall design. Afghanistan. which he personally created near Kabul. fluctuations in scale. The white of the page shines through the brilliant color. anticipating their view. Upright shallow perspectives. paper is brimming with the beauty and celebration of nature. Below. urgent attentive human activity. uniform focus.

c e n t u r y Turkish manuscnpt a book of religious e t h i c s w r i t t e n in the O r i e n t a l C o l l e c t i o n s of Berlin. G e r m a n y . look closely and you will see words written in gold fluttering over the form of the flower. It is n o w k e p t in Border The elegant border of this drawing was mode with a pen and ruler It cleverly compresses and defines the composition. so that overlapping petals and stems give an impression of fulfillment and abundance. The physical anatomy of the rosebud has been studied and translated into a repeated stylized motif. t h e Staatsbibliothek zu Arabic. Stylized motif A fine brush has been used throughout this drawing to apply inks and watercolors. Note how each bud is essentially the same shape.AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH This is a detail o f a page from a n 1 8 t h . However. fragmenting its detail in a whisper of prayers. Sacred words The central rose is more solid than any other on the page. The Rose of Mohammed 1708 9 1 / 2 x 61/2 in ( 2 4 0 x 1 6 5 mm) FROM THE TURKISH M A N U S C R I P T AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH . and how the shape has been repeated freehand.

52

PLANTS AND GARDENS

Fast Trees
IN CONTRAST TO THE QUIET, formal detail of other drawings in this chapter, these powerful fast trees enact the actions of plants. Each tree reaches out and holds its landscape with dynamism and pulse. In both drawings we find testament to the inexorable energy of growth. Rembrandt expresses a delicate quickness. Gentle lines draw a warm breeze through this remote wooded garden. Rustling in a loose foliage of soft marks, his pen evokes the weight of abundant activity on this late summer's day. Mondrian's arch of scratching branches is drawn with such force it will always be alive. We can still feel his hand storming across the paper. Set within a frame of smudged landscape, the tree possesses a musical agitation. This characteristic will increase in the artist's later abstract work. Here, we see a punctuated ordering of space. Sharp branches cut out negative shapes of winter sky.

R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter; etcher; and draftsman. Rembrandt's prolific output comprises oil paintings of historical and religious subjects together with group and self- portraits. His emotive etchings and pen and ink drawings (see also p. 174) are great resources for artists learning to understand the potential of these media.

Horizon

Pen and ink lines describing foliage also tell

us the directions of sunlight and wind. An arc crossing the bottom of the drawing from one side to the other supports the scene and separates us from the landscape beyond. Compare Rembrandt's arc to that of Mondrian's. and note the similar treatment of low horizons in both works emphasizing the height and dominance of trees.

Cottage Among Trees 1648-50 63/4 x121/8in ( I 7 I x 308 mm) R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN

53

FAST TREES

PIET

MONDRIAN

Atmosphere Here we see how shapes of negative space are as important as the physical subject they enclose (see pp.58-59). Mondrian has again lightly dragged his chalk on its side to evoke a wet depth of atmosphere. These passive gray marks contrast with the assertive tension of the tree.

Dutch Pure abstract painter preoccupied w i t h line and plane relationships. W i t h increasing austerity, Mondrian banished t h e subject from his drawings, in his later w o r k he also banished space, composing visual h a r m o n i e s using only straight lines a n d flat planes o f black, w h i t e , gray, o r p r i m a r y color.

Winter ground Short vertical marks along thebottomof this drawing reveal the length oftheblackchalk Mondrian used. Rubbed onitsside,itroughly blocks in the ground. Thecrudeeconomy of line is all we need tofeelthecold, wet, unwelcoming quality ofthiswinterearth.

Branches and trunk Lines shaping the branches of the tree are built up in layers. To make the trunk more dense, the artist has rubbed and smudged preliminary marks with his fingers before firmly overdrawing with new lines. Solid black lines are achieved by pressing the chalk hard. When used lightly, it shows the texture of the paper. Tree: Study for the Grey 1911 23 x 335/8 in ( 5 8 4 x 8 5 5 m m ) Tree

PIET MONDRIAN

54

PLANTS AND GARDENS

Graphite and Erasers
GRAPHITE, FROM THE G R E E K word

USING GRAPHITE
This drawing illustrates a range of achieved with graphite pencils of different grades.

graphein

Modern pencils are graded from 9H (hard and pale) to 9B (black and soft). Graphiteclay sticks are also available, together with a powder form. All possess a natural sheen and are erasable to a varying degree. Graphite drawings smudge easily, so fixative, a form of varnish, can be used to hold a drawn surface in place. It is applied as a fine mist from an aerosol can, or from a bottle using a diffuser. For the beginner, ordinary hairspray is an effective and cheaper alternative.

(to write), is a soft and brittle carbon. It was first mined in Cumbria, England, in 1 5 6 4 , and was initially used in small, pure pieces bound in lengths of string. Pencils as we know them—with their slender wood casing and "lead" of graphite—were invented in France in 1794 by Nicolas-Jaques Conte. He discovered that milled graphite mixed with clay and water, press-molded, and baked to a high temperature produces a harder and paler medium than graphite alone.

3B pencil A range of mark and textures can be achieved with a 3B pencil when you vary its pressure, speed, and direction, as this detail shows.

MATERIALS
Here is a selection of 14 items to illustrate a basic range of pencils, graphite sticks, sharpeners, erasers, and fixative.
1. AND 2. HB AND 3B PENCILS: It is unnecessary to possess every grade of pencil. HB, the central and most common grade, is perfect for making delicate lines. 3B gives a blacker tone. A great variety of effects can be achieved with just these two. 3. WATER-SOLUBLE PENCIL Effective for atmospheric drawing, but be aware of how watery tones can dull the impact of the line. 4. AND 5. MECHANICAL PENCIL Thick or fine leads are made in a range of grades. They are particularly useful because they do not require a sharpener 6. ROUND SOLID GRAPHITE PENCIL: Excellent for large-scale drawing, producing thick bold lines. A range of grades can be honed with a craft knife or sharpener 7. THICK GRAPHITE STICK: For large-scale drawing. Graded soft, medium, and hard. It crushes to produce graphite powder 8. SQUARE GRAPHITE STICK: Useful for making broad, sweeping marks in large-scale drawing. If worn and rounded, the stick can be snapped into pieces to regain the sharp, square end. 9. CRAFT KNIFE AND BLADES: Handles are sold in two sizes to fit large or small blades, and blades are sold in a range of shapes. Perfect for sharpening pencils to a long point, to cut lines in paper or to remove areas. 10. PENCIL SHARPENER: Makes a uniform point. Keep one in your pocket for drawing outside the studio, together with an envelope for shavings.

HB and 5B Layers of tone have been built up withHBand5Bpencils. Softer pencils require less pressure to make a mark, revealing the texture of the paper surface. It is important to keep the point of the pencil sharp with either a craft knife or a sharpener.

55

ERASING AND FIXING
Erasers can be used t o blend and s o f t e n lines, o r t o r e m o v e altogether. Fixative them prevents

GRAPHITE AND ERASERS

s m u d g i n g a n d s e c u r e s lines.

Using fixative You can use fixative while drawing to hold the definition of lines you wish to gently fade but not remove entirely, for which you would use an eraser.

11. P L A S T I C E R A S E R : Avoid cheap colored erasers that may stain drawings with grease and dye. White brands are available in soft and hard versions.

12.

P U T T Y RUBBER:

W a r m it in your hand before use. It is excellent for removing powdery materials, and for making crisp sweeps of light across a delicate pencil drawing

13. D I F F U S E R : Helleborus corsicus (Corsican hellebore) fixative, or to spray mists of ink.

56

PLANTS AND GARDENS

Cropping and Composition
M A N Y STUDENTS WILL START a d r a w i n g i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e

that its skin nearly touches the boundary. The meaning of the same drawing changes simply by its relationship to the space it occupies. The size of any subject, its placement on the page, the size of the page, and its overall proportion are all discrete and essential aspects of successful picture-making. Before you begin to draw, think carefully about where to place your subject. Are you are happy with your paper? If not, change it; add more, take some away, or turn it around. Do not just accept what you are given, adapt it to what you need.

paper. Focused on the shape and detail of their subject, they remain happily unaware that there is, or should be, any relationship between what they are drawing and the surface they are drawing it on. The paper is only paper, and the troublesome subject floats somewhere in the expanse of it. However, a single fig drawn in the middle of a large, empty square of paper gives quite a different impression from the same fig drawn on such an intimately small square

CHOOSING A VIEW

A Single Fig

"The size, shape, and orientation of the paper are so integral to the composition that they determine the impact and meaning of the drawing."

t h e n m o v e t h e c a r d t o e x p l o r e different views. spaces between things are as important as the things themselves. When subjects touch two or more edges. a device to help you decide what t o draw. and lines describing shadows cast by the fruit . they establish a tension and unity with the paper. Here the left fig is attached to. its illumination. running corner t o corner. Touching the edge When the subject o f a drawing touches one edge of the paper it attaches t o it visually.O u r focus is on the white cloth supporting the figs. A card with a small rectangle cut out o f it makes a useful viewfinder C l o s e o n e e y e t o look through the hole. U s e it as a starting point. the uppermost edge of the drawing. its stem and shadow framing a white center. bottom-left t o top-right. The angle of the fruit together with dark shadow (top left) and bright light(bottom right) suggest a diagonal division across the whole drawing.57 THE VIEWFINDER T h e s e pencil drawings o f figs d e m o n s t r a t e different crops and compositions. This drawing hasbeencropped to emphasize space between thefruit. as also shown here. Space as the subject Inallpictures. CROPPING AND COMPOSITION Off-center and diagonal Here I held my viewfinder so the fig appeared upper-left in the space. and therefore apparently suspended from.

58 PLANTS AND GARDENS Negative Space UNCONSCIOUSLY WE ASSESS spatial relationships all the time to guide ourselves through the world. not leaves. their subject and composition will become more real. In your own version. then added a second shape. It is an astonishingly simple device that many artists use and I strongly recommend. fourth. and a fresh page in your drawing book. Draw a complete shape Map outward from the center Erase and adjust lines until correct . But how often do we look at the air between things. Remember that plants do move! Therefore it is best to complete your drawing in one sitting if possible. you will need a similar large-leaved plant. dynamic. which is shown in the three steps below.The box opposite isolates an area. rather than what you see in front of you. Viewers appreciating a finished image may not see shapes of space. shapes of air cut out and defined by the physicality of our environment? When we look into the branches of a tree. tone. It helps to start at the center and map outward. position. but if the artist does. a sharp H B pencil. Unfamiliar shapes of negative space reveal the real shape of a positive subject. third. In following this class. WHERE TO START Arrange your plant and paper so you can look back and forth by barely moving your head. and engaging. Looking at negative space overrides the problem of drawing what you know. an eraser. do we see myriad distinct and unique shapes of daylight or do we just see branches? Why as artists should we look at the air? Every space in a picture has a shape. remember to draw only space. this ensures a consistent view. erasing and adjusting lines until itlooked right. unified. and so on. Follow these from left to right and see how I began with one complete shape between two parts of a leaf. Negative space is the simple key to getting positive shape right. a foundation stone in picture-making. The drawing opposite is of the uppermost leaves of a potted fig tree. and a role to play.

59

Here I drew only spaces, adding one to another until the leaves were revealed. Besides looking at negative space, there are two other useful things to do when a drawing feels wrong but you cannot see why: look at it in a mirror or turn it upside down. errors and suggest changes.

Spaces between leaves

Either view will

NEGATIVE SPACE

Fig Tree
WALKING IN THE ALPUJARRAS in A n d a l u c i a ,

Spain, I drew a bare fig tree clinging to the wall of an almond grove; a perfect subject for seeing negative space. I marked its essential frame of large branches first, frequently erasing lines and changing my mind until the balance felt right.

S a l v i a , RIBES, CLEMATIS, Allium, Passiflora, and Acanthus

Summer Flowers

Alchemilla,

drawn with an H pencil by observing the

negative spaces between the stems, petals, and leaves. I arranged the flowers on a sheet of paper in a cool r o o m and rapidly sketched a composition. Then I put them in water, taking the stems out one at a time to draw.

.

We never see everything at once. Excessive detail leaves no space for the eye to rest or imagination to wander. they emulate our experience of seeing. our eyes travel and adjust from one point of focus to another. . If an artist changes the pace of their line and focus of their attention. interfolding points of detail with areas of loose suggestion. Compare changes of pace and focus here to the flatter finish of Summer Flowers (see pp.Acanthus Spinosus As we LOOK AROUND. 62-63). gathering less distinct information on the way.

.

and in the 19th century it was given the name the Golden Section. and architects of ancient Greece who first pursued the formula for "divine proportion. from political commentary to musical abstraction. Computer programs allow the virtual drawing of ideas. drawing plans around themselves within a program as opposed to on a flat sheet of paper. architects and designers can imaginatively "climb inside" three-dimensional space and. European conventions of pictorial perspective have lost their monopoly on seeing. designers. and computer game imaging. 74-75). to help them create new form. It was the mathematicians. they have the Golden Section. film-set design. At the core of their practice." reflecting the eye's love of unity in difference. philosophers. of the west facade of St Augustin. was preserved into the Renaissance where it became a foundation stone for thinking and creativity From 15thcentury Italy. It is the focus of practical class in this chapter. made by the architect himself. balance. they also have a diagrammatic language for communicating plans to builders. fine artists. which can be clearly seen in ancient Greek architecture. coupled with the importance of exercizing your imagination. Since Picasso and Braque's revolution of Cubism in around 1907. and writers have been breaking away from traditional forms of representation to seek new expressions of shape. time. Augustin. and sound. Linear perspective is a marvelous device. It was also during the Renaissance that the architect Brunelleschi invented linear perspective. add and subtract ideas.Architecture I N THE CONTEMPORARY PRACTICES of architecture. Among the drawings of this chapter we look from 17th-century ecclesiastical calm. VICTOR BALTARD French architect employed by the city of Paris. composers. mass. space. to 20th-century film fantasy. we find the most recent steps in the evolution of graphic language. filmmakers. Besides sketches of first thoughts and polished drawings of the finished look for clients. which was the first church in the capital to be built entirely of metal and then clad in stone. invaluable to understand and apply when you choose. each VICTOR BALTARD . and from West Facade of the Church of St Augustin. with gray and brown watercolor wash. Through the animation of the screen. Paris 1871-74 the child's view to the infinity of the vanishing point. once there. Perhaps in the sheer planes of some of our greatest modern buildings it is finding its clearest expression.The church is still in use today. Baltard designed the Church of St. Architects have been fine-tuning their specialized branch of drawing for centuries. architects. This harmony.This is a pencil drawing. the device that has since governed most of our picture-making (sec pp. the formula for perfection spread through Europe. Since the first flowering of Modernism in the early 20th century. Yet the pursuit of divine proportion and harmony remains.

1711-12 NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR . Three aspects This subtle and sophisticated drawing made in pen and wash displays three distinct aspects of Hawksmoor's baptistry. Together they explain how interior structure and space define exterior form and shape. The photograph opposite shows his studio hung with metal pendulums. Blenheim Palace. Hawksmoor's drawing is both a plan and an evocation. a three-dimensional drawing made with wires and weights. Cut-away interior On the right a section cut through the center of the building reveals material thicknesses. and labor. materials. Lines define structure while washes suggest light and atmosphere. and six London churches. testing gravity to calculate the inverted shapes of domes. he also worked on St Paul's Cathedral. and balance. NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR One of Britain's "three great" Baroque architects (along with Sir Christopher Wren and Sir John Vanbrugh). and ultimately to show builders what to do. calculate function. Hampton Court Palace. Gaudi's fluid architecture grew up through many kinds of drawing. We see the modeled detail of Corinthian columns. Hawksmoor established his reputation with university and church architecture including All Souls College. Architects draw for many reasons: to visualize ideas. pilasters. and Castle Howard. Pillars and floor At the base of the drawing a compass-drawn plan tilted downward through 90 degrees illustrates the arrangement of pillars around a central circular floor. Finished surface On the left the finished surface of the building is given depth and emphasis by immaculate vertical and horizontal brush strokes of shadow. densely layered lines in mists of color weave the presence of the expected building into shape. and an inscribed entablature. describe a finished look to a client.68 ARCHITECTURE Master Builders EVERY NEW BUILDING. relative levels. embodying a massive investment of ideas. and the shapes of interior domes and apses. Oxford. and later an assistant to Vanbrugh. A student of Wren's. St Paul's Baptistry c. Below it. marks the end of a long journey from the first few marks the architect made on a sheet of paper. structure. evoke presence. Drawings underpin every great human-made structure like hidden linear ghosts at their core.

1910 24x181/4( 6 1 0 x 4 7 5mm) A N T O N I O GAUDI . Gaudi's cathedral in Barcelona. To the right isawatercolordrawing thought to havebeenmade over a photograph ofthemodelabove. The Art Nouveau movement. churches. unique organic manipulation of high shapes. Guell Crypt of its at the Time Construction c. This sculptural drawingenvisionsthe finished crypt glowingandethereal as if caught in thelightof red morning sun. light.69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt c. Wire and watercolor three-dimensional preferred to calculate Above is a drawing form in the made withlinkedwires and weights. and apartment homes are distinguished by their Their and Flowering curves of stone or concrete are often encrusted with Gaudi was inspired by medieval and oriental art. Gaudi air than on paper. 1900 ANTONIO GAUDI ANTONIO GAUDI Visionary Catalan architect. embellishment. and his love of music.

such a rapport in both of these drawings. and dotted lines. Visual rhythms In the lower half of this drawing architectural language has broken loose: escaped and transformed into an image of rebellious pleasure. p. flat boards. Floor plan This drawing has been made with a rapidograph.223). short curved poles. Libeskind's numerous commissions include concert halls and museums. been a natural affinity between the visual rhythms of pictures and the audible rhythms of music. Satie draws quietly throughout. and exhibitions of his drawings. Contemporary musicians commonly collaborate with artists by interpreting images as sound. We can imagine how a musician might interpret this drawing by looking at the abstract visual rhythms of masses composed of long straight poles. while the composer Erik Satie has made an enclosure of quiet order and grace. theater sets. Across the top and center right of the image w e perceive an almost recognizable architectural plan. upright pictorial space. He also contributed to plans for the rebuilding of the World Trade Center site in New York. and in a sense hear. He also produces urban and landscape designs. before cascading into a riot of line and sound below. There has always DANIEL LIBESKIND A Polish American architect of international acclaim. and arched dotted lines depict the radius of doors. Libeskind begins quietly in the upper space of his drawing. Libeskind studied music before transferring to architecture. Floor space appears divided by discernible walls. We can see. The architect and musician Daniel Libeskind has drawn a stampeding cacophany of airborne architectural detail. corridors. Arctic Flowers 1980 DANIEL LIBESKIND . Both men used rulers and pens to carefully and slowly construct their compositions.70 ARCHITECTURE The Order of Sound B O T H OF THESE VISIONARY DRAWINGS o c c u p y a s l e n d e r . a refillable pen that feeds a constant supply of ink through a fine tubular nib. and the spaces between his windows and turrets are the visual equivalent of pauses in h i s m u s i c c o m p o s i t i o n s for p i a n o (see also Bussotti. and rooms. installations.

lived a l o n e . a n d ballet. o f which he was the sole m e m b e r Parcel paper Satie has drawn this fantasy hotel using a ruler. They definespaceand pictorial balance.56—57 we discussed important the shape. and ink on a fragment folded brown paper—a of everyday happened material of scrap that to be at hand.ERIK SATIE F r e n c h pianist and c o m p o s e r for t h e piano.50. effectively additional lines in a work. minimalist s c o r e s scandalized a u d i e n c e s with o r c h e s t r a t i o n s f o r t h e foghorn and typewriter. Hotel de la Suzonnieres c. andfouredges of the paper tothecompositionand impact animage. the perimeter Composition Look how well this drawingfitsand resonates with the upright.Edges are how are of orientation. 1 8 9 3 77/8 x 51/2 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 4 0 mm) ERIK SATIE .H i s witty. H e p e r f o r m e d in cabarets. and founded his o w n church. a conventional dip or fountain pen. Satie collaborated w i t h hisfriends J e a n C o c t e a u a n d P i c a s s o . dressed eccentrically. Onpp. Eastern influence The upright image Eastern is reminiscent and medieval of Middle pictorial space and subject of this European drawing. theater.narrowshape of its paper. Compare the even and and the shape wall to the elegantly stylized order of the many windows of arrangement of details and the shape of the wall in Babur's Garden of Fidelity on p.

made in 1926. Boullee lived in Paris. and dramatic lighting. ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE French architectural theorist. cylinders. We glide over exquisitely drawn wastelands of damage and abandonment.The lower-left section of the building appears relatively pale against a darker sky. experiencing a fascinating conflict between curiosity and desolation. His celebrated imaginary buildings are characterized by pyramids. Boullee's monolithic apparition was drawn as a monument to Sir Isaac Newton. arched vaults. antlike mortals might have speculated upon the universe. the ominous globe exists only as a series of drawings. we find other Utopian visions Paul Nobles epic drawing summons an imperfect and disturbing township where ruin and activity are equal and strange. This shift makes the cenotaph appear three-dimensional. and the reverse is true on the right. Art director Erich Kettlehut's vertiginous design for the city of a slavelike populace had a future influence on movies such as Blade Runner. This is the work of an architectural theoretician. and taught at t h e A c a d e m i e d'Architecture.72 ARCHITECTURE T H E S E T H R E E HIGHLY DETAILED DRAWINGS Future Fictions invite us to soaring above normal life. spheres. Newton's Cenotaph 1784 153/4 x 25 in ( 4 0 2 x 635 m m ) ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE . Within it. and draftsman.96. Among preparations for Fritz Langs film Metropolis. painter. enter the long-shadowed architecture of imaginary worlds. Light illusions This pen-and-wash drawing shows a subtle application of the principles of illumination demonstrated with an egg on p.

Building shapes are works can be read as text. together with c i n e m a t o g r a p h e r Karl Freund. Kettlehut drew using a fine and relatively dry brush dipped in black. Fritz Lang's Metropolis c. and are Graphite shapes Nobson Central isoneof a series of very large graphite drawings of the spoil and detritus of Nobson Newtown. used forced perspective camera t e c h n i q u e s t o amplify t h e m a g n i t u d e o f buildings in relation t o human characters. Kettlehut and his c o . Working on toned paper such as this gives an artist greater scope for dramatic lighting effects than if they work on white paper. Its sheerscaleengulfs the viewer and demands based time and patience to on letters and in some beread.m a k e r In t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f Metropolis. gray. and m o d e l . and white ink on brown-gray paper. mythology. FUTURE FICTIONS Brush and ink This is a dramatic drawing from a film that shaped the history of world cinema. Nobson Central 9 ft 1 0 in x 1 3 f t 2 in (3 x 4 m ) PAUL N O B L E 1998-99 . draftsman. intensely detailed graphite drawings explaining and questioning t h e geography. and morality o f an invented place called His satires exhibited w o r l d w i d e .a r t director O t t o Hunte. Nobson political visions of humanity Newtown.73 ERICH KETTLEHUT Influential film a r t director. architecture. 1926 ERICH KETTLEHUT PAUL N O B L E British c o n t e m p o r a r y artist who creates m o n u m e n t a l .

Invented by Italian artist and architect Brunelleschi in 1413 (late in the history of art).74 ARCHITECTURE Pathways of Sight LINEAR PERSPECTIVE (also called vanishing-point perspective) is a simple device for calculating the relative size of things in pictorial space. Piranesi an example of two. inventors. and those of Naive artists and children. scientists. Here Leonardo provides a superb example of a single vanishing point. Pull the thread taut and rotate it slowly above the drawing. but is most easily seen and understood in pictures of buildings and interiors. It can be applied to any subject. and inventions— essential reading for inquiring minds. Single-point perspective Tie a thread to a pin. In his notebooks. and age eight. It is also distinguished from aerial perspective (see pp. Press the pin into Leonardo's vanishing point. found at the center of all converging lines. this perspective is often an imagined bird's-eye view in which details are mapped according to logic and importance rather than how they might appear in real life. Note how architectural features conform to lines and how human figures diminish in size toward thevanishingpoint. All forms of perspective are of equal value. and thinkers ever to have lived. Leonardo recorded constant streams of ideas. See how the thread corresponds to each converging line. 206-07). Study of Perspective Adoration of the for the Magi 1481 61/2 x111/2in (165 x 290 mm) LEONARDO DA VINCI . I contribute the child's perspective. We use it to structure illusions of depth. LEONARDO DA VINCI One of the greatest artists. linear perspective is distinct from more ancient systems practiced in the East. observations. Sometimes shared with Naive artists.

Scale Our farmhouse my experience was in the woods. Mark these points with your pin and follow the converging lines of the drawing by rotating your thread. visionary and practical understanding of ancient Rome.SARAH SIMBLET I made this drawing (at age 8) in response to a local bookstore's request for children to draw their village. 1740 5 1 / 2 x 83/8 in (141 x 212 mm) G I O V A N N I B A T T I S T A PIRANESI points are located on either side of the drawing. architect. Breamore Village. New Forest. Two-point perspective Sunlight through this colonnade a great example of two-point perspective. a points in logical narrative of memories. which I saw from home every day. and theoretical writing strongly influenced neoclassicism. England 1980 9 x 16 in (228 x 405 mm) S A R A H SIMBLET GIOVANNI BATTISTA PIRANESI Italian artist. including all they recall about the subject. Lightly marked illuminates vanishing Two Courtyards c. issues of scale when making room for important their story. This drawing Young children typically maps ignore on and understanding of the nearby village. at the top of each lateral column base. Note the rather large rabbits and pheasants the hills. It shows how children usually map large scenes in flat layers one above the other. . Children are uninhibited and problems with one element being obscured by another rarely arise. and designer Piranesi's prolific architectural drawings.

Erase the dotted construction lines. this is your vanishing point. draw a horizon line across your paper Mark a spot on the horizon line. This ensures that the second rectangle aligns with the shape and 4 Draw four short lines to connect the four corners of the two rectangles.98 for an important note on oscillation. Leonardo began with a grid of many lines within which he invented his scene. using a sharp HB pencil and ruler. try composing your own space. discovering the image as it progressed. Surround the vanishing point with a small rectangle. Draw four dotted lines radiating out from the vanishing point. (See p. Study these pages first before embarking on this lesson. Piranesi planned his drawing with only the essential lines needed. Extend each dotted line to the edge of your drawing. 2 3 corners must each touch a dotted line. you will amplify the illusion of distance. DRAWING BOXES 1 Using a ruler and a sharp HB pencil. Each line should pass through one corner of the rectangle. corresponding to a single vanishing point. This is where we will begin. Draw each step over the preceding one to build up a single image. You have completed your first box. In contrast.) . imagine. On the previous page we looked at its essential mechanism through drawings by Leonardo and Piranesi.76 ARCHITECTURE Single-Point Perspective MASTERING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE i s e a s i e r t h a n y o u m a y First read through. then follow the ten steps below. Note that if you place large structures in the foreground and smaller ones closer to your vanishing point. This lesson shows you how to make a simple illusion of space defined by two boxes and three flat boards. Next.

Continue the dotted lines out toward the edge of your drawing. the closer it will appear to the viewer. The larger you make your second rectangle. bottom.willhelptomake them appear more solid.asIhavedonehere. The four comers must each touch a dotted line to be sureitaligns with the first. Connect this to the vanishing point— again. N e x t draw a slanting line to mark the height of the first flat board.77 SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE 5 Draw a new rectangle. with two dotted lines. 8 Complete the second box with short lines as in step 4. draw four dotted lines radiating from your vanishing point Pass these through each comer of the new rectangle. Repeat this to add two more boards to the composition. Note that this does not surround the vanishing point In the future. draw a second. . 6 As in step 2. 9 Use dotted lines connecting the slanting linetothe vanishing point to locate the top. 1 0 Erase all ofthedottedlinestoseeyourfinishedboxes Thickeningtheiredges. 7 As in step 3. The board's sides should be parallel. and erase the dotted lines. you can place rectangles anywhere youwishin relation to a vanishing point. when inventing your own compositions. larger rectangle. andfarside of this first board.

" . 7 4 ) . it will take you places you never dreamed of. it is interaction that makes the work richer. you will find white adhesive stationery labels are useful for covering errors or changing the direction of your idea. It highlights the importance of having faith in your imagination and trusting your ability to invent. Every work talks In this class. once said: "I never end up with what I set out to do. As David Lynch. draw a b o x as shown opposite. artist and film director. I always start with a script but I don't follow it all the way through to the end. let simple lines suggest a simple space. p . The m i s t a k e n belief that we s h o u l d k n o w exactly what o u r finished drawings will l o o k like before we m a k e t h e m prevents many people from ever starting. O n a fresh page in your d r a w i n g b o o k . Linear perspective will support y o u by providing a frame in which to b u i l d your picture as it did for Leonardo. Then follow the three given steps. A lot more happens when you open yourself up to the work and let yourself act and react to it." imaginary room. w h e t h e r it is a film or a painting. APPLYING PERSPECTIVE An Imagined Scaffold "Enjoy your illusion as you make it and it will become more real. then let the space suggest its c o n t e n t s and purpose. If using a fibertip pen as I have done for this drawing.78 ARCHITECTURE Creating an Imaginary Space T H I S CLASS USES SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE t o c r e a t e a s i m p l e to you and if you listen to it.

you will beableto draw more complex objects orpeoplewithin them. 3 Remove the construction lines with an eraser and the room will becomeclearer. parallel planes such as walls converge toward the vanishing point. CREATING AN IMAGINARY SPACE 1First. With some practice. 2 first before adding furniture.Addanarray of converging lines to provide a "scaffold" for vertical.drawthehorizonlineand vanishingpoint.79 DRAWING A SIMPLE ROOM Essentials t o remember: objects and people dimmish in size as they move farther away.There is great pleasure tobefoundin spending time inventing interiors. The space has become more solid and real. and leaning surfaces. and floors and ceilings also converge and rise o r lower toward the horizon. . horizontal. Here. This initial space will be transparent and open to change. additional lines have established the different surfaces and how they relate to each other.

Here. T h i s is d e m o n s t r a t e d immediately below. a n d this is how we have drawn them so far (see pp. Further aspects of three-point perspective are also illustrated opposite. That is where we e to find them. The boxes drawn here are seen partly or entirely disassociated from a horizon line drawn across the bottom of the image. showing y o u h o w to draw curved surfaces and a tiled floor. Only when y o u might employ t h r e e . Elaborations . 76-79). From our normal eye level. T h i n k of standing at the top of a skyscraper and imagine h o w its parallel sides would appear to converge below you. but they are not confined to this level. T h e y d o n o t have to relate to each other. To draw such a view APPLICATION Copy these drawings to see and feel how they work before inventing your own versions.p o i n t perspective ( s h o w n opposite top). or low and we look u p . Free vanishing points On paper we can enjoy the freedom of fantastic structural invention without limitations of solid materials or gravity. These elaborations could continue indefinitely across a sheet of paper in pursuit of complex and intricate ideas. do verticals appear inclined. I have elaborated on the simple boxes above. o r to the h o r i z o n . located anywhere inside or outside the pictorial space. Potentially. Search for the application of these perspectives among works by other artists in this book and in galleries. they can be placed anywhere inspaceto describe the perspective of flyi c tilted objects. Copying what you see in the work of others will help you to understand what they have done. our eye level is very high and we look down. They could be drawn on any scale from miniature to monumental. verticals appear p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the g r o u n d .80 ARCHITECTURE Further Aspects of Perspective W E ARE ACCUSTOMED TO SEEING our e n v i r o n m e n t from a relatively constant point of view. Vanishing points are commonly found on horizon—our eye level. It is important to realize that you can have as many vanishing points as you wish.

tostraightlines can amplify drama in a picture. PERSPECTIVE Three-point curves Here. by adding a third point you can achieve a sense of incline.Istarted with two parallel lines.Finally. useful for representing steep views looking up or down tall structures. Giving curvature. they mark the corners of the floor tiles. An array of curved lines (drawn freehand) link the two lateral points.75. Three-point checkered floor This d bottom floor.I added horizontal lines t o define the tiles. Where thelinescross. (Turn the book around to see a view looking up. and therefore tension. I marked the toplinewith three evenly spaced points and the line with seven. Iusedthese lines as a guide t o draw the curvature of boxes and panels flying through space. three vanishing points are evenly spaced along a horizon line. Note that altering the distance between the three dots above will tilt the level of the floor .81 FURTHER ASPECTS OF Three-point towers This drawing depicts three-point perspective. I then drew three fanned groups of lines connecting each of the three points above to the seven points below. you will see how.) By comparing this drawing t o Piranesi's example of two-point perspective on p.

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These walnut-skin ink pen and brush drawings show imagined views of theaters that do not exist but were inspired by places I studied. making drawings to resolve questions and express personal responses to the nature and history of anatomy.Theaters RESEARCHING FOR MY P H D . . I visited many anatomical theaters and museums.

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the water. .I N KDRAWING is one of a series I made while next to the Rialto Bridge in Venice.A N D .Venetian Life sitting point buildings ThisP E N . The vanishing of the drawing is directly opposite as we look across The constancy of the bridge and surrounding frames the movement in the life that flows past.

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T h e Industrial Revolution c h a n g e d the traditional w a y s in w h i c h objects were designed. that test our logic with a sense of mystery. of light in the creation of pictorial illusions. It is shaped in sections w i t h Artists have for centuries studied and expressed composition. have often carried great weights of allegorical once. and the behavior of light through making still-life paintings and together. 1493 117/8c81/4in (300 x 210 m m ) LEONARDO D A V I N Ccreating I . and the way in w h i c h the brain reacts Head and Neck Sections of Female Mold for the Sforza Horse to visual stimulus and optical illusions. each demanding more of the other as they increased in sophistication. W e also explore v o l u m e and form in the classes by spinning lines to make vessels. texture. Birds follow instinct to make a nest. hooked bars that can be pulled and tied closely form. design. or drawing w e see Leonardo daVinci'sprecision as can be given meaning. sculpted. making a clear instruction t o his bronzemeaning. History will be learned from the artifacts w e leave behind. to record an observed detail. C o m m o n items. In past eras. Artists and actors use the meanings of things to communicate a speculative mechanic. even more advanced drawings are made on computers. drawings were needed to instruct workers on the factory floor. from s p o o n s and pens to chairs and bicycles. or used on stage hood for a mold t o make theheado f a horse f oas a p r o p — i m b u e d with e n o u g h energy or character can "become" a man. illuminating snail shells. for example. T h e precision of engineering d r a w i n g s e v o l v e d alongside machine tools. Previously. we look at the importance are the only creatures on Earth w h o actually design and create great ranges of things. too. r an equestrian statue. drawing c. planned. Artists also make images of objects that can never exist. but humans LEONARDO DA VINCI Inthisbeautiful red chalk Our items all have a purpose—practical or ornamental—and all have a meaning. Technical drawing was speedily developed as a meticulous international code of m e a s u r e m e n t and explanation. craftsmen had held plans in their memory. H e has described contour and function at drawings. passing them on to others through the act of making. and some apes use simple tools. A chair. In this chapter. It was in this era that the blueprint was born. color. Engineers and designers of our objects and instruments make drawings for many reasons: to test an idea that is yet to be made. With the sudden onset of mass production.Objects and Instruments T HE THINGS WE INVENT describe our lives. and made. and a wire violin. are all made bearing the signature of our time and place. Today. for example—whether. these. or to explain and present a finished concept to a client. H e has described a casting through metaphor. drawn. fictional realities caster of h o w t o make it andhowit will w o r k .

One of the great joys of this movement in art is the musicality of its multipoint view. and glass objects of exquisite elegance for only the gentlest of touch and appreciation. . not to work in harmony. representing still life. silverware. His work is characterized by calm and harmonious still-life compositions.Braque marshals all the forces of perspective. T h i s is a designers drawing made to enthuse surface and style in its delicate brushing of china.73 x 1 m) GEORGES BRAQUE . Braque established Cubism in partnership with Picasso just before World War I. but to clash in virtual deadlock. "I believe [it] is the most radicalattempttostampout ambiguity and to enforce one readingofthepicture—that of a manmade construction. and shading. Clashes The art historian Ernst Gombrich said of Cubism.. There is a fragile eloquence to these objects as they drift in slow motion past our gaze. wood-look wallpaper. still feel this projected moment. steaming with music and conversation. Mucha's drawing glistens with possession. He takes us into the bustle of the Paris cafe. Below. and a journal jacket with words makes this drawing chatter about the moment. texture. perfect i n their newly made availability. Braques "justly" arranged combination of cut black card. a colored canvas.90 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS Still Life THESE DRAWINGS REVEAL t w o o p p o s i t e m o t i v a t i o n s i n we can. Even today GEORGES BRAQUE French painter who as a young man was influenced by the work of the Fauves and of Cezanne. Opposite. Braques image is a Cubist collage." La Cuitare. not of place but of things. charcoal. Statue D'Epouvante 1913 2 f t 5 in x 3 ft 5 in (0..

The three plates facing us were drawn with a compass. and fish have been outlined using a sharp pencil. Chicago.ALPHONSE MUCHA Czech graphic artist and painter who worked in Prague. Background color Between the delicate shadows and highlights of these glazed and surfaces ofthebackground metal color of the Mucha we see a large amount paper. Look at the two spoons at toprightand see how has suggested that they are so brilliantly shiny they reflect the background color. Art Nouveau curling motifs of birds. Pans. Art Nouveau motifs This is a preliminary study for a subsequent print. For ten years Mucha designed theater posters exclusively for the actress Sarah Bernhardt.flowers. and also stamps and bank notes. He is best known for posters featuring ethereal women in typical Art Nouveau style. Black watercolor washes and lines of white gouache have been added with a fine brush. Study for Plate 59 from "Documents Decoratifs" 17x121/4(430 x 310 mm) ALPHONSE MUCHA 1902 . He designed the Austrian pavilion for the Paris World Fair in 1900. and New York.fruit.

He counted 1 4 . offering a transparent view. Hooke's head of a drone fly seen through a microscope may represent the first time man and insect came face to face. The power of this drawing reflects the pure passion of discovery.92 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS by their very nature must gauge or chronicle precision. each reflecting a view of his own world—his window. mathematician. and the nature o f light and color. into the eyepiece. w h e r e he developed his three greatest theories: the law o f motion. Transparent view Newton's reflecting telescope focused light in a parabolic mirror. 0 0 0 perfect hemispheres. With dotted lines Newton has drawn his arrangement of elements inside the tube. Newton's 1672 ISAAC Telescope NEWTON . Newton's drawing of his first reflecting telescope is ISAAC N E W T O N English scientist. In the graphic work of these two great men of science. and his hand moving across the light. It is a diagrammatic explanation of how to catch and magnify a star in a mirrored tube. astronomer. alchemist. we see drawing Instruments of Vision found among his letters. drawing is there to pin the moment down. Newton used this instrument to calculate the speed required to escape earth's gravity. the law o f gravity. A disembodied eye at the top of the drawing indicates where to look. shape the very cause and effect of investigatory thought. and philosopher Newton was President of the Royal Society. From the concept of capturing the infinite to the mapping of microscopic sight. Look how confidently he draws with ink the sphere of this wooden globe by which his telescope rotates. each one skillfully rendered with the alarmingly matter-of-fact ease of explaining the commonplace. Their delicate construction is only as valuable as the measurements they make. via a second mirror. a tree outside. It was then reflected up inside the tube and. Ink lines Several drawings appear among Newton's letters. and Fellow of the University o f C a m b r i d g e .

Hooke invented the camera diaphragm. and anchor escarpment. and calculated the theory of combustion. a breathtaking book containing many of his drawings showing some of the first microscopic and telescopic magnifications of our environment Hooke's text and illustrations carry us to the moment of discovery. ROBERT H O O K E 93 Magnifications This acutely detailed engraved drawing is taken from Hooke's Micrographia (pub. 1665).An experimental scientist who drew many of his discoveries. The Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 1665 ROBERT HOOKE 111/2 x 105/8 in (294 x 270 mm) . universal joint a prototype respirator clock balance. It is an exhilarating read.

Its wobbly gait and squashed s y m m e t r y m u m b l e endless h o m e y tales about the life it has seen. Bench Marks W e are left a little c o n f u s e d as to what we s h o u l d do. Woodfine exhibits internationally. it has so m u c h familiar personality that it seems to talk to us.94 INSTRUMENTS W H E N WE DRAW A COMMON OBJECT like a chair. Drawn in more-or-less c o n v e n t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . while the tabs make us see a flat paper cut-out. W i t h h o m e y c o n t r a s t . Van Gogh's tipsy seat is a metaphor for an absent person. and winner of the 2004 Jerwood Drawing Prize. this chair p r e s e n t s us with a clever visual contradiction: deeply drawn shadows tell us it must be solid. its character. has published several catalogs of her work. and has drawings in numerous public and private collections. craft. each drawn with the s a m e unfaltering lines and tones that are between reality and impossibility. Two-dimensional was made This highly finished drawing ruler using a sharp pencil and on smooth white drawing paper glistening dark drawings are artificial representations of known Woodfine's two-dimensional things balanced in the world. Sarah Woodfines flat cut-out m o d e l plan is a witty and surprising drawing. and place in the world are truly seen. OBJECTS AND SARAH WOODFINE British contemporary artist graduate of the Royal Academy Schools. Chair Cut Out 2002 22'A x 23 in (565 x 585 mm) SARAH WOODFINE . From component parts we understand how to put it together and make it stand sensible in space. A renegade from the p a p e r dolls' h o u s e . and w h e r e the chair b e l o n g s .

Van Chair 1890 VINCENT VAN GOGH . not is made present in only strokes and is subdued to distract us from flat a meaningful chair. Among van Gogh's best-known canvases are Trees. and Starry Cypress Night. The floor few as engagement with the chair. what direct in their he saw and describing his felt.hehas marked the full emotion of the subject with a fierce grip of concentration. His passionate brush and pencil strokes are honest and of also turmoil and growing alarm at the world around him. drawn opposite way of plan. Cornfield and Sunflowers. inner recording while Fierce strokes This is a portrait of the mechanical drew immediately and almost harshly.95 VINCENTVAN GOGH Dutch painter who produced over 800 paintings and 850 drawings in only the last ten year's of his life.

a n d m o v e m e n t . Card experiment cho can gra on . See how its "edge" smoothly changes from light against dark to dark against light.d o w n patterns of light on our retinas. Here w e look briefly at our perception of light a n d darkness a n d our interpretation of diagrammatic illusions. atmosphere. Artists emulate and manipulate this effect in their pictures. We only need small prompts. Through these we can enjoy witnessing our o w n d e c e p t i o n a n d b a f f l e m e n t a n d u n d e r s t a n d certain factors that are very useful in picture-making. transmitted to the brain as chains of electrical impulses. Tape them to the glass.96 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Light and Illusions SEEING IS MIRACULOUS.102-03 deep shadows cast across shells make their form easier to perceive. and the proximity of contrasting tones. The rim of light on the egg is reflected light received from surrounding paper. gray. U p s i d e . The egg's darkest region is seen against a lighter background. are translated into a world of space. We will even see things that d o not exist because minimal information suggests they are likely to be there. The egg's lightest region is seen against a darker background. two identical mid-gray squares are seen against black and paler gray squares. a n d our ability to see forms in c l o u d s or fire. perhaps. a lit photograph of an egg shows essential points to observe in tonal drawing. try this experiment. The small squares are identical in tone. S o m e o n e passes our o p e n door. Here. Run The bottom-left quarter of the egg lightens slightly toward its "edge" when seen against the darker shadow cast on the paper. We perceive one to be lighter than theother.At one point you will catchenoughlight lighter than the white one. The two tones meet without a division or outline between. your eye around the circumference of the egg. On acloudyday. less developed than the center. hence our recognition of a cartoon face c o m p o s e d of three lines. form. cards the same size. The perceived tone of a black white. Three factors change it: the amount of light it receives. a n d are q u i c k to p r o p o s e ideas. think about its illumination. The outermost edge of our vision. one blackandone white. Adjust the angleofthe protruding part and again stepback. T h e slightest recognition is instantly matched to our wealth of experience a n d expectation. w e turn our head but n o one w a s there. W e learn to read light and shadow in our environment as indicators of solidity and depth of space. Below. the adjustment of our eyes (in growing accustomed to a level of light). but do not appear so. Gray squares To further examine changes in tone. To interpret visual s t i m u l u s . reads only m o v e m e n t a n d can often m a k e mistakes. or colored surface is never constant. o u r b r a i n s search for n a m e a b l e things.This effect is caused by the contrast of their surroundings. a n d we can be fooled. Below the bottom "edge" of the egg there is a rim of light reflected onto the paper by the underside of the egg. Are you happy LIGHT AND SHADOW with what you see? Does the light enhance the subject? Could you alter and improve it? On pp. Before starting a tonal drawing of any subject. From across the room both will appear black card and fold and retapeitwith half sticking out.

A n u p r i g h t line stands in t h e c e n t e r o f a h o r i z o n t a l line. Bending straight lines Linear distance These t w o jugs have b e e n d r a w n w i t h lines o f d i f f e r i n g thicknesses. Apparent lengths T h e s e optical illusions s h o w h o w lines o f identical length can b e m a d e t o l o o k quite different f r o m each o t h e r by t h e addition o r association o f o t h e r lines. In this linear drawing w e read t h i c k as closer a n d t h i n as f a r t h e r away. w h i l e t h i n n e r lines recede. In a t o n a l d r a w i n g . b u t t h e u p r i g h t o n e l o o k s t a l l e r (B). T w o horizontal lines o f equal length are m a d e t o l o o k longer and shorter. t h i c k e r l i n e s a p p e a r t o stand forward. Seven parallel lines are m a d e t o tilt t o w a r d and away f r o m each o t h e r by n u m e r o u s s h o r t strokes crossing t h e m diagonally ( A ) . start o u t w i t h one. S h o r t h o r i z o n t a l lines o f identical length are m a d e t o l o o k d i f f e r e n t by c o n v e r g i n g lines beside t h e m ( C ) . O b s e r v e h o w each white b a n d appears t h i c k e r t h a n its black c o u n t e r p a r t . B o t h are identical in length. Y o u m a y e x p e r i e n c e s o m e t h i n g similar h a p p e n i n g w h e n y o u m a k e s i n g l e . by d i r e c t e d a r r o w s ( A ) . If y o u w i s h t o m a k e a t o n a l drawing. l i g h t e r surfaces s t a n d f o r w a r d w h i l e d a r k e r s u r f a c e s recede. T h e r e is n o obligation t o a d d b l o c k s o f t o n e t o a l i n e a r d r a w i n g . In this t o n a l image w e read w h i t e as f a t t e r t h a n black. T w o relatively t h i c k parallel lines are m a d e t o b e n d away f r o m each o t h e r as t h e y pass in f r o n t o f an a r r a y o f c o n v e r g i n g f i n e lines ( B ) . respectively. T h i s fundamental o p p o s i t e is a reason w h y l i n e a r a n d t o n a l d r a w i n g does not a l w a y s c o m b i n e w e l l in t h e s a m e i m a g e . O f t e ndoingso w i l l s p o i l y o u r w o r k .p o i n t p e r s p e c t i v e d r a w i n g s w i t h a large n u m b e r o f c o n v e r g i n g rays b e h i n d y o u r horizontals. LIGHT AND ILLUSIONS Tonal width T h e s e black a n d w h i t e bands are o f equal thickness o n e i t h e r side o f t h e i r central division. T h e jug d r a w n w i t h a t h i n line appears f a r t h e r away t h a n t h e j u g d r a w n w i t h a t h i c k e r line. .97 LINE VERSUS TONE In l i n e a r d r a w i n g s .

and so calculated precisely how much to fatten columns to make them appear straight. perfected the acceleration of perspective (see pp. among others. such as t h e dish seen h e r e o n t h e left. In the 1960's. Today we are bombarded with images but rarely have difficulty reading them. o r as a s l o p i n g . such as Bridget Riley. w h e n drawing the outline o f a three-dimensional form. Two ways of seeing T h i s is t h e b o x c r e a t e d in t h e f o u r t h step o n p. SEEING TWO OPTIONS Sometimes." . A few suggestive marks will tip the decision one way o r the o t h e r Closing the surface W h e n a t r a n s p a r e n t elliptical o b j e c t has b e e n d r a w n . it can oscillate b e t w e e n facing t o w a r d o r a w a y f r o m us. It is a curious fact that w e can never see both options at once. as s h o w n o n t h e right. w e can only look f r o m one t o the o t h e r If an artist is not aware this can happen in their image. others adjust works to avoid their effects. w e will find that in terms of the direction it faces.s i d e d r e c t a n g u l a r t r a y ( b o t h are illustrated far r i g h t ) "The brain is so eager to name a fragment we see that we need only a suggestion to grasp the whole. it oscillates between t w o possibilities. Ancient Greek architects knew parallel upright lines appeared to bend toward each other in the middle. Yet many illusions. It is possible t o r e a d i t t w o ways: as a t r u n c a t e d r e c t a n g u l a r p y r a m i d seen d i r e c t l y f r o m a b o v e . Michelangelo. C l o s i n g t h e surface o f t h e f o r m seals o u r d e c i s i o n as t o w h i c h w a y it faces. Artists make pictorial illusions when they paint or draw.76. Artists can communicate much in few lines and the viewer will do the rest of the work. made paintings that depended upon the physical sensation of our brain's reaction to known optical illusions. are still not agreeably understood. including some shown here. and we learn to read the styles of diverse cultures and periods. Op(tical) artists. Some artists use known optical illusions to make art.116-17) to make painted figures look correct when viewed from below.98 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Further Illusions PSYCHOLOGISTS AND PHYSIOLOGISTS have studied optical illusions for decades in pursuit of what they tell us about the brain. their picture could be ambiguous.

His highly d i s p u t e d and i m p r e c i s e science involves s h o w i n g u n p r e p a r e d p a t i e n t s t e n p a r t i c u l a r ink b l o t s a n d asking t h e m t o i n t e r p r e t w h a t t h e y see. FURTHER ILLUSIONS Seeing things that are n o t t h e r e H e r e o n t h e left. B e l o w is a b r i g h t n e s s c o n t r a s t illusion. w e see t w o overlapping triangles: o n e outlined in black b e n e a t h a n o t h e r in solid w h i t e . C o u n t t h e n u m b e r o f d a r k spots y o u can see. T h e t e s t e x p l o r e s o u r n o r m a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o find things w e can n a m e a m o n g r a n d o m shapes. This effect can o c c u r naturally w h e n looking at a b r i g h t l y lit w h i t e g r i d such as a w i n d o w f r a m e against t h e night sky. N e i t h e r triangle exists. smoke. C Escher u s e d this phenomenon t o great effect in his many p o p u l a r d r a w i n g s o f puzzles and impossible buildings.c e n t u r y Swiss psychologist H e r m a n n Rorschach. P e r c e i v i n g a w h o l e i m a g e f r o m m i n i m a l lines T h i s is a w i d e l y r e p r o d u c e d visual j o k e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e C a r r a c c i b r o t h e r s . T h e patient's answers are t h e n diagnosed as a psychological profile. F a m i l i a r i t y in r a n d o m s h a p e s T h e Rorschach test was established by t h e 1 9 t h . clouds. b u t w e believe w e see t h e m because e n o u g h f r a g m e n t a r y i n f o r m a t i o n is given f o r o u r brains t o c o n c l u d e t h e y are v e r y likely t h e r e . Yet still w e try resolve t h e m . . T h e y a r e o f t e n c r e d i t e d w i t h t h e invention o f t h e c o m i c c a r t o o n . This simple five-line d r a w i n g is o f a C a p u c h i n priest asleep in his pulpit. — a n d so t h e artist can create m u c h o u t o f an impression w i t h o u t overdescribing. this is a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f t h e viewer's b r a i n b e i n g willing t o d o a large a m o u n t o f t h e w o r k in d e c i p h e r i n g a p i c t u r e . T h e a r t i s t M. M u c h can b e e x p r e s s e d in o n l y a f e w marks. e t c . W e should r e m e m b e r t h a t o u r brains will always search f o r a p i c t u r e — i n ink blots.c e n t u r y Italian painters.99 Impossible objects T h e s e clever configurations o f outlines and t o n a l surfaces convince us at a glance that we are seeing a solid three-dimensional triangle and a three-pronged fork. Minimal-line j o k e s such as this rely u p o n t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y v i e w e r ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e shapes. O n l y o n closer inspection we realize that t h e s e o b j e c t s are fooling us. T h e s e e x a m p l e s illustrate h o w little is n e e d e d t o c o n v e y an image. 1 6 t h . C o u p l e d w i t h t h e Rorschach b l o t above. S o m e artists use ink blots t o p r o m p t t h e beginning o f an image.

WHERE TO START In the air above a spacious sheet of scrap paper. The second common error is to tilt the upper and lower ellipses at different angles. I have drawn these for you here. not the paper!) As the pen touches down. circles change into ellipses. third common error is to draw upper and lover ellipses with different-sized apertures. Watch the tip of your pen and see it draw an ellipse in the air Keep this movement going while gently lowering the pen onto the paper like the needle of a record player closing on the disc (only it is your lowering hand that spins. Don't worry if it is uneven— just try again. w e use ellipses to give a sense of perspective. Cubism. How to Draw Ellipses of seeing. w h e n seen at an angle. (see p.90) takes a different as essentially circular. for example. giving the cylinder four corners. Cover a sheet of paper with spinning. smoothly. that this is o n l y o n e w a y view. though. A wobbling but confident ellipse will still be more convincing than a slow. Ellipse are best d r a w n quickly. for example plates or bowls on a table. there are three common errors people stumble upon. describing many sides of an object simultaneously. and these narrow or widen depending on the height of our view. hesitant one that has edged its w a y nervously around the vessel's rim.100 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS W E VISUALIZE CYLINDRICAL VESSELS. I have exaggerated this error here. The first common error is to draw two pointed ellipses. while its upper rim remains level. since this is h o w w e experience them in e v e r y d a y use. suggesting that the vessel is lopsided. as if the table surface slopes upward beneath the vessel. COMMON ERRORS W h e n drawing cylindrical objects in perspective. like a disposable plastic cup that has been crushed in your hand. spin your hand in a relaxed circle. Be aware. you will achieve steadiness with practice. To make a cylindrical object appear real in our pictorial space. a n d in o n e bold stroke. even if y o u r hand w o b b l e s a little at first. However. springlike forms like those I have drawn below. . such as bowls and cups. keep it spinning.

Draw quickly. enlarging and diminishing the ellipse to determine the overall shape and volume. you can make it solid by building up highlights and tones on visible surfaces. Altering the pressure—and therefore tone—of the line as it spins gives the impression of light shining on one side. Seeing Through Allow lines to travel around each vessel as if it were transparent. thereby hiding lines that show the other sides. you can start to control your spinning ellipse to make a vessel. Create a Solid Surface Once you have drawn the shape and volume of each form. working from top to bottom. . HOW TO DRAW E L L I P S E S A Single Vessel One Inside Another Grouped Together Finding Shape and Volume Draw an imagined vessel in one continuous spinning line.101 DRAWING VESSELS Once you have mastered drawing free-hand springs.

making complicated or subtle surfaces easier to see and understand. t h e r e a r e p r i n c i p a l l y Dramatic lighting emphasizes texture and contour. leaving detail until last. it will inhibit your perception of tone. if light shines in them.102 INSTRUMENTS Tonality W H E N MAKING A TONAL DRAWING.22-23). You can begin with outlines and build slowly from light to dark (see opposite top). and strong contrasts are easier to draw. two opposite methods of achieving the same result. Illuminate them with a gooseneck lamp placed very close and directed away from your eyes. simply shapes and subtleties of light and dark meeting each other with no divisions in between. In the finished drawing there should be few. Draw the largest and most distinct areas of light and darkness first. LIGHT TO DARK DARK TO LIGHT . or you can begin with a mid-gray ground and model light out of darkness (see opposite bottom). beams of light. if any. outlines. OBJECTS AND Start by arranging a choice of shells on a sheet of paper to your left if you are right-handed (or vice versa). Gradually hone your drawing. Remember that shadows. Relaxing your eyes out of focus as you draw will help to dissolve the distraction of detail. It maximizes the range of tones between black and white. It is important to place them on the correct side so as to draw comfortably (see pp. and solid objects are all of equal importance.

Fll in broad areas first and leave all detail until last. shape. Use your pencil to develop these in relation to the areas of light. Erase and make changes to roughly place the shells inside your with your composition.103 LIGHT TO DARK (LINE TO TONE) TONALITY 1 Using a sharp HB pencil. Honetheshapesand angles of the shells. Continue working between light and dark to refine the drawing. draw a rectangle. until you are happy frame. with broad sweeps of the eraser. Draw in the details last of all. boldly 2 3 Keeping your eyes out of focus. Treat positive form and negative space (see pp. Remember that its size. 2 3 Gentlydissolveoutlines so that areas oflightanddark meet without a line between them. and edges definingthespacialrelationships between are important aspects of your composition them. loose. Use quick. DARK TO LIGHT (TONE TO TONE) 1 Using the flattened tip of an HB pencil. Avoid a rough significant areas of light in your gray rectangle with texture and do not press the graphite hardwhite plastic eraser Ignore all detail and draw a into thepaperor you will not be able to erase it.56-57). pale lines with equal importance. Relaxing your eyes out of focus will help to eliminate distracting details. look at the main areas of darkness. Let your eyes go out of focus while looking gently layer marks to create an even tone at your subject and paper: Draw the most ofmid-graywithin a rectangle. .

19 Picasso draws with a pen-light for the camera. . They can also be made in space. try drawing it with a pen on paper Use bold.104 OBJECTS AND I N S T R U M E N T S Drawing with Wire DRAWINGS DO NOT HAVE to be two-dimensional. Third. you can create your own more ambitious works. The second is that after achieving this simple example. and on p. PEN LINES Once you have created your three-dimensional violin (opposite).69 we see how the architect Antonio Gaudi drew proposed domes using suspended wires and weights. our image is stronger if we understand and can visualize what is happening on the other side too. Seeing through a wire drawing of a known object such as a violin gives us a visual and tactile understanding of all its sides and shapes at once. smooth. When drawing anything viewed from one side on paper. and physical relationships between them. This class uses thin-gauge wire to create a threedimensional violin. continuous lines. 176 the British artists Noble and Webster draw with domestic refuse in a beam of light. three-dimensional drawings teach us about the totality of forms in space. and on p. On p. There are essentially three lessons to be learned. On p. Place the instrument on a plain surface and illuminate it with a desk lamp to add the delicate dimension of shadows. The first is that figurative and abstract drawings can be made in space.220 Mamoru Abe draws with forged steel rods.

Join the two sides together with four short pieces of wire. and pinch and bend it to shape the base of the instrument Repeat this process to make the identical upper side of the instrument. begin to shape the curvature of the fingerboard. thin wire will make a smaller drawing. These will hold the sides apart and help to keep the form in shape. 4 . 2 3 If needed. Once you have completed the body. Then begin to define its uppermost surface with Scurves and the bridge. but thin enough to be easily manipulated inyourfingers Here. brace the two ends of the violin with a length of wire along the back. I used garden wire and cut it carefully with pruners. Here.105 SETTING UP DRAWING WITH WIRE Follow these steps to draw a three-dimensional violin Choose a gauge of wire sturdy enough to hold the shape ofyourfinished drawing. I started with the scroll at the top and fixed the four component wires with two drawings of tuning pegs. and thick wire a larger one. Cut a length. 1 Decide how big to draw your violin relative to the gauge of your wire.

Artifacts and Fictions IN 1993 I WORKED with a group of schoolchildren who were responding to the astonishing objects in the collection of the Pitt Rivers Museum. Using found materials. Oxford. England. they invented new anthropological finds—objects that reflected the distant past and their immediate future. I had the privilege of drawing their inventions. . some of which are shown here.

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from video and X-ray to thermal imaging. sculptural description of her form. Leonardo drew a man within a circle and square. Artists are thought to have b e g u n drawing from the nude during the Italian Renaissance. artists also tried to define ideal proportions in the body. and in San could easily be transferred into three dimensions. W e understand every curve and balance of to the theory that the eves are the windows of the soul. This F finished image was produced as r a n c i s c o . clothed or nude. myths and fables.The Body O UR BODIES MAKE us TANGIBLE. R. The human body. is the most c o m m o n subject in art. much Western contemporary art. Strangely. Michelangelo attended dissections to made this image by light sectioning: fine beams of light perfect his understanding of surface form. It also looks at the representation of the b o d y b11y4o n d traditional life drawing. and surgically rebuilt. and because the female was deemed inferior. This chapter addresses issues that are most commonly faced by beginners attending life-drawing classes. It gives physical and emotive form to religious narratives. She the body is still essential. in our privileged and comfortable society. Drawings were usually made from the male nude to avoid offending the church. but the study of a controlled. while Leonardo opened the body to see and projected onto a woman's body draw the celebratory discover for himself our physical mechanisms. R. while Durer took his research further— A. Renaissance artists studying anatomy from dissection clinically trained and specialized as a medical illustrator. These classes are popular around the world. The body remains at the core of over the initially white lines. In this period. giving physical foundation undulating land. WILLIAMS he sought perfection in the infinitesimal measurement of the body and produced four Contemporary photographer volumes of illustrated explanation. focus has turned to the vulnerability of flesh: how it can be damaged. Artists now explore the interior of the body with new media and Lateral Contour Map of a Full-Term Primipara Produced by Light 1979 A. W I L L I A M S technology. 3 x 7 in (300 x 180 . the junior workshop apprentices posed as part of their duties. Look closely at Renaissance drawings of the female b o d y and you will see that m o s t are actually y o u n g m e n with minor adjustments. diseased. and anatomical and erotic art. He even believed he had located the soul contours of her form like a cartographer's map of in the pituitary fossa beneath the brain and behind the eyes. herimpressive presence because we are given such Life drawing no longer dominates the art school curriculum. During this time. the Bay Area Models' Guild h o l d s a quarterly life-drawing m a r a t h o n aprinton Kodak transfer paper with green-colored dye added celebrating the great diversity of human proportion. history paintings and other stories. explaining ranges e/ of materials and techniques and showing diversities of thought and purpose in making. Williams were decades ahead of their medical counterparts. W e are the only creatures on Earth that can make our own image. a n d w e d r a w o u r s e l v e s to a s s e r t o u r e x i s t e n c e . portraiture.

In a single drawing we see equally o b s e r v e d studies of f o r e s h o r t e n i n g (see pp. while supporting the weight of their body with the other. But the meanings of each gesture and the materials and methods by which they Postures and Poses were m a d e contrast greatly. Muscular dramatic postures reflect the influence of Michelangelo and the Renaissance celebration of the idealized male body. Principal figures m i r r o r e a c h other. Three Guards 1500-20 91/4 x143/8in (234 x 365 mm) RAPHAEL . anatomy. Raphael's study of fallen m e n leaves no doubt that they are in anguish. filling the page with her presence. altar pieces. Sculptural frieze This is a preparatory drawing for Raphael's painting of the Resurrection of Christ. and Vatican frescos. T h e y b o t h raise one arm to cup their head in their hand. Matisse's b l u e n u d e sings with life and c e l e b r a t i o n . In this highly s o p h i s t i c a t e d a b s t r a c t i o n . Here three male nudes are compressed into very shallow pictorial space. so that we read this drawing like a sculptural frieze. He trained under Perugino. By way of contrast. and human defeat. we see the e s s e n c e of h e r b e a u t y w i t h o u t a single detail. She u n f o l d s and s t r e t c h e s shapely limbs.116-17). and studied to learn from the works of Michelangelo and Leonardo besides whom he was soon ranked. Raphael drew delicate tones of black chalk on tinted paper.110 T H E BODY THESE DISTINCTIVE WORKS show two strikingly different ways of modeling the body on paper. RAFFAELLO SANZIO (RAPHAEL) Italian High Renaissance painter: Raphael is best known for his images of the Madonna and Child. while Matisse used scissors and glue to cut out and paste a flat collage of brilliant color.

lifelong love of brilliant They celebrate the culmination of spectacular and sometimes drawings. fabric. a mental soother...designer writer.. teacher and principal exponent o f Fauvism—a movement established in 1905 in which bold color is the most essential element. devoid of troubling Blue Nude 1 1952 413/4 HENRY MATISSE . printmaker. serenity.or like a good armchair in which to rest from physical fatigue.sculptor. Matisse became an artist after studying law. freer. and Islamic art.. and more energetic Color and form This collage is one of a series of Blue Nudes.. his pattern. His calligraphic natural abstractions of form grew brighter." of is an art of balance.like an appeasing influence. Matisse Soothing influence This drawing expresses the achievement of Matisse's personal aim: "What I dream and depressing subject matter. as his w o r k matured.which might be.. foundamong many other groups of papercut these works as an elderly man confined to his bed or wheelchair.111 HENRY MATISSE French painter: draftsman.

like small birds attendant on the meditation. T h e space around h i m chatters with symbols. other tones. only tones blending into. in a perfect e x a m p l e . Beuys's magician. it is as if the very atoms of air are made visible. 162) and an eraser to model teeming points of artificial light amid GEORGES SEURAT French painter classically educated in the Ingres school of thought. and color His applied theories still influence painters in their manipulation and rendering of local. Opposite. and muddied the brilliance of the drawing. Seurat engaged in lifelong studies of line. Typically. Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 1883-84 91/2 x 121/4 in (241 x 312 m m GEORGES SEURAT . agreeing to coalesce and show us the form of a waiting boy. there are no outlines. scratched in seconds. Here. His drawings are similarly u n i q u e . he used b l a c k c o n t e (see p. Seurat evolved a distinctive t e c h n i q u e called p o i n t i l l i s m — i m a g e s literally made from myriad points of color. turned gray. If Seurat had added white. Light is given by the paper alone. it would have mixed with unseen black dust. stands in counterpoise holding a dark globe and his thoughts in m o m e n t a r y balance. w h o sits propped in the contradictory darkness of a hot summer's day. In his f a m o u s paintings of social e n g a g e m e n t . reflected.112 T H E BODY Choreographs T I M E IS A SIGNIFICANT E L E M E N T i n t h e m a k i n g o f a l l d r a w i n g s . and c o m p l e m e n t a r y hues. velvet d a r k n e s s . or abruptly meeting. Tone and light In this black conte drawing. we c o m p a r e a skillful design that absorbed m u c h time in its making with the quickness of an idea marked instantly. form. Using the paper to create light is important for beginners to learn. Below.

and blood. and that These aspects of the work convey fractured visibility. He was a shaman who believed in intuition and in the investment of healing force. CHOREOGRAPHS the profound power materials with spiritual or of Free lines This pale pencil drawing is Beuys. This figure is drawn intuitively. video art. Many of his other symbolic works on paper have been drawn with materials such as honey. free from the constraint of immaculate form opposite) impetus is irrelevant to the and meaning of this work (as we see in Seurat's drawing representation. taught workshops with a cult following. Perfectly modeled rather conventional for Joseph Focus Beuys's hand moved quickly to draw dotted lines flowing downward on either side of the figure. His The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland UNDATED 113/4 J O S E P H BEUYS x81/4in (297 x 210 mm) . Unbroken lines stream from his simultaneously movement. iodine. and made installations. in different positions.gold. and drawings. Our focus joins shoulders. transience. Beuys gave performances.113 JOSEPH BEUYS One of the most influential German artists of the 20th century.

the women are framed and caressed by long. and one of hundreds of rapid studies of nudes. was perceived as scandalous. Anita Taylor has drawn her protective body hug out of the darkly glistening compression of willow charcoal and the dynamism of her shy but momentous femininity. Achieving international acclaim in mid-life. Rodin employed models to move freely or pose together in his studio. Paris. and went on to inspire generations of artists. In both drawings. Inspired by Michelangelo. THE AUGUSTE RODIN French Romantic sculptor and prolific draftsman employed as an ornamental mason until the age of 42. 125/8x 9 in (320 x 229 mm) AUGUSTE RODIN Two Women 1911 Embracing . But what is stranger to us now is that they were also outraged by his free use of line. his w o r k is characterized by deliberate un-finish and powerfully modeled emotion. Rodin produced portraits and statues of public and literary figures. In Rodins work. As here. We are involved not as a shabby voyeur but as a bystander engaged through our recognition of shared joy. he typically drew them with a few delicate strokes of pencil and brushed watercolor.114 BODY Passion SUMMONING HUMANITY in a drawing of the nude is a subtle and emotional task. Delicate strokes This is one of about 7. sweeping lines— of either purple silk fabric or cool studio air—that imprint and amplify their past and future movements.000 drawings shown in rotation at the Musee Rodin." as seen here. its soft. flushed skin made ruddy and black with crushed cinders. His exquisite flow of paint beyond "outlines. Opposite. We are asked to gaze u p o n her flesh. the fierceness of the women's kiss is beautifully matched by the tenderness of his line. They whisper and writhe in a brushed and sultry embrace that devours our watching. Our bodies radiate the passion of our thoughts and so become beacons of our frailty and power. Free lines Rodin's public audience was understandably shocked by the eroticism of his drawings.

I 15 ANITA T A Y L O R Painter. and rework rich depths of light and tone. erased and drawn again. the impression of luminosity All and Nothing 1999 67 x447/8in (170 x 1 1 4 cm) ANITA TAYLOR . This order of light below and dark above gives glowing from within. and gaze. exposure. professor and Vice Principal of Wimbledon School of Art. draftsman. Charcoal Taylor has drawn freely with charcoal and an eraser on thick. London. The sturdy surface of the sheet has allowed her to press hard when needed. intimately reflecting upon the emotions and meaning of nudity. Taylor has drawn. Taylor's immense self-portraits explore the relationship between the artist as maker and the artist as model. leaving her lightest marks at the deepest level of the image and applying darker marks above. Luminosity Layered marks flicker likefirelight as they sculpt the woman's body. scrutiny. textured paper. A thinner sheet might have crumpled and torn under such vigorous force of making.

In the life class it is the mechanism for ensuring that a drawn figure lies correctly in pictorial space . persistence. It can also be a little demon in the life room. Move the tip of your thumb down to a second chosen point. and wrist joints.116 T H E BODY Measurement and Foreshortening FORESHORTENING IS AN ASPECT of perspective. just making them helps you see. Align the top with a point on your subject. without taking off. The length of exposed pencil is your measurement. we would arrive to find many of the same figures strangely distorted. Up close on the scaffold we would witness Michelangelo's subtle application of accelerated perspective. or shrivelling at odd. If your arm is not straight. rather that what we believe we know from experience. to be translated by mirrors or seen from only one point in the room. To avoid its effects ensure you always look flat onto the surface of your page. This is chiefly a correcting device by which figurative painters and sculptors have for centuries countered the effects of our viewing their work from far below or on the curvature of a vault. more extreme examples have been made for court entertainment. the skull in Holbein's The Ambassadors (The National Gallery. patience. Return to this posture every time. or coming forward. when beginners prop their board in their lap and look down at too steep an angle. We also look at another very interesting branch called accelerated (or anamorphic) perspective. and measurements do not have to be carried to the paper and slavishly drawn the same size they appear on your pencil. It is not so hard. with dramatic illusions of figures painted in normal proportion. How to make and apply these is explained below and opposite. There is no need to mark them all down on paper.limbs happily receding. elbow. you will make inconsistent and unrelated comparisons. Close one eye. unfathomable angles. "Simple measured comparisons reveal surprising truths about proportion. Rome. and to draw what we see. Imagine Michelangelo's murals in the Sistine Chapel. Smaller. elongated as if stretched across the plaster. Lock your shoulder. which is imperceptible from below. 2 Hold your pencil upright. Spend time making comparisons before you draw." . plummeting. But if we could take a scaffold and climb up to the work. 3 Keep your pencil perpendicular Measure and compare at any angle. London). It is not complicated. Accelerated perspective plays a great role in much art. and a few measured comparisons are key. helping us to see more clearly. 1 Hold your arm straight. for example. MEASURING This is a simple method of making measured comparisons for relating the true size of one part to another This is a tool to assist observation and thinking.

belly. pleasingly f o r e s h o r t e n e d . a n d thighs. To m a k e f o r m s l o o k c o r r e c t . W e appear t o be looking d o w n o n a w o m a n s t a n d i n g b e n e a t h us. T h i s is t h e s a m e d r a w i n g p h o t o g r a p h e d f r o m above. FORESHORTENING To f o r e s h o r t e n a figure. P r o p o r t i o n s will only l o o k c o r r e c t f r o m t h e angle at w h i c h y o u make t h e drawing. Stand its b o t t o m edge o n y o u r lap. . y o u r hand travels f a r t h e r than y o u expect. L o o k at y o u r m o d e l as if he o r she is a flat series o f shapes o n e o n t o p o f a n o t h e r Measure t h e height and w i d t h o f each shape and c o m p a r e it t o its neighbor. Keep t h e b o a r d steady and draw. A t a c e r t a i n angle. t a p e s o m e p a p e r t o a board.117 ACCELERATED PERSPECTIVE To discover h o w this w o r k s . looking d o w n t h e p a p e r at t h e a n g l e at w h i c h I d r e w . h e r p r o p o r t i o n s will appear correct. Lean t h e t o p e d g e t o w a r d y o u and find a p o s i t i o n w h e r e y o u can c o m f o r t a b l y l o o k d o w n t h e p a p e r at an angle o f a b o u t 4 0 degrees. See h o w d i f f e r e n t t h e relative heights o f t h e s e shapes are f r o m w h a t w e m i g h t e x p e c t in real life. MEASUREMENT AND FORESHORTENING Tilt t h e t o p edge o f this b o o k t o w a r d you and look d o w n o n this figure f r o m a b o v e . which feels strange. y o u must let go o f w h a t y o u k n o w f r o m e x p e r i e n c e a b o u t t h e relative sizes o f b o d y parts and trust y o u r eyes. C o m p a r e t h e heights o f t h e nose and eye shapes t o t h o s e o f t h e f o r e a r m . adjusting a n o n y m o u s shapes. W o r k a r o u n d t h e figure. S o o n t h e b o d y will lie d o w n in space.

. her center of balance is normally found in a vertical line beneath her head. Height This pose leans away into space above our eye level. Leave first thoughts in place. make the upper body smaller give your model a high waist. Avoid drawing up one side and down the other. balance. because it results in two unrelated sides drifting apart. working from her center to her feet and to her head. Outline To outline a figure. Balance When a model stands upright on both feet. and work over t h e m with further o b s e r v a t i o n s . and stance before honing her balance and expression. I used a sharp H B pencil and began each drawing by marking her outline. imagine holding up a plumb line. and height. and energy. Start each new drawing by lightly marking the model's height with a loose line in ten seconds.118 BODY Quick Poses DRAWING QUICK POSES l o c k s y o u r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n t o what is most essential. Layered lines give d e p t h . T h i s q u i c k e x p l o r a t o r y line does not perfectly describe shape but expresses a decision about overall flow of form. height. and slightly enlarge her legs and feet. To see this. Be bold and dive into your drawing with c o n f i d e n c e . To draw this effect. propelling you to make immediate assessments and trust them. feeling. work back and forth across the body. THE SEQUENCE OF POSES H e r e the model was asked to move every t w o minutes.

119 The twist of a model is most easily and expressively captured if it is exaggerated. Tilt Movement Here. . Most of us have a tendency to over-straighten the drawn figure. and this should be avoided Twist QUICK POSES A model standing on one leg usually drops the opposite hip. the activity of circular lines and the repetition of limbs suggest movement. This drawing shows how different observations be overlaid to bring a drawing alive. The tilt of the pelvis is then counter balanced by the model's shoulders tilting the other way (as seen here).

This exercise is useful when struggling with proportion. Begin by drawing lines to encompass the whole hand. These planes. Group the fingers together as one mass. Focus instead on how planes change direction across the knuckles from one side of the hand or foot to the other. feet. and a gooseneck lamp casts shadows that clarify planes and depths GESTURES OF THE HAND Curled Fingers 1 Open Palm Start honing the shapes of the dominant planes. Keep lines open to change and take measurements if they help. A mirror increases your range of views. W h e n starting. swiftly marking its essential gesture. drawn in relation to each other. or those of a friend. Practice by drawing your own hands and feet. 3 . and they need not be daunting to draw. It also helps the beginner to progress from drawing outlines to drawing confidently across the surface of the whole form. it is important to leave aside all details of the fingers and toes. Then subdivide each shape so that you w o r k from large to small.120 BODY Hands and Feet THERE ARE MANY different ways of approaching h a n d s and THE of form. Do not separate them yet. but regard these practice studies as ongoing processes of thought and observatio Add details such as nails last if you wish. Don't worry about achieving perfect solutions. starting with the largest. express structure and gesture far more successfully and easily than ten worried outlines wandering up and down between the fingers and toes. Draw large shapes and their orientation. general to specific. especially the lengthwise divisions between them. 2 Build your drawing gradually from light to dark. and ignore all details.

loose. t o remove t o o many early lines. Nowimagineyou are carving the foot insidethepaper. flattened planes. Try t o express the whole foot and t o encapsulate its entire shape and direction in a few marks. It can be a mistake. depth. however. Look for key angles without becoming distracted by detail. and spontaneity. and don't worry about accuracy t o begin with. Hew it roughly in broad. Leave aside all detail. and rapid. as if with a chisel. . these are what give a drawing its tangible structure.121 HANDS AND FEET MOVEMENTS OF THE FOOT Flat Stance Raised Heel Instep 1 Let your first marks be light.as though out o f wood. 2 3 Use an eraser t o refine decisions o r t o suggest areas o f light.

Compare its nature in close-up to that of willow charcoal used on pp.204-05.Charcoal Hands T H E S E DRAWINGS ARE MADE in compressed charcoal." . I also used white ink with a steel dip pen. The white lines demonstrate what is often called "bracelet shading. Opposite.

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Phrasing Contours . 118-19). and posture of the model.HERE TRACES OF RAPID initial lines are still seen within and outside each body. before honing his or her shape (see pp. I make these lines in the first five to ten seconds of a drawing to locate the presence. length.

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It is now viewed with some skepticism and often seen as academic. Forms.The Visual Detective DRAWING FROM MASTERWORKS was once a staple component of an artist's education. I draw in museums in support of written research and as an artist seeking answers to questions about the practicalities of image making. perspectives. Drawing work by another artist enables you to discover and understand the inventive hand in their composition. feeling them through the attentive movements of your own hand. and narrative pulse become vivid when you realize them in the middle of your study. . characters.

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there is a unique museum of 18th-century anatomical waxes. Life-size women wearing wigs recline on beds of embroidered silk in cabinets of mahogany and Venetian glass This is a detail of a compressed charcoal drawing measuring 14 x 10 ft (4. . 126-27. Walls are lined with hundreds of faintly animated body parts.3 x 3 m) made in response to La Specola.La Specola At17V i a Romana. each modeled from dissection. Florence. These almost life-size figures were composed from my imagination and achieved with the help af studies discussed on pp.

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We are also reassured by keeping records of ourselves. For centuries. and shoulders. and p r i n t m a k e r . look directly at us. their stance. The returning image was of crucial consideration in any proposal. or a glimpse of him is caught in a photograph used as a prop. character. painters have dropped discreet records of themselves into commissioned narratives so that they can remain a face in the crowd. This enlargement o f his miniature p o r t r a i treveals t h e s p e e d and agility o f his p e n and about himself. Once you understand Self-Portrait in a Cocked Hat c. who. you can capture the subtlety. Halls and palaces are filled with pictures of the mighty and significant. neck. compliant subject to scrutinize. abstract or figurative. became more poignant as he progressed. Rembrandt's famous multitude of self-portraits. religious. Movie director Alfred similarly signed his films by playing a fleeting role: he walks through an extra. 1790-92 4 x 3 in ( 1 0 2 x 7 6 m m ) F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A and memorize the basic structure that we all share. and expression of the individual. Equally. and their posture can be changed with just one line. made as he passed through the ages of man. usually strangers from past times. is here to both meet and look through us. his changes in pressure and Hitchcock length o f line. It also reminds us o f b o t h t h e intimacy and a scene as scrutiny o f an honest portrait. we use the delicate medium of silver point to look at foundation structures of the head. Self-portraiture gives every artist a constant. Goya's w o r k s include many royal and society p o r t r a i t s . We can mold and animate qualities of expression out of objects and fragments of disassociated things—for example. To create a face is to see and interpret the essence of an identity. or past us. Beginners often draw themselves as a way of establishing their practice. . throat. and social and political commentaries. and it is very rewarding. Man Ray's self-portrait of scored lines. or whose eyes can seem to follow us around the room Portraiture is a constant. in a miniature self-portrait magnified opposite. W h e n drawing a person. and in a few scrolling rafts of pen lines and stubbled dots. and a handprint (see p. bells. single or of groups. In this chapter. Goya. Past rulers sent painters across continents to bring back a likeness in advance of a prospective royal marriage. buttons. historical. and satirical or metaphorical. and lucrative genre for artists. Our homes are filled with images of our loved ones and of those in our families who have gone before.Portraiture IN P O R T R A I T U R E W E MEET PEOPLE. live.139). the meaning of their face. The truth is that we all like looking at faces and observing the billions of variations that make us individuals. Portraits can be highly or loosely detailed. having been documented and preserved. and secular narratives. draftsman. a single line can deliver an entire expression. gathered all that he knew FRANCISCO DE GOYA V i s i o n a r y Spanish painter.

The Tightness of a line is felt in its speed. Picasso has left to posterity many hundreds of magnificent line drawings. It is the portrait of a countrywoman. We can actually count that he struck the paper 40 times. Here the grace and beauty of two young women are held forever. length. PABLO PICASSO Spanish Cubist painter (see also p. He makes his flair and skill look easy. and pressure as it conducts our eye through the image. breadth. one eye already cast askew into the autumn of her life. we can enjoy and learn from them. adding smudges of tone for weight and solidity. The aesthetic sense of a line being just right can make a drawing sing. they serve as a great lesson that it is not always necessary to add tone to your drawing. stealthily using his chalk to find contours and mass. Picasso strikes and scrolls his pencil. Through exhibitions and copies in books. Her face is drawn tenderly and with a luminous glow.132 PORTRAITURE Poise THE BALANCE BETWEEN a mark and a blank space is often a tantalizing form of perfection. Without faltering.30). The truth is often the opposite. How could the addition of shadows have enhanced this image? Few strokes The simplicity of Picasso's line is breathtaking. We can read so much about them by studying their gaze. Holbein maps the still landscape of Dorothea's body in questioning marks. hand to capture something well in only Frangoise au Bandeau 1946 660 x 505 mm (26 x197/8in) PABLO PICASSO . teetering on the brink of older age. While with longer consideration. whisking a timeless girl onto the page. It takes a truly accomplished a few strokes. For the beginner. There is a common misunderstanding that a drawing with only a few lines is both less finished and easier to make than a drawing with more. caught in her last moments of youth.

133 HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER German p o r t r a i t painter draftsman. Her folded forearms support and frame her weight above. and its downward slope crowns the diagonal of the composition. Cropping This regal composition fits its paper perfectly. made a popular series o f w o o d c u t prints titled The Dance of Death. He outlined her nose but not her upper lip. and designer f r o m Basel. presses against the binding across her face. In addition t o his numerous exquisite portraits in oil. Blended colors In this portrait drawn with colored chalks on slightly textured paper. Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 1516 51/8 x121/4in (385 x 310 m m ) HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER . The peak of her cap clips the uppermost edge. Holbein unified the woman with her background by gently blending colors from her clothes and face into the atmosphere around her. he designed c o u r t costumes. and produced numerous society portraits such as this one here. Holbein has cropped and pinned his subject within the four outermost lines of the image—the edges of the page. Holbein was employed toward the end of his life by King Henry VIII of England. gently flushed. which.

Nerves. VICTOR NEWSOME British sculptor painter and draftsman. the contours of a grid. perhaps applied using a tortillon. Durelli has m a d e a few m i n o r mistakes. and has works in major collections including the Tate Gallery.134 PORTRAITURE Anatomies These highly finished drawings express the emotional power and physicality of the head and neck. London. the face is one of the hardest parts to dissect. and unpleasant to see. The real dissection w o u l d have been far more c o m p l e x . distorted. confusing. blood vessels. dark tones of graphite blended into the paper. This is one of a number of similar disembodied female heads seen behind. Contrasts Sharp. Anatomically. Psychological drama is contained behind a grid. This is a m a r v e l o u s interpretation of the truth. Highlights of white gouache were dry Profile Head late in the making. In fact. Newsome was awarded the Prix de Rome in 1960. continues to exhibit regularly. dark lines made with a pencil appear against smooth. Delicate muscles are integrated with the skin and fat that is to be r e m o v e d . and glands also complicate form. solid above and almost hollow below. taught at numerous British art schools from 1962-77. its highly clarified detail claiming to be d r a w n from observation. while white painted flecks and wisps suggest electrical illumination. but they are irrelevant here. N e w s o m e ' s eerily shadowed form is smooth and bears a linear grain evocative of w o o d . using a fine and relatively 1982 13 x 181/8 in (328 x 460 mm) VICTOR NEWSOME brush. . or defined by. It floats in space. The style of Durelli's d r a w i n g opposite sings with the confidence of truth and precision.

It is hard to think of a more difficult medium with which to achieve such linear perfection.135 ANATOMIES ANTONIO DURELLI Linear perfection This is a red chalk drawing of extraordinary accomplishment. Red Chalk the Muscles 1837 173/8 x 145/8 in ( 4 4 0 x 3 7 2 m m ) ANTONIO DURELLI and Pencil Drawing and of Neck of the Head Little is k n o w n o f this M i l a n e s e p a i n t e r a n d engraver w h o c a m e from a family o f artists. which. Pencil numbers refer to the list of muscles written beneath. Stylized parallel lines are reminiscent of engravings. pull their points o f attachment t o w a r d each other . Durelli's experience as an engraver is reflected in his stylized drawing o f muscle fibers. w h e n contracted. and it is likely that this drawing was intended for reproduction as a print.

1948 77/8 x 6 in (200 x 150 mm) ALBERTO GIACOMETTI . There is a film of Giacometti drawing. Bellini gently conjures the features of his saint with soft marks that tease his presence out of shadows into the light. Giacometti settled in Paris. They show us clearly the bones of drawing. close enough to touch his hair and feel his breath. while his hand stabs and thrusts Revelations like a conductors baton. The camera watches him at work. Without paint and with very little tone. with speed and urgency. and poet After studying in Geneva and Italy. They confuse our perception of scale by being intimately fragile and at the same time far removed. each locked into a visionary gaze. each portrait is inscribed onto the page. Then. Speed Giacometti probably began with an oval shape placed in relation to the proportion of the page. Agitated marks make patches of tone that cut away the space around the character. as if seen from a distance. and with staccato flinches his hyperactive eye moves from paper to model. Both works demonstrate how simple lines can be made complex by being intense. Flesh is built and personality carved simultaneously. Energy This is a portrait of a woman drawn with black crayon on a plain page of a book Lines search for the essence of form. painter draftsman. which are characteristically elongated. Similar movements sculpted the head below into its page. cutting and carving the paper with matted and spiraling restless energy. and heads. ALBERTO GIACOMETTI Swiss sculptor.136 PORTRAITURE THESE ARE DRAWINGS of shoulders. Portrait de Marie-Laure de Noailles c. he drew over the whole image at once. Opposite. We are brought intimately close to this man gazing up to heaven. necks. He is best known for his bronze sculptures of human form.

G I O V A N N I BELLINI A prominent member of a large family o f V e n e t i a n painters. Sometimes different narrative same character was reused in compositions. These are pinholes. Mantegna. transferring which were made in the process of the saint to his final place in the composition of a painting (see Glossary pp. lyrical. a n d b r o t h e r in-law. Bellini s t u d i e d u n d e r his f a t h e r J a c o p o .5 9 ) . H e p r e f e r r e d religious t o classical t h e m e s . Character This is one of many cartoons produced by Bellini the and his family. Head and Shoulders of a Man 73/8 x 21/4 in ( 1 8 6 x 5 8 UNDATED GIOVANNI BELLINI . Transfer This delicate humorous chalk a drawing is a cartoon—not image but a type of template used to plan the composition of a larger work Look closely and you will see rows of tiny dots along every significant line in the picture. a n d his w o r k is d i s t i n c t i v e l y calm.25 6 . H e t a u g h t G i o r g i o n e Barbarelli and Titian. a n d c o n t e m p l a t i v e .

The incandescent New York painter Jean Michel Basquiat pictured himself here in naked silhouette. drawn. The figure's position is unequivocal and defiant while around him is in a state Without the essential of cultural and figure we would elegant belookingat a sophisticated painting of signs. skull- Self-Portraits headed. and confrontations with. and attitudes. humor. political outcry. scratched lines. JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT Short-lived American painter and graffiti artist who began his blazing nine-year career drawing on lower Manhattan subway trains with a friend. Al Diaz. float and shimmer in the shallow pictorial space. Self Portrait 1982 9 4 x 7 6 in (239 x 193 cm) JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT . and sheet metal before being snapped up by the New York contemporary art scene. Signs and symbols with symbols This painting shudders that ore written. a tribal. their most immediate and best-known subject: themselves.138 PORTRAITURE THE MIRROR OF SELF-PORTRAITURE offers artists infinite reflections of. made with great energy. signing their work SAMO. marks. scrolls.221). similar to work by Cy Twombly (see p. spear-brandishing warrior. Islands of graphic marks. and buttons rings with surrealist wit and agile improvisation. postcards. Man Ray's playful silk-screen assembly of color blocks. The artist has finished his portrait with the signature of his hand smacked in the middle like a kiss: a declaration of existence as old as man's first drawing. It has proved to be a subject of piercing scrutiny. It is an image of confrontation—the ever-controversial young artist roars at us from his abstract city-scape. and indulgence. bells. and everything flux. scratched into its surface. Later Basquiat sold drawings on T-shirts. It is an opportunity to look deep without the infringement of courtesies owed to a commissioning sitter. In 1986 he traveled to Africa and showed his work in Abidjan on the Ivory Coast He also exhibited in Germany and France.

painter. Frame White lines are seemingly (though not actually) scratched through ink to frame this face. last of all. They experimented with camera-free photography working directly onto photographic paper Silk and ink This is a silkscreen print made through the following process: the paper was laid on a flat surface and a frame stretched with fine silk was placed on top. The handprint appears to be made directly. They suggest speed and make the picture look immediate and spontaneous.139 MAN RAY American surrealist photographer. During the 1920's and 30s. Man Ray lived and worked in Paris. printmaker and cofounder of the New York Dada movement. caked in thick printing ink or paint. where he collaborated with the artist Laslo MoholyNagy. Man Ray probably used his own hand. while a squeegee was used to drag thick lilac-brown ink across the silk pushing it though exposed areas onto the paper below. Black ink was printed next and then white. The first part of the stenciled image was already marked on the silk The screen and paper were then held tightly together. Autoportrait 1916 195/8 MAN RAY .

5. b e f o r e priming stretched paper. T h e p a p e r will l o o k b u c k l e d . S O F T F U L L B R U S H : W h e n laying a w a s h . b u t d o n ' t w o r r y . Metal point is simply a strip of metal bound in a holder. was familiar to or eggshells with animal glue. Straighten the w o r s t buckles. choose a silver object. Metal point does not work on ordinary paper. Z I N C W H I T E G O U A C H E : Dilute with w a t e r A d d c o l o r i f r e q u i r e d (as opposite) 4 . 3 . SILVER W I R E : Purchase different gauge lengths f r o m a traditional a r t supplier o r jeweler. p a r c h m e n t . I m a k e m y o w n f r o m o l d dip pens. 144-45. o n e t o fit each side o f t h e b o a r d — t h e s e will make t h e glued f r a m e t h a t holds y o u r p a p e r in place. and gold have also been used. Find a n i t e m t h a t y o u can h o l d a n d draw with comfortably.s t r i p a n d use i t t o fix o n e side o f t h e p a p e r t o t h e b o a r d . I combined silver point with painted white gouache on a pink ground. s o m e m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n o t h e r s . Lightly s p o n g e o f f t h e excess. or wood. you will need t o stretch paper and lay a wash (see right and opposite). Stretched paper remains taut as a d r u m .140 PORTRAITURE Silver P o i n t SILVER OR METAL POINT STRETCHING PAPER A sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has been made w e t with the strokes o f a paintbrush will buckle d u e t o its uneven expansion. or ring. To begin. Be swift and firm. bone. and alloys work on matt emulsion. I t is a v a i l a b l e f r o m all a r t s h o p s . M E T A L OBJECTS: All metal objects m a r k a p r e p a r e d surface. The most c o m m o n metal has always been silver—hence the term "silver point. which quickly oxidizes into a gray line. SILVER P O I N T W I R E H O L D E R : T h e s e c a n b e p u r c h a s e d a n d t e n d t o b e heavy. s e e p . laid on paper. Numerous early European artists also enjoyed its fine qualities (see p.54) can also b e used. an exciting indication of how large-scale drawings could be made on a wall. If w o r k i n g o n an emulsion-painted wall. 2 . 1. M a k e s u r e i t is c o m p l e t e l y clean t o avoid u n w a n t e d streaks. Note h o w domestic paintwork marks with a coin. Opposite. 1 4 4 . Drawn across a prepared surface. copper. purchase silver wire. 156). c h o o s e a s o f t full b r u s h t h a t c a n c a r r y p l e n t y o f l i q u i d .54-55). illuminators of medieval m a n u s c r i p t s . This browns with age unless sealed by fixative (see pp. and make o r buy a holder. S i l v e r is b e s t . who used it to outline initials and border characters before painting. W e t a n d fix a s e c o n d strip t o t h e o p p o s i t e side. Gesso o r m a t t e m u l s i o n c a n a l s o b e u s e d . This is called a three-tone drawing.Tear o f f f o u r lengths o f b r o w n p a p e r g u m tape. artists mixed white lead. Take a sheet o f any t y p e o f p a p e r (for e x a m p l e . W e t o n e length o f g u m . the surface must be primed with a ground such as gouache. For i m p o r t a n t a d v i c e o n p r e p a r a t i o n a n d use. Lay a clean d r a w i n g b o a r d o n a flat surface. platinum. it leaves a deposit. Pages 142 to 147 are illustrated in silver point and techniques are explained on pp. 2. and is therefore useful w h e n using w a t e r c o l o r as well as silver point. w h i t e d r a w i n g paper) and cut it t o fit y o u r d r a w i n g b o a r d w i t h a generous b o r d e r a r o u n d its edges. key. MATERIALS 1 Find a clean sponge and b o w l o r d e e p t r a y a n d fill it w i t h w a t e r W e t t h e p a p e r evenly in t h e t r a y o r o n t h e b o a r d . E m p t y mechanical pencils designed f o r t h i c k leads ( s e e p." Lead. and t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h strips a b o v e and b e l o w . Historically.

Keep adding smooth. is necessary to lay a wash o Three-tone When coloring ground. Prop up your board of dry. and let tests dry before deciding to change the mixture. Mix a very wet but not weak solution of gouache in a jar with a lid (add pigment at this stage for a three-tone drawing). The next step will make a small mess. full brush into the gouache and start in the top left corner. I used a powder pigment called Caput Mortuum. stretched paper at a 45-degree angle. Runs blend into each other evenly.141 SILVER POINT 3 Leave the paper to dry flat. Make an even line across to the right. Keep testing on spare paper. so put newspaper under the lower edge. v e r y little at a time. It will slowly straighten and become taut. slowly add powder pigment or gouache from a tube. LAYING A WASH It your stretched paper so as to prime it for silver point. Dry thoroughly before laying a wash. Dip a soft. T h r e e . Beware of the tape's coming loose at any point while drying. as the paper will be ruined by a raised ridge. Make enough to cover your paper. Reload the brush and add a second line overlapping it beneath. overlapping lines until you reach the bottom. Leave the wash to dry thoroughly before you begin to draw. Here. leaving a smooth surface.t o n e silver point drawing of a skull . any extra will keep.

142

PORTRAITURE

Head and Neck
THE HEAD AND NECK are best conceived as one unit arranged in four parts: cranium, face, neck, and throat. Each is of equal importance. The cranium is essentially egg-shaped and pivots on the first vertebra. The face is suspended beneath, like a softly curved triangle. The n e c k — a powerful, shapely column of layered muscles rigged to vertebrae—adjusts and holds the angle and expression of the head. The throat is delicate, hard, and lumpy to the touch, formed of cartilaginous rings, glands, thin muscles, and looser skin. Framing the throat, two columnar neck muscles (sternomastoids) project the head forward and also turn it to the opposite side.

This is a simple shorthand diagram representing the cranium, face, neck, and throat. It can be learned and visualized in different positions very easily, giving the novice a firm footing on which to stand and develop their drawings of the head and neck.

Shorthand diagram

Cranium Begin with an egg shape. Tilt it on the paper to change the position of the head.

Face Draw a rounded triangular shape below the forward point of the egg to represent the face.

Neck This shape represents the trapezius; the largest surface muscle of the neck and shoulders.

Throat A triangular shape represents the throat. (The nose makes the diagram clearer)

Applied shorthand

After copying the diagram above, animate it. Practice drawing the cranium at different angles, add the face beneath, then the neck, shoulders, and throat. Shape your diagrams so they are more lifelike, but avoid adding detailed features too soon.

143 These three drawings demonstrate (from left to right) the following: why the cranium may be considered egg-shaped; now the face can be seen as a curved triangle suspended beneath and where the division lies between the two; and the form of sternomastoid muscles that frame thethroatsodistinctlywhen the head is turned and inclined forward.

The skull and the frame of the throat

HEAD AND NECK

Bones of the cranium are locked together by jagged joints. Sinuses in the frontal (forehead) bone between and beneath the eyebrows are larger in men, making their brows pronounced and often ridged compared to those of women.

Bones of the face house our sight, smell, taste, The skull pivots on the first vertebra or "atlas," and speech. Cartilage extending from nasal bones after the Greek god condemned to carry the shapesthenose.Pads of fat resting on the base of Earth. The jaw hinges in front of the ears. Behind, eacheyesocket support the eyeballs in position. If bony ridges give anchor to the sternomastoid thefatisreducedby old age, eyes look sunken. muscles rising from the breast- and collarbones.

Three useful generalizations

General rules about the relative positions of body parts can hinder artists as much as help them, since they are often based on classical ideals rather than thediversityoflife.However,some generalizations can help as a rough guide to start with, so long as good observation takes over as soon as possible.

In general, when the face is relaxed (not smiling or frowning), the corners of the mouth are found directly beneath the pupils of the eyes. Vertical lines can be drawn down from the pupils to meet the corners of the mouth.

The height of a young adult's ear is often the same as their nose and found on the same level. There is no general rule for growing children, and remember that ears grow again in old age, which is most obvious in men.

The height of the face is about the length of the handspan and the eye is normally halfway down the total height of the head. A common error is to draw the eyes too high up on the face.

144

PORTRAITURE

Essential Observations
T H E DELICACY OF SILVER POINT

(see pp. 140-41) is perfect for

such as a beach pebble. Here, I stretched drawing paper and laid a wash of white gouache (see pp.140-41). As you can see, the line and tone of silver point varies with pressure, but only slightly. Too much pressure cuts the ground. Silver point erases, but so does ground. Erased ground can be repaired gently with extra gouache. You can also use gouache to paint over mistakes and make corrections.

small, detailed drawings. The drawings below and opposite show useful observations of the head and neck, which are explained in the captions below. Each drawing was made with a silver wire held in a large-gauge mechanical pencil. Newly clipped wires are sharp and cut rather than draw. Before use, they need to be rubbed and smoothed on a stone

Here I imagined placing my silver point wire against the skin of each head and neck and, working in parallel bands from the crown downward, I traced the undulation of surfaces. Linear bands imagined around the head and neck can help you t o clearly see the tilt of the head and relative levels of the features. Ask a friend t o model for you and try this exercise life-size using a pencil and eraser

Contours

Tilted forward

Tilted backward

Three-quarter view

Seeing that the face is never flat

Drawings below left and center are summaries of the generalizations given on p.143. Far right is an image to remind us that the face is never flat. It slopes back to varying degrees among individuals, from the tip of the nose t o the ears. For example, note that the innermost corners of the eyes are farther forward in space than the outermost corners.

General measurements, side

General measurements, front

View from above

145

Male and female head and neck
Men's necks a r e g e n e r a l l y s h o r t e r a n d t h i c k e r t h a n w o m e n ' s b e c a u s e t h e angles a n d levels o f c e r t a i n b o n e s a r e d i f f e r e n t b e t w e e n t h e sexes ( i n d i c a t e d h e r e b y d o t t e d lines) a n d m e n are n o r m a l l y m o r e muscular. T h e male t h y r o i d cartilage ( A d a m ' s apple) is larger a n d m o r e visible than t h e f e m a l e . L a r g e r f e m a l e t h y r o i d glands also s o f t e n t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e t h r o a t .

ESSENTIAL OBSERVATIONS
Female skull

Male

skeleton

Male

skull

Trapezius muscle
The largest m u s c l e o f t h e s h o u l d e r s a n d n e c k is called the trapezius. A r r a n g e d on e i t h e r side o f t h e spine, it shapes t h e u p p e r back and neck above the s h o u l d e r blades. C o n t r a c t i n g in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h d e e p e r and surrounding muscles, it raises and l o w e r s t h e shoulders a n d d r a w s t h e h e a d backtoeitherside.

The whole

muscle

Upper

half with

sternomastoids

Above

with head

straight

Above

with head

forward

Side with

sternomastoid

Front with

sternomastoid

146

PORTRAITURE

Drawing Portraits
USING A SHARP 3 B PENCIL, I drew this head quickly from imagination, evolving its character and expression from the scheme of four parts: cranium, face, neck, a n d throat (see p. 142). Here, five steps show you how to practice doing the same. This approach can be used to draw from imagination or from life. Keep your wrist loose and hold your pencil away from its point (see pp.22-23). Build the layers of your drawing from pale to dark, a n d from general balance a n d form to specific detail. Remember that successful drawings are built on foundations of "seeing the whole," then dividing the whole into smaller parts, with details brought in last of all. Phrased tonal marks modeling this girls skin and hair follow the technique demonstrated by Goya in his self-portrait on p. 130. Turn to Goya's drawing and study how, in a circle beginning across his hat, moving down his hair, and around his coat, he flows lines over surfaces to describe their contour. As you build from steps 1 to 5, bring phrased groups of lines across the surfaces of your form, using their directions to capture the expression of the head and neck. If unsure, copy my steps until you gain the confidence to make your own decisions.

This drawing is the final stage of the four steps opposite. Here, I have enlarged the eye, and moved it back into the head by trimming the length of the upper lid and adding a more pronounced lower lid. It is important to set eyes far enough back from the relatively prominent nose; too close to it and the face flattens. Hair swept back and extended behind the cranium balances the regal pose. Lines shaping the hair echo those marking the cranium in step 1. Here, the lower part of step 1 comes through as wisps of hair across her face and ear

BALANCED POSE

Portrait of a Young Girl

Keep your first lines light.147 Building up the portrait DRAWING PORTRAITS 1 Gently spin pale lines in a softly drawn shape representing the cranium. I modeled the outline of the character I imagined light shining from above and in front and adjusted the pressure of lines to reflect this. they are also still sweeping and confident. avoid drawing too dark. 4 . neck. The nose and ear begin to shape the head. 2 Rapidly add shorthand shapes to represent the face. Moving from the back of the neck. Here. and throat. over the cranium. so it is important to the life of the image that while controlled. 3 Place the eye beneath the cranium. The eye announces the nature and expression of the emerging person. First lines will remain visible in the final drawing. down the face to the throat. I used light to describe the upper lid first with a shadow beneath for the lower lid and open eye. too soon.Theangle at which you draw this shape of the paper will determine the angle of the finished head.

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be aware of the subtle differences in skin surface. muscular tension. Above all. empathize. . a n d t h o s e w h o a r e Generations asleep (see overleaf). the texture of hair. and gravity.T o DRAW PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGES.

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. Fast lines carve out the features of Goya's soup-slurping hag. I used the nib upside down to gain needle-sharp precision.Castings DRAWING IN THE PRADO MUSEUM. Van Dyke's noble cast of characters was modeled more finely. with a steel dip pen and acrylic ink. seeking the dominant contours of each individual expression. Madrid.

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o n l y the w e a l t h y c o u l d afford to h a v e c o s t u m e s specially m a d e . caricatured p l u m e s . st 111/4 x 81/2 in (285 x 220 mm) u d i e d L E O NB A K S T and explore the characterization of fabric t h r o u g h m o v e m e n t . or calm u s w i t h chic. personality. theb u t b y the w a y it s p e a k s w i t h its flying. and intent. Artists do this not so m u c h b y the style of a figure's garment. Like it or not. of Scheherazade. c o s t u m e o f f e r s a r i c h v o c a b u l a r y of t e x t u r e s a n d c o l o r . variety. and atmosphere. and i n d e e d image b e c a m e the property also of the industrial classes. T h e rural masses w o r e h o m e s p u n simplicity. and e x u b e r a n c e . for e x a m p l e — d e s i g n e d the w a r d r o b e s of p o p e s a n d k i n g s . woman was drawn by Bakst one year later for the ballet Narcisse. while court p a i n t e r s — M i c h e l a n g e l o and Holbein. W e dress ourselves and costume designer trained in in St. In psychology. Practical classes Bacchante 1911 l o o k at r a n g e s of c o l o r e d m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d i n g p a s t e l s a n d felt-tip p e n s . . e m u l a t e textures. charcoal. T h e e n t o u r a g e of the theatrical stage o f t e n l e a d s the c a t w a l k . c u l t u r e . toParis. intriguing. Petersburg and later exiled designers' ideas and are surprised and delighted b y their continual f l o w of inspiration. S t r u c t u r e is t h o u g h the i n v e n t i o n of shoes. c r u m p l e s . Bakst's designs and costumes immediately To the fine artist. and even invisible by the w a y w e dress. w a r m t h . he and cofounder Serge Diaghilev took Paris by eac storm in 1910 with their production h year in the industrial f r e n z y of creating o u r image and aspirations. dancer leaps through swaths of golden cloth. articulate a d a n g e r o u s satirical j o k e .This voluptuous above all a physical p u p p e t w i t h w h i c h to animate character and narrate personality. known as Leon Bakst. outrageous.As artistic director of the It is s h o c k i n g to t h i n k h o w m a n y m i l l i o n s of d r a w i n g s m u s t be m a d e a n d d i s c a r d e d Ballet Russe. so that c h o i c e . and be so expressive of temperament that it overtakes the need for an o c c u p y i n g h u m a n form. cool.Costume W E MAKE OURSELVES EXOTIC. a n d p r o f e s s i o n — b e g a n life as a d r a w i n g . and s y m b o l s that lets m e n and w o m e n in all countries and areas have w o r k i n g access to the latest fashions. and gouache. w h i c h in turn feed c o n s u m e r Lev. it is the public sign by w h i c h w e are j u d g e d . gesture. arichand unusual combination of pencil. Cities c h a n g e d all. or b u l g e s . g l o s s y folds. was a Belarussian A r t Deco theater fantasies and desires to immediately possess a version of the same. Designers all over the w o r l d c o n t i n u a l l y p e n and b r u s h lines to lash us w i t h color. Previously. a n d w e will c o l l e c t patterns. In this c h a p t e r w e see h o w c l o t h i n g c a n s e e m to p o s s e s s the w e i g h t and m o n u m e n t a l i t y of stone. fulfilling lavish and spectacular briefs. b u t influenced Parisian fashion and interiordecor. D e s i g n e r s create m a s t e r p i e c e s of haute couture LEON BAKST for H o l l y w o o d stars. shapes. P o p u l a r f a s h i o n d e s i g n e x p l o d e d w i t h the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n . and everything w e h a v e c h o s e n for o u r w a r d r o b e s — r e f l e c t o r s of o u r taste. Samoylovich Rosenberg. T h e p a p e r p a t t e r n is p e r h a p s the m o s t w i d e l y k n o w n of c o s t u m e d r a w i n g s : a formalized plan of lines. a n d c o u r t i e r tailors f o l l o w e d suit. a n d s u b t l e t o n e s .

Short and subtle horizontal punctuations are only given in the background by sections of floor. the Madonna and her architecture are both dressed in the same manner. Their uninterrupted emphasis is entirely vertical. Opposite. folds and patterns of material speak more resolutely of their wearers than any small glimpses of body we can see. and snakelike marks. swirling printed fabrics. Van Eyck's highly polished w o r k is c e l e b r a t e d f o r its disguised symbolism. Sculpted one. Flaxmans sleeper—perhaps a pilgrim or a soldier resting between campaigns—has wedged himself into the cleft of some great building to grab a moment of peace. However. Maelbeke I44I Madonna 11 x 7 in (278 x 180 m m ) JAN V A N EYCK . best k n o w n f o r his G h e n t altarpiece ( 1 4 3 2 ) a n d m a r r i a g e p o r t r a i t o f Giovanni A r n o l f i n i and his w i f e (1434). with their jagged edges. delicate lines. With a stylus such as Van Eyck used here. bands around the columns. Keisai Eisen's intense. and the kneeling abbot is a ghost by comparison. Delicate marks Silver (or metal) point is the most delicate of traditional drawing media (see pp. resonate with their wearers startled expression. it is only possible to create very thin. Below this.140-41). In Van Eyck's drawing below. and implied striation in the stone of the architecture. dragons. Church and deities are drawn as JAN VAN EYCK Flemish oil p a i n t e r f r o m L i m b o u r g . Marble gown We will never know if Van Eyck considered this drawing unfinished or intended the kneeling abbot to remain transient and ghostly.156 COSTUME Cloth and Drapery EACH OF THESE FIGURES is ninety percent cloth. He has layered these slowly and carefully so as not to cut through the ground and produce a white mark just where he intended a dark one. the carefully composed outline of his cloak shows us how the artist would have also begun his immaculate rendering of the Virgin's clothes. Above them. H e m e t i c u l o u s l y a r r a n g e d subjects t o c o n v e y d e e p e r meaning. Vertical lines The highly controlled lines of this drawing cascade from top to bottom of the image. The quiet stillness of this image is achieved by a masterly economy of stylized line. the vaulted stone roof echoes and crowns the moment. Her gown is carved and polished as if made from marble. her marble garment holds u p the infant Christ in a fountain of compressed line.

each delivering a different part and color of the design. The inked block is laid face-down on damp paper and pressed to make the print.157 KEISAI EISEN Japanese draftsman. designer. flat sheets of wood. writer and printmaker Keisai Eisen took his name from the masters Kano Hakkeisai and Kikugawa Eizan. draftsman. he also co-edited and expanded the Ukiyo-e Ruiko (History of Prints of the Floating World). which are sometimes also cut into pieces like a jigsaw puzzle. Position In this pen and ink drawing. and teacher Distinctive linear illustrations for the works of Homer. Aeschylus earned Flaxman an international reputation. one over the other. This complex numerous blocks prepared image and may have been made with printed separately. CLOTH AND DRAPERY Relief printing This is a woodblock print made by a relief process. an 18th-19th century document on the lives of the ukiyo-e artists. stone wall of downward-stroked this sleeper's position is momentary. Remaining raised areas of wood are rolled with colored inks. the cloak sliding to the ground. the angle of the head. Dante. Images are drawn onto smooth. Koimurasaki of Tama-ya 1810-50 15 x101/4in (381 x 260 mm) KEISAI EISEN The Courtesan JOHN F L A X M A N English late 18th-century neoclassical sculptor. Parts of the image to be left unprinted are gouged out with a metal tool. Respected for his sumptuous images of geisha and editions of erotic prints. and Man Lying Down in a Cloak I 787-94 21/4 JOHN FLAXMAN x 41/8 in (57 x 105 mm) . and the feet notched against the pillar tell us that A lines holds him into the cleft.

158 COSTUME Character Costumes an extreme form of the clothed figure. Leg section Compare mid-shin the section of white boots cropped to the section of similarly cropped trousers in drawings Gruau's drawing on p. Its warm surface flows in contrast to the stiff metal armor. w h e r e . The aged queen is compared to an overdressed bird. Leg sections in both support the figure without taking our attention away from the main garment above. Pen and wash In the graphic accuracy of this armored knight we see the idealized identity of a warrior from another time: a gleaming defender of the realm. He has been rendered on this olive<olored page with pen and gray wash worked over a red and black under-drawing. where sometimes there just might not be anybody inside. Its color is also reflected in the metal. t h r o u g h n u m e r o u s p o r t r a i t and C h u r c h commissions. b e f o r e traveling t o Italy. all ruffs and wrinkles. Fine examples can be plucked from fashion. The metal. A flamboyant territory. and even formal portraiture. theater. A s a y o u n g man. cloth. The slight uncertainty of the pose and the limp cloak suggest a little more metal than man. 160. Man in Armor UNDATED 1 6 x 9 1 / 2 in ( 4 0 5 x 2 4 0 m m ) A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE . cinema. a scurrilous cartoon by a courtier of Queen Elizabeth I. Van D y k e was chief assistant t o Rubens f o r t w o years. Details and voices are worn externally with great imagination. for she would not have been amused and William Wodall might have been stretching his luck. Flowing scarf The knight's scarf of gilded blue is drawn in a pale wash over red ink lines. A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE Flemish painter and draftsman. lace. Opposite is a dangerous drawing. Anthony Van Dyke's Man in Armor is a masterpiece of drawn surface. cartoon. In 1 6 3 2 he m o v e d p e r m a n e n t l y t o L o n d o n . he c o o l e d and redefined his style. and feather were all CHARACTER COSTUMES REPRESENT observed with closely crafted conviction. a n d w a s e m p l o y e d as c o u r t painter t o King Charles I. It is presumed Her Royal Highness never saw it.

A Ruffs and feathers Starched white ruffs worn at court and by society grew steadily larger as Elizabeth's reign progressed. t h e Rising. hooded with an overinflated fluffy ruff eye pins us. manuscript comprising six c a n t o s . it was customary to Iron-gall ink Wodall's dangerous caricature steps daintily the written lines of her dedicated page. Top-heavy. Northern Satire This is a quill-and-ink satire of the elderly queen's pride-As head of state and fashion. bitten nature.35). here dark tawny owl. and saturations showing through from the other side. the queen is masterfully rebalanced by words at her feet The whole drawing's blackened. t h e B a b i n g t o n Plot. t h e Ridolfi Plot. and her pride.159 WILLIAM W O D A L L A u t h o r and illustrator o f The Aaes of Queene a Elizabeth poem Allegorized. Beneath the lethal fan is the body of a bird of trimmed feathers suggest age. T h e poem recounts t h e six m a j o r crises o f Elizabeth's reign: t h e Spanish A r m a d a . t h e Jesuit Mission. while a raised foot pauses to assess the next displaying a fan of daggers. By her old upto three tiers supported on sticks. Satire of the Queen's Dress c. suggest the use of iron-gall ink (see p.1599 71/2 WILLIAM x 51/4 in ( 1 9 0 x 1 3 4 mm) WODALL . she is shown as a grossly disproportioned bird.

a n d L'Officiel de la couture. Gruau uses starkly cut negative space (see pp. Composition Look how well this image is frame knee is parallel to the bottom edge spacehorizontalline cropping the trousers be outermostuprightbordersof her cuffs are similar above her head thesidesoftheimage. Vogue. Compare the compositio beneathVanDyke'sstudy of armor on p. demanding attention with gesture and flair.c e n t u r y haute i n n u m e r o u s m a g a z i n e s i n c l u d i n g Elle. Airbrushed reflective surfaces further amplify our perception of speed. Harpers & Queen. The black red. studio-like rectangle of paper. She has been drawn with brushes dipped into India ink and gouache. Fashion and fantasy drawings invent prototypes of ideals and perfection—be they for the catwalk or the fast-paced pages of comic books. possibly over a pencil outline. ofcroppedtrousershere to the device of the w Illustration 1949 for Jacques Fath in L ' O f f i c i e l d e la C o u t u r e RENE GRUAU .5 9 ) and a three-spoke balance of cuffs and cropped trousers to create an almost flag-like emblem of power.160 COSTUME Femmes Fatales THESE DEVASTATING femmes fatales force back the onlooker with their demure. and gray pigments were applied separately. and both share the power of scarlet and black. Spider-Girl leaps like an insect.F r e n c h f a s h i o n i l l u s t r a t o r w h o in his l o n g and esteemed career w o r k e d with many of the g r e a t e s t d e s i g n e r s o f 2 0 t h . diving to catch us in the grip of her machine-like limbs. muscular aggression. His model is outlined. elegant chic and svelte. India ink and gouache This swish of confidence and style our enters the page turning everyone's head.and tilted to the same de a little deeper than sp kneestogivehergravity. 5 8 . 158. Fine lines drawn against the building behind her echo the threads on which we have all seen arachnids drop and hang. Gruau's model regally swans to the fore with cool pride. G r u a u ' s highly distinctive d r a w i n g s have a p p e a r e d Couture. RENE GRUAU I t a l i a n . Drying time in between applications ensured the colors did not run into each other. Rene Gruau's bold gouache drawing of smoothly swaying sophistication captures a brilliantly cut garment and frames it with great dynamism in a white. as is Spider-Girl opposite.

beginning with Star Wars. In your mind's eye extend the uprights out of the top of the picture. This s modeling applied over the top give the image a sleek and mechanical of gravity. The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones. a great characteristic superhero comics. He began work on Spider-Girl in 1998. moon. and Amazing Spider-Man. Frenz has drawn for Marvel for about 20 years.RON F R E N Z Contemporary American graphic artist w h o designs and pencils the dynamic scenes of numerous superheroes featured in Marvel Comics. Buildings. not far above the drawing. and figure are all locked into equally shatp through the traditional process of a pencilled outline over-drawn ink. Single-point understand perspective To how Frenz created up therefore the effect of steeply between looking buildings—and howyou can do the same in your own work—take calculate where a ruler the and single vanishing point lies. at Their extensions will meet the same single vanishing (see point pp. It is outside the picture frame. Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 2001-04 R O N FRENZ. Sharp focus black outlines in this drawing create a hyper-real dynamic. to the right of its center. MARVEL C O M I C S . Align your ruler to the upright of each building. sky. Airbrushed color and with tonal focus.74-77). and has been the title's regular artist since 2003.

FELT-TIP PENS: Instant-drying alcoholor water-based inks stored in the barrels of the pens are delivered via smooth nylon o r felt tips of varying shapes and thicknesses. and CHALK PASTELS Pastel pencils make fine lines (as above). Be aware that fixative dulls pastel. Use them to draw lightly (as above left) or thickly. Many artists apply fixative to the back of their work. Pastel pencils are slender and in w o o d casing. See h o w they work and return later for more of what proved best for you. minerals. Sticks and conte crayons make thicker marks (as below). They work well on PIGMENTS Pigments. size. there are disparities between the apparent nature or color of what you hold in your hand and its performance on paper. or wax and a binder are shaped into fine strips and encased in w o o d like a graphite pencil. C o n t e crayons are square-formed. are derived from many sources: rocks.162 COSTUME Colored Materials ART STORES BRIM OVER w i t h t h e m a n y wherever permitted. They vary hugely in cost. Most stores leave small pads of paper on their counters for customers to test materials. Beware—some are toxic. quality. including iridescents. and cost are laid out for our pleasure and perusal. crumbly. the finer and more subtle the texture and color should be. Many products are sold individually and in boxed sets. though lines can develop greasy stains around the edges if the paper is not first stretched and treated with a gelatin paste laid as a wash. 2. allowing it to fix slightly from behind. animals. colored materials available. made in about 80 colors. OIL PASTELS Oil-based. paper-wrapped. oily pigment. Children's wax crayons are relatives. Store loose pastels in dry rice to keep them clean. I suggest you do so. Bright pastels are more brilliant on colored paper. unwrapped harder pastels. fixing each layer on the front. Often. chalkbased but very subtle. used to make colors. insects. purchase a small selection of different items you think you will like. plants. and sold in many colors. CHALK PASTELS: Blackboard chalk is sidewalk work. 1. shape. Before making substantial investments. 4. which he left unfixed to retain its brightness. Pastels are finer. The worst are like revolting old lipsticks that get everywhere except where you intend. and can be softened and manipulated with degrees of heat. great for tin . Seemingly infinite choices of texture. wash. OIL PASTELS: Many colors. Dissolve in turpentine or mineral spirits to produce oil paint or or dark paper. slightly oily to the touch. 3. COLORED PENCILS: Dry pigments ground together with chalk. you may be pleasantly surprised to discover something you could not have imagined using. and can be a great rediscovery for bold drawings. these work best when slightly warm. Degas built his pastels in layers. Try materials that are new and unfamiliar. soft. clay. intensity. except the final layer. The higher the quality (and cost). hue. the diverse are made in brands of basic member of the family. and synthetics. and subtlety. mixed on the paper and scratched into (as below). quality and cost T h e best are paperwrapped sticks of sumptuous. The nontoxic range below represents a suggested starting point for experiment.

others dissolve in water or turpentine to make a wash. . so it is best to test them before buying. Some give richer lines than others. Think of Matisse's Blue Nude (see p.163 COLORED PENCILS These are wax. 111). Diverse brands are harder or soften greasier or chalkier in use. Colors can be blended as shown right) and tones graded by altering pressure. If you love smooth blocks and lines of colon felt-tip pens are perfect.or clay-based thin crayons in wood casing. Some are nonsoluble. Fine lines can be achieved (as above). FELT-TIP PENS Although not made with felt-tip pen. leaving the paper to shine through for highlights (as below). Brands made for designers sold in enormous ranges of colors are far more subtle and sophisticated than those made for children. it is still a great champion and support for those beginners feeling shyly obligated to tone down their love of color to conform with what others say they should use.

social and economic status. a range of colored felt-tip pens with both fine and broad tips. and how we stand and walk. Superstitions and fetishes are attached to them: we are told never to put new shoes on a table. c o v e r a large sheet o f p a p e r w i t h line drawings o f several shoes. This class takes the shoe as its subject in building on earlier lessons concerned with seeing through objects to understand their function. imagining y o u can see t h r o u g h it. 100-01 and pp. REPEATED STUDY T o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s class. 104-07). As artifacts in museums. D r a w each o n e first as a solid object. if y o u m a k e p l e n t y o f d r a w i n g s as o p p o s e d t o o n l y a f e w . and volume in space (see pp. structure. and after studying familiar shoes we use the information learned to invent new ones. t o o . To set up. e n j o y i n g t h e study a n d i n v e n t i o n o f shoes. and a selection of shoes. and they have been concealed in buildings to ward off misfortune. style. the era in which we live. values. Here we go one step further. S H O E S TELL LIFE STORIES. Turn t h e m in different d i r e c t i o n s and o b s e r v e t h e i r s t r u c t u r e and f o r m . personality. while artists have painted their boots or those of others as personal portraits and memorials. You. they record and reflect our common history. I m a d e n u m e r o u s s h e e t s o f d r a w i n g s . will discover m o r e .164 COSTUME Study and Design they reflect our age. a n d e x p e r i e n c e visible p r o g r e s s . . Linear Outline Using fine pens. t h e n again as if transparent. you will need several large sheets of drawing paper.

165

The Surface
Next,

STUDY AND DESIGN

study the surface contours using fineand broad-tipped felt-tip pens. For best results, it is important to be bold and brief. Draw firmly, fast, and with as few strokes as possible. Build up each shoe from light to dark andleavesome paper showing through to create highlights.

Design Your Own

Using what you have learned from the previous steps about the structures of your shoes, and about the use of pens, invent new designs from your imagination. Start with fine outlines and progress to colored and textured surfaces. Modify your ideas by rotating the views.

166

COSTUME

The Structure of Costume
MUSEUMS ARE AN INFINITELY

rich resource for the artist and

information given by a period style. Arrange to visit a costume museum or ask a friend to model clothes for you at home. Using fine felt-tip pens, begin with quick, pale impressions of each garment's shape before homing in on its borders and seams. Try to draw transparent views wherever possible to record the relationships between all component parts. Aim to draw enough information for it to be possible to make up a version of the garment using paper pinned to a tailor's dummy.

designer. They often give quite unexpected gems of ideas and information—whatever the subject. These drawings, made in a costume museum, demonstrate ways of recording structural information and detail for later use in the studio. They could form the basis of new designs for a fashion project or theater production, for example. Drawings of shoes on pp. 164-65 show how new designs can be evolved from the structural

OBSERVATION
It is usually best when collecting information for reference to apply the restraint of dispassionate observation. Set yourself the test of drawing facts with as little artistic license or embellishment as possible. Here I chose fine felt-tip pens because they are at their best when used swiftly, and therefore encourage bold, unhesitant decisions.

Swift lines record the hanging weight of this gentleman's coat, the relative proportions of its layers, and minimal details of the buttons and cuffs.

Thick velvet fabric is pulled tight beneath and across the bust by a single button. This transparent view shows how the fabric falls loosely in straight panels beneath the level of the sleeve.

167

LIGHTING
W h e n visiting museums, be prepared f o r l o w lighting, which can make it hard t o see and draw. A book can help if attached t o your drawing board.

Adding stripes and dashes of color with a thicker pen brings out the glossy sheen and sculptural rigidity of this dress, which would have been worn over a whalebone corset. small reading light designed t o clip o n t o a

THE STRUCTURE OF COSTUME

In small drawings such as these, use thick pens to color entire sections with a few marks, as I did here down the side of the bodice.

The light, frilly bulk of this crinoline dress is propelled forward with lines. pinching its gathers and sways that are hiding a horsehair bustle. fleets of quick

168

COSTUME

Textures and.Patterns
THIS CLASS FOCUSES ON how to draw textures through the collection of fabric, pattern, and embroidery samples from a costume m u s e u m . This formal method, using ruled squares, can create an invaluable library of ideas a n d i n f o r m a t i o n for future r e f e r e n c e — w h e n painting a clothed figure, or preparing a textile project, for example. However, if making a book of samples for a project, remember that it is important to also include collages of f o u n d materials (see pp.230-31) To d r a w a fabric texture, b e g i n by concentrating o n h o w y o u i m a g i n e it w o u l d feel if you t o u c h e d it. Decide if it w o u l d be rough, s m o o t h , w a r m , cold, thick, thin, tough, or fragile, for example. As you draw, believe you can feel these qualities at your fingertips a n d that your pencil is responding to the sensation. Undulate the pressure of your lines and marks according to the feeling of the fabric rather than its appearance. Let your pencil enact the sensation of touching its surface.

and to experiment more loosely with mixed media.

INVENTING COSTUMES
This starchy, quilted, b o w e d creation started life as an imagined corset, I intended t o d r a w together in one sculptural f o r m a range o f t h e details opposite. T h e garment quickly got o u t o f hand. T h e r e is great e n j o y m e n t in letting y o u r imagination run wild w h e n inventing costumes. If you are unable t o visit a costume museum, many exciting fabric details and textures can be found in y o u r o w n closet o r home.

169

COLORED PENCILS
Colored pencils give precision and tonal range; they can be faded but not erased. Lightly use an HB graphite pencil if you wish to plan a design first. Pressed hard, colored pencils build up a waxy finish of brilliant color. Used lightly, they appear powdery and show the texture of the paper.

TEXTURES AND PATTERNS
Wool

Silk and braid

Ribbon

Embroidered leather

Feathers

Pearls

Knit

Tassels

Outline stitch

.

126-27. and motivation of an individual. identity. selected from different pages of my original book. Madrid.Dressing Character I O N C E SPENT THREE MONTHS researching the work of Francisco de Goya at the Prado Museum. shape. I made a drawing book full of studies seeking to understand how he composed drama and pathos in his narratives (see also pp. These characters. 172-73. and 252-53). look at how Goya delineated volumes of thick fabric to express the posture. .

I carefully copied the direction of each of his lines.T H E S E PENCIL STUDIES. To understand how he did this. as it rushes and carves fabric-wrapped forms like rivers and desert winds shaping the earth. . are copies of works by Goya in which he makes air seem heavier than flesh.170—71). and visible. Posture Carving also taken from my Madrid drawing book (see pp. and tangible.

.

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and distance—so drawings of gathered people can be loosely arranged in three took only minutes to make and yet it lives for centuries. daily newspapers. Blockbuster movies. Saskia died after childbirth. too. but drawings of gathered people tell them most directly. stares out from her gloomy sickbed. the viewer's attention in a scene by the format of its composition. Later in their lives. and other masters of Western Art. The spaces between people and the positions they occupy on a page are vital to our understanding of the psychology or emotion of an event. With a pocket full of disposable pens we also go out and draw the expressions of gathered people. . It middle. paintings depicting scenes from history. the viewer. Seeing through Rembrandt's eyes. and so. a crowd tells the story from a distance. This J u s t as there are three parts to a traditional landscape drawing—the foreground. types. heighten or subdue drama with subtleties of exaggeration or caricature. Second. there are no longer individuals but one significant group or mass action. furniture. we can learn most about handling pen and ink. We read tensions and exchanges between people. the viewer is not directly made the finer lines of Saskia. the direct exchange (as shown here) where one or more characters hold eye Aneedproduced the thicker lines of the nurse. and therefore seem to see. R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN in the delivery of narrative. comics. Here. while a quill contact with. the speed and printmaker and one of the greatest and most influential density of its lines. are implicated in this marital exchange made over the head of the anonymous nurse. Saskia. in spite of how it may seem. and instantly engage with the action of the scene. Third. First. We can also use clothes. He is also the artist from whom props to add layers of meaning and attitude. He in turn scorches the paper with his view and a certain speed of seeing all. As artists. Rembrandt's bored and frustrated wife.Gatherings A LL DRAWINGS TELL STORIES. soap operas. television documentaries. Washes of shadow behind engaged and as a natural voyeur can feel invisible while watching the scene. even up her were laid with a brush. Drawings selected for this chapter explore these Saskia Lying in Bedand a Nurse ranges of proximity 1638 9 x61/2in (227 x 164 mm) and a travel journal. presumably while he is making this drawing. We can direct close. finding corners in crowded places to inscribe their action and energy onto the page. this is not the portrait of an old woman. we can R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter draftsman. vivid portrait of his wife captures our attention. and novels—our staple cultural diet—are driven by a fascination with shared experience and the detail of what happens in other people's lives. Her all-too-clear expression shows annoyance and irritation with her husband. and its illumination. Storytelling and people-watching are obsessive human activities. we.

h a l o e d portrait of the artists seated b a c k to b a c k . Pencil on paper important but only the beginning of possibility the combination of three-dimensional space."Anything that. N o b l e a n d W e b s t e r s w i t t y a n d o f t e n s u b v e r s i v e d r a w i n g s are also c o n t e m p o r a r y art installations. and Alice. for example. Pans fly oft the stove. narrative is delivered through the air. Real Life is Rubbish 2002 Dimensions variable TIM N O B L E A N D SUE WEBSTER . Here. and projector.176 GATHERINGS SOME DRAWINGS ARE MADE e n t i r e l y o f i l l u m i n a t i o n that floods drama into the viewers gaze. a kitchen explodes in o u r faces. F o r e a c h w o r k . Below.kicks against the mundane things that close down your mind is a refreshing and good thing. and smoke billows around the agitated jives of the Duchess. and on. the C o o k . In both works. Think about what else you could use: a laser smoke. plates shatter. hearth i m p l e m e n t s crash at o u r feet.. c o m p o s e d garbage p r o d u c e s a c a l m . and in. T h e i m m a c u l a t e d r a w i n g is only r e v e a l e d w h e n t h e b e a m of a p r o j e c t o r c a s t s t h e s h a d o w Projections of the h e a p o n t o a wall." (Tim Noble) Drawing with light it is important to think about what you is Here timelessly we see a in can draw with. junk. or even the office photocopier.. and projectors to create their anarchic punk satires of modern life. via the animated clutter of o u r material lives. TIM N O B L E A N D SUE W E B S T E R British artists who collaborate using neon. refuse. garbage and chaos are piled a n d e x p l o d e d in r o o m s full of event. the Cat. t h e y select and arrange familiar items of street detritus into what appears to be an u n p l e a s a n t pile. In one of R a c k h a m s great illustrations for Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland.

See how the In the Duchess's Kitchen 1907 77/8 x 6 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 5 0 m m ) ARTHUR RACKHAM . ink. humor. by vivid children's Rakham's w o r k is characterized fantasy. 100 to see for make elliptical objects and pans fly through the the foreground. beams. and watercolor. Rackham Vanishing point In this marvelous drama made with pen. and Poe's Tales Imagination. Refer back to the drawing class how pots In drawn objects and elements that those behind. amplifying movement outward from the vanishing point.76-77) above vanishing point (see that is about3/4in (2 cm) oak converge at this point. Depth Billows of smoke expand and are lighter as they come forward. and Alice's shoulder. H e is best k n o w n forillustratingIrving's Rip vanWinkle. are very large compared to on p.Stowe's ofMysteryand Queer Little Folks.177 ARTHUR RACKHAM British watercolorist and book illustrator. tabletop. The wood grain acts like marks of speed behind the scene. Find the singleperspective pp. This makes the story appear to leap out at us. we find several devices already explored through our drawing classes. a n d an unmistakable graphic style.

London. heat. Moore's spectators appear to have walked a long way from nowhere to witness and wait beside this mysterious obelisque. perhaps these two are the most extreme. and composition they are polar opposites. The image stands out among his more usual graphic works in which he hones and carves semi-abstract human forms. In culture. Magnetic Fields sculpture. and art in the landscape. join in the waiting. a sculptor. a n d l o v e d t o d r a w in t h e BritishMuseum. M o o r e t o u r e d Italy as a young man. Chalk and graphite This fog-bound but humorous gathering of souls is made in graphite and colored chalk with gray wash.178 GATHERINGS we have seen in the pairs and trios of drawings by masters and makers. This is just one of many precious artifacts from a lost time. This is an ironic drawing from Moore. a great Shoshone drawing blazes with the color. Opposite. and action of a buffalo hunt. The mournful gray landscape of Henry Moore's northern British field has gathered by night an overcoated audience to stand and wait before a wrapped and roped monument. A glimmer of gold light appears from the left No explanation is given. as fellow watchers. meaning. audiences.The human form w a s the vehicle o f his expression and h e w a s t h e official W o r l d W a r II artist. and we. expressing his dry humor about O F ALL THE CONTRASTS HENRY MOORE British s c u l p t o r w h o t r a i n e d a n d taught at t h e R C A . which still narrates vivid days in the lives of an energetic nation. HENRY MOORE Crowd 1942 Looking at Tied-up Object . as if Moore's wrapping has been literally outstretched.

creating harmonious balance with words but through silent demonstration. Each color is evenly distributed throughout the scene. Hunt CENTURY SHOSHONE SCHOOL . Skills are taught not center chant or dance to the beat of a drum. tolearnhow to paint a scene on a hide are and buffalo circle and charge the perimeters of a skin "field.179 SHOSHONE SCHOOL Stylized characters This vital image of a buffalo hunt is made with pigment Members of the Shoshone community wishing painted within dark outlines on a stretched elk hide. Stylized hunters." Men at the instructed to sit and watch. horses. MAGNETIC FIELDS Horses It is interesting to note how the outstretched limbs ofthesehorses echo European images of the runningBuffalo horse before the sequence-photographer Muybridge taught us to 19TH understand their movement differently. and helping our eye to dart around.

t h e Bible. texture. a n d the gentle h u m o r of sedate r i d i c u l e . a n d f o c u s . Opposite. pale souls of the lustful are being s p u n into yet another realm of hell. m a r k . era as Kollwitz. color. w h e r e he w a t c h e s a t u r b u l e n t s p i r a l of p u n i s h m e n t f o r the d a m n e d .180 GATHERINGS The Human Condition IN THE SPECTRUM of these vastly d i f f e r e n t g a t h e r i n g s of p e o p l e . a pink-inked cinema wobbles along with string. The Circle of the (The Whirlwind 1824 of Lustful Lovers) mm) 143/4 x 207/8i n ( 3 7 4 x 5 3 0 WILLIAM BLAKE . Blake w a s d r i v e n b y a passion f o r j u s t i c e a n d a p r o f o u n d b e l i e f in his v i s i t a t i o n s f r o m angels. Brushed line and wash This is an ink-outlined drawing made with a fine brush on paper with added washes of watercolor The image was subsequently redrawn as a line engraving. and sweetened the often bleak years with his impractical inventions.f o o t e d t r o g l o d y t e s w h o rage into w a r like a m u d s l i d e of revenge. inextinguishable in its fortitude and h u m o r . w e f i n d a spiritual v i s i o n . K a t h e K o l l w i t z s c r a t c h e d a n d e n g r a v e d her a r m y of c l a y . It illustrates a scene from Dante's Divine Comedy. p o e t . a d e a t h c h a r g e of brutality. Heath Robinson lived through the same war-torn. The muscularity of Blake's figures was inspired by Michelangelo's works. W I L L I A M BLAKE British visionary. We also see qualities of line. w r i t e r a r t i s t . B l a k e h a s i l l u m i n a t e d his s a d d e n e d Virgil on the s h o r e s of a d a r k w o r l d . w h i c h b y their c h o i c e a n d h a n d l i n g a c t u a l l y b e c o m e the force a n d spirit of e a c h i m a g e . a n d o t h e r w o r k s . a n d e n g r a v e r w h o p o w e r f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e d his o w n t e x t s in a d d i t i o n t o D a n t e ' s Divine Comedy. Misted in translucent layers of paint.

HEATH ROBINSON The Kinecar 1926 103/8 x 15 in (262 x 380 mm) . Robinson and Kollwitz (above) share almost identical life dates and their work expresses a shared history from opposite sides oftheworld wars. Kollwitz survived the two World Wars. and her powerful and sensitive drawings center on nurture. sculptor and draftsman. however meager or ridiculous their activity. Losbruch (The Outbreak) 1955 20 x 233/8 in (507 x 592 mm) KATHE KOLLWITZ HEATH ROBINSON humorous illustrator and a regular contributor to magazines and journals such as The Sketch and The Bystander. With masterful gentility. and clearly focused. humor by making his characters earnest. Heath Robinson shows England in a past era. THE HUMAN CONDITION Scratched lines This is a dry-point etching with monoprint. Ink rolled over was selectively polished off using a rag. The image was scratched directly onto a metal plate. who lived in a poor district of Berlin. poverty. British Pen and wash This is a pen-andwatercolor drawing made for a color-platereproduction in an edition of T h e Bystander. and the family home. and controlled smears on the metal surface printed as tones. and the impact of death and war upon women. He created sincere. plodding along with hazy. White marks were made with a dusting of French chalk on the artist's finger to wipe away ink leaving clean metal. stoical bemusement. children.181 KATHE KOLLWITZ German printmaker. What remained in scratched grooves printed on damp paper as lines.

in the car.188-89) and Caravans (see pp. a disposable pen with its clip-on cap goes anywhere. build to a rich. is d e l i v e r e d t h r o u g h a m e t a l t u b e o v e r a t i n y ball bearing. dropped in your pocket and forgotten till needed. jot notes. turn the page. dark sheen. gel pens) are the most convenient of all materials with which to travel.182 GATHERINGS Disposable Pens (ballpoints. fine fiber-tip Drawing with a fine fiber-tip pen. indent paper. 7 6 . a n d pressure-sensitive. these pens enable you to sketch. and in most pockets so I can always record a thought DISPOSABLE PENS QUICK NOTES O n a c o l d day in Venice. which can snap or pierce through your clothes." 1. W h i t e gel p e n s a r e v e r y e f f e c t i v e o n d a r k papers. 2. Unlike pencils. including l u m i n o u s a n d m e t a l l i c . FIBER-TIP: M a n u f a c t u r e d f o r artists a n d d e s i g n e r s in a r a n g e o f w i d t h s . shut your book. or turn into washes and make monoprints if flooded with an alcohol-based substance such as hairspray. At a time like this. The f o u r i l l u s t r a t e d h e r e r e p r e s e n t a basic r a n g e . w a t e r . or idea. t h e y a r e lightfast. trusting shape and form to follow. 192-93) w e r e b o t h m a d e w i t h a ballpoint. 4. aiming for correct outlines would result in drawing too slowly to c a t c h the moment. rollerballs. For example. blob when old. in the studio. they can be obtained within minutes. they each offer distinct and sometimes unexpected qualities. or put the paper in your pocket instantly without fear of smudging. T h e r e w e r e c seconds t o snatch this impression b e t w e e n their emergence from one bridge and disappearance b e n e a t h t h e next. So many stores sell them. c h o o s e p e n s l a b e l e d " p e r m a n e n t " o r "lightfast. Available in blacks and ranges of colors. G E L P E N : P r o d u c e d in b l a c k w h i t e . t w o tourists and their gondolier drifter past m e o n a canal. a n d ranges o f colors.r e s i s t a n t . I keep quantities at home. a ballpoint will make faint lines. if y o u w i s h y o u r d r a w i n g s t o last a n d n o t fade o r b l u r w i t h t i m e a n d e x p o s u r e t o light. CHOICES AVAILABLE T h e r e a r e m a n y d i s p o s a b l e p e n s t o c h o o s e from. Lines t h i c k e n as t h e p e n w e a r s o u t G r a n d Canal (see pp. Quick-drying. fibertips. Insensitive t o p r e s s u r e : lines d o n o t v a r y in w i d t h o r t o n e .7 7 and 214-15). B A L L P O I N T : Black a n d b o l d c o l o r s o f f e r d i v e r s e qualities. . I swiftly focused on gesture. R e m e m b e r . Ideal f o r precision w o r k (see p p . p e r m a n e n t . R O L L E R B A L L : A c o n s t a n t i n k flow 3 .

Fast lines focus on action. crowd of fellow travelers Fast lines These scribbled lines model the mass and shadows of heads belonging passengers packed into the boat. not form. Compare this Klee's mules on p.FROMMEMORY Here I used the same fiber-tip pen to compose a scene from memory. Earlier I had witnessed a crammed en masse in a fleet of hired gondolas complete with musicians and choir.31 .

all action is in the line of his coat and directed by his nose. life will not slow and wait for you to catch it. not its outline. animate them more. Don't worry about measuring angles. Every drawing writes an indelible memory of place. make them stouter. Each line acts its part in the narrative. Above all. Let the line of the flying coat fly and the hanging arm hang. Exaggeration helps. when out drawing. but they should not be what you dwell on. if animated. Movement . Push toward caricature and this will draw out of your memory what was most important. You will make outlines. A curatorial assistant flies to do a chore (right). if a person was stout. focus on the action of the event.184 GATHERINGS The Travel Journal I CANNOT OVERSTATE THE JOY of making a travel journal. pocket notebook and a fiber-tip pen. angles will happen as a matter of course. Circular lines buzz around a man puzzling at the end of a train platform (left). No camera can tie you to a time or people in the same way. black. activity. and companionship. Each one was witnessed and drawn immediately from the afterimage of what I had just seen. of course. I caught fleeting glimpses of gathered people and solitary souls going about their affairs. You must learn to trust your memory and to draw what impressed you most. However. let it enter the stage and perform. just draw the action. FLEETING MOMENTS Walking through Venice with a small.

In turn. The rush of his legs isamplifiedby their blurred lines. Expression . I drew him three times on the same page to catch a range of his physical expressions. eager to herd us all from his house of responsibility. I am watched by the aggravated guard.185 A large lady is photographed in front of a delicate work of art. Observation THE TRAVEL JOURNAL The same willowy assistant dashes about his work.

Place the person carefully. I took refuge in a church in Venice. ACTION AND DETAIL W h e n drawing people. placement. and you decide to draw the moment. Be aware that their placement on the page is part of the narrative. Identify the principal character and draw him or her first. start by focusing on its action.186 GATHERINGS Catching the Moment On A BITTERLY COLD November day. When your attention has been caught. He and his simpering assistant would not allow me in. Here I have recreated my drawing in steps to show you how to set about capturing such a scene. or pushes. furniture leans. For example. and reason for happening. For example. decide how faces and bodies contort. Here the custodian projects fastidious ownership of his desk and pamphlets by pushing from behind the center of the space and challenging our entry to his image. elevate them in the pictorial space. if they are being devious. pulls. or bulge. . you might place them lower down. and let every detail speak by its size. forcing me to remain at the back and look at them. flap. and clothing or bags hang. not outline. and involvement in the story. emotion. rather than the works of art they guarded. and there met this sullen custodian. focus on action. if they are being haughty.

W i t h a few strokes. Draw their action and props. together with any immediate props they are using. CATCHING THE MOMENT The assistant Identify t h e antagonist ( o r second character) in t h e scene. In the final step (left) I reinforced t h e custodian's desk. a pillar locates t h e scene in a depth o f space. who is largely expressed through the shape and fall o f his raincoat and his way o f using a note pad. I added t h e assistant. Here. such as the desk and pamphlets seen here. Decide where you will place them o n the paper t o emphasize their action and intent. Decide where t o place them t o emphasize their role.187 The custodian Identify your principal character a n d their psychological role in the scene. which is pushed toward us in a gesture of confrontation. . continue adding characters. If drawing a more complex scene. D r a w their action.

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where vertical mooring poles give space and pulse to the horizontal speed of water quickly. An imminent deluge of tourists urged me to work catching no more than the skeleton of the view. . and buildings.Grand Canal T H E CANALS OF VENICE are bustling places full of occupation. I developed detailofthis drawing from memory using a ballpoint pen.

Venetians flow across a stepped bridge and cascade into the streets beyond. followed by the streets.Crossings DURING THIS RUSH HOUR. then the bridge beneath them. To catch characters like this. Each person was glimpsed in an instant. note only their most essential action and feature. Characters in the foreground were drawn first. and drawn immediately from memory. . Caricature each person slightly.

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I used a ballpoint pen to compose a series of scenes.Caravans T H E PARAPHERNALIA O F TRAVEL i s an intriguing part of circus life. quiet afternoon. Sitting at a distance on a hot. I found this circus by chance in the Swiss mountains. . Caravans and other backstage activity convey expectations of energy and repose. and a great subject to draw.

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and the sea. a contemporary environmental artist. JOHN RUSSELL A p o r t r a i t pastelist t o King G e o r g e III o f England. rivers. learning to draw light out of dark. a n d a n astronomer w h o dedicated 20 years t o studying t h e M o o n . Take chances against the rain and work with the wind or fog. By drawing such momentous and everyday events. t h e first-ever accurate image o f t h e M o o n ' s surface. the sun comes out to blind it. pages o f softly i l l u m i n a t e d craters and lunar "seas" c o v e r e d in m a t h e m a t i c a l and s h o r t h a n d calculations. how the soil is scorched.Earth and the Elements I T MAY SEEM PERVERSE to start a chapter titled "Earth and the Elements" with an image of the Moon. trees. or the wind carries it away. as opposed the physicality of Earth. Russell d r e w this. Look closely at works by many artists and you will see that they have not represented hills. H e a l s o p r o d u c e d an a l b u m o f 1 8 0 exquisite pencil drawings. so J o h n Russell's tour de f o r c e drawing (opposite) was a masterpiece of observation in his time. Beginners will often choose calm. surrounded by the bright instruments of centuries of navigation. but it can be seen as a lens to our observation of this planet. 199). a n d a m o o n globe called t h e Selenographia. In this chapter Moon Pastel 1795 Drawing we experiment with charcoal. This is the world's first accurate image of the Moon. to be ready to draw the new light as it breaks across the land. and even how the Sun illuminates. What they have drawn is the force of nature on these properties: how the wind heaves the night ocean. and experiment. These conditions are very difficult to express well. Richard Long. William Turner is said to have had himself lashed to a ship's mast to comprehend the storm (see p. artists see for themselves that which is momentary and eternal. are the real subjects in great landscape drawings. arranging them in perfect circles on the mountainside or in lines drifting out of sight beneath low clouds. and meteor impacts have scarred. marking the ground with lines of footprints or by turning stones. Just as NASA photographs of Earth have had a profound effect on the way we view our fragile home. t w o e n g r a v e d m a p s k n o w n as The Lunar Planispheres. It now hangs on the staircase of the History of Science Museum. our companion. speculation. The pastel drawing was constructed from myriad telescopic observations almost 200 years before the Apollo Moon landing. they are the animators of your subject. England. makes his work by the act of walking. and its draws the tides of the seas. the face of the Moon. or has cracked and fallen under the weight of water. 5 f t x 5 ft 6 in ( 1 5 2 x 1 6 8 c m ) J O H N RUSSELL . when little stirs and empty blue skies offer even less to latch lines to. Weather is essential in all landscape drawing. sunny days. It is better to get up before dawn. There is a sense of the heroic in drawing outside—we race to catch a form before the tide engulfs it. how the mountain cut by ice and rain is now fleetingly lit. Oxford. and take bold steps in emulating the swell of clouds and the forces of torrential water. The forces of nature. It is Earths satellite.

He knew how the world bends and stutters under such gusts. we can soon learn to draw its force. painter. Hazy vertical marks reveal buildings into the mist. Daumier's c a r t o o n shines with the brilliance of his comic memory. A hard waxy was drawn across a heavy limestone Varying definitions crayon of lire and depths of tone conspire to give volume. a sail b r o k e n loose in a stormy marriage. like an umbrella forced inside-out. undramatic b u t brimming with stylized realism. lifts. Dots and dashes suggest receding trees out of focus. the bourgeoisie. Fluid strokes inflate the woman's dress and pin shadows to the ground.Through political drawings he fired his sharp wit at the king. Danger of Wearing Balloon Petticoats UNDATED HONORE DAUMIER . and pioneer ofexpressionism. H O N O R E DAUMIER French satirical cartoonist lithographer. Hokusais sedate wind presses reeds a n d the j o u r n e y s o f young ladies. Below. serving a prison sentence for his views. and by observing its tides and eddies in our o w n environment. Crayon and limestone This is a lithograph. seeing how it shakes. T h e great master of English seascape is c o n d u c t i n g with his graphic energy. is already lost. Flapping kimonos and an onlooker turning his b a c k have the magic of a m o m e n t caught. and gives motion to each image. speed. a scratched ghost.198 EARTH AND THE E L E M E N T S Air in Motion THE GREAT INVISIBLE SUBJECT o f these d r a w i n g s is t h e w i n d . and solidity. fluttering heavily. distance. Terrifying waves of merciless nature roar across the paper. By Turner carries us to the heart of the maelstrom. has b e c o m e a hysterical kite. T h e ship. the government. sculptor. This wife. and the legal profession.

and history painter w h o s e p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t a b o v e all w a s light.b l o c kprintmaker. seascape. a n d his b e s t . W .199 J. H o k u s a i in t u r n has since significantly influenced European art. Wind direction wood-block This is a colored To represent the blows lifted flowed wind. T u r n e r w o r k e d in oils a n d w a t e r c o l o r s a n d s k e t c h e d c o p i o u s l y o n his travels. T h e r e a r e m a n y stories o f his p a s s i o n a t e w o r k i n g methods. wind. 1826 91/2 x 113/4 in ( 2 4 1 x 3 0 0 m m ) J. TURNER KATSUSHIKA HOKUSAI Prolific J a p a n e s e c o l o r w o o d .i n f l u e n c e d b y examples o f W e s t e r n art obtained through D u t c h t r a d i n g in Nagasaki. Landscape a n d city life w e r e his principal subjects. T U R N E R British landscape.l o v e dw o r k s i n c l u d e 1 0 0 v i e w s o f M o u n t Fuji and 1 2 v o l u m e s o f Manga.M. AIR IN MOTION Pencil and watercolor subdued brushed. absorbent watercolor and are Stains of splashed. horizontally then and of the it into the stream Plants also bend and flow right to Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 1802 81/2 HOKUSAI KATSUSHIKA x 131/2 in ( 2 1 7 x 3 4 3 mm) . A outline scratched of a skeletal into penciled ship is while and the waves. including being lashed t o a ship's m a s t in o r d e r to study a storm.W. into this very as pressed sheet The paper's through own coior is brought banks of mist and fog.M. Hokusai direction (from clothing from has chosen which it the right). d e s i g n e r a n d b o o k i l l u s t r a t o r . leans the whole composition swells around its fateful center. Ship in a Storm c. painter. from left print.

He brings us to stare into a place that no sane human would enter. leaving nothing but a glimpse of moonlight glistening on the froth below. he blanketed the drawing in darkness. Leonardos Cloudburst of Material Possessions is o n e of his m o s t enigmatic and mysterious works. Then. fantasy palaces. Turner (see p.198) admires the majesty of nature. this is a b o m b a r d m e n t from o u r h o m e s . It looks so contemporary. as a gestural storm on the paper. drawing was Hugo's principal means o f expression. and t h e sea s t u d i e d f r o m his h o m e in Guernsey in t h e Channel Islands. In periods b e t w e e n writing. water. By contrast. and tossed o b j e c t s — a perfect subject in which artists can forget themselves. it is difficult to contemplate its brooding and night-soaked heart. ink. An update on biblical showers of fish and frogs.28). lines of rain escorting them to b o u n c e and clatter. grab their b r u s h . D o m e s t i c o b j e c t s we can o w n and name fall from the clouds. h a u n t e d shadows. His subjects include ruins. active surfaces of water. Le Bateau-Vision 1864 71/2 x 1 0 in ( 1 9 2 x 2 5 5 m m ) VICTOR H U G O . marks. as if drawn j u s t this year. and swim into the page. EARTH AND THE VICTOR HUGO French novelist and artist (see also p. as a subject and second. inks. T h e m e n a c i n g darkness of Hugo's storm b e l o w is so convincing. with a brush. Opposite.200 ELEMENTS Storms STORMS CAN BE SEEN and drawn in two ways: first. composing banks of waves and dense. T h e very nature of b o t h is turmoil and an interweaving of elements. this is a writer's narrative of terror. or charcoal. Pen and brush Hugo drew first with pen and ink.

Each item that has crashed from heaven is drawn in such a way that we can feel Leonardo's nib picking it up in the speed of a doodle. together with half the contents of our garage. There is a little magic in recognizing many items from our homes something like a rake. Cloudburst of Material Possessions 1510-12 45/8 x 43/8 in ( 1 1 7 x 1 1 1 mm) L E O N A R D O DA VINCI . It is interesting to speculate how engineering might have developed if his ideas had been shared with the world earlier Ink and chalk This is a pen and ink drawing with touches of black chalk. Above and below are examples of his mirror handwriting. a bell. He bequeathed his drawings to a friend. envisioning machines centuries before their making (helicopters and bicycles. He was left-handed and wrote backwards in Italian from left to right. and a wheel. for example). a hook.LEONARDO DA VINCI Leonardo devised many artifacts of our modern lives. and they passed through private hands for 400 years before becoming widely known.

1638 85/8 x 121/2 in (219 x 320 mm) CLAUDE LORRAIN . and across to the right. and famed for. and mood simultaneously. rich. thick. watching his hand and eye at work together. Claude is distinguished by. she teased away fragments of paper to illuminate her view. Drawing with a scalpel. Whether land-. She was inspired by her research of aerial plans of London and the story of an alien map butterfly (see caption). sea-. and dry marks in the foreground appear to be made with his finger. In a very different work (opposite above). C L A U D E LORRAIN French classical landscape painter draftsman. Over first lines. EARTH AND THE Bryan cut the profile of a city. cooler tones receding into the distance are applied with a brush. Clare Bryan took panoramic photographs of the English South Downs. and after tracing her captured line. Claude Lorrain drew directly on location. a horizon line can trigger our recognition. Paler. transferred it to a scroll. Views from Velletri c. or cityscape. rapidly layering contours to shape place. In the lower half he has walked downhill a little. and we can imagine standing over his shoulder. Nature Profiles Opposite below. it is the unique calligraphic signature of the place in which we stand. his unsurpassed handling of light. Even distilled from all other detail. Segments The top half of the drawing is a view as we enter the valley. and etcher who lived most of his life in 17th-century Rome. Claude has used a fine nib to delineate segments of land as they recede into space.202 ELEMENTS THE PROFILE OF A HORIZON is a line we immediately recognize and respond to. atmosphere. which he used to unify his compositions. made inside a book.

progressively settlement (cropped more and more paper is drawn away to show the expansion of human page of an around the river." Cut line This is a small section of a preparatory 5-ft(1.5-m)scroll. 2001 CLARE BRYAN C L A R E BRYAN 3ritish artist. source workisilluminatedby standing its lower edge on a CLARE BRYAN . and visiting professor at numerous art schools. printmaker graphic designer. On turning the pages of City. and digital print-based works reflect upon the histories and poetry of "left behind and in-between spaces. The edges of each here) fade into the solid paper unpopulated with a scalpel landscape. then hunted destroyed.203 Scalpel-drawn This book-bound drawing was inspired by the story of a foreign butterfly wrongly to Great Britain in 1912. specialty bookbinder. drawings Ideas of introduction Clare Bryan to research introduced down and led NATURE PROFILES and removal historical plans and aerial growth of London showing its population since Roman times.The horizon was drawn with a City Landline 2003 271/2x 59 in (70 x 150 cm) scalpel. Her recent paper photographic.

and heavier than willow. a piece of fresh bread. A great find when available. so it chars b l a c k as o p p o s e d to igniting a n d turning to ash. Boxes often contain a range of thicknesses to choose for different needs. Beware of cheap brands selling dyed chalk as compressed charcoal. fine. Lines are achieved by d e p o s i t i n g particles in the grain o f paper. It does n o t erase easily. they are all intended for fine work. C h a r c o a l naturally glistens. feather. It c a n be m a d e duller. Try itworking on big paper covering a wall. CHARCOAL PENCIL: Types made by different manufacturers vary in quality and density of line. Essentially. b e e c h . Artists have also used lime. blacker. THIN WILLOW CHARCOAL: I used a piece like this to make the drawing opposite. a n d m o r e i n d e l i b l e by soaking it in linseed oil. the heel o f y o u r h a n d . It allows you greater precision in your mark-making than if you rub away the charcoal with an eraser. resulting in a stick that gives a blacker. Charcoal lifts away from paper easily with the very light touch o f an eraser. without touching the surface.m a d e c o m p r e s s e d charcoal. Slightly dull the tape's stickiness before use t o prevent it from lifting out more than you intend. resulting in a pale line. 1. Not to be confused with square conte sticks (see p. a n d p l u m .204 E A R T H AND THE E L E M E N T S Charcoal CHARCOAL IS PRODUCED from wood baked slowly without exposure to air. or fingertip. black finish. 7. It is also easily erased if the maker of the mark is not happy with the result. 4. harder line. As its name implies. only a little thicker. 1 Suspend a length of masking tape. maple. Hold it over your drawing RANGE AVAILABLE Charcoal (in its several forms shown here) is loved or loathed by the beginner to whom it is often recommended because it produces pleasing results quickly. 3. SQUARE COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Not often sold. 6.54). vine. tape. you can p u r c h a s e m a c h i n e . THICK W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 2 Keep the tape above your drawing. this does not exist. Use any fine-point pen or pencil (I used a ballpoint) to draw a firm line on the back of the Big pieces are perfect for very large-scale drawings—even larger than yourself. 3 A white line is lifted out by the tape. 162) or graphite (see p. The same as above. LIFTING OUT This technique is a very easy method of drawing a crisp. leaving u n d e r t r a c e s of first thoughts. it is compressed and m o l d e d at high pressure. but some specialists stock compressed charcoal in delicate square sticks. b l a c k e r . In use. a rag. white line into the blackor grayness of willow charcoal. Alternatively. R o u g h paper c a n b e loaded. . Then lift it away. The tip snaps easily to renew a sharp edge if required. cylindrical. 2. between your middle finger and thumb. CHALK CHARCOAL: Technically. sticky side down. Smooth paper accepts few particles. B u n d l e s o f twigs were traditionally sealed into earthenware j a r s or wet clay and heated slowly and intensely in a fire or kiln. and offers a rich. it looks gray and feels like chalk. MEDIUM W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 5. COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Machine-made. Willow is the most c o m m o n wood.

Different tones seen throughout the main drawing on pp. or any other dry media. Use cheaper (less sticky) for lifting out. Lift out broader marks with a larger implement. PEN: Any fine pen or pencil can be used to draw on the back of masking tape when lifting out. graphite. . Use high quality (very sticky) to fix paper to walls and boards. CHARCOAL Lifting out This detail shows an example of where I used the lifting-out technique demonstrated opposite to draw flashes of lightning against rain clouds. Here we used a ballpoint.205 ERASING Thickly applied charcoal quickly o v e r c o m e s a plastic eraser A w a r m (soft and tacky) putty eraser is more effective. MASKING TAPE: An invaluable resource. pastels. as is fresh (unbuttered!) bread. I used a plastic eraser effectively on thinly applied charcoal. Layers can be peeled away to refresh its surface. 9. Here.212-13 were made by altering the pressure applied to the charcoal. sold in several widths. 8 . 10. T O R T I L L O N : This is a tight roll of paper used to blend charcoal. Cotton swabs also work.

Don't worry if it is cloudy: clouds add drama and perspective and make good subjects in themselves (see pp. a less distinct middle ground composed of shapes and textures. The long view is hidden behind trees. and a cushion in a plastic bag to sit on. Then I drew the shape of the tonal patches I perceived. hazy distance. Pack several thick and thin sticks of willow charcoal. an eraser your drawing book or a board and paper fixative (or hairspray). Seeing tones . the less you describe. They are also good markers of receding space. Landscape drawings are traditionally arranged in three parts: a detailed foreground. details blur and colors grow paler and bluer.212-13). it results in flat planes of clutter. On p p . Successful drawings often only suggest the qualities of the scene without overdescribing them. To experiment with drawing landscapes and the use of charcoal. but is often less evocative and engaging. It is the visible effect of the atmosphere between where you stand and what you see in the distance. to contain each of your compositions. the more you encourage the viewer's imagination to join in and see. This term simply means that as land rolls away into the distance. begin by marking out several small squares on your paper.9 9 we noted that in response to visual stimulus. a reel of masking tape.206 EARTH AND THE ELEMENTS Landscapes TREES ALONE OFFER MARVELOUS shapes to draw. I relaxed my eyes out of focus to dissolve distracting detail into abstract patches of light and darkness. especially when making first excursions into aerial perspective. When you arrive. At its worst. Excessive detail can be admired for its skill and achievement. and an abstract. pack your materials (as advised below) and set off for a local view or your nearest arboretum. MATERIALS In this first view there is only a foreground and middle distance. Ironically. our brains search for nameable things and will perceive complete pictures from very little information. 9 8 .

rounded. shadows. Exploring the view Redrawing the scene above. dark trees with bright. It is better to give distinctly more pictorial space to one or the other (see below). and broke a view through the hedge into the distance with a dark sky threatening rain. full of information you can use to create what you want! Inventing drama . This composition turned out a little flat because I have an almost even quantity of earth and sky. I have invented drama with diagonals set against each other I tilted the earth. your view is your inspiration.207 LANDSCAPES In my second square I explored a simple view contrasting soft. the trunk of a bare tree. Remember. horizontal regions of grass.

on p p .164-65) and a wire violin (pp. Circling a subject and drawing it from several views imprints on your memory a better understanding of its three-dimensional form. and tiller still standing proud. your challenge now is to find a sculptural subject in the landscape. so the paper is not made blinding and your hand cannot cast a shadow on your work. Building on earlier studies of structure in space using shoes (pp.1 5 my first drawing of the whole view of the Tiber led me to see the real subject of the day. engine. EARTH AND THE FINDING THE SUBJECT Finding a remarkable subject is even better when you can circumnavigate it in an arena of space. taking with you your drawing book and pen. I usually begin by making an image of the whole view. "Drawing in the round means to literally walk around your subject. 2 1 4 .104-05). observing it from several views so as to better understand it as a whole. bare ribs. The mud of the tidal shore in Rye. This first drawing serves as a process of arrival. settling my concentration. England has embedded within it the decaying skeleton of a burned fishing boat. which was the flow of water over rocks. shade out of the glare of the sun. Similarly. s e e k places in light After my first drawing. making the scene below led me to focus on the decaying boat opposite." .208 ELEMENTS Drawing in the Round WHEN DRAWING IN THE LANDSCAPE. For example. and seeing what the real choice of subject is. I am then able to home in on what interests me most for further study.

looking more at the boat than at the paper From this low position I have emphasized how the boat is swallowed in mud by outlining its shadow on the ground. Overleaf: Decaying Boat 4 . character.209 SERIES OF STUDIES This stunning ghost o f a boat comes into v i e w t w i c e a day. I looked more boldly at the planes and the dynamic of the sculptural craft My lines have become darker and more forceful as confidence in my understanding of the vessel grew. I spent equal time looking at the subject and the paper. DRAWING IN THE 1 Here. and structure. Each n e w drawing gives a different insight. I drew with quick. W h e n you have found your subject. careful lines to establish the skeleton that gives this wreck its distinct form. and the order and shape of its component parts. unfussy lines. marking straight. w h e n t h e sea recedes. 3 This impression notes the angle of the broken boat. ROUND 2 In this tail-end view. The outline ties a shape of darkness to the boat like a weight so that it becomes part of its form. make a series o f drawings f r o m different positions. its overall balance.

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m a d e on s m o o t h .Cloudburst THIS STORM DRAWING. I worked quickly to catch and weave the turbulent contrasts of rising wind and approaching water before the drawing could be washed away. .20-21) using a thin stick of willow charcoal. L o o k i n g b a c k and forth from the heavens to firmly taped-down paper. was made with gentle but unhesitating s p e e d . hot-pressed drawing p a p e r (see pp.

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On the pages of a small. black.Notes of Force T H E GREAT FLOWING TIBER RIVER has cut through Rome. shaping the city. and rhythmic detail as it passed through the ancient gully of the city. pulse. focusing on the river's eddies. . I drew with a needle-fine fiber-tip pen. since ancient times. pocket-sized notebook.

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.Mountains SITTING IN THE SHADE of a tree on the Greek island of Antiparos. I used a dip pen and waterproof India ink with brushed watercolor to draw the view. The strong diagonal of the composition from bottom left to top right carries the eye through changes of height and focus from the foreground to the mountains beyond.

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fictional language. yet my kinship to abstraction is fundamental. Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape 1915 413/8 x 285/8 in (105 x 72. It also underpins and gives strength and unity to all figurative work. His drawings are collected and exhibited internationally and held by the Adolf Wolfli Foundation. don't be timid. writhing torrents of color.8 cm) A D O L F WOLFLI Abstraction is a direct. poet. Swirling. strike the paper to find form. only rediscovered. Internal workings of the mind were suddenly free to find a new language of expression. He made thousands of drawings to chronicle his complex life. opposite. and young children show us that abstract. I begin every image by feeling its meaning. People are often scared by abstraction and see it as the enemy of figurative art. such as Adolf Wolfli. and emotion. Artists were given a different tool—a line threaded directly from their subconscious to their hand—and with it they began to map a bold new landscape of marks and concepts that would dramatically and forever change the face of Western art. It is actually its foundation and its infrastructure. Perhaps in Western culture we bred this intuitive freedom out of ourselves in our insistence on complex figuration. Wolfli was a Swiss draftsman. However. be brave and enjoy them. it is simply itself. direction. My own work is firmly centered in figuration. and history. First marks. As you approach the classes in this chapter. The fate of Old World thinking was finally sealed with the brutality of World War I. spontaneous image-making. From another viewpoint. Outsider artists. Berne. It was not invented in the 20th century. ADOLF WOLFLI One of the greatest masters of Art Brut. for example. and poetic myth roar and cascade within his tightly framed pages. Museum of Fine Arts. An abstract mark is often a better conductor of a thought or feeling. abstraction is not so easy to define. belief. all pictorial representations are abstractions of reality. and Aboriginal art. many nonWestern cultures have highly sophisticated abstractions at the core of their art. precisely because it does not have to represent a physical object. picturing a stabilized world was impossible and Modernism rode forth with vigor. Not everything we know has a physical form in the world. actions. drawn sound. Indian mandalas. which are essentially abstract. and independent means of communication. sounds. and have been making abstract drawings for centuries—Japanese calligraphy.Abstract Lines T HE DEVELOPMENT OF W E S T E R N abstract art at the beginning of the 20th century significantly paralleled major changes in world thought. From one point of view. Afterward. or gestures. liberating. and it has always been with us. Many concepts and feelings can only be expressed through marks. . writer and composer who suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and was resident in the Waldau Aslyum near Berne. expressive marks and shapes are at the core of natural. The growing rise of Darwinian ideas coupled with Freudian and Marxist perspectives forced Western society to reconsider its origins and future.

and wood are also part of the work. it can keep reforming through the inherent repetition of a process. salt. Moisture produced rust. Mamoru Abe prepares an image that will appear through the chemistry of iron. Abe's physical drawing is a sculptural installation. silence. akin to stones in a Zen garden. MAMORU ABE Japanese sculptor and installation artist. Abe works with materials such as soil. water. Sometimes it smolders like a deep shadow. or. staining redbrown lines into the white surface. and plaster in galleries and landscapes. tone. Lines. He travels widely to research ancient sacred sites. and temperature rim of floor space. rhythmically engaged with itself. and patient watching. scrolling across the canvas in an intimate crescendo. Below. The Physical Space 1990 3 0 x 30 ft ( 9 1 4 x 9 1 4 cm) MAMORU ABE . as Twombly shows us opposite. Twombly's mesmeric wax line worked over house paint is like a signature. iron. It can proclaim mood. ice. Damp Japanese paper was laid over carefully arranged iron bars. Five forged steel shapes. This the paper rest within the amplifies framelike of the floor from the ceiling. and Assistant Professor of Fine A r t at Fukuoka University. and sensitivity with its thickness and pressure of touch. quoting ink marks on a page. forged steel. Changes paper.220 A B S T R A C T LINES Process and Harmony SOMETIMES A DRAWN LINE sings on the surface of its support. A Neolithic chalk tablet bears cut lines that were slowly carved. texture. and texture their bracing separation reaching between from beneath Pillars of the gallery are made part of this drawing by their inclusion in the paper. A line can be finished in a second. sit in silent harmony. brass. Iron rods in tone.

221 ANCIENT CARVINGS Many ancient cultures have made and left behind drawings and texts carved into stones or animal bone. burials. Neolithic Chalk Tablet 3. Precise lines suggest the use of a sharp flint The framed rectangle of this image is echoed in that of Abe's installation.000-2. Twombly has language works CY TWOMBLY Contemporary American artist who emerged through the 1950s New York art scene in the heyday of Abstract Expressionism and Action Painting. evolved a raw.400BCE 21/4 x 21/4 in (58 x 58 mm) ARTIST UNKNOWN Language Over the course of fifty years. theories suggest astrological observations. PROCESS AND HARMONY Cut lines Chalk carves easily. The central pictorial space is also similarly cut and divided by the considered arrangement of straight lines. At the 2001 Venice Biennale. This example is one of two chalk tablets found in a Late-Neolithic pit.Thesite's purpose is unknown. close to Stonehenge in Wiltshire.England. and the worship of the sun and ancient gods. such as the Rosetta stone.241).Twombly was presented with a Golden Lion award for lifetime achievement. and American Indian petroglyphs (see p. the Babylonian world map. and Untitled 1970 Here we might seek to grasp letters in the turning of his line. emotive. and sensuous drawing from painting. Many of his graffiti-like combine abstract gestures with statements. energetic. CY TWOMBLY . that challenges the separation of word from image.

Ink impressions When drawing nightscapes Hugo often laid paper disks in place of the moon. interpret. Marks across the center appear to be made with his fingers. o r a pattern o f elements s o unified as a w h o l e t h e y c a n n o t b e e x p l a i n e d asa s u m o f parts. o f t e n e x p r e s s e d in v i s u a l t e r m s . a configuration. The scores are also exhibited in galleries as visual art. Similarity in gritty texture suggests that here." An innovator who never fails to surprise. opposite. Gestalt o f an unnameable thing. here he anticipates abstract expressionism by 100 years. broke new ground in the 1950s with graphic scores now considered among the most extreme. brushed night skies over them with ink then lifted the disks to reveal white moons. abstract. below. he mixed graphite into ink.28. abstract artists and composers unique. and let the drying meniscus deposit granules in linear drifts such as we would see in the satellite photographic mapping of rivers. His drawing writes the time of its own physical process by expressing the extreme concentration of the moment in which it was made. Here he appears t o have saturated the cut-out moon disks with gritty pigment.222 ABSTRACT LINES Writing Time SINCE THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY. Two Impressions Paper 1853-55 VICTOR HUGO Disk from a Cut-Out . have striven to break down old pictorial and musical structures to explore new and unfettered modes of expression. Bussotti.28). pressed them face down. drawing here can b e described in t e r m s o f a G e r m a n philosophical idea a b o u t is t h e i n s t a n t r e c o g n i t i o n t h e p o w e r o f m o m e n t . and lifted them away to leave impressions of watery planets and seas. "There is nothing like dream to create the future. and inventive of his time. Gestalt. Texture Compare this drawing to Hugo's octopus on p. Hugo. Both abstract drawing and composition involve the perfect sequencing of sounds and marks against space and silence. and participate in the composition. A graphic score is a V I C T O R H U G O Hugo's abstract French novelist w h o m a d e m a n y drawings in m i x e d m e d i a ( s e e also p. said. too. music manuscript requiring instrumentalists to improvise. beautiful.

Circular Score for "Due Voci" c.223 W R I T I N G TIME SYLVANO BUSSOTTI Italian avant-garde composer and principal 20thcentury exponent of the graphic score. Compare this work to that of Libeskind on p. we can feel their rhythm and easily attach sounds to them. Sound and rhythm This flickering rondo of sound written in pen on a hand-ruled stave can be heard in our imaginations as much as seen. 1958 SYLVANO BUSSOTTI . a far cry from any recognized musical notation. His later works become increasingly abstract. Following the notes. Bussotti's first mature work. This is a page from Due Voci. 70 in relation to Bussotti's clustered notes to the left of his rondo and open space to the right.

and sufferers of psychiatric illnesses—who have always existed. T h e s e p h o t o g r a p h s d o c u m e n t the meditative drawings o f two w o m e n living worlds apart in different countries. cultures. for e x a m p l e .224 A B S T R A C T LINES Chants and Prayers WHEN ABSTRACT LINES are organized in repetition. It will protect the place from evil and make a pleasing invitation to good spirits. Lieb is one o f countless thousands of "Outsider" artists—diverse individuals including ordinary citizens. She tore c l o t h into strips a n d used these to draw patterns a n d symbols o n h e r cell floor. MARIE LIEB Little is known of this w o m a n for w h o m the act of drawing was essential. and c i r c u m s t a n c e s . making objects and images outside o f mainstream culture. Torn cloth This is one of two published photographs showing Marie Leib's torn cloth strips significantly placed on her cell floor. Germany. Marie Lieb w a s a psychiatric patient in the Heidelberg Asylum. O p p o s i t e . In music it can be felt in the diversity of plainsong and African d r u m m i n g .228-29) has been adjusted with each movement of the rags to draw a cosmos of balance and perfection. social outcasts. Cell Floor With Torn Strips of Cloth 1894 MARIE LIEB . In the late 1 9 t h century. Visually. an a n o n y m o u s w o m a n in the southeast Indian state o f Tamil Nadu m a k e s a ritual drawing o n the b r i c k courtyard o f h e r h o m e . Compositional rightness (see pp. it is found in the regularity o f ordered lines or a pattern. Cloth is the simple instrument with which she has conducted and ordered her universe. d i p p i n g h e r fingers into a pot o f rice flour. This takes a form in most cultures. centuries. they m a k e a visual a n d physical e c h o that t o u c h e s s o m e deep part of the human spirit.

HUYLER Photographer art historian. or flowers are marked or arranged on the ground or on the walls of homes. Popular magazines feature new ideas each week and on special occasions there may be contests. women pride themselves on never repeating a design.Theseare widely published in journals and are the subjects of international exhibitions. among others. and in places of worship and celebration.225 STEPHEN P. Painted Prayers UNDATED STEPHEN R HUYLER . Materials such as rice flour. cultural anthropologist. Designs and motifs Rangoii (or mandalas) are ritual drawings made by many millions of women across rural India. In daily practice. chalk. and birds. animals.000 images. Huyler is the author of Painted Prayers. lecturer on the subjects of Indian art and Indian women's identity. at the University of London and Ohio State University. lime. and for over 30 years has traveled extensively through the Indian subcontinent creating an edited archive of 200. Skills are handed down through generations and from friend to friend. Motifs are geometrical or based on plants.

They each find their pathways and equilibrium in atmosphere and suggestion. These two works present complex compositions with differing intensions and methods of making. Catling's torn paper shapes and shadows spill light out of their frame like a fractured mirror. Oval moons eclipse each other and oscillate between landforms and portraiture. Oxford. BRIAN CATLING British sculptor poet.226 ABSTRACT LINES Compositions ABSTRACT DRAWINGS ARE LARGELY or entirely free from using the viewer's eye to track and unfold layers of meaning. Their energy can therefore be a purer expression of an idea or emotion. but similarities in mood. and Fellow of Linacre College. free from the direct imaging of known physical things. Ruskin School. filmmaker Professor of Fine Art. gold paint and iridescent gouache mixed with water. Mixed media This is a collage of torn white and gray tissue paper previously stained with ink. and choice of hues. Catling's abstract drawings are usually made in series and in parallel to written poetry and sculptural installations. With no depth of field. and water-resistant layers of spray and enamel paint on thick paper. figurative representation—that is. performance and installation artist. structure. Klee's mathematical maze of thinly washed surface resonates with meticulous planning. Untitled 2001 2001 153/4x 215/8 in ( 4 0 0 x 550 mm) BRIAN C A T L I N G . it is ruled and contained in one dimension by its interlocking ink-lined borders. Catling's works made for international galleries and museums involve drawing as a tool in their development and making. rocks or heads in a subdued atmosphere of dream.

Klee also felt that a line represents the passing of time.97-99. Geometric harmony This is a work on paper made with a sharp ink pen. and brush. He explained his polyphonic painting as "a harmony of several color voices" searching for a visual parallel to music. watercolor. whereas tonal surfaces are perceived more immediately as a whole.31). Klee painted. and wrote copiously about the natures and relationships of color and form.227 PAUL K L E E Swiss painter and sculptor (see also p. drew. ruler. and might be read as active or passive. Polyphon Gefasstes Weiss (White Framed Polyphonically) 1930 131/8x95/8 in (333 x 245 mm) Paul-Klee-Stiftung. We can see some diagrammatic examples of this among the optical illusions on pp. philosophized. Line and surface Klee observed the visual capacity of lines to push or pull within an image. Kunstmuseum Bern PAUL KLEE . It is a geometric harmony of straight lines and tonally graded flat colors that by their arrangement draw our eyes inward to their white center.

and ten straight sticks painted black. but an easy o n e to u n d e r s t a n d . a glass. W h e n m o v i n g objects around in your yard.228 ABSTRACT LINES Being "Just" A SENSE OF "JUST" (or rightness) is a difficult concept to explain. or home. culture. angles. they reach a perfect position." SETTING UP Justness can be harmonious or deliberately discordant. or on a page. the late garden designer Russell Page explains. "I have experimented endlessly with this idea. In his b o o k The Education of a Gardener. after being continuously adjusted. regardless of style. s o m e will be more or less h a r m o n i o u s . the impression y o u receive from t h e m ." .Thisexercise will help you start. It is also found in nature. there is a clear feeling when. Feel for it when youdraw. media. b u t e v e r y n o w a n d again you will hit on an arrangement w h i c h appears just. their impact. "Whenall pictorial elements come together in pleasing and perfect balance. w i l l c h a n g e w i t h e v e r y r e a r r a n g e m e n t . they are just. a b u n c h of keys. Seek it when looking at other artists' work and in your everyday environment. and put them o n a tray. and an apple. This balance is what every artist and designer searches a n d feels for when making an image. for instance. There is a single m o m e n t w h e n all proportions. and elements settle in definitive balance. As y o u m o v e them around. or degree of figuration. Set up a sheet of paper with a rectangle drawn on it. M a n y of their inter-relationships will be meaningless. It is found in all great art and design. Take.

painted black. fix it with glue. Arrange them so they touch or cross in a series of intersecting balances. Within a rectangle on a flat sheet of paper set about making a composition using no other rule than a sense of "just. horizontals dominate the top. B E I N G "JUST" 1 Arrange your ten sticks in t w o groups of five. 2 3 In the step above. making the composition seem to float beneath. suggesting a horizon." Move the sticks to find alignments and imagined perspectives.56-57). horizontals dominate the lower area. Move the sticks out into the rectangle. Remember the drawn rectangle is a part of the composition (see pp. Feel for the rightness of their grouping and their relationships to surrounding spaces. In the final step (left) there is an even balance. W h e n the composition falls into place. A stick touching the rectangle links the composition to the frame. . as shown here.229 WHERE TO START Take ten sticks of equal length. Here. which now becomes a tight frame.

colors and textures can be manipulated until their pictorial harmony.220. Images and fragments torn from day-to-day life can be brought together to make a chorus of ideas and emotions.. found or made items. which is the shifting.. To prepare for this lesson. hard or soft. feels "just" (see pp. glue. or discordance. ready-made depths and surfaces. Once the ten painted black sticks are set and glued in place. colors.Youwill also need spare white paper. correction fluid or white paint. you start composing by adding or subtracting shapes and textures and using colors and tones to achieve the impression you want to m a k e — w h e t h e r dramatic or s u b d u e d . they become a scaffold for the addition of further textures. Returning to Russell Page. a compass. he went on to say "." overlapping placement of materials on a flat plane." (Russell Page) .230 ABSTRACT LINES Collage H E R E W E EXPERIMENT with collage. or even strident.228-29). harmonious. "My understanding is that every object [or shape] emanates—sends out vibrations beyond its physical body which are specific to itself. Collage offers the artist a liberating palette of SETTING UP This lesson in collage is a direct continuation of the compositional lines made in the previous class. scissors. This principal also applies to three-dimensional drawings such as Gaudi's work with wire and weights on p. stain and dry a sheet of tissue paper using blueink.69 and Abe's installation on p. and tones. Cut or torn layers and shapes. an infinite range of voices and meaning. and black ink.

This can also give a sense of fragmentation or punctuation to the composition. Obscuring the blue disks. they deepen pictorial space. solidity. Glue them in place once they feel "just" Translucent circular disks of tissue paper give color tone. In the last step (left). and shadow to thepicture. correction fluid and ink marks add further dimensions. COLLAGE 1 Regular-sized pieces of white paper are moved over the surface to disrupt the even lines. .The single disk that is folded with its straight edge facing up appears heavier than those that are flat. Cut six small rectangles the same proportion as your whole image. draw.228) in front of you. four circles of blue tissue paper. 2 3 Torn white paper moved over the surface adds masks of rough-edged irregular volume. then cut out.231 WHAT TO DO Lay the final step of the previous lesson (p. and with a compass and scissors.

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Hitsuzendo drawings aspire to "breathe with the energy and vitality of eternal life" achieved through "a state of no mind—beyond thought. A MODERN JAPANESE meditative art form inspired by the teachings of Yamaoka Tesshu (1836-1888). and expectation. emotion. . is the practice of Zen through the calligraphic marks of a brush dipped in carbon ink.Zen Calligraphy HITSUZENDO." [Tanchu Terayama. Zen Brushwork].

Lines made with a steel dip pen take on a scratchy nervousness. These vibrate against washes of shadow and pitch-black mass. discord is balanced against rhythm to create mood. . I flicked spatters of ink and rubbed the paper with a wet and a dry brush to achieve these effects.Nocturnes IN THIS QUARTET of semi-abstract drawings made with India ink.

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thousands of paintings. all of which originated as hundreds of drawings. We then add substances we dislike: unidentified fluids. Fantasy is most successful when founded on strong and familiar visual logic. Throughout this book images are presented to excite and surprise and drawing classes created to increase your confidence. which were widely distributed and influential in his time. Depictions of God or of gods in the contexts of daily life. Images we are now surrounded by bear testimony to the power and resourcefulness of their collective imagination. sculptures. Be inspired by the irrational comedy of word association or puns. and the Alien trilogy. feathers. and the faces of God have for centuries given artists a feast for the extremes of their imagination. Feeding this demand. England. or strange. and deep fur—and we alter their scale. For example.247. Star Wars. Schongauer is best known for his prints. movie studios now brim with as many monsters as the visual art of the Medieval and Renaissance Church. serpentine tails. impossible. look for images in the folds of clothing. our literate and more secular Western society still hungers for another world and to ravenously indulge its fascination for the marvelous. We watch with captivated pleasure movies such as The Fly. and damnation are found in most world faiths. beasts. Reading the place name I momentarily glimpsed an alternative meaning. Today. To learn to flex your imagination. . and stained-glass windows deliver powerful visual sermons to the once-illiterate populace. Monsters take advantage of both. When creating monsters. Perhaps the Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 1485 121/4 x 9 in (312 x 230 mm) MARTIN SCHONGAUER most important conclusion in this final chapter is to advise you to develop your skills in parallel with the joy of your unfolding imagination. Here. Lord of the Rings. paradise. Neither should be slave or master. Humans are equally troubled by the imperceptibly small and the enormous. The salvation of heaven and terrors of hell are represented equally—enough to make any sinner shudder. a Catherine wheel of drawn sparks spiraling around the quietly resolute saint. In the Christian churches of Europe. We love our fear of the hybrid—ideally. scales. we select details of animals farthest from ourselves and that are widely thought disturbing—reptilian and insect features. in the cracks of walls.Gods and Monsters OUR SACRED AND SECULAR need to visualize demons. a human-animal mix that implies this could MARTIN SCHONGAUER German painter and engraver who settled to work in Colmar Alsace. wings. I was on a train passing through Nuneaton. which is to have eaten a nun—it inspired the drawing on p. our eye circulates around a flutter of leather and scaly wings. a collaboration between the two will ensure that your drawings glow with originality. angels. or in smoke. happen to us. aliens. for example.

a Shoshone seeking guidance and power meditates at the sacred site of a petroglyph. barren land rising like MYRIAD CHAINS RUN THROUGH ART HISTORY. Opposite below. deranged masses. Francisco de Goya was a master of borrowing. The title "And So Was His Grandfather" adds that should we not already know. such asinine behavior can be hereditary. Los Caprichos. Goya later recorded the horrors of Napoleonic occupation.30. Violent white marks symbolizing Achilles' rage resonate with the energy of Twombly's script on p. rushing. crammed tightly at his desk. to Picasso's similarly tight. and follies of court through copious graphic works including his best-known prints. Paul Thomas's studies of Picasso and Twombly can be traced directly. The well-dressed mule is cumbersome. portraits. Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 1799 81/2 x 6 in (218 x 154 mm) FRANCISCO DE GOYA .220. The high. vanity. plain wall suggests a blinkered view of nothing. quoting great paintings and popular culture to add cunning twists to his satires. reading from a book of asses. Other drawn versions of this image are more savage and frightening. and church murals. He would be graceless if he stood.240 GODS AND M O N S T E R S Marks of Influence marking the influence of one artist upon another. whose impassioned work begins with light tapestry cartoons. Near the end of his life he made his "Black Paintings" on the walls of his home. F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A Spanish court painter printmaker and draftsman. and men clubbing each other to death. Opposite. They depict as if by lamplight the devil and witches. his lover a dog. and exposed the superstitions. we see the international icon of stupidity. below. which can swamp the subject Here. Compare his dark. a wave to join Achilles' chase of Hector. This act defines the vision and continues the line of spirit guides. Aquatint Goya has drawn a learned man as an ass. hags. Saturn devouring his son. In this ass. Visions experienced in front of the drawing sometimes instruct the making of a new one. Pictorially. In this softer aquatint he poses for his portrait Textured background The aquatint process has been used to great effect in making a gritty toned background. Goya's plainly textured gray background pushes back the space behind the illuminated simply subject. it allows the mule to stand forward. Many students leave white backgrounds in their work. This continuity enriches the making of art and our heritage. noisy seascape on p.

by a supplicant in a trance of meditation. Wind River Reservation. Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range UNDATED ARTIST UNKNOWN . White marks like flashes of light are cut though graphite with an eraser to reveal the paper beneath. Achilles Chases Hector 1996 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) PAUL THOMAS SHOSHONE PETROGLYPH The Shoshone people of Wyoming name petroglyph sites Poha Kahni." Each sacred image drawn into rock belongs to one of three realms in the Shoshone world: the realm of the sky. or of the water Chipped image This is a sacred creature of the sky chipped onto rock at Dinwoody Lake. Graphite marks Here Achilles chases Hector around the walls of Troy before killing him.241 MARKS OF INFLUENCE PAUL T H O M A S British contemporary artist whose epic graphic work questions and reflects upon issues of European identity. Simple wall stones cleverly state their cold solidity while also fading from our attention as the scene roars by. meaning "place of power. values. of the earth. A vivid spectrum of energized graphite marks and a masterly composition give this drawing vitality and speed. and personal and social struggles. Thomas conducts his explorations in the mine of Greek and Roman mythology. It was made with a sharp implement. Parallel lines within the body of the figure are likely to denote power. ideals. perhaps a stone. Wyoming.

204-05 will enable you to produce a similar effect of white lines shining out of dark charcoal. Techniques demonstrated on pp. GODS AND Erasure In this charcoal drawing. and writer In contrast t o the light and visual accent of contemporary Impressionism. below left. H e was influenced by his friends. If it were to turn and stare this way. We may feel safe so long as the eye looks heavenward. Here we see how he evolved their injuries into new limbs and warped proportions. which sometimes—half-dressed and carrying a familiar trophy— stride. to the right of the balloon. They float toward us like a horrid visitation. Redon explored the darker side of the human imagination through symbols and mysticism. the shock would be extreme. lifting its cranial passenger over a seascape of repose. and scuttle over all known reality. ODILON REDON French painter draftsman. graphic artist. Lifting out Fine strings of the hot-air balloon appear dark against the sky and light against the balloon. we see parallel slanting pale marks that might have been made with fresh bread—a very effective eraser used before the wide availability of rubber or plastic. Redon's eyeball balloon rises up. The monsters of Bosch grew from his observations of beggars going about their trade in 15th. the writers Joris-Karl Huysmans and Stephane Mallarme. 115. Redon lifted them out with some sort of eraser.242 MONSTERS of the unknown is a classical and constant occupation for the artist. crawl.and 16th-century Holland. The Eye Like a Strange Mounts Balloon 165/8 x131/8in (422 x 332 mm) ODILON REDON 1882 Toward Infinity . T H E EXPLORATION AND DEPICTION Hauntings Grandville has drawn a scurrying zoo of half-known demons and animals that appear to have been stolen from the glass eye of the microscope. Children are also delighted to invent a monster or ghoul. as he did the grass. Our subconscious can be drawn with pleasure and ease. Compare worked textures throughout the whole of this image to those found throughout Anita Taylor's charcoal drawing on p.

Most of his work is in the Prado Museum. sucker-faced creatures dash and trundle toward it They are drawn solidly to emphasize their earthbound weight. include The Haywain. Last Judgment. Comic little headbands of waving hair express more hysteria than fear. grimacing. and he illustrated the Fables of La Fontaine and Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe. Light shines from the right. His other major works include Metamorphoses du Jour (1828). A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects c. teeming with the exhilaration of unrestrained fantasy. and Ship of Fools. Smiling. Quill and ink This typical Bosch monster is a quill drawing in bistre ink The phrasing of light and contour here is masterly. This image is from one of Grandville's best-known publications. 1840 61/8 x41/2in ( 1 5 5 x 1 1 5 mm) GRANDVILLE HIERONYMUS BOSCH Dutch painter Bosch's highly detailed iconographic religious panel paintings. HAUNTINGS Engraving This is an engraving made so that Grandville's original drawing could be reproduced. The quality of the line is therefore uniform throughout. Garden of Earthly Delights. which is still available today. Two Monsters UNDATED 45/8 x61/2in (117 x 163 mm) HIERONYMUS BOSCH . Madrid.243 J E A N I G N A C E ISIDORE GERARD ("GRANDVILLE") French graphic artist and political satirist. Les Animaux (1840).

In her studio. and dog. gamboling copulations. Two previously drawn faces become humorous antagonists to the beast. snake. and dying slaves. the dome of the Vatican. poet. and play with its perfection and meaning. but in the seductive landscape of Leonardo da Vinci's oil painting Madonna of the Rocks. and engineer Among Michelangelo's great works are the painted ceiling and altar wall of the Sistine Chapel. Opposite. below. Grimes found the genesis of her beast not among animals. A snake eating its own tail is a universal image of the eternal and continuous. lion. Chalk and ink A quill dipped in brown ink was worked over black chalk on this reused sheet. remembering the cavernous. Dragon 1522 10 x 133/8 in ( 2 5 4 x 3 3 8 m m ) MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI . pinnacled. They share between them the pleasures of inventing a hybrid beast. muscular tension is carved out of the paper using layered. His entire drawing wrestles and weaves the viewer's eye into its retracting folds. St Peter's square. as we might expect. Grimes' delicately cavorting figures dive into and consume each other. architect. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI Florentine painter sculptor. Michelangelo's dragon. she formed a series of ghostly pale. hatched lines. and marble sculptures including Pieto. a stunning hybrid of a swan. wraps and coils its lithe body ready to strike or whimper at a touch. topple. Scaly. However. sometimes artists purposefully tie a knot in the configuration to disturb. David. and mist-swathed land. phrased over the contours of form and bridging darker areas of shadow.244 GODS AND MONSTERS Convolutions THESE CONVOLUTED DRAWINGS were made almost 5 0 0 years apart.

her under heavy here. boards finished paper. Ink-wash delicately gouache (smooth) and gouache brushed drawing on This is a and was hot-pressed Shadows The dark shadow of the Other the ink-wash earth was made with a brushstroke of ink laid into wet paper.245 CONVOLUTIONS O O N A GRIMES British contemporary artist and professor of printmaking at the Ruskin School. each one iridescent and crumbly like a weathered while oyster. Oxford. London. London. It is one of a series of fragile earth figures inspired by rocks. The large space around figure has been cropped Grimes drawings to flatten presses them. details evolved slowly using a drier brush. Grimes exhibits internationally and features in the collections of the New York Public Library and the Victoria and Albert Museum. The image formed directly without first making a pencil outline. How Clever of God #84 2002 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) O O N A GRIMES . and the Camberwell and Slade Schools of Fine Art.

Brushes vary in size. This brush has a broad wash capability and can achieve a very wide range of marks. 2. all perfect for drawing and. It is capable of very fine pointing. P O I N T E D T R A D I T I O N A L WRITER: The ferrule is made from a small duck quill. 13. thicknesses.Theyhold plenty of ink and make continuous. The living marks of a wet. Shorter brushes designed for other purposes run out of ink more quickly. 1. materials. SYNTHETIC-HAIR LINER: This brush gives a medium line and is firm with a spring to the touch. POINTED SQUIRREL-HAIR MOP: With a synthetic quill ferrule and extra high inkholding capacity. Some used by master calligraphers are 2-3 in (5-8 cm) in diameter 11. L A R G E R S Y N T H E T I C . washes. needle-sharp center of kolinsky red sable hair. S Y N T H E T I C . It has exceptional painting characteristics. SABLE-HAIR LINER: Made with ordinary sable hair surrounding an extralong. The brushes shown here are a mixture of This is a selection of riggers.H A I R LINER: Very responsive oriental-style liner This to the touch. Some are bold. and very fine lines. 12. Slightly less flexible than the squirrel-hair sword liner 9. Soaps purchased from good art supply stores will gently cleanse particles of pigment that become trapped in the hairs or ferrule.246 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brushes T H E BRUSH IS A VOLUPTUOUS and delicate weights. 3. It is still relatively small in the total range of Japanese brushes. which holds long sable hair This brush holds large amounts of ink for long lines and points well for detailed work. fingers. and effects. SQUIRREL-HAIR S W O R D LINER:This brush has a maximum ink-holding capacity and an extremely fine and flexible point 8. and texture. between them. and writers. with a fine point for delicate work 4. and hold prodigious weights of ink or paint. flowing. return them to their pointed shape. Always clean them thoroughly.H A I R RIGGER: Made with long synthetic hair for fine-point work It has a good ink-holding capacity and is slightly more resilient than sable hair with more "snap. ink-laden tip allow an expression that is beyond the linear. ideally suited to drawing. LARGER JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with natural hair held in a plastic ferrule on a bamboo handle. giving a variety of lines. JAPANESE PAINTING BRUSH: Made with natural hair. SABLE-HAIR RIGGER: Made with very long kolinsky sable hairs. drawing tool extending the arm. How you care for your brushes will determine how long they last. 10. this brush has a soft drawing tip and small ink-holding capacity. and never leave them standing on their tip in a jar of water. SYNTHETIC-HAIR BRUSH: Bound in a synthetic ferrule with good inkholding capacity and good spring and control. liners. shape. dense." 6. Suitable for wash techniques but also capable of very fine detail. M T RA S AEIL . it has good inkholding capacity and is very flexible. it has good wash capabilities. SYNTHETIC-HAIR S W O R D LINER: A lining brush with high ink-holding capacity and a fine point. SMALL JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with sable hair. and wrist into a fluid and soft touch. the very opposite of pencil or silver point. and has a fine tip for detailed work. making rt ideally suited to Japanese painting and small-scale calligraphy. 7. others are as fine as a whisker with a gentle touch. This design supplies the fine tip with a long continuity of ink 5.

247 BRUSHES .

A single brush has almost balletic potential to draw fine or undulating lines and curves. the texture and a b s o r b e n c y of the paper ( w h i c h m a y be d a m p or dry). and to make pools and stains o n the page. unglazed earthenware dish. the degree of pressure applied. softness.) I .246-47). and spatters. SETTING UP Blowing spots T h e s e t h r e e s p i d e r y c r e a t u r e s (above right and below) w e r e m a d e by d r o p p i n g s p o t s o f ink f r o m a b r u s h o n t o t h e p a g e and. the speed of the s t r o k e . Here I drew with a soft Japanese painting brush (see pp. I had left the end of the ink block in the water overnight to make it easier to dissolve. I rubbed a block of Chinese ink (see p. b l o w i n g h a r d o n t h e m several t i m e s t o disperse t h e ink ( c l o s e y o u r eyes if y o u t r y this. and above all w h e t h e r the b r u s h is saturated with pigment or relatively dry. w i t h m y face close. It also depends on the angle at w h i c h it is held. and type of its hairs. splashes.35) into two tablespoons of water in a shallow. length.248 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brush Marks A S I N G L E BRUSH will m a k e an e n o r m o u s range of m a r k s depending u p o n the width.

. a n d t h e w a y it d i s t r i b u t e s w h e n t h e b r u s h is d a b b e d o n its s i d e . BRUSH MARKS Wet and dry strokes A m o n g these concentrated drawings ink made into with the same w a t e r y lines. w e see fine lines and s p o t s .249 Gritty texture T h e details o f t h e largest creatures b e l o w and opposite s h o w the granular texture of Chinese b l o c k ink. t h e effects of the b r u s h r u n n i n g o u t o f ink. a n d b r u s h . b l e e d i n g f r o m strokes b e l o w left.

and used their detail to draw new creatures that might at first seem familiar. .Monsters THESE LITTLE CREATURES o f i n k and i n v e n t i o n were b o r n out of animal and bird studies. Oxford. until we look again. I borrowed small and fragile specimens from the University Museum of Natural History.

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formal composition. Madrid. and narrative twists. showing us that gallery study is not just for the student and beginner. Through studying and drawing these great paintings I have discovered that they are based on a pair of similarly long. . Goya often invented his monsters out of characters seen in other painters' works. Among his "Black Paintings" in the Prado Museum. thin works titled The Witches' Sabbath and The Procession of St. thin works made by Bartolome Murillo in Seville about 120 years earlier. They are a pair and hang opposite each other. Goya's witches have been literally drawn and evolved out of the shapes of Murillo's prophet and pilgrims. Here. are two long.Goya's Monsters W I T H CUNNING BRILLIANCE. Isidore. I found relationships between all four paintings in terms of shapes. With further research. two of my own drawings show you how Goya's devil (below) is based on the shape of Murillo's boy on a horse (top right).

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little comments on politeness and sexual politics. drawn rapidly and with great joy. Sometimes drawings come out of nowhere and surprise even the artist. .Consumed THIS IS A SERIES OF CARTOONS I m a d e s o m e years ago.

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Camera lucida A n optical device t h a t p r o j e c t s an image o f an o b j e c t o n t o a plain s u r f a c e so t h a t it can be traced. p r i n t i n g press face up. A g e n e r a l t e r m t h a t describes t h e various processes o f c u t t i n g a design i n t o a plate o r b l o c k o f m e t a l o r w o o d . Blending M e r g i n g t w o o r m o r e neighboring colors o r tones t o g e t h e r using a tortillon. A f u l l . written with a broad-nibbed pen o r brush. A " s h a l l o w d e p t h o f field" m e a n s t h e p i c t u r e appears t o have only a shallow s p a c e inside i t Diffuse T o s o f t e n o r m a k e less brilliant. Acid-free paper P a p e r w i t h a neutral p H t h a t will n o t darken o r d e t e r i o r a t e excessively w i t h age. 2." " N o t " p r e s s e d p a p e r is r o l l e d a s e c o n d t i m e w i t h o u t blankets t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders t o p r o d u c e a s m o o t h e r b u t still slightly t e x t u r e d s u r f a c e . linseed oil o r egg y o l k Caricature A representation Contour line A line t h a t f o l l o w s t h e s h a p e o f a surface. Fixative Liquid acrylic resin a n d l a c q u e r t h i n n e r usually a p p l i e d as a n a e r o s o l s p r a y m i s t t o t h e surface o f a d r y . n e w s p a p e r cuttings. It is p u t o n a Body color See Gouache. in w h i c h t h e subject's distinctive features o r peculiarities are deliberately exaggerated f o r c o m i c o r g r o t e s q u e effect. a n d given t h e n a m e Sho. o r o t h e r (usually large) w o r k — s e e Pouncing. See also Hotpressed papers. A h u m o r o u s d r a w i n g o r parody. o r will o n l y a p p e a r n o r m a l . It can also seal a silver p o i n t d r a w i n g t o p r e v e n t t h e oxidization (browning) o f t h e Drypoint A d r a w i n g is s c r a t c h e d directly o n t o a m e t a l plate w i t h a m e t a l t o o l h e l d like apen. Calligraphy Beautiful h a n d w r i t i n g .The plate is t h e n r o l l e d w i t h ink a n d polished with a rag. L a t e r it c a m e t o m e a n h i g h l y c o n t r a s t e d light effects. o f t e n d i s t o r t e d forms and vivid colors. Anamorphic distortion Stretching an i m a g e across a p i c t u r e surface so t h a t it can o n l y b e u n d e r s t o o d .d i m e n s i o n a l i m a g e . R o u g h p a p e r is m a d e b e t w e e n t w o blankets t h a t . Conservation grade D e s c r i b e s a range o f materials t h a t d o n o t d e c a y and cannot be broken d o w n by insects. a n d g r a p h i t e . Bracelet shading C u r v e d parallel lines t h a t f o l l o w t h e c o n t o u r s o f f o r m . s u c h as a s c r e e n . In t h e W e s t p e n calligraphy is u s e d t o c r e a t e f o r m a l a n d d e c o r a t i v e t e x t s .s i z e d r a w i n g m a d e for t h e purpose o f transferring a design t o a painting. S o m e t i m e s f e r r u l e s a r e m a d e o f plastic o r o t h e r materials. Cartoon 1. C o p p e r p l a t e engravings w e r e widely used t o r e p r o d u c e images b e f o r e p h o t o g r a p h y . m e a n i n g "beauty". A l s o c a l l e d t h e h o r i z o n line. F r o m t h e G r e e k kallos. Contre jour A F r e n c h t e r m m e a n i n g " a g a i n s t day. F r o m t h e French v e r b coller. U s e d as a c o r r e c t i n g device o r pictorial game.m a d e paper. a r e r o l l e d t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders. pastel. A i r b r u s h e s are u s e d in t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c o m i c s . s u c h as a d r a w i n g o r painting. Also called accelerated perspective. Field In a t w o . A l s o called r i n g l e t shading. 2. Deckle edge T h e i r r e g u l a r e d g e o f a s h e e t o f m o l d . chance mark-making. charcoal. as o p p o s e d t o t h e s t r a i g h t e d g e o f a sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has b e e n machine-trimmed. p h o t o g r a p h s . p r a c t i c e d meditatively w i t h a brush. Crosshatching Parallel lines d r a w n across o n e a n o t h e r at right angles. Air brush A mechanical. Collage C o l l e c t e d materials such as c o l o r e d p a p e r s .c e n t u r y painting m o v e m e n t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e use o f b o l d . Camera obscura A d a r k e n e d c h a m b e r i n t o w h i c h an i m a g e o f w h a t is o u t s i d e is received t h r o u g h a small o p e n i n g o r lens a n d f o c u s e d in natural c o l o r o n a facing surface. Erasure T h e a c t o f r e m o v i n g a n i m a g e f r o m a surface. R e m b r a n d t is a great master o f chiaroscuro. Ferrule T h e s h o r t m e t a l t u b e t h a t s u r r o u n d s a n d g n p s t h e hairs o f a p a i n t b r u s h a n d fixes t h e m t o t h e brush handle. D a m p p a p e r is laid o n t o p . m e a n i n g " t o stick" Dry media M e d i a t h a t a r e n o t w e t o r o i l y — f o r e x a m p l e . t h e field is t h e a p p a r e n t a n d b e l i e v a b l e space inside t h e p i c t u r e . usually at a n a c u t e angle t o t h e s u r f a c e . A p o t e n t i a l l y h a r s h m e t h o d o f p r o d u c i n g t o n e s in a d r a w i n g . w h e n v i e w e d f r o m a specified point. T h e name " n o t " simply refers t o t h e fact t h a t t h e cylinders are n o t h o t in t e m p e r a t u r e . Engraving 1. T h e b l a n k e t s g i v e t h e p a p e r its rough texture o r "tooth. Blotting T h e use o f a b s o r b e n t m a t e r i a l t o lift a w a y excess liquid. A l s o called m u s e u m g r a d e . Fixative lightly glues t h e d r a w i n g t o t h e surface o f t h e p a p e r t o p r e v e n t smudging. t h e l i g h t is b e h i n d h i m o r her. w h e n a p e r s o n is p a i n t e d standing a g a i n s t a w i n d o w . so t h a t ink r e m a i n s o n l y in t h e g r o o v e s o f s c r a t c h e d lines. r a t h e r t h a n r e c o r d e d o n a film o r plate.c e n t u r y Italian t e r m m e a n i n g "clear-obscure. Bleed T h e e f f e c t o f t w o w e t colors running into one another o r o n e color applied t o a w e t surface a n d a l l o w e d t o d i s p e r s e . T h e prints t a k e n from t h e s e plates o r blocks. t o g e t h e r w i t h a t h i c k felt b l a n k e t T h e w h o l e s a n d w i c h o f l a y e r s is t h e n railed t h r o u g h t h e press t o m a k e a p r i n t D r y p o i n t is a very portable and immediate m e t h o d o f printmaking. In t h e Far East calligraphy is a highly r e s p e c t e d a r t f o r m . pressurized t o o l used f o r spraying fine mists o f s m o o t h c o l o r P i g m e n t is d e l i v e r e d b y a j e t o f air n o t t h e bristles o f a brush. for example." It w a s first given t o t o n a l paintings m a d e in o n e c o l o r — s e e Grisaille. T h e m o v e m e n t was started by a g r o u p o f French artists including H e n r i Matisse. in w h i c h parts o f an image are depicted v e r y brightly and dramatically against d a r k n e s s . Fauvism A n early 2 0 t h ." D e s c r i b e s a p a i n t i n g in w h i c h t h e light s o u r c e is b e h i n d t h e s u b j e c t F o r e x a m p l e . Eye level T h e i m a g i n a r y h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e a t t h e s a m e h e i g h t as t h e a v e r a g e p e r s o n ' s eyes. Binder A substance t h a t holds particles o f p i g m e n t t o g e t h e r in a paint f o r m u l a t i o n . a n d attaches t h e m t o t h e s u p p o r t — f o r example. Chiaroscuro A 1 7 t h . W o r d s o r symbols are Cold-pressed papers P a p e r manufactured with a "not" o r " r o u g h " surface.256 GLOSSARY Glossary Accidental drawing Random. Composition T h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e p a r t s o f an i m a g e t o m a k e u p the whole. Aerial perspective The effect of the a t m o s p h e r e o v e r distance as it lightens t o n e s a n d cools c o l o r s progressively t o w a r d t h e horizon. and readymade objects arranged and stuck o n t o a flat surface.m e d i a d r a w i n g . tapestry.

materials that produce marks on a surface. or a drawing made in any single color GLOSSARY Linear perspective A form of perspective in which parallel lines are represented as converging. and it has a history in enamel work. are painted in grisaille and appear to be made of stone. Hatching (cross-) See Crosshatching. enabling them to stick to paper It also helps to maintain a stable dispersion of pigment particles in water as the film of a wash dries. Hot-pressed papers (HP) Paper made using hot cylinders. Usually an academic drawing observed from life. or canvas and allowed to dry before an image is drawn or painted. and that will "escape" or change over time. The ink attaches to the oil-based image and is repelled by the wet stone. or can be otherwise used to create an image—for example." A piece of paper is placed on top of an object or rough surface. F o r m The outer surface of a three-dimensional object. upright images are called "portrait which is used as a binding agent in many liquid media. Artists can paint freely over dry masking fluid. F o r m a t T h e size. This may be disregarded in real life. cadmium yellow hue. graphite. sticky paper tape. Also refers to an additive used to control the application properties of a color Golden Section A proportion in which a straight line or rectangle is divided into two unequal parts in such a way that the ratio of the smaller part to the greater part is the same as that of the greater part to the whole. and is also used as a size. A small image might be described as small format Horizontal images are often said to be "landscape format" (abbreviated G u m arabic The natural to"landscape"). shape. oil-.The degree to which detail is defined. Hairspray is an effective and inexpensive alternative. and orientation of the image. so that (using vanishing point perspective) the object appears to change shape and become narrower or smaller as it recedes. Papercut A type of collage in which flat sheets of paper are cut into an image. Picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. which give it a smooth surface (as opposed to cold-pressed paper. or spirit-based) is applied to a surface that is then pressed onto paper and removed to leave a print. or plastic surface.The paper then bears a crayon impression or copy of the surface that was underneath it A number of Surrealists. to describe a surface to which paint will adhere readily. Lithography A method of printmaking in which a drawing or painting is made directly onto a smooth slab of particular limestone or a metal plate using an oilbased crayon or ink. Monoprinting A direct method of printing in which wet medium (water-. Monochrome Usually refers to a black. Gamut A complete range or extent Glassine A type of thin. which has a rough surface). work. or synthetic material that are suspended in a medium to constitute paint. Medium A generic term for art Key A painting is said to be "high key" when the colors and tones are bright and "low key" when they are dark or somber The term is also used Gouache Opaque watercolor Also called body color. the finely ground particles of plant. used for fixing paper to walls and boards. glossy. the surface of the stone is made wet before being rolled with a thin film of oilbased printing ink. Impressing Stamping or printing. Masking fluid Clear or opaque latex fluid developed for watercolor painting. of the ingredients in inks and watercolors. ink. Giotto's Virtues and Vices in the Arena Chapel. . Lifting out A method of creating highlights and mid-tones in a drymedia drawing (such as charcoal or graphite). Grisaille A painting in gray or a grayish color Often made by students as a tonal exercise. and by artists representing stone sculptures in a painting. Plumb line A line from which a weight is suspended in order to determine verticality or depth. Dark tones are laid down first then an eraser or masking tape is used to lift away particles of the drawing media to reveal the lightness of the paper beneath. but in picture-making it is as important as the objects/subjects themselves. to give the illusion of depth and distance. or a family of colors. This method incorporates the excitement of accidental and unpredicted marks. It is a strong adhesive. or for wrapping and protecting a finished piece of work. purpose.Theground provides a particular color or texture beneath the image. The surface can be reloaded or redrawn with more medium. multiH u e A term for a color. A point of interest in a drawing. oil-based printing ink is rolled evenly onto a smooth metal. Negative space The space between things. Alternatively. with the area beneath remaining unaffected. but each print will be unique. Objective drawing Refers to the concept of objectivity. Ground A wet solution usually of gouache or gesso (chalk and animal glue) brushed onto paper board. including Max Ernst used frottage in their work. It can be used with any wet media to isolate or protect parts of an image from further Optical blending See Pointillism. and masking off areas of a drawing that the artist wishes to keep untouched by media applied above or beside the tape. white. Foreshortening A method of depicting an object at an angle to the surface of the picture.while secretion of the acacia tree. lifting out charcoal and other dry media. it is the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work Pigment Any substance used as a coloring agent—for example. Lightfast A term confirming that pigment in the product will not fade with exposure to light. glass. or even a beam of light.257 metal line. Paper is laid on top and a rapid drawing is made on the back of it The paper lifts away to reveal the image on its other side. and gray drawing. Also used by artists' materials manufacturers to indicate the use of a substitute pigment—for example. Pointillism A technique of using points or dots of pure color in such a way that when the picture is viewed from a distance they react Masking tape Invaluable. pastel. 2. Fugitive A term given to a pigment that it is not stable. After several intervening processes. format" (abbreviated to "portrait"). Focus 1 . It is then peeled away. It improves the bonding properties Frottage A French term meaning "rubbing. This effect emulates what we see in real life. aiming to represent facts rather than an interpretation of the subject. Paper is then pressed against the stone to take a print. and translucent paper—a delicate material used in collage. Grisaille is occasionally seen in church stained-glass windows. Rubens used grisaille to paint small images for engravers. mineral. then rubbed over carefully but vigorously with a crayon. Padua. rock.

Squaring up A method of enlarging and transferring an image from one surface to another. commonly referred to as the lead. Volume The amount of space occupied by an object or an area of space in itself. a point at which receding parallel lines meet Verso The back or underside of a piece of paper. or ceramic glazing to reveal a different color beneath. Tortillon A short. giving it a brilliance. Wash A technique using ink. Subjective drawing A drawing that expresses the personal view and interpretation of the artist An invented image. or pen. creating more vibrant effects than if the same colors were physically mixed together with a brush. The crude material is called oleoresin. Zen brushwork This is an oriental meditative art form originating in China and practised for many centuries in Japan. glasses. sometimes drawn from a and leaving only the pricked sheet of shadow cast on a wall. acrylic. design.Thedrawing is removed. Sketch A quick or rough drawing. Stylus A sharp. usually diluted with water and applied with a brush. Spattering A mottled texture produced by drawing your fingers across the bristles of a stiff brush loaded with pigment. . a sheet of paper is placed beneath and pinpricks are Silhouette A flat. Viewpoint The position from which something is observed or considered.258 GLOSSARY together optically. Tone A degree of lightness or darkness. such as an inscribed sheet of metal. Although drawings can be made with wash alone. Underdrawing A pale preliminary drawing made prior to adding layers of another medium such as oil paint or watercolor Value The extent to which a color reflects or transmits light This is the equivalent of tone in a black and white image. Technical drawing A universal it is often used in conjunction language of lines and measurements with line drawings in pen and that is used to make diagrammatic ink—for images. or watercolor paint. and flowers. whose pinpricks creates a "connect-thepersonal pastime was making dots" replica of the image on the cut-out portraits. Zen paintings usually depict scenes of nature and plants such as bamboo. and paperweights. or any physical object that can be stamped or pressed onto a surface to leave an impression. or mark using an inked or pigment-covered surface. or the right-hand page in a book. meaning objects used in setting up a life model or still life." Applied to the blurring or softening of sharp outlines by the subtle and gradual blending of one tone into another Sgraffito A technique of scratching or cutting through a surface of paint. "Spirits" or "oil" of turpentine refer to the volatile portion used by artists to thin or dilute oil-based paint. paper or canvas. in order to flick the pigment onto the image surface. pointed roll of white paper that is used to blend dry media. Turpentine A colorless solvent distilled from the resinous sap of pine trees. carbon ink. or point on which parallel lines converge to give the impression of receding space. Squeegee A rubber-trimmed scraper used in the screenprinting process for dragging ink across a surface. plum blossom. or wood. Pouncing If a large drawing or design (called a cartoon) is to be Shadow Darkness cast by the transferred to a surface such as a obscuring of light. Pounce (a fine for an unpopular 18th-century powder of charcoal or similar French politician. Vanishing point In linear perspective. wall or tapestry. or the left-hand page in a book. Single-point perspective The most basic form of linear perspective in which there is only one vanishing point. orchids. Etienne de material) dabbed through the Silhouette (1709-67). Size A weak glue used for filling the porous surface of wood or canvas in order to seal it. plaster or cloth surface beneath. nature of watercolor allows the white surface of the paper to Tonal scale A scale of gradations shine through. Serigraphy Silk-screen printing." Materials for Zen brushwork include round brushes of varied size. and chrysanthemum—which in Chinese tradition are called "The Four Gentlemen. ink. using a brush. plaster. W e t media Any liquid media— for example. Scale Describes the size of one element in relation to another Sepia A brown pigment taken from the sun-dried ink sacs of cuttlefish and used to make ink or watercolor The term is now often incorrectly used to refer to brown colors. or gouache. cut-out profile made along every outline of the usually made in black paper image. Artists' prints are normally made in multiple. Stippling Applying color or tone in areas of fine dots or flecks. Printmaking The act of making a picture. watercolor. pencil. Recto The front or top side of a piece of paper. in tone running from black to white or vice versa. Alternatively. Shade A that is color mixed (or toned) with black Shading A lay term for adding tone to a drawing. an ink stone usually cut from slate. Props An abbreviation of the word properties. Sfumato An Italian term meaning "smoky. Zen A school of Mahayana Buddhism that asserts that enlightenment can come through meditation and intuition rather than faith. The translucent Tint A color mixed with white. Zen brushwork encompasses calligraphy and painting. Still life A picture composed of inanimate objects such as bowls. Named paper in place.Technicaldrawing has been example. A term borrowed from the theater. Support The structure on which an image is made—for example. which are then called editions. evolved by engineers and architects for the purpose of conveying W a t e r c o l o r A painting accurate structural information. a tightly folded piece of cotton batting can be used for the same effect. fruit. tight. Strip Core of a pencil. pointed instrument used for marking or engraving. fine paper. to model areas of light and shade. compound of water-soluble pigment. by imposing a grid that is then scaled up to a larger size.

184. 204-205. 134 costume(s) 155 character 158-159 structure of 166-167 Cottage Among Trees (Rembrandt) 52. 75 Circle of the Lustful (Blake) 180.163 body. 206. Filippo 67. 242 to blend 205 compressed 122. 70 Art Nouveau motifs 91 Autoportrait (Ray) 138.186 see also movement Adoration of the Magi perspective study (Leonardo) 74. 203 Landline 202. 162 character: to capture 38-39. 203 Buffalo Hunt (Shoshone) 178. 78 aerial perspective 206 airbrushing 160. 90 colored materials 162-163 colored pencils 162. 72 bracelet shading 122 Braque. 116. 90. 247-248 carving see lines. 90.89. 180 Circular Score for "Due Voce" (Bussotti) 223 circus scenes 192-195 City (Bryan) 202. 113 bird bones 12. 30 sleeping dog 38-39 Stubbs's horse skeleton 26. 243 botanical drawing 48-49 Boullee. Victor: West Facade of the Church of St. 94 cylindrical objects.51 All and Nothing (Taylor) 114. 158. 139 Nanha) 50. 178 Cubism 67. 13 architectural drawing 67-71 Arctic Flowers (Libeskind) 70. 205 Baltard. Clare 203 City 202. 189. 41 principal 186. 250 Bishndas and Nanha: Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity 50. Giovanni 137 Head and Shoulders of a Man 136. 9. to depict 156-157 Cloudburst of Material Possessions (Leonardo) 200. 202 cloth. 13. 230-231 Cubist 90.226. 71 Blake.163 dry media 205 Blue Nude (Matisse) 110. 71 Bacchante (Bakst) 155 background: color 91 textured 240 Baker Matthew: Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry 32 Bakst. 179 Bussotti. Basilius 47 Beuys. 157 cropping 56-57. 111.50. 200 Bauer. center of 118 ballpoint 182. 75.163 graded 227 composition 56-57. 9 Chair (Van Gogh) 94. 226-227 Acanthus spinosus 65 accelerated perspective 22. 74 brush (es) 246-247 Japanese 248 for laying a wash 140 marks 248-249 to hold 23 brush drawings 14-15 Bryan. 38-39. 198 cartoon (preparatory drawing) 137 (satirical) 159. 81 cut-out model plan 94. to draw 80. Zen c 232-233 blended 133.212 to erase 205 to hold 23 pencils 204 willow 114. 230 The Physical Space 220 abstract drawing 219. 95 Chair Cut Out (Woodfine) 94.115 anatomical drawing 134-135 anatomical theaters 82-83 anatomical waxes 128 ancient carvings 221.Index Page numbers in italics refer t o captions and illustrations Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity (Bishndas and 259 INDEX B bread (as eraser) 205. 198. Franz 48 Protea nitida 48 Bellini.184.169 colors: airbrushed 161 background 91 A Abe.117 Achilles Chases Hector (Thomas) 240. 137 Besler. 201 collage 111. Joseph 113 The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland 112. 74. 221 animals. 242 Brunelleschi.133. 52 cotton swabs 205 Coup de Vent a Asajigabare (Hokusai) 198. 180 blending: color 133. to draw 25.13. 81 135. 193 in lifting out 204. 206 checkered floor 80. Statue d'Epouvante 90 calligraphy. 186 charcoal 114. to express 39.198. 182. 222. 244 and graphite 178 . 160 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object (Moore) 178. 204. 74. Leon: Bacchante 155 balance. 165. (Ross-Craig) 49 to hold brush for 23 caricature 159. 199 Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya (Eisen) 156. layers 53 chalk pastels 162. 28 Klee's horses 30. William: The Circle of the Lustful 180. 241 action. Augustin 67 Basquiat. 133. 40-41 Durer's rhinoceros 26. Mamaru 104. Sylvano 222.31 Picasso's horse and bird 30.162 Conte. 161 Akhlaq-I Rasul Allah manuscript 51. 29 Hugo's octopus 28. 163.44-45.44-45 bird studies 12. Nicolas-Jacques 54 contours 146. Georges 67. 8 cave paintings 8. Etienne-Louis 72 Newton's Cenotaph 72. to draw 100 Cypripedium calceolus L. 94 chalk(s) 53. Brian 226 Untitled 2001 226 "Cave of the Hands" (Cueva de las Manas) 8. 220. cut Catling. 244 head and neck 144 phrased 124-125 contrast: brightness 99 of media 30 tonal 96. Le (Hugo) 200. 203 Claude Lorrain 202 Views from Velletri 202. 98. to model 110-111 border 51 Bosch. 190 Caricature of a Woman (Daumier) 198. 90 La Guitare. 50.100 curves. 26 geese 38-39 Gericault's cats 28. 223 Circular Score for "Due Voce" 223 children's art 9.27 turtles 42-43 aquatint 240 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels (Leonardo) 12. 71 conte 112. 128. Jean Michel 138 Self-Portrait 138 Bateau-Vision. Hieronymus 243 Two Monsters 242.

134.198 Degas. 160 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction (Gaudi) 68.102-103 drawing board 20 drawing books 20-21 drawing paper 144.216 Durelli. 91 Dragon (Michelangelo) 36. Katsushika 199 Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 198. Francisco de 131. 7 33 Hooke. 240 Black Paintings 152. 161 fashion 160. to draw 168-169 in Goya's artworks face.244 drawing(s): abstract 219. 765 hitsuzendo drawings 233 Hokusai. 162 Flaxman. Statue d'Epouvante.244. 112. 40.101 engraving 243 erasers/erasing 55.109 Rhinoceros 26.144 and ink 30. 69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt 68. 41 in the round 208-209 with scalpel 202. Ron 161 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 161 160. M.252-253 from memory 183.260 INDEX D Dada 139 Daumien Honore 198 Caricature of a Woman 198. 230 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction 68. Edgar 162 depth. 245 Hugo. Jean Ignace Isidore see Grandville Gericault. 73. Study for Plate 59 (Mucha) 90.115 exploratory 17 fantasy 72-73. 25 focus 65. 170-173. Antonio 135 Muscles of the Head and Neck 134. 144 Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (Baker) 32. 79. 136 Golden Section 67 Gombrich. 104-105.121 felt-tip pens 162. 55. 131 Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 240.184 165.146 from masterworks 126-127. 69 Guitare. 203 semi-abstract 234-237 three-dimensional 68. 115 Escher. 160 hitsuzendo 233 light to dark 102. 205 drawing with 103. position of 22 Eisen. 223 graphite 54. Hans 133 The Ambassadors 116 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 132. 240.111 feet. 134. 120. La (Braque) 90.160. Antonio 68. 190 Middle Eastern 50-51. 29 H hands. 160 Faune.207.116.141. 93 eye level 80 Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity. 141 tonal 96. Sir Ernst 12. 245 layers 30 Goya. 37 Grandville 243 A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the Near-Microscopic World of Scale Insects 242. 203 Hotel de la Suzonnieres (Satie) 70. 222 Le Bateau-Vision 200. 241 to blend 205 and chalk 178 and ink 28. 137 heads.John 157 Man Lying Down in a Cloak 156. Robert 93 Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 92.12 fixative 54. 135 Duren Albrecht 26. proportions of 143 fantasy drawings 72-73. 77 How Clever of God #84 244. 125. 163. 132 Frenz. 200 F fabric. 223.141.103 with eraser 103. Nicholas 68 St Paul's Baptistry 68 head and neck to draw 142-145 Head and Shoulders of a Man (Bellini) 136. 220 dry brush 234 234 57.189. fiber-tip pen 182. drypoint 181 exaggeration 184 expressionism 198 E ye and Head of a Drone Fly (Hooke) 92. 240 170-173 five Ships in a Port with Lighthouse (Wallis) 11. The 242. Oona 245 How Clever of God #84 244. 160 as ground for metal point 140.112. Cheval et Oiseau (Picasso) 30. 69. 90 G Gaudi. 161 fashion drawings 160. Keisai 157 The Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya 156. 99 etching.103. Rene 160 Illustration for Jacques Fath E easel.69 Gerard. 124. 55.216. disposable pens 182-183 dissections: botanical 48 of horse 27 distance: illusion of see perspective linear 97 tonal 97 Documents Decoratifs. 69. 93 horizon 52. 113. C . 243 graphic score 222. to suggest 177 see also perspective diagonals diffuser 55 dip pens 34. Alberto 136 Portrait of Marie-Laure de Noailles 136. 122. 52 foreground 208. 222 Grimes. 245 Gruau. to draw 134-137 Helleborus corsicus 55 highlights 91. 157 . 252 depiction of fabric monsters 252-253 Self Portrait in a Cocked Hat 130.230 three-tone 140. 30 Fauves/fauvism 90. 222.104.91.157 ellipses 100. 55.Theodore 29 Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 28. 90 gouache 30. 202.37.97. 71 minimal line 99 and music 70-71 quick 38-39. 799 Holbein. 122 Hawksmoor. 161 changing 216 Focusing on the Negative (Walter) 16 foliage 52.117 fountain pens 34. 26 Flying Fish (White) 25. Victor 200. position of 143. 163. 32 framing 139 Franfoise au Bandeau (Picasso) 132. to draw 78. 216 foreshortening 110.160. 242 eyes. 134.166 170-173 Gestalt 222 Giacometti. to draw 120. 226-227 anatomical 134-135 architectural 67-71 botanical 48-49 brush 14-15 dark to light 102.

34-35 acrylic 35 bistre 35. 72. I Murderous Attacks 33 Kollwitz. 242 light 96 to depict drawing with 1 76 painting with 176 . 83 white 122 ink impressions 222 ink spatters 234 installations 176. 177 influences. 31 Klimt.91 Study for Plate 59 of INDEX illumination see lighting Illustration for Jacques Fath (Gruau) 160.276. 97 Murillo. Oxford 250 music 70-71 Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks (Knopf) 32.96. 244 lithograph 198 Losbruch (Kollwitz) 180.104. 103 Neolithic chalk tablet 220.243 carbon 35 Chinese 30. 77 Miller. 249 and gouache 30 Indian 35. 252 ink 16. 220. 225 masking tape 204.182 Moore. 35. 135 museums 44. Kathe 181 Losbrunch (The Outbreak) 180.141. 227 Scene of Comical Riders 30.166 La Specola. 49 Rose 49 Maelbeke Madonna (Van Eyck) 156. 220. 166. 158 Man Lying Down in a Cloak (Flaxman) 156. David 78 M Mackintosh. 33 J justness 228-229 N naive art 74 negative space 53.181 L Landline (Bryan) 202. artistic 240-241. Florence 128 lighting in 167 Pitt Rivers. 234 iron-gall 35. Charles Rennie 48. 227 Newsome. 244 Dragon 36. 110 Sistine Chapel ceiling 116 Middle Eastern drawing 50-51.The (Robinson) 108. 252 Muscles of the Head and Neck (Durelli) 134. 37 lines 118 pastel 162 pencil 31.102.141 Metropolis (film) 72. Erich 73 design for Metropolis 72.124. 205. Bartolome: Moses Striking the Rock ofHoreb 252.109. 160 In the Duchess's Kitchen (Rackham) 176. 185 Mucha. 248. 756 priming for 140. 53 monoprint 787. 76 Libeskind.167 line(s) 132. 244. 226 Modernism 67.120. 190 metal pens see dip pens metal point 25. 99. 205 masterworks.112. 203 landscape 206-208 brushed 14 Landscape in Hoboku Style (Sesshu) 14 layers 146 chalk 53 gouache 30 ink 28. 60. 184. 181 Klee.109. Piet 52.227 to "bend" straight 97 compositional 228-229 cut 202. 36. 201 head and neck sections of female mold for Sforza Horse 89 Madonna of the Rocks 244 perspective study for Adoration of the Magi 74. 58-59. Paul 227 Polyphonic Setting for White 226. 73 Kigell. apparent 97 Leonardo da Vinci 74. Henry 178 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object 178. Daniel 70 Arctic Flowers 70 Lieb. 74-77. Alphonse 90.Pieuvre (Octopus) 28. 159 Japanese 35 to make 36 sepia 35 walnut 36. Rose: Tantalus or the Future of Man 20 minimal line drawing 99 mirror use of 120 mixed media 28. 73 Michelangelo Buonarroti 48. Madrid 171 University Museum of Natural History. 111. drawing from 126-127. Matisse. 230 invented creatures 106-107 250-251 invented objects 89. Victor 134 Profile Head 134. 201 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels 12. Marie 244 cloth drawing 244. 219 Mondrian. 220. 244 ink 36 252-253 Documents Decoratifs 90. 176. 757 mandalas 219. 163 pens 36 measuring 116 memory.134 K Kettlehut. 53 Tree II 52. 170-173. Henri 111 Blue Nude 1110.33 Mysterious Affairs of the lighting 2 7. 63. 114 hatched 244 layered 118 pace of 65 pale 40 rapid 49. Johan 32. 221 endless 31 free 113.115 98. 183 vertical 156 linear distance 97 linear perspective 69. Phyll: hands 18 lifting out 204. Gustav 49 Knopf. 34. 220. drawing from 183. 789. 28 Two Impressions from a Cut-out Paper Disk 222 Huyler Stephen R 225 261 Kinecar. 156 magnification 93 Man in Armor (Van Dyck) 158. 13 Cloudburst of Material Possessions 200. 54 silver point 156 leg sections 158 length. 78 Study ofThree Male Figures 110. 181 luminosity 115 Lynch. Oxford 106 Prado. 178 motifs: A r t Nouveau 9 7 stylized 51 mountains 216-217 movement: of animals 30-31 of humans 7 79. 203.

7 77 rapidograph 70 Raphael 110. 2 2 0 for oil pastels 162 stained 230 to stretch 140-141 tissue 21. 73 Noble. J 76 nudes 114-115 to make 36 metal see dip quill 34. 239 Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 238. 166 fiber-tip 782. Erik 70. 230 parallel planes 79 Parisian street 86-87 pastels 162 to blend 205 to hold 23 layers 162 pencils 162 pen(s): dip 34 . 7 77 three-point 80. 739 semi-abstract drawings Style 14 Seurat. Giovanni Battista 74. 36. 36 relief printing 757 Rembrandt van Rijn 52. 227 portfolios 20 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser de Noailles (Holbein) 132.759. 114 rollerball 182 Rorschach blot 99 Rose (Mackintosh) 48. 122. 736 portraits. 212 Japanese 2 1 . 243. 242 reed pens 34.36. 782 relief 757 silk-screen 739 woodblock 134. 71 Satire of the Queen's Dress (Wodall) 158. Heath 181 The Kinecar 180. 224 0 layers 31. 40-41.226. 74-77. Pablo 6 7 . 7 76 receding space 206 Redon. Martin 238. 141 Piranesi. Odilon 242 The Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity 242. 216. 234 disposable 182-183 felt-tip 162. 161. 243.104 Pieuvre (Hugo) 28. 1 1 6 .Paul'sBaptistry (Hawksmoor) 68. 733 Portrait de Marie-Laure (Giacometti) 136. Isaac 92 Telescope 92 Newton's Cenotaph (Boullee) 72.262 INDEX Newton. to draw 146-147 R Rackham. 36 pen and brush 8 3 pen and ink 70. and Webster. Faune. Sue 104. 37 38. Peter Paul 126-127 Embracing pose(s): balanced 146 quick 118-119 positive form 103 posture: of artist 22 of subject 3 8 . 78 single-point 74. 30 Fran<. 244 reed 34.Tim. 1 1 6 accelerated 2 2 . 28 pigment 162 bright 50 Caput Mortuum 7 4 7 for three-tone drawing 141.54 pastel 162 perspective 1 0 0 .176 Real Life Is Rubbish 176. 7 73 self-portraits: Basquiat 138. Stella 48 Cypripedium calceolus L 49 rotated view 7 65 Rubens. Arthur 177 In the Duchess's Kitchen 176. 205 pointillism 112 polyphonic painting 227 Polyphonic Setting for White (Klee) 226.2 3 age and youth sleeping subjects 148-149 150-151 Renaissance 109 Rhinoceros (Durer) 26. Cheval et Oiseau 30.37. 38.The (Beuys) 112. 165.37. 732 influence of 240 painting with light 78. 36. 74. 36. 36. 75 Two Courtyards 75. 181 pencil(s) 54 charcoal 204 colored 762. 57 Ross-Craig.52 pen and wash 158. 165 figure 118 filled 37 pencil 48. 9 0 . 26 Riley. 4 8 putty eraser 55. 164. 163. Russell 228. 162 O p A r t 98 optical illusions 96-99 outline 33. 1 3 2 quill pens 34. Man 131.Toyo: Landscape in Hoboku . 734 Protea nitida (Bauer) 48.oise au Bandeau 132. 72 Noble.40. 7 72 Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland. 1 2 4 priming for metal point 140. 230 paper(s) 21 colored 162 drawing 144. The (Abe) 220 Picasso. 81 two-point 74. Bridget 98 Robinson.199 Profile Head (Newsome) oil pastels 162. 75 Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range 241 petroglyphs 221. 219. 759 P Page. Auguste 114 Two Women 114. 1 6 9 to hold 2 2 .240. 159. 205 157. 139 Real Life is Rubbish (Noble and Webster) 176. 76-79. Paul 73 Nobson Central 72. 1 1 7 aerial 206 linear 69. 181 Rodin.139 Autoportrait 138. 91 outsider artists 33. 203 Scene of Comical Riders (Klee) 30. 7 38 Ray 138. 52 pens 36 scalpel 54 drawing with 202.131 Cottage Among Trees 52. 7 70 Ray. 4 9 Rose of Mohammed 50.9 3 Schongauer. 244 Q s Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape (Wolfli) 2 79 St.71 Hotel de la Suzonnieres 70.37 scientific instruments 9 2 . 38. 772 234-237 Sesshu. 239 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat (Seurat) 112. 103. Georges 112 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 112.184 fountain 34. 36.141 prints/printing: aquatint 240 dry-point etching 181 engraving 243 monoprint 181. 68 Satie. 97. 9 8 . 241 Physical Space. 1 6 3 . 34-35. 76 plastic eraser 55. 160.

2 0 0 Ship in a Storm 1 9 8 .1 4 5 . 161.1 6 5 shorthand diagram 142 Shoshone buffalo hide painting 178. 725 fabric 1 6 8 T h o m a s . 79. 206-207 202.158 158. 159 Wolfli.d i m e n s i o n a l d r a w i n g 68. 2 3 4 . Sue see N o b l e . 1 4 1 . 7 77.216 W e b s t e r . b l o w n 248 steel p e n s see d i p p e n s still life 89. 249 t o describe 39. 7 1 4 . 2 1 2 . 230 t h r e e . John: Focusing on the Negative 14 w a s h . Study of (Michelangelo) 110. 199 shoes 1 6 4 . 743 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City ( F r e n z ) 1 6 0 . h e a d a n d n e c k sections o f female m o l d f o r (Leonardo) 89 shading 2 9 s h a d o w s 28. 7 75 Telescope ( N e w t o n ) 9 2 . 6 9 Wodall. 7 70 Tiber 214-215 Untitled ( T w o m b l y ) 2 2 0 . 2 2 7 Untitled 2001 ( C a t l i n g ) u 263 W h i t e . 158 V a n Eyck.d i m e n s i o n a l 1 0 4 . William 159 Satire of the Queen's Dress INDEX 226. 4 4 boat 209 botanical 4 9 G e r i c a u l t ' s cats 2 9 from Goya 170-173 125. 7 9 0 vessels. 102-103 tonal marks. 1 9 9 Two Courtyards (Piranesi) 75. 76. 9 2 Tesshu. 69. 156 Van Gogh. 226 V Van Dyck. 9 4 z Z e n calligraphy 232-233 contrast 96 t o grade 163 ink 37 pencil 5 4 t o r t i l l o n 205 T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c . t h r e e . A n t h o n y 152.J. 7 6 Two Impressions from a Cut-Out Paper Disk ( H u g o ) 2 2 2 Two Monsters 2 4 2 . 1 6 . 199. 2 2 6 .1 8 5 Tree II ( M o n d r i a n ) 52. Jan 1 5 6 Maelbeke Madonna 1 5 6 . 115. 57. John 25 Flying Fish 25 Wild Striped Cat Sketches of ( G e r i c a u l t ) 28. A l f r e d 1 1 . t o d r a w 1 0 1 viewfinder 57 Views from Velletri ( C l a u d e L o r r a i n ) 152. Augustin ( B a l t a r d ) 6 7 w e t and dry brush-strokes 2 4 9 Turner.243 Leonardo's machines 12.9 1 storms.27 skull 747. drawing with 104-105 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt ( G a u d i ) 68. 1 7 7 free 8 0 V e n i c e . 240 Two Women Embracing ( R o d i n ) 114. C y 138.1 0 5 vision 9 6 Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects (Grandville) 242. 170 shoes 1 6 4 stylized m o t i f 51 Summer Flowers 63. t o d r a w 2 0 0 . 202 violin. T i m W e s t Fagade of the Church of St. 75. 2 4 4 . 221 .1 4 1 . 186.t o n e d r a w i n g 140. H e n r i de: Woman at Her Toilet 14 t r a n s p a r e n t v i e w 92. 104-105.s c r e e n p r i n t i n g 139 silver p o i n t 1 4 0 . Sarah: child's m a p 75. 2 3 0 tonal contrast 96 tonal distance 9 7 t o n a l d r a w i n g 9 6 . 1 4 0 . 1 8 4 .2 1 3 Stubbs. 9 5 pens 36 v a n i s h i n g p o i n t 74. v i e w s o f 85. 2 4 7 t h r e e .2 0 1 . 164.241 s i l k . 243 (Bosch) T Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos ( G o y a ) 2 4 0 . 1 8 4 .125 W o o d f i n e . M . phrased 146 tonal modeling 161 tonal range 169 t o n a l surfaces 2 2 7 tonal width 97 t o n e ( s ) 33. 74. 1 9 9 .5 3 in l a n d s c a p e 2 0 6 . Man in Armor 1 5 8 . Taylor A n i t a 115 All and Nothing 1 1 4 .Sforza Horse.12 W a l t e r . 53 trees. 1 3 . 1 4 1 w a t e r c o l o r 25. t o draw 1 9 8 .41. Paul 2 4 1 Achilles Chases Hector 2 4 0 . 1 4 4 . 75 Skeleton of the Horse ( S t u b b s ) 26. 141 Three Male Figures. 241. 174 T w o m b l y . 182. W . Sarah 9 4 Chair Cut Out 94. 1 4 5 travel journal 2 0 . 7 79 Shoshone petroglyph 240. 156 layers 7 5 6 priming for 140. 96. 1 2 Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse 71. 9 0 . 2 2 0 influence o f 2 4 0 Untitled 220. Vincent 95 Chair 94. 49.13 M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s m a l e figures 110.199 tissue p a p e r 21. t o d r a w 5 2 . 2 7 studies: b i r d s 7 2 . 2 4 2 w Wallis. 77.1 9 9 wire. G e o r g e 2 7 Skeleton of the Horse 26.120. t o lay 1 4 0 .Yamaoka 233 t e x t u r e 2 2 2 . 7 6 1 spots. 1 6 6 t r a p e z i u s m u s c l e 142. Adolf: Giant-Grape Saint-Mary-Castle 219 Woman at Her Toilet ( T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c ) 74 w o o d b l o c k print 157.141 S i m b l e t . 245 sharpener 54 Ship in a Storm ( T u r n e r ) 1 9 8 . 2 9 wind. 97. 69. 65 symbols 138.

co. 1975 ( 1 9 7 5 . Lisbon. L e n . support.939). u k / O n Loan to the H a m b u r g Kunsthalle. Kunstmuseum Bern. 13: www. H a m b u r g . A . 1 3 4 : © T h e British Museum. u k / T o k y o National M u s e u m .uk/Kettle's Yard. 2 2 2 : Pierre Georgel/Private Collection. 221: Gagosian Gallery/Private Collection (b).co. 2 0 2 : © T h e British Museum. 2 6 : Topfoto. 9 0 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/© A D A G P . Portugal. 68: www. 2 2 7 : Paul Klee Stiftung. Productions Clovis Prevost (c). H e a t h e r M c C a r r y . H . T h e R u s k i n School of D r a w i n g a n d Fine A r t . 2 0 3 : Clare Bryan (t). P h y l l Kiggell. H e l e n S h u t t l e w o r t h . Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. 4 6 : B r i t i s h Library. O o n a G r i m e s . Florence/MoMA. University of Cambridge. 1901. Carole A s h . © Tate. R o s e m a r y S c o u l a r . 5 2 : T h e Metropolitan Museum of Art/Bequest of Mrs.bridgeman. Madrid. 2 4 4 : Ashmolean Museum.bridgeman. Paul T h o m a s ( t ) . 2 2 3 : Lebrecht Music and Arts Photo Library/Ricordi. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin/Jorg P. 73: Berlin F i l m Museum (t). 29: Fogg A n Museum/Collections Baron de Vita: Grenville L. 2 4 5 : Oona Grimes. Agnieszka Mlicka. 16: www. 9 5 : V a n Gogh M u s e u m . A . Oxford. France. London/Bequeathed by Charles Landseer.uk/Private Collection. 1 5 9 : Bodleian Library.bridgeman. 243: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. J o h n Walter. NY. a n d encouragement i n m a k i n g this book: M a m o r u Abe. Picture Credits 8: Corbis/Hubert Stadler. L o n d o n (t). 1929 (29. c o . 1 3 6 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Centre Pompidou-MNAM-CCI.uk/Guildhall Library. 1 5 : w w w . 130: The Metropolitan M u s e u m of Art/Robert L e h m a n Collection. University of Oxford. 5 0 : Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (1). 11: www. K u n s t m u s e u m . Berlin/Staatsbibliothek zu A l l other images © Sarah Simblet . Christopher Davis. b r i d g e m a n .bridgeman. Kirsten Norrie. L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 .co. Italy. Paris/ © Succession Picasso / D A C S 2005. for s u p p l y i n g the d r a w i n g books. T o n y G r i s o n i . 2 4 2 : Photo Scala. R .uk/Private Collection. Winthrop. 75: © The British Museum (b). 74: Corbis.uk/British Museum. c o . 1 3 3 : Artothek/Kupferstichkabinett. Inc. 1 7 8 : © T h e British M u s e u m / H e n r y Moore F o u n d a t i o n .co. 6 6 : w w w . 3 1 : Tom Powel Imaging. Fund. Paris. 17: J o h n Walter. 1 3 5 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. 51: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. 9 2 : Science Photo L i b r a r y . Rocio Arnaez. 1 5 4 : akg-images/Musee National d'Art Moderne. J o n Roome. Graphische Sammlung. G e r m a n y . Paris and D A C S .uk/Mucha Trust. 2 4 0 : w w w .20-21 a n d 246-47. Andy Crawford. B M G . Havemeyer. 158: Calouste Gulbenkian Museum. Clare Bryan. 2 0 1 : T h e Royal Collection © 2 0 0 2 H e r Majesty Queen Elizabeth I I . B .l. 7 1 : I M E C / A r c h i v e s E r i k Satie. Salisbury & South W i l t s h i r e M u s e u m ( t ) . a n d brushes o n pp. 1 3 8 : © Christie's Images Ltd/© A D AGP. George M c G a v i n . (r). 179: www. Toulouse. L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . Amsterdam. Carlo O r t u for picture research s u p p o r t .uk/Private Collection. Germany/Joerg P. D a w n Henderson. 72: akg-images.Paris ( b ) . Natalie G o d w i n . 1 1 0 : www. 111: Fondation Beyeler/Riehen (Bale)/© Succession H Matisse/DACS 2005. 113: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. C o r n e l i s o n & Son. U K . Sir Brinsley F o r d . 9 4 : Sarah Woodfine. 1 0 8 : Arts C o u n c i l Collection. 132: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. 4 8 : T h e N a t u r a l H i s t o r y M u s e u m . Paris.bridgeman. Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (t). 1 5 6 : Graphische S a m m l u n g Albertina. 5 3 : Collection of the Gemeentemuseum D e n Haag/Mondrian Trust. Psychiatric Institute of the U n i v e r s i t y of Heidelberg. Roddy Bell. Psychiatric Institute of the University of Heidelberg. L o n d o n .bridgeman. Paris a n d D A C S . 69: Institut Amatller d'Art Hispanic (tl). L o n d o n . R u t h P a r k i n s o n .co. Sarah Woodfine. Peter L u f f . M a n d y Earey. O. Julie O u g h t o n . Basel. Flossie. Diana Bell. B e m d Kunzig. 1 9 : Getty Images/© Succession Picasso / D A C S 2 0 0 5 . Copyright Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens.co. A n n a P l u c i n s k a . F i n n . K e v i n a n d Rebecca Slingsby. K a t h r y n W i l k i n s o n . J o h n Roberts. Magdalene College Cambridge. 2 7 : Royal Academy of Arts. 114: Musee Rodin. 1 9 6 : Museum of the History of Science. 9 7 6 ) . Corporation of London. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett.Strang Print Room ( b ) . U K . K e w ft)).100. L o n d o n . Germany.uk /Biblioteca Nacional. Anita Taylor. 181: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. Jackie Douglas. Japan. 176: Modem Art./© D A C S 2 0 0 5 ( t ) . 180: www. c o . 2 0 0 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. 112: Yale University A r t Gallery/Everett V Meeks.bridgeman. 2 2 0 : Mamaru Abe. Paula Regan. 2 4 1 : Corbis/David M u e n c h ( b ) . Berlin (b).bridgeman. 9 1 : www. Paris. H a y w a r d Gallery. . Paul T h o m a s . 1 . Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. and Tamsin Woodward Smith. 1 6 0 : Rene G R U A U s. 88: www. Publisher's Acknowledgments Dorling Kindersley w o u l d like to thank Caroline H u n t for editorial contribution. Orientabteilung/Ruth Schacht.co. L o n d o n . papers.bridgeman. Sarah D u n c a n . b r i d g e m a n . Staatliche Museen z u Berlin.co. R o y a n d D i a n n e Simblet. 1 6 1 : D C C o m i c s I n c . Angela W i l k e s . Paris.co. 225: Stephen P Huyler. 9 3 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. 157: U C L Art Collections . Paris. Dover Publications/ISBN: 0486229912 (t). 115: Anita Taylor. Anders/ © D A C S 2 0 0 5 . Sophie Laurimore. 3 2 : Pepys Library./Galerie Sylvie Nissen. G e r m a n y . 30: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. Maureen Paley Interim Art (b). Sammy De Grave. London/courtesy of Stuart Shave.264 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Acknowledgments Author's Acknowledgments: T h e author wishes to thank the following people for their enormous help.a. London 2005.uk/Musee des Augustins. . 199: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee des arts asiatiquesGuimet. Wolfson College. 2 3 8 : akg-images. J a c k a n d Brian Catling. 2 1 8 : Adolf-Wdlfli-Stiftung.uk /© Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery. 2 8 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. Paris. S i m o n L e w i s . 139: Galerie Marion Meyer/© Man Ray Trust / A D A G P . L o n d o n . Antonia Cunliffe Davis. Pamela Ellis for compiling the index. Anders. A n d y C r a w f o r d for p h o t o g r a p h y a n d L . Jean Pierre Roy. 7 0 : Studio Daniel L i b e s k i n d .co./Private Collection/© D A C S 2005. 2 4 : © T h e British Museum. 1 9 8 : Dover Publications. u k / L o u v r e . B e r l i n . Patty Stansfield. a n d D e p a r t m e n t s o f E n t o m o l o g y a n d Zoology at the University of Oxford. B e r l i n . b r i d g e m a n . 3 3 : Prinzhom Collection. 49: Hunterian Museum (t). Illustrated London News Picture Library/The Bystander (b). Angela Palmer. 226: Brian Catling. 2 2 4 : P r i n z h o m Collection. 177: Mary Evans Picture Library. 174: Artothek/Munich. 1879.r. Also. 137: © The British Museum. K u n s t m u s e u m Bern/© D A C S 2 0 0 5 . F r a n c e . Paris a n d D A C S . G i n a R o w l a n d .

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