An innovative, practical approach to drawing the world around you







LONDON • NEW YORK MELBOURNE • MUNICH • DELHI Senior Editor Paula Regan Senior Art Editor Mandy Earey Art Editor Anna Plucinska Managing Editor Julie Oughton Managing Art Editor Heather McCarry Art Director Peter Luff Publishing Director Jackie Douglas Production Joanna Bull DTP Designer Adam Walker Picture Research Sarah Smithies US Editor Christine Heilman First American Edition, 2 0 0 5 First Paperback Edition, 2 0 0 9 Published in the United States by DK Publishing 3 7 5 Hudson Street New York, New York 1 0 0 1 4 10 11 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3

6 8 20 22 Master Builders The Order of Sound Future Fictions Pathways of Sight Single-Point Perspective Creating an Imaginary Space Further Aspects of Perspective Theaters Venetian Life Parisian Street

68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86

Foreword Introduction Drawing Books and Papers Posture and Grip

Objects and Instruments

TD075-July 2009 Copyright © 2 0 0 5 Dorling Kindersley Limited Text and authors artworks © Sarah Simblet 2 0 0 4 Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited A Cataloging-in-Publication record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN 9 7 8 - 0 - 7 5 6 6 - 5 1 4 1 - 1 Color reproduction by GRB, Italy Printed and bound in China by Toppan

Still Life Instruments of Vision Bench Marks Light and Illusions Further Illusions How to Draw Ellipses Tonality Drawing with Wire Artifacts and Fictions


90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106

Documentaries Presence and Mood Movement Icon and Design Pen and Ink Drawing with Ink Capturing Character Sleeping Dogs Turtles Dry Birds

26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44

The Body
Postures and Poses Choreographs Passion Measurement and Foreshortening Quick Poses Hands and Feet Charcoal Hands Phrasing Contours The Visual Detective La Specola

110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128

Plants and Gardens
Botanical Studies Jeweled Gardens Fast Trees Graphite and Erasers Cropping and Composition Negative Space Fig Tree Summer Flowers Acanthus Spinosus

48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64

Discover more at

Projections Magnetic Fields The Human Condition Disposable Pens The Travel Journal Catching the Moment Grand Canal Crossings Caravans The Big Top

174 Abstract Lines
176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 Process and Harmony Writing Time Chants and Prayers Compositions Being "Just" Collage Zen Calligraphy Nocturnes

220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234

Poise Anatomies Revelations Self-Portraits Silver Point Head and Neck Essential Observations Drawing Portraits Generations Castings

132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 152

Earth and the Elements
Air in Motion Storms Nature Profiles Charcoal Landscapes Drawing in the Round Decaying Boat Cloudburst Notes of Force Mountains

198 200 202 204 206 208 210 212 214 216

Gods and Monsters
Marks of Influence Hauntings Convolutions Brushes Brush Marks Monsters Goya's Monsters Consumed Glossary Index Acknowledgments

240 242 244 246 248 250 252 254 256 259 264

Cloth and Drapery Character Costumes Femmes Fatales Colored Materials Study and Design The Structure of Costume Textures and Patterns Dressing Character Posture Carving

156 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172


doctors. and through which I can see how I think. These inspirations led me to invent museums. We can all learn how to draw. where I expect them to be discovered by some people. texture. undergraduates to fellow professors. from schoolchildren to senior citizens. Some are more traditionally framed and hung in galleries for solo or group exhibitions. I will always draw. we have looked at. and a reflector of experience. The very first step is to believe it. and I refer back to them for years after they are made. and experience. For me personally. we learn to see it. It is my love of these. of Sketch Book for the Artist. or a quantum physicist trying to see for themselves the fluctuations of our universe. and in a few sessions they will be flying. They occupy a shelf in my studio. still standing by the door. thinking. and be slowly washed or worn away. and makers of special effects. night security staff. who tells me firmly upon approach that they cannot draw. architect. through history. Drawing occupies a unique place in every artist and creator's life. not only to make art.Foreword B Y DRAWING THE WORLD AROUND US. and size. or engineer. shape. a cartographer charting the land. Combine these things and the possibilities are endless. Chosen in any color. especially as travel journals. Drawing is a mirror through which I understand my place in the world. are made outside as discreet installations. I was also reading among The Confessions of St. a drawing book is the perfect portable private vehicle for your imminent exploration of drawing. a sculptor. By using our imaginations. Others can be held in the h a n d or. fashion designer. in which he describes himself flying and diving in his imagination through pictorial caverns of knowledge. It is a tool for investigating ideas and recording knowledge. we learn to feel truly alive. and their importance to so many artists. that inspired the title and structure MEMORY T H E A T E R S This pen-and-ink drawing was made from imagination during research for my PhD. a composer notating a musical score. geologists. I also make drawing books. be they a child discovering their vision and dexterity. I know that with their cooperation I can soon prove them wrong. understood (and often misunderstood) our own bodies. Augustine his notes on memory. drawing is the immediate expression of seeing. by invitation. I work with people of diverse ages. It makes me feel excited to be alive. Some of my drawings cover entire walls. art schools. I was training in anatomy and studying how. aspirations. . They enfold their viewer and are made on joined sheets of paper that I reach by climbing ladders. perhaps hidden on a door hinge or a street bench rail. and local c o m m u n i t y classes. but because it is how I engage with and anchor myself in life. as a visiting professor at universities. where spaces are shaped by nothing more than the objects and activities contained within them. The most rewarding challenge is always the newcomer. For twelve years I have enjoyed the privilege of teaching drawing. remain unseen by most. and feeling.

000-9500 bce . not just chosen pictures on our walls but everywhere—maps. and we spend our lives reading it. logos. Drawing is international. We are surrounded by drawings in our daily lives. They have a natural affinity to many modern graffiti signatures. waving to us from many thousands of yearsago. graffiti. packaging. irreverent to language barriers. The sense of relief we may feel from the information overload of modern commercial life when visiting a country in which we can no longer read every written word. inscribing every fresh part of it with their eager scrapes and trails. At home and at work we doodle. and patterns on our clothes. but more often because drawing actually helps us to focus and take in what is said. Cueva de las Marios. scrawling shapes and cartoons when on the telephone. We are bombarded with linear and tonal pictorial information.Theseancient silhouettes were drawn with earth pigments rubbed onto rock. Children cannot be restrained from running across the pristine white lawn of newly fallen snow. Rio Pinturas 13. and in meetings. Sometimes we draw because we are bored.8 INTRODUCTION Where We Begin There is a fundamental drive in our human nature to make a mark. like a great canvas for them to mark. We can always read each others drawings. signs. a great crowd is raising their hands in greeting. Most adults still feel that certain exquisite pleasure on arriving at a beach to find the tide out and the sand perfect. is not afforded us by drawing. in lectures. "CAVE OF THE HANDS" In this drawing.

an expression of existence. and the appearance of my strikes of colors. Even though it is made by a toddler this image would be recognizable to anyone. ." Until this day. The image above is what I gave back to my mother. and belonging to place. we see our oldest surviving images. Cave art was not made for decoration but as a fundamental part of life. I now think this is a picture of proximity. and she kept it as my first step beyond the delighted realms of scrawl.9 WHERE WE BEGIN FIRST PORTRAIT For sorre forgotten reason. MAKING OUR MARK It seems reasonable to assume that we have engaged in pictorial mark-making for as long as we have made conscious use of our hands. created by societies of hunter-gatherers. She gave me a notepad and a red crayon and asked me to draw her "a picture of Daddy. Eyelashes take up as much of my attention as the head itself. In cave paintings like the one opposite. had happily scribbled. I was sitting with my mother. the hair of my first portrait was most important. power. at age two-anda-half. who in their day-to-day hardship made time to picture themselves and the animals on which they depended. but I had never yet attempted to figuratively picture my world. reflecting my experience of looking closely at my father's face. On a particular afternoon in September 1974. I. enjoying the physical sensation of crayon on paper. like all toddlers.

As you progress. PROGRESSION T h e r e is a point in all o u r lives w h e n w e first c o n t r o l o u r mark and m a k e it a line. Young children love to draw. h o w e v e r small a n d u n f o r m e d y o u believe they are. to help a stranger see their way W h e n taking first steps in relearning h o w to draw. W e do n o t hesitate to draw a map. Hours are lost immersed in the glorious world of imagination. for example. most of us stop. It was made with a few bold strokes of a steel pen dipped in ink to conjure the dried bee I was holding between my fingers on a pin. then drag o u r line into a loop. b e p r o u d o f what m a k e s y o u r w o r k individual to y o u . Don't b e p e r s u a d e d to draw in a w a y s o m e o n e else . and this activity plays a vital role in their d e v e l o p m e n t . and from that first unit build and describe the shape of something or someone we know. But as adolescents.10 INTRODUCTION PEN-AND-INK BEE This tiny drawing has been enlarged to show its texture and composition. it is important to value your natural abilities a n d ways of seeing. At this point many will insist they cannot draw. Inhibitions creep in and ideas of good a n d b a d terminate confidence. yet still turn to drawing w h e n their verbal language fails or is inadequate.

and which aspects of the vast wealth and diversity of graphic language would be most appropriate to their goals. 1925-42 53/8x87/8in (135 x 225 mm) ALFRED WALLIS prefers and tells you is better. harbor and sea is one of many that Alfred Wallis made from memory while sitting at home. Someone once told them they must draw in this way. I meet students struggling unhappily with a particular method of drawing. He was a retired Cornish fisherman and junk dealer who began drawing at the age of 70 "for company" after his wife died. . what they most want to achieve. The journey of every artist demands hard work and discipline. but it does help to set out facing in the right direction. Occasionally. Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse c. remember that all advice is only advice. Think how much would have been lost if anyone had interfered with Alfred Wallis' personal sense of proportion and perspective in the exquisite drawing above. As you read this b o o k and perhaps attend art classes.11 PROGRESSION A UNIQUE SIGHT This innocent yet sophisticated drawing of boats. After experimenting and trying each new idea. Enjoy the control of your own journey. you must decide whether to keep or discard it. I ask them their reasons for drawing. He used leftover ship and yacht paint with crayons on cut-out pieces of cardboard boxes. and they have never questioned why.

12 INTRODUCTION VISION All artists see the world differently. Below. wrote as the opening line of this great work. boats. "There really is no such thing as Art. There are only artists. but it should be the experienced world we draw. author of The Story of Art. His notes visually balance his drawings. it may not be accurate to our critical adult eye. 11). We BIRD STUDIES The flutter of faint scratches that dance across the pages on the right is an attempt to see the movement and bony weightlessness of a bird. the page bristles with the focus of ideas. When we look back at Wallis' seascape (see p. perhaps for comfort or ease as a left-hander or a habitual enjoyment of the challenge. If as artists we nail a subject down too hard. The observed world may be our subject. and inspire others. IDEAS A N D I N V E N T I O N S These active machines. right. we can drive out its spirit. embedded in this book. There are countless reasons for drawing. They are also always written backward. but the child in us knows that this is an all-embracing. all raise water From the Archimedes' screw to Leonardo's own cupped wheel. the breast. We also see differently ourselves. be visionary.and collarbones and shoulder blades of a different bird almost become new creatures in themselves. and lose the very thing that attracted us to it. There should neve: be a slavish obligation to represent things exactly as we collectively agree we see them. I hope." The clarity and empowerment of these words. is. not for disguise but as a personal choice. and breathtaking wind of a choppy harbor. Our imaginations are the tools with which we can increase the essence of life. Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels LEONARDO DA VINCI . We all see differently. The art historian Professor Sir Ernst Gombrich. depending on the occasion and our purpose. clear-minded understanding of the sea.

when it looks tired and still feels wrong. it may be best to start afresh. Leonardo drew to invent a machine. It will be invested through your experience in the new drawing. Don't be disheartened. Each fresh image reflects growing confidence and the experience of the preceding study. shout against a terrible injustice. More was learned drawing the bird 18 times than would have been understood drawing it only once or twice. stripped-down parts. Our drawings are annotated investigations into the mechanisms of nature and of an idea. or illustrate a dream. Opposite.13 VISION should not try to know how every finished picture will look. . or to discover the best use of a new material. while below. to express the beauty in a moment's play of light. We have both covered our paper with focused. This also applies if struggling at length with a larger picture. but it is important to be clear why we are making it. My drawings of a housemartin (opposite top) illustrate the importance of repeated study. time spent is not lost. Decide before you start whether you are drawing to warm up. I drew to understand the apparatus of flight. drawing in pursuit of our own thoughts and understanding. conduct an experiment. make a calculation.

and how it feels to the touch. declare the idea. it should be responding to the sensation and meaning of the subject it draws. Know the texture. bone. These two brush drawings. and practice each part before putting the final image together. We are caught in a shifting focus that makes everything fluid. or ice—you must actually feel it beneath your fingers as you draw. This is the alchemy of drawing. or imagine—it is not enough to only render its shape. the unknown. and opacity of your subject. meaning. I made it almost unconsciously with a pen and a brush. and sometimes beyond. Imagine these qualities so strongly that you feel them in your mind and at your fingertips. As you draw any subject—something you see. The physicality. temperature. your marks will become the subject on the paper. and allowed to flow through the brush. You must also think of its intrinsic nature: its purpose. water. and spirit of each subject was held strongly but loosely between the fingertips. and an island brushed with trees. Whatever the material— wood. we are advised or even required to plan our pictures. This is a detail of a brush-and-ink drawing by a Japanese Buddhist monk. Landscape in Haboku Style 15TH CENTURY . and paper. Each image relied upon past experience to know the probable behavior of the brush. ink. silk. explain the composition. and we can just make out the distant stains of mountains. trusting my intuition to find a visual equivalence for the sensation of weight within my body. As your hand meets the paper to make a mark. which can offer keys to other things. size. created centuries and cultures apart. They each allowed the energy and focus of the moment to be expressed through controlled accident and a degree of the unknown Both drawings were made trusting the marks. BRUSHED LANDSCAPE FLOWING SKELETON T h e gliding poise of this walking anatomy comes as much from the feeling of movement as it does from the feeling of drawing. W e float toward the quiet vista as it also moves toward us. and at speeds beyond conscious thought. balance. excessive planning can get in the way of the imagination. and what you discover in the process of making. This suits many artists well and is perfectly valid. metal. It denies the importance of accident. fire. If you can do this. and position in space. Our position asvieweris unsteady. However. mists. depth. feel. are both made of ink laid onto wet paper with speed and agile certainty.14 INTRODUCTION ALCHEMY At school.


Focusing on the Negative 2004 22 x 30 in (56 x 76 cm) J O H N WALTER . more than 100 years after its making. made by a young British artist who creates alphabets o f the absurd f r o m familiar childhood characters.1896 Woman at her Toilet 41 x 26 in (104 x 66 cm) TOULOUSE LAUTREC RIB-CAGE D R A M A Thus drama. He dazzles us with flashes o f light and dabbed marks o f shadow. pastel. one of many luminous works in watercolor. stand table-sized with furniture legs attached t o b o t h sides of their jacket. gold leaf and spray paint. lives on. which evoke realities o f place and the p o w e r o f moment.16 INTRODUCTION PLACE A N D MOMENT The heat and teeming atmosphere o f this Parisian dressing room. right is set inside a rib cage. c. Lautrec's flamboyant splashes o f petticoats and pantaloons are drawn with long sweeps of chalk and brushed oil paint. like folded insects. acrylic. left. W a l t e r also makes books: some.

Choose other materials and do the same. Start by choosing a material you like the look of and cover a piece of paper with different marks. Enjoy discovering what your hand and the material can do. Such books are personal: the territory of new exploration and experiment. and miscellaneous items of inspiration. One of the advantages of a drawing book is that you can shut it. Pages do not have to lie open for other people to inspect and comment on. you will naturally make progress on your own in response to concentration and the decision to look and draw. potential ideas still forming. and mistakes are a valuable process of learning. As you follow lessons in this book. even those you dislike. just through the act of making. take your time and don't worry if you need to make several attempts to grasp a concept. Try to keep all of your first drawings. you will be surprised and encouraged to see how far you have come. FREEINGTHEHAND . Much will be learned on these test sheets and in your first drawings. It is yours. With no help and advice at all. Ignore these at first and allow yourself the freedom to play.17 FREEING THE HAND If you are just beginning to learn how to draw. at a point when you feel you are not making progress. Drawing is exploratory. diary-like observations. try not to grip your pen worrying about the technical terms you might have heard. Put them away and look at them later.

However. The real drawing book has yet to come. adapting its form and occupation. Drawing is a living language that over millennia has grown and changed. Imagination needs nourishment. I was particularly attracted to their gentle articulation and understated determination. The chapters of this book present 90 different artists' ways of seeing. Note that the drawing classes are allocated to subjects. Picasso has just finished his drawing. the path is yours. and became a great subject for me. As you draw. we still only glimpse a corner of the magnitude of this subject and the infinity of what can be achieved. and enfolding new media. Its sensuous and flowing line seems to drift like smoke. which of course he cannot see. Look to your own experience and also learn from the work of others. Once there. and many more reasons for drawing the world. It rarely flourishes in isolation. Picasso Painting with Light at the Madoura Pottery 1949 . which is held frozen in space by a camera lens.18 INTRODUCTION THE THINKING EYE Techniques and materials are the grammar and vocabulary of drawing and can be studied and shared. A N ARTIST'S HANDS These are the hands of the artist Phyll Kiggell (see p. comes from within. 150).Their elegant strength seems to summon a lifetime of drawing. it will be your creation as you discover your own personal vision. To these I have added my own drawings to explain elementary materials and techniques and offer introductory approaches. Picasso is poised smiling. In the total wealth of these pages. threedimensionally. staring straight through his image of a bull. ELECTRIC BULL With a penlight. An artist's personal voice is something that also evolves through lessons learned. but not confined to them. seek ideas in the life around you. it is this voice that is the subtle part of their art and something that ultimately. caught between action and repose. when they are more experienced. This practical journey will take you through the door into the vivid heart of drawing.


t h i s is h o w I l e a r n e d . 4. Dissecting a d i s c a r d e d h a r d . thickness.b o u n d p a d if y o u w i s h t o keep your drawings together long-term.b o u n d b o o k w i l l s o o n s h o w y o u h o w it is m a d e . it is better to have them made at a lumber yard or home improvement store. BLACK P O C K E T B O O K S : Hand-sized w i t h ready-made elastic binder and a marker ribbon. catalogs. t h e i r jackets w i l l a c t like d r a w i n g b o a r d s a n d p r o t e c t y o u r w o r k . study the structure of a good portfolio and make your own. They can be very expensive in art stores. a l e n g t h o f black elastic t i e d a r o u n d t h e m i d d l e will h o l d the contents together w h e n y o u f o l d in c o l l e c t e d items. drawing book. Gleaming store purchases vary greatly in format. quality. and collage their ideas. Purchase a h i g h .h a n d s t o r e s make unique subjects f o r e x p e r i m e n t s a n d collage. C A N V A S . is perfect. ties on either side to keep your papers in place. F o r traveling. be sure they fit comfortably under your arm. pastels. stitched. R I N G . texture. c h o o s e larger f o r m a t s t o give y o u s c o p e f o r e x p e r i m e n t .b o u n d b o o k s t h a t fit in y o u r p o c k e t o r bag. cut. thick enough not to flex. Homemade books can be assembled easily from found materials or selections of loose sheet papers. F o r e v e n i n g classes. and cost. Sand the edges to avoid splinters. 1. These are perfect f o r w o r k i n g in novels. C O L O R E D PAPERS: Large a r t supply stores o f t e n sell t h i c k b o o k s full o f c o l o r e d p a p e r s . which are also sold in an enormous range.C O V E R E D H A R D B O U N D : Ideal f o r c a r r y i n g a r o u n d . N o t e t h e w i d e l y differing c h o i c e o f p a p e r s w i t h w h i c h t h e s e are m a d e . You simply need two strong boards hinged together well. and handles to lift the weight of your artworks. and glued t o a s t r i p o f bias binding. 2. color. It is also useful to own a portfolio. cheap corrugated plastic ones fall apart in days. a n d r e f e r e n c e b o o k s f o u n d in s e c o n d . c o l o r If planning t o use pencils. Art students often make use of printed books picked up from secondhand stores into which they draw. 6.B O U N D PADS: T h e s e are t h e least expensive a n d useful f o r o p e n i n g flat. F O U N D B O O K S : O l d p r i n t e d 3 . Most contain thin p a p e r and are perfect f o r use w i t h disposable pens.q u a l i t y r i n g . T h e hardb o a r d j a c k e t is s t r e t c h e d w i t h canvas beneath t h e p a p e r sleeve. binding. Drawing boards are invaluable. There are dozens to choose from. Calculate a range of useful dimensions and have several cut at once. Many artists invent ways o f binding their o w n books. a n d crayons. 2002 Tantalus o r The Future of Man 81/2 x61/4in (215 x 158 mm) ROSE MILLER . y o u n e e d a lifetime. A high-quality one will last a DRAWING BOOKS Select d r a w i n g b o o k s t o suit y o u r aims. H o w e v e r r i n g bindings o f t e n break. H O M E M A D E : I m a d e this b o o k f r o m drawing paper that I folded. b e a w a r e t h a t p a p e r t e x t u r e effects a n d changes t h e i r marks.20 INTRODUCTION Drawing Books and Papers T o BEGIN YOUR EXPLORATION o f d r a w i n g . 5. c h o o s e s m a l l e r h a r d . Smooth plywood. If you intend to carry your boards for a distance. Alternatively.

Use cheap paper for rough ideas and quality paper for work to last See the glossary ( p p . 15. Use with a brush in clean water Water makes a dark mark like ink and becomes invisible again when dry. C A N S O N : Inexpensive lightweight pastel paper in many colors. Use for brushwork drawings. yellow. VELIN ARCHES 250GMS: Printmaking paper available in black white. not. mold-. SAUNDERS WATERFORD N O T 300GMS: Mid-quality textured watercolor paper. and white. blocks. 8. it is made from rice. tough. fine. 7. AQUARELLE ARCHES 300GMS:The very top quality hot-pressed (smooth) watercolor paper. 2 5 6 .Papers differ in thickness (weight). C A R B O N PAPER: Available in dark and light blue. resisting deterioration. 13. 11. and rolls. 14. cold. METALLIC PAPER: Thin paper in different metallic colors. and other plant fibers. T W O RIVERS Y E L L O W 410GMS: See Two Rivers Green 19. also good for drawing with colored pencils. 20. Cheap wood-pulp papers are acidic. blocks.TISSUE PAPER: Place sheets between drawing book pages to keep images from printing on each other and use for delicate collage. MAGIC PAPER: A reusable sheet for testing ideas without creating waste. and hot pressed papers. 18. 21. PAPERS . For use with any media. absorbency. T W O RIVERS GREEN 410G MS: Very heavy tinted textured cold-pressed watercolor paper See Two Rivers Yellow. It is available in white or cream. and cost. 22. 12. JAPANESE PAPER: Strong. smooth. size.5 9 ) for explanations of rough. and translucent. FABRIANO INGRES: Thin. printed on one side only. or rolls. Ph. They are hand-. color. from pencil to paint 9. texture. FABRIANO ACADEMIA: Standard medium-range multipurpose paper Use with any media. 16. Cotton papers are high-quality and acid-free. GLASSINE: Sold as protective wrapping. 17. pastel paper in flecked pastel colors with a distinctive ribbed marking. red. 10. white textured paper that can take abrasive use of any medium. or machine made in sheets. ITALIAN PARCHMENT: Imitation-animal-skin parchment that is translucent and slightly waxy. mulberry. turning brown and brittle. used to imprint lines of these colors onto a surface. bamboo. 100% cotton and sold in sheets. It is also excellent for drawing with marker pens on layered sheets. and cream sheets or rolls. FABRIANO R O U G H 600GMS: Very heavy.

If your body posture is well balanced and you can move freely. You do not have to dance to draw. You cannot draw like this—your hand is locked and your fingers can barely move. This cramped grip tires your hand and makes small. Examples are shown here. a n d look to the left of it at your subject. If seated on a b e n c h easel (a donkey). If using an upright easel. It will also reflect discomfort if you are in any way cramped. strangledlooking drawings. and subject. Relaxed fingers: Hold the pencil away from its tip and relax your fingers. Regularly step back 6-9 ft (2-3 m) to check your progress. There should be an open. body. In this book we will look at parallels between drawing and music. With your hand in this position. place it on your left. How you hold your drawing materials is also important. Placing your easel o n the w r o n g side folds y o u r b o d y against your drawing arm. SPACE TO WORK Cramped grip. This photograph illustrates how some people hold a pen to write. Turning your drawing sideways or upside-own will also help reveal what is wrong. . but you need to understand that the expression of a line or mark originates in the body and flows t h r o u g h the shoulder. don't sit too close to the paper. your whole relaxed b o d y should be involved. make sure you have enough room to back away and view your work. a n d h a n d to the fingertips. Accelerated perspective also occurs if you look down the surface steeply (see pp. There are also parallels to dance. From a distance you will spot errors you cannot see close up. but wherever possible. you Drawing classes can be cramped places. Use the side of your little fingernail as a support on the page. if left-handed. and look to the right. should be able to look comfortably straight ahead at your picture plane. arm. your drawing will reflect this. your lines will distort. you can draw lines freely and achieve a significant arc of movement.22 INTRODUCTION Posture and Grip T o DRAW WELL. flowing space between your hand. b u t it should n o t be forgotten that many people make remarkable a n d striking works drawing with their feet or holding their brush or pencil in their mouths. or with your drawing board angled between your lap and a chair. Ideally. place it on your right. 116-17). If your hand twists to maneuver between the paper and your body. place it on the correct side: if right-handed.

Large scale: POSTURE AND GRIP U n f a m i l i a r i t y : T h e habitual movements of our handwriting style will sometimes infringe upon our drawing. or it can spoil your work if not anticipated. arm. This can be used to great effect. find an unfamiliar. This can give a new lease on life to your mark-making. or change to the wrong hand. roughly marking out a large-scale work. .23 This loose "candle" grip is very useful when drawing with your arm extended. Brush calligraphy: This comfortable. If you turn a brush or dip pen up into the air to draw above your hand. To stop this. not up to the paper Brushes can be used on upright paper but dip Anticipating effects: A fully loaded pens need a level surface. alternative way of holding the pencil. Large amounts of ink can be applied without fear of uncontrolled running if the paper is flat. GRAVITY Remember that gravity affects the flow of ink and paint. brush pressed against an upright surface will cause a dribble of ink to run down your drawing. depending upon what it is and how large you are working. Soft media: Short materials such as pastels and charcoal can be accommodated in the palm. upright way of holding the brush near its base is similar to the Japanese way used in Zen calligraphy (see pp.232-33). It is most comfortable when reaching to draw above your head. As long as your fingers. ALL MEDIA There are no rules as to how you should hold your drawing media. and body are not restricted. hold your material as you find most comfortable. liquid will run down your hand. Remember you can also draw just by dipping your fingers in pigment—this is how many women draw in rural India. But be careful not to tense your fingers.


and snakes have between them engendered harpies. we have employed artists on expeditions. we turn and take the features of beasts. Framed in the z o o or in domestic cohabitation. As children we delight in the humanized trials of Tom and Jerry and their c a r t o o n relations. to be there at the m o m e n t of discovery. their different speeds and patterns of action. who described in words what White drew. In this chapter we discover the use of pens and ink through the delineation of insects. 1540. We have drawn them on the walls of caves to evoke their kinship and power. JOHN WHITE British artist. from which personality and predicted behavior were " d e d u c e d . In medieval England. 11 x91/4in (277 x 234 mm) .drawe to lief one of each kinde of thing that is strange to us in England.. and pioneer born c. Facial features were analyzed in terms of their animal likeness. 1590 J O H N WHITE capture form and movement from the m a n n e r i s m s of honking geese. After the subject of ourselves. fish. mermaids. which are so unlike ours.. Europeans on board had never seen such a thing. animals provide a perfect subject with which to begin. bats. out are now oxidized and so appear black W h e n less preoccupied with understanding ourselves. and to bring h o m e drawn documentaries of their finds. This drawing is made in black lead (metal point) with watercolor Highlights of silver would have gleamed. the Latin bestiary was one of the most popular picture books—an illustrated dictionary of one hundred parts. For the novice artist. they are perhaps our favorite pictorial preoccupation. On the Roanoke voyages of Sir Walter Raleigh. each dedicated to the moralized tale of an animal or monster The bestiary profoundly influenced the art of its period. floating turtles. dogs.m o u n t e d skeletons of birds. which very likely leaped o n t o the deck of Sir Walter Raleigh's ship Tiger as it sailed north from the Caribbean to Virginia in 1585. Together they made maps and documented animals. offer challenges and delights to draw. m u s e u m . or scampering through the initials and borders of pictures from that time. Here (left) we see J o h n White's exquisite record of a flying fish. and dragons.Animals H UMANS HAVE DRAWN ANIMALS from the beginning of our time." He worked with the scientist Thomas Harriot. and learn how to Flying Fish c. White's commission was to ". plants. sleeping dogs. insects. cartographer. O v e r the centuries. and people. W e have drawn them in m a n u s c r i p t s to explain our genesis and to c o u n t their species into Noah's ark. werewolves. In 19th-century Europe this became a "science. birds." Paranoid newcomers c r a m m e d into swelling industrial cities used handbooks of physiognomy to identify and judge their neighbors. and this very drawing was to endure many copies and plagiarisms after its triumphant return to the English court of Queen Elizabeth I. W h e n lost to explain our own emotions. and silent. and we still see escapees from its pages carved and grinning as the gargoyles of churches. " Animals perpetually feed our imaginations.

the ship was lost. The first live rhinoceros to reach Europe came from India in May 1515. Unsurpassed. It is such a lifelike triumph of imagination and intelligence that for centuries zoologists never questioned its authority. Life-like This is Durer's original quill-and-ink drawing made after an anonymous Portuguese drawing. printmaker. DURER'S RHINOCEROS AND STUBBS'S skeletal Durer. they were rejected. and wrote four books on proportion. Carefully stuffed. inspiring countless works of art and so touching people's imaginations that later. writer. it is still consulted by veterinarians today. the home of ALBRECHT DURER German Renaissance painter. Converted into a print. years after its publication. Meanwhile. Durer traveled widely to study at different European schools of art. when more accurate portrayals were made without armor and scales. Original Ink Drawing of a Rhinoceros 1515 ALBRECHT DURER 103/4 x 161/2 in ( 2 7 4 x 4 2 0 mm) . He in turn sent the mysterious creature to the Pope via Marseilles at the request of the King of France. a gift to the Portuguese King. Stubbs's Anatomy of the Horse achieved similar documentary status. but the drowned animal washed ashore. Sailing to Rome. it continued its journey to Rome. It was to become the animal's only accepted likeness for 250 years. draftsman. naturalist. Contemporary texts related accounts of the beast as the mortal enemy of the elephant and rare relative of the "more common" unicorn. a drawing of it arrived in Nuremberg.26 ANIMALS Documentaries horse are superb affirmations of the power of drawing as a recorder and communicator of knowledge. He studied the image and drew his own interpretation. filled journals with ideas and observations. Durer's image changed eager hands until it was known across Europe. and mathematician.

c o m p r i s e s 1 8 p l a t e s s h o w i n g d i s s e c t i o n s in l a y e r s f r o m b o n e t h r o u g h m u s c u l a t u r e t o skin. Lighting Stubbs's breathtaking international work won immediate There acclaim. He translated his own drawings into engravings for publication. Stubbs w a s o n e o f t h e first E u r o p e a n artists t o m a k e a n a c c u r a t e representation o f the rhinoceros. Anatomy of the Horse. and therefore invented the lighting that Compare how Stubbs and Durer both invented lighting to portray the reality of their animals. Stubbs's m o s t c e l e b r a t e d publication. in t h r e e v i e w s — r e a r f r o n t . Dissections Stubbs took his knife and his pencil and physically climbed inside the horse. a n d anatomist. which has never diminished. composed from notes and observations. L o n d o n .GEORGE STUBBS B r i t i s h e q u i n e a n d s o c i e t y p o r t r a i t painter. knowledge of parts. He composed makes each horse appear so real and each plate from his three-dimensional. a n d s i d e . Table of the III of the Horse (rear Skeleton view) mm) 1756-58 1 4 x 7 in ( 3 5 4 x 1 8 0 GEORGE STUBBS . dissecting and drawing until he understood the mechanisms of its power and grace. The entire project was developed over ten years. is no other work like it. naturalist. His painted p o r t r a i t o f t h e b e a s t is in t h e R o y a l C o l l e g e o f S u r g e o n s o f England. This is one of Stubbs' original finished pencil drawings. Dissections were made over a total of 18 months.

it silently rises to the light. Hugo's page is f l o o d e d w i t h the fearful presence of a remembered octopus. A s if disturbed from its gritty b e d by our presence and curiosity. By contrast. and a love of accident. and turn.. ink and linseed oil on paper. Surrounding sprays of graphite powder are stuck into washes of oil and ink to suggest glutinous depths. Mixed media Here. coal dust. He has w a t c h e d her p o u n c e . Hugo's novels Les Miserables and Dame have become classics of film and stage. the ominous beast unwinds from the dark of the sea and of our nightmares. and leader of the French Romantic movement. drawing her again and again to pin d o w n the texture of her loose skin. charcoal.. more or less what I have in view. and her distinctive temperament. Gericault's sheet a p p e a r s almost s c r a t c h e d b y the f e r o c i o u s play of his cat. H u g o mixed his media and drew from m e m o r y and imagination to create narrative atmosphere. snarl. VICTOR HUGO Poet.".. I've ended up mixing in pencil. sepia. soot. He wrote to poet and art critic Charles-Pierre Baudelaire about his experiments. Apparently drawn in its o w n ink. and all sorts of bizarre concoctions which manage to convey above all in mind. linseed oil soaked into the paper has made shadows and repelled the ink to create translucent tentacles. her sharp teeth. Gericault took a sharp p e n c i l to m a k e repeated direct o b s e r v a t i o n s f r o m life. The octopus is formed in layers applied and distressed with a brush.. The Hunchback of Notre Layers and shadows Throughout this drawing. and Pieuvre 1866-69 91/2 x81/8in (242 x 207 mm) VICTOR H U G O . conjured b y the hand of a great author of French literary fiction. Hugo used graphite powder. her b o n y frame. novelist. drama.28 ANIMALS Presence and Mood THESE DRAWINGS HAVE BEEN CHOSEN to s h o w t w o v e r y different ways of picturing a wild animal. saying ". playwright. His copious drawings are characterized by mixed media.

29 THEODORE GERICAULT C o n t r o v e r s i a l . diagonal strokes of his pencil. H e is best k n o w n f o r his gigantic painting. Paris. Before paper became so cheap. of drawings Gericault erased. standing sideways. facing right. The Raft of the Medusa. Undertraces Beneath these graphite studies we see traces Tones On the top row we see clearly how Gericault laid broad areas of tone using fast. Here. parallel. 144.l i v e d French R o m a n t i c painter and lithographer Largely self-taught. since it can lead to a flattened form. undertraces unify and vitalize the composition. 124-25 and p.118-119). of previous Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 1817-18 121/2 x 151/2 in ( 3 1 9 x 3 9 8 mm) T H E O D O R E GERICAULT . displayed in the Louvre. Beginners are advised to follow the natural contours of form as shown on pp. and keep trying again. s h o r t . artists reused sheets and them full of studies. and it can be applied to any subject (see pp. fiery. horses w e r e a favorite subject t o g e t h e r w i t h politics and history. focused upon seeing will lead to a greater understanding of the subject Much is learned from repeated study. At the center of the page is crammed drawings the outline of a horse. Repeated study This drawing demonstrates of feeling confident repeat different the importance subject Remaining enough to isolate parts of a views. Tones that do not follow surface contour is very difficult to do well.

draftsman. and waves breaking distantly below. In Picasso's drawing. flapping bird. with George Braque (see p90). dissolving faun kneels stranded. printmaker ceramicist graphic and stage designer who lived in France. the first abstract movement of the 20th century. identify an animal: the fast cheetah. Picasso cofounded Cubism. Ink and gouache This drawing is made in black Chinese ink and gouache (opaque watercolor) applied with a brush. flattened animals composed almost entirely of movement. quivering horse. His hand must have shuddered and twitched just like the constant actions of this humorous meeting. the whinnying of a frantic horse. The ink is used to make sharply defined solid. The fact that they never stand still influences the movement in his line. Artists commonly focus on such actions. These media complement and amplify each other with their brilliant contrast. Klee's riders are constructed from all the gestures of greeting mules.30 ANIMALS Movement M O V E M E N T IS OFTEN THE CHARACTERISTIC b y w h i c h w e their lines and the power of their beasts. In these two drawings. taking them to guide their hand in bringing form and essence together. Both Picasso and Klee have enclosed their subjects to compress and amplify the speed of PABLO PICASSO A prolific Spanish painter sculptor. we see semi-abstract. noise is everywhere. Gouache is brushed softly in translucent hazy layers of cool blue. and scrolled lines. hooked. overwhelmed by a screeching bird. Cheval et Oiseau 1936 173/8 x 211/4 in ( 4 4 0 x 5 4 0 m m ) PABLO PICASSO . slow tortoise. His powdery. or proud. gray. and brown. Faune. made only a year apart.

Chicago PAUL KLEE . The entire drawing suggests the endless small movements of horses standing still. W i t h his drawings Kleeb o u n d sophisticated theories to personal and often witty childlike imagery. draftsman. printmaker. creatures. Scene der Komischen of Comical Reiter Riders) (Scene 1935 161/2x111/2in ( 4 1 9 x 2 9 1 mm) M o r t o n G . They remain in contact with the surface of the page and scribble back and forth as they maneuver from one area to another. N e u m a n n Family Collection." They chatter around bodies in groups. well-worn copies o f w h i c h are found in m a n y art schools. He is a u t h o r o f The Thinking Eye (1923). Layers of marks In this pale Dentil drawing we see layers of' agitated marks that together present a kind of visual "itch. violinist. sculptor. top all happily of each other in the Endless lines Look closely at how Klee's lines rarely leave the paper and how they are free from the constraint of finite shape. turning our eye and around inside the and postures of the paper- thin on pictorial space. and t e a c h e r at t h e Bauhaus school.PAUL KLEE Swiss painter.

b a s e d o n his studies o f fish. Exquisite details in this drawing include the lips of the fish. fins. and the carefully observed gills. and from them learned that if he designed his ship with a "cod's head MATTHEW BAKER Master shipwright. Below we see his revolutionary design for an Elizabethan warship. His birds stare. In contrast to the practical clarity of Baker's thought. slim stern). Baker lived in an era when ships were built without drawn plans. He studied the anatomy of fish. drawings of animals that are each held tightly in a surprising space: a giant fish wears a ship's hull. mathematician. The ship The upper decks of the ship appear curved toward us at both ends. it would achieve greater speed. In just one drawing he has displayed more angles of his design than we would expect to see from a single viewpoint Fragments English 1586 101/2 x 153/8 in (270 x 390 mm) MATTHEW BAKER of Ancient Shipwrightry . and blackbirds fly in formation through a mosaic of text. and to assess our next move. and scales. The fish It is likely that Baker drew with a quill dipped in irongall ink. It is simply how we read his perspective. and steerage. and author o f Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (1586). later called a galleon. B a k e r initiated t h e scientific p r a c t i c e o f naval a r c h i t e c t u r e and applied h y d r o d y n a m i c s . seemingly looking for our attention. which in application gave strength and advantage to the English fighting the Spanish Armada. adding washes of color with a fine brush.32 ANIMALS Icon and Design IN THESE T W O MANUSCRIPTS we discover diagrammatic and mackerel's tail" (full bow. plans. the expression of its eye. t h e earliest geometrically defined elevations. This drawing illustrates Baker's theory. and s e c t i o n s o f ships. balance. Baker did not intend this. Knopf's drawing opposite is the personal enigmatic expression of a mind gripped by illness.

appears to be stirred like water by the presence of the The Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks UNDATED 133/8 x 115/8 in (340 x 2 9 6 mm) and psychiatrist Hans Prinzhom collected this image. written last of all. T h e G e r m a n a r t historian Outline and tone The blackbirds illuminating this frantic manuscript are drawn in pencil. circle and the birds. and filled evenly with tone. The main group is placed in a circle drawn with a compass. firmly outlined. JOHANN KNOPF . numbered. The text.JOHANN KNOPF An " O u t s i d e r " a r t i s t w h o s u f f e r e d f r o m m e n t a l illness.K n o p f b e l i e v e d h e c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h e language o f birds. w h i c h o f t e n f e a t u r e as s y m b o l i c creatures in his drawings.

246-47). light it. QUILLS: These are cut from the barrel of a flight or tail feather. ink is traditionally applied with a brush (see pp." "Gum" refers to gum arabic extracted Dip pens are essential and inexpensive drawing tools. expressive drawing techniques such as the ones we explore in this chapter 1. high-quality Chinese and Japanese inks are subtler and more complex than those produced in Europe. Only fill with suitable inks. from the acacia tree. s t i c k s . That is an ink. which scratch rather than draw. spots. producing a different line. The best are goose or swan. Each pen has a unique character. Intricate or dramatic lines. METAL PENS: Inexpensive removable steel nibs are available in a range of widths. you can have great fun drawing the world around you. The paste from either recipe is pressed and dried into a bar for storage. Avoid needle-sharp mapping pens. In the Far East. and spatters can be made with an exotic choice of inks. they are associated with rapid.34 ANIMALS Pen and Ink W I T H A HANDFUL OF FEATHERS. then pour a little warm gum water into it and temper the two together. Early artists recommended raven and crow for especially fine work. Masters choose brands of long. and it is still in use today. the recipes for which have been handed down over centuries. 2. distinguished manufacture. The reservoir gives a constant flow of ink for very long unbroken lines and continuous bottle-free use. where reeds were gathered. simultaneously 4 . The bar is then rubbed into water on a slate block to produce ink. 3. a n d m e t a l p o i n t s . while metal nibs began as rare gifts in gold and silver before being perfected by the British steel industry. Dip pens began their history in the Nile River. The Chinese used animal or fish glue. The Egyptians and Chinese are credited with the invention of carbon ink. F O U N T A I N PENS: These vary in quality and nib width. Today. Quills were later cut from feathers. A German recipe of 1531 gives a simple description: "Take a wax candle. 5 0 0 years ago. Responsive to slight changes in pressure. which range greatly in their handling and character of line. REED PENS: A broad nib can be cut from bamboo or another tubular grass. and hold it under a clean basin until the soot hangs to it. They fit into wooden holders. and first used by the Egyptians. PENS . 4.

and sepia. Excellent for drawing they are bright and non-clogging. Beechwood soot is best. they produce a golden dye for drawing. Crushed. is the ink of a cuttlefish or squid extracted post-mortem. suspended in a binder and stored as a solid block Blocks are imported today 7. iron-gall.36. INKS 9. boiled. Old stock turns solid and bottlesChina. 5. It dries with a sheen and clogs uncleaned pens.G A L L INK: Abnormal spherical growths caused by parasitic wasps can be collected from some oak trees in fall. waterproof or non-waterproof. and sieved. Inks can be lightfast or non-lightfast. I N D I A N INK: Carbon ink sold today in liquid form. Non-waterproof Indian inks can be reworked with a wet brush after drying. dated. and are still in use today: carbon (Chinese and Indian). . roastedwine sediment (Yeast Black). charred bone (Ivory Black). and can be mixed and diluted to create subtler colors and tones. I R O N . The complexities of traditional iron-gall ink are explained on p. bistre. reduced. and most can be homemade. SEPIA A N D BISTRE INKS: Sepia. 8. or charcoal. C A R B O N INK: Traditionally produced from oil or resin soot (Lamp Black). Waterproof types contain shellac. Bistre is the more humane use of soot scraped from the fireplace and ground into wine. an often misused term. Now we also have acrylic ranges in many colors. ACRYLIC / CALLIGRAPHY INKS: Available in black and a range of colors.35 PEN AND INK Four types of ink were common before the 20th century. from are not 6. They are the easiest inks to use.

The darkest of this grasshopper wings) were made (around the head first. galls were ground with iron sulfate to make an unstable solution. U n d e r heavy pressure. I u s e d t h e s e qualities t o d r a w t h e w o r m s above. a n d d e v e l o p e d t h e quill instead. are surprisingly tough. r e s e r v e d t h e i r use f o r large c h o i r b o o k s . Scribes o f t h e M i d d l e Ages. finding reed p e n s unwieldy. T h e y give a finer. The lighter right Quill marks Quills carry more ink than strokes and for as reeds. It also oxidized and ate or burned paper. for example. it was gray-purple. and boiled to make a golden ink. t h e y stick a n d j u d d e r f o r w a r d . appears broken to show paper beneath. reduced. drawn to glisten with a dryer nib. giving longer lines. V a n G o g h . of a loaded nib. m o r e e x t e n d e d line than reed and a m o r e organic line t h a n m e t a l . fleshy skins that surround ripe walnuts. crushed. sieved. Walnut ink is gloopy. d r y mark. Rembrandt. a n d M a t i s s e also e n j o y e d t h e m . always be cautious when experimenting with recipes. 2 4 4 is an e x q u i s i t e e x a m p l e . the blade and cut away from you. red-brown. forming the REED PENS R e e dpens dispense ink quickly. then cut a final nib (feathers.36 ANIMALS Drawing With Ink To MAKE A QUILL OR REED PEN. Oak galls. Paler strokes were made where the mark has the legs and antennae the ink ran out. and turned brown with time. Running fresh. . QUILL PENS Q u i l l s a r e highly r e s p o n s i v e t o c h a n g e s in p r e s s u r e . Reed marks The darker left wing of this beetle was drawn with the wet inky stroke wing. and delicious to draw with. can also be collected from affected trees. It dried black. For centuries. keep all your fingers behind basis of iron-gall ink. Quills are also called D u t c h pens.) You can make ink easily from the boiled. Practice to gain a feel for how materials behave. M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s d r a g o n o n p . since t h e D u t c h w e r e t h e first t o realize t h a t they could be hardened and i m p r o v e d w i t h heat t r e a t m e n t in ash o r sand. Collect skins from the ground beneath trees once they are blackened. Although oak galls and walnut skins are harmless. giving a s h o r t . Some of Michelangelo's drawings are now a little eaten by their own ink.

o r being ruined as fountain pens would be under the same pressure. Each layer of of the drying droplet dome the drawing was left to dry before adding more. . clean strokes. withstanding great pressure without sticking. particles then filled with a droplet of ink. breaking. Loaded with ink and pressed hard. marks become fine and needle-sharp. DRAWING WITH INK Filled outlines Each segment of wing was outlined. it is important to feel for when the ink will run out and to know how much ink you pick up when dipping the nib. The of pigment to fall to the edges effect of the shape. tonal Ink layers The wings of this beetle were drawn in layers using black and white ink on pale gray paper.37 METAL PENS Metal pens give long. W h e n the nib is pressed upside down. White markings were drawn last Tones Here we see subtle tones of diluted ink beneath the undiluted black rim of a beetle's wing. sharp. When using dip pens. they splay to make thick o r double lines. giving a graded.

to absorb blots when drawing. Focus on it. Geese are nosy birds. Posture . Experiment. Try to hold the whole posture in your mind's eye. Quick drawing trains you to see what is most important about a subject and to mark only its most essential expression. It teaches confidence and focus through intensive repetition. and a large drawing book or plenty of paper Use masking tape to secure pages against the wind. Attempt with a loose hand to capture their posture and outline. That said. Illustrating this exercise on Oxford Port Meadow. steel nibs are fine. MATERIALS NEEDED Look for a bird expressing a simple posture. and quickly draw around it using only three or four strokes. be bold and press firmly." If you don't like a stroke. make another one. Take no more than ten seconds to draw each one and make lots of drawings. You cannot break the nib. and be brave. draw what the bird is doing. touch the bottle's rim to drain the excess. not on your drawing. Take a cup and water for diluting a range of tones. Cover your drawing book pages in speedy responses to the geese and try to capture each bird in as few lines as possible.38 ANIMALS Capturing Character GEESE ARE EXCELLENT SUBJECTS to draw when practicing the first use of pen and ink. It happens that goose feathers also provide artists with the best type of quills. so pick a spot where other people can keep them entertained. Study them before drawing. and there is no "wrong. Cover a sheet. and bellyflop off the waterside. and boldly plunge into your drawing. waddle. Dip your pen in ink. I covered eleven sheets in sixty quick drawings—in less than an hour. there is no obligation to prepare a quill. Pack plenty of tissue around a bottle of calligraphy or acrylic ink. test your limits. Watch their heavy feathered bodies flap. Empathize. Focus on the geese.

and diving. draw the feeling of what you see. Use more lines than before to express these. and don't worry about mechanical facts or accuracy. Again. running. look among the birds for more complicated actions such as shaking off water. . flapping. CAPTURING CHARACTER Texture Gradually allow yourself more lines to describe the texture of each bird as well as its posture and action. Avoid detail unless really tempted by a close-up visit Fluctuate the pressure of your pen in response to how you know the bird would feel if you touched it.39 Action With growing confidence.

and personality. and even then he twitched and stretched in dreams." . For this class you will need one oblivious dog. first dip your pen in ink. form. Ras Curled Up Asleep "Capturing the true character of a cherished companion is best achieved with objective determination rather than sentimental shyness. Make a test sheet to discover your control of diluting on the nib.40 ANIMALS Sleeping Dogs R A S WAS A GREAT CHARACTER. This will give a medium-gray line. Then dip the nib quickly into a glass of water and drain the excess again. The only time he remained still was when he was sleeping. and a tissue for blotting drawn lines that appear too dark.34-37). These drawings are not an analysis of his anatomy or breed but the expression of his satisfied comfort in a deep sleep after a night out on the together with a glass of water for diluting tones on the nib. Sleeping animals present the artist with ideal opportunities to study their texture. and drain the excess by touching the nib against the rim of the bottle. MAKING A PALE LINE To make a pale line. Dip the nib quickly again into water and again drain it. a d o g w h o w a s a l w a y s town. your drawing book. a dip pen and ink of your choice (see pp. Now it will make a pale line. engaged in his and everyone else's business.

this time to create a line a little darker in tone. D o not go back over lines you are pleased with—doing so dulls their lively freshness. see how the animal's posture determines its whole shape. . c o n c e r n e d a b o u t detail.It is essential when drawing any subject (even something abstract) to know how it feels andtoemulate this with your line. to emphasize how he is curled up. ignoring all detail. quickly draw what you see. and the shadows in his coat. tail. ears. Here. I added ink to Ras's nose. Remain focused on the whole dog and. Here I marked the features of Ras's head. Then I immediately rebalanced the drawing with lines around his hind quarters. SLEEPING DOGS 1 Fix your eyes at the center of the dog. in bold layers. W i t h pale lies. Layers o f thoughts can bring a drawing alive. To add texture. second thoughts may be different Changing your mind is a positive aspect o f seeing and thinking. Trust your intuition. 2 Reload your pen with ink. First lines are first thoughts. add more detail. Character is better captured drawing quickly with confidence than w o r k i n g slowly. 3 Gradually introduce darker tones.41 DRAWING YOUR DOG Be bold in this exercise. Then. alter the pressure and moisture of your line in response to howyouknow your dog feels when you ruffle itscoat.

Beyond the glass wall of the aquarium.Turtles to observe. A perfect subject for the beginner. THE ELONGATION AND BUOYANCY of a group of turtles is fascinating . as if caught in a camera freeze-frame. swinging their limbs and shells with a slow circular movement. turtles often pause unexpectedly. they stretch and paddle. offering plenty of time for the artist to draw the pose.


balance. I darkened lines as each drawing progressed. I made repeated studies of the housemartin to discover its mechanism of flight. India ink. and sharp. I sought to capture the form. weightlessness of the kiwi. With speed. Beginning with very pale tones. . dry.Dry Birds THESE ARE THE ARTICULATED BONES o f a k i w i a n d a h o u s e - martin drawn in a museum using a steel pen. and water.



the punctuation of space with structure and mass. on which our lives depend. B A S I L I U SBESLER when botanists founded new work upon the direct study of plants. manipulations of light and shade. and the drawn pages ofthesame name. and to ornament our lives. we see very different cultural visions of plants and gardens and use pencils and plants to learn the pictorial values of space. and hybridize them for our sustenance and pleasure. Classifications were set in367copperengravings. and texture.Morethan 1. Rich owners of private gardens commissioned large-format florilegiums commissioned the volume to document his private garden to immortalize their personal taste and power of acquisition. He sent boxes of plants to Nuremburgburned with the urgency and excitement of explaining every plant's form. to the proliferation of floral designs with which we have dressed ourselves and furnished our homes for centuries. PriceBishopof Eichstatt specimens. to catalog our knowledge. season. and focus. where a number of uncredited artistsd r e wthem for Besler.000 species of plants are depicted life-size drawn. infinitely vivid. After Here Aconthus spinosus is combined with forget-me-nots and-a-half centuries of intensive observation. Chapters are arranged by out. Botanic gardens were established and expanded. In this chapter. 1613 187/8x153/4in(480 x 400 mm) BASILIUS BESLER . and diverse kingdom of plants. color. an There are close parallels between the acts of gardening and drawing. as opposed to only herbal. shape. We collect. Plants seventeenth century. nurture. robust.Plants and Gardens W E SHARE THIS PLANET with the more ancient. the microscope was refined to unfold yet another world. form. It was published plain in 1611 and withhand-paintedplates in poured off ships returning from the New World and were eagerly collected and 1613. we now have laid before us fourto show how well their colours complement each other infinite wealth of material to explore. and the Acanthus spinosus constant but exhilarating struggle to make a living image feel right. Conrad von Gemmingen. Early European illustrators were trapped within dogma that was determined by ancient scholarship. We draw them to celebrate their beauty and range. Later. The revolution came in the 1530s. Patrons funded the breeding of decorative. and beauty. Medieval knowledge was not gained by the first-hand observation of life but by reading. Fledgling years Botanist and apothecary who compiled the Hortus Eystettensis of scientific research bore manifold explosions of knowledge in a fever of discovery. Botanical illustration is a precisely defined and scientific art. Both embrace the anticipation of evolving shape. —-the largest and most influential botanical book of the early Natural scientists accompanied explorers to document unknown finds. Plants are the principal inspiration of the decorative arts—from Roman Corinthian columns crowned with carved leaves of the acanthus. From its history there is one overriding lesson to be learned: the importance of looking and seeing with our own eyes.

48 PLANTS AND GARDENS THE SCIENTIFIC VALUE OF A BOTANICAL DRAWING lies i n its Botanical Studies were specimens that often refused to stay still. Light in this drawing is given by the paleness of the paper showing between washes of darker tones. detail. Outline Bauer prepared a pencil outline before laying in fleshy succulent hues and tones of watercolor. Here." Her slipper orchid s h o w s that botanical drawing must often resolve the challenge of its subject's p r o d u c i n g parts in different seasons — r o o t s . and seeds conventionally a p p e a r o n o n e plate. measured drawings. insect-ravaged. o p t i m i s m . They are counted among the most accomplished 18th-century botanical artists. T h e rest of u s are free to d r a w as w e w i s h . The King was then establishing the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. o p e n i n g a n d c l o s i n g i n the w a r m t h a n d light of the studio. M a c k i n t o s h e x p r e s s e s the f o l d e d petals of a broken rose b u d so delicately w e can sense the perfume. Stella Ross-Craig said of the need to d r a w from a dried herbarium plant "I could make it live again. delicate. leaves. flowers. or that were diseased. petal tip over a lower leaf Protea nitida 201/4 x141/4in (513 x 362 mm) FRANZ BAUER 1796 . It is likely Bauer would have studied these under a microscope. fruit. Each plant must b e clearly distinguished from its closest relative. He has made the spatial and physical relationships in this drawing all the more real by placing a single. Dissections Across the lower part of this drawing we can see dissections of seed pods and petals. B e h i n d detailed. W i t h bright F R A N Z BAUER An Austrian artist who trained at the Schonbrunn Imperial Gardens in Vienna. Sir Joseph Banks. stems. subtle union of beauty. and Franz Bauer and his brother Ferdinand were employed there to draw specimens. naturalist explorer and advisor to King George III invited Bauer to London in 1 7 9 0 . Botanical art c o n c e a l s the challenge of its m a k i n g . and meticulous precision. and wilted. s u c h as w e see here in Bauer's Protea nitida.

000 Kew to archive accessible t o d a y v i a t h e I n t e r n e t of o n British flora. is r e c o g n i z e d as tne m o s t c o m p l e t e a n d i m p o r t a n t work 3. H e r Drawings of British Plants. K e w .g a r d e in G e r m a n y a n d A u s t r i a . and observation the nuance and contour of every in one image. found among Mackintosh's than reality. a m o n g o t h e r s . L o n d o n in 1 9 2 9 . BOTANICAL STUDIES Lines and shadows This lush. Rose 1894 103/4 x 83/4 in ( 2 7 5 x 2 2 1 mm) CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH STELLA ROSS-CRAIG A j o i n e d t h e staff a t t h e R o y a l B o t a n i c G a r d e n s . a n d f o u n d e r o f t h e G l a s g o w S c h o o l o f A r t M a c k i n t o s h ' s flair h a d an e n o r m o u s i n f l u e n c e o n t h e a v a n t . sensual pencil drawing is later works. Ross-Craig said of her work "Plants that wither rapidly present a very difficult problem to which there is only one answer—speed. a n d he inspired. and follow shadow. it is small and discreet.286 studies for her book Drawings of British Plants. and perfect coordination of hand and eye. Pencil lines cling to.7 3 in 3 1 p a r t s .. as at trained botanical artist Ross-Craig Swift lines The drawing was planned in pencil and then overworked with a lithographic pen. p u b l i s h e d 1 9 4 8 . 1970 x 81/4 in ( 3 2 5 x 2 1 0 m m ) STELLA ROSS-CRAIG . and speed depends upon the immediate perception of the essential characteristics of the plant. A s m a n y of her drawings are kept G a r d e n s . Closer to fiction can come together perfectly. imagination.49 C H A R L E S RENNIE MACKINTOSH Scottish a r c h i t e c t d e s i g n e r painter. Curtis's Botanical Magazine. S h e also o f thousands o f contributed an drawings.." This line drawing is one of 1. Line Drawing of Cypripedium calceolus L c. G u s t a v K l i m t In his r e t i r e m e n t Mackintosh m a d e n u m e r o u s inventive pencil a n d w a t e r c o l o r d r a w i n g s o f plants. and it shows how design.

Babur directs his gardeners in the design and planting of this quartered chahar bagh. 1590 85/8 x55/8in (219 x 1 4 4 mm) BISHNDAS AND NANHA Bright pigment These pages were illuminated by Mughal artists in the late 16th century. is remembered in the pages of his journal. and calligraphy are brought together to hold the sacred names of prophets and the 99 beautiful names of God. roses took their form in a bead of perspiration on the brow of Mohammed as he passed through his heavenly journey. Upright shallow perspectives. anticipating their view. a notable portrait painter drew the faces. The first Mughal Emperor Babur's Garden of Fidelity (Bagh-e Vaja). Drawing. and Nanha. Envoys chatter outside the gate. urgent attentive human activity. Afghanistan. in the early 16th century. uniform focus. in miniature. Opposite is the Rose of Mohammed. Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity c. the sumptuous petals permeated with prayer and wisdom. and attention to detail are all shared with medieval European manuscript drawings. They used a fine brush to lay pigment over a line drawing. Every fiber of AMONG DRAWINGS FROM BISHNDAS A N D N A N H A Little is known of these Mughal painters who were related as uncle and nephew and commissioned to illustrate the pages of Babur's journal.50 PLANTS AND GARDENS Jeweled Gardens the Middle East we find exquisite stylization of form and upright formality in pictorial space. Bishndas was probably responsible for the overall design. which he personally created near Kabul. paper is brimming with the beauty and celebration of nature. and miraculous growth. Below. fluctuations in scale. painting. . The white of the page shines through the brilliant color. By Muslim tradition.

Note how each bud is essentially the same shape. However. so that overlapping petals and stems give an impression of fulfillment and abundance. Sacred words The central rose is more solid than any other on the page. and how the shape has been repeated freehand. The Rose of Mohammed 1708 9 1 / 2 x 61/2 in ( 2 4 0 x 1 6 5 mm) FROM THE TURKISH M A N U S C R I P T AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH . look closely and you will see words written in gold fluttering over the form of the flower. fragmenting its detail in a whisper of prayers. Stylized motif A fine brush has been used throughout this drawing to apply inks and watercolors. G e r m a n y . t h e Staatsbibliothek zu Arabic.AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH This is a detail o f a page from a n 1 8 t h .c e n t u r y Turkish manuscnpt a book of religious e t h i c s w r i t t e n in the O r i e n t a l C o l l e c t i o n s of Berlin. It is n o w k e p t in Border The elegant border of this drawing was mode with a pen and ruler It cleverly compresses and defines the composition. The physical anatomy of the rosebud has been studied and translated into a repeated stylized motif.



Fast Trees
IN CONTRAST TO THE QUIET, formal detail of other drawings in this chapter, these powerful fast trees enact the actions of plants. Each tree reaches out and holds its landscape with dynamism and pulse. In both drawings we find testament to the inexorable energy of growth. Rembrandt expresses a delicate quickness. Gentle lines draw a warm breeze through this remote wooded garden. Rustling in a loose foliage of soft marks, his pen evokes the weight of abundant activity on this late summer's day. Mondrian's arch of scratching branches is drawn with such force it will always be alive. We can still feel his hand storming across the paper. Set within a frame of smudged landscape, the tree possesses a musical agitation. This characteristic will increase in the artist's later abstract work. Here, we see a punctuated ordering of space. Sharp branches cut out negative shapes of winter sky.

R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter; etcher; and draftsman. Rembrandt's prolific output comprises oil paintings of historical and religious subjects together with group and self- portraits. His emotive etchings and pen and ink drawings (see also p. 174) are great resources for artists learning to understand the potential of these media.


Pen and ink lines describing foliage also tell

us the directions of sunlight and wind. An arc crossing the bottom of the drawing from one side to the other supports the scene and separates us from the landscape beyond. Compare Rembrandt's arc to that of Mondrian's. and note the similar treatment of low horizons in both works emphasizing the height and dominance of trees.

Cottage Among Trees 1648-50 63/4 x121/8in ( I 7 I x 308 mm) R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN





Atmosphere Here we see how shapes of negative space are as important as the physical subject they enclose (see pp.58-59). Mondrian has again lightly dragged his chalk on its side to evoke a wet depth of atmosphere. These passive gray marks contrast with the assertive tension of the tree.

Dutch Pure abstract painter preoccupied w i t h line and plane relationships. W i t h increasing austerity, Mondrian banished t h e subject from his drawings, in his later w o r k he also banished space, composing visual h a r m o n i e s using only straight lines a n d flat planes o f black, w h i t e , gray, o r p r i m a r y color.

Winter ground Short vertical marks along thebottomof this drawing reveal the length oftheblackchalk Mondrian used. Rubbed onitsside,itroughly blocks in the ground. Thecrudeeconomy of line is all we need tofeelthecold, wet, unwelcoming quality ofthiswinterearth.

Branches and trunk Lines shaping the branches of the tree are built up in layers. To make the trunk more dense, the artist has rubbed and smudged preliminary marks with his fingers before firmly overdrawing with new lines. Solid black lines are achieved by pressing the chalk hard. When used lightly, it shows the texture of the paper. Tree: Study for the Grey 1911 23 x 335/8 in ( 5 8 4 x 8 5 5 m m ) Tree




Graphite and Erasers

This drawing illustrates a range of achieved with graphite pencils of different grades.


Modern pencils are graded from 9H (hard and pale) to 9B (black and soft). Graphiteclay sticks are also available, together with a powder form. All possess a natural sheen and are erasable to a varying degree. Graphite drawings smudge easily, so fixative, a form of varnish, can be used to hold a drawn surface in place. It is applied as a fine mist from an aerosol can, or from a bottle using a diffuser. For the beginner, ordinary hairspray is an effective and cheaper alternative.

(to write), is a soft and brittle carbon. It was first mined in Cumbria, England, in 1 5 6 4 , and was initially used in small, pure pieces bound in lengths of string. Pencils as we know them—with their slender wood casing and "lead" of graphite—were invented in France in 1794 by Nicolas-Jaques Conte. He discovered that milled graphite mixed with clay and water, press-molded, and baked to a high temperature produces a harder and paler medium than graphite alone.

3B pencil A range of mark and textures can be achieved with a 3B pencil when you vary its pressure, speed, and direction, as this detail shows.

Here is a selection of 14 items to illustrate a basic range of pencils, graphite sticks, sharpeners, erasers, and fixative.
1. AND 2. HB AND 3B PENCILS: It is unnecessary to possess every grade of pencil. HB, the central and most common grade, is perfect for making delicate lines. 3B gives a blacker tone. A great variety of effects can be achieved with just these two. 3. WATER-SOLUBLE PENCIL Effective for atmospheric drawing, but be aware of how watery tones can dull the impact of the line. 4. AND 5. MECHANICAL PENCIL Thick or fine leads are made in a range of grades. They are particularly useful because they do not require a sharpener 6. ROUND SOLID GRAPHITE PENCIL: Excellent for large-scale drawing, producing thick bold lines. A range of grades can be honed with a craft knife or sharpener 7. THICK GRAPHITE STICK: For large-scale drawing. Graded soft, medium, and hard. It crushes to produce graphite powder 8. SQUARE GRAPHITE STICK: Useful for making broad, sweeping marks in large-scale drawing. If worn and rounded, the stick can be snapped into pieces to regain the sharp, square end. 9. CRAFT KNIFE AND BLADES: Handles are sold in two sizes to fit large or small blades, and blades are sold in a range of shapes. Perfect for sharpening pencils to a long point, to cut lines in paper or to remove areas. 10. PENCIL SHARPENER: Makes a uniform point. Keep one in your pocket for drawing outside the studio, together with an envelope for shavings.

HB and 5B Layers of tone have been built up withHBand5Bpencils. Softer pencils require less pressure to make a mark, revealing the texture of the paper surface. It is important to keep the point of the pencil sharp with either a craft knife or a sharpener.


Erasers can be used t o blend and s o f t e n lines, o r t o r e m o v e altogether. Fixative them prevents


s m u d g i n g a n d s e c u r e s lines.

Using fixative You can use fixative while drawing to hold the definition of lines you wish to gently fade but not remove entirely, for which you would use an eraser.

11. P L A S T I C E R A S E R : Avoid cheap colored erasers that may stain drawings with grease and dye. White brands are available in soft and hard versions.



W a r m it in your hand before use. It is excellent for removing powdery materials, and for making crisp sweeps of light across a delicate pencil drawing

13. D I F F U S E R : Helleborus corsicus (Corsican hellebore) fixative, or to spray mists of ink.



Cropping and Composition
M A N Y STUDENTS WILL START a d r a w i n g i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e

that its skin nearly touches the boundary. The meaning of the same drawing changes simply by its relationship to the space it occupies. The size of any subject, its placement on the page, the size of the page, and its overall proportion are all discrete and essential aspects of successful picture-making. Before you begin to draw, think carefully about where to place your subject. Are you are happy with your paper? If not, change it; add more, take some away, or turn it around. Do not just accept what you are given, adapt it to what you need.

paper. Focused on the shape and detail of their subject, they remain happily unaware that there is, or should be, any relationship between what they are drawing and the surface they are drawing it on. The paper is only paper, and the troublesome subject floats somewhere in the expanse of it. However, a single fig drawn in the middle of a large, empty square of paper gives quite a different impression from the same fig drawn on such an intimately small square


A Single Fig

"The size, shape, and orientation of the paper are so integral to the composition that they determine the impact and meaning of the drawing."

a device to help you decide what t o draw. U s e it as a starting point. its stem and shadow framing a white center. Here the left fig is attached to. A card with a small rectangle cut out o f it makes a useful viewfinder C l o s e o n e e y e t o look through the hole. the uppermost edge of the drawing. they establish a tension and unity with the paper. Space as the subject Inallpictures. and lines describing shadows cast by the fruit . t h e n m o v e t h e c a r d t o e x p l o r e different views. as also shown here. The angle of the fruit together with dark shadow (top left) and bright light(bottom right) suggest a diagonal division across the whole drawing. CROPPING AND COMPOSITION Off-center and diagonal Here I held my viewfinder so the fig appeared upper-left in the space.O u r focus is on the white cloth supporting the figs. its illumination. running corner t o corner. spaces between things are as important as the things themselves. bottom-left t o top-right. This drawing hasbeencropped to emphasize space between thefruit.57 THE VIEWFINDER T h e s e pencil drawings o f figs d e m o n s t r a t e different crops and compositions. and therefore apparently suspended from. When subjects touch two or more edges. Touching the edge When the subject o f a drawing touches one edge of the paper it attaches t o it visually.

It is an astonishingly simple device that many artists use and I strongly recommend. erasing and adjusting lines until itlooked right. but if the artist does. In your own version. then added a second shape. do we see myriad distinct and unique shapes of daylight or do we just see branches? Why as artists should we look at the air? Every space in a picture has a shape.The box opposite isolates an area. rather than what you see in front of you. It helps to start at the center and map outward. and a fresh page in your drawing book. Negative space is the simple key to getting positive shape right. tone.58 PLANTS AND GARDENS Negative Space UNCONSCIOUSLY WE ASSESS spatial relationships all the time to guide ourselves through the world. shapes of air cut out and defined by the physicality of our environment? When we look into the branches of a tree. unified. fourth. third. In following this class. The drawing opposite is of the uppermost leaves of a potted fig tree. remember to draw only space. Follow these from left to right and see how I began with one complete shape between two parts of a leaf. their subject and composition will become more real. Unfamiliar shapes of negative space reveal the real shape of a positive subject. But how often do we look at the air between things. Viewers appreciating a finished image may not see shapes of space. which is shown in the three steps below. Remember that plants do move! Therefore it is best to complete your drawing in one sitting if possible. Draw a complete shape Map outward from the center Erase and adjust lines until correct . position. not leaves. Looking at negative space overrides the problem of drawing what you know. WHERE TO START Arrange your plant and paper so you can look back and forth by barely moving your head. and engaging. this ensures a consistent view. dynamic. and a role to play. a foundation stone in picture-making. a sharp H B pencil. and so on. you will need a similar large-leaved plant. an eraser.


Here I drew only spaces, adding one to another until the leaves were revealed. Besides looking at negative space, there are two other useful things to do when a drawing feels wrong but you cannot see why: look at it in a mirror or turn it upside down. errors and suggest changes.

Spaces between leaves

Either view will


Fig Tree
WALKING IN THE ALPUJARRAS in A n d a l u c i a ,

Spain, I drew a bare fig tree clinging to the wall of an almond grove; a perfect subject for seeing negative space. I marked its essential frame of large branches first, frequently erasing lines and changing my mind until the balance felt right.

S a l v i a , RIBES, CLEMATIS, Allium, Passiflora, and Acanthus

Summer Flowers


drawn with an H pencil by observing the

negative spaces between the stems, petals, and leaves. I arranged the flowers on a sheet of paper in a cool r o o m and rapidly sketched a composition. Then I put them in water, taking the stems out one at a time to draw.


We never see everything at once.Acanthus Spinosus As we LOOK AROUND. they emulate our experience of seeing. Excessive detail leaves no space for the eye to rest or imagination to wander. interfolding points of detail with areas of loose suggestion. . If an artist changes the pace of their line and focus of their attention. our eyes travel and adjust from one point of focus to another. Compare changes of pace and focus here to the flatter finish of Summer Flowers (see pp. 62-63). gathering less distinct information on the way.


philosophers. add and subtract ideas. Yet the pursuit of divine proportion and harmony remains. Architects have been fine-tuning their specialized branch of drawing for centuries. Since Picasso and Braque's revolution of Cubism in around 1907. composers.The church is still in use today. architects and designers can imaginatively "climb inside" three-dimensional space and. the formula for perfection spread through Europe. It is the focus of practical class in this chapter. European conventions of pictorial perspective have lost their monopoly on seeing. At the core of their practice. balance. with gray and brown watercolor wash. Among the drawings of this chapter we look from 17th-century ecclesiastical calm." reflecting the eye's love of unity in difference. Since the first flowering of Modernism in the early 20th century. each VICTOR BALTARD .This is a pencil drawing. invaluable to understand and apply when you choose. VICTOR BALTARD French architect employed by the city of Paris. mass. and writers have been breaking away from traditional forms of representation to seek new expressions of shape. Through the animation of the screen. to help them create new form. Linear perspective is a marvelous device. Augustin. once there. Besides sketches of first thoughts and polished drawings of the finished look for clients. space. architects. Computer programs allow the virtual drawing of ideas. of the west facade of St Augustin.Architecture I N THE CONTEMPORARY PRACTICES of architecture. to 20th-century film fantasy. fine artists. which can be clearly seen in ancient Greek architecture. the device that has since governed most of our picture-making (sec pp. made by the architect himself. coupled with the importance of exercizing your imagination. they have the Golden Section. designers. It was also during the Renaissance that the architect Brunelleschi invented linear perspective. 74-75). and from West Facade of the Church of St Augustin. drawing plans around themselves within a program as opposed to on a flat sheet of paper. from political commentary to musical abstraction. This harmony. filmmakers. they also have a diagrammatic language for communicating plans to builders. and in the 19th century it was given the name the Golden Section. film-set design. Paris 1871-74 the child's view to the infinity of the vanishing point. It was the mathematicians. and architects of ancient Greece who first pursued the formula for "divine proportion. we find the most recent steps in the evolution of graphic language. and sound. time. Baltard designed the Church of St. Perhaps in the sheer planes of some of our greatest modern buildings it is finding its clearest expression. which was the first church in the capital to be built entirely of metal and then clad in stone. and computer game imaging. was preserved into the Renaissance where it became a foundation stone for thinking and creativity From 15thcentury Italy.

The photograph opposite shows his studio hung with metal pendulums. We see the modeled detail of Corinthian columns. structure. Finished surface On the left the finished surface of the building is given depth and emphasis by immaculate vertical and horizontal brush strokes of shadow. and an inscribed entablature. St Paul's Baptistry c. Architects draw for many reasons: to visualize ideas. 1711-12 NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR . Cut-away interior On the right a section cut through the center of the building reveals material thicknesses. marks the end of a long journey from the first few marks the architect made on a sheet of paper. and later an assistant to Vanbrugh. Blenheim Palace. and labor. evoke presence. Pillars and floor At the base of the drawing a compass-drawn plan tilted downward through 90 degrees illustrates the arrangement of pillars around a central circular floor. Gaudi's fluid architecture grew up through many kinds of drawing. Lines define structure while washes suggest light and atmosphere. Hampton Court Palace. relative levels. and Castle Howard. Together they explain how interior structure and space define exterior form and shape. calculate function. Below it. Drawings underpin every great human-made structure like hidden linear ghosts at their core. NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR One of Britain's "three great" Baroque architects (along with Sir Christopher Wren and Sir John Vanbrugh). and ultimately to show builders what to do. a three-dimensional drawing made with wires and weights. Hawksmoor established his reputation with university and church architecture including All Souls College.68 ARCHITECTURE Master Builders EVERY NEW BUILDING. Hawksmoor's drawing is both a plan and an evocation. densely layered lines in mists of color weave the presence of the expected building into shape. pilasters. Oxford. A student of Wren's. he also worked on St Paul's Cathedral. Three aspects This subtle and sophisticated drawing made in pen and wash displays three distinct aspects of Hawksmoor's baptistry. embodying a massive investment of ideas. and six London churches. and balance. and the shapes of interior domes and apses. describe a finished look to a client. materials. testing gravity to calculate the inverted shapes of domes.

Gaudi air than on paper. To the right isawatercolordrawing thought to havebeenmade over a photograph ofthemodelabove. light. unique organic manipulation of high shapes. Guell Crypt of its at the Time Construction c. and apartment homes are distinguished by their Their and Flowering curves of stone or concrete are often encrusted with Gaudi was inspired by medieval and oriental art.69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt c. 1900 ANTONIO GAUDI ANTONIO GAUDI Visionary Catalan architect. This sculptural drawingenvisionsthe finished crypt glowingandethereal as if caught in thelightof red morning sun. embellishment. The Art Nouveau movement. Wire and watercolor three-dimensional preferred to calculate Above is a drawing form in the made withlinkedwires and weights. Gaudi's cathedral in Barcelona. churches. 1910 24x181/4( 6 1 0 x 4 7 5mm) A N T O N I O GAUDI . and his love of music.

Libeskind studied music before transferring to architecture. and the spaces between his windows and turrets are the visual equivalent of pauses in h i s m u s i c c o m p o s i t i o n s for p i a n o (see also Bussotti. upright pictorial space. corridors. and in a sense hear. Libeskind begins quietly in the upper space of his drawing. and rooms. Floor plan This drawing has been made with a rapidograph. Floor space appears divided by discernible walls. He also produces urban and landscape designs. such a rapport in both of these drawings. Both men used rulers and pens to carefully and slowly construct their compositions. short curved poles. Contemporary musicians commonly collaborate with artists by interpreting images as sound. Satie draws quietly throughout. and dotted lines.223). We can imagine how a musician might interpret this drawing by looking at the abstract visual rhythms of masses composed of long straight poles. p. theater sets. been a natural affinity between the visual rhythms of pictures and the audible rhythms of music. before cascading into a riot of line and sound below. He also contributed to plans for the rebuilding of the World Trade Center site in New York. The architect and musician Daniel Libeskind has drawn a stampeding cacophany of airborne architectural detail. flat boards. There has always DANIEL LIBESKIND A Polish American architect of international acclaim.70 ARCHITECTURE The Order of Sound B O T H OF THESE VISIONARY DRAWINGS o c c u p y a s l e n d e r . Across the top and center right of the image w e perceive an almost recognizable architectural plan. a refillable pen that feeds a constant supply of ink through a fine tubular nib. while the composer Erik Satie has made an enclosure of quiet order and grace. Arctic Flowers 1980 DANIEL LIBESKIND . We can see. Libeskind's numerous commissions include concert halls and museums. installations. and exhibitions of his drawings. Visual rhythms In the lower half of this drawing architectural language has broken loose: escaped and transformed into an image of rebellious pleasure. and arched dotted lines depict the radius of doors.

andfouredges of the paper tothecompositionand impact animage. the perimeter Composition Look how well this drawingfitsand resonates with the upright. H e p e r f o r m e d in cabarets. Compare the even and and the shape wall to the elegantly stylized order of the many windows of arrangement of details and the shape of the wall in Babur's Garden of Fidelity on p. and founded his o w n church. o f which he was the sole m e m b e r Parcel paper Satie has drawn this fantasy hotel using a ruler. a n d ballet. 1 8 9 3 77/8 x 51/2 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 4 0 mm) ERIK SATIE . and ink on a fragment folded brown paper—a of everyday happened material of scrap that to be at hand. effectively additional lines in a work. Satie collaborated w i t h hisfriends J e a n C o c t e a u a n d P i c a s s o . lived a l o n e . Eastern influence The upright image Eastern is reminiscent and medieval of Middle pictorial space and subject of this European drawing. They definespaceand pictorial balance.ERIK SATIE F r e n c h pianist and c o m p o s e r for t h e piano.Edges are how are of orientation. minimalist s c o r e s scandalized a u d i e n c e s with o r c h e s t r a t i o n s f o r t h e foghorn and typewriter. dressed eccentrically. Hotel de la Suzonnieres c.narrowshape of its paper.56—57 we discussed important the shape.H i s witty. theater. a conventional dip or fountain pen.50. Onpp.

spheres. Newton's Cenotaph 1784 153/4 x 25 in ( 4 0 2 x 635 m m ) ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE . enter the long-shadowed architecture of imaginary worlds. the ominous globe exists only as a series of drawings. His celebrated imaginary buildings are characterized by pyramids. We glide over exquisitely drawn wastelands of damage and abandonment. painter.96. Within it. Boullee lived in Paris. made in 1926. Boullee's monolithic apparition was drawn as a monument to Sir Isaac Newton. This is the work of an architectural theoretician. we find other Utopian visions Paul Nobles epic drawing summons an imperfect and disturbing township where ruin and activity are equal and strange. Art director Erich Kettlehut's vertiginous design for the city of a slavelike populace had a future influence on movies such as Blade Runner. Light illusions This pen-and-wash drawing shows a subtle application of the principles of illumination demonstrated with an egg on p. arched vaults. experiencing a fascinating conflict between curiosity and desolation. ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE French architectural theorist. and the reverse is true on the right.The lower-left section of the building appears relatively pale against a darker sky. This shift makes the cenotaph appear three-dimensional. cylinders. and dramatic lighting. and draftsman.72 ARCHITECTURE T H E S E T H R E E HIGHLY DETAILED DRAWINGS Future Fictions invite us to soaring above normal life. and taught at t h e A c a d e m i e d'Architecture. Among preparations for Fritz Langs film Metropolis. antlike mortals might have speculated upon the universe.

Building shapes are works can be read as text. FUTURE FICTIONS Brush and ink This is a dramatic drawing from a film that shaped the history of world cinema. and white ink on brown-gray paper. 1926 ERICH KETTLEHUT PAUL N O B L E British c o n t e m p o r a r y artist who creates m o n u m e n t a l . Kettlehut drew using a fine and relatively dry brush dipped in black.m a k e r In t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f Metropolis. Nobson political visions of humanity Newtown. architecture. and m o d e l . mythology. Kettlehut and his c o .a r t director O t t o Hunte. gray. Nobson Central 9 ft 1 0 in x 1 3 f t 2 in (3 x 4 m ) PAUL N O B L E 1998-99 . together with c i n e m a t o g r a p h e r Karl Freund. intensely detailed graphite drawings explaining and questioning t h e geography. used forced perspective camera t e c h n i q u e s t o amplify t h e m a g n i t u d e o f buildings in relation t o human characters.73 ERICH KETTLEHUT Influential film a r t director. and morality o f an invented place called His satires exhibited w o r l d w i d e . Working on toned paper such as this gives an artist greater scope for dramatic lighting effects than if they work on white paper. Fritz Lang's Metropolis c. and are Graphite shapes Nobson Central isoneof a series of very large graphite drawings of the spoil and detritus of Nobson Newtown. Its sheerscaleengulfs the viewer and demands based time and patience to on letters and in some beread. draftsman.

Invented by Italian artist and architect Brunelleschi in 1413 (late in the history of art). Piranesi an example of two. Sometimes shared with Naive artists. and inventions— essential reading for inquiring minds. It can be applied to any subject. observations. found at the center of all converging lines. Leonardo recorded constant streams of ideas. this perspective is often an imagined bird's-eye view in which details are mapped according to logic and importance rather than how they might appear in real life. and thinkers ever to have lived. and age eight. All forms of perspective are of equal value. LEONARDO DA VINCI One of the greatest artists. Press the pin into Leonardo's vanishing point. We use it to structure illusions of depth. Note how architectural features conform to lines and how human figures diminish in size toward thevanishingpoint. I contribute the child's perspective. 206-07). but is most easily seen and understood in pictures of buildings and interiors. Here Leonardo provides a superb example of a single vanishing point. Study of Perspective Adoration of the for the Magi 1481 61/2 x111/2in (165 x 290 mm) LEONARDO DA VINCI .74 ARCHITECTURE Pathways of Sight LINEAR PERSPECTIVE (also called vanishing-point perspective) is a simple device for calculating the relative size of things in pictorial space. inventors. Pull the thread taut and rotate it slowly above the drawing. and those of Naive artists and children. It is also distinguished from aerial perspective (see pp. Single-point perspective Tie a thread to a pin. scientists. In his notebooks. See how the thread corresponds to each converging line. linear perspective is distinct from more ancient systems practiced in the East.

Breamore Village. issues of scale when making room for important their story. New Forest. including all they recall about the subject. at the top of each lateral column base. Mark these points with your pin and follow the converging lines of the drawing by rotating your thread. It shows how children usually map large scenes in flat layers one above the other. and theoretical writing strongly influenced neoclassicism. Scale Our farmhouse my experience was in the woods. Note the rather large rabbits and pheasants the hills. which I saw from home every day. 1740 5 1 / 2 x 83/8 in (141 x 212 mm) G I O V A N N I B A T T I S T A PIRANESI points are located on either side of the drawing. Two-point perspective Sunlight through this colonnade a great example of two-point perspective. a points in logical narrative of memories. architect. This drawing Young children typically maps ignore on and understanding of the nearby village. England 1980 9 x 16 in (228 x 405 mm) S A R A H SIMBLET GIOVANNI BATTISTA PIRANESI Italian artist. visionary and practical understanding of ancient Rome. Lightly marked illuminates vanishing Two Courtyards c. Children are uninhibited and problems with one element being obscured by another rarely arise.SARAH SIMBLET I made this drawing (at age 8) in response to a local bookstore's request for children to draw their village. . and designer Piranesi's prolific architectural drawings.

) . 2 3 corners must each touch a dotted line. You have completed your first box. draw a horizon line across your paper Mark a spot on the horizon line. corresponding to a single vanishing point. DRAWING BOXES 1 Using a ruler and a sharp HB pencil. Draw each step over the preceding one to build up a single image. On the previous page we looked at its essential mechanism through drawings by Leonardo and Piranesi. Draw four dotted lines radiating out from the vanishing point. Piranesi planned his drawing with only the essential lines needed. you will amplify the illusion of distance. Leonardo began with a grid of many lines within which he invented his scene. try composing your own space. This lesson shows you how to make a simple illusion of space defined by two boxes and three flat boards. this is your vanishing point. using a sharp HB pencil and ruler. discovering the image as it progressed. In contrast. imagine. Erase the dotted construction lines. Each line should pass through one corner of the rectangle. Surround the vanishing point with a small rectangle. Note that if you place large structures in the foreground and smaller ones closer to your vanishing point. Extend each dotted line to the edge of your drawing.98 for an important note on oscillation.76 ARCHITECTURE Single-Point Perspective MASTERING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE i s e a s i e r t h a n y o u m a y First read through. This ensures that the second rectangle aligns with the shape and 4 Draw four short lines to connect the four corners of the two rectangles. then follow the ten steps below. Next. (See p. This is where we will begin. Study these pages first before embarking on this lesson.

Note that this does not surround the vanishing point In the future. when inventing your own compositions.77 SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE 5 Draw a new rectangle. you can place rectangles anywhere youwishin relation to a vanishing point. draw four dotted lines radiating from your vanishing point Pass these through each comer of the new rectangle. larger rectangle. with two dotted lines. draw a second. bottom. 1 0 Erase all ofthedottedlinestoseeyourfinishedboxes Thickeningtheiredges.willhelptomake them appear more solid. 8 Complete the second box with short lines as in step 4. N e x t draw a slanting line to mark the height of the first flat board. . Connect this to the vanishing point— again. the closer it will appear to the viewer. Repeat this to add two more boards to the composition. andfarside of this first board. 7 As in step 3. The four comers must each touch a dotted line to be sureitaligns with the first. The larger you make your second rectangle. and erase the dotted lines. 9 Use dotted lines connecting the slanting linetothe vanishing point to locate the top. Continue the dotted lines out toward the edge of your drawing. The board's sides should be parallel.asIhavedonehere. 6 As in step 2.

I always start with a script but I don't follow it all the way through to the end. Linear perspective will support y o u by providing a frame in which to b u i l d your picture as it did for Leonardo. w h e t h e r it is a film or a painting. p . It highlights the importance of having faith in your imagination and trusting your ability to invent. then let the space suggest its c o n t e n t s and purpose. The m i s t a k e n belief that we s h o u l d k n o w exactly what o u r finished drawings will l o o k like before we m a k e t h e m prevents many people from ever starting. you will find white adhesive stationery labels are useful for covering errors or changing the direction of your idea. Then follow the three given steps. 7 4 ) . artist and film director. Every work talks In this class. A lot more happens when you open yourself up to the work and let yourself act and react to it." ." imaginary room. As David Lynch. draw a b o x as shown opposite. it is interaction that makes the work richer. APPLYING PERSPECTIVE An Imagined Scaffold "Enjoy your illusion as you make it and it will become more real. once said: "I never end up with what I set out to do. O n a fresh page in your d r a w i n g b o o k . it will take you places you never dreamed of. let simple lines suggest a simple space.78 ARCHITECTURE Creating an Imaginary Space T H I S CLASS USES SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE t o c r e a t e a s i m p l e to you and if you listen to it. If using a fibertip pen as I have done for this drawing.

3 Remove the construction lines with an eraser and the room will becomeclearer. CREATING AN IMAGINARY SPACE 1First.drawthehorizonlineand vanishingpoint. . and floors and ceilings also converge and rise o r lower toward the horizon. The space has become more solid and real. parallel planes such as walls converge toward the vanishing point.There is great pleasure tobefoundin spending time inventing interiors. With some practice. horizontal.79 DRAWING A SIMPLE ROOM Essentials t o remember: objects and people dimmish in size as they move farther away. This initial space will be transparent and open to change.Addanarray of converging lines to provide a "scaffold" for vertical. 2 first before adding furniture. Here. you will beableto draw more complex objects orpeoplewithin them. and leaning surfaces. additional lines have established the different surfaces and how they relate to each other.

The boxes drawn here are seen partly or entirely disassociated from a horizon line drawn across the bottom of the image. they can be placed anywhere inspaceto describe the perspective of flyi c tilted objects. o r to the h o r i z o n . Elaborations .80 ARCHITECTURE Further Aspects of Perspective W E ARE ACCUSTOMED TO SEEING our e n v i r o n m e n t from a relatively constant point of view. That is where we e to find them. T h i s is d e m o n s t r a t e d immediately below. Further aspects of three-point perspective are also illustrated opposite. To draw such a view APPLICATION Copy these drawings to see and feel how they work before inventing your own versions. a n d this is how we have drawn them so far (see pp. They could be drawn on any scale from miniature to monumental. Vanishing points are commonly found on horizon—our eye level. our eye level is very high and we look down. T h i n k of standing at the top of a skyscraper and imagine h o w its parallel sides would appear to converge below you. or low and we look u p . 76-79). Here. These elaborations could continue indefinitely across a sheet of paper in pursuit of complex and intricate ideas.p o i n t perspective ( s h o w n opposite top). Copying what you see in the work of others will help you to understand what they have done. From our normal eye level. I have elaborated on the simple boxes above. Potentially. do verticals appear inclined. Free vanishing points On paper we can enjoy the freedom of fantastic structural invention without limitations of solid materials or gravity. showing y o u h o w to draw curved surfaces and a tiled floor. It is important to realize that you can have as many vanishing points as you wish. located anywhere inside or outside the pictorial space. but they are not confined to this level. T h e y d o n o t have to relate to each other. Only when y o u might employ t h r e e . Search for the application of these perspectives among works by other artists in this book and in galleries. verticals appear p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the g r o u n d .

Three-point checkered floor This d bottom floor. you will see how. An array of curved lines (drawn freehand) link the two lateral points. tostraightlines can amplify drama in a picture.75. Giving curvature. by adding a third point you can achieve a sense of incline.Finally.Istarted with two parallel lines.I added horizontal lines t o define the tiles. I then drew three fanned groups of lines connecting each of the three points above to the seven points below. I marked the toplinewith three evenly spaced points and the line with seven. and therefore tension. (Turn the book around to see a view looking up. Note that altering the distance between the three dots above will tilt the level of the floor . useful for representing steep views looking up or down tall structures. PERSPECTIVE Three-point curves Here. three vanishing points are evenly spaced along a horizon line. Iusedthese lines as a guide t o draw the curvature of boxes and panels flying through space. Where thelinescross. they mark the corners of the floor tiles.) By comparing this drawing t o Piranesi's example of two-point perspective on p.81 FURTHER ASPECTS OF Three-point towers This drawing depicts three-point perspective.


Theaters RESEARCHING FOR MY P H D . These walnut-skin ink pen and brush drawings show imagined views of theaters that do not exist but were inspired by places I studied. . making drawings to resolve questions and express personal responses to the nature and history of anatomy. I visited many anatomical theaters and museums.


The vanishing of the drawing is directly opposite as we look across The constancy of the bridge and surrounding frames the movement in the life that flows past. the water.I N KDRAWING is one of a series I made while next to the Rialto Bridge in Venice. .Venetian Life sitting point buildings ThisP E N .A N D .




and made. or used on stage hood for a mold t o make theheado f a horse f oas a p r o p — i m b u e d with e n o u g h energy or character can "become" a man. drawings were needed to instruct workers on the factory floor. Artists and actors use the meanings of things to communicate a speculative mechanic. H e has described contour and function at drawings. W e also explore v o l u m e and form in the classes by spinning lines to make vessels. passing them on to others through the act of making. It was in this era that the blueprint was born. craftsmen had held plans in their memory. design. T h e Industrial Revolution c h a n g e d the traditional w a y s in w h i c h objects were designed. hooked bars that can be pulled and tied closely form. and the way in w h i c h the brain reacts Head and Neck Sections of Female Mold for the Sforza Horse to visual stimulus and optical illusions. T h e precision of engineering d r a w i n g s e v o l v e d alongside machine tools. color. 1493 117/8c81/4in (300 x 210 m m ) LEONARDO D A V I N Ccreating I . C o m m o n items. drawing c. r an equestrian statue. History will be learned from the artifacts w e leave behind. but humans LEONARDO DA VINCI Inthisbeautiful red chalk Our items all have a purpose—practical or ornamental—and all have a meaning. for example. to record an observed detail. It is shaped in sections w i t h Artists have for centuries studied and expressed composition. making a clear instruction t o his bronzemeaning. too. planned. even more advanced drawings are made on computers. and the behavior of light through making still-life paintings and together. or drawing w e see Leonardo daVinci'sprecision as can be given meaning. are all made bearing the signature of our time and place. and some apes use simple tools. illuminating snail shells. Technical drawing was speedily developed as a meticulous international code of m e a s u r e m e n t and explanation. for example—whether. texture. or to explain and present a finished concept to a client. that test our logic with a sense of mystery. Today. In this chapter. Artists also make images of objects that can never exist. have often carried great weights of allegorical once. With the sudden onset of mass production.Objects and Instruments T HE THINGS WE INVENT describe our lives. Engineers and designers of our objects and instruments make drawings for many reasons: to test an idea that is yet to be made. from s p o o n s and pens to chairs and bicycles. of light in the creation of pictorial illusions. In past eras. each demanding more of the other as they increased in sophistication. A chair. these. Birds follow instinct to make a nest. we look at the importance are the only creatures on Earth w h o actually design and create great ranges of things. fictional realities caster of h o w t o make it andhowit will w o r k . Previously. H e has described a casting through metaphor. sculpted. and a wire violin. drawn.

. "I believe [it] is the most radicalattempttostampout ambiguity and to enforce one readingofthepicture—that of a manmade construction. but to clash in virtual deadlock.90 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS Still Life THESE DRAWINGS REVEAL t w o o p p o s i t e m o t i v a t i o n s i n we can. Braques image is a Cubist collage. Below. His work is characterized by calm and harmonious still-life compositions. perfect i n their newly made availability." La Cuitare. not of place but of things. and glass objects of exquisite elegance for only the gentlest of touch and appreciation.Braque marshals all the forces of perspective. Mucha's drawing glistens with possession. One of the great joys of this movement in art is the musicality of its multipoint view. Opposite. charcoal. and a journal jacket with words makes this drawing chatter about the moment. Braque established Cubism in partnership with Picasso just before World War I.73 x 1 m) GEORGES BRAQUE . wood-look wallpaper. Statue D'Epouvante 1913 2 f t 5 in x 3 ft 5 in (0. texture. still feel this projected moment. representing still life. T h i s is a designers drawing made to enthuse surface and style in its delicate brushing of china. Even today GEORGES BRAQUE French painter who as a young man was influenced by the work of the Fauves and of Cezanne.. There is a fragile eloquence to these objects as they drift in slow motion past our gaze. silverware. and shading. . a colored canvas. He takes us into the bustle of the Paris cafe. not to work in harmony. steaming with music and conversation. Braques "justly" arranged combination of cut black card. Clashes The art historian Ernst Gombrich said of Cubism.

Study for Plate 59 from "Documents Decoratifs" 17x121/4(430 x 310 mm) ALPHONSE MUCHA 1902 . and also stamps and bank notes. He designed the Austrian pavilion for the Paris World Fair in 1900. Pans. and New York. Art Nouveau motifs This is a preliminary study for a subsequent print.fruit. Chicago. and fish have been outlined using a sharp For ten years Mucha designed theater posters exclusively for the actress Sarah Bernhardt. The three plates facing us were drawn with a compass. Art Nouveau curling motifs of birds. He is best known for posters featuring ethereal women in typical Art Nouveau style. Background color Between the delicate shadows and highlights of these glazed and surfaces ofthebackground metal color of the Mucha we see a large amount paper. Black watercolor washes and lines of white gouache have been added with a fine brush.ALPHONSE MUCHA Czech graphic artist and painter who worked in Prague. Look at the two spoons at toprightand see how has suggested that they are so brilliantly shiny they reflect the background color.

shape the very cause and effect of investigatory thought. Newton's drawing of his first reflecting telescope is ISAAC N E W T O N English scientist. Transparent view Newton's reflecting telescope focused light in a parabolic mirror. It is a diagrammatic explanation of how to catch and magnify a star in a mirrored tube. the law o f gravity. via a second mirror. each one skillfully rendered with the alarmingly matter-of-fact ease of explaining the commonplace. alchemist. into the eyepiece. It was then reflected up inside the tube and. A disembodied eye at the top of the drawing indicates where to look. Look how confidently he draws with ink the sphere of this wooden globe by which his telescope rotates. From the concept of capturing the infinite to the mapping of microscopic sight. Ink lines Several drawings appear among Newton's letters. astronomer. w h e r e he developed his three greatest theories: the law o f motion. He counted 1 4 . Newton's 1672 ISAAC Telescope NEWTON . and philosopher Newton was President of the Royal Society. mathematician. a tree outside. Newton used this instrument to calculate the speed required to escape earth's gravity. With dotted lines Newton has drawn his arrangement of elements inside the tube. we see drawing Instruments of Vision found among his letters. Their delicate construction is only as valuable as the measurements they make. and his hand moving across the light. The power of this drawing reflects the pure passion of discovery. drawing is there to pin the moment down. and Fellow of the University o f C a m b r i d g e .92 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS by their very nature must gauge or chronicle precision. each reflecting a view of his own world—his window. offering a transparent view. Hooke's head of a drone fly seen through a microscope may represent the first time man and insect came face to face. and the nature o f light and color. In the graphic work of these two great men of science. 0 0 0 perfect hemispheres.

The Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 1665 ROBERT HOOKE 111/2 x 105/8 in (294 x 270 mm) .An experimental scientist who drew many of his discoveries. Hooke invented the camera diaphragm. and anchor escarpment. ROBERT H O O K E 93 Magnifications This acutely detailed engraved drawing is taken from Hooke's Micrographia (pub. universal joint a prototype respirator clock balance. It is an exhilarating read. a breathtaking book containing many of his drawings showing some of the first microscopic and telescopic magnifications of our environment Hooke's text and illustrations carry us to the moment of discovery. and calculated the theory of combustion. 1665).

and place in the world are truly seen. while the tabs make us see a flat paper cut-out. W i t h h o m e y c o n t r a s t . each drawn with the s a m e unfaltering lines and tones that are between reality and impossibility. and has drawings in numerous public and private collections. Two-dimensional was made This highly finished drawing ruler using a sharp pencil and on smooth white drawing paper glistening dark drawings are artificial representations of known Woodfine's two-dimensional things balanced in the world. its character. Van Gogh's tipsy seat is a metaphor for an absent person. craft. has published several catalogs of her work. it has so m u c h familiar personality that it seems to talk to us. and winner of the 2004 Jerwood Drawing Prize.94 INSTRUMENTS W H E N WE DRAW A COMMON OBJECT like a chair. Chair Cut Out 2002 22'A x 23 in (565 x 585 mm) SARAH WOODFINE . OBJECTS AND SARAH WOODFINE British contemporary artist graduate of the Royal Academy Schools. and w h e r e the chair b e l o n g s . Its wobbly gait and squashed s y m m e t r y m u m b l e endless h o m e y tales about the life it has seen. Woodfine exhibits internationally. Drawn in more-or-less c o n v e n t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . this chair p r e s e n t s us with a clever visual contradiction: deeply drawn shadows tell us it must be solid. From component parts we understand how to put it together and make it stand sensible in space. A renegade from the p a p e r dolls' h o u s e . Bench Marks W e are left a little c o n f u s e d as to what we s h o u l d do. Sarah Woodfines flat cut-out m o d e l plan is a witty and surprising drawing.

not is made present in only strokes and is subdued to distract us from flat a meaningful chair. His passionate brush and pencil strokes are honest and of also turmoil and growing alarm at the world around him. inner recording while Fierce strokes This is a portrait of the mechanical drew immediately and almost harshly. drawn opposite way of plan. Among van Gogh's best-known canvases are Trees. what direct in their he saw and describing his felt. Cornfield and Sunflowers.hehas marked the full emotion of the subject with a fierce grip of concentration.95 VINCENTVAN GOGH Dutch painter who produced over 800 paintings and 850 drawings in only the last ten year's of his life. and Starry Cypress Night. Van Chair 1890 VINCENT VAN GOGH . The floor few as engagement with the chair.

transmitted to the brain as chains of electrical impulses. T h e slightest recognition is instantly matched to our wealth of experience a n d expectation.96 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Light and Illusions SEEING IS MIRACULOUS. a lit photograph of an egg shows essential points to observe in tonal drawing. your eye around the circumference of the egg. The two tones meet without a division or outline between. We will even see things that d o not exist because minimal information suggests they are likely to be there. Gray squares To further examine changes in tone. try this experiment. Run The bottom-left quarter of the egg lightens slightly toward its "edge" when seen against the darker shadow cast on the paper. but do not appear so. Here w e look briefly at our perception of light a n d darkness a n d our interpretation of diagrammatic illusions. From across the room both will appear black card and fold and retapeitwith half sticking out. We only need small prompts. a n d are q u i c k to p r o p o s e ideas. gray. the adjustment of our eyes (in growing accustomed to a level of light). atmosphere. The small squares are identical in tone. U p s i d e . Card experiment cho can gra on . two identical mid-gray squares are seen against black and paler gray squares. perhaps. reads only m o v e m e n t a n d can often m a k e mistakes. or colored surface is never constant. On acloudyday. one blackandone white. think about its illumination. Tape them to the glass. We perceive one to be lighter than theother. o u r b r a i n s search for n a m e a b l e things. Artists emulate and manipulate this effect in their pictures. a n d our ability to see forms in c l o u d s or fire. W e learn to read light and shadow in our environment as indicators of solidity and depth of space. a n d m o v e m e n t . The egg's lightest region is seen against a darker background. cards the same size. To interpret visual s t i m u l u s . a n d we can be fooled. The outermost edge of our vision. Adjust the angleofthe protruding part and again stepback.This effect is caused by the contrast of their surroundings. and the proximity of contrasting tones. Three factors change it: the amount of light it receives. The egg's darkest region is seen against a lighter background. The rim of light on the egg is reflected light received from surrounding paper. The perceived tone of a black white.102-03 deep shadows cast across shells make their form easier to perceive. See how its "edge" smoothly changes from light against dark to dark against light. Below.d o w n patterns of light on our retinas. S o m e o n e passes our o p e n door. Here. are translated into a world of space. hence our recognition of a cartoon face c o m p o s e d of three lines. Are you happy LIGHT AND SHADOW with what you see? Does the light enhance the subject? Could you alter and improve it? On pp. form. Through these we can enjoy witnessing our o w n d e c e p t i o n a n d b a f f l e m e n t a n d u n d e r s t a n d certain factors that are very useful in picture-making. Before starting a tonal drawing of any subject.At one point you will catchenoughlight lighter than the white one. w e turn our head but n o one w a s there. Below the bottom "edge" of the egg there is a rim of light reflected onto the paper by the underside of the egg. less developed than the center.

Y o u m a y e x p e r i e n c e s o m e t h i n g similar h a p p e n i n g w h e n y o u m a k e s i n g l e . respectively. T w o relatively t h i c k parallel lines are m a d e t o b e n d away f r o m each o t h e r as t h e y pass in f r o n t o f an a r r a y o f c o n v e r g i n g f i n e lines ( B ) .p o i n t p e r s p e c t i v e d r a w i n g s w i t h a large n u m b e r o f c o n v e r g i n g rays b e h i n d y o u r horizontals. Apparent lengths T h e s e optical illusions s h o w h o w lines o f identical length can b e m a d e t o l o o k quite different f r o m each o t h e r by t h e addition o r association o f o t h e r lines. In a t o n a l d r a w i n g . l i g h t e r surfaces s t a n d f o r w a r d w h i l e d a r k e r s u r f a c e s recede. O b s e r v e h o w each white b a n d appears t h i c k e r t h a n its black c o u n t e r p a r t . by d i r e c t e d a r r o w s ( A ) . B o t h are identical in length. Seven parallel lines are m a d e t o tilt t o w a r d and away f r o m each o t h e r by n u m e r o u s s h o r t strokes crossing t h e m diagonally ( A ) . T h e jug d r a w n w i t h a t h i n line appears f a r t h e r away t h a n t h e j u g d r a w n w i t h a t h i c k e r line. O f t e ndoingso w i l l s p o i l y o u r w o r k . T w o horizontal lines o f equal length are m a d e t o l o o k longer and shorter.97 LINE VERSUS TONE In l i n e a r d r a w i n g s . start o u t w i t h one. LIGHT AND ILLUSIONS Tonal width T h e s e black a n d w h i t e bands are o f equal thickness o n e i t h e r side o f t h e i r central division. w h i l e t h i n n e r lines recede. In this t o n a l image w e read w h i t e as f a t t e r t h a n black. If y o u w i s h t o m a k e a t o n a l drawing. b u t t h e u p r i g h t o n e l o o k s t a l l e r (B). Bending straight lines Linear distance These t w o jugs have b e e n d r a w n w i t h lines o f d i f f e r i n g thicknesses. T h i s fundamental o p p o s i t e is a reason w h y l i n e a r a n d t o n a l d r a w i n g does not a l w a y s c o m b i n e w e l l in t h e s a m e i m a g e . T h e r e is n o obligation t o a d d b l o c k s o f t o n e t o a l i n e a r d r a w i n g . S h o r t h o r i z o n t a l lines o f identical length are m a d e t o l o o k d i f f e r e n t by c o n v e r g i n g lines beside t h e m ( C ) . . t h i c k e r l i n e s a p p e a r t o stand forward. A n u p r i g h t line stands in t h e c e n t e r o f a h o r i z o n t a l line. In this linear drawing w e read t h i c k as closer a n d t h i n as f a r t h e r away.

w e will find that in terms of the direction it faces. perfected the acceleration of perspective (see pp. Yet many illusions. Some artists use known optical illusions to make art. made paintings that depended upon the physical sensation of our brain's reaction to known optical illusions. A few suggestive marks will tip the decision one way o r the o t h e r Closing the surface W h e n a t r a n s p a r e n t elliptical o b j e c t has b e e n d r a w n . and we learn to read the styles of diverse cultures and periods." . w e can only look f r o m one t o the o t h e r If an artist is not aware this can happen in their image. including some shown here. are still not agreeably understood. Ancient Greek architects knew parallel upright lines appeared to bend toward each other in the middle. o r as a s l o p i n g . In the 1960's. their picture could be ambiguous. Op(tical) artists.s i d e d r e c t a n g u l a r t r a y ( b o t h are illustrated far r i g h t ) "The brain is so eager to name a fragment we see that we need only a suggestion to grasp the whole. It is a curious fact that w e can never see both options at once.76. it oscillates between t w o possibilities. Michelangelo.98 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Further Illusions PSYCHOLOGISTS AND PHYSIOLOGISTS have studied optical illusions for decades in pursuit of what they tell us about the brain. Today we are bombarded with images but rarely have difficulty reading them. w h e n drawing the outline o f a three-dimensional form.116-17) to make painted figures look correct when viewed from below. such as t h e dish seen h e r e o n t h e left. Artists make pictorial illusions when they paint or draw. such as Bridget Riley. SEEING TWO OPTIONS Sometimes. Artists can communicate much in few lines and the viewer will do the rest of the work. among others. Two ways of seeing T h i s is t h e b o x c r e a t e d in t h e f o u r t h step o n p. C l o s i n g t h e surface o f t h e f o r m seals o u r d e c i s i o n as t o w h i c h w a y it faces. It is possible t o r e a d i t t w o ways: as a t r u n c a t e d r e c t a n g u l a r p y r a m i d seen d i r e c t l y f r o m a b o v e . as s h o w n o n t h e right. it can oscillate b e t w e e n facing t o w a r d o r a w a y f r o m us. and so calculated precisely how much to fatten columns to make them appear straight. others adjust works to avoid their effects.

F a m i l i a r i t y in r a n d o m s h a p e s T h e Rorschach test was established by t h e 1 9 t h . N e i t h e r triangle exists. C o u n t t h e n u m b e r o f d a r k spots y o u can see.99 Impossible objects T h e s e clever configurations o f outlines and t o n a l surfaces convince us at a glance that we are seeing a solid three-dimensional triangle and a three-pronged fork. FURTHER ILLUSIONS Seeing things that are n o t t h e r e H e r e o n t h e left. T h e a r t i s t M. 1 6 t h . Minimal-line j o k e s such as this rely u p o n t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y v i e w e r ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e shapes. W e should r e m e m b e r t h a t o u r brains will always search f o r a p i c t u r e — i n ink blots. this is a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f t h e viewer's b r a i n b e i n g willing t o d o a large a m o u n t o f t h e w o r k in d e c i p h e r i n g a p i c t u r e . clouds. O n l y o n closer inspection we realize that t h e s e o b j e c t s are fooling us. T h e patient's answers are t h e n diagnosed as a psychological profile. This simple five-line d r a w i n g is o f a C a p u c h i n priest asleep in his pulpit. M u c h can b e e x p r e s s e d in o n l y a f e w marks. P e r c e i v i n g a w h o l e i m a g e f r o m m i n i m a l lines T h i s is a w i d e l y r e p r o d u c e d visual j o k e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e C a r r a c c i b r o t h e r s . Yet still w e try resolve t h e m .c e n t u r y Swiss psychologist H e r m a n n Rorschach. smoke. C Escher u s e d this phenomenon t o great effect in his many p o p u l a r d r a w i n g s o f puzzles and impossible buildings. This effect can o c c u r naturally w h e n looking at a b r i g h t l y lit w h i t e g r i d such as a w i n d o w f r a m e against t h e night sky. e t c . — a n d so t h e artist can create m u c h o u t o f an impression w i t h o u t overdescribing. T h e s e e x a m p l e s illustrate h o w little is n e e d e d t o c o n v e y an image. b u t w e believe w e see t h e m because e n o u g h f r a g m e n t a r y i n f o r m a t i o n is given f o r o u r brains t o c o n c l u d e t h e y are v e r y likely t h e r e . B e l o w is a b r i g h t n e s s c o n t r a s t illusion. w e see t w o overlapping triangles: o n e outlined in black b e n e a t h a n o t h e r in solid w h i t e . C o u p l e d w i t h t h e Rorschach b l o t above. S o m e artists use ink blots t o p r o m p t t h e beginning o f an image.c e n t u r y Italian painters. T h e t e s t e x p l o r e s o u r n o r m a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o find things w e can n a m e a m o n g r a n d o m shapes. His highly d i s p u t e d and i m p r e c i s e science involves s h o w i n g u n p r e p a r e d p a t i e n t s t e n p a r t i c u l a r ink b l o t s a n d asking t h e m t o i n t e r p r e t w h a t t h e y see. T h e y a r e o f t e n c r e d i t e d w i t h t h e invention o f t h e c o m i c c a r t o o n . .

How to Draw Ellipses of seeing. that this is o n l y o n e w a y view. even if y o u r hand w o b b l e s a little at first. such as bowls and cups. and these narrow or widen depending on the height of our view. there are three common errors people stumble upon. for example. Don't worry if it is uneven— just try again. a n d in o n e bold stroke. WHERE TO START In the air above a spacious sheet of scrap paper. . To make a cylindrical object appear real in our pictorial space. hesitant one that has edged its w a y nervously around the vessel's rim. A wobbling but confident ellipse will still be more convincing than a slow. springlike forms like those I have drawn below. since this is h o w w e experience them in e v e r y d a y use. circles change into ellipses. COMMON ERRORS W h e n drawing cylindrical objects in perspective. Watch the tip of your pen and see it draw an ellipse in the air Keep this movement going while gently lowering the pen onto the paper like the needle of a record player closing on the disc (only it is your lowering hand that spins. smoothly. not the paper!) As the pen touches down. like a disposable plastic cup that has been crushed in your hand. Cover a sheet of paper with spinning. Ellipse are best d r a w n quickly. The first common error is to draw two pointed ellipses. I have drawn these for you here. while its upper rim remains level. However. giving the cylinder four corners. describing many sides of an object simultaneously. Be aware. third common error is to draw upper and lover ellipses with different-sized apertures. you will achieve steadiness with practice.100 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS W E VISUALIZE CYLINDRICAL VESSELS. The second common error is to tilt the upper and lower ellipses at different angles. as if the table surface slopes upward beneath the vessel. I have exaggerated this error here. spin your hand in a relaxed circle. for example plates or bowls on a table. keep it spinning. (see p. w e use ellipses to give a sense of perspective. suggesting that the vessel is lopsided. though.90) takes a different as essentially circular. w h e n seen at an angle. Cubism.

Seeing Through Allow lines to travel around each vessel as if it were transparent. HOW TO DRAW E L L I P S E S A Single Vessel One Inside Another Grouped Together Finding Shape and Volume Draw an imagined vessel in one continuous spinning line. thereby hiding lines that show the other sides. . Draw quickly. working from top to bottom.101 DRAWING VESSELS Once you have mastered drawing free-hand springs. you can start to control your spinning ellipse to make a vessel. Altering the pressure—and therefore tone—of the line as it spins gives the impression of light shining on one side. enlarging and diminishing the ellipse to determine the overall shape and volume. Create a Solid Surface Once you have drawn the shape and volume of each form. you can make it solid by building up highlights and tones on visible surfaces.

outlines. It maximizes the range of tones between black and white. t h e r e a r e p r i n c i p a l l y Dramatic lighting emphasizes texture and contour. two opposite methods of achieving the same result. Relaxing your eyes out of focus as you draw will help to dissolve the distraction of detail. OBJECTS AND Start by arranging a choice of shells on a sheet of paper to your left if you are right-handed (or vice versa). simply shapes and subtleties of light and dark meeting each other with no divisions in between. Remember that shadows.22-23). Gradually hone your drawing. leaving detail until last. beams of light. Illuminate them with a gooseneck lamp placed very close and directed away from your eyes. making complicated or subtle surfaces easier to see and understand. You can begin with outlines and build slowly from light to dark (see opposite top).102 INSTRUMENTS Tonality W H E N MAKING A TONAL DRAWING. and solid objects are all of equal importance. It is important to place them on the correct side so as to draw comfortably (see pp. or you can begin with a mid-gray ground and model light out of darkness (see opposite bottom). and strong contrasts are easier to draw. it will inhibit your perception of tone. if light shines in them. Draw the largest and most distinct areas of light and darkness first. In the finished drawing there should be few. if any. LIGHT TO DARK DARK TO LIGHT .

103 LIGHT TO DARK (LINE TO TONE) TONALITY 1 Using a sharp HB pencil. Continue working between light and dark to refine the drawing. DARK TO LIGHT (TONE TO TONE) 1 Using the flattened tip of an HB pencil. loose. pale lines with equal importance. . Draw in the details last of all. Treat positive form and negative space (see pp. Remember that its size. draw a rectangle. boldly 2 3 Keeping your eyes out of focus. Use quick. Erase and make changes to roughly place the shells inside your with your composition. shape. Honetheshapesand angles of the shells. 2 3 Gentlydissolveoutlines so that areas oflightanddark meet without a line between them. look at the main areas of darkness. Use your pencil to develop these in relation to the areas of light. until you are happy frame. Relaxing your eyes out of focus will help to eliminate distracting details.56-57). with broad sweeps of the eraser. Fll in broad areas first and leave all detail until last. Avoid a rough significant areas of light in your gray rectangle with texture and do not press the graphite hardwhite plastic eraser Ignore all detail and draw a into thepaperor you will not be able to erase it. Let your eyes go out of focus while looking gently layer marks to create an even tone at your subject and paper: Draw the most ofmid-graywithin a rectangle. and edges definingthespacialrelationships between are important aspects of your composition them.

There are essentially three lessons to be learned.104 OBJECTS AND I N S T R U M E N T S Drawing with Wire DRAWINGS DO NOT HAVE to be two-dimensional. . Place the instrument on a plain surface and illuminate it with a desk lamp to add the delicate dimension of shadows. and on p. and on p. This class uses thin-gauge wire to create a threedimensional violin. and physical relationships between them. our image is stronger if we understand and can visualize what is happening on the other side too. continuous lines. 176 the British artists Noble and Webster draw with domestic refuse in a beam of light. Seeing through a wire drawing of a known object such as a violin gives us a visual and tactile understanding of all its sides and shapes at once. try drawing it with a pen on paper Use bold. The first is that figurative and abstract drawings can be made in space. When drawing anything viewed from one side on paper. three-dimensional drawings teach us about the totality of forms in space. The second is that after achieving this simple example.220 Mamoru Abe draws with forged steel rods. They can also be made in space. On p. Third.69 we see how the architect Antonio Gaudi drew proposed domes using suspended wires and weights. smooth. PEN LINES Once you have created your three-dimensional violin (opposite). you can create your own more ambitious works. 19 Picasso draws with a pen-light for the camera. On p.

thin wire will make a smaller drawing. Here. brace the two ends of the violin with a length of wire along the back. Join the two sides together with four short pieces of wire. and pinch and bend it to shape the base of the instrument Repeat this process to make the identical upper side of the instrument. 2 3 If needed. 1 Decide how big to draw your violin relative to the gauge of your wire. Then begin to define its uppermost surface with Scurves and the bridge. I started with the scroll at the top and fixed the four component wires with two drawings of tuning pegs. 4 .105 SETTING UP DRAWING WITH WIRE Follow these steps to draw a three-dimensional violin Choose a gauge of wire sturdy enough to hold the shape ofyourfinished drawing. I used garden wire and cut it carefully with pruners. begin to shape the curvature of the fingerboard. but thin enough to be easily manipulated inyourfingers Here. and thick wire a larger one. These will hold the sides apart and help to keep the form in shape. Once you have completed the body. Cut a length.

. Using found materials. I had the privilege of drawing their inventions. some of which are shown here. Oxford. England. they invented new anthropological finds—objects that reflected the distant past and their immediate future.Artifacts and Fictions IN 1993 I WORKED with a group of schoolchildren who were responding to the astonishing objects in the collection of the Pitt Rivers Museum.



Drawings were usually made from the male nude to avoid offending the church. It also looks at the representation of the b o d y b11y4o n d traditional life drawing.The Body O UR BODIES MAKE us TANGIBLE. from video and X-ray to thermal imaging. Artists now explore the interior of the body with new media and Lateral Contour Map of a Full-Term Primipara Produced by Light 1979 A. a n d w e d r a w o u r s e l v e s to a s s e r t o u r e x i s t e n c e . but the study of a controlled. Artists are thought to have b e g u n drawing from the nude during the Italian Renaissance. and in San could easily be transferred into three dimensions. and anatomical and erotic art. clothed or nude. myths and fables. focus has turned to the vulnerability of flesh: how it can be damaged. This chapter addresses issues that are most commonly faced by beginners attending life-drawing classes. W I L L I A M S technology. 3 x 7 in (300 x 180 . explaining ranges e/ of materials and techniques and showing diversities of thought and purpose in making. history paintings and other stories. and because the female was deemed inferior. WILLIAMS he sought perfection in the infinitesimal measurement of the body and produced four Contemporary photographer volumes of illustrated explanation. The body remains at the core of over the initially white lines. Leonardo drew a man within a circle and square. This F finished image was produced as r a n c i s c o . giving physical foundation undulating land. Look closely at Renaissance drawings of the female b o d y and you will see that m o s t are actually y o u n g m e n with minor adjustments. Williams were decades ahead of their medical counterparts. During this time. diseased. The human body. Michelangelo attended dissections to made this image by light sectioning: fine beams of light perfect his understanding of surface form. W e understand every curve and balance of to the theory that the eves are the windows of the soul. In this period. in our privileged and comfortable society. much Western contemporary art. R. W e are the only creatures on Earth that can make our own image. and surgically rebuilt. while Durer took his research further— A. artists also tried to define ideal proportions in the body. These classes are popular around the world. while Leonardo opened the body to see and projected onto a woman's body draw the celebratory discover for himself our physical mechanisms. Strangely. herimpressive presence because we are given such Life drawing no longer dominates the art school curriculum. Renaissance artists studying anatomy from dissection clinically trained and specialized as a medical illustrator. sculptural description of her form. R. the junior workshop apprentices posed as part of their duties. He even believed he had located the soul contours of her form like a cartographer's map of in the pituitary fossa beneath the brain and behind the eyes. It gives physical and emotive form to religious narratives. portraiture. the Bay Area Models' Guild h o l d s a quarterly life-drawing m a r a t h o n aprinton Kodak transfer paper with green-colored dye added celebrating the great diversity of human proportion. is the most c o m m o n subject in art. She the body is still essential.

while Matisse used scissors and glue to cut out and paste a flat collage of brilliant color. Here three male nudes are compressed into very shallow pictorial space. and Vatican frescos. He trained under Perugino. while supporting the weight of their body with the other. Raphael drew delicate tones of black chalk on tinted paper. and human defeat. In a single drawing we see equally o b s e r v e d studies of f o r e s h o r t e n i n g (see pp. T h e y b o t h raise one arm to cup their head in their hand. Principal figures m i r r o r e a c h other. altar pieces.116-17). In this highly s o p h i s t i c a t e d a b s t r a c t i o n . But the meanings of each gesture and the materials and methods by which they Postures and Poses were m a d e contrast greatly. Three Guards 1500-20 91/4 x143/8in (234 x 365 mm) RAPHAEL . RAFFAELLO SANZIO (RAPHAEL) Italian High Renaissance painter: Raphael is best known for his images of the Madonna and Child. Sculptural frieze This is a preparatory drawing for Raphael's painting of the Resurrection of Christ. we see the e s s e n c e of h e r b e a u t y w i t h o u t a single detail. Muscular dramatic postures reflect the influence of Michelangelo and the Renaissance celebration of the idealized male body. By way of contrast. Matisse's b l u e n u d e sings with life and c e l e b r a t i o n . so that we read this drawing like a sculptural frieze.110 T H E BODY THESE DISTINCTIVE WORKS show two strikingly different ways of modeling the body on paper. and studied to learn from the works of Michelangelo and Leonardo besides whom he was soon ranked. anatomy. filling the page with her presence. She u n f o l d s and s t r e t c h e s shapely limbs. Raphael's study of fallen m e n leaves no doubt that they are in anguish.

his pattern.designer writer. freer. teacher and principal exponent o f Fauvism—a movement established in 1905 in which bold color is the most essential element.." of is an art of balance... as his w o r k matured. Matisse Soothing influence This drawing expresses the achievement of Matisse's personal aim: "What I dream and depressing subject matter. Matisse became an artist after studying law.. printmaker. serenity. and Islamic art. a mental an appeasing influence.sculptor. lifelong love of brilliant They celebrate the culmination of spectacular and sometimes drawings. His calligraphic natural abstractions of form grew brighter. fabric. foundamong many other groups of papercut these works as an elderly man confined to his bed or wheelchair.111 HENRY MATISSE French painter: draftsman. and more energetic Color and form This collage is one of a series of Blue Nudes. devoid of troubling Blue Nude 1 1952 413/4 HENRY MATISSE .or like a good armchair in which to rest from physical fatigue..which might be.

Below. form. in a perfect e x a m p l e . and muddied the brilliance of the drawing. His drawings are similarly u n i q u e . velvet d a r k n e s s . Seurat evolved a distinctive t e c h n i q u e called p o i n t i l l i s m — i m a g e s literally made from myriad points of color. stands in counterpoise holding a dark globe and his thoughts in m o m e n t a r y balance. it is as if the very atoms of air are made visible. he used b l a c k c o n t e (see p. Typically. other tones. Opposite. Light is given by the paper alone. like small birds attendant on the meditation. reflected. Seurat engaged in lifelong studies of line. T h e space around h i m chatters with symbols. Using the paper to create light is important for beginners to learn. Tone and light In this black conte drawing. it would have mixed with unseen black dust. turned gray. only tones blending into. or abruptly meeting. there are no outlines.112 T H E BODY Choreographs T I M E IS A SIGNIFICANT E L E M E N T i n t h e m a k i n g o f a l l d r a w i n g s . we c o m p a r e a skillful design that absorbed m u c h time in its making with the quickness of an idea marked instantly. Here. agreeing to coalesce and show us the form of a waiting boy. w h o sits propped in the contradictory darkness of a hot summer's day. Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 1883-84 91/2 x 121/4 in (241 x 312 m m GEORGES SEURAT . 162) and an eraser to model teeming points of artificial light amid GEORGES SEURAT French painter classically educated in the Ingres school of thought. Beuys's magician. In his f a m o u s paintings of social e n g a g e m e n t . and c o m p l e m e n t a r y hues. and color His applied theories still influence painters in their manipulation and rendering of local. If Seurat had added white. scratched in seconds.

and that These aspects of the work convey fractured visibility. Beuys gave performances.113 JOSEPH BEUYS One of the most influential German artists of the 20th century. in different positions. CHOREOGRAPHS the profound power materials with spiritual or of Free lines This pale pencil drawing is Beuys. free from the constraint of immaculate form opposite) impetus is irrelevant to the and meaning of this work (as we see in Seurat's drawing representation. taught workshops with a cult following. Perfectly modeled rather conventional for Joseph Focus Beuys's hand moved quickly to draw dotted lines flowing downward on either side of the figure. video art. Our focus joins and made installations. and blood. Many of his other symbolic works on paper have been drawn with materials such as honey. This figure is drawn intuitively. iodine. transience. He was a shaman who believed in intuition and in the investment of healing force. and drawings. Unbroken lines stream from his simultaneously movement. His The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland UNDATED 113/4 J O S E P H BEUYS x81/4in (297 x 210 mm) .

We are involved not as a shabby voyeur but as a bystander engaged through our recognition of shared joy. Opposite. its soft. Rodin produced portraits and statues of public and literary figures. sweeping lines— of either purple silk fabric or cool studio air—that imprint and amplify their past and future movements.114 BODY Passion SUMMONING HUMANITY in a drawing of the nude is a subtle and emotional task. Achieving international acclaim in mid-life. Free lines Rodin's public audience was understandably shocked by the eroticism of his drawings.000 drawings shown in rotation at the Musee Rodin. But what is stranger to us now is that they were also outraged by his free use of line." as seen here. and went on to inspire generations of artists. His exquisite flow of paint beyond "outlines. In Rodins work. Our bodies radiate the passion of our thoughts and so become beacons of our frailty and power. In both drawings. As here. 125/8x 9 in (320 x 229 mm) AUGUSTE RODIN Two Women 1911 Embracing . the women are framed and caressed by long. the fierceness of the women's kiss is beautifully matched by the tenderness of his line. he typically drew them with a few delicate strokes of pencil and brushed watercolor. Inspired by Michelangelo. flushed skin made ruddy and black with crushed cinders. Delicate strokes This is one of about 7. Rodin employed models to move freely or pose together in his studio. THE AUGUSTE RODIN French Romantic sculptor and prolific draftsman employed as an ornamental mason until the age of 42. and one of hundreds of rapid studies of nudes. Paris. They whisper and writhe in a brushed and sultry embrace that devours our watching. was perceived as scandalous. We are asked to gaze u p o n her flesh. Anita Taylor has drawn her protective body hug out of the darkly glistening compression of willow charcoal and the dynamism of her shy but momentous femininity. his w o r k is characterized by deliberate un-finish and powerfully modeled emotion.

draftsman. textured paper. Luminosity Layered marks flicker likefirelight as they sculpt the woman's body.I 15 ANITA T A Y L O R Painter. scrutiny. Charcoal Taylor has drawn freely with charcoal and an eraser on thick. leaving her lightest marks at the deepest level of the image and applying darker marks above. and rework rich depths of light and tone. London. The sturdy surface of the sheet has allowed her to press hard when needed. intimately reflecting upon the emotions and meaning of nudity. Taylor has drawn. the impression of luminosity All and Nothing 1999 67 x447/8in (170 x 1 1 4 cm) ANITA TAYLOR . This order of light below and dark above gives glowing from within. and gaze. professor and Vice Principal of Wimbledon School of Art. erased and drawn again. Taylor's immense self-portraits explore the relationship between the artist as maker and the artist as model. exposure. A thinner sheet might have crumpled and torn under such vigorous force of making.

3 Keep your pencil perpendicular Measure and compare at any angle. plummeting. and measurements do not have to be carried to the paper and slavishly drawn the same size they appear on your pencil. unfathomable angles. There is no need to mark them all down on paper. and a few measured comparisons are key. 1 Hold your arm straight. This is chiefly a correcting device by which figurative painters and sculptors have for centuries countered the effects of our viewing their work from far below or on the curvature of a vault. just making them helps you see. which is imperceptible from below. with dramatic illusions of figures painted in normal proportion. or shrivelling at odd. rather that what we believe we know from experience. We also look at another very interesting branch called accelerated (or anamorphic) perspective. It is not complicated. the skull in Holbein's The Ambassadors (The National Gallery. to be translated by mirrors or seen from only one point in the room. we would arrive to find many of the same figures strangely distorted. Accelerated perspective plays a great role in much art. persistence. It is not so hard. Imagine Michelangelo's murals in the Sistine Chapel. But if we could take a scaffold and climb up to the work. 2 Hold your pencil upright." . Up close on the scaffold we would witness Michelangelo's subtle application of accelerated perspective. Lock your shoulder. and to draw what we see. The length of exposed pencil is your measurement. It can also be a little demon in the life room. or coming forward. for example. MEASURING This is a simple method of making measured comparisons for relating the true size of one part to another This is a tool to assist observation and thinking. without taking off. more extreme examples have been made for court entertainment. London). In the life class it is the mechanism for ensuring that a drawn figure lies correctly in pictorial space . How to make and apply these is explained below and opposite. when beginners prop their board in their lap and look down at too steep an angle. Return to this posture every time.limbs happily receding. Close one eye. "Simple measured comparisons reveal surprising truths about proportion. Spend time making comparisons before you draw. Move the tip of your thumb down to a second chosen point. patience. you will make inconsistent and unrelated comparisons. elbow. and wrist joints. To avoid its effects ensure you always look flat onto the surface of your page. Align the top with a point on your subject. elongated as if stretched across the plaster.116 T H E BODY Measurement and Foreshortening FORESHORTENING IS AN ASPECT of perspective. If your arm is not straight. Smaller. Rome. helping us to see more clearly.

which feels strange.117 ACCELERATED PERSPECTIVE To discover h o w this w o r k s . adjusting a n o n y m o u s shapes. belly. MEASUREMENT AND FORESHORTENING Tilt t h e t o p edge o f this b o o k t o w a r d you and look d o w n o n this figure f r o m a b o v e . Stand its b o t t o m edge o n y o u r lap. T h i s is t h e s a m e d r a w i n g p h o t o g r a p h e d f r o m above. a n d thighs. . C o m p a r e t h e heights o f t h e nose and eye shapes t o t h o s e o f t h e f o r e a r m . A t a c e r t a i n angle. y o u r hand travels f a r t h e r than y o u expect. See h o w d i f f e r e n t t h e relative heights o f t h e s e shapes are f r o m w h a t w e m i g h t e x p e c t in real life. W o r k a r o u n d t h e figure. P r o p o r t i o n s will only l o o k c o r r e c t f r o m t h e angle at w h i c h y o u make t h e drawing. t a p e s o m e p a p e r t o a board. FORESHORTENING To f o r e s h o r t e n a figure. To m a k e f o r m s l o o k c o r r e c t . S o o n t h e b o d y will lie d o w n in space. Lean t h e t o p e d g e t o w a r d y o u and find a p o s i t i o n w h e r e y o u can c o m f o r t a b l y l o o k d o w n t h e p a p e r at an angle o f a b o u t 4 0 degrees. pleasingly f o r e s h o r t e n e d . looking d o w n t h e p a p e r at t h e a n g l e at w h i c h I d r e w . Keep t h e b o a r d steady and draw. y o u must let go o f w h a t y o u k n o w f r o m e x p e r i e n c e a b o u t t h e relative sizes o f b o d y parts and trust y o u r eyes. W e appear t o be looking d o w n o n a w o m a n s t a n d i n g b e n e a t h us. h e r p r o p o r t i o n s will appear correct. L o o k at y o u r m o d e l as if he o r she is a flat series o f shapes o n e o n t o p o f a n o t h e r Measure t h e height and w i d t h o f each shape and c o m p a r e it t o its neighbor.

Height This pose leans away into space above our eye level. I used a sharp H B pencil and began each drawing by marking her outline. working from her center to her feet and to her head. imagine holding up a plumb line. propelling you to make immediate assessments and trust them. and work over t h e m with further o b s e r v a t i o n s . T h i s q u i c k e x p l o r a t o r y line does not perfectly describe shape but expresses a decision about overall flow of form. and energy. Be bold and dive into your drawing with c o n f i d e n c e . Start each new drawing by lightly marking the model's height with a loose line in ten seconds. and slightly enlarge her legs and feet. work back and forth across the body. make the upper body smaller give your model a high waist. . Leave first thoughts in place. To draw this effect. height. because it results in two unrelated sides drifting apart. balance. and height. feeling. To see this. and stance before honing her balance and expression. Outline To outline a figure. Layered lines give d e p t h . Balance When a model stands upright on both feet. Avoid drawing up one side and down the other. THE SEQUENCE OF POSES H e r e the model was asked to move every t w o minutes.118 BODY Quick Poses DRAWING QUICK POSES l o c k s y o u r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n t o what is most essential. her center of balance is normally found in a vertical line beneath her head.

and this should be avoided Twist QUICK POSES A model standing on one leg usually drops the opposite hip. This drawing shows how different observations be overlaid to bring a drawing alive. Tilt Movement Here.119 The twist of a model is most easily and expressively captured if it is exaggerated. The tilt of the pelvis is then counter balanced by the model's shoulders tilting the other way (as seen here). Most of us have a tendency to over-straighten the drawn figure. . the activity of circular lines and the repetition of limbs suggest movement.

general to specific. especially the lengthwise divisions between them. and they need not be daunting to draw. swiftly marking its essential gesture. Don't worry about achieving perfect solutions. and ignore all details. and a gooseneck lamp casts shadows that clarify planes and depths GESTURES OF THE HAND Curled Fingers 1 Open Palm Start honing the shapes of the dominant planes. drawn in relation to each other. but regard these practice studies as ongoing processes of thought and observatio Add details such as nails last if you wish. These planes. starting with the largest. 3 . it is important to leave aside all details of the fingers and toes. express structure and gesture far more successfully and easily than ten worried outlines wandering up and down between the fingers and toes. Begin by drawing lines to encompass the whole hand. Focus instead on how planes change direction across the knuckles from one side of the hand or foot to the other. feet. Group the fingers together as one mass. W h e n starting. Do not separate them yet. Draw large shapes and their orientation. A mirror increases your range of views. It also helps the beginner to progress from drawing outlines to drawing confidently across the surface of the whole form. Then subdivide each shape so that you w o r k from large to small. Keep lines open to change and take measurements if they help. This exercise is useful when struggling with proportion. or those of a friend. Practice by drawing your own hands and feet. 2 Build your drawing gradually from light to dark.120 BODY Hands and Feet THERE ARE MANY different ways of approaching h a n d s and THE of form.

and rapid.121 HANDS AND FEET MOVEMENTS OF THE FOOT Flat Stance Raised Heel Instep 1 Let your first marks be light. as if with a chisel. and don't worry about accuracy t o begin with. Try t o express the whole foot and t o encapsulate its entire shape and direction in a few marks. t o remove t o o many early lines. Look for key angles without becoming distracted by detail. these are what give a drawing its tangible structure. however. It can be a mistake. Nowimagineyou are carving the foot though out o f wood. Leave aside all detail. depth. flattened planes. Hew it roughly in broad. and spontaneity. loose. 2 3 Use an eraser t o refine decisions o r t o suggest areas o f light. .

The white lines demonstrate what is often called "bracelet shading.Charcoal Hands T H E S E DRAWINGS ARE MADE in compressed charcoal. Opposite. Compare its nature in close-up to that of willow charcoal used on pp." . I also used white ink with a steel dip pen.204-05.


and posture of the model. Phrasing Contours . length. I make these lines in the first five to ten seconds of a drawing to locate the presence. 118-19). before honing his or her shape (see pp.HERE TRACES OF RAPID initial lines are still seen within and outside each body.


perspectives.The Visual Detective DRAWING FROM MASTERWORKS was once a staple component of an artist's education. . I draw in museums in support of written research and as an artist seeking answers to questions about the practicalities of image making. Forms. It is now viewed with some skepticism and often seen as academic. characters. Drawing work by another artist enables you to discover and understand the inventive hand in their composition. feeling them through the attentive movements of your own hand. and narrative pulse become vivid when you realize them in the middle of your study.


. Walls are lined with hundreds of faintly animated body parts. each modeled from dissection. Florence. 126-27.La Specola At17V i a Romana. These almost life-size figures were composed from my imagination and achieved with the help af studies discussed on pp. there is a unique museum of 18th-century anatomical waxes.3 x 3 m) made in response to La Specola. Life-size women wearing wigs recline on beds of embroidered silk in cabinets of mahogany and Venetian glass This is a detail of a compressed charcoal drawing measuring 14 x 10 ft (4.



buttons. Portraits can be highly or loosely detailed. Past rulers sent painters across continents to bring back a likeness in advance of a prospective royal marriage. and social and political commentaries. This enlargement o f his miniature p o r t r a i treveals t h e s p e e d and agility o f his p e n and about himself. look directly at us. and in a few scrolling rafts of pen lines and stubbled dots. painters have dropped discreet records of themselves into commissioned narratives so that they can remain a face in the crowd. and p r i n t m a k e r . Our homes are filled with images of our loved ones and of those in our families who have gone before. you can capture the subtlety. the meaning of their face. and a handprint (see p. single or of groups. and secular narratives. and lucrative genre for artists. Equally. or a glimpse of him is caught in a photograph used as a prop. Goya. character. Halls and palaces are filled with pictures of the mighty and significant. or whose eyes can seem to follow us around the room Portraiture is a constant. Man Ray's self-portrait of scored lines. neck. Movie director Alfred similarly signed his films by playing a fleeting role: he walks through an extra. or past us. To create a face is to see and interpret the essence of an identity. bells. In this chapter. Rembrandt's famous multitude of self-portraits. The truth is that we all like looking at faces and observing the billions of variations that make us individuals.Portraiture IN P O R T R A I T U R E W E MEET PEOPLE. religious. We can mold and animate qualities of expression out of objects and fragments of disassociated things—for example. made as he passed through the ages of man. and it is very rewarding. historical. became more poignant as he progressed. who. is here to both meet and look through us. having been documented and preserved. Once you understand Self-Portrait in a Cocked Hat c. compliant subject to scrutinize. usually strangers from past times. The returning image was of crucial consideration in any proposal. gathered all that he knew FRANCISCO DE GOYA V i s i o n a r y Spanish painter. their stance. and their posture can be changed with just one line. his changes in pressure and Hitchcock length o f line. and shoulders. throat. For centuries. we use the delicate medium of silver point to look at foundation structures of the head. Goya's w o r k s include many royal and society p o r t r a i t s . draftsman. a single line can deliver an entire expression. W h e n drawing a person. and expression of the individual. We are also reassured by keeping records of ourselves. abstract or figurative. and satirical or metaphorical. live. in a miniature self-portrait magnified opposite. Self-portraiture gives every artist a constant. Beginners often draw themselves as a way of establishing their practice. It also reminds us o f b o t h t h e intimacy and a scene as scrutiny o f an honest portrait. 1790-92 4 x 3 in ( 1 0 2 x 7 6 m m ) F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A and memorize the basic structure that we all share.139). .

adding smudges of tone for weight and solidity. It is the portrait of a countrywoman. caught in her last moments of youth. He makes his flair and skill look easy. breadth. we can enjoy and learn from them. Picasso has left to posterity many hundreds of magnificent line drawings. While with longer consideration. and pressure as it conducts our eye through the image. Her face is drawn tenderly and with a luminous glow. they serve as a great lesson that it is not always necessary to add tone to your drawing. one eye already cast askew into the autumn of her life.132 PORTRAITURE Poise THE BALANCE BETWEEN a mark and a blank space is often a tantalizing form of perfection. How could the addition of shadows have enhanced this image? Few strokes The simplicity of Picasso's line is breathtaking. teetering on the brink of older age. length. PABLO PICASSO Spanish Cubist painter (see also p. The truth is often the opposite. There is a common misunderstanding that a drawing with only a few lines is both less finished and easier to make than a drawing with more. Without faltering. It takes a truly accomplished a few strokes. whisking a timeless girl onto the page. Holbein maps the still landscape of Dorothea's body in questioning marks. We can read so much about them by studying their gaze. hand to capture something well in only Frangoise au Bandeau 1946 660 x 505 mm (26 x197/8in) PABLO PICASSO . We can actually count that he struck the paper 40 times. Picasso strikes and scrolls his pencil. For the beginner. The Tightness of a line is felt in its speed. stealthily using his chalk to find contours and mass. Through exhibitions and copies in books.30). The aesthetic sense of a line being just right can make a drawing sing. Here the grace and beauty of two young women are held forever.

gently flushed. He outlined her nose but not her upper lip. Holbein has cropped and pinned his subject within the four outermost lines of the image—the edges of the page. presses against the binding across her face. In addition t o his numerous exquisite portraits in oil. Her folded forearms support and frame her weight above. Cropping This regal composition fits its paper perfectly. made a popular series o f w o o d c u t prints titled The Dance of Death. and designer f r o m Basel. Holbein was employed toward the end of his life by King Henry VIII of England. and its downward slope crowns the diagonal of the composition. he designed c o u r t costumes. which.133 HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER German p o r t r a i t painter draftsman. Blended colors In this portrait drawn with colored chalks on slightly textured paper. Holbein unified the woman with her background by gently blending colors from her clothes and face into the atmosphere around her. The peak of her cap clips the uppermost edge. Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 1516 51/8 x121/4in (385 x 310 m m ) HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER . and produced numerous society portraits such as this one here.

confusing. dark tones of graphite blended into the paper. N e w s o m e ' s eerily shadowed form is smooth and bears a linear grain evocative of w o o d . The style of Durelli's d r a w i n g opposite sings with the confidence of truth and precision. Psychological drama is contained behind a grid. using a fine and relatively 1982 13 x 181/8 in (328 x 460 mm) VICTOR NEWSOME brush. and unpleasant to see. . Contrasts Sharp. solid above and almost hollow below. dark lines made with a pencil appear against smooth. and glands also complicate form. the face is one of the hardest parts to dissect. Durelli has m a d e a few m i n o r mistakes. and has works in major collections including the Tate Gallery. Anatomically.134 PORTRAITURE Anatomies These highly finished drawings express the emotional power and physicality of the head and neck. This is one of a number of similar disembodied female heads seen behind. but they are irrelevant here. the contours of a grid. London. VICTOR NEWSOME British sculptor painter and draftsman. or defined by. Newsome was awarded the Prix de Rome in 1960. Highlights of white gouache were dry Profile Head late in the making. blood vessels. The real dissection w o u l d have been far more c o m p l e x . In fact. while white painted flecks and wisps suggest electrical illumination. taught at numerous British art schools from 1962-77. its highly clarified detail claiming to be d r a w n from observation. Nerves. continues to exhibit regularly. It floats in space. distorted. This is a m a r v e l o u s interpretation of the truth. Delicate muscles are integrated with the skin and fat that is to be r e m o v e d . perhaps applied using a tortillon.

which. w h e n contracted. Stylized parallel lines are reminiscent of engravings. Durelli's experience as an engraver is reflected in his stylized drawing o f muscle fibers. pull their points o f attachment t o w a r d each other . Pencil numbers refer to the list of muscles written beneath. and it is likely that this drawing was intended for reproduction as a print. It is hard to think of a more difficult medium with which to achieve such linear perfection.135 ANATOMIES ANTONIO DURELLI Linear perfection This is a red chalk drawing of extraordinary accomplishment. Red Chalk the Muscles 1837 173/8 x 145/8 in ( 4 4 0 x 3 7 2 m m ) ANTONIO DURELLI and Pencil Drawing and of Neck of the Head Little is k n o w n o f this M i l a n e s e p a i n t e r a n d engraver w h o c a m e from a family o f artists.

They confuse our perception of scale by being intimately fragile and at the same time far removed. Without paint and with very little tone. 1948 77/8 x 6 in (200 x 150 mm) ALBERTO GIACOMETTI . close enough to touch his hair and feel his breath. as if seen from a distance. each portrait is inscribed onto the page. Bellini gently conjures the features of his saint with soft marks that tease his presence out of shadows into the light. necks. They show us clearly the bones of drawing. and with staccato flinches his hyperactive eye moves from paper to model. He is best known for his bronze sculptures of human form. Both works demonstrate how simple lines can be made complex by being intense. Similar movements sculpted the head below into its page. Portrait de Marie-Laure de Noailles c. painter draftsman. Opposite. and poet After studying in Geneva and Italy. which are characteristically elongated. There is a film of Giacometti drawing. Energy This is a portrait of a woman drawn with black crayon on a plain page of a book Lines search for the essence of form. each locked into a visionary gaze. Speed Giacometti probably began with an oval shape placed in relation to the proportion of the page. he drew over the whole image at once. with speed and urgency. Giacometti settled in Paris. Agitated marks make patches of tone that cut away the space around the character. ALBERTO GIACOMETTI Swiss sculptor. and heads. while his hand stabs and thrusts Revelations like a conductors baton. The camera watches him at work.136 PORTRAITURE THESE ARE DRAWINGS of shoulders. Flesh is built and personality carved simultaneously. Then. We are brought intimately close to this man gazing up to heaven. cutting and carving the paper with matted and spiraling restless energy.

lyrical.G I O V A N N I BELLINI A prominent member of a large family o f V e n e t i a n painters. Character This is one of many cartoons produced by Bellini the and his family. Head and Shoulders of a Man 73/8 x 21/4 in ( 1 8 6 x 5 8 UNDATED GIOVANNI BELLINI . Bellini s t u d i e d u n d e r his f a t h e r J a c o p o . a n d b r o t h e r in-law. a n d c o n t e m p l a t i v e . Transfer This delicate humorous chalk a drawing is a cartoon—not image but a type of template used to plan the composition of a larger work Look closely and you will see rows of tiny dots along every significant line in the picture. Sometimes different narrative same character was reused in compositions.5 9 ) . These are pinholes. transferring which were made in the process of the saint to his final place in the composition of a painting (see Glossary pp. H e t a u g h t G i o r g i o n e Barbarelli and Titian. a n d his w o r k is d i s t i n c t i v e l y calm. Mantegna.25 6 . H e p r e f e r r e d religious t o classical t h e m e s .

138 PORTRAITURE THE MIRROR OF SELF-PORTRAITURE offers artists infinite reflections of. their most immediate and best-known subject: themselves. It is an image of confrontation—the ever-controversial young artist roars at us from his abstract city-scape. drawn. marks. a tribal. It has proved to be a subject of piercing scrutiny. and attitudes. It is an opportunity to look deep without the infringement of courtesies owed to a commissioning sitter. float and shimmer in the shallow pictorial space.221). signing their work SAMO. The figure's position is unequivocal and defiant while around him is in a state Without the essential of cultural and figure we would elegant belookingat a sophisticated painting of signs. similar to work by Cy Twombly (see p. Al Diaz. and sheet metal before being snapped up by the New York contemporary art scene. skull- Self-Portraits headed. and indulgence. and buttons rings with surrealist wit and agile improvisation. Islands of graphic marks. In 1986 he traveled to Africa and showed his work in Abidjan on the Ivory Coast He also exhibited in Germany and France. spear-brandishing warrior. Later Basquiat sold drawings on T-shirts. Signs and symbols with symbols This painting shudders that ore written. The incandescent New York painter Jean Michel Basquiat pictured himself here in naked silhouette. scratched lines. and confrontations with. scrolls. Man Ray's playful silk-screen assembly of color blocks. humor. and everything flux. The artist has finished his portrait with the signature of his hand smacked in the middle like a kiss: a declaration of existence as old as man's first drawing. political outcry. postcards. made with great energy. scratched into its surface. JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT Short-lived American painter and graffiti artist who began his blazing nine-year career drawing on lower Manhattan subway trains with a friend. bells. Self Portrait 1982 9 4 x 7 6 in (239 x 193 cm) JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT .

while a squeegee was used to drag thick lilac-brown ink across the silk pushing it though exposed areas onto the paper below. Black ink was printed next and then white. During the 1920's and 30s. Man Ray probably used his own hand. caked in thick printing ink or paint. Man Ray lived and worked in Paris. Autoportrait 1916 195/8 MAN RAY . where he collaborated with the artist Laslo MoholyNagy. last of all. painter. printmaker and cofounder of the New York Dada movement. The first part of the stenciled image was already marked on the silk The screen and paper were then held tightly together. Frame White lines are seemingly (though not actually) scratched through ink to frame this face. They suggest speed and make the picture look immediate and spontaneous.139 MAN RAY American surrealist photographer. They experimented with camera-free photography working directly onto photographic paper Silk and ink This is a silkscreen print made through the following process: the paper was laid on a flat surface and a frame stretched with fine silk was placed on top. The handprint appears to be made directly.

T h e p a p e r will l o o k b u c k l e d . Take a sheet o f any t y p e o f p a p e r (for e x a m p l e . choose a silver object. If w o r k i n g o n an emulsion-painted wall. which quickly oxidizes into a gray line. illuminators of medieval m a n u s c r i p t s . p a r c h m e n t . Z I N C W H I T E G O U A C H E : Dilute with w a t e r A d d c o l o r i f r e q u i r e d (as opposite) 4 ." Lead. copper. o n e t o fit each side o f t h e b o a r d — t h e s e will make t h e glued f r a m e t h a t holds y o u r p a p e r in place. s o m e m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n o t h e r s . Metal point does not work on ordinary paper. an exciting indication of how large-scale drawings could be made on a wall. and is therefore useful w h e n using w a t e r c o l o r as well as silver point. MATERIALS 1 Find a clean sponge and b o w l o r d e e p t r a y a n d fill it w i t h w a t e r W e t t h e p a p e r evenly in t h e t r a y o r o n t h e b o a r d . This is called a three-tone drawing. 5. and make o r buy a holder. M a k e s u r e i t is c o m p l e t e l y clean t o avoid u n w a n t e d streaks. This browns with age unless sealed by fixative (see pp. the surface must be primed with a ground such as gouache. 144-45. c h o o s e a s o f t full b r u s h t h a t c a n c a r r y p l e n t y o f l i q u i d . Gesso o r m a t t e m u l s i o n c a n a l s o b e u s e d . E m p t y mechanical pencils designed f o r t h i c k leads ( s e e p. key. artists mixed white lead. Find a n i t e m t h a t y o u can h o l d a n d draw with comfortably. or ring. 1 4 4 . s e e p . S O F T F U L L B R U S H : W h e n laying a w a s h . and gold have also been used. purchase silver wire. Metal point is simply a strip of metal bound in a holder. To begin. and alloys work on matt emulsion. S i l v e r is b e s t . platinum. 2. it leaves a deposit.140 PORTRAITURE Silver P o i n t SILVER OR METAL POINT STRETCHING PAPER A sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has been made w e t with the strokes o f a paintbrush will buckle d u e t o its uneven expansion.Tear o f f f o u r lengths o f b r o w n p a p e r g u m tape. SILVER W I R E : Purchase different gauge lengths f r o m a traditional a r t supplier o r jeweler. I combined silver point with painted white gouache on a pink ground. was familiar to or eggshells with animal glue. M E T A L OBJECTS: All metal objects m a r k a p r e p a r e d surface. Lightly s p o n g e o f f t h e excess. Be swift and firm. Numerous early European artists also enjoyed its fine qualities (see p. 3 . W e t a n d fix a s e c o n d strip t o t h e o p p o s i t e side.54) can also b e used. For i m p o r t a n t a d v i c e o n p r e p a r a t i o n a n d use. Lay a clean d r a w i n g b o a r d o n a flat surface. W e t o n e length o f g u m .54-55). Historically. Pages 142 to 147 are illustrated in silver point and techniques are explained on pp. b u t d o n ' t w o r r y . 156). b e f o r e priming stretched paper. w h i t e d r a w i n g paper) and cut it t o fit y o u r d r a w i n g b o a r d w i t h a generous b o r d e r a r o u n d its edges. you will need t o stretch paper and lay a wash (see right and opposite). SILVER P O I N T W I R E H O L D E R : T h e s e c a n b e p u r c h a s e d a n d t e n d t o b e heavy. Straighten the w o r s t buckles.s t r i p a n d use i t t o fix o n e side o f t h e p a p e r t o t h e b o a r d . Note h o w domestic paintwork marks with a coin. Stretched paper remains taut as a d r u m . who used it to outline initials and border characters before painting. I t is a v a i l a b l e f r o m all a r t s h o p s . 1. The most c o m m o n metal has always been silver—hence the term "silver point. Drawn across a prepared surface. 2 . Opposite. and t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h strips a b o v e and b e l o w . I m a k e m y o w n f r o m o l d dip pens. laid on paper. bone. or wood.

Keep testing on spare paper. Leave the wash to dry thoroughly before you begin to draw. Here. I used a powder pigment called Caput Mortuum. Dip a soft. LAYING A WASH It your stretched paper so as to prime it for silver point. The next step will make a small mess. stretched paper at a 45-degree angle. v e r y little at a time. Keep adding smooth. and let tests dry before deciding to change the mixture. is necessary to lay a wash o Three-tone When coloring ground. Make an even line across to the right.141 SILVER POINT 3 Leave the paper to dry flat. any extra will keep.t o n e silver point drawing of a skull . Prop up your board of dry. leaving a smooth surface. Beware of the tape's coming loose at any point while drying. T h r e e . Dry thoroughly before laying a wash. overlapping lines until you reach the bottom. Mix a very wet but not weak solution of gouache in a jar with a lid (add pigment at this stage for a three-tone drawing). It will slowly straighten and become taut. Runs blend into each other evenly. full brush into the gouache and start in the top left corner. Reload the brush and add a second line overlapping it beneath. as the paper will be ruined by a raised ridge. slowly add powder pigment or gouache from a tube. Make enough to cover your paper. so put newspaper under the lower edge.



Head and Neck
THE HEAD AND NECK are best conceived as one unit arranged in four parts: cranium, face, neck, and throat. Each is of equal importance. The cranium is essentially egg-shaped and pivots on the first vertebra. The face is suspended beneath, like a softly curved triangle. The n e c k — a powerful, shapely column of layered muscles rigged to vertebrae—adjusts and holds the angle and expression of the head. The throat is delicate, hard, and lumpy to the touch, formed of cartilaginous rings, glands, thin muscles, and looser skin. Framing the throat, two columnar neck muscles (sternomastoids) project the head forward and also turn it to the opposite side.

This is a simple shorthand diagram representing the cranium, face, neck, and throat. It can be learned and visualized in different positions very easily, giving the novice a firm footing on which to stand and develop their drawings of the head and neck.

Shorthand diagram

Cranium Begin with an egg shape. Tilt it on the paper to change the position of the head.

Face Draw a rounded triangular shape below the forward point of the egg to represent the face.

Neck This shape represents the trapezius; the largest surface muscle of the neck and shoulders.

Throat A triangular shape represents the throat. (The nose makes the diagram clearer)

Applied shorthand

After copying the diagram above, animate it. Practice drawing the cranium at different angles, add the face beneath, then the neck, shoulders, and throat. Shape your diagrams so they are more lifelike, but avoid adding detailed features too soon.

143 These three drawings demonstrate (from left to right) the following: why the cranium may be considered egg-shaped; now the face can be seen as a curved triangle suspended beneath and where the division lies between the two; and the form of sternomastoid muscles that frame thethroatsodistinctlywhen the head is turned and inclined forward.

The skull and the frame of the throat


Bones of the cranium are locked together by jagged joints. Sinuses in the frontal (forehead) bone between and beneath the eyebrows are larger in men, making their brows pronounced and often ridged compared to those of women.

Bones of the face house our sight, smell, taste, The skull pivots on the first vertebra or "atlas," and speech. Cartilage extending from nasal bones after the Greek god condemned to carry the shapesthenose.Pads of fat resting on the base of Earth. The jaw hinges in front of the ears. Behind, eacheyesocket support the eyeballs in position. If bony ridges give anchor to the sternomastoid thefatisreducedby old age, eyes look sunken. muscles rising from the breast- and collarbones.

Three useful generalizations

General rules about the relative positions of body parts can hinder artists as much as help them, since they are often based on classical ideals rather than thediversityoflife.However,some generalizations can help as a rough guide to start with, so long as good observation takes over as soon as possible.

In general, when the face is relaxed (not smiling or frowning), the corners of the mouth are found directly beneath the pupils of the eyes. Vertical lines can be drawn down from the pupils to meet the corners of the mouth.

The height of a young adult's ear is often the same as their nose and found on the same level. There is no general rule for growing children, and remember that ears grow again in old age, which is most obvious in men.

The height of the face is about the length of the handspan and the eye is normally halfway down the total height of the head. A common error is to draw the eyes too high up on the face.



Essential Observations

(see pp. 140-41) is perfect for

such as a beach pebble. Here, I stretched drawing paper and laid a wash of white gouache (see pp.140-41). As you can see, the line and tone of silver point varies with pressure, but only slightly. Too much pressure cuts the ground. Silver point erases, but so does ground. Erased ground can be repaired gently with extra gouache. You can also use gouache to paint over mistakes and make corrections.

small, detailed drawings. The drawings below and opposite show useful observations of the head and neck, which are explained in the captions below. Each drawing was made with a silver wire held in a large-gauge mechanical pencil. Newly clipped wires are sharp and cut rather than draw. Before use, they need to be rubbed and smoothed on a stone

Here I imagined placing my silver point wire against the skin of each head and neck and, working in parallel bands from the crown downward, I traced the undulation of surfaces. Linear bands imagined around the head and neck can help you t o clearly see the tilt of the head and relative levels of the features. Ask a friend t o model for you and try this exercise life-size using a pencil and eraser


Tilted forward

Tilted backward

Three-quarter view

Seeing that the face is never flat

Drawings below left and center are summaries of the generalizations given on p.143. Far right is an image to remind us that the face is never flat. It slopes back to varying degrees among individuals, from the tip of the nose t o the ears. For example, note that the innermost corners of the eyes are farther forward in space than the outermost corners.

General measurements, side

General measurements, front

View from above


Male and female head and neck
Men's necks a r e g e n e r a l l y s h o r t e r a n d t h i c k e r t h a n w o m e n ' s b e c a u s e t h e angles a n d levels o f c e r t a i n b o n e s a r e d i f f e r e n t b e t w e e n t h e sexes ( i n d i c a t e d h e r e b y d o t t e d lines) a n d m e n are n o r m a l l y m o r e muscular. T h e male t h y r o i d cartilage ( A d a m ' s apple) is larger a n d m o r e visible than t h e f e m a l e . L a r g e r f e m a l e t h y r o i d glands also s o f t e n t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e t h r o a t .

Female skull





Trapezius muscle
The largest m u s c l e o f t h e s h o u l d e r s a n d n e c k is called the trapezius. A r r a n g e d on e i t h e r side o f t h e spine, it shapes t h e u p p e r back and neck above the s h o u l d e r blades. C o n t r a c t i n g in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h d e e p e r and surrounding muscles, it raises and l o w e r s t h e shoulders a n d d r a w s t h e h e a d backtoeitherside.

The whole



half with



with head



with head


Side with


Front with




Drawing Portraits
USING A SHARP 3 B PENCIL, I drew this head quickly from imagination, evolving its character and expression from the scheme of four parts: cranium, face, neck, a n d throat (see p. 142). Here, five steps show you how to practice doing the same. This approach can be used to draw from imagination or from life. Keep your wrist loose and hold your pencil away from its point (see pp.22-23). Build the layers of your drawing from pale to dark, a n d from general balance a n d form to specific detail. Remember that successful drawings are built on foundations of "seeing the whole," then dividing the whole into smaller parts, with details brought in last of all. Phrased tonal marks modeling this girls skin and hair follow the technique demonstrated by Goya in his self-portrait on p. 130. Turn to Goya's drawing and study how, in a circle beginning across his hat, moving down his hair, and around his coat, he flows lines over surfaces to describe their contour. As you build from steps 1 to 5, bring phrased groups of lines across the surfaces of your form, using their directions to capture the expression of the head and neck. If unsure, copy my steps until you gain the confidence to make your own decisions.

This drawing is the final stage of the four steps opposite. Here, I have enlarged the eye, and moved it back into the head by trimming the length of the upper lid and adding a more pronounced lower lid. It is important to set eyes far enough back from the relatively prominent nose; too close to it and the face flattens. Hair swept back and extended behind the cranium balances the regal pose. Lines shaping the hair echo those marking the cranium in step 1. Here, the lower part of step 1 comes through as wisps of hair across her face and ear


Portrait of a Young Girl

2 Rapidly add shorthand shapes to represent the face. Moving from the back of the neck. too soon. I used light to describe the upper lid first with a shadow beneath for the lower lid and open eye. so it is important to the life of the image that while controlled. First lines will remain visible in the final drawing.147 Building up the portrait DRAWING PORTRAITS 1 Gently spin pale lines in a softly drawn shape representing the cranium. The eye announces the nature and expression of the emerging person. over the cranium.Theangle at which you draw this shape of the paper will determine the angle of the finished head. neck. The nose and ear begin to shape the head. Here. I modeled the outline of the character I imagined light shining from above and in front and adjusted the pressure of lines to reflect this. and throat. 4 . Keep your first lines light. 3 Place the eye beneath the cranium. down the face to the throat. avoid drawing too dark. they are also still sweeping and confident.


be aware of the subtle differences in skin surface. Above all. empathize.T o DRAW PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGES. muscular tension. . the texture of hair. and gravity. a n d t h o s e w h o a r e Generations asleep (see overleaf).



Van Dyke's noble cast of characters was modeled more finely. Fast lines carve out the features of Goya's soup-slurping hag. . I used the nib upside down to gain needle-sharp precision. seeking the dominant contours of each individual expression.Castings DRAWING IN THE PRADO MUSEUM. Madrid. with a steel dip pen and acrylic ink.



a n d s u b t l e t o n e s . for e x a m p l e — d e s i g n e d the w a r d r o b e s of p o p e s a n d k i n g s . a n d p r o f e s s i o n — b e g a n life as a d r a w i n g . c o s t u m e o f f e r s a r i c h v o c a b u l a r y of t e x t u r e s a n d c o l o r . intriguing. toParis. of Scheherazade. variety. g l o s s y folds. cool. Artists do this not so m u c h b y the style of a figure's garment. caricatured p l u m e s . gesture. and i n d e e d image b e c a m e the property also of the industrial classes. arichand unusual combination of pencil. b u t influenced Parisian fashion and interiordecor. and atmosphere. Cities c h a n g e d all. Designers all over the w o r l d c o n t i n u a l l y p e n and b r u s h lines to lash us w i t h color. and be so expressive of temperament that it overtakes the need for an o c c u p y i n g h u m a n form. T h e e n t o u r a g e of the theatrical stage o f t e n l e a d s the c a t w a l k . and e x u b e r a n c e . and gouache. and even invisible by the w a y w e dress.As artistic director of the It is s h o c k i n g to t h i n k h o w m a n y m i l l i o n s of d r a w i n g s m u s t be m a d e a n d d i s c a r d e d Ballet Russe. and intent. w a r m t h . In this c h a p t e r w e see h o w c l o t h i n g c a n s e e m to p o s s e s s the w e i g h t and m o n u m e n t a l i t y of stone. w h i c h in turn feed c o n s u m e r Lev. it is the public sign by w h i c h w e are j u d g e d . dancer leaps through swaths of golden cloth. charcoal. c u l t u r e . he and cofounder Serge Diaghilev took Paris by eac storm in 1910 with their production h year in the industrial f r e n z y of creating o u r image and aspirations. Previously. T h e p a p e r p a t t e r n is p e r h a p s the m o s t w i d e l y k n o w n of c o s t u m e d r a w i n g s : a formalized plan of lines. woman was drawn by Bakst one year later for the ballet Narcisse. D e s i g n e r s create m a s t e r p i e c e s of haute couture LEON BAKST for H o l l y w o o d stars. . st 111/4 x 81/2 in (285 x 220 mm) u d i e d L E O NB A K S T and explore the characterization of fabric t h r o u g h m o v e m e n t . Bakst's designs and costumes immediately To the fine artist. while court p a i n t e r s — M i c h e l a n g e l o and Holbein. outrageous. Samoylovich Rosenberg. Practical classes Bacchante 1911 l o o k at r a n g e s of c o l o r e d m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d i n g p a s t e l s a n d felt-tip p e n s . o n l y the w e a l t h y c o u l d afford to h a v e c o s t u m e s specially m a d e . P o p u l a r f a s h i o n d e s i g n e x p l o d e d w i t h the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n . theb u t b y the w a y it s p e a k s w i t h its flying. T h e rural masses w o r e h o m e s p u n simplicity.This voluptuous above all a physical p u p p e t w i t h w h i c h to animate character and narrate personality. or b u l g e s . so that c h o i c e . fulfilling lavish and spectacular briefs. In psychology. personality. and everything w e h a v e c h o s e n for o u r w a r d r o b e s — r e f l e c t o r s of o u r taste. e m u l a t e textures. S t r u c t u r e is t h o u g h the i n v e n t i o n of shoes. c r u m p l e s . or calm u s w i t h chic. a n d c o u r t i e r tailors f o l l o w e d suit. Like it or not. articulate a d a n g e r o u s satirical j o k e . shapes. was a Belarussian A r t Deco theater fantasies and desires to immediately possess a version of the same. and s y m b o l s that lets m e n and w o m e n in all countries and areas have w o r k i n g access to the latest fashions. a n d w e will c o l l e c t patterns.Costume W E MAKE OURSELVES EXOTIC. Petersburg and later exiled designers' ideas and are surprised and delighted b y their continual f l o w of inspiration. known as Leon Bakst. W e dress ourselves and costume designer trained in in St.

Short and subtle horizontal punctuations are only given in the background by sections of floor. it is only possible to create very thin. Church and deities are drawn as JAN VAN EYCK Flemish oil p a i n t e r f r o m L i m b o u r g . Maelbeke I44I Madonna 11 x 7 in (278 x 180 m m ) JAN V A N EYCK . the Madonna and her architecture are both dressed in the same manner. the vaulted stone roof echoes and crowns the moment. The quiet stillness of this image is achieved by a masterly economy of stylized line. He has layered these slowly and carefully so as not to cut through the ground and produce a white mark just where he intended a dark one. the carefully composed outline of his cloak shows us how the artist would have also begun his immaculate rendering of the Virgin's clothes. Marble gown We will never know if Van Eyck considered this drawing unfinished or intended the kneeling abbot to remain transient and ghostly. delicate lines. H e m e t i c u l o u s l y a r r a n g e d subjects t o c o n v e y d e e p e r meaning. dragons. resonate with their wearers startled expression. Delicate marks Silver (or metal) point is the most delicate of traditional drawing media (see pp. Above them. Vertical lines The highly controlled lines of this drawing cascade from top to bottom of the image. Below this. best k n o w n f o r his G h e n t altarpiece ( 1 4 3 2 ) a n d m a r r i a g e p o r t r a i t o f Giovanni A r n o l f i n i and his w i f e (1434). Sculpted one.140-41). In Van Eyck's drawing below. Keisai Eisen's intense. with their jagged edges. Her gown is carved and polished as if made from marble. Flaxmans sleeper—perhaps a pilgrim or a soldier resting between campaigns—has wedged himself into the cleft of some great building to grab a moment of peace. folds and patterns of material speak more resolutely of their wearers than any small glimpses of body we can see. and implied striation in the stone of the architecture. Their uninterrupted emphasis is entirely vertical. and the kneeling abbot is a ghost by comparison. Van Eyck's highly polished w o r k is c e l e b r a t e d f o r its disguised symbolism. swirling printed fabrics. bands around the columns. With a stylus such as Van Eyck used here.156 COSTUME Cloth and Drapery EACH OF THESE FIGURES is ninety percent cloth. her marble garment holds u p the infant Christ in a fountain of compressed line. However. and snakelike marks. Opposite.

and the feet notched against the pillar tell us that A lines holds him into the cleft. Images are drawn onto smooth. each delivering a different part and color of the design. Remaining raised areas of wood are rolled with colored inks. Respected for his sumptuous images of geisha and editions of erotic prints. he also co-edited and expanded the Ukiyo-e Ruiko (History of Prints of the Floating World). and teacher Distinctive linear illustrations for the works of Homer. which are sometimes also cut into pieces like a jigsaw puzzle. flat sheets of wood. Parts of the image to be left unprinted are gouged out with a metal tool.157 KEISAI EISEN Japanese draftsman. Position In this pen and ink drawing. an 18th-19th century document on the lives of the ukiyo-e artists. Dante. writer and printmaker Keisai Eisen took his name from the masters Kano Hakkeisai and Kikugawa Eizan. draftsman. Koimurasaki of Tama-ya 1810-50 15 x101/4in (381 x 260 mm) KEISAI EISEN The Courtesan JOHN F L A X M A N English late 18th-century neoclassical sculptor. one over the other. the cloak sliding to the ground. The inked block is laid face-down on damp paper and pressed to make the print. This complex numerous blocks prepared image and may have been made with printed separately. Aeschylus earned Flaxman an international reputation. CLOTH AND DRAPERY Relief printing This is a woodblock print made by a relief process. and Man Lying Down in a Cloak I 787-94 21/4 JOHN FLAXMAN x 41/8 in (57 x 105 mm) . the angle of the head. designer. stone wall of downward-stroked this sleeper's position is momentary.

The aged queen is compared to an overdressed bird. A flamboyant territory. A s a y o u n g man. t h r o u g h n u m e r o u s p o r t r a i t and C h u r c h commissions. cinema. Leg sections in both support the figure without taking our attention away from the main garment above. a scurrilous cartoon by a courtier of Queen Elizabeth I. Its color is also reflected in the metal. a n d w a s e m p l o y e d as c o u r t painter t o King Charles I. He has been rendered on this olive<olored page with pen and gray wash worked over a red and black under-drawing. theater. he c o o l e d and redefined his style. Fine examples can be plucked from fashion. b e f o r e traveling t o Italy. for she would not have been amused and William Wodall might have been stretching his luck. In 1 6 3 2 he m o v e d p e r m a n e n t l y t o L o n d o n . Flowing scarf The knight's scarf of gilded blue is drawn in a pale wash over red ink lines. Pen and wash In the graphic accuracy of this armored knight we see the idealized identity of a warrior from another time: a gleaming defender of the realm. A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE Flemish painter and draftsman. cloth. Leg section Compare mid-shin the section of white boots cropped to the section of similarly cropped trousers in drawings Gruau's drawing on p. Man in Armor UNDATED 1 6 x 9 1 / 2 in ( 4 0 5 x 2 4 0 m m ) A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE . The metal. Van D y k e was chief assistant t o Rubens f o r t w o years. w h e r e . The slight uncertainty of the pose and the limp cloak suggest a little more metal than man. where sometimes there just might not be anybody inside. 160. cartoon. and feather were all CHARACTER COSTUMES REPRESENT observed with closely crafted conviction. and even formal portraiture. Its warm surface flows in contrast to the stiff metal armor.158 COSTUME Character Costumes an extreme form of the clothed figure. Anthony Van Dyke's Man in Armor is a masterpiece of drawn surface. Opposite is a dangerous drawing. Details and voices are worn externally with great imagination. all ruffs and wrinkles. It is presumed Her Royal Highness never saw it. lace.

and her pride. T h e poem recounts t h e six m a j o r crises o f Elizabeth's reign: t h e Spanish A r m a d a . t h e B a b i n g t o n Plot. By her old upto three tiers supported on sticks. manuscript comprising six c a n t o s . it was customary to Iron-gall ink Wodall's dangerous caricature steps daintily the written lines of her dedicated page. and saturations showing through from the other side. t h e Jesuit Mission.35). she is shown as a grossly disproportioned bird.1599 71/2 WILLIAM x 51/4 in ( 1 9 0 x 1 3 4 mm) WODALL .159 WILLIAM W O D A L L A u t h o r and illustrator o f The Aaes of Queene a Elizabeth poem Allegorized. Top-heavy. t h e Ridolfi Plot. suggest the use of iron-gall ink (see p. the queen is masterfully rebalanced by words at her feet The whole drawing's blackened. hooded with an overinflated fluffy ruff eye pins us. bitten nature. Northern Satire This is a quill-and-ink satire of the elderly queen's pride-As head of state and fashion. Satire of the Queen's Dress c. t h e Rising. here dark tawny owl. A Ruffs and feathers Starched white ruffs worn at court and by society grew steadily larger as Elizabeth's reign progressed. Beneath the lethal fan is the body of a bird of trimmed feathers suggest age. while a raised foot pauses to assess the next displaying a fan of daggers.

and both share the power of scarlet and black. Harpers & Queen.5 9 ) and a three-spoke balance of cuffs and cropped trousers to create an almost flag-like emblem of power.c e n t u r y haute i n n u m e r o u s m a g a z i n e s i n c l u d i n g Elle. 5 8 . a n d L'Officiel de la couture. Rene Gruau's bold gouache drawing of smoothly swaying sophistication captures a brilliantly cut garment and frames it with great dynamism in a white. diving to catch us in the grip of her machine-like limbs. The black red. and gray pigments were applied separately. ofcroppedtrousershere to the device of the w Illustration 1949 for Jacques Fath in L ' O f f i c i e l d e la C o u t u r e RENE GRUAU . His model is outlined. Vogue.and tilted to the same de a little deeper than sp kneestogivehergravity. Drying time in between applications ensured the colors did not run into each other.F r e n c h f a s h i o n i l l u s t r a t o r w h o in his l o n g and esteemed career w o r k e d with many of the g r e a t e s t d e s i g n e r s o f 2 0 t h . demanding attention with gesture and flair. studio-like rectangle of paper. as is Spider-Girl opposite. 158. Spider-Girl leaps like an insect.160 COSTUME Femmes Fatales THESE DEVASTATING femmes fatales force back the onlooker with their demure. India ink and gouache This swish of confidence and style our enters the page turning everyone's head. Compare the compositio beneathVanDyke'sstudy of armor on p. She has been drawn with brushes dipped into India ink and gouache. Fashion and fantasy drawings invent prototypes of ideals and perfection—be they for the catwalk or the fast-paced pages of comic books. G r u a u ' s highly distinctive d r a w i n g s have a p p e a r e d Couture. Airbrushed reflective surfaces further amplify our perception of speed. Composition Look how well this image is frame knee is parallel to the bottom edge spacehorizontalline cropping the trousers be outermostuprightbordersof her cuffs are similar above her head thesidesoftheimage. Gruau uses starkly cut negative space (see pp. Gruau's model regally swans to the fore with cool pride. RENE GRUAU I t a l i a n . muscular aggression. possibly over a pencil outline. elegant chic and svelte. Fine lines drawn against the building behind her echo the threads on which we have all seen arachnids drop and hang.

not far above the drawing.74-77). Sharp focus black outlines in this drawing create a hyper-real dynamic.RON F R E N Z Contemporary American graphic artist w h o designs and pencils the dynamic scenes of numerous superheroes featured in Marvel Comics. Airbrushed color and with tonal focus. at Their extensions will meet the same single vanishing (see point pp. moon. Buildings. and Amazing Spider-Man. Frenz has drawn for Marvel for about 20 years. to the right of its center. The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones. and figure are all locked into equally shatp through the traditional process of a pencilled outline over-drawn ink. a great characteristic superhero comics. He began work on Spider-Girl in 1998. MARVEL C O M I C S . Single-point understand perspective To how Frenz created up therefore the effect of steeply between looking buildings—and howyou can do the same in your own work—take calculate where a ruler the and single vanishing point lies. In your mind's eye extend the uprights out of the top of the picture. It is outside the picture frame. beginning with Star Wars. This s modeling applied over the top give the image a sleek and mechanical of gravity. Align your ruler to the upright of each building. Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 2001-04 R O N FRENZ. sky. and has been the title's regular artist since 2003.

4. Degas built his pastels in layers. Children's wax crayons are relatives. The worst are like revolting old lipsticks that get everywhere except where you intend. Dissolve in turpentine or mineral spirits to produce oil paint or or dark paper. insects. soft. though lines can develop greasy stains around the edges if the paper is not first stretched and treated with a gelatin paste laid as a wash. Be aware that fixative dulls pastel. Often. or wax and a binder are shaped into fine strips and encased in w o o d like a graphite pencil. slightly oily to the touch. the diverse are made in brands of basic member of the family. wash. quality and cost T h e best are paperwrapped sticks of sumptuous. animals. these work best when slightly warm. COLORED PENCILS: Dry pigments ground together with chalk. and subtlety. paper-wrapped. 2. mixed on the paper and scratched into (as below). See h o w they work and return later for more of what proved best for you. They vary hugely in cost. which he left unfixed to retain its brightness. are derived from many sources: rocks. unwrapped harder pastels. Many artists apply fixative to the back of their work. oily pigment. Pastels are finer. made in about 80 colors. Pastel pencils are slender and in w o o d casing. Before making substantial investments. you may be pleasantly surprised to discover something you could not have imagined using. Sticks and conte crayons make thicker marks (as below). and can be softened and manipulated with degrees of heat. I suggest you do so. Seemingly infinite choices of texture. including iridescents. fixing each layer on the front. CHALK PASTELS: Blackboard chalk is sidewalk work. and cost are laid out for our pleasure and perusal. there are disparities between the apparent nature or color of what you hold in your hand and its performance on paper. quality. and can be a great rediscovery for bold drawings. The higher the quality (and cost). They work well on PIGMENTS Pigments. purchase a small selection of different items you think you will like. 1. 3. size. plants. hue. minerals. the finer and more subtle the texture and color should be. Bright pastels are more brilliant on colored paper. chalkbased but very subtle. colored materials available. Use them to draw lightly (as above left) or thickly. Many products are sold individually and in boxed sets. great for tin . Most stores leave small pads of paper on their counters for customers to test materials. C o n t e crayons are square-formed. except the final layer. Beware—some are toxic. clay. Store loose pastels in dry rice to keep them clean.162 COSTUME Colored Materials ART STORES BRIM OVER w i t h t h e m a n y wherever permitted. and CHALK PASTELS Pastel pencils make fine lines (as above). shape. Try materials that are new and unfamiliar. crumbly. and sold in many colors. intensity. OIL PASTELS Oil-based. used to make colors. The nontoxic range below represents a suggested starting point for experiment. OIL PASTELS: Many colors. and synthetics. allowing it to fix slightly from behind. FELT-TIP PENS: Instant-drying alcoholor water-based inks stored in the barrels of the pens are delivered via smooth nylon o r felt tips of varying shapes and thicknesses.

Think of Matisse's Blue Nude (see p.or clay-based thin crayons in wood casing.163 COLORED PENCILS These are wax. FELT-TIP PENS Although not made with felt-tip pen. Fine lines can be achieved (as above). . Some are nonsoluble. it is still a great champion and support for those beginners feeling shyly obligated to tone down their love of color to conform with what others say they should use. Some give richer lines than others. Diverse brands are harder or soften greasier or chalkier in use. others dissolve in water or turpentine to make a wash. leaving the paper to shine through for highlights (as below). so it is best to test them before buying. If you love smooth blocks and lines of colon felt-tip pens are perfect. Brands made for designers sold in enormous ranges of colors are far more subtle and sophisticated than those made for children. 111). Colors can be blended as shown right) and tones graded by altering pressure.

I m a d e n u m e r o u s s h e e t s o f d r a w i n g s . To set up. while artists have painted their boots or those of others as personal portraits and memorials. e n j o y i n g t h e study a n d i n v e n t i o n o f shoes. personality. S H O E S TELL LIFE STORIES. REPEATED STUDY T o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s class. social and economic status. structure. D r a w each o n e first as a solid object. you will need several large sheets of drawing paper. and they have been concealed in buildings to ward off misfortune. This class takes the shoe as its subject in building on earlier lessons concerned with seeing through objects to understand their function. Here we go one step further. Turn t h e m in different d i r e c t i o n s and o b s e r v e t h e i r s t r u c t u r e and f o r m . . values. imagining y o u can see t h r o u g h it. c o v e r a large sheet o f p a p e r w i t h line drawings o f several shoes. they record and reflect our common history. a n d e x p e r i e n c e visible p r o g r e s s . t o o . Superstitions and fetishes are attached to them: we are told never to put new shoes on a table. Linear Outline Using fine pens. the era in which we live. You. if y o u m a k e p l e n t y o f d r a w i n g s as o p p o s e d t o o n l y a f e w . will discover m o r e . t h e n again as if transparent. and after studying familiar shoes we use the information learned to invent new ones. 104-07). As artifacts in museums. and volume in space (see pp. 100-01 and pp. a range of colored felt-tip pens with both fine and broad tips.164 COSTUME Study and Design they reflect our age. style. and how we stand and walk. and a selection of shoes.


The Surface


study the surface contours using fineand broad-tipped felt-tip pens. For best results, it is important to be bold and brief. Draw firmly, fast, and with as few strokes as possible. Build up each shoe from light to dark andleavesome paper showing through to create highlights.

Design Your Own

Using what you have learned from the previous steps about the structures of your shoes, and about the use of pens, invent new designs from your imagination. Start with fine outlines and progress to colored and textured surfaces. Modify your ideas by rotating the views.



The Structure of Costume

rich resource for the artist and

information given by a period style. Arrange to visit a costume museum or ask a friend to model clothes for you at home. Using fine felt-tip pens, begin with quick, pale impressions of each garment's shape before homing in on its borders and seams. Try to draw transparent views wherever possible to record the relationships between all component parts. Aim to draw enough information for it to be possible to make up a version of the garment using paper pinned to a tailor's dummy.

designer. They often give quite unexpected gems of ideas and information—whatever the subject. These drawings, made in a costume museum, demonstrate ways of recording structural information and detail for later use in the studio. They could form the basis of new designs for a fashion project or theater production, for example. Drawings of shoes on pp. 164-65 show how new designs can be evolved from the structural

It is usually best when collecting information for reference to apply the restraint of dispassionate observation. Set yourself the test of drawing facts with as little artistic license or embellishment as possible. Here I chose fine felt-tip pens because they are at their best when used swiftly, and therefore encourage bold, unhesitant decisions.

Swift lines record the hanging weight of this gentleman's coat, the relative proportions of its layers, and minimal details of the buttons and cuffs.

Thick velvet fabric is pulled tight beneath and across the bust by a single button. This transparent view shows how the fabric falls loosely in straight panels beneath the level of the sleeve.


W h e n visiting museums, be prepared f o r l o w lighting, which can make it hard t o see and draw. A book can help if attached t o your drawing board.

Adding stripes and dashes of color with a thicker pen brings out the glossy sheen and sculptural rigidity of this dress, which would have been worn over a whalebone corset. small reading light designed t o clip o n t o a


In small drawings such as these, use thick pens to color entire sections with a few marks, as I did here down the side of the bodice.

The light, frilly bulk of this crinoline dress is propelled forward with lines. pinching its gathers and sways that are hiding a horsehair bustle. fleets of quick



Textures and.Patterns
THIS CLASS FOCUSES ON how to draw textures through the collection of fabric, pattern, and embroidery samples from a costume m u s e u m . This formal method, using ruled squares, can create an invaluable library of ideas a n d i n f o r m a t i o n for future r e f e r e n c e — w h e n painting a clothed figure, or preparing a textile project, for example. However, if making a book of samples for a project, remember that it is important to also include collages of f o u n d materials (see pp.230-31) To d r a w a fabric texture, b e g i n by concentrating o n h o w y o u i m a g i n e it w o u l d feel if you t o u c h e d it. Decide if it w o u l d be rough, s m o o t h , w a r m , cold, thick, thin, tough, or fragile, for example. As you draw, believe you can feel these qualities at your fingertips a n d that your pencil is responding to the sensation. Undulate the pressure of your lines and marks according to the feeling of the fabric rather than its appearance. Let your pencil enact the sensation of touching its surface.

and to experiment more loosely with mixed media.

This starchy, quilted, b o w e d creation started life as an imagined corset, I intended t o d r a w together in one sculptural f o r m a range o f t h e details opposite. T h e garment quickly got o u t o f hand. T h e r e is great e n j o y m e n t in letting y o u r imagination run wild w h e n inventing costumes. If you are unable t o visit a costume museum, many exciting fabric details and textures can be found in y o u r o w n closet o r home.


Colored pencils give precision and tonal range; they can be faded but not erased. Lightly use an HB graphite pencil if you wish to plan a design first. Pressed hard, colored pencils build up a waxy finish of brilliant color. Used lightly, they appear powdery and show the texture of the paper.


Silk and braid


Embroidered leather





Outline stitch


identity.Dressing Character I O N C E SPENT THREE MONTHS researching the work of Francisco de Goya at the Prado Museum. shape.126-27. . Madrid. look at how Goya delineated volumes of thick fabric to express the posture. and motivation of an individual. and 252-53). These characters. I made a drawing book full of studies seeking to understand how he composed drama and pathos in his narratives (see also pp. 172-73. selected from different pages of my original book.

and tangible. . are copies of works by Goya in which he makes air seem heavier than flesh. To understand how he did this.T H E S E PENCIL STUDIES.170—71). and visible. as it rushes and carves fabric-wrapped forms like rivers and desert winds shaping the earth. I carefully copied the direction of each of his lines. Posture Carving also taken from my Madrid drawing book (see pp.



the viewer is not directly made the finer lines of Saskia. Washes of shadow behind engaged and as a natural voyeur can feel invisible while watching the scene. this is not the portrait of an old woman. vivid portrait of his wife captures our attention. soap operas. the speed and printmaker and one of the greatest and most influential density of its lines. furniture. Storytelling and people-watching are obsessive human activities. the viewer's attention in a scene by the format of its composition. stares out from her gloomy sickbed. He in turn scorches the paper with his view and a certain speed of seeing all. Drawings selected for this chapter explore these Saskia Lying in Bedand a Nurse ranges of proximity 1638 9 x61/2in (227 x 164 mm) and a travel journal. First. in spite of how it may seem. Third. Rembrandt's bored and frustrated wife. heighten or subdue drama with subtleties of exaggeration or caricature. even up her were laid with a brush. With a pocket full of disposable pens we also go out and draw the expressions of gathered people. He is also the artist from whom props to add layers of meaning and attitude. and other masters of Western Art. paintings depicting scenes from history. there are no longer individuals but one significant group or mass action. Blockbuster movies. Seeing through Rembrandt's eyes. and instantly engage with the action of the scene. a crowd tells the story from a distance. too. television documentaries. This J u s t as there are three parts to a traditional landscape drawing—the foreground. Here. The spaces between people and the positions they occupy on a page are vital to our understanding of the psychology or emotion of an event. . types.Gatherings A LL DRAWINGS TELL STORIES. daily newspapers. but drawings of gathered people tell them most directly. and distance—so drawings of gathered people can be loosely arranged in three took only minutes to make and yet it lives for centuries. Saskia. As artists. the viewer. R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN in the delivery of narrative. we can R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter draftsman. comics. and therefore seem to see. Second. and novels—our staple cultural diet—are driven by a fascination with shared experience and the detail of what happens in other people's lives. Saskia died after childbirth. presumably while he is making this drawing. and so. We read tensions and exchanges between people. the direct exchange (as shown here) where one or more characters hold eye Aneedproduced the thicker lines of the nurse. we. finding corners in crowded places to inscribe their action and energy onto the page. while a quill contact with. we can learn most about handling pen and ink. and its illumination. It middle. We can direct close. are implicated in this marital exchange made over the head of the anonymous nurse. Later in their lives. Her all-too-clear expression shows annoyance and irritation with her husband. We can also use clothes.

T h e i m m a c u l a t e d r a w i n g is only r e v e a l e d w h e n t h e b e a m of a p r o j e c t o r c a s t s t h e s h a d o w Projections of the h e a p o n t o a wall. In both works. Real Life is Rubbish 2002 Dimensions variable TIM N O B L E A N D SUE WEBSTER . and projector. TIM N O B L E A N D SUE W E B S T E R British artists who collaborate using neon. refuse. t h e y select and arrange familiar items of street detritus into what appears to be an u n p l e a s a n t pile. garbage and chaos are piled a n d e x p l o d e d in r o o m s full of event. or even the office photocopier." (Tim Noble) Drawing with light it is important to think about what you is Here timelessly we see a in can draw with. a kitchen explodes in o u r faces. via the animated clutter of o u r material lives. Below.. Here. junk. Pencil on paper important but only the beginning of possibility the combination of three-dimensional space. F o r e a c h w o r k . and smoke billows around the agitated jives of the Duchess. Pans fly oft the stove. and Alice. and projectors to create their anarchic punk satires of modern life.kicks against the mundane things that close down your mind is a refreshing and good thing."Anything that. In one of R a c k h a m s great illustrations for Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland. narrative is delivered through the air. hearth i m p l e m e n t s crash at o u r feet. the C o o k . Think about what else you could use: a laser smoke. N o b l e a n d W e b s t e r s w i t t y a n d o f t e n s u b v e r s i v e d r a w i n g s are also c o n t e m p o r a r y art installations.. and in. for example. plates shatter. c o m p o s e d garbage p r o d u c e s a c a l m . the Cat. and on.176 GATHERINGS SOME DRAWINGS ARE MADE e n t i r e l y o f i l l u m i n a t i o n that floods drama into the viewers gaze. h a l o e d portrait of the artists seated b a c k to b a c k .

The wood grain acts like marks of speed behind the scene. we find several devices already explored through our drawing classes. Find the singleperspective pp. are very large compared to on p. and Poe's Tales Imagination. See how the In the Duchess's Kitchen 1907 77/8 x 6 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 5 0 m m ) ARTHUR RACKHAM . Refer back to the drawing class how pots In drawn objects and elements that those behind. Depth Billows of smoke expand and are lighter as they come forward. a n d an unmistakable graphic style. humor.177 ARTHUR RACKHAM British watercolorist and book illustrator. H e is best k n o w n forillustratingIrving's Rip vanWinkle. and Alice's shoulder.76-77) above vanishing point (see that is about3/4in (2 cm) oak converge at this point. beams. by vivid children's Rakham's w o r k is characterized fantasy. tabletop. ink. 100 to see for make elliptical objects and pans fly through the the foreground.Stowe's ofMysteryand Queer Little Folks. This makes the story appear to leap out at us. and watercolor. amplifying movement outward from the vanishing point. Rackham Vanishing point In this marvelous drama made with pen.

as fellow watchers. Moore's spectators appear to have walked a long way from nowhere to witness and wait beside this mysterious obelisque. join in the waiting. and action of a buffalo hunt. and composition they are polar opposites. Opposite. Chalk and graphite This fog-bound but humorous gathering of souls is made in graphite and colored chalk with gray wash. heat. and we.178 GATHERINGS we have seen in the pairs and trios of drawings by masters and makers. and art in the landscape. perhaps these two are the most extreme. In culture. This is just one of many precious artifacts from a lost time. A glimmer of gold light appears from the left No explanation is given. a sculptor. Magnetic Fields sculpture. expressing his dry humor about O F ALL THE CONTRASTS HENRY MOORE British s c u l p t o r w h o t r a i n e d a n d taught at t h e R C A . meaning. audiences. which still narrates vivid days in the lives of an energetic nation. a n d l o v e d t o d r a w in t h e BritishMuseum.The human form w a s the vehicle o f his expression and h e w a s t h e official W o r l d W a r II artist. London. HENRY MOORE Crowd 1942 Looking at Tied-up Object . The mournful gray landscape of Henry Moore's northern British field has gathered by night an overcoated audience to stand and wait before a wrapped and roped monument. M o o r e t o u r e d Italy as a young man. The image stands out among his more usual graphic works in which he hones and carves semi-abstract human forms. as if Moore's wrapping has been literally outstretched. a great Shoshone drawing blazes with the color. This is an ironic drawing from Moore.

Each color is evenly distributed throughout the scene. tolearnhow to paint a scene on a hide are and buffalo circle and charge the perimeters of a skin "field. horses. Stylized hunters." Men at the instructed to sit and watch. MAGNETIC FIELDS Horses It is interesting to note how the outstretched limbs ofthesehorses echo European images of the runningBuffalo horse before the sequence-photographer Muybridge taught us to 19TH understand their movement differently. Hunt CENTURY SHOSHONE SCHOOL . creating harmonious balance with words but through silent demonstration. Skills are taught not center chant or dance to the beat of a drum.179 SHOSHONE SCHOOL Stylized characters This vital image of a buffalo hunt is made with pigment Members of the Shoshone community wishing painted within dark outlines on a stretched elk hide. and helping our eye to dart around.

B l a k e h a s i l l u m i n a t e d his s a d d e n e d Virgil on the s h o r e s of a d a r k w o r l d . a n d f o c u s . texture. w h i c h b y their c h o i c e a n d h a n d l i n g a c t u a l l y b e c o m e the force a n d spirit of e a c h i m a g e . m a r k . Heath Robinson lived through the same war-torn. The muscularity of Blake's figures was inspired by Michelangelo's works. W I L L I A M BLAKE British visionary. inextinguishable in its fortitude and h u m o r . Opposite. a n d o t h e r w o r k s .180 GATHERINGS The Human Condition IN THE SPECTRUM of these vastly d i f f e r e n t g a t h e r i n g s of p e o p l e . a pink-inked cinema wobbles along with string. a d e a t h c h a r g e of brutality. and sweetened the often bleak years with his impractical inventions. t h e Bible. era as Kollwitz. K a t h e K o l l w i t z s c r a t c h e d a n d e n g r a v e d her a r m y of c l a y . We also see qualities of line. The Circle of the (The Whirlwind 1824 of Lustful Lovers) mm) 143/4 x 207/8i n ( 3 7 4 x 5 3 0 WILLIAM BLAKE . Misted in translucent layers of paint. Brushed line and wash This is an ink-outlined drawing made with a fine brush on paper with added washes of watercolor The image was subsequently redrawn as a line engraving. color. w h e r e he w a t c h e s a t u r b u l e n t s p i r a l of p u n i s h m e n t f o r the d a m n e d . a n d the gentle h u m o r of sedate r i d i c u l e . p o e t . It illustrates a scene from Dante's Divine Comedy. pale souls of the lustful are being s p u n into yet another realm of hell.f o o t e d t r o g l o d y t e s w h o rage into w a r like a m u d s l i d e of revenge. w r i t e r a r t i s t . a n d e n g r a v e r w h o p o w e r f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e d his o w n t e x t s in a d d i t i o n t o D a n t e ' s Divine Comedy. w e f i n d a spiritual v i s i o n . Blake w a s d r i v e n b y a passion f o r j u s t i c e a n d a p r o f o u n d b e l i e f in his v i s i t a t i o n s f r o m angels.

Losbruch (The Outbreak) 1955 20 x 233/8 in (507 x 592 mm) KATHE KOLLWITZ HEATH ROBINSON humorous illustrator and a regular contributor to magazines and journals such as The Sketch and The Bystander. and clearly focused. Ink rolled over was selectively polished off using a rag. The image was scratched directly onto a metal plate. however meager or ridiculous their activity. sculptor and draftsman. Robinson and Kollwitz (above) share almost identical life dates and their work expresses a shared history from opposite sides oftheworld wars. and her powerful and sensitive drawings center on nurture. HEATH ROBINSON The Kinecar 1926 103/8 x 15 in (262 x 380 mm) . THE HUMAN CONDITION Scratched lines This is a dry-point etching with monoprint. plodding along with hazy. who lived in a poor district of Berlin. Heath Robinson shows England in a past era. and the family home. White marks were made with a dusting of French chalk on the artist's finger to wipe away ink leaving clean metal. poverty. What remained in scratched grooves printed on damp paper as lines. With masterful gentility. stoical bemusement. British Pen and wash This is a pen-andwatercolor drawing made for a color-platereproduction in an edition of T h e Bystander. and the impact of death and war upon women. and controlled smears on the metal surface printed as tones.181 KATHE KOLLWITZ German printmaker. He created sincere. children. Kollwitz survived the two World Wars. humor by making his characters earnest.

. a n d pressure-sensitive. dark sheen. Quick-drying. W h i t e gel p e n s a r e v e r y e f f e c t i v e o n d a r k papers. build to a rich. Unlike pencils. which can snap or pierce through your clothes. if y o u w i s h y o u r d r a w i n g s t o last a n d n o t fade o r b l u r w i t h t i m e a n d e x p o s u r e t o light. B A L L P O I N T : Black a n d b o l d c o l o r s o f f e r d i v e r s e qualities. a ballpoint will make faint lines.182 GATHERINGS Disposable Pens (ballpoints. or idea. Available in blacks and ranges of colors. T h e r e w e r e c seconds t o snatch this impression b e t w e e n their emergence from one bridge and disappearance b e n e a t h t h e next. jot notes. trusting shape and form to follow. 4. and in most pockets so I can always record a thought DISPOSABLE PENS QUICK NOTES O n a c o l d day in Venice. or put the paper in your pocket instantly without fear of smudging. blob when old. fibertips. including l u m i n o u s a n d m e t a l l i c . they each offer distinct and sometimes unexpected qualities. So many stores sell them. G E L P E N : P r o d u c e d in b l a c k w h i t e . a n d ranges o f colors. For example. R e m e m b e r . a disposable pen with its clip-on cap goes anywhere. t w o tourists and their gondolier drifter past m e o n a canal. 192-93) w e r e b o t h m a d e w i t h a ballpoint. Ideal f o r precision w o r k (see p p . in the studio. they can be obtained within minutes." 1. is d e l i v e r e d t h r o u g h a m e t a l t u b e o v e r a t i n y ball bearing. The f o u r i l l u s t r a t e d h e r e r e p r e s e n t a basic r a n g e . or turn into washes and make monoprints if flooded with an alcohol-based substance such as hairspray. Lines t h i c k e n as t h e p e n w e a r s o u t G r a n d Canal (see pp. p e r m a n e n t . t h e y a r e lightfast. 7 6 . 2. in the car. turn the page.r e s i s t a n t . FIBER-TIP: M a n u f a c t u r e d f o r artists a n d d e s i g n e r s in a r a n g e o f w i d t h s . At a time like this. c h o o s e p e n s l a b e l e d " p e r m a n e n t " o r "lightfast. w a t e r . gel pens) are the most convenient of all materials with which to travel. fine fiber-tip Drawing with a fine fiber-tip pen. indent paper.188-89) and Caravans (see pp. dropped in your pocket and forgotten till needed. shut your book. rollerballs. aiming for correct outlines would result in drawing too slowly to c a t c h the moment. these pens enable you to sketch. Insensitive t o p r e s s u r e : lines d o n o t v a r y in w i d t h o r t o n e .7 7 and 214-15). I keep quantities at home. CHOICES AVAILABLE T h e r e a r e m a n y d i s p o s a b l e p e n s t o c h o o s e from. I swiftly focused on gesture. R O L L E R B A L L : A c o n s t a n t i n k flow 3 .

Compare this Klee's mules on p.FROMMEMORY Here I used the same fiber-tip pen to compose a scene from memory.31 . Earlier I had witnessed a crammed en masse in a fleet of hired gondolas complete with musicians and choir. crowd of fellow travelers Fast lines These scribbled lines model the mass and shadows of heads belonging passengers packed into the boat. Fast lines focus on action. not form.

animate them more. life will not slow and wait for you to catch it. when out drawing. Push toward caricature and this will draw out of your memory what was most important. of course. Each one was witnessed and drawn immediately from the afterimage of what I had just seen. You must learn to trust your memory and to draw what impressed you most. activity. but they should not be what you dwell on. and companionship. Above all. focus on the action of the event. A curatorial assistant flies to do a chore (right). Circular lines buzz around a man puzzling at the end of a train platform (left). However. let it enter the stage and perform. all action is in the line of his coat and directed by his nose. make them stouter. black. not its outline. Every drawing writes an indelible memory of place. FLEETING MOMENTS Walking through Venice with a small. Each line acts its part in the narrative. if a person was stout. Let the line of the flying coat fly and the hanging arm hang. just draw the action. You will make outlines. I caught fleeting glimpses of gathered people and solitary souls going about their affairs. Exaggeration helps. if animated.184 GATHERINGS The Travel Journal I CANNOT OVERSTATE THE JOY of making a travel journal. Don't worry about measuring angles. Movement . pocket notebook and a fiber-tip pen. angles will happen as a matter of course. No camera can tie you to a time or people in the same way.

The rush of his legs isamplifiedby their blurred lines.185 A large lady is photographed in front of a delicate work of art. I am watched by the aggravated guard. Expression . I drew him three times on the same page to catch a range of his physical expressions. eager to herd us all from his house of responsibility. Observation THE TRAVEL JOURNAL The same willowy assistant dashes about his work. In turn.

pulls. emotion. I took refuge in a church in Venice. and clothing or bags hang. flap. Here I have recreated my drawing in steps to show you how to set about capturing such a scene. rather than the works of art they guarded. and there met this sullen custodian. forcing me to remain at the back and look at them. Here the custodian projects fastidious ownership of his desk and pamphlets by pushing from behind the center of the space and challenging our entry to his image. Be aware that their placement on the page is part of the narrative. For example. or bulge. furniture leans. placement. elevate them in the pictorial space. and you decide to draw the moment. you might place them lower down. if they are being haughty. Identify the principal character and draw him or her first. When your attention has been caught. Place the person carefully. He and his simpering assistant would not allow me in. ACTION AND DETAIL W h e n drawing people. not outline.186 GATHERINGS Catching the Moment On A BITTERLY COLD November day. start by focusing on its action. and reason for happening. if they are being devious. focus on action. For example. decide how faces and bodies contort. and let every detail speak by its size. . and involvement in the story. or pushes.

Here. continue adding characters. who is largely expressed through the shape and fall o f his raincoat and his way o f using a note pad. Draw their action and props. W i t h a few strokes. .187 The custodian Identify your principal character a n d their psychological role in the scene. CATCHING THE MOMENT The assistant Identify t h e antagonist ( o r second character) in t h e scene. Decide where you will place them o n the paper t o emphasize their action and intent. D r a w their action. which is pushed toward us in a gesture of confrontation. such as the desk and pamphlets seen here. Decide where t o place them t o emphasize their role. In the final step (left) I reinforced t h e custodian's desk. If drawing a more complex scene. a pillar locates t h e scene in a depth o f space. I added t h e assistant. together with any immediate props they are using.


Grand Canal T H E CANALS OF VENICE are bustling places full of occupation. and buildings. I developed detailofthis drawing from memory using a ballpoint pen. An imminent deluge of tourists urged me to work catching no more than the skeleton of the view. . where vertical mooring poles give space and pulse to the horizontal speed of water quickly.

then the bridge beneath them. . To catch characters like this. Caricature each person slightly.Crossings DURING THIS RUSH HOUR. Venetians flow across a stepped bridge and cascade into the streets beyond. note only their most essential action and feature. Characters in the foreground were drawn first. Each person was glimpsed in an instant. followed by the streets. and drawn immediately from memory.



I found this circus by chance in the Swiss mountains. I used a ballpoint pen to compose a series of scenes. Caravans and other backstage activity convey expectations of energy and repose. quiet afternoon. Sitting at a distance on a hot. .Caravans T H E PARAPHERNALIA O F TRAVEL i s an intriguing part of circus life. and a great subject to draw.




arranging them in perfect circles on the mountainside or in lines drifting out of sight beneath low clouds. and even how the Sun illuminates. Russell d r e w this. England. makes his work by the act of walking. William Turner is said to have had himself lashed to a ship's mast to comprehend the storm (see p. trees. how the mountain cut by ice and rain is now fleetingly lit. H e a l s o p r o d u c e d an a l b u m o f 1 8 0 exquisite pencil drawings. By drawing such momentous and everyday events.Earth and the Elements I T MAY SEEM PERVERSE to start a chapter titled "Earth and the Elements" with an image of the Moon. marking the ground with lines of footprints or by turning stones. The pastel drawing was constructed from myriad telescopic observations almost 200 years before the Apollo Moon landing. a contemporary environmental artist. the face of the Moon. Oxford. surrounded by the bright instruments of centuries of navigation. JOHN RUSSELL A p o r t r a i t pastelist t o King G e o r g e III o f England. pages o f softly i l l u m i n a t e d craters and lunar "seas" c o v e r e d in m a t h e m a t i c a l and s h o r t h a n d calculations. artists see for themselves that which is momentary and eternal. speculation. when little stirs and empty blue skies offer even less to latch lines to. so J o h n Russell's tour de f o r c e drawing (opposite) was a masterpiece of observation in his time. and the sea. our companion. rivers. a n d a n astronomer w h o dedicated 20 years t o studying t h e M o o n . a n d a m o o n globe called t h e Selenographia. This is the world's first accurate image of the Moon. Take chances against the rain and work with the wind or fog. Look closely at works by many artists and you will see that they have not represented hills. It is Earths satellite. t w o e n g r a v e d m a p s k n o w n as The Lunar Planispheres. and take bold steps in emulating the swell of clouds and the forces of torrential water. to be ready to draw the new light as it breaks across the land. and experiment. It now hangs on the staircase of the History of Science Museum. sunny days. and its draws the tides of the seas. they are the animators of your subject. are the real subjects in great landscape drawings. how the soil is scorched. 5 f t x 5 ft 6 in ( 1 5 2 x 1 6 8 c m ) J O H N RUSSELL . the sun comes out to blind it. In this chapter Moon Pastel 1795 Drawing we experiment with charcoal. Weather is essential in all landscape drawing. What they have drawn is the force of nature on these properties: how the wind heaves the night ocean. These conditions are very difficult to express well. t h e first-ever accurate image o f t h e M o o n ' s surface. or has cracked and fallen under the weight of water. Beginners will often choose calm. 199). and meteor impacts have scarred. learning to draw light out of dark. Just as NASA photographs of Earth have had a profound effect on the way we view our fragile home. There is a sense of the heroic in drawing outside—we race to catch a form before the tide engulfs it. but it can be seen as a lens to our observation of this planet. It is better to get up before dawn. as opposed the physicality of Earth. The forces of nature. Richard Long. or the wind carries it away.

By Turner carries us to the heart of the maelstrom. Fluid strokes inflate the woman's dress and pin shadows to the ground. like an umbrella forced inside-out. we can soon learn to draw its force. Hazy vertical marks reveal buildings into the mist. T h e ship. a sail b r o k e n loose in a stormy marriage. a scratched ghost. the government. fluttering heavily. painter. Daumier's c a r t o o n shines with the brilliance of his comic memory. He knew how the world bends and stutters under such gusts. and by observing its tides and eddies in our o w n environment. speed. Crayon and limestone This is a lithograph. This wife. and the legal profession.Through political drawings he fired his sharp wit at the king. and solidity. T h e great master of English seascape is c o n d u c t i n g with his graphic energy.198 EARTH AND THE E L E M E N T S Air in Motion THE GREAT INVISIBLE SUBJECT o f these d r a w i n g s is t h e w i n d . lifts. Below. and gives motion to each image. and pioneer ofexpressionism. Terrifying waves of merciless nature roar across the paper. H O N O R E DAUMIER French satirical cartoonist lithographer. Hokusais sedate wind presses reeds a n d the j o u r n e y s o f young ladies. sculptor. undramatic b u t brimming with stylized realism. is already lost. Flapping kimonos and an onlooker turning his b a c k have the magic of a m o m e n t caught. seeing how it shakes. the bourgeoisie. has b e c o m e a hysterical kite. Danger of Wearing Balloon Petticoats UNDATED HONORE DAUMIER . serving a prison sentence for his views. Dots and dashes suggest receding trees out of focus. A hard waxy was drawn across a heavy limestone Varying definitions crayon of lire and depths of tone conspire to give volume. distance.

a n d his b e s t . T u r n e r w o r k e d in oils a n d w a t e r c o l o r s a n d s k e t c h e d c o p i o u s l y o n his travels. including being lashed t o a ship's m a s t in o r d e r to study a storm. horizontally then and of the it into the stream Plants also bend and flow right to Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 1802 81/2 HOKUSAI KATSUSHIKA x 131/2 in ( 2 1 7 x 3 4 3 mm) .b l o c kprintmaker. from left print. T U R N E R British landscape. seascape. Ship in a Storm c. AIR IN MOTION Pencil and watercolor subdued brushed.199 J. T h e r e a r e m a n y stories o f his p a s s i o n a t e w o r k i n g methods. Wind direction wood-block This is a colored To represent the blows lifted flowed wind. W . d e s i g n e r a n d b o o k i l l u s t r a t o r . A outline scratched of a skeletal into penciled ship is while and the waves. into this very as pressed sheet The paper's through own coior is brought banks of mist and fog. TURNER KATSUSHIKA HOKUSAI Prolific J a p a n e s e c o l o r w o o d .M. wind. leans the whole composition swells around its fateful center.W. painter. absorbent watercolor and are Stains of splashed.M. 1826 91/2 x 113/4 in ( 2 4 1 x 3 0 0 m m ) J. and history painter w h o s e p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t a b o v e all w a s light. Hokusai direction (from clothing from has chosen which it the right).l o v e dw o r k s i n c l u d e 1 0 0 v i e w s o f M o u n t Fuji and 1 2 v o l u m e s o f Manga. Landscape a n d city life w e r e his principal subjects.i n f l u e n c e d b y examples o f W e s t e r n art obtained through D u t c h t r a d i n g in Nagasaki. H o k u s a i in t u r n has since significantly influenced European art.

Opposite. EARTH AND THE VICTOR HUGO French novelist and artist (see also p. T h e m e n a c i n g darkness of Hugo's storm b e l o w is so convincing. as a gestural storm on the paper. this is a b o m b a r d m e n t from o u r h o m e s . marks. His subjects include ruins. active surfaces of water. with a brush. or charcoal. Then. water. and tossed o b j e c t s — a perfect subject in which artists can forget themselves. as if drawn j u s t this year. it is difficult to contemplate its brooding and night-soaked heart. T h e very nature of b o t h is turmoil and an interweaving of elements. Le Bateau-Vision 1864 71/2 x 1 0 in ( 1 9 2 x 2 5 5 m m ) VICTOR H U G O . In periods b e t w e e n writing. drawing was Hugo's principal means o f expression. By contrast. Pen and brush Hugo drew first with pen and ink. this is a writer's narrative of terror. Leonardos Cloudburst of Material Possessions is o n e of his m o s t enigmatic and mysterious works. and t h e sea s t u d i e d f r o m his h o m e in Guernsey in t h e Channel Islands. h a u n t e d shadows.28). as a subject and second. He brings us to stare into a place that no sane human would enter.198) admires the majesty of nature. grab their b r u s h .200 ELEMENTS Storms STORMS CAN BE SEEN and drawn in two ways: first. leaving nothing but a glimpse of moonlight glistening on the froth below. he blanketed the drawing in darkness. fantasy palaces. An update on biblical showers of fish and frogs. It looks so contemporary. inks. lines of rain escorting them to b o u n c e and clatter. Turner (see p. ink. D o m e s t i c o b j e c t s we can o w n and name fall from the clouds. and swim into the page. composing banks of waves and dense.

Above and below are examples of his mirror handwriting. a bell. It is interesting to speculate how engineering might have developed if his ideas had been shared with the world earlier Ink and chalk This is a pen and ink drawing with touches of black chalk. a hook. envisioning machines centuries before their making (helicopters and bicycles. Cloudburst of Material Possessions 1510-12 45/8 x 43/8 in ( 1 1 7 x 1 1 1 mm) L E O N A R D O DA VINCI . for example). together with half the contents of our garage. and a wheel. He bequeathed his drawings to a friend. and they passed through private hands for 400 years before becoming widely known.LEONARDO DA VINCI Leonardo devised many artifacts of our modern lives. Each item that has crashed from heaven is drawn in such a way that we can feel Leonardo's nib picking it up in the speed of a doodle. He was left-handed and wrote backwards in Italian from left to right. There is a little magic in recognizing many items from our homes something like a rake.

rapidly layering contours to shape place. which he used to unify his compositions. and across to the right. and famed for. and mood simultaneously. thick.202 ELEMENTS THE PROFILE OF A HORIZON is a line we immediately recognize and respond to. Clare Bryan took panoramic photographs of the English South Downs. Segments The top half of the drawing is a view as we enter the valley. cooler tones receding into the distance are applied with a brush. atmosphere. Nature Profiles Opposite below. Drawing with a scalpel. She was inspired by her research of aerial plans of London and the story of an alien map butterfly (see caption). it is the unique calligraphic signature of the place in which we stand. C L A U D E LORRAIN French classical landscape painter draftsman. and after tracing her captured line. Views from Velletri c. watching his hand and eye at work together. Claude Lorrain drew directly on location. Even distilled from all other detail. and we can imagine standing over his shoulder. sea-. made inside a book. EARTH AND THE Bryan cut the profile of a city. rich. Claude is distinguished by.1638 85/8 x 121/2 in (219 x 320 mm) CLAUDE LORRAIN . transferred it to a scroll. Claude has used a fine nib to delineate segments of land as they recede into space. his unsurpassed handling of light. a horizon line can trigger our recognition. Over first lines. In a very different work (opposite above). In the lower half he has walked downhill a little. and dry marks in the foreground appear to be made with his finger. and etcher who lived most of his life in 17th-century Rome. Paler. Whether land-. or cityscape. she teased away fragments of paper to illuminate her view.

5-m)scroll.203 Scalpel-drawn This book-bound drawing was inspired by the story of a foreign butterfly wrongly to Great Britain in 1912. and digital print-based works reflect upon the histories and poetry of "left behind and in-between spaces. Her recent paper photographic. then hunted destroyed. source workisilluminatedby standing its lower edge on a CLARE BRYAN .The horizon was drawn with a City Landline 2003 271/2x 59 in (70 x 150 cm) scalpel. drawings Ideas of introduction Clare Bryan to research introduced down and led NATURE PROFILES and removal historical plans and aerial growth of London showing its population since Roman times. On turning the pages of City. The edges of each here) fade into the solid paper unpopulated with a scalpel landscape. 2001 CLARE BRYAN C L A R E BRYAN 3ritish artist. progressively settlement (cropped more and more paper is drawn away to show the expansion of human page of an around the river. printmaker graphic designer. and visiting professor at numerous art schools. specialty bookbinder." Cut line This is a small section of a preparatory 5-ft(1.

C h a r c o a l naturally glistens. Hold it over your drawing RANGE AVAILABLE Charcoal (in its several forms shown here) is loved or loathed by the beginner to whom it is often recommended because it produces pleasing results quickly. 3 A white line is lifted out by the tape. 6. . vine. cylindrical. it is compressed and m o l d e d at high pressure. a rag. and heavier than willow. b e e c h . feather. resulting in a pale line. A great find when available. Not to be confused with square conte sticks (see p. fine.204 E A R T H AND THE E L E M E N T S Charcoal CHARCOAL IS PRODUCED from wood baked slowly without exposure to air. 4. R o u g h paper c a n b e loaded. COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Machine-made. It does n o t erase easily. white line into the blackor grayness of willow charcoal. they are all intended for fine work. 162) or graphite (see p. It c a n be m a d e duller. It allows you greater precision in your mark-making than if you rub away the charcoal with an eraser. Alternatively. you can p u r c h a s e m a c h i n e . blacker. 7. Willow is the most c o m m o n wood. LIFTING OUT This technique is a very easy method of drawing a crisp. sticky side down. 3. Charcoal lifts away from paper easily with the very light touch o f an eraser. Essentially. Try itworking on big paper covering a wall. Beware of cheap brands selling dyed chalk as compressed charcoal. but some specialists stock compressed charcoal in delicate square sticks. 1 Suspend a length of masking tape. leaving u n d e r t r a c e s of first thoughts. As its name implies. THIN WILLOW CHARCOAL: I used a piece like this to make the drawing opposite. resulting in a stick that gives a blacker. Then lift it away. Lines are achieved by d e p o s i t i n g particles in the grain o f paper. B u n d l e s o f twigs were traditionally sealed into earthenware j a r s or wet clay and heated slowly and intensely in a fire or kiln. and offers a rich. Slightly dull the tape's stickiness before use t o prevent it from lifting out more than you intend. The tip snaps easily to renew a sharp edge if required. black finish. without touching the surface. CHALK CHARCOAL: Technically. CHARCOAL PENCIL: Types made by different manufacturers vary in quality and density of line. a n d m o r e i n d e l i b l e by soaking it in linseed oil. The same as above. THICK W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 2 Keep the tape above your drawing.m a d e c o m p r e s s e d charcoal. maple.54). Smooth paper accepts few particles. Boxes often contain a range of thicknesses to choose for different needs. tape. the heel o f y o u r h a n d . harder line. so it chars b l a c k as o p p o s e d to igniting a n d turning to ash. In use. MEDIUM W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 5. SQUARE COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Not often sold. It is also easily erased if the maker of the mark is not happy with the result. only a little thicker. 1. Artists have also used lime. 2. between your middle finger and thumb. b l a c k e r . a n d p l u m . it looks gray and feels like chalk. or fingertip. this does not exist. a piece of fresh bread. Use any fine-point pen or pencil (I used a ballpoint) to draw a firm line on the back of the Big pieces are perfect for very large-scale drawings—even larger than yourself.

Use high quality (very sticky) to fix paper to walls and boards. . or any other dry media. Here we used a ballpoint. MASKING TAPE: An invaluable resource.205 ERASING Thickly applied charcoal quickly o v e r c o m e s a plastic eraser A w a r m (soft and tacky) putty eraser is more effective. I used a plastic eraser effectively on thinly applied charcoal. pastels. Layers can be peeled away to refresh its surface. Use cheaper (less sticky) for lifting out. Cotton swabs also work. Different tones seen throughout the main drawing on pp. 9. 8 .212-13 were made by altering the pressure applied to the charcoal. graphite. Lift out broader marks with a larger implement. sold in several widths. CHARCOAL Lifting out This detail shows an example of where I used the lifting-out technique demonstrated opposite to draw flashes of lightning against rain clouds. 10. as is fresh (unbuttered!) bread. Here. PEN: Any fine pen or pencil can be used to draw on the back of masking tape when lifting out. T O R T I L L O N : This is a tight roll of paper used to blend charcoal.

It is the visible effect of the atmosphere between where you stand and what you see in the distance. Don't worry if it is cloudy: clouds add drama and perspective and make good subjects in themselves (see pp. and an abstract. MATERIALS In this first view there is only a foreground and middle distance. This term simply means that as land rolls away into the distance.206 EARTH AND THE ELEMENTS Landscapes TREES ALONE OFFER MARVELOUS shapes to draw. to contain each of your compositions. begin by marking out several small squares on your paper. pack your materials (as advised below) and set off for a local view or your nearest arboretum. The long view is hidden behind trees. When you arrive. our brains search for nameable things and will perceive complete pictures from very little information. the more you encourage the viewer's imagination to join in and see. an eraser your drawing book or a board and paper fixative (or hairspray). Pack several thick and thin sticks of willow charcoal. They are also good markers of receding space. hazy distance. I relaxed my eyes out of focus to dissolve distracting detail into abstract patches of light and darkness. Landscape drawings are traditionally arranged in three parts: a detailed foreground. 9 8 . a less distinct middle ground composed of shapes and textures. but is often less evocative and engaging. and a cushion in a plastic bag to sit on. Successful drawings often only suggest the qualities of the scene without overdescribing them. Excessive detail can be admired for its skill and achievement. a reel of masking tape. At its worst. Then I drew the shape of the tonal patches I perceived. To experiment with drawing landscapes and the use of charcoal.212-13). Seeing tones . it results in flat planes of clutter. Ironically. especially when making first excursions into aerial perspective. On p p .9 9 we noted that in response to visual stimulus. the less you describe. details blur and colors grow paler and bluer.

and broke a view through the hedge into the distance with a dark sky threatening rain. the trunk of a bare tree. horizontal regions of grass. I have invented drama with diagonals set against each other I tilted the earth. your view is your inspiration. shadows.207 LANDSCAPES In my second square I explored a simple view contrasting soft. This composition turned out a little flat because I have an almost even quantity of earth and sky. Exploring the view Redrawing the scene above. It is better to give distinctly more pictorial space to one or the other (see below). Remember. rounded. dark trees with bright. full of information you can use to create what you want! Inventing drama .

For example. taking with you your drawing book and pen. making the scene below led me to focus on the decaying boat opposite. which was the flow of water over rocks. observing it from several views so as to better understand it as a whole. Similarly. EARTH AND THE FINDING THE SUBJECT Finding a remarkable subject is even better when you can circumnavigate it in an arena of space. England has embedded within it the decaying skeleton of a burned fishing boat. shade out of the glare of the sun. This first drawing serves as a process of arrival. I am then able to home in on what interests me most for further study. and seeing what the real choice of subject is. and tiller still standing proud. settling my concentration.104-05)." .164-65) and a wire violin (pp. your challenge now is to find a sculptural subject in the landscape.208 ELEMENTS Drawing in the Round WHEN DRAWING IN THE LANDSCAPE. 2 1 4 . Building on earlier studies of structure in space using shoes (pp. on p p . Circling a subject and drawing it from several views imprints on your memory a better understanding of its three-dimensional form. s e e k places in light After my first drawing. I usually begin by making an image of the whole view. "Drawing in the round means to literally walk around your subject. engine. so the paper is not made blinding and your hand cannot cast a shadow on your work. bare ribs. The mud of the tidal shore in Rye.1 5 my first drawing of the whole view of the Tiber led me to see the real subject of the day.

DRAWING IN THE 1 Here. marking straight. looking more at the boat than at the paper From this low position I have emphasized how the boat is swallowed in mud by outlining its shadow on the ground. unfussy lines. make a series o f drawings f r o m different positions. I looked more boldly at the planes and the dynamic of the sculptural craft My lines have become darker and more forceful as confidence in my understanding of the vessel grew. The outline ties a shape of darkness to the boat like a weight so that it becomes part of its form. w h e n t h e sea recedes. I spent equal time looking at the subject and the paper. its overall balance. 3 This impression notes the angle of the broken boat.209 SERIES OF STUDIES This stunning ghost o f a boat comes into v i e w t w i c e a day. I drew with quick. Overleaf: Decaying Boat 4 . W h e n you have found your subject. character. Each n e w drawing gives a different insight. and structure. ROUND 2 In this tail-end view. careful lines to establish the skeleton that gives this wreck its distinct form. and the order and shape of its component parts.



L o o k i n g b a c k and forth from the heavens to firmly taped-down paper. hot-pressed drawing p a p e r (see pp. was made with gentle but unhesitating s p e e d . m a d e on s m o o t h . . I worked quickly to catch and weave the turbulent contrasts of rising wind and approaching water before the drawing could be washed away.20-21) using a thin stick of willow charcoal.Cloudburst THIS STORM DRAWING.


On the pages of a small. .Notes of Force T H E GREAT FLOWING TIBER RIVER has cut through Rome. shaping the city. pocket-sized notebook. I drew with a needle-fine fiber-tip pen. focusing on the river's eddies. pulse. black. and rhythmic detail as it passed through the ancient gully of the city. since ancient times.


The strong diagonal of the composition from bottom left to top right carries the eye through changes of height and focus from the foreground to the mountains beyond. I used a dip pen and waterproof India ink with brushed watercolor to draw the view.Mountains SITTING IN THE SHADE of a tree on the Greek island of Antiparos. .



or gestures.Abstract Lines T HE DEVELOPMENT OF W E S T E R N abstract art at the beginning of the 20th century significantly paralleled major changes in world thought. Many concepts and feelings can only be expressed through marks. many nonWestern cultures have highly sophisticated abstractions at the core of their art. Swirling. and it has always been with us. Museum of Fine Arts. picturing a stabilized world was impossible and Modernism rode forth with vigor. only rediscovered. I begin every image by feeling its meaning. My own work is firmly centered in figuration. It also underpins and gives strength and unity to all figurative work. and history. drawn sound. precisely because it does not have to represent a physical object. and poetic myth roar and cascade within his tightly framed pages. such as Adolf Wolfli. Wolfli was a Swiss draftsman.8 cm) A D O L F WOLFLI Abstraction is a direct. expressive marks and shapes are at the core of natural. . abstraction is not so easy to define. poet. belief. all pictorial representations are abstractions of reality. and young children show us that abstract. and have been making abstract drawings for centuries—Japanese calligraphy. strike the paper to find form. He made thousands of drawings to chronicle his complex life. don't be timid. Indian mandalas. which are essentially abstract. spontaneous image-making. Berne. ADOLF WOLFLI One of the greatest masters of Art Brut. actions. Internal workings of the mind were suddenly free to find a new language of expression. However. As you approach the classes in this chapter. writhing torrents of color. People are often scared by abstraction and see it as the enemy of figurative art. Outsider artists. First marks. fictional language. opposite. Afterward. It was not invented in the 20th century. liberating. and independent means of communication. From another viewpoint. Perhaps in Western culture we bred this intuitive freedom out of ourselves in our insistence on complex figuration. be brave and enjoy them. for example. Artists were given a different tool—a line threaded directly from their subconscious to their hand—and with it they began to map a bold new landscape of marks and concepts that would dramatically and forever change the face of Western art. Not everything we know has a physical form in the world. Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape 1915 413/8 x 285/8 in (105 x 72. writer and composer who suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and was resident in the Waldau Aslyum near Berne. From one point of view. it is simply itself. and Aboriginal art. yet my kinship to abstraction is fundamental. His drawings are collected and exhibited internationally and held by the Adolf Wolfli Foundation. The fate of Old World thinking was finally sealed with the brutality of World War I. An abstract mark is often a better conductor of a thought or feeling. It is actually its foundation and its infrastructure. sounds. The growing rise of Darwinian ideas coupled with Freudian and Marxist perspectives forced Western society to reconsider its origins and future. direction. and emotion.

and texture their bracing separation reaching between from beneath Pillars of the gallery are made part of this drawing by their inclusion in the paper. It can proclaim mood. A line can be finished in a second. Lines. MAMORU ABE Japanese sculptor and installation artist. and Assistant Professor of Fine A r t at Fukuoka University. Moisture produced rust. scrolling across the canvas in an intimate crescendo. tone. Mamoru Abe prepares an image that will appear through the chemistry of iron. sit in silent harmony. and temperature rim of floor space. and plaster in galleries and landscapes. it can keep reforming through the inherent repetition of a process. ice. Abe works with materials such as soil. A Neolithic chalk tablet bears cut lines that were slowly carved. brass. This the paper rest within the amplifies framelike of the floor from the ceiling. iron. The Physical Space 1990 3 0 x 30 ft ( 9 1 4 x 9 1 4 cm) MAMORU ABE . texture. rhythmically engaged with itself. akin to stones in a Zen garden. quoting ink marks on a page. or. staining redbrown lines into the white surface. Below. silence. Changes paper. salt.220 A B S T R A C T LINES Process and Harmony SOMETIMES A DRAWN LINE sings on the surface of its support. Abe's physical drawing is a sculptural installation. water. as Twombly shows us opposite. and sensitivity with its thickness and pressure of touch. Five forged steel shapes. and patient watching. He travels widely to research ancient sacred sites. forged steel. Damp Japanese paper was laid over carefully arranged iron bars. Sometimes it smolders like a deep shadow. Iron rods in tone. Twombly's mesmeric wax line worked over house paint is like a signature. and wood are also part of the work.

PROCESS AND HARMONY Cut lines Chalk carves easily.221 ANCIENT CARVINGS Many ancient cultures have made and left behind drawings and texts carved into stones or animal bone. and sensuous drawing from painting. Many of his graffiti-like combine abstract gestures with statements.Thesite's purpose is unknown. energetic.England. and American Indian petroglyphs (see p. Twombly has language works CY TWOMBLY Contemporary American artist who emerged through the 1950s New York art scene in the heyday of Abstract Expressionism and Action Painting. and Untitled 1970 Here we might seek to grasp letters in the turning of his line.000-2. close to Stonehenge in Wiltshire. emotive.Twombly was presented with a Golden Lion award for lifetime achievement. such as the Rosetta stone.400BCE 21/4 x 21/4 in (58 x 58 mm) ARTIST UNKNOWN Language Over the course of fifty years. the Babylonian world map. evolved a raw. burials. Precise lines suggest the use of a sharp flint The framed rectangle of this image is echoed in that of Abe's installation. theories suggest astrological observations. that challenges the separation of word from image. and the worship of the sun and ancient gods. This example is one of two chalk tablets found in a Late-Neolithic pit. The central pictorial space is also similarly cut and divided by the considered arrangement of straight lines. At the 2001 Venice Biennale.241). CY TWOMBLY . Neolithic Chalk Tablet 3.

His drawing writes the time of its own physical process by expressing the extreme concentration of the moment in which it was made. brushed night skies over them with ink then lifted the disks to reveal white moons. Both abstract drawing and composition involve the perfect sequencing of sounds and marks against space and silence. pressed them face down. below. abstract artists and composers unique. Marks across the center appear to be made with his fingers. abstract.28. Similarity in gritty texture suggests that here. "There is nothing like dream to create the future. o f t e n e x p r e s s e d in v i s u a l t e r m s . A graphic score is a V I C T O R H U G O Hugo's abstract French novelist w h o m a d e m a n y drawings in m i x e d m e d i a ( s e e also p. music manuscript requiring instrumentalists to improvise.222 ABSTRACT LINES Writing Time SINCE THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY. Gestalt o f an unnameable thing. a configuration. beautiful." An innovator who never fails to surprise. Hugo. and inventive of his time. drawing here can b e described in t e r m s o f a G e r m a n philosophical idea a b o u t is t h e i n s t a n t r e c o g n i t i o n t h e p o w e r o f m o m e n t . said. Bussotti. too. and lifted them away to leave impressions of watery planets and seas. he mixed graphite into ink. and participate in the composition. have striven to break down old pictorial and musical structures to explore new and unfettered modes of expression. here he anticipates abstract expressionism by 100 years. The scores are also exhibited in galleries as visual art. Texture Compare this drawing to Hugo's octopus on p. Two Impressions Paper 1853-55 VICTOR HUGO Disk from a Cut-Out . opposite. and let the drying meniscus deposit granules in linear drifts such as we would see in the satellite photographic mapping of rivers. Ink impressions When drawing nightscapes Hugo often laid paper disks in place of the moon. Here he appears t o have saturated the cut-out moon disks with gritty pigment.28). Gestalt. broke new ground in the 1950s with graphic scores now considered among the most extreme. o r a pattern o f elements s o unified as a w h o l e t h e y c a n n o t b e e x p l a i n e d asa s u m o f parts. interpret.

223 W R I T I N G TIME SYLVANO BUSSOTTI Italian avant-garde composer and principal 20thcentury exponent of the graphic score. 70 in relation to Bussotti's clustered notes to the left of his rondo and open space to the right. a far cry from any recognized musical notation. Compare this work to that of Libeskind on p. His later works become increasingly abstract. Sound and rhythm This flickering rondo of sound written in pen on a hand-ruled stave can be heard in our imaginations as much as seen. we can feel their rhythm and easily attach sounds to them. Bussotti's first mature work. Circular Score for "Due Voci" c. Following the notes. 1958 SYLVANO BUSSOTTI . This is a page from Due Voci.

Marie Lieb w a s a psychiatric patient in the Heidelberg Asylum. and sufferers of psychiatric illnesses—who have always existed. She tore c l o t h into strips a n d used these to draw patterns a n d symbols o n h e r cell floor. an a n o n y m o u s w o m a n in the southeast Indian state o f Tamil Nadu m a k e s a ritual drawing o n the b r i c k courtyard o f h e r h o m e . T h e s e p h o t o g r a p h s d o c u m e n t the meditative drawings o f two w o m e n living worlds apart in different countries. and c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Cloth is the simple instrument with which she has conducted and ordered her universe. centuries. MARIE LIEB Little is known of this w o m a n for w h o m the act of drawing was essential. O p p o s i t e . social outcasts. Torn cloth This is one of two published photographs showing Marie Leib's torn cloth strips significantly placed on her cell floor. Cell Floor With Torn Strips of Cloth 1894 MARIE LIEB . This takes a form in most cultures. It will protect the place from evil and make a pleasing invitation to good spirits. Lieb is one o f countless thousands of "Outsider" artists—diverse individuals including ordinary citizens. making objects and images outside o f mainstream culture. Germany. for e x a m p l e . Compositional rightness (see pp. d i p p i n g h e r fingers into a pot o f rice flour.224 A B S T R A C T LINES Chants and Prayers WHEN ABSTRACT LINES are organized in repetition.228-29) has been adjusted with each movement of the rags to draw a cosmos of balance and perfection. it is found in the regularity o f ordered lines or a pattern. Visually. cultures. they m a k e a visual a n d physical e c h o that t o u c h e s s o m e deep part of the human spirit. In the late 1 9 t h century. In music it can be felt in the diversity of plainsong and African d r u m m i n g .

000 images.225 STEPHEN P. lime. Designs and motifs Rangoii (or mandalas) are ritual drawings made by many millions of women across rural India. Materials such as rice flour. and for over 30 years has traveled extensively through the Indian subcontinent creating an edited archive of 200. Skills are handed down through generations and from friend to friend. cultural anthropologist. chalk. and birds. and in places of worship and celebration. or flowers are marked or arranged on the ground or on the walls of homes. Motifs are geometrical or based on plants.Theseare widely published in journals and are the subjects of international exhibitions. lecturer on the subjects of Indian art and Indian women's identity. Painted Prayers UNDATED STEPHEN R HUYLER . animals. Huyler is the author of Painted Prayers.HUYLER Photographer art historian. women pride themselves on never repeating a design. among others. Popular magazines feature new ideas each week and on special occasions there may be contests. at the University of London and Ohio State University. In daily practice.

it is ruled and contained in one dimension by its interlocking ink-lined borders. Oval moons eclipse each other and oscillate between landforms and portraiture. Catling's abstract drawings are usually made in series and in parallel to written poetry and sculptural installations. but similarities in mood. filmmaker Professor of Fine Art. figurative representation—that is. and choice of hues. Ruskin School. With no depth of field. Untitled 2001 2001 153/4x 215/8 in ( 4 0 0 x 550 mm) BRIAN C A T L I N G . They each find their pathways and equilibrium in atmosphere and suggestion. Catling's torn paper shapes and shadows spill light out of their frame like a fractured mirror. Mixed media This is a collage of torn white and gray tissue paper previously stained with ink. performance and installation artist. gold paint and iridescent gouache mixed with water. and Fellow of Linacre College. rocks or heads in a subdued atmosphere of dream. Klee's mathematical maze of thinly washed surface resonates with meticulous planning. Catling's works made for international galleries and museums involve drawing as a tool in their development and making. These two works present complex compositions with differing intensions and methods of making. free from the direct imaging of known physical things. BRIAN CATLING British sculptor poet. Oxford. Their energy can therefore be a purer expression of an idea or emotion. structure. and water-resistant layers of spray and enamel paint on thick paper.226 ABSTRACT LINES Compositions ABSTRACT DRAWINGS ARE LARGELY or entirely free from using the viewer's eye to track and unfold layers of meaning.

and wrote copiously about the natures and relationships of color and form. Kunstmuseum Bern PAUL KLEE . ruler. We can see some diagrammatic examples of this among the optical illusions on pp. Polyphon Gefasstes Weiss (White Framed Polyphonically) 1930 131/8x95/8 in (333 x 245 mm) Paul-Klee-Stiftung. Line and surface Klee observed the visual capacity of lines to push or pull within an image.31). Geometric harmony This is a work on paper made with a sharp ink pen. and might be read as active or passive. watercolor. Klee painted. It is a geometric harmony of straight lines and tonally graded flat colors that by their arrangement draw our eyes inward to their white center. drew. Klee also felt that a line represents the passing of time.227 PAUL K L E E Swiss painter and sculptor (see also p. philosophized. He explained his polyphonic painting as "a harmony of several color voices" searching for a visual parallel to music. and brush. whereas tonal surfaces are perceived more immediately as a whole.97-99.

" SETTING UP Justness can be harmonious or deliberately discordant. angles. Take. and ten straight sticks painted black. a glass. and elements settle in definitive balance. "I have experimented endlessly with this idea. a b u n c h of keys. they reach a perfect position. Set up a sheet of paper with a rectangle drawn on it. there is a clear feeling when. the impression y o u receive from t h e m . It is also found in nature. It is found in all great art and design. There is a single m o m e n t w h e n all proportions.Thisexercise will help you start. In his b o o k The Education of a Gardener. w i l l c h a n g e w i t h e v e r y r e a r r a n g e m e n t . or degree of figuration. or on a page. Feel for it when youdraw. Seek it when looking at other artists' work and in your everyday environment.228 ABSTRACT LINES Being "Just" A SENSE OF "JUST" (or rightness) is a difficult concept to explain. M a n y of their inter-relationships will be meaningless. for instance. the late garden designer Russell Page explains. media. and put them o n a tray. they are just. their impact. after being continuously adjusted." . or home. b u t e v e r y n o w a n d again you will hit on an arrangement w h i c h appears just. s o m e will be more or less h a r m o n i o u s . As y o u m o v e them around. but an easy o n e to u n d e r s t a n d . culture. "Whenall pictorial elements come together in pleasing and perfect balance. and an apple. W h e n m o v i n g objects around in your yard. This balance is what every artist and designer searches a n d feels for when making an image. regardless of style.

fix it with glue. horizontals dominate the top." Move the sticks to find alignments and imagined perspectives. Remember the drawn rectangle is a part of the composition (see pp. as shown here. W h e n the composition falls into place. horizontals dominate the lower area. In the final step (left) there is an even balance. Feel for the rightness of their grouping and their relationships to surrounding spaces. A stick touching the rectangle links the composition to the frame. Here. Arrange them so they touch or cross in a series of intersecting balances. painted black. .56-57). which now becomes a tight frame. B E I N G "JUST" 1 Arrange your ten sticks in t w o groups of five. Within a rectangle on a flat sheet of paper set about making a composition using no other rule than a sense of "just. suggesting a horizon. making the composition seem to float beneath.229 WHERE TO START Take ten sticks of equal length. Move the sticks out into the rectangle. 2 3 In the step above.

an infinite range of voices and meaning." (Russell Page) . Returning to Russell Page. a compass.69 and Abe's installation on p.. colors and textures can be manipulated until their pictorial harmony. This principal also applies to three-dimensional drawings such as Gaudi's work with wire and weights on p. glue.220. harmonious. he went on to say ". ready-made depths and surfaces. colors." overlapping placement of materials on a flat plane. To prepare for this lesson. scissors. and tones. "My understanding is that every object [or shape] emanates—sends out vibrations beyond its physical body which are specific to itself. or discordance. or even strident. feels "just" (see pp.228-29). and black ink. you start composing by adding or subtracting shapes and textures and using colors and tones to achieve the impression you want to m a k e — w h e t h e r dramatic or s u b d u e d . hard or soft. correction fluid or white paint. Once the ten painted black sticks are set and glued in place.. they become a scaffold for the addition of further textures.230 ABSTRACT LINES Collage H E R E W E EXPERIMENT with collage. stain and dry a sheet of tissue paper using blueink.Youwill also need spare white paper. Images and fragments torn from day-to-day life can be brought together to make a chorus of ideas and emotions. which is the shifting. Cut or torn layers and shapes. Collage offers the artist a liberating palette of SETTING UP This lesson in collage is a direct continuation of the compositional lines made in the previous class. found or made items.

they deepen pictorial space.231 WHAT TO DO Lay the final step of the previous lesson (p. This can also give a sense of fragmentation or punctuation to the composition. Obscuring the blue disks. Cut six small rectangles the same proportion as your whole image. solidity. four circles of blue tissue paper. and shadow to thepicture.228) in front of you. then cut out. and with a compass and scissors. . In the last step (left).The single disk that is folded with its straight edge facing up appears heavier than those that are flat. COLLAGE 1 Regular-sized pieces of white paper are moved over the surface to disrupt the even lines. 2 3 Torn white paper moved over the surface adds masks of rough-edged irregular volume. correction fluid and ink marks add further dimensions. Glue them in place once they feel "just" Translucent circular disks of tissue paper give color tone. draw.


Zen Brushwork]. emotion.Zen Calligraphy HITSUZENDO. and expectation. Hitsuzendo drawings aspire to "breathe with the energy and vitality of eternal life" achieved through "a state of no mind—beyond thought. A MODERN JAPANESE meditative art form inspired by the teachings of Yamaoka Tesshu (1836-1888)." [Tanchu Terayama. . is the practice of Zen through the calligraphic marks of a brush dipped in carbon ink.

discord is balanced against rhythm to create mood.Nocturnes IN THIS QUARTET of semi-abstract drawings made with India ink. Lines made with a steel dip pen take on a scratchy nervousness. . These vibrate against washes of shadow and pitch-black mass. I flicked spatters of ink and rubbed the paper with a wet and a dry brush to achieve these effects.





serpentine tails. Today. for example. or in smoke. movie studios now brim with as many monsters as the visual art of the Medieval and Renaissance Church. Humans are equally troubled by the imperceptibly small and the enormous. happen to us. Neither should be slave or master. Reading the place name I momentarily glimpsed an alternative meaning. Feeding this demand. our literate and more secular Western society still hungers for another world and to ravenously indulge its fascination for the marvelous. For example. all of which originated as hundreds of drawings. feathers.247. The salvation of heaven and terrors of hell are represented equally—enough to make any sinner shudder. Throughout this book images are presented to excite and surprise and drawing classes created to increase your confidence. I was on a train passing through Nuneaton. aliens. we select details of animals farthest from ourselves and that are widely thought disturbing—reptilian and insect features. Schongauer is best known for his prints. Be inspired by the irrational comedy of word association or puns. and deep fur—and we alter their scale. England. We then add substances we dislike: unidentified fluids. To learn to flex your imagination. paradise. scales. Images we are now surrounded by bear testimony to the power and resourcefulness of their collective imagination. a human-animal mix that implies this could MARTIN SCHONGAUER German painter and engraver who settled to work in Colmar Alsace. sculptures. and damnation are found in most world faiths. our eye circulates around a flutter of leather and scaly wings. In the Christian churches of Europe. which were widely distributed and influential in his time. angels. . thousands of paintings. and the faces of God have for centuries given artists a feast for the extremes of their imagination. a collaboration between the two will ensure that your drawings glow with originality. We watch with captivated pleasure movies such as The Fly.Gods and Monsters OUR SACRED AND SECULAR need to visualize demons. look for images in the folds of clothing. When creating monsters. or strange. and the Alien trilogy. in the cracks of walls. Lord of the Rings. We love our fear of the hybrid—ideally. Monsters take advantage of both. Here. beasts. Star Wars. which is to have eaten a nun—it inspired the drawing on p. Fantasy is most successful when founded on strong and familiar visual logic. and stained-glass windows deliver powerful visual sermons to the once-illiterate populace. wings. Perhaps the Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 1485 121/4 x 9 in (312 x 230 mm) MARTIN SCHONGAUER most important conclusion in this final chapter is to advise you to develop your skills in parallel with the joy of your unfolding imagination. a Catherine wheel of drawn sparks spiraling around the quietly resolute saint. Depictions of God or of gods in the contexts of daily life. impossible.

Violent white marks symbolizing Achilles' rage resonate with the energy of Twombly's script on p. In this softer aquatint he poses for his portrait Textured background The aquatint process has been used to great effect in making a gritty toned background. crammed tightly at his desk. Los Caprichos. Saturn devouring his son. a Shoshone seeking guidance and power meditates at the sacred site of a petroglyph. Many students leave white backgrounds in their work. They depict as if by lamplight the devil and witches. Visions experienced in front of the drawing sometimes instruct the making of a new one. and church murals. portraits. noisy seascape on p. plain wall suggests a blinkered view of nothing. Opposite below. reading from a book of asses. to Picasso's similarly tight. below. it allows the mule to stand forward. Other drawn versions of this image are more savage and frightening.240 GODS AND M O N S T E R S Marks of Influence marking the influence of one artist upon another. vanity.30. deranged masses. Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 1799 81/2 x 6 in (218 x 154 mm) FRANCISCO DE GOYA . and men clubbing each other to death. Aquatint Goya has drawn a learned man as an ass. Pictorially. He would be graceless if he stood. This continuity enriches the making of art and our heritage. quoting great paintings and popular culture to add cunning twists to his satires. whose impassioned work begins with light tapestry cartoons. and exposed the superstitions. This act defines the vision and continues the line of spirit guides. Compare his dark. Paul Thomas's studies of Picasso and Twombly can be traced directly. such asinine behavior can be hereditary. a wave to join Achilles' chase of Hector. F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A Spanish court painter printmaker and draftsman. The title "And So Was His Grandfather" adds that should we not already know. Francisco de Goya was a master of borrowing. rushing. and follies of court through copious graphic works including his best-known prints. The high. The well-dressed mule is cumbersome. Goya's plainly textured gray background pushes back the space behind the illuminated simply subject. which can swamp the subject Here. Opposite. we see the international icon of stupidity. Goya later recorded the horrors of Napoleonic occupation. Near the end of his life he made his "Black Paintings" on the walls of his home. his lover a dog.220. In this ass. hags. barren land rising like MYRIAD CHAINS RUN THROUGH ART HISTORY.

Wind River Reservation. Thomas conducts his explorations in the mine of Greek and Roman mythology. Parallel lines within the body of the figure are likely to denote power. Simple wall stones cleverly state their cold solidity while also fading from our attention as the scene roars by. White marks like flashes of light are cut though graphite with an eraser to reveal the paper beneath. by a supplicant in a trance of meditation. ideals. and personal and social struggles. Wyoming." Each sacred image drawn into rock belongs to one of three realms in the Shoshone world: the realm of the sky. A vivid spectrum of energized graphite marks and a masterly composition give this drawing vitality and speed. values. of the earth. perhaps a stone.241 MARKS OF INFLUENCE PAUL T H O M A S British contemporary artist whose epic graphic work questions and reflects upon issues of European identity. meaning "place of power. Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range UNDATED ARTIST UNKNOWN . Achilles Chases Hector 1996 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) PAUL THOMAS SHOSHONE PETROGLYPH The Shoshone people of Wyoming name petroglyph sites Poha Kahni. It was made with a sharp implement. Graphite marks Here Achilles chases Hector around the walls of Troy before killing him. or of the water Chipped image This is a sacred creature of the sky chipped onto rock at Dinwoody Lake.

Lifting out Fine strings of the hot-air balloon appear dark against the sky and light against the balloon. which sometimes—half-dressed and carrying a familiar trophy— stride. If it were to turn and stare this way. They float toward us like a horrid visitation. Children are also delighted to invent a monster or ghoul. to the right of the balloon. the shock would be extreme. Compare worked textures throughout the whole of this image to those found throughout Anita Taylor's charcoal drawing on p. We may feel safe so long as the eye looks heavenward. Techniques demonstrated on pp.and 16th-century Holland. Redon's eyeball balloon rises up. H e was influenced by his friends. we see parallel slanting pale marks that might have been made with fresh bread—a very effective eraser used before the wide availability of rubber or plastic. Redon lifted them out with some sort of eraser. below left. Here we see how he evolved their injuries into new limbs and warped proportions. ODILON REDON French painter draftsman. The Eye Like a Strange Mounts Balloon 165/8 x131/8in (422 x 332 mm) ODILON REDON 1882 Toward Infinity . and writer In contrast t o the light and visual accent of contemporary Impressionism. Redon explored the darker side of the human imagination through symbols and mysticism. 115. graphic artist. crawl. T H E EXPLORATION AND DEPICTION Hauntings Grandville has drawn a scurrying zoo of half-known demons and animals that appear to have been stolen from the glass eye of the microscope. The monsters of Bosch grew from his observations of beggars going about their trade in 15th.204-05 will enable you to produce a similar effect of white lines shining out of dark charcoal. as he did the grass. the writers Joris-Karl Huysmans and Stephane Mallarme. GODS AND Erasure In this charcoal drawing.242 MONSTERS of the unknown is a classical and constant occupation for the artist. Our subconscious can be drawn with pleasure and ease. lifting its cranial passenger over a seascape of repose. and scuttle over all known reality.

HAUNTINGS Engraving This is an engraving made so that Grandville's original drawing could be reproduced. This image is from one of Grandville's best-known publications. Quill and ink This typical Bosch monster is a quill drawing in bistre ink The phrasing of light and contour here is masterly. grimacing.243 J E A N I G N A C E ISIDORE GERARD ("GRANDVILLE") French graphic artist and political satirist. The quality of the line is therefore uniform throughout. Comic little headbands of waving hair express more hysteria than fear. His other major works include Metamorphoses du Jour (1828). and he illustrated the Fables of La Fontaine and Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe. Light shines from the right. Les Animaux (1840). A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects c. Last Judgment. sucker-faced creatures dash and trundle toward it They are drawn solidly to emphasize their earthbound weight. Most of his work is in the Prado Museum. 1840 61/8 x41/2in ( 1 5 5 x 1 1 5 mm) GRANDVILLE HIERONYMUS BOSCH Dutch painter Bosch's highly detailed iconographic religious panel paintings. include The Haywain. which is still available today. Madrid. teeming with the exhilaration of unrestrained fantasy. Smiling. Two Monsters UNDATED 45/8 x61/2in (117 x 163 mm) HIERONYMUS BOSCH . Garden of Earthly Delights. and Ship of Fools.

David. and dog. below. His entire drawing wrestles and weaves the viewer's eye into its retracting folds. wraps and coils its lithe body ready to strike or whimper at a touch. sometimes artists purposefully tie a knot in the configuration to disturb. Chalk and ink A quill dipped in brown ink was worked over black chalk on this reused sheet. muscular tension is carved out of the paper using layered. poet. Grimes found the genesis of her beast not among animals. as we might expect. lion. Grimes' delicately cavorting figures dive into and consume each other. phrased over the contours of form and bridging darker areas of shadow. and mist-swathed land. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI Florentine painter sculptor. gamboling copulations. Dragon 1522 10 x 133/8 in ( 2 5 4 x 3 3 8 m m ) MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI . and play with its perfection and meaning. and marble sculptures including Pieto. Scaly. In her studio. St Peter's square. Two previously drawn faces become humorous antagonists to the beast. topple. They share between them the pleasures of inventing a hybrid beast. architect. and engineer Among Michelangelo's great works are the painted ceiling and altar wall of the Sistine Chapel. Opposite. pinnacled. the dome of the Vatican. remembering the cavernous. and dying slaves. a stunning hybrid of a swan. she formed a series of ghostly pale. Michelangelo's dragon. snake. A snake eating its own tail is a universal image of the eternal and continuous. hatched lines. but in the seductive landscape of Leonardo da Vinci's oil painting Madonna of the Rocks.244 GODS AND MONSTERS Convolutions THESE CONVOLUTED DRAWINGS were made almost 5 0 0 years apart. However.

London. boards finished paper. Ink-wash delicately gouache (smooth) and gouache brushed drawing on This is a and was hot-pressed Shadows The dark shadow of the Other the ink-wash earth was made with a brushstroke of ink laid into wet paper. and the Camberwell and Slade Schools of Fine Art. The large space around figure has been cropped Grimes drawings to flatten presses them. London.245 CONVOLUTIONS O O N A GRIMES British contemporary artist and professor of printmaking at the Ruskin School. her under heavy here. details evolved slowly using a drier brush. How Clever of God #84 2002 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) O O N A GRIMES . The image formed directly without first making a pencil outline. Grimes exhibits internationally and features in the collections of the New York Public Library and the Victoria and Albert Museum. Oxford. each one iridescent and crumbly like a weathered while oyster. It is one of a series of fragile earth figures inspired by rocks.

It is still relatively small in the total range of Japanese brushes. P O I N T E D T R A D I T I O N A L WRITER: The ferrule is made from a small duck quill.H A I R RIGGER: Made with long synthetic hair for fine-point work It has a good ink-holding capacity and is slightly more resilient than sable hair with more "snap. and very fine lines. between them. Brushes vary in size. Suitable for wash techniques but also capable of very fine detail. dense. Soaps purchased from good art supply stores will gently cleanse particles of pigment that become trapped in the hairs or ferrule. shape. Shorter brushes designed for other purposes run out of ink more quickly. it has good wash capabilities. and wrist into a fluid and soft touch. and effects. materials.246 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brushes T H E BRUSH IS A VOLUPTUOUS and delicate weights. The living marks of a wet. SABLE-HAIR RIGGER: Made with very long kolinsky sable hairs. ink-laden tip allow an expression that is beyond the linear. thicknesses.Theyhold plenty of ink and make continuous. SQUIRREL-HAIR S W O R D LINER:This brush has a maximum ink-holding capacity and an extremely fine and flexible point 8. with a fine point for delicate work 4. It is capable of very fine pointing. this brush has a soft drawing tip and small ink-holding capacity. L A R G E R S Y N T H E T I C . M T RA S AEIL . washes. fingers. The brushes shown here are a mixture of This is a selection of riggers. ideally suited to drawing. which holds long sable hair This brush holds large amounts of ink for long lines and points well for detailed work. and writers. POINTED SQUIRREL-HAIR MOP: With a synthetic quill ferrule and extra high inkholding capacity. SYNTHETIC-HAIR BRUSH: Bound in a synthetic ferrule with good inkholding capacity and good spring and control. the very opposite of pencil or silver point. SABLE-HAIR LINER: Made with ordinary sable hair surrounding an extralong. needle-sharp center of kolinsky red sable hair. It has exceptional painting characteristics. return them to their pointed shape. drawing tool extending the arm. liners. This brush has a broad wash capability and can achieve a very wide range of marks. 2. 13. Some are bold. and has a fine tip for detailed work. others are as fine as a whisker with a gentle touch. giving a variety of lines.H A I R LINER: Very responsive oriental-style liner This to the touch. SYNTHETIC-HAIR S W O R D LINER: A lining brush with high ink-holding capacity and a fine point. SMALL JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with sable hair. How you care for your brushes will determine how long they last. 3. it has good inkholding capacity and is very flexible. and texture. all perfect for drawing and." 6. flowing. making rt ideally suited to Japanese painting and small-scale calligraphy. SYNTHETIC-HAIR LINER: This brush gives a medium line and is firm with a spring to the touch. and hold prodigious weights of ink or paint. LARGER JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with natural hair held in a plastic ferrule on a bamboo handle. 12. and never leave them standing on their tip in a jar of water. Always clean them thoroughly. This design supplies the fine tip with a long continuity of ink 5. 1. 7. Slightly less flexible than the squirrel-hair sword liner 9. JAPANESE PAINTING BRUSH: Made with natural hair. Some used by master calligraphers are 2-3 in (5-8 cm) in diameter 11. S Y N T H E T I C . 10.


It also depends on the angle at w h i c h it is held. A single brush has almost balletic potential to draw fine or undulating lines and curves.246-47). I rubbed a block of Chinese ink (see p. unglazed earthenware dish. and spatters. SETTING UP Blowing spots T h e s e t h r e e s p i d e r y c r e a t u r e s (above right and below) w e r e m a d e by d r o p p i n g s p o t s o f ink f r o m a b r u s h o n t o t h e p a g e and. and type of its hairs. length. the degree of pressure applied. the speed of the s t r o k e . b l o w i n g h a r d o n t h e m several t i m e s t o disperse t h e ink ( c l o s e y o u r eyes if y o u t r y this.35) into two tablespoons of water in a shallow. softness. splashes. and to make pools and stains o n the page. w i t h m y face close. and above all w h e t h e r the b r u s h is saturated with pigment or relatively dry. Here I drew with a soft Japanese painting brush (see pp. I had left the end of the ink block in the water overnight to make it easier to dissolve.248 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brush Marks A S I N G L E BRUSH will m a k e an e n o r m o u s range of m a r k s depending u p o n the width. the texture and a b s o r b e n c y of the paper ( w h i c h m a y be d a m p or dry).) I .

a n d t h e w a y it d i s t r i b u t e s w h e n t h e b r u s h is d a b b e d o n its s i d e .249 Gritty texture T h e details o f t h e largest creatures b e l o w and opposite s h o w the granular texture of Chinese b l o c k ink. . a n d b r u s h . b l e e d i n g f r o m strokes b e l o w left. w e see fine lines and s p o t s . BRUSH MARKS Wet and dry strokes A m o n g these concentrated drawings ink made into with the same w a t e r y lines. t h e effects of the b r u s h r u n n i n g o u t o f ink.

until we look again. Oxford.Monsters THESE LITTLE CREATURES o f i n k and i n v e n t i o n were b o r n out of animal and bird studies. and used their detail to draw new creatures that might at first seem familiar. . I borrowed small and fragile specimens from the University Museum of Natural History.


are two long. Goya's witches have been literally drawn and evolved out of the shapes of Murillo's prophet and pilgrims. Here. . Goya often invented his monsters out of characters seen in other painters' works. showing us that gallery study is not just for the student and beginner. With further research. I found relationships between all four paintings in terms of shapes. Among his "Black Paintings" in the Prado Museum. thin works made by Bartolome Murillo in Seville about 120 years earlier. Isidore. and narrative twists. Through studying and drawing these great paintings I have discovered that they are based on a pair of similarly long. Madrid.Goya's Monsters W I T H CUNNING BRILLIANCE. thin works titled The Witches' Sabbath and The Procession of St. They are a pair and hang opposite each other. two of my own drawings show you how Goya's devil (below) is based on the shape of Murillo's boy on a horse (top right). formal composition.


Consumed THIS IS A SERIES OF CARTOONS I m a d e s o m e years ago. . little comments on politeness and sexual politics. Sometimes drawings come out of nowhere and surprise even the artist. drawn rapidly and with great joy.


c e n t u r y painting m o v e m e n t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e use o f b o l d . See also Hotpressed papers. Eye level T h e i m a g i n a r y h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e a t t h e s a m e h e i g h t as t h e a v e r a g e p e r s o n ' s eyes. Aerial perspective The effect of the a t m o s p h e r e o v e r distance as it lightens t o n e s a n d cools c o l o r s progressively t o w a r d t h e horizon. A g e n e r a l t e r m t h a t describes t h e various processes o f c u t t i n g a design i n t o a plate o r b l o c k o f m e t a l o r w o o d . and readymade objects arranged and stuck o n t o a flat surface. written with a broad-nibbed pen o r brush." D e s c r i b e s a p a i n t i n g in w h i c h t h e light s o u r c e is b e h i n d t h e s u b j e c t F o r e x a m p l e . A l s o called r i n g l e t shading. It is p u t o n a Body color See Gouache. Camera obscura A d a r k e n e d c h a m b e r i n t o w h i c h an i m a g e o f w h a t is o u t s i d e is received t h r o u g h a small o p e n i n g o r lens a n d f o c u s e d in natural c o l o r o n a facing surface. A l s o called m u s e u m g r a d e .256 GLOSSARY Glossary Accidental drawing Random. Ferrule T h e s h o r t m e t a l t u b e t h a t s u r r o u n d s a n d g n p s t h e hairs o f a p a i n t b r u s h a n d fixes t h e m t o t h e brush handle. S o m e t i m e s f e r r u l e s a r e m a d e o f plastic o r o t h e r materials. A i r b r u s h e s are u s e d in t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c o m i c s . Fauvism A n early 2 0 t h . Composition T h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e p a r t s o f an i m a g e t o m a k e u p the whole. D a m p p a p e r is laid o n t o p . Crosshatching Parallel lines d r a w n across o n e a n o t h e r at right angles. for example. A " s h a l l o w d e p t h o f field" m e a n s t h e p i c t u r e appears t o have only a shallow s p a c e inside i t Diffuse T o s o f t e n o r m a k e less brilliant. L a t e r it c a m e t o m e a n h i g h l y c o n t r a s t e d light effects. s u c h as a d r a w i n g o r painting. Blotting T h e use o f a b s o r b e n t m a t e r i a l t o lift a w a y excess liquid. as o p p o s e d t o t h e s t r a i g h t e d g e o f a sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has b e e n machine-trimmed. Erasure T h e a c t o f r e m o v i n g a n i m a g e f r o m a surface. pressurized t o o l used f o r spraying fine mists o f s m o o t h c o l o r P i g m e n t is d e l i v e r e d b y a j e t o f air n o t t h e bristles o f a brush. Bracelet shading C u r v e d parallel lines t h a t f o l l o w t h e c o n t o u r s o f f o r m . 2. o f t e n d i s t o r t e d forms and vivid colors.m e d i a d r a w i n g . s u c h as a s c r e e n .s i z e d r a w i n g m a d e for t h e purpose o f transferring a design t o a painting. w h e n v i e w e d f r o m a specified point. a n d given t h e n a m e Sho. R e m b r a n d t is a great master o f chiaroscuro. pastel. A l s o c a l l e d t h e h o r i z o n line. so t h a t ink r e m a i n s o n l y in t h e g r o o v e s o f s c r a t c h e d lines. It can also seal a silver p o i n t d r a w i n g t o p r e v e n t t h e oxidization (browning) o f t h e Drypoint A d r a w i n g is s c r a t c h e d directly o n t o a m e t a l plate w i t h a m e t a l t o o l h e l d like apen. m e a n i n g " t o stick" Dry media M e d i a t h a t a r e n o t w e t o r o i l y — f o r e x a m p l e . charcoal. in w h i c h t h e subject's distinctive features o r peculiarities are deliberately exaggerated f o r c o m i c o r g r o t e s q u e effect. linseed oil o r egg y o l k Caricature A representation Contour line A line t h a t f o l l o w s t h e s h a p e o f a surface. Binder A substance t h a t holds particles o f p i g m e n t t o g e t h e r in a paint f o r m u l a t i o n . A p o t e n t i a l l y h a r s h m e t h o d o f p r o d u c i n g t o n e s in a d r a w i n g . o r o t h e r (usually large) w o r k — s e e Pouncing. Engraving 1. In t h e Far East calligraphy is a highly r e s p e c t e d a r t f o r m . w h e n a p e r s o n is p a i n t e d standing a g a i n s t a w i n d o w . Air brush A mechanical. usually at a n a c u t e angle t o t h e s u r f a c e .d i m e n s i o n a l i m a g e . m e a n i n g "beauty". U s e d as a c o r r e c t i n g device o r pictorial game. W o r d s o r symbols are Cold-pressed papers P a p e r manufactured with a "not" o r " r o u g h " surface. n e w s p a p e r cuttings." It w a s first given t o t o n a l paintings m a d e in o n e c o l o r — s e e Grisaille. a r e r o l l e d t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders.m a d e paper. t o g e t h e r w i t h a t h i c k felt b l a n k e t T h e w h o l e s a n d w i c h o f l a y e r s is t h e n railed t h r o u g h t h e press t o m a k e a p r i n t D r y p o i n t is a very portable and immediate m e t h o d o f printmaking. A f u l l . Camera lucida A n optical device t h a t p r o j e c t s an image o f an o b j e c t o n t o a plain s u r f a c e so t h a t it can be traced. Anamorphic distortion Stretching an i m a g e across a p i c t u r e surface so t h a t it can o n l y b e u n d e r s t o o d . A h u m o r o u s d r a w i n g o r parody. In t h e W e s t p e n calligraphy is u s e d t o c r e a t e f o r m a l a n d d e c o r a t i v e t e x t s . Acid-free paper P a p e r w i t h a neutral p H t h a t will n o t darken o r d e t e r i o r a t e excessively w i t h age. a n d g r a p h i t e . r a t h e r t h a n r e c o r d e d o n a film o r plate. p r a c t i c e d meditatively w i t h a brush. Contre jour A F r e n c h t e r m m e a n i n g " a g a i n s t day. F r o m t h e French v e r b coller. T h e prints t a k e n from t h e s e plates o r blocks. t h e field is t h e a p p a r e n t a n d b e l i e v a b l e space inside t h e p i c t u r e . p r i n t i n g press face up. Fixative lightly glues t h e d r a w i n g t o t h e surface o f t h e p a p e r t o p r e v e n t smudging. Chiaroscuro A 1 7 t h . C o p p e r p l a t e engravings w e r e widely used t o r e p r o d u c e images b e f o r e p h o t o g r a p h y . a n d attaches t h e m t o t h e s u p p o r t — f o r example. T h e name " n o t " simply refers t o t h e fact t h a t t h e cylinders are n o t h o t in t e m p e r a t u r e . Deckle edge T h e i r r e g u l a r e d g e o f a s h e e t o f m o l d . 2. T h e m o v e m e n t was started by a g r o u p o f French artists including H e n r i Matisse." " N o t " p r e s s e d p a p e r is r o l l e d a s e c o n d t i m e w i t h o u t blankets t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders t o p r o d u c e a s m o o t h e r b u t still slightly t e x t u r e d s u r f a c e . Calligraphy Beautiful h a n d w r i t i n g . p h o t o g r a p h s . Fixative Liquid acrylic resin a n d l a c q u e r t h i n n e r usually a p p l i e d as a n a e r o s o l s p r a y m i s t t o t h e surface o f a d r y . Field In a t w o .The plate is t h e n r o l l e d w i t h ink a n d polished with a rag. t h e l i g h t is b e h i n d h i m o r her.c e n t u r y Italian t e r m m e a n i n g "clear-obscure. Collage C o l l e c t e d materials such as c o l o r e d p a p e r s . Blending M e r g i n g t w o o r m o r e neighboring colors o r tones t o g e t h e r using a tortillon. Conservation grade D e s c r i b e s a range o f materials t h a t d o n o t d e c a y and cannot be broken d o w n by insects. T h e b l a n k e t s g i v e t h e p a p e r its rough texture o r "tooth. o r will o n l y a p p e a r n o r m a l . F r o m t h e G r e e k kallos. tapestry. chance mark-making. Cartoon 1. in w h i c h parts o f an image are depicted v e r y brightly and dramatically against d a r k n e s s . R o u g h p a p e r is m a d e b e t w e e n t w o blankets t h a t . Bleed T h e e f f e c t o f t w o w e t colors running into one another o r o n e color applied t o a w e t surface a n d a l l o w e d t o d i s p e r s e . Also called accelerated perspective.

and masking off areas of a drawing that the artist wishes to keep untouched by media applied above or beside the tape. Gamut A complete range or extent Glassine A type of thin. It can be used with any wet media to isolate or protect parts of an image from further Optical blending See Pointillism. rock. and gray drawing. including Max Ernst used frottage in their work. purpose. Masking fluid Clear or opaque latex fluid developed for watercolor painting. This effect emulates what we see in real life. Lifting out A method of creating highlights and mid-tones in a drymedia drawing (such as charcoal or graphite). Picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. and it has a history in enamel work. and that will "escape" or change over time. Hatching (cross-) See Crosshatching. Focus 1 . but each print will be unique. shape. enabling them to stick to paper It also helps to maintain a stable dispersion of pigment particles in water as the film of a wash dries. ink. pastel. Hairspray is an effective and inexpensive alternative. F o r m a t T h e size. It is then peeled away. to describe a surface to which paint will adhere readily. Alternatively. This may be disregarded in real life. Plumb line A line from which a weight is suspended in order to determine verticality or depth. or can be otherwise used to create an image—for example. graphite.Theground provides a particular color or texture beneath the image. The surface can be reloaded or redrawn with more medium. the surface of the stone is made wet before being rolled with a thin film of oilbased printing ink. Also used by artists' materials manufacturers to indicate the use of a substitute pigment—for example. which has a rough surface). Dark tones are laid down first then an eraser or masking tape is used to lift away particles of the drawing media to reveal the lightness of the paper beneath.The degree to which detail is defined. with the area beneath remaining unaffected. Ground A wet solution usually of gouache or gesso (chalk and animal glue) brushed onto paper board. Usually an academic drawing observed from life. then rubbed over carefully but vigorously with a crayon. or synthetic material that are suspended in a medium to constitute paint. or for wrapping and protecting a finished piece of work. A small image might be described as small format Horizontal images are often said to be "landscape format" (abbreviated G u m arabic The natural to"landscape"). It improves the bonding properties Frottage A French term meaning "rubbing. Negative space The space between things. Monochrome Usually refers to a black. lifting out charcoal and other dry media. upright images are called "portrait which is used as a binding agent in many liquid media. and orientation of the image. Lightfast A term confirming that pigment in the product will not fade with exposure to light. Padua. or canvas and allowed to dry before an image is drawn or painted. Artists can paint freely over dry masking fluid. glossy. Papercut A type of collage in which flat sheets of paper are cut into an image." A piece of paper is placed on top of an object or rough surface. Also refers to an additive used to control the application properties of a color Golden Section A proportion in which a straight line or rectangle is divided into two unequal parts in such a way that the ratio of the smaller part to the greater part is the same as that of the greater part to the whole. mineral. It is a strong adhesive. which give it a smooth surface (as opposed to cold-pressed paper. and by artists representing stone sculptures in a painting. Pointillism A technique of using points or dots of pure color in such a way that when the picture is viewed from a distance they react Masking tape Invaluable. After several intervening processes. This method incorporates the excitement of accidental and unpredicted marks.The paper then bears a crayon impression or copy of the surface that was underneath it A number of Surrealists. Rubens used grisaille to paint small images for engravers. Impressing Stamping or printing. format" (abbreviated to "portrait"). or even a beam of light. and translucent paper—a delicate material used in collage. work. and is also used as a size. Lithography A method of printmaking in which a drawing or painting is made directly onto a smooth slab of particular limestone or a metal plate using an oilbased crayon or ink. Hot-pressed papers (HP) Paper made using hot cylinders. or plastic surface. Medium A generic term for art Key A painting is said to be "high key" when the colors and tones are bright and "low key" when they are dark or somber The term is also used Gouache Opaque watercolor Also called body color. Foreshortening A method of depicting an object at an angle to the surface of the picture. the finely ground particles of plant. F o r m The outer surface of a three-dimensional object. cadmium yellow hue. white. or a family of colors. Grisaille is occasionally seen in church stained-glass windows. Paper is then pressed against the stone to take a print. to give the illusion of depth and distance. Giotto's Virtues and Vices in the Arena Chapel.257 metal line. oil-.while secretion of the acacia tree. A point of interest in a drawing. multiH u e A term for a color. Paper is laid on top and a rapid drawing is made on the back of it The paper lifts away to reveal the image on its other side. . sticky paper tape. are painted in grisaille and appear to be made of stone. or a drawing made in any single color GLOSSARY Linear perspective A form of perspective in which parallel lines are represented as converging. Objective drawing Refers to the concept of objectivity. Fugitive A term given to a pigment that it is not stable. oil-based printing ink is rolled evenly onto a smooth metal. glass. of the ingredients in inks and watercolors. 2. so that (using vanishing point perspective) the object appears to change shape and become narrower or smaller as it recedes. The ink attaches to the oil-based image and is repelled by the wet stone. or spirit-based) is applied to a surface that is then pressed onto paper and removed to leave a print. used for fixing paper to walls and boards. materials that produce marks on a surface. but in picture-making it is as important as the objects/subjects themselves. Grisaille A painting in gray or a grayish color Often made by students as a tonal exercise. aiming to represent facts rather than an interpretation of the subject. Monoprinting A direct method of printing in which wet medium (water-. it is the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work Pigment Any substance used as a coloring agent—for example.

creating more vibrant effects than if the same colors were physically mixed together with a brush. or watercolor paint. "Spirits" or "oil" of turpentine refer to the volatile portion used by artists to thin or dilute oil-based paint. Vanishing point In linear perspective. or gouache. Zen A school of Mahayana Buddhism that asserts that enlightenment can come through meditation and intuition rather than faith. Alternatively. Although drawings can be made with wash alone. plaster. Size A weak glue used for filling the porous surface of wood or canvas in order to seal it. Zen brushwork encompasses calligraphy and painting. sometimes drawn from a and leaving only the pricked sheet of shadow cast on a wall. plum blossom. or wood. Shade A that is color mixed (or toned) with black Shading A lay term for adding tone to a drawing. W e t media Any liquid media— for example. evolved by engineers and architects for the purpose of conveying W a t e r c o l o r A painting accurate structural information. pencil. and flowers. pointed roll of white paper that is used to blend dry media. design. acrylic. fine paper. Underdrawing A pale preliminary drawing made prior to adding layers of another medium such as oil paint or watercolor Value The extent to which a color reflects or transmits light This is the equivalent of tone in a black and white image. Spattering A mottled texture produced by drawing your fingers across the bristles of a stiff brush loaded with pigment. or the right-hand page in a book. Stippling Applying color or tone in areas of fine dots or flecks. pointed instrument used for marking or engraving. or ceramic glazing to reveal a different color beneath. a tightly folded piece of cotton batting can be used for the same effect. Pouncing If a large drawing or design (called a cartoon) is to be Shadow Darkness cast by the transferred to a surface such as a obscuring of light. carbon ink. which are then called editions. Tortillon A short. . Squeegee A rubber-trimmed scraper used in the screenprinting process for dragging ink across a surface. or mark using an inked or pigment-covered surface. usually diluted with water and applied with a brush. or the left-hand page in a book. glasses. Zen paintings usually depict scenes of nature and plants such as bamboo. Still life A picture composed of inanimate objects such as bowls.Technicaldrawing has been example. Sketch A quick or rough drawing. orchids. using a brush.Thedrawing is removed. plaster or cloth surface beneath. Viewpoint The position from which something is observed or considered. tight. Technical drawing A universal it is often used in conjunction language of lines and measurements with line drawings in pen and that is used to make diagrammatic ink—for images. cut-out profile made along every outline of the usually made in black paper image. Squaring up A method of enlarging and transferring an image from one surface to another. in order to flick the pigment onto the image surface. ink." Applied to the blurring or softening of sharp outlines by the subtle and gradual blending of one tone into another Sgraffito A technique of scratching or cutting through a surface of paint. wall or tapestry. an ink stone usually cut from slate. Printmaking The act of making a picture. Single-point perspective The most basic form of linear perspective in which there is only one vanishing point." Materials for Zen brushwork include round brushes of varied size. to model areas of light and shade. Serigraphy Silk-screen printing. giving it a brilliance. meaning objects used in setting up a life model or still life. The translucent Tint A color mixed with white. Subjective drawing A drawing that expresses the personal view and interpretation of the artist An invented image. Zen brushwork This is an oriental meditative art form originating in China and practised for many centuries in Japan. Pounce (a fine for an unpopular 18th-century powder of charcoal or similar French politician. Stylus A sharp. or pen. fruit. in tone running from black to white or vice versa. nature of watercolor allows the white surface of the paper to Tonal scale A scale of gradations shine through. Artists' prints are normally made in multiple. Recto The front or top side of a piece of paper. Strip Core of a pencil. a point at which receding parallel lines meet Verso The back or underside of a piece of paper. Sfumato An Italian term meaning "smoky. compound of water-soluble pigment. Wash A technique using ink. Named paper in place.258 GLOSSARY together optically. Etienne de material) dabbed through the Silhouette (1709-67). The crude material is called oleoresin. by imposing a grid that is then scaled up to a larger size. whose pinpricks creates a "connect-thepersonal pastime was making dots" replica of the image on the cut-out portraits. a sheet of paper is placed beneath and pinpricks are Silhouette A flat. and paperweights. or any physical object that can be stamped or pressed onto a surface to leave an impression. Volume The amount of space occupied by an object or an area of space in itself. and chrysanthemum—which in Chinese tradition are called "The Four Gentlemen. such as an inscribed sheet of metal. Turpentine A colorless solvent distilled from the resinous sap of pine trees. or point on which parallel lines converge to give the impression of receding space. A term borrowed from the theater. commonly referred to as the lead. Props An abbreviation of the word properties. Support The structure on which an image is made—for example. Tone A degree of lightness or darkness. watercolor. Scale Describes the size of one element in relation to another Sepia A brown pigment taken from the sun-dried ink sacs of cuttlefish and used to make ink or watercolor The term is now often incorrectly used to refer to brown colors. paper or canvas.

(Ross-Craig) 49 to hold brush for 23 caricature 159. 206 checkered floor 80.162 Conte.27 turtles 42-43 aquatint 240 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels (Leonardo) 12. Franz 48 Protea nitida 48 Bellini.Index Page numbers in italics refer t o captions and illustrations Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity (Bishndas and 259 INDEX B bread (as eraser) 205.226.117 Achilles Chases Hector (Thomas) 240. Brian 226 Untitled 2001 226 "Cave of the Hands" (Cueva de las Manas) 8. 242 Brunelleschi.44-45 bird studies 12. 98. Clare 203 City 202. 13 architectural drawing 67-71 Arctic Flowers (Libeskind) 70. Sylvano 222. Basilius 47 Beuys. 71 Bacchante (Bakst) 155 background: color 91 textured 240 Baker Matthew: Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry 32 Bakst. 244 and graphite 178 .184. 116. 90. 221 animals. 203 Claude Lorrain 202 Views from Velletri 202. 178 Cubism 67.100 curves. 94 chalk(s) 53. Statue d'Epouvante 90 calligraphy. Etienne-Louis 72 Newton's Cenotaph 72. 29 Hugo's octopus 28. Giovanni 137 Head and Shoulders of a Man 136. 90 La Guitare. 40-41 Durer's rhinoceros 26. to draw 100 Cypripedium calceolus L. 95 Chair Cut Out (Woodfine) 94. 226-227 Acanthus spinosus 65 accelerated perspective 22. 26 geese 38-39 Gericault's cats 28. 186 charcoal 114. 78 aerial perspective 206 airbrushing 160. Mamaru 104. 222.31 Picasso's horse and bird 30. 199 Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya (Eisen) 156. Jean Michel 138 Self-Portrait 138 Bateau-Vision. 111. to model 110-111 border 51 Bosch. 161 Akhlaq-I Rasul Allah manuscript 51. 74 brush (es) 246-247 Japanese 248 for laying a wash 140 marks 248-249 to hold 23 brush drawings 14-15 Bryan. Hieronymus 243 Two Monsters 242. 52 cotton swabs 205 Coup de Vent a Asajigabare (Hokusai) 198. Augustin 67 Basquiat. 133. 50. Filippo 67. to depict 156-157 Cloudburst of Material Possessions (Leonardo) 200. 38-39.51 All and Nothing (Taylor) 114.163 body. 198. 244 head and neck 144 phrased 124-125 contrast: brightness 99 of media 30 tonal 96. 74.133. 71 Blake. Leon: Bacchante 155 balance. 180 Circular Score for "Due Voce" (Bussotti) 223 circus scenes 192-195 City (Bryan) 202. 189.198.186 see also movement Adoration of the Magi perspective study (Leonardo) 74. 230-231 Cubist 90. 204-205. 203 Landline 202. 74. 71 conte 112. to express 39. 206. 70 Art Nouveau motifs 91 Autoportrait (Ray) 138. 165. 200 Bauer. 241 action. 243 botanical drawing 48-49 Boullee. 128.13. 182. 190 Caricature of a Woman (Daumier) 198. 113 bird bones 12.163 graded 227 composition 56-57. to draw 25. 193 in lifting out 204. 41 principal 186. Le (Hugo) 200. 28 Klee's horses 30.115 anatomical drawing 134-135 anatomical theaters 82-83 anatomical waxes 128 ancient carvings 221. to draw 80. cut Catling. 30 sleeping dog 38-39 Stubbs's horse skeleton 26. 242 to blend 205 compressed 122. 137 Besler. Joseph 113 The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland 112. Nicolas-Jacques 54 contours 146. William: The Circle of the Lustful 180. 75 Circle of the Lustful (Blake) 180. 180 blending: color 133.184. 90. 198 cartoon (preparatory drawing) 137 (satirical) 159. 139 Nanha) 50. 72 bracelet shading 122 Braque. 160 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object (Moore) 178. 94 cylindrical objects.163 dry media 205 Blue Nude (Matisse) 110. center of 118 ballpoint 182. layers 53 chalk pastels 162.89. 250 Bishndas and Nanha: Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity 50. 247-248 carving see lines.44-45.169 colors: airbrushed 161 background 91 A Abe. 205 Baltard. 179 Bussotti. 163. 230 The Physical Space 220 abstract drawing 219. 220. 158. Victor: West Facade of the Church of St. 9. 202 cloth. 13.50. 81 135. Zen c 232-233 blended 133. 9 Chair (Van Gogh) 94. 75. 223 Circular Score for "Due Voce" 223 children's art 9. 204. 203 Buffalo Hunt (Shoshone) 178. Georges 67. 90 colored materials 162-163 colored pencils 162. 201 collage 111. 162 character: to capture 38-39.212 to erase 205 to hold 23 pencils 204 willow 114. 157 cropping 56-57. 8 cave paintings 8. 134 costume(s) 155 character 158-159 structure of 166-167 Cottage Among Trees (Rembrandt) 52. 81 cut-out model plan 94.

163. Alberto 136 Portrait of Marie-Laure de Noailles 136. 245 Hugo.146 from masterworks 126-127. 134.252-253 from memory 183. fiber-tip pen 182. 161 fashion 160. 202. M.101 engraving 243 erasers/erasing 55.37. 134. 223 graphite 54. 41 in the round 208-209 with scalpel 202.198 Degas. 240 Black Paintings 152.184 165. to draw 78.Theodore 29 Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 28.141. Nicholas 68 St Paul's Baptistry 68 head and neck to draw 142-145 Head and Shoulders of a Man (Bellini) 136.12 fixative 54. position of 143. Robert 93 Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 92. 240 170-173 five Ships in a Port with Lighthouse (Wallis) 11.104. 222. 245 Gruau. Statue d'Epouvante. 226-227 anatomical 134-135 architectural 67-71 botanical 48-49 brush 14-15 dark to light 102.166 170-173 Gestalt 222 Giacometti. 160 Faune. 37 Grandville 243 A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the Near-Microscopic World of Scale Insects 242. Study for Plate 59 (Mucha) 90.230 three-tone 140.244 drawing(s): abstract 219. Oona 245 How Clever of God #84 244. 29 H hands.157 ellipses 100. 69. 222 Grimes. 245 layers 30 Goya. disposable pens 182-183 dissections: botanical 48 of horse 27 distance: illusion of see perspective linear 97 tonal 97 Documents Decoratifs. 160 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction (Gaudi) 68. drypoint 181 exaggeration 184 expressionism 198 E ye and Head of a Drone Fly (Hooke) 92. 223. 131 Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 240. 122. Keisai 157 The Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya 156. 222 Le Bateau-Vision 200. Sir Ernst 12.144 and ink 30. 26 Flying Fish (White) 25. 161 changing 216 Focusing on the Negative (Walter) 16 foliage 52. 77 How Clever of God #84 244. 163.216. 160 hitsuzendo 233 light to dark 102. 79.112. Victor 200.121 felt-tip pens 162.189.117 fountain pens 34. 134. 30 Fauves/fauvism 90.102-103 drawing board 20 drawing books 20-21 drawing paper 144.260 INDEX D Dada 139 Daumien Honore 198 Caricature of a Woman 198. 99 etching. 104-105. 132 Frenz.103. 122 Hawksmoor.91. 162 Flaxman. 90 G Gaudi. 230 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction 68. 190 Middle Eastern 50-51.244. to draw 120. 160 as ground for metal point 140. 141 tonal 96. 115 Escher. 7 33 Hooke. 73. 205 drawing with 103. Hans 133 The Ambassadors 116 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 132. 125.John 157 Man Lying Down in a Cloak 156. to suggest 177 see also perspective diagonals diffuser 55 dip pens 34. 203 Hotel de la Suzonnieres (Satie) 70. 93 eye level 80 Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity. 240.97. 90 gouache 30.116. Edgar 162 depth. Antonio 135 Muscles of the Head and Neck 134. 40. 252 depiction of fabric monsters 252-253 Self Portrait in a Cocked Hat 130.69 Gerard. 124. Cheval et Oiseau (Picasso) 30. 200 F fabric. Antonio 68. Jean Ignace Isidore see Grandville Gericault.160. 170-173. 241 to blend 205 and chalk 178 and ink 28.115 exploratory 17 fantasy 72-73. C .109 Rhinoceros 26. 220 dry brush 234 234 57. 137 heads. 32 framing 139 Franfoise au Bandeau (Picasso) 132. 161 fashion drawings 160. 216 foreshortening 110. 765 hitsuzendo drawings 233 Hokusai. proportions of 143 fantasy drawings 72-73. 55. 55. 91 Dragon (Michelangelo) 36. 135 Duren Albrecht 26. Francisco de 131. Rene 160 Illustration for Jacques Fath E easel. 112. 55. 136 Golden Section 67 Gombrich. to draw 134-137 Helleborus corsicus 55 highlights 91. 52 foreground 208. 113. 243 graphic score 222. Katsushika 199 Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 198. 799 Holbein. 93 horizon 52.160.216 Durelli. position of 22 Eisen.207.111 feet. 69. 69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt 68. 203 semi-abstract 234-237 three-dimensional 68. Ron 161 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 161 160.141. 242 eyes. 71 minimal line 99 and music 70-71 quick 38-39. 25 focus 65. 157 . to draw 168-169 in Goya's artworks face. The 242.103 with eraser 103. 69 Guitare. La (Braque) 90. 144 Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (Baker) 32. 120.

60. apparent 97 Leonardo da Vinci 74.109. 757 mandalas 219. 34-35 acrylic 35 bistre 35. Florence 128 lighting in 167 Pitt Rivers. 221 endless 31 free 113. 83 white 122 ink impressions 222 ink spatters 234 installations 176. 63. 249 and gouache 30 Indian 35. 789.276. 185 Mucha. 220. 181 Klee. Victor 134 Profile Head 134. 76 Libeskind. Oxford 106 Prado. 184. 227 Newsome. 220.Pieuvre (Octopus) 28. drawing from 183. 205. Marie 244 cloth drawing 244. 252 ink 16. 73 Kigell. 220. 99. 201 head and neck sections of female mold for Sforza Horse 89 Madonna of the Rocks 244 perspective study for Adoration of the Magi 74. Gustav 49 Knopf. 244. 225 masking tape 204. 226 Modernism 67. 177 influences. 97 Murillo.124. 244 Dragon 36. 78 Study ofThree Male Figures 110.The (Robinson) 108.33 Mysterious Affairs of the lighting 2 7. 158 Man Lying Down in a Cloak (Flaxman) 156. Johan 32. 166.102. 181 luminosity 115 Lynch. 31 Klimt.104. 110 Sistine Chapel ceiling 116 Middle Eastern drawing 50-51. Rose: Tantalus or the Future of Man 20 minimal line drawing 99 mirror use of 120 mixed media 28. 77 Miller. 135 museums 44.243 carbon 35 Chinese 30. 219 Mondrian. 190 metal pens see dip pens metal point 25. Paul 227 Polyphonic Setting for White 226. Charles Rennie 48.181 L Landline (Bryan) 202. 163 pens 36 measuring 116 memory.166 La Specola. 37 lines 118 pastel 162 pencil 31. Bartolome: Moses Striking the Rock ofHoreb 252. 33 J justness 228-229 N naive art 74 negative space 53. 203 landscape 206-208 brushed 14 Landscape in Hoboku Style (Sesshu) 14 layers 146 chalk 53 gouache 30 ink 28. Phyll: hands 18 lifting out 204. 36.141. 248.227 to "bend" straight 97 compositional 228-229 cut 202.134 K Kettlehut. 114 hatched 244 layered 118 pace of 65 pale 40 rapid 49. 13 Cloudburst of Material Possessions 200. 244 lithograph 198 Losbruch (Kollwitz) 180. 205 masterworks. 242 light 96 to depict drawing with 1 76 painting with 176 . 103 Neolithic chalk tablet 220. 53 monoprint 787. 203.112. David 78 M Mackintosh. 252 Muscles of the Head and Neck (Durelli) 134.182 Moore. 201 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels 12. Henry 178 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object 178. 176. 178 motifs: A r t Nouveau 9 7 stylized 51 mountains 216-217 movement: of animals 30-31 of humans 7 79. 34. artistic 240-241. 160 In the Duchess's Kitchen (Rackham) 176. drawing from 126-127. 54 silver point 156 leg sections 158 length. Daniel 70 Arctic Flowers 70 Lieb. I Murderous Attacks 33 Kollwitz.91 Study for Plate 59 of INDEX illumination see lighting Illustration for Jacques Fath (Gruau) 160. Kathe 181 Losbrunch (The Outbreak) 180.167 line(s) 132.141 Metropolis (film) 72. 35. 227 Scene of Comical Riders 30. 72.96. 58-59. Oxford 250 music 70-71 Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks (Knopf) 32. 244 ink 36 252-253 Documents Decoratifs 90.120. Alphonse 90. 111. Henri 111 Blue Nude 1110. 183 vertical 156 linear distance 97 linear perspective 69. 220. 156 magnification 93 Man in Armor (Van Dyck) 158.115 98. 53 Tree II 52. Madrid 171 University Museum of Natural History. 234 iron-gall 35. 28 Two Impressions from a Cut-out Paper Disk 222 Huyler Stephen R 225 261 Kinecar.109. 170-173. 49 Rose 49 Maelbeke Madonna (Van Eyck) 156. 73 Michelangelo Buonarroti 48. 756 priming for 140. 230 invented creatures 106-107 250-251 invented objects 89. Erich 73 design for Metropolis 72. 159 Japanese 35 to make 36 sepia 35 walnut 36. Piet 52. Matisse. 74-77.

141 prints/printing: aquatint 240 dry-point etching 181 engraving 243 monoprint 181. 159.240. 72 Noble. 772 234-237 Sesshu. 1 1 7 aerial 206 linear 69. 733 Portrait de Marie-Laure (Giacometti) 136. The (Abe) 220 Picasso. 71 Satire of the Queen's Dress (Wodall) 158. 73 Noble. 224 0 layers 31. 244 reed 34. 165 figure 118 filled 37 pencil 48. 7 38 Ray 138. 36. Paul 73 Nobson Central 72. 97.199 Profile Head (Newsome) oil pastels 162. 739 semi-abstract drawings Style 14 Seurat.oise au Bandeau 132. 230 paper(s) 21 colored 162 drawing 144. 9 8 . 139 Real Life is Rubbish (Noble and Webster) 176. 165. 1 6 3 . 76-79. 227 portfolios 20 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser de Noailles (Holbein) 132.37. 1 2 4 priming for metal point 140. 114 rollerball 182 Rorschach blot 99 Rose (Mackintosh) 48. 7 70 Ray. 75 Two Courtyards 75. Stella 48 Cypripedium calceolus L 49 rotated view 7 65 Rubens. 243. 162 O p A r t 98 optical illusions 96-99 outline 33. 161. 36.262 INDEX Newton. 234 disposable 182-183 felt-tip 162.226. 242 reed pens 34. 81 two-point 74. 26 Riley. 103. 4 8 putty eraser 55. 759 P Page. 57 Ross-Craig. 76 plastic eraser 55. Odilon 242 The Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity 242. 9 0 .2 3 age and youth sleeping subjects 148-149 150-151 Renaissance 109 Rhinoceros (Durer) 26. Bridget 98 Robinson. 78 single-point 74. 164. 38. 30 Fran<.759. 1 6 9 to hold 2 2 . Man 131. Georges 112 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 112. 122.176 Real Life Is Rubbish 176. 91 outsider artists 33. 244 Q s Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape (Wolfli) 2 79 St.7 77 rapidograph 70 Raphael 110. 205 157.Paul'sBaptistry (Hawksmoor) 68. 230 parallel planes 79 Parisian street 86-87 pastels 162 to blend 205 to hold 23 layers 162 pencils 162 pen(s): dip 34 . 68 Satie. 166 fiber-tip 782. 163. 1 1 6 accelerated 2 2 . Russell 228. Auguste 114 Two Women 114. 203 Scene of Comical Riders (Klee) 30. 1 3 2 quill pens 34. Heath 181 The Kinecar 180.36. 40-41.37 scientific instruments 9 2 . 212 Japanese 2 1 . 243. Martin 238. to draw 146-147 R Rackham.184 fountain 34. Faune. 7 72 Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland.52 pen and wash 158. and Webster. Isaac 92 Telescope 92 Newton's Cenotaph (Boullee) 72.Toyo: Landscape in Hoboku . 2 2 0 for oil pastels 162 stained 230 to stretch 140-141 tissue 21. 216. Erik 70. 181 Rodin. 28 pigment 162 bright 50 Caput Mortuum 7 4 7 for three-tone drawing 141. 7 77 three-point 80. 34-35. 52 pens 36 scalpel 54 drawing with 202. 4 9 Rose of Mohammed 50. 141 Piranesi. 1 1 6 . 74.37.104 Pieuvre (Hugo) 28.The (Beuys) 112. 38. 7 73 self-portraits: Basquiat 138. J 76 nudes 114-115 to make 36 metal see dip quill 34.Tim. 732 influence of 240 painting with light 78. 36 relief printing 757 Rembrandt van Rijn 52. 239 Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 238. 74-77. Pablo 6 7 . 37 38. 36. 36 pen and brush 8 3 pen and ink 70.139 Autoportrait 138. Cheval et Oiseau 30. Giovanni Battista 74. 160. 7 76 receding space 206 Redon.9 3 Schongauer.71 Hotel de la Suzonnieres 70. 36. 734 Protea nitida (Bauer) 48. 36. 736 portraits. 219.40. 205 pointillism 112 polyphonic painting 227 Polyphonic Setting for White (Klee) 226. Arthur 177 In the Duchess's Kitchen 176. 241 Physical Space. Sue 104. 239 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat (Seurat) 112. 75 Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range 241 petroglyphs 221. 181 pencil(s) 54 charcoal 204 colored 762.54 pastel 162 perspective 1 0 0 . 782 relief 757 silk-screen 739 woodblock 134.131 Cottage Among Trees 52. Peter Paul 126-127 Embracing pose(s): balanced 146 quick 118-119 positive form 103 posture: of artist 22 of subject 3 8 .

1 8 5 Tree II ( M o n d r i a n ) 52. 743 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City ( F r e n z ) 1 6 0 . 4 4 boat 209 botanical 4 9 G e r i c a u l t ' s cats 2 9 from Goya 170-173 125. 102-103 tonal marks. 1 2 Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse 71. 249 t o describe 39. 77. 1 4 1 w a t e r c o l o r 25. 6 9 Wodall. 2 2 7 Untitled 2001 ( C a t l i n g ) u 263 W h i t e . Study of (Michelangelo) 110. 2 3 4 . 156 layers 7 5 6 priming for 140. 7 70 Tiber 214-215 Untitled ( T w o m b l y ) 2 2 0 .d i m e n s i o n a l 1 0 4 . 2 4 2 w Wallis. John 25 Flying Fish 25 Wild Striped Cat Sketches of ( G e r i c a u l t ) 28.241 s i l k . 199. 79. Vincent 95 Chair 94.27 skull 747. 7 75 Telescope ( N e w t o n ) 9 2 . Sarah 9 4 Chair Cut Out 94. Jan 1 5 6 Maelbeke Madonna 1 5 6 . 1 3 . 2 7 studies: b i r d s 7 2 .1 9 9 wire. 2 1 2 . 161.13 M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s m a l e figures 110. 226 V Van Dyck.Yamaoka 233 t e x t u r e 2 2 2 . 115. 1 9 9 Two Courtyards (Piranesi) 75. 1 4 0 . 69. 9 0 . 241. 1 8 4 . T i m W e s t Fagade of the Church of St. 69. 104-105. Man in Armor 1 5 8 .125 W o o d f i n e . 1 4 4 . v i e w s o f 85. A l f r e d 1 1 . 49.199 tissue p a p e r 21. 76. 1 7 7 free 8 0 V e n i c e . 9 4 z Z e n calligraphy 232-233 contrast 96 t o grade 163 ink 37 pencil 5 4 t o r t i l l o n 205 T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c . 221 . 206-207 202.1 6 5 shorthand diagram 142 Shoshone buffalo hide painting 178. 141 Three Male Figures.158 158. 182. t o lay 1 4 0 .2 0 1 . 186. Taylor A n i t a 115 All and Nothing 1 1 4 . G e o r g e 2 7 Skeleton of the Horse 26. 2 0 0 Ship in a Storm 1 9 8 .1 0 5 vision 9 6 Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects (Grandville) 242. t o draw 1 9 8 . 164. 245 sharpener 54 Ship in a Storm ( T u r n e r ) 1 9 8 .J. 158 V a n Eyck. h e a d a n d n e c k sections o f female m o l d f o r (Leonardo) 89 shading 2 9 s h a d o w s 28. Paul 2 4 1 Achilles Chases Hector 2 4 0 . 240 Two Women Embracing ( R o d i n ) 114. 9 5 pens 36 v a n i s h i n g p o i n t 74. 1 6 6 t r a p e z i u s m u s c l e 142.9 1 storms. H e n r i de: Woman at Her Toilet 14 t r a n s p a r e n t v i e w 92. 75. Sue see N o b l e . 7 9 0 vessels. 2 2 6 .12 W a l t e r .216 W e b s t e r . 7 79 Shoshone petroglyph 240. 243 (Bosch) T Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos ( G o y a ) 2 4 0 . t o d r a w 5 2 . 2 4 7 t h r e e . 170 shoes 1 6 4 stylized m o t i f 51 Summer Flowers 63. A n t h o n y 152. 7 77. 2 3 0 tonal contrast 96 tonal distance 9 7 t o n a l d r a w i n g 9 6 . 74. 7 6 Two Impressions from a Cut-Out Paper Disk ( H u g o ) 2 2 2 Two Monsters 2 4 2 . 725 fabric 1 6 8 T h o m a s . drawing with 104-105 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt ( G a u d i ) 68.41. 1 4 1 . 9 2 Tesshu. 174 T w o m b l y . 57. phrased 146 tonal modeling 161 tonal range 169 t o n a l surfaces 2 2 7 tonal width 97 t o n e ( s ) 33. 53 trees. W . 97. 7 1 4 .d i m e n s i o n a l d r a w i n g 68. 1 8 4 . John: Focusing on the Negative 14 w a s h . b l o w n 248 steel p e n s see d i p p e n s still life 89. 2 4 4 . 1 9 9 . Adolf: Giant-Grape Saint-Mary-Castle 219 Woman at Her Toilet ( T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c ) 74 w o o d b l o c k print 157.120. 7 6 1 spots. 2 2 0 influence o f 2 4 0 Untitled 220. C y 138. 199 shoes 1 6 4 . 1 6 .1 4 5 . t o d r a w 1 0 1 viewfinder 57 Views from Velletri ( C l a u d e L o r r a i n ) 152.141 S i m b l e t . 156 Van Gogh. 202 violin. 159 Wolfli.243 Leonardo's machines 12.Sforza Horse. 1 4 5 travel journal 2 0 .5 3 in l a n d s c a p e 2 0 6 .1 4 1 . 75 Skeleton of the Horse ( S t u b b s ) 26. Sarah: child's m a p 75. t o d r a w 2 0 0 . Augustin ( B a l t a r d ) 6 7 w e t and dry brush-strokes 2 4 9 Turner. M . 96. 2 9 wind.s c r e e n p r i n t i n g 139 silver p o i n t 1 4 0 . 65 symbols 138.t o n e d r a w i n g 140. 230 t h r e e . William 159 Satire of the Queen's Dress INDEX 226. t h r e e .2 1 3 Stubbs.

University of Cambridge. Germany. Diana Bell. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin/Jorg P. Agnieszka Mlicka. 139: Galerie Marion Meyer/© Man Ray Trust / A D A G P . 174: Artothek/Munich. Paris. c o .bridgeman. Amsterdam. 5 0 : Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (1). 114: Musee Rodin.'s Yard. 2 7 : Royal Academy of Arts. K a t h r y n W i l k i n s o n . 73: Berlin F i l m Museum (t). Patty Stansfield. R u t h P a r k i n s o n . Psychiatric Institute of the University of Heidelberg. 1 3 3 : Artothek/Kupferstichkabinett. Paris and D A C S . L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . 199: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee des arts asiatiquesGuimet. A . Sarah D u n c a n . 177: Mary Evans Picture Library. L o n d o n . 69: Institut Amatller d'Art Hispanic (tl). 132: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee des Augustins. U K . Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. R . Picture Credits 8: Corbis/Hubert Stadler. Publisher's Acknowledgments Dorling Kindersley w o u l d like to thank Caroline H u n t for editorial contribution. 1901. Toulouse. Paul T h o m a s . M a n d y Earey. papers. 1 7 8 : © T h e British M u s e u m / H e n r y Moore F o u n d a t i o n . D a w n Henderson. 1 5 4 : akg-images/Musee National d'Art Moderne. Andy Crawford. 1929 (29. 2 6 : Topfoto. J o h n Roberts.939).bridgeman. Oxford. 9 7 6 ) .uk/Mucha Collection. L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . a n d encouragement i n m a k i n g this book: M a m o r u Abe. University of Oxford. 1 9 8 : Dover Publications. J a c k a n d Brian Catling. K u n s t m u s e u m .uk /Biblioteca Nacional./Galerie Sylvie Nissen. 75: © The British Museum (b). London/courtesy of Stuart Shave. Sir Brinsley F o r d . Maureen Paley Interim Art (b). 9 1 : www. Paris a n d D A C S . 1 . B e r l i n . c o . C o r n e l i s o n & Son.a. P h y l l Kiggell. Sarah Woodfine. B M G . 1 0 8 : Arts C o u n c i l Collection. 2 4 5 : Oona Grimes. 2 1 8 : Adolf-Wdlfli-Stiftung.bridgeman. Magdalene College Cambridge. Florence/MoMA./© D A C S 2 0 0 5 ( t ) . Peter L u f f . Angela Palmer. Corporation of London. 2 4 1 : Corbis/David M u e n c h ( b ) . 1 3 5 : T h e Wellcome Institute . S i m o n L e w i s . Jean Pierre Roy. H . Lisbon. Carole A s h . (r). 3 1 : Tom Powel Imaging. b r i d g e m a n .co. Berlin (b). 158: Calouste Gulbenkian Museum. 5 3 : Collection of the Gemeentemuseum D e n Haag/Mondrian Trust. Japan. 3 3 : Prinzhom Collection. 72: akg-images. Kirsten Norrie. Antonia Cunliffe Collection. Salisbury & South W i l t s h i r e M u s e u m ( t ) . 9 4 : Sarah Woodfine. 2 4 2 : Photo Scala. 9 5 : V a n Gogh M u s e u m . O. Orientabteilung/Ruth Schacht. for s u p p l y i n g the d r a w i n g books. 1 9 6 : Museum of the History of Science.bridgeman. Paris. L o n d o n (t). 137: © The British Museum. G e r m a n y . 1 5 6 : Graphische S a m m l u n g Albertina. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. 1 5 : w w w .l. Productions Clovis Prevost (c). A n n a P l u c i n s k a .264 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Acknowledgments Author's Acknowledgments: T h e author wishes to thank the following people for their enormous help. 1 6 1 : D C C o m i c s I n c . 11: www. Paris. R o s e m a r y S c o u l a r . H e a t h e r M c C a r r y . L o n d o n . 6 6 : w w w . 181: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. Paris a n d D A C S . R o y a n d D i a n n e Simblet. NY. b r i d g e m a n . B e r l i n . 49: Hunterian Museum (t).co. Portugal. F r a n c e . 221: Gagosian Gallery/Private Collection (b). T o n y G r i s o n i . Dover Publications/ISBN: 0486229912 (t). 2 2 3 : Lebrecht Music and Arts Photo Library/Ricordi. 9 0 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/© A D A G P . 9 3 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. 16: www. 111: Fondation Beyeler/Riehen (Bale)/© Succession H Matisse/DACS Museum. a n d D e p a r t m e n t s o f E n t o m o l o g y a n d Zoology at the University of Oxford. Illustrated London News Picture Library/The Bystander (b). George M c G a v i n . Rocio Arnaez. 2 3 8 : akg-images. 243: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. 1 3 8 : © Christie's Images Ltd/© A D AGP. H e l e n S h u t t l e w o r t h . France. 17: J o h n Walter. 2 2 4 : P r i n z h o m Collection. and Tamsin Woodward Smith. 4 8 : T h e N a t u r a l H i s t o r y M u s e u m . 225: Stephen P Huyler. Julie O u g h t o n . Angela W i l k e s . 2 2 0 : Mamaru Abe. F i n n . Sammy De Grave. Christopher Davis.bridgeman. 5 2 : T h e Metropolitan Museum of Art/Bequest of Mrs. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin. B e m d Kunzig.bridgeman. U K .co. 1 1 0 : www.bridgeman. Graphische Sammlung. 1 5 9 : Bodleian Library. G e r m a n y . 1 3 4 : © T h e British Museum. 9 2 : Science Photo L i b r a r y . 29: Fogg A n Museum/Collections Baron de Vita: Grenville L. Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (t). 68: www.20-21 a n d 246-47. Also. 1 9 : Getty Images/© Succession Picasso / D A C S 2 0 0 5 . T h e R u s k i n School of D r a w i n g a n d Fine A r t . Library. a n d brushes o n pp. G i n a R o w l a n d . B . 112: Yale University A r t Gallery/Everett V Meeks. 130: The Metropolitan M u s e u m of Art/Robert L e h m a n Collection. Germany/Joerg P. 176: Modem Art. 7 0 : Studio Daniel L i b e s k i n d . Madrid. Pamela Ellis for compiling the index. 115: Anita Taylor.bridgeman. 2 2 2 : Pierre Georgel/Private Collection. . L o n d o n . support. Paula Regan. 2 2 7 : Paul Klee Stiftung. © Tate. 2 0 0 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. 2 4 4 : Ashmolean Museum. 2 4 : © T h e British Museum. Psychiatric Institute of the U n i v e r s i t y of Heidelberg. Copyright Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens. 180: www. 74: Corbis. c o . u k / L o u v r e . Roddy Bell. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. b r i d g e m a n . Paris/ © Succession Picasso / D A C S 2005. K e v i n a n d Rebecca Slingsby. 2 0 1 : T h e Royal Collection © 2 0 0 2 H e r Majesty Queen Elizabeth I I . L e n . A n d y C r a w f o r d for p h o t o g r a p h y a n d L .Strang Print Room ( b ) . O o n a G r i m e s . Jackie Douglas. Anders. A . u k / O n Loan to the H a m b u r g Kunsthalle. 1 6 0 : Rene G R U A U s./Private Collection/© D A C S 2005.bridgeman. 51: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. London 2005. Paul T h o m a s ( t ) . H a y w a r d Gallery. Carlo O r t u for picture research s u p p o r t . 1 3 6 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Centre Pompidou-MNAM-CCI. Berlin/Staatsbibliothek zu A l l other images © Sarah Simblet . 88: www. Kunstmuseum Bern. 179: www. 2 0 2 : © T h e British Museum. K e w ft)).co. Flossie. 2 4 0 : w w w . Clare Bryan. H a m b u r g .uk /© Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery. 113: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. Italy. 7 1 : I M E C / A r c h i v e s E r i k Satie. L o n d o n .r. Paris. 30: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. L o n d o n . Anders/ © D A C S 2 0 0 5 .100. 1975 ( 1 9 7 5 . 4 6 : B r i t i s h Library. 13: www. Sophie Laurimore. 3 2 : Pepys Library. 157: U C L Art Collections . 2 0 3 : Clare Bryan (t). Natalie G o d w i n . u k / T o k y o National M u s e u m . Fund. 226: Brian Catling. Wolfson College. J o h n Walter.Paris ( b ) . K u n s t m u s e u m Bern/© D A C S 2 0 0 5 . Anita Taylor. London/Bequeathed by Charles Landseer. 2 8 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. Paris. J o n Roome.

dk. discover new ideas. shape. Learn from the Masters—a rich selection of drawings illustrates different approaches to a wide range of subjects.FOR THE ARTIST T h e c o m p l e t e g u i d e to drawing—a unique blend of practical teaching and inspirational insights into classic and contemporary drawings. D r a w i n g C l a s s e s — d e t a i l e d step-by-step demonstrations show you how to develop your natural talents. and silverpoint—and apply the key elements of drawing including perspective. Creating a Sketchbook—Sarah Simblet's drawings inspire you to explore different subjects and fill your own sketchbooks. Materials and Techniques—how to use a variety of materials—from pencil and ink to pastel. and improve your drawing skills. and tone. charcoal. Discover more at .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful