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FOR T H E ARTIST
FOR THE ARTIST
LONDON • NEW YORK MELBOURNE • MUNICH • DELHI Senior Editor Paula Regan Senior Art Editor Mandy Earey Art Editor Anna Plucinska Managing Editor Julie Oughton Managing Art Editor Heather McCarry Art Director Peter Luff Publishing Director Jackie Douglas Production Joanna Bull DTP Designer Adam Walker Picture Research Sarah Smithies US Editor Christine Heilman First American Edition, 2 0 0 5 First Paperback Edition, 2 0 0 9 Published in the United States by DK Publishing 3 7 5 Hudson Street New York, New York 1 0 0 1 4 10 11 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3
6 8 20 22 Master Builders The Order of Sound Future Fictions Pathways of Sight Single-Point Perspective Creating an Imaginary Space Further Aspects of Perspective Theaters Venetian Life Parisian Street
68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86
Foreword Introduction Drawing Books and Papers Posture and Grip
Objects and Instruments
TD075-July 2009 Copyright © 2 0 0 5 Dorling Kindersley Limited Text and authors artworks © Sarah Simblet 2 0 0 4 Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited A Cataloging-in-Publication record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN 9 7 8 - 0 - 7 5 6 6 - 5 1 4 1 - 1 Color reproduction by GRB, Italy Printed and bound in China by Toppan
Still Life Instruments of Vision Bench Marks Light and Illusions Further Illusions How to Draw Ellipses Tonality Drawing with Wire Artifacts and Fictions
90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106
Documentaries Presence and Mood Movement Icon and Design Pen and Ink Drawing with Ink Capturing Character Sleeping Dogs Turtles Dry Birds
26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44
Postures and Poses Choreographs Passion Measurement and Foreshortening Quick Poses Hands and Feet Charcoal Hands Phrasing Contours The Visual Detective La Specola
110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128
Plants and Gardens
Botanical Studies Jeweled Gardens Fast Trees Graphite and Erasers Cropping and Composition Negative Space Fig Tree Summer Flowers Acanthus Spinosus
48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64
Discover more at
Projections Magnetic Fields The Human Condition Disposable Pens The Travel Journal Catching the Moment Grand Canal Crossings Caravans The Big Top
174 Abstract Lines
176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 Process and Harmony Writing Time Chants and Prayers Compositions Being "Just" Collage Zen Calligraphy Nocturnes
220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234
Poise Anatomies Revelations Self-Portraits Silver Point Head and Neck Essential Observations Drawing Portraits Generations Castings
132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 152
Earth and the Elements
Air in Motion Storms Nature Profiles Charcoal Landscapes Drawing in the Round Decaying Boat Cloudburst Notes of Force Mountains
198 200 202 204 206 208 210 212 214 216
Gods and Monsters
Marks of Influence Hauntings Convolutions Brushes Brush Marks Monsters Goya's Monsters Consumed Glossary Index Acknowledgments
240 242 244 246 248 250 252 254 256 259 264
Cloth and Drapery Character Costumes Femmes Fatales Colored Materials Study and Design The Structure of Costume Textures and Patterns Dressing Character Posture Carving
156 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172
where I expect them to be discovered by some people. By using our imaginations. . I know that with their cooperation I can soon prove them wrong. geologists. Some are more traditionally framed and hung in galleries for solo or group exhibitions. and experience. I work with people of diverse ages. They enfold their viewer and are made on joined sheets of paper that I reach by climbing ladders. Some of my drawings cover entire walls. and I refer back to them for years after they are made. still standing by the door. undergraduates to fellow professors. or engineer. texture. and their importance to so many artists. we learn to feel truly alive. I will always draw. and size. we learn to see it. art schools. a drawing book is the perfect portable private vehicle for your imminent exploration of drawing. architect. It makes me feel excited to be alive. but because it is how I engage with and anchor myself in life. that inspired the title and structure MEMORY T H E A T E R S This pen-and-ink drawing was made from imagination during research for my PhD. It is my love of these. Augustine his notes on memory. and be slowly washed or worn away. They occupy a shelf in my studio. of Sketch Book for the Artist. The most rewarding challenge is always the newcomer. remain unseen by most. For me personally. and local c o m m u n i t y classes. I was training in anatomy and studying how.Foreword B Y DRAWING THE WORLD AROUND US. Drawing is a mirror through which I understand my place in the world. especially as travel journals. who tells me firmly upon approach that they cannot draw. in which he describes himself flying and diving in his imagination through pictorial caverns of knowledge. not only to make art. perhaps hidden on a door hinge or a street bench rail. or a quantum physicist trying to see for themselves the fluctuations of our universe. The very first step is to believe it. and makers of special effects. as a visiting professor at universities. are made outside as discreet installations. by invitation. and a reflector of experience. drawing is the immediate expression of seeing. and in a few sessions they will be flying. thinking. and through which I can see how I think. we have looked at. understood (and often misunderstood) our own bodies. be they a child discovering their vision and dexterity. a composer notating a musical score. and feeling. We can all learn how to draw. shape. For twelve years I have enjoyed the privilege of teaching drawing. Drawing occupies a unique place in every artist and creator's life. Combine these things and the possibilities are endless. a cartographer charting the land. Chosen in any color. from schoolchildren to senior citizens. It is a tool for investigating ideas and recording knowledge. night security staff. fashion designer. where spaces are shaped by nothing more than the objects and activities contained within them. I also make drawing books. I was also reading among The Confessions of St. Others can be held in the h a n d or. These inspirations led me to invent museums. aspirations. a sculptor. through history. doctors.
Most adults still feel that certain exquisite pleasure on arriving at a beach to find the tide out and the sand perfect. like a great canvas for them to mark. graffiti.8 INTRODUCTION Where We Begin There is a fundamental drive in our human nature to make a mark. but more often because drawing actually helps us to focus and take in what is said. Sometimes we draw because we are bored. "CAVE OF THE HANDS" In this drawing. We can always read each others drawings. inscribing every fresh part of it with their eager scrapes and trails. Cueva de las Marios. Children cannot be restrained from running across the pristine white lawn of newly fallen snow. a great crowd is raising their hands in greeting. signs. not just chosen pictures on our walls but everywhere—maps. We are surrounded by drawings in our daily lives. is not afforded us by drawing.Theseancient silhouettes were drawn with earth pigments rubbed onto rock. waving to us from many thousands of yearsago. scrawling shapes and cartoons when on the telephone. They have a natural affinity to many modern graffiti signatures. logos. Drawing is international. and in meetings.000-9500 bce . We are bombarded with linear and tonal pictorial information. in lectures. and patterns on our clothes. irreverent to language barriers. The sense of relief we may feel from the information overload of modern commercial life when visiting a country in which we can no longer read every written word. At home and at work we doodle. Rio Pinturas 13. and we spend our lives reading it. packaging.
The image above is what I gave back to my mother. reflecting my experience of looking closely at my father's face. created by societies of hunter-gatherers. and belonging to place. In cave paintings like the one opposite." Until this day. enjoying the physical sensation of crayon on paper. an expression of existence. She gave me a notepad and a red crayon and asked me to draw her "a picture of Daddy. I now think this is a picture of proximity. who in their day-to-day hardship made time to picture themselves and the animals on which they depended. like all toddlers. On a particular afternoon in September 1974. Even though it is made by a toddler this image would be recognizable to anyone. we see our oldest surviving images. MAKING OUR MARK It seems reasonable to assume that we have engaged in pictorial mark-making for as long as we have made conscious use of our hands. and the appearance of my strikes of colors. I. had happily scribbled. .9 WHERE WE BEGIN FIRST PORTRAIT For sorre forgotten reason. and she kept it as my first step beyond the delighted realms of scrawl. at age two-anda-half. Eyelashes take up as much of my attention as the head itself. but I had never yet attempted to figuratively picture my world. the hair of my first portrait was most important. power. I was sitting with my mother. Cave art was not made for decoration but as a fundamental part of life.
most of us stop. yet still turn to drawing w h e n their verbal language fails or is inadequate. It was made with a few bold strokes of a steel pen dipped in ink to conjure the dried bee I was holding between my fingers on a pin. But as adolescents. At this point many will insist they cannot draw. to help a stranger see their way W h e n taking first steps in relearning h o w to draw. Young children love to draw.10 INTRODUCTION PEN-AND-INK BEE This tiny drawing has been enlarged to show its texture and composition. and from that first unit build and describe the shape of something or someone we know. b e p r o u d o f what m a k e s y o u r w o r k individual to y o u . then drag o u r line into a loop. W e do n o t hesitate to draw a map. PROGRESSION T h e r e is a point in all o u r lives w h e n w e first c o n t r o l o u r mark and m a k e it a line. it is important to value your natural abilities a n d ways of seeing. As you progress. h o w e v e r small a n d u n f o r m e d y o u believe they are. and this activity plays a vital role in their d e v e l o p m e n t . Inhibitions creep in and ideas of good a n d b a d terminate confidence. for example. Don't b e p e r s u a d e d to draw in a w a y s o m e o n e else . Hours are lost immersed in the glorious world of imagination.
Think how much would have been lost if anyone had interfered with Alfred Wallis' personal sense of proportion and perspective in the exquisite drawing above. you must decide whether to keep or discard it. remember that all advice is only advice. He used leftover ship and yacht paint with crayons on cut-out pieces of cardboard boxes. Enjoy the control of your own journey. what they most want to achieve. harbor and sea is one of many that Alfred Wallis made from memory while sitting at home. Occasionally. As you read this b o o k and perhaps attend art classes. Someone once told them they must draw in this way. and they have never questioned why. He was a retired Cornish fisherman and junk dealer who began drawing at the age of 70 "for company" after his wife died.11 PROGRESSION A UNIQUE SIGHT This innocent yet sophisticated drawing of boats. I ask them their reasons for drawing. but it does help to set out facing in the right direction. . After experimenting and trying each new idea. 1925-42 53/8x87/8in (135 x 225 mm) ALFRED WALLIS prefers and tells you is better. Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse c. I meet students struggling unhappily with a particular method of drawing. The journey of every artist demands hard work and discipline. and which aspects of the vast wealth and diversity of graphic language would be most appropriate to their goals.
12 INTRODUCTION VISION All artists see the world differently. There should neve: be a slavish obligation to represent things exactly as we collectively agree we see them. There are only artists. clear-minded understanding of the sea. the page bristles with the focus of ideas. embedded in this book. Below. and lose the very thing that attracted us to it. When we look back at Wallis' seascape (see p. We also see differently ourselves. depending on the occasion and our purpose. and inspire others. but the child in us knows that this is an all-embracing. I hope. 11)." The clarity and empowerment of these words.and collarbones and shoulder blades of a different bird almost become new creatures in themselves. Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels LEONARDO DA VINCI . "There really is no such thing as Art. not for disguise but as a personal choice. it may not be accurate to our critical adult eye. be visionary. but it should be the experienced world we draw. wrote as the opening line of this great work. There are countless reasons for drawing. and breathtaking wind of a choppy harbor. If as artists we nail a subject down too hard. perhaps for comfort or ease as a left-hander or a habitual enjoyment of the challenge. His notes visually balance his drawings. the breast. The art historian Professor Sir Ernst Gombrich. is. We BIRD STUDIES The flutter of faint scratches that dance across the pages on the right is an attempt to see the movement and bony weightlessness of a bird. all raise water From the Archimedes' screw to Leonardo's own cupped wheel. They are also always written backward. boats. IDEAS A N D I N V E N T I O N S These active machines. Our imaginations are the tools with which we can increase the essence of life. We all see differently. right. author of The Story of Art. The observed world may be our subject. we can drive out its spirit.
Don't be disheartened. stripped-down parts. Opposite. Leonardo drew to invent a machine. More was learned drawing the bird 18 times than would have been understood drawing it only once or twice. Decide before you start whether you are drawing to warm up. Each fresh image reflects growing confidence and the experience of the preceding study. This also applies if struggling at length with a larger picture.13 VISION should not try to know how every finished picture will look. but it is important to be clear why we are making it. It will be invested through your experience in the new drawing. or to discover the best use of a new material. I drew to understand the apparatus of flight. or illustrate a dream. Our drawings are annotated investigations into the mechanisms of nature and of an idea. when it looks tired and still feels wrong. to express the beauty in a moment's play of light. We have both covered our paper with focused. make a calculation. drawing in pursuit of our own thoughts and understanding. My drawings of a housemartin (opposite top) illustrate the importance of repeated study. while below. it may be best to start afresh. conduct an experiment. shout against a terrible injustice. time spent is not lost. .
mists. and we can just make out the distant stains of mountains. declare the idea. Landscape in Haboku Style 15TH CENTURY . created centuries and cultures apart. If you can do this. ink. and opacity of your subject. and spirit of each subject was held strongly but loosely between the fingertips. They each allowed the energy and focus of the moment to be expressed through controlled accident and a degree of the unknown Both drawings were made trusting the marks. This is a detail of a brush-and-ink drawing by a Japanese Buddhist monk. and what you discover in the process of making. and an island brushed with trees. As your hand meets the paper to make a mark. balance. water. and position in space. Imagine these qualities so strongly that you feel them in your mind and at your fingertips. which can offer keys to other things. explain the composition. and paper. W e float toward the quiet vista as it also moves toward us.14 INTRODUCTION ALCHEMY At school. bone. and practice each part before putting the final image together. You must also think of its intrinsic nature: its purpose. This is the alchemy of drawing. are both made of ink laid onto wet paper with speed and agile certainty. The physicality. Know the texture. As you draw any subject—something you see. trusting my intuition to find a visual equivalence for the sensation of weight within my body. meaning. excessive planning can get in the way of the imagination. depth. and at speeds beyond conscious thought. However. and allowed to flow through the brush. or ice—you must actually feel it beneath your fingers as you draw. Our position asvieweris unsteady. It denies the importance of accident. silk. feel. BRUSHED LANDSCAPE FLOWING SKELETON T h e gliding poise of this walking anatomy comes as much from the feeling of movement as it does from the feeling of drawing. size. and how it feels to the touch. we are advised or even required to plan our pictures. and sometimes beyond. Each image relied upon past experience to know the probable behavior of the brush. temperature. Whatever the material— wood. the unknown. This suits many artists well and is perfectly valid. I made it almost unconsciously with a pen and a brush. it should be responding to the sensation and meaning of the subject it draws. These two brush drawings. fire. or imagine—it is not enough to only render its shape. your marks will become the subject on the paper. metal. We are caught in a shifting focus that makes everything fluid.
one of many luminous works in watercolor. He dazzles us with flashes o f light and dabbed marks o f shadow. Focusing on the Negative 2004 22 x 30 in (56 x 76 cm) J O H N WALTER . stand table-sized with furniture legs attached t o b o t h sides of their jacket. gold leaf and spray paint. made by a young British artist who creates alphabets o f the absurd f r o m familiar childhood characters. right is set inside a rib cage. acrylic.1896 Woman at her Toilet 41 x 26 in (104 x 66 cm) TOULOUSE LAUTREC RIB-CAGE D R A M A Thus drama. more than 100 years after its making. which evoke realities o f place and the p o w e r o f moment. pastel. W a l t e r also makes books: some.16 INTRODUCTION PLACE A N D MOMENT The heat and teeming atmosphere o f this Parisian dressing room. c. like folded insects. left. Lautrec's flamboyant splashes o f petticoats and pantaloons are drawn with long sweeps of chalk and brushed oil paint. lives on.
With no help and advice at all. just through the act of making. Drawing is exploratory. potential ideas still forming. take your time and don't worry if you need to make several attempts to grasp a concept. One of the advantages of a drawing book is that you can shut it. Put them away and look at them later. and mistakes are a valuable process of learning. you will be surprised and encouraged to see how far you have come. and miscellaneous items of inspiration. FREEINGTHEHAND . you will naturally make progress on your own in response to concentration and the decision to look and draw. at a point when you feel you are not making progress. As you follow lessons in this book. Pages do not have to lie open for other people to inspect and comment on.17 FREEING THE HAND If you are just beginning to learn how to draw. Ignore these at first and allow yourself the freedom to play. Enjoy discovering what your hand and the material can do. Such books are personal: the territory of new exploration and experiment. even those you dislike. Try to keep all of your first drawings. Choose other materials and do the same. Much will be learned on these test sheets and in your first drawings. Start by choosing a material you like the look of and cover a piece of paper with different marks. diary-like observations. It is yours. try not to grip your pen worrying about the technical terms you might have heard.
seek ideas in the life around you. A N ARTIST'S HANDS These are the hands of the artist Phyll Kiggell (see p. Note that the drawing classes are allocated to subjects.Their elegant strength seems to summon a lifetime of drawing. it is this voice that is the subtle part of their art and something that ultimately. we still only glimpse a corner of the magnitude of this subject and the infinity of what can be achieved. but not confined to them. However. 150). The chapters of this book present 90 different artists' ways of seeing. which of course he cannot see. and enfolding new media. Its sensuous and flowing line seems to drift like smoke.18 INTRODUCTION THE THINKING EYE Techniques and materials are the grammar and vocabulary of drawing and can be studied and shared. Imagination needs nourishment. To these I have added my own drawings to explain elementary materials and techniques and offer introductory approaches. caught between action and repose. Drawing is a living language that over millennia has grown and changed. threedimensionally. Picasso has just finished his drawing. adapting its form and occupation. Look to your own experience and also learn from the work of others. and became a great subject for me. In the total wealth of these pages. Picasso Painting with Light at the Madoura Pottery 1949 . staring straight through his image of a bull. Picasso is poised smiling. Once there. the path is yours. It rarely flourishes in isolation. which is held frozen in space by a camera lens. As you draw. ELECTRIC BULL With a penlight. it will be your creation as you discover your own personal vision. An artist's personal voice is something that also evolves through lessons learned. This practical journey will take you through the door into the vivid heart of drawing. comes from within. I was particularly attracted to their gentle articulation and understated determination. when they are more experienced. The real drawing book has yet to come. and many more reasons for drawing the world.
F O U N D B O O K S : O l d p r i n t e d 3 . F o r e v e n i n g classes. and collage their ideas. It is also useful to own a portfolio. C O L O R E D PAPERS: Large a r t supply stores o f t e n sell t h i c k b o o k s full o f c o l o r e d p a p e r s . be sure they fit comfortably under your arm.q u a l i t y r i n g . A high-quality one will last a DRAWING BOOKS Select d r a w i n g b o o k s t o suit y o u r aims. You simply need two strong boards hinged together well. H O M E M A D E : I m a d e this b o o k f r o m drawing paper that I folded. t h i s is h o w I l e a r n e d . y o u n e e d a lifetime. cheap corrugated plastic ones fall apart in days.b o u n d b o o k s t h a t fit in y o u r p o c k e t o r bag. is perfect. There are dozens to choose from. C A N V A S . Art students often make use of printed books picked up from secondhand stores into which they draw. BLACK P O C K E T B O O K S : Hand-sized w i t h ready-made elastic binder and a marker ribbon. a l e n g t h o f black elastic t i e d a r o u n d t h e m i d d l e will h o l d the contents together w h e n y o u f o l d in c o l l e c t e d items. 2.C O V E R E D H A R D B O U N D : Ideal f o r c a r r y i n g a r o u n d . Drawing boards are invaluable. Sand the edges to avoid splinters. Homemade books can be assembled easily from found materials or selections of loose sheet papers. study the structure of a good portfolio and make your own. and glued t o a s t r i p o f bias binding.B O U N D PADS: T h e s e are t h e least expensive a n d useful f o r o p e n i n g flat. pastels. cut. catalogs. thick enough not to flex. c h o o s e larger f o r m a t s t o give y o u s c o p e f o r e x p e r i m e n t . These are perfect f o r w o r k i n g in novels. a n d r e f e r e n c e b o o k s f o u n d in s e c o n d . quality. a n d crayons. binding. 4. Smooth plywood. 5. and handles to lift the weight of your artworks. If you intend to carry your boards for a distance.b o u n d b o o k w i l l s o o n s h o w y o u h o w it is m a d e . F o r traveling. Purchase a h i g h . Most contain thin p a p e r and are perfect f o r use w i t h disposable pens. Calculate a range of useful dimensions and have several cut at once. T h e hardb o a r d j a c k e t is s t r e t c h e d w i t h canvas beneath t h e p a p e r sleeve. t h e i r jackets w i l l a c t like d r a w i n g b o a r d s a n d p r o t e c t y o u r w o r k .20 INTRODUCTION Drawing Books and Papers T o BEGIN YOUR EXPLORATION o f d r a w i n g . Alternatively. ties on either side to keep your papers in place. c h o o s e s m a l l e r h a r d . N o t e t h e w i d e l y differing c h o i c e o f p a p e r s w i t h w h i c h t h e s e are m a d e . drawing book. c o l o r If planning t o use pencils. b e a w a r e t h a t p a p e r t e x t u r e effects a n d changes t h e i r marks. texture. color. stitched. R I N G . Dissecting a d i s c a r d e d h a r d .b o u n d p a d if y o u w i s h t o keep your drawings together long-term. which are also sold in an enormous range. Gleaming store purchases vary greatly in format. and cost. Many artists invent ways o f binding their o w n books. it is better to have them made at a lumber yard or home improvement store. thickness. They can be very expensive in art stores. 1. 2002 Tantalus o r The Future of Man 81/2 x61/4in (215 x 158 mm) ROSE MILLER . 6.h a n d s t o r e s make unique subjects f o r e x p e r i m e n t s a n d collage. H o w e v e r r i n g bindings o f t e n break.
white textured paper that can take abrasive use of any medium. 17. 16. VELIN ARCHES 250GMS: Printmaking paper available in black white. 13. turning brown and brittle. and other plant fibers. 8. 10. 22.TISSUE PAPER: Place sheets between drawing book pages to keep images from printing on each other and use for delicate collage. and cost. FABRIANO INGRES: Thin. GLASSINE: Sold as protective wrapping. mold-. 21. METALLIC PAPER: Thin paper in different metallic colors. tough. also good for drawing with colored pencils. C A R B O N PAPER: Available in dark and light blue. JAPANESE PAPER: Strong. yellow. smooth. mulberry. Use with a brush in clean water Water makes a dark mark like ink and becomes invisible again when dry. printed on one side only. Use for brushwork drawings. not. It is available in white or cream. size. SAUNDERS WATERFORD N O T 300GMS: Mid-quality textured watercolor paper. 18. and cream sheets or rolls. pastel paper in flecked pastel colors with a distinctive ribbed marking. Use cheap paper for rough ideas and quality paper for work to last See the glossary ( p p . blocks.5 9 ) for explanations of rough. FABRIANO ACADEMIA: Standard medium-range multipurpose paper Use with any media. 11. and hot pressed papers. absorbency. 20. Cotton papers are high-quality and acid-free. bamboo. blocks. texture. cold. For use with any media. and rolls. resisting deterioration. Cheap wood-pulp papers are acidic. 15. It is also excellent for drawing with marker pens on layered sheets. T W O RIVERS GREEN 410G MS: Very heavy tinted textured cold-pressed watercolor paper See Two Rivers Yellow. They are hand-.Papers differ in thickness (weight). color. fine. 14. AQUARELLE ARCHES 300GMS:The very top quality hot-pressed (smooth) watercolor paper. 2 5 6 . T W O RIVERS Y E L L O W 410GMS: See Two Rivers Green 19. from pencil to paint 9. and translucent. 12. FABRIANO R O U G H 600GMS: Very heavy. red. C A N S O N : Inexpensive lightweight pastel paper in many colors. or rolls. it is made from rice. Ph. used to imprint lines of these colors onto a surface. PAPERS . MAGIC PAPER: A reusable sheet for testing ideas without creating waste. 7. and white. 100% cotton and sold in sheets. or machine made in sheets. ITALIAN PARCHMENT: Imitation-animal-skin parchment that is translucent and slightly waxy.
but wherever possible. If using an upright easel. flowing space between your hand. There are also parallels to dance. if left-handed. You do not have to dance to draw. There should be an open. Relaxed fingers: Hold the pencil away from its tip and relax your fingers. body. Regularly step back 6-9 ft (2-3 m) to check your progress. How you hold your drawing materials is also important. It will also reflect discomfort if you are in any way cramped. b u t it should n o t be forgotten that many people make remarkable a n d striking works drawing with their feet or holding their brush or pencil in their mouths. should be able to look comfortably straight ahead at your picture plane. you Drawing classes can be cramped places. If your hand twists to maneuver between the paper and your body. you can draw lines freely and achieve a significant arc of movement. This cramped grip tires your hand and makes small. and look to the right. place it on your right. With your hand in this position. don't sit too close to the paper.22 INTRODUCTION Posture and Grip T o DRAW WELL. strangledlooking drawings. a n d h a n d to the fingertips. In this book we will look at parallels between drawing and music. 116-17). arm. Turning your drawing sideways or upside-own will also help reveal what is wrong. place it on the correct side: if right-handed. your drawing will reflect this. place it on your left. This photograph illustrates how some people hold a pen to write. From a distance you will spot errors you cannot see close up. your lines will distort. SPACE TO WORK Cramped grip. a n d look to the left of it at your subject. You cannot draw like this—your hand is locked and your fingers can barely move. Examples are shown here. or with your drawing board angled between your lap and a chair. make sure you have enough room to back away and view your work. Use the side of your little fingernail as a support on the page. your whole relaxed b o d y should be involved. Ideally. If your body posture is well balanced and you can move freely. but you need to understand that the expression of a line or mark originates in the body and flows t h r o u g h the shoulder. Placing your easel o n the w r o n g side folds y o u r b o d y against your drawing arm. If seated on a b e n c h easel (a donkey). Accelerated perspective also occurs if you look down the surface steeply (see pp. and subject. .
liquid will run down your hand. or it can spoil your work if not anticipated. Remember you can also draw just by dipping your fingers in pigment—this is how many women draw in rural India. brush pressed against an upright surface will cause a dribble of ink to run down your drawing. It is most comfortable when reaching to draw above your head. Soft media: Short materials such as pastels and charcoal can be accommodated in the palm. and body are not restricted. Large scale: POSTURE AND GRIP U n f a m i l i a r i t y : T h e habitual movements of our handwriting style will sometimes infringe upon our drawing. alternative way of holding the pencil. roughly marking out a large-scale work. This can be used to great effect. . GRAVITY Remember that gravity affects the flow of ink and paint. Brush calligraphy: This comfortable. not up to the paper Brushes can be used on upright paper but dip Anticipating effects: A fully loaded pens need a level surface. As long as your fingers. But be careful not to tense your fingers.23 This loose "candle" grip is very useful when drawing with your arm extended.232-33). depending upon what it is and how large you are working. ALL MEDIA There are no rules as to how you should hold your drawing media. or change to the wrong hand. hold your material as you find most comfortable. This can give a new lease on life to your mark-making. upright way of holding the brush near its base is similar to the Japanese way used in Zen calligraphy (see pp. If you turn a brush or dip pen up into the air to draw above your hand. arm. Large amounts of ink can be applied without fear of uncontrolled running if the paper is flat. find an unfamiliar. To stop this.
the Latin bestiary was one of the most popular picture books—an illustrated dictionary of one hundred parts. fish. which very likely leaped o n t o the deck of Sir Walter Raleigh's ship Tiger as it sailed north from the Caribbean to Virginia in 1585. Together they made maps and documented animals. and learn how to Flying Fish c. Facial features were analyzed in terms of their animal likeness. out are now oxidized and so appear black W h e n less preoccupied with understanding ourselves. we have employed artists on expeditions. plants. 1590 J O H N WHITE capture form and movement from the m a n n e r i s m s of honking geese. from which personality and predicted behavior were " d e d u c e d .m o u n t e d skeletons of birds. White's commission was to ". to be there at the m o m e n t of discovery. or scampering through the initials and borders of pictures from that time. their different speeds and patterns of action. We have drawn them on the walls of caves to evoke their kinship and power. O v e r the centuries. cartographer. 11 x91/4in (277 x 234 mm) . sleeping dogs. 1540. and we still see escapees from its pages carved and grinning as the gargoyles of churches. animals provide a perfect subject with which to begin. and dragons. mermaids.drawe to lief one of each kinde of thing that is strange to us in England. " Animals perpetually feed our imaginations. and people. and pioneer born c. In medieval England. we turn and take the features of beasts. JOHN WHITE British artist." Paranoid newcomers c r a m m e d into swelling industrial cities used handbooks of physiognomy to identify and judge their neighbors. each dedicated to the moralized tale of an animal or monster The bestiary profoundly influenced the art of its period.. bats. As children we delight in the humanized trials of Tom and Jerry and their c a r t o o n relations.. In this chapter we discover the use of pens and ink through the delineation of insects. Here (left) we see J o h n White's exquisite record of a flying fish. m u s e u m . This drawing is made in black lead (metal point) with watercolor Highlights of silver would have gleamed. W h e n lost to explain our own emotions. offer challenges and delights to draw. After the subject of ourselves. birds. insects. Framed in the z o o or in domestic cohabitation. and silent. and snakes have between them engendered harpies. werewolves.Animals H UMANS HAVE DRAWN ANIMALS from the beginning of our time. and to bring h o m e drawn documentaries of their finds. On the Roanoke voyages of Sir Walter Raleigh. who described in words what White drew. dogs. In 19th-century Europe this became a "science. floating turtles. and this very drawing was to endure many copies and plagiarisms after its triumphant return to the English court of Queen Elizabeth I. For the novice artist. W e have drawn them in m a n u s c r i p t s to explain our genesis and to c o u n t their species into Noah's ark. they are perhaps our favorite pictorial preoccupation." He worked with the scientist Thomas Harriot. Europeans on board had never seen such a thing. which are so unlike ours.
it continued its journey to Rome. they were rejected. and mathematician. Original Ink Drawing of a Rhinoceros 1515 ALBRECHT DURER 103/4 x 161/2 in ( 2 7 4 x 4 2 0 mm) . Carefully stuffed. when more accurate portrayals were made without armor and scales. Meanwhile. Durer's image changed eager hands until it was known across Europe. draftsman. it is still consulted by veterinarians today. writer. The first live rhinoceros to reach Europe came from India in May 1515. filled journals with ideas and observations. He in turn sent the mysterious creature to the Pope via Marseilles at the request of the King of France. Converted into a print. and wrote four books on proportion.26 ANIMALS Documentaries horse are superb affirmations of the power of drawing as a recorder and communicator of knowledge. Sailing to Rome. He studied the image and drew his own interpretation. a drawing of it arrived in Nuremberg. the ship was lost. It was to become the animal's only accepted likeness for 250 years. Stubbs's Anatomy of the Horse achieved similar documentary status. a gift to the Portuguese King. inspiring countless works of art and so touching people's imaginations that later. Contemporary texts related accounts of the beast as the mortal enemy of the elephant and rare relative of the "more common" unicorn. printmaker. Durer traveled widely to study at different European schools of art. but the drowned animal washed ashore. It is such a lifelike triumph of imagination and intelligence that for centuries zoologists never questioned its authority. Life-like This is Durer's original quill-and-ink drawing made after an anonymous Portuguese drawing. DURER'S RHINOCEROS AND STUBBS'S skeletal Durer. the home of ALBRECHT DURER German Renaissance painter. naturalist. years after its publication. Unsurpassed.
dissecting and drawing until he understood the mechanisms of its power and grace. Table of the III of the Horse (rear Skeleton view) mm) 1756-58 1 4 x 7 in ( 3 5 4 x 1 8 0 GEORGE STUBBS . His painted p o r t r a i t o f t h e b e a s t is in t h e R o y a l C o l l e g e o f S u r g e o n s o f England. This is one of Stubbs' original finished pencil drawings. Lighting Stubbs's breathtaking international work won immediate There acclaim. is no other work like it. which has never diminished. The entire project was developed over ten years. c o m p r i s e s 1 8 p l a t e s s h o w i n g d i s s e c t i o n s in l a y e r s f r o m b o n e t h r o u g h m u s c u l a t u r e t o skin. L o n d o n . in t h r e e v i e w s — r e a r f r o n t . Dissections were made over a total of 18 months. Stubbs w a s o n e o f t h e first E u r o p e a n artists t o m a k e a n a c c u r a t e representation o f the rhinoceros. composed from notes and observations. He translated his own drawings into engravings for publication. knowledge of parts. Anatomy of the Horse. a n d anatomist. naturalist. Dissections Stubbs took his knife and his pencil and physically climbed inside the horse. and therefore invented the lighting that Compare how Stubbs and Durer both invented lighting to portray the reality of their animals. a n d s i d e . Stubbs's m o s t c e l e b r a t e d publication. He composed makes each horse appear so real and each plate from his three-dimensional.GEORGE STUBBS B r i t i s h e q u i n e a n d s o c i e t y p o r t r a i t painter.
and leader of the French Romantic movement. A s if disturbed from its gritty b e d by our presence and curiosity.". Surrounding sprays of graphite powder are stuck into washes of oil and ink to suggest glutinous depths. The octopus is formed in layers applied and distressed with a brush. sepia. charcoal. Hugo's novels Les Miserables and Dame have become classics of film and stage. novelist. her sharp teeth. ink and linseed oil on paper. Gericault took a sharp p e n c i l to m a k e repeated direct o b s e r v a t i o n s f r o m life. Hugo's page is f l o o d e d w i t h the fearful presence of a remembered octopus. drama. Apparently drawn in its o w n ink. Gericault's sheet a p p e a r s almost s c r a t c h e d b y the f e r o c i o u s play of his cat. and all sorts of bizarre concoctions which manage to convey above all in mind. He wrote to poet and art critic Charles-Pierre Baudelaire about his experiments. I've ended up mixing in pencil. snarl. Hugo used graphite powder. coal dust. her b o n y frame.28 ANIMALS Presence and Mood THESE DRAWINGS HAVE BEEN CHOSEN to s h o w t w o v e r y different ways of picturing a wild animal. VICTOR HUGO Poet. saying ". conjured b y the hand of a great author of French literary fiction.. By contrast. it silently rises to the light. drawing her again and again to pin d o w n the texture of her loose skin. His copious drawings are characterized by mixed media. more or less what I have in view. and Pieuvre 1866-69 91/2 x81/8in (242 x 207 mm) VICTOR H U G O . playwright. He has w a t c h e d her p o u n c e . and turn. The Hunchback of Notre Layers and shadows Throughout this drawing. linseed oil soaked into the paper has made shadows and repelled the ink to create translucent tentacles. H u g o mixed his media and drew from m e m o r y and imagination to create narrative atmosphere.. and her distinctive temperament... and a love of accident. soot. the ominous beast unwinds from the dark of the sea and of our nightmares. Mixed media Here.
and keep trying again. 124-25 and p.118-119). Before paper became so cheap. displayed in the Louvre. undertraces unify and vitalize the composition. Paris. Undertraces Beneath these graphite studies we see traces Tones On the top row we see clearly how Gericault laid broad areas of tone using fast. fiery. Tones that do not follow surface contour is very difficult to do well. At the center of the page is crammed drawings the outline of a horse.29 THEODORE GERICAULT C o n t r o v e r s i a l . parallel. of previous Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 1817-18 121/2 x 151/2 in ( 3 1 9 x 3 9 8 mm) T H E O D O R E GERICAULT . Here. facing right.l i v e d French R o m a n t i c painter and lithographer Largely self-taught. Repeated study This drawing demonstrates of feeling confident repeat different the importance subject Remaining enough to isolate parts of a views. 144. since it can lead to a flattened form. standing sideways. focused upon seeing will lead to a greater understanding of the subject Much is learned from repeated study. The Raft of the Medusa. artists reused sheets and them full of studies. and it can be applied to any subject (see pp. diagonal strokes of his pencil. of drawings Gericault erased. s h o r t . Beginners are advised to follow the natural contours of form as shown on pp. horses w e r e a favorite subject t o g e t h e r w i t h politics and history. H e is best k n o w n f o r his gigantic painting.
we see semi-abstract. Picasso cofounded Cubism. Both Picasso and Klee have enclosed their subjects to compress and amplify the speed of PABLO PICASSO A prolific Spanish painter sculptor. In these two drawings. noise is everywhere. In Picasso's drawing. and brown. the first abstract movement of the 20th century. hooked. gray. Faune. slow tortoise. flapping bird. draftsman. printmaker ceramicist graphic and stage designer who lived in France. or proud. The fact that they never stand still influences the movement in his line. identify an animal: the fast cheetah. His hand must have shuddered and twitched just like the constant actions of this humorous meeting. flattened animals composed almost entirely of movement. with George Braque (see p90). The ink is used to make sharply defined solid. the whinnying of a frantic horse.30 ANIMALS Movement M O V E M E N T IS OFTEN THE CHARACTERISTIC b y w h i c h w e their lines and the power of their beasts. and scrolled lines. quivering horse. Cheval et Oiseau 1936 173/8 x 211/4 in ( 4 4 0 x 5 4 0 m m ) PABLO PICASSO . overwhelmed by a screeching bird. His powdery. Ink and gouache This drawing is made in black Chinese ink and gouache (opaque watercolor) applied with a brush. and waves breaking distantly below. dissolving faun kneels stranded. taking them to guide their hand in bringing form and essence together. made only a year apart. Gouache is brushed softly in translucent hazy layers of cool blue. These media complement and amplify each other with their brilliant contrast. Artists commonly focus on such actions. Klee's riders are constructed from all the gestures of greeting mules.
Chicago PAUL KLEE . turning our eye and around inside the and postures of the paper- thin on pictorial space. and t e a c h e r at t h e Bauhaus school. Layers of marks In this pale Dentil drawing we see layers of' agitated marks that together present a kind of visual "itch. printmaker. violinist. Scene der Komischen of Comical Reiter Riders) (Scene 1935 161/2x111/2in ( 4 1 9 x 2 9 1 mm) M o r t o n G . top all happily of each other in the Endless lines Look closely at how Klee's lines rarely leave the paper and how they are free from the constraint of finite shape. The entire drawing suggests the endless small movements of horses standing still. creatures.PAUL KLEE Swiss painter. sculptor. They remain in contact with the surface of the page and scribble back and forth as they maneuver from one area to another. well-worn copies o f w h i c h are found in m a n y art schools. N e u m a n n Family Collection. W i t h his drawings Kleeb o u n d sophisticated theories to personal and often witty childlike imagery. draftsman." They chatter around bodies in groups. He is a u t h o r o f The Thinking Eye (1923).
His birds stare. which in application gave strength and advantage to the English fighting the Spanish Armada. drawings of animals that are each held tightly in a surprising space: a giant fish wears a ship's hull. He studied the anatomy of fish. Baker did not intend this. The fish It is likely that Baker drew with a quill dipped in irongall ink. adding washes of color with a fine brush. Baker lived in an era when ships were built without drawn plans. Knopf's drawing opposite is the personal enigmatic expression of a mind gripped by illness. and the carefully observed gills. fins. In just one drawing he has displayed more angles of his design than we would expect to see from a single viewpoint Fragments English 1586 101/2 x 153/8 in (270 x 390 mm) MATTHEW BAKER of Ancient Shipwrightry . It is simply how we read his perspective. slim stern). and author o f Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (1586). t h e earliest geometrically defined elevations. B a k e r initiated t h e scientific p r a c t i c e o f naval a r c h i t e c t u r e and applied h y d r o d y n a m i c s . Exquisite details in this drawing include the lips of the fish. later called a galleon. and steerage. seemingly looking for our attention. balance. and to assess our next move. and scales.32 ANIMALS Icon and Design IN THESE T W O MANUSCRIPTS we discover diagrammatic and mackerel's tail" (full bow. In contrast to the practical clarity of Baker's thought. mathematician. and blackbirds fly in formation through a mosaic of text. and from them learned that if he designed his ship with a "cod's head MATTHEW BAKER Master shipwright. The ship The upper decks of the ship appear curved toward us at both ends. Below we see his revolutionary design for an Elizabethan warship. This drawing illustrates Baker's theory. b a s e d o n his studies o f fish. it would achieve greater speed. the expression of its eye. plans. and s e c t i o n s o f ships.
JOHANN KNOPF . and filled evenly with tone.JOHANN KNOPF An " O u t s i d e r " a r t i s t w h o s u f f e r e d f r o m m e n t a l illness. circle and the birds. written last of all.K n o p f b e l i e v e d h e c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h e language o f birds. firmly outlined. numbered. w h i c h o f t e n f e a t u r e as s y m b o l i c creatures in his drawings. appears to be stirred like water by the presence of the The Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks UNDATED 133/8 x 115/8 in (340 x 2 9 6 mm) and psychiatrist Hans Prinzhom collected this image. T h e G e r m a n a r t historian Outline and tone The blackbirds illuminating this frantic manuscript are drawn in pencil. The main group is placed in a circle drawn with a compass. The text.
F O U N T A I N PENS: These vary in quality and nib width. then pour a little warm gum water into it and temper the two together. The paste from either recipe is pressed and dried into a bar for storage.246-47). Today. Each pen has a unique character. and it is still in use today. light it. The Chinese used animal or fish glue. s t i c k s . A German recipe of 1531 gives a simple description: "Take a wax candle. 4. The bar is then rubbed into water on a slate block to produce ink. Responsive to slight changes in pressure. The Egyptians and Chinese are credited with the invention of carbon ink. a n d m e t a l p o i n t s . 5 0 0 years ago. while metal nibs began as rare gifts in gold and silver before being perfected by the British steel industry. producing a different line. REED PENS: A broad nib can be cut from bamboo or another tubular grass. where reeds were gathered. They fit into wooden holders. That is an ink. Only fill with suitable inks. from the acacia tree. METAL PENS: Inexpensive removable steel nibs are available in a range of widths. and spatters can be made with an exotic choice of inks. spots. which range greatly in their handling and character of line. high-quality Chinese and Japanese inks are subtler and more complex than those produced in Europe. PENS . The reservoir gives a constant flow of ink for very long unbroken lines and continuous bottle-free use. In the Far East. The best are goose or swan.34 ANIMALS Pen and Ink W I T H A HANDFUL OF FEATHERS. and hold it under a clean basin until the soot hangs to it. expressive drawing techniques such as the ones we explore in this chapter 1. and first used by the Egyptians. Masters choose brands of long. QUILLS: These are cut from the barrel of a flight or tail feather. 2. Dip pens began their history in the Nile River. the recipes for which have been handed down over centuries. which scratch rather than draw. Avoid needle-sharp mapping pens. you can have great fun drawing the world around you. ink is traditionally applied with a brush (see pp. they are associated with rapid." "Gum" refers to gum arabic extracted Dip pens are essential and inexpensive drawing tools. Early artists recommended raven and crow for especially fine work. Quills were later cut from feathers. distinguished manufacture. simultaneously 4 . 3. Intricate or dramatic lines.
5. suspended in a binder and stored as a solid block Blocks are imported today 7. iron-gall. bistre. and most can be homemade. waterproof or non-waterproof. and are still in use today: carbon (Chinese and Indian). or charcoal. and sieved. is the ink of a cuttlefish or squid extracted post-mortem. Old stock turns solid and bottlesChina. They are the easiest inks to use. It dries with a sheen and clogs uncleaned pens. I N D I A N INK: Carbon ink sold today in liquid form. The complexities of traditional iron-gall ink are explained on p. reduced. roastedwine sediment (Yeast Black). Beechwood soot is best.35 PEN AND INK Four types of ink were common before the 20th century. Waterproof types contain shellac. SEPIA A N D BISTRE INKS: Sepia. Inks can be lightfast or non-lightfast. 8. I R O N .G A L L INK: Abnormal spherical growths caused by parasitic wasps can be collected from some oak trees in fall. an often misused term. and can be mixed and diluted to create subtler colors and tones. dated. Now we also have acrylic ranges in many colors. and sepia. ACRYLIC / CALLIGRAPHY INKS: Available in black and a range of colors. INKS 9.36. charred bone (Ivory Black). they produce a golden dye for drawing. from are not 6. Crushed. . Bistre is the more humane use of soot scraped from the fireplace and ground into wine. C A R B O N INK: Traditionally produced from oil or resin soot (Lamp Black). Non-waterproof Indian inks can be reworked with a wet brush after drying. Excellent for drawing they are bright and non-clogging. boiled.
Some of Michelangelo's drawings are now a little eaten by their own ink. crushed. always be cautious when experimenting with recipes. the blade and cut away from you. M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s d r a g o n o n p . sieved. Oak galls. U n d e r heavy pressure. and boiled to make a golden ink. The darkest of this grasshopper wings) were made (around the head first. giving longer lines. are surprisingly tough. red-brown. Practice to gain a feel for how materials behave. fleshy skins that surround ripe walnuts. finding reed p e n s unwieldy. then cut a final nib (feathers. Collect skins from the ground beneath trees once they are blackened. r e s e r v e d t h e i r use f o r large c h o i r b o o k s . It dried black. for example. and delicious to draw with. can also be collected from affected trees. galls were ground with iron sulfate to make an unstable solution. Running fresh. Reed marks The darker left wing of this beetle was drawn with the wet inky stroke wing. It also oxidized and ate or burned paper. V a n G o g h . and turned brown with time. Although oak galls and walnut skins are harmless. since t h e D u t c h w e r e t h e first t o realize t h a t they could be hardened and i m p r o v e d w i t h heat t r e a t m e n t in ash o r sand.) You can make ink easily from the boiled. keep all your fingers behind basis of iron-gall ink. a n d M a t i s s e also e n j o y e d t h e m . drawn to glisten with a dryer nib. d r y mark. forming the REED PENS R e e dpens dispense ink quickly. Rembrandt. Quills are also called D u t c h pens. reduced. Scribes o f t h e M i d d l e Ages. it was gray-purple. . of a loaded nib. The lighter right Quill marks Quills carry more ink than strokes and for as reeds. t h e y stick a n d j u d d e r f o r w a r d . a n d d e v e l o p e d t h e quill instead. Paler strokes were made where the mark has the legs and antennae the ink ran out. Walnut ink is gloopy. T h e y give a finer. appears broken to show paper beneath. 2 4 4 is an e x q u i s i t e e x a m p l e . I u s e d t h e s e qualities t o d r a w t h e w o r m s above. For centuries. giving a s h o r t . QUILL PENS Q u i l l s a r e highly r e s p o n s i v e t o c h a n g e s in p r e s s u r e .36 ANIMALS Drawing With Ink To MAKE A QUILL OR REED PEN. m o r e e x t e n d e d line than reed and a m o r e organic line t h a n m e t a l .
The of pigment to fall to the edges effect of the shape. marks become fine and needle-sharp. it is important to feel for when the ink will run out and to know how much ink you pick up when dipping the nib. When using dip pens. withstanding great pressure without sticking. White markings were drawn last Tones Here we see subtle tones of diluted ink beneath the undiluted black rim of a beetle's wing. clean strokes. sharp. they splay to make thick o r double lines. giving a graded.37 METAL PENS Metal pens give long. . o r being ruined as fountain pens would be under the same pressure. breaking. Each layer of of the drying droplet dome the drawing was left to dry before adding more. W h e n the nib is pressed upside down. particles then filled with a droplet of ink. Loaded with ink and pressed hard. tonal Ink layers The wings of this beetle were drawn in layers using black and white ink on pale gray paper. DRAWING WITH INK Filled outlines Each segment of wing was outlined.
and there is no "wrong.38 ANIMALS Capturing Character GEESE ARE EXCELLENT SUBJECTS to draw when practicing the first use of pen and ink. and boldly plunge into your drawing. Geese are nosy birds. Take a cup and water for diluting a range of tones." If you don't like a stroke. Pack plenty of tissue around a bottle of calligraphy or acrylic ink. and a large drawing book or plenty of paper Use masking tape to secure pages against the wind. Dip your pen in ink. Watch their heavy feathered bodies flap. Try to hold the whole posture in your mind's eye. draw what the bird is doing. Empathize. Take no more than ten seconds to draw each one and make lots of drawings. and quickly draw around it using only three or four strokes. there is no obligation to prepare a quill. MATERIALS NEEDED Look for a bird expressing a simple posture. It teaches confidence and focus through intensive repetition. be bold and press firmly. and bellyflop off the waterside. It happens that goose feathers also provide artists with the best type of quills. Experiment. touch the bottle's rim to drain the excess. I covered eleven sheets in sixty quick drawings—in less than an hour. and be brave. test your limits. You cannot break the nib. waddle. Illustrating this exercise on Oxford Port Meadow. steel nibs are fine. Cover a sheet. Quick drawing trains you to see what is most important about a subject and to mark only its most essential expression. That said. Focus on it. Study them before drawing. Cover your drawing book pages in speedy responses to the geese and try to capture each bird in as few lines as possible. make another one. not on your drawing. so pick a spot where other people can keep them entertained. to absorb blots when drawing. Posture . Focus on the geese. Attempt with a loose hand to capture their posture and outline.
and diving. Again. CAPTURING CHARACTER Texture Gradually allow yourself more lines to describe the texture of each bird as well as its posture and action. . running. Avoid detail unless really tempted by a close-up visit Fluctuate the pressure of your pen in response to how you know the bird would feel if you touched it. flapping. Use more lines than before to express these. and don't worry about mechanical facts or accuracy. look among the birds for more complicated actions such as shaking off water. draw the feeling of what you see.39 Action With growing confidence.
This will give a medium-gray line." . Now it will make a pale line. The only time he remained still was when he was sleeping. Ras Curled Up Asleep "Capturing the true character of a cherished companion is best achieved with objective determination rather than sentimental shyness. your drawing book. first dip your pen in ink. a d o g w h o w a s a l w a y s town. Dip the nib quickly again into water and again drain it. and personality. These drawings are not an analysis of his anatomy or breed but the expression of his satisfied comfort in a deep sleep after a night out on the together with a glass of water for diluting tones on the nib.34-37). Then dip the nib quickly into a glass of water and drain the excess again. and a tissue for blotting drawn lines that appear too dark. and even then he twitched and stretched in dreams. form. a dip pen and ink of your choice (see pp. Make a test sheet to discover your control of diluting on the nib. For this class you will need one oblivious dog. MAKING A PALE LINE To make a pale line. and drain the excess by touching the nib against the rim of the bottle.40 ANIMALS Sleeping Dogs R A S WAS A GREAT CHARACTER. Sleeping animals present the artist with ideal opportunities to study their texture. engaged in his and everyone else's business.
First lines are first thoughts. c o n c e r n e d a b o u t detail. I added ink to Ras's nose. tail. Trust your intuition. Character is better captured drawing quickly with confidence than w o r k i n g slowly. W i t h pale lies. ears. 3 Gradually introduce darker tones. Layers o f thoughts can bring a drawing alive. to emphasize how he is curled up. ignoring all detail. quickly draw what you see. Then I immediately rebalanced the drawing with lines around his hind quarters. add more detail. SLEEPING DOGS 1 Fix your eyes at the center of the dog. this time to create a line a little darker in tone. To add texture. and the shadows in his coat. see how the animal's posture determines its whole shape. Then. D o not go back over lines you are pleased with—doing so dulls their lively freshness. . alter the pressure and moisture of your line in response to howyouknow your dog feels when you ruffle itscoat.It is essential when drawing any subject (even something abstract) to know how it feels andtoemulate this with your line. Remain focused on the whole dog and. in bold layers. Here I marked the features of Ras's head.41 DRAWING YOUR DOG Be bold in this exercise. second thoughts may be different Changing your mind is a positive aspect o f seeing and thinking. 2 Reload your pen with ink. Here.
Turtles to observe. offering plenty of time for the artist to draw the pose. Beyond the glass wall of the aquarium. A perfect subject for the beginner. swinging their limbs and shells with a slow circular movement. THE ELONGATION AND BUOYANCY of a group of turtles is fascinating . turtles often pause unexpectedly. they stretch and paddle. as if caught in a camera freeze-frame.
and sharp.Dry Birds THESE ARE THE ARTICULATED BONES o f a k i w i a n d a h o u s e - martin drawn in a museum using a steel pen. dry. and water. Beginning with very pale tones. weightlessness of the kiwi. I made repeated studies of the housemartin to discover its mechanism of flight. India ink. I darkened lines as each drawing progressed. . I sought to capture the form. balance. With speed.
We collect. Plants seventeenth century. and diverse kingdom of plants. where a number of uncredited artistsd r e wthem for Besler. and hybridize them for our sustenance and pleasure. Later. an There are close parallels between the acts of gardening and drawing. It was published plain in 1611 and withhand-paintedplates in poured off ships returning from the New World and were eagerly collected and 1613. form. In this chapter. Patrons funded the breeding of decorative. infinitely vivid. Chapters are arranged by out. and to ornament our lives.Morethan 1. color.000 species of plants are depicted life-size drawn. and beauty. Plants are the principal inspiration of the decorative arts—from Roman Corinthian columns crowned with carved leaves of the acanthus. on which our lives depend. manipulations of light and shade. to catalog our knowledge. and texture. we see very different cultural visions of plants and gardens and use pencils and plants to learn the pictorial values of space. B A S I L I U SBESLER when botanists founded new work upon the direct study of plants. He sent boxes of plants to Nuremburgburned with the urgency and excitement of explaining every plant's form. Both embrace the anticipation of evolving shape. Botanic gardens were established and expanded. to the proliferation of floral designs with which we have dressed ourselves and furnished our homes for centuries. season. and focus. We draw them to celebrate their beauty and range. Medieval knowledge was not gained by the first-hand observation of life but by reading. we now have laid before us fourto show how well their colours complement each other infinite wealth of material to explore. robust.Plants and Gardens W E SHARE THIS PLANET with the more ancient. Rich owners of private gardens commissioned large-format florilegiums commissioned the volume to document his private garden to immortalize their personal taste and power of acquisition. 1613 187/8x153/4in(480 x 400 mm) BASILIUS BESLER . nurture. Classifications were set in367copperengravings. From its history there is one overriding lesson to be learned: the importance of looking and seeing with our own eyes. Botanical illustration is a precisely defined and scientific art. Fledgling years Botanist and apothecary who compiled the Hortus Eystettensis of scientific research bore manifold explosions of knowledge in a fever of discovery. the microscope was refined to unfold yet another world. the punctuation of space with structure and mass. PriceBishopof Eichstatt specimens. as opposed to only herbal. —-the largest and most influential botanical book of the early Natural scientists accompanied explorers to document unknown finds. After Here Aconthus spinosus is combined with forget-me-nots and-a-half centuries of intensive observation. and the drawn pages ofthesame name. shape. and the Acanthus spinosus constant but exhilarating struggle to make a living image feel right. Conrad von Gemmingen. The revolution came in the 1530s. Early European illustrators were trapped within dogma that was determined by ancient scholarship.
or that were diseased. T h e rest of u s are free to d r a w as w e w i s h . insect-ravaged. o p t i m i s m . Stella Ross-Craig said of the need to d r a w from a dried herbarium plant "I could make it live again. o p e n i n g a n d c l o s i n g i n the w a r m t h a n d light of the studio. Dissections Across the lower part of this drawing we can see dissections of seed pods and petals. and meticulous precision.48 PLANTS AND GARDENS THE SCIENTIFIC VALUE OF A BOTANICAL DRAWING lies i n its Botanical Studies were specimens that often refused to stay still. B e h i n d detailed. delicate. fruit. Sir Joseph Banks. Light in this drawing is given by the paleness of the paper showing between washes of darker tones. leaves. Here. stems. It is likely Bauer would have studied these under a microscope." Her slipper orchid s h o w s that botanical drawing must often resolve the challenge of its subject's p r o d u c i n g parts in different seasons — r o o t s . Outline Bauer prepared a pencil outline before laying in fleshy succulent hues and tones of watercolor. naturalist explorer and advisor to King George III invited Bauer to London in 1 7 9 0 . They are counted among the most accomplished 18th-century botanical artists. and Franz Bauer and his brother Ferdinand were employed there to draw specimens. s u c h as w e see here in Bauer's Protea nitida. and seeds conventionally a p p e a r o n o n e plate. The King was then establishing the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. flowers. Botanical art c o n c e a l s the challenge of its m a k i n g . He has made the spatial and physical relationships in this drawing all the more real by placing a single. W i t h bright F R A N Z BAUER An Austrian artist who trained at the Schonbrunn Imperial Gardens in Vienna. measured drawings. Each plant must b e clearly distinguished from its closest relative. and wilted. petal tip over a lower leaf Protea nitida 201/4 x141/4in (513 x 362 mm) FRANZ BAUER 1796 . M a c k i n t o s h e x p r e s s e s the f o l d e d petals of a broken rose b u d so delicately w e can sense the perfume. subtle union of beauty. detail.
and it shows how design. and perfect coordination of hand and eye. a n d he inspired. G u s t a v K l i m t In his r e t i r e m e n t Mackintosh m a d e n u m e r o u s inventive pencil a n d w a t e r c o l o r d r a w i n g s o f plants. Closer to fiction can come together perfectly.. A s m a n y of her drawings are kept G a r d e n s . Rose 1894 103/4 x 83/4 in ( 2 7 5 x 2 2 1 mm) CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH STELLA ROSS-CRAIG A j o i n e d t h e staff a t t h e R o y a l B o t a n i c G a r d e n s . H e r Drawings of British Plants.000 Kew to archive accessible t o d a y v i a t h e I n t e r n e t of o n British flora..286 studies for her book Drawings of British Plants. sensual pencil drawing is later works. Pencil lines cling to. S h e also o f thousands o f contributed an drawings. BOTANICAL STUDIES Lines and shadows This lush. L o n d o n in 1 9 2 9 . K e w .7 3 in 3 1 p a r t s . it is small and discreet. Ross-Craig said of her work "Plants that wither rapidly present a very difficult problem to which there is only one answer—speed.g a r d e in G e r m a n y a n d A u s t r i a ." This line drawing is one of 1. as at trained botanical artist Ross-Craig Swift lines The drawing was planned in pencil and then overworked with a lithographic pen. 1970 x 81/4 in ( 3 2 5 x 2 1 0 m m ) STELLA ROSS-CRAIG .49 C H A R L E S RENNIE MACKINTOSH Scottish a r c h i t e c t d e s i g n e r painter. and observation the nuance and contour of every in one image. is r e c o g n i z e d as tne m o s t c o m p l e t e a n d i m p o r t a n t work 3. Line Drawing of Cypripedium calceolus L c. and follow shadow. p u b l i s h e d 1 9 4 8 . and speed depends upon the immediate perception of the essential characteristics of the plant. a m o n g o t h e r s . Curtis's Botanical Magazine. a n d f o u n d e r o f t h e G l a s g o w S c h o o l o f A r t M a c k i n t o s h ' s flair h a d an e n o r m o u s i n f l u e n c e o n t h e a v a n t . found among Mackintosh's than reality. imagination.
Drawing. Afghanistan. . Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity c. anticipating their view. They used a fine brush to lay pigment over a line drawing. Below. paper is brimming with the beauty and celebration of nature. in miniature. urgent attentive human activity. and calligraphy are brought together to hold the sacred names of prophets and the 99 beautiful names of God. 1590 85/8 x55/8in (219 x 1 4 4 mm) BISHNDAS AND NANHA Bright pigment These pages were illuminated by Mughal artists in the late 16th century. and attention to detail are all shared with medieval European manuscript drawings. which he personally created near Kabul. Upright shallow perspectives. The first Mughal Emperor Babur's Garden of Fidelity (Bagh-e Vaja). Every fiber of AMONG DRAWINGS FROM BISHNDAS A N D N A N H A Little is known of these Mughal painters who were related as uncle and nephew and commissioned to illustrate the pages of Babur's journal. Babur directs his gardeners in the design and planting of this quartered chahar bagh. The white of the page shines through the brilliant color. roses took their form in a bead of perspiration on the brow of Mohammed as he passed through his heavenly journey. and miraculous growth. By Muslim tradition. painting.50 PLANTS AND GARDENS Jeweled Gardens the Middle East we find exquisite stylization of form and upright formality in pictorial space. the sumptuous petals permeated with prayer and wisdom. fluctuations in scale. Bishndas was probably responsible for the overall design. is remembered in the pages of his journal. in the early 16th century. and Nanha. a notable portrait painter drew the faces. uniform focus. Envoys chatter outside the gate. Opposite is the Rose of Mohammed.
AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH This is a detail o f a page from a n 1 8 t h . The Rose of Mohammed 1708 9 1 / 2 x 61/2 in ( 2 4 0 x 1 6 5 mm) FROM THE TURKISH M A N U S C R I P T AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH . However. Stylized motif A fine brush has been used throughout this drawing to apply inks and watercolors. The physical anatomy of the rosebud has been studied and translated into a repeated stylized motif. Sacred words The central rose is more solid than any other on the page.c e n t u r y Turkish manuscnpt a book of religious e t h i c s w r i t t e n in the O r i e n t a l C o l l e c t i o n s of Berlin. t h e Staatsbibliothek zu Arabic. look closely and you will see words written in gold fluttering over the form of the flower. G e r m a n y . fragmenting its detail in a whisper of prayers. It is n o w k e p t in Border The elegant border of this drawing was mode with a pen and ruler It cleverly compresses and defines the composition. and how the shape has been repeated freehand. so that overlapping petals and stems give an impression of fulfillment and abundance. Note how each bud is essentially the same shape.
PLANTS AND GARDENS
IN CONTRAST TO THE QUIET, formal detail of other drawings in this chapter, these powerful fast trees enact the actions of plants. Each tree reaches out and holds its landscape with dynamism and pulse. In both drawings we find testament to the inexorable energy of growth. Rembrandt expresses a delicate quickness. Gentle lines draw a warm breeze through this remote wooded garden. Rustling in a loose foliage of soft marks, his pen evokes the weight of abundant activity on this late summer's day. Mondrian's arch of scratching branches is drawn with such force it will always be alive. We can still feel his hand storming across the paper. Set within a frame of smudged landscape, the tree possesses a musical agitation. This characteristic will increase in the artist's later abstract work. Here, we see a punctuated ordering of space. Sharp branches cut out negative shapes of winter sky.
R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter; etcher; and draftsman. Rembrandt's prolific output comprises oil paintings of historical and religious subjects together with group and self- portraits. His emotive etchings and pen and ink drawings (see also p. 174) are great resources for artists learning to understand the potential of these media.
Pen and ink lines describing foliage also tell
us the directions of sunlight and wind. An arc crossing the bottom of the drawing from one side to the other supports the scene and separates us from the landscape beyond. Compare Rembrandt's arc to that of Mondrian's. and note the similar treatment of low horizons in both works emphasizing the height and dominance of trees.
Cottage Among Trees 1648-50 63/4 x121/8in ( I 7 I x 308 mm) R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN
Atmosphere Here we see how shapes of negative space are as important as the physical subject they enclose (see pp.58-59). Mondrian has again lightly dragged his chalk on its side to evoke a wet depth of atmosphere. These passive gray marks contrast with the assertive tension of the tree.
Dutch Pure abstract painter preoccupied w i t h line and plane relationships. W i t h increasing austerity, Mondrian banished t h e subject from his drawings, in his later w o r k he also banished space, composing visual h a r m o n i e s using only straight lines a n d flat planes o f black, w h i t e , gray, o r p r i m a r y color.
Winter ground Short vertical marks along thebottomof this drawing reveal the length oftheblackchalk Mondrian used. Rubbed onitsside,itroughly blocks in the ground. Thecrudeeconomy of line is all we need tofeelthecold, wet, unwelcoming quality ofthiswinterearth.
Branches and trunk Lines shaping the branches of the tree are built up in layers. To make the trunk more dense, the artist has rubbed and smudged preliminary marks with his fingers before firmly overdrawing with new lines. Solid black lines are achieved by pressing the chalk hard. When used lightly, it shows the texture of the paper. Tree: Study for the Grey 1911 23 x 335/8 in ( 5 8 4 x 8 5 5 m m ) Tree
PLANTS AND GARDENS
Graphite and Erasers
GRAPHITE, FROM THE G R E E K word
This drawing illustrates a range of achieved with graphite pencils of different grades.
Modern pencils are graded from 9H (hard and pale) to 9B (black and soft). Graphiteclay sticks are also available, together with a powder form. All possess a natural sheen and are erasable to a varying degree. Graphite drawings smudge easily, so fixative, a form of varnish, can be used to hold a drawn surface in place. It is applied as a fine mist from an aerosol can, or from a bottle using a diffuser. For the beginner, ordinary hairspray is an effective and cheaper alternative.
(to write), is a soft and brittle carbon. It was first mined in Cumbria, England, in 1 5 6 4 , and was initially used in small, pure pieces bound in lengths of string. Pencils as we know them—with their slender wood casing and "lead" of graphite—were invented in France in 1794 by Nicolas-Jaques Conte. He discovered that milled graphite mixed with clay and water, press-molded, and baked to a high temperature produces a harder and paler medium than graphite alone.
3B pencil A range of mark and textures can be achieved with a 3B pencil when you vary its pressure, speed, and direction, as this detail shows.
Here is a selection of 14 items to illustrate a basic range of pencils, graphite sticks, sharpeners, erasers, and fixative.
1. AND 2. HB AND 3B PENCILS: It is unnecessary to possess every grade of pencil. HB, the central and most common grade, is perfect for making delicate lines. 3B gives a blacker tone. A great variety of effects can be achieved with just these two. 3. WATER-SOLUBLE PENCIL Effective for atmospheric drawing, but be aware of how watery tones can dull the impact of the line. 4. AND 5. MECHANICAL PENCIL Thick or fine leads are made in a range of grades. They are particularly useful because they do not require a sharpener 6. ROUND SOLID GRAPHITE PENCIL: Excellent for large-scale drawing, producing thick bold lines. A range of grades can be honed with a craft knife or sharpener 7. THICK GRAPHITE STICK: For large-scale drawing. Graded soft, medium, and hard. It crushes to produce graphite powder 8. SQUARE GRAPHITE STICK: Useful for making broad, sweeping marks in large-scale drawing. If worn and rounded, the stick can be snapped into pieces to regain the sharp, square end. 9. CRAFT KNIFE AND BLADES: Handles are sold in two sizes to fit large or small blades, and blades are sold in a range of shapes. Perfect for sharpening pencils to a long point, to cut lines in paper or to remove areas. 10. PENCIL SHARPENER: Makes a uniform point. Keep one in your pocket for drawing outside the studio, together with an envelope for shavings.
HB and 5B Layers of tone have been built up withHBand5Bpencils. Softer pencils require less pressure to make a mark, revealing the texture of the paper surface. It is important to keep the point of the pencil sharp with either a craft knife or a sharpener.
ERASING AND FIXING
Erasers can be used t o blend and s o f t e n lines, o r t o r e m o v e altogether. Fixative them prevents
GRAPHITE AND ERASERS
s m u d g i n g a n d s e c u r e s lines.
Using fixative You can use fixative while drawing to hold the definition of lines you wish to gently fade but not remove entirely, for which you would use an eraser.
11. P L A S T I C E R A S E R : Avoid cheap colored erasers that may stain drawings with grease and dye. White brands are available in soft and hard versions.
P U T T Y RUBBER:
W a r m it in your hand before use. It is excellent for removing powdery materials, and for making crisp sweeps of light across a delicate pencil drawing
13. D I F F U S E R : Helleborus corsicus (Corsican hellebore) fixative, or to spray mists of ink.
PLANTS AND GARDENS
Cropping and Composition
M A N Y STUDENTS WILL START a d r a w i n g i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e
that its skin nearly touches the boundary. The meaning of the same drawing changes simply by its relationship to the space it occupies. The size of any subject, its placement on the page, the size of the page, and its overall proportion are all discrete and essential aspects of successful picture-making. Before you begin to draw, think carefully about where to place your subject. Are you are happy with your paper? If not, change it; add more, take some away, or turn it around. Do not just accept what you are given, adapt it to what you need.
paper. Focused on the shape and detail of their subject, they remain happily unaware that there is, or should be, any relationship between what they are drawing and the surface they are drawing it on. The paper is only paper, and the troublesome subject floats somewhere in the expanse of it. However, a single fig drawn in the middle of a large, empty square of paper gives quite a different impression from the same fig drawn on such an intimately small square
CHOOSING A VIEW
A Single Fig
"The size, shape, and orientation of the paper are so integral to the composition that they determine the impact and meaning of the drawing."
and therefore apparently suspended from. they establish a tension and unity with the paper.57 THE VIEWFINDER T h e s e pencil drawings o f figs d e m o n s t r a t e different crops and compositions. running corner t o corner. its stem and shadow framing a white center. This drawing hasbeencropped to emphasize space between thefruit. CROPPING AND COMPOSITION Off-center and diagonal Here I held my viewfinder so the fig appeared upper-left in the space. its illumination. t h e n m o v e t h e c a r d t o e x p l o r e different views. spaces between things are as important as the things themselves. and lines describing shadows cast by the fruit . as also shown here. Here the left fig is attached to. Touching the edge When the subject o f a drawing touches one edge of the paper it attaches t o it visually. a device to help you decide what t o draw. bottom-left t o top-right. A card with a small rectangle cut out o f it makes a useful viewfinder C l o s e o n e e y e t o look through the hole. Space as the subject Inallpictures. When subjects touch two or more edges. the uppermost edge of the drawing. The angle of the fruit together with dark shadow (top left) and bright light(bottom right) suggest a diagonal division across the whole drawing.O u r focus is on the white cloth supporting the figs. U s e it as a starting point.
position. The drawing opposite is of the uppermost leaves of a potted fig tree. tone. remember to draw only space. but if the artist does. third. a sharp H B pencil.58 PLANTS AND GARDENS Negative Space UNCONSCIOUSLY WE ASSESS spatial relationships all the time to guide ourselves through the world. Draw a complete shape Map outward from the center Erase and adjust lines until correct . WHERE TO START Arrange your plant and paper so you can look back and forth by barely moving your head. Looking at negative space overrides the problem of drawing what you know. which is shown in the three steps below. erasing and adjusting lines until itlooked right. Unfamiliar shapes of negative space reveal the real shape of a positive subject. not leaves. rather than what you see in front of you. unified. Viewers appreciating a finished image may not see shapes of space. In your own version. It is an astonishingly simple device that many artists use and I strongly recommend. shapes of air cut out and defined by the physicality of our environment? When we look into the branches of a tree. But how often do we look at the air between things. It helps to start at the center and map outward. then added a second shape. and a role to play. their subject and composition will become more real. you will need a similar large-leaved plant. a foundation stone in picture-making. do we see myriad distinct and unique shapes of daylight or do we just see branches? Why as artists should we look at the air? Every space in a picture has a shape. and a fresh page in your drawing book. Negative space is the simple key to getting positive shape right. In following this class.The box opposite isolates an area. dynamic. Remember that plants do move! Therefore it is best to complete your drawing in one sitting if possible. this ensures a consistent view. and so on. fourth. an eraser. Follow these from left to right and see how I began with one complete shape between two parts of a leaf. and engaging.
Here I drew only spaces, adding one to another until the leaves were revealed. Besides looking at negative space, there are two other useful things to do when a drawing feels wrong but you cannot see why: look at it in a mirror or turn it upside down. errors and suggest changes.
Spaces between leaves
Either view will
WALKING IN THE ALPUJARRAS in A n d a l u c i a ,
Spain, I drew a bare fig tree clinging to the wall of an almond grove; a perfect subject for seeing negative space. I marked its essential frame of large branches first, frequently erasing lines and changing my mind until the balance felt right.
S a l v i a , RIBES, CLEMATIS, Allium, Passiflora, and Acanthus
drawn with an H pencil by observing the
negative spaces between the stems, petals, and leaves. I arranged the flowers on a sheet of paper in a cool r o o m and rapidly sketched a composition. Then I put them in water, taking the stems out one at a time to draw.
. Excessive detail leaves no space for the eye to rest or imagination to wander. 62-63). If an artist changes the pace of their line and focus of their attention. they emulate our experience of seeing.Acanthus Spinosus As we LOOK AROUND. We never see everything at once. gathering less distinct information on the way. Compare changes of pace and focus here to the flatter finish of Summer Flowers (see pp. interfolding points of detail with areas of loose suggestion. our eyes travel and adjust from one point of focus to another.
Among the drawings of this chapter we look from 17th-century ecclesiastical calm. of the west facade of St Augustin. from political commentary to musical abstraction. add and subtract ideas. the device that has since governed most of our picture-making (sec pp. they have the Golden Section. and computer game imaging. VICTOR BALTARD French architect employed by the city of Paris. filmmakers. This harmony. and from West Facade of the Church of St Augustin. Architects have been fine-tuning their specialized branch of drawing for centuries. Baltard designed the Church of St. Computer programs allow the virtual drawing of ideas. drawing plans around themselves within a program as opposed to on a flat sheet of paper. each VICTOR BALTARD . time. Besides sketches of first thoughts and polished drawings of the finished look for clients. Yet the pursuit of divine proportion and harmony remains. balance. coupled with the importance of exercizing your imagination.The church is still in use today. European conventions of pictorial perspective have lost their monopoly on seeing. composers. architects and designers can imaginatively "climb inside" three-dimensional space and.Architecture I N THE CONTEMPORARY PRACTICES of architecture. architects. to help them create new form. the formula for perfection spread through Europe. Perhaps in the sheer planes of some of our greatest modern buildings it is finding its clearest expression. and sound. Linear perspective is a marvelous device. film-set design. to 20th-century film fantasy. made by the architect himself. It is the focus of practical class in this chapter. designers. Augustin. we find the most recent steps in the evolution of graphic language." reflecting the eye's love of unity in difference. Paris 1871-74 the child's view to the infinity of the vanishing point. and in the 19th century it was given the name the Golden Section. and architects of ancient Greece who first pursued the formula for "divine proportion. Since Picasso and Braque's revolution of Cubism in around 1907. invaluable to understand and apply when you choose. 74-75). they also have a diagrammatic language for communicating plans to builders. At the core of their practice. fine artists. Through the animation of the screen. It was the mathematicians. space. mass. was preserved into the Renaissance where it became a foundation stone for thinking and creativity From 15thcentury Italy. with gray and brown watercolor wash.This is a pencil drawing. which can be clearly seen in ancient Greek architecture. once there. which was the first church in the capital to be built entirely of metal and then clad in stone. Since the first flowering of Modernism in the early 20th century. philosophers. It was also during the Renaissance that the architect Brunelleschi invented linear perspective. and writers have been breaking away from traditional forms of representation to seek new expressions of shape.
and labor. NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR One of Britain's "three great" Baroque architects (along with Sir Christopher Wren and Sir John Vanbrugh). describe a finished look to a client. and later an assistant to Vanbrugh. Lines define structure while washes suggest light and atmosphere. Hampton Court Palace. Finished surface On the left the finished surface of the building is given depth and emphasis by immaculate vertical and horizontal brush strokes of shadow. and six London churches. and Castle Howard. Cut-away interior On the right a section cut through the center of the building reveals material thicknesses. embodying a massive investment of ideas. he also worked on St Paul's Cathedral. A student of Wren's. Oxford. Below it. The photograph opposite shows his studio hung with metal pendulums. and ultimately to show builders what to do. 1711-12 NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR . We see the modeled detail of Corinthian columns. pilasters. Together they explain how interior structure and space define exterior form and shape. relative levels. and the shapes of interior domes and apses. Hawksmoor established his reputation with university and church architecture including All Souls College. densely layered lines in mists of color weave the presence of the expected building into shape.68 ARCHITECTURE Master Builders EVERY NEW BUILDING. Pillars and floor At the base of the drawing a compass-drawn plan tilted downward through 90 degrees illustrates the arrangement of pillars around a central circular floor. Architects draw for many reasons: to visualize ideas. and an inscribed entablature. Hawksmoor's drawing is both a plan and an evocation. calculate function. marks the end of a long journey from the first few marks the architect made on a sheet of paper. structure. testing gravity to calculate the inverted shapes of domes. a three-dimensional drawing made with wires and weights. St Paul's Baptistry c. Gaudi's fluid architecture grew up through many kinds of drawing. Blenheim Palace. Three aspects This subtle and sophisticated drawing made in pen and wash displays three distinct aspects of Hawksmoor's baptistry. Drawings underpin every great human-made structure like hidden linear ghosts at their core. evoke presence. and balance. materials.
Guell Crypt of its at the Time Construction c. Gaudi's cathedral in Barcelona. and his love of music. Gaudi air than on paper. 1910 24x181/4( 6 1 0 x 4 7 5mm) A N T O N I O GAUDI . To the right isawatercolordrawing thought to havebeenmade over a photograph ofthemodelabove. Wire and watercolor three-dimensional preferred to calculate Above is a drawing form in the made withlinkedwires and weights. embellishment. 1900 ANTONIO GAUDI ANTONIO GAUDI Visionary Catalan architect. churches. unique organic manipulation of high shapes. This sculptural drawingenvisionsthe finished crypt glowingandethereal as if caught in thelightof red morning sun. and apartment homes are distinguished by their Their and Flowering curves of stone or concrete are often encrusted with Gaudi was inspired by medieval and oriental art. light.69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt c. The Art Nouveau movement.
Both men used rulers and pens to carefully and slowly construct their compositions. Floor space appears divided by discernible walls. Libeskind studied music before transferring to architecture. Visual rhythms In the lower half of this drawing architectural language has broken loose: escaped and transformed into an image of rebellious pleasure. short curved poles. He also contributed to plans for the rebuilding of the World Trade Center site in New York. before cascading into a riot of line and sound below. corridors. We can imagine how a musician might interpret this drawing by looking at the abstract visual rhythms of masses composed of long straight poles. He also produces urban and landscape designs. Libeskind's numerous commissions include concert halls and museums. We can see. Across the top and center right of the image w e perceive an almost recognizable architectural plan. and dotted lines. such a rapport in both of these drawings.223). Contemporary musicians commonly collaborate with artists by interpreting images as sound. Floor plan This drawing has been made with a rapidograph. a refillable pen that feeds a constant supply of ink through a fine tubular nib.70 ARCHITECTURE The Order of Sound B O T H OF THESE VISIONARY DRAWINGS o c c u p y a s l e n d e r . There has always DANIEL LIBESKIND A Polish American architect of international acclaim. been a natural affinity between the visual rhythms of pictures and the audible rhythms of music. flat boards. Satie draws quietly throughout. and exhibitions of his drawings. and arched dotted lines depict the radius of doors. Libeskind begins quietly in the upper space of his drawing. and the spaces between his windows and turrets are the visual equivalent of pauses in h i s m u s i c c o m p o s i t i o n s for p i a n o (see also Bussotti. The architect and musician Daniel Libeskind has drawn a stampeding cacophany of airborne architectural detail. Arctic Flowers 1980 DANIEL LIBESKIND . installations. upright pictorial space. and in a sense hear. while the composer Erik Satie has made an enclosure of quiet order and grace. and rooms. theater sets. p.
They definespaceand pictorial balance. H e p e r f o r m e d in cabarets.56—57 we discussed important the shape. lived a l o n e . and founded his o w n church.narrowshape of its paper. a n d ballet. Satie collaborated w i t h hisfriends J e a n C o c t e a u a n d P i c a s s o . Eastern influence The upright image Eastern is reminiscent and medieval of Middle pictorial space and subject of this European drawing. minimalist s c o r e s scandalized a u d i e n c e s with o r c h e s t r a t i o n s f o r t h e foghorn and typewriter.Edges are how are of orientation. Onpp.H i s witty. a conventional dip or fountain pen. theater. the perimeter Composition Look how well this drawingfitsand resonates with the upright. Hotel de la Suzonnieres c. o f which he was the sole m e m b e r Parcel paper Satie has drawn this fantasy hotel using a ruler.50. 1 8 9 3 77/8 x 51/2 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 4 0 mm) ERIK SATIE . Compare the even and and the shape wall to the elegantly stylized order of the many windows of arrangement of details and the shape of the wall in Babur's Garden of Fidelity on p. effectively additional lines in a work. dressed eccentrically. andfouredges of the paper tothecompositionand impact animage. and ink on a fragment folded brown paper—a of everyday happened material of scrap that to be at hand.ERIK SATIE F r e n c h pianist and c o m p o s e r for t h e piano.
and taught at t h e A c a d e m i e d'Architecture. ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE French architectural theorist. Within it. This is the work of an architectural theoretician. enter the long-shadowed architecture of imaginary worlds. Boullee lived in Paris. Among preparations for Fritz Langs film Metropolis. made in 1926. Newton's Cenotaph 1784 153/4 x 25 in ( 4 0 2 x 635 m m ) ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE . painter. the ominous globe exists only as a series of drawings. experiencing a fascinating conflict between curiosity and desolation.72 ARCHITECTURE T H E S E T H R E E HIGHLY DETAILED DRAWINGS Future Fictions invite us to soaring above normal life. antlike mortals might have speculated upon the universe. spheres. This shift makes the cenotaph appear three-dimensional. and dramatic lighting. we find other Utopian visions Paul Nobles epic drawing summons an imperfect and disturbing township where ruin and activity are equal and strange. His celebrated imaginary buildings are characterized by pyramids. and the reverse is true on the right.The lower-left section of the building appears relatively pale against a darker sky.96. Boullee's monolithic apparition was drawn as a monument to Sir Isaac Newton. arched vaults. Light illusions This pen-and-wash drawing shows a subtle application of the principles of illumination demonstrated with an egg on p. We glide over exquisitely drawn wastelands of damage and abandonment. Art director Erich Kettlehut's vertiginous design for the city of a slavelike populace had a future influence on movies such as Blade Runner. and draftsman. cylinders.
Nobson political visions of humanity Newtown. architecture. gray. and m o d e l . FUTURE FICTIONS Brush and ink This is a dramatic drawing from a film that shaped the history of world cinema. and white ink on brown-gray paper. together with c i n e m a t o g r a p h e r Karl Freund. Kettlehut drew using a fine and relatively dry brush dipped in black. 1926 ERICH KETTLEHUT PAUL N O B L E British c o n t e m p o r a r y artist who creates m o n u m e n t a l . Its sheerscaleengulfs the viewer and demands based time and patience to on letters and in some beread. Fritz Lang's Metropolis c.73 ERICH KETTLEHUT Influential film a r t director.Building shapes are works can be read as text. Kettlehut and his c o . mythology. Nobson Central 9 ft 1 0 in x 1 3 f t 2 in (3 x 4 m ) PAUL N O B L E 1998-99 .m a k e r In t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f Metropolis. used forced perspective camera t e c h n i q u e s t o amplify t h e m a g n i t u d e o f buildings in relation t o human characters.a r t director O t t o Hunte. intensely detailed graphite drawings explaining and questioning t h e geography. and are Graphite shapes Nobson Central isoneof a series of very large graphite drawings of the spoil and detritus of Nobson Newtown. Working on toned paper such as this gives an artist greater scope for dramatic lighting effects than if they work on white paper. and morality o f an invented place called His satires exhibited w o r l d w i d e . draftsman.
We use it to structure illusions of depth. Sometimes shared with Naive artists. Pull the thread taut and rotate it slowly above the drawing. Here Leonardo provides a superb example of a single vanishing point. It can be applied to any subject. Invented by Italian artist and architect Brunelleschi in 1413 (late in the history of art). inventors. It is also distinguished from aerial perspective (see pp. observations. I contribute the child's perspective. and those of Naive artists and children. and thinkers ever to have lived. but is most easily seen and understood in pictures of buildings and interiors. Study of Perspective Adoration of the for the Magi 1481 61/2 x111/2in (165 x 290 mm) LEONARDO DA VINCI . this perspective is often an imagined bird's-eye view in which details are mapped according to logic and importance rather than how they might appear in real life. Leonardo recorded constant streams of ideas. In his notebooks. Piranesi an example of two. LEONARDO DA VINCI One of the greatest artists. and age eight. found at the center of all converging lines. 206-07).74 ARCHITECTURE Pathways of Sight LINEAR PERSPECTIVE (also called vanishing-point perspective) is a simple device for calculating the relative size of things in pictorial space. Single-point perspective Tie a thread to a pin. and inventions— essential reading for inquiring minds. All forms of perspective are of equal value. scientists. linear perspective is distinct from more ancient systems practiced in the East. See how the thread corresponds to each converging line. Press the pin into Leonardo's vanishing point. Note how architectural features conform to lines and how human figures diminish in size toward thevanishingpoint.
It shows how children usually map large scenes in flat layers one above the other. which I saw from home every day.SARAH SIMBLET I made this drawing (at age 8) in response to a local bookstore's request for children to draw their village. Scale Our farmhouse my experience was in the woods. Mark these points with your pin and follow the converging lines of the drawing by rotating your thread. Note the rather large rabbits and pheasants the hills. and theoretical writing strongly influenced neoclassicism. . Two-point perspective Sunlight through this colonnade a great example of two-point perspective. 1740 5 1 / 2 x 83/8 in (141 x 212 mm) G I O V A N N I B A T T I S T A PIRANESI points are located on either side of the drawing. architect. and designer Piranesi's prolific architectural drawings. Lightly marked illuminates vanishing Two Courtyards c. This drawing Young children typically maps ignore on and understanding of the nearby village. Breamore Village. issues of scale when making room for important their story. New Forest. at the top of each lateral column base. England 1980 9 x 16 in (228 x 405 mm) S A R A H SIMBLET GIOVANNI BATTISTA PIRANESI Italian artist. including all they recall about the subject. a points in logical narrative of memories. visionary and practical understanding of ancient Rome. Children are uninhibited and problems with one element being obscured by another rarely arise.
Draw each step over the preceding one to build up a single image. discovering the image as it progressed.98 for an important note on oscillation. Leonardo began with a grid of many lines within which he invented his scene. try composing your own space. draw a horizon line across your paper Mark a spot on the horizon line. This is where we will begin. You have completed your first box. This ensures that the second rectangle aligns with the shape and 4 Draw four short lines to connect the four corners of the two rectangles. On the previous page we looked at its essential mechanism through drawings by Leonardo and Piranesi. using a sharp HB pencil and ruler. Each line should pass through one corner of the rectangle. In contrast. Note that if you place large structures in the foreground and smaller ones closer to your vanishing point. Piranesi planned his drawing with only the essential lines needed. Study these pages first before embarking on this lesson. DRAWING BOXES 1 Using a ruler and a sharp HB pencil. you will amplify the illusion of distance. then follow the ten steps below. This lesson shows you how to make a simple illusion of space defined by two boxes and three flat boards. Draw four dotted lines radiating out from the vanishing point. imagine. 2 3 corners must each touch a dotted line.76 ARCHITECTURE Single-Point Perspective MASTERING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE i s e a s i e r t h a n y o u m a y First read through. (See p. Next. Surround the vanishing point with a small rectangle. corresponding to a single vanishing point.) . Erase the dotted construction lines. Extend each dotted line to the edge of your drawing. this is your vanishing point.
. The board's sides should be parallel. andfarside of this first board.77 SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE 5 Draw a new rectangle. N e x t draw a slanting line to mark the height of the first flat board. with two dotted lines. larger rectangle.willhelptomake them appear more solid. Continue the dotted lines out toward the edge of your drawing. The four comers must each touch a dotted line to be sureitaligns with the first. draw a second. 8 Complete the second box with short lines as in step 4. draw four dotted lines radiating from your vanishing point Pass these through each comer of the new rectangle. 1 0 Erase all ofthedottedlinestoseeyourfinishedboxes Thickeningtheiredges. and erase the dotted lines. bottom. 9 Use dotted lines connecting the slanting linetothe vanishing point to locate the top. you can place rectangles anywhere youwishin relation to a vanishing point. 6 As in step 2. Repeat this to add two more boards to the composition. Note that this does not surround the vanishing point In the future.asIhavedonehere. when inventing your own compositions. The larger you make your second rectangle. Connect this to the vanishing point— again. 7 As in step 3. the closer it will appear to the viewer.
Linear perspective will support y o u by providing a frame in which to b u i l d your picture as it did for Leonardo. let simple lines suggest a simple space. artist and film director.78 ARCHITECTURE Creating an Imaginary Space T H I S CLASS USES SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE t o c r e a t e a s i m p l e to you and if you listen to it. draw a b o x as shown opposite." imaginary room. once said: "I never end up with what I set out to do. w h e t h e r it is a film or a painting. A lot more happens when you open yourself up to the work and let yourself act and react to it. The m i s t a k e n belief that we s h o u l d k n o w exactly what o u r finished drawings will l o o k like before we m a k e t h e m prevents many people from ever starting. p . it will take you places you never dreamed of. Then follow the three given steps. you will find white adhesive stationery labels are useful for covering errors or changing the direction of your idea. It highlights the importance of having faith in your imagination and trusting your ability to invent. APPLYING PERSPECTIVE An Imagined Scaffold "Enjoy your illusion as you make it and it will become more real. then let the space suggest its c o n t e n t s and purpose. As David Lynch. it is interaction that makes the work richer. If using a fibertip pen as I have done for this drawing. 7 4 ) ." . O n a fresh page in your d r a w i n g b o o k . I always start with a script but I don't follow it all the way through to the end. Every work talks In this class.
and floors and ceilings also converge and rise o r lower toward the horizon. This initial space will be transparent and open to change. horizontal. Here. 3 Remove the construction lines with an eraser and the room will becomeclearer. you will beableto draw more complex objects orpeoplewithin them. and leaning surfaces.drawthehorizonlineand vanishingpoint. parallel planes such as walls converge toward the vanishing point. CREATING AN IMAGINARY SPACE 1First. The space has become more solid and real. 2 first before adding furniture. With some practice.Addanarray of converging lines to provide a "scaffold" for vertical. additional lines have established the different surfaces and how they relate to each other.79 DRAWING A SIMPLE ROOM Essentials t o remember: objects and people dimmish in size as they move farther away. .There is great pleasure tobefoundin spending time inventing interiors.
Search for the application of these perspectives among works by other artists in this book and in galleries. Free vanishing points On paper we can enjoy the freedom of fantastic structural invention without limitations of solid materials or gravity. located anywhere inside or outside the pictorial space. T h e y d o n o t have to relate to each other. Potentially. they can be placed anywhere inspaceto describe the perspective of flyi c tilted objects. T h i n k of standing at the top of a skyscraper and imagine h o w its parallel sides would appear to converge below you. our eye level is very high and we look down. They could be drawn on any scale from miniature to monumental. From our normal eye level. Vanishing points are commonly found on horizon—our eye level. do verticals appear inclined. 76-79). verticals appear p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the g r o u n d . showing y o u h o w to draw curved surfaces and a tiled floor. Only when y o u might employ t h r e e . Here. That is where we e to find them. It is important to realize that you can have as many vanishing points as you wish. but they are not confined to this level. o r to the h o r i z o n .80 ARCHITECTURE Further Aspects of Perspective W E ARE ACCUSTOMED TO SEEING our e n v i r o n m e n t from a relatively constant point of view. Elaborations . These elaborations could continue indefinitely across a sheet of paper in pursuit of complex and intricate ideas. or low and we look u p .p o i n t perspective ( s h o w n opposite top). T h i s is d e m o n s t r a t e d immediately below. Copying what you see in the work of others will help you to understand what they have done. a n d this is how we have drawn them so far (see pp. I have elaborated on the simple boxes above. To draw such a view APPLICATION Copy these drawings to see and feel how they work before inventing your own versions. The boxes drawn here are seen partly or entirely disassociated from a horizon line drawn across the bottom of the image. Further aspects of three-point perspective are also illustrated opposite.
81 FURTHER ASPECTS OF Three-point towers This drawing depicts three-point perspective. An array of curved lines (drawn freehand) link the two lateral points. three vanishing points are evenly spaced along a horizon line. useful for representing steep views looking up or down tall structures. and therefore tension. Iusedthese lines as a guide t o draw the curvature of boxes and panels flying through space. I then drew three fanned groups of lines connecting each of the three points above to the seven points below. they mark the corners of the floor tiles. tostraightlines can amplify drama in a picture. Giving curvature.) By comparing this drawing t o Piranesi's example of two-point perspective on p. Where thelinescross.Istarted with two parallel lines. Three-point checkered floor This d bottom floor.Finally. Note that altering the distance between the three dots above will tilt the level of the floor .I added horizontal lines t o define the tiles. you will see how. (Turn the book around to see a view looking up. PERSPECTIVE Three-point curves Here. I marked the toplinewith three evenly spaced points and the line with seven. by adding a third point you can achieve a sense of incline.75.
These walnut-skin ink pen and brush drawings show imagined views of theaters that do not exist but were inspired by places I studied.Theaters RESEARCHING FOR MY P H D . . making drawings to resolve questions and express personal responses to the nature and history of anatomy. I visited many anatomical theaters and museums.
.A N D .Venetian Life sitting point buildings ThisP E N . the water.I N KDRAWING is one of a series I made while next to the Rialto Bridge in Venice. The vanishing of the drawing is directly opposite as we look across The constancy of the bridge and surrounding frames the movement in the life that flows past.
or used on stage hood for a mold t o make theheado f a horse f oas a p r o p — i m b u e d with e n o u g h energy or character can "become" a man. design. these. and made. and the behavior of light through making still-life paintings and together. or to explain and present a finished concept to a client. In past eras. to record an observed detail. 1493 117/8c81/4in (300 x 210 m m ) LEONARDO D A V I N Ccreating I . T h e precision of engineering d r a w i n g s e v o l v e d alongside machine tools. making a clear instruction t o his bronzemeaning. It is shaped in sections w i t h Artists have for centuries studied and expressed composition. Artists also make images of objects that can never exist. have often carried great weights of allegorical once. drawn. craftsmen had held plans in their memory. texture. sculpted. r an equestrian statue. T h e Industrial Revolution c h a n g e d the traditional w a y s in w h i c h objects were designed. are all made bearing the signature of our time and place. of light in the creation of pictorial illusions. A chair. W e also explore v o l u m e and form in the classes by spinning lines to make vessels. Today. Birds follow instinct to make a nest. Previously. With the sudden onset of mass production. planned. drawing c. Artists and actors use the meanings of things to communicate a speculative mechanic. too. and a wire violin. hooked bars that can be pulled and tied closely form. each demanding more of the other as they increased in sophistication. fictional realities caster of h o w t o make it andhowit will w o r k . color. from s p o o n s and pens to chairs and bicycles. C o m m o n items. drawings were needed to instruct workers on the factory floor. Technical drawing was speedily developed as a meticulous international code of m e a s u r e m e n t and explanation. In this chapter. for example. and the way in w h i c h the brain reacts Head and Neck Sections of Female Mold for the Sforza Horse to visual stimulus and optical illusions. illuminating snail shells. Engineers and designers of our objects and instruments make drawings for many reasons: to test an idea that is yet to be made. It was in this era that the blueprint was born. even more advanced drawings are made on computers. that test our logic with a sense of mystery. H e has described contour and function at drawings.Objects and Instruments T HE THINGS WE INVENT describe our lives. we look at the importance are the only creatures on Earth w h o actually design and create great ranges of things. and some apes use simple tools. for example—whether. H e has described a casting through metaphor. but humans LEONARDO DA VINCI Inthisbeautiful red chalk Our items all have a purpose—practical or ornamental—and all have a meaning. passing them on to others through the act of making. or drawing w e see Leonardo daVinci'sprecision as can be given meaning. History will be learned from the artifacts w e leave behind.
Mucha's drawing glistens with possession. Statue D'Epouvante 1913 2 f t 5 in x 3 ft 5 in (0. Braque established Cubism in partnership with Picasso just before World War I. not to work in harmony. Clashes The art historian Ernst Gombrich said of Cubism.. One of the great joys of this movement in art is the musicality of its multipoint view. not of place but of things. texture. He takes us into the bustle of the Paris cafe.73 x 1 m) GEORGES BRAQUE . silverware. representing still life." La Cuitare. a colored canvas. Braques "justly" arranged combination of cut black card.Braque marshals all the forces of perspective. charcoal.90 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS Still Life THESE DRAWINGS REVEAL t w o o p p o s i t e m o t i v a t i o n s i n we can. but to clash in virtual deadlock. T h i s is a designers drawing made to enthuse surface and style in its delicate brushing of china. still feel this projected moment. and glass objects of exquisite elegance for only the gentlest of touch and appreciation. There is a fragile eloquence to these objects as they drift in slow motion past our gaze. perfect i n their newly made availability. and a journal jacket with words makes this drawing chatter about the moment. Below. wood-look wallpaper. steaming with music and conversation.. His work is characterized by calm and harmonious still-life compositions. Opposite. "I believe [it] is the most radicalattempttostampout ambiguity and to enforce one readingofthepicture—that of a manmade construction. Braques image is a Cubist collage. Even today GEORGES BRAQUE French painter who as a young man was influenced by the work of the Fauves and of Cezanne. and shading. .
fruit.flowers. and New York. The three plates facing us were drawn with a compass. Chicago. For ten years Mucha designed theater posters exclusively for the actress Sarah Bernhardt. Study for Plate 59 from "Documents Decoratifs" 17x121/4(430 x 310 mm) ALPHONSE MUCHA 1902 . Background color Between the delicate shadows and highlights of these glazed and surfaces ofthebackground metal color of the Mucha we see a large amount paper. Black watercolor washes and lines of white gouache have been added with a fine brush. Art Nouveau curling motifs of birds. Pans. He designed the Austrian pavilion for the Paris World Fair in 1900.ALPHONSE MUCHA Czech graphic artist and painter who worked in Prague. and also stamps and bank notes. Art Nouveau motifs This is a preliminary study for a subsequent print. He is best known for posters featuring ethereal women in typical Art Nouveau style. and fish have been outlined using a sharp pencil. Look at the two spoons at toprightand see how has suggested that they are so brilliantly shiny they reflect the background color.
w h e r e he developed his three greatest theories: the law o f motion. shape the very cause and effect of investigatory thought. offering a transparent view. It is a diagrammatic explanation of how to catch and magnify a star in a mirrored tube. the law o f gravity. Newton's drawing of his first reflecting telescope is ISAAC N E W T O N English scientist. and Fellow of the University o f C a m b r i d g e . He counted 1 4 . each reflecting a view of his own world—his window. alchemist. via a second mirror. Hooke's head of a drone fly seen through a microscope may represent the first time man and insect came face to face. Their delicate construction is only as valuable as the measurements they make. The power of this drawing reflects the pure passion of discovery. With dotted lines Newton has drawn his arrangement of elements inside the tube. and his hand moving across the light. A disembodied eye at the top of the drawing indicates where to look. drawing is there to pin the moment down. a tree outside. and the nature o f light and color. From the concept of capturing the infinite to the mapping of microscopic sight. 0 0 0 perfect hemispheres. we see drawing Instruments of Vision found among his letters. Newton's 1672 ISAAC Telescope NEWTON . Look how confidently he draws with ink the sphere of this wooden globe by which his telescope rotates. Ink lines Several drawings appear among Newton's letters. It was then reflected up inside the tube and. each one skillfully rendered with the alarmingly matter-of-fact ease of explaining the commonplace. and philosopher Newton was President of the Royal Society. mathematician. In the graphic work of these two great men of science. Transparent view Newton's reflecting telescope focused light in a parabolic mirror. astronomer. Newton used this instrument to calculate the speed required to escape earth's gravity.92 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS by their very nature must gauge or chronicle precision. into the eyepiece.
It is an exhilarating read. universal joint a prototype respirator clock balance.An experimental scientist who drew many of his discoveries. ROBERT H O O K E 93 Magnifications This acutely detailed engraved drawing is taken from Hooke's Micrographia (pub. and anchor escarpment. a breathtaking book containing many of his drawings showing some of the first microscopic and telescopic magnifications of our environment Hooke's text and illustrations carry us to the moment of discovery. 1665). Hooke invented the camera diaphragm. and calculated the theory of combustion. The Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 1665 ROBERT HOOKE 111/2 x 105/8 in (294 x 270 mm) .
while the tabs make us see a flat paper cut-out. Van Gogh's tipsy seat is a metaphor for an absent person. and has drawings in numerous public and private collections. its character. has published several catalogs of her work. Woodfine exhibits internationally. From component parts we understand how to put it together and make it stand sensible in space. Two-dimensional was made This highly finished drawing ruler using a sharp pencil and on smooth white drawing paper glistening dark drawings are artificial representations of known Woodfine's two-dimensional things balanced in the world. this chair p r e s e n t s us with a clever visual contradiction: deeply drawn shadows tell us it must be solid. Bench Marks W e are left a little c o n f u s e d as to what we s h o u l d do. it has so m u c h familiar personality that it seems to talk to us. and place in the world are truly seen. each drawn with the s a m e unfaltering lines and tones that are between reality and impossibility.94 INSTRUMENTS W H E N WE DRAW A COMMON OBJECT like a chair. Chair Cut Out 2002 22'A x 23 in (565 x 585 mm) SARAH WOODFINE . OBJECTS AND SARAH WOODFINE British contemporary artist graduate of the Royal Academy Schools. A renegade from the p a p e r dolls' h o u s e . Its wobbly gait and squashed s y m m e t r y m u m b l e endless h o m e y tales about the life it has seen. and winner of the 2004 Jerwood Drawing Prize. W i t h h o m e y c o n t r a s t . craft. Drawn in more-or-less c o n v e n t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . and w h e r e the chair b e l o n g s . Sarah Woodfines flat cut-out m o d e l plan is a witty and surprising drawing.
His passionate brush and pencil strokes are honest and of also turmoil and growing alarm at the world around him. not is made present in only strokes and is subdued to distract us from flat a meaningful chair. and Starry Cypress Night. The floor few as engagement with the chair. Cornfield and Sunflowers.95 VINCENTVAN GOGH Dutch painter who produced over 800 paintings and 850 drawings in only the last ten year's of his life. Among van Gogh's best-known canvases are Trees.hehas marked the full emotion of the subject with a fierce grip of concentration. inner recording while Fierce strokes This is a portrait of the mechanical drew immediately and almost harshly. drawn opposite way of plan. Van Chair 1890 VINCENT VAN GOGH . what direct in their he saw and describing his felt.
Before starting a tonal drawing of any subject. Run The bottom-left quarter of the egg lightens slightly toward its "edge" when seen against the darker shadow cast on the paper. reads only m o v e m e n t a n d can often m a k e mistakes. Below. See how its "edge" smoothly changes from light against dark to dark against light. Artists emulate and manipulate this effect in their pictures. and the proximity of contrasting tones. The two tones meet without a division or outline between.This effect is caused by the contrast of their surroundings. are translated into a world of space. On acloudyday. a n d our ability to see forms in c l o u d s or fire. The rim of light on the egg is reflected light received from surrounding paper. cards the same size. U p s i d e . less developed than the center. atmosphere. a lit photograph of an egg shows essential points to observe in tonal drawing. Adjust the angleofthe protruding part and again stepback.96 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Light and Illusions SEEING IS MIRACULOUS.At one point you will catchenoughlight lighter than the white one. Gray squares To further examine changes in tone.102-03 deep shadows cast across shells make their form easier to perceive. a n d are q u i c k to p r o p o s e ideas. The outermost edge of our vision. try this experiment. Through these we can enjoy witnessing our o w n d e c e p t i o n a n d b a f f l e m e n t a n d u n d e r s t a n d certain factors that are very useful in picture-making. transmitted to the brain as chains of electrical impulses. but do not appear so. hence our recognition of a cartoon face c o m p o s e d of three lines. think about its illumination. one blackandone white. or colored surface is never constant. the adjustment of our eyes (in growing accustomed to a level of light). We only need small prompts. Here w e look briefly at our perception of light a n d darkness a n d our interpretation of diagrammatic illusions. We perceive one to be lighter than theother. Here. gray. The egg's darkest region is seen against a lighter background.d o w n patterns of light on our retinas. o u r b r a i n s search for n a m e a b l e things. a n d m o v e m e n t . S o m e o n e passes our o p e n door. perhaps. W e learn to read light and shadow in our environment as indicators of solidity and depth of space. a n d we can be fooled. Are you happy LIGHT AND SHADOW with what you see? Does the light enhance the subject? Could you alter and improve it? On pp. two identical mid-gray squares are seen against black and paler gray squares. The perceived tone of a black white. form. w e turn our head but n o one w a s there. To interpret visual s t i m u l u s . Tape them to the glass. From across the room both will appear black card and fold and retapeitwith half sticking out. The egg's lightest region is seen against a darker background. The small squares are identical in tone. Three factors change it: the amount of light it receives. Card experiment cho can gra on . your eye around the circumference of the egg. T h e slightest recognition is instantly matched to our wealth of experience a n d expectation. Below the bottom "edge" of the egg there is a rim of light reflected onto the paper by the underside of the egg. We will even see things that d o not exist because minimal information suggests they are likely to be there.
start o u t w i t h one. In this t o n a l image w e read w h i t e as f a t t e r t h a n black. O b s e r v e h o w each white b a n d appears t h i c k e r t h a n its black c o u n t e r p a r t . S h o r t h o r i z o n t a l lines o f identical length are m a d e t o l o o k d i f f e r e n t by c o n v e r g i n g lines beside t h e m ( C ) . Bending straight lines Linear distance These t w o jugs have b e e n d r a w n w i t h lines o f d i f f e r i n g thicknesses. LIGHT AND ILLUSIONS Tonal width T h e s e black a n d w h i t e bands are o f equal thickness o n e i t h e r side o f t h e i r central division. A n u p r i g h t line stands in t h e c e n t e r o f a h o r i z o n t a l line. O f t e ndoingso w i l l s p o i l y o u r w o r k .97 LINE VERSUS TONE In l i n e a r d r a w i n g s . l i g h t e r surfaces s t a n d f o r w a r d w h i l e d a r k e r s u r f a c e s recede. T h i s fundamental o p p o s i t e is a reason w h y l i n e a r a n d t o n a l d r a w i n g does not a l w a y s c o m b i n e w e l l in t h e s a m e i m a g e . T w o horizontal lines o f equal length are m a d e t o l o o k longer and shorter. T w o relatively t h i c k parallel lines are m a d e t o b e n d away f r o m each o t h e r as t h e y pass in f r o n t o f an a r r a y o f c o n v e r g i n g f i n e lines ( B ) . B o t h are identical in length. Apparent lengths T h e s e optical illusions s h o w h o w lines o f identical length can b e m a d e t o l o o k quite different f r o m each o t h e r by t h e addition o r association o f o t h e r lines. t h i c k e r l i n e s a p p e a r t o stand forward. . respectively. Y o u m a y e x p e r i e n c e s o m e t h i n g similar h a p p e n i n g w h e n y o u m a k e s i n g l e . If y o u w i s h t o m a k e a t o n a l drawing.p o i n t p e r s p e c t i v e d r a w i n g s w i t h a large n u m b e r o f c o n v e r g i n g rays b e h i n d y o u r horizontals. In this linear drawing w e read t h i c k as closer a n d t h i n as f a r t h e r away. by d i r e c t e d a r r o w s ( A ) . b u t t h e u p r i g h t o n e l o o k s t a l l e r (B). Seven parallel lines are m a d e t o tilt t o w a r d and away f r o m each o t h e r by n u m e r o u s s h o r t strokes crossing t h e m diagonally ( A ) . w h i l e t h i n n e r lines recede. In a t o n a l d r a w i n g . T h e jug d r a w n w i t h a t h i n line appears f a r t h e r away t h a n t h e j u g d r a w n w i t h a t h i c k e r line. T h e r e is n o obligation t o a d d b l o c k s o f t o n e t o a l i n e a r d r a w i n g .
such as t h e dish seen h e r e o n t h e left. A few suggestive marks will tip the decision one way o r the o t h e r Closing the surface W h e n a t r a n s p a r e n t elliptical o b j e c t has b e e n d r a w n . as s h o w n o n t h e right. Artists make pictorial illusions when they paint or draw. Yet many illusions.76.98 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Further Illusions PSYCHOLOGISTS AND PHYSIOLOGISTS have studied optical illusions for decades in pursuit of what they tell us about the brain. In the 1960's. w h e n drawing the outline o f a three-dimensional form. Artists can communicate much in few lines and the viewer will do the rest of the work. their picture could be ambiguous. Op(tical) artists. others adjust works to avoid their effects. and so calculated precisely how much to fatten columns to make them appear straight. w e will find that in terms of the direction it faces. o r as a s l o p i n g . Ancient Greek architects knew parallel upright lines appeared to bend toward each other in the middle. made paintings that depended upon the physical sensation of our brain's reaction to known optical illusions. It is a curious fact that w e can never see both options at once." . it can oscillate b e t w e e n facing t o w a r d o r a w a y f r o m us. perfected the acceleration of perspective (see pp. and we learn to read the styles of diverse cultures and periods. such as Bridget Riley.116-17) to make painted figures look correct when viewed from below. Michelangelo. Some artists use known optical illusions to make art. w e can only look f r o m one t o the o t h e r If an artist is not aware this can happen in their image. SEEING TWO OPTIONS Sometimes. It is possible t o r e a d i t t w o ways: as a t r u n c a t e d r e c t a n g u l a r p y r a m i d seen d i r e c t l y f r o m a b o v e . including some shown here. are still not agreeably understood.s i d e d r e c t a n g u l a r t r a y ( b o t h are illustrated far r i g h t ) "The brain is so eager to name a fragment we see that we need only a suggestion to grasp the whole. Two ways of seeing T h i s is t h e b o x c r e a t e d in t h e f o u r t h step o n p. C l o s i n g t h e surface o f t h e f o r m seals o u r d e c i s i o n as t o w h i c h w a y it faces. among others. Today we are bombarded with images but rarely have difficulty reading them. it oscillates between t w o possibilities.
This simple five-line d r a w i n g is o f a C a p u c h i n priest asleep in his pulpit. clouds. F a m i l i a r i t y in r a n d o m s h a p e s T h e Rorschach test was established by t h e 1 9 t h . O n l y o n closer inspection we realize that t h e s e o b j e c t s are fooling us. M u c h can b e e x p r e s s e d in o n l y a f e w marks. His highly d i s p u t e d and i m p r e c i s e science involves s h o w i n g u n p r e p a r e d p a t i e n t s t e n p a r t i c u l a r ink b l o t s a n d asking t h e m t o i n t e r p r e t w h a t t h e y see. T h e y a r e o f t e n c r e d i t e d w i t h t h e invention o f t h e c o m i c c a r t o o n . T h e a r t i s t M. T h e patient's answers are t h e n diagnosed as a psychological profile. N e i t h e r triangle exists.c e n t u r y Swiss psychologist H e r m a n n Rorschach. C o u n t t h e n u m b e r o f d a r k spots y o u can see. W e should r e m e m b e r t h a t o u r brains will always search f o r a p i c t u r e — i n ink blots. 1 6 t h . Yet still w e try resolve t h e m . C Escher u s e d this phenomenon t o great effect in his many p o p u l a r d r a w i n g s o f puzzles and impossible buildings. b u t w e believe w e see t h e m because e n o u g h f r a g m e n t a r y i n f o r m a t i o n is given f o r o u r brains t o c o n c l u d e t h e y are v e r y likely t h e r e . S o m e artists use ink blots t o p r o m p t t h e beginning o f an image. C o u p l e d w i t h t h e Rorschach b l o t above. . w e see t w o overlapping triangles: o n e outlined in black b e n e a t h a n o t h e r in solid w h i t e . This effect can o c c u r naturally w h e n looking at a b r i g h t l y lit w h i t e g r i d such as a w i n d o w f r a m e against t h e night sky.99 Impossible objects T h e s e clever configurations o f outlines and t o n a l surfaces convince us at a glance that we are seeing a solid three-dimensional triangle and a three-pronged fork. B e l o w is a b r i g h t n e s s c o n t r a s t illusion. T h e t e s t e x p l o r e s o u r n o r m a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o find things w e can n a m e a m o n g r a n d o m shapes. this is a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f t h e viewer's b r a i n b e i n g willing t o d o a large a m o u n t o f t h e w o r k in d e c i p h e r i n g a p i c t u r e . smoke. P e r c e i v i n g a w h o l e i m a g e f r o m m i n i m a l lines T h i s is a w i d e l y r e p r o d u c e d visual j o k e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e C a r r a c c i b r o t h e r s . T h e s e e x a m p l e s illustrate h o w little is n e e d e d t o c o n v e y an image. e t c . — a n d so t h e artist can create m u c h o u t o f an impression w i t h o u t overdescribing.c e n t u r y Italian painters. Minimal-line j o k e s such as this rely u p o n t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y v i e w e r ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e shapes. FURTHER ILLUSIONS Seeing things that are n o t t h e r e H e r e o n t h e left.
Cubism. Cover a sheet of paper with spinning. there are three common errors people stumble upon. spin your hand in a relaxed circle. . Ellipse are best d r a w n quickly. I have drawn these for you here. as if the table surface slopes upward beneath the vessel. and these narrow or widen depending on the height of our view. though. w e use ellipses to give a sense of perspective. Be aware. that this is o n l y o n e w a y view. w h e n seen at an angle. To make a cylindrical object appear real in our pictorial space. while its upper rim remains level. Watch the tip of your pen and see it draw an ellipse in the air Keep this movement going while gently lowering the pen onto the paper like the needle of a record player closing on the disc (only it is your lowering hand that spins. A wobbling but confident ellipse will still be more convincing than a slow. suggesting that the vessel is lopsided. smoothly. The first common error is to draw two pointed ellipses.100 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS W E VISUALIZE CYLINDRICAL VESSELS. for example. springlike forms like those I have drawn below.90) takes a different as essentially circular. describing many sides of an object simultaneously. such as bowls and cups. even if y o u r hand w o b b l e s a little at first. a n d in o n e bold stroke. third common error is to draw upper and lover ellipses with different-sized apertures. keep it spinning. circles change into ellipses. How to Draw Ellipses of seeing. since this is h o w w e experience them in e v e r y d a y use. Don't worry if it is uneven— just try again. like a disposable plastic cup that has been crushed in your hand. The second common error is to tilt the upper and lower ellipses at different angles. WHERE TO START In the air above a spacious sheet of scrap paper. However. for example plates or bowls on a table. not the paper!) As the pen touches down. (see p. COMMON ERRORS W h e n drawing cylindrical objects in perspective. giving the cylinder four corners. I have exaggerated this error here. hesitant one that has edged its w a y nervously around the vessel's rim. you will achieve steadiness with practice.
Create a Solid Surface Once you have drawn the shape and volume of each form. Altering the pressure—and therefore tone—of the line as it spins gives the impression of light shining on one side. you can make it solid by building up highlights and tones on visible surfaces. thereby hiding lines that show the other sides. Draw quickly. you can start to control your spinning ellipse to make a vessel.101 DRAWING VESSELS Once you have mastered drawing free-hand springs. Seeing Through Allow lines to travel around each vessel as if it were transparent. HOW TO DRAW E L L I P S E S A Single Vessel One Inside Another Grouped Together Finding Shape and Volume Draw an imagined vessel in one continuous spinning line. . enlarging and diminishing the ellipse to determine the overall shape and volume. working from top to bottom.
two opposite methods of achieving the same result. Draw the largest and most distinct areas of light and darkness first. t h e r e a r e p r i n c i p a l l y Dramatic lighting emphasizes texture and contour.102 INSTRUMENTS Tonality W H E N MAKING A TONAL DRAWING. beams of light. Illuminate them with a gooseneck lamp placed very close and directed away from your eyes. You can begin with outlines and build slowly from light to dark (see opposite top). Remember that shadows. In the finished drawing there should be few. Relaxing your eyes out of focus as you draw will help to dissolve the distraction of detail. and strong contrasts are easier to draw.22-23). It is important to place them on the correct side so as to draw comfortably (see pp. if any. outlines. simply shapes and subtleties of light and dark meeting each other with no divisions in between. or you can begin with a mid-gray ground and model light out of darkness (see opposite bottom). OBJECTS AND Start by arranging a choice of shells on a sheet of paper to your left if you are right-handed (or vice versa). it will inhibit your perception of tone. LIGHT TO DARK DARK TO LIGHT . making complicated or subtle surfaces easier to see and understand. if light shines in them. It maximizes the range of tones between black and white. and solid objects are all of equal importance. leaving detail until last. Gradually hone your drawing.
103 LIGHT TO DARK (LINE TO TONE) TONALITY 1 Using a sharp HB pencil. Continue working between light and dark to refine the drawing. boldly 2 3 Keeping your eyes out of focus. and edges definingthespacialrelationships between are important aspects of your composition them. Let your eyes go out of focus while looking gently layer marks to create an even tone at your subject and paper: Draw the most ofmid-graywithin a rectangle. until you are happy frame. Relaxing your eyes out of focus will help to eliminate distracting details. look at the main areas of darkness. . pale lines with equal importance. Draw in the details last of all. Treat positive form and negative space (see pp. Use quick. with broad sweeps of the eraser. DARK TO LIGHT (TONE TO TONE) 1 Using the flattened tip of an HB pencil.56-57). Use your pencil to develop these in relation to the areas of light. Remember that its size. Fll in broad areas first and leave all detail until last. shape. Avoid a rough significant areas of light in your gray rectangle with texture and do not press the graphite hardwhite plastic eraser Ignore all detail and draw a into thepaperor you will not be able to erase it. loose. 2 3 Gentlydissolveoutlines so that areas oflightanddark meet without a line between them. draw a rectangle. Honetheshapesand angles of the shells. Erase and make changes to roughly place the shells inside your with your composition.
three-dimensional drawings teach us about the totality of forms in space. Seeing through a wire drawing of a known object such as a violin gives us a visual and tactile understanding of all its sides and shapes at once. They can also be made in space. PEN LINES Once you have created your three-dimensional violin (opposite). . our image is stronger if we understand and can visualize what is happening on the other side too. When drawing anything viewed from one side on paper. 176 the British artists Noble and Webster draw with domestic refuse in a beam of light. There are essentially three lessons to be learned. continuous lines.104 OBJECTS AND I N S T R U M E N T S Drawing with Wire DRAWINGS DO NOT HAVE to be two-dimensional. you can create your own more ambitious works. 19 Picasso draws with a pen-light for the camera. try drawing it with a pen on paper Use bold. On p. The second is that after achieving this simple example. On p. and on p. The first is that figurative and abstract drawings can be made in space. smooth.69 we see how the architect Antonio Gaudi drew proposed domes using suspended wires and weights. Place the instrument on a plain surface and illuminate it with a desk lamp to add the delicate dimension of shadows. and on p.220 Mamoru Abe draws with forged steel rods. and physical relationships between them. Third. This class uses thin-gauge wire to create a threedimensional violin.
Cut a length. These will hold the sides apart and help to keep the form in shape. and thick wire a larger one. thin wire will make a smaller drawing. and pinch and bend it to shape the base of the instrument Repeat this process to make the identical upper side of the instrument. brace the two ends of the violin with a length of wire along the back. Once you have completed the body. Join the two sides together with four short pieces of wire. I used garden wire and cut it carefully with pruners.105 SETTING UP DRAWING WITH WIRE Follow these steps to draw a three-dimensional violin Choose a gauge of wire sturdy enough to hold the shape ofyourfinished drawing. Here. 4 . begin to shape the curvature of the fingerboard. but thin enough to be easily manipulated inyourfingers Here. Then begin to define its uppermost surface with Scurves and the bridge. 2 3 If needed. I started with the scroll at the top and fixed the four component wires with two drawings of tuning pegs. 1 Decide how big to draw your violin relative to the gauge of your wire.
I had the privilege of drawing their inventions. Using found materials.Artifacts and Fictions IN 1993 I WORKED with a group of schoolchildren who were responding to the astonishing objects in the collection of the Pitt Rivers Museum. . Oxford. they invented new anthropological finds—objects that reflected the distant past and their immediate future. some of which are shown here. England.
Michelangelo attended dissections to made this image by light sectioning: fine beams of light perfect his understanding of surface form. In this period. These classes are popular around the world. Drawings were usually made from the male nude to avoid offending the church. The human body. Strangely. Look closely at Renaissance drawings of the female b o d y and you will see that m o s t are actually y o u n g m e n with minor adjustments. This F finished image was produced as r a n c i s c o . myths and fables. and surgically rebuilt. She the body is still essential. WILLIAMS he sought perfection in the infinitesimal measurement of the body and produced four Contemporary photographer volumes of illustrated explanation. It also looks at the representation of the b o d y b11y4o n d traditional life drawing. W e understand every curve and balance of to the theory that the eves are the windows of the soul. but the study of a controlled. focus has turned to the vulnerability of flesh: how it can be damaged. Williams were decades ahead of their medical counterparts. Leonardo drew a man within a circle and square. Artists now explore the interior of the body with new media and Lateral Contour Map of a Full-Term Primipara Produced by Light 1979 A. artists also tried to define ideal proportions in the body. sculptural description of her form. This chapter addresses issues that are most commonly faced by beginners attending life-drawing classes. 3 x 7 in (300 x 180 . He even believed he had located the soul contours of her form like a cartographer's map of in the pituitary fossa beneath the brain and behind the eyes. explaining ranges e/ of materials and techniques and showing diversities of thought and purpose in making. and anatomical and erotic art. while Leonardo opened the body to see and projected onto a woman's body draw the celebratory discover for himself our physical mechanisms. The body remains at the core of over the initially white lines. history paintings and other stories. Artists are thought to have b e g u n drawing from the nude during the Italian Renaissance. R. a n d w e d r a w o u r s e l v e s to a s s e r t o u r e x i s t e n c e . while Durer took his research further— A. portraiture. W e are the only creatures on Earth that can make our own image. is the most c o m m o n subject in art. Renaissance artists studying anatomy from dissection clinically trained and specialized as a medical illustrator. R. W I L L I A M S technology. It gives physical and emotive form to religious narratives. from video and X-ray to thermal imaging. much Western contemporary art. in our privileged and comfortable society. and in San could easily be transferred into three dimensions. giving physical foundation undulating land. clothed or nude. During this time. herimpressive presence because we are given such Life drawing no longer dominates the art school curriculum. and because the female was deemed inferior.The Body O UR BODIES MAKE us TANGIBLE. the Bay Area Models' Guild h o l d s a quarterly life-drawing m a r a t h o n aprinton Kodak transfer paper with green-colored dye added celebrating the great diversity of human proportion. diseased. the junior workshop apprentices posed as part of their duties.
By way of contrast. Muscular dramatic postures reflect the influence of Michelangelo and the Renaissance celebration of the idealized male body. Three Guards 1500-20 91/4 x143/8in (234 x 365 mm) RAPHAEL . He trained under Perugino. Sculptural frieze This is a preparatory drawing for Raphael's painting of the Resurrection of Christ. we see the e s s e n c e of h e r b e a u t y w i t h o u t a single detail. anatomy. while Matisse used scissors and glue to cut out and paste a flat collage of brilliant color. Raphael's study of fallen m e n leaves no doubt that they are in anguish. while supporting the weight of their body with the other. and Vatican frescos. so that we read this drawing like a sculptural frieze. But the meanings of each gesture and the materials and methods by which they Postures and Poses were m a d e contrast greatly. altar pieces.116-17). T h e y b o t h raise one arm to cup their head in their hand. Principal figures m i r r o r e a c h other. and studied to learn from the works of Michelangelo and Leonardo besides whom he was soon ranked. Raphael drew delicate tones of black chalk on tinted paper. Here three male nudes are compressed into very shallow pictorial space. and human defeat. filling the page with her presence. She u n f o l d s and s t r e t c h e s shapely limbs. Matisse's b l u e n u d e sings with life and c e l e b r a t i o n .110 T H E BODY THESE DISTINCTIVE WORKS show two strikingly different ways of modeling the body on paper. RAFFAELLO SANZIO (RAPHAEL) Italian High Renaissance painter: Raphael is best known for his images of the Madonna and Child. In a single drawing we see equally o b s e r v e d studies of f o r e s h o r t e n i n g (see pp. In this highly s o p h i s t i c a t e d a b s t r a c t i o n .
Matisse became an artist after studying law.. and Islamic art...or like a good armchair in which to rest from physical fatigue. a mental soother. printmaker. and more energetic Color and form This collage is one of a series of Blue Nudes. devoid of troubling Blue Nude 1 1952 413/4 HENRY MATISSE .sculptor. foundamong many other groups of papercut these works as an elderly man confined to his bed or wheelchair.. serenity. as his w o r k matured.which might be. lifelong love of brilliant They celebrate the culmination of spectacular and sometimes drawings. freer. Matisse Soothing influence This drawing expresses the achievement of Matisse's personal aim: "What I dream and depressing subject matter. his pattern.like an appeasing influence. His calligraphic natural abstractions of form grew brighter." of is an art of balance.. fabric.designer writer.111 HENRY MATISSE French painter: draftsman.. teacher and principal exponent o f Fauvism—a movement established in 1905 in which bold color is the most essential element.
and muddied the brilliance of the drawing. or abruptly meeting. Using the paper to create light is important for beginners to learn. T h e space around h i m chatters with symbols. agreeing to coalesce and show us the form of a waiting boy. we c o m p a r e a skillful design that absorbed m u c h time in its making with the quickness of an idea marked instantly. w h o sits propped in the contradictory darkness of a hot summer's day. Here. scratched in seconds. Typically. and c o m p l e m e n t a r y hues. In his f a m o u s paintings of social e n g a g e m e n t . stands in counterpoise holding a dark globe and his thoughts in m o m e n t a r y balance.112 T H E BODY Choreographs T I M E IS A SIGNIFICANT E L E M E N T i n t h e m a k i n g o f a l l d r a w i n g s . only tones blending into. in a perfect e x a m p l e . If Seurat had added white. Tone and light In this black conte drawing. Seurat engaged in lifelong studies of line. Beuys's magician. reflected. Opposite. and color His applied theories still influence painters in their manipulation and rendering of local. form. other tones. Seurat evolved a distinctive t e c h n i q u e called p o i n t i l l i s m — i m a g e s literally made from myriad points of color. it would have mixed with unseen black dust. Below. Light is given by the paper alone. velvet d a r k n e s s . 162) and an eraser to model teeming points of artificial light amid GEORGES SEURAT French painter classically educated in the Ingres school of thought. there are no outlines. he used b l a c k c o n t e (see p. His drawings are similarly u n i q u e . turned gray. like small birds attendant on the meditation. it is as if the very atoms of air are made visible. Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 1883-84 91/2 x 121/4 in (241 x 312 m m GEORGES SEURAT .
Our focus joins shoulders. iodine. and blood. taught workshops with a cult following. He was a shaman who believed in intuition and in the investment of healing force.gold. and made installations. and drawings. video art. Perfectly modeled rather conventional for Joseph Focus Beuys's hand moved quickly to draw dotted lines flowing downward on either side of the figure. Unbroken lines stream from his simultaneously movement.113 JOSEPH BEUYS One of the most influential German artists of the 20th century. Many of his other symbolic works on paper have been drawn with materials such as honey. in different positions. transience. Beuys gave performances. This figure is drawn intuitively. His The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland UNDATED 113/4 J O S E P H BEUYS x81/4in (297 x 210 mm) . and that These aspects of the work convey fractured visibility. CHOREOGRAPHS the profound power materials with spiritual or of Free lines This pale pencil drawing is Beuys. free from the constraint of immaculate form opposite) impetus is irrelevant to the and meaning of this work (as we see in Seurat's drawing representation.
As here. sweeping lines— of either purple silk fabric or cool studio air—that imprint and amplify their past and future movements. In Rodins work. THE AUGUSTE RODIN French Romantic sculptor and prolific draftsman employed as an ornamental mason until the age of 42. His exquisite flow of paint beyond "outlines." as seen here. But what is stranger to us now is that they were also outraged by his free use of line. Delicate strokes This is one of about 7. Rodin employed models to move freely or pose together in his studio. We are asked to gaze u p o n her flesh. They whisper and writhe in a brushed and sultry embrace that devours our watching. the women are framed and caressed by long. he typically drew them with a few delicate strokes of pencil and brushed watercolor. Inspired by Michelangelo.000 drawings shown in rotation at the Musee Rodin. In both drawings. Opposite. Achieving international acclaim in mid-life. his w o r k is characterized by deliberate un-finish and powerfully modeled emotion. flushed skin made ruddy and black with crushed cinders. its soft. We are involved not as a shabby voyeur but as a bystander engaged through our recognition of shared joy. Anita Taylor has drawn her protective body hug out of the darkly glistening compression of willow charcoal and the dynamism of her shy but momentous femininity. Free lines Rodin's public audience was understandably shocked by the eroticism of his drawings. and went on to inspire generations of artists.114 BODY Passion SUMMONING HUMANITY in a drawing of the nude is a subtle and emotional task. Our bodies radiate the passion of our thoughts and so become beacons of our frailty and power. the fierceness of the women's kiss is beautifully matched by the tenderness of his line. was perceived as scandalous. and one of hundreds of rapid studies of nudes. Rodin produced portraits and statues of public and literary figures. 125/8x 9 in (320 x 229 mm) AUGUSTE RODIN Two Women 1911 Embracing . Paris.
The sturdy surface of the sheet has allowed her to press hard when needed.I 15 ANITA T A Y L O R Painter. exposure. textured paper. scrutiny. Charcoal Taylor has drawn freely with charcoal and an eraser on thick. A thinner sheet might have crumpled and torn under such vigorous force of making. erased and drawn again. and gaze. This order of light below and dark above gives glowing from within. Taylor's immense self-portraits explore the relationship between the artist as maker and the artist as model. the impression of luminosity All and Nothing 1999 67 x447/8in (170 x 1 1 4 cm) ANITA TAYLOR . draftsman. and rework rich depths of light and tone. Luminosity Layered marks flicker likefirelight as they sculpt the woman's body. London. Taylor has drawn. leaving her lightest marks at the deepest level of the image and applying darker marks above. professor and Vice Principal of Wimbledon School of Art. intimately reflecting upon the emotions and meaning of nudity.
1 Hold your arm straight. Move the tip of your thumb down to a second chosen point. and measurements do not have to be carried to the paper and slavishly drawn the same size they appear on your pencil. to be translated by mirrors or seen from only one point in the room.limbs happily receding. Imagine Michelangelo's murals in the Sistine Chapel. and to draw what we see. helping us to see more clearly. Return to this posture every time. persistence. we would arrive to find many of the same figures strangely distorted. the skull in Holbein's The Ambassadors (The National Gallery. patience. It can also be a little demon in the life room. 2 Hold your pencil upright. or coming forward. when beginners prop their board in their lap and look down at too steep an angle. How to make and apply these is explained below and opposite. MEASURING This is a simple method of making measured comparisons for relating the true size of one part to another This is a tool to assist observation and thinking. you will make inconsistent and unrelated comparisons. The length of exposed pencil is your measurement. Rome. Up close on the scaffold we would witness Michelangelo's subtle application of accelerated perspective. It is not so hard. plummeting. We also look at another very interesting branch called accelerated (or anamorphic) perspective. elbow. In the life class it is the mechanism for ensuring that a drawn figure lies correctly in pictorial space . and wrist joints. Align the top with a point on your subject. without taking off. To avoid its effects ensure you always look flat onto the surface of your page. But if we could take a scaffold and climb up to the work. for example. Spend time making comparisons before you draw. more extreme examples have been made for court entertainment. with dramatic illusions of figures painted in normal proportion. There is no need to mark them all down on paper. rather that what we believe we know from experience. Close one eye. "Simple measured comparisons reveal surprising truths about proportion. London). It is not complicated. Lock your shoulder. 3 Keep your pencil perpendicular Measure and compare at any angle. elongated as if stretched across the plaster. Smaller." . or shrivelling at odd. unfathomable angles. and a few measured comparisons are key. just making them helps you see. This is chiefly a correcting device by which figurative painters and sculptors have for centuries countered the effects of our viewing their work from far below or on the curvature of a vault. which is imperceptible from below.116 T H E BODY Measurement and Foreshortening FORESHORTENING IS AN ASPECT of perspective. If your arm is not straight. Accelerated perspective plays a great role in much art.
S o o n t h e b o d y will lie d o w n in space. pleasingly f o r e s h o r t e n e d . which feels strange. FORESHORTENING To f o r e s h o r t e n a figure. W e appear t o be looking d o w n o n a w o m a n s t a n d i n g b e n e a t h us. a n d thighs. h e r p r o p o r t i o n s will appear correct. . To m a k e f o r m s l o o k c o r r e c t . Keep t h e b o a r d steady and draw. adjusting a n o n y m o u s shapes.117 ACCELERATED PERSPECTIVE To discover h o w this w o r k s . See h o w d i f f e r e n t t h e relative heights o f t h e s e shapes are f r o m w h a t w e m i g h t e x p e c t in real life. t a p e s o m e p a p e r t o a board. MEASUREMENT AND FORESHORTENING Tilt t h e t o p edge o f this b o o k t o w a r d you and look d o w n o n this figure f r o m a b o v e . belly. y o u r hand travels f a r t h e r than y o u expect. A t a c e r t a i n angle. looking d o w n t h e p a p e r at t h e a n g l e at w h i c h I d r e w . L o o k at y o u r m o d e l as if he o r she is a flat series o f shapes o n e o n t o p o f a n o t h e r Measure t h e height and w i d t h o f each shape and c o m p a r e it t o its neighbor. Stand its b o t t o m edge o n y o u r lap. P r o p o r t i o n s will only l o o k c o r r e c t f r o m t h e angle at w h i c h y o u make t h e drawing. y o u must let go o f w h a t y o u k n o w f r o m e x p e r i e n c e a b o u t t h e relative sizes o f b o d y parts and trust y o u r eyes. W o r k a r o u n d t h e figure. T h i s is t h e s a m e d r a w i n g p h o t o g r a p h e d f r o m above. Lean t h e t o p e d g e t o w a r d y o u and find a p o s i t i o n w h e r e y o u can c o m f o r t a b l y l o o k d o w n t h e p a p e r at an angle o f a b o u t 4 0 degrees. C o m p a r e t h e heights o f t h e nose and eye shapes t o t h o s e o f t h e f o r e a r m .
and work over t h e m with further o b s e r v a t i o n s .118 BODY Quick Poses DRAWING QUICK POSES l o c k s y o u r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n t o what is most essential. and stance before honing her balance and expression. Leave first thoughts in place. Height This pose leans away into space above our eye level. T h i s q u i c k e x p l o r a t o r y line does not perfectly describe shape but expresses a decision about overall flow of form. Avoid drawing up one side and down the other. and energy. working from her center to her feet and to her head. Be bold and dive into your drawing with c o n f i d e n c e . I used a sharp H B pencil and began each drawing by marking her outline. and slightly enlarge her legs and feet. To see this. imagine holding up a plumb line. . because it results in two unrelated sides drifting apart. make the upper body smaller give your model a high waist. feeling. To draw this effect. height. Outline To outline a figure. balance. her center of balance is normally found in a vertical line beneath her head. work back and forth across the body. propelling you to make immediate assessments and trust them. Layered lines give d e p t h . and height. Start each new drawing by lightly marking the model's height with a loose line in ten seconds. Balance When a model stands upright on both feet. THE SEQUENCE OF POSES H e r e the model was asked to move every t w o minutes.
the activity of circular lines and the repetition of limbs suggest movement. The tilt of the pelvis is then counter balanced by the model's shoulders tilting the other way (as seen here). and this should be avoided Twist QUICK POSES A model standing on one leg usually drops the opposite hip. Most of us have a tendency to over-straighten the drawn figure. This drawing shows how different observations be overlaid to bring a drawing alive. Tilt Movement Here. .119 The twist of a model is most easily and expressively captured if it is exaggerated.
A mirror increases your range of views. W h e n starting. and they need not be daunting to draw. Begin by drawing lines to encompass the whole hand. especially the lengthwise divisions between them. drawn in relation to each other. Focus instead on how planes change direction across the knuckles from one side of the hand or foot to the other. general to specific. and ignore all details. This exercise is useful when struggling with proportion. 3 .120 BODY Hands and Feet THERE ARE MANY different ways of approaching h a n d s and THE of form. express structure and gesture far more successfully and easily than ten worried outlines wandering up and down between the fingers and toes. feet. Keep lines open to change and take measurements if they help. Practice by drawing your own hands and feet. or those of a friend. and a gooseneck lamp casts shadows that clarify planes and depths GESTURES OF THE HAND Curled Fingers 1 Open Palm Start honing the shapes of the dominant planes. 2 Build your drawing gradually from light to dark. starting with the largest. Do not separate them yet. it is important to leave aside all details of the fingers and toes. It also helps the beginner to progress from drawing outlines to drawing confidently across the surface of the whole form. Then subdivide each shape so that you w o r k from large to small. Draw large shapes and their orientation. Don't worry about achieving perfect solutions. swiftly marking its essential gesture. These planes. Group the fingers together as one mass. but regard these practice studies as ongoing processes of thought and observatio Add details such as nails last if you wish.
Look for key angles without becoming distracted by detail. t o remove t o o many early lines. and rapid. loose. depth. Leave aside all detail. Nowimagineyou are carving the foot insidethepaper.121 HANDS AND FEET MOVEMENTS OF THE FOOT Flat Stance Raised Heel Instep 1 Let your first marks be light. these are what give a drawing its tangible structure. Try t o express the whole foot and t o encapsulate its entire shape and direction in a few marks. and spontaneity. Hew it roughly in broad. however. It can be a mistake. .as though out o f wood. flattened planes. and don't worry about accuracy t o begin with. 2 3 Use an eraser t o refine decisions o r t o suggest areas o f light. as if with a chisel.
Opposite. Compare its nature in close-up to that of willow charcoal used on pp.204-05." . I also used white ink with a steel dip pen.Charcoal Hands T H E S E DRAWINGS ARE MADE in compressed charcoal. The white lines demonstrate what is often called "bracelet shading.
Phrasing Contours . length.HERE TRACES OF RAPID initial lines are still seen within and outside each body. 118-19). I make these lines in the first five to ten seconds of a drawing to locate the presence. before honing his or her shape (see pp. and posture of the model.
Drawing work by another artist enables you to discover and understand the inventive hand in their composition. It is now viewed with some skepticism and often seen as academic. perspectives. Forms. I draw in museums in support of written research and as an artist seeking answers to questions about the practicalities of image making.The Visual Detective DRAWING FROM MASTERWORKS was once a staple component of an artist's education. characters. and narrative pulse become vivid when you realize them in the middle of your study. feeling them through the attentive movements of your own hand. .
there is a unique museum of 18th-century anatomical waxes. . Life-size women wearing wigs recline on beds of embroidered silk in cabinets of mahogany and Venetian glass This is a detail of a compressed charcoal drawing measuring 14 x 10 ft (4.La Specola At17V i a Romana. each modeled from dissection. Florence. Walls are lined with hundreds of faintly animated body parts. 126-27. These almost life-size figures were composed from my imagination and achieved with the help af studies discussed on pp.3 x 3 m) made in response to La Specola.
we use the delicate medium of silver point to look at foundation structures of the head. a single line can deliver an entire expression. and social and political commentaries. Equally. religious. is here to both meet and look through us. throat. gathered all that he knew FRANCISCO DE GOYA V i s i o n a r y Spanish painter. It also reminds us o f b o t h t h e intimacy and a scene as scrutiny o f an honest portrait. We can mold and animate qualities of expression out of objects and fragments of disassociated things—for example. Portraits can be highly or loosely detailed. live. . and shoulders. historical. abstract or figurative. having been documented and preserved. For centuries. and expression of the individual. buttons. and satirical or metaphorical. you can capture the subtlety. or past us.139). Our homes are filled with images of our loved ones and of those in our families who have gone before. Beginners often draw themselves as a way of establishing their practice. Rembrandt's famous multitude of self-portraits. Once you understand Self-Portrait in a Cocked Hat c. Past rulers sent painters across continents to bring back a likeness in advance of a prospective royal marriage. or whose eyes can seem to follow us around the room Portraiture is a constant. made as he passed through the ages of man. The returning image was of crucial consideration in any proposal.Portraiture IN P O R T R A I T U R E W E MEET PEOPLE. and p r i n t m a k e r . and lucrative genre for artists. usually strangers from past times. the meaning of their face. neck. painters have dropped discreet records of themselves into commissioned narratives so that they can remain a face in the crowd. who. and it is very rewarding. in a miniature self-portrait magnified opposite. W h e n drawing a person. his changes in pressure and Hitchcock length o f line. Halls and palaces are filled with pictures of the mighty and significant. Man Ray's self-portrait of scored lines. bells. and their posture can be changed with just one line. and in a few scrolling rafts of pen lines and stubbled dots. look directly at us. The truth is that we all like looking at faces and observing the billions of variations that make us individuals. 1790-92 4 x 3 in ( 1 0 2 x 7 6 m m ) F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A and memorize the basic structure that we all share. compliant subject to scrutinize. To create a face is to see and interpret the essence of an identity. single or of groups. character. In this chapter. Self-portraiture gives every artist a constant. We are also reassured by keeping records of ourselves. This enlargement o f his miniature p o r t r a i treveals t h e s p e e d and agility o f his p e n and about himself. Movie director Alfred similarly signed his films by playing a fleeting role: he walks through an extra. draftsman. their stance. Goya's w o r k s include many royal and society p o r t r a i t s . or a glimpse of him is caught in a photograph used as a prop. Goya. became more poignant as he progressed. and secular narratives. and a handprint (see p.
While with longer consideration. The truth is often the opposite. Picasso strikes and scrolls his pencil. Picasso has left to posterity many hundreds of magnificent line drawings. The aesthetic sense of a line being just right can make a drawing sing.30). we can enjoy and learn from them. caught in her last moments of youth. We can read so much about them by studying their gaze.132 PORTRAITURE Poise THE BALANCE BETWEEN a mark and a blank space is often a tantalizing form of perfection. It takes a truly accomplished a few strokes. How could the addition of shadows have enhanced this image? Few strokes The simplicity of Picasso's line is breathtaking. He makes his flair and skill look easy. they serve as a great lesson that it is not always necessary to add tone to your drawing. PABLO PICASSO Spanish Cubist painter (see also p. teetering on the brink of older age. The Tightness of a line is felt in its speed. and pressure as it conducts our eye through the image. stealthily using his chalk to find contours and mass. For the beginner. Here the grace and beauty of two young women are held forever. Without faltering. There is a common misunderstanding that a drawing with only a few lines is both less finished and easier to make than a drawing with more. whisking a timeless girl onto the page. We can actually count that he struck the paper 40 times. It is the portrait of a countrywoman. hand to capture something well in only Frangoise au Bandeau 1946 660 x 505 mm (26 x197/8in) PABLO PICASSO . breadth. Through exhibitions and copies in books. one eye already cast askew into the autumn of her life. adding smudges of tone for weight and solidity. Her face is drawn tenderly and with a luminous glow. Holbein maps the still landscape of Dorothea's body in questioning marks. length.
The peak of her cap clips the uppermost edge. presses against the binding across her face. and its downward slope crowns the diagonal of the composition. Holbein unified the woman with her background by gently blending colors from her clothes and face into the atmosphere around her. Her folded forearms support and frame her weight above. In addition t o his numerous exquisite portraits in oil. Blended colors In this portrait drawn with colored chalks on slightly textured paper. Holbein was employed toward the end of his life by King Henry VIII of England. he designed c o u r t costumes. Holbein has cropped and pinned his subject within the four outermost lines of the image—the edges of the page. Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 1516 51/8 x121/4in (385 x 310 m m ) HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER . and designer f r o m Basel. gently flushed. He outlined her nose but not her upper lip. which.133 HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER German p o r t r a i t painter draftsman. and produced numerous society portraits such as this one here. Cropping This regal composition fits its paper perfectly. made a popular series o f w o o d c u t prints titled The Dance of Death.
Nerves. using a fine and relatively 1982 13 x 181/8 in (328 x 460 mm) VICTOR NEWSOME brush. or defined by. This is a m a r v e l o u s interpretation of the truth. the face is one of the hardest parts to dissect. solid above and almost hollow below. perhaps applied using a tortillon. dark tones of graphite blended into the paper. In fact. but they are irrelevant here. Delicate muscles are integrated with the skin and fat that is to be r e m o v e d . the contours of a grid. Psychological drama is contained behind a grid. This is one of a number of similar disembodied female heads seen behind. N e w s o m e ' s eerily shadowed form is smooth and bears a linear grain evocative of w o o d . blood vessels. and has works in major collections including the Tate Gallery. confusing. dark lines made with a pencil appear against smooth. . continues to exhibit regularly. while white painted flecks and wisps suggest electrical illumination. taught at numerous British art schools from 1962-77. Durelli has m a d e a few m i n o r mistakes. The style of Durelli's d r a w i n g opposite sings with the confidence of truth and precision. London. and glands also complicate form. its highly clarified detail claiming to be d r a w n from observation. Contrasts Sharp. It floats in space. Newsome was awarded the Prix de Rome in 1960. The real dissection w o u l d have been far more c o m p l e x .134 PORTRAITURE Anatomies These highly finished drawings express the emotional power and physicality of the head and neck. Highlights of white gouache were dry Profile Head late in the making. VICTOR NEWSOME British sculptor painter and draftsman. and unpleasant to see. distorted. Anatomically.
which. w h e n contracted. pull their points o f attachment t o w a r d each other . It is hard to think of a more difficult medium with which to achieve such linear perfection. Red Chalk the Muscles 1837 173/8 x 145/8 in ( 4 4 0 x 3 7 2 m m ) ANTONIO DURELLI and Pencil Drawing and of Neck of the Head Little is k n o w n o f this M i l a n e s e p a i n t e r a n d engraver w h o c a m e from a family o f artists. Durelli's experience as an engraver is reflected in his stylized drawing o f muscle fibers. Stylized parallel lines are reminiscent of engravings. and it is likely that this drawing was intended for reproduction as a print. Pencil numbers refer to the list of muscles written beneath.135 ANATOMIES ANTONIO DURELLI Linear perfection This is a red chalk drawing of extraordinary accomplishment.
and poet After studying in Geneva and Italy. close enough to touch his hair and feel his breath. Then. Opposite. necks. with speed and urgency. Flesh is built and personality carved simultaneously. Speed Giacometti probably began with an oval shape placed in relation to the proportion of the page. and heads. each locked into a visionary gaze. ALBERTO GIACOMETTI Swiss sculptor. while his hand stabs and thrusts Revelations like a conductors baton. Agitated marks make patches of tone that cut away the space around the character. He is best known for his bronze sculptures of human form. Without paint and with very little tone. as if seen from a distance. We are brought intimately close to this man gazing up to heaven. There is a film of Giacometti drawing. They show us clearly the bones of drawing. Giacometti settled in Paris. Similar movements sculpted the head below into its page. The camera watches him at work. and with staccato flinches his hyperactive eye moves from paper to model. 1948 77/8 x 6 in (200 x 150 mm) ALBERTO GIACOMETTI . Portrait de Marie-Laure de Noailles c.136 PORTRAITURE THESE ARE DRAWINGS of shoulders. which are characteristically elongated. he drew over the whole image at once. painter draftsman. Both works demonstrate how simple lines can be made complex by being intense. They confuse our perception of scale by being intimately fragile and at the same time far removed. Energy This is a portrait of a woman drawn with black crayon on a plain page of a book Lines search for the essence of form. each portrait is inscribed onto the page. Bellini gently conjures the features of his saint with soft marks that tease his presence out of shadows into the light. cutting and carving the paper with matted and spiraling restless energy.
H e p r e f e r r e d religious t o classical t h e m e s .25 6 . transferring which were made in the process of the saint to his final place in the composition of a painting (see Glossary pp. H e t a u g h t G i o r g i o n e Barbarelli and Titian. Bellini s t u d i e d u n d e r his f a t h e r J a c o p o .G I O V A N N I BELLINI A prominent member of a large family o f V e n e t i a n painters. Sometimes different narrative same character was reused in compositions. a n d b r o t h e r in-law. a n d c o n t e m p l a t i v e . Head and Shoulders of a Man 73/8 x 21/4 in ( 1 8 6 x 5 8 UNDATED GIOVANNI BELLINI . lyrical.5 9 ) . Transfer This delicate humorous chalk a drawing is a cartoon—not image but a type of template used to plan the composition of a larger work Look closely and you will see rows of tiny dots along every significant line in the picture. Character This is one of many cartoons produced by Bellini the and his family. Mantegna. a n d his w o r k is d i s t i n c t i v e l y calm. These are pinholes.
Al Diaz. Signs and symbols with symbols This painting shudders that ore written.221). marks. skull- Self-Portraits headed. In 1986 he traveled to Africa and showed his work in Abidjan on the Ivory Coast He also exhibited in Germany and France. bells. their most immediate and best-known subject: themselves. spear-brandishing warrior. and confrontations with. drawn. Man Ray's playful silk-screen assembly of color blocks. It is an opportunity to look deep without the infringement of courtesies owed to a commissioning sitter. a tribal. It is an image of confrontation—the ever-controversial young artist roars at us from his abstract city-scape.138 PORTRAITURE THE MIRROR OF SELF-PORTRAITURE offers artists infinite reflections of. float and shimmer in the shallow pictorial space. Self Portrait 1982 9 4 x 7 6 in (239 x 193 cm) JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT . and buttons rings with surrealist wit and agile improvisation. signing their work SAMO. Later Basquiat sold drawings on T-shirts. The figure's position is unequivocal and defiant while around him is in a state Without the essential of cultural and figure we would elegant belookingat a sophisticated painting of signs. scratched lines. humor. Islands of graphic marks. The artist has finished his portrait with the signature of his hand smacked in the middle like a kiss: a declaration of existence as old as man's first drawing. similar to work by Cy Twombly (see p. The incandescent New York painter Jean Michel Basquiat pictured himself here in naked silhouette. and everything flux. scrolls. It has proved to be a subject of piercing scrutiny. JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT Short-lived American painter and graffiti artist who began his blazing nine-year career drawing on lower Manhattan subway trains with a friend. and attitudes. political outcry. and indulgence. postcards. scratched into its surface. made with great energy. and sheet metal before being snapped up by the New York contemporary art scene.
painter. caked in thick printing ink or paint. During the 1920's and 30s. while a squeegee was used to drag thick lilac-brown ink across the silk pushing it though exposed areas onto the paper below. Frame White lines are seemingly (though not actually) scratched through ink to frame this face. They suggest speed and make the picture look immediate and spontaneous. The first part of the stenciled image was already marked on the silk The screen and paper were then held tightly together. Black ink was printed next and then white. Autoportrait 1916 195/8 MAN RAY . Man Ray lived and worked in Paris. The handprint appears to be made directly. Man Ray probably used his own hand.139 MAN RAY American surrealist photographer. They experimented with camera-free photography working directly onto photographic paper Silk and ink This is a silkscreen print made through the following process: the paper was laid on a flat surface and a frame stretched with fine silk was placed on top. where he collaborated with the artist Laslo MoholyNagy. last of all. printmaker and cofounder of the New York Dada movement.
b e f o r e priming stretched paper. For i m p o r t a n t a d v i c e o n p r e p a r a t i o n a n d use. p a r c h m e n t . I t is a v a i l a b l e f r o m all a r t s h o p s . To begin. illuminators of medieval m a n u s c r i p t s . o n e t o fit each side o f t h e b o a r d — t h e s e will make t h e glued f r a m e t h a t holds y o u r p a p e r in place. who used it to outline initials and border characters before painting. E m p t y mechanical pencils designed f o r t h i c k leads ( s e e p. and alloys work on matt emulsion. This browns with age unless sealed by fixative (see pp. I combined silver point with painted white gouache on a pink ground. 2 . Numerous early European artists also enjoyed its fine qualities (see p. purchase silver wire. an exciting indication of how large-scale drawings could be made on a wall. Z I N C W H I T E G O U A C H E : Dilute with w a t e r A d d c o l o r i f r e q u i r e d (as opposite) 4 . you will need t o stretch paper and lay a wash (see right and opposite).54) can also b e used. SILVER W I R E : Purchase different gauge lengths f r o m a traditional a r t supplier o r jeweler.s t r i p a n d use i t t o fix o n e side o f t h e p a p e r t o t h e b o a r d . M E T A L OBJECTS: All metal objects m a r k a p r e p a r e d surface. The most c o m m o n metal has always been silver—hence the term "silver point.140 PORTRAITURE Silver P o i n t SILVER OR METAL POINT STRETCHING PAPER A sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has been made w e t with the strokes o f a paintbrush will buckle d u e t o its uneven expansion. W e t a n d fix a s e c o n d strip t o t h e o p p o s i t e side. choose a silver object. Be swift and firm. 3 . which quickly oxidizes into a gray line. bone. or wood. and is therefore useful w h e n using w a t e r c o l o r as well as silver point. and make o r buy a holder. If w o r k i n g o n an emulsion-painted wall. b u t d o n ' t w o r r y . 156). w h i t e d r a w i n g paper) and cut it t o fit y o u r d r a w i n g b o a r d w i t h a generous b o r d e r a r o u n d its edges. 1 4 4 . or ring. Drawn across a prepared surface. M a k e s u r e i t is c o m p l e t e l y clean t o avoid u n w a n t e d streaks. 5.54-55). SILVER P O I N T W I R E H O L D E R : T h e s e c a n b e p u r c h a s e d a n d t e n d t o b e heavy. This is called a three-tone drawing. Opposite. T h e p a p e r will l o o k b u c k l e d . 2. W e t o n e length o f g u m . Metal point does not work on ordinary paper. Stretched paper remains taut as a d r u m . Straighten the w o r s t buckles. Pages 142 to 147 are illustrated in silver point and techniques are explained on pp. I m a k e m y o w n f r o m o l d dip pens. and t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h strips a b o v e and b e l o w . Lightly s p o n g e o f f t h e excess. Take a sheet o f any t y p e o f p a p e r (for e x a m p l e . Find a n i t e m t h a t y o u can h o l d a n d draw with comfortably. MATERIALS 1 Find a clean sponge and b o w l o r d e e p t r a y a n d fill it w i t h w a t e r W e t t h e p a p e r evenly in t h e t r a y o r o n t h e b o a r d . it leaves a deposit. was familiar to or eggshells with animal glue. 144-45. platinum. Historically. and gold have also been used. copper. c h o o s e a s o f t full b r u s h t h a t c a n c a r r y p l e n t y o f l i q u i d . artists mixed white lead. 1. s e e p . Note h o w domestic paintwork marks with a coin." Lead.Tear o f f f o u r lengths o f b r o w n p a p e r g u m tape. s o m e m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n o t h e r s . the surface must be primed with a ground such as gouache. laid on paper. Metal point is simply a strip of metal bound in a holder. key. S i l v e r is b e s t . S O F T F U L L B R U S H : W h e n laying a w a s h . Lay a clean d r a w i n g b o a r d o n a flat surface. Gesso o r m a t t e m u l s i o n c a n a l s o b e u s e d .
Beware of the tape's coming loose at any point while drying. so put newspaper under the lower edge. v e r y little at a time. Prop up your board of dry. Reload the brush and add a second line overlapping it beneath. overlapping lines until you reach the bottom. Make an even line across to the right.t o n e silver point drawing of a skull . slowly add powder pigment or gouache from a tube. Leave the wash to dry thoroughly before you begin to draw. any extra will keep. T h r e e . and let tests dry before deciding to change the mixture. stretched paper at a 45-degree angle. It will slowly straighten and become taut. Dry thoroughly before laying a wash. LAYING A WASH It your stretched paper so as to prime it for silver point. is necessary to lay a wash o Three-tone When coloring ground. Here. as the paper will be ruined by a raised ridge. I used a powder pigment called Caput Mortuum. Make enough to cover your paper.141 SILVER POINT 3 Leave the paper to dry flat. Dip a soft. Mix a very wet but not weak solution of gouache in a jar with a lid (add pigment at this stage for a three-tone drawing). Keep testing on spare paper. The next step will make a small mess. leaving a smooth surface. full brush into the gouache and start in the top left corner. Keep adding smooth. Runs blend into each other evenly.
Head and Neck
THE HEAD AND NECK are best conceived as one unit arranged in four parts: cranium, face, neck, and throat. Each is of equal importance. The cranium is essentially egg-shaped and pivots on the first vertebra. The face is suspended beneath, like a softly curved triangle. The n e c k — a powerful, shapely column of layered muscles rigged to vertebrae—adjusts and holds the angle and expression of the head. The throat is delicate, hard, and lumpy to the touch, formed of cartilaginous rings, glands, thin muscles, and looser skin. Framing the throat, two columnar neck muscles (sternomastoids) project the head forward and also turn it to the opposite side.
This is a simple shorthand diagram representing the cranium, face, neck, and throat. It can be learned and visualized in different positions very easily, giving the novice a firm footing on which to stand and develop their drawings of the head and neck.
Cranium Begin with an egg shape. Tilt it on the paper to change the position of the head.
Face Draw a rounded triangular shape below the forward point of the egg to represent the face.
Neck This shape represents the trapezius; the largest surface muscle of the neck and shoulders.
Throat A triangular shape represents the throat. (The nose makes the diagram clearer)
After copying the diagram above, animate it. Practice drawing the cranium at different angles, add the face beneath, then the neck, shoulders, and throat. Shape your diagrams so they are more lifelike, but avoid adding detailed features too soon.
143 These three drawings demonstrate (from left to right) the following: why the cranium may be considered egg-shaped; now the face can be seen as a curved triangle suspended beneath and where the division lies between the two; and the form of sternomastoid muscles that frame thethroatsodistinctlywhen the head is turned and inclined forward.
The skull and the frame of the throat
HEAD AND NECK
Bones of the cranium are locked together by jagged joints. Sinuses in the frontal (forehead) bone between and beneath the eyebrows are larger in men, making their brows pronounced and often ridged compared to those of women.
Bones of the face house our sight, smell, taste, The skull pivots on the first vertebra or "atlas," and speech. Cartilage extending from nasal bones after the Greek god condemned to carry the shapesthenose.Pads of fat resting on the base of Earth. The jaw hinges in front of the ears. Behind, eacheyesocket support the eyeballs in position. If bony ridges give anchor to the sternomastoid thefatisreducedby old age, eyes look sunken. muscles rising from the breast- and collarbones.
Three useful generalizations
General rules about the relative positions of body parts can hinder artists as much as help them, since they are often based on classical ideals rather than thediversityoflife.However,some generalizations can help as a rough guide to start with, so long as good observation takes over as soon as possible.
In general, when the face is relaxed (not smiling or frowning), the corners of the mouth are found directly beneath the pupils of the eyes. Vertical lines can be drawn down from the pupils to meet the corners of the mouth.
The height of a young adult's ear is often the same as their nose and found on the same level. There is no general rule for growing children, and remember that ears grow again in old age, which is most obvious in men.
The height of the face is about the length of the handspan and the eye is normally halfway down the total height of the head. A common error is to draw the eyes too high up on the face.
T H E DELICACY OF SILVER POINT
(see pp. 140-41) is perfect for
such as a beach pebble. Here, I stretched drawing paper and laid a wash of white gouache (see pp.140-41). As you can see, the line and tone of silver point varies with pressure, but only slightly. Too much pressure cuts the ground. Silver point erases, but so does ground. Erased ground can be repaired gently with extra gouache. You can also use gouache to paint over mistakes and make corrections.
small, detailed drawings. The drawings below and opposite show useful observations of the head and neck, which are explained in the captions below. Each drawing was made with a silver wire held in a large-gauge mechanical pencil. Newly clipped wires are sharp and cut rather than draw. Before use, they need to be rubbed and smoothed on a stone
Here I imagined placing my silver point wire against the skin of each head and neck and, working in parallel bands from the crown downward, I traced the undulation of surfaces. Linear bands imagined around the head and neck can help you t o clearly see the tilt of the head and relative levels of the features. Ask a friend t o model for you and try this exercise life-size using a pencil and eraser
Seeing that the face is never flat
Drawings below left and center are summaries of the generalizations given on p.143. Far right is an image to remind us that the face is never flat. It slopes back to varying degrees among individuals, from the tip of the nose t o the ears. For example, note that the innermost corners of the eyes are farther forward in space than the outermost corners.
General measurements, side
General measurements, front
View from above
Male and female head and neck
Men's necks a r e g e n e r a l l y s h o r t e r a n d t h i c k e r t h a n w o m e n ' s b e c a u s e t h e angles a n d levels o f c e r t a i n b o n e s a r e d i f f e r e n t b e t w e e n t h e sexes ( i n d i c a t e d h e r e b y d o t t e d lines) a n d m e n are n o r m a l l y m o r e muscular. T h e male t h y r o i d cartilage ( A d a m ' s apple) is larger a n d m o r e visible than t h e f e m a l e . L a r g e r f e m a l e t h y r o i d glands also s o f t e n t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e t h r o a t .
The largest m u s c l e o f t h e s h o u l d e r s a n d n e c k is called the trapezius. A r r a n g e d on e i t h e r side o f t h e spine, it shapes t h e u p p e r back and neck above the s h o u l d e r blades. C o n t r a c t i n g in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h d e e p e r and surrounding muscles, it raises and l o w e r s t h e shoulders a n d d r a w s t h e h e a d backtoeitherside.
USING A SHARP 3 B PENCIL, I drew this head quickly from imagination, evolving its character and expression from the scheme of four parts: cranium, face, neck, a n d throat (see p. 142). Here, five steps show you how to practice doing the same. This approach can be used to draw from imagination or from life. Keep your wrist loose and hold your pencil away from its point (see pp.22-23). Build the layers of your drawing from pale to dark, a n d from general balance a n d form to specific detail. Remember that successful drawings are built on foundations of "seeing the whole," then dividing the whole into smaller parts, with details brought in last of all. Phrased tonal marks modeling this girls skin and hair follow the technique demonstrated by Goya in his self-portrait on p. 130. Turn to Goya's drawing and study how, in a circle beginning across his hat, moving down his hair, and around his coat, he flows lines over surfaces to describe their contour. As you build from steps 1 to 5, bring phrased groups of lines across the surfaces of your form, using their directions to capture the expression of the head and neck. If unsure, copy my steps until you gain the confidence to make your own decisions.
This drawing is the final stage of the four steps opposite. Here, I have enlarged the eye, and moved it back into the head by trimming the length of the upper lid and adding a more pronounced lower lid. It is important to set eyes far enough back from the relatively prominent nose; too close to it and the face flattens. Hair swept back and extended behind the cranium balances the regal pose. Lines shaping the hair echo those marking the cranium in step 1. Here, the lower part of step 1 comes through as wisps of hair across her face and ear
Portrait of a Young Girl
so it is important to the life of the image that while controlled.147 Building up the portrait DRAWING PORTRAITS 1 Gently spin pale lines in a softly drawn shape representing the cranium.Theangle at which you draw this shape of the paper will determine the angle of the finished head. they are also still sweeping and confident. The nose and ear begin to shape the head. Here. avoid drawing too dark. down the face to the throat. 2 Rapidly add shorthand shapes to represent the face. I used light to describe the upper lid first with a shadow beneath for the lower lid and open eye. 4 . Keep your first lines light. I modeled the outline of the character I imagined light shining from above and in front and adjusted the pressure of lines to reflect this. over the cranium. neck. too soon. 3 Place the eye beneath the cranium. First lines will remain visible in the final drawing. Moving from the back of the neck. and throat. The eye announces the nature and expression of the emerging person.
the texture of hair. and gravity.T o DRAW PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGES. empathize. a n d t h o s e w h o a r e Generations asleep (see overleaf). be aware of the subtle differences in skin surface. . muscular tension. Above all.
I used the nib upside down to gain needle-sharp precision. Madrid. seeking the dominant contours of each individual expression. with a steel dip pen and acrylic ink. Fast lines carve out the features of Goya's soup-slurping hag. .Castings DRAWING IN THE PRADO MUSEUM. Van Dyke's noble cast of characters was modeled more finely.
or b u l g e s . arichand unusual combination of pencil. for e x a m p l e — d e s i g n e d the w a r d r o b e s of p o p e s a n d k i n g s . and i n d e e d image b e c a m e the property also of the industrial classes. a n d s u b t l e t o n e s . and s y m b o l s that lets m e n and w o m e n in all countries and areas have w o r k i n g access to the latest fashions. c o s t u m e o f f e r s a r i c h v o c a b u l a r y of t e x t u r e s a n d c o l o r . personality. and even invisible by the w a y w e dress.Costume W E MAKE OURSELVES EXOTIC. Petersburg and later exiled designers' ideas and are surprised and delighted b y their continual f l o w of inspiration. so that c h o i c e . a n d p r o f e s s i o n — b e g a n life as a d r a w i n g . Cities c h a n g e d all. In this c h a p t e r w e see h o w c l o t h i n g c a n s e e m to p o s s e s s the w e i g h t and m o n u m e n t a l i t y of stone. D e s i g n e r s create m a s t e r p i e c e s of haute couture LEON BAKST for H o l l y w o o d stars. fulfilling lavish and spectacular briefs. outrageous. In psychology. and intent. c u l t u r e . known as Leon Bakst. cool. and be so expressive of temperament that it overtakes the need for an o c c u p y i n g h u m a n form. theb u t b y the w a y it s p e a k s w i t h its flying. dancer leaps through swaths of golden cloth. Artists do this not so m u c h b y the style of a figure's garment. S t r u c t u r e is t h o u g h the i n v e n t i o n of shoes. and e x u b e r a n c e . a n d w e will c o l l e c t patterns. b u t influenced Parisian fashion and interiordecor. T h e rural masses w o r e h o m e s p u n simplicity.As artistic director of the It is s h o c k i n g to t h i n k h o w m a n y m i l l i o n s of d r a w i n g s m u s t be m a d e a n d d i s c a r d e d Ballet Russe. Like it or not. he and cofounder Serge Diaghilev took Paris by eac storm in 1910 with their production h year in the industrial f r e n z y of creating o u r image and aspirations. . articulate a d a n g e r o u s satirical j o k e . shapes. g l o s s y folds. woman was drawn by Bakst one year later for the ballet Narcisse. of Scheherazade. st 111/4 x 81/2 in (285 x 220 mm) u d i e d L E O NB A K S T and explore the characterization of fabric t h r o u g h m o v e m e n t . charcoal. Samoylovich Rosenberg. was a Belarussian A r t Deco theater fantasies and desires to immediately possess a version of the same. T h e e n t o u r a g e of the theatrical stage o f t e n l e a d s the c a t w a l k . it is the public sign by w h i c h w e are j u d g e d . c r u m p l e s . and gouache. P o p u l a r f a s h i o n d e s i g n e x p l o d e d w i t h the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n . w h i c h in turn feed c o n s u m e r Lev. Practical classes Bacchante 1911 l o o k at r a n g e s of c o l o r e d m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d i n g p a s t e l s a n d felt-tip p e n s . or calm u s w i t h chic. caricatured p l u m e s . while court p a i n t e r s — M i c h e l a n g e l o and Holbein. Bakst's designs and costumes immediately To the fine artist. T h e p a p e r p a t t e r n is p e r h a p s the m o s t w i d e l y k n o w n of c o s t u m e d r a w i n g s : a formalized plan of lines. and atmosphere. Designers all over the w o r l d c o n t i n u a l l y p e n and b r u s h lines to lash us w i t h color. intriguing. and everything w e h a v e c h o s e n for o u r w a r d r o b e s — r e f l e c t o r s of o u r taste. W e dress ourselves and costume designer trained in in St.This voluptuous above all a physical p u p p e t w i t h w h i c h to animate character and narrate personality. e m u l a t e textures. toParis. gesture. variety. a n d c o u r t i e r tailors f o l l o w e d suit. o n l y the w e a l t h y c o u l d afford to h a v e c o s t u m e s specially m a d e . Previously. w a r m t h .
the vaulted stone roof echoes and crowns the moment. Vertical lines The highly controlled lines of this drawing cascade from top to bottom of the image. Keisai Eisen's intense. Below this. Delicate marks Silver (or metal) point is the most delicate of traditional drawing media (see pp. best k n o w n f o r his G h e n t altarpiece ( 1 4 3 2 ) a n d m a r r i a g e p o r t r a i t o f Giovanni A r n o l f i n i and his w i f e (1434). resonate with their wearers startled expression. Opposite. with their jagged edges. He has layered these slowly and carefully so as not to cut through the ground and produce a white mark just where he intended a dark one. Sculpted one.156 COSTUME Cloth and Drapery EACH OF THESE FIGURES is ninety percent cloth. Van Eyck's highly polished w o r k is c e l e b r a t e d f o r its disguised symbolism. bands around the columns. Their uninterrupted emphasis is entirely vertical. folds and patterns of material speak more resolutely of their wearers than any small glimpses of body we can see. In Van Eyck's drawing below. her marble garment holds u p the infant Christ in a fountain of compressed line.140-41). delicate lines. Her gown is carved and polished as if made from marble. it is only possible to create very thin. Flaxmans sleeper—perhaps a pilgrim or a soldier resting between campaigns—has wedged himself into the cleft of some great building to grab a moment of peace. the Madonna and her architecture are both dressed in the same manner. dragons. However. swirling printed fabrics. Short and subtle horizontal punctuations are only given in the background by sections of floor. the carefully composed outline of his cloak shows us how the artist would have also begun his immaculate rendering of the Virgin's clothes. With a stylus such as Van Eyck used here. Above them. and implied striation in the stone of the architecture. Marble gown We will never know if Van Eyck considered this drawing unfinished or intended the kneeling abbot to remain transient and ghostly. The quiet stillness of this image is achieved by a masterly economy of stylized line. H e m e t i c u l o u s l y a r r a n g e d subjects t o c o n v e y d e e p e r meaning. Maelbeke I44I Madonna 11 x 7 in (278 x 180 m m ) JAN V A N EYCK . and the kneeling abbot is a ghost by comparison. Church and deities are drawn as JAN VAN EYCK Flemish oil p a i n t e r f r o m L i m b o u r g . and snakelike marks.
Aeschylus earned Flaxman an international reputation. Dante. The inked block is laid face-down on damp paper and pressed to make the print. each delivering a different part and color of the design. draftsman. which are sometimes also cut into pieces like a jigsaw puzzle.157 KEISAI EISEN Japanese draftsman. Parts of the image to be left unprinted are gouged out with a metal tool. the cloak sliding to the ground. flat sheets of wood. and teacher Distinctive linear illustrations for the works of Homer. This complex numerous blocks prepared image and may have been made with printed separately. and the feet notched against the pillar tell us that A lines holds him into the cleft. Position In this pen and ink drawing. an 18th-19th century document on the lives of the ukiyo-e artists. writer and printmaker Keisai Eisen took his name from the masters Kano Hakkeisai and Kikugawa Eizan. designer. Respected for his sumptuous images of geisha and editions of erotic prints. CLOTH AND DRAPERY Relief printing This is a woodblock print made by a relief process. the angle of the head. one over the other. and Man Lying Down in a Cloak I 787-94 21/4 JOHN FLAXMAN x 41/8 in (57 x 105 mm) . Remaining raised areas of wood are rolled with colored inks. Images are drawn onto smooth. he also co-edited and expanded the Ukiyo-e Ruiko (History of Prints of the Floating World). stone wall of downward-stroked this sleeper's position is momentary. Koimurasaki of Tama-ya 1810-50 15 x101/4in (381 x 260 mm) KEISAI EISEN The Courtesan JOHN F L A X M A N English late 18th-century neoclassical sculptor.
cartoon. The slight uncertainty of the pose and the limp cloak suggest a little more metal than man. A flamboyant territory. Fine examples can be plucked from fashion. theater. he c o o l e d and redefined his style. Pen and wash In the graphic accuracy of this armored knight we see the idealized identity of a warrior from another time: a gleaming defender of the realm. Opposite is a dangerous drawing. Details and voices are worn externally with great imagination. Leg section Compare mid-shin the section of white boots cropped to the section of similarly cropped trousers in drawings Gruau's drawing on p. Van D y k e was chief assistant t o Rubens f o r t w o years. b e f o r e traveling t o Italy.158 COSTUME Character Costumes an extreme form of the clothed figure. t h r o u g h n u m e r o u s p o r t r a i t and C h u r c h commissions. It is presumed Her Royal Highness never saw it. In 1 6 3 2 he m o v e d p e r m a n e n t l y t o L o n d o n . He has been rendered on this olive<olored page with pen and gray wash worked over a red and black under-drawing. Man in Armor UNDATED 1 6 x 9 1 / 2 in ( 4 0 5 x 2 4 0 m m ) A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE . Anthony Van Dyke's Man in Armor is a masterpiece of drawn surface. cinema. where sometimes there just might not be anybody inside. Its color is also reflected in the metal. A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE Flemish painter and draftsman. The metal. Its warm surface flows in contrast to the stiff metal armor. and feather were all CHARACTER COSTUMES REPRESENT observed with closely crafted conviction. all ruffs and wrinkles. Leg sections in both support the figure without taking our attention away from the main garment above. lace. The aged queen is compared to an overdressed bird. A s a y o u n g man. cloth. w h e r e . 160. a n d w a s e m p l o y e d as c o u r t painter t o King Charles I. for she would not have been amused and William Wodall might have been stretching his luck. Flowing scarf The knight's scarf of gilded blue is drawn in a pale wash over red ink lines. a scurrilous cartoon by a courtier of Queen Elizabeth I. and even formal portraiture.
Satire of the Queen's Dress c. Top-heavy. T h e poem recounts t h e six m a j o r crises o f Elizabeth's reign: t h e Spanish A r m a d a . it was customary to Iron-gall ink Wodall's dangerous caricature steps daintily the written lines of her dedicated page. suggest the use of iron-gall ink (see p. t h e Rising.35).1599 71/2 WILLIAM x 51/4 in ( 1 9 0 x 1 3 4 mm) WODALL . here dark tawny owl. By her old upto three tiers supported on sticks. and saturations showing through from the other side. manuscript comprising six c a n t o s . t h e B a b i n g t o n Plot. Northern Satire This is a quill-and-ink satire of the elderly queen's pride-As head of state and fashion. t h e Jesuit Mission. the queen is masterfully rebalanced by words at her feet The whole drawing's blackened. Beneath the lethal fan is the body of a bird of trimmed feathers suggest age. she is shown as a grossly disproportioned bird. hooded with an overinflated fluffy ruff eye pins us. while a raised foot pauses to assess the next displaying a fan of daggers. t h e Ridolfi Plot. and her pride. A Ruffs and feathers Starched white ruffs worn at court and by society grew steadily larger as Elizabeth's reign progressed.159 WILLIAM W O D A L L A u t h o r and illustrator o f The Aaes of Queene a Elizabeth poem Allegorized. bitten nature.
Composition Look how well this image is frame knee is parallel to the bottom edge spacehorizontalline cropping the trousers be outermostuprightbordersof her cuffs are similar above her head thesidesoftheimage. possibly over a pencil outline. demanding attention with gesture and flair. Harpers & Queen. Rene Gruau's bold gouache drawing of smoothly swaying sophistication captures a brilliantly cut garment and frames it with great dynamism in a white. G r u a u ' s highly distinctive d r a w i n g s have a p p e a r e d Couture. RENE GRUAU I t a l i a n . muscular aggression. Compare the compositio beneathVanDyke'sstudy of armor on p. Fashion and fantasy drawings invent prototypes of ideals and perfection—be they for the catwalk or the fast-paced pages of comic books.160 COSTUME Femmes Fatales THESE DEVASTATING femmes fatales force back the onlooker with their demure. 158. Airbrushed reflective surfaces further amplify our perception of speed. India ink and gouache This swish of confidence and style our enters the page turning everyone's head. She has been drawn with brushes dipped into India ink and gouache. His model is outlined. Spider-Girl leaps like an insect.F r e n c h f a s h i o n i l l u s t r a t o r w h o in his l o n g and esteemed career w o r k e d with many of the g r e a t e s t d e s i g n e r s o f 2 0 t h . Gruau's model regally swans to the fore with cool pride. Vogue. studio-like rectangle of paper. 5 8 .and tilted to the same de a little deeper than sp kneestogivehergravity.c e n t u r y haute i n n u m e r o u s m a g a z i n e s i n c l u d i n g Elle. and both share the power of scarlet and black. Fine lines drawn against the building behind her echo the threads on which we have all seen arachnids drop and hang. Drying time in between applications ensured the colors did not run into each other. ofcroppedtrousershere to the device of the w Illustration 1949 for Jacques Fath in L ' O f f i c i e l d e la C o u t u r e RENE GRUAU . diving to catch us in the grip of her machine-like limbs. Gruau uses starkly cut negative space (see pp. The black red. and gray pigments were applied separately. elegant chic and svelte. a n d L'Officiel de la couture. as is Spider-Girl opposite.5 9 ) and a three-spoke balance of cuffs and cropped trousers to create an almost flag-like emblem of power.
Align your ruler to the upright of each building. Single-point understand perspective To how Frenz created up therefore the effect of steeply between looking buildings—and howyou can do the same in your own work—take calculate where a ruler the and single vanishing point lies. moon. Frenz has drawn for Marvel for about 20 years. MARVEL C O M I C S . beginning with Star Wars. Sharp focus black outlines in this drawing create a hyper-real dynamic. Buildings. sky.74-77). Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 2001-04 R O N FRENZ. not far above the drawing. a great characteristic superhero comics.RON F R E N Z Contemporary American graphic artist w h o designs and pencils the dynamic scenes of numerous superheroes featured in Marvel Comics. He began work on Spider-Girl in 1998. It is outside the picture frame. In your mind's eye extend the uprights out of the top of the picture. to the right of its center. Airbrushed color and with tonal focus. This s modeling applied over the top give the image a sleek and mechanical of gravity. at Their extensions will meet the same single vanishing (see point pp. and has been the title's regular artist since 2003. The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones. and figure are all locked into equally shatp through the traditional process of a pencilled outline over-drawn ink. and Amazing Spider-Man.
Pastels are finer. though lines can develop greasy stains around the edges if the paper is not first stretched and treated with a gelatin paste laid as a wash. Be aware that fixative dulls pastel. quality and cost T h e best are paperwrapped sticks of sumptuous. except the final layer. there are disparities between the apparent nature or color of what you hold in your hand and its performance on paper. plants. 4. Most stores leave small pads of paper on their counters for customers to test materials. animals. Dissolve in turpentine or mineral spirits to produce oil paint or or dark paper. these work best when slightly warm. I suggest you do so. purchase a small selection of different items you think you will like. and synthetics. wash. colored materials available. Before making substantial investments. Seemingly infinite choices of texture. allowing it to fix slightly from behind. insects. shape. made in about 80 colors. Degas built his pastels in layers. Children's wax crayons are relatives. are derived from many sources: rocks. Often. and can be a great rediscovery for bold drawings. soft. oily pigment. 3. which he left unfixed to retain its brightness. Sticks and conte crayons make thicker marks (as below). hue. and cost are laid out for our pleasure and perusal. or wax and a binder are shaped into fine strips and encased in w o o d like a graphite pencil. The higher the quality (and cost). Bright pastels are more brilliant on colored paper. Use them to draw lightly (as above left) or thickly. 1. Try materials that are new and unfamiliar. great for tin . Many products are sold individually and in boxed sets. unwrapped harder pastels. They vary hugely in cost. Store loose pastels in dry rice to keep them clean. used to make colors. C o n t e crayons are square-formed. COLORED PENCILS: Dry pigments ground together with chalk. FELT-TIP PENS: Instant-drying alcoholor water-based inks stored in the barrels of the pens are delivered via smooth nylon o r felt tips of varying shapes and thicknesses. the finer and more subtle the texture and color should be. and CHALK PASTELS Pastel pencils make fine lines (as above). paper-wrapped.162 COSTUME Colored Materials ART STORES BRIM OVER w i t h t h e m a n y wherever permitted. you may be pleasantly surprised to discover something you could not have imagined using. the diverse are made in brands of basic member of the family. clay. minerals. quality. size. chalkbased but very subtle. See h o w they work and return later for more of what proved best for you. CHALK PASTELS: Blackboard chalk is sidewalk work. fixing each layer on the front. Many artists apply fixative to the back of their work. mixed on the paper and scratched into (as below). Beware—some are toxic. and subtlety. crumbly. The worst are like revolting old lipsticks that get everywhere except where you intend. slightly oily to the touch. Pastel pencils are slender and in w o o d casing. and can be softened and manipulated with degrees of heat. The nontoxic range below represents a suggested starting point for experiment. and sold in many colors. OIL PASTELS Oil-based. intensity. including iridescents. They work well on PIGMENTS Pigments. 2. OIL PASTELS: Many colors.
Diverse brands are harder or soften greasier or chalkier in use. Some are nonsoluble. FELT-TIP PENS Although not made with felt-tip pen. others dissolve in water or turpentine to make a wash.163 COLORED PENCILS These are wax. If you love smooth blocks and lines of colon felt-tip pens are perfect. 111). it is still a great champion and support for those beginners feeling shyly obligated to tone down their love of color to conform with what others say they should use.or clay-based thin crayons in wood casing. Think of Matisse's Blue Nude (see p. Colors can be blended as shown right) and tones graded by altering pressure. . leaving the paper to shine through for highlights (as below). so it is best to test them before buying. Some give richer lines than others. Fine lines can be achieved (as above). Brands made for designers sold in enormous ranges of colors are far more subtle and sophisticated than those made for children.
I m a d e n u m e r o u s s h e e t s o f d r a w i n g s . D r a w each o n e first as a solid object. and how we stand and walk. . style. c o v e r a large sheet o f p a p e r w i t h line drawings o f several shoes. they record and reflect our common history. imagining y o u can see t h r o u g h it. t h e n again as if transparent. 100-01 and pp. To set up. if y o u m a k e p l e n t y o f d r a w i n g s as o p p o s e d t o o n l y a f e w . You. REPEATED STUDY T o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s class. structure. and after studying familiar shoes we use the information learned to invent new ones. a n d e x p e r i e n c e visible p r o g r e s s . and volume in space (see pp. t o o . Here we go one step further. while artists have painted their boots or those of others as personal portraits and memorials. e n j o y i n g t h e study a n d i n v e n t i o n o f shoes. S H O E S TELL LIFE STORIES. the era in which we live. Linear Outline Using fine pens. Superstitions and fetishes are attached to them: we are told never to put new shoes on a table. Turn t h e m in different d i r e c t i o n s and o b s e r v e t h e i r s t r u c t u r e and f o r m . personality. and they have been concealed in buildings to ward off misfortune. As artifacts in museums. This class takes the shoe as its subject in building on earlier lessons concerned with seeing through objects to understand their function. a range of colored felt-tip pens with both fine and broad tips. you will need several large sheets of drawing paper.164 COSTUME Study and Design they reflect our age. social and economic status. will discover m o r e . and a selection of shoes. 104-07). values.
STUDY AND DESIGN
study the surface contours using fineand broad-tipped felt-tip pens. For best results, it is important to be bold and brief. Draw firmly, fast, and with as few strokes as possible. Build up each shoe from light to dark andleavesome paper showing through to create highlights.
Design Your Own
Using what you have learned from the previous steps about the structures of your shoes, and about the use of pens, invent new designs from your imagination. Start with fine outlines and progress to colored and textured surfaces. Modify your ideas by rotating the views.
The Structure of Costume
MUSEUMS ARE AN INFINITELY
rich resource for the artist and
information given by a period style. Arrange to visit a costume museum or ask a friend to model clothes for you at home. Using fine felt-tip pens, begin with quick, pale impressions of each garment's shape before homing in on its borders and seams. Try to draw transparent views wherever possible to record the relationships between all component parts. Aim to draw enough information for it to be possible to make up a version of the garment using paper pinned to a tailor's dummy.
designer. They often give quite unexpected gems of ideas and information—whatever the subject. These drawings, made in a costume museum, demonstrate ways of recording structural information and detail for later use in the studio. They could form the basis of new designs for a fashion project or theater production, for example. Drawings of shoes on pp. 164-65 show how new designs can be evolved from the structural
It is usually best when collecting information for reference to apply the restraint of dispassionate observation. Set yourself the test of drawing facts with as little artistic license or embellishment as possible. Here I chose fine felt-tip pens because they are at their best when used swiftly, and therefore encourage bold, unhesitant decisions.
Swift lines record the hanging weight of this gentleman's coat, the relative proportions of its layers, and minimal details of the buttons and cuffs.
Thick velvet fabric is pulled tight beneath and across the bust by a single button. This transparent view shows how the fabric falls loosely in straight panels beneath the level of the sleeve.
W h e n visiting museums, be prepared f o r l o w lighting, which can make it hard t o see and draw. A book can help if attached t o your drawing board.
Adding stripes and dashes of color with a thicker pen brings out the glossy sheen and sculptural rigidity of this dress, which would have been worn over a whalebone corset. small reading light designed t o clip o n t o a
THE STRUCTURE OF COSTUME
In small drawings such as these, use thick pens to color entire sections with a few marks, as I did here down the side of the bodice.
The light, frilly bulk of this crinoline dress is propelled forward with lines. pinching its gathers and sways that are hiding a horsehair bustle. fleets of quick
THIS CLASS FOCUSES ON how to draw textures through the collection of fabric, pattern, and embroidery samples from a costume m u s e u m . This formal method, using ruled squares, can create an invaluable library of ideas a n d i n f o r m a t i o n for future r e f e r e n c e — w h e n painting a clothed figure, or preparing a textile project, for example. However, if making a book of samples for a project, remember that it is important to also include collages of f o u n d materials (see pp.230-31) To d r a w a fabric texture, b e g i n by concentrating o n h o w y o u i m a g i n e it w o u l d feel if you t o u c h e d it. Decide if it w o u l d be rough, s m o o t h , w a r m , cold, thick, thin, tough, or fragile, for example. As you draw, believe you can feel these qualities at your fingertips a n d that your pencil is responding to the sensation. Undulate the pressure of your lines and marks according to the feeling of the fabric rather than its appearance. Let your pencil enact the sensation of touching its surface.
and to experiment more loosely with mixed media.
This starchy, quilted, b o w e d creation started life as an imagined corset, I intended t o d r a w together in one sculptural f o r m a range o f t h e details opposite. T h e garment quickly got o u t o f hand. T h e r e is great e n j o y m e n t in letting y o u r imagination run wild w h e n inventing costumes. If you are unable t o visit a costume museum, many exciting fabric details and textures can be found in y o u r o w n closet o r home.
Colored pencils give precision and tonal range; they can be faded but not erased. Lightly use an HB graphite pencil if you wish to plan a design first. Pressed hard, colored pencils build up a waxy finish of brilliant color. Used lightly, they appear powdery and show the texture of the paper.
TEXTURES AND PATTERNS
Silk and braid
126-27. 172-73. I made a drawing book full of studies seeking to understand how he composed drama and pathos in his narratives (see also pp. and 252-53). shape. identity. . look at how Goya delineated volumes of thick fabric to express the posture. selected from different pages of my original book. and motivation of an individual. Madrid.Dressing Character I O N C E SPENT THREE MONTHS researching the work of Francisco de Goya at the Prado Museum. These characters.
as it rushes and carves fabric-wrapped forms like rivers and desert winds shaping the earth. . and visible.T H E S E PENCIL STUDIES.170—71). are copies of works by Goya in which he makes air seem heavier than flesh. and tangible. Posture Carving also taken from my Madrid drawing book (see pp. To understand how he did this. I carefully copied the direction of each of his lines.
while a quill contact with. First. It middle. the viewer. there are no longer individuals but one significant group or mass action. We read tensions and exchanges between people. R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN in the delivery of narrative. and so. are implicated in this marital exchange made over the head of the anonymous nurse. He in turn scorches the paper with his view and a certain speed of seeing all. and novels—our staple cultural diet—are driven by a fascination with shared experience and the detail of what happens in other people's lives. stares out from her gloomy sickbed. Saskia. We can also use clothes. Saskia died after childbirth. we. this is not the portrait of an old woman. Later in their lives.Gatherings A LL DRAWINGS TELL STORIES. Her all-too-clear expression shows annoyance and irritation with her husband. presumably while he is making this drawing. and therefore seem to see. As artists. Seeing through Rembrandt's eyes. furniture. This J u s t as there are three parts to a traditional landscape drawing—the foreground. Storytelling and people-watching are obsessive human activities. the viewer's attention in a scene by the format of its composition. With a pocket full of disposable pens we also go out and draw the expressions of gathered people. paintings depicting scenes from history. vivid portrait of his wife captures our attention. The spaces between people and the positions they occupy on a page are vital to our understanding of the psychology or emotion of an event. Washes of shadow behind engaged and as a natural voyeur can feel invisible while watching the scene. . we can R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter draftsman. finding corners in crowded places to inscribe their action and energy onto the page. types. Third. the speed and printmaker and one of the greatest and most influential density of its lines. we can learn most about handling pen and ink. Second. heighten or subdue drama with subtleties of exaggeration or caricature. comics. television documentaries. and distance—so drawings of gathered people can be loosely arranged in three took only minutes to make and yet it lives for centuries. Rembrandt's bored and frustrated wife. and instantly engage with the action of the scene. He is also the artist from whom props to add layers of meaning and attitude. too. a crowd tells the story from a distance. the direct exchange (as shown here) where one or more characters hold eye Aneedproduced the thicker lines of the nurse. in spite of how it may seem. even up her were laid with a brush. the viewer is not directly made the finer lines of Saskia. Blockbuster movies. but drawings of gathered people tell them most directly. soap operas. and its illumination. Drawings selected for this chapter explore these Saskia Lying in Bedand a Nurse ranges of proximity 1638 9 x61/2in (227 x 164 mm) and a travel journal. daily newspapers. Here. and other masters of Western Art. We can direct close.
refuse. TIM N O B L E A N D SUE W E B S T E R British artists who collaborate using neon.. F o r e a c h w o r k . via the animated clutter of o u r material lives. and on. and projector. In one of R a c k h a m s great illustrations for Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland. garbage and chaos are piled a n d e x p l o d e d in r o o m s full of event."Anything that. Below. junk. and Alice. Pencil on paper important but only the beginning of possibility the combination of three-dimensional space.176 GATHERINGS SOME DRAWINGS ARE MADE e n t i r e l y o f i l l u m i n a t i o n that floods drama into the viewers gaze.. c o m p o s e d garbage p r o d u c e s a c a l m . the C o o k . and smoke billows around the agitated jives of the Duchess. N o b l e a n d W e b s t e r s w i t t y a n d o f t e n s u b v e r s i v e d r a w i n g s are also c o n t e m p o r a r y art installations. or even the office photocopier. for example. hearth i m p l e m e n t s crash at o u r feet. Real Life is Rubbish 2002 Dimensions variable TIM N O B L E A N D SUE WEBSTER . Think about what else you could use: a laser smoke. t h e y select and arrange familiar items of street detritus into what appears to be an u n p l e a s a n t pile. plates shatter.kicks against the mundane things that close down your mind is a refreshing and good thing. h a l o e d portrait of the artists seated b a c k to b a c k . Here. In both works. narrative is delivered through the air. the Cat." (Tim Noble) Drawing with light it is important to think about what you is Here timelessly we see a in can draw with. and projectors to create their anarchic punk satires of modern life. and in. a kitchen explodes in o u r faces. Pans fly oft the stove. T h e i m m a c u l a t e d r a w i n g is only r e v e a l e d w h e n t h e b e a m of a p r o j e c t o r c a s t s t h e s h a d o w Projections of the h e a p o n t o a wall.
tabletop.Stowe's ofMysteryand Queer Little Folks. beams. and Alice's shoulder. are very large compared to on p. by vivid children's Rakham's w o r k is characterized fantasy. 100 to see for make elliptical objects and pans fly through the the foreground. This makes the story appear to leap out at us. The wood grain acts like marks of speed behind the scene. H e is best k n o w n forillustratingIrving's Rip vanWinkle.177 ARTHUR RACKHAM British watercolorist and book illustrator. ink. and watercolor. Find the singleperspective pp.76-77) above vanishing point (see that is about3/4in (2 cm) oak converge at this point. amplifying movement outward from the vanishing point. a n d an unmistakable graphic style. and Poe's Tales Imagination. See how the In the Duchess's Kitchen 1907 77/8 x 6 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 5 0 m m ) ARTHUR RACKHAM . we find several devices already explored through our drawing classes. humor. Refer back to the drawing class how pots In drawn objects and elements that those behind. Depth Billows of smoke expand and are lighter as they come forward. Rackham Vanishing point In this marvelous drama made with pen.
M o o r e t o u r e d Italy as a young man. and composition they are polar opposites. a sculptor. a n d l o v e d t o d r a w in t h e BritishMuseum. perhaps these two are the most extreme. Magnetic Fields sculpture. This is just one of many precious artifacts from a lost time. a great Shoshone drawing blazes with the color. join in the waiting. meaning. and art in the landscape. This is an ironic drawing from Moore. heat. Moore's spectators appear to have walked a long way from nowhere to witness and wait beside this mysterious obelisque. In culture. audiences. HENRY MOORE Crowd 1942 Looking at Tied-up Object . and we. and action of a buffalo hunt. expressing his dry humor about O F ALL THE CONTRASTS HENRY MOORE British s c u l p t o r w h o t r a i n e d a n d taught at t h e R C A . Chalk and graphite This fog-bound but humorous gathering of souls is made in graphite and colored chalk with gray wash.178 GATHERINGS we have seen in the pairs and trios of drawings by masters and makers. as if Moore's wrapping has been literally outstretched.The human form w a s the vehicle o f his expression and h e w a s t h e official W o r l d W a r II artist. London. The mournful gray landscape of Henry Moore's northern British field has gathered by night an overcoated audience to stand and wait before a wrapped and roped monument. which still narrates vivid days in the lives of an energetic nation. Opposite. The image stands out among his more usual graphic works in which he hones and carves semi-abstract human forms. A glimmer of gold light appears from the left No explanation is given. as fellow watchers.
Skills are taught not center chant or dance to the beat of a drum. MAGNETIC FIELDS Horses It is interesting to note how the outstretched limbs ofthesehorses echo European images of the runningBuffalo horse before the sequence-photographer Muybridge taught us to 19TH understand their movement differently." Men at the instructed to sit and watch. Stylized hunters. horses.179 SHOSHONE SCHOOL Stylized characters This vital image of a buffalo hunt is made with pigment Members of the Shoshone community wishing painted within dark outlines on a stretched elk hide. and helping our eye to dart around. Hunt CENTURY SHOSHONE SCHOOL . creating harmonious balance with words but through silent demonstration. tolearnhow to paint a scene on a hide are and buffalo circle and charge the perimeters of a skin "field. Each color is evenly distributed throughout the scene.
color. texture. w h i c h b y their c h o i c e a n d h a n d l i n g a c t u a l l y b e c o m e the force a n d spirit of e a c h i m a g e . w h e r e he w a t c h e s a t u r b u l e n t s p i r a l of p u n i s h m e n t f o r the d a m n e d . and sweetened the often bleak years with his impractical inventions.180 GATHERINGS The Human Condition IN THE SPECTRUM of these vastly d i f f e r e n t g a t h e r i n g s of p e o p l e . t h e Bible. pale souls of the lustful are being s p u n into yet another realm of hell. B l a k e h a s i l l u m i n a t e d his s a d d e n e d Virgil on the s h o r e s of a d a r k w o r l d . We also see qualities of line. a pink-inked cinema wobbles along with string. p o e t . Blake w a s d r i v e n b y a passion f o r j u s t i c e a n d a p r o f o u n d b e l i e f in his v i s i t a t i o n s f r o m angels. The muscularity of Blake's figures was inspired by Michelangelo's works. Opposite. inextinguishable in its fortitude and h u m o r . era as Kollwitz. w r i t e r a r t i s t . a d e a t h c h a r g e of brutality. The Circle of the (The Whirlwind 1824 of Lustful Lovers) mm) 143/4 x 207/8i n ( 3 7 4 x 5 3 0 WILLIAM BLAKE . It illustrates a scene from Dante's Divine Comedy. a n d e n g r a v e r w h o p o w e r f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e d his o w n t e x t s in a d d i t i o n t o D a n t e ' s Divine Comedy. a n d the gentle h u m o r of sedate r i d i c u l e . w e f i n d a spiritual v i s i o n . m a r k . Misted in translucent layers of paint. a n d o t h e r w o r k s .f o o t e d t r o g l o d y t e s w h o rage into w a r like a m u d s l i d e of revenge. a n d f o c u s . W I L L I A M BLAKE British visionary. Brushed line and wash This is an ink-outlined drawing made with a fine brush on paper with added washes of watercolor The image was subsequently redrawn as a line engraving. K a t h e K o l l w i t z s c r a t c h e d a n d e n g r a v e d her a r m y of c l a y . Heath Robinson lived through the same war-torn.
What remained in scratched grooves printed on damp paper as lines. British Pen and wash This is a pen-andwatercolor drawing made for a color-platereproduction in an edition of T h e Bystander. Ink rolled over was selectively polished off using a rag. Losbruch (The Outbreak) 1955 20 x 233/8 in (507 x 592 mm) KATHE KOLLWITZ HEATH ROBINSON humorous illustrator and a regular contributor to magazines and journals such as The Sketch and The Bystander. and clearly focused. THE HUMAN CONDITION Scratched lines This is a dry-point etching with monoprint. The image was scratched directly onto a metal plate. sculptor and draftsman. HEATH ROBINSON The Kinecar 1926 103/8 x 15 in (262 x 380 mm) . humor by making his characters earnest.181 KATHE KOLLWITZ German printmaker. plodding along with hazy. Heath Robinson shows England in a past era. With masterful gentility. White marks were made with a dusting of French chalk on the artist's finger to wipe away ink leaving clean metal. who lived in a poor district of Berlin. and the impact of death and war upon women. Robinson and Kollwitz (above) share almost identical life dates and their work expresses a shared history from opposite sides oftheworld wars. children. and her powerful and sensitive drawings center on nurture. and the family home. however meager or ridiculous their activity. poverty. and controlled smears on the metal surface printed as tones. Kollwitz survived the two World Wars. He created sincere. stoical bemusement.
So many stores sell them. p e r m a n e n t . a ballpoint will make faint lines. these pens enable you to sketch. rollerballs. shut your book. a disposable pen with its clip-on cap goes anywhere. in the studio. t w o tourists and their gondolier drifter past m e o n a canal. or turn into washes and make monoprints if flooded with an alcohol-based substance such as hairspray. fine fiber-tip Drawing with a fine fiber-tip pen. indent paper. T h e r e w e r e c seconds t o snatch this impression b e t w e e n their emergence from one bridge and disappearance b e n e a t h t h e next. I swiftly focused on gesture. B A L L P O I N T : Black a n d b o l d c o l o r s o f f e r d i v e r s e qualities. gel pens) are the most convenient of all materials with which to travel. Available in blacks and ranges of colors. . At a time like this. t h e y a r e lightfast. dark sheen. in the car. 4.188-89) and Caravans (see pp. turn the page. FIBER-TIP: M a n u f a c t u r e d f o r artists a n d d e s i g n e r s in a r a n g e o f w i d t h s . trusting shape and form to follow. R e m e m b e r . w a t e r .r e s i s t a n t . they can be obtained within minutes. is d e l i v e r e d t h r o u g h a m e t a l t u b e o v e r a t i n y ball bearing. jot notes. aiming for correct outlines would result in drawing too slowly to c a t c h the moment. or idea. 2. I keep quantities at home. or put the paper in your pocket instantly without fear of smudging. R O L L E R B A L L : A c o n s t a n t i n k flow 3 . build to a rich. 192-93) w e r e b o t h m a d e w i t h a ballpoint. dropped in your pocket and forgotten till needed. Lines t h i c k e n as t h e p e n w e a r s o u t G r a n d Canal (see pp. fibertips. The f o u r i l l u s t r a t e d h e r e r e p r e s e n t a basic r a n g e .182 GATHERINGS Disposable Pens (ballpoints. which can snap or pierce through your clothes. For example. 7 6 . and in most pockets so I can always record a thought DISPOSABLE PENS QUICK NOTES O n a c o l d day in Venice. blob when old. a n d ranges o f colors. c h o o s e p e n s l a b e l e d " p e r m a n e n t " o r "lightfast." 1.7 7 and 214-15). including l u m i n o u s a n d m e t a l l i c . Insensitive t o p r e s s u r e : lines d o n o t v a r y in w i d t h o r t o n e . a n d pressure-sensitive. Quick-drying. if y o u w i s h y o u r d r a w i n g s t o last a n d n o t fade o r b l u r w i t h t i m e a n d e x p o s u r e t o light. Unlike pencils. G E L P E N : P r o d u c e d in b l a c k w h i t e . they each offer distinct and sometimes unexpected qualities. Ideal f o r precision w o r k (see p p . CHOICES AVAILABLE T h e r e a r e m a n y d i s p o s a b l e p e n s t o c h o o s e from. W h i t e gel p e n s a r e v e r y e f f e c t i v e o n d a r k papers.
FROMMEMORY Here I used the same fiber-tip pen to compose a scene from memory.31 . Fast lines focus on action. crowd of fellow travelers Fast lines These scribbled lines model the mass and shadows of heads belonging passengers packed into the boat. Compare this Klee's mules on p. Earlier I had witnessed a crammed en masse in a fleet of hired gondolas complete with musicians and choir. not form.
life will not slow and wait for you to catch it. activity. let it enter the stage and perform. Movement . Push toward caricature and this will draw out of your memory what was most important. A curatorial assistant flies to do a chore (right). make them stouter.184 GATHERINGS The Travel Journal I CANNOT OVERSTATE THE JOY of making a travel journal. but they should not be what you dwell on. You must learn to trust your memory and to draw what impressed you most. focus on the action of the event. Let the line of the flying coat fly and the hanging arm hang. if animated. Above all. pocket notebook and a fiber-tip pen. Every drawing writes an indelible memory of place. Each one was witnessed and drawn immediately from the afterimage of what I had just seen. Each line acts its part in the narrative. I caught fleeting glimpses of gathered people and solitary souls going about their affairs. all action is in the line of his coat and directed by his nose. black. and companionship. No camera can tie you to a time or people in the same way. not its outline. of course. However. animate them more. Exaggeration helps. when out drawing. angles will happen as a matter of course. Don't worry about measuring angles. just draw the action. Circular lines buzz around a man puzzling at the end of a train platform (left). You will make outlines. if a person was stout. FLEETING MOMENTS Walking through Venice with a small.
I drew him three times on the same page to catch a range of his physical expressions. eager to herd us all from his house of responsibility.185 A large lady is photographed in front of a delicate work of art. Observation THE TRAVEL JOURNAL The same willowy assistant dashes about his work. The rush of his legs isamplifiedby their blurred lines. Expression . I am watched by the aggravated guard. In turn.
ACTION AND DETAIL W h e n drawing people. For example. and reason for happening. emotion. focus on action. you might place them lower down. forcing me to remain at the back and look at them. not outline. decide how faces and bodies contort. start by focusing on its action. or bulge. and there met this sullen custodian. Be aware that their placement on the page is part of the narrative. and involvement in the story. and let every detail speak by its size. For example. placement. and you decide to draw the moment. furniture leans. I took refuge in a church in Venice. When your attention has been caught.186 GATHERINGS Catching the Moment On A BITTERLY COLD November day. Identify the principal character and draw him or her first. and clothing or bags hang. Place the person carefully. Here I have recreated my drawing in steps to show you how to set about capturing such a scene. or pushes. if they are being haughty. Here the custodian projects fastidious ownership of his desk and pamphlets by pushing from behind the center of the space and challenging our entry to his image. . flap. if they are being devious. He and his simpering assistant would not allow me in. rather than the works of art they guarded. elevate them in the pictorial space. pulls.
a pillar locates t h e scene in a depth o f space. which is pushed toward us in a gesture of confrontation. Decide where t o place them t o emphasize their role. such as the desk and pamphlets seen here. Here. Decide where you will place them o n the paper t o emphasize their action and intent. I added t h e assistant. W i t h a few strokes. Draw their action and props. In the final step (left) I reinforced t h e custodian's desk. If drawing a more complex scene. . D r a w their action. CATCHING THE MOMENT The assistant Identify t h e antagonist ( o r second character) in t h e scene. together with any immediate props they are using.187 The custodian Identify your principal character a n d their psychological role in the scene. continue adding characters. who is largely expressed through the shape and fall o f his raincoat and his way o f using a note pad.
and buildings. An imminent deluge of tourists urged me to work catching no more than the skeleton of the view.Grand Canal T H E CANALS OF VENICE are bustling places full of occupation. . where vertical mooring poles give space and pulse to the horizontal speed of water quickly. I developed detailofthis drawing from memory using a ballpoint pen.
note only their most essential action and feature.Crossings DURING THIS RUSH HOUR. and drawn immediately from memory. . To catch characters like this. Caricature each person slightly. Each person was glimpsed in an instant. Venetians flow across a stepped bridge and cascade into the streets beyond. then the bridge beneath them. Characters in the foreground were drawn first. followed by the streets.
I found this circus by chance in the Swiss mountains. Caravans and other backstage activity convey expectations of energy and repose.Caravans T H E PARAPHERNALIA O F TRAVEL i s an intriguing part of circus life. and a great subject to draw. . Sitting at a distance on a hot. I used a ballpoint pen to compose a series of scenes. quiet afternoon.
surrounded by the bright instruments of centuries of navigation. a n d a m o o n globe called t h e Selenographia. Oxford. By drawing such momentous and everyday events. or the wind carries it away. rivers. marking the ground with lines of footprints or by turning stones. and experiment. so J o h n Russell's tour de f o r c e drawing (opposite) was a masterpiece of observation in his time. Beginners will often choose calm. but it can be seen as a lens to our observation of this planet. our companion. Look closely at works by many artists and you will see that they have not represented hills. and take bold steps in emulating the swell of clouds and the forces of torrential water. t h e first-ever accurate image o f t h e M o o n ' s surface. William Turner is said to have had himself lashed to a ship's mast to comprehend the storm (see p. the face of the Moon. they are the animators of your subject. are the real subjects in great landscape drawings. the sun comes out to blind it. Richard Long. how the mountain cut by ice and rain is now fleetingly lit. or has cracked and fallen under the weight of water. how the soil is scorched. This is the world's first accurate image of the Moon. H e a l s o p r o d u c e d an a l b u m o f 1 8 0 exquisite pencil drawings. when little stirs and empty blue skies offer even less to latch lines to. pages o f softly i l l u m i n a t e d craters and lunar "seas" c o v e r e d in m a t h e m a t i c a l and s h o r t h a n d calculations. a contemporary environmental artist. and meteor impacts have scarred. In this chapter Moon Pastel 1795 Drawing we experiment with charcoal. 199). England. These conditions are very difficult to express well. What they have drawn is the force of nature on these properties: how the wind heaves the night ocean. 5 f t x 5 ft 6 in ( 1 5 2 x 1 6 8 c m ) J O H N RUSSELL . The pastel drawing was constructed from myriad telescopic observations almost 200 years before the Apollo Moon landing. artists see for themselves that which is momentary and eternal. as opposed the physicality of Earth. JOHN RUSSELL A p o r t r a i t pastelist t o King G e o r g e III o f England. a n d a n astronomer w h o dedicated 20 years t o studying t h e M o o n . Just as NASA photographs of Earth have had a profound effect on the way we view our fragile home. It is better to get up before dawn. and the sea. speculation. learning to draw light out of dark. There is a sense of the heroic in drawing outside—we race to catch a form before the tide engulfs it. sunny days.Earth and the Elements I T MAY SEEM PERVERSE to start a chapter titled "Earth and the Elements" with an image of the Moon. makes his work by the act of walking. Take chances against the rain and work with the wind or fog. The forces of nature. trees. It is Earths satellite. to be ready to draw the new light as it breaks across the land. It now hangs on the staircase of the History of Science Museum. Russell d r e w this. Weather is essential in all landscape drawing. and even how the Sun illuminates. t w o e n g r a v e d m a p s k n o w n as The Lunar Planispheres. arranging them in perfect circles on the mountainside or in lines drifting out of sight beneath low clouds. and its draws the tides of the seas.
is already lost. the bourgeoisie. Daumier's c a r t o o n shines with the brilliance of his comic memory. serving a prison sentence for his views. and gives motion to each image. Hokusais sedate wind presses reeds a n d the j o u r n e y s o f young ladies. like an umbrella forced inside-out. Danger of Wearing Balloon Petticoats UNDATED HONORE DAUMIER . distance. fluttering heavily. painter. T h e ship. lifts. and pioneer ofexpressionism. a scratched ghost. and by observing its tides and eddies in our o w n environment. Dots and dashes suggest receding trees out of focus. the government. speed. T h e great master of English seascape is c o n d u c t i n g with his graphic energy. Flapping kimonos and an onlooker turning his b a c k have the magic of a m o m e n t caught. and the legal profession. and solidity. Hazy vertical marks reveal buildings into the mist. Crayon and limestone This is a lithograph. Terrifying waves of merciless nature roar across the paper. a sail b r o k e n loose in a stormy marriage. Below. By Turner carries us to the heart of the maelstrom. He knew how the world bends and stutters under such gusts. Fluid strokes inflate the woman's dress and pin shadows to the ground. undramatic b u t brimming with stylized realism.Through political drawings he fired his sharp wit at the king. sculptor. seeing how it shakes. This wife. A hard waxy was drawn across a heavy limestone Varying definitions crayon of lire and depths of tone conspire to give volume. we can soon learn to draw its force.198 EARTH AND THE E L E M E N T S Air in Motion THE GREAT INVISIBLE SUBJECT o f these d r a w i n g s is t h e w i n d . H O N O R E DAUMIER French satirical cartoonist lithographer. has b e c o m e a hysterical kite.
W. 1826 91/2 x 113/4 in ( 2 4 1 x 3 0 0 m m ) J. W .M. painter. seascape. Landscape a n d city life w e r e his principal subjects.b l o c kprintmaker. A outline scratched of a skeletal into penciled ship is while and the waves. AIR IN MOTION Pencil and watercolor subdued brushed. T U R N E R British landscape. d e s i g n e r a n d b o o k i l l u s t r a t o r . H o k u s a i in t u r n has since significantly influenced European art. leans the whole composition swells around its fateful center. horizontally then and of the it into the stream Plants also bend and flow right to Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 1802 81/2 HOKUSAI KATSUSHIKA x 131/2 in ( 2 1 7 x 3 4 3 mm) . TURNER KATSUSHIKA HOKUSAI Prolific J a p a n e s e c o l o r w o o d . T h e r e a r e m a n y stories o f his p a s s i o n a t e w o r k i n g methods.199 J. wind.i n f l u e n c e d b y examples o f W e s t e r n art obtained through D u t c h t r a d i n g in Nagasaki.l o v e dw o r k s i n c l u d e 1 0 0 v i e w s o f M o u n t Fuji and 1 2 v o l u m e s o f Manga. Wind direction wood-block This is a colored To represent the blows lifted flowed wind. Hokusai direction (from clothing from has chosen which it the right). into this very as pressed sheet The paper's through own coior is brought banks of mist and fog. absorbent watercolor and are Stains of splashed. including being lashed t o a ship's m a s t in o r d e r to study a storm. and history painter w h o s e p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t a b o v e all w a s light. a n d his b e s t .M. Ship in a Storm c. T u r n e r w o r k e d in oils a n d w a t e r c o l o r s a n d s k e t c h e d c o p i o u s l y o n his travels. from left print.
By contrast. active surfaces of water. marks. He brings us to stare into a place that no sane human would enter. Le Bateau-Vision 1864 71/2 x 1 0 in ( 1 9 2 x 2 5 5 m m ) VICTOR H U G O . he blanketed the drawing in darkness. inks. and t h e sea s t u d i e d f r o m his h o m e in Guernsey in t h e Channel Islands. An update on biblical showers of fish and frogs. lines of rain escorting them to b o u n c e and clatter. In periods b e t w e e n writing. as a subject and second. drawing was Hugo's principal means o f expression. Leonardos Cloudburst of Material Possessions is o n e of his m o s t enigmatic and mysterious works. or charcoal.28). ink. Turner (see p.198) admires the majesty of nature. It looks so contemporary. fantasy palaces. Opposite. as if drawn j u s t this year. this is a writer's narrative of terror. T h e m e n a c i n g darkness of Hugo's storm b e l o w is so convincing. this is a b o m b a r d m e n t from o u r h o m e s . composing banks of waves and dense. and tossed o b j e c t s — a perfect subject in which artists can forget themselves. Pen and brush Hugo drew first with pen and ink. as a gestural storm on the paper. Then. water. it is difficult to contemplate its brooding and night-soaked heart. His subjects include ruins. with a brush.200 ELEMENTS Storms STORMS CAN BE SEEN and drawn in two ways: first. T h e very nature of b o t h is turmoil and an interweaving of elements. D o m e s t i c o b j e c t s we can o w n and name fall from the clouds. leaving nothing but a glimpse of moonlight glistening on the froth below. and swim into the page. grab their b r u s h . h a u n t e d shadows. EARTH AND THE VICTOR HUGO French novelist and artist (see also p.
for example). He was left-handed and wrote backwards in Italian from left to right. Cloudburst of Material Possessions 1510-12 45/8 x 43/8 in ( 1 1 7 x 1 1 1 mm) L E O N A R D O DA VINCI . a hook. a bell. together with half the contents of our garage. There is a little magic in recognizing many items from our homes something like a rake. envisioning machines centuries before their making (helicopters and bicycles. and a wheel. It is interesting to speculate how engineering might have developed if his ideas had been shared with the world earlier Ink and chalk This is a pen and ink drawing with touches of black chalk. Each item that has crashed from heaven is drawn in such a way that we can feel Leonardo's nib picking it up in the speed of a doodle. and they passed through private hands for 400 years before becoming widely known.LEONARDO DA VINCI Leonardo devised many artifacts of our modern lives. He bequeathed his drawings to a friend. Above and below are examples of his mirror handwriting.
made inside a book. she teased away fragments of paper to illuminate her view. transferred it to a scroll. Views from Velletri c.1638 85/8 x 121/2 in (219 x 320 mm) CLAUDE LORRAIN . Over first lines. Claude Lorrain drew directly on location. which he used to unify his compositions. a horizon line can trigger our recognition. and mood simultaneously. sea-. Whether land-.202 ELEMENTS THE PROFILE OF A HORIZON is a line we immediately recognize and respond to. and dry marks in the foreground appear to be made with his finger. and etcher who lived most of his life in 17th-century Rome. Paler. and across to the right. cooler tones receding into the distance are applied with a brush. Claude is distinguished by. In the lower half he has walked downhill a little. Even distilled from all other detail. Segments The top half of the drawing is a view as we enter the valley. EARTH AND THE Bryan cut the profile of a city. rich. Claude has used a fine nib to delineate segments of land as they recede into space. Nature Profiles Opposite below. and we can imagine standing over his shoulder. She was inspired by her research of aerial plans of London and the story of an alien map butterfly (see caption). it is the unique calligraphic signature of the place in which we stand. In a very different work (opposite above). thick. and famed for. or cityscape. watching his hand and eye at work together. his unsurpassed handling of light. Drawing with a scalpel. atmosphere. and after tracing her captured line. rapidly layering contours to shape place. C L A U D E LORRAIN French classical landscape painter draftsman. Clare Bryan took panoramic photographs of the English South Downs.
specialty bookbinder. drawings Ideas of introduction Clare Bryan to research introduced down and led NATURE PROFILES and removal historical plans and aerial growth of London showing its population since Roman times. On turning the pages of City. and visiting professor at numerous art schools. source workisilluminatedby standing its lower edge on a CLARE BRYAN . printmaker graphic designer. The edges of each here) fade into the solid paper unpopulated with a scalpel landscape. and digital print-based works reflect upon the histories and poetry of "left behind and in-between spaces. 2001 CLARE BRYAN C L A R E BRYAN 3ritish artist. then hunted destroyed.5-m)scroll.The horizon was drawn with a City Landline 2003 271/2x 59 in (70 x 150 cm) scalpel. Her recent paper photographic. progressively settlement (cropped more and more paper is drawn away to show the expansion of human page of an around the river." Cut line This is a small section of a preparatory 5-ft(1.203 Scalpel-drawn This book-bound drawing was inspired by the story of a foreign butterfly wrongly to Great Britain in 1912.
a piece of fresh bread. and offers a rich. maple. Boxes often contain a range of thicknesses to choose for different needs. It is also easily erased if the maker of the mark is not happy with the result. blacker. In use. Use any fine-point pen or pencil (I used a ballpoint) to draw a firm line on the back of the Big pieces are perfect for very large-scale drawings—even larger than yourself. 3. R o u g h paper c a n b e loaded. leaving u n d e r t r a c e s of first thoughts. The tip snaps easily to renew a sharp edge if required. resulting in a stick that gives a blacker. resulting in a pale line.m a d e c o m p r e s s e d charcoal. a n d p l u m . Hold it over your drawing RANGE AVAILABLE Charcoal (in its several forms shown here) is loved or loathed by the beginner to whom it is often recommended because it produces pleasing results quickly. they are all intended for fine work. 6. between your middle finger and thumb. harder line. Slightly dull the tape's stickiness before use t o prevent it from lifting out more than you intend. CHARCOAL PENCIL: Types made by different manufacturers vary in quality and density of line. 1 Suspend a length of masking tape. feather. 1. The same as above. 3 A white line is lifted out by the tape.54). LIFTING OUT This technique is a very easy method of drawing a crisp. MEDIUM W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 5. it is compressed and m o l d e d at high pressure. you can p u r c h a s e m a c h i n e . THIN WILLOW CHARCOAL: I used a piece like this to make the drawing opposite. THICK W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 2 Keep the tape above your drawing. C h a r c o a l naturally glistens. only a little thicker. 7. it looks gray and feels like chalk. It allows you greater precision in your mark-making than if you rub away the charcoal with an eraser. a n d m o r e i n d e l i b l e by soaking it in linseed oil. so it chars b l a c k as o p p o s e d to igniting a n d turning to ash. Beware of cheap brands selling dyed chalk as compressed charcoal. Charcoal lifts away from paper easily with the very light touch o f an eraser. b l a c k e r . It c a n be m a d e duller. Artists have also used lime. without touching the surface. CHALK CHARCOAL: Technically. Alternatively. . this does not exist. It does n o t erase easily. COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Machine-made. A great find when available. fine. 162) or graphite (see p. and heavier than willow. vine.204 E A R T H AND THE E L E M E N T S Charcoal CHARCOAL IS PRODUCED from wood baked slowly without exposure to air. the heel o f y o u r h a n d . Lines are achieved by d e p o s i t i n g particles in the grain o f paper. or fingertip. 2. Willow is the most c o m m o n wood. a rag. tape. B u n d l e s o f twigs were traditionally sealed into earthenware j a r s or wet clay and heated slowly and intensely in a fire or kiln. Try itworking on big paper covering a wall. but some specialists stock compressed charcoal in delicate square sticks. black finish. Essentially. cylindrical. 4. b e e c h . Not to be confused with square conte sticks (see p. sticky side down. Smooth paper accepts few particles. white line into the blackor grayness of willow charcoal. As its name implies. SQUARE COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Not often sold. Then lift it away.
Cotton swabs also work. graphite. . CHARCOAL Lifting out This detail shows an example of where I used the lifting-out technique demonstrated opposite to draw flashes of lightning against rain clouds. Here. Use cheaper (less sticky) for lifting out. MASKING TAPE: An invaluable resource. sold in several widths.205 ERASING Thickly applied charcoal quickly o v e r c o m e s a plastic eraser A w a r m (soft and tacky) putty eraser is more effective. Use high quality (very sticky) to fix paper to walls and boards. Lift out broader marks with a larger implement. 10. T O R T I L L O N : This is a tight roll of paper used to blend charcoal. Layers can be peeled away to refresh its surface. Here we used a ballpoint. as is fresh (unbuttered!) bread. Different tones seen throughout the main drawing on pp. pastels. I used a plastic eraser effectively on thinly applied charcoal. PEN: Any fine pen or pencil can be used to draw on the back of masking tape when lifting out.212-13 were made by altering the pressure applied to the charcoal. 8 . or any other dry media. 9.
especially when making first excursions into aerial perspective. Successful drawings often only suggest the qualities of the scene without overdescribing them. the more you encourage the viewer's imagination to join in and see. Pack several thick and thin sticks of willow charcoal. our brains search for nameable things and will perceive complete pictures from very little information. Ironically. MATERIALS In this first view there is only a foreground and middle distance. and an abstract. Seeing tones . pack your materials (as advised below) and set off for a local view or your nearest arboretum. a less distinct middle ground composed of shapes and textures. The long view is hidden behind trees. an eraser your drawing book or a board and paper fixative (or hairspray). Then I drew the shape of the tonal patches I perceived.212-13).206 EARTH AND THE ELEMENTS Landscapes TREES ALONE OFFER MARVELOUS shapes to draw. but is often less evocative and engaging. to contain each of your compositions. details blur and colors grow paler and bluer. Excessive detail can be admired for its skill and achievement. Landscape drawings are traditionally arranged in three parts: a detailed foreground. it results in flat planes of clutter. Don't worry if it is cloudy: clouds add drama and perspective and make good subjects in themselves (see pp. and a cushion in a plastic bag to sit on. I relaxed my eyes out of focus to dissolve distracting detail into abstract patches of light and darkness. hazy distance. On p p . a reel of masking tape. begin by marking out several small squares on your paper. 9 8 . This term simply means that as land rolls away into the distance. At its worst. It is the visible effect of the atmosphere between where you stand and what you see in the distance. the less you describe. They are also good markers of receding space. To experiment with drawing landscapes and the use of charcoal. When you arrive.9 9 we noted that in response to visual stimulus.
horizontal regions of grass. shadows. This composition turned out a little flat because I have an almost even quantity of earth and sky. Exploring the view Redrawing the scene above. rounded.207 LANDSCAPES In my second square I explored a simple view contrasting soft. I have invented drama with diagonals set against each other I tilted the earth. your view is your inspiration. dark trees with bright. and broke a view through the hedge into the distance with a dark sky threatening rain. It is better to give distinctly more pictorial space to one or the other (see below). full of information you can use to create what you want! Inventing drama . Remember. the trunk of a bare tree.
Circling a subject and drawing it from several views imprints on your memory a better understanding of its three-dimensional form." . "Drawing in the round means to literally walk around your subject. England has embedded within it the decaying skeleton of a burned fishing boat. EARTH AND THE FINDING THE SUBJECT Finding a remarkable subject is even better when you can circumnavigate it in an arena of space. and seeing what the real choice of subject is. settling my concentration. bare ribs. I usually begin by making an image of the whole view. This first drawing serves as a process of arrival.1 5 my first drawing of the whole view of the Tiber led me to see the real subject of the day. For example. shade out of the glare of the sun. engine. Building on earlier studies of structure in space using shoes (pp. taking with you your drawing book and pen. and tiller still standing proud. s e e k places in light After my first drawing. making the scene below led me to focus on the decaying boat opposite. so the paper is not made blinding and your hand cannot cast a shadow on your work. which was the flow of water over rocks. Similarly.104-05). 2 1 4 . observing it from several views so as to better understand it as a whole. your challenge now is to find a sculptural subject in the landscape. The mud of the tidal shore in Rye. I am then able to home in on what interests me most for further study. on p p .164-65) and a wire violin (pp.208 ELEMENTS Drawing in the Round WHEN DRAWING IN THE LANDSCAPE.
209 SERIES OF STUDIES This stunning ghost o f a boat comes into v i e w t w i c e a day. Overleaf: Decaying Boat 4 . W h e n you have found your subject. and the order and shape of its component parts. Each n e w drawing gives a different insight. looking more at the boat than at the paper From this low position I have emphasized how the boat is swallowed in mud by outlining its shadow on the ground. I drew with quick. DRAWING IN THE 1 Here. unfussy lines. 3 This impression notes the angle of the broken boat. ROUND 2 In this tail-end view. its overall balance. The outline ties a shape of darkness to the boat like a weight so that it becomes part of its form. make a series o f drawings f r o m different positions. and structure. I spent equal time looking at the subject and the paper. character. marking straight. careful lines to establish the skeleton that gives this wreck its distinct form. w h e n t h e sea recedes. I looked more boldly at the planes and the dynamic of the sculptural craft My lines have become darker and more forceful as confidence in my understanding of the vessel grew.
Cloudburst THIS STORM DRAWING. L o o k i n g b a c k and forth from the heavens to firmly taped-down paper. was made with gentle but unhesitating s p e e d . . I worked quickly to catch and weave the turbulent contrasts of rising wind and approaching water before the drawing could be washed away.20-21) using a thin stick of willow charcoal. m a d e on s m o o t h . hot-pressed drawing p a p e r (see pp.
black. focusing on the river's eddies. since ancient times. . shaping the city. pocket-sized notebook. I drew with a needle-fine fiber-tip pen. pulse. On the pages of a small. and rhythmic detail as it passed through the ancient gully of the city.Notes of Force T H E GREAT FLOWING TIBER RIVER has cut through Rome.
. I used a dip pen and waterproof India ink with brushed watercolor to draw the view.Mountains SITTING IN THE SHADE of a tree on the Greek island of Antiparos. The strong diagonal of the composition from bottom left to top right carries the eye through changes of height and focus from the foreground to the mountains beyond.
Swirling.8 cm) A D O L F WOLFLI Abstraction is a direct. Artists were given a different tool—a line threaded directly from their subconscious to their hand—and with it they began to map a bold new landscape of marks and concepts that would dramatically and forever change the face of Western art. yet my kinship to abstraction is fundamental. it is simply itself.Abstract Lines T HE DEVELOPMENT OF W E S T E R N abstract art at the beginning of the 20th century significantly paralleled major changes in world thought. It is actually its foundation and its infrastructure. liberating. many nonWestern cultures have highly sophisticated abstractions at the core of their art. or gestures. An abstract mark is often a better conductor of a thought or feeling. abstraction is not so easy to define. direction. actions. However. Afterward. drawn sound. poet. spontaneous image-making. writer and composer who suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and was resident in the Waldau Aslyum near Berne. for example. and young children show us that abstract. Many concepts and feelings can only be expressed through marks. and have been making abstract drawings for centuries—Japanese calligraphy. . and history. Perhaps in Western culture we bred this intuitive freedom out of ourselves in our insistence on complex figuration. and emotion. As you approach the classes in this chapter. belief. which are essentially abstract. opposite. Museum of Fine Arts. all pictorial representations are abstractions of reality. From another viewpoint. He made thousands of drawings to chronicle his complex life. The growing rise of Darwinian ideas coupled with Freudian and Marxist perspectives forced Western society to reconsider its origins and future. People are often scared by abstraction and see it as the enemy of figurative art. Wolfli was a Swiss draftsman. Outsider artists. I begin every image by feeling its meaning. Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape 1915 413/8 x 285/8 in (105 x 72. My own work is firmly centered in figuration. Internal workings of the mind were suddenly free to find a new language of expression. ADOLF WOLFLI One of the greatest masters of Art Brut. strike the paper to find form. Indian mandalas. expressive marks and shapes are at the core of natural. only rediscovered. and Aboriginal art. and it has always been with us. It also underpins and gives strength and unity to all figurative work. First marks. don't be timid. Not everything we know has a physical form in the world. picturing a stabilized world was impossible and Modernism rode forth with vigor. precisely because it does not have to represent a physical object. and poetic myth roar and cascade within his tightly framed pages. Berne. and independent means of communication. It was not invented in the 20th century. be brave and enjoy them. such as Adolf Wolfli. From one point of view. fictional language. The fate of Old World thinking was finally sealed with the brutality of World War I. His drawings are collected and exhibited internationally and held by the Adolf Wolfli Foundation. writhing torrents of color. sounds.
Iron rods in tone. and patient watching. Abe works with materials such as soil.220 A B S T R A C T LINES Process and Harmony SOMETIMES A DRAWN LINE sings on the surface of its support. Mamoru Abe prepares an image that will appear through the chemistry of iron. He travels widely to research ancient sacred sites. MAMORU ABE Japanese sculptor and installation artist. rhythmically engaged with itself. salt. Moisture produced rust. staining redbrown lines into the white surface. This the paper rest within the amplifies framelike of the floor from the ceiling. A Neolithic chalk tablet bears cut lines that were slowly carved. akin to stones in a Zen garden. silence. brass. Changes paper. tone. and temperature rim of floor space. and Assistant Professor of Fine A r t at Fukuoka University. Damp Japanese paper was laid over carefully arranged iron bars. iron. or. ice. scrolling across the canvas in an intimate crescendo. texture. sit in silent harmony. as Twombly shows us opposite. water. Abe's physical drawing is a sculptural installation. and sensitivity with its thickness and pressure of touch. Sometimes it smolders like a deep shadow. Lines. Twombly's mesmeric wax line worked over house paint is like a signature. It can proclaim mood. quoting ink marks on a page. Five forged steel shapes. and plaster in galleries and landscapes. forged steel. The Physical Space 1990 3 0 x 30 ft ( 9 1 4 x 9 1 4 cm) MAMORU ABE . and wood are also part of the work. it can keep reforming through the inherent repetition of a process. and texture their bracing separation reaching between from beneath Pillars of the gallery are made part of this drawing by their inclusion in the paper. A line can be finished in a second. Below.
England.241). emotive. that challenges the separation of word from image. and American Indian petroglyphs (see p.Thesite's purpose is unknown. such as the Rosetta stone. CY TWOMBLY . This example is one of two chalk tablets found in a Late-Neolithic pit. theories suggest astrological observations. the Babylonian world map. Neolithic Chalk Tablet 3. energetic. close to Stonehenge in Wiltshire. At the 2001 Venice Biennale.400BCE 21/4 x 21/4 in (58 x 58 mm) ARTIST UNKNOWN Language Over the course of fifty years. and the worship of the sun and ancient gods. evolved a raw. The central pictorial space is also similarly cut and divided by the considered arrangement of straight lines. and Untitled 1970 Here we might seek to grasp letters in the turning of his line. Twombly has language works CY TWOMBLY Contemporary American artist who emerged through the 1950s New York art scene in the heyday of Abstract Expressionism and Action Painting. PROCESS AND HARMONY Cut lines Chalk carves easily. burials. and sensuous drawing from painting. Precise lines suggest the use of a sharp flint The framed rectangle of this image is echoed in that of Abe's installation. Many of his graffiti-like combine abstract gestures with statements.221 ANCIENT CARVINGS Many ancient cultures have made and left behind drawings and texts carved into stones or animal bone.000-2.Twombly was presented with a Golden Lion award for lifetime achievement.
said. here he anticipates abstract expressionism by 100 years. Here he appears t o have saturated the cut-out moon disks with gritty pigment. Marks across the center appear to be made with his fingers. Hugo. A graphic score is a V I C T O R H U G O Hugo's abstract French novelist w h o m a d e m a n y drawings in m i x e d m e d i a ( s e e also p. opposite. pressed them face down.28. broke new ground in the 1950s with graphic scores now considered among the most extreme. he mixed graphite into ink. The scores are also exhibited in galleries as visual art. a configuration. interpret." An innovator who never fails to surprise. Gestalt. and inventive of his time.222 ABSTRACT LINES Writing Time SINCE THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY. have striven to break down old pictorial and musical structures to explore new and unfettered modes of expression. o f t e n e x p r e s s e d in v i s u a l t e r m s . Gestalt o f an unnameable thing. brushed night skies over them with ink then lifted the disks to reveal white moons. abstract artists and composers unique. His drawing writes the time of its own physical process by expressing the extreme concentration of the moment in which it was made. abstract. Bussotti.28). music manuscript requiring instrumentalists to improvise. below. and lifted them away to leave impressions of watery planets and seas. "There is nothing like dream to create the future. Both abstract drawing and composition involve the perfect sequencing of sounds and marks against space and silence. o r a pattern o f elements s o unified as a w h o l e t h e y c a n n o t b e e x p l a i n e d asa s u m o f parts. drawing here can b e described in t e r m s o f a G e r m a n philosophical idea a b o u t is t h e i n s t a n t r e c o g n i t i o n t h e p o w e r o f m o m e n t . Ink impressions When drawing nightscapes Hugo often laid paper disks in place of the moon. Similarity in gritty texture suggests that here. beautiful. Two Impressions Paper 1853-55 VICTOR HUGO Disk from a Cut-Out . Texture Compare this drawing to Hugo's octopus on p. too. and let the drying meniscus deposit granules in linear drifts such as we would see in the satellite photographic mapping of rivers. and participate in the composition.
Bussotti's first mature work. 1958 SYLVANO BUSSOTTI . Compare this work to that of Libeskind on p. Following the notes.223 W R I T I N G TIME SYLVANO BUSSOTTI Italian avant-garde composer and principal 20thcentury exponent of the graphic score. This is a page from Due Voci. Circular Score for "Due Voci" c. 70 in relation to Bussotti's clustered notes to the left of his rondo and open space to the right. we can feel their rhythm and easily attach sounds to them. His later works become increasingly abstract. a far cry from any recognized musical notation. Sound and rhythm This flickering rondo of sound written in pen on a hand-ruled stave can be heard in our imaginations as much as seen.
T h e s e p h o t o g r a p h s d o c u m e n t the meditative drawings o f two w o m e n living worlds apart in different countries. Cloth is the simple instrument with which she has conducted and ordered her universe.228-29) has been adjusted with each movement of the rags to draw a cosmos of balance and perfection. an a n o n y m o u s w o m a n in the southeast Indian state o f Tamil Nadu m a k e s a ritual drawing o n the b r i c k courtyard o f h e r h o m e .224 A B S T R A C T LINES Chants and Prayers WHEN ABSTRACT LINES are organized in repetition. This takes a form in most cultures. it is found in the regularity o f ordered lines or a pattern. She tore c l o t h into strips a n d used these to draw patterns a n d symbols o n h e r cell floor. In the late 1 9 t h century. making objects and images outside o f mainstream culture. O p p o s i t e . social outcasts. d i p p i n g h e r fingers into a pot o f rice flour. cultures. MARIE LIEB Little is known of this w o m a n for w h o m the act of drawing was essential. they m a k e a visual a n d physical e c h o that t o u c h e s s o m e deep part of the human spirit. It will protect the place from evil and make a pleasing invitation to good spirits. for e x a m p l e . Cell Floor With Torn Strips of Cloth 1894 MARIE LIEB . Marie Lieb w a s a psychiatric patient in the Heidelberg Asylum. Visually. Lieb is one o f countless thousands of "Outsider" artists—diverse individuals including ordinary citizens. and sufferers of psychiatric illnesses—who have always existed. centuries. Compositional rightness (see pp. and c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Torn cloth This is one of two published photographs showing Marie Leib's torn cloth strips significantly placed on her cell floor. In music it can be felt in the diversity of plainsong and African d r u m m i n g . Germany.
Theseare widely published in journals and are the subjects of international exhibitions. Skills are handed down through generations and from friend to friend. among others. Designs and motifs Rangoii (or mandalas) are ritual drawings made by many millions of women across rural India. Huyler is the author of Painted Prayers. cultural anthropologist. and for over 30 years has traveled extensively through the Indian subcontinent creating an edited archive of 200. Popular magazines feature new ideas each week and on special occasions there may be contests. lecturer on the subjects of Indian art and Indian women's identity. Painted Prayers UNDATED STEPHEN R HUYLER . women pride themselves on never repeating a design. at the University of London and Ohio State University.000 images. or flowers are marked or arranged on the ground or on the walls of homes. animals. lime. and birds. In daily practice. chalk. Materials such as rice flour. Motifs are geometrical or based on plants. and in places of worship and celebration.225 STEPHEN P.HUYLER Photographer art historian.
Oval moons eclipse each other and oscillate between landforms and portraiture. free from the direct imaging of known physical things.226 ABSTRACT LINES Compositions ABSTRACT DRAWINGS ARE LARGELY or entirely free from using the viewer's eye to track and unfold layers of meaning. figurative representation—that is. and Fellow of Linacre College. They each find their pathways and equilibrium in atmosphere and suggestion. These two works present complex compositions with differing intensions and methods of making. structure. Catling's works made for international galleries and museums involve drawing as a tool in their development and making. Oxford. Catling's abstract drawings are usually made in series and in parallel to written poetry and sculptural installations. filmmaker Professor of Fine Art. Mixed media This is a collage of torn white and gray tissue paper previously stained with ink. but similarities in mood. Catling's torn paper shapes and shadows spill light out of their frame like a fractured mirror. BRIAN CATLING British sculptor poet. With no depth of field. Untitled 2001 2001 153/4x 215/8 in ( 4 0 0 x 550 mm) BRIAN C A T L I N G . rocks or heads in a subdued atmosphere of dream. and water-resistant layers of spray and enamel paint on thick paper. gold paint and iridescent gouache mixed with water. Their energy can therefore be a purer expression of an idea or emotion. and choice of hues. performance and installation artist. it is ruled and contained in one dimension by its interlocking ink-lined borders. Klee's mathematical maze of thinly washed surface resonates with meticulous planning. Ruskin School.
drew. Kunstmuseum Bern PAUL KLEE . watercolor. Polyphon Gefasstes Weiss (White Framed Polyphonically) 1930 131/8x95/8 in (333 x 245 mm) Paul-Klee-Stiftung. whereas tonal surfaces are perceived more immediately as a whole.31). Geometric harmony This is a work on paper made with a sharp ink pen. ruler. Klee also felt that a line represents the passing of time. and might be read as active or passive. It is a geometric harmony of straight lines and tonally graded flat colors that by their arrangement draw our eyes inward to their white center. He explained his polyphonic painting as "a harmony of several color voices" searching for a visual parallel to music. philosophized.227 PAUL K L E E Swiss painter and sculptor (see also p.97-99. and brush. Klee painted. and wrote copiously about the natures and relationships of color and form. We can see some diagrammatic examples of this among the optical illusions on pp. Line and surface Klee observed the visual capacity of lines to push or pull within an image.
a glass. b u t e v e r y n o w a n d again you will hit on an arrangement w h i c h appears just. As y o u m o v e them around. and elements settle in definitive balance. Seek it when looking at other artists' work and in your everyday environment. There is a single m o m e n t w h e n all proportions. their impact. "Whenall pictorial elements come together in pleasing and perfect balance.228 ABSTRACT LINES Being "Just" A SENSE OF "JUST" (or rightness) is a difficult concept to explain. they are just. M a n y of their inter-relationships will be meaningless. a b u n c h of keys. Take. regardless of style. there is a clear feeling when. s o m e will be more or less h a r m o n i o u s . media." . angles. or degree of figuration. but an easy o n e to u n d e r s t a n d . Set up a sheet of paper with a rectangle drawn on it. the late garden designer Russell Page explains. culture. W h e n m o v i n g objects around in your yard. "I have experimented endlessly with this idea. This balance is what every artist and designer searches a n d feels for when making an image. It is also found in nature. w i l l c h a n g e w i t h e v e r y r e a r r a n g e m e n t . It is found in all great art and design.Thisexercise will help you start. after being continuously adjusted. Feel for it when youdraw. and an apple. or home." SETTING UP Justness can be harmonious or deliberately discordant. the impression y o u receive from t h e m . for instance. In his b o o k The Education of a Gardener. and ten straight sticks painted black. and put them o n a tray. or on a page. they reach a perfect position.
fix it with glue.229 WHERE TO START Take ten sticks of equal length. suggesting a horizon. B E I N G "JUST" 1 Arrange your ten sticks in t w o groups of five. Remember the drawn rectangle is a part of the composition (see pp. making the composition seem to float beneath. Move the sticks out into the rectangle. horizontals dominate the lower area. which now becomes a tight frame.56-57). painted black. Arrange them so they touch or cross in a series of intersecting balances. . Here. In the final step (left) there is an even balance. Feel for the rightness of their grouping and their relationships to surrounding spaces." Move the sticks to find alignments and imagined perspectives. as shown here. 2 3 In the step above. Within a rectangle on a flat sheet of paper set about making a composition using no other rule than a sense of "just. W h e n the composition falls into place. horizontals dominate the top. A stick touching the rectangle links the composition to the frame.
colors. glue.Youwill also need spare white paper. ready-made depths and surfaces. they become a scaffold for the addition of further textures." (Russell Page) . or discordance. hard or soft. "My understanding is that every object [or shape] emanates—sends out vibrations beyond its physical body which are specific to itself. Returning to Russell Page. stain and dry a sheet of tissue paper using blueink.228-29). harmonious. scissors. This principal also applies to three-dimensional drawings such as Gaudi's work with wire and weights on p. feels "just" (see pp. or even strident. Collage offers the artist a liberating palette of SETTING UP This lesson in collage is a direct continuation of the compositional lines made in the previous class.69 and Abe's installation on p. colors and textures can be manipulated until their pictorial harmony. a compass.. which is the shifting. Cut or torn layers and shapes. To prepare for this lesson.220." overlapping placement of materials on a flat plane.. you start composing by adding or subtracting shapes and textures and using colors and tones to achieve the impression you want to m a k e — w h e t h e r dramatic or s u b d u e d . and tones. correction fluid or white paint. he went on to say ". an infinite range of voices and meaning. Once the ten painted black sticks are set and glued in place. found or made items. and black ink.230 ABSTRACT LINES Collage H E R E W E EXPERIMENT with collage. Images and fragments torn from day-to-day life can be brought together to make a chorus of ideas and emotions.
then cut out.231 WHAT TO DO Lay the final step of the previous lesson (p. This can also give a sense of fragmentation or punctuation to the composition. and with a compass and scissors. 2 3 Torn white paper moved over the surface adds masks of rough-edged irregular volume.228) in front of you. . Glue them in place once they feel "just" Translucent circular disks of tissue paper give color tone. draw. correction fluid and ink marks add further dimensions. and shadow to thepicture. In the last step (left).The single disk that is folded with its straight edge facing up appears heavier than those that are flat. COLLAGE 1 Regular-sized pieces of white paper are moved over the surface to disrupt the even lines. solidity. they deepen pictorial space. Obscuring the blue disks. four circles of blue tissue paper. Cut six small rectangles the same proportion as your whole image.
A MODERN JAPANESE meditative art form inspired by the teachings of Yamaoka Tesshu (1836-1888). is the practice of Zen through the calligraphic marks of a brush dipped in carbon ink. .Zen Calligraphy HITSUZENDO." [Tanchu Terayama. Zen Brushwork]. emotion. and expectation. Hitsuzendo drawings aspire to "breathe with the energy and vitality of eternal life" achieved through "a state of no mind—beyond thought.
.Nocturnes IN THIS QUARTET of semi-abstract drawings made with India ink. These vibrate against washes of shadow and pitch-black mass. I flicked spatters of ink and rubbed the paper with a wet and a dry brush to achieve these effects. Lines made with a steel dip pen take on a scratchy nervousness. discord is balanced against rhythm to create mood.
We then add substances we dislike: unidentified fluids. feathers. or in smoke. Humans are equally troubled by the imperceptibly small and the enormous. movie studios now brim with as many monsters as the visual art of the Medieval and Renaissance Church.247. serpentine tails. Perhaps the Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 1485 121/4 x 9 in (312 x 230 mm) MARTIN SCHONGAUER most important conclusion in this final chapter is to advise you to develop your skills in parallel with the joy of your unfolding imagination. angels. Today. aliens. Throughout this book images are presented to excite and surprise and drawing classes created to increase your confidence. For example. which were widely distributed and influential in his time. Reading the place name I momentarily glimpsed an alternative meaning. paradise. or strange. To learn to flex your imagination. The salvation of heaven and terrors of hell are represented equally—enough to make any sinner shudder. Images we are now surrounded by bear testimony to the power and resourcefulness of their collective imagination. impossible. thousands of paintings. a human-animal mix that implies this could MARTIN SCHONGAUER German painter and engraver who settled to work in Colmar Alsace. a Catherine wheel of drawn sparks spiraling around the quietly resolute saint. Lord of the Rings. Be inspired by the irrational comedy of word association or puns. We watch with captivated pleasure movies such as The Fly. scales. for example. in the cracks of walls. a collaboration between the two will ensure that your drawings glow with originality. Monsters take advantage of both. beasts. We love our fear of the hybrid—ideally. we select details of animals farthest from ourselves and that are widely thought disturbing—reptilian and insect features. England. wings. and deep fur—and we alter their scale. Star Wars. Depictions of God or of gods in the contexts of daily life. and the Alien trilogy. and stained-glass windows deliver powerful visual sermons to the once-illiterate populace. I was on a train passing through Nuneaton. . and the faces of God have for centuries given artists a feast for the extremes of their imagination. our literate and more secular Western society still hungers for another world and to ravenously indulge its fascination for the marvelous. our eye circulates around a flutter of leather and scaly wings. look for images in the folds of clothing. and damnation are found in most world faiths. Neither should be slave or master.Gods and Monsters OUR SACRED AND SECULAR need to visualize demons. happen to us. sculptures. Here. Schongauer is best known for his prints. In the Christian churches of Europe. Feeding this demand. When creating monsters. all of which originated as hundreds of drawings. Fantasy is most successful when founded on strong and familiar visual logic. which is to have eaten a nun—it inspired the drawing on p.
He would be graceless if he stood. Many students leave white backgrounds in their work. his lover a dog. such asinine behavior can be hereditary. F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A Spanish court painter printmaker and draftsman. This continuity enriches the making of art and our heritage. a Shoshone seeking guidance and power meditates at the sacred site of a petroglyph. plain wall suggests a blinkered view of nothing. Opposite. we see the international icon of stupidity. portraits. whose impassioned work begins with light tapestry cartoons. to Picasso's similarly tight. barren land rising like MYRIAD CHAINS RUN THROUGH ART HISTORY. hags. below. Visions experienced in front of the drawing sometimes instruct the making of a new one. crammed tightly at his desk. noisy seascape on p. Near the end of his life he made his "Black Paintings" on the walls of his home. a wave to join Achilles' chase of Hector. and exposed the superstitions. Violent white marks symbolizing Achilles' rage resonate with the energy of Twombly's script on p. In this ass. Opposite below. The well-dressed mule is cumbersome. and church murals. Aquatint Goya has drawn a learned man as an ass. rushing. Compare his dark. Saturn devouring his son. Goya later recorded the horrors of Napoleonic occupation. vanity. Paul Thomas's studies of Picasso and Twombly can be traced directly. and men clubbing each other to death. This act defines the vision and continues the line of spirit guides. reading from a book of asses. Francisco de Goya was a master of borrowing. it allows the mule to stand forward. In this softer aquatint he poses for his portrait Textured background The aquatint process has been used to great effect in making a gritty toned background. quoting great paintings and popular culture to add cunning twists to his satires. Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 1799 81/2 x 6 in (218 x 154 mm) FRANCISCO DE GOYA . and follies of court through copious graphic works including his best-known prints. Other drawn versions of this image are more savage and frightening. Pictorially. Goya's plainly textured gray background pushes back the space behind the illuminated simply subject. Los Caprichos. deranged masses.220. The high.30. They depict as if by lamplight the devil and witches.240 GODS AND M O N S T E R S Marks of Influence marking the influence of one artist upon another. The title "And So Was His Grandfather" adds that should we not already know. which can swamp the subject Here.
Achilles Chases Hector 1996 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) PAUL THOMAS SHOSHONE PETROGLYPH The Shoshone people of Wyoming name petroglyph sites Poha Kahni. values. Parallel lines within the body of the figure are likely to denote power. Wind River Reservation. It was made with a sharp implement. Simple wall stones cleverly state their cold solidity while also fading from our attention as the scene roars by. perhaps a stone. Graphite marks Here Achilles chases Hector around the walls of Troy before killing him. ideals. of the earth. Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range UNDATED ARTIST UNKNOWN . Thomas conducts his explorations in the mine of Greek and Roman mythology. White marks like flashes of light are cut though graphite with an eraser to reveal the paper beneath. Wyoming. or of the water Chipped image This is a sacred creature of the sky chipped onto rock at Dinwoody Lake.241 MARKS OF INFLUENCE PAUL T H O M A S British contemporary artist whose epic graphic work questions and reflects upon issues of European identity. meaning "place of power." Each sacred image drawn into rock belongs to one of three realms in the Shoshone world: the realm of the sky. A vivid spectrum of energized graphite marks and a masterly composition give this drawing vitality and speed. by a supplicant in a trance of meditation. and personal and social struggles.
Our subconscious can be drawn with pleasure and ease. Redon's eyeball balloon rises up. and scuttle over all known reality. They float toward us like a horrid visitation. as he did the grass. below left. ODILON REDON French painter draftsman. We may feel safe so long as the eye looks heavenward. Techniques demonstrated on pp. The Eye Like a Strange Mounts Balloon 165/8 x131/8in (422 x 332 mm) ODILON REDON 1882 Toward Infinity . If it were to turn and stare this way. Redon explored the darker side of the human imagination through symbols and mysticism. to the right of the balloon. we see parallel slanting pale marks that might have been made with fresh bread—a very effective eraser used before the wide availability of rubber or plastic. H e was influenced by his friends. Lifting out Fine strings of the hot-air balloon appear dark against the sky and light against the balloon.242 MONSTERS of the unknown is a classical and constant occupation for the artist. T H E EXPLORATION AND DEPICTION Hauntings Grandville has drawn a scurrying zoo of half-known demons and animals that appear to have been stolen from the glass eye of the microscope. graphic artist. crawl. the writers Joris-Karl Huysmans and Stephane Mallarme. which sometimes—half-dressed and carrying a familiar trophy— stride. the shock would be extreme. Compare worked textures throughout the whole of this image to those found throughout Anita Taylor's charcoal drawing on p. lifting its cranial passenger over a seascape of repose. and writer In contrast t o the light and visual accent of contemporary Impressionism. Here we see how he evolved their injuries into new limbs and warped proportions. Children are also delighted to invent a monster or ghoul. Redon lifted them out with some sort of eraser.and 16th-century Holland. The monsters of Bosch grew from his observations of beggars going about their trade in 15th. 115. GODS AND Erasure In this charcoal drawing.204-05 will enable you to produce a similar effect of white lines shining out of dark charcoal.
Smiling. Les Animaux (1840). Comic little headbands of waving hair express more hysteria than fear. Two Monsters UNDATED 45/8 x61/2in (117 x 163 mm) HIERONYMUS BOSCH . His other major works include Metamorphoses du Jour (1828). Quill and ink This typical Bosch monster is a quill drawing in bistre ink The phrasing of light and contour here is masterly. The quality of the line is therefore uniform throughout. grimacing. and he illustrated the Fables of La Fontaine and Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe.243 J E A N I G N A C E ISIDORE GERARD ("GRANDVILLE") French graphic artist and political satirist. Madrid. teeming with the exhilaration of unrestrained fantasy. include The Haywain. and Ship of Fools. Light shines from the right. Most of his work is in the Prado Museum. which is still available today. A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects c. Last Judgment. sucker-faced creatures dash and trundle toward it They are drawn solidly to emphasize their earthbound weight. 1840 61/8 x41/2in ( 1 5 5 x 1 1 5 mm) GRANDVILLE HIERONYMUS BOSCH Dutch painter Bosch's highly detailed iconographic religious panel paintings. HAUNTINGS Engraving This is an engraving made so that Grandville's original drawing could be reproduced. This image is from one of Grandville's best-known publications. Garden of Earthly Delights.
and marble sculptures including Pieto. Opposite. remembering the cavernous. a stunning hybrid of a swan. His entire drawing wrestles and weaves the viewer's eye into its retracting folds. However. snake. They share between them the pleasures of inventing a hybrid beast. Grimes found the genesis of her beast not among animals. topple. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI Florentine painter sculptor. pinnacled. St Peter's square. Scaly. and dog. architect. In her studio. Chalk and ink A quill dipped in brown ink was worked over black chalk on this reused sheet. and mist-swathed land. she formed a series of ghostly pale. hatched lines.244 GODS AND MONSTERS Convolutions THESE CONVOLUTED DRAWINGS were made almost 5 0 0 years apart. wraps and coils its lithe body ready to strike or whimper at a touch. Michelangelo's dragon. gamboling copulations. sometimes artists purposefully tie a knot in the configuration to disturb. phrased over the contours of form and bridging darker areas of shadow. poet. below. the dome of the Vatican. lion. and engineer Among Michelangelo's great works are the painted ceiling and altar wall of the Sistine Chapel. but in the seductive landscape of Leonardo da Vinci's oil painting Madonna of the Rocks. and play with its perfection and meaning. as we might expect. and dying slaves. Grimes' delicately cavorting figures dive into and consume each other. David. muscular tension is carved out of the paper using layered. Two previously drawn faces become humorous antagonists to the beast. Dragon 1522 10 x 133/8 in ( 2 5 4 x 3 3 8 m m ) MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI . A snake eating its own tail is a universal image of the eternal and continuous.
her under heavy here. boards finished paper. Oxford. London. each one iridescent and crumbly like a weathered while oyster. London. It is one of a series of fragile earth figures inspired by rocks. details evolved slowly using a drier brush. How Clever of God #84 2002 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) O O N A GRIMES . Grimes exhibits internationally and features in the collections of the New York Public Library and the Victoria and Albert Museum. Ink-wash delicately gouache (smooth) and gouache brushed drawing on This is a and was hot-pressed Shadows The dark shadow of the Other the ink-wash earth was made with a brushstroke of ink laid into wet paper. and the Camberwell and Slade Schools of Fine Art. The large space around figure has been cropped Grimes drawings to flatten presses them.245 CONVOLUTIONS O O N A GRIMES British contemporary artist and professor of printmaking at the Ruskin School. The image formed directly without first making a pencil outline.
return them to their pointed shape. JAPANESE PAINTING BRUSH: Made with natural hair. and effects. this brush has a soft drawing tip and small ink-holding capacity. It is capable of very fine pointing. dense. and writers. SYNTHETIC-HAIR LINER: This brush gives a medium line and is firm with a spring to the touch. flowing. SABLE-HAIR RIGGER: Made with very long kolinsky sable hairs. It has exceptional painting characteristics. and has a fine tip for detailed work. between them. thicknesses. Slightly less flexible than the squirrel-hair sword liner 9. materials. P O I N T E D T R A D I T I O N A L WRITER: The ferrule is made from a small duck quill. needle-sharp center of kolinsky red sable hair. POINTED SQUIRREL-HAIR MOP: With a synthetic quill ferrule and extra high inkholding capacity. ideally suited to drawing. SYNTHETIC-HAIR BRUSH: Bound in a synthetic ferrule with good inkholding capacity and good spring and control. others are as fine as a whisker with a gentle touch. it has good inkholding capacity and is very flexible. 3. shape. with a fine point for delicate work 4. Shorter brushes designed for other purposes run out of ink more quickly. and hold prodigious weights of ink or paint. washes. and wrist into a fluid and soft touch. Some are bold. L A R G E R S Y N T H E T I C . it has good wash capabilities. and very fine lines. giving a variety of lines.246 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brushes T H E BRUSH IS A VOLUPTUOUS and delicate weights. Always clean them thoroughly. 7. drawing tool extending the arm. and never leave them standing on their tip in a jar of water. This brush has a broad wash capability and can achieve a very wide range of marks. Brushes vary in size. Soaps purchased from good art supply stores will gently cleanse particles of pigment that become trapped in the hairs or ferrule.H A I R LINER: Very responsive oriental-style liner This to the touch. Suitable for wash techniques but also capable of very fine detail. SYNTHETIC-HAIR S W O R D LINER: A lining brush with high ink-holding capacity and a fine point. the very opposite of pencil or silver point. which holds long sable hair This brush holds large amounts of ink for long lines and points well for detailed work. The living marks of a wet. SABLE-HAIR LINER: Made with ordinary sable hair surrounding an extralong. S Y N T H E T I C . liners.H A I R RIGGER: Made with long synthetic hair for fine-point work It has a good ink-holding capacity and is slightly more resilient than sable hair with more "snap. M T RA S AEIL . 1." 6.Theyhold plenty of ink and make continuous. This design supplies the fine tip with a long continuity of ink 5. The brushes shown here are a mixture of This is a selection of riggers. SMALL JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with sable hair. 2. 12. all perfect for drawing and. ink-laden tip allow an expression that is beyond the linear. SQUIRREL-HAIR S W O R D LINER:This brush has a maximum ink-holding capacity and an extremely fine and flexible point 8. making rt ideally suited to Japanese painting and small-scale calligraphy. Some used by master calligraphers are 2-3 in (5-8 cm) in diameter 11. 10. How you care for your brushes will determine how long they last. 13. It is still relatively small in the total range of Japanese brushes. fingers. LARGER JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with natural hair held in a plastic ferrule on a bamboo handle. and texture.
247 BRUSHES .
35) into two tablespoons of water in a shallow.) I . and above all w h e t h e r the b r u s h is saturated with pigment or relatively dry.248 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brush Marks A S I N G L E BRUSH will m a k e an e n o r m o u s range of m a r k s depending u p o n the width. I rubbed a block of Chinese ink (see p. the texture and a b s o r b e n c y of the paper ( w h i c h m a y be d a m p or dry). I had left the end of the ink block in the water overnight to make it easier to dissolve. SETTING UP Blowing spots T h e s e t h r e e s p i d e r y c r e a t u r e s (above right and below) w e r e m a d e by d r o p p i n g s p o t s o f ink f r o m a b r u s h o n t o t h e p a g e and. and type of its hairs.246-47). unglazed earthenware dish. length. the degree of pressure applied. w i t h m y face close. It also depends on the angle at w h i c h it is held. and spatters. Here I drew with a soft Japanese painting brush (see pp. A single brush has almost balletic potential to draw fine or undulating lines and curves. splashes. b l o w i n g h a r d o n t h e m several t i m e s t o disperse t h e ink ( c l o s e y o u r eyes if y o u t r y this. softness. and to make pools and stains o n the page. the speed of the s t r o k e .
a n d b r u s h . . BRUSH MARKS Wet and dry strokes A m o n g these concentrated drawings ink made into with the same w a t e r y lines. t h e effects of the b r u s h r u n n i n g o u t o f ink. w e see fine lines and s p o t s . a n d t h e w a y it d i s t r i b u t e s w h e n t h e b r u s h is d a b b e d o n its s i d e .249 Gritty texture T h e details o f t h e largest creatures b e l o w and opposite s h o w the granular texture of Chinese b l o c k ink. b l e e d i n g f r o m strokes b e l o w left.
and used their detail to draw new creatures that might at first seem familiar. Oxford.Monsters THESE LITTLE CREATURES o f i n k and i n v e n t i o n were b o r n out of animal and bird studies. until we look again. I borrowed small and fragile specimens from the University Museum of Natural History. .
thin works made by Bartolome Murillo in Seville about 120 years earlier. I found relationships between all four paintings in terms of shapes. With further research. Goya often invented his monsters out of characters seen in other painters' works. Through studying and drawing these great paintings I have discovered that they are based on a pair of similarly long. Madrid.Goya's Monsters W I T H CUNNING BRILLIANCE. Here. . are two long. two of my own drawings show you how Goya's devil (below) is based on the shape of Murillo's boy on a horse (top right). Among his "Black Paintings" in the Prado Museum. thin works titled The Witches' Sabbath and The Procession of St. and narrative twists. formal composition. showing us that gallery study is not just for the student and beginner. Isidore. Goya's witches have been literally drawn and evolved out of the shapes of Murillo's prophet and pilgrims. They are a pair and hang opposite each other.
Consumed THIS IS A SERIES OF CARTOONS I m a d e s o m e years ago. . little comments on politeness and sexual politics. Sometimes drawings come out of nowhere and surprise even the artist. drawn rapidly and with great joy.
a n d attaches t h e m t o t h e s u p p o r t — f o r example. Fauvism A n early 2 0 t h . r a t h e r t h a n r e c o r d e d o n a film o r plate. Chiaroscuro A 1 7 t h .c e n t u r y painting m o v e m e n t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e use o f b o l d . Fixative Liquid acrylic resin a n d l a c q u e r t h i n n e r usually a p p l i e d as a n a e r o s o l s p r a y m i s t t o t h e surface o f a d r y . p r a c t i c e d meditatively w i t h a brush. Fixative lightly glues t h e d r a w i n g t o t h e surface o f t h e p a p e r t o p r e v e n t smudging. A h u m o r o u s d r a w i n g o r parody. W o r d s o r symbols are Cold-pressed papers P a p e r manufactured with a "not" o r " r o u g h " surface. usually at a n a c u t e angle t o t h e s u r f a c e . w h e n v i e w e d f r o m a specified point. and readymade objects arranged and stuck o n t o a flat surface. t h e l i g h t is b e h i n d h i m o r her. chance mark-making. pastel. T h e b l a n k e t s g i v e t h e p a p e r its rough texture o r "tooth. Cartoon 1. A g e n e r a l t e r m t h a t describes t h e various processes o f c u t t i n g a design i n t o a plate o r b l o c k o f m e t a l o r w o o d . so t h a t ink r e m a i n s o n l y in t h e g r o o v e s o f s c r a t c h e d lines. It can also seal a silver p o i n t d r a w i n g t o p r e v e n t t h e oxidization (browning) o f t h e Drypoint A d r a w i n g is s c r a t c h e d directly o n t o a m e t a l plate w i t h a m e t a l t o o l h e l d like apen. o f t e n d i s t o r t e d forms and vivid colors. o r will o n l y a p p e a r n o r m a l . Contre jour A F r e n c h t e r m m e a n i n g " a g a i n s t day. Aerial perspective The effect of the a t m o s p h e r e o v e r distance as it lightens t o n e s a n d cools c o l o r s progressively t o w a r d t h e horizon. Blotting T h e use o f a b s o r b e n t m a t e r i a l t o lift a w a y excess liquid. a n d g r a p h i t e . tapestry. w h e n a p e r s o n is p a i n t e d standing a g a i n s t a w i n d o w . m e a n i n g "beauty". Eye level T h e i m a g i n a r y h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e a t t h e s a m e h e i g h t as t h e a v e r a g e p e r s o n ' s eyes. D a m p p a p e r is laid o n t o p . S o m e t i m e s f e r r u l e s a r e m a d e o f plastic o r o t h e r materials. o r o t h e r (usually large) w o r k — s e e Pouncing. T h e m o v e m e n t was started by a g r o u p o f French artists including H e n r i Matisse. written with a broad-nibbed pen o r brush.m a d e paper. Bracelet shading C u r v e d parallel lines t h a t f o l l o w t h e c o n t o u r s o f f o r m ." " N o t " p r e s s e d p a p e r is r o l l e d a s e c o n d t i m e w i t h o u t blankets t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders t o p r o d u c e a s m o o t h e r b u t still slightly t e x t u r e d s u r f a c e . Binder A substance t h a t holds particles o f p i g m e n t t o g e t h e r in a paint f o r m u l a t i o n . p r i n t i n g press face up. Engraving 1. Erasure T h e a c t o f r e m o v i n g a n i m a g e f r o m a surface. s u c h as a d r a w i n g o r painting. F r o m t h e G r e e k kallos. Conservation grade D e s c r i b e s a range o f materials t h a t d o n o t d e c a y and cannot be broken d o w n by insects. Bleed T h e e f f e c t o f t w o w e t colors running into one another o r o n e color applied t o a w e t surface a n d a l l o w e d t o d i s p e r s e . In t h e Far East calligraphy is a highly r e s p e c t e d a r t f o r m . linseed oil o r egg y o l k Caricature A representation Contour line A line t h a t f o l l o w s t h e s h a p e o f a surface. R o u g h p a p e r is m a d e b e t w e e n t w o blankets t h a t . pressurized t o o l used f o r spraying fine mists o f s m o o t h c o l o r P i g m e n t is d e l i v e r e d b y a j e t o f air n o t t h e bristles o f a brush. It is p u t o n a Body color See Gouache. T h e name " n o t " simply refers t o t h e fact t h a t t h e cylinders are n o t h o t in t e m p e r a t u r e .The plate is t h e n r o l l e d w i t h ink a n d polished with a rag. Field In a t w o . s u c h as a s c r e e n . Ferrule T h e s h o r t m e t a l t u b e t h a t s u r r o u n d s a n d g n p s t h e hairs o f a p a i n t b r u s h a n d fixes t h e m t o t h e brush handle. in w h i c h parts o f an image are depicted v e r y brightly and dramatically against d a r k n e s s . A l s o called m u s e u m g r a d e . A f u l l . C o p p e r p l a t e engravings w e r e widely used t o r e p r o d u c e images b e f o r e p h o t o g r a p h y . U s e d as a c o r r e c t i n g device o r pictorial game. Also called accelerated perspective." D e s c r i b e s a p a i n t i n g in w h i c h t h e light s o u r c e is b e h i n d t h e s u b j e c t F o r e x a m p l e . A l s o c a l l e d t h e h o r i z o n line. L a t e r it c a m e t o m e a n h i g h l y c o n t r a s t e d light effects. A " s h a l l o w d e p t h o f field" m e a n s t h e p i c t u r e appears t o have only a shallow s p a c e inside i t Diffuse T o s o f t e n o r m a k e less brilliant. Collage C o l l e c t e d materials such as c o l o r e d p a p e r s . A l s o called r i n g l e t shading. Anamorphic distortion Stretching an i m a g e across a p i c t u r e surface so t h a t it can o n l y b e u n d e r s t o o d . Acid-free paper P a p e r w i t h a neutral p H t h a t will n o t darken o r d e t e r i o r a t e excessively w i t h age. F r o m t h e French v e r b coller. for example. t o g e t h e r w i t h a t h i c k felt b l a n k e t T h e w h o l e s a n d w i c h o f l a y e r s is t h e n railed t h r o u g h t h e press t o m a k e a p r i n t D r y p o i n t is a very portable and immediate m e t h o d o f printmaking. m e a n i n g " t o stick" Dry media M e d i a t h a t a r e n o t w e t o r o i l y — f o r e x a m p l e . charcoal. Blending M e r g i n g t w o o r m o r e neighboring colors o r tones t o g e t h e r using a tortillon.s i z e d r a w i n g m a d e for t h e purpose o f transferring a design t o a painting. R e m b r a n d t is a great master o f chiaroscuro. A p o t e n t i a l l y h a r s h m e t h o d o f p r o d u c i n g t o n e s in a d r a w i n g . in w h i c h t h e subject's distinctive features o r peculiarities are deliberately exaggerated f o r c o m i c o r g r o t e s q u e effect. Camera lucida A n optical device t h a t p r o j e c t s an image o f an o b j e c t o n t o a plain s u r f a c e so t h a t it can be traced. a n d given t h e n a m e Sho. In t h e W e s t p e n calligraphy is u s e d t o c r e a t e f o r m a l a n d d e c o r a t i v e t e x t s . Calligraphy Beautiful h a n d w r i t i n g ." It w a s first given t o t o n a l paintings m a d e in o n e c o l o r — s e e Grisaille. T h e prints t a k e n from t h e s e plates o r blocks.m e d i a d r a w i n g . t h e field is t h e a p p a r e n t a n d b e l i e v a b l e space inside t h e p i c t u r e . p h o t o g r a p h s .c e n t u r y Italian t e r m m e a n i n g "clear-obscure. Air brush A mechanical. See also Hotpressed papers. 2. n e w s p a p e r cuttings. Deckle edge T h e i r r e g u l a r e d g e o f a s h e e t o f m o l d . 2. as o p p o s e d t o t h e s t r a i g h t e d g e o f a sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has b e e n machine-trimmed. A i r b r u s h e s are u s e d in t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c o m i c s . Crosshatching Parallel lines d r a w n across o n e a n o t h e r at right angles. Camera obscura A d a r k e n e d c h a m b e r i n t o w h i c h an i m a g e o f w h a t is o u t s i d e is received t h r o u g h a small o p e n i n g o r lens a n d f o c u s e d in natural c o l o r o n a facing surface.256 GLOSSARY Glossary Accidental drawing Random. Composition T h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e p a r t s o f an i m a g e t o m a k e u p the whole. a r e r o l l e d t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders.d i m e n s i o n a l i m a g e .
and masking off areas of a drawing that the artist wishes to keep untouched by media applied above or beside the tape. rock.The degree to which detail is defined. to describe a surface to which paint will adhere readily. Monoprinting A direct method of printing in which wet medium (water-. Dark tones are laid down first then an eraser or masking tape is used to lift away particles of the drawing media to reveal the lightness of the paper beneath. but each print will be unique. A small image might be described as small format Horizontal images are often said to be "landscape format" (abbreviated G u m arabic The natural to"landscape"). or a family of colors. This effect emulates what we see in real life. F o r m The outer surface of a three-dimensional object. format" (abbreviated to "portrait"). Picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. pastel. Also used by artists' materials manufacturers to indicate the use of a substitute pigment—for example. Fugitive A term given to a pigment that it is not stable. and gray drawing. or a drawing made in any single color GLOSSARY Linear perspective A form of perspective in which parallel lines are represented as converging. Foreshortening A method of depicting an object at an angle to the surface of the picture. it is the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work Pigment Any substance used as a coloring agent—for example. Giotto's Virtues and Vices in the Arena Chapel. Ground A wet solution usually of gouache or gesso (chalk and animal glue) brushed onto paper board. Hot-pressed papers (HP) Paper made using hot cylinders.while secretion of the acacia tree. work. which has a rough surface). or can be otherwise used to create an image—for example. Paper is laid on top and a rapid drawing is made on the back of it The paper lifts away to reveal the image on its other side. to give the illusion of depth and distance. cadmium yellow hue. or even a beam of light. oil-based printing ink is rolled evenly onto a smooth metal. Rubens used grisaille to paint small images for engravers. the surface of the stone is made wet before being rolled with a thin film of oilbased printing ink. Lightfast A term confirming that pigment in the product will not fade with exposure to light. Impressing Stamping or printing. or canvas and allowed to dry before an image is drawn or painted. or synthetic material that are suspended in a medium to constitute paint. the finely ground particles of plant. After several intervening processes. upright images are called "portrait which is used as a binding agent in many liquid media. It is then peeled away. and is also used as a size. Paper is then pressed against the stone to take a print. shape. The ink attaches to the oil-based image and is repelled by the wet stone." A piece of paper is placed on top of an object or rough surface. aiming to represent facts rather than an interpretation of the subject. Papercut A type of collage in which flat sheets of paper are cut into an image. Also refers to an additive used to control the application properties of a color Golden Section A proportion in which a straight line or rectangle is divided into two unequal parts in such a way that the ratio of the smaller part to the greater part is the same as that of the greater part to the whole. materials that produce marks on a surface. The surface can be reloaded or redrawn with more medium. used for fixing paper to walls and boards.257 metal line. Grisaille A painting in gray or a grayish color Often made by students as a tonal exercise. It improves the bonding properties Frottage A French term meaning "rubbing. or spirit-based) is applied to a surface that is then pressed onto paper and removed to leave a print. but in picture-making it is as important as the objects/subjects themselves. and orientation of the image. and translucent paper—a delicate material used in collage. and it has a history in enamel work. then rubbed over carefully but vigorously with a crayon. Padua. Gamut A complete range or extent Glassine A type of thin. Grisaille is occasionally seen in church stained-glass windows. enabling them to stick to paper It also helps to maintain a stable dispersion of pigment particles in water as the film of a wash dries. and by artists representing stone sculptures in a painting. multiH u e A term for a color. purpose. lifting out charcoal and other dry media. of the ingredients in inks and watercolors. Focus 1 . Monochrome Usually refers to a black. or for wrapping and protecting a finished piece of work. Lifting out A method of creating highlights and mid-tones in a drymedia drawing (such as charcoal or graphite). and that will "escape" or change over time. This method incorporates the excitement of accidental and unpredicted marks. 2. Hairspray is an effective and inexpensive alternative. Masking fluid Clear or opaque latex fluid developed for watercolor painting. sticky paper tape. Hatching (cross-) See Crosshatching.Theground provides a particular color or texture beneath the image. glass. so that (using vanishing point perspective) the object appears to change shape and become narrower or smaller as it recedes. Lithography A method of printmaking in which a drawing or painting is made directly onto a smooth slab of particular limestone or a metal plate using an oilbased crayon or ink. .The paper then bears a crayon impression or copy of the surface that was underneath it A number of Surrealists. or plastic surface. It is a strong adhesive. are painted in grisaille and appear to be made of stone. glossy. Alternatively. mineral. oil-. Artists can paint freely over dry masking fluid. white. Medium A generic term for art Key A painting is said to be "high key" when the colors and tones are bright and "low key" when they are dark or somber The term is also used Gouache Opaque watercolor Also called body color. It can be used with any wet media to isolate or protect parts of an image from further Optical blending See Pointillism. with the area beneath remaining unaffected. including Max Ernst used frottage in their work. This may be disregarded in real life. Objective drawing Refers to the concept of objectivity. Usually an academic drawing observed from life. Negative space The space between things. ink. F o r m a t T h e size. Pointillism A technique of using points or dots of pure color in such a way that when the picture is viewed from a distance they react Masking tape Invaluable. graphite. which give it a smooth surface (as opposed to cold-pressed paper. A point of interest in a drawing. Plumb line A line from which a weight is suspended in order to determine verticality or depth.
Technicaldrawing has been example. A term borrowed from the theater. Viewpoint The position from which something is observed or considered. Pouncing If a large drawing or design (called a cartoon) is to be Shadow Darkness cast by the transferred to a surface such as a obscuring of light. The translucent Tint A color mixed with white. Pounce (a fine for an unpopular 18th-century powder of charcoal or similar French politician. Serigraphy Silk-screen printing. Spattering A mottled texture produced by drawing your fingers across the bristles of a stiff brush loaded with pigment. a sheet of paper is placed beneath and pinpricks are Silhouette A flat. by imposing a grid that is then scaled up to a larger size. Wash A technique using ink. plum blossom. Etienne de material) dabbed through the Silhouette (1709-67). Technical drawing A universal it is often used in conjunction language of lines and measurements with line drawings in pen and that is used to make diagrammatic ink—for images. or gouache. Vanishing point In linear perspective. or wood. an ink stone usually cut from slate. or mark using an inked or pigment-covered surface. Named paper in place. "Spirits" or "oil" of turpentine refer to the volatile portion used by artists to thin or dilute oil-based paint. Stylus A sharp. creating more vibrant effects than if the same colors were physically mixed together with a brush. acrylic.258 GLOSSARY together optically. fine paper. Alternatively. design. tight. Tortillon A short. Size A weak glue used for filling the porous surface of wood or canvas in order to seal it. plaster or cloth surface beneath. which are then called editions. Stippling Applying color or tone in areas of fine dots or flecks.Thedrawing is removed. Recto The front or top side of a piece of paper. carbon ink. and chrysanthemum—which in Chinese tradition are called "The Four Gentlemen. Zen brushwork This is an oriental meditative art form originating in China and practised for many centuries in Japan. a point at which receding parallel lines meet Verso The back or underside of a piece of paper. wall or tapestry. Zen A school of Mahayana Buddhism that asserts that enlightenment can come through meditation and intuition rather than faith. using a brush. to model areas of light and shade. Subjective drawing A drawing that expresses the personal view and interpretation of the artist An invented image. Artists' prints are normally made in multiple. nature of watercolor allows the white surface of the paper to Tonal scale A scale of gradations shine through. paper or canvas. or the left-hand page in a book. Underdrawing A pale preliminary drawing made prior to adding layers of another medium such as oil paint or watercolor Value The extent to which a color reflects or transmits light This is the equivalent of tone in a black and white image. or any physical object that can be stamped or pressed onto a surface to leave an impression. Although drawings can be made with wash alone. Support The structure on which an image is made—for example. such as an inscribed sheet of metal. evolved by engineers and architects for the purpose of conveying W a t e r c o l o r A painting accurate structural information. or ceramic glazing to reveal a different color beneath. giving it a brilliance. fruit. whose pinpricks creates a "connect-thepersonal pastime was making dots" replica of the image on the cut-out portraits. or pen. Strip Core of a pencil. ink. Volume The amount of space occupied by an object or an area of space in itself. watercolor. Zen paintings usually depict scenes of nature and plants such as bamboo. Shade A that is color mixed (or toned) with black Shading A lay term for adding tone to a drawing. or watercolor paint. plaster. Zen brushwork encompasses calligraphy and painting. pointed instrument used for marking or engraving. Props An abbreviation of the word properties. The crude material is called oleoresin. Squeegee A rubber-trimmed scraper used in the screenprinting process for dragging ink across a surface. in tone running from black to white or vice versa. Tone A degree of lightness or darkness. glasses. pointed roll of white paper that is used to blend dry media. cut-out profile made along every outline of the usually made in black paper image. Squaring up A method of enlarging and transferring an image from one surface to another. and paperweights. or the right-hand page in a book. Sketch A quick or rough drawing. meaning objects used in setting up a life model or still life. and flowers. pencil. Still life A picture composed of inanimate objects such as bowls. usually diluted with water and applied with a brush. in order to flick the pigment onto the image surface. compound of water-soluble pigment. commonly referred to as the lead. or point on which parallel lines converge to give the impression of receding space. a tightly folded piece of cotton batting can be used for the same effect. W e t media Any liquid media— for example. orchids." Materials for Zen brushwork include round brushes of varied size. Sfumato An Italian term meaning "smoky. . sometimes drawn from a and leaving only the pricked sheet of shadow cast on a wall. Printmaking The act of making a picture. Scale Describes the size of one element in relation to another Sepia A brown pigment taken from the sun-dried ink sacs of cuttlefish and used to make ink or watercolor The term is now often incorrectly used to refer to brown colors." Applied to the blurring or softening of sharp outlines by the subtle and gradual blending of one tone into another Sgraffito A technique of scratching or cutting through a surface of paint. Single-point perspective The most basic form of linear perspective in which there is only one vanishing point. Turpentine A colorless solvent distilled from the resinous sap of pine trees.
38-39. 244 head and neck 144 phrased 124-125 contrast: brightness 99 of media 30 tonal 96. 206 checkered floor 80.184. 223 Circular Score for "Due Voce" 223 children's art 9.115 anatomical drawing 134-135 anatomical theaters 82-83 anatomical waxes 128 ancient carvings 221. 71 Blake. 50. 29 Hugo's octopus 28. Jean Michel 138 Self-Portrait 138 Bateau-Vision. 203 Claude Lorrain 202 Views from Velletri 202. 81 135.163 body. 113 bird bones 12. 75. 75 Circle of the Lustful (Blake) 180. 200 Bauer. William: The Circle of the Lustful 180. 163. 202 cloth. to depict 156-157 Cloudburst of Material Possessions (Leonardo) 200. 242 Brunelleschi. center of 118 ballpoint 182.133. 128. Statue d'Epouvante 90 calligraphy.212 to erase 205 to hold 23 pencils 204 willow 114. 247-248 carving see lines. 74. 182. 95 Chair Cut Out (Woodfine) 94.198. Basilius 47 Beuys. 180 blending: color 133.27 turtles 42-43 aquatint 240 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels (Leonardo) 12. 189. to draw 25. 222. 72 bracelet shading 122 Braque. 230 The Physical Space 220 abstract drawing 219. 220. 9. 70 Art Nouveau motifs 91 Autoportrait (Ray) 138. (Ross-Craig) 49 to hold brush for 23 caricature 159. 161 Akhlaq-I Rasul Allah manuscript 51. 158. 205 Baltard. 230-231 Cubist 90. Franz 48 Protea nitida 48 Bellini. Joseph 113 The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland 112. Filippo 67. 162 character: to capture 38-39.13. 201 collage 111. Giovanni 137 Head and Shoulders of a Man 136.44-45. 179 Bussotti. 8 cave paintings 8. Le (Hugo) 200.50.100 curves. to model 110-111 border 51 Bosch. Nicolas-Jacques 54 contours 146. 243 botanical drawing 48-49 Boullee. 41 principal 186. 139 Nanha) 50. 98. Augustin 67 Basquiat. Leon: Bacchante 155 balance. 81 cut-out model plan 94.51 All and Nothing (Taylor) 114. Sylvano 222. 137 Besler.162 Conte.117 Achilles Chases Hector (Thomas) 240. 203 Buffalo Hunt (Shoshone) 178. Etienne-Louis 72 Newton's Cenotaph 72.226. 26 geese 38-39 Gericault's cats 28. 226-227 Acanthus spinosus 65 accelerated perspective 22. to draw 80. 90 La Guitare. 134 costume(s) 155 character 158-159 structure of 166-167 Cottage Among Trees (Rembrandt) 52. 71 conte 112. 74 brush (es) 246-247 Japanese 248 for laying a wash 140 marks 248-249 to hold 23 brush drawings 14-15 Bryan. 204-205. 199 Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya (Eisen) 156. 71 Bacchante (Bakst) 155 background: color 91 textured 240 Baker Matthew: Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry 32 Bakst. Georges 67. 111. 94 cylindrical objects. 90. Zen c 232-233 blended 133. 52 cotton swabs 205 Coup de Vent a Asajigabare (Hokusai) 198.184.169 colors: airbrushed 161 background 91 A Abe. Victor: West Facade of the Church of St. layers 53 chalk pastels 162.31 Picasso's horse and bird 30. 204. 90 colored materials 162-163 colored pencils 162. Hieronymus 243 Two Monsters 242. 94 chalk(s) 53.163 graded 227 composition 56-57. 244 and graphite 178 . 74. Brian 226 Untitled 2001 226 "Cave of the Hands" (Cueva de las Manas) 8. 13. 242 to blend 205 compressed 122. cut Catling. 186 charcoal 114. 221 animals. 198. 30 sleeping dog 38-39 Stubbs's horse skeleton 26. to express 39. 90.89. 13 architectural drawing 67-71 Arctic Flowers (Libeskind) 70. 78 aerial perspective 206 airbrushing 160.186 see also movement Adoration of the Magi perspective study (Leonardo) 74. Mamaru 104. 180 Circular Score for "Due Voce" (Bussotti) 223 circus scenes 192-195 City (Bryan) 202. 241 action. 160 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object (Moore) 178. Clare 203 City 202. 157 cropping 56-57. 133.163 dry media 205 Blue Nude (Matisse) 110. 9 Chair (Van Gogh) 94. 178 Cubism 67. 165. 198 cartoon (preparatory drawing) 137 (satirical) 159. to draw 100 Cypripedium calceolus L. 28 Klee's horses 30.Index Page numbers in italics refer t o captions and illustrations Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity (Bishndas and 259 INDEX B bread (as eraser) 205. 40-41 Durer's rhinoceros 26.44-45 bird studies 12. 190 Caricature of a Woman (Daumier) 198. 116. 193 in lifting out 204. 250 Bishndas and Nanha: Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity 50. 203 Landline 202. 206.
202.141. 113. 112.216 Durelli. 93 eye level 80 Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity.104. Cheval et Oiseau (Picasso) 30.111 feet. Victor 200. position of 22 Eisen.230 three-tone 140. 157 . 99 etching. 765 hitsuzendo drawings 233 Hokusai. 240 Black Paintings 152. Alberto 136 Portrait of Marie-Laure de Noailles 136. Sir Ernst 12. to draw 168-169 in Goya's artworks face.103 with eraser 103. 93 horizon 52. 220 dry brush 234 234 57. 240 170-173 five Ships in a Port with Lighthouse (Wallis) 11. 241 to blend 205 and chalk 178 and ink 28. 222 Le Bateau-Vision 200.160. Edgar 162 depth. 115 Escher. 161 changing 216 Focusing on the Negative (Walter) 16 foliage 52. 26 Flying Fish (White) 25. 69.216. 125.166 170-173 Gestalt 222 Giacometti.116. 161 fashion drawings 160. 245 Hugo. 245 Gruau.103. 160 Faune. 25 focus 65.144 and ink 30. 134. 134. 132 Frenz. 124. 7 33 Hooke. 69 Guitare. 160 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction (Gaudi) 68. to draw 120. 163. Antonio 135 Muscles of the Head and Neck 134. 222. disposable pens 182-183 dissections: botanical 48 of horse 27 distance: illusion of see perspective linear 97 tonal 97 Documents Decoratifs. 120. 200 F fabric. 223 graphite 54.102-103 drawing board 20 drawing books 20-21 drawing paper 144. C . Hans 133 The Ambassadors 116 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 132. 240. Oona 245 How Clever of God #84 244. 799 Holbein. 160 as ground for metal point 140.184 165. The 242. 137 heads.Theodore 29 Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 28. to suggest 177 see also perspective diagonals diffuser 55 dip pens 188.8.131.52-253 from memory 183. 136 Golden Section 67 Gombrich. 91 Dragon (Michelangelo) 36. Antonio 68. Katsushika 199 Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 198.101 engraving 243 erasers/erasing 55. 141 tonal 96. 71 minimal line 99 and music 70-71 quick 38-39.91. Statue d'Epouvante.109 Rhinoceros 26.207. 122. Study for Plate 59 (Mucha) 90. 242 eyes. drypoint 181 exaggeration 184 expressionism 198 E ye and Head of a Drone Fly (Hooke) 92. 90 gouache 30. 161 fashion 160.244 drawing(s): abstract 219. 230 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction 68. Rene 160 Illustration for Jacques Fath E easel.121 felt-tip pens 162.97. 122 Hawksmoor. 77 How Clever of God #84 244. 226-227 anatomical 134-135 architectural 67-71 botanical 48-49 brush 14-15 dark to light 102.112. Nicholas 68 St Paul's Baptistry 68 head and neck to draw 142-145 Head and Shoulders of a Man (Bellini) 136. Robert 93 Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 92. Francisco de 131. 131 Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 240. to draw 78. 203 semi-abstract 234-237 three-dimensional 68. Ron 161 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 161 160.12 fixative 54. 190 Middle Eastern 50-51. to draw 134-137 Helleborus corsicus 55 highlights 91.37. 40. 90 G Gaudi. 252 depiction of fabric monsters 252-253 Self Portrait in a Cocked Hat 130.John 157 Man Lying Down in a Cloak 156. 223.69 Gerard.117 fountain pens 34. 216 foreshortening 110. 55.157 ellipses 100. 135 Duren Albrecht 26. 163. Jean Ignace Isidore see Grandville Gericault. 222 Grimes. 29 H hands. 73. 32 framing 139 Franfoise au Bandeau (Picasso) 132.244. 79.115 exploratory 17 fantasy 72-73. 55. 30 Fauves/fauvism 90. 245 layers 30 Goya. Keisai 157 The Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya 156.189. 170-173. 162 Flaxman. 205 drawing with 103. 104-105. 160 hitsuzendo 233 light to dark 102. 55. 41 in the round 208-209 with scalpel 202. position of 143.198 Degas. M. 134. 243 graphic score 222. proportions of 143 fantasy drawings 72-73. 69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt 68. fiber-tip pen 182. 203 Hotel de la Suzonnieres (Satie) 70. 37 Grandville 243 A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the Near-Microscopic World of Scale Insects 242. 69. 52 foreground 208.146 from masterworks 126-127. 144 Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (Baker) 32.260 INDEX D Dada 139 Daumien Honore 198 Caricature of a Woman 198. La (Braque) 90.
177 influences.115 98. Gustav 49 Knopf. 74-77. 76 Libeskind. I Murderous Attacks 33 Kollwitz. Victor 134 Profile Head 134. 72. Paul 227 Polyphonic Setting for White 226.91 Study for Plate 59 of INDEX illumination see lighting Illustration for Jacques Fath (Gruau) 160. 103 Neolithic chalk tablet 220.104. 34.182 Moore. 35. 28 Two Impressions from a Cut-out Paper Disk 222 Huyler Stephen R 225 261 Kinecar. 83 white 122 ink impressions 222 ink spatters 234 installations 176. Alphonse 90.120. 220.33 Mysterious Affairs of the lighting 2 7. 63. 99. 221 endless 31 free 113. David 78 M Mackintosh. 242 light 96 to depict drawing with 1 76 painting with 176 . 58-59. 73 Kigell. 159 Japanese 35 to make 36 sepia 35 walnut 36. 205 masterworks. 203. 166. 183 vertical 156 linear distance 97 linear perspective 69. drawing from 183. artistic 240-241. 37 lines 118 pastel 162 pencil 31. Bartolome: Moses Striking the Rock ofHoreb 252. 252 ink 16. 220. 226 Modernism 67.166 La Specola. 227 Scene of Comical Riders 30.181 L Landline (Bryan) 202. 60.141 Metropolis (film) 72. 205. Kathe 181 Losbrunch (The Outbreak) 180. 201 head and neck sections of female mold for Sforza Horse 89 Madonna of the Rocks 244 perspective study for Adoration of the Magi 74. 244 ink 36 252-253 Documents Decoratifs 90. Matisse. 54 silver point 156 leg sections 158 length. 34-35 acrylic 35 bistre 35. 53 Tree II 52. 135 museums 44.109.243 carbon 35 Chinese 30. Johan 32. 234 iron-gall 35. 77 Miller. 156 magnification 93 Man in Armor (Van Dyck) 158. 160 In the Duchess's Kitchen (Rackham) 176. 49 Rose 49 Maelbeke Madonna (Van Eyck) 156.141.Pieuvre (Octopus) 28. 244 lithograph 198 Losbruch (Kollwitz) 180. Oxford 106 Prado. 185 Mucha. 230 invented creatures 106-107 250-251 invented objects 89. 789.134 K Kettlehut. 220. 181 luminosity 115 Lynch. 203 landscape 206-208 brushed 14 Landscape in Hoboku Style (Sesshu) 14 layers 146 chalk 53 gouache 30 ink 28. 244. 181 Klee. 110 Sistine Chapel ceiling 116 Middle Eastern drawing 50-51. Oxford 250 music 70-71 Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks (Knopf) 32. 227 Newsome. 220. Rose: Tantalus or the Future of Man 20 minimal line drawing 99 mirror use of 120 mixed media 28. 244 Dragon 36. Henry 178 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object 178. 225 masking tape 204.124. Florence 128 lighting in 167 Pitt Rivers. 97 Murillo. Charles Rennie 48.276. Madrid 171 University Museum of Natural History. 78 Study ofThree Male Figures 110. 190 metal pens see dip pens metal point 184.108.40.206 to "bend" straight 97 compositional 228-229 cut 202. 249 and gouache 30 Indian 35. 53 monoprint 787. 73 Michelangelo Buonarroti 48. 219 Mondrian. 114 hatched 244 layered 118 pace of 65 pale 40 rapid 49. 248. Piet 52.112. 170-173.102. 33 J justness 228-229 N naive art 74 negative space 53. 163 pens 36 measuring 116 memory. Daniel 70 Arctic Flowers 70 Lieb. 184. 158 Man Lying Down in a Cloak (Flaxman) 156. Henri 111 Blue Nude 1110. 201 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels 12. 36. 756 priming for 140. 252 Muscles of the Head and Neck (Durelli) 134. drawing from 126-127. Phyll: hands 18 lifting out 204. apparent 97 Leonardo da Vinci 74.167 line(s) 132. Erich 73 design for Metropolis 72. 178 motifs: A r t Nouveau 9 7 stylized 51 mountains 216-217 movement: of animals 30-31 of humans 7 79.The (Robinson) 108. 757 mandalas 219. 13 Cloudburst of Material Possessions 200. 111. 176. Marie 244 cloth drawing 244. 31 Klimt.
772 234-237 Sesshu. 234 disposable 182-183 felt-tip 162.Tim. 34-35.2 3 age and youth sleeping subjects 148-149 150-151 Renaissance 109 Rhinoceros (Durer) 26. 165 figure 118 filled 37 pencil 48. 114 rollerball 182 Rorschach blot 99 Rose (Mackintosh) 48. 2 2 0 for oil pastels 162 stained 230 to stretch 140-141 tissue 21. 68 Satie. 4 8 putty eraser 55.Paul'sBaptistry (Hawksmoor) 68. Pablo 6 7 . 205 157. 74. Erik 70. 7 72 Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland. 36. 224 0 layers 31. 216. 227 portfolios 20 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser de Noailles (Holbein) 132. 160. 38. 38. 7 73 self-portraits: Basquiat 138. 181 Rodin. 37 38. 30 Fran<. 242 reed pens 34. 1 1 6 accelerated 2 2 .Toyo: Landscape in Hoboku . Bridget 98 Robinson. 9 0 .36. 36. 212 Japanese 2 1 .240. 36. 52 pens 36 scalpel 54 drawing with 202. 36 pen and brush 8 3 pen and ink 70. 74-77. 9 8 . Auguste 114 Two Women 114. J 76 nudes 114-115 to make 36 metal see dip quill 34. 76-79. 161.262 INDEX Newton.40.54 pastel 162 perspective 1 0 0 . 165. 181 pencil(s) 54 charcoal 204 colored 762. 734 Protea nitida (Bauer) 48. 81 two-point 74.The (Beuys) 112. 72 Noble. 239 Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 238.37 scientific instruments 9 2 . 7 77 three-point 80. 78 single-point 74. 7 38 Ray 138. 40-41. 122. 219.7 77 rapidograph 70 Raphael 110. 243. 1 6 3 .199 Profile Head (Newsome) oil pastels 162.139 Autoportrait 138. 759 P Page.oise au Bandeau 132. 91 outsider artists 33. 139 Real Life is Rubbish (Noble and Webster) 176. 103. to draw 146-147 R Rackham. 733 Portrait de Marie-Laure (Giacometti) 136.52 pen and wash 158. 7 70 Ray. Man 131.131 Cottage Among Trees 52. 36 relief printing 757 Rembrandt van Rijn 52. 26 Riley. 162 O p A r t 98 optical illusions 96-99 outline 33. 241 Physical Space. 159.37. Sue 104. 203 Scene of Comical Riders (Klee) 30. Arthur 177 In the Duchess's Kitchen 176. 141 Piranesi. 73 Noble. 244 Q s Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape (Wolfli) 2 79 St. 75 Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range 241 petroglyphs 221. 782 relief 757 silk-screen 739 woodblock 134. 166 fiber-tip 782. Faune. 163. Georges 112 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 112. 732 influence of 240 painting with light 78. 97.71 Hotel de la Suzonnieres 70.9 3 Schongauer. The (Abe) 220 Picasso. 1 3 2 quill pens 34. Martin 238. 36. 239 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat (Seurat) 112. Isaac 92 Telescope 92 Newton's Cenotaph (Boullee) 72. Heath 181 The Kinecar 180. 230 paper(s) 21 colored 162 drawing 144. Cheval et Oiseau 30.226. 164. 1 2 4 priming for metal point 140. 1 1 7 aerial 206 linear 69. 4 9 Rose of Mohammed 50. 71 Satire of the Queen's Dress (Wodall) 158. 76 plastic eraser 55. 36. 243.184 fountain 34. 28 pigment 162 bright 50 Caput Mortuum 7 4 7 for three-tone drawing 141.37. 75 Two Courtyards 75.759. 739 semi-abstract drawings Style 14 Seurat. Paul 73 Nobson Central 72. 57 Ross-Craig. Stella 48 Cypripedium calceolus L 49 rotated view 7 65 Rubens. 205 pointillism 112 polyphonic painting 227 Polyphonic Setting for White (Klee) 226. 736 portraits.141 prints/printing: aquatint 240 dry-point etching 181 engraving 243 monoprint 181. 1 1 6 . 230 parallel planes 79 Parisian street 86-87 pastels 162 to blend 205 to hold 23 layers 162 pencils 162 pen(s): dip 34 .104 Pieuvre (Hugo) 28. Giovanni Battista 74. Russell 228. 244 reed 34. and Webster. 1 6 9 to hold 2 2 . Odilon 242 The Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity 242.176 Real Life Is Rubbish 176. 7 76 receding space 206 Redon. Peter Paul 126-127 Embracing pose(s): balanced 146 quick 118-119 positive form 103 posture: of artist 22 of subject 3 8 .
79. 1 3 . 159 Wolfli. 1 4 5 travel journal 2 0 .5 3 in l a n d s c a p e 2 0 6 . 2 4 7 t h r e e .27 skull 747. Vincent 95 Chair 94.241 s i l k . 2 2 6 . 77. John: Focusing on the Negative 14 w a s h . Jan 1 5 6 Maelbeke Madonna 1 5 6 . v i e w s o f 85. 2 2 0 influence o f 2 4 0 Untitled 220. 69. 164. 240 Two Women Embracing ( R o d i n ) 114.243 Leonardo's machines 12. Taylor A n i t a 115 All and Nothing 1 1 4 .41. t o d r a w 5 2 . 2 9 wind. Study of (Michelangelo) 110. 1 4 0 .1 6 5 shorthand diagram 142 Shoshone buffalo hide painting 178. Adolf: Giant-Grape Saint-Mary-Castle 219 Woman at Her Toilet ( T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c ) 74 w o o d b l o c k print 157.1 9 9 wire. 156 layers 7 5 6 priming for 140. 161. 1 9 9 Two Courtyards (Piranesi) 75. 102-103 tonal marks. 202 violin.13 M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s m a l e figures 110. 1 8 4 . 9 2 Tesshu. 1 4 4 . 7 1 4 .1 4 5 .125 W o o d f i n e . t o d r a w 1 0 1 viewfinder 57 Views from Velletri ( C l a u d e L o r r a i n ) 152. 2 0 0 Ship in a Storm 1 9 8 . 2 1 2 . Sue see N o b l e . 1 4 1 w a t e r c o l o r 25. 2 7 studies: b i r d s 7 2 . 49. b l o w n 248 steel p e n s see d i p p e n s still life 89. T i m W e s t Fagade of the Church of St. 7 75 Telescope ( N e w t o n ) 9 2 . 2 3 4 . 96. 7 77. 1 9 9 . 199.d i m e n s i o n a l 1 0 4 . 241. Sarah 9 4 Chair Cut Out 94. phrased 146 tonal modeling 161 tonal range 169 t o n a l surfaces 2 2 7 tonal width 97 t o n e ( s ) 33. W . 725 fabric 1 6 8 T h o m a s . 158 V a n Eyck. h e a d a n d n e c k sections o f female m o l d f o r (Leonardo) 89 shading 2 9 s h a d o w s 28.120. t o lay 1 4 0 .1 8 5 Tree II ( M o n d r i a n ) 52. 1 6 6 t r a p e z i u s m u s c l e 142. 104-105. t o draw 1 9 8 . 1 6 . A n t h o n y 152. 230 t h r e e . 74.2 0 1 . 9 5 pens 36 v a n i s h i n g p o i n t 74. H e n r i de: Woman at Her Toilet 14 t r a n s p a r e n t v i e w 92. 186.t o n e d r a w i n g 140. 75 Skeleton of the Horse ( S t u b b s ) 26.1 4 1 . 7 6 1 spots. 221 . G e o r g e 2 7 Skeleton of the Horse 26.2 1 3 Stubbs. 174 T w o m b l y . 7 79 Shoshone petroglyph 240.Yamaoka 233 t e x t u r e 2 2 2 . t h r e e . 199 shoes 1 6 4 . 97.Sforza Horse. 1 7 7 free 8 0 V e n i c e . Paul 2 4 1 Achilles Chases Hector 2 4 0 . 245 sharpener 54 Ship in a Storm ( T u r n e r ) 1 9 8 . t o d r a w 2 0 0 . 1 2 Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse 71.J. 170 shoes 1 6 4 stylized m o t i f 51 Summer Flowers 63. 6 9 Wodall. A l f r e d 1 1 .199 tissue p a p e r 21. 115. 141 Three Male Figures. 7 70 Tiber 214-215 Untitled ( T w o m b l y ) 2 2 0 . 57.1 0 5 vision 9 6 Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects (Grandville) 242. 1 4 1 . 2 3 0 tonal contrast 96 tonal distance 9 7 t o n a l d r a w i n g 9 6 . 2 4 4 . 249 t o describe 39.158 158. Sarah: child's m a p 75. 1 8 4 .d i m e n s i o n a l d r a w i n g 68. M . 226 V Van Dyck.141 S i m b l e t . drawing with 104-105 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt ( G a u d i ) 68. 9 4 z Z e n calligraphy 232-233 contrast 96 t o grade 163 ink 37 pencil 5 4 t o r t i l l o n 205 T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c . 75. 243 (Bosch) T Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos ( G o y a ) 2 4 0 .12 W a l t e r .216 W e b s t e r . 156 Van Gogh.9 1 storms. 76. 53 trees.s c r e e n p r i n t i n g 139 silver p o i n t 1 4 0 . C y 138. William 159 Satire of the Queen's Dress INDEX 226. 206-207 202. 7 6 Two Impressions from a Cut-Out Paper Disk ( H u g o ) 2 2 2 Two Monsters 2 4 2 . 2 4 2 w Wallis. Man in Armor 1 5 8 . 4 4 boat 209 botanical 4 9 G e r i c a u l t ' s cats 2 9 from Goya 170-173 125. 2 2 7 Untitled 2001 ( C a t l i n g ) u 263 W h i t e . 182. John 25 Flying Fish 25 Wild Striped Cat Sketches of ( G e r i c a u l t ) 28. 9 0 . Augustin ( B a l t a r d ) 6 7 w e t and dry brush-strokes 2 4 9 Turner. 743 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City ( F r e n z ) 1 6 0 . 69. 7 9 0 vessels. 65 symbols 138.
6 6 : w w w . 75: © The British Museum (b)./© D A C S 2 0 0 5 ( t ) . Diana Bell. Angela Palmer. George M c G a v i n .bridgeman. Salisbury & South W i l t s h i r e M u s e u m ( t ) . 2 2 0 : Mamaru Abe. Amsterdam. NY. K e v i n a n d Rebecca Slingsby. Illustrated London News Picture Library/The Bystander (b). . support. A n n a P l u c i n s k a . 1 5 6 : Graphische S a m m l u n g Albertina. T h e R u s k i n School of D r a w i n g a n d Fine A r t . 139: Galerie Marion Meyer/© Man Ray Trust / A D A G P . 2 0 0 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. Toulouse. University of Oxford. Portugal. 1 9 : Getty Images/© Succession Picasso / D A C S 2 0 0 5 . Peter L u f f . Staatliche Museen z u Berlin. Clare Bryan. H e l e n S h u t t l e w o r t h . 17: J o h n Walter.Strang Print Room ( b ) . Also. J o h n Roberts. 13: www. Jean Pierre Roy. 2 8 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. Kirsten Norrie. 137: © The British Museum. Paul T h o m a s ( t ) . Germany/Joerg P. 7 1 : I M E C / A r c h i v e s E r i k Satie. 1 9 8 : Dover Publications. H a y w a r d Gallery.uk/Private Collection. 11: www. R u t h P a r k i n s o n . u k / O n Loan to the H a m b u r g Kunsthalle. 1975 ( 1 9 7 5 .co. 2 6 : Topfoto. L o n d o n .bridgeman. J a c k a n d Brian Catling. F i n n . Corporation of London. Paris. 1879. K u n s t m u s e u m . Sir Brinsley F o r d .l. Publisher's Acknowledgments Dorling Kindersley w o u l d like to thank Caroline H u n t for editorial contribution. O o n a G r i m e s . 9 0 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/© A D A G P . 2 4 4 : Ashmolean Museum. 30: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. 2 0 3 : Clare Bryan (t). b r i d g e m a n .bridgeman. Paris a n d D A C S . Sophie Laurimore. 2 4 : © T h e British Museum. G e r m a n y . Italy. 1 3 6 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Centre Pompidou-MNAM-CCI. H a m b u r g . Maureen Paley Interim Art (b). K u n s t m u s e u m Bern/© D A C S 2 0 0 5 . Flossie. c o . 1 .uk/Private Collection. J o h n Walter. B e r l i n . 2 1 8 : Adolf-Wdlfli-Stiftung. Anders/ © D A C S 2 0 0 5 . L o n d o n . 174: Artothek/Munich. A . Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (t). Anders. J o n Roome.264 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Acknowledgments Author's Acknowledgments: T h e author wishes to thank the following people for their enormous help. G i n a R o w l a n d . Roddy Bell. 1 5 4 : akg-images/Musee National d'Art Moderne. 181: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. H e a t h e r M c C a r r y . 1 3 8 : © Christie's Images Ltd/© A D AGP. Havemeyer.uk/Mucha Trust. 2 4 0 : w w w . 2 2 4 : P r i n z h o m Collection. 2 2 2 : Pierre Georgel/Private Collection. 199: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee des arts asiatiquesGuimet. 132: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. u k / T o k y o National M u s e u m . 1901. H ./Private Collection/© D A C S 2005. Berlin (b). 69: Institut Amatller d'Art Hispanic (tl).100. 2 4 1 : Corbis/David M u e n c h ( b ) .Paris ( b ) . 226: Brian Catling. Paris. 9 3 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library.bridgeman. 243: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. (r). S i m o n L e w i s . 7 0 : Studio Daniel L i b e s k i n d . b r i d g e m a n .r. Paris/ © Succession Picasso / D A C S 2005. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. Paris and D A C S . R o s e m a r y S c o u l a r . 2 4 2 : Photo Scala.939). France. Jackie Douglas. L o n d o n . © Tate. T o n y G r i s o n i . Berlin/Staatsbibliothek zu A l l other images © Sarah Simblet . Psychiatric Institute of the U n i v e r s i t y of Heidelberg. 2 2 3 : Lebrecht Music and Arts Photo Library/Ricordi. F r a n c e .uk /Biblioteca Nacional. L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . Christopher Davis. 113: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. 3 3 : Prinzhom Collection. Kunstmuseum Bern. 73: Berlin F i l m Museum (t). 2 2 7 : Paul Klee Stiftung. 16: www. M a n d y Earey. 2 3 8 : akg-images. R o y a n d D i a n n e Simblet. 1 6 0 : Rene G R U A U s. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. Paris. 9 5 : V a n Gogh M u s e u m . Picture Credits 8: Corbis/Hubert Stadler. Pamela Ellis for compiling the index. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. Paris a n d D A C S . Sarah D u n c a n . . Magdalene College Cambridge. L o n d o n . Inc. 5 0 : Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (1). Graphische Sammlung. papers. A . 158: Calouste Gulbenkian Museum. Carole A s h . Copyright Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens. a n d D e p a r t m e n t s o f E n t o m o l o g y a n d Zoology at the University of Oxford. Florence/MoMA. 72: akg-images. P h y l l Kiggell. 130: The Metropolitan M u s e u m of Art/Robert L e h m a n Collection. Basel. K a t h r y n W i l k i n s o n . Dover Publications/ISBN: 0486229912 (t). 1 5 9 : Bodleian Library. Anita Taylor.co. Agnieszka Mlicka.a. A n d y C r a w f o r d for p h o t o g r a p h y a n d L . O. 115: Anita Taylor. L o n d o n (t). c o . 111: Fondation Beyeler/Riehen (Bale)/© Succession H Matisse/DACS 2005. 9 2 : Science Photo L i b r a r y . a n d brushes o n pp.uk/Kettle's Yard. c o . Psychiatric Institute of the University of Heidelberg.uk /© Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery. L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 .bridgeman. L o n d o n . D a w n Henderson. 1 7 8 : © T h e British M u s e u m / H e n r y Moore F o u n d a t i o n . Carlo O r t u for picture research s u p p o r t . London 2005. 1 3 4 : © T h e British Museum. 157: U C L Art Collections . R . Sarah Woodfine.co. b r i d g e m a n . 88: www. Andy Crawford. Oxford. 29: Fogg A n Museum/Collections Baron de Vita: Grenville L. 1 0 8 : Arts C o u n c i l Collection. Paula Regan. Rocio Arnaez. 3 2 : Pepys Library. 5 3 : Collection of the Gemeentemuseum D e n Haag/Mondrian Trust. a n d encouragement i n m a k i n g this book: M a m o r u Abe. Natalie G o d w i n . and Tamsin Woodward Smith. B e r l i n . Paris. 112: Yale University A r t Gallery/Everett V Meeks. University of Cambridge. K e w ft)). 49: Hunterian Museum (t). Paris. for s u p p l y i n g the d r a w i n g books. 2 7 : Royal Academy of Arts.uk/Private Collection.co. 4 6 : B r i t i s h Library. Lisbon. Winthrop. 180: www. u k / L o u v r e . 1 1 0 : www.bridgeman.co. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin/Jorg P. Paul T h o m a s . London/Bequeathed by Charles Landseer. 1 6 1 : D C C o m i c s I n c . Patty Stansfield. Fund. 114: Musee Rodin. L e n . Japan. Julie O u g h t o n .co.co. 179: www. 1 3 3 : Artothek/Kupferstichkabinett. 74: Corbis. 51: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. B . 177: Mary Evans Picture Library. 2 0 2 : © T h e British Museum. 3 1 : Tom Powel Imaging. 4 8 : T h e N a t u r a l H i s t o r y M u s e u m . Sammy De Grave. 1 3 5 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. 9 7 6 ) . 5 2 : T h e Metropolitan Museum of Art/Bequest of Mrs. 1 9 6 : Museum of the History of Science. Angela W i l k e s . Wolfson College. 2 0 1 : T h e Royal Collection © 2 0 0 2 H e r Majesty Queen Elizabeth I I .bridgeman.20-21 a n d 246-47. Antonia Cunliffe Davis. London/courtesy of Stuart Shave.bridgeman.co.uk/British Museum. C o r n e l i s o n & Son. B M G . Madrid. B e m d Kunzig. 9 1 : www. 221: Gagosian Gallery/Private Collection (b). Orientabteilung/Ruth Schacht. U K . 9 4 : Sarah Woodfine. 1929 (29. G e r m a n y .co. Paris. 1 5 : w w w .uk/Musee des Augustins./Galerie Sylvie Nissen.bridgeman. U K . Productions Clovis Prevost (c). 176: Modem Art. 225: Stephen P Huyler.co. 68: www.uk/Guildhall Library. 2 4 5 : Oona Grimes. Germany.
Learn from the Masters—a rich selection of drawings illustrates different approaches to a wide range of subjects. charcoal. discover new ideas. and silverpoint—and apply the key elements of drawing including perspective.FOR THE ARTIST T h e c o m p l e t e g u i d e to drawing—a unique blend of practical teaching and inspirational insights into classic and contemporary drawings. shape. and improve your drawing skills. www. Creating a Sketchbook—Sarah Simblet's drawings inspire you to explore different subjects and fill your own sketchbooks.com Discover more at . and tone.dk. D r a w i n g C l a s s e s — d e t a i l e d step-by-step demonstrations show you how to develop your natural talents. Materials and Techniques—how to use a variety of materials—from pencil and ink to pastel.
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