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FOR T H E ARTIST
FOR THE ARTIST
LONDON • NEW YORK MELBOURNE • MUNICH • DELHI Senior Editor Paula Regan Senior Art Editor Mandy Earey Art Editor Anna Plucinska Managing Editor Julie Oughton Managing Art Editor Heather McCarry Art Director Peter Luff Publishing Director Jackie Douglas Production Joanna Bull DTP Designer Adam Walker Picture Research Sarah Smithies US Editor Christine Heilman First American Edition, 2 0 0 5 First Paperback Edition, 2 0 0 9 Published in the United States by DK Publishing 3 7 5 Hudson Street New York, New York 1 0 0 1 4 10 11 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3
6 8 20 22 Master Builders The Order of Sound Future Fictions Pathways of Sight Single-Point Perspective Creating an Imaginary Space Further Aspects of Perspective Theaters Venetian Life Parisian Street
68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86
Foreword Introduction Drawing Books and Papers Posture and Grip
Objects and Instruments
TD075-July 2009 Copyright © 2 0 0 5 Dorling Kindersley Limited Text and authors artworks © Sarah Simblet 2 0 0 4 Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited A Cataloging-in-Publication record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN 9 7 8 - 0 - 7 5 6 6 - 5 1 4 1 - 1 Color reproduction by GRB, Italy Printed and bound in China by Toppan
Still Life Instruments of Vision Bench Marks Light and Illusions Further Illusions How to Draw Ellipses Tonality Drawing with Wire Artifacts and Fictions
90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106
Documentaries Presence and Mood Movement Icon and Design Pen and Ink Drawing with Ink Capturing Character Sleeping Dogs Turtles Dry Birds
26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44
Postures and Poses Choreographs Passion Measurement and Foreshortening Quick Poses Hands and Feet Charcoal Hands Phrasing Contours The Visual Detective La Specola
110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128
Plants and Gardens
Botanical Studies Jeweled Gardens Fast Trees Graphite and Erasers Cropping and Composition Negative Space Fig Tree Summer Flowers Acanthus Spinosus
48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64
Discover more at
Projections Magnetic Fields The Human Condition Disposable Pens The Travel Journal Catching the Moment Grand Canal Crossings Caravans The Big Top
174 Abstract Lines
176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 Process and Harmony Writing Time Chants and Prayers Compositions Being "Just" Collage Zen Calligraphy Nocturnes
220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234
Poise Anatomies Revelations Self-Portraits Silver Point Head and Neck Essential Observations Drawing Portraits Generations Castings
132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 152
Earth and the Elements
Air in Motion Storms Nature Profiles Charcoal Landscapes Drawing in the Round Decaying Boat Cloudburst Notes of Force Mountains
198 200 202 204 206 208 210 212 214 216
Gods and Monsters
Marks of Influence Hauntings Convolutions Brushes Brush Marks Monsters Goya's Monsters Consumed Glossary Index Acknowledgments
240 242 244 246 248 250 252 254 256 259 264
Cloth and Drapery Character Costumes Femmes Fatales Colored Materials Study and Design The Structure of Costume Textures and Patterns Dressing Character Posture Carving
156 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172
from schoolchildren to senior citizens. It is a tool for investigating ideas and recording knowledge. we have looked at. These inspirations led me to invent museums. but because it is how I engage with and anchor myself in life. and makers of special effects. and local c o m m u n i t y classes. remain unseen by most. not only to make art. especially as travel journals. and I refer back to them for years after they are made. where spaces are shaped by nothing more than the objects and activities contained within them. The most rewarding challenge is always the newcomer. I know that with their cooperation I can soon prove them wrong. a sculptor. as a visiting professor at universities. and a reflector of experience. and feeling. and in a few sessions they will be flying. are made outside as discreet installations. architect. Drawing is a mirror through which I understand my place in the world. and through which I can see how I think. of Sketch Book for the Artist. . fashion designer. or engineer. I work with people of diverse ages. a cartographer charting the land. It makes me feel excited to be alive. drawing is the immediate expression of seeing. thinking. art schools. We can all learn how to draw. be they a child discovering their vision and dexterity.Foreword B Y DRAWING THE WORLD AROUND US. geologists. doctors. For twelve years I have enjoyed the privilege of teaching drawing. The very first step is to believe it. aspirations. Chosen in any color. who tells me firmly upon approach that they cannot draw. By using our imaginations. and size. still standing by the door. I also make drawing books. by invitation. we learn to feel truly alive. night security staff. It is my love of these. through history. Others can be held in the h a n d or. I will always draw. a drawing book is the perfect portable private vehicle for your imminent exploration of drawing. in which he describes himself flying and diving in his imagination through pictorial caverns of knowledge. Some are more traditionally framed and hung in galleries for solo or group exhibitions. Some of my drawings cover entire walls. or a quantum physicist trying to see for themselves the fluctuations of our universe. For me personally. Drawing occupies a unique place in every artist and creator's life. and experience. we learn to see it. and their importance to so many artists. shape. They occupy a shelf in my studio. a composer notating a musical score. I was training in anatomy and studying how. perhaps hidden on a door hinge or a street bench rail. that inspired the title and structure MEMORY T H E A T E R S This pen-and-ink drawing was made from imagination during research for my PhD. I was also reading among The Confessions of St. texture. and be slowly washed or worn away. where I expect them to be discovered by some people. undergraduates to fellow professors. Augustine his notes on memory. understood (and often misunderstood) our own bodies. Combine these things and the possibilities are endless. They enfold their viewer and are made on joined sheets of paper that I reach by climbing ladders.
Most adults still feel that certain exquisite pleasure on arriving at a beach to find the tide out and the sand perfect. like a great canvas for them to mark. in lectures. graffiti. irreverent to language barriers. not just chosen pictures on our walls but everywhere—maps.8 INTRODUCTION Where We Begin There is a fundamental drive in our human nature to make a mark. and we spend our lives reading it.000-9500 bce . Sometimes we draw because we are bored. and patterns on our clothes. but more often because drawing actually helps us to focus and take in what is said. They have a natural affinity to many modern graffiti signatures. waving to us from many thousands of yearsago. Drawing is international. is not afforded us by drawing. Cueva de las Marios. a great crowd is raising their hands in greeting. We are bombarded with linear and tonal pictorial information. scrawling shapes and cartoons when on the telephone. We are surrounded by drawings in our daily lives. Rio Pinturas 13. logos. packaging. Children cannot be restrained from running across the pristine white lawn of newly fallen snow. We can always read each others drawings. "CAVE OF THE HANDS" In this drawing. signs. The sense of relief we may feel from the information overload of modern commercial life when visiting a country in which we can no longer read every written word. At home and at work we doodle.Theseancient silhouettes were drawn with earth pigments rubbed onto rock. inscribing every fresh part of it with their eager scrapes and trails. and in meetings.
MAKING OUR MARK It seems reasonable to assume that we have engaged in pictorial mark-making for as long as we have made conscious use of our hands. The image above is what I gave back to my mother. we see our oldest surviving images. who in their day-to-day hardship made time to picture themselves and the animals on which they depended. She gave me a notepad and a red crayon and asked me to draw her "a picture of Daddy. the hair of my first portrait was most important. I was sitting with my mother. On a particular afternoon in September 1974. I now think this is a picture of proximity. at age two-anda-half. power. and the appearance of my strikes of colors. had happily scribbled. Cave art was not made for decoration but as a fundamental part of life. reflecting my experience of looking closely at my father's face. In cave paintings like the one opposite. I. . but I had never yet attempted to figuratively picture my world. Eyelashes take up as much of my attention as the head itself. enjoying the physical sensation of crayon on paper. like all toddlers. an expression of existence." Until this day. created by societies of hunter-gatherers. Even though it is made by a toddler this image would be recognizable to anyone. and she kept it as my first step beyond the delighted realms of scrawl.9 WHERE WE BEGIN FIRST PORTRAIT For sorre forgotten reason. and belonging to place.
W e do n o t hesitate to draw a map. Young children love to draw. most of us stop. But as adolescents. b e p r o u d o f what m a k e s y o u r w o r k individual to y o u . Don't b e p e r s u a d e d to draw in a w a y s o m e o n e else . It was made with a few bold strokes of a steel pen dipped in ink to conjure the dried bee I was holding between my fingers on a pin. At this point many will insist they cannot draw. h o w e v e r small a n d u n f o r m e d y o u believe they are. to help a stranger see their way W h e n taking first steps in relearning h o w to draw. and from that first unit build and describe the shape of something or someone we know. PROGRESSION T h e r e is a point in all o u r lives w h e n w e first c o n t r o l o u r mark and m a k e it a line.10 INTRODUCTION PEN-AND-INK BEE This tiny drawing has been enlarged to show its texture and composition. yet still turn to drawing w h e n their verbal language fails or is inadequate. then drag o u r line into a loop. and this activity plays a vital role in their d e v e l o p m e n t . Inhibitions creep in and ideas of good a n d b a d terminate confidence. for example. Hours are lost immersed in the glorious world of imagination. it is important to value your natural abilities a n d ways of seeing. As you progress.
remember that all advice is only advice. what they most want to achieve. He was a retired Cornish fisherman and junk dealer who began drawing at the age of 70 "for company" after his wife died. As you read this b o o k and perhaps attend art classes. 1925-42 53/8x87/8in (135 x 225 mm) ALFRED WALLIS prefers and tells you is better. and which aspects of the vast wealth and diversity of graphic language would be most appropriate to their goals. Someone once told them they must draw in this way. The journey of every artist demands hard work and discipline. After experimenting and trying each new idea. He used leftover ship and yacht paint with crayons on cut-out pieces of cardboard boxes. Think how much would have been lost if anyone had interfered with Alfred Wallis' personal sense of proportion and perspective in the exquisite drawing above. you must decide whether to keep or discard it. I ask them their reasons for drawing. . and they have never questioned why. Enjoy the control of your own journey. Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse c. harbor and sea is one of many that Alfred Wallis made from memory while sitting at home. I meet students struggling unhappily with a particular method of drawing. Occasionally. but it does help to set out facing in the right direction.11 PROGRESSION A UNIQUE SIGHT This innocent yet sophisticated drawing of boats.
Below. When we look back at Wallis' seascape (see p. We also see differently ourselves. and breathtaking wind of a choppy harbor. IDEAS A N D I N V E N T I O N S These active machines. depending on the occasion and our purpose. wrote as the opening line of this great work. perhaps for comfort or ease as a left-hander or a habitual enjoyment of the challenge. author of The Story of Art. They are also always written backward. the breast. we can drive out its spirit. embedded in this book. all raise water From the Archimedes' screw to Leonardo's own cupped wheel. Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels LEONARDO DA VINCI . If as artists we nail a subject down too hard. We all see differently. not for disguise but as a personal choice. The observed world may be our subject. is. be visionary. right. There are countless reasons for drawing. There are only artists.and collarbones and shoulder blades of a different bird almost become new creatures in themselves. it may not be accurate to our critical adult eye." The clarity and empowerment of these words. boats. There should neve: be a slavish obligation to represent things exactly as we collectively agree we see them. I hope. His notes visually balance his drawings.12 INTRODUCTION VISION All artists see the world differently. and inspire others. but the child in us knows that this is an all-embracing. We BIRD STUDIES The flutter of faint scratches that dance across the pages on the right is an attempt to see the movement and bony weightlessness of a bird. clear-minded understanding of the sea. Our imaginations are the tools with which we can increase the essence of life. The art historian Professor Sir Ernst Gombrich. the page bristles with the focus of ideas. and lose the very thing that attracted us to it. but it should be the experienced world we draw. "There really is no such thing as Art. 11).
Don't be disheartened. time spent is not lost. We have both covered our paper with focused. or to discover the best use of a new material. Opposite. it may be best to start afresh. This also applies if struggling at length with a larger picture.13 VISION should not try to know how every finished picture will look. Leonardo drew to invent a machine. More was learned drawing the bird 18 times than would have been understood drawing it only once or twice. drawing in pursuit of our own thoughts and understanding. when it looks tired and still feels wrong. conduct an experiment. . or illustrate a dream. Decide before you start whether you are drawing to warm up. I drew to understand the apparatus of flight. Our drawings are annotated investigations into the mechanisms of nature and of an idea. make a calculation. shout against a terrible injustice. It will be invested through your experience in the new drawing. Each fresh image reflects growing confidence and the experience of the preceding study. but it is important to be clear why we are making it. to express the beauty in a moment's play of light. stripped-down parts. while below. My drawings of a housemartin (opposite top) illustrate the importance of repeated study.
BRUSHED LANDSCAPE FLOWING SKELETON T h e gliding poise of this walking anatomy comes as much from the feeling of movement as it does from the feeling of drawing. and practice each part before putting the final image together. depth. or ice—you must actually feel it beneath your fingers as you draw. excessive planning can get in the way of the imagination. This suits many artists well and is perfectly valid. and spirit of each subject was held strongly but loosely between the fingertips. are both made of ink laid onto wet paper with speed and agile certainty. We are caught in a shifting focus that makes everything fluid. and sometimes beyond. However. fire. and allowed to flow through the brush. and position in space. meaning. and paper. mists. Our position asvieweris unsteady. If you can do this. bone. This is a detail of a brush-and-ink drawing by a Japanese Buddhist monk. You must also think of its intrinsic nature: its purpose. and we can just make out the distant stains of mountains. I made it almost unconsciously with a pen and a brush. Imagine these qualities so strongly that you feel them in your mind and at your fingertips. This is the alchemy of drawing. These two brush drawings. As your hand meets the paper to make a mark. and how it feels to the touch. ink. size. feel. Landscape in Haboku Style 15TH CENTURY . balance. temperature. trusting my intuition to find a visual equivalence for the sensation of weight within my body. silk. The physicality. explain the composition. Whatever the material— wood. we are advised or even required to plan our pictures. or imagine—it is not enough to only render its shape. W e float toward the quiet vista as it also moves toward us. and opacity of your subject. and at speeds beyond conscious thought. and an island brushed with trees. It denies the importance of accident. metal.14 INTRODUCTION ALCHEMY At school. it should be responding to the sensation and meaning of the subject it draws. Each image relied upon past experience to know the probable behavior of the brush. water. They each allowed the energy and focus of the moment to be expressed through controlled accident and a degree of the unknown Both drawings were made trusting the marks. Know the texture. As you draw any subject—something you see. created centuries and cultures apart. and what you discover in the process of making. the unknown. declare the idea. your marks will become the subject on the paper. which can offer keys to other things.
He dazzles us with flashes o f light and dabbed marks o f shadow. W a l t e r also makes books: some. left. more than 100 years after its making. stand table-sized with furniture legs attached t o b o t h sides of their jacket.16 INTRODUCTION PLACE A N D MOMENT The heat and teeming atmosphere o f this Parisian dressing room. like folded insects. c. Focusing on the Negative 2004 22 x 30 in (56 x 76 cm) J O H N WALTER . which evoke realities o f place and the p o w e r o f moment. lives on. Lautrec's flamboyant splashes o f petticoats and pantaloons are drawn with long sweeps of chalk and brushed oil paint.1896 Woman at her Toilet 41 x 26 in (104 x 66 cm) TOULOUSE LAUTREC RIB-CAGE D R A M A Thus drama. pastel. right is set inside a rib cage. made by a young British artist who creates alphabets o f the absurd f r o m familiar childhood characters. acrylic. gold leaf and spray paint. one of many luminous works in watercolor.
take your time and don't worry if you need to make several attempts to grasp a concept. Ignore these at first and allow yourself the freedom to play. Such books are personal: the territory of new exploration and experiment. and mistakes are a valuable process of learning. Drawing is exploratory. Much will be learned on these test sheets and in your first drawings.17 FREEING THE HAND If you are just beginning to learn how to draw. potential ideas still forming. at a point when you feel you are not making progress. Try to keep all of your first drawings. Choose other materials and do the same. diary-like observations. and miscellaneous items of inspiration. Put them away and look at them later. Pages do not have to lie open for other people to inspect and comment on. FREEINGTHEHAND . It is yours. As you follow lessons in this book. just through the act of making. Enjoy discovering what your hand and the material can do. With no help and advice at all. you will naturally make progress on your own in response to concentration and the decision to look and draw. even those you dislike. One of the advantages of a drawing book is that you can shut it. try not to grip your pen worrying about the technical terms you might have heard. Start by choosing a material you like the look of and cover a piece of paper with different marks. you will be surprised and encouraged to see how far you have come.
Picasso has just finished his drawing. it is this voice that is the subtle part of their art and something that ultimately. we still only glimpse a corner of the magnitude of this subject and the infinity of what can be achieved. As you draw. Picasso Painting with Light at the Madoura Pottery 1949 . A N ARTIST'S HANDS These are the hands of the artist Phyll Kiggell (see p. threedimensionally. In the total wealth of these pages. the path is yours. 150). comes from within. and many more reasons for drawing the world. To these I have added my own drawings to explain elementary materials and techniques and offer introductory approaches. Imagination needs nourishment.Their elegant strength seems to summon a lifetime of drawing. An artist's personal voice is something that also evolves through lessons learned. adapting its form and occupation. Picasso is poised smiling. caught between action and repose. The chapters of this book present 90 different artists' ways of seeing. when they are more experienced. Note that the drawing classes are allocated to subjects. staring straight through his image of a bull. I was particularly attracted to their gentle articulation and understated determination. This practical journey will take you through the door into the vivid heart of drawing. Once there. and enfolding new media. ELECTRIC BULL With a penlight. However. which of course he cannot see. The real drawing book has yet to come. but not confined to them. it will be your creation as you discover your own personal vision. seek ideas in the life around you. Drawing is a living language that over millennia has grown and changed.18 INTRODUCTION THE THINKING EYE Techniques and materials are the grammar and vocabulary of drawing and can be studied and shared. It rarely flourishes in isolation. and became a great subject for me. which is held frozen in space by a camera lens. Its sensuous and flowing line seems to drift like smoke. Look to your own experience and also learn from the work of others.
t h i s is h o w I l e a r n e d . 6. drawing book. F o r e v e n i n g classes. cut. 1. ties on either side to keep your papers in place.h a n d s t o r e s make unique subjects f o r e x p e r i m e n t s a n d collage. it is better to have them made at a lumber yard or home improvement store. F o r traveling. H O M E M A D E : I m a d e this b o o k f r o m drawing paper that I folded. pastels. Calculate a range of useful dimensions and have several cut at once. c o l o r If planning t o use pencils. Many artists invent ways o f binding their o w n books.b o u n d b o o k s t h a t fit in y o u r p o c k e t o r bag. If you intend to carry your boards for a distance. thick enough not to flex. a l e n g t h o f black elastic t i e d a r o u n d t h e m i d d l e will h o l d the contents together w h e n y o u f o l d in c o l l e c t e d items. and collage their ideas. which are also sold in an enormous range. T h e hardb o a r d j a c k e t is s t r e t c h e d w i t h canvas beneath t h e p a p e r sleeve. cheap corrugated plastic ones fall apart in days. Dissecting a d i s c a r d e d h a r d . and handles to lift the weight of your artworks. A high-quality one will last a DRAWING BOOKS Select d r a w i n g b o o k s t o suit y o u r aims.q u a l i t y r i n g . N o t e t h e w i d e l y differing c h o i c e o f p a p e r s w i t h w h i c h t h e s e are m a d e . c h o o s e s m a l l e r h a r d . BLACK P O C K E T B O O K S : Hand-sized w i t h ready-made elastic binder and a marker ribbon. R I N G . catalogs. and cost. y o u n e e d a lifetime. t h e i r jackets w i l l a c t like d r a w i n g b o a r d s a n d p r o t e c t y o u r w o r k .B O U N D PADS: T h e s e are t h e least expensive a n d useful f o r o p e n i n g flat.b o u n d p a d if y o u w i s h t o keep your drawings together long-term. Homemade books can be assembled easily from found materials or selections of loose sheet papers. You simply need two strong boards hinged together well. 4. a n d r e f e r e n c e b o o k s f o u n d in s e c o n d . C A N V A S . C O L O R E D PAPERS: Large a r t supply stores o f t e n sell t h i c k b o o k s full o f c o l o r e d p a p e r s . stitched. is perfect. b e a w a r e t h a t p a p e r t e x t u r e effects a n d changes t h e i r marks. Most contain thin p a p e r and are perfect f o r use w i t h disposable pens. a n d crayons. 2002 Tantalus o r The Future of Man 81/2 x61/4in (215 x 158 mm) ROSE MILLER . study the structure of a good portfolio and make your own.b o u n d b o o k w i l l s o o n s h o w y o u h o w it is m a d e . quality. texture. 5. Gleaming store purchases vary greatly in format. H o w e v e r r i n g bindings o f t e n break. Purchase a h i g h .C O V E R E D H A R D B O U N D : Ideal f o r c a r r y i n g a r o u n d . color. There are dozens to choose from. binding. F O U N D B O O K S : O l d p r i n t e d 3 . Art students often make use of printed books picked up from secondhand stores into which they draw. It is also useful to own a portfolio. be sure they fit comfortably under your arm. These are perfect f o r w o r k i n g in novels. Smooth plywood. and glued t o a s t r i p o f bias binding. They can be very expensive in art stores. Drawing boards are invaluable.20 INTRODUCTION Drawing Books and Papers T o BEGIN YOUR EXPLORATION o f d r a w i n g . thickness. Sand the edges to avoid splinters. 2. Alternatively. c h o o s e larger f o r m a t s t o give y o u s c o p e f o r e x p e r i m e n t .
12. FABRIANO R O U G H 600GMS: Very heavy.Papers differ in thickness (weight). yellow. C A R B O N PAPER: Available in dark and light blue. and rolls. used to imprint lines of these colors onto a surface. white textured paper that can take abrasive use of any medium. cold. 16. FABRIANO ACADEMIA: Standard medium-range multipurpose paper Use with any media. Use with a brush in clean water Water makes a dark mark like ink and becomes invisible again when dry. and cost. Ph.TISSUE PAPER: Place sheets between drawing book pages to keep images from printing on each other and use for delicate collage. and translucent. METALLIC PAPER: Thin paper in different metallic colors. PAPERS . color. ITALIAN PARCHMENT: Imitation-animal-skin parchment that is translucent and slightly waxy. red. T W O RIVERS Y E L L O W 410GMS: See Two Rivers Green 19. 14. 2 5 6 . and hot pressed papers. 17. also good for drawing with colored pencils. blocks. 7. It is also excellent for drawing with marker pens on layered sheets. SAUNDERS WATERFORD N O T 300GMS: Mid-quality textured watercolor paper. 18. or machine made in sheets. and white.5 9 ) for explanations of rough. 13. pastel paper in flecked pastel colors with a distinctive ribbed marking. size. absorbency. turning brown and brittle. Cotton papers are high-quality and acid-free. 10. 8. C A N S O N : Inexpensive lightweight pastel paper in many colors. T W O RIVERS GREEN 410G MS: Very heavy tinted textured cold-pressed watercolor paper See Two Rivers Yellow. bamboo. blocks. and other plant fibers. JAPANESE PAPER: Strong. printed on one side only. 21. texture. They are hand-. it is made from rice. 22. fine. Cheap wood-pulp papers are acidic. 15. Use cheap paper for rough ideas and quality paper for work to last See the glossary ( p p . VELIN ARCHES 250GMS: Printmaking paper available in black white. MAGIC PAPER: A reusable sheet for testing ideas without creating waste. mold-. mulberry. 20. It is available in white or cream. not. tough. smooth. AQUARELLE ARCHES 300GMS:The very top quality hot-pressed (smooth) watercolor paper. Use for brushwork drawings. 100% cotton and sold in sheets. resisting deterioration. from pencil to paint 9. GLASSINE: Sold as protective wrapping. 11. or rolls. For use with any media. FABRIANO INGRES: Thin. and cream sheets or rolls.
you can draw lines freely and achieve a significant arc of movement. How you hold your drawing materials is also important. place it on your left. Ideally. This photograph illustrates how some people hold a pen to write.22 INTRODUCTION Posture and Grip T o DRAW WELL. a n d h a n d to the fingertips. strangledlooking drawings. body. Use the side of your little fingernail as a support on the page. In this book we will look at parallels between drawing and music. make sure you have enough room to back away and view your work. Accelerated perspective also occurs if you look down the surface steeply (see pp. Placing your easel o n the w r o n g side folds y o u r b o d y against your drawing arm. This cramped grip tires your hand and makes small. Relaxed fingers: Hold the pencil away from its tip and relax your fingers. should be able to look comfortably straight ahead at your picture plane. There are also parallels to dance. and look to the right. From a distance you will spot errors you cannot see close up. place it on your right. arm. With your hand in this position. Regularly step back 6-9 ft (2-3 m) to check your progress. you Drawing classes can be cramped places. . b u t it should n o t be forgotten that many people make remarkable a n d striking works drawing with their feet or holding their brush or pencil in their mouths. Turning your drawing sideways or upside-own will also help reveal what is wrong. SPACE TO WORK Cramped grip. your lines will distort. 116-17). your drawing will reflect this. and subject. place it on the correct side: if right-handed. flowing space between your hand. but you need to understand that the expression of a line or mark originates in the body and flows t h r o u g h the shoulder. You do not have to dance to draw. There should be an open. but wherever possible. You cannot draw like this—your hand is locked and your fingers can barely move. or with your drawing board angled between your lap and a chair. Examples are shown here. a n d look to the left of it at your subject. your whole relaxed b o d y should be involved. If your body posture is well balanced and you can move freely. If seated on a b e n c h easel (a donkey). don't sit too close to the paper. If your hand twists to maneuver between the paper and your body. It will also reflect discomfort if you are in any way cramped. if left-handed. If using an upright easel.
23 This loose "candle" grip is very useful when drawing with your arm extended. To stop this. hold your material as you find most comfortable. arm. brush pressed against an upright surface will cause a dribble of ink to run down your drawing. Brush calligraphy: This comfortable. This can give a new lease on life to your mark-making. This can be used to great effect. It is most comfortable when reaching to draw above your head. Soft media: Short materials such as pastels and charcoal can be accommodated in the palm. Remember you can also draw just by dipping your fingers in pigment—this is how many women draw in rural India. alternative way of holding the pencil.232-33). Large amounts of ink can be applied without fear of uncontrolled running if the paper is flat. But be careful not to tense your fingers. upright way of holding the brush near its base is similar to the Japanese way used in Zen calligraphy (see pp. ALL MEDIA There are no rules as to how you should hold your drawing media. Large scale: POSTURE AND GRIP U n f a m i l i a r i t y : T h e habitual movements of our handwriting style will sometimes infringe upon our drawing. depending upon what it is and how large you are working. not up to the paper Brushes can be used on upright paper but dip Anticipating effects: A fully loaded pens need a level surface. or change to the wrong hand. GRAVITY Remember that gravity affects the flow of ink and paint. or it can spoil your work if not anticipated. find an unfamiliar. and body are not restricted. If you turn a brush or dip pen up into the air to draw above your hand. As long as your fingers. . liquid will run down your hand. roughly marking out a large-scale work.
the Latin bestiary was one of the most popular picture books—an illustrated dictionary of one hundred parts. which are so unlike ours.Animals H UMANS HAVE DRAWN ANIMALS from the beginning of our time. werewolves. 11 x91/4in (277 x 234 mm) . offer challenges and delights to draw. and dragons. 1540. Here (left) we see J o h n White's exquisite record of a flying fish. and silent. In this chapter we discover the use of pens and ink through the delineation of insects. sleeping dogs. We have drawn them on the walls of caves to evoke their kinship and power. we turn and take the features of beasts. fish. In medieval England. W h e n lost to explain our own emotions.drawe to lief one of each kinde of thing that is strange to us in England. each dedicated to the moralized tale of an animal or monster The bestiary profoundly influenced the art of its period. After the subject of ourselves. and snakes have between them engendered harpies. JOHN WHITE British artist. mermaids. animals provide a perfect subject with which to begin. we have employed artists on expeditions. On the Roanoke voyages of Sir Walter Raleigh." He worked with the scientist Thomas Harriot. from which personality and predicted behavior were " d e d u c e d . m u s e u m . which very likely leaped o n t o the deck of Sir Walter Raleigh's ship Tiger as it sailed north from the Caribbean to Virginia in 1585. and this very drawing was to endure many copies and plagiarisms after its triumphant return to the English court of Queen Elizabeth I.m o u n t e d skeletons of birds.. Together they made maps and documented animals. birds. cartographer. their different speeds and patterns of action. plants. they are perhaps our favorite pictorial preoccupation." Paranoid newcomers c r a m m e d into swelling industrial cities used handbooks of physiognomy to identify and judge their neighbors. As children we delight in the humanized trials of Tom and Jerry and their c a r t o o n relations. and people. " Animals perpetually feed our imaginations. For the novice artist. In 19th-century Europe this became a "science.. 1590 J O H N WHITE capture form and movement from the m a n n e r i s m s of honking geese. Facial features were analyzed in terms of their animal likeness. or scampering through the initials and borders of pictures from that time. to be there at the m o m e n t of discovery. Europeans on board had never seen such a thing. and pioneer born c. who described in words what White drew. out are now oxidized and so appear black W h e n less preoccupied with understanding ourselves. floating turtles. Framed in the z o o or in domestic cohabitation. O v e r the centuries. White's commission was to ". bats. insects. and we still see escapees from its pages carved and grinning as the gargoyles of churches. This drawing is made in black lead (metal point) with watercolor Highlights of silver would have gleamed. and to bring h o m e drawn documentaries of their finds. W e have drawn them in m a n u s c r i p t s to explain our genesis and to c o u n t their species into Noah's ark. dogs. and learn how to Flying Fish c.
Stubbs's Anatomy of the Horse achieved similar documentary status. and wrote four books on proportion. Original Ink Drawing of a Rhinoceros 1515 ALBRECHT DURER 103/4 x 161/2 in ( 2 7 4 x 4 2 0 mm) . Contemporary texts related accounts of the beast as the mortal enemy of the elephant and rare relative of the "more common" unicorn. the home of ALBRECHT DURER German Renaissance painter. and mathematician. He in turn sent the mysterious creature to the Pope via Marseilles at the request of the King of France. It was to become the animal's only accepted likeness for 250 years. a gift to the Portuguese King. draftsman. it continued its journey to Rome. filled journals with ideas and observations. Durer traveled widely to study at different European schools of art. Sailing to Rome. Durer's image changed eager hands until it was known across Europe. DURER'S RHINOCEROS AND STUBBS'S skeletal Durer. Unsurpassed. it is still consulted by veterinarians today. a drawing of it arrived in Nuremberg. Meanwhile. years after its publication. Carefully stuffed. printmaker. writer. He studied the image and drew his own interpretation. they were rejected. naturalist. It is such a lifelike triumph of imagination and intelligence that for centuries zoologists never questioned its authority. when more accurate portrayals were made without armor and scales.26 ANIMALS Documentaries horse are superb affirmations of the power of drawing as a recorder and communicator of knowledge. inspiring countless works of art and so touching people's imaginations that later. the ship was lost. Life-like This is Durer's original quill-and-ink drawing made after an anonymous Portuguese drawing. but the drowned animal washed ashore. Converted into a print. The first live rhinoceros to reach Europe came from India in May 1515.
knowledge of parts. He translated his own drawings into engravings for publication. which has never diminished. in t h r e e v i e w s — r e a r f r o n t . is no other work like it. Anatomy of the Horse. L o n d o n . and therefore invented the lighting that Compare how Stubbs and Durer both invented lighting to portray the reality of their animals. composed from notes and observations. naturalist. Dissections were made over a total of 18 months. This is one of Stubbs' original finished pencil drawings. dissecting and drawing until he understood the mechanisms of its power and grace. Stubbs w a s o n e o f t h e first E u r o p e a n artists t o m a k e a n a c c u r a t e representation o f the rhinoceros. Lighting Stubbs's breathtaking international work won immediate There acclaim. He composed makes each horse appear so real and each plate from his three-dimensional. The entire project was developed over ten years. Dissections Stubbs took his knife and his pencil and physically climbed inside the horse. His painted p o r t r a i t o f t h e b e a s t is in t h e R o y a l C o l l e g e o f S u r g e o n s o f England. a n d anatomist. c o m p r i s e s 1 8 p l a t e s s h o w i n g d i s s e c t i o n s in l a y e r s f r o m b o n e t h r o u g h m u s c u l a t u r e t o skin. Table of the III of the Horse (rear Skeleton view) mm) 1756-58 1 4 x 7 in ( 3 5 4 x 1 8 0 GEORGE STUBBS . Stubbs's m o s t c e l e b r a t e d publication. a n d s i d e .GEORGE STUBBS B r i t i s h e q u i n e a n d s o c i e t y p o r t r a i t painter.
the ominous beast unwinds from the dark of the sea and of our nightmares. novelist. His copious drawings are characterized by mixed media. more or less what I have in view. saying ". Hugo's page is f l o o d e d w i t h the fearful presence of a remembered octopus.. and all sorts of bizarre concoctions which manage to convey above all in mind. and her distinctive temperament. charcoal. Gericault's sheet a p p e a r s almost s c r a t c h e d b y the f e r o c i o u s play of his cat. conjured b y the hand of a great author of French literary fiction. sepia.. linseed oil soaked into the paper has made shadows and repelled the ink to create translucent tentacles.28 ANIMALS Presence and Mood THESE DRAWINGS HAVE BEEN CHOSEN to s h o w t w o v e r y different ways of picturing a wild animal. He wrote to poet and art critic Charles-Pierre Baudelaire about his experiments. By contrast. Apparently drawn in its o w n ink. and Pieuvre 1866-69 91/2 x81/8in (242 x 207 mm) VICTOR H U G O . The octopus is formed in layers applied and distressed with a brush. soot. playwright. Mixed media Here. Gericault took a sharp p e n c i l to m a k e repeated direct o b s e r v a t i o n s f r o m life. her b o n y frame.". and leader of the French Romantic movement. snarl. ink and linseed oil on paper. VICTOR HUGO Poet.. it silently rises to the light. drama. and a love of accident. A s if disturbed from its gritty b e d by our presence and curiosity. and turn. I've ended up mixing in pencil. her sharp teeth.. Hugo used graphite powder. He has w a t c h e d her p o u n c e . drawing her again and again to pin d o w n the texture of her loose skin. Surrounding sprays of graphite powder are stuck into washes of oil and ink to suggest glutinous depths. coal dust. H u g o mixed his media and drew from m e m o r y and imagination to create narrative atmosphere. Hugo's novels Les Miserables and Dame have become classics of film and stage. The Hunchback of Notre Layers and shadows Throughout this drawing.
s h o r t . 144. facing right. Here. H e is best k n o w n f o r his gigantic painting. artists reused sheets and them full of studies.l i v e d French R o m a n t i c painter and lithographer Largely self-taught. Paris. displayed in the Louvre. fiery. since it can lead to a flattened form. and keep trying again. standing sideways. of previous Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 1817-18 121/2 x 151/2 in ( 3 1 9 x 3 9 8 mm) T H E O D O R E GERICAULT . focused upon seeing will lead to a greater understanding of the subject Much is learned from repeated study. undertraces unify and vitalize the composition. Beginners are advised to follow the natural contours of form as shown on pp. horses w e r e a favorite subject t o g e t h e r w i t h politics and history. 124-25 and p. Undertraces Beneath these graphite studies we see traces Tones On the top row we see clearly how Gericault laid broad areas of tone using fast. and it can be applied to any subject (see pp. The Raft of the Medusa. Repeated study This drawing demonstrates of feeling confident repeat different the importance subject Remaining enough to isolate parts of a views.118-119). Before paper became so cheap.29 THEODORE GERICAULT C o n t r o v e r s i a l . Tones that do not follow surface contour is very difficult to do well. At the center of the page is crammed drawings the outline of a horse. parallel. of drawings Gericault erased. diagonal strokes of his pencil.
printmaker ceramicist graphic and stage designer who lived in France. Both Picasso and Klee have enclosed their subjects to compress and amplify the speed of PABLO PICASSO A prolific Spanish painter sculptor. and brown. made only a year apart. taking them to guide their hand in bringing form and essence together. Faune. In these two drawings. the first abstract movement of the 20th century. His powdery. dissolving faun kneels stranded. flattened animals composed almost entirely of movement. slow tortoise. The fact that they never stand still influences the movement in his line. Gouache is brushed softly in translucent hazy layers of cool blue. and waves breaking distantly below. or proud. identify an animal: the fast cheetah. Klee's riders are constructed from all the gestures of greeting mules. we see semi-abstract. Artists commonly focus on such actions. and scrolled lines. His hand must have shuddered and twitched just like the constant actions of this humorous meeting. gray. Cheval et Oiseau 1936 173/8 x 211/4 in ( 4 4 0 x 5 4 0 m m ) PABLO PICASSO . with George Braque (see p90). Picasso cofounded Cubism. Ink and gouache This drawing is made in black Chinese ink and gouache (opaque watercolor) applied with a brush. the whinnying of a frantic horse. In Picasso's drawing. draftsman. quivering horse. noise is everywhere. These media complement and amplify each other with their brilliant contrast. flapping bird. The ink is used to make sharply defined solid.30 ANIMALS Movement M O V E M E N T IS OFTEN THE CHARACTERISTIC b y w h i c h w e their lines and the power of their beasts. hooked. overwhelmed by a screeching bird.
draftsman. N e u m a n n Family Collection. They remain in contact with the surface of the page and scribble back and forth as they maneuver from one area to another. printmaker.PAUL KLEE Swiss painter. He is a u t h o r o f The Thinking Eye (1923). turning our eye and around inside the and postures of the paper- thin on pictorial space. The entire drawing suggests the endless small movements of horses standing still. creatures. W i t h his drawings Kleeb o u n d sophisticated theories to personal and often witty childlike imagery. Scene der Komischen of Comical Reiter Riders) (Scene 1935 161/2x111/2in ( 4 1 9 x 2 9 1 mm) M o r t o n G . Chicago PAUL KLEE . and t e a c h e r at t h e Bauhaus school. well-worn copies o f w h i c h are found in m a n y art schools. Layers of marks In this pale Dentil drawing we see layers of' agitated marks that together present a kind of visual "itch. top all happily of each other in the Endless lines Look closely at how Klee's lines rarely leave the paper and how they are free from the constraint of finite shape. sculptor. violinist." They chatter around bodies in groups.
b a s e d o n his studies o f fish. later called a galleon. the expression of its eye. His birds stare. and s e c t i o n s o f ships. t h e earliest geometrically defined elevations. and the carefully observed gills. slim stern). and scales. adding washes of color with a fine brush. drawings of animals that are each held tightly in a surprising space: a giant fish wears a ship's hull. and to assess our next move. plans. In just one drawing he has displayed more angles of his design than we would expect to see from a single viewpoint Fragments English 1586 101/2 x 153/8 in (270 x 390 mm) MATTHEW BAKER of Ancient Shipwrightry . and author o f Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (1586). fins. B a k e r initiated t h e scientific p r a c t i c e o f naval a r c h i t e c t u r e and applied h y d r o d y n a m i c s . and blackbirds fly in formation through a mosaic of text. Below we see his revolutionary design for an Elizabethan warship. seemingly looking for our attention. and steerage. In contrast to the practical clarity of Baker's thought. Exquisite details in this drawing include the lips of the fish.32 ANIMALS Icon and Design IN THESE T W O MANUSCRIPTS we discover diagrammatic and mackerel's tail" (full bow. Knopf's drawing opposite is the personal enigmatic expression of a mind gripped by illness. Baker did not intend this. it would achieve greater speed. The ship The upper decks of the ship appear curved toward us at both ends. The fish It is likely that Baker drew with a quill dipped in irongall ink. and from them learned that if he designed his ship with a "cod's head MATTHEW BAKER Master shipwright. This drawing illustrates Baker's theory. balance. He studied the anatomy of fish. It is simply how we read his perspective. Baker lived in an era when ships were built without drawn plans. which in application gave strength and advantage to the English fighting the Spanish Armada. mathematician.
The main group is placed in a circle drawn with a compass. w h i c h o f t e n f e a t u r e as s y m b o l i c creatures in his drawings. appears to be stirred like water by the presence of the The Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks UNDATED 133/8 x 115/8 in (340 x 2 9 6 mm) and psychiatrist Hans Prinzhom collected this image. T h e G e r m a n a r t historian Outline and tone The blackbirds illuminating this frantic manuscript are drawn in pencil.JOHANN KNOPF An " O u t s i d e r " a r t i s t w h o s u f f e r e d f r o m m e n t a l illness. circle and the birds. The text. firmly outlined. numbered. written last of all. and filled evenly with tone. JOHANN KNOPF .K n o p f b e l i e v e d h e c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h e language o f birds.
246-47). simultaneously 4 . 4. The Chinese used animal or fish glue. expressive drawing techniques such as the ones we explore in this chapter 1. Only fill with suitable inks. from the acacia tree. distinguished manufacture.34 ANIMALS Pen and Ink W I T H A HANDFUL OF FEATHERS. Each pen has a unique character. The paste from either recipe is pressed and dried into a bar for storage. METAL PENS: Inexpensive removable steel nibs are available in a range of widths. Masters choose brands of long. PENS . REED PENS: A broad nib can be cut from bamboo or another tubular grass. and it is still in use today. they are associated with rapid. producing a different line. and hold it under a clean basin until the soot hangs to it. the recipes for which have been handed down over centuries. a n d m e t a l p o i n t s . Early artists recommended raven and crow for especially fine work. which scratch rather than draw. The Egyptians and Chinese are credited with the invention of carbon ink. where reeds were gathered. then pour a little warm gum water into it and temper the two together. light it. Intricate or dramatic lines. Avoid needle-sharp mapping pens. and spatters can be made with an exotic choice of inks. That is an ink. 2. The reservoir gives a constant flow of ink for very long unbroken lines and continuous bottle-free use. spots. high-quality Chinese and Japanese inks are subtler and more complex than those produced in Europe. They fit into wooden holders. and first used by the Egyptians. QUILLS: These are cut from the barrel of a flight or tail feather. while metal nibs began as rare gifts in gold and silver before being perfected by the British steel industry. A German recipe of 1531 gives a simple description: "Take a wax candle. Today." "Gum" refers to gum arabic extracted Dip pens are essential and inexpensive drawing tools. The best are goose or swan. Quills were later cut from feathers. Dip pens began their history in the Nile River. In the Far East. 5 0 0 years ago. 3. The bar is then rubbed into water on a slate block to produce ink. Responsive to slight changes in pressure. F O U N T A I N PENS: These vary in quality and nib width. s t i c k s . you can have great fun drawing the world around you. which range greatly in their handling and character of line. ink is traditionally applied with a brush (see pp.
is the ink of a cuttlefish or squid extracted post-mortem. they produce a golden dye for drawing. suspended in a binder and stored as a solid block Blocks are imported today 7. . Bistre is the more humane use of soot scraped from the fireplace and ground into wine. charred bone (Ivory Black). and are still in use today: carbon (Chinese and Indian).36. INKS 9.G A L L INK: Abnormal spherical growths caused by parasitic wasps can be collected from some oak trees in fall. Beechwood soot is best. and sepia. 8. bistre. iron-gall. Crushed. I N D I A N INK: Carbon ink sold today in liquid form. and can be mixed and diluted to create subtler colors and tones. Waterproof types contain shellac. I R O N . The complexities of traditional iron-gall ink are explained on p. or charcoal. ACRYLIC / CALLIGRAPHY INKS: Available in black and a range of colors. and most can be homemade. Non-waterproof Indian inks can be reworked with a wet brush after drying. an often misused term. SEPIA A N D BISTRE INKS: Sepia.35 PEN AND INK Four types of ink were common before the 20th century. and sieved. dated. boiled. It dries with a sheen and clogs uncleaned pens. roastedwine sediment (Yeast Black). Excellent for drawing they are bright and non-clogging. 5. waterproof or non-waterproof. reduced. They are the easiest inks to use. Inks can be lightfast or non-lightfast. from are not 6. Old stock turns solid and bottlesChina. C A R B O N INK: Traditionally produced from oil or resin soot (Lamp Black). Now we also have acrylic ranges in many colors.
For centuries. red-brown. The lighter right Quill marks Quills carry more ink than strokes and for as reeds. I u s e d t h e s e qualities t o d r a w t h e w o r m s above. it was gray-purple. appears broken to show paper beneath. Scribes o f t h e M i d d l e Ages. a n d d e v e l o p e d t h e quill instead. and delicious to draw with. Reed marks The darker left wing of this beetle was drawn with the wet inky stroke wing. U n d e r heavy pressure. then cut a final nib (feathers. Practice to gain a feel for how materials behave. Rembrandt. It dried black.36 ANIMALS Drawing With Ink To MAKE A QUILL OR REED PEN. always be cautious when experimenting with recipes. can also be collected from affected trees. giving a s h o r t . . giving longer lines. t h e y stick a n d j u d d e r f o r w a r d . since t h e D u t c h w e r e t h e first t o realize t h a t they could be hardened and i m p r o v e d w i t h heat t r e a t m e n t in ash o r sand. m o r e e x t e n d e d line than reed and a m o r e organic line t h a n m e t a l . finding reed p e n s unwieldy. the blade and cut away from you. M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s d r a g o n o n p . and turned brown with time. are surprisingly tough. drawn to glisten with a dryer nib. The darkest of this grasshopper wings) were made (around the head first. crushed. sieved. forming the REED PENS R e e dpens dispense ink quickly. fleshy skins that surround ripe walnuts. 2 4 4 is an e x q u i s i t e e x a m p l e . reduced. Oak galls. d r y mark. keep all your fingers behind basis of iron-gall ink. for example. T h e y give a finer. galls were ground with iron sulfate to make an unstable solution. Quills are also called D u t c h pens. QUILL PENS Q u i l l s a r e highly r e s p o n s i v e t o c h a n g e s in p r e s s u r e . Paler strokes were made where the mark has the legs and antennae the ink ran out. of a loaded nib. Collect skins from the ground beneath trees once they are blackened. Although oak galls and walnut skins are harmless. V a n G o g h . It also oxidized and ate or burned paper. Walnut ink is gloopy. and boiled to make a golden ink. r e s e r v e d t h e i r use f o r large c h o i r b o o k s . Some of Michelangelo's drawings are now a little eaten by their own ink. a n d M a t i s s e also e n j o y e d t h e m . Running fresh.) You can make ink easily from the boiled.
Loaded with ink and pressed hard.37 METAL PENS Metal pens give long. withstanding great pressure without sticking. W h e n the nib is pressed upside down. marks become fine and needle-sharp. giving a graded. When using dip pens. o r being ruined as fountain pens would be under the same pressure. particles then filled with a droplet of ink. sharp. Each layer of of the drying droplet dome the drawing was left to dry before adding more. breaking. . they splay to make thick o r double lines. tonal Ink layers The wings of this beetle were drawn in layers using black and white ink on pale gray paper. White markings were drawn last Tones Here we see subtle tones of diluted ink beneath the undiluted black rim of a beetle's wing. it is important to feel for when the ink will run out and to know how much ink you pick up when dipping the nib. clean strokes. DRAWING WITH INK Filled outlines Each segment of wing was outlined. The of pigment to fall to the edges effect of the shape.
Illustrating this exercise on Oxford Port Meadow. touch the bottle's rim to drain the excess. Take a cup and water for diluting a range of tones. Cover a sheet. and there is no "wrong. Study them before drawing. to absorb blots when drawing. Pack plenty of tissue around a bottle of calligraphy or acrylic ink. Quick drawing trains you to see what is most important about a subject and to mark only its most essential expression. waddle. test your limits. draw what the bird is doing." If you don't like a stroke. Take no more than ten seconds to draw each one and make lots of drawings. not on your drawing. and quickly draw around it using only three or four strokes. make another one. and bellyflop off the waterside. Attempt with a loose hand to capture their posture and outline. MATERIALS NEEDED Look for a bird expressing a simple posture. Focus on the geese. Cover your drawing book pages in speedy responses to the geese and try to capture each bird in as few lines as possible.38 ANIMALS Capturing Character GEESE ARE EXCELLENT SUBJECTS to draw when practicing the first use of pen and ink. It teaches confidence and focus through intensive repetition. and boldly plunge into your drawing. I covered eleven sheets in sixty quick drawings—in less than an hour. Empathize. and a large drawing book or plenty of paper Use masking tape to secure pages against the wind. Geese are nosy birds. That said. Focus on it. there is no obligation to prepare a quill. Watch their heavy feathered bodies flap. and be brave. steel nibs are fine. Dip your pen in ink. so pick a spot where other people can keep them entertained. Try to hold the whole posture in your mind's eye. be bold and press firmly. Experiment. It happens that goose feathers also provide artists with the best type of quills. Posture . You cannot break the nib.
running.39 Action With growing confidence. . look among the birds for more complicated actions such as shaking off water. Again. Avoid detail unless really tempted by a close-up visit Fluctuate the pressure of your pen in response to how you know the bird would feel if you touched it. CAPTURING CHARACTER Texture Gradually allow yourself more lines to describe the texture of each bird as well as its posture and action. Use more lines than before to express these. draw the feeling of what you see. and diving. and don't worry about mechanical facts or accuracy. flapping.
Now it will make a pale line. and even then he twitched and stretched in dreams. MAKING A PALE LINE To make a pale line. your drawing book. and a tissue for blotting drawn lines that appear too dark. This will give a medium-gray line. Ras Curled Up Asleep "Capturing the true character of a cherished companion is best achieved with objective determination rather than sentimental shyness. Then dip the nib quickly into a glass of water and drain the excess again. engaged in his and everyone else's business. and drain the excess by touching the nib against the rim of the bottle." . For this class you will need one oblivious dog.34-37). Sleeping animals present the artist with ideal opportunities to study their texture. Make a test sheet to discover your control of diluting on the nib. first dip your pen in ink. a dip pen and ink of your choice (see pp. These drawings are not an analysis of his anatomy or breed but the expression of his satisfied comfort in a deep sleep after a night out on the together with a glass of water for diluting tones on the nib. and personality. The only time he remained still was when he was sleeping. a d o g w h o w a s a l w a y s town. form.40 ANIMALS Sleeping Dogs R A S WAS A GREAT CHARACTER. Dip the nib quickly again into water and again drain it.
ignoring all detail. First lines are first thoughts. tail. . Here. to emphasize how he is curled up. Character is better captured drawing quickly with confidence than w o r k i n g slowly. quickly draw what you see. D o not go back over lines you are pleased with—doing so dulls their lively freshness. see how the animal's posture determines its whole shape.It is essential when drawing any subject (even something abstract) to know how it feels andtoemulate this with your line. Then.41 DRAWING YOUR DOG Be bold in this exercise. Then I immediately rebalanced the drawing with lines around his hind quarters. in bold layers. W i t h pale lies. Trust your intuition. Here I marked the features of Ras's head. second thoughts may be different Changing your mind is a positive aspect o f seeing and thinking. I added ink to Ras's nose. ears. Layers o f thoughts can bring a drawing alive. 3 Gradually introduce darker tones. 2 Reload your pen with ink. SLEEPING DOGS 1 Fix your eyes at the center of the dog. add more detail. and the shadows in his coat. this time to create a line a little darker in tone. c o n c e r n e d a b o u t detail. alter the pressure and moisture of your line in response to howyouknow your dog feels when you ruffle itscoat. To add texture. Remain focused on the whole dog and.
Beyond the glass wall of the aquarium.Turtles to observe. turtles often pause unexpectedly. swinging their limbs and shells with a slow circular movement. offering plenty of time for the artist to draw the pose. THE ELONGATION AND BUOYANCY of a group of turtles is fascinating . as if caught in a camera freeze-frame. A perfect subject for the beginner. they stretch and paddle.
. dry.Dry Birds THESE ARE THE ARTICULATED BONES o f a k i w i a n d a h o u s e - martin drawn in a museum using a steel pen. Beginning with very pale tones. With speed. balance. I sought to capture the form. I darkened lines as each drawing progressed. India ink. and water. and sharp. I made repeated studies of the housemartin to discover its mechanism of flight. weightlessness of the kiwi.
to the proliferation of floral designs with which we have dressed ourselves and furnished our homes for centuries. season. Later. From its history there is one overriding lesson to be learned: the importance of looking and seeing with our own eyes.Morethan 1. we see very different cultural visions of plants and gardens and use pencils and plants to learn the pictorial values of space. and focus. Botanic gardens were established and expanded. and the Acanthus spinosus constant but exhilarating struggle to make a living image feel right. Chapters are arranged by out. Conrad von Gemmingen. PriceBishopof Eichstatt specimens. shape. and diverse kingdom of plants. Plants seventeenth century. and to ornament our lives. robust. on which our lives depend.Plants and Gardens W E SHARE THIS PLANET with the more ancient. Medieval knowledge was not gained by the first-hand observation of life but by reading. the microscope was refined to unfold yet another world. We collect.000 species of plants are depicted life-size drawn. —-the largest and most influential botanical book of the early Natural scientists accompanied explorers to document unknown finds. B A S I L I U SBESLER when botanists founded new work upon the direct study of plants. and texture. Fledgling years Botanist and apothecary who compiled the Hortus Eystettensis of scientific research bore manifold explosions of knowledge in a fever of discovery. Botanical illustration is a precisely defined and scientific art. the punctuation of space with structure and mass. It was published plain in 1611 and withhand-paintedplates in poured off ships returning from the New World and were eagerly collected and 1613. form. Early European illustrators were trapped within dogma that was determined by ancient scholarship. In this chapter. where a number of uncredited artistsd r e wthem for Besler. nurture. and beauty. After Here Aconthus spinosus is combined with forget-me-nots and-a-half centuries of intensive observation. and the drawn pages ofthesame name. manipulations of light and shade. to catalog our knowledge. color. The revolution came in the 1530s. an There are close parallels between the acts of gardening and drawing. and hybridize them for our sustenance and pleasure. We draw them to celebrate their beauty and range. Classifications were set in367copperengravings. Rich owners of private gardens commissioned large-format florilegiums commissioned the volume to document his private garden to immortalize their personal taste and power of acquisition. Patrons funded the breeding of decorative. as opposed to only herbal. 1613 187/8x153/4in(480 x 400 mm) BASILIUS BESLER . infinitely vivid. Plants are the principal inspiration of the decorative arts—from Roman Corinthian columns crowned with carved leaves of the acanthus. we now have laid before us fourto show how well their colours complement each other infinite wealth of material to explore. He sent boxes of plants to Nuremburgburned with the urgency and excitement of explaining every plant's form. Both embrace the anticipation of evolving shape.
Dissections Across the lower part of this drawing we can see dissections of seed pods and petals. Sir Joseph Banks. subtle union of beauty. o p e n i n g a n d c l o s i n g i n the w a r m t h a n d light of the studio. detail. Each plant must b e clearly distinguished from its closest relative. o p t i m i s m . They are counted among the most accomplished 18th-century botanical artists. Stella Ross-Craig said of the need to d r a w from a dried herbarium plant "I could make it live again. Here. and meticulous precision. Light in this drawing is given by the paleness of the paper showing between washes of darker tones. and wilted. flowers. T h e rest of u s are free to d r a w as w e w i s h . insect-ravaged. M a c k i n t o s h e x p r e s s e s the f o l d e d petals of a broken rose b u d so delicately w e can sense the perfume. He has made the spatial and physical relationships in this drawing all the more real by placing a single. The King was then establishing the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. s u c h as w e see here in Bauer's Protea nitida. naturalist explorer and advisor to King George III invited Bauer to London in 1 7 9 0 . petal tip over a lower leaf Protea nitida 201/4 x141/4in (513 x 362 mm) FRANZ BAUER 1796 . Botanical art c o n c e a l s the challenge of its m a k i n g ." Her slipper orchid s h o w s that botanical drawing must often resolve the challenge of its subject's p r o d u c i n g parts in different seasons — r o o t s . fruit. and Franz Bauer and his brother Ferdinand were employed there to draw specimens.48 PLANTS AND GARDENS THE SCIENTIFIC VALUE OF A BOTANICAL DRAWING lies i n its Botanical Studies were specimens that often refused to stay still. leaves. and seeds conventionally a p p e a r o n o n e plate. or that were diseased. It is likely Bauer would have studied these under a microscope. W i t h bright F R A N Z BAUER An Austrian artist who trained at the Schonbrunn Imperial Gardens in Vienna. measured drawings. Outline Bauer prepared a pencil outline before laying in fleshy succulent hues and tones of watercolor. delicate. stems. B e h i n d detailed.
000 Kew to archive accessible t o d a y v i a t h e I n t e r n e t of o n British flora. H e r Drawings of British Plants. Rose 1894 103/4 x 83/4 in ( 2 7 5 x 2 2 1 mm) CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH STELLA ROSS-CRAIG A j o i n e d t h e staff a t t h e R o y a l B o t a n i c G a r d e n s . it is small and discreet. and perfect coordination of hand and eye. imagination.g a r d e in G e r m a n y a n d A u s t r i a . is r e c o g n i z e d as tne m o s t c o m p l e t e a n d i m p o r t a n t work 3. Curtis's Botanical Magazine. and follow shadow. found among Mackintosh's than reality. a m o n g o t h e r s . sensual pencil drawing is later works.. Closer to fiction can come together perfectly.7 3 in 3 1 p a r t s . Pencil lines cling to.49 C H A R L E S RENNIE MACKINTOSH Scottish a r c h i t e c t d e s i g n e r painter. K e w . 1970 x 81/4 in ( 3 2 5 x 2 1 0 m m ) STELLA ROSS-CRAIG .. and observation the nuance and contour of every in one image. BOTANICAL STUDIES Lines and shadows This lush. A s m a n y of her drawings are kept G a r d e n s . p u b l i s h e d 1 9 4 8 . as at trained botanical artist Ross-Craig Swift lines The drawing was planned in pencil and then overworked with a lithographic pen. G u s t a v K l i m t In his r e t i r e m e n t Mackintosh m a d e n u m e r o u s inventive pencil a n d w a t e r c o l o r d r a w i n g s o f plants. and speed depends upon the immediate perception of the essential characteristics of the plant. L o n d o n in 1 9 2 9 . S h e also o f thousands o f contributed an drawings. and it shows how design.286 studies for her book Drawings of British Plants. a n d he inspired. Ross-Craig said of her work "Plants that wither rapidly present a very difficult problem to which there is only one answer—speed. a n d f o u n d e r o f t h e G l a s g o w S c h o o l o f A r t M a c k i n t o s h ' s flair h a d an e n o r m o u s i n f l u e n c e o n t h e a v a n t ." This line drawing is one of 1. Line Drawing of Cypripedium calceolus L c.
a notable portrait painter drew the faces. Upright shallow perspectives. The first Mughal Emperor Babur's Garden of Fidelity (Bagh-e Vaja). is remembered in the pages of his journal. Afghanistan. Bishndas was probably responsible for the overall design. and miraculous growth. Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity c. painting. and Nanha. the sumptuous petals permeated with prayer and wisdom. anticipating their view. Drawing. Opposite is the Rose of Mohammed. The white of the page shines through the brilliant color. in the early 16th century. By Muslim tradition. They used a fine brush to lay pigment over a line drawing. uniform focus. and calligraphy are brought together to hold the sacred names of prophets and the 99 beautiful names of God. Below. . Babur directs his gardeners in the design and planting of this quartered chahar bagh. Envoys chatter outside the gate. paper is brimming with the beauty and celebration of nature. in miniature. urgent attentive human activity. fluctuations in scale.50 PLANTS AND GARDENS Jeweled Gardens the Middle East we find exquisite stylization of form and upright formality in pictorial space. which he personally created near Kabul. and attention to detail are all shared with medieval European manuscript drawings. Every fiber of AMONG DRAWINGS FROM BISHNDAS A N D N A N H A Little is known of these Mughal painters who were related as uncle and nephew and commissioned to illustrate the pages of Babur's journal. roses took their form in a bead of perspiration on the brow of Mohammed as he passed through his heavenly journey. 1590 85/8 x55/8in (219 x 1 4 4 mm) BISHNDAS AND NANHA Bright pigment These pages were illuminated by Mughal artists in the late 16th century.
Stylized motif A fine brush has been used throughout this drawing to apply inks and watercolors. look closely and you will see words written in gold fluttering over the form of the flower. The physical anatomy of the rosebud has been studied and translated into a repeated stylized motif. t h e Staatsbibliothek zu Arabic.AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH This is a detail o f a page from a n 1 8 t h . However. Sacred words The central rose is more solid than any other on the page. G e r m a n y . Note how each bud is essentially the same shape. It is n o w k e p t in Border The elegant border of this drawing was mode with a pen and ruler It cleverly compresses and defines the composition. fragmenting its detail in a whisper of prayers. The Rose of Mohammed 1708 9 1 / 2 x 61/2 in ( 2 4 0 x 1 6 5 mm) FROM THE TURKISH M A N U S C R I P T AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH .c e n t u r y Turkish manuscnpt a book of religious e t h i c s w r i t t e n in the O r i e n t a l C o l l e c t i o n s of Berlin. so that overlapping petals and stems give an impression of fulfillment and abundance. and how the shape has been repeated freehand.
PLANTS AND GARDENS
IN CONTRAST TO THE QUIET, formal detail of other drawings in this chapter, these powerful fast trees enact the actions of plants. Each tree reaches out and holds its landscape with dynamism and pulse. In both drawings we find testament to the inexorable energy of growth. Rembrandt expresses a delicate quickness. Gentle lines draw a warm breeze through this remote wooded garden. Rustling in a loose foliage of soft marks, his pen evokes the weight of abundant activity on this late summer's day. Mondrian's arch of scratching branches is drawn with such force it will always be alive. We can still feel his hand storming across the paper. Set within a frame of smudged landscape, the tree possesses a musical agitation. This characteristic will increase in the artist's later abstract work. Here, we see a punctuated ordering of space. Sharp branches cut out negative shapes of winter sky.
R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter; etcher; and draftsman. Rembrandt's prolific output comprises oil paintings of historical and religious subjects together with group and self- portraits. His emotive etchings and pen and ink drawings (see also p. 174) are great resources for artists learning to understand the potential of these media.
Pen and ink lines describing foliage also tell
us the directions of sunlight and wind. An arc crossing the bottom of the drawing from one side to the other supports the scene and separates us from the landscape beyond. Compare Rembrandt's arc to that of Mondrian's. and note the similar treatment of low horizons in both works emphasizing the height and dominance of trees.
Cottage Among Trees 1648-50 63/4 x121/8in ( I 7 I x 308 mm) R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN
Atmosphere Here we see how shapes of negative space are as important as the physical subject they enclose (see pp.58-59). Mondrian has again lightly dragged his chalk on its side to evoke a wet depth of atmosphere. These passive gray marks contrast with the assertive tension of the tree.
Dutch Pure abstract painter preoccupied w i t h line and plane relationships. W i t h increasing austerity, Mondrian banished t h e subject from his drawings, in his later w o r k he also banished space, composing visual h a r m o n i e s using only straight lines a n d flat planes o f black, w h i t e , gray, o r p r i m a r y color.
Winter ground Short vertical marks along thebottomof this drawing reveal the length oftheblackchalk Mondrian used. Rubbed onitsside,itroughly blocks in the ground. Thecrudeeconomy of line is all we need tofeelthecold, wet, unwelcoming quality ofthiswinterearth.
Branches and trunk Lines shaping the branches of the tree are built up in layers. To make the trunk more dense, the artist has rubbed and smudged preliminary marks with his fingers before firmly overdrawing with new lines. Solid black lines are achieved by pressing the chalk hard. When used lightly, it shows the texture of the paper. Tree: Study for the Grey 1911 23 x 335/8 in ( 5 8 4 x 8 5 5 m m ) Tree
PLANTS AND GARDENS
Graphite and Erasers
GRAPHITE, FROM THE G R E E K word
This drawing illustrates a range of achieved with graphite pencils of different grades.
Modern pencils are graded from 9H (hard and pale) to 9B (black and soft). Graphiteclay sticks are also available, together with a powder form. All possess a natural sheen and are erasable to a varying degree. Graphite drawings smudge easily, so fixative, a form of varnish, can be used to hold a drawn surface in place. It is applied as a fine mist from an aerosol can, or from a bottle using a diffuser. For the beginner, ordinary hairspray is an effective and cheaper alternative.
(to write), is a soft and brittle carbon. It was first mined in Cumbria, England, in 1 5 6 4 , and was initially used in small, pure pieces bound in lengths of string. Pencils as we know them—with their slender wood casing and "lead" of graphite—were invented in France in 1794 by Nicolas-Jaques Conte. He discovered that milled graphite mixed with clay and water, press-molded, and baked to a high temperature produces a harder and paler medium than graphite alone.
3B pencil A range of mark and textures can be achieved with a 3B pencil when you vary its pressure, speed, and direction, as this detail shows.
Here is a selection of 14 items to illustrate a basic range of pencils, graphite sticks, sharpeners, erasers, and fixative.
1. AND 2. HB AND 3B PENCILS: It is unnecessary to possess every grade of pencil. HB, the central and most common grade, is perfect for making delicate lines. 3B gives a blacker tone. A great variety of effects can be achieved with just these two. 3. WATER-SOLUBLE PENCIL Effective for atmospheric drawing, but be aware of how watery tones can dull the impact of the line. 4. AND 5. MECHANICAL PENCIL Thick or fine leads are made in a range of grades. They are particularly useful because they do not require a sharpener 6. ROUND SOLID GRAPHITE PENCIL: Excellent for large-scale drawing, producing thick bold lines. A range of grades can be honed with a craft knife or sharpener 7. THICK GRAPHITE STICK: For large-scale drawing. Graded soft, medium, and hard. It crushes to produce graphite powder 8. SQUARE GRAPHITE STICK: Useful for making broad, sweeping marks in large-scale drawing. If worn and rounded, the stick can be snapped into pieces to regain the sharp, square end. 9. CRAFT KNIFE AND BLADES: Handles are sold in two sizes to fit large or small blades, and blades are sold in a range of shapes. Perfect for sharpening pencils to a long point, to cut lines in paper or to remove areas. 10. PENCIL SHARPENER: Makes a uniform point. Keep one in your pocket for drawing outside the studio, together with an envelope for shavings.
HB and 5B Layers of tone have been built up withHBand5Bpencils. Softer pencils require less pressure to make a mark, revealing the texture of the paper surface. It is important to keep the point of the pencil sharp with either a craft knife or a sharpener.
ERASING AND FIXING
Erasers can be used t o blend and s o f t e n lines, o r t o r e m o v e altogether. Fixative them prevents
GRAPHITE AND ERASERS
s m u d g i n g a n d s e c u r e s lines.
Using fixative You can use fixative while drawing to hold the definition of lines you wish to gently fade but not remove entirely, for which you would use an eraser.
11. P L A S T I C E R A S E R : Avoid cheap colored erasers that may stain drawings with grease and dye. White brands are available in soft and hard versions.
P U T T Y RUBBER:
W a r m it in your hand before use. It is excellent for removing powdery materials, and for making crisp sweeps of light across a delicate pencil drawing
13. D I F F U S E R : Helleborus corsicus (Corsican hellebore) fixative, or to spray mists of ink.
PLANTS AND GARDENS
Cropping and Composition
M A N Y STUDENTS WILL START a d r a w i n g i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e
that its skin nearly touches the boundary. The meaning of the same drawing changes simply by its relationship to the space it occupies. The size of any subject, its placement on the page, the size of the page, and its overall proportion are all discrete and essential aspects of successful picture-making. Before you begin to draw, think carefully about where to place your subject. Are you are happy with your paper? If not, change it; add more, take some away, or turn it around. Do not just accept what you are given, adapt it to what you need.
paper. Focused on the shape and detail of their subject, they remain happily unaware that there is, or should be, any relationship between what they are drawing and the surface they are drawing it on. The paper is only paper, and the troublesome subject floats somewhere in the expanse of it. However, a single fig drawn in the middle of a large, empty square of paper gives quite a different impression from the same fig drawn on such an intimately small square
CHOOSING A VIEW
A Single Fig
"The size, shape, and orientation of the paper are so integral to the composition that they determine the impact and meaning of the drawing."
When subjects touch two or more edges. Here the left fig is attached to. U s e it as a starting point. as also shown here. a device to help you decide what t o draw. running corner t o corner.O u r focus is on the white cloth supporting the figs. bottom-left t o top-right. its illumination. t h e n m o v e t h e c a r d t o e x p l o r e different views. and therefore apparently suspended from. its stem and shadow framing a white center. This drawing hasbeencropped to emphasize space between thefruit. and lines describing shadows cast by the fruit . the uppermost edge of the drawing. spaces between things are as important as the things themselves. The angle of the fruit together with dark shadow (top left) and bright light(bottom right) suggest a diagonal division across the whole drawing. they establish a tension and unity with the paper. CROPPING AND COMPOSITION Off-center and diagonal Here I held my viewfinder so the fig appeared upper-left in the space. Space as the subject Inallpictures. Touching the edge When the subject o f a drawing touches one edge of the paper it attaches t o it visually. A card with a small rectangle cut out o f it makes a useful viewfinder C l o s e o n e e y e t o look through the hole.57 THE VIEWFINDER T h e s e pencil drawings o f figs d e m o n s t r a t e different crops and compositions.
not leaves. The drawing opposite is of the uppermost leaves of a potted fig tree. their subject and composition will become more real. Unfamiliar shapes of negative space reveal the real shape of a positive subject. dynamic. Remember that plants do move! Therefore it is best to complete your drawing in one sitting if possible. erasing and adjusting lines until itlooked right. and so on. but if the artist does. tone. In following this class. third. then added a second shape. Viewers appreciating a finished image may not see shapes of space. Draw a complete shape Map outward from the center Erase and adjust lines until correct . WHERE TO START Arrange your plant and paper so you can look back and forth by barely moving your head. But how often do we look at the air between things. and a fresh page in your drawing book. a foundation stone in picture-making. Negative space is the simple key to getting positive shape right.58 PLANTS AND GARDENS Negative Space UNCONSCIOUSLY WE ASSESS spatial relationships all the time to guide ourselves through the world. which is shown in the three steps below. It is an astonishingly simple device that many artists use and I strongly recommend. an eraser. It helps to start at the center and map outward. a sharp H B pencil. fourth. In your own version. unified. this ensures a consistent view. and engaging. Follow these from left to right and see how I began with one complete shape between two parts of a leaf. rather than what you see in front of you. remember to draw only space. do we see myriad distinct and unique shapes of daylight or do we just see branches? Why as artists should we look at the air? Every space in a picture has a shape. position.The box opposite isolates an area. and a role to play. Looking at negative space overrides the problem of drawing what you know. you will need a similar large-leaved plant. shapes of air cut out and defined by the physicality of our environment? When we look into the branches of a tree.
Here I drew only spaces, adding one to another until the leaves were revealed. Besides looking at negative space, there are two other useful things to do when a drawing feels wrong but you cannot see why: look at it in a mirror or turn it upside down. errors and suggest changes.
Spaces between leaves
Either view will
WALKING IN THE ALPUJARRAS in A n d a l u c i a ,
Spain, I drew a bare fig tree clinging to the wall of an almond grove; a perfect subject for seeing negative space. I marked its essential frame of large branches first, frequently erasing lines and changing my mind until the balance felt right.
S a l v i a , RIBES, CLEMATIS, Allium, Passiflora, and Acanthus
drawn with an H pencil by observing the
negative spaces between the stems, petals, and leaves. I arranged the flowers on a sheet of paper in a cool r o o m and rapidly sketched a composition. Then I put them in water, taking the stems out one at a time to draw.
. gathering less distinct information on the way. Excessive detail leaves no space for the eye to rest or imagination to wander.Acanthus Spinosus As we LOOK AROUND. they emulate our experience of seeing. our eyes travel and adjust from one point of focus to another. interfolding points of detail with areas of loose suggestion. If an artist changes the pace of their line and focus of their attention. We never see everything at once. Compare changes of pace and focus here to the flatter finish of Summer Flowers (see pp. 62-63).
It was also during the Renaissance that the architect Brunelleschi invented linear perspective. Architects have been fine-tuning their specialized branch of drawing for centuries. Through the animation of the screen. Since Picasso and Braque's revolution of Cubism in around 1907. filmmakers. which was the first church in the capital to be built entirely of metal and then clad in stone." reflecting the eye's love of unity in difference. and computer game imaging. we find the most recent steps in the evolution of graphic language. Yet the pursuit of divine proportion and harmony remains. the device that has since governed most of our picture-making (sec pp. Computer programs allow the virtual drawing of ideas. and in the 19th century it was given the name the Golden Section. and writers have been breaking away from traditional forms of representation to seek new expressions of shape. drawing plans around themselves within a program as opposed to on a flat sheet of paper. and from West Facade of the Church of St Augustin. European conventions of pictorial perspective have lost their monopoly on seeing. 74-75). Besides sketches of first thoughts and polished drawings of the finished look for clients. from political commentary to musical abstraction. each VICTOR BALTARD . philosophers. the formula for perfection spread through Europe. At the core of their practice. add and subtract ideas. It is the focus of practical class in this chapter. Perhaps in the sheer planes of some of our greatest modern buildings it is finding its clearest expression. and architects of ancient Greece who first pursued the formula for "divine proportion. once there. It was the mathematicians. which can be clearly seen in ancient Greek architecture. coupled with the importance of exercizing your imagination. designers. Linear perspective is a marvelous device. made by the architect himself. Among the drawings of this chapter we look from 17th-century ecclesiastical calm. Baltard designed the Church of St.The church is still in use today. Paris 1871-74 the child's view to the infinity of the vanishing point. to 20th-century film fantasy. mass. invaluable to understand and apply when you choose. Augustin. fine artists. This harmony. with gray and brown watercolor wash.This is a pencil drawing. architects and designers can imaginatively "climb inside" three-dimensional space and.Architecture I N THE CONTEMPORARY PRACTICES of architecture. film-set design. composers. was preserved into the Renaissance where it became a foundation stone for thinking and creativity From 15thcentury Italy. of the west facade of St Augustin. Since the first flowering of Modernism in the early 20th century. space. and sound. they also have a diagrammatic language for communicating plans to builders. to help them create new form. balance. architects. they have the Golden Section. time. VICTOR BALTARD French architect employed by the city of Paris.
testing gravity to calculate the inverted shapes of domes. and ultimately to show builders what to do. Drawings underpin every great human-made structure like hidden linear ghosts at their core. Pillars and floor At the base of the drawing a compass-drawn plan tilted downward through 90 degrees illustrates the arrangement of pillars around a central circular floor. embodying a massive investment of ideas. structure. densely layered lines in mists of color weave the presence of the expected building into shape. materials. and the shapes of interior domes and apses. Gaudi's fluid architecture grew up through many kinds of drawing. Finished surface On the left the finished surface of the building is given depth and emphasis by immaculate vertical and horizontal brush strokes of shadow. and Castle Howard. The photograph opposite shows his studio hung with metal pendulums. and an inscribed entablature. marks the end of a long journey from the first few marks the architect made on a sheet of paper. Below it. 1711-12 NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR . We see the modeled detail of Corinthian columns. pilasters. A student of Wren's. NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR One of Britain's "three great" Baroque architects (along with Sir Christopher Wren and Sir John Vanbrugh). Cut-away interior On the right a section cut through the center of the building reveals material thicknesses. Lines define structure while washes suggest light and atmosphere. and six London churches. Hawksmoor established his reputation with university and church architecture including All Souls College. Oxford. evoke presence. Three aspects This subtle and sophisticated drawing made in pen and wash displays three distinct aspects of Hawksmoor's baptistry. Architects draw for many reasons: to visualize ideas. relative levels. he also worked on St Paul's Cathedral. Hawksmoor's drawing is both a plan and an evocation. a three-dimensional drawing made with wires and weights.68 ARCHITECTURE Master Builders EVERY NEW BUILDING. Hampton Court Palace. describe a finished look to a client. Together they explain how interior structure and space define exterior form and shape. and balance. St Paul's Baptistry c. and labor. calculate function. Blenheim Palace. and later an assistant to Vanbrugh.
and his love of music. and apartment homes are distinguished by their Their and Flowering curves of stone or concrete are often encrusted with Gaudi was inspired by medieval and oriental art. The Art Nouveau movement. light. unique organic manipulation of high shapes. Wire and watercolor three-dimensional preferred to calculate Above is a drawing form in the made withlinkedwires and weights.69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt c. This sculptural drawingenvisionsthe finished crypt glowingandethereal as if caught in thelightof red morning sun. Gaudi's cathedral in Barcelona. To the right isawatercolordrawing thought to havebeenmade over a photograph ofthemodelabove. Gaudi air than on paper. 1900 ANTONIO GAUDI ANTONIO GAUDI Visionary Catalan architect. 1910 24x181/4( 6 1 0 x 4 7 5mm) A N T O N I O GAUDI . Guell Crypt of its at the Time Construction c. embellishment. churches.
We can imagine how a musician might interpret this drawing by looking at the abstract visual rhythms of masses composed of long straight poles. flat boards.70 ARCHITECTURE The Order of Sound B O T H OF THESE VISIONARY DRAWINGS o c c u p y a s l e n d e r . and rooms. The architect and musician Daniel Libeskind has drawn a stampeding cacophany of airborne architectural detail. Floor space appears divided by discernible walls. theater sets. short curved poles. He also produces urban and landscape designs. installations.223). before cascading into a riot of line and sound below. Satie draws quietly throughout. Visual rhythms In the lower half of this drawing architectural language has broken loose: escaped and transformed into an image of rebellious pleasure. and the spaces between his windows and turrets are the visual equivalent of pauses in h i s m u s i c c o m p o s i t i o n s for p i a n o (see also Bussotti. Contemporary musicians commonly collaborate with artists by interpreting images as sound. We can see. Both men used rulers and pens to carefully and slowly construct their compositions. Libeskind studied music before transferring to architecture. and exhibitions of his drawings. and dotted lines. p. been a natural affinity between the visual rhythms of pictures and the audible rhythms of music. and in a sense hear. a refillable pen that feeds a constant supply of ink through a fine tubular nib. Arctic Flowers 1980 DANIEL LIBESKIND . Libeskind begins quietly in the upper space of his drawing. upright pictorial space. and arched dotted lines depict the radius of doors. Across the top and center right of the image w e perceive an almost recognizable architectural plan. He also contributed to plans for the rebuilding of the World Trade Center site in New York. There has always DANIEL LIBESKIND A Polish American architect of international acclaim. while the composer Erik Satie has made an enclosure of quiet order and grace. Libeskind's numerous commissions include concert halls and museums. such a rapport in both of these drawings. corridors. Floor plan This drawing has been made with a rapidograph.
theater. a n d ballet. Compare the even and and the shape wall to the elegantly stylized order of the many windows of arrangement of details and the shape of the wall in Babur's Garden of Fidelity on p. Hotel de la Suzonnieres c.narrowshape of its paper. Satie collaborated w i t h hisfriends J e a n C o c t e a u a n d P i c a s s o .Edges are how are of orientation. 1 8 9 3 77/8 x 51/2 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 4 0 mm) ERIK SATIE . andfouredges of the paper tothecompositionand impact animage. Eastern influence The upright image Eastern is reminiscent and medieval of Middle pictorial space and subject of this European drawing. They definespaceand pictorial balance. dressed eccentrically. o f which he was the sole m e m b e r Parcel paper Satie has drawn this fantasy hotel using a ruler. Onpp. the perimeter Composition Look how well this drawingfitsand resonates with the upright.50. a conventional dip or fountain pen. lived a l o n e . and ink on a fragment folded brown paper—a of everyday happened material of scrap that to be at hand.56—57 we discussed important the shape. H e p e r f o r m e d in cabarets.ERIK SATIE F r e n c h pianist and c o m p o s e r for t h e piano.H i s witty. effectively additional lines in a work. minimalist s c o r e s scandalized a u d i e n c e s with o r c h e s t r a t i o n s f o r t h e foghorn and typewriter. and founded his o w n church.
and taught at t h e A c a d e m i e d'Architecture. we find other Utopian visions Paul Nobles epic drawing summons an imperfect and disturbing township where ruin and activity are equal and strange. and the reverse is true on the right. Boullee lived in Paris. and dramatic lighting. and draftsman. His celebrated imaginary buildings are characterized by pyramids.The lower-left section of the building appears relatively pale against a darker sky. antlike mortals might have speculated upon the universe.72 ARCHITECTURE T H E S E T H R E E HIGHLY DETAILED DRAWINGS Future Fictions invite us to soaring above normal life. arched vaults. This is the work of an architectural theoretician.96. Newton's Cenotaph 1784 153/4 x 25 in ( 4 0 2 x 635 m m ) ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE . enter the long-shadowed architecture of imaginary worlds. Light illusions This pen-and-wash drawing shows a subtle application of the principles of illumination demonstrated with an egg on p. This shift makes the cenotaph appear three-dimensional. experiencing a fascinating conflict between curiosity and desolation. We glide over exquisitely drawn wastelands of damage and abandonment. spheres. Art director Erich Kettlehut's vertiginous design for the city of a slavelike populace had a future influence on movies such as Blade Runner. Among preparations for Fritz Langs film Metropolis. Within it. made in 1926. Boullee's monolithic apparition was drawn as a monument to Sir Isaac Newton. painter. cylinders. ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE French architectural theorist. the ominous globe exists only as a series of drawings.
a r t director O t t o Hunte. intensely detailed graphite drawings explaining and questioning t h e geography. Nobson Central 9 ft 1 0 in x 1 3 f t 2 in (3 x 4 m ) PAUL N O B L E 1998-99 . FUTURE FICTIONS Brush and ink This is a dramatic drawing from a film that shaped the history of world cinema. together with c i n e m a t o g r a p h e r Karl Freund. mythology. Its sheerscaleengulfs the viewer and demands based time and patience to on letters and in some beread. used forced perspective camera t e c h n i q u e s t o amplify t h e m a g n i t u d e o f buildings in relation t o human characters. and m o d e l . Working on toned paper such as this gives an artist greater scope for dramatic lighting effects than if they work on white paper. Nobson political visions of humanity Newtown. 1926 ERICH KETTLEHUT PAUL N O B L E British c o n t e m p o r a r y artist who creates m o n u m e n t a l . Kettlehut and his c o . and morality o f an invented place called His satires exhibited w o r l d w i d e . Kettlehut drew using a fine and relatively dry brush dipped in black. Fritz Lang's Metropolis c.73 ERICH KETTLEHUT Influential film a r t director. draftsman. and white ink on brown-gray paper. gray. and are Graphite shapes Nobson Central isoneof a series of very large graphite drawings of the spoil and detritus of Nobson Newtown. architecture.m a k e r In t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f Metropolis.Building shapes are works can be read as text.
It is also distinguished from aerial perspective (see pp. LEONARDO DA VINCI One of the greatest artists. Note how architectural features conform to lines and how human figures diminish in size toward thevanishingpoint. found at the center of all converging lines. and those of Naive artists and children. Piranesi an example of two. I contribute the child's perspective. and thinkers ever to have lived. scientists. We use it to structure illusions of depth. linear perspective is distinct from more ancient systems practiced in the East. observations. Press the pin into Leonardo's vanishing point. Invented by Italian artist and architect Brunelleschi in 1413 (late in the history of art). Sometimes shared with Naive artists. In his notebooks. inventors. Pull the thread taut and rotate it slowly above the drawing. and age eight. but is most easily seen and understood in pictures of buildings and interiors. Leonardo recorded constant streams of ideas. Here Leonardo provides a superb example of a single vanishing point. and inventions— essential reading for inquiring minds. 206-07). It can be applied to any subject. See how the thread corresponds to each converging line.74 ARCHITECTURE Pathways of Sight LINEAR PERSPECTIVE (also called vanishing-point perspective) is a simple device for calculating the relative size of things in pictorial space. this perspective is often an imagined bird's-eye view in which details are mapped according to logic and importance rather than how they might appear in real life. Study of Perspective Adoration of the for the Magi 1481 61/2 x111/2in (165 x 290 mm) LEONARDO DA VINCI . Single-point perspective Tie a thread to a pin. All forms of perspective are of equal value.
SARAH SIMBLET I made this drawing (at age 8) in response to a local bookstore's request for children to draw their village. 1740 5 1 / 2 x 83/8 in (141 x 212 mm) G I O V A N N I B A T T I S T A PIRANESI points are located on either side of the drawing. Breamore Village. issues of scale when making room for important their story. which I saw from home every day. visionary and practical understanding of ancient Rome. Two-point perspective Sunlight through this colonnade a great example of two-point perspective. This drawing Young children typically maps ignore on and understanding of the nearby village. Mark these points with your pin and follow the converging lines of the drawing by rotating your thread. and theoretical writing strongly influenced neoclassicism. Scale Our farmhouse my experience was in the woods. and designer Piranesi's prolific architectural drawings. including all they recall about the subject. It shows how children usually map large scenes in flat layers one above the other. New Forest. England 1980 9 x 16 in (228 x 405 mm) S A R A H SIMBLET GIOVANNI BATTISTA PIRANESI Italian artist. . Note the rather large rabbits and pheasants the hills. a points in logical narrative of memories. Children are uninhibited and problems with one element being obscured by another rarely arise. architect. at the top of each lateral column base. Lightly marked illuminates vanishing Two Courtyards c.
DRAWING BOXES 1 Using a ruler and a sharp HB pencil.) . try composing your own space.98 for an important note on oscillation. this is your vanishing point. Each line should pass through one corner of the rectangle. Surround the vanishing point with a small rectangle. In contrast. corresponding to a single vanishing point. 2 3 corners must each touch a dotted line. Draw four dotted lines radiating out from the vanishing point. you will amplify the illusion of distance. using a sharp HB pencil and ruler.76 ARCHITECTURE Single-Point Perspective MASTERING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE i s e a s i e r t h a n y o u m a y First read through. Next. (See p. Note that if you place large structures in the foreground and smaller ones closer to your vanishing point. discovering the image as it progressed. You have completed your first box. This lesson shows you how to make a simple illusion of space defined by two boxes and three flat boards. Extend each dotted line to the edge of your drawing. imagine. On the previous page we looked at its essential mechanism through drawings by Leonardo and Piranesi. Piranesi planned his drawing with only the essential lines needed. This ensures that the second rectangle aligns with the shape and 4 Draw four short lines to connect the four corners of the two rectangles. Leonardo began with a grid of many lines within which he invented his scene. draw a horizon line across your paper Mark a spot on the horizon line. Study these pages first before embarking on this lesson. Erase the dotted construction lines. Draw each step over the preceding one to build up a single image. then follow the ten steps below. This is where we will begin.
77 SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE 5 Draw a new rectangle. 1 0 Erase all ofthedottedlinestoseeyourfinishedboxes Thickeningtheiredges. when inventing your own compositions. draw a second. and erase the dotted lines.asIhavedonehere. bottom. 6 As in step 2. The larger you make your second rectangle. Continue the dotted lines out toward the edge of your drawing. Note that this does not surround the vanishing point In the future. The four comers must each touch a dotted line to be sureitaligns with the first. . Repeat this to add two more boards to the composition. N e x t draw a slanting line to mark the height of the first flat board.willhelptomake them appear more solid. andfarside of this first board. you can place rectangles anywhere youwishin relation to a vanishing point. with two dotted lines. 8 Complete the second box with short lines as in step 4. draw four dotted lines radiating from your vanishing point Pass these through each comer of the new rectangle. larger rectangle. 9 Use dotted lines connecting the slanting linetothe vanishing point to locate the top. Connect this to the vanishing point— again. 7 As in step 3. the closer it will appear to the viewer. The board's sides should be parallel.
I always start with a script but I don't follow it all the way through to the end. Every work talks In this class. APPLYING PERSPECTIVE An Imagined Scaffold "Enjoy your illusion as you make it and it will become more real. 7 4 ) . then let the space suggest its c o n t e n t s and purpose. p . O n a fresh page in your d r a w i n g b o o k . As David Lynch. It highlights the importance of having faith in your imagination and trusting your ability to invent. The m i s t a k e n belief that we s h o u l d k n o w exactly what o u r finished drawings will l o o k like before we m a k e t h e m prevents many people from ever starting. Then follow the three given steps." . draw a b o x as shown opposite. If using a fibertip pen as I have done for this drawing. it is interaction that makes the work richer. Linear perspective will support y o u by providing a frame in which to b u i l d your picture as it did for Leonardo. once said: "I never end up with what I set out to do.78 ARCHITECTURE Creating an Imaginary Space T H I S CLASS USES SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE t o c r e a t e a s i m p l e to you and if you listen to it. w h e t h e r it is a film or a painting. artist and film director. A lot more happens when you open yourself up to the work and let yourself act and react to it." imaginary room. let simple lines suggest a simple space. it will take you places you never dreamed of. you will find white adhesive stationery labels are useful for covering errors or changing the direction of your idea.
There is great pleasure tobefoundin spending time inventing interiors. This initial space will be transparent and open to change. Here. you will beableto draw more complex objects orpeoplewithin them. CREATING AN IMAGINARY SPACE 1First. horizontal. 3 Remove the construction lines with an eraser and the room will becomeclearer. . The space has become more solid and real.drawthehorizonlineand vanishingpoint. 2 first before adding furniture.Addanarray of converging lines to provide a "scaffold" for vertical. With some practice. and floors and ceilings also converge and rise o r lower toward the horizon. and leaning surfaces. additional lines have established the different surfaces and how they relate to each other.79 DRAWING A SIMPLE ROOM Essentials t o remember: objects and people dimmish in size as they move farther away. parallel planes such as walls converge toward the vanishing point.
T h i s is d e m o n s t r a t e d immediately below. That is where we e to find them. I have elaborated on the simple boxes above. Search for the application of these perspectives among works by other artists in this book and in galleries. but they are not confined to this level. Here. Potentially.p o i n t perspective ( s h o w n opposite top). our eye level is very high and we look down. they can be placed anywhere inspaceto describe the perspective of flyi c tilted objects. Vanishing points are commonly found on horizon—our eye level. Only when y o u might employ t h r e e . Further aspects of three-point perspective are also illustrated opposite. Elaborations . Copying what you see in the work of others will help you to understand what they have done. 76-79). showing y o u h o w to draw curved surfaces and a tiled floor. o r to the h o r i z o n . To draw such a view APPLICATION Copy these drawings to see and feel how they work before inventing your own versions. do verticals appear inclined. From our normal eye level. They could be drawn on any scale from miniature to monumental. T h i n k of standing at the top of a skyscraper and imagine h o w its parallel sides would appear to converge below you. It is important to realize that you can have as many vanishing points as you wish. a n d this is how we have drawn them so far (see pp. located anywhere inside or outside the pictorial space. These elaborations could continue indefinitely across a sheet of paper in pursuit of complex and intricate ideas. The boxes drawn here are seen partly or entirely disassociated from a horizon line drawn across the bottom of the image. verticals appear p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the g r o u n d . or low and we look u p .80 ARCHITECTURE Further Aspects of Perspective W E ARE ACCUSTOMED TO SEEING our e n v i r o n m e n t from a relatively constant point of view. T h e y d o n o t have to relate to each other. Free vanishing points On paper we can enjoy the freedom of fantastic structural invention without limitations of solid materials or gravity.
An array of curved lines (drawn freehand) link the two lateral points. Where thelinescross.I added horizontal lines t o define the tiles.) By comparing this drawing t o Piranesi's example of two-point perspective on p. PERSPECTIVE Three-point curves Here.75. Three-point checkered floor This d bottom floor. Note that altering the distance between the three dots above will tilt the level of the floor .Finally. you will see how. tostraightlines can amplify drama in a picture. I marked the toplinewith three evenly spaced points and the line with seven. I then drew three fanned groups of lines connecting each of the three points above to the seven points below. Iusedthese lines as a guide t o draw the curvature of boxes and panels flying through space. useful for representing steep views looking up or down tall structures. three vanishing points are evenly spaced along a horizon line. (Turn the book around to see a view looking up. Giving curvature. and therefore tension. by adding a third point you can achieve a sense of incline.Istarted with two parallel lines.81 FURTHER ASPECTS OF Three-point towers This drawing depicts three-point perspective. they mark the corners of the floor tiles.
These walnut-skin ink pen and brush drawings show imagined views of theaters that do not exist but were inspired by places I studied.Theaters RESEARCHING FOR MY P H D . . making drawings to resolve questions and express personal responses to the nature and history of anatomy. I visited many anatomical theaters and museums.
The vanishing of the drawing is directly opposite as we look across The constancy of the bridge and surrounding frames the movement in the life that flows past.Venetian Life sitting point buildings ThisP E N . .A N D . the water.I N KDRAWING is one of a series I made while next to the Rialto Bridge in Venice.
illuminating snail shells. that test our logic with a sense of mystery. even more advanced drawings are made on computers. but humans LEONARDO DA VINCI Inthisbeautiful red chalk Our items all have a purpose—practical or ornamental—and all have a meaning. It is shaped in sections w i t h Artists have for centuries studied and expressed composition. Today. Artists and actors use the meanings of things to communicate a speculative mechanic. drawn. each demanding more of the other as they increased in sophistication. fictional realities caster of h o w t o make it andhowit will w o r k . texture. T h e Industrial Revolution c h a n g e d the traditional w a y s in w h i c h objects were designed. craftsmen had held plans in their memory. Artists also make images of objects that can never exist. drawing c. Previously. color. H e has described contour and function at drawings. too. these. we look at the importance are the only creatures on Earth w h o actually design and create great ranges of things. C o m m o n items. and made. A chair. or used on stage hood for a mold t o make theheado f a horse f oas a p r o p — i m b u e d with e n o u g h energy or character can "become" a man. have often carried great weights of allegorical once. Birds follow instinct to make a nest. It was in this era that the blueprint was born. and the way in w h i c h the brain reacts Head and Neck Sections of Female Mold for the Sforza Horse to visual stimulus and optical illusions. design. hooked bars that can be pulled and tied closely form. T h e precision of engineering d r a w i n g s e v o l v e d alongside machine tools. In this chapter. drawings were needed to instruct workers on the factory floor. History will be learned from the artifacts w e leave behind. to record an observed detail. of light in the creation of pictorial illusions. Technical drawing was speedily developed as a meticulous international code of m e a s u r e m e n t and explanation. H e has described a casting through metaphor. for example—whether. With the sudden onset of mass production. or to explain and present a finished concept to a client. In past eras. for example. and some apes use simple tools. Engineers and designers of our objects and instruments make drawings for many reasons: to test an idea that is yet to be made. 1493 117/8c81/4in (300 x 210 m m ) LEONARDO D A V I N Ccreating I . making a clear instruction t o his bronzemeaning. r an equestrian statue. are all made bearing the signature of our time and place. planned. and the behavior of light through making still-life paintings and together. and a wire violin. W e also explore v o l u m e and form in the classes by spinning lines to make vessels. or drawing w e see Leonardo daVinci'sprecision as can be given meaning.Objects and Instruments T HE THINGS WE INVENT describe our lives. sculpted. from s p o o n s and pens to chairs and bicycles. passing them on to others through the act of making.
and shading. perfect i n their newly made availability. There is a fragile eloquence to these objects as they drift in slow motion past our gaze. not to work in harmony. representing still life.73 x 1 m) GEORGES BRAQUE . wood-look wallpaper.Braque marshals all the forces of perspective." La Cuitare. T h i s is a designers drawing made to enthuse surface and style in its delicate brushing of china. silverware. Statue D'Epouvante 1913 2 f t 5 in x 3 ft 5 in (0. and glass objects of exquisite elegance for only the gentlest of touch and appreciation. steaming with music and conversation. charcoal. Mucha's drawing glistens with possession. Braques "justly" arranged combination of cut black card. and a journal jacket with words makes this drawing chatter about the moment.90 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS Still Life THESE DRAWINGS REVEAL t w o o p p o s i t e m o t i v a t i o n s i n we can. Opposite. He takes us into the bustle of the Paris cafe. . Clashes The art historian Ernst Gombrich said of Cubism. "I believe [it] is the most radicalattempttostampout ambiguity and to enforce one readingofthepicture—that of a manmade construction. Below. Braques image is a Cubist collage. not of place but of things. but to clash in virtual deadlock. His work is characterized by calm and harmonious still-life compositions. Braque established Cubism in partnership with Picasso just before World War I.. texture.. One of the great joys of this movement in art is the musicality of its multipoint view. a colored canvas. still feel this projected moment. Even today GEORGES BRAQUE French painter who as a young man was influenced by the work of the Fauves and of Cezanne.
Study for Plate 59 from "Documents Decoratifs" 17x121/4(430 x 310 mm) ALPHONSE MUCHA 1902 . and New York. The three plates facing us were drawn with a compass. Black watercolor washes and lines of white gouache have been added with a fine brush. Art Nouveau curling motifs of birds. For ten years Mucha designed theater posters exclusively for the actress Sarah Bernhardt. He is best known for posters featuring ethereal women in typical Art Nouveau style. Chicago. He designed the Austrian pavilion for the Paris World Fair in 1900.ALPHONSE MUCHA Czech graphic artist and painter who worked in Prague. and also stamps and bank notes. Art Nouveau motifs This is a preliminary study for a subsequent print. Background color Between the delicate shadows and highlights of these glazed and surfaces ofthebackground metal color of the Mucha we see a large amount paper.flowers. Pans.fruit. and fish have been outlined using a sharp pencil. Look at the two spoons at toprightand see how has suggested that they are so brilliantly shiny they reflect the background color.
the law o f gravity. into the eyepiece. Their delicate construction is only as valuable as the measurements they make. From the concept of capturing the infinite to the mapping of microscopic sight. each reflecting a view of his own world—his window. Look how confidently he draws with ink the sphere of this wooden globe by which his telescope rotates. a tree outside.92 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS by their very nature must gauge or chronicle precision. and his hand moving across the light. Newton's 1672 ISAAC Telescope NEWTON . via a second mirror. It was then reflected up inside the tube and. Newton used this instrument to calculate the speed required to escape earth's gravity. In the graphic work of these two great men of science. and the nature o f light and color. Hooke's head of a drone fly seen through a microscope may represent the first time man and insect came face to face. each one skillfully rendered with the alarmingly matter-of-fact ease of explaining the commonplace. w h e r e he developed his three greatest theories: the law o f motion. Newton's drawing of his first reflecting telescope is ISAAC N E W T O N English scientist. offering a transparent view. Ink lines Several drawings appear among Newton's letters. It is a diagrammatic explanation of how to catch and magnify a star in a mirrored tube. mathematician. 0 0 0 perfect hemispheres. He counted 1 4 . astronomer. and philosopher Newton was President of the Royal Society. The power of this drawing reflects the pure passion of discovery. we see drawing Instruments of Vision found among his letters. and Fellow of the University o f C a m b r i d g e . A disembodied eye at the top of the drawing indicates where to look. Transparent view Newton's reflecting telescope focused light in a parabolic mirror. drawing is there to pin the moment down. alchemist. With dotted lines Newton has drawn his arrangement of elements inside the tube. shape the very cause and effect of investigatory thought.
An experimental scientist who drew many of his discoveries. ROBERT H O O K E 93 Magnifications This acutely detailed engraved drawing is taken from Hooke's Micrographia (pub. Hooke invented the camera diaphragm. 1665). The Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 1665 ROBERT HOOKE 111/2 x 105/8 in (294 x 270 mm) . and anchor escarpment. It is an exhilarating read. universal joint a prototype respirator clock balance. a breathtaking book containing many of his drawings showing some of the first microscopic and telescopic magnifications of our environment Hooke's text and illustrations carry us to the moment of discovery. and calculated the theory of combustion.
while the tabs make us see a flat paper cut-out. each drawn with the s a m e unfaltering lines and tones that are between reality and impossibility. has published several catalogs of her work. craft. Van Gogh's tipsy seat is a metaphor for an absent person. From component parts we understand how to put it together and make it stand sensible in space. Two-dimensional was made This highly finished drawing ruler using a sharp pencil and on smooth white drawing paper glistening dark drawings are artificial representations of known Woodfine's two-dimensional things balanced in the world. A renegade from the p a p e r dolls' h o u s e . and has drawings in numerous public and private collections. Its wobbly gait and squashed s y m m e t r y m u m b l e endless h o m e y tales about the life it has seen. Woodfine exhibits internationally. Chair Cut Out 2002 22'A x 23 in (565 x 585 mm) SARAH WOODFINE . and w h e r e the chair b e l o n g s . and place in the world are truly seen. this chair p r e s e n t s us with a clever visual contradiction: deeply drawn shadows tell us it must be solid. it has so m u c h familiar personality that it seems to talk to us. Bench Marks W e are left a little c o n f u s e d as to what we s h o u l d do. OBJECTS AND SARAH WOODFINE British contemporary artist graduate of the Royal Academy Schools. W i t h h o m e y c o n t r a s t . Sarah Woodfines flat cut-out m o d e l plan is a witty and surprising drawing. Drawn in more-or-less c o n v e n t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . its character. and winner of the 2004 Jerwood Drawing Prize.94 INSTRUMENTS W H E N WE DRAW A COMMON OBJECT like a chair.
Among van Gogh's best-known canvases are Trees. drawn opposite way of plan. The floor few as engagement with the chair. Van Chair 1890 VINCENT VAN GOGH . and Starry Cypress Night.hehas marked the full emotion of the subject with a fierce grip of concentration. His passionate brush and pencil strokes are honest and of also turmoil and growing alarm at the world around him. Cornfield and Sunflowers. what direct in their he saw and describing his felt.95 VINCENTVAN GOGH Dutch painter who produced over 800 paintings and 850 drawings in only the last ten year's of his life. inner recording while Fierce strokes This is a portrait of the mechanical drew immediately and almost harshly. not is made present in only strokes and is subdued to distract us from flat a meaningful chair.
See how its "edge" smoothly changes from light against dark to dark against light. We perceive one to be lighter than theother. w e turn our head but n o one w a s there. Before starting a tonal drawing of any subject. form. Here w e look briefly at our perception of light a n d darkness a n d our interpretation of diagrammatic illusions. On acloudyday. a n d m o v e m e n t . are translated into a world of space. W e learn to read light and shadow in our environment as indicators of solidity and depth of space. Through these we can enjoy witnessing our o w n d e c e p t i o n a n d b a f f l e m e n t a n d u n d e r s t a n d certain factors that are very useful in picture-making. The egg's lightest region is seen against a darker background. and the proximity of contrasting tones. T h e slightest recognition is instantly matched to our wealth of experience a n d expectation.102-03 deep shadows cast across shells make their form easier to perceive. Run The bottom-left quarter of the egg lightens slightly toward its "edge" when seen against the darker shadow cast on the paper. The two tones meet without a division or outline between. two identical mid-gray squares are seen against black and paler gray squares. cards the same size. The small squares are identical in tone. one blackandone white. the adjustment of our eyes (in growing accustomed to a level of light). your eye around the circumference of the egg. gray. Artists emulate and manipulate this effect in their pictures. Here. o u r b r a i n s search for n a m e a b l e things. Are you happy LIGHT AND SHADOW with what you see? Does the light enhance the subject? Could you alter and improve it? On pp. or colored surface is never constant. hence our recognition of a cartoon face c o m p o s e d of three lines. The rim of light on the egg is reflected light received from surrounding paper. We will even see things that d o not exist because minimal information suggests they are likely to be there. a n d we can be fooled. reads only m o v e m e n t a n d can often m a k e mistakes. Three factors change it: the amount of light it receives.This effect is caused by the contrast of their surroundings. Card experiment cho can gra on .96 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Light and Illusions SEEING IS MIRACULOUS. Adjust the angleofthe protruding part and again stepback. try this experiment. transmitted to the brain as chains of electrical impulses. a n d our ability to see forms in c l o u d s or fire. We only need small prompts. Below. The egg's darkest region is seen against a lighter background. think about its illumination. To interpret visual s t i m u l u s . atmosphere. From across the room both will appear black card and fold and retapeitwith half sticking out. Gray squares To further examine changes in tone. a n d are q u i c k to p r o p o s e ideas. S o m e o n e passes our o p e n door.At one point you will catchenoughlight lighter than the white one. The perceived tone of a black white. less developed than the center. Tape them to the glass. but do not appear so.d o w n patterns of light on our retinas. perhaps. The outermost edge of our vision. U p s i d e . Below the bottom "edge" of the egg there is a rim of light reflected onto the paper by the underside of the egg. a lit photograph of an egg shows essential points to observe in tonal drawing.
In this linear drawing w e read t h i c k as closer a n d t h i n as f a r t h e r away. by d i r e c t e d a r r o w s ( A ) .97 LINE VERSUS TONE In l i n e a r d r a w i n g s . LIGHT AND ILLUSIONS Tonal width T h e s e black a n d w h i t e bands are o f equal thickness o n e i t h e r side o f t h e i r central division. . T h e jug d r a w n w i t h a t h i n line appears f a r t h e r away t h a n t h e j u g d r a w n w i t h a t h i c k e r line. respectively. t h i c k e r l i n e s a p p e a r t o stand forward. In this t o n a l image w e read w h i t e as f a t t e r t h a n black. Apparent lengths T h e s e optical illusions s h o w h o w lines o f identical length can b e m a d e t o l o o k quite different f r o m each o t h e r by t h e addition o r association o f o t h e r lines. l i g h t e r surfaces s t a n d f o r w a r d w h i l e d a r k e r s u r f a c e s recede. Seven parallel lines are m a d e t o tilt t o w a r d and away f r o m each o t h e r by n u m e r o u s s h o r t strokes crossing t h e m diagonally ( A ) . T w o relatively t h i c k parallel lines are m a d e t o b e n d away f r o m each o t h e r as t h e y pass in f r o n t o f an a r r a y o f c o n v e r g i n g f i n e lines ( B ) . T h i s fundamental o p p o s i t e is a reason w h y l i n e a r a n d t o n a l d r a w i n g does not a l w a y s c o m b i n e w e l l in t h e s a m e i m a g e . O b s e r v e h o w each white b a n d appears t h i c k e r t h a n its black c o u n t e r p a r t . Bending straight lines Linear distance These t w o jugs have b e e n d r a w n w i t h lines o f d i f f e r i n g thicknesses. Y o u m a y e x p e r i e n c e s o m e t h i n g similar h a p p e n i n g w h e n y o u m a k e s i n g l e . b u t t h e u p r i g h t o n e l o o k s t a l l e r (B).p o i n t p e r s p e c t i v e d r a w i n g s w i t h a large n u m b e r o f c o n v e r g i n g rays b e h i n d y o u r horizontals. If y o u w i s h t o m a k e a t o n a l drawing. start o u t w i t h one. w h i l e t h i n n e r lines recede. T w o horizontal lines o f equal length are m a d e t o l o o k longer and shorter. A n u p r i g h t line stands in t h e c e n t e r o f a h o r i z o n t a l line. In a t o n a l d r a w i n g . O f t e ndoingso w i l l s p o i l y o u r w o r k . T h e r e is n o obligation t o a d d b l o c k s o f t o n e t o a l i n e a r d r a w i n g . B o t h are identical in length. S h o r t h o r i z o n t a l lines o f identical length are m a d e t o l o o k d i f f e r e n t by c o n v e r g i n g lines beside t h e m ( C ) .
including some shown here. it can oscillate b e t w e e n facing t o w a r d o r a w a y f r o m us. among others. Yet many illusions. Op(tical) artists. it oscillates between t w o possibilities. others adjust works to avoid their effects.98 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Further Illusions PSYCHOLOGISTS AND PHYSIOLOGISTS have studied optical illusions for decades in pursuit of what they tell us about the brain." . Two ways of seeing T h i s is t h e b o x c r e a t e d in t h e f o u r t h step o n p. SEEING TWO OPTIONS Sometimes. Some artists use known optical illusions to make art. are still not agreeably understood.s i d e d r e c t a n g u l a r t r a y ( b o t h are illustrated far r i g h t ) "The brain is so eager to name a fragment we see that we need only a suggestion to grasp the whole. such as t h e dish seen h e r e o n t h e left. It is a curious fact that w e can never see both options at once.76. C l o s i n g t h e surface o f t h e f o r m seals o u r d e c i s i o n as t o w h i c h w a y it faces. such as Bridget Riley. w h e n drawing the outline o f a three-dimensional form. and so calculated precisely how much to fatten columns to make them appear straight. Artists make pictorial illusions when they paint or draw. perfected the acceleration of perspective (see pp. In the 1960's. w e will find that in terms of the direction it faces. and we learn to read the styles of diverse cultures and periods. w e can only look f r o m one t o the o t h e r If an artist is not aware this can happen in their image. made paintings that depended upon the physical sensation of our brain's reaction to known optical illusions. Ancient Greek architects knew parallel upright lines appeared to bend toward each other in the middle. o r as a s l o p i n g .116-17) to make painted figures look correct when viewed from below. their picture could be ambiguous. Today we are bombarded with images but rarely have difficulty reading them. as s h o w n o n t h e right. It is possible t o r e a d i t t w o ways: as a t r u n c a t e d r e c t a n g u l a r p y r a m i d seen d i r e c t l y f r o m a b o v e . A few suggestive marks will tip the decision one way o r the o t h e r Closing the surface W h e n a t r a n s p a r e n t elliptical o b j e c t has b e e n d r a w n . Michelangelo. Artists can communicate much in few lines and the viewer will do the rest of the work.
T h e a r t i s t M. 1 6 t h . T h e t e s t e x p l o r e s o u r n o r m a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o find things w e can n a m e a m o n g r a n d o m shapes. F a m i l i a r i t y in r a n d o m s h a p e s T h e Rorschach test was established by t h e 1 9 t h . w e see t w o overlapping triangles: o n e outlined in black b e n e a t h a n o t h e r in solid w h i t e . C o u n t t h e n u m b e r o f d a r k spots y o u can see. T h e patient's answers are t h e n diagnosed as a psychological profile. FURTHER ILLUSIONS Seeing things that are n o t t h e r e H e r e o n t h e left.c e n t u r y Swiss psychologist H e r m a n n Rorschach. Minimal-line j o k e s such as this rely u p o n t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y v i e w e r ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e shapes. W e should r e m e m b e r t h a t o u r brains will always search f o r a p i c t u r e — i n ink blots. this is a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f t h e viewer's b r a i n b e i n g willing t o d o a large a m o u n t o f t h e w o r k in d e c i p h e r i n g a p i c t u r e . B e l o w is a b r i g h t n e s s c o n t r a s t illusion. e t c . N e i t h e r triangle exists. P e r c e i v i n g a w h o l e i m a g e f r o m m i n i m a l lines T h i s is a w i d e l y r e p r o d u c e d visual j o k e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e C a r r a c c i b r o t h e r s . S o m e artists use ink blots t o p r o m p t t h e beginning o f an image.c e n t u r y Italian painters. C o u p l e d w i t h t h e Rorschach b l o t above. . C Escher u s e d this phenomenon t o great effect in his many p o p u l a r d r a w i n g s o f puzzles and impossible buildings.99 Impossible objects T h e s e clever configurations o f outlines and t o n a l surfaces convince us at a glance that we are seeing a solid three-dimensional triangle and a three-pronged fork. smoke. T h e y a r e o f t e n c r e d i t e d w i t h t h e invention o f t h e c o m i c c a r t o o n . This simple five-line d r a w i n g is o f a C a p u c h i n priest asleep in his pulpit. O n l y o n closer inspection we realize that t h e s e o b j e c t s are fooling us. — a n d so t h e artist can create m u c h o u t o f an impression w i t h o u t overdescribing. M u c h can b e e x p r e s s e d in o n l y a f e w marks. His highly d i s p u t e d and i m p r e c i s e science involves s h o w i n g u n p r e p a r e d p a t i e n t s t e n p a r t i c u l a r ink b l o t s a n d asking t h e m t o i n t e r p r e t w h a t t h e y see. b u t w e believe w e see t h e m because e n o u g h f r a g m e n t a r y i n f o r m a t i o n is given f o r o u r brains t o c o n c l u d e t h e y are v e r y likely t h e r e . T h e s e e x a m p l e s illustrate h o w little is n e e d e d t o c o n v e y an image. clouds. This effect can o c c u r naturally w h e n looking at a b r i g h t l y lit w h i t e g r i d such as a w i n d o w f r a m e against t h e night sky. Yet still w e try resolve t h e m .
while its upper rim remains level. Cover a sheet of paper with spinning. such as bowls and cups. and these narrow or widen depending on the height of our view. Cubism. . even if y o u r hand w o b b l e s a little at first. third common error is to draw upper and lover ellipses with different-sized apertures. smoothly. circles change into ellipses. I have exaggerated this error here.90) takes a different as essentially circular. To make a cylindrical object appear real in our pictorial space.100 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS W E VISUALIZE CYLINDRICAL VESSELS. hesitant one that has edged its w a y nervously around the vessel's rim. The second common error is to tilt the upper and lower ellipses at different angles. (see p. Be aware. However. that this is o n l y o n e w a y view. Ellipse are best d r a w n quickly. Watch the tip of your pen and see it draw an ellipse in the air Keep this movement going while gently lowering the pen onto the paper like the needle of a record player closing on the disc (only it is your lowering hand that spins. describing many sides of an object simultaneously. spin your hand in a relaxed circle. WHERE TO START In the air above a spacious sheet of scrap paper. not the paper!) As the pen touches down. COMMON ERRORS W h e n drawing cylindrical objects in perspective. for example plates or bowls on a table. as if the table surface slopes upward beneath the vessel. Don't worry if it is uneven— just try again. How to Draw Ellipses of seeing. there are three common errors people stumble upon. w h e n seen at an angle. springlike forms like those I have drawn below. since this is h o w w e experience them in e v e r y d a y use. though. giving the cylinder four corners. The first common error is to draw two pointed ellipses. I have drawn these for you here. keep it spinning. like a disposable plastic cup that has been crushed in your hand. suggesting that the vessel is lopsided. you will achieve steadiness with practice. a n d in o n e bold stroke. A wobbling but confident ellipse will still be more convincing than a slow. w e use ellipses to give a sense of perspective. for example.
HOW TO DRAW E L L I P S E S A Single Vessel One Inside Another Grouped Together Finding Shape and Volume Draw an imagined vessel in one continuous spinning line. . thereby hiding lines that show the other sides.101 DRAWING VESSELS Once you have mastered drawing free-hand springs. you can make it solid by building up highlights and tones on visible surfaces. you can start to control your spinning ellipse to make a vessel. enlarging and diminishing the ellipse to determine the overall shape and volume. Draw quickly. Altering the pressure—and therefore tone—of the line as it spins gives the impression of light shining on one side. Create a Solid Surface Once you have drawn the shape and volume of each form. Seeing Through Allow lines to travel around each vessel as if it were transparent. working from top to bottom.
if any.102 INSTRUMENTS Tonality W H E N MAKING A TONAL DRAWING. and strong contrasts are easier to draw. You can begin with outlines and build slowly from light to dark (see opposite top). if light shines in them. beams of light. It is important to place them on the correct side so as to draw comfortably (see pp. it will inhibit your perception of tone. leaving detail until last. LIGHT TO DARK DARK TO LIGHT . It maximizes the range of tones between black and white. Draw the largest and most distinct areas of light and darkness first. simply shapes and subtleties of light and dark meeting each other with no divisions in between.22-23). and solid objects are all of equal importance. Relaxing your eyes out of focus as you draw will help to dissolve the distraction of detail. making complicated or subtle surfaces easier to see and understand. two opposite methods of achieving the same result. t h e r e a r e p r i n c i p a l l y Dramatic lighting emphasizes texture and contour. Remember that shadows. In the finished drawing there should be few. outlines. OBJECTS AND Start by arranging a choice of shells on a sheet of paper to your left if you are right-handed (or vice versa). Illuminate them with a gooseneck lamp placed very close and directed away from your eyes. or you can begin with a mid-gray ground and model light out of darkness (see opposite bottom). Gradually hone your drawing.
draw a rectangle. Let your eyes go out of focus while looking gently layer marks to create an even tone at your subject and paper: Draw the most ofmid-graywithin a rectangle.56-57). Avoid a rough significant areas of light in your gray rectangle with texture and do not press the graphite hardwhite plastic eraser Ignore all detail and draw a into thepaperor you will not be able to erase it. Draw in the details last of all. until you are happy frame. Use your pencil to develop these in relation to the areas of light. Treat positive form and negative space (see pp. Use quick. with broad sweeps of the eraser. . pale lines with equal importance. Continue working between light and dark to refine the drawing. Remember that its size. Relaxing your eyes out of focus will help to eliminate distracting details. DARK TO LIGHT (TONE TO TONE) 1 Using the flattened tip of an HB pencil.103 LIGHT TO DARK (LINE TO TONE) TONALITY 1 Using a sharp HB pencil. Fll in broad areas first and leave all detail until last. shape. boldly 2 3 Keeping your eyes out of focus. loose. Honetheshapesand angles of the shells. 2 3 Gentlydissolveoutlines so that areas oflightanddark meet without a line between them. look at the main areas of darkness. and edges definingthespacialrelationships between are important aspects of your composition them. Erase and make changes to roughly place the shells inside your with your composition.
and on p. continuous lines. There are essentially three lessons to be learned. On p. . On p. smooth.220 Mamoru Abe draws with forged steel rods. This class uses thin-gauge wire to create a threedimensional violin. and on p. three-dimensional drawings teach us about the totality of forms in space. When drawing anything viewed from one side on paper. Place the instrument on a plain surface and illuminate it with a desk lamp to add the delicate dimension of shadows. and physical relationships between them. The second is that after achieving this simple example. Seeing through a wire drawing of a known object such as a violin gives us a visual and tactile understanding of all its sides and shapes at once. you can create your own more ambitious works.69 we see how the architect Antonio Gaudi drew proposed domes using suspended wires and weights. The first is that figurative and abstract drawings can be made in space.104 OBJECTS AND I N S T R U M E N T S Drawing with Wire DRAWINGS DO NOT HAVE to be two-dimensional. our image is stronger if we understand and can visualize what is happening on the other side too. try drawing it with a pen on paper Use bold. They can also be made in space. 176 the British artists Noble and Webster draw with domestic refuse in a beam of light. PEN LINES Once you have created your three-dimensional violin (opposite). Third. 19 Picasso draws with a pen-light for the camera.
I started with the scroll at the top and fixed the four component wires with two drawings of tuning pegs. 4 .105 SETTING UP DRAWING WITH WIRE Follow these steps to draw a three-dimensional violin Choose a gauge of wire sturdy enough to hold the shape ofyourfinished drawing. These will hold the sides apart and help to keep the form in shape. and pinch and bend it to shape the base of the instrument Repeat this process to make the identical upper side of the instrument. Here. Once you have completed the body. and thick wire a larger one. Then begin to define its uppermost surface with Scurves and the bridge. 2 3 If needed. I used garden wire and cut it carefully with pruners. Join the two sides together with four short pieces of wire. thin wire will make a smaller drawing. Cut a length. 1 Decide how big to draw your violin relative to the gauge of your wire. brace the two ends of the violin with a length of wire along the back. begin to shape the curvature of the fingerboard. but thin enough to be easily manipulated inyourfingers Here.
Oxford. some of which are shown here. Using found materials. I had the privilege of drawing their inventions.Artifacts and Fictions IN 1993 I WORKED with a group of schoolchildren who were responding to the astonishing objects in the collection of the Pitt Rivers Museum. England. . they invented new anthropological finds—objects that reflected the distant past and their immediate future.
He even believed he had located the soul contours of her form like a cartographer's map of in the pituitary fossa beneath the brain and behind the eyes. This F finished image was produced as r a n c i s c o . These classes are popular around the world. myths and fables. The body remains at the core of over the initially white lines. Renaissance artists studying anatomy from dissection clinically trained and specialized as a medical illustrator. Look closely at Renaissance drawings of the female b o d y and you will see that m o s t are actually y o u n g m e n with minor adjustments. R. Williams were decades ahead of their medical counterparts. W e are the only creatures on Earth that can make our own image. 3 x 7 in (300 x 180 . the Bay Area Models' Guild h o l d s a quarterly life-drawing m a r a t h o n aprinton Kodak transfer paper with green-colored dye added celebrating the great diversity of human proportion. while Leonardo opened the body to see and projected onto a woman's body draw the celebratory discover for himself our physical mechanisms. the junior workshop apprentices posed as part of their duties. and in San could easily be transferred into three dimensions. WILLIAMS he sought perfection in the infinitesimal measurement of the body and produced four Contemporary photographer volumes of illustrated explanation. much Western contemporary art. Drawings were usually made from the male nude to avoid offending the church.The Body O UR BODIES MAKE us TANGIBLE. but the study of a controlled. Artists are thought to have b e g u n drawing from the nude during the Italian Renaissance. and because the female was deemed inferior. Michelangelo attended dissections to made this image by light sectioning: fine beams of light perfect his understanding of surface form. giving physical foundation undulating land. It also looks at the representation of the b o d y b11y4o n d traditional life drawing. It gives physical and emotive form to religious narratives. She the body is still essential. focus has turned to the vulnerability of flesh: how it can be damaged. a n d w e d r a w o u r s e l v e s to a s s e r t o u r e x i s t e n c e . from video and X-ray to thermal imaging. Leonardo drew a man within a circle and square. and surgically rebuilt. The human body. portraiture. Strangely. artists also tried to define ideal proportions in the body. R. in our privileged and comfortable society. sculptural description of her form. herimpressive presence because we are given such Life drawing no longer dominates the art school curriculum. while Durer took his research further— A. W I L L I A M S technology. is the most c o m m o n subject in art. This chapter addresses issues that are most commonly faced by beginners attending life-drawing classes. clothed or nude. Artists now explore the interior of the body with new media and Lateral Contour Map of a Full-Term Primipara Produced by Light 1979 A. diseased. W e understand every curve and balance of to the theory that the eves are the windows of the soul. During this time. and anatomical and erotic art. explaining ranges e/ of materials and techniques and showing diversities of thought and purpose in making. In this period. history paintings and other stories.
so that we read this drawing like a sculptural frieze. and studied to learn from the works of Michelangelo and Leonardo besides whom he was soon ranked. Raphael drew delicate tones of black chalk on tinted paper. and human defeat.116-17). and Vatican frescos. we see the e s s e n c e of h e r b e a u t y w i t h o u t a single detail. Here three male nudes are compressed into very shallow pictorial space. But the meanings of each gesture and the materials and methods by which they Postures and Poses were m a d e contrast greatly. T h e y b o t h raise one arm to cup their head in their hand. Raphael's study of fallen m e n leaves no doubt that they are in anguish. In this highly s o p h i s t i c a t e d a b s t r a c t i o n . Principal figures m i r r o r e a c h other.110 T H E BODY THESE DISTINCTIVE WORKS show two strikingly different ways of modeling the body on paper. while supporting the weight of their body with the other. altar pieces. Sculptural frieze This is a preparatory drawing for Raphael's painting of the Resurrection of Christ. Muscular dramatic postures reflect the influence of Michelangelo and the Renaissance celebration of the idealized male body. By way of contrast. anatomy. Matisse's b l u e n u d e sings with life and c e l e b r a t i o n . filling the page with her presence. RAFFAELLO SANZIO (RAPHAEL) Italian High Renaissance painter: Raphael is best known for his images of the Madonna and Child. He trained under Perugino. In a single drawing we see equally o b s e r v e d studies of f o r e s h o r t e n i n g (see pp. while Matisse used scissors and glue to cut out and paste a flat collage of brilliant color. She u n f o l d s and s t r e t c h e s shapely limbs. Three Guards 1500-20 91/4 x143/8in (234 x 365 mm) RAPHAEL .
or like a good armchair in which to rest from physical fatigue.designer writer. devoid of troubling Blue Nude 1 1952 413/4 HENRY MATISSE .sculptor.. His calligraphic natural abstractions of form grew brighter. and more energetic Color and form This collage is one of a series of Blue Nudes. and Islamic art. printmaker.. Matisse Soothing influence This drawing expresses the achievement of Matisse's personal aim: "What I dream and depressing subject matter.. a mental soother. his pattern. lifelong love of brilliant They celebrate the culmination of spectacular and sometimes drawings. freer. teacher and principal exponent o f Fauvism—a movement established in 1905 in which bold color is the most essential element. as his w o r k matured. serenity." of is an art of balance. fabric. foundamong many other groups of papercut these works as an elderly man confined to his bed or wheelchair..like an appeasing influence..111 HENRY MATISSE French painter: draftsman.which might be.. Matisse became an artist after studying law.
and color His applied theories still influence painters in their manipulation and rendering of local. in a perfect e x a m p l e . form. Light is given by the paper alone. and c o m p l e m e n t a r y hues. and muddied the brilliance of the drawing. Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 1883-84 91/2 x 121/4 in (241 x 312 m m GEORGES SEURAT . w h o sits propped in the contradictory darkness of a hot summer's day. Seurat evolved a distinctive t e c h n i q u e called p o i n t i l l i s m — i m a g e s literally made from myriad points of color. Below. Opposite. His drawings are similarly u n i q u e . other tones. Beuys's magician. If Seurat had added white. Tone and light In this black conte drawing. agreeing to coalesce and show us the form of a waiting boy. we c o m p a r e a skillful design that absorbed m u c h time in its making with the quickness of an idea marked instantly. Typically. Here. velvet d a r k n e s s . it would have mixed with unseen black dust. In his f a m o u s paintings of social e n g a g e m e n t . only tones blending into. 162) and an eraser to model teeming points of artificial light amid GEORGES SEURAT French painter classically educated in the Ingres school of thought. stands in counterpoise holding a dark globe and his thoughts in m o m e n t a r y balance. it is as if the very atoms of air are made visible.112 T H E BODY Choreographs T I M E IS A SIGNIFICANT E L E M E N T i n t h e m a k i n g o f a l l d r a w i n g s . turned gray. there are no outlines. or abruptly meeting. he used b l a c k c o n t e (see p. reflected. T h e space around h i m chatters with symbols. scratched in seconds. Seurat engaged in lifelong studies of line. like small birds attendant on the meditation. Using the paper to create light is important for beginners to learn.
video art.gold.113 JOSEPH BEUYS One of the most influential German artists of the 20th century. iodine. and blood. taught workshops with a cult following. This figure is drawn intuitively. Perfectly modeled rather conventional for Joseph Focus Beuys's hand moved quickly to draw dotted lines flowing downward on either side of the figure. and drawings. Unbroken lines stream from his simultaneously movement. in different positions. and that These aspects of the work convey fractured visibility. His The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland UNDATED 113/4 J O S E P H BEUYS x81/4in (297 x 210 mm) . and made installations. Our focus joins shoulders. He was a shaman who believed in intuition and in the investment of healing force. Many of his other symbolic works on paper have been drawn with materials such as honey. CHOREOGRAPHS the profound power materials with spiritual or of Free lines This pale pencil drawing is Beuys. transience. free from the constraint of immaculate form opposite) impetus is irrelevant to the and meaning of this work (as we see in Seurat's drawing representation. Beuys gave performances.
We are asked to gaze u p o n her flesh. Delicate strokes This is one of about 7. THE AUGUSTE RODIN French Romantic sculptor and prolific draftsman employed as an ornamental mason until the age of 42. Achieving international acclaim in mid-life. Our bodies radiate the passion of our thoughts and so become beacons of our frailty and power. In Rodins work. 125/8x 9 in (320 x 229 mm) AUGUSTE RODIN Two Women 1911 Embracing .000 drawings shown in rotation at the Musee Rodin. sweeping lines— of either purple silk fabric or cool studio air—that imprint and amplify their past and future movements. They whisper and writhe in a brushed and sultry embrace that devours our watching. Free lines Rodin's public audience was understandably shocked by the eroticism of his drawings. Paris. was perceived as scandalous. We are involved not as a shabby voyeur but as a bystander engaged through our recognition of shared joy.114 BODY Passion SUMMONING HUMANITY in a drawing of the nude is a subtle and emotional task. and went on to inspire generations of artists. and one of hundreds of rapid studies of nudes. its soft. Rodin employed models to move freely or pose together in his studio. In both drawings. Inspired by Michelangelo. his w o r k is characterized by deliberate un-finish and powerfully modeled emotion. the women are framed and caressed by long." as seen here. the fierceness of the women's kiss is beautifully matched by the tenderness of his line. Anita Taylor has drawn her protective body hug out of the darkly glistening compression of willow charcoal and the dynamism of her shy but momentous femininity. As here. flushed skin made ruddy and black with crushed cinders. he typically drew them with a few delicate strokes of pencil and brushed watercolor. Opposite. Rodin produced portraits and statues of public and literary figures. But what is stranger to us now is that they were also outraged by his free use of line. His exquisite flow of paint beyond "outlines.
draftsman. Taylor's immense self-portraits explore the relationship between the artist as maker and the artist as model. the impression of luminosity All and Nothing 1999 67 x447/8in (170 x 1 1 4 cm) ANITA TAYLOR . Taylor has drawn. A thinner sheet might have crumpled and torn under such vigorous force of making. scrutiny. exposure. leaving her lightest marks at the deepest level of the image and applying darker marks above. erased and drawn again. Luminosity Layered marks flicker likefirelight as they sculpt the woman's body.I 15 ANITA T A Y L O R Painter. and rework rich depths of light and tone. and gaze. This order of light below and dark above gives glowing from within. professor and Vice Principal of Wimbledon School of Art. The sturdy surface of the sheet has allowed her to press hard when needed. London. Charcoal Taylor has drawn freely with charcoal and an eraser on thick. textured paper. intimately reflecting upon the emotions and meaning of nudity.
2 Hold your pencil upright. There is no need to mark them all down on paper. persistence. Return to this posture every time. Rome. Move the tip of your thumb down to a second chosen point. Smaller. unfathomable angles. plummeting.limbs happily receding. patience. to be translated by mirrors or seen from only one point in the room. To avoid its effects ensure you always look flat onto the surface of your page. elbow. and to draw what we see. more extreme examples have been made for court entertainment. and wrist joints. Spend time making comparisons before you draw. Imagine Michelangelo's murals in the Sistine Chapel. or shrivelling at odd. Accelerated perspective plays a great role in much art. Align the top with a point on your subject. you will make inconsistent and unrelated comparisons. with dramatic illusions of figures painted in normal proportion. which is imperceptible from below. and a few measured comparisons are key. If your arm is not straight. we would arrive to find many of the same figures strangely distorted. without taking off. helping us to see more clearly. MEASURING This is a simple method of making measured comparisons for relating the true size of one part to another This is a tool to assist observation and thinking. In the life class it is the mechanism for ensuring that a drawn figure lies correctly in pictorial space .116 T H E BODY Measurement and Foreshortening FORESHORTENING IS AN ASPECT of perspective. Close one eye. The length of exposed pencil is your measurement. 3 Keep your pencil perpendicular Measure and compare at any angle. just making them helps you see. It can also be a little demon in the life room. 1 Hold your arm straight. elongated as if stretched across the plaster. for example. Lock your shoulder. London). We also look at another very interesting branch called accelerated (or anamorphic) perspective. How to make and apply these is explained below and opposite. It is not so hard." . This is chiefly a correcting device by which figurative painters and sculptors have for centuries countered the effects of our viewing their work from far below or on the curvature of a vault. rather that what we believe we know from experience. But if we could take a scaffold and climb up to the work. or coming forward. when beginners prop their board in their lap and look down at too steep an angle. "Simple measured comparisons reveal surprising truths about proportion. and measurements do not have to be carried to the paper and slavishly drawn the same size they appear on your pencil. Up close on the scaffold we would witness Michelangelo's subtle application of accelerated perspective. the skull in Holbein's The Ambassadors (The National Gallery. It is not complicated.
To m a k e f o r m s l o o k c o r r e c t . T h i s is t h e s a m e d r a w i n g p h o t o g r a p h e d f r o m above. C o m p a r e t h e heights o f t h e nose and eye shapes t o t h o s e o f t h e f o r e a r m . A t a c e r t a i n angle. adjusting a n o n y m o u s shapes. which feels strange. S o o n t h e b o d y will lie d o w n in space. Keep t h e b o a r d steady and draw. pleasingly f o r e s h o r t e n e d . Lean t h e t o p e d g e t o w a r d y o u and find a p o s i t i o n w h e r e y o u can c o m f o r t a b l y l o o k d o w n t h e p a p e r at an angle o f a b o u t 4 0 degrees. y o u must let go o f w h a t y o u k n o w f r o m e x p e r i e n c e a b o u t t h e relative sizes o f b o d y parts and trust y o u r eyes. W e appear t o be looking d o w n o n a w o m a n s t a n d i n g b e n e a t h us. t a p e s o m e p a p e r t o a board. a n d thighs. MEASUREMENT AND FORESHORTENING Tilt t h e t o p edge o f this b o o k t o w a r d you and look d o w n o n this figure f r o m a b o v e . belly.117 ACCELERATED PERSPECTIVE To discover h o w this w o r k s . P r o p o r t i o n s will only l o o k c o r r e c t f r o m t h e angle at w h i c h y o u make t h e drawing. Stand its b o t t o m edge o n y o u r lap. looking d o w n t h e p a p e r at t h e a n g l e at w h i c h I d r e w . See h o w d i f f e r e n t t h e relative heights o f t h e s e shapes are f r o m w h a t w e m i g h t e x p e c t in real life. . L o o k at y o u r m o d e l as if he o r she is a flat series o f shapes o n e o n t o p o f a n o t h e r Measure t h e height and w i d t h o f each shape and c o m p a r e it t o its neighbor. h e r p r o p o r t i o n s will appear correct. FORESHORTENING To f o r e s h o r t e n a figure. W o r k a r o u n d t h e figure. y o u r hand travels f a r t h e r than y o u expect.
and energy. and slightly enlarge her legs and feet. I used a sharp H B pencil and began each drawing by marking her outline. To draw this effect. Be bold and dive into your drawing with c o n f i d e n c e . her center of balance is normally found in a vertical line beneath her head. and height. Layered lines give d e p t h . make the upper body smaller give your model a high waist. Leave first thoughts in place. Balance When a model stands upright on both feet.118 BODY Quick Poses DRAWING QUICK POSES l o c k s y o u r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n t o what is most essential. because it results in two unrelated sides drifting apart. . height. T h i s q u i c k e x p l o r a t o r y line does not perfectly describe shape but expresses a decision about overall flow of form. To see this. feeling. imagine holding up a plumb line. balance. working from her center to her feet and to her head. Avoid drawing up one side and down the other. Height This pose leans away into space above our eye level. and work over t h e m with further o b s e r v a t i o n s . and stance before honing her balance and expression. THE SEQUENCE OF POSES H e r e the model was asked to move every t w o minutes. Outline To outline a figure. work back and forth across the body. Start each new drawing by lightly marking the model's height with a loose line in ten seconds. propelling you to make immediate assessments and trust them.
Most of us have a tendency to over-straighten the drawn figure. Tilt Movement Here.119 The twist of a model is most easily and expressively captured if it is exaggerated. . This drawing shows how different observations be overlaid to bring a drawing alive. The tilt of the pelvis is then counter balanced by the model's shoulders tilting the other way (as seen here). and this should be avoided Twist QUICK POSES A model standing on one leg usually drops the opposite hip. the activity of circular lines and the repetition of limbs suggest movement.
Do not separate them yet. swiftly marking its essential gesture. and they need not be daunting to draw. Focus instead on how planes change direction across the knuckles from one side of the hand or foot to the other. Keep lines open to change and take measurements if they help. feet. A mirror increases your range of views. Group the fingers together as one mass. This exercise is useful when struggling with proportion. Begin by drawing lines to encompass the whole hand. general to specific. and ignore all details. especially the lengthwise divisions between them. Then subdivide each shape so that you w o r k from large to small. 2 Build your drawing gradually from light to dark. it is important to leave aside all details of the fingers and toes. drawn in relation to each other. starting with the largest. but regard these practice studies as ongoing processes of thought and observatio Add details such as nails last if you wish. Draw large shapes and their orientation.120 BODY Hands and Feet THERE ARE MANY different ways of approaching h a n d s and THE of form. and a gooseneck lamp casts shadows that clarify planes and depths GESTURES OF THE HAND Curled Fingers 1 Open Palm Start honing the shapes of the dominant planes. It also helps the beginner to progress from drawing outlines to drawing confidently across the surface of the whole form. These planes. Practice by drawing your own hands and feet. or those of a friend. W h e n starting. 3 . Don't worry about achieving perfect solutions. express structure and gesture far more successfully and easily than ten worried outlines wandering up and down between the fingers and toes.
however. Look for key angles without becoming distracted by detail. t o remove t o o many early lines. loose. and rapid. depth. It can be a mistake. and spontaneity. .121 HANDS AND FEET MOVEMENTS OF THE FOOT Flat Stance Raised Heel Instep 1 Let your first marks be light. 2 3 Use an eraser t o refine decisions o r t o suggest areas o f light. Leave aside all detail. and don't worry about accuracy t o begin with.as though out o f wood. flattened planes. Try t o express the whole foot and t o encapsulate its entire shape and direction in a few marks. these are what give a drawing its tangible structure. Nowimagineyou are carving the foot insidethepaper. as if with a chisel. Hew it roughly in broad.
204-05. Opposite. The white lines demonstrate what is often called "bracelet shading.Charcoal Hands T H E S E DRAWINGS ARE MADE in compressed charcoal. I also used white ink with a steel dip pen." . Compare its nature in close-up to that of willow charcoal used on pp.
118-19). length. Phrasing Contours . I make these lines in the first five to ten seconds of a drawing to locate the presence.HERE TRACES OF RAPID initial lines are still seen within and outside each body. before honing his or her shape (see pp. and posture of the model.
It is now viewed with some skepticism and often seen as academic. perspectives. . Forms. I draw in museums in support of written research and as an artist seeking answers to questions about the practicalities of image making.The Visual Detective DRAWING FROM MASTERWORKS was once a staple component of an artist's education. feeling them through the attentive movements of your own hand. characters. Drawing work by another artist enables you to discover and understand the inventive hand in their composition. and narrative pulse become vivid when you realize them in the middle of your study.
Life-size women wearing wigs recline on beds of embroidered silk in cabinets of mahogany and Venetian glass This is a detail of a compressed charcoal drawing measuring 14 x 10 ft (4. Florence. Walls are lined with hundreds of faintly animated body parts. each modeled from dissection.3 x 3 m) made in response to La Specola. there is a unique museum of 18th-century anatomical waxes. These almost life-size figures were composed from my imagination and achieved with the help af studies discussed on pp. .La Specola At17V i a Romana. 126-27.
who. To create a face is to see and interpret the essence of an identity. and social and political commentaries. In this chapter. and a handprint (see p. historical. bells. gathered all that he knew FRANCISCO DE GOYA V i s i o n a r y Spanish painter. Portraits can be highly or loosely detailed. abstract or figurative. or past us. neck. 1790-92 4 x 3 in ( 1 0 2 x 7 6 m m ) F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A and memorize the basic structure that we all share. is here to both meet and look through us. Rembrandt's famous multitude of self-portraits. became more poignant as he progressed. throat. a single line can deliver an entire expression. W h e n drawing a person. . Goya. their stance. the meaning of their face. you can capture the subtlety. and their posture can be changed with just one line. having been documented and preserved. and expression of the individual. and it is very rewarding. Halls and palaces are filled with pictures of the mighty and significant. and satirical or metaphorical. Goya's w o r k s include many royal and society p o r t r a i t s . It also reminds us o f b o t h t h e intimacy and a scene as scrutiny o f an honest portrait. and secular narratives. For centuries. Self-portraiture gives every artist a constant. his changes in pressure and Hitchcock length o f line. Man Ray's self-portrait of scored lines.Portraiture IN P O R T R A I T U R E W E MEET PEOPLE. draftsman. single or of groups. and in a few scrolling rafts of pen lines and stubbled dots. Movie director Alfred similarly signed his films by playing a fleeting role: he walks through an extra. Our homes are filled with images of our loved ones and of those in our families who have gone before. made as he passed through the ages of man. compliant subject to scrutinize. painters have dropped discreet records of themselves into commissioned narratives so that they can remain a face in the crowd. we use the delicate medium of silver point to look at foundation structures of the head. religious. and shoulders. buttons. or a glimpse of him is caught in a photograph used as a prop. We can mold and animate qualities of expression out of objects and fragments of disassociated things—for example. Equally. and p r i n t m a k e r . in a miniature self-portrait magnified opposite. usually strangers from past times. The truth is that we all like looking at faces and observing the billions of variations that make us individuals. We are also reassured by keeping records of ourselves. Beginners often draw themselves as a way of establishing their practice. Past rulers sent painters across continents to bring back a likeness in advance of a prospective royal marriage. This enlargement o f his miniature p o r t r a i treveals t h e s p e e d and agility o f his p e n and about himself. live. The returning image was of crucial consideration in any proposal. look directly at us.139). character. and lucrative genre for artists. Once you understand Self-Portrait in a Cocked Hat c. or whose eyes can seem to follow us around the room Portraiture is a constant.
We can actually count that he struck the paper 40 times. Her face is drawn tenderly and with a luminous glow. Through exhibitions and copies in books. stealthily using his chalk to find contours and mass. and pressure as it conducts our eye through the image. How could the addition of shadows have enhanced this image? Few strokes The simplicity of Picasso's line is breathtaking. For the beginner. Picasso has left to posterity many hundreds of magnificent line drawings. The aesthetic sense of a line being just right can make a drawing sing. He makes his flair and skill look easy. Holbein maps the still landscape of Dorothea's body in questioning marks. While with longer consideration. length. teetering on the brink of older age. we can enjoy and learn from them. It takes a truly accomplished a few strokes. Without faltering. one eye already cast askew into the autumn of her life. We can read so much about them by studying their gaze. The truth is often the opposite. caught in her last moments of youth. they serve as a great lesson that it is not always necessary to add tone to your drawing. whisking a timeless girl onto the page.132 PORTRAITURE Poise THE BALANCE BETWEEN a mark and a blank space is often a tantalizing form of perfection.30). adding smudges of tone for weight and solidity. There is a common misunderstanding that a drawing with only a few lines is both less finished and easier to make than a drawing with more. Here the grace and beauty of two young women are held forever. PABLO PICASSO Spanish Cubist painter (see also p. hand to capture something well in only Frangoise au Bandeau 1946 660 x 505 mm (26 x197/8in) PABLO PICASSO . It is the portrait of a countrywoman. breadth. The Tightness of a line is felt in its speed. Picasso strikes and scrolls his pencil.
Blended colors In this portrait drawn with colored chalks on slightly textured paper. and designer f r o m Basel. gently flushed. he designed c o u r t costumes. and its downward slope crowns the diagonal of the composition. Her folded forearms support and frame her weight above. made a popular series o f w o o d c u t prints titled The Dance of Death. presses against the binding across her face. Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 1516 51/8 x121/4in (385 x 310 m m ) HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER . Cropping This regal composition fits its paper perfectly. In addition t o his numerous exquisite portraits in oil. He outlined her nose but not her upper lip. Holbein was employed toward the end of his life by King Henry VIII of England. and produced numerous society portraits such as this one here. Holbein has cropped and pinned his subject within the four outermost lines of the image—the edges of the page.133 HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER German p o r t r a i t painter draftsman. Holbein unified the woman with her background by gently blending colors from her clothes and face into the atmosphere around her. which. The peak of her cap clips the uppermost edge.
taught at numerous British art schools from 1962-77. blood vessels. Highlights of white gouache were dry Profile Head late in the making. VICTOR NEWSOME British sculptor painter and draftsman. In fact. . dark tones of graphite blended into the paper. or defined by. The style of Durelli's d r a w i n g opposite sings with the confidence of truth and precision. the face is one of the hardest parts to dissect. and unpleasant to see. while white painted flecks and wisps suggest electrical illumination. This is a m a r v e l o u s interpretation of the truth. the contours of a grid. using a fine and relatively 1982 13 x 181/8 in (328 x 460 mm) VICTOR NEWSOME brush. and has works in major collections including the Tate Gallery. This is one of a number of similar disembodied female heads seen behind. Durelli has m a d e a few m i n o r mistakes. Newsome was awarded the Prix de Rome in 1960. It floats in space. continues to exhibit regularly. Anatomically.134 PORTRAITURE Anatomies These highly finished drawings express the emotional power and physicality of the head and neck. The real dissection w o u l d have been far more c o m p l e x . Delicate muscles are integrated with the skin and fat that is to be r e m o v e d . but they are irrelevant here. Nerves. and glands also complicate form. London. Contrasts Sharp. N e w s o m e ' s eerily shadowed form is smooth and bears a linear grain evocative of w o o d . dark lines made with a pencil appear against smooth. solid above and almost hollow below. confusing. distorted. Psychological drama is contained behind a grid. perhaps applied using a tortillon. its highly clarified detail claiming to be d r a w n from observation.
and it is likely that this drawing was intended for reproduction as a print. w h e n contracted. Red Chalk the Muscles 1837 173/8 x 145/8 in ( 4 4 0 x 3 7 2 m m ) ANTONIO DURELLI and Pencil Drawing and of Neck of the Head Little is k n o w n o f this M i l a n e s e p a i n t e r a n d engraver w h o c a m e from a family o f artists. Stylized parallel lines are reminiscent of engravings. Durelli's experience as an engraver is reflected in his stylized drawing o f muscle fibers. It is hard to think of a more difficult medium with which to achieve such linear perfection. which. Pencil numbers refer to the list of muscles written beneath.135 ANATOMIES ANTONIO DURELLI Linear perfection This is a red chalk drawing of extraordinary accomplishment. pull their points o f attachment t o w a r d each other .
He is best known for his bronze sculptures of human form. each portrait is inscribed onto the page. Agitated marks make patches of tone that cut away the space around the character. while his hand stabs and thrusts Revelations like a conductors baton. Opposite. and heads. 1948 77/8 x 6 in (200 x 150 mm) ALBERTO GIACOMETTI . painter draftsman. cutting and carving the paper with matted and spiraling restless energy. Bellini gently conjures the features of his saint with soft marks that tease his presence out of shadows into the light. and with staccato flinches his hyperactive eye moves from paper to model. and poet After studying in Geneva and Italy. Portrait de Marie-Laure de Noailles c. Both works demonstrate how simple lines can be made complex by being intense. which are characteristically elongated. Giacometti settled in Paris. They confuse our perception of scale by being intimately fragile and at the same time far removed. Speed Giacometti probably began with an oval shape placed in relation to the proportion of the page. with speed and urgency. Flesh is built and personality carved simultaneously. They show us clearly the bones of drawing. Then. Energy This is a portrait of a woman drawn with black crayon on a plain page of a book Lines search for the essence of form. We are brought intimately close to this man gazing up to heaven. There is a film of Giacometti drawing. ALBERTO GIACOMETTI Swiss sculptor. Similar movements sculpted the head below into its page. The camera watches him at work. he drew over the whole image at once. each locked into a visionary gaze. close enough to touch his hair and feel his breath. as if seen from a distance. Without paint and with very little tone.136 PORTRAITURE THESE ARE DRAWINGS of shoulders. necks.
Head and Shoulders of a Man 73/8 x 21/4 in ( 1 8 6 x 5 8 UNDATED GIOVANNI BELLINI . a n d c o n t e m p l a t i v e . Sometimes different narrative same character was reused in compositions. H e p r e f e r r e d religious t o classical t h e m e s . Character This is one of many cartoons produced by Bellini the and his family.5 9 ) . These are pinholes. Transfer This delicate humorous chalk a drawing is a cartoon—not image but a type of template used to plan the composition of a larger work Look closely and you will see rows of tiny dots along every significant line in the picture.25 6 . a n d his w o r k is d i s t i n c t i v e l y calm. H e t a u g h t G i o r g i o n e Barbarelli and Titian. a n d b r o t h e r in-law. lyrical.G I O V A N N I BELLINI A prominent member of a large family o f V e n e t i a n painters. Bellini s t u d i e d u n d e r his f a t h e r J a c o p o . Mantegna. transferring which were made in the process of the saint to his final place in the composition of a painting (see Glossary pp.
bells. In 1986 he traveled to Africa and showed his work in Abidjan on the Ivory Coast He also exhibited in Germany and France. similar to work by Cy Twombly (see p. and confrontations with. Al Diaz. The artist has finished his portrait with the signature of his hand smacked in the middle like a kiss: a declaration of existence as old as man's first drawing. It is an opportunity to look deep without the infringement of courtesies owed to a commissioning sitter. scrolls. Self Portrait 1982 9 4 x 7 6 in (239 x 193 cm) JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT . marks. scratched lines. and sheet metal before being snapped up by the New York contemporary art scene. made with great energy. The figure's position is unequivocal and defiant while around him is in a state Without the essential of cultural and figure we would elegant belookingat a sophisticated painting of signs. Islands of graphic marks. and indulgence.221). Signs and symbols with symbols This painting shudders that ore written. and buttons rings with surrealist wit and agile improvisation. It is an image of confrontation—the ever-controversial young artist roars at us from his abstract city-scape. political outcry. Man Ray's playful silk-screen assembly of color blocks. their most immediate and best-known subject: themselves.138 PORTRAITURE THE MIRROR OF SELF-PORTRAITURE offers artists infinite reflections of. float and shimmer in the shallow pictorial space. a tribal. spear-brandishing warrior. skull- Self-Portraits headed. It has proved to be a subject of piercing scrutiny. postcards. and everything flux. The incandescent New York painter Jean Michel Basquiat pictured himself here in naked silhouette. Later Basquiat sold drawings on T-shirts. drawn. and attitudes. JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT Short-lived American painter and graffiti artist who began his blazing nine-year career drawing on lower Manhattan subway trains with a friend. scratched into its surface. humor. signing their work SAMO.
Man Ray probably used his own hand. while a squeegee was used to drag thick lilac-brown ink across the silk pushing it though exposed areas onto the paper below.139 MAN RAY American surrealist photographer. During the 1920's and 30s. Frame White lines are seemingly (though not actually) scratched through ink to frame this face. Man Ray lived and worked in Paris. painter. where he collaborated with the artist Laslo MoholyNagy. last of all. They experimented with camera-free photography working directly onto photographic paper Silk and ink This is a silkscreen print made through the following process: the paper was laid on a flat surface and a frame stretched with fine silk was placed on top. Black ink was printed next and then white. caked in thick printing ink or paint. The handprint appears to be made directly. Autoportrait 1916 195/8 MAN RAY . The first part of the stenciled image was already marked on the silk The screen and paper were then held tightly together. printmaker and cofounder of the New York Dada movement. They suggest speed and make the picture look immediate and spontaneous.
Z I N C W H I T E G O U A C H E : Dilute with w a t e r A d d c o l o r i f r e q u i r e d (as opposite) 4 . M E T A L OBJECTS: All metal objects m a r k a p r e p a r e d surface. This browns with age unless sealed by fixative (see pp. it leaves a deposit. o n e t o fit each side o f t h e b o a r d — t h e s e will make t h e glued f r a m e t h a t holds y o u r p a p e r in place. If w o r k i n g o n an emulsion-painted wall. Note h o w domestic paintwork marks with a coin. To begin. Find a n i t e m t h a t y o u can h o l d a n d draw with comfortably. b u t d o n ' t w o r r y . Drawn across a prepared surface. I m a k e m y o w n f r o m o l d dip pens.54-55). w h i t e d r a w i n g paper) and cut it t o fit y o u r d r a w i n g b o a r d w i t h a generous b o r d e r a r o u n d its edges. Straighten the w o r s t buckles. was familiar to or eggshells with animal glue. platinum. I combined silver point with painted white gouache on a pink ground. W e t o n e length o f g u m . Numerous early European artists also enjoyed its fine qualities (see p.Tear o f f f o u r lengths o f b r o w n p a p e r g u m tape. Opposite. Historically. Stretched paper remains taut as a d r u m . or wood. Gesso o r m a t t e m u l s i o n c a n a l s o b e u s e d . the surface must be primed with a ground such as gouache. M a k e s u r e i t is c o m p l e t e l y clean t o avoid u n w a n t e d streaks. you will need t o stretch paper and lay a wash (see right and opposite). and t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h strips a b o v e and b e l o w . 3 . E m p t y mechanical pencils designed f o r t h i c k leads ( s e e p.54) can also b e used.140 PORTRAITURE Silver P o i n t SILVER OR METAL POINT STRETCHING PAPER A sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has been made w e t with the strokes o f a paintbrush will buckle d u e t o its uneven expansion. 5. The most c o m m o n metal has always been silver—hence the term "silver point. bone. For i m p o r t a n t a d v i c e o n p r e p a r a t i o n a n d use. 156). Pages 142 to 147 are illustrated in silver point and techniques are explained on pp. SILVER W I R E : Purchase different gauge lengths f r o m a traditional a r t supplier o r jeweler. 1. Be swift and firm. s e e p . b e f o r e priming stretched paper. and is therefore useful w h e n using w a t e r c o l o r as well as silver point." Lead. and alloys work on matt emulsion. s o m e m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n o t h e r s . artists mixed white lead. 1 4 4 . who used it to outline initials and border characters before painting.s t r i p a n d use i t t o fix o n e side o f t h e p a p e r t o t h e b o a r d . which quickly oxidizes into a gray line. an exciting indication of how large-scale drawings could be made on a wall. purchase silver wire. key. choose a silver object. 2. S O F T F U L L B R U S H : W h e n laying a w a s h . Metal point is simply a strip of metal bound in a holder. W e t a n d fix a s e c o n d strip t o t h e o p p o s i t e side. p a r c h m e n t . 2 . and make o r buy a holder. Lightly s p o n g e o f f t h e excess. This is called a three-tone drawing. SILVER P O I N T W I R E H O L D E R : T h e s e c a n b e p u r c h a s e d a n d t e n d t o b e heavy. MATERIALS 1 Find a clean sponge and b o w l o r d e e p t r a y a n d fill it w i t h w a t e r W e t t h e p a p e r evenly in t h e t r a y o r o n t h e b o a r d . Take a sheet o f any t y p e o f p a p e r (for e x a m p l e . illuminators of medieval m a n u s c r i p t s . laid on paper. and gold have also been used. 144-45. c h o o s e a s o f t full b r u s h t h a t c a n c a r r y p l e n t y o f l i q u i d . S i l v e r is b e s t . I t is a v a i l a b l e f r o m all a r t s h o p s . copper. or ring. Lay a clean d r a w i n g b o a r d o n a flat surface. T h e p a p e r will l o o k b u c k l e d . Metal point does not work on ordinary paper.
any extra will keep. slowly add powder pigment or gouache from a tube. T h r e e . as the paper will be ruined by a raised ridge. Make enough to cover your paper. stretched paper at a 45-degree angle. v e r y little at a time. full brush into the gouache and start in the top left corner. Beware of the tape's coming loose at any point while drying. The next step will make a small mess. Here. I used a powder pigment called Caput Mortuum. Keep adding smooth. Make an even line across to the right. Leave the wash to dry thoroughly before you begin to draw.141 SILVER POINT 3 Leave the paper to dry flat. Runs blend into each other evenly. Prop up your board of dry. Keep testing on spare paper. and let tests dry before deciding to change the mixture. leaving a smooth surface. Dip a soft. It will slowly straighten and become taut.t o n e silver point drawing of a skull . is necessary to lay a wash o Three-tone When coloring ground. Dry thoroughly before laying a wash. so put newspaper under the lower edge. LAYING A WASH It your stretched paper so as to prime it for silver point. overlapping lines until you reach the bottom. Reload the brush and add a second line overlapping it beneath. Mix a very wet but not weak solution of gouache in a jar with a lid (add pigment at this stage for a three-tone drawing).
Head and Neck
THE HEAD AND NECK are best conceived as one unit arranged in four parts: cranium, face, neck, and throat. Each is of equal importance. The cranium is essentially egg-shaped and pivots on the first vertebra. The face is suspended beneath, like a softly curved triangle. The n e c k — a powerful, shapely column of layered muscles rigged to vertebrae—adjusts and holds the angle and expression of the head. The throat is delicate, hard, and lumpy to the touch, formed of cartilaginous rings, glands, thin muscles, and looser skin. Framing the throat, two columnar neck muscles (sternomastoids) project the head forward and also turn it to the opposite side.
This is a simple shorthand diagram representing the cranium, face, neck, and throat. It can be learned and visualized in different positions very easily, giving the novice a firm footing on which to stand and develop their drawings of the head and neck.
Cranium Begin with an egg shape. Tilt it on the paper to change the position of the head.
Face Draw a rounded triangular shape below the forward point of the egg to represent the face.
Neck This shape represents the trapezius; the largest surface muscle of the neck and shoulders.
Throat A triangular shape represents the throat. (The nose makes the diagram clearer)
After copying the diagram above, animate it. Practice drawing the cranium at different angles, add the face beneath, then the neck, shoulders, and throat. Shape your diagrams so they are more lifelike, but avoid adding detailed features too soon.
143 These three drawings demonstrate (from left to right) the following: why the cranium may be considered egg-shaped; now the face can be seen as a curved triangle suspended beneath and where the division lies between the two; and the form of sternomastoid muscles that frame thethroatsodistinctlywhen the head is turned and inclined forward.
The skull and the frame of the throat
HEAD AND NECK
Bones of the cranium are locked together by jagged joints. Sinuses in the frontal (forehead) bone between and beneath the eyebrows are larger in men, making their brows pronounced and often ridged compared to those of women.
Bones of the face house our sight, smell, taste, The skull pivots on the first vertebra or "atlas," and speech. Cartilage extending from nasal bones after the Greek god condemned to carry the shapesthenose.Pads of fat resting on the base of Earth. The jaw hinges in front of the ears. Behind, eacheyesocket support the eyeballs in position. If bony ridges give anchor to the sternomastoid thefatisreducedby old age, eyes look sunken. muscles rising from the breast- and collarbones.
Three useful generalizations
General rules about the relative positions of body parts can hinder artists as much as help them, since they are often based on classical ideals rather than thediversityoflife.However,some generalizations can help as a rough guide to start with, so long as good observation takes over as soon as possible.
In general, when the face is relaxed (not smiling or frowning), the corners of the mouth are found directly beneath the pupils of the eyes. Vertical lines can be drawn down from the pupils to meet the corners of the mouth.
The height of a young adult's ear is often the same as their nose and found on the same level. There is no general rule for growing children, and remember that ears grow again in old age, which is most obvious in men.
The height of the face is about the length of the handspan and the eye is normally halfway down the total height of the head. A common error is to draw the eyes too high up on the face.
T H E DELICACY OF SILVER POINT
(see pp. 140-41) is perfect for
such as a beach pebble. Here, I stretched drawing paper and laid a wash of white gouache (see pp.140-41). As you can see, the line and tone of silver point varies with pressure, but only slightly. Too much pressure cuts the ground. Silver point erases, but so does ground. Erased ground can be repaired gently with extra gouache. You can also use gouache to paint over mistakes and make corrections.
small, detailed drawings. The drawings below and opposite show useful observations of the head and neck, which are explained in the captions below. Each drawing was made with a silver wire held in a large-gauge mechanical pencil. Newly clipped wires are sharp and cut rather than draw. Before use, they need to be rubbed and smoothed on a stone
Here I imagined placing my silver point wire against the skin of each head and neck and, working in parallel bands from the crown downward, I traced the undulation of surfaces. Linear bands imagined around the head and neck can help you t o clearly see the tilt of the head and relative levels of the features. Ask a friend t o model for you and try this exercise life-size using a pencil and eraser
Seeing that the face is never flat
Drawings below left and center are summaries of the generalizations given on p.143. Far right is an image to remind us that the face is never flat. It slopes back to varying degrees among individuals, from the tip of the nose t o the ears. For example, note that the innermost corners of the eyes are farther forward in space than the outermost corners.
General measurements, side
General measurements, front
View from above
Male and female head and neck
Men's necks a r e g e n e r a l l y s h o r t e r a n d t h i c k e r t h a n w o m e n ' s b e c a u s e t h e angles a n d levels o f c e r t a i n b o n e s a r e d i f f e r e n t b e t w e e n t h e sexes ( i n d i c a t e d h e r e b y d o t t e d lines) a n d m e n are n o r m a l l y m o r e muscular. T h e male t h y r o i d cartilage ( A d a m ' s apple) is larger a n d m o r e visible than t h e f e m a l e . L a r g e r f e m a l e t h y r o i d glands also s o f t e n t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e t h r o a t .
The largest m u s c l e o f t h e s h o u l d e r s a n d n e c k is called the trapezius. A r r a n g e d on e i t h e r side o f t h e spine, it shapes t h e u p p e r back and neck above the s h o u l d e r blades. C o n t r a c t i n g in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h d e e p e r and surrounding muscles, it raises and l o w e r s t h e shoulders a n d d r a w s t h e h e a d backtoeitherside.
USING A SHARP 3 B PENCIL, I drew this head quickly from imagination, evolving its character and expression from the scheme of four parts: cranium, face, neck, a n d throat (see p. 142). Here, five steps show you how to practice doing the same. This approach can be used to draw from imagination or from life. Keep your wrist loose and hold your pencil away from its point (see pp.22-23). Build the layers of your drawing from pale to dark, a n d from general balance a n d form to specific detail. Remember that successful drawings are built on foundations of "seeing the whole," then dividing the whole into smaller parts, with details brought in last of all. Phrased tonal marks modeling this girls skin and hair follow the technique demonstrated by Goya in his self-portrait on p. 130. Turn to Goya's drawing and study how, in a circle beginning across his hat, moving down his hair, and around his coat, he flows lines over surfaces to describe their contour. As you build from steps 1 to 5, bring phrased groups of lines across the surfaces of your form, using their directions to capture the expression of the head and neck. If unsure, copy my steps until you gain the confidence to make your own decisions.
This drawing is the final stage of the four steps opposite. Here, I have enlarged the eye, and moved it back into the head by trimming the length of the upper lid and adding a more pronounced lower lid. It is important to set eyes far enough back from the relatively prominent nose; too close to it and the face flattens. Hair swept back and extended behind the cranium balances the regal pose. Lines shaping the hair echo those marking the cranium in step 1. Here, the lower part of step 1 comes through as wisps of hair across her face and ear
Portrait of a Young Girl
neck.Theangle at which you draw this shape of the paper will determine the angle of the finished head. 4 . I modeled the outline of the character I imagined light shining from above and in front and adjusted the pressure of lines to reflect this. down the face to the throat. Moving from the back of the neck. 2 Rapidly add shorthand shapes to represent the face. The nose and ear begin to shape the head. they are also still sweeping and confident. 3 Place the eye beneath the cranium. Keep your first lines light. and throat. First lines will remain visible in the final drawing. over the cranium. too soon. I used light to describe the upper lid first with a shadow beneath for the lower lid and open eye. avoid drawing too dark. The eye announces the nature and expression of the emerging person. so it is important to the life of the image that while controlled.147 Building up the portrait DRAWING PORTRAITS 1 Gently spin pale lines in a softly drawn shape representing the cranium. Here.
muscular tension. the texture of hair. empathize. a n d t h o s e w h o a r e Generations asleep (see overleaf). and gravity. Above all.T o DRAW PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGES. be aware of the subtle differences in skin surface. .
Van Dyke's noble cast of characters was modeled more finely. seeking the dominant contours of each individual expression.Castings DRAWING IN THE PRADO MUSEUM. Madrid. . with a steel dip pen and acrylic ink. Fast lines carve out the features of Goya's soup-slurping hag. I used the nib upside down to gain needle-sharp precision.
and even invisible by the w a y w e dress. Cities c h a n g e d all. e m u l a t e textures. of Scheherazade. personality. intriguing. was a Belarussian A r t Deco theater fantasies and desires to immediately possess a version of the same. W e dress ourselves and costume designer trained in in St.Costume W E MAKE OURSELVES EXOTIC. and e x u b e r a n c e . In psychology. c r u m p l e s . st 111/4 x 81/2 in (285 x 220 mm) u d i e d L E O NB A K S T and explore the characterization of fabric t h r o u g h m o v e m e n t . T h e p a p e r p a t t e r n is p e r h a p s the m o s t w i d e l y k n o w n of c o s t u m e d r a w i n g s : a formalized plan of lines. o n l y the w e a l t h y c o u l d afford to h a v e c o s t u m e s specially m a d e . charcoal. Like it or not. articulate a d a n g e r o u s satirical j o k e .As artistic director of the It is s h o c k i n g to t h i n k h o w m a n y m i l l i o n s of d r a w i n g s m u s t be m a d e a n d d i s c a r d e d Ballet Russe. and i n d e e d image b e c a m e the property also of the industrial classes. b u t influenced Parisian fashion and interiordecor. variety. for e x a m p l e — d e s i g n e d the w a r d r o b e s of p o p e s a n d k i n g s . dancer leaps through swaths of golden cloth. a n d w e will c o l l e c t patterns. or calm u s w i t h chic. Petersburg and later exiled designers' ideas and are surprised and delighted b y their continual f l o w of inspiration. Previously. a n d s u b t l e t o n e s . toParis. known as Leon Bakst. shapes. w a r m t h . c o s t u m e o f f e r s a r i c h v o c a b u l a r y of t e x t u r e s a n d c o l o r . and be so expressive of temperament that it overtakes the need for an o c c u p y i n g h u m a n form. T h e rural masses w o r e h o m e s p u n simplicity. gesture. while court p a i n t e r s — M i c h e l a n g e l o and Holbein. caricatured p l u m e s . . P o p u l a r f a s h i o n d e s i g n e x p l o d e d w i t h the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n . w h i c h in turn feed c o n s u m e r Lev. he and cofounder Serge Diaghilev took Paris by eac storm in 1910 with their production h year in the industrial f r e n z y of creating o u r image and aspirations. a n d c o u r t i e r tailors f o l l o w e d suit. cool. theb u t b y the w a y it s p e a k s w i t h its flying. woman was drawn by Bakst one year later for the ballet Narcisse.This voluptuous above all a physical p u p p e t w i t h w h i c h to animate character and narrate personality. Designers all over the w o r l d c o n t i n u a l l y p e n and b r u s h lines to lash us w i t h color. Artists do this not so m u c h b y the style of a figure's garment. Bakst's designs and costumes immediately To the fine artist. and everything w e h a v e c h o s e n for o u r w a r d r o b e s — r e f l e c t o r s of o u r taste. fulfilling lavish and spectacular briefs. T h e e n t o u r a g e of the theatrical stage o f t e n l e a d s the c a t w a l k . it is the public sign by w h i c h w e are j u d g e d . and intent. and s y m b o l s that lets m e n and w o m e n in all countries and areas have w o r k i n g access to the latest fashions. so that c h o i c e . g l o s s y folds. S t r u c t u r e is t h o u g h the i n v e n t i o n of shoes. or b u l g e s . a n d p r o f e s s i o n — b e g a n life as a d r a w i n g . Practical classes Bacchante 1911 l o o k at r a n g e s of c o l o r e d m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d i n g p a s t e l s a n d felt-tip p e n s . Samoylovich Rosenberg. and gouache. In this c h a p t e r w e see h o w c l o t h i n g c a n s e e m to p o s s e s s the w e i g h t and m o n u m e n t a l i t y of stone. arichand unusual combination of pencil. and atmosphere. outrageous. D e s i g n e r s create m a s t e r p i e c e s of haute couture LEON BAKST for H o l l y w o o d stars. c u l t u r e .
The quiet stillness of this image is achieved by a masterly economy of stylized line. Marble gown We will never know if Van Eyck considered this drawing unfinished or intended the kneeling abbot to remain transient and ghostly. the carefully composed outline of his cloak shows us how the artist would have also begun his immaculate rendering of the Virgin's clothes. Opposite. H e m e t i c u l o u s l y a r r a n g e d subjects t o c o n v e y d e e p e r meaning. Sculpted one. Keisai Eisen's intense. her marble garment holds u p the infant Christ in a fountain of compressed line.140-41). Maelbeke I44I Madonna 11 x 7 in (278 x 180 m m ) JAN V A N EYCK . and the kneeling abbot is a ghost by comparison. However. the Madonna and her architecture are both dressed in the same manner. it is only possible to create very thin. swirling printed fabrics. resonate with their wearers startled expression. best k n o w n f o r his G h e n t altarpiece ( 1 4 3 2 ) a n d m a r r i a g e p o r t r a i t o f Giovanni A r n o l f i n i and his w i f e (1434). with their jagged edges. Delicate marks Silver (or metal) point is the most delicate of traditional drawing media (see pp. folds and patterns of material speak more resolutely of their wearers than any small glimpses of body we can see. With a stylus such as Van Eyck used here. and snakelike marks. Short and subtle horizontal punctuations are only given in the background by sections of floor. and implied striation in the stone of the architecture. He has layered these slowly and carefully so as not to cut through the ground and produce a white mark just where he intended a dark one.156 COSTUME Cloth and Drapery EACH OF THESE FIGURES is ninety percent cloth. Below this. Above them. the vaulted stone roof echoes and crowns the moment. dragons. In Van Eyck's drawing below. Her gown is carved and polished as if made from marble. delicate lines. Van Eyck's highly polished w o r k is c e l e b r a t e d f o r its disguised symbolism. Church and deities are drawn as JAN VAN EYCK Flemish oil p a i n t e r f r o m L i m b o u r g . Their uninterrupted emphasis is entirely vertical. Vertical lines The highly controlled lines of this drawing cascade from top to bottom of the image. Flaxmans sleeper—perhaps a pilgrim or a soldier resting between campaigns—has wedged himself into the cleft of some great building to grab a moment of peace. bands around the columns.
The inked block is laid face-down on damp paper and pressed to make the print. and Man Lying Down in a Cloak I 787-94 21/4 JOHN FLAXMAN x 41/8 in (57 x 105 mm) . flat sheets of wood. one over the other. Parts of the image to be left unprinted are gouged out with a metal tool. Koimurasaki of Tama-ya 1810-50 15 x101/4in (381 x 260 mm) KEISAI EISEN The Courtesan JOHN F L A X M A N English late 18th-century neoclassical sculptor. CLOTH AND DRAPERY Relief printing This is a woodblock print made by a relief process. he also co-edited and expanded the Ukiyo-e Ruiko (History of Prints of the Floating World). Position In this pen and ink drawing. the cloak sliding to the ground. This complex numerous blocks prepared image and may have been made with printed separately. Remaining raised areas of wood are rolled with colored inks.157 KEISAI EISEN Japanese draftsman. Aeschylus earned Flaxman an international reputation. designer. the angle of the head. stone wall of downward-stroked this sleeper's position is momentary. Dante. Respected for his sumptuous images of geisha and editions of erotic prints. each delivering a different part and color of the design. and teacher Distinctive linear illustrations for the works of Homer. writer and printmaker Keisai Eisen took his name from the masters Kano Hakkeisai and Kikugawa Eizan. and the feet notched against the pillar tell us that A lines holds him into the cleft. draftsman. an 18th-19th century document on the lives of the ukiyo-e artists. which are sometimes also cut into pieces like a jigsaw puzzle. Images are drawn onto smooth.
The metal. Leg sections in both support the figure without taking our attention away from the main garment above. Opposite is a dangerous drawing. and even formal portraiture. for she would not have been amused and William Wodall might have been stretching his luck. Pen and wash In the graphic accuracy of this armored knight we see the idealized identity of a warrior from another time: a gleaming defender of the realm. Fine examples can be plucked from fashion. Flowing scarf The knight's scarf of gilded blue is drawn in a pale wash over red ink lines. a scurrilous cartoon by a courtier of Queen Elizabeth I.158 COSTUME Character Costumes an extreme form of the clothed figure. Man in Armor UNDATED 1 6 x 9 1 / 2 in ( 4 0 5 x 2 4 0 m m ) A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE . w h e r e . The aged queen is compared to an overdressed bird. In 1 6 3 2 he m o v e d p e r m a n e n t l y t o L o n d o n . A flamboyant territory. cartoon. lace. t h r o u g h n u m e r o u s p o r t r a i t and C h u r c h commissions. Leg section Compare mid-shin the section of white boots cropped to the section of similarly cropped trousers in drawings Gruau's drawing on p. he c o o l e d and redefined his style. The slight uncertainty of the pose and the limp cloak suggest a little more metal than man. all ruffs and wrinkles. It is presumed Her Royal Highness never saw it. Its warm surface flows in contrast to the stiff metal armor. theater. cloth. Its color is also reflected in the metal. where sometimes there just might not be anybody inside. a n d w a s e m p l o y e d as c o u r t painter t o King Charles I. A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE Flemish painter and draftsman. Van D y k e was chief assistant t o Rubens f o r t w o years. 160. and feather were all CHARACTER COSTUMES REPRESENT observed with closely crafted conviction. He has been rendered on this olive<olored page with pen and gray wash worked over a red and black under-drawing. Details and voices are worn externally with great imagination. Anthony Van Dyke's Man in Armor is a masterpiece of drawn surface. A s a y o u n g man. cinema. b e f o r e traveling t o Italy.
and saturations showing through from the other side.35). manuscript comprising six c a n t o s .1599 71/2 WILLIAM x 51/4 in ( 1 9 0 x 1 3 4 mm) WODALL . By her old upto three tiers supported on sticks. it was customary to Iron-gall ink Wodall's dangerous caricature steps daintily the written lines of her dedicated page. A Ruffs and feathers Starched white ruffs worn at court and by society grew steadily larger as Elizabeth's reign progressed.159 WILLIAM W O D A L L A u t h o r and illustrator o f The Aaes of Queene a Elizabeth poem Allegorized. t h e B a b i n g t o n Plot. t h e Ridolfi Plot. T h e poem recounts t h e six m a j o r crises o f Elizabeth's reign: t h e Spanish A r m a d a . the queen is masterfully rebalanced by words at her feet The whole drawing's blackened. Satire of the Queen's Dress c. suggest the use of iron-gall ink (see p. t h e Rising. while a raised foot pauses to assess the next displaying a fan of daggers. hooded with an overinflated fluffy ruff eye pins us. she is shown as a grossly disproportioned bird. bitten nature. and her pride. Northern Satire This is a quill-and-ink satire of the elderly queen's pride-As head of state and fashion. here dark tawny owl. Beneath the lethal fan is the body of a bird of trimmed feathers suggest age. t h e Jesuit Mission. Top-heavy.
studio-like rectangle of paper. Fine lines drawn against the building behind her echo the threads on which we have all seen arachnids drop and hang. G r u a u ' s highly distinctive d r a w i n g s have a p p e a r e d Couture. a n d L'Officiel de la couture. Airbrushed reflective surfaces further amplify our perception of speed. as is Spider-Girl opposite. She has been drawn with brushes dipped into India ink and gouache. 158. and gray pigments were applied separately. muscular aggression. elegant chic and svelte.F r e n c h f a s h i o n i l l u s t r a t o r w h o in his l o n g and esteemed career w o r k e d with many of the g r e a t e s t d e s i g n e r s o f 2 0 t h . Spider-Girl leaps like an insect. RENE GRUAU I t a l i a n . Fashion and fantasy drawings invent prototypes of ideals and perfection—be they for the catwalk or the fast-paced pages of comic books. The black red.5 9 ) and a three-spoke balance of cuffs and cropped trousers to create an almost flag-like emblem of power.160 COSTUME Femmes Fatales THESE DEVASTATING femmes fatales force back the onlooker with their demure. ofcroppedtrousershere to the device of the w Illustration 1949 for Jacques Fath in L ' O f f i c i e l d e la C o u t u r e RENE GRUAU . Gruau uses starkly cut negative space (see pp. Gruau's model regally swans to the fore with cool pride. Composition Look how well this image is frame knee is parallel to the bottom edge spacehorizontalline cropping the trousers be outermostuprightbordersof her cuffs are similar above her head thesidesoftheimage. India ink and gouache This swish of confidence and style our enters the page turning everyone's head. 5 8 . Vogue. Harpers & Queen. His model is outlined. possibly over a pencil outline.c e n t u r y haute i n n u m e r o u s m a g a z i n e s i n c l u d i n g Elle. diving to catch us in the grip of her machine-like limbs. Drying time in between applications ensured the colors did not run into each other. and both share the power of scarlet and black. Rene Gruau's bold gouache drawing of smoothly swaying sophistication captures a brilliantly cut garment and frames it with great dynamism in a white.and tilted to the same de a little deeper than sp kneestogivehergravity. Compare the compositio beneathVanDyke'sstudy of armor on p. demanding attention with gesture and flair.
Align your ruler to the upright of each building. and figure are all locked into equally shatp through the traditional process of a pencilled outline over-drawn ink. In your mind's eye extend the uprights out of the top of the picture. moon. He began work on Spider-Girl in 1998. Sharp focus black outlines in this drawing create a hyper-real dynamic. It is outside the picture frame. and has been the title's regular artist since 2003. sky. and Amazing Spider-Man. beginning with Star Wars. not far above the drawing. Airbrushed color and with tonal focus. at Their extensions will meet the same single vanishing (see point pp.74-77). to the right of its center. Frenz has drawn for Marvel for about 20 years. MARVEL C O M I C S . Buildings. Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 2001-04 R O N FRENZ. This s modeling applied over the top give the image a sleek and mechanical of gravity. The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones. a great characteristic superhero comics.RON F R E N Z Contemporary American graphic artist w h o designs and pencils the dynamic scenes of numerous superheroes featured in Marvel Comics. Single-point understand perspective To how Frenz created up therefore the effect of steeply between looking buildings—and howyou can do the same in your own work—take calculate where a ruler the and single vanishing point lies.
Often. or wax and a binder are shaped into fine strips and encased in w o o d like a graphite pencil. They work well on PIGMENTS Pigments. COLORED PENCILS: Dry pigments ground together with chalk. crumbly. I suggest you do so. FELT-TIP PENS: Instant-drying alcoholor water-based inks stored in the barrels of the pens are delivered via smooth nylon o r felt tips of varying shapes and thicknesses. The worst are like revolting old lipsticks that get everywhere except where you intend. size. 4. and CHALK PASTELS Pastel pencils make fine lines (as above). these work best when slightly warm. 3. made in about 80 colors. Try materials that are new and unfamiliar. colored materials available. quality and cost T h e best are paperwrapped sticks of sumptuous. oily pigment. The higher the quality (and cost). Be aware that fixative dulls pastel. great for tin . CHALK PASTELS: Blackboard chalk is sidewalk work. are derived from many sources: rocks. slightly oily to the touch. the finer and more subtle the texture and color should be. except the final layer. 2. purchase a small selection of different items you think you will like. Many artists apply fixative to the back of their work. plants. C o n t e crayons are square-formed. Beware—some are toxic. which he left unfixed to retain its brightness. animals. wash. and cost are laid out for our pleasure and perusal. chalkbased but very subtle. minerals. intensity. Seemingly infinite choices of texture. Pastels are finer. insects. hue. and can be softened and manipulated with degrees of heat. and subtlety. though lines can develop greasy stains around the edges if the paper is not first stretched and treated with a gelatin paste laid as a wash. OIL PASTELS: Many colors. and can be a great rediscovery for bold drawings. mixed on the paper and scratched into (as below). Before making substantial investments. paper-wrapped. soft. quality. Many products are sold individually and in boxed sets. unwrapped harder pastels. Degas built his pastels in layers. and sold in many colors. the diverse are made in brands of basic member of the family. Store loose pastels in dry rice to keep them clean. Use them to draw lightly (as above left) or thickly. there are disparities between the apparent nature or color of what you hold in your hand and its performance on paper. used to make colors. Children's wax crayons are relatives. Bright pastels are more brilliant on colored paper. allowing it to fix slightly from behind. shape. Dissolve in turpentine or mineral spirits to produce oil paint or or dark paper. including iridescents. Pastel pencils are slender and in w o o d casing. See h o w they work and return later for more of what proved best for you. fixing each layer on the front. The nontoxic range below represents a suggested starting point for experiment. 1. Most stores leave small pads of paper on their counters for customers to test materials. They vary hugely in cost. you may be pleasantly surprised to discover something you could not have imagined using.162 COSTUME Colored Materials ART STORES BRIM OVER w i t h t h e m a n y wherever permitted. OIL PASTELS Oil-based. Sticks and conte crayons make thicker marks (as below). clay. and synthetics.
FELT-TIP PENS Although not made with felt-tip pen. Diverse brands are harder or soften greasier or chalkier in use. so it is best to test them before buying. 111).163 COLORED PENCILS These are wax. Some give richer lines than others. If you love smooth blocks and lines of colon felt-tip pens are perfect. others dissolve in water or turpentine to make a wash. Brands made for designers sold in enormous ranges of colors are far more subtle and sophisticated than those made for children. Colors can be blended as shown right) and tones graded by altering pressure. leaving the paper to shine through for highlights (as below). Think of Matisse's Blue Nude (see p. it is still a great champion and support for those beginners feeling shyly obligated to tone down their love of color to conform with what others say they should use. Some are nonsoluble.or clay-based thin crayons in wood casing. Fine lines can be achieved (as above). .
values. they record and reflect our common history. You. and after studying familiar shoes we use the information learned to invent new ones. a range of colored felt-tip pens with both fine and broad tips. e n j o y i n g t h e study a n d i n v e n t i o n o f shoes. and they have been concealed in buildings to ward off misfortune. Turn t h e m in different d i r e c t i o n s and o b s e r v e t h e i r s t r u c t u r e and f o r m . 100-01 and pp. imagining y o u can see t h r o u g h it. the era in which we live. Superstitions and fetishes are attached to them: we are told never to put new shoes on a table. a n d e x p e r i e n c e visible p r o g r e s s . D r a w each o n e first as a solid object. will discover m o r e . 104-07). REPEATED STUDY T o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s class. S H O E S TELL LIFE STORIES. . if y o u m a k e p l e n t y o f d r a w i n g s as o p p o s e d t o o n l y a f e w . and a selection of shoes. Here we go one step further. you will need several large sheets of drawing paper. social and economic status. while artists have painted their boots or those of others as personal portraits and memorials. and volume in space (see pp. c o v e r a large sheet o f p a p e r w i t h line drawings o f several shoes. structure. t h e n again as if transparent. Linear Outline Using fine pens. As artifacts in museums. style.164 COSTUME Study and Design they reflect our age. To set up. personality. and how we stand and walk. I m a d e n u m e r o u s s h e e t s o f d r a w i n g s . t o o . This class takes the shoe as its subject in building on earlier lessons concerned with seeing through objects to understand their function.
STUDY AND DESIGN
study the surface contours using fineand broad-tipped felt-tip pens. For best results, it is important to be bold and brief. Draw firmly, fast, and with as few strokes as possible. Build up each shoe from light to dark andleavesome paper showing through to create highlights.
Design Your Own
Using what you have learned from the previous steps about the structures of your shoes, and about the use of pens, invent new designs from your imagination. Start with fine outlines and progress to colored and textured surfaces. Modify your ideas by rotating the views.
The Structure of Costume
MUSEUMS ARE AN INFINITELY
rich resource for the artist and
information given by a period style. Arrange to visit a costume museum or ask a friend to model clothes for you at home. Using fine felt-tip pens, begin with quick, pale impressions of each garment's shape before homing in on its borders and seams. Try to draw transparent views wherever possible to record the relationships between all component parts. Aim to draw enough information for it to be possible to make up a version of the garment using paper pinned to a tailor's dummy.
designer. They often give quite unexpected gems of ideas and information—whatever the subject. These drawings, made in a costume museum, demonstrate ways of recording structural information and detail for later use in the studio. They could form the basis of new designs for a fashion project or theater production, for example. Drawings of shoes on pp. 164-65 show how new designs can be evolved from the structural
It is usually best when collecting information for reference to apply the restraint of dispassionate observation. Set yourself the test of drawing facts with as little artistic license or embellishment as possible. Here I chose fine felt-tip pens because they are at their best when used swiftly, and therefore encourage bold, unhesitant decisions.
Swift lines record the hanging weight of this gentleman's coat, the relative proportions of its layers, and minimal details of the buttons and cuffs.
Thick velvet fabric is pulled tight beneath and across the bust by a single button. This transparent view shows how the fabric falls loosely in straight panels beneath the level of the sleeve.
W h e n visiting museums, be prepared f o r l o w lighting, which can make it hard t o see and draw. A book can help if attached t o your drawing board.
Adding stripes and dashes of color with a thicker pen brings out the glossy sheen and sculptural rigidity of this dress, which would have been worn over a whalebone corset. small reading light designed t o clip o n t o a
THE STRUCTURE OF COSTUME
In small drawings such as these, use thick pens to color entire sections with a few marks, as I did here down the side of the bodice.
The light, frilly bulk of this crinoline dress is propelled forward with lines. pinching its gathers and sways that are hiding a horsehair bustle. fleets of quick
THIS CLASS FOCUSES ON how to draw textures through the collection of fabric, pattern, and embroidery samples from a costume m u s e u m . This formal method, using ruled squares, can create an invaluable library of ideas a n d i n f o r m a t i o n for future r e f e r e n c e — w h e n painting a clothed figure, or preparing a textile project, for example. However, if making a book of samples for a project, remember that it is important to also include collages of f o u n d materials (see pp.230-31) To d r a w a fabric texture, b e g i n by concentrating o n h o w y o u i m a g i n e it w o u l d feel if you t o u c h e d it. Decide if it w o u l d be rough, s m o o t h , w a r m , cold, thick, thin, tough, or fragile, for example. As you draw, believe you can feel these qualities at your fingertips a n d that your pencil is responding to the sensation. Undulate the pressure of your lines and marks according to the feeling of the fabric rather than its appearance. Let your pencil enact the sensation of touching its surface.
and to experiment more loosely with mixed media.
This starchy, quilted, b o w e d creation started life as an imagined corset, I intended t o d r a w together in one sculptural f o r m a range o f t h e details opposite. T h e garment quickly got o u t o f hand. T h e r e is great e n j o y m e n t in letting y o u r imagination run wild w h e n inventing costumes. If you are unable t o visit a costume museum, many exciting fabric details and textures can be found in y o u r o w n closet o r home.
Colored pencils give precision and tonal range; they can be faded but not erased. Lightly use an HB graphite pencil if you wish to plan a design first. Pressed hard, colored pencils build up a waxy finish of brilliant color. Used lightly, they appear powdery and show the texture of the paper.
TEXTURES AND PATTERNS
Silk and braid
172-73. shape.126-27. and motivation of an individual. look at how Goya delineated volumes of thick fabric to express the posture. . identity.Dressing Character I O N C E SPENT THREE MONTHS researching the work of Francisco de Goya at the Prado Museum. selected from different pages of my original book. These characters. I made a drawing book full of studies seeking to understand how he composed drama and pathos in his narratives (see also pp. and 252-53). Madrid.
are copies of works by Goya in which he makes air seem heavier than flesh. I carefully copied the direction of each of his lines.T H E S E PENCIL STUDIES. Posture Carving also taken from my Madrid drawing book (see pp. To understand how he did this. and tangible. as it rushes and carves fabric-wrapped forms like rivers and desert winds shaping the earth. and visible.170—71). .
while a quill contact with. finding corners in crowded places to inscribe their action and energy onto the page. the viewer's attention in a scene by the format of its composition. and so. First. heighten or subdue drama with subtleties of exaggeration or caricature. Rembrandt's bored and frustrated wife. Storytelling and people-watching are obsessive human activities. . Blockbuster movies. Third. and instantly engage with the action of the scene. Drawings selected for this chapter explore these Saskia Lying in Bedand a Nurse ranges of proximity 1638 9 x61/2in (227 x 164 mm) and a travel journal. Saskia died after childbirth. Second. too. the direct exchange (as shown here) where one or more characters hold eye Aneedproduced the thicker lines of the nurse. We can also use clothes. and therefore seem to see. As artists. He in turn scorches the paper with his view and a certain speed of seeing all. furniture. This J u s t as there are three parts to a traditional landscape drawing—the foreground. Later in their lives. We can direct close. we can R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter draftsman. television documentaries.Gatherings A LL DRAWINGS TELL STORIES. the viewer is not directly made the finer lines of Saskia. we can learn most about handling pen and ink. stares out from her gloomy sickbed. the viewer. He is also the artist from whom props to add layers of meaning and attitude. Her all-too-clear expression shows annoyance and irritation with her husband. It middle. presumably while he is making this drawing. but drawings of gathered people tell them most directly. are implicated in this marital exchange made over the head of the anonymous nurse. vivid portrait of his wife captures our attention. daily newspapers. comics. and other masters of Western Art. Seeing through Rembrandt's eyes. We read tensions and exchanges between people. and distance—so drawings of gathered people can be loosely arranged in three took only minutes to make and yet it lives for centuries. the speed and printmaker and one of the greatest and most influential density of its lines. With a pocket full of disposable pens we also go out and draw the expressions of gathered people. and its illumination. soap operas. there are no longer individuals but one significant group or mass action. R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN in the delivery of narrative. and novels—our staple cultural diet—are driven by a fascination with shared experience and the detail of what happens in other people's lives. a crowd tells the story from a distance. The spaces between people and the positions they occupy on a page are vital to our understanding of the psychology or emotion of an event. even up her were laid with a brush. Washes of shadow behind engaged and as a natural voyeur can feel invisible while watching the scene. this is not the portrait of an old woman. we. Saskia. in spite of how it may seem. paintings depicting scenes from history. Here. types.
Pans fly oft the stove. hearth i m p l e m e n t s crash at o u r feet. or even the office photocopier. Real Life is Rubbish 2002 Dimensions variable TIM N O B L E A N D SUE WEBSTER . narrative is delivered through the air. garbage and chaos are piled a n d e x p l o d e d in r o o m s full of event. and projectors to create their anarchic punk satires of modern life. via the animated clutter of o u r material lives. F o r e a c h w o r k ." (Tim Noble) Drawing with light it is important to think about what you is Here timelessly we see a in can draw with. plates shatter. junk. h a l o e d portrait of the artists seated b a c k to b a c k . Here. Think about what else you could use: a laser smoke.. refuse. for example. and projector. and smoke billows around the agitated jives of the Duchess. and on. In both works. and Alice. and in. Pencil on paper important but only the beginning of possibility the combination of three-dimensional space. TIM N O B L E A N D SUE W E B S T E R British artists who collaborate using neon. the Cat. t h e y select and arrange familiar items of street detritus into what appears to be an u n p l e a s a n t pile.kicks against the mundane things that close down your mind is a refreshing and good thing.176 GATHERINGS SOME DRAWINGS ARE MADE e n t i r e l y o f i l l u m i n a t i o n that floods drama into the viewers gaze. Below. a kitchen explodes in o u r faces. T h e i m m a c u l a t e d r a w i n g is only r e v e a l e d w h e n t h e b e a m of a p r o j e c t o r c a s t s t h e s h a d o w Projections of the h e a p o n t o a wall.. N o b l e a n d W e b s t e r s w i t t y a n d o f t e n s u b v e r s i v e d r a w i n g s are also c o n t e m p o r a r y art installations. the C o o k ."Anything that. c o m p o s e d garbage p r o d u c e s a c a l m . In one of R a c k h a m s great illustrations for Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland.
177 ARTHUR RACKHAM British watercolorist and book illustrator. amplifying movement outward from the vanishing point. are very large compared to on p. This makes the story appear to leap out at us. tabletop. 100 to see for make elliptical objects and pans fly through the the foreground. humor. Find the singleperspective pp. we find several devices already explored through our drawing classes. ink. beams.76-77) above vanishing point (see that is about3/4in (2 cm) oak converge at this point. H e is best k n o w n forillustratingIrving's Rip vanWinkle. Depth Billows of smoke expand and are lighter as they come forward. and watercolor. Refer back to the drawing class how pots In drawn objects and elements that those behind. Rackham Vanishing point In this marvelous drama made with pen. by vivid children's Rakham's w o r k is characterized fantasy. a n d an unmistakable graphic style. See how the In the Duchess's Kitchen 1907 77/8 x 6 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 5 0 m m ) ARTHUR RACKHAM . and Alice's shoulder.Stowe's ofMysteryand Queer Little Folks. The wood grain acts like marks of speed behind the scene. and Poe's Tales Imagination.
The mournful gray landscape of Henry Moore's northern British field has gathered by night an overcoated audience to stand and wait before a wrapped and roped monument. which still narrates vivid days in the lives of an energetic nation. and action of a buffalo hunt. This is just one of many precious artifacts from a lost time. Moore's spectators appear to have walked a long way from nowhere to witness and wait beside this mysterious obelisque. HENRY MOORE Crowd 1942 Looking at Tied-up Object . Chalk and graphite This fog-bound but humorous gathering of souls is made in graphite and colored chalk with gray wash. and composition they are polar opposites. expressing his dry humor about O F ALL THE CONTRASTS HENRY MOORE British s c u l p t o r w h o t r a i n e d a n d taught at t h e R C A . Magnetic Fields sculpture. The image stands out among his more usual graphic works in which he hones and carves semi-abstract human forms. M o o r e t o u r e d Italy as a young man. as if Moore's wrapping has been literally outstretched. and art in the landscape. A glimmer of gold light appears from the left No explanation is given. London. join in the waiting.178 GATHERINGS we have seen in the pairs and trios of drawings by masters and makers. meaning. as fellow watchers. This is an ironic drawing from Moore. perhaps these two are the most extreme. a sculptor. a n d l o v e d t o d r a w in t h e BritishMuseum. In culture. audiences. Opposite.The human form w a s the vehicle o f his expression and h e w a s t h e official W o r l d W a r II artist. heat. a great Shoshone drawing blazes with the color. and we.
Skills are taught not center chant or dance to the beat of a drum." Men at the instructed to sit and watch.179 SHOSHONE SCHOOL Stylized characters This vital image of a buffalo hunt is made with pigment Members of the Shoshone community wishing painted within dark outlines on a stretched elk hide. creating harmonious balance with words but through silent demonstration. Stylized hunters. horses. MAGNETIC FIELDS Horses It is interesting to note how the outstretched limbs ofthesehorses echo European images of the runningBuffalo horse before the sequence-photographer Muybridge taught us to 19TH understand their movement differently. Hunt CENTURY SHOSHONE SCHOOL . tolearnhow to paint a scene on a hide are and buffalo circle and charge the perimeters of a skin "field. and helping our eye to dart around. Each color is evenly distributed throughout the scene.
Heath Robinson lived through the same war-torn. B l a k e h a s i l l u m i n a t e d his s a d d e n e d Virgil on the s h o r e s of a d a r k w o r l d . a n d f o c u s . Opposite. K a t h e K o l l w i t z s c r a t c h e d a n d e n g r a v e d her a r m y of c l a y . w e f i n d a spiritual v i s i o n . color. a pink-inked cinema wobbles along with string. inextinguishable in its fortitude and h u m o r . pale souls of the lustful are being s p u n into yet another realm of hell. w h i c h b y their c h o i c e a n d h a n d l i n g a c t u a l l y b e c o m e the force a n d spirit of e a c h i m a g e . The Circle of the (The Whirlwind 1824 of Lustful Lovers) mm) 143/4 x 207/8i n ( 3 7 4 x 5 3 0 WILLIAM BLAKE .f o o t e d t r o g l o d y t e s w h o rage into w a r like a m u d s l i d e of revenge. and sweetened the often bleak years with his impractical inventions. m a r k . a n d the gentle h u m o r of sedate r i d i c u l e . t h e Bible. p o e t . a n d o t h e r w o r k s . w h e r e he w a t c h e s a t u r b u l e n t s p i r a l of p u n i s h m e n t f o r the d a m n e d . Blake w a s d r i v e n b y a passion f o r j u s t i c e a n d a p r o f o u n d b e l i e f in his v i s i t a t i o n s f r o m angels. We also see qualities of line. era as Kollwitz. The muscularity of Blake's figures was inspired by Michelangelo's works. a d e a t h c h a r g e of brutality. a n d e n g r a v e r w h o p o w e r f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e d his o w n t e x t s in a d d i t i o n t o D a n t e ' s Divine Comedy. Brushed line and wash This is an ink-outlined drawing made with a fine brush on paper with added washes of watercolor The image was subsequently redrawn as a line engraving. w r i t e r a r t i s t . texture. W I L L I A M BLAKE British visionary. Misted in translucent layers of paint.180 GATHERINGS The Human Condition IN THE SPECTRUM of these vastly d i f f e r e n t g a t h e r i n g s of p e o p l e . It illustrates a scene from Dante's Divine Comedy.
Robinson and Kollwitz (above) share almost identical life dates and their work expresses a shared history from opposite sides oftheworld wars. however meager or ridiculous their activity. Heath Robinson shows England in a past era. and controlled smears on the metal surface printed as tones. poverty. THE HUMAN CONDITION Scratched lines This is a dry-point etching with monoprint. With masterful gentility. Losbruch (The Outbreak) 1955 20 x 233/8 in (507 x 592 mm) KATHE KOLLWITZ HEATH ROBINSON humorous illustrator and a regular contributor to magazines and journals such as The Sketch and The Bystander. and her powerful and sensitive drawings center on nurture. and the family home. plodding along with hazy. British Pen and wash This is a pen-andwatercolor drawing made for a color-platereproduction in an edition of T h e Bystander. Ink rolled over was selectively polished off using a rag. and the impact of death and war upon women. What remained in scratched grooves printed on damp paper as lines. sculptor and draftsman. humor by making his characters earnest. The image was scratched directly onto a metal plate. He created sincere. HEATH ROBINSON The Kinecar 1926 103/8 x 15 in (262 x 380 mm) . stoical bemusement. children. who lived in a poor district of Berlin.181 KATHE KOLLWITZ German printmaker. and clearly focused. White marks were made with a dusting of French chalk on the artist's finger to wipe away ink leaving clean metal. Kollwitz survived the two World Wars.
dropped in your pocket and forgotten till needed. including l u m i n o u s a n d m e t a l l i c . The f o u r i l l u s t r a t e d h e r e r e p r e s e n t a basic r a n g e . a ballpoint will make faint lines. G E L P E N : P r o d u c e d in b l a c k w h i t e . fine fiber-tip Drawing with a fine fiber-tip pen. FIBER-TIP: M a n u f a c t u r e d f o r artists a n d d e s i g n e r s in a r a n g e o f w i d t h s . 7 6 . So many stores sell them. R O L L E R B A L L : A c o n s t a n t i n k flow 3 . T h e r e w e r e c seconds t o snatch this impression b e t w e e n their emergence from one bridge and disappearance b e n e a t h t h e next.188-89) and Caravans (see pp. I swiftly focused on gesture. if y o u w i s h y o u r d r a w i n g s t o last a n d n o t fade o r b l u r w i t h t i m e a n d e x p o s u r e t o light. trusting shape and form to follow. CHOICES AVAILABLE T h e r e a r e m a n y d i s p o s a b l e p e n s t o c h o o s e from. a disposable pen with its clip-on cap goes anywhere.7 7 and 214-15). Available in blacks and ranges of colors. I keep quantities at home. Quick-drying. dark sheen. gel pens) are the most convenient of all materials with which to travel." 1. c h o o s e p e n s l a b e l e d " p e r m a n e n t " o r "lightfast. t h e y a r e lightfast. rollerballs.r e s i s t a n t . or put the paper in your pocket instantly without fear of smudging. turn the page. 192-93) w e r e b o t h m a d e w i t h a ballpoint. Unlike pencils. At a time like this. Ideal f o r precision w o r k (see p p . R e m e m b e r . w a t e r .182 GATHERINGS Disposable Pens (ballpoints. . a n d pressure-sensitive. these pens enable you to sketch. they can be obtained within minutes. B A L L P O I N T : Black a n d b o l d c o l o r s o f f e r d i v e r s e qualities. p e r m a n e n t . and in most pockets so I can always record a thought DISPOSABLE PENS QUICK NOTES O n a c o l d day in Venice. a n d ranges o f colors. build to a rich. is d e l i v e r e d t h r o u g h a m e t a l t u b e o v e r a t i n y ball bearing. blob when old. in the studio. or idea. W h i t e gel p e n s a r e v e r y e f f e c t i v e o n d a r k papers. indent paper. they each offer distinct and sometimes unexpected qualities. Lines t h i c k e n as t h e p e n w e a r s o u t G r a n d Canal (see pp. aiming for correct outlines would result in drawing too slowly to c a t c h the moment. Insensitive t o p r e s s u r e : lines d o n o t v a r y in w i d t h o r t o n e . 2. which can snap or pierce through your clothes. in the car. 4. shut your book. fibertips. jot notes. or turn into washes and make monoprints if flooded with an alcohol-based substance such as hairspray. For example. t w o tourists and their gondolier drifter past m e o n a canal.
Fast lines focus on action. crowd of fellow travelers Fast lines These scribbled lines model the mass and shadows of heads belonging passengers packed into the boat.FROMMEMORY Here I used the same fiber-tip pen to compose a scene from memory. not form. Compare this Klee's mules on p. Earlier I had witnessed a crammed en masse in a fleet of hired gondolas complete with musicians and choir.31 .
angles will happen as a matter of course. Every drawing writes an indelible memory of place. of course. if a person was stout. Circular lines buzz around a man puzzling at the end of a train platform (left). Let the line of the flying coat fly and the hanging arm hang. Above all. FLEETING MOMENTS Walking through Venice with a small. life will not slow and wait for you to catch it. just draw the action. No camera can tie you to a time or people in the same way. activity. However. Exaggeration helps. all action is in the line of his coat and directed by his nose. not its outline. Each line acts its part in the narrative. Don't worry about measuring angles. let it enter the stage and perform. Each one was witnessed and drawn immediately from the afterimage of what I had just seen. make them stouter. pocket notebook and a fiber-tip pen.184 GATHERINGS The Travel Journal I CANNOT OVERSTATE THE JOY of making a travel journal. Push toward caricature and this will draw out of your memory what was most important. I caught fleeting glimpses of gathered people and solitary souls going about their affairs. focus on the action of the event. Movement . A curatorial assistant flies to do a chore (right). black. when out drawing. You must learn to trust your memory and to draw what impressed you most. You will make outlines. and companionship. but they should not be what you dwell on. animate them more. if animated.
I drew him three times on the same page to catch a range of his physical expressions.185 A large lady is photographed in front of a delicate work of art. The rush of his legs isamplifiedby their blurred lines. Observation THE TRAVEL JOURNAL The same willowy assistant dashes about his work. Expression . In turn. eager to herd us all from his house of responsibility. I am watched by the aggravated guard.
For example. Identify the principal character and draw him or her first. focus on action. if they are being devious. Here I have recreated my drawing in steps to show you how to set about capturing such a scene. pulls. rather than the works of art they guarded. . and let every detail speak by its size. and you decide to draw the moment. I took refuge in a church in Venice. and there met this sullen custodian. Be aware that their placement on the page is part of the narrative. flap. or bulge. start by focusing on its action. Here the custodian projects fastidious ownership of his desk and pamphlets by pushing from behind the center of the space and challenging our entry to his image. elevate them in the pictorial space. furniture leans. Place the person carefully. forcing me to remain at the back and look at them. and reason for happening. When your attention has been caught. placement. or pushes. ACTION AND DETAIL W h e n drawing people. He and his simpering assistant would not allow me in. and involvement in the story. if they are being haughty. For example. you might place them lower down.186 GATHERINGS Catching the Moment On A BITTERLY COLD November day. emotion. not outline. and clothing or bags hang. decide how faces and bodies contort.
together with any immediate props they are using. If drawing a more complex scene. Decide where t o place them t o emphasize their role. W i t h a few strokes. Draw their action and props.187 The custodian Identify your principal character a n d their psychological role in the scene. D r a w their action. a pillar locates t h e scene in a depth o f space. In the final step (left) I reinforced t h e custodian's desk. . Decide where you will place them o n the paper t o emphasize their action and intent. continue adding characters. who is largely expressed through the shape and fall o f his raincoat and his way o f using a note pad. which is pushed toward us in a gesture of confrontation. Here. such as the desk and pamphlets seen here. I added t h e assistant. CATCHING THE MOMENT The assistant Identify t h e antagonist ( o r second character) in t h e scene.
. where vertical mooring poles give space and pulse to the horizontal speed of water quickly.Grand Canal T H E CANALS OF VENICE are bustling places full of occupation. I developed detailofthis drawing from memory using a ballpoint pen. and buildings. An imminent deluge of tourists urged me to work catching no more than the skeleton of the view.
then the bridge beneath them. Each person was glimpsed in an instant. Characters in the foreground were drawn first. followed by the streets. Venetians flow across a stepped bridge and cascade into the streets beyond. To catch characters like this. note only their most essential action and feature. Caricature each person slightly. .Crossings DURING THIS RUSH HOUR. and drawn immediately from memory.
quiet afternoon. . and a great subject to draw. Caravans and other backstage activity convey expectations of energy and repose. I used a ballpoint pen to compose a series of scenes.Caravans T H E PARAPHERNALIA O F TRAVEL i s an intriguing part of circus life. I found this circus by chance in the Swiss mountains. Sitting at a distance on a hot.
surrounded by the bright instruments of centuries of navigation. and meteor impacts have scarred. speculation. rivers. pages o f softly i l l u m i n a t e d craters and lunar "seas" c o v e r e d in m a t h e m a t i c a l and s h o r t h a n d calculations. By drawing such momentous and everyday events. to be ready to draw the new light as it breaks across the land. learning to draw light out of dark. and the sea. Look closely at works by many artists and you will see that they have not represented hills.Earth and the Elements I T MAY SEEM PERVERSE to start a chapter titled "Earth and the Elements" with an image of the Moon. how the soil is scorched. so J o h n Russell's tour de f o r c e drawing (opposite) was a masterpiece of observation in his time. 5 f t x 5 ft 6 in ( 1 5 2 x 1 6 8 c m ) J O H N RUSSELL . and its draws the tides of the seas. and even how the Sun illuminates. 199). This is the world's first accurate image of the Moon. Weather is essential in all landscape drawing. or the wind carries it away. sunny days. our companion. makes his work by the act of walking. when little stirs and empty blue skies offer even less to latch lines to. It is Earths satellite. but it can be seen as a lens to our observation of this planet. Oxford. the face of the Moon. how the mountain cut by ice and rain is now fleetingly lit. trees. Russell d r e w this. Beginners will often choose calm. It now hangs on the staircase of the History of Science Museum. H e a l s o p r o d u c e d an a l b u m o f 1 8 0 exquisite pencil drawings. The pastel drawing was constructed from myriad telescopic observations almost 200 years before the Apollo Moon landing. or has cracked and fallen under the weight of water. arranging them in perfect circles on the mountainside or in lines drifting out of sight beneath low clouds. It is better to get up before dawn. marking the ground with lines of footprints or by turning stones. The forces of nature. England. What they have drawn is the force of nature on these properties: how the wind heaves the night ocean. they are the animators of your subject. and take bold steps in emulating the swell of clouds and the forces of torrential water. Just as NASA photographs of Earth have had a profound effect on the way we view our fragile home. In this chapter Moon Pastel 1795 Drawing we experiment with charcoal. There is a sense of the heroic in drawing outside—we race to catch a form before the tide engulfs it. These conditions are very difficult to express well. JOHN RUSSELL A p o r t r a i t pastelist t o King G e o r g e III o f England. a contemporary environmental artist. artists see for themselves that which is momentary and eternal. are the real subjects in great landscape drawings. t h e first-ever accurate image o f t h e M o o n ' s surface. Take chances against the rain and work with the wind or fog. as opposed the physicality of Earth. and experiment. t w o e n g r a v e d m a p s k n o w n as The Lunar Planispheres. the sun comes out to blind it. William Turner is said to have had himself lashed to a ship's mast to comprehend the storm (see p. a n d a n astronomer w h o dedicated 20 years t o studying t h e M o o n . a n d a m o o n globe called t h e Selenographia. Richard Long.
H O N O R E DAUMIER French satirical cartoonist lithographer. seeing how it shakes. A hard waxy was drawn across a heavy limestone Varying definitions crayon of lire and depths of tone conspire to give volume.Through political drawings he fired his sharp wit at the king. Daumier's c a r t o o n shines with the brilliance of his comic memory. This wife. lifts. Crayon and limestone This is a lithograph. painter. distance. Dots and dashes suggest receding trees out of focus. serving a prison sentence for his views. sculptor. is already lost. and by observing its tides and eddies in our o w n environment. Below. Flapping kimonos and an onlooker turning his b a c k have the magic of a m o m e n t caught. the bourgeoisie. and solidity. and pioneer ofexpressionism. Danger of Wearing Balloon Petticoats UNDATED HONORE DAUMIER . the government. Terrifying waves of merciless nature roar across the paper. speed. a scratched ghost. has b e c o m e a hysterical kite. T h e great master of English seascape is c o n d u c t i n g with his graphic energy. undramatic b u t brimming with stylized realism. He knew how the world bends and stutters under such gusts. Hazy vertical marks reveal buildings into the mist. and gives motion to each image. and the legal profession. Fluid strokes inflate the woman's dress and pin shadows to the ground. Hokusais sedate wind presses reeds a n d the j o u r n e y s o f young ladies. we can soon learn to draw its force. fluttering heavily. By Turner carries us to the heart of the maelstrom.198 EARTH AND THE E L E M E N T S Air in Motion THE GREAT INVISIBLE SUBJECT o f these d r a w i n g s is t h e w i n d . a sail b r o k e n loose in a stormy marriage. T h e ship. like an umbrella forced inside-out.
AIR IN MOTION Pencil and watercolor subdued brushed. including being lashed t o a ship's m a s t in o r d e r to study a storm. T U R N E R British landscape. into this very as pressed sheet The paper's through own coior is brought banks of mist and fog.l o v e dw o r k s i n c l u d e 1 0 0 v i e w s o f M o u n t Fuji and 1 2 v o l u m e s o f Manga.b l o c kprintmaker. Wind direction wood-block This is a colored To represent the blows lifted flowed wind. H o k u s a i in t u r n has since significantly influenced European art. T u r n e r w o r k e d in oils a n d w a t e r c o l o r s a n d s k e t c h e d c o p i o u s l y o n his travels. Ship in a Storm c. A outline scratched of a skeletal into penciled ship is while and the waves. d e s i g n e r a n d b o o k i l l u s t r a t o r .199 J. absorbent watercolor and are Stains of splashed. TURNER KATSUSHIKA HOKUSAI Prolific J a p a n e s e c o l o r w o o d .M. 1826 91/2 x 113/4 in ( 2 4 1 x 3 0 0 m m ) J. seascape. Landscape a n d city life w e r e his principal subjects.W. leans the whole composition swells around its fateful center. and history painter w h o s e p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t a b o v e all w a s light. from left print.i n f l u e n c e d b y examples o f W e s t e r n art obtained through D u t c h t r a d i n g in Nagasaki. Hokusai direction (from clothing from has chosen which it the right). W . T h e r e a r e m a n y stories o f his p a s s i o n a t e w o r k i n g methods. wind. painter.M. a n d his b e s t . horizontally then and of the it into the stream Plants also bend and flow right to Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 1802 81/2 HOKUSAI KATSUSHIKA x 131/2 in ( 2 1 7 x 3 4 3 mm) .
and t h e sea s t u d i e d f r o m his h o m e in Guernsey in t h e Channel Islands. water. Turner (see p. marks. grab their b r u s h . this is a writer's narrative of terror. drawing was Hugo's principal means o f expression. Pen and brush Hugo drew first with pen and ink. as a subject and second. It looks so contemporary. Le Bateau-Vision 1864 71/2 x 1 0 in ( 1 9 2 x 2 5 5 m m ) VICTOR H U G O . it is difficult to contemplate its brooding and night-soaked heart. His subjects include ruins. Opposite. By contrast. Then. ink. inks. active surfaces of water. fantasy palaces.200 ELEMENTS Storms STORMS CAN BE SEEN and drawn in two ways: first. An update on biblical showers of fish and frogs. with a brush. leaving nothing but a glimpse of moonlight glistening on the froth below. he blanketed the drawing in darkness. D o m e s t i c o b j e c t s we can o w n and name fall from the clouds.198) admires the majesty of nature. this is a b o m b a r d m e n t from o u r h o m e s . Leonardos Cloudburst of Material Possessions is o n e of his m o s t enigmatic and mysterious works. He brings us to stare into a place that no sane human would enter. T h e m e n a c i n g darkness of Hugo's storm b e l o w is so convincing. as if drawn j u s t this year. T h e very nature of b o t h is turmoil and an interweaving of elements. lines of rain escorting them to b o u n c e and clatter. and tossed o b j e c t s — a perfect subject in which artists can forget themselves. EARTH AND THE VICTOR HUGO French novelist and artist (see also p. or charcoal.28). composing banks of waves and dense. and swim into the page. In periods b e t w e e n writing. h a u n t e d shadows. as a gestural storm on the paper.
Cloudburst of Material Possessions 1510-12 45/8 x 43/8 in ( 1 1 7 x 1 1 1 mm) L E O N A R D O DA VINCI .LEONARDO DA VINCI Leonardo devised many artifacts of our modern lives. a hook. and they passed through private hands for 400 years before becoming widely known. Above and below are examples of his mirror handwriting. It is interesting to speculate how engineering might have developed if his ideas had been shared with the world earlier Ink and chalk This is a pen and ink drawing with touches of black chalk. envisioning machines centuries before their making (helicopters and bicycles. together with half the contents of our garage. for example). Each item that has crashed from heaven is drawn in such a way that we can feel Leonardo's nib picking it up in the speed of a doodle. He was left-handed and wrote backwards in Italian from left to right. He bequeathed his drawings to a friend. and a wheel. There is a little magic in recognizing many items from our homes something like a rake. a bell.
She was inspired by her research of aerial plans of London and the story of an alien map butterfly (see caption). Clare Bryan took panoramic photographs of the English South Downs. and dry marks in the foreground appear to be made with his finger.202 ELEMENTS THE PROFILE OF A HORIZON is a line we immediately recognize and respond to. and famed for. his unsurpassed handling of light. C L A U D E LORRAIN French classical landscape painter draftsman. Claude Lorrain drew directly on location. In a very different work (opposite above). or cityscape. In the lower half he has walked downhill a little. watching his hand and eye at work together. Claude has used a fine nib to delineate segments of land as they recede into space. Over first lines. EARTH AND THE Bryan cut the profile of a city. rich. atmosphere. rapidly layering contours to shape place. thick. Segments The top half of the drawing is a view as we enter the valley. and mood simultaneously. which he used to unify his compositions. Paler. and etcher who lived most of his life in 17th-century Rome. and we can imagine standing over his shoulder. Whether land-. Even distilled from all other detail. and after tracing her captured line. sea-. Claude is distinguished by. a horizon line can trigger our recognition. Drawing with a scalpel.1638 85/8 x 121/2 in (219 x 320 mm) CLAUDE LORRAIN . she teased away fragments of paper to illuminate her view. cooler tones receding into the distance are applied with a brush. made inside a book. it is the unique calligraphic signature of the place in which we stand. Views from Velletri c. and across to the right. Nature Profiles Opposite below. transferred it to a scroll.
The edges of each here) fade into the solid paper unpopulated with a scalpel landscape. source workisilluminatedby standing its lower edge on a CLARE BRYAN . On turning the pages of City. drawings Ideas of introduction Clare Bryan to research introduced down and led NATURE PROFILES and removal historical plans and aerial growth of London showing its population since Roman times. printmaker graphic designer.5-m)scroll." Cut line This is a small section of a preparatory 5-ft(1. specialty bookbinder. Her recent paper photographic. and visiting professor at numerous art schools. and digital print-based works reflect upon the histories and poetry of "left behind and in-between spaces.The horizon was drawn with a City Landline 2003 271/2x 59 in (70 x 150 cm) scalpel. 2001 CLARE BRYAN C L A R E BRYAN 3ritish artist. then hunted destroyed. progressively settlement (cropped more and more paper is drawn away to show the expansion of human page of an around the river.203 Scalpel-drawn This book-bound drawing was inspired by the story of a foreign butterfly wrongly to Great Britain in 1912.
vine. 1 Suspend a length of masking tape. Alternatively. COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Machine-made. It allows you greater precision in your mark-making than if you rub away the charcoal with an eraser. Essentially. It does n o t erase easily.54). only a little thicker. Hold it over your drawing RANGE AVAILABLE Charcoal (in its several forms shown here) is loved or loathed by the beginner to whom it is often recommended because it produces pleasing results quickly. a n d m o r e i n d e l i b l e by soaking it in linseed oil. but some specialists stock compressed charcoal in delicate square sticks. resulting in a stick that gives a blacker. 4. Then lift it away. a n d p l u m . Beware of cheap brands selling dyed chalk as compressed charcoal. the heel o f y o u r h a n d . The tip snaps easily to renew a sharp edge if required. they are all intended for fine work. It is also easily erased if the maker of the mark is not happy with the result.m a d e c o m p r e s s e d charcoal. It c a n be m a d e duller. MEDIUM W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 5. 2. CHALK CHARCOAL: Technically. Use any fine-point pen or pencil (I used a ballpoint) to draw a firm line on the back of the Big pieces are perfect for very large-scale drawings—even larger than yourself. or fingertip. B u n d l e s o f twigs were traditionally sealed into earthenware j a r s or wet clay and heated slowly and intensely in a fire or kiln. resulting in a pale line. this does not exist. Boxes often contain a range of thicknesses to choose for different needs. 162) or graphite (see p. maple. a piece of fresh bread. tape. Artists have also used lime. blacker. Willow is the most c o m m o n wood. THICK W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 2 Keep the tape above your drawing. CHARCOAL PENCIL: Types made by different manufacturers vary in quality and density of line. b l a c k e r . leaving u n d e r t r a c e s of first thoughts. black finish. between your middle finger and thumb. Not to be confused with square conte sticks (see p. it is compressed and m o l d e d at high pressure. A great find when available. SQUARE COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Not often sold. LIFTING OUT This technique is a very easy method of drawing a crisp. Smooth paper accepts few particles. Charcoal lifts away from paper easily with the very light touch o f an eraser. Slightly dull the tape's stickiness before use t o prevent it from lifting out more than you intend. R o u g h paper c a n b e loaded. cylindrical. white line into the blackor grayness of willow charcoal. it looks gray and feels like chalk. b e e c h . and offers a rich. Try itworking on big paper covering a wall. C h a r c o a l naturally glistens. THIN WILLOW CHARCOAL: I used a piece like this to make the drawing opposite. . without touching the surface. The same as above. harder line. fine. a rag. so it chars b l a c k as o p p o s e d to igniting a n d turning to ash. and heavier than willow. feather. In use. you can p u r c h a s e m a c h i n e . 7. 3 A white line is lifted out by the tape. As its name implies. sticky side down. 3. 1. 6. Lines are achieved by d e p o s i t i n g particles in the grain o f paper.204 E A R T H AND THE E L E M E N T S Charcoal CHARCOAL IS PRODUCED from wood baked slowly without exposure to air.
Use cheaper (less sticky) for lifting out. PEN: Any fine pen or pencil can be used to draw on the back of masking tape when lifting out. Use high quality (very sticky) to fix paper to walls and boards. sold in several widths. 10. or any other dry media. Different tones seen throughout the main drawing on pp. CHARCOAL Lifting out This detail shows an example of where I used the lifting-out technique demonstrated opposite to draw flashes of lightning against rain clouds. Here we used a ballpoint. Here. pastels. as is fresh (unbuttered!) bread. 9. Layers can be peeled away to refresh its surface. . Cotton swabs also work.205 ERASING Thickly applied charcoal quickly o v e r c o m e s a plastic eraser A w a r m (soft and tacky) putty eraser is more effective. T O R T I L L O N : This is a tight roll of paper used to blend charcoal.212-13 were made by altering the pressure applied to the charcoal. MASKING TAPE: An invaluable resource. I used a plastic eraser effectively on thinly applied charcoal. graphite. Lift out broader marks with a larger implement. 8 .
an eraser your drawing book or a board and paper fixative (or hairspray). a less distinct middle ground composed of shapes and textures. They are also good markers of receding space. On p p . it results in flat planes of clutter. the more you encourage the viewer's imagination to join in and see. the less you describe. and a cushion in a plastic bag to sit on.9 9 we noted that in response to visual stimulus. Landscape drawings are traditionally arranged in three parts: a detailed foreground. I relaxed my eyes out of focus to dissolve distracting detail into abstract patches of light and darkness. Then I drew the shape of the tonal patches I perceived.206 EARTH AND THE ELEMENTS Landscapes TREES ALONE OFFER MARVELOUS shapes to draw. To experiment with drawing landscapes and the use of charcoal. MATERIALS In this first view there is only a foreground and middle distance. details blur and colors grow paler and bluer. Ironically. 9 8 . Excessive detail can be admired for its skill and achievement.212-13). The long view is hidden behind trees. hazy distance. At its worst. Successful drawings often only suggest the qualities of the scene without overdescribing them. Don't worry if it is cloudy: clouds add drama and perspective and make good subjects in themselves (see pp. a reel of masking tape. It is the visible effect of the atmosphere between where you stand and what you see in the distance. especially when making first excursions into aerial perspective. to contain each of your compositions. begin by marking out several small squares on your paper. and an abstract. This term simply means that as land rolls away into the distance. Pack several thick and thin sticks of willow charcoal. pack your materials (as advised below) and set off for a local view or your nearest arboretum. but is often less evocative and engaging. our brains search for nameable things and will perceive complete pictures from very little information. Seeing tones . When you arrive.
full of information you can use to create what you want! Inventing drama . This composition turned out a little flat because I have an almost even quantity of earth and sky. It is better to give distinctly more pictorial space to one or the other (see below). rounded. I have invented drama with diagonals set against each other I tilted the earth. shadows. Exploring the view Redrawing the scene above. your view is your inspiration.207 LANDSCAPES In my second square I explored a simple view contrasting soft. and broke a view through the hedge into the distance with a dark sky threatening rain. the trunk of a bare tree. dark trees with bright. Remember. horizontal regions of grass.
Circling a subject and drawing it from several views imprints on your memory a better understanding of its three-dimensional form.104-05). so the paper is not made blinding and your hand cannot cast a shadow on your work. and seeing what the real choice of subject is. shade out of the glare of the sun.164-65) and a wire violin (pp. engine. your challenge now is to find a sculptural subject in the landscape. England has embedded within it the decaying skeleton of a burned fishing boat. For example. which was the flow of water over rocks. EARTH AND THE FINDING THE SUBJECT Finding a remarkable subject is even better when you can circumnavigate it in an arena of space. This first drawing serves as a process of arrival. taking with you your drawing book and pen.1 5 my first drawing of the whole view of the Tiber led me to see the real subject of the day. "Drawing in the round means to literally walk around your subject." . and tiller still standing proud. I usually begin by making an image of the whole view. on p p . I am then able to home in on what interests me most for further study. observing it from several views so as to better understand it as a whole. The mud of the tidal shore in Rye. s e e k places in light After my first drawing.208 ELEMENTS Drawing in the Round WHEN DRAWING IN THE LANDSCAPE. bare ribs. making the scene below led me to focus on the decaying boat opposite. settling my concentration. Building on earlier studies of structure in space using shoes (pp. Similarly. 2 1 4 .
looking more at the boat than at the paper From this low position I have emphasized how the boat is swallowed in mud by outlining its shadow on the ground. its overall balance. make a series o f drawings f r o m different positions. The outline ties a shape of darkness to the boat like a weight so that it becomes part of its form. careful lines to establish the skeleton that gives this wreck its distinct form. marking straight. W h e n you have found your subject. and structure. DRAWING IN THE 1 Here. w h e n t h e sea recedes. character. ROUND 2 In this tail-end view. Each n e w drawing gives a different insight. I spent equal time looking at the subject and the paper.209 SERIES OF STUDIES This stunning ghost o f a boat comes into v i e w t w i c e a day. I looked more boldly at the planes and the dynamic of the sculptural craft My lines have become darker and more forceful as confidence in my understanding of the vessel grew. unfussy lines. 3 This impression notes the angle of the broken boat. Overleaf: Decaying Boat 4 . and the order and shape of its component parts. I drew with quick.
was made with gentle but unhesitating s p e e d . I worked quickly to catch and weave the turbulent contrasts of rising wind and approaching water before the drawing could be washed away. . m a d e on s m o o t h . hot-pressed drawing p a p e r (see pp. L o o k i n g b a c k and forth from the heavens to firmly taped-down paper.Cloudburst THIS STORM DRAWING.20-21) using a thin stick of willow charcoal.
and rhythmic detail as it passed through the ancient gully of the city. focusing on the river's eddies. since ancient times. On the pages of a small. pulse. shaping the city. pocket-sized notebook. . I drew with a needle-fine fiber-tip pen. black.Notes of Force T H E GREAT FLOWING TIBER RIVER has cut through Rome.
Mountains SITTING IN THE SHADE of a tree on the Greek island of Antiparos. I used a dip pen and waterproof India ink with brushed watercolor to draw the view. . The strong diagonal of the composition from bottom left to top right carries the eye through changes of height and focus from the foreground to the mountains beyond.
Indian mandalas. and Aboriginal art. His drawings are collected and exhibited internationally and held by the Adolf Wolfli Foundation. strike the paper to find form. From another viewpoint. such as Adolf Wolfli. opposite. actions. poet. Internal workings of the mind were suddenly free to find a new language of expression.8 cm) A D O L F WOLFLI Abstraction is a direct. or gestures. precisely because it does not have to represent a physical object. Artists were given a different tool—a line threaded directly from their subconscious to their hand—and with it they began to map a bold new landscape of marks and concepts that would dramatically and forever change the face of Western art. expressive marks and shapes are at the core of natural. Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape 1915 413/8 x 285/8 in (105 x 72. However. The fate of Old World thinking was finally sealed with the brutality of World War I. spontaneous image-making. for example. abstraction is not so easy to define. which are essentially abstract. . and have been making abstract drawings for centuries—Japanese calligraphy. and history. It is actually its foundation and its infrastructure. and it has always been with us. liberating. belief. First marks. fictional language. be brave and enjoy them. and independent means of communication. The growing rise of Darwinian ideas coupled with Freudian and Marxist perspectives forced Western society to reconsider its origins and future. Many concepts and feelings can only be expressed through marks. sounds. Wolfli was a Swiss draftsman. It was not invented in the 20th century. Afterward. Museum of Fine Arts. don't be timid. it is simply itself. all pictorial representations are abstractions of reality. yet my kinship to abstraction is fundamental.Abstract Lines T HE DEVELOPMENT OF W E S T E R N abstract art at the beginning of the 20th century significantly paralleled major changes in world thought. and poetic myth roar and cascade within his tightly framed pages. I begin every image by feeling its meaning. ADOLF WOLFLI One of the greatest masters of Art Brut. and young children show us that abstract. People are often scared by abstraction and see it as the enemy of figurative art. An abstract mark is often a better conductor of a thought or feeling. It also underpins and gives strength and unity to all figurative work. direction. Swirling. My own work is firmly centered in figuration. Not everything we know has a physical form in the world. and emotion. Outsider artists. He made thousands of drawings to chronicle his complex life. Berne. drawn sound. writer and composer who suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and was resident in the Waldau Aslyum near Berne. writhing torrents of color. From one point of view. picturing a stabilized world was impossible and Modernism rode forth with vigor. As you approach the classes in this chapter. many nonWestern cultures have highly sophisticated abstractions at the core of their art. only rediscovered. Perhaps in Western culture we bred this intuitive freedom out of ourselves in our insistence on complex figuration.
rhythmically engaged with itself. Abe's physical drawing is a sculptural installation. silence. Mamoru Abe prepares an image that will appear through the chemistry of iron. MAMORU ABE Japanese sculptor and installation artist. iron. akin to stones in a Zen garden. salt. A Neolithic chalk tablet bears cut lines that were slowly carved. Sometimes it smolders like a deep shadow. A line can be finished in a second. or. quoting ink marks on a page. scrolling across the canvas in an intimate crescendo. Lines. The Physical Space 1990 3 0 x 30 ft ( 9 1 4 x 9 1 4 cm) MAMORU ABE . Five forged steel shapes. Abe works with materials such as soil. Moisture produced rust. Twombly's mesmeric wax line worked over house paint is like a signature. and sensitivity with its thickness and pressure of touch. Below. forged steel. sit in silent harmony.220 A B S T R A C T LINES Process and Harmony SOMETIMES A DRAWN LINE sings on the surface of its support. it can keep reforming through the inherent repetition of a process. Damp Japanese paper was laid over carefully arranged iron bars. and temperature rim of floor space. brass. texture. Changes paper. This the paper rest within the amplifies framelike of the floor from the ceiling. and wood are also part of the work. as Twombly shows us opposite. and patient watching. ice. Iron rods in tone. It can proclaim mood. and texture their bracing separation reaching between from beneath Pillars of the gallery are made part of this drawing by their inclusion in the paper. tone. staining redbrown lines into the white surface. He travels widely to research ancient sacred sites. water. and plaster in galleries and landscapes. and Assistant Professor of Fine A r t at Fukuoka University.
400BCE 21/4 x 21/4 in (58 x 58 mm) ARTIST UNKNOWN Language Over the course of fifty years.England. and Untitled 1970 Here we might seek to grasp letters in the turning of his line.221 ANCIENT CARVINGS Many ancient cultures have made and left behind drawings and texts carved into stones or animal bone. that challenges the separation of word from image. The central pictorial space is also similarly cut and divided by the considered arrangement of straight lines. burials. emotive.Thesite's purpose is unknown. close to Stonehenge in Wiltshire. CY TWOMBLY . energetic. This example is one of two chalk tablets found in a Late-Neolithic pit.000-2. the Babylonian world map. Many of his graffiti-like combine abstract gestures with statements.Twombly was presented with a Golden Lion award for lifetime achievement. PROCESS AND HARMONY Cut lines Chalk carves easily. and American Indian petroglyphs (see p. Neolithic Chalk Tablet 3. evolved a raw. such as the Rosetta stone. and the worship of the sun and ancient gods. Twombly has language works CY TWOMBLY Contemporary American artist who emerged through the 1950s New York art scene in the heyday of Abstract Expressionism and Action Painting.241). At the 2001 Venice Biennale. Precise lines suggest the use of a sharp flint The framed rectangle of this image is echoed in that of Abe's installation. and sensuous drawing from painting. theories suggest astrological observations.
below. interpret. abstract. Similarity in gritty texture suggests that here. and participate in the composition. Hugo. Here he appears t o have saturated the cut-out moon disks with gritty pigment. a configuration. said. too. drawing here can b e described in t e r m s o f a G e r m a n philosophical idea a b o u t is t h e i n s t a n t r e c o g n i t i o n t h e p o w e r o f m o m e n t . beautiful. music manuscript requiring instrumentalists to improvise. Both abstract drawing and composition involve the perfect sequencing of sounds and marks against space and silence. here he anticipates abstract expressionism by 100 years. The scores are also exhibited in galleries as visual art. Gestalt. A graphic score is a V I C T O R H U G O Hugo's abstract French novelist w h o m a d e m a n y drawings in m i x e d m e d i a ( s e e also p. Ink impressions When drawing nightscapes Hugo often laid paper disks in place of the moon. Marks across the center appear to be made with his fingers. he mixed graphite into ink. opposite. and lifted them away to leave impressions of watery planets and seas. Gestalt o f an unnameable thing. broke new ground in the 1950s with graphic scores now considered among the most extreme. brushed night skies over them with ink then lifted the disks to reveal white moons. Two Impressions Paper 1853-55 VICTOR HUGO Disk from a Cut-Out . o f t e n e x p r e s s e d in v i s u a l t e r m s . "There is nothing like dream to create the future.28). o r a pattern o f elements s o unified as a w h o l e t h e y c a n n o t b e e x p l a i n e d asa s u m o f parts.28." An innovator who never fails to surprise. pressed them face down. His drawing writes the time of its own physical process by expressing the extreme concentration of the moment in which it was made. have striven to break down old pictorial and musical structures to explore new and unfettered modes of expression. and let the drying meniscus deposit granules in linear drifts such as we would see in the satellite photographic mapping of rivers. and inventive of his time.222 ABSTRACT LINES Writing Time SINCE THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY. Bussotti. Texture Compare this drawing to Hugo's octopus on p. abstract artists and composers unique.
we can feel their rhythm and easily attach sounds to them. Sound and rhythm This flickering rondo of sound written in pen on a hand-ruled stave can be heard in our imaginations as much as seen. Circular Score for "Due Voci" c.223 W R I T I N G TIME SYLVANO BUSSOTTI Italian avant-garde composer and principal 20thcentury exponent of the graphic score. His later works become increasingly abstract. Bussotti's first mature work. 1958 SYLVANO BUSSOTTI . Following the notes. 70 in relation to Bussotti's clustered notes to the left of his rondo and open space to the right. This is a page from Due Voci. a far cry from any recognized musical notation. Compare this work to that of Libeskind on p.
Cloth is the simple instrument with which she has conducted and ordered her universe. making objects and images outside o f mainstream culture. and sufferers of psychiatric illnesses—who have always existed. Germany. MARIE LIEB Little is known of this w o m a n for w h o m the act of drawing was essential. Cell Floor With Torn Strips of Cloth 1894 MARIE LIEB . it is found in the regularity o f ordered lines or a pattern. centuries. She tore c l o t h into strips a n d used these to draw patterns a n d symbols o n h e r cell floor. Marie Lieb w a s a psychiatric patient in the Heidelberg Asylum. T h e s e p h o t o g r a p h s d o c u m e n t the meditative drawings o f two w o m e n living worlds apart in different countries. an a n o n y m o u s w o m a n in the southeast Indian state o f Tamil Nadu m a k e s a ritual drawing o n the b r i c k courtyard o f h e r h o m e . d i p p i n g h e r fingers into a pot o f rice flour. O p p o s i t e . for e x a m p l e . they m a k e a visual a n d physical e c h o that t o u c h e s s o m e deep part of the human spirit. social outcasts. This takes a form in most cultures. In the late 1 9 t h century. It will protect the place from evil and make a pleasing invitation to good spirits. Lieb is one o f countless thousands of "Outsider" artists—diverse individuals including ordinary citizens.224 A B S T R A C T LINES Chants and Prayers WHEN ABSTRACT LINES are organized in repetition. cultures. and c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Torn cloth This is one of two published photographs showing Marie Leib's torn cloth strips significantly placed on her cell floor.228-29) has been adjusted with each movement of the rags to draw a cosmos of balance and perfection. Visually. Compositional rightness (see pp. In music it can be felt in the diversity of plainsong and African d r u m m i n g .
animals. lecturer on the subjects of Indian art and Indian women's identity. or flowers are marked or arranged on the ground or on the walls of homes. at the University of London and Ohio State University. chalk. and in places of worship and celebration. cultural anthropologist.Theseare widely published in journals and are the subjects of international exhibitions. Huyler is the author of Painted Prayers.000 images.HUYLER Photographer art historian. and for over 30 years has traveled extensively through the Indian subcontinent creating an edited archive of 200. Skills are handed down through generations and from friend to friend. Designs and motifs Rangoii (or mandalas) are ritual drawings made by many millions of women across rural India. In daily practice. lime.225 STEPHEN P. among others. Motifs are geometrical or based on plants. Painted Prayers UNDATED STEPHEN R HUYLER . Materials such as rice flour. Popular magazines feature new ideas each week and on special occasions there may be contests. and birds. women pride themselves on never repeating a design.
and Fellow of Linacre College. rocks or heads in a subdued atmosphere of dream. performance and installation artist.226 ABSTRACT LINES Compositions ABSTRACT DRAWINGS ARE LARGELY or entirely free from using the viewer's eye to track and unfold layers of meaning. Catling's abstract drawings are usually made in series and in parallel to written poetry and sculptural installations. Catling's torn paper shapes and shadows spill light out of their frame like a fractured mirror. Catling's works made for international galleries and museums involve drawing as a tool in their development and making. Klee's mathematical maze of thinly washed surface resonates with meticulous planning. free from the direct imaging of known physical things. it is ruled and contained in one dimension by its interlocking ink-lined borders. but similarities in mood. filmmaker Professor of Fine Art. Untitled 2001 2001 153/4x 215/8 in ( 4 0 0 x 550 mm) BRIAN C A T L I N G . Mixed media This is a collage of torn white and gray tissue paper previously stained with ink. Oxford. gold paint and iridescent gouache mixed with water. Their energy can therefore be a purer expression of an idea or emotion. and water-resistant layers of spray and enamel paint on thick paper. and choice of hues. Ruskin School. They each find their pathways and equilibrium in atmosphere and suggestion. structure. These two works present complex compositions with differing intensions and methods of making. Oval moons eclipse each other and oscillate between landforms and portraiture. BRIAN CATLING British sculptor poet. With no depth of field. figurative representation—that is.
and brush. Kunstmuseum Bern PAUL KLEE . Polyphon Gefasstes Weiss (White Framed Polyphonically) 1930 131/8x95/8 in (333 x 245 mm) Paul-Klee-Stiftung. and wrote copiously about the natures and relationships of color and form. ruler. and might be read as active or passive. Klee also felt that a line represents the passing of time. philosophized. whereas tonal surfaces are perceived more immediately as a whole. Geometric harmony This is a work on paper made with a sharp ink pen. It is a geometric harmony of straight lines and tonally graded flat colors that by their arrangement draw our eyes inward to their white center. We can see some diagrammatic examples of this among the optical illusions on pp.31).227 PAUL K L E E Swiss painter and sculptor (see also p.97-99. Line and surface Klee observed the visual capacity of lines to push or pull within an image. drew. watercolor. Klee painted. He explained his polyphonic painting as "a harmony of several color voices" searching for a visual parallel to music.
media. or home. but an easy o n e to u n d e r s t a n d . s o m e will be more or less h a r m o n i o u s .228 ABSTRACT LINES Being "Just" A SENSE OF "JUST" (or rightness) is a difficult concept to explain. Set up a sheet of paper with a rectangle drawn on it. As y o u m o v e them around. and ten straight sticks painted black. for instance. It is found in all great art and design. after being continuously adjusted. w i l l c h a n g e w i t h e v e r y r e a r r a n g e m e n t . a b u n c h of keys. and elements settle in definitive balance. "Whenall pictorial elements come together in pleasing and perfect balance. culture. and put them o n a tray. their impact. they reach a perfect position. the impression y o u receive from t h e m . regardless of style. there is a clear feeling when. Seek it when looking at other artists' work and in your everyday environment. There is a single m o m e n t w h e n all proportions. a glass. Take. angles. b u t e v e r y n o w a n d again you will hit on an arrangement w h i c h appears just. M a n y of their inter-relationships will be meaningless.Thisexercise will help you start. or degree of figuration. Feel for it when youdraw." . It is also found in nature. In his b o o k The Education of a Gardener. they are just. and an apple. "I have experimented endlessly with this idea. This balance is what every artist and designer searches a n d feels for when making an image." SETTING UP Justness can be harmonious or deliberately discordant. or on a page. the late garden designer Russell Page explains. W h e n m o v i n g objects around in your yard.
Move the sticks out into the rectangle." Move the sticks to find alignments and imagined perspectives. Here. Arrange them so they touch or cross in a series of intersecting balances. horizontals dominate the top. In the final step (left) there is an even balance. which now becomes a tight frame. fix it with glue. as shown here. . painted black. suggesting a horizon.229 WHERE TO START Take ten sticks of equal length. A stick touching the rectangle links the composition to the frame. Within a rectangle on a flat sheet of paper set about making a composition using no other rule than a sense of "just. W h e n the composition falls into place.56-57). making the composition seem to float beneath. 2 3 In the step above. Remember the drawn rectangle is a part of the composition (see pp. Feel for the rightness of their grouping and their relationships to surrounding spaces. horizontals dominate the lower area. B E I N G "JUST" 1 Arrange your ten sticks in t w o groups of five.
which is the shifting. colors and textures can be manipulated until their pictorial harmony. and tones. and black ink. a compass. correction fluid or white paint.. an infinite range of voices and meaning. Returning to Russell Page.220. he went on to say ". scissors. feels "just" (see pp." overlapping placement of materials on a flat plane. Images and fragments torn from day-to-day life can be brought together to make a chorus of ideas and emotions. ready-made depths and surfaces. "My understanding is that every object [or shape] emanates—sends out vibrations beyond its physical body which are specific to itself.69 and Abe's installation on p. or discordance. Cut or torn layers and shapes.Youwill also need spare white paper. you start composing by adding or subtracting shapes and textures and using colors and tones to achieve the impression you want to m a k e — w h e t h e r dramatic or s u b d u e d . harmonious. colors. they become a scaffold for the addition of further textures." (Russell Page) . This principal also applies to three-dimensional drawings such as Gaudi's work with wire and weights on p.. hard or soft. stain and dry a sheet of tissue paper using blueink. To prepare for this lesson. glue.230 ABSTRACT LINES Collage H E R E W E EXPERIMENT with collage. Once the ten painted black sticks are set and glued in place.228-29). found or made items. Collage offers the artist a liberating palette of SETTING UP This lesson in collage is a direct continuation of the compositional lines made in the previous class. or even strident.
draw. 2 3 Torn white paper moved over the surface adds masks of rough-edged irregular volume. four circles of blue tissue paper. correction fluid and ink marks add further dimensions. they deepen pictorial space. Cut six small rectangles the same proportion as your whole image. . This can also give a sense of fragmentation or punctuation to the composition.The single disk that is folded with its straight edge facing up appears heavier than those that are flat. Obscuring the blue disks. In the last step (left). and shadow to thepicture.228) in front of you.231 WHAT TO DO Lay the final step of the previous lesson (p. then cut out. COLLAGE 1 Regular-sized pieces of white paper are moved over the surface to disrupt the even lines. and with a compass and scissors. Glue them in place once they feel "just" Translucent circular disks of tissue paper give color tone. solidity.
Hitsuzendo drawings aspire to "breathe with the energy and vitality of eternal life" achieved through "a state of no mind—beyond thought. A MODERN JAPANESE meditative art form inspired by the teachings of Yamaoka Tesshu (1836-1888). is the practice of Zen through the calligraphic marks of a brush dipped in carbon ink. Zen Brushwork]." [Tanchu Terayama.Zen Calligraphy HITSUZENDO. emotion. . and expectation.
Lines made with a steel dip pen take on a scratchy nervousness. These vibrate against washes of shadow and pitch-black mass. . discord is balanced against rhythm to create mood.Nocturnes IN THIS QUARTET of semi-abstract drawings made with India ink. I flicked spatters of ink and rubbed the paper with a wet and a dry brush to achieve these effects.
paradise. The salvation of heaven and terrors of hell are represented equally—enough to make any sinner shudder. in the cracks of walls. For example. Monsters take advantage of both. and damnation are found in most world faiths. and deep fur—and we alter their scale. movie studios now brim with as many monsters as the visual art of the Medieval and Renaissance Church. aliens. and the Alien trilogy. Be inspired by the irrational comedy of word association or puns. and stained-glass windows deliver powerful visual sermons to the once-illiterate populace. Neither should be slave or master. In the Christian churches of Europe. beasts. Humans are equally troubled by the imperceptibly small and the enormous. When creating monsters. and the faces of God have for centuries given artists a feast for the extremes of their imagination. We then add substances we dislike: unidentified fluids. To learn to flex your imagination. Here. happen to us. wings. for example. Schongauer is best known for his prints. scales. our eye circulates around a flutter of leather and scaly wings. Feeding this demand. Throughout this book images are presented to excite and surprise and drawing classes created to increase your confidence. England. Fantasy is most successful when founded on strong and familiar visual logic. Depictions of God or of gods in the contexts of daily life. or in smoke. I was on a train passing through Nuneaton. a human-animal mix that implies this could MARTIN SCHONGAUER German painter and engraver who settled to work in Colmar Alsace.247. our literate and more secular Western society still hungers for another world and to ravenously indulge its fascination for the marvelous. thousands of paintings. Reading the place name I momentarily glimpsed an alternative meaning. . Star Wars. Images we are now surrounded by bear testimony to the power and resourcefulness of their collective imagination. We watch with captivated pleasure movies such as The Fly. a collaboration between the two will ensure that your drawings glow with originality. or strange. a Catherine wheel of drawn sparks spiraling around the quietly resolute saint. Lord of the Rings. We love our fear of the hybrid—ideally. look for images in the folds of clothing. feathers. all of which originated as hundreds of drawings. sculptures. which were widely distributed and influential in his time. serpentine tails. we select details of animals farthest from ourselves and that are widely thought disturbing—reptilian and insect features. Today. Perhaps the Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 1485 121/4 x 9 in (312 x 230 mm) MARTIN SCHONGAUER most important conclusion in this final chapter is to advise you to develop your skills in parallel with the joy of your unfolding imagination. which is to have eaten a nun—it inspired the drawing on p.Gods and Monsters OUR SACRED AND SECULAR need to visualize demons. angels. impossible.
Compare his dark.220. and exposed the superstitions. noisy seascape on p. F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A Spanish court painter printmaker and draftsman. Pictorially. They depict as if by lamplight the devil and witches. Goya later recorded the horrors of Napoleonic occupation. rushing. Paul Thomas's studies of Picasso and Twombly can be traced directly. whose impassioned work begins with light tapestry cartoons. deranged masses. barren land rising like MYRIAD CHAINS RUN THROUGH ART HISTORY. Saturn devouring his son. Goya's plainly textured gray background pushes back the space behind the illuminated simply subject. and follies of court through copious graphic works including his best-known prints. The well-dressed mule is cumbersome. a wave to join Achilles' chase of Hector. Many students leave white backgrounds in their work.30. Francisco de Goya was a master of borrowing. Violent white marks symbolizing Achilles' rage resonate with the energy of Twombly's script on p. to Picasso's similarly tight. and men clubbing each other to death. Near the end of his life he made his "Black Paintings" on the walls of his home. Opposite. This continuity enriches the making of art and our heritage. we see the international icon of stupidity. In this ass. plain wall suggests a blinkered view of nothing. vanity. and church murals. Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 1799 81/2 x 6 in (218 x 154 mm) FRANCISCO DE GOYA . hags.240 GODS AND M O N S T E R S Marks of Influence marking the influence of one artist upon another. Aquatint Goya has drawn a learned man as an ass. Los Caprichos. This act defines the vision and continues the line of spirit guides. quoting great paintings and popular culture to add cunning twists to his satires. He would be graceless if he stood. it allows the mule to stand forward. The title "And So Was His Grandfather" adds that should we not already know. Other drawn versions of this image are more savage and frightening. reading from a book of asses. Opposite below. crammed tightly at his desk. a Shoshone seeking guidance and power meditates at the sacred site of a petroglyph. below. Visions experienced in front of the drawing sometimes instruct the making of a new one. portraits. In this softer aquatint he poses for his portrait Textured background The aquatint process has been used to great effect in making a gritty toned background. The high. such asinine behavior can be hereditary. his lover a dog. which can swamp the subject Here.
Graphite marks Here Achilles chases Hector around the walls of Troy before killing him. of the earth. Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range UNDATED ARTIST UNKNOWN . meaning "place of power. by a supplicant in a trance of meditation. Thomas conducts his explorations in the mine of Greek and Roman mythology. It was made with a sharp implement.241 MARKS OF INFLUENCE PAUL T H O M A S British contemporary artist whose epic graphic work questions and reflects upon issues of European identity. ideals. White marks like flashes of light are cut though graphite with an eraser to reveal the paper beneath. perhaps a stone. A vivid spectrum of energized graphite marks and a masterly composition give this drawing vitality and speed. Parallel lines within the body of the figure are likely to denote power. Wyoming. and personal and social struggles. Simple wall stones cleverly state their cold solidity while also fading from our attention as the scene roars by. Wind River Reservation. values." Each sacred image drawn into rock belongs to one of three realms in the Shoshone world: the realm of the sky. or of the water Chipped image This is a sacred creature of the sky chipped onto rock at Dinwoody Lake. Achilles Chases Hector 1996 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) PAUL THOMAS SHOSHONE PETROGLYPH The Shoshone people of Wyoming name petroglyph sites Poha Kahni.
as he did the grass. They float toward us like a horrid visitation. which sometimes—half-dressed and carrying a familiar trophy— stride. and scuttle over all known reality. graphic artist. the shock would be extreme. Compare worked textures throughout the whole of this image to those found throughout Anita Taylor's charcoal drawing on p. Lifting out Fine strings of the hot-air balloon appear dark against the sky and light against the balloon.242 MONSTERS of the unknown is a classical and constant occupation for the artist. H e was influenced by his friends.and 16th-century Holland. we see parallel slanting pale marks that might have been made with fresh bread—a very effective eraser used before the wide availability of rubber or plastic. crawl. Redon lifted them out with some sort of eraser. Here we see how he evolved their injuries into new limbs and warped proportions. to the right of the balloon. The Eye Like a Strange Mounts Balloon 165/8 x131/8in (422 x 332 mm) ODILON REDON 1882 Toward Infinity . T H E EXPLORATION AND DEPICTION Hauntings Grandville has drawn a scurrying zoo of half-known demons and animals that appear to have been stolen from the glass eye of the microscope. If it were to turn and stare this way. Our subconscious can be drawn with pleasure and ease. Redon's eyeball balloon rises up.204-05 will enable you to produce a similar effect of white lines shining out of dark charcoal. lifting its cranial passenger over a seascape of repose. We may feel safe so long as the eye looks heavenward. the writers Joris-Karl Huysmans and Stephane Mallarme. and writer In contrast t o the light and visual accent of contemporary Impressionism. The monsters of Bosch grew from his observations of beggars going about their trade in 15th. GODS AND Erasure In this charcoal drawing. Children are also delighted to invent a monster or ghoul. below left. ODILON REDON French painter draftsman. Redon explored the darker side of the human imagination through symbols and mysticism. 115. Techniques demonstrated on pp.
A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects c. which is still available today. Last Judgment. Comic little headbands of waving hair express more hysteria than fear. HAUNTINGS Engraving This is an engraving made so that Grandville's original drawing could be reproduced. Most of his work is in the Prado Museum. The quality of the line is therefore uniform throughout. Garden of Earthly Delights. and Ship of Fools. Les Animaux (1840). Light shines from the right. His other major works include Metamorphoses du Jour (1828). teeming with the exhilaration of unrestrained fantasy. Quill and ink This typical Bosch monster is a quill drawing in bistre ink The phrasing of light and contour here is masterly. include The Haywain. and he illustrated the Fables of La Fontaine and Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe. This image is from one of Grandville's best-known publications. Madrid. Two Monsters UNDATED 45/8 x61/2in (117 x 163 mm) HIERONYMUS BOSCH . 1840 61/8 x41/2in ( 1 5 5 x 1 1 5 mm) GRANDVILLE HIERONYMUS BOSCH Dutch painter Bosch's highly detailed iconographic religious panel paintings. Smiling. grimacing.243 J E A N I G N A C E ISIDORE GERARD ("GRANDVILLE") French graphic artist and political satirist. sucker-faced creatures dash and trundle toward it They are drawn solidly to emphasize their earthbound weight.
Grimes' delicately cavorting figures dive into and consume each other. and marble sculptures including Pieto. but in the seductive landscape of Leonardo da Vinci's oil painting Madonna of the Rocks. Two previously drawn faces become humorous antagonists to the beast. poet. lion. and dying slaves. His entire drawing wrestles and weaves the viewer's eye into its retracting folds. pinnacled. Chalk and ink A quill dipped in brown ink was worked over black chalk on this reused sheet. snake. remembering the cavernous. below. A snake eating its own tail is a universal image of the eternal and continuous. as we might expect. and play with its perfection and meaning. They share between them the pleasures of inventing a hybrid beast. Opposite. sometimes artists purposefully tie a knot in the configuration to disturb. phrased over the contours of form and bridging darker areas of shadow. In her studio. the dome of the Vatican. topple. Scaly. hatched lines. and engineer Among Michelangelo's great works are the painted ceiling and altar wall of the Sistine Chapel.244 GODS AND MONSTERS Convolutions THESE CONVOLUTED DRAWINGS were made almost 5 0 0 years apart. and dog. she formed a series of ghostly pale. David. St Peter's square. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI Florentine painter sculptor. architect. a stunning hybrid of a swan. Michelangelo's dragon. Grimes found the genesis of her beast not among animals. muscular tension is carved out of the paper using layered. wraps and coils its lithe body ready to strike or whimper at a touch. and mist-swathed land. However. gamboling copulations. Dragon 1522 10 x 133/8 in ( 2 5 4 x 3 3 8 m m ) MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI .
The large space around figure has been cropped Grimes drawings to flatten presses them. boards finished paper. Ink-wash delicately gouache (smooth) and gouache brushed drawing on This is a and was hot-pressed Shadows The dark shadow of the Other the ink-wash earth was made with a brushstroke of ink laid into wet paper. each one iridescent and crumbly like a weathered while oyster. It is one of a series of fragile earth figures inspired by rocks. London. her under heavy here. and the Camberwell and Slade Schools of Fine Art.245 CONVOLUTIONS O O N A GRIMES British contemporary artist and professor of printmaking at the Ruskin School. The image formed directly without first making a pencil outline. Grimes exhibits internationally and features in the collections of the New York Public Library and the Victoria and Albert Museum. Oxford. London. details evolved slowly using a drier brush. How Clever of God #84 2002 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) O O N A GRIMES .
and texture. needle-sharp center of kolinsky red sable hair. between them. Slightly less flexible than the squirrel-hair sword liner 9. and writers. This brush has a broad wash capability and can achieve a very wide range of marks. making rt ideally suited to Japanese painting and small-scale calligraphy.H A I R LINER: Very responsive oriental-style liner This to the touch. flowing. Some are bold. The brushes shown here are a mixture of This is a selection of riggers. which holds long sable hair This brush holds large amounts of ink for long lines and points well for detailed work. and wrist into a fluid and soft touch. the very opposite of pencil or silver point.H A I R RIGGER: Made with long synthetic hair for fine-point work It has a good ink-holding capacity and is slightly more resilient than sable hair with more "snap. it has good wash capabilities. with a fine point for delicate work 4. Brushes vary in size. washes. SYNTHETIC-HAIR S W O R D LINER: A lining brush with high ink-holding capacity and a fine point. S Y N T H E T I C . SMALL JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with sable hair. and effects. SABLE-HAIR LINER: Made with ordinary sable hair surrounding an extralong. shape. The living marks of a wet. This design supplies the fine tip with a long continuity of ink 5. ink-laden tip allow an expression that is beyond the linear. SYNTHETIC-HAIR LINER: This brush gives a medium line and is firm with a spring to the touch. 12. 7. How you care for your brushes will determine how long they last. thicknesses. 1. dense. this brush has a soft drawing tip and small ink-holding capacity. and never leave them standing on their tip in a jar of water. JAPANESE PAINTING BRUSH: Made with natural hair. and has a fine tip for detailed work. SABLE-HAIR RIGGER: Made with very long kolinsky sable hairs. SYNTHETIC-HAIR BRUSH: Bound in a synthetic ferrule with good inkholding capacity and good spring and control. POINTED SQUIRREL-HAIR MOP: With a synthetic quill ferrule and extra high inkholding capacity.246 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brushes T H E BRUSH IS A VOLUPTUOUS and delicate weights. Soaps purchased from good art supply stores will gently cleanse particles of pigment that become trapped in the hairs or ferrule. materials. Shorter brushes designed for other purposes run out of ink more quickly. SQUIRREL-HAIR S W O R D LINER:This brush has a maximum ink-holding capacity and an extremely fine and flexible point 8. 2. P O I N T E D T R A D I T I O N A L WRITER: The ferrule is made from a small duck quill. it has good inkholding capacity and is very flexible. drawing tool extending the arm. Some used by master calligraphers are 2-3 in (5-8 cm) in diameter 11. others are as fine as a whisker with a gentle touch. return them to their pointed shape. 13.Theyhold plenty of ink and make continuous." 6. all perfect for drawing and. 3. ideally suited to drawing. It has exceptional painting characteristics. liners. M T RA S AEIL . It is capable of very fine pointing. and very fine lines. It is still relatively small in the total range of Japanese brushes. giving a variety of lines. Always clean them thoroughly. L A R G E R S Y N T H E T I C . Suitable for wash techniques but also capable of very fine detail. and hold prodigious weights of ink or paint. LARGER JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with natural hair held in a plastic ferrule on a bamboo handle. 10. fingers.
247 BRUSHES .
Here I drew with a soft Japanese painting brush (see pp. I had left the end of the ink block in the water overnight to make it easier to dissolve. A single brush has almost balletic potential to draw fine or undulating lines and curves.246-47). length. and type of its hairs.35) into two tablespoons of water in a shallow. b l o w i n g h a r d o n t h e m several t i m e s t o disperse t h e ink ( c l o s e y o u r eyes if y o u t r y this. softness. w i t h m y face close. It also depends on the angle at w h i c h it is held. the speed of the s t r o k e . and above all w h e t h e r the b r u s h is saturated with pigment or relatively dry. and spatters. and to make pools and stains o n the page. the texture and a b s o r b e n c y of the paper ( w h i c h m a y be d a m p or dry).) I . SETTING UP Blowing spots T h e s e t h r e e s p i d e r y c r e a t u r e s (above right and below) w e r e m a d e by d r o p p i n g s p o t s o f ink f r o m a b r u s h o n t o t h e p a g e and. I rubbed a block of Chinese ink (see p.248 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brush Marks A S I N G L E BRUSH will m a k e an e n o r m o u s range of m a r k s depending u p o n the width. unglazed earthenware dish. the degree of pressure applied. splashes.
b l e e d i n g f r o m strokes b e l o w left.249 Gritty texture T h e details o f t h e largest creatures b e l o w and opposite s h o w the granular texture of Chinese b l o c k ink. BRUSH MARKS Wet and dry strokes A m o n g these concentrated drawings ink made into with the same w a t e r y lines. a n d t h e w a y it d i s t r i b u t e s w h e n t h e b r u s h is d a b b e d o n its s i d e . t h e effects of the b r u s h r u n n i n g o u t o f ink. a n d b r u s h . . w e see fine lines and s p o t s .
and used their detail to draw new creatures that might at first seem familiar. until we look again. Oxford.Monsters THESE LITTLE CREATURES o f i n k and i n v e n t i o n were b o r n out of animal and bird studies. I borrowed small and fragile specimens from the University Museum of Natural History. .
thin works titled The Witches' Sabbath and The Procession of St. I found relationships between all four paintings in terms of shapes.Goya's Monsters W I T H CUNNING BRILLIANCE. two of my own drawings show you how Goya's devil (below) is based on the shape of Murillo's boy on a horse (top right). Goya often invented his monsters out of characters seen in other painters' works. Isidore. Among his "Black Paintings" in the Prado Museum. formal composition. thin works made by Bartolome Murillo in Seville about 120 years earlier. Goya's witches have been literally drawn and evolved out of the shapes of Murillo's prophet and pilgrims. are two long. Here. Madrid. With further research. They are a pair and hang opposite each other. showing us that gallery study is not just for the student and beginner. and narrative twists. Through studying and drawing these great paintings I have discovered that they are based on a pair of similarly long. .
Sometimes drawings come out of nowhere and surprise even the artist. . drawn rapidly and with great joy. little comments on politeness and sexual politics.Consumed THIS IS A SERIES OF CARTOONS I m a d e s o m e years ago.
S o m e t i m e s f e r r u l e s a r e m a d e o f plastic o r o t h e r materials. Erasure T h e a c t o f r e m o v i n g a n i m a g e f r o m a surface. Acid-free paper P a p e r w i t h a neutral p H t h a t will n o t darken o r d e t e r i o r a t e excessively w i t h age.c e n t u r y Italian t e r m m e a n i n g "clear-obscure. Blending M e r g i n g t w o o r m o r e neighboring colors o r tones t o g e t h e r using a tortillon. Camera lucida A n optical device t h a t p r o j e c t s an image o f an o b j e c t o n t o a plain s u r f a c e so t h a t it can be traced. In t h e Far East calligraphy is a highly r e s p e c t e d a r t f o r m . A f u l l . A g e n e r a l t e r m t h a t describes t h e various processes o f c u t t i n g a design i n t o a plate o r b l o c k o f m e t a l o r w o o d . o f t e n d i s t o r t e d forms and vivid colors. A " s h a l l o w d e p t h o f field" m e a n s t h e p i c t u r e appears t o have only a shallow s p a c e inside i t Diffuse T o s o f t e n o r m a k e less brilliant. tapestry. T h e b l a n k e t s g i v e t h e p a p e r its rough texture o r "tooth. w h e n a p e r s o n is p a i n t e d standing a g a i n s t a w i n d o w . It is p u t o n a Body color See Gouache.s i z e d r a w i n g m a d e for t h e purpose o f transferring a design t o a painting. o r will o n l y a p p e a r n o r m a l . A p o t e n t i a l l y h a r s h m e t h o d o f p r o d u c i n g t o n e s in a d r a w i n g . charcoal. chance mark-making. r a t h e r t h a n r e c o r d e d o n a film o r plate. Fixative Liquid acrylic resin a n d l a c q u e r t h i n n e r usually a p p l i e d as a n a e r o s o l s p r a y m i s t t o t h e surface o f a d r y . Contre jour A F r e n c h t e r m m e a n i n g " a g a i n s t day. R o u g h p a p e r is m a d e b e t w e e n t w o blankets t h a t . Cartoon 1. a n d attaches t h e m t o t h e s u p p o r t — f o r example. s u c h as a s c r e e n . pastel. linseed oil o r egg y o l k Caricature A representation Contour line A line t h a t f o l l o w s t h e s h a p e o f a surface. Conservation grade D e s c r i b e s a range o f materials t h a t d o n o t d e c a y and cannot be broken d o w n by insects. m e a n i n g " t o stick" Dry media M e d i a t h a t a r e n o t w e t o r o i l y — f o r e x a m p l e . R e m b r a n d t is a great master o f chiaroscuro.256 GLOSSARY Glossary Accidental drawing Random. A l s o c a l l e d t h e h o r i z o n line. a r e r o l l e d t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders. Deckle edge T h e i r r e g u l a r e d g e o f a s h e e t o f m o l d . A i r b r u s h e s are u s e d in t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c o m i c s . usually at a n a c u t e angle t o t h e s u r f a c e ." " N o t " p r e s s e d p a p e r is r o l l e d a s e c o n d t i m e w i t h o u t blankets t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders t o p r o d u c e a s m o o t h e r b u t still slightly t e x t u r e d s u r f a c e . n e w s p a p e r cuttings. Calligraphy Beautiful h a n d w r i t i n g .c e n t u r y painting m o v e m e n t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e use o f b o l d ." It w a s first given t o t o n a l paintings m a d e in o n e c o l o r — s e e Grisaille. T h e name " n o t " simply refers t o t h e fact t h a t t h e cylinders are n o t h o t in t e m p e r a t u r e . w h e n v i e w e d f r o m a specified point. Eye level T h e i m a g i n a r y h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e a t t h e s a m e h e i g h t as t h e a v e r a g e p e r s o n ' s eyes. o r o t h e r (usually large) w o r k — s e e Pouncing. T h e m o v e m e n t was started by a g r o u p o f French artists including H e n r i Matisse. Camera obscura A d a r k e n e d c h a m b e r i n t o w h i c h an i m a g e o f w h a t is o u t s i d e is received t h r o u g h a small o p e n i n g o r lens a n d f o c u s e d in natural c o l o r o n a facing surface. in w h i c h t h e subject's distinctive features o r peculiarities are deliberately exaggerated f o r c o m i c o r g r o t e s q u e effect. in w h i c h parts o f an image are depicted v e r y brightly and dramatically against d a r k n e s s . F r o m t h e French v e r b coller. a n d g r a p h i t e . Fauvism A n early 2 0 t h .m e d i a d r a w i n g . It can also seal a silver p o i n t d r a w i n g t o p r e v e n t t h e oxidization (browning) o f t h e Drypoint A d r a w i n g is s c r a t c h e d directly o n t o a m e t a l plate w i t h a m e t a l t o o l h e l d like apen. A l s o called m u s e u m g r a d e .m a d e paper. See also Hotpressed papers. Composition T h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e p a r t s o f an i m a g e t o m a k e u p the whole. Also called accelerated perspective. D a m p p a p e r is laid o n t o p .The plate is t h e n r o l l e d w i t h ink a n d polished with a rag. F r o m t h e G r e e k kallos. Anamorphic distortion Stretching an i m a g e across a p i c t u r e surface so t h a t it can o n l y b e u n d e r s t o o d . U s e d as a c o r r e c t i n g device o r pictorial game. t h e l i g h t is b e h i n d h i m o r her. W o r d s o r symbols are Cold-pressed papers P a p e r manufactured with a "not" o r " r o u g h " surface. Bleed T h e e f f e c t o f t w o w e t colors running into one another o r o n e color applied t o a w e t surface a n d a l l o w e d t o d i s p e r s e . Chiaroscuro A 1 7 t h . Fixative lightly glues t h e d r a w i n g t o t h e surface o f t h e p a p e r t o p r e v e n t smudging. Ferrule T h e s h o r t m e t a l t u b e t h a t s u r r o u n d s a n d g n p s t h e hairs o f a p a i n t b r u s h a n d fixes t h e m t o t h e brush handle. m e a n i n g "beauty". Bracelet shading C u r v e d parallel lines t h a t f o l l o w t h e c o n t o u r s o f f o r m . s u c h as a d r a w i n g o r painting. A h u m o r o u s d r a w i n g o r parody. 2. p r a c t i c e d meditatively w i t h a brush. and readymade objects arranged and stuck o n t o a flat surface. p r i n t i n g press face up. Blotting T h e use o f a b s o r b e n t m a t e r i a l t o lift a w a y excess liquid. 2.d i m e n s i o n a l i m a g e . C o p p e r p l a t e engravings w e r e widely used t o r e p r o d u c e images b e f o r e p h o t o g r a p h y . as o p p o s e d t o t h e s t r a i g h t e d g e o f a sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has b e e n machine-trimmed. Engraving 1. Air brush A mechanical. In t h e W e s t p e n calligraphy is u s e d t o c r e a t e f o r m a l a n d d e c o r a t i v e t e x t s . Crosshatching Parallel lines d r a w n across o n e a n o t h e r at right angles. t o g e t h e r w i t h a t h i c k felt b l a n k e t T h e w h o l e s a n d w i c h o f l a y e r s is t h e n railed t h r o u g h t h e press t o m a k e a p r i n t D r y p o i n t is a very portable and immediate m e t h o d o f printmaking. p h o t o g r a p h s . written with a broad-nibbed pen o r brush. Field In a t w o . t h e field is t h e a p p a r e n t a n d b e l i e v a b l e space inside t h e p i c t u r e . pressurized t o o l used f o r spraying fine mists o f s m o o t h c o l o r P i g m e n t is d e l i v e r e d b y a j e t o f air n o t t h e bristles o f a brush. Binder A substance t h a t holds particles o f p i g m e n t t o g e t h e r in a paint f o r m u l a t i o n . a n d given t h e n a m e Sho. so t h a t ink r e m a i n s o n l y in t h e g r o o v e s o f s c r a t c h e d lines. L a t e r it c a m e t o m e a n h i g h l y c o n t r a s t e d light effects. Aerial perspective The effect of the a t m o s p h e r e o v e r distance as it lightens t o n e s a n d cools c o l o r s progressively t o w a r d t h e horizon. for example. T h e prints t a k e n from t h e s e plates o r blocks. A l s o called r i n g l e t shading." D e s c r i b e s a p a i n t i n g in w h i c h t h e light s o u r c e is b e h i n d t h e s u b j e c t F o r e x a m p l e . Collage C o l l e c t e d materials such as c o l o r e d p a p e r s .
It improves the bonding properties Frottage A French term meaning "rubbing. Objective drawing Refers to the concept of objectivity. Foreshortening A method of depicting an object at an angle to the surface of the picture. Usually an academic drawing observed from life. Lithography A method of printmaking in which a drawing or painting is made directly onto a smooth slab of particular limestone or a metal plate using an oilbased crayon or ink. white. Grisaille A painting in gray or a grayish color Often made by students as a tonal exercise. sticky paper tape. After several intervening processes. glossy. the surface of the stone is made wet before being rolled with a thin film of oilbased printing ink. ink.The paper then bears a crayon impression or copy of the surface that was underneath it A number of Surrealists. mineral. Pointillism A technique of using points or dots of pure color in such a way that when the picture is viewed from a distance they react Masking tape Invaluable. including Max Ernst used frottage in their work. which has a rough surface). Papercut A type of collage in which flat sheets of paper are cut into an image." A piece of paper is placed on top of an object or rough surface. The surface can be reloaded or redrawn with more medium. and by artists representing stone sculptures in a painting. or spirit-based) is applied to a surface that is then pressed onto paper and removed to leave a print. Artists can paint freely over dry masking fluid. it is the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work Pigment Any substance used as a coloring agent—for example. Picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. or can be otherwise used to create an image—for example. glass. and orientation of the image. Grisaille is occasionally seen in church stained-glass windows. Lightfast A term confirming that pigment in the product will not fade with exposure to light. shape. Also used by artists' materials manufacturers to indicate the use of a substitute pigment—for example. Medium A generic term for art Key A painting is said to be "high key" when the colors and tones are bright and "low key" when they are dark or somber The term is also used Gouache Opaque watercolor Also called body color. This may be disregarded in real life. to give the illusion of depth and distance. Padua. Masking fluid Clear or opaque latex fluid developed for watercolor painting. and that will "escape" or change over time. so that (using vanishing point perspective) the object appears to change shape and become narrower or smaller as it recedes. enabling them to stick to paper It also helps to maintain a stable dispersion of pigment particles in water as the film of a wash dries. Hatching (cross-) See Crosshatching. and is also used as a size. Ground A wet solution usually of gouache or gesso (chalk and animal glue) brushed onto paper board.Theground provides a particular color or texture beneath the image.257 metal line. Paper is laid on top and a rapid drawing is made on the back of it The paper lifts away to reveal the image on its other side. or for wrapping and protecting a finished piece of work. upright images are called "portrait which is used as a binding agent in many liquid media. or even a beam of light. . aiming to represent facts rather than an interpretation of the subject. Also refers to an additive used to control the application properties of a color Golden Section A proportion in which a straight line or rectangle is divided into two unequal parts in such a way that the ratio of the smaller part to the greater part is the same as that of the greater part to the whole. This method incorporates the excitement of accidental and unpredicted marks. and gray drawing. Fugitive A term given to a pigment that it is not stable. It can be used with any wet media to isolate or protect parts of an image from further Optical blending See Pointillism. or a drawing made in any single color GLOSSARY Linear perspective A form of perspective in which parallel lines are represented as converging. or synthetic material that are suspended in a medium to constitute paint. F o r m a t T h e size. This effect emulates what we see in real life. F o r m The outer surface of a three-dimensional object. pastel. which give it a smooth surface (as opposed to cold-pressed paper. but in picture-making it is as important as the objects/subjects themselves. It is then peeled away. Paper is then pressed against the stone to take a print. format" (abbreviated to "portrait"). the finely ground particles of plant. are painted in grisaille and appear to be made of stone. with the area beneath remaining unaffected. The ink attaches to the oil-based image and is repelled by the wet stone. rock. Lifting out A method of creating highlights and mid-tones in a drymedia drawing (such as charcoal or graphite). of the ingredients in inks and watercolors. graphite. Gamut A complete range or extent Glassine A type of thin. or plastic surface. A point of interest in a drawing. Plumb line A line from which a weight is suspended in order to determine verticality or depth. multiH u e A term for a color. then rubbed over carefully but vigorously with a crayon. A small image might be described as small format Horizontal images are often said to be "landscape format" (abbreviated G u m arabic The natural to"landscape"). Hot-pressed papers (HP) Paper made using hot cylinders. materials that produce marks on a surface. but each print will be unique. Rubens used grisaille to paint small images for engravers. Dark tones are laid down first then an eraser or masking tape is used to lift away particles of the drawing media to reveal the lightness of the paper beneath. or canvas and allowed to dry before an image is drawn or painted.while secretion of the acacia tree. or a family of colors. cadmium yellow hue. to describe a surface to which paint will adhere readily. Impressing Stamping or printing. Giotto's Virtues and Vices in the Arena Chapel. and translucent paper—a delicate material used in collage. Monoprinting A direct method of printing in which wet medium (water-. used for fixing paper to walls and boards.The degree to which detail is defined. work. purpose. Hairspray is an effective and inexpensive alternative. Negative space The space between things. 2. It is a strong adhesive. and it has a history in enamel work. oil-. oil-based printing ink is rolled evenly onto a smooth metal. lifting out charcoal and other dry media. Alternatively. Monochrome Usually refers to a black. Focus 1 . and masking off areas of a drawing that the artist wishes to keep untouched by media applied above or beside the tape.
design. A term borrowed from the theater. Strip Core of a pencil. pointed instrument used for marking or engraving. to model areas of light and shade. Support The structure on which an image is made—for example. Pouncing If a large drawing or design (called a cartoon) is to be Shadow Darkness cast by the transferred to a surface such as a obscuring of light. Zen paintings usually depict scenes of nature and plants such as bamboo. Zen A school of Mahayana Buddhism that asserts that enlightenment can come through meditation and intuition rather than faith. usually diluted with water and applied with a brush. Volume The amount of space occupied by an object or an area of space in itself. . Squaring up A method of enlarging and transferring an image from one surface to another. or mark using an inked or pigment-covered surface. Tone A degree of lightness or darkness. commonly referred to as the lead. plum blossom. cut-out profile made along every outline of the usually made in black paper image. Wash A technique using ink. or any physical object that can be stamped or pressed onto a surface to leave an impression. Technical drawing A universal it is often used in conjunction language of lines and measurements with line drawings in pen and that is used to make diagrammatic ink—for images. compound of water-soluble pigment. Etienne de material) dabbed through the Silhouette (1709-67). Underdrawing A pale preliminary drawing made prior to adding layers of another medium such as oil paint or watercolor Value The extent to which a color reflects or transmits light This is the equivalent of tone in a black and white image. whose pinpricks creates a "connect-thepersonal pastime was making dots" replica of the image on the cut-out portraits. Alternatively. Squeegee A rubber-trimmed scraper used in the screenprinting process for dragging ink across a surface. paper or canvas. Tortillon A short. Artists' prints are normally made in multiple. or wood. evolved by engineers and architects for the purpose of conveying W a t e r c o l o r A painting accurate structural information. fine paper. a tightly folded piece of cotton batting can be used for the same effect. and chrysanthemum—which in Chinese tradition are called "The Four Gentlemen. Zen brushwork encompasses calligraphy and painting. Viewpoint The position from which something is observed or considered. Turpentine A colorless solvent distilled from the resinous sap of pine trees. or point on which parallel lines converge to give the impression of receding space. meaning objects used in setting up a life model or still life. Vanishing point In linear perspective. Spattering A mottled texture produced by drawing your fingers across the bristles of a stiff brush loaded with pigment. Size A weak glue used for filling the porous surface of wood or canvas in order to seal it. plaster. which are then called editions. Single-point perspective The most basic form of linear perspective in which there is only one vanishing point. pointed roll of white paper that is used to blend dry media. tight. Stippling Applying color or tone in areas of fine dots or flecks. Sketch A quick or rough drawing. a point at which receding parallel lines meet Verso The back or underside of a piece of paper. Still life A picture composed of inanimate objects such as bowls. The crude material is called oleoresin. Zen brushwork This is an oriental meditative art form originating in China and practised for many centuries in Japan. Pounce (a fine for an unpopular 18th-century powder of charcoal or similar French politician. nature of watercolor allows the white surface of the paper to Tonal scale A scale of gradations shine through. The translucent Tint A color mixed with white. Sfumato An Italian term meaning "smoky. Stylus A sharp." Materials for Zen brushwork include round brushes of varied size. and paperweights. plaster or cloth surface beneath." Applied to the blurring or softening of sharp outlines by the subtle and gradual blending of one tone into another Sgraffito A technique of scratching or cutting through a surface of paint. or the right-hand page in a book. Printmaking The act of making a picture. fruit. Shade A that is color mixed (or toned) with black Shading A lay term for adding tone to a drawing. and flowers. Serigraphy Silk-screen printing. glasses. Subjective drawing A drawing that expresses the personal view and interpretation of the artist An invented image. pencil. creating more vibrant effects than if the same colors were physically mixed together with a brush. Recto The front or top side of a piece of paper.Thedrawing is removed. Although drawings can be made with wash alone. Named paper in place. wall or tapestry. or watercolor paint. giving it a brilliance. in tone running from black to white or vice versa. a sheet of paper is placed beneath and pinpricks are Silhouette A flat. by imposing a grid that is then scaled up to a larger size.Technicaldrawing has been example. using a brush. acrylic. or gouache.258 GLOSSARY together optically. or the left-hand page in a book. sometimes drawn from a and leaving only the pricked sheet of shadow cast on a wall. or pen. W e t media Any liquid media— for example. Scale Describes the size of one element in relation to another Sepia A brown pigment taken from the sun-dried ink sacs of cuttlefish and used to make ink or watercolor The term is now often incorrectly used to refer to brown colors. such as an inscribed sheet of metal. Props An abbreviation of the word properties. orchids. ink. "Spirits" or "oil" of turpentine refer to the volatile portion used by artists to thin or dilute oil-based paint. or ceramic glazing to reveal a different color beneath. carbon ink. watercolor. in order to flick the pigment onto the image surface. an ink stone usually cut from slate.
9 Chair (Van Gogh) 94. 163. 180 Circular Score for "Due Voce" (Bussotti) 223 circus scenes 192-195 City (Bryan) 202.163 graded 227 composition 56-57. 198. 241 action. 226-227 Acanthus spinosus 65 accelerated perspective 22. 157 cropping 56-57. 230 The Physical Space 220 abstract drawing 219.Index Page numbers in italics refer t o captions and illustrations Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity (Bishndas and 259 INDEX B bread (as eraser) 205. Etienne-Louis 72 Newton's Cenotaph 72. 244 head and neck 144 phrased 124-125 contrast: brightness 99 of media 30 tonal 96. 220. to draw 25. Statue d'Epouvante 90 calligraphy. 222. 81 cut-out model plan 94. 81 135. 203 Buffalo Hunt (Shoshone) 178. 160 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object (Moore) 178. 244 and graphite 178 .186 see also movement Adoration of the Magi perspective study (Leonardo) 74. to depict 156-157 Cloudburst of Material Possessions (Leonardo) 200.169 colors: airbrushed 161 background 91 A Abe. 158. 52 cotton swabs 205 Coup de Vent a Asajigabare (Hokusai) 198. 90 colored materials 162-163 colored pencils 162. 137 Besler. 94 cylindrical objects. 90. 203 Landline 202.226. 134 costume(s) 155 character 158-159 structure of 166-167 Cottage Among Trees (Rembrandt) 52. 243 botanical drawing 48-49 Boullee. 223 Circular Score for "Due Voce" 223 children's art 9. 165. to draw 100 Cypripedium calceolus L. 193 in lifting out 204. 30 sleeping dog 38-39 Stubbs's horse skeleton 26. 26 geese 38-39 Gericault's cats 28. 13. Zen c 232-233 blended 133. 40-41 Durer's rhinoceros 26.133. 116. 206 checkered floor 80.163 body. 94 chalk(s) 53. 98. 162 character: to capture 38-39. 190 Caricature of a Woman (Daumier) 198. 161 Akhlaq-I Rasul Allah manuscript 51. 230-231 Cubist 90. 128. 178 Cubism 67.13. 250 Bishndas and Nanha: Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity 50. Franz 48 Protea nitida 48 Bellini. to model 110-111 border 51 Bosch. cut Catling.31 Picasso's horse and bird 30.162 Conte. (Ross-Craig) 49 to hold brush for 23 caricature 159. 133. Basilius 47 Beuys. Hieronymus 243 Two Monsters 242. 113 bird bones 12. 205 Baltard. Augustin 67 Basquiat. 13 architectural drawing 67-71 Arctic Flowers (Libeskind) 70. 28 Klee's horses 30. Filippo 67. 242 to blend 205 compressed 122. 202 cloth. 74. 182. 74 brush (es) 246-247 Japanese 248 for laying a wash 140 marks 248-249 to hold 23 brush drawings 14-15 Bryan. 200 Bauer.100 curves. center of 118 ballpoint 182.115 anatomical drawing 134-135 anatomical theaters 82-83 anatomical waxes 128 ancient carvings 221. 139 Nanha) 50. 90 La Guitare. 74.51 All and Nothing (Taylor) 114. Sylvano 222. 203 Claude Lorrain 202 Views from Velletri 202. Jean Michel 138 Self-Portrait 138 Bateau-Vision. Leon: Bacchante 155 balance.198. 111. Clare 203 City 202. 186 charcoal 114. 221 animals.44-45 bird studies 12. 204-205. 71 conte 112. 75. 206. 78 aerial perspective 206 airbrushing 160. Giovanni 137 Head and Shoulders of a Man 136. 199 Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya (Eisen) 156. 9. 71 Bacchante (Bakst) 155 background: color 91 textured 240 Baker Matthew: Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry 32 Bakst. Nicolas-Jacques 54 contours 146. 70 Art Nouveau motifs 91 Autoportrait (Ray) 138. 247-248 carving see lines.44-45. Brian 226 Untitled 2001 226 "Cave of the Hands" (Cueva de las Manas) 8. 189. Le (Hugo) 200. 180 blending: color 133.184. layers 53 chalk pastels 162. 204. 41 principal 186.50.212 to erase 205 to hold 23 pencils 204 willow 114.184. 8 cave paintings 8.89. 179 Bussotti. 201 collage 111.163 dry media 205 Blue Nude (Matisse) 110. 95 Chair Cut Out (Woodfine) 94. 38-39. 50. to express 39. 72 bracelet shading 122 Braque. Mamaru 104. Georges 67. 75 Circle of the Lustful (Blake) 180. Joseph 113 The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland 112.27 turtles 42-43 aquatint 240 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels (Leonardo) 12. Victor: West Facade of the Church of St. 71 Blake. William: The Circle of the Lustful 180.117 Achilles Chases Hector (Thomas) 240. to draw 80. 242 Brunelleschi. 90. 29 Hugo's octopus 28. 198 cartoon (preparatory drawing) 137 (satirical) 159.
203 semi-abstract 234-237 three-dimensional 68.117 fountain pens 34. 52 foreground 208. 26 Flying Fish (White) 25. Robert 93 Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 92. 134. The 242. 122 Hawksmoor. 226-227 anatomical 134-135 architectural 67-71 botanical 48-49 brush 14-15 dark to light 102. 37 Grandville 243 A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the Near-Microscopic World of Scale Insects 242. Alberto 136 Portrait of Marie-Laure de Noailles 136. 160 as ground for metal point 140. 200 F fabric. 223 graphite 54. 765 hitsuzendo drawings 233 Hokusai. 222 Le Bateau-Vision 200. Antonio 135 Muscles of the Head and Neck 134. 134. 69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt 68. 104-105. position of 22 Eisen.37. 222 Grimes. 134.91.111 feet. 160 hitsuzendo 233 light to dark 102. 132 Frenz. to suggest 177 see also perspective diagonals diffuser 55 dip pens 34.146 from masterworks 126-127. Nicholas 68 St Paul's Baptistry 68 head and neck to draw 142-145 Head and Shoulders of a Man (Bellini) 136. Study for Plate 59 (Mucha) 90. Ron 161 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 161 160.141. 220 dry brush 234 234 57. Edgar 162 depth. Katsushika 199 Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 198.115 exploratory 17 fantasy 72-73. Keisai 157 The Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya 156. 163. 205 drawing with 103.160. 29 H hands. Francisco de 131.166 170-173 Gestalt 222 Giacometti. Oona 245 How Clever of God #84 244. 240.69 Gerard. 136 Golden Section 67 Gombrich. 230 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction 68. 113. 79.121 felt-tip pens 162. 73. 161 changing 216 Focusing on the Negative (Walter) 16 foliage 52. M.112. drypoint 181 exaggeration 184 expressionism 198 E ye and Head of a Drone Fly (Hooke) 92. proportions of 143 fantasy drawings 72-73. 170-173.198 Degas.144 and ink 30.101 engraving 243 erasers/erasing 55. 160 Faune. 216 foreshortening 110. to draw 120. 71 minimal line 99 and music 70-71 quick 38-39. 240 Black Paintings 152. 222. 55. Statue d'Epouvante. 122. 69 Guitare. 157 . 245 Hugo. 7 33 Hooke. 223. 30 Fauves/fauvism 90. 112.244. 163. Jean Ignace Isidore see Grandville Gericault.116. 41 in the round 208-209 with scalpel 202. 120. Rene 160 Illustration for Jacques Fath E easel. 245 layers 30 Goya. Hans 133 The Ambassadors 116 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 132. 144 Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (Baker) 32.207. 55. disposable pens 182-183 dissections: botanical 48 of horse 27 distance: illusion of see perspective linear 97 tonal 97 Documents Decoratifs.160.189. 90 gouache 30. 202. Antonio 68. 162 Flaxman. 240 170-173 five Ships in a Port with Lighthouse (Wallis) 11. 99 etching. 125. 91 Dragon (Michelangelo) 36. C . 203 Hotel de la Suzonnieres (Satie) 70. to draw 168-169 in Goya's artworks face. 161 fashion 160. 93 horizon 52. La (Braque) 90.John 157 Man Lying Down in a Cloak 156. 124.109 Rhinoceros 26.103 with eraser 103.216.184 165.260 INDEX D Dada 139 Daumien Honore 198 Caricature of a Woman 198. Cheval et Oiseau (Picasso) 30. 252 depiction of fabric monsters 252-253 Self Portrait in a Cocked Hat 130. 32 framing 139 Franfoise au Bandeau (Picasso) 132. 131 Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 240.97.141. 135 Duren Albrecht 26. to draw 78. 137 heads.230 three-tone 140. to draw 134-137 Helleborus corsicus 55 highlights 91. fiber-tip pen 182.157 ellipses 100. 799 Holbein.Theodore 29 Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 28. 69. 93 eye level 80 Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity. 77 How Clever of God #84 244. 160 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction (Gaudi) 68. 241 to blend 205 and chalk 178 and ink 28. 69. position of 143. Victor 200. 242 eyes. Sir Ernst 12. 245 Gruau. 90 G Gaudi.244 drawing(s): abstract 219.252-253 from memory 183.103. 115 Escher. 55.12 fixative 54. 25 focus 65.216 Durelli.104. 161 fashion drawings 160. 141 tonal 96. 40. 243 graphic score 222. 190 Middle Eastern 50-51.102-103 drawing board 20 drawing books 20-21 drawing paper 144.
182 Moore.134 K Kettlehut. 234 iron-gall 35. 219 Mondrian. 181 luminosity 115 Lynch. 178 motifs: A r t Nouveau 9 7 stylized 51 mountains 216-217 movement: of animals 30-31 of humans 7 79. 184. 170-173. 166. I Murderous Attacks 33 Kollwitz. Johan 32. 159 Japanese 35 to make 36 sepia 35 walnut 36. 225 masking tape 204.109. 205 masterworks. 78 Study ofThree Male Figures 110. Erich 73 design for Metropolis 72. Gustav 49 Knopf.96. apparent 97 Leonardo da Vinci 74.120. 244 Dragon 36.Pieuvre (Octopus) 28. 74-77. 63. Phyll: hands 18 lifting out 204. 156 magnification 93 Man in Armor (Van Dyck) 158. 220.243 carbon 35 Chinese 30. Oxford 250 music 70-71 Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks (Knopf) 32. 252 ink 16. 757 mandalas 219. Paul 227 Polyphonic Setting for White 226. 177 influences. Bartolome: Moses Striking the Rock ofHoreb 252.91 Study for Plate 59 of INDEX illumination see lighting Illustration for Jacques Fath (Gruau) 160. Florence 128 lighting in 167 Pitt Rivers.33 Mysterious Affairs of the lighting 2 7. 244 lithograph 198 Losbruch (Kollwitz) 180. 36. 220.104.115 98. 35. 111. 99. 103 Neolithic chalk tablet 220. 163 pens 36 measuring 116 memory. 230 invented creatures 106-107 250-251 invented objects 89. Henri 111 Blue Nude 1110.141. 49 Rose 49 Maelbeke Madonna (Van Eyck) 156. Henry 178 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object 178. 249 and gouache 30 Indian 35. 76 Libeskind. 160 In the Duchess's Kitchen (Rackham) 176. 244 ink 36 252-253 Documents Decoratifs 90. Victor 134 Profile Head 134. 789.The (Robinson) 108. 205. 252 Muscles of the Head and Neck (Durelli) 134. Daniel 70 Arctic Flowers 70 Lieb.181 L Landline (Bryan) 202. 176. 58-59. Marie 244 cloth drawing 244. 83 white 122 ink impressions 222 ink spatters 234 installations 176. 60.141 Metropolis (film) 72. Charles Rennie 48. 31 Klimt. 220. Kathe 181 Losbrunch (The Outbreak) 180. 203. 181 Klee. 226 Modernism 67. 73 Michelangelo Buonarroti 48. 33 J justness 228-229 N naive art 74 negative space 53. 183 vertical 156 linear distance 97 linear perspective 69.167 line(s) 132.276. 34. 190 metal pens see dip pens metal point 25. 227 Scene of Comical Riders 30. 34-35 acrylic 35 bistre 35. 203 landscape 206-208 brushed 14 Landscape in Hoboku Style (Sesshu) 14 layers 146 chalk 53 gouache 30 ink 28. 135 museums 44. Rose: Tantalus or the Future of Man 20 minimal line drawing 99 mirror use of 120 mixed media 28. 201 head and neck sections of female mold for Sforza Horse 89 Madonna of the Rocks 244 perspective study for Adoration of the Magi 74. 185 Mucha. David 78 M Mackintosh. 97 Murillo. Madrid 171 University Museum of Natural History. Piet 52. 77 Miller.112. 221 endless 31 free 113. 37 lines 118 pastel 162 pencil 31. 53 monoprint 787. 72.166 La Specola. drawing from 126-127. artistic 240-241. 13 Cloudburst of Material Possessions 200. 227 Newsome. 201 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels 12. 242 light 96 to depict drawing with 1 76 painting with 176 . Alphonse 90. 220. 28 Two Impressions from a Cut-out Paper Disk 222 Huyler Stephen R 225 261 Kinecar. 158 Man Lying Down in a Cloak (Flaxman) 156. Matisse. drawing from 183. 756 priming for 140. 114 hatched 244 layered 118 pace of 65 pale 40 rapid 49. 73 Kigell. 54 silver point 156 leg sections 158 length. Oxford 106 Prado.124. 244.109. 248.227 to "bend" straight 97 compositional 228-229 cut 202. 110 Sistine Chapel ceiling 116 Middle Eastern drawing 50-51.102. 53 Tree II 52.
216. 1 6 9 to hold 2 2 . 224 0 layers 31. The (Abe) 220 Picasso. Stella 48 Cypripedium calceolus L 49 rotated view 7 65 Rubens. 75 Two Courtyards 75. 141 Piranesi. 74-77. 36 relief printing 757 Rembrandt van Rijn 52.40.176 Real Life Is Rubbish 176. 212 Japanese 2 1 . 75 Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range 241 petroglyphs 221. 72 Noble. 243. 219.Paul'sBaptistry (Hawksmoor) 68. 1 3 2 quill pens 34. Heath 181 The Kinecar 180.2 3 age and youth sleeping subjects 148-149 150-151 Renaissance 109 Rhinoceros (Durer) 26. 38.71 Hotel de la Suzonnieres 70. 782 relief 757 silk-screen 739 woodblock 134.7 77 rapidograph 70 Raphael 110. Auguste 114 Two Women 114.Toyo: Landscape in Hoboku .oise au Bandeau 132. Giovanni Battista 74.104 Pieuvre (Hugo) 28.226. 1 1 6 . 7 72 Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland. 732 influence of 240 painting with light 78. 205 157. 36 pen and brush 8 3 pen and ink 70. 163. 759 P Page. 7 76 receding space 206 Redon. 103. 36.141 prints/printing: aquatint 240 dry-point etching 181 engraving 243 monoprint 181. 165 figure 118 filled 37 pencil 48. 81 two-point 74. Arthur 177 In the Duchess's Kitchen 176. 73 Noble. 159. 36. 68 Satie. 114 rollerball 182 Rorschach blot 99 Rose (Mackintosh) 48. 37 38. 28 pigment 162 bright 50 Caput Mortuum 7 4 7 for three-tone drawing 141. 4 8 putty eraser 55. Sue 104. 733 Portrait de Marie-Laure (Giacometti) 136. 239 Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 238. 38.52 pen and wash 158. 7 70 Ray. 74. Paul 73 Nobson Central 72. 36. 1 2 4 priming for metal point 140. 91 outsider artists 33. 36. 203 Scene of Comical Riders (Klee) 30. 1 1 6 accelerated 2 2 . 76 plastic eraser 55. 30 Fran<. 9 0 . 160. 52 pens 36 scalpel 54 drawing with 202. 9 8 . 166 fiber-tip 782. 26 Riley. Cheval et Oiseau 30. 181 pencil(s) 54 charcoal 204 colored 762.184 fountain 34. 4 9 Rose of Mohammed 50.The (Beuys) 112.37. J 76 nudes 114-115 to make 36 metal see dip quill 34. Pablo 6 7 .759. 1 1 7 aerial 206 linear 69. 7 38 Ray 138. to draw 146-147 R Rackham. Peter Paul 126-127 Embracing pose(s): balanced 146 quick 118-119 positive form 103 posture: of artist 22 of subject 3 8 .36. 36. 242 reed pens 34. 7 77 three-point 80. 34-35. Man 131. 76-79.131 Cottage Among Trees 52. 181 Rodin. 161. 230 parallel planes 79 Parisian street 86-87 pastels 162 to blend 205 to hold 23 layers 162 pencils 162 pen(s): dip 34 .240. 164. 122. Martin 238. Russell 228.Tim.9 3 Schongauer. 244 reed 34. 40-41. 1 6 3 . Isaac 92 Telescope 92 Newton's Cenotaph (Boullee) 72. 239 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat (Seurat) 112. 162 O p A r t 98 optical illusions 96-99 outline 33. Odilon 242 The Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity 242.199 Profile Head (Newsome) oil pastels 162.262 INDEX Newton. Faune. 205 pointillism 112 polyphonic painting 227 Polyphonic Setting for White (Klee) 226. Georges 112 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 112. 227 portfolios 20 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser de Noailles (Holbein) 132. 241 Physical Space.54 pastel 162 perspective 1 0 0 .139 Autoportrait 138. 739 semi-abstract drawings Style 14 Seurat. 2 2 0 for oil pastels 162 stained 230 to stretch 140-141 tissue 21. 78 single-point 74. 7 73 self-portraits: Basquiat 138. 230 paper(s) 21 colored 162 drawing 144. 71 Satire of the Queen's Dress (Wodall) 158. 244 Q s Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape (Wolfli) 2 79 St. 734 Protea nitida (Bauer) 48. 243.37 scientific instruments 9 2 . 97. 57 Ross-Craig. 234 disposable 182-183 felt-tip 162. 772 234-237 Sesshu. 165. and Webster. Erik 70.37. Bridget 98 Robinson. 139 Real Life is Rubbish (Noble and Webster) 176. 736 portraits.
W . 199 shoes 1 6 4 . 2 9 wind. drawing with 104-105 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt ( G a u d i ) 68. 9 5 pens 36 v a n i s h i n g p o i n t 74. 53 trees. 159 Wolfli. A n t h o n y 152. 199. H e n r i de: Woman at Her Toilet 14 t r a n s p a r e n t v i e w 92.s c r e e n p r i n t i n g 139 silver p o i n t 1 4 0 . 1 3 . 9 4 z Z e n calligraphy 232-233 contrast 96 t o grade 163 ink 37 pencil 5 4 t o r t i l l o n 205 T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c .Yamaoka 233 t e x t u r e 2 2 2 . 7 79 Shoshone petroglyph 240. 161. 79. 226 V Van Dyck. 75 Skeleton of the Horse ( S t u b b s ) 26.141 S i m b l e t . 156 Van Gogh. C y 138. 77. 104-105. 1 4 0 . John 25 Flying Fish 25 Wild Striped Cat Sketches of ( G e r i c a u l t ) 28. Augustin ( B a l t a r d ) 6 7 w e t and dry brush-strokes 2 4 9 Turner. 7 70 Tiber 214-215 Untitled ( T w o m b l y ) 2 2 0 . 69. 1 2 Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse 71. v i e w s o f 85. 240 Two Women Embracing ( R o d i n ) 114. 230 t h r e e . t o d r a w 5 2 . Sarah 9 4 Chair Cut Out 94.2 1 3 Stubbs. 743 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City ( F r e n z ) 1 6 0 . 202 violin.1 8 5 Tree II ( M o n d r i a n ) 52. 2 2 7 Untitled 2001 ( C a t l i n g ) u 263 W h i t e .d i m e n s i o n a l d r a w i n g 68. 2 2 0 influence o f 2 4 0 Untitled 220. 49. 97. 1 4 1 w a t e r c o l o r 25.216 W e b s t e r . Vincent 95 Chair 94.1 9 9 wire. 7 1 4 . 2 4 2 w Wallis.13 M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s m a l e figures 110.241 s i l k . 2 1 2 . 57. 7 6 1 spots. Man in Armor 1 5 8 . b l o w n 248 steel p e n s see d i p p e n s still life 89. Study of (Michelangelo) 110.Sforza Horse.t o n e d r a w i n g 140. 6 9 Wodall. 7 9 0 vessels. 174 T w o m b l y . 75. John: Focusing on the Negative 14 w a s h . 76. 245 sharpener 54 Ship in a Storm ( T u r n e r ) 1 9 8 . 1 4 4 . 2 4 7 t h r e e . t o draw 1 9 8 . t o lay 1 4 0 . G e o r g e 2 7 Skeleton of the Horse 26. Paul 2 4 1 Achilles Chases Hector 2 4 0 .12 W a l t e r . 2 3 0 tonal contrast 96 tonal distance 9 7 t o n a l d r a w i n g 9 6 . Taylor A n i t a 115 All and Nothing 1 1 4 . Sarah: child's m a p 75. 141 Three Male Figures. 4 4 boat 209 botanical 4 9 G e r i c a u l t ' s cats 2 9 from Goya 170-173 125. 1 4 5 travel journal 2 0 . 1 9 9 Two Courtyards (Piranesi) 75. William 159 Satire of the Queen's Dress INDEX 226. Adolf: Giant-Grape Saint-Mary-Castle 219 Woman at Her Toilet ( T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c ) 74 w o o d b l o c k print 157. 9 2 Tesshu.1 4 1 . t o d r a w 2 0 0 . A l f r e d 1 1 .243 Leonardo's machines 12. 2 3 4 . 725 fabric 1 6 8 T h o m a s .27 skull 747. phrased 146 tonal modeling 161 tonal range 169 t o n a l surfaces 2 2 7 tonal width 97 t o n e ( s ) 33. 243 (Bosch) T Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos ( G o y a ) 2 4 0 . Sue see N o b l e . 7 75 Telescope ( N e w t o n ) 9 2 . 2 2 6 . 69.120. 96. 2 0 0 Ship in a Storm 1 9 8 .125 W o o d f i n e . 115. 102-103 tonal marks. 1 7 7 free 8 0 V e n i c e . 74. t o d r a w 1 0 1 viewfinder 57 Views from Velletri ( C l a u d e L o r r a i n ) 152.41.2 0 1 .9 1 storms. 2 7 studies: b i r d s 7 2 .J. 1 8 4 . 65 symbols 138. 1 6 . 170 shoes 1 6 4 stylized m o t i f 51 Summer Flowers 63. t h r e e . 221 . Jan 1 5 6 Maelbeke Madonna 1 5 6 .1 4 5 . 206-207 202. 1 6 6 t r a p e z i u s m u s c l e 142. T i m W e s t Fagade of the Church of St. 182. 7 77. 249 t o describe 39. 7 6 Two Impressions from a Cut-Out Paper Disk ( H u g o ) 2 2 2 Two Monsters 2 4 2 .158 158.d i m e n s i o n a l 1 0 4 .1 6 5 shorthand diagram 142 Shoshone buffalo hide painting 178. 164. M . 1 4 1 . 9 0 . 241. 1 9 9 . 156 layers 7 5 6 priming for 140. 186.1 0 5 vision 9 6 Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects (Grandville) 242.5 3 in l a n d s c a p e 2 0 6 . 158 V a n Eyck.199 tissue p a p e r 21. h e a d a n d n e c k sections o f female m o l d f o r (Leonardo) 89 shading 2 9 s h a d o w s 28. 2 4 4 . 1 8 4 .
uk/Mucha Trust.uk/Private Collection. Illustrated London News Picture Library/The Bystander (b). Lisbon. 74: Corbis. b r i d g e m a n . K e v i n a n d Rebecca Slingsby.Strang Print Room ( b ) . J o h n Roberts. and Tamsin Woodward Smith.bridgeman. Publisher's Acknowledgments Dorling Kindersley w o u l d like to thank Caroline H u n t for editorial contribution. B e r l i n .co. B e r l i n . Julie O u g h t o n . Paul T h o m a s . 2 2 4 : P r i n z h o m Collection. A n n a P l u c i n s k a . Japan.uk/Private Collection. 73: Berlin F i l m Museum (t). 1 . 181: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. Anders. University of Oxford. 158: Calouste Gulbenkian Museum. Oxford.bridgeman. 1 3 3 : Artothek/Kupferstichkabinett./Private Collection/© D A C S 2005. . U K . Psychiatric Institute of the U n i v e r s i t y of Heidelberg. 115: Anita Taylor. 2 0 0 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. L o n d o n . H e l e n S h u t t l e w o r t h .bridgeman. 1 7 8 : © T h e British M u s e u m / H e n r y Moore F o u n d a t i o n .uk/Kettle's Yard.20-21 a n d 246-47. Sarah D u n c a n . B e m d Kunzig. R u t h P a r k i n s o n . 69: Institut Amatller d'Art Hispanic (tl).co. Antonia Cunliffe Davis. 2 4 0 : w w w . Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. Paul T h o m a s ( t ) . O. 130: The Metropolitan M u s e u m of Art/Robert L e h m a n Collection. G e r m a n y . 9 0 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/© A D A G P . 4 6 : B r i t i s h Library. 7 1 : I M E C / A r c h i v e s E r i k Satie. 1901. Florence/MoMA.939). Also. Amsterdam. 5 3 : Collection of the Gemeentemuseum D e n Haag/Mondrian Trust. Paris. S i m o n L e w i s ./© D A C S 2 0 0 5 ( t ) . c o . K u n s t m u s e u m Bern/© D A C S 2 0 0 5 . O o n a G r i m e s . 221: Gagosian Gallery/Private Collection (b). K e w ft)). Angela Palmer. 5 0 : Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (1). 137: © The British Museum. 16: www.uk /© Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery. U K . c o . Graphische Sammlung. Paris. 1 3 8 : © Christie's Images Ltd/© A D AGP. 72: akg-images. © Tate. Roddy Bell. T h e R u s k i n School of D r a w i n g a n d Fine A r t . France. 114: Musee Rodin. 2 2 7 : Paul Klee Stiftung.r. 1 3 4 : © T h e British Museum.bridgeman. L e n . 1 9 : Getty Images/© Succession Picasso / D A C S 2 0 0 5 . Sammy De Grave. L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . 9 2 : Science Photo L i b r a r y . Maureen Paley Interim Art (b).co.uk/British Museum. Paris a n d D A C S . L o n d o n . 68: www. Psychiatric Institute of the University of Heidelberg. 139: Galerie Marion Meyer/© Man Ray Trust / A D A G P . R o s e m a r y S c o u l a r . 177: Mary Evans Picture Library. Peter L u f f . 6 6 : w w w . B . Berlin (b). Paula Regan. support. H e a t h e r M c C a r r y . 2 2 0 : Mamaru Abe. 1 1 0 : www. 2 0 3 : Clare Bryan (t). Paris. Germany. T o n y G r i s o n i . Germany/Joerg P. 30: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. 1 6 0 : Rene G R U A U s. for s u p p l y i n g the d r a w i n g books. Paris.uk/Musee des Augustins. H . R . Picture Credits 8: Corbis/Hubert Stadler. Magdalene College Cambridge. G e r m a n y . 49: Hunterian Museum (t). F i n n .co. 1 6 1 : D C C o m i c s I n c .a. G i n a R o w l a n d . Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (t). NY. 243: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. 9 7 6 ) . 88: www. 1879. Productions Clovis Prevost (c). Paris and D A C S . Andy Crawford. Orientabteilung/Ruth Schacht. 51: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. Sophie Laurimore. Paris.bridgeman. 2 7 : Royal Academy of Arts. A n d y C r a w f o r d for p h o t o g r a p h y a n d L . 1975 ( 1 9 7 5 . (r). 1 5 : w w w . 3 3 : Prinzhom Collection. 2 1 8 : Adolf-Wdlfli-Stiftung. L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . Agnieszka Mlicka. 2 0 1 : T h e Royal Collection © 2 0 0 2 H e r Majesty Queen Elizabeth I I . L o n d o n (t). 3 1 : Tom Powel Imaging. P h y l l Kiggell. J a c k a n d Brian Catling. 1 0 8 : Arts C o u n c i l Collection. 225: Stephen P Huyler. 1929 (29. D a w n Henderson. 2 8 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. . 3 2 : Pepys Library. 17: J o h n Walter. Paris. L o n d o n . 2 4 2 : Photo Scala./Galerie Sylvie Nissen. 180: www. 1 5 9 : Bodleian Library.uk/Guildhall Library. Jean Pierre Roy. 1 5 4 : akg-images/Musee National d'Art Moderne. H a m b u r g . Madrid.264 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Acknowledgments Author's Acknowledgments: T h e author wishes to thank the following people for their enormous help. Copyright Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens. J o h n Walter. 7 0 : Studio Daniel L i b e s k i n d .co.bridgeman. c o . Italy. M a n d y Earey. 132: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. J o n Roome. 174: Artothek/Munich.co.uk /Biblioteca Nacional. 75: © The British Museum (b). Flossie. Paris/ © Succession Picasso / D A C S 2005. 5 2 : T h e Metropolitan Museum of Art/Bequest of Mrs. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. Portugal. 9 4 : Sarah Woodfine.co. 2 6 : Topfoto.co. K u n s t m u s e u m . F r a n c e . 1 9 6 : Museum of the History of Science. Carole A s h . Sarah Woodfine. u k / L o u v r e . 2 4 : © T h e British Museum. u k / O n Loan to the H a m b u r g Kunsthalle. 11: www. 179: www.bridgeman. 2 4 1 : Corbis/David M u e n c h ( b ) . Sir Brinsley F o r d . 176: Modem Art. 199: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee des arts asiatiquesGuimet. Wolfson College. 2 2 2 : Pierre Georgel/Private Collection. 1 9 8 : Dover Publications. 2 2 3 : Lebrecht Music and Arts Photo Library/Ricordi. Kunstmuseum Bern. 2 3 8 : akg-images. Winthrop. 2 4 5 : Oona Grimes. Christopher Davis. Angela W i l k e s .co. a n d encouragement i n m a k i n g this book: M a m o r u Abe. 9 3 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. Basel. Anita Taylor. Anders/ © D A C S 2 0 0 5 .co. Diana Bell. 157: U C L Art Collections . 4 8 : T h e N a t u r a l H i s t o r y M u s e u m . 113: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. Dover Publications/ISBN: 0486229912 (t). 2 0 2 : © T h e British Museum. 1 3 6 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Centre Pompidou-MNAM-CCI. London/Bequeathed by Charles Landseer. Paris a n d D A C S . Natalie G o d w i n . Staatliche Museen z u Berlin/Jorg P. a n d brushes o n pp. 13: www. R o y a n d D i a n n e Simblet. Carlo O r t u for picture research s u p p o r t . Inc.uk/Private Collection. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. B M G . 112: Yale University A r t Gallery/Everett V Meeks. Havemeyer. Toulouse. University of Cambridge. 226: Brian Catling. 111: Fondation Beyeler/Riehen (Bale)/© Succession H Matisse/DACS 2005. L o n d o n . A . Jackie Douglas. Rocio Arnaez. u k / T o k y o National M u s e u m . Salisbury & South W i l t s h i r e M u s e u m ( t ) . Berlin/Staatsbibliothek zu A l l other images © Sarah Simblet . L o n d o n . a n d D e p a r t m e n t s o f E n t o m o l o g y a n d Zoology at the University of Oxford. London/courtesy of Stuart Shave.100. Pamela Ellis for compiling the index. b r i d g e m a n . Patty Stansfield.bridgeman. K a t h r y n W i l k i n s o n . papers. 29: Fogg A n Museum/Collections Baron de Vita: Grenville L.Paris ( b ) . 9 1 : www. Corporation of London. 1 3 5 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. Kirsten Norrie. b r i d g e m a n . Clare Bryan. George M c G a v i n . 1 5 6 : Graphische S a m m l u n g Albertina. A . Fund.bridgeman. London 2005. C o r n e l i s o n & Son.l. H a y w a r d Gallery. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin. 2 4 4 : Ashmolean Museum. 9 5 : V a n Gogh M u s e u m .
and tone. shape. Materials and Techniques—how to use a variety of materials—from pencil and ink to pastel. Creating a Sketchbook—Sarah Simblet's drawings inspire you to explore different subjects and fill your own sketchbooks.FOR THE ARTIST T h e c o m p l e t e g u i d e to drawing—a unique blend of practical teaching and inspirational insights into classic and contemporary drawings. D r a w i n g C l a s s e s — d e t a i l e d step-by-step demonstrations show you how to develop your natural talents. discover new ideas.com Discover more at . Learn from the Masters—a rich selection of drawings illustrates different approaches to a wide range of subjects. www. and silverpoint—and apply the key elements of drawing including perspective. and improve your drawing skills.dk. charcoal.