An innovative, practical approach to drawing the world around you

SARAH SIMBLET

BOOK
FOR T H E ARTIST

BOOK

FOR THE ARTIST

SARAH SIMBLET

DK PUBLISHING

CONTENTS
LONDON • NEW YORK MELBOURNE • MUNICH • DELHI Senior Editor Paula Regan Senior Art Editor Mandy Earey Art Editor Anna Plucinska Managing Editor Julie Oughton Managing Art Editor Heather McCarry Art Director Peter Luff Publishing Director Jackie Douglas Production Joanna Bull DTP Designer Adam Walker Picture Research Sarah Smithies US Editor Christine Heilman First American Edition, 2 0 0 5 First Paperback Edition, 2 0 0 9 Published in the United States by DK Publishing 3 7 5 Hudson Street New York, New York 1 0 0 1 4 10 11 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3

Architecture
6 8 20 22 Master Builders The Order of Sound Future Fictions Pathways of Sight Single-Point Perspective Creating an Imaginary Space Further Aspects of Perspective Theaters Venetian Life Parisian Street

66
68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86

Foreword Introduction Drawing Books and Papers Posture and Grip

Objects and Instruments

TD075-July 2009 Copyright © 2 0 0 5 Dorling Kindersley Limited Text and authors artworks © Sarah Simblet 2 0 0 4 Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited A Cataloging-in-Publication record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN 9 7 8 - 0 - 7 5 6 6 - 5 1 4 1 - 1 Color reproduction by GRB, Italy Printed and bound in China by Toppan

Still Life Instruments of Vision Bench Marks Light and Illusions Further Illusions How to Draw Ellipses Tonality Drawing with Wire Artifacts and Fictions

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90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106

Animals
Documentaries Presence and Mood Movement Icon and Design Pen and Ink Drawing with Ink Capturing Character Sleeping Dogs Turtles Dry Birds

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26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44

The Body
Postures and Poses Choreographs Passion Measurement and Foreshortening Quick Poses Hands and Feet Charcoal Hands Phrasing Contours The Visual Detective La Specola

108
110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128

Plants and Gardens
Botanical Studies Jeweled Gardens Fast Trees Graphite and Erasers Cropping and Composition Negative Space Fig Tree Summer Flowers Acanthus Spinosus

46
48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64

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Gatherings
Projections Magnetic Fields The Human Condition Disposable Pens The Travel Journal Catching the Moment Grand Canal Crossings Caravans The Big Top

174 Abstract Lines
176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 Process and Harmony Writing Time Chants and Prayers Compositions Being "Just" Collage Zen Calligraphy Nocturnes

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220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234

Portraiture
Poise Anatomies Revelations Self-Portraits Silver Point Head and Neck Essential Observations Drawing Portraits Generations Castings

130
132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 152

Earth and the Elements
Air in Motion Storms Nature Profiles Charcoal Landscapes Drawing in the Round Decaying Boat Cloudburst Notes of Force Mountains

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198 200 202 204 206 208 210 212 214 216

Gods and Monsters
Marks of Influence Hauntings Convolutions Brushes Brush Marks Monsters Goya's Monsters Consumed Glossary Index Acknowledgments

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240 242 244 246 248 250 252 254 256 259 264

Costume
Cloth and Drapery Character Costumes Femmes Fatales Colored Materials Study and Design The Structure of Costume Textures and Patterns Dressing Character Posture Carving

154
156 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172

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through history. especially as travel journals. The most rewarding challenge is always the newcomer. Others can be held in the h a n d or. Some are more traditionally framed and hung in galleries for solo or group exhibitions. as a visiting professor at universities. Drawing occupies a unique place in every artist and creator's life. These inspirations led me to invent museums. doctors. and their importance to so many artists. Chosen in any color. and be slowly washed or worn away. not only to make art. I work with people of diverse ages. still standing by the door. perhaps hidden on a door hinge or a street bench rail. fashion designer. a cartographer charting the land. drawing is the immediate expression of seeing. where I expect them to be discovered by some people. where spaces are shaped by nothing more than the objects and activities contained within them. by invitation. in which he describes himself flying and diving in his imagination through pictorial caverns of knowledge. art schools. who tells me firmly upon approach that they cannot draw. Augustine his notes on memory. I will always draw. undergraduates to fellow professors. We can all learn how to draw. that inspired the title and structure MEMORY T H E A T E R S This pen-and-ink drawing was made from imagination during research for my PhD. and makers of special effects. but because it is how I engage with and anchor myself in life. For me personally. or engineer. For twelve years I have enjoyed the privilege of teaching drawing. texture. I know that with their cooperation I can soon prove them wrong. I was also reading among The Confessions of St. we have looked at. I also make drawing books. of Sketch Book for the Artist. Combine these things and the possibilities are endless. are made outside as discreet installations. shape. Drawing is a mirror through which I understand my place in the world. geologists. and a reflector of experience. and local c o m m u n i t y classes. and in a few sessions they will be flying. and size. a composer notating a musical score. night security staff. They enfold their viewer and are made on joined sheets of paper that I reach by climbing ladders. understood (and often misunderstood) our own bodies. or a quantum physicist trying to see for themselves the fluctuations of our universe.Foreword B Y DRAWING THE WORLD AROUND US. thinking. They occupy a shelf in my studio. we learn to feel truly alive. It is my love of these. architect. The very first step is to believe it. from schoolchildren to senior citizens. I was training in anatomy and studying how. Some of my drawings cover entire walls. It makes me feel excited to be alive. It is a tool for investigating ideas and recording knowledge. and experience. we learn to see it. . be they a child discovering their vision and dexterity. and through which I can see how I think. remain unseen by most. a drawing book is the perfect portable private vehicle for your imminent exploration of drawing. By using our imaginations. and I refer back to them for years after they are made. and feeling. a sculptor. aspirations.

We are surrounded by drawings in our daily lives. a great crowd is raising their hands in greeting. packaging. Sometimes we draw because we are bored. and patterns on our clothes. Cueva de las Marios. waving to us from many thousands of yearsago. "CAVE OF THE HANDS" In this drawing. in lectures. We can always read each others drawings. and we spend our lives reading it. scrawling shapes and cartoons when on the telephone. We are bombarded with linear and tonal pictorial information. graffiti. inscribing every fresh part of it with their eager scrapes and trails. They have a natural affinity to many modern graffiti signatures. At home and at work we doodle.000-9500 bce .8 INTRODUCTION Where We Begin There is a fundamental drive in our human nature to make a mark. The sense of relief we may feel from the information overload of modern commercial life when visiting a country in which we can no longer read every written word. not just chosen pictures on our walls but everywhere—maps.Theseancient silhouettes were drawn with earth pigments rubbed onto rock. is not afforded us by drawing. signs. irreverent to language barriers. Rio Pinturas 13. Most adults still feel that certain exquisite pleasure on arriving at a beach to find the tide out and the sand perfect. Children cannot be restrained from running across the pristine white lawn of newly fallen snow. and in meetings. Drawing is international. like a great canvas for them to mark. but more often because drawing actually helps us to focus and take in what is said. logos.

and the appearance of my strikes of colors. had happily scribbled. In cave paintings like the one opposite. we see our oldest surviving images. I was sitting with my mother. at age two-anda-half. like all toddlers. Even though it is made by a toddler this image would be recognizable to anyone. I. Eyelashes take up as much of my attention as the head itself." Until this day. enjoying the physical sensation of crayon on paper. the hair of my first portrait was most important. power. Cave art was not made for decoration but as a fundamental part of life. She gave me a notepad and a red crayon and asked me to draw her "a picture of Daddy. reflecting my experience of looking closely at my father's face. created by societies of hunter-gatherers. an expression of existence.9 WHERE WE BEGIN FIRST PORTRAIT For sorre forgotten reason. I now think this is a picture of proximity. . MAKING OUR MARK It seems reasonable to assume that we have engaged in pictorial mark-making for as long as we have made conscious use of our hands. but I had never yet attempted to figuratively picture my world. and belonging to place. who in their day-to-day hardship made time to picture themselves and the animals on which they depended. On a particular afternoon in September 1974. and she kept it as my first step beyond the delighted realms of scrawl. The image above is what I gave back to my mother.

Don't b e p e r s u a d e d to draw in a w a y s o m e o n e else . then drag o u r line into a loop. and this activity plays a vital role in their d e v e l o p m e n t . It was made with a few bold strokes of a steel pen dipped in ink to conjure the dried bee I was holding between my fingers on a pin. yet still turn to drawing w h e n their verbal language fails or is inadequate. b e p r o u d o f what m a k e s y o u r w o r k individual to y o u . it is important to value your natural abilities a n d ways of seeing. But as adolescents. h o w e v e r small a n d u n f o r m e d y o u believe they are. Inhibitions creep in and ideas of good a n d b a d terminate confidence.10 INTRODUCTION PEN-AND-INK BEE This tiny drawing has been enlarged to show its texture and composition. W e do n o t hesitate to draw a map. Young children love to draw. to help a stranger see their way W h e n taking first steps in relearning h o w to draw. and from that first unit build and describe the shape of something or someone we know. Hours are lost immersed in the glorious world of imagination. PROGRESSION T h e r e is a point in all o u r lives w h e n w e first c o n t r o l o u r mark and m a k e it a line. As you progress. for example. At this point many will insist they cannot draw. most of us stop.

Occasionally. As you read this b o o k and perhaps attend art classes. He was a retired Cornish fisherman and junk dealer who began drawing at the age of 70 "for company" after his wife died.11 PROGRESSION A UNIQUE SIGHT This innocent yet sophisticated drawing of boats. The journey of every artist demands hard work and discipline. what they most want to achieve. and they have never questioned why. . Think how much would have been lost if anyone had interfered with Alfred Wallis' personal sense of proportion and perspective in the exquisite drawing above. 1925-42 53/8x87/8in (135 x 225 mm) ALFRED WALLIS prefers and tells you is better. Someone once told them they must draw in this way. remember that all advice is only advice. harbor and sea is one of many that Alfred Wallis made from memory while sitting at home. I ask them their reasons for drawing. you must decide whether to keep or discard it. I meet students struggling unhappily with a particular method of drawing. Enjoy the control of your own journey. and which aspects of the vast wealth and diversity of graphic language would be most appropriate to their goals. but it does help to set out facing in the right direction. He used leftover ship and yacht paint with crayons on cut-out pieces of cardboard boxes. Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse c. After experimenting and trying each new idea.

Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels LEONARDO DA VINCI . it may not be accurate to our critical adult eye. IDEAS A N D I N V E N T I O N S These active machines. but it should be the experienced world we draw. We BIRD STUDIES The flutter of faint scratches that dance across the pages on the right is an attempt to see the movement and bony weightlessness of a bird. If as artists we nail a subject down too hard. boats. not for disguise but as a personal choice. but the child in us knows that this is an all-embracing. is. 11). His notes visually balance his drawings. be visionary. we can drive out its spirit. We all see differently. and breathtaking wind of a choppy harbor. perhaps for comfort or ease as a left-hander or a habitual enjoyment of the challenge. depending on the occasion and our purpose. There are countless reasons for drawing. They are also always written backward. the breast. author of The Story of Art. Below. right. embedded in this book. and lose the very thing that attracted us to it. all raise water From the Archimedes' screw to Leonardo's own cupped wheel. When we look back at Wallis' seascape (see p. I hope. There are only artists." The clarity and empowerment of these words. "There really is no such thing as Art. The art historian Professor Sir Ernst Gombrich. wrote as the opening line of this great work. The observed world may be our subject. There should neve: be a slavish obligation to represent things exactly as we collectively agree we see them. and inspire others.12 INTRODUCTION VISION All artists see the world differently. Our imaginations are the tools with which we can increase the essence of life. the page bristles with the focus of ideas. We also see differently ourselves. clear-minded understanding of the sea.and collarbones and shoulder blades of a different bird almost become new creatures in themselves.

Leonardo drew to invent a machine. time spent is not lost. conduct an experiment. More was learned drawing the bird 18 times than would have been understood drawing it only once or twice. Opposite. make a calculation. when it looks tired and still feels wrong. We have both covered our paper with focused. My drawings of a housemartin (opposite top) illustrate the importance of repeated study. This also applies if struggling at length with a larger picture. shout against a terrible injustice. Each fresh image reflects growing confidence and the experience of the preceding study. or illustrate a dream. It will be invested through your experience in the new drawing. it may be best to start afresh. or to discover the best use of a new material. Decide before you start whether you are drawing to warm up. Don't be disheartened. while below.13 VISION should not try to know how every finished picture will look. stripped-down parts. . to express the beauty in a moment's play of light. but it is important to be clear why we are making it. Our drawings are annotated investigations into the mechanisms of nature and of an idea. I drew to understand the apparatus of flight. drawing in pursuit of our own thoughts and understanding.

and at speeds beyond conscious thought. W e float toward the quiet vista as it also moves toward us. we are advised or even required to plan our pictures. BRUSHED LANDSCAPE FLOWING SKELETON T h e gliding poise of this walking anatomy comes as much from the feeling of movement as it does from the feeling of drawing. and practice each part before putting the final image together. silk. and spirit of each subject was held strongly but loosely between the fingertips. feel. fire. This suits many artists well and is perfectly valid. Our position asvieweris unsteady. trusting my intuition to find a visual equivalence for the sensation of weight within my body. water. or imagine—it is not enough to only render its shape. Each image relied upon past experience to know the probable behavior of the brush. it should be responding to the sensation and meaning of the subject it draws. and opacity of your subject. ink.14 INTRODUCTION ALCHEMY At school. Whatever the material— wood. and position in space. size. As your hand meets the paper to make a mark. and an island brushed with trees. and allowed to flow through the brush. temperature. and sometimes beyond. They each allowed the energy and focus of the moment to be expressed through controlled accident and a degree of the unknown Both drawings were made trusting the marks. mists. created centuries and cultures apart. Know the texture. balance. As you draw any subject—something you see. or ice—you must actually feel it beneath your fingers as you draw. I made it almost unconsciously with a pen and a brush. This is the alchemy of drawing. We are caught in a shifting focus that makes everything fluid. depth. are both made of ink laid onto wet paper with speed and agile certainty. which can offer keys to other things. bone. These two brush drawings. and what you discover in the process of making. and paper. The physicality. your marks will become the subject on the paper. Landscape in Haboku Style 15TH CENTURY . declare the idea. and we can just make out the distant stains of mountains. If you can do this. excessive planning can get in the way of the imagination. metal. the unknown. and how it feels to the touch. Imagine these qualities so strongly that you feel them in your mind and at your fingertips. However. This is a detail of a brush-and-ink drawing by a Japanese Buddhist monk. explain the composition. meaning. You must also think of its intrinsic nature: its purpose. It denies the importance of accident.

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pastel. more than 100 years after its making. gold leaf and spray paint. left.16 INTRODUCTION PLACE A N D MOMENT The heat and teeming atmosphere o f this Parisian dressing room. Focusing on the Negative 2004 22 x 30 in (56 x 76 cm) J O H N WALTER . which evoke realities o f place and the p o w e r o f moment. like folded insects. W a l t e r also makes books: some. stand table-sized with furniture legs attached t o b o t h sides of their jacket. one of many luminous works in watercolor. acrylic. Lautrec's flamboyant splashes o f petticoats and pantaloons are drawn with long sweeps of chalk and brushed oil paint. right is set inside a rib cage. He dazzles us with flashes o f light and dabbed marks o f shadow.1896 Woman at her Toilet 41 x 26 in (104 x 66 cm) TOULOUSE LAUTREC RIB-CAGE D R A M A Thus drama. c. made by a young British artist who creates alphabets o f the absurd f r o m familiar childhood characters. lives on.

Enjoy discovering what your hand and the material can do. With no help and advice at all. Start by choosing a material you like the look of and cover a piece of paper with different marks. you will naturally make progress on your own in response to concentration and the decision to look and draw. One of the advantages of a drawing book is that you can shut it. and mistakes are a valuable process of learning. FREEINGTHEHAND . Choose other materials and do the same. take your time and don't worry if you need to make several attempts to grasp a concept. Put them away and look at them later. Drawing is exploratory. Much will be learned on these test sheets and in your first drawings. at a point when you feel you are not making progress. you will be surprised and encouraged to see how far you have come. As you follow lessons in this book. try not to grip your pen worrying about the technical terms you might have heard. and miscellaneous items of inspiration. It is yours. Such books are personal: the territory of new exploration and experiment. even those you dislike. Pages do not have to lie open for other people to inspect and comment on. potential ideas still forming.17 FREEING THE HAND If you are just beginning to learn how to draw. diary-like observations. just through the act of making. Try to keep all of your first drawings. Ignore these at first and allow yourself the freedom to play.

seek ideas in the life around you. which of course he cannot see. Picasso has just finished his drawing. which is held frozen in space by a camera lens. when they are more experienced. An artist's personal voice is something that also evolves through lessons learned.Their elegant strength seems to summon a lifetime of drawing. Its sensuous and flowing line seems to drift like smoke. As you draw. staring straight through his image of a bull. it is this voice that is the subtle part of their art and something that ultimately. This practical journey will take you through the door into the vivid heart of drawing. In the total wealth of these pages. ELECTRIC BULL With a penlight. I was particularly attracted to their gentle articulation and understated determination. comes from within. It rarely flourishes in isolation. A N ARTIST'S HANDS These are the hands of the artist Phyll Kiggell (see p. threedimensionally. it will be your creation as you discover your own personal vision. Picasso is poised smiling. but not confined to them.18 INTRODUCTION THE THINKING EYE Techniques and materials are the grammar and vocabulary of drawing and can be studied and shared. Once there. and became a great subject for me. Picasso Painting with Light at the Madoura Pottery 1949 . Drawing is a living language that over millennia has grown and changed. the path is yours. Look to your own experience and also learn from the work of others. and many more reasons for drawing the world. Note that the drawing classes are allocated to subjects. we still only glimpse a corner of the magnitude of this subject and the infinity of what can be achieved. To these I have added my own drawings to explain elementary materials and techniques and offer introductory approaches. and enfolding new media. 150). adapting its form and occupation. caught between action and repose. The real drawing book has yet to come. The chapters of this book present 90 different artists' ways of seeing. However. Imagination needs nourishment.

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thick enough not to flex. Purchase a h i g h . F O U N D B O O K S : O l d p r i n t e d 3 . C A N V A S . Gleaming store purchases vary greatly in format. binding. c h o o s e s m a l l e r h a r d . You simply need two strong boards hinged together well. These are perfect f o r w o r k i n g in novels. F o r traveling. stitched. 2. H O M E M A D E : I m a d e this b o o k f r o m drawing paper that I folded. is perfect. Alternatively.20 INTRODUCTION Drawing Books and Papers T o BEGIN YOUR EXPLORATION o f d r a w i n g . y o u n e e d a lifetime. T h e hardb o a r d j a c k e t is s t r e t c h e d w i t h canvas beneath t h e p a p e r sleeve. ties on either side to keep your papers in place.b o u n d p a d if y o u w i s h t o keep your drawings together long-term. catalogs. texture. Homemade books can be assembled easily from found materials or selections of loose sheet papers. Drawing boards are invaluable.b o u n d b o o k s t h a t fit in y o u r p o c k e t o r bag. a l e n g t h o f black elastic t i e d a r o u n d t h e m i d d l e will h o l d the contents together w h e n y o u f o l d in c o l l e c t e d items. C O L O R E D PAPERS: Large a r t supply stores o f t e n sell t h i c k b o o k s full o f c o l o r e d p a p e r s . Most contain thin p a p e r and are perfect f o r use w i t h disposable pens. and cost. color.h a n d s t o r e s make unique subjects f o r e x p e r i m e n t s a n d collage. Smooth plywood. They can be very expensive in art stores. study the structure of a good portfolio and make your own. be sure they fit comfortably under your arm. A high-quality one will last a DRAWING BOOKS Select d r a w i n g b o o k s t o suit y o u r aims. t h i s is h o w I l e a r n e d . 5. If you intend to carry your boards for a distance. H o w e v e r r i n g bindings o f t e n break. a n d crayons. which are also sold in an enormous range. Sand the edges to avoid splinters. c o l o r If planning t o use pencils. t h e i r jackets w i l l a c t like d r a w i n g b o a r d s a n d p r o t e c t y o u r w o r k . pastels. BLACK P O C K E T B O O K S : Hand-sized w i t h ready-made elastic binder and a marker ribbon. and collage their ideas. 1.b o u n d b o o k w i l l s o o n s h o w y o u h o w it is m a d e .B O U N D PADS: T h e s e are t h e least expensive a n d useful f o r o p e n i n g flat. 2002 Tantalus o r The Future of Man 81/2 x61/4in (215 x 158 mm) ROSE MILLER . quality. F o r e v e n i n g classes. Calculate a range of useful dimensions and have several cut at once. and glued t o a s t r i p o f bias binding. N o t e t h e w i d e l y differing c h o i c e o f p a p e r s w i t h w h i c h t h e s e are m a d e . drawing book. Art students often make use of printed books picked up from secondhand stores into which they draw. thickness. 6. b e a w a r e t h a t p a p e r t e x t u r e effects a n d changes t h e i r marks. R I N G .C O V E R E D H A R D B O U N D : Ideal f o r c a r r y i n g a r o u n d . a n d r e f e r e n c e b o o k s f o u n d in s e c o n d . Dissecting a d i s c a r d e d h a r d . c h o o s e larger f o r m a t s t o give y o u s c o p e f o r e x p e r i m e n t . It is also useful to own a portfolio. cut. There are dozens to choose from. it is better to have them made at a lumber yard or home improvement store. 4.q u a l i t y r i n g . Many artists invent ways o f binding their o w n books. cheap corrugated plastic ones fall apart in days. and handles to lift the weight of your artworks.

Use for brushwork drawings. GLASSINE: Sold as protective wrapping. 22. 12. C A R B O N PAPER: Available in dark and light blue. SAUNDERS WATERFORD N O T 300GMS: Mid-quality textured watercolor paper. PAPERS . smooth. Cheap wood-pulp papers are acidic. Cotton papers are high-quality and acid-free. resisting deterioration. 7. 8. mulberry. turning brown and brittle. METALLIC PAPER: Thin paper in different metallic colors. FABRIANO INGRES: Thin. T W O RIVERS Y E L L O W 410GMS: See Two Rivers Green 19. 20. 18. FABRIANO R O U G H 600GMS: Very heavy. 13. from pencil to paint 9. size. and cream sheets or rolls. and hot pressed papers. yellow. absorbency. tough. fine. It is also excellent for drawing with marker pens on layered sheets. 16. 11. They are hand-. and rolls. mold-. It is available in white or cream. and white. 2 5 6 . 100% cotton and sold in sheets. blocks. texture. red. MAGIC PAPER: A reusable sheet for testing ideas without creating waste. not. and translucent. VELIN ARCHES 250GMS: Printmaking paper available in black white. JAPANESE PAPER: Strong. blocks. C A N S O N : Inexpensive lightweight pastel paper in many colors. 15.Papers differ in thickness (weight). used to imprint lines of these colors onto a surface. 10. AQUARELLE ARCHES 300GMS:The very top quality hot-pressed (smooth) watercolor paper. 17. color. and cost. also good for drawing with colored pencils. 14. FABRIANO ACADEMIA: Standard medium-range multipurpose paper Use with any media.TISSUE PAPER: Place sheets between drawing book pages to keep images from printing on each other and use for delicate collage. Use with a brush in clean water Water makes a dark mark like ink and becomes invisible again when dry.5 9 ) for explanations of rough. ITALIAN PARCHMENT: Imitation-animal-skin parchment that is translucent and slightly waxy. Use cheap paper for rough ideas and quality paper for work to last See the glossary ( p p . Ph. and other plant fibers. pastel paper in flecked pastel colors with a distinctive ribbed marking. it is made from rice. or machine made in sheets. 21. cold. or rolls. printed on one side only. bamboo. For use with any media. white textured paper that can take abrasive use of any medium. T W O RIVERS GREEN 410G MS: Very heavy tinted textured cold-pressed watercolor paper See Two Rivers Yellow.

or with your drawing board angled between your lap and a chair. From a distance you will spot errors you cannot see close up. Use the side of your little fingernail as a support on the page. In this book we will look at parallels between drawing and music. place it on your right. This photograph illustrates how some people hold a pen to write. If your body posture is well balanced and you can move freely. a n d h a n d to the fingertips. arm. you can draw lines freely and achieve a significant arc of movement. There should be an open. if left-handed. b u t it should n o t be forgotten that many people make remarkable a n d striking works drawing with their feet or holding their brush or pencil in their mouths. place it on your left. don't sit too close to the paper. make sure you have enough room to back away and view your work. your whole relaxed b o d y should be involved. It will also reflect discomfort if you are in any way cramped. If using an upright easel. Relaxed fingers: Hold the pencil away from its tip and relax your fingers. 116-17). should be able to look comfortably straight ahead at your picture plane. strangledlooking drawings. This cramped grip tires your hand and makes small. place it on the correct side: if right-handed. but wherever possible. You do not have to dance to draw. but you need to understand that the expression of a line or mark originates in the body and flows t h r o u g h the shoulder. and subject. SPACE TO WORK Cramped grip. a n d look to the left of it at your subject. With your hand in this position. flowing space between your hand. Examples are shown here. Placing your easel o n the w r o n g side folds y o u r b o d y against your drawing arm. your drawing will reflect this. and look to the right. Turning your drawing sideways or upside-own will also help reveal what is wrong. How you hold your drawing materials is also important. If your hand twists to maneuver between the paper and your body. you Drawing classes can be cramped places. Accelerated perspective also occurs if you look down the surface steeply (see pp. Ideally. . There are also parallels to dance. You cannot draw like this—your hand is locked and your fingers can barely move.22 INTRODUCTION Posture and Grip T o DRAW WELL. your lines will distort. body. If seated on a b e n c h easel (a donkey). Regularly step back 6-9 ft (2-3 m) to check your progress.

This can be used to great effect. brush pressed against an upright surface will cause a dribble of ink to run down your drawing. ALL MEDIA There are no rules as to how you should hold your drawing media. upright way of holding the brush near its base is similar to the Japanese way used in Zen calligraphy (see pp. and body are not restricted. GRAVITY Remember that gravity affects the flow of ink and paint. not up to the paper Brushes can be used on upright paper but dip Anticipating effects: A fully loaded pens need a level surface. Soft media: Short materials such as pastels and charcoal can be accommodated in the palm. . It is most comfortable when reaching to draw above your head. This can give a new lease on life to your mark-making. arm. If you turn a brush or dip pen up into the air to draw above your hand. depending upon what it is and how large you are working. or it can spoil your work if not anticipated.232-33). Large scale: POSTURE AND GRIP U n f a m i l i a r i t y : T h e habitual movements of our handwriting style will sometimes infringe upon our drawing. find an unfamiliar. roughly marking out a large-scale work. Remember you can also draw just by dipping your fingers in pigment—this is how many women draw in rural India. As long as your fingers. Large amounts of ink can be applied without fear of uncontrolled running if the paper is flat.23 This loose "candle" grip is very useful when drawing with your arm extended. alternative way of holding the pencil. But be careful not to tense your fingers. To stop this. or change to the wrong hand. hold your material as you find most comfortable. Brush calligraphy: This comfortable. liquid will run down your hand.

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we have employed artists on expeditions. which are so unlike ours. from which personality and predicted behavior were " d e d u c e d . In this chapter we discover the use of pens and ink through the delineation of insects. W h e n lost to explain our own emotions. W e have drawn them in m a n u s c r i p t s to explain our genesis and to c o u n t their species into Noah's ark. to be there at the m o m e n t of discovery.m o u n t e d skeletons of birds. which very likely leaped o n t o the deck of Sir Walter Raleigh's ship Tiger as it sailed north from the Caribbean to Virginia in 1585. Framed in the z o o or in domestic cohabitation. and snakes have between them engendered harpies. " Animals perpetually feed our imaginations.drawe to lief one of each kinde of thing that is strange to us in England. Europeans on board had never seen such a thing. sleeping dogs. 1540. plants. birds. Facial features were analyzed in terms of their animal likeness. or scampering through the initials and borders of pictures from that time. and pioneer born c. mermaids. fish. 11 x91/4in (277 x 234 mm) . After the subject of ourselves. Here (left) we see J o h n White's exquisite record of a flying fish. they are perhaps our favorite pictorial preoccupation.Animals H UMANS HAVE DRAWN ANIMALS from the beginning of our time." Paranoid newcomers c r a m m e d into swelling industrial cities used handbooks of physiognomy to identify and judge their neighbors. the Latin bestiary was one of the most popular picture books—an illustrated dictionary of one hundred parts. insects. In 19th-century Europe this became a "science. and to bring h o m e drawn documentaries of their finds. and dragons. werewolves. m u s e u m . and this very drawing was to endure many copies and plagiarisms after its triumphant return to the English court of Queen Elizabeth I. dogs. bats. Together they made maps and documented animals. For the novice artist. we turn and take the features of beasts. We have drawn them on the walls of caves to evoke their kinship and power." He worked with the scientist Thomas Harriot. each dedicated to the moralized tale of an animal or monster The bestiary profoundly influenced the art of its period. animals provide a perfect subject with which to begin. offer challenges and delights to draw. 1590 J O H N WHITE capture form and movement from the m a n n e r i s m s of honking geese. out are now oxidized and so appear black W h e n less preoccupied with understanding ourselves. floating turtles. cartographer. In medieval England. JOHN WHITE British artist. White's commission was to ". their different speeds and patterns of action.. O v e r the centuries. As children we delight in the humanized trials of Tom and Jerry and their c a r t o o n relations. and people. who described in words what White drew. and we still see escapees from its pages carved and grinning as the gargoyles of churches.. This drawing is made in black lead (metal point) with watercolor Highlights of silver would have gleamed. On the Roanoke voyages of Sir Walter Raleigh. and learn how to Flying Fish c. and silent.

It was to become the animal's only accepted likeness for 250 years. Durer's image changed eager hands until it was known across Europe. years after its publication. Life-like This is Durer's original quill-and-ink drawing made after an anonymous Portuguese drawing. Unsurpassed. draftsman. Contemporary texts related accounts of the beast as the mortal enemy of the elephant and rare relative of the "more common" unicorn. It is such a lifelike triumph of imagination and intelligence that for centuries zoologists never questioned its authority. and wrote four books on proportion. but the drowned animal washed ashore. they were rejected. a gift to the Portuguese King. He in turn sent the mysterious creature to the Pope via Marseilles at the request of the King of France. the home of ALBRECHT DURER German Renaissance painter. Durer traveled widely to study at different European schools of art. Meanwhile. a drawing of it arrived in Nuremberg. DURER'S RHINOCEROS AND STUBBS'S skeletal Durer. Carefully stuffed. when more accurate portrayals were made without armor and scales. it continued its journey to Rome. writer. inspiring countless works of art and so touching people's imaginations that later. Original Ink Drawing of a Rhinoceros 1515 ALBRECHT DURER 103/4 x 161/2 in ( 2 7 4 x 4 2 0 mm) . Sailing to Rome. it is still consulted by veterinarians today. printmaker.26 ANIMALS Documentaries horse are superb affirmations of the power of drawing as a recorder and communicator of knowledge. the ship was lost. Converted into a print. The first live rhinoceros to reach Europe came from India in May 1515. Stubbs's Anatomy of the Horse achieved similar documentary status. and mathematician. filled journals with ideas and observations. He studied the image and drew his own interpretation. naturalist.

a n d s i d e . Stubbs w a s o n e o f t h e first E u r o p e a n artists t o m a k e a n a c c u r a t e representation o f the rhinoceros. a n d anatomist. He composed makes each horse appear so real and each plate from his three-dimensional. The entire project was developed over ten years. which has never diminished. Stubbs's m o s t c e l e b r a t e d publication. Dissections were made over a total of 18 months.GEORGE STUBBS B r i t i s h e q u i n e a n d s o c i e t y p o r t r a i t painter. This is one of Stubbs' original finished pencil drawings. Anatomy of the Horse. is no other work like it. and therefore invented the lighting that Compare how Stubbs and Durer both invented lighting to portray the reality of their animals. L o n d o n . naturalist. dissecting and drawing until he understood the mechanisms of its power and grace. knowledge of parts. He translated his own drawings into engravings for publication. Table of the III of the Horse (rear Skeleton view) mm) 1756-58 1 4 x 7 in ( 3 5 4 x 1 8 0 GEORGE STUBBS . composed from notes and observations. Lighting Stubbs's breathtaking international work won immediate There acclaim. c o m p r i s e s 1 8 p l a t e s s h o w i n g d i s s e c t i o n s in l a y e r s f r o m b o n e t h r o u g h m u s c u l a t u r e t o skin. Dissections Stubbs took his knife and his pencil and physically climbed inside the horse. His painted p o r t r a i t o f t h e b e a s t is in t h e R o y a l C o l l e g e o f S u r g e o n s o f England. in t h r e e v i e w s — r e a r f r o n t .

and a love of accident. Mixed media Here. it silently rises to the light. her sharp teeth.28 ANIMALS Presence and Mood THESE DRAWINGS HAVE BEEN CHOSEN to s h o w t w o v e r y different ways of picturing a wild animal. and all sorts of bizarre concoctions which manage to convey above all in mind. more or less what I have in view. and leader of the French Romantic movement. A s if disturbed from its gritty b e d by our presence and curiosity. her b o n y frame. By contrast.. His copious drawings are characterized by mixed media. I've ended up mixing in pencil. conjured b y the hand of a great author of French literary fiction. snarl. playwright. Hugo's page is f l o o d e d w i t h the fearful presence of a remembered octopus. Gericault took a sharp p e n c i l to m a k e repeated direct o b s e r v a t i o n s f r o m life. Apparently drawn in its o w n ink. soot. VICTOR HUGO Poet.. and Pieuvre 1866-69 91/2 x81/8in (242 x 207 mm) VICTOR H U G O . He wrote to poet and art critic Charles-Pierre Baudelaire about his experiments. Gericault's sheet a p p e a r s almost s c r a t c h e d b y the f e r o c i o u s play of his cat. Hugo used graphite powder. saying ". H u g o mixed his media and drew from m e m o r y and imagination to create narrative atmosphere.. charcoal.". sepia. linseed oil soaked into the paper has made shadows and repelled the ink to create translucent tentacles. novelist. the ominous beast unwinds from the dark of the sea and of our nightmares.. coal dust. Hugo's novels Les Miserables and Dame have become classics of film and stage. ink and linseed oil on paper. and her distinctive temperament. drama. Surrounding sprays of graphite powder are stuck into washes of oil and ink to suggest glutinous depths. drawing her again and again to pin d o w n the texture of her loose skin. The octopus is formed in layers applied and distressed with a brush. and turn. He has w a t c h e d her p o u n c e . The Hunchback of Notre Layers and shadows Throughout this drawing.

focused upon seeing will lead to a greater understanding of the subject Much is learned from repeated study. Before paper became so cheap. standing sideways. undertraces unify and vitalize the composition.l i v e d French R o m a n t i c painter and lithographer Largely self-taught. The Raft of the Medusa.29 THEODORE GERICAULT C o n t r o v e r s i a l . horses w e r e a favorite subject t o g e t h e r w i t h politics and history. Beginners are advised to follow the natural contours of form as shown on pp.118-119). and it can be applied to any subject (see pp. H e is best k n o w n f o r his gigantic painting. 124-25 and p. Repeated study This drawing demonstrates of feeling confident repeat different the importance subject Remaining enough to isolate parts of a views. Paris. Undertraces Beneath these graphite studies we see traces Tones On the top row we see clearly how Gericault laid broad areas of tone using fast. facing right. of drawings Gericault erased. and keep trying again. diagonal strokes of his pencil. s h o r t . fiery. At the center of the page is crammed drawings the outline of a horse. 144. displayed in the Louvre. of previous Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 1817-18 121/2 x 151/2 in ( 3 1 9 x 3 9 8 mm) T H E O D O R E GERICAULT . Here. Tones that do not follow surface contour is very difficult to do well. since it can lead to a flattened form. artists reused sheets and them full of studies. parallel.

flapping bird. gray. identify an animal: the fast cheetah. The ink is used to make sharply defined solid. we see semi-abstract. These media complement and amplify each other with their brilliant contrast. printmaker ceramicist graphic and stage designer who lived in France. overwhelmed by a screeching bird. or proud. flattened animals composed almost entirely of movement. Klee's riders are constructed from all the gestures of greeting mules. hooked. His hand must have shuddered and twitched just like the constant actions of this humorous meeting. and scrolled lines. and brown. slow tortoise. quivering horse. Both Picasso and Klee have enclosed their subjects to compress and amplify the speed of PABLO PICASSO A prolific Spanish painter sculptor. Cheval et Oiseau 1936 173/8 x 211/4 in ( 4 4 0 x 5 4 0 m m ) PABLO PICASSO . Ink and gouache This drawing is made in black Chinese ink and gouache (opaque watercolor) applied with a brush. taking them to guide their hand in bringing form and essence together. the whinnying of a frantic horse. The fact that they never stand still influences the movement in his line. His powdery. noise is everywhere. In these two drawings. Picasso cofounded Cubism. the first abstract movement of the 20th century. dissolving faun kneels stranded. draftsman. made only a year apart. and waves breaking distantly below.30 ANIMALS Movement M O V E M E N T IS OFTEN THE CHARACTERISTIC b y w h i c h w e their lines and the power of their beasts. with George Braque (see p90). Faune. Artists commonly focus on such actions. In Picasso's drawing. Gouache is brushed softly in translucent hazy layers of cool blue.

top all happily of each other in the Endless lines Look closely at how Klee's lines rarely leave the paper and how they are free from the constraint of finite shape. sculptor.PAUL KLEE Swiss painter. creatures. Chicago PAUL KLEE . They remain in contact with the surface of the page and scribble back and forth as they maneuver from one area to another." They chatter around bodies in groups. Layers of marks In this pale Dentil drawing we see layers of' agitated marks that together present a kind of visual "itch. W i t h his drawings Kleeb o u n d sophisticated theories to personal and often witty childlike imagery. He is a u t h o r o f The Thinking Eye (1923). turning our eye and around inside the and postures of the paper- thin on pictorial space. draftsman. violinist. well-worn copies o f w h i c h are found in m a n y art schools. printmaker. N e u m a n n Family Collection. Scene der Komischen of Comical Reiter Riders) (Scene 1935 161/2x111/2in ( 4 1 9 x 2 9 1 mm) M o r t o n G . The entire drawing suggests the endless small movements of horses standing still. and t e a c h e r at t h e Bauhaus school.

which in application gave strength and advantage to the English fighting the Spanish Armada. and the carefully observed gills. it would achieve greater speed. later called a galleon. The ship The upper decks of the ship appear curved toward us at both ends. the expression of its eye. adding washes of color with a fine brush. mathematician. balance. slim stern). It is simply how we read his perspective. The fish It is likely that Baker drew with a quill dipped in irongall ink. His birds stare. and scales. fins. In contrast to the practical clarity of Baker's thought.32 ANIMALS Icon and Design IN THESE T W O MANUSCRIPTS we discover diagrammatic and mackerel's tail" (full bow. and from them learned that if he designed his ship with a "cod's head MATTHEW BAKER Master shipwright. Below we see his revolutionary design for an Elizabethan warship. Exquisite details in this drawing include the lips of the fish. t h e earliest geometrically defined elevations. B a k e r initiated t h e scientific p r a c t i c e o f naval a r c h i t e c t u r e and applied h y d r o d y n a m i c s . In just one drawing he has displayed more angles of his design than we would expect to see from a single viewpoint Fragments English 1586 101/2 x 153/8 in (270 x 390 mm) MATTHEW BAKER of Ancient Shipwrightry . drawings of animals that are each held tightly in a surprising space: a giant fish wears a ship's hull. and blackbirds fly in formation through a mosaic of text. and author o f Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (1586). Baker lived in an era when ships were built without drawn plans. seemingly looking for our attention. Knopf's drawing opposite is the personal enigmatic expression of a mind gripped by illness. He studied the anatomy of fish. and to assess our next move. b a s e d o n his studies o f fish. and s e c t i o n s o f ships. This drawing illustrates Baker's theory. Baker did not intend this. plans. and steerage.

K n o p f b e l i e v e d h e c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h e language o f birds. firmly outlined. w h i c h o f t e n f e a t u r e as s y m b o l i c creatures in his drawings. numbered.JOHANN KNOPF An " O u t s i d e r " a r t i s t w h o s u f f e r e d f r o m m e n t a l illness. circle and the birds. T h e G e r m a n a r t historian Outline and tone The blackbirds illuminating this frantic manuscript are drawn in pencil. written last of all. The main group is placed in a circle drawn with a compass. and filled evenly with tone. JOHANN KNOPF . appears to be stirred like water by the presence of the The Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks UNDATED 133/8 x 115/8 in (340 x 2 9 6 mm) and psychiatrist Hans Prinzhom collected this image. The text.

A German recipe of 1531 gives a simple description: "Take a wax candle. The Chinese used animal or fish glue. 2. s t i c k s . and hold it under a clean basin until the soot hangs to it. distinguished manufacture. Only fill with suitable inks. PENS . light it. then pour a little warm gum water into it and temper the two together. the recipes for which have been handed down over centuries. Masters choose brands of long. producing a different line. In the Far East. That is an ink. 5 0 0 years ago. they are associated with rapid. Each pen has a unique character. Dip pens began their history in the Nile River. and spatters can be made with an exotic choice of inks. Today. a n d m e t a l p o i n t s . simultaneously 4 . you can have great fun drawing the world around you. spots. F O U N T A I N PENS: These vary in quality and nib width. and first used by the Egyptians. high-quality Chinese and Japanese inks are subtler and more complex than those produced in Europe. The best are goose or swan. 3. Responsive to slight changes in pressure. and it is still in use today. Avoid needle-sharp mapping pens." "Gum" refers to gum arabic extracted Dip pens are essential and inexpensive drawing tools. The bar is then rubbed into water on a slate block to produce ink. from the acacia tree. The reservoir gives a constant flow of ink for very long unbroken lines and continuous bottle-free use. where reeds were gathered. Early artists recommended raven and crow for especially fine work. They fit into wooden holders. ink is traditionally applied with a brush (see pp. 4. which scratch rather than draw. METAL PENS: Inexpensive removable steel nibs are available in a range of widths. expressive drawing techniques such as the ones we explore in this chapter 1. The paste from either recipe is pressed and dried into a bar for storage. QUILLS: These are cut from the barrel of a flight or tail feather. Quills were later cut from feathers. REED PENS: A broad nib can be cut from bamboo or another tubular grass. Intricate or dramatic lines. which range greatly in their handling and character of line.246-47). while metal nibs began as rare gifts in gold and silver before being perfected by the British steel industry. The Egyptians and Chinese are credited with the invention of carbon ink.34 ANIMALS Pen and Ink W I T H A HANDFUL OF FEATHERS.

or charcoal. Now we also have acrylic ranges in many colors. bistre. is the ink of a cuttlefish or squid extracted post-mortem. It dries with a sheen and clogs uncleaned pens. I N D I A N INK: Carbon ink sold today in liquid form. boiled. suspended in a binder and stored as a solid block Blocks are imported today 7. iron-gall. They are the easiest inks to use. roastedwine sediment (Yeast Black). C A R B O N INK: Traditionally produced from oil or resin soot (Lamp Black). an often misused term. reduced. from are not 6. charred bone (Ivory Black). Waterproof types contain shellac. and are still in use today: carbon (Chinese and Indian). Bistre is the more humane use of soot scraped from the fireplace and ground into wine. and sieved. 8. 5. INKS 9. Old stock turns solid and bottlesChina. SEPIA A N D BISTRE INKS: Sepia. Non-waterproof Indian inks can be reworked with a wet brush after drying. The complexities of traditional iron-gall ink are explained on p. Crushed. Inks can be lightfast or non-lightfast. and sepia. and most can be homemade. they produce a golden dye for drawing. . and can be mixed and diluted to create subtler colors and tones.36.G A L L INK: Abnormal spherical growths caused by parasitic wasps can be collected from some oak trees in fall. Excellent for drawing they are bright and non-clogging.35 PEN AND INK Four types of ink were common before the 20th century. ACRYLIC / CALLIGRAPHY INKS: Available in black and a range of colors. Beechwood soot is best. dated. waterproof or non-waterproof. I R O N .

V a n G o g h . T h e y give a finer. appears broken to show paper beneath. keep all your fingers behind basis of iron-gall ink. are surprisingly tough. Some of Michelangelo's drawings are now a little eaten by their own ink. finding reed p e n s unwieldy. crushed. and delicious to draw with. Oak galls. and turned brown with time. of a loaded nib. red-brown. for example. a n d d e v e l o p e d t h e quill instead. can also be collected from affected trees. a n d M a t i s s e also e n j o y e d t h e m . It dried black. Collect skins from the ground beneath trees once they are blackened. and boiled to make a golden ink. Walnut ink is gloopy. .) You can make ink easily from the boiled. Rembrandt. fleshy skins that surround ripe walnuts. giving a s h o r t . 2 4 4 is an e x q u i s i t e e x a m p l e . drawn to glisten with a dryer nib. m o r e e x t e n d e d line than reed and a m o r e organic line t h a n m e t a l . forming the REED PENS R e e dpens dispense ink quickly. M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s d r a g o n o n p . r e s e r v e d t h e i r use f o r large c h o i r b o o k s . Although oak galls and walnut skins are harmless. Reed marks The darker left wing of this beetle was drawn with the wet inky stroke wing. giving longer lines. Quills are also called D u t c h pens. always be cautious when experimenting with recipes. For centuries. Running fresh. U n d e r heavy pressure.36 ANIMALS Drawing With Ink To MAKE A QUILL OR REED PEN. QUILL PENS Q u i l l s a r e highly r e s p o n s i v e t o c h a n g e s in p r e s s u r e . Scribes o f t h e M i d d l e Ages. I u s e d t h e s e qualities t o d r a w t h e w o r m s above. sieved. since t h e D u t c h w e r e t h e first t o realize t h a t they could be hardened and i m p r o v e d w i t h heat t r e a t m e n t in ash o r sand. It also oxidized and ate or burned paper. The lighter right Quill marks Quills carry more ink than strokes and for as reeds. t h e y stick a n d j u d d e r f o r w a r d . The darkest of this grasshopper wings) were made (around the head first. it was gray-purple. the blade and cut away from you. d r y mark. Practice to gain a feel for how materials behave. galls were ground with iron sulfate to make an unstable solution. reduced. then cut a final nib (feathers. Paler strokes were made where the mark has the legs and antennae the ink ran out.

. The of pigment to fall to the edges effect of the shape. giving a graded. W h e n the nib is pressed upside down. it is important to feel for when the ink will run out and to know how much ink you pick up when dipping the nib. clean strokes. DRAWING WITH INK Filled outlines Each segment of wing was outlined. Loaded with ink and pressed hard. they splay to make thick o r double lines. particles then filled with a droplet of ink. breaking. White markings were drawn last Tones Here we see subtle tones of diluted ink beneath the undiluted black rim of a beetle's wing. withstanding great pressure without sticking. o r being ruined as fountain pens would be under the same pressure. When using dip pens. tonal Ink layers The wings of this beetle were drawn in layers using black and white ink on pale gray paper. marks become fine and needle-sharp.37 METAL PENS Metal pens give long. Each layer of of the drying droplet dome the drawing was left to dry before adding more. sharp.

Study them before drawing. Watch their heavy feathered bodies flap. Empathize. Try to hold the whole posture in your mind's eye. Pack plenty of tissue around a bottle of calligraphy or acrylic ink." If you don't like a stroke. Cover a sheet. That said. You cannot break the nib. and quickly draw around it using only three or four strokes.38 ANIMALS Capturing Character GEESE ARE EXCELLENT SUBJECTS to draw when practicing the first use of pen and ink. Focus on the geese. and there is no "wrong. and be brave. touch the bottle's rim to drain the excess. and boldly plunge into your drawing. Experiment. Geese are nosy birds. and bellyflop off the waterside. test your limits. It teaches confidence and focus through intensive repetition. Cover your drawing book pages in speedy responses to the geese and try to capture each bird in as few lines as possible. so pick a spot where other people can keep them entertained. I covered eleven sheets in sixty quick drawings—in less than an hour. not on your drawing. be bold and press firmly. Attempt with a loose hand to capture their posture and outline. Illustrating this exercise on Oxford Port Meadow. Quick drawing trains you to see what is most important about a subject and to mark only its most essential expression. to absorb blots when drawing. there is no obligation to prepare a quill. It happens that goose feathers also provide artists with the best type of quills. waddle. Dip your pen in ink. MATERIALS NEEDED Look for a bird expressing a simple posture. Take a cup and water for diluting a range of tones. Posture . draw what the bird is doing. Take no more than ten seconds to draw each one and make lots of drawings. Focus on it. steel nibs are fine. make another one. and a large drawing book or plenty of paper Use masking tape to secure pages against the wind.

Use more lines than before to express these. and diving. CAPTURING CHARACTER Texture Gradually allow yourself more lines to describe the texture of each bird as well as its posture and action. draw the feeling of what you see. look among the birds for more complicated actions such as shaking off water. . flapping. Again. and don't worry about mechanical facts or accuracy. running.39 Action With growing confidence. Avoid detail unless really tempted by a close-up visit Fluctuate the pressure of your pen in response to how you know the bird would feel if you touched it.

The only time he remained still was when he was sleeping. engaged in his and everyone else's business. Sleeping animals present the artist with ideal opportunities to study their texture. a dip pen and ink of your choice (see pp. your drawing book. For this class you will need one oblivious dog. and personality. These drawings are not an analysis of his anatomy or breed but the expression of his satisfied comfort in a deep sleep after a night out on the together with a glass of water for diluting tones on the nib. Then dip the nib quickly into a glass of water and drain the excess again. This will give a medium-gray line. Now it will make a pale line. Ras Curled Up Asleep "Capturing the true character of a cherished companion is best achieved with objective determination rather than sentimental shyness. a d o g w h o w a s a l w a y s town. MAKING A PALE LINE To make a pale line.34-37). and a tissue for blotting drawn lines that appear too dark. and drain the excess by touching the nib against the rim of the bottle. first dip your pen in ink." . Make a test sheet to discover your control of diluting on the nib.40 ANIMALS Sleeping Dogs R A S WAS A GREAT CHARACTER. Dip the nib quickly again into water and again drain it. form. and even then he twitched and stretched in dreams.

Then. add more detail. see how the animal's posture determines its whole shape. First lines are first thoughts. and the shadows in his coat. in bold layers. ears. second thoughts may be different Changing your mind is a positive aspect o f seeing and thinking. c o n c e r n e d a b o u t detail.41 DRAWING YOUR DOG Be bold in this exercise. Layers o f thoughts can bring a drawing alive. To add texture.It is essential when drawing any subject (even something abstract) to know how it feels andtoemulate this with your line. I added ink to Ras's nose. this time to create a line a little darker in tone. alter the pressure and moisture of your line in response to howyouknow your dog feels when you ruffle itscoat. Remain focused on the whole dog and. Trust your intuition. Here I marked the features of Ras's head. tail. W i t h pale lies. Then I immediately rebalanced the drawing with lines around his hind quarters. SLEEPING DOGS 1 Fix your eyes at the center of the dog. 3 Gradually introduce darker tones. Character is better captured drawing quickly with confidence than w o r k i n g slowly. ignoring all detail. quickly draw what you see. Here. . D o not go back over lines you are pleased with—doing so dulls their lively freshness. to emphasize how he is curled up. 2 Reload your pen with ink.

THE ELONGATION AND BUOYANCY of a group of turtles is fascinating .Turtles to observe. swinging their limbs and shells with a slow circular movement. as if caught in a camera freeze-frame. Beyond the glass wall of the aquarium. they stretch and paddle. offering plenty of time for the artist to draw the pose. A perfect subject for the beginner. turtles often pause unexpectedly.

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weightlessness of the kiwi. I made repeated studies of the housemartin to discover its mechanism of flight. Beginning with very pale tones. and water.Dry Birds THESE ARE THE ARTICULATED BONES o f a k i w i a n d a h o u s e - martin drawn in a museum using a steel pen. I sought to capture the form. I darkened lines as each drawing progressed. With speed. India ink. and sharp. dry. . balance.

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Botanic gardens were established and expanded. we now have laid before us fourto show how well their colours complement each other infinite wealth of material to explore. and the Acanthus spinosus constant but exhilarating struggle to make a living image feel right. to the proliferation of floral designs with which we have dressed ourselves and furnished our homes for centuries. We collect. we see very different cultural visions of plants and gardens and use pencils and plants to learn the pictorial values of space. Medieval knowledge was not gained by the first-hand observation of life but by reading.000 species of plants are depicted life-size drawn. the microscope was refined to unfold yet another world. form. robust. Patrons funded the breeding of decorative. Rich owners of private gardens commissioned large-format florilegiums commissioned the volume to document his private garden to immortalize their personal taste and power of acquisition. He sent boxes of plants to Nuremburgburned with the urgency and excitement of explaining every plant's form. We draw them to celebrate their beauty and range. The revolution came in the 1530s. and diverse kingdom of plants. It was published plain in 1611 and withhand-paintedplates in poured off ships returning from the New World and were eagerly collected and 1613. Fledgling years Botanist and apothecary who compiled the Hortus Eystettensis of scientific research bore manifold explosions of knowledge in a fever of discovery. Chapters are arranged by out. an There are close parallels between the acts of gardening and drawing. infinitely vivid. manipulations of light and shade. the punctuation of space with structure and mass. color. and to ornament our lives. Plants are the principal inspiration of the decorative arts—from Roman Corinthian columns crowned with carved leaves of the acanthus. In this chapter. Both embrace the anticipation of evolving shape. nurture. Plants seventeenth century. shape. B A S I L I U SBESLER when botanists founded new work upon the direct study of plants. and beauty. on which our lives depend. Early European illustrators were trapped within dogma that was determined by ancient scholarship. where a number of uncredited artistsd r e wthem for Besler.Morethan 1. PriceBishopof Eichstatt specimens. After Here Aconthus spinosus is combined with forget-me-nots and-a-half centuries of intensive observation. and hybridize them for our sustenance and pleasure. Conrad von Gemmingen. to catalog our knowledge. From its history there is one overriding lesson to be learned: the importance of looking and seeing with our own eyes. Classifications were set in367copperengravings. and the drawn pages ofthesame name. Later. as opposed to only herbal.Plants and Gardens W E SHARE THIS PLANET with the more ancient. and texture. season. Botanical illustration is a precisely defined and scientific art. —-the largest and most influential botanical book of the early Natural scientists accompanied explorers to document unknown finds. 1613 187/8x153/4in(480 x 400 mm) BASILIUS BESLER . and focus.

and meticulous precision. delicate. The King was then establishing the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. Botanical art c o n c e a l s the challenge of its m a k i n g . o p t i m i s m . leaves. He has made the spatial and physical relationships in this drawing all the more real by placing a single. Sir Joseph Banks. Each plant must b e clearly distinguished from its closest relative. stems. They are counted among the most accomplished 18th-century botanical artists. petal tip over a lower leaf Protea nitida 201/4 x141/4in (513 x 362 mm) FRANZ BAUER 1796 . M a c k i n t o s h e x p r e s s e s the f o l d e d petals of a broken rose b u d so delicately w e can sense the perfume. and Franz Bauer and his brother Ferdinand were employed there to draw specimens. s u c h as w e see here in Bauer's Protea nitida. detail. Stella Ross-Craig said of the need to d r a w from a dried herbarium plant "I could make it live again. subtle union of beauty. measured drawings.48 PLANTS AND GARDENS THE SCIENTIFIC VALUE OF A BOTANICAL DRAWING lies i n its Botanical Studies were specimens that often refused to stay still. Dissections Across the lower part of this drawing we can see dissections of seed pods and petals. Outline Bauer prepared a pencil outline before laying in fleshy succulent hues and tones of watercolor. o p e n i n g a n d c l o s i n g i n the w a r m t h a n d light of the studio. It is likely Bauer would have studied these under a microscope. fruit. T h e rest of u s are free to d r a w as w e w i s h . and wilted. Here. W i t h bright F R A N Z BAUER An Austrian artist who trained at the Schonbrunn Imperial Gardens in Vienna. B e h i n d detailed. insect-ravaged." Her slipper orchid s h o w s that botanical drawing must often resolve the challenge of its subject's p r o d u c i n g parts in different seasons — r o o t s . Light in this drawing is given by the paleness of the paper showing between washes of darker tones. and seeds conventionally a p p e a r o n o n e plate. flowers. or that were diseased. naturalist explorer and advisor to King George III invited Bauer to London in 1 7 9 0 .

sensual pencil drawing is later works. a n d he inspired. BOTANICAL STUDIES Lines and shadows This lush. Curtis's Botanical Magazine. K e w . as at trained botanical artist Ross-Craig Swift lines The drawing was planned in pencil and then overworked with a lithographic pen. H e r Drawings of British Plants." This line drawing is one of 1. G u s t a v K l i m t In his r e t i r e m e n t Mackintosh m a d e n u m e r o u s inventive pencil a n d w a t e r c o l o r d r a w i n g s o f plants. imagination. and speed depends upon the immediate perception of the essential characteristics of the plant. 1970 x 81/4 in ( 3 2 5 x 2 1 0 m m ) STELLA ROSS-CRAIG . p u b l i s h e d 1 9 4 8 . a n d f o u n d e r o f t h e G l a s g o w S c h o o l o f A r t M a c k i n t o s h ' s flair h a d an e n o r m o u s i n f l u e n c e o n t h e a v a n t . a m o n g o t h e r s . and it shows how design. Closer to fiction can come together perfectly. found among Mackintosh's than reality. and observation the nuance and contour of every in one image. Rose 1894 103/4 x 83/4 in ( 2 7 5 x 2 2 1 mm) CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH STELLA ROSS-CRAIG A j o i n e d t h e staff a t t h e R o y a l B o t a n i c G a r d e n s .g a r d e in G e r m a n y a n d A u s t r i a .49 C H A R L E S RENNIE MACKINTOSH Scottish a r c h i t e c t d e s i g n e r painter.286 studies for her book Drawings of British Plants. Pencil lines cling to.7 3 in 3 1 p a r t s .. L o n d o n in 1 9 2 9 . Ross-Craig said of her work "Plants that wither rapidly present a very difficult problem to which there is only one answer—speed. Line Drawing of Cypripedium calceolus L c. S h e also o f thousands o f contributed an drawings.000 Kew to archive accessible t o d a y v i a t h e I n t e r n e t of o n British flora. is r e c o g n i z e d as tne m o s t c o m p l e t e a n d i m p o r t a n t work 3. and follow shadow. it is small and discreet.. A s m a n y of her drawings are kept G a r d e n s . and perfect coordination of hand and eye.

fluctuations in scale. anticipating their view. and attention to detail are all shared with medieval European manuscript drawings. . urgent attentive human activity. paper is brimming with the beauty and celebration of nature. Babur directs his gardeners in the design and planting of this quartered chahar bagh. Drawing. By Muslim tradition. and calligraphy are brought together to hold the sacred names of prophets and the 99 beautiful names of God. Below. Envoys chatter outside the gate. The first Mughal Emperor Babur's Garden of Fidelity (Bagh-e Vaja). Upright shallow perspectives. roses took their form in a bead of perspiration on the brow of Mohammed as he passed through his heavenly journey. The white of the page shines through the brilliant color. They used a fine brush to lay pigment over a line drawing. is remembered in the pages of his journal. in the early 16th century. which he personally created near Kabul. uniform focus. 1590 85/8 x55/8in (219 x 1 4 4 mm) BISHNDAS AND NANHA Bright pigment These pages were illuminated by Mughal artists in the late 16th century. and Nanha. the sumptuous petals permeated with prayer and wisdom. and miraculous growth. Afghanistan.50 PLANTS AND GARDENS Jeweled Gardens the Middle East we find exquisite stylization of form and upright formality in pictorial space. in miniature. Every fiber of AMONG DRAWINGS FROM BISHNDAS A N D N A N H A Little is known of these Mughal painters who were related as uncle and nephew and commissioned to illustrate the pages of Babur's journal. Opposite is the Rose of Mohammed. Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity c. Bishndas was probably responsible for the overall design. a notable portrait painter drew the faces. painting.

t h e Staatsbibliothek zu Arabic. Sacred words The central rose is more solid than any other on the page. The physical anatomy of the rosebud has been studied and translated into a repeated stylized motif. look closely and you will see words written in gold fluttering over the form of the flower.c e n t u r y Turkish manuscnpt a book of religious e t h i c s w r i t t e n in the O r i e n t a l C o l l e c t i o n s of Berlin. and how the shape has been repeated freehand.AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH This is a detail o f a page from a n 1 8 t h . The Rose of Mohammed 1708 9 1 / 2 x 61/2 in ( 2 4 0 x 1 6 5 mm) FROM THE TURKISH M A N U S C R I P T AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH . so that overlapping petals and stems give an impression of fulfillment and abundance. Stylized motif A fine brush has been used throughout this drawing to apply inks and watercolors. It is n o w k e p t in Border The elegant border of this drawing was mode with a pen and ruler It cleverly compresses and defines the composition. G e r m a n y . Note how each bud is essentially the same shape. However. fragmenting its detail in a whisper of prayers.

52

PLANTS AND GARDENS

Fast Trees
IN CONTRAST TO THE QUIET, formal detail of other drawings in this chapter, these powerful fast trees enact the actions of plants. Each tree reaches out and holds its landscape with dynamism and pulse. In both drawings we find testament to the inexorable energy of growth. Rembrandt expresses a delicate quickness. Gentle lines draw a warm breeze through this remote wooded garden. Rustling in a loose foliage of soft marks, his pen evokes the weight of abundant activity on this late summer's day. Mondrian's arch of scratching branches is drawn with such force it will always be alive. We can still feel his hand storming across the paper. Set within a frame of smudged landscape, the tree possesses a musical agitation. This characteristic will increase in the artist's later abstract work. Here, we see a punctuated ordering of space. Sharp branches cut out negative shapes of winter sky.

R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter; etcher; and draftsman. Rembrandt's prolific output comprises oil paintings of historical and religious subjects together with group and self- portraits. His emotive etchings and pen and ink drawings (see also p. 174) are great resources for artists learning to understand the potential of these media.

Horizon

Pen and ink lines describing foliage also tell

us the directions of sunlight and wind. An arc crossing the bottom of the drawing from one side to the other supports the scene and separates us from the landscape beyond. Compare Rembrandt's arc to that of Mondrian's. and note the similar treatment of low horizons in both works emphasizing the height and dominance of trees.

Cottage Among Trees 1648-50 63/4 x121/8in ( I 7 I x 308 mm) R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN

53

FAST TREES

PIET

MONDRIAN

Atmosphere Here we see how shapes of negative space are as important as the physical subject they enclose (see pp.58-59). Mondrian has again lightly dragged his chalk on its side to evoke a wet depth of atmosphere. These passive gray marks contrast with the assertive tension of the tree.

Dutch Pure abstract painter preoccupied w i t h line and plane relationships. W i t h increasing austerity, Mondrian banished t h e subject from his drawings, in his later w o r k he also banished space, composing visual h a r m o n i e s using only straight lines a n d flat planes o f black, w h i t e , gray, o r p r i m a r y color.

Winter ground Short vertical marks along thebottomof this drawing reveal the length oftheblackchalk Mondrian used. Rubbed onitsside,itroughly blocks in the ground. Thecrudeeconomy of line is all we need tofeelthecold, wet, unwelcoming quality ofthiswinterearth.

Branches and trunk Lines shaping the branches of the tree are built up in layers. To make the trunk more dense, the artist has rubbed and smudged preliminary marks with his fingers before firmly overdrawing with new lines. Solid black lines are achieved by pressing the chalk hard. When used lightly, it shows the texture of the paper. Tree: Study for the Grey 1911 23 x 335/8 in ( 5 8 4 x 8 5 5 m m ) Tree

PIET MONDRIAN

54

PLANTS AND GARDENS

Graphite and Erasers
GRAPHITE, FROM THE G R E E K word

USING GRAPHITE
This drawing illustrates a range of achieved with graphite pencils of different grades.

graphein

Modern pencils are graded from 9H (hard and pale) to 9B (black and soft). Graphiteclay sticks are also available, together with a powder form. All possess a natural sheen and are erasable to a varying degree. Graphite drawings smudge easily, so fixative, a form of varnish, can be used to hold a drawn surface in place. It is applied as a fine mist from an aerosol can, or from a bottle using a diffuser. For the beginner, ordinary hairspray is an effective and cheaper alternative.

(to write), is a soft and brittle carbon. It was first mined in Cumbria, England, in 1 5 6 4 , and was initially used in small, pure pieces bound in lengths of string. Pencils as we know them—with their slender wood casing and "lead" of graphite—were invented in France in 1794 by Nicolas-Jaques Conte. He discovered that milled graphite mixed with clay and water, press-molded, and baked to a high temperature produces a harder and paler medium than graphite alone.

3B pencil A range of mark and textures can be achieved with a 3B pencil when you vary its pressure, speed, and direction, as this detail shows.

MATERIALS
Here is a selection of 14 items to illustrate a basic range of pencils, graphite sticks, sharpeners, erasers, and fixative.
1. AND 2. HB AND 3B PENCILS: It is unnecessary to possess every grade of pencil. HB, the central and most common grade, is perfect for making delicate lines. 3B gives a blacker tone. A great variety of effects can be achieved with just these two. 3. WATER-SOLUBLE PENCIL Effective for atmospheric drawing, but be aware of how watery tones can dull the impact of the line. 4. AND 5. MECHANICAL PENCIL Thick or fine leads are made in a range of grades. They are particularly useful because they do not require a sharpener 6. ROUND SOLID GRAPHITE PENCIL: Excellent for large-scale drawing, producing thick bold lines. A range of grades can be honed with a craft knife or sharpener 7. THICK GRAPHITE STICK: For large-scale drawing. Graded soft, medium, and hard. It crushes to produce graphite powder 8. SQUARE GRAPHITE STICK: Useful for making broad, sweeping marks in large-scale drawing. If worn and rounded, the stick can be snapped into pieces to regain the sharp, square end. 9. CRAFT KNIFE AND BLADES: Handles are sold in two sizes to fit large or small blades, and blades are sold in a range of shapes. Perfect for sharpening pencils to a long point, to cut lines in paper or to remove areas. 10. PENCIL SHARPENER: Makes a uniform point. Keep one in your pocket for drawing outside the studio, together with an envelope for shavings.

HB and 5B Layers of tone have been built up withHBand5Bpencils. Softer pencils require less pressure to make a mark, revealing the texture of the paper surface. It is important to keep the point of the pencil sharp with either a craft knife or a sharpener.

55

ERASING AND FIXING
Erasers can be used t o blend and s o f t e n lines, o r t o r e m o v e altogether. Fixative them prevents

GRAPHITE AND ERASERS

s m u d g i n g a n d s e c u r e s lines.

Using fixative You can use fixative while drawing to hold the definition of lines you wish to gently fade but not remove entirely, for which you would use an eraser.

11. P L A S T I C E R A S E R : Avoid cheap colored erasers that may stain drawings with grease and dye. White brands are available in soft and hard versions.

12.

P U T T Y RUBBER:

W a r m it in your hand before use. It is excellent for removing powdery materials, and for making crisp sweeps of light across a delicate pencil drawing

13. D I F F U S E R : Helleborus corsicus (Corsican hellebore) fixative, or to spray mists of ink.

56

PLANTS AND GARDENS

Cropping and Composition
M A N Y STUDENTS WILL START a d r a w i n g i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e

that its skin nearly touches the boundary. The meaning of the same drawing changes simply by its relationship to the space it occupies. The size of any subject, its placement on the page, the size of the page, and its overall proportion are all discrete and essential aspects of successful picture-making. Before you begin to draw, think carefully about where to place your subject. Are you are happy with your paper? If not, change it; add more, take some away, or turn it around. Do not just accept what you are given, adapt it to what you need.

paper. Focused on the shape and detail of their subject, they remain happily unaware that there is, or should be, any relationship between what they are drawing and the surface they are drawing it on. The paper is only paper, and the troublesome subject floats somewhere in the expanse of it. However, a single fig drawn in the middle of a large, empty square of paper gives quite a different impression from the same fig drawn on such an intimately small square

CHOOSING A VIEW

A Single Fig

"The size, shape, and orientation of the paper are so integral to the composition that they determine the impact and meaning of the drawing."

Space as the subject Inallpictures. Touching the edge When the subject o f a drawing touches one edge of the paper it attaches t o it visually. CROPPING AND COMPOSITION Off-center and diagonal Here I held my viewfinder so the fig appeared upper-left in the space. the uppermost edge of the drawing. running corner t o corner. they establish a tension and unity with the paper. U s e it as a starting point. its stem and shadow framing a white center. a device to help you decide what t o draw. A card with a small rectangle cut out o f it makes a useful viewfinder C l o s e o n e e y e t o look through the hole. This drawing hasbeencropped to emphasize space between thefruit.O u r focus is on the white cloth supporting the figs. When subjects touch two or more edges. Here the left fig is attached to. spaces between things are as important as the things themselves.57 THE VIEWFINDER T h e s e pencil drawings o f figs d e m o n s t r a t e different crops and compositions. bottom-left t o top-right. and lines describing shadows cast by the fruit . The angle of the fruit together with dark shadow (top left) and bright light(bottom right) suggest a diagonal division across the whole drawing. as also shown here. t h e n m o v e t h e c a r d t o e x p l o r e different views. its illumination. and therefore apparently suspended from.

this ensures a consistent view. In your own version. shapes of air cut out and defined by the physicality of our environment? When we look into the branches of a tree. WHERE TO START Arrange your plant and paper so you can look back and forth by barely moving your head. In following this class. an eraser. It helps to start at the center and map outward. Draw a complete shape Map outward from the center Erase and adjust lines until correct . remember to draw only space. a sharp H B pencil. fourth. It is an astonishingly simple device that many artists use and I strongly recommend.58 PLANTS AND GARDENS Negative Space UNCONSCIOUSLY WE ASSESS spatial relationships all the time to guide ourselves through the world. not leaves. The drawing opposite is of the uppermost leaves of a potted fig tree. tone. Viewers appreciating a finished image may not see shapes of space. you will need a similar large-leaved plant. But how often do we look at the air between things. and engaging. but if the artist does. a foundation stone in picture-making. erasing and adjusting lines until itlooked right. dynamic. their subject and composition will become more real. rather than what you see in front of you. and so on. Remember that plants do move! Therefore it is best to complete your drawing in one sitting if possible. position. Unfamiliar shapes of negative space reveal the real shape of a positive subject. and a fresh page in your drawing book. third. unified. which is shown in the three steps below. do we see myriad distinct and unique shapes of daylight or do we just see branches? Why as artists should we look at the air? Every space in a picture has a shape. then added a second shape. Looking at negative space overrides the problem of drawing what you know. and a role to play.The box opposite isolates an area. Negative space is the simple key to getting positive shape right. Follow these from left to right and see how I began with one complete shape between two parts of a leaf.

59

Here I drew only spaces, adding one to another until the leaves were revealed. Besides looking at negative space, there are two other useful things to do when a drawing feels wrong but you cannot see why: look at it in a mirror or turn it upside down. errors and suggest changes.

Spaces between leaves

Either view will

NEGATIVE SPACE

Fig Tree
WALKING IN THE ALPUJARRAS in A n d a l u c i a ,

Spain, I drew a bare fig tree clinging to the wall of an almond grove; a perfect subject for seeing negative space. I marked its essential frame of large branches first, frequently erasing lines and changing my mind until the balance felt right.

S a l v i a , RIBES, CLEMATIS, Allium, Passiflora, and Acanthus

Summer Flowers

Alchemilla,

drawn with an H pencil by observing the

negative spaces between the stems, petals, and leaves. I arranged the flowers on a sheet of paper in a cool r o o m and rapidly sketched a composition. Then I put them in water, taking the stems out one at a time to draw.

.

. 62-63). If an artist changes the pace of their line and focus of their attention. We never see everything at once. they emulate our experience of seeing. gathering less distinct information on the way. Excessive detail leaves no space for the eye to rest or imagination to wander. our eyes travel and adjust from one point of focus to another. interfolding points of detail with areas of loose suggestion.Acanthus Spinosus As we LOOK AROUND. Compare changes of pace and focus here to the flatter finish of Summer Flowers (see pp.

.

Perhaps in the sheer planes of some of our greatest modern buildings it is finding its clearest expression. space. they have the Golden Section.Architecture I N THE CONTEMPORARY PRACTICES of architecture. coupled with the importance of exercizing your imagination. 74-75). add and subtract ideas. time. composers. philosophers. which was the first church in the capital to be built entirely of metal and then clad in stone. Augustin. balance. Baltard designed the Church of St. At the core of their practice. Architects have been fine-tuning their specialized branch of drawing for centuries. the device that has since governed most of our picture-making (sec pp. Linear perspective is a marvelous device." reflecting the eye's love of unity in difference. drawing plans around themselves within a program as opposed to on a flat sheet of paper. which can be clearly seen in ancient Greek architecture. architects and designers can imaginatively "climb inside" three-dimensional space and. invaluable to understand and apply when you choose. and architects of ancient Greece who first pursued the formula for "divine proportion. filmmakers. and writers have been breaking away from traditional forms of representation to seek new expressions of shape. It was the mathematicians.The church is still in use today. mass. we find the most recent steps in the evolution of graphic language. European conventions of pictorial perspective have lost their monopoly on seeing. Computer programs allow the virtual drawing of ideas. to 20th-century film fantasy. It is the focus of practical class in this chapter. Since the first flowering of Modernism in the early 20th century. each VICTOR BALTARD . of the west facade of St Augustin. with gray and brown watercolor wash.This is a pencil drawing. Since Picasso and Braque's revolution of Cubism in around 1907. from political commentary to musical abstraction. made by the architect himself. designers. and computer game imaging. to help them create new form. once there. Among the drawings of this chapter we look from 17th-century ecclesiastical calm. and sound. Through the animation of the screen. fine artists. It was also during the Renaissance that the architect Brunelleschi invented linear perspective. was preserved into the Renaissance where it became a foundation stone for thinking and creativity From 15thcentury Italy. Yet the pursuit of divine proportion and harmony remains. the formula for perfection spread through Europe. This harmony. and in the 19th century it was given the name the Golden Section. architects. VICTOR BALTARD French architect employed by the city of Paris. Paris 1871-74 the child's view to the infinity of the vanishing point. Besides sketches of first thoughts and polished drawings of the finished look for clients. film-set design. they also have a diagrammatic language for communicating plans to builders. and from West Facade of the Church of St Augustin.

and an inscribed entablature.68 ARCHITECTURE Master Builders EVERY NEW BUILDING. evoke presence. structure. 1711-12 NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR . and balance. Three aspects This subtle and sophisticated drawing made in pen and wash displays three distinct aspects of Hawksmoor's baptistry. Hampton Court Palace. Blenheim Palace. Lines define structure while washes suggest light and atmosphere. and ultimately to show builders what to do. and later an assistant to Vanbrugh. Together they explain how interior structure and space define exterior form and shape. A student of Wren's. densely layered lines in mists of color weave the presence of the expected building into shape. Finished surface On the left the finished surface of the building is given depth and emphasis by immaculate vertical and horizontal brush strokes of shadow. testing gravity to calculate the inverted shapes of domes. and the shapes of interior domes and apses. and Castle Howard. pilasters. describe a finished look to a client. Architects draw for many reasons: to visualize ideas. We see the modeled detail of Corinthian columns. and labor. Cut-away interior On the right a section cut through the center of the building reveals material thicknesses. he also worked on St Paul's Cathedral. Hawksmoor's drawing is both a plan and an evocation. The photograph opposite shows his studio hung with metal pendulums. calculate function. relative levels. Drawings underpin every great human-made structure like hidden linear ghosts at their core. a three-dimensional drawing made with wires and weights. Oxford. embodying a massive investment of ideas. NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR One of Britain's "three great" Baroque architects (along with Sir Christopher Wren and Sir John Vanbrugh). and six London churches. Pillars and floor At the base of the drawing a compass-drawn plan tilted downward through 90 degrees illustrates the arrangement of pillars around a central circular floor. Below it. Gaudi's fluid architecture grew up through many kinds of drawing. materials. Hawksmoor established his reputation with university and church architecture including All Souls College. marks the end of a long journey from the first few marks the architect made on a sheet of paper. St Paul's Baptistry c.

unique organic manipulation of high shapes. Wire and watercolor three-dimensional preferred to calculate Above is a drawing form in the made withlinkedwires and weights. 1910 24x181/4( 6 1 0 x 4 7 5mm) A N T O N I O GAUDI . embellishment. light.69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt c. This sculptural drawingenvisionsthe finished crypt glowingandethereal as if caught in thelightof red morning sun. churches. 1900 ANTONIO GAUDI ANTONIO GAUDI Visionary Catalan architect. and his love of music. To the right isawatercolordrawing thought to havebeenmade over a photograph ofthemodelabove. Guell Crypt of its at the Time Construction c. and apartment homes are distinguished by their Their and Flowering curves of stone or concrete are often encrusted with Gaudi was inspired by medieval and oriental art. Gaudi's cathedral in Barcelona. Gaudi air than on paper. The Art Nouveau movement.

and rooms. Libeskind begins quietly in the upper space of his drawing. such a rapport in both of these drawings. He also contributed to plans for the rebuilding of the World Trade Center site in New York. Satie draws quietly throughout. installations. We can imagine how a musician might interpret this drawing by looking at the abstract visual rhythms of masses composed of long straight poles. p. upright pictorial space. The architect and musician Daniel Libeskind has drawn a stampeding cacophany of airborne architectural detail. short curved poles. We can see. before cascading into a riot of line and sound below. Libeskind studied music before transferring to architecture. theater sets. while the composer Erik Satie has made an enclosure of quiet order and grace. Visual rhythms In the lower half of this drawing architectural language has broken loose: escaped and transformed into an image of rebellious pleasure. a refillable pen that feeds a constant supply of ink through a fine tubular nib. Libeskind's numerous commissions include concert halls and museums. Floor space appears divided by discernible walls. Contemporary musicians commonly collaborate with artists by interpreting images as sound. and exhibitions of his drawings. and arched dotted lines depict the radius of doors. and the spaces between his windows and turrets are the visual equivalent of pauses in h i s m u s i c c o m p o s i t i o n s for p i a n o (see also Bussotti. There has always DANIEL LIBESKIND A Polish American architect of international acclaim. Both men used rulers and pens to carefully and slowly construct their compositions. and dotted lines. and in a sense hear. Floor plan This drawing has been made with a rapidograph.223). Across the top and center right of the image w e perceive an almost recognizable architectural plan. Arctic Flowers 1980 DANIEL LIBESKIND . He also produces urban and landscape designs. been a natural affinity between the visual rhythms of pictures and the audible rhythms of music.70 ARCHITECTURE The Order of Sound B O T H OF THESE VISIONARY DRAWINGS o c c u p y a s l e n d e r . corridors. flat boards.

effectively additional lines in a work. dressed eccentrically.56—57 we discussed important the shape. Satie collaborated w i t h hisfriends J e a n C o c t e a u a n d P i c a s s o . the perimeter Composition Look how well this drawingfitsand resonates with the upright.narrowshape of its paper. Onpp. They definespaceand pictorial balance. and ink on a fragment folded brown paper—a of everyday happened material of scrap that to be at hand. a conventional dip or fountain pen. theater. Eastern influence The upright image Eastern is reminiscent and medieval of Middle pictorial space and subject of this European drawing. lived a l o n e . H e p e r f o r m e d in cabarets. o f which he was the sole m e m b e r Parcel paper Satie has drawn this fantasy hotel using a ruler.Edges are how are of orientation.H i s witty.ERIK SATIE F r e n c h pianist and c o m p o s e r for t h e piano. a n d ballet. Compare the even and and the shape wall to the elegantly stylized order of the many windows of arrangement of details and the shape of the wall in Babur's Garden of Fidelity on p.50. and founded his o w n church. 1 8 9 3 77/8 x 51/2 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 4 0 mm) ERIK SATIE . minimalist s c o r e s scandalized a u d i e n c e s with o r c h e s t r a t i o n s f o r t h e foghorn and typewriter. andfouredges of the paper tothecompositionand impact animage. Hotel de la Suzonnieres c.

96. and the reverse is true on the right. spheres. Boullee's monolithic apparition was drawn as a monument to Sir Isaac Newton. This is the work of an architectural theoretician. enter the long-shadowed architecture of imaginary worlds. This shift makes the cenotaph appear three-dimensional. experiencing a fascinating conflict between curiosity and desolation. cylinders. made in 1926. Boullee lived in Paris. we find other Utopian visions Paul Nobles epic drawing summons an imperfect and disturbing township where ruin and activity are equal and strange.72 ARCHITECTURE T H E S E T H R E E HIGHLY DETAILED DRAWINGS Future Fictions invite us to soaring above normal life. His celebrated imaginary buildings are characterized by pyramids. ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE French architectural theorist.The lower-left section of the building appears relatively pale against a darker sky. antlike mortals might have speculated upon the universe. painter. Newton's Cenotaph 1784 153/4 x 25 in ( 4 0 2 x 635 m m ) ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE . and dramatic lighting. We glide over exquisitely drawn wastelands of damage and abandonment. Art director Erich Kettlehut's vertiginous design for the city of a slavelike populace had a future influence on movies such as Blade Runner. Light illusions This pen-and-wash drawing shows a subtle application of the principles of illumination demonstrated with an egg on p. and taught at t h e A c a d e m i e d'Architecture. Within it. the ominous globe exists only as a series of drawings. Among preparations for Fritz Langs film Metropolis. and draftsman. arched vaults.

draftsman. gray. Working on toned paper such as this gives an artist greater scope for dramatic lighting effects than if they work on white paper.73 ERICH KETTLEHUT Influential film a r t director. and are Graphite shapes Nobson Central isoneof a series of very large graphite drawings of the spoil and detritus of Nobson Newtown. 1926 ERICH KETTLEHUT PAUL N O B L E British c o n t e m p o r a r y artist who creates m o n u m e n t a l . together with c i n e m a t o g r a p h e r Karl Freund. Kettlehut drew using a fine and relatively dry brush dipped in black.m a k e r In t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f Metropolis. and morality o f an invented place called His satires exhibited w o r l d w i d e .Building shapes are works can be read as text. and m o d e l . FUTURE FICTIONS Brush and ink This is a dramatic drawing from a film that shaped the history of world cinema. Fritz Lang's Metropolis c. architecture. Its sheerscaleengulfs the viewer and demands based time and patience to on letters and in some beread. used forced perspective camera t e c h n i q u e s t o amplify t h e m a g n i t u d e o f buildings in relation t o human characters. Nobson political visions of humanity Newtown. and white ink on brown-gray paper. Nobson Central 9 ft 1 0 in x 1 3 f t 2 in (3 x 4 m ) PAUL N O B L E 1998-99 . Kettlehut and his c o . intensely detailed graphite drawings explaining and questioning t h e geography.a r t director O t t o Hunte. mythology.

Note how architectural features conform to lines and how human figures diminish in size toward thevanishingpoint. observations. this perspective is often an imagined bird's-eye view in which details are mapped according to logic and importance rather than how they might appear in real life. linear perspective is distinct from more ancient systems practiced in the East. Piranesi an example of two. Study of Perspective Adoration of the for the Magi 1481 61/2 x111/2in (165 x 290 mm) LEONARDO DA VINCI . LEONARDO DA VINCI One of the greatest artists. See how the thread corresponds to each converging line. Pull the thread taut and rotate it slowly above the drawing. and thinkers ever to have lived. Sometimes shared with Naive artists. but is most easily seen and understood in pictures of buildings and interiors. It is also distinguished from aerial perspective (see pp.74 ARCHITECTURE Pathways of Sight LINEAR PERSPECTIVE (also called vanishing-point perspective) is a simple device for calculating the relative size of things in pictorial space. Single-point perspective Tie a thread to a pin. We use it to structure illusions of depth. Here Leonardo provides a superb example of a single vanishing point. In his notebooks. I contribute the child's perspective. scientists. inventors. found at the center of all converging lines. It can be applied to any subject. and inventions— essential reading for inquiring minds. Press the pin into Leonardo's vanishing point. Invented by Italian artist and architect Brunelleschi in 1413 (late in the history of art). All forms of perspective are of equal value. Leonardo recorded constant streams of ideas. and age eight. 206-07). and those of Naive artists and children.

Scale Our farmhouse my experience was in the woods. This drawing Young children typically maps ignore on and understanding of the nearby village. England 1980 9 x 16 in (228 x 405 mm) S A R A H SIMBLET GIOVANNI BATTISTA PIRANESI Italian artist. . Two-point perspective Sunlight through this colonnade a great example of two-point perspective. architect. Note the rather large rabbits and pheasants the hills. New Forest. including all they recall about the subject. It shows how children usually map large scenes in flat layers one above the other. at the top of each lateral column base.SARAH SIMBLET I made this drawing (at age 8) in response to a local bookstore's request for children to draw their village. visionary and practical understanding of ancient Rome. Mark these points with your pin and follow the converging lines of the drawing by rotating your thread. issues of scale when making room for important their story. and designer Piranesi's prolific architectural drawings. and theoretical writing strongly influenced neoclassicism. Lightly marked illuminates vanishing Two Courtyards c. 1740 5 1 / 2 x 83/8 in (141 x 212 mm) G I O V A N N I B A T T I S T A PIRANESI points are located on either side of the drawing. a points in logical narrative of memories. which I saw from home every day. Children are uninhibited and problems with one element being obscured by another rarely arise. Breamore Village.

imagine. then follow the ten steps below. discovering the image as it progressed. 2 3 corners must each touch a dotted line.) . Extend each dotted line to the edge of your drawing. using a sharp HB pencil and ruler. Draw each step over the preceding one to build up a single image. Surround the vanishing point with a small rectangle. Next.98 for an important note on oscillation. (See p. In contrast. This lesson shows you how to make a simple illusion of space defined by two boxes and three flat boards. Erase the dotted construction lines. This is where we will begin.76 ARCHITECTURE Single-Point Perspective MASTERING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE i s e a s i e r t h a n y o u m a y First read through. Each line should pass through one corner of the rectangle. Leonardo began with a grid of many lines within which he invented his scene. try composing your own space. Note that if you place large structures in the foreground and smaller ones closer to your vanishing point. DRAWING BOXES 1 Using a ruler and a sharp HB pencil. corresponding to a single vanishing point. Study these pages first before embarking on this lesson. This ensures that the second rectangle aligns with the shape and 4 Draw four short lines to connect the four corners of the two rectangles. draw a horizon line across your paper Mark a spot on the horizon line. this is your vanishing point. You have completed your first box. Piranesi planned his drawing with only the essential lines needed. Draw four dotted lines radiating out from the vanishing point. On the previous page we looked at its essential mechanism through drawings by Leonardo and Piranesi. you will amplify the illusion of distance.

and erase the dotted lines. Repeat this to add two more boards to the composition. bottom. draw a second. when inventing your own compositions. draw four dotted lines radiating from your vanishing point Pass these through each comer of the new rectangle. Connect this to the vanishing point— again. The board's sides should be parallel. with two dotted lines. 8 Complete the second box with short lines as in step 4. andfarside of this first board. larger rectangle.asIhavedonehere. Continue the dotted lines out toward the edge of your drawing. the closer it will appear to the viewer. The four comers must each touch a dotted line to be sureitaligns with the first.77 SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE 5 Draw a new rectangle. . N e x t draw a slanting line to mark the height of the first flat board. The larger you make your second rectangle. 6 As in step 2. 1 0 Erase all ofthedottedlinestoseeyourfinishedboxes Thickeningtheiredges. you can place rectangles anywhere youwishin relation to a vanishing point. 7 As in step 3. Note that this does not surround the vanishing point In the future.willhelptomake them appear more solid. 9 Use dotted lines connecting the slanting linetothe vanishing point to locate the top.

p . O n a fresh page in your d r a w i n g b o o k . If using a fibertip pen as I have done for this drawing. Then follow the three given steps. it will take you places you never dreamed of." imaginary room. A lot more happens when you open yourself up to the work and let yourself act and react to it. The m i s t a k e n belief that we s h o u l d k n o w exactly what o u r finished drawings will l o o k like before we m a k e t h e m prevents many people from ever starting.78 ARCHITECTURE Creating an Imaginary Space T H I S CLASS USES SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE t o c r e a t e a s i m p l e to you and if you listen to it. APPLYING PERSPECTIVE An Imagined Scaffold "Enjoy your illusion as you make it and it will become more real. As David Lynch. once said: "I never end up with what I set out to do. I always start with a script but I don't follow it all the way through to the end. w h e t h e r it is a film or a painting. Linear perspective will support y o u by providing a frame in which to b u i l d your picture as it did for Leonardo. draw a b o x as shown opposite. Every work talks In this class. It highlights the importance of having faith in your imagination and trusting your ability to invent. it is interaction that makes the work richer. you will find white adhesive stationery labels are useful for covering errors or changing the direction of your idea. artist and film director." . 7 4 ) . let simple lines suggest a simple space. then let the space suggest its c o n t e n t s and purpose.

horizontal. and floors and ceilings also converge and rise o r lower toward the horizon. The space has become more solid and real. and leaning surfaces.79 DRAWING A SIMPLE ROOM Essentials t o remember: objects and people dimmish in size as they move farther away.There is great pleasure tobefoundin spending time inventing interiors. CREATING AN IMAGINARY SPACE 1First. . 2 first before adding furniture. parallel planes such as walls converge toward the vanishing point. With some practice. additional lines have established the different surfaces and how they relate to each other. Here. This initial space will be transparent and open to change.Addanarray of converging lines to provide a "scaffold" for vertical. you will beableto draw more complex objects orpeoplewithin them.drawthehorizonlineand vanishingpoint. 3 Remove the construction lines with an eraser and the room will becomeclearer.

they can be placed anywhere inspaceto describe the perspective of flyi c tilted objects. Free vanishing points On paper we can enjoy the freedom of fantastic structural invention without limitations of solid materials or gravity. 76-79). T h e y d o n o t have to relate to each other. but they are not confined to this level. They could be drawn on any scale from miniature to monumental. Elaborations . Only when y o u might employ t h r e e . Vanishing points are commonly found on horizon—our eye level. located anywhere inside or outside the pictorial space. Further aspects of three-point perspective are also illustrated opposite. From our normal eye level. The boxes drawn here are seen partly or entirely disassociated from a horizon line drawn across the bottom of the image. Potentially. o r to the h o r i z o n . Search for the application of these perspectives among works by other artists in this book and in galleries.p o i n t perspective ( s h o w n opposite top). It is important to realize that you can have as many vanishing points as you wish. Here. showing y o u h o w to draw curved surfaces and a tiled floor. our eye level is very high and we look down. or low and we look u p . To draw such a view APPLICATION Copy these drawings to see and feel how they work before inventing your own versions. a n d this is how we have drawn them so far (see pp. verticals appear p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the g r o u n d . I have elaborated on the simple boxes above. That is where we e to find them. Copying what you see in the work of others will help you to understand what they have done. do verticals appear inclined. These elaborations could continue indefinitely across a sheet of paper in pursuit of complex and intricate ideas. T h i n k of standing at the top of a skyscraper and imagine h o w its parallel sides would appear to converge below you.80 ARCHITECTURE Further Aspects of Perspective W E ARE ACCUSTOMED TO SEEING our e n v i r o n m e n t from a relatively constant point of view. T h i s is d e m o n s t r a t e d immediately below.

I marked the toplinewith three evenly spaced points and the line with seven. Where thelinescross. useful for representing steep views looking up or down tall structures.Istarted with two parallel lines.) By comparing this drawing t o Piranesi's example of two-point perspective on p.Finally. I then drew three fanned groups of lines connecting each of the three points above to the seven points below. Iusedthese lines as a guide t o draw the curvature of boxes and panels flying through space. (Turn the book around to see a view looking up. and therefore tension. you will see how. Three-point checkered floor This d bottom floor. Note that altering the distance between the three dots above will tilt the level of the floor . An array of curved lines (drawn freehand) link the two lateral points.75.I added horizontal lines t o define the tiles. three vanishing points are evenly spaced along a horizon line. Giving curvature.81 FURTHER ASPECTS OF Three-point towers This drawing depicts three-point perspective. by adding a third point you can achieve a sense of incline. PERSPECTIVE Three-point curves Here. tostraightlines can amplify drama in a picture. they mark the corners of the floor tiles.

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These walnut-skin ink pen and brush drawings show imagined views of theaters that do not exist but were inspired by places I studied. . making drawings to resolve questions and express personal responses to the nature and history of anatomy.Theaters RESEARCHING FOR MY P H D . I visited many anatomical theaters and museums.

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Venetian Life sitting point buildings ThisP E N . The vanishing of the drawing is directly opposite as we look across The constancy of the bridge and surrounding frames the movement in the life that flows past. the water.A N D .I N KDRAWING is one of a series I made while next to the Rialto Bridge in Venice. .

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Engineers and designers of our objects and instruments make drawings for many reasons: to test an idea that is yet to be made. C o m m o n items. planned. have often carried great weights of allegorical once. With the sudden onset of mass production. and made. we look at the importance are the only creatures on Earth w h o actually design and create great ranges of things. It was in this era that the blueprint was born.Objects and Instruments T HE THINGS WE INVENT describe our lives. of light in the creation of pictorial illusions. Artists also make images of objects that can never exist. passing them on to others through the act of making. illuminating snail shells. hooked bars that can be pulled and tied closely form. and a wire violin. T h e precision of engineering d r a w i n g s e v o l v e d alongside machine tools. Birds follow instinct to make a nest. from s p o o n s and pens to chairs and bicycles. drawings were needed to instruct workers on the factory floor. 1493 117/8c81/4in (300 x 210 m m ) LEONARDO D A V I N Ccreating I . and the behavior of light through making still-life paintings and together. fictional realities caster of h o w t o make it andhowit will w o r k . even more advanced drawings are made on computers. Previously. It is shaped in sections w i t h Artists have for centuries studied and expressed composition. In this chapter. sculpted. craftsmen had held plans in their memory. H e has described contour and function at drawings. A chair. but humans LEONARDO DA VINCI Inthisbeautiful red chalk Our items all have a purpose—practical or ornamental—and all have a meaning. Artists and actors use the meanings of things to communicate a speculative mechanic. to record an observed detail. each demanding more of the other as they increased in sophistication. drawing c. In past eras. r an equestrian statue. are all made bearing the signature of our time and place. History will be learned from the artifacts w e leave behind. texture. or used on stage hood for a mold t o make theheado f a horse f oas a p r o p — i m b u e d with e n o u g h energy or character can "become" a man. H e has described a casting through metaphor. for example—whether. Today. W e also explore v o l u m e and form in the classes by spinning lines to make vessels. drawn. or drawing w e see Leonardo daVinci'sprecision as can be given meaning. too. or to explain and present a finished concept to a client. making a clear instruction t o his bronzemeaning. and the way in w h i c h the brain reacts Head and Neck Sections of Female Mold for the Sforza Horse to visual stimulus and optical illusions. design. and some apes use simple tools. for example. T h e Industrial Revolution c h a n g e d the traditional w a y s in w h i c h objects were designed. these. Technical drawing was speedily developed as a meticulous international code of m e a s u r e m e n t and explanation. color. that test our logic with a sense of mystery.

"I believe [it] is the most radicalattempttostampout ambiguity and to enforce one readingofthepicture—that of a manmade construction. Braques "justly" arranged combination of cut black card. wood-look wallpaper. One of the great joys of this movement in art is the musicality of its multipoint view. perfect i n their newly made availability. and shading. and a journal jacket with words makes this drawing chatter about the moment. not to work in harmony. Statue D'Epouvante 1913 2 f t 5 in x 3 ft 5 in (0. steaming with music and conversation. a colored canvas. silverware.Braque marshals all the forces of perspective. Even today GEORGES BRAQUE French painter who as a young man was influenced by the work of the Fauves and of Cezanne. Braque established Cubism in partnership with Picasso just before World War I.90 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS Still Life THESE DRAWINGS REVEAL t w o o p p o s i t e m o t i v a t i o n s i n we can.." La Cuitare. Below. His work is characterized by calm and harmonious still-life compositions. Clashes The art historian Ernst Gombrich said of Cubism. Opposite. Mucha's drawing glistens with possession. T h i s is a designers drawing made to enthuse surface and style in its delicate brushing of china. and glass objects of exquisite elegance for only the gentlest of touch and appreciation. not of place but of things. charcoal. He takes us into the bustle of the Paris cafe.. representing still life. texture. still feel this projected moment. . but to clash in virtual deadlock. Braques image is a Cubist collage.73 x 1 m) GEORGES BRAQUE . There is a fragile eloquence to these objects as they drift in slow motion past our gaze.

For ten years Mucha designed theater posters exclusively for the actress Sarah Bernhardt.fruit. and fish have been outlined using a sharp pencil. Pans. The three plates facing us were drawn with a compass. Study for Plate 59 from "Documents Decoratifs" 17x121/4(430 x 310 mm) ALPHONSE MUCHA 1902 . and New York. Art Nouveau curling motifs of birds. Black watercolor washes and lines of white gouache have been added with a fine brush. and also stamps and bank notes.ALPHONSE MUCHA Czech graphic artist and painter who worked in Prague. Background color Between the delicate shadows and highlights of these glazed and surfaces ofthebackground metal color of the Mucha we see a large amount paper. Chicago. He designed the Austrian pavilion for the Paris World Fair in 1900. Look at the two spoons at toprightand see how has suggested that they are so brilliantly shiny they reflect the background color. He is best known for posters featuring ethereal women in typical Art Nouveau style. Art Nouveau motifs This is a preliminary study for a subsequent print.flowers.

A disembodied eye at the top of the drawing indicates where to look. a tree outside. It was then reflected up inside the tube and. Transparent view Newton's reflecting telescope focused light in a parabolic mirror. Ink lines Several drawings appear among Newton's letters. each reflecting a view of his own world—his window. Newton's drawing of his first reflecting telescope is ISAAC N E W T O N English scientist. via a second mirror. Newton used this instrument to calculate the speed required to escape earth's gravity. Look how confidently he draws with ink the sphere of this wooden globe by which his telescope rotates. into the eyepiece. shape the very cause and effect of investigatory thought. Hooke's head of a drone fly seen through a microscope may represent the first time man and insect came face to face. Their delicate construction is only as valuable as the measurements they make. Newton's 1672 ISAAC Telescope NEWTON . astronomer. and Fellow of the University o f C a m b r i d g e . The power of this drawing reflects the pure passion of discovery. and the nature o f light and color.92 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS by their very nature must gauge or chronicle precision. drawing is there to pin the moment down. He counted 1 4 . mathematician. and his hand moving across the light. we see drawing Instruments of Vision found among his letters. the law o f gravity. each one skillfully rendered with the alarmingly matter-of-fact ease of explaining the commonplace. 0 0 0 perfect hemispheres. offering a transparent view. From the concept of capturing the infinite to the mapping of microscopic sight. In the graphic work of these two great men of science. With dotted lines Newton has drawn his arrangement of elements inside the tube. w h e r e he developed his three greatest theories: the law o f motion. and philosopher Newton was President of the Royal Society. It is a diagrammatic explanation of how to catch and magnify a star in a mirrored tube. alchemist.

ROBERT H O O K E 93 Magnifications This acutely detailed engraved drawing is taken from Hooke's Micrographia (pub. 1665). universal joint a prototype respirator clock balance. The Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 1665 ROBERT HOOKE 111/2 x 105/8 in (294 x 270 mm) . Hooke invented the camera diaphragm. and calculated the theory of combustion. a breathtaking book containing many of his drawings showing some of the first microscopic and telescopic magnifications of our environment Hooke's text and illustrations carry us to the moment of discovery. It is an exhilarating read. and anchor escarpment.An experimental scientist who drew many of his discoveries.

this chair p r e s e n t s us with a clever visual contradiction: deeply drawn shadows tell us it must be solid. From component parts we understand how to put it together and make it stand sensible in space. and place in the world are truly seen. OBJECTS AND SARAH WOODFINE British contemporary artist graduate of the Royal Academy Schools. Sarah Woodfines flat cut-out m o d e l plan is a witty and surprising drawing. and has drawings in numerous public and private collections. it has so m u c h familiar personality that it seems to talk to us. Chair Cut Out 2002 22'A x 23 in (565 x 585 mm) SARAH WOODFINE . Van Gogh's tipsy seat is a metaphor for an absent person. while the tabs make us see a flat paper cut-out. each drawn with the s a m e unfaltering lines and tones that are between reality and impossibility. and w h e r e the chair b e l o n g s . craft. Two-dimensional was made This highly finished drawing ruler using a sharp pencil and on smooth white drawing paper glistening dark drawings are artificial representations of known Woodfine's two-dimensional things balanced in the world. Bench Marks W e are left a little c o n f u s e d as to what we s h o u l d do. Its wobbly gait and squashed s y m m e t r y m u m b l e endless h o m e y tales about the life it has seen. Woodfine exhibits internationally. and winner of the 2004 Jerwood Drawing Prize. A renegade from the p a p e r dolls' h o u s e . Drawn in more-or-less c o n v e n t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e .94 INSTRUMENTS W H E N WE DRAW A COMMON OBJECT like a chair. its character. has published several catalogs of her work. W i t h h o m e y c o n t r a s t .

Among van Gogh's best-known canvases are Trees. His passionate brush and pencil strokes are honest and of also turmoil and growing alarm at the world around him. not is made present in only strokes and is subdued to distract us from flat a meaningful chair. what direct in their he saw and describing his felt. drawn opposite way of plan.hehas marked the full emotion of the subject with a fierce grip of concentration. inner recording while Fierce strokes This is a portrait of the mechanical drew immediately and almost harshly. Van Chair 1890 VINCENT VAN GOGH . Cornfield and Sunflowers. and Starry Cypress Night. The floor few as engagement with the chair.95 VINCENTVAN GOGH Dutch painter who produced over 800 paintings and 850 drawings in only the last ten year's of his life.

Before starting a tonal drawing of any subject. We perceive one to be lighter than theother. The small squares are identical in tone. Are you happy LIGHT AND SHADOW with what you see? Does the light enhance the subject? Could you alter and improve it? On pp. your eye around the circumference of the egg. cards the same size. but do not appear so. Adjust the angleofthe protruding part and again stepback.102-03 deep shadows cast across shells make their form easier to perceive. are translated into a world of space. perhaps. On acloudyday. Card experiment cho can gra on . a n d our ability to see forms in c l o u d s or fire. Tape them to the glass.d o w n patterns of light on our retinas. a n d m o v e m e n t . a lit photograph of an egg shows essential points to observe in tonal drawing. the adjustment of our eyes (in growing accustomed to a level of light). and the proximity of contrasting tones. Below the bottom "edge" of the egg there is a rim of light reflected onto the paper by the underside of the egg. We will even see things that d o not exist because minimal information suggests they are likely to be there. Here w e look briefly at our perception of light a n d darkness a n d our interpretation of diagrammatic illusions.At one point you will catchenoughlight lighter than the white one. hence our recognition of a cartoon face c o m p o s e d of three lines. S o m e o n e passes our o p e n door. or colored surface is never constant. Through these we can enjoy witnessing our o w n d e c e p t i o n a n d b a f f l e m e n t a n d u n d e r s t a n d certain factors that are very useful in picture-making. gray. U p s i d e . a n d are q u i c k to p r o p o s e ideas. two identical mid-gray squares are seen against black and paler gray squares. We only need small prompts. atmosphere. one blackandone white. The perceived tone of a black white. The egg's darkest region is seen against a lighter background. a n d we can be fooled.This effect is caused by the contrast of their surroundings. See how its "edge" smoothly changes from light against dark to dark against light. Gray squares To further examine changes in tone. reads only m o v e m e n t a n d can often m a k e mistakes. form. T h e slightest recognition is instantly matched to our wealth of experience a n d expectation. To interpret visual s t i m u l u s . Run The bottom-left quarter of the egg lightens slightly toward its "edge" when seen against the darker shadow cast on the paper. Below. try this experiment. From across the room both will appear black card and fold and retapeitwith half sticking out. The egg's lightest region is seen against a darker background. w e turn our head but n o one w a s there.96 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Light and Illusions SEEING IS MIRACULOUS. Three factors change it: the amount of light it receives. W e learn to read light and shadow in our environment as indicators of solidity and depth of space. o u r b r a i n s search for n a m e a b l e things. The outermost edge of our vision. transmitted to the brain as chains of electrical impulses. The two tones meet without a division or outline between. The rim of light on the egg is reflected light received from surrounding paper. Here. Artists emulate and manipulate this effect in their pictures. think about its illumination. less developed than the center.

S h o r t h o r i z o n t a l lines o f identical length are m a d e t o l o o k d i f f e r e n t by c o n v e r g i n g lines beside t h e m ( C ) . respectively. O f t e ndoingso w i l l s p o i l y o u r w o r k . B o t h are identical in length. Apparent lengths T h e s e optical illusions s h o w h o w lines o f identical length can b e m a d e t o l o o k quite different f r o m each o t h e r by t h e addition o r association o f o t h e r lines. LIGHT AND ILLUSIONS Tonal width T h e s e black a n d w h i t e bands are o f equal thickness o n e i t h e r side o f t h e i r central division. T h e jug d r a w n w i t h a t h i n line appears f a r t h e r away t h a n t h e j u g d r a w n w i t h a t h i c k e r line. l i g h t e r surfaces s t a n d f o r w a r d w h i l e d a r k e r s u r f a c e s recede. If y o u w i s h t o m a k e a t o n a l drawing. b u t t h e u p r i g h t o n e l o o k s t a l l e r (B). T w o relatively t h i c k parallel lines are m a d e t o b e n d away f r o m each o t h e r as t h e y pass in f r o n t o f an a r r a y o f c o n v e r g i n g f i n e lines ( B ) . Seven parallel lines are m a d e t o tilt t o w a r d and away f r o m each o t h e r by n u m e r o u s s h o r t strokes crossing t h e m diagonally ( A ) . In this linear drawing w e read t h i c k as closer a n d t h i n as f a r t h e r away. T w o horizontal lines o f equal length are m a d e t o l o o k longer and shorter.p o i n t p e r s p e c t i v e d r a w i n g s w i t h a large n u m b e r o f c o n v e r g i n g rays b e h i n d y o u r horizontals. T h i s fundamental o p p o s i t e is a reason w h y l i n e a r a n d t o n a l d r a w i n g does not a l w a y s c o m b i n e w e l l in t h e s a m e i m a g e . Y o u m a y e x p e r i e n c e s o m e t h i n g similar h a p p e n i n g w h e n y o u m a k e s i n g l e . start o u t w i t h one. Bending straight lines Linear distance These t w o jugs have b e e n d r a w n w i t h lines o f d i f f e r i n g thicknesses. t h i c k e r l i n e s a p p e a r t o stand forward. In this t o n a l image w e read w h i t e as f a t t e r t h a n black. In a t o n a l d r a w i n g . . O b s e r v e h o w each white b a n d appears t h i c k e r t h a n its black c o u n t e r p a r t . w h i l e t h i n n e r lines recede. T h e r e is n o obligation t o a d d b l o c k s o f t o n e t o a l i n e a r d r a w i n g . A n u p r i g h t line stands in t h e c e n t e r o f a h o r i z o n t a l line. by d i r e c t e d a r r o w s ( A ) .97 LINE VERSUS TONE In l i n e a r d r a w i n g s .

98 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Further Illusions PSYCHOLOGISTS AND PHYSIOLOGISTS have studied optical illusions for decades in pursuit of what they tell us about the brain. Artists make pictorial illusions when they paint or draw. o r as a s l o p i n g . Yet many illusions. made paintings that depended upon the physical sensation of our brain's reaction to known optical illusions. such as Bridget Riley.s i d e d r e c t a n g u l a r t r a y ( b o t h are illustrated far r i g h t ) "The brain is so eager to name a fragment we see that we need only a suggestion to grasp the whole. It is possible t o r e a d i t t w o ways: as a t r u n c a t e d r e c t a n g u l a r p y r a m i d seen d i r e c t l y f r o m a b o v e . Some artists use known optical illusions to make art. Michelangelo." . as s h o w n o n t h e right. perfected the acceleration of perspective (see pp. w h e n drawing the outline o f a three-dimensional form.76. C l o s i n g t h e surface o f t h e f o r m seals o u r d e c i s i o n as t o w h i c h w a y it faces. and so calculated precisely how much to fatten columns to make them appear straight. Ancient Greek architects knew parallel upright lines appeared to bend toward each other in the middle. Today we are bombarded with images but rarely have difficulty reading them. such as t h e dish seen h e r e o n t h e left. In the 1960's. It is a curious fact that w e can never see both options at once. A few suggestive marks will tip the decision one way o r the o t h e r Closing the surface W h e n a t r a n s p a r e n t elliptical o b j e c t has b e e n d r a w n . it oscillates between t w o possibilities. Two ways of seeing T h i s is t h e b o x c r e a t e d in t h e f o u r t h step o n p. Artists can communicate much in few lines and the viewer will do the rest of the work. Op(tical) artists. including some shown here.116-17) to make painted figures look correct when viewed from below. are still not agreeably understood. it can oscillate b e t w e e n facing t o w a r d o r a w a y f r o m us. and we learn to read the styles of diverse cultures and periods. w e can only look f r o m one t o the o t h e r If an artist is not aware this can happen in their image. SEEING TWO OPTIONS Sometimes. their picture could be ambiguous. others adjust works to avoid their effects. w e will find that in terms of the direction it faces. among others.

FURTHER ILLUSIONS Seeing things that are n o t t h e r e H e r e o n t h e left. Minimal-line j o k e s such as this rely u p o n t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y v i e w e r ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e shapes. smoke. This simple five-line d r a w i n g is o f a C a p u c h i n priest asleep in his pulpit. T h e y a r e o f t e n c r e d i t e d w i t h t h e invention o f t h e c o m i c c a r t o o n . M u c h can b e e x p r e s s e d in o n l y a f e w marks. . e t c . His highly d i s p u t e d and i m p r e c i s e science involves s h o w i n g u n p r e p a r e d p a t i e n t s t e n p a r t i c u l a r ink b l o t s a n d asking t h e m t o i n t e r p r e t w h a t t h e y see. C o u p l e d w i t h t h e Rorschach b l o t above. Yet still w e try resolve t h e m . P e r c e i v i n g a w h o l e i m a g e f r o m m i n i m a l lines T h i s is a w i d e l y r e p r o d u c e d visual j o k e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e C a r r a c c i b r o t h e r s . T h e s e e x a m p l e s illustrate h o w little is n e e d e d t o c o n v e y an image. this is a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f t h e viewer's b r a i n b e i n g willing t o d o a large a m o u n t o f t h e w o r k in d e c i p h e r i n g a p i c t u r e . clouds. O n l y o n closer inspection we realize that t h e s e o b j e c t s are fooling us.c e n t u r y Swiss psychologist H e r m a n n Rorschach. T h e a r t i s t M. W e should r e m e m b e r t h a t o u r brains will always search f o r a p i c t u r e — i n ink blots. — a n d so t h e artist can create m u c h o u t o f an impression w i t h o u t overdescribing. C Escher u s e d this phenomenon t o great effect in his many p o p u l a r d r a w i n g s o f puzzles and impossible buildings. B e l o w is a b r i g h t n e s s c o n t r a s t illusion. b u t w e believe w e see t h e m because e n o u g h f r a g m e n t a r y i n f o r m a t i o n is given f o r o u r brains t o c o n c l u d e t h e y are v e r y likely t h e r e . w e see t w o overlapping triangles: o n e outlined in black b e n e a t h a n o t h e r in solid w h i t e . T h e t e s t e x p l o r e s o u r n o r m a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o find things w e can n a m e a m o n g r a n d o m shapes. C o u n t t h e n u m b e r o f d a r k spots y o u can see. T h e patient's answers are t h e n diagnosed as a psychological profile.99 Impossible objects T h e s e clever configurations o f outlines and t o n a l surfaces convince us at a glance that we are seeing a solid three-dimensional triangle and a three-pronged fork. 1 6 t h . This effect can o c c u r naturally w h e n looking at a b r i g h t l y lit w h i t e g r i d such as a w i n d o w f r a m e against t h e night sky. F a m i l i a r i t y in r a n d o m s h a p e s T h e Rorschach test was established by t h e 1 9 t h . S o m e artists use ink blots t o p r o m p t t h e beginning o f an image. N e i t h e r triangle exists.c e n t u r y Italian painters.

as if the table surface slopes upward beneath the vessel. and these narrow or widen depending on the height of our view. hesitant one that has edged its w a y nervously around the vessel's rim. Don't worry if it is uneven— just try again. spin your hand in a relaxed circle. giving the cylinder four corners. you will achieve steadiness with practice. like a disposable plastic cup that has been crushed in your hand. that this is o n l y o n e w a y view. The second common error is to tilt the upper and lower ellipses at different angles. third common error is to draw upper and lover ellipses with different-sized apertures. The first common error is to draw two pointed ellipses. for example plates or bowls on a table. not the paper!) As the pen touches down. for example. To make a cylindrical object appear real in our pictorial space. Cubism. suggesting that the vessel is lopsided.90) takes a different as essentially circular. w e use ellipses to give a sense of perspective. How to Draw Ellipses of seeing. I have exaggerated this error here. though. such as bowls and cups. Be aware. Watch the tip of your pen and see it draw an ellipse in the air Keep this movement going while gently lowering the pen onto the paper like the needle of a record player closing on the disc (only it is your lowering hand that spins. Ellipse are best d r a w n quickly. WHERE TO START In the air above a spacious sheet of scrap paper. w h e n seen at an angle. However. A wobbling but confident ellipse will still be more convincing than a slow. (see p. springlike forms like those I have drawn below. circles change into ellipses. since this is h o w w e experience them in e v e r y d a y use.100 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS W E VISUALIZE CYLINDRICAL VESSELS. even if y o u r hand w o b b l e s a little at first. while its upper rim remains level. there are three common errors people stumble upon. Cover a sheet of paper with spinning. COMMON ERRORS W h e n drawing cylindrical objects in perspective. keep it spinning. I have drawn these for you here. . smoothly. describing many sides of an object simultaneously. a n d in o n e bold stroke.

Seeing Through Allow lines to travel around each vessel as if it were transparent.101 DRAWING VESSELS Once you have mastered drawing free-hand springs. working from top to bottom. . Draw quickly. enlarging and diminishing the ellipse to determine the overall shape and volume. Create a Solid Surface Once you have drawn the shape and volume of each form. you can start to control your spinning ellipse to make a vessel. Altering the pressure—and therefore tone—of the line as it spins gives the impression of light shining on one side. HOW TO DRAW E L L I P S E S A Single Vessel One Inside Another Grouped Together Finding Shape and Volume Draw an imagined vessel in one continuous spinning line. thereby hiding lines that show the other sides. you can make it solid by building up highlights and tones on visible surfaces.

It is important to place them on the correct side so as to draw comfortably (see pp. outlines. Remember that shadows. it will inhibit your perception of tone. Draw the largest and most distinct areas of light and darkness first. and solid objects are all of equal importance. In the finished drawing there should be few. if any. Illuminate them with a gooseneck lamp placed very close and directed away from your eyes. OBJECTS AND Start by arranging a choice of shells on a sheet of paper to your left if you are right-handed (or vice versa). or you can begin with a mid-gray ground and model light out of darkness (see opposite bottom). and strong contrasts are easier to draw. It maximizes the range of tones between black and white. if light shines in them. Relaxing your eyes out of focus as you draw will help to dissolve the distraction of detail. leaving detail until last.102 INSTRUMENTS Tonality W H E N MAKING A TONAL DRAWING. Gradually hone your drawing. t h e r e a r e p r i n c i p a l l y Dramatic lighting emphasizes texture and contour. making complicated or subtle surfaces easier to see and understand. beams of light. simply shapes and subtleties of light and dark meeting each other with no divisions in between. two opposite methods of achieving the same result. You can begin with outlines and build slowly from light to dark (see opposite top). LIGHT TO DARK DARK TO LIGHT .22-23).

. Relaxing your eyes out of focus will help to eliminate distracting details. Continue working between light and dark to refine the drawing. pale lines with equal importance. look at the main areas of darkness. DARK TO LIGHT (TONE TO TONE) 1 Using the flattened tip of an HB pencil. and edges definingthespacialrelationships between are important aspects of your composition them. Use quick. Use your pencil to develop these in relation to the areas of light. Draw in the details last of all. draw a rectangle. with broad sweeps of the eraser. until you are happy frame. boldly 2 3 Keeping your eyes out of focus. Avoid a rough significant areas of light in your gray rectangle with texture and do not press the graphite hardwhite plastic eraser Ignore all detail and draw a into thepaperor you will not be able to erase it. Remember that its size.56-57). Honetheshapesand angles of the shells. Let your eyes go out of focus while looking gently layer marks to create an even tone at your subject and paper: Draw the most ofmid-graywithin a rectangle. Erase and make changes to roughly place the shells inside your with your composition.103 LIGHT TO DARK (LINE TO TONE) TONALITY 1 Using a sharp HB pencil. 2 3 Gentlydissolveoutlines so that areas oflightanddark meet without a line between them. shape. Fll in broad areas first and leave all detail until last. Treat positive form and negative space (see pp. loose.

Place the instrument on a plain surface and illuminate it with a desk lamp to add the delicate dimension of shadows. On p. and physical relationships between them. three-dimensional drawings teach us about the totality of forms in space. 19 Picasso draws with a pen-light for the camera.69 we see how the architect Antonio Gaudi drew proposed domes using suspended wires and weights. There are essentially three lessons to be learned. 176 the British artists Noble and Webster draw with domestic refuse in a beam of light. When drawing anything viewed from one side on paper. and on p. smooth. This class uses thin-gauge wire to create a threedimensional violin.220 Mamoru Abe draws with forged steel rods. try drawing it with a pen on paper Use bold. our image is stronger if we understand and can visualize what is happening on the other side too. . you can create your own more ambitious works. and on p. PEN LINES Once you have created your three-dimensional violin (opposite). Third. They can also be made in space. On p. continuous lines.104 OBJECTS AND I N S T R U M E N T S Drawing with Wire DRAWINGS DO NOT HAVE to be two-dimensional. Seeing through a wire drawing of a known object such as a violin gives us a visual and tactile understanding of all its sides and shapes at once. The first is that figurative and abstract drawings can be made in space. The second is that after achieving this simple example.

1 Decide how big to draw your violin relative to the gauge of your wire. Here. Cut a length. brace the two ends of the violin with a length of wire along the back. Once you have completed the body. begin to shape the curvature of the fingerboard. and pinch and bend it to shape the base of the instrument Repeat this process to make the identical upper side of the instrument. but thin enough to be easily manipulated inyourfingers Here. and thick wire a larger one. Join the two sides together with four short pieces of wire. These will hold the sides apart and help to keep the form in shape. 4 . Then begin to define its uppermost surface with Scurves and the bridge. I started with the scroll at the top and fixed the four component wires with two drawings of tuning pegs.105 SETTING UP DRAWING WITH WIRE Follow these steps to draw a three-dimensional violin Choose a gauge of wire sturdy enough to hold the shape ofyourfinished drawing. I used garden wire and cut it carefully with pruners. 2 3 If needed. thin wire will make a smaller drawing.

Using found materials. Oxford.Artifacts and Fictions IN 1993 I WORKED with a group of schoolchildren who were responding to the astonishing objects in the collection of the Pitt Rivers Museum. they invented new anthropological finds—objects that reflected the distant past and their immediate future. England. some of which are shown here. . I had the privilege of drawing their inventions.

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Artists now explore the interior of the body with new media and Lateral Contour Map of a Full-Term Primipara Produced by Light 1979 A. Renaissance artists studying anatomy from dissection clinically trained and specialized as a medical illustrator. giving physical foundation undulating land. He even believed he had located the soul contours of her form like a cartographer's map of in the pituitary fossa beneath the brain and behind the eyes. W e are the only creatures on Earth that can make our own image. herimpressive presence because we are given such Life drawing no longer dominates the art school curriculum. and anatomical and erotic art. It gives physical and emotive form to religious narratives. W I L L I A M S technology. the junior workshop apprentices posed as part of their duties. diseased. In this period. the Bay Area Models' Guild h o l d s a quarterly life-drawing m a r a t h o n aprinton Kodak transfer paper with green-colored dye added celebrating the great diversity of human proportion. R. Leonardo drew a man within a circle and square. WILLIAMS he sought perfection in the infinitesimal measurement of the body and produced four Contemporary photographer volumes of illustrated explanation. history paintings and other stories. and surgically rebuilt. myths and fables. She the body is still essential. and in San could easily be transferred into three dimensions. The human body. 3 x 7 in (300 x 180 . R. sculptural description of her form. W e understand every curve and balance of to the theory that the eves are the windows of the soul. artists also tried to define ideal proportions in the body. a n d w e d r a w o u r s e l v e s to a s s e r t o u r e x i s t e n c e . Strangely. During this time. Drawings were usually made from the male nude to avoid offending the church. from video and X-ray to thermal imaging. while Leonardo opened the body to see and projected onto a woman's body draw the celebratory discover for himself our physical mechanisms. explaining ranges e/ of materials and techniques and showing diversities of thought and purpose in making. Artists are thought to have b e g u n drawing from the nude during the Italian Renaissance. much Western contemporary art. while Durer took his research further— A. Michelangelo attended dissections to made this image by light sectioning: fine beams of light perfect his understanding of surface form. The body remains at the core of over the initially white lines. but the study of a controlled. Look closely at Renaissance drawings of the female b o d y and you will see that m o s t are actually y o u n g m e n with minor adjustments. It also looks at the representation of the b o d y b11y4o n d traditional life drawing. clothed or nude. portraiture. is the most c o m m o n subject in art. in our privileged and comfortable society. These classes are popular around the world. This chapter addresses issues that are most commonly faced by beginners attending life-drawing classes. Williams were decades ahead of their medical counterparts. and because the female was deemed inferior.The Body O UR BODIES MAKE us TANGIBLE. This F finished image was produced as r a n c i s c o . focus has turned to the vulnerability of flesh: how it can be damaged.

116-17). anatomy. so that we read this drawing like a sculptural frieze. while Matisse used scissors and glue to cut out and paste a flat collage of brilliant color. Raphael drew delicate tones of black chalk on tinted paper. T h e y b o t h raise one arm to cup their head in their hand. In a single drawing we see equally o b s e r v e d studies of f o r e s h o r t e n i n g (see pp. In this highly s o p h i s t i c a t e d a b s t r a c t i o n . filling the page with her presence.110 T H E BODY THESE DISTINCTIVE WORKS show two strikingly different ways of modeling the body on paper. Three Guards 1500-20 91/4 x143/8in (234 x 365 mm) RAPHAEL . She u n f o l d s and s t r e t c h e s shapely limbs. we see the e s s e n c e of h e r b e a u t y w i t h o u t a single detail. But the meanings of each gesture and the materials and methods by which they Postures and Poses were m a d e contrast greatly. Matisse's b l u e n u d e sings with life and c e l e b r a t i o n . RAFFAELLO SANZIO (RAPHAEL) Italian High Renaissance painter: Raphael is best known for his images of the Madonna and Child. By way of contrast. and human defeat. and studied to learn from the works of Michelangelo and Leonardo besides whom he was soon ranked. Muscular dramatic postures reflect the influence of Michelangelo and the Renaissance celebration of the idealized male body. altar pieces. He trained under Perugino. while supporting the weight of their body with the other. and Vatican frescos. Sculptural frieze This is a preparatory drawing for Raphael's painting of the Resurrection of Christ. Here three male nudes are compressed into very shallow pictorial space. Principal figures m i r r o r e a c h other. Raphael's study of fallen m e n leaves no doubt that they are in anguish.

His calligraphic natural abstractions of form grew brighter.like an appeasing influence.111 HENRY MATISSE French painter: draftsman. printmaker.. as his w o r k matured..or like a good armchair in which to rest from physical fatigue. and Islamic art. Matisse became an artist after studying law." of is an art of balance. a mental soother.designer writer. freer.which might be. his pattern. serenity. Matisse Soothing influence This drawing expresses the achievement of Matisse's personal aim: "What I dream and depressing subject matter.sculptor. teacher and principal exponent o f Fauvism—a movement established in 1905 in which bold color is the most essential element.. fabric. lifelong love of brilliant They celebrate the culmination of spectacular and sometimes drawings. foundamong many other groups of papercut these works as an elderly man confined to his bed or wheelchair.... and more energetic Color and form This collage is one of a series of Blue Nudes. devoid of troubling Blue Nude 1 1952 413/4 HENRY MATISSE .

reflected. and muddied the brilliance of the drawing. In his f a m o u s paintings of social e n g a g e m e n t . he used b l a c k c o n t e (see p. like small birds attendant on the meditation. only tones blending into. Typically. scratched in seconds. If Seurat had added white.112 T H E BODY Choreographs T I M E IS A SIGNIFICANT E L E M E N T i n t h e m a k i n g o f a l l d r a w i n g s . Beuys's magician. it is as if the very atoms of air are made visible. in a perfect e x a m p l e . we c o m p a r e a skillful design that absorbed m u c h time in its making with the quickness of an idea marked instantly. Opposite. and color His applied theories still influence painters in their manipulation and rendering of local. form. Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 1883-84 91/2 x 121/4 in (241 x 312 m m GEORGES SEURAT . or abruptly meeting. and c o m p l e m e n t a r y hues. Below. Light is given by the paper alone. Seurat engaged in lifelong studies of line. other tones. velvet d a r k n e s s . Here. w h o sits propped in the contradictory darkness of a hot summer's day. it would have mixed with unseen black dust. Seurat evolved a distinctive t e c h n i q u e called p o i n t i l l i s m — i m a g e s literally made from myriad points of color. 162) and an eraser to model teeming points of artificial light amid GEORGES SEURAT French painter classically educated in the Ingres school of thought. agreeing to coalesce and show us the form of a waiting boy. there are no outlines. His drawings are similarly u n i q u e . T h e space around h i m chatters with symbols. turned gray. stands in counterpoise holding a dark globe and his thoughts in m o m e n t a r y balance. Using the paper to create light is important for beginners to learn. Tone and light In this black conte drawing.

He was a shaman who believed in intuition and in the investment of healing force. and made installations. This figure is drawn intuitively. Many of his other symbolic works on paper have been drawn with materials such as honey. Our focus joins shoulders. and drawings.113 JOSEPH BEUYS One of the most influential German artists of the 20th century. taught workshops with a cult following. His The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland UNDATED 113/4 J O S E P H BEUYS x81/4in (297 x 210 mm) . in different positions. video art. iodine. transience. Beuys gave performances. free from the constraint of immaculate form opposite) impetus is irrelevant to the and meaning of this work (as we see in Seurat's drawing representation.gold. and blood. and that These aspects of the work convey fractured visibility. Perfectly modeled rather conventional for Joseph Focus Beuys's hand moved quickly to draw dotted lines flowing downward on either side of the figure. Unbroken lines stream from his simultaneously movement. CHOREOGRAPHS the profound power materials with spiritual or of Free lines This pale pencil drawing is Beuys.

Rodin employed models to move freely or pose together in his studio. His exquisite flow of paint beyond "outlines.000 drawings shown in rotation at the Musee Rodin. and went on to inspire generations of artists. Anita Taylor has drawn her protective body hug out of the darkly glistening compression of willow charcoal and the dynamism of her shy but momentous femininity. Delicate strokes This is one of about 7. and one of hundreds of rapid studies of nudes. Opposite. We are asked to gaze u p o n her flesh. he typically drew them with a few delicate strokes of pencil and brushed watercolor. Paris. Free lines Rodin's public audience was understandably shocked by the eroticism of his drawings. sweeping lines— of either purple silk fabric or cool studio air—that imprint and amplify their past and future movements. his w o r k is characterized by deliberate un-finish and powerfully modeled emotion. Achieving international acclaim in mid-life. In Rodins work.114 BODY Passion SUMMONING HUMANITY in a drawing of the nude is a subtle and emotional task. As here. the fierceness of the women's kiss is beautifully matched by the tenderness of his line. 125/8x 9 in (320 x 229 mm) AUGUSTE RODIN Two Women 1911 Embracing . the women are framed and caressed by long." as seen here. was perceived as scandalous. Our bodies radiate the passion of our thoughts and so become beacons of our frailty and power. Rodin produced portraits and statues of public and literary figures. In both drawings. its soft. We are involved not as a shabby voyeur but as a bystander engaged through our recognition of shared joy. flushed skin made ruddy and black with crushed cinders. They whisper and writhe in a brushed and sultry embrace that devours our watching. But what is stranger to us now is that they were also outraged by his free use of line. THE AUGUSTE RODIN French Romantic sculptor and prolific draftsman employed as an ornamental mason until the age of 42. Inspired by Michelangelo.

This order of light below and dark above gives glowing from within. Charcoal Taylor has drawn freely with charcoal and an eraser on thick. draftsman. and rework rich depths of light and tone. scrutiny. intimately reflecting upon the emotions and meaning of nudity. textured paper. professor and Vice Principal of Wimbledon School of Art. Taylor's immense self-portraits explore the relationship between the artist as maker and the artist as model. Luminosity Layered marks flicker likefirelight as they sculpt the woman's body. The sturdy surface of the sheet has allowed her to press hard when needed.I 15 ANITA T A Y L O R Painter. London. leaving her lightest marks at the deepest level of the image and applying darker marks above. A thinner sheet might have crumpled and torn under such vigorous force of making. erased and drawn again. exposure. the impression of luminosity All and Nothing 1999 67 x447/8in (170 x 1 1 4 cm) ANITA TAYLOR . Taylor has drawn. and gaze.

rather that what we believe we know from experience. and wrist joints. "Simple measured comparisons reveal surprising truths about proportion. It is not so hard. The length of exposed pencil is your measurement. Imagine Michelangelo's murals in the Sistine Chapel. 1 Hold your arm straight. unfathomable angles. with dramatic illusions of figures painted in normal proportion. we would arrive to find many of the same figures strangely distorted. and measurements do not have to be carried to the paper and slavishly drawn the same size they appear on your pencil. London). Up close on the scaffold we would witness Michelangelo's subtle application of accelerated perspective. There is no need to mark them all down on paper. for example. elbow. Smaller. Spend time making comparisons before you draw. persistence. Move the tip of your thumb down to a second chosen point. Lock your shoulder. and a few measured comparisons are key.116 T H E BODY Measurement and Foreshortening FORESHORTENING IS AN ASPECT of perspective. and to draw what we see. you will make inconsistent and unrelated comparisons. In the life class it is the mechanism for ensuring that a drawn figure lies correctly in pictorial space . Rome. helping us to see more clearly. to be translated by mirrors or seen from only one point in the room. 2 Hold your pencil upright. It can also be a little demon in the life room. or coming forward. This is chiefly a correcting device by which figurative painters and sculptors have for centuries countered the effects of our viewing their work from far below or on the curvature of a vault. It is not complicated. without taking off. when beginners prop their board in their lap and look down at too steep an angle. To avoid its effects ensure you always look flat onto the surface of your page. Accelerated perspective plays a great role in much art. patience. Close one eye." . Return to this posture every time. How to make and apply these is explained below and opposite. MEASURING This is a simple method of making measured comparisons for relating the true size of one part to another This is a tool to assist observation and thinking. plummeting. just making them helps you see. 3 Keep your pencil perpendicular Measure and compare at any angle. We also look at another very interesting branch called accelerated (or anamorphic) perspective. elongated as if stretched across the plaster. Align the top with a point on your subject. which is imperceptible from below. the skull in Holbein's The Ambassadors (The National Gallery.limbs happily receding. But if we could take a scaffold and climb up to the work. If your arm is not straight. or shrivelling at odd. more extreme examples have been made for court entertainment.

. MEASUREMENT AND FORESHORTENING Tilt t h e t o p edge o f this b o o k t o w a r d you and look d o w n o n this figure f r o m a b o v e . T h i s is t h e s a m e d r a w i n g p h o t o g r a p h e d f r o m above. L o o k at y o u r m o d e l as if he o r she is a flat series o f shapes o n e o n t o p o f a n o t h e r Measure t h e height and w i d t h o f each shape and c o m p a r e it t o its neighbor. W o r k a r o u n d t h e figure. looking d o w n t h e p a p e r at t h e a n g l e at w h i c h I d r e w . adjusting a n o n y m o u s shapes. W e appear t o be looking d o w n o n a w o m a n s t a n d i n g b e n e a t h us. which feels strange. t a p e s o m e p a p e r t o a board. h e r p r o p o r t i o n s will appear correct. Keep t h e b o a r d steady and draw. pleasingly f o r e s h o r t e n e d .117 ACCELERATED PERSPECTIVE To discover h o w this w o r k s . FORESHORTENING To f o r e s h o r t e n a figure. C o m p a r e t h e heights o f t h e nose and eye shapes t o t h o s e o f t h e f o r e a r m . a n d thighs. P r o p o r t i o n s will only l o o k c o r r e c t f r o m t h e angle at w h i c h y o u make t h e drawing. y o u must let go o f w h a t y o u k n o w f r o m e x p e r i e n c e a b o u t t h e relative sizes o f b o d y parts and trust y o u r eyes. Stand its b o t t o m edge o n y o u r lap. y o u r hand travels f a r t h e r than y o u expect. A t a c e r t a i n angle. belly. Lean t h e t o p e d g e t o w a r d y o u and find a p o s i t i o n w h e r e y o u can c o m f o r t a b l y l o o k d o w n t h e p a p e r at an angle o f a b o u t 4 0 degrees. To m a k e f o r m s l o o k c o r r e c t . See h o w d i f f e r e n t t h e relative heights o f t h e s e shapes are f r o m w h a t w e m i g h t e x p e c t in real life. S o o n t h e b o d y will lie d o w n in space.

Start each new drawing by lightly marking the model's height with a loose line in ten seconds. and slightly enlarge her legs and feet. Be bold and dive into your drawing with c o n f i d e n c e . Avoid drawing up one side and down the other. and work over t h e m with further o b s e r v a t i o n s . To see this.118 BODY Quick Poses DRAWING QUICK POSES l o c k s y o u r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n t o what is most essential. Outline To outline a figure. Height This pose leans away into space above our eye level. . because it results in two unrelated sides drifting apart. To draw this effect. and energy. Layered lines give d e p t h . and stance before honing her balance and expression. THE SEQUENCE OF POSES H e r e the model was asked to move every t w o minutes. imagine holding up a plumb line. propelling you to make immediate assessments and trust them. working from her center to her feet and to her head. feeling. work back and forth across the body. I used a sharp H B pencil and began each drawing by marking her outline. and height. height. Balance When a model stands upright on both feet. Leave first thoughts in place. balance. make the upper body smaller give your model a high waist. her center of balance is normally found in a vertical line beneath her head. T h i s q u i c k e x p l o r a t o r y line does not perfectly describe shape but expresses a decision about overall flow of form.

Tilt Movement Here. The tilt of the pelvis is then counter balanced by the model's shoulders tilting the other way (as seen here). This drawing shows how different observations be overlaid to bring a drawing alive.119 The twist of a model is most easily and expressively captured if it is exaggerated. Most of us have a tendency to over-straighten the drawn figure. and this should be avoided Twist QUICK POSES A model standing on one leg usually drops the opposite hip. the activity of circular lines and the repetition of limbs suggest movement. .

Draw large shapes and their orientation. A mirror increases your range of views. W h e n starting. feet. starting with the largest. 3 . Then subdivide each shape so that you w o r k from large to small. Don't worry about achieving perfect solutions. Practice by drawing your own hands and feet. Group the fingers together as one mass. especially the lengthwise divisions between them. and they need not be daunting to draw. or those of a friend. and ignore all details. These planes. Focus instead on how planes change direction across the knuckles from one side of the hand or foot to the other. swiftly marking its essential gesture. This exercise is useful when struggling with proportion. drawn in relation to each other. Keep lines open to change and take measurements if they help. general to specific. express structure and gesture far more successfully and easily than ten worried outlines wandering up and down between the fingers and toes.120 BODY Hands and Feet THERE ARE MANY different ways of approaching h a n d s and THE of form. it is important to leave aside all details of the fingers and toes. Do not separate them yet. and a gooseneck lamp casts shadows that clarify planes and depths GESTURES OF THE HAND Curled Fingers 1 Open Palm Start honing the shapes of the dominant planes. but regard these practice studies as ongoing processes of thought and observatio Add details such as nails last if you wish. Begin by drawing lines to encompass the whole hand. 2 Build your drawing gradually from light to dark. It also helps the beginner to progress from drawing outlines to drawing confidently across the surface of the whole form.

2 3 Use an eraser t o refine decisions o r t o suggest areas o f light. Leave aside all detail. and rapid. Try t o express the whole foot and t o encapsulate its entire shape and direction in a few marks. . depth. and don't worry about accuracy t o begin with. t o remove t o o many early lines. It can be a mistake.as though out o f wood. as if with a chisel. Hew it roughly in broad. flattened planes. and spontaneity. however. Nowimagineyou are carving the foot insidethepaper.121 HANDS AND FEET MOVEMENTS OF THE FOOT Flat Stance Raised Heel Instep 1 Let your first marks be light. loose. these are what give a drawing its tangible structure. Look for key angles without becoming distracted by detail.

The white lines demonstrate what is often called "bracelet shading. I also used white ink with a steel dip pen." .204-05. Opposite.Charcoal Hands T H E S E DRAWINGS ARE MADE in compressed charcoal. Compare its nature in close-up to that of willow charcoal used on pp.

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length. I make these lines in the first five to ten seconds of a drawing to locate the presence. Phrasing Contours . and posture of the model.HERE TRACES OF RAPID initial lines are still seen within and outside each body. 118-19). before honing his or her shape (see pp.

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and narrative pulse become vivid when you realize them in the middle of your study. Forms. Drawing work by another artist enables you to discover and understand the inventive hand in their composition.The Visual Detective DRAWING FROM MASTERWORKS was once a staple component of an artist's education. perspectives. It is now viewed with some skepticism and often seen as academic. I draw in museums in support of written research and as an artist seeking answers to questions about the practicalities of image making. characters. . feeling them through the attentive movements of your own hand.

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These almost life-size figures were composed from my imagination and achieved with the help af studies discussed on pp. Walls are lined with hundreds of faintly animated body parts.3 x 3 m) made in response to La Specola. . 126-27.La Specola At17V i a Romana. there is a unique museum of 18th-century anatomical waxes. Florence. each modeled from dissection. Life-size women wearing wigs recline on beds of embroidered silk in cabinets of mahogany and Venetian glass This is a detail of a compressed charcoal drawing measuring 14 x 10 ft (4.

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bells. became more poignant as he progressed. Movie director Alfred similarly signed his films by playing a fleeting role: he walks through an extra. and secular narratives. abstract or figurative. historical. character. you can capture the subtlety. single or of groups. Portraits can be highly or loosely detailed. Halls and palaces are filled with pictures of the mighty and significant. and shoulders. Goya's w o r k s include many royal and society p o r t r a i t s . It also reminds us o f b o t h t h e intimacy and a scene as scrutiny o f an honest portrait. W h e n drawing a person. Equally. . painters have dropped discreet records of themselves into commissioned narratives so that they can remain a face in the crowd. and p r i n t m a k e r . religious. usually strangers from past times. compliant subject to scrutinize.139). made as he passed through the ages of man. and their posture can be changed with just one line. buttons. we use the delicate medium of silver point to look at foundation structures of the head. and a handprint (see p. a single line can deliver an entire expression. Past rulers sent painters across continents to bring back a likeness in advance of a prospective royal marriage. Once you understand Self-Portrait in a Cocked Hat c. For centuries.Portraiture IN P O R T R A I T U R E W E MEET PEOPLE. their stance. having been documented and preserved. who. gathered all that he knew FRANCISCO DE GOYA V i s i o n a r y Spanish painter. and expression of the individual. and satirical or metaphorical. neck. This enlargement o f his miniature p o r t r a i treveals t h e s p e e d and agility o f his p e n and about himself. Beginners often draw themselves as a way of establishing their practice. his changes in pressure and Hitchcock length o f line. or past us. and social and political commentaries. The truth is that we all like looking at faces and observing the billions of variations that make us individuals. In this chapter. The returning image was of crucial consideration in any proposal. throat. and in a few scrolling rafts of pen lines and stubbled dots. in a miniature self-portrait magnified opposite. Man Ray's self-portrait of scored lines. To create a face is to see and interpret the essence of an identity. or whose eyes can seem to follow us around the room Portraiture is a constant. the meaning of their face. and lucrative genre for artists. Goya. live. and it is very rewarding. is here to both meet and look through us. Self-portraiture gives every artist a constant. look directly at us. or a glimpse of him is caught in a photograph used as a prop. 1790-92 4 x 3 in ( 1 0 2 x 7 6 m m ) F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A and memorize the basic structure that we all share. Rembrandt's famous multitude of self-portraits. Our homes are filled with images of our loved ones and of those in our families who have gone before. We can mold and animate qualities of expression out of objects and fragments of disassociated things—for example. We are also reassured by keeping records of ourselves. draftsman.

The aesthetic sense of a line being just right can make a drawing sing. they serve as a great lesson that it is not always necessary to add tone to your drawing. Holbein maps the still landscape of Dorothea's body in questioning marks. It is the portrait of a countrywoman. There is a common misunderstanding that a drawing with only a few lines is both less finished and easier to make than a drawing with more. He makes his flair and skill look easy. It takes a truly accomplished a few strokes. Through exhibitions and copies in books.30). While with longer consideration. we can enjoy and learn from them. teetering on the brink of older age. How could the addition of shadows have enhanced this image? Few strokes The simplicity of Picasso's line is breathtaking. one eye already cast askew into the autumn of her life.132 PORTRAITURE Poise THE BALANCE BETWEEN a mark and a blank space is often a tantalizing form of perfection. PABLO PICASSO Spanish Cubist painter (see also p. For the beginner. Her face is drawn tenderly and with a luminous glow. whisking a timeless girl onto the page. Without faltering. We can read so much about them by studying their gaze. and pressure as it conducts our eye through the image. Picasso strikes and scrolls his pencil. adding smudges of tone for weight and solidity. The truth is often the opposite. Here the grace and beauty of two young women are held forever. stealthily using his chalk to find contours and mass. The Tightness of a line is felt in its speed. length. hand to capture something well in only Frangoise au Bandeau 1946 660 x 505 mm (26 x197/8in) PABLO PICASSO . Picasso has left to posterity many hundreds of magnificent line drawings. We can actually count that he struck the paper 40 times. caught in her last moments of youth. breadth.

Cropping This regal composition fits its paper perfectly. The peak of her cap clips the uppermost edge. presses against the binding across her face. Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 1516 51/8 x121/4in (385 x 310 m m ) HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER . and produced numerous society portraits such as this one here. Holbein unified the woman with her background by gently blending colors from her clothes and face into the atmosphere around her. In addition t o his numerous exquisite portraits in oil. Blended colors In this portrait drawn with colored chalks on slightly textured paper. gently flushed. and designer f r o m Basel. He outlined her nose but not her upper lip. Holbein has cropped and pinned his subject within the four outermost lines of the image—the edges of the page. which. he designed c o u r t costumes.133 HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER German p o r t r a i t painter draftsman. Her folded forearms support and frame her weight above. Holbein was employed toward the end of his life by King Henry VIII of England. made a popular series o f w o o d c u t prints titled The Dance of Death. and its downward slope crowns the diagonal of the composition.

Durelli has m a d e a few m i n o r mistakes. This is a m a r v e l o u s interpretation of the truth. Highlights of white gouache were dry Profile Head late in the making. This is one of a number of similar disembodied female heads seen behind. while white painted flecks and wisps suggest electrical illumination. . and glands also complicate form. the contours of a grid. The style of Durelli's d r a w i n g opposite sings with the confidence of truth and precision. Nerves. In fact. taught at numerous British art schools from 1962-77. Newsome was awarded the Prix de Rome in 1960. using a fine and relatively 1982 13 x 181/8 in (328 x 460 mm) VICTOR NEWSOME brush. perhaps applied using a tortillon. blood vessels. continues to exhibit regularly. and unpleasant to see. Psychological drama is contained behind a grid. VICTOR NEWSOME British sculptor painter and draftsman. Contrasts Sharp. solid above and almost hollow below. Anatomically. London. N e w s o m e ' s eerily shadowed form is smooth and bears a linear grain evocative of w o o d . The real dissection w o u l d have been far more c o m p l e x . confusing. but they are irrelevant here. Delicate muscles are integrated with the skin and fat that is to be r e m o v e d . It floats in space. dark tones of graphite blended into the paper. distorted. or defined by. dark lines made with a pencil appear against smooth. its highly clarified detail claiming to be d r a w n from observation. the face is one of the hardest parts to dissect.134 PORTRAITURE Anatomies These highly finished drawings express the emotional power and physicality of the head and neck. and has works in major collections including the Tate Gallery.

w h e n contracted. Red Chalk the Muscles 1837 173/8 x 145/8 in ( 4 4 0 x 3 7 2 m m ) ANTONIO DURELLI and Pencil Drawing and of Neck of the Head Little is k n o w n o f this M i l a n e s e p a i n t e r a n d engraver w h o c a m e from a family o f artists. It is hard to think of a more difficult medium with which to achieve such linear perfection. and it is likely that this drawing was intended for reproduction as a print. Durelli's experience as an engraver is reflected in his stylized drawing o f muscle fibers.135 ANATOMIES ANTONIO DURELLI Linear perfection This is a red chalk drawing of extraordinary accomplishment. which. pull their points o f attachment t o w a r d each other . Stylized parallel lines are reminiscent of engravings. Pencil numbers refer to the list of muscles written beneath.

1948 77/8 x 6 in (200 x 150 mm) ALBERTO GIACOMETTI . They confuse our perception of scale by being intimately fragile and at the same time far removed. Both works demonstrate how simple lines can be made complex by being intense. while his hand stabs and thrusts Revelations like a conductors baton. which are characteristically elongated. necks. each locked into a visionary gaze. Without paint and with very little tone. Agitated marks make patches of tone that cut away the space around the character. each portrait is inscribed onto the page. Bellini gently conjures the features of his saint with soft marks that tease his presence out of shadows into the light. Then. ALBERTO GIACOMETTI Swiss sculptor.136 PORTRAITURE THESE ARE DRAWINGS of shoulders. They show us clearly the bones of drawing. painter draftsman. cutting and carving the paper with matted and spiraling restless energy. and heads. He is best known for his bronze sculptures of human form. Flesh is built and personality carved simultaneously. Energy This is a portrait of a woman drawn with black crayon on a plain page of a book Lines search for the essence of form. with speed and urgency. Opposite. and poet After studying in Geneva and Italy. Giacometti settled in Paris. There is a film of Giacometti drawing. Similar movements sculpted the head below into its page. and with staccato flinches his hyperactive eye moves from paper to model. Speed Giacometti probably began with an oval shape placed in relation to the proportion of the page. The camera watches him at work. Portrait de Marie-Laure de Noailles c. We are brought intimately close to this man gazing up to heaven. he drew over the whole image at once. as if seen from a distance. close enough to touch his hair and feel his breath.

25 6 . These are pinholes. lyrical. a n d b r o t h e r in-law. Head and Shoulders of a Man 73/8 x 21/4 in ( 1 8 6 x 5 8 UNDATED GIOVANNI BELLINI . Sometimes different narrative same character was reused in compositions. a n d c o n t e m p l a t i v e . Mantegna. transferring which were made in the process of the saint to his final place in the composition of a painting (see Glossary pp. H e p r e f e r r e d religious t o classical t h e m e s . Transfer This delicate humorous chalk a drawing is a cartoon—not image but a type of template used to plan the composition of a larger work Look closely and you will see rows of tiny dots along every significant line in the picture. a n d his w o r k is d i s t i n c t i v e l y calm. Character This is one of many cartoons produced by Bellini the and his family. H e t a u g h t G i o r g i o n e Barbarelli and Titian. Bellini s t u d i e d u n d e r his f a t h e r J a c o p o .G I O V A N N I BELLINI A prominent member of a large family o f V e n e t i a n painters.5 9 ) .

postcards. Man Ray's playful silk-screen assembly of color blocks. and attitudes.221). Self Portrait 1982 9 4 x 7 6 in (239 x 193 cm) JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT . their most immediate and best-known subject: themselves. Islands of graphic marks. skull- Self-Portraits headed. a tribal. It is an image of confrontation—the ever-controversial young artist roars at us from his abstract city-scape. bells. and sheet metal before being snapped up by the New York contemporary art scene. scrolls. It has proved to be a subject of piercing scrutiny. marks. The artist has finished his portrait with the signature of his hand smacked in the middle like a kiss: a declaration of existence as old as man's first drawing. spear-brandishing warrior. similar to work by Cy Twombly (see p. humor. Later Basquiat sold drawings on T-shirts. The incandescent New York painter Jean Michel Basquiat pictured himself here in naked silhouette. scratched into its surface. and confrontations with. made with great energy. signing their work SAMO. and indulgence. and buttons rings with surrealist wit and agile improvisation. JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT Short-lived American painter and graffiti artist who began his blazing nine-year career drawing on lower Manhattan subway trains with a friend. In 1986 he traveled to Africa and showed his work in Abidjan on the Ivory Coast He also exhibited in Germany and France. drawn. The figure's position is unequivocal and defiant while around him is in a state Without the essential of cultural and figure we would elegant belookingat a sophisticated painting of signs. political outcry. Signs and symbols with symbols This painting shudders that ore written. scratched lines. and everything flux. It is an opportunity to look deep without the infringement of courtesies owed to a commissioning sitter. Al Diaz. float and shimmer in the shallow pictorial space.138 PORTRAITURE THE MIRROR OF SELF-PORTRAITURE offers artists infinite reflections of.

Autoportrait 1916 195/8 MAN RAY . The handprint appears to be made directly.139 MAN RAY American surrealist photographer. last of all. where he collaborated with the artist Laslo MoholyNagy. caked in thick printing ink or paint. Man Ray lived and worked in Paris. The first part of the stenciled image was already marked on the silk The screen and paper were then held tightly together. Man Ray probably used his own hand. while a squeegee was used to drag thick lilac-brown ink across the silk pushing it though exposed areas onto the paper below. Black ink was printed next and then white. painter. printmaker and cofounder of the New York Dada movement. They suggest speed and make the picture look immediate and spontaneous. They experimented with camera-free photography working directly onto photographic paper Silk and ink This is a silkscreen print made through the following process: the paper was laid on a flat surface and a frame stretched with fine silk was placed on top. Frame White lines are seemingly (though not actually) scratched through ink to frame this face. During the 1920's and 30s.

Find a n i t e m t h a t y o u can h o l d a n d draw with comfortably. 144-45. bone. S O F T F U L L B R U S H : W h e n laying a w a s h . Stretched paper remains taut as a d r u m . Pages 142 to 147 are illustrated in silver point and techniques are explained on pp. MATERIALS 1 Find a clean sponge and b o w l o r d e e p t r a y a n d fill it w i t h w a t e r W e t t h e p a p e r evenly in t h e t r a y o r o n t h e b o a r d . Note h o w domestic paintwork marks with a coin. 156). M a k e s u r e i t is c o m p l e t e l y clean t o avoid u n w a n t e d streaks. and make o r buy a holder. Metal point does not work on ordinary paper. you will need t o stretch paper and lay a wash (see right and opposite). illuminators of medieval m a n u s c r i p t s .140 PORTRAITURE Silver P o i n t SILVER OR METAL POINT STRETCHING PAPER A sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has been made w e t with the strokes o f a paintbrush will buckle d u e t o its uneven expansion.54-55).s t r i p a n d use i t t o fix o n e side o f t h e p a p e r t o t h e b o a r d . copper. o n e t o fit each side o f t h e b o a r d — t h e s e will make t h e glued f r a m e t h a t holds y o u r p a p e r in place. The most c o m m o n metal has always been silver—hence the term "silver point. Metal point is simply a strip of metal bound in a holder. I m a k e m y o w n f r o m o l d dip pens. p a r c h m e n t . Drawn across a prepared surface. b u t d o n ' t w o r r y . and is therefore useful w h e n using w a t e r c o l o r as well as silver point.54) can also b e used. 3 . This is called a three-tone drawing. If w o r k i n g o n an emulsion-painted wall. 2 . Lightly s p o n g e o f f t h e excess. choose a silver object. For i m p o r t a n t a d v i c e o n p r e p a r a t i o n a n d use. who used it to outline initials and border characters before painting. and t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h strips a b o v e and b e l o w . Take a sheet o f any t y p e o f p a p e r (for e x a m p l e .Tear o f f f o u r lengths o f b r o w n p a p e r g u m tape. Opposite. which quickly oxidizes into a gray line. platinum. s e e p . b e f o r e priming stretched paper. M E T A L OBJECTS: All metal objects m a r k a p r e p a r e d surface. SILVER P O I N T W I R E H O L D E R : T h e s e c a n b e p u r c h a s e d a n d t e n d t o b e heavy. I combined silver point with painted white gouache on a pink ground. I t is a v a i l a b l e f r o m all a r t s h o p s . This browns with age unless sealed by fixative (see pp. Numerous early European artists also enjoyed its fine qualities (see p. purchase silver wire. S i l v e r is b e s t . the surface must be primed with a ground such as gouache. W e t o n e length o f g u m . was familiar to or eggshells with animal glue. s o m e m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n o t h e r s . or ring. W e t a n d fix a s e c o n d strip t o t h e o p p o s i t e side. E m p t y mechanical pencils designed f o r t h i c k leads ( s e e p. and gold have also been used. 5." Lead. an exciting indication of how large-scale drawings could be made on a wall. w h i t e d r a w i n g paper) and cut it t o fit y o u r d r a w i n g b o a r d w i t h a generous b o r d e r a r o u n d its edges. c h o o s e a s o f t full b r u s h t h a t c a n c a r r y p l e n t y o f l i q u i d . laid on paper. key. Historically. it leaves a deposit. 1 4 4 . 2. SILVER W I R E : Purchase different gauge lengths f r o m a traditional a r t supplier o r jeweler. and alloys work on matt emulsion. Z I N C W H I T E G O U A C H E : Dilute with w a t e r A d d c o l o r i f r e q u i r e d (as opposite) 4 . T h e p a p e r will l o o k b u c k l e d . Straighten the w o r s t buckles. artists mixed white lead. Gesso o r m a t t e m u l s i o n c a n a l s o b e u s e d . Lay a clean d r a w i n g b o a r d o n a flat surface. 1. or wood. Be swift and firm. To begin.

full brush into the gouache and start in the top left corner. so put newspaper under the lower edge. Here.t o n e silver point drawing of a skull . The next step will make a small mess. stretched paper at a 45-degree angle. Keep adding smooth. Beware of the tape's coming loose at any point while drying. T h r e e . Runs blend into each other evenly. It will slowly straighten and become taut. I used a powder pigment called Caput Mortuum. Prop up your board of dry. Mix a very wet but not weak solution of gouache in a jar with a lid (add pigment at this stage for a three-tone drawing).141 SILVER POINT 3 Leave the paper to dry flat. any extra will keep. Reload the brush and add a second line overlapping it beneath. LAYING A WASH It your stretched paper so as to prime it for silver point. Dip a soft. is necessary to lay a wash o Three-tone When coloring ground. as the paper will be ruined by a raised ridge. Leave the wash to dry thoroughly before you begin to draw. Dry thoroughly before laying a wash. and let tests dry before deciding to change the mixture. overlapping lines until you reach the bottom. v e r y little at a time. Keep testing on spare paper. Make an even line across to the right. Make enough to cover your paper. slowly add powder pigment or gouache from a tube. leaving a smooth surface.

142

PORTRAITURE

Head and Neck
THE HEAD AND NECK are best conceived as one unit arranged in four parts: cranium, face, neck, and throat. Each is of equal importance. The cranium is essentially egg-shaped and pivots on the first vertebra. The face is suspended beneath, like a softly curved triangle. The n e c k — a powerful, shapely column of layered muscles rigged to vertebrae—adjusts and holds the angle and expression of the head. The throat is delicate, hard, and lumpy to the touch, formed of cartilaginous rings, glands, thin muscles, and looser skin. Framing the throat, two columnar neck muscles (sternomastoids) project the head forward and also turn it to the opposite side.

This is a simple shorthand diagram representing the cranium, face, neck, and throat. It can be learned and visualized in different positions very easily, giving the novice a firm footing on which to stand and develop their drawings of the head and neck.

Shorthand diagram

Cranium Begin with an egg shape. Tilt it on the paper to change the position of the head.

Face Draw a rounded triangular shape below the forward point of the egg to represent the face.

Neck This shape represents the trapezius; the largest surface muscle of the neck and shoulders.

Throat A triangular shape represents the throat. (The nose makes the diagram clearer)

Applied shorthand

After copying the diagram above, animate it. Practice drawing the cranium at different angles, add the face beneath, then the neck, shoulders, and throat. Shape your diagrams so they are more lifelike, but avoid adding detailed features too soon.

143 These three drawings demonstrate (from left to right) the following: why the cranium may be considered egg-shaped; now the face can be seen as a curved triangle suspended beneath and where the division lies between the two; and the form of sternomastoid muscles that frame thethroatsodistinctlywhen the head is turned and inclined forward.

The skull and the frame of the throat

HEAD AND NECK

Bones of the cranium are locked together by jagged joints. Sinuses in the frontal (forehead) bone between and beneath the eyebrows are larger in men, making their brows pronounced and often ridged compared to those of women.

Bones of the face house our sight, smell, taste, The skull pivots on the first vertebra or "atlas," and speech. Cartilage extending from nasal bones after the Greek god condemned to carry the shapesthenose.Pads of fat resting on the base of Earth. The jaw hinges in front of the ears. Behind, eacheyesocket support the eyeballs in position. If bony ridges give anchor to the sternomastoid thefatisreducedby old age, eyes look sunken. muscles rising from the breast- and collarbones.

Three useful generalizations

General rules about the relative positions of body parts can hinder artists as much as help them, since they are often based on classical ideals rather than thediversityoflife.However,some generalizations can help as a rough guide to start with, so long as good observation takes over as soon as possible.

In general, when the face is relaxed (not smiling or frowning), the corners of the mouth are found directly beneath the pupils of the eyes. Vertical lines can be drawn down from the pupils to meet the corners of the mouth.

The height of a young adult's ear is often the same as their nose and found on the same level. There is no general rule for growing children, and remember that ears grow again in old age, which is most obvious in men.

The height of the face is about the length of the handspan and the eye is normally halfway down the total height of the head. A common error is to draw the eyes too high up on the face.

144

PORTRAITURE

Essential Observations
T H E DELICACY OF SILVER POINT

(see pp. 140-41) is perfect for

such as a beach pebble. Here, I stretched drawing paper and laid a wash of white gouache (see pp.140-41). As you can see, the line and tone of silver point varies with pressure, but only slightly. Too much pressure cuts the ground. Silver point erases, but so does ground. Erased ground can be repaired gently with extra gouache. You can also use gouache to paint over mistakes and make corrections.

small, detailed drawings. The drawings below and opposite show useful observations of the head and neck, which are explained in the captions below. Each drawing was made with a silver wire held in a large-gauge mechanical pencil. Newly clipped wires are sharp and cut rather than draw. Before use, they need to be rubbed and smoothed on a stone

Here I imagined placing my silver point wire against the skin of each head and neck and, working in parallel bands from the crown downward, I traced the undulation of surfaces. Linear bands imagined around the head and neck can help you t o clearly see the tilt of the head and relative levels of the features. Ask a friend t o model for you and try this exercise life-size using a pencil and eraser

Contours

Tilted forward

Tilted backward

Three-quarter view

Seeing that the face is never flat

Drawings below left and center are summaries of the generalizations given on p.143. Far right is an image to remind us that the face is never flat. It slopes back to varying degrees among individuals, from the tip of the nose t o the ears. For example, note that the innermost corners of the eyes are farther forward in space than the outermost corners.

General measurements, side

General measurements, front

View from above

145

Male and female head and neck
Men's necks a r e g e n e r a l l y s h o r t e r a n d t h i c k e r t h a n w o m e n ' s b e c a u s e t h e angles a n d levels o f c e r t a i n b o n e s a r e d i f f e r e n t b e t w e e n t h e sexes ( i n d i c a t e d h e r e b y d o t t e d lines) a n d m e n are n o r m a l l y m o r e muscular. T h e male t h y r o i d cartilage ( A d a m ' s apple) is larger a n d m o r e visible than t h e f e m a l e . L a r g e r f e m a l e t h y r o i d glands also s o f t e n t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e t h r o a t .

ESSENTIAL OBSERVATIONS
Female skull

Male

skeleton

Male

skull

Trapezius muscle
The largest m u s c l e o f t h e s h o u l d e r s a n d n e c k is called the trapezius. A r r a n g e d on e i t h e r side o f t h e spine, it shapes t h e u p p e r back and neck above the s h o u l d e r blades. C o n t r a c t i n g in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h d e e p e r and surrounding muscles, it raises and l o w e r s t h e shoulders a n d d r a w s t h e h e a d backtoeitherside.

The whole

muscle

Upper

half with

sternomastoids

Above

with head

straight

Above

with head

forward

Side with

sternomastoid

Front with

sternomastoid

146

PORTRAITURE

Drawing Portraits
USING A SHARP 3 B PENCIL, I drew this head quickly from imagination, evolving its character and expression from the scheme of four parts: cranium, face, neck, a n d throat (see p. 142). Here, five steps show you how to practice doing the same. This approach can be used to draw from imagination or from life. Keep your wrist loose and hold your pencil away from its point (see pp.22-23). Build the layers of your drawing from pale to dark, a n d from general balance a n d form to specific detail. Remember that successful drawings are built on foundations of "seeing the whole," then dividing the whole into smaller parts, with details brought in last of all. Phrased tonal marks modeling this girls skin and hair follow the technique demonstrated by Goya in his self-portrait on p. 130. Turn to Goya's drawing and study how, in a circle beginning across his hat, moving down his hair, and around his coat, he flows lines over surfaces to describe their contour. As you build from steps 1 to 5, bring phrased groups of lines across the surfaces of your form, using their directions to capture the expression of the head and neck. If unsure, copy my steps until you gain the confidence to make your own decisions.

This drawing is the final stage of the four steps opposite. Here, I have enlarged the eye, and moved it back into the head by trimming the length of the upper lid and adding a more pronounced lower lid. It is important to set eyes far enough back from the relatively prominent nose; too close to it and the face flattens. Hair swept back and extended behind the cranium balances the regal pose. Lines shaping the hair echo those marking the cranium in step 1. Here, the lower part of step 1 comes through as wisps of hair across her face and ear

BALANCED POSE

Portrait of a Young Girl

avoid drawing too dark. over the cranium. down the face to the throat. 4 . neck. The nose and ear begin to shape the head. so it is important to the life of the image that while controlled. 2 Rapidly add shorthand shapes to represent the face. Keep your first lines light. The eye announces the nature and expression of the emerging person.147 Building up the portrait DRAWING PORTRAITS 1 Gently spin pale lines in a softly drawn shape representing the cranium. I used light to describe the upper lid first with a shadow beneath for the lower lid and open eye. they are also still sweeping and confident. I modeled the outline of the character I imagined light shining from above and in front and adjusted the pressure of lines to reflect this. and throat.Theangle at which you draw this shape of the paper will determine the angle of the finished head. First lines will remain visible in the final drawing. too soon. Here. Moving from the back of the neck. 3 Place the eye beneath the cranium.

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the texture of hair. a n d t h o s e w h o a r e Generations asleep (see overleaf). and gravity.T o DRAW PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGES. muscular tension. Above all. . empathize. be aware of the subtle differences in skin surface.

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with a steel dip pen and acrylic ink. . I used the nib upside down to gain needle-sharp precision. Madrid. Van Dyke's noble cast of characters was modeled more finely.Castings DRAWING IN THE PRADO MUSEUM. seeking the dominant contours of each individual expression. Fast lines carve out the features of Goya's soup-slurping hag.

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Artists do this not so m u c h b y the style of a figure's garment. . a n d w e will c o l l e c t patterns. a n d c o u r t i e r tailors f o l l o w e d suit. c u l t u r e . Samoylovich Rosenberg. and intent. variety. shapes. and atmosphere. Bakst's designs and costumes immediately To the fine artist. dancer leaps through swaths of golden cloth. while court p a i n t e r s — M i c h e l a n g e l o and Holbein. P o p u l a r f a s h i o n d e s i g n e x p l o d e d w i t h the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n . W e dress ourselves and costume designer trained in in St. or calm u s w i t h chic. known as Leon Bakst. gesture. intriguing. In this c h a p t e r w e see h o w c l o t h i n g c a n s e e m to p o s s e s s the w e i g h t and m o n u m e n t a l i t y of stone. w h i c h in turn feed c o n s u m e r Lev. or b u l g e s . D e s i g n e r s create m a s t e r p i e c e s of haute couture LEON BAKST for H o l l y w o o d stars. for e x a m p l e — d e s i g n e d the w a r d r o b e s of p o p e s a n d k i n g s . outrageous. S t r u c t u r e is t h o u g h the i n v e n t i o n of shoes. woman was drawn by Bakst one year later for the ballet Narcisse. Practical classes Bacchante 1911 l o o k at r a n g e s of c o l o r e d m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d i n g p a s t e l s a n d felt-tip p e n s . Previously.As artistic director of the It is s h o c k i n g to t h i n k h o w m a n y m i l l i o n s of d r a w i n g s m u s t be m a d e a n d d i s c a r d e d Ballet Russe. c r u m p l e s . and i n d e e d image b e c a m e the property also of the industrial classes. theb u t b y the w a y it s p e a k s w i t h its flying. toParis. In psychology. c o s t u m e o f f e r s a r i c h v o c a b u l a r y of t e x t u r e s a n d c o l o r . a n d s u b t l e t o n e s . and gouache. and even invisible by the w a y w e dress. personality. T h e rural masses w o r e h o m e s p u n simplicity. and s y m b o l s that lets m e n and w o m e n in all countries and areas have w o r k i n g access to the latest fashions. it is the public sign by w h i c h w e are j u d g e d . articulate a d a n g e r o u s satirical j o k e . st 111/4 x 81/2 in (285 x 220 mm) u d i e d L E O NB A K S T and explore the characterization of fabric t h r o u g h m o v e m e n t . Cities c h a n g e d all. a n d p r o f e s s i o n — b e g a n life as a d r a w i n g . T h e e n t o u r a g e of the theatrical stage o f t e n l e a d s the c a t w a l k .Costume W E MAKE OURSELVES EXOTIC. Petersburg and later exiled designers' ideas and are surprised and delighted b y their continual f l o w of inspiration. of Scheherazade. so that c h o i c e . charcoal. caricatured p l u m e s . cool. b u t influenced Parisian fashion and interiordecor. was a Belarussian A r t Deco theater fantasies and desires to immediately possess a version of the same. T h e p a p e r p a t t e r n is p e r h a p s the m o s t w i d e l y k n o w n of c o s t u m e d r a w i n g s : a formalized plan of lines. and everything w e h a v e c h o s e n for o u r w a r d r o b e s — r e f l e c t o r s of o u r taste. arichand unusual combination of pencil. fulfilling lavish and spectacular briefs. o n l y the w e a l t h y c o u l d afford to h a v e c o s t u m e s specially m a d e . g l o s s y folds. Designers all over the w o r l d c o n t i n u a l l y p e n and b r u s h lines to lash us w i t h color. Like it or not. e m u l a t e textures. and e x u b e r a n c e . w a r m t h .This voluptuous above all a physical p u p p e t w i t h w h i c h to animate character and narrate personality. he and cofounder Serge Diaghilev took Paris by eac storm in 1910 with their production h year in the industrial f r e n z y of creating o u r image and aspirations. and be so expressive of temperament that it overtakes the need for an o c c u p y i n g h u m a n form.

bands around the columns. However. Vertical lines The highly controlled lines of this drawing cascade from top to bottom of the image. it is only possible to create very thin. The quiet stillness of this image is achieved by a masterly economy of stylized line. folds and patterns of material speak more resolutely of their wearers than any small glimpses of body we can see. the Madonna and her architecture are both dressed in the same manner. and the kneeling abbot is a ghost by comparison. Opposite. her marble garment holds u p the infant Christ in a fountain of compressed line. Short and subtle horizontal punctuations are only given in the background by sections of floor. Her gown is carved and polished as if made from marble. H e m e t i c u l o u s l y a r r a n g e d subjects t o c o n v e y d e e p e r meaning. Their uninterrupted emphasis is entirely vertical. Above them. dragons. delicate lines. Van Eyck's highly polished w o r k is c e l e b r a t e d f o r its disguised symbolism. the carefully composed outline of his cloak shows us how the artist would have also begun his immaculate rendering of the Virgin's clothes. Marble gown We will never know if Van Eyck considered this drawing unfinished or intended the kneeling abbot to remain transient and ghostly. and implied striation in the stone of the architecture. In Van Eyck's drawing below. best k n o w n f o r his G h e n t altarpiece ( 1 4 3 2 ) a n d m a r r i a g e p o r t r a i t o f Giovanni A r n o l f i n i and his w i f e (1434). Delicate marks Silver (or metal) point is the most delicate of traditional drawing media (see pp. resonate with their wearers startled expression.140-41). Sculpted one. Flaxmans sleeper—perhaps a pilgrim or a soldier resting between campaigns—has wedged himself into the cleft of some great building to grab a moment of peace. swirling printed fabrics. with their jagged edges. Maelbeke I44I Madonna 11 x 7 in (278 x 180 m m ) JAN V A N EYCK . With a stylus such as Van Eyck used here.156 COSTUME Cloth and Drapery EACH OF THESE FIGURES is ninety percent cloth. Keisai Eisen's intense. Church and deities are drawn as JAN VAN EYCK Flemish oil p a i n t e r f r o m L i m b o u r g . the vaulted stone roof echoes and crowns the moment. Below this. He has layered these slowly and carefully so as not to cut through the ground and produce a white mark just where he intended a dark one. and snakelike marks.

and Man Lying Down in a Cloak I 787-94 21/4 JOHN FLAXMAN x 41/8 in (57 x 105 mm) . the angle of the head. Parts of the image to be left unprinted are gouged out with a metal tool. one over the other. Dante. Aeschylus earned Flaxman an international reputation. he also co-edited and expanded the Ukiyo-e Ruiko (History of Prints of the Floating World). Position In this pen and ink drawing. CLOTH AND DRAPERY Relief printing This is a woodblock print made by a relief process. designer. stone wall of downward-stroked this sleeper's position is momentary. Images are drawn onto smooth. Remaining raised areas of wood are rolled with colored inks. Koimurasaki of Tama-ya 1810-50 15 x101/4in (381 x 260 mm) KEISAI EISEN The Courtesan JOHN F L A X M A N English late 18th-century neoclassical sculptor. and teacher Distinctive linear illustrations for the works of Homer. The inked block is laid face-down on damp paper and pressed to make the print. each delivering a different part and color of the design. which are sometimes also cut into pieces like a jigsaw puzzle. flat sheets of wood. the cloak sliding to the ground. an 18th-19th century document on the lives of the ukiyo-e artists. Respected for his sumptuous images of geisha and editions of erotic prints.157 KEISAI EISEN Japanese draftsman. and the feet notched against the pillar tell us that A lines holds him into the cleft. writer and printmaker Keisai Eisen took his name from the masters Kano Hakkeisai and Kikugawa Eizan. draftsman. This complex numerous blocks prepared image and may have been made with printed separately.

a n d w a s e m p l o y e d as c o u r t painter t o King Charles I. Its color is also reflected in the metal. The slight uncertainty of the pose and the limp cloak suggest a little more metal than man. theater. A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE Flemish painter and draftsman. w h e r e . a scurrilous cartoon by a courtier of Queen Elizabeth I. and even formal portraiture.158 COSTUME Character Costumes an extreme form of the clothed figure. The aged queen is compared to an overdressed bird. He has been rendered on this olive<olored page with pen and gray wash worked over a red and black under-drawing. cartoon. where sometimes there just might not be anybody inside. t h r o u g h n u m e r o u s p o r t r a i t and C h u r c h commissions. A flamboyant territory. Leg section Compare mid-shin the section of white boots cropped to the section of similarly cropped trousers in drawings Gruau's drawing on p. Opposite is a dangerous drawing. Pen and wash In the graphic accuracy of this armored knight we see the idealized identity of a warrior from another time: a gleaming defender of the realm. lace. It is presumed Her Royal Highness never saw it. A s a y o u n g man. Van D y k e was chief assistant t o Rubens f o r t w o years. 160. for she would not have been amused and William Wodall might have been stretching his luck. Anthony Van Dyke's Man in Armor is a masterpiece of drawn surface. and feather were all CHARACTER COSTUMES REPRESENT observed with closely crafted conviction. Man in Armor UNDATED 1 6 x 9 1 / 2 in ( 4 0 5 x 2 4 0 m m ) A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE . b e f o r e traveling t o Italy. cloth. all ruffs and wrinkles. he c o o l e d and redefined his style. The metal. Leg sections in both support the figure without taking our attention away from the main garment above. Details and voices are worn externally with great imagination. In 1 6 3 2 he m o v e d p e r m a n e n t l y t o L o n d o n . Flowing scarf The knight's scarf of gilded blue is drawn in a pale wash over red ink lines. Its warm surface flows in contrast to the stiff metal armor. cinema. Fine examples can be plucked from fashion.

Beneath the lethal fan is the body of a bird of trimmed feathers suggest age. and her pride. while a raised foot pauses to assess the next displaying a fan of daggers. T h e poem recounts t h e six m a j o r crises o f Elizabeth's reign: t h e Spanish A r m a d a . Top-heavy. Satire of the Queen's Dress c. suggest the use of iron-gall ink (see p. t h e Ridolfi Plot.35). hooded with an overinflated fluffy ruff eye pins us.1599 71/2 WILLIAM x 51/4 in ( 1 9 0 x 1 3 4 mm) WODALL . Northern Satire This is a quill-and-ink satire of the elderly queen's pride-As head of state and fashion. and saturations showing through from the other side. t h e Jesuit Mission. A Ruffs and feathers Starched white ruffs worn at court and by society grew steadily larger as Elizabeth's reign progressed. bitten nature. she is shown as a grossly disproportioned bird. manuscript comprising six c a n t o s . it was customary to Iron-gall ink Wodall's dangerous caricature steps daintily the written lines of her dedicated page. the queen is masterfully rebalanced by words at her feet The whole drawing's blackened. t h e Rising. t h e B a b i n g t o n Plot. here dark tawny owl. By her old upto three tiers supported on sticks.159 WILLIAM W O D A L L A u t h o r and illustrator o f The Aaes of Queene a Elizabeth poem Allegorized.

Vogue. diving to catch us in the grip of her machine-like limbs. Gruau's model regally swans to the fore with cool pride.5 9 ) and a three-spoke balance of cuffs and cropped trousers to create an almost flag-like emblem of power. Compare the compositio beneathVanDyke'sstudy of armor on p. 158. Harpers & Queen. demanding attention with gesture and flair.c e n t u r y haute i n n u m e r o u s m a g a z i n e s i n c l u d i n g Elle. a n d L'Officiel de la couture. Drying time in between applications ensured the colors did not run into each other. RENE GRUAU I t a l i a n .160 COSTUME Femmes Fatales THESE DEVASTATING femmes fatales force back the onlooker with their demure. and both share the power of scarlet and black. His model is outlined. Rene Gruau's bold gouache drawing of smoothly swaying sophistication captures a brilliantly cut garment and frames it with great dynamism in a white. ofcroppedtrousershere to the device of the w Illustration 1949 for Jacques Fath in L ' O f f i c i e l d e la C o u t u r e RENE GRUAU . Gruau uses starkly cut negative space (see pp. elegant chic and svelte.F r e n c h f a s h i o n i l l u s t r a t o r w h o in his l o n g and esteemed career w o r k e d with many of the g r e a t e s t d e s i g n e r s o f 2 0 t h . India ink and gouache This swish of confidence and style our enters the page turning everyone's head. G r u a u ' s highly distinctive d r a w i n g s have a p p e a r e d Couture.and tilted to the same de a little deeper than sp kneestogivehergravity. She has been drawn with brushes dipped into India ink and gouache. possibly over a pencil outline. Composition Look how well this image is frame knee is parallel to the bottom edge spacehorizontalline cropping the trousers be outermostuprightbordersof her cuffs are similar above her head thesidesoftheimage. studio-like rectangle of paper. Fashion and fantasy drawings invent prototypes of ideals and perfection—be they for the catwalk or the fast-paced pages of comic books. The black red. Airbrushed reflective surfaces further amplify our perception of speed. as is Spider-Girl opposite. and gray pigments were applied separately. 5 8 . Fine lines drawn against the building behind her echo the threads on which we have all seen arachnids drop and hang. Spider-Girl leaps like an insect. muscular aggression.

Airbrushed color and with tonal focus. The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones. a great characteristic superhero comics. Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 2001-04 R O N FRENZ. Single-point understand perspective To how Frenz created up therefore the effect of steeply between looking buildings—and howyou can do the same in your own work—take calculate where a ruler the and single vanishing point lies. Frenz has drawn for Marvel for about 20 years. MARVEL C O M I C S . not far above the drawing. moon. In your mind's eye extend the uprights out of the top of the picture. and Amazing Spider-Man. This s modeling applied over the top give the image a sleek and mechanical of gravity. and figure are all locked into equally shatp through the traditional process of a pencilled outline over-drawn ink. He began work on Spider-Girl in 1998. Align your ruler to the upright of each building.74-77).RON F R E N Z Contemporary American graphic artist w h o designs and pencils the dynamic scenes of numerous superheroes featured in Marvel Comics. to the right of its center. sky. Buildings. at Their extensions will meet the same single vanishing (see point pp. and has been the title's regular artist since 2003. Sharp focus black outlines in this drawing create a hyper-real dynamic. beginning with Star Wars. It is outside the picture frame.

quality and cost T h e best are paperwrapped sticks of sumptuous. mixed on the paper and scratched into (as below). Store loose pastels in dry rice to keep them clean. you may be pleasantly surprised to discover something you could not have imagined using. oily pigment. Beware—some are toxic. Degas built his pastels in layers. are derived from many sources: rocks. wash. fixing each layer on the front. great for tin . purchase a small selection of different items you think you will like. Many artists apply fixative to the back of their work. which he left unfixed to retain its brightness. and subtlety. insects. The nontoxic range below represents a suggested starting point for experiment. there are disparities between the apparent nature or color of what you hold in your hand and its performance on paper. the diverse are made in brands of basic member of the family. allowing it to fix slightly from behind. except the final layer. 2. and cost are laid out for our pleasure and perusal. plants. FELT-TIP PENS: Instant-drying alcoholor water-based inks stored in the barrels of the pens are delivered via smooth nylon o r felt tips of varying shapes and thicknesses. and CHALK PASTELS Pastel pencils make fine lines (as above). C o n t e crayons are square-formed. Children's wax crayons are relatives. slightly oily to the touch. Dissolve in turpentine or mineral spirits to produce oil paint or or dark paper. chalkbased but very subtle. Be aware that fixative dulls pastel. Pastels are finer. crumbly. Bright pastels are more brilliant on colored paper. 3. and sold in many colors. clay. Many products are sold individually and in boxed sets. See h o w they work and return later for more of what proved best for you. and synthetics. used to make colors.162 COSTUME Colored Materials ART STORES BRIM OVER w i t h t h e m a n y wherever permitted. COLORED PENCILS: Dry pigments ground together with chalk. these work best when slightly warm. made in about 80 colors. the finer and more subtle the texture and color should be. or wax and a binder are shaped into fine strips and encased in w o o d like a graphite pencil. I suggest you do so. Often. OIL PASTELS: Many colors. though lines can develop greasy stains around the edges if the paper is not first stretched and treated with a gelatin paste laid as a wash. They vary hugely in cost. paper-wrapped. Seemingly infinite choices of texture. soft. Sticks and conte crayons make thicker marks (as below). intensity. shape. Pastel pencils are slender and in w o o d casing. and can be a great rediscovery for bold drawings. Try materials that are new and unfamiliar. The higher the quality (and cost). 1. Most stores leave small pads of paper on their counters for customers to test materials. unwrapped harder pastels. OIL PASTELS Oil-based. Use them to draw lightly (as above left) or thickly. The worst are like revolting old lipsticks that get everywhere except where you intend. size. hue. quality. and can be softened and manipulated with degrees of heat. They work well on PIGMENTS Pigments. Before making substantial investments. 4. colored materials available. animals. including iridescents. CHALK PASTELS: Blackboard chalk is sidewalk work. minerals.

leaving the paper to shine through for highlights (as below). Colors can be blended as shown right) and tones graded by altering pressure. 111). FELT-TIP PENS Although not made with felt-tip pen. Some give richer lines than others. others dissolve in water or turpentine to make a wash. Fine lines can be achieved (as above). . Brands made for designers sold in enormous ranges of colors are far more subtle and sophisticated than those made for children. If you love smooth blocks and lines of colon felt-tip pens are perfect. Think of Matisse's Blue Nude (see p. Diverse brands are harder or soften greasier or chalkier in use. Some are nonsoluble.163 COLORED PENCILS These are wax.or clay-based thin crayons in wood casing. so it is best to test them before buying. it is still a great champion and support for those beginners feeling shyly obligated to tone down their love of color to conform with what others say they should use.

will discover m o r e . personality. t h e n again as if transparent. a n d e x p e r i e n c e visible p r o g r e s s . To set up. structure. You. values. Here we go one step further. D r a w each o n e first as a solid object. c o v e r a large sheet o f p a p e r w i t h line drawings o f several shoes. you will need several large sheets of drawing paper. 100-01 and pp. As artifacts in museums.164 COSTUME Study and Design they reflect our age. Linear Outline Using fine pens. and how we stand and walk. they record and reflect our common history. imagining y o u can see t h r o u g h it. I m a d e n u m e r o u s s h e e t s o f d r a w i n g s . a range of colored felt-tip pens with both fine and broad tips. . and volume in space (see pp. style. Superstitions and fetishes are attached to them: we are told never to put new shoes on a table. while artists have painted their boots or those of others as personal portraits and memorials. S H O E S TELL LIFE STORIES. and they have been concealed in buildings to ward off misfortune. t o o . REPEATED STUDY T o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s class. and after studying familiar shoes we use the information learned to invent new ones. social and economic status. and a selection of shoes. if y o u m a k e p l e n t y o f d r a w i n g s as o p p o s e d t o o n l y a f e w . 104-07). e n j o y i n g t h e study a n d i n v e n t i o n o f shoes. Turn t h e m in different d i r e c t i o n s and o b s e r v e t h e i r s t r u c t u r e and f o r m . This class takes the shoe as its subject in building on earlier lessons concerned with seeing through objects to understand their function. the era in which we live.

165

The Surface
Next,

STUDY AND DESIGN

study the surface contours using fineand broad-tipped felt-tip pens. For best results, it is important to be bold and brief. Draw firmly, fast, and with as few strokes as possible. Build up each shoe from light to dark andleavesome paper showing through to create highlights.

Design Your Own

Using what you have learned from the previous steps about the structures of your shoes, and about the use of pens, invent new designs from your imagination. Start with fine outlines and progress to colored and textured surfaces. Modify your ideas by rotating the views.

166

COSTUME

The Structure of Costume
MUSEUMS ARE AN INFINITELY

rich resource for the artist and

information given by a period style. Arrange to visit a costume museum or ask a friend to model clothes for you at home. Using fine felt-tip pens, begin with quick, pale impressions of each garment's shape before homing in on its borders and seams. Try to draw transparent views wherever possible to record the relationships between all component parts. Aim to draw enough information for it to be possible to make up a version of the garment using paper pinned to a tailor's dummy.

designer. They often give quite unexpected gems of ideas and information—whatever the subject. These drawings, made in a costume museum, demonstrate ways of recording structural information and detail for later use in the studio. They could form the basis of new designs for a fashion project or theater production, for example. Drawings of shoes on pp. 164-65 show how new designs can be evolved from the structural

OBSERVATION
It is usually best when collecting information for reference to apply the restraint of dispassionate observation. Set yourself the test of drawing facts with as little artistic license or embellishment as possible. Here I chose fine felt-tip pens because they are at their best when used swiftly, and therefore encourage bold, unhesitant decisions.

Swift lines record the hanging weight of this gentleman's coat, the relative proportions of its layers, and minimal details of the buttons and cuffs.

Thick velvet fabric is pulled tight beneath and across the bust by a single button. This transparent view shows how the fabric falls loosely in straight panels beneath the level of the sleeve.

167

LIGHTING
W h e n visiting museums, be prepared f o r l o w lighting, which can make it hard t o see and draw. A book can help if attached t o your drawing board.

Adding stripes and dashes of color with a thicker pen brings out the glossy sheen and sculptural rigidity of this dress, which would have been worn over a whalebone corset. small reading light designed t o clip o n t o a

THE STRUCTURE OF COSTUME

In small drawings such as these, use thick pens to color entire sections with a few marks, as I did here down the side of the bodice.

The light, frilly bulk of this crinoline dress is propelled forward with lines. pinching its gathers and sways that are hiding a horsehair bustle. fleets of quick

168

COSTUME

Textures and.Patterns
THIS CLASS FOCUSES ON how to draw textures through the collection of fabric, pattern, and embroidery samples from a costume m u s e u m . This formal method, using ruled squares, can create an invaluable library of ideas a n d i n f o r m a t i o n for future r e f e r e n c e — w h e n painting a clothed figure, or preparing a textile project, for example. However, if making a book of samples for a project, remember that it is important to also include collages of f o u n d materials (see pp.230-31) To d r a w a fabric texture, b e g i n by concentrating o n h o w y o u i m a g i n e it w o u l d feel if you t o u c h e d it. Decide if it w o u l d be rough, s m o o t h , w a r m , cold, thick, thin, tough, or fragile, for example. As you draw, believe you can feel these qualities at your fingertips a n d that your pencil is responding to the sensation. Undulate the pressure of your lines and marks according to the feeling of the fabric rather than its appearance. Let your pencil enact the sensation of touching its surface.

and to experiment more loosely with mixed media.

INVENTING COSTUMES
This starchy, quilted, b o w e d creation started life as an imagined corset, I intended t o d r a w together in one sculptural f o r m a range o f t h e details opposite. T h e garment quickly got o u t o f hand. T h e r e is great e n j o y m e n t in letting y o u r imagination run wild w h e n inventing costumes. If you are unable t o visit a costume museum, many exciting fabric details and textures can be found in y o u r o w n closet o r home.

169

COLORED PENCILS
Colored pencils give precision and tonal range; they can be faded but not erased. Lightly use an HB graphite pencil if you wish to plan a design first. Pressed hard, colored pencils build up a waxy finish of brilliant color. Used lightly, they appear powdery and show the texture of the paper.

TEXTURES AND PATTERNS
Wool

Silk and braid

Ribbon

Embroidered leather

Feathers

Pearls

Knit

Tassels

Outline stitch

.

I made a drawing book full of studies seeking to understand how he composed drama and pathos in his narratives (see also pp.126-27. 172-73. identity. selected from different pages of my original book. .Dressing Character I O N C E SPENT THREE MONTHS researching the work of Francisco de Goya at the Prado Museum. Madrid. and 252-53). These characters. and motivation of an individual. look at how Goya delineated volumes of thick fabric to express the posture. shape.

Posture Carving also taken from my Madrid drawing book (see pp.T H E S E PENCIL STUDIES. and visible. To understand how he did this. I carefully copied the direction of each of his lines. as it rushes and carves fabric-wrapped forms like rivers and desert winds shaping the earth. are copies of works by Goya in which he makes air seem heavier than flesh.170—71). . and tangible.

.

.

. the speed and printmaker and one of the greatest and most influential density of its lines. paintings depicting scenes from history. furniture. the direct exchange (as shown here) where one or more characters hold eye Aneedproduced the thicker lines of the nurse. and distance—so drawings of gathered people can be loosely arranged in three took only minutes to make and yet it lives for centuries. and its illumination. Washes of shadow behind engaged and as a natural voyeur can feel invisible while watching the scene. He is also the artist from whom props to add layers of meaning and attitude. Blockbuster movies. we can R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter draftsman. We read tensions and exchanges between people. in spite of how it may seem. and so. Saskia died after childbirth. Third. It middle. Second. but drawings of gathered people tell them most directly. even up her were laid with a brush. This J u s t as there are three parts to a traditional landscape drawing—the foreground. soap operas. we can learn most about handling pen and ink. the viewer's attention in a scene by the format of its composition. the viewer is not directly made the finer lines of Saskia. Drawings selected for this chapter explore these Saskia Lying in Bedand a Nurse ranges of proximity 1638 9 x61/2in (227 x 164 mm) and a travel journal. Storytelling and people-watching are obsessive human activities.Gatherings A LL DRAWINGS TELL STORIES. we. Saskia. Rembrandt's bored and frustrated wife. television documentaries. As artists. Her all-too-clear expression shows annoyance and irritation with her husband. are implicated in this marital exchange made over the head of the anonymous nurse. R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN in the delivery of narrative. a crowd tells the story from a distance. presumably while he is making this drawing. stares out from her gloomy sickbed. this is not the portrait of an old woman. while a quill contact with. there are no longer individuals but one significant group or mass action. finding corners in crowded places to inscribe their action and energy onto the page. The spaces between people and the positions they occupy on a page are vital to our understanding of the psychology or emotion of an event. He in turn scorches the paper with his view and a certain speed of seeing all. and instantly engage with the action of the scene. vivid portrait of his wife captures our attention. We can also use clothes. Seeing through Rembrandt's eyes. daily newspapers. too. and novels—our staple cultural diet—are driven by a fascination with shared experience and the detail of what happens in other people's lives. Here. and other masters of Western Art. We can direct close. First. types. and therefore seem to see. heighten or subdue drama with subtleties of exaggeration or caricature. Later in their lives. the viewer. With a pocket full of disposable pens we also go out and draw the expressions of gathered people. comics.

and Alice. and smoke billows around the agitated jives of the Duchess.176 GATHERINGS SOME DRAWINGS ARE MADE e n t i r e l y o f i l l u m i n a t i o n that floods drama into the viewers gaze. Think about what else you could use: a laser smoke. F o r e a c h w o r k . In one of R a c k h a m s great illustrations for Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland."Anything that. garbage and chaos are piled a n d e x p l o d e d in r o o m s full of event. Pans fly oft the stove.. c o m p o s e d garbage p r o d u c e s a c a l m . Below. t h e y select and arrange familiar items of street detritus into what appears to be an u n p l e a s a n t pile. In both works. narrative is delivered through the air. T h e i m m a c u l a t e d r a w i n g is only r e v e a l e d w h e n t h e b e a m of a p r o j e c t o r c a s t s t h e s h a d o w Projections of the h e a p o n t o a wall. N o b l e a n d W e b s t e r s w i t t y a n d o f t e n s u b v e r s i v e d r a w i n g s are also c o n t e m p o r a r y art installations. for example. via the animated clutter of o u r material lives. Pencil on paper important but only the beginning of possibility the combination of three-dimensional space. the C o o k . refuse. plates shatter. Real Life is Rubbish 2002 Dimensions variable TIM N O B L E A N D SUE WEBSTER . Here. and on. h a l o e d portrait of the artists seated b a c k to b a c k . and projector.kicks against the mundane things that close down your mind is a refreshing and good thing. hearth i m p l e m e n t s crash at o u r feet. and in. the Cat.. a kitchen explodes in o u r faces. or even the office photocopier. and projectors to create their anarchic punk satires of modern life. junk. TIM N O B L E A N D SUE W E B S T E R British artists who collaborate using neon." (Tim Noble) Drawing with light it is important to think about what you is Here timelessly we see a in can draw with.

by vivid children's Rakham's w o r k is characterized fantasy. See how the In the Duchess's Kitchen 1907 77/8 x 6 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 5 0 m m ) ARTHUR RACKHAM . H e is best k n o w n forillustratingIrving's Rip vanWinkle. humor. Depth Billows of smoke expand and are lighter as they come forward. This makes the story appear to leap out at us. Rackham Vanishing point In this marvelous drama made with pen. we find several devices already explored through our drawing classes. tabletop. The wood grain acts like marks of speed behind the scene.76-77) above vanishing point (see that is about3/4in (2 cm) oak converge at this point. are very large compared to on p. amplifying movement outward from the vanishing point. a n d an unmistakable graphic style. and watercolor. and Poe's Tales Imagination. and Alice's shoulder. 100 to see for make elliptical objects and pans fly through the the foreground.Stowe's ofMysteryand Queer Little Folks. Refer back to the drawing class how pots In drawn objects and elements that those behind. beams. Find the singleperspective pp.177 ARTHUR RACKHAM British watercolorist and book illustrator. ink.

Moore's spectators appear to have walked a long way from nowhere to witness and wait beside this mysterious obelisque. Magnetic Fields sculpture. Opposite. a great Shoshone drawing blazes with the color. expressing his dry humor about O F ALL THE CONTRASTS HENRY MOORE British s c u l p t o r w h o t r a i n e d a n d taught at t h e R C A . and action of a buffalo hunt. and art in the landscape. HENRY MOORE Crowd 1942 Looking at Tied-up Object . heat. as if Moore's wrapping has been literally outstretched. London. Chalk and graphite This fog-bound but humorous gathering of souls is made in graphite and colored chalk with gray wash. and composition they are polar opposites. and we. The image stands out among his more usual graphic works in which he hones and carves semi-abstract human forms.178 GATHERINGS we have seen in the pairs and trios of drawings by masters and makers. This is just one of many precious artifacts from a lost time. join in the waiting. meaning. audiences. This is an ironic drawing from Moore. The mournful gray landscape of Henry Moore's northern British field has gathered by night an overcoated audience to stand and wait before a wrapped and roped monument. A glimmer of gold light appears from the left No explanation is given.The human form w a s the vehicle o f his expression and h e w a s t h e official W o r l d W a r II artist. a sculptor. M o o r e t o u r e d Italy as a young man. In culture. a n d l o v e d t o d r a w in t h e BritishMuseum. which still narrates vivid days in the lives of an energetic nation. perhaps these two are the most extreme. as fellow watchers.

Hunt CENTURY SHOSHONE SCHOOL ." Men at the instructed to sit and watch. creating harmonious balance with words but through silent demonstration. Each color is evenly distributed throughout the scene. and helping our eye to dart around. MAGNETIC FIELDS Horses It is interesting to note how the outstretched limbs ofthesehorses echo European images of the runningBuffalo horse before the sequence-photographer Muybridge taught us to 19TH understand their movement differently. horses. Stylized hunters. tolearnhow to paint a scene on a hide are and buffalo circle and charge the perimeters of a skin "field. Skills are taught not center chant or dance to the beat of a drum.179 SHOSHONE SCHOOL Stylized characters This vital image of a buffalo hunt is made with pigment Members of the Shoshone community wishing painted within dark outlines on a stretched elk hide.

The Circle of the (The Whirlwind 1824 of Lustful Lovers) mm) 143/4 x 207/8i n ( 3 7 4 x 5 3 0 WILLIAM BLAKE . It illustrates a scene from Dante's Divine Comedy. w e f i n d a spiritual v i s i o n . W I L L I A M BLAKE British visionary. Brushed line and wash This is an ink-outlined drawing made with a fine brush on paper with added washes of watercolor The image was subsequently redrawn as a line engraving. texture. a n d e n g r a v e r w h o p o w e r f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e d his o w n t e x t s in a d d i t i o n t o D a n t e ' s Divine Comedy. Misted in translucent layers of paint. m a r k . color. a d e a t h c h a r g e of brutality. We also see qualities of line. Heath Robinson lived through the same war-torn. a n d o t h e r w o r k s . and sweetened the often bleak years with his impractical inventions. w h i c h b y their c h o i c e a n d h a n d l i n g a c t u a l l y b e c o m e the force a n d spirit of e a c h i m a g e . era as Kollwitz. pale souls of the lustful are being s p u n into yet another realm of hell. w h e r e he w a t c h e s a t u r b u l e n t s p i r a l of p u n i s h m e n t f o r the d a m n e d . K a t h e K o l l w i t z s c r a t c h e d a n d e n g r a v e d her a r m y of c l a y .180 GATHERINGS The Human Condition IN THE SPECTRUM of these vastly d i f f e r e n t g a t h e r i n g s of p e o p l e . inextinguishable in its fortitude and h u m o r . a pink-inked cinema wobbles along with string. B l a k e h a s i l l u m i n a t e d his s a d d e n e d Virgil on the s h o r e s of a d a r k w o r l d . w r i t e r a r t i s t .f o o t e d t r o g l o d y t e s w h o rage into w a r like a m u d s l i d e of revenge. p o e t . a n d the gentle h u m o r of sedate r i d i c u l e . The muscularity of Blake's figures was inspired by Michelangelo's works. t h e Bible. Blake w a s d r i v e n b y a passion f o r j u s t i c e a n d a p r o f o u n d b e l i e f in his v i s i t a t i o n s f r o m angels. a n d f o c u s . Opposite.

humor by making his characters earnest. Robinson and Kollwitz (above) share almost identical life dates and their work expresses a shared history from opposite sides oftheworld wars. and the family home. Heath Robinson shows England in a past era.181 KATHE KOLLWITZ German printmaker. children. plodding along with hazy. British Pen and wash This is a pen-andwatercolor drawing made for a color-platereproduction in an edition of T h e Bystander. The image was scratched directly onto a metal plate. however meager or ridiculous their activity. and clearly focused. stoical bemusement. Kollwitz survived the two World Wars. Losbruch (The Outbreak) 1955 20 x 233/8 in (507 x 592 mm) KATHE KOLLWITZ HEATH ROBINSON humorous illustrator and a regular contributor to magazines and journals such as The Sketch and The Bystander. Ink rolled over was selectively polished off using a rag. sculptor and draftsman. and her powerful and sensitive drawings center on nurture. who lived in a poor district of Berlin. and the impact of death and war upon women. He created sincere. With masterful gentility. poverty. What remained in scratched grooves printed on damp paper as lines. HEATH ROBINSON The Kinecar 1926 103/8 x 15 in (262 x 380 mm) . THE HUMAN CONDITION Scratched lines This is a dry-point etching with monoprint. White marks were made with a dusting of French chalk on the artist's finger to wipe away ink leaving clean metal. and controlled smears on the metal surface printed as tones.

rollerballs.r e s i s t a n t . in the studio. w a t e r . they each offer distinct and sometimes unexpected qualities. jot notes. fine fiber-tip Drawing with a fine fiber-tip pen.188-89) and Caravans (see pp. Unlike pencils. which can snap or pierce through your clothes. blob when old. t h e y a r e lightfast. Available in blacks and ranges of colors. So many stores sell them. or put the paper in your pocket instantly without fear of smudging. a n d pressure-sensitive. Lines t h i c k e n as t h e p e n w e a r s o u t G r a n d Canal (see pp. . fibertips. R e m e m b e r . aiming for correct outlines would result in drawing too slowly to c a t c h the moment. t w o tourists and their gondolier drifter past m e o n a canal. build to a rich. Ideal f o r precision w o r k (see p p . a n d ranges o f colors. R O L L E R B A L L : A c o n s t a n t i n k flow 3 . At a time like this. B A L L P O I N T : Black a n d b o l d c o l o r s o f f e r d i v e r s e qualities. shut your book. FIBER-TIP: M a n u f a c t u r e d f o r artists a n d d e s i g n e r s in a r a n g e o f w i d t h s .182 GATHERINGS Disposable Pens (ballpoints. these pens enable you to sketch. p e r m a n e n t . CHOICES AVAILABLE T h e r e a r e m a n y d i s p o s a b l e p e n s t o c h o o s e from. I swiftly focused on gesture. indent paper. or idea. in the car. they can be obtained within minutes. G E L P E N : P r o d u c e d in b l a c k w h i t e . and in most pockets so I can always record a thought DISPOSABLE PENS QUICK NOTES O n a c o l d day in Venice." 1. For example. is d e l i v e r e d t h r o u g h a m e t a l t u b e o v e r a t i n y ball bearing. I keep quantities at home. trusting shape and form to follow. a ballpoint will make faint lines. 7 6 . 2. if y o u w i s h y o u r d r a w i n g s t o last a n d n o t fade o r b l u r w i t h t i m e a n d e x p o s u r e t o light. Insensitive t o p r e s s u r e : lines d o n o t v a r y in w i d t h o r t o n e . 4.7 7 and 214-15). c h o o s e p e n s l a b e l e d " p e r m a n e n t " o r "lightfast. including l u m i n o u s a n d m e t a l l i c . a disposable pen with its clip-on cap goes anywhere. Quick-drying. turn the page. T h e r e w e r e c seconds t o snatch this impression b e t w e e n their emergence from one bridge and disappearance b e n e a t h t h e next. The f o u r i l l u s t r a t e d h e r e r e p r e s e n t a basic r a n g e . 192-93) w e r e b o t h m a d e w i t h a ballpoint. dark sheen. gel pens) are the most convenient of all materials with which to travel. dropped in your pocket and forgotten till needed. or turn into washes and make monoprints if flooded with an alcohol-based substance such as hairspray. W h i t e gel p e n s a r e v e r y e f f e c t i v e o n d a r k papers.

crowd of fellow travelers Fast lines These scribbled lines model the mass and shadows of heads belonging passengers packed into the boat. not form.31 . Compare this Klee's mules on p. Fast lines focus on action.FROMMEMORY Here I used the same fiber-tip pen to compose a scene from memory. Earlier I had witnessed a crammed en masse in a fleet of hired gondolas complete with musicians and choir.

No camera can tie you to a time or people in the same way. but they should not be what you dwell on. just draw the action. life will not slow and wait for you to catch it. pocket notebook and a fiber-tip pen. not its outline. activity. make them stouter. Push toward caricature and this will draw out of your memory what was most important. angles will happen as a matter of course. FLEETING MOMENTS Walking through Venice with a small. You will make outlines. if animated. when out drawing. black. if a person was stout. Above all. Let the line of the flying coat fly and the hanging arm hang. Exaggeration helps. A curatorial assistant flies to do a chore (right).184 GATHERINGS The Travel Journal I CANNOT OVERSTATE THE JOY of making a travel journal. Movement . Each line acts its part in the narrative. animate them more. focus on the action of the event. Don't worry about measuring angles. and companionship. all action is in the line of his coat and directed by his nose. of course. I caught fleeting glimpses of gathered people and solitary souls going about their affairs. Each one was witnessed and drawn immediately from the afterimage of what I had just seen. Circular lines buzz around a man puzzling at the end of a train platform (left). let it enter the stage and perform. However. You must learn to trust your memory and to draw what impressed you most. Every drawing writes an indelible memory of place.

I drew him three times on the same page to catch a range of his physical expressions.185 A large lady is photographed in front of a delicate work of art. eager to herd us all from his house of responsibility. In turn. Observation THE TRAVEL JOURNAL The same willowy assistant dashes about his work. Expression . I am watched by the aggravated guard. The rush of his legs isamplifiedby their blurred lines.

furniture leans. Identify the principal character and draw him or her first. if they are being devious. and there met this sullen custodian. forcing me to remain at the back and look at them. emotion. and you decide to draw the moment. placement. elevate them in the pictorial space. if they are being haughty. He and his simpering assistant would not allow me in. you might place them lower down. Place the person carefully. and clothing or bags hang. rather than the works of art they guarded. and let every detail speak by its size. flap.186 GATHERINGS Catching the Moment On A BITTERLY COLD November day. . not outline. decide how faces and bodies contort. For example. and involvement in the story. I took refuge in a church in Venice. start by focusing on its action. ACTION AND DETAIL W h e n drawing people. or bulge. Here the custodian projects fastidious ownership of his desk and pamphlets by pushing from behind the center of the space and challenging our entry to his image. or pushes. When your attention has been caught. For example. pulls. Be aware that their placement on the page is part of the narrative. focus on action. Here I have recreated my drawing in steps to show you how to set about capturing such a scene. and reason for happening.

a pillar locates t h e scene in a depth o f space. Decide where t o place them t o emphasize their role. D r a w their action. In the final step (left) I reinforced t h e custodian's desk. together with any immediate props they are using. Decide where you will place them o n the paper t o emphasize their action and intent. Draw their action and props. continue adding characters.187 The custodian Identify your principal character a n d their psychological role in the scene. which is pushed toward us in a gesture of confrontation. . who is largely expressed through the shape and fall o f his raincoat and his way o f using a note pad. W i t h a few strokes. If drawing a more complex scene. Here. CATCHING THE MOMENT The assistant Identify t h e antagonist ( o r second character) in t h e scene. I added t h e assistant. such as the desk and pamphlets seen here.

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An imminent deluge of tourists urged me to work catching no more than the skeleton of the view. and buildings. where vertical mooring poles give space and pulse to the horizontal speed of water quickly. . I developed detailofthis drawing from memory using a ballpoint pen.Grand Canal T H E CANALS OF VENICE are bustling places full of occupation.

Caricature each person slightly. .Crossings DURING THIS RUSH HOUR. and drawn immediately from memory. note only their most essential action and feature. Each person was glimpsed in an instant. To catch characters like this. followed by the streets. then the bridge beneath them. Characters in the foreground were drawn first. Venetians flow across a stepped bridge and cascade into the streets beyond.

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I found this circus by chance in the Swiss mountains. I used a ballpoint pen to compose a series of scenes. Caravans and other backstage activity convey expectations of energy and repose. quiet afternoon. and a great subject to draw. . Sitting at a distance on a hot.Caravans T H E PARAPHERNALIA O F TRAVEL i s an intriguing part of circus life.

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trees. a n d a n astronomer w h o dedicated 20 years t o studying t h e M o o n . Beginners will often choose calm. when little stirs and empty blue skies offer even less to latch lines to. Russell d r e w this. makes his work by the act of walking. a n d a m o o n globe called t h e Selenographia. and its draws the tides of the seas. speculation. artists see for themselves that which is momentary and eternal. to be ready to draw the new light as it breaks across the land. and take bold steps in emulating the swell of clouds and the forces of torrential water. our companion. H e a l s o p r o d u c e d an a l b u m o f 1 8 0 exquisite pencil drawings. and meteor impacts have scarred. rivers. Take chances against the rain and work with the wind or fog. are the real subjects in great landscape drawings. the face of the Moon. It is Earths satellite. In this chapter Moon Pastel 1795 Drawing we experiment with charcoal. a contemporary environmental artist. but it can be seen as a lens to our observation of this planet. Richard Long. Just as NASA photographs of Earth have had a profound effect on the way we view our fragile home. t w o e n g r a v e d m a p s k n o w n as The Lunar Planispheres. learning to draw light out of dark. arranging them in perfect circles on the mountainside or in lines drifting out of sight beneath low clouds. These conditions are very difficult to express well. 199). Weather is essential in all landscape drawing. JOHN RUSSELL A p o r t r a i t pastelist t o King G e o r g e III o f England. sunny days. 5 f t x 5 ft 6 in ( 1 5 2 x 1 6 8 c m ) J O H N RUSSELL . pages o f softly i l l u m i n a t e d craters and lunar "seas" c o v e r e d in m a t h e m a t i c a l and s h o r t h a n d calculations. It now hangs on the staircase of the History of Science Museum. This is the world's first accurate image of the Moon. so J o h n Russell's tour de f o r c e drawing (opposite) was a masterpiece of observation in his time. The pastel drawing was constructed from myriad telescopic observations almost 200 years before the Apollo Moon landing. By drawing such momentous and everyday events. and even how the Sun illuminates. There is a sense of the heroic in drawing outside—we race to catch a form before the tide engulfs it. marking the ground with lines of footprints or by turning stones. and experiment. surrounded by the bright instruments of centuries of navigation. or the wind carries it away. Look closely at works by many artists and you will see that they have not represented hills. how the soil is scorched. England. and the sea. as opposed the physicality of Earth. or has cracked and fallen under the weight of water. The forces of nature. William Turner is said to have had himself lashed to a ship's mast to comprehend the storm (see p.Earth and the Elements I T MAY SEEM PERVERSE to start a chapter titled "Earth and the Elements" with an image of the Moon. how the mountain cut by ice and rain is now fleetingly lit. Oxford. t h e first-ever accurate image o f t h e M o o n ' s surface. What they have drawn is the force of nature on these properties: how the wind heaves the night ocean. It is better to get up before dawn. they are the animators of your subject. the sun comes out to blind it.

T h e ship. we can soon learn to draw its force. Dots and dashes suggest receding trees out of focus. and gives motion to each image. fluttering heavily. undramatic b u t brimming with stylized realism. the government. Fluid strokes inflate the woman's dress and pin shadows to the ground. and solidity. Hokusais sedate wind presses reeds a n d the j o u r n e y s o f young ladies. Terrifying waves of merciless nature roar across the paper. serving a prison sentence for his views. By Turner carries us to the heart of the maelstrom. Daumier's c a r t o o n shines with the brilliance of his comic memory. Danger of Wearing Balloon Petticoats UNDATED HONORE DAUMIER . lifts. is already lost. has b e c o m e a hysterical kite. a scratched ghost.Through political drawings he fired his sharp wit at the king. Crayon and limestone This is a lithograph. H O N O R E DAUMIER French satirical cartoonist lithographer. distance. and the legal profession. seeing how it shakes. Below. a sail b r o k e n loose in a stormy marriage. Hazy vertical marks reveal buildings into the mist. painter. the bourgeoisie. and by observing its tides and eddies in our o w n environment. Flapping kimonos and an onlooker turning his b a c k have the magic of a m o m e n t caught. A hard waxy was drawn across a heavy limestone Varying definitions crayon of lire and depths of tone conspire to give volume. and pioneer ofexpressionism. speed. This wife. like an umbrella forced inside-out. He knew how the world bends and stutters under such gusts. sculptor. T h e great master of English seascape is c o n d u c t i n g with his graphic energy.198 EARTH AND THE E L E M E N T S Air in Motion THE GREAT INVISIBLE SUBJECT o f these d r a w i n g s is t h e w i n d .

M. Wind direction wood-block This is a colored To represent the blows lifted flowed wind.W. Ship in a Storm c. wind. A outline scratched of a skeletal into penciled ship is while and the waves.i n f l u e n c e d b y examples o f W e s t e r n art obtained through D u t c h t r a d i n g in Nagasaki. including being lashed t o a ship's m a s t in o r d e r to study a storm. H o k u s a i in t u r n has since significantly influenced European art. leans the whole composition swells around its fateful center. seascape. and history painter w h o s e p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t a b o v e all w a s light. 1826 91/2 x 113/4 in ( 2 4 1 x 3 0 0 m m ) J.M. Landscape a n d city life w e r e his principal subjects. painter.b l o c kprintmaker. T U R N E R British landscape. d e s i g n e r a n d b o o k i l l u s t r a t o r .l o v e dw o r k s i n c l u d e 1 0 0 v i e w s o f M o u n t Fuji and 1 2 v o l u m e s o f Manga. absorbent watercolor and are Stains of splashed. AIR IN MOTION Pencil and watercolor subdued brushed. from left print. W . Hokusai direction (from clothing from has chosen which it the right). T u r n e r w o r k e d in oils a n d w a t e r c o l o r s a n d s k e t c h e d c o p i o u s l y o n his travels. T h e r e a r e m a n y stories o f his p a s s i o n a t e w o r k i n g methods. horizontally then and of the it into the stream Plants also bend and flow right to Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 1802 81/2 HOKUSAI KATSUSHIKA x 131/2 in ( 2 1 7 x 3 4 3 mm) . TURNER KATSUSHIKA HOKUSAI Prolific J a p a n e s e c o l o r w o o d .199 J. into this very as pressed sheet The paper's through own coior is brought banks of mist and fog. a n d his b e s t .

grab their b r u s h . h a u n t e d shadows. drawing was Hugo's principal means o f expression. water. and tossed o b j e c t s — a perfect subject in which artists can forget themselves.200 ELEMENTS Storms STORMS CAN BE SEEN and drawn in two ways: first. An update on biblical showers of fish and frogs. lines of rain escorting them to b o u n c e and clatter. It looks so contemporary. he blanketed the drawing in darkness. as a gestural storm on the paper. this is a writer's narrative of terror.28). Then. this is a b o m b a r d m e n t from o u r h o m e s . marks. and swim into the page. fantasy palaces. it is difficult to contemplate its brooding and night-soaked heart. inks. or charcoal. active surfaces of water. T h e m e n a c i n g darkness of Hugo's storm b e l o w is so convincing. T h e very nature of b o t h is turmoil and an interweaving of elements. Pen and brush Hugo drew first with pen and ink. Opposite. ink. and t h e sea s t u d i e d f r o m his h o m e in Guernsey in t h e Channel Islands. composing banks of waves and dense. leaving nothing but a glimpse of moonlight glistening on the froth below. Turner (see p. His subjects include ruins. He brings us to stare into a place that no sane human would enter. as a subject and second. D o m e s t i c o b j e c t s we can o w n and name fall from the clouds. as if drawn j u s t this year. In periods b e t w e e n writing. EARTH AND THE VICTOR HUGO French novelist and artist (see also p. By contrast. Leonardos Cloudburst of Material Possessions is o n e of his m o s t enigmatic and mysterious works.198) admires the majesty of nature. Le Bateau-Vision 1864 71/2 x 1 0 in ( 1 9 2 x 2 5 5 m m ) VICTOR H U G O . with a brush.

There is a little magic in recognizing many items from our homes something like a rake. and they passed through private hands for 400 years before becoming widely known. Cloudburst of Material Possessions 1510-12 45/8 x 43/8 in ( 1 1 7 x 1 1 1 mm) L E O N A R D O DA VINCI . Above and below are examples of his mirror handwriting. envisioning machines centuries before their making (helicopters and bicycles. and a wheel. It is interesting to speculate how engineering might have developed if his ideas had been shared with the world earlier Ink and chalk This is a pen and ink drawing with touches of black chalk. a hook. a bell. He bequeathed his drawings to a friend. together with half the contents of our garage. He was left-handed and wrote backwards in Italian from left to right. Each item that has crashed from heaven is drawn in such a way that we can feel Leonardo's nib picking it up in the speed of a doodle. for example).LEONARDO DA VINCI Leonardo devised many artifacts of our modern lives.

In a very different work (opposite above). sea-. and dry marks in the foreground appear to be made with his finger. Claude has used a fine nib to delineate segments of land as they recede into space. which he used to unify his compositions. or cityscape. transferred it to a scroll. rich. she teased away fragments of paper to illuminate her view. In the lower half he has walked downhill a little. atmosphere. Segments The top half of the drawing is a view as we enter the valley. cooler tones receding into the distance are applied with a brush.202 ELEMENTS THE PROFILE OF A HORIZON is a line we immediately recognize and respond to. and mood simultaneously. watching his hand and eye at work together. and etcher who lived most of his life in 17th-century Rome. made inside a book. and across to the right. Even distilled from all other detail. rapidly layering contours to shape place. Whether land-. and we can imagine standing over his shoulder. Paler. his unsurpassed handling of light. Drawing with a scalpel. Clare Bryan took panoramic photographs of the English South Downs.1638 85/8 x 121/2 in (219 x 320 mm) CLAUDE LORRAIN . EARTH AND THE Bryan cut the profile of a city. and famed for. Nature Profiles Opposite below. a horizon line can trigger our recognition. Claude is distinguished by. Views from Velletri c. C L A U D E LORRAIN French classical landscape painter draftsman. thick. and after tracing her captured line. She was inspired by her research of aerial plans of London and the story of an alien map butterfly (see caption). Over first lines. it is the unique calligraphic signature of the place in which we stand. Claude Lorrain drew directly on location.

and visiting professor at numerous art schools. drawings Ideas of introduction Clare Bryan to research introduced down and led NATURE PROFILES and removal historical plans and aerial growth of London showing its population since Roman times. source workisilluminatedby standing its lower edge on a CLARE BRYAN .The horizon was drawn with a City Landline 2003 271/2x 59 in (70 x 150 cm) scalpel. printmaker graphic designer. and digital print-based works reflect upon the histories and poetry of "left behind and in-between spaces. 2001 CLARE BRYAN C L A R E BRYAN 3ritish artist." Cut line This is a small section of a preparatory 5-ft(1. On turning the pages of City. The edges of each here) fade into the solid paper unpopulated with a scalpel landscape. specialty bookbinder.5-m)scroll. Her recent paper photographic. then hunted destroyed.203 Scalpel-drawn This book-bound drawing was inspired by the story of a foreign butterfly wrongly to Great Britain in 1912. progressively settlement (cropped more and more paper is drawn away to show the expansion of human page of an around the river.

THIN WILLOW CHARCOAL: I used a piece like this to make the drawing opposite. Charcoal lifts away from paper easily with the very light touch o f an eraser. C h a r c o a l naturally glistens. COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Machine-made. Not to be confused with square conte sticks (see p. 6. without touching the surface. 3 A white line is lifted out by the tape. you can p u r c h a s e m a c h i n e . . Slightly dull the tape's stickiness before use t o prevent it from lifting out more than you intend. a piece of fresh bread.204 E A R T H AND THE E L E M E N T S Charcoal CHARCOAL IS PRODUCED from wood baked slowly without exposure to air. resulting in a pale line. leaving u n d e r t r a c e s of first thoughts. 3. black finish. it is compressed and m o l d e d at high pressure. Hold it over your drawing RANGE AVAILABLE Charcoal (in its several forms shown here) is loved or loathed by the beginner to whom it is often recommended because it produces pleasing results quickly. 4.m a d e c o m p r e s s e d charcoal. sticky side down. CHALK CHARCOAL: Technically. tape. THICK W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 2 Keep the tape above your drawing. It is also easily erased if the maker of the mark is not happy with the result. this does not exist. blacker. and heavier than willow.54). It allows you greater precision in your mark-making than if you rub away the charcoal with an eraser. The tip snaps easily to renew a sharp edge if required. MEDIUM W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 5. b l a c k e r . they are all intended for fine work. between your middle finger and thumb. 2. 1. a rag. Smooth paper accepts few particles. B u n d l e s o f twigs were traditionally sealed into earthenware j a r s or wet clay and heated slowly and intensely in a fire or kiln. cylindrical. Artists have also used lime. LIFTING OUT This technique is a very easy method of drawing a crisp. Willow is the most c o m m o n wood. so it chars b l a c k as o p p o s e d to igniting a n d turning to ash. resulting in a stick that gives a blacker. As its name implies. It does n o t erase easily. but some specialists stock compressed charcoal in delicate square sticks. The same as above. harder line. 1 Suspend a length of masking tape. and offers a rich. a n d m o r e i n d e l i b l e by soaking it in linseed oil. CHARCOAL PENCIL: Types made by different manufacturers vary in quality and density of line. 7. R o u g h paper c a n b e loaded. 162) or graphite (see p. In use. Boxes often contain a range of thicknesses to choose for different needs. or fingertip. maple. A great find when available. it looks gray and feels like chalk. b e e c h . feather. white line into the blackor grayness of willow charcoal. only a little thicker. Alternatively. Then lift it away. Use any fine-point pen or pencil (I used a ballpoint) to draw a firm line on the back of the Big pieces are perfect for very large-scale drawings—even larger than yourself. Beware of cheap brands selling dyed chalk as compressed charcoal. SQUARE COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Not often sold. fine. Essentially. Try itworking on big paper covering a wall. It c a n be m a d e duller. the heel o f y o u r h a n d . Lines are achieved by d e p o s i t i n g particles in the grain o f paper. a n d p l u m . vine.

sold in several widths. Use cheaper (less sticky) for lifting out.212-13 were made by altering the pressure applied to the charcoal. T O R T I L L O N : This is a tight roll of paper used to blend charcoal. Here we used a ballpoint. Different tones seen throughout the main drawing on pp.205 ERASING Thickly applied charcoal quickly o v e r c o m e s a plastic eraser A w a r m (soft and tacky) putty eraser is more effective. graphite. pastels. 9. 8 . I used a plastic eraser effectively on thinly applied charcoal. . 10. Use high quality (very sticky) to fix paper to walls and boards. PEN: Any fine pen or pencil can be used to draw on the back of masking tape when lifting out. Lift out broader marks with a larger implement. Cotton swabs also work. Here. Layers can be peeled away to refresh its surface. CHARCOAL Lifting out This detail shows an example of where I used the lifting-out technique demonstrated opposite to draw flashes of lightning against rain clouds. MASKING TAPE: An invaluable resource. or any other dry media. as is fresh (unbuttered!) bread.

It is the visible effect of the atmosphere between where you stand and what you see in the distance. They are also good markers of receding space. Don't worry if it is cloudy: clouds add drama and perspective and make good subjects in themselves (see pp. 9 8 . to contain each of your compositions.206 EARTH AND THE ELEMENTS Landscapes TREES ALONE OFFER MARVELOUS shapes to draw. it results in flat planes of clutter.9 9 we noted that in response to visual stimulus. details blur and colors grow paler and bluer. an eraser your drawing book or a board and paper fixative (or hairspray). Then I drew the shape of the tonal patches I perceived. the less you describe. our brains search for nameable things and will perceive complete pictures from very little information. the more you encourage the viewer's imagination to join in and see. On p p . Landscape drawings are traditionally arranged in three parts: a detailed foreground. I relaxed my eyes out of focus to dissolve distracting detail into abstract patches of light and darkness. To experiment with drawing landscapes and the use of charcoal. hazy distance. MATERIALS In this first view there is only a foreground and middle distance. Seeing tones . When you arrive. Pack several thick and thin sticks of willow charcoal. a reel of masking tape. and an abstract. a less distinct middle ground composed of shapes and textures. pack your materials (as advised below) and set off for a local view or your nearest arboretum. Ironically. and a cushion in a plastic bag to sit on. This term simply means that as land rolls away into the distance. The long view is hidden behind trees. Excessive detail can be admired for its skill and achievement. begin by marking out several small squares on your paper. At its worst.212-13). especially when making first excursions into aerial perspective. but is often less evocative and engaging. Successful drawings often only suggest the qualities of the scene without overdescribing them.

207 LANDSCAPES In my second square I explored a simple view contrasting soft. full of information you can use to create what you want! Inventing drama . This composition turned out a little flat because I have an almost even quantity of earth and sky. It is better to give distinctly more pictorial space to one or the other (see below). horizontal regions of grass. shadows. Exploring the view Redrawing the scene above. Remember. dark trees with bright. your view is your inspiration. the trunk of a bare tree. rounded. I have invented drama with diagonals set against each other I tilted the earth. and broke a view through the hedge into the distance with a dark sky threatening rain.

and seeing what the real choice of subject is. taking with you your drawing book and pen. shade out of the glare of the sun. engine.104-05). Circling a subject and drawing it from several views imprints on your memory a better understanding of its three-dimensional form. 2 1 4 . s e e k places in light After my first drawing. I am then able to home in on what interests me most for further study. and tiller still standing proud. Similarly. England has embedded within it the decaying skeleton of a burned fishing boat. For example. Building on earlier studies of structure in space using shoes (pp. on p p .208 ELEMENTS Drawing in the Round WHEN DRAWING IN THE LANDSCAPE. settling my concentration. making the scene below led me to focus on the decaying boat opposite. observing it from several views so as to better understand it as a whole. bare ribs.1 5 my first drawing of the whole view of the Tiber led me to see the real subject of the day. I usually begin by making an image of the whole view." . "Drawing in the round means to literally walk around your subject. EARTH AND THE FINDING THE SUBJECT Finding a remarkable subject is even better when you can circumnavigate it in an arena of space. This first drawing serves as a process of arrival. your challenge now is to find a sculptural subject in the landscape. so the paper is not made blinding and your hand cannot cast a shadow on your work. which was the flow of water over rocks. The mud of the tidal shore in Rye.164-65) and a wire violin (pp.

DRAWING IN THE 1 Here. character. The outline ties a shape of darkness to the boat like a weight so that it becomes part of its form. I drew with quick.209 SERIES OF STUDIES This stunning ghost o f a boat comes into v i e w t w i c e a day. its overall balance. Each n e w drawing gives a different insight. ROUND 2 In this tail-end view. looking more at the boat than at the paper From this low position I have emphasized how the boat is swallowed in mud by outlining its shadow on the ground. I spent equal time looking at the subject and the paper. w h e n t h e sea recedes. and the order and shape of its component parts. unfussy lines. and structure. Overleaf: Decaying Boat 4 . careful lines to establish the skeleton that gives this wreck its distinct form. 3 This impression notes the angle of the broken boat. make a series o f drawings f r o m different positions. marking straight. I looked more boldly at the planes and the dynamic of the sculptural craft My lines have become darker and more forceful as confidence in my understanding of the vessel grew. W h e n you have found your subject.

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20-21) using a thin stick of willow charcoal. . L o o k i n g b a c k and forth from the heavens to firmly taped-down paper. m a d e on s m o o t h . was made with gentle but unhesitating s p e e d .Cloudburst THIS STORM DRAWING. hot-pressed drawing p a p e r (see pp. I worked quickly to catch and weave the turbulent contrasts of rising wind and approaching water before the drawing could be washed away.

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I drew with a needle-fine fiber-tip pen. pocket-sized notebook. . since ancient times. pulse. On the pages of a small. focusing on the river's eddies. black. shaping the city.Notes of Force T H E GREAT FLOWING TIBER RIVER has cut through Rome. and rhythmic detail as it passed through the ancient gully of the city.

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Mountains SITTING IN THE SHADE of a tree on the Greek island of Antiparos. . I used a dip pen and waterproof India ink with brushed watercolor to draw the view. The strong diagonal of the composition from bottom left to top right carries the eye through changes of height and focus from the foreground to the mountains beyond.

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Swirling. Berne. As you approach the classes in this chapter. spontaneous image-making. and Aboriginal art. direction. and have been making abstract drawings for centuries—Japanese calligraphy. It was not invented in the 20th century. Afterward. and young children show us that abstract. expressive marks and shapes are at the core of natural. His drawings are collected and exhibited internationally and held by the Adolf Wolfli Foundation. People are often scared by abstraction and see it as the enemy of figurative art. Outsider artists. for example. it is simply itself. strike the paper to find form. From another viewpoint. don't be timid. such as Adolf Wolfli. It also underpins and gives strength and unity to all figurative work. belief. . or gestures. Perhaps in Western culture we bred this intuitive freedom out of ourselves in our insistence on complex figuration. only rediscovered. opposite. and emotion. Internal workings of the mind were suddenly free to find a new language of expression. writer and composer who suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and was resident in the Waldau Aslyum near Berne. drawn sound. From one point of view. abstraction is not so easy to define. My own work is firmly centered in figuration. Not everything we know has a physical form in the world. I begin every image by feeling its meaning. picturing a stabilized world was impossible and Modernism rode forth with vigor. many nonWestern cultures have highly sophisticated abstractions at the core of their art. which are essentially abstract. Wolfli was a Swiss draftsman. An abstract mark is often a better conductor of a thought or feeling. The growing rise of Darwinian ideas coupled with Freudian and Marxist perspectives forced Western society to reconsider its origins and future. yet my kinship to abstraction is fundamental. First marks. Museum of Fine Arts. precisely because it does not have to represent a physical object. Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape 1915 413/8 x 285/8 in (105 x 72. However. poet. Indian mandalas. liberating. He made thousands of drawings to chronicle his complex life. and independent means of communication. actions.Abstract Lines T HE DEVELOPMENT OF W E S T E R N abstract art at the beginning of the 20th century significantly paralleled major changes in world thought. fictional language. It is actually its foundation and its infrastructure.8 cm) A D O L F WOLFLI Abstraction is a direct. and poetic myth roar and cascade within his tightly framed pages. be brave and enjoy them. all pictorial representations are abstractions of reality. The fate of Old World thinking was finally sealed with the brutality of World War I. Many concepts and feelings can only be expressed through marks. and it has always been with us. and history. writhing torrents of color. ADOLF WOLFLI One of the greatest masters of Art Brut. Artists were given a different tool—a line threaded directly from their subconscious to their hand—and with it they began to map a bold new landscape of marks and concepts that would dramatically and forever change the face of Western art. sounds.

iron. and Assistant Professor of Fine A r t at Fukuoka University. Twombly's mesmeric wax line worked over house paint is like a signature. and temperature rim of floor space. Abe works with materials such as soil. MAMORU ABE Japanese sculptor and installation artist. or. water. Lines. silence. and texture their bracing separation reaching between from beneath Pillars of the gallery are made part of this drawing by their inclusion in the paper. Below. This the paper rest within the amplifies framelike of the floor from the ceiling. Mamoru Abe prepares an image that will appear through the chemistry of iron. and wood are also part of the work. rhythmically engaged with itself. Changes paper. Sometimes it smolders like a deep shadow. quoting ink marks on a page. Five forged steel shapes. texture. Abe's physical drawing is a sculptural installation. scrolling across the canvas in an intimate crescendo. as Twombly shows us opposite. A line can be finished in a second. salt. Moisture produced rust. and plaster in galleries and landscapes. The Physical Space 1990 3 0 x 30 ft ( 9 1 4 x 9 1 4 cm) MAMORU ABE . forged steel. Iron rods in tone. staining redbrown lines into the white surface. tone. brass. it can keep reforming through the inherent repetition of a process. A Neolithic chalk tablet bears cut lines that were slowly carved. sit in silent harmony. He travels widely to research ancient sacred sites. akin to stones in a Zen garden. and patient watching.220 A B S T R A C T LINES Process and Harmony SOMETIMES A DRAWN LINE sings on the surface of its support. Damp Japanese paper was laid over carefully arranged iron bars. ice. It can proclaim mood. and sensitivity with its thickness and pressure of touch.

The central pictorial space is also similarly cut and divided by the considered arrangement of straight lines.241). and the worship of the sun and ancient gods.England. the Babylonian world map. emotive. and sensuous drawing from painting.Thesite's purpose is unknown. PROCESS AND HARMONY Cut lines Chalk carves easily. evolved a raw.221 ANCIENT CARVINGS Many ancient cultures have made and left behind drawings and texts carved into stones or animal bone. close to Stonehenge in Wiltshire. At the 2001 Venice Biennale. Neolithic Chalk Tablet 3. Precise lines suggest the use of a sharp flint The framed rectangle of this image is echoed in that of Abe's installation. and American Indian petroglyphs (see p. Twombly has language works CY TWOMBLY Contemporary American artist who emerged through the 1950s New York art scene in the heyday of Abstract Expressionism and Action Painting. Many of his graffiti-like combine abstract gestures with statements. and Untitled 1970 Here we might seek to grasp letters in the turning of his line. that challenges the separation of word from image. such as the Rosetta stone. energetic.400BCE 21/4 x 21/4 in (58 x 58 mm) ARTIST UNKNOWN Language Over the course of fifty years. CY TWOMBLY . theories suggest astrological observations. This example is one of two chalk tablets found in a Late-Neolithic pit.Twombly was presented with a Golden Lion award for lifetime achievement. burials.000-2.

Gestalt. and inventive of his time. Two Impressions Paper 1853-55 VICTOR HUGO Disk from a Cut-Out .222 ABSTRACT LINES Writing Time SINCE THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY. here he anticipates abstract expressionism by 100 years. pressed them face down. said. A graphic score is a V I C T O R H U G O Hugo's abstract French novelist w h o m a d e m a n y drawings in m i x e d m e d i a ( s e e also p. Bussotti. too. Similarity in gritty texture suggests that here. His drawing writes the time of its own physical process by expressing the extreme concentration of the moment in which it was made." An innovator who never fails to surprise. Texture Compare this drawing to Hugo's octopus on p. a configuration. abstract artists and composers unique. o r a pattern o f elements s o unified as a w h o l e t h e y c a n n o t b e e x p l a i n e d asa s u m o f parts. and let the drying meniscus deposit granules in linear drifts such as we would see in the satellite photographic mapping of rivers. music manuscript requiring instrumentalists to improvise. Marks across the center appear to be made with his fingers. beautiful. and lifted them away to leave impressions of watery planets and seas. Here he appears t o have saturated the cut-out moon disks with gritty pigment. interpret. "There is nothing like dream to create the future. he mixed graphite into ink. broke new ground in the 1950s with graphic scores now considered among the most extreme. The scores are also exhibited in galleries as visual art. below. abstract. and participate in the composition. drawing here can b e described in t e r m s o f a G e r m a n philosophical idea a b o u t is t h e i n s t a n t r e c o g n i t i o n t h e p o w e r o f m o m e n t .28). have striven to break down old pictorial and musical structures to explore new and unfettered modes of expression. Both abstract drawing and composition involve the perfect sequencing of sounds and marks against space and silence. brushed night skies over them with ink then lifted the disks to reveal white moons. Hugo. opposite. Gestalt o f an unnameable thing. Ink impressions When drawing nightscapes Hugo often laid paper disks in place of the moon.28. o f t e n e x p r e s s e d in v i s u a l t e r m s .

Following the notes. 1958 SYLVANO BUSSOTTI . This is a page from Due Voci. Bussotti's first mature work. 70 in relation to Bussotti's clustered notes to the left of his rondo and open space to the right.223 W R I T I N G TIME SYLVANO BUSSOTTI Italian avant-garde composer and principal 20thcentury exponent of the graphic score. Circular Score for "Due Voci" c. Compare this work to that of Libeskind on p. we can feel their rhythm and easily attach sounds to them. His later works become increasingly abstract. a far cry from any recognized musical notation. Sound and rhythm This flickering rondo of sound written in pen on a hand-ruled stave can be heard in our imaginations as much as seen.

She tore c l o t h into strips a n d used these to draw patterns a n d symbols o n h e r cell floor.228-29) has been adjusted with each movement of the rags to draw a cosmos of balance and perfection. Marie Lieb w a s a psychiatric patient in the Heidelberg Asylum. d i p p i n g h e r fingers into a pot o f rice flour.224 A B S T R A C T LINES Chants and Prayers WHEN ABSTRACT LINES are organized in repetition. Visually. making objects and images outside o f mainstream culture. In the late 1 9 t h century. an a n o n y m o u s w o m a n in the southeast Indian state o f Tamil Nadu m a k e s a ritual drawing o n the b r i c k courtyard o f h e r h o m e . they m a k e a visual a n d physical e c h o that t o u c h e s s o m e deep part of the human spirit. it is found in the regularity o f ordered lines or a pattern. and c i r c u m s t a n c e s . social outcasts. Germany. Torn cloth This is one of two published photographs showing Marie Leib's torn cloth strips significantly placed on her cell floor. cultures. This takes a form in most cultures. centuries. for e x a m p l e . Lieb is one o f countless thousands of "Outsider" artists—diverse individuals including ordinary citizens. Cell Floor With Torn Strips of Cloth 1894 MARIE LIEB . Cloth is the simple instrument with which she has conducted and ordered her universe. MARIE LIEB Little is known of this w o m a n for w h o m the act of drawing was essential. In music it can be felt in the diversity of plainsong and African d r u m m i n g . and sufferers of psychiatric illnesses—who have always existed. T h e s e p h o t o g r a p h s d o c u m e n t the meditative drawings o f two w o m e n living worlds apart in different countries. O p p o s i t e . Compositional rightness (see pp. It will protect the place from evil and make a pleasing invitation to good spirits.

Designs and motifs Rangoii (or mandalas) are ritual drawings made by many millions of women across rural India. Huyler is the author of Painted Prayers.Theseare widely published in journals and are the subjects of international exhibitions. or flowers are marked or arranged on the ground or on the walls of homes. among others. Popular magazines feature new ideas each week and on special occasions there may be contests. lecturer on the subjects of Indian art and Indian women's identity. and birds. lime. animals. In daily practice. and in places of worship and celebration. women pride themselves on never repeating a design. at the University of London and Ohio State University.225 STEPHEN P. Motifs are geometrical or based on plants. Materials such as rice flour.000 images. and for over 30 years has traveled extensively through the Indian subcontinent creating an edited archive of 200. cultural anthropologist. Painted Prayers UNDATED STEPHEN R HUYLER . chalk.HUYLER Photographer art historian. Skills are handed down through generations and from friend to friend.

Mixed media This is a collage of torn white and gray tissue paper previously stained with ink. These two works present complex compositions with differing intensions and methods of making.226 ABSTRACT LINES Compositions ABSTRACT DRAWINGS ARE LARGELY or entirely free from using the viewer's eye to track and unfold layers of meaning. Oxford. filmmaker Professor of Fine Art. figurative representation—that is. but similarities in mood. free from the direct imaging of known physical things. BRIAN CATLING British sculptor poet. Untitled 2001 2001 153/4x 215/8 in ( 4 0 0 x 550 mm) BRIAN C A T L I N G . performance and installation artist. gold paint and iridescent gouache mixed with water. Their energy can therefore be a purer expression of an idea or emotion. and choice of hues. it is ruled and contained in one dimension by its interlocking ink-lined borders. Catling's abstract drawings are usually made in series and in parallel to written poetry and sculptural installations. With no depth of field. and Fellow of Linacre College. Oval moons eclipse each other and oscillate between landforms and portraiture. They each find their pathways and equilibrium in atmosphere and suggestion. rocks or heads in a subdued atmosphere of dream. and water-resistant layers of spray and enamel paint on thick paper. structure. Catling's torn paper shapes and shadows spill light out of their frame like a fractured mirror. Catling's works made for international galleries and museums involve drawing as a tool in their development and making. Klee's mathematical maze of thinly washed surface resonates with meticulous planning. Ruskin School.

Klee painted. and wrote copiously about the natures and relationships of color and form. philosophized. Kunstmuseum Bern PAUL KLEE . watercolor. ruler. It is a geometric harmony of straight lines and tonally graded flat colors that by their arrangement draw our eyes inward to their white center. Geometric harmony This is a work on paper made with a sharp ink pen.97-99. Line and surface Klee observed the visual capacity of lines to push or pull within an image.227 PAUL K L E E Swiss painter and sculptor (see also p. We can see some diagrammatic examples of this among the optical illusions on pp. and brush. drew. He explained his polyphonic painting as "a harmony of several color voices" searching for a visual parallel to music. Polyphon Gefasstes Weiss (White Framed Polyphonically) 1930 131/8x95/8 in (333 x 245 mm) Paul-Klee-Stiftung. and might be read as active or passive. whereas tonal surfaces are perceived more immediately as a whole.31). Klee also felt that a line represents the passing of time.

"Whenall pictorial elements come together in pleasing and perfect balance." SETTING UP Justness can be harmonious or deliberately discordant. W h e n m o v i n g objects around in your yard. after being continuously adjusted. they are just. and ten straight sticks painted black. and an apple.228 ABSTRACT LINES Being "Just" A SENSE OF "JUST" (or rightness) is a difficult concept to explain. angles. the late garden designer Russell Page explains. culture. Feel for it when youdraw. As y o u m o v e them around. Set up a sheet of paper with a rectangle drawn on it. a b u n c h of keys. In his b o o k The Education of a Gardener. media. Seek it when looking at other artists' work and in your everyday environment." . they reach a perfect position.Thisexercise will help you start. or degree of figuration. regardless of style. and put them o n a tray. Take. and elements settle in definitive balance. or on a page. or home. the impression y o u receive from t h e m . It is found in all great art and design. a glass. their impact. "I have experimented endlessly with this idea. This balance is what every artist and designer searches a n d feels for when making an image. It is also found in nature. there is a clear feeling when. There is a single m o m e n t w h e n all proportions. w i l l c h a n g e w i t h e v e r y r e a r r a n g e m e n t . for instance. M a n y of their inter-relationships will be meaningless. but an easy o n e to u n d e r s t a n d . b u t e v e r y n o w a n d again you will hit on an arrangement w h i c h appears just. s o m e will be more or less h a r m o n i o u s .

which now becomes a tight frame. Arrange them so they touch or cross in a series of intersecting balances." Move the sticks to find alignments and imagined perspectives. Feel for the rightness of their grouping and their relationships to surrounding spaces. A stick touching the rectangle links the composition to the frame. Here.56-57). W h e n the composition falls into place. Within a rectangle on a flat sheet of paper set about making a composition using no other rule than a sense of "just. Remember the drawn rectangle is a part of the composition (see pp. making the composition seem to float beneath. B E I N G "JUST" 1 Arrange your ten sticks in t w o groups of five. suggesting a horizon. painted black. horizontals dominate the top. . 2 3 In the step above. In the final step (left) there is an even balance. as shown here.229 WHERE TO START Take ten sticks of equal length. Move the sticks out into the rectangle. fix it with glue. horizontals dominate the lower area.

To prepare for this lesson. and tones. "My understanding is that every object [or shape] emanates—sends out vibrations beyond its physical body which are specific to itself. and black ink.228-29). they become a scaffold for the addition of further textures. harmonious. Collage offers the artist a liberating palette of SETTING UP This lesson in collage is a direct continuation of the compositional lines made in the previous class. which is the shifting. colors and textures can be manipulated until their pictorial harmony." (Russell Page) ." overlapping placement of materials on a flat plane. correction fluid or white paint. Cut or torn layers and shapes. or even strident. scissors. Returning to Russell Page. an infinite range of voices and meaning. colors.230 ABSTRACT LINES Collage H E R E W E EXPERIMENT with collage. a compass. found or made items. hard or soft. Once the ten painted black sticks are set and glued in place. This principal also applies to three-dimensional drawings such as Gaudi's work with wire and weights on p. or discordance..Youwill also need spare white paper.69 and Abe's installation on p. stain and dry a sheet of tissue paper using blueink. Images and fragments torn from day-to-day life can be brought together to make a chorus of ideas and emotions. glue. you start composing by adding or subtracting shapes and textures and using colors and tones to achieve the impression you want to m a k e — w h e t h e r dramatic or s u b d u e d . feels "just" (see pp. ready-made depths and surfaces.220.. he went on to say ".

Cut six small rectangles the same proportion as your whole image. then cut out. and shadow to thepicture. 2 3 Torn white paper moved over the surface adds masks of rough-edged irregular volume. solidity. they deepen pictorial space.228) in front of you. and with a compass and scissors. This can also give a sense of fragmentation or punctuation to the composition.231 WHAT TO DO Lay the final step of the previous lesson (p. Obscuring the blue disks. In the last step (left).The single disk that is folded with its straight edge facing up appears heavier than those that are flat. . correction fluid and ink marks add further dimensions. Glue them in place once they feel "just" Translucent circular disks of tissue paper give color tone. COLLAGE 1 Regular-sized pieces of white paper are moved over the surface to disrupt the even lines. draw. four circles of blue tissue paper.

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and expectation. .Zen Calligraphy HITSUZENDO. is the practice of Zen through the calligraphic marks of a brush dipped in carbon ink. Hitsuzendo drawings aspire to "breathe with the energy and vitality of eternal life" achieved through "a state of no mind—beyond thought. Zen Brushwork]." [Tanchu Terayama. A MODERN JAPANESE meditative art form inspired by the teachings of Yamaoka Tesshu (1836-1888). emotion.

Lines made with a steel dip pen take on a scratchy nervousness. These vibrate against washes of shadow and pitch-black mass.Nocturnes IN THIS QUARTET of semi-abstract drawings made with India ink. . discord is balanced against rhythm to create mood. I flicked spatters of ink and rubbed the paper with a wet and a dry brush to achieve these effects.

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our literate and more secular Western society still hungers for another world and to ravenously indulge its fascination for the marvelous. aliens. The salvation of heaven and terrors of hell are represented equally—enough to make any sinner shudder. or strange. Humans are equally troubled by the imperceptibly small and the enormous. We then add substances we dislike: unidentified fluids. In the Christian churches of Europe. beasts.247. and damnation are found in most world faiths. happen to us. scales. which were widely distributed and influential in his time. our eye circulates around a flutter of leather and scaly wings. a human-animal mix that implies this could MARTIN SCHONGAUER German painter and engraver who settled to work in Colmar Alsace. a Catherine wheel of drawn sparks spiraling around the quietly resolute saint. movie studios now brim with as many monsters as the visual art of the Medieval and Renaissance Church. Here. paradise. . and the faces of God have for centuries given artists a feast for the extremes of their imagination. a collaboration between the two will ensure that your drawings glow with originality. Depictions of God or of gods in the contexts of daily life. Monsters take advantage of both. Reading the place name I momentarily glimpsed an alternative meaning. Be inspired by the irrational comedy of word association or puns. Fantasy is most successful when founded on strong and familiar visual logic. and deep fur—and we alter their scale. in the cracks of walls. For example. Images we are now surrounded by bear testimony to the power and resourcefulness of their collective imagination. look for images in the folds of clothing. we select details of animals farthest from ourselves and that are widely thought disturbing—reptilian and insect features.Gods and Monsters OUR SACRED AND SECULAR need to visualize demons. Feeding this demand. We love our fear of the hybrid—ideally. all of which originated as hundreds of drawings. which is to have eaten a nun—it inspired the drawing on p. angels. impossible. Schongauer is best known for his prints. Today. England. for example. sculptures. feathers. I was on a train passing through Nuneaton. and stained-glass windows deliver powerful visual sermons to the once-illiterate populace. Lord of the Rings. Perhaps the Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 1485 121/4 x 9 in (312 x 230 mm) MARTIN SCHONGAUER most important conclusion in this final chapter is to advise you to develop your skills in parallel with the joy of your unfolding imagination. We watch with captivated pleasure movies such as The Fly. serpentine tails. or in smoke. Neither should be slave or master. wings. and the Alien trilogy. To learn to flex your imagination. Throughout this book images are presented to excite and surprise and drawing classes created to increase your confidence. thousands of paintings. When creating monsters. Star Wars.

Compare his dark. to Picasso's similarly tight. Paul Thomas's studies of Picasso and Twombly can be traced directly. portraits. whose impassioned work begins with light tapestry cartoons. Pictorially. and exposed the superstitions. Opposite below. The high. F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A Spanish court painter printmaker and draftsman. In this softer aquatint he poses for his portrait Textured background The aquatint process has been used to great effect in making a gritty toned background. Opposite. rushing. The title "And So Was His Grandfather" adds that should we not already know. Violent white marks symbolizing Achilles' rage resonate with the energy of Twombly's script on p. a Shoshone seeking guidance and power meditates at the sacred site of a petroglyph. The well-dressed mule is cumbersome. which can swamp the subject Here. Visions experienced in front of the drawing sometimes instruct the making of a new one.30. we see the international icon of stupidity. barren land rising like MYRIAD CHAINS RUN THROUGH ART HISTORY. This act defines the vision and continues the line of spirit guides. This continuity enriches the making of art and our heritage. hags. Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 1799 81/2 x 6 in (218 x 154 mm) FRANCISCO DE GOYA . deranged masses. Other drawn versions of this image are more savage and frightening. They depict as if by lamplight the devil and witches. such asinine behavior can be hereditary. noisy seascape on p. Goya's plainly textured gray background pushes back the space behind the illuminated simply subject. Los Caprichos. crammed tightly at his desk. Saturn devouring his son. plain wall suggests a blinkered view of nothing. below. Goya later recorded the horrors of Napoleonic occupation. quoting great paintings and popular culture to add cunning twists to his satires. Many students leave white backgrounds in their work.220. and church murals. reading from a book of asses. a wave to join Achilles' chase of Hector. He would be graceless if he stood. Near the end of his life he made his "Black Paintings" on the walls of his home. his lover a dog. it allows the mule to stand forward. and men clubbing each other to death. In this ass. Francisco de Goya was a master of borrowing. vanity. and follies of court through copious graphic works including his best-known prints. Aquatint Goya has drawn a learned man as an ass.240 GODS AND M O N S T E R S Marks of Influence marking the influence of one artist upon another.

White marks like flashes of light are cut though graphite with an eraser to reveal the paper beneath. by a supplicant in a trance of meditation. Wind River Reservation. and personal and social struggles. Simple wall stones cleverly state their cold solidity while also fading from our attention as the scene roars by. Thomas conducts his explorations in the mine of Greek and Roman mythology. or of the water Chipped image This is a sacred creature of the sky chipped onto rock at Dinwoody Lake. Wyoming. perhaps a stone. values. A vivid spectrum of energized graphite marks and a masterly composition give this drawing vitality and speed. of the earth. It was made with a sharp implement. ideals.241 MARKS OF INFLUENCE PAUL T H O M A S British contemporary artist whose epic graphic work questions and reflects upon issues of European identity. Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range UNDATED ARTIST UNKNOWN . Parallel lines within the body of the figure are likely to denote power. Graphite marks Here Achilles chases Hector around the walls of Troy before killing him." Each sacred image drawn into rock belongs to one of three realms in the Shoshone world: the realm of the sky. meaning "place of power. Achilles Chases Hector 1996 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) PAUL THOMAS SHOSHONE PETROGLYPH The Shoshone people of Wyoming name petroglyph sites Poha Kahni.

and scuttle over all known reality. we see parallel slanting pale marks that might have been made with fresh bread—a very effective eraser used before the wide availability of rubber or plastic.204-05 will enable you to produce a similar effect of white lines shining out of dark charcoal. We may feel safe so long as the eye looks heavenward. the writers Joris-Karl Huysmans and Stephane Mallarme. lifting its cranial passenger over a seascape of repose. crawl. graphic artist. below left. Our subconscious can be drawn with pleasure and ease. Lifting out Fine strings of the hot-air balloon appear dark against the sky and light against the balloon. They float toward us like a horrid visitation. Here we see how he evolved their injuries into new limbs and warped proportions.and 16th-century Holland. the shock would be extreme. If it were to turn and stare this way. H e was influenced by his friends. Children are also delighted to invent a monster or ghoul. 115. to the right of the balloon. T H E EXPLORATION AND DEPICTION Hauntings Grandville has drawn a scurrying zoo of half-known demons and animals that appear to have been stolen from the glass eye of the microscope. which sometimes—half-dressed and carrying a familiar trophy— stride.242 MONSTERS of the unknown is a classical and constant occupation for the artist. The monsters of Bosch grew from his observations of beggars going about their trade in 15th. ODILON REDON French painter draftsman. as he did the grass. and writer In contrast t o the light and visual accent of contemporary Impressionism. Compare worked textures throughout the whole of this image to those found throughout Anita Taylor's charcoal drawing on p. GODS AND Erasure In this charcoal drawing. The Eye Like a Strange Mounts Balloon 165/8 x131/8in (422 x 332 mm) ODILON REDON 1882 Toward Infinity . Redon explored the darker side of the human imagination through symbols and mysticism. Redon's eyeball balloon rises up. Techniques demonstrated on pp. Redon lifted them out with some sort of eraser.

Most of his work is in the Prado Museum. Les Animaux (1840). A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects c. Smiling. HAUNTINGS Engraving This is an engraving made so that Grandville's original drawing could be reproduced. His other major works include Metamorphoses du Jour (1828). Garden of Earthly Delights. grimacing. and he illustrated the Fables of La Fontaine and Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe. which is still available today. and Ship of Fools. Two Monsters UNDATED 45/8 x61/2in (117 x 163 mm) HIERONYMUS BOSCH . Last Judgment.243 J E A N I G N A C E ISIDORE GERARD ("GRANDVILLE") French graphic artist and political satirist. include The Haywain. 1840 61/8 x41/2in ( 1 5 5 x 1 1 5 mm) GRANDVILLE HIERONYMUS BOSCH Dutch painter Bosch's highly detailed iconographic religious panel paintings. The quality of the line is therefore uniform throughout. Comic little headbands of waving hair express more hysteria than fear. Madrid. teeming with the exhilaration of unrestrained fantasy. sucker-faced creatures dash and trundle toward it They are drawn solidly to emphasize their earthbound weight. Quill and ink This typical Bosch monster is a quill drawing in bistre ink The phrasing of light and contour here is masterly. This image is from one of Grandville's best-known publications. Light shines from the right.

snake. poet. In her studio. and play with its perfection and meaning. Dragon 1522 10 x 133/8 in ( 2 5 4 x 3 3 8 m m ) MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI . His entire drawing wrestles and weaves the viewer's eye into its retracting folds. a stunning hybrid of a swan. but in the seductive landscape of Leonardo da Vinci's oil painting Madonna of the Rocks. below. and dog. remembering the cavernous. architect. hatched lines. gamboling copulations. as we might expect. phrased over the contours of form and bridging darker areas of shadow. St Peter's square. Two previously drawn faces become humorous antagonists to the beast. topple. muscular tension is carved out of the paper using layered. pinnacled. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI Florentine painter sculptor. she formed a series of ghostly pale. A snake eating its own tail is a universal image of the eternal and continuous. lion. and mist-swathed land. However. Grimes found the genesis of her beast not among animals. wraps and coils its lithe body ready to strike or whimper at a touch. and engineer Among Michelangelo's great works are the painted ceiling and altar wall of the Sistine Chapel. They share between them the pleasures of inventing a hybrid beast. the dome of the Vatican. Grimes' delicately cavorting figures dive into and consume each other. Opposite. Michelangelo's dragon. and marble sculptures including Pieto. sometimes artists purposefully tie a knot in the configuration to disturb. David. and dying slaves. Scaly.244 GODS AND MONSTERS Convolutions THESE CONVOLUTED DRAWINGS were made almost 5 0 0 years apart. Chalk and ink A quill dipped in brown ink was worked over black chalk on this reused sheet.

245 CONVOLUTIONS O O N A GRIMES British contemporary artist and professor of printmaking at the Ruskin School. The image formed directly without first making a pencil outline. her under heavy here. Grimes exhibits internationally and features in the collections of the New York Public Library and the Victoria and Albert Museum. details evolved slowly using a drier brush. London. Ink-wash delicately gouache (smooth) and gouache brushed drawing on This is a and was hot-pressed Shadows The dark shadow of the Other the ink-wash earth was made with a brushstroke of ink laid into wet paper. and the Camberwell and Slade Schools of Fine Art. Oxford. How Clever of God #84 2002 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) O O N A GRIMES . boards finished paper. each one iridescent and crumbly like a weathered while oyster. It is one of a series of fragile earth figures inspired by rocks. The large space around figure has been cropped Grimes drawings to flatten presses them. London.

it has good inkholding capacity and is very flexible. and never leave them standing on their tip in a jar of water. Some are bold. liners. POINTED SQUIRREL-HAIR MOP: With a synthetic quill ferrule and extra high inkholding capacity. and hold prodigious weights of ink or paint. LARGER JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with natural hair held in a plastic ferrule on a bamboo handle. P O I N T E D T R A D I T I O N A L WRITER: The ferrule is made from a small duck quill. 13. Always clean them thoroughly. It has exceptional painting characteristics. Some used by master calligraphers are 2-3 in (5-8 cm) in diameter 11. 7. thicknesses. JAPANESE PAINTING BRUSH: Made with natural hair. It is still relatively small in the total range of Japanese brushes. SYNTHETIC-HAIR LINER: This brush gives a medium line and is firm with a spring to the touch. 2. washes. Slightly less flexible than the squirrel-hair sword liner 9. Suitable for wash techniques but also capable of very fine detail. The living marks of a wet. The brushes shown here are a mixture of This is a selection of riggers. Shorter brushes designed for other purposes run out of ink more quickly. needle-sharp center of kolinsky red sable hair. Soaps purchased from good art supply stores will gently cleanse particles of pigment that become trapped in the hairs or ferrule. this brush has a soft drawing tip and small ink-holding capacity. SYNTHETIC-HAIR BRUSH: Bound in a synthetic ferrule with good inkholding capacity and good spring and control. giving a variety of lines. M T RA S AEIL . and texture. How you care for your brushes will determine how long they last. This brush has a broad wash capability and can achieve a very wide range of marks. return them to their pointed shape. SQUIRREL-HAIR S W O R D LINER:This brush has a maximum ink-holding capacity and an extremely fine and flexible point 8. It is capable of very fine pointing. and has a fine tip for detailed work. fingers. 3. and wrist into a fluid and soft touch. dense. 1.Theyhold plenty of ink and make continuous. making rt ideally suited to Japanese painting and small-scale calligraphy. shape. and effects. and very fine lines. L A R G E R S Y N T H E T I C . with a fine point for delicate work 4.H A I R LINER: Very responsive oriental-style liner This to the touch. drawing tool extending the arm. and writers. materials. between them. SABLE-HAIR LINER: Made with ordinary sable hair surrounding an extralong. others are as fine as a whisker with a gentle touch. S Y N T H E T I C . flowing. This design supplies the fine tip with a long continuity of ink 5. ideally suited to drawing.246 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brushes T H E BRUSH IS A VOLUPTUOUS and delicate weights. it has good wash capabilities. Brushes vary in size. 12. which holds long sable hair This brush holds large amounts of ink for long lines and points well for detailed work. the very opposite of pencil or silver point." 6. SMALL JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with sable hair. SYNTHETIC-HAIR S W O R D LINER: A lining brush with high ink-holding capacity and a fine point.H A I R RIGGER: Made with long synthetic hair for fine-point work It has a good ink-holding capacity and is slightly more resilient than sable hair with more "snap. 10. SABLE-HAIR RIGGER: Made with very long kolinsky sable hairs. all perfect for drawing and. ink-laden tip allow an expression that is beyond the linear.

247 BRUSHES .

) I . and to make pools and stains o n the page. length. It also depends on the angle at w h i c h it is held. splashes. SETTING UP Blowing spots T h e s e t h r e e s p i d e r y c r e a t u r e s (above right and below) w e r e m a d e by d r o p p i n g s p o t s o f ink f r o m a b r u s h o n t o t h e p a g e and. b l o w i n g h a r d o n t h e m several t i m e s t o disperse t h e ink ( c l o s e y o u r eyes if y o u t r y this. the texture and a b s o r b e n c y of the paper ( w h i c h m a y be d a m p or dry). the degree of pressure applied. w i t h m y face close. A single brush has almost balletic potential to draw fine or undulating lines and curves.248 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brush Marks A S I N G L E BRUSH will m a k e an e n o r m o u s range of m a r k s depending u p o n the width. I rubbed a block of Chinese ink (see p.246-47). and above all w h e t h e r the b r u s h is saturated with pigment or relatively dry. I had left the end of the ink block in the water overnight to make it easier to dissolve.35) into two tablespoons of water in a shallow. Here I drew with a soft Japanese painting brush (see pp. unglazed earthenware dish. softness. and type of its hairs. and spatters. the speed of the s t r o k e .

t h e effects of the b r u s h r u n n i n g o u t o f ink.249 Gritty texture T h e details o f t h e largest creatures b e l o w and opposite s h o w the granular texture of Chinese b l o c k ink. . w e see fine lines and s p o t s . b l e e d i n g f r o m strokes b e l o w left. BRUSH MARKS Wet and dry strokes A m o n g these concentrated drawings ink made into with the same w a t e r y lines. a n d t h e w a y it d i s t r i b u t e s w h e n t h e b r u s h is d a b b e d o n its s i d e . a n d b r u s h .

Oxford. and used their detail to draw new creatures that might at first seem familiar. I borrowed small and fragile specimens from the University Museum of Natural History.Monsters THESE LITTLE CREATURES o f i n k and i n v e n t i o n were b o r n out of animal and bird studies. . until we look again.

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showing us that gallery study is not just for the student and beginner.Goya's Monsters W I T H CUNNING BRILLIANCE. thin works titled The Witches' Sabbath and The Procession of St. I found relationships between all four paintings in terms of shapes. Among his "Black Paintings" in the Prado Museum. Madrid. and narrative twists. Goya's witches have been literally drawn and evolved out of the shapes of Murillo's prophet and pilgrims. Here. formal composition. . Isidore. Goya often invented his monsters out of characters seen in other painters' works. They are a pair and hang opposite each other. two of my own drawings show you how Goya's devil (below) is based on the shape of Murillo's boy on a horse (top right). Through studying and drawing these great paintings I have discovered that they are based on a pair of similarly long. With further research. thin works made by Bartolome Murillo in Seville about 120 years earlier. are two long.

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Consumed THIS IS A SERIES OF CARTOONS I m a d e s o m e years ago. . drawn rapidly and with great joy. Sometimes drawings come out of nowhere and surprise even the artist. little comments on politeness and sexual politics.

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Blotting T h e use o f a b s o r b e n t m a t e r i a l t o lift a w a y excess liquid. R e m b r a n d t is a great master o f chiaroscuro." It w a s first given t o t o n a l paintings m a d e in o n e c o l o r — s e e Grisaille. w h e n a p e r s o n is p a i n t e d standing a g a i n s t a w i n d o w . U s e d as a c o r r e c t i n g device o r pictorial game. Eye level T h e i m a g i n a r y h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e a t t h e s a m e h e i g h t as t h e a v e r a g e p e r s o n ' s eyes.m a d e paper. Engraving 1. w h e n v i e w e d f r o m a specified point. In t h e W e s t p e n calligraphy is u s e d t o c r e a t e f o r m a l a n d d e c o r a t i v e t e x t s . Camera lucida A n optical device t h a t p r o j e c t s an image o f an o b j e c t o n t o a plain s u r f a c e so t h a t it can be traced. a n d g r a p h i t e . W o r d s o r symbols are Cold-pressed papers P a p e r manufactured with a "not" o r " r o u g h " surface. o f t e n d i s t o r t e d forms and vivid colors. so t h a t ink r e m a i n s o n l y in t h e g r o o v e s o f s c r a t c h e d lines. m e a n i n g "beauty". R o u g h p a p e r is m a d e b e t w e e n t w o blankets t h a t . pastel. A l s o c a l l e d t h e h o r i z o n line. F r o m t h e French v e r b coller. chance mark-making. It is p u t o n a Body color See Gouache. Cartoon 1." " N o t " p r e s s e d p a p e r is r o l l e d a s e c o n d t i m e w i t h o u t blankets t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders t o p r o d u c e a s m o o t h e r b u t still slightly t e x t u r e d s u r f a c e . a n d given t h e n a m e Sho. T h e prints t a k e n from t h e s e plates o r blocks. usually at a n a c u t e angle t o t h e s u r f a c e . Composition T h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e p a r t s o f an i m a g e t o m a k e u p the whole.m e d i a d r a w i n g . tapestry. T h e m o v e m e n t was started by a g r o u p o f French artists including H e n r i Matisse." D e s c r i b e s a p a i n t i n g in w h i c h t h e light s o u r c e is b e h i n d t h e s u b j e c t F o r e x a m p l e . Ferrule T h e s h o r t m e t a l t u b e t h a t s u r r o u n d s a n d g n p s t h e hairs o f a p a i n t b r u s h a n d fixes t h e m t o t h e brush handle. In t h e Far East calligraphy is a highly r e s p e c t e d a r t f o r m . t h e field is t h e a p p a r e n t a n d b e l i e v a b l e space inside t h e p i c t u r e . o r will o n l y a p p e a r n o r m a l . Binder A substance t h a t holds particles o f p i g m e n t t o g e t h e r in a paint f o r m u l a t i o n . A h u m o r o u s d r a w i n g o r parody. Collage C o l l e c t e d materials such as c o l o r e d p a p e r s . t h e l i g h t is b e h i n d h i m o r her. t o g e t h e r w i t h a t h i c k felt b l a n k e t T h e w h o l e s a n d w i c h o f l a y e r s is t h e n railed t h r o u g h t h e press t o m a k e a p r i n t D r y p o i n t is a very portable and immediate m e t h o d o f printmaking. Also called accelerated perspective. Calligraphy Beautiful h a n d w r i t i n g . p h o t o g r a p h s . Contre jour A F r e n c h t e r m m e a n i n g " a g a i n s t day.The plate is t h e n r o l l e d w i t h ink a n d polished with a rag. m e a n i n g " t o stick" Dry media M e d i a t h a t a r e n o t w e t o r o i l y — f o r e x a m p l e .256 GLOSSARY Glossary Accidental drawing Random. Bleed T h e e f f e c t o f t w o w e t colors running into one another o r o n e color applied t o a w e t surface a n d a l l o w e d t o d i s p e r s e . n e w s p a p e r cuttings. Conservation grade D e s c r i b e s a range o f materials t h a t d o n o t d e c a y and cannot be broken d o w n by insects. A l s o called r i n g l e t shading. Crosshatching Parallel lines d r a w n across o n e a n o t h e r at right angles. 2. F r o m t h e G r e e k kallos. S o m e t i m e s f e r r u l e s a r e m a d e o f plastic o r o t h e r materials. Acid-free paper P a p e r w i t h a neutral p H t h a t will n o t darken o r d e t e r i o r a t e excessively w i t h age. A i r b r u s h e s are u s e d in t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c o m i c s . s u c h as a d r a w i n g o r painting. Erasure T h e a c t o f r e m o v i n g a n i m a g e f r o m a surface. for example. Aerial perspective The effect of the a t m o s p h e r e o v e r distance as it lightens t o n e s a n d cools c o l o r s progressively t o w a r d t h e horizon. See also Hotpressed papers. Fixative Liquid acrylic resin a n d l a c q u e r t h i n n e r usually a p p l i e d as a n a e r o s o l s p r a y m i s t t o t h e surface o f a d r y . A l s o called m u s e u m g r a d e . o r o t h e r (usually large) w o r k — s e e Pouncing. C o p p e r p l a t e engravings w e r e widely used t o r e p r o d u c e images b e f o r e p h o t o g r a p h y . and readymade objects arranged and stuck o n t o a flat surface.s i z e d r a w i n g m a d e for t h e purpose o f transferring a design t o a painting. as o p p o s e d t o t h e s t r a i g h t e d g e o f a sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has b e e n machine-trimmed. p r i n t i n g press face up. Anamorphic distortion Stretching an i m a g e across a p i c t u r e surface so t h a t it can o n l y b e u n d e r s t o o d . linseed oil o r egg y o l k Caricature A representation Contour line A line t h a t f o l l o w s t h e s h a p e o f a surface. L a t e r it c a m e t o m e a n h i g h l y c o n t r a s t e d light effects. pressurized t o o l used f o r spraying fine mists o f s m o o t h c o l o r P i g m e n t is d e l i v e r e d b y a j e t o f air n o t t h e bristles o f a brush.c e n t u r y painting m o v e m e n t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e use o f b o l d . Deckle edge T h e i r r e g u l a r e d g e o f a s h e e t o f m o l d . It can also seal a silver p o i n t d r a w i n g t o p r e v e n t t h e oxidization (browning) o f t h e Drypoint A d r a w i n g is s c r a t c h e d directly o n t o a m e t a l plate w i t h a m e t a l t o o l h e l d like apen.c e n t u r y Italian t e r m m e a n i n g "clear-obscure. in w h i c h t h e subject's distinctive features o r peculiarities are deliberately exaggerated f o r c o m i c o r g r o t e s q u e effect. A f u l l . Fixative lightly glues t h e d r a w i n g t o t h e surface o f t h e p a p e r t o p r e v e n t smudging. Field In a t w o . written with a broad-nibbed pen o r brush. a n d attaches t h e m t o t h e s u p p o r t — f o r example. Blending M e r g i n g t w o o r m o r e neighboring colors o r tones t o g e t h e r using a tortillon. a r e r o l l e d t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders. s u c h as a s c r e e n . 2. p r a c t i c e d meditatively w i t h a brush. A p o t e n t i a l l y h a r s h m e t h o d o f p r o d u c i n g t o n e s in a d r a w i n g . D a m p p a p e r is laid o n t o p . A g e n e r a l t e r m t h a t describes t h e various processes o f c u t t i n g a design i n t o a plate o r b l o c k o f m e t a l o r w o o d . A " s h a l l o w d e p t h o f field" m e a n s t h e p i c t u r e appears t o have only a shallow s p a c e inside i t Diffuse T o s o f t e n o r m a k e less brilliant. in w h i c h parts o f an image are depicted v e r y brightly and dramatically against d a r k n e s s . T h e b l a n k e t s g i v e t h e p a p e r its rough texture o r "tooth. T h e name " n o t " simply refers t o t h e fact t h a t t h e cylinders are n o t h o t in t e m p e r a t u r e . Air brush A mechanical. r a t h e r t h a n r e c o r d e d o n a film o r plate. Camera obscura A d a r k e n e d c h a m b e r i n t o w h i c h an i m a g e o f w h a t is o u t s i d e is received t h r o u g h a small o p e n i n g o r lens a n d f o c u s e d in natural c o l o r o n a facing surface. Bracelet shading C u r v e d parallel lines t h a t f o l l o w t h e c o n t o u r s o f f o r m . charcoal. Fauvism A n early 2 0 t h .d i m e n s i o n a l i m a g e . Chiaroscuro A 1 7 t h .

lifting out charcoal and other dry media. glossy. Gamut A complete range or extent Glassine A type of thin. Paper is laid on top and a rapid drawing is made on the back of it The paper lifts away to reveal the image on its other side. white. so that (using vanishing point perspective) the object appears to change shape and become narrower or smaller as it recedes. It improves the bonding properties Frottage A French term meaning "rubbing. the finely ground particles of plant. Also used by artists' materials manufacturers to indicate the use of a substitute pigment—for example.Theground provides a particular color or texture beneath the image. It can be used with any wet media to isolate or protect parts of an image from further Optical blending See Pointillism. rock. and masking off areas of a drawing that the artist wishes to keep untouched by media applied above or beside the tape. After several intervening processes. aiming to represent facts rather than an interpretation of the subject. Paper is then pressed against the stone to take a print. Grisaille A painting in gray or a grayish color Often made by students as a tonal exercise. Hairspray is an effective and inexpensive alternative. or can be otherwise used to create an image—for example. Also refers to an additive used to control the application properties of a color Golden Section A proportion in which a straight line or rectangle is divided into two unequal parts in such a way that the ratio of the smaller part to the greater part is the same as that of the greater part to the whole. 2. shape. and by artists representing stone sculptures in a painting. Medium A generic term for art Key A painting is said to be "high key" when the colors and tones are bright and "low key" when they are dark or somber The term is also used Gouache Opaque watercolor Also called body color. oil-based printing ink is rolled evenly onto a smooth metal. F o r m a t T h e size. ink. oil-. Monoprinting A direct method of printing in which wet medium (water-. or even a beam of light. or plastic surface. graphite. Ground A wet solution usually of gouache or gesso (chalk and animal glue) brushed onto paper board. Negative space The space between things. and orientation of the image. . Hatching (cross-) See Crosshatching. Usually an academic drawing observed from life. upright images are called "portrait which is used as a binding agent in many liquid media. sticky paper tape. used for fixing paper to walls and boards. of the ingredients in inks and watercolors. The ink attaches to the oil-based image and is repelled by the wet stone. Masking fluid Clear or opaque latex fluid developed for watercolor painting. glass. which give it a smooth surface (as opposed to cold-pressed paper.The paper then bears a crayon impression or copy of the surface that was underneath it A number of Surrealists.257 metal line. mineral. and gray drawing. Hot-pressed papers (HP) Paper made using hot cylinders. Fugitive A term given to a pigment that it is not stable. Monochrome Usually refers to a black. or a family of colors. Giotto's Virtues and Vices in the Arena Chapel. purpose. Dark tones are laid down first then an eraser or masking tape is used to lift away particles of the drawing media to reveal the lightness of the paper beneath. It is then peeled away. or for wrapping and protecting a finished piece of work. Rubens used grisaille to paint small images for engravers. multiH u e A term for a color. F o r m The outer surface of a three-dimensional object. but in picture-making it is as important as the objects/subjects themselves. Pointillism A technique of using points or dots of pure color in such a way that when the picture is viewed from a distance they react Masking tape Invaluable. A small image might be described as small format Horizontal images are often said to be "landscape format" (abbreviated G u m arabic The natural to"landscape"). format" (abbreviated to "portrait"). Focus 1 . are painted in grisaille and appear to be made of stone. to give the illusion of depth and distance. The surface can be reloaded or redrawn with more medium. Papercut A type of collage in which flat sheets of paper are cut into an image. This method incorporates the excitement of accidental and unpredicted marks. A point of interest in a drawing. or canvas and allowed to dry before an image is drawn or painted.The degree to which detail is defined. or spirit-based) is applied to a surface that is then pressed onto paper and removed to leave a print. and that will "escape" or change over time. Plumb line A line from which a weight is suspended in order to determine verticality or depth. cadmium yellow hue. Picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. which has a rough surface). work. it is the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work Pigment Any substance used as a coloring agent—for example. This effect emulates what we see in real life. with the area beneath remaining unaffected. Impressing Stamping or printing." A piece of paper is placed on top of an object or rough surface. This may be disregarded in real life. and is also used as a size. Grisaille is occasionally seen in church stained-glass windows. or a drawing made in any single color GLOSSARY Linear perspective A form of perspective in which parallel lines are represented as converging. the surface of the stone is made wet before being rolled with a thin film of oilbased printing ink. but each print will be unique. Lithography A method of printmaking in which a drawing or painting is made directly onto a smooth slab of particular limestone or a metal plate using an oilbased crayon or ink. Alternatively. then rubbed over carefully but vigorously with a crayon. Lightfast A term confirming that pigment in the product will not fade with exposure to light. Foreshortening A method of depicting an object at an angle to the surface of the picture. materials that produce marks on a surface. and translucent paper—a delicate material used in collage. Padua. Lifting out A method of creating highlights and mid-tones in a drymedia drawing (such as charcoal or graphite). pastel. and it has a history in enamel work. to describe a surface to which paint will adhere readily. Artists can paint freely over dry masking fluid. Objective drawing Refers to the concept of objectivity.while secretion of the acacia tree. enabling them to stick to paper It also helps to maintain a stable dispersion of pigment particles in water as the film of a wash dries. or synthetic material that are suspended in a medium to constitute paint. including Max Ernst used frottage in their work. It is a strong adhesive.

or any physical object that can be stamped or pressed onto a surface to leave an impression. . The translucent Tint A color mixed with white. Stylus A sharp. plaster. in tone running from black to white or vice versa. evolved by engineers and architects for the purpose of conveying W a t e r c o l o r A painting accurate structural information. creating more vibrant effects than if the same colors were physically mixed together with a brush. and flowers. by imposing a grid that is then scaled up to a larger size.Technicaldrawing has been example. plum blossom. nature of watercolor allows the white surface of the paper to Tonal scale A scale of gradations shine through. Artists' prints are normally made in multiple. Strip Core of a pencil. fine paper. "Spirits" or "oil" of turpentine refer to the volatile portion used by artists to thin or dilute oil-based paint. glasses. Support The structure on which an image is made—for example. Squaring up A method of enlarging and transferring an image from one surface to another.258 GLOSSARY together optically. such as an inscribed sheet of metal. Printmaking The act of making a picture. Wash A technique using ink. using a brush. giving it a brilliance. to model areas of light and shade. sometimes drawn from a and leaving only the pricked sheet of shadow cast on a wall. Zen A school of Mahayana Buddhism that asserts that enlightenment can come through meditation and intuition rather than faith. or ceramic glazing to reveal a different color beneath. pointed instrument used for marking or engraving. pencil. Recto The front or top side of a piece of paper. wall or tapestry. Tortillon A short. Scale Describes the size of one element in relation to another Sepia A brown pigment taken from the sun-dried ink sacs of cuttlefish and used to make ink or watercolor The term is now often incorrectly used to refer to brown colors. Zen paintings usually depict scenes of nature and plants such as bamboo. Underdrawing A pale preliminary drawing made prior to adding layers of another medium such as oil paint or watercolor Value The extent to which a color reflects or transmits light This is the equivalent of tone in a black and white image. whose pinpricks creates a "connect-thepersonal pastime was making dots" replica of the image on the cut-out portraits. meaning objects used in setting up a life model or still life." Applied to the blurring or softening of sharp outlines by the subtle and gradual blending of one tone into another Sgraffito A technique of scratching or cutting through a surface of paint. or point on which parallel lines converge to give the impression of receding space. a point at which receding parallel lines meet Verso The back or underside of a piece of paper. The crude material is called oleoresin. or gouache. Pounce (a fine for an unpopular 18th-century powder of charcoal or similar French politician. or watercolor paint. Zen brushwork This is an oriental meditative art form originating in China and practised for many centuries in Japan. a tightly folded piece of cotton batting can be used for the same effect. Size A weak glue used for filling the porous surface of wood or canvas in order to seal it. Zen brushwork encompasses calligraphy and painting. or mark using an inked or pigment-covered surface.Thedrawing is removed. in order to flick the pigment onto the image surface. plaster or cloth surface beneath. which are then called editions. Viewpoint The position from which something is observed or considered. usually diluted with water and applied with a brush. W e t media Any liquid media— for example. Turpentine A colorless solvent distilled from the resinous sap of pine trees. Sfumato An Italian term meaning "smoky. Props An abbreviation of the word properties. Vanishing point In linear perspective. Volume The amount of space occupied by an object or an area of space in itself. Spattering A mottled texture produced by drawing your fingers across the bristles of a stiff brush loaded with pigment. Serigraphy Silk-screen printing. commonly referred to as the lead. Etienne de material) dabbed through the Silhouette (1709-67). Still life A picture composed of inanimate objects such as bowls. fruit. Shade A that is color mixed (or toned) with black Shading A lay term for adding tone to a drawing. pointed roll of white paper that is used to blend dry media. or the left-hand page in a book. watercolor. Tone A degree of lightness or darkness. or the right-hand page in a book. ink. Named paper in place. design. an ink stone usually cut from slate. paper or canvas. acrylic. and chrysanthemum—which in Chinese tradition are called "The Four Gentlemen. or pen. or wood. compound of water-soluble pigment. Stippling Applying color or tone in areas of fine dots or flecks. Alternatively. Subjective drawing A drawing that expresses the personal view and interpretation of the artist An invented image. a sheet of paper is placed beneath and pinpricks are Silhouette A flat. carbon ink. Single-point perspective The most basic form of linear perspective in which there is only one vanishing point. orchids. Squeegee A rubber-trimmed scraper used in the screenprinting process for dragging ink across a surface. tight. Pouncing If a large drawing or design (called a cartoon) is to be Shadow Darkness cast by the transferred to a surface such as a obscuring of light. and paperweights. Sketch A quick or rough drawing." Materials for Zen brushwork include round brushes of varied size. Technical drawing A universal it is often used in conjunction language of lines and measurements with line drawings in pen and that is used to make diagrammatic ink—for images. A term borrowed from the theater. cut-out profile made along every outline of the usually made in black paper image. Although drawings can be made with wash alone.

242 to blend 205 compressed 122. 206 checkered floor 80. 13 architectural drawing 67-71 Arctic Flowers (Libeskind) 70. Georges 67. 139 Nanha) 50. 74. 193 in lifting out 204. 165. 204-205. 223 Circular Score for "Due Voce" 223 children's art 9. to model 110-111 border 51 Bosch. 75. Brian 226 Untitled 2001 226 "Cave of the Hands" (Cueva de las Manas) 8.50. 180 Circular Score for "Due Voce" (Bussotti) 223 circus scenes 192-195 City (Bryan) 202. 244 head and neck 144 phrased 124-125 contrast: brightness 99 of media 30 tonal 96. 161 Akhlaq-I Rasul Allah manuscript 51. 128.117 Achilles Chases Hector (Thomas) 240.133. (Ross-Craig) 49 to hold brush for 23 caricature 159.163 graded 227 composition 56-57. Clare 203 City 202.100 curves. Franz 48 Protea nitida 48 Bellini. 78 aerial perspective 206 airbrushing 160. 157 cropping 56-57. Statue d'Epouvante 90 calligraphy. 71 conte 112.51 All and Nothing (Taylor) 114. 26 geese 38-39 Gericault's cats 28.44-45 bird studies 12.184. 158. 70 Art Nouveau motifs 91 Autoportrait (Ray) 138. 81 cut-out model plan 94. to draw 100 Cypripedium calceolus L. 113 bird bones 12. 38-39.13. 116. 74 brush (es) 246-247 Japanese 248 for laying a wash 140 marks 248-249 to hold 23 brush drawings 14-15 Bryan. 160 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object (Moore) 178. 134 costume(s) 155 character 158-159 structure of 166-167 Cottage Among Trees (Rembrandt) 52. Augustin 67 Basquiat. 137 Besler. 190 Caricature of a Woman (Daumier) 198.27 turtles 42-43 aquatint 240 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels (Leonardo) 12. 179 Bussotti. 41 principal 186. Sylvano 222. 203 Claude Lorrain 202 Views from Velletri 202. 162 character: to capture 38-39. 94 cylindrical objects. 242 Brunelleschi. 90.Index Page numbers in italics refer t o captions and illustrations Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity (Bishndas and 259 INDEX B bread (as eraser) 205. 30 sleeping dog 38-39 Stubbs's horse skeleton 26. 52 cotton swabs 205 Coup de Vent a Asajigabare (Hokusai) 198. 200 Bauer. Hieronymus 243 Two Monsters 242.163 body. Basilius 47 Beuys. 71 Blake. 74. 163. center of 118 ballpoint 182. 71 Bacchante (Bakst) 155 background: color 91 textured 240 Baker Matthew: Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry 32 Bakst. layers 53 chalk pastels 162. to draw 80. Joseph 113 The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland 112. 205 Baltard. 133. to depict 156-157 Cloudburst of Material Possessions (Leonardo) 200. 202 cloth. Le (Hugo) 200. 98. 186 charcoal 114. 90 La Guitare. 9 Chair (Van Gogh) 94. 81 135. 75 Circle of the Lustful (Blake) 180. 230 The Physical Space 220 abstract drawing 219.89. 198. 241 action. 40-41 Durer's rhinoceros 26. 8 cave paintings 8. 220. cut Catling. 203 Buffalo Hunt (Shoshone) 178. 28 Klee's horses 30. 182. 250 Bishndas and Nanha: Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity 50. to draw 25. Giovanni 137 Head and Shoulders of a Man 136.212 to erase 205 to hold 23 pencils 204 willow 114. Etienne-Louis 72 Newton's Cenotaph 72. 221 animals. 180 blending: color 133. 90 colored materials 162-163 colored pencils 162. Mamaru 104. 203 Landline 202. 247-248 carving see lines. 222. Nicolas-Jacques 54 contours 146. 198 cartoon (preparatory drawing) 137 (satirical) 159. Victor: West Facade of the Church of St. Zen c 232-233 blended 133. 204. William: The Circle of the Lustful 180. Jean Michel 138 Self-Portrait 138 Bateau-Vision. 72 bracelet shading 122 Braque.186 see also movement Adoration of the Magi perspective study (Leonardo) 74. 244 and graphite 178 . 94 chalk(s) 53.115 anatomical drawing 134-135 anatomical theaters 82-83 anatomical waxes 128 ancient carvings 221. 189. 9.226.184. 95 Chair Cut Out (Woodfine) 94.31 Picasso's horse and bird 30. 206.44-45. 111. to express 39. 178 Cubism 67. 243 botanical drawing 48-49 Boullee. 201 collage 111. 13.198. 29 Hugo's octopus 28. 226-227 Acanthus spinosus 65 accelerated perspective 22. Filippo 67.169 colors: airbrushed 161 background 91 A Abe. Leon: Bacchante 155 balance. 199 Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya (Eisen) 156.163 dry media 205 Blue Nude (Matisse) 110. 90. 50. 230-231 Cubist 90.162 Conte.

M. 122 Hawksmoor. 69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt 68. 240. 245 Hugo. Ron 161 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 161 160. 141 tonal 96.Theodore 29 Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 28. 799 Holbein. 55. 136 Golden Section 67 Gombrich. 240 Black Paintings 152. 113. drypoint 181 exaggeration 184 expressionism 198 E ye and Head of a Drone Fly (Hooke) 92.91. 69. 241 to blend 205 and chalk 178 and ink 28.104. 132 Frenz. to draw 168-169 in Goya's artworks face.216 Durelli. 7 33 Hooke.198 Degas. 245 layers 30 Goya. 252 depiction of fabric monsters 252-253 Self Portrait in a Cocked Hat 130. Cheval et Oiseau (Picasso) 30.103. 69 Guitare. 245 Gruau.69 Gerard. to draw 78. Robert 93 Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 92.37. 37 Grandville 243 A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the Near-Microscopic World of Scale Insects 242. to draw 120. 69.144 and ink 30. 161 changing 216 Focusing on the Negative (Walter) 16 foliage 52. 226-227 anatomical 134-135 architectural 67-71 botanical 48-49 brush 14-15 dark to light 102. 190 Middle Eastern 50-51. Oona 245 How Clever of God #84 244. 25 focus 65. 223. Nicholas 68 St Paul's Baptistry 68 head and neck to draw 142-145 Head and Shoulders of a Man (Bellini) 136. 242 eyes. disposable pens 182-183 dissections: botanical 48 of horse 27 distance: illusion of see perspective linear 97 tonal 97 Documents Decoratifs. to suggest 177 see also perspective diagonals diffuser 55 dip pens 34.216. 160 as ground for metal point 140. position of 22 Eisen.166 170-173 Gestalt 222 Giacometti. 99 etching. Edgar 162 depth. 91 Dragon (Michelangelo) 36. 161 fashion 160. 220 dry brush 234 234 57. 170-173. 131 Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 240. 52 foreground 208. 122.112. 203 semi-abstract 234-237 three-dimensional 68. 216 foreshortening 110. 71 minimal line 99 and music 70-71 quick 38-39.121 felt-tip pens 162. 144 Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (Baker) 32.103 with eraser 103.111 feet.146 from masterworks 126-127. Sir Ernst 12. 163. 134. Victor 200.101 engraving 243 erasers/erasing 55. fiber-tip pen 182.252-253 from memory 183. 161 fashion drawings 160. 124.244 drawing(s): abstract 219. 765 hitsuzendo drawings 233 Hokusai. 243 graphic score 222. Rene 160 Illustration for Jacques Fath E easel. 200 F fabric.97. The 242. 55. Keisai 157 The Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya 156. Katsushika 199 Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 198. 55.244. 134.109 Rhinoceros 26. 223 graphite 54.117 fountain pens 34.115 exploratory 17 fantasy 72-73. 30 Fauves/fauvism 90. 41 in the round 208-209 with scalpel 202. 160 Faune. 134. 73. Statue d'Epouvante. C . 163. 222 Grimes. 77 How Clever of God #84 244.141. Alberto 136 Portrait of Marie-Laure de Noailles 136.160. 79. 157 . 162 Flaxman. 115 Escher. 93 eye level 80 Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity.John 157 Man Lying Down in a Cloak 156. 112. 230 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction 68.189. 90 gouache 30.260 INDEX D Dada 139 Daumien Honore 198 Caricature of a Woman 198. 104-105. 120. 32 framing 139 Franfoise au Bandeau (Picasso) 132. Hans 133 The Ambassadors 116 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 132.12 fixative 54. Jean Ignace Isidore see Grandville Gericault. 222.184 165. 125. 202. Antonio 68. 93 horizon 52.157 ellipses 100. position of 143.116. 137 heads. 90 G Gaudi.230 three-tone 140. La (Braque) 90. Antonio 135 Muscles of the Head and Neck 134. Francisco de 131. 203 Hotel de la Suzonnieres (Satie) 70.102-103 drawing board 20 drawing books 20-21 drawing paper 144. Study for Plate 59 (Mucha) 90.207. 40. proportions of 143 fantasy drawings 72-73. 205 drawing with 103. 160 hitsuzendo 233 light to dark 102. 135 Duren Albrecht 26. 240 170-173 five Ships in a Port with Lighthouse (Wallis) 11. 29 H hands.160. 26 Flying Fish (White) 25.141. 160 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction (Gaudi) 68. 222 Le Bateau-Vision 200. to draw 134-137 Helleborus corsicus 55 highlights 91.

160 In the Duchess's Kitchen (Rackham) 176.33 Mysterious Affairs of the lighting 2 7.The (Robinson) 108. 35. Oxford 106 Prado. 178 motifs: A r t Nouveau 9 7 stylized 51 mountains 216-217 movement: of animals 30-31 of humans 7 79. Henri 111 Blue Nude 1110. 77 Miller. 184.181 L Landline (Bryan) 202. 181 luminosity 115 Lynch. 34-35 acrylic 35 bistre 35.141. Gustav 49 Knopf. 176. 248. 58-59.Pieuvre (Octopus) 28. 76 Libeskind. 110 Sistine Chapel ceiling 116 Middle Eastern drawing 50-51. Matisse.124.91 Study for Plate 59 of INDEX illumination see lighting Illustration for Jacques Fath (Gruau) 160. 73 Kigell.102. Paul 227 Polyphonic Setting for White 226. 221 endless 31 free 113. 156 magnification 93 Man in Armor (Van Dyck) 158. 54 silver point 156 leg sections 158 length. Victor 134 Profile Head 134. 789.104. 183 vertical 156 linear distance 97 linear perspective 69. 111.112. 158 Man Lying Down in a Cloak (Flaxman) 156. Johan 32.243 carbon 35 Chinese 30. 114 hatched 244 layered 118 pace of 65 pale 40 rapid 49. 53 monoprint 787. 227 Scene of Comical Riders 30. 201 head and neck sections of female mold for Sforza Horse 89 Madonna of the Rocks 244 perspective study for Adoration of the Magi 74. 203. Phyll: hands 18 lifting out 204. Madrid 171 University Museum of Natural History. 227 Newsome. 78 Study ofThree Male Figures 110. drawing from 126-127. 37 lines 118 pastel 162 pencil 31. 33 J justness 228-229 N naive art 74 negative space 53. 201 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels 12. 203 landscape 206-208 brushed 14 Landscape in Hoboku Style (Sesshu) 14 layers 146 chalk 53 gouache 30 ink 28.109. 252 Muscles of the Head and Neck (Durelli) 134. 177 influences. 63. drawing from 183. Kathe 181 Losbrunch (The Outbreak) 180. 244 Dragon 36. 13 Cloudburst of Material Possessions 200. 74-77. 756 priming for 140. 220. David 78 M Mackintosh. 757 mandalas 219. 99. Alphonse 90.182 Moore. 97 Murillo. 244. apparent 97 Leonardo da Vinci 74.134 K Kettlehut. 249 and gouache 30 Indian 35. 83 white 122 ink impressions 222 ink spatters 234 installations 176. 34.227 to "bend" straight 97 compositional 228-229 cut 202. 205. 135 museums 44. 170-173.276. 225 masking tape 204. 244 lithograph 198 Losbruch (Kollwitz) 180. 166. artistic 240-241.166 La Specola. 244 ink 36 252-253 Documents Decoratifs 90. 205 masterworks.141 Metropolis (film) 72.115 98. 242 light 96 to depict drawing with 1 76 painting with 176 .167 line(s) 132. Marie 244 cloth drawing 244. 36. I Murderous Attacks 33 Kollwitz. Oxford 250 music 70-71 Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks (Knopf) 32. Florence 128 lighting in 167 Pitt Rivers. 73 Michelangelo Buonarroti 48. Bartolome: Moses Striking the Rock ofHoreb 252. 159 Japanese 35 to make 36 sepia 35 walnut 36.109. 49 Rose 49 Maelbeke Madonna (Van Eyck) 156. 53 Tree II 52. 31 Klimt. Erich 73 design for Metropolis 72. 220. 190 metal pens see dip pens metal point 25. Charles Rennie 48. Henry 178 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object 178. 103 Neolithic chalk tablet 220. 252 ink 16. 185 Mucha. Rose: Tantalus or the Future of Man 20 minimal line drawing 99 mirror use of 120 mixed media 28. 220.96. Piet 52. 181 Klee. 219 Mondrian. 60. 226 Modernism 67. 163 pens 36 measuring 116 memory. 230 invented creatures 106-107 250-251 invented objects 89.120. 234 iron-gall 35. 28 Two Impressions from a Cut-out Paper Disk 222 Huyler Stephen R 225 261 Kinecar. Daniel 70 Arctic Flowers 70 Lieb. 72. 220.

73 Noble. 242 reed pens 34. to draw 146-147 R Rackham. 1 2 4 priming for metal point 140. 212 Japanese 2 1 . 52 pens 36 scalpel 54 drawing with 202.The (Beuys) 112. Stella 48 Cypripedium calceolus L 49 rotated view 7 65 Rubens.54 pastel 162 perspective 1 0 0 . 164. 1 1 6 accelerated 2 2 . Peter Paul 126-127 Embracing pose(s): balanced 146 quick 118-119 positive form 103 posture: of artist 22 of subject 3 8 . 230 parallel planes 79 Parisian street 86-87 pastels 162 to blend 205 to hold 23 layers 162 pencils 162 pen(s): dip 34 . 139 Real Life is Rubbish (Noble and Webster) 176. 162 O p A r t 98 optical illusions 96-99 outline 33. 163. Russell 228.184 fountain 34. 1 6 3 . 1 3 2 quill pens 34.37. 40-41. 224 0 layers 31. 772 234-237 Sesshu. 7 72 Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland.131 Cottage Among Trees 52. 36. 203 Scene of Comical Riders (Klee) 30. 36. 1 1 7 aerial 206 linear 69. 57 Ross-Craig. 166 fiber-tip 782. 734 Protea nitida (Bauer) 48. 243. 74.139 Autoportrait 138. 733 Portrait de Marie-Laure (Giacometti) 136. 239 Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 238. 159. Arthur 177 In the Duchess's Kitchen 176. 732 influence of 240 painting with light 78. Erik 70.7 77 rapidograph 70 Raphael 110. 74-77. Paul 73 Nobson Central 72.262 INDEX Newton. 26 Riley. The (Abe) 220 Picasso. 78 single-point 74. 160. 75 Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range 241 petroglyphs 221.37 scientific instruments 9 2 . 30 Fran<.226. 37 38. Heath 181 The Kinecar 180. 7 76 receding space 206 Redon. 91 outsider artists 33. 161. Martin 238.2 3 age and youth sleeping subjects 148-149 150-151 Renaissance 109 Rhinoceros (Durer) 26. Isaac 92 Telescope 92 Newton's Cenotaph (Boullee) 72. 227 portfolios 20 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser de Noailles (Holbein) 132.199 Profile Head (Newsome) oil pastels 162. Sue 104. 2 2 0 for oil pastels 162 stained 230 to stretch 140-141 tissue 21. 205 pointillism 112 polyphonic painting 227 Polyphonic Setting for White (Klee) 226.37. 216. 165. 4 9 Rose of Mohammed 50.176 Real Life Is Rubbish 176. 243.759.141 prints/printing: aquatint 240 dry-point etching 181 engraving 243 monoprint 181. Georges 112 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 112. 7 77 three-point 80. Odilon 242 The Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity 242. 219. 103. 1 6 9 to hold 2 2 . 76 plastic eraser 55. 36. 28 pigment 162 bright 50 Caput Mortuum 7 4 7 for three-tone drawing 141. Faune.71 Hotel de la Suzonnieres 70.Paul'sBaptistry (Hawksmoor) 68. 759 P Page. 68 Satie. 9 8 . Man 131. and Webster. 736 portraits. 75 Two Courtyards 75. Pablo 6 7 . 81 two-point 74. 181 pencil(s) 54 charcoal 204 colored 762. 38. Cheval et Oiseau 30. 36. 71 Satire of the Queen's Dress (Wodall) 158.240. 36 pen and brush 8 3 pen and ink 70. 97. 181 Rodin. 122. 9 0 .Tim.36. 244 reed 34. 114 rollerball 182 Rorschach blot 99 Rose (Mackintosh) 48.Toyo: Landscape in Hoboku .9 3 Schongauer. 244 Q s Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape (Wolfli) 2 79 St. 165 figure 118 filled 37 pencil 48. 141 Piranesi. 76-79. 36 relief printing 757 Rembrandt van Rijn 52. 7 70 Ray. Auguste 114 Two Women 114. 205 157. 4 8 putty eraser 55. 234 disposable 182-183 felt-tip 162. 38. 34-35. 72 Noble. 239 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat (Seurat) 112. J 76 nudes 114-115 to make 36 metal see dip quill 34. 7 73 self-portraits: Basquiat 138.104 Pieuvre (Hugo) 28. Bridget 98 Robinson. 7 38 Ray 138.52 pen and wash 158. 241 Physical Space. 1 1 6 . 782 relief 757 silk-screen 739 woodblock 134. 739 semi-abstract drawings Style 14 Seurat. 230 paper(s) 21 colored 162 drawing 144.40. Giovanni Battista 74.oise au Bandeau 132. 36.

t h r e e . H e n r i de: Woman at Her Toilet 14 t r a n s p a r e n t v i e w 92. 74.120.216 W e b s t e r . 7 6 Two Impressions from a Cut-Out Paper Disk ( H u g o ) 2 2 2 Two Monsters 2 4 2 . 156 layers 7 5 6 priming for 140. 2 3 4 . T i m W e s t Fagade of the Church of St. 156 Van Gogh. 158 V a n Eyck.1 4 5 .5 3 in l a n d s c a p e 2 0 6 . 7 77. A n t h o n y 152.d i m e n s i o n a l d r a w i n g 68. Paul 2 4 1 Achilles Chases Hector 2 4 0 . 7 6 1 spots. 7 1 4 . t o d r a w 1 0 1 viewfinder 57 Views from Velletri ( C l a u d e L o r r a i n ) 152. 141 Three Male Figures. 161.Yamaoka 233 t e x t u r e 2 2 2 . 9 2 Tesshu. 2 3 0 tonal contrast 96 tonal distance 9 7 t o n a l d r a w i n g 9 6 . Vincent 95 Chair 94.41. Sarah: child's m a p 75. t o d r a w 5 2 . 76. 104-105. 159 Wolfli. 7 70 Tiber 214-215 Untitled ( T w o m b l y ) 2 2 0 . 2 4 2 w Wallis.13 M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s m a l e figures 110. 2 0 0 Ship in a Storm 1 9 8 .1 8 5 Tree II ( M o n d r i a n ) 52. 69. Augustin ( B a l t a r d ) 6 7 w e t and dry brush-strokes 2 4 9 Turner. drawing with 104-105 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt ( G a u d i ) 68.s c r e e n p r i n t i n g 139 silver p o i n t 1 4 0 . 725 fabric 1 6 8 T h o m a s . 164. t o d r a w 2 0 0 . C y 138. 75. 53 trees. 743 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City ( F r e n z ) 1 6 0 . 230 t h r e e .1 9 9 wire.2 0 1 . 77. 182. 75 Skeleton of the Horse ( S t u b b s ) 26. 1 9 9 .158 158. 1 3 . 96. 1 4 5 travel journal 2 0 . 221 . 199 shoes 1 6 4 . 245 sharpener 54 Ship in a Storm ( T u r n e r ) 1 9 8 .2 1 3 Stubbs.141 S i m b l e t . A l f r e d 1 1 . Adolf: Giant-Grape Saint-Mary-Castle 219 Woman at Her Toilet ( T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c ) 74 w o o d b l o c k print 157. phrased 146 tonal modeling 161 tonal range 169 t o n a l surfaces 2 2 7 tonal width 97 t o n e ( s ) 33. 226 V Van Dyck. 249 t o describe 39.27 skull 747.Sforza Horse. William 159 Satire of the Queen's Dress INDEX 226. John 25 Flying Fish 25 Wild Striped Cat Sketches of ( G e r i c a u l t ) 28. Sue see N o b l e . 1 8 4 . 2 2 6 . 1 4 0 . 199. 9 5 pens 36 v a n i s h i n g p o i n t 74. 115. Jan 1 5 6 Maelbeke Madonna 1 5 6 .125 W o o d f i n e . 174 T w o m b l y . Taylor A n i t a 115 All and Nothing 1 1 4 . 1 8 4 .J.t o n e d r a w i n g 140. t o lay 1 4 0 . 97. G e o r g e 2 7 Skeleton of the Horse 26.9 1 storms. Study of (Michelangelo) 110. 1 4 1 . 57. 2 9 wind. 79. 1 6 . M . t o draw 1 9 8 . 2 4 4 . 102-103 tonal marks.243 Leonardo's machines 12. 240 Two Women Embracing ( R o d i n ) 114. 241. 6 9 Wodall. 1 6 6 t r a p e z i u s m u s c l e 142. 2 4 7 t h r e e . John: Focusing on the Negative 14 w a s h . 49. 65 symbols 138. 9 0 . 7 79 Shoshone petroglyph 240. 4 4 boat 209 botanical 4 9 G e r i c a u l t ' s cats 2 9 from Goya 170-173 125. 1 4 1 w a t e r c o l o r 25. 170 shoes 1 6 4 stylized m o t i f 51 Summer Flowers 63. Man in Armor 1 5 8 .1 0 5 vision 9 6 Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects (Grandville) 242. W . 186. 2 7 studies: b i r d s 7 2 . 2 2 7 Untitled 2001 ( C a t l i n g ) u 263 W h i t e . 2 1 2 . b l o w n 248 steel p e n s see d i p p e n s still life 89.1 4 1 . 9 4 z Z e n calligraphy 232-233 contrast 96 t o grade 163 ink 37 pencil 5 4 t o r t i l l o n 205 T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c . 1 7 7 free 8 0 V e n i c e . 69. 1 9 9 Two Courtyards (Piranesi) 75. 2 2 0 influence o f 2 4 0 Untitled 220. 1 4 4 . 7 9 0 vessels.d i m e n s i o n a l 1 0 4 . 243 (Bosch) T Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos ( G o y a ) 2 4 0 .12 W a l t e r . Sarah 9 4 Chair Cut Out 94.1 6 5 shorthand diagram 142 Shoshone buffalo hide painting 178. h e a d a n d n e c k sections o f female m o l d f o r (Leonardo) 89 shading 2 9 s h a d o w s 28. v i e w s o f 85. 202 violin. 206-207 202.241 s i l k . 1 2 Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse 71.199 tissue p a p e r 21. 7 75 Telescope ( N e w t o n ) 9 2 .

2 4 0 : w w w .uk/Musee des Augustins. Flossie. A . 112: Yale University A r t Gallery/Everett V Meeks. Publisher's Acknowledgments Dorling Kindersley w o u l d like to thank Caroline H u n t for editorial contribution. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett.uk/Private Collection. T o n y G r i s o n i . 7 1 : I M E C / A r c h i v e s E r i k Satie. Amsterdam. 4 6 : B r i t i s h Library.a. u k / T o k y o National M u s e u m . K a t h r y n W i l k i n s o n . G e r m a n y . C o r n e l i s o n & Son. Basel. 199: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee des arts asiatiquesGuimet. Patty Stansfield. 5 0 : Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (1). T h e R u s k i n School of D r a w i n g a n d Fine A r t . Lisbon. K u n s t m u s e u m . L e n . a n d encouragement i n m a k i n g this book: M a m o r u Abe. Toulouse. 16: www. R u t h P a r k i n s o n . 221: Gagosian Gallery/Private Collection (b). 158: Calouste Gulbenkian Museum. . Roddy Bell. 2 7 : Royal Academy of Arts. 2 0 2 : © T h e British Museum. 113: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. University of Oxford.100. Graphische Sammlung. K e w ft)). Inc. Psychiatric Institute of the U n i v e r s i t y of Heidelberg. S i m o n L e w i s . Anders. Psychiatric Institute of the University of Heidelberg. Rocio Arnaez. Paula Regan.bridgeman. L o n d o n .uk/British Museum.uk/Private Collection. 130: The Metropolitan M u s e u m of Art/Robert L e h m a n Collection. 9 7 6 ) . 174: Artothek/Munich. 179: www. a n d D e p a r t m e n t s o f E n t o m o l o g y a n d Zoology at the University of Oxford. 1 5 6 : Graphische S a m m l u n g Albertina. 2 2 2 : Pierre Georgel/Private Collection. Wolfson College. University of Cambridge. Andy Crawford.bridgeman. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. 5 3 : Collection of the Gemeentemuseum D e n Haag/Mondrian Trust. Christopher Davis. B e r l i n . Berlin/Staatsbibliothek zu A l l other images © Sarah Simblet . 3 2 : Pepys Library. 73: Berlin F i l m Museum (t). J o h n Walter. 2 2 4 : P r i n z h o m Collection. 2 2 7 : Paul Klee Stiftung. Magdalene College Cambridge.uk/Private Collection. 180: www. (r). Paris and D A C S . 3 3 : Prinzhom Collection. F i n n . for s u p p l y i n g the d r a w i n g books. 1 9 6 : Museum of the History of Science. L o n d o n . 2 2 3 : Lebrecht Music and Arts Photo Library/Ricordi. © Tate. support. c o . 3 1 : Tom Powel Imaging. 226: Brian Catling. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin. Florence/MoMA. Germany/Joerg P. 17: J o h n Walter. b r i d g e m a n .939). 13: www.uk /© Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. 1 6 0 : Rene G R U A U s. H e l e n S h u t t l e w o r t h . Paris. J o n Roome. A n d y C r a w f o r d for p h o t o g r a p h y a n d L . 177: Mary Evans Picture Library. Paris a n d D A C S . Paris.bridgeman. 1 1 0 : www. L o n d o n . 6 6 : w w w . Clare Bryan.bridgeman. Paris/ © Succession Picasso / D A C S 2005. 1 3 5 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. 111: Fondation Beyeler/Riehen (Bale)/© Succession H Matisse/DACS 2005.bridgeman. 9 1 : www. 1 0 8 : Arts C o u n c i l Collection.co. Pamela Ellis for compiling the index. 114: Musee Rodin. Paul T h o m a s . 176: Modem Art. Paris a n d D A C S . L o n d o n . B . Angela W i l k e s .co. Salisbury & South W i l t s h i r e M u s e u m ( t ) . Germany.264 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Acknowledgments Author's Acknowledgments: T h e author wishes to thank the following people for their enormous help. 1 5 9 : Bodleian Library. Fund. b r i d g e m a n .Strang Print Room ( b ) . Jean Pierre Roy. 1879. 7 0 : Studio Daniel L i b e s k i n d . Paris. London/courtesy of Stuart Shave. 1 9 : Getty Images/© Succession Picasso / D A C S 2 0 0 5 . Orientabteilung/Ruth Schacht. Madrid. A n n a P l u c i n s k a . J a c k a n d Brian Catling. Anita Taylor.co.bridgeman. 1901. 1 7 8 : © T h e British M u s e u m / H e n r y Moore F o u n d a t i o n . Staatliche Museen z u Berlin/Jorg P. Paul T h o m a s ( t ) . Natalie G o d w i n . 2 0 3 : Clare Bryan (t). 88: www. 49: Hunterian Museum (t). 2 4 1 : Corbis/David M u e n c h ( b ) . 1 5 4 : akg-images/Musee National d'Art Moderne. 181: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. NY. L o n d o n . Julie O u g h t o n . 137: © The British Museum. 243: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. Copyright Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens. 2 4 4 : Ashmolean Museum. 1 . 30: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. 68: www. H e a t h e r M c C a r r y .co. Also.co. Diana Bell. 1929 (29. 2 4 2 : Photo Scala.r. 2 1 8 : Adolf-Wdlfli-Stiftung. Winthrop. 1 3 4 : © T h e British Museum. R o y a n d D i a n n e Simblet.co.bridgeman. 29: Fogg A n Museum/Collections Baron de Vita: Grenville L. Sarah D u n c a n . 2 0 1 : T h e Royal Collection © 2 0 0 2 H e r Majesty Queen Elizabeth I I . U K . Kunstmuseum Bern. 1 3 3 : Artothek/Kupferstichkabinett. D a w n Henderson. O o n a G r i m e s . 225: Stephen P Huyler. K u n s t m u s e u m Bern/© D A C S 2 0 0 5 . London 2005. B M G . Portugal./© D A C S 2 0 0 5 ( t ) . c o . 11: www.co. London/Bequeathed by Charles Landseer. M a n d y Earey. 2 8 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. R .co. 2 0 0 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. F r a n c e . Sophie Laurimore. 1 3 8 : © Christie's Images Ltd/© A D AGP. 1 9 8 : Dover Publications. 1 5 : w w w . Havemeyer. Carole A s h . H a y w a r d Gallery. 4 8 : T h e N a t u r a l H i s t o r y M u s e u m . P h y l l Kiggell. 74: Corbis. 9 5 : V a n Gogh M u s e u m . Paris. Antonia Cunliffe Davis. 139: Galerie Marion Meyer/© Man Ray Trust / A D A G P . France. R o s e m a r y S c o u l a r . Paris. 1 6 1 : D C C o m i c s I n c . 9 0 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/© A D A G P . 9 4 : Sarah Woodfine. c o . O. Oxford. 72: akg-images. Productions Clovis Prevost (c). 1975 ( 1 9 7 5 . 5 2 : T h e Metropolitan Museum of Art/Bequest of Mrs. Sammy De Grave. Maureen Paley Interim Art (b). Corporation of London. H .co. B e r l i n . 69: Institut Amatller d'Art Hispanic (tl). . Angela Palmer. 132: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (t). Italy. 75: © The British Museum (b). 9 2 : Science Photo L i b r a r y . L o n d o n (t).uk/Mucha Trust. 115: Anita Taylor. a n d brushes o n pp. u k / O n Loan to the H a m b u r g Kunsthalle. u k / L o u v r e .bridgeman.uk /Biblioteca Nacional. Paris.bridgeman.co. 2 4 : © T h e British Museum. 2 6 : Topfoto. L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . Jackie Douglas. Anders/ © D A C S 2 0 0 5 . and Tamsin Woodward Smith. 2 3 8 : akg-images. George M c G a v i n . Dover Publications/ISBN: 0486229912 (t). K e v i n a n d Rebecca Slingsby. 157: U C L Art Collections . Kirsten Norrie. 2 2 0 : Mamaru Abe. Japan./Private Collection/© D A C S 2005.uk/Guildhall Library. 1 3 6 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Centre Pompidou-MNAM-CCI. G e r m a n y . J o h n Roberts. Agnieszka Mlicka. U K . L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . Peter L u f f .uk/Kettle's Yard.Paris ( b ) . Berlin (b). Sir Brinsley F o r d . H a m b u r g . A . B e m d Kunzig. Illustrated London News Picture Library/The Bystander (b). Carlo O r t u for picture research s u p p o r t . 2 4 5 : Oona Grimes. G i n a R o w l a n d . papers. 51: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz.l. b r i d g e m a n ./Galerie Sylvie Nissen. 9 3 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. Sarah Woodfine.20-21 a n d 246-47. Picture Credits 8: Corbis/Hubert Stadler.

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