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FOR T H E ARTIST
FOR THE ARTIST
LONDON • NEW YORK MELBOURNE • MUNICH • DELHI Senior Editor Paula Regan Senior Art Editor Mandy Earey Art Editor Anna Plucinska Managing Editor Julie Oughton Managing Art Editor Heather McCarry Art Director Peter Luff Publishing Director Jackie Douglas Production Joanna Bull DTP Designer Adam Walker Picture Research Sarah Smithies US Editor Christine Heilman First American Edition, 2 0 0 5 First Paperback Edition, 2 0 0 9 Published in the United States by DK Publishing 3 7 5 Hudson Street New York, New York 1 0 0 1 4 10 11 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3
6 8 20 22 Master Builders The Order of Sound Future Fictions Pathways of Sight Single-Point Perspective Creating an Imaginary Space Further Aspects of Perspective Theaters Venetian Life Parisian Street
68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86
Foreword Introduction Drawing Books and Papers Posture and Grip
Objects and Instruments
TD075-July 2009 Copyright © 2 0 0 5 Dorling Kindersley Limited Text and authors artworks © Sarah Simblet 2 0 0 4 Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited A Cataloging-in-Publication record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN 9 7 8 - 0 - 7 5 6 6 - 5 1 4 1 - 1 Color reproduction by GRB, Italy Printed and bound in China by Toppan
Still Life Instruments of Vision Bench Marks Light and Illusions Further Illusions How to Draw Ellipses Tonality Drawing with Wire Artifacts and Fictions
90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106
Documentaries Presence and Mood Movement Icon and Design Pen and Ink Drawing with Ink Capturing Character Sleeping Dogs Turtles Dry Birds
26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44
Postures and Poses Choreographs Passion Measurement and Foreshortening Quick Poses Hands and Feet Charcoal Hands Phrasing Contours The Visual Detective La Specola
110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128
Plants and Gardens
Botanical Studies Jeweled Gardens Fast Trees Graphite and Erasers Cropping and Composition Negative Space Fig Tree Summer Flowers Acanthus Spinosus
48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64
Discover more at
Projections Magnetic Fields The Human Condition Disposable Pens The Travel Journal Catching the Moment Grand Canal Crossings Caravans The Big Top
174 Abstract Lines
176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 Process and Harmony Writing Time Chants and Prayers Compositions Being "Just" Collage Zen Calligraphy Nocturnes
220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234
Poise Anatomies Revelations Self-Portraits Silver Point Head and Neck Essential Observations Drawing Portraits Generations Castings
132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 152
Earth and the Elements
Air in Motion Storms Nature Profiles Charcoal Landscapes Drawing in the Round Decaying Boat Cloudburst Notes of Force Mountains
198 200 202 204 206 208 210 212 214 216
Gods and Monsters
Marks of Influence Hauntings Convolutions Brushes Brush Marks Monsters Goya's Monsters Consumed Glossary Index Acknowledgments
240 242 244 246 248 250 252 254 256 259 264
Cloth and Drapery Character Costumes Femmes Fatales Colored Materials Study and Design The Structure of Costume Textures and Patterns Dressing Character Posture Carving
156 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172
remain unseen by most. a drawing book is the perfect portable private vehicle for your imminent exploration of drawing. in which he describes himself flying and diving in his imagination through pictorial caverns of knowledge. and experience. Others can be held in the h a n d or. Chosen in any color. Some of my drawings cover entire walls. shape. We can all learn how to draw. They occupy a shelf in my studio. aspirations. I also make drawing books. geologists. and size. a sculptor. fashion designer. doctors. or engineer. we learn to see it. but because it is how I engage with and anchor myself in life. Drawing is a mirror through which I understand my place in the world. still standing by the door. that inspired the title and structure MEMORY T H E A T E R S This pen-and-ink drawing was made from imagination during research for my PhD. I work with people of diverse ages. where I expect them to be discovered by some people. and feeling. perhaps hidden on a door hinge or a street bench rail. a cartographer charting the land. architect. It is a tool for investigating ideas and recording knowledge. or a quantum physicist trying to see for themselves the fluctuations of our universe. It is my love of these. a composer notating a musical score. I know that with their cooperation I can soon prove them wrong. Drawing occupies a unique place in every artist and creator's life. who tells me firmly upon approach that they cannot draw. texture. and makers of special effects. understood (and often misunderstood) our own bodies. through history. and in a few sessions they will be flying. drawing is the immediate expression of seeing. art schools. undergraduates to fellow professors. we have looked at. be they a child discovering their vision and dexterity. The most rewarding challenge is always the newcomer. They enfold their viewer and are made on joined sheets of paper that I reach by climbing ladders. I was training in anatomy and studying how. .Foreword B Y DRAWING THE WORLD AROUND US. especially as travel journals. I was also reading among The Confessions of St. The very first step is to believe it. and through which I can see how I think. night security staff. Combine these things and the possibilities are endless. not only to make art. of Sketch Book for the Artist. thinking. and be slowly washed or worn away. These inspirations led me to invent museums. by invitation. By using our imaginations. It makes me feel excited to be alive. and local c o m m u n i t y classes. Augustine his notes on memory. and I refer back to them for years after they are made. Some are more traditionally framed and hung in galleries for solo or group exhibitions. For twelve years I have enjoyed the privilege of teaching drawing. For me personally. and a reflector of experience. and their importance to so many artists. I will always draw. are made outside as discreet installations. where spaces are shaped by nothing more than the objects and activities contained within them. from schoolchildren to senior citizens. as a visiting professor at universities. we learn to feel truly alive.
They have a natural affinity to many modern graffiti signatures.Theseancient silhouettes were drawn with earth pigments rubbed onto rock. "CAVE OF THE HANDS" In this drawing. Rio Pinturas 13. We are bombarded with linear and tonal pictorial information. We are surrounded by drawings in our daily lives. graffiti. and in meetings. irreverent to language barriers. Children cannot be restrained from running across the pristine white lawn of newly fallen snow. packaging. like a great canvas for them to mark. The sense of relief we may feel from the information overload of modern commercial life when visiting a country in which we can no longer read every written word. but more often because drawing actually helps us to focus and take in what is said. waving to us from many thousands of yearsago. in lectures. inscribing every fresh part of it with their eager scrapes and trails. a great crowd is raising their hands in greeting.000-9500 bce . and patterns on our clothes. scrawling shapes and cartoons when on the telephone. is not afforded us by drawing. We can always read each others drawings. At home and at work we doodle. Drawing is international.8 INTRODUCTION Where We Begin There is a fundamental drive in our human nature to make a mark. Cueva de las Marios. logos. not just chosen pictures on our walls but everywhere—maps. Sometimes we draw because we are bored. Most adults still feel that certain exquisite pleasure on arriving at a beach to find the tide out and the sand perfect. signs. and we spend our lives reading it.
and the appearance of my strikes of colors. On a particular afternoon in September 1974." Until this day. Eyelashes take up as much of my attention as the head itself. who in their day-to-day hardship made time to picture themselves and the animals on which they depended. and belonging to place. an expression of existence. I was sitting with my mother. and she kept it as my first step beyond the delighted realms of scrawl.9 WHERE WE BEGIN FIRST PORTRAIT For sorre forgotten reason. we see our oldest surviving images. at age two-anda-half. I. the hair of my first portrait was most important. Cave art was not made for decoration but as a fundamental part of life. The image above is what I gave back to my mother. like all toddlers. Even though it is made by a toddler this image would be recognizable to anyone. In cave paintings like the one opposite. created by societies of hunter-gatherers. MAKING OUR MARK It seems reasonable to assume that we have engaged in pictorial mark-making for as long as we have made conscious use of our hands. . but I had never yet attempted to figuratively picture my world. power. had happily scribbled. reflecting my experience of looking closely at my father's face. I now think this is a picture of proximity. enjoying the physical sensation of crayon on paper. She gave me a notepad and a red crayon and asked me to draw her "a picture of Daddy.
most of us stop. W e do n o t hesitate to draw a map.10 INTRODUCTION PEN-AND-INK BEE This tiny drawing has been enlarged to show its texture and composition. Inhibitions creep in and ideas of good a n d b a d terminate confidence. and this activity plays a vital role in their d e v e l o p m e n t . h o w e v e r small a n d u n f o r m e d y o u believe they are. Young children love to draw. Hours are lost immersed in the glorious world of imagination. for example. Don't b e p e r s u a d e d to draw in a w a y s o m e o n e else . and from that first unit build and describe the shape of something or someone we know. It was made with a few bold strokes of a steel pen dipped in ink to conjure the dried bee I was holding between my fingers on a pin. it is important to value your natural abilities a n d ways of seeing. to help a stranger see their way W h e n taking first steps in relearning h o w to draw. yet still turn to drawing w h e n their verbal language fails or is inadequate. PROGRESSION T h e r e is a point in all o u r lives w h e n w e first c o n t r o l o u r mark and m a k e it a line. As you progress. But as adolescents. At this point many will insist they cannot draw. then drag o u r line into a loop. b e p r o u d o f what m a k e s y o u r w o r k individual to y o u .
and which aspects of the vast wealth and diversity of graphic language would be most appropriate to their goals. 1925-42 53/8x87/8in (135 x 225 mm) ALFRED WALLIS prefers and tells you is better. I ask them their reasons for drawing. Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse c. remember that all advice is only advice. He used leftover ship and yacht paint with crayons on cut-out pieces of cardboard boxes. and they have never questioned why. harbor and sea is one of many that Alfred Wallis made from memory while sitting at home. He was a retired Cornish fisherman and junk dealer who began drawing at the age of 70 "for company" after his wife died. I meet students struggling unhappily with a particular method of drawing. Someone once told them they must draw in this way. Enjoy the control of your own journey. As you read this b o o k and perhaps attend art classes. but it does help to set out facing in the right direction. Occasionally. Think how much would have been lost if anyone had interfered with Alfred Wallis' personal sense of proportion and perspective in the exquisite drawing above. .11 PROGRESSION A UNIQUE SIGHT This innocent yet sophisticated drawing of boats. what they most want to achieve. you must decide whether to keep or discard it. After experimenting and trying each new idea. The journey of every artist demands hard work and discipline.
If as artists we nail a subject down too hard. The observed world may be our subject. but the child in us knows that this is an all-embracing. I hope. the page bristles with the focus of ideas. wrote as the opening line of this great work. perhaps for comfort or ease as a left-hander or a habitual enjoyment of the challenge. Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels LEONARDO DA VINCI . The art historian Professor Sir Ernst Gombrich. embedded in this book. There should neve: be a slavish obligation to represent things exactly as we collectively agree we see them. and inspire others. it may not be accurate to our critical adult eye. depending on the occasion and our purpose. clear-minded understanding of the sea." The clarity and empowerment of these words. His notes visually balance his drawings. and lose the very thing that attracted us to it. There are countless reasons for drawing.12 INTRODUCTION VISION All artists see the world differently.and collarbones and shoulder blades of a different bird almost become new creatures in themselves. IDEAS A N D I N V E N T I O N S These active machines. be visionary. but it should be the experienced world we draw. all raise water From the Archimedes' screw to Leonardo's own cupped wheel. the breast. There are only artists. author of The Story of Art. not for disguise but as a personal choice. When we look back at Wallis' seascape (see p. We BIRD STUDIES The flutter of faint scratches that dance across the pages on the right is an attempt to see the movement and bony weightlessness of a bird. we can drive out its spirit. 11). We also see differently ourselves. "There really is no such thing as Art. right. Below. and breathtaking wind of a choppy harbor. Our imaginations are the tools with which we can increase the essence of life. They are also always written backward. We all see differently. boats. is.
time spent is not lost. I drew to understand the apparatus of flight. conduct an experiment. while below. Each fresh image reflects growing confidence and the experience of the preceding study. More was learned drawing the bird 18 times than would have been understood drawing it only once or twice. or illustrate a dream. It will be invested through your experience in the new drawing. make a calculation.13 VISION should not try to know how every finished picture will look. drawing in pursuit of our own thoughts and understanding. My drawings of a housemartin (opposite top) illustrate the importance of repeated study. This also applies if struggling at length with a larger picture. shout against a terrible injustice. or to discover the best use of a new material. but it is important to be clear why we are making it. We have both covered our paper with focused. it may be best to start afresh. Decide before you start whether you are drawing to warm up. . Leonardo drew to invent a machine. Don't be disheartened. to express the beauty in a moment's play of light. Opposite. when it looks tired and still feels wrong. Our drawings are annotated investigations into the mechanisms of nature and of an idea. stripped-down parts.
it should be responding to the sensation and meaning of the subject it draws. This suits many artists well and is perfectly valid. meaning. and practice each part before putting the final image together. You must also think of its intrinsic nature: its purpose. Landscape in Haboku Style 15TH CENTURY . or imagine—it is not enough to only render its shape. and how it feels to the touch. bone.14 INTRODUCTION ALCHEMY At school. created centuries and cultures apart. metal. Whatever the material— wood. BRUSHED LANDSCAPE FLOWING SKELETON T h e gliding poise of this walking anatomy comes as much from the feeling of movement as it does from the feeling of drawing. It denies the importance of accident. fire. your marks will become the subject on the paper. trusting my intuition to find a visual equivalence for the sensation of weight within my body. and what you discover in the process of making. This is the alchemy of drawing. and sometimes beyond. and allowed to flow through the brush. and we can just make out the distant stains of mountains. Know the texture. are both made of ink laid onto wet paper with speed and agile certainty. silk. We are caught in a shifting focus that makes everything fluid. Our position asvieweris unsteady. W e float toward the quiet vista as it also moves toward us. As you draw any subject—something you see. mists. explain the composition. Each image relied upon past experience to know the probable behavior of the brush. This is a detail of a brush-and-ink drawing by a Japanese Buddhist monk. and position in space. balance. water. depth. The physicality. the unknown. temperature. and at speeds beyond conscious thought. They each allowed the energy and focus of the moment to be expressed through controlled accident and a degree of the unknown Both drawings were made trusting the marks. As your hand meets the paper to make a mark. and paper. I made it almost unconsciously with a pen and a brush. and opacity of your subject. or ice—you must actually feel it beneath your fingers as you draw. feel. which can offer keys to other things. Imagine these qualities so strongly that you feel them in your mind and at your fingertips. ink. declare the idea. we are advised or even required to plan our pictures. However. and spirit of each subject was held strongly but loosely between the fingertips. excessive planning can get in the way of the imagination. and an island brushed with trees. If you can do this. These two brush drawings. size.
like folded insects. pastel. made by a young British artist who creates alphabets o f the absurd f r o m familiar childhood characters. W a l t e r also makes books: some.16 INTRODUCTION PLACE A N D MOMENT The heat and teeming atmosphere o f this Parisian dressing room. left. He dazzles us with flashes o f light and dabbed marks o f shadow. c.1896 Woman at her Toilet 41 x 26 in (104 x 66 cm) TOULOUSE LAUTREC RIB-CAGE D R A M A Thus drama. more than 100 years after its making. acrylic. lives on. Focusing on the Negative 2004 22 x 30 in (56 x 76 cm) J O H N WALTER . stand table-sized with furniture legs attached t o b o t h sides of their jacket. right is set inside a rib cage. which evoke realities o f place and the p o w e r o f moment. gold leaf and spray paint. one of many luminous works in watercolor. Lautrec's flamboyant splashes o f petticoats and pantaloons are drawn with long sweeps of chalk and brushed oil paint.
you will naturally make progress on your own in response to concentration and the decision to look and draw. As you follow lessons in this book. Drawing is exploratory. Choose other materials and do the same. and miscellaneous items of inspiration. and mistakes are a valuable process of learning. diary-like observations. Ignore these at first and allow yourself the freedom to play. potential ideas still forming. at a point when you feel you are not making progress. Much will be learned on these test sheets and in your first drawings. Put them away and look at them later. Pages do not have to lie open for other people to inspect and comment on. With no help and advice at all. One of the advantages of a drawing book is that you can shut it. Enjoy discovering what your hand and the material can do. FREEINGTHEHAND . Start by choosing a material you like the look of and cover a piece of paper with different marks. Such books are personal: the territory of new exploration and experiment. you will be surprised and encouraged to see how far you have come. just through the act of making. even those you dislike. Try to keep all of your first drawings. try not to grip your pen worrying about the technical terms you might have heard. It is yours. take your time and don't worry if you need to make several attempts to grasp a concept.17 FREEING THE HAND If you are just beginning to learn how to draw.
Drawing is a living language that over millennia has grown and changed. I was particularly attracted to their gentle articulation and understated determination. An artist's personal voice is something that also evolves through lessons learned. which of course he cannot see. The real drawing book has yet to come. adapting its form and occupation. Look to your own experience and also learn from the work of others. it will be your creation as you discover your own personal vision. Its sensuous and flowing line seems to drift like smoke. ELECTRIC BULL With a penlight. and many more reasons for drawing the world. This practical journey will take you through the door into the vivid heart of drawing. seek ideas in the life around you. comes from within. which is held frozen in space by a camera lens. staring straight through his image of a bull. Imagination needs nourishment.18 INTRODUCTION THE THINKING EYE Techniques and materials are the grammar and vocabulary of drawing and can be studied and shared. but not confined to them.Their elegant strength seems to summon a lifetime of drawing. As you draw. we still only glimpse a corner of the magnitude of this subject and the infinity of what can be achieved. it is this voice that is the subtle part of their art and something that ultimately. caught between action and repose. when they are more experienced. and enfolding new media. Note that the drawing classes are allocated to subjects. However. A N ARTIST'S HANDS These are the hands of the artist Phyll Kiggell (see p. In the total wealth of these pages. Picasso is poised smiling. It rarely flourishes in isolation. Picasso Painting with Light at the Madoura Pottery 1949 . and became a great subject for me. The chapters of this book present 90 different artists' ways of seeing. Once there. To these I have added my own drawings to explain elementary materials and techniques and offer introductory approaches. threedimensionally. Picasso has just finished his drawing. 150). the path is yours.
2002 Tantalus o r The Future of Man 81/2 x61/4in (215 x 158 mm) ROSE MILLER . catalogs. a n d r e f e r e n c e b o o k s f o u n d in s e c o n d . H o w e v e r r i n g bindings o f t e n break. 2. BLACK P O C K E T B O O K S : Hand-sized w i t h ready-made elastic binder and a marker ribbon. y o u n e e d a lifetime. stitched. Calculate a range of useful dimensions and have several cut at once. They can be very expensive in art stores. 6. which are also sold in an enormous range. It is also useful to own a portfolio.h a n d s t o r e s make unique subjects f o r e x p e r i m e n t s a n d collage.b o u n d b o o k s t h a t fit in y o u r p o c k e t o r bag. a n d crayons.b o u n d b o o k w i l l s o o n s h o w y o u h o w it is m a d e . cheap corrugated plastic ones fall apart in days. F O U N D B O O K S : O l d p r i n t e d 3 . binding. T h e hardb o a r d j a c k e t is s t r e t c h e d w i t h canvas beneath t h e p a p e r sleeve. 5. F o r traveling. and collage their ideas. c h o o s e s m a l l e r h a r d . Gleaming store purchases vary greatly in format. There are dozens to choose from. F o r e v e n i n g classes. C A N V A S . thickness. thick enough not to flex. t h i s is h o w I l e a r n e d .b o u n d p a d if y o u w i s h t o keep your drawings together long-term. Alternatively. Drawing boards are invaluable. Art students often make use of printed books picked up from secondhand stores into which they draw. and glued t o a s t r i p o f bias binding. is perfect. pastels. You simply need two strong boards hinged together well. c o l o r If planning t o use pencils. c h o o s e larger f o r m a t s t o give y o u s c o p e f o r e x p e r i m e n t . b e a w a r e t h a t p a p e r t e x t u r e effects a n d changes t h e i r marks. texture. A high-quality one will last a DRAWING BOOKS Select d r a w i n g b o o k s t o suit y o u r aims. drawing book. C O L O R E D PAPERS: Large a r t supply stores o f t e n sell t h i c k b o o k s full o f c o l o r e d p a p e r s . study the structure of a good portfolio and make your own. 4. Dissecting a d i s c a r d e d h a r d .q u a l i t y r i n g . Sand the edges to avoid splinters. t h e i r jackets w i l l a c t like d r a w i n g b o a r d s a n d p r o t e c t y o u r w o r k . H O M E M A D E : I m a d e this b o o k f r o m drawing paper that I folded. Most contain thin p a p e r and are perfect f o r use w i t h disposable pens. quality. Purchase a h i g h . it is better to have them made at a lumber yard or home improvement store. and cost. R I N G . Homemade books can be assembled easily from found materials or selections of loose sheet papers. If you intend to carry your boards for a distance. Smooth plywood. color.C O V E R E D H A R D B O U N D : Ideal f o r c a r r y i n g a r o u n d . cut. N o t e t h e w i d e l y differing c h o i c e o f p a p e r s w i t h w h i c h t h e s e are m a d e .B O U N D PADS: T h e s e are t h e least expensive a n d useful f o r o p e n i n g flat. a l e n g t h o f black elastic t i e d a r o u n d t h e m i d d l e will h o l d the contents together w h e n y o u f o l d in c o l l e c t e d items. be sure they fit comfortably under your arm. Many artists invent ways o f binding their o w n books. and handles to lift the weight of your artworks. 1. These are perfect f o r w o r k i n g in novels.20 INTRODUCTION Drawing Books and Papers T o BEGIN YOUR EXPLORATION o f d r a w i n g . ties on either side to keep your papers in place.
T W O RIVERS GREEN 410G MS: Very heavy tinted textured cold-pressed watercolor paper See Two Rivers Yellow. AQUARELLE ARCHES 300GMS:The very top quality hot-pressed (smooth) watercolor paper. or machine made in sheets. cold. blocks. smooth. size. 7. white textured paper that can take abrasive use of any medium. 15. 16. used to imprint lines of these colors onto a surface. T W O RIVERS Y E L L O W 410GMS: See Two Rivers Green 19.Papers differ in thickness (weight). it is made from rice. from pencil to paint 9. 18. 100% cotton and sold in sheets. also good for drawing with colored pencils. yellow.TISSUE PAPER: Place sheets between drawing book pages to keep images from printing on each other and use for delicate collage. It is also excellent for drawing with marker pens on layered sheets. turning brown and brittle. Use cheap paper for rough ideas and quality paper for work to last See the glossary ( p p . FABRIANO R O U G H 600GMS: Very heavy. red. and cost. 10. 14. bamboo. For use with any media. VELIN ARCHES 250GMS: Printmaking paper available in black white. It is available in white or cream. and translucent. 22. resisting deterioration. SAUNDERS WATERFORD N O T 300GMS: Mid-quality textured watercolor paper. METALLIC PAPER: Thin paper in different metallic colors. tough. and hot pressed papers. 11. not. 20. C A N S O N : Inexpensive lightweight pastel paper in many colors. Cheap wood-pulp papers are acidic. printed on one side only. absorbency. Use for brushwork drawings. Ph. and white. and other plant fibers. PAPERS . GLASSINE: Sold as protective wrapping. texture. MAGIC PAPER: A reusable sheet for testing ideas without creating waste. color.5 9 ) for explanations of rough. FABRIANO INGRES: Thin. JAPANESE PAPER: Strong. ITALIAN PARCHMENT: Imitation-animal-skin parchment that is translucent and slightly waxy. blocks. 13. fine. They are hand-. mold-. and rolls. FABRIANO ACADEMIA: Standard medium-range multipurpose paper Use with any media. Use with a brush in clean water Water makes a dark mark like ink and becomes invisible again when dry. 2 5 6 . or rolls. 12. C A R B O N PAPER: Available in dark and light blue. 17. and cream sheets or rolls. Cotton papers are high-quality and acid-free. 21. pastel paper in flecked pastel colors with a distinctive ribbed marking. 8. mulberry.
you Drawing classes can be cramped places. place it on your right. place it on the correct side: if right-handed. body. a n d h a n d to the fingertips. If your hand twists to maneuver between the paper and your body. place it on your left. Turning your drawing sideways or upside-own will also help reveal what is wrong. arm. How you hold your drawing materials is also important. a n d look to the left of it at your subject. your drawing will reflect this. SPACE TO WORK Cramped grip. . or with your drawing board angled between your lap and a chair. 116-17). If your body posture is well balanced and you can move freely. In this book we will look at parallels between drawing and music. This cramped grip tires your hand and makes small. Accelerated perspective also occurs if you look down the surface steeply (see pp. your lines will distort. your whole relaxed b o d y should be involved. but you need to understand that the expression of a line or mark originates in the body and flows t h r o u g h the shoulder. Ideally. This photograph illustrates how some people hold a pen to write. if left-handed. If using an upright easel. and look to the right.22 INTRODUCTION Posture and Grip T o DRAW WELL. should be able to look comfortably straight ahead at your picture plane. With your hand in this position. and subject. b u t it should n o t be forgotten that many people make remarkable a n d striking works drawing with their feet or holding their brush or pencil in their mouths. If seated on a b e n c h easel (a donkey). you can draw lines freely and achieve a significant arc of movement. There should be an open. It will also reflect discomfort if you are in any way cramped. You cannot draw like this—your hand is locked and your fingers can barely move. Examples are shown here. Use the side of your little fingernail as a support on the page. Regularly step back 6-9 ft (2-3 m) to check your progress. strangledlooking drawings. From a distance you will spot errors you cannot see close up. You do not have to dance to draw. but wherever possible. flowing space between your hand. don't sit too close to the paper. Relaxed fingers: Hold the pencil away from its tip and relax your fingers. make sure you have enough room to back away and view your work. There are also parallels to dance. Placing your easel o n the w r o n g side folds y o u r b o d y against your drawing arm.
But be careful not to tense your fingers. Brush calligraphy: This comfortable. alternative way of holding the pencil. To stop this. not up to the paper Brushes can be used on upright paper but dip Anticipating effects: A fully loaded pens need a level surface. depending upon what it is and how large you are working. arm. brush pressed against an upright surface will cause a dribble of ink to run down your drawing. or change to the wrong hand. Remember you can also draw just by dipping your fingers in pigment—this is how many women draw in rural India.23 This loose "candle" grip is very useful when drawing with your arm extended. roughly marking out a large-scale work. or it can spoil your work if not anticipated. This can give a new lease on life to your mark-making. If you turn a brush or dip pen up into the air to draw above your hand. Large amounts of ink can be applied without fear of uncontrolled running if the paper is flat. Large scale: POSTURE AND GRIP U n f a m i l i a r i t y : T h e habitual movements of our handwriting style will sometimes infringe upon our drawing. upright way of holding the brush near its base is similar to the Japanese way used in Zen calligraphy (see pp. It is most comfortable when reaching to draw above your head. liquid will run down your hand. hold your material as you find most comfortable. Soft media: Short materials such as pastels and charcoal can be accommodated in the palm. GRAVITY Remember that gravity affects the flow of ink and paint. As long as your fingers. This can be used to great effect.232-33). . and body are not restricted. find an unfamiliar. ALL MEDIA There are no rules as to how you should hold your drawing media.
W e have drawn them in m a n u s c r i p t s to explain our genesis and to c o u n t their species into Noah's ark. As children we delight in the humanized trials of Tom and Jerry and their c a r t o o n relations. sleeping dogs. In medieval England. to be there at the m o m e n t of discovery. who described in words what White drew. Framed in the z o o or in domestic cohabitation. JOHN WHITE British artist. werewolves. out are now oxidized and so appear black W h e n less preoccupied with understanding ourselves. After the subject of ourselves. 11 x91/4in (277 x 234 mm) . and pioneer born c. and learn how to Flying Fish c.Animals H UMANS HAVE DRAWN ANIMALS from the beginning of our time.. and we still see escapees from its pages carved and grinning as the gargoyles of churches. floating turtles.. their different speeds and patterns of action. In 19th-century Europe this became a "science. On the Roanoke voyages of Sir Walter Raleigh. Here (left) we see J o h n White's exquisite record of a flying fish.m o u n t e d skeletons of birds. For the novice artist. m u s e u m . and silent. the Latin bestiary was one of the most popular picture books—an illustrated dictionary of one hundred parts. we have employed artists on expeditions.drawe to lief one of each kinde of thing that is strange to us in England. We have drawn them on the walls of caves to evoke their kinship and power. " Animals perpetually feed our imaginations. each dedicated to the moralized tale of an animal or monster The bestiary profoundly influenced the art of its period. fish. Europeans on board had never seen such a thing. bats. and this very drawing was to endure many copies and plagiarisms after its triumphant return to the English court of Queen Elizabeth I. which very likely leaped o n t o the deck of Sir Walter Raleigh's ship Tiger as it sailed north from the Caribbean to Virginia in 1585. 1590 J O H N WHITE capture form and movement from the m a n n e r i s m s of honking geese. and people. and to bring h o m e drawn documentaries of their finds. offer challenges and delights to draw. we turn and take the features of beasts. In this chapter we discover the use of pens and ink through the delineation of insects. plants. and dragons. insects. animals provide a perfect subject with which to begin. cartographer. or scampering through the initials and borders of pictures from that time." Paranoid newcomers c r a m m e d into swelling industrial cities used handbooks of physiognomy to identify and judge their neighbors. 1540. W h e n lost to explain our own emotions. Facial features were analyzed in terms of their animal likeness. mermaids." He worked with the scientist Thomas Harriot. they are perhaps our favorite pictorial preoccupation. from which personality and predicted behavior were " d e d u c e d . O v e r the centuries. This drawing is made in black lead (metal point) with watercolor Highlights of silver would have gleamed. White's commission was to ". Together they made maps and documented animals. birds. and snakes have between them engendered harpies. which are so unlike ours. dogs.
26 ANIMALS Documentaries horse are superb affirmations of the power of drawing as a recorder and communicator of knowledge. Stubbs's Anatomy of the Horse achieved similar documentary status. He studied the image and drew his own interpretation. they were rejected. It is such a lifelike triumph of imagination and intelligence that for centuries zoologists never questioned its authority. Unsurpassed. writer. filled journals with ideas and observations. inspiring countless works of art and so touching people's imaginations that later. but the drowned animal washed ashore. the home of ALBRECHT DURER German Renaissance painter. Durer's image changed eager hands until it was known across Europe. Meanwhile. Contemporary texts related accounts of the beast as the mortal enemy of the elephant and rare relative of the "more common" unicorn. printmaker. He in turn sent the mysterious creature to the Pope via Marseilles at the request of the King of France. and wrote four books on proportion. it continued its journey to Rome. Life-like This is Durer's original quill-and-ink drawing made after an anonymous Portuguese drawing. years after its publication. Converted into a print. it is still consulted by veterinarians today. Sailing to Rome. the ship was lost. Original Ink Drawing of a Rhinoceros 1515 ALBRECHT DURER 103/4 x 161/2 in ( 2 7 4 x 4 2 0 mm) . a gift to the Portuguese King. The first live rhinoceros to reach Europe came from India in May 1515. draftsman. DURER'S RHINOCEROS AND STUBBS'S skeletal Durer. a drawing of it arrived in Nuremberg. when more accurate portrayals were made without armor and scales. Carefully stuffed. and mathematician. It was to become the animal's only accepted likeness for 250 years. Durer traveled widely to study at different European schools of art. naturalist.
composed from notes and observations. He translated his own drawings into engravings for publication. naturalist. He composed makes each horse appear so real and each plate from his three-dimensional. This is one of Stubbs' original finished pencil drawings. Lighting Stubbs's breathtaking international work won immediate There acclaim. Dissections were made over a total of 18 months. in t h r e e v i e w s — r e a r f r o n t . His painted p o r t r a i t o f t h e b e a s t is in t h e R o y a l C o l l e g e o f S u r g e o n s o f England. Anatomy of the Horse. L o n d o n . which has never diminished. and therefore invented the lighting that Compare how Stubbs and Durer both invented lighting to portray the reality of their animals. Dissections Stubbs took his knife and his pencil and physically climbed inside the horse. Stubbs w a s o n e o f t h e first E u r o p e a n artists t o m a k e a n a c c u r a t e representation o f the rhinoceros. is no other work like it. a n d anatomist. knowledge of parts. The entire project was developed over ten years. a n d s i d e . Table of the III of the Horse (rear Skeleton view) mm) 1756-58 1 4 x 7 in ( 3 5 4 x 1 8 0 GEORGE STUBBS .GEORGE STUBBS B r i t i s h e q u i n e a n d s o c i e t y p o r t r a i t painter. Stubbs's m o s t c e l e b r a t e d publication. dissecting and drawing until he understood the mechanisms of its power and grace. c o m p r i s e s 1 8 p l a t e s s h o w i n g d i s s e c t i o n s in l a y e r s f r o m b o n e t h r o u g h m u s c u l a t u r e t o skin.
her sharp teeth. playwright. and all sorts of bizarre concoctions which manage to convey above all in mind. The octopus is formed in layers applied and distressed with a brush. Hugo's page is f l o o d e d w i t h the fearful presence of a remembered octopus.. Mixed media Here. snarl. Gericault took a sharp p e n c i l to m a k e repeated direct o b s e r v a t i o n s f r o m life. and turn. He has w a t c h e d her p o u n c e .. saying ". By contrast. H u g o mixed his media and drew from m e m o r y and imagination to create narrative atmosphere. Hugo's novels Les Miserables and Dame have become classics of film and stage. conjured b y the hand of a great author of French literary fiction. the ominous beast unwinds from the dark of the sea and of our nightmares.". The Hunchback of Notre Layers and shadows Throughout this drawing. coal dust.. Apparently drawn in its o w n ink. and leader of the French Romantic movement. novelist.28 ANIMALS Presence and Mood THESE DRAWINGS HAVE BEEN CHOSEN to s h o w t w o v e r y different ways of picturing a wild animal. her b o n y frame. and a love of accident. sepia. more or less what I have in view. and her distinctive temperament. and Pieuvre 1866-69 91/2 x81/8in (242 x 207 mm) VICTOR H U G O . Hugo used graphite powder. A s if disturbed from its gritty b e d by our presence and curiosity.. VICTOR HUGO Poet. drawing her again and again to pin d o w n the texture of her loose skin. it silently rises to the light. ink and linseed oil on paper. I've ended up mixing in pencil. He wrote to poet and art critic Charles-Pierre Baudelaire about his experiments. soot. linseed oil soaked into the paper has made shadows and repelled the ink to create translucent tentacles. drama. His copious drawings are characterized by mixed media. Surrounding sprays of graphite powder are stuck into washes of oil and ink to suggest glutinous depths. Gericault's sheet a p p e a r s almost s c r a t c h e d b y the f e r o c i o u s play of his cat. charcoal.
facing right. fiery. of previous Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 1817-18 121/2 x 151/2 in ( 3 1 9 x 3 9 8 mm) T H E O D O R E GERICAULT . of drawings Gericault erased. since it can lead to a flattened form. At the center of the page is crammed drawings the outline of a horse. Before paper became so cheap. Here.29 THEODORE GERICAULT C o n t r o v e r s i a l . The Raft of the Medusa. Beginners are advised to follow the natural contours of form as shown on pp. parallel. horses w e r e a favorite subject t o g e t h e r w i t h politics and history. Undertraces Beneath these graphite studies we see traces Tones On the top row we see clearly how Gericault laid broad areas of tone using fast. and keep trying again. artists reused sheets and them full of studies. displayed in the Louvre. H e is best k n o w n f o r his gigantic painting. Paris. 124-25 and p.l i v e d French R o m a n t i c painter and lithographer Largely self-taught.118-119). and it can be applied to any subject (see pp. Repeated study This drawing demonstrates of feeling confident repeat different the importance subject Remaining enough to isolate parts of a views. s h o r t . 144. focused upon seeing will lead to a greater understanding of the subject Much is learned from repeated study. undertraces unify and vitalize the composition. Tones that do not follow surface contour is very difficult to do well. diagonal strokes of his pencil. standing sideways.
Ink and gouache This drawing is made in black Chinese ink and gouache (opaque watercolor) applied with a brush. noise is everywhere. printmaker ceramicist graphic and stage designer who lived in France. the first abstract movement of the 20th century. His powdery. taking them to guide their hand in bringing form and essence together. Cheval et Oiseau 1936 173/8 x 211/4 in ( 4 4 0 x 5 4 0 m m ) PABLO PICASSO . In Picasso's drawing. the whinnying of a frantic horse. Both Picasso and Klee have enclosed their subjects to compress and amplify the speed of PABLO PICASSO A prolific Spanish painter sculptor. and waves breaking distantly below. These media complement and amplify each other with their brilliant contrast. The ink is used to make sharply defined solid. overwhelmed by a screeching bird. The fact that they never stand still influences the movement in his line. Gouache is brushed softly in translucent hazy layers of cool blue. His hand must have shuddered and twitched just like the constant actions of this humorous meeting. with George Braque (see p90). draftsman. flattened animals composed almost entirely of movement. Faune. identify an animal: the fast cheetah. gray. dissolving faun kneels stranded. made only a year apart. hooked. quivering horse. Klee's riders are constructed from all the gestures of greeting mules. and brown. or proud. slow tortoise. flapping bird. Artists commonly focus on such actions. Picasso cofounded Cubism. In these two drawings.30 ANIMALS Movement M O V E M E N T IS OFTEN THE CHARACTERISTIC b y w h i c h w e their lines and the power of their beasts. we see semi-abstract. and scrolled lines.
top all happily of each other in the Endless lines Look closely at how Klee's lines rarely leave the paper and how they are free from the constraint of finite shape. and t e a c h e r at t h e Bauhaus school. W i t h his drawings Kleeb o u n d sophisticated theories to personal and often witty childlike imagery. N e u m a n n Family Collection. printmaker. Layers of marks In this pale Dentil drawing we see layers of' agitated marks that together present a kind of visual "itch. violinist. They remain in contact with the surface of the page and scribble back and forth as they maneuver from one area to another. turning our eye and around inside the and postures of the paper- thin on pictorial space. well-worn copies o f w h i c h are found in m a n y art schools. sculptor. The entire drawing suggests the endless small movements of horses standing still. He is a u t h o r o f The Thinking Eye (1923). Scene der Komischen of Comical Reiter Riders) (Scene 1935 161/2x111/2in ( 4 1 9 x 2 9 1 mm) M o r t o n G . draftsman." They chatter around bodies in groups. Chicago PAUL KLEE . creatures.PAUL KLEE Swiss painter.
which in application gave strength and advantage to the English fighting the Spanish Armada. This drawing illustrates Baker's theory. b a s e d o n his studies o f fish. The fish It is likely that Baker drew with a quill dipped in irongall ink. Baker did not intend this. The ship The upper decks of the ship appear curved toward us at both ends. and author o f Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (1586). It is simply how we read his perspective. later called a galleon. In contrast to the practical clarity of Baker's thought. and to assess our next move. and from them learned that if he designed his ship with a "cod's head MATTHEW BAKER Master shipwright. Exquisite details in this drawing include the lips of the fish. He studied the anatomy of fish. B a k e r initiated t h e scientific p r a c t i c e o f naval a r c h i t e c t u r e and applied h y d r o d y n a m i c s . adding washes of color with a fine brush. Below we see his revolutionary design for an Elizabethan warship. His birds stare. mathematician.32 ANIMALS Icon and Design IN THESE T W O MANUSCRIPTS we discover diagrammatic and mackerel's tail" (full bow. and blackbirds fly in formation through a mosaic of text. and the carefully observed gills. t h e earliest geometrically defined elevations. In just one drawing he has displayed more angles of his design than we would expect to see from a single viewpoint Fragments English 1586 101/2 x 153/8 in (270 x 390 mm) MATTHEW BAKER of Ancient Shipwrightry . it would achieve greater speed. fins. and scales. Baker lived in an era when ships were built without drawn plans. Knopf's drawing opposite is the personal enigmatic expression of a mind gripped by illness. the expression of its eye. balance. seemingly looking for our attention. and steerage. and s e c t i o n s o f ships. plans. slim stern). drawings of animals that are each held tightly in a surprising space: a giant fish wears a ship's hull.
firmly outlined. and filled evenly with tone.K n o p f b e l i e v e d h e c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h e language o f birds. JOHANN KNOPF . T h e G e r m a n a r t historian Outline and tone The blackbirds illuminating this frantic manuscript are drawn in pencil. circle and the birds.JOHANN KNOPF An " O u t s i d e r " a r t i s t w h o s u f f e r e d f r o m m e n t a l illness. appears to be stirred like water by the presence of the The Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks UNDATED 133/8 x 115/8 in (340 x 2 9 6 mm) and psychiatrist Hans Prinzhom collected this image. The main group is placed in a circle drawn with a compass. w h i c h o f t e n f e a t u r e as s y m b o l i c creatures in his drawings. written last of all. numbered. The text.
Today. Quills were later cut from feathers. Masters choose brands of long. and it is still in use today. Responsive to slight changes in pressure. The Chinese used animal or fish glue. and first used by the Egyptians. Dip pens began their history in the Nile River. where reeds were gathered. a n d m e t a l p o i n t s . The best are goose or swan. light it. The paste from either recipe is pressed and dried into a bar for storage. METAL PENS: Inexpensive removable steel nibs are available in a range of widths. Avoid needle-sharp mapping pens. 2. they are associated with rapid. REED PENS: A broad nib can be cut from bamboo or another tubular grass. you can have great fun drawing the world around you. Only fill with suitable inks. from the acacia tree. which scratch rather than draw. F O U N T A I N PENS: These vary in quality and nib width. Intricate or dramatic lines. spots. distinguished manufacture. QUILLS: These are cut from the barrel of a flight or tail feather. s t i c k s . PENS . and hold it under a clean basin until the soot hangs to it.246-47). 3. while metal nibs began as rare gifts in gold and silver before being perfected by the British steel industry. expressive drawing techniques such as the ones we explore in this chapter 1. Each pen has a unique character. That is an ink. Early artists recommended raven and crow for especially fine work. ink is traditionally applied with a brush (see pp. The Egyptians and Chinese are credited with the invention of carbon ink. They fit into wooden holders.34 ANIMALS Pen and Ink W I T H A HANDFUL OF FEATHERS. 5 0 0 years ago. and spatters can be made with an exotic choice of inks. then pour a little warm gum water into it and temper the two together. simultaneously 4 . high-quality Chinese and Japanese inks are subtler and more complex than those produced in Europe. In the Far East. which range greatly in their handling and character of line. The reservoir gives a constant flow of ink for very long unbroken lines and continuous bottle-free use. producing a different line. 4. the recipes for which have been handed down over centuries. A German recipe of 1531 gives a simple description: "Take a wax candle." "Gum" refers to gum arabic extracted Dip pens are essential and inexpensive drawing tools. The bar is then rubbed into water on a slate block to produce ink.
reduced. I R O N . dated. and sieved. Crushed. an often misused term. and sepia. from are not 6. and can be mixed and diluted to create subtler colors and tones. Non-waterproof Indian inks can be reworked with a wet brush after drying. Excellent for drawing they are bright and non-clogging. 8. C A R B O N INK: Traditionally produced from oil or resin soot (Lamp Black). Beechwood soot is best. is the ink of a cuttlefish or squid extracted post-mortem. waterproof or non-waterproof. charred bone (Ivory Black). The complexities of traditional iron-gall ink are explained on p. and most can be homemade. Bistre is the more humane use of soot scraped from the fireplace and ground into wine. INKS 9. boiled. . they produce a golden dye for drawing.G A L L INK: Abnormal spherical growths caused by parasitic wasps can be collected from some oak trees in fall. roastedwine sediment (Yeast Black). Old stock turns solid and bottlesChina. suspended in a binder and stored as a solid block Blocks are imported today 7. iron-gall. I N D I A N INK: Carbon ink sold today in liquid form. They are the easiest inks to use. ACRYLIC / CALLIGRAPHY INKS: Available in black and a range of colors. Waterproof types contain shellac. Inks can be lightfast or non-lightfast. 5. bistre. and are still in use today: carbon (Chinese and Indian). SEPIA A N D BISTRE INKS: Sepia.35 PEN AND INK Four types of ink were common before the 20th century. Now we also have acrylic ranges in many colors.36. It dries with a sheen and clogs uncleaned pens. or charcoal.
Quills are also called D u t c h pens. are surprisingly tough. giving longer lines. the blade and cut away from you. and delicious to draw with. 2 4 4 is an e x q u i s i t e e x a m p l e . a n d M a t i s s e also e n j o y e d t h e m . can also be collected from affected trees. giving a s h o r t . always be cautious when experimenting with recipes. sieved. Practice to gain a feel for how materials behave. a n d d e v e l o p e d t h e quill instead. The lighter right Quill marks Quills carry more ink than strokes and for as reeds. since t h e D u t c h w e r e t h e first t o realize t h a t they could be hardened and i m p r o v e d w i t h heat t r e a t m e n t in ash o r sand. M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s d r a g o n o n p . fleshy skins that surround ripe walnuts. U n d e r heavy pressure. .) You can make ink easily from the boiled. forming the REED PENS R e e dpens dispense ink quickly. V a n G o g h . galls were ground with iron sulfate to make an unstable solution. The darkest of this grasshopper wings) were made (around the head first. of a loaded nib. Paler strokes were made where the mark has the legs and antennae the ink ran out. Walnut ink is gloopy. T h e y give a finer. then cut a final nib (feathers. appears broken to show paper beneath. m o r e e x t e n d e d line than reed and a m o r e organic line t h a n m e t a l . It dried black. for example. finding reed p e n s unwieldy. Running fresh. and boiled to make a golden ink. Although oak galls and walnut skins are harmless. It also oxidized and ate or burned paper. t h e y stick a n d j u d d e r f o r w a r d . Some of Michelangelo's drawings are now a little eaten by their own ink. d r y mark. I u s e d t h e s e qualities t o d r a w t h e w o r m s above. Collect skins from the ground beneath trees once they are blackened. QUILL PENS Q u i l l s a r e highly r e s p o n s i v e t o c h a n g e s in p r e s s u r e . Rembrandt. r e s e r v e d t h e i r use f o r large c h o i r b o o k s . Reed marks The darker left wing of this beetle was drawn with the wet inky stroke wing. reduced. red-brown. and turned brown with time. it was gray-purple. crushed. Oak galls.36 ANIMALS Drawing With Ink To MAKE A QUILL OR REED PEN. drawn to glisten with a dryer nib. For centuries. Scribes o f t h e M i d d l e Ages. keep all your fingers behind basis of iron-gall ink.
. it is important to feel for when the ink will run out and to know how much ink you pick up when dipping the nib. o r being ruined as fountain pens would be under the same pressure. The of pigment to fall to the edges effect of the shape. particles then filled with a droplet of ink. marks become fine and needle-sharp. DRAWING WITH INK Filled outlines Each segment of wing was outlined. Each layer of of the drying droplet dome the drawing was left to dry before adding more. W h e n the nib is pressed upside down.37 METAL PENS Metal pens give long. Loaded with ink and pressed hard. they splay to make thick o r double lines. breaking. White markings were drawn last Tones Here we see subtle tones of diluted ink beneath the undiluted black rim of a beetle's wing. When using dip pens. withstanding great pressure without sticking. clean strokes. giving a graded. tonal Ink layers The wings of this beetle were drawn in layers using black and white ink on pale gray paper. sharp.
Quick drawing trains you to see what is most important about a subject and to mark only its most essential expression. Cover your drawing book pages in speedy responses to the geese and try to capture each bird in as few lines as possible. draw what the bird is doing. Take no more than ten seconds to draw each one and make lots of drawings. touch the bottle's rim to drain the excess. Empathize. I covered eleven sheets in sixty quick drawings—in less than an hour. Watch their heavy feathered bodies flap. Study them before drawing. Dip your pen in ink. Focus on it. there is no obligation to prepare a quill. not on your drawing. and a large drawing book or plenty of paper Use masking tape to secure pages against the wind. Cover a sheet. test your limits. It teaches confidence and focus through intensive repetition. Illustrating this exercise on Oxford Port Meadow. Take a cup and water for diluting a range of tones. You cannot break the nib. make another one. and quickly draw around it using only three or four strokes. steel nibs are fine. Experiment. MATERIALS NEEDED Look for a bird expressing a simple posture. It happens that goose feathers also provide artists with the best type of quills. That said. and there is no "wrong. so pick a spot where other people can keep them entertained." If you don't like a stroke. be bold and press firmly. Focus on the geese. to absorb blots when drawing. Attempt with a loose hand to capture their posture and outline.38 ANIMALS Capturing Character GEESE ARE EXCELLENT SUBJECTS to draw when practicing the first use of pen and ink. and bellyflop off the waterside. Pack plenty of tissue around a bottle of calligraphy or acrylic ink. Posture . and boldly plunge into your drawing. Try to hold the whole posture in your mind's eye. Geese are nosy birds. and be brave. waddle.
39 Action With growing confidence. running. Again. Use more lines than before to express these. . flapping. CAPTURING CHARACTER Texture Gradually allow yourself more lines to describe the texture of each bird as well as its posture and action. Avoid detail unless really tempted by a close-up visit Fluctuate the pressure of your pen in response to how you know the bird would feel if you touched it. and don't worry about mechanical facts or accuracy. draw the feeling of what you see. look among the birds for more complicated actions such as shaking off water. and diving.
a dip pen and ink of your choice (see pp. Now it will make a pale line. Ras Curled Up Asleep "Capturing the true character of a cherished companion is best achieved with objective determination rather than sentimental shyness.40 ANIMALS Sleeping Dogs R A S WAS A GREAT CHARACTER. engaged in his and everyone else's business. form. and even then he twitched and stretched in dreams. and drain the excess by touching the nib against the rim of the bottle. These drawings are not an analysis of his anatomy or breed but the expression of his satisfied comfort in a deep sleep after a night out on the together with a glass of water for diluting tones on the nib. The only time he remained still was when he was sleeping. a d o g w h o w a s a l w a y s town." . For this class you will need one oblivious dog. first dip your pen in ink. Sleeping animals present the artist with ideal opportunities to study their texture. This will give a medium-gray line. Then dip the nib quickly into a glass of water and drain the excess again. and personality. Make a test sheet to discover your control of diluting on the nib. and a tissue for blotting drawn lines that appear too dark. MAKING A PALE LINE To make a pale line.34-37). your drawing book. Dip the nib quickly again into water and again drain it.
ignoring all detail. Then. Layers o f thoughts can bring a drawing alive. Trust your intuition. in bold layers. this time to create a line a little darker in tone. second thoughts may be different Changing your mind is a positive aspect o f seeing and thinking. D o not go back over lines you are pleased with—doing so dulls their lively freshness. see how the animal's posture determines its whole shape. Then I immediately rebalanced the drawing with lines around his hind quarters. 2 Reload your pen with ink. Here I marked the features of Ras's head. To add texture. quickly draw what you see. alter the pressure and moisture of your line in response to howyouknow your dog feels when you ruffle itscoat.41 DRAWING YOUR DOG Be bold in this exercise. . tail. ears. First lines are first thoughts. Remain focused on the whole dog and. to emphasize how he is curled up. c o n c e r n e d a b o u t detail. SLEEPING DOGS 1 Fix your eyes at the center of the dog. and the shadows in his coat. I added ink to Ras's nose. W i t h pale lies. Character is better captured drawing quickly with confidence than w o r k i n g slowly. add more detail.It is essential when drawing any subject (even something abstract) to know how it feels andtoemulate this with your line. Here. 3 Gradually introduce darker tones.
A perfect subject for the beginner. turtles often pause unexpectedly. they stretch and paddle. Beyond the glass wall of the aquarium. swinging their limbs and shells with a slow circular movement. offering plenty of time for the artist to draw the pose.Turtles to observe. THE ELONGATION AND BUOYANCY of a group of turtles is fascinating . as if caught in a camera freeze-frame.
weightlessness of the kiwi. and sharp. India ink. I made repeated studies of the housemartin to discover its mechanism of flight. balance. and water. I darkened lines as each drawing progressed. With speed. Beginning with very pale tones.Dry Birds THESE ARE THE ARTICULATED BONES o f a k i w i a n d a h o u s e - martin drawn in a museum using a steel pen. . dry. I sought to capture the form.
From its history there is one overriding lesson to be learned: the importance of looking and seeing with our own eyes. and beauty. Plants are the principal inspiration of the decorative arts—from Roman Corinthian columns crowned with carved leaves of the acanthus. as opposed to only herbal. and diverse kingdom of plants. we now have laid before us fourto show how well their colours complement each other infinite wealth of material to explore. Both embrace the anticipation of evolving shape. Patrons funded the breeding of decorative. color. 1613 187/8x153/4in(480 x 400 mm) BASILIUS BESLER . robust. and the Acanthus spinosus constant but exhilarating struggle to make a living image feel right. Later. and to ornament our lives. season. The revolution came in the 1530s. Fledgling years Botanist and apothecary who compiled the Hortus Eystettensis of scientific research bore manifold explosions of knowledge in a fever of discovery. —-the largest and most influential botanical book of the early Natural scientists accompanied explorers to document unknown finds. Classifications were set in367copperengravings. form. and hybridize them for our sustenance and pleasure. In this chapter.000 species of plants are depicted life-size drawn. to catalog our knowledge. manipulations of light and shade. the microscope was refined to unfold yet another world. After Here Aconthus spinosus is combined with forget-me-nots and-a-half centuries of intensive observation. to the proliferation of floral designs with which we have dressed ourselves and furnished our homes for centuries. the punctuation of space with structure and mass. and focus. infinitely vivid. Medieval knowledge was not gained by the first-hand observation of life but by reading. B A S I L I U SBESLER when botanists founded new work upon the direct study of plants. Chapters are arranged by out. It was published plain in 1611 and withhand-paintedplates in poured off ships returning from the New World and were eagerly collected and 1613. Conrad von Gemmingen. on which our lives depend. He sent boxes of plants to Nuremburgburned with the urgency and excitement of explaining every plant's form. and the drawn pages ofthesame name. we see very different cultural visions of plants and gardens and use pencils and plants to learn the pictorial values of space. We draw them to celebrate their beauty and range. Early European illustrators were trapped within dogma that was determined by ancient scholarship. where a number of uncredited artistsd r e wthem for Besler. shape. and texture. Botanic gardens were established and expanded. PriceBishopof Eichstatt specimens.Plants and Gardens W E SHARE THIS PLANET with the more ancient. nurture. We collect. Rich owners of private gardens commissioned large-format florilegiums commissioned the volume to document his private garden to immortalize their personal taste and power of acquisition. an There are close parallels between the acts of gardening and drawing. Plants seventeenth century. Botanical illustration is a precisely defined and scientific art.Morethan 1.
leaves. It is likely Bauer would have studied these under a microscope." Her slipper orchid s h o w s that botanical drawing must often resolve the challenge of its subject's p r o d u c i n g parts in different seasons — r o o t s . Here. fruit. Dissections Across the lower part of this drawing we can see dissections of seed pods and petals. and seeds conventionally a p p e a r o n o n e plate. The King was then establishing the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. o p e n i n g a n d c l o s i n g i n the w a r m t h a n d light of the studio. Each plant must b e clearly distinguished from its closest relative.48 PLANTS AND GARDENS THE SCIENTIFIC VALUE OF A BOTANICAL DRAWING lies i n its Botanical Studies were specimens that often refused to stay still. Light in this drawing is given by the paleness of the paper showing between washes of darker tones. and wilted. o p t i m i s m . Botanical art c o n c e a l s the challenge of its m a k i n g . M a c k i n t o s h e x p r e s s e s the f o l d e d petals of a broken rose b u d so delicately w e can sense the perfume. and Franz Bauer and his brother Ferdinand were employed there to draw specimens. He has made the spatial and physical relationships in this drawing all the more real by placing a single. B e h i n d detailed. Sir Joseph Banks. petal tip over a lower leaf Protea nitida 201/4 x141/4in (513 x 362 mm) FRANZ BAUER 1796 . measured drawings. s u c h as w e see here in Bauer's Protea nitida. delicate. Stella Ross-Craig said of the need to d r a w from a dried herbarium plant "I could make it live again. and meticulous precision. W i t h bright F R A N Z BAUER An Austrian artist who trained at the Schonbrunn Imperial Gardens in Vienna. detail. Outline Bauer prepared a pencil outline before laying in fleshy succulent hues and tones of watercolor. insect-ravaged. or that were diseased. flowers. subtle union of beauty. T h e rest of u s are free to d r a w as w e w i s h . stems. naturalist explorer and advisor to King George III invited Bauer to London in 1 7 9 0 . They are counted among the most accomplished 18th-century botanical artists.
imagination. Rose 1894 103/4 x 83/4 in ( 2 7 5 x 2 2 1 mm) CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH STELLA ROSS-CRAIG A j o i n e d t h e staff a t t h e R o y a l B o t a n i c G a r d e n s .000 Kew to archive accessible t o d a y v i a t h e I n t e r n e t of o n British flora. and it shows how design. Ross-Craig said of her work "Plants that wither rapidly present a very difficult problem to which there is only one answer—speed. G u s t a v K l i m t In his r e t i r e m e n t Mackintosh m a d e n u m e r o u s inventive pencil a n d w a t e r c o l o r d r a w i n g s o f plants. sensual pencil drawing is later works. it is small and discreet. Pencil lines cling to. L o n d o n in 1 9 2 9 . a n d he inspired." This line drawing is one of 1. as at trained botanical artist Ross-Craig Swift lines The drawing was planned in pencil and then overworked with a lithographic pen. S h e also o f thousands o f contributed an drawings.g a r d e in G e r m a n y a n d A u s t r i a . and perfect coordination of hand and eye. is r e c o g n i z e d as tne m o s t c o m p l e t e a n d i m p o r t a n t work 3. 1970 x 81/4 in ( 3 2 5 x 2 1 0 m m ) STELLA ROSS-CRAIG . H e r Drawings of British Plants. Line Drawing of Cypripedium calceolus L c. K e w . Curtis's Botanical Magazine. and follow shadow. Closer to fiction can come together perfectly.7 3 in 3 1 p a r t s . p u b l i s h e d 1 9 4 8 .49 C H A R L E S RENNIE MACKINTOSH Scottish a r c h i t e c t d e s i g n e r painter. a m o n g o t h e r s .. A s m a n y of her drawings are kept G a r d e n s . and speed depends upon the immediate perception of the essential characteristics of the plant.286 studies for her book Drawings of British Plants. and observation the nuance and contour of every in one image.. a n d f o u n d e r o f t h e G l a s g o w S c h o o l o f A r t M a c k i n t o s h ' s flair h a d an e n o r m o u s i n f l u e n c e o n t h e a v a n t . found among Mackintosh's than reality. BOTANICAL STUDIES Lines and shadows This lush.
and attention to detail are all shared with medieval European manuscript drawings. anticipating their view. in the early 16th century. By Muslim tradition. the sumptuous petals permeated with prayer and wisdom. They used a fine brush to lay pigment over a line drawing. Opposite is the Rose of Mohammed. and miraculous growth. Below. Afghanistan. Envoys chatter outside the gate. fluctuations in scale. and calligraphy are brought together to hold the sacred names of prophets and the 99 beautiful names of God. a notable portrait painter drew the faces. uniform focus. Babur directs his gardeners in the design and planting of this quartered chahar bagh. in miniature. Bishndas was probably responsible for the overall design. Upright shallow perspectives. paper is brimming with the beauty and celebration of nature. roses took their form in a bead of perspiration on the brow of Mohammed as he passed through his heavenly journey. The white of the page shines through the brilliant color. Drawing.50 PLANTS AND GARDENS Jeweled Gardens the Middle East we find exquisite stylization of form and upright formality in pictorial space. is remembered in the pages of his journal. Every fiber of AMONG DRAWINGS FROM BISHNDAS A N D N A N H A Little is known of these Mughal painters who were related as uncle and nephew and commissioned to illustrate the pages of Babur's journal. 1590 85/8 x55/8in (219 x 1 4 4 mm) BISHNDAS AND NANHA Bright pigment These pages were illuminated by Mughal artists in the late 16th century. urgent attentive human activity. . painting. The first Mughal Emperor Babur's Garden of Fidelity (Bagh-e Vaja). and Nanha. Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity c. which he personally created near Kabul.
Stylized motif A fine brush has been used throughout this drawing to apply inks and watercolors. The physical anatomy of the rosebud has been studied and translated into a repeated stylized motif. G e r m a n y . Sacred words The central rose is more solid than any other on the page. It is n o w k e p t in Border The elegant border of this drawing was mode with a pen and ruler It cleverly compresses and defines the composition. so that overlapping petals and stems give an impression of fulfillment and abundance. t h e Staatsbibliothek zu Arabic. look closely and you will see words written in gold fluttering over the form of the flower. The Rose of Mohammed 1708 9 1 / 2 x 61/2 in ( 2 4 0 x 1 6 5 mm) FROM THE TURKISH M A N U S C R I P T AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH . However.c e n t u r y Turkish manuscnpt a book of religious e t h i c s w r i t t e n in the O r i e n t a l C o l l e c t i o n s of Berlin. fragmenting its detail in a whisper of prayers.AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH This is a detail o f a page from a n 1 8 t h . and how the shape has been repeated freehand. Note how each bud is essentially the same shape.
PLANTS AND GARDENS
IN CONTRAST TO THE QUIET, formal detail of other drawings in this chapter, these powerful fast trees enact the actions of plants. Each tree reaches out and holds its landscape with dynamism and pulse. In both drawings we find testament to the inexorable energy of growth. Rembrandt expresses a delicate quickness. Gentle lines draw a warm breeze through this remote wooded garden. Rustling in a loose foliage of soft marks, his pen evokes the weight of abundant activity on this late summer's day. Mondrian's arch of scratching branches is drawn with such force it will always be alive. We can still feel his hand storming across the paper. Set within a frame of smudged landscape, the tree possesses a musical agitation. This characteristic will increase in the artist's later abstract work. Here, we see a punctuated ordering of space. Sharp branches cut out negative shapes of winter sky.
R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter; etcher; and draftsman. Rembrandt's prolific output comprises oil paintings of historical and religious subjects together with group and self- portraits. His emotive etchings and pen and ink drawings (see also p. 174) are great resources for artists learning to understand the potential of these media.
Pen and ink lines describing foliage also tell
us the directions of sunlight and wind. An arc crossing the bottom of the drawing from one side to the other supports the scene and separates us from the landscape beyond. Compare Rembrandt's arc to that of Mondrian's. and note the similar treatment of low horizons in both works emphasizing the height and dominance of trees.
Cottage Among Trees 1648-50 63/4 x121/8in ( I 7 I x 308 mm) R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN
Atmosphere Here we see how shapes of negative space are as important as the physical subject they enclose (see pp.58-59). Mondrian has again lightly dragged his chalk on its side to evoke a wet depth of atmosphere. These passive gray marks contrast with the assertive tension of the tree.
Dutch Pure abstract painter preoccupied w i t h line and plane relationships. W i t h increasing austerity, Mondrian banished t h e subject from his drawings, in his later w o r k he also banished space, composing visual h a r m o n i e s using only straight lines a n d flat planes o f black, w h i t e , gray, o r p r i m a r y color.
Winter ground Short vertical marks along thebottomof this drawing reveal the length oftheblackchalk Mondrian used. Rubbed onitsside,itroughly blocks in the ground. Thecrudeeconomy of line is all we need tofeelthecold, wet, unwelcoming quality ofthiswinterearth.
Branches and trunk Lines shaping the branches of the tree are built up in layers. To make the trunk more dense, the artist has rubbed and smudged preliminary marks with his fingers before firmly overdrawing with new lines. Solid black lines are achieved by pressing the chalk hard. When used lightly, it shows the texture of the paper. Tree: Study for the Grey 1911 23 x 335/8 in ( 5 8 4 x 8 5 5 m m ) Tree
PLANTS AND GARDENS
Graphite and Erasers
GRAPHITE, FROM THE G R E E K word
This drawing illustrates a range of achieved with graphite pencils of different grades.
Modern pencils are graded from 9H (hard and pale) to 9B (black and soft). Graphiteclay sticks are also available, together with a powder form. All possess a natural sheen and are erasable to a varying degree. Graphite drawings smudge easily, so fixative, a form of varnish, can be used to hold a drawn surface in place. It is applied as a fine mist from an aerosol can, or from a bottle using a diffuser. For the beginner, ordinary hairspray is an effective and cheaper alternative.
(to write), is a soft and brittle carbon. It was first mined in Cumbria, England, in 1 5 6 4 , and was initially used in small, pure pieces bound in lengths of string. Pencils as we know them—with their slender wood casing and "lead" of graphite—were invented in France in 1794 by Nicolas-Jaques Conte. He discovered that milled graphite mixed with clay and water, press-molded, and baked to a high temperature produces a harder and paler medium than graphite alone.
3B pencil A range of mark and textures can be achieved with a 3B pencil when you vary its pressure, speed, and direction, as this detail shows.
Here is a selection of 14 items to illustrate a basic range of pencils, graphite sticks, sharpeners, erasers, and fixative.
1. AND 2. HB AND 3B PENCILS: It is unnecessary to possess every grade of pencil. HB, the central and most common grade, is perfect for making delicate lines. 3B gives a blacker tone. A great variety of effects can be achieved with just these two. 3. WATER-SOLUBLE PENCIL Effective for atmospheric drawing, but be aware of how watery tones can dull the impact of the line. 4. AND 5. MECHANICAL PENCIL Thick or fine leads are made in a range of grades. They are particularly useful because they do not require a sharpener 6. ROUND SOLID GRAPHITE PENCIL: Excellent for large-scale drawing, producing thick bold lines. A range of grades can be honed with a craft knife or sharpener 7. THICK GRAPHITE STICK: For large-scale drawing. Graded soft, medium, and hard. It crushes to produce graphite powder 8. SQUARE GRAPHITE STICK: Useful for making broad, sweeping marks in large-scale drawing. If worn and rounded, the stick can be snapped into pieces to regain the sharp, square end. 9. CRAFT KNIFE AND BLADES: Handles are sold in two sizes to fit large or small blades, and blades are sold in a range of shapes. Perfect for sharpening pencils to a long point, to cut lines in paper or to remove areas. 10. PENCIL SHARPENER: Makes a uniform point. Keep one in your pocket for drawing outside the studio, together with an envelope for shavings.
HB and 5B Layers of tone have been built up withHBand5Bpencils. Softer pencils require less pressure to make a mark, revealing the texture of the paper surface. It is important to keep the point of the pencil sharp with either a craft knife or a sharpener.
ERASING AND FIXING
Erasers can be used t o blend and s o f t e n lines, o r t o r e m o v e altogether. Fixative them prevents
GRAPHITE AND ERASERS
s m u d g i n g a n d s e c u r e s lines.
Using fixative You can use fixative while drawing to hold the definition of lines you wish to gently fade but not remove entirely, for which you would use an eraser.
11. P L A S T I C E R A S E R : Avoid cheap colored erasers that may stain drawings with grease and dye. White brands are available in soft and hard versions.
P U T T Y RUBBER:
W a r m it in your hand before use. It is excellent for removing powdery materials, and for making crisp sweeps of light across a delicate pencil drawing
13. D I F F U S E R : Helleborus corsicus (Corsican hellebore) fixative, or to spray mists of ink.
PLANTS AND GARDENS
Cropping and Composition
M A N Y STUDENTS WILL START a d r a w i n g i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e
that its skin nearly touches the boundary. The meaning of the same drawing changes simply by its relationship to the space it occupies. The size of any subject, its placement on the page, the size of the page, and its overall proportion are all discrete and essential aspects of successful picture-making. Before you begin to draw, think carefully about where to place your subject. Are you are happy with your paper? If not, change it; add more, take some away, or turn it around. Do not just accept what you are given, adapt it to what you need.
paper. Focused on the shape and detail of their subject, they remain happily unaware that there is, or should be, any relationship between what they are drawing and the surface they are drawing it on. The paper is only paper, and the troublesome subject floats somewhere in the expanse of it. However, a single fig drawn in the middle of a large, empty square of paper gives quite a different impression from the same fig drawn on such an intimately small square
CHOOSING A VIEW
A Single Fig
"The size, shape, and orientation of the paper are so integral to the composition that they determine the impact and meaning of the drawing."
bottom-left t o top-right. A card with a small rectangle cut out o f it makes a useful viewfinder C l o s e o n e e y e t o look through the hole. the uppermost edge of the drawing. When subjects touch two or more edges. a device to help you decide what t o draw. Space as the subject Inallpictures. they establish a tension and unity with the paper. Here the left fig is attached to. The angle of the fruit together with dark shadow (top left) and bright light(bottom right) suggest a diagonal division across the whole drawing. as also shown here. its illumination.57 THE VIEWFINDER T h e s e pencil drawings o f figs d e m o n s t r a t e different crops and compositions.O u r focus is on the white cloth supporting the figs. Touching the edge When the subject o f a drawing touches one edge of the paper it attaches t o it visually. t h e n m o v e t h e c a r d t o e x p l o r e different views. spaces between things are as important as the things themselves. and lines describing shadows cast by the fruit . This drawing hasbeencropped to emphasize space between thefruit. U s e it as a starting point. its stem and shadow framing a white center. and therefore apparently suspended from. running corner t o corner. CROPPING AND COMPOSITION Off-center and diagonal Here I held my viewfinder so the fig appeared upper-left in the space.
Remember that plants do move! Therefore it is best to complete your drawing in one sitting if possible. Unfamiliar shapes of negative space reveal the real shape of a positive subject. and so on. rather than what you see in front of you. Viewers appreciating a finished image may not see shapes of space. The drawing opposite is of the uppermost leaves of a potted fig tree. shapes of air cut out and defined by the physicality of our environment? When we look into the branches of a tree.58 PLANTS AND GARDENS Negative Space UNCONSCIOUSLY WE ASSESS spatial relationships all the time to guide ourselves through the world. In following this class. But how often do we look at the air between things. dynamic. It helps to start at the center and map outward. a sharp H B pencil. tone.The box opposite isolates an area. WHERE TO START Arrange your plant and paper so you can look back and forth by barely moving your head. their subject and composition will become more real. It is an astonishingly simple device that many artists use and I strongly recommend. Looking at negative space overrides the problem of drawing what you know. third. and a fresh page in your drawing book. not leaves. Draw a complete shape Map outward from the center Erase and adjust lines until correct . erasing and adjusting lines until itlooked right. do we see myriad distinct and unique shapes of daylight or do we just see branches? Why as artists should we look at the air? Every space in a picture has a shape. and engaging. this ensures a consistent view. then added a second shape. fourth. Negative space is the simple key to getting positive shape right. position. an eraser. a foundation stone in picture-making. which is shown in the three steps below. but if the artist does. remember to draw only space. In your own version. you will need a similar large-leaved plant. unified. Follow these from left to right and see how I began with one complete shape between two parts of a leaf. and a role to play.
Here I drew only spaces, adding one to another until the leaves were revealed. Besides looking at negative space, there are two other useful things to do when a drawing feels wrong but you cannot see why: look at it in a mirror or turn it upside down. errors and suggest changes.
Spaces between leaves
Either view will
WALKING IN THE ALPUJARRAS in A n d a l u c i a ,
Spain, I drew a bare fig tree clinging to the wall of an almond grove; a perfect subject for seeing negative space. I marked its essential frame of large branches first, frequently erasing lines and changing my mind until the balance felt right.
S a l v i a , RIBES, CLEMATIS, Allium, Passiflora, and Acanthus
drawn with an H pencil by observing the
negative spaces between the stems, petals, and leaves. I arranged the flowers on a sheet of paper in a cool r o o m and rapidly sketched a composition. Then I put them in water, taking the stems out one at a time to draw.
gathering less distinct information on the way.Acanthus Spinosus As we LOOK AROUND. Compare changes of pace and focus here to the flatter finish of Summer Flowers (see pp. 62-63). our eyes travel and adjust from one point of focus to another. interfolding points of detail with areas of loose suggestion. If an artist changes the pace of their line and focus of their attention. We never see everything at once. they emulate our experience of seeing. . Excessive detail leaves no space for the eye to rest or imagination to wander.
Architecture I N THE CONTEMPORARY PRACTICES of architecture. 74-75). Besides sketches of first thoughts and polished drawings of the finished look for clients. add and subtract ideas. Since the first flowering of Modernism in the early 20th century. with gray and brown watercolor wash. designers. and from West Facade of the Church of St Augustin. mass. to 20th-century film fantasy. was preserved into the Renaissance where it became a foundation stone for thinking and creativity From 15thcentury Italy. and architects of ancient Greece who first pursued the formula for "divine proportion. Computer programs allow the virtual drawing of ideas. composers. space. each VICTOR BALTARD . European conventions of pictorial perspective have lost their monopoly on seeing. and writers have been breaking away from traditional forms of representation to seek new expressions of shape. architects and designers can imaginatively "climb inside" three-dimensional space and. which can be clearly seen in ancient Greek architecture. once there. made by the architect himself. Linear perspective is a marvelous device. balance. fine artists. film-set design. the device that has since governed most of our picture-making (sec pp. This harmony. It was also during the Renaissance that the architect Brunelleschi invented linear perspective. Perhaps in the sheer planes of some of our greatest modern buildings it is finding its clearest expression. invaluable to understand and apply when you choose. from political commentary to musical abstraction. Baltard designed the Church of St. It was the mathematicians. of the west facade of St Augustin. we find the most recent steps in the evolution of graphic language. Through the animation of the screen. Yet the pursuit of divine proportion and harmony remains. they have the Golden Section. At the core of their practice. to help them create new form. time. and computer game imaging. which was the first church in the capital to be built entirely of metal and then clad in stone. Augustin. architects. coupled with the importance of exercizing your imagination." reflecting the eye's love of unity in difference. and in the 19th century it was given the name the Golden Section. Paris 1871-74 the child's view to the infinity of the vanishing point. Architects have been fine-tuning their specialized branch of drawing for centuries.This is a pencil drawing. VICTOR BALTARD French architect employed by the city of Paris. the formula for perfection spread through Europe. philosophers. It is the focus of practical class in this chapter. Since Picasso and Braque's revolution of Cubism in around 1907. drawing plans around themselves within a program as opposed to on a flat sheet of paper. filmmakers. Among the drawings of this chapter we look from 17th-century ecclesiastical calm.The church is still in use today. and sound. they also have a diagrammatic language for communicating plans to builders.
pilasters. Cut-away interior On the right a section cut through the center of the building reveals material thicknesses. Together they explain how interior structure and space define exterior form and shape. a three-dimensional drawing made with wires and weights. Oxford. We see the modeled detail of Corinthian columns.68 ARCHITECTURE Master Builders EVERY NEW BUILDING. 1711-12 NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR . Three aspects This subtle and sophisticated drawing made in pen and wash displays three distinct aspects of Hawksmoor's baptistry. marks the end of a long journey from the first few marks the architect made on a sheet of paper. Architects draw for many reasons: to visualize ideas. and an inscribed entablature. materials. evoke presence. describe a finished look to a client. densely layered lines in mists of color weave the presence of the expected building into shape. structure. and later an assistant to Vanbrugh. and the shapes of interior domes and apses. and ultimately to show builders what to do. Hawksmoor's drawing is both a plan and an evocation. Pillars and floor At the base of the drawing a compass-drawn plan tilted downward through 90 degrees illustrates the arrangement of pillars around a central circular floor. The photograph opposite shows his studio hung with metal pendulums. and labor. NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR One of Britain's "three great" Baroque architects (along with Sir Christopher Wren and Sir John Vanbrugh). St Paul's Baptistry c. Blenheim Palace. calculate function. Drawings underpin every great human-made structure like hidden linear ghosts at their core. he also worked on St Paul's Cathedral. Hampton Court Palace. Finished surface On the left the finished surface of the building is given depth and emphasis by immaculate vertical and horizontal brush strokes of shadow. and balance. and six London churches. Hawksmoor established his reputation with university and church architecture including All Souls College. relative levels. Below it. embodying a massive investment of ideas. Gaudi's fluid architecture grew up through many kinds of drawing. Lines define structure while washes suggest light and atmosphere. testing gravity to calculate the inverted shapes of domes. and Castle Howard. A student of Wren's.
and his love of music. and apartment homes are distinguished by their Their and Flowering curves of stone or concrete are often encrusted with Gaudi was inspired by medieval and oriental art. This sculptural drawingenvisionsthe finished crypt glowingandethereal as if caught in thelightof red morning sun. unique organic manipulation of high shapes. Wire and watercolor three-dimensional preferred to calculate Above is a drawing form in the made withlinkedwires and weights. churches. embellishment. Guell Crypt of its at the Time Construction c. Gaudi's cathedral in Barcelona. The Art Nouveau movement. 1910 24x181/4( 6 1 0 x 4 7 5mm) A N T O N I O GAUDI . To the right isawatercolordrawing thought to havebeenmade over a photograph ofthemodelabove. light.69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt c. 1900 ANTONIO GAUDI ANTONIO GAUDI Visionary Catalan architect. Gaudi air than on paper.
short curved poles. Both men used rulers and pens to carefully and slowly construct their compositions. and the spaces between his windows and turrets are the visual equivalent of pauses in h i s m u s i c c o m p o s i t i o n s for p i a n o (see also Bussotti. The architect and musician Daniel Libeskind has drawn a stampeding cacophany of airborne architectural detail. Libeskind studied music before transferring to architecture. p. and in a sense hear. while the composer Erik Satie has made an enclosure of quiet order and grace. and exhibitions of his drawings.223). been a natural affinity between the visual rhythms of pictures and the audible rhythms of music. Across the top and center right of the image w e perceive an almost recognizable architectural plan. and rooms. installations. a refillable pen that feeds a constant supply of ink through a fine tubular nib. He also contributed to plans for the rebuilding of the World Trade Center site in New York. We can see. such a rapport in both of these drawings. Satie draws quietly throughout. He also produces urban and landscape designs. and arched dotted lines depict the radius of doors. There has always DANIEL LIBESKIND A Polish American architect of international acclaim. Visual rhythms In the lower half of this drawing architectural language has broken loose: escaped and transformed into an image of rebellious pleasure. before cascading into a riot of line and sound below. and dotted lines. corridors. Arctic Flowers 1980 DANIEL LIBESKIND . Contemporary musicians commonly collaborate with artists by interpreting images as sound. Floor space appears divided by discernible walls. upright pictorial space.70 ARCHITECTURE The Order of Sound B O T H OF THESE VISIONARY DRAWINGS o c c u p y a s l e n d e r . Libeskind begins quietly in the upper space of his drawing. We can imagine how a musician might interpret this drawing by looking at the abstract visual rhythms of masses composed of long straight poles. Libeskind's numerous commissions include concert halls and museums. flat boards. Floor plan This drawing has been made with a rapidograph. theater sets.
lived a l o n e . minimalist s c o r e s scandalized a u d i e n c e s with o r c h e s t r a t i o n s f o r t h e foghorn and typewriter. o f which he was the sole m e m b e r Parcel paper Satie has drawn this fantasy hotel using a ruler. Compare the even and and the shape wall to the elegantly stylized order of the many windows of arrangement of details and the shape of the wall in Babur's Garden of Fidelity on p. effectively additional lines in a work. They definespaceand pictorial balance. Hotel de la Suzonnieres c.56—57 we discussed important the shape. theater.Edges are how are of orientation.50. Onpp. dressed eccentrically. Eastern influence The upright image Eastern is reminiscent and medieval of Middle pictorial space and subject of this European drawing. 1 8 9 3 77/8 x 51/2 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 4 0 mm) ERIK SATIE .ERIK SATIE F r e n c h pianist and c o m p o s e r for t h e piano. and ink on a fragment folded brown paper—a of everyday happened material of scrap that to be at hand. Satie collaborated w i t h hisfriends J e a n C o c t e a u a n d P i c a s s o .H i s witty.narrowshape of its paper. H e p e r f o r m e d in cabarets. the perimeter Composition Look how well this drawingfitsand resonates with the upright. a conventional dip or fountain pen. and founded his o w n church. andfouredges of the paper tothecompositionand impact animage. a n d ballet.
painter. This is the work of an architectural theoretician. and dramatic lighting. antlike mortals might have speculated upon the universe. This shift makes the cenotaph appear three-dimensional. Boullee lived in Paris. Light illusions This pen-and-wash drawing shows a subtle application of the principles of illumination demonstrated with an egg on p. ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE French architectural theorist. His celebrated imaginary buildings are characterized by pyramids. spheres. and draftsman.The lower-left section of the building appears relatively pale against a darker sky. Newton's Cenotaph 1784 153/4 x 25 in ( 4 0 2 x 635 m m ) ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE . Among preparations for Fritz Langs film Metropolis. cylinders. the ominous globe exists only as a series of drawings. and taught at t h e A c a d e m i e d'Architecture. arched vaults.72 ARCHITECTURE T H E S E T H R E E HIGHLY DETAILED DRAWINGS Future Fictions invite us to soaring above normal life. Within it. and the reverse is true on the right. Art director Erich Kettlehut's vertiginous design for the city of a slavelike populace had a future influence on movies such as Blade Runner. we find other Utopian visions Paul Nobles epic drawing summons an imperfect and disturbing township where ruin and activity are equal and strange.96. made in 1926. We glide over exquisitely drawn wastelands of damage and abandonment. Boullee's monolithic apparition was drawn as a monument to Sir Isaac Newton. enter the long-shadowed architecture of imaginary worlds. experiencing a fascinating conflict between curiosity and desolation.
and m o d e l . 1926 ERICH KETTLEHUT PAUL N O B L E British c o n t e m p o r a r y artist who creates m o n u m e n t a l . mythology. and white ink on brown-gray paper. gray. Fritz Lang's Metropolis c. Kettlehut and his c o . FUTURE FICTIONS Brush and ink This is a dramatic drawing from a film that shaped the history of world cinema. Working on toned paper such as this gives an artist greater scope for dramatic lighting effects than if they work on white paper.m a k e r In t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f Metropolis. Nobson political visions of humanity Newtown. Nobson Central 9 ft 1 0 in x 1 3 f t 2 in (3 x 4 m ) PAUL N O B L E 1998-99 . intensely detailed graphite drawings explaining and questioning t h e geography.a r t director O t t o Hunte. used forced perspective camera t e c h n i q u e s t o amplify t h e m a g n i t u d e o f buildings in relation t o human characters. Kettlehut drew using a fine and relatively dry brush dipped in black.Building shapes are works can be read as text. Its sheerscaleengulfs the viewer and demands based time and patience to on letters and in some beread. together with c i n e m a t o g r a p h e r Karl Freund. and are Graphite shapes Nobson Central isoneof a series of very large graphite drawings of the spoil and detritus of Nobson Newtown.73 ERICH KETTLEHUT Influential film a r t director. architecture. draftsman. and morality o f an invented place called His satires exhibited w o r l d w i d e .
74 ARCHITECTURE Pathways of Sight LINEAR PERSPECTIVE (also called vanishing-point perspective) is a simple device for calculating the relative size of things in pictorial space. linear perspective is distinct from more ancient systems practiced in the East. LEONARDO DA VINCI One of the greatest artists. Pull the thread taut and rotate it slowly above the drawing. Here Leonardo provides a superb example of a single vanishing point. Piranesi an example of two. It can be applied to any subject. All forms of perspective are of equal value. Study of Perspective Adoration of the for the Magi 1481 61/2 x111/2in (165 x 290 mm) LEONARDO DA VINCI . inventors. Press the pin into Leonardo's vanishing point. 206-07). found at the center of all converging lines. Single-point perspective Tie a thread to a pin. and age eight. In his notebooks. See how the thread corresponds to each converging line. Leonardo recorded constant streams of ideas. but is most easily seen and understood in pictures of buildings and interiors. Note how architectural features conform to lines and how human figures diminish in size toward thevanishingpoint. this perspective is often an imagined bird's-eye view in which details are mapped according to logic and importance rather than how they might appear in real life. observations. I contribute the child's perspective. We use it to structure illusions of depth. and thinkers ever to have lived. Sometimes shared with Naive artists. and inventions— essential reading for inquiring minds. and those of Naive artists and children. It is also distinguished from aerial perspective (see pp. Invented by Italian artist and architect Brunelleschi in 1413 (late in the history of art). scientists.
Scale Our farmhouse my experience was in the woods. architect. issues of scale when making room for important their story. Mark these points with your pin and follow the converging lines of the drawing by rotating your thread. It shows how children usually map large scenes in flat layers one above the other. a points in logical narrative of memories. . This drawing Young children typically maps ignore on and understanding of the nearby village.SARAH SIMBLET I made this drawing (at age 8) in response to a local bookstore's request for children to draw their village. Breamore Village. New Forest. and theoretical writing strongly influenced neoclassicism. Lightly marked illuminates vanishing Two Courtyards c. which I saw from home every day. England 1980 9 x 16 in (228 x 405 mm) S A R A H SIMBLET GIOVANNI BATTISTA PIRANESI Italian artist. Children are uninhibited and problems with one element being obscured by another rarely arise. and designer Piranesi's prolific architectural drawings. Two-point perspective Sunlight through this colonnade a great example of two-point perspective. Note the rather large rabbits and pheasants the hills. 1740 5 1 / 2 x 83/8 in (141 x 212 mm) G I O V A N N I B A T T I S T A PIRANESI points are located on either side of the drawing. at the top of each lateral column base. visionary and practical understanding of ancient Rome. including all they recall about the subject.
draw a horizon line across your paper Mark a spot on the horizon line. 2 3 corners must each touch a dotted line. Extend each dotted line to the edge of your drawing. Piranesi planned his drawing with only the essential lines needed. Leonardo began with a grid of many lines within which he invented his scene. Note that if you place large structures in the foreground and smaller ones closer to your vanishing point.98 for an important note on oscillation. Each line should pass through one corner of the rectangle. On the previous page we looked at its essential mechanism through drawings by Leonardo and Piranesi. This lesson shows you how to make a simple illusion of space defined by two boxes and three flat boards. (See p.76 ARCHITECTURE Single-Point Perspective MASTERING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE i s e a s i e r t h a n y o u m a y First read through. Study these pages first before embarking on this lesson. You have completed your first box. then follow the ten steps below. using a sharp HB pencil and ruler. corresponding to a single vanishing point. Next. discovering the image as it progressed. This is where we will begin.) . In contrast. you will amplify the illusion of distance. imagine. DRAWING BOXES 1 Using a ruler and a sharp HB pencil. This ensures that the second rectangle aligns with the shape and 4 Draw four short lines to connect the four corners of the two rectangles. Erase the dotted construction lines. Draw each step over the preceding one to build up a single image. Surround the vanishing point with a small rectangle. try composing your own space. this is your vanishing point. Draw four dotted lines radiating out from the vanishing point.
9 Use dotted lines connecting the slanting linetothe vanishing point to locate the top. you can place rectangles anywhere youwishin relation to a vanishing point. The larger you make your second rectangle. N e x t draw a slanting line to mark the height of the first flat board. draw a second. the closer it will appear to the viewer. 7 As in step 3. 1 0 Erase all ofthedottedlinestoseeyourfinishedboxes Thickeningtheiredges. . draw four dotted lines radiating from your vanishing point Pass these through each comer of the new rectangle. 8 Complete the second box with short lines as in step 4. larger rectangle. Continue the dotted lines out toward the edge of your drawing.willhelptomake them appear more solid.asIhavedonehere. Repeat this to add two more boards to the composition. with two dotted lines. bottom. The four comers must each touch a dotted line to be sureitaligns with the first. Note that this does not surround the vanishing point In the future.77 SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE 5 Draw a new rectangle. when inventing your own compositions. andfarside of this first board. and erase the dotted lines. The board's sides should be parallel. 6 As in step 2. Connect this to the vanishing point— again.
O n a fresh page in your d r a w i n g b o o k . Then follow the three given steps. 7 4 ) . APPLYING PERSPECTIVE An Imagined Scaffold "Enjoy your illusion as you make it and it will become more real.78 ARCHITECTURE Creating an Imaginary Space T H I S CLASS USES SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE t o c r e a t e a s i m p l e to you and if you listen to it. once said: "I never end up with what I set out to do. w h e t h e r it is a film or a painting. The m i s t a k e n belief that we s h o u l d k n o w exactly what o u r finished drawings will l o o k like before we m a k e t h e m prevents many people from ever starting." . p . It highlights the importance of having faith in your imagination and trusting your ability to invent. artist and film director. If using a fibertip pen as I have done for this drawing. draw a b o x as shown opposite. it will take you places you never dreamed of. I always start with a script but I don't follow it all the way through to the end. then let the space suggest its c o n t e n t s and purpose. you will find white adhesive stationery labels are useful for covering errors or changing the direction of your idea. let simple lines suggest a simple space. Linear perspective will support y o u by providing a frame in which to b u i l d your picture as it did for Leonardo." imaginary room. A lot more happens when you open yourself up to the work and let yourself act and react to it. it is interaction that makes the work richer. Every work talks In this class. As David Lynch.
79 DRAWING A SIMPLE ROOM Essentials t o remember: objects and people dimmish in size as they move farther away. 3 Remove the construction lines with an eraser and the room will becomeclearer. horizontal. With some practice. parallel planes such as walls converge toward the vanishing point. and leaning surfaces. 2 first before adding furniture. The space has become more solid and real. Here. additional lines have established the different surfaces and how they relate to each other.There is great pleasure tobefoundin spending time inventing interiors. CREATING AN IMAGINARY SPACE 1First.Addanarray of converging lines to provide a "scaffold" for vertical. . you will beableto draw more complex objects orpeoplewithin them. This initial space will be transparent and open to change. and floors and ceilings also converge and rise o r lower toward the horizon.drawthehorizonlineand vanishingpoint.
but they are not confined to this level. they can be placed anywhere inspaceto describe the perspective of flyi c tilted objects. T h e y d o n o t have to relate to each other. Copying what you see in the work of others will help you to understand what they have done. located anywhere inside or outside the pictorial space. From our normal eye level. a n d this is how we have drawn them so far (see pp. Elaborations . The boxes drawn here are seen partly or entirely disassociated from a horizon line drawn across the bottom of the image. do verticals appear inclined. To draw such a view APPLICATION Copy these drawings to see and feel how they work before inventing your own versions.p o i n t perspective ( s h o w n opposite top). or low and we look u p . o r to the h o r i z o n . showing y o u h o w to draw curved surfaces and a tiled floor. Only when y o u might employ t h r e e . They could be drawn on any scale from miniature to monumental. T h i s is d e m o n s t r a t e d immediately below. Further aspects of three-point perspective are also illustrated opposite. Vanishing points are commonly found on horizon—our eye level. verticals appear p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the g r o u n d . Potentially. It is important to realize that you can have as many vanishing points as you wish. Here. I have elaborated on the simple boxes above. These elaborations could continue indefinitely across a sheet of paper in pursuit of complex and intricate ideas.80 ARCHITECTURE Further Aspects of Perspective W E ARE ACCUSTOMED TO SEEING our e n v i r o n m e n t from a relatively constant point of view. T h i n k of standing at the top of a skyscraper and imagine h o w its parallel sides would appear to converge below you. Search for the application of these perspectives among works by other artists in this book and in galleries. 76-79). our eye level is very high and we look down. Free vanishing points On paper we can enjoy the freedom of fantastic structural invention without limitations of solid materials or gravity. That is where we e to find them.
I added horizontal lines t o define the tiles.81 FURTHER ASPECTS OF Three-point towers This drawing depicts three-point perspective. (Turn the book around to see a view looking up. tostraightlines can amplify drama in a picture.75. Giving curvature. three vanishing points are evenly spaced along a horizon line.) By comparing this drawing t o Piranesi's example of two-point perspective on p. I marked the toplinewith three evenly spaced points and the line with seven. and therefore tension. PERSPECTIVE Three-point curves Here. useful for representing steep views looking up or down tall structures.Istarted with two parallel lines. by adding a third point you can achieve a sense of incline. you will see how.Finally. Where thelinescross. Three-point checkered floor This d bottom floor. An array of curved lines (drawn freehand) link the two lateral points. Note that altering the distance between the three dots above will tilt the level of the floor . they mark the corners of the floor tiles. I then drew three fanned groups of lines connecting each of the three points above to the seven points below. Iusedthese lines as a guide t o draw the curvature of boxes and panels flying through space.
.Theaters RESEARCHING FOR MY P H D . These walnut-skin ink pen and brush drawings show imagined views of theaters that do not exist but were inspired by places I studied. I visited many anatomical theaters and museums. making drawings to resolve questions and express personal responses to the nature and history of anatomy.
the water. The vanishing of the drawing is directly opposite as we look across The constancy of the bridge and surrounding frames the movement in the life that flows past. .I N KDRAWING is one of a series I made while next to the Rialto Bridge in Venice.Venetian Life sitting point buildings ThisP E N .A N D .
Artists also make images of objects that can never exist. each demanding more of the other as they increased in sophistication. design. r an equestrian statue. and made. In past eras. C o m m o n items. these. from s p o o n s and pens to chairs and bicycles. W e also explore v o l u m e and form in the classes by spinning lines to make vessels. and some apes use simple tools. to record an observed detail. sculpted. Birds follow instinct to make a nest. even more advanced drawings are made on computers. color. too. A chair. In this chapter. and a wire violin. H e has described contour and function at drawings. that test our logic with a sense of mystery. making a clear instruction t o his bronzemeaning. Engineers and designers of our objects and instruments make drawings for many reasons: to test an idea that is yet to be made. passing them on to others through the act of making. Previously. illuminating snail shells. It is shaped in sections w i t h Artists have for centuries studied and expressed composition.Objects and Instruments T HE THINGS WE INVENT describe our lives. are all made bearing the signature of our time and place. and the behavior of light through making still-life paintings and together. It was in this era that the blueprint was born. and the way in w h i c h the brain reacts Head and Neck Sections of Female Mold for the Sforza Horse to visual stimulus and optical illusions. H e has described a casting through metaphor. or used on stage hood for a mold t o make theheado f a horse f oas a p r o p — i m b u e d with e n o u g h energy or character can "become" a man. of light in the creation of pictorial illusions. or drawing w e see Leonardo daVinci'sprecision as can be given meaning. hooked bars that can be pulled and tied closely form. texture. History will be learned from the artifacts w e leave behind. drawn. Today. drawing c. for example. fictional realities caster of h o w t o make it andhowit will w o r k . Artists and actors use the meanings of things to communicate a speculative mechanic. drawings were needed to instruct workers on the factory floor. craftsmen had held plans in their memory. have often carried great weights of allegorical once. With the sudden onset of mass production. T h e Industrial Revolution c h a n g e d the traditional w a y s in w h i c h objects were designed. for example—whether. Technical drawing was speedily developed as a meticulous international code of m e a s u r e m e n t and explanation. 1493 117/8c81/4in (300 x 210 m m ) LEONARDO D A V I N Ccreating I . T h e precision of engineering d r a w i n g s e v o l v e d alongside machine tools. we look at the importance are the only creatures on Earth w h o actually design and create great ranges of things. but humans LEONARDO DA VINCI Inthisbeautiful red chalk Our items all have a purpose—practical or ornamental—and all have a meaning. planned. or to explain and present a finished concept to a client.
still feel this projected moment.. Statue D'Epouvante 1913 2 f t 5 in x 3 ft 5 in (0. There is a fragile eloquence to these objects as they drift in slow motion past our gaze. representing still life. steaming with music and conversation. texture. He takes us into the bustle of the Paris cafe. and a journal jacket with words makes this drawing chatter about the moment. Braques "justly" arranged combination of cut black card. and shading. and glass objects of exquisite elegance for only the gentlest of touch and appreciation.73 x 1 m) GEORGES BRAQUE . perfect i n their newly made availability. . silverware." La Cuitare. Mucha's drawing glistens with possession. not to work in harmony. but to clash in virtual deadlock. "I believe [it] is the most radicalattempttostampout ambiguity and to enforce one readingofthepicture—that of a manmade construction. Braque established Cubism in partnership with Picasso just before World War I. Clashes The art historian Ernst Gombrich said of Cubism. Below. Braques image is a Cubist collage. charcoal. not of place but of things. His work is characterized by calm and harmonious still-life compositions.Braque marshals all the forces of perspective. Opposite. T h i s is a designers drawing made to enthuse surface and style in its delicate brushing of china. One of the great joys of this movement in art is the musicality of its multipoint view..90 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS Still Life THESE DRAWINGS REVEAL t w o o p p o s i t e m o t i v a t i o n s i n we can. Even today GEORGES BRAQUE French painter who as a young man was influenced by the work of the Fauves and of Cezanne. a colored canvas. wood-look wallpaper.
and New York. Art Nouveau curling motifs of birds. Pans.flowers. Study for Plate 59 from "Documents Decoratifs" 17x121/4(430 x 310 mm) ALPHONSE MUCHA 1902 . Black watercolor washes and lines of white gouache have been added with a fine brush. Look at the two spoons at toprightand see how has suggested that they are so brilliantly shiny they reflect the background color. For ten years Mucha designed theater posters exclusively for the actress Sarah Bernhardt. He designed the Austrian pavilion for the Paris World Fair in 1900. Art Nouveau motifs This is a preliminary study for a subsequent print. Background color Between the delicate shadows and highlights of these glazed and surfaces ofthebackground metal color of the Mucha we see a large amount paper. and fish have been outlined using a sharp pencil. The three plates facing us were drawn with a compass.fruit. Chicago. and also stamps and bank notes. He is best known for posters featuring ethereal women in typical Art Nouveau style.ALPHONSE MUCHA Czech graphic artist and painter who worked in Prague.
alchemist. each one skillfully rendered with the alarmingly matter-of-fact ease of explaining the commonplace. a tree outside. and philosopher Newton was President of the Royal Society. With dotted lines Newton has drawn his arrangement of elements inside the tube. the law o f gravity. each reflecting a view of his own world—his window. The power of this drawing reflects the pure passion of discovery. into the eyepiece. astronomer. mathematician. Look how confidently he draws with ink the sphere of this wooden globe by which his telescope rotates. It was then reflected up inside the tube and. and Fellow of the University o f C a m b r i d g e . drawing is there to pin the moment down. A disembodied eye at the top of the drawing indicates where to look. w h e r e he developed his three greatest theories: the law o f motion. Newton's drawing of his first reflecting telescope is ISAAC N E W T O N English scientist. via a second mirror. and the nature o f light and color. Transparent view Newton's reflecting telescope focused light in a parabolic mirror. It is a diagrammatic explanation of how to catch and magnify a star in a mirrored tube. Ink lines Several drawings appear among Newton's letters. and his hand moving across the light. Their delicate construction is only as valuable as the measurements they make. From the concept of capturing the infinite to the mapping of microscopic sight. He counted 1 4 . shape the very cause and effect of investigatory thought. Hooke's head of a drone fly seen through a microscope may represent the first time man and insect came face to face. In the graphic work of these two great men of science. 0 0 0 perfect hemispheres. Newton's 1672 ISAAC Telescope NEWTON . offering a transparent view. Newton used this instrument to calculate the speed required to escape earth's gravity. we see drawing Instruments of Vision found among his letters.92 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS by their very nature must gauge or chronicle precision.
It is an exhilarating read. ROBERT H O O K E 93 Magnifications This acutely detailed engraved drawing is taken from Hooke's Micrographia (pub. universal joint a prototype respirator clock balance. a breathtaking book containing many of his drawings showing some of the first microscopic and telescopic magnifications of our environment Hooke's text and illustrations carry us to the moment of discovery. 1665). and anchor escarpment.An experimental scientist who drew many of his discoveries. and calculated the theory of combustion. The Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 1665 ROBERT HOOKE 111/2 x 105/8 in (294 x 270 mm) . Hooke invented the camera diaphragm.
its character. Sarah Woodfines flat cut-out m o d e l plan is a witty and surprising drawing. has published several catalogs of her work. From component parts we understand how to put it together and make it stand sensible in space. A renegade from the p a p e r dolls' h o u s e . and winner of the 2004 Jerwood Drawing Prize. it has so m u c h familiar personality that it seems to talk to us. and w h e r e the chair b e l o n g s . Its wobbly gait and squashed s y m m e t r y m u m b l e endless h o m e y tales about the life it has seen.94 INSTRUMENTS W H E N WE DRAW A COMMON OBJECT like a chair. Bench Marks W e are left a little c o n f u s e d as to what we s h o u l d do. Chair Cut Out 2002 22'A x 23 in (565 x 585 mm) SARAH WOODFINE . W i t h h o m e y c o n t r a s t . Woodfine exhibits internationally. Two-dimensional was made This highly finished drawing ruler using a sharp pencil and on smooth white drawing paper glistening dark drawings are artificial representations of known Woodfine's two-dimensional things balanced in the world. while the tabs make us see a flat paper cut-out. and place in the world are truly seen. this chair p r e s e n t s us with a clever visual contradiction: deeply drawn shadows tell us it must be solid. craft. Van Gogh's tipsy seat is a metaphor for an absent person. Drawn in more-or-less c o n v e n t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . each drawn with the s a m e unfaltering lines and tones that are between reality and impossibility. and has drawings in numerous public and private collections. OBJECTS AND SARAH WOODFINE British contemporary artist graduate of the Royal Academy Schools.
Cornfield and Sunflowers. what direct in their he saw and describing his felt. drawn opposite way of plan. Among van Gogh's best-known canvases are Trees. and Starry Cypress Night. inner recording while Fierce strokes This is a portrait of the mechanical drew immediately and almost harshly. The floor few as engagement with the chair.95 VINCENTVAN GOGH Dutch painter who produced over 800 paintings and 850 drawings in only the last ten year's of his life.hehas marked the full emotion of the subject with a fierce grip of concentration. Van Chair 1890 VINCENT VAN GOGH . not is made present in only strokes and is subdued to distract us from flat a meaningful chair. His passionate brush and pencil strokes are honest and of also turmoil and growing alarm at the world around him.
or colored surface is never constant. Tape them to the glass. The two tones meet without a division or outline between. The rim of light on the egg is reflected light received from surrounding paper. two identical mid-gray squares are seen against black and paler gray squares. S o m e o n e passes our o p e n door.96 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Light and Illusions SEEING IS MIRACULOUS. We perceive one to be lighter than theother. Are you happy LIGHT AND SHADOW with what you see? Does the light enhance the subject? Could you alter and improve it? On pp. less developed than the center. perhaps.This effect is caused by the contrast of their surroundings. a n d are q u i c k to p r o p o s e ideas.d o w n patterns of light on our retinas. W e learn to read light and shadow in our environment as indicators of solidity and depth of space. the adjustment of our eyes (in growing accustomed to a level of light). form. but do not appear so. Through these we can enjoy witnessing our o w n d e c e p t i o n a n d b a f f l e m e n t a n d u n d e r s t a n d certain factors that are very useful in picture-making. reads only m o v e m e n t a n d can often m a k e mistakes. The outermost edge of our vision. The egg's darkest region is seen against a lighter background. gray. Three factors change it: the amount of light it receives. a lit photograph of an egg shows essential points to observe in tonal drawing. are translated into a world of space.102-03 deep shadows cast across shells make their form easier to perceive. We only need small prompts. Below the bottom "edge" of the egg there is a rim of light reflected onto the paper by the underside of the egg. Here w e look briefly at our perception of light a n d darkness a n d our interpretation of diagrammatic illusions. Card experiment cho can gra on . On acloudyday. atmosphere. We will even see things that d o not exist because minimal information suggests they are likely to be there. a n d m o v e m e n t . w e turn our head but n o one w a s there. The perceived tone of a black white. cards the same size. a n d we can be fooled. o u r b r a i n s search for n a m e a b l e things. one blackandone white. The egg's lightest region is seen against a darker background. T h e slightest recognition is instantly matched to our wealth of experience a n d expectation. your eye around the circumference of the egg. Before starting a tonal drawing of any subject. think about its illumination. a n d our ability to see forms in c l o u d s or fire. U p s i d e . transmitted to the brain as chains of electrical impulses.At one point you will catchenoughlight lighter than the white one. Artists emulate and manipulate this effect in their pictures. Gray squares To further examine changes in tone. The small squares are identical in tone. hence our recognition of a cartoon face c o m p o s e d of three lines. and the proximity of contrasting tones. Below. Adjust the angleofthe protruding part and again stepback. From across the room both will appear black card and fold and retapeitwith half sticking out. See how its "edge" smoothly changes from light against dark to dark against light. To interpret visual s t i m u l u s . Here. Run The bottom-left quarter of the egg lightens slightly toward its "edge" when seen against the darker shadow cast on the paper. try this experiment.
. Y o u m a y e x p e r i e n c e s o m e t h i n g similar h a p p e n i n g w h e n y o u m a k e s i n g l e . Apparent lengths T h e s e optical illusions s h o w h o w lines o f identical length can b e m a d e t o l o o k quite different f r o m each o t h e r by t h e addition o r association o f o t h e r lines. w h i l e t h i n n e r lines recede.97 LINE VERSUS TONE In l i n e a r d r a w i n g s . T h i s fundamental o p p o s i t e is a reason w h y l i n e a r a n d t o n a l d r a w i n g does not a l w a y s c o m b i n e w e l l in t h e s a m e i m a g e . by d i r e c t e d a r r o w s ( A ) . l i g h t e r surfaces s t a n d f o r w a r d w h i l e d a r k e r s u r f a c e s recede. In this t o n a l image w e read w h i t e as f a t t e r t h a n black. O b s e r v e h o w each white b a n d appears t h i c k e r t h a n its black c o u n t e r p a r t . b u t t h e u p r i g h t o n e l o o k s t a l l e r (B). T w o relatively t h i c k parallel lines are m a d e t o b e n d away f r o m each o t h e r as t h e y pass in f r o n t o f an a r r a y o f c o n v e r g i n g f i n e lines ( B ) .p o i n t p e r s p e c t i v e d r a w i n g s w i t h a large n u m b e r o f c o n v e r g i n g rays b e h i n d y o u r horizontals. respectively. In this linear drawing w e read t h i c k as closer a n d t h i n as f a r t h e r away. Seven parallel lines are m a d e t o tilt t o w a r d and away f r o m each o t h e r by n u m e r o u s s h o r t strokes crossing t h e m diagonally ( A ) . t h i c k e r l i n e s a p p e a r t o stand forward. T w o horizontal lines o f equal length are m a d e t o l o o k longer and shorter. T h e r e is n o obligation t o a d d b l o c k s o f t o n e t o a l i n e a r d r a w i n g . LIGHT AND ILLUSIONS Tonal width T h e s e black a n d w h i t e bands are o f equal thickness o n e i t h e r side o f t h e i r central division. If y o u w i s h t o m a k e a t o n a l drawing. start o u t w i t h one. A n u p r i g h t line stands in t h e c e n t e r o f a h o r i z o n t a l line. S h o r t h o r i z o n t a l lines o f identical length are m a d e t o l o o k d i f f e r e n t by c o n v e r g i n g lines beside t h e m ( C ) . In a t o n a l d r a w i n g . T h e jug d r a w n w i t h a t h i n line appears f a r t h e r away t h a n t h e j u g d r a w n w i t h a t h i c k e r line. Bending straight lines Linear distance These t w o jugs have b e e n d r a w n w i t h lines o f d i f f e r i n g thicknesses. B o t h are identical in length. O f t e ndoingso w i l l s p o i l y o u r w o r k .
w e can only look f r o m one t o the o t h e r If an artist is not aware this can happen in their image. their picture could be ambiguous. and so calculated precisely how much to fatten columns to make them appear straight. Yet many illusions. among others.98 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Further Illusions PSYCHOLOGISTS AND PHYSIOLOGISTS have studied optical illusions for decades in pursuit of what they tell us about the brain. w e will find that in terms of the direction it faces.s i d e d r e c t a n g u l a r t r a y ( b o t h are illustrated far r i g h t ) "The brain is so eager to name a fragment we see that we need only a suggestion to grasp the whole. are still not agreeably understood. It is a curious fact that w e can never see both options at once.116-17) to make painted figures look correct when viewed from below. o r as a s l o p i n g . including some shown here." . Artists make pictorial illusions when they paint or draw. C l o s i n g t h e surface o f t h e f o r m seals o u r d e c i s i o n as t o w h i c h w a y it faces. Some artists use known optical illusions to make art. such as t h e dish seen h e r e o n t h e left. It is possible t o r e a d i t t w o ways: as a t r u n c a t e d r e c t a n g u l a r p y r a m i d seen d i r e c t l y f r o m a b o v e . such as Bridget Riley.76. others adjust works to avoid their effects. w h e n drawing the outline o f a three-dimensional form. it can oscillate b e t w e e n facing t o w a r d o r a w a y f r o m us. Op(tical) artists. perfected the acceleration of perspective (see pp. Two ways of seeing T h i s is t h e b o x c r e a t e d in t h e f o u r t h step o n p. Today we are bombarded with images but rarely have difficulty reading them. and we learn to read the styles of diverse cultures and periods. Ancient Greek architects knew parallel upright lines appeared to bend toward each other in the middle. made paintings that depended upon the physical sensation of our brain's reaction to known optical illusions. In the 1960's. as s h o w n o n t h e right. Artists can communicate much in few lines and the viewer will do the rest of the work. Michelangelo. A few suggestive marks will tip the decision one way o r the o t h e r Closing the surface W h e n a t r a n s p a r e n t elliptical o b j e c t has b e e n d r a w n . SEEING TWO OPTIONS Sometimes. it oscillates between t w o possibilities.
M u c h can b e e x p r e s s e d in o n l y a f e w marks.c e n t u r y Swiss psychologist H e r m a n n Rorschach. S o m e artists use ink blots t o p r o m p t t h e beginning o f an image. — a n d so t h e artist can create m u c h o u t o f an impression w i t h o u t overdescribing. N e i t h e r triangle exists. C o u n t t h e n u m b e r o f d a r k spots y o u can see. B e l o w is a b r i g h t n e s s c o n t r a s t illusion.99 Impossible objects T h e s e clever configurations o f outlines and t o n a l surfaces convince us at a glance that we are seeing a solid three-dimensional triangle and a three-pronged fork. clouds. b u t w e believe w e see t h e m because e n o u g h f r a g m e n t a r y i n f o r m a t i o n is given f o r o u r brains t o c o n c l u d e t h e y are v e r y likely t h e r e . T h e a r t i s t M.c e n t u r y Italian painters. P e r c e i v i n g a w h o l e i m a g e f r o m m i n i m a l lines T h i s is a w i d e l y r e p r o d u c e d visual j o k e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e C a r r a c c i b r o t h e r s . O n l y o n closer inspection we realize that t h e s e o b j e c t s are fooling us. Yet still w e try resolve t h e m . e t c . smoke. . His highly d i s p u t e d and i m p r e c i s e science involves s h o w i n g u n p r e p a r e d p a t i e n t s t e n p a r t i c u l a r ink b l o t s a n d asking t h e m t o i n t e r p r e t w h a t t h e y see. 1 6 t h . T h e y a r e o f t e n c r e d i t e d w i t h t h e invention o f t h e c o m i c c a r t o o n . This simple five-line d r a w i n g is o f a C a p u c h i n priest asleep in his pulpit. Minimal-line j o k e s such as this rely u p o n t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y v i e w e r ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e shapes. T h e patient's answers are t h e n diagnosed as a psychological profile. T h e t e s t e x p l o r e s o u r n o r m a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o find things w e can n a m e a m o n g r a n d o m shapes. F a m i l i a r i t y in r a n d o m s h a p e s T h e Rorschach test was established by t h e 1 9 t h . C o u p l e d w i t h t h e Rorschach b l o t above. w e see t w o overlapping triangles: o n e outlined in black b e n e a t h a n o t h e r in solid w h i t e . FURTHER ILLUSIONS Seeing things that are n o t t h e r e H e r e o n t h e left. this is a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f t h e viewer's b r a i n b e i n g willing t o d o a large a m o u n t o f t h e w o r k in d e c i p h e r i n g a p i c t u r e . W e should r e m e m b e r t h a t o u r brains will always search f o r a p i c t u r e — i n ink blots. T h e s e e x a m p l e s illustrate h o w little is n e e d e d t o c o n v e y an image. This effect can o c c u r naturally w h e n looking at a b r i g h t l y lit w h i t e g r i d such as a w i n d o w f r a m e against t h e night sky. C Escher u s e d this phenomenon t o great effect in his many p o p u l a r d r a w i n g s o f puzzles and impossible buildings.
How to Draw Ellipses of seeing. (see p. giving the cylinder four corners. there are three common errors people stumble upon. Don't worry if it is uneven— just try again. describing many sides of an object simultaneously. keep it spinning. that this is o n l y o n e w a y view. COMMON ERRORS W h e n drawing cylindrical objects in perspective. smoothly. WHERE TO START In the air above a spacious sheet of scrap paper. Ellipse are best d r a w n quickly. for example plates or bowls on a table. even if y o u r hand w o b b l e s a little at first. suggesting that the vessel is lopsided. for example. Cubism. w e use ellipses to give a sense of perspective. Cover a sheet of paper with spinning. you will achieve steadiness with practice. though. I have drawn these for you here. springlike forms like those I have drawn below. . while its upper rim remains level. However.100 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS W E VISUALIZE CYLINDRICAL VESSELS. such as bowls and cups. I have exaggerated this error here. circles change into ellipses. as if the table surface slopes upward beneath the vessel.90) takes a different as essentially circular. since this is h o w w e experience them in e v e r y d a y use. w h e n seen at an angle. A wobbling but confident ellipse will still be more convincing than a slow. not the paper!) As the pen touches down. The second common error is to tilt the upper and lower ellipses at different angles. spin your hand in a relaxed circle. and these narrow or widen depending on the height of our view. Be aware. The first common error is to draw two pointed ellipses. hesitant one that has edged its w a y nervously around the vessel's rim. like a disposable plastic cup that has been crushed in your hand. Watch the tip of your pen and see it draw an ellipse in the air Keep this movement going while gently lowering the pen onto the paper like the needle of a record player closing on the disc (only it is your lowering hand that spins. a n d in o n e bold stroke. third common error is to draw upper and lover ellipses with different-sized apertures. To make a cylindrical object appear real in our pictorial space.
you can start to control your spinning ellipse to make a vessel. enlarging and diminishing the ellipse to determine the overall shape and volume. HOW TO DRAW E L L I P S E S A Single Vessel One Inside Another Grouped Together Finding Shape and Volume Draw an imagined vessel in one continuous spinning line. you can make it solid by building up highlights and tones on visible surfaces.101 DRAWING VESSELS Once you have mastered drawing free-hand springs. working from top to bottom. thereby hiding lines that show the other sides. Altering the pressure—and therefore tone—of the line as it spins gives the impression of light shining on one side. . Draw quickly. Create a Solid Surface Once you have drawn the shape and volume of each form. Seeing Through Allow lines to travel around each vessel as if it were transparent.
Gradually hone your drawing. Illuminate them with a gooseneck lamp placed very close and directed away from your eyes. You can begin with outlines and build slowly from light to dark (see opposite top). Remember that shadows. if light shines in them. t h e r e a r e p r i n c i p a l l y Dramatic lighting emphasizes texture and contour. beams of light. Relaxing your eyes out of focus as you draw will help to dissolve the distraction of detail. and solid objects are all of equal importance. it will inhibit your perception of tone. if any. It maximizes the range of tones between black and white. and strong contrasts are easier to draw. making complicated or subtle surfaces easier to see and understand. or you can begin with a mid-gray ground and model light out of darkness (see opposite bottom). Draw the largest and most distinct areas of light and darkness first. In the finished drawing there should be few. leaving detail until last. outlines. two opposite methods of achieving the same result. It is important to place them on the correct side so as to draw comfortably (see pp. OBJECTS AND Start by arranging a choice of shells on a sheet of paper to your left if you are right-handed (or vice versa).22-23). LIGHT TO DARK DARK TO LIGHT .102 INSTRUMENTS Tonality W H E N MAKING A TONAL DRAWING. simply shapes and subtleties of light and dark meeting each other with no divisions in between.
Relaxing your eyes out of focus will help to eliminate distracting details. boldly 2 3 Keeping your eyes out of focus. and edges definingthespacialrelationships between are important aspects of your composition them.103 LIGHT TO DARK (LINE TO TONE) TONALITY 1 Using a sharp HB pencil. with broad sweeps of the eraser. 2 3 Gentlydissolveoutlines so that areas oflightanddark meet without a line between them. DARK TO LIGHT (TONE TO TONE) 1 Using the flattened tip of an HB pencil. look at the main areas of darkness. Use your pencil to develop these in relation to the areas of light. Honetheshapesand angles of the shells. shape. Continue working between light and dark to refine the drawing. pale lines with equal importance. Draw in the details last of all. Use quick. Remember that its size. Erase and make changes to roughly place the shells inside your with your composition. until you are happy frame. loose.56-57). Fll in broad areas first and leave all detail until last. Avoid a rough significant areas of light in your gray rectangle with texture and do not press the graphite hardwhite plastic eraser Ignore all detail and draw a into thepaperor you will not be able to erase it. . draw a rectangle. Let your eyes go out of focus while looking gently layer marks to create an even tone at your subject and paper: Draw the most ofmid-graywithin a rectangle. Treat positive form and negative space (see pp.
220 Mamoru Abe draws with forged steel rods. 19 Picasso draws with a pen-light for the camera. continuous lines. On p. There are essentially three lessons to be learned. you can create your own more ambitious works. and physical relationships between them. Seeing through a wire drawing of a known object such as a violin gives us a visual and tactile understanding of all its sides and shapes at once. Third. On p. three-dimensional drawings teach us about the totality of forms in space. and on p. and on p.104 OBJECTS AND I N S T R U M E N T S Drawing with Wire DRAWINGS DO NOT HAVE to be two-dimensional. The second is that after achieving this simple example. . 176 the British artists Noble and Webster draw with domestic refuse in a beam of light. PEN LINES Once you have created your three-dimensional violin (opposite). try drawing it with a pen on paper Use bold. When drawing anything viewed from one side on paper. smooth. The first is that figurative and abstract drawings can be made in space. our image is stronger if we understand and can visualize what is happening on the other side too.69 we see how the architect Antonio Gaudi drew proposed domes using suspended wires and weights. This class uses thin-gauge wire to create a threedimensional violin. They can also be made in space. Place the instrument on a plain surface and illuminate it with a desk lamp to add the delicate dimension of shadows.
Once you have completed the body. and pinch and bend it to shape the base of the instrument Repeat this process to make the identical upper side of the instrument. Join the two sides together with four short pieces of wire. 4 . I used garden wire and cut it carefully with pruners. thin wire will make a smaller drawing. Here. 2 3 If needed. Then begin to define its uppermost surface with Scurves and the bridge.105 SETTING UP DRAWING WITH WIRE Follow these steps to draw a three-dimensional violin Choose a gauge of wire sturdy enough to hold the shape ofyourfinished drawing. These will hold the sides apart and help to keep the form in shape. and thick wire a larger one. I started with the scroll at the top and fixed the four component wires with two drawings of tuning pegs. brace the two ends of the violin with a length of wire along the back. Cut a length. begin to shape the curvature of the fingerboard. 1 Decide how big to draw your violin relative to the gauge of your wire. but thin enough to be easily manipulated inyourfingers Here.
England. I had the privilege of drawing their inventions. .Artifacts and Fictions IN 1993 I WORKED with a group of schoolchildren who were responding to the astonishing objects in the collection of the Pitt Rivers Museum. they invented new anthropological finds—objects that reflected the distant past and their immediate future. Oxford. some of which are shown here. Using found materials.
explaining ranges e/ of materials and techniques and showing diversities of thought and purpose in making. It also looks at the representation of the b o d y b11y4o n d traditional life drawing. from video and X-ray to thermal imaging. Drawings were usually made from the male nude to avoid offending the church. It gives physical and emotive form to religious narratives. clothed or nude. Renaissance artists studying anatomy from dissection clinically trained and specialized as a medical illustrator. a n d w e d r a w o u r s e l v e s to a s s e r t o u r e x i s t e n c e . is the most c o m m o n subject in art. Michelangelo attended dissections to made this image by light sectioning: fine beams of light perfect his understanding of surface form. in our privileged and comfortable society. Leonardo drew a man within a circle and square. 3 x 7 in (300 x 180 . and surgically rebuilt.The Body O UR BODIES MAKE us TANGIBLE. while Durer took his research further— A. R. Williams were decades ahead of their medical counterparts. Look closely at Renaissance drawings of the female b o d y and you will see that m o s t are actually y o u n g m e n with minor adjustments. history paintings and other stories. The human body. and anatomical and erotic art. the junior workshop apprentices posed as part of their duties. W e are the only creatures on Earth that can make our own image. W e understand every curve and balance of to the theory that the eves are the windows of the soul. the Bay Area Models' Guild h o l d s a quarterly life-drawing m a r a t h o n aprinton Kodak transfer paper with green-colored dye added celebrating the great diversity of human proportion. myths and fables. but the study of a controlled. and in San could easily be transferred into three dimensions. focus has turned to the vulnerability of flesh: how it can be damaged. He even believed he had located the soul contours of her form like a cartographer's map of in the pituitary fossa beneath the brain and behind the eyes. Artists now explore the interior of the body with new media and Lateral Contour Map of a Full-Term Primipara Produced by Light 1979 A. sculptural description of her form. In this period. Strangely. This F finished image was produced as r a n c i s c o . while Leonardo opened the body to see and projected onto a woman's body draw the celebratory discover for himself our physical mechanisms. diseased. This chapter addresses issues that are most commonly faced by beginners attending life-drawing classes. She the body is still essential. giving physical foundation undulating land. These classes are popular around the world. artists also tried to define ideal proportions in the body. W I L L I A M S technology. portraiture. herimpressive presence because we are given such Life drawing no longer dominates the art school curriculum. During this time. and because the female was deemed inferior. R. The body remains at the core of over the initially white lines. WILLIAMS he sought perfection in the infinitesimal measurement of the body and produced four Contemporary photographer volumes of illustrated explanation. Artists are thought to have b e g u n drawing from the nude during the Italian Renaissance. much Western contemporary art.
RAFFAELLO SANZIO (RAPHAEL) Italian High Renaissance painter: Raphael is best known for his images of the Madonna and Child. She u n f o l d s and s t r e t c h e s shapely limbs. while supporting the weight of their body with the other. we see the e s s e n c e of h e r b e a u t y w i t h o u t a single detail. altar pieces. and human defeat. In this highly s o p h i s t i c a t e d a b s t r a c t i o n . Three Guards 1500-20 91/4 x143/8in (234 x 365 mm) RAPHAEL .110 T H E BODY THESE DISTINCTIVE WORKS show two strikingly different ways of modeling the body on paper. Sculptural frieze This is a preparatory drawing for Raphael's painting of the Resurrection of Christ. He trained under Perugino. By way of contrast. Muscular dramatic postures reflect the influence of Michelangelo and the Renaissance celebration of the idealized male body. so that we read this drawing like a sculptural frieze. and Vatican frescos. Raphael drew delicate tones of black chalk on tinted paper. In a single drawing we see equally o b s e r v e d studies of f o r e s h o r t e n i n g (see pp. and studied to learn from the works of Michelangelo and Leonardo besides whom he was soon ranked.116-17). anatomy. Matisse's b l u e n u d e sings with life and c e l e b r a t i o n . But the meanings of each gesture and the materials and methods by which they Postures and Poses were m a d e contrast greatly. T h e y b o t h raise one arm to cup their head in their hand. Here three male nudes are compressed into very shallow pictorial space. while Matisse used scissors and glue to cut out and paste a flat collage of brilliant color. filling the page with her presence. Raphael's study of fallen m e n leaves no doubt that they are in anguish. Principal figures m i r r o r e a c h other.
His calligraphic natural abstractions of form grew brighter. teacher and principal exponent o f Fauvism—a movement established in 1905 in which bold color is the most essential element. and Islamic art....111 HENRY MATISSE French painter: draftsman. devoid of troubling Blue Nude 1 1952 413/4 HENRY MATISSE .like an appeasing influence..designer writer. a mental soother.. his pattern. fabric. Matisse became an artist after studying law. foundamong many other groups of papercut these works as an elderly man confined to his bed or wheelchair. serenity. as his w o r k matured. and more energetic Color and form This collage is one of a series of Blue Nudes. lifelong love of brilliant They celebrate the culmination of spectacular and sometimes drawings. Matisse Soothing influence This drawing expresses the achievement of Matisse's personal aim: "What I dream and depressing subject matter. freer. printmaker.or like a good armchair in which to rest from physical fatigue..sculptor." of is an art of balance.which might be.
agreeing to coalesce and show us the form of a waiting boy. and c o m p l e m e n t a r y hues. other tones. scratched in seconds. T h e space around h i m chatters with symbols. In his f a m o u s paintings of social e n g a g e m e n t . we c o m p a r e a skillful design that absorbed m u c h time in its making with the quickness of an idea marked instantly. like small birds attendant on the meditation. Opposite. stands in counterpoise holding a dark globe and his thoughts in m o m e n t a r y balance. only tones blending into. reflected. Tone and light In this black conte drawing. or abruptly meeting. Using the paper to create light is important for beginners to learn. it is as if the very atoms of air are made visible. Beuys's magician. turned gray. he used b l a c k c o n t e (see p. velvet d a r k n e s s . Seurat engaged in lifelong studies of line. in a perfect e x a m p l e . and muddied the brilliance of the drawing. Typically. His drawings are similarly u n i q u e . Below. w h o sits propped in the contradictory darkness of a hot summer's day. Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 1883-84 91/2 x 121/4 in (241 x 312 m m GEORGES SEURAT . Light is given by the paper alone. it would have mixed with unseen black dust. Here. there are no outlines. 162) and an eraser to model teeming points of artificial light amid GEORGES SEURAT French painter classically educated in the Ingres school of thought. and color His applied theories still influence painters in their manipulation and rendering of local. form.112 T H E BODY Choreographs T I M E IS A SIGNIFICANT E L E M E N T i n t h e m a k i n g o f a l l d r a w i n g s . If Seurat had added white. Seurat evolved a distinctive t e c h n i q u e called p o i n t i l l i s m — i m a g e s literally made from myriad points of color.
Many of his other symbolic works on paper have been drawn with materials such as honey. Perfectly modeled rather conventional for Joseph Focus Beuys's hand moved quickly to draw dotted lines flowing downward on either side of the figure. Our focus joins shoulders. iodine. free from the constraint of immaculate form opposite) impetus is irrelevant to the and meaning of this work (as we see in Seurat's drawing representation. in different positions. He was a shaman who believed in intuition and in the investment of healing force. and drawings. and blood. Unbroken lines stream from his simultaneously movement. CHOREOGRAPHS the profound power materials with spiritual or of Free lines This pale pencil drawing is Beuys. and that These aspects of the work convey fractured visibility. and made installations.113 JOSEPH BEUYS One of the most influential German artists of the 20th century. Beuys gave performances. This figure is drawn intuitively. video art.gold. transience. His The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland UNDATED 113/4 J O S E P H BEUYS x81/4in (297 x 210 mm) . taught workshops with a cult following.
Paris. was perceived as scandalous. They whisper and writhe in a brushed and sultry embrace that devours our watching. Rodin produced portraits and statues of public and literary figures." as seen here. We are asked to gaze u p o n her flesh. Free lines Rodin's public audience was understandably shocked by the eroticism of his drawings. In both drawings. THE AUGUSTE RODIN French Romantic sculptor and prolific draftsman employed as an ornamental mason until the age of 42. Rodin employed models to move freely or pose together in his studio. he typically drew them with a few delicate strokes of pencil and brushed watercolor. sweeping lines— of either purple silk fabric or cool studio air—that imprint and amplify their past and future movements. But what is stranger to us now is that they were also outraged by his free use of line. and went on to inspire generations of artists. Achieving international acclaim in mid-life. and one of hundreds of rapid studies of nudes. As here. the women are framed and caressed by long. its soft. his w o r k is characterized by deliberate un-finish and powerfully modeled emotion. Anita Taylor has drawn her protective body hug out of the darkly glistening compression of willow charcoal and the dynamism of her shy but momentous femininity. We are involved not as a shabby voyeur but as a bystander engaged through our recognition of shared joy. His exquisite flow of paint beyond "outlines. Delicate strokes This is one of about 7. In Rodins work. 125/8x 9 in (320 x 229 mm) AUGUSTE RODIN Two Women 1911 Embracing .000 drawings shown in rotation at the Musee Rodin. the fierceness of the women's kiss is beautifully matched by the tenderness of his line.114 BODY Passion SUMMONING HUMANITY in a drawing of the nude is a subtle and emotional task. Our bodies radiate the passion of our thoughts and so become beacons of our frailty and power. Inspired by Michelangelo. Opposite. flushed skin made ruddy and black with crushed cinders.
Luminosity Layered marks flicker likefirelight as they sculpt the woman's body. textured paper. professor and Vice Principal of Wimbledon School of Art.I 15 ANITA T A Y L O R Painter. Charcoal Taylor has drawn freely with charcoal and an eraser on thick. and gaze. This order of light below and dark above gives glowing from within. draftsman. Taylor has drawn. The sturdy surface of the sheet has allowed her to press hard when needed. Taylor's immense self-portraits explore the relationship between the artist as maker and the artist as model. and rework rich depths of light and tone. scrutiny. the impression of luminosity All and Nothing 1999 67 x447/8in (170 x 1 1 4 cm) ANITA TAYLOR . erased and drawn again. London. intimately reflecting upon the emotions and meaning of nudity. leaving her lightest marks at the deepest level of the image and applying darker marks above. exposure. A thinner sheet might have crumpled and torn under such vigorous force of making.
persistence. patience. London). Up close on the scaffold we would witness Michelangelo's subtle application of accelerated perspective. 2 Hold your pencil upright. you will make inconsistent and unrelated comparisons. The length of exposed pencil is your measurement. when beginners prop their board in their lap and look down at too steep an angle. and to draw what we see. with dramatic illusions of figures painted in normal proportion. To avoid its effects ensure you always look flat onto the surface of your page. rather that what we believe we know from experience. "Simple measured comparisons reveal surprising truths about proportion. Return to this posture every time." . Close one eye. helping us to see more clearly. just making them helps you see.limbs happily receding. or shrivelling at odd. It is not so hard. without taking off. Move the tip of your thumb down to a second chosen point. more extreme examples have been made for court entertainment. MEASURING This is a simple method of making measured comparisons for relating the true size of one part to another This is a tool to assist observation and thinking. to be translated by mirrors or seen from only one point in the room. Rome. and wrist joints. How to make and apply these is explained below and opposite. It is not complicated. Imagine Michelangelo's murals in the Sistine Chapel. we would arrive to find many of the same figures strangely distorted. plummeting. for example. 1 Hold your arm straight. If your arm is not straight. There is no need to mark them all down on paper. 3 Keep your pencil perpendicular Measure and compare at any angle. It can also be a little demon in the life room.116 T H E BODY Measurement and Foreshortening FORESHORTENING IS AN ASPECT of perspective. We also look at another very interesting branch called accelerated (or anamorphic) perspective. the skull in Holbein's The Ambassadors (The National Gallery. Spend time making comparisons before you draw. or coming forward. and a few measured comparisons are key. Align the top with a point on your subject. Lock your shoulder. elongated as if stretched across the plaster. and measurements do not have to be carried to the paper and slavishly drawn the same size they appear on your pencil. Smaller. which is imperceptible from below. unfathomable angles. Accelerated perspective plays a great role in much art. In the life class it is the mechanism for ensuring that a drawn figure lies correctly in pictorial space . This is chiefly a correcting device by which figurative painters and sculptors have for centuries countered the effects of our viewing their work from far below or on the curvature of a vault. elbow. But if we could take a scaffold and climb up to the work.
t a p e s o m e p a p e r t o a board. MEASUREMENT AND FORESHORTENING Tilt t h e t o p edge o f this b o o k t o w a r d you and look d o w n o n this figure f r o m a b o v e . Stand its b o t t o m edge o n y o u r lap. T h i s is t h e s a m e d r a w i n g p h o t o g r a p h e d f r o m above. which feels strange. adjusting a n o n y m o u s shapes. A t a c e r t a i n angle. h e r p r o p o r t i o n s will appear correct. L o o k at y o u r m o d e l as if he o r she is a flat series o f shapes o n e o n t o p o f a n o t h e r Measure t h e height and w i d t h o f each shape and c o m p a r e it t o its neighbor. W e appear t o be looking d o w n o n a w o m a n s t a n d i n g b e n e a t h us. P r o p o r t i o n s will only l o o k c o r r e c t f r o m t h e angle at w h i c h y o u make t h e drawing. y o u r hand travels f a r t h e r than y o u expect. Lean t h e t o p e d g e t o w a r d y o u and find a p o s i t i o n w h e r e y o u can c o m f o r t a b l y l o o k d o w n t h e p a p e r at an angle o f a b o u t 4 0 degrees. W o r k a r o u n d t h e figure. looking d o w n t h e p a p e r at t h e a n g l e at w h i c h I d r e w . S o o n t h e b o d y will lie d o w n in space. FORESHORTENING To f o r e s h o r t e n a figure. a n d thighs. See h o w d i f f e r e n t t h e relative heights o f t h e s e shapes are f r o m w h a t w e m i g h t e x p e c t in real life.117 ACCELERATED PERSPECTIVE To discover h o w this w o r k s . To m a k e f o r m s l o o k c o r r e c t . pleasingly f o r e s h o r t e n e d . y o u must let go o f w h a t y o u k n o w f r o m e x p e r i e n c e a b o u t t h e relative sizes o f b o d y parts and trust y o u r eyes. C o m p a r e t h e heights o f t h e nose and eye shapes t o t h o s e o f t h e f o r e a r m . Keep t h e b o a r d steady and draw. . belly.
because it results in two unrelated sides drifting apart. Outline To outline a figure. height. and stance before honing her balance and expression. T h i s q u i c k e x p l o r a t o r y line does not perfectly describe shape but expresses a decision about overall flow of form.118 BODY Quick Poses DRAWING QUICK POSES l o c k s y o u r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n t o what is most essential. I used a sharp H B pencil and began each drawing by marking her outline. Start each new drawing by lightly marking the model's height with a loose line in ten seconds. propelling you to make immediate assessments and trust them. Balance When a model stands upright on both feet. working from her center to her feet and to her head. THE SEQUENCE OF POSES H e r e the model was asked to move every t w o minutes. and energy. make the upper body smaller give your model a high waist. feeling. and slightly enlarge her legs and feet. Leave first thoughts in place. . Be bold and dive into your drawing with c o n f i d e n c e . and work over t h e m with further o b s e r v a t i o n s . balance. Avoid drawing up one side and down the other. her center of balance is normally found in a vertical line beneath her head. Layered lines give d e p t h . Height This pose leans away into space above our eye level. To draw this effect. imagine holding up a plumb line. work back and forth across the body. To see this. and height.
Most of us have a tendency to over-straighten the drawn figure. The tilt of the pelvis is then counter balanced by the model's shoulders tilting the other way (as seen here).119 The twist of a model is most easily and expressively captured if it is exaggerated. the activity of circular lines and the repetition of limbs suggest movement. . and this should be avoided Twist QUICK POSES A model standing on one leg usually drops the opposite hip. This drawing shows how different observations be overlaid to bring a drawing alive. Tilt Movement Here.
and a gooseneck lamp casts shadows that clarify planes and depths GESTURES OF THE HAND Curled Fingers 1 Open Palm Start honing the shapes of the dominant planes. 3 . general to specific. Practice by drawing your own hands and feet. starting with the largest. swiftly marking its essential gesture. Don't worry about achieving perfect solutions. feet. Group the fingers together as one mass. This exercise is useful when struggling with proportion. Focus instead on how planes change direction across the knuckles from one side of the hand or foot to the other. or those of a friend. drawn in relation to each other. but regard these practice studies as ongoing processes of thought and observatio Add details such as nails last if you wish.120 BODY Hands and Feet THERE ARE MANY different ways of approaching h a n d s and THE of form. especially the lengthwise divisions between them. These planes. 2 Build your drawing gradually from light to dark. it is important to leave aside all details of the fingers and toes. and they need not be daunting to draw. It also helps the beginner to progress from drawing outlines to drawing confidently across the surface of the whole form. A mirror increases your range of views. and ignore all details. Keep lines open to change and take measurements if they help. Begin by drawing lines to encompass the whole hand. Then subdivide each shape so that you w o r k from large to small. Do not separate them yet. express structure and gesture far more successfully and easily than ten worried outlines wandering up and down between the fingers and toes. Draw large shapes and their orientation. W h e n starting.
2 3 Use an eraser t o refine decisions o r t o suggest areas o f light. however. depth. as if with a chisel.121 HANDS AND FEET MOVEMENTS OF THE FOOT Flat Stance Raised Heel Instep 1 Let your first marks be light. Try t o express the whole foot and t o encapsulate its entire shape and direction in a few marks. and don't worry about accuracy t o begin with. Look for key angles without becoming distracted by detail. Nowimagineyou are carving the foot insidethepaper.as though out o f wood. It can be a mistake. Leave aside all detail. and rapid. these are what give a drawing its tangible structure. t o remove t o o many early lines. flattened planes. . loose. Hew it roughly in broad. and spontaneity.
The white lines demonstrate what is often called "bracelet shading. Opposite." .204-05. I also used white ink with a steel dip pen. Compare its nature in close-up to that of willow charcoal used on pp.Charcoal Hands T H E S E DRAWINGS ARE MADE in compressed charcoal.
length.HERE TRACES OF RAPID initial lines are still seen within and outside each body. and posture of the model. 118-19). Phrasing Contours . I make these lines in the first five to ten seconds of a drawing to locate the presence. before honing his or her shape (see pp.
. It is now viewed with some skepticism and often seen as academic. I draw in museums in support of written research and as an artist seeking answers to questions about the practicalities of image making. feeling them through the attentive movements of your own hand. and narrative pulse become vivid when you realize them in the middle of your study.The Visual Detective DRAWING FROM MASTERWORKS was once a staple component of an artist's education. Drawing work by another artist enables you to discover and understand the inventive hand in their composition. perspectives. Forms. characters.
Life-size women wearing wigs recline on beds of embroidered silk in cabinets of mahogany and Venetian glass This is a detail of a compressed charcoal drawing measuring 14 x 10 ft (4. each modeled from dissection. Florence. 126-27. These almost life-size figures were composed from my imagination and achieved with the help af studies discussed on pp. there is a unique museum of 18th-century anatomical waxes. Walls are lined with hundreds of faintly animated body parts.La Specola At17V i a Romana.3 x 3 m) made in response to La Specola. .
look directly at us. We are also reassured by keeping records of ourselves. made as he passed through the ages of man. or past us. in a miniature self-portrait magnified opposite. and expression of the individual. or a glimpse of him is caught in a photograph used as a prop. you can capture the subtlety. Past rulers sent painters across continents to bring back a likeness in advance of a prospective royal marriage. We can mold and animate qualities of expression out of objects and fragments of disassociated things—for example. character. Equally. abstract or figurative. Portraits can be highly or loosely detailed. Self-portraiture gives every artist a constant.139). we use the delicate medium of silver point to look at foundation structures of the head. For centuries. The truth is that we all like looking at faces and observing the billions of variations that make us individuals. neck. and social and political commentaries. Man Ray's self-portrait of scored lines. Beginners often draw themselves as a way of establishing their practice. is here to both meet and look through us. their stance. and secular narratives. who. throat. 1790-92 4 x 3 in ( 1 0 2 x 7 6 m m ) F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A and memorize the basic structure that we all share. It also reminds us o f b o t h t h e intimacy and a scene as scrutiny o f an honest portrait.Portraiture IN P O R T R A I T U R E W E MEET PEOPLE. painters have dropped discreet records of themselves into commissioned narratives so that they can remain a face in the crowd. Our homes are filled with images of our loved ones and of those in our families who have gone before. Rembrandt's famous multitude of self-portraits. the meaning of their face. This enlargement o f his miniature p o r t r a i treveals t h e s p e e d and agility o f his p e n and about himself. Goya. his changes in pressure and Hitchcock length o f line. . W h e n drawing a person. having been documented and preserved. and it is very rewarding. In this chapter. and their posture can be changed with just one line. and satirical or metaphorical. bells. To create a face is to see and interpret the essence of an identity. and in a few scrolling rafts of pen lines and stubbled dots. buttons. and a handprint (see p. or whose eyes can seem to follow us around the room Portraiture is a constant. single or of groups. and lucrative genre for artists. Once you understand Self-Portrait in a Cocked Hat c. Halls and palaces are filled with pictures of the mighty and significant. Movie director Alfred similarly signed his films by playing a fleeting role: he walks through an extra. gathered all that he knew FRANCISCO DE GOYA V i s i o n a r y Spanish painter. Goya's w o r k s include many royal and society p o r t r a i t s . The returning image was of crucial consideration in any proposal. and shoulders. live. a single line can deliver an entire expression. compliant subject to scrutinize. draftsman. religious. became more poignant as he progressed. historical. usually strangers from past times. and p r i n t m a k e r .
breadth. Here the grace and beauty of two young women are held forever. hand to capture something well in only Frangoise au Bandeau 1946 660 x 505 mm (26 x197/8in) PABLO PICASSO . Picasso strikes and scrolls his pencil. Without faltering. length. We can actually count that he struck the paper 40 times. one eye already cast askew into the autumn of her life. we can enjoy and learn from them. and pressure as it conducts our eye through the image.132 PORTRAITURE Poise THE BALANCE BETWEEN a mark and a blank space is often a tantalizing form of perfection. Picasso has left to posterity many hundreds of magnificent line drawings. It takes a truly accomplished a few strokes. stealthily using his chalk to find contours and mass. they serve as a great lesson that it is not always necessary to add tone to your drawing. Holbein maps the still landscape of Dorothea's body in questioning marks. He makes his flair and skill look easy.30). PABLO PICASSO Spanish Cubist painter (see also p. adding smudges of tone for weight and solidity. While with longer consideration. Her face is drawn tenderly and with a luminous glow. teetering on the brink of older age. caught in her last moments of youth. For the beginner. It is the portrait of a countrywoman. There is a common misunderstanding that a drawing with only a few lines is both less finished and easier to make than a drawing with more. The aesthetic sense of a line being just right can make a drawing sing. We can read so much about them by studying their gaze. whisking a timeless girl onto the page. How could the addition of shadows have enhanced this image? Few strokes The simplicity of Picasso's line is breathtaking. The truth is often the opposite. Through exhibitions and copies in books. The Tightness of a line is felt in its speed.
The peak of her cap clips the uppermost edge. Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 1516 51/8 x121/4in (385 x 310 m m ) HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER . which. and designer f r o m Basel. made a popular series o f w o o d c u t prints titled The Dance of Death. gently flushed. Holbein unified the woman with her background by gently blending colors from her clothes and face into the atmosphere around her. In addition t o his numerous exquisite portraits in oil. Holbein was employed toward the end of his life by King Henry VIII of England. Blended colors In this portrait drawn with colored chalks on slightly textured paper. Holbein has cropped and pinned his subject within the four outermost lines of the image—the edges of the page. presses against the binding across her face. and produced numerous society portraits such as this one here. He outlined her nose but not her upper lip. Cropping This regal composition fits its paper perfectly. and its downward slope crowns the diagonal of the composition. Her folded forearms support and frame her weight above. he designed c o u r t costumes.133 HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER German p o r t r a i t painter draftsman.
The style of Durelli's d r a w i n g opposite sings with the confidence of truth and precision. Nerves. . dark lines made with a pencil appear against smooth. but they are irrelevant here. Psychological drama is contained behind a grid. Newsome was awarded the Prix de Rome in 1960. Durelli has m a d e a few m i n o r mistakes. Contrasts Sharp. and has works in major collections including the Tate Gallery. The real dissection w o u l d have been far more c o m p l e x .134 PORTRAITURE Anatomies These highly finished drawings express the emotional power and physicality of the head and neck. It floats in space. Highlights of white gouache were dry Profile Head late in the making. distorted. VICTOR NEWSOME British sculptor painter and draftsman. solid above and almost hollow below. perhaps applied using a tortillon. the face is one of the hardest parts to dissect. Delicate muscles are integrated with the skin and fat that is to be r e m o v e d . or defined by. London. while white painted flecks and wisps suggest electrical illumination. Anatomically. This is one of a number of similar disembodied female heads seen behind. the contours of a grid. its highly clarified detail claiming to be d r a w n from observation. This is a m a r v e l o u s interpretation of the truth. using a fine and relatively 1982 13 x 181/8 in (328 x 460 mm) VICTOR NEWSOME brush. and glands also complicate form. taught at numerous British art schools from 1962-77. blood vessels. In fact. N e w s o m e ' s eerily shadowed form is smooth and bears a linear grain evocative of w o o d . continues to exhibit regularly. confusing. dark tones of graphite blended into the paper. and unpleasant to see.
Pencil numbers refer to the list of muscles written beneath. w h e n contracted. pull their points o f attachment t o w a r d each other . Red Chalk the Muscles 1837 173/8 x 145/8 in ( 4 4 0 x 3 7 2 m m ) ANTONIO DURELLI and Pencil Drawing and of Neck of the Head Little is k n o w n o f this M i l a n e s e p a i n t e r a n d engraver w h o c a m e from a family o f artists. which.135 ANATOMIES ANTONIO DURELLI Linear perfection This is a red chalk drawing of extraordinary accomplishment. Durelli's experience as an engraver is reflected in his stylized drawing o f muscle fibers. Stylized parallel lines are reminiscent of engravings. and it is likely that this drawing was intended for reproduction as a print. It is hard to think of a more difficult medium with which to achieve such linear perfection.
and poet After studying in Geneva and Italy. Agitated marks make patches of tone that cut away the space around the character. He is best known for his bronze sculptures of human form. Similar movements sculpted the head below into its page. Portrait de Marie-Laure de Noailles c. Flesh is built and personality carved simultaneously. Giacometti settled in Paris. Energy This is a portrait of a woman drawn with black crayon on a plain page of a book Lines search for the essence of form. and with staccato flinches his hyperactive eye moves from paper to model. cutting and carving the paper with matted and spiraling restless energy. as if seen from a distance. Opposite. Without paint and with very little tone. while his hand stabs and thrusts Revelations like a conductors baton. each portrait is inscribed onto the page. The camera watches him at work. which are characteristically elongated. ALBERTO GIACOMETTI Swiss sculptor. They show us clearly the bones of drawing. 1948 77/8 x 6 in (200 x 150 mm) ALBERTO GIACOMETTI . he drew over the whole image at once. and heads. painter draftsman. each locked into a visionary gaze. Bellini gently conjures the features of his saint with soft marks that tease his presence out of shadows into the light. close enough to touch his hair and feel his breath.136 PORTRAITURE THESE ARE DRAWINGS of shoulders. Speed Giacometti probably began with an oval shape placed in relation to the proportion of the page. There is a film of Giacometti drawing. They confuse our perception of scale by being intimately fragile and at the same time far removed. necks. Then. with speed and urgency. We are brought intimately close to this man gazing up to heaven. Both works demonstrate how simple lines can be made complex by being intense.
lyrical. transferring which were made in the process of the saint to his final place in the composition of a painting (see Glossary pp. Head and Shoulders of a Man 73/8 x 21/4 in ( 1 8 6 x 5 8 UNDATED GIOVANNI BELLINI . Bellini s t u d i e d u n d e r his f a t h e r J a c o p o . a n d c o n t e m p l a t i v e .5 9 ) . Mantegna. Character This is one of many cartoons produced by Bellini the and his family. H e t a u g h t G i o r g i o n e Barbarelli and Titian. a n d b r o t h e r in-law.G I O V A N N I BELLINI A prominent member of a large family o f V e n e t i a n painters.25 6 . These are pinholes. Sometimes different narrative same character was reused in compositions. H e p r e f e r r e d religious t o classical t h e m e s . Transfer This delicate humorous chalk a drawing is a cartoon—not image but a type of template used to plan the composition of a larger work Look closely and you will see rows of tiny dots along every significant line in the picture. a n d his w o r k is d i s t i n c t i v e l y calm.
humor. and everything flux. made with great energy. bells. and attitudes.221). spear-brandishing warrior. and indulgence. signing their work SAMO. drawn. JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT Short-lived American painter and graffiti artist who began his blazing nine-year career drawing on lower Manhattan subway trains with a friend. marks. Al Diaz. The incandescent New York painter Jean Michel Basquiat pictured himself here in naked silhouette. It is an image of confrontation—the ever-controversial young artist roars at us from his abstract city-scape. scratched into its surface. It is an opportunity to look deep without the infringement of courtesies owed to a commissioning sitter. scrolls. similar to work by Cy Twombly (see p. and confrontations with. It has proved to be a subject of piercing scrutiny. Later Basquiat sold drawings on T-shirts. political outcry. The figure's position is unequivocal and defiant while around him is in a state Without the essential of cultural and figure we would elegant belookingat a sophisticated painting of signs. postcards. a tribal. their most immediate and best-known subject: themselves. In 1986 he traveled to Africa and showed his work in Abidjan on the Ivory Coast He also exhibited in Germany and France. skull- Self-Portraits headed. Islands of graphic marks. scratched lines. Signs and symbols with symbols This painting shudders that ore written. and sheet metal before being snapped up by the New York contemporary art scene. Self Portrait 1982 9 4 x 7 6 in (239 x 193 cm) JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT . and buttons rings with surrealist wit and agile improvisation. Man Ray's playful silk-screen assembly of color blocks.138 PORTRAITURE THE MIRROR OF SELF-PORTRAITURE offers artists infinite reflections of. float and shimmer in the shallow pictorial space. The artist has finished his portrait with the signature of his hand smacked in the middle like a kiss: a declaration of existence as old as man's first drawing.
139 MAN RAY American surrealist photographer. Man Ray lived and worked in Paris. Autoportrait 1916 195/8 MAN RAY . They experimented with camera-free photography working directly onto photographic paper Silk and ink This is a silkscreen print made through the following process: the paper was laid on a flat surface and a frame stretched with fine silk was placed on top. caked in thick printing ink or paint. where he collaborated with the artist Laslo MoholyNagy. Black ink was printed next and then white. The first part of the stenciled image was already marked on the silk The screen and paper were then held tightly together. last of all. They suggest speed and make the picture look immediate and spontaneous. During the 1920's and 30s. Frame White lines are seemingly (though not actually) scratched through ink to frame this face. printmaker and cofounder of the New York Dada movement. Man Ray probably used his own hand. while a squeegee was used to drag thick lilac-brown ink across the silk pushing it though exposed areas onto the paper below. The handprint appears to be made directly. painter.
For i m p o r t a n t a d v i c e o n p r e p a r a t i o n a n d use. I m a k e m y o w n f r o m o l d dip pens. Lightly s p o n g e o f f t h e excess. laid on paper. W e t o n e length o f g u m . b e f o r e priming stretched paper. choose a silver object. bone. Z I N C W H I T E G O U A C H E : Dilute with w a t e r A d d c o l o r i f r e q u i r e d (as opposite) 4 . 3 . Be swift and firm. Metal point is simply a strip of metal bound in a holder. Find a n i t e m t h a t y o u can h o l d a n d draw with comfortably. o n e t o fit each side o f t h e b o a r d — t h e s e will make t h e glued f r a m e t h a t holds y o u r p a p e r in place. Note h o w domestic paintwork marks with a coin. E m p t y mechanical pencils designed f o r t h i c k leads ( s e e p. the surface must be primed with a ground such as gouache. M E T A L OBJECTS: All metal objects m a r k a p r e p a r e d surface. If w o r k i n g o n an emulsion-painted wall. Drawn across a prepared surface. To begin. Pages 142 to 147 are illustrated in silver point and techniques are explained on pp. The most c o m m o n metal has always been silver—hence the term "silver point. 2 . Historically. Straighten the w o r s t buckles. SILVER P O I N T W I R E H O L D E R : T h e s e c a n b e p u r c h a s e d a n d t e n d t o b e heavy. platinum. W e t a n d fix a s e c o n d strip t o t h e o p p o s i t e side." Lead. you will need t o stretch paper and lay a wash (see right and opposite). and is therefore useful w h e n using w a t e r c o l o r as well as silver point. who used it to outline initials and border characters before painting. SILVER W I R E : Purchase different gauge lengths f r o m a traditional a r t supplier o r jeweler. T h e p a p e r will l o o k b u c k l e d . which quickly oxidizes into a gray line. This browns with age unless sealed by fixative (see pp. This is called a three-tone drawing. I t is a v a i l a b l e f r o m all a r t s h o p s . 2. key. s o m e m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n o t h e r s . Gesso o r m a t t e m u l s i o n c a n a l s o b e u s e d . s e e p . and make o r buy a holder. 5. purchase silver wire. p a r c h m e n t . Stretched paper remains taut as a d r u m . 156). copper. S i l v e r is b e s t . or ring. I combined silver point with painted white gouache on a pink ground.s t r i p a n d use i t t o fix o n e side o f t h e p a p e r t o t h e b o a r d . 144-45.140 PORTRAITURE Silver P o i n t SILVER OR METAL POINT STRETCHING PAPER A sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has been made w e t with the strokes o f a paintbrush will buckle d u e t o its uneven expansion. Numerous early European artists also enjoyed its fine qualities (see p.54) can also b e used.54-55). M a k e s u r e i t is c o m p l e t e l y clean t o avoid u n w a n t e d streaks. Lay a clean d r a w i n g b o a r d o n a flat surface. artists mixed white lead. and t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h strips a b o v e and b e l o w . and gold have also been used. illuminators of medieval m a n u s c r i p t s . 1 4 4 . was familiar to or eggshells with animal glue. 1. and alloys work on matt emulsion. an exciting indication of how large-scale drawings could be made on a wall. Take a sheet o f any t y p e o f p a p e r (for e x a m p l e . MATERIALS 1 Find a clean sponge and b o w l o r d e e p t r a y a n d fill it w i t h w a t e r W e t t h e p a p e r evenly in t h e t r a y o r o n t h e b o a r d . Opposite. c h o o s e a s o f t full b r u s h t h a t c a n c a r r y p l e n t y o f l i q u i d . it leaves a deposit. S O F T F U L L B R U S H : W h e n laying a w a s h . b u t d o n ' t w o r r y .Tear o f f f o u r lengths o f b r o w n p a p e r g u m tape. or wood. w h i t e d r a w i n g paper) and cut it t o fit y o u r d r a w i n g b o a r d w i t h a generous b o r d e r a r o u n d its edges. Metal point does not work on ordinary paper.
any extra will keep. is necessary to lay a wash o Three-tone When coloring ground. stretched paper at a 45-degree angle. as the paper will be ruined by a raised ridge. v e r y little at a time. Prop up your board of dry. I used a powder pigment called Caput Mortuum.141 SILVER POINT 3 Leave the paper to dry flat. full brush into the gouache and start in the top left corner. Make enough to cover your paper. Keep adding smooth. Runs blend into each other evenly. and let tests dry before deciding to change the mixture. The next step will make a small mess. Here. overlapping lines until you reach the bottom. Leave the wash to dry thoroughly before you begin to draw. Beware of the tape's coming loose at any point while drying. so put newspaper under the lower edge. Dip a soft. leaving a smooth surface.t o n e silver point drawing of a skull . Keep testing on spare paper. slowly add powder pigment or gouache from a tube. T h r e e . LAYING A WASH It your stretched paper so as to prime it for silver point. Mix a very wet but not weak solution of gouache in a jar with a lid (add pigment at this stage for a three-tone drawing). Reload the brush and add a second line overlapping it beneath. It will slowly straighten and become taut. Dry thoroughly before laying a wash. Make an even line across to the right.
Head and Neck
THE HEAD AND NECK are best conceived as one unit arranged in four parts: cranium, face, neck, and throat. Each is of equal importance. The cranium is essentially egg-shaped and pivots on the first vertebra. The face is suspended beneath, like a softly curved triangle. The n e c k — a powerful, shapely column of layered muscles rigged to vertebrae—adjusts and holds the angle and expression of the head. The throat is delicate, hard, and lumpy to the touch, formed of cartilaginous rings, glands, thin muscles, and looser skin. Framing the throat, two columnar neck muscles (sternomastoids) project the head forward and also turn it to the opposite side.
This is a simple shorthand diagram representing the cranium, face, neck, and throat. It can be learned and visualized in different positions very easily, giving the novice a firm footing on which to stand and develop their drawings of the head and neck.
Cranium Begin with an egg shape. Tilt it on the paper to change the position of the head.
Face Draw a rounded triangular shape below the forward point of the egg to represent the face.
Neck This shape represents the trapezius; the largest surface muscle of the neck and shoulders.
Throat A triangular shape represents the throat. (The nose makes the diagram clearer)
After copying the diagram above, animate it. Practice drawing the cranium at different angles, add the face beneath, then the neck, shoulders, and throat. Shape your diagrams so they are more lifelike, but avoid adding detailed features too soon.
143 These three drawings demonstrate (from left to right) the following: why the cranium may be considered egg-shaped; now the face can be seen as a curved triangle suspended beneath and where the division lies between the two; and the form of sternomastoid muscles that frame thethroatsodistinctlywhen the head is turned and inclined forward.
The skull and the frame of the throat
HEAD AND NECK
Bones of the cranium are locked together by jagged joints. Sinuses in the frontal (forehead) bone between and beneath the eyebrows are larger in men, making their brows pronounced and often ridged compared to those of women.
Bones of the face house our sight, smell, taste, The skull pivots on the first vertebra or "atlas," and speech. Cartilage extending from nasal bones after the Greek god condemned to carry the shapesthenose.Pads of fat resting on the base of Earth. The jaw hinges in front of the ears. Behind, eacheyesocket support the eyeballs in position. If bony ridges give anchor to the sternomastoid thefatisreducedby old age, eyes look sunken. muscles rising from the breast- and collarbones.
Three useful generalizations
General rules about the relative positions of body parts can hinder artists as much as help them, since they are often based on classical ideals rather than thediversityoflife.However,some generalizations can help as a rough guide to start with, so long as good observation takes over as soon as possible.
In general, when the face is relaxed (not smiling or frowning), the corners of the mouth are found directly beneath the pupils of the eyes. Vertical lines can be drawn down from the pupils to meet the corners of the mouth.
The height of a young adult's ear is often the same as their nose and found on the same level. There is no general rule for growing children, and remember that ears grow again in old age, which is most obvious in men.
The height of the face is about the length of the handspan and the eye is normally halfway down the total height of the head. A common error is to draw the eyes too high up on the face.
T H E DELICACY OF SILVER POINT
(see pp. 140-41) is perfect for
such as a beach pebble. Here, I stretched drawing paper and laid a wash of white gouache (see pp.140-41). As you can see, the line and tone of silver point varies with pressure, but only slightly. Too much pressure cuts the ground. Silver point erases, but so does ground. Erased ground can be repaired gently with extra gouache. You can also use gouache to paint over mistakes and make corrections.
small, detailed drawings. The drawings below and opposite show useful observations of the head and neck, which are explained in the captions below. Each drawing was made with a silver wire held in a large-gauge mechanical pencil. Newly clipped wires are sharp and cut rather than draw. Before use, they need to be rubbed and smoothed on a stone
Here I imagined placing my silver point wire against the skin of each head and neck and, working in parallel bands from the crown downward, I traced the undulation of surfaces. Linear bands imagined around the head and neck can help you t o clearly see the tilt of the head and relative levels of the features. Ask a friend t o model for you and try this exercise life-size using a pencil and eraser
Seeing that the face is never flat
Drawings below left and center are summaries of the generalizations given on p.143. Far right is an image to remind us that the face is never flat. It slopes back to varying degrees among individuals, from the tip of the nose t o the ears. For example, note that the innermost corners of the eyes are farther forward in space than the outermost corners.
General measurements, side
General measurements, front
View from above
Male and female head and neck
Men's necks a r e g e n e r a l l y s h o r t e r a n d t h i c k e r t h a n w o m e n ' s b e c a u s e t h e angles a n d levels o f c e r t a i n b o n e s a r e d i f f e r e n t b e t w e e n t h e sexes ( i n d i c a t e d h e r e b y d o t t e d lines) a n d m e n are n o r m a l l y m o r e muscular. T h e male t h y r o i d cartilage ( A d a m ' s apple) is larger a n d m o r e visible than t h e f e m a l e . L a r g e r f e m a l e t h y r o i d glands also s o f t e n t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e t h r o a t .
The largest m u s c l e o f t h e s h o u l d e r s a n d n e c k is called the trapezius. A r r a n g e d on e i t h e r side o f t h e spine, it shapes t h e u p p e r back and neck above the s h o u l d e r blades. C o n t r a c t i n g in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h d e e p e r and surrounding muscles, it raises and l o w e r s t h e shoulders a n d d r a w s t h e h e a d backtoeitherside.
USING A SHARP 3 B PENCIL, I drew this head quickly from imagination, evolving its character and expression from the scheme of four parts: cranium, face, neck, a n d throat (see p. 142). Here, five steps show you how to practice doing the same. This approach can be used to draw from imagination or from life. Keep your wrist loose and hold your pencil away from its point (see pp.22-23). Build the layers of your drawing from pale to dark, a n d from general balance a n d form to specific detail. Remember that successful drawings are built on foundations of "seeing the whole," then dividing the whole into smaller parts, with details brought in last of all. Phrased tonal marks modeling this girls skin and hair follow the technique demonstrated by Goya in his self-portrait on p. 130. Turn to Goya's drawing and study how, in a circle beginning across his hat, moving down his hair, and around his coat, he flows lines over surfaces to describe their contour. As you build from steps 1 to 5, bring phrased groups of lines across the surfaces of your form, using their directions to capture the expression of the head and neck. If unsure, copy my steps until you gain the confidence to make your own decisions.
This drawing is the final stage of the four steps opposite. Here, I have enlarged the eye, and moved it back into the head by trimming the length of the upper lid and adding a more pronounced lower lid. It is important to set eyes far enough back from the relatively prominent nose; too close to it and the face flattens. Hair swept back and extended behind the cranium balances the regal pose. Lines shaping the hair echo those marking the cranium in step 1. Here, the lower part of step 1 comes through as wisps of hair across her face and ear
Portrait of a Young Girl
The eye announces the nature and expression of the emerging person. avoid drawing too dark. 2 Rapidly add shorthand shapes to represent the face. down the face to the throat. Here. 3 Place the eye beneath the cranium. too soon. 4 . I modeled the outline of the character I imagined light shining from above and in front and adjusted the pressure of lines to reflect this.Theangle at which you draw this shape of the paper will determine the angle of the finished head. they are also still sweeping and confident. Keep your first lines light. over the cranium. The nose and ear begin to shape the head.147 Building up the portrait DRAWING PORTRAITS 1 Gently spin pale lines in a softly drawn shape representing the cranium. Moving from the back of the neck. so it is important to the life of the image that while controlled. First lines will remain visible in the final drawing. I used light to describe the upper lid first with a shadow beneath for the lower lid and open eye. neck. and throat.
empathize. a n d t h o s e w h o a r e Generations asleep (see overleaf). muscular tension.T o DRAW PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGES. and gravity. . Above all. the texture of hair. be aware of the subtle differences in skin surface.
. I used the nib upside down to gain needle-sharp precision. Madrid. Van Dyke's noble cast of characters was modeled more finely. Fast lines carve out the features of Goya's soup-slurping hag. with a steel dip pen and acrylic ink.Castings DRAWING IN THE PRADO MUSEUM. seeking the dominant contours of each individual expression.
In psychology. a n d w e will c o l l e c t patterns. Samoylovich Rosenberg. toParis. st 111/4 x 81/2 in (285 x 220 mm) u d i e d L E O NB A K S T and explore the characterization of fabric t h r o u g h m o v e m e n t . theb u t b y the w a y it s p e a k s w i t h its flying. outrageous. and even invisible by the w a y w e dress. or calm u s w i t h chic. personality.Costume W E MAKE OURSELVES EXOTIC. c o s t u m e o f f e r s a r i c h v o c a b u l a r y of t e x t u r e s a n d c o l o r . and gouache. shapes. e m u l a t e textures. Practical classes Bacchante 1911 l o o k at r a n g e s of c o l o r e d m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d i n g p a s t e l s a n d felt-tip p e n s . Previously. Artists do this not so m u c h b y the style of a figure's garment. intriguing. and intent. it is the public sign by w h i c h w e are j u d g e d . and i n d e e d image b e c a m e the property also of the industrial classes. D e s i g n e r s create m a s t e r p i e c e s of haute couture LEON BAKST for H o l l y w o o d stars. S t r u c t u r e is t h o u g h the i n v e n t i o n of shoes. he and cofounder Serge Diaghilev took Paris by eac storm in 1910 with their production h year in the industrial f r e n z y of creating o u r image and aspirations. and s y m b o l s that lets m e n and w o m e n in all countries and areas have w o r k i n g access to the latest fashions. cool. gesture. of Scheherazade. articulate a d a n g e r o u s satirical j o k e . and atmosphere. and e x u b e r a n c e . or b u l g e s . a n d c o u r t i e r tailors f o l l o w e d suit. dancer leaps through swaths of golden cloth. while court p a i n t e r s — M i c h e l a n g e l o and Holbein. T h e rural masses w o r e h o m e s p u n simplicity. c r u m p l e s . woman was drawn by Bakst one year later for the ballet Narcisse. T h e p a p e r p a t t e r n is p e r h a p s the m o s t w i d e l y k n o w n of c o s t u m e d r a w i n g s : a formalized plan of lines. In this c h a p t e r w e see h o w c l o t h i n g c a n s e e m to p o s s e s s the w e i g h t and m o n u m e n t a l i t y of stone. so that c h o i c e . w a r m t h . o n l y the w e a l t h y c o u l d afford to h a v e c o s t u m e s specially m a d e . b u t influenced Parisian fashion and interiordecor.As artistic director of the It is s h o c k i n g to t h i n k h o w m a n y m i l l i o n s of d r a w i n g s m u s t be m a d e a n d d i s c a r d e d Ballet Russe. a n d s u b t l e t o n e s . Petersburg and later exiled designers' ideas and are surprised and delighted b y their continual f l o w of inspiration. was a Belarussian A r t Deco theater fantasies and desires to immediately possess a version of the same. known as Leon Bakst. charcoal. and be so expressive of temperament that it overtakes the need for an o c c u p y i n g h u m a n form. w h i c h in turn feed c o n s u m e r Lev. a n d p r o f e s s i o n — b e g a n life as a d r a w i n g . caricatured p l u m e s . P o p u l a r f a s h i o n d e s i g n e x p l o d e d w i t h the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n . arichand unusual combination of pencil. and everything w e h a v e c h o s e n for o u r w a r d r o b e s — r e f l e c t o r s of o u r taste. variety. T h e e n t o u r a g e of the theatrical stage o f t e n l e a d s the c a t w a l k . fulfilling lavish and spectacular briefs. Designers all over the w o r l d c o n t i n u a l l y p e n and b r u s h lines to lash us w i t h color. Like it or not. . g l o s s y folds. Bakst's designs and costumes immediately To the fine artist. W e dress ourselves and costume designer trained in in St. c u l t u r e . for e x a m p l e — d e s i g n e d the w a r d r o b e s of p o p e s a n d k i n g s . Cities c h a n g e d all.This voluptuous above all a physical p u p p e t w i t h w h i c h to animate character and narrate personality.
the carefully composed outline of his cloak shows us how the artist would have also begun his immaculate rendering of the Virgin's clothes. with their jagged edges. Van Eyck's highly polished w o r k is c e l e b r a t e d f o r its disguised symbolism.156 COSTUME Cloth and Drapery EACH OF THESE FIGURES is ninety percent cloth. He has layered these slowly and carefully so as not to cut through the ground and produce a white mark just where he intended a dark one. Below this. Short and subtle horizontal punctuations are only given in the background by sections of floor. bands around the columns. the Madonna and her architecture are both dressed in the same manner. delicate lines. Her gown is carved and polished as if made from marble.140-41). Marble gown We will never know if Van Eyck considered this drawing unfinished or intended the kneeling abbot to remain transient and ghostly. and implied striation in the stone of the architecture. Church and deities are drawn as JAN VAN EYCK Flemish oil p a i n t e r f r o m L i m b o u r g . her marble garment holds u p the infant Christ in a fountain of compressed line. and the kneeling abbot is a ghost by comparison. Maelbeke I44I Madonna 11 x 7 in (278 x 180 m m ) JAN V A N EYCK . resonate with their wearers startled expression. folds and patterns of material speak more resolutely of their wearers than any small glimpses of body we can see. best k n o w n f o r his G h e n t altarpiece ( 1 4 3 2 ) a n d m a r r i a g e p o r t r a i t o f Giovanni A r n o l f i n i and his w i f e (1434). Flaxmans sleeper—perhaps a pilgrim or a soldier resting between campaigns—has wedged himself into the cleft of some great building to grab a moment of peace. The quiet stillness of this image is achieved by a masterly economy of stylized line. swirling printed fabrics. Their uninterrupted emphasis is entirely vertical. With a stylus such as Van Eyck used here. the vaulted stone roof echoes and crowns the moment. Delicate marks Silver (or metal) point is the most delicate of traditional drawing media (see pp. it is only possible to create very thin. Keisai Eisen's intense. In Van Eyck's drawing below. dragons. However. H e m e t i c u l o u s l y a r r a n g e d subjects t o c o n v e y d e e p e r meaning. Above them. Sculpted one. Opposite. and snakelike marks. Vertical lines The highly controlled lines of this drawing cascade from top to bottom of the image.
Images are drawn onto smooth. each delivering a different part and color of the design. stone wall of downward-stroked this sleeper's position is momentary. the cloak sliding to the ground. he also co-edited and expanded the Ukiyo-e Ruiko (History of Prints of the Floating World). Dante. Aeschylus earned Flaxman an international reputation. CLOTH AND DRAPERY Relief printing This is a woodblock print made by a relief process. This complex numerous blocks prepared image and may have been made with printed separately. Remaining raised areas of wood are rolled with colored inks. the angle of the head. which are sometimes also cut into pieces like a jigsaw puzzle.157 KEISAI EISEN Japanese draftsman. flat sheets of wood. The inked block is laid face-down on damp paper and pressed to make the print. writer and printmaker Keisai Eisen took his name from the masters Kano Hakkeisai and Kikugawa Eizan. and teacher Distinctive linear illustrations for the works of Homer. an 18th-19th century document on the lives of the ukiyo-e artists. draftsman. designer. and the feet notched against the pillar tell us that A lines holds him into the cleft. Position In this pen and ink drawing. one over the other. Parts of the image to be left unprinted are gouged out with a metal tool. Koimurasaki of Tama-ya 1810-50 15 x101/4in (381 x 260 mm) KEISAI EISEN The Courtesan JOHN F L A X M A N English late 18th-century neoclassical sculptor. Respected for his sumptuous images of geisha and editions of erotic prints. and Man Lying Down in a Cloak I 787-94 21/4 JOHN FLAXMAN x 41/8 in (57 x 105 mm) .
160. In 1 6 3 2 he m o v e d p e r m a n e n t l y t o L o n d o n . Details and voices are worn externally with great imagination. The metal. The aged queen is compared to an overdressed bird. Leg section Compare mid-shin the section of white boots cropped to the section of similarly cropped trousers in drawings Gruau's drawing on p. a scurrilous cartoon by a courtier of Queen Elizabeth I. b e f o r e traveling t o Italy. cartoon. all ruffs and wrinkles. A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE Flemish painter and draftsman. Flowing scarf The knight's scarf of gilded blue is drawn in a pale wash over red ink lines. Van D y k e was chief assistant t o Rubens f o r t w o years. Fine examples can be plucked from fashion. and feather were all CHARACTER COSTUMES REPRESENT observed with closely crafted conviction. t h r o u g h n u m e r o u s p o r t r a i t and C h u r c h commissions. cinema. lace. where sometimes there just might not be anybody inside. he c o o l e d and redefined his style. The slight uncertainty of the pose and the limp cloak suggest a little more metal than man. cloth. Anthony Van Dyke's Man in Armor is a masterpiece of drawn surface. Man in Armor UNDATED 1 6 x 9 1 / 2 in ( 4 0 5 x 2 4 0 m m ) A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE . and even formal portraiture. Pen and wash In the graphic accuracy of this armored knight we see the idealized identity of a warrior from another time: a gleaming defender of the realm. It is presumed Her Royal Highness never saw it. Leg sections in both support the figure without taking our attention away from the main garment above. Opposite is a dangerous drawing. w h e r e . a n d w a s e m p l o y e d as c o u r t painter t o King Charles I. Its color is also reflected in the metal. He has been rendered on this olive<olored page with pen and gray wash worked over a red and black under-drawing. Its warm surface flows in contrast to the stiff metal armor. A s a y o u n g man. theater. A flamboyant territory.158 COSTUME Character Costumes an extreme form of the clothed figure. for she would not have been amused and William Wodall might have been stretching his luck.
159 WILLIAM W O D A L L A u t h o r and illustrator o f The Aaes of Queene a Elizabeth poem Allegorized. t h e Jesuit Mission. Northern Satire This is a quill-and-ink satire of the elderly queen's pride-As head of state and fashion. bitten nature.1599 71/2 WILLIAM x 51/4 in ( 1 9 0 x 1 3 4 mm) WODALL . Top-heavy. here dark tawny owl. Beneath the lethal fan is the body of a bird of trimmed feathers suggest age. A Ruffs and feathers Starched white ruffs worn at court and by society grew steadily larger as Elizabeth's reign progressed. hooded with an overinflated fluffy ruff eye pins us. By her old upto three tiers supported on sticks. and saturations showing through from the other side. t h e Ridolfi Plot.35). the queen is masterfully rebalanced by words at her feet The whole drawing's blackened. T h e poem recounts t h e six m a j o r crises o f Elizabeth's reign: t h e Spanish A r m a d a . while a raised foot pauses to assess the next displaying a fan of daggers. suggest the use of iron-gall ink (see p. t h e B a b i n g t o n Plot. she is shown as a grossly disproportioned bird. and her pride. it was customary to Iron-gall ink Wodall's dangerous caricature steps daintily the written lines of her dedicated page. manuscript comprising six c a n t o s . Satire of the Queen's Dress c. t h e Rising.
and gray pigments were applied separately. G r u a u ' s highly distinctive d r a w i n g s have a p p e a r e d Couture.5 9 ) and a three-spoke balance of cuffs and cropped trousers to create an almost flag-like emblem of power.160 COSTUME Femmes Fatales THESE DEVASTATING femmes fatales force back the onlooker with their demure. Spider-Girl leaps like an insect. Rene Gruau's bold gouache drawing of smoothly swaying sophistication captures a brilliantly cut garment and frames it with great dynamism in a white. The black red. Airbrushed reflective surfaces further amplify our perception of speed. a n d L'Officiel de la couture. Vogue.c e n t u r y haute i n n u m e r o u s m a g a z i n e s i n c l u d i n g Elle.F r e n c h f a s h i o n i l l u s t r a t o r w h o in his l o n g and esteemed career w o r k e d with many of the g r e a t e s t d e s i g n e r s o f 2 0 t h . possibly over a pencil outline. His model is outlined. 158. and both share the power of scarlet and black. muscular aggression. Composition Look how well this image is frame knee is parallel to the bottom edge spacehorizontalline cropping the trousers be outermostuprightbordersof her cuffs are similar above her head thesidesoftheimage.and tilted to the same de a little deeper than sp kneestogivehergravity. demanding attention with gesture and flair. RENE GRUAU I t a l i a n . Gruau's model regally swans to the fore with cool pride. Compare the compositio beneathVanDyke'sstudy of armor on p. diving to catch us in the grip of her machine-like limbs. India ink and gouache This swish of confidence and style our enters the page turning everyone's head. as is Spider-Girl opposite. Drying time in between applications ensured the colors did not run into each other. 5 8 . studio-like rectangle of paper. elegant chic and svelte. Harpers & Queen. Fine lines drawn against the building behind her echo the threads on which we have all seen arachnids drop and hang. She has been drawn with brushes dipped into India ink and gouache. Fashion and fantasy drawings invent prototypes of ideals and perfection—be they for the catwalk or the fast-paced pages of comic books. ofcroppedtrousershere to the device of the w Illustration 1949 for Jacques Fath in L ' O f f i c i e l d e la C o u t u r e RENE GRUAU . Gruau uses starkly cut negative space (see pp.
sky. to the right of its center. Align your ruler to the upright of each building. Airbrushed color and with tonal focus. and has been the title's regular artist since 2003. beginning with Star Wars. MARVEL C O M I C S .RON F R E N Z Contemporary American graphic artist w h o designs and pencils the dynamic scenes of numerous superheroes featured in Marvel Comics. a great characteristic superhero comics. and figure are all locked into equally shatp through the traditional process of a pencilled outline over-drawn ink. He began work on Spider-Girl in 1998. at Their extensions will meet the same single vanishing (see point pp. Frenz has drawn for Marvel for about 20 years. This s modeling applied over the top give the image a sleek and mechanical of gravity. Single-point understand perspective To how Frenz created up therefore the effect of steeply between looking buildings—and howyou can do the same in your own work—take calculate where a ruler the and single vanishing point lies.74-77). Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 2001-04 R O N FRENZ. not far above the drawing. It is outside the picture frame. and Amazing Spider-Man. Sharp focus black outlines in this drawing create a hyper-real dynamic. Buildings. In your mind's eye extend the uprights out of the top of the picture. moon. The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones.
purchase a small selection of different items you think you will like. Bright pastels are more brilliant on colored paper. Store loose pastels in dry rice to keep them clean. C o n t e crayons are square-formed. the finer and more subtle the texture and color should be. Sticks and conte crayons make thicker marks (as below). animals. OIL PASTELS: Many colors. Try materials that are new and unfamiliar. fixing each layer on the front. insects. used to make colors. Pastel pencils are slender and in w o o d casing. and subtlety. See h o w they work and return later for more of what proved best for you. unwrapped harder pastels. Often. Many artists apply fixative to the back of their work. 3. COLORED PENCILS: Dry pigments ground together with chalk. oily pigment. Beware—some are toxic. 1. Use them to draw lightly (as above left) or thickly. intensity. minerals. and can be softened and manipulated with degrees of heat. paper-wrapped. FELT-TIP PENS: Instant-drying alcoholor water-based inks stored in the barrels of the pens are delivered via smooth nylon o r felt tips of varying shapes and thicknesses. colored materials available. The worst are like revolting old lipsticks that get everywhere except where you intend. and can be a great rediscovery for bold drawings. including iridescents. Many products are sold individually and in boxed sets. Seemingly infinite choices of texture. and CHALK PASTELS Pastel pencils make fine lines (as above). are derived from many sources: rocks. Before making substantial investments. They vary hugely in cost. wash. hue. shape. mixed on the paper and scratched into (as below). They work well on PIGMENTS Pigments. made in about 80 colors. size. the diverse are made in brands of basic member of the family. soft. 4. CHALK PASTELS: Blackboard chalk is sidewalk work. crumbly. quality and cost T h e best are paperwrapped sticks of sumptuous. quality. The higher the quality (and cost). and sold in many colors. except the final layer. and cost are laid out for our pleasure and perusal.162 COSTUME Colored Materials ART STORES BRIM OVER w i t h t h e m a n y wherever permitted. though lines can develop greasy stains around the edges if the paper is not first stretched and treated with a gelatin paste laid as a wash. 2. which he left unfixed to retain its brightness. Be aware that fixative dulls pastel. I suggest you do so. these work best when slightly warm. Pastels are finer. plants. great for tin . slightly oily to the touch. you may be pleasantly surprised to discover something you could not have imagined using. allowing it to fix slightly from behind. and synthetics. chalkbased but very subtle. or wax and a binder are shaped into fine strips and encased in w o o d like a graphite pencil. The nontoxic range below represents a suggested starting point for experiment. there are disparities between the apparent nature or color of what you hold in your hand and its performance on paper. Most stores leave small pads of paper on their counters for customers to test materials. clay. OIL PASTELS Oil-based. Degas built his pastels in layers. Dissolve in turpentine or mineral spirits to produce oil paint or or dark paper. Children's wax crayons are relatives.
FELT-TIP PENS Although not made with felt-tip pen. Diverse brands are harder or soften greasier or chalkier in use. Fine lines can be achieved (as above). Some give richer lines than others.163 COLORED PENCILS These are wax. Some are nonsoluble. leaving the paper to shine through for highlights (as below). 111). Think of Matisse's Blue Nude (see p. others dissolve in water or turpentine to make a wash. . Brands made for designers sold in enormous ranges of colors are far more subtle and sophisticated than those made for children. it is still a great champion and support for those beginners feeling shyly obligated to tone down their love of color to conform with what others say they should use. Colors can be blended as shown right) and tones graded by altering pressure.or clay-based thin crayons in wood casing. If you love smooth blocks and lines of colon felt-tip pens are perfect. so it is best to test them before buying.
D r a w each o n e first as a solid object. To set up. while artists have painted their boots or those of others as personal portraits and memorials. structure. values. imagining y o u can see t h r o u g h it. 104-07). a range of colored felt-tip pens with both fine and broad tips. t o o . and after studying familiar shoes we use the information learned to invent new ones. personality. and how we stand and walk. You. Superstitions and fetishes are attached to them: we are told never to put new shoes on a table. style. As artifacts in museums. I m a d e n u m e r o u s s h e e t s o f d r a w i n g s . Turn t h e m in different d i r e c t i o n s and o b s e r v e t h e i r s t r u c t u r e and f o r m .164 COSTUME Study and Design they reflect our age. social and economic status. S H O E S TELL LIFE STORIES. 100-01 and pp. REPEATED STUDY T o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s class. a n d e x p e r i e n c e visible p r o g r e s s . t h e n again as if transparent. Linear Outline Using fine pens. they record and reflect our common history. if y o u m a k e p l e n t y o f d r a w i n g s as o p p o s e d t o o n l y a f e w . c o v e r a large sheet o f p a p e r w i t h line drawings o f several shoes. . and a selection of shoes. the era in which we live. Here we go one step further. This class takes the shoe as its subject in building on earlier lessons concerned with seeing through objects to understand their function. e n j o y i n g t h e study a n d i n v e n t i o n o f shoes. and they have been concealed in buildings to ward off misfortune. and volume in space (see pp. will discover m o r e . you will need several large sheets of drawing paper.
STUDY AND DESIGN
study the surface contours using fineand broad-tipped felt-tip pens. For best results, it is important to be bold and brief. Draw firmly, fast, and with as few strokes as possible. Build up each shoe from light to dark andleavesome paper showing through to create highlights.
Design Your Own
Using what you have learned from the previous steps about the structures of your shoes, and about the use of pens, invent new designs from your imagination. Start with fine outlines and progress to colored and textured surfaces. Modify your ideas by rotating the views.
The Structure of Costume
MUSEUMS ARE AN INFINITELY
rich resource for the artist and
information given by a period style. Arrange to visit a costume museum or ask a friend to model clothes for you at home. Using fine felt-tip pens, begin with quick, pale impressions of each garment's shape before homing in on its borders and seams. Try to draw transparent views wherever possible to record the relationships between all component parts. Aim to draw enough information for it to be possible to make up a version of the garment using paper pinned to a tailor's dummy.
designer. They often give quite unexpected gems of ideas and information—whatever the subject. These drawings, made in a costume museum, demonstrate ways of recording structural information and detail for later use in the studio. They could form the basis of new designs for a fashion project or theater production, for example. Drawings of shoes on pp. 164-65 show how new designs can be evolved from the structural
It is usually best when collecting information for reference to apply the restraint of dispassionate observation. Set yourself the test of drawing facts with as little artistic license or embellishment as possible. Here I chose fine felt-tip pens because they are at their best when used swiftly, and therefore encourage bold, unhesitant decisions.
Swift lines record the hanging weight of this gentleman's coat, the relative proportions of its layers, and minimal details of the buttons and cuffs.
Thick velvet fabric is pulled tight beneath and across the bust by a single button. This transparent view shows how the fabric falls loosely in straight panels beneath the level of the sleeve.
W h e n visiting museums, be prepared f o r l o w lighting, which can make it hard t o see and draw. A book can help if attached t o your drawing board.
Adding stripes and dashes of color with a thicker pen brings out the glossy sheen and sculptural rigidity of this dress, which would have been worn over a whalebone corset. small reading light designed t o clip o n t o a
THE STRUCTURE OF COSTUME
In small drawings such as these, use thick pens to color entire sections with a few marks, as I did here down the side of the bodice.
The light, frilly bulk of this crinoline dress is propelled forward with lines. pinching its gathers and sways that are hiding a horsehair bustle. fleets of quick
THIS CLASS FOCUSES ON how to draw textures through the collection of fabric, pattern, and embroidery samples from a costume m u s e u m . This formal method, using ruled squares, can create an invaluable library of ideas a n d i n f o r m a t i o n for future r e f e r e n c e — w h e n painting a clothed figure, or preparing a textile project, for example. However, if making a book of samples for a project, remember that it is important to also include collages of f o u n d materials (see pp.230-31) To d r a w a fabric texture, b e g i n by concentrating o n h o w y o u i m a g i n e it w o u l d feel if you t o u c h e d it. Decide if it w o u l d be rough, s m o o t h , w a r m , cold, thick, thin, tough, or fragile, for example. As you draw, believe you can feel these qualities at your fingertips a n d that your pencil is responding to the sensation. Undulate the pressure of your lines and marks according to the feeling of the fabric rather than its appearance. Let your pencil enact the sensation of touching its surface.
and to experiment more loosely with mixed media.
This starchy, quilted, b o w e d creation started life as an imagined corset, I intended t o d r a w together in one sculptural f o r m a range o f t h e details opposite. T h e garment quickly got o u t o f hand. T h e r e is great e n j o y m e n t in letting y o u r imagination run wild w h e n inventing costumes. If you are unable t o visit a costume museum, many exciting fabric details and textures can be found in y o u r o w n closet o r home.
Colored pencils give precision and tonal range; they can be faded but not erased. Lightly use an HB graphite pencil if you wish to plan a design first. Pressed hard, colored pencils build up a waxy finish of brilliant color. Used lightly, they appear powdery and show the texture of the paper.
TEXTURES AND PATTERNS
Silk and braid
Dressing Character I O N C E SPENT THREE MONTHS researching the work of Francisco de Goya at the Prado Museum. These characters. and 252-53). identity. look at how Goya delineated volumes of thick fabric to express the posture. and motivation of an individual.126-27. Madrid. I made a drawing book full of studies seeking to understand how he composed drama and pathos in his narratives (see also pp. 172-73. shape. . selected from different pages of my original book.
as it rushes and carves fabric-wrapped forms like rivers and desert winds shaping the earth.T H E S E PENCIL STUDIES. To understand how he did this. I carefully copied the direction of each of his lines. and visible. are copies of works by Goya in which he makes air seem heavier than flesh. and tangible. Posture Carving also taken from my Madrid drawing book (see pp. .170—71).
and so. With a pocket full of disposable pens we also go out and draw the expressions of gathered people. we can R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter draftsman. types. soap operas. The spaces between people and the positions they occupy on a page are vital to our understanding of the psychology or emotion of an event. Blockbuster movies. presumably while he is making this drawing. and instantly engage with the action of the scene. there are no longer individuals but one significant group or mass action. daily newspapers. the viewer's attention in a scene by the format of its composition. . the viewer. and distance—so drawings of gathered people can be loosely arranged in three took only minutes to make and yet it lives for centuries. this is not the portrait of an old woman. stares out from her gloomy sickbed. Washes of shadow behind engaged and as a natural voyeur can feel invisible while watching the scene. we. He is also the artist from whom props to add layers of meaning and attitude. but drawings of gathered people tell them most directly. R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN in the delivery of narrative. in spite of how it may seem. Third. Her all-too-clear expression shows annoyance and irritation with her husband. As artists. and therefore seem to see. Seeing through Rembrandt's eyes. Later in their lives. furniture. Saskia. Saskia died after childbirth. heighten or subdue drama with subtleties of exaggeration or caricature. We read tensions and exchanges between people. Drawings selected for this chapter explore these Saskia Lying in Bedand a Nurse ranges of proximity 1638 9 x61/2in (227 x 164 mm) and a travel journal. the viewer is not directly made the finer lines of Saskia. even up her were laid with a brush. vivid portrait of his wife captures our attention. and novels—our staple cultural diet—are driven by a fascination with shared experience and the detail of what happens in other people's lives. are implicated in this marital exchange made over the head of the anonymous nurse. and other masters of Western Art. We can also use clothes. He in turn scorches the paper with his view and a certain speed of seeing all. a crowd tells the story from a distance. while a quill contact with. the speed and printmaker and one of the greatest and most influential density of its lines. the direct exchange (as shown here) where one or more characters hold eye Aneedproduced the thicker lines of the nurse. First. too. television documentaries. Here.Gatherings A LL DRAWINGS TELL STORIES. finding corners in crowded places to inscribe their action and energy onto the page. We can direct close. Second. Storytelling and people-watching are obsessive human activities. Rembrandt's bored and frustrated wife. we can learn most about handling pen and ink. and its illumination. It middle. comics. paintings depicting scenes from history. This J u s t as there are three parts to a traditional landscape drawing—the foreground.
t h e y select and arrange familiar items of street detritus into what appears to be an u n p l e a s a n t pile. and on. TIM N O B L E A N D SUE W E B S T E R British artists who collaborate using neon.. In one of R a c k h a m s great illustrations for Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland. and smoke billows around the agitated jives of the Duchess. and in. and projectors to create their anarchic punk satires of modern life." (Tim Noble) Drawing with light it is important to think about what you is Here timelessly we see a in can draw with. refuse. Pans fly oft the stove. c o m p o s e d garbage p r o d u c e s a c a l m . F o r e a c h w o r k .176 GATHERINGS SOME DRAWINGS ARE MADE e n t i r e l y o f i l l u m i n a t i o n that floods drama into the viewers gaze. Think about what else you could use: a laser smoke. Below. via the animated clutter of o u r material lives. N o b l e a n d W e b s t e r s w i t t y a n d o f t e n s u b v e r s i v e d r a w i n g s are also c o n t e m p o r a r y art installations. Pencil on paper important but only the beginning of possibility the combination of three-dimensional space. the C o o k . narrative is delivered through the air. and projector. the Cat. for example.. In both works. and Alice. T h e i m m a c u l a t e d r a w i n g is only r e v e a l e d w h e n t h e b e a m of a p r o j e c t o r c a s t s t h e s h a d o w Projections of the h e a p o n t o a wall. Here. a kitchen explodes in o u r faces."Anything that. hearth i m p l e m e n t s crash at o u r feet. junk.kicks against the mundane things that close down your mind is a refreshing and good thing. plates shatter. Real Life is Rubbish 2002 Dimensions variable TIM N O B L E A N D SUE WEBSTER . garbage and chaos are piled a n d e x p l o d e d in r o o m s full of event. or even the office photocopier. h a l o e d portrait of the artists seated b a c k to b a c k .
100 to see for make elliptical objects and pans fly through the the foreground. Depth Billows of smoke expand and are lighter as they come forward. humor. See how the In the Duchess's Kitchen 1907 77/8 x 6 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 5 0 m m ) ARTHUR RACKHAM . amplifying movement outward from the vanishing point. a n d an unmistakable graphic style. are very large compared to on p.Stowe's ofMysteryand Queer Little Folks. ink. Rackham Vanishing point In this marvelous drama made with pen. and Poe's Tales Imagination. The wood grain acts like marks of speed behind the scene. beams. by vivid children's Rakham's w o r k is characterized fantasy. Refer back to the drawing class how pots In drawn objects and elements that those behind. and Alice's shoulder. This makes the story appear to leap out at us. we find several devices already explored through our drawing classes. tabletop. H e is best k n o w n forillustratingIrving's Rip vanWinkle.76-77) above vanishing point (see that is about3/4in (2 cm) oak converge at this point.177 ARTHUR RACKHAM British watercolorist and book illustrator. and watercolor. Find the singleperspective pp.
a sculptor.178 GATHERINGS we have seen in the pairs and trios of drawings by masters and makers. This is just one of many precious artifacts from a lost time. a n d l o v e d t o d r a w in t h e BritishMuseum. The mournful gray landscape of Henry Moore's northern British field has gathered by night an overcoated audience to stand and wait before a wrapped and roped monument. M o o r e t o u r e d Italy as a young man. Magnetic Fields sculpture. London. A glimmer of gold light appears from the left No explanation is given. expressing his dry humor about O F ALL THE CONTRASTS HENRY MOORE British s c u l p t o r w h o t r a i n e d a n d taught at t h e R C A . heat. Moore's spectators appear to have walked a long way from nowhere to witness and wait beside this mysterious obelisque. as if Moore's wrapping has been literally outstretched. The image stands out among his more usual graphic works in which he hones and carves semi-abstract human forms. and art in the landscape. and composition they are polar opposites. meaning. In culture. This is an ironic drawing from Moore. Opposite. audiences. HENRY MOORE Crowd 1942 Looking at Tied-up Object . a great Shoshone drawing blazes with the color. as fellow watchers. and action of a buffalo hunt. and we. join in the waiting.The human form w a s the vehicle o f his expression and h e w a s t h e official W o r l d W a r II artist. which still narrates vivid days in the lives of an energetic nation. perhaps these two are the most extreme. Chalk and graphite This fog-bound but humorous gathering of souls is made in graphite and colored chalk with gray wash.
tolearnhow to paint a scene on a hide are and buffalo circle and charge the perimeters of a skin "field. and helping our eye to dart around.179 SHOSHONE SCHOOL Stylized characters This vital image of a buffalo hunt is made with pigment Members of the Shoshone community wishing painted within dark outlines on a stretched elk hide. creating harmonious balance with words but through silent demonstration." Men at the instructed to sit and watch. Hunt CENTURY SHOSHONE SCHOOL . Stylized hunters. horses. Each color is evenly distributed throughout the scene. MAGNETIC FIELDS Horses It is interesting to note how the outstretched limbs ofthesehorses echo European images of the runningBuffalo horse before the sequence-photographer Muybridge taught us to 19TH understand their movement differently. Skills are taught not center chant or dance to the beat of a drum.
The Circle of the (The Whirlwind 1824 of Lustful Lovers) mm) 143/4 x 207/8i n ( 3 7 4 x 5 3 0 WILLIAM BLAKE . a n d the gentle h u m o r of sedate r i d i c u l e . w r i t e r a r t i s t . Misted in translucent layers of paint. texture. K a t h e K o l l w i t z s c r a t c h e d a n d e n g r a v e d her a r m y of c l a y . w h e r e he w a t c h e s a t u r b u l e n t s p i r a l of p u n i s h m e n t f o r the d a m n e d . It illustrates a scene from Dante's Divine Comedy. B l a k e h a s i l l u m i n a t e d his s a d d e n e d Virgil on the s h o r e s of a d a r k w o r l d . a pink-inked cinema wobbles along with string. The muscularity of Blake's figures was inspired by Michelangelo's works. Brushed line and wash This is an ink-outlined drawing made with a fine brush on paper with added washes of watercolor The image was subsequently redrawn as a line engraving. a n d f o c u s . a n d e n g r a v e r w h o p o w e r f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e d his o w n t e x t s in a d d i t i o n t o D a n t e ' s Divine Comedy. a d e a t h c h a r g e of brutality. color. w h i c h b y their c h o i c e a n d h a n d l i n g a c t u a l l y b e c o m e the force a n d spirit of e a c h i m a g e . inextinguishable in its fortitude and h u m o r . era as Kollwitz. We also see qualities of line.f o o t e d t r o g l o d y t e s w h o rage into w a r like a m u d s l i d e of revenge. Blake w a s d r i v e n b y a passion f o r j u s t i c e a n d a p r o f o u n d b e l i e f in his v i s i t a t i o n s f r o m angels. p o e t . m a r k . Opposite.180 GATHERINGS The Human Condition IN THE SPECTRUM of these vastly d i f f e r e n t g a t h e r i n g s of p e o p l e . pale souls of the lustful are being s p u n into yet another realm of hell. and sweetened the often bleak years with his impractical inventions. t h e Bible. w e f i n d a spiritual v i s i o n . Heath Robinson lived through the same war-torn. a n d o t h e r w o r k s . W I L L I A M BLAKE British visionary.
plodding along with hazy. Ink rolled over was selectively polished off using a rag. who lived in a poor district of Berlin. and the family home. Losbruch (The Outbreak) 1955 20 x 233/8 in (507 x 592 mm) KATHE KOLLWITZ HEATH ROBINSON humorous illustrator and a regular contributor to magazines and journals such as The Sketch and The Bystander. humor by making his characters earnest. Heath Robinson shows England in a past era. Robinson and Kollwitz (above) share almost identical life dates and their work expresses a shared history from opposite sides oftheworld wars. White marks were made with a dusting of French chalk on the artist's finger to wipe away ink leaving clean metal. and the impact of death and war upon women. and controlled smears on the metal surface printed as tones. The image was scratched directly onto a metal plate. THE HUMAN CONDITION Scratched lines This is a dry-point etching with monoprint. He created sincere. What remained in scratched grooves printed on damp paper as lines. sculptor and draftsman. however meager or ridiculous their activity. HEATH ROBINSON The Kinecar 1926 103/8 x 15 in (262 x 380 mm) .181 KATHE KOLLWITZ German printmaker. poverty. and her powerful and sensitive drawings center on nurture. Kollwitz survived the two World Wars. and clearly focused. children. stoical bemusement. With masterful gentility. British Pen and wash This is a pen-andwatercolor drawing made for a color-platereproduction in an edition of T h e Bystander.
Insensitive t o p r e s s u r e : lines d o n o t v a r y in w i d t h o r t o n e . 7 6 . if y o u w i s h y o u r d r a w i n g s t o last a n d n o t fade o r b l u r w i t h t i m e a n d e x p o s u r e t o light. gel pens) are the most convenient of all materials with which to travel. a disposable pen with its clip-on cap goes anywhere. R e m e m b e r . w a t e r . t w o tourists and their gondolier drifter past m e o n a canal. For example. turn the page. aiming for correct outlines would result in drawing too slowly to c a t c h the moment. . a n d ranges o f colors.7 7 and 214-15). Quick-drying. B A L L P O I N T : Black a n d b o l d c o l o r s o f f e r d i v e r s e qualities. they can be obtained within minutes.188-89) and Caravans (see pp.182 GATHERINGS Disposable Pens (ballpoints. indent paper. is d e l i v e r e d t h r o u g h a m e t a l t u b e o v e r a t i n y ball bearing. a ballpoint will make faint lines. Ideal f o r precision w o r k (see p p .r e s i s t a n t . p e r m a n e n t . I keep quantities at home. Available in blacks and ranges of colors. T h e r e w e r e c seconds t o snatch this impression b e t w e e n their emergence from one bridge and disappearance b e n e a t h t h e next. in the studio. a n d pressure-sensitive. dropped in your pocket and forgotten till needed. 2. shut your book. trusting shape and form to follow. Unlike pencils. jot notes. c h o o s e p e n s l a b e l e d " p e r m a n e n t " o r "lightfast. fibertips. or idea. t h e y a r e lightfast. 192-93) w e r e b o t h m a d e w i t h a ballpoint. these pens enable you to sketch. So many stores sell them. fine fiber-tip Drawing with a fine fiber-tip pen. which can snap or pierce through your clothes. R O L L E R B A L L : A c o n s t a n t i n k flow 3 . including l u m i n o u s a n d m e t a l l i c . I swiftly focused on gesture. or put the paper in your pocket instantly without fear of smudging. The f o u r i l l u s t r a t e d h e r e r e p r e s e n t a basic r a n g e . G E L P E N : P r o d u c e d in b l a c k w h i t e . FIBER-TIP: M a n u f a c t u r e d f o r artists a n d d e s i g n e r s in a r a n g e o f w i d t h s . W h i t e gel p e n s a r e v e r y e f f e c t i v e o n d a r k papers. they each offer distinct and sometimes unexpected qualities. build to a rich." 1. dark sheen. in the car. 4. or turn into washes and make monoprints if flooded with an alcohol-based substance such as hairspray. Lines t h i c k e n as t h e p e n w e a r s o u t G r a n d Canal (see pp. blob when old. CHOICES AVAILABLE T h e r e a r e m a n y d i s p o s a b l e p e n s t o c h o o s e from. rollerballs. At a time like this. and in most pockets so I can always record a thought DISPOSABLE PENS QUICK NOTES O n a c o l d day in Venice.
Earlier I had witnessed a crammed en masse in a fleet of hired gondolas complete with musicians and choir. crowd of fellow travelers Fast lines These scribbled lines model the mass and shadows of heads belonging passengers packed into the boat. Fast lines focus on action. not form.31 . Compare this Klee's mules on p.FROMMEMORY Here I used the same fiber-tip pen to compose a scene from memory.
when out drawing. I caught fleeting glimpses of gathered people and solitary souls going about their affairs. Above all. make them stouter. FLEETING MOMENTS Walking through Venice with a small. A curatorial assistant flies to do a chore (right). activity. Movement . You must learn to trust your memory and to draw what impressed you most. focus on the action of the event. Circular lines buzz around a man puzzling at the end of a train platform (left). all action is in the line of his coat and directed by his nose. angles will happen as a matter of course. You will make outlines. of course. just draw the action. let it enter the stage and perform. if animated. Don't worry about measuring angles. Let the line of the flying coat fly and the hanging arm hang. However. but they should not be what you dwell on. if a person was stout. life will not slow and wait for you to catch it. No camera can tie you to a time or people in the same way. Each one was witnessed and drawn immediately from the afterimage of what I had just seen. Exaggeration helps.184 GATHERINGS The Travel Journal I CANNOT OVERSTATE THE JOY of making a travel journal. and companionship. Push toward caricature and this will draw out of your memory what was most important. animate them more. Each line acts its part in the narrative. Every drawing writes an indelible memory of place. pocket notebook and a fiber-tip pen. not its outline. black.
The rush of his legs isamplifiedby their blurred lines. Expression . In turn. I am watched by the aggravated guard. Observation THE TRAVEL JOURNAL The same willowy assistant dashes about his work. eager to herd us all from his house of responsibility. I drew him three times on the same page to catch a range of his physical expressions.185 A large lady is photographed in front of a delicate work of art.
you might place them lower down. When your attention has been caught. if they are being haughty. and involvement in the story. He and his simpering assistant would not allow me in. furniture leans. or pushes. start by focusing on its action. and clothing or bags hang. and there met this sullen custodian. I took refuge in a church in Venice. . Place the person carefully. flap. rather than the works of art they guarded. not outline. focus on action. Identify the principal character and draw him or her first. and reason for happening. placement. if they are being devious. ACTION AND DETAIL W h e n drawing people. Here the custodian projects fastidious ownership of his desk and pamphlets by pushing from behind the center of the space and challenging our entry to his image. or bulge. For example. emotion. pulls. Here I have recreated my drawing in steps to show you how to set about capturing such a scene. Be aware that their placement on the page is part of the narrative. decide how faces and bodies contort.186 GATHERINGS Catching the Moment On A BITTERLY COLD November day. forcing me to remain at the back and look at them. For example. and you decide to draw the moment. elevate them in the pictorial space. and let every detail speak by its size.
who is largely expressed through the shape and fall o f his raincoat and his way o f using a note pad. Here. In the final step (left) I reinforced t h e custodian's desk. a pillar locates t h e scene in a depth o f space. Decide where you will place them o n the paper t o emphasize their action and intent. W i t h a few strokes. . Draw their action and props. together with any immediate props they are using. Decide where t o place them t o emphasize their role. which is pushed toward us in a gesture of confrontation. D r a w their action. If drawing a more complex scene. I added t h e assistant. CATCHING THE MOMENT The assistant Identify t h e antagonist ( o r second character) in t h e scene. such as the desk and pamphlets seen here. continue adding characters.187 The custodian Identify your principal character a n d their psychological role in the scene.
Grand Canal T H E CANALS OF VENICE are bustling places full of occupation. An imminent deluge of tourists urged me to work catching no more than the skeleton of the view. I developed detailofthis drawing from memory using a ballpoint pen. where vertical mooring poles give space and pulse to the horizontal speed of water quickly. . and buildings.
Caricature each person slightly. To catch characters like this. note only their most essential action and feature. then the bridge beneath them. followed by the streets. Venetians flow across a stepped bridge and cascade into the streets beyond. Each person was glimpsed in an instant. and drawn immediately from memory. Characters in the foreground were drawn first.Crossings DURING THIS RUSH HOUR. .
Caravans T H E PARAPHERNALIA O F TRAVEL i s an intriguing part of circus life. Sitting at a distance on a hot. Caravans and other backstage activity convey expectations of energy and repose. . I found this circus by chance in the Swiss mountains. I used a ballpoint pen to compose a series of scenes. and a great subject to draw. quiet afternoon.
sunny days. as opposed the physicality of Earth. makes his work by the act of walking. It is better to get up before dawn. rivers. The forces of nature. the sun comes out to blind it. speculation. and take bold steps in emulating the swell of clouds and the forces of torrential water. These conditions are very difficult to express well. when little stirs and empty blue skies offer even less to latch lines to. 5 f t x 5 ft 6 in ( 1 5 2 x 1 6 8 c m ) J O H N RUSSELL . 199). pages o f softly i l l u m i n a t e d craters and lunar "seas" c o v e r e d in m a t h e m a t i c a l and s h o r t h a n d calculations. and even how the Sun illuminates. It now hangs on the staircase of the History of Science Museum. how the mountain cut by ice and rain is now fleetingly lit. marking the ground with lines of footprints or by turning stones. It is Earths satellite. a contemporary environmental artist. JOHN RUSSELL A p o r t r a i t pastelist t o King G e o r g e III o f England. and its draws the tides of the seas. but it can be seen as a lens to our observation of this planet. so J o h n Russell's tour de f o r c e drawing (opposite) was a masterpiece of observation in his time. surrounded by the bright instruments of centuries of navigation. to be ready to draw the new light as it breaks across the land. What they have drawn is the force of nature on these properties: how the wind heaves the night ocean. William Turner is said to have had himself lashed to a ship's mast to comprehend the storm (see p. England. and experiment. Weather is essential in all landscape drawing. Look closely at works by many artists and you will see that they have not represented hills. t w o e n g r a v e d m a p s k n o w n as The Lunar Planispheres. and meteor impacts have scarred. Russell d r e w this. Oxford. or has cracked and fallen under the weight of water. how the soil is scorched. There is a sense of the heroic in drawing outside—we race to catch a form before the tide engulfs it. This is the world's first accurate image of the Moon. the face of the Moon. they are the animators of your subject. or the wind carries it away. The pastel drawing was constructed from myriad telescopic observations almost 200 years before the Apollo Moon landing. artists see for themselves that which is momentary and eternal. a n d a n astronomer w h o dedicated 20 years t o studying t h e M o o n . are the real subjects in great landscape drawings. Beginners will often choose calm. Just as NASA photographs of Earth have had a profound effect on the way we view our fragile home. In this chapter Moon Pastel 1795 Drawing we experiment with charcoal. t h e first-ever accurate image o f t h e M o o n ' s surface. H e a l s o p r o d u c e d an a l b u m o f 1 8 0 exquisite pencil drawings. arranging them in perfect circles on the mountainside or in lines drifting out of sight beneath low clouds. trees. our companion. Richard Long. By drawing such momentous and everyday events. and the sea.Earth and the Elements I T MAY SEEM PERVERSE to start a chapter titled "Earth and the Elements" with an image of the Moon. a n d a m o o n globe called t h e Selenographia. learning to draw light out of dark. Take chances against the rain and work with the wind or fog.
198 EARTH AND THE E L E M E N T S Air in Motion THE GREAT INVISIBLE SUBJECT o f these d r a w i n g s is t h e w i n d . is already lost. Crayon and limestone This is a lithograph. T h e ship. the government. Flapping kimonos and an onlooker turning his b a c k have the magic of a m o m e n t caught. By Turner carries us to the heart of the maelstrom. T h e great master of English seascape is c o n d u c t i n g with his graphic energy. speed. has b e c o m e a hysterical kite. painter. serving a prison sentence for his views. and pioneer ofexpressionism. A hard waxy was drawn across a heavy limestone Varying definitions crayon of lire and depths of tone conspire to give volume. Daumier's c a r t o o n shines with the brilliance of his comic memory. the bourgeoisie. seeing how it shakes. a scratched ghost. He knew how the world bends and stutters under such gusts. Hokusais sedate wind presses reeds a n d the j o u r n e y s o f young ladies. Hazy vertical marks reveal buildings into the mist. H O N O R E DAUMIER French satirical cartoonist lithographer. and the legal profession. lifts. we can soon learn to draw its force. Dots and dashes suggest receding trees out of focus.Through political drawings he fired his sharp wit at the king. like an umbrella forced inside-out. a sail b r o k e n loose in a stormy marriage. Terrifying waves of merciless nature roar across the paper. Below. distance. Danger of Wearing Balloon Petticoats UNDATED HONORE DAUMIER . fluttering heavily. This wife. and solidity. sculptor. Fluid strokes inflate the woman's dress and pin shadows to the ground. and by observing its tides and eddies in our o w n environment. and gives motion to each image. undramatic b u t brimming with stylized realism.
absorbent watercolor and are Stains of splashed. T h e r e a r e m a n y stories o f his p a s s i o n a t e w o r k i n g methods. T u r n e r w o r k e d in oils a n d w a t e r c o l o r s a n d s k e t c h e d c o p i o u s l y o n his travels. painter.M. leans the whole composition swells around its fateful center. H o k u s a i in t u r n has since significantly influenced European art. wind. including being lashed t o a ship's m a s t in o r d e r to study a storm. W . Wind direction wood-block This is a colored To represent the blows lifted flowed wind. into this very as pressed sheet The paper's through own coior is brought banks of mist and fog.i n f l u e n c e d b y examples o f W e s t e r n art obtained through D u t c h t r a d i n g in Nagasaki.l o v e dw o r k s i n c l u d e 1 0 0 v i e w s o f M o u n t Fuji and 1 2 v o l u m e s o f Manga. a n d his b e s t . seascape. T U R N E R British landscape. TURNER KATSUSHIKA HOKUSAI Prolific J a p a n e s e c o l o r w o o d . from left print. horizontally then and of the it into the stream Plants also bend and flow right to Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 1802 81/2 HOKUSAI KATSUSHIKA x 131/2 in ( 2 1 7 x 3 4 3 mm) . Landscape a n d city life w e r e his principal subjects.W. Ship in a Storm c. Hokusai direction (from clothing from has chosen which it the right). A outline scratched of a skeletal into penciled ship is while and the waves. and history painter w h o s e p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t a b o v e all w a s light. d e s i g n e r a n d b o o k i l l u s t r a t o r . 1826 91/2 x 113/4 in ( 2 4 1 x 3 0 0 m m ) J.199 J.b l o c kprintmaker.M. AIR IN MOTION Pencil and watercolor subdued brushed.
28). and t h e sea s t u d i e d f r o m his h o m e in Guernsey in t h e Channel Islands. By contrast. Leonardos Cloudburst of Material Possessions is o n e of his m o s t enigmatic and mysterious works. grab their b r u s h .200 ELEMENTS Storms STORMS CAN BE SEEN and drawn in two ways: first. ink. He brings us to stare into a place that no sane human would enter. Opposite. composing banks of waves and dense. Le Bateau-Vision 1864 71/2 x 1 0 in ( 1 9 2 x 2 5 5 m m ) VICTOR H U G O . It looks so contemporary. EARTH AND THE VICTOR HUGO French novelist and artist (see also p. D o m e s t i c o b j e c t s we can o w n and name fall from the clouds. fantasy palaces. inks. as if drawn j u s t this year. h a u n t e d shadows. and tossed o b j e c t s — a perfect subject in which artists can forget themselves. T h e m e n a c i n g darkness of Hugo's storm b e l o w is so convincing. Turner (see p. and swim into the page. drawing was Hugo's principal means o f expression. Pen and brush Hugo drew first with pen and ink. T h e very nature of b o t h is turmoil and an interweaving of elements. leaving nothing but a glimpse of moonlight glistening on the froth below.198) admires the majesty of nature. he blanketed the drawing in darkness. with a brush. it is difficult to contemplate its brooding and night-soaked heart. Then. His subjects include ruins. or charcoal. An update on biblical showers of fish and frogs. this is a writer's narrative of terror. water. this is a b o m b a r d m e n t from o u r h o m e s . active surfaces of water. lines of rain escorting them to b o u n c e and clatter. In periods b e t w e e n writing. as a gestural storm on the paper. marks. as a subject and second.
Each item that has crashed from heaven is drawn in such a way that we can feel Leonardo's nib picking it up in the speed of a doodle. He bequeathed his drawings to a friend. for example). envisioning machines centuries before their making (helicopters and bicycles. Above and below are examples of his mirror handwriting. and a wheel. He was left-handed and wrote backwards in Italian from left to right. Cloudburst of Material Possessions 1510-12 45/8 x 43/8 in ( 1 1 7 x 1 1 1 mm) L E O N A R D O DA VINCI . a hook. a bell. There is a little magic in recognizing many items from our homes something like a rake. and they passed through private hands for 400 years before becoming widely known. It is interesting to speculate how engineering might have developed if his ideas had been shared with the world earlier Ink and chalk This is a pen and ink drawing with touches of black chalk. together with half the contents of our garage.LEONARDO DA VINCI Leonardo devised many artifacts of our modern lives.
rapidly layering contours to shape place. Drawing with a scalpel. atmosphere. C L A U D E LORRAIN French classical landscape painter draftsman. rich. and after tracing her captured line. Views from Velletri c. which he used to unify his compositions. Claude Lorrain drew directly on location. transferred it to a scroll.1638 85/8 x 121/2 in (219 x 320 mm) CLAUDE LORRAIN . made inside a book. watching his hand and eye at work together. She was inspired by her research of aerial plans of London and the story of an alien map butterfly (see caption). his unsurpassed handling of light.202 ELEMENTS THE PROFILE OF A HORIZON is a line we immediately recognize and respond to. and dry marks in the foreground appear to be made with his finger. Even distilled from all other detail. a horizon line can trigger our recognition. and mood simultaneously. EARTH AND THE Bryan cut the profile of a city. In a very different work (opposite above). and we can imagine standing over his shoulder. Clare Bryan took panoramic photographs of the English South Downs. and etcher who lived most of his life in 17th-century Rome. and across to the right. sea-. Claude is distinguished by. Segments The top half of the drawing is a view as we enter the valley. Paler. Whether land-. Nature Profiles Opposite below. In the lower half he has walked downhill a little. and famed for. she teased away fragments of paper to illuminate her view. Over first lines. it is the unique calligraphic signature of the place in which we stand. thick. or cityscape. Claude has used a fine nib to delineate segments of land as they recede into space. cooler tones receding into the distance are applied with a brush.
specialty bookbinder. drawings Ideas of introduction Clare Bryan to research introduced down and led NATURE PROFILES and removal historical plans and aerial growth of London showing its population since Roman times. and visiting professor at numerous art schools. source workisilluminatedby standing its lower edge on a CLARE BRYAN . Her recent paper photographic.The horizon was drawn with a City Landline 2003 271/2x 59 in (70 x 150 cm) scalpel. then hunted destroyed.203 Scalpel-drawn This book-bound drawing was inspired by the story of a foreign butterfly wrongly to Great Britain in 1912. 2001 CLARE BRYAN C L A R E BRYAN 3ritish artist. and digital print-based works reflect upon the histories and poetry of "left behind and in-between spaces. progressively settlement (cropped more and more paper is drawn away to show the expansion of human page of an around the river. printmaker graphic designer. The edges of each here) fade into the solid paper unpopulated with a scalpel landscape.5-m)scroll. On turning the pages of City." Cut line This is a small section of a preparatory 5-ft(1.
In use. Charcoal lifts away from paper easily with the very light touch o f an eraser. Try itworking on big paper covering a wall.54). Lines are achieved by d e p o s i t i n g particles in the grain o f paper. . C h a r c o a l naturally glistens. Use any fine-point pen or pencil (I used a ballpoint) to draw a firm line on the back of the Big pieces are perfect for very large-scale drawings—even larger than yourself. CHARCOAL PENCIL: Types made by different manufacturers vary in quality and density of line. Then lift it away. only a little thicker. between your middle finger and thumb. white line into the blackor grayness of willow charcoal. tape. Beware of cheap brands selling dyed chalk as compressed charcoal. MEDIUM W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 5. 3 A white line is lifted out by the tape. and heavier than willow. It is also easily erased if the maker of the mark is not happy with the result. 1 Suspend a length of masking tape. resulting in a pale line. LIFTING OUT This technique is a very easy method of drawing a crisp. maple. THICK W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 2 Keep the tape above your drawing. vine. COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Machine-made. It does n o t erase easily. Boxes often contain a range of thicknesses to choose for different needs. cylindrical. It allows you greater precision in your mark-making than if you rub away the charcoal with an eraser. or fingertip. It c a n be m a d e duller. CHALK CHARCOAL: Technically. THIN WILLOW CHARCOAL: I used a piece like this to make the drawing opposite. Alternatively. blacker. Hold it over your drawing RANGE AVAILABLE Charcoal (in its several forms shown here) is loved or loathed by the beginner to whom it is often recommended because it produces pleasing results quickly. 6. Artists have also used lime. Smooth paper accepts few particles. black finish. 162) or graphite (see p. they are all intended for fine work. resulting in a stick that gives a blacker. a rag. feather. a n d p l u m . b e e c h . the heel o f y o u r h a n d . Not to be confused with square conte sticks (see p. you can p u r c h a s e m a c h i n e . so it chars b l a c k as o p p o s e d to igniting a n d turning to ash. A great find when available. leaving u n d e r t r a c e s of first thoughts. it is compressed and m o l d e d at high pressure. 7. fine. a piece of fresh bread.m a d e c o m p r e s s e d charcoal. As its name implies. The tip snaps easily to renew a sharp edge if required. sticky side down. harder line. B u n d l e s o f twigs were traditionally sealed into earthenware j a r s or wet clay and heated slowly and intensely in a fire or kiln. 4. R o u g h paper c a n b e loaded. it looks gray and feels like chalk. SQUARE COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Not often sold. a n d m o r e i n d e l i b l e by soaking it in linseed oil. but some specialists stock compressed charcoal in delicate square sticks. 1. Slightly dull the tape's stickiness before use t o prevent it from lifting out more than you intend.204 E A R T H AND THE E L E M E N T S Charcoal CHARCOAL IS PRODUCED from wood baked slowly without exposure to air. 3. 2. Essentially. The same as above. and offers a rich. this does not exist. b l a c k e r . without touching the surface. Willow is the most c o m m o n wood.
sold in several widths. PEN: Any fine pen or pencil can be used to draw on the back of masking tape when lifting out. or any other dry media. pastels. 10. . graphite. Lift out broader marks with a larger implement. Different tones seen throughout the main drawing on pp. MASKING TAPE: An invaluable resource. I used a plastic eraser effectively on thinly applied charcoal. Cotton swabs also work.205 ERASING Thickly applied charcoal quickly o v e r c o m e s a plastic eraser A w a r m (soft and tacky) putty eraser is more effective. Here. Use high quality (very sticky) to fix paper to walls and boards. T O R T I L L O N : This is a tight roll of paper used to blend charcoal. Layers can be peeled away to refresh its surface.212-13 were made by altering the pressure applied to the charcoal. 8 . CHARCOAL Lifting out This detail shows an example of where I used the lifting-out technique demonstrated opposite to draw flashes of lightning against rain clouds. Here we used a ballpoint. Use cheaper (less sticky) for lifting out. as is fresh (unbuttered!) bread. 9.
On p p . and an abstract. It is the visible effect of the atmosphere between where you stand and what you see in the distance. To experiment with drawing landscapes and the use of charcoal. hazy distance. our brains search for nameable things and will perceive complete pictures from very little information. a less distinct middle ground composed of shapes and textures. the more you encourage the viewer's imagination to join in and see. They are also good markers of receding space. The long view is hidden behind trees. begin by marking out several small squares on your paper.9 9 we noted that in response to visual stimulus. This term simply means that as land rolls away into the distance. it results in flat planes of clutter. details blur and colors grow paler and bluer. Don't worry if it is cloudy: clouds add drama and perspective and make good subjects in themselves (see pp. the less you describe. Landscape drawings are traditionally arranged in three parts: a detailed foreground.206 EARTH AND THE ELEMENTS Landscapes TREES ALONE OFFER MARVELOUS shapes to draw. Pack several thick and thin sticks of willow charcoal. pack your materials (as advised below) and set off for a local view or your nearest arboretum. Then I drew the shape of the tonal patches I perceived. an eraser your drawing book or a board and paper fixative (or hairspray). and a cushion in a plastic bag to sit on. At its worst. Successful drawings often only suggest the qualities of the scene without overdescribing them. I relaxed my eyes out of focus to dissolve distracting detail into abstract patches of light and darkness. to contain each of your compositions. 9 8 . MATERIALS In this first view there is only a foreground and middle distance. a reel of masking tape.212-13). Excessive detail can be admired for its skill and achievement. Ironically. especially when making first excursions into aerial perspective. Seeing tones . but is often less evocative and engaging. When you arrive.
dark trees with bright. rounded. Remember. and broke a view through the hedge into the distance with a dark sky threatening rain. This composition turned out a little flat because I have an almost even quantity of earth and sky. horizontal regions of grass. the trunk of a bare tree. full of information you can use to create what you want! Inventing drama . I have invented drama with diagonals set against each other I tilted the earth. shadows. Exploring the view Redrawing the scene above. your view is your inspiration. It is better to give distinctly more pictorial space to one or the other (see below).207 LANDSCAPES In my second square I explored a simple view contrasting soft.
and tiller still standing proud. Similarly. and seeing what the real choice of subject is. England has embedded within it the decaying skeleton of a burned fishing boat. bare ribs. The mud of the tidal shore in Rye.164-65) and a wire violin (pp. making the scene below led me to focus on the decaying boat opposite. your challenge now is to find a sculptural subject in the landscape. I am then able to home in on what interests me most for further study. engine." . shade out of the glare of the sun. s e e k places in light After my first drawing. I usually begin by making an image of the whole view. For example. This first drawing serves as a process of arrival. on p p .104-05). 2 1 4 . settling my concentration.1 5 my first drawing of the whole view of the Tiber led me to see the real subject of the day. so the paper is not made blinding and your hand cannot cast a shadow on your work. Building on earlier studies of structure in space using shoes (pp. EARTH AND THE FINDING THE SUBJECT Finding a remarkable subject is even better when you can circumnavigate it in an arena of space.208 ELEMENTS Drawing in the Round WHEN DRAWING IN THE LANDSCAPE. "Drawing in the round means to literally walk around your subject. Circling a subject and drawing it from several views imprints on your memory a better understanding of its three-dimensional form. observing it from several views so as to better understand it as a whole. taking with you your drawing book and pen. which was the flow of water over rocks.
looking more at the boat than at the paper From this low position I have emphasized how the boat is swallowed in mud by outlining its shadow on the ground. and structure. Overleaf: Decaying Boat 4 . its overall balance. character. unfussy lines. Each n e w drawing gives a different insight. I drew with quick. careful lines to establish the skeleton that gives this wreck its distinct form. 3 This impression notes the angle of the broken boat. w h e n t h e sea recedes. I looked more boldly at the planes and the dynamic of the sculptural craft My lines have become darker and more forceful as confidence in my understanding of the vessel grew. and the order and shape of its component parts. marking straight. I spent equal time looking at the subject and the paper. The outline ties a shape of darkness to the boat like a weight so that it becomes part of its form. ROUND 2 In this tail-end view. make a series o f drawings f r o m different positions. DRAWING IN THE 1 Here. W h e n you have found your subject.209 SERIES OF STUDIES This stunning ghost o f a boat comes into v i e w t w i c e a day.
was made with gentle but unhesitating s p e e d . . m a d e on s m o o t h . I worked quickly to catch and weave the turbulent contrasts of rising wind and approaching water before the drawing could be washed away.Cloudburst THIS STORM DRAWING.20-21) using a thin stick of willow charcoal. L o o k i n g b a c k and forth from the heavens to firmly taped-down paper. hot-pressed drawing p a p e r (see pp.
.Notes of Force T H E GREAT FLOWING TIBER RIVER has cut through Rome. On the pages of a small. focusing on the river's eddies. I drew with a needle-fine fiber-tip pen. since ancient times. shaping the city. pocket-sized notebook. and rhythmic detail as it passed through the ancient gully of the city. pulse. black.
The strong diagonal of the composition from bottom left to top right carries the eye through changes of height and focus from the foreground to the mountains beyond. .Mountains SITTING IN THE SHADE of a tree on the Greek island of Antiparos. I used a dip pen and waterproof India ink with brushed watercolor to draw the view.
such as Adolf Wolfli. and emotion. spontaneous image-making. and history. or gestures. writhing torrents of color. Outsider artists. belief. From another viewpoint. He made thousands of drawings to chronicle his complex life. for example. Afterward. drawn sound. Many concepts and feelings can only be expressed through marks. and poetic myth roar and cascade within his tightly framed pages. actions. An abstract mark is often a better conductor of a thought or feeling. Swirling. His drawings are collected and exhibited internationally and held by the Adolf Wolfli Foundation. Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape 1915 413/8 x 285/8 in (105 x 72.8 cm) A D O L F WOLFLI Abstraction is a direct. and young children show us that abstract. Not everything we know has a physical form in the world. My own work is firmly centered in figuration. As you approach the classes in this chapter. Perhaps in Western culture we bred this intuitive freedom out of ourselves in our insistence on complex figuration. Wolfli was a Swiss draftsman. writer and composer who suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and was resident in the Waldau Aslyum near Berne. opposite. liberating. sounds. expressive marks and shapes are at the core of natural. picturing a stabilized world was impossible and Modernism rode forth with vigor. only rediscovered. and it has always been with us. Internal workings of the mind were suddenly free to find a new language of expression. all pictorial representations are abstractions of reality. strike the paper to find form. and independent means of communication. Museum of Fine Arts. It also underpins and gives strength and unity to all figurative work. and Aboriginal art. I begin every image by feeling its meaning. precisely because it does not have to represent a physical object. First marks. it is simply itself.Abstract Lines T HE DEVELOPMENT OF W E S T E R N abstract art at the beginning of the 20th century significantly paralleled major changes in world thought. many nonWestern cultures have highly sophisticated abstractions at the core of their art. don't be timid. poet. It is actually its foundation and its infrastructure. fictional language. yet my kinship to abstraction is fundamental. . direction. However. Artists were given a different tool—a line threaded directly from their subconscious to their hand—and with it they began to map a bold new landscape of marks and concepts that would dramatically and forever change the face of Western art. The fate of Old World thinking was finally sealed with the brutality of World War I. It was not invented in the 20th century. which are essentially abstract. The growing rise of Darwinian ideas coupled with Freudian and Marxist perspectives forced Western society to reconsider its origins and future. and have been making abstract drawings for centuries—Japanese calligraphy. ADOLF WOLFLI One of the greatest masters of Art Brut. People are often scared by abstraction and see it as the enemy of figurative art. From one point of view. Indian mandalas. abstraction is not so easy to define. be brave and enjoy them. Berne.
Lines. Changes paper. The Physical Space 1990 3 0 x 30 ft ( 9 1 4 x 9 1 4 cm) MAMORU ABE . silence. and plaster in galleries and landscapes. texture. Abe's physical drawing is a sculptural installation. and texture their bracing separation reaching between from beneath Pillars of the gallery are made part of this drawing by their inclusion in the paper. and wood are also part of the work. Iron rods in tone. salt.220 A B S T R A C T LINES Process and Harmony SOMETIMES A DRAWN LINE sings on the surface of its support. A Neolithic chalk tablet bears cut lines that were slowly carved. sit in silent harmony. akin to stones in a Zen garden. scrolling across the canvas in an intimate crescendo. and Assistant Professor of Fine A r t at Fukuoka University. and sensitivity with its thickness and pressure of touch. quoting ink marks on a page. tone. Below. iron. as Twombly shows us opposite. Sometimes it smolders like a deep shadow. Mamoru Abe prepares an image that will appear through the chemistry of iron. He travels widely to research ancient sacred sites. It can proclaim mood. brass. it can keep reforming through the inherent repetition of a process. and patient watching. forged steel. Moisture produced rust. ice. rhythmically engaged with itself. This the paper rest within the amplifies framelike of the floor from the ceiling. Twombly's mesmeric wax line worked over house paint is like a signature. A line can be finished in a second. staining redbrown lines into the white surface. water. Five forged steel shapes. MAMORU ABE Japanese sculptor and installation artist. Abe works with materials such as soil. Damp Japanese paper was laid over carefully arranged iron bars. and temperature rim of floor space. or.
theories suggest astrological observations. Many of his graffiti-like combine abstract gestures with statements. energetic. the Babylonian world map. CY TWOMBLY .241). Twombly has language works CY TWOMBLY Contemporary American artist who emerged through the 1950s New York art scene in the heyday of Abstract Expressionism and Action Painting. This example is one of two chalk tablets found in a Late-Neolithic pit.400BCE 21/4 x 21/4 in (58 x 58 mm) ARTIST UNKNOWN Language Over the course of fifty years. and the worship of the sun and ancient gods.221 ANCIENT CARVINGS Many ancient cultures have made and left behind drawings and texts carved into stones or animal bone. evolved a raw. Precise lines suggest the use of a sharp flint The framed rectangle of this image is echoed in that of Abe's installation. emotive. The central pictorial space is also similarly cut and divided by the considered arrangement of straight lines. such as the Rosetta stone.England. Neolithic Chalk Tablet 3.Thesite's purpose is unknown. and sensuous drawing from painting. and Untitled 1970 Here we might seek to grasp letters in the turning of his line. and American Indian petroglyphs (see p.000-2. burials. close to Stonehenge in Wiltshire. At the 2001 Venice Biennale. that challenges the separation of word from image.Twombly was presented with a Golden Lion award for lifetime achievement. PROCESS AND HARMONY Cut lines Chalk carves easily.
have striven to break down old pictorial and musical structures to explore new and unfettered modes of expression. Bussotti. a configuration.28. drawing here can b e described in t e r m s o f a G e r m a n philosophical idea a b o u t is t h e i n s t a n t r e c o g n i t i o n t h e p o w e r o f m o m e n t . too. brushed night skies over them with ink then lifted the disks to reveal white moons. Marks across the center appear to be made with his fingers. Two Impressions Paper 1853-55 VICTOR HUGO Disk from a Cut-Out . His drawing writes the time of its own physical process by expressing the extreme concentration of the moment in which it was made. below. Both abstract drawing and composition involve the perfect sequencing of sounds and marks against space and silence. o r a pattern o f elements s o unified as a w h o l e t h e y c a n n o t b e e x p l a i n e d asa s u m o f parts. Hugo. abstract artists and composers unique. and inventive of his time. here he anticipates abstract expressionism by 100 years. and participate in the composition. broke new ground in the 1950s with graphic scores now considered among the most extreme. abstract. The scores are also exhibited in galleries as visual art. interpret.222 ABSTRACT LINES Writing Time SINCE THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY. Here he appears t o have saturated the cut-out moon disks with gritty pigment. Texture Compare this drawing to Hugo's octopus on p. beautiful. he mixed graphite into ink. said. Similarity in gritty texture suggests that here. music manuscript requiring instrumentalists to improvise. opposite. pressed them face down. o f t e n e x p r e s s e d in v i s u a l t e r m s . and let the drying meniscus deposit granules in linear drifts such as we would see in the satellite photographic mapping of rivers. Gestalt o f an unnameable thing. "There is nothing like dream to create the future. and lifted them away to leave impressions of watery planets and seas. Gestalt." An innovator who never fails to surprise. A graphic score is a V I C T O R H U G O Hugo's abstract French novelist w h o m a d e m a n y drawings in m i x e d m e d i a ( s e e also p.28). Ink impressions When drawing nightscapes Hugo often laid paper disks in place of the moon.
223 W R I T I N G TIME SYLVANO BUSSOTTI Italian avant-garde composer and principal 20thcentury exponent of the graphic score. we can feel their rhythm and easily attach sounds to them. a far cry from any recognized musical notation. Circular Score for "Due Voci" c. Following the notes. Compare this work to that of Libeskind on p. Bussotti's first mature work. 1958 SYLVANO BUSSOTTI . Sound and rhythm This flickering rondo of sound written in pen on a hand-ruled stave can be heard in our imaginations as much as seen. This is a page from Due Voci. 70 in relation to Bussotti's clustered notes to the left of his rondo and open space to the right. His later works become increasingly abstract.
O p p o s i t e . T h e s e p h o t o g r a p h s d o c u m e n t the meditative drawings o f two w o m e n living worlds apart in different countries. for e x a m p l e . making objects and images outside o f mainstream culture. Compositional rightness (see pp. In the late 1 9 t h century. an a n o n y m o u s w o m a n in the southeast Indian state o f Tamil Nadu m a k e s a ritual drawing o n the b r i c k courtyard o f h e r h o m e . d i p p i n g h e r fingers into a pot o f rice flour. It will protect the place from evil and make a pleasing invitation to good spirits. and c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Marie Lieb w a s a psychiatric patient in the Heidelberg Asylum. Torn cloth This is one of two published photographs showing Marie Leib's torn cloth strips significantly placed on her cell floor. Cloth is the simple instrument with which she has conducted and ordered her universe. cultures. Germany. In music it can be felt in the diversity of plainsong and African d r u m m i n g . social outcasts.224 A B S T R A C T LINES Chants and Prayers WHEN ABSTRACT LINES are organized in repetition. This takes a form in most cultures. MARIE LIEB Little is known of this w o m a n for w h o m the act of drawing was essential. centuries. Visually. Cell Floor With Torn Strips of Cloth 1894 MARIE LIEB . they m a k e a visual a n d physical e c h o that t o u c h e s s o m e deep part of the human spirit. She tore c l o t h into strips a n d used these to draw patterns a n d symbols o n h e r cell floor. it is found in the regularity o f ordered lines or a pattern. and sufferers of psychiatric illnesses—who have always existed.228-29) has been adjusted with each movement of the rags to draw a cosmos of balance and perfection. Lieb is one o f countless thousands of "Outsider" artists—diverse individuals including ordinary citizens.
Huyler is the author of Painted Prayers.HUYLER Photographer art historian.000 images.225 STEPHEN P.Theseare widely published in journals and are the subjects of international exhibitions. Motifs are geometrical or based on plants. or flowers are marked or arranged on the ground or on the walls of homes. In daily practice. lime. among others. Skills are handed down through generations and from friend to friend. at the University of London and Ohio State University. and birds. Painted Prayers UNDATED STEPHEN R HUYLER . Popular magazines feature new ideas each week and on special occasions there may be contests. women pride themselves on never repeating a design. animals. and for over 30 years has traveled extensively through the Indian subcontinent creating an edited archive of 200. Materials such as rice flour. and in places of worship and celebration. Designs and motifs Rangoii (or mandalas) are ritual drawings made by many millions of women across rural India. cultural anthropologist. lecturer on the subjects of Indian art and Indian women's identity. chalk.
but similarities in mood. With no depth of field. Ruskin School. performance and installation artist. Catling's works made for international galleries and museums involve drawing as a tool in their development and making. Mixed media This is a collage of torn white and gray tissue paper previously stained with ink. Untitled 2001 2001 153/4x 215/8 in ( 4 0 0 x 550 mm) BRIAN C A T L I N G . They each find their pathways and equilibrium in atmosphere and suggestion. it is ruled and contained in one dimension by its interlocking ink-lined borders. and Fellow of Linacre College. Their energy can therefore be a purer expression of an idea or emotion. figurative representation—that is. Klee's mathematical maze of thinly washed surface resonates with meticulous planning. Catling's torn paper shapes and shadows spill light out of their frame like a fractured mirror. Oxford. and water-resistant layers of spray and enamel paint on thick paper. structure. free from the direct imaging of known physical things. These two works present complex compositions with differing intensions and methods of making. filmmaker Professor of Fine Art.226 ABSTRACT LINES Compositions ABSTRACT DRAWINGS ARE LARGELY or entirely free from using the viewer's eye to track and unfold layers of meaning. gold paint and iridescent gouache mixed with water. rocks or heads in a subdued atmosphere of dream. BRIAN CATLING British sculptor poet. and choice of hues. Catling's abstract drawings are usually made in series and in parallel to written poetry and sculptural installations. Oval moons eclipse each other and oscillate between landforms and portraiture.
Geometric harmony This is a work on paper made with a sharp ink pen. He explained his polyphonic painting as "a harmony of several color voices" searching for a visual parallel to music. It is a geometric harmony of straight lines and tonally graded flat colors that by their arrangement draw our eyes inward to their white center. ruler. Polyphon Gefasstes Weiss (White Framed Polyphonically) 1930 131/8x95/8 in (333 x 245 mm) Paul-Klee-Stiftung. and brush. Line and surface Klee observed the visual capacity of lines to push or pull within an image.97-99. drew. Klee painted. We can see some diagrammatic examples of this among the optical illusions on pp.31). Klee also felt that a line represents the passing of time. Kunstmuseum Bern PAUL KLEE . philosophized. and wrote copiously about the natures and relationships of color and form.227 PAUL K L E E Swiss painter and sculptor (see also p. watercolor. whereas tonal surfaces are perceived more immediately as a whole. and might be read as active or passive.
and an apple. the impression y o u receive from t h e m . Feel for it when youdraw. but an easy o n e to u n d e r s t a n d . angles. their impact. "I have experimented endlessly with this idea. culture.Thisexercise will help you start.228 ABSTRACT LINES Being "Just" A SENSE OF "JUST" (or rightness) is a difficult concept to explain. As y o u m o v e them around." . or on a page. they reach a perfect position. W h e n m o v i n g objects around in your yard. Seek it when looking at other artists' work and in your everyday environment. or degree of figuration. after being continuously adjusted. This balance is what every artist and designer searches a n d feels for when making an image. b u t e v e r y n o w a n d again you will hit on an arrangement w h i c h appears just. a b u n c h of keys. media. M a n y of their inter-relationships will be meaningless. they are just. a glass. and put them o n a tray. There is a single m o m e n t w h e n all proportions. for instance. or home. and elements settle in definitive balance. Take. It is found in all great art and design. In his b o o k The Education of a Gardener. w i l l c h a n g e w i t h e v e r y r e a r r a n g e m e n t . Set up a sheet of paper with a rectangle drawn on it. there is a clear feeling when. s o m e will be more or less h a r m o n i o u s . and ten straight sticks painted black. regardless of style. the late garden designer Russell Page explains." SETTING UP Justness can be harmonious or deliberately discordant. "Whenall pictorial elements come together in pleasing and perfect balance. It is also found in nature.
which now becomes a tight frame. fix it with glue. . Remember the drawn rectangle is a part of the composition (see pp.229 WHERE TO START Take ten sticks of equal length. horizontals dominate the lower area." Move the sticks to find alignments and imagined perspectives. suggesting a horizon. Feel for the rightness of their grouping and their relationships to surrounding spaces. 2 3 In the step above. as shown here. B E I N G "JUST" 1 Arrange your ten sticks in t w o groups of five.56-57). Here. horizontals dominate the top. A stick touching the rectangle links the composition to the frame. W h e n the composition falls into place. Within a rectangle on a flat sheet of paper set about making a composition using no other rule than a sense of "just. painted black. Move the sticks out into the rectangle. In the final step (left) there is an even balance. Arrange them so they touch or cross in a series of intersecting balances. making the composition seem to float beneath.
To prepare for this lesson. correction fluid or white paint. colors and textures can be manipulated until their pictorial harmony. feels "just" (see pp. scissors. and tones.69 and Abe's installation on p. or even strident. Collage offers the artist a liberating palette of SETTING UP This lesson in collage is a direct continuation of the compositional lines made in the previous class.. hard or soft. stain and dry a sheet of tissue paper using blueink.230 ABSTRACT LINES Collage H E R E W E EXPERIMENT with collage.220. glue. you start composing by adding or subtracting shapes and textures and using colors and tones to achieve the impression you want to m a k e — w h e t h e r dramatic or s u b d u e d ." overlapping placement of materials on a flat plane.. they become a scaffold for the addition of further textures. "My understanding is that every object [or shape] emanates—sends out vibrations beyond its physical body which are specific to itself. harmonious. an infinite range of voices and meaning. found or made items.228-29). Cut or torn layers and shapes. Returning to Russell Page. and black ink. he went on to say ". colors. This principal also applies to three-dimensional drawings such as Gaudi's work with wire and weights on p.Youwill also need spare white paper. which is the shifting. or discordance. Images and fragments torn from day-to-day life can be brought together to make a chorus of ideas and emotions. Once the ten painted black sticks are set and glued in place." (Russell Page) . ready-made depths and surfaces. a compass.
Cut six small rectangles the same proportion as your whole image.228) in front of you. 2 3 Torn white paper moved over the surface adds masks of rough-edged irregular volume. Glue them in place once they feel "just" Translucent circular disks of tissue paper give color tone. . This can also give a sense of fragmentation or punctuation to the composition.231 WHAT TO DO Lay the final step of the previous lesson (p.The single disk that is folded with its straight edge facing up appears heavier than those that are flat. solidity. COLLAGE 1 Regular-sized pieces of white paper are moved over the surface to disrupt the even lines. then cut out. and with a compass and scissors. and shadow to thepicture. they deepen pictorial space. correction fluid and ink marks add further dimensions. four circles of blue tissue paper. draw. Obscuring the blue disks. In the last step (left).
is the practice of Zen through the calligraphic marks of a brush dipped in carbon ink. and expectation.Zen Calligraphy HITSUZENDO. emotion. A MODERN JAPANESE meditative art form inspired by the teachings of Yamaoka Tesshu (1836-1888). Hitsuzendo drawings aspire to "breathe with the energy and vitality of eternal life" achieved through "a state of no mind—beyond thought. Zen Brushwork]. ." [Tanchu Terayama.
Nocturnes IN THIS QUARTET of semi-abstract drawings made with India ink. These vibrate against washes of shadow and pitch-black mass. Lines made with a steel dip pen take on a scratchy nervousness. discord is balanced against rhythm to create mood. I flicked spatters of ink and rubbed the paper with a wet and a dry brush to achieve these effects. .
a Catherine wheel of drawn sparks spiraling around the quietly resolute saint. England. Throughout this book images are presented to excite and surprise and drawing classes created to increase your confidence. feathers. or in smoke. for example. Monsters take advantage of both. our literate and more secular Western society still hungers for another world and to ravenously indulge its fascination for the marvelous. The salvation of heaven and terrors of hell are represented equally—enough to make any sinner shudder. We then add substances we dislike: unidentified fluids. Feeding this demand. we select details of animals farthest from ourselves and that are widely thought disturbing—reptilian and insect features. angels. Humans are equally troubled by the imperceptibly small and the enormous. In the Christian churches of Europe. wings. I was on a train passing through Nuneaton. For example. Lord of the Rings. . in the cracks of walls. Fantasy is most successful when founded on strong and familiar visual logic. We watch with captivated pleasure movies such as The Fly. Images we are now surrounded by bear testimony to the power and resourcefulness of their collective imagination. thousands of paintings. beasts. and damnation are found in most world faiths. paradise. a human-animal mix that implies this could MARTIN SCHONGAUER German painter and engraver who settled to work in Colmar Alsace. and the faces of God have for centuries given artists a feast for the extremes of their imagination. and stained-glass windows deliver powerful visual sermons to the once-illiterate populace.247. a collaboration between the two will ensure that your drawings glow with originality. movie studios now brim with as many monsters as the visual art of the Medieval and Renaissance Church. serpentine tails. and the Alien trilogy. Perhaps the Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 1485 121/4 x 9 in (312 x 230 mm) MARTIN SCHONGAUER most important conclusion in this final chapter is to advise you to develop your skills in parallel with the joy of your unfolding imagination. We love our fear of the hybrid—ideally. Star Wars. sculptures. Be inspired by the irrational comedy of word association or puns. and deep fur—and we alter their scale. all of which originated as hundreds of drawings. which is to have eaten a nun—it inspired the drawing on p. happen to us. Schongauer is best known for his prints. Reading the place name I momentarily glimpsed an alternative meaning. scales. Today. Depictions of God or of gods in the contexts of daily life. When creating monsters. our eye circulates around a flutter of leather and scaly wings.Gods and Monsters OUR SACRED AND SECULAR need to visualize demons. or strange. To learn to flex your imagination. impossible. Here. Neither should be slave or master. which were widely distributed and influential in his time. look for images in the folds of clothing. aliens.
This act defines the vision and continues the line of spirit guides. whose impassioned work begins with light tapestry cartoons. a wave to join Achilles' chase of Hector. vanity. deranged masses. He would be graceless if he stood. Near the end of his life he made his "Black Paintings" on the walls of his home. crammed tightly at his desk. Saturn devouring his son. Paul Thomas's studies of Picasso and Twombly can be traced directly. reading from a book of asses. hags. to Picasso's similarly tight. Compare his dark. we see the international icon of stupidity. Violent white marks symbolizing Achilles' rage resonate with the energy of Twombly's script on p. portraits. Pictorially. The well-dressed mule is cumbersome.220. Many students leave white backgrounds in their work. below. Goya later recorded the horrors of Napoleonic occupation. which can swamp the subject Here. plain wall suggests a blinkered view of nothing.30. and men clubbing each other to death. Opposite below. This continuity enriches the making of art and our heritage. Other drawn versions of this image are more savage and frightening. and exposed the superstitions. They depict as if by lamplight the devil and witches. F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A Spanish court painter printmaker and draftsman. Aquatint Goya has drawn a learned man as an ass. In this ass. quoting great paintings and popular culture to add cunning twists to his satires. it allows the mule to stand forward. The high. and follies of court through copious graphic works including his best-known prints. barren land rising like MYRIAD CHAINS RUN THROUGH ART HISTORY. Los Caprichos. rushing. Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 1799 81/2 x 6 in (218 x 154 mm) FRANCISCO DE GOYA .240 GODS AND M O N S T E R S Marks of Influence marking the influence of one artist upon another. and church murals. his lover a dog. such asinine behavior can be hereditary. Francisco de Goya was a master of borrowing. Opposite. noisy seascape on p. The title "And So Was His Grandfather" adds that should we not already know. In this softer aquatint he poses for his portrait Textured background The aquatint process has been used to great effect in making a gritty toned background. Goya's plainly textured gray background pushes back the space behind the illuminated simply subject. a Shoshone seeking guidance and power meditates at the sacred site of a petroglyph. Visions experienced in front of the drawing sometimes instruct the making of a new one.
" Each sacred image drawn into rock belongs to one of three realms in the Shoshone world: the realm of the sky. Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range UNDATED ARTIST UNKNOWN . Thomas conducts his explorations in the mine of Greek and Roman mythology. Simple wall stones cleverly state their cold solidity while also fading from our attention as the scene roars by.241 MARKS OF INFLUENCE PAUL T H O M A S British contemporary artist whose epic graphic work questions and reflects upon issues of European identity. values. meaning "place of power. by a supplicant in a trance of meditation. or of the water Chipped image This is a sacred creature of the sky chipped onto rock at Dinwoody Lake. of the earth. and personal and social struggles. Parallel lines within the body of the figure are likely to denote power. Graphite marks Here Achilles chases Hector around the walls of Troy before killing him. It was made with a sharp implement. A vivid spectrum of energized graphite marks and a masterly composition give this drawing vitality and speed. White marks like flashes of light are cut though graphite with an eraser to reveal the paper beneath. Wyoming. perhaps a stone. Achilles Chases Hector 1996 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) PAUL THOMAS SHOSHONE PETROGLYPH The Shoshone people of Wyoming name petroglyph sites Poha Kahni. Wind River Reservation. ideals.
and writer In contrast t o the light and visual accent of contemporary Impressionism. and scuttle over all known reality. crawl. H e was influenced by his friends. The monsters of Bosch grew from his observations of beggars going about their trade in 15th. we see parallel slanting pale marks that might have been made with fresh bread—a very effective eraser used before the wide availability of rubber or plastic. T H E EXPLORATION AND DEPICTION Hauntings Grandville has drawn a scurrying zoo of half-known demons and animals that appear to have been stolen from the glass eye of the microscope. GODS AND Erasure In this charcoal drawing. Techniques demonstrated on pp. If it were to turn and stare this way. Lifting out Fine strings of the hot-air balloon appear dark against the sky and light against the balloon. They float toward us like a horrid visitation. as he did the grass. Redon lifted them out with some sort of eraser. graphic artist. to the right of the balloon. 115. below left. Children are also delighted to invent a monster or ghoul. Our subconscious can be drawn with pleasure and ease. The Eye Like a Strange Mounts Balloon 165/8 x131/8in (422 x 332 mm) ODILON REDON 1882 Toward Infinity . the writers Joris-Karl Huysmans and Stephane Mallarme.204-05 will enable you to produce a similar effect of white lines shining out of dark charcoal. Redon's eyeball balloon rises up. We may feel safe so long as the eye looks heavenward. ODILON REDON French painter draftsman. the shock would be extreme.and 16th-century Holland. lifting its cranial passenger over a seascape of repose. which sometimes—half-dressed and carrying a familiar trophy— stride.242 MONSTERS of the unknown is a classical and constant occupation for the artist. Here we see how he evolved their injuries into new limbs and warped proportions. Redon explored the darker side of the human imagination through symbols and mysticism. Compare worked textures throughout the whole of this image to those found throughout Anita Taylor's charcoal drawing on p.
Garden of Earthly Delights. Smiling. HAUNTINGS Engraving This is an engraving made so that Grandville's original drawing could be reproduced. sucker-faced creatures dash and trundle toward it They are drawn solidly to emphasize their earthbound weight. teeming with the exhilaration of unrestrained fantasy. which is still available today. and Ship of Fools. Madrid. 1840 61/8 x41/2in ( 1 5 5 x 1 1 5 mm) GRANDVILLE HIERONYMUS BOSCH Dutch painter Bosch's highly detailed iconographic religious panel paintings. grimacing.243 J E A N I G N A C E ISIDORE GERARD ("GRANDVILLE") French graphic artist and political satirist. A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects c. Comic little headbands of waving hair express more hysteria than fear. The quality of the line is therefore uniform throughout. Two Monsters UNDATED 45/8 x61/2in (117 x 163 mm) HIERONYMUS BOSCH . Les Animaux (1840). Most of his work is in the Prado Museum. His other major works include Metamorphoses du Jour (1828). Light shines from the right. include The Haywain. Last Judgment. Quill and ink This typical Bosch monster is a quill drawing in bistre ink The phrasing of light and contour here is masterly. This image is from one of Grandville's best-known publications. and he illustrated the Fables of La Fontaine and Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe.
They share between them the pleasures of inventing a hybrid beast. poet. gamboling copulations. and play with its perfection and meaning.244 GODS AND MONSTERS Convolutions THESE CONVOLUTED DRAWINGS were made almost 5 0 0 years apart. Two previously drawn faces become humorous antagonists to the beast. However. and engineer Among Michelangelo's great works are the painted ceiling and altar wall of the Sistine Chapel. as we might expect. topple. Chalk and ink A quill dipped in brown ink was worked over black chalk on this reused sheet. lion. remembering the cavernous. In her studio. Opposite. the dome of the Vatican. snake. A snake eating its own tail is a universal image of the eternal and continuous. she formed a series of ghostly pale. pinnacled. and mist-swathed land. but in the seductive landscape of Leonardo da Vinci's oil painting Madonna of the Rocks. and dying slaves. sometimes artists purposefully tie a knot in the configuration to disturb. Scaly. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI Florentine painter sculptor. Dragon 1522 10 x 133/8 in ( 2 5 4 x 3 3 8 m m ) MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI . muscular tension is carved out of the paper using layered. His entire drawing wrestles and weaves the viewer's eye into its retracting folds. wraps and coils its lithe body ready to strike or whimper at a touch. phrased over the contours of form and bridging darker areas of shadow. Grimes' delicately cavorting figures dive into and consume each other. architect. and dog. and marble sculptures including Pieto. David. St Peter's square. below. hatched lines. Michelangelo's dragon. a stunning hybrid of a swan. Grimes found the genesis of her beast not among animals.
Ink-wash delicately gouache (smooth) and gouache brushed drawing on This is a and was hot-pressed Shadows The dark shadow of the Other the ink-wash earth was made with a brushstroke of ink laid into wet paper. The image formed directly without first making a pencil outline. London. It is one of a series of fragile earth figures inspired by rocks. Grimes exhibits internationally and features in the collections of the New York Public Library and the Victoria and Albert Museum.245 CONVOLUTIONS O O N A GRIMES British contemporary artist and professor of printmaking at the Ruskin School. boards finished paper. her under heavy here. each one iridescent and crumbly like a weathered while oyster. The large space around figure has been cropped Grimes drawings to flatten presses them. London. details evolved slowly using a drier brush. How Clever of God #84 2002 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) O O N A GRIMES . and the Camberwell and Slade Schools of Fine Art. Oxford.
needle-sharp center of kolinsky red sable hair. shape.H A I R RIGGER: Made with long synthetic hair for fine-point work It has a good ink-holding capacity and is slightly more resilient than sable hair with more "snap. 7. fingers. and has a fine tip for detailed work. and writers. This brush has a broad wash capability and can achieve a very wide range of marks. 10. It is still relatively small in the total range of Japanese brushes. and very fine lines. between them. with a fine point for delicate work 4. liners. and hold prodigious weights of ink or paint. Brushes vary in size. ideally suited to drawing. and never leave them standing on their tip in a jar of water. Some used by master calligraphers are 2-3 in (5-8 cm) in diameter 11. L A R G E R S Y N T H E T I C . SMALL JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with sable hair. Shorter brushes designed for other purposes run out of ink more quickly. thicknesses. It has exceptional painting characteristics. Some are bold. It is capable of very fine pointing. The brushes shown here are a mixture of This is a selection of riggers. JAPANESE PAINTING BRUSH: Made with natural hair. which holds long sable hair This brush holds large amounts of ink for long lines and points well for detailed work.H A I R LINER: Very responsive oriental-style liner This to the touch. all perfect for drawing and. ink-laden tip allow an expression that is beyond the linear. P O I N T E D T R A D I T I O N A L WRITER: The ferrule is made from a small duck quill. M T RA S AEIL ." 6. flowing. washes.Theyhold plenty of ink and make continuous. SABLE-HAIR RIGGER: Made with very long kolinsky sable hairs. this brush has a soft drawing tip and small ink-holding capacity. SYNTHETIC-HAIR BRUSH: Bound in a synthetic ferrule with good inkholding capacity and good spring and control. and texture. return them to their pointed shape. The living marks of a wet. it has good inkholding capacity and is very flexible. How you care for your brushes will determine how long they last. making rt ideally suited to Japanese painting and small-scale calligraphy. 1. Always clean them thoroughly. others are as fine as a whisker with a gentle touch. giving a variety of lines. the very opposite of pencil or silver point. Soaps purchased from good art supply stores will gently cleanse particles of pigment that become trapped in the hairs or ferrule. materials. 3. Slightly less flexible than the squirrel-hair sword liner 9. and effects.246 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brushes T H E BRUSH IS A VOLUPTUOUS and delicate weights. dense. and wrist into a fluid and soft touch. 13. SYNTHETIC-HAIR S W O R D LINER: A lining brush with high ink-holding capacity and a fine point. it has good wash capabilities. 2. 12. POINTED SQUIRREL-HAIR MOP: With a synthetic quill ferrule and extra high inkholding capacity. This design supplies the fine tip with a long continuity of ink 5. Suitable for wash techniques but also capable of very fine detail. SYNTHETIC-HAIR LINER: This brush gives a medium line and is firm with a spring to the touch. SABLE-HAIR LINER: Made with ordinary sable hair surrounding an extralong. SQUIRREL-HAIR S W O R D LINER:This brush has a maximum ink-holding capacity and an extremely fine and flexible point 8. LARGER JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with natural hair held in a plastic ferrule on a bamboo handle. S Y N T H E T I C . drawing tool extending the arm.
247 BRUSHES .
and above all w h e t h e r the b r u s h is saturated with pigment or relatively dry. the speed of the s t r o k e .) I .35) into two tablespoons of water in a shallow. It also depends on the angle at w h i c h it is held. SETTING UP Blowing spots T h e s e t h r e e s p i d e r y c r e a t u r e s (above right and below) w e r e m a d e by d r o p p i n g s p o t s o f ink f r o m a b r u s h o n t o t h e p a g e and.248 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brush Marks A S I N G L E BRUSH will m a k e an e n o r m o u s range of m a r k s depending u p o n the width. and to make pools and stains o n the page.246-47). I had left the end of the ink block in the water overnight to make it easier to dissolve. b l o w i n g h a r d o n t h e m several t i m e s t o disperse t h e ink ( c l o s e y o u r eyes if y o u t r y this. I rubbed a block of Chinese ink (see p. A single brush has almost balletic potential to draw fine or undulating lines and curves. the degree of pressure applied. splashes. and spatters. w i t h m y face close. and type of its hairs. the texture and a b s o r b e n c y of the paper ( w h i c h m a y be d a m p or dry). softness. Here I drew with a soft Japanese painting brush (see pp. length. unglazed earthenware dish.
. BRUSH MARKS Wet and dry strokes A m o n g these concentrated drawings ink made into with the same w a t e r y lines. t h e effects of the b r u s h r u n n i n g o u t o f ink. b l e e d i n g f r o m strokes b e l o w left. a n d b r u s h .249 Gritty texture T h e details o f t h e largest creatures b e l o w and opposite s h o w the granular texture of Chinese b l o c k ink. w e see fine lines and s p o t s . a n d t h e w a y it d i s t r i b u t e s w h e n t h e b r u s h is d a b b e d o n its s i d e .
I borrowed small and fragile specimens from the University Museum of Natural History.Monsters THESE LITTLE CREATURES o f i n k and i n v e n t i o n were b o r n out of animal and bird studies. and used their detail to draw new creatures that might at first seem familiar. until we look again. . Oxford.
They are a pair and hang opposite each other.Goya's Monsters W I T H CUNNING BRILLIANCE. thin works titled The Witches' Sabbath and The Procession of St. showing us that gallery study is not just for the student and beginner. I found relationships between all four paintings in terms of shapes. and narrative twists. Goya often invented his monsters out of characters seen in other painters' works. Among his "Black Paintings" in the Prado Museum. formal composition. Madrid. With further research. thin works made by Bartolome Murillo in Seville about 120 years earlier. Isidore. Here. . two of my own drawings show you how Goya's devil (below) is based on the shape of Murillo's boy on a horse (top right). Goya's witches have been literally drawn and evolved out of the shapes of Murillo's prophet and pilgrims. Through studying and drawing these great paintings I have discovered that they are based on a pair of similarly long. are two long.
little comments on politeness and sexual politics. Sometimes drawings come out of nowhere and surprise even the artist. drawn rapidly and with great joy. .Consumed THIS IS A SERIES OF CARTOONS I m a d e s o m e years ago.
Composition T h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e p a r t s o f an i m a g e t o m a k e u p the whole. s u c h as a d r a w i n g o r painting. D a m p p a p e r is laid o n t o p . A l s o called m u s e u m g r a d e . w h e n a p e r s o n is p a i n t e d standing a g a i n s t a w i n d o w . so t h a t ink r e m a i n s o n l y in t h e g r o o v e s o f s c r a t c h e d lines. F r o m t h e French v e r b coller." " N o t " p r e s s e d p a p e r is r o l l e d a s e c o n d t i m e w i t h o u t blankets t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders t o p r o d u c e a s m o o t h e r b u t still slightly t e x t u r e d s u r f a c e .c e n t u r y Italian t e r m m e a n i n g "clear-obscure. pressurized t o o l used f o r spraying fine mists o f s m o o t h c o l o r P i g m e n t is d e l i v e r e d b y a j e t o f air n o t t h e bristles o f a brush. L a t e r it c a m e t o m e a n h i g h l y c o n t r a s t e d light effects. A p o t e n t i a l l y h a r s h m e t h o d o f p r o d u c i n g t o n e s in a d r a w i n g . Eye level T h e i m a g i n a r y h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e a t t h e s a m e h e i g h t as t h e a v e r a g e p e r s o n ' s eyes. t h e field is t h e a p p a r e n t a n d b e l i e v a b l e space inside t h e p i c t u r e . o r o t h e r (usually large) w o r k — s e e Pouncing. Crosshatching Parallel lines d r a w n across o n e a n o t h e r at right angles. o r will o n l y a p p e a r n o r m a l . charcoal. See also Hotpressed papers.The plate is t h e n r o l l e d w i t h ink a n d polished with a rag. A " s h a l l o w d e p t h o f field" m e a n s t h e p i c t u r e appears t o have only a shallow s p a c e inside i t Diffuse T o s o f t e n o r m a k e less brilliant. T h e m o v e m e n t was started by a g r o u p o f French artists including H e n r i Matisse. p h o t o g r a p h s . Camera lucida A n optical device t h a t p r o j e c t s an image o f an o b j e c t o n t o a plain s u r f a c e so t h a t it can be traced. Anamorphic distortion Stretching an i m a g e across a p i c t u r e surface so t h a t it can o n l y b e u n d e r s t o o d . Chiaroscuro A 1 7 t h . p r i n t i n g press face up." It w a s first given t o t o n a l paintings m a d e in o n e c o l o r — s e e Grisaille. Blending M e r g i n g t w o o r m o r e neighboring colors o r tones t o g e t h e r using a tortillon. Air brush A mechanical. A i r b r u s h e s are u s e d in t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c o m i c s ." D e s c r i b e s a p a i n t i n g in w h i c h t h e light s o u r c e is b e h i n d t h e s u b j e c t F o r e x a m p l e . n e w s p a p e r cuttings.m e d i a d r a w i n g . usually at a n a c u t e angle t o t h e s u r f a c e . r a t h e r t h a n r e c o r d e d o n a film o r plate. R e m b r a n d t is a great master o f chiaroscuro. m e a n i n g " t o stick" Dry media M e d i a t h a t a r e n o t w e t o r o i l y — f o r e x a m p l e . In t h e Far East calligraphy is a highly r e s p e c t e d a r t f o r m . Cartoon 1. Engraving 1. a n d g r a p h i t e . C o p p e r p l a t e engravings w e r e widely used t o r e p r o d u c e images b e f o r e p h o t o g r a p h y . tapestry. Binder A substance t h a t holds particles o f p i g m e n t t o g e t h e r in a paint f o r m u l a t i o n . It is p u t o n a Body color See Gouache. w h e n v i e w e d f r o m a specified point. Deckle edge T h e i r r e g u l a r e d g e o f a s h e e t o f m o l d . p r a c t i c e d meditatively w i t h a brush. A f u l l .d i m e n s i o n a l i m a g e . Bracelet shading C u r v e d parallel lines t h a t f o l l o w t h e c o n t o u r s o f f o r m . Fauvism A n early 2 0 t h . Field In a t w o . T h e name " n o t " simply refers t o t h e fact t h a t t h e cylinders are n o t h o t in t e m p e r a t u r e . It can also seal a silver p o i n t d r a w i n g t o p r e v e n t t h e oxidization (browning) o f t h e Drypoint A d r a w i n g is s c r a t c h e d directly o n t o a m e t a l plate w i t h a m e t a l t o o l h e l d like apen. o f t e n d i s t o r t e d forms and vivid colors. Aerial perspective The effect of the a t m o s p h e r e o v e r distance as it lightens t o n e s a n d cools c o l o r s progressively t o w a r d t h e horizon. A h u m o r o u s d r a w i n g o r parody. for example. Also called accelerated perspective. Contre jour A F r e n c h t e r m m e a n i n g " a g a i n s t day. Ferrule T h e s h o r t m e t a l t u b e t h a t s u r r o u n d s a n d g n p s t h e hairs o f a p a i n t b r u s h a n d fixes t h e m t o t h e brush handle. Conservation grade D e s c r i b e s a range o f materials t h a t d o n o t d e c a y and cannot be broken d o w n by insects. a r e r o l l e d t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders. R o u g h p a p e r is m a d e b e t w e e n t w o blankets t h a t . U s e d as a c o r r e c t i n g device o r pictorial game. T h e prints t a k e n from t h e s e plates o r blocks. t o g e t h e r w i t h a t h i c k felt b l a n k e t T h e w h o l e s a n d w i c h o f l a y e r s is t h e n railed t h r o u g h t h e press t o m a k e a p r i n t D r y p o i n t is a very portable and immediate m e t h o d o f printmaking. S o m e t i m e s f e r r u l e s a r e m a d e o f plastic o r o t h e r materials. pastel. s u c h as a s c r e e n . A l s o c a l l e d t h e h o r i z o n line.256 GLOSSARY Glossary Accidental drawing Random.c e n t u r y painting m o v e m e n t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e use o f b o l d . m e a n i n g "beauty". Calligraphy Beautiful h a n d w r i t i n g . W o r d s o r symbols are Cold-pressed papers P a p e r manufactured with a "not" o r " r o u g h " surface. in w h i c h parts o f an image are depicted v e r y brightly and dramatically against d a r k n e s s . Camera obscura A d a r k e n e d c h a m b e r i n t o w h i c h an i m a g e o f w h a t is o u t s i d e is received t h r o u g h a small o p e n i n g o r lens a n d f o c u s e d in natural c o l o r o n a facing surface. Acid-free paper P a p e r w i t h a neutral p H t h a t will n o t darken o r d e t e r i o r a t e excessively w i t h age. a n d attaches t h e m t o t h e s u p p o r t — f o r example. A l s o called r i n g l e t shading.s i z e d r a w i n g m a d e for t h e purpose o f transferring a design t o a painting. Erasure T h e a c t o f r e m o v i n g a n i m a g e f r o m a surface. t h e l i g h t is b e h i n d h i m o r her. as o p p o s e d t o t h e s t r a i g h t e d g e o f a sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has b e e n machine-trimmed. In t h e W e s t p e n calligraphy is u s e d t o c r e a t e f o r m a l a n d d e c o r a t i v e t e x t s .m a d e paper. Fixative lightly glues t h e d r a w i n g t o t h e surface o f t h e p a p e r t o p r e v e n t smudging. A g e n e r a l t e r m t h a t describes t h e various processes o f c u t t i n g a design i n t o a plate o r b l o c k o f m e t a l o r w o o d . written with a broad-nibbed pen o r brush. Collage C o l l e c t e d materials such as c o l o r e d p a p e r s . and readymade objects arranged and stuck o n t o a flat surface. T h e b l a n k e t s g i v e t h e p a p e r its rough texture o r "tooth. in w h i c h t h e subject's distinctive features o r peculiarities are deliberately exaggerated f o r c o m i c o r g r o t e s q u e effect. linseed oil o r egg y o l k Caricature A representation Contour line A line t h a t f o l l o w s t h e s h a p e o f a surface. chance mark-making. Blotting T h e use o f a b s o r b e n t m a t e r i a l t o lift a w a y excess liquid. a n d given t h e n a m e Sho. 2. F r o m t h e G r e e k kallos. Bleed T h e e f f e c t o f t w o w e t colors running into one another o r o n e color applied t o a w e t surface a n d a l l o w e d t o d i s p e r s e . Fixative Liquid acrylic resin a n d l a c q u e r t h i n n e r usually a p p l i e d as a n a e r o s o l s p r a y m i s t t o t h e surface o f a d r y . 2.
used for fixing paper to walls and boards. The ink attaches to the oil-based image and is repelled by the wet stone.The paper then bears a crayon impression or copy of the surface that was underneath it A number of Surrealists. or a drawing made in any single color GLOSSARY Linear perspective A form of perspective in which parallel lines are represented as converging. it is the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work Pigment Any substance used as a coloring agent—for example. . F o r m The outer surface of a three-dimensional object.while secretion of the acacia tree. Objective drawing Refers to the concept of objectivity." A piece of paper is placed on top of an object or rough surface. glass. Paper is then pressed against the stone to take a print. Monochrome Usually refers to a black. format" (abbreviated to "portrait"). graphite. Grisaille A painting in gray or a grayish color Often made by students as a tonal exercise. 2. the finely ground particles of plant. It can be used with any wet media to isolate or protect parts of an image from further Optical blending See Pointillism. lifting out charcoal and other dry media. Impressing Stamping or printing. Papercut A type of collage in which flat sheets of paper are cut into an image. F o r m a t T h e size. Focus 1 . Masking fluid Clear or opaque latex fluid developed for watercolor painting. multiH u e A term for a color. Also refers to an additive used to control the application properties of a color Golden Section A proportion in which a straight line or rectangle is divided into two unequal parts in such a way that the ratio of the smaller part to the greater part is the same as that of the greater part to the whole. then rubbed over carefully but vigorously with a crayon. and is also used as a size. cadmium yellow hue. materials that produce marks on a surface. or plastic surface. including Max Ernst used frottage in their work. and orientation of the image. It improves the bonding properties Frottage A French term meaning "rubbing. and gray drawing. rock. or for wrapping and protecting a finished piece of work. Hairspray is an effective and inexpensive alternative. Medium A generic term for art Key A painting is said to be "high key" when the colors and tones are bright and "low key" when they are dark or somber The term is also used Gouache Opaque watercolor Also called body color. with the area beneath remaining unaffected. Grisaille is occasionally seen in church stained-glass windows. Padua. or even a beam of light. Paper is laid on top and a rapid drawing is made on the back of it The paper lifts away to reveal the image on its other side. Negative space The space between things. and translucent paper—a delicate material used in collage. The surface can be reloaded or redrawn with more medium. and masking off areas of a drawing that the artist wishes to keep untouched by media applied above or beside the tape. Dark tones are laid down first then an eraser or masking tape is used to lift away particles of the drawing media to reveal the lightness of the paper beneath. oil-based printing ink is rolled evenly onto a smooth metal. Plumb line A line from which a weight is suspended in order to determine verticality or depth. or can be otherwise used to create an image—for example. purpose. Lightfast A term confirming that pigment in the product will not fade with exposure to light.Theground provides a particular color or texture beneath the image. It is then peeled away. pastel. It is a strong adhesive. of the ingredients in inks and watercolors. but in picture-making it is as important as the objects/subjects themselves. which has a rough surface). Pointillism A technique of using points or dots of pure color in such a way that when the picture is viewed from a distance they react Masking tape Invaluable. After several intervening processes. or a family of colors. Rubens used grisaille to paint small images for engravers. or spirit-based) is applied to a surface that is then pressed onto paper and removed to leave a print. A point of interest in a drawing. or synthetic material that are suspended in a medium to constitute paint. glossy. sticky paper tape. enabling them to stick to paper It also helps to maintain a stable dispersion of pigment particles in water as the film of a wash dries.257 metal line. A small image might be described as small format Horizontal images are often said to be "landscape format" (abbreviated G u m arabic The natural to"landscape"). upright images are called "portrait which is used as a binding agent in many liquid media. to give the illusion of depth and distance. aiming to represent facts rather than an interpretation of the subject. Hatching (cross-) See Crosshatching. or canvas and allowed to dry before an image is drawn or painted. Picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. work. Artists can paint freely over dry masking fluid. Fugitive A term given to a pigment that it is not stable. and that will "escape" or change over time. to describe a surface to which paint will adhere readily. Monoprinting A direct method of printing in which wet medium (water-. shape. white. Ground A wet solution usually of gouache or gesso (chalk and animal glue) brushed onto paper board. This effect emulates what we see in real life. but each print will be unique.The degree to which detail is defined. Hot-pressed papers (HP) Paper made using hot cylinders. ink. Lithography A method of printmaking in which a drawing or painting is made directly onto a smooth slab of particular limestone or a metal plate using an oilbased crayon or ink. Gamut A complete range or extent Glassine A type of thin. and it has a history in enamel work. Alternatively. Foreshortening A method of depicting an object at an angle to the surface of the picture. so that (using vanishing point perspective) the object appears to change shape and become narrower or smaller as it recedes. Giotto's Virtues and Vices in the Arena Chapel. oil-. This may be disregarded in real life. Lifting out A method of creating highlights and mid-tones in a drymedia drawing (such as charcoal or graphite). which give it a smooth surface (as opposed to cold-pressed paper. mineral. the surface of the stone is made wet before being rolled with a thin film of oilbased printing ink. Usually an academic drawing observed from life. and by artists representing stone sculptures in a painting. are painted in grisaille and appear to be made of stone. Also used by artists' materials manufacturers to indicate the use of a substitute pigment—for example. This method incorporates the excitement of accidental and unpredicted marks.
pointed instrument used for marking or engraving. evolved by engineers and architects for the purpose of conveying W a t e r c o l o r A painting accurate structural information. Zen brushwork This is an oriental meditative art form originating in China and practised for many centuries in Japan. fine paper. . orchids. Single-point perspective The most basic form of linear perspective in which there is only one vanishing point. "Spirits" or "oil" of turpentine refer to the volatile portion used by artists to thin or dilute oil-based paint. plum blossom. fruit. or the right-hand page in a book. using a brush. Tortillon A short. Artists' prints are normally made in multiple. Strip Core of a pencil. Size A weak glue used for filling the porous surface of wood or canvas in order to seal it. acrylic. A term borrowed from the theater. Support The structure on which an image is made—for example. Volume The amount of space occupied by an object or an area of space in itself. plaster or cloth surface beneath. or the left-hand page in a book. Stippling Applying color or tone in areas of fine dots or flecks. Named paper in place. Squeegee A rubber-trimmed scraper used in the screenprinting process for dragging ink across a surface. nature of watercolor allows the white surface of the paper to Tonal scale A scale of gradations shine through. ink. Recto The front or top side of a piece of paper. pencil. or any physical object that can be stamped or pressed onto a surface to leave an impression. by imposing a grid that is then scaled up to a larger size. or pen.Thedrawing is removed. which are then called editions. Viewpoint The position from which something is observed or considered. cut-out profile made along every outline of the usually made in black paper image. design. Serigraphy Silk-screen printing. wall or tapestry. and chrysanthemum—which in Chinese tradition are called "The Four Gentlemen. Sketch A quick or rough drawing. The crude material is called oleoresin. a tightly folded piece of cotton batting can be used for the same effect. Technical drawing A universal it is often used in conjunction language of lines and measurements with line drawings in pen and that is used to make diagrammatic ink—for images. paper or canvas. usually diluted with water and applied with a brush. Stylus A sharp. Etienne de material) dabbed through the Silhouette (1709-67). or wood. Props An abbreviation of the word properties. whose pinpricks creates a "connect-thepersonal pastime was making dots" replica of the image on the cut-out portraits. an ink stone usually cut from slate. giving it a brilliance. or watercolor paint. creating more vibrant effects than if the same colors were physically mixed together with a brush. Squaring up A method of enlarging and transferring an image from one surface to another. Pouncing If a large drawing or design (called a cartoon) is to be Shadow Darkness cast by the transferred to a surface such as a obscuring of light. plaster. W e t media Any liquid media— for example. Pounce (a fine for an unpopular 18th-century powder of charcoal or similar French politician. compound of water-soluble pigment. and paperweights. a sheet of paper is placed beneath and pinpricks are Silhouette A flat. or mark using an inked or pigment-covered surface. Still life A picture composed of inanimate objects such as bowls. a point at which receding parallel lines meet Verso The back or underside of a piece of paper. Scale Describes the size of one element in relation to another Sepia A brown pigment taken from the sun-dried ink sacs of cuttlefish and used to make ink or watercolor The term is now often incorrectly used to refer to brown colors. Zen brushwork encompasses calligraphy and painting." Applied to the blurring or softening of sharp outlines by the subtle and gradual blending of one tone into another Sgraffito A technique of scratching or cutting through a surface of paint. tight. Alternatively. glasses. to model areas of light and shade. carbon ink. Printmaking The act of making a picture.258 GLOSSARY together optically. in tone running from black to white or vice versa. Underdrawing A pale preliminary drawing made prior to adding layers of another medium such as oil paint or watercolor Value The extent to which a color reflects or transmits light This is the equivalent of tone in a black and white image. Zen paintings usually depict scenes of nature and plants such as bamboo. Zen A school of Mahayana Buddhism that asserts that enlightenment can come through meditation and intuition rather than faith. sometimes drawn from a and leaving only the pricked sheet of shadow cast on a wall. Subjective drawing A drawing that expresses the personal view and interpretation of the artist An invented image. Shade A that is color mixed (or toned) with black Shading A lay term for adding tone to a drawing. or ceramic glazing to reveal a different color beneath. and flowers. or point on which parallel lines converge to give the impression of receding space. Sfumato An Italian term meaning "smoky. Turpentine A colorless solvent distilled from the resinous sap of pine trees.Technicaldrawing has been example. such as an inscribed sheet of metal." Materials for Zen brushwork include round brushes of varied size. commonly referred to as the lead. watercolor. meaning objects used in setting up a life model or still life. Vanishing point In linear perspective. or gouache. pointed roll of white paper that is used to blend dry media. Tone A degree of lightness or darkness. Although drawings can be made with wash alone. Spattering A mottled texture produced by drawing your fingers across the bristles of a stiff brush loaded with pigment. Wash A technique using ink. in order to flick the pigment onto the image surface. The translucent Tint A color mixed with white.
26 geese 38-39 Gericault's cats 28. 13 architectural drawing 67-71 Arctic Flowers (Libeskind) 70.44-45 bird studies 12.44-45.31 Picasso's horse and bird 30. Augustin 67 Basquiat. 139 Nanha) 50.13. 28 Klee's horses 30. 50.184.184. William: The Circle of the Lustful 180.50.117 Achilles Chases Hector (Thomas) 240.27 turtles 42-43 aquatint 240 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels (Leonardo) 12. 160 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object (Moore) 178. 9. 203 Landline 202. 202 cloth. Clare 203 City 202. 223 Circular Score for "Due Voce" 223 children's art 9. Franz 48 Protea nitida 48 Bellini. 221 animals. 204-205. 71 conte 112. Leon: Bacchante 155 balance. 250 Bishndas and Nanha: Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity 50. 244 head and neck 144 phrased 124-125 contrast: brightness 99 of media 30 tonal 96. 70 Art Nouveau motifs 91 Autoportrait (Ray) 138. 206. 244 and graphite 178 . 116. 90.100 curves. 199 Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya (Eisen) 156. 190 Caricature of a Woman (Daumier) 198. 94 cylindrical objects. 133. 71 Bacchante (Bakst) 155 background: color 91 textured 240 Baker Matthew: Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry 32 Bakst. 241 action.163 graded 227 composition 56-57. 52 cotton swabs 205 Coup de Vent a Asajigabare (Hokusai) 198. 157 cropping 56-57. 111. 230-231 Cubist 90. 8 cave paintings 8. 94 chalk(s) 53. 226-227 Acanthus spinosus 65 accelerated perspective 22. Joseph 113 The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland 112. 9 Chair (Van Gogh) 94.163 body. 30 sleeping dog 38-39 Stubbs's horse skeleton 26. 29 Hugo's octopus 28. 203 Buffalo Hunt (Shoshone) 178. Statue d'Epouvante 90 calligraphy. 113 bird bones 12. 205 Baltard. 158. 179 Bussotti. Le (Hugo) 200. to depict 156-157 Cloudburst of Material Possessions (Leonardo) 200.162 Conte.186 see also movement Adoration of the Magi perspective study (Leonardo) 74. 220. to express 39. 165. 38-39. 81 135.89. Basilius 47 Beuys. to draw 80. Mamaru 104. 161 Akhlaq-I Rasul Allah manuscript 51. 198. 198 cartoon (preparatory drawing) 137 (satirical) 159.51 All and Nothing (Taylor) 114. Georges 67. center of 118 ballpoint 182. Giovanni 137 Head and Shoulders of a Man 136. Sylvano 222. 71 Blake. Filippo 67. 74. 13. 206 checkered floor 80. (Ross-Craig) 49 to hold brush for 23 caricature 159. 193 in lifting out 204. 163. 162 character: to capture 38-39. 134 costume(s) 155 character 158-159 structure of 166-167 Cottage Among Trees (Rembrandt) 52. to draw 25. 81 cut-out model plan 94. 247-248 carving see lines.115 anatomical drawing 134-135 anatomical theaters 82-83 anatomical waxes 128 ancient carvings 221.133.212 to erase 205 to hold 23 pencils 204 willow 114.Index Page numbers in italics refer t o captions and illustrations Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity (Bishndas and 259 INDEX B bread (as eraser) 205. cut Catling. 242 to blend 205 compressed 122. 75 Circle of the Lustful (Blake) 180. 180 blending: color 133. 90 colored materials 162-163 colored pencils 162. 41 principal 186. 95 Chair Cut Out (Woodfine) 94. 180 Circular Score for "Due Voce" (Bussotti) 223 circus scenes 192-195 City (Bryan) 202. to model 110-111 border 51 Bosch. 78 aerial perspective 206 airbrushing 160. 74.169 colors: airbrushed 161 background 91 A Abe. Jean Michel 138 Self-Portrait 138 Bateau-Vision.198.163 dry media 205 Blue Nude (Matisse) 110. 98. 40-41 Durer's rhinoceros 26. 230 The Physical Space 220 abstract drawing 219. Hieronymus 243 Two Monsters 242. Etienne-Louis 72 Newton's Cenotaph 72. layers 53 chalk pastels 162. 74 brush (es) 246-247 Japanese 248 for laying a wash 140 marks 248-249 to hold 23 brush drawings 14-15 Bryan. 182. 201 collage 111. Zen c 232-233 blended 133. 242 Brunelleschi.226. 90. 222. Victor: West Facade of the Church of St. 75. 243 botanical drawing 48-49 Boullee. 137 Besler. 178 Cubism 67. 189. 72 bracelet shading 122 Braque. 203 Claude Lorrain 202 Views from Velletri 202. 128. 186 charcoal 114. Nicolas-Jacques 54 contours 146. to draw 100 Cypripedium calceolus L. 204. 90 La Guitare. Brian 226 Untitled 2001 226 "Cave of the Hands" (Cueva de las Manas) 8. 200 Bauer.
29 H hands. 93 eye level 80 Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity. position of 143. Victor 200.146 from masterworks 126-127. to draw 168-169 in Goya's artworks face. 104-105.157 ellipses 100. 245 layers 30 Goya. 90 G Gaudi. 69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt 68.230 three-tone 140.252-253 from memory 183. 223. 141 tonal 96.91. 240. Nicholas 68 St Paul's Baptistry 68 head and neck to draw 142-145 Head and Shoulders of a Man (Bellini) 136. 77 How Clever of God #84 244. 137 heads. 799 Holbein. 69 Guitare. 240 Black Paintings 152. 144 Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (Baker) 32. 122 Hawksmoor.104. 124. 7 33 Hooke. to draw 78. 93 horizon 52. 91 Dragon (Michelangelo) 36.101 engraving 243 erasers/erasing 55. Sir Ernst 12. fiber-tip pen 182. 134. 113. 200 F fabric. Ron 161 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 161 160. 37 Grandville 243 A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the Near-Microscopic World of Scale Insects 242.160.97. proportions of 143 fantasy drawings 72-73. 135 Duren Albrecht 26. 241 to blend 205 and chalk 178 and ink 28. 55.244. 252 depiction of fabric monsters 252-253 Self Portrait in a Cocked Hat 130.141.109 Rhinoceros 26. drypoint 181 exaggeration 184 expressionism 198 E ye and Head of a Drone Fly (Hooke) 92. 30 Fauves/fauvism 90. to suggest 177 see also perspective diagonals diffuser 55 dip pens 34. 242 eyes. 226-227 anatomical 134-135 architectural 67-71 botanical 48-49 brush 14-15 dark to light 102. 157 . 69.198 Degas. 205 drawing with 103. 170-173. 26 Flying Fish (White) 25. 243 graphic score 222. 115 Escher. 163. 222 Grimes. Rene 160 Illustration for Jacques Fath E easel.116. 245 Hugo. 120. 90 gouache 30. 112.115 exploratory 17 fantasy 72-73. La (Braque) 90. Statue d'Epouvante. 160 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction (Gaudi) 68.207.166 170-173 Gestalt 222 Giacometti.102-103 drawing board 20 drawing books 20-21 drawing paper 144.117 fountain pens 34. 132 Frenz. 160 hitsuzendo 233 light to dark 102. 55.260 INDEX D Dada 139 Daumien Honore 198 Caricature of a Woman 198. 216 foreshortening 110. 222. 79. 99 etching.189. 41 in the round 208-209 with scalpel 202. Francisco de 131.37.244 drawing(s): abstract 219. Keisai 157 The Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya 156. 161 fashion drawings 160. Robert 93 Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 92. Antonio 68. Jean Ignace Isidore see Grandville Gericault. 25 focus 65.Theodore 29 Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 28. Study for Plate 59 (Mucha) 90.141. Hans 133 The Ambassadors 116 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 132.69 Gerard. 73. 32 framing 139 Franfoise au Bandeau (Picasso) 132. 131 Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 240. 163. 190 Middle Eastern 50-51. 161 changing 216 Focusing on the Negative (Walter) 16 foliage 52. 220 dry brush 234 234 57. 160 Faune.103 with eraser 103. Katsushika 199 Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 198. Edgar 162 depth. 222 Le Bateau-Vision 200. 136 Golden Section 67 Gombrich. 40. 125. Oona 245 How Clever of God #84 244. to draw 134-137 Helleborus corsicus 55 highlights 91.160. 240 170-173 five Ships in a Port with Lighthouse (Wallis) 11. 765 hitsuzendo drawings 233 Hokusai. 55. 223 graphite 54. 71 minimal line 99 and music 70-71 quick 38-39. position of 22 Eisen.216. Cheval et Oiseau (Picasso) 30.112. Antonio 135 Muscles of the Head and Neck 134.111 feet. 203 semi-abstract 234-237 three-dimensional 68.216 Durelli. 160 as ground for metal point 140. M. 122. 162 Flaxman. 69. 52 foreground 208. 203 Hotel de la Suzonnieres (Satie) 70.103. 134. 134.12 fixative 54. Alberto 136 Portrait of Marie-Laure de Noailles 136. 230 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction 68. disposable pens 182-183 dissections: botanical 48 of horse 27 distance: illusion of see perspective linear 97 tonal 97 Documents Decoratifs. 245 Gruau.184 165. C . The 242. to draw 120. 202.John 157 Man Lying Down in a Cloak 156.144 and ink 30. 161 fashion 160.121 felt-tip pens 162.
Phyll: hands 18 lifting out 204.276.109. 36. 53 Tree II 52. 35.167 line(s) 132. 158 Man Lying Down in a Cloak (Flaxman) 156. Matisse. Kathe 181 Losbrunch (The Outbreak) 180. 184. 252 ink 16. 248. 226 Modernism 67.104. 160 In the Duchess's Kitchen (Rackham) 176. 244 ink 36 252-253 Documents Decoratifs 90. Charles Rennie 48. 220. 156 magnification 93 Man in Armor (Van Dyck) 158. 227 Scene of Comical Riders 30. Paul 227 Polyphonic Setting for White 226. 63. Alphonse 90. 178 motifs: A r t Nouveau 9 7 stylized 51 mountains 216-217 movement: of animals 30-31 of humans 7 79. 789. Oxford 106 Prado.91 Study for Plate 59 of INDEX illumination see lighting Illustration for Jacques Fath (Gruau) 160. 756 priming for 140. apparent 97 Leonardo da Vinci 74.109. 244 lithograph 198 Losbruch (Kollwitz) 180. I Murderous Attacks 33 Kollwitz. 181 luminosity 115 Lynch. 220. 77 Miller. 177 influences. 163 pens 36 measuring 116 memory.182 Moore.124. drawing from 183. Daniel 70 Arctic Flowers 70 Lieb. 99. 190 metal pens see dip pens metal point 25. 757 mandalas 219. 110 Sistine Chapel ceiling 116 Middle Eastern drawing 50-51. Gustav 49 Knopf.120. 159 Japanese 35 to make 36 sepia 35 walnut 36. 135 museums 44. 83 white 122 ink impressions 222 ink spatters 234 installations 176. drawing from 126-127.The (Robinson) 108. 185 Mucha. 205 masterworks. 201 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels 12.115 98. 34. 60. 111. Oxford 250 music 70-71 Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks (Knopf) 32. 181 Klee.96. 58-59.181 L Landline (Bryan) 202. 31 Klimt. 33 J justness 228-229 N naive art 74 negative space 53. Erich 73 design for Metropolis 72. 234 iron-gall 35. 13 Cloudburst of Material Possessions 200. 227 Newsome. 183 vertical 156 linear distance 97 linear perspective 69. 74-77.102. 230 invented creatures 106-107 250-251 invented objects 89. 73 Kigell. 219 Mondrian. Marie 244 cloth drawing 244.166 La Specola. 225 masking tape 204.Pieuvre (Octopus) 28. 170-173. Henri 111 Blue Nude 1110. 203 landscape 206-208 brushed 14 Landscape in Hoboku Style (Sesshu) 14 layers 146 chalk 53 gouache 30 ink 28. 73 Michelangelo Buonarroti 48.33 Mysterious Affairs of the lighting 2 7. Johan 32. 176. 242 light 96 to depict drawing with 1 76 painting with 176 . 203. 252 Muscles of the Head and Neck (Durelli) 134. 28 Two Impressions from a Cut-out Paper Disk 222 Huyler Stephen R 225 261 Kinecar. 220. artistic 240-241. 249 and gouache 30 Indian 35. 97 Murillo. Piet 52. 114 hatched 244 layered 118 pace of 65 pale 40 rapid 49. 220. David 78 M Mackintosh. 49 Rose 49 Maelbeke Madonna (Van Eyck) 156. Rose: Tantalus or the Future of Man 20 minimal line drawing 99 mirror use of 120 mixed media 28. 54 silver point 156 leg sections 158 length. 34-35 acrylic 35 bistre 35. 244 Dragon 36. 166. Florence 128 lighting in 167 Pitt Rivers. Madrid 171 University Museum of Natural History.141. 221 endless 31 free 113. 78 Study ofThree Male Figures 110. 205.134 K Kettlehut. 201 head and neck sections of female mold for Sforza Horse 89 Madonna of the Rocks 244 perspective study for Adoration of the Magi 74. 103 Neolithic chalk tablet 220.112. 53 monoprint 787.141 Metropolis (film) 72.243 carbon 35 Chinese 30. 244. Bartolome: Moses Striking the Rock ofHoreb 252. 76 Libeskind.227 to "bend" straight 97 compositional 228-229 cut 202. Henry 178 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object 178. 72. Victor 134 Profile Head 134. 37 lines 118 pastel 162 pencil 31.
1 6 3 . 75 Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range 241 petroglyphs 221. 242 reed pens 34. Isaac 92 Telescope 92 Newton's Cenotaph (Boullee) 72. 166 fiber-tip 782. Martin 238. 772 234-237 Sesshu. 103. 243.71 Hotel de la Suzonnieres 70. 163. 244 reed 34. Paul 73 Nobson Central 72. 73 Noble. Peter Paul 126-127 Embracing pose(s): balanced 146 quick 118-119 positive form 103 posture: of artist 22 of subject 3 8 . 203 Scene of Comical Riders (Klee) 30. 52 pens 36 scalpel 54 drawing with 202. 736 portraits.Paul'sBaptistry (Hawksmoor) 68. 7 70 Ray. 732 influence of 240 painting with light 78.54 pastel 162 perspective 1 0 0 . Pablo 6 7 . 81 two-point 74. 212 Japanese 2 1 .139 Autoportrait 138. 239 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat (Seurat) 112. 91 outsider artists 33.36. to draw 146-147 R Rackham. 76-79. The (Abe) 220 Picasso. 205 157.37 scientific instruments 9 2 . 239 Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 238. 74-77. 76 plastic eraser 55. 159. 122. 216. 68 Satie. 97. 26 Riley. 28 pigment 162 bright 50 Caput Mortuum 7 4 7 for three-tone drawing 141. 1 2 4 priming for metal point 140.The (Beuys) 112.2 3 age and youth sleeping subjects 148-149 150-151 Renaissance 109 Rhinoceros (Durer) 26. 165.9 3 Schongauer.262 INDEX Newton. Giovanni Battista 74. 165 figure 118 filled 37 pencil 48. 4 9 Rose of Mohammed 50. 7 76 receding space 206 Redon. 36. 36. 40-41. 782 relief 757 silk-screen 739 woodblock 134.7 77 rapidograph 70 Raphael 110.52 pen and wash 158. Sue 104. 1 6 9 to hold 2 2 . and Webster. Georges 112 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 112. 1 1 6 . 181 Rodin. 160. 36 relief printing 757 Rembrandt van Rijn 52. 7 38 Ray 138. Auguste 114 Two Women 114. J 76 nudes 114-115 to make 36 metal see dip quill 34. 181 pencil(s) 54 charcoal 204 colored 762. 141 Piranesi.37. Man 131.240. Heath 181 The Kinecar 180. 36.Tim. 139 Real Life is Rubbish (Noble and Webster) 176. 114 rollerball 182 Rorschach blot 99 Rose (Mackintosh) 48. 38. 78 single-point 74. 230 parallel planes 79 Parisian street 86-87 pastels 162 to blend 205 to hold 23 layers 162 pencils 162 pen(s): dip 34 . 759 P Page. 57 Ross-Craig.Toyo: Landscape in Hoboku . 74. 71 Satire of the Queen's Dress (Wodall) 158.176 Real Life Is Rubbish 176.759. 7 73 self-portraits: Basquiat 138.oise au Bandeau 132. 161. 7 72 Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland. 164. 733 Portrait de Marie-Laure (Giacometti) 136.226. 162 O p A r t 98 optical illusions 96-99 outline 33. 230 paper(s) 21 colored 162 drawing 144. Bridget 98 Robinson. Cheval et Oiseau 30. 36 pen and brush 8 3 pen and ink 70. Russell 228. 241 Physical Space. 227 portfolios 20 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser de Noailles (Holbein) 132. 34-35. 2 2 0 for oil pastels 162 stained 230 to stretch 140-141 tissue 21. 72 Noble. Faune.199 Profile Head (Newsome) oil pastels 162. 37 38. 9 0 . 1 3 2 quill pens 34. 224 0 layers 31. 205 pointillism 112 polyphonic painting 227 Polyphonic Setting for White (Klee) 226. Erik 70. 38. 36. 734 Protea nitida (Bauer) 48. 243.104 Pieuvre (Hugo) 28. 234 disposable 182-183 felt-tip 162. 9 8 . 36. 1 1 6 accelerated 2 2 . 7 77 three-point 80. Stella 48 Cypripedium calceolus L 49 rotated view 7 65 Rubens. 4 8 putty eraser 55.40. Arthur 177 In the Duchess's Kitchen 176. 30 Fran<.184 fountain 34. 75 Two Courtyards 75. 739 semi-abstract drawings Style 14 Seurat. Odilon 242 The Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity 242. 1 1 7 aerial 206 linear 69.37.141 prints/printing: aquatint 240 dry-point etching 181 engraving 243 monoprint 181. 244 Q s Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape (Wolfli) 2 79 St. 219.131 Cottage Among Trees 52.
202 violin. 102-103 tonal marks. 77. M . 174 T w o m b l y . Man in Armor 1 5 8 .41. 115. 75. 230 t h r e e . 156 Van Gogh. 104-105. William 159 Satire of the Queen's Dress INDEX 226.5 3 in l a n d s c a p e 2 0 6 . 75 Skeleton of the Horse ( S t u b b s ) 26. 1 4 0 . 199. John: Focusing on the Negative 14 w a s h .27 skull 747. 182.9 1 storms. 1 9 9 Two Courtyards (Piranesi) 75. A n t h o n y 152. 245 sharpener 54 Ship in a Storm ( T u r n e r ) 1 9 8 . 7 6 1 spots. 76.d i m e n s i o n a l d r a w i n g 68. 159 Wolfli. 249 t o describe 39. 96.120. 164.1 4 1 .s c r e e n p r i n t i n g 139 silver p o i n t 1 4 0 . 7 6 Two Impressions from a Cut-Out Paper Disk ( H u g o ) 2 2 2 Two Monsters 2 4 2 . 141 Three Male Figures. 1 7 7 free 8 0 V e n i c e . 170 shoes 1 6 4 stylized m o t i f 51 Summer Flowers 63.Yamaoka 233 t e x t u r e 2 2 2 . 57.2 0 1 .1 6 5 shorthand diagram 142 Shoshone buffalo hide painting 178. 7 75 Telescope ( N e w t o n ) 9 2 . Jan 1 5 6 Maelbeke Madonna 1 5 6 . 1 4 1 w a t e r c o l o r 25. Sue see N o b l e . 199 shoes 1 6 4 . 97.t o n e d r a w i n g 140. 158 V a n Eyck.1 4 5 .J. t o d r a w 2 0 0 . 156 layers 7 5 6 priming for 140. Taylor A n i t a 115 All and Nothing 1 1 4 . H e n r i de: Woman at Her Toilet 14 t r a n s p a r e n t v i e w 92. 79.d i m e n s i o n a l 1 0 4 .12 W a l t e r . 9 2 Tesshu. 1 4 1 . b l o w n 248 steel p e n s see d i p p e n s still life 89. Augustin ( B a l t a r d ) 6 7 w e t and dry brush-strokes 2 4 9 Turner.2 1 3 Stubbs. 743 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City ( F r e n z ) 1 6 0 . 74.Sforza Horse. 7 70 Tiber 214-215 Untitled ( T w o m b l y ) 2 2 0 . t o d r a w 5 2 . 9 5 pens 36 v a n i s h i n g p o i n t 74. 186.241 s i l k . 69. 243 (Bosch) T Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos ( G o y a ) 2 4 0 . 1 6 . h e a d a n d n e c k sections o f female m o l d f o r (Leonardo) 89 shading 2 9 s h a d o w s 28. 2 2 0 influence o f 2 4 0 Untitled 220. 240 Two Women Embracing ( R o d i n ) 114. 1 6 6 t r a p e z i u s m u s c l e 142.141 S i m b l e t . 1 8 4 . 1 4 4 .125 W o o d f i n e . Adolf: Giant-Grape Saint-Mary-Castle 219 Woman at Her Toilet ( T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c ) 74 w o o d b l o c k print 157. drawing with 104-105 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt ( G a u d i ) 68. W . Sarah: child's m a p 75. 69.216 W e b s t e r . 9 0 . 2 4 2 w Wallis. 2 3 4 .1 0 5 vision 9 6 Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects (Grandville) 242. 2 2 6 . Study of (Michelangelo) 110. 161. T i m W e s t Fagade of the Church of St. 7 79 Shoshone petroglyph 240. 725 fabric 1 6 8 T h o m a s . 2 9 wind. 9 4 z Z e n calligraphy 232-233 contrast 96 t o grade 163 ink 37 pencil 5 4 t o r t i l l o n 205 T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c . v i e w s o f 85.1 9 9 wire. 53 trees. t h r e e . 2 4 7 t h r e e . 7 9 0 vessels. 206-207 202. 1 9 9 .243 Leonardo's machines 12. A l f r e d 1 1 .158 158. t o d r a w 1 0 1 viewfinder 57 Views from Velletri ( C l a u d e L o r r a i n ) 152. 2 0 0 Ship in a Storm 1 9 8 . 1 8 4 . 7 1 4 . 1 3 . Paul 2 4 1 Achilles Chases Hector 2 4 0 .13 M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s m a l e figures 110. G e o r g e 2 7 Skeleton of the Horse 26. 2 3 0 tonal contrast 96 tonal distance 9 7 t o n a l d r a w i n g 9 6 .199 tissue p a p e r 21. t o lay 1 4 0 . 2 7 studies: b i r d s 7 2 . 7 77. 6 9 Wodall. 65 symbols 138. 4 4 boat 209 botanical 4 9 G e r i c a u l t ' s cats 2 9 from Goya 170-173 125. Vincent 95 Chair 94. John 25 Flying Fish 25 Wild Striped Cat Sketches of ( G e r i c a u l t ) 28. 241. Sarah 9 4 Chair Cut Out 94. 2 2 7 Untitled 2001 ( C a t l i n g ) u 263 W h i t e . 49. phrased 146 tonal modeling 161 tonal range 169 t o n a l surfaces 2 2 7 tonal width 97 t o n e ( s ) 33. 1 4 5 travel journal 2 0 . 1 2 Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse 71. C y 138. 221 . 2 4 4 .1 8 5 Tree II ( M o n d r i a n ) 52. 226 V Van Dyck. 2 1 2 . t o draw 1 9 8 .
London 2005. Kirsten Norrie. France. support. 3 2 : Pepys Library. 73: Berlin F i l m Museum (t). 5 0 : Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (1). 1 6 1 : D C C o m i c s I n c . Sarah D u n c a n . 1 3 5 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. 2 8 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. K e w ft)). Paris/ © Succession Picasso / D A C S 2005. University of Oxford.co. 1901.co. Paris a n d D A C S . M a n d y Earey. Paul T h o m a s ( t ) . Agnieszka Mlicka. L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . 243: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. 17: J o h n Walter. 111: Fondation Beyeler/Riehen (Bale)/© Succession H Matisse/DACS 2005. 75: © The British Museum (b).bridgeman. H . K u n s t m u s e u m Bern/© D A C S 2 0 0 5 . 88: www.uk /Biblioteca Nacional. Havemeyer. D a w n Henderson. Paris. 137: © The British Museum. Andy Crawford. Natalie G o d w i n .r.Paris ( b ) . 158: Calouste Gulbenkian Museum. R u t h P a r k i n s o n . 51: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. Julie O u g h t o n . 1 3 4 : © T h e British Museum.Strang Print Room ( b ) . Lisbon. Clare Bryan. 1 3 6 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Centre Pompidou-MNAM-CCI. Anders. 9 5 : V a n Gogh M u s e u m . A n n a P l u c i n s k a .bridgeman. 1 1 0 : www.939). and Tamsin Woodward Smith. 1 3 8 : © Christie's Images Ltd/© A D AGP. 114: Musee Rodin. J a c k a n d Brian Catling.uk/Private Collection. L o n d o n . . B e m d Kunzig. Psychiatric Institute of the University of Heidelberg. 1 9 6 : Museum of the History of Science. Rocio Arnaez. B .co. George M c G a v i n . Paris a n d D A C S . 2 0 3 : Clare Bryan (t). 7 0 : Studio Daniel L i b e s k i n d . 2 4 4 : Ashmolean Museum.bridgeman. A . Amsterdam. b r i d g e m a n . Winthrop. Dover Publications/ISBN: 0486229912 (t). Germany/Joerg P./Galerie Sylvie Nissen. P h y l l Kiggell. H a m b u r g . 1 5 : w w w . b r i d g e m a n . Germany. 2 6 : Topfoto. 2 4 2 : Photo Scala. 1 7 8 : © T h e British M u s e u m / H e n r y Moore F o u n d a t i o n .a. u k / T o k y o National M u s e u m . Inc. London/courtesy of Stuart Shave. Kunstmuseum Bern. Maureen Paley Interim Art (b). Berlin/Staatsbibliothek zu A l l other images © Sarah Simblet . Jean Pierre Roy./© D A C S 2 0 0 5 ( t ) . Paris. 221: Gagosian Gallery/Private Collection (b). 11: www.co. 2 0 1 : T h e Royal Collection © 2 0 0 2 H e r Majesty Queen Elizabeth I I . Paris. a n d encouragement i n m a k i n g this book: M a m o r u Abe. 13: www. 1 0 8 : Arts C o u n c i l Collection. Basel. 1 5 6 : Graphische S a m m l u n g Albertina. B e r l i n . Diana Bell. 74: Corbis. O o n a G r i m e s . Paris. Magdalene College Cambridge. K e v i n a n d Rebecca Slingsby.bridgeman. 2 2 0 : Mamaru Abe. R o s e m a r y S c o u l a r . u k / O n Loan to the H a m b u r g Kunsthalle. Italy. 5 3 : Collection of the Gemeentemuseum D e n Haag/Mondrian Trust.264 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Acknowledgments Author's Acknowledgments: T h e author wishes to thank the following people for their enormous help. A n d y C r a w f o r d for p h o t o g r a p h y a n d L . 1879. G e r m a n y . 9 3 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. K a t h r y n W i l k i n s o n . Sammy De Grave. 2 0 2 : © T h e British Museum. C o r n e l i s o n & Son. 174: Artothek/Munich.100. 199: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee des arts asiatiquesGuimet. 1 9 : Getty Images/© Succession Picasso / D A C S 2 0 0 5 . 2 3 8 : akg-images. 3 3 : Prinzhom Collection. Picture Credits 8: Corbis/Hubert Stadler.uk/Kettle's Yard. © Tate. Toulouse. University of Cambridge. L e n . S i m o n L e w i s . Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. 9 2 : Science Photo L i b r a r y .co. 2 2 3 : Lebrecht Music and Arts Photo Library/Ricordi. Productions Clovis Prevost (c). Salisbury & South W i l t s h i r e M u s e u m ( t ) . Carlo O r t u for picture research s u p p o r t .co. 68: www. 1975 ( 1 9 7 5 . NY. Christopher Davis. U K . 9 0 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/© A D A G P . Sarah Woodfine. H e a t h e r M c C a r r y . Angela W i l k e s . Paris and D A C S . O. U K . 225: Stephen P Huyler. L o n d o n . Sophie Laurimore. 29: Fogg A n Museum/Collections Baron de Vita: Grenville L.uk/Guildhall Library. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. 2 4 0 : w w w . for s u p p l y i n g the d r a w i n g books. 9 7 6 ) . Psychiatric Institute of the U n i v e r s i t y of Heidelberg. Oxford. 112: Yale University A r t Gallery/Everett V Meeks. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. 2 2 2 : Pierre Georgel/Private Collection. 1 3 3 : Artothek/Kupferstichkabinett. Berlin (b). 2 4 1 : Corbis/David M u e n c h ( b ) .bridgeman. J o h n Roberts. Roddy Bell. L o n d o n (t). 180: www. L o n d o n .co. 4 6 : B r i t i s h Library. 3 1 : Tom Powel Imaging. Wolfson College. J o h n Walter. 2 4 5 : Oona Grimes. J o n Roome. 49: Hunterian Museum (t). 5 2 : T h e Metropolitan Museum of Art/Bequest of Mrs. 9 4 : Sarah Woodfine. 2 7 : Royal Academy of Arts. 132: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. (r). Publisher's Acknowledgments Dorling Kindersley w o u l d like to thank Caroline H u n t for editorial contribution. 130: The Metropolitan M u s e u m of Art/Robert L e h m a n Collection. Pamela Ellis for compiling the index. R o y a n d D i a n n e Simblet. Madrid.co. 179: www.uk/Private Collection. Patty Stansfield. Copyright Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens.uk/Musee des Augustins. 9 1 : www. F r a n c e . H e l e n S h u t t l e w o r t h . Fund. K u n s t m u s e u m . Anders/ © D A C S 2 0 0 5 . T o n y G r i s o n i . c o . Paul T h o m a s . Paula Regan. B e r l i n . 226: Brian Catling. Jackie Douglas.bridgeman. 69: Institut Amatller d'Art Hispanic (tl). c o . R . L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . Corporation of London. 16: www. B M G . 2 0 0 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. 72: akg-images. Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (t).co. 2 4 : © T h e British Museum. Paris. 1 5 9 : Bodleian Library. Illustrated London News Picture Library/The Bystander (b). H a y w a r d Gallery. London/Bequeathed by Charles Landseer. 1 . L o n d o n . Paris. 7 1 : I M E C / A r c h i v e s E r i k Satie.bridgeman. 6 6 : w w w . 2 1 8 : Adolf-Wdlfli-Stiftung./Private Collection/© D A C S 2005. papers. F i n n . Staatliche Museen z u Berlin/Jorg P. 139: Galerie Marion Meyer/© Man Ray Trust / A D A G P .co. Also. G i n a R o w l a n d . Flossie. G e r m a n y . 1 9 8 : Dover Publications.20-21 a n d 246-47. Sir Brinsley F o r d . a n d brushes o n pp.uk/British Museum. 176: Modem Art.bridgeman. Florence/MoMA. Peter L u f f . 181: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz.uk/Private Collection. Anita Taylor. 30: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. Graphische Sammlung.uk/Mucha Trust. Japan. 115: Anita Taylor. c o . Carole A s h . Antonia Cunliffe Davis. 1929 (29. 2 2 7 : Paul Klee Stiftung. 1 5 4 : akg-images/Musee National d'Art Moderne. 157: U C L Art Collections . .uk /© Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery.l. 177: Mary Evans Picture Library. 2 2 4 : P r i n z h o m Collection. u k / L o u v r e . Portugal. 4 8 : T h e N a t u r a l H i s t o r y M u s e u m . 113: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. a n d D e p a r t m e n t s o f E n t o m o l o g y a n d Zoology at the University of Oxford. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin. Angela Palmer. Orientabteilung/Ruth Schacht. L o n d o n . 1 6 0 : Rene G R U A U s. b r i d g e m a n .bridgeman. A . T h e R u s k i n School of D r a w i n g a n d Fine A r t .
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