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FOR T H E ARTIST
FOR THE ARTIST
LONDON • NEW YORK MELBOURNE • MUNICH • DELHI Senior Editor Paula Regan Senior Art Editor Mandy Earey Art Editor Anna Plucinska Managing Editor Julie Oughton Managing Art Editor Heather McCarry Art Director Peter Luff Publishing Director Jackie Douglas Production Joanna Bull DTP Designer Adam Walker Picture Research Sarah Smithies US Editor Christine Heilman First American Edition, 2 0 0 5 First Paperback Edition, 2 0 0 9 Published in the United States by DK Publishing 3 7 5 Hudson Street New York, New York 1 0 0 1 4 10 11 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3
6 8 20 22 Master Builders The Order of Sound Future Fictions Pathways of Sight Single-Point Perspective Creating an Imaginary Space Further Aspects of Perspective Theaters Venetian Life Parisian Street
68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86
Foreword Introduction Drawing Books and Papers Posture and Grip
Objects and Instruments
TD075-July 2009 Copyright © 2 0 0 5 Dorling Kindersley Limited Text and authors artworks © Sarah Simblet 2 0 0 4 Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited A Cataloging-in-Publication record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN 9 7 8 - 0 - 7 5 6 6 - 5 1 4 1 - 1 Color reproduction by GRB, Italy Printed and bound in China by Toppan
Still Life Instruments of Vision Bench Marks Light and Illusions Further Illusions How to Draw Ellipses Tonality Drawing with Wire Artifacts and Fictions
90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106
Documentaries Presence and Mood Movement Icon and Design Pen and Ink Drawing with Ink Capturing Character Sleeping Dogs Turtles Dry Birds
26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44
Postures and Poses Choreographs Passion Measurement and Foreshortening Quick Poses Hands and Feet Charcoal Hands Phrasing Contours The Visual Detective La Specola
110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128
Plants and Gardens
Botanical Studies Jeweled Gardens Fast Trees Graphite and Erasers Cropping and Composition Negative Space Fig Tree Summer Flowers Acanthus Spinosus
48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64
Discover more at
Projections Magnetic Fields The Human Condition Disposable Pens The Travel Journal Catching the Moment Grand Canal Crossings Caravans The Big Top
174 Abstract Lines
176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 Process and Harmony Writing Time Chants and Prayers Compositions Being "Just" Collage Zen Calligraphy Nocturnes
220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234
Poise Anatomies Revelations Self-Portraits Silver Point Head and Neck Essential Observations Drawing Portraits Generations Castings
132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 152
Earth and the Elements
Air in Motion Storms Nature Profiles Charcoal Landscapes Drawing in the Round Decaying Boat Cloudburst Notes of Force Mountains
198 200 202 204 206 208 210 212 214 216
Gods and Monsters
Marks of Influence Hauntings Convolutions Brushes Brush Marks Monsters Goya's Monsters Consumed Glossary Index Acknowledgments
240 242 244 246 248 250 252 254 256 259 264
Cloth and Drapery Character Costumes Femmes Fatales Colored Materials Study and Design The Structure of Costume Textures and Patterns Dressing Character Posture Carving
156 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172
For me personally. and experience. or a quantum physicist trying to see for themselves the fluctuations of our universe. as a visiting professor at universities. texture. For twelve years I have enjoyed the privilege of teaching drawing. I will always draw. It is a tool for investigating ideas and recording knowledge. who tells me firmly upon approach that they cannot draw. we learn to feel truly alive. and be slowly washed or worn away. We can all learn how to draw. of Sketch Book for the Artist. and makers of special effects. They enfold their viewer and are made on joined sheets of paper that I reach by climbing ladders. I know that with their cooperation I can soon prove them wrong. Combine these things and the possibilities are endless. Drawing is a mirror through which I understand my place in the world. thinking. where spaces are shaped by nothing more than the objects and activities contained within them. I also make drawing books. architect. The very first step is to believe it. and size. understood (and often misunderstood) our own bodies. I was also reading among The Confessions of St. These inspirations led me to invent museums. and through which I can see how I think. art schools. undergraduates to fellow professors. and in a few sessions they will be flying. By using our imaginations. and their importance to so many artists. a composer notating a musical score. It is my love of these. They occupy a shelf in my studio. a drawing book is the perfect portable private vehicle for your imminent exploration of drawing. Some of my drawings cover entire walls. . through history. in which he describes himself flying and diving in his imagination through pictorial caverns of knowledge. geologists. night security staff. we have looked at. shape. are made outside as discreet installations.Foreword B Y DRAWING THE WORLD AROUND US. or engineer. especially as travel journals. a sculptor. and a reflector of experience. Augustine his notes on memory. and local c o m m u n i t y classes. where I expect them to be discovered by some people. perhaps hidden on a door hinge or a street bench rail. It makes me feel excited to be alive. and I refer back to them for years after they are made. aspirations. that inspired the title and structure MEMORY T H E A T E R S This pen-and-ink drawing was made from imagination during research for my PhD. Some are more traditionally framed and hung in galleries for solo or group exhibitions. doctors. still standing by the door. drawing is the immediate expression of seeing. fashion designer. we learn to see it. a cartographer charting the land. Drawing occupies a unique place in every artist and creator's life. but because it is how I engage with and anchor myself in life. not only to make art. Chosen in any color. from schoolchildren to senior citizens. Others can be held in the h a n d or. by invitation. remain unseen by most. and feeling. The most rewarding challenge is always the newcomer. be they a child discovering their vision and dexterity. I work with people of diverse ages. I was training in anatomy and studying how.
like a great canvas for them to mark. signs. Most adults still feel that certain exquisite pleasure on arriving at a beach to find the tide out and the sand perfect. and patterns on our clothes. inscribing every fresh part of it with their eager scrapes and trails. The sense of relief we may feel from the information overload of modern commercial life when visiting a country in which we can no longer read every written word. waving to us from many thousands of yearsago. "CAVE OF THE HANDS" In this drawing.000-9500 bce . Children cannot be restrained from running across the pristine white lawn of newly fallen snow. We are bombarded with linear and tonal pictorial information. and we spend our lives reading it. Cueva de las Marios. graffiti. scrawling shapes and cartoons when on the telephone. in lectures. They have a natural affinity to many modern graffiti signatures. irreverent to language barriers. a great crowd is raising their hands in greeting. is not afforded us by drawing. We are surrounded by drawings in our daily lives. Rio Pinturas 13. At home and at work we doodle. but more often because drawing actually helps us to focus and take in what is said. not just chosen pictures on our walls but everywhere—maps. and in meetings. logos.Theseancient silhouettes were drawn with earth pigments rubbed onto rock. Sometimes we draw because we are bored.8 INTRODUCTION Where We Begin There is a fundamental drive in our human nature to make a mark. We can always read each others drawings. packaging. Drawing is international.
power. and the appearance of my strikes of colors. an expression of existence. like all toddlers.9 WHERE WE BEGIN FIRST PORTRAIT For sorre forgotten reason. created by societies of hunter-gatherers. reflecting my experience of looking closely at my father's face. MAKING OUR MARK It seems reasonable to assume that we have engaged in pictorial mark-making for as long as we have made conscious use of our hands. In cave paintings like the one opposite. Cave art was not made for decoration but as a fundamental part of life. at age two-anda-half. and belonging to place. but I had never yet attempted to figuratively picture my world. Even though it is made by a toddler this image would be recognizable to anyone. who in their day-to-day hardship made time to picture themselves and the animals on which they depended. She gave me a notepad and a red crayon and asked me to draw her "a picture of Daddy. had happily scribbled. I. On a particular afternoon in September 1974. I now think this is a picture of proximity. the hair of my first portrait was most important. The image above is what I gave back to my mother. enjoying the physical sensation of crayon on paper. Eyelashes take up as much of my attention as the head itself. and she kept it as my first step beyond the delighted realms of scrawl. we see our oldest surviving images. ." Until this day. I was sitting with my mother.
h o w e v e r small a n d u n f o r m e d y o u believe they are. and from that first unit build and describe the shape of something or someone we know. for example. Don't b e p e r s u a d e d to draw in a w a y s o m e o n e else . W e do n o t hesitate to draw a map. Young children love to draw. Hours are lost immersed in the glorious world of imagination. then drag o u r line into a loop. most of us stop. b e p r o u d o f what m a k e s y o u r w o r k individual to y o u . As you progress. it is important to value your natural abilities a n d ways of seeing. But as adolescents. PROGRESSION T h e r e is a point in all o u r lives w h e n w e first c o n t r o l o u r mark and m a k e it a line. yet still turn to drawing w h e n their verbal language fails or is inadequate. It was made with a few bold strokes of a steel pen dipped in ink to conjure the dried bee I was holding between my fingers on a pin. At this point many will insist they cannot draw.10 INTRODUCTION PEN-AND-INK BEE This tiny drawing has been enlarged to show its texture and composition. Inhibitions creep in and ideas of good a n d b a d terminate confidence. and this activity plays a vital role in their d e v e l o p m e n t . to help a stranger see their way W h e n taking first steps in relearning h o w to draw.
He used leftover ship and yacht paint with crayons on cut-out pieces of cardboard boxes. I ask them their reasons for drawing. Think how much would have been lost if anyone had interfered with Alfred Wallis' personal sense of proportion and perspective in the exquisite drawing above. Occasionally. Enjoy the control of your own journey. but it does help to set out facing in the right direction. and they have never questioned why. He was a retired Cornish fisherman and junk dealer who began drawing at the age of 70 "for company" after his wife died. Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse c. you must decide whether to keep or discard it. harbor and sea is one of many that Alfred Wallis made from memory while sitting at home. As you read this b o o k and perhaps attend art classes. I meet students struggling unhappily with a particular method of drawing. remember that all advice is only advice. After experimenting and trying each new idea.11 PROGRESSION A UNIQUE SIGHT This innocent yet sophisticated drawing of boats. Someone once told them they must draw in this way. 1925-42 53/8x87/8in (135 x 225 mm) ALFRED WALLIS prefers and tells you is better. and which aspects of the vast wealth and diversity of graphic language would be most appropriate to their goals. what they most want to achieve. The journey of every artist demands hard work and discipline. .
it may not be accurate to our critical adult eye. The art historian Professor Sir Ernst Gombrich. We also see differently ourselves. We all see differently. right. we can drive out its spirit. perhaps for comfort or ease as a left-hander or a habitual enjoyment of the challenge. boats. 11). and breathtaking wind of a choppy harbor. The observed world may be our subject. IDEAS A N D I N V E N T I O N S These active machines. author of The Story of Art. They are also always written backward. wrote as the opening line of this great work. When we look back at Wallis' seascape (see p. There should neve: be a slavish obligation to represent things exactly as we collectively agree we see them.and collarbones and shoulder blades of a different bird almost become new creatures in themselves.12 INTRODUCTION VISION All artists see the world differently. "There really is no such thing as Art. We BIRD STUDIES The flutter of faint scratches that dance across the pages on the right is an attempt to see the movement and bony weightlessness of a bird. but the child in us knows that this is an all-embracing. embedded in this book. I hope. not for disguise but as a personal choice. and inspire others. There are countless reasons for drawing. There are only artists. If as artists we nail a subject down too hard. Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels LEONARDO DA VINCI . and lose the very thing that attracted us to it. be visionary. the breast. is. but it should be the experienced world we draw. depending on the occasion and our purpose. all raise water From the Archimedes' screw to Leonardo's own cupped wheel. His notes visually balance his drawings. clear-minded understanding of the sea. the page bristles with the focus of ideas." The clarity and empowerment of these words. Below. Our imaginations are the tools with which we can increase the essence of life.
when it looks tired and still feels wrong. drawing in pursuit of our own thoughts and understanding. stripped-down parts. time spent is not lost. while below. I drew to understand the apparatus of flight. or to discover the best use of a new material.13 VISION should not try to know how every finished picture will look. conduct an experiment. It will be invested through your experience in the new drawing. We have both covered our paper with focused. it may be best to start afresh. to express the beauty in a moment's play of light. Don't be disheartened. . More was learned drawing the bird 18 times than would have been understood drawing it only once or twice. Our drawings are annotated investigations into the mechanisms of nature and of an idea. This also applies if struggling at length with a larger picture. but it is important to be clear why we are making it. Opposite. Decide before you start whether you are drawing to warm up. Each fresh image reflects growing confidence and the experience of the preceding study. Leonardo drew to invent a machine. or illustrate a dream. make a calculation. My drawings of a housemartin (opposite top) illustrate the importance of repeated study. shout against a terrible injustice.
created centuries and cultures apart. Landscape in Haboku Style 15TH CENTURY . trusting my intuition to find a visual equivalence for the sensation of weight within my body. and allowed to flow through the brush. feel. These two brush drawings. Each image relied upon past experience to know the probable behavior of the brush. and spirit of each subject was held strongly but loosely between the fingertips. mists. depth. your marks will become the subject on the paper. However. and position in space. balance. The physicality. and at speeds beyond conscious thought. BRUSHED LANDSCAPE FLOWING SKELETON T h e gliding poise of this walking anatomy comes as much from the feeling of movement as it does from the feeling of drawing. Our position asvieweris unsteady. temperature. Know the texture. meaning. it should be responding to the sensation and meaning of the subject it draws. and we can just make out the distant stains of mountains. water. This suits many artists well and is perfectly valid. We are caught in a shifting focus that makes everything fluid. which can offer keys to other things. we are advised or even required to plan our pictures. ink. and an island brushed with trees. size. As you draw any subject—something you see. As your hand meets the paper to make a mark. Imagine these qualities so strongly that you feel them in your mind and at your fingertips. fire. and how it feels to the touch. and sometimes beyond. It denies the importance of accident. W e float toward the quiet vista as it also moves toward us. You must also think of its intrinsic nature: its purpose. and opacity of your subject. I made it almost unconsciously with a pen and a brush. or imagine—it is not enough to only render its shape. This is the alchemy of drawing. Whatever the material— wood. If you can do this. silk. and practice each part before putting the final image together. or ice—you must actually feel it beneath your fingers as you draw. are both made of ink laid onto wet paper with speed and agile certainty. and what you discover in the process of making. explain the composition. the unknown. metal. and paper. excessive planning can get in the way of the imagination. They each allowed the energy and focus of the moment to be expressed through controlled accident and a degree of the unknown Both drawings were made trusting the marks.14 INTRODUCTION ALCHEMY At school. declare the idea. This is a detail of a brush-and-ink drawing by a Japanese Buddhist monk. bone.
c. stand table-sized with furniture legs attached t o b o t h sides of their jacket. right is set inside a rib cage. acrylic. He dazzles us with flashes o f light and dabbed marks o f shadow.16 INTRODUCTION PLACE A N D MOMENT The heat and teeming atmosphere o f this Parisian dressing room. which evoke realities o f place and the p o w e r o f moment. one of many luminous works in watercolor. lives on. more than 100 years after its making. like folded insects. pastel. Lautrec's flamboyant splashes o f petticoats and pantaloons are drawn with long sweeps of chalk and brushed oil paint. Focusing on the Negative 2004 22 x 30 in (56 x 76 cm) J O H N WALTER .1896 Woman at her Toilet 41 x 26 in (104 x 66 cm) TOULOUSE LAUTREC RIB-CAGE D R A M A Thus drama. W a l t e r also makes books: some. made by a young British artist who creates alphabets o f the absurd f r o m familiar childhood characters. left. gold leaf and spray paint.
take your time and don't worry if you need to make several attempts to grasp a concept. Ignore these at first and allow yourself the freedom to play. and mistakes are a valuable process of learning. As you follow lessons in this book. even those you dislike. try not to grip your pen worrying about the technical terms you might have heard. It is yours. One of the advantages of a drawing book is that you can shut it. With no help and advice at all. Put them away and look at them later. at a point when you feel you are not making progress. Much will be learned on these test sheets and in your first drawings. and miscellaneous items of inspiration.17 FREEING THE HAND If you are just beginning to learn how to draw. Enjoy discovering what your hand and the material can do. Drawing is exploratory. FREEINGTHEHAND . you will be surprised and encouraged to see how far you have come. you will naturally make progress on your own in response to concentration and the decision to look and draw. Choose other materials and do the same. Such books are personal: the territory of new exploration and experiment. potential ideas still forming. Start by choosing a material you like the look of and cover a piece of paper with different marks. Pages do not have to lie open for other people to inspect and comment on. Try to keep all of your first drawings. diary-like observations. just through the act of making.
Drawing is a living language that over millennia has grown and changed. However. threedimensionally. Imagination needs nourishment. and many more reasons for drawing the world. As you draw. adapting its form and occupation. I was particularly attracted to their gentle articulation and understated determination. which of course he cannot see. and enfolding new media. and became a great subject for me. This practical journey will take you through the door into the vivid heart of drawing. Picasso has just finished his drawing. Look to your own experience and also learn from the work of others. Picasso is poised smiling. comes from within. In the total wealth of these pages. staring straight through his image of a bull.18 INTRODUCTION THE THINKING EYE Techniques and materials are the grammar and vocabulary of drawing and can be studied and shared. when they are more experienced. The real drawing book has yet to come. it is this voice that is the subtle part of their art and something that ultimately. seek ideas in the life around you. Note that the drawing classes are allocated to subjects. which is held frozen in space by a camera lens. Picasso Painting with Light at the Madoura Pottery 1949 . it will be your creation as you discover your own personal vision. The chapters of this book present 90 different artists' ways of seeing. 150). caught between action and repose. ELECTRIC BULL With a penlight.Their elegant strength seems to summon a lifetime of drawing. A N ARTIST'S HANDS These are the hands of the artist Phyll Kiggell (see p. the path is yours. To these I have added my own drawings to explain elementary materials and techniques and offer introductory approaches. we still only glimpse a corner of the magnitude of this subject and the infinity of what can be achieved. An artist's personal voice is something that also evolves through lessons learned. Once there. It rarely flourishes in isolation. but not confined to them. Its sensuous and flowing line seems to drift like smoke.
F o r traveling.20 INTRODUCTION Drawing Books and Papers T o BEGIN YOUR EXPLORATION o f d r a w i n g . and cost. There are dozens to choose from. catalogs. F o r e v e n i n g classes. it is better to have them made at a lumber yard or home improvement store. Drawing boards are invaluable. Dissecting a d i s c a r d e d h a r d . BLACK P O C K E T B O O K S : Hand-sized w i t h ready-made elastic binder and a marker ribbon. cut. These are perfect f o r w o r k i n g in novels. 1. ties on either side to keep your papers in place. c h o o s e s m a l l e r h a r d . It is also useful to own a portfolio. 2. Alternatively. is perfect.b o u n d b o o k s t h a t fit in y o u r p o c k e t o r bag. c o l o r If planning t o use pencils. texture. stitched. b e a w a r e t h a t p a p e r t e x t u r e effects a n d changes t h e i r marks. Most contain thin p a p e r and are perfect f o r use w i t h disposable pens. a n d crayons. C A N V A S .B O U N D PADS: T h e s e are t h e least expensive a n d useful f o r o p e n i n g flat. H o w e v e r r i n g bindings o f t e n break. Many artists invent ways o f binding their o w n books. If you intend to carry your boards for a distance. color. which are also sold in an enormous range. H O M E M A D E : I m a d e this b o o k f r o m drawing paper that I folded. R I N G . A high-quality one will last a DRAWING BOOKS Select d r a w i n g b o o k s t o suit y o u r aims. 5.C O V E R E D H A R D B O U N D : Ideal f o r c a r r y i n g a r o u n d . cheap corrugated plastic ones fall apart in days. F O U N D B O O K S : O l d p r i n t e d 3 . y o u n e e d a lifetime. a l e n g t h o f black elastic t i e d a r o u n d t h e m i d d l e will h o l d the contents together w h e n y o u f o l d in c o l l e c t e d items. quality. 6. drawing book. Gleaming store purchases vary greatly in format. and glued t o a s t r i p o f bias binding. c h o o s e larger f o r m a t s t o give y o u s c o p e f o r e x p e r i m e n t . You simply need two strong boards hinged together well.b o u n d p a d if y o u w i s h t o keep your drawings together long-term. Purchase a h i g h . a n d r e f e r e n c e b o o k s f o u n d in s e c o n d . Calculate a range of useful dimensions and have several cut at once. be sure they fit comfortably under your arm. thickness.b o u n d b o o k w i l l s o o n s h o w y o u h o w it is m a d e . C O L O R E D PAPERS: Large a r t supply stores o f t e n sell t h i c k b o o k s full o f c o l o r e d p a p e r s . Sand the edges to avoid splinters. 4. Homemade books can be assembled easily from found materials or selections of loose sheet papers. thick enough not to flex. and handles to lift the weight of your artworks. N o t e t h e w i d e l y differing c h o i c e o f p a p e r s w i t h w h i c h t h e s e are m a d e . 2002 Tantalus o r The Future of Man 81/2 x61/4in (215 x 158 mm) ROSE MILLER . They can be very expensive in art stores.h a n d s t o r e s make unique subjects f o r e x p e r i m e n t s a n d collage. Art students often make use of printed books picked up from secondhand stores into which they draw. t h e i r jackets w i l l a c t like d r a w i n g b o a r d s a n d p r o t e c t y o u r w o r k . and collage their ideas. t h i s is h o w I l e a r n e d . Smooth plywood.q u a l i t y r i n g . pastels. T h e hardb o a r d j a c k e t is s t r e t c h e d w i t h canvas beneath t h e p a p e r sleeve. study the structure of a good portfolio and make your own. binding.
color. 20. 18. 100% cotton and sold in sheets. yellow. and other plant fibers. 10. Use for brushwork drawings. and translucent. 13. blocks. pastel paper in flecked pastel colors with a distinctive ribbed marking. fine. resisting deterioration. JAPANESE PAPER: Strong. FABRIANO ACADEMIA: Standard medium-range multipurpose paper Use with any media. Cheap wood-pulp papers are acidic.TISSUE PAPER: Place sheets between drawing book pages to keep images from printing on each other and use for delicate collage. absorbency. and hot pressed papers. and white. printed on one side only. or machine made in sheets. VELIN ARCHES 250GMS: Printmaking paper available in black white. blocks. T W O RIVERS Y E L L O W 410GMS: See Two Rivers Green 19. mulberry. used to imprint lines of these colors onto a surface. C A R B O N PAPER: Available in dark and light blue. it is made from rice. Use with a brush in clean water Water makes a dark mark like ink and becomes invisible again when dry. AQUARELLE ARCHES 300GMS:The very top quality hot-pressed (smooth) watercolor paper. from pencil to paint 9. 8. 16. tough. MAGIC PAPER: A reusable sheet for testing ideas without creating waste. bamboo. They are hand-. FABRIANO INGRES: Thin. 14. FABRIANO R O U G H 600GMS: Very heavy.Papers differ in thickness (weight). METALLIC PAPER: Thin paper in different metallic colors. turning brown and brittle. or rolls. not. 12. mold-. white textured paper that can take abrasive use of any medium. 21. For use with any media. SAUNDERS WATERFORD N O T 300GMS: Mid-quality textured watercolor paper. Use cheap paper for rough ideas and quality paper for work to last See the glossary ( p p . 17. PAPERS . and cream sheets or rolls. 22. and rolls. C A N S O N : Inexpensive lightweight pastel paper in many colors. 15. 11. ITALIAN PARCHMENT: Imitation-animal-skin parchment that is translucent and slightly waxy. Cotton papers are high-quality and acid-free. size.5 9 ) for explanations of rough. It is available in white or cream. also good for drawing with colored pencils. texture. GLASSINE: Sold as protective wrapping. red. 7. It is also excellent for drawing with marker pens on layered sheets. Ph. 2 5 6 . smooth. cold. and cost. T W O RIVERS GREEN 410G MS: Very heavy tinted textured cold-pressed watercolor paper See Two Rivers Yellow.
a n d look to the left of it at your subject. b u t it should n o t be forgotten that many people make remarkable a n d striking works drawing with their feet or holding their brush or pencil in their mouths. In this book we will look at parallels between drawing and music. Relaxed fingers: Hold the pencil away from its tip and relax your fingers. body. . if left-handed. With your hand in this position. Ideally. but you need to understand that the expression of a line or mark originates in the body and flows t h r o u g h the shoulder. a n d h a n d to the fingertips. Use the side of your little fingernail as a support on the page. There are also parallels to dance. Accelerated perspective also occurs if you look down the surface steeply (see pp. strangledlooking drawings. place it on the correct side: if right-handed. You cannot draw like this—your hand is locked and your fingers can barely move. Examples are shown here.22 INTRODUCTION Posture and Grip T o DRAW WELL. This cramped grip tires your hand and makes small. and subject. Placing your easel o n the w r o n g side folds y o u r b o d y against your drawing arm. SPACE TO WORK Cramped grip. or with your drawing board angled between your lap and a chair. your lines will distort. If using an upright easel. It will also reflect discomfort if you are in any way cramped. How you hold your drawing materials is also important. but wherever possible. Regularly step back 6-9 ft (2-3 m) to check your progress. 116-17). Turning your drawing sideways or upside-own will also help reveal what is wrong. There should be an open. should be able to look comfortably straight ahead at your picture plane. If your hand twists to maneuver between the paper and your body. and look to the right. flowing space between your hand. arm. From a distance you will spot errors you cannot see close up. If seated on a b e n c h easel (a donkey). make sure you have enough room to back away and view your work. don't sit too close to the paper. If your body posture is well balanced and you can move freely. you Drawing classes can be cramped places. This photograph illustrates how some people hold a pen to write. you can draw lines freely and achieve a significant arc of movement. place it on your left. your whole relaxed b o d y should be involved. place it on your right. You do not have to dance to draw. your drawing will reflect this.
23 This loose "candle" grip is very useful when drawing with your arm extended. . or it can spoil your work if not anticipated. This can be used to great effect. alternative way of holding the pencil. not up to the paper Brushes can be used on upright paper but dip Anticipating effects: A fully loaded pens need a level surface. Soft media: Short materials such as pastels and charcoal can be accommodated in the palm. Large scale: POSTURE AND GRIP U n f a m i l i a r i t y : T h e habitual movements of our handwriting style will sometimes infringe upon our drawing. depending upon what it is and how large you are working. GRAVITY Remember that gravity affects the flow of ink and paint. This can give a new lease on life to your mark-making. To stop this.232-33). find an unfamiliar. and body are not restricted. But be careful not to tense your fingers. or change to the wrong hand. ALL MEDIA There are no rules as to how you should hold your drawing media. roughly marking out a large-scale work. As long as your fingers. liquid will run down your hand. hold your material as you find most comfortable. Brush calligraphy: This comfortable. Large amounts of ink can be applied without fear of uncontrolled running if the paper is flat. It is most comfortable when reaching to draw above your head. upright way of holding the brush near its base is similar to the Japanese way used in Zen calligraphy (see pp. arm. brush pressed against an upright surface will cause a dribble of ink to run down your drawing. Remember you can also draw just by dipping your fingers in pigment—this is how many women draw in rural India. If you turn a brush or dip pen up into the air to draw above your hand.
and dragons. m u s e u m . fish. White's commission was to ". and silent. their different speeds and patterns of action. Here (left) we see J o h n White's exquisite record of a flying fish.Animals H UMANS HAVE DRAWN ANIMALS from the beginning of our time. insects. mermaids. and learn how to Flying Fish c. 1540. werewolves." Paranoid newcomers c r a m m e d into swelling industrial cities used handbooks of physiognomy to identify and judge their neighbors. and this very drawing was to endure many copies and plagiarisms after its triumphant return to the English court of Queen Elizabeth I. For the novice artist. After the subject of ourselves. each dedicated to the moralized tale of an animal or monster The bestiary profoundly influenced the art of its period. we have employed artists on expeditions. sleeping dogs. On the Roanoke voyages of Sir Walter Raleigh. W e have drawn them in m a n u s c r i p t s to explain our genesis and to c o u n t their species into Noah's ark. and people. dogs. Europeans on board had never seen such a thing. bats. to be there at the m o m e n t of discovery. and to bring h o m e drawn documentaries of their finds. 11 x91/4in (277 x 234 mm) . In 19th-century Europe this became a "science. the Latin bestiary was one of the most popular picture books—an illustrated dictionary of one hundred parts. and we still see escapees from its pages carved and grinning as the gargoyles of churches. floating turtles. animals provide a perfect subject with which to begin. Framed in the z o o or in domestic cohabitation. We have drawn them on the walls of caves to evoke their kinship and power. cartographer. which are so unlike ours. " Animals perpetually feed our imaginations. and snakes have between them engendered harpies. from which personality and predicted behavior were " d e d u c e d . and pioneer born c. out are now oxidized and so appear black W h e n less preoccupied with understanding ourselves. In medieval England. or scampering through the initials and borders of pictures from that time. O v e r the centuries. who described in words what White drew. This drawing is made in black lead (metal point) with watercolor Highlights of silver would have gleamed. Together they made maps and documented animals. W h e n lost to explain our own emotions. offer challenges and delights to draw. which very likely leaped o n t o the deck of Sir Walter Raleigh's ship Tiger as it sailed north from the Caribbean to Virginia in 1585. Facial features were analyzed in terms of their animal likeness.drawe to lief one of each kinde of thing that is strange to us in England. As children we delight in the humanized trials of Tom and Jerry and their c a r t o o n relations. we turn and take the features of beasts. 1590 J O H N WHITE capture form and movement from the m a n n e r i s m s of honking geese.. they are perhaps our favorite pictorial preoccupation. JOHN WHITE British artist. plants.m o u n t e d skeletons of birds. birds." He worked with the scientist Thomas Harriot. In this chapter we discover the use of pens and ink through the delineation of insects..
a gift to the Portuguese King. a drawing of it arrived in Nuremberg. Life-like This is Durer's original quill-and-ink drawing made after an anonymous Portuguese drawing. printmaker. the home of ALBRECHT DURER German Renaissance painter. and mathematician. Meanwhile. when more accurate portrayals were made without armor and scales. Contemporary texts related accounts of the beast as the mortal enemy of the elephant and rare relative of the "more common" unicorn. it continued its journey to Rome.26 ANIMALS Documentaries horse are superb affirmations of the power of drawing as a recorder and communicator of knowledge. It is such a lifelike triumph of imagination and intelligence that for centuries zoologists never questioned its authority. Carefully stuffed. Original Ink Drawing of a Rhinoceros 1515 ALBRECHT DURER 103/4 x 161/2 in ( 2 7 4 x 4 2 0 mm) . Stubbs's Anatomy of the Horse achieved similar documentary status. writer. Unsurpassed. Sailing to Rome. DURER'S RHINOCEROS AND STUBBS'S skeletal Durer. Durer traveled widely to study at different European schools of art. naturalist. the ship was lost. Durer's image changed eager hands until it was known across Europe. Converted into a print. it is still consulted by veterinarians today. He studied the image and drew his own interpretation. draftsman. It was to become the animal's only accepted likeness for 250 years. they were rejected. inspiring countless works of art and so touching people's imaginations that later. He in turn sent the mysterious creature to the Pope via Marseilles at the request of the King of France. but the drowned animal washed ashore. and wrote four books on proportion. years after its publication. The first live rhinoceros to reach Europe came from India in May 1515. filled journals with ideas and observations.
GEORGE STUBBS B r i t i s h e q u i n e a n d s o c i e t y p o r t r a i t painter. and therefore invented the lighting that Compare how Stubbs and Durer both invented lighting to portray the reality of their animals. dissecting and drawing until he understood the mechanisms of its power and grace. Stubbs's m o s t c e l e b r a t e d publication. He composed makes each horse appear so real and each plate from his three-dimensional. a n d s i d e . is no other work like it. He translated his own drawings into engravings for publication. The entire project was developed over ten years. Dissections Stubbs took his knife and his pencil and physically climbed inside the horse. knowledge of parts. Stubbs w a s o n e o f t h e first E u r o p e a n artists t o m a k e a n a c c u r a t e representation o f the rhinoceros. L o n d o n . composed from notes and observations. Table of the III of the Horse (rear Skeleton view) mm) 1756-58 1 4 x 7 in ( 3 5 4 x 1 8 0 GEORGE STUBBS . Dissections were made over a total of 18 months. His painted p o r t r a i t o f t h e b e a s t is in t h e R o y a l C o l l e g e o f S u r g e o n s o f England. Lighting Stubbs's breathtaking international work won immediate There acclaim. c o m p r i s e s 1 8 p l a t e s s h o w i n g d i s s e c t i o n s in l a y e r s f r o m b o n e t h r o u g h m u s c u l a t u r e t o skin. which has never diminished. Anatomy of the Horse. naturalist. a n d anatomist. in t h r e e v i e w s — r e a r f r o n t . This is one of Stubbs' original finished pencil drawings.
coal dust. and all sorts of bizarre concoctions which manage to convey above all in mind. The octopus is formed in layers applied and distressed with a brush. By contrast. ink and linseed oil on paper. and Pieuvre 1866-69 91/2 x81/8in (242 x 207 mm) VICTOR H U G O . Surrounding sprays of graphite powder are stuck into washes of oil and ink to suggest glutinous depths.". Apparently drawn in its o w n ink.. playwright. and turn. snarl. Hugo's novels Les Miserables and Dame have become classics of film and stage. A s if disturbed from its gritty b e d by our presence and curiosity. drawing her again and again to pin d o w n the texture of her loose skin. The Hunchback of Notre Layers and shadows Throughout this drawing. and leader of the French Romantic movement. He has w a t c h e d her p o u n c e . Gericault took a sharp p e n c i l to m a k e repeated direct o b s e r v a t i o n s f r o m life. Hugo's page is f l o o d e d w i t h the fearful presence of a remembered octopus. and a love of accident.. H u g o mixed his media and drew from m e m o r y and imagination to create narrative atmosphere. Gericault's sheet a p p e a r s almost s c r a t c h e d b y the f e r o c i o u s play of his cat. her b o n y frame. novelist. conjured b y the hand of a great author of French literary fiction. saying ". the ominous beast unwinds from the dark of the sea and of our nightmares. He wrote to poet and art critic Charles-Pierre Baudelaire about his experiments. it silently rises to the light. charcoal. Mixed media Here. linseed oil soaked into the paper has made shadows and repelled the ink to create translucent tentacles. I've ended up mixing in pencil. VICTOR HUGO Poet. soot. her sharp teeth.28 ANIMALS Presence and Mood THESE DRAWINGS HAVE BEEN CHOSEN to s h o w t w o v e r y different ways of picturing a wild animal. Hugo used graphite powder. sepia. and her distinctive temperament. His copious drawings are characterized by mixed media. more or less what I have in view.. drama..
diagonal strokes of his pencil. s h o r t . and it can be applied to any subject (see pp. Paris. H e is best k n o w n f o r his gigantic painting.29 THEODORE GERICAULT C o n t r o v e r s i a l . focused upon seeing will lead to a greater understanding of the subject Much is learned from repeated study. Here. of drawings Gericault erased.118-119). facing right. Repeated study This drawing demonstrates of feeling confident repeat different the importance subject Remaining enough to isolate parts of a views. The Raft of the Medusa. fiery. Beginners are advised to follow the natural contours of form as shown on pp. and keep trying again. artists reused sheets and them full of studies. standing sideways. Undertraces Beneath these graphite studies we see traces Tones On the top row we see clearly how Gericault laid broad areas of tone using fast. 124-25 and p.l i v e d French R o m a n t i c painter and lithographer Largely self-taught. undertraces unify and vitalize the composition. displayed in the Louvre. since it can lead to a flattened form. of previous Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 1817-18 121/2 x 151/2 in ( 3 1 9 x 3 9 8 mm) T H E O D O R E GERICAULT . horses w e r e a favorite subject t o g e t h e r w i t h politics and history. Before paper became so cheap. Tones that do not follow surface contour is very difficult to do well. 144. At the center of the page is crammed drawings the outline of a horse. parallel.
printmaker ceramicist graphic and stage designer who lived in France. hooked. made only a year apart. The ink is used to make sharply defined solid. His powdery. flapping bird. In these two drawings. overwhelmed by a screeching bird.30 ANIMALS Movement M O V E M E N T IS OFTEN THE CHARACTERISTIC b y w h i c h w e their lines and the power of their beasts. slow tortoise. These media complement and amplify each other with their brilliant contrast. Gouache is brushed softly in translucent hazy layers of cool blue. we see semi-abstract. In Picasso's drawing. dissolving faun kneels stranded. noise is everywhere. and scrolled lines. Klee's riders are constructed from all the gestures of greeting mules. identify an animal: the fast cheetah. His hand must have shuddered and twitched just like the constant actions of this humorous meeting. and brown. or proud. quivering horse. and waves breaking distantly below. with George Braque (see p90). draftsman. Artists commonly focus on such actions. Cheval et Oiseau 1936 173/8 x 211/4 in ( 4 4 0 x 5 4 0 m m ) PABLO PICASSO . flattened animals composed almost entirely of movement. Both Picasso and Klee have enclosed their subjects to compress and amplify the speed of PABLO PICASSO A prolific Spanish painter sculptor. Ink and gouache This drawing is made in black Chinese ink and gouache (opaque watercolor) applied with a brush. gray. the first abstract movement of the 20th century. Faune. taking them to guide their hand in bringing form and essence together. The fact that they never stand still influences the movement in his line. Picasso cofounded Cubism. the whinnying of a frantic horse.
W i t h his drawings Kleeb o u n d sophisticated theories to personal and often witty childlike imagery. top all happily of each other in the Endless lines Look closely at how Klee's lines rarely leave the paper and how they are free from the constraint of finite shape. He is a u t h o r o f The Thinking Eye (1923). sculptor.PAUL KLEE Swiss painter. They remain in contact with the surface of the page and scribble back and forth as they maneuver from one area to another. Chicago PAUL KLEE . The entire drawing suggests the endless small movements of horses standing still. Layers of marks In this pale Dentil drawing we see layers of' agitated marks that together present a kind of visual "itch. N e u m a n n Family Collection." They chatter around bodies in groups. printmaker. violinist. turning our eye and around inside the and postures of the paper- thin on pictorial space. draftsman. Scene der Komischen of Comical Reiter Riders) (Scene 1935 161/2x111/2in ( 4 1 9 x 2 9 1 mm) M o r t o n G . well-worn copies o f w h i c h are found in m a n y art schools. and t e a c h e r at t h e Bauhaus school. creatures.
In just one drawing he has displayed more angles of his design than we would expect to see from a single viewpoint Fragments English 1586 101/2 x 153/8 in (270 x 390 mm) MATTHEW BAKER of Ancient Shipwrightry . B a k e r initiated t h e scientific p r a c t i c e o f naval a r c h i t e c t u r e and applied h y d r o d y n a m i c s . The ship The upper decks of the ship appear curved toward us at both ends. fins. seemingly looking for our attention. it would achieve greater speed. His birds stare. and s e c t i o n s o f ships. and to assess our next move. slim stern). It is simply how we read his perspective. Baker did not intend this. and blackbirds fly in formation through a mosaic of text. and from them learned that if he designed his ship with a "cod's head MATTHEW BAKER Master shipwright. The fish It is likely that Baker drew with a quill dipped in irongall ink. mathematician. and scales. Knopf's drawing opposite is the personal enigmatic expression of a mind gripped by illness. In contrast to the practical clarity of Baker's thought. adding washes of color with a fine brush. which in application gave strength and advantage to the English fighting the Spanish Armada. balance. Below we see his revolutionary design for an Elizabethan warship. This drawing illustrates Baker's theory.32 ANIMALS Icon and Design IN THESE T W O MANUSCRIPTS we discover diagrammatic and mackerel's tail" (full bow. He studied the anatomy of fish. and author o f Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (1586). b a s e d o n his studies o f fish. later called a galleon. and steerage. plans. and the carefully observed gills. Baker lived in an era when ships were built without drawn plans. Exquisite details in this drawing include the lips of the fish. t h e earliest geometrically defined elevations. the expression of its eye. drawings of animals that are each held tightly in a surprising space: a giant fish wears a ship's hull.
The text. T h e G e r m a n a r t historian Outline and tone The blackbirds illuminating this frantic manuscript are drawn in pencil. w h i c h o f t e n f e a t u r e as s y m b o l i c creatures in his drawings. The main group is placed in a circle drawn with a compass. written last of all. circle and the birds. JOHANN KNOPF . appears to be stirred like water by the presence of the The Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks UNDATED 133/8 x 115/8 in (340 x 2 9 6 mm) and psychiatrist Hans Prinzhom collected this image. and filled evenly with tone. firmly outlined. numbered.K n o p f b e l i e v e d h e c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h e language o f birds.JOHANN KNOPF An " O u t s i d e r " a r t i s t w h o s u f f e r e d f r o m m e n t a l illness.
PENS . Early artists recommended raven and crow for especially fine work. you can have great fun drawing the world around you. That is an ink. light it. while metal nibs began as rare gifts in gold and silver before being perfected by the British steel industry. spots. Masters choose brands of long. 5 0 0 years ago. 4. The reservoir gives a constant flow of ink for very long unbroken lines and continuous bottle-free use. Avoid needle-sharp mapping pens. a n d m e t a l p o i n t s . they are associated with rapid. which range greatly in their handling and character of line.246-47). They fit into wooden holders. Quills were later cut from feathers. and hold it under a clean basin until the soot hangs to it. ink is traditionally applied with a brush (see pp. where reeds were gathered. and spatters can be made with an exotic choice of inks. which scratch rather than draw. REED PENS: A broad nib can be cut from bamboo or another tubular grass. expressive drawing techniques such as the ones we explore in this chapter 1. Each pen has a unique character. Today. METAL PENS: Inexpensive removable steel nibs are available in a range of widths. the recipes for which have been handed down over centuries. F O U N T A I N PENS: These vary in quality and nib width. from the acacia tree. The bar is then rubbed into water on a slate block to produce ink. The paste from either recipe is pressed and dried into a bar for storage. Only fill with suitable inks. The Egyptians and Chinese are credited with the invention of carbon ink. simultaneously 4 . then pour a little warm gum water into it and temper the two together. The best are goose or swan. QUILLS: These are cut from the barrel of a flight or tail feather. In the Far East. 3. A German recipe of 1531 gives a simple description: "Take a wax candle.34 ANIMALS Pen and Ink W I T H A HANDFUL OF FEATHERS. The Chinese used animal or fish glue. Responsive to slight changes in pressure. Intricate or dramatic lines. 2." "Gum" refers to gum arabic extracted Dip pens are essential and inexpensive drawing tools. s t i c k s . and it is still in use today. producing a different line. high-quality Chinese and Japanese inks are subtler and more complex than those produced in Europe. Dip pens began their history in the Nile River. and first used by the Egyptians. distinguished manufacture.
roastedwine sediment (Yeast Black). ACRYLIC / CALLIGRAPHY INKS: Available in black and a range of colors. boiled.G A L L INK: Abnormal spherical growths caused by parasitic wasps can be collected from some oak trees in fall. Crushed. Waterproof types contain shellac. 5.36.35 PEN AND INK Four types of ink were common before the 20th century. bistre. I R O N . and are still in use today: carbon (Chinese and Indian). Inks can be lightfast or non-lightfast. they produce a golden dye for drawing. and sepia. SEPIA A N D BISTRE INKS: Sepia. Bistre is the more humane use of soot scraped from the fireplace and ground into wine. and most can be homemade. It dries with a sheen and clogs uncleaned pens. iron-gall. Non-waterproof Indian inks can be reworked with a wet brush after drying. and can be mixed and diluted to create subtler colors and tones. Now we also have acrylic ranges in many colors. Old stock turns solid and bottlesChina. an often misused term. Beechwood soot is best. is the ink of a cuttlefish or squid extracted post-mortem. reduced. charred bone (Ivory Black). or charcoal. Excellent for drawing they are bright and non-clogging. suspended in a binder and stored as a solid block Blocks are imported today 7. C A R B O N INK: Traditionally produced from oil or resin soot (Lamp Black). INKS 9. . I N D I A N INK: Carbon ink sold today in liquid form. They are the easiest inks to use. 8. and sieved. waterproof or non-waterproof. dated. from are not 6. The complexities of traditional iron-gall ink are explained on p.
) You can make ink easily from the boiled. finding reed p e n s unwieldy. Reed marks The darker left wing of this beetle was drawn with the wet inky stroke wing. QUILL PENS Q u i l l s a r e highly r e s p o n s i v e t o c h a n g e s in p r e s s u r e . V a n G o g h . T h e y give a finer. since t h e D u t c h w e r e t h e first t o realize t h a t they could be hardened and i m p r o v e d w i t h heat t r e a t m e n t in ash o r sand. d r y mark. Practice to gain a feel for how materials behave. fleshy skins that surround ripe walnuts. giving a s h o r t . Although oak galls and walnut skins are harmless. . and boiled to make a golden ink. and turned brown with time. t h e y stick a n d j u d d e r f o r w a r d . 2 4 4 is an e x q u i s i t e e x a m p l e . it was gray-purple. crushed. Oak galls. a n d d e v e l o p e d t h e quill instead. for example. keep all your fingers behind basis of iron-gall ink. red-brown. galls were ground with iron sulfate to make an unstable solution. Walnut ink is gloopy. Paler strokes were made where the mark has the legs and antennae the ink ran out. Scribes o f t h e M i d d l e Ages. can also be collected from affected trees. Some of Michelangelo's drawings are now a little eaten by their own ink. always be cautious when experimenting with recipes. appears broken to show paper beneath. M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s d r a g o n o n p . drawn to glisten with a dryer nib. the blade and cut away from you. and delicious to draw with. are surprisingly tough. U n d e r heavy pressure. Quills are also called D u t c h pens. Collect skins from the ground beneath trees once they are blackened. m o r e e x t e n d e d line than reed and a m o r e organic line t h a n m e t a l . of a loaded nib. giving longer lines. forming the REED PENS R e e dpens dispense ink quickly.36 ANIMALS Drawing With Ink To MAKE A QUILL OR REED PEN. sieved. Running fresh. r e s e r v e d t h e i r use f o r large c h o i r b o o k s . The lighter right Quill marks Quills carry more ink than strokes and for as reeds. Rembrandt. It dried black. The darkest of this grasshopper wings) were made (around the head first. reduced. It also oxidized and ate or burned paper. then cut a final nib (feathers. For centuries. a n d M a t i s s e also e n j o y e d t h e m . I u s e d t h e s e qualities t o d r a w t h e w o r m s above.
it is important to feel for when the ink will run out and to know how much ink you pick up when dipping the nib. DRAWING WITH INK Filled outlines Each segment of wing was outlined. breaking. o r being ruined as fountain pens would be under the same pressure. sharp. particles then filled with a droplet of ink. Each layer of of the drying droplet dome the drawing was left to dry before adding more. When using dip pens. The of pigment to fall to the edges effect of the shape. giving a graded. . they splay to make thick o r double lines. tonal Ink layers The wings of this beetle were drawn in layers using black and white ink on pale gray paper. clean strokes.37 METAL PENS Metal pens give long. W h e n the nib is pressed upside down. White markings were drawn last Tones Here we see subtle tones of diluted ink beneath the undiluted black rim of a beetle's wing. marks become fine and needle-sharp. Loaded with ink and pressed hard. withstanding great pressure without sticking.
Cover your drawing book pages in speedy responses to the geese and try to capture each bird in as few lines as possible. waddle. It happens that goose feathers also provide artists with the best type of quills. Empathize. Pack plenty of tissue around a bottle of calligraphy or acrylic ink. Quick drawing trains you to see what is most important about a subject and to mark only its most essential expression. I covered eleven sheets in sixty quick drawings—in less than an hour. and be brave. Try to hold the whole posture in your mind's eye. and a large drawing book or plenty of paper Use masking tape to secure pages against the wind. Geese are nosy birds." If you don't like a stroke. there is no obligation to prepare a quill. and quickly draw around it using only three or four strokes. Take no more than ten seconds to draw each one and make lots of drawings. to absorb blots when drawing. Focus on the geese. That said. Experiment. Focus on it. make another one. and boldly plunge into your drawing. Take a cup and water for diluting a range of tones. so pick a spot where other people can keep them entertained. Study them before drawing. Watch their heavy feathered bodies flap. test your limits. be bold and press firmly. You cannot break the nib.38 ANIMALS Capturing Character GEESE ARE EXCELLENT SUBJECTS to draw when practicing the first use of pen and ink. draw what the bird is doing. Posture . Cover a sheet. and bellyflop off the waterside. MATERIALS NEEDED Look for a bird expressing a simple posture. It teaches confidence and focus through intensive repetition. steel nibs are fine. Dip your pen in ink. touch the bottle's rim to drain the excess. and there is no "wrong. Attempt with a loose hand to capture their posture and outline. not on your drawing. Illustrating this exercise on Oxford Port Meadow.
Avoid detail unless really tempted by a close-up visit Fluctuate the pressure of your pen in response to how you know the bird would feel if you touched it. Again. running. look among the birds for more complicated actions such as shaking off water. CAPTURING CHARACTER Texture Gradually allow yourself more lines to describe the texture of each bird as well as its posture and action.39 Action With growing confidence. and diving. and don't worry about mechanical facts or accuracy. Use more lines than before to express these. . flapping. draw the feeling of what you see.
and personality.34-37). your drawing book. Make a test sheet to discover your control of diluting on the nib. Then dip the nib quickly into a glass of water and drain the excess again. Now it will make a pale line. form. engaged in his and everyone else's business. These drawings are not an analysis of his anatomy or breed but the expression of his satisfied comfort in a deep sleep after a night out on the together with a glass of water for diluting tones on the nib. a dip pen and ink of your choice (see pp. first dip your pen in ink. Sleeping animals present the artist with ideal opportunities to study their texture. and even then he twitched and stretched in dreams. The only time he remained still was when he was sleeping. For this class you will need one oblivious dog. Dip the nib quickly again into water and again drain it. MAKING A PALE LINE To make a pale line. and a tissue for blotting drawn lines that appear too dark. and drain the excess by touching the nib against the rim of the bottle." . Ras Curled Up Asleep "Capturing the true character of a cherished companion is best achieved with objective determination rather than sentimental shyness. a d o g w h o w a s a l w a y s town. This will give a medium-gray line.40 ANIMALS Sleeping Dogs R A S WAS A GREAT CHARACTER.
alter the pressure and moisture of your line in response to howyouknow your dog feels when you ruffle itscoat. Layers o f thoughts can bring a drawing alive.It is essential when drawing any subject (even something abstract) to know how it feels andtoemulate this with your line. add more detail. Here. To add texture. D o not go back over lines you are pleased with—doing so dulls their lively freshness. this time to create a line a little darker in tone. Remain focused on the whole dog and. in bold layers. SLEEPING DOGS 1 Fix your eyes at the center of the dog. Trust your intuition. 3 Gradually introduce darker tones. tail. to emphasize how he is curled up. ears. 2 Reload your pen with ink. I added ink to Ras's nose. Character is better captured drawing quickly with confidence than w o r k i n g slowly. Then. and the shadows in his coat. see how the animal's posture determines its whole shape. Here I marked the features of Ras's head. second thoughts may be different Changing your mind is a positive aspect o f seeing and thinking. . Then I immediately rebalanced the drawing with lines around his hind quarters. W i t h pale lies. First lines are first thoughts. c o n c e r n e d a b o u t detail. quickly draw what you see.41 DRAWING YOUR DOG Be bold in this exercise. ignoring all detail.
Beyond the glass wall of the aquarium. offering plenty of time for the artist to draw the pose. A perfect subject for the beginner. THE ELONGATION AND BUOYANCY of a group of turtles is fascinating .Turtles to observe. swinging their limbs and shells with a slow circular movement. as if caught in a camera freeze-frame. turtles often pause unexpectedly. they stretch and paddle.
With speed. balance. . and water. dry. weightlessness of the kiwi. I made repeated studies of the housemartin to discover its mechanism of flight. I darkened lines as each drawing progressed. and sharp.Dry Birds THESE ARE THE ARTICULATED BONES o f a k i w i a n d a h o u s e - martin drawn in a museum using a steel pen. Beginning with very pale tones. India ink. I sought to capture the form.
In this chapter. Plants are the principal inspiration of the decorative arts—from Roman Corinthian columns crowned with carved leaves of the acanthus. and hybridize them for our sustenance and pleasure. Conrad von Gemmingen. Later. and focus. season. the punctuation of space with structure and mass. Patrons funded the breeding of decorative. Botanic gardens were established and expanded. an There are close parallels between the acts of gardening and drawing. B A S I L I U SBESLER when botanists founded new work upon the direct study of plants. and the Acanthus spinosus constant but exhilarating struggle to make a living image feel right. to catalog our knowledge. Both embrace the anticipation of evolving shape. on which our lives depend. Medieval knowledge was not gained by the first-hand observation of life but by reading. and beauty. form. and diverse kingdom of plants. PriceBishopof Eichstatt specimens. After Here Aconthus spinosus is combined with forget-me-nots and-a-half centuries of intensive observation. where a number of uncredited artistsd r e wthem for Besler.000 species of plants are depicted life-size drawn. to the proliferation of floral designs with which we have dressed ourselves and furnished our homes for centuries. We collect. robust. It was published plain in 1611 and withhand-paintedplates in poured off ships returning from the New World and were eagerly collected and 1613. infinitely vivid. and the drawn pages ofthesame name.Morethan 1. 1613 187/8x153/4in(480 x 400 mm) BASILIUS BESLER . we now have laid before us fourto show how well their colours complement each other infinite wealth of material to explore. we see very different cultural visions of plants and gardens and use pencils and plants to learn the pictorial values of space. nurture. Botanical illustration is a precisely defined and scientific art. —-the largest and most influential botanical book of the early Natural scientists accompanied explorers to document unknown finds. Fledgling years Botanist and apothecary who compiled the Hortus Eystettensis of scientific research bore manifold explosions of knowledge in a fever of discovery. manipulations of light and shade. as opposed to only herbal. We draw them to celebrate their beauty and range. The revolution came in the 1530s. Classifications were set in367copperengravings.Plants and Gardens W E SHARE THIS PLANET with the more ancient. the microscope was refined to unfold yet another world. color. Early European illustrators were trapped within dogma that was determined by ancient scholarship. Plants seventeenth century. shape. and to ornament our lives. Chapters are arranged by out. He sent boxes of plants to Nuremburgburned with the urgency and excitement of explaining every plant's form. Rich owners of private gardens commissioned large-format florilegiums commissioned the volume to document his private garden to immortalize their personal taste and power of acquisition. From its history there is one overriding lesson to be learned: the importance of looking and seeing with our own eyes. and texture.
Here. B e h i n d detailed. Each plant must b e clearly distinguished from its closest relative. Dissections Across the lower part of this drawing we can see dissections of seed pods and petals. stems. leaves. petal tip over a lower leaf Protea nitida 201/4 x141/4in (513 x 362 mm) FRANZ BAUER 1796 . naturalist explorer and advisor to King George III invited Bauer to London in 1 7 9 0 . and seeds conventionally a p p e a r o n o n e plate. Botanical art c o n c e a l s the challenge of its m a k i n g . He has made the spatial and physical relationships in this drawing all the more real by placing a single. Stella Ross-Craig said of the need to d r a w from a dried herbarium plant "I could make it live again. Light in this drawing is given by the paleness of the paper showing between washes of darker tones. o p e n i n g a n d c l o s i n g i n the w a r m t h a n d light of the studio." Her slipper orchid s h o w s that botanical drawing must often resolve the challenge of its subject's p r o d u c i n g parts in different seasons — r o o t s . delicate. Sir Joseph Banks. M a c k i n t o s h e x p r e s s e s the f o l d e d petals of a broken rose b u d so delicately w e can sense the perfume. flowers. insect-ravaged. It is likely Bauer would have studied these under a microscope. Outline Bauer prepared a pencil outline before laying in fleshy succulent hues and tones of watercolor. T h e rest of u s are free to d r a w as w e w i s h .48 PLANTS AND GARDENS THE SCIENTIFIC VALUE OF A BOTANICAL DRAWING lies i n its Botanical Studies were specimens that often refused to stay still. and wilted. fruit. W i t h bright F R A N Z BAUER An Austrian artist who trained at the Schonbrunn Imperial Gardens in Vienna. They are counted among the most accomplished 18th-century botanical artists. measured drawings. or that were diseased. and Franz Bauer and his brother Ferdinand were employed there to draw specimens. and meticulous precision. o p t i m i s m . detail. The King was then establishing the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. s u c h as w e see here in Bauer's Protea nitida. subtle union of beauty.
Line Drawing of Cypripedium calceolus L c. 1970 x 81/4 in ( 3 2 5 x 2 1 0 m m ) STELLA ROSS-CRAIG . Rose 1894 103/4 x 83/4 in ( 2 7 5 x 2 2 1 mm) CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH STELLA ROSS-CRAIG A j o i n e d t h e staff a t t h e R o y a l B o t a n i c G a r d e n s . it is small and discreet.7 3 in 3 1 p a r t s . S h e also o f thousands o f contributed an drawings. as at trained botanical artist Ross-Craig Swift lines The drawing was planned in pencil and then overworked with a lithographic pen. Pencil lines cling to. K e w . a n d he inspired. and observation the nuance and contour of every in one image. G u s t a v K l i m t In his r e t i r e m e n t Mackintosh m a d e n u m e r o u s inventive pencil a n d w a t e r c o l o r d r a w i n g s o f plants. H e r Drawings of British Plants. found among Mackintosh's than reality.49 C H A R L E S RENNIE MACKINTOSH Scottish a r c h i t e c t d e s i g n e r painter. and follow shadow. Ross-Craig said of her work "Plants that wither rapidly present a very difficult problem to which there is only one answer—speed.000 Kew to archive accessible t o d a y v i a t h e I n t e r n e t of o n British flora. sensual pencil drawing is later works. Closer to fiction can come together perfectly." This line drawing is one of 1.286 studies for her book Drawings of British Plants.g a r d e in G e r m a n y a n d A u s t r i a . A s m a n y of her drawings are kept G a r d e n s . Curtis's Botanical Magazine. and speed depends upon the immediate perception of the essential characteristics of the plant.. and it shows how design. p u b l i s h e d 1 9 4 8 . and perfect coordination of hand and eye. is r e c o g n i z e d as tne m o s t c o m p l e t e a n d i m p o r t a n t work 3.. imagination. BOTANICAL STUDIES Lines and shadows This lush. a m o n g o t h e r s . a n d f o u n d e r o f t h e G l a s g o w S c h o o l o f A r t M a c k i n t o s h ' s flair h a d an e n o r m o u s i n f l u e n c e o n t h e a v a n t . L o n d o n in 1 9 2 9 .
a notable portrait painter drew the faces.50 PLANTS AND GARDENS Jeweled Gardens the Middle East we find exquisite stylization of form and upright formality in pictorial space. The first Mughal Emperor Babur's Garden of Fidelity (Bagh-e Vaja). Upright shallow perspectives. in the early 16th century. in miniature. By Muslim tradition. Envoys chatter outside the gate. and calligraphy are brought together to hold the sacred names of prophets and the 99 beautiful names of God. which he personally created near Kabul. Drawing. and attention to detail are all shared with medieval European manuscript drawings. and Nanha. Below. Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity c. They used a fine brush to lay pigment over a line drawing. . is remembered in the pages of his journal. uniform focus. Every fiber of AMONG DRAWINGS FROM BISHNDAS A N D N A N H A Little is known of these Mughal painters who were related as uncle and nephew and commissioned to illustrate the pages of Babur's journal. Afghanistan. Bishndas was probably responsible for the overall design. paper is brimming with the beauty and celebration of nature. the sumptuous petals permeated with prayer and wisdom. The white of the page shines through the brilliant color. painting. Babur directs his gardeners in the design and planting of this quartered chahar bagh. and miraculous growth. 1590 85/8 x55/8in (219 x 1 4 4 mm) BISHNDAS AND NANHA Bright pigment These pages were illuminated by Mughal artists in the late 16th century. Opposite is the Rose of Mohammed. urgent attentive human activity. anticipating their view. roses took their form in a bead of perspiration on the brow of Mohammed as he passed through his heavenly journey. fluctuations in scale.
t h e Staatsbibliothek zu Arabic. G e r m a n y . The physical anatomy of the rosebud has been studied and translated into a repeated stylized motif. look closely and you will see words written in gold fluttering over the form of the flower. and how the shape has been repeated freehand. Note how each bud is essentially the same shape. Sacred words The central rose is more solid than any other on the page. However.c e n t u r y Turkish manuscnpt a book of religious e t h i c s w r i t t e n in the O r i e n t a l C o l l e c t i o n s of Berlin.AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH This is a detail o f a page from a n 1 8 t h . Stylized motif A fine brush has been used throughout this drawing to apply inks and watercolors. so that overlapping petals and stems give an impression of fulfillment and abundance. fragmenting its detail in a whisper of prayers. It is n o w k e p t in Border The elegant border of this drawing was mode with a pen and ruler It cleverly compresses and defines the composition. The Rose of Mohammed 1708 9 1 / 2 x 61/2 in ( 2 4 0 x 1 6 5 mm) FROM THE TURKISH M A N U S C R I P T AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH .
PLANTS AND GARDENS
IN CONTRAST TO THE QUIET, formal detail of other drawings in this chapter, these powerful fast trees enact the actions of plants. Each tree reaches out and holds its landscape with dynamism and pulse. In both drawings we find testament to the inexorable energy of growth. Rembrandt expresses a delicate quickness. Gentle lines draw a warm breeze through this remote wooded garden. Rustling in a loose foliage of soft marks, his pen evokes the weight of abundant activity on this late summer's day. Mondrian's arch of scratching branches is drawn with such force it will always be alive. We can still feel his hand storming across the paper. Set within a frame of smudged landscape, the tree possesses a musical agitation. This characteristic will increase in the artist's later abstract work. Here, we see a punctuated ordering of space. Sharp branches cut out negative shapes of winter sky.
R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter; etcher; and draftsman. Rembrandt's prolific output comprises oil paintings of historical and religious subjects together with group and self- portraits. His emotive etchings and pen and ink drawings (see also p. 174) are great resources for artists learning to understand the potential of these media.
Pen and ink lines describing foliage also tell
us the directions of sunlight and wind. An arc crossing the bottom of the drawing from one side to the other supports the scene and separates us from the landscape beyond. Compare Rembrandt's arc to that of Mondrian's. and note the similar treatment of low horizons in both works emphasizing the height and dominance of trees.
Cottage Among Trees 1648-50 63/4 x121/8in ( I 7 I x 308 mm) R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN
Atmosphere Here we see how shapes of negative space are as important as the physical subject they enclose (see pp.58-59). Mondrian has again lightly dragged his chalk on its side to evoke a wet depth of atmosphere. These passive gray marks contrast with the assertive tension of the tree.
Dutch Pure abstract painter preoccupied w i t h line and plane relationships. W i t h increasing austerity, Mondrian banished t h e subject from his drawings, in his later w o r k he also banished space, composing visual h a r m o n i e s using only straight lines a n d flat planes o f black, w h i t e , gray, o r p r i m a r y color.
Winter ground Short vertical marks along thebottomof this drawing reveal the length oftheblackchalk Mondrian used. Rubbed onitsside,itroughly blocks in the ground. Thecrudeeconomy of line is all we need tofeelthecold, wet, unwelcoming quality ofthiswinterearth.
Branches and trunk Lines shaping the branches of the tree are built up in layers. To make the trunk more dense, the artist has rubbed and smudged preliminary marks with his fingers before firmly overdrawing with new lines. Solid black lines are achieved by pressing the chalk hard. When used lightly, it shows the texture of the paper. Tree: Study for the Grey 1911 23 x 335/8 in ( 5 8 4 x 8 5 5 m m ) Tree
PLANTS AND GARDENS
Graphite and Erasers
GRAPHITE, FROM THE G R E E K word
This drawing illustrates a range of achieved with graphite pencils of different grades.
Modern pencils are graded from 9H (hard and pale) to 9B (black and soft). Graphiteclay sticks are also available, together with a powder form. All possess a natural sheen and are erasable to a varying degree. Graphite drawings smudge easily, so fixative, a form of varnish, can be used to hold a drawn surface in place. It is applied as a fine mist from an aerosol can, or from a bottle using a diffuser. For the beginner, ordinary hairspray is an effective and cheaper alternative.
(to write), is a soft and brittle carbon. It was first mined in Cumbria, England, in 1 5 6 4 , and was initially used in small, pure pieces bound in lengths of string. Pencils as we know them—with their slender wood casing and "lead" of graphite—were invented in France in 1794 by Nicolas-Jaques Conte. He discovered that milled graphite mixed with clay and water, press-molded, and baked to a high temperature produces a harder and paler medium than graphite alone.
3B pencil A range of mark and textures can be achieved with a 3B pencil when you vary its pressure, speed, and direction, as this detail shows.
Here is a selection of 14 items to illustrate a basic range of pencils, graphite sticks, sharpeners, erasers, and fixative.
1. AND 2. HB AND 3B PENCILS: It is unnecessary to possess every grade of pencil. HB, the central and most common grade, is perfect for making delicate lines. 3B gives a blacker tone. A great variety of effects can be achieved with just these two. 3. WATER-SOLUBLE PENCIL Effective for atmospheric drawing, but be aware of how watery tones can dull the impact of the line. 4. AND 5. MECHANICAL PENCIL Thick or fine leads are made in a range of grades. They are particularly useful because they do not require a sharpener 6. ROUND SOLID GRAPHITE PENCIL: Excellent for large-scale drawing, producing thick bold lines. A range of grades can be honed with a craft knife or sharpener 7. THICK GRAPHITE STICK: For large-scale drawing. Graded soft, medium, and hard. It crushes to produce graphite powder 8. SQUARE GRAPHITE STICK: Useful for making broad, sweeping marks in large-scale drawing. If worn and rounded, the stick can be snapped into pieces to regain the sharp, square end. 9. CRAFT KNIFE AND BLADES: Handles are sold in two sizes to fit large or small blades, and blades are sold in a range of shapes. Perfect for sharpening pencils to a long point, to cut lines in paper or to remove areas. 10. PENCIL SHARPENER: Makes a uniform point. Keep one in your pocket for drawing outside the studio, together with an envelope for shavings.
HB and 5B Layers of tone have been built up withHBand5Bpencils. Softer pencils require less pressure to make a mark, revealing the texture of the paper surface. It is important to keep the point of the pencil sharp with either a craft knife or a sharpener.
ERASING AND FIXING
Erasers can be used t o blend and s o f t e n lines, o r t o r e m o v e altogether. Fixative them prevents
GRAPHITE AND ERASERS
s m u d g i n g a n d s e c u r e s lines.
Using fixative You can use fixative while drawing to hold the definition of lines you wish to gently fade but not remove entirely, for which you would use an eraser.
11. P L A S T I C E R A S E R : Avoid cheap colored erasers that may stain drawings with grease and dye. White brands are available in soft and hard versions.
P U T T Y RUBBER:
W a r m it in your hand before use. It is excellent for removing powdery materials, and for making crisp sweeps of light across a delicate pencil drawing
13. D I F F U S E R : Helleborus corsicus (Corsican hellebore) fixative, or to spray mists of ink.
PLANTS AND GARDENS
Cropping and Composition
M A N Y STUDENTS WILL START a d r a w i n g i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e
that its skin nearly touches the boundary. The meaning of the same drawing changes simply by its relationship to the space it occupies. The size of any subject, its placement on the page, the size of the page, and its overall proportion are all discrete and essential aspects of successful picture-making. Before you begin to draw, think carefully about where to place your subject. Are you are happy with your paper? If not, change it; add more, take some away, or turn it around. Do not just accept what you are given, adapt it to what you need.
paper. Focused on the shape and detail of their subject, they remain happily unaware that there is, or should be, any relationship between what they are drawing and the surface they are drawing it on. The paper is only paper, and the troublesome subject floats somewhere in the expanse of it. However, a single fig drawn in the middle of a large, empty square of paper gives quite a different impression from the same fig drawn on such an intimately small square
CHOOSING A VIEW
A Single Fig
"The size, shape, and orientation of the paper are so integral to the composition that they determine the impact and meaning of the drawing."
Here the left fig is attached to. running corner t o corner. t h e n m o v e t h e c a r d t o e x p l o r e different views. the uppermost edge of the drawing.57 THE VIEWFINDER T h e s e pencil drawings o f figs d e m o n s t r a t e different crops and compositions. and therefore apparently suspended from. CROPPING AND COMPOSITION Off-center and diagonal Here I held my viewfinder so the fig appeared upper-left in the space. its stem and shadow framing a white center. U s e it as a starting point. a device to help you decide what t o draw. as also shown here. Touching the edge When the subject o f a drawing touches one edge of the paper it attaches t o it visually. This drawing hasbeencropped to emphasize space between thefruit. Space as the subject Inallpictures. its illumination. The angle of the fruit together with dark shadow (top left) and bright light(bottom right) suggest a diagonal division across the whole drawing. A card with a small rectangle cut out o f it makes a useful viewfinder C l o s e o n e e y e t o look through the hole. they establish a tension and unity with the paper. and lines describing shadows cast by the fruit .O u r focus is on the white cloth supporting the figs. spaces between things are as important as the things themselves. bottom-left t o top-right. When subjects touch two or more edges.
Unfamiliar shapes of negative space reveal the real shape of a positive subject. position. unified. But how often do we look at the air between things. then added a second shape. not leaves. Remember that plants do move! Therefore it is best to complete your drawing in one sitting if possible. a sharp H B pencil. dynamic. Draw a complete shape Map outward from the center Erase and adjust lines until correct .58 PLANTS AND GARDENS Negative Space UNCONSCIOUSLY WE ASSESS spatial relationships all the time to guide ourselves through the world. which is shown in the three steps below. It helps to start at the center and map outward. In following this class. Viewers appreciating a finished image may not see shapes of space. their subject and composition will become more real. The drawing opposite is of the uppermost leaves of a potted fig tree. fourth. erasing and adjusting lines until itlooked right. WHERE TO START Arrange your plant and paper so you can look back and forth by barely moving your head. this ensures a consistent view. rather than what you see in front of you. an eraser. but if the artist does. tone. do we see myriad distinct and unique shapes of daylight or do we just see branches? Why as artists should we look at the air? Every space in a picture has a shape. and a fresh page in your drawing book.The box opposite isolates an area. third. remember to draw only space. In your own version. you will need a similar large-leaved plant. and so on. a foundation stone in picture-making. Looking at negative space overrides the problem of drawing what you know. It is an astonishingly simple device that many artists use and I strongly recommend. Negative space is the simple key to getting positive shape right. and engaging. Follow these from left to right and see how I began with one complete shape between two parts of a leaf. shapes of air cut out and defined by the physicality of our environment? When we look into the branches of a tree. and a role to play.
Here I drew only spaces, adding one to another until the leaves were revealed. Besides looking at negative space, there are two other useful things to do when a drawing feels wrong but you cannot see why: look at it in a mirror or turn it upside down. errors and suggest changes.
Spaces between leaves
Either view will
WALKING IN THE ALPUJARRAS in A n d a l u c i a ,
Spain, I drew a bare fig tree clinging to the wall of an almond grove; a perfect subject for seeing negative space. I marked its essential frame of large branches first, frequently erasing lines and changing my mind until the balance felt right.
S a l v i a , RIBES, CLEMATIS, Allium, Passiflora, and Acanthus
drawn with an H pencil by observing the
negative spaces between the stems, petals, and leaves. I arranged the flowers on a sheet of paper in a cool r o o m and rapidly sketched a composition. Then I put them in water, taking the stems out one at a time to draw.
Excessive detail leaves no space for the eye to rest or imagination to wander. . We never see everything at once. 62-63). Compare changes of pace and focus here to the flatter finish of Summer Flowers (see pp.Acanthus Spinosus As we LOOK AROUND. gathering less distinct information on the way. they emulate our experience of seeing. our eyes travel and adjust from one point of focus to another. interfolding points of detail with areas of loose suggestion. If an artist changes the pace of their line and focus of their attention.
and from West Facade of the Church of St Augustin. Augustin. we find the most recent steps in the evolution of graphic language. to help them create new form. each VICTOR BALTARD . space. architects and designers can imaginatively "climb inside" three-dimensional space and. from political commentary to musical abstraction. Linear perspective is a marvelous device.Architecture I N THE CONTEMPORARY PRACTICES of architecture. VICTOR BALTARD French architect employed by the city of Paris. which was the first church in the capital to be built entirely of metal and then clad in stone.This is a pencil drawing. the device that has since governed most of our picture-making (sec pp. Among the drawings of this chapter we look from 17th-century ecclesiastical calm. European conventions of pictorial perspective have lost their monopoly on seeing. 74-75). Yet the pursuit of divine proportion and harmony remains. of the west facade of St Augustin. fine artists. coupled with the importance of exercizing your imagination. film-set design. and architects of ancient Greece who first pursued the formula for "divine proportion. architects. filmmakers. It was the mathematicians. Besides sketches of first thoughts and polished drawings of the finished look for clients. time. At the core of their practice. Perhaps in the sheer planes of some of our greatest modern buildings it is finding its clearest expression. Paris 1871-74 the child's view to the infinity of the vanishing point. they also have a diagrammatic language for communicating plans to builders. balance. philosophers. invaluable to understand and apply when you choose. and writers have been breaking away from traditional forms of representation to seek new expressions of shape. Since Picasso and Braque's revolution of Cubism in around 1907. composers. which can be clearly seen in ancient Greek architecture. and sound. they have the Golden Section. Through the animation of the screen. add and subtract ideas. Baltard designed the Church of St. It is the focus of practical class in this chapter. drawing plans around themselves within a program as opposed to on a flat sheet of paper. to 20th-century film fantasy. Architects have been fine-tuning their specialized branch of drawing for centuries. with gray and brown watercolor wash. made by the architect himself. was preserved into the Renaissance where it became a foundation stone for thinking and creativity From 15thcentury Italy. and in the 19th century it was given the name the Golden Section. Computer programs allow the virtual drawing of ideas. This harmony. It was also during the Renaissance that the architect Brunelleschi invented linear perspective. designers." reflecting the eye's love of unity in difference. Since the first flowering of Modernism in the early 20th century. and computer game imaging. mass. the formula for perfection spread through Europe.The church is still in use today. once there.
Blenheim Palace. St Paul's Baptistry c. Below it. pilasters. Hawksmoor established his reputation with university and church architecture including All Souls College. calculate function.68 ARCHITECTURE Master Builders EVERY NEW BUILDING. evoke presence. A student of Wren's. relative levels. and later an assistant to Vanbrugh. NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR One of Britain's "three great" Baroque architects (along with Sir Christopher Wren and Sir John Vanbrugh). Architects draw for many reasons: to visualize ideas. embodying a massive investment of ideas. and the shapes of interior domes and apses. Pillars and floor At the base of the drawing a compass-drawn plan tilted downward through 90 degrees illustrates the arrangement of pillars around a central circular floor. and balance. and six London churches. densely layered lines in mists of color weave the presence of the expected building into shape. Lines define structure while washes suggest light and atmosphere. testing gravity to calculate the inverted shapes of domes. Cut-away interior On the right a section cut through the center of the building reveals material thicknesses. and an inscribed entablature. Hawksmoor's drawing is both a plan and an evocation. The photograph opposite shows his studio hung with metal pendulums. a three-dimensional drawing made with wires and weights. 1711-12 NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR . and labor. Gaudi's fluid architecture grew up through many kinds of drawing. Hampton Court Palace. Oxford. structure. and Castle Howard. Drawings underpin every great human-made structure like hidden linear ghosts at their core. describe a finished look to a client. Finished surface On the left the finished surface of the building is given depth and emphasis by immaculate vertical and horizontal brush strokes of shadow. he also worked on St Paul's Cathedral. Three aspects This subtle and sophisticated drawing made in pen and wash displays three distinct aspects of Hawksmoor's baptistry. marks the end of a long journey from the first few marks the architect made on a sheet of paper. Together they explain how interior structure and space define exterior form and shape. materials. and ultimately to show builders what to do. We see the modeled detail of Corinthian columns.
The Art Nouveau movement. This sculptural drawingenvisionsthe finished crypt glowingandethereal as if caught in thelightof red morning sun. 1910 24x181/4( 6 1 0 x 4 7 5mm) A N T O N I O GAUDI . and apartment homes are distinguished by their Their and Flowering curves of stone or concrete are often encrusted with Gaudi was inspired by medieval and oriental art. light. embellishment. unique organic manipulation of high shapes. and his love of music. Wire and watercolor three-dimensional preferred to calculate Above is a drawing form in the made withlinkedwires and weights. To the right isawatercolordrawing thought to havebeenmade over a photograph ofthemodelabove.69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt c. churches. Gaudi's cathedral in Barcelona. 1900 ANTONIO GAUDI ANTONIO GAUDI Visionary Catalan architect. Guell Crypt of its at the Time Construction c. Gaudi air than on paper.
Both men used rulers and pens to carefully and slowly construct their compositions. corridors. upright pictorial space. Libeskind studied music before transferring to architecture. and rooms. and arched dotted lines depict the radius of doors. Visual rhythms In the lower half of this drawing architectural language has broken loose: escaped and transformed into an image of rebellious pleasure. short curved poles. before cascading into a riot of line and sound below. while the composer Erik Satie has made an enclosure of quiet order and grace. and the spaces between his windows and turrets are the visual equivalent of pauses in h i s m u s i c c o m p o s i t i o n s for p i a n o (see also Bussotti. Libeskind's numerous commissions include concert halls and museums.223). a refillable pen that feeds a constant supply of ink through a fine tubular nib. We can see. Floor plan This drawing has been made with a rapidograph. Contemporary musicians commonly collaborate with artists by interpreting images as sound. been a natural affinity between the visual rhythms of pictures and the audible rhythms of music. such a rapport in both of these drawings. We can imagine how a musician might interpret this drawing by looking at the abstract visual rhythms of masses composed of long straight poles. and in a sense hear. theater sets. p. installations. flat boards. The architect and musician Daniel Libeskind has drawn a stampeding cacophany of airborne architectural detail. Across the top and center right of the image w e perceive an almost recognizable architectural plan. Floor space appears divided by discernible walls. Arctic Flowers 1980 DANIEL LIBESKIND . Libeskind begins quietly in the upper space of his drawing. There has always DANIEL LIBESKIND A Polish American architect of international acclaim. He also produces urban and landscape designs. and dotted lines. and exhibitions of his drawings. Satie draws quietly throughout.70 ARCHITECTURE The Order of Sound B O T H OF THESE VISIONARY DRAWINGS o c c u p y a s l e n d e r . He also contributed to plans for the rebuilding of the World Trade Center site in New York.
effectively additional lines in a work. dressed eccentrically. and ink on a fragment folded brown paper—a of everyday happened material of scrap that to be at hand. Eastern influence The upright image Eastern is reminiscent and medieval of Middle pictorial space and subject of this European drawing. andfouredges of the paper tothecompositionand impact animage. theater. a conventional dip or fountain pen.narrowshape of its paper.H i s witty. o f which he was the sole m e m b e r Parcel paper Satie has drawn this fantasy hotel using a ruler. 1 8 9 3 77/8 x 51/2 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 4 0 mm) ERIK SATIE . H e p e r f o r m e d in cabarets.50.ERIK SATIE F r e n c h pianist and c o m p o s e r for t h e piano.Edges are how are of orientation. minimalist s c o r e s scandalized a u d i e n c e s with o r c h e s t r a t i o n s f o r t h e foghorn and typewriter. a n d ballet. Satie collaborated w i t h hisfriends J e a n C o c t e a u a n d P i c a s s o . Hotel de la Suzonnieres c. the perimeter Composition Look how well this drawingfitsand resonates with the upright. Onpp. Compare the even and and the shape wall to the elegantly stylized order of the many windows of arrangement of details and the shape of the wall in Babur's Garden of Fidelity on p. They definespaceand pictorial balance.56—57 we discussed important the shape. and founded his o w n church. lived a l o n e .
Light illusions This pen-and-wash drawing shows a subtle application of the principles of illumination demonstrated with an egg on p. painter. Art director Erich Kettlehut's vertiginous design for the city of a slavelike populace had a future influence on movies such as Blade Runner. arched vaults. made in 1926. and draftsman. Boullee lived in Paris. Boullee's monolithic apparition was drawn as a monument to Sir Isaac Newton. Among preparations for Fritz Langs film Metropolis. we find other Utopian visions Paul Nobles epic drawing summons an imperfect and disturbing township where ruin and activity are equal and strange. His celebrated imaginary buildings are characterized by pyramids. This is the work of an architectural theoretician. Newton's Cenotaph 1784 153/4 x 25 in ( 4 0 2 x 635 m m ) ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE . the ominous globe exists only as a series of drawings.The lower-left section of the building appears relatively pale against a darker sky. This shift makes the cenotaph appear three-dimensional. experiencing a fascinating conflict between curiosity and desolation. and the reverse is true on the right. antlike mortals might have speculated upon the universe. spheres.72 ARCHITECTURE T H E S E T H R E E HIGHLY DETAILED DRAWINGS Future Fictions invite us to soaring above normal life. cylinders. Within it. and dramatic lighting. and taught at t h e A c a d e m i e d'Architecture.96. ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE French architectural theorist. We glide over exquisitely drawn wastelands of damage and abandonment. enter the long-shadowed architecture of imaginary worlds.
73 ERICH KETTLEHUT Influential film a r t director. intensely detailed graphite drawings explaining and questioning t h e geography. Kettlehut and his c o . Fritz Lang's Metropolis c.Building shapes are works can be read as text. gray.a r t director O t t o Hunte. and are Graphite shapes Nobson Central isoneof a series of very large graphite drawings of the spoil and detritus of Nobson Newtown. and morality o f an invented place called His satires exhibited w o r l d w i d e . mythology. and m o d e l . Its sheerscaleengulfs the viewer and demands based time and patience to on letters and in some beread. Working on toned paper such as this gives an artist greater scope for dramatic lighting effects than if they work on white paper. FUTURE FICTIONS Brush and ink This is a dramatic drawing from a film that shaped the history of world cinema. and white ink on brown-gray paper. architecture. Nobson Central 9 ft 1 0 in x 1 3 f t 2 in (3 x 4 m ) PAUL N O B L E 1998-99 . draftsman. used forced perspective camera t e c h n i q u e s t o amplify t h e m a g n i t u d e o f buildings in relation t o human characters. together with c i n e m a t o g r a p h e r Karl Freund. Nobson political visions of humanity Newtown. Kettlehut drew using a fine and relatively dry brush dipped in black.m a k e r In t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f Metropolis. 1926 ERICH KETTLEHUT PAUL N O B L E British c o n t e m p o r a r y artist who creates m o n u m e n t a l .
I contribute the child's perspective. scientists. Press the pin into Leonardo's vanishing point. found at the center of all converging lines. Study of Perspective Adoration of the for the Magi 1481 61/2 x111/2in (165 x 290 mm) LEONARDO DA VINCI . 206-07). inventors. Invented by Italian artist and architect Brunelleschi in 1413 (late in the history of art). Sometimes shared with Naive artists. observations. In his notebooks. It can be applied to any subject. Here Leonardo provides a superb example of a single vanishing point. and inventions— essential reading for inquiring minds. but is most easily seen and understood in pictures of buildings and interiors. and thinkers ever to have lived. Piranesi an example of two. and those of Naive artists and children. Note how architectural features conform to lines and how human figures diminish in size toward thevanishingpoint. All forms of perspective are of equal value. See how the thread corresponds to each converging line. We use it to structure illusions of depth. linear perspective is distinct from more ancient systems practiced in the East. It is also distinguished from aerial perspective (see pp.74 ARCHITECTURE Pathways of Sight LINEAR PERSPECTIVE (also called vanishing-point perspective) is a simple device for calculating the relative size of things in pictorial space. Pull the thread taut and rotate it slowly above the drawing. this perspective is often an imagined bird's-eye view in which details are mapped according to logic and importance rather than how they might appear in real life. and age eight. Leonardo recorded constant streams of ideas. LEONARDO DA VINCI One of the greatest artists. Single-point perspective Tie a thread to a pin.
which I saw from home every day. Breamore Village. and designer Piranesi's prolific architectural drawings. England 1980 9 x 16 in (228 x 405 mm) S A R A H SIMBLET GIOVANNI BATTISTA PIRANESI Italian artist. It shows how children usually map large scenes in flat layers one above the other. New Forest. issues of scale when making room for important their story. Lightly marked illuminates vanishing Two Courtyards c. including all they recall about the subject. Note the rather large rabbits and pheasants the hills. Mark these points with your pin and follow the converging lines of the drawing by rotating your thread. Children are uninhibited and problems with one element being obscured by another rarely arise.SARAH SIMBLET I made this drawing (at age 8) in response to a local bookstore's request for children to draw their village. Two-point perspective Sunlight through this colonnade a great example of two-point perspective. visionary and practical understanding of ancient Rome. . Scale Our farmhouse my experience was in the woods. architect. a points in logical narrative of memories. 1740 5 1 / 2 x 83/8 in (141 x 212 mm) G I O V A N N I B A T T I S T A PIRANESI points are located on either side of the drawing. at the top of each lateral column base. This drawing Young children typically maps ignore on and understanding of the nearby village. and theoretical writing strongly influenced neoclassicism.
then follow the ten steps below. On the previous page we looked at its essential mechanism through drawings by Leonardo and Piranesi. (See p. Study these pages first before embarking on this lesson. try composing your own space. 2 3 corners must each touch a dotted line. Surround the vanishing point with a small rectangle.98 for an important note on oscillation. Note that if you place large structures in the foreground and smaller ones closer to your vanishing point. Erase the dotted construction lines. Piranesi planned his drawing with only the essential lines needed. You have completed your first box. Each line should pass through one corner of the rectangle. you will amplify the illusion of distance.76 ARCHITECTURE Single-Point Perspective MASTERING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE i s e a s i e r t h a n y o u m a y First read through. using a sharp HB pencil and ruler. Draw each step over the preceding one to build up a single image. corresponding to a single vanishing point. This is where we will begin. Draw four dotted lines radiating out from the vanishing point. Extend each dotted line to the edge of your drawing. DRAWING BOXES 1 Using a ruler and a sharp HB pencil. Leonardo began with a grid of many lines within which he invented his scene. Next. In contrast. This lesson shows you how to make a simple illusion of space defined by two boxes and three flat boards. This ensures that the second rectangle aligns with the shape and 4 Draw four short lines to connect the four corners of the two rectangles. draw a horizon line across your paper Mark a spot on the horizon line. discovering the image as it progressed. imagine. this is your vanishing point.) .
. N e x t draw a slanting line to mark the height of the first flat board. Note that this does not surround the vanishing point In the future. 7 As in step 3. bottom. when inventing your own compositions. andfarside of this first board. you can place rectangles anywhere youwishin relation to a vanishing point. 8 Complete the second box with short lines as in step 4. 9 Use dotted lines connecting the slanting linetothe vanishing point to locate the top. 1 0 Erase all ofthedottedlinestoseeyourfinishedboxes Thickeningtheiredges. draw four dotted lines radiating from your vanishing point Pass these through each comer of the new rectangle. larger rectangle. The larger you make your second rectangle. draw a second. The four comers must each touch a dotted line to be sureitaligns with the first. with two dotted lines. and erase the dotted lines.asIhavedonehere. The board's sides should be parallel.willhelptomake them appear more solid. Connect this to the vanishing point— again. Repeat this to add two more boards to the composition. the closer it will appear to the viewer.77 SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE 5 Draw a new rectangle. 6 As in step 2. Continue the dotted lines out toward the edge of your drawing.
As David Lynch. it is interaction that makes the work richer. It highlights the importance of having faith in your imagination and trusting your ability to invent. I always start with a script but I don't follow it all the way through to the end. Then follow the three given steps. A lot more happens when you open yourself up to the work and let yourself act and react to it. The m i s t a k e n belief that we s h o u l d k n o w exactly what o u r finished drawings will l o o k like before we m a k e t h e m prevents many people from ever starting. draw a b o x as shown opposite. If using a fibertip pen as I have done for this drawing.78 ARCHITECTURE Creating an Imaginary Space T H I S CLASS USES SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE t o c r e a t e a s i m p l e to you and if you listen to it. you will find white adhesive stationery labels are useful for covering errors or changing the direction of your idea. let simple lines suggest a simple space. artist and film director. APPLYING PERSPECTIVE An Imagined Scaffold "Enjoy your illusion as you make it and it will become more real. O n a fresh page in your d r a w i n g b o o k . Linear perspective will support y o u by providing a frame in which to b u i l d your picture as it did for Leonardo. Every work talks In this class." . 7 4 ) . w h e t h e r it is a film or a painting. then let the space suggest its c o n t e n t s and purpose. it will take you places you never dreamed of." imaginary room. p . once said: "I never end up with what I set out to do.
2 first before adding furniture. The space has become more solid and real.There is great pleasure tobefoundin spending time inventing interiors. 3 Remove the construction lines with an eraser and the room will becomeclearer. you will beableto draw more complex objects orpeoplewithin them. parallel planes such as walls converge toward the vanishing point. and floors and ceilings also converge and rise o r lower toward the horizon.Addanarray of converging lines to provide a "scaffold" for vertical. horizontal. additional lines have established the different surfaces and how they relate to each other.79 DRAWING A SIMPLE ROOM Essentials t o remember: objects and people dimmish in size as they move farther away. With some practice. and leaning surfaces.drawthehorizonlineand vanishingpoint. CREATING AN IMAGINARY SPACE 1First. Here. This initial space will be transparent and open to change. .
showing y o u h o w to draw curved surfaces and a tiled floor. They could be drawn on any scale from miniature to monumental. Only when y o u might employ t h r e e . It is important to realize that you can have as many vanishing points as you wish. These elaborations could continue indefinitely across a sheet of paper in pursuit of complex and intricate ideas. I have elaborated on the simple boxes above. Search for the application of these perspectives among works by other artists in this book and in galleries. 76-79). The boxes drawn here are seen partly or entirely disassociated from a horizon line drawn across the bottom of the image. Free vanishing points On paper we can enjoy the freedom of fantastic structural invention without limitations of solid materials or gravity. our eye level is very high and we look down. T h i s is d e m o n s t r a t e d immediately below. Further aspects of three-point perspective are also illustrated opposite. but they are not confined to this level. they can be placed anywhere inspaceto describe the perspective of flyi c tilted objects. T h i n k of standing at the top of a skyscraper and imagine h o w its parallel sides would appear to converge below you. o r to the h o r i z o n . From our normal eye level. Here. or low and we look u p . Copying what you see in the work of others will help you to understand what they have done. located anywhere inside or outside the pictorial space. do verticals appear inclined. Vanishing points are commonly found on horizon—our eye level. T h e y d o n o t have to relate to each other. That is where we e to find them.p o i n t perspective ( s h o w n opposite top). Elaborations . a n d this is how we have drawn them so far (see pp. verticals appear p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the g r o u n d .80 ARCHITECTURE Further Aspects of Perspective W E ARE ACCUSTOMED TO SEEING our e n v i r o n m e n t from a relatively constant point of view. Potentially. To draw such a view APPLICATION Copy these drawings to see and feel how they work before inventing your own versions.
you will see how.75. three vanishing points are evenly spaced along a horizon line. Where thelinescross. I marked the toplinewith three evenly spaced points and the line with seven.Istarted with two parallel lines. tostraightlines can amplify drama in a picture. Giving curvature. PERSPECTIVE Three-point curves Here. (Turn the book around to see a view looking up.I added horizontal lines t o define the tiles. they mark the corners of the floor tiles.) By comparing this drawing t o Piranesi's example of two-point perspective on p. An array of curved lines (drawn freehand) link the two lateral points.Finally. useful for representing steep views looking up or down tall structures. Iusedthese lines as a guide t o draw the curvature of boxes and panels flying through space. I then drew three fanned groups of lines connecting each of the three points above to the seven points below. by adding a third point you can achieve a sense of incline.81 FURTHER ASPECTS OF Three-point towers This drawing depicts three-point perspective. Three-point checkered floor This d bottom floor. and therefore tension. Note that altering the distance between the three dots above will tilt the level of the floor .
These walnut-skin ink pen and brush drawings show imagined views of theaters that do not exist but were inspired by places I studied. making drawings to resolve questions and express personal responses to the nature and history of anatomy. I visited many anatomical theaters and museums.Theaters RESEARCHING FOR MY P H D . .
Venetian Life sitting point buildings ThisP E N . The vanishing of the drawing is directly opposite as we look across The constancy of the bridge and surrounding frames the movement in the life that flows past. . the water.I N KDRAWING is one of a series I made while next to the Rialto Bridge in Venice.A N D .
Engineers and designers of our objects and instruments make drawings for many reasons: to test an idea that is yet to be made. A chair. design. H e has described a casting through metaphor. hooked bars that can be pulled and tied closely form. With the sudden onset of mass production. drawings were needed to instruct workers on the factory floor. craftsmen had held plans in their memory. or to explain and present a finished concept to a client. or used on stage hood for a mold t o make theheado f a horse f oas a p r o p — i m b u e d with e n o u g h energy or character can "become" a man. to record an observed detail. color. and the way in w h i c h the brain reacts Head and Neck Sections of Female Mold for the Sforza Horse to visual stimulus and optical illusions. passing them on to others through the act of making. from s p o o n s and pens to chairs and bicycles. have often carried great weights of allegorical once. In this chapter. T h e Industrial Revolution c h a n g e d the traditional w a y s in w h i c h objects were designed. but humans LEONARDO DA VINCI Inthisbeautiful red chalk Our items all have a purpose—practical or ornamental—and all have a meaning. making a clear instruction t o his bronzemeaning. Today. W e also explore v o l u m e and form in the classes by spinning lines to make vessels. for example—whether. Artists also make images of objects that can never exist. It was in this era that the blueprint was born. texture. each demanding more of the other as they increased in sophistication. In past eras. drawing c. and a wire violin. T h e precision of engineering d r a w i n g s e v o l v e d alongside machine tools. these. fictional realities caster of h o w t o make it andhowit will w o r k . It is shaped in sections w i t h Artists have for centuries studied and expressed composition. Artists and actors use the meanings of things to communicate a speculative mechanic. 1493 117/8c81/4in (300 x 210 m m ) LEONARDO D A V I N Ccreating I . and made. or drawing w e see Leonardo daVinci'sprecision as can be given meaning. C o m m o n items. too. that test our logic with a sense of mystery. Technical drawing was speedily developed as a meticulous international code of m e a s u r e m e n t and explanation. sculpted. History will be learned from the artifacts w e leave behind. and some apes use simple tools. planned.Objects and Instruments T HE THINGS WE INVENT describe our lives. of light in the creation of pictorial illusions. even more advanced drawings are made on computers. Previously. Birds follow instinct to make a nest. for example. we look at the importance are the only creatures on Earth w h o actually design and create great ranges of things. and the behavior of light through making still-life paintings and together. are all made bearing the signature of our time and place. illuminating snail shells. r an equestrian statue. drawn. H e has described contour and function at drawings.
Below. Braque established Cubism in partnership with Picasso just before World War I." La Cuitare.90 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS Still Life THESE DRAWINGS REVEAL t w o o p p o s i t e m o t i v a t i o n s i n we can. but to clash in virtual deadlock. texture. not of place but of things. One of the great joys of this movement in art is the musicality of its multipoint view. . Mucha's drawing glistens with possession.73 x 1 m) GEORGES BRAQUE . still feel this projected moment. T h i s is a designers drawing made to enthuse surface and style in its delicate brushing of china. steaming with music and conversation.Braque marshals all the forces of perspective. "I believe [it] is the most radicalattempttostampout ambiguity and to enforce one readingofthepicture—that of a manmade construction. Braques "justly" arranged combination of cut black card. He takes us into the bustle of the Paris cafe. perfect i n their newly made availability. and glass objects of exquisite elegance for only the gentlest of touch and appreciation. a colored canvas. and a journal jacket with words makes this drawing chatter about the moment. representing still life. There is a fragile eloquence to these objects as they drift in slow motion past our gaze. Even today GEORGES BRAQUE French painter who as a young man was influenced by the work of the Fauves and of Cezanne. charcoal. Statue D'Epouvante 1913 2 f t 5 in x 3 ft 5 in (0. Clashes The art historian Ernst Gombrich said of Cubism.. His work is characterized by calm and harmonious still-life compositions. silverware.. and shading. wood-look wallpaper. Opposite. not to work in harmony. Braques image is a Cubist collage.
Black watercolor washes and lines of white gouache have been added with a fine brush. Pans. For ten years Mucha designed theater posters exclusively for the actress Sarah Bernhardt. and also stamps and bank notes.fruit. and New York. He is best known for posters featuring ethereal women in typical Art Nouveau style. Art Nouveau motifs This is a preliminary study for a subsequent print. and fish have been outlined using a sharp pencil. Look at the two spoons at toprightand see how has suggested that they are so brilliantly shiny they reflect the background color. The three plates facing us were drawn with a compass.ALPHONSE MUCHA Czech graphic artist and painter who worked in Prague.flowers. Art Nouveau curling motifs of birds. Chicago. He designed the Austrian pavilion for the Paris World Fair in 1900. Background color Between the delicate shadows and highlights of these glazed and surfaces ofthebackground metal color of the Mucha we see a large amount paper. Study for Plate 59 from "Documents Decoratifs" 17x121/4(430 x 310 mm) ALPHONSE MUCHA 1902 .
we see drawing Instruments of Vision found among his letters. In the graphic work of these two great men of science. Look how confidently he draws with ink the sphere of this wooden globe by which his telescope rotates. shape the very cause and effect of investigatory thought. alchemist. drawing is there to pin the moment down. astronomer. Newton used this instrument to calculate the speed required to escape earth's gravity. into the eyepiece. Ink lines Several drawings appear among Newton's letters. Transparent view Newton's reflecting telescope focused light in a parabolic mirror. each one skillfully rendered with the alarmingly matter-of-fact ease of explaining the commonplace. Newton's 1672 ISAAC Telescope NEWTON . He counted 1 4 . and Fellow of the University o f C a m b r i d g e . mathematician. With dotted lines Newton has drawn his arrangement of elements inside the tube. It is a diagrammatic explanation of how to catch and magnify a star in a mirrored tube. The power of this drawing reflects the pure passion of discovery. From the concept of capturing the infinite to the mapping of microscopic sight. Newton's drawing of his first reflecting telescope is ISAAC N E W T O N English scientist. the law o f gravity. w h e r e he developed his three greatest theories: the law o f motion. offering a transparent view. 0 0 0 perfect hemispheres. a tree outside. Hooke's head of a drone fly seen through a microscope may represent the first time man and insect came face to face. Their delicate construction is only as valuable as the measurements they make. each reflecting a view of his own world—his window. and philosopher Newton was President of the Royal Society.92 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS by their very nature must gauge or chronicle precision. via a second mirror. It was then reflected up inside the tube and. A disembodied eye at the top of the drawing indicates where to look. and the nature o f light and color. and his hand moving across the light.
and anchor escarpment. ROBERT H O O K E 93 Magnifications This acutely detailed engraved drawing is taken from Hooke's Micrographia (pub. a breathtaking book containing many of his drawings showing some of the first microscopic and telescopic magnifications of our environment Hooke's text and illustrations carry us to the moment of discovery. 1665). universal joint a prototype respirator clock balance.An experimental scientist who drew many of his discoveries. The Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 1665 ROBERT HOOKE 111/2 x 105/8 in (294 x 270 mm) . and calculated the theory of combustion. Hooke invented the camera diaphragm. It is an exhilarating read.
Its wobbly gait and squashed s y m m e t r y m u m b l e endless h o m e y tales about the life it has seen.94 INSTRUMENTS W H E N WE DRAW A COMMON OBJECT like a chair. Bench Marks W e are left a little c o n f u s e d as to what we s h o u l d do. it has so m u c h familiar personality that it seems to talk to us. and winner of the 2004 Jerwood Drawing Prize. each drawn with the s a m e unfaltering lines and tones that are between reality and impossibility. its character. Chair Cut Out 2002 22'A x 23 in (565 x 585 mm) SARAH WOODFINE . Two-dimensional was made This highly finished drawing ruler using a sharp pencil and on smooth white drawing paper glistening dark drawings are artificial representations of known Woodfine's two-dimensional things balanced in the world. and place in the world are truly seen. craft. A renegade from the p a p e r dolls' h o u s e . Van Gogh's tipsy seat is a metaphor for an absent person. Drawn in more-or-less c o n v e n t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . From component parts we understand how to put it together and make it stand sensible in space. W i t h h o m e y c o n t r a s t . has published several catalogs of her work. this chair p r e s e n t s us with a clever visual contradiction: deeply drawn shadows tell us it must be solid. while the tabs make us see a flat paper cut-out. and has drawings in numerous public and private collections. OBJECTS AND SARAH WOODFINE British contemporary artist graduate of the Royal Academy Schools. Woodfine exhibits internationally. and w h e r e the chair b e l o n g s . Sarah Woodfines flat cut-out m o d e l plan is a witty and surprising drawing.
what direct in their he saw and describing his felt. Van Chair 1890 VINCENT VAN GOGH . inner recording while Fierce strokes This is a portrait of the mechanical drew immediately and almost harshly. drawn opposite way of plan. Cornfield and Sunflowers.hehas marked the full emotion of the subject with a fierce grip of concentration. His passionate brush and pencil strokes are honest and of also turmoil and growing alarm at the world around him. Among van Gogh's best-known canvases are Trees.95 VINCENTVAN GOGH Dutch painter who produced over 800 paintings and 850 drawings in only the last ten year's of his life. The floor few as engagement with the chair. not is made present in only strokes and is subdued to distract us from flat a meaningful chair. and Starry Cypress Night.
We perceive one to be lighter than theother. Here. o u r b r a i n s search for n a m e a b l e things. two identical mid-gray squares are seen against black and paler gray squares. U p s i d e . a n d are q u i c k to p r o p o s e ideas. Run The bottom-left quarter of the egg lightens slightly toward its "edge" when seen against the darker shadow cast on the paper. To interpret visual s t i m u l u s . Tape them to the glass.d o w n patterns of light on our retinas. The egg's lightest region is seen against a darker background. Below the bottom "edge" of the egg there is a rim of light reflected onto the paper by the underside of the egg.This effect is caused by the contrast of their surroundings. one blackandone white. form. Here w e look briefly at our perception of light a n d darkness a n d our interpretation of diagrammatic illusions. try this experiment.96 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Light and Illusions SEEING IS MIRACULOUS. Card experiment cho can gra on . are translated into a world of space. cards the same size. reads only m o v e m e n t a n d can often m a k e mistakes. We will even see things that d o not exist because minimal information suggests they are likely to be there. gray. the adjustment of our eyes (in growing accustomed to a level of light). T h e slightest recognition is instantly matched to our wealth of experience a n d expectation.At one point you will catchenoughlight lighter than the white one. The outermost edge of our vision. From across the room both will appear black card and fold and retapeitwith half sticking out. See how its "edge" smoothly changes from light against dark to dark against light. The egg's darkest region is seen against a lighter background. and the proximity of contrasting tones. a n d m o v e m e n t . a n d our ability to see forms in c l o u d s or fire. Are you happy LIGHT AND SHADOW with what you see? Does the light enhance the subject? Could you alter and improve it? On pp. or colored surface is never constant. The perceived tone of a black white. Artists emulate and manipulate this effect in their pictures. Gray squares To further examine changes in tone. but do not appear so. Before starting a tonal drawing of any subject. Through these we can enjoy witnessing our o w n d e c e p t i o n a n d b a f f l e m e n t a n d u n d e r s t a n d certain factors that are very useful in picture-making. atmosphere. less developed than the center. think about its illumination. We only need small prompts. W e learn to read light and shadow in our environment as indicators of solidity and depth of space. your eye around the circumference of the egg. The small squares are identical in tone. The rim of light on the egg is reflected light received from surrounding paper. w e turn our head but n o one w a s there. Three factors change it: the amount of light it receives. Below. transmitted to the brain as chains of electrical impulses. On acloudyday. Adjust the angleofthe protruding part and again stepback.102-03 deep shadows cast across shells make their form easier to perceive. perhaps. S o m e o n e passes our o p e n door. hence our recognition of a cartoon face c o m p o s e d of three lines. a n d we can be fooled. The two tones meet without a division or outline between. a lit photograph of an egg shows essential points to observe in tonal drawing.
Apparent lengths T h e s e optical illusions s h o w h o w lines o f identical length can b e m a d e t o l o o k quite different f r o m each o t h e r by t h e addition o r association o f o t h e r lines. by d i r e c t e d a r r o w s ( A ) . T h e r e is n o obligation t o a d d b l o c k s o f t o n e t o a l i n e a r d r a w i n g . O f t e ndoingso w i l l s p o i l y o u r w o r k . S h o r t h o r i z o n t a l lines o f identical length are m a d e t o l o o k d i f f e r e n t by c o n v e r g i n g lines beside t h e m ( C ) . In this linear drawing w e read t h i c k as closer a n d t h i n as f a r t h e r away. Bending straight lines Linear distance These t w o jugs have b e e n d r a w n w i t h lines o f d i f f e r i n g thicknesses. T w o horizontal lines o f equal length are m a d e t o l o o k longer and shorter. T h e jug d r a w n w i t h a t h i n line appears f a r t h e r away t h a n t h e j u g d r a w n w i t h a t h i c k e r line. LIGHT AND ILLUSIONS Tonal width T h e s e black a n d w h i t e bands are o f equal thickness o n e i t h e r side o f t h e i r central division.p o i n t p e r s p e c t i v e d r a w i n g s w i t h a large n u m b e r o f c o n v e r g i n g rays b e h i n d y o u r horizontals. b u t t h e u p r i g h t o n e l o o k s t a l l e r (B).97 LINE VERSUS TONE In l i n e a r d r a w i n g s . start o u t w i t h one. . w h i l e t h i n n e r lines recede. respectively. In a t o n a l d r a w i n g . Seven parallel lines are m a d e t o tilt t o w a r d and away f r o m each o t h e r by n u m e r o u s s h o r t strokes crossing t h e m diagonally ( A ) . t h i c k e r l i n e s a p p e a r t o stand forward. B o t h are identical in length. O b s e r v e h o w each white b a n d appears t h i c k e r t h a n its black c o u n t e r p a r t . In this t o n a l image w e read w h i t e as f a t t e r t h a n black. Y o u m a y e x p e r i e n c e s o m e t h i n g similar h a p p e n i n g w h e n y o u m a k e s i n g l e . A n u p r i g h t line stands in t h e c e n t e r o f a h o r i z o n t a l line. l i g h t e r surfaces s t a n d f o r w a r d w h i l e d a r k e r s u r f a c e s recede. If y o u w i s h t o m a k e a t o n a l drawing. T w o relatively t h i c k parallel lines are m a d e t o b e n d away f r o m each o t h e r as t h e y pass in f r o n t o f an a r r a y o f c o n v e r g i n g f i n e lines ( B ) . T h i s fundamental o p p o s i t e is a reason w h y l i n e a r a n d t o n a l d r a w i n g does not a l w a y s c o m b i n e w e l l in t h e s a m e i m a g e .
are still not agreeably understood. Artists make pictorial illusions when they paint or draw. Two ways of seeing T h i s is t h e b o x c r e a t e d in t h e f o u r t h step o n p. and we learn to read the styles of diverse cultures and periods. and so calculated precisely how much to fatten columns to make them appear straight.s i d e d r e c t a n g u l a r t r a y ( b o t h are illustrated far r i g h t ) "The brain is so eager to name a fragment we see that we need only a suggestion to grasp the whole. it can oscillate b e t w e e n facing t o w a r d o r a w a y f r o m us. Artists can communicate much in few lines and the viewer will do the rest of the work. In the 1960's. Michelangelo. others adjust works to avoid their effects. w e will find that in terms of the direction it faces. including some shown here. Today we are bombarded with images but rarely have difficulty reading them. Op(tical) artists. w h e n drawing the outline o f a three-dimensional form. o r as a s l o p i n g . Some artists use known optical illusions to make art. Yet many illusions. perfected the acceleration of perspective (see pp. it oscillates between t w o possibilities.98 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Further Illusions PSYCHOLOGISTS AND PHYSIOLOGISTS have studied optical illusions for decades in pursuit of what they tell us about the brain. as s h o w n o n t h e right. A few suggestive marks will tip the decision one way o r the o t h e r Closing the surface W h e n a t r a n s p a r e n t elliptical o b j e c t has b e e n d r a w n . such as t h e dish seen h e r e o n t h e left. made paintings that depended upon the physical sensation of our brain's reaction to known optical illusions. such as Bridget Riley. their picture could be ambiguous. It is possible t o r e a d i t t w o ways: as a t r u n c a t e d r e c t a n g u l a r p y r a m i d seen d i r e c t l y f r o m a b o v e . Ancient Greek architects knew parallel upright lines appeared to bend toward each other in the middle. w e can only look f r o m one t o the o t h e r If an artist is not aware this can happen in their image. SEEING TWO OPTIONS Sometimes.116-17) to make painted figures look correct when viewed from below. C l o s i n g t h e surface o f t h e f o r m seals o u r d e c i s i o n as t o w h i c h w a y it faces." . among others.76. It is a curious fact that w e can never see both options at once.
. T h e s e e x a m p l e s illustrate h o w little is n e e d e d t o c o n v e y an image. b u t w e believe w e see t h e m because e n o u g h f r a g m e n t a r y i n f o r m a t i o n is given f o r o u r brains t o c o n c l u d e t h e y are v e r y likely t h e r e . C Escher u s e d this phenomenon t o great effect in his many p o p u l a r d r a w i n g s o f puzzles and impossible buildings. C o u p l e d w i t h t h e Rorschach b l o t above. S o m e artists use ink blots t o p r o m p t t h e beginning o f an image. W e should r e m e m b e r t h a t o u r brains will always search f o r a p i c t u r e — i n ink blots. T h e y a r e o f t e n c r e d i t e d w i t h t h e invention o f t h e c o m i c c a r t o o n . C o u n t t h e n u m b e r o f d a r k spots y o u can see.c e n t u r y Italian painters. smoke. this is a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f t h e viewer's b r a i n b e i n g willing t o d o a large a m o u n t o f t h e w o r k in d e c i p h e r i n g a p i c t u r e . T h e patient's answers are t h e n diagnosed as a psychological profile.c e n t u r y Swiss psychologist H e r m a n n Rorschach. w e see t w o overlapping triangles: o n e outlined in black b e n e a t h a n o t h e r in solid w h i t e . — a n d so t h e artist can create m u c h o u t o f an impression w i t h o u t overdescribing. B e l o w is a b r i g h t n e s s c o n t r a s t illusion. FURTHER ILLUSIONS Seeing things that are n o t t h e r e H e r e o n t h e left. clouds. F a m i l i a r i t y in r a n d o m s h a p e s T h e Rorschach test was established by t h e 1 9 t h . Yet still w e try resolve t h e m . O n l y o n closer inspection we realize that t h e s e o b j e c t s are fooling us. 1 6 t h . e t c . M u c h can b e e x p r e s s e d in o n l y a f e w marks. His highly d i s p u t e d and i m p r e c i s e science involves s h o w i n g u n p r e p a r e d p a t i e n t s t e n p a r t i c u l a r ink b l o t s a n d asking t h e m t o i n t e r p r e t w h a t t h e y see. N e i t h e r triangle exists. T h e a r t i s t M. P e r c e i v i n g a w h o l e i m a g e f r o m m i n i m a l lines T h i s is a w i d e l y r e p r o d u c e d visual j o k e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e C a r r a c c i b r o t h e r s . T h e t e s t e x p l o r e s o u r n o r m a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o find things w e can n a m e a m o n g r a n d o m shapes. Minimal-line j o k e s such as this rely u p o n t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y v i e w e r ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e shapes.99 Impossible objects T h e s e clever configurations o f outlines and t o n a l surfaces convince us at a glance that we are seeing a solid three-dimensional triangle and a three-pronged fork. This effect can o c c u r naturally w h e n looking at a b r i g h t l y lit w h i t e g r i d such as a w i n d o w f r a m e against t h e night sky. This simple five-line d r a w i n g is o f a C a p u c h i n priest asleep in his pulpit.
like a disposable plastic cup that has been crushed in your hand. Be aware. spin your hand in a relaxed circle. . though. Watch the tip of your pen and see it draw an ellipse in the air Keep this movement going while gently lowering the pen onto the paper like the needle of a record player closing on the disc (only it is your lowering hand that spins. since this is h o w w e experience them in e v e r y d a y use. keep it spinning. COMMON ERRORS W h e n drawing cylindrical objects in perspective. there are three common errors people stumble upon. as if the table surface slopes upward beneath the vessel. a n d in o n e bold stroke. The second common error is to tilt the upper and lower ellipses at different angles. suggesting that the vessel is lopsided. (see p. for example plates or bowls on a table. A wobbling but confident ellipse will still be more convincing than a slow. you will achieve steadiness with practice. circles change into ellipses. To make a cylindrical object appear real in our pictorial space. not the paper!) As the pen touches down. I have exaggerated this error here. describing many sides of an object simultaneously. such as bowls and cups. Ellipse are best d r a w n quickly. even if y o u r hand w o b b l e s a little at first. while its upper rim remains level.100 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS W E VISUALIZE CYLINDRICAL VESSELS.90) takes a different as essentially circular. springlike forms like those I have drawn below. How to Draw Ellipses of seeing. Cubism. The first common error is to draw two pointed ellipses. giving the cylinder four corners. smoothly. that this is o n l y o n e w a y view. w e use ellipses to give a sense of perspective. for example. However. w h e n seen at an angle. Don't worry if it is uneven— just try again. third common error is to draw upper and lover ellipses with different-sized apertures. hesitant one that has edged its w a y nervously around the vessel's rim. WHERE TO START In the air above a spacious sheet of scrap paper. and these narrow or widen depending on the height of our view. Cover a sheet of paper with spinning. I have drawn these for you here.
HOW TO DRAW E L L I P S E S A Single Vessel One Inside Another Grouped Together Finding Shape and Volume Draw an imagined vessel in one continuous spinning line. Draw quickly.101 DRAWING VESSELS Once you have mastered drawing free-hand springs. . Altering the pressure—and therefore tone—of the line as it spins gives the impression of light shining on one side. Seeing Through Allow lines to travel around each vessel as if it were transparent. you can make it solid by building up highlights and tones on visible surfaces. enlarging and diminishing the ellipse to determine the overall shape and volume. thereby hiding lines that show the other sides. working from top to bottom. you can start to control your spinning ellipse to make a vessel. Create a Solid Surface Once you have drawn the shape and volume of each form.
making complicated or subtle surfaces easier to see and understand. if any. Relaxing your eyes out of focus as you draw will help to dissolve the distraction of detail. if light shines in them. It maximizes the range of tones between black and white. t h e r e a r e p r i n c i p a l l y Dramatic lighting emphasizes texture and contour. You can begin with outlines and build slowly from light to dark (see opposite top). beams of light. Draw the largest and most distinct areas of light and darkness first. It is important to place them on the correct side so as to draw comfortably (see pp. Illuminate them with a gooseneck lamp placed very close and directed away from your eyes. leaving detail until last. or you can begin with a mid-gray ground and model light out of darkness (see opposite bottom). and strong contrasts are easier to draw. OBJECTS AND Start by arranging a choice of shells on a sheet of paper to your left if you are right-handed (or vice versa).22-23). two opposite methods of achieving the same result.102 INSTRUMENTS Tonality W H E N MAKING A TONAL DRAWING. it will inhibit your perception of tone. LIGHT TO DARK DARK TO LIGHT . outlines. simply shapes and subtleties of light and dark meeting each other with no divisions in between. Gradually hone your drawing. In the finished drawing there should be few. and solid objects are all of equal importance. Remember that shadows.
Continue working between light and dark to refine the drawing. 2 3 Gentlydissolveoutlines so that areas oflightanddark meet without a line between them. Avoid a rough significant areas of light in your gray rectangle with texture and do not press the graphite hardwhite plastic eraser Ignore all detail and draw a into thepaperor you will not be able to erase it. DARK TO LIGHT (TONE TO TONE) 1 Using the flattened tip of an HB pencil. shape. Treat positive form and negative space (see pp. pale lines with equal importance. Draw in the details last of all. Use your pencil to develop these in relation to the areas of light. look at the main areas of darkness. draw a rectangle. Honetheshapesand angles of the shells.56-57). Use quick. boldly 2 3 Keeping your eyes out of focus. Fll in broad areas first and leave all detail until last. Erase and make changes to roughly place the shells inside your with your composition.103 LIGHT TO DARK (LINE TO TONE) TONALITY 1 Using a sharp HB pencil. . loose. with broad sweeps of the eraser. until you are happy frame. Remember that its size. Relaxing your eyes out of focus will help to eliminate distracting details. and edges definingthespacialrelationships between are important aspects of your composition them. Let your eyes go out of focus while looking gently layer marks to create an even tone at your subject and paper: Draw the most ofmid-graywithin a rectangle.
smooth. There are essentially three lessons to be learned. 176 the British artists Noble and Webster draw with domestic refuse in a beam of light. When drawing anything viewed from one side on paper. you can create your own more ambitious works. On p. three-dimensional drawings teach us about the totality of forms in space.69 we see how the architect Antonio Gaudi drew proposed domes using suspended wires and weights. On p. continuous lines. our image is stronger if we understand and can visualize what is happening on the other side too. Third. . try drawing it with a pen on paper Use bold. 19 Picasso draws with a pen-light for the camera.220 Mamoru Abe draws with forged steel rods. Seeing through a wire drawing of a known object such as a violin gives us a visual and tactile understanding of all its sides and shapes at once. Place the instrument on a plain surface and illuminate it with a desk lamp to add the delicate dimension of shadows. and on p. PEN LINES Once you have created your three-dimensional violin (opposite). and on p. The second is that after achieving this simple example. The first is that figurative and abstract drawings can be made in space. They can also be made in space. This class uses thin-gauge wire to create a threedimensional violin.104 OBJECTS AND I N S T R U M E N T S Drawing with Wire DRAWINGS DO NOT HAVE to be two-dimensional. and physical relationships between them.
Then begin to define its uppermost surface with Scurves and the bridge. begin to shape the curvature of the fingerboard. and pinch and bend it to shape the base of the instrument Repeat this process to make the identical upper side of the instrument. Here. These will hold the sides apart and help to keep the form in shape. 2 3 If needed.105 SETTING UP DRAWING WITH WIRE Follow these steps to draw a three-dimensional violin Choose a gauge of wire sturdy enough to hold the shape ofyourfinished drawing. I used garden wire and cut it carefully with pruners. Cut a length. I started with the scroll at the top and fixed the four component wires with two drawings of tuning pegs. 1 Decide how big to draw your violin relative to the gauge of your wire. 4 . and thick wire a larger one. but thin enough to be easily manipulated inyourfingers Here. thin wire will make a smaller drawing. Join the two sides together with four short pieces of wire. brace the two ends of the violin with a length of wire along the back. Once you have completed the body.
Oxford. England. some of which are shown here. they invented new anthropological finds—objects that reflected the distant past and their immediate future. . I had the privilege of drawing their inventions.Artifacts and Fictions IN 1993 I WORKED with a group of schoolchildren who were responding to the astonishing objects in the collection of the Pitt Rivers Museum. Using found materials.
Artists now explore the interior of the body with new media and Lateral Contour Map of a Full-Term Primipara Produced by Light 1979 A. history paintings and other stories. while Durer took his research further— A. and anatomical and erotic art. much Western contemporary art. WILLIAMS he sought perfection in the infinitesimal measurement of the body and produced four Contemporary photographer volumes of illustrated explanation. W e understand every curve and balance of to the theory that the eves are the windows of the soul. During this time. artists also tried to define ideal proportions in the body. The body remains at the core of over the initially white lines. The human body. is the most c o m m o n subject in art. in our privileged and comfortable society.The Body O UR BODIES MAKE us TANGIBLE. This F finished image was produced as r a n c i s c o . explaining ranges e/ of materials and techniques and showing diversities of thought and purpose in making. clothed or nude. W e are the only creatures on Earth that can make our own image. Williams were decades ahead of their medical counterparts. Michelangelo attended dissections to made this image by light sectioning: fine beams of light perfect his understanding of surface form. Leonardo drew a man within a circle and square. diseased. but the study of a controlled. Artists are thought to have b e g u n drawing from the nude during the Italian Renaissance. It also looks at the representation of the b o d y b11y4o n d traditional life drawing. These classes are popular around the world. portraiture. while Leonardo opened the body to see and projected onto a woman's body draw the celebratory discover for himself our physical mechanisms. Drawings were usually made from the male nude to avoid offending the church. It gives physical and emotive form to religious narratives. and in San could easily be transferred into three dimensions. R. 3 x 7 in (300 x 180 . Strangely. and surgically rebuilt. the junior workshop apprentices posed as part of their duties. W I L L I A M S technology. R. focus has turned to the vulnerability of flesh: how it can be damaged. from video and X-ray to thermal imaging. She the body is still essential. This chapter addresses issues that are most commonly faced by beginners attending life-drawing classes. a n d w e d r a w o u r s e l v e s to a s s e r t o u r e x i s t e n c e . herimpressive presence because we are given such Life drawing no longer dominates the art school curriculum. sculptural description of her form. He even believed he had located the soul contours of her form like a cartographer's map of in the pituitary fossa beneath the brain and behind the eyes. the Bay Area Models' Guild h o l d s a quarterly life-drawing m a r a t h o n aprinton Kodak transfer paper with green-colored dye added celebrating the great diversity of human proportion. Renaissance artists studying anatomy from dissection clinically trained and specialized as a medical illustrator. Look closely at Renaissance drawings of the female b o d y and you will see that m o s t are actually y o u n g m e n with minor adjustments. giving physical foundation undulating land. and because the female was deemed inferior. In this period. myths and fables.
anatomy. Principal figures m i r r o r e a c h other. we see the e s s e n c e of h e r b e a u t y w i t h o u t a single detail. RAFFAELLO SANZIO (RAPHAEL) Italian High Renaissance painter: Raphael is best known for his images of the Madonna and Child. But the meanings of each gesture and the materials and methods by which they Postures and Poses were m a d e contrast greatly. and Vatican frescos. In this highly s o p h i s t i c a t e d a b s t r a c t i o n .116-17). altar pieces. filling the page with her presence. Raphael drew delicate tones of black chalk on tinted paper. Muscular dramatic postures reflect the influence of Michelangelo and the Renaissance celebration of the idealized male body. and human defeat. so that we read this drawing like a sculptural frieze. In a single drawing we see equally o b s e r v e d studies of f o r e s h o r t e n i n g (see pp. and studied to learn from the works of Michelangelo and Leonardo besides whom he was soon ranked.110 T H E BODY THESE DISTINCTIVE WORKS show two strikingly different ways of modeling the body on paper. T h e y b o t h raise one arm to cup their head in their hand. Raphael's study of fallen m e n leaves no doubt that they are in anguish. while supporting the weight of their body with the other. By way of contrast. Sculptural frieze This is a preparatory drawing for Raphael's painting of the Resurrection of Christ. Three Guards 1500-20 91/4 x143/8in (234 x 365 mm) RAPHAEL . while Matisse used scissors and glue to cut out and paste a flat collage of brilliant color. Here three male nudes are compressed into very shallow pictorial space. She u n f o l d s and s t r e t c h e s shapely limbs. He trained under Perugino. Matisse's b l u e n u d e sings with life and c e l e b r a t i o n .
and Islamic art.which might be. fabric. lifelong love of brilliant They celebrate the culmination of spectacular and sometimes drawings.111 HENRY MATISSE French painter: draftsman... freer.. Matisse Soothing influence This drawing expresses the achievement of Matisse's personal aim: "What I dream and depressing subject matter.or like a good armchair in which to rest from physical fatigue. devoid of troubling Blue Nude 1 1952 413/4 HENRY MATISSE . and more energetic Color and form This collage is one of a series of Blue Nudes. his pattern. a mental soother. serenity.. printmaker.." of is an art of balance. foundamong many other groups of papercut these works as an elderly man confined to his bed or wheelchair.. His calligraphic natural abstractions of form grew brighter.like an appeasing influence. Matisse became an artist after studying law. as his w o r k matured.designer writer.sculptor. teacher and principal exponent o f Fauvism—a movement established in 1905 in which bold color is the most essential element.
If Seurat had added white. in a perfect e x a m p l e . w h o sits propped in the contradictory darkness of a hot summer's day. he used b l a c k c o n t e (see p. like small birds attendant on the meditation. Seurat engaged in lifelong studies of line. form. Below. His drawings are similarly u n i q u e . Here. agreeing to coalesce and show us the form of a waiting boy. T h e space around h i m chatters with symbols. turned gray. 162) and an eraser to model teeming points of artificial light amid GEORGES SEURAT French painter classically educated in the Ingres school of thought. it is as if the very atoms of air are made visible. reflected. velvet d a r k n e s s . it would have mixed with unseen black dust. Light is given by the paper alone. and muddied the brilliance of the drawing. we c o m p a r e a skillful design that absorbed m u c h time in its making with the quickness of an idea marked instantly. only tones blending into. In his f a m o u s paintings of social e n g a g e m e n t . Using the paper to create light is important for beginners to learn. Tone and light In this black conte drawing. there are no outlines. stands in counterpoise holding a dark globe and his thoughts in m o m e n t a r y balance. and c o m p l e m e n t a r y hues. and color His applied theories still influence painters in their manipulation and rendering of local. Beuys's magician. Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 1883-84 91/2 x 121/4 in (241 x 312 m m GEORGES SEURAT . scratched in seconds. Typically. or abruptly meeting. Seurat evolved a distinctive t e c h n i q u e called p o i n t i l l i s m — i m a g e s literally made from myriad points of color. other tones.112 T H E BODY Choreographs T I M E IS A SIGNIFICANT E L E M E N T i n t h e m a k i n g o f a l l d r a w i n g s . Opposite.
113 JOSEPH BEUYS One of the most influential German artists of the 20th century. and drawings. His The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland UNDATED 113/4 J O S E P H BEUYS x81/4in (297 x 210 mm) . video art. in different positions. and blood. and that These aspects of the work convey fractured visibility. free from the constraint of immaculate form opposite) impetus is irrelevant to the and meaning of this work (as we see in Seurat's drawing representation. He was a shaman who believed in intuition and in the investment of healing force. taught workshops with a cult following. and made installations. Unbroken lines stream from his simultaneously movement. Our focus joins shoulders. CHOREOGRAPHS the profound power materials with spiritual or of Free lines This pale pencil drawing is Beuys. This figure is drawn intuitively. Beuys gave performances. Perfectly modeled rather conventional for Joseph Focus Beuys's hand moved quickly to draw dotted lines flowing downward on either side of the figure.gold. Many of his other symbolic works on paper have been drawn with materials such as honey. transience. iodine.
its soft. and one of hundreds of rapid studies of nudes. Free lines Rodin's public audience was understandably shocked by the eroticism of his drawings. Our bodies radiate the passion of our thoughts and so become beacons of our frailty and power. As here. the fierceness of the women's kiss is beautifully matched by the tenderness of his line. was perceived as scandalous. he typically drew them with a few delicate strokes of pencil and brushed watercolor.114 BODY Passion SUMMONING HUMANITY in a drawing of the nude is a subtle and emotional task." as seen here. flushed skin made ruddy and black with crushed cinders. They whisper and writhe in a brushed and sultry embrace that devours our watching. Rodin produced portraits and statues of public and literary figures. his w o r k is characterized by deliberate un-finish and powerfully modeled emotion. Delicate strokes This is one of about 7. Paris. Inspired by Michelangelo. But what is stranger to us now is that they were also outraged by his free use of line. We are asked to gaze u p o n her flesh. In Rodins work. We are involved not as a shabby voyeur but as a bystander engaged through our recognition of shared joy. Anita Taylor has drawn her protective body hug out of the darkly glistening compression of willow charcoal and the dynamism of her shy but momentous femininity. Rodin employed models to move freely or pose together in his studio. sweeping lines— of either purple silk fabric or cool studio air—that imprint and amplify their past and future movements. and went on to inspire generations of artists. Achieving international acclaim in mid-life. Opposite. THE AUGUSTE RODIN French Romantic sculptor and prolific draftsman employed as an ornamental mason until the age of 42.000 drawings shown in rotation at the Musee Rodin. His exquisite flow of paint beyond "outlines. In both drawings. 125/8x 9 in (320 x 229 mm) AUGUSTE RODIN Two Women 1911 Embracing . the women are framed and caressed by long.
exposure.I 15 ANITA T A Y L O R Painter. Taylor has drawn. erased and drawn again. Taylor's immense self-portraits explore the relationship between the artist as maker and the artist as model. leaving her lightest marks at the deepest level of the image and applying darker marks above. The sturdy surface of the sheet has allowed her to press hard when needed. and gaze. This order of light below and dark above gives glowing from within. Luminosity Layered marks flicker likefirelight as they sculpt the woman's body. professor and Vice Principal of Wimbledon School of Art. Charcoal Taylor has drawn freely with charcoal and an eraser on thick. A thinner sheet might have crumpled and torn under such vigorous force of making. scrutiny. draftsman. the impression of luminosity All and Nothing 1999 67 x447/8in (170 x 1 1 4 cm) ANITA TAYLOR . and rework rich depths of light and tone. textured paper. intimately reflecting upon the emotions and meaning of nudity. London.
rather that what we believe we know from experience. or coming forward. plummeting. persistence. London). Accelerated perspective plays a great role in much art. It is not so hard. to be translated by mirrors or seen from only one point in the room. we would arrive to find many of the same figures strangely distorted. elbow. It can also be a little demon in the life room. Return to this posture every time. for example. Smaller. This is chiefly a correcting device by which figurative painters and sculptors have for centuries countered the effects of our viewing their work from far below or on the curvature of a vault. It is not complicated. and to draw what we see. you will make inconsistent and unrelated comparisons. just making them helps you see. Close one eye. patience. We also look at another very interesting branch called accelerated (or anamorphic) perspective.116 T H E BODY Measurement and Foreshortening FORESHORTENING IS AN ASPECT of perspective. with dramatic illusions of figures painted in normal proportion. MEASURING This is a simple method of making measured comparisons for relating the true size of one part to another This is a tool to assist observation and thinking. Imagine Michelangelo's murals in the Sistine Chapel. Spend time making comparisons before you draw. There is no need to mark them all down on paper. or shrivelling at odd. and measurements do not have to be carried to the paper and slavishly drawn the same size they appear on your pencil.limbs happily receding. helping us to see more clearly." . which is imperceptible from below. the skull in Holbein's The Ambassadors (The National Gallery. But if we could take a scaffold and climb up to the work. 1 Hold your arm straight. To avoid its effects ensure you always look flat onto the surface of your page. unfathomable angles. and wrist joints. Lock your shoulder. Rome. Align the top with a point on your subject. How to make and apply these is explained below and opposite. when beginners prop their board in their lap and look down at too steep an angle. The length of exposed pencil is your measurement. and a few measured comparisons are key. without taking off. elongated as if stretched across the plaster. "Simple measured comparisons reveal surprising truths about proportion. more extreme examples have been made for court entertainment. 2 Hold your pencil upright. In the life class it is the mechanism for ensuring that a drawn figure lies correctly in pictorial space . Up close on the scaffold we would witness Michelangelo's subtle application of accelerated perspective. Move the tip of your thumb down to a second chosen point. If your arm is not straight. 3 Keep your pencil perpendicular Measure and compare at any angle.
y o u r hand travels f a r t h e r than y o u expect. W o r k a r o u n d t h e figure. belly. h e r p r o p o r t i o n s will appear correct. y o u must let go o f w h a t y o u k n o w f r o m e x p e r i e n c e a b o u t t h e relative sizes o f b o d y parts and trust y o u r eyes. L o o k at y o u r m o d e l as if he o r she is a flat series o f shapes o n e o n t o p o f a n o t h e r Measure t h e height and w i d t h o f each shape and c o m p a r e it t o its neighbor.117 ACCELERATED PERSPECTIVE To discover h o w this w o r k s . t a p e s o m e p a p e r t o a board. P r o p o r t i o n s will only l o o k c o r r e c t f r o m t h e angle at w h i c h y o u make t h e drawing. pleasingly f o r e s h o r t e n e d . which feels strange. . MEASUREMENT AND FORESHORTENING Tilt t h e t o p edge o f this b o o k t o w a r d you and look d o w n o n this figure f r o m a b o v e . W e appear t o be looking d o w n o n a w o m a n s t a n d i n g b e n e a t h us. S o o n t h e b o d y will lie d o w n in space. Stand its b o t t o m edge o n y o u r lap. A t a c e r t a i n angle. FORESHORTENING To f o r e s h o r t e n a figure. Keep t h e b o a r d steady and draw. C o m p a r e t h e heights o f t h e nose and eye shapes t o t h o s e o f t h e f o r e a r m . Lean t h e t o p e d g e t o w a r d y o u and find a p o s i t i o n w h e r e y o u can c o m f o r t a b l y l o o k d o w n t h e p a p e r at an angle o f a b o u t 4 0 degrees. See h o w d i f f e r e n t t h e relative heights o f t h e s e shapes are f r o m w h a t w e m i g h t e x p e c t in real life. a n d thighs. looking d o w n t h e p a p e r at t h e a n g l e at w h i c h I d r e w . To m a k e f o r m s l o o k c o r r e c t . adjusting a n o n y m o u s shapes. T h i s is t h e s a m e d r a w i n g p h o t o g r a p h e d f r o m above.
height. make the upper body smaller give your model a high waist.118 BODY Quick Poses DRAWING QUICK POSES l o c k s y o u r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n t o what is most essential. balance. work back and forth across the body. working from her center to her feet and to her head. and energy. Avoid drawing up one side and down the other. and stance before honing her balance and expression. Height This pose leans away into space above our eye level. propelling you to make immediate assessments and trust them. Start each new drawing by lightly marking the model's height with a loose line in ten seconds. To draw this effect. To see this. Layered lines give d e p t h . Be bold and dive into your drawing with c o n f i d e n c e . THE SEQUENCE OF POSES H e r e the model was asked to move every t w o minutes. imagine holding up a plumb line. her center of balance is normally found in a vertical line beneath her head. because it results in two unrelated sides drifting apart. and work over t h e m with further o b s e r v a t i o n s . feeling. . Balance When a model stands upright on both feet. Leave first thoughts in place. Outline To outline a figure. and slightly enlarge her legs and feet. I used a sharp H B pencil and began each drawing by marking her outline. T h i s q u i c k e x p l o r a t o r y line does not perfectly describe shape but expresses a decision about overall flow of form. and height.
The tilt of the pelvis is then counter balanced by the model's shoulders tilting the other way (as seen here). This drawing shows how different observations be overlaid to bring a drawing alive. and this should be avoided Twist QUICK POSES A model standing on one leg usually drops the opposite hip. the activity of circular lines and the repetition of limbs suggest movement. .119 The twist of a model is most easily and expressively captured if it is exaggerated. Most of us have a tendency to over-straighten the drawn figure. Tilt Movement Here.
starting with the largest. Draw large shapes and their orientation. Practice by drawing your own hands and feet. Begin by drawing lines to encompass the whole hand. 2 Build your drawing gradually from light to dark. It also helps the beginner to progress from drawing outlines to drawing confidently across the surface of the whole form. Then subdivide each shape so that you w o r k from large to small. or those of a friend. and a gooseneck lamp casts shadows that clarify planes and depths GESTURES OF THE HAND Curled Fingers 1 Open Palm Start honing the shapes of the dominant planes. and ignore all details. swiftly marking its essential gesture. especially the lengthwise divisions between them. and they need not be daunting to draw. Don't worry about achieving perfect solutions. Do not separate them yet. These planes. but regard these practice studies as ongoing processes of thought and observatio Add details such as nails last if you wish.120 BODY Hands and Feet THERE ARE MANY different ways of approaching h a n d s and THE of form. drawn in relation to each other. A mirror increases your range of views. This exercise is useful when struggling with proportion. W h e n starting. feet. Group the fingers together as one mass. 3 . Focus instead on how planes change direction across the knuckles from one side of the hand or foot to the other. express structure and gesture far more successfully and easily than ten worried outlines wandering up and down between the fingers and toes. general to specific. it is important to leave aside all details of the fingers and toes. Keep lines open to change and take measurements if they help.
Nowimagineyou are carving the foot insidethepaper. Leave aside all detail.121 HANDS AND FEET MOVEMENTS OF THE FOOT Flat Stance Raised Heel Instep 1 Let your first marks be light. depth. Try t o express the whole foot and t o encapsulate its entire shape and direction in a few marks. t o remove t o o many early lines. these are what give a drawing its tangible structure. It can be a mistake. . as if with a chisel. loose. Hew it roughly in broad. however. and rapid. flattened planes. Look for key angles without becoming distracted by detail.as though out o f wood. and don't worry about accuracy t o begin with. 2 3 Use an eraser t o refine decisions o r t o suggest areas o f light. and spontaneity.
The white lines demonstrate what is often called "bracelet shading. Compare its nature in close-up to that of willow charcoal used on pp. Opposite.Charcoal Hands T H E S E DRAWINGS ARE MADE in compressed charcoal." . I also used white ink with a steel dip pen.204-05.
Phrasing Contours .HERE TRACES OF RAPID initial lines are still seen within and outside each body. length. I make these lines in the first five to ten seconds of a drawing to locate the presence. before honing his or her shape (see pp. 118-19). and posture of the model.
It is now viewed with some skepticism and often seen as academic. . Forms. characters. and narrative pulse become vivid when you realize them in the middle of your study. perspectives. feeling them through the attentive movements of your own hand. I draw in museums in support of written research and as an artist seeking answers to questions about the practicalities of image making. Drawing work by another artist enables you to discover and understand the inventive hand in their composition.The Visual Detective DRAWING FROM MASTERWORKS was once a staple component of an artist's education.
. there is a unique museum of 18th-century anatomical waxes.3 x 3 m) made in response to La Specola. Life-size women wearing wigs recline on beds of embroidered silk in cabinets of mahogany and Venetian glass This is a detail of a compressed charcoal drawing measuring 14 x 10 ft (4. 126-27. These almost life-size figures were composed from my imagination and achieved with the help af studies discussed on pp. Florence.La Specola At17V i a Romana. each modeled from dissection. Walls are lined with hundreds of faintly animated body parts.
single or of groups. In this chapter. W h e n drawing a person. and shoulders. throat. we use the delicate medium of silver point to look at foundation structures of the head. and satirical or metaphorical. Once you understand Self-Portrait in a Cocked Hat c. It also reminds us o f b o t h t h e intimacy and a scene as scrutiny o f an honest portrait. Man Ray's self-portrait of scored lines. historical. and it is very rewarding. Past rulers sent painters across continents to bring back a likeness in advance of a prospective royal marriage. 1790-92 4 x 3 in ( 1 0 2 x 7 6 m m ) F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A and memorize the basic structure that we all share.139). and expression of the individual. and secular narratives. painters have dropped discreet records of themselves into commissioned narratives so that they can remain a face in the crowd. Goya. and p r i n t m a k e r . who. Rembrandt's famous multitude of self-portraits. is here to both meet and look through us. you can capture the subtlety. abstract or figurative. and a handprint (see p. his changes in pressure and Hitchcock length o f line. We are also reassured by keeping records of ourselves. and social and political commentaries. or a glimpse of him is caught in a photograph used as a prop. Equally. For centuries. The returning image was of crucial consideration in any proposal. the meaning of their face. The truth is that we all like looking at faces and observing the billions of variations that make us individuals. or past us. religious. Self-portraiture gives every artist a constant. look directly at us. Beginners often draw themselves as a way of establishing their practice. . Movie director Alfred similarly signed his films by playing a fleeting role: he walks through an extra.Portraiture IN P O R T R A I T U R E W E MEET PEOPLE. This enlargement o f his miniature p o r t r a i treveals t h e s p e e d and agility o f his p e n and about himself. gathered all that he knew FRANCISCO DE GOYA V i s i o n a r y Spanish painter. draftsman. in a miniature self-portrait magnified opposite. Portraits can be highly or loosely detailed. usually strangers from past times. Our homes are filled with images of our loved ones and of those in our families who have gone before. and lucrative genre for artists. To create a face is to see and interpret the essence of an identity. or whose eyes can seem to follow us around the room Portraiture is a constant. bells. made as he passed through the ages of man. became more poignant as he progressed. a single line can deliver an entire expression. We can mold and animate qualities of expression out of objects and fragments of disassociated things—for example. live. and their posture can be changed with just one line. buttons. Goya's w o r k s include many royal and society p o r t r a i t s . their stance. character. Halls and palaces are filled with pictures of the mighty and significant. and in a few scrolling rafts of pen lines and stubbled dots. compliant subject to scrutinize. neck. having been documented and preserved.
Picasso strikes and scrolls his pencil. whisking a timeless girl onto the page. Without faltering. There is a common misunderstanding that a drawing with only a few lines is both less finished and easier to make than a drawing with more. adding smudges of tone for weight and solidity. Her face is drawn tenderly and with a luminous glow.30). caught in her last moments of youth. and pressure as it conducts our eye through the image. We can read so much about them by studying their gaze. we can enjoy and learn from them. The truth is often the opposite. We can actually count that he struck the paper 40 times. Here the grace and beauty of two young women are held forever. For the beginner. hand to capture something well in only Frangoise au Bandeau 1946 660 x 505 mm (26 x197/8in) PABLO PICASSO . It is the portrait of a countrywoman. He makes his flair and skill look easy. The aesthetic sense of a line being just right can make a drawing sing. they serve as a great lesson that it is not always necessary to add tone to your drawing. PABLO PICASSO Spanish Cubist painter (see also p. It takes a truly accomplished a few strokes.132 PORTRAITURE Poise THE BALANCE BETWEEN a mark and a blank space is often a tantalizing form of perfection. length. Picasso has left to posterity many hundreds of magnificent line drawings. The Tightness of a line is felt in its speed. stealthily using his chalk to find contours and mass. Holbein maps the still landscape of Dorothea's body in questioning marks. teetering on the brink of older age. one eye already cast askew into the autumn of her life. How could the addition of shadows have enhanced this image? Few strokes The simplicity of Picasso's line is breathtaking. Through exhibitions and copies in books. While with longer consideration. breadth.
he designed c o u r t costumes. presses against the binding across her face. He outlined her nose but not her upper lip. and its downward slope crowns the diagonal of the composition. Holbein unified the woman with her background by gently blending colors from her clothes and face into the atmosphere around her. In addition t o his numerous exquisite portraits in oil. Her folded forearms support and frame her weight above. Cropping This regal composition fits its paper perfectly. gently flushed. Holbein was employed toward the end of his life by King Henry VIII of England. made a popular series o f w o o d c u t prints titled The Dance of Death. Blended colors In this portrait drawn with colored chalks on slightly textured paper.133 HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER German p o r t r a i t painter draftsman. which. and designer f r o m Basel. Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 1516 51/8 x121/4in (385 x 310 m m ) HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER . Holbein has cropped and pinned his subject within the four outermost lines of the image—the edges of the page. The peak of her cap clips the uppermost edge. and produced numerous society portraits such as this one here.
Contrasts Sharp. dark lines made with a pencil appear against smooth. Newsome was awarded the Prix de Rome in 1960. its highly clarified detail claiming to be d r a w n from observation. VICTOR NEWSOME British sculptor painter and draftsman. but they are irrelevant here. Nerves. Durelli has m a d e a few m i n o r mistakes. using a fine and relatively 1982 13 x 181/8 in (328 x 460 mm) VICTOR NEWSOME brush. solid above and almost hollow below. confusing. or defined by. the contours of a grid. perhaps applied using a tortillon. This is a m a r v e l o u s interpretation of the truth. In fact. continues to exhibit regularly. taught at numerous British art schools from 1962-77. blood vessels. the face is one of the hardest parts to dissect.134 PORTRAITURE Anatomies These highly finished drawings express the emotional power and physicality of the head and neck. London. . Highlights of white gouache were dry Profile Head late in the making. Anatomically. and glands also complicate form. The style of Durelli's d r a w i n g opposite sings with the confidence of truth and precision. distorted. Delicate muscles are integrated with the skin and fat that is to be r e m o v e d . dark tones of graphite blended into the paper. while white painted flecks and wisps suggest electrical illumination. Psychological drama is contained behind a grid. The real dissection w o u l d have been far more c o m p l e x . It floats in space. and unpleasant to see. N e w s o m e ' s eerily shadowed form is smooth and bears a linear grain evocative of w o o d . This is one of a number of similar disembodied female heads seen behind. and has works in major collections including the Tate Gallery.
It is hard to think of a more difficult medium with which to achieve such linear perfection. w h e n contracted. Red Chalk the Muscles 1837 173/8 x 145/8 in ( 4 4 0 x 3 7 2 m m ) ANTONIO DURELLI and Pencil Drawing and of Neck of the Head Little is k n o w n o f this M i l a n e s e p a i n t e r a n d engraver w h o c a m e from a family o f artists. Durelli's experience as an engraver is reflected in his stylized drawing o f muscle fibers. Stylized parallel lines are reminiscent of engravings.135 ANATOMIES ANTONIO DURELLI Linear perfection This is a red chalk drawing of extraordinary accomplishment. and it is likely that this drawing was intended for reproduction as a print. which. Pencil numbers refer to the list of muscles written beneath. pull their points o f attachment t o w a r d each other .
necks. each locked into a visionary gaze. Opposite. cutting and carving the paper with matted and spiraling restless energy. 1948 77/8 x 6 in (200 x 150 mm) ALBERTO GIACOMETTI . Then. and heads. Without paint and with very little tone. There is a film of Giacometti drawing. The camera watches him at work. Portrait de Marie-Laure de Noailles c. ALBERTO GIACOMETTI Swiss sculptor. Agitated marks make patches of tone that cut away the space around the character.136 PORTRAITURE THESE ARE DRAWINGS of shoulders. They show us clearly the bones of drawing. We are brought intimately close to this man gazing up to heaven. painter draftsman. each portrait is inscribed onto the page. Flesh is built and personality carved simultaneously. with speed and urgency. Energy This is a portrait of a woman drawn with black crayon on a plain page of a book Lines search for the essence of form. Speed Giacometti probably began with an oval shape placed in relation to the proportion of the page. Similar movements sculpted the head below into its page. as if seen from a distance. Bellini gently conjures the features of his saint with soft marks that tease his presence out of shadows into the light. he drew over the whole image at once. while his hand stabs and thrusts Revelations like a conductors baton. Giacometti settled in Paris. They confuse our perception of scale by being intimately fragile and at the same time far removed. and poet After studying in Geneva and Italy. Both works demonstrate how simple lines can be made complex by being intense. He is best known for his bronze sculptures of human form. close enough to touch his hair and feel his breath. which are characteristically elongated. and with staccato flinches his hyperactive eye moves from paper to model.
Transfer This delicate humorous chalk a drawing is a cartoon—not image but a type of template used to plan the composition of a larger work Look closely and you will see rows of tiny dots along every significant line in the picture. Bellini s t u d i e d u n d e r his f a t h e r J a c o p o . a n d his w o r k is d i s t i n c t i v e l y calm. transferring which were made in the process of the saint to his final place in the composition of a painting (see Glossary pp. Sometimes different narrative same character was reused in compositions. H e t a u g h t G i o r g i o n e Barbarelli and Titian.G I O V A N N I BELLINI A prominent member of a large family o f V e n e t i a n painters. H e p r e f e r r e d religious t o classical t h e m e s . a n d c o n t e m p l a t i v e . Head and Shoulders of a Man 73/8 x 21/4 in ( 1 8 6 x 5 8 UNDATED GIOVANNI BELLINI . Mantegna. These are pinholes. a n d b r o t h e r in-law. Character This is one of many cartoons produced by Bellini the and his family. lyrical.5 9 ) .25 6 .
and everything flux. a tribal. postcards. scratched lines. humor. Later Basquiat sold drawings on T-shirts.221). skull- Self-Portraits headed. bells. scratched into its surface. float and shimmer in the shallow pictorial space. It has proved to be a subject of piercing scrutiny. and indulgence. similar to work by Cy Twombly (see p. drawn. their most immediate and best-known subject: themselves. Signs and symbols with symbols This painting shudders that ore written.138 PORTRAITURE THE MIRROR OF SELF-PORTRAITURE offers artists infinite reflections of. and confrontations with. Man Ray's playful silk-screen assembly of color blocks. The incandescent New York painter Jean Michel Basquiat pictured himself here in naked silhouette. and attitudes. Islands of graphic marks. JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT Short-lived American painter and graffiti artist who began his blazing nine-year career drawing on lower Manhattan subway trains with a friend. Al Diaz. political outcry. The figure's position is unequivocal and defiant while around him is in a state Without the essential of cultural and figure we would elegant belookingat a sophisticated painting of signs. The artist has finished his portrait with the signature of his hand smacked in the middle like a kiss: a declaration of existence as old as man's first drawing. Self Portrait 1982 9 4 x 7 6 in (239 x 193 cm) JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT . scrolls. In 1986 he traveled to Africa and showed his work in Abidjan on the Ivory Coast He also exhibited in Germany and France. and buttons rings with surrealist wit and agile improvisation. signing their work SAMO. and sheet metal before being snapped up by the New York contemporary art scene. It is an opportunity to look deep without the infringement of courtesies owed to a commissioning sitter. spear-brandishing warrior. It is an image of confrontation—the ever-controversial young artist roars at us from his abstract city-scape. marks. made with great energy.
The first part of the stenciled image was already marked on the silk The screen and paper were then held tightly together. printmaker and cofounder of the New York Dada movement. while a squeegee was used to drag thick lilac-brown ink across the silk pushing it though exposed areas onto the paper below. painter. During the 1920's and 30s. last of all.139 MAN RAY American surrealist photographer. where he collaborated with the artist Laslo MoholyNagy. They experimented with camera-free photography working directly onto photographic paper Silk and ink This is a silkscreen print made through the following process: the paper was laid on a flat surface and a frame stretched with fine silk was placed on top. Man Ray lived and worked in Paris. Black ink was printed next and then white. Autoportrait 1916 195/8 MAN RAY . Man Ray probably used his own hand. The handprint appears to be made directly. They suggest speed and make the picture look immediate and spontaneous. Frame White lines are seemingly (though not actually) scratched through ink to frame this face. caked in thick printing ink or paint.
S O F T F U L L B R U S H : W h e n laying a w a s h . p a r c h m e n t . and make o r buy a holder. Take a sheet o f any t y p e o f p a p e r (for e x a m p l e . T h e p a p e r will l o o k b u c k l e d . Metal point is simply a strip of metal bound in a holder. and gold have also been used. I combined silver point with painted white gouache on a pink ground. E m p t y mechanical pencils designed f o r t h i c k leads ( s e e p. This is called a three-tone drawing. I m a k e m y o w n f r o m o l d dip pens. who used it to outline initials and border characters before painting. To begin. Lay a clean d r a w i n g b o a r d o n a flat surface. Lightly s p o n g e o f f t h e excess. b u t d o n ' t w o r r y . s o m e m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n o t h e r s . Historically. Opposite. SILVER P O I N T W I R E H O L D E R : T h e s e c a n b e p u r c h a s e d a n d t e n d t o b e heavy.s t r i p a n d use i t t o fix o n e side o f t h e p a p e r t o t h e b o a r d . illuminators of medieval m a n u s c r i p t s . W e t a n d fix a s e c o n d strip t o t h e o p p o s i t e side. M E T A L OBJECTS: All metal objects m a r k a p r e p a r e d surface. Z I N C W H I T E G O U A C H E : Dilute with w a t e r A d d c o l o r i f r e q u i r e d (as opposite) 4 . 2 . Metal point does not work on ordinary paper. and t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h strips a b o v e and b e l o w . The most c o m m o n metal has always been silver—hence the term "silver point. w h i t e d r a w i n g paper) and cut it t o fit y o u r d r a w i n g b o a r d w i t h a generous b o r d e r a r o u n d its edges. This browns with age unless sealed by fixative (see pp. c h o o s e a s o f t full b r u s h t h a t c a n c a r r y p l e n t y o f l i q u i d . laid on paper. 2. Numerous early European artists also enjoyed its fine qualities (see p. b e f o r e priming stretched paper. MATERIALS 1 Find a clean sponge and b o w l o r d e e p t r a y a n d fill it w i t h w a t e r W e t t h e p a p e r evenly in t h e t r a y o r o n t h e b o a r d . was familiar to or eggshells with animal glue. o n e t o fit each side o f t h e b o a r d — t h e s e will make t h e glued f r a m e t h a t holds y o u r p a p e r in place. and alloys work on matt emulsion. Drawn across a prepared surface. s e e p . If w o r k i n g o n an emulsion-painted wall.Tear o f f f o u r lengths o f b r o w n p a p e r g u m tape. Gesso o r m a t t e m u l s i o n c a n a l s o b e u s e d .140 PORTRAITURE Silver P o i n t SILVER OR METAL POINT STRETCHING PAPER A sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has been made w e t with the strokes o f a paintbrush will buckle d u e t o its uneven expansion. Pages 142 to 147 are illustrated in silver point and techniques are explained on pp. Find a n i t e m t h a t y o u can h o l d a n d draw with comfortably. 1 4 4 . bone. key. SILVER W I R E : Purchase different gauge lengths f r o m a traditional a r t supplier o r jeweler. an exciting indication of how large-scale drawings could be made on a wall. 5. choose a silver object. platinum." Lead.54) can also b e used. Stretched paper remains taut as a d r u m . copper. 144-45.54-55). For i m p o r t a n t a d v i c e o n p r e p a r a t i o n a n d use. and is therefore useful w h e n using w a t e r c o l o r as well as silver point. or ring. artists mixed white lead. purchase silver wire. Be swift and firm. S i l v e r is b e s t . 1. 156). 3 . Note h o w domestic paintwork marks with a coin. it leaves a deposit. which quickly oxidizes into a gray line. the surface must be primed with a ground such as gouache. Straighten the w o r s t buckles. you will need t o stretch paper and lay a wash (see right and opposite). or wood. I t is a v a i l a b l e f r o m all a r t s h o p s . M a k e s u r e i t is c o m p l e t e l y clean t o avoid u n w a n t e d streaks. W e t o n e length o f g u m .
Runs blend into each other evenly. Keep testing on spare paper. Here. Keep adding smooth. Dip a soft. as the paper will be ruined by a raised ridge. T h r e e . Dry thoroughly before laying a wash. any extra will keep. Beware of the tape's coming loose at any point while drying. Mix a very wet but not weak solution of gouache in a jar with a lid (add pigment at this stage for a three-tone drawing). LAYING A WASH It your stretched paper so as to prime it for silver point. Make enough to cover your paper. I used a powder pigment called Caput Mortuum. Reload the brush and add a second line overlapping it beneath. so put newspaper under the lower edge. and let tests dry before deciding to change the mixture. stretched paper at a 45-degree angle. The next step will make a small mess. It will slowly straighten and become taut.141 SILVER POINT 3 Leave the paper to dry flat. leaving a smooth surface. v e r y little at a time. Make an even line across to the right. Leave the wash to dry thoroughly before you begin to draw. slowly add powder pigment or gouache from a tube. overlapping lines until you reach the bottom. Prop up your board of dry. is necessary to lay a wash o Three-tone When coloring ground.t o n e silver point drawing of a skull . full brush into the gouache and start in the top left corner.
Head and Neck
THE HEAD AND NECK are best conceived as one unit arranged in four parts: cranium, face, neck, and throat. Each is of equal importance. The cranium is essentially egg-shaped and pivots on the first vertebra. The face is suspended beneath, like a softly curved triangle. The n e c k — a powerful, shapely column of layered muscles rigged to vertebrae—adjusts and holds the angle and expression of the head. The throat is delicate, hard, and lumpy to the touch, formed of cartilaginous rings, glands, thin muscles, and looser skin. Framing the throat, two columnar neck muscles (sternomastoids) project the head forward and also turn it to the opposite side.
This is a simple shorthand diagram representing the cranium, face, neck, and throat. It can be learned and visualized in different positions very easily, giving the novice a firm footing on which to stand and develop their drawings of the head and neck.
Cranium Begin with an egg shape. Tilt it on the paper to change the position of the head.
Face Draw a rounded triangular shape below the forward point of the egg to represent the face.
Neck This shape represents the trapezius; the largest surface muscle of the neck and shoulders.
Throat A triangular shape represents the throat. (The nose makes the diagram clearer)
After copying the diagram above, animate it. Practice drawing the cranium at different angles, add the face beneath, then the neck, shoulders, and throat. Shape your diagrams so they are more lifelike, but avoid adding detailed features too soon.
143 These three drawings demonstrate (from left to right) the following: why the cranium may be considered egg-shaped; now the face can be seen as a curved triangle suspended beneath and where the division lies between the two; and the form of sternomastoid muscles that frame thethroatsodistinctlywhen the head is turned and inclined forward.
The skull and the frame of the throat
HEAD AND NECK
Bones of the cranium are locked together by jagged joints. Sinuses in the frontal (forehead) bone between and beneath the eyebrows are larger in men, making their brows pronounced and often ridged compared to those of women.
Bones of the face house our sight, smell, taste, The skull pivots on the first vertebra or "atlas," and speech. Cartilage extending from nasal bones after the Greek god condemned to carry the shapesthenose.Pads of fat resting on the base of Earth. The jaw hinges in front of the ears. Behind, eacheyesocket support the eyeballs in position. If bony ridges give anchor to the sternomastoid thefatisreducedby old age, eyes look sunken. muscles rising from the breast- and collarbones.
Three useful generalizations
General rules about the relative positions of body parts can hinder artists as much as help them, since they are often based on classical ideals rather than thediversityoflife.However,some generalizations can help as a rough guide to start with, so long as good observation takes over as soon as possible.
In general, when the face is relaxed (not smiling or frowning), the corners of the mouth are found directly beneath the pupils of the eyes. Vertical lines can be drawn down from the pupils to meet the corners of the mouth.
The height of a young adult's ear is often the same as their nose and found on the same level. There is no general rule for growing children, and remember that ears grow again in old age, which is most obvious in men.
The height of the face is about the length of the handspan and the eye is normally halfway down the total height of the head. A common error is to draw the eyes too high up on the face.
T H E DELICACY OF SILVER POINT
(see pp. 140-41) is perfect for
such as a beach pebble. Here, I stretched drawing paper and laid a wash of white gouache (see pp.140-41). As you can see, the line and tone of silver point varies with pressure, but only slightly. Too much pressure cuts the ground. Silver point erases, but so does ground. Erased ground can be repaired gently with extra gouache. You can also use gouache to paint over mistakes and make corrections.
small, detailed drawings. The drawings below and opposite show useful observations of the head and neck, which are explained in the captions below. Each drawing was made with a silver wire held in a large-gauge mechanical pencil. Newly clipped wires are sharp and cut rather than draw. Before use, they need to be rubbed and smoothed on a stone
Here I imagined placing my silver point wire against the skin of each head and neck and, working in parallel bands from the crown downward, I traced the undulation of surfaces. Linear bands imagined around the head and neck can help you t o clearly see the tilt of the head and relative levels of the features. Ask a friend t o model for you and try this exercise life-size using a pencil and eraser
Seeing that the face is never flat
Drawings below left and center are summaries of the generalizations given on p.143. Far right is an image to remind us that the face is never flat. It slopes back to varying degrees among individuals, from the tip of the nose t o the ears. For example, note that the innermost corners of the eyes are farther forward in space than the outermost corners.
General measurements, side
General measurements, front
View from above
Male and female head and neck
Men's necks a r e g e n e r a l l y s h o r t e r a n d t h i c k e r t h a n w o m e n ' s b e c a u s e t h e angles a n d levels o f c e r t a i n b o n e s a r e d i f f e r e n t b e t w e e n t h e sexes ( i n d i c a t e d h e r e b y d o t t e d lines) a n d m e n are n o r m a l l y m o r e muscular. T h e male t h y r o i d cartilage ( A d a m ' s apple) is larger a n d m o r e visible than t h e f e m a l e . L a r g e r f e m a l e t h y r o i d glands also s o f t e n t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e t h r o a t .
The largest m u s c l e o f t h e s h o u l d e r s a n d n e c k is called the trapezius. A r r a n g e d on e i t h e r side o f t h e spine, it shapes t h e u p p e r back and neck above the s h o u l d e r blades. C o n t r a c t i n g in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h d e e p e r and surrounding muscles, it raises and l o w e r s t h e shoulders a n d d r a w s t h e h e a d backtoeitherside.
USING A SHARP 3 B PENCIL, I drew this head quickly from imagination, evolving its character and expression from the scheme of four parts: cranium, face, neck, a n d throat (see p. 142). Here, five steps show you how to practice doing the same. This approach can be used to draw from imagination or from life. Keep your wrist loose and hold your pencil away from its point (see pp.22-23). Build the layers of your drawing from pale to dark, a n d from general balance a n d form to specific detail. Remember that successful drawings are built on foundations of "seeing the whole," then dividing the whole into smaller parts, with details brought in last of all. Phrased tonal marks modeling this girls skin and hair follow the technique demonstrated by Goya in his self-portrait on p. 130. Turn to Goya's drawing and study how, in a circle beginning across his hat, moving down his hair, and around his coat, he flows lines over surfaces to describe their contour. As you build from steps 1 to 5, bring phrased groups of lines across the surfaces of your form, using their directions to capture the expression of the head and neck. If unsure, copy my steps until you gain the confidence to make your own decisions.
This drawing is the final stage of the four steps opposite. Here, I have enlarged the eye, and moved it back into the head by trimming the length of the upper lid and adding a more pronounced lower lid. It is important to set eyes far enough back from the relatively prominent nose; too close to it and the face flattens. Hair swept back and extended behind the cranium balances the regal pose. Lines shaping the hair echo those marking the cranium in step 1. Here, the lower part of step 1 comes through as wisps of hair across her face and ear
Portrait of a Young Girl
First lines will remain visible in the final drawing. 4 . so it is important to the life of the image that while controlled. they are also still sweeping and confident. avoid drawing too dark. Here. neck. down the face to the throat. over the cranium. and throat. I modeled the outline of the character I imagined light shining from above and in front and adjusted the pressure of lines to reflect this.147 Building up the portrait DRAWING PORTRAITS 1 Gently spin pale lines in a softly drawn shape representing the cranium. The nose and ear begin to shape the head. Keep your first lines light. Moving from the back of the neck. too soon. I used light to describe the upper lid first with a shadow beneath for the lower lid and open eye. 3 Place the eye beneath the cranium. The eye announces the nature and expression of the emerging person.Theangle at which you draw this shape of the paper will determine the angle of the finished head. 2 Rapidly add shorthand shapes to represent the face.
the texture of hair. . and gravity. Above all. be aware of the subtle differences in skin surface. empathize.T o DRAW PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGES. a n d t h o s e w h o a r e Generations asleep (see overleaf). muscular tension.
Madrid. Fast lines carve out the features of Goya's soup-slurping hag. I used the nib upside down to gain needle-sharp precision. seeking the dominant contours of each individual expression. Van Dyke's noble cast of characters was modeled more finely. . with a steel dip pen and acrylic ink.Castings DRAWING IN THE PRADO MUSEUM.
dancer leaps through swaths of golden cloth. and i n d e e d image b e c a m e the property also of the industrial classes. a n d p r o f e s s i o n — b e g a n life as a d r a w i n g . c r u m p l e s . P o p u l a r f a s h i o n d e s i g n e x p l o d e d w i t h the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n . T h e p a p e r p a t t e r n is p e r h a p s the m o s t w i d e l y k n o w n of c o s t u m e d r a w i n g s : a formalized plan of lines. Artists do this not so m u c h b y the style of a figure's garment. o n l y the w e a l t h y c o u l d afford to h a v e c o s t u m e s specially m a d e . Practical classes Bacchante 1911 l o o k at r a n g e s of c o l o r e d m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d i n g p a s t e l s a n d felt-tip p e n s . g l o s s y folds. of Scheherazade. a n d w e will c o l l e c t patterns. In this c h a p t e r w e see h o w c l o t h i n g c a n s e e m to p o s s e s s the w e i g h t and m o n u m e n t a l i t y of stone. charcoal. theb u t b y the w a y it s p e a k s w i t h its flying. woman was drawn by Bakst one year later for the ballet Narcisse. Cities c h a n g e d all.Costume W E MAKE OURSELVES EXOTIC. e m u l a t e textures. T h e rural masses w o r e h o m e s p u n simplicity. Samoylovich Rosenberg. outrageous. In psychology. gesture. S t r u c t u r e is t h o u g h the i n v e n t i o n of shoes. arichand unusual combination of pencil. w h i c h in turn feed c o n s u m e r Lev.As artistic director of the It is s h o c k i n g to t h i n k h o w m a n y m i l l i o n s of d r a w i n g s m u s t be m a d e a n d d i s c a r d e d Ballet Russe. known as Leon Bakst. or calm u s w i t h chic. and gouache. was a Belarussian A r t Deco theater fantasies and desires to immediately possess a version of the same. cool. D e s i g n e r s create m a s t e r p i e c e s of haute couture LEON BAKST for H o l l y w o o d stars. a n d s u b t l e t o n e s . or b u l g e s . st 111/4 x 81/2 in (285 x 220 mm) u d i e d L E O NB A K S T and explore the characterization of fabric t h r o u g h m o v e m e n t . a n d c o u r t i e r tailors f o l l o w e d suit. it is the public sign by w h i c h w e are j u d g e d . so that c h o i c e . Previously. T h e e n t o u r a g e of the theatrical stage o f t e n l e a d s the c a t w a l k . and intent. and e x u b e r a n c e .This voluptuous above all a physical p u p p e t w i t h w h i c h to animate character and narrate personality. W e dress ourselves and costume designer trained in in St. and s y m b o l s that lets m e n and w o m e n in all countries and areas have w o r k i n g access to the latest fashions. intriguing. w a r m t h . while court p a i n t e r s — M i c h e l a n g e l o and Holbein. personality. fulfilling lavish and spectacular briefs. Bakst's designs and costumes immediately To the fine artist. c u l t u r e . Like it or not. and even invisible by the w a y w e dress. toParis. he and cofounder Serge Diaghilev took Paris by eac storm in 1910 with their production h year in the industrial f r e n z y of creating o u r image and aspirations. shapes. caricatured p l u m e s . . and be so expressive of temperament that it overtakes the need for an o c c u p y i n g h u m a n form. and atmosphere. c o s t u m e o f f e r s a r i c h v o c a b u l a r y of t e x t u r e s a n d c o l o r . and everything w e h a v e c h o s e n for o u r w a r d r o b e s — r e f l e c t o r s of o u r taste. for e x a m p l e — d e s i g n e d the w a r d r o b e s of p o p e s a n d k i n g s . articulate a d a n g e r o u s satirical j o k e . variety. b u t influenced Parisian fashion and interiordecor. Petersburg and later exiled designers' ideas and are surprised and delighted b y their continual f l o w of inspiration. Designers all over the w o r l d c o n t i n u a l l y p e n and b r u s h lines to lash us w i t h color.
folds and patterns of material speak more resolutely of their wearers than any small glimpses of body we can see. with their jagged edges. the Madonna and her architecture are both dressed in the same manner. and snakelike marks. Above them.140-41). In Van Eyck's drawing below. Her gown is carved and polished as if made from marble. Opposite. Sculpted one. Delicate marks Silver (or metal) point is the most delicate of traditional drawing media (see pp. Maelbeke I44I Madonna 11 x 7 in (278 x 180 m m ) JAN V A N EYCK . Marble gown We will never know if Van Eyck considered this drawing unfinished or intended the kneeling abbot to remain transient and ghostly.156 COSTUME Cloth and Drapery EACH OF THESE FIGURES is ninety percent cloth. Van Eyck's highly polished w o r k is c e l e b r a t e d f o r its disguised symbolism. The quiet stillness of this image is achieved by a masterly economy of stylized line. the carefully composed outline of his cloak shows us how the artist would have also begun his immaculate rendering of the Virgin's clothes. bands around the columns. and implied striation in the stone of the architecture. Church and deities are drawn as JAN VAN EYCK Flemish oil p a i n t e r f r o m L i m b o u r g . best k n o w n f o r his G h e n t altarpiece ( 1 4 3 2 ) a n d m a r r i a g e p o r t r a i t o f Giovanni A r n o l f i n i and his w i f e (1434). Below this. Flaxmans sleeper—perhaps a pilgrim or a soldier resting between campaigns—has wedged himself into the cleft of some great building to grab a moment of peace. However. the vaulted stone roof echoes and crowns the moment. and the kneeling abbot is a ghost by comparison. delicate lines. swirling printed fabrics. Short and subtle horizontal punctuations are only given in the background by sections of floor. Vertical lines The highly controlled lines of this drawing cascade from top to bottom of the image. He has layered these slowly and carefully so as not to cut through the ground and produce a white mark just where he intended a dark one. With a stylus such as Van Eyck used here. dragons. her marble garment holds u p the infant Christ in a fountain of compressed line. Keisai Eisen's intense. Their uninterrupted emphasis is entirely vertical. it is only possible to create very thin. H e m e t i c u l o u s l y a r r a n g e d subjects t o c o n v e y d e e p e r meaning. resonate with their wearers startled expression.
Aeschylus earned Flaxman an international reputation. he also co-edited and expanded the Ukiyo-e Ruiko (History of Prints of the Floating World). draftsman. stone wall of downward-stroked this sleeper's position is momentary. designer.157 KEISAI EISEN Japanese draftsman. The inked block is laid face-down on damp paper and pressed to make the print. the cloak sliding to the ground. Parts of the image to be left unprinted are gouged out with a metal tool. Koimurasaki of Tama-ya 1810-50 15 x101/4in (381 x 260 mm) KEISAI EISEN The Courtesan JOHN F L A X M A N English late 18th-century neoclassical sculptor. and teacher Distinctive linear illustrations for the works of Homer. CLOTH AND DRAPERY Relief printing This is a woodblock print made by a relief process. which are sometimes also cut into pieces like a jigsaw puzzle. Respected for his sumptuous images of geisha and editions of erotic prints. and the feet notched against the pillar tell us that A lines holds him into the cleft. Images are drawn onto smooth. Dante. the angle of the head. each delivering a different part and color of the design. one over the other. writer and printmaker Keisai Eisen took his name from the masters Kano Hakkeisai and Kikugawa Eizan. Remaining raised areas of wood are rolled with colored inks. an 18th-19th century document on the lives of the ukiyo-e artists. and Man Lying Down in a Cloak I 787-94 21/4 JOHN FLAXMAN x 41/8 in (57 x 105 mm) . This complex numerous blocks prepared image and may have been made with printed separately. flat sheets of wood. Position In this pen and ink drawing.
Leg sections in both support the figure without taking our attention away from the main garment above. and even formal portraiture. cartoon. The aged queen is compared to an overdressed bird. A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE Flemish painter and draftsman. Its color is also reflected in the metal. where sometimes there just might not be anybody inside. It is presumed Her Royal Highness never saw it. he c o o l e d and redefined his style. The slight uncertainty of the pose and the limp cloak suggest a little more metal than man. The metal. Man in Armor UNDATED 1 6 x 9 1 / 2 in ( 4 0 5 x 2 4 0 m m ) A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE . Anthony Van Dyke's Man in Armor is a masterpiece of drawn surface. for she would not have been amused and William Wodall might have been stretching his luck. Details and voices are worn externally with great imagination. and feather were all CHARACTER COSTUMES REPRESENT observed with closely crafted conviction. t h r o u g h n u m e r o u s p o r t r a i t and C h u r c h commissions. all ruffs and wrinkles. Fine examples can be plucked from fashion. a scurrilous cartoon by a courtier of Queen Elizabeth I. In 1 6 3 2 he m o v e d p e r m a n e n t l y t o L o n d o n . b e f o r e traveling t o Italy. Flowing scarf The knight's scarf of gilded blue is drawn in a pale wash over red ink lines. Van D y k e was chief assistant t o Rubens f o r t w o years. lace. Its warm surface flows in contrast to the stiff metal armor. A flamboyant territory. He has been rendered on this olive<olored page with pen and gray wash worked over a red and black under-drawing.158 COSTUME Character Costumes an extreme form of the clothed figure. Leg section Compare mid-shin the section of white boots cropped to the section of similarly cropped trousers in drawings Gruau's drawing on p. theater. w h e r e . cloth. a n d w a s e m p l o y e d as c o u r t painter t o King Charles I. Pen and wash In the graphic accuracy of this armored knight we see the idealized identity of a warrior from another time: a gleaming defender of the realm. 160. Opposite is a dangerous drawing. A s a y o u n g man. cinema.
t h e B a b i n g t o n Plot. hooded with an overinflated fluffy ruff eye pins us. she is shown as a grossly disproportioned bird. manuscript comprising six c a n t o s . By her old upto three tiers supported on sticks.159 WILLIAM W O D A L L A u t h o r and illustrator o f The Aaes of Queene a Elizabeth poem Allegorized. here dark tawny owl. bitten nature. t h e Ridolfi Plot.1599 71/2 WILLIAM x 51/4 in ( 1 9 0 x 1 3 4 mm) WODALL . and her pride. t h e Rising. Beneath the lethal fan is the body of a bird of trimmed feathers suggest age. T h e poem recounts t h e six m a j o r crises o f Elizabeth's reign: t h e Spanish A r m a d a . Northern Satire This is a quill-and-ink satire of the elderly queen's pride-As head of state and fashion. Satire of the Queen's Dress c. suggest the use of iron-gall ink (see p. it was customary to Iron-gall ink Wodall's dangerous caricature steps daintily the written lines of her dedicated page. while a raised foot pauses to assess the next displaying a fan of daggers. Top-heavy.35). t h e Jesuit Mission. and saturations showing through from the other side. A Ruffs and feathers Starched white ruffs worn at court and by society grew steadily larger as Elizabeth's reign progressed. the queen is masterfully rebalanced by words at her feet The whole drawing's blackened.
Rene Gruau's bold gouache drawing of smoothly swaying sophistication captures a brilliantly cut garment and frames it with great dynamism in a white. Gruau's model regally swans to the fore with cool pride. a n d L'Officiel de la couture. G r u a u ' s highly distinctive d r a w i n g s have a p p e a r e d Couture. diving to catch us in the grip of her machine-like limbs. 158. elegant chic and svelte. studio-like rectangle of paper. and gray pigments were applied separately. Fine lines drawn against the building behind her echo the threads on which we have all seen arachnids drop and hang. Harpers & Queen. and both share the power of scarlet and black. India ink and gouache This swish of confidence and style our enters the page turning everyone's head. Composition Look how well this image is frame knee is parallel to the bottom edge spacehorizontalline cropping the trousers be outermostuprightbordersof her cuffs are similar above her head thesidesoftheimage.F r e n c h f a s h i o n i l l u s t r a t o r w h o in his l o n g and esteemed career w o r k e d with many of the g r e a t e s t d e s i g n e r s o f 2 0 t h . Compare the compositio beneathVanDyke'sstudy of armor on p. demanding attention with gesture and flair. Fashion and fantasy drawings invent prototypes of ideals and perfection—be they for the catwalk or the fast-paced pages of comic books. Spider-Girl leaps like an insect. as is Spider-Girl opposite. The black red. She has been drawn with brushes dipped into India ink and gouache. Vogue. Drying time in between applications ensured the colors did not run into each other. His model is outlined.5 9 ) and a three-spoke balance of cuffs and cropped trousers to create an almost flag-like emblem of power. possibly over a pencil outline.c e n t u r y haute i n n u m e r o u s m a g a z i n e s i n c l u d i n g Elle. muscular aggression. RENE GRUAU I t a l i a n . Gruau uses starkly cut negative space (see pp. ofcroppedtrousershere to the device of the w Illustration 1949 for Jacques Fath in L ' O f f i c i e l d e la C o u t u r e RENE GRUAU . 5 8 .160 COSTUME Femmes Fatales THESE DEVASTATING femmes fatales force back the onlooker with their demure. Airbrushed reflective surfaces further amplify our perception of speed.and tilted to the same de a little deeper than sp kneestogivehergravity.
MARVEL C O M I C S . It is outside the picture frame. at Their extensions will meet the same single vanishing (see point pp. Align your ruler to the upright of each building. sky. and Amazing Spider-Man. Sharp focus black outlines in this drawing create a hyper-real dynamic. Buildings.74-77). Single-point understand perspective To how Frenz created up therefore the effect of steeply between looking buildings—and howyou can do the same in your own work—take calculate where a ruler the and single vanishing point lies. Airbrushed color and with tonal focus. The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones. and has been the title's regular artist since 2003. Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 2001-04 R O N FRENZ. Frenz has drawn for Marvel for about 20 years. In your mind's eye extend the uprights out of the top of the picture. beginning with Star Wars.RON F R E N Z Contemporary American graphic artist w h o designs and pencils the dynamic scenes of numerous superheroes featured in Marvel Comics. This s modeling applied over the top give the image a sleek and mechanical of gravity. He began work on Spider-Girl in 1998. a great characteristic superhero comics. not far above the drawing. and figure are all locked into equally shatp through the traditional process of a pencilled outline over-drawn ink. to the right of its center. moon.
The worst are like revolting old lipsticks that get everywhere except where you intend. Pastel pencils are slender and in w o o d casing. great for tin . you may be pleasantly surprised to discover something you could not have imagined using. intensity. 1. quality. chalkbased but very subtle. Often. They work well on PIGMENTS Pigments. Seemingly infinite choices of texture. 3. 2. the finer and more subtle the texture and color should be. and can be softened and manipulated with degrees of heat. crumbly.162 COSTUME Colored Materials ART STORES BRIM OVER w i t h t h e m a n y wherever permitted. Many artists apply fixative to the back of their work. there are disparities between the apparent nature or color of what you hold in your hand and its performance on paper. colored materials available. purchase a small selection of different items you think you will like. slightly oily to the touch. C o n t e crayons are square-formed. The nontoxic range below represents a suggested starting point for experiment. including iridescents. wash. and can be a great rediscovery for bold drawings. Children's wax crayons are relatives. used to make colors. Be aware that fixative dulls pastel. Degas built his pastels in layers. and subtlety. shape. which he left unfixed to retain its brightness. except the final layer. Dissolve in turpentine or mineral spirits to produce oil paint or or dark paper. though lines can develop greasy stains around the edges if the paper is not first stretched and treated with a gelatin paste laid as a wash. animals. Many products are sold individually and in boxed sets. CHALK PASTELS: Blackboard chalk is sidewalk work. fixing each layer on the front. Try materials that are new and unfamiliar. Store loose pastels in dry rice to keep them clean. Most stores leave small pads of paper on their counters for customers to test materials. soft. Bright pastels are more brilliant on colored paper. Beware—some are toxic. made in about 80 colors. quality and cost T h e best are paperwrapped sticks of sumptuous. COLORED PENCILS: Dry pigments ground together with chalk. minerals. unwrapped harder pastels. FELT-TIP PENS: Instant-drying alcoholor water-based inks stored in the barrels of the pens are delivered via smooth nylon o r felt tips of varying shapes and thicknesses. OIL PASTELS: Many colors. Before making substantial investments. OIL PASTELS Oil-based. plants. the diverse are made in brands of basic member of the family. 4. See h o w they work and return later for more of what proved best for you. and CHALK PASTELS Pastel pencils make fine lines (as above). or wax and a binder are shaped into fine strips and encased in w o o d like a graphite pencil. these work best when slightly warm. size. clay. I suggest you do so. are derived from many sources: rocks. paper-wrapped. Sticks and conte crayons make thicker marks (as below). and synthetics. and cost are laid out for our pleasure and perusal. mixed on the paper and scratched into (as below). insects. Pastels are finer. The higher the quality (and cost). allowing it to fix slightly from behind. hue. Use them to draw lightly (as above left) or thickly. oily pigment. and sold in many colors. They vary hugely in cost.
it is still a great champion and support for those beginners feeling shyly obligated to tone down their love of color to conform with what others say they should use. Brands made for designers sold in enormous ranges of colors are far more subtle and sophisticated than those made for children. Fine lines can be achieved (as above). If you love smooth blocks and lines of colon felt-tip pens are perfect.163 COLORED PENCILS These are wax. 111).or clay-based thin crayons in wood casing. Some are nonsoluble. Some give richer lines than others. Diverse brands are harder or soften greasier or chalkier in use. Colors can be blended as shown right) and tones graded by altering pressure. FELT-TIP PENS Although not made with felt-tip pen. . so it is best to test them before buying. Think of Matisse's Blue Nude (see p. others dissolve in water or turpentine to make a wash. leaving the paper to shine through for highlights (as below).
you will need several large sheets of drawing paper. c o v e r a large sheet o f p a p e r w i t h line drawings o f several shoes. and volume in space (see pp. and how we stand and walk. S H O E S TELL LIFE STORIES. the era in which we live. t h e n again as if transparent. and they have been concealed in buildings to ward off misfortune. will discover m o r e . a range of colored felt-tip pens with both fine and broad tips. and after studying familiar shoes we use the information learned to invent new ones. To set up. t o o . Superstitions and fetishes are attached to them: we are told never to put new shoes on a table. Turn t h e m in different d i r e c t i o n s and o b s e r v e t h e i r s t r u c t u r e and f o r m . REPEATED STUDY T o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s class. I m a d e n u m e r o u s s h e e t s o f d r a w i n g s . This class takes the shoe as its subject in building on earlier lessons concerned with seeing through objects to understand their function. values. Here we go one step further. e n j o y i n g t h e study a n d i n v e n t i o n o f shoes. a n d e x p e r i e n c e visible p r o g r e s s . 104-07). if y o u m a k e p l e n t y o f d r a w i n g s as o p p o s e d t o o n l y a f e w . they record and reflect our common history. You.164 COSTUME Study and Design they reflect our age. As artifacts in museums. 100-01 and pp. structure. social and economic status. imagining y o u can see t h r o u g h it. style. Linear Outline Using fine pens. . personality. and a selection of shoes. D r a w each o n e first as a solid object. while artists have painted their boots or those of others as personal portraits and memorials.
STUDY AND DESIGN
study the surface contours using fineand broad-tipped felt-tip pens. For best results, it is important to be bold and brief. Draw firmly, fast, and with as few strokes as possible. Build up each shoe from light to dark andleavesome paper showing through to create highlights.
Design Your Own
Using what you have learned from the previous steps about the structures of your shoes, and about the use of pens, invent new designs from your imagination. Start with fine outlines and progress to colored and textured surfaces. Modify your ideas by rotating the views.
The Structure of Costume
MUSEUMS ARE AN INFINITELY
rich resource for the artist and
information given by a period style. Arrange to visit a costume museum or ask a friend to model clothes for you at home. Using fine felt-tip pens, begin with quick, pale impressions of each garment's shape before homing in on its borders and seams. Try to draw transparent views wherever possible to record the relationships between all component parts. Aim to draw enough information for it to be possible to make up a version of the garment using paper pinned to a tailor's dummy.
designer. They often give quite unexpected gems of ideas and information—whatever the subject. These drawings, made in a costume museum, demonstrate ways of recording structural information and detail for later use in the studio. They could form the basis of new designs for a fashion project or theater production, for example. Drawings of shoes on pp. 164-65 show how new designs can be evolved from the structural
It is usually best when collecting information for reference to apply the restraint of dispassionate observation. Set yourself the test of drawing facts with as little artistic license or embellishment as possible. Here I chose fine felt-tip pens because they are at their best when used swiftly, and therefore encourage bold, unhesitant decisions.
Swift lines record the hanging weight of this gentleman's coat, the relative proportions of its layers, and minimal details of the buttons and cuffs.
Thick velvet fabric is pulled tight beneath and across the bust by a single button. This transparent view shows how the fabric falls loosely in straight panels beneath the level of the sleeve.
W h e n visiting museums, be prepared f o r l o w lighting, which can make it hard t o see and draw. A book can help if attached t o your drawing board.
Adding stripes and dashes of color with a thicker pen brings out the glossy sheen and sculptural rigidity of this dress, which would have been worn over a whalebone corset. small reading light designed t o clip o n t o a
THE STRUCTURE OF COSTUME
In small drawings such as these, use thick pens to color entire sections with a few marks, as I did here down the side of the bodice.
The light, frilly bulk of this crinoline dress is propelled forward with lines. pinching its gathers and sways that are hiding a horsehair bustle. fleets of quick
THIS CLASS FOCUSES ON how to draw textures through the collection of fabric, pattern, and embroidery samples from a costume m u s e u m . This formal method, using ruled squares, can create an invaluable library of ideas a n d i n f o r m a t i o n for future r e f e r e n c e — w h e n painting a clothed figure, or preparing a textile project, for example. However, if making a book of samples for a project, remember that it is important to also include collages of f o u n d materials (see pp.230-31) To d r a w a fabric texture, b e g i n by concentrating o n h o w y o u i m a g i n e it w o u l d feel if you t o u c h e d it. Decide if it w o u l d be rough, s m o o t h , w a r m , cold, thick, thin, tough, or fragile, for example. As you draw, believe you can feel these qualities at your fingertips a n d that your pencil is responding to the sensation. Undulate the pressure of your lines and marks according to the feeling of the fabric rather than its appearance. Let your pencil enact the sensation of touching its surface.
and to experiment more loosely with mixed media.
This starchy, quilted, b o w e d creation started life as an imagined corset, I intended t o d r a w together in one sculptural f o r m a range o f t h e details opposite. T h e garment quickly got o u t o f hand. T h e r e is great e n j o y m e n t in letting y o u r imagination run wild w h e n inventing costumes. If you are unable t o visit a costume museum, many exciting fabric details and textures can be found in y o u r o w n closet o r home.
Colored pencils give precision and tonal range; they can be faded but not erased. Lightly use an HB graphite pencil if you wish to plan a design first. Pressed hard, colored pencils build up a waxy finish of brilliant color. Used lightly, they appear powdery and show the texture of the paper.
TEXTURES AND PATTERNS
Silk and braid
Dressing Character I O N C E SPENT THREE MONTHS researching the work of Francisco de Goya at the Prado Museum.126-27. 172-73. I made a drawing book full of studies seeking to understand how he composed drama and pathos in his narratives (see also pp. shape. These characters. Madrid. look at how Goya delineated volumes of thick fabric to express the posture. and motivation of an individual. identity. and 252-53). selected from different pages of my original book. .
and tangible.T H E S E PENCIL STUDIES. as it rushes and carves fabric-wrapped forms like rivers and desert winds shaping the earth. and visible. To understand how he did this. . are copies of works by Goya in which he makes air seem heavier than flesh. I carefully copied the direction of each of his lines. Posture Carving also taken from my Madrid drawing book (see pp.170—71).
With a pocket full of disposable pens we also go out and draw the expressions of gathered people. and instantly engage with the action of the scene. stares out from her gloomy sickbed. television documentaries. Drawings selected for this chapter explore these Saskia Lying in Bedand a Nurse ranges of proximity 1638 9 x61/2in (227 x 164 mm) and a travel journal. the direct exchange (as shown here) where one or more characters hold eye Aneedproduced the thicker lines of the nurse. comics. we can R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter draftsman. paintings depicting scenes from history. in spite of how it may seem. Rembrandt's bored and frustrated wife. Saskia died after childbirth. The spaces between people and the positions they occupy on a page are vital to our understanding of the psychology or emotion of an event. Blockbuster movies. R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN in the delivery of narrative. we. a crowd tells the story from a distance. finding corners in crowded places to inscribe their action and energy onto the page. this is not the portrait of an old woman. too. Her all-too-clear expression shows annoyance and irritation with her husband. He in turn scorches the paper with his view and a certain speed of seeing all. but drawings of gathered people tell them most directly. Washes of shadow behind engaged and as a natural voyeur can feel invisible while watching the scene. and novels—our staple cultural diet—are driven by a fascination with shared experience and the detail of what happens in other people's lives. and so. . vivid portrait of his wife captures our attention. He is also the artist from whom props to add layers of meaning and attitude. and therefore seem to see. It middle. are implicated in this marital exchange made over the head of the anonymous nurse. and other masters of Western Art. and its illumination. furniture. We read tensions and exchanges between people. soap operas. presumably while he is making this drawing. Seeing through Rembrandt's eyes. while a quill contact with. Storytelling and people-watching are obsessive human activities. As artists. there are no longer individuals but one significant group or mass action. the viewer's attention in a scene by the format of its composition. even up her were laid with a brush. heighten or subdue drama with subtleties of exaggeration or caricature. We can also use clothes. Later in their lives. Saskia. the viewer. Third. types. We can direct close. First. Second. the viewer is not directly made the finer lines of Saskia. and distance—so drawings of gathered people can be loosely arranged in three took only minutes to make and yet it lives for centuries. we can learn most about handling pen and ink. the speed and printmaker and one of the greatest and most influential density of its lines.Gatherings A LL DRAWINGS TELL STORIES. Here. daily newspapers. This J u s t as there are three parts to a traditional landscape drawing—the foreground.
Real Life is Rubbish 2002 Dimensions variable TIM N O B L E A N D SUE WEBSTER . In one of R a c k h a m s great illustrations for Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland. T h e i m m a c u l a t e d r a w i n g is only r e v e a l e d w h e n t h e b e a m of a p r o j e c t o r c a s t s t h e s h a d o w Projections of the h e a p o n t o a wall. Pans fly oft the stove. N o b l e a n d W e b s t e r s w i t t y a n d o f t e n s u b v e r s i v e d r a w i n g s are also c o n t e m p o r a r y art installations. for example. t h e y select and arrange familiar items of street detritus into what appears to be an u n p l e a s a n t pile. junk. the C o o k .. narrative is delivered through the air. and smoke billows around the agitated jives of the Duchess. plates shatter.. Here. In both works. refuse. and in. and projectors to create their anarchic punk satires of modern life. Below. or even the office photocopier. h a l o e d portrait of the artists seated b a c k to b a c k ." (Tim Noble) Drawing with light it is important to think about what you is Here timelessly we see a in can draw with.kicks against the mundane things that close down your mind is a refreshing and good thing. and on. hearth i m p l e m e n t s crash at o u r feet. F o r e a c h w o r k . and Alice."Anything that. c o m p o s e d garbage p r o d u c e s a c a l m . and projector.176 GATHERINGS SOME DRAWINGS ARE MADE e n t i r e l y o f i l l u m i n a t i o n that floods drama into the viewers gaze. Pencil on paper important but only the beginning of possibility the combination of three-dimensional space. via the animated clutter of o u r material lives. TIM N O B L E A N D SUE W E B S T E R British artists who collaborate using neon. a kitchen explodes in o u r faces. the Cat. Think about what else you could use: a laser smoke. garbage and chaos are piled a n d e x p l o d e d in r o o m s full of event.
177 ARTHUR RACKHAM British watercolorist and book illustrator. by vivid children's Rakham's w o r k is characterized fantasy. beams.Stowe's ofMysteryand Queer Little Folks. Rackham Vanishing point In this marvelous drama made with pen. a n d an unmistakable graphic style. are very large compared to on p. amplifying movement outward from the vanishing point. Find the singleperspective pp.76-77) above vanishing point (see that is about3/4in (2 cm) oak converge at this point. H e is best k n o w n forillustratingIrving's Rip vanWinkle. and Poe's Tales Imagination. tabletop. Refer back to the drawing class how pots In drawn objects and elements that those behind. The wood grain acts like marks of speed behind the scene. Depth Billows of smoke expand and are lighter as they come forward. ink. This makes the story appear to leap out at us. 100 to see for make elliptical objects and pans fly through the the foreground. we find several devices already explored through our drawing classes. and watercolor. and Alice's shoulder. See how the In the Duchess's Kitchen 1907 77/8 x 6 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 5 0 m m ) ARTHUR RACKHAM . humor.
Magnetic Fields sculpture. Chalk and graphite This fog-bound but humorous gathering of souls is made in graphite and colored chalk with gray wash. This is just one of many precious artifacts from a lost time. heat. and composition they are polar opposites.178 GATHERINGS we have seen in the pairs and trios of drawings by masters and makers. and we. which still narrates vivid days in the lives of an energetic nation. a sculptor. HENRY MOORE Crowd 1942 Looking at Tied-up Object . a n d l o v e d t o d r a w in t h e BritishMuseum. join in the waiting. The mournful gray landscape of Henry Moore's northern British field has gathered by night an overcoated audience to stand and wait before a wrapped and roped monument. and action of a buffalo hunt. a great Shoshone drawing blazes with the color. audiences. Opposite. M o o r e t o u r e d Italy as a young man. In culture.The human form w a s the vehicle o f his expression and h e w a s t h e official W o r l d W a r II artist. perhaps these two are the most extreme. expressing his dry humor about O F ALL THE CONTRASTS HENRY MOORE British s c u l p t o r w h o t r a i n e d a n d taught at t h e R C A . and art in the landscape. Moore's spectators appear to have walked a long way from nowhere to witness and wait beside this mysterious obelisque. A glimmer of gold light appears from the left No explanation is given. This is an ironic drawing from Moore. London. The image stands out among his more usual graphic works in which he hones and carves semi-abstract human forms. as fellow watchers. meaning. as if Moore's wrapping has been literally outstretched.
Hunt CENTURY SHOSHONE SCHOOL . Stylized hunters. MAGNETIC FIELDS Horses It is interesting to note how the outstretched limbs ofthesehorses echo European images of the runningBuffalo horse before the sequence-photographer Muybridge taught us to 19TH understand their movement differently. and helping our eye to dart around. Each color is evenly distributed throughout the scene.179 SHOSHONE SCHOOL Stylized characters This vital image of a buffalo hunt is made with pigment Members of the Shoshone community wishing painted within dark outlines on a stretched elk hide. creating harmonious balance with words but through silent demonstration. Skills are taught not center chant or dance to the beat of a drum. horses." Men at the instructed to sit and watch. tolearnhow to paint a scene on a hide are and buffalo circle and charge the perimeters of a skin "field.
a n d e n g r a v e r w h o p o w e r f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e d his o w n t e x t s in a d d i t i o n t o D a n t e ' s Divine Comedy. w r i t e r a r t i s t .f o o t e d t r o g l o d y t e s w h o rage into w a r like a m u d s l i d e of revenge. The muscularity of Blake's figures was inspired by Michelangelo's works. a d e a t h c h a r g e of brutality. inextinguishable in its fortitude and h u m o r . It illustrates a scene from Dante's Divine Comedy. a n d o t h e r w o r k s . m a r k . era as Kollwitz. color. w e f i n d a spiritual v i s i o n . a pink-inked cinema wobbles along with string. Brushed line and wash This is an ink-outlined drawing made with a fine brush on paper with added washes of watercolor The image was subsequently redrawn as a line engraving. Misted in translucent layers of paint.180 GATHERINGS The Human Condition IN THE SPECTRUM of these vastly d i f f e r e n t g a t h e r i n g s of p e o p l e . K a t h e K o l l w i t z s c r a t c h e d a n d e n g r a v e d her a r m y of c l a y . pale souls of the lustful are being s p u n into yet another realm of hell. B l a k e h a s i l l u m i n a t e d his s a d d e n e d Virgil on the s h o r e s of a d a r k w o r l d . Blake w a s d r i v e n b y a passion f o r j u s t i c e a n d a p r o f o u n d b e l i e f in his v i s i t a t i o n s f r o m angels. w h i c h b y their c h o i c e a n d h a n d l i n g a c t u a l l y b e c o m e the force a n d spirit of e a c h i m a g e . Opposite. W I L L I A M BLAKE British visionary. t h e Bible. a n d the gentle h u m o r of sedate r i d i c u l e . texture. a n d f o c u s . We also see qualities of line. Heath Robinson lived through the same war-torn. w h e r e he w a t c h e s a t u r b u l e n t s p i r a l of p u n i s h m e n t f o r the d a m n e d . The Circle of the (The Whirlwind 1824 of Lustful Lovers) mm) 143/4 x 207/8i n ( 3 7 4 x 5 3 0 WILLIAM BLAKE . p o e t . and sweetened the often bleak years with his impractical inventions.
With masterful gentility. and the family home. and controlled smears on the metal surface printed as tones. British Pen and wash This is a pen-andwatercolor drawing made for a color-platereproduction in an edition of T h e Bystander. stoical bemusement. who lived in a poor district of Berlin. Robinson and Kollwitz (above) share almost identical life dates and their work expresses a shared history from opposite sides oftheworld wars. He created sincere. plodding along with hazy. and the impact of death and war upon women. Losbruch (The Outbreak) 1955 20 x 233/8 in (507 x 592 mm) KATHE KOLLWITZ HEATH ROBINSON humorous illustrator and a regular contributor to magazines and journals such as The Sketch and The Bystander. children. White marks were made with a dusting of French chalk on the artist's finger to wipe away ink leaving clean metal. Kollwitz survived the two World Wars. HEATH ROBINSON The Kinecar 1926 103/8 x 15 in (262 x 380 mm) .181 KATHE KOLLWITZ German printmaker. and clearly focused. poverty. and her powerful and sensitive drawings center on nurture. Heath Robinson shows England in a past era. THE HUMAN CONDITION Scratched lines This is a dry-point etching with monoprint. The image was scratched directly onto a metal plate. humor by making his characters earnest. sculptor and draftsman. however meager or ridiculous their activity. What remained in scratched grooves printed on damp paper as lines. Ink rolled over was selectively polished off using a rag.
For example. The f o u r i l l u s t r a t e d h e r e r e p r e s e n t a basic r a n g e . blob when old. 192-93) w e r e b o t h m a d e w i t h a ballpoint.188-89) and Caravans (see pp." 1. gel pens) are the most convenient of all materials with which to travel. is d e l i v e r e d t h r o u g h a m e t a l t u b e o v e r a t i n y ball bearing. these pens enable you to sketch. they each offer distinct and sometimes unexpected qualities. build to a rich. . trusting shape and form to follow. dropped in your pocket and forgotten till needed.182 GATHERINGS Disposable Pens (ballpoints. shut your book. dark sheen. 2. a disposable pen with its clip-on cap goes anywhere. t w o tourists and their gondolier drifter past m e o n a canal.7 7 and 214-15). Quick-drying. which can snap or pierce through your clothes. 7 6 . Insensitive t o p r e s s u r e : lines d o n o t v a r y in w i d t h o r t o n e . FIBER-TIP: M a n u f a c t u r e d f o r artists a n d d e s i g n e r s in a r a n g e o f w i d t h s . fine fiber-tip Drawing with a fine fiber-tip pen.r e s i s t a n t . I keep quantities at home. Lines t h i c k e n as t h e p e n w e a r s o u t G r a n d Canal (see pp. R e m e m b e r . a n d pressure-sensitive. I swiftly focused on gesture. a n d ranges o f colors. c h o o s e p e n s l a b e l e d " p e r m a n e n t " o r "lightfast. fibertips. So many stores sell them. including l u m i n o u s a n d m e t a l l i c . Unlike pencils. CHOICES AVAILABLE T h e r e a r e m a n y d i s p o s a b l e p e n s t o c h o o s e from. w a t e r . t h e y a r e lightfast. Available in blacks and ranges of colors. turn the page. jot notes. At a time like this. they can be obtained within minutes. W h i t e gel p e n s a r e v e r y e f f e c t i v e o n d a r k papers. T h e r e w e r e c seconds t o snatch this impression b e t w e e n their emergence from one bridge and disappearance b e n e a t h t h e next. if y o u w i s h y o u r d r a w i n g s t o last a n d n o t fade o r b l u r w i t h t i m e a n d e x p o s u r e t o light. p e r m a n e n t . 4. or put the paper in your pocket instantly without fear of smudging. a ballpoint will make faint lines. B A L L P O I N T : Black a n d b o l d c o l o r s o f f e r d i v e r s e qualities. or idea. or turn into washes and make monoprints if flooded with an alcohol-based substance such as hairspray. rollerballs. indent paper. in the car. in the studio. aiming for correct outlines would result in drawing too slowly to c a t c h the moment. Ideal f o r precision w o r k (see p p . G E L P E N : P r o d u c e d in b l a c k w h i t e . and in most pockets so I can always record a thought DISPOSABLE PENS QUICK NOTES O n a c o l d day in Venice. R O L L E R B A L L : A c o n s t a n t i n k flow 3 .
FROMMEMORY Here I used the same fiber-tip pen to compose a scene from memory. Fast lines focus on action. not form. Compare this Klee's mules on p. Earlier I had witnessed a crammed en masse in a fleet of hired gondolas complete with musicians and choir.31 . crowd of fellow travelers Fast lines These scribbled lines model the mass and shadows of heads belonging passengers packed into the boat.
Each line acts its part in the narrative. just draw the action. Don't worry about measuring angles. Circular lines buzz around a man puzzling at the end of a train platform (left). No camera can tie you to a time or people in the same way. life will not slow and wait for you to catch it. I caught fleeting glimpses of gathered people and solitary souls going about their affairs. animate them more. Each one was witnessed and drawn immediately from the afterimage of what I had just seen. Every drawing writes an indelible memory of place. However. black. not its outline. activity. but they should not be what you dwell on. FLEETING MOMENTS Walking through Venice with a small. if animated. all action is in the line of his coat and directed by his nose. make them stouter. Above all. pocket notebook and a fiber-tip pen. You will make outlines. if a person was stout. Push toward caricature and this will draw out of your memory what was most important. of course. focus on the action of the event. let it enter the stage and perform. and companionship. Movement .184 GATHERINGS The Travel Journal I CANNOT OVERSTATE THE JOY of making a travel journal. You must learn to trust your memory and to draw what impressed you most. Let the line of the flying coat fly and the hanging arm hang. when out drawing. A curatorial assistant flies to do a chore (right). Exaggeration helps. angles will happen as a matter of course.
Observation THE TRAVEL JOURNAL The same willowy assistant dashes about his work. eager to herd us all from his house of responsibility. Expression . I am watched by the aggravated guard. I drew him three times on the same page to catch a range of his physical expressions.185 A large lady is photographed in front of a delicate work of art. The rush of his legs isamplifiedby their blurred lines. In turn.
flap. Here the custodian projects fastidious ownership of his desk and pamphlets by pushing from behind the center of the space and challenging our entry to his image. not outline. or pushes. ACTION AND DETAIL W h e n drawing people. decide how faces and bodies contort. and you decide to draw the moment. elevate them in the pictorial space. and involvement in the story. .186 GATHERINGS Catching the Moment On A BITTERLY COLD November day. if they are being haughty. I took refuge in a church in Venice. if they are being devious. He and his simpering assistant would not allow me in. and there met this sullen custodian. forcing me to remain at the back and look at them. Be aware that their placement on the page is part of the narrative. you might place them lower down. rather than the works of art they guarded. Here I have recreated my drawing in steps to show you how to set about capturing such a scene. and clothing or bags hang. pulls. Identify the principal character and draw him or her first. For example. emotion. or bulge. When your attention has been caught. start by focusing on its action. placement. focus on action. and let every detail speak by its size. furniture leans. Place the person carefully. For example. and reason for happening.
together with any immediate props they are using. If drawing a more complex scene. which is pushed toward us in a gesture of confrontation. Decide where you will place them o n the paper t o emphasize their action and intent. W i t h a few strokes. continue adding characters. In the final step (left) I reinforced t h e custodian's desk. such as the desk and pamphlets seen here. Draw their action and props. CATCHING THE MOMENT The assistant Identify t h e antagonist ( o r second character) in t h e scene. Decide where t o place them t o emphasize their role. who is largely expressed through the shape and fall o f his raincoat and his way o f using a note pad. Here. a pillar locates t h e scene in a depth o f space. D r a w their action. I added t h e assistant.187 The custodian Identify your principal character a n d their psychological role in the scene. .
where vertical mooring poles give space and pulse to the horizontal speed of water quickly. and buildings. An imminent deluge of tourists urged me to work catching no more than the skeleton of the view. .Grand Canal T H E CANALS OF VENICE are bustling places full of occupation. I developed detailofthis drawing from memory using a ballpoint pen.
followed by the streets. and drawn immediately from memory. Characters in the foreground were drawn first. To catch characters like this. Each person was glimpsed in an instant. note only their most essential action and feature.Crossings DURING THIS RUSH HOUR. then the bridge beneath them. Venetians flow across a stepped bridge and cascade into the streets beyond. Caricature each person slightly. .
. Sitting at a distance on a hot.Caravans T H E PARAPHERNALIA O F TRAVEL i s an intriguing part of circus life. I used a ballpoint pen to compose a series of scenes. quiet afternoon. and a great subject to draw. Caravans and other backstage activity convey expectations of energy and repose. I found this circus by chance in the Swiss mountains.
In this chapter Moon Pastel 1795 Drawing we experiment with charcoal. the face of the Moon. our companion. are the real subjects in great landscape drawings. and meteor impacts have scarred. William Turner is said to have had himself lashed to a ship's mast to comprehend the storm (see p. Take chances against the rain and work with the wind or fog. England. By drawing such momentous and everyday events. The forces of nature. artists see for themselves that which is momentary and eternal. It is better to get up before dawn. and the sea. when little stirs and empty blue skies offer even less to latch lines to. a contemporary environmental artist. and its draws the tides of the seas. 5 f t x 5 ft 6 in ( 1 5 2 x 1 6 8 c m ) J O H N RUSSELL . There is a sense of the heroic in drawing outside—we race to catch a form before the tide engulfs it. arranging them in perfect circles on the mountainside or in lines drifting out of sight beneath low clouds. t w o e n g r a v e d m a p s k n o w n as The Lunar Planispheres. and experiment. Look closely at works by many artists and you will see that they have not represented hills. What they have drawn is the force of nature on these properties: how the wind heaves the night ocean. H e a l s o p r o d u c e d an a l b u m o f 1 8 0 exquisite pencil drawings. trees. or has cracked and fallen under the weight of water. but it can be seen as a lens to our observation of this planet.Earth and the Elements I T MAY SEEM PERVERSE to start a chapter titled "Earth and the Elements" with an image of the Moon. learning to draw light out of dark. sunny days. a n d a n astronomer w h o dedicated 20 years t o studying t h e M o o n . a n d a m o o n globe called t h e Selenographia. or the wind carries it away. The pastel drawing was constructed from myriad telescopic observations almost 200 years before the Apollo Moon landing. as opposed the physicality of Earth. This is the world's first accurate image of the Moon. Oxford. surrounded by the bright instruments of centuries of navigation. marking the ground with lines of footprints or by turning stones. rivers. Just as NASA photographs of Earth have had a profound effect on the way we view our fragile home. 199). makes his work by the act of walking. Russell d r e w this. and take bold steps in emulating the swell of clouds and the forces of torrential water. to be ready to draw the new light as it breaks across the land. It now hangs on the staircase of the History of Science Museum. how the soil is scorched. the sun comes out to blind it. and even how the Sun illuminates. t h e first-ever accurate image o f t h e M o o n ' s surface. pages o f softly i l l u m i n a t e d craters and lunar "seas" c o v e r e d in m a t h e m a t i c a l and s h o r t h a n d calculations. they are the animators of your subject. how the mountain cut by ice and rain is now fleetingly lit. JOHN RUSSELL A p o r t r a i t pastelist t o King G e o r g e III o f England. Richard Long. speculation. Beginners will often choose calm. It is Earths satellite. These conditions are very difficult to express well. so J o h n Russell's tour de f o r c e drawing (opposite) was a masterpiece of observation in his time. Weather is essential in all landscape drawing.
Through political drawings he fired his sharp wit at the king. lifts. H O N O R E DAUMIER French satirical cartoonist lithographer. A hard waxy was drawn across a heavy limestone Varying definitions crayon of lire and depths of tone conspire to give volume. T h e great master of English seascape is c o n d u c t i n g with his graphic energy. and by observing its tides and eddies in our o w n environment. and the legal profession. Below. sculptor. serving a prison sentence for his views. a scratched ghost. and gives motion to each image. Fluid strokes inflate the woman's dress and pin shadows to the ground. is already lost. Crayon and limestone This is a lithograph. undramatic b u t brimming with stylized realism. fluttering heavily. distance. Terrifying waves of merciless nature roar across the paper. By Turner carries us to the heart of the maelstrom. the bourgeoisie. like an umbrella forced inside-out. Danger of Wearing Balloon Petticoats UNDATED HONORE DAUMIER . and solidity. Hazy vertical marks reveal buildings into the mist. Dots and dashes suggest receding trees out of focus. speed.198 EARTH AND THE E L E M E N T S Air in Motion THE GREAT INVISIBLE SUBJECT o f these d r a w i n g s is t h e w i n d . Flapping kimonos and an onlooker turning his b a c k have the magic of a m o m e n t caught. This wife. and pioneer ofexpressionism. T h e ship. has b e c o m e a hysterical kite. Hokusais sedate wind presses reeds a n d the j o u r n e y s o f young ladies. painter. the government. Daumier's c a r t o o n shines with the brilliance of his comic memory. seeing how it shakes. we can soon learn to draw its force. a sail b r o k e n loose in a stormy marriage. He knew how the world bends and stutters under such gusts.
horizontally then and of the it into the stream Plants also bend and flow right to Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 1802 81/2 HOKUSAI KATSUSHIKA x 131/2 in ( 2 1 7 x 3 4 3 mm) . wind. 1826 91/2 x 113/4 in ( 2 4 1 x 3 0 0 m m ) J. leans the whole composition swells around its fateful center.W. including being lashed t o a ship's m a s t in o r d e r to study a storm. absorbent watercolor and are Stains of splashed.M. Landscape a n d city life w e r e his principal subjects. W . and history painter w h o s e p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t a b o v e all w a s light.M. into this very as pressed sheet The paper's through own coior is brought banks of mist and fog. AIR IN MOTION Pencil and watercolor subdued brushed.199 J. T u r n e r w o r k e d in oils a n d w a t e r c o l o r s a n d s k e t c h e d c o p i o u s l y o n his travels.l o v e dw o r k s i n c l u d e 1 0 0 v i e w s o f M o u n t Fuji and 1 2 v o l u m e s o f Manga. painter.b l o c kprintmaker. Hokusai direction (from clothing from has chosen which it the right). Wind direction wood-block This is a colored To represent the blows lifted flowed wind. seascape. T h e r e a r e m a n y stories o f his p a s s i o n a t e w o r k i n g methods. d e s i g n e r a n d b o o k i l l u s t r a t o r . T U R N E R British landscape. a n d his b e s t .i n f l u e n c e d b y examples o f W e s t e r n art obtained through D u t c h t r a d i n g in Nagasaki. A outline scratched of a skeletal into penciled ship is while and the waves. H o k u s a i in t u r n has since significantly influenced European art. from left print. Ship in a Storm c. TURNER KATSUSHIKA HOKUSAI Prolific J a p a n e s e c o l o r w o o d .
In periods b e t w e e n writing. Opposite. By contrast. as if drawn j u s t this year. Pen and brush Hugo drew first with pen and ink. water. and tossed o b j e c t s — a perfect subject in which artists can forget themselves. T h e m e n a c i n g darkness of Hugo's storm b e l o w is so convincing. it is difficult to contemplate its brooding and night-soaked heart. as a subject and second.200 ELEMENTS Storms STORMS CAN BE SEEN and drawn in two ways: first. drawing was Hugo's principal means o f expression. Le Bateau-Vision 1864 71/2 x 1 0 in ( 1 9 2 x 2 5 5 m m ) VICTOR H U G O . fantasy palaces. and t h e sea s t u d i e d f r o m his h o m e in Guernsey in t h e Channel Islands. this is a b o m b a r d m e n t from o u r h o m e s . grab their b r u s h . he blanketed the drawing in darkness. or charcoal. leaving nothing but a glimpse of moonlight glistening on the froth below. An update on biblical showers of fish and frogs. Then. It looks so contemporary. this is a writer's narrative of terror. inks. composing banks of waves and dense. He brings us to stare into a place that no sane human would enter. h a u n t e d shadows. with a brush. ink. Leonardos Cloudburst of Material Possessions is o n e of his m o s t enigmatic and mysterious works.198) admires the majesty of nature. D o m e s t i c o b j e c t s we can o w n and name fall from the clouds. as a gestural storm on the paper. lines of rain escorting them to b o u n c e and clatter.28). Turner (see p. EARTH AND THE VICTOR HUGO French novelist and artist (see also p. marks. T h e very nature of b o t h is turmoil and an interweaving of elements. His subjects include ruins. and swim into the page. active surfaces of water.
for example). He was left-handed and wrote backwards in Italian from left to right. and they passed through private hands for 400 years before becoming widely known. He bequeathed his drawings to a friend.LEONARDO DA VINCI Leonardo devised many artifacts of our modern lives. Cloudburst of Material Possessions 1510-12 45/8 x 43/8 in ( 1 1 7 x 1 1 1 mm) L E O N A R D O DA VINCI . a hook. a bell. It is interesting to speculate how engineering might have developed if his ideas had been shared with the world earlier Ink and chalk This is a pen and ink drawing with touches of black chalk. and a wheel. There is a little magic in recognizing many items from our homes something like a rake. Each item that has crashed from heaven is drawn in such a way that we can feel Leonardo's nib picking it up in the speed of a doodle. envisioning machines centuries before their making (helicopters and bicycles. together with half the contents of our garage. Above and below are examples of his mirror handwriting.
his unsurpassed handling of light. and famed for. sea-. or cityscape. and dry marks in the foreground appear to be made with his finger. and across to the right. thick. C L A U D E LORRAIN French classical landscape painter draftsman. Claude is distinguished by. transferred it to a scroll. In the lower half he has walked downhill a little. Over first lines. Paler. made inside a book. Nature Profiles Opposite below. which he used to unify his compositions. Segments The top half of the drawing is a view as we enter the valley.1638 85/8 x 121/2 in (219 x 320 mm) CLAUDE LORRAIN . Clare Bryan took panoramic photographs of the English South Downs.202 ELEMENTS THE PROFILE OF A HORIZON is a line we immediately recognize and respond to. a horizon line can trigger our recognition. rapidly layering contours to shape place. she teased away fragments of paper to illuminate her view. and mood simultaneously. cooler tones receding into the distance are applied with a brush. and after tracing her captured line. Even distilled from all other detail. EARTH AND THE Bryan cut the profile of a city. it is the unique calligraphic signature of the place in which we stand. rich. and we can imagine standing over his shoulder. atmosphere. She was inspired by her research of aerial plans of London and the story of an alien map butterfly (see caption). watching his hand and eye at work together. Claude has used a fine nib to delineate segments of land as they recede into space. Claude Lorrain drew directly on location. Whether land-. Drawing with a scalpel. Views from Velletri c. and etcher who lived most of his life in 17th-century Rome. In a very different work (opposite above).
and digital print-based works reflect upon the histories and poetry of "left behind and in-between spaces.203 Scalpel-drawn This book-bound drawing was inspired by the story of a foreign butterfly wrongly to Great Britain in 1912. On turning the pages of City. and visiting professor at numerous art schools.The horizon was drawn with a City Landline 2003 271/2x 59 in (70 x 150 cm) scalpel. 2001 CLARE BRYAN C L A R E BRYAN 3ritish artist. printmaker graphic designer. The edges of each here) fade into the solid paper unpopulated with a scalpel landscape.5-m)scroll." Cut line This is a small section of a preparatory 5-ft(1. then hunted destroyed. drawings Ideas of introduction Clare Bryan to research introduced down and led NATURE PROFILES and removal historical plans and aerial growth of London showing its population since Roman times. Her recent paper photographic. source workisilluminatedby standing its lower edge on a CLARE BRYAN . progressively settlement (cropped more and more paper is drawn away to show the expansion of human page of an around the river. specialty bookbinder.
between your middle finger and thumb. Slightly dull the tape's stickiness before use t o prevent it from lifting out more than you intend. It is also easily erased if the maker of the mark is not happy with the result. It c a n be m a d e duller. It does n o t erase easily. 4. cylindrical. Alternatively. vine. R o u g h paper c a n b e loaded. a piece of fresh bread. fine. you can p u r c h a s e m a c h i n e . 2.204 E A R T H AND THE E L E M E N T S Charcoal CHARCOAL IS PRODUCED from wood baked slowly without exposure to air. it looks gray and feels like chalk. THIN WILLOW CHARCOAL: I used a piece like this to make the drawing opposite. 162) or graphite (see p.54). MEDIUM W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 5. a n d p l u m . THICK W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 2 Keep the tape above your drawing. Use any fine-point pen or pencil (I used a ballpoint) to draw a firm line on the back of the Big pieces are perfect for very large-scale drawings—even larger than yourself. The tip snaps easily to renew a sharp edge if required. 3 A white line is lifted out by the tape.m a d e c o m p r e s s e d charcoal. Hold it over your drawing RANGE AVAILABLE Charcoal (in its several forms shown here) is loved or loathed by the beginner to whom it is often recommended because it produces pleasing results quickly. a rag. Lines are achieved by d e p o s i t i n g particles in the grain o f paper. LIFTING OUT This technique is a very easy method of drawing a crisp. and heavier than willow. without touching the surface. only a little thicker. Willow is the most c o m m o n wood. but some specialists stock compressed charcoal in delicate square sticks. Not to be confused with square conte sticks (see p. the heel o f y o u r h a n d . CHARCOAL PENCIL: Types made by different manufacturers vary in quality and density of line. It allows you greater precision in your mark-making than if you rub away the charcoal with an eraser. black finish. harder line. and offers a rich. 1. Essentially. As its name implies. SQUARE COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Not often sold. 1 Suspend a length of masking tape. maple. b e e c h . 3. Smooth paper accepts few particles. b l a c k e r . The same as above. Beware of cheap brands selling dyed chalk as compressed charcoal. resulting in a stick that gives a blacker. . resulting in a pale line. Artists have also used lime. CHALK CHARCOAL: Technically. 6. so it chars b l a c k as o p p o s e d to igniting a n d turning to ash. tape. it is compressed and m o l d e d at high pressure. In use. leaving u n d e r t r a c e s of first thoughts. white line into the blackor grayness of willow charcoal. they are all intended for fine work. a n d m o r e i n d e l i b l e by soaking it in linseed oil. Try itworking on big paper covering a wall. feather. A great find when available. B u n d l e s o f twigs were traditionally sealed into earthenware j a r s or wet clay and heated slowly and intensely in a fire or kiln. Boxes often contain a range of thicknesses to choose for different needs. or fingertip. this does not exist. Then lift it away. COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Machine-made. blacker. 7. sticky side down. C h a r c o a l naturally glistens. Charcoal lifts away from paper easily with the very light touch o f an eraser.
Lift out broader marks with a larger implement.212-13 were made by altering the pressure applied to the charcoal. pastels. sold in several widths. Different tones seen throughout the main drawing on pp. Layers can be peeled away to refresh its surface. Use high quality (very sticky) to fix paper to walls and boards. Here. or any other dry media. as is fresh (unbuttered!) bread. graphite. CHARCOAL Lifting out This detail shows an example of where I used the lifting-out technique demonstrated opposite to draw flashes of lightning against rain clouds. PEN: Any fine pen or pencil can be used to draw on the back of masking tape when lifting out. Cotton swabs also work. 10. MASKING TAPE: An invaluable resource. 8 . Use cheaper (less sticky) for lifting out. 9. I used a plastic eraser effectively on thinly applied charcoal. T O R T I L L O N : This is a tight roll of paper used to blend charcoal. .205 ERASING Thickly applied charcoal quickly o v e r c o m e s a plastic eraser A w a r m (soft and tacky) putty eraser is more effective. Here we used a ballpoint.
especially when making first excursions into aerial perspective.9 9 we noted that in response to visual stimulus. Pack several thick and thin sticks of willow charcoal. Landscape drawings are traditionally arranged in three parts: a detailed foreground. This term simply means that as land rolls away into the distance. our brains search for nameable things and will perceive complete pictures from very little information. hazy distance. begin by marking out several small squares on your paper. an eraser your drawing book or a board and paper fixative (or hairspray). They are also good markers of receding space. It is the visible effect of the atmosphere between where you stand and what you see in the distance. details blur and colors grow paler and bluer. a less distinct middle ground composed of shapes and textures. Then I drew the shape of the tonal patches I perceived. the less you describe. The long view is hidden behind trees. To experiment with drawing landscapes and the use of charcoal. 9 8 . Excessive detail can be admired for its skill and achievement. I relaxed my eyes out of focus to dissolve distracting detail into abstract patches of light and darkness. it results in flat planes of clutter. At its worst. Seeing tones . and an abstract. a reel of masking tape. Ironically. MATERIALS In this first view there is only a foreground and middle distance. the more you encourage the viewer's imagination to join in and see. On p p .212-13). Don't worry if it is cloudy: clouds add drama and perspective and make good subjects in themselves (see pp. pack your materials (as advised below) and set off for a local view or your nearest arboretum. but is often less evocative and engaging. to contain each of your compositions. Successful drawings often only suggest the qualities of the scene without overdescribing them. When you arrive.206 EARTH AND THE ELEMENTS Landscapes TREES ALONE OFFER MARVELOUS shapes to draw. and a cushion in a plastic bag to sit on.
dark trees with bright. horizontal regions of grass. This composition turned out a little flat because I have an almost even quantity of earth and sky. It is better to give distinctly more pictorial space to one or the other (see below). Exploring the view Redrawing the scene above. the trunk of a bare tree. Remember. shadows. and broke a view through the hedge into the distance with a dark sky threatening rain. your view is your inspiration. rounded. I have invented drama with diagonals set against each other I tilted the earth. full of information you can use to create what you want! Inventing drama .207 LANDSCAPES In my second square I explored a simple view contrasting soft.
s e e k places in light After my first drawing. I am then able to home in on what interests me most for further study.1 5 my first drawing of the whole view of the Tiber led me to see the real subject of the day. taking with you your drawing book and pen. EARTH AND THE FINDING THE SUBJECT Finding a remarkable subject is even better when you can circumnavigate it in an arena of space. making the scene below led me to focus on the decaying boat opposite. shade out of the glare of the sun. bare ribs. England has embedded within it the decaying skeleton of a burned fishing boat. I usually begin by making an image of the whole view. so the paper is not made blinding and your hand cannot cast a shadow on your work. The mud of the tidal shore in Rye. observing it from several views so as to better understand it as a whole. 2 1 4 ." . Circling a subject and drawing it from several views imprints on your memory a better understanding of its three-dimensional form. Building on earlier studies of structure in space using shoes (pp. and seeing what the real choice of subject is. engine. settling my concentration. and tiller still standing proud. For example.104-05). your challenge now is to find a sculptural subject in the landscape. which was the flow of water over rocks.208 ELEMENTS Drawing in the Round WHEN DRAWING IN THE LANDSCAPE.164-65) and a wire violin (pp. "Drawing in the round means to literally walk around your subject. Similarly. This first drawing serves as a process of arrival. on p p .
Overleaf: Decaying Boat 4 . W h e n you have found your subject. 3 This impression notes the angle of the broken boat. and structure. marking straight. w h e n t h e sea recedes. character. I drew with quick. I spent equal time looking at the subject and the paper. looking more at the boat than at the paper From this low position I have emphasized how the boat is swallowed in mud by outlining its shadow on the ground. The outline ties a shape of darkness to the boat like a weight so that it becomes part of its form. I looked more boldly at the planes and the dynamic of the sculptural craft My lines have become darker and more forceful as confidence in my understanding of the vessel grew. careful lines to establish the skeleton that gives this wreck its distinct form. unfussy lines. and the order and shape of its component parts. make a series o f drawings f r o m different positions. ROUND 2 In this tail-end view. Each n e w drawing gives a different insight.209 SERIES OF STUDIES This stunning ghost o f a boat comes into v i e w t w i c e a day. DRAWING IN THE 1 Here. its overall balance.
L o o k i n g b a c k and forth from the heavens to firmly taped-down paper. hot-pressed drawing p a p e r (see pp. m a d e on s m o o t h . I worked quickly to catch and weave the turbulent contrasts of rising wind and approaching water before the drawing could be washed away.Cloudburst THIS STORM DRAWING. .20-21) using a thin stick of willow charcoal. was made with gentle but unhesitating s p e e d .
since ancient times. I drew with a needle-fine fiber-tip pen. pocket-sized notebook.Notes of Force T H E GREAT FLOWING TIBER RIVER has cut through Rome. . focusing on the river's eddies. and rhythmic detail as it passed through the ancient gully of the city. pulse. black. shaping the city. On the pages of a small.
.Mountains SITTING IN THE SHADE of a tree on the Greek island of Antiparos. The strong diagonal of the composition from bottom left to top right carries the eye through changes of height and focus from the foreground to the mountains beyond. I used a dip pen and waterproof India ink with brushed watercolor to draw the view.
Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape 1915 413/8 x 285/8 in (105 x 72. An abstract mark is often a better conductor of a thought or feeling. sounds.Abstract Lines T HE DEVELOPMENT OF W E S T E R N abstract art at the beginning of the 20th century significantly paralleled major changes in world thought. or gestures. I begin every image by feeling its meaning. The fate of Old World thinking was finally sealed with the brutality of World War I. . and it has always been with us. It was not invented in the 20th century. and independent means of communication. and have been making abstract drawings for centuries—Japanese calligraphy. abstraction is not so easy to define. Internal workings of the mind were suddenly free to find a new language of expression. don't be timid. Perhaps in Western culture we bred this intuitive freedom out of ourselves in our insistence on complex figuration. and poetic myth roar and cascade within his tightly framed pages. such as Adolf Wolfli. It is actually its foundation and its infrastructure. actions. Not everything we know has a physical form in the world. Swirling. fictional language. belief. poet. drawn sound. strike the paper to find form. which are essentially abstract. Indian mandalas. As you approach the classes in this chapter. He made thousands of drawings to chronicle his complex life. spontaneous image-making. Wolfli was a Swiss draftsman. From another viewpoint. Outsider artists. The growing rise of Darwinian ideas coupled with Freudian and Marxist perspectives forced Western society to reconsider its origins and future. His drawings are collected and exhibited internationally and held by the Adolf Wolfli Foundation. precisely because it does not have to represent a physical object. and emotion. be brave and enjoy them. writer and composer who suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and was resident in the Waldau Aslyum near Berne. picturing a stabilized world was impossible and Modernism rode forth with vigor. My own work is firmly centered in figuration. Many concepts and feelings can only be expressed through marks. It also underpins and gives strength and unity to all figurative work. Berne.8 cm) A D O L F WOLFLI Abstraction is a direct. Museum of Fine Arts. writhing torrents of color. yet my kinship to abstraction is fundamental. many nonWestern cultures have highly sophisticated abstractions at the core of their art. it is simply itself. liberating. expressive marks and shapes are at the core of natural. and history. People are often scared by abstraction and see it as the enemy of figurative art. direction. and young children show us that abstract. However. and Aboriginal art. ADOLF WOLFLI One of the greatest masters of Art Brut. all pictorial representations are abstractions of reality. Artists were given a different tool—a line threaded directly from their subconscious to their hand—and with it they began to map a bold new landscape of marks and concepts that would dramatically and forever change the face of Western art. opposite. only rediscovered. Afterward. From one point of view. for example. First marks.
Sometimes it smolders like a deep shadow. This the paper rest within the amplifies framelike of the floor from the ceiling. Five forged steel shapes. as Twombly shows us opposite. MAMORU ABE Japanese sculptor and installation artist. scrolling across the canvas in an intimate crescendo. water. akin to stones in a Zen garden. He travels widely to research ancient sacred sites. The Physical Space 1990 3 0 x 30 ft ( 9 1 4 x 9 1 4 cm) MAMORU ABE . tone. Lines. it can keep reforming through the inherent repetition of a process. brass. and Assistant Professor of Fine A r t at Fukuoka University. Twombly's mesmeric wax line worked over house paint is like a signature. Abe's physical drawing is a sculptural installation. Below. staining redbrown lines into the white surface. Mamoru Abe prepares an image that will appear through the chemistry of iron. rhythmically engaged with itself. It can proclaim mood.220 A B S T R A C T LINES Process and Harmony SOMETIMES A DRAWN LINE sings on the surface of its support. Moisture produced rust. A line can be finished in a second. quoting ink marks on a page. ice. and wood are also part of the work. and sensitivity with its thickness and pressure of touch. and texture their bracing separation reaching between from beneath Pillars of the gallery are made part of this drawing by their inclusion in the paper. silence. Abe works with materials such as soil. and patient watching. and temperature rim of floor space. Changes paper. Damp Japanese paper was laid over carefully arranged iron bars. texture. and plaster in galleries and landscapes. or. A Neolithic chalk tablet bears cut lines that were slowly carved. Iron rods in tone. sit in silent harmony. iron. forged steel. salt.
000-2. burials.Twombly was presented with a Golden Lion award for lifetime achievement. that challenges the separation of word from image.241). theories suggest astrological observations. emotive. and American Indian petroglyphs (see p. Many of his graffiti-like combine abstract gestures with statements.221 ANCIENT CARVINGS Many ancient cultures have made and left behind drawings and texts carved into stones or animal bone. Precise lines suggest the use of a sharp flint The framed rectangle of this image is echoed in that of Abe's installation.400BCE 21/4 x 21/4 in (58 x 58 mm) ARTIST UNKNOWN Language Over the course of fifty years. and Untitled 1970 Here we might seek to grasp letters in the turning of his line. PROCESS AND HARMONY Cut lines Chalk carves easily.Thesite's purpose is unknown. The central pictorial space is also similarly cut and divided by the considered arrangement of straight lines. energetic.England. close to Stonehenge in Wiltshire. Neolithic Chalk Tablet 3. This example is one of two chalk tablets found in a Late-Neolithic pit. and the worship of the sun and ancient gods. Twombly has language works CY TWOMBLY Contemporary American artist who emerged through the 1950s New York art scene in the heyday of Abstract Expressionism and Action Painting. and sensuous drawing from painting. evolved a raw. the Babylonian world map. At the 2001 Venice Biennale. CY TWOMBLY . such as the Rosetta stone.
and lifted them away to leave impressions of watery planets and seas. opposite." An innovator who never fails to surprise. abstract.28). said. Both abstract drawing and composition involve the perfect sequencing of sounds and marks against space and silence. Gestalt. abstract artists and composers unique. a configuration. Similarity in gritty texture suggests that here.222 ABSTRACT LINES Writing Time SINCE THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY. and let the drying meniscus deposit granules in linear drifts such as we would see in the satellite photographic mapping of rivers. and participate in the composition. o r a pattern o f elements s o unified as a w h o l e t h e y c a n n o t b e e x p l a i n e d asa s u m o f parts. Two Impressions Paper 1853-55 VICTOR HUGO Disk from a Cut-Out . here he anticipates abstract expressionism by 100 years. too. Here he appears t o have saturated the cut-out moon disks with gritty pigment. and inventive of his time. Texture Compare this drawing to Hugo's octopus on p. music manuscript requiring instrumentalists to improvise. broke new ground in the 1950s with graphic scores now considered among the most extreme. beautiful. have striven to break down old pictorial and musical structures to explore new and unfettered modes of expression. Bussotti. The scores are also exhibited in galleries as visual art. he mixed graphite into ink. drawing here can b e described in t e r m s o f a G e r m a n philosophical idea a b o u t is t h e i n s t a n t r e c o g n i t i o n t h e p o w e r o f m o m e n t . pressed them face down.28. Hugo. A graphic score is a V I C T O R H U G O Hugo's abstract French novelist w h o m a d e m a n y drawings in m i x e d m e d i a ( s e e also p. o f t e n e x p r e s s e d in v i s u a l t e r m s . interpret. below. brushed night skies over them with ink then lifted the disks to reveal white moons. Gestalt o f an unnameable thing. Ink impressions When drawing nightscapes Hugo often laid paper disks in place of the moon. Marks across the center appear to be made with his fingers. "There is nothing like dream to create the future. His drawing writes the time of its own physical process by expressing the extreme concentration of the moment in which it was made.
Compare this work to that of Libeskind on p. This is a page from Due Voci. Bussotti's first mature work. Circular Score for "Due Voci" c. 1958 SYLVANO BUSSOTTI . Following the notes.223 W R I T I N G TIME SYLVANO BUSSOTTI Italian avant-garde composer and principal 20thcentury exponent of the graphic score. His later works become increasingly abstract. a far cry from any recognized musical notation. we can feel their rhythm and easily attach sounds to them. Sound and rhythm This flickering rondo of sound written in pen on a hand-ruled stave can be heard in our imaginations as much as seen. 70 in relation to Bussotti's clustered notes to the left of his rondo and open space to the right.
In the late 1 9 t h century. This takes a form in most cultures. an a n o n y m o u s w o m a n in the southeast Indian state o f Tamil Nadu m a k e s a ritual drawing o n the b r i c k courtyard o f h e r h o m e . for e x a m p l e . and sufferers of psychiatric illnesses—who have always existed. MARIE LIEB Little is known of this w o m a n for w h o m the act of drawing was essential. social outcasts.224 A B S T R A C T LINES Chants and Prayers WHEN ABSTRACT LINES are organized in repetition. Torn cloth This is one of two published photographs showing Marie Leib's torn cloth strips significantly placed on her cell floor. Cell Floor With Torn Strips of Cloth 1894 MARIE LIEB . d i p p i n g h e r fingers into a pot o f rice flour. She tore c l o t h into strips a n d used these to draw patterns a n d symbols o n h e r cell floor. T h e s e p h o t o g r a p h s d o c u m e n t the meditative drawings o f two w o m e n living worlds apart in different countries. Germany.228-29) has been adjusted with each movement of the rags to draw a cosmos of balance and perfection. It will protect the place from evil and make a pleasing invitation to good spirits. Lieb is one o f countless thousands of "Outsider" artists—diverse individuals including ordinary citizens. it is found in the regularity o f ordered lines or a pattern. O p p o s i t e . Cloth is the simple instrument with which she has conducted and ordered her universe. Visually. cultures. Marie Lieb w a s a psychiatric patient in the Heidelberg Asylum. and c i r c u m s t a n c e s . they m a k e a visual a n d physical e c h o that t o u c h e s s o m e deep part of the human spirit. making objects and images outside o f mainstream culture. Compositional rightness (see pp. centuries. In music it can be felt in the diversity of plainsong and African d r u m m i n g .
In daily practice. women pride themselves on never repeating a design. Popular magazines feature new ideas each week and on special occasions there may be contests. at the University of London and Ohio State University. and for over 30 years has traveled extensively through the Indian subcontinent creating an edited archive of 200. Designs and motifs Rangoii (or mandalas) are ritual drawings made by many millions of women across rural India. and birds. animals. Huyler is the author of Painted Prayers. lime. among others. Motifs are geometrical or based on plants.000 images. chalk.225 STEPHEN P. Materials such as rice flour. cultural anthropologist.Theseare widely published in journals and are the subjects of international exhibitions. lecturer on the subjects of Indian art and Indian women's identity.HUYLER Photographer art historian. Skills are handed down through generations and from friend to friend. or flowers are marked or arranged on the ground or on the walls of homes. Painted Prayers UNDATED STEPHEN R HUYLER . and in places of worship and celebration.
performance and installation artist. filmmaker Professor of Fine Art. BRIAN CATLING British sculptor poet. With no depth of field. Catling's torn paper shapes and shadows spill light out of their frame like a fractured mirror. free from the direct imaging of known physical things. Ruskin School. and Fellow of Linacre College. Catling's abstract drawings are usually made in series and in parallel to written poetry and sculptural installations. Klee's mathematical maze of thinly washed surface resonates with meticulous planning. They each find their pathways and equilibrium in atmosphere and suggestion.226 ABSTRACT LINES Compositions ABSTRACT DRAWINGS ARE LARGELY or entirely free from using the viewer's eye to track and unfold layers of meaning. Oval moons eclipse each other and oscillate between landforms and portraiture. it is ruled and contained in one dimension by its interlocking ink-lined borders. but similarities in mood. and choice of hues. Mixed media This is a collage of torn white and gray tissue paper previously stained with ink. gold paint and iridescent gouache mixed with water. rocks or heads in a subdued atmosphere of dream. Their energy can therefore be a purer expression of an idea or emotion. Catling's works made for international galleries and museums involve drawing as a tool in their development and making. and water-resistant layers of spray and enamel paint on thick paper. structure. figurative representation—that is. Untitled 2001 2001 153/4x 215/8 in ( 4 0 0 x 550 mm) BRIAN C A T L I N G . These two works present complex compositions with differing intensions and methods of making. Oxford.
227 PAUL K L E E Swiss painter and sculptor (see also p. Kunstmuseum Bern PAUL KLEE . whereas tonal surfaces are perceived more immediately as a whole. He explained his polyphonic painting as "a harmony of several color voices" searching for a visual parallel to music. and might be read as active or passive.31). Line and surface Klee observed the visual capacity of lines to push or pull within an image. and wrote copiously about the natures and relationships of color and form.97-99. We can see some diagrammatic examples of this among the optical illusions on pp. It is a geometric harmony of straight lines and tonally graded flat colors that by their arrangement draw our eyes inward to their white center. Polyphon Gefasstes Weiss (White Framed Polyphonically) 1930 131/8x95/8 in (333 x 245 mm) Paul-Klee-Stiftung. Klee also felt that a line represents the passing of time. Geometric harmony This is a work on paper made with a sharp ink pen. Klee painted. watercolor. and brush. philosophized. ruler. drew.
w i l l c h a n g e w i t h e v e r y r e a r r a n g e m e n t . It is also found in nature. angles. and ten straight sticks painted black. It is found in all great art and design. the late garden designer Russell Page explains. after being continuously adjusted. s o m e will be more or less h a r m o n i o u s . regardless of style. there is a clear feeling when.Thisexercise will help you start. or degree of figuration. This balance is what every artist and designer searches a n d feels for when making an image. and an apple. b u t e v e r y n o w a n d again you will hit on an arrangement w h i c h appears just. they are just. and elements settle in definitive balance. There is a single m o m e n t w h e n all proportions. media. but an easy o n e to u n d e r s t a n d . "I have experimented endlessly with this idea. In his b o o k The Education of a Gardener. As y o u m o v e them around." SETTING UP Justness can be harmonious or deliberately discordant. and put them o n a tray. or on a page. a glass. a b u n c h of keys. Set up a sheet of paper with a rectangle drawn on it.228 ABSTRACT LINES Being "Just" A SENSE OF "JUST" (or rightness) is a difficult concept to explain. the impression y o u receive from t h e m . Seek it when looking at other artists' work and in your everyday environment. their impact. or home. Feel for it when youdraw. they reach a perfect position. W h e n m o v i n g objects around in your yard. M a n y of their inter-relationships will be meaningless. for instance." . culture. "Whenall pictorial elements come together in pleasing and perfect balance. Take.
horizontals dominate the top.229 WHERE TO START Take ten sticks of equal length. as shown here. horizontals dominate the lower area.56-57). fix it with glue. suggesting a horizon." Move the sticks to find alignments and imagined perspectives. painted black. Feel for the rightness of their grouping and their relationships to surrounding spaces. Here. Within a rectangle on a flat sheet of paper set about making a composition using no other rule than a sense of "just. A stick touching the rectangle links the composition to the frame. Arrange them so they touch or cross in a series of intersecting balances. B E I N G "JUST" 1 Arrange your ten sticks in t w o groups of five. Remember the drawn rectangle is a part of the composition (see pp. . W h e n the composition falls into place. making the composition seem to float beneath. which now becomes a tight frame. In the final step (left) there is an even balance. 2 3 In the step above. Move the sticks out into the rectangle.
which is the shifting.Youwill also need spare white paper. colors. and tones. or even strident." overlapping placement of materials on a flat plane." (Russell Page) . you start composing by adding or subtracting shapes and textures and using colors and tones to achieve the impression you want to m a k e — w h e t h e r dramatic or s u b d u e d . glue. Images and fragments torn from day-to-day life can be brought together to make a chorus of ideas and emotions. Collage offers the artist a liberating palette of SETTING UP This lesson in collage is a direct continuation of the compositional lines made in the previous class. they become a scaffold for the addition of further textures. found or made items. scissors.230 ABSTRACT LINES Collage H E R E W E EXPERIMENT with collage. he went on to say ". stain and dry a sheet of tissue paper using blueink. To prepare for this lesson. This principal also applies to three-dimensional drawings such as Gaudi's work with wire and weights on p. and black ink. colors and textures can be manipulated until their pictorial harmony. hard or soft. "My understanding is that every object [or shape] emanates—sends out vibrations beyond its physical body which are specific to itself.69 and Abe's installation on p. Cut or torn layers and shapes. Once the ten painted black sticks are set and glued in place.. an infinite range of voices and meaning.. or discordance. harmonious.228-29). feels "just" (see pp. Returning to Russell Page. ready-made depths and surfaces. correction fluid or white paint. a compass.220.
228) in front of you. and with a compass and scissors. draw. they deepen pictorial space. . four circles of blue tissue paper. correction fluid and ink marks add further dimensions.The single disk that is folded with its straight edge facing up appears heavier than those that are flat. and shadow to thepicture. COLLAGE 1 Regular-sized pieces of white paper are moved over the surface to disrupt the even lines.231 WHAT TO DO Lay the final step of the previous lesson (p. 2 3 Torn white paper moved over the surface adds masks of rough-edged irregular volume. Obscuring the blue disks. Glue them in place once they feel "just" Translucent circular disks of tissue paper give color tone. This can also give a sense of fragmentation or punctuation to the composition. solidity. Cut six small rectangles the same proportion as your whole image. In the last step (left). then cut out.
Hitsuzendo drawings aspire to "breathe with the energy and vitality of eternal life" achieved through "a state of no mind—beyond thought. emotion. is the practice of Zen through the calligraphic marks of a brush dipped in carbon ink. A MODERN JAPANESE meditative art form inspired by the teachings of Yamaoka Tesshu (1836-1888). and expectation.Zen Calligraphy HITSUZENDO. ." [Tanchu Terayama. Zen Brushwork].
Lines made with a steel dip pen take on a scratchy nervousness. These vibrate against washes of shadow and pitch-black mass.Nocturnes IN THIS QUARTET of semi-abstract drawings made with India ink. I flicked spatters of ink and rubbed the paper with a wet and a dry brush to achieve these effects. . discord is balanced against rhythm to create mood.
aliens. Be inspired by the irrational comedy of word association or puns. Feeding this demand. impossible. thousands of paintings. To learn to flex your imagination. Humans are equally troubled by the imperceptibly small and the enormous. our literate and more secular Western society still hungers for another world and to ravenously indulge its fascination for the marvelous. we select details of animals farthest from ourselves and that are widely thought disturbing—reptilian and insect features. Today. . a human-animal mix that implies this could MARTIN SCHONGAUER German painter and engraver who settled to work in Colmar Alsace. serpentine tails. The salvation of heaven and terrors of hell are represented equally—enough to make any sinner shudder. Throughout this book images are presented to excite and surprise and drawing classes created to increase your confidence. We love our fear of the hybrid—ideally. Monsters take advantage of both. We then add substances we dislike: unidentified fluids. Here. beasts. For example. our eye circulates around a flutter of leather and scaly wings. Depictions of God or of gods in the contexts of daily life. paradise.247. We watch with captivated pleasure movies such as The Fly. or in smoke. angels. Reading the place name I momentarily glimpsed an alternative meaning. sculptures. feathers. which is to have eaten a nun—it inspired the drawing on p. When creating monsters. and damnation are found in most world faiths. in the cracks of walls. which were widely distributed and influential in his time. a collaboration between the two will ensure that your drawings glow with originality. Lord of the Rings. Images we are now surrounded by bear testimony to the power and resourcefulness of their collective imagination. a Catherine wheel of drawn sparks spiraling around the quietly resolute saint. and the faces of God have for centuries given artists a feast for the extremes of their imagination. and stained-glass windows deliver powerful visual sermons to the once-illiterate populace. or strange. wings.Gods and Monsters OUR SACRED AND SECULAR need to visualize demons. Perhaps the Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 1485 121/4 x 9 in (312 x 230 mm) MARTIN SCHONGAUER most important conclusion in this final chapter is to advise you to develop your skills in parallel with the joy of your unfolding imagination. scales. Neither should be slave or master. and the Alien trilogy. England. In the Christian churches of Europe. Fantasy is most successful when founded on strong and familiar visual logic. Schongauer is best known for his prints. all of which originated as hundreds of drawings. and deep fur—and we alter their scale. for example. happen to us. movie studios now brim with as many monsters as the visual art of the Medieval and Renaissance Church. look for images in the folds of clothing. Star Wars. I was on a train passing through Nuneaton.
Other drawn versions of this image are more savage and frightening. hags. Francisco de Goya was a master of borrowing. Many students leave white backgrounds in their work. which can swamp the subject Here. The high. Paul Thomas's studies of Picasso and Twombly can be traced directly. whose impassioned work begins with light tapestry cartoons. barren land rising like MYRIAD CHAINS RUN THROUGH ART HISTORY. Aquatint Goya has drawn a learned man as an ass. his lover a dog. Violent white marks symbolizing Achilles' rage resonate with the energy of Twombly's script on p. portraits.30. a Shoshone seeking guidance and power meditates at the sacred site of a petroglyph. Compare his dark. reading from a book of asses. below.220. Los Caprichos. The well-dressed mule is cumbersome. and men clubbing each other to death. Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 1799 81/2 x 6 in (218 x 154 mm) FRANCISCO DE GOYA . Goya later recorded the horrors of Napoleonic occupation. Pictorially. crammed tightly at his desk. Goya's plainly textured gray background pushes back the space behind the illuminated simply subject. Near the end of his life he made his "Black Paintings" on the walls of his home. Saturn devouring his son. Opposite below. such asinine behavior can be hereditary. Opposite. deranged masses. Visions experienced in front of the drawing sometimes instruct the making of a new one. noisy seascape on p. and follies of court through copious graphic works including his best-known prints. This continuity enriches the making of art and our heritage. vanity. He would be graceless if he stood. The title "And So Was His Grandfather" adds that should we not already know. F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A Spanish court painter printmaker and draftsman. a wave to join Achilles' chase of Hector. In this softer aquatint he poses for his portrait Textured background The aquatint process has been used to great effect in making a gritty toned background. This act defines the vision and continues the line of spirit guides. we see the international icon of stupidity. They depict as if by lamplight the devil and witches. to Picasso's similarly tight. it allows the mule to stand forward. plain wall suggests a blinkered view of nothing. and church murals. In this ass. rushing. and exposed the superstitions.240 GODS AND M O N S T E R S Marks of Influence marking the influence of one artist upon another. quoting great paintings and popular culture to add cunning twists to his satires.
of the earth. Parallel lines within the body of the figure are likely to denote power. or of the water Chipped image This is a sacred creature of the sky chipped onto rock at Dinwoody Lake. Simple wall stones cleverly state their cold solidity while also fading from our attention as the scene roars by. and personal and social struggles. Achilles Chases Hector 1996 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) PAUL THOMAS SHOSHONE PETROGLYPH The Shoshone people of Wyoming name petroglyph sites Poha Kahni. Thomas conducts his explorations in the mine of Greek and Roman mythology. Wind River Reservation. values. Wyoming." Each sacred image drawn into rock belongs to one of three realms in the Shoshone world: the realm of the sky. It was made with a sharp implement. meaning "place of power. Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range UNDATED ARTIST UNKNOWN .241 MARKS OF INFLUENCE PAUL T H O M A S British contemporary artist whose epic graphic work questions and reflects upon issues of European identity. ideals. White marks like flashes of light are cut though graphite with an eraser to reveal the paper beneath. by a supplicant in a trance of meditation. perhaps a stone. A vivid spectrum of energized graphite marks and a masterly composition give this drawing vitality and speed. Graphite marks Here Achilles chases Hector around the walls of Troy before killing him.
Lifting out Fine strings of the hot-air balloon appear dark against the sky and light against the balloon. the shock would be extreme. If it were to turn and stare this way. lifting its cranial passenger over a seascape of repose.and 16th-century Holland. We may feel safe so long as the eye looks heavenward. The monsters of Bosch grew from his observations of beggars going about their trade in 15th. as he did the grass.204-05 will enable you to produce a similar effect of white lines shining out of dark charcoal. Redon lifted them out with some sort of eraser. H e was influenced by his friends. we see parallel slanting pale marks that might have been made with fresh bread—a very effective eraser used before the wide availability of rubber or plastic. which sometimes—half-dressed and carrying a familiar trophy— stride. Our subconscious can be drawn with pleasure and ease. graphic artist. and scuttle over all known reality. 115. Here we see how he evolved their injuries into new limbs and warped proportions. Techniques demonstrated on pp. the writers Joris-Karl Huysmans and Stephane Mallarme. GODS AND Erasure In this charcoal drawing. and writer In contrast t o the light and visual accent of contemporary Impressionism. T H E EXPLORATION AND DEPICTION Hauntings Grandville has drawn a scurrying zoo of half-known demons and animals that appear to have been stolen from the glass eye of the microscope.242 MONSTERS of the unknown is a classical and constant occupation for the artist. Compare worked textures throughout the whole of this image to those found throughout Anita Taylor's charcoal drawing on p. crawl. below left. ODILON REDON French painter draftsman. They float toward us like a horrid visitation. Redon's eyeball balloon rises up. The Eye Like a Strange Mounts Balloon 165/8 x131/8in (422 x 332 mm) ODILON REDON 1882 Toward Infinity . Redon explored the darker side of the human imagination through symbols and mysticism. Children are also delighted to invent a monster or ghoul. to the right of the balloon.
Two Monsters UNDATED 45/8 x61/2in (117 x 163 mm) HIERONYMUS BOSCH .243 J E A N I G N A C E ISIDORE GERARD ("GRANDVILLE") French graphic artist and political satirist. include The Haywain. Most of his work is in the Prado Museum. 1840 61/8 x41/2in ( 1 5 5 x 1 1 5 mm) GRANDVILLE HIERONYMUS BOSCH Dutch painter Bosch's highly detailed iconographic religious panel paintings. Quill and ink This typical Bosch monster is a quill drawing in bistre ink The phrasing of light and contour here is masterly. Madrid. Last Judgment. Comic little headbands of waving hair express more hysteria than fear. Smiling. Light shines from the right. which is still available today. Les Animaux (1840). and he illustrated the Fables of La Fontaine and Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe. The quality of the line is therefore uniform throughout. grimacing. teeming with the exhilaration of unrestrained fantasy. sucker-faced creatures dash and trundle toward it They are drawn solidly to emphasize their earthbound weight. and Ship of Fools. His other major works include Metamorphoses du Jour (1828). A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects c. HAUNTINGS Engraving This is an engraving made so that Grandville's original drawing could be reproduced. Garden of Earthly Delights. This image is from one of Grandville's best-known publications.
wraps and coils its lithe body ready to strike or whimper at a touch. However. but in the seductive landscape of Leonardo da Vinci's oil painting Madonna of the Rocks. and engineer Among Michelangelo's great works are the painted ceiling and altar wall of the Sistine Chapel. and dog. Opposite. poet. Chalk and ink A quill dipped in brown ink was worked over black chalk on this reused sheet. Grimes' delicately cavorting figures dive into and consume each other. as we might expect.244 GODS AND MONSTERS Convolutions THESE CONVOLUTED DRAWINGS were made almost 5 0 0 years apart. architect. They share between them the pleasures of inventing a hybrid beast. remembering the cavernous. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI Florentine painter sculptor. and marble sculptures including Pieto. and play with its perfection and meaning. Two previously drawn faces become humorous antagonists to the beast. gamboling copulations. snake. the dome of the Vatican. a stunning hybrid of a swan. His entire drawing wrestles and weaves the viewer's eye into its retracting folds. Dragon 1522 10 x 133/8 in ( 2 5 4 x 3 3 8 m m ) MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI . David. A snake eating its own tail is a universal image of the eternal and continuous. below. and dying slaves. In her studio. Michelangelo's dragon. phrased over the contours of form and bridging darker areas of shadow. hatched lines. St Peter's square. Scaly. and mist-swathed land. pinnacled. sometimes artists purposefully tie a knot in the configuration to disturb. lion. muscular tension is carved out of the paper using layered. she formed a series of ghostly pale. topple. Grimes found the genesis of her beast not among animals.
details evolved slowly using a drier brush. London. and the Camberwell and Slade Schools of Fine Art. boards finished paper. London. It is one of a series of fragile earth figures inspired by rocks. Oxford. Ink-wash delicately gouache (smooth) and gouache brushed drawing on This is a and was hot-pressed Shadows The dark shadow of the Other the ink-wash earth was made with a brushstroke of ink laid into wet paper. How Clever of God #84 2002 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) O O N A GRIMES .245 CONVOLUTIONS O O N A GRIMES British contemporary artist and professor of printmaking at the Ruskin School. Grimes exhibits internationally and features in the collections of the New York Public Library and the Victoria and Albert Museum. each one iridescent and crumbly like a weathered while oyster. The large space around figure has been cropped Grimes drawings to flatten presses them. her under heavy here. The image formed directly without first making a pencil outline.
and texture. SYNTHETIC-HAIR LINER: This brush gives a medium line and is firm with a spring to the touch. L A R G E R S Y N T H E T I C . It is still relatively small in the total range of Japanese brushes. 10. LARGER JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with natural hair held in a plastic ferrule on a bamboo handle. it has good wash capabilities. thicknesses.Theyhold plenty of ink and make continuous. This design supplies the fine tip with a long continuity of ink 5. 7. SMALL JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with sable hair. Slightly less flexible than the squirrel-hair sword liner 9. this brush has a soft drawing tip and small ink-holding capacity. 1. This brush has a broad wash capability and can achieve a very wide range of marks. Always clean them thoroughly. The living marks of a wet. and has a fine tip for detailed work. Shorter brushes designed for other purposes run out of ink more quickly. materials. It has exceptional painting characteristics. SYNTHETIC-HAIR S W O R D LINER: A lining brush with high ink-holding capacity and a fine point. others are as fine as a whisker with a gentle touch. fingers. and never leave them standing on their tip in a jar of water. Some used by master calligraphers are 2-3 in (5-8 cm) in diameter 11. JAPANESE PAINTING BRUSH: Made with natural hair. all perfect for drawing and. the very opposite of pencil or silver point. Soaps purchased from good art supply stores will gently cleanse particles of pigment that become trapped in the hairs or ferrule.H A I R LINER: Very responsive oriental-style liner This to the touch. ink-laden tip allow an expression that is beyond the linear. POINTED SQUIRREL-HAIR MOP: With a synthetic quill ferrule and extra high inkholding capacity. SQUIRREL-HAIR S W O R D LINER:This brush has a maximum ink-holding capacity and an extremely fine and flexible point 8. S Y N T H E T I C . giving a variety of lines. ideally suited to drawing. 13.246 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brushes T H E BRUSH IS A VOLUPTUOUS and delicate weights. 3. making rt ideally suited to Japanese painting and small-scale calligraphy. which holds long sable hair This brush holds large amounts of ink for long lines and points well for detailed work. SABLE-HAIR RIGGER: Made with very long kolinsky sable hairs. between them. and hold prodigious weights of ink or paint. SABLE-HAIR LINER: Made with ordinary sable hair surrounding an extralong. liners. and wrist into a fluid and soft touch. dense. SYNTHETIC-HAIR BRUSH: Bound in a synthetic ferrule with good inkholding capacity and good spring and control. and writers. washes. Brushes vary in size. How you care for your brushes will determine how long they last.H A I R RIGGER: Made with long synthetic hair for fine-point work It has a good ink-holding capacity and is slightly more resilient than sable hair with more "snap. The brushes shown here are a mixture of This is a selection of riggers. Some are bold." 6. shape. drawing tool extending the arm. and effects. Suitable for wash techniques but also capable of very fine detail. with a fine point for delicate work 4. return them to their pointed shape. needle-sharp center of kolinsky red sable hair. and very fine lines. It is capable of very fine pointing. 12. P O I N T E D T R A D I T I O N A L WRITER: The ferrule is made from a small duck quill. flowing. 2. M T RA S AEIL . it has good inkholding capacity and is very flexible.
247 BRUSHES .
softness. splashes. I rubbed a block of Chinese ink (see p. It also depends on the angle at w h i c h it is held. and above all w h e t h e r the b r u s h is saturated with pigment or relatively dry. w i t h m y face close.248 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brush Marks A S I N G L E BRUSH will m a k e an e n o r m o u s range of m a r k s depending u p o n the width. length. unglazed earthenware dish.246-47). Here I drew with a soft Japanese painting brush (see pp. A single brush has almost balletic potential to draw fine or undulating lines and curves. b l o w i n g h a r d o n t h e m several t i m e s t o disperse t h e ink ( c l o s e y o u r eyes if y o u t r y this. I had left the end of the ink block in the water overnight to make it easier to dissolve. and type of its hairs. the texture and a b s o r b e n c y of the paper ( w h i c h m a y be d a m p or dry). and to make pools and stains o n the page. SETTING UP Blowing spots T h e s e t h r e e s p i d e r y c r e a t u r e s (above right and below) w e r e m a d e by d r o p p i n g s p o t s o f ink f r o m a b r u s h o n t o t h e p a g e and.35) into two tablespoons of water in a shallow. and spatters.) I . the degree of pressure applied. the speed of the s t r o k e .
w e see fine lines and s p o t s . t h e effects of the b r u s h r u n n i n g o u t o f ink. BRUSH MARKS Wet and dry strokes A m o n g these concentrated drawings ink made into with the same w a t e r y lines. b l e e d i n g f r o m strokes b e l o w left.249 Gritty texture T h e details o f t h e largest creatures b e l o w and opposite s h o w the granular texture of Chinese b l o c k ink. a n d t h e w a y it d i s t r i b u t e s w h e n t h e b r u s h is d a b b e d o n its s i d e . a n d b r u s h . .
Oxford. . until we look again.Monsters THESE LITTLE CREATURES o f i n k and i n v e n t i o n were b o r n out of animal and bird studies. and used their detail to draw new creatures that might at first seem familiar. I borrowed small and fragile specimens from the University Museum of Natural History.
formal composition. Goya often invented his monsters out of characters seen in other painters' works.Goya's Monsters W I T H CUNNING BRILLIANCE. Madrid. They are a pair and hang opposite each other. Through studying and drawing these great paintings I have discovered that they are based on a pair of similarly long. I found relationships between all four paintings in terms of shapes. showing us that gallery study is not just for the student and beginner. thin works titled The Witches' Sabbath and The Procession of St. are two long. Isidore. Here. With further research. Goya's witches have been literally drawn and evolved out of the shapes of Murillo's prophet and pilgrims. two of my own drawings show you how Goya's devil (below) is based on the shape of Murillo's boy on a horse (top right). . Among his "Black Paintings" in the Prado Museum. thin works made by Bartolome Murillo in Seville about 120 years earlier. and narrative twists.
. Sometimes drawings come out of nowhere and surprise even the artist.Consumed THIS IS A SERIES OF CARTOONS I m a d e s o m e years ago. little comments on politeness and sexual politics. drawn rapidly and with great joy.
A l s o called m u s e u m g r a d e . w h e n a p e r s o n is p a i n t e d standing a g a i n s t a w i n d o w . T h e m o v e m e n t was started by a g r o u p o f French artists including H e n r i Matisse. pressurized t o o l used f o r spraying fine mists o f s m o o t h c o l o r P i g m e n t is d e l i v e r e d b y a j e t o f air n o t t h e bristles o f a brush. Deckle edge T h e i r r e g u l a r e d g e o f a s h e e t o f m o l d . Bracelet shading C u r v e d parallel lines t h a t f o l l o w t h e c o n t o u r s o f f o r m . chance mark-making. in w h i c h parts o f an image are depicted v e r y brightly and dramatically against d a r k n e s s . In t h e W e s t p e n calligraphy is u s e d t o c r e a t e f o r m a l a n d d e c o r a t i v e t e x t s . t h e field is t h e a p p a r e n t a n d b e l i e v a b l e space inside t h e p i c t u r e . Calligraphy Beautiful h a n d w r i t i n g . Cartoon 1. Anamorphic distortion Stretching an i m a g e across a p i c t u r e surface so t h a t it can o n l y b e u n d e r s t o o d . Air brush A mechanical. a r e r o l l e d t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders. T h e b l a n k e t s g i v e t h e p a p e r its rough texture o r "tooth. Binder A substance t h a t holds particles o f p i g m e n t t o g e t h e r in a paint f o r m u l a t i o n .s i z e d r a w i n g m a d e for t h e purpose o f transferring a design t o a painting.m e d i a d r a w i n g . A f u l l . usually at a n a c u t e angle t o t h e s u r f a c e . t o g e t h e r w i t h a t h i c k felt b l a n k e t T h e w h o l e s a n d w i c h o f l a y e r s is t h e n railed t h r o u g h t h e press t o m a k e a p r i n t D r y p o i n t is a very portable and immediate m e t h o d o f printmaking. Composition T h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e p a r t s o f an i m a g e t o m a k e u p the whole. and readymade objects arranged and stuck o n t o a flat surface. D a m p p a p e r is laid o n t o p . Acid-free paper P a p e r w i t h a neutral p H t h a t will n o t darken o r d e t e r i o r a t e excessively w i t h age.m a d e paper. r a t h e r t h a n r e c o r d e d o n a film o r plate. U s e d as a c o r r e c t i n g device o r pictorial game. Engraving 1. 2. Bleed T h e e f f e c t o f t w o w e t colors running into one another o r o n e color applied t o a w e t surface a n d a l l o w e d t o d i s p e r s e .256 GLOSSARY Glossary Accidental drawing Random. Ferrule T h e s h o r t m e t a l t u b e t h a t s u r r o u n d s a n d g n p s t h e hairs o f a p a i n t b r u s h a n d fixes t h e m t o t h e brush handle. F r o m t h e G r e e k kallos. L a t e r it c a m e t o m e a n h i g h l y c o n t r a s t e d light effects. s u c h as a s c r e e n . p r a c t i c e d meditatively w i t h a brush. A p o t e n t i a l l y h a r s h m e t h o d o f p r o d u c i n g t o n e s in a d r a w i n g . written with a broad-nibbed pen o r brush. Fixative Liquid acrylic resin a n d l a c q u e r t h i n n e r usually a p p l i e d as a n a e r o s o l s p r a y m i s t t o t h e surface o f a d r y . t h e l i g h t is b e h i n d h i m o r her. R o u g h p a p e r is m a d e b e t w e e n t w o blankets t h a t .c e n t u r y painting m o v e m e n t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e use o f b o l d . Fixative lightly glues t h e d r a w i n g t o t h e surface o f t h e p a p e r t o p r e v e n t smudging. a n d given t h e n a m e Sho. Chiaroscuro A 1 7 t h . In t h e Far East calligraphy is a highly r e s p e c t e d a r t f o r m . o f t e n d i s t o r t e d forms and vivid colors. p h o t o g r a p h s ." " N o t " p r e s s e d p a p e r is r o l l e d a s e c o n d t i m e w i t h o u t blankets t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders t o p r o d u c e a s m o o t h e r b u t still slightly t e x t u r e d s u r f a c e . A h u m o r o u s d r a w i n g o r parody." D e s c r i b e s a p a i n t i n g in w h i c h t h e light s o u r c e is b e h i n d t h e s u b j e c t F o r e x a m p l e . as o p p o s e d t o t h e s t r a i g h t e d g e o f a sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has b e e n machine-trimmed. It can also seal a silver p o i n t d r a w i n g t o p r e v e n t t h e oxidization (browning) o f t h e Drypoint A d r a w i n g is s c r a t c h e d directly o n t o a m e t a l plate w i t h a m e t a l t o o l h e l d like apen. p r i n t i n g press face up. A l s o called r i n g l e t shading. A i r b r u s h e s are u s e d in t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c o m i c s . Erasure T h e a c t o f r e m o v i n g a n i m a g e f r o m a surface. m e a n i n g "beauty".d i m e n s i o n a l i m a g e . s u c h as a d r a w i n g o r painting. Field In a t w o . F r o m t h e French v e r b coller. Eye level T h e i m a g i n a r y h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e a t t h e s a m e h e i g h t as t h e a v e r a g e p e r s o n ' s eyes. Contre jour A F r e n c h t e r m m e a n i n g " a g a i n s t day.The plate is t h e n r o l l e d w i t h ink a n d polished with a rag. w h e n v i e w e d f r o m a specified point. in w h i c h t h e subject's distinctive features o r peculiarities are deliberately exaggerated f o r c o m i c o r g r o t e s q u e effect. Camera obscura A d a r k e n e d c h a m b e r i n t o w h i c h an i m a g e o f w h a t is o u t s i d e is received t h r o u g h a small o p e n i n g o r lens a n d f o c u s e d in natural c o l o r o n a facing surface." It w a s first given t o t o n a l paintings m a d e in o n e c o l o r — s e e Grisaille.c e n t u r y Italian t e r m m e a n i n g "clear-obscure. Blotting T h e use o f a b s o r b e n t m a t e r i a l t o lift a w a y excess liquid. o r o t h e r (usually large) w o r k — s e e Pouncing. Fauvism A n early 2 0 t h . m e a n i n g " t o stick" Dry media M e d i a t h a t a r e n o t w e t o r o i l y — f o r e x a m p l e . n e w s p a p e r cuttings. pastel. Also called accelerated perspective. so t h a t ink r e m a i n s o n l y in t h e g r o o v e s o f s c r a t c h e d lines. See also Hotpressed papers. a n d attaches t h e m t o t h e s u p p o r t — f o r example. o r will o n l y a p p e a r n o r m a l . A " s h a l l o w d e p t h o f field" m e a n s t h e p i c t u r e appears t o have only a shallow s p a c e inside i t Diffuse T o s o f t e n o r m a k e less brilliant. A g e n e r a l t e r m t h a t describes t h e various processes o f c u t t i n g a design i n t o a plate o r b l o c k o f m e t a l o r w o o d . Aerial perspective The effect of the a t m o s p h e r e o v e r distance as it lightens t o n e s a n d cools c o l o r s progressively t o w a r d t h e horizon. W o r d s o r symbols are Cold-pressed papers P a p e r manufactured with a "not" o r " r o u g h " surface. 2. Camera lucida A n optical device t h a t p r o j e c t s an image o f an o b j e c t o n t o a plain s u r f a c e so t h a t it can be traced. T h e name " n o t " simply refers t o t h e fact t h a t t h e cylinders are n o t h o t in t e m p e r a t u r e . for example. tapestry. Collage C o l l e c t e d materials such as c o l o r e d p a p e r s . a n d g r a p h i t e . Conservation grade D e s c r i b e s a range o f materials t h a t d o n o t d e c a y and cannot be broken d o w n by insects. linseed oil o r egg y o l k Caricature A representation Contour line A line t h a t f o l l o w s t h e s h a p e o f a surface. T h e prints t a k e n from t h e s e plates o r blocks. C o p p e r p l a t e engravings w e r e widely used t o r e p r o d u c e images b e f o r e p h o t o g r a p h y . charcoal. It is p u t o n a Body color See Gouache. Blending M e r g i n g t w o o r m o r e neighboring colors o r tones t o g e t h e r using a tortillon. R e m b r a n d t is a great master o f chiaroscuro. A l s o c a l l e d t h e h o r i z o n line. S o m e t i m e s f e r r u l e s a r e m a d e o f plastic o r o t h e r materials. Crosshatching Parallel lines d r a w n across o n e a n o t h e r at right angles.
Gamut A complete range or extent Glassine A type of thin. After several intervening processes. sticky paper tape. then rubbed over carefully but vigorously with a crayon. aiming to represent facts rather than an interpretation of the subject. and masking off areas of a drawing that the artist wishes to keep untouched by media applied above or beside the tape." A piece of paper is placed on top of an object or rough surface.Theground provides a particular color or texture beneath the image. or for wrapping and protecting a finished piece of work. glossy. ink. F o r m a t T h e size. are painted in grisaille and appear to be made of stone. Lifting out A method of creating highlights and mid-tones in a drymedia drawing (such as charcoal or graphite). The ink attaches to the oil-based image and is repelled by the wet stone.The degree to which detail is defined. Also refers to an additive used to control the application properties of a color Golden Section A proportion in which a straight line or rectangle is divided into two unequal parts in such a way that the ratio of the smaller part to the greater part is the same as that of the greater part to the whole. It can be used with any wet media to isolate or protect parts of an image from further Optical blending See Pointillism. which give it a smooth surface (as opposed to cold-pressed paper. and that will "escape" or change over time. oil-. so that (using vanishing point perspective) the object appears to change shape and become narrower or smaller as it recedes. white. Lithography A method of printmaking in which a drawing or painting is made directly onto a smooth slab of particular limestone or a metal plate using an oilbased crayon or ink. Objective drawing Refers to the concept of objectivity. materials that produce marks on a surface. It is then peeled away. rock. graphite. F o r m The outer surface of a three-dimensional object. multiH u e A term for a color. mineral. Masking fluid Clear or opaque latex fluid developed for watercolor painting. Padua. or spirit-based) is applied to a surface that is then pressed onto paper and removed to leave a print. The surface can be reloaded or redrawn with more medium. pastel. and orientation of the image. lifting out charcoal and other dry media. with the area beneath remaining unaffected.while secretion of the acacia tree. It improves the bonding properties Frottage A French term meaning "rubbing. it is the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work Pigment Any substance used as a coloring agent—for example. and is also used as a size. work. to describe a surface to which paint will adhere readily. Fugitive A term given to a pigment that it is not stable. Paper is laid on top and a rapid drawing is made on the back of it The paper lifts away to reveal the image on its other side. Picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. of the ingredients in inks and watercolors. purpose. Medium A generic term for art Key A painting is said to be "high key" when the colors and tones are bright and "low key" when they are dark or somber The term is also used Gouache Opaque watercolor Also called body color. or canvas and allowed to dry before an image is drawn or painted. Focus 1 . or can be otherwise used to create an image—for example. to give the illusion of depth and distance. Paper is then pressed against the stone to take a print. Pointillism A technique of using points or dots of pure color in such a way that when the picture is viewed from a distance they react Masking tape Invaluable. Alternatively. This method incorporates the excitement of accidental and unpredicted marks. This may be disregarded in real life. oil-based printing ink is rolled evenly onto a smooth metal. . Grisaille A painting in gray or a grayish color Often made by students as a tonal exercise. or plastic surface. This effect emulates what we see in real life. Dark tones are laid down first then an eraser or masking tape is used to lift away particles of the drawing media to reveal the lightness of the paper beneath. Papercut A type of collage in which flat sheets of paper are cut into an image. Grisaille is occasionally seen in church stained-glass windows. Monoprinting A direct method of printing in which wet medium (water-. or a family of colors. and it has a history in enamel work. enabling them to stick to paper It also helps to maintain a stable dispersion of pigment particles in water as the film of a wash dries. which has a rough surface).257 metal line. glass. but in picture-making it is as important as the objects/subjects themselves. the finely ground particles of plant. format" (abbreviated to "portrait"). A point of interest in a drawing. shape. Giotto's Virtues and Vices in the Arena Chapel. including Max Ernst used frottage in their work. 2. Hatching (cross-) See Crosshatching. Rubens used grisaille to paint small images for engravers. the surface of the stone is made wet before being rolled with a thin film of oilbased printing ink. Negative space The space between things. Artists can paint freely over dry masking fluid. cadmium yellow hue. and by artists representing stone sculptures in a painting. A small image might be described as small format Horizontal images are often said to be "landscape format" (abbreviated G u m arabic The natural to"landscape"). Hot-pressed papers (HP) Paper made using hot cylinders. or synthetic material that are suspended in a medium to constitute paint. Monochrome Usually refers to a black. Foreshortening A method of depicting an object at an angle to the surface of the picture. and translucent paper—a delicate material used in collage. used for fixing paper to walls and boards. Usually an academic drawing observed from life. Impressing Stamping or printing. or a drawing made in any single color GLOSSARY Linear perspective A form of perspective in which parallel lines are represented as converging. or even a beam of light. Also used by artists' materials manufacturers to indicate the use of a substitute pigment—for example. but each print will be unique. Hairspray is an effective and inexpensive alternative. and gray drawing. upright images are called "portrait which is used as a binding agent in many liquid media. Plumb line A line from which a weight is suspended in order to determine verticality or depth. It is a strong adhesive. Ground A wet solution usually of gouache or gesso (chalk and animal glue) brushed onto paper board.The paper then bears a crayon impression or copy of the surface that was underneath it A number of Surrealists. Lightfast A term confirming that pigment in the product will not fade with exposure to light.
Underdrawing A pale preliminary drawing made prior to adding layers of another medium such as oil paint or watercolor Value The extent to which a color reflects or transmits light This is the equivalent of tone in a black and white image. giving it a brilliance. Recto The front or top side of a piece of paper. watercolor. Spattering A mottled texture produced by drawing your fingers across the bristles of a stiff brush loaded with pigment. Shade A that is color mixed (or toned) with black Shading A lay term for adding tone to a drawing. Zen A school of Mahayana Buddhism that asserts that enlightenment can come through meditation and intuition rather than faith. or point on which parallel lines converge to give the impression of receding space. Pouncing If a large drawing or design (called a cartoon) is to be Shadow Darkness cast by the transferred to a surface such as a obscuring of light. "Spirits" or "oil" of turpentine refer to the volatile portion used by artists to thin or dilute oil-based paint. Named paper in place." Applied to the blurring or softening of sharp outlines by the subtle and gradual blending of one tone into another Sgraffito A technique of scratching or cutting through a surface of paint. or mark using an inked or pigment-covered surface. or gouache. ink. plaster or cloth surface beneath. The translucent Tint A color mixed with white. . Strip Core of a pencil. Tortillon A short. or pen. or wood. design. fruit.Thedrawing is removed. Vanishing point In linear perspective. cut-out profile made along every outline of the usually made in black paper image. Stippling Applying color or tone in areas of fine dots or flecks. Zen brushwork This is an oriental meditative art form originating in China and practised for many centuries in Japan. The crude material is called oleoresin. a sheet of paper is placed beneath and pinpricks are Silhouette A flat. or ceramic glazing to reveal a different color beneath. Sfumato An Italian term meaning "smoky. Props An abbreviation of the word properties. Wash A technique using ink. carbon ink. Turpentine A colorless solvent distilled from the resinous sap of pine trees. and chrysanthemum—which in Chinese tradition are called "The Four Gentlemen. by imposing a grid that is then scaled up to a larger size.Technicaldrawing has been example. in tone running from black to white or vice versa. Sketch A quick or rough drawing. such as an inscribed sheet of metal. or watercolor paint. Squeegee A rubber-trimmed scraper used in the screenprinting process for dragging ink across a surface. whose pinpricks creates a "connect-thepersonal pastime was making dots" replica of the image on the cut-out portraits. or the left-hand page in a book. Technical drawing A universal it is often used in conjunction language of lines and measurements with line drawings in pen and that is used to make diagrammatic ink—for images. W e t media Any liquid media— for example. creating more vibrant effects than if the same colors were physically mixed together with a brush. tight. Stylus A sharp. Squaring up A method of enlarging and transferring an image from one surface to another. Tone A degree of lightness or darkness. glasses. pointed instrument used for marking or engraving." Materials for Zen brushwork include round brushes of varied size. Although drawings can be made with wash alone. pointed roll of white paper that is used to blend dry media. Zen brushwork encompasses calligraphy and painting. compound of water-soluble pigment. wall or tapestry. Etienne de material) dabbed through the Silhouette (1709-67). Single-point perspective The most basic form of linear perspective in which there is only one vanishing point. Scale Describes the size of one element in relation to another Sepia A brown pigment taken from the sun-dried ink sacs of cuttlefish and used to make ink or watercolor The term is now often incorrectly used to refer to brown colors. meaning objects used in setting up a life model or still life. or the right-hand page in a book. usually diluted with water and applied with a brush. Subjective drawing A drawing that expresses the personal view and interpretation of the artist An invented image. or any physical object that can be stamped or pressed onto a surface to leave an impression. commonly referred to as the lead. and flowers. nature of watercolor allows the white surface of the paper to Tonal scale A scale of gradations shine through. evolved by engineers and architects for the purpose of conveying W a t e r c o l o r A painting accurate structural information. plaster. acrylic. which are then called editions. Zen paintings usually depict scenes of nature and plants such as bamboo. fine paper. A term borrowed from the theater. Serigraphy Silk-screen printing.258 GLOSSARY together optically. orchids. Support The structure on which an image is made—for example. in order to flick the pigment onto the image surface. Pounce (a fine for an unpopular 18th-century powder of charcoal or similar French politician. Still life A picture composed of inanimate objects such as bowls. sometimes drawn from a and leaving only the pricked sheet of shadow cast on a wall. Artists' prints are normally made in multiple. Viewpoint The position from which something is observed or considered. using a brush. a point at which receding parallel lines meet Verso The back or underside of a piece of paper. a tightly folded piece of cotton batting can be used for the same effect. an ink stone usually cut from slate. Volume The amount of space occupied by an object or an area of space in itself. to model areas of light and shade. and paperweights. Alternatively. Size A weak glue used for filling the porous surface of wood or canvas in order to seal it. paper or canvas. plum blossom. Printmaking The act of making a picture. pencil.
Nicolas-Jacques 54 contours 146. 201 collage 111. 161 Akhlaq-I Rasul Allah manuscript 51. 180 blending: color 133.Index Page numbers in italics refer t o captions and illustrations Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity (Bishndas and 259 INDEX B bread (as eraser) 205. 190 Caricature of a Woman (Daumier) 198. 74. Basilius 47 Beuys. 90 colored materials 162-163 colored pencils 162. 204-205. 230 The Physical Space 220 abstract drawing 219. 75 Circle of the Lustful (Blake) 180.169 colors: airbrushed 161 background 91 A Abe. 162 character: to capture 38-39. 189.115 anatomical drawing 134-135 anatomical theaters 82-83 anatomical waxes 128 ancient carvings 221.198. 157 cropping 56-57.44-45.163 body. to model 110-111 border 51 Bosch. 198.51 All and Nothing (Taylor) 114. Augustin 67 Basquiat. 9 Chair (Van Gogh) 94. 111.186 see also movement Adoration of the Magi perspective study (Leonardo) 74. 13. William: The Circle of the Lustful 180. 90 La Guitare. Clare 203 City 202. 71 Blake.50. 221 animals. to depict 156-157 Cloudburst of Material Possessions (Leonardo) 200. 203 Landline 202. 226-227 Acanthus spinosus 65 accelerated perspective 22. 139 Nanha) 50. 244 and graphite 178 . center of 118 ballpoint 182. 158.100 curves. 113 bird bones 12. 220.13. 250 Bishndas and Nanha: Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity 50. 29 Hugo's octopus 28. 242 Brunelleschi. Franz 48 Protea nitida 48 Bellini. Hieronymus 243 Two Monsters 242. to draw 100 Cypripedium calceolus L. 204. 182. 242 to blend 205 compressed 122.162 Conte. 95 Chair Cut Out (Woodfine) 94.163 graded 227 composition 56-57. (Ross-Craig) 49 to hold brush for 23 caricature 159. 41 principal 186.133. 165.226. 199 Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya (Eisen) 156. 203 Buffalo Hunt (Shoshone) 178. 244 head and neck 144 phrased 124-125 contrast: brightness 99 of media 30 tonal 96. Brian 226 Untitled 2001 226 "Cave of the Hands" (Cueva de las Manas) 8. to draw 25. 26 geese 38-39 Gericault's cats 28. Sylvano 222. 90. 78 aerial perspective 206 airbrushing 160. 222. 137 Besler. 178 Cubism 67. 40-41 Durer's rhinoceros 26.27 turtles 42-43 aquatint 240 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels (Leonardo) 12. 205 Baltard. 128. 116. 230-231 Cubist 90. 30 sleeping dog 38-39 Stubbs's horse skeleton 26. 70 Art Nouveau motifs 91 Autoportrait (Ray) 138. 75. 52 cotton swabs 205 Coup de Vent a Asajigabare (Hokusai) 198. 94 chalk(s) 53. 72 bracelet shading 122 Braque. Georges 67. 8 cave paintings 8.212 to erase 205 to hold 23 pencils 204 willow 114. 247-248 carving see lines.117 Achilles Chases Hector (Thomas) 240. 179 Bussotti. 94 cylindrical objects. 28 Klee's horses 30.44-45 bird studies 12. 200 Bauer. Filippo 67. 74 brush (es) 246-247 Japanese 248 for laying a wash 140 marks 248-249 to hold 23 brush drawings 14-15 Bryan. 81 135. 223 Circular Score for "Due Voce" 223 children's art 9.89. 241 action. 133. Joseph 113 The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland 112. 163. 203 Claude Lorrain 202 Views from Velletri 202. 186 charcoal 114. 206. 198 cartoon (preparatory drawing) 137 (satirical) 159. to express 39.163 dry media 205 Blue Nude (Matisse) 110. 71 Bacchante (Bakst) 155 background: color 91 textured 240 Baker Matthew: Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry 32 Bakst. Etienne-Louis 72 Newton's Cenotaph 72. 180 Circular Score for "Due Voce" (Bussotti) 223 circus scenes 192-195 City (Bryan) 202. Statue d'Epouvante 90 calligraphy. 206 checkered floor 80. 38-39. 74. 9. 160 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object (Moore) 178. 98. to draw 80. 134 costume(s) 155 character 158-159 structure of 166-167 Cottage Among Trees (Rembrandt) 52. 243 botanical drawing 48-49 Boullee. Le (Hugo) 200. 71 conte 112. 13 architectural drawing 67-71 Arctic Flowers (Libeskind) 70. 50.31 Picasso's horse and bird 30. 90. Jean Michel 138 Self-Portrait 138 Bateau-Vision. Mamaru 104. layers 53 chalk pastels 162. 81 cut-out model plan 94.184. cut Catling. Leon: Bacchante 155 balance. 193 in lifting out 204. Victor: West Facade of the Church of St. 202 cloth. Zen c 232-233 blended 133.184. Giovanni 137 Head and Shoulders of a Man 136.
112.109 Rhinoceros 26. Rene 160 Illustration for Jacques Fath E easel. 134. 99 etching.101 engraving 243 erasers/erasing 55. 162 Flaxman. 122. 90 gouache 30. 55.12 fixative 54.121 felt-tip pens 162. 30 Fauves/fauvism 90. Statue d'Epouvante. Sir Ernst 12. 230 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction 68. 55. 160 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction (Gaudi) 68.117 fountain pens 34. M. 222 Grimes. Study for Plate 59 (Mucha) 90. 69 Guitare. 163. 241 to blend 205 and chalk 178 and ink 28. La (Braque) 90. 170-173. Keisai 157 The Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya 156. 200 F fabric. 37 Grandville 243 A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the Near-Microscopic World of Scale Insects 242. 93 horizon 52. Francisco de 131.37. 190 Middle Eastern 50-51.216 Durelli. fiber-tip pen 182.252-253 from memory 183. 203 Hotel de la Suzonnieres (Satie) 70. 93 eye level 80 Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity. 202. 157 . 40. Victor 200. 26 Flying Fish (White) 25. 113. Alberto 136 Portrait of Marie-Laure de Noailles 136. 226-227 anatomical 134-135 architectural 67-71 botanical 48-49 brush 14-15 dark to light 102.160. 134. 25 focus 65. 55. 160 hitsuzendo 233 light to dark 102.Theodore 29 Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 28. 245 layers 30 Goya. 216 foreshortening 110. 240 Black Paintings 152.104. 243 graphic score 222.244.260 INDEX D Dada 139 Daumien Honore 198 Caricature of a Woman 198.198 Degas.216. Katsushika 199 Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 198. 132 Frenz. Nicholas 68 St Paul's Baptistry 68 head and neck to draw 142-145 Head and Shoulders of a Man (Bellini) 136. 141 tonal 96. 77 How Clever of God #84 244. 124. 29 H hands. to draw 168-169 in Goya's artworks face.116. Cheval et Oiseau (Picasso) 30.160.207. 240 170-173 five Ships in a Port with Lighthouse (Wallis) 11. 131 Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 240. 73. 125.111 feet. 222 Le Bateau-Vision 200. 223. 112.184 165. 69. 245 Hugo. 222. 120. 252 depiction of fabric monsters 252-253 Self Portrait in a Cocked Hat 130. 90 G Gaudi. 161 fashion drawings 160. 137 heads. to draw 78. 240.166 170-173 Gestalt 222 Giacometti. 242 eyes.69 Gerard.144 and ink 30. C . 205 drawing with 103.146 from masterworks 126-127. drypoint 181 exaggeration 184 expressionism 198 E ye and Head of a Drone Fly (Hooke) 92. 203 semi-abstract 234-237 three-dimensional 68. position of 143. 7 33 Hooke.John 157 Man Lying Down in a Cloak 156. Oona 245 How Clever of God #84 244. 52 foreground 208. 161 fashion 160.141.189. 134. position of 22 Eisen. 144 Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (Baker) 32. proportions of 143 fantasy drawings 72-73. 69. to draw 134-137 Helleborus corsicus 55 highlights 91.244 drawing(s): abstract 219.103. Ron 161 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 161 160. to draw 120. 122 Hawksmoor. 104-105.102-103 drawing board 20 drawing books 20-21 drawing paper 144. Jean Ignace Isidore see Grandville Gericault. 161 changing 216 Focusing on the Negative (Walter) 16 foliage 52. 160 Faune.157 ellipses 100. 799 Holbein. 115 Escher. 135 Duren Albrecht 26. 71 minimal line 99 and music 70-71 quick 38-39. 136 Golden Section 67 Gombrich. 160 as ground for metal point 140. 765 hitsuzendo drawings 233 Hokusai. 79.103 with eraser 103. 245 Gruau. 91 Dragon (Michelangelo) 36. 223 graphite 54.141. 220 dry brush 234 234 57.230 three-tone 140. Robert 93 Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 92. Antonio 68. Antonio 135 Muscles of the Head and Neck 134. 69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt 68. 41 in the round 208-209 with scalpel 202.115 exploratory 17 fantasy 72-73. 163. 32 framing 139 Franfoise au Bandeau (Picasso) 132.97.91. to suggest 177 see also perspective diagonals diffuser 55 dip pens 34. The 242. Hans 133 The Ambassadors 116 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 132. Edgar 162 depth. disposable pens 182-183 dissections: botanical 48 of horse 27 distance: illusion of see perspective linear 97 tonal 97 Documents Decoratifs.
33 J justness 228-229 N naive art 74 negative space 53. 234 iron-gall 35. Alphonse 90. 166.181 L Landline (Bryan) 202. Rose: Tantalus or the Future of Man 20 minimal line drawing 99 mirror use of 120 mixed media 28. drawing from 126-127. 36. 244 Dragon 36.91 Study for Plate 59 of INDEX illumination see lighting Illustration for Jacques Fath (Gruau) 160. 177 influences. 34. drawing from 183. 183 vertical 156 linear distance 97 linear perspective 69. 110 Sistine Chapel ceiling 116 Middle Eastern drawing 50-51. 220. 114 hatched 244 layered 118 pace of 65 pale 40 rapid 49. 181 Klee. 205. 37 lines 118 pastel 162 pencil 31. Gustav 49 Knopf. 73 Kigell.109. 252 ink 16. 28 Two Impressions from a Cut-out Paper Disk 222 Huyler Stephen R 225 261 Kinecar. Victor 134 Profile Head 134. 230 invented creatures 106-107 250-251 invented objects 89. 225 masking tape 204. 160 In the Duchess's Kitchen (Rackham) 176. Daniel 70 Arctic Flowers 70 Lieb. 97 Murillo. apparent 97 Leonardo da Vinci 74. 83 white 122 ink impressions 222 ink spatters 234 installations 176. 227 Scene of Comical Riders 30.141. 58-59. 184.167 line(s) 132. 34-35 acrylic 35 bistre 35.109. 244 lithograph 198 Losbruch (Kollwitz) 180. 203. 219 Mondrian. 248. 244 ink 36 252-253 Documents Decoratifs 90. 244.The (Robinson) 108. 156 magnification 93 Man in Armor (Van Dyck) 158. Henri 111 Blue Nude 1110. 159 Japanese 35 to make 36 sepia 35 walnut 36. 53 Tree II 52. Henry 178 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object 178. 73 Michelangelo Buonarroti 48. 756 priming for 140. 31 Klimt.115 98. artistic 240-241. Marie 244 cloth drawing 244. 63. 249 and gouache 30 Indian 35. 53 monoprint 787. 221 endless 31 free 113. Oxford 106 Prado.134 K Kettlehut.276. David 78 M Mackintosh. Florence 128 lighting in 167 Pitt Rivers. Erich 73 design for Metropolis 72. 220. 757 mandalas 219. Johan 32.243 carbon 35 Chinese 30. 185 Mucha.141 Metropolis (film) 72. Paul 227 Polyphonic Setting for White 226.120. 54 silver point 156 leg sections 158 length. 178 motifs: A r t Nouveau 9 7 stylized 51 mountains 216-217 movement: of animals 30-31 of humans 7 79. 74-77. I Murderous Attacks 33 Kollwitz. 163 pens 36 measuring 116 memory. 35. Madrid 171 University Museum of Natural History. 49 Rose 49 Maelbeke Madonna (Van Eyck) 156. Charles Rennie 48.166 La Specola. 111. 220. 226 Modernism 67.227 to "bend" straight 97 compositional 228-229 cut 202. Oxford 250 music 70-71 Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks (Knopf) 32. Piet 52.182 Moore. 220. 103 Neolithic chalk tablet 220. Phyll: hands 18 lifting out 204. 135 museums 44. 190 metal pens see dip pens metal point 25. 205 masterworks. 252 Muscles of the Head and Neck (Durelli) 134. 181 luminosity 115 Lynch.104. 78 Study ofThree Male Figures 110. 76 Libeskind. 72.112. 203 landscape 206-208 brushed 14 Landscape in Hoboku Style (Sesshu) 14 layers 146 chalk 53 gouache 30 ink 28. Bartolome: Moses Striking the Rock ofHoreb 252. 201 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels 12.33 Mysterious Affairs of the lighting 2 7. 242 light 96 to depict drawing with 1 76 painting with 176 .Pieuvre (Octopus) 28.124. 170-173. 99. 158 Man Lying Down in a Cloak (Flaxman) 156. 60. 789. 176. 13 Cloudburst of Material Possessions 200. 227 Newsome. Matisse. Kathe 181 Losbrunch (The Outbreak) 180. 77 Miller.102.96. 201 head and neck sections of female mold for Sforza Horse 89 Madonna of the Rocks 244 perspective study for Adoration of the Magi 74.
199 Profile Head (Newsome) oil pastels 162. 1 1 6 accelerated 2 2 . 161. 1 6 3 .759. 2 2 0 for oil pastels 162 stained 230 to stretch 140-141 tissue 21. 68 Satie. 181 pencil(s) 54 charcoal 204 colored 762. 40-41. 114 rollerball 182 Rorschach blot 99 Rose (Mackintosh) 48.104 Pieuvre (Hugo) 28. Erik 70. 165. 76-79. 9 8 .176 Real Life Is Rubbish 176. 74-77. Man 131. 230 parallel planes 79 Parisian street 86-87 pastels 162 to blend 205 to hold 23 layers 162 pencils 162 pen(s): dip 34 .240. 736 portraits.40. 166 fiber-tip 782.9 3 Schongauer.Tim. 7 38 Ray 138. 103. Isaac 92 Telescope 92 Newton's Cenotaph (Boullee) 72. 165 figure 118 filled 37 pencil 48. 772 234-237 Sesshu. 4 8 putty eraser 55. Bridget 98 Robinson. The (Abe) 220 Picasso. Heath 181 The Kinecar 180.7 77 rapidograph 70 Raphael 110. 1 6 9 to hold 2 2 .184 fountain 34. 37 38.71 Hotel de la Suzonnieres 70. Pablo 6 7 . 97. 782 relief 757 silk-screen 739 woodblock 134. 30 Fran<. 219. Martin 238. to draw 146-147 R Rackham. 38. 212 Japanese 2 1 . 52 pens 36 scalpel 54 drawing with 202. 239 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat (Seurat) 112. 72 Noble. 159. 7 70 Ray. 241 Physical Space.52 pen and wash 158. 163. J 76 nudes 114-115 to make 36 metal see dip quill 34. 1 3 2 quill pens 34. 181 Rodin. 243.Toyo: Landscape in Hoboku . Peter Paul 126-127 Embracing pose(s): balanced 146 quick 118-119 positive form 103 posture: of artist 22 of subject 3 8 . 759 P Page.37.37 scientific instruments 9 2 . 57 Ross-Craig.141 prints/printing: aquatint 240 dry-point etching 181 engraving 243 monoprint 181. 7 73 self-portraits: Basquiat 138. 139 Real Life is Rubbish (Noble and Webster) 176. 224 0 layers 31.2 3 age and youth sleeping subjects 148-149 150-151 Renaissance 109 Rhinoceros (Durer) 26. Giovanni Battista 74. 26 Riley. 160. 733 Portrait de Marie-Laure (Giacometti) 136. Georges 112 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 112. Russell 228. 71 Satire of the Queen's Dress (Wodall) 158. 230 paper(s) 21 colored 162 drawing 144. Faune.131 Cottage Among Trees 52. 227 portfolios 20 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser de Noailles (Holbein) 132. 91 outsider artists 33. Sue 104. 739 semi-abstract drawings Style 14 Seurat.oise au Bandeau 132.262 INDEX Newton. 1 1 7 aerial 206 linear 69. 244 Q s Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape (Wolfli) 2 79 St. 4 9 Rose of Mohammed 50. 732 influence of 240 painting with light 78. 9 0 . 36. 162 O p A r t 98 optical illusions 96-99 outline 33. 122. 216.54 pastel 162 perspective 1 0 0 . 28 pigment 162 bright 50 Caput Mortuum 7 4 7 for three-tone drawing 141. 164. 38. 36. 205 pointillism 112 polyphonic painting 227 Polyphonic Setting for White (Klee) 226. 81 two-point 74. Arthur 177 In the Duchess's Kitchen 176. 203 Scene of Comical Riders (Klee) 30. 76 plastic eraser 55. Paul 73 Nobson Central 72. 239 Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 238. 7 72 Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland.139 Autoportrait 138. 1 2 4 priming for metal point 140. 242 reed pens 34. 75 Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range 241 petroglyphs 221. Stella 48 Cypripedium calceolus L 49 rotated view 7 65 Rubens. 74. 34-35. 75 Two Courtyards 75. 36 pen and brush 8 3 pen and ink 70. 205 157.36. Odilon 242 The Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity 242. Cheval et Oiseau 30. 141 Piranesi. 244 reed 34. and Webster. 36.226. 7 77 three-point 80.The (Beuys) 112. Auguste 114 Two Women 114. 7 76 receding space 206 Redon.Paul'sBaptistry (Hawksmoor) 68. 36. 36 relief printing 757 Rembrandt van Rijn 52. 1 1 6 . 78 single-point 74.37. 234 disposable 182-183 felt-tip 162. 73 Noble. 36. 734 Protea nitida (Bauer) 48. 243.
d i m e n s i o n a l 1 0 4 . 2 4 7 t h r e e .Sforza Horse. 4 4 boat 209 botanical 4 9 G e r i c a u l t ' s cats 2 9 from Goya 170-173 125.199 tissue p a p e r 21. 2 9 wind. 221 .9 1 storms. 1 2 Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse 71. 74. 206-207 202.s c r e e n p r i n t i n g 139 silver p o i n t 1 4 0 . t o d r a w 2 0 0 . 96. 174 T w o m b l y . 158 V a n Eyck. t o draw 1 9 8 . 9 5 pens 36 v a n i s h i n g p o i n t 74. 7 75 Telescope ( N e w t o n ) 9 2 .241 s i l k . John 25 Flying Fish 25 Wild Striped Cat Sketches of ( G e r i c a u l t ) 28.13 M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s m a l e figures 110. 1 9 9 Two Courtyards (Piranesi) 75.2 0 1 . 97. b l o w n 248 steel p e n s see d i p p e n s still life 89.2 1 3 Stubbs. 186. 2 3 0 tonal contrast 96 tonal distance 9 7 t o n a l d r a w i n g 9 6 . 249 t o describe 39. 9 2 Tesshu.t o n e d r a w i n g 140. Sarah: child's m a p 75. 75. 1 6 6 t r a p e z i u s m u s c l e 142. 141 Three Male Figures. 7 79 Shoshone petroglyph 240. 1 3 . 75 Skeleton of the Horse ( S t u b b s ) 26. 1 4 0 . t h r e e . 69. 182. 6 9 Wodall.J. 161. h e a d a n d n e c k sections o f female m o l d f o r (Leonardo) 89 shading 2 9 s h a d o w s 28. C y 138. Taylor A n i t a 115 All and Nothing 1 1 4 . 1 8 4 . 2 7 studies: b i r d s 7 2 .27 skull 747. Sarah 9 4 Chair Cut Out 94. 1 4 4 .12 W a l t e r . t o d r a w 5 2 . 104-105.Yamaoka 233 t e x t u r e 2 2 2 . 243 (Bosch) T Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos ( G o y a ) 2 4 0 . 1 4 5 travel journal 2 0 . 9 0 .1 6 5 shorthand diagram 142 Shoshone buffalo hide painting 178. 7 6 1 spots. 49. G e o r g e 2 7 Skeleton of the Horse 26.41.243 Leonardo's machines 12. W . 2 2 6 . 79. 241. 1 9 9 . 226 V Van Dyck. John: Focusing on the Negative 14 w a s h . 743 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City ( F r e n z ) 1 6 0 . 7 77. 2 1 2 .1 0 5 vision 9 6 Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects (Grandville) 242. 7 9 0 vessels. 2 0 0 Ship in a Storm 1 9 8 . 7 70 Tiber 214-215 Untitled ( T w o m b l y ) 2 2 0 .5 3 in l a n d s c a p e 2 0 6 . A n t h o n y 152. 57.125 W o o d f i n e . 1 4 1 . Man in Armor 1 5 8 . 9 4 z Z e n calligraphy 232-233 contrast 96 t o grade 163 ink 37 pencil 5 4 t o r t i l l o n 205 T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c . 69. Adolf: Giant-Grape Saint-Mary-Castle 219 Woman at Her Toilet ( T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c ) 74 w o o d b l o c k print 157. M .d i m e n s i o n a l d r a w i n g 68. 77. 2 2 0 influence o f 2 4 0 Untitled 220.1 4 1 . 159 Wolfli. Sue see N o b l e . 1 7 7 free 8 0 V e n i c e . 2 4 2 w Wallis.1 8 5 Tree II ( M o n d r i a n ) 52. 156 layers 7 5 6 priming for 140. 2 3 4 . 230 t h r e e . 115.1 4 5 . t o d r a w 1 0 1 viewfinder 57 Views from Velletri ( C l a u d e L o r r a i n ) 152. 202 violin. Study of (Michelangelo) 110. 1 4 1 w a t e r c o l o r 25.141 S i m b l e t . T i m W e s t Fagade of the Church of St. H e n r i de: Woman at Her Toilet 14 t r a n s p a r e n t v i e w 92. 2 4 4 . 199. 2 2 7 Untitled 2001 ( C a t l i n g ) u 263 W h i t e . 199 shoes 1 6 4 . phrased 146 tonal modeling 161 tonal range 169 t o n a l surfaces 2 2 7 tonal width 97 t o n e ( s ) 33. Paul 2 4 1 Achilles Chases Hector 2 4 0 . William 159 Satire of the Queen's Dress INDEX 226.216 W e b s t e r .120. 53 trees. 76. 7 1 4 . 1 6 . t o lay 1 4 0 . 170 shoes 1 6 4 stylized m o t i f 51 Summer Flowers 63.158 158. A l f r e d 1 1 . Vincent 95 Chair 94. 7 6 Two Impressions from a Cut-Out Paper Disk ( H u g o ) 2 2 2 Two Monsters 2 4 2 . 245 sharpener 54 Ship in a Storm ( T u r n e r ) 1 9 8 . 65 symbols 138. 156 Van Gogh. drawing with 104-105 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt ( G a u d i ) 68. Jan 1 5 6 Maelbeke Madonna 1 5 6 . v i e w s o f 85. 1 8 4 . 164.1 9 9 wire. 240 Two Women Embracing ( R o d i n ) 114. Augustin ( B a l t a r d ) 6 7 w e t and dry brush-strokes 2 4 9 Turner. 102-103 tonal marks. 725 fabric 1 6 8 T h o m a s .
uk/Guildhall Library. 1 3 5 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. U K .uk/Musee des Augustins. G e r m a n y . T h e R u s k i n School of D r a w i n g a n d Fine A r t . Angela Palmer. 1 1 0 : www. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin. L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . K e v i n a n d Rebecca Slingsby. 2 8 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. 30: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. 16: www. B e r l i n . 2 4 4 : Ashmolean Museum. 9 5 : V a n Gogh M u s e u m . 225: Stephen P Huyler. 113: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. 157: U C L Art Collections . a n d encouragement i n m a k i n g this book: M a m o r u Abe./Galerie Sylvie Nissen. Anders. O o n a G r i m e s .20-21 a n d 246-47. Paris/ © Succession Picasso / D A C S 2005. 1 3 8 : © Christie's Images Ltd/© A D AGP. 29: Fogg A n Museum/Collections Baron de Vita: Grenville L. Winthrop. B e r l i n . 9 1 : www. J o h n Roberts. 1 3 4 : © T h e British Museum. 1 5 6 : Graphische S a m m l u n g Albertina. Flossie. H e a t h e r M c C a r r y . 1929 (29. 4 8 : T h e N a t u r a l H i s t o r y M u s e u m . Jackie Douglas. J o n Roome. 3 1 : Tom Powel Imaging. Angela W i l k e s .co. b r i d g e m a n . Amsterdam. Salisbury & South W i l t s h i r e M u s e u m ( t ) .co.r. D a w n Henderson. L o n d o n (t).Strang Print Room ( b ) . Sarah D u n c a n . K e w ft)). Andy Crawford. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin/Jorg P. A n n a P l u c i n s k a . Orientabteilung/Ruth Schacht.939). . Paris a n d D A C S .bridgeman. 2 0 2 : © T h e British Museum. Productions Clovis Prevost (c). J o h n Walter. 115: Anita Taylor.bridgeman. University of Oxford. A . 2 4 0 : w w w . George M c G a v i n . 139: Galerie Marion Meyer/© Man Ray Trust / A D A G P . 17: J o h n Walter. University of Cambridge. 1 9 8 : Dover Publications. Paris. 2 3 8 : akg-images. H a y w a r d Gallery. 137: © The British Museum. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. Clare Bryan. Madrid. Maureen Paley Interim Art (b). c o . 2 2 2 : Pierre Georgel/Private Collection. S i m o n L e w i s .bridgeman. F i n n . 2 0 1 : T h e Royal Collection © 2 0 0 2 H e r Majesty Queen Elizabeth I I . 7 1 : I M E C / A r c h i v e s E r i k Satie. 5 3 : Collection of the Gemeentemuseum D e n Haag/Mondrian Trust. 6 6 : w w w . L o n d o n . Rocio Arnaez. 2 2 0 : Mamaru Abe. 49: Hunterian Museum (t). B . a n d D e p a r t m e n t s o f E n t o m o l o g y a n d Zoology at the University of Oxford. 111: Fondation Beyeler/Riehen (Bale)/© Succession H Matisse/DACS 2005. 2 4 5 : Oona Grimes. Anita Taylor. 2 1 8 : Adolf-Wdlfli-Stiftung. R o s e m a r y S c o u l a r . Sophie Laurimore.co. 3 3 : Prinzhom Collection. London/Bequeathed by Charles Landseer. A n d y C r a w f o r d for p h o t o g r a p h y a n d L . Pamela Ellis for compiling the index. Sir Brinsley F o r d . Paula Regan. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett.uk/Mucha Trust. 2 4 2 : Photo Scala. G i n a R o w l a n d . H . 158: Calouste Gulbenkian Museum. London/courtesy of Stuart Shave. Patty Stansfield. 13: www. 7 0 : Studio Daniel L i b e s k i n d . Christopher Davis. Sammy De Grave.bridgeman. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. © Tate. Italy. Basel. 1 0 8 : Arts C o u n c i l Collection.co. Graphische Sammlung. 2 0 0 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. 1 3 3 : Artothek/Kupferstichkabinett. C o r n e l i s o n & Son. Lisbon. 9 3 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. 177: Mary Evans Picture Library. Sarah Woodfine.uk/Private Collection. Toulouse. R . 2 7 : Royal Academy of Arts. Copyright Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens. 69: Institut Amatller d'Art Hispanic (tl). 130: The Metropolitan M u s e u m of Art/Robert L e h m a n Collection.co.bridgeman. K a t h r y n W i l k i n s o n . L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . 2 4 1 : Corbis/David M u e n c h ( b ) . 1879. 1 .l. A ./© D A C S 2 0 0 5 ( t ) . 174: Artothek/Munich. Paris. 5 2 : T h e Metropolitan Museum of Art/Bequest of Mrs. Antonia Cunliffe Davis. R u t h P a r k i n s o n . 176: Modem Art. B e m d Kunzig. 4 6 : B r i t i s h Library. Florence/MoMA. 199: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee des arts asiatiquesGuimet. K u n s t m u s e u m . 243: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. Paul T h o m a s ( t ) . Carlo O r t u for picture research s u p p o r t . 1 9 6 : Museum of the History of Science.uk/Private Collection. Fund. Diana Bell. Jean Pierre Roy. 5 0 : Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (1). c o . b r i d g e m a n .uk/British Museum. 2 6 : Topfoto. Natalie G o d w i n . 72: akg-images. 9 7 6 ) . Picture Credits 8: Corbis/Hubert Stadler. L o n d o n .100. Havemeyer. London 2005. Anders/ © D A C S 2 0 0 5 . . Portugal. Paris. 51: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz.uk/Private Collection. 2 2 7 : Paul Klee Stiftung. 1901. 88: www. L o n d o n . u k / T o k y o National M u s e u m . 3 2 : Pepys Library. 132: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. 1 5 9 : Bodleian Library. papers. Paris and D A C S . Japan. support. H e l e n S h u t t l e w o r t h . Wolfson College.uk /Biblioteca Nacional. K u n s t m u s e u m Bern/© D A C S 2 0 0 5 . 1975 ( 1 9 7 5 . Oxford. 68: www. R o y a n d D i a n n e Simblet. c o . 1 5 : w w w . U K . F r a n c e . 1 5 4 : akg-images/Musee National d'Art Moderne. Psychiatric Institute of the U n i v e r s i t y of Heidelberg. 112: Yale University A r t Gallery/Everett V Meeks. Corporation of London. 2 0 3 : Clare Bryan (t). 11: www. Peter L u f f .co. Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (t). G e r m a n y . 179: www. for s u p p l y i n g the d r a w i n g books.a. B M G .Paris ( b ) . Agnieszka Mlicka. P h y l l Kiggell. 2 4 : © T h e British Museum. 73: Berlin F i l m Museum (t). Also. b r i d g e m a n . 9 0 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/© A D A G P .uk/Kettle's Yard.co.co. Roddy Bell. O. NY. Psychiatric Institute of the University of Heidelberg. Berlin (b). Illustrated London News Picture Library/The Bystander (b). France. 181: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. L o n d o n . 1 6 0 : Rene G R U A U s. u k / L o u v r e . T o n y G r i s o n i . 114: Musee Rodin. 1 9 : Getty Images/© Succession Picasso / D A C S 2 0 0 5 . Kunstmuseum Bern.co. a n d brushes o n pp. Germany/Joerg P. Paris.264 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Acknowledgments Author's Acknowledgments: T h e author wishes to thank the following people for their enormous help. L o n d o n . 221: Gagosian Gallery/Private Collection (b). Germany. Kirsten Norrie. H a m b u r g .uk /© Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery.bridgeman. Publisher's Acknowledgments Dorling Kindersley w o u l d like to thank Caroline H u n t for editorial contribution. 75: © The British Museum (b). 1 7 8 : © T h e British M u s e u m / H e n r y Moore F o u n d a t i o n . M a n d y Earey. Paris. Berlin/Staatsbibliothek zu A l l other images © Sarah Simblet . 74: Corbis.bridgeman.co. Inc./Private Collection/© D A C S 2005. 2 2 3 : Lebrecht Music and Arts Photo Library/Ricordi. and Tamsin Woodward Smith. Paul T h o m a s . 1 3 6 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Centre Pompidou-MNAM-CCI. Paris a n d D A C S .bridgeman. Paris. 9 2 : Science Photo L i b r a r y . (r). Carole A s h . 226: Brian Catling. J a c k a n d Brian Catling. u k / O n Loan to the H a m b u r g Kunsthalle. 2 2 4 : P r i n z h o m Collection. L e n .bridgeman. 1 6 1 : D C C o m i c s I n c . 180: www. Dover Publications/ISBN: 0486229912 (t). Julie O u g h t o n . 9 4 : Sarah Woodfine. Magdalene College Cambridge.
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