An innovative, practical approach to drawing the world around you

SARAH SIMBLET

BOOK
FOR T H E ARTIST

BOOK

FOR THE ARTIST

SARAH SIMBLET

DK PUBLISHING

CONTENTS
LONDON • NEW YORK MELBOURNE • MUNICH • DELHI Senior Editor Paula Regan Senior Art Editor Mandy Earey Art Editor Anna Plucinska Managing Editor Julie Oughton Managing Art Editor Heather McCarry Art Director Peter Luff Publishing Director Jackie Douglas Production Joanna Bull DTP Designer Adam Walker Picture Research Sarah Smithies US Editor Christine Heilman First American Edition, 2 0 0 5 First Paperback Edition, 2 0 0 9 Published in the United States by DK Publishing 3 7 5 Hudson Street New York, New York 1 0 0 1 4 10 11 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3

Architecture
6 8 20 22 Master Builders The Order of Sound Future Fictions Pathways of Sight Single-Point Perspective Creating an Imaginary Space Further Aspects of Perspective Theaters Venetian Life Parisian Street

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68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86

Foreword Introduction Drawing Books and Papers Posture and Grip

Objects and Instruments

TD075-July 2009 Copyright © 2 0 0 5 Dorling Kindersley Limited Text and authors artworks © Sarah Simblet 2 0 0 4 Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited A Cataloging-in-Publication record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN 9 7 8 - 0 - 7 5 6 6 - 5 1 4 1 - 1 Color reproduction by GRB, Italy Printed and bound in China by Toppan

Still Life Instruments of Vision Bench Marks Light and Illusions Further Illusions How to Draw Ellipses Tonality Drawing with Wire Artifacts and Fictions

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90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106

Animals
Documentaries Presence and Mood Movement Icon and Design Pen and Ink Drawing with Ink Capturing Character Sleeping Dogs Turtles Dry Birds

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26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44

The Body
Postures and Poses Choreographs Passion Measurement and Foreshortening Quick Poses Hands and Feet Charcoal Hands Phrasing Contours The Visual Detective La Specola

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110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128

Plants and Gardens
Botanical Studies Jeweled Gardens Fast Trees Graphite and Erasers Cropping and Composition Negative Space Fig Tree Summer Flowers Acanthus Spinosus

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48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64

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Gatherings
Projections Magnetic Fields The Human Condition Disposable Pens The Travel Journal Catching the Moment Grand Canal Crossings Caravans The Big Top

174 Abstract Lines
176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 Process and Harmony Writing Time Chants and Prayers Compositions Being "Just" Collage Zen Calligraphy Nocturnes

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220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234

Portraiture
Poise Anatomies Revelations Self-Portraits Silver Point Head and Neck Essential Observations Drawing Portraits Generations Castings

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132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 152

Earth and the Elements
Air in Motion Storms Nature Profiles Charcoal Landscapes Drawing in the Round Decaying Boat Cloudburst Notes of Force Mountains

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198 200 202 204 206 208 210 212 214 216

Gods and Monsters
Marks of Influence Hauntings Convolutions Brushes Brush Marks Monsters Goya's Monsters Consumed Glossary Index Acknowledgments

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240 242 244 246 248 250 252 254 256 259 264

Costume
Cloth and Drapery Character Costumes Femmes Fatales Colored Materials Study and Design The Structure of Costume Textures and Patterns Dressing Character Posture Carving

154
156 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172

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These inspirations led me to invent museums. and I refer back to them for years after they are made. I was training in anatomy and studying how. drawing is the immediate expression of seeing. . I will always draw. Drawing is a mirror through which I understand my place in the world. and in a few sessions they will be flying. understood (and often misunderstood) our own bodies. through history. thinking. It is my love of these. remain unseen by most. Chosen in any color. in which he describes himself flying and diving in his imagination through pictorial caverns of knowledge. we learn to feel truly alive. I know that with their cooperation I can soon prove them wrong. not only to make art. Augustine his notes on memory. and experience. and be slowly washed or worn away. still standing by the door. aspirations. a composer notating a musical score. night security staff. Some of my drawings cover entire walls. fashion designer. undergraduates to fellow professors. They enfold their viewer and are made on joined sheets of paper that I reach by climbing ladders. I also make drawing books. and makers of special effects. shape. or a quantum physicist trying to see for themselves the fluctuations of our universe. and their importance to so many artists. texture. It is a tool for investigating ideas and recording knowledge. as a visiting professor at universities. Some are more traditionally framed and hung in galleries for solo or group exhibitions. from schoolchildren to senior citizens. especially as travel journals. but because it is how I engage with and anchor myself in life. or engineer. For twelve years I have enjoyed the privilege of teaching drawing. a sculptor. The most rewarding challenge is always the newcomer. and a reflector of experience. who tells me firmly upon approach that they cannot draw. we learn to see it. The very first step is to believe it. geologists. By using our imaginations. Combine these things and the possibilities are endless. I was also reading among The Confessions of St. architect. are made outside as discreet installations. we have looked at. and local c o m m u n i t y classes. perhaps hidden on a door hinge or a street bench rail. where I expect them to be discovered by some people. They occupy a shelf in my studio. Drawing occupies a unique place in every artist and creator's life. where spaces are shaped by nothing more than the objects and activities contained within them. and feeling. be they a child discovering their vision and dexterity. a cartographer charting the land. and size.Foreword B Y DRAWING THE WORLD AROUND US. We can all learn how to draw. Others can be held in the h a n d or. of Sketch Book for the Artist. It makes me feel excited to be alive. doctors. and through which I can see how I think. For me personally. I work with people of diverse ages. a drawing book is the perfect portable private vehicle for your imminent exploration of drawing. art schools. that inspired the title and structure MEMORY T H E A T E R S This pen-and-ink drawing was made from imagination during research for my PhD. by invitation.

waving to us from many thousands of yearsago. not just chosen pictures on our walls but everywhere—maps. The sense of relief we may feel from the information overload of modern commercial life when visiting a country in which we can no longer read every written word. We are bombarded with linear and tonal pictorial information. is not afforded us by drawing. Rio Pinturas 13.Theseancient silhouettes were drawn with earth pigments rubbed onto rock. in lectures. graffiti.8 INTRODUCTION Where We Begin There is a fundamental drive in our human nature to make a mark. At home and at work we doodle. Sometimes we draw because we are bored. but more often because drawing actually helps us to focus and take in what is said. Children cannot be restrained from running across the pristine white lawn of newly fallen snow. "CAVE OF THE HANDS" In this drawing. a great crowd is raising their hands in greeting. irreverent to language barriers. and patterns on our clothes. and in meetings. like a great canvas for them to mark. We are surrounded by drawings in our daily lives. scrawling shapes and cartoons when on the telephone. Most adults still feel that certain exquisite pleasure on arriving at a beach to find the tide out and the sand perfect. Cueva de las Marios. and we spend our lives reading it. inscribing every fresh part of it with their eager scrapes and trails. We can always read each others drawings. signs. logos. packaging. They have a natural affinity to many modern graffiti signatures.000-9500 bce . Drawing is international.

who in their day-to-day hardship made time to picture themselves and the animals on which they depended. had happily scribbled. She gave me a notepad and a red crayon and asked me to draw her "a picture of Daddy. In cave paintings like the one opposite. and belonging to place. On a particular afternoon in September 1974. created by societies of hunter-gatherers. I now think this is a picture of proximity. enjoying the physical sensation of crayon on paper. power. Cave art was not made for decoration but as a fundamental part of life." Until this day. we see our oldest surviving images. Even though it is made by a toddler this image would be recognizable to anyone. like all toddlers. Eyelashes take up as much of my attention as the head itself. I was sitting with my mother. the hair of my first portrait was most important. and the appearance of my strikes of colors. reflecting my experience of looking closely at my father's face. The image above is what I gave back to my mother. . I.9 WHERE WE BEGIN FIRST PORTRAIT For sorre forgotten reason. an expression of existence. MAKING OUR MARK It seems reasonable to assume that we have engaged in pictorial mark-making for as long as we have made conscious use of our hands. and she kept it as my first step beyond the delighted realms of scrawl. but I had never yet attempted to figuratively picture my world. at age two-anda-half.

It was made with a few bold strokes of a steel pen dipped in ink to conjure the dried bee I was holding between my fingers on a pin. Young children love to draw. W e do n o t hesitate to draw a map.10 INTRODUCTION PEN-AND-INK BEE This tiny drawing has been enlarged to show its texture and composition. then drag o u r line into a loop. Don't b e p e r s u a d e d to draw in a w a y s o m e o n e else . b e p r o u d o f what m a k e s y o u r w o r k individual to y o u . At this point many will insist they cannot draw. for example. h o w e v e r small a n d u n f o r m e d y o u believe they are. As you progress. to help a stranger see their way W h e n taking first steps in relearning h o w to draw. yet still turn to drawing w h e n their verbal language fails or is inadequate. and this activity plays a vital role in their d e v e l o p m e n t . PROGRESSION T h e r e is a point in all o u r lives w h e n w e first c o n t r o l o u r mark and m a k e it a line. and from that first unit build and describe the shape of something or someone we know. Hours are lost immersed in the glorious world of imagination. it is important to value your natural abilities a n d ways of seeing. Inhibitions creep in and ideas of good a n d b a d terminate confidence. most of us stop. But as adolescents.

but it does help to set out facing in the right direction.11 PROGRESSION A UNIQUE SIGHT This innocent yet sophisticated drawing of boats. He used leftover ship and yacht paint with crayons on cut-out pieces of cardboard boxes. harbor and sea is one of many that Alfred Wallis made from memory while sitting at home. 1925-42 53/8x87/8in (135 x 225 mm) ALFRED WALLIS prefers and tells you is better. He was a retired Cornish fisherman and junk dealer who began drawing at the age of 70 "for company" after his wife died. you must decide whether to keep or discard it. Occasionally. Someone once told them they must draw in this way. Enjoy the control of your own journey. I meet students struggling unhappily with a particular method of drawing. After experimenting and trying each new idea. Think how much would have been lost if anyone had interfered with Alfred Wallis' personal sense of proportion and perspective in the exquisite drawing above. The journey of every artist demands hard work and discipline. remember that all advice is only advice. and which aspects of the vast wealth and diversity of graphic language would be most appropriate to their goals. what they most want to achieve. I ask them their reasons for drawing. and they have never questioned why. . As you read this b o o k and perhaps attend art classes. Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse c.

We all see differently. the page bristles with the focus of ideas. IDEAS A N D I N V E N T I O N S These active machines. We BIRD STUDIES The flutter of faint scratches that dance across the pages on the right is an attempt to see the movement and bony weightlessness of a bird. be visionary. I hope. it may not be accurate to our critical adult eye. but it should be the experienced world we draw. Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels LEONARDO DA VINCI . If as artists we nail a subject down too hard. When we look back at Wallis' seascape (see p. clear-minded understanding of the sea. right. perhaps for comfort or ease as a left-hander or a habitual enjoyment of the challenge. and lose the very thing that attracted us to it. we can drive out its spirit. not for disguise but as a personal choice. There are countless reasons for drawing. There are only artists. embedded in this book. The art historian Professor Sir Ernst Gombrich. is. Below." The clarity and empowerment of these words. The observed world may be our subject. the breast. 11). There should neve: be a slavish obligation to represent things exactly as we collectively agree we see them. and inspire others. Our imaginations are the tools with which we can increase the essence of life.12 INTRODUCTION VISION All artists see the world differently. wrote as the opening line of this great work. "There really is no such thing as Art. boats. We also see differently ourselves. and breathtaking wind of a choppy harbor. author of The Story of Art. depending on the occasion and our purpose. His notes visually balance his drawings. all raise water From the Archimedes' screw to Leonardo's own cupped wheel.and collarbones and shoulder blades of a different bird almost become new creatures in themselves. but the child in us knows that this is an all-embracing. They are also always written backward.

or illustrate a dream. when it looks tired and still feels wrong. I drew to understand the apparatus of flight. time spent is not lost. It will be invested through your experience in the new drawing. stripped-down parts. Opposite. shout against a terrible injustice. to express the beauty in a moment's play of light. or to discover the best use of a new material. Each fresh image reflects growing confidence and the experience of the preceding study. Our drawings are annotated investigations into the mechanisms of nature and of an idea. but it is important to be clear why we are making it. drawing in pursuit of our own thoughts and understanding. Decide before you start whether you are drawing to warm up. Leonardo drew to invent a machine.13 VISION should not try to know how every finished picture will look. conduct an experiment. This also applies if struggling at length with a larger picture. . We have both covered our paper with focused. More was learned drawing the bird 18 times than would have been understood drawing it only once or twice. My drawings of a housemartin (opposite top) illustrate the importance of repeated study. Don't be disheartened. it may be best to start afresh. while below. make a calculation.

ink. Each image relied upon past experience to know the probable behavior of the brush. are both made of ink laid onto wet paper with speed and agile certainty. bone. size. As you draw any subject—something you see. it should be responding to the sensation and meaning of the subject it draws. silk. which can offer keys to other things. I made it almost unconsciously with a pen and a brush. and what you discover in the process of making. These two brush drawings. Our position asvieweris unsteady. or imagine—it is not enough to only render its shape. excessive planning can get in the way of the imagination. BRUSHED LANDSCAPE FLOWING SKELETON T h e gliding poise of this walking anatomy comes as much from the feeling of movement as it does from the feeling of drawing. Know the texture. This suits many artists well and is perfectly valid. and spirit of each subject was held strongly but loosely between the fingertips. temperature. However. and at speeds beyond conscious thought. If you can do this. we are advised or even required to plan our pictures. depth. Landscape in Haboku Style 15TH CENTURY . explain the composition. and we can just make out the distant stains of mountains.14 INTRODUCTION ALCHEMY At school. mists. Imagine these qualities so strongly that you feel them in your mind and at your fingertips. and sometimes beyond. The physicality. feel. and practice each part before putting the final image together. balance. Whatever the material— wood. They each allowed the energy and focus of the moment to be expressed through controlled accident and a degree of the unknown Both drawings were made trusting the marks. and opacity of your subject. and allowed to flow through the brush. W e float toward the quiet vista as it also moves toward us. or ice—you must actually feel it beneath your fingers as you draw. declare the idea. We are caught in a shifting focus that makes everything fluid. This is a detail of a brush-and-ink drawing by a Japanese Buddhist monk. and paper. and an island brushed with trees. the unknown. water. and position in space. As your hand meets the paper to make a mark. fire. metal. your marks will become the subject on the paper. It denies the importance of accident. created centuries and cultures apart. You must also think of its intrinsic nature: its purpose. trusting my intuition to find a visual equivalence for the sensation of weight within my body. and how it feels to the touch. meaning. This is the alchemy of drawing.

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Lautrec's flamboyant splashes o f petticoats and pantaloons are drawn with long sweeps of chalk and brushed oil paint. gold leaf and spray paint.1896 Woman at her Toilet 41 x 26 in (104 x 66 cm) TOULOUSE LAUTREC RIB-CAGE D R A M A Thus drama. W a l t e r also makes books: some. lives on. c. stand table-sized with furniture legs attached t o b o t h sides of their jacket. which evoke realities o f place and the p o w e r o f moment. like folded insects. pastel. more than 100 years after its making. Focusing on the Negative 2004 22 x 30 in (56 x 76 cm) J O H N WALTER . right is set inside a rib cage. He dazzles us with flashes o f light and dabbed marks o f shadow.16 INTRODUCTION PLACE A N D MOMENT The heat and teeming atmosphere o f this Parisian dressing room. made by a young British artist who creates alphabets o f the absurd f r o m familiar childhood characters. left. acrylic. one of many luminous works in watercolor.

17 FREEING THE HAND If you are just beginning to learn how to draw. Drawing is exploratory. just through the act of making. As you follow lessons in this book. Much will be learned on these test sheets and in your first drawings. It is yours. With no help and advice at all. potential ideas still forming. even those you dislike. Enjoy discovering what your hand and the material can do. Ignore these at first and allow yourself the freedom to play. and mistakes are a valuable process of learning. you will be surprised and encouraged to see how far you have come. Choose other materials and do the same. Pages do not have to lie open for other people to inspect and comment on. Put them away and look at them later. One of the advantages of a drawing book is that you can shut it. Start by choosing a material you like the look of and cover a piece of paper with different marks. you will naturally make progress on your own in response to concentration and the decision to look and draw. and miscellaneous items of inspiration. at a point when you feel you are not making progress. FREEINGTHEHAND . try not to grip your pen worrying about the technical terms you might have heard. diary-like observations. Such books are personal: the territory of new exploration and experiment. Try to keep all of your first drawings. take your time and don't worry if you need to make several attempts to grasp a concept.

comes from within. As you draw. This practical journey will take you through the door into the vivid heart of drawing. seek ideas in the life around you. Imagination needs nourishment. An artist's personal voice is something that also evolves through lessons learned. 150).18 INTRODUCTION THE THINKING EYE Techniques and materials are the grammar and vocabulary of drawing and can be studied and shared. adapting its form and occupation. which is held frozen in space by a camera lens. Drawing is a living language that over millennia has grown and changed. and enfolding new media. ELECTRIC BULL With a penlight. Its sensuous and flowing line seems to drift like smoke. staring straight through his image of a bull. The chapters of this book present 90 different artists' ways of seeing. I was particularly attracted to their gentle articulation and understated determination.Their elegant strength seems to summon a lifetime of drawing. A N ARTIST'S HANDS These are the hands of the artist Phyll Kiggell (see p. and became a great subject for me. it will be your creation as you discover your own personal vision. we still only glimpse a corner of the magnitude of this subject and the infinity of what can be achieved. the path is yours. when they are more experienced. and many more reasons for drawing the world. Note that the drawing classes are allocated to subjects. However. Picasso Painting with Light at the Madoura Pottery 1949 . which of course he cannot see. Picasso is poised smiling. Look to your own experience and also learn from the work of others. In the total wealth of these pages. threedimensionally. caught between action and repose. It rarely flourishes in isolation. it is this voice that is the subtle part of their art and something that ultimately. To these I have added my own drawings to explain elementary materials and techniques and offer introductory approaches. but not confined to them. Picasso has just finished his drawing. The real drawing book has yet to come. Once there.

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q u a l i t y r i n g .C O V E R E D H A R D B O U N D : Ideal f o r c a r r y i n g a r o u n d . A high-quality one will last a DRAWING BOOKS Select d r a w i n g b o o k s t o suit y o u r aims. t h i s is h o w I l e a r n e d . They can be very expensive in art stores. F O U N D B O O K S : O l d p r i n t e d 3 .b o u n d b o o k w i l l s o o n s h o w y o u h o w it is m a d e . it is better to have them made at a lumber yard or home improvement store. Sand the edges to avoid splinters. C A N V A S . and collage their ideas. If you intend to carry your boards for a distance. cheap corrugated plastic ones fall apart in days. N o t e t h e w i d e l y differing c h o i c e o f p a p e r s w i t h w h i c h t h e s e are m a d e . y o u n e e d a lifetime. quality. stitched.b o u n d p a d if y o u w i s h t o keep your drawings together long-term. Drawing boards are invaluable. a l e n g t h o f black elastic t i e d a r o u n d t h e m i d d l e will h o l d the contents together w h e n y o u f o l d in c o l l e c t e d items. ties on either side to keep your papers in place. c h o o s e larger f o r m a t s t o give y o u s c o p e f o r e x p e r i m e n t . 1. There are dozens to choose from. Art students often make use of printed books picked up from secondhand stores into which they draw. Homemade books can be assembled easily from found materials or selections of loose sheet papers. These are perfect f o r w o r k i n g in novels. 2. color. thick enough not to flex.b o u n d b o o k s t h a t fit in y o u r p o c k e t o r bag. c o l o r If planning t o use pencils. Smooth plywood. is perfect. and glued t o a s t r i p o f bias binding. catalogs. Alternatively. It is also useful to own a portfolio. BLACK P O C K E T B O O K S : Hand-sized w i t h ready-made elastic binder and a marker ribbon. a n d r e f e r e n c e b o o k s f o u n d in s e c o n d . b e a w a r e t h a t p a p e r t e x t u r e effects a n d changes t h e i r marks. C O L O R E D PAPERS: Large a r t supply stores o f t e n sell t h i c k b o o k s full o f c o l o r e d p a p e r s . F o r traveling. thickness. be sure they fit comfortably under your arm. Most contain thin p a p e r and are perfect f o r use w i t h disposable pens. 5. Gleaming store purchases vary greatly in format. cut. drawing book. You simply need two strong boards hinged together well. R I N G . 4. H o w e v e r r i n g bindings o f t e n break. F o r e v e n i n g classes. T h e hardb o a r d j a c k e t is s t r e t c h e d w i t h canvas beneath t h e p a p e r sleeve. Many artists invent ways o f binding their o w n books.B O U N D PADS: T h e s e are t h e least expensive a n d useful f o r o p e n i n g flat. binding. a n d crayons. study the structure of a good portfolio and make your own.h a n d s t o r e s make unique subjects f o r e x p e r i m e n t s a n d collage. c h o o s e s m a l l e r h a r d . t h e i r jackets w i l l a c t like d r a w i n g b o a r d s a n d p r o t e c t y o u r w o r k . which are also sold in an enormous range.20 INTRODUCTION Drawing Books and Papers T o BEGIN YOUR EXPLORATION o f d r a w i n g . Calculate a range of useful dimensions and have several cut at once. H O M E M A D E : I m a d e this b o o k f r o m drawing paper that I folded. texture. 2002 Tantalus o r The Future of Man 81/2 x61/4in (215 x 158 mm) ROSE MILLER . Dissecting a d i s c a r d e d h a r d . and cost. pastels. and handles to lift the weight of your artworks. 6. Purchase a h i g h .

FABRIANO R O U G H 600GMS: Very heavy. it is made from rice. or machine made in sheets. blocks. 11. cold. It is also excellent for drawing with marker pens on layered sheets. and cost. tough. PAPERS . SAUNDERS WATERFORD N O T 300GMS: Mid-quality textured watercolor paper. turning brown and brittle. also good for drawing with colored pencils. FABRIANO ACADEMIA: Standard medium-range multipurpose paper Use with any media. printed on one side only. and rolls. It is available in white or cream. 21. absorbency. FABRIANO INGRES: Thin. resisting deterioration. Use for brushwork drawings. and hot pressed papers. Use cheap paper for rough ideas and quality paper for work to last See the glossary ( p p .TISSUE PAPER: Place sheets between drawing book pages to keep images from printing on each other and use for delicate collage. 14. 15. T W O RIVERS GREEN 410G MS: Very heavy tinted textured cold-pressed watercolor paper See Two Rivers Yellow.5 9 ) for explanations of rough. texture. 10.Papers differ in thickness (weight). smooth. and other plant fibers. 100% cotton and sold in sheets. and cream sheets or rolls. 20. VELIN ARCHES 250GMS: Printmaking paper available in black white. Ph. 13. red. They are hand-. 12. Use with a brush in clean water Water makes a dark mark like ink and becomes invisible again when dry. AQUARELLE ARCHES 300GMS:The very top quality hot-pressed (smooth) watercolor paper. Cotton papers are high-quality and acid-free. mold-. 18. and white. color. C A R B O N PAPER: Available in dark and light blue. 22. and translucent. METALLIC PAPER: Thin paper in different metallic colors. 16. from pencil to paint 9. T W O RIVERS Y E L L O W 410GMS: See Two Rivers Green 19. fine. bamboo. ITALIAN PARCHMENT: Imitation-animal-skin parchment that is translucent and slightly waxy. or rolls. size. Cheap wood-pulp papers are acidic. 17. not. For use with any media. C A N S O N : Inexpensive lightweight pastel paper in many colors. white textured paper that can take abrasive use of any medium. used to imprint lines of these colors onto a surface. 8. 7. GLASSINE: Sold as protective wrapping. mulberry. pastel paper in flecked pastel colors with a distinctive ribbed marking. yellow. JAPANESE PAPER: Strong. blocks. MAGIC PAPER: A reusable sheet for testing ideas without creating waste. 2 5 6 .

In this book we will look at parallels between drawing and music. a n d look to the left of it at your subject. You cannot draw like this—your hand is locked and your fingers can barely move. If seated on a b e n c h easel (a donkey). If your body posture is well balanced and you can move freely. You do not have to dance to draw. a n d h a n d to the fingertips. body. place it on the correct side: if right-handed. There are also parallels to dance. don't sit too close to the paper. your whole relaxed b o d y should be involved. Examples are shown here. . SPACE TO WORK Cramped grip. Regularly step back 6-9 ft (2-3 m) to check your progress. make sure you have enough room to back away and view your work. Ideally. This cramped grip tires your hand and makes small. and subject. and look to the right. you can draw lines freely and achieve a significant arc of movement. place it on your right. Accelerated perspective also occurs if you look down the surface steeply (see pp. If your hand twists to maneuver between the paper and your body. b u t it should n o t be forgotten that many people make remarkable a n d striking works drawing with their feet or holding their brush or pencil in their mouths. Use the side of your little fingernail as a support on the page. place it on your left. your drawing will reflect this. but you need to understand that the expression of a line or mark originates in the body and flows t h r o u g h the shoulder. Placing your easel o n the w r o n g side folds y o u r b o d y against your drawing arm. 116-17). or with your drawing board angled between your lap and a chair. Relaxed fingers: Hold the pencil away from its tip and relax your fingers. arm. From a distance you will spot errors you cannot see close up. but wherever possible. How you hold your drawing materials is also important. Turning your drawing sideways or upside-own will also help reveal what is wrong. With your hand in this position. If using an upright easel.22 INTRODUCTION Posture and Grip T o DRAW WELL. you Drawing classes can be cramped places. strangledlooking drawings. There should be an open. This photograph illustrates how some people hold a pen to write. if left-handed. should be able to look comfortably straight ahead at your picture plane. your lines will distort. flowing space between your hand. It will also reflect discomfort if you are in any way cramped.

232-33). GRAVITY Remember that gravity affects the flow of ink and paint. or it can spoil your work if not anticipated. find an unfamiliar. upright way of holding the brush near its base is similar to the Japanese way used in Zen calligraphy (see pp. and body are not restricted. It is most comfortable when reaching to draw above your head. This can be used to great effect. But be careful not to tense your fingers. not up to the paper Brushes can be used on upright paper but dip Anticipating effects: A fully loaded pens need a level surface. As long as your fingers. To stop this. roughly marking out a large-scale work. ALL MEDIA There are no rules as to how you should hold your drawing media. alternative way of holding the pencil. Remember you can also draw just by dipping your fingers in pigment—this is how many women draw in rural India. Large amounts of ink can be applied without fear of uncontrolled running if the paper is flat. This can give a new lease on life to your mark-making. . depending upon what it is and how large you are working. If you turn a brush or dip pen up into the air to draw above your hand. brush pressed against an upright surface will cause a dribble of ink to run down your drawing. Brush calligraphy: This comfortable. Soft media: Short materials such as pastels and charcoal can be accommodated in the palm. or change to the wrong hand. hold your material as you find most comfortable. Large scale: POSTURE AND GRIP U n f a m i l i a r i t y : T h e habitual movements of our handwriting style will sometimes infringe upon our drawing.23 This loose "candle" grip is very useful when drawing with your arm extended. liquid will run down your hand. arm.

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we have employed artists on expeditions. 11 x91/4in (277 x 234 mm) . and learn how to Flying Fish c. cartographer. Framed in the z o o or in domestic cohabitation. floating turtles. their different speeds and patterns of action. out are now oxidized and so appear black W h e n less preoccupied with understanding ourselves. plants. from which personality and predicted behavior were " d e d u c e d . birds." He worked with the scientist Thomas Harriot. W h e n lost to explain our own emotions. Europeans on board had never seen such a thing.Animals H UMANS HAVE DRAWN ANIMALS from the beginning of our time. 1590 J O H N WHITE capture form and movement from the m a n n e r i s m s of honking geese. mermaids. After the subject of ourselves. JOHN WHITE British artist. each dedicated to the moralized tale of an animal or monster The bestiary profoundly influenced the art of its period. or scampering through the initials and borders of pictures from that time. In medieval England. we turn and take the features of beasts. which are so unlike ours.. On the Roanoke voyages of Sir Walter Raleigh.. the Latin bestiary was one of the most popular picture books—an illustrated dictionary of one hundred parts.drawe to lief one of each kinde of thing that is strange to us in England. This drawing is made in black lead (metal point) with watercolor Highlights of silver would have gleamed. they are perhaps our favorite pictorial preoccupation. sleeping dogs. and pioneer born c. which very likely leaped o n t o the deck of Sir Walter Raleigh's ship Tiger as it sailed north from the Caribbean to Virginia in 1585. m u s e u m . werewolves. bats. 1540. O v e r the centuries. and this very drawing was to endure many copies and plagiarisms after its triumphant return to the English court of Queen Elizabeth I. to be there at the m o m e n t of discovery. who described in words what White drew. Together they made maps and documented animals. insects. For the novice artist. dogs. In this chapter we discover the use of pens and ink through the delineation of insects. Here (left) we see J o h n White's exquisite record of a flying fish. Facial features were analyzed in terms of their animal likeness.m o u n t e d skeletons of birds. " Animals perpetually feed our imaginations. and to bring h o m e drawn documentaries of their finds. and we still see escapees from its pages carved and grinning as the gargoyles of churches. fish. and silent. As children we delight in the humanized trials of Tom and Jerry and their c a r t o o n relations. offer challenges and delights to draw." Paranoid newcomers c r a m m e d into swelling industrial cities used handbooks of physiognomy to identify and judge their neighbors. White's commission was to ". We have drawn them on the walls of caves to evoke their kinship and power. W e have drawn them in m a n u s c r i p t s to explain our genesis and to c o u n t their species into Noah's ark. and people. and dragons. and snakes have between them engendered harpies. animals provide a perfect subject with which to begin. In 19th-century Europe this became a "science.

The first live rhinoceros to reach Europe came from India in May 1515. naturalist. it continued its journey to Rome. He in turn sent the mysterious creature to the Pope via Marseilles at the request of the King of France. Original Ink Drawing of a Rhinoceros 1515 ALBRECHT DURER 103/4 x 161/2 in ( 2 7 4 x 4 2 0 mm) . the ship was lost. printmaker. the home of ALBRECHT DURER German Renaissance painter. they were rejected. and mathematician. Converted into a print. when more accurate portrayals were made without armor and scales. Meanwhile. writer. filled journals with ideas and observations. and wrote four books on proportion. He studied the image and drew his own interpretation. Life-like This is Durer's original quill-and-ink drawing made after an anonymous Portuguese drawing. inspiring countless works of art and so touching people's imaginations that later. Durer's image changed eager hands until it was known across Europe. years after its publication. draftsman. it is still consulted by veterinarians today. Unsurpassed. a drawing of it arrived in Nuremberg. Sailing to Rome. It was to become the animal's only accepted likeness for 250 years. Contemporary texts related accounts of the beast as the mortal enemy of the elephant and rare relative of the "more common" unicorn. DURER'S RHINOCEROS AND STUBBS'S skeletal Durer. a gift to the Portuguese King. It is such a lifelike triumph of imagination and intelligence that for centuries zoologists never questioned its authority.26 ANIMALS Documentaries horse are superb affirmations of the power of drawing as a recorder and communicator of knowledge. Durer traveled widely to study at different European schools of art. Stubbs's Anatomy of the Horse achieved similar documentary status. but the drowned animal washed ashore. Carefully stuffed.

a n d s i d e . naturalist. This is one of Stubbs' original finished pencil drawings. Stubbs's m o s t c e l e b r a t e d publication. which has never diminished. dissecting and drawing until he understood the mechanisms of its power and grace. Stubbs w a s o n e o f t h e first E u r o p e a n artists t o m a k e a n a c c u r a t e representation o f the rhinoceros. a n d anatomist. c o m p r i s e s 1 8 p l a t e s s h o w i n g d i s s e c t i o n s in l a y e r s f r o m b o n e t h r o u g h m u s c u l a t u r e t o skin. L o n d o n . Lighting Stubbs's breathtaking international work won immediate There acclaim. in t h r e e v i e w s — r e a r f r o n t . The entire project was developed over ten years. Table of the III of the Horse (rear Skeleton view) mm) 1756-58 1 4 x 7 in ( 3 5 4 x 1 8 0 GEORGE STUBBS . and therefore invented the lighting that Compare how Stubbs and Durer both invented lighting to portray the reality of their animals. He composed makes each horse appear so real and each plate from his three-dimensional. Anatomy of the Horse. knowledge of parts. is no other work like it. Dissections Stubbs took his knife and his pencil and physically climbed inside the horse. His painted p o r t r a i t o f t h e b e a s t is in t h e R o y a l C o l l e g e o f S u r g e o n s o f England. composed from notes and observations.GEORGE STUBBS B r i t i s h e q u i n e a n d s o c i e t y p o r t r a i t painter. Dissections were made over a total of 18 months. He translated his own drawings into engravings for publication.

I've ended up mixing in pencil. VICTOR HUGO Poet. her sharp teeth. Gericault took a sharp p e n c i l to m a k e repeated direct o b s e r v a t i o n s f r o m life. He wrote to poet and art critic Charles-Pierre Baudelaire about his experiments. and all sorts of bizarre concoctions which manage to convey above all in mind. The Hunchback of Notre Layers and shadows Throughout this drawing. and her distinctive temperament.. conjured b y the hand of a great author of French literary fiction. ink and linseed oil on paper. snarl. Gericault's sheet a p p e a r s almost s c r a t c h e d b y the f e r o c i o u s play of his cat.. Mixed media Here. the ominous beast unwinds from the dark of the sea and of our nightmares. linseed oil soaked into the paper has made shadows and repelled the ink to create translucent tentacles. and a love of accident. A s if disturbed from its gritty b e d by our presence and curiosity. Hugo's page is f l o o d e d w i t h the fearful presence of a remembered octopus. drama. The octopus is formed in layers applied and distressed with a brush. and leader of the French Romantic movement. her b o n y frame. charcoal. drawing her again and again to pin d o w n the texture of her loose skin.28 ANIMALS Presence and Mood THESE DRAWINGS HAVE BEEN CHOSEN to s h o w t w o v e r y different ways of picturing a wild animal. By contrast. saying ". His copious drawings are characterized by mixed media. soot. H u g o mixed his media and drew from m e m o r y and imagination to create narrative atmosphere. Surrounding sprays of graphite powder are stuck into washes of oil and ink to suggest glutinous depths.. coal dust. more or less what I have in view. and turn..". Hugo used graphite powder. He has w a t c h e d her p o u n c e . playwright. and Pieuvre 1866-69 91/2 x81/8in (242 x 207 mm) VICTOR H U G O . sepia. novelist. Hugo's novels Les Miserables and Dame have become classics of film and stage. it silently rises to the light. Apparently drawn in its o w n ink.

124-25 and p. of previous Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 1817-18 121/2 x 151/2 in ( 3 1 9 x 3 9 8 mm) T H E O D O R E GERICAULT . H e is best k n o w n f o r his gigantic painting.29 THEODORE GERICAULT C o n t r o v e r s i a l . Before paper became so cheap. Undertraces Beneath these graphite studies we see traces Tones On the top row we see clearly how Gericault laid broad areas of tone using fast. Beginners are advised to follow the natural contours of form as shown on pp. undertraces unify and vitalize the composition. standing sideways. Paris. of drawings Gericault erased.l i v e d French R o m a n t i c painter and lithographer Largely self-taught. At the center of the page is crammed drawings the outline of a horse. displayed in the Louvre. fiery.118-119). Here. and it can be applied to any subject (see pp. Repeated study This drawing demonstrates of feeling confident repeat different the importance subject Remaining enough to isolate parts of a views. The Raft of the Medusa. since it can lead to a flattened form. and keep trying again. Tones that do not follow surface contour is very difficult to do well. horses w e r e a favorite subject t o g e t h e r w i t h politics and history. facing right. s h o r t . focused upon seeing will lead to a greater understanding of the subject Much is learned from repeated study. artists reused sheets and them full of studies. diagonal strokes of his pencil. 144. parallel.

Gouache is brushed softly in translucent hazy layers of cool blue. His hand must have shuddered and twitched just like the constant actions of this humorous meeting. Faune. Artists commonly focus on such actions. In these two drawings. slow tortoise. The ink is used to make sharply defined solid. the whinnying of a frantic horse. His powdery. and waves breaking distantly below. Ink and gouache This drawing is made in black Chinese ink and gouache (opaque watercolor) applied with a brush. hooked. Cheval et Oiseau 1936 173/8 x 211/4 in ( 4 4 0 x 5 4 0 m m ) PABLO PICASSO . Klee's riders are constructed from all the gestures of greeting mules. Picasso cofounded Cubism. Both Picasso and Klee have enclosed their subjects to compress and amplify the speed of PABLO PICASSO A prolific Spanish painter sculptor. and brown. The fact that they never stand still influences the movement in his line. In Picasso's drawing.30 ANIMALS Movement M O V E M E N T IS OFTEN THE CHARACTERISTIC b y w h i c h w e their lines and the power of their beasts. we see semi-abstract. flattened animals composed almost entirely of movement. identify an animal: the fast cheetah. taking them to guide their hand in bringing form and essence together. quivering horse. These media complement and amplify each other with their brilliant contrast. made only a year apart. or proud. the first abstract movement of the 20th century. gray. draftsman. and scrolled lines. overwhelmed by a screeching bird. with George Braque (see p90). flapping bird. noise is everywhere. printmaker ceramicist graphic and stage designer who lived in France. dissolving faun kneels stranded.

Layers of marks In this pale Dentil drawing we see layers of' agitated marks that together present a kind of visual "itch. turning our eye and around inside the and postures of the paper- thin on pictorial space. and t e a c h e r at t h e Bauhaus school. Scene der Komischen of Comical Reiter Riders) (Scene 1935 161/2x111/2in ( 4 1 9 x 2 9 1 mm) M o r t o n G . They remain in contact with the surface of the page and scribble back and forth as they maneuver from one area to another. The entire drawing suggests the endless small movements of horses standing still. draftsman.PAUL KLEE Swiss painter. violinist. sculptor. W i t h his drawings Kleeb o u n d sophisticated theories to personal and often witty childlike imagery. N e u m a n n Family Collection. top all happily of each other in the Endless lines Look closely at how Klee's lines rarely leave the paper and how they are free from the constraint of finite shape. Chicago PAUL KLEE . He is a u t h o r o f The Thinking Eye (1923). well-worn copies o f w h i c h are found in m a n y art schools. creatures. printmaker." They chatter around bodies in groups.

fins. In contrast to the practical clarity of Baker's thought. The ship The upper decks of the ship appear curved toward us at both ends. and steerage. plans. it would achieve greater speed. adding washes of color with a fine brush. the expression of its eye. and the carefully observed gills. balance. Baker lived in an era when ships were built without drawn plans. which in application gave strength and advantage to the English fighting the Spanish Armada. He studied the anatomy of fish. Baker did not intend this. later called a galleon. This drawing illustrates Baker's theory. and s e c t i o n s o f ships. Exquisite details in this drawing include the lips of the fish. and author o f Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (1586). and blackbirds fly in formation through a mosaic of text. It is simply how we read his perspective. In just one drawing he has displayed more angles of his design than we would expect to see from a single viewpoint Fragments English 1586 101/2 x 153/8 in (270 x 390 mm) MATTHEW BAKER of Ancient Shipwrightry . mathematician. His birds stare. Below we see his revolutionary design for an Elizabethan warship. slim stern). B a k e r initiated t h e scientific p r a c t i c e o f naval a r c h i t e c t u r e and applied h y d r o d y n a m i c s . and from them learned that if he designed his ship with a "cod's head MATTHEW BAKER Master shipwright. and to assess our next move. seemingly looking for our attention. t h e earliest geometrically defined elevations.32 ANIMALS Icon and Design IN THESE T W O MANUSCRIPTS we discover diagrammatic and mackerel's tail" (full bow. The fish It is likely that Baker drew with a quill dipped in irongall ink. drawings of animals that are each held tightly in a surprising space: a giant fish wears a ship's hull. Knopf's drawing opposite is the personal enigmatic expression of a mind gripped by illness. and scales. b a s e d o n his studies o f fish.

The text.JOHANN KNOPF An " O u t s i d e r " a r t i s t w h o s u f f e r e d f r o m m e n t a l illness. numbered. JOHANN KNOPF .K n o p f b e l i e v e d h e c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h e language o f birds. and filled evenly with tone. firmly outlined. w h i c h o f t e n f e a t u r e as s y m b o l i c creatures in his drawings. written last of all. circle and the birds. T h e G e r m a n a r t historian Outline and tone The blackbirds illuminating this frantic manuscript are drawn in pencil. appears to be stirred like water by the presence of the The Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks UNDATED 133/8 x 115/8 in (340 x 2 9 6 mm) and psychiatrist Hans Prinzhom collected this image. The main group is placed in a circle drawn with a compass.

The bar is then rubbed into water on a slate block to produce ink. The best are goose or swan. 2. which range greatly in their handling and character of line. Quills were later cut from feathers. distinguished manufacture. F O U N T A I N PENS: These vary in quality and nib width. s t i c k s . simultaneously 4 . you can have great fun drawing the world around you. That is an ink. QUILLS: These are cut from the barrel of a flight or tail feather. light it. where reeds were gathered. They fit into wooden holders. Masters choose brands of long. Early artists recommended raven and crow for especially fine work. Avoid needle-sharp mapping pens. and spatters can be made with an exotic choice of inks. ink is traditionally applied with a brush (see pp. the recipes for which have been handed down over centuries. The paste from either recipe is pressed and dried into a bar for storage. high-quality Chinese and Japanese inks are subtler and more complex than those produced in Europe. and first used by the Egyptians. 3. 5 0 0 years ago. a n d m e t a l p o i n t s . The reservoir gives a constant flow of ink for very long unbroken lines and continuous bottle-free use. METAL PENS: Inexpensive removable steel nibs are available in a range of widths." "Gum" refers to gum arabic extracted Dip pens are essential and inexpensive drawing tools. then pour a little warm gum water into it and temper the two together. In the Far East. producing a different line. PENS . Only fill with suitable inks. Dip pens began their history in the Nile River. from the acacia tree. and hold it under a clean basin until the soot hangs to it. Intricate or dramatic lines. they are associated with rapid. expressive drawing techniques such as the ones we explore in this chapter 1.34 ANIMALS Pen and Ink W I T H A HANDFUL OF FEATHERS. The Chinese used animal or fish glue.246-47). Today. which scratch rather than draw. Responsive to slight changes in pressure. REED PENS: A broad nib can be cut from bamboo or another tubular grass. The Egyptians and Chinese are credited with the invention of carbon ink. A German recipe of 1531 gives a simple description: "Take a wax candle. Each pen has a unique character. and it is still in use today. 4. while metal nibs began as rare gifts in gold and silver before being perfected by the British steel industry. spots.

SEPIA A N D BISTRE INKS: Sepia. or charcoal. I R O N .36. and are still in use today: carbon (Chinese and Indian). Non-waterproof Indian inks can be reworked with a wet brush after drying. dated. ACRYLIC / CALLIGRAPHY INKS: Available in black and a range of colors. from are not 6.G A L L INK: Abnormal spherical growths caused by parasitic wasps can be collected from some oak trees in fall. They are the easiest inks to use. 5. is the ink of a cuttlefish or squid extracted post-mortem. and sieved. Beechwood soot is best. an often misused term. Inks can be lightfast or non-lightfast. Old stock turns solid and bottlesChina. C A R B O N INK: Traditionally produced from oil or resin soot (Lamp Black). roastedwine sediment (Yeast Black). and most can be homemade. they produce a golden dye for drawing.35 PEN AND INK Four types of ink were common before the 20th century. The complexities of traditional iron-gall ink are explained on p. Bistre is the more humane use of soot scraped from the fireplace and ground into wine. . It dries with a sheen and clogs uncleaned pens. boiled. and sepia. Excellent for drawing they are bright and non-clogging. charred bone (Ivory Black). Now we also have acrylic ranges in many colors. INKS 9. Waterproof types contain shellac. Crushed. I N D I A N INK: Carbon ink sold today in liquid form. reduced. waterproof or non-waterproof. iron-gall. suspended in a binder and stored as a solid block Blocks are imported today 7. and can be mixed and diluted to create subtler colors and tones. bistre. 8.

sieved. Reed marks The darker left wing of this beetle was drawn with the wet inky stroke wing. It dried black. for example. galls were ground with iron sulfate to make an unstable solution. r e s e r v e d t h e i r use f o r large c h o i r b o o k s . V a n G o g h . Paler strokes were made where the mark has the legs and antennae the ink ran out. Although oak galls and walnut skins are harmless. keep all your fingers behind basis of iron-gall ink. reduced. then cut a final nib (feathers. drawn to glisten with a dryer nib.) You can make ink easily from the boiled. it was gray-purple. and delicious to draw with. a n d d e v e l o p e d t h e quill instead. The lighter right Quill marks Quills carry more ink than strokes and for as reeds. and boiled to make a golden ink. Walnut ink is gloopy. giving a s h o r t . are surprisingly tough. The darkest of this grasshopper wings) were made (around the head first. It also oxidized and ate or burned paper. appears broken to show paper beneath. can also be collected from affected trees. Scribes o f t h e M i d d l e Ages. m o r e e x t e n d e d line than reed and a m o r e organic line t h a n m e t a l . since t h e D u t c h w e r e t h e first t o realize t h a t they could be hardened and i m p r o v e d w i t h heat t r e a t m e n t in ash o r sand. I u s e d t h e s e qualities t o d r a w t h e w o r m s above. 2 4 4 is an e x q u i s i t e e x a m p l e . finding reed p e n s unwieldy. U n d e r heavy pressure. and turned brown with time. the blade and cut away from you. Quills are also called D u t c h pens. QUILL PENS Q u i l l s a r e highly r e s p o n s i v e t o c h a n g e s in p r e s s u r e . Oak galls. giving longer lines. For centuries. forming the REED PENS R e e dpens dispense ink quickly. fleshy skins that surround ripe walnuts. Some of Michelangelo's drawings are now a little eaten by their own ink. a n d M a t i s s e also e n j o y e d t h e m . always be cautious when experimenting with recipes. d r y mark. Collect skins from the ground beneath trees once they are blackened. . Running fresh.36 ANIMALS Drawing With Ink To MAKE A QUILL OR REED PEN. t h e y stick a n d j u d d e r f o r w a r d . Rembrandt. Practice to gain a feel for how materials behave. red-brown. of a loaded nib. crushed. M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s d r a g o n o n p . T h e y give a finer.

Loaded with ink and pressed hard. DRAWING WITH INK Filled outlines Each segment of wing was outlined. When using dip pens. . clean strokes. they splay to make thick o r double lines. marks become fine and needle-sharp.37 METAL PENS Metal pens give long. particles then filled with a droplet of ink. W h e n the nib is pressed upside down. tonal Ink layers The wings of this beetle were drawn in layers using black and white ink on pale gray paper. o r being ruined as fountain pens would be under the same pressure. withstanding great pressure without sticking. Each layer of of the drying droplet dome the drawing was left to dry before adding more. giving a graded. sharp. breaking. it is important to feel for when the ink will run out and to know how much ink you pick up when dipping the nib. White markings were drawn last Tones Here we see subtle tones of diluted ink beneath the undiluted black rim of a beetle's wing. The of pigment to fall to the edges effect of the shape.

Focus on the geese. Cover your drawing book pages in speedy responses to the geese and try to capture each bird in as few lines as possible. and boldly plunge into your drawing. Pack plenty of tissue around a bottle of calligraphy or acrylic ink. test your limits. Attempt with a loose hand to capture their posture and outline. be bold and press firmly. make another one. You cannot break the nib. and bellyflop off the waterside. not on your drawing. Study them before drawing. Experiment. Take a cup and water for diluting a range of tones. Dip your pen in ink. draw what the bird is doing. and quickly draw around it using only three or four strokes. That said. and there is no "wrong. Geese are nosy birds. and be brave. It happens that goose feathers also provide artists with the best type of quills. steel nibs are fine. It teaches confidence and focus through intensive repetition. Cover a sheet. so pick a spot where other people can keep them entertained. Posture . to absorb blots when drawing. MATERIALS NEEDED Look for a bird expressing a simple posture. I covered eleven sheets in sixty quick drawings—in less than an hour. waddle.38 ANIMALS Capturing Character GEESE ARE EXCELLENT SUBJECTS to draw when practicing the first use of pen and ink. touch the bottle's rim to drain the excess. Take no more than ten seconds to draw each one and make lots of drawings. Illustrating this exercise on Oxford Port Meadow." If you don't like a stroke. and a large drawing book or plenty of paper Use masking tape to secure pages against the wind. there is no obligation to prepare a quill. Try to hold the whole posture in your mind's eye. Focus on it. Watch their heavy feathered bodies flap. Quick drawing trains you to see what is most important about a subject and to mark only its most essential expression. Empathize.

and don't worry about mechanical facts or accuracy. flapping. running. look among the birds for more complicated actions such as shaking off water. and diving. Again. draw the feeling of what you see. CAPTURING CHARACTER Texture Gradually allow yourself more lines to describe the texture of each bird as well as its posture and action. Use more lines than before to express these. . Avoid detail unless really tempted by a close-up visit Fluctuate the pressure of your pen in response to how you know the bird would feel if you touched it.39 Action With growing confidence.

a dip pen and ink of your choice (see pp. The only time he remained still was when he was sleeping. and a tissue for blotting drawn lines that appear too dark. Now it will make a pale line. and even then he twitched and stretched in dreams. your drawing book. Dip the nib quickly again into water and again drain it. form. This will give a medium-gray line." . Then dip the nib quickly into a glass of water and drain the excess again. Sleeping animals present the artist with ideal opportunities to study their texture. These drawings are not an analysis of his anatomy or breed but the expression of his satisfied comfort in a deep sleep after a night out on the together with a glass of water for diluting tones on the nib. engaged in his and everyone else's business. For this class you will need one oblivious dog. MAKING A PALE LINE To make a pale line. and personality.34-37). Make a test sheet to discover your control of diluting on the nib.40 ANIMALS Sleeping Dogs R A S WAS A GREAT CHARACTER. and drain the excess by touching the nib against the rim of the bottle. a d o g w h o w a s a l w a y s town. Ras Curled Up Asleep "Capturing the true character of a cherished companion is best achieved with objective determination rather than sentimental shyness. first dip your pen in ink.

add more detail. . 2 Reload your pen with ink. ears. Here. c o n c e r n e d a b o u t detail. 3 Gradually introduce darker tones.41 DRAWING YOUR DOG Be bold in this exercise. Then. Layers o f thoughts can bring a drawing alive. First lines are first thoughts. Here I marked the features of Ras's head. Then I immediately rebalanced the drawing with lines around his hind quarters. second thoughts may be different Changing your mind is a positive aspect o f seeing and thinking. Remain focused on the whole dog and. ignoring all detail. W i t h pale lies. alter the pressure and moisture of your line in response to howyouknow your dog feels when you ruffle itscoat. this time to create a line a little darker in tone. to emphasize how he is curled up. Trust your intuition. tail. I added ink to Ras's nose. D o not go back over lines you are pleased with—doing so dulls their lively freshness.It is essential when drawing any subject (even something abstract) to know how it feels andtoemulate this with your line. SLEEPING DOGS 1 Fix your eyes at the center of the dog. quickly draw what you see. see how the animal's posture determines its whole shape. in bold layers. To add texture. Character is better captured drawing quickly with confidence than w o r k i n g slowly. and the shadows in his coat.

offering plenty of time for the artist to draw the pose. Beyond the glass wall of the aquarium. A perfect subject for the beginner. as if caught in a camera freeze-frame. they stretch and paddle. THE ELONGATION AND BUOYANCY of a group of turtles is fascinating . turtles often pause unexpectedly.Turtles to observe. swinging their limbs and shells with a slow circular movement.

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I darkened lines as each drawing progressed. and water. I made repeated studies of the housemartin to discover its mechanism of flight. With speed. Beginning with very pale tones. balance. I sought to capture the form.Dry Birds THESE ARE THE ARTICULATED BONES o f a k i w i a n d a h o u s e - martin drawn in a museum using a steel pen. dry. India ink. and sharp. . weightlessness of the kiwi.

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we see very different cultural visions of plants and gardens and use pencils and plants to learn the pictorial values of space. Botanical illustration is a precisely defined and scientific art. From its history there is one overriding lesson to be learned: the importance of looking and seeing with our own eyes. Patrons funded the breeding of decorative. and the Acanthus spinosus constant but exhilarating struggle to make a living image feel right.Morethan 1. robust. to catalog our knowledge. where a number of uncredited artistsd r e wthem for Besler. It was published plain in 1611 and withhand-paintedplates in poured off ships returning from the New World and were eagerly collected and 1613. We draw them to celebrate their beauty and range. and the drawn pages ofthesame name. and diverse kingdom of plants. Fledgling years Botanist and apothecary who compiled the Hortus Eystettensis of scientific research bore manifold explosions of knowledge in a fever of discovery. and beauty. Plants seventeenth century. We collect. Early European illustrators were trapped within dogma that was determined by ancient scholarship. Medieval knowledge was not gained by the first-hand observation of life but by reading. and hybridize them for our sustenance and pleasure. to the proliferation of floral designs with which we have dressed ourselves and furnished our homes for centuries.Plants and Gardens W E SHARE THIS PLANET with the more ancient. Classifications were set in367copperengravings. After Here Aconthus spinosus is combined with forget-me-nots and-a-half centuries of intensive observation. 1613 187/8x153/4in(480 x 400 mm) BASILIUS BESLER . infinitely vivid. nurture. Plants are the principal inspiration of the decorative arts—from Roman Corinthian columns crowned with carved leaves of the acanthus. He sent boxes of plants to Nuremburgburned with the urgency and excitement of explaining every plant's form. shape. PriceBishopof Eichstatt specimens. Chapters are arranged by out. we now have laid before us fourto show how well their colours complement each other infinite wealth of material to explore. Conrad von Gemmingen. and to ornament our lives. color. Rich owners of private gardens commissioned large-format florilegiums commissioned the volume to document his private garden to immortalize their personal taste and power of acquisition. —-the largest and most influential botanical book of the early Natural scientists accompanied explorers to document unknown finds. an There are close parallels between the acts of gardening and drawing. the microscope was refined to unfold yet another world. The revolution came in the 1530s. B A S I L I U SBESLER when botanists founded new work upon the direct study of plants. form. In this chapter. on which our lives depend.000 species of plants are depicted life-size drawn. manipulations of light and shade. Both embrace the anticipation of evolving shape. as opposed to only herbal. Botanic gardens were established and expanded. and texture. and focus. season. the punctuation of space with structure and mass. Later.

naturalist explorer and advisor to King George III invited Bauer to London in 1 7 9 0 . B e h i n d detailed. measured drawings. stems. W i t h bright F R A N Z BAUER An Austrian artist who trained at the Schonbrunn Imperial Gardens in Vienna. Botanical art c o n c e a l s the challenge of its m a k i n g . petal tip over a lower leaf Protea nitida 201/4 x141/4in (513 x 362 mm) FRANZ BAUER 1796 . o p e n i n g a n d c l o s i n g i n the w a r m t h a n d light of the studio.48 PLANTS AND GARDENS THE SCIENTIFIC VALUE OF A BOTANICAL DRAWING lies i n its Botanical Studies were specimens that often refused to stay still. Sir Joseph Banks." Her slipper orchid s h o w s that botanical drawing must often resolve the challenge of its subject's p r o d u c i n g parts in different seasons — r o o t s . and Franz Bauer and his brother Ferdinand were employed there to draw specimens. Each plant must b e clearly distinguished from its closest relative. flowers. and wilted. or that were diseased. delicate. The King was then establishing the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. fruit. Light in this drawing is given by the paleness of the paper showing between washes of darker tones. and meticulous precision. It is likely Bauer would have studied these under a microscope. Dissections Across the lower part of this drawing we can see dissections of seed pods and petals. He has made the spatial and physical relationships in this drawing all the more real by placing a single. insect-ravaged. They are counted among the most accomplished 18th-century botanical artists. Outline Bauer prepared a pencil outline before laying in fleshy succulent hues and tones of watercolor. detail. Here. T h e rest of u s are free to d r a w as w e w i s h . M a c k i n t o s h e x p r e s s e s the f o l d e d petals of a broken rose b u d so delicately w e can sense the perfume. o p t i m i s m . s u c h as w e see here in Bauer's Protea nitida. Stella Ross-Craig said of the need to d r a w from a dried herbarium plant "I could make it live again. and seeds conventionally a p p e a r o n o n e plate. leaves. subtle union of beauty.

H e r Drawings of British Plants. Pencil lines cling to. L o n d o n in 1 9 2 9 . sensual pencil drawing is later works. found among Mackintosh's than reality. Rose 1894 103/4 x 83/4 in ( 2 7 5 x 2 2 1 mm) CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH STELLA ROSS-CRAIG A j o i n e d t h e staff a t t h e R o y a l B o t a n i c G a r d e n s ." This line drawing is one of 1. Closer to fiction can come together perfectly. and perfect coordination of hand and eye. as at trained botanical artist Ross-Craig Swift lines The drawing was planned in pencil and then overworked with a lithographic pen. a n d he inspired. Curtis's Botanical Magazine.g a r d e in G e r m a n y a n d A u s t r i a . and speed depends upon the immediate perception of the essential characteristics of the plant. K e w . a n d f o u n d e r o f t h e G l a s g o w S c h o o l o f A r t M a c k i n t o s h ' s flair h a d an e n o r m o u s i n f l u e n c e o n t h e a v a n t . it is small and discreet. imagination. is r e c o g n i z e d as tne m o s t c o m p l e t e a n d i m p o r t a n t work 3. 1970 x 81/4 in ( 3 2 5 x 2 1 0 m m ) STELLA ROSS-CRAIG . BOTANICAL STUDIES Lines and shadows This lush. Ross-Craig said of her work "Plants that wither rapidly present a very difficult problem to which there is only one answer—speed. and follow shadow.000 Kew to archive accessible t o d a y v i a t h e I n t e r n e t of o n British flora. and observation the nuance and contour of every in one image..286 studies for her book Drawings of British Plants. p u b l i s h e d 1 9 4 8 . Line Drawing of Cypripedium calceolus L c. G u s t a v K l i m t In his r e t i r e m e n t Mackintosh m a d e n u m e r o u s inventive pencil a n d w a t e r c o l o r d r a w i n g s o f plants. a m o n g o t h e r s .7 3 in 3 1 p a r t s . S h e also o f thousands o f contributed an drawings.49 C H A R L E S RENNIE MACKINTOSH Scottish a r c h i t e c t d e s i g n e r painter. and it shows how design. A s m a n y of her drawings are kept G a r d e n s ..

paper is brimming with the beauty and celebration of nature. By Muslim tradition. and attention to detail are all shared with medieval European manuscript drawings. Envoys chatter outside the gate. painting. which he personally created near Kabul. The white of the page shines through the brilliant color. the sumptuous petals permeated with prayer and wisdom. is remembered in the pages of his journal. a notable portrait painter drew the faces. The first Mughal Emperor Babur's Garden of Fidelity (Bagh-e Vaja).50 PLANTS AND GARDENS Jeweled Gardens the Middle East we find exquisite stylization of form and upright formality in pictorial space. in miniature. and miraculous growth. Opposite is the Rose of Mohammed. Afghanistan. roses took their form in a bead of perspiration on the brow of Mohammed as he passed through his heavenly journey. and Nanha. They used a fine brush to lay pigment over a line drawing. Upright shallow perspectives. Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity c. Babur directs his gardeners in the design and planting of this quartered chahar bagh. anticipating their view. Every fiber of AMONG DRAWINGS FROM BISHNDAS A N D N A N H A Little is known of these Mughal painters who were related as uncle and nephew and commissioned to illustrate the pages of Babur's journal. . Below. 1590 85/8 x55/8in (219 x 1 4 4 mm) BISHNDAS AND NANHA Bright pigment These pages were illuminated by Mughal artists in the late 16th century. and calligraphy are brought together to hold the sacred names of prophets and the 99 beautiful names of God. fluctuations in scale. urgent attentive human activity. uniform focus. Bishndas was probably responsible for the overall design. Drawing. in the early 16th century.

The physical anatomy of the rosebud has been studied and translated into a repeated stylized motif. and how the shape has been repeated freehand. However. t h e Staatsbibliothek zu Arabic. The Rose of Mohammed 1708 9 1 / 2 x 61/2 in ( 2 4 0 x 1 6 5 mm) FROM THE TURKISH M A N U S C R I P T AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH . so that overlapping petals and stems give an impression of fulfillment and abundance. Stylized motif A fine brush has been used throughout this drawing to apply inks and watercolors. fragmenting its detail in a whisper of prayers.AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH This is a detail o f a page from a n 1 8 t h . Sacred words The central rose is more solid than any other on the page. It is n o w k e p t in Border The elegant border of this drawing was mode with a pen and ruler It cleverly compresses and defines the composition. G e r m a n y . look closely and you will see words written in gold fluttering over the form of the flower. Note how each bud is essentially the same shape.c e n t u r y Turkish manuscnpt a book of religious e t h i c s w r i t t e n in the O r i e n t a l C o l l e c t i o n s of Berlin.

52

PLANTS AND GARDENS

Fast Trees
IN CONTRAST TO THE QUIET, formal detail of other drawings in this chapter, these powerful fast trees enact the actions of plants. Each tree reaches out and holds its landscape with dynamism and pulse. In both drawings we find testament to the inexorable energy of growth. Rembrandt expresses a delicate quickness. Gentle lines draw a warm breeze through this remote wooded garden. Rustling in a loose foliage of soft marks, his pen evokes the weight of abundant activity on this late summer's day. Mondrian's arch of scratching branches is drawn with such force it will always be alive. We can still feel his hand storming across the paper. Set within a frame of smudged landscape, the tree possesses a musical agitation. This characteristic will increase in the artist's later abstract work. Here, we see a punctuated ordering of space. Sharp branches cut out negative shapes of winter sky.

R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter; etcher; and draftsman. Rembrandt's prolific output comprises oil paintings of historical and religious subjects together with group and self- portraits. His emotive etchings and pen and ink drawings (see also p. 174) are great resources for artists learning to understand the potential of these media.

Horizon

Pen and ink lines describing foliage also tell

us the directions of sunlight and wind. An arc crossing the bottom of the drawing from one side to the other supports the scene and separates us from the landscape beyond. Compare Rembrandt's arc to that of Mondrian's. and note the similar treatment of low horizons in both works emphasizing the height and dominance of trees.

Cottage Among Trees 1648-50 63/4 x121/8in ( I 7 I x 308 mm) R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN

53

FAST TREES

PIET

MONDRIAN

Atmosphere Here we see how shapes of negative space are as important as the physical subject they enclose (see pp.58-59). Mondrian has again lightly dragged his chalk on its side to evoke a wet depth of atmosphere. These passive gray marks contrast with the assertive tension of the tree.

Dutch Pure abstract painter preoccupied w i t h line and plane relationships. W i t h increasing austerity, Mondrian banished t h e subject from his drawings, in his later w o r k he also banished space, composing visual h a r m o n i e s using only straight lines a n d flat planes o f black, w h i t e , gray, o r p r i m a r y color.

Winter ground Short vertical marks along thebottomof this drawing reveal the length oftheblackchalk Mondrian used. Rubbed onitsside,itroughly blocks in the ground. Thecrudeeconomy of line is all we need tofeelthecold, wet, unwelcoming quality ofthiswinterearth.

Branches and trunk Lines shaping the branches of the tree are built up in layers. To make the trunk more dense, the artist has rubbed and smudged preliminary marks with his fingers before firmly overdrawing with new lines. Solid black lines are achieved by pressing the chalk hard. When used lightly, it shows the texture of the paper. Tree: Study for the Grey 1911 23 x 335/8 in ( 5 8 4 x 8 5 5 m m ) Tree

PIET MONDRIAN

54

PLANTS AND GARDENS

Graphite and Erasers
GRAPHITE, FROM THE G R E E K word

USING GRAPHITE
This drawing illustrates a range of achieved with graphite pencils of different grades.

graphein

Modern pencils are graded from 9H (hard and pale) to 9B (black and soft). Graphiteclay sticks are also available, together with a powder form. All possess a natural sheen and are erasable to a varying degree. Graphite drawings smudge easily, so fixative, a form of varnish, can be used to hold a drawn surface in place. It is applied as a fine mist from an aerosol can, or from a bottle using a diffuser. For the beginner, ordinary hairspray is an effective and cheaper alternative.

(to write), is a soft and brittle carbon. It was first mined in Cumbria, England, in 1 5 6 4 , and was initially used in small, pure pieces bound in lengths of string. Pencils as we know them—with their slender wood casing and "lead" of graphite—were invented in France in 1794 by Nicolas-Jaques Conte. He discovered that milled graphite mixed with clay and water, press-molded, and baked to a high temperature produces a harder and paler medium than graphite alone.

3B pencil A range of mark and textures can be achieved with a 3B pencil when you vary its pressure, speed, and direction, as this detail shows.

MATERIALS
Here is a selection of 14 items to illustrate a basic range of pencils, graphite sticks, sharpeners, erasers, and fixative.
1. AND 2. HB AND 3B PENCILS: It is unnecessary to possess every grade of pencil. HB, the central and most common grade, is perfect for making delicate lines. 3B gives a blacker tone. A great variety of effects can be achieved with just these two. 3. WATER-SOLUBLE PENCIL Effective for atmospheric drawing, but be aware of how watery tones can dull the impact of the line. 4. AND 5. MECHANICAL PENCIL Thick or fine leads are made in a range of grades. They are particularly useful because they do not require a sharpener 6. ROUND SOLID GRAPHITE PENCIL: Excellent for large-scale drawing, producing thick bold lines. A range of grades can be honed with a craft knife or sharpener 7. THICK GRAPHITE STICK: For large-scale drawing. Graded soft, medium, and hard. It crushes to produce graphite powder 8. SQUARE GRAPHITE STICK: Useful for making broad, sweeping marks in large-scale drawing. If worn and rounded, the stick can be snapped into pieces to regain the sharp, square end. 9. CRAFT KNIFE AND BLADES: Handles are sold in two sizes to fit large or small blades, and blades are sold in a range of shapes. Perfect for sharpening pencils to a long point, to cut lines in paper or to remove areas. 10. PENCIL SHARPENER: Makes a uniform point. Keep one in your pocket for drawing outside the studio, together with an envelope for shavings.

HB and 5B Layers of tone have been built up withHBand5Bpencils. Softer pencils require less pressure to make a mark, revealing the texture of the paper surface. It is important to keep the point of the pencil sharp with either a craft knife or a sharpener.

55

ERASING AND FIXING
Erasers can be used t o blend and s o f t e n lines, o r t o r e m o v e altogether. Fixative them prevents

GRAPHITE AND ERASERS

s m u d g i n g a n d s e c u r e s lines.

Using fixative You can use fixative while drawing to hold the definition of lines you wish to gently fade but not remove entirely, for which you would use an eraser.

11. P L A S T I C E R A S E R : Avoid cheap colored erasers that may stain drawings with grease and dye. White brands are available in soft and hard versions.

12.

P U T T Y RUBBER:

W a r m it in your hand before use. It is excellent for removing powdery materials, and for making crisp sweeps of light across a delicate pencil drawing

13. D I F F U S E R : Helleborus corsicus (Corsican hellebore) fixative, or to spray mists of ink.

56

PLANTS AND GARDENS

Cropping and Composition
M A N Y STUDENTS WILL START a d r a w i n g i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e

that its skin nearly touches the boundary. The meaning of the same drawing changes simply by its relationship to the space it occupies. The size of any subject, its placement on the page, the size of the page, and its overall proportion are all discrete and essential aspects of successful picture-making. Before you begin to draw, think carefully about where to place your subject. Are you are happy with your paper? If not, change it; add more, take some away, or turn it around. Do not just accept what you are given, adapt it to what you need.

paper. Focused on the shape and detail of their subject, they remain happily unaware that there is, or should be, any relationship between what they are drawing and the surface they are drawing it on. The paper is only paper, and the troublesome subject floats somewhere in the expanse of it. However, a single fig drawn in the middle of a large, empty square of paper gives quite a different impression from the same fig drawn on such an intimately small square

CHOOSING A VIEW

A Single Fig

"The size, shape, and orientation of the paper are so integral to the composition that they determine the impact and meaning of the drawing."

its illumination. a device to help you decide what t o draw. A card with a small rectangle cut out o f it makes a useful viewfinder C l o s e o n e e y e t o look through the hole. U s e it as a starting point. t h e n m o v e t h e c a r d t o e x p l o r e different views.57 THE VIEWFINDER T h e s e pencil drawings o f figs d e m o n s t r a t e different crops and compositions. spaces between things are as important as the things themselves. they establish a tension and unity with the paper. Touching the edge When the subject o f a drawing touches one edge of the paper it attaches t o it visually. as also shown here.O u r focus is on the white cloth supporting the figs. CROPPING AND COMPOSITION Off-center and diagonal Here I held my viewfinder so the fig appeared upper-left in the space. and lines describing shadows cast by the fruit . bottom-left t o top-right. The angle of the fruit together with dark shadow (top left) and bright light(bottom right) suggest a diagonal division across the whole drawing. Here the left fig is attached to. When subjects touch two or more edges. running corner t o corner. Space as the subject Inallpictures. the uppermost edge of the drawing. and therefore apparently suspended from. This drawing hasbeencropped to emphasize space between thefruit. its stem and shadow framing a white center.

The drawing opposite is of the uppermost leaves of a potted fig tree. this ensures a consistent view. you will need a similar large-leaved plant. WHERE TO START Arrange your plant and paper so you can look back and forth by barely moving your head. fourth. and a fresh page in your drawing book. an eraser. not leaves. It is an astonishingly simple device that many artists use and I strongly recommend. Draw a complete shape Map outward from the center Erase and adjust lines until correct . Negative space is the simple key to getting positive shape right. It helps to start at the center and map outward. Looking at negative space overrides the problem of drawing what you know. rather than what you see in front of you. Follow these from left to right and see how I began with one complete shape between two parts of a leaf. do we see myriad distinct and unique shapes of daylight or do we just see branches? Why as artists should we look at the air? Every space in a picture has a shape. tone. but if the artist does. Viewers appreciating a finished image may not see shapes of space. a foundation stone in picture-making. and so on. But how often do we look at the air between things. unified. a sharp H B pencil. their subject and composition will become more real. Unfamiliar shapes of negative space reveal the real shape of a positive subject.58 PLANTS AND GARDENS Negative Space UNCONSCIOUSLY WE ASSESS spatial relationships all the time to guide ourselves through the world. In your own version. then added a second shape. Remember that plants do move! Therefore it is best to complete your drawing in one sitting if possible. dynamic. shapes of air cut out and defined by the physicality of our environment? When we look into the branches of a tree. remember to draw only space. In following this class. and a role to play. which is shown in the three steps below.The box opposite isolates an area. position. third. erasing and adjusting lines until itlooked right. and engaging.

59

Here I drew only spaces, adding one to another until the leaves were revealed. Besides looking at negative space, there are two other useful things to do when a drawing feels wrong but you cannot see why: look at it in a mirror or turn it upside down. errors and suggest changes.

Spaces between leaves

Either view will

NEGATIVE SPACE

Fig Tree
WALKING IN THE ALPUJARRAS in A n d a l u c i a ,

Spain, I drew a bare fig tree clinging to the wall of an almond grove; a perfect subject for seeing negative space. I marked its essential frame of large branches first, frequently erasing lines and changing my mind until the balance felt right.

S a l v i a , RIBES, CLEMATIS, Allium, Passiflora, and Acanthus

Summer Flowers

Alchemilla,

drawn with an H pencil by observing the

negative spaces between the stems, petals, and leaves. I arranged the flowers on a sheet of paper in a cool r o o m and rapidly sketched a composition. Then I put them in water, taking the stems out one at a time to draw.

.

gathering less distinct information on the way. Excessive detail leaves no space for the eye to rest or imagination to wander. .Acanthus Spinosus As we LOOK AROUND. We never see everything at once. interfolding points of detail with areas of loose suggestion. Compare changes of pace and focus here to the flatter finish of Summer Flowers (see pp. 62-63). our eyes travel and adjust from one point of focus to another. If an artist changes the pace of their line and focus of their attention. they emulate our experience of seeing.

.

Among the drawings of this chapter we look from 17th-century ecclesiastical calm. they have the Golden Section. At the core of their practice. Perhaps in the sheer planes of some of our greatest modern buildings it is finding its clearest expression. philosophers. and writers have been breaking away from traditional forms of representation to seek new expressions of shape. from political commentary to musical abstraction. once there. Yet the pursuit of divine proportion and harmony remains. and in the 19th century it was given the name the Golden Section. made by the architect himself. to help them create new form. Besides sketches of first thoughts and polished drawings of the finished look for clients. mass. each VICTOR BALTARD . and sound. architects. 74-75). space. VICTOR BALTARD French architect employed by the city of Paris. which can be clearly seen in ancient Greek architecture. was preserved into the Renaissance where it became a foundation stone for thinking and creativity From 15thcentury Italy. It is the focus of practical class in this chapter. European conventions of pictorial perspective have lost their monopoly on seeing. fine artists. to 20th-century film fantasy. balance. Paris 1871-74 the child's view to the infinity of the vanishing point. designers. composers. Through the animation of the screen. we find the most recent steps in the evolution of graphic language. invaluable to understand and apply when you choose. they also have a diagrammatic language for communicating plans to builders. and architects of ancient Greece who first pursued the formula for "divine proportion.The church is still in use today. It was also during the Renaissance that the architect Brunelleschi invented linear perspective. of the west facade of St Augustin. This harmony. Computer programs allow the virtual drawing of ideas. Linear perspective is a marvelous device. architects and designers can imaginatively "climb inside" three-dimensional space and. drawing plans around themselves within a program as opposed to on a flat sheet of paper. the formula for perfection spread through Europe. coupled with the importance of exercizing your imagination. add and subtract ideas. Architects have been fine-tuning their specialized branch of drawing for centuries. with gray and brown watercolor wash. which was the first church in the capital to be built entirely of metal and then clad in stone.This is a pencil drawing. time. Augustin. filmmakers. Baltard designed the Church of St. It was the mathematicians. Since the first flowering of Modernism in the early 20th century. film-set design. and computer game imaging. and from West Facade of the Church of St Augustin. the device that has since governed most of our picture-making (sec pp." reflecting the eye's love of unity in difference.Architecture I N THE CONTEMPORARY PRACTICES of architecture. Since Picasso and Braque's revolution of Cubism in around 1907.

and ultimately to show builders what to do. marks the end of a long journey from the first few marks the architect made on a sheet of paper. he also worked on St Paul's Cathedral. A student of Wren's. relative levels. embodying a massive investment of ideas. NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR One of Britain's "three great" Baroque architects (along with Sir Christopher Wren and Sir John Vanbrugh). materials. Hawksmoor's drawing is both a plan and an evocation. and balance. Lines define structure while washes suggest light and atmosphere. Pillars and floor At the base of the drawing a compass-drawn plan tilted downward through 90 degrees illustrates the arrangement of pillars around a central circular floor. Oxford. Architects draw for many reasons: to visualize ideas. and an inscribed entablature. Cut-away interior On the right a section cut through the center of the building reveals material thicknesses. calculate function. and later an assistant to Vanbrugh. a three-dimensional drawing made with wires and weights. We see the modeled detail of Corinthian columns. Together they explain how interior structure and space define exterior form and shape. and the shapes of interior domes and apses. and Castle Howard. The photograph opposite shows his studio hung with metal pendulums. pilasters. Finished surface On the left the finished surface of the building is given depth and emphasis by immaculate vertical and horizontal brush strokes of shadow. describe a finished look to a client. Drawings underpin every great human-made structure like hidden linear ghosts at their core. Hawksmoor established his reputation with university and church architecture including All Souls College. 1711-12 NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR . and six London churches. structure. Hampton Court Palace. evoke presence.68 ARCHITECTURE Master Builders EVERY NEW BUILDING. Three aspects This subtle and sophisticated drawing made in pen and wash displays three distinct aspects of Hawksmoor's baptistry. Gaudi's fluid architecture grew up through many kinds of drawing. Blenheim Palace. and labor. testing gravity to calculate the inverted shapes of domes. St Paul's Baptistry c. densely layered lines in mists of color weave the presence of the expected building into shape. Below it.

To the right isawatercolordrawing thought to havebeenmade over a photograph ofthemodelabove. 1910 24x181/4( 6 1 0 x 4 7 5mm) A N T O N I O GAUDI . churches. embellishment. Wire and watercolor three-dimensional preferred to calculate Above is a drawing form in the made withlinkedwires and weights. Gaudi air than on paper. The Art Nouveau movement. unique organic manipulation of high shapes. Guell Crypt of its at the Time Construction c. and his love of music. 1900 ANTONIO GAUDI ANTONIO GAUDI Visionary Catalan architect. light.69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt c. Gaudi's cathedral in Barcelona. This sculptural drawingenvisionsthe finished crypt glowingandethereal as if caught in thelightof red morning sun. and apartment homes are distinguished by their Their and Flowering curves of stone or concrete are often encrusted with Gaudi was inspired by medieval and oriental art.

theater sets. Across the top and center right of the image w e perceive an almost recognizable architectural plan. and exhibitions of his drawings. and the spaces between his windows and turrets are the visual equivalent of pauses in h i s m u s i c c o m p o s i t i o n s for p i a n o (see also Bussotti. before cascading into a riot of line and sound below. There has always DANIEL LIBESKIND A Polish American architect of international acclaim. We can imagine how a musician might interpret this drawing by looking at the abstract visual rhythms of masses composed of long straight poles. He also contributed to plans for the rebuilding of the World Trade Center site in New York. upright pictorial space. short curved poles. Libeskind begins quietly in the upper space of his drawing. We can see. a refillable pen that feeds a constant supply of ink through a fine tubular nib. Libeskind's numerous commissions include concert halls and museums.223). corridors. flat boards. The architect and musician Daniel Libeskind has drawn a stampeding cacophany of airborne architectural detail. and dotted lines. and arched dotted lines depict the radius of doors. Contemporary musicians commonly collaborate with artists by interpreting images as sound. Both men used rulers and pens to carefully and slowly construct their compositions.70 ARCHITECTURE The Order of Sound B O T H OF THESE VISIONARY DRAWINGS o c c u p y a s l e n d e r . while the composer Erik Satie has made an enclosure of quiet order and grace. and rooms. installations. and in a sense hear. p. Floor plan This drawing has been made with a rapidograph. Libeskind studied music before transferring to architecture. such a rapport in both of these drawings. Visual rhythms In the lower half of this drawing architectural language has broken loose: escaped and transformed into an image of rebellious pleasure. Floor space appears divided by discernible walls. Arctic Flowers 1980 DANIEL LIBESKIND . Satie draws quietly throughout. been a natural affinity between the visual rhythms of pictures and the audible rhythms of music. He also produces urban and landscape designs.

theater. They definespaceand pictorial balance. the perimeter Composition Look how well this drawingfitsand resonates with the upright. a conventional dip or fountain pen. effectively additional lines in a work.narrowshape of its paper.ERIK SATIE F r e n c h pianist and c o m p o s e r for t h e piano. o f which he was the sole m e m b e r Parcel paper Satie has drawn this fantasy hotel using a ruler.H i s witty. and founded his o w n church. a n d ballet. andfouredges of the paper tothecompositionand impact animage. dressed eccentrically. 1 8 9 3 77/8 x 51/2 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 4 0 mm) ERIK SATIE . Eastern influence The upright image Eastern is reminiscent and medieval of Middle pictorial space and subject of this European drawing. Compare the even and and the shape wall to the elegantly stylized order of the many windows of arrangement of details and the shape of the wall in Babur's Garden of Fidelity on p. Hotel de la Suzonnieres c. and ink on a fragment folded brown paper—a of everyday happened material of scrap that to be at hand. lived a l o n e . Satie collaborated w i t h hisfriends J e a n C o c t e a u a n d P i c a s s o . Onpp.50. minimalist s c o r e s scandalized a u d i e n c e s with o r c h e s t r a t i o n s f o r t h e foghorn and typewriter.56—57 we discussed important the shape.Edges are how are of orientation. H e p e r f o r m e d in cabarets.

cylinders. spheres. the ominous globe exists only as a series of drawings. Within it. Among preparations for Fritz Langs film Metropolis. This is the work of an architectural theoretician. and taught at t h e A c a d e m i e d'Architecture. Newton's Cenotaph 1784 153/4 x 25 in ( 4 0 2 x 635 m m ) ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE .96. arched vaults. and dramatic lighting. We glide over exquisitely drawn wastelands of damage and abandonment. antlike mortals might have speculated upon the universe. experiencing a fascinating conflict between curiosity and desolation. His celebrated imaginary buildings are characterized by pyramids.The lower-left section of the building appears relatively pale against a darker sky. painter. This shift makes the cenotaph appear three-dimensional. and the reverse is true on the right. Light illusions This pen-and-wash drawing shows a subtle application of the principles of illumination demonstrated with an egg on p. Boullee lived in Paris. and draftsman. made in 1926. ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE French architectural theorist. Boullee's monolithic apparition was drawn as a monument to Sir Isaac Newton. Art director Erich Kettlehut's vertiginous design for the city of a slavelike populace had a future influence on movies such as Blade Runner. enter the long-shadowed architecture of imaginary worlds. we find other Utopian visions Paul Nobles epic drawing summons an imperfect and disturbing township where ruin and activity are equal and strange.72 ARCHITECTURE T H E S E T H R E E HIGHLY DETAILED DRAWINGS Future Fictions invite us to soaring above normal life.

and are Graphite shapes Nobson Central isoneof a series of very large graphite drawings of the spoil and detritus of Nobson Newtown. architecture. FUTURE FICTIONS Brush and ink This is a dramatic drawing from a film that shaped the history of world cinema. 1926 ERICH KETTLEHUT PAUL N O B L E British c o n t e m p o r a r y artist who creates m o n u m e n t a l . mythology.a r t director O t t o Hunte. intensely detailed graphite drawings explaining and questioning t h e geography. gray. Kettlehut drew using a fine and relatively dry brush dipped in black. used forced perspective camera t e c h n i q u e s t o amplify t h e m a g n i t u d e o f buildings in relation t o human characters. Fritz Lang's Metropolis c. and white ink on brown-gray paper. and morality o f an invented place called His satires exhibited w o r l d w i d e . and m o d e l . Working on toned paper such as this gives an artist greater scope for dramatic lighting effects than if they work on white paper. Kettlehut and his c o . Nobson Central 9 ft 1 0 in x 1 3 f t 2 in (3 x 4 m ) PAUL N O B L E 1998-99 . together with c i n e m a t o g r a p h e r Karl Freund. draftsman.m a k e r In t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f Metropolis.Building shapes are works can be read as text. Nobson political visions of humanity Newtown. Its sheerscaleengulfs the viewer and demands based time and patience to on letters and in some beread.73 ERICH KETTLEHUT Influential film a r t director.

Single-point perspective Tie a thread to a pin. Pull the thread taut and rotate it slowly above the drawing. We use it to structure illusions of depth. Note how architectural features conform to lines and how human figures diminish in size toward thevanishingpoint. I contribute the child's perspective. this perspective is often an imagined bird's-eye view in which details are mapped according to logic and importance rather than how they might appear in real life. and those of Naive artists and children. Piranesi an example of two. Sometimes shared with Naive artists. All forms of perspective are of equal value. but is most easily seen and understood in pictures of buildings and interiors. Study of Perspective Adoration of the for the Magi 1481 61/2 x111/2in (165 x 290 mm) LEONARDO DA VINCI . found at the center of all converging lines. It is also distinguished from aerial perspective (see pp. linear perspective is distinct from more ancient systems practiced in the East. observations. and inventions— essential reading for inquiring minds. and thinkers ever to have lived. LEONARDO DA VINCI One of the greatest artists. inventors. See how the thread corresponds to each converging line. Invented by Italian artist and architect Brunelleschi in 1413 (late in the history of art). Press the pin into Leonardo's vanishing point. 206-07). Leonardo recorded constant streams of ideas. In his notebooks. and age eight. Here Leonardo provides a superb example of a single vanishing point. It can be applied to any subject.74 ARCHITECTURE Pathways of Sight LINEAR PERSPECTIVE (also called vanishing-point perspective) is a simple device for calculating the relative size of things in pictorial space. scientists.

visionary and practical understanding of ancient Rome. a points in logical narrative of memories. This drawing Young children typically maps ignore on and understanding of the nearby village. Breamore Village. Note the rather large rabbits and pheasants the hills. at the top of each lateral column base. issues of scale when making room for important their story.SARAH SIMBLET I made this drawing (at age 8) in response to a local bookstore's request for children to draw their village. architect. Children are uninhibited and problems with one element being obscured by another rarely arise. . Two-point perspective Sunlight through this colonnade a great example of two-point perspective. England 1980 9 x 16 in (228 x 405 mm) S A R A H SIMBLET GIOVANNI BATTISTA PIRANESI Italian artist. and theoretical writing strongly influenced neoclassicism. which I saw from home every day. Lightly marked illuminates vanishing Two Courtyards c. Mark these points with your pin and follow the converging lines of the drawing by rotating your thread. It shows how children usually map large scenes in flat layers one above the other. and designer Piranesi's prolific architectural drawings. including all they recall about the subject. 1740 5 1 / 2 x 83/8 in (141 x 212 mm) G I O V A N N I B A T T I S T A PIRANESI points are located on either side of the drawing. Scale Our farmhouse my experience was in the woods. New Forest.

discovering the image as it progressed. This lesson shows you how to make a simple illusion of space defined by two boxes and three flat boards. then follow the ten steps below. try composing your own space.) . corresponding to a single vanishing point. Each line should pass through one corner of the rectangle. using a sharp HB pencil and ruler. Note that if you place large structures in the foreground and smaller ones closer to your vanishing point.76 ARCHITECTURE Single-Point Perspective MASTERING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE i s e a s i e r t h a n y o u m a y First read through. Piranesi planned his drawing with only the essential lines needed. Extend each dotted line to the edge of your drawing. you will amplify the illusion of distance. Next. This ensures that the second rectangle aligns with the shape and 4 Draw four short lines to connect the four corners of the two rectangles. imagine. On the previous page we looked at its essential mechanism through drawings by Leonardo and Piranesi. DRAWING BOXES 1 Using a ruler and a sharp HB pencil. draw a horizon line across your paper Mark a spot on the horizon line. 2 3 corners must each touch a dotted line. You have completed your first box. (See p. This is where we will begin. Leonardo began with a grid of many lines within which he invented his scene. Surround the vanishing point with a small rectangle. In contrast. Study these pages first before embarking on this lesson. Draw four dotted lines radiating out from the vanishing point. this is your vanishing point. Draw each step over the preceding one to build up a single image. Erase the dotted construction lines.98 for an important note on oscillation.

The larger you make your second rectangle. draw four dotted lines radiating from your vanishing point Pass these through each comer of the new rectangle. and erase the dotted lines. draw a second. 6 As in step 2.willhelptomake them appear more solid. Connect this to the vanishing point— again. bottom. Continue the dotted lines out toward the edge of your drawing. the closer it will appear to the viewer. N e x t draw a slanting line to mark the height of the first flat board. The board's sides should be parallel. The four comers must each touch a dotted line to be sureitaligns with the first. larger rectangle. with two dotted lines.asIhavedonehere. andfarside of this first board. Note that this does not surround the vanishing point In the future. 1 0 Erase all ofthedottedlinestoseeyourfinishedboxes Thickeningtheiredges. 9 Use dotted lines connecting the slanting linetothe vanishing point to locate the top.77 SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE 5 Draw a new rectangle. when inventing your own compositions. . 7 As in step 3. you can place rectangles anywhere youwishin relation to a vanishing point. 8 Complete the second box with short lines as in step 4. Repeat this to add two more boards to the composition.

Every work talks In this class. A lot more happens when you open yourself up to the work and let yourself act and react to it. it is interaction that makes the work richer." . p . let simple lines suggest a simple space. once said: "I never end up with what I set out to do." imaginary room. artist and film director. Then follow the three given steps. Linear perspective will support y o u by providing a frame in which to b u i l d your picture as it did for Leonardo. It highlights the importance of having faith in your imagination and trusting your ability to invent. 7 4 ) . you will find white adhesive stationery labels are useful for covering errors or changing the direction of your idea.78 ARCHITECTURE Creating an Imaginary Space T H I S CLASS USES SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE t o c r e a t e a s i m p l e to you and if you listen to it. w h e t h e r it is a film or a painting. it will take you places you never dreamed of. If using a fibertip pen as I have done for this drawing. draw a b o x as shown opposite. then let the space suggest its c o n t e n t s and purpose. O n a fresh page in your d r a w i n g b o o k . APPLYING PERSPECTIVE An Imagined Scaffold "Enjoy your illusion as you make it and it will become more real. I always start with a script but I don't follow it all the way through to the end. As David Lynch. The m i s t a k e n belief that we s h o u l d k n o w exactly what o u r finished drawings will l o o k like before we m a k e t h e m prevents many people from ever starting.

horizontal. parallel planes such as walls converge toward the vanishing point. you will beableto draw more complex objects orpeoplewithin them. The space has become more solid and real. 3 Remove the construction lines with an eraser and the room will becomeclearer. and floors and ceilings also converge and rise o r lower toward the horizon.79 DRAWING A SIMPLE ROOM Essentials t o remember: objects and people dimmish in size as they move farther away. With some practice. additional lines have established the different surfaces and how they relate to each other.Addanarray of converging lines to provide a "scaffold" for vertical. This initial space will be transparent and open to change. CREATING AN IMAGINARY SPACE 1First. Here. . and leaning surfaces. 2 first before adding furniture.There is great pleasure tobefoundin spending time inventing interiors.drawthehorizonlineand vanishingpoint.

o r to the h o r i z o n . Only when y o u might employ t h r e e . These elaborations could continue indefinitely across a sheet of paper in pursuit of complex and intricate ideas. T h e y d o n o t have to relate to each other. To draw such a view APPLICATION Copy these drawings to see and feel how they work before inventing your own versions. Further aspects of three-point perspective are also illustrated opposite.p o i n t perspective ( s h o w n opposite top). Vanishing points are commonly found on horizon—our eye level. but they are not confined to this level. It is important to realize that you can have as many vanishing points as you wish. verticals appear p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the g r o u n d . a n d this is how we have drawn them so far (see pp.80 ARCHITECTURE Further Aspects of Perspective W E ARE ACCUSTOMED TO SEEING our e n v i r o n m e n t from a relatively constant point of view. The boxes drawn here are seen partly or entirely disassociated from a horizon line drawn across the bottom of the image. T h i n k of standing at the top of a skyscraper and imagine h o w its parallel sides would appear to converge below you. Copying what you see in the work of others will help you to understand what they have done. That is where we e to find them. From our normal eye level. Here. showing y o u h o w to draw curved surfaces and a tiled floor. or low and we look u p . Elaborations . Free vanishing points On paper we can enjoy the freedom of fantastic structural invention without limitations of solid materials or gravity. T h i s is d e m o n s t r a t e d immediately below. do verticals appear inclined. they can be placed anywhere inspaceto describe the perspective of flyi c tilted objects. I have elaborated on the simple boxes above. Potentially. 76-79). They could be drawn on any scale from miniature to monumental. Search for the application of these perspectives among works by other artists in this book and in galleries. our eye level is very high and we look down. located anywhere inside or outside the pictorial space.

) By comparing this drawing t o Piranesi's example of two-point perspective on p. tostraightlines can amplify drama in a picture. you will see how. I then drew three fanned groups of lines connecting each of the three points above to the seven points below. (Turn the book around to see a view looking up. three vanishing points are evenly spaced along a horizon line.Finally. PERSPECTIVE Three-point curves Here.Istarted with two parallel lines. by adding a third point you can achieve a sense of incline. they mark the corners of the floor tiles.75. Note that altering the distance between the three dots above will tilt the level of the floor . Where thelinescross. An array of curved lines (drawn freehand) link the two lateral points. Giving curvature. Iusedthese lines as a guide t o draw the curvature of boxes and panels flying through space.81 FURTHER ASPECTS OF Three-point towers This drawing depicts three-point perspective. Three-point checkered floor This d bottom floor. I marked the toplinewith three evenly spaced points and the line with seven. and therefore tension. useful for representing steep views looking up or down tall structures.I added horizontal lines t o define the tiles.

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. These walnut-skin ink pen and brush drawings show imagined views of theaters that do not exist but were inspired by places I studied.Theaters RESEARCHING FOR MY P H D . I visited many anatomical theaters and museums. making drawings to resolve questions and express personal responses to the nature and history of anatomy.

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.Venetian Life sitting point buildings ThisP E N . the water.I N KDRAWING is one of a series I made while next to the Rialto Bridge in Venice. The vanishing of the drawing is directly opposite as we look across The constancy of the bridge and surrounding frames the movement in the life that flows past.A N D .

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In past eras. from s p o o n s and pens to chairs and bicycles. and a wire violin. and the behavior of light through making still-life paintings and together. drawing c. have often carried great weights of allegorical once. that test our logic with a sense of mystery. r an equestrian statue. hooked bars that can be pulled and tied closely form. T h e Industrial Revolution c h a n g e d the traditional w a y s in w h i c h objects were designed. Artists and actors use the meanings of things to communicate a speculative mechanic. passing them on to others through the act of making. too. Engineers and designers of our objects and instruments make drawings for many reasons: to test an idea that is yet to be made. design. color. It was in this era that the blueprint was born. making a clear instruction t o his bronzemeaning. A chair. C o m m o n items. even more advanced drawings are made on computers. these. of light in the creation of pictorial illusions. It is shaped in sections w i t h Artists have for centuries studied and expressed composition. Technical drawing was speedily developed as a meticulous international code of m e a s u r e m e n t and explanation. each demanding more of the other as they increased in sophistication. or to explain and present a finished concept to a client.Objects and Instruments T HE THINGS WE INVENT describe our lives. or drawing w e see Leonardo daVinci'sprecision as can be given meaning. craftsmen had held plans in their memory. are all made bearing the signature of our time and place. fictional realities caster of h o w t o make it andhowit will w o r k . for example. drawn. to record an observed detail. H e has described contour and function at drawings. H e has described a casting through metaphor. Today. we look at the importance are the only creatures on Earth w h o actually design and create great ranges of things. 1493 117/8c81/4in (300 x 210 m m ) LEONARDO D A V I N Ccreating I . and some apes use simple tools. drawings were needed to instruct workers on the factory floor. Previously. and the way in w h i c h the brain reacts Head and Neck Sections of Female Mold for the Sforza Horse to visual stimulus and optical illusions. planned. or used on stage hood for a mold t o make theheado f a horse f oas a p r o p — i m b u e d with e n o u g h energy or character can "become" a man. With the sudden onset of mass production. illuminating snail shells. In this chapter. History will be learned from the artifacts w e leave behind. sculpted. Birds follow instinct to make a nest. W e also explore v o l u m e and form in the classes by spinning lines to make vessels. Artists also make images of objects that can never exist. T h e precision of engineering d r a w i n g s e v o l v e d alongside machine tools. for example—whether. texture. but humans LEONARDO DA VINCI Inthisbeautiful red chalk Our items all have a purpose—practical or ornamental—and all have a meaning. and made.

"I believe [it] is the most radicalattempttostampout ambiguity and to enforce one readingofthepicture—that of a manmade construction. Statue D'Epouvante 1913 2 f t 5 in x 3 ft 5 in (0. Braques "justly" arranged combination of cut black card. not to work in harmony. One of the great joys of this movement in art is the musicality of its multipoint view. silverware. but to clash in virtual deadlock.73 x 1 m) GEORGES BRAQUE . steaming with music and conversation. Even today GEORGES BRAQUE French painter who as a young man was influenced by the work of the Fauves and of Cezanne. Clashes The art historian Ernst Gombrich said of Cubism. a colored canvas. Below. texture. T h i s is a designers drawing made to enthuse surface and style in its delicate brushing of china. and shading. charcoal. . Braque established Cubism in partnership with Picasso just before World War I." La Cuitare. perfect i n their newly made availability. He takes us into the bustle of the Paris cafe. There is a fragile eloquence to these objects as they drift in slow motion past our gaze... Opposite.Braque marshals all the forces of perspective. and glass objects of exquisite elegance for only the gentlest of touch and appreciation. not of place but of things. His work is characterized by calm and harmonious still-life compositions. still feel this projected moment. Braques image is a Cubist collage. and a journal jacket with words makes this drawing chatter about the moment. representing still life. wood-look wallpaper.90 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS Still Life THESE DRAWINGS REVEAL t w o o p p o s i t e m o t i v a t i o n s i n we can. Mucha's drawing glistens with possession.

Art Nouveau curling motifs of birds. Art Nouveau motifs This is a preliminary study for a subsequent print. and New York. He designed the Austrian pavilion for the Paris World Fair in 1900. Pans. Study for Plate 59 from "Documents Decoratifs" 17x121/4(430 x 310 mm) ALPHONSE MUCHA 1902 . Chicago. and fish have been outlined using a sharp pencil. For ten years Mucha designed theater posters exclusively for the actress Sarah Bernhardt. Look at the two spoons at toprightand see how has suggested that they are so brilliantly shiny they reflect the background color.flowers. The three plates facing us were drawn with a compass. He is best known for posters featuring ethereal women in typical Art Nouveau style. Background color Between the delicate shadows and highlights of these glazed and surfaces ofthebackground metal color of the Mucha we see a large amount paper. and also stamps and bank notes.ALPHONSE MUCHA Czech graphic artist and painter who worked in Prague. Black watercolor washes and lines of white gouache have been added with a fine brush.fruit.

With dotted lines Newton has drawn his arrangement of elements inside the tube. drawing is there to pin the moment down. shape the very cause and effect of investigatory thought. and philosopher Newton was President of the Royal Society. In the graphic work of these two great men of science. and the nature o f light and color. a tree outside. into the eyepiece. the law o f gravity. A disembodied eye at the top of the drawing indicates where to look. and his hand moving across the light. alchemist. Look how confidently he draws with ink the sphere of this wooden globe by which his telescope rotates. It was then reflected up inside the tube and. From the concept of capturing the infinite to the mapping of microscopic sight. mathematician. via a second mirror. each reflecting a view of his own world—his window. Transparent view Newton's reflecting telescope focused light in a parabolic mirror. offering a transparent view. Newton's 1672 ISAAC Telescope NEWTON . Ink lines Several drawings appear among Newton's letters. each one skillfully rendered with the alarmingly matter-of-fact ease of explaining the commonplace. It is a diagrammatic explanation of how to catch and magnify a star in a mirrored tube. Newton used this instrument to calculate the speed required to escape earth's gravity. The power of this drawing reflects the pure passion of discovery. and Fellow of the University o f C a m b r i d g e . He counted 1 4 . w h e r e he developed his three greatest theories: the law o f motion. astronomer. we see drawing Instruments of Vision found among his letters. Hooke's head of a drone fly seen through a microscope may represent the first time man and insect came face to face. Their delicate construction is only as valuable as the measurements they make. 0 0 0 perfect hemispheres.92 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS by their very nature must gauge or chronicle precision. Newton's drawing of his first reflecting telescope is ISAAC N E W T O N English scientist.

a breathtaking book containing many of his drawings showing some of the first microscopic and telescopic magnifications of our environment Hooke's text and illustrations carry us to the moment of discovery.An experimental scientist who drew many of his discoveries. ROBERT H O O K E 93 Magnifications This acutely detailed engraved drawing is taken from Hooke's Micrographia (pub. and anchor escarpment. The Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 1665 ROBERT HOOKE 111/2 x 105/8 in (294 x 270 mm) . 1665). and calculated the theory of combustion. It is an exhilarating read. universal joint a prototype respirator clock balance. Hooke invented the camera diaphragm.

it has so m u c h familiar personality that it seems to talk to us. has published several catalogs of her work. each drawn with the s a m e unfaltering lines and tones that are between reality and impossibility. and w h e r e the chair b e l o n g s . craft. and place in the world are truly seen. W i t h h o m e y c o n t r a s t . this chair p r e s e n t s us with a clever visual contradiction: deeply drawn shadows tell us it must be solid. Sarah Woodfines flat cut-out m o d e l plan is a witty and surprising drawing. From component parts we understand how to put it together and make it stand sensible in space. Van Gogh's tipsy seat is a metaphor for an absent person. Bench Marks W e are left a little c o n f u s e d as to what we s h o u l d do. while the tabs make us see a flat paper cut-out. and has drawings in numerous public and private collections.94 INSTRUMENTS W H E N WE DRAW A COMMON OBJECT like a chair. Two-dimensional was made This highly finished drawing ruler using a sharp pencil and on smooth white drawing paper glistening dark drawings are artificial representations of known Woodfine's two-dimensional things balanced in the world. Woodfine exhibits internationally. Its wobbly gait and squashed s y m m e t r y m u m b l e endless h o m e y tales about the life it has seen. Drawn in more-or-less c o n v e n t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . Chair Cut Out 2002 22'A x 23 in (565 x 585 mm) SARAH WOODFINE . A renegade from the p a p e r dolls' h o u s e . and winner of the 2004 Jerwood Drawing Prize. OBJECTS AND SARAH WOODFINE British contemporary artist graduate of the Royal Academy Schools. its character.

what direct in their he saw and describing his felt.95 VINCENTVAN GOGH Dutch painter who produced over 800 paintings and 850 drawings in only the last ten year's of his life. not is made present in only strokes and is subdued to distract us from flat a meaningful chair. Cornfield and Sunflowers. and Starry Cypress Night. The floor few as engagement with the chair.hehas marked the full emotion of the subject with a fierce grip of concentration. drawn opposite way of plan. Van Chair 1890 VINCENT VAN GOGH . inner recording while Fierce strokes This is a portrait of the mechanical drew immediately and almost harshly. Among van Gogh's best-known canvases are Trees. His passionate brush and pencil strokes are honest and of also turmoil and growing alarm at the world around him.

cards the same size. gray. reads only m o v e m e n t a n d can often m a k e mistakes. less developed than the center.At one point you will catchenoughlight lighter than the white one. Here w e look briefly at our perception of light a n d darkness a n d our interpretation of diagrammatic illusions. See how its "edge" smoothly changes from light against dark to dark against light. and the proximity of contrasting tones. or colored surface is never constant. The outermost edge of our vision. Three factors change it: the amount of light it receives. To interpret visual s t i m u l u s . Run The bottom-left quarter of the egg lightens slightly toward its "edge" when seen against the darker shadow cast on the paper. Here. w e turn our head but n o one w a s there. The rim of light on the egg is reflected light received from surrounding paper. a n d m o v e m e n t . Card experiment cho can gra on . o u r b r a i n s search for n a m e a b l e things. try this experiment. Are you happy LIGHT AND SHADOW with what you see? Does the light enhance the subject? Could you alter and improve it? On pp. The egg's darkest region is seen against a lighter background. W e learn to read light and shadow in our environment as indicators of solidity and depth of space. S o m e o n e passes our o p e n door.102-03 deep shadows cast across shells make their form easier to perceive. Tape them to the glass. T h e slightest recognition is instantly matched to our wealth of experience a n d expectation. Below the bottom "edge" of the egg there is a rim of light reflected onto the paper by the underside of the egg. Adjust the angleofthe protruding part and again stepback.d o w n patterns of light on our retinas. the adjustment of our eyes (in growing accustomed to a level of light). one blackandone white. From across the room both will appear black card and fold and retapeitwith half sticking out. two identical mid-gray squares are seen against black and paler gray squares. think about its illumination. We perceive one to be lighter than theother. We only need small prompts. your eye around the circumference of the egg. a n d are q u i c k to p r o p o s e ideas. The perceived tone of a black white. U p s i d e . are translated into a world of space. We will even see things that d o not exist because minimal information suggests they are likely to be there.This effect is caused by the contrast of their surroundings. form. The two tones meet without a division or outline between. The egg's lightest region is seen against a darker background. a lit photograph of an egg shows essential points to observe in tonal drawing. Below. Gray squares To further examine changes in tone. On acloudyday. atmosphere. a n d our ability to see forms in c l o u d s or fire. Artists emulate and manipulate this effect in their pictures. Before starting a tonal drawing of any subject. The small squares are identical in tone.96 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Light and Illusions SEEING IS MIRACULOUS. perhaps. transmitted to the brain as chains of electrical impulses. but do not appear so. hence our recognition of a cartoon face c o m p o s e d of three lines. Through these we can enjoy witnessing our o w n d e c e p t i o n a n d b a f f l e m e n t a n d u n d e r s t a n d certain factors that are very useful in picture-making. a n d we can be fooled.

l i g h t e r surfaces s t a n d f o r w a r d w h i l e d a r k e r s u r f a c e s recede. T w o relatively t h i c k parallel lines are m a d e t o b e n d away f r o m each o t h e r as t h e y pass in f r o n t o f an a r r a y o f c o n v e r g i n g f i n e lines ( B ) . Apparent lengths T h e s e optical illusions s h o w h o w lines o f identical length can b e m a d e t o l o o k quite different f r o m each o t h e r by t h e addition o r association o f o t h e r lines. B o t h are identical in length. O f t e ndoingso w i l l s p o i l y o u r w o r k . t h i c k e r l i n e s a p p e a r t o stand forward. respectively. b u t t h e u p r i g h t o n e l o o k s t a l l e r (B). S h o r t h o r i z o n t a l lines o f identical length are m a d e t o l o o k d i f f e r e n t by c o n v e r g i n g lines beside t h e m ( C ) . T h e r e is n o obligation t o a d d b l o c k s o f t o n e t o a l i n e a r d r a w i n g . T w o horizontal lines o f equal length are m a d e t o l o o k longer and shorter. In this linear drawing w e read t h i c k as closer a n d t h i n as f a r t h e r away. If y o u w i s h t o m a k e a t o n a l drawing. In a t o n a l d r a w i n g .97 LINE VERSUS TONE In l i n e a r d r a w i n g s . T h e jug d r a w n w i t h a t h i n line appears f a r t h e r away t h a n t h e j u g d r a w n w i t h a t h i c k e r line. T h i s fundamental o p p o s i t e is a reason w h y l i n e a r a n d t o n a l d r a w i n g does not a l w a y s c o m b i n e w e l l in t h e s a m e i m a g e . Seven parallel lines are m a d e t o tilt t o w a r d and away f r o m each o t h e r by n u m e r o u s s h o r t strokes crossing t h e m diagonally ( A ) . . Y o u m a y e x p e r i e n c e s o m e t h i n g similar h a p p e n i n g w h e n y o u m a k e s i n g l e .p o i n t p e r s p e c t i v e d r a w i n g s w i t h a large n u m b e r o f c o n v e r g i n g rays b e h i n d y o u r horizontals. Bending straight lines Linear distance These t w o jugs have b e e n d r a w n w i t h lines o f d i f f e r i n g thicknesses. LIGHT AND ILLUSIONS Tonal width T h e s e black a n d w h i t e bands are o f equal thickness o n e i t h e r side o f t h e i r central division. O b s e r v e h o w each white b a n d appears t h i c k e r t h a n its black c o u n t e r p a r t . In this t o n a l image w e read w h i t e as f a t t e r t h a n black. w h i l e t h i n n e r lines recede. by d i r e c t e d a r r o w s ( A ) . start o u t w i t h one. A n u p r i g h t line stands in t h e c e n t e r o f a h o r i z o n t a l line.

Artists can communicate much in few lines and the viewer will do the rest of the work. A few suggestive marks will tip the decision one way o r the o t h e r Closing the surface W h e n a t r a n s p a r e n t elliptical o b j e c t has b e e n d r a w n . among others.116-17) to make painted figures look correct when viewed from below. In the 1960's. their picture could be ambiguous. w h e n drawing the outline o f a three-dimensional form. Op(tical) artists. it oscillates between t w o possibilities. It is possible t o r e a d i t t w o ways: as a t r u n c a t e d r e c t a n g u l a r p y r a m i d seen d i r e c t l y f r o m a b o v e . Michelangelo. are still not agreeably understood. made paintings that depended upon the physical sensation of our brain's reaction to known optical illusions.76. w e can only look f r o m one t o the o t h e r If an artist is not aware this can happen in their image. Artists make pictorial illusions when they paint or draw. such as t h e dish seen h e r e o n t h e left." . Ancient Greek architects knew parallel upright lines appeared to bend toward each other in the middle.98 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Further Illusions PSYCHOLOGISTS AND PHYSIOLOGISTS have studied optical illusions for decades in pursuit of what they tell us about the brain. o r as a s l o p i n g . perfected the acceleration of perspective (see pp. C l o s i n g t h e surface o f t h e f o r m seals o u r d e c i s i o n as t o w h i c h w a y it faces. and we learn to read the styles of diverse cultures and periods. Two ways of seeing T h i s is t h e b o x c r e a t e d in t h e f o u r t h step o n p. It is a curious fact that w e can never see both options at once. as s h o w n o n t h e right. including some shown here. it can oscillate b e t w e e n facing t o w a r d o r a w a y f r o m us. Today we are bombarded with images but rarely have difficulty reading them. Yet many illusions. Some artists use known optical illusions to make art. SEEING TWO OPTIONS Sometimes. w e will find that in terms of the direction it faces. others adjust works to avoid their effects. such as Bridget Riley. and so calculated precisely how much to fatten columns to make them appear straight.s i d e d r e c t a n g u l a r t r a y ( b o t h are illustrated far r i g h t ) "The brain is so eager to name a fragment we see that we need only a suggestion to grasp the whole.

His highly d i s p u t e d and i m p r e c i s e science involves s h o w i n g u n p r e p a r e d p a t i e n t s t e n p a r t i c u l a r ink b l o t s a n d asking t h e m t o i n t e r p r e t w h a t t h e y see. T h e patient's answers are t h e n diagnosed as a psychological profile. T h e y a r e o f t e n c r e d i t e d w i t h t h e invention o f t h e c o m i c c a r t o o n . F a m i l i a r i t y in r a n d o m s h a p e s T h e Rorschach test was established by t h e 1 9 t h . C o u n t t h e n u m b e r o f d a r k spots y o u can see. N e i t h e r triangle exists.99 Impossible objects T h e s e clever configurations o f outlines and t o n a l surfaces convince us at a glance that we are seeing a solid three-dimensional triangle and a three-pronged fork. W e should r e m e m b e r t h a t o u r brains will always search f o r a p i c t u r e — i n ink blots. FURTHER ILLUSIONS Seeing things that are n o t t h e r e H e r e o n t h e left. Yet still w e try resolve t h e m . Minimal-line j o k e s such as this rely u p o n t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y v i e w e r ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e shapes. P e r c e i v i n g a w h o l e i m a g e f r o m m i n i m a l lines T h i s is a w i d e l y r e p r o d u c e d visual j o k e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e C a r r a c c i b r o t h e r s . 1 6 t h . C Escher u s e d this phenomenon t o great effect in his many p o p u l a r d r a w i n g s o f puzzles and impossible buildings. M u c h can b e e x p r e s s e d in o n l y a f e w marks. O n l y o n closer inspection we realize that t h e s e o b j e c t s are fooling us. — a n d so t h e artist can create m u c h o u t o f an impression w i t h o u t overdescribing. this is a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f t h e viewer's b r a i n b e i n g willing t o d o a large a m o u n t o f t h e w o r k in d e c i p h e r i n g a p i c t u r e . S o m e artists use ink blots t o p r o m p t t h e beginning o f an image. T h e t e s t e x p l o r e s o u r n o r m a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o find things w e can n a m e a m o n g r a n d o m shapes. T h e a r t i s t M. b u t w e believe w e see t h e m because e n o u g h f r a g m e n t a r y i n f o r m a t i o n is given f o r o u r brains t o c o n c l u d e t h e y are v e r y likely t h e r e .c e n t u r y Italian painters. This effect can o c c u r naturally w h e n looking at a b r i g h t l y lit w h i t e g r i d such as a w i n d o w f r a m e against t h e night sky. B e l o w is a b r i g h t n e s s c o n t r a s t illusion. w e see t w o overlapping triangles: o n e outlined in black b e n e a t h a n o t h e r in solid w h i t e . clouds. smoke.c e n t u r y Swiss psychologist H e r m a n n Rorschach. . C o u p l e d w i t h t h e Rorschach b l o t above. T h e s e e x a m p l e s illustrate h o w little is n e e d e d t o c o n v e y an image. e t c . This simple five-line d r a w i n g is o f a C a p u c h i n priest asleep in his pulpit.

keep it spinning. like a disposable plastic cup that has been crushed in your hand. hesitant one that has edged its w a y nervously around the vessel's rim. Cubism. though. describing many sides of an object simultaneously. A wobbling but confident ellipse will still be more convincing than a slow.90) takes a different as essentially circular. that this is o n l y o n e w a y view. Don't worry if it is uneven— just try again. since this is h o w w e experience them in e v e r y d a y use. Watch the tip of your pen and see it draw an ellipse in the air Keep this movement going while gently lowering the pen onto the paper like the needle of a record player closing on the disc (only it is your lowering hand that spins. springlike forms like those I have drawn below. To make a cylindrical object appear real in our pictorial space. w h e n seen at an angle. third common error is to draw upper and lover ellipses with different-sized apertures. giving the cylinder four corners. Be aware. I have drawn these for you here. . for example. there are three common errors people stumble upon. spin your hand in a relaxed circle. you will achieve steadiness with practice. circles change into ellipses. How to Draw Ellipses of seeing. while its upper rim remains level. suggesting that the vessel is lopsided. (see p. The first common error is to draw two pointed ellipses. COMMON ERRORS W h e n drawing cylindrical objects in perspective. Ellipse are best d r a w n quickly.100 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS W E VISUALIZE CYLINDRICAL VESSELS. even if y o u r hand w o b b l e s a little at first. for example plates or bowls on a table. Cover a sheet of paper with spinning. WHERE TO START In the air above a spacious sheet of scrap paper. However. not the paper!) As the pen touches down. smoothly. and these narrow or widen depending on the height of our view. w e use ellipses to give a sense of perspective. I have exaggerated this error here. a n d in o n e bold stroke. The second common error is to tilt the upper and lower ellipses at different angles. as if the table surface slopes upward beneath the vessel. such as bowls and cups.

you can make it solid by building up highlights and tones on visible surfaces. enlarging and diminishing the ellipse to determine the overall shape and volume. thereby hiding lines that show the other sides.101 DRAWING VESSELS Once you have mastered drawing free-hand springs. Draw quickly. HOW TO DRAW E L L I P S E S A Single Vessel One Inside Another Grouped Together Finding Shape and Volume Draw an imagined vessel in one continuous spinning line. working from top to bottom. you can start to control your spinning ellipse to make a vessel. Create a Solid Surface Once you have drawn the shape and volume of each form. . Altering the pressure—and therefore tone—of the line as it spins gives the impression of light shining on one side. Seeing Through Allow lines to travel around each vessel as if it were transparent.

if light shines in them. Relaxing your eyes out of focus as you draw will help to dissolve the distraction of detail. It maximizes the range of tones between black and white. beams of light. In the finished drawing there should be few. if any. leaving detail until last. Remember that shadows. It is important to place them on the correct side so as to draw comfortably (see pp. LIGHT TO DARK DARK TO LIGHT . Gradually hone your drawing. making complicated or subtle surfaces easier to see and understand. two opposite methods of achieving the same result.22-23). t h e r e a r e p r i n c i p a l l y Dramatic lighting emphasizes texture and contour. and solid objects are all of equal importance. or you can begin with a mid-gray ground and model light out of darkness (see opposite bottom). OBJECTS AND Start by arranging a choice of shells on a sheet of paper to your left if you are right-handed (or vice versa). it will inhibit your perception of tone. simply shapes and subtleties of light and dark meeting each other with no divisions in between. You can begin with outlines and build slowly from light to dark (see opposite top). and strong contrasts are easier to draw. Draw the largest and most distinct areas of light and darkness first. outlines.102 INSTRUMENTS Tonality W H E N MAKING A TONAL DRAWING. Illuminate them with a gooseneck lamp placed very close and directed away from your eyes.

shape. . Draw in the details last of all. DARK TO LIGHT (TONE TO TONE) 1 Using the flattened tip of an HB pencil. draw a rectangle. Fll in broad areas first and leave all detail until last. and edges definingthespacialrelationships between are important aspects of your composition them. pale lines with equal importance. Relaxing your eyes out of focus will help to eliminate distracting details.56-57). Erase and make changes to roughly place the shells inside your with your composition. Honetheshapesand angles of the shells. Continue working between light and dark to refine the drawing. with broad sweeps of the eraser. look at the main areas of darkness. Use your pencil to develop these in relation to the areas of light.103 LIGHT TO DARK (LINE TO TONE) TONALITY 1 Using a sharp HB pencil. until you are happy frame. Treat positive form and negative space (see pp. 2 3 Gentlydissolveoutlines so that areas oflightanddark meet without a line between them. boldly 2 3 Keeping your eyes out of focus. Avoid a rough significant areas of light in your gray rectangle with texture and do not press the graphite hardwhite plastic eraser Ignore all detail and draw a into thepaperor you will not be able to erase it. Use quick. Let your eyes go out of focus while looking gently layer marks to create an even tone at your subject and paper: Draw the most ofmid-graywithin a rectangle. Remember that its size. loose.

three-dimensional drawings teach us about the totality of forms in space. Third. When drawing anything viewed from one side on paper. The first is that figurative and abstract drawings can be made in space. .220 Mamoru Abe draws with forged steel rods. try drawing it with a pen on paper Use bold.69 we see how the architect Antonio Gaudi drew proposed domes using suspended wires and weights.104 OBJECTS AND I N S T R U M E N T S Drawing with Wire DRAWINGS DO NOT HAVE to be two-dimensional. On p. our image is stronger if we understand and can visualize what is happening on the other side too. smooth. On p. PEN LINES Once you have created your three-dimensional violin (opposite). continuous lines. and physical relationships between them. Place the instrument on a plain surface and illuminate it with a desk lamp to add the delicate dimension of shadows. Seeing through a wire drawing of a known object such as a violin gives us a visual and tactile understanding of all its sides and shapes at once. The second is that after achieving this simple example. you can create your own more ambitious works. 19 Picasso draws with a pen-light for the camera. and on p. This class uses thin-gauge wire to create a threedimensional violin. and on p. They can also be made in space. 176 the British artists Noble and Webster draw with domestic refuse in a beam of light. There are essentially three lessons to be learned.

Cut a length. begin to shape the curvature of the fingerboard. 2 3 If needed. Join the two sides together with four short pieces of wire. but thin enough to be easily manipulated inyourfingers Here. brace the two ends of the violin with a length of wire along the back. 1 Decide how big to draw your violin relative to the gauge of your wire. thin wire will make a smaller drawing. Here. These will hold the sides apart and help to keep the form in shape. Once you have completed the body. and pinch and bend it to shape the base of the instrument Repeat this process to make the identical upper side of the instrument. and thick wire a larger one. I used garden wire and cut it carefully with pruners. Then begin to define its uppermost surface with Scurves and the bridge. 4 .105 SETTING UP DRAWING WITH WIRE Follow these steps to draw a three-dimensional violin Choose a gauge of wire sturdy enough to hold the shape ofyourfinished drawing. I started with the scroll at the top and fixed the four component wires with two drawings of tuning pegs.

I had the privilege of drawing their inventions. they invented new anthropological finds—objects that reflected the distant past and their immediate future.Artifacts and Fictions IN 1993 I WORKED with a group of schoolchildren who were responding to the astonishing objects in the collection of the Pitt Rivers Museum. Using found materials. Oxford. . some of which are shown here. England.

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Artists now explore the interior of the body with new media and Lateral Contour Map of a Full-Term Primipara Produced by Light 1979 A. It also looks at the representation of the b o d y b11y4o n d traditional life drawing. The body remains at the core of over the initially white lines. and surgically rebuilt. is the most c o m m o n subject in art. portraiture. herimpressive presence because we are given such Life drawing no longer dominates the art school curriculum. In this period. This F finished image was produced as r a n c i s c o . W I L L I A M S technology. Artists are thought to have b e g u n drawing from the nude during the Italian Renaissance. while Leonardo opened the body to see and projected onto a woman's body draw the celebratory discover for himself our physical mechanisms. and anatomical and erotic art. artists also tried to define ideal proportions in the body. giving physical foundation undulating land. sculptural description of her form. a n d w e d r a w o u r s e l v e s to a s s e r t o u r e x i s t e n c e . from video and X-ray to thermal imaging. During this time. He even believed he had located the soul contours of her form like a cartographer's map of in the pituitary fossa beneath the brain and behind the eyes. while Durer took his research further— A. She the body is still essential. Michelangelo attended dissections to made this image by light sectioning: fine beams of light perfect his understanding of surface form. Strangely. Drawings were usually made from the male nude to avoid offending the church. Renaissance artists studying anatomy from dissection clinically trained and specialized as a medical illustrator. explaining ranges e/ of materials and techniques and showing diversities of thought and purpose in making. Leonardo drew a man within a circle and square. This chapter addresses issues that are most commonly faced by beginners attending life-drawing classes. much Western contemporary art. clothed or nude. R. but the study of a controlled.The Body O UR BODIES MAKE us TANGIBLE. W e understand every curve and balance of to the theory that the eves are the windows of the soul. and in San could easily be transferred into three dimensions. Williams were decades ahead of their medical counterparts. These classes are popular around the world. myths and fables. in our privileged and comfortable society. diseased. the junior workshop apprentices posed as part of their duties. It gives physical and emotive form to religious narratives. R. the Bay Area Models' Guild h o l d s a quarterly life-drawing m a r a t h o n aprinton Kodak transfer paper with green-colored dye added celebrating the great diversity of human proportion. W e are the only creatures on Earth that can make our own image. focus has turned to the vulnerability of flesh: how it can be damaged. The human body. WILLIAMS he sought perfection in the infinitesimal measurement of the body and produced four Contemporary photographer volumes of illustrated explanation. 3 x 7 in (300 x 180 . history paintings and other stories. Look closely at Renaissance drawings of the female b o d y and you will see that m o s t are actually y o u n g m e n with minor adjustments. and because the female was deemed inferior.

filling the page with her presence. Muscular dramatic postures reflect the influence of Michelangelo and the Renaissance celebration of the idealized male body. Raphael's study of fallen m e n leaves no doubt that they are in anguish. In this highly s o p h i s t i c a t e d a b s t r a c t i o n . altar pieces. Sculptural frieze This is a preparatory drawing for Raphael's painting of the Resurrection of Christ.110 T H E BODY THESE DISTINCTIVE WORKS show two strikingly different ways of modeling the body on paper. RAFFAELLO SANZIO (RAPHAEL) Italian High Renaissance painter: Raphael is best known for his images of the Madonna and Child. so that we read this drawing like a sculptural frieze. Matisse's b l u e n u d e sings with life and c e l e b r a t i o n . and human defeat. T h e y b o t h raise one arm to cup their head in their hand. Here three male nudes are compressed into very shallow pictorial space. He trained under Perugino.116-17). we see the e s s e n c e of h e r b e a u t y w i t h o u t a single detail. anatomy. But the meanings of each gesture and the materials and methods by which they Postures and Poses were m a d e contrast greatly. In a single drawing we see equally o b s e r v e d studies of f o r e s h o r t e n i n g (see pp. Principal figures m i r r o r e a c h other. while supporting the weight of their body with the other. She u n f o l d s and s t r e t c h e s shapely limbs. Three Guards 1500-20 91/4 x143/8in (234 x 365 mm) RAPHAEL . and studied to learn from the works of Michelangelo and Leonardo besides whom he was soon ranked. and Vatican frescos. Raphael drew delicate tones of black chalk on tinted paper. By way of contrast. while Matisse used scissors and glue to cut out and paste a flat collage of brilliant color.

designer writer.. foundamong many other groups of papercut these works as an elderly man confined to his bed or wheelchair. fabric. devoid of troubling Blue Nude 1 1952 413/4 HENRY MATISSE ." of is an art of balance.. printmaker. teacher and principal exponent o f Fauvism—a movement established in 1905 in which bold color is the most essential element. freer.sculptor..like an appeasing influence. and Islamic art. his pattern.which might be.. Matisse became an artist after studying law..111 HENRY MATISSE French painter: draftsman. and more energetic Color and form This collage is one of a series of Blue Nudes. His calligraphic natural abstractions of form grew brighter. as his w o r k matured. a mental soother.. lifelong love of brilliant They celebrate the culmination of spectacular and sometimes drawings.or like a good armchair in which to rest from physical fatigue. Matisse Soothing influence This drawing expresses the achievement of Matisse's personal aim: "What I dream and depressing subject matter. serenity.

it would have mixed with unseen black dust. we c o m p a r e a skillful design that absorbed m u c h time in its making with the quickness of an idea marked instantly. other tones. only tones blending into. turned gray. it is as if the very atoms of air are made visible. in a perfect e x a m p l e . Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 1883-84 91/2 x 121/4 in (241 x 312 m m GEORGES SEURAT . Typically. Opposite. His drawings are similarly u n i q u e . Beuys's magician. form. like small birds attendant on the meditation. agreeing to coalesce and show us the form of a waiting boy. w h o sits propped in the contradictory darkness of a hot summer's day. Using the paper to create light is important for beginners to learn. 162) and an eraser to model teeming points of artificial light amid GEORGES SEURAT French painter classically educated in the Ingres school of thought. Tone and light In this black conte drawing. or abruptly meeting. If Seurat had added white. and c o m p l e m e n t a r y hues. scratched in seconds.112 T H E BODY Choreographs T I M E IS A SIGNIFICANT E L E M E N T i n t h e m a k i n g o f a l l d r a w i n g s . reflected. In his f a m o u s paintings of social e n g a g e m e n t . and color His applied theories still influence painters in their manipulation and rendering of local. and muddied the brilliance of the drawing. velvet d a r k n e s s . Seurat engaged in lifelong studies of line. Light is given by the paper alone. Seurat evolved a distinctive t e c h n i q u e called p o i n t i l l i s m — i m a g e s literally made from myriad points of color. he used b l a c k c o n t e (see p. there are no outlines. T h e space around h i m chatters with symbols. Below. Here. stands in counterpoise holding a dark globe and his thoughts in m o m e n t a r y balance.

video art.113 JOSEPH BEUYS One of the most influential German artists of the 20th century. He was a shaman who believed in intuition and in the investment of healing force. transience. free from the constraint of immaculate form opposite) impetus is irrelevant to the and meaning of this work (as we see in Seurat's drawing representation. This figure is drawn intuitively. Beuys gave performances. and made installations.gold. in different positions. His The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland UNDATED 113/4 J O S E P H BEUYS x81/4in (297 x 210 mm) . Many of his other symbolic works on paper have been drawn with materials such as honey. and that These aspects of the work convey fractured visibility. taught workshops with a cult following. and blood. iodine. Perfectly modeled rather conventional for Joseph Focus Beuys's hand moved quickly to draw dotted lines flowing downward on either side of the figure. and drawings. Our focus joins shoulders. Unbroken lines stream from his simultaneously movement. CHOREOGRAPHS the profound power materials with spiritual or of Free lines This pale pencil drawing is Beuys.

his w o r k is characterized by deliberate un-finish and powerfully modeled emotion. His exquisite flow of paint beyond "outlines. Paris. Rodin employed models to move freely or pose together in his studio. and went on to inspire generations of artists. Achieving international acclaim in mid-life. Our bodies radiate the passion of our thoughts and so become beacons of our frailty and power. We are involved not as a shabby voyeur but as a bystander engaged through our recognition of shared joy. Opposite. sweeping lines— of either purple silk fabric or cool studio air—that imprint and amplify their past and future movements. But what is stranger to us now is that they were also outraged by his free use of line. As here. Inspired by Michelangelo. the fierceness of the women's kiss is beautifully matched by the tenderness of his line. its soft. Anita Taylor has drawn her protective body hug out of the darkly glistening compression of willow charcoal and the dynamism of her shy but momentous femininity." as seen here. THE AUGUSTE RODIN French Romantic sculptor and prolific draftsman employed as an ornamental mason until the age of 42. 125/8x 9 in (320 x 229 mm) AUGUSTE RODIN Two Women 1911 Embracing . They whisper and writhe in a brushed and sultry embrace that devours our watching. flushed skin made ruddy and black with crushed cinders.000 drawings shown in rotation at the Musee Rodin. the women are framed and caressed by long. In Rodins work. In both drawings.114 BODY Passion SUMMONING HUMANITY in a drawing of the nude is a subtle and emotional task. We are asked to gaze u p o n her flesh. Delicate strokes This is one of about 7. was perceived as scandalous. Rodin produced portraits and statues of public and literary figures. Free lines Rodin's public audience was understandably shocked by the eroticism of his drawings. and one of hundreds of rapid studies of nudes. he typically drew them with a few delicate strokes of pencil and brushed watercolor.

professor and Vice Principal of Wimbledon School of Art. London. scrutiny. erased and drawn again. textured paper. and gaze. the impression of luminosity All and Nothing 1999 67 x447/8in (170 x 1 1 4 cm) ANITA TAYLOR . The sturdy surface of the sheet has allowed her to press hard when needed. exposure. draftsman. and rework rich depths of light and tone. This order of light below and dark above gives glowing from within. Taylor's immense self-portraits explore the relationship between the artist as maker and the artist as model.I 15 ANITA T A Y L O R Painter. Taylor has drawn. leaving her lightest marks at the deepest level of the image and applying darker marks above. A thinner sheet might have crumpled and torn under such vigorous force of making. intimately reflecting upon the emotions and meaning of nudity. Luminosity Layered marks flicker likefirelight as they sculpt the woman's body. Charcoal Taylor has drawn freely with charcoal and an eraser on thick.

the skull in Holbein's The Ambassadors (The National Gallery. This is chiefly a correcting device by which figurative painters and sculptors have for centuries countered the effects of our viewing their work from far below or on the curvature of a vault.limbs happily receding.116 T H E BODY Measurement and Foreshortening FORESHORTENING IS AN ASPECT of perspective. with dramatic illusions of figures painted in normal proportion. rather that what we believe we know from experience. and a few measured comparisons are key. helping us to see more clearly. more extreme examples have been made for court entertainment. "Simple measured comparisons reveal surprising truths about proportion. The length of exposed pencil is your measurement. MEASURING This is a simple method of making measured comparisons for relating the true size of one part to another This is a tool to assist observation and thinking. Accelerated perspective plays a great role in much art. In the life class it is the mechanism for ensuring that a drawn figure lies correctly in pictorial space . It is not so hard. Align the top with a point on your subject. But if we could take a scaffold and climb up to the work. London). for example. Return to this posture every time. Lock your shoulder. 1 Hold your arm straight. Close one eye. How to make and apply these is explained below and opposite. plummeting. and measurements do not have to be carried to the paper and slavishly drawn the same size they appear on your pencil. Smaller. which is imperceptible from below. Imagine Michelangelo's murals in the Sistine Chapel. Move the tip of your thumb down to a second chosen point. 3 Keep your pencil perpendicular Measure and compare at any angle. or shrivelling at odd. We also look at another very interesting branch called accelerated (or anamorphic) perspective. persistence. and wrist joints. There is no need to mark them all down on paper. To avoid its effects ensure you always look flat onto the surface of your page. you will make inconsistent and unrelated comparisons. and to draw what we see. we would arrive to find many of the same figures strangely distorted. It is not complicated. Rome. or coming forward. elongated as if stretched across the plaster. If your arm is not straight. unfathomable angles. patience. just making them helps you see. without taking off. elbow. to be translated by mirrors or seen from only one point in the room." . when beginners prop their board in their lap and look down at too steep an angle. It can also be a little demon in the life room. Spend time making comparisons before you draw. Up close on the scaffold we would witness Michelangelo's subtle application of accelerated perspective. 2 Hold your pencil upright.

t a p e s o m e p a p e r t o a board. y o u r hand travels f a r t h e r than y o u expect. See h o w d i f f e r e n t t h e relative heights o f t h e s e shapes are f r o m w h a t w e m i g h t e x p e c t in real life. Lean t h e t o p e d g e t o w a r d y o u and find a p o s i t i o n w h e r e y o u can c o m f o r t a b l y l o o k d o w n t h e p a p e r at an angle o f a b o u t 4 0 degrees. S o o n t h e b o d y will lie d o w n in space. W o r k a r o u n d t h e figure. Stand its b o t t o m edge o n y o u r lap. FORESHORTENING To f o r e s h o r t e n a figure. pleasingly f o r e s h o r t e n e d . T h i s is t h e s a m e d r a w i n g p h o t o g r a p h e d f r o m above. To m a k e f o r m s l o o k c o r r e c t . adjusting a n o n y m o u s shapes. W e appear t o be looking d o w n o n a w o m a n s t a n d i n g b e n e a t h us. L o o k at y o u r m o d e l as if he o r she is a flat series o f shapes o n e o n t o p o f a n o t h e r Measure t h e height and w i d t h o f each shape and c o m p a r e it t o its neighbor. P r o p o r t i o n s will only l o o k c o r r e c t f r o m t h e angle at w h i c h y o u make t h e drawing. C o m p a r e t h e heights o f t h e nose and eye shapes t o t h o s e o f t h e f o r e a r m . looking d o w n t h e p a p e r at t h e a n g l e at w h i c h I d r e w . h e r p r o p o r t i o n s will appear correct. Keep t h e b o a r d steady and draw. which feels strange. y o u must let go o f w h a t y o u k n o w f r o m e x p e r i e n c e a b o u t t h e relative sizes o f b o d y parts and trust y o u r eyes. belly.117 ACCELERATED PERSPECTIVE To discover h o w this w o r k s . . A t a c e r t a i n angle. a n d thighs. MEASUREMENT AND FORESHORTENING Tilt t h e t o p edge o f this b o o k t o w a r d you and look d o w n o n this figure f r o m a b o v e .

To see this. work back and forth across the body. Start each new drawing by lightly marking the model's height with a loose line in ten seconds. and height. imagine holding up a plumb line. Layered lines give d e p t h . and slightly enlarge her legs and feet. working from her center to her feet and to her head. . her center of balance is normally found in a vertical line beneath her head. THE SEQUENCE OF POSES H e r e the model was asked to move every t w o minutes. Avoid drawing up one side and down the other. balance. height. Balance When a model stands upright on both feet. because it results in two unrelated sides drifting apart.118 BODY Quick Poses DRAWING QUICK POSES l o c k s y o u r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n t o what is most essential. feeling. Be bold and dive into your drawing with c o n f i d e n c e . propelling you to make immediate assessments and trust them. Outline To outline a figure. To draw this effect. Height This pose leans away into space above our eye level. and stance before honing her balance and expression. and energy. T h i s q u i c k e x p l o r a t o r y line does not perfectly describe shape but expresses a decision about overall flow of form. and work over t h e m with further o b s e r v a t i o n s . I used a sharp H B pencil and began each drawing by marking her outline. make the upper body smaller give your model a high waist. Leave first thoughts in place.

This drawing shows how different observations be overlaid to bring a drawing alive. The tilt of the pelvis is then counter balanced by the model's shoulders tilting the other way (as seen here). Tilt Movement Here. and this should be avoided Twist QUICK POSES A model standing on one leg usually drops the opposite hip. . Most of us have a tendency to over-straighten the drawn figure.119 The twist of a model is most easily and expressively captured if it is exaggerated. the activity of circular lines and the repetition of limbs suggest movement.

especially the lengthwise divisions between them. starting with the largest. A mirror increases your range of views. Group the fingers together as one mass. drawn in relation to each other. Draw large shapes and their orientation. feet. general to specific. Practice by drawing your own hands and feet. it is important to leave aside all details of the fingers and toes. Don't worry about achieving perfect solutions. Then subdivide each shape so that you w o r k from large to small. 2 Build your drawing gradually from light to dark. These planes. and they need not be daunting to draw. Do not separate them yet. but regard these practice studies as ongoing processes of thought and observatio Add details such as nails last if you wish. Focus instead on how planes change direction across the knuckles from one side of the hand or foot to the other.120 BODY Hands and Feet THERE ARE MANY different ways of approaching h a n d s and THE of form. This exercise is useful when struggling with proportion. It also helps the beginner to progress from drawing outlines to drawing confidently across the surface of the whole form. and ignore all details. or those of a friend. Keep lines open to change and take measurements if they help. and a gooseneck lamp casts shadows that clarify planes and depths GESTURES OF THE HAND Curled Fingers 1 Open Palm Start honing the shapes of the dominant planes. W h e n starting. express structure and gesture far more successfully and easily than ten worried outlines wandering up and down between the fingers and toes. swiftly marking its essential gesture. 3 . Begin by drawing lines to encompass the whole hand.

Nowimagineyou are carving the foot insidethepaper.as though out o f wood. however.121 HANDS AND FEET MOVEMENTS OF THE FOOT Flat Stance Raised Heel Instep 1 Let your first marks be light. and don't worry about accuracy t o begin with. and spontaneity. Hew it roughly in broad. It can be a mistake. Look for key angles without becoming distracted by detail. t o remove t o o many early lines. flattened planes. 2 3 Use an eraser t o refine decisions o r t o suggest areas o f light. as if with a chisel. depth. these are what give a drawing its tangible structure. Try t o express the whole foot and t o encapsulate its entire shape and direction in a few marks. . loose. and rapid. Leave aside all detail.

The white lines demonstrate what is often called "bracelet shading. I also used white ink with a steel dip pen.204-05. Opposite.Charcoal Hands T H E S E DRAWINGS ARE MADE in compressed charcoal. Compare its nature in close-up to that of willow charcoal used on pp." .

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118-19). Phrasing Contours . and posture of the model. before honing his or her shape (see pp. length.HERE TRACES OF RAPID initial lines are still seen within and outside each body. I make these lines in the first five to ten seconds of a drawing to locate the presence.

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Forms. It is now viewed with some skepticism and often seen as academic. perspectives. characters. feeling them through the attentive movements of your own hand. . and narrative pulse become vivid when you realize them in the middle of your study. I draw in museums in support of written research and as an artist seeking answers to questions about the practicalities of image making.The Visual Detective DRAWING FROM MASTERWORKS was once a staple component of an artist's education. Drawing work by another artist enables you to discover and understand the inventive hand in their composition.

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Life-size women wearing wigs recline on beds of embroidered silk in cabinets of mahogany and Venetian glass This is a detail of a compressed charcoal drawing measuring 14 x 10 ft (4.La Specola At17V i a Romana. .3 x 3 m) made in response to La Specola. 126-27. there is a unique museum of 18th-century anatomical waxes. each modeled from dissection. Florence. These almost life-size figures were composed from my imagination and achieved with the help af studies discussed on pp. Walls are lined with hundreds of faintly animated body parts.

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throat.Portraiture IN P O R T R A I T U R E W E MEET PEOPLE. Portraits can be highly or loosely detailed. and a handprint (see p. Self-portraiture gives every artist a constant. you can capture the subtlety. draftsman. or whose eyes can seem to follow us around the room Portraiture is a constant. Goya. This enlargement o f his miniature p o r t r a i treveals t h e s p e e d and agility o f his p e n and about himself. Our homes are filled with images of our loved ones and of those in our families who have gone before. look directly at us. or a glimpse of him is caught in a photograph used as a prop. Equally. To create a face is to see and interpret the essence of an identity. made as he passed through the ages of man. and p r i n t m a k e r . Past rulers sent painters across continents to bring back a likeness in advance of a prospective royal marriage. The returning image was of crucial consideration in any proposal. historical. painters have dropped discreet records of themselves into commissioned narratives so that they can remain a face in the crowd. In this chapter. 1790-92 4 x 3 in ( 1 0 2 x 7 6 m m ) F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A and memorize the basic structure that we all share. We are also reassured by keeping records of ourselves. and in a few scrolling rafts of pen lines and stubbled dots. For centuries. compliant subject to scrutinize. W h e n drawing a person. is here to both meet and look through us. Man Ray's self-portrait of scored lines. Goya's w o r k s include many royal and society p o r t r a i t s . and satirical or metaphorical. neck. character. bells. or past us. and expression of the individual. usually strangers from past times. Movie director Alfred similarly signed his films by playing a fleeting role: he walks through an extra. the meaning of their face. and it is very rewarding. a single line can deliver an entire expression. and shoulders. Halls and palaces are filled with pictures of the mighty and significant. buttons. became more poignant as he progressed. in a miniature self-portrait magnified opposite. single or of groups. religious. Once you understand Self-Portrait in a Cocked Hat c. having been documented and preserved. gathered all that he knew FRANCISCO DE GOYA V i s i o n a r y Spanish painter. The truth is that we all like looking at faces and observing the billions of variations that make us individuals. we use the delicate medium of silver point to look at foundation structures of the head. . live. abstract or figurative. who. Beginners often draw themselves as a way of establishing their practice. and secular narratives. and lucrative genre for artists. It also reminds us o f b o t h t h e intimacy and a scene as scrutiny o f an honest portrait.139). and social and political commentaries. his changes in pressure and Hitchcock length o f line. their stance. and their posture can be changed with just one line. Rembrandt's famous multitude of self-portraits. We can mold and animate qualities of expression out of objects and fragments of disassociated things—for example.

Here the grace and beauty of two young women are held forever. one eye already cast askew into the autumn of her life.132 PORTRAITURE Poise THE BALANCE BETWEEN a mark and a blank space is often a tantalizing form of perfection. The truth is often the opposite. length. He makes his flair and skill look easy. stealthily using his chalk to find contours and mass. teetering on the brink of older age. and pressure as it conducts our eye through the image. It is the portrait of a countrywoman. For the beginner. hand to capture something well in only Frangoise au Bandeau 1946 660 x 505 mm (26 x197/8in) PABLO PICASSO . caught in her last moments of youth. The Tightness of a line is felt in its speed. breadth. How could the addition of shadows have enhanced this image? Few strokes The simplicity of Picasso's line is breathtaking. We can actually count that he struck the paper 40 times.30). they serve as a great lesson that it is not always necessary to add tone to your drawing. It takes a truly accomplished a few strokes. Through exhibitions and copies in books. PABLO PICASSO Spanish Cubist painter (see also p. There is a common misunderstanding that a drawing with only a few lines is both less finished and easier to make than a drawing with more. We can read so much about them by studying their gaze. While with longer consideration. Holbein maps the still landscape of Dorothea's body in questioning marks. The aesthetic sense of a line being just right can make a drawing sing. Picasso has left to posterity many hundreds of magnificent line drawings. adding smudges of tone for weight and solidity. whisking a timeless girl onto the page. we can enjoy and learn from them. Without faltering. Her face is drawn tenderly and with a luminous glow. Picasso strikes and scrolls his pencil.

Holbein unified the woman with her background by gently blending colors from her clothes and face into the atmosphere around her. The peak of her cap clips the uppermost edge. Holbein was employed toward the end of his life by King Henry VIII of England. Holbein has cropped and pinned his subject within the four outermost lines of the image—the edges of the page. He outlined her nose but not her upper lip. Cropping This regal composition fits its paper perfectly. which. made a popular series o f w o o d c u t prints titled The Dance of Death. and designer f r o m Basel.133 HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER German p o r t r a i t painter draftsman. Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 1516 51/8 x121/4in (385 x 310 m m ) HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER . he designed c o u r t costumes. and produced numerous society portraits such as this one here. Her folded forearms support and frame her weight above. gently flushed. and its downward slope crowns the diagonal of the composition. In addition t o his numerous exquisite portraits in oil. presses against the binding across her face. Blended colors In this portrait drawn with colored chalks on slightly textured paper.

Highlights of white gouache were dry Profile Head late in the making.134 PORTRAITURE Anatomies These highly finished drawings express the emotional power and physicality of the head and neck. solid above and almost hollow below. blood vessels. and has works in major collections including the Tate Gallery. taught at numerous British art schools from 1962-77. Contrasts Sharp. Delicate muscles are integrated with the skin and fat that is to be r e m o v e d . continues to exhibit regularly. . This is one of a number of similar disembodied female heads seen behind. London. confusing. and unpleasant to see. or defined by. using a fine and relatively 1982 13 x 181/8 in (328 x 460 mm) VICTOR NEWSOME brush. dark lines made with a pencil appear against smooth. the contours of a grid. Durelli has m a d e a few m i n o r mistakes. Nerves. N e w s o m e ' s eerily shadowed form is smooth and bears a linear grain evocative of w o o d . distorted. VICTOR NEWSOME British sculptor painter and draftsman. This is a m a r v e l o u s interpretation of the truth. The style of Durelli's d r a w i n g opposite sings with the confidence of truth and precision. but they are irrelevant here. while white painted flecks and wisps suggest electrical illumination. and glands also complicate form. Newsome was awarded the Prix de Rome in 1960. The real dissection w o u l d have been far more c o m p l e x . Anatomically. It floats in space. perhaps applied using a tortillon. its highly clarified detail claiming to be d r a w n from observation. In fact. dark tones of graphite blended into the paper. Psychological drama is contained behind a grid. the face is one of the hardest parts to dissect.

Stylized parallel lines are reminiscent of engravings. which. It is hard to think of a more difficult medium with which to achieve such linear perfection.135 ANATOMIES ANTONIO DURELLI Linear perfection This is a red chalk drawing of extraordinary accomplishment. and it is likely that this drawing was intended for reproduction as a print. Red Chalk the Muscles 1837 173/8 x 145/8 in ( 4 4 0 x 3 7 2 m m ) ANTONIO DURELLI and Pencil Drawing and of Neck of the Head Little is k n o w n o f this M i l a n e s e p a i n t e r a n d engraver w h o c a m e from a family o f artists. Durelli's experience as an engraver is reflected in his stylized drawing o f muscle fibers. w h e n contracted. Pencil numbers refer to the list of muscles written beneath. pull their points o f attachment t o w a r d each other .

Bellini gently conjures the features of his saint with soft marks that tease his presence out of shadows into the light. Portrait de Marie-Laure de Noailles c. He is best known for his bronze sculptures of human form. and with staccato flinches his hyperactive eye moves from paper to model. Without paint and with very little tone. painter draftsman. Both works demonstrate how simple lines can be made complex by being intense. Similar movements sculpted the head below into its page. Speed Giacometti probably began with an oval shape placed in relation to the proportion of the page. 1948 77/8 x 6 in (200 x 150 mm) ALBERTO GIACOMETTI . he drew over the whole image at once. each portrait is inscribed onto the page. necks. Agitated marks make patches of tone that cut away the space around the character. and poet After studying in Geneva and Italy. Energy This is a portrait of a woman drawn with black crayon on a plain page of a book Lines search for the essence of form. They show us clearly the bones of drawing. We are brought intimately close to this man gazing up to heaven. as if seen from a distance. The camera watches him at work. Opposite. and heads. ALBERTO GIACOMETTI Swiss sculptor. They confuse our perception of scale by being intimately fragile and at the same time far removed. close enough to touch his hair and feel his breath.136 PORTRAITURE THESE ARE DRAWINGS of shoulders. which are characteristically elongated. with speed and urgency. each locked into a visionary gaze. while his hand stabs and thrusts Revelations like a conductors baton. Then. cutting and carving the paper with matted and spiraling restless energy. Flesh is built and personality carved simultaneously. There is a film of Giacometti drawing. Giacometti settled in Paris.

Head and Shoulders of a Man 73/8 x 21/4 in ( 1 8 6 x 5 8 UNDATED GIOVANNI BELLINI . H e t a u g h t G i o r g i o n e Barbarelli and Titian.5 9 ) . transferring which were made in the process of the saint to his final place in the composition of a painting (see Glossary pp. a n d b r o t h e r in-law. Mantegna. H e p r e f e r r e d religious t o classical t h e m e s . lyrical. Sometimes different narrative same character was reused in compositions. Bellini s t u d i e d u n d e r his f a t h e r J a c o p o . Transfer This delicate humorous chalk a drawing is a cartoon—not image but a type of template used to plan the composition of a larger work Look closely and you will see rows of tiny dots along every significant line in the picture. a n d his w o r k is d i s t i n c t i v e l y calm. Character This is one of many cartoons produced by Bellini the and his family. a n d c o n t e m p l a t i v e .G I O V A N N I BELLINI A prominent member of a large family o f V e n e t i a n painters. These are pinholes.25 6 .

It is an image of confrontation—the ever-controversial young artist roars at us from his abstract city-scape. The figure's position is unequivocal and defiant while around him is in a state Without the essential of cultural and figure we would elegant belookingat a sophisticated painting of signs. bells. and attitudes. a tribal. spear-brandishing warrior. political outcry. Later Basquiat sold drawings on T-shirts. It is an opportunity to look deep without the infringement of courtesies owed to a commissioning sitter.138 PORTRAITURE THE MIRROR OF SELF-PORTRAITURE offers artists infinite reflections of. Self Portrait 1982 9 4 x 7 6 in (239 x 193 cm) JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT . signing their work SAMO. Man Ray's playful silk-screen assembly of color blocks. The incandescent New York painter Jean Michel Basquiat pictured himself here in naked silhouette. marks. scrolls.221). and buttons rings with surrealist wit and agile improvisation. drawn. scratched into its surface. and indulgence. JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT Short-lived American painter and graffiti artist who began his blazing nine-year career drawing on lower Manhattan subway trains with a friend. Signs and symbols with symbols This painting shudders that ore written. float and shimmer in the shallow pictorial space. postcards. skull- Self-Portraits headed. and confrontations with. In 1986 he traveled to Africa and showed his work in Abidjan on the Ivory Coast He also exhibited in Germany and France. similar to work by Cy Twombly (see p. scratched lines. and sheet metal before being snapped up by the New York contemporary art scene. The artist has finished his portrait with the signature of his hand smacked in the middle like a kiss: a declaration of existence as old as man's first drawing. Al Diaz. and everything flux. Islands of graphic marks. humor. their most immediate and best-known subject: themselves. made with great energy. It has proved to be a subject of piercing scrutiny.

139 MAN RAY American surrealist photographer. caked in thick printing ink or paint. Black ink was printed next and then white. printmaker and cofounder of the New York Dada movement. The handprint appears to be made directly. Man Ray probably used his own hand. painter. During the 1920's and 30s. last of all. The first part of the stenciled image was already marked on the silk The screen and paper were then held tightly together. Frame White lines are seemingly (though not actually) scratched through ink to frame this face. Autoportrait 1916 195/8 MAN RAY . They suggest speed and make the picture look immediate and spontaneous. They experimented with camera-free photography working directly onto photographic paper Silk and ink This is a silkscreen print made through the following process: the paper was laid on a flat surface and a frame stretched with fine silk was placed on top. Man Ray lived and worked in Paris. while a squeegee was used to drag thick lilac-brown ink across the silk pushing it though exposed areas onto the paper below. where he collaborated with the artist Laslo MoholyNagy.

was familiar to or eggshells with animal glue. 1. Find a n i t e m t h a t y o u can h o l d a n d draw with comfortably. and make o r buy a holder. Be swift and firm. The most c o m m o n metal has always been silver—hence the term "silver point. 144-45. S i l v e r is b e s t . Drawn across a prepared surface. Metal point is simply a strip of metal bound in a holder. b e f o r e priming stretched paper. or wood. 3 . artists mixed white lead. 2. it leaves a deposit. Gesso o r m a t t e m u l s i o n c a n a l s o b e u s e d . 5. w h i t e d r a w i n g paper) and cut it t o fit y o u r d r a w i n g b o a r d w i t h a generous b o r d e r a r o u n d its edges.54-55). This is called a three-tone drawing. purchase silver wire.Tear o f f f o u r lengths o f b r o w n p a p e r g u m tape. key. 1 4 4 . or ring. Take a sheet o f any t y p e o f p a p e r (for e x a m p l e . M a k e s u r e i t is c o m p l e t e l y clean t o avoid u n w a n t e d streaks. p a r c h m e n t . you will need t o stretch paper and lay a wash (see right and opposite). s e e p . I combined silver point with painted white gouache on a pink ground. b u t d o n ' t w o r r y . platinum. Historically. I m a k e m y o w n f r o m o l d dip pens. and alloys work on matt emulsion. the surface must be primed with a ground such as gouache. Z I N C W H I T E G O U A C H E : Dilute with w a t e r A d d c o l o r i f r e q u i r e d (as opposite) 4 . This browns with age unless sealed by fixative (see pp. Numerous early European artists also enjoyed its fine qualities (see p. SILVER P O I N T W I R E H O L D E R : T h e s e c a n b e p u r c h a s e d a n d t e n d t o b e heavy. Opposite." Lead. W e t a n d fix a s e c o n d strip t o t h e o p p o s i t e side. o n e t o fit each side o f t h e b o a r d — t h e s e will make t h e glued f r a m e t h a t holds y o u r p a p e r in place. an exciting indication of how large-scale drawings could be made on a wall. Stretched paper remains taut as a d r u m . SILVER W I R E : Purchase different gauge lengths f r o m a traditional a r t supplier o r jeweler. Straighten the w o r s t buckles. and gold have also been used. c h o o s e a s o f t full b r u s h t h a t c a n c a r r y p l e n t y o f l i q u i d .s t r i p a n d use i t t o fix o n e side o f t h e p a p e r t o t h e b o a r d . copper. 156). For i m p o r t a n t a d v i c e o n p r e p a r a t i o n a n d use. Note h o w domestic paintwork marks with a coin. s o m e m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n o t h e r s . S O F T F U L L B R U S H : W h e n laying a w a s h . and is therefore useful w h e n using w a t e r c o l o r as well as silver point. Pages 142 to 147 are illustrated in silver point and techniques are explained on pp. laid on paper. who used it to outline initials and border characters before painting.140 PORTRAITURE Silver P o i n t SILVER OR METAL POINT STRETCHING PAPER A sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has been made w e t with the strokes o f a paintbrush will buckle d u e t o its uneven expansion. 2 . which quickly oxidizes into a gray line. To begin. and t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h strips a b o v e and b e l o w . illuminators of medieval m a n u s c r i p t s . choose a silver object. Metal point does not work on ordinary paper. I t is a v a i l a b l e f r o m all a r t s h o p s . W e t o n e length o f g u m . Lightly s p o n g e o f f t h e excess. Lay a clean d r a w i n g b o a r d o n a flat surface. If w o r k i n g o n an emulsion-painted wall. E m p t y mechanical pencils designed f o r t h i c k leads ( s e e p.54) can also b e used. M E T A L OBJECTS: All metal objects m a r k a p r e p a r e d surface. MATERIALS 1 Find a clean sponge and b o w l o r d e e p t r a y a n d fill it w i t h w a t e r W e t t h e p a p e r evenly in t h e t r a y o r o n t h e b o a r d . bone. T h e p a p e r will l o o k b u c k l e d .

141 SILVER POINT 3 Leave the paper to dry flat. slowly add powder pigment or gouache from a tube. Keep testing on spare paper. Keep adding smooth. Make an even line across to the right. Here. and let tests dry before deciding to change the mixture. any extra will keep. v e r y little at a time. The next step will make a small mess. Dip a soft. full brush into the gouache and start in the top left corner. Mix a very wet but not weak solution of gouache in a jar with a lid (add pigment at this stage for a three-tone drawing). leaving a smooth surface. as the paper will be ruined by a raised ridge. so put newspaper under the lower edge. LAYING A WASH It your stretched paper so as to prime it for silver point. Dry thoroughly before laying a wash. It will slowly straighten and become taut. Make enough to cover your paper. I used a powder pigment called Caput Mortuum. Runs blend into each other evenly. overlapping lines until you reach the bottom. Leave the wash to dry thoroughly before you begin to draw. stretched paper at a 45-degree angle.t o n e silver point drawing of a skull . T h r e e . Prop up your board of dry. Beware of the tape's coming loose at any point while drying. Reload the brush and add a second line overlapping it beneath. is necessary to lay a wash o Three-tone When coloring ground.

142

PORTRAITURE

Head and Neck
THE HEAD AND NECK are best conceived as one unit arranged in four parts: cranium, face, neck, and throat. Each is of equal importance. The cranium is essentially egg-shaped and pivots on the first vertebra. The face is suspended beneath, like a softly curved triangle. The n e c k — a powerful, shapely column of layered muscles rigged to vertebrae—adjusts and holds the angle and expression of the head. The throat is delicate, hard, and lumpy to the touch, formed of cartilaginous rings, glands, thin muscles, and looser skin. Framing the throat, two columnar neck muscles (sternomastoids) project the head forward and also turn it to the opposite side.

This is a simple shorthand diagram representing the cranium, face, neck, and throat. It can be learned and visualized in different positions very easily, giving the novice a firm footing on which to stand and develop their drawings of the head and neck.

Shorthand diagram

Cranium Begin with an egg shape. Tilt it on the paper to change the position of the head.

Face Draw a rounded triangular shape below the forward point of the egg to represent the face.

Neck This shape represents the trapezius; the largest surface muscle of the neck and shoulders.

Throat A triangular shape represents the throat. (The nose makes the diagram clearer)

Applied shorthand

After copying the diagram above, animate it. Practice drawing the cranium at different angles, add the face beneath, then the neck, shoulders, and throat. Shape your diagrams so they are more lifelike, but avoid adding detailed features too soon.

143 These three drawings demonstrate (from left to right) the following: why the cranium may be considered egg-shaped; now the face can be seen as a curved triangle suspended beneath and where the division lies between the two; and the form of sternomastoid muscles that frame thethroatsodistinctlywhen the head is turned and inclined forward.

The skull and the frame of the throat

HEAD AND NECK

Bones of the cranium are locked together by jagged joints. Sinuses in the frontal (forehead) bone between and beneath the eyebrows are larger in men, making their brows pronounced and often ridged compared to those of women.

Bones of the face house our sight, smell, taste, The skull pivots on the first vertebra or "atlas," and speech. Cartilage extending from nasal bones after the Greek god condemned to carry the shapesthenose.Pads of fat resting on the base of Earth. The jaw hinges in front of the ears. Behind, eacheyesocket support the eyeballs in position. If bony ridges give anchor to the sternomastoid thefatisreducedby old age, eyes look sunken. muscles rising from the breast- and collarbones.

Three useful generalizations

General rules about the relative positions of body parts can hinder artists as much as help them, since they are often based on classical ideals rather than thediversityoflife.However,some generalizations can help as a rough guide to start with, so long as good observation takes over as soon as possible.

In general, when the face is relaxed (not smiling or frowning), the corners of the mouth are found directly beneath the pupils of the eyes. Vertical lines can be drawn down from the pupils to meet the corners of the mouth.

The height of a young adult's ear is often the same as their nose and found on the same level. There is no general rule for growing children, and remember that ears grow again in old age, which is most obvious in men.

The height of the face is about the length of the handspan and the eye is normally halfway down the total height of the head. A common error is to draw the eyes too high up on the face.

144

PORTRAITURE

Essential Observations
T H E DELICACY OF SILVER POINT

(see pp. 140-41) is perfect for

such as a beach pebble. Here, I stretched drawing paper and laid a wash of white gouache (see pp.140-41). As you can see, the line and tone of silver point varies with pressure, but only slightly. Too much pressure cuts the ground. Silver point erases, but so does ground. Erased ground can be repaired gently with extra gouache. You can also use gouache to paint over mistakes and make corrections.

small, detailed drawings. The drawings below and opposite show useful observations of the head and neck, which are explained in the captions below. Each drawing was made with a silver wire held in a large-gauge mechanical pencil. Newly clipped wires are sharp and cut rather than draw. Before use, they need to be rubbed and smoothed on a stone

Here I imagined placing my silver point wire against the skin of each head and neck and, working in parallel bands from the crown downward, I traced the undulation of surfaces. Linear bands imagined around the head and neck can help you t o clearly see the tilt of the head and relative levels of the features. Ask a friend t o model for you and try this exercise life-size using a pencil and eraser

Contours

Tilted forward

Tilted backward

Three-quarter view

Seeing that the face is never flat

Drawings below left and center are summaries of the generalizations given on p.143. Far right is an image to remind us that the face is never flat. It slopes back to varying degrees among individuals, from the tip of the nose t o the ears. For example, note that the innermost corners of the eyes are farther forward in space than the outermost corners.

General measurements, side

General measurements, front

View from above

145

Male and female head and neck
Men's necks a r e g e n e r a l l y s h o r t e r a n d t h i c k e r t h a n w o m e n ' s b e c a u s e t h e angles a n d levels o f c e r t a i n b o n e s a r e d i f f e r e n t b e t w e e n t h e sexes ( i n d i c a t e d h e r e b y d o t t e d lines) a n d m e n are n o r m a l l y m o r e muscular. T h e male t h y r o i d cartilage ( A d a m ' s apple) is larger a n d m o r e visible than t h e f e m a l e . L a r g e r f e m a l e t h y r o i d glands also s o f t e n t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e t h r o a t .

ESSENTIAL OBSERVATIONS
Female skull

Male

skeleton

Male

skull

Trapezius muscle
The largest m u s c l e o f t h e s h o u l d e r s a n d n e c k is called the trapezius. A r r a n g e d on e i t h e r side o f t h e spine, it shapes t h e u p p e r back and neck above the s h o u l d e r blades. C o n t r a c t i n g in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h d e e p e r and surrounding muscles, it raises and l o w e r s t h e shoulders a n d d r a w s t h e h e a d backtoeitherside.

The whole

muscle

Upper

half with

sternomastoids

Above

with head

straight

Above

with head

forward

Side with

sternomastoid

Front with

sternomastoid

146

PORTRAITURE

Drawing Portraits
USING A SHARP 3 B PENCIL, I drew this head quickly from imagination, evolving its character and expression from the scheme of four parts: cranium, face, neck, a n d throat (see p. 142). Here, five steps show you how to practice doing the same. This approach can be used to draw from imagination or from life. Keep your wrist loose and hold your pencil away from its point (see pp.22-23). Build the layers of your drawing from pale to dark, a n d from general balance a n d form to specific detail. Remember that successful drawings are built on foundations of "seeing the whole," then dividing the whole into smaller parts, with details brought in last of all. Phrased tonal marks modeling this girls skin and hair follow the technique demonstrated by Goya in his self-portrait on p. 130. Turn to Goya's drawing and study how, in a circle beginning across his hat, moving down his hair, and around his coat, he flows lines over surfaces to describe their contour. As you build from steps 1 to 5, bring phrased groups of lines across the surfaces of your form, using their directions to capture the expression of the head and neck. If unsure, copy my steps until you gain the confidence to make your own decisions.

This drawing is the final stage of the four steps opposite. Here, I have enlarged the eye, and moved it back into the head by trimming the length of the upper lid and adding a more pronounced lower lid. It is important to set eyes far enough back from the relatively prominent nose; too close to it and the face flattens. Hair swept back and extended behind the cranium balances the regal pose. Lines shaping the hair echo those marking the cranium in step 1. Here, the lower part of step 1 comes through as wisps of hair across her face and ear

BALANCED POSE

Portrait of a Young Girl

First lines will remain visible in the final drawing. 2 Rapidly add shorthand shapes to represent the face.147 Building up the portrait DRAWING PORTRAITS 1 Gently spin pale lines in a softly drawn shape representing the cranium. I used light to describe the upper lid first with a shadow beneath for the lower lid and open eye. they are also still sweeping and confident. Moving from the back of the neck. The eye announces the nature and expression of the emerging person. 4 . avoid drawing too dark.Theangle at which you draw this shape of the paper will determine the angle of the finished head. so it is important to the life of the image that while controlled. Here. over the cranium. The nose and ear begin to shape the head. too soon. down the face to the throat. 3 Place the eye beneath the cranium. Keep your first lines light. neck. and throat. I modeled the outline of the character I imagined light shining from above and in front and adjusted the pressure of lines to reflect this.

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the texture of hair. . empathize.T o DRAW PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGES. be aware of the subtle differences in skin surface. muscular tension. Above all. and gravity. a n d t h o s e w h o a r e Generations asleep (see overleaf).

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Fast lines carve out the features of Goya's soup-slurping hag. I used the nib upside down to gain needle-sharp precision. . Van Dyke's noble cast of characters was modeled more finely. seeking the dominant contours of each individual expression. with a steel dip pen and acrylic ink. Madrid.Castings DRAWING IN THE PRADO MUSEUM.

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Cities c h a n g e d all. charcoal. T h e p a p e r p a t t e r n is p e r h a p s the m o s t w i d e l y k n o w n of c o s t u m e d r a w i n g s : a formalized plan of lines. and intent. T h e e n t o u r a g e of the theatrical stage o f t e n l e a d s the c a t w a l k . Bakst's designs and costumes immediately To the fine artist. . and e x u b e r a n c e . g l o s s y folds. caricatured p l u m e s . for e x a m p l e — d e s i g n e d the w a r d r o b e s of p o p e s a n d k i n g s . w a r m t h . W e dress ourselves and costume designer trained in in St. and gouache. gesture. articulate a d a n g e r o u s satirical j o k e . known as Leon Bakst. st 111/4 x 81/2 in (285 x 220 mm) u d i e d L E O NB A K S T and explore the characterization of fabric t h r o u g h m o v e m e n t . e m u l a t e textures. dancer leaps through swaths of golden cloth. while court p a i n t e r s — M i c h e l a n g e l o and Holbein. he and cofounder Serge Diaghilev took Paris by eac storm in 1910 with their production h year in the industrial f r e n z y of creating o u r image and aspirations.As artistic director of the It is s h o c k i n g to t h i n k h o w m a n y m i l l i o n s of d r a w i n g s m u s t be m a d e a n d d i s c a r d e d Ballet Russe.This voluptuous above all a physical p u p p e t w i t h w h i c h to animate character and narrate personality. o n l y the w e a l t h y c o u l d afford to h a v e c o s t u m e s specially m a d e . or b u l g e s . so that c h o i c e . theb u t b y the w a y it s p e a k s w i t h its flying. a n d c o u r t i e r tailors f o l l o w e d suit. In psychology. a n d s u b t l e t o n e s . variety. Samoylovich Rosenberg. fulfilling lavish and spectacular briefs. Like it or not. and be so expressive of temperament that it overtakes the need for an o c c u p y i n g h u m a n form. S t r u c t u r e is t h o u g h the i n v e n t i o n of shoes. c u l t u r e . intriguing. P o p u l a r f a s h i o n d e s i g n e x p l o d e d w i t h the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n . toParis. Practical classes Bacchante 1911 l o o k at r a n g e s of c o l o r e d m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d i n g p a s t e l s a n d felt-tip p e n s . cool. Designers all over the w o r l d c o n t i n u a l l y p e n and b r u s h lines to lash us w i t h color. Petersburg and later exiled designers' ideas and are surprised and delighted b y their continual f l o w of inspiration. or calm u s w i t h chic. woman was drawn by Bakst one year later for the ballet Narcisse. Previously. In this c h a p t e r w e see h o w c l o t h i n g c a n s e e m to p o s s e s s the w e i g h t and m o n u m e n t a l i t y of stone.Costume W E MAKE OURSELVES EXOTIC. b u t influenced Parisian fashion and interiordecor. it is the public sign by w h i c h w e are j u d g e d . w h i c h in turn feed c o n s u m e r Lev. D e s i g n e r s create m a s t e r p i e c e s of haute couture LEON BAKST for H o l l y w o o d stars. personality. and even invisible by the w a y w e dress. c o s t u m e o f f e r s a r i c h v o c a b u l a r y of t e x t u r e s a n d c o l o r . and i n d e e d image b e c a m e the property also of the industrial classes. outrageous. and everything w e h a v e c h o s e n for o u r w a r d r o b e s — r e f l e c t o r s of o u r taste. c r u m p l e s . was a Belarussian A r t Deco theater fantasies and desires to immediately possess a version of the same. Artists do this not so m u c h b y the style of a figure's garment. and s y m b o l s that lets m e n and w o m e n in all countries and areas have w o r k i n g access to the latest fashions. shapes. of Scheherazade. arichand unusual combination of pencil. T h e rural masses w o r e h o m e s p u n simplicity. and atmosphere. a n d p r o f e s s i o n — b e g a n life as a d r a w i n g . a n d w e will c o l l e c t patterns.

Below this. Short and subtle horizontal punctuations are only given in the background by sections of floor. In Van Eyck's drawing below. Her gown is carved and polished as if made from marble. Keisai Eisen's intense. folds and patterns of material speak more resolutely of their wearers than any small glimpses of body we can see.156 COSTUME Cloth and Drapery EACH OF THESE FIGURES is ninety percent cloth. and the kneeling abbot is a ghost by comparison. the carefully composed outline of his cloak shows us how the artist would have also begun his immaculate rendering of the Virgin's clothes. it is only possible to create very thin. However. bands around the columns. Marble gown We will never know if Van Eyck considered this drawing unfinished or intended the kneeling abbot to remain transient and ghostly. swirling printed fabrics. dragons. Maelbeke I44I Madonna 11 x 7 in (278 x 180 m m ) JAN V A N EYCK . best k n o w n f o r his G h e n t altarpiece ( 1 4 3 2 ) a n d m a r r i a g e p o r t r a i t o f Giovanni A r n o l f i n i and his w i f e (1434).140-41). Sculpted one. the Madonna and her architecture are both dressed in the same manner. Vertical lines The highly controlled lines of this drawing cascade from top to bottom of the image. Church and deities are drawn as JAN VAN EYCK Flemish oil p a i n t e r f r o m L i m b o u r g . with their jagged edges. her marble garment holds u p the infant Christ in a fountain of compressed line. The quiet stillness of this image is achieved by a masterly economy of stylized line. and implied striation in the stone of the architecture. Opposite. delicate lines. H e m e t i c u l o u s l y a r r a n g e d subjects t o c o n v e y d e e p e r meaning. and snakelike marks. resonate with their wearers startled expression. the vaulted stone roof echoes and crowns the moment. Above them. Van Eyck's highly polished w o r k is c e l e b r a t e d f o r its disguised symbolism. With a stylus such as Van Eyck used here. Their uninterrupted emphasis is entirely vertical. Delicate marks Silver (or metal) point is the most delicate of traditional drawing media (see pp. He has layered these slowly and carefully so as not to cut through the ground and produce a white mark just where he intended a dark one. Flaxmans sleeper—perhaps a pilgrim or a soldier resting between campaigns—has wedged himself into the cleft of some great building to grab a moment of peace.

Parts of the image to be left unprinted are gouged out with a metal tool.157 KEISAI EISEN Japanese draftsman. flat sheets of wood. Respected for his sumptuous images of geisha and editions of erotic prints. one over the other. CLOTH AND DRAPERY Relief printing This is a woodblock print made by a relief process. The inked block is laid face-down on damp paper and pressed to make the print. writer and printmaker Keisai Eisen took his name from the masters Kano Hakkeisai and Kikugawa Eizan. Dante. and the feet notched against the pillar tell us that A lines holds him into the cleft. Aeschylus earned Flaxman an international reputation. Remaining raised areas of wood are rolled with colored inks. draftsman. designer. which are sometimes also cut into pieces like a jigsaw puzzle. This complex numerous blocks prepared image and may have been made with printed separately. Koimurasaki of Tama-ya 1810-50 15 x101/4in (381 x 260 mm) KEISAI EISEN The Courtesan JOHN F L A X M A N English late 18th-century neoclassical sculptor. an 18th-19th century document on the lives of the ukiyo-e artists. Images are drawn onto smooth. and Man Lying Down in a Cloak I 787-94 21/4 JOHN FLAXMAN x 41/8 in (57 x 105 mm) . Position In this pen and ink drawing. and teacher Distinctive linear illustrations for the works of Homer. he also co-edited and expanded the Ukiyo-e Ruiko (History of Prints of the Floating World). stone wall of downward-stroked this sleeper's position is momentary. the cloak sliding to the ground. each delivering a different part and color of the design. the angle of the head.

A s a y o u n g man. Flowing scarf The knight's scarf of gilded blue is drawn in a pale wash over red ink lines. The aged queen is compared to an overdressed bird. Anthony Van Dyke's Man in Armor is a masterpiece of drawn surface. A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE Flemish painter and draftsman. Details and voices are worn externally with great imagination. and even formal portraiture. Fine examples can be plucked from fashion. cloth. In 1 6 3 2 he m o v e d p e r m a n e n t l y t o L o n d o n . a n d w a s e m p l o y e d as c o u r t painter t o King Charles I. theater. cinema. w h e r e . It is presumed Her Royal Highness never saw it. Van D y k e was chief assistant t o Rubens f o r t w o years. and feather were all CHARACTER COSTUMES REPRESENT observed with closely crafted conviction. lace. cartoon. Man in Armor UNDATED 1 6 x 9 1 / 2 in ( 4 0 5 x 2 4 0 m m ) A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE . a scurrilous cartoon by a courtier of Queen Elizabeth I. A flamboyant territory. all ruffs and wrinkles. 160. He has been rendered on this olive<olored page with pen and gray wash worked over a red and black under-drawing. he c o o l e d and redefined his style. The metal. The slight uncertainty of the pose and the limp cloak suggest a little more metal than man. Leg section Compare mid-shin the section of white boots cropped to the section of similarly cropped trousers in drawings Gruau's drawing on p. t h r o u g h n u m e r o u s p o r t r a i t and C h u r c h commissions.158 COSTUME Character Costumes an extreme form of the clothed figure. Its warm surface flows in contrast to the stiff metal armor. Opposite is a dangerous drawing. Leg sections in both support the figure without taking our attention away from the main garment above. Its color is also reflected in the metal. for she would not have been amused and William Wodall might have been stretching his luck. Pen and wash In the graphic accuracy of this armored knight we see the idealized identity of a warrior from another time: a gleaming defender of the realm. b e f o r e traveling t o Italy. where sometimes there just might not be anybody inside.

while a raised foot pauses to assess the next displaying a fan of daggers.159 WILLIAM W O D A L L A u t h o r and illustrator o f The Aaes of Queene a Elizabeth poem Allegorized. Satire of the Queen's Dress c. t h e Rising. suggest the use of iron-gall ink (see p. manuscript comprising six c a n t o s . it was customary to Iron-gall ink Wodall's dangerous caricature steps daintily the written lines of her dedicated page. A Ruffs and feathers Starched white ruffs worn at court and by society grew steadily larger as Elizabeth's reign progressed. here dark tawny owl. t h e Ridolfi Plot.1599 71/2 WILLIAM x 51/4 in ( 1 9 0 x 1 3 4 mm) WODALL . By her old upto three tiers supported on sticks. T h e poem recounts t h e six m a j o r crises o f Elizabeth's reign: t h e Spanish A r m a d a . Northern Satire This is a quill-and-ink satire of the elderly queen's pride-As head of state and fashion. Beneath the lethal fan is the body of a bird of trimmed feathers suggest age. and her pride. hooded with an overinflated fluffy ruff eye pins us. she is shown as a grossly disproportioned bird. and saturations showing through from the other side.35). Top-heavy. t h e Jesuit Mission. the queen is masterfully rebalanced by words at her feet The whole drawing's blackened. bitten nature. t h e B a b i n g t o n Plot.

Spider-Girl leaps like an insect. and both share the power of scarlet and black. a n d L'Officiel de la couture. G r u a u ' s highly distinctive d r a w i n g s have a p p e a r e d Couture. ofcroppedtrousershere to the device of the w Illustration 1949 for Jacques Fath in L ' O f f i c i e l d e la C o u t u r e RENE GRUAU . 5 8 . The black red.c e n t u r y haute i n n u m e r o u s m a g a z i n e s i n c l u d i n g Elle. Drying time in between applications ensured the colors did not run into each other.5 9 ) and a three-spoke balance of cuffs and cropped trousers to create an almost flag-like emblem of power. She has been drawn with brushes dipped into India ink and gouache. Vogue. 158. Harpers & Queen. muscular aggression. elegant chic and svelte. Rene Gruau's bold gouache drawing of smoothly swaying sophistication captures a brilliantly cut garment and frames it with great dynamism in a white. Gruau's model regally swans to the fore with cool pride.F r e n c h f a s h i o n i l l u s t r a t o r w h o in his l o n g and esteemed career w o r k e d with many of the g r e a t e s t d e s i g n e r s o f 2 0 t h . Compare the compositio beneathVanDyke'sstudy of armor on p. and gray pigments were applied separately. His model is outlined. as is Spider-Girl opposite. India ink and gouache This swish of confidence and style our enters the page turning everyone's head.and tilted to the same de a little deeper than sp kneestogivehergravity. Airbrushed reflective surfaces further amplify our perception of speed. studio-like rectangle of paper. demanding attention with gesture and flair. Composition Look how well this image is frame knee is parallel to the bottom edge spacehorizontalline cropping the trousers be outermostuprightbordersof her cuffs are similar above her head thesidesoftheimage. diving to catch us in the grip of her machine-like limbs. possibly over a pencil outline.160 COSTUME Femmes Fatales THESE DEVASTATING femmes fatales force back the onlooker with their demure. Fine lines drawn against the building behind her echo the threads on which we have all seen arachnids drop and hang. Fashion and fantasy drawings invent prototypes of ideals and perfection—be they for the catwalk or the fast-paced pages of comic books. Gruau uses starkly cut negative space (see pp. RENE GRUAU I t a l i a n .

In your mind's eye extend the uprights out of the top of the picture. a great characteristic superhero comics. Frenz has drawn for Marvel for about 20 years.RON F R E N Z Contemporary American graphic artist w h o designs and pencils the dynamic scenes of numerous superheroes featured in Marvel Comics. The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones. and Amazing Spider-Man. beginning with Star Wars. Buildings. MARVEL C O M I C S .74-77). and has been the title's regular artist since 2003. sky. This s modeling applied over the top give the image a sleek and mechanical of gravity. Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 2001-04 R O N FRENZ. and figure are all locked into equally shatp through the traditional process of a pencilled outline over-drawn ink. It is outside the picture frame. Airbrushed color and with tonal focus. not far above the drawing. Sharp focus black outlines in this drawing create a hyper-real dynamic. to the right of its center. He began work on Spider-Girl in 1998. at Their extensions will meet the same single vanishing (see point pp. moon. Align your ruler to the upright of each building. Single-point understand perspective To how Frenz created up therefore the effect of steeply between looking buildings—and howyou can do the same in your own work—take calculate where a ruler the and single vanishing point lies.

1. Most stores leave small pads of paper on their counters for customers to test materials. quality. made in about 80 colors. Many products are sold individually and in boxed sets. COLORED PENCILS: Dry pigments ground together with chalk. They work well on PIGMENTS Pigments. or wax and a binder are shaped into fine strips and encased in w o o d like a graphite pencil. minerals. Before making substantial investments. Sticks and conte crayons make thicker marks (as below). shape. plants. except the final layer. The higher the quality (and cost). Many artists apply fixative to the back of their work. mixed on the paper and scratched into (as below). crumbly. I suggest you do so. The nontoxic range below represents a suggested starting point for experiment. and subtlety. clay. are derived from many sources: rocks. Dissolve in turpentine or mineral spirits to produce oil paint or or dark paper. Store loose pastels in dry rice to keep them clean. colored materials available. animals. OIL PASTELS Oil-based. and CHALK PASTELS Pastel pencils make fine lines (as above). purchase a small selection of different items you think you will like. oily pigment. 3. used to make colors. wash. which he left unfixed to retain its brightness. slightly oily to the touch. the finer and more subtle the texture and color should be. and synthetics. there are disparities between the apparent nature or color of what you hold in your hand and its performance on paper. allowing it to fix slightly from behind. and can be a great rediscovery for bold drawings. Bright pastels are more brilliant on colored paper. quality and cost T h e best are paperwrapped sticks of sumptuous. C o n t e crayons are square-formed. unwrapped harder pastels. 4. great for tin . soft. size. Pastels are finer. They vary hugely in cost. Pastel pencils are slender and in w o o d casing. you may be pleasantly surprised to discover something you could not have imagined using. chalkbased but very subtle.162 COSTUME Colored Materials ART STORES BRIM OVER w i t h t h e m a n y wherever permitted. Use them to draw lightly (as above left) or thickly. Try materials that are new and unfamiliar. the diverse are made in brands of basic member of the family. Often. paper-wrapped. CHALK PASTELS: Blackboard chalk is sidewalk work. hue. FELT-TIP PENS: Instant-drying alcoholor water-based inks stored in the barrels of the pens are delivered via smooth nylon o r felt tips of varying shapes and thicknesses. Seemingly infinite choices of texture. including iridescents. and sold in many colors. and can be softened and manipulated with degrees of heat. The worst are like revolting old lipsticks that get everywhere except where you intend. Beware—some are toxic. Children's wax crayons are relatives. intensity. though lines can develop greasy stains around the edges if the paper is not first stretched and treated with a gelatin paste laid as a wash. See h o w they work and return later for more of what proved best for you. 2. insects. Degas built his pastels in layers. fixing each layer on the front. OIL PASTELS: Many colors. and cost are laid out for our pleasure and perusal. Be aware that fixative dulls pastel. these work best when slightly warm.

Some are nonsoluble. Fine lines can be achieved (as above).or clay-based thin crayons in wood casing. Diverse brands are harder or soften greasier or chalkier in use. FELT-TIP PENS Although not made with felt-tip pen. leaving the paper to shine through for highlights (as below). so it is best to test them before buying. If you love smooth blocks and lines of colon felt-tip pens are perfect. Brands made for designers sold in enormous ranges of colors are far more subtle and sophisticated than those made for children. Think of Matisse's Blue Nude (see p. 111). . it is still a great champion and support for those beginners feeling shyly obligated to tone down their love of color to conform with what others say they should use. Colors can be blended as shown right) and tones graded by altering pressure. others dissolve in water or turpentine to make a wash. Some give richer lines than others.163 COLORED PENCILS These are wax.

c o v e r a large sheet o f p a p e r w i t h line drawings o f several shoes. the era in which we live. You. and a selection of shoes. and how we stand and walk. a range of colored felt-tip pens with both fine and broad tips. Superstitions and fetishes are attached to them: we are told never to put new shoes on a table. I m a d e n u m e r o u s s h e e t s o f d r a w i n g s . social and economic status. To set up. Turn t h e m in different d i r e c t i o n s and o b s e r v e t h e i r s t r u c t u r e and f o r m . REPEATED STUDY T o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s class. style. they record and reflect our common history. and they have been concealed in buildings to ward off misfortune. and volume in space (see pp. t h e n again as if transparent. t o o . S H O E S TELL LIFE STORIES. 100-01 and pp.164 COSTUME Study and Design they reflect our age. e n j o y i n g t h e study a n d i n v e n t i o n o f shoes. D r a w each o n e first as a solid object. structure. As artifacts in museums. Here we go one step further. will discover m o r e . personality. values. a n d e x p e r i e n c e visible p r o g r e s s . . while artists have painted their boots or those of others as personal portraits and memorials. Linear Outline Using fine pens. if y o u m a k e p l e n t y o f d r a w i n g s as o p p o s e d t o o n l y a f e w . and after studying familiar shoes we use the information learned to invent new ones. This class takes the shoe as its subject in building on earlier lessons concerned with seeing through objects to understand their function. 104-07). imagining y o u can see t h r o u g h it. you will need several large sheets of drawing paper.

165

The Surface
Next,

STUDY AND DESIGN

study the surface contours using fineand broad-tipped felt-tip pens. For best results, it is important to be bold and brief. Draw firmly, fast, and with as few strokes as possible. Build up each shoe from light to dark andleavesome paper showing through to create highlights.

Design Your Own

Using what you have learned from the previous steps about the structures of your shoes, and about the use of pens, invent new designs from your imagination. Start with fine outlines and progress to colored and textured surfaces. Modify your ideas by rotating the views.

166

COSTUME

The Structure of Costume
MUSEUMS ARE AN INFINITELY

rich resource for the artist and

information given by a period style. Arrange to visit a costume museum or ask a friend to model clothes for you at home. Using fine felt-tip pens, begin with quick, pale impressions of each garment's shape before homing in on its borders and seams. Try to draw transparent views wherever possible to record the relationships between all component parts. Aim to draw enough information for it to be possible to make up a version of the garment using paper pinned to a tailor's dummy.

designer. They often give quite unexpected gems of ideas and information—whatever the subject. These drawings, made in a costume museum, demonstrate ways of recording structural information and detail for later use in the studio. They could form the basis of new designs for a fashion project or theater production, for example. Drawings of shoes on pp. 164-65 show how new designs can be evolved from the structural

OBSERVATION
It is usually best when collecting information for reference to apply the restraint of dispassionate observation. Set yourself the test of drawing facts with as little artistic license or embellishment as possible. Here I chose fine felt-tip pens because they are at their best when used swiftly, and therefore encourage bold, unhesitant decisions.

Swift lines record the hanging weight of this gentleman's coat, the relative proportions of its layers, and minimal details of the buttons and cuffs.

Thick velvet fabric is pulled tight beneath and across the bust by a single button. This transparent view shows how the fabric falls loosely in straight panels beneath the level of the sleeve.

167

LIGHTING
W h e n visiting museums, be prepared f o r l o w lighting, which can make it hard t o see and draw. A book can help if attached t o your drawing board.

Adding stripes and dashes of color with a thicker pen brings out the glossy sheen and sculptural rigidity of this dress, which would have been worn over a whalebone corset. small reading light designed t o clip o n t o a

THE STRUCTURE OF COSTUME

In small drawings such as these, use thick pens to color entire sections with a few marks, as I did here down the side of the bodice.

The light, frilly bulk of this crinoline dress is propelled forward with lines. pinching its gathers and sways that are hiding a horsehair bustle. fleets of quick

168

COSTUME

Textures and.Patterns
THIS CLASS FOCUSES ON how to draw textures through the collection of fabric, pattern, and embroidery samples from a costume m u s e u m . This formal method, using ruled squares, can create an invaluable library of ideas a n d i n f o r m a t i o n for future r e f e r e n c e — w h e n painting a clothed figure, or preparing a textile project, for example. However, if making a book of samples for a project, remember that it is important to also include collages of f o u n d materials (see pp.230-31) To d r a w a fabric texture, b e g i n by concentrating o n h o w y o u i m a g i n e it w o u l d feel if you t o u c h e d it. Decide if it w o u l d be rough, s m o o t h , w a r m , cold, thick, thin, tough, or fragile, for example. As you draw, believe you can feel these qualities at your fingertips a n d that your pencil is responding to the sensation. Undulate the pressure of your lines and marks according to the feeling of the fabric rather than its appearance. Let your pencil enact the sensation of touching its surface.

and to experiment more loosely with mixed media.

INVENTING COSTUMES
This starchy, quilted, b o w e d creation started life as an imagined corset, I intended t o d r a w together in one sculptural f o r m a range o f t h e details opposite. T h e garment quickly got o u t o f hand. T h e r e is great e n j o y m e n t in letting y o u r imagination run wild w h e n inventing costumes. If you are unable t o visit a costume museum, many exciting fabric details and textures can be found in y o u r o w n closet o r home.

169

COLORED PENCILS
Colored pencils give precision and tonal range; they can be faded but not erased. Lightly use an HB graphite pencil if you wish to plan a design first. Pressed hard, colored pencils build up a waxy finish of brilliant color. Used lightly, they appear powdery and show the texture of the paper.

TEXTURES AND PATTERNS
Wool

Silk and braid

Ribbon

Embroidered leather

Feathers

Pearls

Knit

Tassels

Outline stitch

.

shape.126-27. selected from different pages of my original book. and motivation of an individual. These characters. 172-73. and 252-53).Dressing Character I O N C E SPENT THREE MONTHS researching the work of Francisco de Goya at the Prado Museum. . identity. look at how Goya delineated volumes of thick fabric to express the posture. I made a drawing book full of studies seeking to understand how he composed drama and pathos in his narratives (see also pp. Madrid.

170—71). and tangible. . as it rushes and carves fabric-wrapped forms like rivers and desert winds shaping the earth. Posture Carving also taken from my Madrid drawing book (see pp. To understand how he did this.T H E S E PENCIL STUDIES. I carefully copied the direction of each of his lines. are copies of works by Goya in which he makes air seem heavier than flesh. and visible.

.

.

This J u s t as there are three parts to a traditional landscape drawing—the foreground. we. R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN in the delivery of narrative. paintings depicting scenes from history. comics. Her all-too-clear expression shows annoyance and irritation with her husband. . Storytelling and people-watching are obsessive human activities. and novels—our staple cultural diet—are driven by a fascination with shared experience and the detail of what happens in other people's lives. and other masters of Western Art.Gatherings A LL DRAWINGS TELL STORIES. heighten or subdue drama with subtleties of exaggeration or caricature. and its illumination. we can R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter draftsman. Drawings selected for this chapter explore these Saskia Lying in Bedand a Nurse ranges of proximity 1638 9 x61/2in (227 x 164 mm) and a travel journal. With a pocket full of disposable pens we also go out and draw the expressions of gathered people. daily newspapers. in spite of how it may seem. Later in their lives. Saskia. a crowd tells the story from a distance. Blockbuster movies. and so. vivid portrait of his wife captures our attention. He in turn scorches the paper with his view and a certain speed of seeing all. presumably while he is making this drawing. the direct exchange (as shown here) where one or more characters hold eye Aneedproduced the thicker lines of the nurse. and distance—so drawings of gathered people can be loosely arranged in three took only minutes to make and yet it lives for centuries. Washes of shadow behind engaged and as a natural voyeur can feel invisible while watching the scene. Here. the viewer. we can learn most about handling pen and ink. even up her were laid with a brush. Second. soap operas. Saskia died after childbirth. the speed and printmaker and one of the greatest and most influential density of its lines. the viewer's attention in a scene by the format of its composition. this is not the portrait of an old woman. We can also use clothes. The spaces between people and the positions they occupy on a page are vital to our understanding of the psychology or emotion of an event. He is also the artist from whom props to add layers of meaning and attitude. First. and instantly engage with the action of the scene. while a quill contact with. furniture. Third. television documentaries. and therefore seem to see. We read tensions and exchanges between people. Seeing through Rembrandt's eyes. are implicated in this marital exchange made over the head of the anonymous nurse. As artists. too. the viewer is not directly made the finer lines of Saskia. We can direct close. It middle. there are no longer individuals but one significant group or mass action. Rembrandt's bored and frustrated wife. but drawings of gathered people tell them most directly. types. finding corners in crowded places to inscribe their action and energy onto the page. stares out from her gloomy sickbed.

N o b l e a n d W e b s t e r s w i t t y a n d o f t e n s u b v e r s i v e d r a w i n g s are also c o n t e m p o r a r y art installations. c o m p o s e d garbage p r o d u c e s a c a l m . hearth i m p l e m e n t s crash at o u r feet. In one of R a c k h a m s great illustrations for Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland."Anything that. junk. narrative is delivered through the air.kicks against the mundane things that close down your mind is a refreshing and good thing. and in. the C o o k . via the animated clutter of o u r material lives. Pencil on paper important but only the beginning of possibility the combination of three-dimensional space. for example..176 GATHERINGS SOME DRAWINGS ARE MADE e n t i r e l y o f i l l u m i n a t i o n that floods drama into the viewers gaze. h a l o e d portrait of the artists seated b a c k to b a c k . F o r e a c h w o r k . t h e y select and arrange familiar items of street detritus into what appears to be an u n p l e a s a n t pile. Below. Think about what else you could use: a laser smoke. In both works. the Cat. TIM N O B L E A N D SUE W E B S T E R British artists who collaborate using neon. garbage and chaos are piled a n d e x p l o d e d in r o o m s full of event. plates shatter. Real Life is Rubbish 2002 Dimensions variable TIM N O B L E A N D SUE WEBSTER . and projector. refuse." (Tim Noble) Drawing with light it is important to think about what you is Here timelessly we see a in can draw with. and smoke billows around the agitated jives of the Duchess. and projectors to create their anarchic punk satires of modern life. T h e i m m a c u l a t e d r a w i n g is only r e v e a l e d w h e n t h e b e a m of a p r o j e c t o r c a s t s t h e s h a d o w Projections of the h e a p o n t o a wall. and Alice. Pans fly oft the stove. or even the office photocopier. a kitchen explodes in o u r faces.. and on. Here.

177 ARTHUR RACKHAM British watercolorist and book illustrator. beams. H e is best k n o w n forillustratingIrving's Rip vanWinkle. humor. Find the singleperspective pp. are very large compared to on p. Depth Billows of smoke expand and are lighter as they come forward. The wood grain acts like marks of speed behind the scene. See how the In the Duchess's Kitchen 1907 77/8 x 6 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 5 0 m m ) ARTHUR RACKHAM . by vivid children's Rakham's w o r k is characterized fantasy. This makes the story appear to leap out at us. and Poe's Tales Imagination. tabletop. Refer back to the drawing class how pots In drawn objects and elements that those behind. 100 to see for make elliptical objects and pans fly through the the foreground. and watercolor. a n d an unmistakable graphic style.76-77) above vanishing point (see that is about3/4in (2 cm) oak converge at this point. we find several devices already explored through our drawing classes.Stowe's ofMysteryand Queer Little Folks. Rackham Vanishing point In this marvelous drama made with pen. ink. and Alice's shoulder. amplifying movement outward from the vanishing point.

Magnetic Fields sculpture. The image stands out among his more usual graphic works in which he hones and carves semi-abstract human forms. Moore's spectators appear to have walked a long way from nowhere to witness and wait beside this mysterious obelisque. The mournful gray landscape of Henry Moore's northern British field has gathered by night an overcoated audience to stand and wait before a wrapped and roped monument.The human form w a s the vehicle o f his expression and h e w a s t h e official W o r l d W a r II artist. audiences. a great Shoshone drawing blazes with the color. London. a n d l o v e d t o d r a w in t h e BritishMuseum. a sculptor. and we. A glimmer of gold light appears from the left No explanation is given. In culture. M o o r e t o u r e d Italy as a young man. join in the waiting. as fellow watchers. and action of a buffalo hunt.178 GATHERINGS we have seen in the pairs and trios of drawings by masters and makers. Opposite. meaning. This is just one of many precious artifacts from a lost time. perhaps these two are the most extreme. as if Moore's wrapping has been literally outstretched. and art in the landscape. expressing his dry humor about O F ALL THE CONTRASTS HENRY MOORE British s c u l p t o r w h o t r a i n e d a n d taught at t h e R C A . and composition they are polar opposites. heat. Chalk and graphite This fog-bound but humorous gathering of souls is made in graphite and colored chalk with gray wash. which still narrates vivid days in the lives of an energetic nation. HENRY MOORE Crowd 1942 Looking at Tied-up Object . This is an ironic drawing from Moore.

tolearnhow to paint a scene on a hide are and buffalo circle and charge the perimeters of a skin "field. Stylized hunters. MAGNETIC FIELDS Horses It is interesting to note how the outstretched limbs ofthesehorses echo European images of the runningBuffalo horse before the sequence-photographer Muybridge taught us to 19TH understand their movement differently. horses. creating harmonious balance with words but through silent demonstration.179 SHOSHONE SCHOOL Stylized characters This vital image of a buffalo hunt is made with pigment Members of the Shoshone community wishing painted within dark outlines on a stretched elk hide. Hunt CENTURY SHOSHONE SCHOOL . Each color is evenly distributed throughout the scene. Skills are taught not center chant or dance to the beat of a drum. and helping our eye to dart around." Men at the instructed to sit and watch.

The muscularity of Blake's figures was inspired by Michelangelo's works. texture. a n d o t h e r w o r k s . K a t h e K o l l w i t z s c r a t c h e d a n d e n g r a v e d her a r m y of c l a y . a pink-inked cinema wobbles along with string. W I L L I A M BLAKE British visionary. and sweetened the often bleak years with his impractical inventions. t h e Bible. Opposite. We also see qualities of line. w e f i n d a spiritual v i s i o n . a d e a t h c h a r g e of brutality. Misted in translucent layers of paint. pale souls of the lustful are being s p u n into yet another realm of hell. m a r k . w r i t e r a r t i s t . B l a k e h a s i l l u m i n a t e d his s a d d e n e d Virgil on the s h o r e s of a d a r k w o r l d . Blake w a s d r i v e n b y a passion f o r j u s t i c e a n d a p r o f o u n d b e l i e f in his v i s i t a t i o n s f r o m angels.180 GATHERINGS The Human Condition IN THE SPECTRUM of these vastly d i f f e r e n t g a t h e r i n g s of p e o p l e . The Circle of the (The Whirlwind 1824 of Lustful Lovers) mm) 143/4 x 207/8i n ( 3 7 4 x 5 3 0 WILLIAM BLAKE . a n d the gentle h u m o r of sedate r i d i c u l e . Brushed line and wash This is an ink-outlined drawing made with a fine brush on paper with added washes of watercolor The image was subsequently redrawn as a line engraving. era as Kollwitz. p o e t . a n d f o c u s .f o o t e d t r o g l o d y t e s w h o rage into w a r like a m u d s l i d e of revenge. It illustrates a scene from Dante's Divine Comedy. a n d e n g r a v e r w h o p o w e r f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e d his o w n t e x t s in a d d i t i o n t o D a n t e ' s Divine Comedy. w h e r e he w a t c h e s a t u r b u l e n t s p i r a l of p u n i s h m e n t f o r the d a m n e d . inextinguishable in its fortitude and h u m o r . color. w h i c h b y their c h o i c e a n d h a n d l i n g a c t u a l l y b e c o m e the force a n d spirit of e a c h i m a g e . Heath Robinson lived through the same war-torn.

sculptor and draftsman. Ink rolled over was selectively polished off using a rag. stoical bemusement. humor by making his characters earnest. and the impact of death and war upon women. HEATH ROBINSON The Kinecar 1926 103/8 x 15 in (262 x 380 mm) . With masterful gentility. however meager or ridiculous their activity.181 KATHE KOLLWITZ German printmaker. and controlled smears on the metal surface printed as tones. The image was scratched directly onto a metal plate. British Pen and wash This is a pen-andwatercolor drawing made for a color-platereproduction in an edition of T h e Bystander. Losbruch (The Outbreak) 1955 20 x 233/8 in (507 x 592 mm) KATHE KOLLWITZ HEATH ROBINSON humorous illustrator and a regular contributor to magazines and journals such as The Sketch and The Bystander. poverty. and the family home. plodding along with hazy. What remained in scratched grooves printed on damp paper as lines. and her powerful and sensitive drawings center on nurture. children. and clearly focused. THE HUMAN CONDITION Scratched lines This is a dry-point etching with monoprint. White marks were made with a dusting of French chalk on the artist's finger to wipe away ink leaving clean metal. who lived in a poor district of Berlin. Kollwitz survived the two World Wars. He created sincere. Heath Robinson shows England in a past era. Robinson and Kollwitz (above) share almost identical life dates and their work expresses a shared history from opposite sides oftheworld wars.

Insensitive t o p r e s s u r e : lines d o n o t v a r y in w i d t h o r t o n e . W h i t e gel p e n s a r e v e r y e f f e c t i v e o n d a r k papers. these pens enable you to sketch. including l u m i n o u s a n d m e t a l l i c . FIBER-TIP: M a n u f a c t u r e d f o r artists a n d d e s i g n e r s in a r a n g e o f w i d t h s . blob when old. w a t e r . a disposable pen with its clip-on cap goes anywhere. Available in blacks and ranges of colors. turn the page. At a time like this. dark sheen.r e s i s t a n t . B A L L P O I N T : Black a n d b o l d c o l o r s o f f e r d i v e r s e qualities. dropped in your pocket and forgotten till needed. in the studio. Unlike pencils. they each offer distinct and sometimes unexpected qualities. . Quick-drying. Ideal f o r precision w o r k (see p p . indent paper. or idea. a n d ranges o f colors. trusting shape and form to follow. or put the paper in your pocket instantly without fear of smudging. G E L P E N : P r o d u c e d in b l a c k w h i t e . is d e l i v e r e d t h r o u g h a m e t a l t u b e o v e r a t i n y ball bearing. CHOICES AVAILABLE T h e r e a r e m a n y d i s p o s a b l e p e n s t o c h o o s e from. t h e y a r e lightfast." 1. which can snap or pierce through your clothes. Lines t h i c k e n as t h e p e n w e a r s o u t G r a n d Canal (see pp. For example. fine fiber-tip Drawing with a fine fiber-tip pen. 7 6 . rollerballs.182 GATHERINGS Disposable Pens (ballpoints. shut your book. if y o u w i s h y o u r d r a w i n g s t o last a n d n o t fade o r b l u r w i t h t i m e a n d e x p o s u r e t o light. or turn into washes and make monoprints if flooded with an alcohol-based substance such as hairspray. R O L L E R B A L L : A c o n s t a n t i n k flow 3 .7 7 and 214-15). gel pens) are the most convenient of all materials with which to travel. 4. and in most pockets so I can always record a thought DISPOSABLE PENS QUICK NOTES O n a c o l d day in Venice.188-89) and Caravans (see pp. I swiftly focused on gesture. R e m e m b e r . a ballpoint will make faint lines. fibertips. c h o o s e p e n s l a b e l e d " p e r m a n e n t " o r "lightfast. build to a rich. The f o u r i l l u s t r a t e d h e r e r e p r e s e n t a basic r a n g e . a n d pressure-sensitive. they can be obtained within minutes. T h e r e w e r e c seconds t o snatch this impression b e t w e e n their emergence from one bridge and disappearance b e n e a t h t h e next. I keep quantities at home. aiming for correct outlines would result in drawing too slowly to c a t c h the moment. jot notes. p e r m a n e n t . 192-93) w e r e b o t h m a d e w i t h a ballpoint. So many stores sell them. 2. t w o tourists and their gondolier drifter past m e o n a canal. in the car.

Earlier I had witnessed a crammed en masse in a fleet of hired gondolas complete with musicians and choir.FROMMEMORY Here I used the same fiber-tip pen to compose a scene from memory. Compare this Klee's mules on p. crowd of fellow travelers Fast lines These scribbled lines model the mass and shadows of heads belonging passengers packed into the boat.31 . Fast lines focus on action. not form.

if a person was stout. let it enter the stage and perform. pocket notebook and a fiber-tip pen. activity. black. Each line acts its part in the narrative. angles will happen as a matter of course. Circular lines buzz around a man puzzling at the end of a train platform (left). Above all. animate them more. life will not slow and wait for you to catch it. of course. No camera can tie you to a time or people in the same way. Let the line of the flying coat fly and the hanging arm hang. when out drawing. I caught fleeting glimpses of gathered people and solitary souls going about their affairs. just draw the action. You must learn to trust your memory and to draw what impressed you most. Push toward caricature and this will draw out of your memory what was most important. Don't worry about measuring angles. focus on the action of the event.184 GATHERINGS The Travel Journal I CANNOT OVERSTATE THE JOY of making a travel journal. all action is in the line of his coat and directed by his nose. You will make outlines. but they should not be what you dwell on. Every drawing writes an indelible memory of place. Exaggeration helps. Movement . if animated. not its outline. make them stouter. However. FLEETING MOMENTS Walking through Venice with a small. and companionship. A curatorial assistant flies to do a chore (right). Each one was witnessed and drawn immediately from the afterimage of what I had just seen.

eager to herd us all from his house of responsibility. I am watched by the aggravated guard. Expression . I drew him three times on the same page to catch a range of his physical expressions. In turn. Observation THE TRAVEL JOURNAL The same willowy assistant dashes about his work.185 A large lady is photographed in front of a delicate work of art. The rush of his legs isamplifiedby their blurred lines.

decide how faces and bodies contort. He and his simpering assistant would not allow me in. placement. For example. focus on action. start by focusing on its action. if they are being haughty. ACTION AND DETAIL W h e n drawing people. Identify the principal character and draw him or her first. and you decide to draw the moment. rather than the works of art they guarded. When your attention has been caught. flap. and involvement in the story. and reason for happening. and there met this sullen custodian. you might place them lower down. or pushes. emotion. Place the person carefully. or bulge. forcing me to remain at the back and look at them. For example.186 GATHERINGS Catching the Moment On A BITTERLY COLD November day. furniture leans. Be aware that their placement on the page is part of the narrative. . if they are being devious. I took refuge in a church in Venice. pulls. Here the custodian projects fastidious ownership of his desk and pamphlets by pushing from behind the center of the space and challenging our entry to his image. Here I have recreated my drawing in steps to show you how to set about capturing such a scene. and clothing or bags hang. and let every detail speak by its size. not outline. elevate them in the pictorial space.

who is largely expressed through the shape and fall o f his raincoat and his way o f using a note pad.187 The custodian Identify your principal character a n d their psychological role in the scene. a pillar locates t h e scene in a depth o f space. . Here. Decide where t o place them t o emphasize their role. together with any immediate props they are using. I added t h e assistant. CATCHING THE MOMENT The assistant Identify t h e antagonist ( o r second character) in t h e scene. Draw their action and props. In the final step (left) I reinforced t h e custodian's desk. continue adding characters. W i t h a few strokes. D r a w their action. such as the desk and pamphlets seen here. If drawing a more complex scene. which is pushed toward us in a gesture of confrontation. Decide where you will place them o n the paper t o emphasize their action and intent.

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where vertical mooring poles give space and pulse to the horizontal speed of water quickly. .Grand Canal T H E CANALS OF VENICE are bustling places full of occupation. An imminent deluge of tourists urged me to work catching no more than the skeleton of the view. and buildings. I developed detailofthis drawing from memory using a ballpoint pen.

Crossings DURING THIS RUSH HOUR. To catch characters like this. Each person was glimpsed in an instant. then the bridge beneath them. followed by the streets. and drawn immediately from memory. Venetians flow across a stepped bridge and cascade into the streets beyond. Caricature each person slightly. Characters in the foreground were drawn first. . note only their most essential action and feature.

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quiet afternoon.Caravans T H E PARAPHERNALIA O F TRAVEL i s an intriguing part of circus life. Sitting at a distance on a hot. Caravans and other backstage activity convey expectations of energy and repose. I found this circus by chance in the Swiss mountains. and a great subject to draw. . I used a ballpoint pen to compose a series of scenes.

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they are the animators of your subject. and its draws the tides of the seas. artists see for themselves that which is momentary and eternal. trees. a contemporary environmental artist. the face of the Moon. marking the ground with lines of footprints or by turning stones. William Turner is said to have had himself lashed to a ship's mast to comprehend the storm (see p. It now hangs on the staircase of the History of Science Museum. 199). and experiment. and even how the Sun illuminates. or has cracked and fallen under the weight of water. learning to draw light out of dark. t h e first-ever accurate image o f t h e M o o n ' s surface. surrounded by the bright instruments of centuries of navigation. sunny days. t w o e n g r a v e d m a p s k n o w n as The Lunar Planispheres. as opposed the physicality of Earth. a n d a m o o n globe called t h e Selenographia. These conditions are very difficult to express well. England. There is a sense of the heroic in drawing outside—we race to catch a form before the tide engulfs it. H e a l s o p r o d u c e d an a l b u m o f 1 8 0 exquisite pencil drawings. This is the world's first accurate image of the Moon. our companion. Look closely at works by many artists and you will see that they have not represented hills. Take chances against the rain and work with the wind or fog. rivers.Earth and the Elements I T MAY SEEM PERVERSE to start a chapter titled "Earth and the Elements" with an image of the Moon. to be ready to draw the new light as it breaks across the land. The pastel drawing was constructed from myriad telescopic observations almost 200 years before the Apollo Moon landing. makes his work by the act of walking. when little stirs and empty blue skies offer even less to latch lines to. the sun comes out to blind it. a n d a n astronomer w h o dedicated 20 years t o studying t h e M o o n . Just as NASA photographs of Earth have had a profound effect on the way we view our fragile home. or the wind carries it away. By drawing such momentous and everyday events. and meteor impacts have scarred. how the soil is scorched. Weather is essential in all landscape drawing. so J o h n Russell's tour de f o r c e drawing (opposite) was a masterpiece of observation in his time. 5 f t x 5 ft 6 in ( 1 5 2 x 1 6 8 c m ) J O H N RUSSELL . What they have drawn is the force of nature on these properties: how the wind heaves the night ocean. In this chapter Moon Pastel 1795 Drawing we experiment with charcoal. and take bold steps in emulating the swell of clouds and the forces of torrential water. but it can be seen as a lens to our observation of this planet. speculation. are the real subjects in great landscape drawings. and the sea. Russell d r e w this. It is Earths satellite. The forces of nature. pages o f softly i l l u m i n a t e d craters and lunar "seas" c o v e r e d in m a t h e m a t i c a l and s h o r t h a n d calculations. Richard Long. JOHN RUSSELL A p o r t r a i t pastelist t o King G e o r g e III o f England. arranging them in perfect circles on the mountainside or in lines drifting out of sight beneath low clouds. Beginners will often choose calm. how the mountain cut by ice and rain is now fleetingly lit. It is better to get up before dawn. Oxford.

seeing how it shakes. has b e c o m e a hysterical kite. is already lost. the government. He knew how the world bends and stutters under such gusts. Fluid strokes inflate the woman's dress and pin shadows to the ground. distance. Flapping kimonos and an onlooker turning his b a c k have the magic of a m o m e n t caught.198 EARTH AND THE E L E M E N T S Air in Motion THE GREAT INVISIBLE SUBJECT o f these d r a w i n g s is t h e w i n d . sculptor. we can soon learn to draw its force.Through political drawings he fired his sharp wit at the king. A hard waxy was drawn across a heavy limestone Varying definitions crayon of lire and depths of tone conspire to give volume. serving a prison sentence for his views. T h e great master of English seascape is c o n d u c t i n g with his graphic energy. Terrifying waves of merciless nature roar across the paper. Hazy vertical marks reveal buildings into the mist. Below. like an umbrella forced inside-out. undramatic b u t brimming with stylized realism. a scratched ghost. Hokusais sedate wind presses reeds a n d the j o u r n e y s o f young ladies. a sail b r o k e n loose in a stormy marriage. and by observing its tides and eddies in our o w n environment. Crayon and limestone This is a lithograph. lifts. T h e ship. and solidity. painter. and gives motion to each image. By Turner carries us to the heart of the maelstrom. the bourgeoisie. and pioneer ofexpressionism. Danger of Wearing Balloon Petticoats UNDATED HONORE DAUMIER . H O N O R E DAUMIER French satirical cartoonist lithographer. This wife. Dots and dashes suggest receding trees out of focus. Daumier's c a r t o o n shines with the brilliance of his comic memory. and the legal profession. fluttering heavily. speed.

Ship in a Storm c. horizontally then and of the it into the stream Plants also bend and flow right to Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 1802 81/2 HOKUSAI KATSUSHIKA x 131/2 in ( 2 1 7 x 3 4 3 mm) . AIR IN MOTION Pencil and watercolor subdued brushed.l o v e dw o r k s i n c l u d e 1 0 0 v i e w s o f M o u n t Fuji and 1 2 v o l u m e s o f Manga. Landscape a n d city life w e r e his principal subjects. leans the whole composition swells around its fateful center. T u r n e r w o r k e d in oils a n d w a t e r c o l o r s a n d s k e t c h e d c o p i o u s l y o n his travels.i n f l u e n c e d b y examples o f W e s t e r n art obtained through D u t c h t r a d i n g in Nagasaki. T h e r e a r e m a n y stories o f his p a s s i o n a t e w o r k i n g methods.M. including being lashed t o a ship's m a s t in o r d e r to study a storm.199 J. a n d his b e s t . 1826 91/2 x 113/4 in ( 2 4 1 x 3 0 0 m m ) J. A outline scratched of a skeletal into penciled ship is while and the waves. H o k u s a i in t u r n has since significantly influenced European art. wind. Wind direction wood-block This is a colored To represent the blows lifted flowed wind.b l o c kprintmaker. d e s i g n e r a n d b o o k i l l u s t r a t o r . TURNER KATSUSHIKA HOKUSAI Prolific J a p a n e s e c o l o r w o o d . from left print. W . absorbent watercolor and are Stains of splashed. painter. seascape.W. and history painter w h o s e p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t a b o v e all w a s light. T U R N E R British landscape.M. into this very as pressed sheet The paper's through own coior is brought banks of mist and fog. Hokusai direction (from clothing from has chosen which it the right).

His subjects include ruins. He brings us to stare into a place that no sane human would enter. ink.198) admires the majesty of nature. Pen and brush Hugo drew first with pen and ink. or charcoal. T h e m e n a c i n g darkness of Hugo's storm b e l o w is so convincing. water. h a u n t e d shadows. as a subject and second. leaving nothing but a glimpse of moonlight glistening on the froth below. and t h e sea s t u d i e d f r o m his h o m e in Guernsey in t h e Channel Islands. In periods b e t w e e n writing. EARTH AND THE VICTOR HUGO French novelist and artist (see also p. active surfaces of water. An update on biblical showers of fish and frogs. drawing was Hugo's principal means o f expression. By contrast. Turner (see p. and swim into the page.28). Then. lines of rain escorting them to b o u n c e and clatter. inks.200 ELEMENTS Storms STORMS CAN BE SEEN and drawn in two ways: first. D o m e s t i c o b j e c t s we can o w n and name fall from the clouds. fantasy palaces. Le Bateau-Vision 1864 71/2 x 1 0 in ( 1 9 2 x 2 5 5 m m ) VICTOR H U G O . as a gestural storm on the paper. this is a writer's narrative of terror. Leonardos Cloudburst of Material Possessions is o n e of his m o s t enigmatic and mysterious works. marks. composing banks of waves and dense. grab their b r u s h . Opposite. as if drawn j u s t this year. with a brush. he blanketed the drawing in darkness. it is difficult to contemplate its brooding and night-soaked heart. T h e very nature of b o t h is turmoil and an interweaving of elements. It looks so contemporary. this is a b o m b a r d m e n t from o u r h o m e s . and tossed o b j e c t s — a perfect subject in which artists can forget themselves.

Cloudburst of Material Possessions 1510-12 45/8 x 43/8 in ( 1 1 7 x 1 1 1 mm) L E O N A R D O DA VINCI .LEONARDO DA VINCI Leonardo devised many artifacts of our modern lives. envisioning machines centuries before their making (helicopters and bicycles. and a wheel. There is a little magic in recognizing many items from our homes something like a rake. He was left-handed and wrote backwards in Italian from left to right. together with half the contents of our garage. Each item that has crashed from heaven is drawn in such a way that we can feel Leonardo's nib picking it up in the speed of a doodle. a hook. It is interesting to speculate how engineering might have developed if his ideas had been shared with the world earlier Ink and chalk This is a pen and ink drawing with touches of black chalk. Above and below are examples of his mirror handwriting. and they passed through private hands for 400 years before becoming widely known. for example). He bequeathed his drawings to a friend. a bell.

In a very different work (opposite above). and mood simultaneously. and after tracing her captured line. which he used to unify his compositions. Nature Profiles Opposite below. Drawing with a scalpel. his unsurpassed handling of light.202 ELEMENTS THE PROFILE OF A HORIZON is a line we immediately recognize and respond to. and across to the right. sea-. Views from Velletri c. Clare Bryan took panoramic photographs of the English South Downs. Claude is distinguished by. cooler tones receding into the distance are applied with a brush. Segments The top half of the drawing is a view as we enter the valley. and we can imagine standing over his shoulder. or cityscape. Claude Lorrain drew directly on location. and dry marks in the foreground appear to be made with his finger. Over first lines. rapidly layering contours to shape place. Whether land-. a horizon line can trigger our recognition.1638 85/8 x 121/2 in (219 x 320 mm) CLAUDE LORRAIN . Even distilled from all other detail. In the lower half he has walked downhill a little. thick. she teased away fragments of paper to illuminate her view. atmosphere. and famed for. C L A U D E LORRAIN French classical landscape painter draftsman. rich. made inside a book. EARTH AND THE Bryan cut the profile of a city. and etcher who lived most of his life in 17th-century Rome. watching his hand and eye at work together. She was inspired by her research of aerial plans of London and the story of an alien map butterfly (see caption). transferred it to a scroll. Claude has used a fine nib to delineate segments of land as they recede into space. Paler. it is the unique calligraphic signature of the place in which we stand.

specialty bookbinder." Cut line This is a small section of a preparatory 5-ft(1.The horizon was drawn with a City Landline 2003 271/2x 59 in (70 x 150 cm) scalpel. Her recent paper photographic. The edges of each here) fade into the solid paper unpopulated with a scalpel landscape.203 Scalpel-drawn This book-bound drawing was inspired by the story of a foreign butterfly wrongly to Great Britain in 1912.5-m)scroll. On turning the pages of City. and visiting professor at numerous art schools. and digital print-based works reflect upon the histories and poetry of "left behind and in-between spaces. drawings Ideas of introduction Clare Bryan to research introduced down and led NATURE PROFILES and removal historical plans and aerial growth of London showing its population since Roman times. progressively settlement (cropped more and more paper is drawn away to show the expansion of human page of an around the river. then hunted destroyed. printmaker graphic designer. 2001 CLARE BRYAN C L A R E BRYAN 3ritish artist. source workisilluminatedby standing its lower edge on a CLARE BRYAN .

a n d m o r e i n d e l i b l e by soaking it in linseed oil. It allows you greater precision in your mark-making than if you rub away the charcoal with an eraser. It does n o t erase easily. fine. B u n d l e s o f twigs were traditionally sealed into earthenware j a r s or wet clay and heated slowly and intensely in a fire or kiln. 162) or graphite (see p. or fingertip. A great find when available. 3 A white line is lifted out by the tape. It is also easily erased if the maker of the mark is not happy with the result. Smooth paper accepts few particles. Use any fine-point pen or pencil (I used a ballpoint) to draw a firm line on the back of the Big pieces are perfect for very large-scale drawings—even larger than yourself. COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Machine-made. you can p u r c h a s e m a c h i n e . As its name implies. feather. b l a c k e r . 1. Not to be confused with square conte sticks (see p. Charcoal lifts away from paper easily with the very light touch o f an eraser. It c a n be m a d e duller. C h a r c o a l naturally glistens. SQUARE COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Not often sold. vine. The same as above. blacker. Try itworking on big paper covering a wall. LIFTING OUT This technique is a very easy method of drawing a crisp. CHARCOAL PENCIL: Types made by different manufacturers vary in quality and density of line. and heavier than willow.54). 3. between your middle finger and thumb. The tip snaps easily to renew a sharp edge if required. CHALK CHARCOAL: Technically. harder line. 7. Willow is the most c o m m o n wood. Boxes often contain a range of thicknesses to choose for different needs. Then lift it away. it looks gray and feels like chalk. 1 Suspend a length of masking tape. they are all intended for fine work. a n d p l u m . resulting in a stick that gives a blacker. a rag. Essentially. maple. . this does not exist. only a little thicker. sticky side down. Beware of cheap brands selling dyed chalk as compressed charcoal. MEDIUM W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 5. and offers a rich. tape. a piece of fresh bread. 2. Artists have also used lime. it is compressed and m o l d e d at high pressure.m a d e c o m p r e s s e d charcoal. In use. black finish. Hold it over your drawing RANGE AVAILABLE Charcoal (in its several forms shown here) is loved or loathed by the beginner to whom it is often recommended because it produces pleasing results quickly. 6. the heel o f y o u r h a n d . Slightly dull the tape's stickiness before use t o prevent it from lifting out more than you intend. Lines are achieved by d e p o s i t i n g particles in the grain o f paper. R o u g h paper c a n b e loaded.204 E A R T H AND THE E L E M E N T S Charcoal CHARCOAL IS PRODUCED from wood baked slowly without exposure to air. resulting in a pale line. THIN WILLOW CHARCOAL: I used a piece like this to make the drawing opposite. so it chars b l a c k as o p p o s e d to igniting a n d turning to ash. without touching the surface. but some specialists stock compressed charcoal in delicate square sticks. Alternatively. leaving u n d e r t r a c e s of first thoughts. b e e c h . white line into the blackor grayness of willow charcoal. cylindrical. THICK W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 2 Keep the tape above your drawing. 4.

Here we used a ballpoint. as is fresh (unbuttered!) bread. Layers can be peeled away to refresh its surface. 10.212-13 were made by altering the pressure applied to the charcoal. I used a plastic eraser effectively on thinly applied charcoal. or any other dry media. Use cheaper (less sticky) for lifting out. PEN: Any fine pen or pencil can be used to draw on the back of masking tape when lifting out. .205 ERASING Thickly applied charcoal quickly o v e r c o m e s a plastic eraser A w a r m (soft and tacky) putty eraser is more effective. graphite. 8 . Cotton swabs also work. Here. Use high quality (very sticky) to fix paper to walls and boards. T O R T I L L O N : This is a tight roll of paper used to blend charcoal. CHARCOAL Lifting out This detail shows an example of where I used the lifting-out technique demonstrated opposite to draw flashes of lightning against rain clouds. 9. pastels. MASKING TAPE: An invaluable resource. sold in several widths. Different tones seen throughout the main drawing on pp. Lift out broader marks with a larger implement.

Don't worry if it is cloudy: clouds add drama and perspective and make good subjects in themselves (see pp. Successful drawings often only suggest the qualities of the scene without overdescribing them. Landscape drawings are traditionally arranged in three parts: a detailed foreground. a less distinct middle ground composed of shapes and textures.206 EARTH AND THE ELEMENTS Landscapes TREES ALONE OFFER MARVELOUS shapes to draw. it results in flat planes of clutter. They are also good markers of receding space. I relaxed my eyes out of focus to dissolve distracting detail into abstract patches of light and darkness. On p p . Excessive detail can be admired for its skill and achievement. the more you encourage the viewer's imagination to join in and see. This term simply means that as land rolls away into the distance. Then I drew the shape of the tonal patches I perceived.212-13). and an abstract. MATERIALS In this first view there is only a foreground and middle distance. to contain each of your compositions. 9 8 . an eraser your drawing book or a board and paper fixative (or hairspray). a reel of masking tape. The long view is hidden behind trees. our brains search for nameable things and will perceive complete pictures from very little information. When you arrive. but is often less evocative and engaging. Pack several thick and thin sticks of willow charcoal. begin by marking out several small squares on your paper. To experiment with drawing landscapes and the use of charcoal. Seeing tones . It is the visible effect of the atmosphere between where you stand and what you see in the distance. and a cushion in a plastic bag to sit on. Ironically. pack your materials (as advised below) and set off for a local view or your nearest arboretum.9 9 we noted that in response to visual stimulus. the less you describe. especially when making first excursions into aerial perspective. details blur and colors grow paler and bluer. At its worst. hazy distance.

dark trees with bright. This composition turned out a little flat because I have an almost even quantity of earth and sky. rounded. full of information you can use to create what you want! Inventing drama . Remember. horizontal regions of grass.207 LANDSCAPES In my second square I explored a simple view contrasting soft. the trunk of a bare tree. Exploring the view Redrawing the scene above. It is better to give distinctly more pictorial space to one or the other (see below). shadows. your view is your inspiration. I have invented drama with diagonals set against each other I tilted the earth. and broke a view through the hedge into the distance with a dark sky threatening rain.

engine. I usually begin by making an image of the whole view. Similarly. For example. The mud of the tidal shore in Rye. Building on earlier studies of structure in space using shoes (pp. bare ribs.164-65) and a wire violin (pp. on p p . EARTH AND THE FINDING THE SUBJECT Finding a remarkable subject is even better when you can circumnavigate it in an arena of space. s e e k places in light After my first drawing." . This first drawing serves as a process of arrival. and seeing what the real choice of subject is. taking with you your drawing book and pen. observing it from several views so as to better understand it as a whole. so the paper is not made blinding and your hand cannot cast a shadow on your work.1 5 my first drawing of the whole view of the Tiber led me to see the real subject of the day. 2 1 4 . your challenge now is to find a sculptural subject in the landscape. shade out of the glare of the sun. I am then able to home in on what interests me most for further study. making the scene below led me to focus on the decaying boat opposite. settling my concentration.208 ELEMENTS Drawing in the Round WHEN DRAWING IN THE LANDSCAPE. England has embedded within it the decaying skeleton of a burned fishing boat. and tiller still standing proud.104-05). Circling a subject and drawing it from several views imprints on your memory a better understanding of its three-dimensional form. "Drawing in the round means to literally walk around your subject. which was the flow of water over rocks.

make a series o f drawings f r o m different positions. Overleaf: Decaying Boat 4 . marking straight. 3 This impression notes the angle of the broken boat. I looked more boldly at the planes and the dynamic of the sculptural craft My lines have become darker and more forceful as confidence in my understanding of the vessel grew. its overall balance. I drew with quick.209 SERIES OF STUDIES This stunning ghost o f a boat comes into v i e w t w i c e a day. careful lines to establish the skeleton that gives this wreck its distinct form. I spent equal time looking at the subject and the paper. and structure. W h e n you have found your subject. Each n e w drawing gives a different insight. The outline ties a shape of darkness to the boat like a weight so that it becomes part of its form. and the order and shape of its component parts. ROUND 2 In this tail-end view. DRAWING IN THE 1 Here. looking more at the boat than at the paper From this low position I have emphasized how the boat is swallowed in mud by outlining its shadow on the ground. unfussy lines. character. w h e n t h e sea recedes.

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hot-pressed drawing p a p e r (see pp. was made with gentle but unhesitating s p e e d . L o o k i n g b a c k and forth from the heavens to firmly taped-down paper.Cloudburst THIS STORM DRAWING.20-21) using a thin stick of willow charcoal. . m a d e on s m o o t h . I worked quickly to catch and weave the turbulent contrasts of rising wind and approaching water before the drawing could be washed away.

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pulse.Notes of Force T H E GREAT FLOWING TIBER RIVER has cut through Rome. On the pages of a small. shaping the city. since ancient times. pocket-sized notebook. and rhythmic detail as it passed through the ancient gully of the city. focusing on the river's eddies. I drew with a needle-fine fiber-tip pen. . black.

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The strong diagonal of the composition from bottom left to top right carries the eye through changes of height and focus from the foreground to the mountains beyond.Mountains SITTING IN THE SHADE of a tree on the Greek island of Antiparos. . I used a dip pen and waterproof India ink with brushed watercolor to draw the view.

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It also underpins and gives strength and unity to all figurative work. drawn sound. It was not invented in the 20th century. picturing a stabilized world was impossible and Modernism rode forth with vigor.8 cm) A D O L F WOLFLI Abstraction is a direct. Afterward. poet.Abstract Lines T HE DEVELOPMENT OF W E S T E R N abstract art at the beginning of the 20th century significantly paralleled major changes in world thought. Outsider artists. Artists were given a different tool—a line threaded directly from their subconscious to their hand—and with it they began to map a bold new landscape of marks and concepts that would dramatically and forever change the face of Western art. for example. As you approach the classes in this chapter. However. writer and composer who suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and was resident in the Waldau Aslyum near Berne. or gestures. Perhaps in Western culture we bred this intuitive freedom out of ourselves in our insistence on complex figuration. and emotion. and history. and independent means of communication. liberating. People are often scared by abstraction and see it as the enemy of figurative art. all pictorial representations are abstractions of reality. and poetic myth roar and cascade within his tightly framed pages. direction. The fate of Old World thinking was finally sealed with the brutality of World War I. He made thousands of drawings to chronicle his complex life. expressive marks and shapes are at the core of natural. Many concepts and feelings can only be expressed through marks. which are essentially abstract. opposite. many nonWestern cultures have highly sophisticated abstractions at the core of their art. yet my kinship to abstraction is fundamental. I begin every image by feeling its meaning. Berne. Internal workings of the mind were suddenly free to find a new language of expression. The growing rise of Darwinian ideas coupled with Freudian and Marxist perspectives forced Western society to reconsider its origins and future. An abstract mark is often a better conductor of a thought or feeling. sounds. belief. It is actually its foundation and its infrastructure. From one point of view. From another viewpoint. precisely because it does not have to represent a physical object. Wolfli was a Swiss draftsman. don't be timid. only rediscovered. Not everything we know has a physical form in the world. His drawings are collected and exhibited internationally and held by the Adolf Wolfli Foundation. and young children show us that abstract. such as Adolf Wolfli. Swirling. actions. First marks. Indian mandalas. spontaneous image-making. ADOLF WOLFLI One of the greatest masters of Art Brut. and have been making abstract drawings for centuries—Japanese calligraphy. abstraction is not so easy to define. Museum of Fine Arts. My own work is firmly centered in figuration. writhing torrents of color. and Aboriginal art. Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape 1915 413/8 x 285/8 in (105 x 72. strike the paper to find form. fictional language. . and it has always been with us. be brave and enjoy them. it is simply itself.

tone. MAMORU ABE Japanese sculptor and installation artist. ice. Damp Japanese paper was laid over carefully arranged iron bars. silence.220 A B S T R A C T LINES Process and Harmony SOMETIMES A DRAWN LINE sings on the surface of its support. Lines. forged steel. quoting ink marks on a page. brass. and texture their bracing separation reaching between from beneath Pillars of the gallery are made part of this drawing by their inclusion in the paper. water. and temperature rim of floor space. as Twombly shows us opposite. This the paper rest within the amplifies framelike of the floor from the ceiling. rhythmically engaged with itself. A line can be finished in a second. Five forged steel shapes. scrolling across the canvas in an intimate crescendo. staining redbrown lines into the white surface. and wood are also part of the work. Twombly's mesmeric wax line worked over house paint is like a signature. and sensitivity with its thickness and pressure of touch. Sometimes it smolders like a deep shadow. Moisture produced rust. and patient watching. A Neolithic chalk tablet bears cut lines that were slowly carved. and plaster in galleries and landscapes. iron. texture. Changes paper. Abe works with materials such as soil. sit in silent harmony. The Physical Space 1990 3 0 x 30 ft ( 9 1 4 x 9 1 4 cm) MAMORU ABE . Iron rods in tone. Abe's physical drawing is a sculptural installation. akin to stones in a Zen garden. it can keep reforming through the inherent repetition of a process. or. It can proclaim mood. and Assistant Professor of Fine A r t at Fukuoka University. He travels widely to research ancient sacred sites. salt. Below. Mamoru Abe prepares an image that will appear through the chemistry of iron.

theories suggest astrological observations. such as the Rosetta stone. Neolithic Chalk Tablet 3. evolved a raw. This example is one of two chalk tablets found in a Late-Neolithic pit. burials.England. At the 2001 Venice Biennale.241). and sensuous drawing from painting. emotive. and the worship of the sun and ancient gods.400BCE 21/4 x 21/4 in (58 x 58 mm) ARTIST UNKNOWN Language Over the course of fifty years.Thesite's purpose is unknown. that challenges the separation of word from image.000-2. Twombly has language works CY TWOMBLY Contemporary American artist who emerged through the 1950s New York art scene in the heyday of Abstract Expressionism and Action Painting. The central pictorial space is also similarly cut and divided by the considered arrangement of straight lines. and Untitled 1970 Here we might seek to grasp letters in the turning of his line. the Babylonian world map.221 ANCIENT CARVINGS Many ancient cultures have made and left behind drawings and texts carved into stones or animal bone. PROCESS AND HARMONY Cut lines Chalk carves easily. and American Indian petroglyphs (see p. Precise lines suggest the use of a sharp flint The framed rectangle of this image is echoed in that of Abe's installation. Many of his graffiti-like combine abstract gestures with statements. close to Stonehenge in Wiltshire.Twombly was presented with a Golden Lion award for lifetime achievement. energetic. CY TWOMBLY .

Gestalt o f an unnameable thing. Gestalt. "There is nothing like dream to create the future. here he anticipates abstract expressionism by 100 years.222 ABSTRACT LINES Writing Time SINCE THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY. pressed them face down. said. abstract. Ink impressions When drawing nightscapes Hugo often laid paper disks in place of the moon. music manuscript requiring instrumentalists to improvise. Here he appears t o have saturated the cut-out moon disks with gritty pigment. A graphic score is a V I C T O R H U G O Hugo's abstract French novelist w h o m a d e m a n y drawings in m i x e d m e d i a ( s e e also p. a configuration. Bussotti. abstract artists and composers unique. The scores are also exhibited in galleries as visual art." An innovator who never fails to surprise. Texture Compare this drawing to Hugo's octopus on p. broke new ground in the 1950s with graphic scores now considered among the most extreme. brushed night skies over them with ink then lifted the disks to reveal white moons.28. and lifted them away to leave impressions of watery planets and seas. Both abstract drawing and composition involve the perfect sequencing of sounds and marks against space and silence. His drawing writes the time of its own physical process by expressing the extreme concentration of the moment in which it was made. and participate in the composition.28). beautiful. Hugo. drawing here can b e described in t e r m s o f a G e r m a n philosophical idea a b o u t is t h e i n s t a n t r e c o g n i t i o n t h e p o w e r o f m o m e n t . have striven to break down old pictorial and musical structures to explore new and unfettered modes of expression. too. Two Impressions Paper 1853-55 VICTOR HUGO Disk from a Cut-Out . o f t e n e x p r e s s e d in v i s u a l t e r m s . and inventive of his time. opposite. he mixed graphite into ink. Similarity in gritty texture suggests that here. o r a pattern o f elements s o unified as a w h o l e t h e y c a n n o t b e e x p l a i n e d asa s u m o f parts. and let the drying meniscus deposit granules in linear drifts such as we would see in the satellite photographic mapping of rivers. below. interpret. Marks across the center appear to be made with his fingers.

we can feel their rhythm and easily attach sounds to them. Following the notes. 1958 SYLVANO BUSSOTTI . His later works become increasingly abstract. Sound and rhythm This flickering rondo of sound written in pen on a hand-ruled stave can be heard in our imaginations as much as seen. Bussotti's first mature work. 70 in relation to Bussotti's clustered notes to the left of his rondo and open space to the right. Circular Score for "Due Voci" c. Compare this work to that of Libeskind on p. a far cry from any recognized musical notation.223 W R I T I N G TIME SYLVANO BUSSOTTI Italian avant-garde composer and principal 20thcentury exponent of the graphic score. This is a page from Due Voci.

In music it can be felt in the diversity of plainsong and African d r u m m i n g . Cloth is the simple instrument with which she has conducted and ordered her universe. d i p p i n g h e r fingers into a pot o f rice flour. it is found in the regularity o f ordered lines or a pattern. MARIE LIEB Little is known of this w o m a n for w h o m the act of drawing was essential. social outcasts. Cell Floor With Torn Strips of Cloth 1894 MARIE LIEB . This takes a form in most cultures. In the late 1 9 t h century.228-29) has been adjusted with each movement of the rags to draw a cosmos of balance and perfection. Germany. O p p o s i t e . and sufferers of psychiatric illnesses—who have always existed. It will protect the place from evil and make a pleasing invitation to good spirits. centuries.224 A B S T R A C T LINES Chants and Prayers WHEN ABSTRACT LINES are organized in repetition. making objects and images outside o f mainstream culture. for e x a m p l e . She tore c l o t h into strips a n d used these to draw patterns a n d symbols o n h e r cell floor. and c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Compositional rightness (see pp. Marie Lieb w a s a psychiatric patient in the Heidelberg Asylum. they m a k e a visual a n d physical e c h o that t o u c h e s s o m e deep part of the human spirit. Visually. T h e s e p h o t o g r a p h s d o c u m e n t the meditative drawings o f two w o m e n living worlds apart in different countries. Torn cloth This is one of two published photographs showing Marie Leib's torn cloth strips significantly placed on her cell floor. Lieb is one o f countless thousands of "Outsider" artists—diverse individuals including ordinary citizens. cultures. an a n o n y m o u s w o m a n in the southeast Indian state o f Tamil Nadu m a k e s a ritual drawing o n the b r i c k courtyard o f h e r h o m e .

Motifs are geometrical or based on plants. Designs and motifs Rangoii (or mandalas) are ritual drawings made by many millions of women across rural India.225 STEPHEN P. chalk. Skills are handed down through generations and from friend to friend. lecturer on the subjects of Indian art and Indian women's identity. Popular magazines feature new ideas each week and on special occasions there may be contests. Materials such as rice flour. animals.HUYLER Photographer art historian. and birds. women pride themselves on never repeating a design. and in places of worship and celebration.000 images. or flowers are marked or arranged on the ground or on the walls of homes. Painted Prayers UNDATED STEPHEN R HUYLER . among others. Huyler is the author of Painted Prayers.Theseare widely published in journals and are the subjects of international exhibitions. lime. In daily practice. at the University of London and Ohio State University. and for over 30 years has traveled extensively through the Indian subcontinent creating an edited archive of 200. cultural anthropologist.

but similarities in mood.226 ABSTRACT LINES Compositions ABSTRACT DRAWINGS ARE LARGELY or entirely free from using the viewer's eye to track and unfold layers of meaning. Untitled 2001 2001 153/4x 215/8 in ( 4 0 0 x 550 mm) BRIAN C A T L I N G . figurative representation—that is. These two works present complex compositions with differing intensions and methods of making. Mixed media This is a collage of torn white and gray tissue paper previously stained with ink. and Fellow of Linacre College. They each find their pathways and equilibrium in atmosphere and suggestion. rocks or heads in a subdued atmosphere of dream. Their energy can therefore be a purer expression of an idea or emotion. Klee's mathematical maze of thinly washed surface resonates with meticulous planning. structure. Catling's works made for international galleries and museums involve drawing as a tool in their development and making. filmmaker Professor of Fine Art. Oval moons eclipse each other and oscillate between landforms and portraiture. and water-resistant layers of spray and enamel paint on thick paper. BRIAN CATLING British sculptor poet. With no depth of field. Ruskin School. and choice of hues. performance and installation artist. Catling's torn paper shapes and shadows spill light out of their frame like a fractured mirror. free from the direct imaging of known physical things. gold paint and iridescent gouache mixed with water. Oxford. it is ruled and contained in one dimension by its interlocking ink-lined borders. Catling's abstract drawings are usually made in series and in parallel to written poetry and sculptural installations.

watercolor. and brush. Polyphon Gefasstes Weiss (White Framed Polyphonically) 1930 131/8x95/8 in (333 x 245 mm) Paul-Klee-Stiftung. Kunstmuseum Bern PAUL KLEE .97-99. philosophized. whereas tonal surfaces are perceived more immediately as a whole. He explained his polyphonic painting as "a harmony of several color voices" searching for a visual parallel to music. Geometric harmony This is a work on paper made with a sharp ink pen. ruler. and wrote copiously about the natures and relationships of color and form. drew. Line and surface Klee observed the visual capacity of lines to push or pull within an image. Klee painted. Klee also felt that a line represents the passing of time. and might be read as active or passive.227 PAUL K L E E Swiss painter and sculptor (see also p. It is a geometric harmony of straight lines and tonally graded flat colors that by their arrangement draw our eyes inward to their white center. We can see some diagrammatic examples of this among the optical illusions on pp.31).

Feel for it when youdraw. or degree of figuration. "I have experimented endlessly with this idea. Take. angles. but an easy o n e to u n d e r s t a n d . their impact. they are just." SETTING UP Justness can be harmonious or deliberately discordant. As y o u m o v e them around. It is also found in nature. There is a single m o m e n t w h e n all proportions. In his b o o k The Education of a Gardener. It is found in all great art and design. a glass. and elements settle in definitive balance. w i l l c h a n g e w i t h e v e r y r e a r r a n g e m e n t . W h e n m o v i n g objects around in your yard.228 ABSTRACT LINES Being "Just" A SENSE OF "JUST" (or rightness) is a difficult concept to explain. Set up a sheet of paper with a rectangle drawn on it. b u t e v e r y n o w a n d again you will hit on an arrangement w h i c h appears just. and ten straight sticks painted black. culture." . for instance. s o m e will be more or less h a r m o n i o u s . media. regardless of style. and put them o n a tray. This balance is what every artist and designer searches a n d feels for when making an image.Thisexercise will help you start. a b u n c h of keys. there is a clear feeling when. M a n y of their inter-relationships will be meaningless. the impression y o u receive from t h e m . "Whenall pictorial elements come together in pleasing and perfect balance. the late garden designer Russell Page explains. after being continuously adjusted. and an apple. Seek it when looking at other artists' work and in your everyday environment. or on a page. or home. they reach a perfect position.

2 3 In the step above. Feel for the rightness of their grouping and their relationships to surrounding spaces.56-57). Here. Within a rectangle on a flat sheet of paper set about making a composition using no other rule than a sense of "just. which now becomes a tight frame.229 WHERE TO START Take ten sticks of equal length. suggesting a horizon. Move the sticks out into the rectangle. Remember the drawn rectangle is a part of the composition (see pp. horizontals dominate the lower area. W h e n the composition falls into place. Arrange them so they touch or cross in a series of intersecting balances. making the composition seem to float beneath. B E I N G "JUST" 1 Arrange your ten sticks in t w o groups of five. horizontals dominate the top. painted black. fix it with glue. . In the final step (left) there is an even balance. as shown here. A stick touching the rectangle links the composition to the frame." Move the sticks to find alignments and imagined perspectives.

Returning to Russell Page. To prepare for this lesson. harmonious.220.230 ABSTRACT LINES Collage H E R E W E EXPERIMENT with collage. and black ink. and tones. they become a scaffold for the addition of further textures. Once the ten painted black sticks are set and glued in place. scissors. which is the shifting..69 and Abe's installation on p. glue. or discordance. found or made items.228-29)." (Russell Page) . Images and fragments torn from day-to-day life can be brought together to make a chorus of ideas and emotions. hard or soft. ready-made depths and surfaces. This principal also applies to three-dimensional drawings such as Gaudi's work with wire and weights on p. Collage offers the artist a liberating palette of SETTING UP This lesson in collage is a direct continuation of the compositional lines made in the previous class. a compass. stain and dry a sheet of tissue paper using blueink. colors.. he went on to say ". "My understanding is that every object [or shape] emanates—sends out vibrations beyond its physical body which are specific to itself. Cut or torn layers and shapes. you start composing by adding or subtracting shapes and textures and using colors and tones to achieve the impression you want to m a k e — w h e t h e r dramatic or s u b d u e d . feels "just" (see pp. correction fluid or white paint.Youwill also need spare white paper." overlapping placement of materials on a flat plane. an infinite range of voices and meaning. or even strident. colors and textures can be manipulated until their pictorial harmony.

Obscuring the blue disks. COLLAGE 1 Regular-sized pieces of white paper are moved over the surface to disrupt the even lines. Glue them in place once they feel "just" Translucent circular disks of tissue paper give color tone.231 WHAT TO DO Lay the final step of the previous lesson (p. This can also give a sense of fragmentation or punctuation to the composition. solidity. . In the last step (left). draw.228) in front of you. they deepen pictorial space. then cut out. four circles of blue tissue paper. and shadow to thepicture. 2 3 Torn white paper moved over the surface adds masks of rough-edged irregular volume. Cut six small rectangles the same proportion as your whole image. and with a compass and scissors. correction fluid and ink marks add further dimensions.The single disk that is folded with its straight edge facing up appears heavier than those that are flat.

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and expectation." [Tanchu Terayama. Hitsuzendo drawings aspire to "breathe with the energy and vitality of eternal life" achieved through "a state of no mind—beyond thought. emotion. Zen Brushwork]. A MODERN JAPANESE meditative art form inspired by the teachings of Yamaoka Tesshu (1836-1888). . is the practice of Zen through the calligraphic marks of a brush dipped in carbon ink.Zen Calligraphy HITSUZENDO.

These vibrate against washes of shadow and pitch-black mass. . Lines made with a steel dip pen take on a scratchy nervousness. discord is balanced against rhythm to create mood. I flicked spatters of ink and rubbed the paper with a wet and a dry brush to achieve these effects.Nocturnes IN THIS QUARTET of semi-abstract drawings made with India ink.

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look for images in the folds of clothing. Star Wars. thousands of paintings. Today. feathers. happen to us. England. To learn to flex your imagination. a human-animal mix that implies this could MARTIN SCHONGAUER German painter and engraver who settled to work in Colmar Alsace. our eye circulates around a flutter of leather and scaly wings. For example. and the faces of God have for centuries given artists a feast for the extremes of their imagination. Neither should be slave or master.Gods and Monsters OUR SACRED AND SECULAR need to visualize demons. and the Alien trilogy. Depictions of God or of gods in the contexts of daily life. for example. scales. paradise. sculptures. in the cracks of walls. Images we are now surrounded by bear testimony to the power and resourcefulness of their collective imagination. a collaboration between the two will ensure that your drawings glow with originality. which is to have eaten a nun—it inspired the drawing on p. a Catherine wheel of drawn sparks spiraling around the quietly resolute saint. wings. Feeding this demand. Throughout this book images are presented to excite and surprise and drawing classes created to increase your confidence. all of which originated as hundreds of drawings. We love our fear of the hybrid—ideally. we select details of animals farthest from ourselves and that are widely thought disturbing—reptilian and insect features. Schongauer is best known for his prints. I was on a train passing through Nuneaton. We watch with captivated pleasure movies such as The Fly. . Fantasy is most successful when founded on strong and familiar visual logic. The salvation of heaven and terrors of hell are represented equally—enough to make any sinner shudder. movie studios now brim with as many monsters as the visual art of the Medieval and Renaissance Church. impossible. Be inspired by the irrational comedy of word association or puns. Perhaps the Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 1485 121/4 x 9 in (312 x 230 mm) MARTIN SCHONGAUER most important conclusion in this final chapter is to advise you to develop your skills in parallel with the joy of your unfolding imagination. and damnation are found in most world faiths. or strange. which were widely distributed and influential in his time. In the Christian churches of Europe. angels. beasts. and deep fur—and we alter their scale. or in smoke. Here. We then add substances we dislike: unidentified fluids. Humans are equally troubled by the imperceptibly small and the enormous. Lord of the Rings. our literate and more secular Western society still hungers for another world and to ravenously indulge its fascination for the marvelous. serpentine tails. When creating monsters. Reading the place name I momentarily glimpsed an alternative meaning. Monsters take advantage of both. aliens. and stained-glass windows deliver powerful visual sermons to the once-illiterate populace.247.

which can swamp the subject Here. Other drawn versions of this image are more savage and frightening.240 GODS AND M O N S T E R S Marks of Influence marking the influence of one artist upon another. barren land rising like MYRIAD CHAINS RUN THROUGH ART HISTORY. Goya's plainly textured gray background pushes back the space behind the illuminated simply subject. quoting great paintings and popular culture to add cunning twists to his satires. F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A Spanish court painter printmaker and draftsman. Visions experienced in front of the drawing sometimes instruct the making of a new one. a wave to join Achilles' chase of Hector. Goya later recorded the horrors of Napoleonic occupation. a Shoshone seeking guidance and power meditates at the sacred site of a petroglyph. and exposed the superstitions. In this softer aquatint he poses for his portrait Textured background The aquatint process has been used to great effect in making a gritty toned background. such asinine behavior can be hereditary. This continuity enriches the making of art and our heritage. They depict as if by lamplight the devil and witches. This act defines the vision and continues the line of spirit guides. Near the end of his life he made his "Black Paintings" on the walls of his home.30. we see the international icon of stupidity. noisy seascape on p. In this ass. and church murals. Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 1799 81/2 x 6 in (218 x 154 mm) FRANCISCO DE GOYA . reading from a book of asses. portraits. Opposite.220. and men clubbing each other to death. rushing. Many students leave white backgrounds in their work. Compare his dark. hags. The title "And So Was His Grandfather" adds that should we not already know. Francisco de Goya was a master of borrowing. vanity. his lover a dog. He would be graceless if he stood. whose impassioned work begins with light tapestry cartoons. The well-dressed mule is cumbersome. Saturn devouring his son. Paul Thomas's studies of Picasso and Twombly can be traced directly. Pictorially. Aquatint Goya has drawn a learned man as an ass. plain wall suggests a blinkered view of nothing. to Picasso's similarly tight. Opposite below. it allows the mule to stand forward. deranged masses. below. Violent white marks symbolizing Achilles' rage resonate with the energy of Twombly's script on p. Los Caprichos. and follies of court through copious graphic works including his best-known prints. The high. crammed tightly at his desk.

ideals. perhaps a stone. Parallel lines within the body of the figure are likely to denote power.241 MARKS OF INFLUENCE PAUL T H O M A S British contemporary artist whose epic graphic work questions and reflects upon issues of European identity. Wyoming. meaning "place of power. A vivid spectrum of energized graphite marks and a masterly composition give this drawing vitality and speed. Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range UNDATED ARTIST UNKNOWN . Simple wall stones cleverly state their cold solidity while also fading from our attention as the scene roars by. It was made with a sharp implement. values. of the earth." Each sacred image drawn into rock belongs to one of three realms in the Shoshone world: the realm of the sky. Wind River Reservation. and personal and social struggles. Achilles Chases Hector 1996 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) PAUL THOMAS SHOSHONE PETROGLYPH The Shoshone people of Wyoming name petroglyph sites Poha Kahni. White marks like flashes of light are cut though graphite with an eraser to reveal the paper beneath. or of the water Chipped image This is a sacred creature of the sky chipped onto rock at Dinwoody Lake. Thomas conducts his explorations in the mine of Greek and Roman mythology. Graphite marks Here Achilles chases Hector around the walls of Troy before killing him. by a supplicant in a trance of meditation.

115. and writer In contrast t o the light and visual accent of contemporary Impressionism. Redon lifted them out with some sort of eraser. we see parallel slanting pale marks that might have been made with fresh bread—a very effective eraser used before the wide availability of rubber or plastic. GODS AND Erasure In this charcoal drawing. as he did the grass. graphic artist. If it were to turn and stare this way.and 16th-century Holland. The monsters of Bosch grew from his observations of beggars going about their trade in 15th. which sometimes—half-dressed and carrying a familiar trophy— stride. and scuttle over all known reality. Lifting out Fine strings of the hot-air balloon appear dark against the sky and light against the balloon. Redon explored the darker side of the human imagination through symbols and mysticism. crawl. Compare worked textures throughout the whole of this image to those found throughout Anita Taylor's charcoal drawing on p. the shock would be extreme. lifting its cranial passenger over a seascape of repose. The Eye Like a Strange Mounts Balloon 165/8 x131/8in (422 x 332 mm) ODILON REDON 1882 Toward Infinity . H e was influenced by his friends. below left. They float toward us like a horrid visitation.204-05 will enable you to produce a similar effect of white lines shining out of dark charcoal. Our subconscious can be drawn with pleasure and ease. Techniques demonstrated on pp. the writers Joris-Karl Huysmans and Stephane Mallarme. ODILON REDON French painter draftsman. Redon's eyeball balloon rises up. Children are also delighted to invent a monster or ghoul. We may feel safe so long as the eye looks heavenward. T H E EXPLORATION AND DEPICTION Hauntings Grandville has drawn a scurrying zoo of half-known demons and animals that appear to have been stolen from the glass eye of the microscope.242 MONSTERS of the unknown is a classical and constant occupation for the artist. to the right of the balloon. Here we see how he evolved their injuries into new limbs and warped proportions.

A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects c. include The Haywain. grimacing. Smiling. sucker-faced creatures dash and trundle toward it They are drawn solidly to emphasize their earthbound weight. Les Animaux (1840).243 J E A N I G N A C E ISIDORE GERARD ("GRANDVILLE") French graphic artist and political satirist. Comic little headbands of waving hair express more hysteria than fear. Last Judgment. which is still available today. This image is from one of Grandville's best-known publications. Two Monsters UNDATED 45/8 x61/2in (117 x 163 mm) HIERONYMUS BOSCH . Light shines from the right. The quality of the line is therefore uniform throughout. Garden of Earthly Delights. His other major works include Metamorphoses du Jour (1828). and he illustrated the Fables of La Fontaine and Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe. Quill and ink This typical Bosch monster is a quill drawing in bistre ink The phrasing of light and contour here is masterly. 1840 61/8 x41/2in ( 1 5 5 x 1 1 5 mm) GRANDVILLE HIERONYMUS BOSCH Dutch painter Bosch's highly detailed iconographic religious panel paintings. Most of his work is in the Prado Museum. teeming with the exhilaration of unrestrained fantasy. HAUNTINGS Engraving This is an engraving made so that Grandville's original drawing could be reproduced. and Ship of Fools. Madrid.

lion. Michelangelo's dragon. St Peter's square. hatched lines. topple. In her studio. muscular tension is carved out of the paper using layered. as we might expect. architect. However. His entire drawing wrestles and weaves the viewer's eye into its retracting folds. Chalk and ink A quill dipped in brown ink was worked over black chalk on this reused sheet. They share between them the pleasures of inventing a hybrid beast. gamboling copulations. she formed a series of ghostly pale. Dragon 1522 10 x 133/8 in ( 2 5 4 x 3 3 8 m m ) MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI . phrased over the contours of form and bridging darker areas of shadow. below. and play with its perfection and meaning. snake. and mist-swathed land. poet. Opposite.244 GODS AND MONSTERS Convolutions THESE CONVOLUTED DRAWINGS were made almost 5 0 0 years apart. but in the seductive landscape of Leonardo da Vinci's oil painting Madonna of the Rocks. and marble sculptures including Pieto. Scaly. remembering the cavernous. wraps and coils its lithe body ready to strike or whimper at a touch. A snake eating its own tail is a universal image of the eternal and continuous. Two previously drawn faces become humorous antagonists to the beast. and engineer Among Michelangelo's great works are the painted ceiling and altar wall of the Sistine Chapel. sometimes artists purposefully tie a knot in the configuration to disturb. Grimes' delicately cavorting figures dive into and consume each other. David. and dog. pinnacled. the dome of the Vatican. Grimes found the genesis of her beast not among animals. and dying slaves. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI Florentine painter sculptor. a stunning hybrid of a swan.

The image formed directly without first making a pencil outline. Ink-wash delicately gouache (smooth) and gouache brushed drawing on This is a and was hot-pressed Shadows The dark shadow of the Other the ink-wash earth was made with a brushstroke of ink laid into wet paper. Grimes exhibits internationally and features in the collections of the New York Public Library and the Victoria and Albert Museum. details evolved slowly using a drier brush. It is one of a series of fragile earth figures inspired by rocks. and the Camberwell and Slade Schools of Fine Art. boards finished paper. The large space around figure has been cropped Grimes drawings to flatten presses them. London. her under heavy here.245 CONVOLUTIONS O O N A GRIMES British contemporary artist and professor of printmaking at the Ruskin School. each one iridescent and crumbly like a weathered while oyster. London. How Clever of God #84 2002 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) O O N A GRIMES . Oxford.

return them to their pointed shape. 7. others are as fine as a whisker with a gentle touch. thicknesses. SYNTHETIC-HAIR BRUSH: Bound in a synthetic ferrule with good inkholding capacity and good spring and control. SMALL JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with sable hair. 3. It has exceptional painting characteristics. JAPANESE PAINTING BRUSH: Made with natural hair." 6. SYNTHETIC-HAIR S W O R D LINER: A lining brush with high ink-holding capacity and a fine point. L A R G E R S Y N T H E T I C . drawing tool extending the arm. all perfect for drawing and. the very opposite of pencil or silver point. and effects. Suitable for wash techniques but also capable of very fine detail. between them. Brushes vary in size. this brush has a soft drawing tip and small ink-holding capacity. Slightly less flexible than the squirrel-hair sword liner 9. How you care for your brushes will determine how long they last. 13. M T RA S AEIL .Theyhold plenty of ink and make continuous. flowing. Shorter brushes designed for other purposes run out of ink more quickly. ink-laden tip allow an expression that is beyond the linear. 2. and hold prodigious weights of ink or paint. 12. Some are bold. and very fine lines. This design supplies the fine tip with a long continuity of ink 5. ideally suited to drawing. dense. Always clean them thoroughly. LARGER JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with natural hair held in a plastic ferrule on a bamboo handle. The living marks of a wet. It is capable of very fine pointing. washes. needle-sharp center of kolinsky red sable hair.246 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brushes T H E BRUSH IS A VOLUPTUOUS and delicate weights. POINTED SQUIRREL-HAIR MOP: With a synthetic quill ferrule and extra high inkholding capacity. 10. and has a fine tip for detailed work. 1. It is still relatively small in the total range of Japanese brushes. liners. materials. it has good inkholding capacity and is very flexible. fingers. it has good wash capabilities. and never leave them standing on their tip in a jar of water.H A I R RIGGER: Made with long synthetic hair for fine-point work It has a good ink-holding capacity and is slightly more resilient than sable hair with more "snap. P O I N T E D T R A D I T I O N A L WRITER: The ferrule is made from a small duck quill. Some used by master calligraphers are 2-3 in (5-8 cm) in diameter 11. and writers. with a fine point for delicate work 4. and texture. shape. SQUIRREL-HAIR S W O R D LINER:This brush has a maximum ink-holding capacity and an extremely fine and flexible point 8. and wrist into a fluid and soft touch. giving a variety of lines. SABLE-HAIR LINER: Made with ordinary sable hair surrounding an extralong. SYNTHETIC-HAIR LINER: This brush gives a medium line and is firm with a spring to the touch. S Y N T H E T I C . This brush has a broad wash capability and can achieve a very wide range of marks. making rt ideally suited to Japanese painting and small-scale calligraphy. which holds long sable hair This brush holds large amounts of ink for long lines and points well for detailed work. SABLE-HAIR RIGGER: Made with very long kolinsky sable hairs. Soaps purchased from good art supply stores will gently cleanse particles of pigment that become trapped in the hairs or ferrule.H A I R LINER: Very responsive oriental-style liner This to the touch. The brushes shown here are a mixture of This is a selection of riggers.

247 BRUSHES .

and spatters. unglazed earthenware dish. It also depends on the angle at w h i c h it is held. and above all w h e t h e r the b r u s h is saturated with pigment or relatively dry. and type of its hairs. SETTING UP Blowing spots T h e s e t h r e e s p i d e r y c r e a t u r e s (above right and below) w e r e m a d e by d r o p p i n g s p o t s o f ink f r o m a b r u s h o n t o t h e p a g e and. the speed of the s t r o k e . Here I drew with a soft Japanese painting brush (see pp.) I . the degree of pressure applied. I had left the end of the ink block in the water overnight to make it easier to dissolve. the texture and a b s o r b e n c y of the paper ( w h i c h m a y be d a m p or dry). A single brush has almost balletic potential to draw fine or undulating lines and curves. b l o w i n g h a r d o n t h e m several t i m e s t o disperse t h e ink ( c l o s e y o u r eyes if y o u t r y this. softness. and to make pools and stains o n the page.35) into two tablespoons of water in a shallow. length.248 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brush Marks A S I N G L E BRUSH will m a k e an e n o r m o u s range of m a r k s depending u p o n the width.246-47). splashes. w i t h m y face close. I rubbed a block of Chinese ink (see p.

. b l e e d i n g f r o m strokes b e l o w left. w e see fine lines and s p o t s . BRUSH MARKS Wet and dry strokes A m o n g these concentrated drawings ink made into with the same w a t e r y lines. a n d b r u s h . a n d t h e w a y it d i s t r i b u t e s w h e n t h e b r u s h is d a b b e d o n its s i d e .249 Gritty texture T h e details o f t h e largest creatures b e l o w and opposite s h o w the granular texture of Chinese b l o c k ink. t h e effects of the b r u s h r u n n i n g o u t o f ink.

. Oxford.Monsters THESE LITTLE CREATURES o f i n k and i n v e n t i o n were b o r n out of animal and bird studies. and used their detail to draw new creatures that might at first seem familiar. until we look again. I borrowed small and fragile specimens from the University Museum of Natural History.

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and narrative twists. thin works titled The Witches' Sabbath and The Procession of St. I found relationships between all four paintings in terms of shapes. . Here. two of my own drawings show you how Goya's devil (below) is based on the shape of Murillo's boy on a horse (top right). Goya's witches have been literally drawn and evolved out of the shapes of Murillo's prophet and pilgrims. thin works made by Bartolome Murillo in Seville about 120 years earlier. They are a pair and hang opposite each other. formal composition.Goya's Monsters W I T H CUNNING BRILLIANCE. Through studying and drawing these great paintings I have discovered that they are based on a pair of similarly long. Goya often invented his monsters out of characters seen in other painters' works. are two long. Madrid. showing us that gallery study is not just for the student and beginner. With further research. Among his "Black Paintings" in the Prado Museum. Isidore.

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Sometimes drawings come out of nowhere and surprise even the artist.Consumed THIS IS A SERIES OF CARTOONS I m a d e s o m e years ago. little comments on politeness and sexual politics. drawn rapidly and with great joy. .

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pastel. Cartoon 1. Bleed T h e e f f e c t o f t w o w e t colors running into one another o r o n e color applied t o a w e t surface a n d a l l o w e d t o d i s p e r s e . A l s o called m u s e u m g r a d e . Collage C o l l e c t e d materials such as c o l o r e d p a p e r s . Bracelet shading C u r v e d parallel lines t h a t f o l l o w t h e c o n t o u r s o f f o r m . p h o t o g r a p h s . 2. Acid-free paper P a p e r w i t h a neutral p H t h a t will n o t darken o r d e t e r i o r a t e excessively w i t h age. It is p u t o n a Body color See Gouache. Binder A substance t h a t holds particles o f p i g m e n t t o g e t h e r in a paint f o r m u l a t i o n . Blotting T h e use o f a b s o r b e n t m a t e r i a l t o lift a w a y excess liquid. D a m p p a p e r is laid o n t o p . A h u m o r o u s d r a w i n g o r parody. Fixative lightly glues t h e d r a w i n g t o t h e surface o f t h e p a p e r t o p r e v e n t smudging. F r o m t h e G r e e k kallos. Eye level T h e i m a g i n a r y h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e a t t h e s a m e h e i g h t as t h e a v e r a g e p e r s o n ' s eyes. s u c h as a s c r e e n . Air brush A mechanical. Calligraphy Beautiful h a n d w r i t i n g . R e m b r a n d t is a great master o f chiaroscuro. Crosshatching Parallel lines d r a w n across o n e a n o t h e r at right angles. w h e n v i e w e d f r o m a specified point. t h e field is t h e a p p a r e n t a n d b e l i e v a b l e space inside t h e p i c t u r e . t h e l i g h t is b e h i n d h i m o r her. Camera lucida A n optical device t h a t p r o j e c t s an image o f an o b j e c t o n t o a plain s u r f a c e so t h a t it can be traced. T h e name " n o t " simply refers t o t h e fact t h a t t h e cylinders are n o t h o t in t e m p e r a t u r e . usually at a n a c u t e angle t o t h e s u r f a c e . Fixative Liquid acrylic resin a n d l a c q u e r t h i n n e r usually a p p l i e d as a n a e r o s o l s p r a y m i s t t o t h e surface o f a d r y . Blending M e r g i n g t w o o r m o r e neighboring colors o r tones t o g e t h e r using a tortillon. T h e b l a n k e t s g i v e t h e p a p e r its rough texture o r "tooth. See also Hotpressed papers. Composition T h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e p a r t s o f an i m a g e t o m a k e u p the whole. charcoal. A f u l l . Chiaroscuro A 1 7 t h .m e d i a d r a w i n g . written with a broad-nibbed pen o r brush. pressurized t o o l used f o r spraying fine mists o f s m o o t h c o l o r P i g m e n t is d e l i v e r e d b y a j e t o f air n o t t h e bristles o f a brush. as o p p o s e d t o t h e s t r a i g h t e d g e o f a sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has b e e n machine-trimmed. A l s o called r i n g l e t shading. p r a c t i c e d meditatively w i t h a brush. Deckle edge T h e i r r e g u l a r e d g e o f a s h e e t o f m o l d .c e n t u r y Italian t e r m m e a n i n g "clear-obscure. a n d given t h e n a m e Sho. o r will o n l y a p p e a r n o r m a l . C o p p e r p l a t e engravings w e r e widely used t o r e p r o d u c e images b e f o r e p h o t o g r a p h y . 2. a r e r o l l e d t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders. T h e prints t a k e n from t h e s e plates o r blocks. in w h i c h t h e subject's distinctive features o r peculiarities are deliberately exaggerated f o r c o m i c o r g r o t e s q u e effect.d i m e n s i o n a l i m a g e . a n d g r a p h i t e ." It w a s first given t o t o n a l paintings m a d e in o n e c o l o r — s e e Grisaille. p r i n t i n g press face up. Also called accelerated perspective. w h e n a p e r s o n is p a i n t e d standing a g a i n s t a w i n d o w . Field In a t w o . r a t h e r t h a n r e c o r d e d o n a film o r plate." " N o t " p r e s s e d p a p e r is r o l l e d a s e c o n d t i m e w i t h o u t blankets t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders t o p r o d u c e a s m o o t h e r b u t still slightly t e x t u r e d s u r f a c e . R o u g h p a p e r is m a d e b e t w e e n t w o blankets t h a t . n e w s p a p e r cuttings.c e n t u r y painting m o v e m e n t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e use o f b o l d .The plate is t h e n r o l l e d w i t h ink a n d polished with a rag. W o r d s o r symbols are Cold-pressed papers P a p e r manufactured with a "not" o r " r o u g h " surface. t o g e t h e r w i t h a t h i c k felt b l a n k e t T h e w h o l e s a n d w i c h o f l a y e r s is t h e n railed t h r o u g h t h e press t o m a k e a p r i n t D r y p o i n t is a very portable and immediate m e t h o d o f printmaking. Ferrule T h e s h o r t m e t a l t u b e t h a t s u r r o u n d s a n d g n p s t h e hairs o f a p a i n t b r u s h a n d fixes t h e m t o t h e brush handle. and readymade objects arranged and stuck o n t o a flat surface. tapestry. A " s h a l l o w d e p t h o f field" m e a n s t h e p i c t u r e appears t o have only a shallow s p a c e inside i t Diffuse T o s o f t e n o r m a k e less brilliant. A l s o c a l l e d t h e h o r i z o n line. Erasure T h e a c t o f r e m o v i n g a n i m a g e f r o m a surface. A i r b r u s h e s are u s e d in t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c o m i c s .s i z e d r a w i n g m a d e for t h e purpose o f transferring a design t o a painting. Fauvism A n early 2 0 t h . In t h e W e s t p e n calligraphy is u s e d t o c r e a t e f o r m a l a n d d e c o r a t i v e t e x t s . linseed oil o r egg y o l k Caricature A representation Contour line A line t h a t f o l l o w s t h e s h a p e o f a surface. a n d attaches t h e m t o t h e s u p p o r t — f o r example. L a t e r it c a m e t o m e a n h i g h l y c o n t r a s t e d light effects. for example." D e s c r i b e s a p a i n t i n g in w h i c h t h e light s o u r c e is b e h i n d t h e s u b j e c t F o r e x a m p l e . m e a n i n g " t o stick" Dry media M e d i a t h a t a r e n o t w e t o r o i l y — f o r e x a m p l e . o r o t h e r (usually large) w o r k — s e e Pouncing. m e a n i n g "beauty". Contre jour A F r e n c h t e r m m e a n i n g " a g a i n s t day. T h e m o v e m e n t was started by a g r o u p o f French artists including H e n r i Matisse.256 GLOSSARY Glossary Accidental drawing Random. A g e n e r a l t e r m t h a t describes t h e various processes o f c u t t i n g a design i n t o a plate o r b l o c k o f m e t a l o r w o o d . Engraving 1. Aerial perspective The effect of the a t m o s p h e r e o v e r distance as it lightens t o n e s a n d cools c o l o r s progressively t o w a r d t h e horizon. in w h i c h parts o f an image are depicted v e r y brightly and dramatically against d a r k n e s s . It can also seal a silver p o i n t d r a w i n g t o p r e v e n t t h e oxidization (browning) o f t h e Drypoint A d r a w i n g is s c r a t c h e d directly o n t o a m e t a l plate w i t h a m e t a l t o o l h e l d like apen. Camera obscura A d a r k e n e d c h a m b e r i n t o w h i c h an i m a g e o f w h a t is o u t s i d e is received t h r o u g h a small o p e n i n g o r lens a n d f o c u s e d in natural c o l o r o n a facing surface. s u c h as a d r a w i n g o r painting. A p o t e n t i a l l y h a r s h m e t h o d o f p r o d u c i n g t o n e s in a d r a w i n g . S o m e t i m e s f e r r u l e s a r e m a d e o f plastic o r o t h e r materials. In t h e Far East calligraphy is a highly r e s p e c t e d a r t f o r m . chance mark-making.m a d e paper. o f t e n d i s t o r t e d forms and vivid colors. F r o m t h e French v e r b coller. so t h a t ink r e m a i n s o n l y in t h e g r o o v e s o f s c r a t c h e d lines. Anamorphic distortion Stretching an i m a g e across a p i c t u r e surface so t h a t it can o n l y b e u n d e r s t o o d . Conservation grade D e s c r i b e s a range o f materials t h a t d o n o t d e c a y and cannot be broken d o w n by insects. U s e d as a c o r r e c t i n g device o r pictorial game.

This may be disregarded in real life. It improves the bonding properties Frottage A French term meaning "rubbing. which give it a smooth surface (as opposed to cold-pressed paper. purpose. it is the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work Pigment Any substance used as a coloring agent—for example. Also used by artists' materials manufacturers to indicate the use of a substitute pigment—for example." A piece of paper is placed on top of an object or rough surface. A point of interest in a drawing. or synthetic material that are suspended in a medium to constitute paint. or even a beam of light. or a drawing made in any single color GLOSSARY Linear perspective A form of perspective in which parallel lines are represented as converging. shape. After several intervening processes. 2. or plastic surface. the surface of the stone is made wet before being rolled with a thin film of oilbased printing ink. Paper is laid on top and a rapid drawing is made on the back of it The paper lifts away to reveal the image on its other side.while secretion of the acacia tree. Monoprinting A direct method of printing in which wet medium (water-. Hatching (cross-) See Crosshatching. and is also used as a size. white. Artists can paint freely over dry masking fluid. or a family of colors. Giotto's Virtues and Vices in the Arena Chapel. Impressing Stamping or printing. ink. glossy. are painted in grisaille and appear to be made of stone. Lithography A method of printmaking in which a drawing or painting is made directly onto a smooth slab of particular limestone or a metal plate using an oilbased crayon or ink. It is a strong adhesive. . oil-based printing ink is rolled evenly onto a smooth metal. Objective drawing Refers to the concept of objectivity. glass. rock. Monochrome Usually refers to a black. Usually an academic drawing observed from life. then rubbed over carefully but vigorously with a crayon. the finely ground particles of plant. Ground A wet solution usually of gouache or gesso (chalk and animal glue) brushed onto paper board. The ink attaches to the oil-based image and is repelled by the wet stone. Papercut A type of collage in which flat sheets of paper are cut into an image. work. Medium A generic term for art Key A painting is said to be "high key" when the colors and tones are bright and "low key" when they are dark or somber The term is also used Gouache Opaque watercolor Also called body color. or canvas and allowed to dry before an image is drawn or painted. format" (abbreviated to "portrait"). but in picture-making it is as important as the objects/subjects themselves. Plumb line A line from which a weight is suspended in order to determine verticality or depth. upright images are called "portrait which is used as a binding agent in many liquid media. including Max Ernst used frottage in their work. and that will "escape" or change over time. Pointillism A technique of using points or dots of pure color in such a way that when the picture is viewed from a distance they react Masking tape Invaluable. and orientation of the image. This method incorporates the excitement of accidental and unpredicted marks. A small image might be described as small format Horizontal images are often said to be "landscape format" (abbreviated G u m arabic The natural to"landscape"). pastel. which has a rough surface). and it has a history in enamel work. Grisaille A painting in gray or a grayish color Often made by students as a tonal exercise. and by artists representing stone sculptures in a painting. Foreshortening A method of depicting an object at an angle to the surface of the picture. This effect emulates what we see in real life. Gamut A complete range or extent Glassine A type of thin. to describe a surface to which paint will adhere readily. oil-. enabling them to stick to paper It also helps to maintain a stable dispersion of pigment particles in water as the film of a wash dries. of the ingredients in inks and watercolors. Fugitive A term given to a pigment that it is not stable. sticky paper tape. Hot-pressed papers (HP) Paper made using hot cylinders. Focus 1 . graphite. Rubens used grisaille to paint small images for engravers. Grisaille is occasionally seen in church stained-glass windows. with the area beneath remaining unaffected. used for fixing paper to walls and boards. Lightfast A term confirming that pigment in the product will not fade with exposure to light. and gray drawing. F o r m The outer surface of a three-dimensional object. materials that produce marks on a surface. Padua. but each print will be unique. or for wrapping and protecting a finished piece of work. or spirit-based) is applied to a surface that is then pressed onto paper and removed to leave a print.257 metal line. Also refers to an additive used to control the application properties of a color Golden Section A proportion in which a straight line or rectangle is divided into two unequal parts in such a way that the ratio of the smaller part to the greater part is the same as that of the greater part to the whole. so that (using vanishing point perspective) the object appears to change shape and become narrower or smaller as it recedes. lifting out charcoal and other dry media. and translucent paper—a delicate material used in collage. cadmium yellow hue. Picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. Paper is then pressed against the stone to take a print. to give the illusion of depth and distance.Theground provides a particular color or texture beneath the image. It is then peeled away.The degree to which detail is defined. multiH u e A term for a color. F o r m a t T h e size. mineral. aiming to represent facts rather than an interpretation of the subject. Negative space The space between things. It can be used with any wet media to isolate or protect parts of an image from further Optical blending See Pointillism. The surface can be reloaded or redrawn with more medium. Masking fluid Clear or opaque latex fluid developed for watercolor painting. Alternatively. Hairspray is an effective and inexpensive alternative. Lifting out A method of creating highlights and mid-tones in a drymedia drawing (such as charcoal or graphite). or can be otherwise used to create an image—for example. Dark tones are laid down first then an eraser or masking tape is used to lift away particles of the drawing media to reveal the lightness of the paper beneath. and masking off areas of a drawing that the artist wishes to keep untouched by media applied above or beside the tape.The paper then bears a crayon impression or copy of the surface that was underneath it A number of Surrealists.

Artists' prints are normally made in multiple. Wash A technique using ink. Underdrawing A pale preliminary drawing made prior to adding layers of another medium such as oil paint or watercolor Value The extent to which a color reflects or transmits light This is the equivalent of tone in a black and white image. or any physical object that can be stamped or pressed onto a surface to leave an impression. in order to flick the pigment onto the image surface. or wood. to model areas of light and shade. Squeegee A rubber-trimmed scraper used in the screenprinting process for dragging ink across a surface. W e t media Any liquid media— for example. a sheet of paper is placed beneath and pinpricks are Silhouette A flat. pencil. glasses. which are then called editions. or watercolor paint." Applied to the blurring or softening of sharp outlines by the subtle and gradual blending of one tone into another Sgraffito A technique of scratching or cutting through a surface of paint. or mark using an inked or pigment-covered surface. Zen brushwork encompasses calligraphy and painting. Sfumato An Italian term meaning "smoky. Strip Core of a pencil. or pen. or point on which parallel lines converge to give the impression of receding space. by imposing a grid that is then scaled up to a larger size. carbon ink. Viewpoint The position from which something is observed or considered. commonly referred to as the lead. a tightly folded piece of cotton batting can be used for the same effect. Serigraphy Silk-screen printing.258 GLOSSARY together optically. acrylic. and paperweights. or ceramic glazing to reveal a different color beneath. . orchids. Pounce (a fine for an unpopular 18th-century powder of charcoal or similar French politician. tight. Etienne de material) dabbed through the Silhouette (1709-67). or the left-hand page in a book. fine paper. evolved by engineers and architects for the purpose of conveying W a t e r c o l o r A painting accurate structural information. Recto The front or top side of a piece of paper. The crude material is called oleoresin. Props An abbreviation of the word properties. fruit. Stylus A sharp. paper or canvas. and chrysanthemum—which in Chinese tradition are called "The Four Gentlemen. Technical drawing A universal it is often used in conjunction language of lines and measurements with line drawings in pen and that is used to make diagrammatic ink—for images. Pouncing If a large drawing or design (called a cartoon) is to be Shadow Darkness cast by the transferred to a surface such as a obscuring of light. plum blossom. Vanishing point In linear perspective. sometimes drawn from a and leaving only the pricked sheet of shadow cast on a wall. Scale Describes the size of one element in relation to another Sepia A brown pigment taken from the sun-dried ink sacs of cuttlefish and used to make ink or watercolor The term is now often incorrectly used to refer to brown colors. an ink stone usually cut from slate. or gouache. creating more vibrant effects than if the same colors were physically mixed together with a brush. usually diluted with water and applied with a brush. in tone running from black to white or vice versa. Volume The amount of space occupied by an object or an area of space in itself. Size A weak glue used for filling the porous surface of wood or canvas in order to seal it. Stippling Applying color or tone in areas of fine dots or flecks. Zen A school of Mahayana Buddhism that asserts that enlightenment can come through meditation and intuition rather than faith. Printmaking The act of making a picture. compound of water-soluble pigment. The translucent Tint A color mixed with white. watercolor. "Spirits" or "oil" of turpentine refer to the volatile portion used by artists to thin or dilute oil-based paint. and flowers. wall or tapestry. Subjective drawing A drawing that expresses the personal view and interpretation of the artist An invented image. pointed instrument used for marking or engraving. design. nature of watercolor allows the white surface of the paper to Tonal scale A scale of gradations shine through.Technicaldrawing has been example. whose pinpricks creates a "connect-thepersonal pastime was making dots" replica of the image on the cut-out portraits. a point at which receding parallel lines meet Verso The back or underside of a piece of paper. Tortillon A short. cut-out profile made along every outline of the usually made in black paper image. Shade A that is color mixed (or toned) with black Shading A lay term for adding tone to a drawing." Materials for Zen brushwork include round brushes of varied size. pointed roll of white paper that is used to blend dry media. Alternatively. meaning objects used in setting up a life model or still life. Squaring up A method of enlarging and transferring an image from one surface to another. Although drawings can be made with wash alone. plaster or cloth surface beneath. using a brush. Single-point perspective The most basic form of linear perspective in which there is only one vanishing point. Support The structure on which an image is made—for example. Still life A picture composed of inanimate objects such as bowls. Named paper in place. giving it a brilliance.Thedrawing is removed. such as an inscribed sheet of metal. A term borrowed from the theater. Spattering A mottled texture produced by drawing your fingers across the bristles of a stiff brush loaded with pigment. ink. plaster. Zen brushwork This is an oriental meditative art form originating in China and practised for many centuries in Japan. or the right-hand page in a book. Zen paintings usually depict scenes of nature and plants such as bamboo. Turpentine A colorless solvent distilled from the resinous sap of pine trees. Tone A degree of lightness or darkness. Sketch A quick or rough drawing.

199 Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya (Eisen) 156. 178 Cubism 67. 165. 38-39. 190 Caricature of a Woman (Daumier) 198. 160 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object (Moore) 178. 90 colored materials 162-163 colored pencils 162. 198. (Ross-Craig) 49 to hold brush for 23 caricature 159. 81 135. 243 botanical drawing 48-49 Boullee. 230-231 Cubist 90. William: The Circle of the Lustful 180. Statue d'Epouvante 90 calligraphy. Basilius 47 Beuys. Etienne-Louis 72 Newton's Cenotaph 72. 81 cut-out model plan 94. 221 animals. to draw 100 Cypripedium calceolus L. 163.184. 242 to blend 205 compressed 122. 75.115 anatomical drawing 134-135 anatomical theaters 82-83 anatomical waxes 128 ancient carvings 221. 157 cropping 56-57. 72 bracelet shading 122 Braque. 223 Circular Score for "Due Voce" 223 children's art 9. 247-248 carving see lines. 193 in lifting out 204. 230 The Physical Space 220 abstract drawing 219.89. 180 Circular Score for "Due Voce" (Bussotti) 223 circus scenes 192-195 City (Bryan) 202. 244 head and neck 144 phrased 124-125 contrast: brightness 99 of media 30 tonal 96. 198 cartoon (preparatory drawing) 137 (satirical) 159. Georges 67. Hieronymus 243 Two Monsters 242.117 Achilles Chases Hector (Thomas) 240. 41 principal 186. 50. 98. 95 Chair Cut Out (Woodfine) 94. 182. Victor: West Facade of the Church of St. 202 cloth. 78 aerial perspective 206 airbrushing 160.198.163 dry media 205 Blue Nude (Matisse) 110.169 colors: airbrushed 161 background 91 A Abe. Mamaru 104. 116. 71 Bacchante (Bakst) 155 background: color 91 textured 240 Baker Matthew: Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry 32 Bakst. Zen c 232-233 blended 133. Franz 48 Protea nitida 48 Bellini. to express 39. 128. 158. 111. 26 geese 38-39 Gericault's cats 28. 139 Nanha) 50. 133.Index Page numbers in italics refer t o captions and illustrations Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity (Bishndas and 259 INDEX B bread (as eraser) 205. 204-205. Augustin 67 Basquiat. Jean Michel 138 Self-Portrait 138 Bateau-Vision. 203 Claude Lorrain 202 Views from Velletri 202. to draw 80. to model 110-111 border 51 Bosch. Filippo 67. Sylvano 222. 71 conte 112. 13 architectural drawing 67-71 Arctic Flowers (Libeskind) 70. 134 costume(s) 155 character 158-159 structure of 166-167 Cottage Among Trees (Rembrandt) 52. center of 118 ballpoint 182. to draw 25. 250 Bishndas and Nanha: Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity 50.31 Picasso's horse and bird 30. 94 cylindrical objects.44-45. 222. 30 sleeping dog 38-39 Stubbs's horse skeleton 26. Nicolas-Jacques 54 contours 146. 74 brush (es) 246-247 Japanese 248 for laying a wash 140 marks 248-249 to hold 23 brush drawings 14-15 Bryan. 8 cave paintings 8. 90.133.184. 206 checkered floor 80. 29 Hugo's octopus 28. 241 action. 200 Bauer. 90 La Guitare.27 turtles 42-43 aquatint 240 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels (Leonardo) 12.13. Giovanni 137 Head and Shoulders of a Man 136.162 Conte. layers 53 chalk pastels 162. 137 Besler. Brian 226 Untitled 2001 226 "Cave of the Hands" (Cueva de las Manas) 8. 220. 94 chalk(s) 53. 203 Landline 202. Joseph 113 The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland 112. 201 collage 111.212 to erase 205 to hold 23 pencils 204 willow 114. 186 charcoal 114. 74. 71 Blake. 226-227 Acanthus spinosus 65 accelerated perspective 22. 180 blending: color 133. 52 cotton swabs 205 Coup de Vent a Asajigabare (Hokusai) 198.226.44-45 bird studies 12. 75 Circle of the Lustful (Blake) 180. 13. 70 Art Nouveau motifs 91 Autoportrait (Ray) 138. 9 Chair (Van Gogh) 94.163 graded 227 composition 56-57.163 body.50. 204. 189. 203 Buffalo Hunt (Shoshone) 178.186 see also movement Adoration of the Magi perspective study (Leonardo) 74. 161 Akhlaq-I Rasul Allah manuscript 51. to depict 156-157 Cloudburst of Material Possessions (Leonardo) 200. 205 Baltard. 9. 40-41 Durer's rhinoceros 26. Clare 203 City 202. cut Catling. 74. Le (Hugo) 200. 242 Brunelleschi. Leon: Bacchante 155 balance. 244 and graphite 178 . 113 bird bones 12.100 curves. 206. 28 Klee's horses 30. 179 Bussotti.51 All and Nothing (Taylor) 114. 90. 162 character: to capture 38-39.

55. 137 heads. 26 Flying Fish (White) 25. 132 Frenz. 161 fashion drawings 160. 113. to draw 120.216 Durelli. Keisai 157 The Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya 156. Alberto 136 Portrait of Marie-Laure de Noailles 136.146 from masterworks 126-127. Nicholas 68 St Paul's Baptistry 68 head and neck to draw 142-145 Head and Shoulders of a Man (Bellini) 136. 52 foreground 208. 134. La (Braque) 90. 242 eyes.160. 765 hitsuzendo drawings 233 Hokusai. 220 dry brush 234 234 57. 69. 203 Hotel de la Suzonnieres (Satie) 70.189. 163. 122. 79. 170-173.37. 144 Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (Baker) 32. 93 horizon 52. 230 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction 68. 25 focus 65.141. M.102-103 drawing board 20 drawing books 20-21 drawing paper 144. 71 minimal line 99 and music 70-71 quick 38-39. position of 22 Eisen. to draw 168-169 in Goya's artworks face. 200 F fabric.230 three-tone 140. 69.244. 7 33 Hooke.216. 160 as ground for metal point 140. 141 tonal 96. Katsushika 199 Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 198. 222 Grimes.104. to suggest 177 see also perspective diagonals diffuser 55 dip pens 34. 115 Escher. 32 framing 139 Franfoise au Bandeau (Picasso) 132. The 242. 245 Hugo.91. 55. 135 Duren Albrecht 26. Sir Ernst 12. 226-227 anatomical 134-135 architectural 67-71 botanical 48-49 brush 14-15 dark to light 102. 205 drawing with 103. 55. drypoint 181 exaggeration 184 expressionism 198 E ye and Head of a Drone Fly (Hooke) 92. 245 layers 30 Goya. 91 Dragon (Michelangelo) 36. 69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt 68. 90 gouache 30.101 engraving 243 erasers/erasing 55. 69 Guitare.103. 216 foreshortening 110. 223 graphite 54. Cheval et Oiseau (Picasso) 30. 243 graphic score 222. Oona 245 How Clever of God #84 244. Antonio 68. to draw 78. 112.244 drawing(s): abstract 219. Robert 93 Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 92. proportions of 143 fantasy drawings 72-73.184 165.97. 241 to blend 205 and chalk 178 and ink 28. Francisco de 131. fiber-tip pen 182.112. 120.121 felt-tip pens 162.157 ellipses 100. Victor 200. 163. 40. 245 Gruau.109 Rhinoceros 26. disposable pens 182-183 dissections: botanical 48 of horse 27 distance: illusion of see perspective linear 97 tonal 97 Documents Decoratifs.260 INDEX D Dada 139 Daumien Honore 198 Caricature of a Woman 198. 99 etching. C . Study for Plate 59 (Mucha) 90.141.117 fountain pens 34. position of 143.69 Gerard. 134. 160 hitsuzendo 233 light to dark 102.Theodore 29 Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 28. Hans 133 The Ambassadors 116 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 132. 93 eye level 80 Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity.116. 125. 77 How Clever of God #84 244. 162 Flaxman. Jean Ignace Isidore see Grandville Gericault. 30 Fauves/fauvism 90. 136 Golden Section 67 Gombrich.252-253 from memory 183. 223. 122 Hawksmoor. 240. 124. 90 G Gaudi. 160 Faune.166 170-173 Gestalt 222 Giacometti. Statue d'Epouvante. Rene 160 Illustration for Jacques Fath E easel.John 157 Man Lying Down in a Cloak 156.115 exploratory 17 fantasy 72-73. 252 depiction of fabric monsters 252-253 Self Portrait in a Cocked Hat 130. Antonio 135 Muscles of the Head and Neck 134. 222 Le Bateau-Vision 200.207. 41 in the round 208-209 with scalpel 202. 161 changing 216 Focusing on the Negative (Walter) 16 foliage 52. 202. 161 fashion 160. 222. 799 Holbein.160. 104-105.198 Degas. 37 Grandville 243 A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the Near-Microscopic World of Scale Insects 242. 73. 157 . 131 Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 240. 160 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction (Gaudi) 68.103 with eraser 103. 190 Middle Eastern 50-51. 240 170-173 five Ships in a Port with Lighthouse (Wallis) 11. 134.12 fixative 54. to draw 134-137 Helleborus corsicus 55 highlights 91. Edgar 162 depth.144 and ink 30. Ron 161 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 161 160. 240 Black Paintings 152. 203 semi-abstract 234-237 three-dimensional 68.111 feet. 29 H hands.

Oxford 250 music 70-71 Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks (Knopf) 32.109. 78 Study ofThree Male Figures 110. David 78 M Mackintosh. 97 Murillo.182 Moore. 114 hatched 244 layered 118 pace of 65 pale 40 rapid 49.134 K Kettlehut. I Murderous Attacks 33 Kollwitz. 159 Japanese 35 to make 36 sepia 35 walnut 36. 33 J justness 228-229 N naive art 74 negative space 53. 183 vertical 156 linear distance 97 linear perspective 69.141 Metropolis (film) 72. 234 iron-gall 35. Johan 32. Phyll: hands 18 lifting out 204. 220. 63. Alphonse 90. 220. 244 lithograph 198 Losbruch (Kollwitz) 180. Bartolome: Moses Striking the Rock ofHoreb 252. Kathe 181 Losbrunch (The Outbreak) 180. 36. 83 white 122 ink impressions 222 ink spatters 234 installations 176. 34. 49 Rose 49 Maelbeke Madonna (Van Eyck) 156. 220. 252 Muscles of the Head and Neck (Durelli) 134. drawing from 126-127. 219 Mondrian. 156 magnification 93 Man in Armor (Van Dyck) 158. 201 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels 12. 53 Tree II 52. 242 light 96 to depict drawing with 1 76 painting with 176 . 60. 135 museums 44. Daniel 70 Arctic Flowers 70 Lieb. 103 Neolithic chalk tablet 220. 181 luminosity 115 Lynch. 176.166 La Specola. 177 influences. 77 Miller. Oxford 106 Prado.124. 99.91 Study for Plate 59 of INDEX illumination see lighting Illustration for Jacques Fath (Gruau) 160. 185 Mucha.102.181 L Landline (Bryan) 202. artistic 240-241. 227 Scene of Comical Riders 30. 35. 203. Henri 111 Blue Nude 1110. 158 Man Lying Down in a Cloak (Flaxman) 156. 205. 244. 28 Two Impressions from a Cut-out Paper Disk 222 Huyler Stephen R 225 261 Kinecar. 249 and gouache 30 Indian 35. 13 Cloudburst of Material Possessions 200.141.227 to "bend" straight 97 compositional 228-229 cut 202. 757 mandalas 219. 756 priming for 140. apparent 97 Leonardo da Vinci 74.96.167 line(s) 132. 54 silver point 156 leg sections 158 length. 220.Pieuvre (Octopus) 28. 244 Dragon 36.112. 37 lines 118 pastel 162 pencil 31.115 98. 227 Newsome. 789. Marie 244 cloth drawing 244. Henry 178 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object 178. 160 In the Duchess's Kitchen (Rackham) 176. 111. 163 pens 36 measuring 116 memory. 181 Klee.104.33 Mysterious Affairs of the lighting 2 7. 225 masking tape 204. 184. 190 metal pens see dip pens metal point 25. 34-35 acrylic 35 bistre 35. 221 endless 31 free 113. 230 invented creatures 106-107 250-251 invented objects 89. 170-173.120. 72. 73 Kigell. 73 Michelangelo Buonarroti 48. 201 head and neck sections of female mold for Sforza Horse 89 Madonna of the Rocks 244 perspective study for Adoration of the Magi 74. 252 ink 16. Florence 128 lighting in 167 Pitt Rivers. Erich 73 design for Metropolis 72. 110 Sistine Chapel ceiling 116 Middle Eastern drawing 50-51. Paul 227 Polyphonic Setting for White 226. 178 motifs: A r t Nouveau 9 7 stylized 51 mountains 216-217 movement: of animals 30-31 of humans 7 79. Rose: Tantalus or the Future of Man 20 minimal line drawing 99 mirror use of 120 mixed media 28. 31 Klimt.243 carbon 35 Chinese 30. 166. 74-77.276. drawing from 183. 53 monoprint 787. 226 Modernism 67. Matisse. 205 masterworks.The (Robinson) 108.109. 58-59. Piet 52. 248. 244 ink 36 252-253 Documents Decoratifs 90. 76 Libeskind. Charles Rennie 48. Victor 134 Profile Head 134. 203 landscape 206-208 brushed 14 Landscape in Hoboku Style (Sesshu) 14 layers 146 chalk 53 gouache 30 ink 28. Gustav 49 Knopf. Madrid 171 University Museum of Natural History.

71 Satire of the Queen's Dress (Wodall) 158. Man 131. 36.71 Hotel de la Suzonnieres 70. 114 rollerball 182 Rorschach blot 99 Rose (Mackintosh) 48.176 Real Life Is Rubbish 176. 1 6 9 to hold 2 2 . 1 1 6 accelerated 2 2 . Stella 48 Cypripedium calceolus L 49 rotated view 7 65 Rubens.139 Autoportrait 138. Georges 112 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 112. 1 2 4 priming for metal point 140. 161. 739 semi-abstract drawings Style 14 Seurat. to draw 146-147 R Rackham. 36. Martin 238. 162 O p A r t 98 optical illusions 96-99 outline 33.184 fountain 34. 772 234-237 Sesshu.7 77 rapidograph 70 Raphael 110. 72 Noble. 1 1 6 .54 pastel 162 perspective 1 0 0 . 7 70 Ray. 1 6 3 . Giovanni Battista 74.36. 759 P Page. 76-79. 181 Rodin. Erik 70. 239 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat (Seurat) 112. 782 relief 757 silk-screen 739 woodblock 134. 734 Protea nitida (Bauer) 48. 38. 7 73 self-portraits: Basquiat 138. 28 pigment 162 bright 50 Caput Mortuum 7 4 7 for three-tone drawing 141. 91 outsider artists 33. 165 figure 118 filled 37 pencil 48. 244 reed 34.Toyo: Landscape in Hoboku . 163. 34-35. Sue 104. 7 76 receding space 206 Redon.37.759. Pablo 6 7 . Isaac 92 Telescope 92 Newton's Cenotaph (Boullee) 72. 9 8 . Bridget 98 Robinson.262 INDEX Newton. 81 two-point 74.Tim.40.37. 7 77 three-point 80. Odilon 242 The Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity 242. 36 relief printing 757 Rembrandt van Rijn 52. 122. 26 Riley. 212 Japanese 2 1 . 205 pointillism 112 polyphonic painting 227 Polyphonic Setting for White (Klee) 226. 164. 230 paper(s) 21 colored 162 drawing 144. 103. 244 Q s Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape (Wolfli) 2 79 St. 732 influence of 240 painting with light 78. 38. Paul 73 Nobson Central 72.The (Beuys) 112. J 76 nudes 114-115 to make 36 metal see dip quill 34. 1 3 2 quill pens 34. Faune. 37 38. 36. and Webster. 1 1 7 aerial 206 linear 69.226.131 Cottage Among Trees 52.240. 181 pencil(s) 54 charcoal 204 colored 762. 205 157. 243. 139 Real Life is Rubbish (Noble and Webster) 176.104 Pieuvre (Hugo) 28. 30 Fran<. 227 portfolios 20 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser de Noailles (Holbein) 132.oise au Bandeau 132. 74-77. 2 2 0 for oil pastels 162 stained 230 to stretch 140-141 tissue 21. 75 Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range 241 petroglyphs 221. 36 pen and brush 8 3 pen and ink 70.9 3 Schongauer. 4 9 Rose of Mohammed 50. 224 0 layers 31.141 prints/printing: aquatint 240 dry-point etching 181 engraving 243 monoprint 181. 4 8 putty eraser 55. 241 Physical Space. 36. Russell 228. Auguste 114 Two Women 114.52 pen and wash 158. 68 Satie.2 3 age and youth sleeping subjects 148-149 150-151 Renaissance 109 Rhinoceros (Durer) 26. 73 Noble. 52 pens 36 scalpel 54 drawing with 202. 7 72 Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland. 7 38 Ray 138. 141 Piranesi. Peter Paul 126-127 Embracing pose(s): balanced 146 quick 118-119 positive form 103 posture: of artist 22 of subject 3 8 . 9 0 . 76 plastic eraser 55. The (Abe) 220 Picasso. 165. Arthur 177 In the Duchess's Kitchen 176. 242 reed pens 34.37 scientific instruments 9 2 . 74. 159. 219. 57 Ross-Craig. 234 disposable 182-183 felt-tip 162.Paul'sBaptistry (Hawksmoor) 68. 243. 230 parallel planes 79 Parisian street 86-87 pastels 162 to blend 205 to hold 23 layers 162 pencils 162 pen(s): dip 34 . 216. 36. 736 portraits. 40-41. 75 Two Courtyards 75. 160. 78 single-point 74. 239 Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 238. 203 Scene of Comical Riders (Klee) 30. Heath 181 The Kinecar 180.199 Profile Head (Newsome) oil pastels 162. 97. 166 fiber-tip 782. 733 Portrait de Marie-Laure (Giacometti) 136. Cheval et Oiseau 30.

M . 240 Two Women Embracing ( R o d i n ) 114. 1 8 4 . 115. G e o r g e 2 7 Skeleton of the Horse 26. 9 4 z Z e n calligraphy 232-233 contrast 96 t o grade 163 ink 37 pencil 5 4 t o r t i l l o n 205 T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c . 2 4 7 t h r e e .12 W a l t e r . 65 symbols 138. 2 7 studies: b i r d s 7 2 . b l o w n 248 steel p e n s see d i p p e n s still life 89.41. Sarah 9 4 Chair Cut Out 94. 245 sharpener 54 Ship in a Storm ( T u r n e r ) 1 9 8 . 1 8 4 .2 0 1 .1 4 1 . 75 Skeleton of the Horse ( S t u b b s ) 26. 9 5 pens 36 v a n i s h i n g p o i n t 74. 2 4 2 w Wallis. phrased 146 tonal modeling 161 tonal range 169 t o n a l surfaces 2 2 7 tonal width 97 t o n e ( s ) 33. 2 2 6 .199 tissue p a p e r 21. 2 3 0 tonal contrast 96 tonal distance 9 7 t o n a l d r a w i n g 9 6 .5 3 in l a n d s c a p e 2 0 6 . h e a d a n d n e c k sections o f female m o l d f o r (Leonardo) 89 shading 2 9 s h a d o w s 28.141 S i m b l e t . 57. 2 2 7 Untitled 2001 ( C a t l i n g ) u 263 W h i t e . 182.216 W e b s t e r . 226 V Van Dyck. 2 2 0 influence o f 2 4 0 Untitled 220. 79. 164. 156 Van Gogh. A n t h o n y 152. 170 shoes 1 6 4 stylized m o t i f 51 Summer Flowers 63. 76. C y 138. 158 V a n Eyck. t o lay 1 4 0 . 96. A l f r e d 1 1 . 1 4 0 . 249 t o describe 39. 7 1 4 . William 159 Satire of the Queen's Dress INDEX 226. drawing with 104-105 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt ( G a u d i ) 68.243 Leonardo's machines 12. 2 1 2 .1 8 5 Tree II ( M o n d r i a n ) 52. 1 6 6 t r a p e z i u s m u s c l e 142. 7 77. Man in Armor 1 5 8 . 1 2 Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse 71. 2 9 wind.Yamaoka 233 t e x t u r e 2 2 2 .120. 9 2 Tesshu.1 4 5 . 2 3 4 . v i e w s o f 85. 69. Sarah: child's m a p 75. 77. 206-207 202. t h r e e . 230 t h r e e . 161. 6 9 Wodall. T i m W e s t Fagade of the Church of St. Jan 1 5 6 Maelbeke Madonna 1 5 6 . 104-105. John 25 Flying Fish 25 Wild Striped Cat Sketches of ( G e r i c a u l t ) 28. 49. Sue see N o b l e . W .t o n e d r a w i n g 140. 1 9 9 .s c r e e n p r i n t i n g 139 silver p o i n t 1 4 0 . 2 0 0 Ship in a Storm 1 9 8 . 9 0 . Study of (Michelangelo) 110. 243 (Bosch) T Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos ( G o y a ) 2 4 0 . 75. 1 9 9 Two Courtyards (Piranesi) 75. t o draw 1 9 8 .158 158. 241.d i m e n s i o n a l 1 0 4 . 7 75 Telescope ( N e w t o n ) 9 2 . 202 violin. 97. 7 6 1 spots. 4 4 boat 209 botanical 4 9 G e r i c a u l t ' s cats 2 9 from Goya 170-173 125.J. 725 fabric 1 6 8 T h o m a s .2 1 3 Stubbs. 199 shoes 1 6 4 . t o d r a w 1 0 1 viewfinder 57 Views from Velletri ( C l a u d e L o r r a i n ) 152.27 skull 747. 74. 156 layers 7 5 6 priming for 140.9 1 storms. 7 9 0 vessels. Taylor A n i t a 115 All and Nothing 1 1 4 . Adolf: Giant-Grape Saint-Mary-Castle 219 Woman at Her Toilet ( T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c ) 74 w o o d b l o c k print 157. 53 trees. 69. 1 7 7 free 8 0 V e n i c e . t o d r a w 2 0 0 . John: Focusing on the Negative 14 w a s h . 186. 221 . 1 3 . 199.13 M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s m a l e figures 110. 159 Wolfli. 7 79 Shoshone petroglyph 240. 1 4 1 w a t e r c o l o r 25. 174 T w o m b l y . Vincent 95 Chair 94.1 9 9 wire. 1 4 5 travel journal 2 0 . t o d r a w 5 2 . 1 4 4 . 1 4 1 . 102-103 tonal marks. 141 Three Male Figures.1 6 5 shorthand diagram 142 Shoshone buffalo hide painting 178. Paul 2 4 1 Achilles Chases Hector 2 4 0 . Augustin ( B a l t a r d ) 6 7 w e t and dry brush-strokes 2 4 9 Turner. 7 70 Tiber 214-215 Untitled ( T w o m b l y ) 2 2 0 . 2 4 4 .1 0 5 vision 9 6 Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects (Grandville) 242.241 s i l k . H e n r i de: Woman at Her Toilet 14 t r a n s p a r e n t v i e w 92.125 W o o d f i n e .d i m e n s i o n a l d r a w i n g 68. 7 6 Two Impressions from a Cut-Out Paper Disk ( H u g o ) 2 2 2 Two Monsters 2 4 2 .Sforza Horse. 743 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City ( F r e n z ) 1 6 0 . 1 6 .

a n d D e p a r t m e n t s o f E n t o m o l o g y a n d Zoology at the University of Oxford. 1 5 4 : akg-images/Musee National d'Art Moderne. Paula Regan. H e l e n S h u t t l e w o r t h . 1 3 8 : © Christie's Images Ltd/© A D AGP. B . Anders.co. Sir Brinsley F o r d . 1 1 0 : www. Italy.uk/Private Collection. 9 7 6 ) . Pamela Ellis for compiling the index.20-21 a n d 246-47./© D A C S 2 0 0 5 ( t ) . J a c k a n d Brian Catling. Carole A s h .uk/Mucha Trust. Paul T h o m a s . Jackie Douglas. 1 5 6 : Graphische S a m m l u n g Albertina. M a n d y Earey. NY. Kirsten Norrie.co. Lisbon. Andy Crawford. A . S i m o n L e w i s . and Tamsin Woodward Smith.bridgeman. 2 2 7 : Paul Klee Stiftung. Psychiatric Institute of the U n i v e r s i t y of Heidelberg. 5 3 : Collection of the Gemeentemuseum D e n Haag/Mondrian Trust. Berlin (b). London/courtesy of Stuart Shave. 2 2 2 : Pierre Georgel/Private Collection. Publisher's Acknowledgments Dorling Kindersley w o u l d like to thank Caroline H u n t for editorial contribution. B M G . 2 6 : Topfoto. . Patty Stansfield. a n d brushes o n pp.uk/Kettle's Yard. 1 0 8 : Arts C o u n c i l Collection. 181: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz.bridgeman. A n n a P l u c i n s k a .Paris ( b ) . B e r l i n . (r). 51: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. Paris. 2 4 : © T h e British Museum. U K . Graphische Sammlung. Productions Clovis Prevost (c). K u n s t m u s e u m Bern/© D A C S 2 0 0 5 . 1 7 8 : © T h e British M u s e u m / H e n r y Moore F o u n d a t i o n .uk /© Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery. 111: Fondation Beyeler/Riehen (Bale)/© Succession H Matisse/DACS 2005. Winthrop. Paris. Natalie G o d w i n . 3 2 : Pepys Library. H e a t h e r M c C a r r y . 1 . K e v i n a n d Rebecca Slingsby.uk/British Museum.uk/Private Collection. 115: Anita Taylor. 1 9 8 : Dover Publications. H a m b u r g . 5 0 : Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (1).l. 1 3 5 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. Sarah D u n c a n . 2 4 0 : w w w . A . 1 6 0 : Rene G R U A U s. 2 2 4 : P r i n z h o m Collection.co. Jean Pierre Roy. Sammy De Grave. Maureen Paley Interim Art (b). 177: Mary Evans Picture Library. 132: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. 9 5 : V a n Gogh M u s e u m . Sophie Laurimore.r. for s u p p l y i n g the d r a w i n g books.bridgeman. T h e R u s k i n School of D r a w i n g a n d Fine A r t . Berlin/Staatsbibliothek zu A l l other images © Sarah Simblet . 1 5 : w w w . Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. L o n d o n . 2 1 8 : Adolf-Wdlfli-Stiftung. 113: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz.bridgeman. Paul T h o m a s ( t ) . Havemeyer.bridgeman. u k / O n Loan to the H a m b u r g Kunsthalle. K u n s t m u s e u m ./Galerie Sylvie Nissen. 1 9 : Getty Images/© Succession Picasso / D A C S 2 0 0 5 . 2 0 3 : Clare Bryan (t). Basel. b r i d g e m a n . 9 3 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. L e n . Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. C o r n e l i s o n & Son. L o n d o n .a.uk/Musee des Augustins. R . 1975 ( 1 9 7 5 . papers.co. 7 0 : Studio Daniel L i b e s k i n d . Paris.co. 114: Musee Rodin. 1 3 3 : Artothek/Kupferstichkabinett. 69: Institut Amatller d'Art Hispanic (tl). P h y l l Kiggell. 4 8 : T h e N a t u r a l H i s t o r y M u s e u m . Clare Bryan. Anita Taylor. O o n a G r i m e s . K a t h r y n W i l k i n s o n . 137: © The British Museum.co.co. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin/Jorg P. Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (t). Antonia Cunliffe Davis. 5 2 : T h e Metropolitan Museum of Art/Bequest of Mrs. France. u k / L o u v r e . Peter L u f f . 221: Gagosian Gallery/Private Collection (b). 199: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee des arts asiatiquesGuimet. Anders/ © D A C S 2 0 0 5 . Picture Credits 8: Corbis/Hubert Stadler. © Tate. Madrid. Also. 9 1 : www. T o n y G r i s o n i .co. Germany. R o y a n d D i a n n e Simblet. F i n n . 1929 (29.939). 4 6 : B r i t i s h Library. 29: Fogg A n Museum/Collections Baron de Vita: Grenville L. Paris a n d D A C S . 1901.bridgeman. Copyright Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens. Toulouse. 225: Stephen P Huyler. 68: www. 30: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. London 2005. L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . Paris. Kunstmuseum Bern. B e r l i n . 75: © The British Museum (b). Illustrated London News Picture Library/The Bystander (b).co. 2 0 1 : T h e Royal Collection © 2 0 0 2 H e r Majesty Queen Elizabeth I I . U K . Florence/MoMA. 16: www. a n d encouragement i n m a k i n g this book: M a m o r u Abe. Fund. 17: J o h n Walter. J o h n Walter. G e r m a n y . H a y w a r d Gallery. Magdalene College Cambridge. 9 0 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/© A D A G P . Amsterdam. L o n d o n . 2 2 0 : Mamaru Abe. Angela Palmer. Carlo O r t u for picture research s u p p o r t . Orientabteilung/Ruth Schacht. 139: Galerie Marion Meyer/© Man Ray Trust / A D A G P . 1 3 6 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Centre Pompidou-MNAM-CCI. B e m d Kunzig. c o . Christopher Davis. 130: The Metropolitan M u s e u m of Art/Robert L e h m a n Collection. University of Cambridge. 1 5 9 : Bodleian Library. 2 0 0 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. 7 1 : I M E C / A r c h i v e s E r i k Satie. 112: Yale University A r t Gallery/Everett V Meeks.co. Paris a n d D A C S . 88: www. 179: www. 3 1 : Tom Powel Imaging. London/Bequeathed by Charles Landseer. 2 2 3 : Lebrecht Music and Arts Photo Library/Ricordi. Diana Bell. 226: Brian Catling. Paris. 2 8 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. 174: Artothek/Munich. 243: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. 2 0 2 : © T h e British Museum. L o n d o n . Angela W i l k e s . Paris/ © Succession Picasso / D A C S 2005./Private Collection/© D A C S 2005. 2 4 5 : Oona Grimes. Agnieszka Mlicka.bridgeman. Julie O u g h t o n . 11: www. G e r m a n y . Psychiatric Institute of the University of Heidelberg. Roddy Bell. 9 4 : Sarah Woodfine. 13: www. 9 2 : Science Photo L i b r a r y . 2 4 4 : Ashmolean Museum. K e w ft)). c o . Portugal. 73: Berlin F i l m Museum (t). 157: U C L Art Collections . 1 3 4 : © T h e British Museum. Inc. L o n d o n (t). Dover Publications/ISBN: 0486229912 (t). D a w n Henderson. Corporation of London.bridgeman. .264 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Acknowledgments Author's Acknowledgments: T h e author wishes to thank the following people for their enormous help. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett.uk/Private Collection. 1 6 1 : D C C o m i c s I n c . Paris. 6 6 : w w w . 74: Corbis.uk/Guildhall Library. University of Oxford. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin. 180: www. Japan. Salisbury & South W i l t s h i r e M u s e u m ( t ) . support. G i n a R o w l a n d . 3 3 : Prinzhom Collection. L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . 72: akg-images. F r a n c e .Strang Print Room ( b ) . b r i d g e m a n .uk /Biblioteca Nacional. c o . Germany/Joerg P. Flossie. Oxford. 2 4 1 : Corbis/David M u e n c h ( b ) . A n d y C r a w f o r d for p h o t o g r a p h y a n d L .bridgeman. H . Paris and D A C S .100. J o n Roome. 158: Calouste Gulbenkian Museum. J o h n Roberts. 49: Hunterian Museum (t). 176: Modem Art. R o s e m a r y S c o u l a r . 2 4 2 : Photo Scala. u k / T o k y o National M u s e u m . Wolfson College. b r i d g e m a n . O. 1 9 6 : Museum of the History of Science. 1879. Sarah Woodfine. L o n d o n . George M c G a v i n . 2 3 8 : akg-images. Rocio Arnaez. R u t h P a r k i n s o n . 2 7 : Royal Academy of Arts.

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