An innovative, practical approach to drawing the world around you

SARAH SIMBLET

BOOK
FOR T H E ARTIST

BOOK

FOR THE ARTIST

SARAH SIMBLET

DK PUBLISHING

CONTENTS
LONDON • NEW YORK MELBOURNE • MUNICH • DELHI Senior Editor Paula Regan Senior Art Editor Mandy Earey Art Editor Anna Plucinska Managing Editor Julie Oughton Managing Art Editor Heather McCarry Art Director Peter Luff Publishing Director Jackie Douglas Production Joanna Bull DTP Designer Adam Walker Picture Research Sarah Smithies US Editor Christine Heilman First American Edition, 2 0 0 5 First Paperback Edition, 2 0 0 9 Published in the United States by DK Publishing 3 7 5 Hudson Street New York, New York 1 0 0 1 4 10 11 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3

Architecture
6 8 20 22 Master Builders The Order of Sound Future Fictions Pathways of Sight Single-Point Perspective Creating an Imaginary Space Further Aspects of Perspective Theaters Venetian Life Parisian Street

66
68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86

Foreword Introduction Drawing Books and Papers Posture and Grip

Objects and Instruments

TD075-July 2009 Copyright © 2 0 0 5 Dorling Kindersley Limited Text and authors artworks © Sarah Simblet 2 0 0 4 Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited A Cataloging-in-Publication record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN 9 7 8 - 0 - 7 5 6 6 - 5 1 4 1 - 1 Color reproduction by GRB, Italy Printed and bound in China by Toppan

Still Life Instruments of Vision Bench Marks Light and Illusions Further Illusions How to Draw Ellipses Tonality Drawing with Wire Artifacts and Fictions

88

90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106

Animals
Documentaries Presence and Mood Movement Icon and Design Pen and Ink Drawing with Ink Capturing Character Sleeping Dogs Turtles Dry Birds

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26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44

The Body
Postures and Poses Choreographs Passion Measurement and Foreshortening Quick Poses Hands and Feet Charcoal Hands Phrasing Contours The Visual Detective La Specola

108
110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128

Plants and Gardens
Botanical Studies Jeweled Gardens Fast Trees Graphite and Erasers Cropping and Composition Negative Space Fig Tree Summer Flowers Acanthus Spinosus

46
48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64

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Gatherings
Projections Magnetic Fields The Human Condition Disposable Pens The Travel Journal Catching the Moment Grand Canal Crossings Caravans The Big Top

174 Abstract Lines
176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 Process and Harmony Writing Time Chants and Prayers Compositions Being "Just" Collage Zen Calligraphy Nocturnes

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220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234

Portraiture
Poise Anatomies Revelations Self-Portraits Silver Point Head and Neck Essential Observations Drawing Portraits Generations Castings

130
132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 152

Earth and the Elements
Air in Motion Storms Nature Profiles Charcoal Landscapes Drawing in the Round Decaying Boat Cloudburst Notes of Force Mountains

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198 200 202 204 206 208 210 212 214 216

Gods and Monsters
Marks of Influence Hauntings Convolutions Brushes Brush Marks Monsters Goya's Monsters Consumed Glossary Index Acknowledgments

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240 242 244 246 248 250 252 254 256 259 264

Costume
Cloth and Drapery Character Costumes Femmes Fatales Colored Materials Study and Design The Structure of Costume Textures and Patterns Dressing Character Posture Carving

154
156 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172

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drawing is the immediate expression of seeing. architect. Drawing occupies a unique place in every artist and creator's life. and size. and I refer back to them for years after they are made. be they a child discovering their vision and dexterity. thinking. It is a tool for investigating ideas and recording knowledge. from schoolchildren to senior citizens. remain unseen by most. fashion designer. and local c o m m u n i t y classes. geologists. or engineer. art schools. I was training in anatomy and studying how. I work with people of diverse ages. . especially as travel journals. a sculptor. undergraduates to fellow professors. but because it is how I engage with and anchor myself in life. we learn to feel truly alive. night security staff. Chosen in any color. Combine these things and the possibilities are endless. I know that with their cooperation I can soon prove them wrong. perhaps hidden on a door hinge or a street bench rail. For me personally. Some are more traditionally framed and hung in galleries for solo or group exhibitions. The most rewarding challenge is always the newcomer. or a quantum physicist trying to see for themselves the fluctuations of our universe. and through which I can see how I think. and a reflector of experience. that inspired the title and structure MEMORY T H E A T E R S This pen-and-ink drawing was made from imagination during research for my PhD. Augustine his notes on memory. Some of my drawings cover entire walls. doctors. who tells me firmly upon approach that they cannot draw. Drawing is a mirror through which I understand my place in the world. where I expect them to be discovered by some people. I will always draw. through history. By using our imaginations. It makes me feel excited to be alive. and be slowly washed or worn away. still standing by the door. and experience. as a visiting professor at universities. I was also reading among The Confessions of St. of Sketch Book for the Artist. we have looked at. where spaces are shaped by nothing more than the objects and activities contained within them. a composer notating a musical score. understood (and often misunderstood) our own bodies. It is my love of these. aspirations. texture. For twelve years I have enjoyed the privilege of teaching drawing. a cartographer charting the land. in which he describes himself flying and diving in his imagination through pictorial caverns of knowledge. are made outside as discreet installations. and makers of special effects. We can all learn how to draw. I also make drawing books. and in a few sessions they will be flying. by invitation. a drawing book is the perfect portable private vehicle for your imminent exploration of drawing. and their importance to so many artists. and feeling. Others can be held in the h a n d or. we learn to see it. They occupy a shelf in my studio. They enfold their viewer and are made on joined sheets of paper that I reach by climbing ladders. not only to make art. These inspirations led me to invent museums. shape. The very first step is to believe it.Foreword B Y DRAWING THE WORLD AROUND US.

Children cannot be restrained from running across the pristine white lawn of newly fallen snow.8 INTRODUCTION Where We Begin There is a fundamental drive in our human nature to make a mark. a great crowd is raising their hands in greeting. Sometimes we draw because we are bored. like a great canvas for them to mark. "CAVE OF THE HANDS" In this drawing.Theseancient silhouettes were drawn with earth pigments rubbed onto rock. Drawing is international. We can always read each others drawings. packaging. irreverent to language barriers. but more often because drawing actually helps us to focus and take in what is said. They have a natural affinity to many modern graffiti signatures. waving to us from many thousands of yearsago. inscribing every fresh part of it with their eager scrapes and trails. The sense of relief we may feel from the information overload of modern commercial life when visiting a country in which we can no longer read every written word. and in meetings. Cueva de las Marios. scrawling shapes and cartoons when on the telephone. not just chosen pictures on our walls but everywhere—maps. At home and at work we doodle. is not afforded us by drawing. We are surrounded by drawings in our daily lives. Rio Pinturas 13. graffiti. in lectures. and patterns on our clothes. logos. signs. Most adults still feel that certain exquisite pleasure on arriving at a beach to find the tide out and the sand perfect. We are bombarded with linear and tonal pictorial information. and we spend our lives reading it.000-9500 bce .

power. and she kept it as my first step beyond the delighted realms of scrawl. at age two-anda-half. like all toddlers. enjoying the physical sensation of crayon on paper. and the appearance of my strikes of colors. reflecting my experience of looking closely at my father's face. the hair of my first portrait was most important. She gave me a notepad and a red crayon and asked me to draw her "a picture of Daddy." Until this day. On a particular afternoon in September 1974. created by societies of hunter-gatherers. I now think this is a picture of proximity. I was sitting with my mother. Even though it is made by a toddler this image would be recognizable to anyone. an expression of existence. we see our oldest surviving images. MAKING OUR MARK It seems reasonable to assume that we have engaged in pictorial mark-making for as long as we have made conscious use of our hands. had happily scribbled. I. Cave art was not made for decoration but as a fundamental part of life. who in their day-to-day hardship made time to picture themselves and the animals on which they depended. Eyelashes take up as much of my attention as the head itself. The image above is what I gave back to my mother. In cave paintings like the one opposite.9 WHERE WE BEGIN FIRST PORTRAIT For sorre forgotten reason. . and belonging to place. but I had never yet attempted to figuratively picture my world.

and from that first unit build and describe the shape of something or someone we know. It was made with a few bold strokes of a steel pen dipped in ink to conjure the dried bee I was holding between my fingers on a pin. Inhibitions creep in and ideas of good a n d b a d terminate confidence. Hours are lost immersed in the glorious world of imagination. to help a stranger see their way W h e n taking first steps in relearning h o w to draw. PROGRESSION T h e r e is a point in all o u r lives w h e n w e first c o n t r o l o u r mark and m a k e it a line. W e do n o t hesitate to draw a map. yet still turn to drawing w h e n their verbal language fails or is inadequate. As you progress. At this point many will insist they cannot draw.10 INTRODUCTION PEN-AND-INK BEE This tiny drawing has been enlarged to show its texture and composition. then drag o u r line into a loop. it is important to value your natural abilities a n d ways of seeing. most of us stop. h o w e v e r small a n d u n f o r m e d y o u believe they are. Don't b e p e r s u a d e d to draw in a w a y s o m e o n e else . and this activity plays a vital role in their d e v e l o p m e n t . Young children love to draw. b e p r o u d o f what m a k e s y o u r w o r k individual to y o u . for example. But as adolescents.

I meet students struggling unhappily with a particular method of drawing. but it does help to set out facing in the right direction.11 PROGRESSION A UNIQUE SIGHT This innocent yet sophisticated drawing of boats. and they have never questioned why. He was a retired Cornish fisherman and junk dealer who began drawing at the age of 70 "for company" after his wife died. Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse c. harbor and sea is one of many that Alfred Wallis made from memory while sitting at home. and which aspects of the vast wealth and diversity of graphic language would be most appropriate to their goals. He used leftover ship and yacht paint with crayons on cut-out pieces of cardboard boxes. Enjoy the control of your own journey. what they most want to achieve. you must decide whether to keep or discard it. 1925-42 53/8x87/8in (135 x 225 mm) ALFRED WALLIS prefers and tells you is better. After experimenting and trying each new idea. Think how much would have been lost if anyone had interfered with Alfred Wallis' personal sense of proportion and perspective in the exquisite drawing above. . Occasionally. Someone once told them they must draw in this way. I ask them their reasons for drawing. As you read this b o o k and perhaps attend art classes. remember that all advice is only advice. The journey of every artist demands hard work and discipline.

They are also always written backward. We BIRD STUDIES The flutter of faint scratches that dance across the pages on the right is an attempt to see the movement and bony weightlessness of a bird. I hope. all raise water From the Archimedes' screw to Leonardo's own cupped wheel. Our imaginations are the tools with which we can increase the essence of life. be visionary. IDEAS A N D I N V E N T I O N S These active machines. the breast. it may not be accurate to our critical adult eye. author of The Story of Art. and inspire others. His notes visually balance his drawings. We also see differently ourselves. but it should be the experienced world we draw. but the child in us knows that this is an all-embracing. and breathtaking wind of a choppy harbor. The observed world may be our subject. depending on the occasion and our purpose. not for disguise but as a personal choice. "There really is no such thing as Art. We all see differently." The clarity and empowerment of these words. boats. If as artists we nail a subject down too hard. The art historian Professor Sir Ernst Gombrich. embedded in this book. right.12 INTRODUCTION VISION All artists see the world differently. wrote as the opening line of this great work. clear-minded understanding of the sea. Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels LEONARDO DA VINCI . and lose the very thing that attracted us to it. When we look back at Wallis' seascape (see p. There should neve: be a slavish obligation to represent things exactly as we collectively agree we see them. 11). There are countless reasons for drawing. Below.and collarbones and shoulder blades of a different bird almost become new creatures in themselves. perhaps for comfort or ease as a left-hander or a habitual enjoyment of the challenge. the page bristles with the focus of ideas. we can drive out its spirit. is. There are only artists.

Each fresh image reflects growing confidence and the experience of the preceding study. Leonardo drew to invent a machine. I drew to understand the apparatus of flight. conduct an experiment. when it looks tired and still feels wrong. but it is important to be clear why we are making it. . drawing in pursuit of our own thoughts and understanding. Our drawings are annotated investigations into the mechanisms of nature and of an idea.13 VISION should not try to know how every finished picture will look. to express the beauty in a moment's play of light. stripped-down parts. or illustrate a dream. Decide before you start whether you are drawing to warm up. Don't be disheartened. We have both covered our paper with focused. time spent is not lost. Opposite. More was learned drawing the bird 18 times than would have been understood drawing it only once or twice. make a calculation. it may be best to start afresh. My drawings of a housemartin (opposite top) illustrate the importance of repeated study. while below. It will be invested through your experience in the new drawing. This also applies if struggling at length with a larger picture. or to discover the best use of a new material. shout against a terrible injustice.

ink. and paper. Whatever the material— wood. As you draw any subject—something you see. BRUSHED LANDSCAPE FLOWING SKELETON T h e gliding poise of this walking anatomy comes as much from the feeling of movement as it does from the feeling of drawing. size. the unknown. which can offer keys to other things. This suits many artists well and is perfectly valid. and sometimes beyond. However. W e float toward the quiet vista as it also moves toward us. mists. water. This is the alchemy of drawing. fire. trusting my intuition to find a visual equivalence for the sensation of weight within my body. Our position asvieweris unsteady. depth. and position in space. As your hand meets the paper to make a mark. or ice—you must actually feel it beneath your fingers as you draw. it should be responding to the sensation and meaning of the subject it draws. and we can just make out the distant stains of mountains. and opacity of your subject. balance. Imagine these qualities so strongly that you feel them in your mind and at your fingertips. I made it almost unconsciously with a pen and a brush. or imagine—it is not enough to only render its shape. and at speeds beyond conscious thought. It denies the importance of accident. Landscape in Haboku Style 15TH CENTURY . silk. are both made of ink laid onto wet paper with speed and agile certainty. and practice each part before putting the final image together. meaning. declare the idea. The physicality. we are advised or even required to plan our pictures. Each image relied upon past experience to know the probable behavior of the brush. and what you discover in the process of making. created centuries and cultures apart. Know the texture. explain the composition. metal. You must also think of its intrinsic nature: its purpose. and spirit of each subject was held strongly but loosely between the fingertips. This is a detail of a brush-and-ink drawing by a Japanese Buddhist monk. your marks will become the subject on the paper. bone. These two brush drawings. We are caught in a shifting focus that makes everything fluid. feel. They each allowed the energy and focus of the moment to be expressed through controlled accident and a degree of the unknown Both drawings were made trusting the marks.14 INTRODUCTION ALCHEMY At school. If you can do this. and allowed to flow through the brush. excessive planning can get in the way of the imagination. and how it feels to the touch. and an island brushed with trees. temperature.

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like folded insects. He dazzles us with flashes o f light and dabbed marks o f shadow. left. more than 100 years after its making. stand table-sized with furniture legs attached t o b o t h sides of their jacket. gold leaf and spray paint.1896 Woman at her Toilet 41 x 26 in (104 x 66 cm) TOULOUSE LAUTREC RIB-CAGE D R A M A Thus drama. Lautrec's flamboyant splashes o f petticoats and pantaloons are drawn with long sweeps of chalk and brushed oil paint.16 INTRODUCTION PLACE A N D MOMENT The heat and teeming atmosphere o f this Parisian dressing room. one of many luminous works in watercolor. acrylic. pastel. made by a young British artist who creates alphabets o f the absurd f r o m familiar childhood characters. c. W a l t e r also makes books: some. which evoke realities o f place and the p o w e r o f moment. lives on. Focusing on the Negative 2004 22 x 30 in (56 x 76 cm) J O H N WALTER . right is set inside a rib cage.

Choose other materials and do the same. at a point when you feel you are not making progress. Put them away and look at them later. Enjoy discovering what your hand and the material can do. try not to grip your pen worrying about the technical terms you might have heard. With no help and advice at all. As you follow lessons in this book. Much will be learned on these test sheets and in your first drawings. you will be surprised and encouraged to see how far you have come. diary-like observations. Start by choosing a material you like the look of and cover a piece of paper with different marks. FREEINGTHEHAND . just through the act of making. One of the advantages of a drawing book is that you can shut it. Drawing is exploratory. Ignore these at first and allow yourself the freedom to play. Pages do not have to lie open for other people to inspect and comment on.17 FREEING THE HAND If you are just beginning to learn how to draw. and mistakes are a valuable process of learning. It is yours. Such books are personal: the territory of new exploration and experiment. Try to keep all of your first drawings. and miscellaneous items of inspiration. take your time and don't worry if you need to make several attempts to grasp a concept. you will naturally make progress on your own in response to concentration and the decision to look and draw. potential ideas still forming. even those you dislike.

seek ideas in the life around you. I was particularly attracted to their gentle articulation and understated determination. staring straight through his image of a bull. Look to your own experience and also learn from the work of others. Picasso Painting with Light at the Madoura Pottery 1949 . An artist's personal voice is something that also evolves through lessons learned. In the total wealth of these pages. 150). To these I have added my own drawings to explain elementary materials and techniques and offer introductory approaches. and many more reasons for drawing the world. caught between action and repose. It rarely flourishes in isolation. The chapters of this book present 90 different artists' ways of seeing. As you draw. it is this voice that is the subtle part of their art and something that ultimately.Their elegant strength seems to summon a lifetime of drawing. we still only glimpse a corner of the magnitude of this subject and the infinity of what can be achieved. Picasso has just finished his drawing. Drawing is a living language that over millennia has grown and changed. Note that the drawing classes are allocated to subjects. Once there. the path is yours. The real drawing book has yet to come. This practical journey will take you through the door into the vivid heart of drawing. when they are more experienced. it will be your creation as you discover your own personal vision. threedimensionally. Imagination needs nourishment. A N ARTIST'S HANDS These are the hands of the artist Phyll Kiggell (see p. comes from within. ELECTRIC BULL With a penlight. Its sensuous and flowing line seems to drift like smoke. which is held frozen in space by a camera lens. adapting its form and occupation. which of course he cannot see. However. but not confined to them. Picasso is poised smiling. and became a great subject for me. and enfolding new media.18 INTRODUCTION THE THINKING EYE Techniques and materials are the grammar and vocabulary of drawing and can be studied and shared.

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b o u n d b o o k s t h a t fit in y o u r p o c k e t o r bag. binding. ties on either side to keep your papers in place.h a n d s t o r e s make unique subjects f o r e x p e r i m e n t s a n d collage. thick enough not to flex. Alternatively.b o u n d p a d if y o u w i s h t o keep your drawings together long-term. Homemade books can be assembled easily from found materials or selections of loose sheet papers. b e a w a r e t h a t p a p e r t e x t u r e effects a n d changes t h e i r marks. a n d crayons. a l e n g t h o f black elastic t i e d a r o u n d t h e m i d d l e will h o l d the contents together w h e n y o u f o l d in c o l l e c t e d items. These are perfect f o r w o r k i n g in novels. and handles to lift the weight of your artworks. R I N G . thickness. cheap corrugated plastic ones fall apart in days. and cost. a n d r e f e r e n c e b o o k s f o u n d in s e c o n d . is perfect.q u a l i t y r i n g . 1. T h e hardb o a r d j a c k e t is s t r e t c h e d w i t h canvas beneath t h e p a p e r sleeve. F O U N D B O O K S : O l d p r i n t e d 3 . c h o o s e larger f o r m a t s t o give y o u s c o p e f o r e x p e r i m e n t . F o r traveling.20 INTRODUCTION Drawing Books and Papers T o BEGIN YOUR EXPLORATION o f d r a w i n g . Dissecting a d i s c a r d e d h a r d . and collage their ideas. It is also useful to own a portfolio. Gleaming store purchases vary greatly in format.B O U N D PADS: T h e s e are t h e least expensive a n d useful f o r o p e n i n g flat. BLACK P O C K E T B O O K S : Hand-sized w i t h ready-made elastic binder and a marker ribbon. it is better to have them made at a lumber yard or home improvement store. texture. c o l o r If planning t o use pencils. C A N V A S . catalogs. F o r e v e n i n g classes. A high-quality one will last a DRAWING BOOKS Select d r a w i n g b o o k s t o suit y o u r aims. 6. 2002 Tantalus o r The Future of Man 81/2 x61/4in (215 x 158 mm) ROSE MILLER . H O M E M A D E : I m a d e this b o o k f r o m drawing paper that I folded. You simply need two strong boards hinged together well. t h e i r jackets w i l l a c t like d r a w i n g b o a r d s a n d p r o t e c t y o u r w o r k . 5. There are dozens to choose from. study the structure of a good portfolio and make your own.C O V E R E D H A R D B O U N D : Ideal f o r c a r r y i n g a r o u n d . They can be very expensive in art stores. drawing book. color.b o u n d b o o k w i l l s o o n s h o w y o u h o w it is m a d e . pastels. C O L O R E D PAPERS: Large a r t supply stores o f t e n sell t h i c k b o o k s full o f c o l o r e d p a p e r s . 4. Calculate a range of useful dimensions and have several cut at once. cut. stitched. Drawing boards are invaluable. and glued t o a s t r i p o f bias binding. 2. Most contain thin p a p e r and are perfect f o r use w i t h disposable pens. be sure they fit comfortably under your arm. c h o o s e s m a l l e r h a r d . Art students often make use of printed books picked up from secondhand stores into which they draw. Purchase a h i g h . Many artists invent ways o f binding their o w n books. t h i s is h o w I l e a r n e d . Smooth plywood. y o u n e e d a lifetime. which are also sold in an enormous range. Sand the edges to avoid splinters. If you intend to carry your boards for a distance. H o w e v e r r i n g bindings o f t e n break. N o t e t h e w i d e l y differing c h o i c e o f p a p e r s w i t h w h i c h t h e s e are m a d e . quality.

Use with a brush in clean water Water makes a dark mark like ink and becomes invisible again when dry. 12. bamboo. texture. T W O RIVERS GREEN 410G MS: Very heavy tinted textured cold-pressed watercolor paper See Two Rivers Yellow.5 9 ) for explanations of rough.Papers differ in thickness (weight). FABRIANO R O U G H 600GMS: Very heavy. It is available in white or cream. red. and other plant fibers. color. SAUNDERS WATERFORD N O T 300GMS: Mid-quality textured watercolor paper. not. METALLIC PAPER: Thin paper in different metallic colors. MAGIC PAPER: A reusable sheet for testing ideas without creating waste. fine. 7. 21. smooth. PAPERS . Use for brushwork drawings. 20. AQUARELLE ARCHES 300GMS:The very top quality hot-pressed (smooth) watercolor paper. resisting deterioration. Cheap wood-pulp papers are acidic. 11. Cotton papers are high-quality and acid-free. FABRIANO ACADEMIA: Standard medium-range multipurpose paper Use with any media. VELIN ARCHES 250GMS: Printmaking paper available in black white. used to imprint lines of these colors onto a surface. 22. T W O RIVERS Y E L L O W 410GMS: See Two Rivers Green 19. For use with any media. and rolls. Ph. blocks. and cream sheets or rolls. 100% cotton and sold in sheets. ITALIAN PARCHMENT: Imitation-animal-skin parchment that is translucent and slightly waxy. printed on one side only. C A R B O N PAPER: Available in dark and light blue. cold. 15. yellow. GLASSINE: Sold as protective wrapping. 8. 16. and cost. tough. pastel paper in flecked pastel colors with a distinctive ribbed marking. and white. 2 5 6 . 18. size. also good for drawing with colored pencils. C A N S O N : Inexpensive lightweight pastel paper in many colors. absorbency. They are hand-. and translucent. It is also excellent for drawing with marker pens on layered sheets. JAPANESE PAPER: Strong. 17. from pencil to paint 9. mulberry. Use cheap paper for rough ideas and quality paper for work to last See the glossary ( p p . FABRIANO INGRES: Thin. 14. mold-. or machine made in sheets. turning brown and brittle. white textured paper that can take abrasive use of any medium. or rolls. 13. 10.TISSUE PAPER: Place sheets between drawing book pages to keep images from printing on each other and use for delicate collage. it is made from rice. blocks. and hot pressed papers.

your lines will distort. Turning your drawing sideways or upside-own will also help reveal what is wrong. strangledlooking drawings. body. If using an upright easel. From a distance you will spot errors you cannot see close up. a n d look to the left of it at your subject. your whole relaxed b o d y should be involved. How you hold your drawing materials is also important. place it on your right. Placing your easel o n the w r o n g side folds y o u r b o d y against your drawing arm. Ideally. This cramped grip tires your hand and makes small. There should be an open. Accelerated perspective also occurs if you look down the surface steeply (see pp. This photograph illustrates how some people hold a pen to write. but wherever possible. arm. Regularly step back 6-9 ft (2-3 m) to check your progress. . if left-handed. and subject. In this book we will look at parallels between drawing and music. should be able to look comfortably straight ahead at your picture plane. or with your drawing board angled between your lap and a chair. make sure you have enough room to back away and view your work. place it on your left. If seated on a b e n c h easel (a donkey). flowing space between your hand. Use the side of your little fingernail as a support on the page. It will also reflect discomfort if you are in any way cramped. SPACE TO WORK Cramped grip. don't sit too close to the paper. With your hand in this position. place it on the correct side: if right-handed. There are also parallels to dance. You do not have to dance to draw. Relaxed fingers: Hold the pencil away from its tip and relax your fingers. you can draw lines freely and achieve a significant arc of movement. your drawing will reflect this. but you need to understand that the expression of a line or mark originates in the body and flows t h r o u g h the shoulder. b u t it should n o t be forgotten that many people make remarkable a n d striking works drawing with their feet or holding their brush or pencil in their mouths. Examples are shown here. a n d h a n d to the fingertips. and look to the right. You cannot draw like this—your hand is locked and your fingers can barely move. you Drawing classes can be cramped places. If your hand twists to maneuver between the paper and your body. 116-17).22 INTRODUCTION Posture and Grip T o DRAW WELL. If your body posture is well balanced and you can move freely.

or change to the wrong hand. But be careful not to tense your fingers. . GRAVITY Remember that gravity affects the flow of ink and paint. To stop this. upright way of holding the brush near its base is similar to the Japanese way used in Zen calligraphy (see pp. brush pressed against an upright surface will cause a dribble of ink to run down your drawing. ALL MEDIA There are no rules as to how you should hold your drawing media. Brush calligraphy: This comfortable. roughly marking out a large-scale work. This can give a new lease on life to your mark-making. Large amounts of ink can be applied without fear of uncontrolled running if the paper is flat.232-33). As long as your fingers. It is most comfortable when reaching to draw above your head. liquid will run down your hand. Remember you can also draw just by dipping your fingers in pigment—this is how many women draw in rural India. alternative way of holding the pencil. or it can spoil your work if not anticipated. This can be used to great effect. Large scale: POSTURE AND GRIP U n f a m i l i a r i t y : T h e habitual movements of our handwriting style will sometimes infringe upon our drawing.23 This loose "candle" grip is very useful when drawing with your arm extended. Soft media: Short materials such as pastels and charcoal can be accommodated in the palm. If you turn a brush or dip pen up into the air to draw above your hand. find an unfamiliar. arm. and body are not restricted. depending upon what it is and how large you are working. not up to the paper Brushes can be used on upright paper but dip Anticipating effects: A fully loaded pens need a level surface. hold your material as you find most comfortable.

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which very likely leaped o n t o the deck of Sir Walter Raleigh's ship Tiger as it sailed north from the Caribbean to Virginia in 1585. and people. fish.m o u n t e d skeletons of birds. For the novice artist.. we have employed artists on expeditions.drawe to lief one of each kinde of thing that is strange to us in England. sleeping dogs. W h e n lost to explain our own emotions. As children we delight in the humanized trials of Tom and Jerry and their c a r t o o n relations. m u s e u m . and dragons. and we still see escapees from its pages carved and grinning as the gargoyles of churches. W e have drawn them in m a n u s c r i p t s to explain our genesis and to c o u n t their species into Noah's ark. 1590 J O H N WHITE capture form and movement from the m a n n e r i s m s of honking geese. each dedicated to the moralized tale of an animal or monster The bestiary profoundly influenced the art of its period. dogs. out are now oxidized and so appear black W h e n less preoccupied with understanding ourselves. which are so unlike ours. In this chapter we discover the use of pens and ink through the delineation of insects. This drawing is made in black lead (metal point) with watercolor Highlights of silver would have gleamed. 1540. Europeans on board had never seen such a thing. werewolves. Framed in the z o o or in domestic cohabitation. plants. In medieval England. " Animals perpetually feed our imaginations. and learn how to Flying Fish c. they are perhaps our favorite pictorial preoccupation. to be there at the m o m e n t of discovery. White's commission was to ". JOHN WHITE British artist. Together they made maps and documented animals.Animals H UMANS HAVE DRAWN ANIMALS from the beginning of our time. On the Roanoke voyages of Sir Walter Raleigh. We have drawn them on the walls of caves to evoke their kinship and power. Here (left) we see J o h n White's exquisite record of a flying fish. animals provide a perfect subject with which to begin. and pioneer born c. bats. and silent." Paranoid newcomers c r a m m e d into swelling industrial cities used handbooks of physiognomy to identify and judge their neighbors. we turn and take the features of beasts. 11 x91/4in (277 x 234 mm) . their different speeds and patterns of action. floating turtles. birds.. the Latin bestiary was one of the most popular picture books—an illustrated dictionary of one hundred parts. and to bring h o m e drawn documentaries of their finds. and snakes have between them engendered harpies. Facial features were analyzed in terms of their animal likeness. from which personality and predicted behavior were " d e d u c e d . insects. In 19th-century Europe this became a "science. After the subject of ourselves. mermaids. cartographer. or scampering through the initials and borders of pictures from that time. offer challenges and delights to draw." He worked with the scientist Thomas Harriot. and this very drawing was to endure many copies and plagiarisms after its triumphant return to the English court of Queen Elizabeth I. O v e r the centuries. who described in words what White drew.

He studied the image and drew his own interpretation. Carefully stuffed. but the drowned animal washed ashore. Meanwhile. it is still consulted by veterinarians today. draftsman. Original Ink Drawing of a Rhinoceros 1515 ALBRECHT DURER 103/4 x 161/2 in ( 2 7 4 x 4 2 0 mm) .26 ANIMALS Documentaries horse are superb affirmations of the power of drawing as a recorder and communicator of knowledge. Stubbs's Anatomy of the Horse achieved similar documentary status. Life-like This is Durer's original quill-and-ink drawing made after an anonymous Portuguese drawing. filled journals with ideas and observations. they were rejected. naturalist. the ship was lost. writer. printmaker. Contemporary texts related accounts of the beast as the mortal enemy of the elephant and rare relative of the "more common" unicorn. inspiring countless works of art and so touching people's imaginations that later. Unsurpassed. years after its publication. when more accurate portrayals were made without armor and scales. and mathematician. He in turn sent the mysterious creature to the Pope via Marseilles at the request of the King of France. a gift to the Portuguese King. The first live rhinoceros to reach Europe came from India in May 1515. It is such a lifelike triumph of imagination and intelligence that for centuries zoologists never questioned its authority. a drawing of it arrived in Nuremberg. It was to become the animal's only accepted likeness for 250 years. Durer traveled widely to study at different European schools of art. it continued its journey to Rome. Sailing to Rome. the home of ALBRECHT DURER German Renaissance painter. Converted into a print. DURER'S RHINOCEROS AND STUBBS'S skeletal Durer. and wrote four books on proportion. Durer's image changed eager hands until it was known across Europe.

Anatomy of the Horse.GEORGE STUBBS B r i t i s h e q u i n e a n d s o c i e t y p o r t r a i t painter. is no other work like it. composed from notes and observations. The entire project was developed over ten years. This is one of Stubbs' original finished pencil drawings. Table of the III of the Horse (rear Skeleton view) mm) 1756-58 1 4 x 7 in ( 3 5 4 x 1 8 0 GEORGE STUBBS . His painted p o r t r a i t o f t h e b e a s t is in t h e R o y a l C o l l e g e o f S u r g e o n s o f England. Dissections Stubbs took his knife and his pencil and physically climbed inside the horse. c o m p r i s e s 1 8 p l a t e s s h o w i n g d i s s e c t i o n s in l a y e r s f r o m b o n e t h r o u g h m u s c u l a t u r e t o skin. L o n d o n . Stubbs's m o s t c e l e b r a t e d publication. naturalist. which has never diminished. and therefore invented the lighting that Compare how Stubbs and Durer both invented lighting to portray the reality of their animals. Lighting Stubbs's breathtaking international work won immediate There acclaim. knowledge of parts. a n d anatomist. He composed makes each horse appear so real and each plate from his three-dimensional. dissecting and drawing until he understood the mechanisms of its power and grace. in t h r e e v i e w s — r e a r f r o n t . a n d s i d e . He translated his own drawings into engravings for publication. Dissections were made over a total of 18 months. Stubbs w a s o n e o f t h e first E u r o p e a n artists t o m a k e a n a c c u r a t e representation o f the rhinoceros.

28 ANIMALS Presence and Mood THESE DRAWINGS HAVE BEEN CHOSEN to s h o w t w o v e r y different ways of picturing a wild animal. drama. Gericault's sheet a p p e a r s almost s c r a t c h e d b y the f e r o c i o u s play of his cat. her b o n y frame. drawing her again and again to pin d o w n the texture of her loose skin. He wrote to poet and art critic Charles-Pierre Baudelaire about his experiments. and a love of accident.. The Hunchback of Notre Layers and shadows Throughout this drawing. VICTOR HUGO Poet. and turn. By contrast. linseed oil soaked into the paper has made shadows and repelled the ink to create translucent tentacles. sepia. I've ended up mixing in pencil. The octopus is formed in layers applied and distressed with a brush. Mixed media Here. He has w a t c h e d her p o u n c e .. novelist. snarl. soot. saying ". it silently rises to the light. Hugo's page is f l o o d e d w i t h the fearful presence of a remembered octopus. the ominous beast unwinds from the dark of the sea and of our nightmares. and Pieuvre 1866-69 91/2 x81/8in (242 x 207 mm) VICTOR H U G O . conjured b y the hand of a great author of French literary fiction. playwright. His copious drawings are characterized by mixed media. and her distinctive temperament. Surrounding sprays of graphite powder are stuck into washes of oil and ink to suggest glutinous depths. her sharp teeth. Hugo used graphite powder... coal dust. and leader of the French Romantic movement. Apparently drawn in its o w n ink. Hugo's novels Les Miserables and Dame have become classics of film and stage.". Gericault took a sharp p e n c i l to m a k e repeated direct o b s e r v a t i o n s f r o m life. A s if disturbed from its gritty b e d by our presence and curiosity. more or less what I have in view. charcoal. and all sorts of bizarre concoctions which manage to convey above all in mind. H u g o mixed his media and drew from m e m o r y and imagination to create narrative atmosphere. ink and linseed oil on paper.

118-119). of previous Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 1817-18 121/2 x 151/2 in ( 3 1 9 x 3 9 8 mm) T H E O D O R E GERICAULT . standing sideways.l i v e d French R o m a n t i c painter and lithographer Largely self-taught. fiery. and it can be applied to any subject (see pp. 144. horses w e r e a favorite subject t o g e t h e r w i t h politics and history. Beginners are advised to follow the natural contours of form as shown on pp. Undertraces Beneath these graphite studies we see traces Tones On the top row we see clearly how Gericault laid broad areas of tone using fast. parallel. Here. undertraces unify and vitalize the composition. focused upon seeing will lead to a greater understanding of the subject Much is learned from repeated study.29 THEODORE GERICAULT C o n t r o v e r s i a l . since it can lead to a flattened form. Tones that do not follow surface contour is very difficult to do well. At the center of the page is crammed drawings the outline of a horse. 124-25 and p. H e is best k n o w n f o r his gigantic painting. Before paper became so cheap. The Raft of the Medusa. and keep trying again. of drawings Gericault erased. s h o r t . facing right. diagonal strokes of his pencil. Paris. displayed in the Louvre. Repeated study This drawing demonstrates of feeling confident repeat different the importance subject Remaining enough to isolate parts of a views. artists reused sheets and them full of studies.

quivering horse. flattened animals composed almost entirely of movement. the first abstract movement of the 20th century. The fact that they never stand still influences the movement in his line. Cheval et Oiseau 1936 173/8 x 211/4 in ( 4 4 0 x 5 4 0 m m ) PABLO PICASSO . overwhelmed by a screeching bird. Klee's riders are constructed from all the gestures of greeting mules. dissolving faun kneels stranded. Faune. noise is everywhere. hooked. Picasso cofounded Cubism. and waves breaking distantly below. The ink is used to make sharply defined solid. Gouache is brushed softly in translucent hazy layers of cool blue.30 ANIMALS Movement M O V E M E N T IS OFTEN THE CHARACTERISTIC b y w h i c h w e their lines and the power of their beasts. Artists commonly focus on such actions. In these two drawings. and scrolled lines. His hand must have shuddered and twitched just like the constant actions of this humorous meeting. taking them to guide their hand in bringing form and essence together. These media complement and amplify each other with their brilliant contrast. made only a year apart. or proud. identify an animal: the fast cheetah. the whinnying of a frantic horse. flapping bird. and brown. Ink and gouache This drawing is made in black Chinese ink and gouache (opaque watercolor) applied with a brush. printmaker ceramicist graphic and stage designer who lived in France. draftsman. we see semi-abstract. gray. slow tortoise. with George Braque (see p90). His powdery. Both Picasso and Klee have enclosed their subjects to compress and amplify the speed of PABLO PICASSO A prolific Spanish painter sculptor. In Picasso's drawing.

draftsman. sculptor. well-worn copies o f w h i c h are found in m a n y art schools. He is a u t h o r o f The Thinking Eye (1923). creatures." They chatter around bodies in groups. Chicago PAUL KLEE .PAUL KLEE Swiss painter. and t e a c h e r at t h e Bauhaus school. N e u m a n n Family Collection. top all happily of each other in the Endless lines Look closely at how Klee's lines rarely leave the paper and how they are free from the constraint of finite shape. Layers of marks In this pale Dentil drawing we see layers of' agitated marks that together present a kind of visual "itch. They remain in contact with the surface of the page and scribble back and forth as they maneuver from one area to another. printmaker. Scene der Komischen of Comical Reiter Riders) (Scene 1935 161/2x111/2in ( 4 1 9 x 2 9 1 mm) M o r t o n G . W i t h his drawings Kleeb o u n d sophisticated theories to personal and often witty childlike imagery. turning our eye and around inside the and postures of the paper- thin on pictorial space. The entire drawing suggests the endless small movements of horses standing still. violinist.

and scales. Baker did not intend this. b a s e d o n his studies o f fish. His birds stare. slim stern). adding washes of color with a fine brush. and to assess our next move. and steerage. balance. and blackbirds fly in formation through a mosaic of text. drawings of animals that are each held tightly in a surprising space: a giant fish wears a ship's hull.32 ANIMALS Icon and Design IN THESE T W O MANUSCRIPTS we discover diagrammatic and mackerel's tail" (full bow. Knopf's drawing opposite is the personal enigmatic expression of a mind gripped by illness. B a k e r initiated t h e scientific p r a c t i c e o f naval a r c h i t e c t u r e and applied h y d r o d y n a m i c s . Exquisite details in this drawing include the lips of the fish. In just one drawing he has displayed more angles of his design than we would expect to see from a single viewpoint Fragments English 1586 101/2 x 153/8 in (270 x 390 mm) MATTHEW BAKER of Ancient Shipwrightry . and author o f Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (1586). This drawing illustrates Baker's theory. The ship The upper decks of the ship appear curved toward us at both ends. t h e earliest geometrically defined elevations. and s e c t i o n s o f ships. Baker lived in an era when ships were built without drawn plans. Below we see his revolutionary design for an Elizabethan warship. later called a galleon. mathematician. and the carefully observed gills. the expression of its eye. He studied the anatomy of fish. plans. seemingly looking for our attention. In contrast to the practical clarity of Baker's thought. which in application gave strength and advantage to the English fighting the Spanish Armada. It is simply how we read his perspective. and from them learned that if he designed his ship with a "cod's head MATTHEW BAKER Master shipwright. it would achieve greater speed. fins. The fish It is likely that Baker drew with a quill dipped in irongall ink.

firmly outlined. The main group is placed in a circle drawn with a compass. The text.JOHANN KNOPF An " O u t s i d e r " a r t i s t w h o s u f f e r e d f r o m m e n t a l illness. written last of all. and filled evenly with tone. JOHANN KNOPF . circle and the birds. w h i c h o f t e n f e a t u r e as s y m b o l i c creatures in his drawings. numbered.K n o p f b e l i e v e d h e c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h e language o f birds. appears to be stirred like water by the presence of the The Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks UNDATED 133/8 x 115/8 in (340 x 2 9 6 mm) and psychiatrist Hans Prinzhom collected this image. T h e G e r m a n a r t historian Outline and tone The blackbirds illuminating this frantic manuscript are drawn in pencil.

which range greatly in their handling and character of line. 5 0 0 years ago. producing a different line. In the Far East. you can have great fun drawing the world around you. Dip pens began their history in the Nile River. QUILLS: These are cut from the barrel of a flight or tail feather. distinguished manufacture. light it. Only fill with suitable inks. The paste from either recipe is pressed and dried into a bar for storage. and it is still in use today. while metal nibs began as rare gifts in gold and silver before being perfected by the British steel industry. the recipes for which have been handed down over centuries. The bar is then rubbed into water on a slate block to produce ink. and first used by the Egyptians. which scratch rather than draw. Today.246-47). and spatters can be made with an exotic choice of inks. F O U N T A I N PENS: These vary in quality and nib width. Quills were later cut from feathers. Early artists recommended raven and crow for especially fine work. then pour a little warm gum water into it and temper the two together. simultaneously 4 . ink is traditionally applied with a brush (see pp. 2.34 ANIMALS Pen and Ink W I T H A HANDFUL OF FEATHERS. They fit into wooden holders. The Chinese used animal or fish glue. and hold it under a clean basin until the soot hangs to it. Each pen has a unique character. REED PENS: A broad nib can be cut from bamboo or another tubular grass. where reeds were gathered. PENS . high-quality Chinese and Japanese inks are subtler and more complex than those produced in Europe. 3. METAL PENS: Inexpensive removable steel nibs are available in a range of widths. spots. Masters choose brands of long. Responsive to slight changes in pressure. The reservoir gives a constant flow of ink for very long unbroken lines and continuous bottle-free use. 4. a n d m e t a l p o i n t s . expressive drawing techniques such as the ones we explore in this chapter 1." "Gum" refers to gum arabic extracted Dip pens are essential and inexpensive drawing tools. A German recipe of 1531 gives a simple description: "Take a wax candle. Intricate or dramatic lines. That is an ink. from the acacia tree. they are associated with rapid. Avoid needle-sharp mapping pens. The best are goose or swan. s t i c k s . The Egyptians and Chinese are credited with the invention of carbon ink.

is the ink of a cuttlefish or squid extracted post-mortem. Non-waterproof Indian inks can be reworked with a wet brush after drying. 5.35 PEN AND INK Four types of ink were common before the 20th century. and are still in use today: carbon (Chinese and Indian). Inks can be lightfast or non-lightfast. They are the easiest inks to use. and most can be homemade. boiled. they produce a golden dye for drawing. Old stock turns solid and bottlesChina.G A L L INK: Abnormal spherical growths caused by parasitic wasps can be collected from some oak trees in fall. It dries with a sheen and clogs uncleaned pens.36. suspended in a binder and stored as a solid block Blocks are imported today 7. Waterproof types contain shellac. dated. SEPIA A N D BISTRE INKS: Sepia. charred bone (Ivory Black). reduced. C A R B O N INK: Traditionally produced from oil or resin soot (Lamp Black). The complexities of traditional iron-gall ink are explained on p. waterproof or non-waterproof. I R O N . from are not 6. ACRYLIC / CALLIGRAPHY INKS: Available in black and a range of colors. Beechwood soot is best. 8. roastedwine sediment (Yeast Black). I N D I A N INK: Carbon ink sold today in liquid form. and can be mixed and diluted to create subtler colors and tones. and sieved. or charcoal. and sepia. Crushed. Bistre is the more humane use of soot scraped from the fireplace and ground into wine. an often misused term. iron-gall. INKS 9. bistre. Now we also have acrylic ranges in many colors. . Excellent for drawing they are bright and non-clogging.

are surprisingly tough. For centuries. Walnut ink is gloopy. a n d d e v e l o p e d t h e quill instead. r e s e r v e d t h e i r use f o r large c h o i r b o o k s . of a loaded nib. Scribes o f t h e M i d d l e Ages. Rembrandt. for example. 2 4 4 is an e x q u i s i t e e x a m p l e . Running fresh. crushed. and turned brown with time. and delicious to draw with.36 ANIMALS Drawing With Ink To MAKE A QUILL OR REED PEN. appears broken to show paper beneath. drawn to glisten with a dryer nib. t h e y stick a n d j u d d e r f o r w a r d . sieved. It dried black. M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s d r a g o n o n p . then cut a final nib (feathers. Reed marks The darker left wing of this beetle was drawn with the wet inky stroke wing. it was gray-purple. the blade and cut away from you. fleshy skins that surround ripe walnuts. T h e y give a finer. QUILL PENS Q u i l l s a r e highly r e s p o n s i v e t o c h a n g e s in p r e s s u r e . galls were ground with iron sulfate to make an unstable solution. The lighter right Quill marks Quills carry more ink than strokes and for as reeds. m o r e e x t e n d e d line than reed and a m o r e organic line t h a n m e t a l . always be cautious when experimenting with recipes.) You can make ink easily from the boiled. . V a n G o g h . a n d M a t i s s e also e n j o y e d t h e m . finding reed p e n s unwieldy. The darkest of this grasshopper wings) were made (around the head first. Oak galls. keep all your fingers behind basis of iron-gall ink. since t h e D u t c h w e r e t h e first t o realize t h a t they could be hardened and i m p r o v e d w i t h heat t r e a t m e n t in ash o r sand. Practice to gain a feel for how materials behave. Paler strokes were made where the mark has the legs and antennae the ink ran out. I u s e d t h e s e qualities t o d r a w t h e w o r m s above. d r y mark. Some of Michelangelo's drawings are now a little eaten by their own ink. red-brown. giving longer lines. can also be collected from affected trees. Although oak galls and walnut skins are harmless. reduced. giving a s h o r t . It also oxidized and ate or burned paper. and boiled to make a golden ink. Quills are also called D u t c h pens. U n d e r heavy pressure. Collect skins from the ground beneath trees once they are blackened. forming the REED PENS R e e dpens dispense ink quickly.

marks become fine and needle-sharp. When using dip pens. giving a graded.37 METAL PENS Metal pens give long. Loaded with ink and pressed hard. tonal Ink layers The wings of this beetle were drawn in layers using black and white ink on pale gray paper. o r being ruined as fountain pens would be under the same pressure. they splay to make thick o r double lines. particles then filled with a droplet of ink. W h e n the nib is pressed upside down. withstanding great pressure without sticking. clean strokes. breaking. . sharp. DRAWING WITH INK Filled outlines Each segment of wing was outlined. it is important to feel for when the ink will run out and to know how much ink you pick up when dipping the nib. Each layer of of the drying droplet dome the drawing was left to dry before adding more. White markings were drawn last Tones Here we see subtle tones of diluted ink beneath the undiluted black rim of a beetle's wing. The of pigment to fall to the edges effect of the shape.

Focus on the geese. It teaches confidence and focus through intensive repetition. be bold and press firmly. and quickly draw around it using only three or four strokes. Try to hold the whole posture in your mind's eye. That said. so pick a spot where other people can keep them entertained. Cover your drawing book pages in speedy responses to the geese and try to capture each bird in as few lines as possible. Posture . Empathize. Study them before drawing. Attempt with a loose hand to capture their posture and outline. Quick drawing trains you to see what is most important about a subject and to mark only its most essential expression. It happens that goose feathers also provide artists with the best type of quills. MATERIALS NEEDED Look for a bird expressing a simple posture. Geese are nosy birds. draw what the bird is doing. Illustrating this exercise on Oxford Port Meadow. not on your drawing. and there is no "wrong. and be brave.38 ANIMALS Capturing Character GEESE ARE EXCELLENT SUBJECTS to draw when practicing the first use of pen and ink. You cannot break the nib. to absorb blots when drawing. touch the bottle's rim to drain the excess. and bellyflop off the waterside. Experiment. there is no obligation to prepare a quill. steel nibs are fine. Focus on it. Pack plenty of tissue around a bottle of calligraphy or acrylic ink. and boldly plunge into your drawing. test your limits. waddle. I covered eleven sheets in sixty quick drawings—in less than an hour. Watch their heavy feathered bodies flap. Dip your pen in ink. Take no more than ten seconds to draw each one and make lots of drawings. Cover a sheet. and a large drawing book or plenty of paper Use masking tape to secure pages against the wind. Take a cup and water for diluting a range of tones." If you don't like a stroke. make another one.

Avoid detail unless really tempted by a close-up visit Fluctuate the pressure of your pen in response to how you know the bird would feel if you touched it. draw the feeling of what you see. Again. CAPTURING CHARACTER Texture Gradually allow yourself more lines to describe the texture of each bird as well as its posture and action. look among the birds for more complicated actions such as shaking off water. flapping.39 Action With growing confidence. and diving. and don't worry about mechanical facts or accuracy. running. Use more lines than before to express these. .

For this class you will need one oblivious dog. Dip the nib quickly again into water and again drain it. Now it will make a pale line. a d o g w h o w a s a l w a y s town." .40 ANIMALS Sleeping Dogs R A S WAS A GREAT CHARACTER. and personality. This will give a medium-gray line. and drain the excess by touching the nib against the rim of the bottle.34-37). The only time he remained still was when he was sleeping. first dip your pen in ink. Make a test sheet to discover your control of diluting on the nib. a dip pen and ink of your choice (see pp. Sleeping animals present the artist with ideal opportunities to study their texture. MAKING A PALE LINE To make a pale line. These drawings are not an analysis of his anatomy or breed but the expression of his satisfied comfort in a deep sleep after a night out on the together with a glass of water for diluting tones on the nib. your drawing book. form. and a tissue for blotting drawn lines that appear too dark. Then dip the nib quickly into a glass of water and drain the excess again. and even then he twitched and stretched in dreams. Ras Curled Up Asleep "Capturing the true character of a cherished companion is best achieved with objective determination rather than sentimental shyness. engaged in his and everyone else's business.

and the shadows in his coat. tail.41 DRAWING YOUR DOG Be bold in this exercise. second thoughts may be different Changing your mind is a positive aspect o f seeing and thinking. W i t h pale lies. this time to create a line a little darker in tone. ignoring all detail.It is essential when drawing any subject (even something abstract) to know how it feels andtoemulate this with your line. add more detail. Here. 2 Reload your pen with ink. I added ink to Ras's nose. SLEEPING DOGS 1 Fix your eyes at the center of the dog. alter the pressure and moisture of your line in response to howyouknow your dog feels when you ruffle itscoat. First lines are first thoughts. quickly draw what you see. see how the animal's posture determines its whole shape. Layers o f thoughts can bring a drawing alive. Trust your intuition. 3 Gradually introduce darker tones. Character is better captured drawing quickly with confidence than w o r k i n g slowly. to emphasize how he is curled up. Then. Then I immediately rebalanced the drawing with lines around his hind quarters. ears. Remain focused on the whole dog and. To add texture. c o n c e r n e d a b o u t detail. in bold layers. . Here I marked the features of Ras's head. D o not go back over lines you are pleased with—doing so dulls their lively freshness.

they stretch and paddle. THE ELONGATION AND BUOYANCY of a group of turtles is fascinating . as if caught in a camera freeze-frame. offering plenty of time for the artist to draw the pose. swinging their limbs and shells with a slow circular movement. turtles often pause unexpectedly. Beyond the glass wall of the aquarium.Turtles to observe. A perfect subject for the beginner.

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With speed.Dry Birds THESE ARE THE ARTICULATED BONES o f a k i w i a n d a h o u s e - martin drawn in a museum using a steel pen. and water. weightlessness of the kiwi. dry. balance. I sought to capture the form. . India ink. and sharp. I darkened lines as each drawing progressed. Beginning with very pale tones. I made repeated studies of the housemartin to discover its mechanism of flight.

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on which our lives depend. It was published plain in 1611 and withhand-paintedplates in poured off ships returning from the New World and were eagerly collected and 1613. Later. infinitely vivid. Both embrace the anticipation of evolving shape. to the proliferation of floral designs with which we have dressed ourselves and furnished our homes for centuries. Fledgling years Botanist and apothecary who compiled the Hortus Eystettensis of scientific research bore manifold explosions of knowledge in a fever of discovery. From its history there is one overriding lesson to be learned: the importance of looking and seeing with our own eyes. Botanical illustration is a precisely defined and scientific art. shape. and focus. We draw them to celebrate their beauty and range. and beauty. and hybridize them for our sustenance and pleasure. where a number of uncredited artistsd r e wthem for Besler. we now have laid before us fourto show how well their colours complement each other infinite wealth of material to explore. Patrons funded the breeding of decorative. the microscope was refined to unfold yet another world. manipulations of light and shade. and diverse kingdom of plants. Chapters are arranged by out. Medieval knowledge was not gained by the first-hand observation of life but by reading. and to ornament our lives.Plants and Gardens W E SHARE THIS PLANET with the more ancient. form. we see very different cultural visions of plants and gardens and use pencils and plants to learn the pictorial values of space. He sent boxes of plants to Nuremburgburned with the urgency and excitement of explaining every plant's form. Conrad von Gemmingen. After Here Aconthus spinosus is combined with forget-me-nots and-a-half centuries of intensive observation. an There are close parallels between the acts of gardening and drawing. Plants are the principal inspiration of the decorative arts—from Roman Corinthian columns crowned with carved leaves of the acanthus. Botanic gardens were established and expanded. Plants seventeenth century. the punctuation of space with structure and mass.000 species of plants are depicted life-size drawn. to catalog our knowledge. color. Early European illustrators were trapped within dogma that was determined by ancient scholarship. 1613 187/8x153/4in(480 x 400 mm) BASILIUS BESLER . season. The revolution came in the 1530s. Classifications were set in367copperengravings. —-the largest and most influential botanical book of the early Natural scientists accompanied explorers to document unknown finds. We collect. and the Acanthus spinosus constant but exhilarating struggle to make a living image feel right. In this chapter. B A S I L I U SBESLER when botanists founded new work upon the direct study of plants. Rich owners of private gardens commissioned large-format florilegiums commissioned the volume to document his private garden to immortalize their personal taste and power of acquisition.Morethan 1. and the drawn pages ofthesame name. nurture. as opposed to only herbal. and texture. PriceBishopof Eichstatt specimens. robust.

and meticulous precision. Stella Ross-Craig said of the need to d r a w from a dried herbarium plant "I could make it live again. detail. Here. B e h i n d detailed. and wilted. Outline Bauer prepared a pencil outline before laying in fleshy succulent hues and tones of watercolor. They are counted among the most accomplished 18th-century botanical artists. It is likely Bauer would have studied these under a microscope. Sir Joseph Banks. or that were diseased. He has made the spatial and physical relationships in this drawing all the more real by placing a single. and Franz Bauer and his brother Ferdinand were employed there to draw specimens. measured drawings. M a c k i n t o s h e x p r e s s e s the f o l d e d petals of a broken rose b u d so delicately w e can sense the perfume. o p e n i n g a n d c l o s i n g i n the w a r m t h a n d light of the studio. insect-ravaged. subtle union of beauty. Botanical art c o n c e a l s the challenge of its m a k i n g . The King was then establishing the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. s u c h as w e see here in Bauer's Protea nitida. Light in this drawing is given by the paleness of the paper showing between washes of darker tones. o p t i m i s m . leaves. W i t h bright F R A N Z BAUER An Austrian artist who trained at the Schonbrunn Imperial Gardens in Vienna. Dissections Across the lower part of this drawing we can see dissections of seed pods and petals." Her slipper orchid s h o w s that botanical drawing must often resolve the challenge of its subject's p r o d u c i n g parts in different seasons — r o o t s . naturalist explorer and advisor to King George III invited Bauer to London in 1 7 9 0 . stems. delicate. Each plant must b e clearly distinguished from its closest relative.48 PLANTS AND GARDENS THE SCIENTIFIC VALUE OF A BOTANICAL DRAWING lies i n its Botanical Studies were specimens that often refused to stay still. petal tip over a lower leaf Protea nitida 201/4 x141/4in (513 x 362 mm) FRANZ BAUER 1796 . T h e rest of u s are free to d r a w as w e w i s h . and seeds conventionally a p p e a r o n o n e plate. fruit. flowers.

A s m a n y of her drawings are kept G a r d e n s . a m o n g o t h e r s . L o n d o n in 1 9 2 9 . S h e also o f thousands o f contributed an drawings.000 Kew to archive accessible t o d a y v i a t h e I n t e r n e t of o n British flora. as at trained botanical artist Ross-Craig Swift lines The drawing was planned in pencil and then overworked with a lithographic pen. sensual pencil drawing is later works. and it shows how design. Ross-Craig said of her work "Plants that wither rapidly present a very difficult problem to which there is only one answer—speed.g a r d e in G e r m a n y a n d A u s t r i a . imagination. p u b l i s h e d 1 9 4 8 .49 C H A R L E S RENNIE MACKINTOSH Scottish a r c h i t e c t d e s i g n e r painter. Closer to fiction can come together perfectly.7 3 in 3 1 p a r t s ." This line drawing is one of 1.. a n d he inspired. H e r Drawings of British Plants. a n d f o u n d e r o f t h e G l a s g o w S c h o o l o f A r t M a c k i n t o s h ' s flair h a d an e n o r m o u s i n f l u e n c e o n t h e a v a n t . and follow shadow. is r e c o g n i z e d as tne m o s t c o m p l e t e a n d i m p o r t a n t work 3. and perfect coordination of hand and eye. Rose 1894 103/4 x 83/4 in ( 2 7 5 x 2 2 1 mm) CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH STELLA ROSS-CRAIG A j o i n e d t h e staff a t t h e R o y a l B o t a n i c G a r d e n s . and observation the nuance and contour of every in one image.286 studies for her book Drawings of British Plants. G u s t a v K l i m t In his r e t i r e m e n t Mackintosh m a d e n u m e r o u s inventive pencil a n d w a t e r c o l o r d r a w i n g s o f plants. Line Drawing of Cypripedium calceolus L c. found among Mackintosh's than reality. and speed depends upon the immediate perception of the essential characteristics of the plant.. Pencil lines cling to. Curtis's Botanical Magazine. it is small and discreet. K e w . 1970 x 81/4 in ( 3 2 5 x 2 1 0 m m ) STELLA ROSS-CRAIG . BOTANICAL STUDIES Lines and shadows This lush.

and miraculous growth. is remembered in the pages of his journal. painting. uniform focus. 1590 85/8 x55/8in (219 x 1 4 4 mm) BISHNDAS AND NANHA Bright pigment These pages were illuminated by Mughal artists in the late 16th century. which he personally created near Kabul. Drawing. Upright shallow perspectives.50 PLANTS AND GARDENS Jeweled Gardens the Middle East we find exquisite stylization of form and upright formality in pictorial space. in miniature. the sumptuous petals permeated with prayer and wisdom. They used a fine brush to lay pigment over a line drawing. and calligraphy are brought together to hold the sacred names of prophets and the 99 beautiful names of God. The first Mughal Emperor Babur's Garden of Fidelity (Bagh-e Vaja). Below. . The white of the page shines through the brilliant color. Every fiber of AMONG DRAWINGS FROM BISHNDAS A N D N A N H A Little is known of these Mughal painters who were related as uncle and nephew and commissioned to illustrate the pages of Babur's journal. By Muslim tradition. Opposite is the Rose of Mohammed. in the early 16th century. Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity c. and attention to detail are all shared with medieval European manuscript drawings. urgent attentive human activity. roses took their form in a bead of perspiration on the brow of Mohammed as he passed through his heavenly journey. anticipating their view. paper is brimming with the beauty and celebration of nature. Envoys chatter outside the gate. Bishndas was probably responsible for the overall design. Babur directs his gardeners in the design and planting of this quartered chahar bagh. Afghanistan. fluctuations in scale. a notable portrait painter drew the faces. and Nanha.

look closely and you will see words written in gold fluttering over the form of the flower. Sacred words The central rose is more solid than any other on the page. so that overlapping petals and stems give an impression of fulfillment and abundance.c e n t u r y Turkish manuscnpt a book of religious e t h i c s w r i t t e n in the O r i e n t a l C o l l e c t i o n s of Berlin. However. G e r m a n y . It is n o w k e p t in Border The elegant border of this drawing was mode with a pen and ruler It cleverly compresses and defines the composition. and how the shape has been repeated freehand. t h e Staatsbibliothek zu Arabic. fragmenting its detail in a whisper of prayers. The physical anatomy of the rosebud has been studied and translated into a repeated stylized motif. Stylized motif A fine brush has been used throughout this drawing to apply inks and watercolors. The Rose of Mohammed 1708 9 1 / 2 x 61/2 in ( 2 4 0 x 1 6 5 mm) FROM THE TURKISH M A N U S C R I P T AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH . Note how each bud is essentially the same shape.AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH This is a detail o f a page from a n 1 8 t h .

52

PLANTS AND GARDENS

Fast Trees
IN CONTRAST TO THE QUIET, formal detail of other drawings in this chapter, these powerful fast trees enact the actions of plants. Each tree reaches out and holds its landscape with dynamism and pulse. In both drawings we find testament to the inexorable energy of growth. Rembrandt expresses a delicate quickness. Gentle lines draw a warm breeze through this remote wooded garden. Rustling in a loose foliage of soft marks, his pen evokes the weight of abundant activity on this late summer's day. Mondrian's arch of scratching branches is drawn with such force it will always be alive. We can still feel his hand storming across the paper. Set within a frame of smudged landscape, the tree possesses a musical agitation. This characteristic will increase in the artist's later abstract work. Here, we see a punctuated ordering of space. Sharp branches cut out negative shapes of winter sky.

R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter; etcher; and draftsman. Rembrandt's prolific output comprises oil paintings of historical and religious subjects together with group and self- portraits. His emotive etchings and pen and ink drawings (see also p. 174) are great resources for artists learning to understand the potential of these media.

Horizon

Pen and ink lines describing foliage also tell

us the directions of sunlight and wind. An arc crossing the bottom of the drawing from one side to the other supports the scene and separates us from the landscape beyond. Compare Rembrandt's arc to that of Mondrian's. and note the similar treatment of low horizons in both works emphasizing the height and dominance of trees.

Cottage Among Trees 1648-50 63/4 x121/8in ( I 7 I x 308 mm) R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN

53

FAST TREES

PIET

MONDRIAN

Atmosphere Here we see how shapes of negative space are as important as the physical subject they enclose (see pp.58-59). Mondrian has again lightly dragged his chalk on its side to evoke a wet depth of atmosphere. These passive gray marks contrast with the assertive tension of the tree.

Dutch Pure abstract painter preoccupied w i t h line and plane relationships. W i t h increasing austerity, Mondrian banished t h e subject from his drawings, in his later w o r k he also banished space, composing visual h a r m o n i e s using only straight lines a n d flat planes o f black, w h i t e , gray, o r p r i m a r y color.

Winter ground Short vertical marks along thebottomof this drawing reveal the length oftheblackchalk Mondrian used. Rubbed onitsside,itroughly blocks in the ground. Thecrudeeconomy of line is all we need tofeelthecold, wet, unwelcoming quality ofthiswinterearth.

Branches and trunk Lines shaping the branches of the tree are built up in layers. To make the trunk more dense, the artist has rubbed and smudged preliminary marks with his fingers before firmly overdrawing with new lines. Solid black lines are achieved by pressing the chalk hard. When used lightly, it shows the texture of the paper. Tree: Study for the Grey 1911 23 x 335/8 in ( 5 8 4 x 8 5 5 m m ) Tree

PIET MONDRIAN

54

PLANTS AND GARDENS

Graphite and Erasers
GRAPHITE, FROM THE G R E E K word

USING GRAPHITE
This drawing illustrates a range of achieved with graphite pencils of different grades.

graphein

Modern pencils are graded from 9H (hard and pale) to 9B (black and soft). Graphiteclay sticks are also available, together with a powder form. All possess a natural sheen and are erasable to a varying degree. Graphite drawings smudge easily, so fixative, a form of varnish, can be used to hold a drawn surface in place. It is applied as a fine mist from an aerosol can, or from a bottle using a diffuser. For the beginner, ordinary hairspray is an effective and cheaper alternative.

(to write), is a soft and brittle carbon. It was first mined in Cumbria, England, in 1 5 6 4 , and was initially used in small, pure pieces bound in lengths of string. Pencils as we know them—with their slender wood casing and "lead" of graphite—were invented in France in 1794 by Nicolas-Jaques Conte. He discovered that milled graphite mixed with clay and water, press-molded, and baked to a high temperature produces a harder and paler medium than graphite alone.

3B pencil A range of mark and textures can be achieved with a 3B pencil when you vary its pressure, speed, and direction, as this detail shows.

MATERIALS
Here is a selection of 14 items to illustrate a basic range of pencils, graphite sticks, sharpeners, erasers, and fixative.
1. AND 2. HB AND 3B PENCILS: It is unnecessary to possess every grade of pencil. HB, the central and most common grade, is perfect for making delicate lines. 3B gives a blacker tone. A great variety of effects can be achieved with just these two. 3. WATER-SOLUBLE PENCIL Effective for atmospheric drawing, but be aware of how watery tones can dull the impact of the line. 4. AND 5. MECHANICAL PENCIL Thick or fine leads are made in a range of grades. They are particularly useful because they do not require a sharpener 6. ROUND SOLID GRAPHITE PENCIL: Excellent for large-scale drawing, producing thick bold lines. A range of grades can be honed with a craft knife or sharpener 7. THICK GRAPHITE STICK: For large-scale drawing. Graded soft, medium, and hard. It crushes to produce graphite powder 8. SQUARE GRAPHITE STICK: Useful for making broad, sweeping marks in large-scale drawing. If worn and rounded, the stick can be snapped into pieces to regain the sharp, square end. 9. CRAFT KNIFE AND BLADES: Handles are sold in two sizes to fit large or small blades, and blades are sold in a range of shapes. Perfect for sharpening pencils to a long point, to cut lines in paper or to remove areas. 10. PENCIL SHARPENER: Makes a uniform point. Keep one in your pocket for drawing outside the studio, together with an envelope for shavings.

HB and 5B Layers of tone have been built up withHBand5Bpencils. Softer pencils require less pressure to make a mark, revealing the texture of the paper surface. It is important to keep the point of the pencil sharp with either a craft knife or a sharpener.

55

ERASING AND FIXING
Erasers can be used t o blend and s o f t e n lines, o r t o r e m o v e altogether. Fixative them prevents

GRAPHITE AND ERASERS

s m u d g i n g a n d s e c u r e s lines.

Using fixative You can use fixative while drawing to hold the definition of lines you wish to gently fade but not remove entirely, for which you would use an eraser.

11. P L A S T I C E R A S E R : Avoid cheap colored erasers that may stain drawings with grease and dye. White brands are available in soft and hard versions.

12.

P U T T Y RUBBER:

W a r m it in your hand before use. It is excellent for removing powdery materials, and for making crisp sweeps of light across a delicate pencil drawing

13. D I F F U S E R : Helleborus corsicus (Corsican hellebore) fixative, or to spray mists of ink.

56

PLANTS AND GARDENS

Cropping and Composition
M A N Y STUDENTS WILL START a d r a w i n g i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e

that its skin nearly touches the boundary. The meaning of the same drawing changes simply by its relationship to the space it occupies. The size of any subject, its placement on the page, the size of the page, and its overall proportion are all discrete and essential aspects of successful picture-making. Before you begin to draw, think carefully about where to place your subject. Are you are happy with your paper? If not, change it; add more, take some away, or turn it around. Do not just accept what you are given, adapt it to what you need.

paper. Focused on the shape and detail of their subject, they remain happily unaware that there is, or should be, any relationship between what they are drawing and the surface they are drawing it on. The paper is only paper, and the troublesome subject floats somewhere in the expanse of it. However, a single fig drawn in the middle of a large, empty square of paper gives quite a different impression from the same fig drawn on such an intimately small square

CHOOSING A VIEW

A Single Fig

"The size, shape, and orientation of the paper are so integral to the composition that they determine the impact and meaning of the drawing."

running corner t o corner. its illumination.O u r focus is on the white cloth supporting the figs. a device to help you decide what t o draw. This drawing hasbeencropped to emphasize space between thefruit. spaces between things are as important as the things themselves. A card with a small rectangle cut out o f it makes a useful viewfinder C l o s e o n e e y e t o look through the hole. U s e it as a starting point.57 THE VIEWFINDER T h e s e pencil drawings o f figs d e m o n s t r a t e different crops and compositions. and lines describing shadows cast by the fruit . When subjects touch two or more edges. its stem and shadow framing a white center. as also shown here. and therefore apparently suspended from. CROPPING AND COMPOSITION Off-center and diagonal Here I held my viewfinder so the fig appeared upper-left in the space. Space as the subject Inallpictures. Touching the edge When the subject o f a drawing touches one edge of the paper it attaches t o it visually. bottom-left t o top-right. the uppermost edge of the drawing. t h e n m o v e t h e c a r d t o e x p l o r e different views. Here the left fig is attached to. they establish a tension and unity with the paper. The angle of the fruit together with dark shadow (top left) and bright light(bottom right) suggest a diagonal division across the whole drawing.

you will need a similar large-leaved plant. Negative space is the simple key to getting positive shape right. The drawing opposite is of the uppermost leaves of a potted fig tree. In your own version. It helps to start at the center and map outward. which is shown in the three steps below. dynamic. It is an astonishingly simple device that many artists use and I strongly recommend. not leaves. and so on. this ensures a consistent view. Draw a complete shape Map outward from the center Erase and adjust lines until correct . and a role to play.The box opposite isolates an area. Unfamiliar shapes of negative space reveal the real shape of a positive subject. rather than what you see in front of you. a foundation stone in picture-making. In following this class. Remember that plants do move! Therefore it is best to complete your drawing in one sitting if possible. Follow these from left to right and see how I began with one complete shape between two parts of a leaf. tone. shapes of air cut out and defined by the physicality of our environment? When we look into the branches of a tree. and a fresh page in your drawing book. their subject and composition will become more real. But how often do we look at the air between things. third.58 PLANTS AND GARDENS Negative Space UNCONSCIOUSLY WE ASSESS spatial relationships all the time to guide ourselves through the world. fourth. erasing and adjusting lines until itlooked right. remember to draw only space. and engaging. WHERE TO START Arrange your plant and paper so you can look back and forth by barely moving your head. an eraser. then added a second shape. a sharp H B pencil. Viewers appreciating a finished image may not see shapes of space. but if the artist does. unified. do we see myriad distinct and unique shapes of daylight or do we just see branches? Why as artists should we look at the air? Every space in a picture has a shape. Looking at negative space overrides the problem of drawing what you know. position.

59

Here I drew only spaces, adding one to another until the leaves were revealed. Besides looking at negative space, there are two other useful things to do when a drawing feels wrong but you cannot see why: look at it in a mirror or turn it upside down. errors and suggest changes.

Spaces between leaves

Either view will

NEGATIVE SPACE

Fig Tree
WALKING IN THE ALPUJARRAS in A n d a l u c i a ,

Spain, I drew a bare fig tree clinging to the wall of an almond grove; a perfect subject for seeing negative space. I marked its essential frame of large branches first, frequently erasing lines and changing my mind until the balance felt right.

S a l v i a , RIBES, CLEMATIS, Allium, Passiflora, and Acanthus

Summer Flowers

Alchemilla,

drawn with an H pencil by observing the

negative spaces between the stems, petals, and leaves. I arranged the flowers on a sheet of paper in a cool r o o m and rapidly sketched a composition. Then I put them in water, taking the stems out one at a time to draw.

.

interfolding points of detail with areas of loose suggestion. If an artist changes the pace of their line and focus of their attention. Compare changes of pace and focus here to the flatter finish of Summer Flowers (see pp. 62-63).Acanthus Spinosus As we LOOK AROUND. . our eyes travel and adjust from one point of focus to another. they emulate our experience of seeing. Excessive detail leaves no space for the eye to rest or imagination to wander. We never see everything at once. gathering less distinct information on the way.

.

Paris 1871-74 the child's view to the infinity of the vanishing point. Besides sketches of first thoughts and polished drawings of the finished look for clients. Yet the pursuit of divine proportion and harmony remains. to help them create new form. they also have a diagrammatic language for communicating plans to builders. they have the Golden Section.This is a pencil drawing.The church is still in use today. VICTOR BALTARD French architect employed by the city of Paris. philosophers. we find the most recent steps in the evolution of graphic language. invaluable to understand and apply when you choose. Since the first flowering of Modernism in the early 20th century. It was also during the Renaissance that the architect Brunelleschi invented linear perspective. European conventions of pictorial perspective have lost their monopoly on seeing. to 20th-century film fantasy. time. At the core of their practice. architects. Computer programs allow the virtual drawing of ideas. and in the 19th century it was given the name the Golden Section. filmmakers. and sound. and architects of ancient Greece who first pursued the formula for "divine proportion. was preserved into the Renaissance where it became a foundation stone for thinking and creativity From 15thcentury Italy. and from West Facade of the Church of St Augustin. of the west facade of St Augustin. drawing plans around themselves within a program as opposed to on a flat sheet of paper. add and subtract ideas. Through the animation of the screen. designers. balance. coupled with the importance of exercizing your imagination. composers. fine artists. and writers have been breaking away from traditional forms of representation to seek new expressions of shape. architects and designers can imaginatively "climb inside" three-dimensional space and. film-set design. made by the architect himself. It is the focus of practical class in this chapter. Among the drawings of this chapter we look from 17th-century ecclesiastical calm. once there. Baltard designed the Church of St. 74-75). Augustin. It was the mathematicians. Architects have been fine-tuning their specialized branch of drawing for centuries. Perhaps in the sheer planes of some of our greatest modern buildings it is finding its clearest expression. each VICTOR BALTARD . with gray and brown watercolor wash. This harmony. mass. space. Linear perspective is a marvelous device. which was the first church in the capital to be built entirely of metal and then clad in stone. and computer game imaging." reflecting the eye's love of unity in difference. from political commentary to musical abstraction. the formula for perfection spread through Europe.Architecture I N THE CONTEMPORARY PRACTICES of architecture. the device that has since governed most of our picture-making (sec pp. which can be clearly seen in ancient Greek architecture. Since Picasso and Braque's revolution of Cubism in around 1907.

St Paul's Baptistry c. Oxford. a three-dimensional drawing made with wires and weights. he also worked on St Paul's Cathedral. Blenheim Palace. densely layered lines in mists of color weave the presence of the expected building into shape. A student of Wren's. describe a finished look to a client. pilasters. Hampton Court Palace. 1711-12 NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR . Together they explain how interior structure and space define exterior form and shape. and labor. marks the end of a long journey from the first few marks the architect made on a sheet of paper. testing gravity to calculate the inverted shapes of domes. NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR One of Britain's "three great" Baroque architects (along with Sir Christopher Wren and Sir John Vanbrugh). Hawksmoor's drawing is both a plan and an evocation. Architects draw for many reasons: to visualize ideas. calculate function. Cut-away interior On the right a section cut through the center of the building reveals material thicknesses. and balance. relative levels. and an inscribed entablature. Hawksmoor established his reputation with university and church architecture including All Souls College. Finished surface On the left the finished surface of the building is given depth and emphasis by immaculate vertical and horizontal brush strokes of shadow. The photograph opposite shows his studio hung with metal pendulums. materials. Lines define structure while washes suggest light and atmosphere. and six London churches. and the shapes of interior domes and apses.68 ARCHITECTURE Master Builders EVERY NEW BUILDING. evoke presence. structure. Three aspects This subtle and sophisticated drawing made in pen and wash displays three distinct aspects of Hawksmoor's baptistry. Drawings underpin every great human-made structure like hidden linear ghosts at their core. and Castle Howard. embodying a massive investment of ideas. and ultimately to show builders what to do. and later an assistant to Vanbrugh. We see the modeled detail of Corinthian columns. Pillars and floor At the base of the drawing a compass-drawn plan tilted downward through 90 degrees illustrates the arrangement of pillars around a central circular floor. Gaudi's fluid architecture grew up through many kinds of drawing. Below it.

This sculptural drawingenvisionsthe finished crypt glowingandethereal as if caught in thelightof red morning sun. The Art Nouveau movement. and his love of music. and apartment homes are distinguished by their Their and Flowering curves of stone or concrete are often encrusted with Gaudi was inspired by medieval and oriental art. Guell Crypt of its at the Time Construction c. To the right isawatercolordrawing thought to havebeenmade over a photograph ofthemodelabove. Gaudi's cathedral in Barcelona. churches. light. Gaudi air than on paper. unique organic manipulation of high shapes. 1900 ANTONIO GAUDI ANTONIO GAUDI Visionary Catalan architect. Wire and watercolor three-dimensional preferred to calculate Above is a drawing form in the made withlinkedwires and weights.69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt c. embellishment. 1910 24x181/4( 6 1 0 x 4 7 5mm) A N T O N I O GAUDI .

The architect and musician Daniel Libeskind has drawn a stampeding cacophany of airborne architectural detail. Floor space appears divided by discernible walls. Arctic Flowers 1980 DANIEL LIBESKIND . Both men used rulers and pens to carefully and slowly construct their compositions. He also produces urban and landscape designs. Visual rhythms In the lower half of this drawing architectural language has broken loose: escaped and transformed into an image of rebellious pleasure. short curved poles.70 ARCHITECTURE The Order of Sound B O T H OF THESE VISIONARY DRAWINGS o c c u p y a s l e n d e r . been a natural affinity between the visual rhythms of pictures and the audible rhythms of music. Floor plan This drawing has been made with a rapidograph. theater sets. Libeskind studied music before transferring to architecture. flat boards. before cascading into a riot of line and sound below.223). while the composer Erik Satie has made an enclosure of quiet order and grace. upright pictorial space. Across the top and center right of the image w e perceive an almost recognizable architectural plan. such a rapport in both of these drawings. and dotted lines. and the spaces between his windows and turrets are the visual equivalent of pauses in h i s m u s i c c o m p o s i t i o n s for p i a n o (see also Bussotti. He also contributed to plans for the rebuilding of the World Trade Center site in New York. We can see. There has always DANIEL LIBESKIND A Polish American architect of international acclaim. and exhibitions of his drawings. p. and in a sense hear. installations. and rooms. and arched dotted lines depict the radius of doors. a refillable pen that feeds a constant supply of ink through a fine tubular nib. Libeskind's numerous commissions include concert halls and museums. Libeskind begins quietly in the upper space of his drawing. We can imagine how a musician might interpret this drawing by looking at the abstract visual rhythms of masses composed of long straight poles. Contemporary musicians commonly collaborate with artists by interpreting images as sound. corridors. Satie draws quietly throughout.

Eastern influence The upright image Eastern is reminiscent and medieval of Middle pictorial space and subject of this European drawing.H i s witty. 1 8 9 3 77/8 x 51/2 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 4 0 mm) ERIK SATIE . minimalist s c o r e s scandalized a u d i e n c e s with o r c h e s t r a t i o n s f o r t h e foghorn and typewriter. and founded his o w n church. H e p e r f o r m e d in cabarets. effectively additional lines in a work. Satie collaborated w i t h hisfriends J e a n C o c t e a u a n d P i c a s s o . o f which he was the sole m e m b e r Parcel paper Satie has drawn this fantasy hotel using a ruler. a conventional dip or fountain pen. and ink on a fragment folded brown paper—a of everyday happened material of scrap that to be at hand. the perimeter Composition Look how well this drawingfitsand resonates with the upright.56—57 we discussed important the shape.Edges are how are of orientation.ERIK SATIE F r e n c h pianist and c o m p o s e r for t h e piano. They definespaceand pictorial balance. a n d ballet. andfouredges of the paper tothecompositionand impact animage.narrowshape of its paper.50. Onpp. Compare the even and and the shape wall to the elegantly stylized order of the many windows of arrangement of details and the shape of the wall in Babur's Garden of Fidelity on p. dressed eccentrically. theater. lived a l o n e . Hotel de la Suzonnieres c.

Boullee lived in Paris. Newton's Cenotaph 1784 153/4 x 25 in ( 4 0 2 x 635 m m ) ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE . We glide over exquisitely drawn wastelands of damage and abandonment. painter. cylinders. Within it. Light illusions This pen-and-wash drawing shows a subtle application of the principles of illumination demonstrated with an egg on p. the ominous globe exists only as a series of drawings. and taught at t h e A c a d e m i e d'Architecture. This is the work of an architectural theoretician. and dramatic lighting. His celebrated imaginary buildings are characterized by pyramids. we find other Utopian visions Paul Nobles epic drawing summons an imperfect and disturbing township where ruin and activity are equal and strange. Among preparations for Fritz Langs film Metropolis.96. Boullee's monolithic apparition was drawn as a monument to Sir Isaac Newton. arched vaults. ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE French architectural theorist.72 ARCHITECTURE T H E S E T H R E E HIGHLY DETAILED DRAWINGS Future Fictions invite us to soaring above normal life.The lower-left section of the building appears relatively pale against a darker sky. spheres. made in 1926. enter the long-shadowed architecture of imaginary worlds. This shift makes the cenotaph appear three-dimensional. Art director Erich Kettlehut's vertiginous design for the city of a slavelike populace had a future influence on movies such as Blade Runner. experiencing a fascinating conflict between curiosity and desolation. and the reverse is true on the right. and draftsman. antlike mortals might have speculated upon the universe.

Working on toned paper such as this gives an artist greater scope for dramatic lighting effects than if they work on white paper. Fritz Lang's Metropolis c. 1926 ERICH KETTLEHUT PAUL N O B L E British c o n t e m p o r a r y artist who creates m o n u m e n t a l . FUTURE FICTIONS Brush and ink This is a dramatic drawing from a film that shaped the history of world cinema. and white ink on brown-gray paper.73 ERICH KETTLEHUT Influential film a r t director. and are Graphite shapes Nobson Central isoneof a series of very large graphite drawings of the spoil and detritus of Nobson Newtown. mythology. Nobson Central 9 ft 1 0 in x 1 3 f t 2 in (3 x 4 m ) PAUL N O B L E 1998-99 . Its sheerscaleengulfs the viewer and demands based time and patience to on letters and in some beread. gray. and m o d e l . and morality o f an invented place called His satires exhibited w o r l d w i d e . together with c i n e m a t o g r a p h e r Karl Freund. draftsman. Kettlehut and his c o .Building shapes are works can be read as text.m a k e r In t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f Metropolis. intensely detailed graphite drawings explaining and questioning t h e geography.a r t director O t t o Hunte. Kettlehut drew using a fine and relatively dry brush dipped in black. architecture. used forced perspective camera t e c h n i q u e s t o amplify t h e m a g n i t u d e o f buildings in relation t o human characters. Nobson political visions of humanity Newtown.

and inventions— essential reading for inquiring minds. and thinkers ever to have lived. found at the center of all converging lines. We use it to structure illusions of depth. Pull the thread taut and rotate it slowly above the drawing. LEONARDO DA VINCI One of the greatest artists. Study of Perspective Adoration of the for the Magi 1481 61/2 x111/2in (165 x 290 mm) LEONARDO DA VINCI . Note how architectural features conform to lines and how human figures diminish in size toward thevanishingpoint. 206-07). In his notebooks. Leonardo recorded constant streams of ideas. this perspective is often an imagined bird's-eye view in which details are mapped according to logic and importance rather than how they might appear in real life. Here Leonardo provides a superb example of a single vanishing point. Invented by Italian artist and architect Brunelleschi in 1413 (late in the history of art). I contribute the child's perspective. Single-point perspective Tie a thread to a pin. It can be applied to any subject. inventors. It is also distinguished from aerial perspective (see pp.74 ARCHITECTURE Pathways of Sight LINEAR PERSPECTIVE (also called vanishing-point perspective) is a simple device for calculating the relative size of things in pictorial space. Sometimes shared with Naive artists. observations. scientists. but is most easily seen and understood in pictures of buildings and interiors. and age eight. Piranesi an example of two. and those of Naive artists and children. linear perspective is distinct from more ancient systems practiced in the East. All forms of perspective are of equal value. See how the thread corresponds to each converging line. Press the pin into Leonardo's vanishing point.

Breamore Village. at the top of each lateral column base. Children are uninhibited and problems with one element being obscured by another rarely arise. which I saw from home every day. Note the rather large rabbits and pheasants the hills. issues of scale when making room for important their story.SARAH SIMBLET I made this drawing (at age 8) in response to a local bookstore's request for children to draw their village. . Mark these points with your pin and follow the converging lines of the drawing by rotating your thread. and designer Piranesi's prolific architectural drawings. architect. Lightly marked illuminates vanishing Two Courtyards c. Scale Our farmhouse my experience was in the woods. visionary and practical understanding of ancient Rome. including all they recall about the subject. a points in logical narrative of memories. 1740 5 1 / 2 x 83/8 in (141 x 212 mm) G I O V A N N I B A T T I S T A PIRANESI points are located on either side of the drawing. This drawing Young children typically maps ignore on and understanding of the nearby village. and theoretical writing strongly influenced neoclassicism. England 1980 9 x 16 in (228 x 405 mm) S A R A H SIMBLET GIOVANNI BATTISTA PIRANESI Italian artist. Two-point perspective Sunlight through this colonnade a great example of two-point perspective. It shows how children usually map large scenes in flat layers one above the other. New Forest.

In contrast. Draw each step over the preceding one to build up a single image. You have completed your first box. try composing your own space. Each line should pass through one corner of the rectangle. Surround the vanishing point with a small rectangle. Study these pages first before embarking on this lesson. On the previous page we looked at its essential mechanism through drawings by Leonardo and Piranesi. DRAWING BOXES 1 Using a ruler and a sharp HB pencil.76 ARCHITECTURE Single-Point Perspective MASTERING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE i s e a s i e r t h a n y o u m a y First read through. (See p. Extend each dotted line to the edge of your drawing. This is where we will begin.) . imagine. This lesson shows you how to make a simple illusion of space defined by two boxes and three flat boards. Note that if you place large structures in the foreground and smaller ones closer to your vanishing point. Erase the dotted construction lines. discovering the image as it progressed. 2 3 corners must each touch a dotted line. you will amplify the illusion of distance. Leonardo began with a grid of many lines within which he invented his scene. This ensures that the second rectangle aligns with the shape and 4 Draw four short lines to connect the four corners of the two rectangles. corresponding to a single vanishing point. Draw four dotted lines radiating out from the vanishing point. Next.98 for an important note on oscillation. draw a horizon line across your paper Mark a spot on the horizon line. then follow the ten steps below. using a sharp HB pencil and ruler. this is your vanishing point. Piranesi planned his drawing with only the essential lines needed.

when inventing your own compositions. Continue the dotted lines out toward the edge of your drawing. draw four dotted lines radiating from your vanishing point Pass these through each comer of the new rectangle. larger rectangle. The board's sides should be parallel. draw a second. 6 As in step 2. with two dotted lines.willhelptomake them appear more solid. you can place rectangles anywhere youwishin relation to a vanishing point. Repeat this to add two more boards to the composition.asIhavedonehere. the closer it will appear to the viewer. Connect this to the vanishing point— again. The four comers must each touch a dotted line to be sureitaligns with the first. The larger you make your second rectangle. 8 Complete the second box with short lines as in step 4. 1 0 Erase all ofthedottedlinestoseeyourfinishedboxes Thickeningtheiredges. andfarside of this first board. and erase the dotted lines. 7 As in step 3. . N e x t draw a slanting line to mark the height of the first flat board. 9 Use dotted lines connecting the slanting linetothe vanishing point to locate the top.77 SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE 5 Draw a new rectangle. bottom. Note that this does not surround the vanishing point In the future.

78 ARCHITECTURE Creating an Imaginary Space T H I S CLASS USES SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE t o c r e a t e a s i m p l e to you and if you listen to it. p . O n a fresh page in your d r a w i n g b o o k . let simple lines suggest a simple space. 7 4 ) . you will find white adhesive stationery labels are useful for covering errors or changing the direction of your idea. it will take you places you never dreamed of. w h e t h e r it is a film or a painting. Every work talks In this class." . As David Lynch. then let the space suggest its c o n t e n t s and purpose. draw a b o x as shown opposite. It highlights the importance of having faith in your imagination and trusting your ability to invent. If using a fibertip pen as I have done for this drawing. A lot more happens when you open yourself up to the work and let yourself act and react to it." imaginary room. artist and film director. APPLYING PERSPECTIVE An Imagined Scaffold "Enjoy your illusion as you make it and it will become more real. Then follow the three given steps. I always start with a script but I don't follow it all the way through to the end. once said: "I never end up with what I set out to do. it is interaction that makes the work richer. The m i s t a k e n belief that we s h o u l d k n o w exactly what o u r finished drawings will l o o k like before we m a k e t h e m prevents many people from ever starting. Linear perspective will support y o u by providing a frame in which to b u i l d your picture as it did for Leonardo.

and floors and ceilings also converge and rise o r lower toward the horizon. The space has become more solid and real. Here. With some practice.Addanarray of converging lines to provide a "scaffold" for vertical.79 DRAWING A SIMPLE ROOM Essentials t o remember: objects and people dimmish in size as they move farther away.There is great pleasure tobefoundin spending time inventing interiors. . CREATING AN IMAGINARY SPACE 1First.drawthehorizonlineand vanishingpoint. and leaning surfaces. 2 first before adding furniture. 3 Remove the construction lines with an eraser and the room will becomeclearer. parallel planes such as walls converge toward the vanishing point. horizontal. you will beableto draw more complex objects orpeoplewithin them. This initial space will be transparent and open to change. additional lines have established the different surfaces and how they relate to each other.

verticals appear p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the g r o u n d . Potentially. 76-79). located anywhere inside or outside the pictorial space. do verticals appear inclined. From our normal eye level. I have elaborated on the simple boxes above. Here. Free vanishing points On paper we can enjoy the freedom of fantastic structural invention without limitations of solid materials or gravity. Search for the application of these perspectives among works by other artists in this book and in galleries. showing y o u h o w to draw curved surfaces and a tiled floor. These elaborations could continue indefinitely across a sheet of paper in pursuit of complex and intricate ideas. o r to the h o r i z o n . T h e y d o n o t have to relate to each other. Elaborations . they can be placed anywhere inspaceto describe the perspective of flyi c tilted objects. Further aspects of three-point perspective are also illustrated opposite.80 ARCHITECTURE Further Aspects of Perspective W E ARE ACCUSTOMED TO SEEING our e n v i r o n m e n t from a relatively constant point of view. or low and we look u p . a n d this is how we have drawn them so far (see pp. but they are not confined to this level. our eye level is very high and we look down. To draw such a view APPLICATION Copy these drawings to see and feel how they work before inventing your own versions. It is important to realize that you can have as many vanishing points as you wish. Vanishing points are commonly found on horizon—our eye level. They could be drawn on any scale from miniature to monumental.p o i n t perspective ( s h o w n opposite top). T h i n k of standing at the top of a skyscraper and imagine h o w its parallel sides would appear to converge below you. Copying what you see in the work of others will help you to understand what they have done. T h i s is d e m o n s t r a t e d immediately below. The boxes drawn here are seen partly or entirely disassociated from a horizon line drawn across the bottom of the image. That is where we e to find them. Only when y o u might employ t h r e e .

Finally. they mark the corners of the floor tiles. you will see how. Note that altering the distance between the three dots above will tilt the level of the floor .75.Istarted with two parallel lines. Giving curvature. Iusedthese lines as a guide t o draw the curvature of boxes and panels flying through space. I marked the toplinewith three evenly spaced points and the line with seven. Three-point checkered floor This d bottom floor. three vanishing points are evenly spaced along a horizon line.I added horizontal lines t o define the tiles. An array of curved lines (drawn freehand) link the two lateral points. tostraightlines can amplify drama in a picture. useful for representing steep views looking up or down tall structures. I then drew three fanned groups of lines connecting each of the three points above to the seven points below.) By comparing this drawing t o Piranesi's example of two-point perspective on p. Where thelinescross. by adding a third point you can achieve a sense of incline. and therefore tension. PERSPECTIVE Three-point curves Here. (Turn the book around to see a view looking up.81 FURTHER ASPECTS OF Three-point towers This drawing depicts three-point perspective.

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Theaters RESEARCHING FOR MY P H D . I visited many anatomical theaters and museums. These walnut-skin ink pen and brush drawings show imagined views of theaters that do not exist but were inspired by places I studied. . making drawings to resolve questions and express personal responses to the nature and history of anatomy.

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The vanishing of the drawing is directly opposite as we look across The constancy of the bridge and surrounding frames the movement in the life that flows past.Venetian Life sitting point buildings ThisP E N . .A N D . the water.I N KDRAWING is one of a series I made while next to the Rialto Bridge in Venice.

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r an equestrian statue. Artists and actors use the meanings of things to communicate a speculative mechanic. With the sudden onset of mass production. 1493 117/8c81/4in (300 x 210 m m ) LEONARDO D A V I N Ccreating I . In past eras. Today. design. drawings were needed to instruct workers on the factory floor. or used on stage hood for a mold t o make theheado f a horse f oas a p r o p — i m b u e d with e n o u g h energy or character can "become" a man. for example. but humans LEONARDO DA VINCI Inthisbeautiful red chalk Our items all have a purpose—practical or ornamental—and all have a meaning. A chair. H e has described a casting through metaphor. too. Artists also make images of objects that can never exist. each demanding more of the other as they increased in sophistication. to record an observed detail. illuminating snail shells. making a clear instruction t o his bronzemeaning. Engineers and designers of our objects and instruments make drawings for many reasons: to test an idea that is yet to be made. hooked bars that can be pulled and tied closely form. It is shaped in sections w i t h Artists have for centuries studied and expressed composition.Objects and Instruments T HE THINGS WE INVENT describe our lives. and a wire violin. for example—whether. are all made bearing the signature of our time and place. T h e Industrial Revolution c h a n g e d the traditional w a y s in w h i c h objects were designed. Technical drawing was speedily developed as a meticulous international code of m e a s u r e m e n t and explanation. fictional realities caster of h o w t o make it andhowit will w o r k . In this chapter. drawing c. color. C o m m o n items. Birds follow instinct to make a nest. and made. passing them on to others through the act of making. T h e precision of engineering d r a w i n g s e v o l v e d alongside machine tools. sculpted. H e has described contour and function at drawings. texture. Previously. or drawing w e see Leonardo daVinci'sprecision as can be given meaning. we look at the importance are the only creatures on Earth w h o actually design and create great ranges of things. of light in the creation of pictorial illusions. these. and the way in w h i c h the brain reacts Head and Neck Sections of Female Mold for the Sforza Horse to visual stimulus and optical illusions. W e also explore v o l u m e and form in the classes by spinning lines to make vessels. planned. even more advanced drawings are made on computers. and the behavior of light through making still-life paintings and together. and some apes use simple tools. History will be learned from the artifacts w e leave behind. drawn. It was in this era that the blueprint was born. craftsmen had held plans in their memory. from s p o o n s and pens to chairs and bicycles. that test our logic with a sense of mystery. have often carried great weights of allegorical once. or to explain and present a finished concept to a client.

and a journal jacket with words makes this drawing chatter about the moment. representing still life. silverware. not of place but of things. and glass objects of exquisite elegance for only the gentlest of touch and appreciation. Opposite.73 x 1 m) GEORGES BRAQUE .90 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS Still Life THESE DRAWINGS REVEAL t w o o p p o s i t e m o t i v a t i o n s i n we can. . Braques "justly" arranged combination of cut black card.Braque marshals all the forces of perspective. Statue D'Epouvante 1913 2 f t 5 in x 3 ft 5 in (0. Braque established Cubism in partnership with Picasso just before World War I. perfect i n their newly made availability. There is a fragile eloquence to these objects as they drift in slow motion past our gaze. not to work in harmony. a colored canvas. Mucha's drawing glistens with possession. wood-look wallpaper. He takes us into the bustle of the Paris cafe. Clashes The art historian Ernst Gombrich said of Cubism. "I believe [it] is the most radicalattempttostampout ambiguity and to enforce one readingofthepicture—that of a manmade construction. Even today GEORGES BRAQUE French painter who as a young man was influenced by the work of the Fauves and of Cezanne. T h i s is a designers drawing made to enthuse surface and style in its delicate brushing of china. but to clash in virtual deadlock." La Cuitare. charcoal. texture.. Below. His work is characterized by calm and harmonious still-life compositions. still feel this projected moment. One of the great joys of this movement in art is the musicality of its multipoint view.. Braques image is a Cubist collage. steaming with music and conversation. and shading.

Pans. and fish have been outlined using a sharp pencil. Art Nouveau motifs This is a preliminary study for a subsequent print. and New York. Art Nouveau curling motifs of birds. Background color Between the delicate shadows and highlights of these glazed and surfaces ofthebackground metal color of the Mucha we see a large amount paper.flowers. Chicago. and also stamps and bank notes.ALPHONSE MUCHA Czech graphic artist and painter who worked in Prague. For ten years Mucha designed theater posters exclusively for the actress Sarah Bernhardt. He is best known for posters featuring ethereal women in typical Art Nouveau style. The three plates facing us were drawn with a compass. He designed the Austrian pavilion for the Paris World Fair in 1900. Study for Plate 59 from "Documents Decoratifs" 17x121/4(430 x 310 mm) ALPHONSE MUCHA 1902 .fruit. Black watercolor washes and lines of white gouache have been added with a fine brush. Look at the two spoons at toprightand see how has suggested that they are so brilliantly shiny they reflect the background color.

From the concept of capturing the infinite to the mapping of microscopic sight. alchemist. In the graphic work of these two great men of science. and philosopher Newton was President of the Royal Society. Newton's 1672 ISAAC Telescope NEWTON . Their delicate construction is only as valuable as the measurements they make. and the nature o f light and color. each reflecting a view of his own world—his window. He counted 1 4 . Newton's drawing of his first reflecting telescope is ISAAC N E W T O N English scientist. and Fellow of the University o f C a m b r i d g e . each one skillfully rendered with the alarmingly matter-of-fact ease of explaining the commonplace. Transparent view Newton's reflecting telescope focused light in a parabolic mirror. and his hand moving across the light. mathematician. With dotted lines Newton has drawn his arrangement of elements inside the tube. The power of this drawing reflects the pure passion of discovery. the law o f gravity. we see drawing Instruments of Vision found among his letters. shape the very cause and effect of investigatory thought. into the eyepiece. a tree outside. drawing is there to pin the moment down. 0 0 0 perfect hemispheres. offering a transparent view. Hooke's head of a drone fly seen through a microscope may represent the first time man and insect came face to face. w h e r e he developed his three greatest theories: the law o f motion. A disembodied eye at the top of the drawing indicates where to look. astronomer.92 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS by their very nature must gauge or chronicle precision. It was then reflected up inside the tube and. Ink lines Several drawings appear among Newton's letters. via a second mirror. It is a diagrammatic explanation of how to catch and magnify a star in a mirrored tube. Look how confidently he draws with ink the sphere of this wooden globe by which his telescope rotates. Newton used this instrument to calculate the speed required to escape earth's gravity.

Hooke invented the camera diaphragm. It is an exhilarating read. 1665). ROBERT H O O K E 93 Magnifications This acutely detailed engraved drawing is taken from Hooke's Micrographia (pub. and anchor escarpment. and calculated the theory of combustion. universal joint a prototype respirator clock balance. a breathtaking book containing many of his drawings showing some of the first microscopic and telescopic magnifications of our environment Hooke's text and illustrations carry us to the moment of discovery.An experimental scientist who drew many of his discoveries. The Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 1665 ROBERT HOOKE 111/2 x 105/8 in (294 x 270 mm) .

and winner of the 2004 Jerwood Drawing Prize. and w h e r e the chair b e l o n g s . A renegade from the p a p e r dolls' h o u s e .94 INSTRUMENTS W H E N WE DRAW A COMMON OBJECT like a chair. and place in the world are truly seen. Van Gogh's tipsy seat is a metaphor for an absent person. this chair p r e s e n t s us with a clever visual contradiction: deeply drawn shadows tell us it must be solid. Woodfine exhibits internationally. From component parts we understand how to put it together and make it stand sensible in space. Sarah Woodfines flat cut-out m o d e l plan is a witty and surprising drawing. Drawn in more-or-less c o n v e n t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . its character. OBJECTS AND SARAH WOODFINE British contemporary artist graduate of the Royal Academy Schools. each drawn with the s a m e unfaltering lines and tones that are between reality and impossibility. it has so m u c h familiar personality that it seems to talk to us. Chair Cut Out 2002 22'A x 23 in (565 x 585 mm) SARAH WOODFINE . and has drawings in numerous public and private collections. Its wobbly gait and squashed s y m m e t r y m u m b l e endless h o m e y tales about the life it has seen. Bench Marks W e are left a little c o n f u s e d as to what we s h o u l d do. while the tabs make us see a flat paper cut-out. W i t h h o m e y c o n t r a s t . Two-dimensional was made This highly finished drawing ruler using a sharp pencil and on smooth white drawing paper glistening dark drawings are artificial representations of known Woodfine's two-dimensional things balanced in the world. craft. has published several catalogs of her work.

95 VINCENTVAN GOGH Dutch painter who produced over 800 paintings and 850 drawings in only the last ten year's of his life. Van Chair 1890 VINCENT VAN GOGH . not is made present in only strokes and is subdued to distract us from flat a meaningful chair. His passionate brush and pencil strokes are honest and of also turmoil and growing alarm at the world around him.hehas marked the full emotion of the subject with a fierce grip of concentration. Cornfield and Sunflowers. drawn opposite way of plan. and Starry Cypress Night. The floor few as engagement with the chair. inner recording while Fierce strokes This is a portrait of the mechanical drew immediately and almost harshly. Among van Gogh's best-known canvases are Trees. what direct in their he saw and describing his felt.

At one point you will catchenoughlight lighter than the white one. Below the bottom "edge" of the egg there is a rim of light reflected onto the paper by the underside of the egg. or colored surface is never constant. atmosphere. cards the same size. Here. w e turn our head but n o one w a s there. We perceive one to be lighter than theother. and the proximity of contrasting tones. are translated into a world of space. We only need small prompts. form. Are you happy LIGHT AND SHADOW with what you see? Does the light enhance the subject? Could you alter and improve it? On pp. perhaps. one blackandone white. your eye around the circumference of the egg. Adjust the angleofthe protruding part and again stepback. Before starting a tonal drawing of any subject. less developed than the center. T h e slightest recognition is instantly matched to our wealth of experience a n d expectation. To interpret visual s t i m u l u s . The small squares are identical in tone. Three factors change it: the amount of light it receives.d o w n patterns of light on our retinas. The egg's darkest region is seen against a lighter background. Card experiment cho can gra on . Tape them to the glass.102-03 deep shadows cast across shells make their form easier to perceive. transmitted to the brain as chains of electrical impulses.96 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Light and Illusions SEEING IS MIRACULOUS. a n d are q u i c k to p r o p o s e ideas. gray. The outermost edge of our vision. We will even see things that d o not exist because minimal information suggests they are likely to be there. W e learn to read light and shadow in our environment as indicators of solidity and depth of space. a lit photograph of an egg shows essential points to observe in tonal drawing. two identical mid-gray squares are seen against black and paler gray squares. try this experiment. From across the room both will appear black card and fold and retapeitwith half sticking out. Artists emulate and manipulate this effect in their pictures. think about its illumination.This effect is caused by the contrast of their surroundings. but do not appear so. The two tones meet without a division or outline between. o u r b r a i n s search for n a m e a b l e things. On acloudyday. Run The bottom-left quarter of the egg lightens slightly toward its "edge" when seen against the darker shadow cast on the paper. a n d our ability to see forms in c l o u d s or fire. S o m e o n e passes our o p e n door. reads only m o v e m e n t a n d can often m a k e mistakes. the adjustment of our eyes (in growing accustomed to a level of light). Below. hence our recognition of a cartoon face c o m p o s e d of three lines. See how its "edge" smoothly changes from light against dark to dark against light. The rim of light on the egg is reflected light received from surrounding paper. a n d m o v e m e n t . The perceived tone of a black white. a n d we can be fooled. Through these we can enjoy witnessing our o w n d e c e p t i o n a n d b a f f l e m e n t a n d u n d e r s t a n d certain factors that are very useful in picture-making. U p s i d e . Here w e look briefly at our perception of light a n d darkness a n d our interpretation of diagrammatic illusions. Gray squares To further examine changes in tone. The egg's lightest region is seen against a darker background.

Apparent lengths T h e s e optical illusions s h o w h o w lines o f identical length can b e m a d e t o l o o k quite different f r o m each o t h e r by t h e addition o r association o f o t h e r lines. O f t e ndoingso w i l l s p o i l y o u r w o r k . w h i l e t h i n n e r lines recede. T h i s fundamental o p p o s i t e is a reason w h y l i n e a r a n d t o n a l d r a w i n g does not a l w a y s c o m b i n e w e l l in t h e s a m e i m a g e . LIGHT AND ILLUSIONS Tonal width T h e s e black a n d w h i t e bands are o f equal thickness o n e i t h e r side o f t h e i r central division.97 LINE VERSUS TONE In l i n e a r d r a w i n g s . In a t o n a l d r a w i n g . start o u t w i t h one. Bending straight lines Linear distance These t w o jugs have b e e n d r a w n w i t h lines o f d i f f e r i n g thicknesses. T w o horizontal lines o f equal length are m a d e t o l o o k longer and shorter. T h e r e is n o obligation t o a d d b l o c k s o f t o n e t o a l i n e a r d r a w i n g . In this linear drawing w e read t h i c k as closer a n d t h i n as f a r t h e r away. b u t t h e u p r i g h t o n e l o o k s t a l l e r (B). T w o relatively t h i c k parallel lines are m a d e t o b e n d away f r o m each o t h e r as t h e y pass in f r o n t o f an a r r a y o f c o n v e r g i n g f i n e lines ( B ) . by d i r e c t e d a r r o w s ( A ) . Seven parallel lines are m a d e t o tilt t o w a r d and away f r o m each o t h e r by n u m e r o u s s h o r t strokes crossing t h e m diagonally ( A ) . respectively. B o t h are identical in length. T h e jug d r a w n w i t h a t h i n line appears f a r t h e r away t h a n t h e j u g d r a w n w i t h a t h i c k e r line. t h i c k e r l i n e s a p p e a r t o stand forward.p o i n t p e r s p e c t i v e d r a w i n g s w i t h a large n u m b e r o f c o n v e r g i n g rays b e h i n d y o u r horizontals. If y o u w i s h t o m a k e a t o n a l drawing. . In this t o n a l image w e read w h i t e as f a t t e r t h a n black. Y o u m a y e x p e r i e n c e s o m e t h i n g similar h a p p e n i n g w h e n y o u m a k e s i n g l e . l i g h t e r surfaces s t a n d f o r w a r d w h i l e d a r k e r s u r f a c e s recede. A n u p r i g h t line stands in t h e c e n t e r o f a h o r i z o n t a l line. S h o r t h o r i z o n t a l lines o f identical length are m a d e t o l o o k d i f f e r e n t by c o n v e r g i n g lines beside t h e m ( C ) . O b s e r v e h o w each white b a n d appears t h i c k e r t h a n its black c o u n t e r p a r t .

Op(tical) artists. such as t h e dish seen h e r e o n t h e left. as s h o w n o n t h e right. perfected the acceleration of perspective (see pp. o r as a s l o p i n g . and so calculated precisely how much to fatten columns to make them appear straight. others adjust works to avoid their effects. w e can only look f r o m one t o the o t h e r If an artist is not aware this can happen in their image.76.s i d e d r e c t a n g u l a r t r a y ( b o t h are illustrated far r i g h t ) "The brain is so eager to name a fragment we see that we need only a suggestion to grasp the whole. Ancient Greek architects knew parallel upright lines appeared to bend toward each other in the middle. it can oscillate b e t w e e n facing t o w a r d o r a w a y f r o m us. It is a curious fact that w e can never see both options at once. Artists make pictorial illusions when they paint or draw. their picture could be ambiguous. w e will find that in terms of the direction it faces. Michelangelo.116-17) to make painted figures look correct when viewed from below. such as Bridget Riley. SEEING TWO OPTIONS Sometimes. Some artists use known optical illusions to make art. In the 1960's. A few suggestive marks will tip the decision one way o r the o t h e r Closing the surface W h e n a t r a n s p a r e n t elliptical o b j e c t has b e e n d r a w n . made paintings that depended upon the physical sensation of our brain's reaction to known optical illusions. Two ways of seeing T h i s is t h e b o x c r e a t e d in t h e f o u r t h step o n p." . among others. and we learn to read the styles of diverse cultures and periods. Artists can communicate much in few lines and the viewer will do the rest of the work. C l o s i n g t h e surface o f t h e f o r m seals o u r d e c i s i o n as t o w h i c h w a y it faces. Today we are bombarded with images but rarely have difficulty reading them. are still not agreeably understood. Yet many illusions.98 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Further Illusions PSYCHOLOGISTS AND PHYSIOLOGISTS have studied optical illusions for decades in pursuit of what they tell us about the brain. it oscillates between t w o possibilities. It is possible t o r e a d i t t w o ways: as a t r u n c a t e d r e c t a n g u l a r p y r a m i d seen d i r e c t l y f r o m a b o v e . including some shown here. w h e n drawing the outline o f a three-dimensional form.

His highly d i s p u t e d and i m p r e c i s e science involves s h o w i n g u n p r e p a r e d p a t i e n t s t e n p a r t i c u l a r ink b l o t s a n d asking t h e m t o i n t e r p r e t w h a t t h e y see. N e i t h e r triangle exists. Yet still w e try resolve t h e m . This effect can o c c u r naturally w h e n looking at a b r i g h t l y lit w h i t e g r i d such as a w i n d o w f r a m e against t h e night sky. b u t w e believe w e see t h e m because e n o u g h f r a g m e n t a r y i n f o r m a t i o n is given f o r o u r brains t o c o n c l u d e t h e y are v e r y likely t h e r e . W e should r e m e m b e r t h a t o u r brains will always search f o r a p i c t u r e — i n ink blots. — a n d so t h e artist can create m u c h o u t o f an impression w i t h o u t overdescribing. 1 6 t h .c e n t u r y Italian painters. e t c . T h e t e s t e x p l o r e s o u r n o r m a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o find things w e can n a m e a m o n g r a n d o m shapes. Minimal-line j o k e s such as this rely u p o n t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y v i e w e r ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e shapes. O n l y o n closer inspection we realize that t h e s e o b j e c t s are fooling us. M u c h can b e e x p r e s s e d in o n l y a f e w marks. F a m i l i a r i t y in r a n d o m s h a p e s T h e Rorschach test was established by t h e 1 9 t h . T h e s e e x a m p l e s illustrate h o w little is n e e d e d t o c o n v e y an image. w e see t w o overlapping triangles: o n e outlined in black b e n e a t h a n o t h e r in solid w h i t e . FURTHER ILLUSIONS Seeing things that are n o t t h e r e H e r e o n t h e left.99 Impossible objects T h e s e clever configurations o f outlines and t o n a l surfaces convince us at a glance that we are seeing a solid three-dimensional triangle and a three-pronged fork. P e r c e i v i n g a w h o l e i m a g e f r o m m i n i m a l lines T h i s is a w i d e l y r e p r o d u c e d visual j o k e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e C a r r a c c i b r o t h e r s . . T h e a r t i s t M. T h e y a r e o f t e n c r e d i t e d w i t h t h e invention o f t h e c o m i c c a r t o o n . smoke. C o u n t t h e n u m b e r o f d a r k spots y o u can see. clouds. C o u p l e d w i t h t h e Rorschach b l o t above.c e n t u r y Swiss psychologist H e r m a n n Rorschach. this is a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f t h e viewer's b r a i n b e i n g willing t o d o a large a m o u n t o f t h e w o r k in d e c i p h e r i n g a p i c t u r e . S o m e artists use ink blots t o p r o m p t t h e beginning o f an image. B e l o w is a b r i g h t n e s s c o n t r a s t illusion. C Escher u s e d this phenomenon t o great effect in his many p o p u l a r d r a w i n g s o f puzzles and impossible buildings. T h e patient's answers are t h e n diagnosed as a psychological profile. This simple five-line d r a w i n g is o f a C a p u c h i n priest asleep in his pulpit.

springlike forms like those I have drawn below. and these narrow or widen depending on the height of our view. not the paper!) As the pen touches down. spin your hand in a relaxed circle. keep it spinning. How to Draw Ellipses of seeing. you will achieve steadiness with practice. smoothly. . w h e n seen at an angle. Watch the tip of your pen and see it draw an ellipse in the air Keep this movement going while gently lowering the pen onto the paper like the needle of a record player closing on the disc (only it is your lowering hand that spins. circles change into ellipses.90) takes a different as essentially circular. for example plates or bowls on a table. The first common error is to draw two pointed ellipses. (see p. describing many sides of an object simultaneously. I have exaggerated this error here. However. third common error is to draw upper and lover ellipses with different-sized apertures. giving the cylinder four corners. suggesting that the vessel is lopsided. A wobbling but confident ellipse will still be more convincing than a slow. hesitant one that has edged its w a y nervously around the vessel's rim. that this is o n l y o n e w a y view.100 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS W E VISUALIZE CYLINDRICAL VESSELS. COMMON ERRORS W h e n drawing cylindrical objects in perspective. Cubism. WHERE TO START In the air above a spacious sheet of scrap paper. there are three common errors people stumble upon. such as bowls and cups. Cover a sheet of paper with spinning. even if y o u r hand w o b b l e s a little at first. like a disposable plastic cup that has been crushed in your hand. Be aware. as if the table surface slopes upward beneath the vessel. a n d in o n e bold stroke. Ellipse are best d r a w n quickly. I have drawn these for you here. for example. while its upper rim remains level. Don't worry if it is uneven— just try again. though. The second common error is to tilt the upper and lower ellipses at different angles. To make a cylindrical object appear real in our pictorial space. w e use ellipses to give a sense of perspective. since this is h o w w e experience them in e v e r y d a y use.

. thereby hiding lines that show the other sides. working from top to bottom. Draw quickly. Seeing Through Allow lines to travel around each vessel as if it were transparent. you can make it solid by building up highlights and tones on visible surfaces. Altering the pressure—and therefore tone—of the line as it spins gives the impression of light shining on one side. you can start to control your spinning ellipse to make a vessel. Create a Solid Surface Once you have drawn the shape and volume of each form.101 DRAWING VESSELS Once you have mastered drawing free-hand springs. enlarging and diminishing the ellipse to determine the overall shape and volume. HOW TO DRAW E L L I P S E S A Single Vessel One Inside Another Grouped Together Finding Shape and Volume Draw an imagined vessel in one continuous spinning line.

t h e r e a r e p r i n c i p a l l y Dramatic lighting emphasizes texture and contour. LIGHT TO DARK DARK TO LIGHT .22-23). or you can begin with a mid-gray ground and model light out of darkness (see opposite bottom). In the finished drawing there should be few. leaving detail until last. if any. Illuminate them with a gooseneck lamp placed very close and directed away from your eyes. It maximizes the range of tones between black and white. simply shapes and subtleties of light and dark meeting each other with no divisions in between. making complicated or subtle surfaces easier to see and understand. if light shines in them. You can begin with outlines and build slowly from light to dark (see opposite top). Relaxing your eyes out of focus as you draw will help to dissolve the distraction of detail. and solid objects are all of equal importance. OBJECTS AND Start by arranging a choice of shells on a sheet of paper to your left if you are right-handed (or vice versa). It is important to place them on the correct side so as to draw comfortably (see pp. two opposite methods of achieving the same result. Remember that shadows. beams of light. Draw the largest and most distinct areas of light and darkness first. and strong contrasts are easier to draw. Gradually hone your drawing.102 INSTRUMENTS Tonality W H E N MAKING A TONAL DRAWING. outlines. it will inhibit your perception of tone.

Use quick. Remember that its size. look at the main areas of darkness. . Let your eyes go out of focus while looking gently layer marks to create an even tone at your subject and paper: Draw the most ofmid-graywithin a rectangle.56-57).103 LIGHT TO DARK (LINE TO TONE) TONALITY 1 Using a sharp HB pencil. Draw in the details last of all. Avoid a rough significant areas of light in your gray rectangle with texture and do not press the graphite hardwhite plastic eraser Ignore all detail and draw a into thepaperor you will not be able to erase it. Honetheshapesand angles of the shells. Fll in broad areas first and leave all detail until last. loose. Treat positive form and negative space (see pp. pale lines with equal importance. with broad sweeps of the eraser. Relaxing your eyes out of focus will help to eliminate distracting details. and edges definingthespacialrelationships between are important aspects of your composition them. Continue working between light and dark to refine the drawing. 2 3 Gentlydissolveoutlines so that areas oflightanddark meet without a line between them. Erase and make changes to roughly place the shells inside your with your composition. shape. DARK TO LIGHT (TONE TO TONE) 1 Using the flattened tip of an HB pencil. until you are happy frame. Use your pencil to develop these in relation to the areas of light. boldly 2 3 Keeping your eyes out of focus. draw a rectangle.

you can create your own more ambitious works. They can also be made in space. Seeing through a wire drawing of a known object such as a violin gives us a visual and tactile understanding of all its sides and shapes at once.104 OBJECTS AND I N S T R U M E N T S Drawing with Wire DRAWINGS DO NOT HAVE to be two-dimensional.69 we see how the architect Antonio Gaudi drew proposed domes using suspended wires and weights. There are essentially three lessons to be learned. PEN LINES Once you have created your three-dimensional violin (opposite).220 Mamoru Abe draws with forged steel rods. our image is stronger if we understand and can visualize what is happening on the other side too. and on p. smooth. The first is that figurative and abstract drawings can be made in space. 19 Picasso draws with a pen-light for the camera. and physical relationships between them. When drawing anything viewed from one side on paper. On p. On p. The second is that after achieving this simple example. three-dimensional drawings teach us about the totality of forms in space. 176 the British artists Noble and Webster draw with domestic refuse in a beam of light. Third. This class uses thin-gauge wire to create a threedimensional violin. Place the instrument on a plain surface and illuminate it with a desk lamp to add the delicate dimension of shadows. try drawing it with a pen on paper Use bold. and on p. continuous lines. .

Once you have completed the body. brace the two ends of the violin with a length of wire along the back. 4 . and thick wire a larger one. and pinch and bend it to shape the base of the instrument Repeat this process to make the identical upper side of the instrument. These will hold the sides apart and help to keep the form in shape. begin to shape the curvature of the fingerboard. Then begin to define its uppermost surface with Scurves and the bridge. 2 3 If needed. but thin enough to be easily manipulated inyourfingers Here.105 SETTING UP DRAWING WITH WIRE Follow these steps to draw a three-dimensional violin Choose a gauge of wire sturdy enough to hold the shape ofyourfinished drawing. Cut a length. 1 Decide how big to draw your violin relative to the gauge of your wire. Join the two sides together with four short pieces of wire. thin wire will make a smaller drawing. Here. I used garden wire and cut it carefully with pruners. I started with the scroll at the top and fixed the four component wires with two drawings of tuning pegs.

Oxford. they invented new anthropological finds—objects that reflected the distant past and their immediate future.Artifacts and Fictions IN 1993 I WORKED with a group of schoolchildren who were responding to the astonishing objects in the collection of the Pitt Rivers Museum. Using found materials. I had the privilege of drawing their inventions. England. . some of which are shown here.

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The human body. Look closely at Renaissance drawings of the female b o d y and you will see that m o s t are actually y o u n g m e n with minor adjustments. 3 x 7 in (300 x 180 . Artists are thought to have b e g u n drawing from the nude during the Italian Renaissance. and in San could easily be transferred into three dimensions. Renaissance artists studying anatomy from dissection clinically trained and specialized as a medical illustrator. but the study of a controlled. She the body is still essential. These classes are popular around the world. W I L L I A M S technology. the junior workshop apprentices posed as part of their duties.The Body O UR BODIES MAKE us TANGIBLE. Artists now explore the interior of the body with new media and Lateral Contour Map of a Full-Term Primipara Produced by Light 1979 A. in our privileged and comfortable society. During this time. This F finished image was produced as r a n c i s c o . He even believed he had located the soul contours of her form like a cartographer's map of in the pituitary fossa beneath the brain and behind the eyes. focus has turned to the vulnerability of flesh: how it can be damaged. herimpressive presence because we are given such Life drawing no longer dominates the art school curriculum. artists also tried to define ideal proportions in the body. while Leonardo opened the body to see and projected onto a woman's body draw the celebratory discover for himself our physical mechanisms. Michelangelo attended dissections to made this image by light sectioning: fine beams of light perfect his understanding of surface form. WILLIAMS he sought perfection in the infinitesimal measurement of the body and produced four Contemporary photographer volumes of illustrated explanation. the Bay Area Models' Guild h o l d s a quarterly life-drawing m a r a t h o n aprinton Kodak transfer paper with green-colored dye added celebrating the great diversity of human proportion. R. sculptural description of her form. is the most c o m m o n subject in art. W e understand every curve and balance of to the theory that the eves are the windows of the soul. R. and because the female was deemed inferior. giving physical foundation undulating land. history paintings and other stories. Leonardo drew a man within a circle and square. and anatomical and erotic art. It gives physical and emotive form to religious narratives. much Western contemporary art. and surgically rebuilt. It also looks at the representation of the b o d y b11y4o n d traditional life drawing. diseased. explaining ranges e/ of materials and techniques and showing diversities of thought and purpose in making. clothed or nude. from video and X-ray to thermal imaging. This chapter addresses issues that are most commonly faced by beginners attending life-drawing classes. In this period. W e are the only creatures on Earth that can make our own image. a n d w e d r a w o u r s e l v e s to a s s e r t o u r e x i s t e n c e . myths and fables. portraiture. Drawings were usually made from the male nude to avoid offending the church. The body remains at the core of over the initially white lines. while Durer took his research further— A. Strangely. Williams were decades ahead of their medical counterparts.

T h e y b o t h raise one arm to cup their head in their hand. we see the e s s e n c e of h e r b e a u t y w i t h o u t a single detail. He trained under Perugino. Sculptural frieze This is a preparatory drawing for Raphael's painting of the Resurrection of Christ.116-17). Raphael drew delicate tones of black chalk on tinted paper.110 T H E BODY THESE DISTINCTIVE WORKS show two strikingly different ways of modeling the body on paper. altar pieces. Raphael's study of fallen m e n leaves no doubt that they are in anguish. Here three male nudes are compressed into very shallow pictorial space. In a single drawing we see equally o b s e r v e d studies of f o r e s h o r t e n i n g (see pp. Muscular dramatic postures reflect the influence of Michelangelo and the Renaissance celebration of the idealized male body. Three Guards 1500-20 91/4 x143/8in (234 x 365 mm) RAPHAEL . filling the page with her presence. and studied to learn from the works of Michelangelo and Leonardo besides whom he was soon ranked. while supporting the weight of their body with the other. Principal figures m i r r o r e a c h other. anatomy. But the meanings of each gesture and the materials and methods by which they Postures and Poses were m a d e contrast greatly. and human defeat. and Vatican frescos. so that we read this drawing like a sculptural frieze. In this highly s o p h i s t i c a t e d a b s t r a c t i o n . while Matisse used scissors and glue to cut out and paste a flat collage of brilliant color. Matisse's b l u e n u d e sings with life and c e l e b r a t i o n . By way of contrast. She u n f o l d s and s t r e t c h e s shapely limbs. RAFFAELLO SANZIO (RAPHAEL) Italian High Renaissance painter: Raphael is best known for his images of the Madonna and Child.

and more energetic Color and form This collage is one of a series of Blue Nudes. freer. His calligraphic natural abstractions of form grew brighter. a mental soother. as his w o r k matured. lifelong love of brilliant They celebrate the culmination of spectacular and sometimes drawings. devoid of troubling Blue Nude 1 1952 413/4 HENRY MATISSE .111 HENRY MATISSE French painter: draftsman. foundamong many other groups of papercut these works as an elderly man confined to his bed or wheelchair.designer writer. serenity. printmaker... his pattern." of is an art of balance.which might be... teacher and principal exponent o f Fauvism—a movement established in 1905 in which bold color is the most essential element. Matisse Soothing influence This drawing expresses the achievement of Matisse's personal aim: "What I dream and depressing subject matter. fabric.or like a good armchair in which to rest from physical fatigue.sculptor. and Islamic art. Matisse became an artist after studying law..like an appeasing influence..

Beuys's magician. Below. Tone and light In this black conte drawing. other tones. stands in counterpoise holding a dark globe and his thoughts in m o m e n t a r y balance. and color His applied theories still influence painters in their manipulation and rendering of local. turned gray. he used b l a c k c o n t e (see p. and muddied the brilliance of the drawing. we c o m p a r e a skillful design that absorbed m u c h time in its making with the quickness of an idea marked instantly. Seurat evolved a distinctive t e c h n i q u e called p o i n t i l l i s m — i m a g e s literally made from myriad points of color. only tones blending into. 162) and an eraser to model teeming points of artificial light amid GEORGES SEURAT French painter classically educated in the Ingres school of thought. Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 1883-84 91/2 x 121/4 in (241 x 312 m m GEORGES SEURAT .112 T H E BODY Choreographs T I M E IS A SIGNIFICANT E L E M E N T i n t h e m a k i n g o f a l l d r a w i n g s . Here. T h e space around h i m chatters with symbols. there are no outlines. like small birds attendant on the meditation. it would have mixed with unseen black dust. velvet d a r k n e s s . scratched in seconds. and c o m p l e m e n t a r y hues. or abruptly meeting. reflected. w h o sits propped in the contradictory darkness of a hot summer's day. agreeing to coalesce and show us the form of a waiting boy. Opposite. Typically. it is as if the very atoms of air are made visible. Using the paper to create light is important for beginners to learn. Light is given by the paper alone. In his f a m o u s paintings of social e n g a g e m e n t . His drawings are similarly u n i q u e . form. Seurat engaged in lifelong studies of line. If Seurat had added white. in a perfect e x a m p l e .

Unbroken lines stream from his simultaneously movement.113 JOSEPH BEUYS One of the most influential German artists of the 20th century. Perfectly modeled rather conventional for Joseph Focus Beuys's hand moved quickly to draw dotted lines flowing downward on either side of the figure. Beuys gave performances. His The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland UNDATED 113/4 J O S E P H BEUYS x81/4in (297 x 210 mm) . in different positions. iodine. This figure is drawn intuitively.gold. taught workshops with a cult following. Our focus joins shoulders. and drawings. Many of his other symbolic works on paper have been drawn with materials such as honey. He was a shaman who believed in intuition and in the investment of healing force. and that These aspects of the work convey fractured visibility. transience. and made installations. and blood. CHOREOGRAPHS the profound power materials with spiritual or of Free lines This pale pencil drawing is Beuys. free from the constraint of immaculate form opposite) impetus is irrelevant to the and meaning of this work (as we see in Seurat's drawing representation. video art.

Opposite. But what is stranger to us now is that they were also outraged by his free use of line. the women are framed and caressed by long." as seen here. was perceived as scandalous. Rodin employed models to move freely or pose together in his studio. and went on to inspire generations of artists. In both drawings. Delicate strokes This is one of about 7. They whisper and writhe in a brushed and sultry embrace that devours our watching. Anita Taylor has drawn her protective body hug out of the darkly glistening compression of willow charcoal and the dynamism of her shy but momentous femininity. We are asked to gaze u p o n her flesh. Rodin produced portraits and statues of public and literary figures. We are involved not as a shabby voyeur but as a bystander engaged through our recognition of shared joy. Achieving international acclaim in mid-life. Inspired by Michelangelo. Our bodies radiate the passion of our thoughts and so become beacons of our frailty and power.114 BODY Passion SUMMONING HUMANITY in a drawing of the nude is a subtle and emotional task. As here. In Rodins work. he typically drew them with a few delicate strokes of pencil and brushed watercolor. THE AUGUSTE RODIN French Romantic sculptor and prolific draftsman employed as an ornamental mason until the age of 42. sweeping lines— of either purple silk fabric or cool studio air—that imprint and amplify their past and future movements. the fierceness of the women's kiss is beautifully matched by the tenderness of his line. 125/8x 9 in (320 x 229 mm) AUGUSTE RODIN Two Women 1911 Embracing . His exquisite flow of paint beyond "outlines. and one of hundreds of rapid studies of nudes.000 drawings shown in rotation at the Musee Rodin. its soft. Free lines Rodin's public audience was understandably shocked by the eroticism of his drawings. Paris. his w o r k is characterized by deliberate un-finish and powerfully modeled emotion. flushed skin made ruddy and black with crushed cinders.

intimately reflecting upon the emotions and meaning of nudity. A thinner sheet might have crumpled and torn under such vigorous force of making. leaving her lightest marks at the deepest level of the image and applying darker marks above. and gaze. Taylor has drawn. erased and drawn again.I 15 ANITA T A Y L O R Painter. and rework rich depths of light and tone. professor and Vice Principal of Wimbledon School of Art. Charcoal Taylor has drawn freely with charcoal and an eraser on thick. The sturdy surface of the sheet has allowed her to press hard when needed. This order of light below and dark above gives glowing from within. the impression of luminosity All and Nothing 1999 67 x447/8in (170 x 1 1 4 cm) ANITA TAYLOR . London. textured paper. scrutiny. exposure. Luminosity Layered marks flicker likefirelight as they sculpt the woman's body. draftsman. Taylor's immense self-portraits explore the relationship between the artist as maker and the artist as model.

plummeting. patience. 2 Hold your pencil upright. Lock your shoulder. There is no need to mark them all down on paper. the skull in Holbein's The Ambassadors (The National Gallery. unfathomable angles. helping us to see more clearly. This is chiefly a correcting device by which figurative painters and sculptors have for centuries countered the effects of our viewing their work from far below or on the curvature of a vault. Spend time making comparisons before you draw. It can also be a little demon in the life room. Smaller. Close one eye. you will make inconsistent and unrelated comparisons. London). Move the tip of your thumb down to a second chosen point. How to make and apply these is explained below and opposite. or shrivelling at odd. we would arrive to find many of the same figures strangely distorted. and a few measured comparisons are key. with dramatic illusions of figures painted in normal proportion. for example. Imagine Michelangelo's murals in the Sistine Chapel. and measurements do not have to be carried to the paper and slavishly drawn the same size they appear on your pencil. elbow." . Return to this posture every time. Accelerated perspective plays a great role in much art. and wrist joints.limbs happily receding. when beginners prop their board in their lap and look down at too steep an angle. To avoid its effects ensure you always look flat onto the surface of your page. It is not so hard. "Simple measured comparisons reveal surprising truths about proportion. rather that what we believe we know from experience. just making them helps you see. It is not complicated.116 T H E BODY Measurement and Foreshortening FORESHORTENING IS AN ASPECT of perspective. without taking off. elongated as if stretched across the plaster. to be translated by mirrors or seen from only one point in the room. But if we could take a scaffold and climb up to the work. We also look at another very interesting branch called accelerated (or anamorphic) perspective. Rome. Align the top with a point on your subject. If your arm is not straight. The length of exposed pencil is your measurement. In the life class it is the mechanism for ensuring that a drawn figure lies correctly in pictorial space . and to draw what we see. more extreme examples have been made for court entertainment. 1 Hold your arm straight. MEASURING This is a simple method of making measured comparisons for relating the true size of one part to another This is a tool to assist observation and thinking. which is imperceptible from below. persistence. Up close on the scaffold we would witness Michelangelo's subtle application of accelerated perspective. or coming forward. 3 Keep your pencil perpendicular Measure and compare at any angle.

Keep t h e b o a r d steady and draw. Stand its b o t t o m edge o n y o u r lap. belly. S o o n t h e b o d y will lie d o w n in space. y o u must let go o f w h a t y o u k n o w f r o m e x p e r i e n c e a b o u t t h e relative sizes o f b o d y parts and trust y o u r eyes. W o r k a r o u n d t h e figure. which feels strange. MEASUREMENT AND FORESHORTENING Tilt t h e t o p edge o f this b o o k t o w a r d you and look d o w n o n this figure f r o m a b o v e . To m a k e f o r m s l o o k c o r r e c t . A t a c e r t a i n angle. . P r o p o r t i o n s will only l o o k c o r r e c t f r o m t h e angle at w h i c h y o u make t h e drawing. W e appear t o be looking d o w n o n a w o m a n s t a n d i n g b e n e a t h us. y o u r hand travels f a r t h e r than y o u expect. L o o k at y o u r m o d e l as if he o r she is a flat series o f shapes o n e o n t o p o f a n o t h e r Measure t h e height and w i d t h o f each shape and c o m p a r e it t o its neighbor. See h o w d i f f e r e n t t h e relative heights o f t h e s e shapes are f r o m w h a t w e m i g h t e x p e c t in real life.117 ACCELERATED PERSPECTIVE To discover h o w this w o r k s . pleasingly f o r e s h o r t e n e d . looking d o w n t h e p a p e r at t h e a n g l e at w h i c h I d r e w . C o m p a r e t h e heights o f t h e nose and eye shapes t o t h o s e o f t h e f o r e a r m . a n d thighs. Lean t h e t o p e d g e t o w a r d y o u and find a p o s i t i o n w h e r e y o u can c o m f o r t a b l y l o o k d o w n t h e p a p e r at an angle o f a b o u t 4 0 degrees. t a p e s o m e p a p e r t o a board. T h i s is t h e s a m e d r a w i n g p h o t o g r a p h e d f r o m above. FORESHORTENING To f o r e s h o r t e n a figure. h e r p r o p o r t i o n s will appear correct. adjusting a n o n y m o u s shapes.

Leave first thoughts in place. Avoid drawing up one side and down the other. feeling. . and height. height. balance. imagine holding up a plumb line. because it results in two unrelated sides drifting apart. I used a sharp H B pencil and began each drawing by marking her outline. working from her center to her feet and to her head. T h i s q u i c k e x p l o r a t o r y line does not perfectly describe shape but expresses a decision about overall flow of form. and energy.118 BODY Quick Poses DRAWING QUICK POSES l o c k s y o u r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n t o what is most essential. make the upper body smaller give your model a high waist. Outline To outline a figure. Start each new drawing by lightly marking the model's height with a loose line in ten seconds. work back and forth across the body. propelling you to make immediate assessments and trust them. Layered lines give d e p t h . THE SEQUENCE OF POSES H e r e the model was asked to move every t w o minutes. her center of balance is normally found in a vertical line beneath her head. To see this. and slightly enlarge her legs and feet. Balance When a model stands upright on both feet. Be bold and dive into your drawing with c o n f i d e n c e . and stance before honing her balance and expression. To draw this effect. and work over t h e m with further o b s e r v a t i o n s . Height This pose leans away into space above our eye level.

. the activity of circular lines and the repetition of limbs suggest movement. This drawing shows how different observations be overlaid to bring a drawing alive. The tilt of the pelvis is then counter balanced by the model's shoulders tilting the other way (as seen here). Tilt Movement Here. Most of us have a tendency to over-straighten the drawn figure. and this should be avoided Twist QUICK POSES A model standing on one leg usually drops the opposite hip.119 The twist of a model is most easily and expressively captured if it is exaggerated.

and ignore all details. Do not separate them yet. A mirror increases your range of views. drawn in relation to each other. 2 Build your drawing gradually from light to dark. it is important to leave aside all details of the fingers and toes. Don't worry about achieving perfect solutions. or those of a friend. feet. Then subdivide each shape so that you w o r k from large to small. express structure and gesture far more successfully and easily than ten worried outlines wandering up and down between the fingers and toes. swiftly marking its essential gesture. Group the fingers together as one mass. W h e n starting. These planes. and they need not be daunting to draw. Begin by drawing lines to encompass the whole hand. Focus instead on how planes change direction across the knuckles from one side of the hand or foot to the other. Keep lines open to change and take measurements if they help. 3 . but regard these practice studies as ongoing processes of thought and observatio Add details such as nails last if you wish. Draw large shapes and their orientation. especially the lengthwise divisions between them. It also helps the beginner to progress from drawing outlines to drawing confidently across the surface of the whole form. Practice by drawing your own hands and feet.120 BODY Hands and Feet THERE ARE MANY different ways of approaching h a n d s and THE of form. This exercise is useful when struggling with proportion. general to specific. starting with the largest. and a gooseneck lamp casts shadows that clarify planes and depths GESTURES OF THE HAND Curled Fingers 1 Open Palm Start honing the shapes of the dominant planes.

depth. 2 3 Use an eraser t o refine decisions o r t o suggest areas o f light. Look for key angles without becoming distracted by detail. flattened planes. Try t o express the whole foot and t o encapsulate its entire shape and direction in a few marks.121 HANDS AND FEET MOVEMENTS OF THE FOOT Flat Stance Raised Heel Instep 1 Let your first marks be light. loose. Leave aside all detail. t o remove t o o many early lines. however. and spontaneity. as if with a chisel. Hew it roughly in broad. and rapid. these are what give a drawing its tangible structure. . and don't worry about accuracy t o begin with. Nowimagineyou are carving the foot insidethepaper. It can be a mistake.as though out o f wood.

Compare its nature in close-up to that of willow charcoal used on pp.Charcoal Hands T H E S E DRAWINGS ARE MADE in compressed charcoal. I also used white ink with a steel dip pen." .204-05. The white lines demonstrate what is often called "bracelet shading. Opposite.

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HERE TRACES OF RAPID initial lines are still seen within and outside each body. I make these lines in the first five to ten seconds of a drawing to locate the presence. and posture of the model. Phrasing Contours . before honing his or her shape (see pp. length. 118-19).

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Forms. . Drawing work by another artist enables you to discover and understand the inventive hand in their composition. feeling them through the attentive movements of your own hand. characters.The Visual Detective DRAWING FROM MASTERWORKS was once a staple component of an artist's education. It is now viewed with some skepticism and often seen as academic. and narrative pulse become vivid when you realize them in the middle of your study. perspectives. I draw in museums in support of written research and as an artist seeking answers to questions about the practicalities of image making.

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3 x 3 m) made in response to La Specola. 126-27. These almost life-size figures were composed from my imagination and achieved with the help af studies discussed on pp. Florence. each modeled from dissection. Walls are lined with hundreds of faintly animated body parts. there is a unique museum of 18th-century anatomical waxes.La Specola At17V i a Romana. Life-size women wearing wigs recline on beds of embroidered silk in cabinets of mahogany and Venetian glass This is a detail of a compressed charcoal drawing measuring 14 x 10 ft (4. .

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their stance. compliant subject to scrutinize. and in a few scrolling rafts of pen lines and stubbled dots. Our homes are filled with images of our loved ones and of those in our families who have gone before. Equally. For centuries. and shoulders. Rembrandt's famous multitude of self-portraits. and a handprint (see p. Goya's w o r k s include many royal and society p o r t r a i t s . a single line can deliver an entire expression. is here to both meet and look through us. throat. usually strangers from past times. . Portraits can be highly or loosely detailed. To create a face is to see and interpret the essence of an identity. We are also reassured by keeping records of ourselves. in a miniature self-portrait magnified opposite. and secular narratives. buttons. painters have dropped discreet records of themselves into commissioned narratives so that they can remain a face in the crowd. or whose eyes can seem to follow us around the room Portraiture is a constant. character. Past rulers sent painters across continents to bring back a likeness in advance of a prospective royal marriage. draftsman. Self-portraiture gives every artist a constant. and expression of the individual. We can mold and animate qualities of expression out of objects and fragments of disassociated things—for example. or past us. religious. having been documented and preserved. his changes in pressure and Hitchcock length o f line. The truth is that we all like looking at faces and observing the billions of variations that make us individuals. and it is very rewarding. Halls and palaces are filled with pictures of the mighty and significant. and social and political commentaries. gathered all that he knew FRANCISCO DE GOYA V i s i o n a r y Spanish painter. Once you understand Self-Portrait in a Cocked Hat c. neck. and satirical or metaphorical. abstract or figurative. and lucrative genre for artists. historical. This enlargement o f his miniature p o r t r a i treveals t h e s p e e d and agility o f his p e n and about himself. we use the delicate medium of silver point to look at foundation structures of the head. 1790-92 4 x 3 in ( 1 0 2 x 7 6 m m ) F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A and memorize the basic structure that we all share. bells.139).Portraiture IN P O R T R A I T U R E W E MEET PEOPLE. or a glimpse of him is caught in a photograph used as a prop. single or of groups. who. the meaning of their face. look directly at us. Goya. Movie director Alfred similarly signed his films by playing a fleeting role: he walks through an extra. It also reminds us o f b o t h t h e intimacy and a scene as scrutiny o f an honest portrait. made as he passed through the ages of man. you can capture the subtlety. The returning image was of crucial consideration in any proposal. and p r i n t m a k e r . W h e n drawing a person. live. Man Ray's self-portrait of scored lines. In this chapter. became more poignant as he progressed. and their posture can be changed with just one line. Beginners often draw themselves as a way of establishing their practice.

There is a common misunderstanding that a drawing with only a few lines is both less finished and easier to make than a drawing with more. We can actually count that he struck the paper 40 times. How could the addition of shadows have enhanced this image? Few strokes The simplicity of Picasso's line is breathtaking. and pressure as it conducts our eye through the image. caught in her last moments of youth. they serve as a great lesson that it is not always necessary to add tone to your drawing. The Tightness of a line is felt in its speed. Without faltering. Here the grace and beauty of two young women are held forever. Picasso strikes and scrolls his pencil.30). teetering on the brink of older age. Her face is drawn tenderly and with a luminous glow. adding smudges of tone for weight and solidity. breadth. one eye already cast askew into the autumn of her life. hand to capture something well in only Frangoise au Bandeau 1946 660 x 505 mm (26 x197/8in) PABLO PICASSO . The aesthetic sense of a line being just right can make a drawing sing. We can read so much about them by studying their gaze. Through exhibitions and copies in books. Picasso has left to posterity many hundreds of magnificent line drawings. PABLO PICASSO Spanish Cubist painter (see also p. For the beginner.132 PORTRAITURE Poise THE BALANCE BETWEEN a mark and a blank space is often a tantalizing form of perfection. Holbein maps the still landscape of Dorothea's body in questioning marks. The truth is often the opposite. It takes a truly accomplished a few strokes. stealthily using his chalk to find contours and mass. It is the portrait of a countrywoman. whisking a timeless girl onto the page. we can enjoy and learn from them. While with longer consideration. He makes his flair and skill look easy. length.

and produced numerous society portraits such as this one here. Her folded forearms support and frame her weight above. gently flushed.133 HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER German p o r t r a i t painter draftsman. and its downward slope crowns the diagonal of the composition. Holbein was employed toward the end of his life by King Henry VIII of England. He outlined her nose but not her upper lip. and designer f r o m Basel. he designed c o u r t costumes. Cropping This regal composition fits its paper perfectly. Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 1516 51/8 x121/4in (385 x 310 m m ) HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER . Blended colors In this portrait drawn with colored chalks on slightly textured paper. Holbein unified the woman with her background by gently blending colors from her clothes and face into the atmosphere around her. The peak of her cap clips the uppermost edge. made a popular series o f w o o d c u t prints titled The Dance of Death. presses against the binding across her face. which. Holbein has cropped and pinned his subject within the four outermost lines of the image—the edges of the page. In addition t o his numerous exquisite portraits in oil.

This is one of a number of similar disembodied female heads seen behind. London. Newsome was awarded the Prix de Rome in 1960. Contrasts Sharp. its highly clarified detail claiming to be d r a w n from observation. distorted. N e w s o m e ' s eerily shadowed form is smooth and bears a linear grain evocative of w o o d . while white painted flecks and wisps suggest electrical illumination. and has works in major collections including the Tate Gallery. The real dissection w o u l d have been far more c o m p l e x . . but they are irrelevant here. dark lines made with a pencil appear against smooth. solid above and almost hollow below. and unpleasant to see. This is a m a r v e l o u s interpretation of the truth. Delicate muscles are integrated with the skin and fat that is to be r e m o v e d . the face is one of the hardest parts to dissect. the contours of a grid. blood vessels. Durelli has m a d e a few m i n o r mistakes. dark tones of graphite blended into the paper. Psychological drama is contained behind a grid. or defined by.134 PORTRAITURE Anatomies These highly finished drawings express the emotional power and physicality of the head and neck. Nerves. In fact. taught at numerous British art schools from 1962-77. It floats in space. continues to exhibit regularly. VICTOR NEWSOME British sculptor painter and draftsman. perhaps applied using a tortillon. and glands also complicate form. Anatomically. Highlights of white gouache were dry Profile Head late in the making. confusing. The style of Durelli's d r a w i n g opposite sings with the confidence of truth and precision. using a fine and relatively 1982 13 x 181/8 in (328 x 460 mm) VICTOR NEWSOME brush.

It is hard to think of a more difficult medium with which to achieve such linear perfection. and it is likely that this drawing was intended for reproduction as a print. Pencil numbers refer to the list of muscles written beneath.135 ANATOMIES ANTONIO DURELLI Linear perfection This is a red chalk drawing of extraordinary accomplishment. Durelli's experience as an engraver is reflected in his stylized drawing o f muscle fibers. w h e n contracted. Red Chalk the Muscles 1837 173/8 x 145/8 in ( 4 4 0 x 3 7 2 m m ) ANTONIO DURELLI and Pencil Drawing and of Neck of the Head Little is k n o w n o f this M i l a n e s e p a i n t e r a n d engraver w h o c a m e from a family o f artists. Stylized parallel lines are reminiscent of engravings. pull their points o f attachment t o w a r d each other . which.

They confuse our perception of scale by being intimately fragile and at the same time far removed. Opposite. while his hand stabs and thrusts Revelations like a conductors baton. as if seen from a distance. painter draftsman. There is a film of Giacometti drawing. 1948 77/8 x 6 in (200 x 150 mm) ALBERTO GIACOMETTI . Then. he drew over the whole image at once. The camera watches him at work. We are brought intimately close to this man gazing up to heaven. Similar movements sculpted the head below into its page. close enough to touch his hair and feel his breath.136 PORTRAITURE THESE ARE DRAWINGS of shoulders. necks. Agitated marks make patches of tone that cut away the space around the character. Flesh is built and personality carved simultaneously. Giacometti settled in Paris. and heads. cutting and carving the paper with matted and spiraling restless energy. Both works demonstrate how simple lines can be made complex by being intense. Energy This is a portrait of a woman drawn with black crayon on a plain page of a book Lines search for the essence of form. with speed and urgency. Without paint and with very little tone. They show us clearly the bones of drawing. each portrait is inscribed onto the page. Speed Giacometti probably began with an oval shape placed in relation to the proportion of the page. Portrait de Marie-Laure de Noailles c. He is best known for his bronze sculptures of human form. which are characteristically elongated. and poet After studying in Geneva and Italy. ALBERTO GIACOMETTI Swiss sculptor. and with staccato flinches his hyperactive eye moves from paper to model. Bellini gently conjures the features of his saint with soft marks that tease his presence out of shadows into the light. each locked into a visionary gaze.

25 6 . Mantegna.G I O V A N N I BELLINI A prominent member of a large family o f V e n e t i a n painters. Head and Shoulders of a Man 73/8 x 21/4 in ( 1 8 6 x 5 8 UNDATED GIOVANNI BELLINI . lyrical. a n d his w o r k is d i s t i n c t i v e l y calm. These are pinholes. Character This is one of many cartoons produced by Bellini the and his family.5 9 ) . a n d b r o t h e r in-law. Transfer This delicate humorous chalk a drawing is a cartoon—not image but a type of template used to plan the composition of a larger work Look closely and you will see rows of tiny dots along every significant line in the picture. transferring which were made in the process of the saint to his final place in the composition of a painting (see Glossary pp. a n d c o n t e m p l a t i v e . Bellini s t u d i e d u n d e r his f a t h e r J a c o p o . H e t a u g h t G i o r g i o n e Barbarelli and Titian. Sometimes different narrative same character was reused in compositions. H e p r e f e r r e d religious t o classical t h e m e s .

signing their work SAMO. political outcry. float and shimmer in the shallow pictorial space. scratched lines. The artist has finished his portrait with the signature of his hand smacked in the middle like a kiss: a declaration of existence as old as man's first drawing. Signs and symbols with symbols This painting shudders that ore written. bells.221). and confrontations with. spear-brandishing warrior. In 1986 he traveled to Africa and showed his work in Abidjan on the Ivory Coast He also exhibited in Germany and France. It is an opportunity to look deep without the infringement of courtesies owed to a commissioning sitter. skull- Self-Portraits headed. The figure's position is unequivocal and defiant while around him is in a state Without the essential of cultural and figure we would elegant belookingat a sophisticated painting of signs. JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT Short-lived American painter and graffiti artist who began his blazing nine-year career drawing on lower Manhattan subway trains with a friend. Al Diaz. The incandescent New York painter Jean Michel Basquiat pictured himself here in naked silhouette. Self Portrait 1982 9 4 x 7 6 in (239 x 193 cm) JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT . marks. and sheet metal before being snapped up by the New York contemporary art scene. Man Ray's playful silk-screen assembly of color blocks. and indulgence. It is an image of confrontation—the ever-controversial young artist roars at us from his abstract city-scape. a tribal. made with great energy. humor. It has proved to be a subject of piercing scrutiny. postcards. and attitudes. scratched into its surface. Islands of graphic marks. scrolls. similar to work by Cy Twombly (see p.138 PORTRAITURE THE MIRROR OF SELF-PORTRAITURE offers artists infinite reflections of. their most immediate and best-known subject: themselves. and buttons rings with surrealist wit and agile improvisation. drawn. and everything flux. Later Basquiat sold drawings on T-shirts.

caked in thick printing ink or paint. Man Ray probably used his own hand. Man Ray lived and worked in Paris. Frame White lines are seemingly (though not actually) scratched through ink to frame this face. The first part of the stenciled image was already marked on the silk The screen and paper were then held tightly together. Black ink was printed next and then white. printmaker and cofounder of the New York Dada movement.139 MAN RAY American surrealist photographer. During the 1920's and 30s. last of all. Autoportrait 1916 195/8 MAN RAY . while a squeegee was used to drag thick lilac-brown ink across the silk pushing it though exposed areas onto the paper below. where he collaborated with the artist Laslo MoholyNagy. They suggest speed and make the picture look immediate and spontaneous. They experimented with camera-free photography working directly onto photographic paper Silk and ink This is a silkscreen print made through the following process: the paper was laid on a flat surface and a frame stretched with fine silk was placed on top. The handprint appears to be made directly. painter.

54-55). 144-45. Be swift and firm. bone. 2 . The most c o m m o n metal has always been silver—hence the term "silver point. M a k e s u r e i t is c o m p l e t e l y clean t o avoid u n w a n t e d streaks. laid on paper. Take a sheet o f any t y p e o f p a p e r (for e x a m p l e . artists mixed white lead. or wood.140 PORTRAITURE Silver P o i n t SILVER OR METAL POINT STRETCHING PAPER A sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has been made w e t with the strokes o f a paintbrush will buckle d u e t o its uneven expansion. key." Lead. W e t o n e length o f g u m . 5. Stretched paper remains taut as a d r u m . was familiar to or eggshells with animal glue. Historically. illuminators of medieval m a n u s c r i p t s . and is therefore useful w h e n using w a t e r c o l o r as well as silver point. and t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h strips a b o v e and b e l o w . and gold have also been used. b u t d o n ' t w o r r y .Tear o f f f o u r lengths o f b r o w n p a p e r g u m tape. Find a n i t e m t h a t y o u can h o l d a n d draw with comfortably.54) can also b e used. choose a silver object. 1 4 4 . Metal point does not work on ordinary paper. s o m e m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n o t h e r s . S O F T F U L L B R U S H : W h e n laying a w a s h . Opposite. it leaves a deposit. E m p t y mechanical pencils designed f o r t h i c k leads ( s e e p. o n e t o fit each side o f t h e b o a r d — t h e s e will make t h e glued f r a m e t h a t holds y o u r p a p e r in place. which quickly oxidizes into a gray line. platinum. s e e p . an exciting indication of how large-scale drawings could be made on a wall. you will need t o stretch paper and lay a wash (see right and opposite).s t r i p a n d use i t t o fix o n e side o f t h e p a p e r t o t h e b o a r d . SILVER W I R E : Purchase different gauge lengths f r o m a traditional a r t supplier o r jeweler. I t is a v a i l a b l e f r o m all a r t s h o p s . Drawn across a prepared surface. 3 . purchase silver wire. p a r c h m e n t . This browns with age unless sealed by fixative (see pp. 1. who used it to outline initials and border characters before painting. M E T A L OBJECTS: All metal objects m a r k a p r e p a r e d surface. Pages 142 to 147 are illustrated in silver point and techniques are explained on pp. the surface must be primed with a ground such as gouache. Lay a clean d r a w i n g b o a r d o n a flat surface. and alloys work on matt emulsion. 156). This is called a three-tone drawing. Z I N C W H I T E G O U A C H E : Dilute with w a t e r A d d c o l o r i f r e q u i r e d (as opposite) 4 . Straighten the w o r s t buckles. Metal point is simply a strip of metal bound in a holder. c h o o s e a s o f t full b r u s h t h a t c a n c a r r y p l e n t y o f l i q u i d . S i l v e r is b e s t . Note h o w domestic paintwork marks with a coin. b e f o r e priming stretched paper. If w o r k i n g o n an emulsion-painted wall. I combined silver point with painted white gouache on a pink ground. w h i t e d r a w i n g paper) and cut it t o fit y o u r d r a w i n g b o a r d w i t h a generous b o r d e r a r o u n d its edges. Numerous early European artists also enjoyed its fine qualities (see p. copper. For i m p o r t a n t a d v i c e o n p r e p a r a t i o n a n d use. SILVER P O I N T W I R E H O L D E R : T h e s e c a n b e p u r c h a s e d a n d t e n d t o b e heavy. Lightly s p o n g e o f f t h e excess. To begin. 2. MATERIALS 1 Find a clean sponge and b o w l o r d e e p t r a y a n d fill it w i t h w a t e r W e t t h e p a p e r evenly in t h e t r a y o r o n t h e b o a r d . or ring. T h e p a p e r will l o o k b u c k l e d . W e t a n d fix a s e c o n d strip t o t h e o p p o s i t e side. I m a k e m y o w n f r o m o l d dip pens. Gesso o r m a t t e m u l s i o n c a n a l s o b e u s e d . and make o r buy a holder.

any extra will keep. slowly add powder pigment or gouache from a tube. Keep testing on spare paper. Reload the brush and add a second line overlapping it beneath. full brush into the gouache and start in the top left corner. I used a powder pigment called Caput Mortuum. T h r e e . The next step will make a small mess. so put newspaper under the lower edge. Dip a soft. leaving a smooth surface. Here. Make an even line across to the right. Mix a very wet but not weak solution of gouache in a jar with a lid (add pigment at this stage for a three-tone drawing). is necessary to lay a wash o Three-tone When coloring ground. v e r y little at a time.t o n e silver point drawing of a skull . Make enough to cover your paper. and let tests dry before deciding to change the mixture. It will slowly straighten and become taut. overlapping lines until you reach the bottom.141 SILVER POINT 3 Leave the paper to dry flat. Beware of the tape's coming loose at any point while drying. LAYING A WASH It your stretched paper so as to prime it for silver point. as the paper will be ruined by a raised ridge. stretched paper at a 45-degree angle. Dry thoroughly before laying a wash. Runs blend into each other evenly. Prop up your board of dry. Leave the wash to dry thoroughly before you begin to draw. Keep adding smooth.

142

PORTRAITURE

Head and Neck
THE HEAD AND NECK are best conceived as one unit arranged in four parts: cranium, face, neck, and throat. Each is of equal importance. The cranium is essentially egg-shaped and pivots on the first vertebra. The face is suspended beneath, like a softly curved triangle. The n e c k — a powerful, shapely column of layered muscles rigged to vertebrae—adjusts and holds the angle and expression of the head. The throat is delicate, hard, and lumpy to the touch, formed of cartilaginous rings, glands, thin muscles, and looser skin. Framing the throat, two columnar neck muscles (sternomastoids) project the head forward and also turn it to the opposite side.

This is a simple shorthand diagram representing the cranium, face, neck, and throat. It can be learned and visualized in different positions very easily, giving the novice a firm footing on which to stand and develop their drawings of the head and neck.

Shorthand diagram

Cranium Begin with an egg shape. Tilt it on the paper to change the position of the head.

Face Draw a rounded triangular shape below the forward point of the egg to represent the face.

Neck This shape represents the trapezius; the largest surface muscle of the neck and shoulders.

Throat A triangular shape represents the throat. (The nose makes the diagram clearer)

Applied shorthand

After copying the diagram above, animate it. Practice drawing the cranium at different angles, add the face beneath, then the neck, shoulders, and throat. Shape your diagrams so they are more lifelike, but avoid adding detailed features too soon.

143 These three drawings demonstrate (from left to right) the following: why the cranium may be considered egg-shaped; now the face can be seen as a curved triangle suspended beneath and where the division lies between the two; and the form of sternomastoid muscles that frame thethroatsodistinctlywhen the head is turned and inclined forward.

The skull and the frame of the throat

HEAD AND NECK

Bones of the cranium are locked together by jagged joints. Sinuses in the frontal (forehead) bone between and beneath the eyebrows are larger in men, making their brows pronounced and often ridged compared to those of women.

Bones of the face house our sight, smell, taste, The skull pivots on the first vertebra or "atlas," and speech. Cartilage extending from nasal bones after the Greek god condemned to carry the shapesthenose.Pads of fat resting on the base of Earth. The jaw hinges in front of the ears. Behind, eacheyesocket support the eyeballs in position. If bony ridges give anchor to the sternomastoid thefatisreducedby old age, eyes look sunken. muscles rising from the breast- and collarbones.

Three useful generalizations

General rules about the relative positions of body parts can hinder artists as much as help them, since they are often based on classical ideals rather than thediversityoflife.However,some generalizations can help as a rough guide to start with, so long as good observation takes over as soon as possible.

In general, when the face is relaxed (not smiling or frowning), the corners of the mouth are found directly beneath the pupils of the eyes. Vertical lines can be drawn down from the pupils to meet the corners of the mouth.

The height of a young adult's ear is often the same as their nose and found on the same level. There is no general rule for growing children, and remember that ears grow again in old age, which is most obvious in men.

The height of the face is about the length of the handspan and the eye is normally halfway down the total height of the head. A common error is to draw the eyes too high up on the face.

144

PORTRAITURE

Essential Observations
T H E DELICACY OF SILVER POINT

(see pp. 140-41) is perfect for

such as a beach pebble. Here, I stretched drawing paper and laid a wash of white gouache (see pp.140-41). As you can see, the line and tone of silver point varies with pressure, but only slightly. Too much pressure cuts the ground. Silver point erases, but so does ground. Erased ground can be repaired gently with extra gouache. You can also use gouache to paint over mistakes and make corrections.

small, detailed drawings. The drawings below and opposite show useful observations of the head and neck, which are explained in the captions below. Each drawing was made with a silver wire held in a large-gauge mechanical pencil. Newly clipped wires are sharp and cut rather than draw. Before use, they need to be rubbed and smoothed on a stone

Here I imagined placing my silver point wire against the skin of each head and neck and, working in parallel bands from the crown downward, I traced the undulation of surfaces. Linear bands imagined around the head and neck can help you t o clearly see the tilt of the head and relative levels of the features. Ask a friend t o model for you and try this exercise life-size using a pencil and eraser

Contours

Tilted forward

Tilted backward

Three-quarter view

Seeing that the face is never flat

Drawings below left and center are summaries of the generalizations given on p.143. Far right is an image to remind us that the face is never flat. It slopes back to varying degrees among individuals, from the tip of the nose t o the ears. For example, note that the innermost corners of the eyes are farther forward in space than the outermost corners.

General measurements, side

General measurements, front

View from above

145

Male and female head and neck
Men's necks a r e g e n e r a l l y s h o r t e r a n d t h i c k e r t h a n w o m e n ' s b e c a u s e t h e angles a n d levels o f c e r t a i n b o n e s a r e d i f f e r e n t b e t w e e n t h e sexes ( i n d i c a t e d h e r e b y d o t t e d lines) a n d m e n are n o r m a l l y m o r e muscular. T h e male t h y r o i d cartilage ( A d a m ' s apple) is larger a n d m o r e visible than t h e f e m a l e . L a r g e r f e m a l e t h y r o i d glands also s o f t e n t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e t h r o a t .

ESSENTIAL OBSERVATIONS
Female skull

Male

skeleton

Male

skull

Trapezius muscle
The largest m u s c l e o f t h e s h o u l d e r s a n d n e c k is called the trapezius. A r r a n g e d on e i t h e r side o f t h e spine, it shapes t h e u p p e r back and neck above the s h o u l d e r blades. C o n t r a c t i n g in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h d e e p e r and surrounding muscles, it raises and l o w e r s t h e shoulders a n d d r a w s t h e h e a d backtoeitherside.

The whole

muscle

Upper

half with

sternomastoids

Above

with head

straight

Above

with head

forward

Side with

sternomastoid

Front with

sternomastoid

146

PORTRAITURE

Drawing Portraits
USING A SHARP 3 B PENCIL, I drew this head quickly from imagination, evolving its character and expression from the scheme of four parts: cranium, face, neck, a n d throat (see p. 142). Here, five steps show you how to practice doing the same. This approach can be used to draw from imagination or from life. Keep your wrist loose and hold your pencil away from its point (see pp.22-23). Build the layers of your drawing from pale to dark, a n d from general balance a n d form to specific detail. Remember that successful drawings are built on foundations of "seeing the whole," then dividing the whole into smaller parts, with details brought in last of all. Phrased tonal marks modeling this girls skin and hair follow the technique demonstrated by Goya in his self-portrait on p. 130. Turn to Goya's drawing and study how, in a circle beginning across his hat, moving down his hair, and around his coat, he flows lines over surfaces to describe their contour. As you build from steps 1 to 5, bring phrased groups of lines across the surfaces of your form, using their directions to capture the expression of the head and neck. If unsure, copy my steps until you gain the confidence to make your own decisions.

This drawing is the final stage of the four steps opposite. Here, I have enlarged the eye, and moved it back into the head by trimming the length of the upper lid and adding a more pronounced lower lid. It is important to set eyes far enough back from the relatively prominent nose; too close to it and the face flattens. Hair swept back and extended behind the cranium balances the regal pose. Lines shaping the hair echo those marking the cranium in step 1. Here, the lower part of step 1 comes through as wisps of hair across her face and ear

BALANCED POSE

Portrait of a Young Girl

they are also still sweeping and confident. First lines will remain visible in the final drawing. Moving from the back of the neck. I modeled the outline of the character I imagined light shining from above and in front and adjusted the pressure of lines to reflect this. 2 Rapidly add shorthand shapes to represent the face. Here. The nose and ear begin to shape the head. so it is important to the life of the image that while controlled. 4 .Theangle at which you draw this shape of the paper will determine the angle of the finished head. I used light to describe the upper lid first with a shadow beneath for the lower lid and open eye. over the cranium. The eye announces the nature and expression of the emerging person. 3 Place the eye beneath the cranium. avoid drawing too dark. neck. down the face to the throat.147 Building up the portrait DRAWING PORTRAITS 1 Gently spin pale lines in a softly drawn shape representing the cranium. too soon. Keep your first lines light. and throat.

.

the texture of hair.T o DRAW PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGES. empathize. and gravity. Above all. a n d t h o s e w h o a r e Generations asleep (see overleaf). . be aware of the subtle differences in skin surface. muscular tension.

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.

I used the nib upside down to gain needle-sharp precision. Van Dyke's noble cast of characters was modeled more finely. seeking the dominant contours of each individual expression. Fast lines carve out the features of Goya's soup-slurping hag.Castings DRAWING IN THE PRADO MUSEUM. Madrid. with a steel dip pen and acrylic ink. .

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known as Leon Bakst. it is the public sign by w h i c h w e are j u d g e d . P o p u l a r f a s h i o n d e s i g n e x p l o d e d w i t h the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n . woman was drawn by Bakst one year later for the ballet Narcisse. shapes. or b u l g e s . Samoylovich Rosenberg. theb u t b y the w a y it s p e a k s w i t h its flying. Artists do this not so m u c h b y the style of a figure's garment. Bakst's designs and costumes immediately To the fine artist. D e s i g n e r s create m a s t e r p i e c e s of haute couture LEON BAKST for H o l l y w o o d stars. variety. and s y m b o l s that lets m e n and w o m e n in all countries and areas have w o r k i n g access to the latest fashions. he and cofounder Serge Diaghilev took Paris by eac storm in 1910 with their production h year in the industrial f r e n z y of creating o u r image and aspirations.Costume W E MAKE OURSELVES EXOTIC. personality. and atmosphere. Cities c h a n g e d all. w h i c h in turn feed c o n s u m e r Lev. T h e p a p e r p a t t e r n is p e r h a p s the m o s t w i d e l y k n o w n of c o s t u m e d r a w i n g s : a formalized plan of lines. . cool. or calm u s w i t h chic. b u t influenced Parisian fashion and interiordecor. In psychology. toParis. articulate a d a n g e r o u s satirical j o k e . Practical classes Bacchante 1911 l o o k at r a n g e s of c o l o r e d m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d i n g p a s t e l s a n d felt-tip p e n s . was a Belarussian A r t Deco theater fantasies and desires to immediately possess a version of the same. outrageous. caricatured p l u m e s . for e x a m p l e — d e s i g n e d the w a r d r o b e s of p o p e s a n d k i n g s . while court p a i n t e r s — M i c h e l a n g e l o and Holbein. o n l y the w e a l t h y c o u l d afford to h a v e c o s t u m e s specially m a d e . and even invisible by the w a y w e dress. e m u l a t e textures. g l o s s y folds. a n d w e will c o l l e c t patterns. and e x u b e r a n c e . T h e rural masses w o r e h o m e s p u n simplicity. intriguing. T h e e n t o u r a g e of the theatrical stage o f t e n l e a d s the c a t w a l k . Like it or not. a n d p r o f e s s i o n — b e g a n life as a d r a w i n g . S t r u c t u r e is t h o u g h the i n v e n t i o n of shoes. of Scheherazade. charcoal. c r u m p l e s . so that c h o i c e . Petersburg and later exiled designers' ideas and are surprised and delighted b y their continual f l o w of inspiration. fulfilling lavish and spectacular briefs. Designers all over the w o r l d c o n t i n u a l l y p e n and b r u s h lines to lash us w i t h color. c u l t u r e .As artistic director of the It is s h o c k i n g to t h i n k h o w m a n y m i l l i o n s of d r a w i n g s m u s t be m a d e a n d d i s c a r d e d Ballet Russe. In this c h a p t e r w e see h o w c l o t h i n g c a n s e e m to p o s s e s s the w e i g h t and m o n u m e n t a l i t y of stone. Previously. a n d s u b t l e t o n e s . dancer leaps through swaths of golden cloth. c o s t u m e o f f e r s a r i c h v o c a b u l a r y of t e x t u r e s a n d c o l o r . and intent. arichand unusual combination of pencil. w a r m t h . and i n d e e d image b e c a m e the property also of the industrial classes. and everything w e h a v e c h o s e n for o u r w a r d r o b e s — r e f l e c t o r s of o u r taste. gesture.This voluptuous above all a physical p u p p e t w i t h w h i c h to animate character and narrate personality. a n d c o u r t i e r tailors f o l l o w e d suit. W e dress ourselves and costume designer trained in in St. st 111/4 x 81/2 in (285 x 220 mm) u d i e d L E O NB A K S T and explore the characterization of fabric t h r o u g h m o v e m e n t . and be so expressive of temperament that it overtakes the need for an o c c u p y i n g h u m a n form. and gouache.

and implied striation in the stone of the architecture. Sculpted one. Van Eyck's highly polished w o r k is c e l e b r a t e d f o r its disguised symbolism. bands around the columns. He has layered these slowly and carefully so as not to cut through the ground and produce a white mark just where he intended a dark one. With a stylus such as Van Eyck used here. Maelbeke I44I Madonna 11 x 7 in (278 x 180 m m ) JAN V A N EYCK . Delicate marks Silver (or metal) point is the most delicate of traditional drawing media (see pp. Above them. However. Opposite. and snakelike marks.156 COSTUME Cloth and Drapery EACH OF THESE FIGURES is ninety percent cloth. the Madonna and her architecture are both dressed in the same manner.140-41). it is only possible to create very thin. Keisai Eisen's intense. Her gown is carved and polished as if made from marble. the vaulted stone roof echoes and crowns the moment. best k n o w n f o r his G h e n t altarpiece ( 1 4 3 2 ) a n d m a r r i a g e p o r t r a i t o f Giovanni A r n o l f i n i and his w i f e (1434). folds and patterns of material speak more resolutely of their wearers than any small glimpses of body we can see. Vertical lines The highly controlled lines of this drawing cascade from top to bottom of the image. Short and subtle horizontal punctuations are only given in the background by sections of floor. In Van Eyck's drawing below. The quiet stillness of this image is achieved by a masterly economy of stylized line. Marble gown We will never know if Van Eyck considered this drawing unfinished or intended the kneeling abbot to remain transient and ghostly. delicate lines. dragons. swirling printed fabrics. her marble garment holds u p the infant Christ in a fountain of compressed line. H e m e t i c u l o u s l y a r r a n g e d subjects t o c o n v e y d e e p e r meaning. and the kneeling abbot is a ghost by comparison. resonate with their wearers startled expression. with their jagged edges. the carefully composed outline of his cloak shows us how the artist would have also begun his immaculate rendering of the Virgin's clothes. Below this. Their uninterrupted emphasis is entirely vertical. Flaxmans sleeper—perhaps a pilgrim or a soldier resting between campaigns—has wedged himself into the cleft of some great building to grab a moment of peace. Church and deities are drawn as JAN VAN EYCK Flemish oil p a i n t e r f r o m L i m b o u r g .

draftsman. The inked block is laid face-down on damp paper and pressed to make the print. Position In this pen and ink drawing.157 KEISAI EISEN Japanese draftsman. he also co-edited and expanded the Ukiyo-e Ruiko (History of Prints of the Floating World). which are sometimes also cut into pieces like a jigsaw puzzle. stone wall of downward-stroked this sleeper's position is momentary. CLOTH AND DRAPERY Relief printing This is a woodblock print made by a relief process. Dante. each delivering a different part and color of the design. and teacher Distinctive linear illustrations for the works of Homer. and the feet notched against the pillar tell us that A lines holds him into the cleft. flat sheets of wood. the angle of the head. writer and printmaker Keisai Eisen took his name from the masters Kano Hakkeisai and Kikugawa Eizan. Remaining raised areas of wood are rolled with colored inks. designer. Parts of the image to be left unprinted are gouged out with a metal tool. one over the other. This complex numerous blocks prepared image and may have been made with printed separately. and Man Lying Down in a Cloak I 787-94 21/4 JOHN FLAXMAN x 41/8 in (57 x 105 mm) . Koimurasaki of Tama-ya 1810-50 15 x101/4in (381 x 260 mm) KEISAI EISEN The Courtesan JOHN F L A X M A N English late 18th-century neoclassical sculptor. Respected for his sumptuous images of geisha and editions of erotic prints. an 18th-19th century document on the lives of the ukiyo-e artists. the cloak sliding to the ground. Aeschylus earned Flaxman an international reputation. Images are drawn onto smooth.

Pen and wash In the graphic accuracy of this armored knight we see the idealized identity of a warrior from another time: a gleaming defender of the realm. Flowing scarf The knight's scarf of gilded blue is drawn in a pale wash over red ink lines. A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE Flemish painter and draftsman. for she would not have been amused and William Wodall might have been stretching his luck. Van D y k e was chief assistant t o Rubens f o r t w o years. where sometimes there just might not be anybody inside. Fine examples can be plucked from fashion. Leg section Compare mid-shin the section of white boots cropped to the section of similarly cropped trousers in drawings Gruau's drawing on p. and feather were all CHARACTER COSTUMES REPRESENT observed with closely crafted conviction. A s a y o u n g man. Opposite is a dangerous drawing. Details and voices are worn externally with great imagination. Its color is also reflected in the metal. cloth. The aged queen is compared to an overdressed bird. Man in Armor UNDATED 1 6 x 9 1 / 2 in ( 4 0 5 x 2 4 0 m m ) A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE . lace. all ruffs and wrinkles. A flamboyant territory. Its warm surface flows in contrast to the stiff metal armor. cinema. w h e r e . Anthony Van Dyke's Man in Armor is a masterpiece of drawn surface. The slight uncertainty of the pose and the limp cloak suggest a little more metal than man. b e f o r e traveling t o Italy. t h r o u g h n u m e r o u s p o r t r a i t and C h u r c h commissions. Leg sections in both support the figure without taking our attention away from the main garment above. theater. a n d w a s e m p l o y e d as c o u r t painter t o King Charles I. He has been rendered on this olive<olored page with pen and gray wash worked over a red and black under-drawing. In 1 6 3 2 he m o v e d p e r m a n e n t l y t o L o n d o n . The metal.158 COSTUME Character Costumes an extreme form of the clothed figure. a scurrilous cartoon by a courtier of Queen Elizabeth I. and even formal portraiture. It is presumed Her Royal Highness never saw it. he c o o l e d and redefined his style. 160. cartoon.

and saturations showing through from the other side.1599 71/2 WILLIAM x 51/4 in ( 1 9 0 x 1 3 4 mm) WODALL . Satire of the Queen's Dress c. Beneath the lethal fan is the body of a bird of trimmed feathers suggest age. A Ruffs and feathers Starched white ruffs worn at court and by society grew steadily larger as Elizabeth's reign progressed. By her old upto three tiers supported on sticks. T h e poem recounts t h e six m a j o r crises o f Elizabeth's reign: t h e Spanish A r m a d a . while a raised foot pauses to assess the next displaying a fan of daggers. and her pride. t h e Rising. it was customary to Iron-gall ink Wodall's dangerous caricature steps daintily the written lines of her dedicated page. t h e Jesuit Mission.35). the queen is masterfully rebalanced by words at her feet The whole drawing's blackened. Northern Satire This is a quill-and-ink satire of the elderly queen's pride-As head of state and fashion. t h e Ridolfi Plot. here dark tawny owl.159 WILLIAM W O D A L L A u t h o r and illustrator o f The Aaes of Queene a Elizabeth poem Allegorized. Top-heavy. manuscript comprising six c a n t o s . suggest the use of iron-gall ink (see p. t h e B a b i n g t o n Plot. she is shown as a grossly disproportioned bird. hooded with an overinflated fluffy ruff eye pins us. bitten nature.

Composition Look how well this image is frame knee is parallel to the bottom edge spacehorizontalline cropping the trousers be outermostuprightbordersof her cuffs are similar above her head thesidesoftheimage.and tilted to the same de a little deeper than sp kneestogivehergravity. Drying time in between applications ensured the colors did not run into each other. elegant chic and svelte. diving to catch us in the grip of her machine-like limbs. ofcroppedtrousershere to the device of the w Illustration 1949 for Jacques Fath in L ' O f f i c i e l d e la C o u t u r e RENE GRUAU . Gruau's model regally swans to the fore with cool pride. Fashion and fantasy drawings invent prototypes of ideals and perfection—be they for the catwalk or the fast-paced pages of comic books. G r u a u ' s highly distinctive d r a w i n g s have a p p e a r e d Couture. demanding attention with gesture and flair. Fine lines drawn against the building behind her echo the threads on which we have all seen arachnids drop and hang. a n d L'Officiel de la couture. possibly over a pencil outline. 158. Harpers & Queen. Spider-Girl leaps like an insect.c e n t u r y haute i n n u m e r o u s m a g a z i n e s i n c l u d i n g Elle. She has been drawn with brushes dipped into India ink and gouache. 5 8 . His model is outlined. and gray pigments were applied separately.5 9 ) and a three-spoke balance of cuffs and cropped trousers to create an almost flag-like emblem of power. Vogue. India ink and gouache This swish of confidence and style our enters the page turning everyone's head. Compare the compositio beneathVanDyke'sstudy of armor on p. Rene Gruau's bold gouache drawing of smoothly swaying sophistication captures a brilliantly cut garment and frames it with great dynamism in a white.160 COSTUME Femmes Fatales THESE DEVASTATING femmes fatales force back the onlooker with their demure. Airbrushed reflective surfaces further amplify our perception of speed.F r e n c h f a s h i o n i l l u s t r a t o r w h o in his l o n g and esteemed career w o r k e d with many of the g r e a t e s t d e s i g n e r s o f 2 0 t h . RENE GRUAU I t a l i a n . Gruau uses starkly cut negative space (see pp. as is Spider-Girl opposite. The black red. studio-like rectangle of paper. and both share the power of scarlet and black. muscular aggression.

It is outside the picture frame. and Amazing Spider-Man. Single-point understand perspective To how Frenz created up therefore the effect of steeply between looking buildings—and howyou can do the same in your own work—take calculate where a ruler the and single vanishing point lies. This s modeling applied over the top give the image a sleek and mechanical of gravity. Frenz has drawn for Marvel for about 20 years. at Their extensions will meet the same single vanishing (see point pp. sky. a great characteristic superhero comics. and figure are all locked into equally shatp through the traditional process of a pencilled outline over-drawn ink.RON F R E N Z Contemporary American graphic artist w h o designs and pencils the dynamic scenes of numerous superheroes featured in Marvel Comics. not far above the drawing. Align your ruler to the upright of each building. Buildings. moon. The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones. In your mind's eye extend the uprights out of the top of the picture. Airbrushed color and with tonal focus. He began work on Spider-Girl in 1998. Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 2001-04 R O N FRENZ. Sharp focus black outlines in this drawing create a hyper-real dynamic. to the right of its center.74-77). and has been the title's regular artist since 2003. beginning with Star Wars. MARVEL C O M I C S .

Bright pastels are more brilliant on colored paper. crumbly. They work well on PIGMENTS Pigments. OIL PASTELS: Many colors. used to make colors. C o n t e crayons are square-formed. Pastels are finer. soft. Many products are sold individually and in boxed sets. except the final layer. Use them to draw lightly (as above left) or thickly. 1. great for tin . I suggest you do so. and subtlety. there are disparities between the apparent nature or color of what you hold in your hand and its performance on paper. including iridescents. intensity. and synthetics. the diverse are made in brands of basic member of the family. hue. Be aware that fixative dulls pastel. 3. Most stores leave small pads of paper on their counters for customers to test materials. CHALK PASTELS: Blackboard chalk is sidewalk work. Before making substantial investments. minerals. unwrapped harder pastels. 2. Sticks and conte crayons make thicker marks (as below). Often. Dissolve in turpentine or mineral spirits to produce oil paint or or dark paper. quality and cost T h e best are paperwrapped sticks of sumptuous. Beware—some are toxic. Degas built his pastels in layers. clay. Store loose pastels in dry rice to keep them clean. made in about 80 colors. They vary hugely in cost. you may be pleasantly surprised to discover something you could not have imagined using. slightly oily to the touch. Children's wax crayons are relatives. and sold in many colors. or wax and a binder are shaped into fine strips and encased in w o o d like a graphite pencil. OIL PASTELS Oil-based. FELT-TIP PENS: Instant-drying alcoholor water-based inks stored in the barrels of the pens are delivered via smooth nylon o r felt tips of varying shapes and thicknesses. The nontoxic range below represents a suggested starting point for experiment. purchase a small selection of different items you think you will like. animals. and can be a great rediscovery for bold drawings. the finer and more subtle the texture and color should be. and cost are laid out for our pleasure and perusal. these work best when slightly warm. paper-wrapped. allowing it to fix slightly from behind. which he left unfixed to retain its brightness. insects. chalkbased but very subtle. fixing each layer on the front. Many artists apply fixative to the back of their work. shape. and CHALK PASTELS Pastel pencils make fine lines (as above). wash. quality. are derived from many sources: rocks. The worst are like revolting old lipsticks that get everywhere except where you intend. mixed on the paper and scratched into (as below).162 COSTUME Colored Materials ART STORES BRIM OVER w i t h t h e m a n y wherever permitted. colored materials available. oily pigment. Seemingly infinite choices of texture. though lines can develop greasy stains around the edges if the paper is not first stretched and treated with a gelatin paste laid as a wash. 4. and can be softened and manipulated with degrees of heat. See h o w they work and return later for more of what proved best for you. COLORED PENCILS: Dry pigments ground together with chalk. size. Pastel pencils are slender and in w o o d casing. The higher the quality (and cost). Try materials that are new and unfamiliar. plants.

so it is best to test them before buying. Some are nonsoluble. If you love smooth blocks and lines of colon felt-tip pens are perfect. leaving the paper to shine through for highlights (as below). Some give richer lines than others. it is still a great champion and support for those beginners feeling shyly obligated to tone down their love of color to conform with what others say they should use.or clay-based thin crayons in wood casing. Diverse brands are harder or soften greasier or chalkier in use. 111). Colors can be blended as shown right) and tones graded by altering pressure. others dissolve in water or turpentine to make a wash. Brands made for designers sold in enormous ranges of colors are far more subtle and sophisticated than those made for children. . Fine lines can be achieved (as above). Think of Matisse's Blue Nude (see p. FELT-TIP PENS Although not made with felt-tip pen.163 COLORED PENCILS These are wax.

c o v e r a large sheet o f p a p e r w i t h line drawings o f several shoes. a n d e x p e r i e n c e visible p r o g r e s s . the era in which we live. Superstitions and fetishes are attached to them: we are told never to put new shoes on a table. and a selection of shoes. imagining y o u can see t h r o u g h it. To set up.164 COSTUME Study and Design they reflect our age. and they have been concealed in buildings to ward off misfortune. Turn t h e m in different d i r e c t i o n s and o b s e r v e t h e i r s t r u c t u r e and f o r m . and how we stand and walk. t h e n again as if transparent. 100-01 and pp. a range of colored felt-tip pens with both fine and broad tips. social and economic status. 104-07). and volume in space (see pp. You. will discover m o r e . while artists have painted their boots or those of others as personal portraits and memorials. if y o u m a k e p l e n t y o f d r a w i n g s as o p p o s e d t o o n l y a f e w . D r a w each o n e first as a solid object. REPEATED STUDY T o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s class. t o o . . style. you will need several large sheets of drawing paper. This class takes the shoe as its subject in building on earlier lessons concerned with seeing through objects to understand their function. personality. S H O E S TELL LIFE STORIES. structure. Linear Outline Using fine pens. values. As artifacts in museums. e n j o y i n g t h e study a n d i n v e n t i o n o f shoes. they record and reflect our common history. Here we go one step further. and after studying familiar shoes we use the information learned to invent new ones. I m a d e n u m e r o u s s h e e t s o f d r a w i n g s .

165

The Surface
Next,

STUDY AND DESIGN

study the surface contours using fineand broad-tipped felt-tip pens. For best results, it is important to be bold and brief. Draw firmly, fast, and with as few strokes as possible. Build up each shoe from light to dark andleavesome paper showing through to create highlights.

Design Your Own

Using what you have learned from the previous steps about the structures of your shoes, and about the use of pens, invent new designs from your imagination. Start with fine outlines and progress to colored and textured surfaces. Modify your ideas by rotating the views.

166

COSTUME

The Structure of Costume
MUSEUMS ARE AN INFINITELY

rich resource for the artist and

information given by a period style. Arrange to visit a costume museum or ask a friend to model clothes for you at home. Using fine felt-tip pens, begin with quick, pale impressions of each garment's shape before homing in on its borders and seams. Try to draw transparent views wherever possible to record the relationships between all component parts. Aim to draw enough information for it to be possible to make up a version of the garment using paper pinned to a tailor's dummy.

designer. They often give quite unexpected gems of ideas and information—whatever the subject. These drawings, made in a costume museum, demonstrate ways of recording structural information and detail for later use in the studio. They could form the basis of new designs for a fashion project or theater production, for example. Drawings of shoes on pp. 164-65 show how new designs can be evolved from the structural

OBSERVATION
It is usually best when collecting information for reference to apply the restraint of dispassionate observation. Set yourself the test of drawing facts with as little artistic license or embellishment as possible. Here I chose fine felt-tip pens because they are at their best when used swiftly, and therefore encourage bold, unhesitant decisions.

Swift lines record the hanging weight of this gentleman's coat, the relative proportions of its layers, and minimal details of the buttons and cuffs.

Thick velvet fabric is pulled tight beneath and across the bust by a single button. This transparent view shows how the fabric falls loosely in straight panels beneath the level of the sleeve.

167

LIGHTING
W h e n visiting museums, be prepared f o r l o w lighting, which can make it hard t o see and draw. A book can help if attached t o your drawing board.

Adding stripes and dashes of color with a thicker pen brings out the glossy sheen and sculptural rigidity of this dress, which would have been worn over a whalebone corset. small reading light designed t o clip o n t o a

THE STRUCTURE OF COSTUME

In small drawings such as these, use thick pens to color entire sections with a few marks, as I did here down the side of the bodice.

The light, frilly bulk of this crinoline dress is propelled forward with lines. pinching its gathers and sways that are hiding a horsehair bustle. fleets of quick

168

COSTUME

Textures and.Patterns
THIS CLASS FOCUSES ON how to draw textures through the collection of fabric, pattern, and embroidery samples from a costume m u s e u m . This formal method, using ruled squares, can create an invaluable library of ideas a n d i n f o r m a t i o n for future r e f e r e n c e — w h e n painting a clothed figure, or preparing a textile project, for example. However, if making a book of samples for a project, remember that it is important to also include collages of f o u n d materials (see pp.230-31) To d r a w a fabric texture, b e g i n by concentrating o n h o w y o u i m a g i n e it w o u l d feel if you t o u c h e d it. Decide if it w o u l d be rough, s m o o t h , w a r m , cold, thick, thin, tough, or fragile, for example. As you draw, believe you can feel these qualities at your fingertips a n d that your pencil is responding to the sensation. Undulate the pressure of your lines and marks according to the feeling of the fabric rather than its appearance. Let your pencil enact the sensation of touching its surface.

and to experiment more loosely with mixed media.

INVENTING COSTUMES
This starchy, quilted, b o w e d creation started life as an imagined corset, I intended t o d r a w together in one sculptural f o r m a range o f t h e details opposite. T h e garment quickly got o u t o f hand. T h e r e is great e n j o y m e n t in letting y o u r imagination run wild w h e n inventing costumes. If you are unable t o visit a costume museum, many exciting fabric details and textures can be found in y o u r o w n closet o r home.

169

COLORED PENCILS
Colored pencils give precision and tonal range; they can be faded but not erased. Lightly use an HB graphite pencil if you wish to plan a design first. Pressed hard, colored pencils build up a waxy finish of brilliant color. Used lightly, they appear powdery and show the texture of the paper.

TEXTURES AND PATTERNS
Wool

Silk and braid

Ribbon

Embroidered leather

Feathers

Pearls

Knit

Tassels

Outline stitch

.

look at how Goya delineated volumes of thick fabric to express the posture. Madrid. .Dressing Character I O N C E SPENT THREE MONTHS researching the work of Francisco de Goya at the Prado Museum. 172-73. identity. I made a drawing book full of studies seeking to understand how he composed drama and pathos in his narratives (see also pp.126-27. selected from different pages of my original book. shape. and 252-53). and motivation of an individual. These characters.

Posture Carving also taken from my Madrid drawing book (see pp. . I carefully copied the direction of each of his lines. are copies of works by Goya in which he makes air seem heavier than flesh.T H E S E PENCIL STUDIES. as it rushes and carves fabric-wrapped forms like rivers and desert winds shaping the earth. and visible.170—71). To understand how he did this. and tangible.

.

.

this is not the portrait of an old woman. First. the speed and printmaker and one of the greatest and most influential density of its lines. Second. and its illumination. the viewer's attention in a scene by the format of its composition. we can R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter draftsman. finding corners in crowded places to inscribe their action and energy onto the page. Blockbuster movies. are implicated in this marital exchange made over the head of the anonymous nurse. Her all-too-clear expression shows annoyance and irritation with her husband. and other masters of Western Art. He in turn scorches the paper with his view and a certain speed of seeing all. He is also the artist from whom props to add layers of meaning and attitude. and novels—our staple cultural diet—are driven by a fascination with shared experience and the detail of what happens in other people's lives. and so. Third. We read tensions and exchanges between people. Drawings selected for this chapter explore these Saskia Lying in Bedand a Nurse ranges of proximity 1638 9 x61/2in (227 x 164 mm) and a travel journal. the viewer. and instantly engage with the action of the scene. It middle. types. too. we can learn most about handling pen and ink. Seeing through Rembrandt's eyes. Saskia died after childbirth. the direct exchange (as shown here) where one or more characters hold eye Aneedproduced the thicker lines of the nurse. Washes of shadow behind engaged and as a natural voyeur can feel invisible while watching the scene. there are no longer individuals but one significant group or mass action. comics. soap operas. paintings depicting scenes from history. the viewer is not directly made the finer lines of Saskia. We can direct close. As artists. and therefore seem to see. presumably while he is making this drawing. Later in their lives. Rembrandt's bored and frustrated wife. a crowd tells the story from a distance. vivid portrait of his wife captures our attention. daily newspapers. The spaces between people and the positions they occupy on a page are vital to our understanding of the psychology or emotion of an event. Saskia. we. This J u s t as there are three parts to a traditional landscape drawing—the foreground. R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN in the delivery of narrative. but drawings of gathered people tell them most directly. and distance—so drawings of gathered people can be loosely arranged in three took only minutes to make and yet it lives for centuries. in spite of how it may seem. heighten or subdue drama with subtleties of exaggeration or caricature. television documentaries. Here. even up her were laid with a brush. We can also use clothes. . Storytelling and people-watching are obsessive human activities. With a pocket full of disposable pens we also go out and draw the expressions of gathered people. furniture. while a quill contact with. stares out from her gloomy sickbed.Gatherings A LL DRAWINGS TELL STORIES.

" (Tim Noble) Drawing with light it is important to think about what you is Here timelessly we see a in can draw with. garbage and chaos are piled a n d e x p l o d e d in r o o m s full of event. F o r e a c h w o r k . T h e i m m a c u l a t e d r a w i n g is only r e v e a l e d w h e n t h e b e a m of a p r o j e c t o r c a s t s t h e s h a d o w Projections of the h e a p o n t o a wall. refuse. hearth i m p l e m e n t s crash at o u r feet. TIM N O B L E A N D SUE W E B S T E R British artists who collaborate using neon. c o m p o s e d garbage p r o d u c e s a c a l m . a kitchen explodes in o u r faces.176 GATHERINGS SOME DRAWINGS ARE MADE e n t i r e l y o f i l l u m i n a t i o n that floods drama into the viewers gaze.kicks against the mundane things that close down your mind is a refreshing and good thing. and Alice. junk. plates shatter. t h e y select and arrange familiar items of street detritus into what appears to be an u n p l e a s a n t pile.. and smoke billows around the agitated jives of the Duchess. Real Life is Rubbish 2002 Dimensions variable TIM N O B L E A N D SUE WEBSTER . and in."Anything that. narrative is delivered through the air. or even the office photocopier. and projector. Below.. Here. N o b l e a n d W e b s t e r s w i t t y a n d o f t e n s u b v e r s i v e d r a w i n g s are also c o n t e m p o r a r y art installations. Think about what else you could use: a laser smoke. via the animated clutter of o u r material lives. Pans fly oft the stove. h a l o e d portrait of the artists seated b a c k to b a c k . the Cat. In both works. the C o o k . In one of R a c k h a m s great illustrations for Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland. for example. Pencil on paper important but only the beginning of possibility the combination of three-dimensional space. and projectors to create their anarchic punk satires of modern life. and on.

and Alice's shoulder. and Poe's Tales Imagination. tabletop. Find the singleperspective pp. Depth Billows of smoke expand and are lighter as they come forward. The wood grain acts like marks of speed behind the scene. are very large compared to on p. a n d an unmistakable graphic style. See how the In the Duchess's Kitchen 1907 77/8 x 6 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 5 0 m m ) ARTHUR RACKHAM . This makes the story appear to leap out at us. and watercolor. beams. ink. H e is best k n o w n forillustratingIrving's Rip vanWinkle.76-77) above vanishing point (see that is about3/4in (2 cm) oak converge at this point. we find several devices already explored through our drawing classes. by vivid children's Rakham's w o r k is characterized fantasy.177 ARTHUR RACKHAM British watercolorist and book illustrator.Stowe's ofMysteryand Queer Little Folks. humor. 100 to see for make elliptical objects and pans fly through the the foreground. Rackham Vanishing point In this marvelous drama made with pen. amplifying movement outward from the vanishing point. Refer back to the drawing class how pots In drawn objects and elements that those behind.

London. A glimmer of gold light appears from the left No explanation is given. This is an ironic drawing from Moore. as fellow watchers. heat. Moore's spectators appear to have walked a long way from nowhere to witness and wait beside this mysterious obelisque. HENRY MOORE Crowd 1942 Looking at Tied-up Object . a n d l o v e d t o d r a w in t h e BritishMuseum. perhaps these two are the most extreme. Chalk and graphite This fog-bound but humorous gathering of souls is made in graphite and colored chalk with gray wash. expressing his dry humor about O F ALL THE CONTRASTS HENRY MOORE British s c u l p t o r w h o t r a i n e d a n d taught at t h e R C A . a great Shoshone drawing blazes with the color. This is just one of many precious artifacts from a lost time. meaning. as if Moore's wrapping has been literally outstretched. join in the waiting. The image stands out among his more usual graphic works in which he hones and carves semi-abstract human forms. The mournful gray landscape of Henry Moore's northern British field has gathered by night an overcoated audience to stand and wait before a wrapped and roped monument. In culture. M o o r e t o u r e d Italy as a young man. and action of a buffalo hunt. audiences. which still narrates vivid days in the lives of an energetic nation.The human form w a s the vehicle o f his expression and h e w a s t h e official W o r l d W a r II artist. a sculptor. Opposite. and composition they are polar opposites. Magnetic Fields sculpture. and art in the landscape.178 GATHERINGS we have seen in the pairs and trios of drawings by masters and makers. and we.

creating harmonious balance with words but through silent demonstration." Men at the instructed to sit and watch. Each color is evenly distributed throughout the scene. Skills are taught not center chant or dance to the beat of a drum. Stylized hunters.179 SHOSHONE SCHOOL Stylized characters This vital image of a buffalo hunt is made with pigment Members of the Shoshone community wishing painted within dark outlines on a stretched elk hide. horses. and helping our eye to dart around. MAGNETIC FIELDS Horses It is interesting to note how the outstretched limbs ofthesehorses echo European images of the runningBuffalo horse before the sequence-photographer Muybridge taught us to 19TH understand their movement differently. Hunt CENTURY SHOSHONE SCHOOL . tolearnhow to paint a scene on a hide are and buffalo circle and charge the perimeters of a skin "field.

w h e r e he w a t c h e s a t u r b u l e n t s p i r a l of p u n i s h m e n t f o r the d a m n e d . a pink-inked cinema wobbles along with string. inextinguishable in its fortitude and h u m o r . a n d f o c u s . w r i t e r a r t i s t .180 GATHERINGS The Human Condition IN THE SPECTRUM of these vastly d i f f e r e n t g a t h e r i n g s of p e o p l e . It illustrates a scene from Dante's Divine Comedy. era as Kollwitz. a n d e n g r a v e r w h o p o w e r f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e d his o w n t e x t s in a d d i t i o n t o D a n t e ' s Divine Comedy. pale souls of the lustful are being s p u n into yet another realm of hell. color. and sweetened the often bleak years with his impractical inventions. Blake w a s d r i v e n b y a passion f o r j u s t i c e a n d a p r o f o u n d b e l i e f in his v i s i t a t i o n s f r o m angels. w h i c h b y their c h o i c e a n d h a n d l i n g a c t u a l l y b e c o m e the force a n d spirit of e a c h i m a g e . The muscularity of Blake's figures was inspired by Michelangelo's works. m a r k . B l a k e h a s i l l u m i n a t e d his s a d d e n e d Virgil on the s h o r e s of a d a r k w o r l d . Brushed line and wash This is an ink-outlined drawing made with a fine brush on paper with added washes of watercolor The image was subsequently redrawn as a line engraving. Opposite. a d e a t h c h a r g e of brutality.f o o t e d t r o g l o d y t e s w h o rage into w a r like a m u d s l i d e of revenge. Misted in translucent layers of paint. a n d the gentle h u m o r of sedate r i d i c u l e . w e f i n d a spiritual v i s i o n . t h e Bible. W I L L I A M BLAKE British visionary. K a t h e K o l l w i t z s c r a t c h e d a n d e n g r a v e d her a r m y of c l a y . texture. We also see qualities of line. p o e t . The Circle of the (The Whirlwind 1824 of Lustful Lovers) mm) 143/4 x 207/8i n ( 3 7 4 x 5 3 0 WILLIAM BLAKE . a n d o t h e r w o r k s . Heath Robinson lived through the same war-torn.

and controlled smears on the metal surface printed as tones. Losbruch (The Outbreak) 1955 20 x 233/8 in (507 x 592 mm) KATHE KOLLWITZ HEATH ROBINSON humorous illustrator and a regular contributor to magazines and journals such as The Sketch and The Bystander. stoical bemusement. children. What remained in scratched grooves printed on damp paper as lines. He created sincere. The image was scratched directly onto a metal plate. Kollwitz survived the two World Wars. Ink rolled over was selectively polished off using a rag. and the impact of death and war upon women. White marks were made with a dusting of French chalk on the artist's finger to wipe away ink leaving clean metal. With masterful gentility. sculptor and draftsman. plodding along with hazy. Heath Robinson shows England in a past era.181 KATHE KOLLWITZ German printmaker. and the family home. humor by making his characters earnest. and her powerful and sensitive drawings center on nurture. HEATH ROBINSON The Kinecar 1926 103/8 x 15 in (262 x 380 mm) . British Pen and wash This is a pen-andwatercolor drawing made for a color-platereproduction in an edition of T h e Bystander. Robinson and Kollwitz (above) share almost identical life dates and their work expresses a shared history from opposite sides oftheworld wars. THE HUMAN CONDITION Scratched lines This is a dry-point etching with monoprint. however meager or ridiculous their activity. and clearly focused. poverty. who lived in a poor district of Berlin.

p e r m a n e n t . or idea. . build to a rich. trusting shape and form to follow. a n d ranges o f colors.r e s i s t a n t . t h e y a r e lightfast. turn the page. Lines t h i c k e n as t h e p e n w e a r s o u t G r a n d Canal (see pp. Insensitive t o p r e s s u r e : lines d o n o t v a r y in w i d t h o r t o n e . which can snap or pierce through your clothes. or put the paper in your pocket instantly without fear of smudging.182 GATHERINGS Disposable Pens (ballpoints. I swiftly focused on gesture. if y o u w i s h y o u r d r a w i n g s t o last a n d n o t fade o r b l u r w i t h t i m e a n d e x p o s u r e t o light. w a t e r . rollerballs. CHOICES AVAILABLE T h e r e a r e m a n y d i s p o s a b l e p e n s t o c h o o s e from. W h i t e gel p e n s a r e v e r y e f f e c t i v e o n d a r k papers. they can be obtained within minutes. dropped in your pocket and forgotten till needed. is d e l i v e r e d t h r o u g h a m e t a l t u b e o v e r a t i n y ball bearing. indent paper. Available in blacks and ranges of colors. a ballpoint will make faint lines. shut your book. So many stores sell them. For example. c h o o s e p e n s l a b e l e d " p e r m a n e n t " o r "lightfast. in the car. blob when old. B A L L P O I N T : Black a n d b o l d c o l o r s o f f e r d i v e r s e qualities. in the studio.7 7 and 214-15). Quick-drying. Ideal f o r precision w o r k (see p p . FIBER-TIP: M a n u f a c t u r e d f o r artists a n d d e s i g n e r s in a r a n g e o f w i d t h s . At a time like this. G E L P E N : P r o d u c e d in b l a c k w h i t e . I keep quantities at home. Unlike pencils. T h e r e w e r e c seconds t o snatch this impression b e t w e e n their emergence from one bridge and disappearance b e n e a t h t h e next." 1. R e m e m b e r . dark sheen. these pens enable you to sketch. t w o tourists and their gondolier drifter past m e o n a canal. a disposable pen with its clip-on cap goes anywhere. 4. The f o u r i l l u s t r a t e d h e r e r e p r e s e n t a basic r a n g e . aiming for correct outlines would result in drawing too slowly to c a t c h the moment. including l u m i n o u s a n d m e t a l l i c . 7 6 .188-89) and Caravans (see pp. fine fiber-tip Drawing with a fine fiber-tip pen. a n d pressure-sensitive. jot notes. fibertips. 192-93) w e r e b o t h m a d e w i t h a ballpoint. or turn into washes and make monoprints if flooded with an alcohol-based substance such as hairspray. and in most pockets so I can always record a thought DISPOSABLE PENS QUICK NOTES O n a c o l d day in Venice. gel pens) are the most convenient of all materials with which to travel. R O L L E R B A L L : A c o n s t a n t i n k flow 3 . 2. they each offer distinct and sometimes unexpected qualities.

Earlier I had witnessed a crammed en masse in a fleet of hired gondolas complete with musicians and choir. not form. crowd of fellow travelers Fast lines These scribbled lines model the mass and shadows of heads belonging passengers packed into the boat. Compare this Klee's mules on p. Fast lines focus on action.31 .FROMMEMORY Here I used the same fiber-tip pen to compose a scene from memory.

Don't worry about measuring angles. You must learn to trust your memory and to draw what impressed you most. Every drawing writes an indelible memory of place. focus on the action of the event. animate them more. if animated. Circular lines buzz around a man puzzling at the end of a train platform (left). You will make outlines.184 GATHERINGS The Travel Journal I CANNOT OVERSTATE THE JOY of making a travel journal. No camera can tie you to a time or people in the same way. just draw the action. if a person was stout. make them stouter. Above all. not its outline. when out drawing. black. Exaggeration helps. Each line acts its part in the narrative. life will not slow and wait for you to catch it. However. angles will happen as a matter of course. A curatorial assistant flies to do a chore (right). but they should not be what you dwell on. and companionship. I caught fleeting glimpses of gathered people and solitary souls going about their affairs. activity. Each one was witnessed and drawn immediately from the afterimage of what I had just seen. pocket notebook and a fiber-tip pen. Movement . Push toward caricature and this will draw out of your memory what was most important. all action is in the line of his coat and directed by his nose. Let the line of the flying coat fly and the hanging arm hang. FLEETING MOMENTS Walking through Venice with a small. of course. let it enter the stage and perform.

Expression . I am watched by the aggravated guard. The rush of his legs isamplifiedby their blurred lines.185 A large lady is photographed in front of a delicate work of art. In turn. I drew him three times on the same page to catch a range of his physical expressions. eager to herd us all from his house of responsibility. Observation THE TRAVEL JOURNAL The same willowy assistant dashes about his work.

Be aware that their placement on the page is part of the narrative. you might place them lower down. forcing me to remain at the back and look at them. focus on action. furniture leans. . I took refuge in a church in Venice. For example. When your attention has been caught.186 GATHERINGS Catching the Moment On A BITTERLY COLD November day. rather than the works of art they guarded. ACTION AND DETAIL W h e n drawing people. not outline. or bulge. Place the person carefully. and clothing or bags hang. Here I have recreated my drawing in steps to show you how to set about capturing such a scene. decide how faces and bodies contort. and let every detail speak by its size. or pushes. if they are being devious. and you decide to draw the moment. flap. start by focusing on its action. and involvement in the story. emotion. For example. elevate them in the pictorial space. placement. and there met this sullen custodian. and reason for happening. pulls. if they are being haughty. He and his simpering assistant would not allow me in. Here the custodian projects fastidious ownership of his desk and pamphlets by pushing from behind the center of the space and challenging our entry to his image. Identify the principal character and draw him or her first.

Draw their action and props. Decide where t o place them t o emphasize their role. a pillar locates t h e scene in a depth o f space. continue adding characters. Decide where you will place them o n the paper t o emphasize their action and intent. which is pushed toward us in a gesture of confrontation. I added t h e assistant. who is largely expressed through the shape and fall o f his raincoat and his way o f using a note pad. such as the desk and pamphlets seen here. together with any immediate props they are using. Here. . D r a w their action. W i t h a few strokes. CATCHING THE MOMENT The assistant Identify t h e antagonist ( o r second character) in t h e scene. If drawing a more complex scene.187 The custodian Identify your principal character a n d their psychological role in the scene. In the final step (left) I reinforced t h e custodian's desk.

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. where vertical mooring poles give space and pulse to the horizontal speed of water quickly. and buildings.Grand Canal T H E CANALS OF VENICE are bustling places full of occupation. An imminent deluge of tourists urged me to work catching no more than the skeleton of the view. I developed detailofthis drawing from memory using a ballpoint pen.

. then the bridge beneath them. Caricature each person slightly. Characters in the foreground were drawn first.Crossings DURING THIS RUSH HOUR. Each person was glimpsed in an instant. followed by the streets. To catch characters like this. note only their most essential action and feature. and drawn immediately from memory. Venetians flow across a stepped bridge and cascade into the streets beyond.

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quiet afternoon. Caravans and other backstage activity convey expectations of energy and repose. . I found this circus by chance in the Swiss mountains.Caravans T H E PARAPHERNALIA O F TRAVEL i s an intriguing part of circus life. Sitting at a distance on a hot. I used a ballpoint pen to compose a series of scenes. and a great subject to draw.

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the face of the Moon. how the mountain cut by ice and rain is now fleetingly lit. a contemporary environmental artist. a n d a m o o n globe called t h e Selenographia. Russell d r e w this.Earth and the Elements I T MAY SEEM PERVERSE to start a chapter titled "Earth and the Elements" with an image of the Moon. It now hangs on the staircase of the History of Science Museum. so J o h n Russell's tour de f o r c e drawing (opposite) was a masterpiece of observation in his time. trees. 5 f t x 5 ft 6 in ( 1 5 2 x 1 6 8 c m ) J O H N RUSSELL . pages o f softly i l l u m i n a t e d craters and lunar "seas" c o v e r e d in m a t h e m a t i c a l and s h o r t h a n d calculations. and take bold steps in emulating the swell of clouds and the forces of torrential water. and the sea. t w o e n g r a v e d m a p s k n o w n as The Lunar Planispheres. learning to draw light out of dark. By drawing such momentous and everyday events. rivers. It is better to get up before dawn. our companion. Weather is essential in all landscape drawing. artists see for themselves that which is momentary and eternal. H e a l s o p r o d u c e d an a l b u m o f 1 8 0 exquisite pencil drawings. or the wind carries it away. speculation. William Turner is said to have had himself lashed to a ship's mast to comprehend the storm (see p. but it can be seen as a lens to our observation of this planet. as opposed the physicality of Earth. or has cracked and fallen under the weight of water. sunny days. This is the world's first accurate image of the Moon. JOHN RUSSELL A p o r t r a i t pastelist t o King G e o r g e III o f England. Oxford. In this chapter Moon Pastel 1795 Drawing we experiment with charcoal. they are the animators of your subject. t h e first-ever accurate image o f t h e M o o n ' s surface. Just as NASA photographs of Earth have had a profound effect on the way we view our fragile home. the sun comes out to blind it. The pastel drawing was constructed from myriad telescopic observations almost 200 years before the Apollo Moon landing. arranging them in perfect circles on the mountainside or in lines drifting out of sight beneath low clouds. Look closely at works by many artists and you will see that they have not represented hills. are the real subjects in great landscape drawings. What they have drawn is the force of nature on these properties: how the wind heaves the night ocean. surrounded by the bright instruments of centuries of navigation. There is a sense of the heroic in drawing outside—we race to catch a form before the tide engulfs it. Richard Long. marking the ground with lines of footprints or by turning stones. Take chances against the rain and work with the wind or fog. when little stirs and empty blue skies offer even less to latch lines to. 199). makes his work by the act of walking. and its draws the tides of the seas. how the soil is scorched. and experiment. These conditions are very difficult to express well. England. a n d a n astronomer w h o dedicated 20 years t o studying t h e M o o n . and even how the Sun illuminates. The forces of nature. Beginners will often choose calm. to be ready to draw the new light as it breaks across the land. and meteor impacts have scarred. It is Earths satellite.

Hokusais sedate wind presses reeds a n d the j o u r n e y s o f young ladies. fluttering heavily. seeing how it shakes.Through political drawings he fired his sharp wit at the king. A hard waxy was drawn across a heavy limestone Varying definitions crayon of lire and depths of tone conspire to give volume. the bourgeoisie. By Turner carries us to the heart of the maelstrom. speed. serving a prison sentence for his views. like an umbrella forced inside-out. the government. T h e great master of English seascape is c o n d u c t i n g with his graphic energy. and pioneer ofexpressionism. painter. we can soon learn to draw its force. a sail b r o k e n loose in a stormy marriage. sculptor. a scratched ghost. distance. and solidity. Fluid strokes inflate the woman's dress and pin shadows to the ground. Flapping kimonos and an onlooker turning his b a c k have the magic of a m o m e n t caught. undramatic b u t brimming with stylized realism. T h e ship. has b e c o m e a hysterical kite. He knew how the world bends and stutters under such gusts. lifts. Danger of Wearing Balloon Petticoats UNDATED HONORE DAUMIER . Below. is already lost.198 EARTH AND THE E L E M E N T S Air in Motion THE GREAT INVISIBLE SUBJECT o f these d r a w i n g s is t h e w i n d . and the legal profession. and gives motion to each image. Terrifying waves of merciless nature roar across the paper. Crayon and limestone This is a lithograph. Dots and dashes suggest receding trees out of focus. H O N O R E DAUMIER French satirical cartoonist lithographer. Daumier's c a r t o o n shines with the brilliance of his comic memory. Hazy vertical marks reveal buildings into the mist. and by observing its tides and eddies in our o w n environment. This wife.

M. a n d his b e s t . 1826 91/2 x 113/4 in ( 2 4 1 x 3 0 0 m m ) J. AIR IN MOTION Pencil and watercolor subdued brushed. Ship in a Storm c.M. T h e r e a r e m a n y stories o f his p a s s i o n a t e w o r k i n g methods. Hokusai direction (from clothing from has chosen which it the right). absorbent watercolor and are Stains of splashed. T U R N E R British landscape. T u r n e r w o r k e d in oils a n d w a t e r c o l o r s a n d s k e t c h e d c o p i o u s l y o n his travels. Wind direction wood-block This is a colored To represent the blows lifted flowed wind.l o v e dw o r k s i n c l u d e 1 0 0 v i e w s o f M o u n t Fuji and 1 2 v o l u m e s o f Manga.i n f l u e n c e d b y examples o f W e s t e r n art obtained through D u t c h t r a d i n g in Nagasaki. seascape. wind. A outline scratched of a skeletal into penciled ship is while and the waves. Landscape a n d city life w e r e his principal subjects. W . horizontally then and of the it into the stream Plants also bend and flow right to Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 1802 81/2 HOKUSAI KATSUSHIKA x 131/2 in ( 2 1 7 x 3 4 3 mm) . including being lashed t o a ship's m a s t in o r d e r to study a storm. and history painter w h o s e p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t a b o v e all w a s light.b l o c kprintmaker. TURNER KATSUSHIKA HOKUSAI Prolific J a p a n e s e c o l o r w o o d . from left print.W. into this very as pressed sheet The paper's through own coior is brought banks of mist and fog. leans the whole composition swells around its fateful center. painter.199 J. H o k u s a i in t u r n has since significantly influenced European art. d e s i g n e r a n d b o o k i l l u s t r a t o r .

lines of rain escorting them to b o u n c e and clatter. Le Bateau-Vision 1864 71/2 x 1 0 in ( 1 9 2 x 2 5 5 m m ) VICTOR H U G O . inks. as a subject and second. leaving nothing but a glimpse of moonlight glistening on the froth below. active surfaces of water. In periods b e t w e e n writing. as if drawn j u s t this year.198) admires the majesty of nature.200 ELEMENTS Storms STORMS CAN BE SEEN and drawn in two ways: first. Opposite. as a gestural storm on the paper. grab their b r u s h . this is a writer's narrative of terror. EARTH AND THE VICTOR HUGO French novelist and artist (see also p. with a brush. h a u n t e d shadows. Turner (see p. He brings us to stare into a place that no sane human would enter.28). T h e very nature of b o t h is turmoil and an interweaving of elements. Then. and swim into the page. T h e m e n a c i n g darkness of Hugo's storm b e l o w is so convincing. By contrast. and tossed o b j e c t s — a perfect subject in which artists can forget themselves. Pen and brush Hugo drew first with pen and ink. composing banks of waves and dense. marks. Leonardos Cloudburst of Material Possessions is o n e of his m o s t enigmatic and mysterious works. An update on biblical showers of fish and frogs. His subjects include ruins. D o m e s t i c o b j e c t s we can o w n and name fall from the clouds. or charcoal. it is difficult to contemplate its brooding and night-soaked heart. It looks so contemporary. and t h e sea s t u d i e d f r o m his h o m e in Guernsey in t h e Channel Islands. fantasy palaces. this is a b o m b a r d m e n t from o u r h o m e s . water. he blanketed the drawing in darkness. ink. drawing was Hugo's principal means o f expression.

and a wheel. There is a little magic in recognizing many items from our homes something like a rake. for example). He bequeathed his drawings to a friend. a bell. a hook.LEONARDO DA VINCI Leonardo devised many artifacts of our modern lives. together with half the contents of our garage. Each item that has crashed from heaven is drawn in such a way that we can feel Leonardo's nib picking it up in the speed of a doodle. Above and below are examples of his mirror handwriting. It is interesting to speculate how engineering might have developed if his ideas had been shared with the world earlier Ink and chalk This is a pen and ink drawing with touches of black chalk. envisioning machines centuries before their making (helicopters and bicycles. Cloudburst of Material Possessions 1510-12 45/8 x 43/8 in ( 1 1 7 x 1 1 1 mm) L E O N A R D O DA VINCI . He was left-handed and wrote backwards in Italian from left to right. and they passed through private hands for 400 years before becoming widely known.

202 ELEMENTS THE PROFILE OF A HORIZON is a line we immediately recognize and respond to. Over first lines. a horizon line can trigger our recognition. In the lower half he has walked downhill a little. or cityscape. atmosphere. Nature Profiles Opposite below. which he used to unify his compositions. Drawing with a scalpel. and mood simultaneously. it is the unique calligraphic signature of the place in which we stand. Claude has used a fine nib to delineate segments of land as they recede into space. made inside a book. thick. sea-. transferred it to a scroll. and etcher who lived most of his life in 17th-century Rome. his unsurpassed handling of light. Even distilled from all other detail.1638 85/8 x 121/2 in (219 x 320 mm) CLAUDE LORRAIN . Segments The top half of the drawing is a view as we enter the valley. rapidly layering contours to shape place. rich. she teased away fragments of paper to illuminate her view. Clare Bryan took panoramic photographs of the English South Downs. and we can imagine standing over his shoulder. watching his hand and eye at work together. cooler tones receding into the distance are applied with a brush. and after tracing her captured line. In a very different work (opposite above). and across to the right. C L A U D E LORRAIN French classical landscape painter draftsman. Claude Lorrain drew directly on location. Whether land-. Views from Velletri c. and famed for. She was inspired by her research of aerial plans of London and the story of an alien map butterfly (see caption). Claude is distinguished by. and dry marks in the foreground appear to be made with his finger. Paler. EARTH AND THE Bryan cut the profile of a city.

then hunted destroyed." Cut line This is a small section of a preparatory 5-ft(1. drawings Ideas of introduction Clare Bryan to research introduced down and led NATURE PROFILES and removal historical plans and aerial growth of London showing its population since Roman times. progressively settlement (cropped more and more paper is drawn away to show the expansion of human page of an around the river. source workisilluminatedby standing its lower edge on a CLARE BRYAN . and digital print-based works reflect upon the histories and poetry of "left behind and in-between spaces.5-m)scroll. On turning the pages of City. and visiting professor at numerous art schools.203 Scalpel-drawn This book-bound drawing was inspired by the story of a foreign butterfly wrongly to Great Britain in 1912. The edges of each here) fade into the solid paper unpopulated with a scalpel landscape. specialty bookbinder. Her recent paper photographic. printmaker graphic designer.The horizon was drawn with a City Landline 2003 271/2x 59 in (70 x 150 cm) scalpel. 2001 CLARE BRYAN C L A R E BRYAN 3ritish artist.

maple. 3. 1 Suspend a length of masking tape. It c a n be m a d e duller. Essentially. CHALK CHARCOAL: Technically. 2. In use. leaving u n d e r t r a c e s of first thoughts. and offers a rich. this does not exist. so it chars b l a c k as o p p o s e d to igniting a n d turning to ash. b e e c h . black finish. resulting in a pale line.54). white line into the blackor grayness of willow charcoal. 162) or graphite (see p. C h a r c o a l naturally glistens. Alternatively. MEDIUM W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 5. between your middle finger and thumb. blacker. a rag. COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Machine-made. It is also easily erased if the maker of the mark is not happy with the result. R o u g h paper c a n b e loaded. Charcoal lifts away from paper easily with the very light touch o f an eraser. 4. B u n d l e s o f twigs were traditionally sealed into earthenware j a r s or wet clay and heated slowly and intensely in a fire or kiln. Then lift it away.204 E A R T H AND THE E L E M E N T S Charcoal CHARCOAL IS PRODUCED from wood baked slowly without exposure to air. Use any fine-point pen or pencil (I used a ballpoint) to draw a firm line on the back of the Big pieces are perfect for very large-scale drawings—even larger than yourself. It does n o t erase easily. It allows you greater precision in your mark-making than if you rub away the charcoal with an eraser. Artists have also used lime. Slightly dull the tape's stickiness before use t o prevent it from lifting out more than you intend. harder line. a n d m o r e i n d e l i b l e by soaking it in linseed oil. Hold it over your drawing RANGE AVAILABLE Charcoal (in its several forms shown here) is loved or loathed by the beginner to whom it is often recommended because it produces pleasing results quickly. LIFTING OUT This technique is a very easy method of drawing a crisp. SQUARE COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Not often sold. CHARCOAL PENCIL: Types made by different manufacturers vary in quality and density of line. 7. it is compressed and m o l d e d at high pressure. 1. sticky side down. cylindrical. THICK W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 2 Keep the tape above your drawing. the heel o f y o u r h a n d .m a d e c o m p r e s s e d charcoal. and heavier than willow. b l a c k e r . As its name implies. . vine. tape. THIN WILLOW CHARCOAL: I used a piece like this to make the drawing opposite. A great find when available. Smooth paper accepts few particles. only a little thicker. feather. without touching the surface. Try itworking on big paper covering a wall. Beware of cheap brands selling dyed chalk as compressed charcoal. 6. fine. Willow is the most c o m m o n wood. you can p u r c h a s e m a c h i n e . a piece of fresh bread. The same as above. it looks gray and feels like chalk. or fingertip. a n d p l u m . The tip snaps easily to renew a sharp edge if required. but some specialists stock compressed charcoal in delicate square sticks. resulting in a stick that gives a blacker. Boxes often contain a range of thicknesses to choose for different needs. Not to be confused with square conte sticks (see p. they are all intended for fine work. Lines are achieved by d e p o s i t i n g particles in the grain o f paper. 3 A white line is lifted out by the tape.

Here we used a ballpoint. Different tones seen throughout the main drawing on pp. .212-13 were made by altering the pressure applied to the charcoal.205 ERASING Thickly applied charcoal quickly o v e r c o m e s a plastic eraser A w a r m (soft and tacky) putty eraser is more effective. 8 . Use high quality (very sticky) to fix paper to walls and boards. MASKING TAPE: An invaluable resource. PEN: Any fine pen or pencil can be used to draw on the back of masking tape when lifting out. Lift out broader marks with a larger implement. Use cheaper (less sticky) for lifting out. Here. CHARCOAL Lifting out This detail shows an example of where I used the lifting-out technique demonstrated opposite to draw flashes of lightning against rain clouds. as is fresh (unbuttered!) bread. I used a plastic eraser effectively on thinly applied charcoal. Layers can be peeled away to refresh its surface. sold in several widths. Cotton swabs also work. or any other dry media. T O R T I L L O N : This is a tight roll of paper used to blend charcoal. 9. pastels. 10. graphite.

They are also good markers of receding space. Then I drew the shape of the tonal patches I perceived. Seeing tones . When you arrive. Successful drawings often only suggest the qualities of the scene without overdescribing them. Ironically. pack your materials (as advised below) and set off for a local view or your nearest arboretum. begin by marking out several small squares on your paper. Don't worry if it is cloudy: clouds add drama and perspective and make good subjects in themselves (see pp. It is the visible effect of the atmosphere between where you stand and what you see in the distance. and a cushion in a plastic bag to sit on. I relaxed my eyes out of focus to dissolve distracting detail into abstract patches of light and darkness.206 EARTH AND THE ELEMENTS Landscapes TREES ALONE OFFER MARVELOUS shapes to draw. MATERIALS In this first view there is only a foreground and middle distance. hazy distance. but is often less evocative and engaging. On p p . a less distinct middle ground composed of shapes and textures. The long view is hidden behind trees. Excessive detail can be admired for its skill and achievement. This term simply means that as land rolls away into the distance. 9 8 . Landscape drawings are traditionally arranged in three parts: a detailed foreground. Pack several thick and thin sticks of willow charcoal. a reel of masking tape. and an abstract. an eraser your drawing book or a board and paper fixative (or hairspray). At its worst. the less you describe.9 9 we noted that in response to visual stimulus. especially when making first excursions into aerial perspective. to contain each of your compositions. it results in flat planes of clutter. To experiment with drawing landscapes and the use of charcoal. details blur and colors grow paler and bluer.212-13). our brains search for nameable things and will perceive complete pictures from very little information. the more you encourage the viewer's imagination to join in and see.

Exploring the view Redrawing the scene above. It is better to give distinctly more pictorial space to one or the other (see below). Remember. This composition turned out a little flat because I have an almost even quantity of earth and sky. your view is your inspiration. the trunk of a bare tree. rounded. I have invented drama with diagonals set against each other I tilted the earth.207 LANDSCAPES In my second square I explored a simple view contrasting soft. and broke a view through the hedge into the distance with a dark sky threatening rain. horizontal regions of grass. full of information you can use to create what you want! Inventing drama . dark trees with bright. shadows.

Circling a subject and drawing it from several views imprints on your memory a better understanding of its three-dimensional form. your challenge now is to find a sculptural subject in the landscape.208 ELEMENTS Drawing in the Round WHEN DRAWING IN THE LANDSCAPE. shade out of the glare of the sun.1 5 my first drawing of the whole view of the Tiber led me to see the real subject of the day. taking with you your drawing book and pen. observing it from several views so as to better understand it as a whole. s e e k places in light After my first drawing. For example. bare ribs. Building on earlier studies of structure in space using shoes (pp.104-05). I usually begin by making an image of the whole view. engine. This first drawing serves as a process of arrival. making the scene below led me to focus on the decaying boat opposite. EARTH AND THE FINDING THE SUBJECT Finding a remarkable subject is even better when you can circumnavigate it in an arena of space. and seeing what the real choice of subject is. settling my concentration. The mud of the tidal shore in Rye. England has embedded within it the decaying skeleton of a burned fishing boat. 2 1 4 . on p p . so the paper is not made blinding and your hand cannot cast a shadow on your work. and tiller still standing proud.164-65) and a wire violin (pp. Similarly. "Drawing in the round means to literally walk around your subject. which was the flow of water over rocks." . I am then able to home in on what interests me most for further study.

make a series o f drawings f r o m different positions. careful lines to establish the skeleton that gives this wreck its distinct form. w h e n t h e sea recedes. DRAWING IN THE 1 Here. The outline ties a shape of darkness to the boat like a weight so that it becomes part of its form. I spent equal time looking at the subject and the paper. I drew with quick. Overleaf: Decaying Boat 4 . W h e n you have found your subject. Each n e w drawing gives a different insight. 3 This impression notes the angle of the broken boat.209 SERIES OF STUDIES This stunning ghost o f a boat comes into v i e w t w i c e a day. and the order and shape of its component parts. unfussy lines. I looked more boldly at the planes and the dynamic of the sculptural craft My lines have become darker and more forceful as confidence in my understanding of the vessel grew. character. and structure. ROUND 2 In this tail-end view. marking straight. looking more at the boat than at the paper From this low position I have emphasized how the boat is swallowed in mud by outlining its shadow on the ground. its overall balance.

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m a d e on s m o o t h . was made with gentle but unhesitating s p e e d . .Cloudburst THIS STORM DRAWING. I worked quickly to catch and weave the turbulent contrasts of rising wind and approaching water before the drawing could be washed away. L o o k i n g b a c k and forth from the heavens to firmly taped-down paper. hot-pressed drawing p a p e r (see pp.20-21) using a thin stick of willow charcoal.

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pulse.Notes of Force T H E GREAT FLOWING TIBER RIVER has cut through Rome. shaping the city. pocket-sized notebook. I drew with a needle-fine fiber-tip pen. . On the pages of a small. since ancient times. focusing on the river's eddies. black. and rhythmic detail as it passed through the ancient gully of the city.

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Mountains SITTING IN THE SHADE of a tree on the Greek island of Antiparos. The strong diagonal of the composition from bottom left to top right carries the eye through changes of height and focus from the foreground to the mountains beyond. . I used a dip pen and waterproof India ink with brushed watercolor to draw the view.

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The fate of Old World thinking was finally sealed with the brutality of World War I. strike the paper to find form. It also underpins and gives strength and unity to all figurative work. It is actually its foundation and its infrastructure. My own work is firmly centered in figuration. it is simply itself. From one point of view. which are essentially abstract. However. liberating. Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape 1915 413/8 x 285/8 in (105 x 72.Abstract Lines T HE DEVELOPMENT OF W E S T E R N abstract art at the beginning of the 20th century significantly paralleled major changes in world thought. Perhaps in Western culture we bred this intuitive freedom out of ourselves in our insistence on complex figuration. opposite. precisely because it does not have to represent a physical object. and poetic myth roar and cascade within his tightly framed pages. and young children show us that abstract. writer and composer who suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and was resident in the Waldau Aslyum near Berne. Berne. sounds. and independent means of communication. and history. fictional language. direction. or gestures. He made thousands of drawings to chronicle his complex life. First marks. poet. The growing rise of Darwinian ideas coupled with Freudian and Marxist perspectives forced Western society to reconsider its origins and future. abstraction is not so easy to define. Swirling. From another viewpoint. actions. many nonWestern cultures have highly sophisticated abstractions at the core of their art. and Aboriginal art. ADOLF WOLFLI One of the greatest masters of Art Brut. all pictorial representations are abstractions of reality. drawn sound. I begin every image by feeling its meaning. Internal workings of the mind were suddenly free to find a new language of expression. and it has always been with us. yet my kinship to abstraction is fundamental. don't be timid. His drawings are collected and exhibited internationally and held by the Adolf Wolfli Foundation. Artists were given a different tool—a line threaded directly from their subconscious to their hand—and with it they began to map a bold new landscape of marks and concepts that would dramatically and forever change the face of Western art. An abstract mark is often a better conductor of a thought or feeling. Wolfli was a Swiss draftsman. writhing torrents of color. picturing a stabilized world was impossible and Modernism rode forth with vigor. spontaneous image-making. Museum of Fine Arts. such as Adolf Wolfli. for example. belief. People are often scared by abstraction and see it as the enemy of figurative art. Indian mandalas. expressive marks and shapes are at the core of natural. and have been making abstract drawings for centuries—Japanese calligraphy. and emotion. It was not invented in the 20th century. . Many concepts and feelings can only be expressed through marks.8 cm) A D O L F WOLFLI Abstraction is a direct. only rediscovered. Outsider artists. As you approach the classes in this chapter. Afterward. Not everything we know has a physical form in the world. be brave and enjoy them.

Abe works with materials such as soil. iron. Five forged steel shapes. Mamoru Abe prepares an image that will appear through the chemistry of iron. and sensitivity with its thickness and pressure of touch. water. It can proclaim mood. Damp Japanese paper was laid over carefully arranged iron bars. sit in silent harmony. A Neolithic chalk tablet bears cut lines that were slowly carved. brass. scrolling across the canvas in an intimate crescendo. and plaster in galleries and landscapes. and wood are also part of the work. forged steel. Iron rods in tone. Sometimes it smolders like a deep shadow. as Twombly shows us opposite. The Physical Space 1990 3 0 x 30 ft ( 9 1 4 x 9 1 4 cm) MAMORU ABE . tone. or. and Assistant Professor of Fine A r t at Fukuoka University. it can keep reforming through the inherent repetition of a process. silence. staining redbrown lines into the white surface. and texture their bracing separation reaching between from beneath Pillars of the gallery are made part of this drawing by their inclusion in the paper.220 A B S T R A C T LINES Process and Harmony SOMETIMES A DRAWN LINE sings on the surface of its support. Changes paper. salt. Below. akin to stones in a Zen garden. and temperature rim of floor space. ice. MAMORU ABE Japanese sculptor and installation artist. He travels widely to research ancient sacred sites. quoting ink marks on a page. Lines. texture. A line can be finished in a second. This the paper rest within the amplifies framelike of the floor from the ceiling. Abe's physical drawing is a sculptural installation. Twombly's mesmeric wax line worked over house paint is like a signature. Moisture produced rust. rhythmically engaged with itself. and patient watching.

evolved a raw. Neolithic Chalk Tablet 3.000-2. Twombly has language works CY TWOMBLY Contemporary American artist who emerged through the 1950s New York art scene in the heyday of Abstract Expressionism and Action Painting. Many of his graffiti-like combine abstract gestures with statements. close to Stonehenge in Wiltshire. Precise lines suggest the use of a sharp flint The framed rectangle of this image is echoed in that of Abe's installation. At the 2001 Venice Biennale. PROCESS AND HARMONY Cut lines Chalk carves easily. The central pictorial space is also similarly cut and divided by the considered arrangement of straight lines. theories suggest astrological observations.241).Twombly was presented with a Golden Lion award for lifetime achievement. energetic. and Untitled 1970 Here we might seek to grasp letters in the turning of his line. such as the Rosetta stone.400BCE 21/4 x 21/4 in (58 x 58 mm) ARTIST UNKNOWN Language Over the course of fifty years. emotive. and sensuous drawing from painting. CY TWOMBLY . This example is one of two chalk tablets found in a Late-Neolithic pit. and the worship of the sun and ancient gods. and American Indian petroglyphs (see p.England.221 ANCIENT CARVINGS Many ancient cultures have made and left behind drawings and texts carved into stones or animal bone. that challenges the separation of word from image.Thesite's purpose is unknown. the Babylonian world map. burials.

drawing here can b e described in t e r m s o f a G e r m a n philosophical idea a b o u t is t h e i n s t a n t r e c o g n i t i o n t h e p o w e r o f m o m e n t . Bussotti. too. abstract artists and composers unique. Gestalt. Similarity in gritty texture suggests that here." An innovator who never fails to surprise. and participate in the composition. below. brushed night skies over them with ink then lifted the disks to reveal white moons. music manuscript requiring instrumentalists to improvise. have striven to break down old pictorial and musical structures to explore new and unfettered modes of expression. and let the drying meniscus deposit granules in linear drifts such as we would see in the satellite photographic mapping of rivers. said. pressed them face down. and inventive of his time. Marks across the center appear to be made with his fingers. o f t e n e x p r e s s e d in v i s u a l t e r m s . Texture Compare this drawing to Hugo's octopus on p. Ink impressions When drawing nightscapes Hugo often laid paper disks in place of the moon. The scores are also exhibited in galleries as visual art. and lifted them away to leave impressions of watery planets and seas. Both abstract drawing and composition involve the perfect sequencing of sounds and marks against space and silence. he mixed graphite into ink. Here he appears t o have saturated the cut-out moon disks with gritty pigment.28. opposite. broke new ground in the 1950s with graphic scores now considered among the most extreme.222 ABSTRACT LINES Writing Time SINCE THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY. here he anticipates abstract expressionism by 100 years. Hugo. "There is nothing like dream to create the future. beautiful. Two Impressions Paper 1853-55 VICTOR HUGO Disk from a Cut-Out . His drawing writes the time of its own physical process by expressing the extreme concentration of the moment in which it was made. abstract. o r a pattern o f elements s o unified as a w h o l e t h e y c a n n o t b e e x p l a i n e d asa s u m o f parts. A graphic score is a V I C T O R H U G O Hugo's abstract French novelist w h o m a d e m a n y drawings in m i x e d m e d i a ( s e e also p. a configuration.28). interpret. Gestalt o f an unnameable thing.

223 W R I T I N G TIME SYLVANO BUSSOTTI Italian avant-garde composer and principal 20thcentury exponent of the graphic score. Circular Score for "Due Voci" c. His later works become increasingly abstract. This is a page from Due Voci. Compare this work to that of Libeskind on p. Sound and rhythm This flickering rondo of sound written in pen on a hand-ruled stave can be heard in our imaginations as much as seen. we can feel their rhythm and easily attach sounds to them. a far cry from any recognized musical notation. 1958 SYLVANO BUSSOTTI . Following the notes. Bussotti's first mature work. 70 in relation to Bussotti's clustered notes to the left of his rondo and open space to the right.

MARIE LIEB Little is known of this w o m a n for w h o m the act of drawing was essential. d i p p i n g h e r fingers into a pot o f rice flour. Germany.224 A B S T R A C T LINES Chants and Prayers WHEN ABSTRACT LINES are organized in repetition. This takes a form in most cultures. social outcasts. She tore c l o t h into strips a n d used these to draw patterns a n d symbols o n h e r cell floor. Visually. Torn cloth This is one of two published photographs showing Marie Leib's torn cloth strips significantly placed on her cell floor. for e x a m p l e . Compositional rightness (see pp. they m a k e a visual a n d physical e c h o that t o u c h e s s o m e deep part of the human spirit. In music it can be felt in the diversity of plainsong and African d r u m m i n g . Cloth is the simple instrument with which she has conducted and ordered her universe. Cell Floor With Torn Strips of Cloth 1894 MARIE LIEB . cultures. O p p o s i t e . It will protect the place from evil and make a pleasing invitation to good spirits. Lieb is one o f countless thousands of "Outsider" artists—diverse individuals including ordinary citizens. it is found in the regularity o f ordered lines or a pattern. centuries. T h e s e p h o t o g r a p h s d o c u m e n t the meditative drawings o f two w o m e n living worlds apart in different countries. In the late 1 9 t h century. and c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Marie Lieb w a s a psychiatric patient in the Heidelberg Asylum. making objects and images outside o f mainstream culture. and sufferers of psychiatric illnesses—who have always existed. an a n o n y m o u s w o m a n in the southeast Indian state o f Tamil Nadu m a k e s a ritual drawing o n the b r i c k courtyard o f h e r h o m e .228-29) has been adjusted with each movement of the rags to draw a cosmos of balance and perfection.

and in places of worship and celebration. animals. lecturer on the subjects of Indian art and Indian women's identity. women pride themselves on never repeating a design. Materials such as rice flour. and for over 30 years has traveled extensively through the Indian subcontinent creating an edited archive of 200. at the University of London and Ohio State University. Designs and motifs Rangoii (or mandalas) are ritual drawings made by many millions of women across rural India. Motifs are geometrical or based on plants.Theseare widely published in journals and are the subjects of international exhibitions. Huyler is the author of Painted Prayers. among others. cultural anthropologist. Painted Prayers UNDATED STEPHEN R HUYLER . Skills are handed down through generations and from friend to friend. or flowers are marked or arranged on the ground or on the walls of homes. and birds. chalk.000 images. In daily practice. lime.HUYLER Photographer art historian.225 STEPHEN P. Popular magazines feature new ideas each week and on special occasions there may be contests.

free from the direct imaging of known physical things. BRIAN CATLING British sculptor poet. performance and installation artist. it is ruled and contained in one dimension by its interlocking ink-lined borders. structure. and water-resistant layers of spray and enamel paint on thick paper. Mixed media This is a collage of torn white and gray tissue paper previously stained with ink. These two works present complex compositions with differing intensions and methods of making. They each find their pathways and equilibrium in atmosphere and suggestion. Catling's works made for international galleries and museums involve drawing as a tool in their development and making. gold paint and iridescent gouache mixed with water. Oxford. and Fellow of Linacre College. Oval moons eclipse each other and oscillate between landforms and portraiture. rocks or heads in a subdued atmosphere of dream. but similarities in mood. Catling's torn paper shapes and shadows spill light out of their frame like a fractured mirror. and choice of hues. Catling's abstract drawings are usually made in series and in parallel to written poetry and sculptural installations. Ruskin School. With no depth of field. Their energy can therefore be a purer expression of an idea or emotion. filmmaker Professor of Fine Art. Untitled 2001 2001 153/4x 215/8 in ( 4 0 0 x 550 mm) BRIAN C A T L I N G . Klee's mathematical maze of thinly washed surface resonates with meticulous planning.226 ABSTRACT LINES Compositions ABSTRACT DRAWINGS ARE LARGELY or entirely free from using the viewer's eye to track and unfold layers of meaning. figurative representation—that is.

It is a geometric harmony of straight lines and tonally graded flat colors that by their arrangement draw our eyes inward to their white center. Geometric harmony This is a work on paper made with a sharp ink pen. and wrote copiously about the natures and relationships of color and form. Kunstmuseum Bern PAUL KLEE . and might be read as active or passive.97-99. ruler. drew. Line and surface Klee observed the visual capacity of lines to push or pull within an image.31). philosophized. Klee also felt that a line represents the passing of time. Polyphon Gefasstes Weiss (White Framed Polyphonically) 1930 131/8x95/8 in (333 x 245 mm) Paul-Klee-Stiftung. We can see some diagrammatic examples of this among the optical illusions on pp. watercolor.227 PAUL K L E E Swiss painter and sculptor (see also p. He explained his polyphonic painting as "a harmony of several color voices" searching for a visual parallel to music. whereas tonal surfaces are perceived more immediately as a whole. Klee painted. and brush.

and put them o n a tray. This balance is what every artist and designer searches a n d feels for when making an image. "Whenall pictorial elements come together in pleasing and perfect balance. for instance. and elements settle in definitive balance. There is a single m o m e n t w h e n all proportions. their impact. they are just. or degree of figuration. or on a page. but an easy o n e to u n d e r s t a n d . w i l l c h a n g e w i t h e v e r y r e a r r a n g e m e n t . angles. there is a clear feeling when. M a n y of their inter-relationships will be meaningless. Feel for it when youdraw. W h e n m o v i n g objects around in your yard. b u t e v e r y n o w a n d again you will hit on an arrangement w h i c h appears just. "I have experimented endlessly with this idea. the late garden designer Russell Page explains. a b u n c h of keys. media. and an apple. It is found in all great art and design. Set up a sheet of paper with a rectangle drawn on it. or home. after being continuously adjusted.228 ABSTRACT LINES Being "Just" A SENSE OF "JUST" (or rightness) is a difficult concept to explain." .Thisexercise will help you start. Take. and ten straight sticks painted black. Seek it when looking at other artists' work and in your everyday environment. regardless of style. they reach a perfect position. culture. As y o u m o v e them around. the impression y o u receive from t h e m ." SETTING UP Justness can be harmonious or deliberately discordant. In his b o o k The Education of a Gardener. s o m e will be more or less h a r m o n i o u s . It is also found in nature. a glass.

which now becomes a tight frame. suggesting a horizon." Move the sticks to find alignments and imagined perspectives.56-57). Remember the drawn rectangle is a part of the composition (see pp. W h e n the composition falls into place.229 WHERE TO START Take ten sticks of equal length. Arrange them so they touch or cross in a series of intersecting balances. making the composition seem to float beneath. Move the sticks out into the rectangle. 2 3 In the step above. . as shown here. painted black. Here. Feel for the rightness of their grouping and their relationships to surrounding spaces. A stick touching the rectangle links the composition to the frame. fix it with glue. In the final step (left) there is an even balance. horizontals dominate the top. Within a rectangle on a flat sheet of paper set about making a composition using no other rule than a sense of "just. horizontals dominate the lower area. B E I N G "JUST" 1 Arrange your ten sticks in t w o groups of five.

colors. an infinite range of voices and meaning.Youwill also need spare white paper. feels "just" (see pp. and tones. Collage offers the artist a liberating palette of SETTING UP This lesson in collage is a direct continuation of the compositional lines made in the previous class. he went on to say "..69 and Abe's installation on p. or discordance. you start composing by adding or subtracting shapes and textures and using colors and tones to achieve the impression you want to m a k e — w h e t h e r dramatic or s u b d u e d .220. This principal also applies to three-dimensional drawings such as Gaudi's work with wire and weights on p. a compass." (Russell Page) . Returning to Russell Page. To prepare for this lesson. harmonious. Cut or torn layers and shapes. ready-made depths and surfaces. they become a scaffold for the addition of further textures. and black ink. found or made items. correction fluid or white paint. hard or soft.228-29). scissors." overlapping placement of materials on a flat plane.230 ABSTRACT LINES Collage H E R E W E EXPERIMENT with collage. or even strident. colors and textures can be manipulated until their pictorial harmony. which is the shifting.. glue. "My understanding is that every object [or shape] emanates—sends out vibrations beyond its physical body which are specific to itself. Once the ten painted black sticks are set and glued in place. stain and dry a sheet of tissue paper using blueink. Images and fragments torn from day-to-day life can be brought together to make a chorus of ideas and emotions.

Obscuring the blue disks. 2 3 Torn white paper moved over the surface adds masks of rough-edged irregular volume. . and with a compass and scissors. they deepen pictorial space. then cut out. correction fluid and ink marks add further dimensions. This can also give a sense of fragmentation or punctuation to the composition. draw. COLLAGE 1 Regular-sized pieces of white paper are moved over the surface to disrupt the even lines. Cut six small rectangles the same proportion as your whole image.228) in front of you. Glue them in place once they feel "just" Translucent circular disks of tissue paper give color tone. solidity.The single disk that is folded with its straight edge facing up appears heavier than those that are flat. In the last step (left).231 WHAT TO DO Lay the final step of the previous lesson (p. and shadow to thepicture. four circles of blue tissue paper.

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is the practice of Zen through the calligraphic marks of a brush dipped in carbon ink.Zen Calligraphy HITSUZENDO. A MODERN JAPANESE meditative art form inspired by the teachings of Yamaoka Tesshu (1836-1888). Zen Brushwork]. . and expectation. Hitsuzendo drawings aspire to "breathe with the energy and vitality of eternal life" achieved through "a state of no mind—beyond thought." [Tanchu Terayama. emotion.

These vibrate against washes of shadow and pitch-black mass. discord is balanced against rhythm to create mood. I flicked spatters of ink and rubbed the paper with a wet and a dry brush to achieve these effects. Lines made with a steel dip pen take on a scratchy nervousness.Nocturnes IN THIS QUARTET of semi-abstract drawings made with India ink. .

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247. and stained-glass windows deliver powerful visual sermons to the once-illiterate populace. and deep fur—and we alter their scale. Fantasy is most successful when founded on strong and familiar visual logic. angels. a human-animal mix that implies this could MARTIN SCHONGAUER German painter and engraver who settled to work in Colmar Alsace. thousands of paintings. The salvation of heaven and terrors of hell are represented equally—enough to make any sinner shudder. and the faces of God have for centuries given artists a feast for the extremes of their imagination. or strange. which were widely distributed and influential in his time. Humans are equally troubled by the imperceptibly small and the enormous. and damnation are found in most world faiths. Lord of the Rings. Neither should be slave or master. in the cracks of walls. we select details of animals farthest from ourselves and that are widely thought disturbing—reptilian and insect features. our eye circulates around a flutter of leather and scaly wings. To learn to flex your imagination. Be inspired by the irrational comedy of word association or puns. For example. or in smoke. aliens. wings. feathers. beasts. a Catherine wheel of drawn sparks spiraling around the quietly resolute saint. our literate and more secular Western society still hungers for another world and to ravenously indulge its fascination for the marvelous. Images we are now surrounded by bear testimony to the power and resourcefulness of their collective imagination. scales. Throughout this book images are presented to excite and surprise and drawing classes created to increase your confidence. which is to have eaten a nun—it inspired the drawing on p. We watch with captivated pleasure movies such as The Fly. We love our fear of the hybrid—ideally. Reading the place name I momentarily glimpsed an alternative meaning. sculptures. Monsters take advantage of both.Gods and Monsters OUR SACRED AND SECULAR need to visualize demons. Depictions of God or of gods in the contexts of daily life. impossible. for example. and the Alien trilogy. Schongauer is best known for his prints. Feeding this demand. When creating monsters. paradise. In the Christian churches of Europe. . Perhaps the Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 1485 121/4 x 9 in (312 x 230 mm) MARTIN SCHONGAUER most important conclusion in this final chapter is to advise you to develop your skills in parallel with the joy of your unfolding imagination. Today. look for images in the folds of clothing. England. I was on a train passing through Nuneaton. happen to us. a collaboration between the two will ensure that your drawings glow with originality. Star Wars. serpentine tails. Here. We then add substances we dislike: unidentified fluids. movie studios now brim with as many monsters as the visual art of the Medieval and Renaissance Church. all of which originated as hundreds of drawings.

Other drawn versions of this image are more savage and frightening. Many students leave white backgrounds in their work.30. plain wall suggests a blinkered view of nothing. F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A Spanish court painter printmaker and draftsman. and exposed the superstitions. and church murals. to Picasso's similarly tight. rushing. Violent white marks symbolizing Achilles' rage resonate with the energy of Twombly's script on p. Pictorially. portraits. Goya later recorded the horrors of Napoleonic occupation. and follies of court through copious graphic works including his best-known prints. Saturn devouring his son. we see the international icon of stupidity. crammed tightly at his desk.240 GODS AND M O N S T E R S Marks of Influence marking the influence of one artist upon another. Near the end of his life he made his "Black Paintings" on the walls of his home. The well-dressed mule is cumbersome. and men clubbing each other to death. Visions experienced in front of the drawing sometimes instruct the making of a new one. whose impassioned work begins with light tapestry cartoons. This act defines the vision and continues the line of spirit guides. noisy seascape on p. it allows the mule to stand forward. The title "And So Was His Grandfather" adds that should we not already know. The high. Compare his dark. his lover a dog. hags. a Shoshone seeking guidance and power meditates at the sacred site of a petroglyph. Francisco de Goya was a master of borrowing. Los Caprichos. deranged masses. In this ass. In this softer aquatint he poses for his portrait Textured background The aquatint process has been used to great effect in making a gritty toned background. Goya's plainly textured gray background pushes back the space behind the illuminated simply subject. quoting great paintings and popular culture to add cunning twists to his satires. This continuity enriches the making of art and our heritage. reading from a book of asses. He would be graceless if he stood. They depict as if by lamplight the devil and witches. such asinine behavior can be hereditary.220. which can swamp the subject Here. Opposite. Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 1799 81/2 x 6 in (218 x 154 mm) FRANCISCO DE GOYA . Aquatint Goya has drawn a learned man as an ass. barren land rising like MYRIAD CHAINS RUN THROUGH ART HISTORY. vanity. a wave to join Achilles' chase of Hector. Paul Thomas's studies of Picasso and Twombly can be traced directly. below. Opposite below.

Wyoming.241 MARKS OF INFLUENCE PAUL T H O M A S British contemporary artist whose epic graphic work questions and reflects upon issues of European identity. Parallel lines within the body of the figure are likely to denote power. Thomas conducts his explorations in the mine of Greek and Roman mythology. Graphite marks Here Achilles chases Hector around the walls of Troy before killing him." Each sacred image drawn into rock belongs to one of three realms in the Shoshone world: the realm of the sky. Wind River Reservation. Achilles Chases Hector 1996 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) PAUL THOMAS SHOSHONE PETROGLYPH The Shoshone people of Wyoming name petroglyph sites Poha Kahni. meaning "place of power. It was made with a sharp implement. perhaps a stone. Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range UNDATED ARTIST UNKNOWN . Simple wall stones cleverly state their cold solidity while also fading from our attention as the scene roars by. by a supplicant in a trance of meditation. or of the water Chipped image This is a sacred creature of the sky chipped onto rock at Dinwoody Lake. A vivid spectrum of energized graphite marks and a masterly composition give this drawing vitality and speed. of the earth. White marks like flashes of light are cut though graphite with an eraser to reveal the paper beneath. and personal and social struggles. ideals. values.

We may feel safe so long as the eye looks heavenward. Lifting out Fine strings of the hot-air balloon appear dark against the sky and light against the balloon. T H E EXPLORATION AND DEPICTION Hauntings Grandville has drawn a scurrying zoo of half-known demons and animals that appear to have been stolen from the glass eye of the microscope. which sometimes—half-dressed and carrying a familiar trophy— stride. Compare worked textures throughout the whole of this image to those found throughout Anita Taylor's charcoal drawing on p. Redon's eyeball balloon rises up. 115. below left. H e was influenced by his friends. and writer In contrast t o the light and visual accent of contemporary Impressionism. we see parallel slanting pale marks that might have been made with fresh bread—a very effective eraser used before the wide availability of rubber or plastic. graphic artist. The monsters of Bosch grew from his observations of beggars going about their trade in 15th. Redon lifted them out with some sort of eraser.242 MONSTERS of the unknown is a classical and constant occupation for the artist. as he did the grass.204-05 will enable you to produce a similar effect of white lines shining out of dark charcoal. crawl. The Eye Like a Strange Mounts Balloon 165/8 x131/8in (422 x 332 mm) ODILON REDON 1882 Toward Infinity . Redon explored the darker side of the human imagination through symbols and mysticism. Children are also delighted to invent a monster or ghoul. They float toward us like a horrid visitation. GODS AND Erasure In this charcoal drawing. to the right of the balloon. the writers Joris-Karl Huysmans and Stephane Mallarme. If it were to turn and stare this way. the shock would be extreme. Our subconscious can be drawn with pleasure and ease. and scuttle over all known reality. ODILON REDON French painter draftsman. Techniques demonstrated on pp.and 16th-century Holland. Here we see how he evolved their injuries into new limbs and warped proportions. lifting its cranial passenger over a seascape of repose.

Madrid. include The Haywain. Two Monsters UNDATED 45/8 x61/2in (117 x 163 mm) HIERONYMUS BOSCH . Les Animaux (1840). Last Judgment. and Ship of Fools. Comic little headbands of waving hair express more hysteria than fear. 1840 61/8 x41/2in ( 1 5 5 x 1 1 5 mm) GRANDVILLE HIERONYMUS BOSCH Dutch painter Bosch's highly detailed iconographic religious panel paintings.243 J E A N I G N A C E ISIDORE GERARD ("GRANDVILLE") French graphic artist and political satirist. His other major works include Metamorphoses du Jour (1828). and he illustrated the Fables of La Fontaine and Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe. sucker-faced creatures dash and trundle toward it They are drawn solidly to emphasize their earthbound weight. Garden of Earthly Delights. The quality of the line is therefore uniform throughout. grimacing. A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects c. Most of his work is in the Prado Museum. HAUNTINGS Engraving This is an engraving made so that Grandville's original drawing could be reproduced. Smiling. teeming with the exhilaration of unrestrained fantasy. Quill and ink This typical Bosch monster is a quill drawing in bistre ink The phrasing of light and contour here is masterly. which is still available today. Light shines from the right. This image is from one of Grandville's best-known publications.

she formed a series of ghostly pale. Chalk and ink A quill dipped in brown ink was worked over black chalk on this reused sheet. snake. St Peter's square. Opposite. Michelangelo's dragon. gamboling copulations. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI Florentine painter sculptor. sometimes artists purposefully tie a knot in the configuration to disturb. the dome of the Vatican. They share between them the pleasures of inventing a hybrid beast. and dog. and dying slaves. His entire drawing wrestles and weaves the viewer's eye into its retracting folds. hatched lines. below. Grimes found the genesis of her beast not among animals. However. and marble sculptures including Pieto. and mist-swathed land. but in the seductive landscape of Leonardo da Vinci's oil painting Madonna of the Rocks. muscular tension is carved out of the paper using layered. lion. wraps and coils its lithe body ready to strike or whimper at a touch. phrased over the contours of form and bridging darker areas of shadow. Two previously drawn faces become humorous antagonists to the beast. Grimes' delicately cavorting figures dive into and consume each other. remembering the cavernous.244 GODS AND MONSTERS Convolutions THESE CONVOLUTED DRAWINGS were made almost 5 0 0 years apart. and play with its perfection and meaning. a stunning hybrid of a swan. pinnacled. architect. David. as we might expect. A snake eating its own tail is a universal image of the eternal and continuous. poet. topple. Scaly. In her studio. and engineer Among Michelangelo's great works are the painted ceiling and altar wall of the Sistine Chapel. Dragon 1522 10 x 133/8 in ( 2 5 4 x 3 3 8 m m ) MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI .

her under heavy here. London. details evolved slowly using a drier brush. Oxford. each one iridescent and crumbly like a weathered while oyster. boards finished paper. How Clever of God #84 2002 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) O O N A GRIMES . and the Camberwell and Slade Schools of Fine Art. It is one of a series of fragile earth figures inspired by rocks.245 CONVOLUTIONS O O N A GRIMES British contemporary artist and professor of printmaking at the Ruskin School. The image formed directly without first making a pencil outline. Ink-wash delicately gouache (smooth) and gouache brushed drawing on This is a and was hot-pressed Shadows The dark shadow of the Other the ink-wash earth was made with a brushstroke of ink laid into wet paper. The large space around figure has been cropped Grimes drawings to flatten presses them. Grimes exhibits internationally and features in the collections of the New York Public Library and the Victoria and Albert Museum. London.

and wrist into a fluid and soft touch. S Y N T H E T I C . ink-laden tip allow an expression that is beyond the linear. 2." 6. Slightly less flexible than the squirrel-hair sword liner 9. POINTED SQUIRREL-HAIR MOP: With a synthetic quill ferrule and extra high inkholding capacity. LARGER JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with natural hair held in a plastic ferrule on a bamboo handle. It has exceptional painting characteristics. fingers. and writers. SYNTHETIC-HAIR S W O R D LINER: A lining brush with high ink-holding capacity and a fine point. and very fine lines. it has good inkholding capacity and is very flexible. This design supplies the fine tip with a long continuity of ink 5. It is still relatively small in the total range of Japanese brushes. all perfect for drawing and. The living marks of a wet. SMALL JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with sable hair. Soaps purchased from good art supply stores will gently cleanse particles of pigment that become trapped in the hairs or ferrule. washes. needle-sharp center of kolinsky red sable hair. This brush has a broad wash capability and can achieve a very wide range of marks. liners. drawing tool extending the arm. SYNTHETIC-HAIR BRUSH: Bound in a synthetic ferrule with good inkholding capacity and good spring and control. Brushes vary in size. 12. 1. flowing. ideally suited to drawing. between them.H A I R LINER: Very responsive oriental-style liner This to the touch. Always clean them thoroughly. M T RA S AEIL . return them to their pointed shape. with a fine point for delicate work 4. Some used by master calligraphers are 2-3 in (5-8 cm) in diameter 11. Shorter brushes designed for other purposes run out of ink more quickly. and hold prodigious weights of ink or paint. others are as fine as a whisker with a gentle touch. L A R G E R S Y N T H E T I C . 10. P O I N T E D T R A D I T I O N A L WRITER: The ferrule is made from a small duck quill. SABLE-HAIR LINER: Made with ordinary sable hair surrounding an extralong. and has a fine tip for detailed work. giving a variety of lines. JAPANESE PAINTING BRUSH: Made with natural hair. Suitable for wash techniques but also capable of very fine detail. this brush has a soft drawing tip and small ink-holding capacity. The brushes shown here are a mixture of This is a selection of riggers.H A I R RIGGER: Made with long synthetic hair for fine-point work It has a good ink-holding capacity and is slightly more resilient than sable hair with more "snap. making rt ideally suited to Japanese painting and small-scale calligraphy. SQUIRREL-HAIR S W O R D LINER:This brush has a maximum ink-holding capacity and an extremely fine and flexible point 8. shape. It is capable of very fine pointing. the very opposite of pencil or silver point. it has good wash capabilities. Some are bold. SABLE-HAIR RIGGER: Made with very long kolinsky sable hairs. How you care for your brushes will determine how long they last. and texture. materials.246 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brushes T H E BRUSH IS A VOLUPTUOUS and delicate weights. 7. 3. dense. and never leave them standing on their tip in a jar of water. SYNTHETIC-HAIR LINER: This brush gives a medium line and is firm with a spring to the touch. which holds long sable hair This brush holds large amounts of ink for long lines and points well for detailed work. 13.Theyhold plenty of ink and make continuous. and effects. thicknesses.

247 BRUSHES .

the speed of the s t r o k e . Here I drew with a soft Japanese painting brush (see pp.35) into two tablespoons of water in a shallow. the degree of pressure applied. w i t h m y face close.248 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brush Marks A S I N G L E BRUSH will m a k e an e n o r m o u s range of m a r k s depending u p o n the width. I had left the end of the ink block in the water overnight to make it easier to dissolve. It also depends on the angle at w h i c h it is held. softness. length. and above all w h e t h e r the b r u s h is saturated with pigment or relatively dry. the texture and a b s o r b e n c y of the paper ( w h i c h m a y be d a m p or dry).246-47). unglazed earthenware dish. and spatters. A single brush has almost balletic potential to draw fine or undulating lines and curves. and type of its hairs. SETTING UP Blowing spots T h e s e t h r e e s p i d e r y c r e a t u r e s (above right and below) w e r e m a d e by d r o p p i n g s p o t s o f ink f r o m a b r u s h o n t o t h e p a g e and. I rubbed a block of Chinese ink (see p. b l o w i n g h a r d o n t h e m several t i m e s t o disperse t h e ink ( c l o s e y o u r eyes if y o u t r y this.) I . splashes. and to make pools and stains o n the page.

a n d b r u s h . a n d t h e w a y it d i s t r i b u t e s w h e n t h e b r u s h is d a b b e d o n its s i d e . w e see fine lines and s p o t s . t h e effects of the b r u s h r u n n i n g o u t o f ink. b l e e d i n g f r o m strokes b e l o w left. BRUSH MARKS Wet and dry strokes A m o n g these concentrated drawings ink made into with the same w a t e r y lines.249 Gritty texture T h e details o f t h e largest creatures b e l o w and opposite s h o w the granular texture of Chinese b l o c k ink. .

. I borrowed small and fragile specimens from the University Museum of Natural History. and used their detail to draw new creatures that might at first seem familiar.Monsters THESE LITTLE CREATURES o f i n k and i n v e n t i o n were b o r n out of animal and bird studies. Oxford. until we look again.

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formal composition. are two long. Goya's witches have been literally drawn and evolved out of the shapes of Murillo's prophet and pilgrims. two of my own drawings show you how Goya's devil (below) is based on the shape of Murillo's boy on a horse (top right). . Here.Goya's Monsters W I T H CUNNING BRILLIANCE. I found relationships between all four paintings in terms of shapes. Isidore. thin works titled The Witches' Sabbath and The Procession of St. They are a pair and hang opposite each other. With further research. showing us that gallery study is not just for the student and beginner. Madrid. thin works made by Bartolome Murillo in Seville about 120 years earlier. and narrative twists. Among his "Black Paintings" in the Prado Museum. Through studying and drawing these great paintings I have discovered that they are based on a pair of similarly long. Goya often invented his monsters out of characters seen in other painters' works.

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. Sometimes drawings come out of nowhere and surprise even the artist.Consumed THIS IS A SERIES OF CARTOONS I m a d e s o m e years ago. little comments on politeness and sexual politics. drawn rapidly and with great joy.

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pastel. U s e d as a c o r r e c t i n g device o r pictorial game. A " s h a l l o w d e p t h o f field" m e a n s t h e p i c t u r e appears t o have only a shallow s p a c e inside i t Diffuse T o s o f t e n o r m a k e less brilliant. a n d given t h e n a m e Sho. a n d attaches t h e m t o t h e s u p p o r t — f o r example. R e m b r a n d t is a great master o f chiaroscuro. 2. p r i n t i n g press face up. A h u m o r o u s d r a w i n g o r parody. T h e m o v e m e n t was started by a g r o u p o f French artists including H e n r i Matisse. 2. charcoal. A i r b r u s h e s are u s e d in t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c o m i c s .The plate is t h e n r o l l e d w i t h ink a n d polished with a rag. D a m p p a p e r is laid o n t o p . Engraving 1. s u c h as a s c r e e n . m e a n i n g " t o stick" Dry media M e d i a t h a t a r e n o t w e t o r o i l y — f o r e x a m p l e . Fauvism A n early 2 0 t h .c e n t u r y painting m o v e m e n t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e use o f b o l d . o r o t h e r (usually large) w o r k — s e e Pouncing. A f u l l . t h e l i g h t is b e h i n d h i m o r her. Air brush A mechanical. a n d g r a p h i t e . It can also seal a silver p o i n t d r a w i n g t o p r e v e n t t h e oxidization (browning) o f t h e Drypoint A d r a w i n g is s c r a t c h e d directly o n t o a m e t a l plate w i t h a m e t a l t o o l h e l d like apen. F r o m t h e G r e e k kallos. Blending M e r g i n g t w o o r m o r e neighboring colors o r tones t o g e t h e r using a tortillon. A p o t e n t i a l l y h a r s h m e t h o d o f p r o d u c i n g t o n e s in a d r a w i n g . Camera obscura A d a r k e n e d c h a m b e r i n t o w h i c h an i m a g e o f w h a t is o u t s i d e is received t h r o u g h a small o p e n i n g o r lens a n d f o c u s e d in natural c o l o r o n a facing surface. Calligraphy Beautiful h a n d w r i t i n g . Fixative Liquid acrylic resin a n d l a c q u e r t h i n n e r usually a p p l i e d as a n a e r o s o l s p r a y m i s t t o t h e surface o f a d r y . C o p p e r p l a t e engravings w e r e widely used t o r e p r o d u c e images b e f o r e p h o t o g r a p h y .c e n t u r y Italian t e r m m e a n i n g "clear-obscure. p r a c t i c e d meditatively w i t h a brush. A l s o c a l l e d t h e h o r i z o n line. as o p p o s e d t o t h e s t r a i g h t e d g e o f a sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has b e e n machine-trimmed.m a d e paper. Deckle edge T h e i r r e g u l a r e d g e o f a s h e e t o f m o l d . in w h i c h parts o f an image are depicted v e r y brightly and dramatically against d a r k n e s s . a r e r o l l e d t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders. In t h e W e s t p e n calligraphy is u s e d t o c r e a t e f o r m a l a n d d e c o r a t i v e t e x t s . o f t e n d i s t o r t e d forms and vivid colors. n e w s p a p e r cuttings. Camera lucida A n optical device t h a t p r o j e c t s an image o f an o b j e c t o n t o a plain s u r f a c e so t h a t it can be traced. o r will o n l y a p p e a r n o r m a l .256 GLOSSARY Glossary Accidental drawing Random. Chiaroscuro A 1 7 t h . t o g e t h e r w i t h a t h i c k felt b l a n k e t T h e w h o l e s a n d w i c h o f l a y e r s is t h e n railed t h r o u g h t h e press t o m a k e a p r i n t D r y p o i n t is a very portable and immediate m e t h o d o f printmaking. Blotting T h e use o f a b s o r b e n t m a t e r i a l t o lift a w a y excess liquid. w h e n v i e w e d f r o m a specified point. linseed oil o r egg y o l k Caricature A representation Contour line A line t h a t f o l l o w s t h e s h a p e o f a surface." D e s c r i b e s a p a i n t i n g in w h i c h t h e light s o u r c e is b e h i n d t h e s u b j e c t F o r e x a m p l e .s i z e d r a w i n g m a d e for t h e purpose o f transferring a design t o a painting. L a t e r it c a m e t o m e a n h i g h l y c o n t r a s t e d light effects. p h o t o g r a p h s . Aerial perspective The effect of the a t m o s p h e r e o v e r distance as it lightens t o n e s a n d cools c o l o r s progressively t o w a r d t h e horizon." It w a s first given t o t o n a l paintings m a d e in o n e c o l o r — s e e Grisaille.d i m e n s i o n a l i m a g e . w h e n a p e r s o n is p a i n t e d standing a g a i n s t a w i n d o w . tapestry. Conservation grade D e s c r i b e s a range o f materials t h a t d o n o t d e c a y and cannot be broken d o w n by insects. R o u g h p a p e r is m a d e b e t w e e n t w o blankets t h a t . It is p u t o n a Body color See Gouache. Cartoon 1. See also Hotpressed papers. S o m e t i m e s f e r r u l e s a r e m a d e o f plastic o r o t h e r materials. Crosshatching Parallel lines d r a w n across o n e a n o t h e r at right angles. Also called accelerated perspective. Erasure T h e a c t o f r e m o v i n g a n i m a g e f r o m a surface. in w h i c h t h e subject's distinctive features o r peculiarities are deliberately exaggerated f o r c o m i c o r g r o t e s q u e effect. T h e b l a n k e t s g i v e t h e p a p e r its rough texture o r "tooth. Bleed T h e e f f e c t o f t w o w e t colors running into one another o r o n e color applied t o a w e t surface a n d a l l o w e d t o d i s p e r s e .m e d i a d r a w i n g . Acid-free paper P a p e r w i t h a neutral p H t h a t will n o t darken o r d e t e r i o r a t e excessively w i t h age. pressurized t o o l used f o r spraying fine mists o f s m o o t h c o l o r P i g m e n t is d e l i v e r e d b y a j e t o f air n o t t h e bristles o f a brush. T h e prints t a k e n from t h e s e plates o r blocks. and readymade objects arranged and stuck o n t o a flat surface. Anamorphic distortion Stretching an i m a g e across a p i c t u r e surface so t h a t it can o n l y b e u n d e r s t o o d . T h e name " n o t " simply refers t o t h e fact t h a t t h e cylinders are n o t h o t in t e m p e r a t u r e ." " N o t " p r e s s e d p a p e r is r o l l e d a s e c o n d t i m e w i t h o u t blankets t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders t o p r o d u c e a s m o o t h e r b u t still slightly t e x t u r e d s u r f a c e . A g e n e r a l t e r m t h a t describes t h e various processes o f c u t t i n g a design i n t o a plate o r b l o c k o f m e t a l o r w o o d . Field In a t w o . s u c h as a d r a w i n g o r painting. Binder A substance t h a t holds particles o f p i g m e n t t o g e t h e r in a paint f o r m u l a t i o n . Fixative lightly glues t h e d r a w i n g t o t h e surface o f t h e p a p e r t o p r e v e n t smudging. F r o m t h e French v e r b coller. A l s o called m u s e u m g r a d e . Composition T h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e p a r t s o f an i m a g e t o m a k e u p the whole. for example. Ferrule T h e s h o r t m e t a l t u b e t h a t s u r r o u n d s a n d g n p s t h e hairs o f a p a i n t b r u s h a n d fixes t h e m t o t h e brush handle. written with a broad-nibbed pen o r brush. Collage C o l l e c t e d materials such as c o l o r e d p a p e r s . t h e field is t h e a p p a r e n t a n d b e l i e v a b l e space inside t h e p i c t u r e . In t h e Far East calligraphy is a highly r e s p e c t e d a r t f o r m . Eye level T h e i m a g i n a r y h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e a t t h e s a m e h e i g h t as t h e a v e r a g e p e r s o n ' s eyes. A l s o called r i n g l e t shading. usually at a n a c u t e angle t o t h e s u r f a c e . m e a n i n g "beauty". Bracelet shading C u r v e d parallel lines t h a t f o l l o w t h e c o n t o u r s o f f o r m . r a t h e r t h a n r e c o r d e d o n a film o r plate. chance mark-making. so t h a t ink r e m a i n s o n l y in t h e g r o o v e s o f s c r a t c h e d lines. W o r d s o r symbols are Cold-pressed papers P a p e r manufactured with a "not" o r " r o u g h " surface. Contre jour A F r e n c h t e r m m e a n i n g " a g a i n s t day.

and is also used as a size. It is a strong adhesive. or synthetic material that are suspended in a medium to constitute paint. Papercut A type of collage in which flat sheets of paper are cut into an image. Artists can paint freely over dry masking fluid. purpose. enabling them to stick to paper It also helps to maintain a stable dispersion of pigment particles in water as the film of a wash dries. Masking fluid Clear or opaque latex fluid developed for watercolor painting. Monoprinting A direct method of printing in which wet medium (water-. or a drawing made in any single color GLOSSARY Linear perspective A form of perspective in which parallel lines are represented as converging. Lithography A method of printmaking in which a drawing or painting is made directly onto a smooth slab of particular limestone or a metal plate using an oilbased crayon or ink. or can be otherwise used to create an image—for example. Alternatively. It is then peeled away. lifting out charcoal and other dry media. but in picture-making it is as important as the objects/subjects themselves. aiming to represent facts rather than an interpretation of the subject. Monochrome Usually refers to a black. or canvas and allowed to dry before an image is drawn or painted. sticky paper tape. upright images are called "portrait which is used as a binding agent in many liquid media. F o r m The outer surface of a three-dimensional object. used for fixing paper to walls and boards. Fugitive A term given to a pigment that it is not stable. Impressing Stamping or printing. or plastic surface.The paper then bears a crayon impression or copy of the surface that was underneath it A number of Surrealists. Grisaille A painting in gray or a grayish color Often made by students as a tonal exercise. it is the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work Pigment Any substance used as a coloring agent—for example. Grisaille is occasionally seen in church stained-glass windows. then rubbed over carefully but vigorously with a crayon. format" (abbreviated to "portrait"). Hot-pressed papers (HP) Paper made using hot cylinders. glossy. the surface of the stone is made wet before being rolled with a thin film of oilbased printing ink. white.257 metal line. to describe a surface to which paint will adhere readily.The degree to which detail is defined. It improves the bonding properties Frottage A French term meaning "rubbing.while secretion of the acacia tree. Objective drawing Refers to the concept of objectivity. the finely ground particles of plant. so that (using vanishing point perspective) the object appears to change shape and become narrower or smaller as it recedes. and by artists representing stone sculptures in a painting. which give it a smooth surface (as opposed to cold-pressed paper. Paper is then pressed against the stone to take a print. After several intervening processes. 2. Lightfast A term confirming that pigment in the product will not fade with exposure to light. Plumb line A line from which a weight is suspended in order to determine verticality or depth. The ink attaches to the oil-based image and is repelled by the wet stone. This effect emulates what we see in real life. and orientation of the image. Lifting out A method of creating highlights and mid-tones in a drymedia drawing (such as charcoal or graphite). graphite. Negative space The space between things. oil-. glass. Pointillism A technique of using points or dots of pure color in such a way that when the picture is viewed from a distance they react Masking tape Invaluable. Gamut A complete range or extent Glassine A type of thin. Foreshortening A method of depicting an object at an angle to the surface of the picture. Giotto's Virtues and Vices in the Arena Chapel. are painted in grisaille and appear to be made of stone. which has a rough surface). work. materials that produce marks on a surface. It can be used with any wet media to isolate or protect parts of an image from further Optical blending See Pointillism. cadmium yellow hue. or for wrapping and protecting a finished piece of work. and masking off areas of a drawing that the artist wishes to keep untouched by media applied above or beside the tape. Usually an academic drawing observed from life. or even a beam of light. F o r m a t T h e size. but each print will be unique. Rubens used grisaille to paint small images for engravers. rock. Medium A generic term for art Key A painting is said to be "high key" when the colors and tones are bright and "low key" when they are dark or somber The term is also used Gouache Opaque watercolor Also called body color. with the area beneath remaining unaffected. and that will "escape" or change over time.Theground provides a particular color or texture beneath the image. Hatching (cross-) See Crosshatching. A point of interest in a drawing. ink. A small image might be described as small format Horizontal images are often said to be "landscape format" (abbreviated G u m arabic The natural to"landscape"). to give the illusion of depth and distance. Hairspray is an effective and inexpensive alternative. and translucent paper—a delicate material used in collage. pastel. This method incorporates the excitement of accidental and unpredicted marks." A piece of paper is placed on top of an object or rough surface. Ground A wet solution usually of gouache or gesso (chalk and animal glue) brushed onto paper board. Focus 1 . including Max Ernst used frottage in their work. This may be disregarded in real life. shape. Also refers to an additive used to control the application properties of a color Golden Section A proportion in which a straight line or rectangle is divided into two unequal parts in such a way that the ratio of the smaller part to the greater part is the same as that of the greater part to the whole. Also used by artists' materials manufacturers to indicate the use of a substitute pigment—for example. mineral. and it has a history in enamel work. Picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. Padua. of the ingredients in inks and watercolors. Dark tones are laid down first then an eraser or masking tape is used to lift away particles of the drawing media to reveal the lightness of the paper beneath. multiH u e A term for a color. Paper is laid on top and a rapid drawing is made on the back of it The paper lifts away to reveal the image on its other side. or spirit-based) is applied to a surface that is then pressed onto paper and removed to leave a print. oil-based printing ink is rolled evenly onto a smooth metal. or a family of colors. and gray drawing. The surface can be reloaded or redrawn with more medium. .

and flowers. A term borrowed from the theater. creating more vibrant effects than if the same colors were physically mixed together with a brush. Sfumato An Italian term meaning "smoky. a sheet of paper is placed beneath and pinpricks are Silhouette A flat. and chrysanthemum—which in Chinese tradition are called "The Four Gentlemen. to model areas of light and shade. or the right-hand page in a book. Zen brushwork encompasses calligraphy and painting. Although drawings can be made with wash alone. or ceramic glazing to reveal a different color beneath.Thedrawing is removed. or wood. Vanishing point In linear perspective. Size A weak glue used for filling the porous surface of wood or canvas in order to seal it. Pounce (a fine for an unpopular 18th-century powder of charcoal or similar French politician. Zen brushwork This is an oriental meditative art form originating in China and practised for many centuries in Japan. watercolor. Subjective drawing A drawing that expresses the personal view and interpretation of the artist An invented image. Tortillon A short. plaster or cloth surface beneath. pointed instrument used for marking or engraving. Pouncing If a large drawing or design (called a cartoon) is to be Shadow Darkness cast by the transferred to a surface such as a obscuring of light. usually diluted with water and applied with a brush. Strip Core of a pencil. evolved by engineers and architects for the purpose of conveying W a t e r c o l o r A painting accurate structural information.Technicaldrawing has been example. a tightly folded piece of cotton batting can be used for the same effect. whose pinpricks creates a "connect-thepersonal pastime was making dots" replica of the image on the cut-out portraits. nature of watercolor allows the white surface of the paper to Tonal scale A scale of gradations shine through. or mark using an inked or pigment-covered surface. Stippling Applying color or tone in areas of fine dots or flecks. Viewpoint The position from which something is observed or considered. The crude material is called oleoresin. Etienne de material) dabbed through the Silhouette (1709-67). cut-out profile made along every outline of the usually made in black paper image. wall or tapestry. Tone A degree of lightness or darkness. Turpentine A colorless solvent distilled from the resinous sap of pine trees. Spattering A mottled texture produced by drawing your fingers across the bristles of a stiff brush loaded with pigment. or pen. Zen paintings usually depict scenes of nature and plants such as bamboo. Single-point perspective The most basic form of linear perspective in which there is only one vanishing point. and paperweights. Recto The front or top side of a piece of paper. Underdrawing A pale preliminary drawing made prior to adding layers of another medium such as oil paint or watercolor Value The extent to which a color reflects or transmits light This is the equivalent of tone in a black and white image. or point on which parallel lines converge to give the impression of receding space. meaning objects used in setting up a life model or still life." Materials for Zen brushwork include round brushes of varied size. Stylus A sharp. acrylic. or watercolor paint. fine paper." Applied to the blurring or softening of sharp outlines by the subtle and gradual blending of one tone into another Sgraffito A technique of scratching or cutting through a surface of paint. Squeegee A rubber-trimmed scraper used in the screenprinting process for dragging ink across a surface. Technical drawing A universal it is often used in conjunction language of lines and measurements with line drawings in pen and that is used to make diagrammatic ink—for images. orchids. such as an inscribed sheet of metal. which are then called editions. tight. paper or canvas. Printmaking The act of making a picture. Sketch A quick or rough drawing. Serigraphy Silk-screen printing. Shade A that is color mixed (or toned) with black Shading A lay term for adding tone to a drawing. sometimes drawn from a and leaving only the pricked sheet of shadow cast on a wall. Wash A technique using ink. glasses. Support The structure on which an image is made—for example. Named paper in place. or any physical object that can be stamped or pressed onto a surface to leave an impression. compound of water-soluble pigment. plaster. design. Still life A picture composed of inanimate objects such as bowls. Artists' prints are normally made in multiple. fruit. Volume The amount of space occupied by an object or an area of space in itself. pointed roll of white paper that is used to blend dry media. commonly referred to as the lead. The translucent Tint A color mixed with white. by imposing a grid that is then scaled up to a larger size. Props An abbreviation of the word properties. Alternatively. "Spirits" or "oil" of turpentine refer to the volatile portion used by artists to thin or dilute oil-based paint. W e t media Any liquid media— for example. Zen A school of Mahayana Buddhism that asserts that enlightenment can come through meditation and intuition rather than faith. ink. plum blossom. Scale Describes the size of one element in relation to another Sepia A brown pigment taken from the sun-dried ink sacs of cuttlefish and used to make ink or watercolor The term is now often incorrectly used to refer to brown colors. an ink stone usually cut from slate. Squaring up A method of enlarging and transferring an image from one surface to another. in order to flick the pigment onto the image surface. .258 GLOSSARY together optically. or the left-hand page in a book. giving it a brilliance. pencil. a point at which receding parallel lines meet Verso The back or underside of a piece of paper. using a brush. or gouache. carbon ink. in tone running from black to white or vice versa.

75. 72 bracelet shading 122 Braque. 78 aerial perspective 206 airbrushing 160.31 Picasso's horse and bird 30.100 curves.44-45. 223 Circular Score for "Due Voce" 223 children's art 9. 200 Bauer. 116. 186 charcoal 114.212 to erase 205 to hold 23 pencils 204 willow 114. to draw 100 Cypripedium calceolus L. 133. 242 Brunelleschi. 203 Buffalo Hunt (Shoshone) 178. 70 Art Nouveau motifs 91 Autoportrait (Ray) 138. 111. 128. 71 Blake. 113 bird bones 12. 81 cut-out model plan 94.13. cut Catling. 243 botanical drawing 48-49 Boullee.226. 30 sleeping dog 38-39 Stubbs's horse skeleton 26.50. Franz 48 Protea nitida 48 Bellini. 193 in lifting out 204. 134 costume(s) 155 character 158-159 structure of 166-167 Cottage Among Trees (Rembrandt) 52. 81 135. 179 Bussotti. 52 cotton swabs 205 Coup de Vent a Asajigabare (Hokusai) 198. Brian 226 Untitled 2001 226 "Cave of the Hands" (Cueva de las Manas) 8. Etienne-Louis 72 Newton's Cenotaph 72. 28 Klee's horses 30. 74. 198. 71 conte 112. 202 cloth. William: The Circle of the Lustful 180. 139 Nanha) 50. 9 Chair (Van Gogh) 94. 98. Joseph 113 The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland 112. 38-39.89.184.51 All and Nothing (Taylor) 114. Nicolas-Jacques 54 contours 146. 13 architectural drawing 67-71 Arctic Flowers (Libeskind) 70. 203 Landline 202. 230-231 Cubist 90.186 see also movement Adoration of the Magi perspective study (Leonardo) 74. 222.115 anatomical drawing 134-135 anatomical theaters 82-83 anatomical waxes 128 ancient carvings 221. Georges 67. Giovanni 137 Head and Shoulders of a Man 136. 242 to blend 205 compressed 122. 203 Claude Lorrain 202 Views from Velletri 202. 158.133. Basilius 47 Beuys. 74. 137 Besler. 90 La Guitare. to draw 80. 90. 9. 74 brush (es) 246-247 Japanese 248 for laying a wash 140 marks 248-249 to hold 23 brush drawings 14-15 Bryan. 41 principal 186. 178 Cubism 67. Statue d'Epouvante 90 calligraphy.163 body. Filippo 67. 204-205. 29 Hugo's octopus 28. 241 action. Clare 203 City 202. Jean Michel 138 Self-Portrait 138 Bateau-Vision. (Ross-Craig) 49 to hold brush for 23 caricature 159. 201 collage 111. Mamaru 104. 180 blending: color 133. 50. layers 53 chalk pastels 162. 40-41 Durer's rhinoceros 26. 204. 157 cropping 56-57. to express 39. 75 Circle of the Lustful (Blake) 180. 163. 161 Akhlaq-I Rasul Allah manuscript 51. 221 animals. 199 Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya (Eisen) 156. Victor: West Facade of the Church of St. 205 Baltard. 247-248 carving see lines. 94 chalk(s) 53.Index Page numbers in italics refer t o captions and illustrations Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity (Bishndas and 259 INDEX B bread (as eraser) 205. 180 Circular Score for "Due Voce" (Bussotti) 223 circus scenes 192-195 City (Bryan) 202. 8 cave paintings 8. 90 colored materials 162-163 colored pencils 162. 182.163 graded 227 composition 56-57. Hieronymus 243 Two Monsters 242. Zen c 232-233 blended 133. 165. 189. 160 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object (Moore) 178. 244 head and neck 144 phrased 124-125 contrast: brightness 99 of media 30 tonal 96. 220.162 Conte. to model 110-111 border 51 Bosch. 94 cylindrical objects. 206 checkered floor 80. 162 character: to capture 38-39. Leon: Bacchante 155 balance. 250 Bishndas and Nanha: Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity 50. center of 118 ballpoint 182. 26 geese 38-39 Gericault's cats 28. Sylvano 222. 95 Chair Cut Out (Woodfine) 94. to depict 156-157 Cloudburst of Material Possessions (Leonardo) 200. 13. 230 The Physical Space 220 abstract drawing 219. 190 Caricature of a Woman (Daumier) 198. 90. 71 Bacchante (Bakst) 155 background: color 91 textured 240 Baker Matthew: Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry 32 Bakst.117 Achilles Chases Hector (Thomas) 240. Le (Hugo) 200. 206. 226-227 Acanthus spinosus 65 accelerated perspective 22.163 dry media 205 Blue Nude (Matisse) 110. Augustin 67 Basquiat.198.44-45 bird studies 12. 244 and graphite 178 .169 colors: airbrushed 161 background 91 A Abe.27 turtles 42-43 aquatint 240 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels (Leonardo) 12. 198 cartoon (preparatory drawing) 137 (satirical) 159. to draw 25.184.

220 dry brush 234 234 57. 91 Dragon (Michelangelo) 36. 32 framing 139 Franfoise au Bandeau (Picasso) 132. 136 Golden Section 67 Gombrich. position of 22 Eisen. Oona 245 How Clever of God #84 244. 69. 216 foreshortening 110. to draw 120.189.117 fountain pens 34. 226-227 anatomical 134-135 architectural 67-71 botanical 48-49 brush 14-15 dark to light 102. Hans 133 The Ambassadors 116 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 132. 71 minimal line 99 and music 70-71 quick 38-39. 245 layers 30 Goya. 7 33 Hooke. Keisai 157 The Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya 156. 69 Guitare.244. 202. 79.101 engraving 243 erasers/erasing 55.103. 157 . C . Statue d'Epouvante.37. 104-105.69 Gerard. 141 tonal 96.146 from masterworks 126-127. Alberto 136 Portrait of Marie-Laure de Noailles 136.12 fixative 54. to draw 134-137 Helleborus corsicus 55 highlights 91. 242 eyes. 190 Middle Eastern 50-51. 252 depiction of fabric monsters 252-253 Self Portrait in a Cocked Hat 130. Edgar 162 depth. to draw 168-169 in Goya's artworks face. to draw 78.144 and ink 30. 240 170-173 five Ships in a Port with Lighthouse (Wallis) 11. 240 Black Paintings 152.111 feet. La (Braque) 90.252-253 from memory 183. 245 Hugo. M. 144 Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (Baker) 32. 222 Grimes.141. disposable pens 182-183 dissections: botanical 48 of horse 27 distance: illusion of see perspective linear 97 tonal 97 Documents Decoratifs. 135 Duren Albrecht 26. 160 Faune. drypoint 181 exaggeration 184 expressionism 198 E ye and Head of a Drone Fly (Hooke) 92. 69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt 68. 799 Holbein. Nicholas 68 St Paul's Baptistry 68 head and neck to draw 142-145 Head and Shoulders of a Man (Bellini) 136.91.104. 26 Flying Fish (White) 25. 223. 120. 73. Antonio 135 Muscles of the Head and Neck 134.John 157 Man Lying Down in a Cloak 156. to suggest 177 see also perspective diagonals diffuser 55 dip pens 34. 170-173.160. 240.207. 40. 52 foreground 208. 29 H hands.260 INDEX D Dada 139 Daumien Honore 198 Caricature of a Woman 198. 90 G Gaudi. proportions of 143 fantasy drawings 72-73. 203 Hotel de la Suzonnieres (Satie) 70. Cheval et Oiseau (Picasso) 30. 122 Hawksmoor. Ron 161 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 161 160. 124. 93 eye level 80 Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity. Jean Ignace Isidore see Grandville Gericault.244 drawing(s): abstract 219. 243 graphic score 222. 160 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction (Gaudi) 68. 163. 134. Francisco de 131. 55. 90 gouache 30.116. position of 143. 765 hitsuzendo drawings 233 Hokusai. 163. 77 How Clever of God #84 244. 99 etching. fiber-tip pen 182.102-103 drawing board 20 drawing books 20-21 drawing paper 144. 161 fashion 160. 55. 200 F fabric. Katsushika 199 Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 198. 134. 115 Escher. 241 to blend 205 and chalk 178 and ink 28. 162 Flaxman. 203 semi-abstract 234-237 three-dimensional 68.157 ellipses 100. 122.166 170-173 Gestalt 222 Giacometti. 112. 137 heads. 160 as ground for metal point 140. Victor 200. 161 fashion drawings 160. Study for Plate 59 (Mucha) 90. 41 in the round 208-209 with scalpel 202.115 exploratory 17 fantasy 72-73. 134. Robert 93 Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 92.184 165.103 with eraser 103.141. 69.121 felt-tip pens 162. 245 Gruau. 37 Grandville 243 A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the Near-Microscopic World of Scale Insects 242.109 Rhinoceros 26. 93 horizon 52. 125. Rene 160 Illustration for Jacques Fath E easel. 222 Le Bateau-Vision 200. 113. 223 graphite 54.216 Durelli. 131 Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 240. 161 changing 216 Focusing on the Negative (Walter) 16 foliage 52. The 242.97.160. Antonio 68.216.112. 25 focus 65. Sir Ernst 12. 160 hitsuzendo 233 light to dark 102.Theodore 29 Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 28.230 three-tone 140. 30 Fauves/fauvism 90. 55. 205 drawing with 103. 230 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction 68.198 Degas. 222. 132 Frenz.

243 carbon 35 Chinese 30. 244 lithograph 198 Losbruch (Kollwitz) 180. 158 Man Lying Down in a Cloak (Flaxman) 156. Daniel 70 Arctic Flowers 70 Lieb.141 Metropolis (film) 72. 36. Erich 73 design for Metropolis 72. 252 Muscles of the Head and Neck (Durelli) 134. 73 Michelangelo Buonarroti 48. I Murderous Attacks 33 Kollwitz. Matisse. 221 endless 31 free 113. 181 luminosity 115 Lynch. 110 Sistine Chapel ceiling 116 Middle Eastern drawing 50-51.109.102. 170-173. 83 white 122 ink impressions 222 ink spatters 234 installations 176. 201 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels 12. 135 museums 44. 244 Dragon 36. Rose: Tantalus or the Future of Man 20 minimal line drawing 99 mirror use of 120 mixed media 28. 230 invented creatures 106-107 250-251 invented objects 89. 58-59. 220. artistic 240-241. drawing from 183. 242 light 96 to depict drawing with 1 76 painting with 176 . 203. 34. 201 head and neck sections of female mold for Sforza Horse 89 Madonna of the Rocks 244 perspective study for Adoration of the Magi 74. Florence 128 lighting in 167 Pitt Rivers. 190 metal pens see dip pens metal point 25.33 Mysterious Affairs of the lighting 2 7.181 L Landline (Bryan) 202. 181 Klee. 156 magnification 93 Man in Armor (Van Dyck) 158. 111. 226 Modernism 67. apparent 97 Leonardo da Vinci 74. 176. 72. 205. 244. 103 Neolithic chalk tablet 220. drawing from 126-127. Charles Rennie 48. 159 Japanese 35 to make 36 sepia 35 walnut 36.166 La Specola. Victor 134 Profile Head 134. Marie 244 cloth drawing 244. 166. 234 iron-gall 35. Paul 227 Polyphonic Setting for White 226. 74-77.227 to "bend" straight 97 compositional 228-229 cut 202. 33 J justness 228-229 N naive art 74 negative space 53. 34-35 acrylic 35 bistre 35. 185 Mucha. 177 influences. 31 Klimt. 53 monoprint 787. Phyll: hands 18 lifting out 204.182 Moore. 77 Miller.124. 757 mandalas 219.Pieuvre (Octopus) 28. 225 masking tape 204. 203 landscape 206-208 brushed 14 Landscape in Hoboku Style (Sesshu) 14 layers 146 chalk 53 gouache 30 ink 28. 63. 227 Newsome. 227 Scene of Comical Riders 30. Gustav 49 Knopf. Henri 111 Blue Nude 1110. 248. 183 vertical 156 linear distance 97 linear perspective 69. Alphonse 90. 220. 54 silver point 156 leg sections 158 length. 205 masterworks. 178 motifs: A r t Nouveau 9 7 stylized 51 mountains 216-217 movement: of animals 30-31 of humans 7 79. Johan 32. 13 Cloudburst of Material Possessions 200.134 K Kettlehut. Kathe 181 Losbrunch (The Outbreak) 180. 244 ink 36 252-253 Documents Decoratifs 90.276.167 line(s) 132. 60. 28 Two Impressions from a Cut-out Paper Disk 222 Huyler Stephen R 225 261 Kinecar. 160 In the Duchess's Kitchen (Rackham) 176. Madrid 171 University Museum of Natural History. 53 Tree II 52. 49 Rose 49 Maelbeke Madonna (Van Eyck) 156. 789.115 98. 219 Mondrian.96.The (Robinson) 108. 163 pens 36 measuring 116 memory.112. 252 ink 16. 73 Kigell. 97 Murillo. 37 lines 118 pastel 162 pencil 31. David 78 M Mackintosh. 76 Libeskind. 78 Study ofThree Male Figures 110.141. 114 hatched 244 layered 118 pace of 65 pale 40 rapid 49.91 Study for Plate 59 of INDEX illumination see lighting Illustration for Jacques Fath (Gruau) 160. 99. Piet 52.109. 220.120. 35.104. 184. Oxford 250 music 70-71 Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks (Knopf) 32. Bartolome: Moses Striking the Rock ofHoreb 252. Oxford 106 Prado. 220. 249 and gouache 30 Indian 35. Henry 178 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object 178. 756 priming for 140.

166 fiber-tip 782. 205 157. 26 Riley. 36. 163. 230 parallel planes 79 Parisian street 86-87 pastels 162 to blend 205 to hold 23 layers 162 pencils 162 pen(s): dip 34 . 243.262 INDEX Newton. 759 P Page. 241 Physical Space. J 76 nudes 114-115 to make 36 metal see dip quill 34. Faune.37 scientific instruments 9 2 . 1 6 9 to hold 2 2 . Sue 104.226. 52 pens 36 scalpel 54 drawing with 202. Odilon 242 The Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity 242.Toyo: Landscape in Hoboku .139 Autoportrait 138. 159. 73 Noble. 114 rollerball 182 Rorschach blot 99 Rose (Mackintosh) 48. 37 38. 1 2 4 priming for metal point 140. 30 Fran<. Martin 238. 7 77 three-point 80.The (Beuys) 112. 7 38 Ray 138. 205 pointillism 112 polyphonic painting 227 Polyphonic Setting for White (Klee) 226. 7 70 Ray. 162 O p A r t 98 optical illusions 96-99 outline 33. 212 Japanese 2 1 . 161. Man 131. Erik 70. 4 8 putty eraser 55. Heath 181 The Kinecar 180.2 3 age and youth sleeping subjects 148-149 150-151 Renaissance 109 Rhinoceros (Durer) 26. 141 Piranesi. and Webster. 181 pencil(s) 54 charcoal 204 colored 762. 36. 239 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat (Seurat) 112.176 Real Life Is Rubbish 176. 227 portfolios 20 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser de Noailles (Holbein) 132. 75 Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range 241 petroglyphs 221. 72 Noble. 4 9 Rose of Mohammed 50. 772 234-237 Sesshu. 1 1 6 accelerated 2 2 .40. 38. Arthur 177 In the Duchess's Kitchen 176. 244 Q s Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape (Wolfli) 2 79 St. 36.7 77 rapidograph 70 Raphael 110. 736 portraits. 219.199 Profile Head (Newsome) oil pastels 162. Auguste 114 Two Women 114.759. 74.52 pen and wash 158. 216. 739 semi-abstract drawings Style 14 Seurat. 28 pigment 162 bright 50 Caput Mortuum 7 4 7 for three-tone drawing 141.36. 75 Two Courtyards 75. Bridget 98 Robinson.54 pastel 162 perspective 1 0 0 . 160.oise au Bandeau 132. 9 8 .71 Hotel de la Suzonnieres 70. 91 outsider artists 33. 36 relief printing 757 Rembrandt van Rijn 52. Peter Paul 126-127 Embracing pose(s): balanced 146 quick 118-119 positive form 103 posture: of artist 22 of subject 3 8 .37. 7 72 Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland. 733 Portrait de Marie-Laure (Giacometti) 136. 38.37. 2 2 0 for oil pastels 162 stained 230 to stretch 140-141 tissue 21.104 Pieuvre (Hugo) 28. 103. Georges 112 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 112. 7 76 receding space 206 Redon. 36. Paul 73 Nobson Central 72. 782 relief 757 silk-screen 739 woodblock 134.Paul'sBaptistry (Hawksmoor) 68. 97. 9 0 . 1 3 2 quill pens 34.184 fountain 34. 165 figure 118 filled 37 pencil 48. 732 influence of 240 painting with light 78. 244 reed 34. Cheval et Oiseau 30. Giovanni Battista 74. 36. The (Abe) 220 Picasso. 81 two-point 74. 71 Satire of the Queen's Dress (Wodall) 158. Stella 48 Cypripedium calceolus L 49 rotated view 7 65 Rubens. 139 Real Life is Rubbish (Noble and Webster) 176. 57 Ross-Craig. 230 paper(s) 21 colored 162 drawing 144. 224 0 layers 31. 1 1 7 aerial 206 linear 69. 234 disposable 182-183 felt-tip 162. Russell 228. 40-41. Isaac 92 Telescope 92 Newton's Cenotaph (Boullee) 72. to draw 146-147 R Rackham. 76 plastic eraser 55.131 Cottage Among Trees 52. 181 Rodin. 734 Protea nitida (Bauer) 48. 36 pen and brush 8 3 pen and ink 70. Pablo 6 7 . 243. 242 reed pens 34. 74-77. 68 Satie.9 3 Schongauer. 203 Scene of Comical Riders (Klee) 30.141 prints/printing: aquatint 240 dry-point etching 181 engraving 243 monoprint 181. 164. 122. 76-79.Tim. 78 single-point 74. 1 6 3 . 165. 239 Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 238. 7 73 self-portraits: Basquiat 138.240. 34-35. 1 1 6 .

1 4 4 .Yamaoka 233 t e x t u r e 2 2 2 . A n t h o n y 152.1 0 5 vision 9 6 Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects (Grandville) 242. 96. 164.41. 245 sharpener 54 Ship in a Storm ( T u r n e r ) 1 9 8 . 1 4 0 . 2 2 7 Untitled 2001 ( C a t l i n g ) u 263 W h i t e . John: Focusing on the Negative 14 w a s h .120. t h r e e . phrased 146 tonal modeling 161 tonal range 169 t o n a l surfaces 2 2 7 tonal width 97 t o n e ( s ) 33.2 0 1 . 174 T w o m b l y . 2 7 studies: b i r d s 7 2 . 7 9 0 vessels. 6 9 Wodall. 241. Sue see N o b l e .d i m e n s i o n a l d r a w i n g 68. 2 4 4 . 1 8 4 .J.243 Leonardo's machines 12. A l f r e d 1 1 . t o lay 1 4 0 .27 skull 747.s c r e e n p r i n t i n g 139 silver p o i n t 1 4 0 . 2 2 0 influence o f 2 4 0 Untitled 220. 104-105. 1 4 1 . Augustin ( B a l t a r d ) 6 7 w e t and dry brush-strokes 2 4 9 Turner. 75. 115. W . Vincent 95 Chair 94. 7 1 4 .1 4 1 . 1 9 9 .216 W e b s t e r . William 159 Satire of the Queen's Dress INDEX 226. 2 3 0 tonal contrast 96 tonal distance 9 7 t o n a l d r a w i n g 9 6 . v i e w s o f 85. 9 0 .2 1 3 Stubbs. t o d r a w 2 0 0 . 158 V a n Eyck. 249 t o describe 39. 69. 221 . 1 6 6 t r a p e z i u s m u s c l e 142. 1 4 1 w a t e r c o l o r 25.d i m e n s i o n a l 1 0 4 . 1 2 Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse 71. 161. 170 shoes 1 6 4 stylized m o t i f 51 Summer Flowers 63. t o d r a w 1 0 1 viewfinder 57 Views from Velletri ( C l a u d e L o r r a i n ) 152. G e o r g e 2 7 Skeleton of the Horse 26. 243 (Bosch) T Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos ( G o y a ) 2 4 0 . 2 1 2 . M .1 8 5 Tree II ( M o n d r i a n ) 52.1 9 9 wire. 240 Two Women Embracing ( R o d i n ) 114.9 1 storms. 7 79 Shoshone petroglyph 240. T i m W e s t Fagade of the Church of St. 79. 9 5 pens 36 v a n i s h i n g p o i n t 74. 76. 141 Three Male Figures. 57. 75 Skeleton of the Horse ( S t u b b s ) 26. Adolf: Giant-Grape Saint-Mary-Castle 219 Woman at Her Toilet ( T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c ) 74 w o o d b l o c k print 157. 74. 1 6 . 9 2 Tesshu. Paul 2 4 1 Achilles Chases Hector 2 4 0 . 9 4 z Z e n calligraphy 232-233 contrast 96 t o grade 163 ink 37 pencil 5 4 t o r t i l l o n 205 T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c . Sarah 9 4 Chair Cut Out 94.241 s i l k .12 W a l t e r .Sforza Horse. 2 9 wind. 1 3 . 182.1 4 5 . 2 2 6 . 156 layers 7 5 6 priming for 140. 2 4 7 t h r e e . 65 symbols 138. Sarah: child's m a p 75. Study of (Michelangelo) 110. 725 fabric 1 6 8 T h o m a s . 1 8 4 .1 6 5 shorthand diagram 142 Shoshone buffalo hide painting 178. 1 9 9 Two Courtyards (Piranesi) 75. 186. 97. 206-207 202. 7 70 Tiber 214-215 Untitled ( T w o m b l y ) 2 2 0 .13 M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s m a l e figures 110. 7 77. 7 6 1 spots.5 3 in l a n d s c a p e 2 0 6 . 7 6 Two Impressions from a Cut-Out Paper Disk ( H u g o ) 2 2 2 Two Monsters 2 4 2 . b l o w n 248 steel p e n s see d i p p e n s still life 89. 226 V Van Dyck.t o n e d r a w i n g 140. 199 shoes 1 6 4 . 4 4 boat 209 botanical 4 9 G e r i c a u l t ' s cats 2 9 from Goya 170-173 125. 156 Van Gogh. 53 trees.141 S i m b l e t . Taylor A n i t a 115 All and Nothing 1 1 4 .199 tissue p a p e r 21. 1 4 5 travel journal 2 0 . 202 violin.125 W o o d f i n e . h e a d a n d n e c k sections o f female m o l d f o r (Leonardo) 89 shading 2 9 s h a d o w s 28. t o draw 1 9 8 .158 158. 77. 49. t o d r a w 5 2 . 2 3 4 . 743 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City ( F r e n z ) 1 6 0 . 159 Wolfli. 230 t h r e e . 2 4 2 w Wallis. 2 0 0 Ship in a Storm 1 9 8 . 102-103 tonal marks. drawing with 104-105 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt ( G a u d i ) 68. 69. Man in Armor 1 5 8 . 7 75 Telescope ( N e w t o n ) 9 2 . H e n r i de: Woman at Her Toilet 14 t r a n s p a r e n t v i e w 92. 1 7 7 free 8 0 V e n i c e . 199. John 25 Flying Fish 25 Wild Striped Cat Sketches of ( G e r i c a u l t ) 28. C y 138. Jan 1 5 6 Maelbeke Madonna 1 5 6 .

9 2 : Science Photo L i b r a r y . 68: www. 51: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. Also. 17: J o h n Walter. 1 6 0 : Rene G R U A U s. 180: www. 3 3 : Prinzhom Collection. Natalie G o d w i n . L e n . K e v i n a n d Rebecca Slingsby. 7 1 : I M E C / A r c h i v e s E r i k Satie. London/courtesy of Stuart Shave. 2 2 7 : Paul Klee Stiftung. Italy. 2 1 8 : Adolf-Wdlfli-Stiftung. Diana Bell. C o r n e l i s o n & Son. NY. Paula Regan. 9 5 : V a n Gogh M u s e u m . Copyright Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens. 2 0 1 : T h e Royal Collection © 2 0 0 2 H e r Majesty Queen Elizabeth I I . 1901. 2 0 2 : © T h e British Museum. Paul T h o m a s ( t ) . Paris and D A C S . Picture Credits 8: Corbis/Hubert Stadler. 29: Fogg A n Museum/Collections Baron de Vita: Grenville L. 1 7 8 : © T h e British M u s e u m / H e n r y Moore F o u n d a t i o n .uk/Mucha Trust. 1 5 : w w w . Madrid. Sarah D u n c a n . R . 3 1 : Tom Powel Imaging. Peter L u f f .l. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin/Jorg P. Psychiatric Institute of the University of Heidelberg. 112: Yale University A r t Gallery/Everett V Meeks./© D A C S 2 0 0 5 ( t ) . 2 4 1 : Corbis/David M u e n c h ( b ) . Paris. J o n Roome. 1879. Berlin (b). R o y a n d D i a n n e Simblet.uk/Guildhall Library. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. 139: Galerie Marion Meyer/© Man Ray Trust / A D A G P . A n n a P l u c i n s k a .co. 174: Artothek/Munich. 9 4 : Sarah Woodfine. Paris a n d D A C S . Christopher Davis. G i n a R o w l a n d . 75: © The British Museum (b). Psychiatric Institute of the U n i v e r s i t y of Heidelberg. 2 4 : © T h e British Museum. B e r l i n .264 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Acknowledgments Author's Acknowledgments: T h e author wishes to thank the following people for their enormous help. 72: akg-images.bridgeman. O. B . K a t h r y n W i l k i n s o n . a n d D e p a r t m e n t s o f E n t o m o l o g y a n d Zoology at the University of Oxford. 2 4 4 : Ashmolean Museum.uk/Private Collection.bridgeman. 1 . 221: Gagosian Gallery/Private Collection (b). Japan. 2 4 5 : Oona Grimes. 179: www. Julie O u g h t o n . papers. U K . 2 0 3 : Clare Bryan (t).bridgeman. B M G . Oxford. c o .r. Toulouse. Agnieszka Mlicka. 9 7 6 ) .co. 1 3 4 : © T h e British Museum. 2 4 2 : Photo Scala. © Tate. 1 3 5 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. Angela Palmer. T h e R u s k i n School of D r a w i n g a n d Fine A r t . Jackie Douglas. Corporation of London.uk/Musee des Augustins. u k / L o u v r e . Salisbury & South W i l t s h i r e M u s e u m ( t ) .Paris ( b ) . George M c G a v i n . Orientabteilung/Ruth Schacht.co. Havemeyer. Sarah Woodfine. 137: © The British Museum. 1 1 0 : www. K u n s t m u s e u m . Anders. . Kunstmuseum Bern. Paris.co. A . O o n a G r i m e s . 176: Modem Art. 1 6 1 : D C C o m i c s I n c . 111: Fondation Beyeler/Riehen (Bale)/© Succession H Matisse/DACS 2005. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett./Private Collection/© D A C S 2005. 3 2 : Pepys Library.bridgeman.uk/Private Collection. 114: Musee Rodin. 1 9 8 : Dover Publications. 5 2 : T h e Metropolitan Museum of Art/Bequest of Mrs. 2 7 : Royal Academy of Arts. F r a n c e .uk/Private Collection.uk/British Museum. London/Bequeathed by Charles Landseer. Paris. 1 9 : Getty Images/© Succession Picasso / D A C S 2 0 0 5 . 2 2 0 : Mamaru Abe.bridgeman. u k / O n Loan to the H a m b u r g Kunsthalle. 1 3 8 : © Christie's Images Ltd/© A D AGP. M a n d y Earey. Magdalene College Cambridge. 199: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee des arts asiatiquesGuimet. L o n d o n . U K . b r i d g e m a n . J o h n Walter. 2 4 0 : w w w . b r i d g e m a n . Germany. H a m b u r g . 11: www.co. 1975 ( 1 9 7 5 . Paris. 4 6 : B r i t i s h Library. A . L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . B e r l i n . Wolfson College. 7 0 : Studio Daniel L i b e s k i n d . (r). 13: www. 132: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. Inc. B e m d Kunzig. S i m o n L e w i s . J a c k a n d Brian Catling. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. Sir Brinsley F o r d . L o n d o n .uk /Biblioteca Nacional. H a y w a r d Gallery. Rocio Arnaez. 16: www. 226: Brian Catling. 73: Berlin F i l m Museum (t). Maureen Paley Interim Art (b). 1929 (29. 9 3 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. Graphische Sammlung. Andy Crawford. b r i d g e m a n . u k / T o k y o National M u s e u m . 74: Corbis. L o n d o n (t). Berlin/Staatsbibliothek zu A l l other images © Sarah Simblet . 1 5 9 : Bodleian Library. 181: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz.bridgeman.20-21 a n d 246-47.uk/Kettle's Yard. Portugal. 4 8 : T h e N a t u r a l H i s t o r y M u s e u m . T o n y G r i s o n i . 2 2 2 : Pierre Georgel/Private Collection. 2 2 3 : Lebrecht Music and Arts Photo Library/Ricordi. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin. 5 0 : Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (1). 158: Calouste Gulbenkian Museum.Strang Print Room ( b ) . c o . 1 3 3 : Artothek/Kupferstichkabinett.939).co. Flossie. Paris./Galerie Sylvie Nissen. Winthrop. 49: Hunterian Museum (t). Productions Clovis Prevost (c). 2 3 8 : akg-images. Patty Stansfield. 2 6 : Topfoto. 69: Institut Amatller d'Art Hispanic (tl). . Lisbon. Sophie Laurimore. a n d encouragement i n m a k i n g this book: M a m o r u Abe. Anders/ © D A C S 2 0 0 5 . for s u p p l y i n g the d r a w i n g books. 88: www. Dover Publications/ISBN: 0486229912 (t). London 2005. 177: Mary Evans Picture Library. Anita Taylor. G e r m a n y . 225: Stephen P Huyler. Paris. G e r m a n y .co. 113: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . 1 5 6 : Graphische S a m m l u n g Albertina. J o h n Roberts. Jean Pierre Roy. France. Roddy Bell. 1 0 8 : Arts C o u n c i l Collection. 1 5 4 : akg-images/Musee National d'Art Moderne. Germany/Joerg P. Kirsten Norrie. 2 8 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. Pamela Ellis for compiling the index.co. Antonia Cunliffe Davis. Amsterdam. 9 1 : www. 5 3 : Collection of the Gemeentemuseum D e n Haag/Mondrian Trust.a. H . Sammy De Grave. Carole A s h . L o n d o n . Paul T h o m a s . H e l e n S h u t t l e w o r t h . L o n d o n . Angela W i l k e s . University of Cambridge. 6 6 : w w w . F i n n . Fund. Paris/ © Succession Picasso / D A C S 2005.bridgeman.100. 243: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. Clare Bryan. Basel. University of Oxford. 1 9 6 : Museum of the History of Science.bridgeman. D a w n Henderson. L o n d o n . R o s e m a r y S c o u l a r . 157: U C L Art Collections . Paris a n d D A C S .co.co. 115: Anita Taylor. Carlo O r t u for picture research s u p p o r t . Illustrated London News Picture Library/The Bystander (b). c o . 2 2 4 : P r i n z h o m Collection.uk /© Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery. 1 3 6 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Centre Pompidou-MNAM-CCI. Publisher's Acknowledgments Dorling Kindersley w o u l d like to thank Caroline H u n t for editorial contribution. a n d brushes o n pp. 9 0 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/© A D A G P . H e a t h e r M c C a r r y . support. 130: The Metropolitan M u s e u m of Art/Robert L e h m a n Collection. A n d y C r a w f o r d for p h o t o g r a p h y a n d L . and Tamsin Woodward Smith. K e w ft)). R u t h P a r k i n s o n . P h y l l Kiggell. Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (t). 30: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. K u n s t m u s e u m Bern/© D A C S 2 0 0 5 .bridgeman. 2 0 0 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. Florence/MoMA.

Materials and Techniques—how to use a variety of materials—from pencil and ink to pastel. Learn from the Masters—a rich selection of drawings illustrates different approaches to a wide range of subjects. and tone. D r a w i n g C l a s s e s — d e t a i l e d step-by-step demonstrations show you how to develop your natural talents.FOR THE ARTIST T h e c o m p l e t e g u i d e to drawing—a unique blend of practical teaching and inspirational insights into classic and contemporary drawings.dk. discover new ideas. www. shape. and improve your drawing skills. Creating a Sketchbook—Sarah Simblet's drawings inspire you to explore different subjects and fill your own sketchbooks.com Discover more at . charcoal. and silverpoint—and apply the key elements of drawing including perspective.

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