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FOR T H E ARTIST
FOR THE ARTIST
LONDON • NEW YORK MELBOURNE • MUNICH • DELHI Senior Editor Paula Regan Senior Art Editor Mandy Earey Art Editor Anna Plucinska Managing Editor Julie Oughton Managing Art Editor Heather McCarry Art Director Peter Luff Publishing Director Jackie Douglas Production Joanna Bull DTP Designer Adam Walker Picture Research Sarah Smithies US Editor Christine Heilman First American Edition, 2 0 0 5 First Paperback Edition, 2 0 0 9 Published in the United States by DK Publishing 3 7 5 Hudson Street New York, New York 1 0 0 1 4 10 11 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3
6 8 20 22 Master Builders The Order of Sound Future Fictions Pathways of Sight Single-Point Perspective Creating an Imaginary Space Further Aspects of Perspective Theaters Venetian Life Parisian Street
68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86
Foreword Introduction Drawing Books and Papers Posture and Grip
Objects and Instruments
TD075-July 2009 Copyright © 2 0 0 5 Dorling Kindersley Limited Text and authors artworks © Sarah Simblet 2 0 0 4 Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited A Cataloging-in-Publication record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN 9 7 8 - 0 - 7 5 6 6 - 5 1 4 1 - 1 Color reproduction by GRB, Italy Printed and bound in China by Toppan
Still Life Instruments of Vision Bench Marks Light and Illusions Further Illusions How to Draw Ellipses Tonality Drawing with Wire Artifacts and Fictions
90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106
Documentaries Presence and Mood Movement Icon and Design Pen and Ink Drawing with Ink Capturing Character Sleeping Dogs Turtles Dry Birds
26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44
Postures and Poses Choreographs Passion Measurement and Foreshortening Quick Poses Hands and Feet Charcoal Hands Phrasing Contours The Visual Detective La Specola
110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128
Plants and Gardens
Botanical Studies Jeweled Gardens Fast Trees Graphite and Erasers Cropping and Composition Negative Space Fig Tree Summer Flowers Acanthus Spinosus
48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64
Discover more at
Projections Magnetic Fields The Human Condition Disposable Pens The Travel Journal Catching the Moment Grand Canal Crossings Caravans The Big Top
174 Abstract Lines
176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 Process and Harmony Writing Time Chants and Prayers Compositions Being "Just" Collage Zen Calligraphy Nocturnes
220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234
Poise Anatomies Revelations Self-Portraits Silver Point Head and Neck Essential Observations Drawing Portraits Generations Castings
132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 152
Earth and the Elements
Air in Motion Storms Nature Profiles Charcoal Landscapes Drawing in the Round Decaying Boat Cloudburst Notes of Force Mountains
198 200 202 204 206 208 210 212 214 216
Gods and Monsters
Marks of Influence Hauntings Convolutions Brushes Brush Marks Monsters Goya's Monsters Consumed Glossary Index Acknowledgments
240 242 244 246 248 250 252 254 256 259 264
Cloth and Drapery Character Costumes Femmes Fatales Colored Materials Study and Design The Structure of Costume Textures and Patterns Dressing Character Posture Carving
156 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172
fashion designer. undergraduates to fellow professors. as a visiting professor at universities. a cartographer charting the land. geologists. and their importance to so many artists. For me personally. night security staff. be they a child discovering their vision and dexterity. These inspirations led me to invent museums. art schools. we have looked at. aspirations. For twelve years I have enjoyed the privilege of teaching drawing. shape. Chosen in any color. and experience. through history. of Sketch Book for the Artist. The very first step is to believe it. and in a few sessions they will be flying. The most rewarding challenge is always the newcomer. in which he describes himself flying and diving in his imagination through pictorial caverns of knowledge. are made outside as discreet installations. They occupy a shelf in my studio. and through which I can see how I think. a drawing book is the perfect portable private vehicle for your imminent exploration of drawing. It is my love of these. a sculptor. and I refer back to them for years after they are made. By using our imaginations. I work with people of diverse ages. We can all learn how to draw. from schoolchildren to senior citizens. remain unseen by most. I was training in anatomy and studying how. and makers of special effects. architect.Foreword B Y DRAWING THE WORLD AROUND US. doctors. but because it is how I engage with and anchor myself in life. Combine these things and the possibilities are endless. by invitation. Some are more traditionally framed and hung in galleries for solo or group exhibitions. It makes me feel excited to be alive. texture. still standing by the door. a composer notating a musical score. that inspired the title and structure MEMORY T H E A T E R S This pen-and-ink drawing was made from imagination during research for my PhD. Some of my drawings cover entire walls. They enfold their viewer and are made on joined sheets of paper that I reach by climbing ladders. and a reflector of experience. perhaps hidden on a door hinge or a street bench rail. where spaces are shaped by nothing more than the objects and activities contained within them. . I know that with their cooperation I can soon prove them wrong. I was also reading among The Confessions of St. and size. especially as travel journals. It is a tool for investigating ideas and recording knowledge. I will always draw. or a quantum physicist trying to see for themselves the fluctuations of our universe. understood (and often misunderstood) our own bodies. and be slowly washed or worn away. Augustine his notes on memory. drawing is the immediate expression of seeing. and local c o m m u n i t y classes. I also make drawing books. we learn to feel truly alive. Others can be held in the h a n d or. not only to make art. and feeling. or engineer. Drawing is a mirror through which I understand my place in the world. we learn to see it. Drawing occupies a unique place in every artist and creator's life. who tells me firmly upon approach that they cannot draw. thinking. where I expect them to be discovered by some people.
scrawling shapes and cartoons when on the telephone. The sense of relief we may feel from the information overload of modern commercial life when visiting a country in which we can no longer read every written word. We can always read each others drawings. logos. and in meetings. graffiti. inscribing every fresh part of it with their eager scrapes and trails. We are surrounded by drawings in our daily lives. Cueva de las Marios. not just chosen pictures on our walls but everywhere—maps. irreverent to language barriers. and patterns on our clothes. Children cannot be restrained from running across the pristine white lawn of newly fallen snow. Rio Pinturas 13. Most adults still feel that certain exquisite pleasure on arriving at a beach to find the tide out and the sand perfect. At home and at work we doodle. They have a natural affinity to many modern graffiti signatures. and we spend our lives reading it. Sometimes we draw because we are bored. a great crowd is raising their hands in greeting. like a great canvas for them to mark. Drawing is international. is not afforded us by drawing. packaging. signs. waving to us from many thousands of yearsago.Theseancient silhouettes were drawn with earth pigments rubbed onto rock. in lectures. but more often because drawing actually helps us to focus and take in what is said. We are bombarded with linear and tonal pictorial information.8 INTRODUCTION Where We Begin There is a fundamental drive in our human nature to make a mark. "CAVE OF THE HANDS" In this drawing.000-9500 bce .
enjoying the physical sensation of crayon on paper. an expression of existence. at age two-anda-half. reflecting my experience of looking closely at my father's face. had happily scribbled. On a particular afternoon in September 1974. and she kept it as my first step beyond the delighted realms of scrawl. who in their day-to-day hardship made time to picture themselves and the animals on which they depended. Even though it is made by a toddler this image would be recognizable to anyone. I. I now think this is a picture of proximity." Until this day. but I had never yet attempted to figuratively picture my world. and the appearance of my strikes of colors. we see our oldest surviving images. Cave art was not made for decoration but as a fundamental part of life. like all toddlers. the hair of my first portrait was most important. and belonging to place. She gave me a notepad and a red crayon and asked me to draw her "a picture of Daddy. MAKING OUR MARK It seems reasonable to assume that we have engaged in pictorial mark-making for as long as we have made conscious use of our hands. power. Eyelashes take up as much of my attention as the head itself. In cave paintings like the one opposite. created by societies of hunter-gatherers.9 WHERE WE BEGIN FIRST PORTRAIT For sorre forgotten reason. . The image above is what I gave back to my mother. I was sitting with my mother.
But as adolescents. Don't b e p e r s u a d e d to draw in a w a y s o m e o n e else . Young children love to draw. h o w e v e r small a n d u n f o r m e d y o u believe they are. PROGRESSION T h e r e is a point in all o u r lives w h e n w e first c o n t r o l o u r mark and m a k e it a line. Inhibitions creep in and ideas of good a n d b a d terminate confidence. it is important to value your natural abilities a n d ways of seeing. It was made with a few bold strokes of a steel pen dipped in ink to conjure the dried bee I was holding between my fingers on a pin. At this point many will insist they cannot draw. As you progress. W e do n o t hesitate to draw a map. then drag o u r line into a loop. and this activity plays a vital role in their d e v e l o p m e n t . most of us stop. and from that first unit build and describe the shape of something or someone we know. b e p r o u d o f what m a k e s y o u r w o r k individual to y o u . to help a stranger see their way W h e n taking first steps in relearning h o w to draw. yet still turn to drawing w h e n their verbal language fails or is inadequate.10 INTRODUCTION PEN-AND-INK BEE This tiny drawing has been enlarged to show its texture and composition. for example. Hours are lost immersed in the glorious world of imagination.
After experimenting and trying each new idea. He used leftover ship and yacht paint with crayons on cut-out pieces of cardboard boxes. . As you read this b o o k and perhaps attend art classes. but it does help to set out facing in the right direction. I ask them their reasons for drawing. Someone once told them they must draw in this way. I meet students struggling unhappily with a particular method of drawing.11 PROGRESSION A UNIQUE SIGHT This innocent yet sophisticated drawing of boats. The journey of every artist demands hard work and discipline. harbor and sea is one of many that Alfred Wallis made from memory while sitting at home. Occasionally. 1925-42 53/8x87/8in (135 x 225 mm) ALFRED WALLIS prefers and tells you is better. and which aspects of the vast wealth and diversity of graphic language would be most appropriate to their goals. Think how much would have been lost if anyone had interfered with Alfred Wallis' personal sense of proportion and perspective in the exquisite drawing above. remember that all advice is only advice. He was a retired Cornish fisherman and junk dealer who began drawing at the age of 70 "for company" after his wife died. what they most want to achieve. Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse c. and they have never questioned why. you must decide whether to keep or discard it. Enjoy the control of your own journey.
The observed world may be our subject. embedded in this book. Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels LEONARDO DA VINCI . wrote as the opening line of this great work. They are also always written backward. 11). and inspire others. boats. "There really is no such thing as Art. clear-minded understanding of the sea. the breast. We BIRD STUDIES The flutter of faint scratches that dance across the pages on the right is an attempt to see the movement and bony weightlessness of a bird. and lose the very thing that attracted us to it. author of The Story of Art." The clarity and empowerment of these words. it may not be accurate to our critical adult eye. be visionary. Our imaginations are the tools with which we can increase the essence of life. all raise water From the Archimedes' screw to Leonardo's own cupped wheel. but it should be the experienced world we draw. we can drive out its spirit. There should neve: be a slavish obligation to represent things exactly as we collectively agree we see them. the page bristles with the focus of ideas. right. There are only artists. perhaps for comfort or ease as a left-hander or a habitual enjoyment of the challenge. We all see differently. When we look back at Wallis' seascape (see p. IDEAS A N D I N V E N T I O N S These active machines. If as artists we nail a subject down too hard. is. His notes visually balance his drawings. We also see differently ourselves. not for disguise but as a personal choice. but the child in us knows that this is an all-embracing. I hope. There are countless reasons for drawing.and collarbones and shoulder blades of a different bird almost become new creatures in themselves. The art historian Professor Sir Ernst Gombrich. Below. depending on the occasion and our purpose. and breathtaking wind of a choppy harbor.12 INTRODUCTION VISION All artists see the world differently.
It will be invested through your experience in the new drawing. conduct an experiment. but it is important to be clear why we are making it. More was learned drawing the bird 18 times than would have been understood drawing it only once or twice. while below. Our drawings are annotated investigations into the mechanisms of nature and of an idea. Don't be disheartened. Opposite.13 VISION should not try to know how every finished picture will look. when it looks tired and still feels wrong. shout against a terrible injustice. My drawings of a housemartin (opposite top) illustrate the importance of repeated study. drawing in pursuit of our own thoughts and understanding. I drew to understand the apparatus of flight. . or to discover the best use of a new material. or illustrate a dream. We have both covered our paper with focused. stripped-down parts. it may be best to start afresh. to express the beauty in a moment's play of light. Decide before you start whether you are drawing to warm up. Leonardo drew to invent a machine. time spent is not lost. Each fresh image reflects growing confidence and the experience of the preceding study. This also applies if struggling at length with a larger picture. make a calculation.
This suits many artists well and is perfectly valid. are both made of ink laid onto wet paper with speed and agile certainty. This is the alchemy of drawing. temperature. water. They each allowed the energy and focus of the moment to be expressed through controlled accident and a degree of the unknown Both drawings were made trusting the marks. BRUSHED LANDSCAPE FLOWING SKELETON T h e gliding poise of this walking anatomy comes as much from the feeling of movement as it does from the feeling of drawing. I made it almost unconsciously with a pen and a brush. Know the texture. As you draw any subject—something you see. These two brush drawings. If you can do this. W e float toward the quiet vista as it also moves toward us. and sometimes beyond. fire. or ice—you must actually feel it beneath your fingers as you draw. metal. Each image relied upon past experience to know the probable behavior of the brush. and spirit of each subject was held strongly but loosely between the fingertips. silk. which can offer keys to other things. feel. mists. and how it feels to the touch. and what you discover in the process of making. Whatever the material— wood. You must also think of its intrinsic nature: its purpose. explain the composition. and allowed to flow through the brush. declare the idea. the unknown.14 INTRODUCTION ALCHEMY At school. and we can just make out the distant stains of mountains. and practice each part before putting the final image together. created centuries and cultures apart. it should be responding to the sensation and meaning of the subject it draws. your marks will become the subject on the paper. Imagine these qualities so strongly that you feel them in your mind and at your fingertips. size. However. we are advised or even required to plan our pictures. Our position asvieweris unsteady. depth. As your hand meets the paper to make a mark. excessive planning can get in the way of the imagination. balance. This is a detail of a brush-and-ink drawing by a Japanese Buddhist monk. and paper. and an island brushed with trees. We are caught in a shifting focus that makes everything fluid. bone. ink. It denies the importance of accident. Landscape in Haboku Style 15TH CENTURY . trusting my intuition to find a visual equivalence for the sensation of weight within my body. and opacity of your subject. meaning. and at speeds beyond conscious thought. or imagine—it is not enough to only render its shape. and position in space. The physicality.
made by a young British artist who creates alphabets o f the absurd f r o m familiar childhood characters. stand table-sized with furniture legs attached t o b o t h sides of their jacket. more than 100 years after its making. Focusing on the Negative 2004 22 x 30 in (56 x 76 cm) J O H N WALTER .1896 Woman at her Toilet 41 x 26 in (104 x 66 cm) TOULOUSE LAUTREC RIB-CAGE D R A M A Thus drama. Lautrec's flamboyant splashes o f petticoats and pantaloons are drawn with long sweeps of chalk and brushed oil paint. gold leaf and spray paint. which evoke realities o f place and the p o w e r o f moment. right is set inside a rib cage.16 INTRODUCTION PLACE A N D MOMENT The heat and teeming atmosphere o f this Parisian dressing room. left. c. pastel. acrylic. W a l t e r also makes books: some. one of many luminous works in watercolor. lives on. He dazzles us with flashes o f light and dabbed marks o f shadow. like folded insects.
Pages do not have to lie open for other people to inspect and comment on.17 FREEING THE HAND If you are just beginning to learn how to draw. and mistakes are a valuable process of learning. diary-like observations. and miscellaneous items of inspiration. Enjoy discovering what your hand and the material can do. even those you dislike. FREEINGTHEHAND . As you follow lessons in this book. With no help and advice at all. It is yours. at a point when you feel you are not making progress. One of the advantages of a drawing book is that you can shut it. take your time and don't worry if you need to make several attempts to grasp a concept. Much will be learned on these test sheets and in your first drawings. Drawing is exploratory. potential ideas still forming. you will naturally make progress on your own in response to concentration and the decision to look and draw. Start by choosing a material you like the look of and cover a piece of paper with different marks. Ignore these at first and allow yourself the freedom to play. Such books are personal: the territory of new exploration and experiment. Choose other materials and do the same. Put them away and look at them later. you will be surprised and encouraged to see how far you have come. Try to keep all of your first drawings. just through the act of making. try not to grip your pen worrying about the technical terms you might have heard.
Once there. The real drawing book has yet to come. An artist's personal voice is something that also evolves through lessons learned.Their elegant strength seems to summon a lifetime of drawing. when they are more experienced. A N ARTIST'S HANDS These are the hands of the artist Phyll Kiggell (see p. which of course he cannot see. which is held frozen in space by a camera lens. but not confined to them. As you draw. I was particularly attracted to their gentle articulation and understated determination. the path is yours. The chapters of this book present 90 different artists' ways of seeing. To these I have added my own drawings to explain elementary materials and techniques and offer introductory approaches. and many more reasons for drawing the world. Picasso Painting with Light at the Madoura Pottery 1949 . Picasso has just finished his drawing. Look to your own experience and also learn from the work of others. Picasso is poised smiling. seek ideas in the life around you. ELECTRIC BULL With a penlight. 150).18 INTRODUCTION THE THINKING EYE Techniques and materials are the grammar and vocabulary of drawing and can be studied and shared. However. This practical journey will take you through the door into the vivid heart of drawing. Its sensuous and flowing line seems to drift like smoke. staring straight through his image of a bull. caught between action and repose. and enfolding new media. Drawing is a living language that over millennia has grown and changed. adapting its form and occupation. it is this voice that is the subtle part of their art and something that ultimately. we still only glimpse a corner of the magnitude of this subject and the infinity of what can be achieved. comes from within. Imagination needs nourishment. and became a great subject for me. In the total wealth of these pages. it will be your creation as you discover your own personal vision. Note that the drawing classes are allocated to subjects. It rarely flourishes in isolation. threedimensionally.
Smooth plywood. Drawing boards are invaluable. A high-quality one will last a DRAWING BOOKS Select d r a w i n g b o o k s t o suit y o u r aims. which are also sold in an enormous range. color. cut. thickness. catalogs. 4. is perfect. 5. thick enough not to flex. Many artists invent ways o f binding their o w n books. 6. It is also useful to own a portfolio.h a n d s t o r e s make unique subjects f o r e x p e r i m e n t s a n d collage. They can be very expensive in art stores. t h e i r jackets w i l l a c t like d r a w i n g b o a r d s a n d p r o t e c t y o u r w o r k . Art students often make use of printed books picked up from secondhand stores into which they draw. There are dozens to choose from. C A N V A S . H o w e v e r r i n g bindings o f t e n break. and handles to lift the weight of your artworks. cheap corrugated plastic ones fall apart in days. Alternatively. texture. Dissecting a d i s c a r d e d h a r d . C O L O R E D PAPERS: Large a r t supply stores o f t e n sell t h i c k b o o k s full o f c o l o r e d p a p e r s . F o r traveling.b o u n d b o o k w i l l s o o n s h o w y o u h o w it is m a d e . 2. Most contain thin p a p e r and are perfect f o r use w i t h disposable pens. Gleaming store purchases vary greatly in format.q u a l i t y r i n g . a n d crayons. ties on either side to keep your papers in place. BLACK P O C K E T B O O K S : Hand-sized w i t h ready-made elastic binder and a marker ribbon. a l e n g t h o f black elastic t i e d a r o u n d t h e m i d d l e will h o l d the contents together w h e n y o u f o l d in c o l l e c t e d items. a n d r e f e r e n c e b o o k s f o u n d in s e c o n d . F O U N D B O O K S : O l d p r i n t e d 3 . Sand the edges to avoid splinters.B O U N D PADS: T h e s e are t h e least expensive a n d useful f o r o p e n i n g flat. drawing book. pastels. c h o o s e larger f o r m a t s t o give y o u s c o p e f o r e x p e r i m e n t . stitched. H O M E M A D E : I m a d e this b o o k f r o m drawing paper that I folded. You simply need two strong boards hinged together well. b e a w a r e t h a t p a p e r t e x t u r e effects a n d changes t h e i r marks. c o l o r If planning t o use pencils. be sure they fit comfortably under your arm. y o u n e e d a lifetime.b o u n d b o o k s t h a t fit in y o u r p o c k e t o r bag. F o r e v e n i n g classes. c h o o s e s m a l l e r h a r d . and cost. Homemade books can be assembled easily from found materials or selections of loose sheet papers. 1. binding. N o t e t h e w i d e l y differing c h o i c e o f p a p e r s w i t h w h i c h t h e s e are m a d e . If you intend to carry your boards for a distance. 2002 Tantalus o r The Future of Man 81/2 x61/4in (215 x 158 mm) ROSE MILLER . it is better to have them made at a lumber yard or home improvement store. These are perfect f o r w o r k i n g in novels. Purchase a h i g h .C O V E R E D H A R D B O U N D : Ideal f o r c a r r y i n g a r o u n d . Calculate a range of useful dimensions and have several cut at once. quality. R I N G .20 INTRODUCTION Drawing Books and Papers T o BEGIN YOUR EXPLORATION o f d r a w i n g . t h i s is h o w I l e a r n e d . and collage their ideas. study the structure of a good portfolio and make your own.b o u n d p a d if y o u w i s h t o keep your drawings together long-term. T h e hardb o a r d j a c k e t is s t r e t c h e d w i t h canvas beneath t h e p a p e r sleeve. and glued t o a s t r i p o f bias binding.
or rolls. and cream sheets or rolls. 14. not. from pencil to paint 9. 12. ITALIAN PARCHMENT: Imitation-animal-skin parchment that is translucent and slightly waxy. mold-. Cheap wood-pulp papers are acidic. Use cheap paper for rough ideas and quality paper for work to last See the glossary ( p p . size. fine. T W O RIVERS GREEN 410G MS: Very heavy tinted textured cold-pressed watercolor paper See Two Rivers Yellow. 18. cold. C A N S O N : Inexpensive lightweight pastel paper in many colors. also good for drawing with colored pencils. 17. it is made from rice. and rolls. They are hand-. white textured paper that can take abrasive use of any medium. absorbency. 21. used to imprint lines of these colors onto a surface. C A R B O N PAPER: Available in dark and light blue. FABRIANO ACADEMIA: Standard medium-range multipurpose paper Use with any media. yellow. 2 5 6 . smooth. color. and cost. pastel paper in flecked pastel colors with a distinctive ribbed marking.5 9 ) for explanations of rough. GLASSINE: Sold as protective wrapping. AQUARELLE ARCHES 300GMS:The very top quality hot-pressed (smooth) watercolor paper. blocks. 20. FABRIANO R O U G H 600GMS: Very heavy. Ph. bamboo. 8. resisting deterioration. VELIN ARCHES 250GMS: Printmaking paper available in black white. SAUNDERS WATERFORD N O T 300GMS: Mid-quality textured watercolor paper. Use for brushwork drawings. tough. and translucent. texture. MAGIC PAPER: A reusable sheet for testing ideas without creating waste. 100% cotton and sold in sheets. or machine made in sheets. FABRIANO INGRES: Thin. and hot pressed papers. mulberry.TISSUE PAPER: Place sheets between drawing book pages to keep images from printing on each other and use for delicate collage. JAPANESE PAPER: Strong. 15. 10. printed on one side only. turning brown and brittle. For use with any media. 16. 22. METALLIC PAPER: Thin paper in different metallic colors. red. Use with a brush in clean water Water makes a dark mark like ink and becomes invisible again when dry. blocks. It is available in white or cream. T W O RIVERS Y E L L O W 410GMS: See Two Rivers Green 19. 7. and other plant fibers. 11. and white. Cotton papers are high-quality and acid-free.Papers differ in thickness (weight). It is also excellent for drawing with marker pens on layered sheets. PAPERS . 13.
your whole relaxed b o d y should be involved. In this book we will look at parallels between drawing and music. place it on the correct side: if right-handed. a n d look to the left of it at your subject. Turning your drawing sideways or upside-own will also help reveal what is wrong. but wherever possible. and subject. body. It will also reflect discomfort if you are in any way cramped. Accelerated perspective also occurs if you look down the surface steeply (see pp. arm. or with your drawing board angled between your lap and a chair. Placing your easel o n the w r o n g side folds y o u r b o d y against your drawing arm. You do not have to dance to draw. How you hold your drawing materials is also important. place it on your left. There should be an open. you Drawing classes can be cramped places. There are also parallels to dance. should be able to look comfortably straight ahead at your picture plane. From a distance you will spot errors you cannot see close up.22 INTRODUCTION Posture and Grip T o DRAW WELL. make sure you have enough room to back away and view your work. you can draw lines freely and achieve a significant arc of movement. Relaxed fingers: Hold the pencil away from its tip and relax your fingers. If using an upright easel. flowing space between your hand. You cannot draw like this—your hand is locked and your fingers can barely move. if left-handed. This photograph illustrates how some people hold a pen to write. If your hand twists to maneuver between the paper and your body. . but you need to understand that the expression of a line or mark originates in the body and flows t h r o u g h the shoulder. Use the side of your little fingernail as a support on the page. a n d h a n d to the fingertips. 116-17). b u t it should n o t be forgotten that many people make remarkable a n d striking works drawing with their feet or holding their brush or pencil in their mouths. Ideally. SPACE TO WORK Cramped grip. strangledlooking drawings. If seated on a b e n c h easel (a donkey). With your hand in this position. and look to the right. If your body posture is well balanced and you can move freely. your lines will distort. This cramped grip tires your hand and makes small. Examples are shown here. place it on your right. Regularly step back 6-9 ft (2-3 m) to check your progress. your drawing will reflect this. don't sit too close to the paper.
liquid will run down your hand. brush pressed against an upright surface will cause a dribble of ink to run down your drawing. This can be used to great effect. To stop this. ALL MEDIA There are no rules as to how you should hold your drawing media. Soft media: Short materials such as pastels and charcoal can be accommodated in the palm. Brush calligraphy: This comfortable. upright way of holding the brush near its base is similar to the Japanese way used in Zen calligraphy (see pp. alternative way of holding the pencil. It is most comfortable when reaching to draw above your head.232-33). GRAVITY Remember that gravity affects the flow of ink and paint. Remember you can also draw just by dipping your fingers in pigment—this is how many women draw in rural India. As long as your fingers. depending upon what it is and how large you are working. find an unfamiliar. or it can spoil your work if not anticipated. If you turn a brush or dip pen up into the air to draw above your hand.23 This loose "candle" grip is very useful when drawing with your arm extended. This can give a new lease on life to your mark-making. But be careful not to tense your fingers. hold your material as you find most comfortable. not up to the paper Brushes can be used on upright paper but dip Anticipating effects: A fully loaded pens need a level surface. arm. Large amounts of ink can be applied without fear of uncontrolled running if the paper is flat. roughly marking out a large-scale work. or change to the wrong hand. Large scale: POSTURE AND GRIP U n f a m i l i a r i t y : T h e habitual movements of our handwriting style will sometimes infringe upon our drawing. . and body are not restricted.
each dedicated to the moralized tale of an animal or monster The bestiary profoundly influenced the art of its period. we have employed artists on expeditions..Animals H UMANS HAVE DRAWN ANIMALS from the beginning of our time. and snakes have between them engendered harpies. and to bring h o m e drawn documentaries of their finds. As children we delight in the humanized trials of Tom and Jerry and their c a r t o o n relations. which are so unlike ours. We have drawn them on the walls of caves to evoke their kinship and power. insects. " Animals perpetually feed our imaginations. bats. Europeans on board had never seen such a thing. W h e n lost to explain our own emotions. Facial features were analyzed in terms of their animal likeness. who described in words what White drew. the Latin bestiary was one of the most popular picture books—an illustrated dictionary of one hundred parts. In this chapter we discover the use of pens and ink through the delineation of insects. In medieval England. out are now oxidized and so appear black W h e n less preoccupied with understanding ourselves. werewolves. animals provide a perfect subject with which to begin. their different speeds and patterns of action. and pioneer born c. Framed in the z o o or in domestic cohabitation." He worked with the scientist Thomas Harriot. 11 x91/4in (277 x 234 mm) . 1540. and people. plants. W e have drawn them in m a n u s c r i p t s to explain our genesis and to c o u n t their species into Noah's ark. we turn and take the features of beasts. O v e r the centuries. For the novice artist. and this very drawing was to endure many copies and plagiarisms after its triumphant return to the English court of Queen Elizabeth I. After the subject of ourselves. which very likely leaped o n t o the deck of Sir Walter Raleigh's ship Tiger as it sailed north from the Caribbean to Virginia in 1585. they are perhaps our favorite pictorial preoccupation. Together they made maps and documented animals. JOHN WHITE British artist. birds. White's commission was to "." Paranoid newcomers c r a m m e d into swelling industrial cities used handbooks of physiognomy to identify and judge their neighbors.m o u n t e d skeletons of birds. fish. and silent. mermaids. and dragons. This drawing is made in black lead (metal point) with watercolor Highlights of silver would have gleamed. sleeping dogs. In 19th-century Europe this became a "science. offer challenges and delights to draw. or scampering through the initials and borders of pictures from that time. and we still see escapees from its pages carved and grinning as the gargoyles of churches. floating turtles. from which personality and predicted behavior were " d e d u c e d .. dogs. m u s e u m . to be there at the m o m e n t of discovery. cartographer. and learn how to Flying Fish c. On the Roanoke voyages of Sir Walter Raleigh. Here (left) we see J o h n White's exquisite record of a flying fish. 1590 J O H N WHITE capture form and movement from the m a n n e r i s m s of honking geese.drawe to lief one of each kinde of thing that is strange to us in England.
the home of ALBRECHT DURER German Renaissance painter. filled journals with ideas and observations. printmaker. Meanwhile. when more accurate portrayals were made without armor and scales. the ship was lost. DURER'S RHINOCEROS AND STUBBS'S skeletal Durer. Contemporary texts related accounts of the beast as the mortal enemy of the elephant and rare relative of the "more common" unicorn. and mathematician. writer. Unsurpassed. but the drowned animal washed ashore. It is such a lifelike triumph of imagination and intelligence that for centuries zoologists never questioned its authority. draftsman. they were rejected. naturalist. Converted into a print. it continued its journey to Rome. It was to become the animal's only accepted likeness for 250 years. Life-like This is Durer's original quill-and-ink drawing made after an anonymous Portuguese drawing.26 ANIMALS Documentaries horse are superb affirmations of the power of drawing as a recorder and communicator of knowledge. years after its publication. Original Ink Drawing of a Rhinoceros 1515 ALBRECHT DURER 103/4 x 161/2 in ( 2 7 4 x 4 2 0 mm) . and wrote four books on proportion. The first live rhinoceros to reach Europe came from India in May 1515. He studied the image and drew his own interpretation. Sailing to Rome. inspiring countless works of art and so touching people's imaginations that later. He in turn sent the mysterious creature to the Pope via Marseilles at the request of the King of France. Durer's image changed eager hands until it was known across Europe. Stubbs's Anatomy of the Horse achieved similar documentary status. Durer traveled widely to study at different European schools of art. a gift to the Portuguese King. a drawing of it arrived in Nuremberg. Carefully stuffed. it is still consulted by veterinarians today.
Stubbs w a s o n e o f t h e first E u r o p e a n artists t o m a k e a n a c c u r a t e representation o f the rhinoceros. naturalist. Anatomy of the Horse. composed from notes and observations. knowledge of parts. His painted p o r t r a i t o f t h e b e a s t is in t h e R o y a l C o l l e g e o f S u r g e o n s o f England. Dissections Stubbs took his knife and his pencil and physically climbed inside the horse. He translated his own drawings into engravings for publication. L o n d o n . and therefore invented the lighting that Compare how Stubbs and Durer both invented lighting to portray the reality of their animals. Table of the III of the Horse (rear Skeleton view) mm) 1756-58 1 4 x 7 in ( 3 5 4 x 1 8 0 GEORGE STUBBS . Stubbs's m o s t c e l e b r a t e d publication. is no other work like it.GEORGE STUBBS B r i t i s h e q u i n e a n d s o c i e t y p o r t r a i t painter. He composed makes each horse appear so real and each plate from his three-dimensional. The entire project was developed over ten years. This is one of Stubbs' original finished pencil drawings. in t h r e e v i e w s — r e a r f r o n t . dissecting and drawing until he understood the mechanisms of its power and grace. c o m p r i s e s 1 8 p l a t e s s h o w i n g d i s s e c t i o n s in l a y e r s f r o m b o n e t h r o u g h m u s c u l a t u r e t o skin. a n d s i d e . a n d anatomist. which has never diminished. Dissections were made over a total of 18 months. Lighting Stubbs's breathtaking international work won immediate There acclaim.
linseed oil soaked into the paper has made shadows and repelled the ink to create translucent tentacles. Apparently drawn in its o w n ink.. and a love of accident. His copious drawings are characterized by mixed media. VICTOR HUGO Poet. soot. drawing her again and again to pin d o w n the texture of her loose skin. the ominous beast unwinds from the dark of the sea and of our nightmares. Hugo's novels Les Miserables and Dame have become classics of film and stage. Hugo used graphite powder. The Hunchback of Notre Layers and shadows Throughout this drawing. snarl. it silently rises to the light. Surrounding sprays of graphite powder are stuck into washes of oil and ink to suggest glutinous depths.". A s if disturbed from its gritty b e d by our presence and curiosity. coal dust.. and turn. conjured b y the hand of a great author of French literary fiction. By contrast. and Pieuvre 1866-69 91/2 x81/8in (242 x 207 mm) VICTOR H U G O . I've ended up mixing in pencil. sepia. drama. novelist. Gericault took a sharp p e n c i l to m a k e repeated direct o b s e r v a t i o n s f r o m life.. her b o n y frame. and all sorts of bizarre concoctions which manage to convey above all in mind. saying ". Mixed media Here. Gericault's sheet a p p e a r s almost s c r a t c h e d b y the f e r o c i o u s play of his cat. The octopus is formed in layers applied and distressed with a brush.. He has w a t c h e d her p o u n c e .28 ANIMALS Presence and Mood THESE DRAWINGS HAVE BEEN CHOSEN to s h o w t w o v e r y different ways of picturing a wild animal. her sharp teeth. He wrote to poet and art critic Charles-Pierre Baudelaire about his experiments. ink and linseed oil on paper. charcoal. playwright. more or less what I have in view. and her distinctive temperament. and leader of the French Romantic movement. H u g o mixed his media and drew from m e m o r y and imagination to create narrative atmosphere. Hugo's page is f l o o d e d w i t h the fearful presence of a remembered octopus.
The Raft of the Medusa. Repeated study This drawing demonstrates of feeling confident repeat different the importance subject Remaining enough to isolate parts of a views. of drawings Gericault erased. Paris.l i v e d French R o m a n t i c painter and lithographer Largely self-taught. standing sideways. fiery. displayed in the Louvre. s h o r t .29 THEODORE GERICAULT C o n t r o v e r s i a l . artists reused sheets and them full of studies. 144. 124-25 and p. and it can be applied to any subject (see pp. Before paper became so cheap. diagonal strokes of his pencil. At the center of the page is crammed drawings the outline of a horse. of previous Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 1817-18 121/2 x 151/2 in ( 3 1 9 x 3 9 8 mm) T H E O D O R E GERICAULT . Here. since it can lead to a flattened form. Undertraces Beneath these graphite studies we see traces Tones On the top row we see clearly how Gericault laid broad areas of tone using fast. Tones that do not follow surface contour is very difficult to do well. and keep trying again. focused upon seeing will lead to a greater understanding of the subject Much is learned from repeated study. facing right. Beginners are advised to follow the natural contours of form as shown on pp. undertraces unify and vitalize the composition.118-119). H e is best k n o w n f o r his gigantic painting. horses w e r e a favorite subject t o g e t h e r w i t h politics and history. parallel.
In Picasso's drawing. slow tortoise. the whinnying of a frantic horse. hooked.30 ANIMALS Movement M O V E M E N T IS OFTEN THE CHARACTERISTIC b y w h i c h w e their lines and the power of their beasts. Cheval et Oiseau 1936 173/8 x 211/4 in ( 4 4 0 x 5 4 0 m m ) PABLO PICASSO . Gouache is brushed softly in translucent hazy layers of cool blue. made only a year apart. Ink and gouache This drawing is made in black Chinese ink and gouache (opaque watercolor) applied with a brush. and scrolled lines. taking them to guide their hand in bringing form and essence together. flattened animals composed almost entirely of movement. His hand must have shuddered and twitched just like the constant actions of this humorous meeting. dissolving faun kneels stranded. These media complement and amplify each other with their brilliant contrast. gray. draftsman. and waves breaking distantly below. quivering horse. Picasso cofounded Cubism. The ink is used to make sharply defined solid. flapping bird. the first abstract movement of the 20th century. Klee's riders are constructed from all the gestures of greeting mules. noise is everywhere. with George Braque (see p90). or proud. overwhelmed by a screeching bird. The fact that they never stand still influences the movement in his line. Both Picasso and Klee have enclosed their subjects to compress and amplify the speed of PABLO PICASSO A prolific Spanish painter sculptor. Artists commonly focus on such actions. His powdery. and brown. Faune. printmaker ceramicist graphic and stage designer who lived in France. we see semi-abstract. identify an animal: the fast cheetah. In these two drawings.
top all happily of each other in the Endless lines Look closely at how Klee's lines rarely leave the paper and how they are free from the constraint of finite shape. creatures. and t e a c h e r at t h e Bauhaus school. well-worn copies o f w h i c h are found in m a n y art schools. He is a u t h o r o f The Thinking Eye (1923). Chicago PAUL KLEE ." They chatter around bodies in groups.PAUL KLEE Swiss painter. violinist. printmaker. draftsman. turning our eye and around inside the and postures of the paper- thin on pictorial space. N e u m a n n Family Collection. Scene der Komischen of Comical Reiter Riders) (Scene 1935 161/2x111/2in ( 4 1 9 x 2 9 1 mm) M o r t o n G . The entire drawing suggests the endless small movements of horses standing still. They remain in contact with the surface of the page and scribble back and forth as they maneuver from one area to another. Layers of marks In this pale Dentil drawing we see layers of' agitated marks that together present a kind of visual "itch. W i t h his drawings Kleeb o u n d sophisticated theories to personal and often witty childlike imagery. sculptor.
His birds stare. This drawing illustrates Baker's theory. and steerage. which in application gave strength and advantage to the English fighting the Spanish Armada. He studied the anatomy of fish. and the carefully observed gills. and to assess our next move. It is simply how we read his perspective. The fish It is likely that Baker drew with a quill dipped in irongall ink. plans. Baker did not intend this. Exquisite details in this drawing include the lips of the fish. fins. and s e c t i o n s o f ships. later called a galleon. In just one drawing he has displayed more angles of his design than we would expect to see from a single viewpoint Fragments English 1586 101/2 x 153/8 in (270 x 390 mm) MATTHEW BAKER of Ancient Shipwrightry .32 ANIMALS Icon and Design IN THESE T W O MANUSCRIPTS we discover diagrammatic and mackerel's tail" (full bow. mathematician. and from them learned that if he designed his ship with a "cod's head MATTHEW BAKER Master shipwright. In contrast to the practical clarity of Baker's thought. and author o f Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (1586). t h e earliest geometrically defined elevations. Baker lived in an era when ships were built without drawn plans. The ship The upper decks of the ship appear curved toward us at both ends. adding washes of color with a fine brush. drawings of animals that are each held tightly in a surprising space: a giant fish wears a ship's hull. seemingly looking for our attention. and blackbirds fly in formation through a mosaic of text. the expression of its eye. Below we see his revolutionary design for an Elizabethan warship. and scales. b a s e d o n his studies o f fish. B a k e r initiated t h e scientific p r a c t i c e o f naval a r c h i t e c t u r e and applied h y d r o d y n a m i c s . it would achieve greater speed. slim stern). balance. Knopf's drawing opposite is the personal enigmatic expression of a mind gripped by illness.
appears to be stirred like water by the presence of the The Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks UNDATED 133/8 x 115/8 in (340 x 2 9 6 mm) and psychiatrist Hans Prinzhom collected this image. circle and the birds.K n o p f b e l i e v e d h e c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h e language o f birds. T h e G e r m a n a r t historian Outline and tone The blackbirds illuminating this frantic manuscript are drawn in pencil. The text. numbered. and filled evenly with tone. The main group is placed in a circle drawn with a compass. firmly outlined. written last of all.JOHANN KNOPF An " O u t s i d e r " a r t i s t w h o s u f f e r e d f r o m m e n t a l illness. w h i c h o f t e n f e a t u r e as s y m b o l i c creatures in his drawings. JOHANN KNOPF .
the recipes for which have been handed down over centuries. Dip pens began their history in the Nile River. 4. 5 0 0 years ago. That is an ink. PENS . The reservoir gives a constant flow of ink for very long unbroken lines and continuous bottle-free use.34 ANIMALS Pen and Ink W I T H A HANDFUL OF FEATHERS. QUILLS: These are cut from the barrel of a flight or tail feather. from the acacia tree. then pour a little warm gum water into it and temper the two together. 3. Each pen has a unique character. expressive drawing techniques such as the ones we explore in this chapter 1. where reeds were gathered. A German recipe of 1531 gives a simple description: "Take a wax candle. REED PENS: A broad nib can be cut from bamboo or another tubular grass. Quills were later cut from feathers. The Egyptians and Chinese are credited with the invention of carbon ink. They fit into wooden holders. The bar is then rubbed into water on a slate block to produce ink. and first used by the Egyptians. which scratch rather than draw. which range greatly in their handling and character of line. simultaneously 4 . The Chinese used animal or fish glue. and it is still in use today. they are associated with rapid. Only fill with suitable inks. producing a different line. s t i c k s . a n d m e t a l p o i n t s . while metal nibs began as rare gifts in gold and silver before being perfected by the British steel industry. high-quality Chinese and Japanese inks are subtler and more complex than those produced in Europe. Today. F O U N T A I N PENS: These vary in quality and nib width. Intricate or dramatic lines. 2. distinguished manufacture. METAL PENS: Inexpensive removable steel nibs are available in a range of widths. and spatters can be made with an exotic choice of inks. Early artists recommended raven and crow for especially fine work." "Gum" refers to gum arabic extracted Dip pens are essential and inexpensive drawing tools. In the Far East. The best are goose or swan. you can have great fun drawing the world around you. spots. ink is traditionally applied with a brush (see pp. Responsive to slight changes in pressure. Avoid needle-sharp mapping pens. Masters choose brands of long. and hold it under a clean basin until the soot hangs to it.246-47). The paste from either recipe is pressed and dried into a bar for storage. light it.
and most can be homemade. they produce a golden dye for drawing. charred bone (Ivory Black). Waterproof types contain shellac.G A L L INK: Abnormal spherical growths caused by parasitic wasps can be collected from some oak trees in fall. an often misused term. dated. bistre. suspended in a binder and stored as a solid block Blocks are imported today 7. They are the easiest inks to use. Excellent for drawing they are bright and non-clogging. I N D I A N INK: Carbon ink sold today in liquid form. from are not 6. boiled. or charcoal. The complexities of traditional iron-gall ink are explained on p. 5. INKS 9. ACRYLIC / CALLIGRAPHY INKS: Available in black and a range of colors. Crushed. and sepia. iron-gall. and sieved. Bistre is the more humane use of soot scraped from the fireplace and ground into wine. Now we also have acrylic ranges in many colors. I R O N . C A R B O N INK: Traditionally produced from oil or resin soot (Lamp Black). Beechwood soot is best. is the ink of a cuttlefish or squid extracted post-mortem. Non-waterproof Indian inks can be reworked with a wet brush after drying. reduced. It dries with a sheen and clogs uncleaned pens.35 PEN AND INK Four types of ink were common before the 20th century. roastedwine sediment (Yeast Black). . and can be mixed and diluted to create subtler colors and tones. Inks can be lightfast or non-lightfast.36. SEPIA A N D BISTRE INKS: Sepia. 8. waterproof or non-waterproof. and are still in use today: carbon (Chinese and Indian). Old stock turns solid and bottlesChina.
finding reed p e n s unwieldy. T h e y give a finer. r e s e r v e d t h e i r use f o r large c h o i r b o o k s . galls were ground with iron sulfate to make an unstable solution. Practice to gain a feel for how materials behave. for example. Some of Michelangelo's drawings are now a little eaten by their own ink. m o r e e x t e n d e d line than reed and a m o r e organic line t h a n m e t a l . It also oxidized and ate or burned paper. Reed marks The darker left wing of this beetle was drawn with the wet inky stroke wing. . then cut a final nib (feathers. giving a s h o r t . a n d M a t i s s e also e n j o y e d t h e m . a n d d e v e l o p e d t h e quill instead. appears broken to show paper beneath. For centuries. M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s d r a g o n o n p . The darkest of this grasshopper wings) were made (around the head first. I u s e d t h e s e qualities t o d r a w t h e w o r m s above. forming the REED PENS R e e dpens dispense ink quickly. can also be collected from affected trees. giving longer lines. reduced. d r y mark. the blade and cut away from you.36 ANIMALS Drawing With Ink To MAKE A QUILL OR REED PEN. Running fresh. Collect skins from the ground beneath trees once they are blackened. and turned brown with time. drawn to glisten with a dryer nib. V a n G o g h . since t h e D u t c h w e r e t h e first t o realize t h a t they could be hardened and i m p r o v e d w i t h heat t r e a t m e n t in ash o r sand. are surprisingly tough. Although oak galls and walnut skins are harmless. Oak galls. always be cautious when experimenting with recipes. and boiled to make a golden ink. Rembrandt. t h e y stick a n d j u d d e r f o r w a r d . Paler strokes were made where the mark has the legs and antennae the ink ran out. it was gray-purple.) You can make ink easily from the boiled. fleshy skins that surround ripe walnuts. Walnut ink is gloopy. Quills are also called D u t c h pens. crushed. and delicious to draw with. Scribes o f t h e M i d d l e Ages. red-brown. The lighter right Quill marks Quills carry more ink than strokes and for as reeds. It dried black. 2 4 4 is an e x q u i s i t e e x a m p l e . of a loaded nib. keep all your fingers behind basis of iron-gall ink. U n d e r heavy pressure. QUILL PENS Q u i l l s a r e highly r e s p o n s i v e t o c h a n g e s in p r e s s u r e . sieved.
breaking. clean strokes. tonal Ink layers The wings of this beetle were drawn in layers using black and white ink on pale gray paper. o r being ruined as fountain pens would be under the same pressure. Loaded with ink and pressed hard. withstanding great pressure without sticking. sharp. W h e n the nib is pressed upside down. it is important to feel for when the ink will run out and to know how much ink you pick up when dipping the nib.37 METAL PENS Metal pens give long. . The of pigment to fall to the edges effect of the shape. White markings were drawn last Tones Here we see subtle tones of diluted ink beneath the undiluted black rim of a beetle's wing. giving a graded. marks become fine and needle-sharp. Each layer of of the drying droplet dome the drawing was left to dry before adding more. particles then filled with a droplet of ink. DRAWING WITH INK Filled outlines Each segment of wing was outlined. When using dip pens. they splay to make thick o r double lines.
to absorb blots when drawing. You cannot break the nib. Experiment. Watch their heavy feathered bodies flap. make another one. Quick drawing trains you to see what is most important about a subject and to mark only its most essential expression. waddle. there is no obligation to prepare a quill. and boldly plunge into your drawing. Posture ." If you don't like a stroke. so pick a spot where other people can keep them entertained. Empathize. and quickly draw around it using only three or four strokes. Study them before drawing. steel nibs are fine. be bold and press firmly. Focus on the geese. Take no more than ten seconds to draw each one and make lots of drawings. and a large drawing book or plenty of paper Use masking tape to secure pages against the wind. MATERIALS NEEDED Look for a bird expressing a simple posture. I covered eleven sheets in sixty quick drawings—in less than an hour. It teaches confidence and focus through intensive repetition.38 ANIMALS Capturing Character GEESE ARE EXCELLENT SUBJECTS to draw when practicing the first use of pen and ink. Cover a sheet. not on your drawing. Focus on it. Attempt with a loose hand to capture their posture and outline. Take a cup and water for diluting a range of tones. Pack plenty of tissue around a bottle of calligraphy or acrylic ink. test your limits. Illustrating this exercise on Oxford Port Meadow. touch the bottle's rim to drain the excess. Geese are nosy birds. and bellyflop off the waterside. It happens that goose feathers also provide artists with the best type of quills. and there is no "wrong. That said. Cover your drawing book pages in speedy responses to the geese and try to capture each bird in as few lines as possible. draw what the bird is doing. and be brave. Try to hold the whole posture in your mind's eye. Dip your pen in ink.
Again. . Avoid detail unless really tempted by a close-up visit Fluctuate the pressure of your pen in response to how you know the bird would feel if you touched it. Use more lines than before to express these. draw the feeling of what you see.39 Action With growing confidence. CAPTURING CHARACTER Texture Gradually allow yourself more lines to describe the texture of each bird as well as its posture and action. look among the birds for more complicated actions such as shaking off water. and diving. and don't worry about mechanical facts or accuracy. flapping. running.
These drawings are not an analysis of his anatomy or breed but the expression of his satisfied comfort in a deep sleep after a night out on the together with a glass of water for diluting tones on the nib. Ras Curled Up Asleep "Capturing the true character of a cherished companion is best achieved with objective determination rather than sentimental shyness. Make a test sheet to discover your control of diluting on the nib. and personality. and drain the excess by touching the nib against the rim of the bottle. a d o g w h o w a s a l w a y s town. and a tissue for blotting drawn lines that appear too dark. and even then he twitched and stretched in dreams. your drawing book.40 ANIMALS Sleeping Dogs R A S WAS A GREAT CHARACTER. For this class you will need one oblivious dog. first dip your pen in ink. Then dip the nib quickly into a glass of water and drain the excess again. form. Sleeping animals present the artist with ideal opportunities to study their texture.34-37). Dip the nib quickly again into water and again drain it. MAKING A PALE LINE To make a pale line." . a dip pen and ink of your choice (see pp. This will give a medium-gray line. engaged in his and everyone else's business. Now it will make a pale line. The only time he remained still was when he was sleeping.
Trust your intuition. in bold layers. First lines are first thoughts. Remain focused on the whole dog and. Then. To add texture. Here I marked the features of Ras's head. Here. Character is better captured drawing quickly with confidence than w o r k i n g slowly. D o not go back over lines you are pleased with—doing so dulls their lively freshness. Layers o f thoughts can bring a drawing alive. see how the animal's posture determines its whole shape. add more detail.41 DRAWING YOUR DOG Be bold in this exercise. 3 Gradually introduce darker tones. ignoring all detail. Then I immediately rebalanced the drawing with lines around his hind quarters. second thoughts may be different Changing your mind is a positive aspect o f seeing and thinking. alter the pressure and moisture of your line in response to howyouknow your dog feels when you ruffle itscoat. . ears. I added ink to Ras's nose. tail. W i t h pale lies. SLEEPING DOGS 1 Fix your eyes at the center of the dog. and the shadows in his coat. this time to create a line a little darker in tone.It is essential when drawing any subject (even something abstract) to know how it feels andtoemulate this with your line. c o n c e r n e d a b o u t detail. quickly draw what you see. 2 Reload your pen with ink. to emphasize how he is curled up.
offering plenty of time for the artist to draw the pose. THE ELONGATION AND BUOYANCY of a group of turtles is fascinating .Turtles to observe. turtles often pause unexpectedly. Beyond the glass wall of the aquarium. as if caught in a camera freeze-frame. A perfect subject for the beginner. swinging their limbs and shells with a slow circular movement. they stretch and paddle.
balance. Beginning with very pale tones. and sharp. I sought to capture the form. . With speed.Dry Birds THESE ARE THE ARTICULATED BONES o f a k i w i a n d a h o u s e - martin drawn in a museum using a steel pen. India ink. and water. weightlessness of the kiwi. dry. I darkened lines as each drawing progressed. I made repeated studies of the housemartin to discover its mechanism of flight.
Fledgling years Botanist and apothecary who compiled the Hortus Eystettensis of scientific research bore manifold explosions of knowledge in a fever of discovery. and to ornament our lives. where a number of uncredited artistsd r e wthem for Besler. From its history there is one overriding lesson to be learned: the importance of looking and seeing with our own eyes. Early European illustrators were trapped within dogma that was determined by ancient scholarship. —-the largest and most influential botanical book of the early Natural scientists accompanied explorers to document unknown finds. and focus. Botanical illustration is a precisely defined and scientific art. season. manipulations of light and shade. to catalog our knowledge. color. Chapters are arranged by out. as opposed to only herbal. we see very different cultural visions of plants and gardens and use pencils and plants to learn the pictorial values of space. and hybridize them for our sustenance and pleasure. In this chapter. infinitely vivid. Botanic gardens were established and expanded. B A S I L I U SBESLER when botanists founded new work upon the direct study of plants. PriceBishopof Eichstatt specimens. nurture. We draw them to celebrate their beauty and range. He sent boxes of plants to Nuremburgburned with the urgency and excitement of explaining every plant's form. Plants are the principal inspiration of the decorative arts—from Roman Corinthian columns crowned with carved leaves of the acanthus. Plants seventeenth century. form. 1613 187/8x153/4in(480 x 400 mm) BASILIUS BESLER . Classifications were set in367copperengravings. and the Acanthus spinosus constant but exhilarating struggle to make a living image feel right. we now have laid before us fourto show how well their colours complement each other infinite wealth of material to explore. Patrons funded the breeding of decorative. and texture. and diverse kingdom of plants. to the proliferation of floral designs with which we have dressed ourselves and furnished our homes for centuries. Medieval knowledge was not gained by the first-hand observation of life but by reading. Later. the microscope was refined to unfold yet another world. shape. After Here Aconthus spinosus is combined with forget-me-nots and-a-half centuries of intensive observation. We collect. the punctuation of space with structure and mass. on which our lives depend. Rich owners of private gardens commissioned large-format florilegiums commissioned the volume to document his private garden to immortalize their personal taste and power of acquisition. and the drawn pages ofthesame name. Conrad von Gemmingen.000 species of plants are depicted life-size drawn.Morethan 1. an There are close parallels between the acts of gardening and drawing. robust. Both embrace the anticipation of evolving shape. It was published plain in 1611 and withhand-paintedplates in poured off ships returning from the New World and were eagerly collected and 1613.Plants and Gardens W E SHARE THIS PLANET with the more ancient. The revolution came in the 1530s. and beauty.
48 PLANTS AND GARDENS THE SCIENTIFIC VALUE OF A BOTANICAL DRAWING lies i n its Botanical Studies were specimens that often refused to stay still. or that were diseased. measured drawings. M a c k i n t o s h e x p r e s s e s the f o l d e d petals of a broken rose b u d so delicately w e can sense the perfume. detail. and Franz Bauer and his brother Ferdinand were employed there to draw specimens. naturalist explorer and advisor to King George III invited Bauer to London in 1 7 9 0 . leaves. Each plant must b e clearly distinguished from its closest relative. and wilted. Light in this drawing is given by the paleness of the paper showing between washes of darker tones. They are counted among the most accomplished 18th-century botanical artists. Sir Joseph Banks. subtle union of beauty. W i t h bright F R A N Z BAUER An Austrian artist who trained at the Schonbrunn Imperial Gardens in Vienna." Her slipper orchid s h o w s that botanical drawing must often resolve the challenge of its subject's p r o d u c i n g parts in different seasons — r o o t s . Outline Bauer prepared a pencil outline before laying in fleshy succulent hues and tones of watercolor. Here. delicate. flowers. o p t i m i s m . and seeds conventionally a p p e a r o n o n e plate. fruit. Stella Ross-Craig said of the need to d r a w from a dried herbarium plant "I could make it live again. It is likely Bauer would have studied these under a microscope. B e h i n d detailed. He has made the spatial and physical relationships in this drawing all the more real by placing a single. insect-ravaged. o p e n i n g a n d c l o s i n g i n the w a r m t h a n d light of the studio. The King was then establishing the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. T h e rest of u s are free to d r a w as w e w i s h . petal tip over a lower leaf Protea nitida 201/4 x141/4in (513 x 362 mm) FRANZ BAUER 1796 . and meticulous precision. stems. s u c h as w e see here in Bauer's Protea nitida. Botanical art c o n c e a l s the challenge of its m a k i n g . Dissections Across the lower part of this drawing we can see dissections of seed pods and petals.
it is small and discreet. a n d f o u n d e r o f t h e G l a s g o w S c h o o l o f A r t M a c k i n t o s h ' s flair h a d an e n o r m o u s i n f l u e n c e o n t h e a v a n t . Pencil lines cling to. S h e also o f thousands o f contributed an drawings. and speed depends upon the immediate perception of the essential characteristics of the plant. G u s t a v K l i m t In his r e t i r e m e n t Mackintosh m a d e n u m e r o u s inventive pencil a n d w a t e r c o l o r d r a w i n g s o f plants. and it shows how design. is r e c o g n i z e d as tne m o s t c o m p l e t e a n d i m p o r t a n t work 3. BOTANICAL STUDIES Lines and shadows This lush. a m o n g o t h e r s . Curtis's Botanical Magazine. p u b l i s h e d 1 9 4 8 .. and follow shadow. imagination. a n d he inspired. Rose 1894 103/4 x 83/4 in ( 2 7 5 x 2 2 1 mm) CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH STELLA ROSS-CRAIG A j o i n e d t h e staff a t t h e R o y a l B o t a n i c G a r d e n s ." This line drawing is one of 1. found among Mackintosh's than reality.g a r d e in G e r m a n y a n d A u s t r i a . Ross-Craig said of her work "Plants that wither rapidly present a very difficult problem to which there is only one answer—speed.286 studies for her book Drawings of British Plants. as at trained botanical artist Ross-Craig Swift lines The drawing was planned in pencil and then overworked with a lithographic pen. sensual pencil drawing is later works.. A s m a n y of her drawings are kept G a r d e n s . and perfect coordination of hand and eye.49 C H A R L E S RENNIE MACKINTOSH Scottish a r c h i t e c t d e s i g n e r painter. 1970 x 81/4 in ( 3 2 5 x 2 1 0 m m ) STELLA ROSS-CRAIG . and observation the nuance and contour of every in one image.000 Kew to archive accessible t o d a y v i a t h e I n t e r n e t of o n British flora. L o n d o n in 1 9 2 9 . H e r Drawings of British Plants. Closer to fiction can come together perfectly.7 3 in 3 1 p a r t s . Line Drawing of Cypripedium calceolus L c. K e w .
which he personally created near Kabul. Babur directs his gardeners in the design and planting of this quartered chahar bagh. in miniature. Bishndas was probably responsible for the overall design. the sumptuous petals permeated with prayer and wisdom. . Every fiber of AMONG DRAWINGS FROM BISHNDAS A N D N A N H A Little is known of these Mughal painters who were related as uncle and nephew and commissioned to illustrate the pages of Babur's journal. roses took their form in a bead of perspiration on the brow of Mohammed as he passed through his heavenly journey. urgent attentive human activity. Drawing. Afghanistan. and miraculous growth. paper is brimming with the beauty and celebration of nature. Below. painting. Opposite is the Rose of Mohammed. is remembered in the pages of his journal. Upright shallow perspectives.50 PLANTS AND GARDENS Jeweled Gardens the Middle East we find exquisite stylization of form and upright formality in pictorial space. By Muslim tradition. fluctuations in scale. in the early 16th century. The first Mughal Emperor Babur's Garden of Fidelity (Bagh-e Vaja). 1590 85/8 x55/8in (219 x 1 4 4 mm) BISHNDAS AND NANHA Bright pigment These pages were illuminated by Mughal artists in the late 16th century. uniform focus. Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity c. anticipating their view. The white of the page shines through the brilliant color. Envoys chatter outside the gate. a notable portrait painter drew the faces. and calligraphy are brought together to hold the sacred names of prophets and the 99 beautiful names of God. and Nanha. and attention to detail are all shared with medieval European manuscript drawings. They used a fine brush to lay pigment over a line drawing.
Stylized motif A fine brush has been used throughout this drawing to apply inks and watercolors. look closely and you will see words written in gold fluttering over the form of the flower. t h e Staatsbibliothek zu Arabic. Sacred words The central rose is more solid than any other on the page. and how the shape has been repeated freehand. The physical anatomy of the rosebud has been studied and translated into a repeated stylized motif. However.c e n t u r y Turkish manuscnpt a book of religious e t h i c s w r i t t e n in the O r i e n t a l C o l l e c t i o n s of Berlin. fragmenting its detail in a whisper of prayers. It is n o w k e p t in Border The elegant border of this drawing was mode with a pen and ruler It cleverly compresses and defines the composition. The Rose of Mohammed 1708 9 1 / 2 x 61/2 in ( 2 4 0 x 1 6 5 mm) FROM THE TURKISH M A N U S C R I P T AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH .AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH This is a detail o f a page from a n 1 8 t h . G e r m a n y . Note how each bud is essentially the same shape. so that overlapping petals and stems give an impression of fulfillment and abundance.
PLANTS AND GARDENS
IN CONTRAST TO THE QUIET, formal detail of other drawings in this chapter, these powerful fast trees enact the actions of plants. Each tree reaches out and holds its landscape with dynamism and pulse. In both drawings we find testament to the inexorable energy of growth. Rembrandt expresses a delicate quickness. Gentle lines draw a warm breeze through this remote wooded garden. Rustling in a loose foliage of soft marks, his pen evokes the weight of abundant activity on this late summer's day. Mondrian's arch of scratching branches is drawn with such force it will always be alive. We can still feel his hand storming across the paper. Set within a frame of smudged landscape, the tree possesses a musical agitation. This characteristic will increase in the artist's later abstract work. Here, we see a punctuated ordering of space. Sharp branches cut out negative shapes of winter sky.
R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter; etcher; and draftsman. Rembrandt's prolific output comprises oil paintings of historical and religious subjects together with group and self- portraits. His emotive etchings and pen and ink drawings (see also p. 174) are great resources for artists learning to understand the potential of these media.
Pen and ink lines describing foliage also tell
us the directions of sunlight and wind. An arc crossing the bottom of the drawing from one side to the other supports the scene and separates us from the landscape beyond. Compare Rembrandt's arc to that of Mondrian's. and note the similar treatment of low horizons in both works emphasizing the height and dominance of trees.
Cottage Among Trees 1648-50 63/4 x121/8in ( I 7 I x 308 mm) R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN
Atmosphere Here we see how shapes of negative space are as important as the physical subject they enclose (see pp.58-59). Mondrian has again lightly dragged his chalk on its side to evoke a wet depth of atmosphere. These passive gray marks contrast with the assertive tension of the tree.
Dutch Pure abstract painter preoccupied w i t h line and plane relationships. W i t h increasing austerity, Mondrian banished t h e subject from his drawings, in his later w o r k he also banished space, composing visual h a r m o n i e s using only straight lines a n d flat planes o f black, w h i t e , gray, o r p r i m a r y color.
Winter ground Short vertical marks along thebottomof this drawing reveal the length oftheblackchalk Mondrian used. Rubbed onitsside,itroughly blocks in the ground. Thecrudeeconomy of line is all we need tofeelthecold, wet, unwelcoming quality ofthiswinterearth.
Branches and trunk Lines shaping the branches of the tree are built up in layers. To make the trunk more dense, the artist has rubbed and smudged preliminary marks with his fingers before firmly overdrawing with new lines. Solid black lines are achieved by pressing the chalk hard. When used lightly, it shows the texture of the paper. Tree: Study for the Grey 1911 23 x 335/8 in ( 5 8 4 x 8 5 5 m m ) Tree
PLANTS AND GARDENS
Graphite and Erasers
GRAPHITE, FROM THE G R E E K word
This drawing illustrates a range of achieved with graphite pencils of different grades.
Modern pencils are graded from 9H (hard and pale) to 9B (black and soft). Graphiteclay sticks are also available, together with a powder form. All possess a natural sheen and are erasable to a varying degree. Graphite drawings smudge easily, so fixative, a form of varnish, can be used to hold a drawn surface in place. It is applied as a fine mist from an aerosol can, or from a bottle using a diffuser. For the beginner, ordinary hairspray is an effective and cheaper alternative.
(to write), is a soft and brittle carbon. It was first mined in Cumbria, England, in 1 5 6 4 , and was initially used in small, pure pieces bound in lengths of string. Pencils as we know them—with their slender wood casing and "lead" of graphite—were invented in France in 1794 by Nicolas-Jaques Conte. He discovered that milled graphite mixed with clay and water, press-molded, and baked to a high temperature produces a harder and paler medium than graphite alone.
3B pencil A range of mark and textures can be achieved with a 3B pencil when you vary its pressure, speed, and direction, as this detail shows.
Here is a selection of 14 items to illustrate a basic range of pencils, graphite sticks, sharpeners, erasers, and fixative.
1. AND 2. HB AND 3B PENCILS: It is unnecessary to possess every grade of pencil. HB, the central and most common grade, is perfect for making delicate lines. 3B gives a blacker tone. A great variety of effects can be achieved with just these two. 3. WATER-SOLUBLE PENCIL Effective for atmospheric drawing, but be aware of how watery tones can dull the impact of the line. 4. AND 5. MECHANICAL PENCIL Thick or fine leads are made in a range of grades. They are particularly useful because they do not require a sharpener 6. ROUND SOLID GRAPHITE PENCIL: Excellent for large-scale drawing, producing thick bold lines. A range of grades can be honed with a craft knife or sharpener 7. THICK GRAPHITE STICK: For large-scale drawing. Graded soft, medium, and hard. It crushes to produce graphite powder 8. SQUARE GRAPHITE STICK: Useful for making broad, sweeping marks in large-scale drawing. If worn and rounded, the stick can be snapped into pieces to regain the sharp, square end. 9. CRAFT KNIFE AND BLADES: Handles are sold in two sizes to fit large or small blades, and blades are sold in a range of shapes. Perfect for sharpening pencils to a long point, to cut lines in paper or to remove areas. 10. PENCIL SHARPENER: Makes a uniform point. Keep one in your pocket for drawing outside the studio, together with an envelope for shavings.
HB and 5B Layers of tone have been built up withHBand5Bpencils. Softer pencils require less pressure to make a mark, revealing the texture of the paper surface. It is important to keep the point of the pencil sharp with either a craft knife or a sharpener.
ERASING AND FIXING
Erasers can be used t o blend and s o f t e n lines, o r t o r e m o v e altogether. Fixative them prevents
GRAPHITE AND ERASERS
s m u d g i n g a n d s e c u r e s lines.
Using fixative You can use fixative while drawing to hold the definition of lines you wish to gently fade but not remove entirely, for which you would use an eraser.
11. P L A S T I C E R A S E R : Avoid cheap colored erasers that may stain drawings with grease and dye. White brands are available in soft and hard versions.
P U T T Y RUBBER:
W a r m it in your hand before use. It is excellent for removing powdery materials, and for making crisp sweeps of light across a delicate pencil drawing
13. D I F F U S E R : Helleborus corsicus (Corsican hellebore) fixative, or to spray mists of ink.
PLANTS AND GARDENS
Cropping and Composition
M A N Y STUDENTS WILL START a d r a w i n g i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e
that its skin nearly touches the boundary. The meaning of the same drawing changes simply by its relationship to the space it occupies. The size of any subject, its placement on the page, the size of the page, and its overall proportion are all discrete and essential aspects of successful picture-making. Before you begin to draw, think carefully about where to place your subject. Are you are happy with your paper? If not, change it; add more, take some away, or turn it around. Do not just accept what you are given, adapt it to what you need.
paper. Focused on the shape and detail of their subject, they remain happily unaware that there is, or should be, any relationship between what they are drawing and the surface they are drawing it on. The paper is only paper, and the troublesome subject floats somewhere in the expanse of it. However, a single fig drawn in the middle of a large, empty square of paper gives quite a different impression from the same fig drawn on such an intimately small square
CHOOSING A VIEW
A Single Fig
"The size, shape, and orientation of the paper are so integral to the composition that they determine the impact and meaning of the drawing."
its illumination. and lines describing shadows cast by the fruit . the uppermost edge of the drawing.O u r focus is on the white cloth supporting the figs. its stem and shadow framing a white center. Here the left fig is attached to. they establish a tension and unity with the paper. bottom-left t o top-right. This drawing hasbeencropped to emphasize space between thefruit. The angle of the fruit together with dark shadow (top left) and bright light(bottom right) suggest a diagonal division across the whole drawing. and therefore apparently suspended from. t h e n m o v e t h e c a r d t o e x p l o r e different views. a device to help you decide what t o draw. as also shown here. CROPPING AND COMPOSITION Off-center and diagonal Here I held my viewfinder so the fig appeared upper-left in the space. Touching the edge When the subject o f a drawing touches one edge of the paper it attaches t o it visually. spaces between things are as important as the things themselves. U s e it as a starting point. Space as the subject Inallpictures. When subjects touch two or more edges. running corner t o corner. A card with a small rectangle cut out o f it makes a useful viewfinder C l o s e o n e e y e t o look through the hole.57 THE VIEWFINDER T h e s e pencil drawings o f figs d e m o n s t r a t e different crops and compositions.
their subject and composition will become more real. WHERE TO START Arrange your plant and paper so you can look back and forth by barely moving your head. then added a second shape. but if the artist does. But how often do we look at the air between things. fourth. unified. Unfamiliar shapes of negative space reveal the real shape of a positive subject. which is shown in the three steps below. an eraser. The drawing opposite is of the uppermost leaves of a potted fig tree. a sharp H B pencil. and so on. and a fresh page in your drawing book. third. tone. not leaves. do we see myriad distinct and unique shapes of daylight or do we just see branches? Why as artists should we look at the air? Every space in a picture has a shape.58 PLANTS AND GARDENS Negative Space UNCONSCIOUSLY WE ASSESS spatial relationships all the time to guide ourselves through the world. Remember that plants do move! Therefore it is best to complete your drawing in one sitting if possible. and a role to play. remember to draw only space. and engaging. this ensures a consistent view.The box opposite isolates an area. erasing and adjusting lines until itlooked right. you will need a similar large-leaved plant. dynamic. shapes of air cut out and defined by the physicality of our environment? When we look into the branches of a tree. It is an astonishingly simple device that many artists use and I strongly recommend. In your own version. Viewers appreciating a finished image may not see shapes of space. Negative space is the simple key to getting positive shape right. Draw a complete shape Map outward from the center Erase and adjust lines until correct . It helps to start at the center and map outward. position. In following this class. Follow these from left to right and see how I began with one complete shape between two parts of a leaf. Looking at negative space overrides the problem of drawing what you know. rather than what you see in front of you. a foundation stone in picture-making.
Here I drew only spaces, adding one to another until the leaves were revealed. Besides looking at negative space, there are two other useful things to do when a drawing feels wrong but you cannot see why: look at it in a mirror or turn it upside down. errors and suggest changes.
Spaces between leaves
Either view will
WALKING IN THE ALPUJARRAS in A n d a l u c i a ,
Spain, I drew a bare fig tree clinging to the wall of an almond grove; a perfect subject for seeing negative space. I marked its essential frame of large branches first, frequently erasing lines and changing my mind until the balance felt right.
S a l v i a , RIBES, CLEMATIS, Allium, Passiflora, and Acanthus
drawn with an H pencil by observing the
negative spaces between the stems, petals, and leaves. I arranged the flowers on a sheet of paper in a cool r o o m and rapidly sketched a composition. Then I put them in water, taking the stems out one at a time to draw.
If an artist changes the pace of their line and focus of their attention. our eyes travel and adjust from one point of focus to another. they emulate our experience of seeing. . Excessive detail leaves no space for the eye to rest or imagination to wander. interfolding points of detail with areas of loose suggestion. Compare changes of pace and focus here to the flatter finish of Summer Flowers (see pp. 62-63). gathering less distinct information on the way.Acanthus Spinosus As we LOOK AROUND. We never see everything at once.
It was the mathematicians. architects. and in the 19th century it was given the name the Golden Section. Yet the pursuit of divine proportion and harmony remains. Besides sketches of first thoughts and polished drawings of the finished look for clients. philosophers. to help them create new form. architects and designers can imaginatively "climb inside" three-dimensional space and. was preserved into the Renaissance where it became a foundation stone for thinking and creativity From 15thcentury Italy. with gray and brown watercolor wash. we find the most recent steps in the evolution of graphic language. time. Since the first flowering of Modernism in the early 20th century. space. This harmony. and writers have been breaking away from traditional forms of representation to seek new expressions of shape. drawing plans around themselves within a program as opposed to on a flat sheet of paper. Since Picasso and Braque's revolution of Cubism in around 1907.The church is still in use today. to 20th-century film fantasy. Linear perspective is a marvelous device. and computer game imaging.This is a pencil drawing. It was also during the Renaissance that the architect Brunelleschi invented linear perspective. European conventions of pictorial perspective have lost their monopoly on seeing. from political commentary to musical abstraction. each VICTOR BALTARD . designers. fine artists. they also have a diagrammatic language for communicating plans to builders. Through the animation of the screen. the formula for perfection spread through Europe. the device that has since governed most of our picture-making (sec pp. they have the Golden Section. Perhaps in the sheer planes of some of our greatest modern buildings it is finding its clearest expression. invaluable to understand and apply when you choose. At the core of their practice. and from West Facade of the Church of St Augustin. Computer programs allow the virtual drawing of ideas. and sound.Architecture I N THE CONTEMPORARY PRACTICES of architecture. mass. and architects of ancient Greece who first pursued the formula for "divine proportion. Architects have been fine-tuning their specialized branch of drawing for centuries. filmmakers. coupled with the importance of exercizing your imagination. balance. composers. VICTOR BALTARD French architect employed by the city of Paris. It is the focus of practical class in this chapter. which was the first church in the capital to be built entirely of metal and then clad in stone." reflecting the eye's love of unity in difference. Augustin. Among the drawings of this chapter we look from 17th-century ecclesiastical calm. of the west facade of St Augustin. which can be clearly seen in ancient Greek architecture. once there. Baltard designed the Church of St. 74-75). made by the architect himself. film-set design. Paris 1871-74 the child's view to the infinity of the vanishing point. add and subtract ideas.
and six London churches. and balance. Cut-away interior On the right a section cut through the center of the building reveals material thicknesses. testing gravity to calculate the inverted shapes of domes. embodying a massive investment of ideas. and the shapes of interior domes and apses. St Paul's Baptistry c. pilasters. structure. Architects draw for many reasons: to visualize ideas. Hampton Court Palace. and labor. Hawksmoor established his reputation with university and church architecture including All Souls College. A student of Wren's. Together they explain how interior structure and space define exterior form and shape. and Castle Howard. evoke presence. marks the end of a long journey from the first few marks the architect made on a sheet of paper. Blenheim Palace. and later an assistant to Vanbrugh. Lines define structure while washes suggest light and atmosphere.68 ARCHITECTURE Master Builders EVERY NEW BUILDING. densely layered lines in mists of color weave the presence of the expected building into shape. 1711-12 NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR . Hawksmoor's drawing is both a plan and an evocation. and an inscribed entablature. The photograph opposite shows his studio hung with metal pendulums. We see the modeled detail of Corinthian columns. Finished surface On the left the finished surface of the building is given depth and emphasis by immaculate vertical and horizontal brush strokes of shadow. Pillars and floor At the base of the drawing a compass-drawn plan tilted downward through 90 degrees illustrates the arrangement of pillars around a central circular floor. NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR One of Britain's "three great" Baroque architects (along with Sir Christopher Wren and Sir John Vanbrugh). describe a finished look to a client. Gaudi's fluid architecture grew up through many kinds of drawing. Three aspects This subtle and sophisticated drawing made in pen and wash displays three distinct aspects of Hawksmoor's baptistry. and ultimately to show builders what to do. relative levels. a three-dimensional drawing made with wires and weights. Drawings underpin every great human-made structure like hidden linear ghosts at their core. calculate function. Oxford. Below it. he also worked on St Paul's Cathedral. materials.
Gaudi air than on paper. Gaudi's cathedral in Barcelona. Guell Crypt of its at the Time Construction c. The Art Nouveau movement. This sculptural drawingenvisionsthe finished crypt glowingandethereal as if caught in thelightof red morning sun.69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt c. 1900 ANTONIO GAUDI ANTONIO GAUDI Visionary Catalan architect. unique organic manipulation of high shapes. and apartment homes are distinguished by their Their and Flowering curves of stone or concrete are often encrusted with Gaudi was inspired by medieval and oriental art. Wire and watercolor three-dimensional preferred to calculate Above is a drawing form in the made withlinkedwires and weights. light. churches. and his love of music. 1910 24x181/4( 6 1 0 x 4 7 5mm) A N T O N I O GAUDI . To the right isawatercolordrawing thought to havebeenmade over a photograph ofthemodelabove. embellishment.
There has always DANIEL LIBESKIND A Polish American architect of international acclaim. while the composer Erik Satie has made an enclosure of quiet order and grace. and arched dotted lines depict the radius of doors. been a natural affinity between the visual rhythms of pictures and the audible rhythms of music. p. We can imagine how a musician might interpret this drawing by looking at the abstract visual rhythms of masses composed of long straight poles. short curved poles. The architect and musician Daniel Libeskind has drawn a stampeding cacophany of airborne architectural detail. theater sets. We can see.223). corridors. and the spaces between his windows and turrets are the visual equivalent of pauses in h i s m u s i c c o m p o s i t i o n s for p i a n o (see also Bussotti. and rooms. Across the top and center right of the image w e perceive an almost recognizable architectural plan. Floor plan This drawing has been made with a rapidograph. and in a sense hear. Libeskind's numerous commissions include concert halls and museums. such a rapport in both of these drawings. a refillable pen that feeds a constant supply of ink through a fine tubular nib. before cascading into a riot of line and sound below. Libeskind studied music before transferring to architecture. flat boards. Floor space appears divided by discernible walls. and exhibitions of his drawings. He also produces urban and landscape designs. Contemporary musicians commonly collaborate with artists by interpreting images as sound. Both men used rulers and pens to carefully and slowly construct their compositions. and dotted lines. Visual rhythms In the lower half of this drawing architectural language has broken loose: escaped and transformed into an image of rebellious pleasure. Arctic Flowers 1980 DANIEL LIBESKIND . Satie draws quietly throughout. upright pictorial space.70 ARCHITECTURE The Order of Sound B O T H OF THESE VISIONARY DRAWINGS o c c u p y a s l e n d e r . He also contributed to plans for the rebuilding of the World Trade Center site in New York. Libeskind begins quietly in the upper space of his drawing. installations.
H i s witty. 1 8 9 3 77/8 x 51/2 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 4 0 mm) ERIK SATIE . a n d ballet. Compare the even and and the shape wall to the elegantly stylized order of the many windows of arrangement of details and the shape of the wall in Babur's Garden of Fidelity on p.ERIK SATIE F r e n c h pianist and c o m p o s e r for t h e piano. and ink on a fragment folded brown paper—a of everyday happened material of scrap that to be at hand. a conventional dip or fountain pen. theater.56—57 we discussed important the shape. o f which he was the sole m e m b e r Parcel paper Satie has drawn this fantasy hotel using a ruler.50. andfouredges of the paper tothecompositionand impact animage. Hotel de la Suzonnieres c. dressed eccentrically. Satie collaborated w i t h hisfriends J e a n C o c t e a u a n d P i c a s s o . lived a l o n e . effectively additional lines in a work.Edges are how are of orientation. Onpp. the perimeter Composition Look how well this drawingfitsand resonates with the upright. minimalist s c o r e s scandalized a u d i e n c e s with o r c h e s t r a t i o n s f o r t h e foghorn and typewriter. They definespaceand pictorial balance.narrowshape of its paper. and founded his o w n church. Eastern influence The upright image Eastern is reminiscent and medieval of Middle pictorial space and subject of this European drawing. H e p e r f o r m e d in cabarets.
This shift makes the cenotaph appear three-dimensional.The lower-left section of the building appears relatively pale against a darker sky. arched vaults. antlike mortals might have speculated upon the universe. we find other Utopian visions Paul Nobles epic drawing summons an imperfect and disturbing township where ruin and activity are equal and strange. and draftsman. enter the long-shadowed architecture of imaginary worlds. Among preparations for Fritz Langs film Metropolis. Light illusions This pen-and-wash drawing shows a subtle application of the principles of illumination demonstrated with an egg on p. Art director Erich Kettlehut's vertiginous design for the city of a slavelike populace had a future influence on movies such as Blade Runner. This is the work of an architectural theoretician. cylinders.72 ARCHITECTURE T H E S E T H R E E HIGHLY DETAILED DRAWINGS Future Fictions invite us to soaring above normal life. spheres. made in 1926. Newton's Cenotaph 1784 153/4 x 25 in ( 4 0 2 x 635 m m ) ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE . the ominous globe exists only as a series of drawings. ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE French architectural theorist.96. and the reverse is true on the right. painter. Boullee lived in Paris. experiencing a fascinating conflict between curiosity and desolation. We glide over exquisitely drawn wastelands of damage and abandonment. and dramatic lighting. Boullee's monolithic apparition was drawn as a monument to Sir Isaac Newton. and taught at t h e A c a d e m i e d'Architecture. Within it. His celebrated imaginary buildings are characterized by pyramids.
and white ink on brown-gray paper.Building shapes are works can be read as text. intensely detailed graphite drawings explaining and questioning t h e geography. Fritz Lang's Metropolis c. gray. architecture. draftsman. Its sheerscaleengulfs the viewer and demands based time and patience to on letters and in some beread.73 ERICH KETTLEHUT Influential film a r t director. Kettlehut drew using a fine and relatively dry brush dipped in black. and are Graphite shapes Nobson Central isoneof a series of very large graphite drawings of the spoil and detritus of Nobson Newtown. mythology. and m o d e l . together with c i n e m a t o g r a p h e r Karl Freund. FUTURE FICTIONS Brush and ink This is a dramatic drawing from a film that shaped the history of world cinema. Working on toned paper such as this gives an artist greater scope for dramatic lighting effects than if they work on white paper. Nobson Central 9 ft 1 0 in x 1 3 f t 2 in (3 x 4 m ) PAUL N O B L E 1998-99 . used forced perspective camera t e c h n i q u e s t o amplify t h e m a g n i t u d e o f buildings in relation t o human characters. Nobson political visions of humanity Newtown. and morality o f an invented place called His satires exhibited w o r l d w i d e .a r t director O t t o Hunte. 1926 ERICH KETTLEHUT PAUL N O B L E British c o n t e m p o r a r y artist who creates m o n u m e n t a l . Kettlehut and his c o .m a k e r In t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f Metropolis.
observations. scientists. It is also distinguished from aerial perspective (see pp. and inventions— essential reading for inquiring minds. Note how architectural features conform to lines and how human figures diminish in size toward thevanishingpoint. found at the center of all converging lines. We use it to structure illusions of depth. Here Leonardo provides a superb example of a single vanishing point. Sometimes shared with Naive artists. but is most easily seen and understood in pictures of buildings and interiors. and thinkers ever to have lived. inventors. Single-point perspective Tie a thread to a pin. LEONARDO DA VINCI One of the greatest artists. and those of Naive artists and children. 206-07). It can be applied to any subject. Leonardo recorded constant streams of ideas. linear perspective is distinct from more ancient systems practiced in the East. In his notebooks. Piranesi an example of two. I contribute the child's perspective. All forms of perspective are of equal value. See how the thread corresponds to each converging line.74 ARCHITECTURE Pathways of Sight LINEAR PERSPECTIVE (also called vanishing-point perspective) is a simple device for calculating the relative size of things in pictorial space. and age eight. Study of Perspective Adoration of the for the Magi 1481 61/2 x111/2in (165 x 290 mm) LEONARDO DA VINCI . Pull the thread taut and rotate it slowly above the drawing. Invented by Italian artist and architect Brunelleschi in 1413 (late in the history of art). Press the pin into Leonardo's vanishing point. this perspective is often an imagined bird's-eye view in which details are mapped according to logic and importance rather than how they might appear in real life.
SARAH SIMBLET I made this drawing (at age 8) in response to a local bookstore's request for children to draw their village. New Forest. including all they recall about the subject. issues of scale when making room for important their story. It shows how children usually map large scenes in flat layers one above the other. Mark these points with your pin and follow the converging lines of the drawing by rotating your thread. Lightly marked illuminates vanishing Two Courtyards c. 1740 5 1 / 2 x 83/8 in (141 x 212 mm) G I O V A N N I B A T T I S T A PIRANESI points are located on either side of the drawing. at the top of each lateral column base. Note the rather large rabbits and pheasants the hills. England 1980 9 x 16 in (228 x 405 mm) S A R A H SIMBLET GIOVANNI BATTISTA PIRANESI Italian artist. and theoretical writing strongly influenced neoclassicism. which I saw from home every day. and designer Piranesi's prolific architectural drawings. Two-point perspective Sunlight through this colonnade a great example of two-point perspective. architect. visionary and practical understanding of ancient Rome. Scale Our farmhouse my experience was in the woods. This drawing Young children typically maps ignore on and understanding of the nearby village. Children are uninhibited and problems with one element being obscured by another rarely arise. Breamore Village. . a points in logical narrative of memories.
Erase the dotted construction lines. try composing your own space. draw a horizon line across your paper Mark a spot on the horizon line. you will amplify the illusion of distance.76 ARCHITECTURE Single-Point Perspective MASTERING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE i s e a s i e r t h a n y o u m a y First read through. Study these pages first before embarking on this lesson. this is your vanishing point. Draw four dotted lines radiating out from the vanishing point. This lesson shows you how to make a simple illusion of space defined by two boxes and three flat boards. This ensures that the second rectangle aligns with the shape and 4 Draw four short lines to connect the four corners of the two rectangles. 2 3 corners must each touch a dotted line. Next. This is where we will begin. Each line should pass through one corner of the rectangle. imagine. using a sharp HB pencil and ruler. Draw each step over the preceding one to build up a single image. Note that if you place large structures in the foreground and smaller ones closer to your vanishing point. DRAWING BOXES 1 Using a ruler and a sharp HB pencil. (See p. You have completed your first box. then follow the ten steps below. discovering the image as it progressed. Surround the vanishing point with a small rectangle. Extend each dotted line to the edge of your drawing. Leonardo began with a grid of many lines within which he invented his scene. On the previous page we looked at its essential mechanism through drawings by Leonardo and Piranesi. corresponding to a single vanishing point. Piranesi planned his drawing with only the essential lines needed.) . In contrast.98 for an important note on oscillation.
The board's sides should be parallel. 7 As in step 3. andfarside of this first board. The larger you make your second rectangle. the closer it will appear to the viewer.asIhavedonehere. . larger rectangle.77 SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE 5 Draw a new rectangle. N e x t draw a slanting line to mark the height of the first flat board. Repeat this to add two more boards to the composition. with two dotted lines. you can place rectangles anywhere youwishin relation to a vanishing point.willhelptomake them appear more solid. bottom. 8 Complete the second box with short lines as in step 4. Continue the dotted lines out toward the edge of your drawing. draw four dotted lines radiating from your vanishing point Pass these through each comer of the new rectangle. The four comers must each touch a dotted line to be sureitaligns with the first. Note that this does not surround the vanishing point In the future. when inventing your own compositions. draw a second. 1 0 Erase all ofthedottedlinestoseeyourfinishedboxes Thickeningtheiredges. Connect this to the vanishing point— again. and erase the dotted lines. 6 As in step 2. 9 Use dotted lines connecting the slanting linetothe vanishing point to locate the top.
It highlights the importance of having faith in your imagination and trusting your ability to invent. it is interaction that makes the work richer." .78 ARCHITECTURE Creating an Imaginary Space T H I S CLASS USES SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE t o c r e a t e a s i m p l e to you and if you listen to it. The m i s t a k e n belief that we s h o u l d k n o w exactly what o u r finished drawings will l o o k like before we m a k e t h e m prevents many people from ever starting. If using a fibertip pen as I have done for this drawing." imaginary room. artist and film director. then let the space suggest its c o n t e n t s and purpose. you will find white adhesive stationery labels are useful for covering errors or changing the direction of your idea. O n a fresh page in your d r a w i n g b o o k . let simple lines suggest a simple space. it will take you places you never dreamed of. draw a b o x as shown opposite. Linear perspective will support y o u by providing a frame in which to b u i l d your picture as it did for Leonardo. As David Lynch. p . Every work talks In this class. w h e t h e r it is a film or a painting. APPLYING PERSPECTIVE An Imagined Scaffold "Enjoy your illusion as you make it and it will become more real. 7 4 ) . once said: "I never end up with what I set out to do. A lot more happens when you open yourself up to the work and let yourself act and react to it. I always start with a script but I don't follow it all the way through to the end. Then follow the three given steps.
Here. The space has become more solid and real. 3 Remove the construction lines with an eraser and the room will becomeclearer. and leaning surfaces. you will beableto draw more complex objects orpeoplewithin them.79 DRAWING A SIMPLE ROOM Essentials t o remember: objects and people dimmish in size as they move farther away. CREATING AN IMAGINARY SPACE 1First. horizontal. parallel planes such as walls converge toward the vanishing point.drawthehorizonlineand vanishingpoint. and floors and ceilings also converge and rise o r lower toward the horizon. additional lines have established the different surfaces and how they relate to each other.Addanarray of converging lines to provide a "scaffold" for vertical. With some practice. . This initial space will be transparent and open to change.There is great pleasure tobefoundin spending time inventing interiors. 2 first before adding furniture.
do verticals appear inclined. These elaborations could continue indefinitely across a sheet of paper in pursuit of complex and intricate ideas. From our normal eye level. That is where we e to find them. a n d this is how we have drawn them so far (see pp. they can be placed anywhere inspaceto describe the perspective of flyi c tilted objects. Elaborations .p o i n t perspective ( s h o w n opposite top). Copying what you see in the work of others will help you to understand what they have done. Potentially. It is important to realize that you can have as many vanishing points as you wish. or low and we look u p . located anywhere inside or outside the pictorial space. our eye level is very high and we look down. To draw such a view APPLICATION Copy these drawings to see and feel how they work before inventing your own versions. but they are not confined to this level. I have elaborated on the simple boxes above. They could be drawn on any scale from miniature to monumental. Further aspects of three-point perspective are also illustrated opposite. verticals appear p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the g r o u n d . Only when y o u might employ t h r e e . T h e y d o n o t have to relate to each other. showing y o u h o w to draw curved surfaces and a tiled floor.80 ARCHITECTURE Further Aspects of Perspective W E ARE ACCUSTOMED TO SEEING our e n v i r o n m e n t from a relatively constant point of view. T h i n k of standing at the top of a skyscraper and imagine h o w its parallel sides would appear to converge below you. T h i s is d e m o n s t r a t e d immediately below. 76-79). Here. Search for the application of these perspectives among works by other artists in this book and in galleries. o r to the h o r i z o n . Vanishing points are commonly found on horizon—our eye level. Free vanishing points On paper we can enjoy the freedom of fantastic structural invention without limitations of solid materials or gravity. The boxes drawn here are seen partly or entirely disassociated from a horizon line drawn across the bottom of the image.
I marked the toplinewith three evenly spaced points and the line with seven. by adding a third point you can achieve a sense of incline. they mark the corners of the floor tiles.Finally.) By comparing this drawing t o Piranesi's example of two-point perspective on p. Note that altering the distance between the three dots above will tilt the level of the floor .81 FURTHER ASPECTS OF Three-point towers This drawing depicts three-point perspective. tostraightlines can amplify drama in a picture. Where thelinescross.I added horizontal lines t o define the tiles. Iusedthese lines as a guide t o draw the curvature of boxes and panels flying through space. (Turn the book around to see a view looking up. useful for representing steep views looking up or down tall structures.Istarted with two parallel lines. and therefore tension. Giving curvature.75. I then drew three fanned groups of lines connecting each of the three points above to the seven points below. Three-point checkered floor This d bottom floor. An array of curved lines (drawn freehand) link the two lateral points. PERSPECTIVE Three-point curves Here. three vanishing points are evenly spaced along a horizon line. you will see how.
I visited many anatomical theaters and museums. . making drawings to resolve questions and express personal responses to the nature and history of anatomy.Theaters RESEARCHING FOR MY P H D . These walnut-skin ink pen and brush drawings show imagined views of theaters that do not exist but were inspired by places I studied.
A N D . . the water. The vanishing of the drawing is directly opposite as we look across The constancy of the bridge and surrounding frames the movement in the life that flows past.I N KDRAWING is one of a series I made while next to the Rialto Bridge in Venice.Venetian Life sitting point buildings ThisP E N .
1493 117/8c81/4in (300 x 210 m m ) LEONARDO D A V I N Ccreating I . texture. T h e Industrial Revolution c h a n g e d the traditional w a y s in w h i c h objects were designed.Objects and Instruments T HE THINGS WE INVENT describe our lives. passing them on to others through the act of making. even more advanced drawings are made on computers. or drawing w e see Leonardo daVinci'sprecision as can be given meaning. Engineers and designers of our objects and instruments make drawings for many reasons: to test an idea that is yet to be made. C o m m o n items. drawing c. making a clear instruction t o his bronzemeaning. It was in this era that the blueprint was born. Today. W e also explore v o l u m e and form in the classes by spinning lines to make vessels. drawn. for example. craftsmen had held plans in their memory. and the way in w h i c h the brain reacts Head and Neck Sections of Female Mold for the Sforza Horse to visual stimulus and optical illusions. T h e precision of engineering d r a w i n g s e v o l v e d alongside machine tools. Previously. each demanding more of the other as they increased in sophistication. too. In past eras. With the sudden onset of mass production. but humans LEONARDO DA VINCI Inthisbeautiful red chalk Our items all have a purpose—practical or ornamental—and all have a meaning. and a wire violin. and made. for example—whether. r an equestrian statue. H e has described contour and function at drawings. Artists also make images of objects that can never exist. Technical drawing was speedily developed as a meticulous international code of m e a s u r e m e n t and explanation. and some apes use simple tools. drawings were needed to instruct workers on the factory floor. planned. fictional realities caster of h o w t o make it andhowit will w o r k . History will be learned from the artifacts w e leave behind. we look at the importance are the only creatures on Earth w h o actually design and create great ranges of things. color. design. have often carried great weights of allegorical once. hooked bars that can be pulled and tied closely form. It is shaped in sections w i t h Artists have for centuries studied and expressed composition. from s p o o n s and pens to chairs and bicycles. H e has described a casting through metaphor. these. or to explain and present a finished concept to a client. A chair. that test our logic with a sense of mystery. Artists and actors use the meanings of things to communicate a speculative mechanic. sculpted. illuminating snail shells. of light in the creation of pictorial illusions. and the behavior of light through making still-life paintings and together. to record an observed detail. In this chapter. Birds follow instinct to make a nest. are all made bearing the signature of our time and place. or used on stage hood for a mold t o make theheado f a horse f oas a p r o p — i m b u e d with e n o u g h energy or character can "become" a man.
steaming with music and conversation. His work is characterized by calm and harmonious still-life compositions. texture. Clashes The art historian Ernst Gombrich said of Cubism. T h i s is a designers drawing made to enthuse surface and style in its delicate brushing of china. a colored canvas. . not of place but of things. and glass objects of exquisite elegance for only the gentlest of touch and appreciation. still feel this projected moment.. and a journal jacket with words makes this drawing chatter about the moment.Braque marshals all the forces of perspective. Braques image is a Cubist collage. but to clash in virtual deadlock. One of the great joys of this movement in art is the musicality of its multipoint view. perfect i n their newly made availability. and shading. Braques "justly" arranged combination of cut black card. Below.90 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS Still Life THESE DRAWINGS REVEAL t w o o p p o s i t e m o t i v a t i o n s i n we can. There is a fragile eloquence to these objects as they drift in slow motion past our gaze. not to work in harmony. representing still life. Braque established Cubism in partnership with Picasso just before World War I. wood-look wallpaper. Even today GEORGES BRAQUE French painter who as a young man was influenced by the work of the Fauves and of Cezanne.73 x 1 m) GEORGES BRAQUE . Opposite. silverware. charcoal. Statue D'Epouvante 1913 2 f t 5 in x 3 ft 5 in (0. Mucha's drawing glistens with possession." La Cuitare. "I believe [it] is the most radicalattempttostampout ambiguity and to enforce one readingofthepicture—that of a manmade construction. He takes us into the bustle of the Paris cafe..
flowers.ALPHONSE MUCHA Czech graphic artist and painter who worked in Prague. Study for Plate 59 from "Documents Decoratifs" 17x121/4(430 x 310 mm) ALPHONSE MUCHA 1902 . and also stamps and bank notes. and New York. Pans. Art Nouveau motifs This is a preliminary study for a subsequent print. The three plates facing us were drawn with a compass. He designed the Austrian pavilion for the Paris World Fair in 1900. and fish have been outlined using a sharp pencil.fruit. Black watercolor washes and lines of white gouache have been added with a fine brush. Art Nouveau curling motifs of birds. For ten years Mucha designed theater posters exclusively for the actress Sarah Bernhardt. Look at the two spoons at toprightand see how has suggested that they are so brilliantly shiny they reflect the background color. Background color Between the delicate shadows and highlights of these glazed and surfaces ofthebackground metal color of the Mucha we see a large amount paper. Chicago. He is best known for posters featuring ethereal women in typical Art Nouveau style.
drawing is there to pin the moment down. into the eyepiece. a tree outside. Look how confidently he draws with ink the sphere of this wooden globe by which his telescope rotates. Newton used this instrument to calculate the speed required to escape earth's gravity.92 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS by their very nature must gauge or chronicle precision. offering a transparent view. It is a diagrammatic explanation of how to catch and magnify a star in a mirrored tube. With dotted lines Newton has drawn his arrangement of elements inside the tube. and philosopher Newton was President of the Royal Society. Newton's drawing of his first reflecting telescope is ISAAC N E W T O N English scientist. The power of this drawing reflects the pure passion of discovery. 0 0 0 perfect hemispheres. He counted 1 4 . and his hand moving across the light. via a second mirror. each reflecting a view of his own world—his window. A disembodied eye at the top of the drawing indicates where to look. In the graphic work of these two great men of science. Hooke's head of a drone fly seen through a microscope may represent the first time man and insect came face to face. Their delicate construction is only as valuable as the measurements they make. and the nature o f light and color. shape the very cause and effect of investigatory thought. mathematician. alchemist. Newton's 1672 ISAAC Telescope NEWTON . each one skillfully rendered with the alarmingly matter-of-fact ease of explaining the commonplace. and Fellow of the University o f C a m b r i d g e . w h e r e he developed his three greatest theories: the law o f motion. the law o f gravity. From the concept of capturing the infinite to the mapping of microscopic sight. It was then reflected up inside the tube and. astronomer. Ink lines Several drawings appear among Newton's letters. Transparent view Newton's reflecting telescope focused light in a parabolic mirror. we see drawing Instruments of Vision found among his letters.
and calculated the theory of combustion. It is an exhilarating read. Hooke invented the camera diaphragm. a breathtaking book containing many of his drawings showing some of the first microscopic and telescopic magnifications of our environment Hooke's text and illustrations carry us to the moment of discovery. universal joint a prototype respirator clock balance. 1665). and anchor escarpment. The Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 1665 ROBERT HOOKE 111/2 x 105/8 in (294 x 270 mm) . ROBERT H O O K E 93 Magnifications This acutely detailed engraved drawing is taken from Hooke's Micrographia (pub.An experimental scientist who drew many of his discoveries.
its character. has published several catalogs of her work. Woodfine exhibits internationally. Its wobbly gait and squashed s y m m e t r y m u m b l e endless h o m e y tales about the life it has seen. OBJECTS AND SARAH WOODFINE British contemporary artist graduate of the Royal Academy Schools. Two-dimensional was made This highly finished drawing ruler using a sharp pencil and on smooth white drawing paper glistening dark drawings are artificial representations of known Woodfine's two-dimensional things balanced in the world. and has drawings in numerous public and private collections. and w h e r e the chair b e l o n g s . Sarah Woodfines flat cut-out m o d e l plan is a witty and surprising drawing. each drawn with the s a m e unfaltering lines and tones that are between reality and impossibility. craft.94 INSTRUMENTS W H E N WE DRAW A COMMON OBJECT like a chair. Drawn in more-or-less c o n v e n t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . it has so m u c h familiar personality that it seems to talk to us. while the tabs make us see a flat paper cut-out. Chair Cut Out 2002 22'A x 23 in (565 x 585 mm) SARAH WOODFINE . W i t h h o m e y c o n t r a s t . Van Gogh's tipsy seat is a metaphor for an absent person. From component parts we understand how to put it together and make it stand sensible in space. A renegade from the p a p e r dolls' h o u s e . this chair p r e s e n t s us with a clever visual contradiction: deeply drawn shadows tell us it must be solid. and winner of the 2004 Jerwood Drawing Prize. and place in the world are truly seen. Bench Marks W e are left a little c o n f u s e d as to what we s h o u l d do.
His passionate brush and pencil strokes are honest and of also turmoil and growing alarm at the world around him.hehas marked the full emotion of the subject with a fierce grip of concentration. Van Chair 1890 VINCENT VAN GOGH . inner recording while Fierce strokes This is a portrait of the mechanical drew immediately and almost harshly. what direct in their he saw and describing his felt. and Starry Cypress Night. Cornfield and Sunflowers. not is made present in only strokes and is subdued to distract us from flat a meaningful chair. drawn opposite way of plan.95 VINCENTVAN GOGH Dutch painter who produced over 800 paintings and 850 drawings in only the last ten year's of his life. Among van Gogh's best-known canvases are Trees. The floor few as engagement with the chair.
and the proximity of contrasting tones. atmosphere.At one point you will catchenoughlight lighter than the white one. o u r b r a i n s search for n a m e a b l e things. The egg's darkest region is seen against a lighter background. a n d m o v e m e n t . Here w e look briefly at our perception of light a n d darkness a n d our interpretation of diagrammatic illusions. your eye around the circumference of the egg. are translated into a world of space. Are you happy LIGHT AND SHADOW with what you see? Does the light enhance the subject? Could you alter and improve it? On pp. Gray squares To further examine changes in tone.96 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Light and Illusions SEEING IS MIRACULOUS. Adjust the angleofthe protruding part and again stepback. We only need small prompts.This effect is caused by the contrast of their surroundings. The outermost edge of our vision. U p s i d e . one blackandone white. Below. transmitted to the brain as chains of electrical impulses. Through these we can enjoy witnessing our o w n d e c e p t i o n a n d b a f f l e m e n t a n d u n d e r s t a n d certain factors that are very useful in picture-making. On acloudyday. The egg's lightest region is seen against a darker background. T h e slightest recognition is instantly matched to our wealth of experience a n d expectation. cards the same size. a n d our ability to see forms in c l o u d s or fire. or colored surface is never constant. Tape them to the glass. We perceive one to be lighter than theother. The small squares are identical in tone. The two tones meet without a division or outline between. From across the room both will appear black card and fold and retapeitwith half sticking out. a n d we can be fooled. perhaps. less developed than the center. the adjustment of our eyes (in growing accustomed to a level of light). Three factors change it: the amount of light it receives. hence our recognition of a cartoon face c o m p o s e d of three lines.d o w n patterns of light on our retinas. Before starting a tonal drawing of any subject. We will even see things that d o not exist because minimal information suggests they are likely to be there. The perceived tone of a black white. two identical mid-gray squares are seen against black and paler gray squares. To interpret visual s t i m u l u s . but do not appear so. form. Run The bottom-left quarter of the egg lightens slightly toward its "edge" when seen against the darker shadow cast on the paper. a n d are q u i c k to p r o p o s e ideas. S o m e o n e passes our o p e n door. w e turn our head but n o one w a s there. Artists emulate and manipulate this effect in their pictures.102-03 deep shadows cast across shells make their form easier to perceive. Below the bottom "edge" of the egg there is a rim of light reflected onto the paper by the underside of the egg. a lit photograph of an egg shows essential points to observe in tonal drawing. think about its illumination. gray. W e learn to read light and shadow in our environment as indicators of solidity and depth of space. The rim of light on the egg is reflected light received from surrounding paper. See how its "edge" smoothly changes from light against dark to dark against light. Here. try this experiment. Card experiment cho can gra on . reads only m o v e m e n t a n d can often m a k e mistakes.
Apparent lengths T h e s e optical illusions s h o w h o w lines o f identical length can b e m a d e t o l o o k quite different f r o m each o t h e r by t h e addition o r association o f o t h e r lines. Bending straight lines Linear distance These t w o jugs have b e e n d r a w n w i t h lines o f d i f f e r i n g thicknesses. LIGHT AND ILLUSIONS Tonal width T h e s e black a n d w h i t e bands are o f equal thickness o n e i t h e r side o f t h e i r central division.p o i n t p e r s p e c t i v e d r a w i n g s w i t h a large n u m b e r o f c o n v e r g i n g rays b e h i n d y o u r horizontals. A n u p r i g h t line stands in t h e c e n t e r o f a h o r i z o n t a l line. b u t t h e u p r i g h t o n e l o o k s t a l l e r (B). T w o relatively t h i c k parallel lines are m a d e t o b e n d away f r o m each o t h e r as t h e y pass in f r o n t o f an a r r a y o f c o n v e r g i n g f i n e lines ( B ) . In a t o n a l d r a w i n g . T h i s fundamental o p p o s i t e is a reason w h y l i n e a r a n d t o n a l d r a w i n g does not a l w a y s c o m b i n e w e l l in t h e s a m e i m a g e . by d i r e c t e d a r r o w s ( A ) . Y o u m a y e x p e r i e n c e s o m e t h i n g similar h a p p e n i n g w h e n y o u m a k e s i n g l e . T h e jug d r a w n w i t h a t h i n line appears f a r t h e r away t h a n t h e j u g d r a w n w i t h a t h i c k e r line. S h o r t h o r i z o n t a l lines o f identical length are m a d e t o l o o k d i f f e r e n t by c o n v e r g i n g lines beside t h e m ( C ) . . t h i c k e r l i n e s a p p e a r t o stand forward. l i g h t e r surfaces s t a n d f o r w a r d w h i l e d a r k e r s u r f a c e s recede. In this linear drawing w e read t h i c k as closer a n d t h i n as f a r t h e r away. respectively. B o t h are identical in length. w h i l e t h i n n e r lines recede. O f t e ndoingso w i l l s p o i l y o u r w o r k . If y o u w i s h t o m a k e a t o n a l drawing. T h e r e is n o obligation t o a d d b l o c k s o f t o n e t o a l i n e a r d r a w i n g . start o u t w i t h one. T w o horizontal lines o f equal length are m a d e t o l o o k longer and shorter. In this t o n a l image w e read w h i t e as f a t t e r t h a n black.97 LINE VERSUS TONE In l i n e a r d r a w i n g s . O b s e r v e h o w each white b a n d appears t h i c k e r t h a n its black c o u n t e r p a r t . Seven parallel lines are m a d e t o tilt t o w a r d and away f r o m each o t h e r by n u m e r o u s s h o r t strokes crossing t h e m diagonally ( A ) .
116-17) to make painted figures look correct when viewed from below. and so calculated precisely how much to fatten columns to make them appear straight. o r as a s l o p i n g . are still not agreeably understood. Op(tical) artists. It is possible t o r e a d i t t w o ways: as a t r u n c a t e d r e c t a n g u l a r p y r a m i d seen d i r e c t l y f r o m a b o v e . as s h o w n o n t h e right. perfected the acceleration of perspective (see pp. Michelangelo. w h e n drawing the outline o f a three-dimensional form." . it oscillates between t w o possibilities. it can oscillate b e t w e e n facing t o w a r d o r a w a y f r o m us. Ancient Greek architects knew parallel upright lines appeared to bend toward each other in the middle. including some shown here. their picture could be ambiguous. such as Bridget Riley.76. made paintings that depended upon the physical sensation of our brain's reaction to known optical illusions. others adjust works to avoid their effects. Artists can communicate much in few lines and the viewer will do the rest of the work. Artists make pictorial illusions when they paint or draw. w e can only look f r o m one t o the o t h e r If an artist is not aware this can happen in their image. and we learn to read the styles of diverse cultures and periods.98 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Further Illusions PSYCHOLOGISTS AND PHYSIOLOGISTS have studied optical illusions for decades in pursuit of what they tell us about the brain. C l o s i n g t h e surface o f t h e f o r m seals o u r d e c i s i o n as t o w h i c h w a y it faces. among others. Today we are bombarded with images but rarely have difficulty reading them. w e will find that in terms of the direction it faces. In the 1960's. It is a curious fact that w e can never see both options at once. Yet many illusions. Two ways of seeing T h i s is t h e b o x c r e a t e d in t h e f o u r t h step o n p. SEEING TWO OPTIONS Sometimes.s i d e d r e c t a n g u l a r t r a y ( b o t h are illustrated far r i g h t ) "The brain is so eager to name a fragment we see that we need only a suggestion to grasp the whole. A few suggestive marks will tip the decision one way o r the o t h e r Closing the surface W h e n a t r a n s p a r e n t elliptical o b j e c t has b e e n d r a w n . such as t h e dish seen h e r e o n t h e left. Some artists use known optical illusions to make art.
e t c . M u c h can b e e x p r e s s e d in o n l y a f e w marks. T h e a r t i s t M. His highly d i s p u t e d and i m p r e c i s e science involves s h o w i n g u n p r e p a r e d p a t i e n t s t e n p a r t i c u l a r ink b l o t s a n d asking t h e m t o i n t e r p r e t w h a t t h e y see. FURTHER ILLUSIONS Seeing things that are n o t t h e r e H e r e o n t h e left.c e n t u r y Swiss psychologist H e r m a n n Rorschach. . W e should r e m e m b e r t h a t o u r brains will always search f o r a p i c t u r e — i n ink blots. F a m i l i a r i t y in r a n d o m s h a p e s T h e Rorschach test was established by t h e 1 9 t h . S o m e artists use ink blots t o p r o m p t t h e beginning o f an image. This effect can o c c u r naturally w h e n looking at a b r i g h t l y lit w h i t e g r i d such as a w i n d o w f r a m e against t h e night sky. b u t w e believe w e see t h e m because e n o u g h f r a g m e n t a r y i n f o r m a t i o n is given f o r o u r brains t o c o n c l u d e t h e y are v e r y likely t h e r e . T h e t e s t e x p l o r e s o u r n o r m a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o find things w e can n a m e a m o n g r a n d o m shapes. O n l y o n closer inspection we realize that t h e s e o b j e c t s are fooling us. T h e s e e x a m p l e s illustrate h o w little is n e e d e d t o c o n v e y an image. Minimal-line j o k e s such as this rely u p o n t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y v i e w e r ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e shapes. T h e patient's answers are t h e n diagnosed as a psychological profile. P e r c e i v i n g a w h o l e i m a g e f r o m m i n i m a l lines T h i s is a w i d e l y r e p r o d u c e d visual j o k e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e C a r r a c c i b r o t h e r s . Yet still w e try resolve t h e m . C o u p l e d w i t h t h e Rorschach b l o t above. — a n d so t h e artist can create m u c h o u t o f an impression w i t h o u t overdescribing. C Escher u s e d this phenomenon t o great effect in his many p o p u l a r d r a w i n g s o f puzzles and impossible buildings. N e i t h e r triangle exists.c e n t u r y Italian painters. w e see t w o overlapping triangles: o n e outlined in black b e n e a t h a n o t h e r in solid w h i t e . B e l o w is a b r i g h t n e s s c o n t r a s t illusion. This simple five-line d r a w i n g is o f a C a p u c h i n priest asleep in his pulpit.99 Impossible objects T h e s e clever configurations o f outlines and t o n a l surfaces convince us at a glance that we are seeing a solid three-dimensional triangle and a three-pronged fork. smoke. T h e y a r e o f t e n c r e d i t e d w i t h t h e invention o f t h e c o m i c c a r t o o n . 1 6 t h . clouds. C o u n t t h e n u m b e r o f d a r k spots y o u can see. this is a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f t h e viewer's b r a i n b e i n g willing t o d o a large a m o u n t o f t h e w o r k in d e c i p h e r i n g a p i c t u r e .
even if y o u r hand w o b b l e s a little at first. while its upper rim remains level. I have drawn these for you here. describing many sides of an object simultaneously. like a disposable plastic cup that has been crushed in your hand. Cubism. though. w e use ellipses to give a sense of perspective. giving the cylinder four corners. such as bowls and cups. a n d in o n e bold stroke. for example. keep it spinning. A wobbling but confident ellipse will still be more convincing than a slow. Don't worry if it is uneven— just try again. The second common error is to tilt the upper and lower ellipses at different angles. since this is h o w w e experience them in e v e r y d a y use.90) takes a different as essentially circular. and these narrow or widen depending on the height of our view. there are three common errors people stumble upon. However. w h e n seen at an angle.100 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS W E VISUALIZE CYLINDRICAL VESSELS. I have exaggerated this error here. . Watch the tip of your pen and see it draw an ellipse in the air Keep this movement going while gently lowering the pen onto the paper like the needle of a record player closing on the disc (only it is your lowering hand that spins. To make a cylindrical object appear real in our pictorial space. for example plates or bowls on a table. that this is o n l y o n e w a y view. circles change into ellipses. Cover a sheet of paper with spinning. How to Draw Ellipses of seeing. (see p. Ellipse are best d r a w n quickly. not the paper!) As the pen touches down. springlike forms like those I have drawn below. COMMON ERRORS W h e n drawing cylindrical objects in perspective. third common error is to draw upper and lover ellipses with different-sized apertures. hesitant one that has edged its w a y nervously around the vessel's rim. you will achieve steadiness with practice. Be aware. as if the table surface slopes upward beneath the vessel. WHERE TO START In the air above a spacious sheet of scrap paper. spin your hand in a relaxed circle. The first common error is to draw two pointed ellipses. smoothly. suggesting that the vessel is lopsided.
enlarging and diminishing the ellipse to determine the overall shape and volume. HOW TO DRAW E L L I P S E S A Single Vessel One Inside Another Grouped Together Finding Shape and Volume Draw an imagined vessel in one continuous spinning line. Draw quickly. you can start to control your spinning ellipse to make a vessel. Create a Solid Surface Once you have drawn the shape and volume of each form. working from top to bottom. Seeing Through Allow lines to travel around each vessel as if it were transparent. you can make it solid by building up highlights and tones on visible surfaces. Altering the pressure—and therefore tone—of the line as it spins gives the impression of light shining on one side.101 DRAWING VESSELS Once you have mastered drawing free-hand springs. . thereby hiding lines that show the other sides.
two opposite methods of achieving the same result. Remember that shadows. if any. if light shines in them. making complicated or subtle surfaces easier to see and understand. Gradually hone your drawing. simply shapes and subtleties of light and dark meeting each other with no divisions in between. You can begin with outlines and build slowly from light to dark (see opposite top). OBJECTS AND Start by arranging a choice of shells on a sheet of paper to your left if you are right-handed (or vice versa). and strong contrasts are easier to draw. outlines. Illuminate them with a gooseneck lamp placed very close and directed away from your eyes. leaving detail until last. it will inhibit your perception of tone. It maximizes the range of tones between black and white. beams of light.22-23). Draw the largest and most distinct areas of light and darkness first. or you can begin with a mid-gray ground and model light out of darkness (see opposite bottom). In the finished drawing there should be few. t h e r e a r e p r i n c i p a l l y Dramatic lighting emphasizes texture and contour. Relaxing your eyes out of focus as you draw will help to dissolve the distraction of detail. It is important to place them on the correct side so as to draw comfortably (see pp. and solid objects are all of equal importance.102 INSTRUMENTS Tonality W H E N MAKING A TONAL DRAWING. LIGHT TO DARK DARK TO LIGHT .
Remember that its size. Fll in broad areas first and leave all detail until last. look at the main areas of darkness. Use quick. Avoid a rough significant areas of light in your gray rectangle with texture and do not press the graphite hardwhite plastic eraser Ignore all detail and draw a into thepaperor you will not be able to erase it. Let your eyes go out of focus while looking gently layer marks to create an even tone at your subject and paper: Draw the most ofmid-graywithin a rectangle. with broad sweeps of the eraser. Treat positive form and negative space (see pp. Use your pencil to develop these in relation to the areas of light. Continue working between light and dark to refine the drawing. loose. 2 3 Gentlydissolveoutlines so that areas oflightanddark meet without a line between them. and edges definingthespacialrelationships between are important aspects of your composition them.103 LIGHT TO DARK (LINE TO TONE) TONALITY 1 Using a sharp HB pencil. shape. Honetheshapesand angles of the shells. Draw in the details last of all. . pale lines with equal importance. Erase and make changes to roughly place the shells inside your with your composition. draw a rectangle.56-57). until you are happy frame. boldly 2 3 Keeping your eyes out of focus. DARK TO LIGHT (TONE TO TONE) 1 Using the flattened tip of an HB pencil. Relaxing your eyes out of focus will help to eliminate distracting details.
They can also be made in space. you can create your own more ambitious works. On p. try drawing it with a pen on paper Use bold. . The second is that after achieving this simple example. On p. Seeing through a wire drawing of a known object such as a violin gives us a visual and tactile understanding of all its sides and shapes at once. Third. The first is that figurative and abstract drawings can be made in space. and physical relationships between them. 19 Picasso draws with a pen-light for the camera. and on p. PEN LINES Once you have created your three-dimensional violin (opposite). continuous lines. 176 the British artists Noble and Webster draw with domestic refuse in a beam of light. our image is stronger if we understand and can visualize what is happening on the other side too. When drawing anything viewed from one side on paper. smooth.69 we see how the architect Antonio Gaudi drew proposed domes using suspended wires and weights. This class uses thin-gauge wire to create a threedimensional violin. There are essentially three lessons to be learned. and on p. Place the instrument on a plain surface and illuminate it with a desk lamp to add the delicate dimension of shadows.220 Mamoru Abe draws with forged steel rods.104 OBJECTS AND I N S T R U M E N T S Drawing with Wire DRAWINGS DO NOT HAVE to be two-dimensional. three-dimensional drawings teach us about the totality of forms in space.
1 Decide how big to draw your violin relative to the gauge of your wire. thin wire will make a smaller drawing. I started with the scroll at the top and fixed the four component wires with two drawings of tuning pegs. 4 . and thick wire a larger one. Then begin to define its uppermost surface with Scurves and the bridge.105 SETTING UP DRAWING WITH WIRE Follow these steps to draw a three-dimensional violin Choose a gauge of wire sturdy enough to hold the shape ofyourfinished drawing. brace the two ends of the violin with a length of wire along the back. 2 3 If needed. Once you have completed the body. These will hold the sides apart and help to keep the form in shape. I used garden wire and cut it carefully with pruners. and pinch and bend it to shape the base of the instrument Repeat this process to make the identical upper side of the instrument. Cut a length. Here. Join the two sides together with four short pieces of wire. begin to shape the curvature of the fingerboard. but thin enough to be easily manipulated inyourfingers Here.
.Artifacts and Fictions IN 1993 I WORKED with a group of schoolchildren who were responding to the astonishing objects in the collection of the Pitt Rivers Museum. England. Oxford. Using found materials. I had the privilege of drawing their inventions. they invented new anthropological finds—objects that reflected the distant past and their immediate future. some of which are shown here.
explaining ranges e/ of materials and techniques and showing diversities of thought and purpose in making. He even believed he had located the soul contours of her form like a cartographer's map of in the pituitary fossa beneath the brain and behind the eyes. Look closely at Renaissance drawings of the female b o d y and you will see that m o s t are actually y o u n g m e n with minor adjustments. giving physical foundation undulating land.The Body O UR BODIES MAKE us TANGIBLE. This F finished image was produced as r a n c i s c o . W e are the only creatures on Earth that can make our own image. clothed or nude. Drawings were usually made from the male nude to avoid offending the church. and surgically rebuilt. It also looks at the representation of the b o d y b11y4o n d traditional life drawing. 3 x 7 in (300 x 180 . The body remains at the core of over the initially white lines. much Western contemporary art. In this period. in our privileged and comfortable society. diseased. W e understand every curve and balance of to the theory that the eves are the windows of the soul. myths and fables. She the body is still essential. WILLIAMS he sought perfection in the infinitesimal measurement of the body and produced four Contemporary photographer volumes of illustrated explanation. During this time. and because the female was deemed inferior. Renaissance artists studying anatomy from dissection clinically trained and specialized as a medical illustrator. sculptural description of her form. and anatomical and erotic art. while Leonardo opened the body to see and projected onto a woman's body draw the celebratory discover for himself our physical mechanisms. This chapter addresses issues that are most commonly faced by beginners attending life-drawing classes. It gives physical and emotive form to religious narratives. focus has turned to the vulnerability of flesh: how it can be damaged. a n d w e d r a w o u r s e l v e s to a s s e r t o u r e x i s t e n c e . R. The human body. the junior workshop apprentices posed as part of their duties. Strangely. Artists now explore the interior of the body with new media and Lateral Contour Map of a Full-Term Primipara Produced by Light 1979 A. These classes are popular around the world. history paintings and other stories. portraiture. is the most c o m m o n subject in art. Leonardo drew a man within a circle and square. W I L L I A M S technology. artists also tried to define ideal proportions in the body. Artists are thought to have b e g u n drawing from the nude during the Italian Renaissance. while Durer took his research further— A. R. herimpressive presence because we are given such Life drawing no longer dominates the art school curriculum. the Bay Area Models' Guild h o l d s a quarterly life-drawing m a r a t h o n aprinton Kodak transfer paper with green-colored dye added celebrating the great diversity of human proportion. but the study of a controlled. Williams were decades ahead of their medical counterparts. from video and X-ray to thermal imaging. and in San could easily be transferred into three dimensions. Michelangelo attended dissections to made this image by light sectioning: fine beams of light perfect his understanding of surface form.
we see the e s s e n c e of h e r b e a u t y w i t h o u t a single detail. so that we read this drawing like a sculptural frieze. Matisse's b l u e n u d e sings with life and c e l e b r a t i o n . Raphael's study of fallen m e n leaves no doubt that they are in anguish. But the meanings of each gesture and the materials and methods by which they Postures and Poses were m a d e contrast greatly. while supporting the weight of their body with the other. while Matisse used scissors and glue to cut out and paste a flat collage of brilliant color. filling the page with her presence. T h e y b o t h raise one arm to cup their head in their hand. She u n f o l d s and s t r e t c h e s shapely limbs. and Vatican frescos. anatomy. He trained under Perugino. Raphael drew delicate tones of black chalk on tinted paper. Three Guards 1500-20 91/4 x143/8in (234 x 365 mm) RAPHAEL . Principal figures m i r r o r e a c h other.110 T H E BODY THESE DISTINCTIVE WORKS show two strikingly different ways of modeling the body on paper. altar pieces. and studied to learn from the works of Michelangelo and Leonardo besides whom he was soon ranked. and human defeat. In a single drawing we see equally o b s e r v e d studies of f o r e s h o r t e n i n g (see pp.116-17). RAFFAELLO SANZIO (RAPHAEL) Italian High Renaissance painter: Raphael is best known for his images of the Madonna and Child. Here three male nudes are compressed into very shallow pictorial space. Sculptural frieze This is a preparatory drawing for Raphael's painting of the Resurrection of Christ. By way of contrast. Muscular dramatic postures reflect the influence of Michelangelo and the Renaissance celebration of the idealized male body. In this highly s o p h i s t i c a t e d a b s t r a c t i o n .
serenity...like an appeasing influence.or like a good armchair in which to rest from physical fatigue. lifelong love of brilliant They celebrate the culmination of spectacular and sometimes drawings.... and Islamic art.sculptor." of is an art of balance. His calligraphic natural abstractions of form grew brighter. fabric.111 HENRY MATISSE French painter: draftsman. teacher and principal exponent o f Fauvism—a movement established in 1905 in which bold color is the most essential element. a mental soother. Matisse Soothing influence This drawing expresses the achievement of Matisse's personal aim: "What I dream and depressing subject matter.designer writer. his pattern. and more energetic Color and form This collage is one of a series of Blue Nudes.. foundamong many other groups of papercut these works as an elderly man confined to his bed or wheelchair. Matisse became an artist after studying law.which might be. devoid of troubling Blue Nude 1 1952 413/4 HENRY MATISSE . printmaker. freer. as his w o r k matured.
turned gray. and c o m p l e m e n t a r y hues. Opposite. If Seurat had added white. Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 1883-84 91/2 x 121/4 in (241 x 312 m m GEORGES SEURAT . reflected. Below. velvet d a r k n e s s . Here. there are no outlines. Light is given by the paper alone. it is as if the very atoms of air are made visible. only tones blending into. other tones. Beuys's magician. it would have mixed with unseen black dust. in a perfect e x a m p l e . His drawings are similarly u n i q u e . we c o m p a r e a skillful design that absorbed m u c h time in its making with the quickness of an idea marked instantly. form. T h e space around h i m chatters with symbols. w h o sits propped in the contradictory darkness of a hot summer's day. stands in counterpoise holding a dark globe and his thoughts in m o m e n t a r y balance. Typically. scratched in seconds. he used b l a c k c o n t e (see p. like small birds attendant on the meditation. Seurat evolved a distinctive t e c h n i q u e called p o i n t i l l i s m — i m a g e s literally made from myriad points of color. or abruptly meeting. Seurat engaged in lifelong studies of line. Using the paper to create light is important for beginners to learn. agreeing to coalesce and show us the form of a waiting boy. and color His applied theories still influence painters in their manipulation and rendering of local. and muddied the brilliance of the drawing.112 T H E BODY Choreographs T I M E IS A SIGNIFICANT E L E M E N T i n t h e m a k i n g o f a l l d r a w i n g s . 162) and an eraser to model teeming points of artificial light amid GEORGES SEURAT French painter classically educated in the Ingres school of thought. Tone and light In this black conte drawing. In his f a m o u s paintings of social e n g a g e m e n t .
Our focus joins shoulders.gold. and that These aspects of the work convey fractured visibility. video art. and drawings. He was a shaman who believed in intuition and in the investment of healing force. Unbroken lines stream from his simultaneously movement. and made installations. in different positions. Beuys gave performances. Many of his other symbolic works on paper have been drawn with materials such as honey. This figure is drawn intuitively. His The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland UNDATED 113/4 J O S E P H BEUYS x81/4in (297 x 210 mm) . transience. Perfectly modeled rather conventional for Joseph Focus Beuys's hand moved quickly to draw dotted lines flowing downward on either side of the figure. CHOREOGRAPHS the profound power materials with spiritual or of Free lines This pale pencil drawing is Beuys. taught workshops with a cult following. and blood. iodine.113 JOSEPH BEUYS One of the most influential German artists of the 20th century. free from the constraint of immaculate form opposite) impetus is irrelevant to the and meaning of this work (as we see in Seurat's drawing representation.
Free lines Rodin's public audience was understandably shocked by the eroticism of his drawings. and went on to inspire generations of artists. Our bodies radiate the passion of our thoughts and so become beacons of our frailty and power. His exquisite flow of paint beyond "outlines. was perceived as scandalous. the fierceness of the women's kiss is beautifully matched by the tenderness of his line. 125/8x 9 in (320 x 229 mm) AUGUSTE RODIN Two Women 1911 Embracing . Paris. its soft. But what is stranger to us now is that they were also outraged by his free use of line. Rodin produced portraits and statues of public and literary figures. We are asked to gaze u p o n her flesh. In Rodins work. In both drawings. he typically drew them with a few delicate strokes of pencil and brushed watercolor. sweeping lines— of either purple silk fabric or cool studio air—that imprint and amplify their past and future movements. Rodin employed models to move freely or pose together in his studio. They whisper and writhe in a brushed and sultry embrace that devours our watching. Anita Taylor has drawn her protective body hug out of the darkly glistening compression of willow charcoal and the dynamism of her shy but momentous femininity. the women are framed and caressed by long. As here.114 BODY Passion SUMMONING HUMANITY in a drawing of the nude is a subtle and emotional task. Achieving international acclaim in mid-life. Delicate strokes This is one of about 7. Opposite. his w o r k is characterized by deliberate un-finish and powerfully modeled emotion. Inspired by Michelangelo. We are involved not as a shabby voyeur but as a bystander engaged through our recognition of shared joy. THE AUGUSTE RODIN French Romantic sculptor and prolific draftsman employed as an ornamental mason until the age of 42. flushed skin made ruddy and black with crushed cinders. and one of hundreds of rapid studies of nudes.000 drawings shown in rotation at the Musee Rodin." as seen here.
professor and Vice Principal of Wimbledon School of Art. This order of light below and dark above gives glowing from within.I 15 ANITA T A Y L O R Painter. draftsman. The sturdy surface of the sheet has allowed her to press hard when needed. Luminosity Layered marks flicker likefirelight as they sculpt the woman's body. London. and rework rich depths of light and tone. exposure. A thinner sheet might have crumpled and torn under such vigorous force of making. the impression of luminosity All and Nothing 1999 67 x447/8in (170 x 1 1 4 cm) ANITA TAYLOR . Taylor has drawn. leaving her lightest marks at the deepest level of the image and applying darker marks above. erased and drawn again. and gaze. intimately reflecting upon the emotions and meaning of nudity. scrutiny. Taylor's immense self-portraits explore the relationship between the artist as maker and the artist as model. textured paper. Charcoal Taylor has drawn freely with charcoal and an eraser on thick.
MEASURING This is a simple method of making measured comparisons for relating the true size of one part to another This is a tool to assist observation and thinking. unfathomable angles. Lock your shoulder. 1 Hold your arm straight. to be translated by mirrors or seen from only one point in the room. persistence. Accelerated perspective plays a great role in much art. for example. It is not complicated. without taking off. Align the top with a point on your subject. which is imperceptible from below. In the life class it is the mechanism for ensuring that a drawn figure lies correctly in pictorial space . 3 Keep your pencil perpendicular Measure and compare at any angle. and a few measured comparisons are key.116 T H E BODY Measurement and Foreshortening FORESHORTENING IS AN ASPECT of perspective. and to draw what we see.limbs happily receding. and measurements do not have to be carried to the paper and slavishly drawn the same size they appear on your pencil. the skull in Holbein's The Ambassadors (The National Gallery. Close one eye. 2 Hold your pencil upright. This is chiefly a correcting device by which figurative painters and sculptors have for centuries countered the effects of our viewing their work from far below or on the curvature of a vault. Rome. patience. London). helping us to see more clearly. you will make inconsistent and unrelated comparisons. plummeting. elongated as if stretched across the plaster. when beginners prop their board in their lap and look down at too steep an angle. or coming forward. To avoid its effects ensure you always look flat onto the surface of your page. Spend time making comparisons before you draw. If your arm is not straight. Return to this posture every time. rather that what we believe we know from experience. we would arrive to find many of the same figures strangely distorted. But if we could take a scaffold and climb up to the work. and wrist joints. It is not so hard. It can also be a little demon in the life room. How to make and apply these is explained below and opposite. We also look at another very interesting branch called accelerated (or anamorphic) perspective. The length of exposed pencil is your measurement. "Simple measured comparisons reveal surprising truths about proportion. just making them helps you see. There is no need to mark them all down on paper. Imagine Michelangelo's murals in the Sistine Chapel. with dramatic illusions of figures painted in normal proportion. or shrivelling at odd. Smaller. elbow. more extreme examples have been made for court entertainment. Up close on the scaffold we would witness Michelangelo's subtle application of accelerated perspective. Move the tip of your thumb down to a second chosen point." .
W e appear t o be looking d o w n o n a w o m a n s t a n d i n g b e n e a t h us. Keep t h e b o a r d steady and draw. . y o u r hand travels f a r t h e r than y o u expect. h e r p r o p o r t i o n s will appear correct. A t a c e r t a i n angle. Stand its b o t t o m edge o n y o u r lap. t a p e s o m e p a p e r t o a board. pleasingly f o r e s h o r t e n e d . C o m p a r e t h e heights o f t h e nose and eye shapes t o t h o s e o f t h e f o r e a r m . adjusting a n o n y m o u s shapes. T h i s is t h e s a m e d r a w i n g p h o t o g r a p h e d f r o m above. S o o n t h e b o d y will lie d o w n in space. See h o w d i f f e r e n t t h e relative heights o f t h e s e shapes are f r o m w h a t w e m i g h t e x p e c t in real life. a n d thighs. W o r k a r o u n d t h e figure.117 ACCELERATED PERSPECTIVE To discover h o w this w o r k s . P r o p o r t i o n s will only l o o k c o r r e c t f r o m t h e angle at w h i c h y o u make t h e drawing. L o o k at y o u r m o d e l as if he o r she is a flat series o f shapes o n e o n t o p o f a n o t h e r Measure t h e height and w i d t h o f each shape and c o m p a r e it t o its neighbor. looking d o w n t h e p a p e r at t h e a n g l e at w h i c h I d r e w . FORESHORTENING To f o r e s h o r t e n a figure. which feels strange. y o u must let go o f w h a t y o u k n o w f r o m e x p e r i e n c e a b o u t t h e relative sizes o f b o d y parts and trust y o u r eyes. belly. To m a k e f o r m s l o o k c o r r e c t . MEASUREMENT AND FORESHORTENING Tilt t h e t o p edge o f this b o o k t o w a r d you and look d o w n o n this figure f r o m a b o v e . Lean t h e t o p e d g e t o w a r d y o u and find a p o s i t i o n w h e r e y o u can c o m f o r t a b l y l o o k d o w n t h e p a p e r at an angle o f a b o u t 4 0 degrees.
118 BODY Quick Poses DRAWING QUICK POSES l o c k s y o u r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n t o what is most essential. imagine holding up a plumb line. and slightly enlarge her legs and feet. propelling you to make immediate assessments and trust them. Height This pose leans away into space above our eye level. and energy. Outline To outline a figure. THE SEQUENCE OF POSES H e r e the model was asked to move every t w o minutes. To draw this effect. and stance before honing her balance and expression. Layered lines give d e p t h . Avoid drawing up one side and down the other. T h i s q u i c k e x p l o r a t o r y line does not perfectly describe shape but expresses a decision about overall flow of form. I used a sharp H B pencil and began each drawing by marking her outline. To see this. feeling. Be bold and dive into your drawing with c o n f i d e n c e . height. working from her center to her feet and to her head. and work over t h e m with further o b s e r v a t i o n s . her center of balance is normally found in a vertical line beneath her head. work back and forth across the body. balance. . make the upper body smaller give your model a high waist. and height. because it results in two unrelated sides drifting apart. Balance When a model stands upright on both feet. Start each new drawing by lightly marking the model's height with a loose line in ten seconds. Leave first thoughts in place.
. The tilt of the pelvis is then counter balanced by the model's shoulders tilting the other way (as seen here). Most of us have a tendency to over-straighten the drawn figure. Tilt Movement Here. the activity of circular lines and the repetition of limbs suggest movement.119 The twist of a model is most easily and expressively captured if it is exaggerated. and this should be avoided Twist QUICK POSES A model standing on one leg usually drops the opposite hip. This drawing shows how different observations be overlaid to bring a drawing alive.
Don't worry about achieving perfect solutions. starting with the largest. and ignore all details. It also helps the beginner to progress from drawing outlines to drawing confidently across the surface of the whole form. and a gooseneck lamp casts shadows that clarify planes and depths GESTURES OF THE HAND Curled Fingers 1 Open Palm Start honing the shapes of the dominant planes. Draw large shapes and their orientation. 3 . drawn in relation to each other. Focus instead on how planes change direction across the knuckles from one side of the hand or foot to the other. Keep lines open to change and take measurements if they help. Practice by drawing your own hands and feet. general to specific. Do not separate them yet. and they need not be daunting to draw. swiftly marking its essential gesture. express structure and gesture far more successfully and easily than ten worried outlines wandering up and down between the fingers and toes. Group the fingers together as one mass. or those of a friend. feet. Then subdivide each shape so that you w o r k from large to small. Begin by drawing lines to encompass the whole hand. This exercise is useful when struggling with proportion. 2 Build your drawing gradually from light to dark.120 BODY Hands and Feet THERE ARE MANY different ways of approaching h a n d s and THE of form. especially the lengthwise divisions between them. but regard these practice studies as ongoing processes of thought and observatio Add details such as nails last if you wish. A mirror increases your range of views. it is important to leave aside all details of the fingers and toes. W h e n starting. These planes.
and spontaneity. t o remove t o o many early lines. as if with a chisel. flattened planes.as though out o f wood. Hew it roughly in broad. however. and rapid. Try t o express the whole foot and t o encapsulate its entire shape and direction in a few marks. these are what give a drawing its tangible structure. and don't worry about accuracy t o begin with. Look for key angles without becoming distracted by detail. 2 3 Use an eraser t o refine decisions o r t o suggest areas o f light. Leave aside all detail. loose. It can be a mistake. depth.121 HANDS AND FEET MOVEMENTS OF THE FOOT Flat Stance Raised Heel Instep 1 Let your first marks be light. Nowimagineyou are carving the foot insidethepaper. .
Charcoal Hands T H E S E DRAWINGS ARE MADE in compressed charcoal. Compare its nature in close-up to that of willow charcoal used on pp.204-05. I also used white ink with a steel dip pen. Opposite." . The white lines demonstrate what is often called "bracelet shading.
before honing his or her shape (see pp. and posture of the model. I make these lines in the first five to ten seconds of a drawing to locate the presence. Phrasing Contours .HERE TRACES OF RAPID initial lines are still seen within and outside each body. 118-19). length.
Forms. perspectives. It is now viewed with some skepticism and often seen as academic. . I draw in museums in support of written research and as an artist seeking answers to questions about the practicalities of image making. and narrative pulse become vivid when you realize them in the middle of your study. Drawing work by another artist enables you to discover and understand the inventive hand in their composition.The Visual Detective DRAWING FROM MASTERWORKS was once a staple component of an artist's education. feeling them through the attentive movements of your own hand. characters.
Life-size women wearing wigs recline on beds of embroidered silk in cabinets of mahogany and Venetian glass This is a detail of a compressed charcoal drawing measuring 14 x 10 ft (4. there is a unique museum of 18th-century anatomical waxes.3 x 3 m) made in response to La Specola. 126-27. Florence. each modeled from dissection. .La Specola At17V i a Romana. Walls are lined with hundreds of faintly animated body parts. These almost life-size figures were composed from my imagination and achieved with the help af studies discussed on pp.
For centuries. We are also reassured by keeping records of ourselves. or whose eyes can seem to follow us around the room Portraiture is a constant. look directly at us. or a glimpse of him is caught in a photograph used as a prop. buttons. throat. abstract or figurative. Equally. Once you understand Self-Portrait in a Cocked Hat c. painters have dropped discreet records of themselves into commissioned narratives so that they can remain a face in the crowd. and p r i n t m a k e r . Self-portraiture gives every artist a constant. This enlargement o f his miniature p o r t r a i treveals t h e s p e e d and agility o f his p e n and about himself. and social and political commentaries. who. his changes in pressure and Hitchcock length o f line. is here to both meet and look through us. or past us. and their posture can be changed with just one line. and a handprint (see p. It also reminds us o f b o t h t h e intimacy and a scene as scrutiny o f an honest portrait. character. draftsman. in a miniature self-portrait magnified opposite. having been documented and preserved. W h e n drawing a person. Beginners often draw themselves as a way of establishing their practice. we use the delicate medium of silver point to look at foundation structures of the head. Halls and palaces are filled with pictures of the mighty and significant. neck. 1790-92 4 x 3 in ( 1 0 2 x 7 6 m m ) F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A and memorize the basic structure that we all share. Past rulers sent painters across continents to bring back a likeness in advance of a prospective royal marriage. you can capture the subtlety. religious. bells.Portraiture IN P O R T R A I T U R E W E MEET PEOPLE. and satirical or metaphorical. Goya's w o r k s include many royal and society p o r t r a i t s . live. Movie director Alfred similarly signed his films by playing a fleeting role: he walks through an extra. gathered all that he knew FRANCISCO DE GOYA V i s i o n a r y Spanish painter. and shoulders. Man Ray's self-portrait of scored lines. became more poignant as he progressed.139). Goya. historical. compliant subject to scrutinize. the meaning of their face. usually strangers from past times. Our homes are filled with images of our loved ones and of those in our families who have gone before. and in a few scrolling rafts of pen lines and stubbled dots. Rembrandt's famous multitude of self-portraits. The truth is that we all like looking at faces and observing the billions of variations that make us individuals. We can mold and animate qualities of expression out of objects and fragments of disassociated things—for example. single or of groups. and secular narratives. Portraits can be highly or loosely detailed. In this chapter. and expression of the individual. and lucrative genre for artists. To create a face is to see and interpret the essence of an identity. their stance. The returning image was of crucial consideration in any proposal. a single line can deliver an entire expression. and it is very rewarding. . made as he passed through the ages of man.
teetering on the brink of older age. whisking a timeless girl onto the page. we can enjoy and learn from them. It is the portrait of a countrywoman. We can actually count that he struck the paper 40 times. Picasso has left to posterity many hundreds of magnificent line drawings. Her face is drawn tenderly and with a luminous glow. For the beginner. While with longer consideration. PABLO PICASSO Spanish Cubist painter (see also p. caught in her last moments of youth. The truth is often the opposite. It takes a truly accomplished a few strokes. stealthily using his chalk to find contours and mass. Through exhibitions and copies in books. There is a common misunderstanding that a drawing with only a few lines is both less finished and easier to make than a drawing with more. they serve as a great lesson that it is not always necessary to add tone to your drawing. How could the addition of shadows have enhanced this image? Few strokes The simplicity of Picasso's line is breathtaking. one eye already cast askew into the autumn of her life.132 PORTRAITURE Poise THE BALANCE BETWEEN a mark and a blank space is often a tantalizing form of perfection. length.30). The aesthetic sense of a line being just right can make a drawing sing. Without faltering. Picasso strikes and scrolls his pencil. Holbein maps the still landscape of Dorothea's body in questioning marks. The Tightness of a line is felt in its speed. He makes his flair and skill look easy. We can read so much about them by studying their gaze. Here the grace and beauty of two young women are held forever. hand to capture something well in only Frangoise au Bandeau 1946 660 x 505 mm (26 x197/8in) PABLO PICASSO . and pressure as it conducts our eye through the image. breadth. adding smudges of tone for weight and solidity.
Holbein was employed toward the end of his life by King Henry VIII of England. gently flushed. In addition t o his numerous exquisite portraits in oil. Her folded forearms support and frame her weight above. which. Holbein unified the woman with her background by gently blending colors from her clothes and face into the atmosphere around her. Blended colors In this portrait drawn with colored chalks on slightly textured paper. and designer f r o m Basel. The peak of her cap clips the uppermost edge. Holbein has cropped and pinned his subject within the four outermost lines of the image—the edges of the page. presses against the binding across her face. He outlined her nose but not her upper lip. and its downward slope crowns the diagonal of the composition. made a popular series o f w o o d c u t prints titled The Dance of Death. Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 1516 51/8 x121/4in (385 x 310 m m ) HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER .133 HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER German p o r t r a i t painter draftsman. and produced numerous society portraits such as this one here. Cropping This regal composition fits its paper perfectly. he designed c o u r t costumes.
confusing. . Nerves. continues to exhibit regularly. its highly clarified detail claiming to be d r a w n from observation. dark tones of graphite blended into the paper. while white painted flecks and wisps suggest electrical illumination. The style of Durelli's d r a w i n g opposite sings with the confidence of truth and precision. The real dissection w o u l d have been far more c o m p l e x . In fact. This is a m a r v e l o u s interpretation of the truth. Delicate muscles are integrated with the skin and fat that is to be r e m o v e d . or defined by. the face is one of the hardest parts to dissect. distorted. perhaps applied using a tortillon. taught at numerous British art schools from 1962-77. using a fine and relatively 1982 13 x 181/8 in (328 x 460 mm) VICTOR NEWSOME brush. Highlights of white gouache were dry Profile Head late in the making. Psychological drama is contained behind a grid. the contours of a grid. but they are irrelevant here. dark lines made with a pencil appear against smooth. solid above and almost hollow below.134 PORTRAITURE Anatomies These highly finished drawings express the emotional power and physicality of the head and neck. and glands also complicate form. London. blood vessels. N e w s o m e ' s eerily shadowed form is smooth and bears a linear grain evocative of w o o d . Newsome was awarded the Prix de Rome in 1960. This is one of a number of similar disembodied female heads seen behind. Anatomically. and unpleasant to see. VICTOR NEWSOME British sculptor painter and draftsman. Durelli has m a d e a few m i n o r mistakes. and has works in major collections including the Tate Gallery. Contrasts Sharp. It floats in space.
pull their points o f attachment t o w a r d each other . and it is likely that this drawing was intended for reproduction as a print. which. w h e n contracted. It is hard to think of a more difficult medium with which to achieve such linear perfection. Red Chalk the Muscles 1837 173/8 x 145/8 in ( 4 4 0 x 3 7 2 m m ) ANTONIO DURELLI and Pencil Drawing and of Neck of the Head Little is k n o w n o f this M i l a n e s e p a i n t e r a n d engraver w h o c a m e from a family o f artists. Durelli's experience as an engraver is reflected in his stylized drawing o f muscle fibers. Pencil numbers refer to the list of muscles written beneath.135 ANATOMIES ANTONIO DURELLI Linear perfection This is a red chalk drawing of extraordinary accomplishment. Stylized parallel lines are reminiscent of engravings.
ALBERTO GIACOMETTI Swiss sculptor. each portrait is inscribed onto the page. 1948 77/8 x 6 in (200 x 150 mm) ALBERTO GIACOMETTI . Then. he drew over the whole image at once. There is a film of Giacometti drawing. They show us clearly the bones of drawing. which are characteristically elongated. Agitated marks make patches of tone that cut away the space around the character. as if seen from a distance. Similar movements sculpted the head below into its page. Giacometti settled in Paris. and with staccato flinches his hyperactive eye moves from paper to model. necks. Energy This is a portrait of a woman drawn with black crayon on a plain page of a book Lines search for the essence of form. and poet After studying in Geneva and Italy. He is best known for his bronze sculptures of human form. close enough to touch his hair and feel his breath. Bellini gently conjures the features of his saint with soft marks that tease his presence out of shadows into the light. Both works demonstrate how simple lines can be made complex by being intense. Without paint and with very little tone. and heads.136 PORTRAITURE THESE ARE DRAWINGS of shoulders. We are brought intimately close to this man gazing up to heaven. Flesh is built and personality carved simultaneously. painter draftsman. each locked into a visionary gaze. Speed Giacometti probably began with an oval shape placed in relation to the proportion of the page. with speed and urgency. Opposite. The camera watches him at work. while his hand stabs and thrusts Revelations like a conductors baton. cutting and carving the paper with matted and spiraling restless energy. Portrait de Marie-Laure de Noailles c. They confuse our perception of scale by being intimately fragile and at the same time far removed.
a n d b r o t h e r in-law. Mantegna. Sometimes different narrative same character was reused in compositions. transferring which were made in the process of the saint to his final place in the composition of a painting (see Glossary pp. These are pinholes. a n d c o n t e m p l a t i v e . Bellini s t u d i e d u n d e r his f a t h e r J a c o p o . Character This is one of many cartoons produced by Bellini the and his family. H e t a u g h t G i o r g i o n e Barbarelli and Titian. a n d his w o r k is d i s t i n c t i v e l y calm. Transfer This delicate humorous chalk a drawing is a cartoon—not image but a type of template used to plan the composition of a larger work Look closely and you will see rows of tiny dots along every significant line in the picture. lyrical.5 9 ) .G I O V A N N I BELLINI A prominent member of a large family o f V e n e t i a n painters. Head and Shoulders of a Man 73/8 x 21/4 in ( 1 8 6 x 5 8 UNDATED GIOVANNI BELLINI .25 6 . H e p r e f e r r e d religious t o classical t h e m e s .
postcards. political outcry. humor.138 PORTRAITURE THE MIRROR OF SELF-PORTRAITURE offers artists infinite reflections of. In 1986 he traveled to Africa and showed his work in Abidjan on the Ivory Coast He also exhibited in Germany and France. scratched lines. scratched into its surface. scrolls. drawn. and attitudes. bells. The figure's position is unequivocal and defiant while around him is in a state Without the essential of cultural and figure we would elegant belookingat a sophisticated painting of signs.221). Man Ray's playful silk-screen assembly of color blocks. Self Portrait 1982 9 4 x 7 6 in (239 x 193 cm) JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT . Later Basquiat sold drawings on T-shirts. float and shimmer in the shallow pictorial space. and buttons rings with surrealist wit and agile improvisation. signing their work SAMO. and everything flux. a tribal. and sheet metal before being snapped up by the New York contemporary art scene. It is an image of confrontation—the ever-controversial young artist roars at us from his abstract city-scape. and indulgence. their most immediate and best-known subject: themselves. similar to work by Cy Twombly (see p. made with great energy. The incandescent New York painter Jean Michel Basquiat pictured himself here in naked silhouette. and confrontations with. Al Diaz. The artist has finished his portrait with the signature of his hand smacked in the middle like a kiss: a declaration of existence as old as man's first drawing. Signs and symbols with symbols This painting shudders that ore written. marks. spear-brandishing warrior. It has proved to be a subject of piercing scrutiny. JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT Short-lived American painter and graffiti artist who began his blazing nine-year career drawing on lower Manhattan subway trains with a friend. It is an opportunity to look deep without the infringement of courtesies owed to a commissioning sitter. skull- Self-Portraits headed. Islands of graphic marks.
The handprint appears to be made directly. while a squeegee was used to drag thick lilac-brown ink across the silk pushing it though exposed areas onto the paper below. Man Ray probably used his own hand. Frame White lines are seemingly (though not actually) scratched through ink to frame this face. last of all.139 MAN RAY American surrealist photographer. The first part of the stenciled image was already marked on the silk The screen and paper were then held tightly together. They experimented with camera-free photography working directly onto photographic paper Silk and ink This is a silkscreen print made through the following process: the paper was laid on a flat surface and a frame stretched with fine silk was placed on top. They suggest speed and make the picture look immediate and spontaneous. During the 1920's and 30s. Black ink was printed next and then white. painter. Man Ray lived and worked in Paris. Autoportrait 1916 195/8 MAN RAY . where he collaborated with the artist Laslo MoholyNagy. caked in thick printing ink or paint. printmaker and cofounder of the New York Dada movement.
platinum. Pages 142 to 147 are illustrated in silver point and techniques are explained on pp.s t r i p a n d use i t t o fix o n e side o f t h e p a p e r t o t h e b o a r d . Opposite. Be swift and firm. SILVER W I R E : Purchase different gauge lengths f r o m a traditional a r t supplier o r jeweler. 3 . b e f o r e priming stretched paper. Z I N C W H I T E G O U A C H E : Dilute with w a t e r A d d c o l o r i f r e q u i r e d (as opposite) 4 . 144-45. W e t o n e length o f g u m . illuminators of medieval m a n u s c r i p t s . Gesso o r m a t t e m u l s i o n c a n a l s o b e u s e d . Note h o w domestic paintwork marks with a coin. Find a n i t e m t h a t y o u can h o l d a n d draw with comfortably. I t is a v a i l a b l e f r o m all a r t s h o p s . artists mixed white lead. s e e p . MATERIALS 1 Find a clean sponge and b o w l o r d e e p t r a y a n d fill it w i t h w a t e r W e t t h e p a p e r evenly in t h e t r a y o r o n t h e b o a r d . purchase silver wire. b u t d o n ' t w o r r y . key. laid on paper. who used it to outline initials and border characters before painting. For i m p o r t a n t a d v i c e o n p r e p a r a t i o n a n d use. T h e p a p e r will l o o k b u c k l e d . Lightly s p o n g e o f f t h e excess. Take a sheet o f any t y p e o f p a p e r (for e x a m p l e . E m p t y mechanical pencils designed f o r t h i c k leads ( s e e p. Metal point does not work on ordinary paper. w h i t e d r a w i n g paper) and cut it t o fit y o u r d r a w i n g b o a r d w i t h a generous b o r d e r a r o u n d its edges. choose a silver object. I m a k e m y o w n f r o m o l d dip pens. S O F T F U L L B R U S H : W h e n laying a w a s h . and make o r buy a holder. c h o o s e a s o f t full b r u s h t h a t c a n c a r r y p l e n t y o f l i q u i d . o n e t o fit each side o f t h e b o a r d — t h e s e will make t h e glued f r a m e t h a t holds y o u r p a p e r in place. M E T A L OBJECTS: All metal objects m a r k a p r e p a r e d surface. If w o r k i n g o n an emulsion-painted wall. 156). Straighten the w o r s t buckles. was familiar to or eggshells with animal glue. s o m e m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n o t h e r s . 2. Historically. bone. Metal point is simply a strip of metal bound in a holder. This browns with age unless sealed by fixative (see pp.Tear o f f f o u r lengths o f b r o w n p a p e r g u m tape. p a r c h m e n t . the surface must be primed with a ground such as gouache. and gold have also been used. 1. or ring. This is called a three-tone drawing. The most c o m m o n metal has always been silver—hence the term "silver point. S i l v e r is b e s t . copper. and alloys work on matt emulsion. and is therefore useful w h e n using w a t e r c o l o r as well as silver point. Stretched paper remains taut as a d r u m . 2 . 1 4 4 . it leaves a deposit." Lead. Drawn across a prepared surface. SILVER P O I N T W I R E H O L D E R : T h e s e c a n b e p u r c h a s e d a n d t e n d t o b e heavy.140 PORTRAITURE Silver P o i n t SILVER OR METAL POINT STRETCHING PAPER A sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has been made w e t with the strokes o f a paintbrush will buckle d u e t o its uneven expansion. or wood. 5. Numerous early European artists also enjoyed its fine qualities (see p. W e t a n d fix a s e c o n d strip t o t h e o p p o s i t e side. To begin.54) can also b e used. I combined silver point with painted white gouache on a pink ground.54-55). an exciting indication of how large-scale drawings could be made on a wall. which quickly oxidizes into a gray line. you will need t o stretch paper and lay a wash (see right and opposite). and t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h strips a b o v e and b e l o w . Lay a clean d r a w i n g b o a r d o n a flat surface. M a k e s u r e i t is c o m p l e t e l y clean t o avoid u n w a n t e d streaks.
slowly add powder pigment or gouache from a tube. v e r y little at a time. It will slowly straighten and become taut. Mix a very wet but not weak solution of gouache in a jar with a lid (add pigment at this stage for a three-tone drawing). as the paper will be ruined by a raised ridge. and let tests dry before deciding to change the mixture. Beware of the tape's coming loose at any point while drying. full brush into the gouache and start in the top left corner. Leave the wash to dry thoroughly before you begin to draw. Dry thoroughly before laying a wash. overlapping lines until you reach the bottom. is necessary to lay a wash o Three-tone When coloring ground. Make enough to cover your paper. so put newspaper under the lower edge. Dip a soft. T h r e e . Reload the brush and add a second line overlapping it beneath. I used a powder pigment called Caput Mortuum.t o n e silver point drawing of a skull . Keep adding smooth. stretched paper at a 45-degree angle. Here. any extra will keep.141 SILVER POINT 3 Leave the paper to dry flat. Make an even line across to the right. LAYING A WASH It your stretched paper so as to prime it for silver point. leaving a smooth surface. Prop up your board of dry. Keep testing on spare paper. Runs blend into each other evenly. The next step will make a small mess.
Head and Neck
THE HEAD AND NECK are best conceived as one unit arranged in four parts: cranium, face, neck, and throat. Each is of equal importance. The cranium is essentially egg-shaped and pivots on the first vertebra. The face is suspended beneath, like a softly curved triangle. The n e c k — a powerful, shapely column of layered muscles rigged to vertebrae—adjusts and holds the angle and expression of the head. The throat is delicate, hard, and lumpy to the touch, formed of cartilaginous rings, glands, thin muscles, and looser skin. Framing the throat, two columnar neck muscles (sternomastoids) project the head forward and also turn it to the opposite side.
This is a simple shorthand diagram representing the cranium, face, neck, and throat. It can be learned and visualized in different positions very easily, giving the novice a firm footing on which to stand and develop their drawings of the head and neck.
Cranium Begin with an egg shape. Tilt it on the paper to change the position of the head.
Face Draw a rounded triangular shape below the forward point of the egg to represent the face.
Neck This shape represents the trapezius; the largest surface muscle of the neck and shoulders.
Throat A triangular shape represents the throat. (The nose makes the diagram clearer)
After copying the diagram above, animate it. Practice drawing the cranium at different angles, add the face beneath, then the neck, shoulders, and throat. Shape your diagrams so they are more lifelike, but avoid adding detailed features too soon.
143 These three drawings demonstrate (from left to right) the following: why the cranium may be considered egg-shaped; now the face can be seen as a curved triangle suspended beneath and where the division lies between the two; and the form of sternomastoid muscles that frame thethroatsodistinctlywhen the head is turned and inclined forward.
The skull and the frame of the throat
HEAD AND NECK
Bones of the cranium are locked together by jagged joints. Sinuses in the frontal (forehead) bone between and beneath the eyebrows are larger in men, making their brows pronounced and often ridged compared to those of women.
Bones of the face house our sight, smell, taste, The skull pivots on the first vertebra or "atlas," and speech. Cartilage extending from nasal bones after the Greek god condemned to carry the shapesthenose.Pads of fat resting on the base of Earth. The jaw hinges in front of the ears. Behind, eacheyesocket support the eyeballs in position. If bony ridges give anchor to the sternomastoid thefatisreducedby old age, eyes look sunken. muscles rising from the breast- and collarbones.
Three useful generalizations
General rules about the relative positions of body parts can hinder artists as much as help them, since they are often based on classical ideals rather than thediversityoflife.However,some generalizations can help as a rough guide to start with, so long as good observation takes over as soon as possible.
In general, when the face is relaxed (not smiling or frowning), the corners of the mouth are found directly beneath the pupils of the eyes. Vertical lines can be drawn down from the pupils to meet the corners of the mouth.
The height of a young adult's ear is often the same as their nose and found on the same level. There is no general rule for growing children, and remember that ears grow again in old age, which is most obvious in men.
The height of the face is about the length of the handspan and the eye is normally halfway down the total height of the head. A common error is to draw the eyes too high up on the face.
T H E DELICACY OF SILVER POINT
(see pp. 140-41) is perfect for
such as a beach pebble. Here, I stretched drawing paper and laid a wash of white gouache (see pp.140-41). As you can see, the line and tone of silver point varies with pressure, but only slightly. Too much pressure cuts the ground. Silver point erases, but so does ground. Erased ground can be repaired gently with extra gouache. You can also use gouache to paint over mistakes and make corrections.
small, detailed drawings. The drawings below and opposite show useful observations of the head and neck, which are explained in the captions below. Each drawing was made with a silver wire held in a large-gauge mechanical pencil. Newly clipped wires are sharp and cut rather than draw. Before use, they need to be rubbed and smoothed on a stone
Here I imagined placing my silver point wire against the skin of each head and neck and, working in parallel bands from the crown downward, I traced the undulation of surfaces. Linear bands imagined around the head and neck can help you t o clearly see the tilt of the head and relative levels of the features. Ask a friend t o model for you and try this exercise life-size using a pencil and eraser
Seeing that the face is never flat
Drawings below left and center are summaries of the generalizations given on p.143. Far right is an image to remind us that the face is never flat. It slopes back to varying degrees among individuals, from the tip of the nose t o the ears. For example, note that the innermost corners of the eyes are farther forward in space than the outermost corners.
General measurements, side
General measurements, front
View from above
Male and female head and neck
Men's necks a r e g e n e r a l l y s h o r t e r a n d t h i c k e r t h a n w o m e n ' s b e c a u s e t h e angles a n d levels o f c e r t a i n b o n e s a r e d i f f e r e n t b e t w e e n t h e sexes ( i n d i c a t e d h e r e b y d o t t e d lines) a n d m e n are n o r m a l l y m o r e muscular. T h e male t h y r o i d cartilage ( A d a m ' s apple) is larger a n d m o r e visible than t h e f e m a l e . L a r g e r f e m a l e t h y r o i d glands also s o f t e n t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e t h r o a t .
The largest m u s c l e o f t h e s h o u l d e r s a n d n e c k is called the trapezius. A r r a n g e d on e i t h e r side o f t h e spine, it shapes t h e u p p e r back and neck above the s h o u l d e r blades. C o n t r a c t i n g in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h d e e p e r and surrounding muscles, it raises and l o w e r s t h e shoulders a n d d r a w s t h e h e a d backtoeitherside.
USING A SHARP 3 B PENCIL, I drew this head quickly from imagination, evolving its character and expression from the scheme of four parts: cranium, face, neck, a n d throat (see p. 142). Here, five steps show you how to practice doing the same. This approach can be used to draw from imagination or from life. Keep your wrist loose and hold your pencil away from its point (see pp.22-23). Build the layers of your drawing from pale to dark, a n d from general balance a n d form to specific detail. Remember that successful drawings are built on foundations of "seeing the whole," then dividing the whole into smaller parts, with details brought in last of all. Phrased tonal marks modeling this girls skin and hair follow the technique demonstrated by Goya in his self-portrait on p. 130. Turn to Goya's drawing and study how, in a circle beginning across his hat, moving down his hair, and around his coat, he flows lines over surfaces to describe their contour. As you build from steps 1 to 5, bring phrased groups of lines across the surfaces of your form, using their directions to capture the expression of the head and neck. If unsure, copy my steps until you gain the confidence to make your own decisions.
This drawing is the final stage of the four steps opposite. Here, I have enlarged the eye, and moved it back into the head by trimming the length of the upper lid and adding a more pronounced lower lid. It is important to set eyes far enough back from the relatively prominent nose; too close to it and the face flattens. Hair swept back and extended behind the cranium balances the regal pose. Lines shaping the hair echo those marking the cranium in step 1. Here, the lower part of step 1 comes through as wisps of hair across her face and ear
Portrait of a Young Girl
Here. Keep your first lines light. The eye announces the nature and expression of the emerging person. over the cranium.147 Building up the portrait DRAWING PORTRAITS 1 Gently spin pale lines in a softly drawn shape representing the cranium. too soon. and throat. I used light to describe the upper lid first with a shadow beneath for the lower lid and open eye. neck. The nose and ear begin to shape the head. down the face to the throat. 2 Rapidly add shorthand shapes to represent the face. 3 Place the eye beneath the cranium. so it is important to the life of the image that while controlled. Moving from the back of the neck.Theangle at which you draw this shape of the paper will determine the angle of the finished head. they are also still sweeping and confident. First lines will remain visible in the final drawing. avoid drawing too dark. I modeled the outline of the character I imagined light shining from above and in front and adjusted the pressure of lines to reflect this. 4 .
the texture of hair.T o DRAW PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGES. a n d t h o s e w h o a r e Generations asleep (see overleaf). . muscular tension. Above all. and gravity. be aware of the subtle differences in skin surface. empathize.
seeking the dominant contours of each individual expression. Fast lines carve out the features of Goya's soup-slurping hag. Madrid.Castings DRAWING IN THE PRADO MUSEUM. Van Dyke's noble cast of characters was modeled more finely. with a steel dip pen and acrylic ink. . I used the nib upside down to gain needle-sharp precision.
w h i c h in turn feed c o n s u m e r Lev. while court p a i n t e r s — M i c h e l a n g e l o and Holbein. Cities c h a n g e d all. Artists do this not so m u c h b y the style of a figure's garment. and even invisible by the w a y w e dress. or b u l g e s . shapes. c o s t u m e o f f e r s a r i c h v o c a b u l a r y of t e x t u r e s a n d c o l o r . or calm u s w i t h chic. b u t influenced Parisian fashion and interiordecor. and s y m b o l s that lets m e n and w o m e n in all countries and areas have w o r k i n g access to the latest fashions. and i n d e e d image b e c a m e the property also of the industrial classes. arichand unusual combination of pencil. known as Leon Bakst. c r u m p l e s . Samoylovich Rosenberg. Petersburg and later exiled designers' ideas and are surprised and delighted b y their continual f l o w of inspiration. toParis. T h e rural masses w o r e h o m e s p u n simplicity. woman was drawn by Bakst one year later for the ballet Narcisse. Like it or not. g l o s s y folds. articulate a d a n g e r o u s satirical j o k e . e m u l a t e textures. D e s i g n e r s create m a s t e r p i e c e s of haute couture LEON BAKST for H o l l y w o o d stars. caricatured p l u m e s . and atmosphere.As artistic director of the It is s h o c k i n g to t h i n k h o w m a n y m i l l i o n s of d r a w i n g s m u s t be m a d e a n d d i s c a r d e d Ballet Russe. Designers all over the w o r l d c o n t i n u a l l y p e n and b r u s h lines to lash us w i t h color. and e x u b e r a n c e . dancer leaps through swaths of golden cloth. and intent. o n l y the w e a l t h y c o u l d afford to h a v e c o s t u m e s specially m a d e . Practical classes Bacchante 1911 l o o k at r a n g e s of c o l o r e d m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d i n g p a s t e l s a n d felt-tip p e n s . it is the public sign by w h i c h w e are j u d g e d . P o p u l a r f a s h i o n d e s i g n e x p l o d e d w i t h the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n . personality. S t r u c t u r e is t h o u g h the i n v e n t i o n of shoes. c u l t u r e . cool. In psychology. Previously. outrageous. a n d w e will c o l l e c t patterns. a n d s u b t l e t o n e s . a n d c o u r t i e r tailors f o l l o w e d suit. T h e e n t o u r a g e of the theatrical stage o f t e n l e a d s the c a t w a l k . T h e p a p e r p a t t e r n is p e r h a p s the m o s t w i d e l y k n o w n of c o s t u m e d r a w i n g s : a formalized plan of lines. was a Belarussian A r t Deco theater fantasies and desires to immediately possess a version of the same. gesture.This voluptuous above all a physical p u p p e t w i t h w h i c h to animate character and narrate personality. W e dress ourselves and costume designer trained in in St. a n d p r o f e s s i o n — b e g a n life as a d r a w i n g . and be so expressive of temperament that it overtakes the need for an o c c u p y i n g h u m a n form. and everything w e h a v e c h o s e n for o u r w a r d r o b e s — r e f l e c t o r s of o u r taste. fulfilling lavish and spectacular briefs. intriguing. w a r m t h . charcoal. theb u t b y the w a y it s p e a k s w i t h its flying. In this c h a p t e r w e see h o w c l o t h i n g c a n s e e m to p o s s e s s the w e i g h t and m o n u m e n t a l i t y of stone. of Scheherazade. and gouache. so that c h o i c e .Costume W E MAKE OURSELVES EXOTIC. for e x a m p l e — d e s i g n e d the w a r d r o b e s of p o p e s a n d k i n g s . st 111/4 x 81/2 in (285 x 220 mm) u d i e d L E O NB A K S T and explore the characterization of fabric t h r o u g h m o v e m e n t . he and cofounder Serge Diaghilev took Paris by eac storm in 1910 with their production h year in the industrial f r e n z y of creating o u r image and aspirations. variety. Bakst's designs and costumes immediately To the fine artist. .
The quiet stillness of this image is achieved by a masterly economy of stylized line. Their uninterrupted emphasis is entirely vertical. Marble gown We will never know if Van Eyck considered this drawing unfinished or intended the kneeling abbot to remain transient and ghostly. Van Eyck's highly polished w o r k is c e l e b r a t e d f o r its disguised symbolism. resonate with their wearers startled expression. delicate lines. Keisai Eisen's intense. Delicate marks Silver (or metal) point is the most delicate of traditional drawing media (see pp. best k n o w n f o r his G h e n t altarpiece ( 1 4 3 2 ) a n d m a r r i a g e p o r t r a i t o f Giovanni A r n o l f i n i and his w i f e (1434). He has layered these slowly and carefully so as not to cut through the ground and produce a white mark just where he intended a dark one. and snakelike marks. it is only possible to create very thin. dragons. Church and deities are drawn as JAN VAN EYCK Flemish oil p a i n t e r f r o m L i m b o u r g . folds and patterns of material speak more resolutely of their wearers than any small glimpses of body we can see. the Madonna and her architecture are both dressed in the same manner.140-41). and implied striation in the stone of the architecture. bands around the columns.156 COSTUME Cloth and Drapery EACH OF THESE FIGURES is ninety percent cloth. her marble garment holds u p the infant Christ in a fountain of compressed line. H e m e t i c u l o u s l y a r r a n g e d subjects t o c o n v e y d e e p e r meaning. With a stylus such as Van Eyck used here. Vertical lines The highly controlled lines of this drawing cascade from top to bottom of the image. Above them. with their jagged edges. the vaulted stone roof echoes and crowns the moment. However. the carefully composed outline of his cloak shows us how the artist would have also begun his immaculate rendering of the Virgin's clothes. Maelbeke I44I Madonna 11 x 7 in (278 x 180 m m ) JAN V A N EYCK . Flaxmans sleeper—perhaps a pilgrim or a soldier resting between campaigns—has wedged himself into the cleft of some great building to grab a moment of peace. Below this. and the kneeling abbot is a ghost by comparison. Short and subtle horizontal punctuations are only given in the background by sections of floor. Her gown is carved and polished as if made from marble. Opposite. In Van Eyck's drawing below. swirling printed fabrics. Sculpted one.
he also co-edited and expanded the Ukiyo-e Ruiko (History of Prints of the Floating World). and Man Lying Down in a Cloak I 787-94 21/4 JOHN FLAXMAN x 41/8 in (57 x 105 mm) . CLOTH AND DRAPERY Relief printing This is a woodblock print made by a relief process. Position In this pen and ink drawing. and teacher Distinctive linear illustrations for the works of Homer. which are sometimes also cut into pieces like a jigsaw puzzle. writer and printmaker Keisai Eisen took his name from the masters Kano Hakkeisai and Kikugawa Eizan. the angle of the head. each delivering a different part and color of the design. designer. Images are drawn onto smooth. stone wall of downward-stroked this sleeper's position is momentary.157 KEISAI EISEN Japanese draftsman. and the feet notched against the pillar tell us that A lines holds him into the cleft. Remaining raised areas of wood are rolled with colored inks. Koimurasaki of Tama-ya 1810-50 15 x101/4in (381 x 260 mm) KEISAI EISEN The Courtesan JOHN F L A X M A N English late 18th-century neoclassical sculptor. Dante. draftsman. This complex numerous blocks prepared image and may have been made with printed separately. one over the other. an 18th-19th century document on the lives of the ukiyo-e artists. Respected for his sumptuous images of geisha and editions of erotic prints. the cloak sliding to the ground. flat sheets of wood. The inked block is laid face-down on damp paper and pressed to make the print. Parts of the image to be left unprinted are gouged out with a metal tool. Aeschylus earned Flaxman an international reputation.
A s a y o u n g man. Leg section Compare mid-shin the section of white boots cropped to the section of similarly cropped trousers in drawings Gruau's drawing on p. for she would not have been amused and William Wodall might have been stretching his luck. Fine examples can be plucked from fashion. A flamboyant territory. Anthony Van Dyke's Man in Armor is a masterpiece of drawn surface. Flowing scarf The knight's scarf of gilded blue is drawn in a pale wash over red ink lines. Its warm surface flows in contrast to the stiff metal armor. The metal. Its color is also reflected in the metal. The slight uncertainty of the pose and the limp cloak suggest a little more metal than man. A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE Flemish painter and draftsman. 160. he c o o l e d and redefined his style. where sometimes there just might not be anybody inside. t h r o u g h n u m e r o u s p o r t r a i t and C h u r c h commissions. cartoon. b e f o r e traveling t o Italy. lace. a scurrilous cartoon by a courtier of Queen Elizabeth I. In 1 6 3 2 he m o v e d p e r m a n e n t l y t o L o n d o n . a n d w a s e m p l o y e d as c o u r t painter t o King Charles I. and feather were all CHARACTER COSTUMES REPRESENT observed with closely crafted conviction. Pen and wash In the graphic accuracy of this armored knight we see the idealized identity of a warrior from another time: a gleaming defender of the realm. Leg sections in both support the figure without taking our attention away from the main garment above. cloth. Details and voices are worn externally with great imagination. Man in Armor UNDATED 1 6 x 9 1 / 2 in ( 4 0 5 x 2 4 0 m m ) A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE . He has been rendered on this olive<olored page with pen and gray wash worked over a red and black under-drawing. Van D y k e was chief assistant t o Rubens f o r t w o years. w h e r e . all ruffs and wrinkles. cinema. The aged queen is compared to an overdressed bird. theater. and even formal portraiture. Opposite is a dangerous drawing.158 COSTUME Character Costumes an extreme form of the clothed figure. It is presumed Her Royal Highness never saw it.
Northern Satire This is a quill-and-ink satire of the elderly queen's pride-As head of state and fashion. here dark tawny owl. bitten nature. Top-heavy. suggest the use of iron-gall ink (see p. she is shown as a grossly disproportioned bird. By her old upto three tiers supported on sticks. hooded with an overinflated fluffy ruff eye pins us. t h e B a b i n g t o n Plot. it was customary to Iron-gall ink Wodall's dangerous caricature steps daintily the written lines of her dedicated page.1599 71/2 WILLIAM x 51/4 in ( 1 9 0 x 1 3 4 mm) WODALL .159 WILLIAM W O D A L L A u t h o r and illustrator o f The Aaes of Queene a Elizabeth poem Allegorized.35). manuscript comprising six c a n t o s . t h e Rising. and her pride. A Ruffs and feathers Starched white ruffs worn at court and by society grew steadily larger as Elizabeth's reign progressed. t h e Ridolfi Plot. Satire of the Queen's Dress c. the queen is masterfully rebalanced by words at her feet The whole drawing's blackened. Beneath the lethal fan is the body of a bird of trimmed feathers suggest age. while a raised foot pauses to assess the next displaying a fan of daggers. t h e Jesuit Mission. T h e poem recounts t h e six m a j o r crises o f Elizabeth's reign: t h e Spanish A r m a d a . and saturations showing through from the other side.
Composition Look how well this image is frame knee is parallel to the bottom edge spacehorizontalline cropping the trousers be outermostuprightbordersof her cuffs are similar above her head thesidesoftheimage. Compare the compositio beneathVanDyke'sstudy of armor on p.160 COSTUME Femmes Fatales THESE DEVASTATING femmes fatales force back the onlooker with their demure. diving to catch us in the grip of her machine-like limbs.and tilted to the same de a little deeper than sp kneestogivehergravity.F r e n c h f a s h i o n i l l u s t r a t o r w h o in his l o n g and esteemed career w o r k e d with many of the g r e a t e s t d e s i g n e r s o f 2 0 t h . RENE GRUAU I t a l i a n . 5 8 . G r u a u ' s highly distinctive d r a w i n g s have a p p e a r e d Couture. Rene Gruau's bold gouache drawing of smoothly swaying sophistication captures a brilliantly cut garment and frames it with great dynamism in a white.5 9 ) and a three-spoke balance of cuffs and cropped trousers to create an almost flag-like emblem of power. as is Spider-Girl opposite. Vogue. a n d L'Officiel de la couture. muscular aggression. possibly over a pencil outline. Gruau's model regally swans to the fore with cool pride. and both share the power of scarlet and black. She has been drawn with brushes dipped into India ink and gouache.c e n t u r y haute i n n u m e r o u s m a g a z i n e s i n c l u d i n g Elle. Harpers & Queen. The black red. His model is outlined. Spider-Girl leaps like an insect. Fashion and fantasy drawings invent prototypes of ideals and perfection—be they for the catwalk or the fast-paced pages of comic books. India ink and gouache This swish of confidence and style our enters the page turning everyone's head. Gruau uses starkly cut negative space (see pp. and gray pigments were applied separately. Airbrushed reflective surfaces further amplify our perception of speed. Fine lines drawn against the building behind her echo the threads on which we have all seen arachnids drop and hang. studio-like rectangle of paper. Drying time in between applications ensured the colors did not run into each other. elegant chic and svelte. 158. ofcroppedtrousershere to the device of the w Illustration 1949 for Jacques Fath in L ' O f f i c i e l d e la C o u t u r e RENE GRUAU . demanding attention with gesture and flair.
MARVEL C O M I C S . Align your ruler to the upright of each building. to the right of its center. It is outside the picture frame. Sharp focus black outlines in this drawing create a hyper-real dynamic. sky. and figure are all locked into equally shatp through the traditional process of a pencilled outline over-drawn ink. and has been the title's regular artist since 2003. Single-point understand perspective To how Frenz created up therefore the effect of steeply between looking buildings—and howyou can do the same in your own work—take calculate where a ruler the and single vanishing point lies. Buildings. moon. The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones.74-77). Frenz has drawn for Marvel for about 20 years.RON F R E N Z Contemporary American graphic artist w h o designs and pencils the dynamic scenes of numerous superheroes featured in Marvel Comics. beginning with Star Wars. Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 2001-04 R O N FRENZ. and Amazing Spider-Man. a great characteristic superhero comics. Airbrushed color and with tonal focus. In your mind's eye extend the uprights out of the top of the picture. not far above the drawing. This s modeling applied over the top give the image a sleek and mechanical of gravity. at Their extensions will meet the same single vanishing (see point pp. He began work on Spider-Girl in 1998.
The worst are like revolting old lipsticks that get everywhere except where you intend. and CHALK PASTELS Pastel pencils make fine lines (as above). COLORED PENCILS: Dry pigments ground together with chalk. 2. clay. oily pigment. Use them to draw lightly (as above left) or thickly. which he left unfixed to retain its brightness. made in about 80 colors. Degas built his pastels in layers. crumbly. there are disparities between the apparent nature or color of what you hold in your hand and its performance on paper. animals. intensity. Be aware that fixative dulls pastel. The higher the quality (and cost). Many products are sold individually and in boxed sets. Bright pastels are more brilliant on colored paper. and can be softened and manipulated with degrees of heat. and cost are laid out for our pleasure and perusal. the diverse are made in brands of basic member of the family. except the final layer. though lines can develop greasy stains around the edges if the paper is not first stretched and treated with a gelatin paste laid as a wash. C o n t e crayons are square-formed. and sold in many colors. quality.162 COSTUME Colored Materials ART STORES BRIM OVER w i t h t h e m a n y wherever permitted. 1. unwrapped harder pastels. I suggest you do so. Most stores leave small pads of paper on their counters for customers to test materials. They vary hugely in cost. minerals. and synthetics. 4. you may be pleasantly surprised to discover something you could not have imagined using. Before making substantial investments. Children's wax crayons are relatives. wash. chalkbased but very subtle. Store loose pastels in dry rice to keep them clean. or wax and a binder are shaped into fine strips and encased in w o o d like a graphite pencil. Seemingly infinite choices of texture. these work best when slightly warm. Pastels are finer. plants. insects. OIL PASTELS Oil-based. the finer and more subtle the texture and color should be. are derived from many sources: rocks. allowing it to fix slightly from behind. OIL PASTELS: Many colors. great for tin . Pastel pencils are slender and in w o o d casing. hue. Try materials that are new and unfamiliar. Beware—some are toxic. colored materials available. mixed on the paper and scratched into (as below). CHALK PASTELS: Blackboard chalk is sidewalk work. soft. purchase a small selection of different items you think you will like. Often. Sticks and conte crayons make thicker marks (as below). Many artists apply fixative to the back of their work. size. including iridescents. shape. fixing each layer on the front. The nontoxic range below represents a suggested starting point for experiment. FELT-TIP PENS: Instant-drying alcoholor water-based inks stored in the barrels of the pens are delivered via smooth nylon o r felt tips of varying shapes and thicknesses. and can be a great rediscovery for bold drawings. slightly oily to the touch. paper-wrapped. They work well on PIGMENTS Pigments. quality and cost T h e best are paperwrapped sticks of sumptuous. used to make colors. 3. and subtlety. See h o w they work and return later for more of what proved best for you. Dissolve in turpentine or mineral spirits to produce oil paint or or dark paper.
111). Think of Matisse's Blue Nude (see p. .or clay-based thin crayons in wood casing.163 COLORED PENCILS These are wax. Some give richer lines than others. Colors can be blended as shown right) and tones graded by altering pressure. Fine lines can be achieved (as above). If you love smooth blocks and lines of colon felt-tip pens are perfect. Diverse brands are harder or soften greasier or chalkier in use. Some are nonsoluble. Brands made for designers sold in enormous ranges of colors are far more subtle and sophisticated than those made for children. so it is best to test them before buying. leaving the paper to shine through for highlights (as below). others dissolve in water or turpentine to make a wash. it is still a great champion and support for those beginners feeling shyly obligated to tone down their love of color to conform with what others say they should use. FELT-TIP PENS Although not made with felt-tip pen.
and after studying familiar shoes we use the information learned to invent new ones. To set up. if y o u m a k e p l e n t y o f d r a w i n g s as o p p o s e d t o o n l y a f e w . Turn t h e m in different d i r e c t i o n s and o b s e r v e t h e i r s t r u c t u r e and f o r m . the era in which we live. and they have been concealed in buildings to ward off misfortune. a range of colored felt-tip pens with both fine and broad tips.164 COSTUME Study and Design they reflect our age. Superstitions and fetishes are attached to them: we are told never to put new shoes on a table. S H O E S TELL LIFE STORIES. You. and volume in space (see pp. Here we go one step further. c o v e r a large sheet o f p a p e r w i t h line drawings o f several shoes. they record and reflect our common history. 100-01 and pp. style. values. 104-07). Linear Outline Using fine pens. structure. . t h e n again as if transparent. As artifacts in museums. imagining y o u can see t h r o u g h it. D r a w each o n e first as a solid object. social and economic status. t o o . REPEATED STUDY T o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s class. This class takes the shoe as its subject in building on earlier lessons concerned with seeing through objects to understand their function. you will need several large sheets of drawing paper. will discover m o r e . a n d e x p e r i e n c e visible p r o g r e s s . and how we stand and walk. personality. and a selection of shoes. I m a d e n u m e r o u s s h e e t s o f d r a w i n g s . e n j o y i n g t h e study a n d i n v e n t i o n o f shoes. while artists have painted their boots or those of others as personal portraits and memorials.
STUDY AND DESIGN
study the surface contours using fineand broad-tipped felt-tip pens. For best results, it is important to be bold and brief. Draw firmly, fast, and with as few strokes as possible. Build up each shoe from light to dark andleavesome paper showing through to create highlights.
Design Your Own
Using what you have learned from the previous steps about the structures of your shoes, and about the use of pens, invent new designs from your imagination. Start with fine outlines and progress to colored and textured surfaces. Modify your ideas by rotating the views.
The Structure of Costume
MUSEUMS ARE AN INFINITELY
rich resource for the artist and
information given by a period style. Arrange to visit a costume museum or ask a friend to model clothes for you at home. Using fine felt-tip pens, begin with quick, pale impressions of each garment's shape before homing in on its borders and seams. Try to draw transparent views wherever possible to record the relationships between all component parts. Aim to draw enough information for it to be possible to make up a version of the garment using paper pinned to a tailor's dummy.
designer. They often give quite unexpected gems of ideas and information—whatever the subject. These drawings, made in a costume museum, demonstrate ways of recording structural information and detail for later use in the studio. They could form the basis of new designs for a fashion project or theater production, for example. Drawings of shoes on pp. 164-65 show how new designs can be evolved from the structural
It is usually best when collecting information for reference to apply the restraint of dispassionate observation. Set yourself the test of drawing facts with as little artistic license or embellishment as possible. Here I chose fine felt-tip pens because they are at their best when used swiftly, and therefore encourage bold, unhesitant decisions.
Swift lines record the hanging weight of this gentleman's coat, the relative proportions of its layers, and minimal details of the buttons and cuffs.
Thick velvet fabric is pulled tight beneath and across the bust by a single button. This transparent view shows how the fabric falls loosely in straight panels beneath the level of the sleeve.
W h e n visiting museums, be prepared f o r l o w lighting, which can make it hard t o see and draw. A book can help if attached t o your drawing board.
Adding stripes and dashes of color with a thicker pen brings out the glossy sheen and sculptural rigidity of this dress, which would have been worn over a whalebone corset. small reading light designed t o clip o n t o a
THE STRUCTURE OF COSTUME
In small drawings such as these, use thick pens to color entire sections with a few marks, as I did here down the side of the bodice.
The light, frilly bulk of this crinoline dress is propelled forward with lines. pinching its gathers and sways that are hiding a horsehair bustle. fleets of quick
THIS CLASS FOCUSES ON how to draw textures through the collection of fabric, pattern, and embroidery samples from a costume m u s e u m . This formal method, using ruled squares, can create an invaluable library of ideas a n d i n f o r m a t i o n for future r e f e r e n c e — w h e n painting a clothed figure, or preparing a textile project, for example. However, if making a book of samples for a project, remember that it is important to also include collages of f o u n d materials (see pp.230-31) To d r a w a fabric texture, b e g i n by concentrating o n h o w y o u i m a g i n e it w o u l d feel if you t o u c h e d it. Decide if it w o u l d be rough, s m o o t h , w a r m , cold, thick, thin, tough, or fragile, for example. As you draw, believe you can feel these qualities at your fingertips a n d that your pencil is responding to the sensation. Undulate the pressure of your lines and marks according to the feeling of the fabric rather than its appearance. Let your pencil enact the sensation of touching its surface.
and to experiment more loosely with mixed media.
This starchy, quilted, b o w e d creation started life as an imagined corset, I intended t o d r a w together in one sculptural f o r m a range o f t h e details opposite. T h e garment quickly got o u t o f hand. T h e r e is great e n j o y m e n t in letting y o u r imagination run wild w h e n inventing costumes. If you are unable t o visit a costume museum, many exciting fabric details and textures can be found in y o u r o w n closet o r home.
Colored pencils give precision and tonal range; they can be faded but not erased. Lightly use an HB graphite pencil if you wish to plan a design first. Pressed hard, colored pencils build up a waxy finish of brilliant color. Used lightly, they appear powdery and show the texture of the paper.
TEXTURES AND PATTERNS
Silk and braid
shape. These characters. I made a drawing book full of studies seeking to understand how he composed drama and pathos in his narratives (see also pp.Dressing Character I O N C E SPENT THREE MONTHS researching the work of Francisco de Goya at the Prado Museum. and 252-53). selected from different pages of my original book. look at how Goya delineated volumes of thick fabric to express the posture. 172-73. identity.126-27. and motivation of an individual. . Madrid.
and tangible. I carefully copied the direction of each of his lines.170—71).T H E S E PENCIL STUDIES. are copies of works by Goya in which he makes air seem heavier than flesh. . as it rushes and carves fabric-wrapped forms like rivers and desert winds shaping the earth. To understand how he did this. Posture Carving also taken from my Madrid drawing book (see pp. and visible.
This J u s t as there are three parts to a traditional landscape drawing—the foreground. Third. Seeing through Rembrandt's eyes. paintings depicting scenes from history. and its illumination. We read tensions and exchanges between people. Her all-too-clear expression shows annoyance and irritation with her husband. finding corners in crowded places to inscribe their action and energy onto the page. . and instantly engage with the action of the scene. types. a crowd tells the story from a distance. we. Second. vivid portrait of his wife captures our attention. the speed and printmaker and one of the greatest and most influential density of its lines. this is not the portrait of an old woman. and therefore seem to see. the viewer. while a quill contact with. and other masters of Western Art. First. It middle. and distance—so drawings of gathered people can be loosely arranged in three took only minutes to make and yet it lives for centuries. Washes of shadow behind engaged and as a natural voyeur can feel invisible while watching the scene. the viewer's attention in a scene by the format of its composition. even up her were laid with a brush. in spite of how it may seem. He is also the artist from whom props to add layers of meaning and attitude. comics. are implicated in this marital exchange made over the head of the anonymous nurse.Gatherings A LL DRAWINGS TELL STORIES. soap operas. We can direct close. and so. heighten or subdue drama with subtleties of exaggeration or caricature. Here. there are no longer individuals but one significant group or mass action. we can learn most about handling pen and ink. As artists. too. Blockbuster movies. the viewer is not directly made the finer lines of Saskia. presumably while he is making this drawing. With a pocket full of disposable pens we also go out and draw the expressions of gathered people. we can R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter draftsman. R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN in the delivery of narrative. He in turn scorches the paper with his view and a certain speed of seeing all. but drawings of gathered people tell them most directly. Later in their lives. Drawings selected for this chapter explore these Saskia Lying in Bedand a Nurse ranges of proximity 1638 9 x61/2in (227 x 164 mm) and a travel journal. daily newspapers. Saskia. Storytelling and people-watching are obsessive human activities. Saskia died after childbirth. the direct exchange (as shown here) where one or more characters hold eye Aneedproduced the thicker lines of the nurse. television documentaries. The spaces between people and the positions they occupy on a page are vital to our understanding of the psychology or emotion of an event. stares out from her gloomy sickbed. and novels—our staple cultural diet—are driven by a fascination with shared experience and the detail of what happens in other people's lives. furniture. We can also use clothes. Rembrandt's bored and frustrated wife.
junk. c o m p o s e d garbage p r o d u c e s a c a l m . Real Life is Rubbish 2002 Dimensions variable TIM N O B L E A N D SUE WEBSTER . Here. T h e i m m a c u l a t e d r a w i n g is only r e v e a l e d w h e n t h e b e a m of a p r o j e c t o r c a s t s t h e s h a d o w Projections of the h e a p o n t o a wall. TIM N O B L E A N D SUE W E B S T E R British artists who collaborate using neon. and smoke billows around the agitated jives of the Duchess.kicks against the mundane things that close down your mind is a refreshing and good thing. Pans fly oft the stove. the Cat. Think about what else you could use: a laser smoke. refuse." (Tim Noble) Drawing with light it is important to think about what you is Here timelessly we see a in can draw with. and in. and projectors to create their anarchic punk satires of modern life. narrative is delivered through the air. via the animated clutter of o u r material lives. and on. N o b l e a n d W e b s t e r s w i t t y a n d o f t e n s u b v e r s i v e d r a w i n g s are also c o n t e m p o r a r y art installations. Below. the C o o k . t h e y select and arrange familiar items of street detritus into what appears to be an u n p l e a s a n t pile. plates shatter.176 GATHERINGS SOME DRAWINGS ARE MADE e n t i r e l y o f i l l u m i n a t i o n that floods drama into the viewers gaze. garbage and chaos are piled a n d e x p l o d e d in r o o m s full of event. or even the office photocopier. In both works. hearth i m p l e m e n t s crash at o u r feet. and projector. and Alice. F o r e a c h w o r k .. h a l o e d portrait of the artists seated b a c k to b a c k ."Anything that.. In one of R a c k h a m s great illustrations for Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland. Pencil on paper important but only the beginning of possibility the combination of three-dimensional space. for example. a kitchen explodes in o u r faces.
Refer back to the drawing class how pots In drawn objects and elements that those behind.Stowe's ofMysteryand Queer Little Folks. amplifying movement outward from the vanishing point. and watercolor. Rackham Vanishing point In this marvelous drama made with pen. H e is best k n o w n forillustratingIrving's Rip vanWinkle. This makes the story appear to leap out at us. ink. a n d an unmistakable graphic style. The wood grain acts like marks of speed behind the scene. 100 to see for make elliptical objects and pans fly through the the foreground. and Poe's Tales Imagination.177 ARTHUR RACKHAM British watercolorist and book illustrator. we find several devices already explored through our drawing classes. beams. and Alice's shoulder. See how the In the Duchess's Kitchen 1907 77/8 x 6 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 5 0 m m ) ARTHUR RACKHAM . humor.76-77) above vanishing point (see that is about3/4in (2 cm) oak converge at this point. by vivid children's Rakham's w o r k is characterized fantasy. Depth Billows of smoke expand and are lighter as they come forward. tabletop. are very large compared to on p. Find the singleperspective pp.
which still narrates vivid days in the lives of an energetic nation. The mournful gray landscape of Henry Moore's northern British field has gathered by night an overcoated audience to stand and wait before a wrapped and roped monument. This is an ironic drawing from Moore. and action of a buffalo hunt. In culture. heat. Magnetic Fields sculpture. HENRY MOORE Crowd 1942 Looking at Tied-up Object . Chalk and graphite This fog-bound but humorous gathering of souls is made in graphite and colored chalk with gray wash. and we. as if Moore's wrapping has been literally outstretched.The human form w a s the vehicle o f his expression and h e w a s t h e official W o r l d W a r II artist. a n d l o v e d t o d r a w in t h e BritishMuseum. as fellow watchers. a great Shoshone drawing blazes with the color. expressing his dry humor about O F ALL THE CONTRASTS HENRY MOORE British s c u l p t o r w h o t r a i n e d a n d taught at t h e R C A . A glimmer of gold light appears from the left No explanation is given. Moore's spectators appear to have walked a long way from nowhere to witness and wait beside this mysterious obelisque. London. audiences. This is just one of many precious artifacts from a lost time. Opposite. The image stands out among his more usual graphic works in which he hones and carves semi-abstract human forms. and art in the landscape. perhaps these two are the most extreme. a sculptor. meaning.178 GATHERINGS we have seen in the pairs and trios of drawings by masters and makers. and composition they are polar opposites. M o o r e t o u r e d Italy as a young man. join in the waiting.
Stylized hunters." Men at the instructed to sit and watch. Each color is evenly distributed throughout the scene. Hunt CENTURY SHOSHONE SCHOOL . horses. Skills are taught not center chant or dance to the beat of a drum. and helping our eye to dart around. tolearnhow to paint a scene on a hide are and buffalo circle and charge the perimeters of a skin "field. MAGNETIC FIELDS Horses It is interesting to note how the outstretched limbs ofthesehorses echo European images of the runningBuffalo horse before the sequence-photographer Muybridge taught us to 19TH understand their movement differently.179 SHOSHONE SCHOOL Stylized characters This vital image of a buffalo hunt is made with pigment Members of the Shoshone community wishing painted within dark outlines on a stretched elk hide. creating harmonious balance with words but through silent demonstration.
a d e a t h c h a r g e of brutality. w h i c h b y their c h o i c e a n d h a n d l i n g a c t u a l l y b e c o m e the force a n d spirit of e a c h i m a g e . inextinguishable in its fortitude and h u m o r . Brushed line and wash This is an ink-outlined drawing made with a fine brush on paper with added washes of watercolor The image was subsequently redrawn as a line engraving. a n d f o c u s . w r i t e r a r t i s t . a pink-inked cinema wobbles along with string. Blake w a s d r i v e n b y a passion f o r j u s t i c e a n d a p r o f o u n d b e l i e f in his v i s i t a t i o n s f r o m angels. Opposite. a n d the gentle h u m o r of sedate r i d i c u l e .180 GATHERINGS The Human Condition IN THE SPECTRUM of these vastly d i f f e r e n t g a t h e r i n g s of p e o p l e . It illustrates a scene from Dante's Divine Comedy. W I L L I A M BLAKE British visionary.f o o t e d t r o g l o d y t e s w h o rage into w a r like a m u d s l i d e of revenge. The Circle of the (The Whirlwind 1824 of Lustful Lovers) mm) 143/4 x 207/8i n ( 3 7 4 x 5 3 0 WILLIAM BLAKE . Heath Robinson lived through the same war-torn. w e f i n d a spiritual v i s i o n . p o e t . texture. t h e Bible. w h e r e he w a t c h e s a t u r b u l e n t s p i r a l of p u n i s h m e n t f o r the d a m n e d . and sweetened the often bleak years with his impractical inventions. K a t h e K o l l w i t z s c r a t c h e d a n d e n g r a v e d her a r m y of c l a y . We also see qualities of line. a n d e n g r a v e r w h o p o w e r f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e d his o w n t e x t s in a d d i t i o n t o D a n t e ' s Divine Comedy. The muscularity of Blake's figures was inspired by Michelangelo's works. pale souls of the lustful are being s p u n into yet another realm of hell. Misted in translucent layers of paint. color. m a r k . a n d o t h e r w o r k s . era as Kollwitz. B l a k e h a s i l l u m i n a t e d his s a d d e n e d Virgil on the s h o r e s of a d a r k w o r l d .
Ink rolled over was selectively polished off using a rag.181 KATHE KOLLWITZ German printmaker. stoical bemusement. and the family home. who lived in a poor district of Berlin. He created sincere. plodding along with hazy. sculptor and draftsman. and the impact of death and war upon women. White marks were made with a dusting of French chalk on the artist's finger to wipe away ink leaving clean metal. British Pen and wash This is a pen-andwatercolor drawing made for a color-platereproduction in an edition of T h e Bystander. What remained in scratched grooves printed on damp paper as lines. children. THE HUMAN CONDITION Scratched lines This is a dry-point etching with monoprint. Kollwitz survived the two World Wars. Losbruch (The Outbreak) 1955 20 x 233/8 in (507 x 592 mm) KATHE KOLLWITZ HEATH ROBINSON humorous illustrator and a regular contributor to magazines and journals such as The Sketch and The Bystander. Robinson and Kollwitz (above) share almost identical life dates and their work expresses a shared history from opposite sides oftheworld wars. and her powerful and sensitive drawings center on nurture. Heath Robinson shows England in a past era. humor by making his characters earnest. poverty. HEATH ROBINSON The Kinecar 1926 103/8 x 15 in (262 x 380 mm) . and controlled smears on the metal surface printed as tones. The image was scratched directly onto a metal plate. however meager or ridiculous their activity. and clearly focused. With masterful gentility.
I swiftly focused on gesture. they can be obtained within minutes. 7 6 .r e s i s t a n t . I keep quantities at home. FIBER-TIP: M a n u f a c t u r e d f o r artists a n d d e s i g n e r s in a r a n g e o f w i d t h s . At a time like this. indent paper. trusting shape and form to follow. 4. build to a rich. T h e r e w e r e c seconds t o snatch this impression b e t w e e n their emergence from one bridge and disappearance b e n e a t h t h e next. R O L L E R B A L L : A c o n s t a n t i n k flow 3 . Lines t h i c k e n as t h e p e n w e a r s o u t G r a n d Canal (see pp. . t w o tourists and their gondolier drifter past m e o n a canal. Insensitive t o p r e s s u r e : lines d o n o t v a r y in w i d t h o r t o n e . gel pens) are the most convenient of all materials with which to travel. dark sheen. B A L L P O I N T : Black a n d b o l d c o l o r s o f f e r d i v e r s e qualities. c h o o s e p e n s l a b e l e d " p e r m a n e n t " o r "lightfast. jot notes. Quick-drying. p e r m a n e n t . w a t e r . Unlike pencils. fine fiber-tip Drawing with a fine fiber-tip pen. R e m e m b e r . or turn into washes and make monoprints if flooded with an alcohol-based substance such as hairspray. fibertips. G E L P E N : P r o d u c e d in b l a c k w h i t e . and in most pockets so I can always record a thought DISPOSABLE PENS QUICK NOTES O n a c o l d day in Venice.188-89) and Caravans (see pp.182 GATHERINGS Disposable Pens (ballpoints. t h e y a r e lightfast. The f o u r i l l u s t r a t e d h e r e r e p r e s e n t a basic r a n g e . a n d ranges o f colors. they each offer distinct and sometimes unexpected qualities. a disposable pen with its clip-on cap goes anywhere. a ballpoint will make faint lines.7 7 and 214-15). is d e l i v e r e d t h r o u g h a m e t a l t u b e o v e r a t i n y ball bearing. 192-93) w e r e b o t h m a d e w i t h a ballpoint. Available in blacks and ranges of colors. in the studio. including l u m i n o u s a n d m e t a l l i c . shut your book. these pens enable you to sketch. 2. or idea. a n d pressure-sensitive. if y o u w i s h y o u r d r a w i n g s t o last a n d n o t fade o r b l u r w i t h t i m e a n d e x p o s u r e t o light. For example. rollerballs. dropped in your pocket and forgotten till needed. or put the paper in your pocket instantly without fear of smudging. which can snap or pierce through your clothes. blob when old." 1. in the car. So many stores sell them. turn the page. Ideal f o r precision w o r k (see p p . W h i t e gel p e n s a r e v e r y e f f e c t i v e o n d a r k papers. aiming for correct outlines would result in drawing too slowly to c a t c h the moment. CHOICES AVAILABLE T h e r e a r e m a n y d i s p o s a b l e p e n s t o c h o o s e from.
not form.FROMMEMORY Here I used the same fiber-tip pen to compose a scene from memory. Earlier I had witnessed a crammed en masse in a fleet of hired gondolas complete with musicians and choir. Fast lines focus on action.31 . crowd of fellow travelers Fast lines These scribbled lines model the mass and shadows of heads belonging passengers packed into the boat. Compare this Klee's mules on p.
let it enter the stage and perform. all action is in the line of his coat and directed by his nose. Circular lines buzz around a man puzzling at the end of a train platform (left). Exaggeration helps. if animated. but they should not be what you dwell on. I caught fleeting glimpses of gathered people and solitary souls going about their affairs. and companionship. FLEETING MOMENTS Walking through Venice with a small. life will not slow and wait for you to catch it. angles will happen as a matter of course. pocket notebook and a fiber-tip pen. Don't worry about measuring angles. However. Movement . Every drawing writes an indelible memory of place. No camera can tie you to a time or people in the same way. of course. Each one was witnessed and drawn immediately from the afterimage of what I had just seen. Let the line of the flying coat fly and the hanging arm hang. Each line acts its part in the narrative. Push toward caricature and this will draw out of your memory what was most important. Above all.184 GATHERINGS The Travel Journal I CANNOT OVERSTATE THE JOY of making a travel journal. make them stouter. black. just draw the action. You must learn to trust your memory and to draw what impressed you most. activity. focus on the action of the event. A curatorial assistant flies to do a chore (right). when out drawing. animate them more. if a person was stout. You will make outlines. not its outline.
The rush of his legs isamplifiedby their blurred lines.185 A large lady is photographed in front of a delicate work of art. Expression . I am watched by the aggravated guard. Observation THE TRAVEL JOURNAL The same willowy assistant dashes about his work. I drew him three times on the same page to catch a range of his physical expressions. eager to herd us all from his house of responsibility. In turn.
When your attention has been caught. pulls. you might place them lower down. if they are being haughty. or bulge. start by focusing on its action. Here I have recreated my drawing in steps to show you how to set about capturing such a scene. Here the custodian projects fastidious ownership of his desk and pamphlets by pushing from behind the center of the space and challenging our entry to his image. For example. if they are being devious. decide how faces and bodies contort. focus on action. . not outline. I took refuge in a church in Venice. furniture leans. placement. and there met this sullen custodian. and let every detail speak by its size. or pushes. Be aware that their placement on the page is part of the narrative. flap. rather than the works of art they guarded. Identify the principal character and draw him or her first. and clothing or bags hang. emotion. Place the person carefully. ACTION AND DETAIL W h e n drawing people. For example. He and his simpering assistant would not allow me in. and involvement in the story.186 GATHERINGS Catching the Moment On A BITTERLY COLD November day. and reason for happening. forcing me to remain at the back and look at them. and you decide to draw the moment. elevate them in the pictorial space.
a pillar locates t h e scene in a depth o f space. Draw their action and props.187 The custodian Identify your principal character a n d their psychological role in the scene. who is largely expressed through the shape and fall o f his raincoat and his way o f using a note pad. I added t h e assistant. W i t h a few strokes. In the final step (left) I reinforced t h e custodian's desk. together with any immediate props they are using. CATCHING THE MOMENT The assistant Identify t h e antagonist ( o r second character) in t h e scene. which is pushed toward us in a gesture of confrontation. continue adding characters. If drawing a more complex scene. Decide where t o place them t o emphasize their role. such as the desk and pamphlets seen here. . D r a w their action. Here. Decide where you will place them o n the paper t o emphasize their action and intent.
where vertical mooring poles give space and pulse to the horizontal speed of water quickly.Grand Canal T H E CANALS OF VENICE are bustling places full of occupation. . and buildings. An imminent deluge of tourists urged me to work catching no more than the skeleton of the view. I developed detailofthis drawing from memory using a ballpoint pen.
Venetians flow across a stepped bridge and cascade into the streets beyond. . Characters in the foreground were drawn first.Crossings DURING THIS RUSH HOUR. then the bridge beneath them. followed by the streets. Each person was glimpsed in an instant. To catch characters like this. and drawn immediately from memory. Caricature each person slightly. note only their most essential action and feature.
I found this circus by chance in the Swiss mountains. . Caravans and other backstage activity convey expectations of energy and repose. I used a ballpoint pen to compose a series of scenes.Caravans T H E PARAPHERNALIA O F TRAVEL i s an intriguing part of circus life. and a great subject to draw. Sitting at a distance on a hot. quiet afternoon.
Look closely at works by many artists and you will see that they have not represented hills. 199). sunny days. marking the ground with lines of footprints or by turning stones. Take chances against the rain and work with the wind or fog. and its draws the tides of the seas. to be ready to draw the new light as it breaks across the land. Just as NASA photographs of Earth have had a profound effect on the way we view our fragile home. the face of the Moon. The forces of nature. It now hangs on the staircase of the History of Science Museum. a contemporary environmental artist. are the real subjects in great landscape drawings. By drawing such momentous and everyday events. Russell d r e w this. William Turner is said to have had himself lashed to a ship's mast to comprehend the storm (see p. and take bold steps in emulating the swell of clouds and the forces of torrential water.Earth and the Elements I T MAY SEEM PERVERSE to start a chapter titled "Earth and the Elements" with an image of the Moon. This is the world's first accurate image of the Moon. or the wind carries it away. H e a l s o p r o d u c e d an a l b u m o f 1 8 0 exquisite pencil drawings. artists see for themselves that which is momentary and eternal. so J o h n Russell's tour de f o r c e drawing (opposite) was a masterpiece of observation in his time. a n d a m o o n globe called t h e Selenographia. or has cracked and fallen under the weight of water. a n d a n astronomer w h o dedicated 20 years t o studying t h e M o o n . makes his work by the act of walking. they are the animators of your subject. Oxford. how the soil is scorched. and meteor impacts have scarred. speculation. when little stirs and empty blue skies offer even less to latch lines to. The pastel drawing was constructed from myriad telescopic observations almost 200 years before the Apollo Moon landing. and experiment. our companion. t h e first-ever accurate image o f t h e M o o n ' s surface. pages o f softly i l l u m i n a t e d craters and lunar "seas" c o v e r e d in m a t h e m a t i c a l and s h o r t h a n d calculations. the sun comes out to blind it. but it can be seen as a lens to our observation of this planet. arranging them in perfect circles on the mountainside or in lines drifting out of sight beneath low clouds. as opposed the physicality of Earth. JOHN RUSSELL A p o r t r a i t pastelist t o King G e o r g e III o f England. 5 f t x 5 ft 6 in ( 1 5 2 x 1 6 8 c m ) J O H N RUSSELL . England. surrounded by the bright instruments of centuries of navigation. It is better to get up before dawn. rivers. There is a sense of the heroic in drawing outside—we race to catch a form before the tide engulfs it. and the sea. It is Earths satellite. Richard Long. how the mountain cut by ice and rain is now fleetingly lit. Weather is essential in all landscape drawing. trees. What they have drawn is the force of nature on these properties: how the wind heaves the night ocean. t w o e n g r a v e d m a p s k n o w n as The Lunar Planispheres. In this chapter Moon Pastel 1795 Drawing we experiment with charcoal. These conditions are very difficult to express well. learning to draw light out of dark. and even how the Sun illuminates. Beginners will often choose calm.
distance. has b e c o m e a hysterical kite. T h e great master of English seascape is c o n d u c t i n g with his graphic energy. we can soon learn to draw its force. the government. speed. He knew how the world bends and stutters under such gusts. is already lost. Hokusais sedate wind presses reeds a n d the j o u r n e y s o f young ladies. sculptor. Below. Fluid strokes inflate the woman's dress and pin shadows to the ground. Daumier's c a r t o o n shines with the brilliance of his comic memory. Hazy vertical marks reveal buildings into the mist. Dots and dashes suggest receding trees out of focus. This wife. painter. seeing how it shakes. Crayon and limestone This is a lithograph. Danger of Wearing Balloon Petticoats UNDATED HONORE DAUMIER . fluttering heavily. a scratched ghost.198 EARTH AND THE E L E M E N T S Air in Motion THE GREAT INVISIBLE SUBJECT o f these d r a w i n g s is t h e w i n d . T h e ship. and gives motion to each image. a sail b r o k e n loose in a stormy marriage. the bourgeoisie. A hard waxy was drawn across a heavy limestone Varying definitions crayon of lire and depths of tone conspire to give volume. lifts. like an umbrella forced inside-out. Terrifying waves of merciless nature roar across the paper.Through political drawings he fired his sharp wit at the king. undramatic b u t brimming with stylized realism. and by observing its tides and eddies in our o w n environment. and solidity. H O N O R E DAUMIER French satirical cartoonist lithographer. serving a prison sentence for his views. and the legal profession. Flapping kimonos and an onlooker turning his b a c k have the magic of a m o m e n t caught. By Turner carries us to the heart of the maelstrom. and pioneer ofexpressionism.
W . into this very as pressed sheet The paper's through own coior is brought banks of mist and fog. A outline scratched of a skeletal into penciled ship is while and the waves. including being lashed t o a ship's m a s t in o r d e r to study a storm.M. wind. 1826 91/2 x 113/4 in ( 2 4 1 x 3 0 0 m m ) J. leans the whole composition swells around its fateful center. Landscape a n d city life w e r e his principal subjects. Wind direction wood-block This is a colored To represent the blows lifted flowed wind. AIR IN MOTION Pencil and watercolor subdued brushed.199 J. and history painter w h o s e p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t a b o v e all w a s light. Ship in a Storm c. T U R N E R British landscape. from left print. Hokusai direction (from clothing from has chosen which it the right).i n f l u e n c e d b y examples o f W e s t e r n art obtained through D u t c h t r a d i n g in Nagasaki. horizontally then and of the it into the stream Plants also bend and flow right to Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 1802 81/2 HOKUSAI KATSUSHIKA x 131/2 in ( 2 1 7 x 3 4 3 mm) . a n d his b e s t .b l o c kprintmaker. H o k u s a i in t u r n has since significantly influenced European art. TURNER KATSUSHIKA HOKUSAI Prolific J a p a n e s e c o l o r w o o d . absorbent watercolor and are Stains of splashed. T u r n e r w o r k e d in oils a n d w a t e r c o l o r s a n d s k e t c h e d c o p i o u s l y o n his travels.M. seascape. T h e r e a r e m a n y stories o f his p a s s i o n a t e w o r k i n g methods.W. d e s i g n e r a n d b o o k i l l u s t r a t o r .l o v e dw o r k s i n c l u d e 1 0 0 v i e w s o f M o u n t Fuji and 1 2 v o l u m e s o f Manga. painter.
drawing was Hugo's principal means o f expression. In periods b e t w e e n writing. T h e very nature of b o t h is turmoil and an interweaving of elements. and swim into the page. ink. water. it is difficult to contemplate its brooding and night-soaked heart. Then. h a u n t e d shadows. fantasy palaces. leaving nothing but a glimpse of moonlight glistening on the froth below. An update on biblical showers of fish and frogs. with a brush. Le Bateau-Vision 1864 71/2 x 1 0 in ( 1 9 2 x 2 5 5 m m ) VICTOR H U G O .28). By contrast. T h e m e n a c i n g darkness of Hugo's storm b e l o w is so convincing. or charcoal. he blanketed the drawing in darkness. He brings us to stare into a place that no sane human would enter. Opposite. and tossed o b j e c t s — a perfect subject in which artists can forget themselves. active surfaces of water. D o m e s t i c o b j e c t s we can o w n and name fall from the clouds. composing banks of waves and dense. grab their b r u s h .198) admires the majesty of nature. inks. Turner (see p. as a gestural storm on the paper. EARTH AND THE VICTOR HUGO French novelist and artist (see also p. as if drawn j u s t this year. marks. Pen and brush Hugo drew first with pen and ink. this is a b o m b a r d m e n t from o u r h o m e s . Leonardos Cloudburst of Material Possessions is o n e of his m o s t enigmatic and mysterious works. as a subject and second. and t h e sea s t u d i e d f r o m his h o m e in Guernsey in t h e Channel Islands. this is a writer's narrative of terror. It looks so contemporary.200 ELEMENTS Storms STORMS CAN BE SEEN and drawn in two ways: first. His subjects include ruins. lines of rain escorting them to b o u n c e and clatter.
Each item that has crashed from heaven is drawn in such a way that we can feel Leonardo's nib picking it up in the speed of a doodle. He was left-handed and wrote backwards in Italian from left to right. a bell. There is a little magic in recognizing many items from our homes something like a rake. together with half the contents of our garage. and a wheel. Cloudburst of Material Possessions 1510-12 45/8 x 43/8 in ( 1 1 7 x 1 1 1 mm) L E O N A R D O DA VINCI . envisioning machines centuries before their making (helicopters and bicycles. Above and below are examples of his mirror handwriting.LEONARDO DA VINCI Leonardo devised many artifacts of our modern lives. a hook. and they passed through private hands for 400 years before becoming widely known. It is interesting to speculate how engineering might have developed if his ideas had been shared with the world earlier Ink and chalk This is a pen and ink drawing with touches of black chalk. He bequeathed his drawings to a friend. for example).
Paler. his unsurpassed handling of light. and dry marks in the foreground appear to be made with his finger.202 ELEMENTS THE PROFILE OF A HORIZON is a line we immediately recognize and respond to. Over first lines. Clare Bryan took panoramic photographs of the English South Downs. Segments The top half of the drawing is a view as we enter the valley. transferred it to a scroll. and etcher who lived most of his life in 17th-century Rome. Claude has used a fine nib to delineate segments of land as they recede into space. and after tracing her captured line. and we can imagine standing over his shoulder. and mood simultaneously. which he used to unify his compositions. In the lower half he has walked downhill a little. C L A U D E LORRAIN French classical landscape painter draftsman. she teased away fragments of paper to illuminate her view. watching his hand and eye at work together. Drawing with a scalpel. In a very different work (opposite above). and across to the right. atmosphere. cooler tones receding into the distance are applied with a brush. made inside a book.1638 85/8 x 121/2 in (219 x 320 mm) CLAUDE LORRAIN . Nature Profiles Opposite below. Views from Velletri c. and famed for. Whether land-. rapidly layering contours to shape place. Even distilled from all other detail. Claude Lorrain drew directly on location. She was inspired by her research of aerial plans of London and the story of an alien map butterfly (see caption). or cityscape. Claude is distinguished by. it is the unique calligraphic signature of the place in which we stand. thick. EARTH AND THE Bryan cut the profile of a city. a horizon line can trigger our recognition. rich. sea-.
printmaker graphic designer.5-m)scroll. then hunted destroyed. progressively settlement (cropped more and more paper is drawn away to show the expansion of human page of an around the river. drawings Ideas of introduction Clare Bryan to research introduced down and led NATURE PROFILES and removal historical plans and aerial growth of London showing its population since Roman times. The edges of each here) fade into the solid paper unpopulated with a scalpel landscape. specialty bookbinder. On turning the pages of City. Her recent paper photographic. 2001 CLARE BRYAN C L A R E BRYAN 3ritish artist. and visiting professor at numerous art schools.203 Scalpel-drawn This book-bound drawing was inspired by the story of a foreign butterfly wrongly to Great Britain in 1912. and digital print-based works reflect upon the histories and poetry of "left behind and in-between spaces.The horizon was drawn with a City Landline 2003 271/2x 59 in (70 x 150 cm) scalpel. source workisilluminatedby standing its lower edge on a CLARE BRYAN ." Cut line This is a small section of a preparatory 5-ft(1.
2. fine. maple. It c a n be m a d e duller. Charcoal lifts away from paper easily with the very light touch o f an eraser. black finish. Beware of cheap brands selling dyed chalk as compressed charcoal. MEDIUM W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 5. The same as above. . a n d p l u m . but some specialists stock compressed charcoal in delicate square sticks. blacker. Not to be confused with square conte sticks (see p. b l a c k e r . a piece of fresh bread. sticky side down. this does not exist. COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Machine-made. the heel o f y o u r h a n d . only a little thicker. Lines are achieved by d e p o s i t i n g particles in the grain o f paper. harder line. it is compressed and m o l d e d at high pressure. It does n o t erase easily. you can p u r c h a s e m a c h i n e . Smooth paper accepts few particles. 1 Suspend a length of masking tape. C h a r c o a l naturally glistens. Use any fine-point pen or pencil (I used a ballpoint) to draw a firm line on the back of the Big pieces are perfect for very large-scale drawings—even larger than yourself. feather. leaving u n d e r t r a c e s of first thoughts. It is also easily erased if the maker of the mark is not happy with the result. resulting in a stick that gives a blacker. B u n d l e s o f twigs were traditionally sealed into earthenware j a r s or wet clay and heated slowly and intensely in a fire or kiln. SQUARE COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Not often sold. CHALK CHARCOAL: Technically. It allows you greater precision in your mark-making than if you rub away the charcoal with an eraser. they are all intended for fine work. Willow is the most c o m m o n wood. a n d m o r e i n d e l i b l e by soaking it in linseed oil. 7. without touching the surface. THIN WILLOW CHARCOAL: I used a piece like this to make the drawing opposite. resulting in a pale line. white line into the blackor grayness of willow charcoal. The tip snaps easily to renew a sharp edge if required. Artists have also used lime. Boxes often contain a range of thicknesses to choose for different needs. As its name implies. 3 A white line is lifted out by the tape.204 E A R T H AND THE E L E M E N T S Charcoal CHARCOAL IS PRODUCED from wood baked slowly without exposure to air. it looks gray and feels like chalk. CHARCOAL PENCIL: Types made by different manufacturers vary in quality and density of line. so it chars b l a c k as o p p o s e d to igniting a n d turning to ash. Alternatively. LIFTING OUT This technique is a very easy method of drawing a crisp. tape. and heavier than willow. A great find when available. and offers a rich. 4. 3. R o u g h paper c a n b e loaded. Hold it over your drawing RANGE AVAILABLE Charcoal (in its several forms shown here) is loved or loathed by the beginner to whom it is often recommended because it produces pleasing results quickly. 1. or fingertip. Slightly dull the tape's stickiness before use t o prevent it from lifting out more than you intend. Try itworking on big paper covering a wall.54). a rag. Then lift it away. between your middle finger and thumb. 162) or graphite (see p. THICK W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 2 Keep the tape above your drawing. In use. Essentially. b e e c h . vine. cylindrical.m a d e c o m p r e s s e d charcoal. 6.
Layers can be peeled away to refresh its surface. CHARCOAL Lifting out This detail shows an example of where I used the lifting-out technique demonstrated opposite to draw flashes of lightning against rain clouds. Cotton swabs also work.212-13 were made by altering the pressure applied to the charcoal. graphite. I used a plastic eraser effectively on thinly applied charcoal. Lift out broader marks with a larger implement.205 ERASING Thickly applied charcoal quickly o v e r c o m e s a plastic eraser A w a r m (soft and tacky) putty eraser is more effective. 8 . pastels. PEN: Any fine pen or pencil can be used to draw on the back of masking tape when lifting out. or any other dry media. Use high quality (very sticky) to fix paper to walls and boards. as is fresh (unbuttered!) bread. MASKING TAPE: An invaluable resource. Here. Different tones seen throughout the main drawing on pp. sold in several widths. 10. . 9. Use cheaper (less sticky) for lifting out. Here we used a ballpoint. T O R T I L L O N : This is a tight roll of paper used to blend charcoal.
a less distinct middle ground composed of shapes and textures. our brains search for nameable things and will perceive complete pictures from very little information. an eraser your drawing book or a board and paper fixative (or hairspray).206 EARTH AND THE ELEMENTS Landscapes TREES ALONE OFFER MARVELOUS shapes to draw. It is the visible effect of the atmosphere between where you stand and what you see in the distance. it results in flat planes of clutter. MATERIALS In this first view there is only a foreground and middle distance. At its worst. I relaxed my eyes out of focus to dissolve distracting detail into abstract patches of light and darkness. 9 8 .212-13). When you arrive. Don't worry if it is cloudy: clouds add drama and perspective and make good subjects in themselves (see pp. The long view is hidden behind trees. Then I drew the shape of the tonal patches I perceived. to contain each of your compositions. To experiment with drawing landscapes and the use of charcoal. and an abstract. Landscape drawings are traditionally arranged in three parts: a detailed foreground. Ironically. pack your materials (as advised below) and set off for a local view or your nearest arboretum. They are also good markers of receding space. This term simply means that as land rolls away into the distance. begin by marking out several small squares on your paper. the more you encourage the viewer's imagination to join in and see. hazy distance. On p p . especially when making first excursions into aerial perspective. and a cushion in a plastic bag to sit on. details blur and colors grow paler and bluer. a reel of masking tape. Pack several thick and thin sticks of willow charcoal. Seeing tones .9 9 we noted that in response to visual stimulus. Excessive detail can be admired for its skill and achievement. the less you describe. Successful drawings often only suggest the qualities of the scene without overdescribing them. but is often less evocative and engaging.
full of information you can use to create what you want! Inventing drama . horizontal regions of grass. I have invented drama with diagonals set against each other I tilted the earth. shadows. your view is your inspiration. This composition turned out a little flat because I have an almost even quantity of earth and sky.207 LANDSCAPES In my second square I explored a simple view contrasting soft. and broke a view through the hedge into the distance with a dark sky threatening rain. dark trees with bright. Remember. the trunk of a bare tree. Exploring the view Redrawing the scene above. rounded. It is better to give distinctly more pictorial space to one or the other (see below).
The mud of the tidal shore in Rye. England has embedded within it the decaying skeleton of a burned fishing boat. and seeing what the real choice of subject is. your challenge now is to find a sculptural subject in the landscape. settling my concentration.164-65) and a wire violin (pp. Circling a subject and drawing it from several views imprints on your memory a better understanding of its three-dimensional form. and tiller still standing proud. bare ribs. making the scene below led me to focus on the decaying boat opposite.1 5 my first drawing of the whole view of the Tiber led me to see the real subject of the day. "Drawing in the round means to literally walk around your subject. I usually begin by making an image of the whole view.208 ELEMENTS Drawing in the Round WHEN DRAWING IN THE LANDSCAPE. EARTH AND THE FINDING THE SUBJECT Finding a remarkable subject is even better when you can circumnavigate it in an arena of space. For example." . so the paper is not made blinding and your hand cannot cast a shadow on your work. engine. Similarly. observing it from several views so as to better understand it as a whole. s e e k places in light After my first drawing.104-05). which was the flow of water over rocks. on p p . shade out of the glare of the sun. 2 1 4 . I am then able to home in on what interests me most for further study. taking with you your drawing book and pen. This first drawing serves as a process of arrival. Building on earlier studies of structure in space using shoes (pp.
careful lines to establish the skeleton that gives this wreck its distinct form. The outline ties a shape of darkness to the boat like a weight so that it becomes part of its form. Each n e w drawing gives a different insight. I looked more boldly at the planes and the dynamic of the sculptural craft My lines have become darker and more forceful as confidence in my understanding of the vessel grew.209 SERIES OF STUDIES This stunning ghost o f a boat comes into v i e w t w i c e a day. 3 This impression notes the angle of the broken boat. character. unfussy lines. marking straight. W h e n you have found your subject. make a series o f drawings f r o m different positions. ROUND 2 In this tail-end view. and structure. its overall balance. Overleaf: Decaying Boat 4 . I spent equal time looking at the subject and the paper. w h e n t h e sea recedes. I drew with quick. and the order and shape of its component parts. looking more at the boat than at the paper From this low position I have emphasized how the boat is swallowed in mud by outlining its shadow on the ground. DRAWING IN THE 1 Here.
m a d e on s m o o t h . . I worked quickly to catch and weave the turbulent contrasts of rising wind and approaching water before the drawing could be washed away. hot-pressed drawing p a p e r (see pp.Cloudburst THIS STORM DRAWING. L o o k i n g b a c k and forth from the heavens to firmly taped-down paper. was made with gentle but unhesitating s p e e d .20-21) using a thin stick of willow charcoal.
focusing on the river's eddies. . black. On the pages of a small. pocket-sized notebook.Notes of Force T H E GREAT FLOWING TIBER RIVER has cut through Rome. I drew with a needle-fine fiber-tip pen. pulse. and rhythmic detail as it passed through the ancient gully of the city. shaping the city. since ancient times.
I used a dip pen and waterproof India ink with brushed watercolor to draw the view. . The strong diagonal of the composition from bottom left to top right carries the eye through changes of height and focus from the foreground to the mountains beyond.Mountains SITTING IN THE SHADE of a tree on the Greek island of Antiparos.
precisely because it does not have to represent a physical object. expressive marks and shapes are at the core of natural. actions. The fate of Old World thinking was finally sealed with the brutality of World War I. An abstract mark is often a better conductor of a thought or feeling. it is simply itself. Museum of Fine Arts. I begin every image by feeling its meaning. poet. writhing torrents of color. From one point of view. and emotion. Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape 1915 413/8 x 285/8 in (105 x 72. It was not invented in the 20th century. only rediscovered. The growing rise of Darwinian ideas coupled with Freudian and Marxist perspectives forced Western society to reconsider its origins and future. spontaneous image-making. Perhaps in Western culture we bred this intuitive freedom out of ourselves in our insistence on complex figuration. for example. Outsider artists. many nonWestern cultures have highly sophisticated abstractions at the core of their art. abstraction is not so easy to define. yet my kinship to abstraction is fundamental. liberating. direction. Wolfli was a Swiss draftsman.8 cm) A D O L F WOLFLI Abstraction is a direct. sounds. It also underpins and gives strength and unity to all figurative work. all pictorial representations are abstractions of reality. Artists were given a different tool—a line threaded directly from their subconscious to their hand—and with it they began to map a bold new landscape of marks and concepts that would dramatically and forever change the face of Western art. picturing a stabilized world was impossible and Modernism rode forth with vigor. strike the paper to find form. opposite. Indian mandalas. Afterward. Many concepts and feelings can only be expressed through marks. People are often scared by abstraction and see it as the enemy of figurative art. and it has always been with us. drawn sound. such as Adolf Wolfli. He made thousands of drawings to chronicle his complex life. . writer and composer who suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and was resident in the Waldau Aslyum near Berne. belief. and poetic myth roar and cascade within his tightly framed pages. and history. or gestures. be brave and enjoy them. which are essentially abstract. and young children show us that abstract. His drawings are collected and exhibited internationally and held by the Adolf Wolfli Foundation. As you approach the classes in this chapter. However. Internal workings of the mind were suddenly free to find a new language of expression. My own work is firmly centered in figuration. From another viewpoint. fictional language. and have been making abstract drawings for centuries—Japanese calligraphy. Swirling. First marks. ADOLF WOLFLI One of the greatest masters of Art Brut.Abstract Lines T HE DEVELOPMENT OF W E S T E R N abstract art at the beginning of the 20th century significantly paralleled major changes in world thought. Berne. don't be timid. It is actually its foundation and its infrastructure. Not everything we know has a physical form in the world. and independent means of communication. and Aboriginal art.
and plaster in galleries and landscapes. Moisture produced rust. scrolling across the canvas in an intimate crescendo. The Physical Space 1990 3 0 x 30 ft ( 9 1 4 x 9 1 4 cm) MAMORU ABE . Twombly's mesmeric wax line worked over house paint is like a signature. tone. salt. Lines. Abe works with materials such as soil. Below. texture. quoting ink marks on a page. A line can be finished in a second. and temperature rim of floor space. and patient watching. rhythmically engaged with itself. and sensitivity with its thickness and pressure of touch. A Neolithic chalk tablet bears cut lines that were slowly carved. akin to stones in a Zen garden. and Assistant Professor of Fine A r t at Fukuoka University. Sometimes it smolders like a deep shadow. Iron rods in tone. He travels widely to research ancient sacred sites. as Twombly shows us opposite. silence. This the paper rest within the amplifies framelike of the floor from the ceiling. It can proclaim mood. staining redbrown lines into the white surface. it can keep reforming through the inherent repetition of a process. brass. ice. Five forged steel shapes. Abe's physical drawing is a sculptural installation. Mamoru Abe prepares an image that will appear through the chemistry of iron. or. and wood are also part of the work. water. sit in silent harmony. forged steel. Changes paper.220 A B S T R A C T LINES Process and Harmony SOMETIMES A DRAWN LINE sings on the surface of its support. and texture their bracing separation reaching between from beneath Pillars of the gallery are made part of this drawing by their inclusion in the paper. iron. Damp Japanese paper was laid over carefully arranged iron bars. MAMORU ABE Japanese sculptor and installation artist.
close to Stonehenge in Wiltshire. The central pictorial space is also similarly cut and divided by the considered arrangement of straight lines. PROCESS AND HARMONY Cut lines Chalk carves easily. and the worship of the sun and ancient gods. and sensuous drawing from painting.England.221 ANCIENT CARVINGS Many ancient cultures have made and left behind drawings and texts carved into stones or animal bone. This example is one of two chalk tablets found in a Late-Neolithic pit.Twombly was presented with a Golden Lion award for lifetime achievement.400BCE 21/4 x 21/4 in (58 x 58 mm) ARTIST UNKNOWN Language Over the course of fifty years. emotive. Twombly has language works CY TWOMBLY Contemporary American artist who emerged through the 1950s New York art scene in the heyday of Abstract Expressionism and Action Painting. CY TWOMBLY .Thesite's purpose is unknown.241). At the 2001 Venice Biennale. evolved a raw. Neolithic Chalk Tablet 3. theories suggest astrological observations. Precise lines suggest the use of a sharp flint The framed rectangle of this image is echoed in that of Abe's installation. that challenges the separation of word from image. and American Indian petroglyphs (see p. and Untitled 1970 Here we might seek to grasp letters in the turning of his line. Many of his graffiti-like combine abstract gestures with statements. burials. such as the Rosetta stone. energetic.000-2. the Babylonian world map.
Gestalt o f an unnameable thing. o f t e n e x p r e s s e d in v i s u a l t e r m s . opposite. Hugo. and let the drying meniscus deposit granules in linear drifts such as we would see in the satellite photographic mapping of rivers. a configuration. Gestalt. said. A graphic score is a V I C T O R H U G O Hugo's abstract French novelist w h o m a d e m a n y drawings in m i x e d m e d i a ( s e e also p. interpret. Two Impressions Paper 1853-55 VICTOR HUGO Disk from a Cut-Out . music manuscript requiring instrumentalists to improvise.28.222 ABSTRACT LINES Writing Time SINCE THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY. beautiful. below. and participate in the composition. His drawing writes the time of its own physical process by expressing the extreme concentration of the moment in which it was made. Texture Compare this drawing to Hugo's octopus on p.28). broke new ground in the 1950s with graphic scores now considered among the most extreme. Here he appears t o have saturated the cut-out moon disks with gritty pigment. pressed them face down. he mixed graphite into ink. Both abstract drawing and composition involve the perfect sequencing of sounds and marks against space and silence. abstract artists and composers unique. and lifted them away to leave impressions of watery planets and seas. The scores are also exhibited in galleries as visual art. abstract. brushed night skies over them with ink then lifted the disks to reveal white moons. too. "There is nothing like dream to create the future. and inventive of his time. Marks across the center appear to be made with his fingers. drawing here can b e described in t e r m s o f a G e r m a n philosophical idea a b o u t is t h e i n s t a n t r e c o g n i t i o n t h e p o w e r o f m o m e n t . Similarity in gritty texture suggests that here. o r a pattern o f elements s o unified as a w h o l e t h e y c a n n o t b e e x p l a i n e d asa s u m o f parts. Bussotti." An innovator who never fails to surprise. here he anticipates abstract expressionism by 100 years. Ink impressions When drawing nightscapes Hugo often laid paper disks in place of the moon. have striven to break down old pictorial and musical structures to explore new and unfettered modes of expression.
we can feel their rhythm and easily attach sounds to them. Sound and rhythm This flickering rondo of sound written in pen on a hand-ruled stave can be heard in our imaginations as much as seen. Compare this work to that of Libeskind on p. a far cry from any recognized musical notation. His later works become increasingly abstract. 70 in relation to Bussotti's clustered notes to the left of his rondo and open space to the right. Following the notes. Circular Score for "Due Voci" c. 1958 SYLVANO BUSSOTTI .223 W R I T I N G TIME SYLVANO BUSSOTTI Italian avant-garde composer and principal 20thcentury exponent of the graphic score. Bussotti's first mature work. This is a page from Due Voci.
She tore c l o t h into strips a n d used these to draw patterns a n d symbols o n h e r cell floor. Germany. cultures. Lieb is one o f countless thousands of "Outsider" artists—diverse individuals including ordinary citizens. In the late 1 9 t h century. In music it can be felt in the diversity of plainsong and African d r u m m i n g . they m a k e a visual a n d physical e c h o that t o u c h e s s o m e deep part of the human spirit. Compositional rightness (see pp. Cloth is the simple instrument with which she has conducted and ordered her universe. and c i r c u m s t a n c e s . social outcasts. T h e s e p h o t o g r a p h s d o c u m e n t the meditative drawings o f two w o m e n living worlds apart in different countries. for e x a m p l e .224 A B S T R A C T LINES Chants and Prayers WHEN ABSTRACT LINES are organized in repetition. and sufferers of psychiatric illnesses—who have always existed. d i p p i n g h e r fingers into a pot o f rice flour. Marie Lieb w a s a psychiatric patient in the Heidelberg Asylum. Torn cloth This is one of two published photographs showing Marie Leib's torn cloth strips significantly placed on her cell floor.228-29) has been adjusted with each movement of the rags to draw a cosmos of balance and perfection. It will protect the place from evil and make a pleasing invitation to good spirits. O p p o s i t e . it is found in the regularity o f ordered lines or a pattern. making objects and images outside o f mainstream culture. This takes a form in most cultures. an a n o n y m o u s w o m a n in the southeast Indian state o f Tamil Nadu m a k e s a ritual drawing o n the b r i c k courtyard o f h e r h o m e . Cell Floor With Torn Strips of Cloth 1894 MARIE LIEB . centuries. Visually. MARIE LIEB Little is known of this w o m a n for w h o m the act of drawing was essential.
Motifs are geometrical or based on plants. Skills are handed down through generations and from friend to friend. cultural anthropologist. lecturer on the subjects of Indian art and Indian women's identity. Designs and motifs Rangoii (or mandalas) are ritual drawings made by many millions of women across rural India. Painted Prayers UNDATED STEPHEN R HUYLER . In daily practice.000 images. or flowers are marked or arranged on the ground or on the walls of homes. Materials such as rice flour.225 STEPHEN P.HUYLER Photographer art historian. Popular magazines feature new ideas each week and on special occasions there may be contests. animals. among others. and for over 30 years has traveled extensively through the Indian subcontinent creating an edited archive of 200. women pride themselves on never repeating a design. and in places of worship and celebration. and birds. Huyler is the author of Painted Prayers. at the University of London and Ohio State University. lime.Theseare widely published in journals and are the subjects of international exhibitions. chalk.
Oval moons eclipse each other and oscillate between landforms and portraiture. Mixed media This is a collage of torn white and gray tissue paper previously stained with ink. BRIAN CATLING British sculptor poet. Klee's mathematical maze of thinly washed surface resonates with meticulous planning. With no depth of field. Untitled 2001 2001 153/4x 215/8 in ( 4 0 0 x 550 mm) BRIAN C A T L I N G . Their energy can therefore be a purer expression of an idea or emotion. and water-resistant layers of spray and enamel paint on thick paper. Catling's abstract drawings are usually made in series and in parallel to written poetry and sculptural installations. free from the direct imaging of known physical things. but similarities in mood. Catling's torn paper shapes and shadows spill light out of their frame like a fractured mirror. and Fellow of Linacre College. They each find their pathways and equilibrium in atmosphere and suggestion. Catling's works made for international galleries and museums involve drawing as a tool in their development and making. structure. Oxford. rocks or heads in a subdued atmosphere of dream. gold paint and iridescent gouache mixed with water. it is ruled and contained in one dimension by its interlocking ink-lined borders.226 ABSTRACT LINES Compositions ABSTRACT DRAWINGS ARE LARGELY or entirely free from using the viewer's eye to track and unfold layers of meaning. Ruskin School. performance and installation artist. and choice of hues. figurative representation—that is. filmmaker Professor of Fine Art. These two works present complex compositions with differing intensions and methods of making.
We can see some diagrammatic examples of this among the optical illusions on pp.31). Line and surface Klee observed the visual capacity of lines to push or pull within an image. Polyphon Gefasstes Weiss (White Framed Polyphonically) 1930 131/8x95/8 in (333 x 245 mm) Paul-Klee-Stiftung. philosophized. Geometric harmony This is a work on paper made with a sharp ink pen. He explained his polyphonic painting as "a harmony of several color voices" searching for a visual parallel to music.227 PAUL K L E E Swiss painter and sculptor (see also p.97-99. and might be read as active or passive. and brush. ruler. whereas tonal surfaces are perceived more immediately as a whole. watercolor. Klee painted. drew. It is a geometric harmony of straight lines and tonally graded flat colors that by their arrangement draw our eyes inward to their white center. Klee also felt that a line represents the passing of time. and wrote copiously about the natures and relationships of color and form. Kunstmuseum Bern PAUL KLEE .
their impact. M a n y of their inter-relationships will be meaningless. and elements settle in definitive balance. In his b o o k The Education of a Gardener. angles. and ten straight sticks painted black. or home. w i l l c h a n g e w i t h e v e r y r e a r r a n g e m e n t . there is a clear feeling when. after being continuously adjusted. "Whenall pictorial elements come together in pleasing and perfect balance. or on a page.Thisexercise will help you start. Seek it when looking at other artists' work and in your everyday environment. Feel for it when youdraw." . s o m e will be more or less h a r m o n i o u s . It is found in all great art and design." SETTING UP Justness can be harmonious or deliberately discordant. the impression y o u receive from t h e m . they are just. W h e n m o v i n g objects around in your yard. media. the late garden designer Russell Page explains. a b u n c h of keys. "I have experimented endlessly with this idea. It is also found in nature. but an easy o n e to u n d e r s t a n d . or degree of figuration. they reach a perfect position. There is a single m o m e n t w h e n all proportions. As y o u m o v e them around. Take. and put them o n a tray. regardless of style. a glass. This balance is what every artist and designer searches a n d feels for when making an image. b u t e v e r y n o w a n d again you will hit on an arrangement w h i c h appears just. for instance. and an apple. Set up a sheet of paper with a rectangle drawn on it. culture.228 ABSTRACT LINES Being "Just" A SENSE OF "JUST" (or rightness) is a difficult concept to explain.
fix it with glue. Here. Feel for the rightness of their grouping and their relationships to surrounding spaces. . painted black.56-57). Within a rectangle on a flat sheet of paper set about making a composition using no other rule than a sense of "just. In the final step (left) there is an even balance." Move the sticks to find alignments and imagined perspectives. B E I N G "JUST" 1 Arrange your ten sticks in t w o groups of five. 2 3 In the step above. A stick touching the rectangle links the composition to the frame. horizontals dominate the top. Move the sticks out into the rectangle.229 WHERE TO START Take ten sticks of equal length. W h e n the composition falls into place. horizontals dominate the lower area. as shown here. Arrange them so they touch or cross in a series of intersecting balances. suggesting a horizon. making the composition seem to float beneath. which now becomes a tight frame. Remember the drawn rectangle is a part of the composition (see pp.
and tones. "My understanding is that every object [or shape] emanates—sends out vibrations beyond its physical body which are specific to itself. scissors.230 ABSTRACT LINES Collage H E R E W E EXPERIMENT with collage. which is the shifting. or discordance. ready-made depths and surfaces.. you start composing by adding or subtracting shapes and textures and using colors and tones to achieve the impression you want to m a k e — w h e t h e r dramatic or s u b d u e d . and black ink. found or made items. Once the ten painted black sticks are set and glued in place. Returning to Russell Page. or even strident. correction fluid or white paint." (Russell Page) .220.228-29).69 and Abe's installation on p. they become a scaffold for the addition of further textures. Images and fragments torn from day-to-day life can be brought together to make a chorus of ideas and emotions. Collage offers the artist a liberating palette of SETTING UP This lesson in collage is a direct continuation of the compositional lines made in the previous class. an infinite range of voices and meaning. Cut or torn layers and shapes. glue. stain and dry a sheet of tissue paper using blueink." overlapping placement of materials on a flat plane. colors and textures can be manipulated until their pictorial harmony. a compass. hard or soft. To prepare for this lesson. This principal also applies to three-dimensional drawings such as Gaudi's work with wire and weights on p.Youwill also need spare white paper. he went on to say ".. harmonious. colors. feels "just" (see pp.
and shadow to thepicture. . and with a compass and scissors.The single disk that is folded with its straight edge facing up appears heavier than those that are flat. Cut six small rectangles the same proportion as your whole image. correction fluid and ink marks add further dimensions. COLLAGE 1 Regular-sized pieces of white paper are moved over the surface to disrupt the even lines. four circles of blue tissue paper.231 WHAT TO DO Lay the final step of the previous lesson (p. then cut out. they deepen pictorial space. In the last step (left). This can also give a sense of fragmentation or punctuation to the composition. 2 3 Torn white paper moved over the surface adds masks of rough-edged irregular volume. Obscuring the blue disks.228) in front of you. Glue them in place once they feel "just" Translucent circular disks of tissue paper give color tone. draw. solidity.
Zen Brushwork]. and expectation. Hitsuzendo drawings aspire to "breathe with the energy and vitality of eternal life" achieved through "a state of no mind—beyond thought. is the practice of Zen through the calligraphic marks of a brush dipped in carbon ink.Zen Calligraphy HITSUZENDO. . emotion." [Tanchu Terayama. A MODERN JAPANESE meditative art form inspired by the teachings of Yamaoka Tesshu (1836-1888).
discord is balanced against rhythm to create mood. These vibrate against washes of shadow and pitch-black mass. Lines made with a steel dip pen take on a scratchy nervousness.Nocturnes IN THIS QUARTET of semi-abstract drawings made with India ink. . I flicked spatters of ink and rubbed the paper with a wet and a dry brush to achieve these effects.
wings. . Depictions of God or of gods in the contexts of daily life. look for images in the folds of clothing. Fantasy is most successful when founded on strong and familiar visual logic. a human-animal mix that implies this could MARTIN SCHONGAUER German painter and engraver who settled to work in Colmar Alsace. our eye circulates around a flutter of leather and scaly wings. Monsters take advantage of both. I was on a train passing through Nuneaton. In the Christian churches of Europe. paradise. our literate and more secular Western society still hungers for another world and to ravenously indulge its fascination for the marvelous. Today. To learn to flex your imagination. feathers. The salvation of heaven and terrors of hell are represented equally—enough to make any sinner shudder. for example. we select details of animals farthest from ourselves and that are widely thought disturbing—reptilian and insect features. and the faces of God have for centuries given artists a feast for the extremes of their imagination.Gods and Monsters OUR SACRED AND SECULAR need to visualize demons. Here. which were widely distributed and influential in his time. When creating monsters. Be inspired by the irrational comedy of word association or puns. or in smoke. or strange. which is to have eaten a nun—it inspired the drawing on p. impossible. angels. Lord of the Rings. and damnation are found in most world faiths. serpentine tails. England. and stained-glass windows deliver powerful visual sermons to the once-illiterate populace. Perhaps the Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 1485 121/4 x 9 in (312 x 230 mm) MARTIN SCHONGAUER most important conclusion in this final chapter is to advise you to develop your skills in parallel with the joy of your unfolding imagination. Reading the place name I momentarily glimpsed an alternative meaning. and the Alien trilogy. all of which originated as hundreds of drawings. beasts. Humans are equally troubled by the imperceptibly small and the enormous. We then add substances we dislike: unidentified fluids. For example. Neither should be slave or master. We love our fear of the hybrid—ideally. scales. a Catherine wheel of drawn sparks spiraling around the quietly resolute saint. Star Wars. Images we are now surrounded by bear testimony to the power and resourcefulness of their collective imagination. aliens.247. Feeding this demand. Schongauer is best known for his prints. in the cracks of walls. Throughout this book images are presented to excite and surprise and drawing classes created to increase your confidence. happen to us. thousands of paintings. movie studios now brim with as many monsters as the visual art of the Medieval and Renaissance Church. and deep fur—and we alter their scale. sculptures. We watch with captivated pleasure movies such as The Fly. a collaboration between the two will ensure that your drawings glow with originality.
below. his lover a dog. F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A Spanish court painter printmaker and draftsman. a Shoshone seeking guidance and power meditates at the sacred site of a petroglyph. Paul Thomas's studies of Picasso and Twombly can be traced directly.30. Francisco de Goya was a master of borrowing. Opposite.240 GODS AND M O N S T E R S Marks of Influence marking the influence of one artist upon another. The well-dressed mule is cumbersome. and men clubbing each other to death. Aquatint Goya has drawn a learned man as an ass. noisy seascape on p. The title "And So Was His Grandfather" adds that should we not already know. plain wall suggests a blinkered view of nothing. In this ass. reading from a book of asses. Goya later recorded the horrors of Napoleonic occupation. Near the end of his life he made his "Black Paintings" on the walls of his home. Compare his dark. He would be graceless if he stood. Other drawn versions of this image are more savage and frightening. The high. Violent white marks symbolizing Achilles' rage resonate with the energy of Twombly's script on p. whose impassioned work begins with light tapestry cartoons. quoting great paintings and popular culture to add cunning twists to his satires. hags. Goya's plainly textured gray background pushes back the space behind the illuminated simply subject. it allows the mule to stand forward. Los Caprichos. rushing. to Picasso's similarly tight.220. This act defines the vision and continues the line of spirit guides. a wave to join Achilles' chase of Hector. They depict as if by lamplight the devil and witches. and church murals. portraits. which can swamp the subject Here. Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 1799 81/2 x 6 in (218 x 154 mm) FRANCISCO DE GOYA . Pictorially. In this softer aquatint he poses for his portrait Textured background The aquatint process has been used to great effect in making a gritty toned background. vanity. Opposite below. we see the international icon of stupidity. crammed tightly at his desk. such asinine behavior can be hereditary. barren land rising like MYRIAD CHAINS RUN THROUGH ART HISTORY. This continuity enriches the making of art and our heritage. Visions experienced in front of the drawing sometimes instruct the making of a new one. and follies of court through copious graphic works including his best-known prints. Saturn devouring his son. deranged masses. and exposed the superstitions. Many students leave white backgrounds in their work.
by a supplicant in a trance of meditation. It was made with a sharp implement. Wyoming. values. and personal and social struggles. perhaps a stone. Achilles Chases Hector 1996 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) PAUL THOMAS SHOSHONE PETROGLYPH The Shoshone people of Wyoming name petroglyph sites Poha Kahni. Simple wall stones cleverly state their cold solidity while also fading from our attention as the scene roars by. ideals. meaning "place of power. or of the water Chipped image This is a sacred creature of the sky chipped onto rock at Dinwoody Lake. Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range UNDATED ARTIST UNKNOWN . Parallel lines within the body of the figure are likely to denote power.241 MARKS OF INFLUENCE PAUL T H O M A S British contemporary artist whose epic graphic work questions and reflects upon issues of European identity. White marks like flashes of light are cut though graphite with an eraser to reveal the paper beneath. of the earth. Graphite marks Here Achilles chases Hector around the walls of Troy before killing him. Wind River Reservation. A vivid spectrum of energized graphite marks and a masterly composition give this drawing vitality and speed. Thomas conducts his explorations in the mine of Greek and Roman mythology." Each sacred image drawn into rock belongs to one of three realms in the Shoshone world: the realm of the sky.
crawl. H e was influenced by his friends. as he did the grass. to the right of the balloon.and 16th-century Holland. and scuttle over all known reality. and writer In contrast t o the light and visual accent of contemporary Impressionism. GODS AND Erasure In this charcoal drawing. Children are also delighted to invent a monster or ghoul. Our subconscious can be drawn with pleasure and ease. ODILON REDON French painter draftsman.242 MONSTERS of the unknown is a classical and constant occupation for the artist. T H E EXPLORATION AND DEPICTION Hauntings Grandville has drawn a scurrying zoo of half-known demons and animals that appear to have been stolen from the glass eye of the microscope.204-05 will enable you to produce a similar effect of white lines shining out of dark charcoal. The Eye Like a Strange Mounts Balloon 165/8 x131/8in (422 x 332 mm) ODILON REDON 1882 Toward Infinity . we see parallel slanting pale marks that might have been made with fresh bread—a very effective eraser used before the wide availability of rubber or plastic. Lifting out Fine strings of the hot-air balloon appear dark against the sky and light against the balloon. They float toward us like a horrid visitation. The monsters of Bosch grew from his observations of beggars going about their trade in 15th. graphic artist. below left. the writers Joris-Karl Huysmans and Stephane Mallarme. the shock would be extreme. Redon lifted them out with some sort of eraser. Redon explored the darker side of the human imagination through symbols and mysticism. Compare worked textures throughout the whole of this image to those found throughout Anita Taylor's charcoal drawing on p. Here we see how he evolved their injuries into new limbs and warped proportions. 115. We may feel safe so long as the eye looks heavenward. If it were to turn and stare this way. which sometimes—half-dressed and carrying a familiar trophy— stride. Redon's eyeball balloon rises up. lifting its cranial passenger over a seascape of repose. Techniques demonstrated on pp.
grimacing. and he illustrated the Fables of La Fontaine and Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe. 1840 61/8 x41/2in ( 1 5 5 x 1 1 5 mm) GRANDVILLE HIERONYMUS BOSCH Dutch painter Bosch's highly detailed iconographic religious panel paintings. which is still available today. This image is from one of Grandville's best-known publications. Quill and ink This typical Bosch monster is a quill drawing in bistre ink The phrasing of light and contour here is masterly. Two Monsters UNDATED 45/8 x61/2in (117 x 163 mm) HIERONYMUS BOSCH . Madrid. Garden of Earthly Delights. Smiling. and Ship of Fools. The quality of the line is therefore uniform throughout. HAUNTINGS Engraving This is an engraving made so that Grandville's original drawing could be reproduced. His other major works include Metamorphoses du Jour (1828). include The Haywain.243 J E A N I G N A C E ISIDORE GERARD ("GRANDVILLE") French graphic artist and political satirist. Last Judgment. Les Animaux (1840). teeming with the exhilaration of unrestrained fantasy. sucker-faced creatures dash and trundle toward it They are drawn solidly to emphasize their earthbound weight. Light shines from the right. Comic little headbands of waving hair express more hysteria than fear. Most of his work is in the Prado Museum. A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects c.
topple. A snake eating its own tail is a universal image of the eternal and continuous. hatched lines. a stunning hybrid of a swan. His entire drawing wrestles and weaves the viewer's eye into its retracting folds. Chalk and ink A quill dipped in brown ink was worked over black chalk on this reused sheet. Grimes found the genesis of her beast not among animals. wraps and coils its lithe body ready to strike or whimper at a touch. and dog. poet. muscular tension is carved out of the paper using layered. and engineer Among Michelangelo's great works are the painted ceiling and altar wall of the Sistine Chapel. Two previously drawn faces become humorous antagonists to the beast. lion. Dragon 1522 10 x 133/8 in ( 2 5 4 x 3 3 8 m m ) MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI . Michelangelo's dragon. and marble sculptures including Pieto. gamboling copulations. architect. she formed a series of ghostly pale. In her studio.244 GODS AND MONSTERS Convolutions THESE CONVOLUTED DRAWINGS were made almost 5 0 0 years apart. and play with its perfection and meaning. Grimes' delicately cavorting figures dive into and consume each other. as we might expect. They share between them the pleasures of inventing a hybrid beast. and dying slaves. sometimes artists purposefully tie a knot in the configuration to disturb. David. below. the dome of the Vatican. snake. Scaly. However. pinnacled. but in the seductive landscape of Leonardo da Vinci's oil painting Madonna of the Rocks. and mist-swathed land. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI Florentine painter sculptor. Opposite. phrased over the contours of form and bridging darker areas of shadow. remembering the cavernous. St Peter's square.
London. and the Camberwell and Slade Schools of Fine Art. How Clever of God #84 2002 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) O O N A GRIMES . her under heavy here. Ink-wash delicately gouache (smooth) and gouache brushed drawing on This is a and was hot-pressed Shadows The dark shadow of the Other the ink-wash earth was made with a brushstroke of ink laid into wet paper. Grimes exhibits internationally and features in the collections of the New York Public Library and the Victoria and Albert Museum. each one iridescent and crumbly like a weathered while oyster. It is one of a series of fragile earth figures inspired by rocks. Oxford.245 CONVOLUTIONS O O N A GRIMES British contemporary artist and professor of printmaking at the Ruskin School. details evolved slowly using a drier brush. The large space around figure has been cropped Grimes drawings to flatten presses them. boards finished paper. The image formed directly without first making a pencil outline. London.
The living marks of a wet. drawing tool extending the arm. needle-sharp center of kolinsky red sable hair. and effects.Theyhold plenty of ink and make continuous. SMALL JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with sable hair. SABLE-HAIR LINER: Made with ordinary sable hair surrounding an extralong. This design supplies the fine tip with a long continuity of ink 5. 7. with a fine point for delicate work 4." 6. giving a variety of lines. others are as fine as a whisker with a gentle touch. and wrist into a fluid and soft touch. flowing. Shorter brushes designed for other purposes run out of ink more quickly. it has good wash capabilities. and hold prodigious weights of ink or paint. and very fine lines. Soaps purchased from good art supply stores will gently cleanse particles of pigment that become trapped in the hairs or ferrule. The brushes shown here are a mixture of This is a selection of riggers. 1. ink-laden tip allow an expression that is beyond the linear. 10. 13. SYNTHETIC-HAIR BRUSH: Bound in a synthetic ferrule with good inkholding capacity and good spring and control. Some used by master calligraphers are 2-3 in (5-8 cm) in diameter 11. SYNTHETIC-HAIR LINER: This brush gives a medium line and is firm with a spring to the touch. all perfect for drawing and.246 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brushes T H E BRUSH IS A VOLUPTUOUS and delicate weights. which holds long sable hair This brush holds large amounts of ink for long lines and points well for detailed work. the very opposite of pencil or silver point. between them.H A I R LINER: Very responsive oriental-style liner This to the touch. It is still relatively small in the total range of Japanese brushes. 2. Always clean them thoroughly. LARGER JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with natural hair held in a plastic ferrule on a bamboo handle. 12. shape. POINTED SQUIRREL-HAIR MOP: With a synthetic quill ferrule and extra high inkholding capacity. and has a fine tip for detailed work. It is capable of very fine pointing. this brush has a soft drawing tip and small ink-holding capacity. 3. M T RA S AEIL . washes. Slightly less flexible than the squirrel-hair sword liner 9.H A I R RIGGER: Made with long synthetic hair for fine-point work It has a good ink-holding capacity and is slightly more resilient than sable hair with more "snap. making rt ideally suited to Japanese painting and small-scale calligraphy. S Y N T H E T I C . and never leave them standing on their tip in a jar of water. fingers. dense. return them to their pointed shape. materials. It has exceptional painting characteristics. Brushes vary in size. it has good inkholding capacity and is very flexible. How you care for your brushes will determine how long they last. P O I N T E D T R A D I T I O N A L WRITER: The ferrule is made from a small duck quill. thicknesses. liners. and writers. and texture. SABLE-HAIR RIGGER: Made with very long kolinsky sable hairs. Some are bold. SYNTHETIC-HAIR S W O R D LINER: A lining brush with high ink-holding capacity and a fine point. JAPANESE PAINTING BRUSH: Made with natural hair. Suitable for wash techniques but also capable of very fine detail. SQUIRREL-HAIR S W O R D LINER:This brush has a maximum ink-holding capacity and an extremely fine and flexible point 8. This brush has a broad wash capability and can achieve a very wide range of marks. L A R G E R S Y N T H E T I C . ideally suited to drawing.
247 BRUSHES .
246-47). I had left the end of the ink block in the water overnight to make it easier to dissolve. A single brush has almost balletic potential to draw fine or undulating lines and curves. and to make pools and stains o n the page. b l o w i n g h a r d o n t h e m several t i m e s t o disperse t h e ink ( c l o s e y o u r eyes if y o u t r y this.248 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brush Marks A S I N G L E BRUSH will m a k e an e n o r m o u s range of m a r k s depending u p o n the width. the texture and a b s o r b e n c y of the paper ( w h i c h m a y be d a m p or dry). the speed of the s t r o k e . softness. It also depends on the angle at w h i c h it is held. length. w i t h m y face close. and above all w h e t h e r the b r u s h is saturated with pigment or relatively dry. the degree of pressure applied. I rubbed a block of Chinese ink (see p. splashes.) I .35) into two tablespoons of water in a shallow. Here I drew with a soft Japanese painting brush (see pp. and type of its hairs. unglazed earthenware dish. SETTING UP Blowing spots T h e s e t h r e e s p i d e r y c r e a t u r e s (above right and below) w e r e m a d e by d r o p p i n g s p o t s o f ink f r o m a b r u s h o n t o t h e p a g e and. and spatters.
.249 Gritty texture T h e details o f t h e largest creatures b e l o w and opposite s h o w the granular texture of Chinese b l o c k ink. BRUSH MARKS Wet and dry strokes A m o n g these concentrated drawings ink made into with the same w a t e r y lines. t h e effects of the b r u s h r u n n i n g o u t o f ink. a n d b r u s h . w e see fine lines and s p o t s . a n d t h e w a y it d i s t r i b u t e s w h e n t h e b r u s h is d a b b e d o n its s i d e . b l e e d i n g f r o m strokes b e l o w left.
Oxford.Monsters THESE LITTLE CREATURES o f i n k and i n v e n t i o n were b o r n out of animal and bird studies. and used their detail to draw new creatures that might at first seem familiar. . until we look again. I borrowed small and fragile specimens from the University Museum of Natural History.
showing us that gallery study is not just for the student and beginner.Goya's Monsters W I T H CUNNING BRILLIANCE. thin works titled The Witches' Sabbath and The Procession of St. Madrid. Through studying and drawing these great paintings I have discovered that they are based on a pair of similarly long. Here. are two long. two of my own drawings show you how Goya's devil (below) is based on the shape of Murillo's boy on a horse (top right). . thin works made by Bartolome Murillo in Seville about 120 years earlier. With further research. I found relationships between all four paintings in terms of shapes. and narrative twists. Goya's witches have been literally drawn and evolved out of the shapes of Murillo's prophet and pilgrims. Among his "Black Paintings" in the Prado Museum. They are a pair and hang opposite each other. Isidore. Goya often invented his monsters out of characters seen in other painters' works. formal composition.
Sometimes drawings come out of nowhere and surprise even the artist. little comments on politeness and sexual politics.Consumed THIS IS A SERIES OF CARTOONS I m a d e s o m e years ago. . drawn rapidly and with great joy.
Engraving 1. R e m b r a n d t is a great master o f chiaroscuro. m e a n i n g " t o stick" Dry media M e d i a t h a t a r e n o t w e t o r o i l y — f o r e x a m p l e . so t h a t ink r e m a i n s o n l y in t h e g r o o v e s o f s c r a t c h e d lines. Field In a t w o .m e d i a d r a w i n g . in w h i c h parts o f an image are depicted v e r y brightly and dramatically against d a r k n e s s . Erasure T h e a c t o f r e m o v i n g a n i m a g e f r o m a surface. a n d g r a p h i t e . U s e d as a c o r r e c t i n g device o r pictorial game. charcoal. p r a c t i c e d meditatively w i t h a brush. 2. chance mark-making. usually at a n a c u t e angle t o t h e s u r f a c e .256 GLOSSARY Glossary Accidental drawing Random. Air brush A mechanical. Camera obscura A d a r k e n e d c h a m b e r i n t o w h i c h an i m a g e o f w h a t is o u t s i d e is received t h r o u g h a small o p e n i n g o r lens a n d f o c u s e d in natural c o l o r o n a facing surface. t h e field is t h e a p p a r e n t a n d b e l i e v a b l e space inside t h e p i c t u r e .m a d e paper. A g e n e r a l t e r m t h a t describes t h e various processes o f c u t t i n g a design i n t o a plate o r b l o c k o f m e t a l o r w o o d . Cartoon 1. Fixative lightly glues t h e d r a w i n g t o t h e surface o f t h e p a p e r t o p r e v e n t smudging. T h e m o v e m e n t was started by a g r o u p o f French artists including H e n r i Matisse. o r will o n l y a p p e a r n o r m a l . t o g e t h e r w i t h a t h i c k felt b l a n k e t T h e w h o l e s a n d w i c h o f l a y e r s is t h e n railed t h r o u g h t h e press t o m a k e a p r i n t D r y p o i n t is a very portable and immediate m e t h o d o f printmaking. Acid-free paper P a p e r w i t h a neutral p H t h a t will n o t darken o r d e t e r i o r a t e excessively w i t h age. pastel. T h e b l a n k e t s g i v e t h e p a p e r its rough texture o r "tooth. o r o t h e r (usually large) w o r k — s e e Pouncing. Blotting T h e use o f a b s o r b e n t m a t e r i a l t o lift a w a y excess liquid. a n d given t h e n a m e Sho. tapestry. Collage C o l l e c t e d materials such as c o l o r e d p a p e r s . A h u m o r o u s d r a w i n g o r parody. and readymade objects arranged and stuck o n t o a flat surface. A f u l l . S o m e t i m e s f e r r u l e s a r e m a d e o f plastic o r o t h e r materials. A l s o c a l l e d t h e h o r i z o n line. Calligraphy Beautiful h a n d w r i t i n g . p r i n t i n g press face up. Blending M e r g i n g t w o o r m o r e neighboring colors o r tones t o g e t h e r using a tortillon. Binder A substance t h a t holds particles o f p i g m e n t t o g e t h e r in a paint f o r m u l a t i o n . w h e n a p e r s o n is p a i n t e d standing a g a i n s t a w i n d o w . in w h i c h t h e subject's distinctive features o r peculiarities are deliberately exaggerated f o r c o m i c o r g r o t e s q u e effect. p h o t o g r a p h s . In t h e Far East calligraphy is a highly r e s p e c t e d a r t f o r m . Fixative Liquid acrylic resin a n d l a c q u e r t h i n n e r usually a p p l i e d as a n a e r o s o l s p r a y m i s t t o t h e surface o f a d r y . Deckle edge T h e i r r e g u l a r e d g e o f a s h e e t o f m o l d . n e w s p a p e r cuttings." D e s c r i b e s a p a i n t i n g in w h i c h t h e light s o u r c e is b e h i n d t h e s u b j e c t F o r e x a m p l e . Aerial perspective The effect of the a t m o s p h e r e o v e r distance as it lightens t o n e s a n d cools c o l o r s progressively t o w a r d t h e horizon. C o p p e r p l a t e engravings w e r e widely used t o r e p r o d u c e images b e f o r e p h o t o g r a p h y . o f t e n d i s t o r t e d forms and vivid colors. Fauvism A n early 2 0 t h . A p o t e n t i a l l y h a r s h m e t h o d o f p r o d u c i n g t o n e s in a d r a w i n g . a r e r o l l e d t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders. w h e n v i e w e d f r o m a specified point. F r o m t h e G r e e k kallos. Bleed T h e e f f e c t o f t w o w e t colors running into one another o r o n e color applied t o a w e t surface a n d a l l o w e d t o d i s p e r s e .c e n t u r y painting m o v e m e n t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e use o f b o l d .The plate is t h e n r o l l e d w i t h ink a n d polished with a rag. as o p p o s e d t o t h e s t r a i g h t e d g e o f a sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has b e e n machine-trimmed. F r o m t h e French v e r b coller. L a t e r it c a m e t o m e a n h i g h l y c o n t r a s t e d light effects. Ferrule T h e s h o r t m e t a l t u b e t h a t s u r r o u n d s a n d g n p s t h e hairs o f a p a i n t b r u s h a n d fixes t h e m t o t h e brush handle. W o r d s o r symbols are Cold-pressed papers P a p e r manufactured with a "not" o r " r o u g h " surface. R o u g h p a p e r is m a d e b e t w e e n t w o blankets t h a t . A l s o called r i n g l e t shading. a n d attaches t h e m t o t h e s u p p o r t — f o r example. Eye level T h e i m a g i n a r y h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e a t t h e s a m e h e i g h t as t h e a v e r a g e p e r s o n ' s eyes. t h e l i g h t is b e h i n d h i m o r her. r a t h e r t h a n r e c o r d e d o n a film o r plate.c e n t u r y Italian t e r m m e a n i n g "clear-obscure. See also Hotpressed papers.s i z e d r a w i n g m a d e for t h e purpose o f transferring a design t o a painting." " N o t " p r e s s e d p a p e r is r o l l e d a s e c o n d t i m e w i t h o u t blankets t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders t o p r o d u c e a s m o o t h e r b u t still slightly t e x t u r e d s u r f a c e . It can also seal a silver p o i n t d r a w i n g t o p r e v e n t t h e oxidization (browning) o f t h e Drypoint A d r a w i n g is s c r a t c h e d directly o n t o a m e t a l plate w i t h a m e t a l t o o l h e l d like apen. s u c h as a d r a w i n g o r painting. It is p u t o n a Body color See Gouache. Composition T h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e p a r t s o f an i m a g e t o m a k e u p the whole. In t h e W e s t p e n calligraphy is u s e d t o c r e a t e f o r m a l a n d d e c o r a t i v e t e x t s ." It w a s first given t o t o n a l paintings m a d e in o n e c o l o r — s e e Grisaille. A " s h a l l o w d e p t h o f field" m e a n s t h e p i c t u r e appears t o have only a shallow s p a c e inside i t Diffuse T o s o f t e n o r m a k e less brilliant. A l s o called m u s e u m g r a d e . linseed oil o r egg y o l k Caricature A representation Contour line A line t h a t f o l l o w s t h e s h a p e o f a surface. D a m p p a p e r is laid o n t o p . T h e prints t a k e n from t h e s e plates o r blocks. pressurized t o o l used f o r spraying fine mists o f s m o o t h c o l o r P i g m e n t is d e l i v e r e d b y a j e t o f air n o t t h e bristles o f a brush. Conservation grade D e s c r i b e s a range o f materials t h a t d o n o t d e c a y and cannot be broken d o w n by insects. for example. A i r b r u s h e s are u s e d in t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c o m i c s . s u c h as a s c r e e n . T h e name " n o t " simply refers t o t h e fact t h a t t h e cylinders are n o t h o t in t e m p e r a t u r e . Crosshatching Parallel lines d r a w n across o n e a n o t h e r at right angles.d i m e n s i o n a l i m a g e . m e a n i n g "beauty". Chiaroscuro A 1 7 t h . Also called accelerated perspective. Camera lucida A n optical device t h a t p r o j e c t s an image o f an o b j e c t o n t o a plain s u r f a c e so t h a t it can be traced. written with a broad-nibbed pen o r brush. 2. Anamorphic distortion Stretching an i m a g e across a p i c t u r e surface so t h a t it can o n l y b e u n d e r s t o o d . Bracelet shading C u r v e d parallel lines t h a t f o l l o w t h e c o n t o u r s o f f o r m . Contre jour A F r e n c h t e r m m e a n i n g " a g a i n s t day.
which has a rough surface). Gamut A complete range or extent Glassine A type of thin. Foreshortening A method of depicting an object at an angle to the surface of the picture. The ink attaches to the oil-based image and is repelled by the wet stone. materials that produce marks on a surface. mineral. including Max Ernst used frottage in their work. Ground A wet solution usually of gouache or gesso (chalk and animal glue) brushed onto paper board. Lithography A method of printmaking in which a drawing or painting is made directly onto a smooth slab of particular limestone or a metal plate using an oilbased crayon or ink. then rubbed over carefully but vigorously with a crayon. or plastic surface.The degree to which detail is defined. 2. and orientation of the image. F o r m The outer surface of a three-dimensional object. shape. A small image might be described as small format Horizontal images are often said to be "landscape format" (abbreviated G u m arabic The natural to"landscape"). pastel. Usually an academic drawing observed from life. Monoprinting A direct method of printing in which wet medium (water-. A point of interest in a drawing. it is the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work Pigment Any substance used as a coloring agent—for example. Hatching (cross-) See Crosshatching. Lightfast A term confirming that pigment in the product will not fade with exposure to light. to describe a surface to which paint will adhere readily. Monochrome Usually refers to a black. glossy. or a family of colors. Padua. Dark tones are laid down first then an eraser or masking tape is used to lift away particles of the drawing media to reveal the lightness of the paper beneath. enabling them to stick to paper It also helps to maintain a stable dispersion of pigment particles in water as the film of a wash dries. or a drawing made in any single color GLOSSARY Linear perspective A form of perspective in which parallel lines are represented as converging. multiH u e A term for a color. and gray drawing. format" (abbreviated to "portrait"). glass. work. Objective drawing Refers to the concept of objectivity. Negative space The space between things. Grisaille is occasionally seen in church stained-glass windows. Hairspray is an effective and inexpensive alternative.257 metal line. upright images are called "portrait which is used as a binding agent in many liquid media. Giotto's Virtues and Vices in the Arena Chapel. Also used by artists' materials manufacturers to indicate the use of a substitute pigment—for example. and it has a history in enamel work. Paper is then pressed against the stone to take a print. used for fixing paper to walls and boards. Papercut A type of collage in which flat sheets of paper are cut into an image. the finely ground particles of plant. graphite. Picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. which give it a smooth surface (as opposed to cold-pressed paper. After several intervening processes. rock. the surface of the stone is made wet before being rolled with a thin film of oilbased printing ink. This may be disregarded in real life. Masking fluid Clear or opaque latex fluid developed for watercolor painting. It is a strong adhesive. Rubens used grisaille to paint small images for engravers. cadmium yellow hue. of the ingredients in inks and watercolors. Focus 1 . sticky paper tape. or for wrapping and protecting a finished piece of work.The paper then bears a crayon impression or copy of the surface that was underneath it A number of Surrealists. It can be used with any wet media to isolate or protect parts of an image from further Optical blending See Pointillism. Paper is laid on top and a rapid drawing is made on the back of it The paper lifts away to reveal the image on its other side. Pointillism A technique of using points or dots of pure color in such a way that when the picture is viewed from a distance they react Masking tape Invaluable. Alternatively. and that will "escape" or change over time. so that (using vanishing point perspective) the object appears to change shape and become narrower or smaller as it recedes. and by artists representing stone sculptures in a painting. purpose. Impressing Stamping or printing. or synthetic material that are suspended in a medium to constitute paint. This effect emulates what we see in real life. to give the illusion of depth and distance. It is then peeled away. The surface can be reloaded or redrawn with more medium. oil-based printing ink is rolled evenly onto a smooth metal. and masking off areas of a drawing that the artist wishes to keep untouched by media applied above or beside the tape. Artists can paint freely over dry masking fluid. Fugitive A term given to a pigment that it is not stable. or can be otherwise used to create an image—for example. Hot-pressed papers (HP) Paper made using hot cylinders. Medium A generic term for art Key A painting is said to be "high key" when the colors and tones are bright and "low key" when they are dark or somber The term is also used Gouache Opaque watercolor Also called body color. or canvas and allowed to dry before an image is drawn or painted. or even a beam of light. ink. but each print will be unique. Grisaille A painting in gray or a grayish color Often made by students as a tonal exercise. It improves the bonding properties Frottage A French term meaning "rubbing. F o r m a t T h e size." A piece of paper is placed on top of an object or rough surface. white. and translucent paper—a delicate material used in collage. aiming to represent facts rather than an interpretation of the subject.while secretion of the acacia tree.Theground provides a particular color or texture beneath the image. Lifting out A method of creating highlights and mid-tones in a drymedia drawing (such as charcoal or graphite). . Plumb line A line from which a weight is suspended in order to determine verticality or depth. oil-. are painted in grisaille and appear to be made of stone. with the area beneath remaining unaffected. This method incorporates the excitement of accidental and unpredicted marks. lifting out charcoal and other dry media. and is also used as a size. but in picture-making it is as important as the objects/subjects themselves. Also refers to an additive used to control the application properties of a color Golden Section A proportion in which a straight line or rectangle is divided into two unequal parts in such a way that the ratio of the smaller part to the greater part is the same as that of the greater part to the whole. or spirit-based) is applied to a surface that is then pressed onto paper and removed to leave a print.
giving it a brilliance. Shade A that is color mixed (or toned) with black Shading A lay term for adding tone to a drawing. Turpentine A colorless solvent distilled from the resinous sap of pine trees. Still life A picture composed of inanimate objects such as bowls. glasses. Pounce (a fine for an unpopular 18th-century powder of charcoal or similar French politician. Technical drawing A universal it is often used in conjunction language of lines and measurements with line drawings in pen and that is used to make diagrammatic ink—for images. Serigraphy Silk-screen printing. fruit. Sfumato An Italian term meaning "smoky. Vanishing point In linear perspective. pointed roll of white paper that is used to blend dry media. or ceramic glazing to reveal a different color beneath. or the left-hand page in a book. nature of watercolor allows the white surface of the paper to Tonal scale A scale of gradations shine through. Scale Describes the size of one element in relation to another Sepia A brown pigment taken from the sun-dried ink sacs of cuttlefish and used to make ink or watercolor The term is now often incorrectly used to refer to brown colors. Pouncing If a large drawing or design (called a cartoon) is to be Shadow Darkness cast by the transferred to a surface such as a obscuring of light. or wood. Although drawings can be made with wash alone. which are then called editions. plaster. and chrysanthemum—which in Chinese tradition are called "The Four Gentlemen. or watercolor paint. Sketch A quick or rough drawing. or gouache. .Thedrawing is removed. Zen brushwork This is an oriental meditative art form originating in China and practised for many centuries in Japan. by imposing a grid that is then scaled up to a larger size. Size A weak glue used for filling the porous surface of wood or canvas in order to seal it. orchids. whose pinpricks creates a "connect-thepersonal pastime was making dots" replica of the image on the cut-out portraits. a point at which receding parallel lines meet Verso The back or underside of a piece of paper. tight. paper or canvas. such as an inscribed sheet of metal. in order to flick the pigment onto the image surface. commonly referred to as the lead. Recto The front or top side of a piece of paper. Spattering A mottled texture produced by drawing your fingers across the bristles of a stiff brush loaded with pigment. or point on which parallel lines converge to give the impression of receding space. compound of water-soluble pigment. a sheet of paper is placed beneath and pinpricks are Silhouette A flat. Squaring up A method of enlarging and transferring an image from one surface to another. Volume The amount of space occupied by an object or an area of space in itself." Applied to the blurring or softening of sharp outlines by the subtle and gradual blending of one tone into another Sgraffito A technique of scratching or cutting through a surface of paint. A term borrowed from the theater.Technicaldrawing has been example. Artists' prints are normally made in multiple. "Spirits" or "oil" of turpentine refer to the volatile portion used by artists to thin or dilute oil-based paint. Zen paintings usually depict scenes of nature and plants such as bamboo. fine paper. or mark using an inked or pigment-covered surface. in tone running from black to white or vice versa. Underdrawing A pale preliminary drawing made prior to adding layers of another medium such as oil paint or watercolor Value The extent to which a color reflects or transmits light This is the equivalent of tone in a black and white image. Tone A degree of lightness or darkness. a tightly folded piece of cotton batting can be used for the same effect. and flowers. ink. an ink stone usually cut from slate. Named paper in place. or any physical object that can be stamped or pressed onto a surface to leave an impression. Strip Core of a pencil. W e t media Any liquid media— for example. Stylus A sharp. Zen A school of Mahayana Buddhism that asserts that enlightenment can come through meditation and intuition rather than faith. cut-out profile made along every outline of the usually made in black paper image. wall or tapestry. Support The structure on which an image is made—for example. using a brush. pencil. Zen brushwork encompasses calligraphy and painting. The translucent Tint A color mixed with white. Viewpoint The position from which something is observed or considered. watercolor. to model areas of light and shade. plaster or cloth surface beneath. Alternatively. Etienne de material) dabbed through the Silhouette (1709-67). Subjective drawing A drawing that expresses the personal view and interpretation of the artist An invented image. meaning objects used in setting up a life model or still life. Props An abbreviation of the word properties. sometimes drawn from a and leaving only the pricked sheet of shadow cast on a wall. The crude material is called oleoresin. creating more vibrant effects than if the same colors were physically mixed together with a brush. design. Printmaking The act of making a picture. Single-point perspective The most basic form of linear perspective in which there is only one vanishing point. Squeegee A rubber-trimmed scraper used in the screenprinting process for dragging ink across a surface. and paperweights. Stippling Applying color or tone in areas of fine dots or flecks. Tortillon A short. carbon ink. or the right-hand page in a book. Wash A technique using ink. usually diluted with water and applied with a brush." Materials for Zen brushwork include round brushes of varied size. pointed instrument used for marking or engraving. or pen.258 GLOSSARY together optically. acrylic. evolved by engineers and architects for the purpose of conveying W a t e r c o l o r A painting accurate structural information. plum blossom.
75. Zen c 232-233 blended 133.163 body. 9. 98. 71 conte 112. 157 cropping 56-57.184. 244 and graphite 178 . 74 brush (es) 246-247 Japanese 248 for laying a wash 140 marks 248-249 to hold 23 brush drawings 14-15 Bryan. 78 aerial perspective 206 airbrushing 160.Index Page numbers in italics refer t o captions and illustrations Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity (Bishndas and 259 INDEX B bread (as eraser) 205. 13. 202 cloth. 242 to blend 205 compressed 122. 230 The Physical Space 220 abstract drawing 219. Statue d'Epouvante 90 calligraphy.51 All and Nothing (Taylor) 114. 111. 226-227 Acanthus spinosus 65 accelerated perspective 22. 182. 52 cotton swabs 205 Coup de Vent a Asajigabare (Hokusai) 198. 30 sleeping dog 38-39 Stubbs's horse skeleton 26. 189.186 see also movement Adoration of the Magi perspective study (Leonardo) 74. to draw 80. layers 53 chalk pastels 162. 206. 221 animals. Clare 203 City 202. 40-41 Durer's rhinoceros 26. Joseph 113 The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland 112. 71 Blake. 205 Baltard. 8 cave paintings 8. to draw 25. 186 charcoal 114. 230-231 Cubist 90. Le (Hugo) 200. 243 botanical drawing 48-49 Boullee. 41 principal 186. center of 118 ballpoint 182. 222. 180 Circular Score for "Due Voce" (Bussotti) 223 circus scenes 192-195 City (Bryan) 202. 116. 200 Bauer. 199 Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya (Eisen) 156. 250 Bishndas and Nanha: Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity 50.163 graded 227 composition 56-57. 90 colored materials 162-163 colored pencils 162. 70 Art Nouveau motifs 91 Autoportrait (Ray) 138. 134 costume(s) 155 character 158-159 structure of 166-167 Cottage Among Trees (Rembrandt) 52.133. 190 Caricature of a Woman (Daumier) 198. 223 Circular Score for "Due Voce" 223 children's art 9. 160 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object (Moore) 178. 133. 113 bird bones 12. 128. 90 La Guitare. 179 Bussotti. 198 cartoon (preparatory drawing) 137 (satirical) 159. Augustin 67 Basquiat. 163.117 Achilles Chases Hector (Thomas) 240. to depict 156-157 Cloudburst of Material Possessions (Leonardo) 200. Georges 67. 241 action.31 Picasso's horse and bird 30. 28 Klee's horses 30. 161 Akhlaq-I Rasul Allah manuscript 51. 206 checkered floor 80. to draw 100 Cypripedium calceolus L. 137 Besler. Giovanni 137 Head and Shoulders of a Man 136.44-45 bird studies 12. 165. 81 135. 50. Sylvano 222. Franz 48 Protea nitida 48 Bellini. 74. 26 geese 38-39 Gericault's cats 28. 13 architectural drawing 67-71 Arctic Flowers (Libeskind) 70. 204-205.27 turtles 42-43 aquatint 240 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels (Leonardo) 12. Basilius 47 Beuys. 95 Chair Cut Out (Woodfine) 94. (Ross-Craig) 49 to hold brush for 23 caricature 159. 90. 242 Brunelleschi. Mamaru 104. Hieronymus 243 Two Monsters 242.163 dry media 205 Blue Nude (Matisse) 110.44-45. 247-248 carving see lines.100 curves. 94 chalk(s) 53. 162 character: to capture 38-39. 180 blending: color 133. Jean Michel 138 Self-Portrait 138 Bateau-Vision. 203 Landline 202. to express 39. 204. 81 cut-out model plan 94. 201 collage 111. 29 Hugo's octopus 28.50. Leon: Bacchante 155 balance. 198. Victor: West Facade of the Church of St. 193 in lifting out 204. 72 bracelet shading 122 Braque. Filippo 67. 71 Bacchante (Bakst) 155 background: color 91 textured 240 Baker Matthew: Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry 32 Bakst.115 anatomical drawing 134-135 anatomical theaters 82-83 anatomical waxes 128 ancient carvings 221.212 to erase 205 to hold 23 pencils 204 willow 114.13.226. 90.169 colors: airbrushed 161 background 91 A Abe. 74.184. 139 Nanha) 50. 38-39. 220. 203 Buffalo Hunt (Shoshone) 178. to model 110-111 border 51 Bosch. Etienne-Louis 72 Newton's Cenotaph 72.89.198. cut Catling. Nicolas-Jacques 54 contours 146.162 Conte. 244 head and neck 144 phrased 124-125 contrast: brightness 99 of media 30 tonal 96. William: The Circle of the Lustful 180. 94 cylindrical objects. Brian 226 Untitled 2001 226 "Cave of the Hands" (Cueva de las Manas) 8. 178 Cubism 67. 75 Circle of the Lustful (Blake) 180. 158. 203 Claude Lorrain 202 Views from Velletri 202. 9 Chair (Van Gogh) 94.
12 fixative 54.166 170-173 Gestalt 222 Giacometti. 55. 115 Escher. 170-173. 134.91. 226-227 anatomical 134-135 architectural 67-71 botanical 48-49 brush 14-15 dark to light 102. Statue d'Epouvante.184 165. 41 in the round 208-209 with scalpel 202.103. 161 fashion 160.97. 163. 134. Sir Ernst 12. 25 focus 65. 112. 69 Guitare. 113. 243 graphic score 222. 161 fashion drawings 160. 230 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction 68. fiber-tip pen 182. The 242. 125. 90 G Gaudi.111 feet.244 drawing(s): abstract 219. to draw 134-137 Helleborus corsicus 55 highlights 91. 240. 245 layers 30 Goya. to draw 168-169 in Goya's artworks face. 69. drypoint 181 exaggeration 184 expressionism 198 E ye and Head of a Drone Fly (Hooke) 92. 71 minimal line 99 and music 70-71 quick 38-39. 160 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction (Gaudi) 68.115 exploratory 17 fantasy 72-73. 104-105. 223. Nicholas 68 St Paul's Baptistry 68 head and neck to draw 142-145 Head and Shoulders of a Man (Bellini) 136. to draw 78. 135 Duren Albrecht 26. 203 Hotel de la Suzonnieres (Satie) 70.103 with eraser 103. position of 22 Eisen.112. 69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt 68. 163. Victor 200. 160 as ground for metal point 140. 131 Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 240. 161 changing 216 Focusing on the Negative (Walter) 16 foliage 52. 91 Dragon (Michelangelo) 36. 134. 222. Rene 160 Illustration for Jacques Fath E easel. 93 eye level 80 Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity.116. 69. Cheval et Oiseau (Picasso) 30. 245 Gruau. 30 Fauves/fauvism 90. 40. 136 Golden Section 67 Gombrich. 240 Black Paintings 152. Antonio 135 Muscles of the Head and Neck 134.157 ellipses 100. 137 heads. 79. 220 dry brush 234 234 57. 144 Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (Baker) 32. 223 graphite 54. 93 horizon 52.104.John 157 Man Lying Down in a Cloak 156. 222 Le Bateau-Vision 200. 203 semi-abstract 234-237 three-dimensional 68. Francisco de 131. Alberto 136 Portrait of Marie-Laure de Noailles 136. 132 Frenz. 73. C . 799 Holbein.198 Degas. 222 Grimes. 32 framing 139 Franfoise au Bandeau (Picasso) 132.109 Rhinoceros 26.252-253 from memory 183. 141 tonal 96. 162 Flaxman.260 INDEX D Dada 139 Daumien Honore 198 Caricature of a Woman 198. 26 Flying Fish (White) 25. Edgar 162 depth. 120. 29 H hands. Katsushika 199 Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 198.121 felt-tip pens 162. 55. Study for Plate 59 (Mucha) 90.207.102-103 drawing board 20 drawing books 20-21 drawing paper 144. to suggest 177 see also perspective diagonals diffuser 55 dip pens 34.216. 242 eyes. 241 to blend 205 and chalk 178 and ink 28.230 three-tone 140.216 Durelli. 55. 240 170-173 five Ships in a Port with Lighthouse (Wallis) 11. 202.160. Hans 133 The Ambassadors 116 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 132. Keisai 157 The Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya 156. 52 foreground 208.117 fountain pens 34. 37 Grandville 243 A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the Near-Microscopic World of Scale Insects 242. 157 . 77 How Clever of God #84 244.244. M. Antonio 68. position of 143. 765 hitsuzendo drawings 233 Hokusai.146 from masterworks 126-127. 99 etching.69 Gerard. 200 F fabric. 252 depiction of fabric monsters 252-253 Self Portrait in a Cocked Hat 130. 122 Hawksmoor. 90 gouache 30.144 and ink 220.127.116.11. 160 hitsuzendo 233 light to dark 102. Jean Ignace Isidore see Grandville Gericault. disposable pens 182-183 dissections: botanical 48 of horse 27 distance: illusion of see perspective linear 97 tonal 97 Documents Decoratifs. Robert 93 Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 92. 245 Hugo. 205 drawing with 103. 190 Middle Eastern 50-51.Theodore 29 Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 28. Oona 245 How Clever of God #84 244. proportions of 143 fantasy drawings 72-73. 160 Faune.160. Ron 161 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 161 160. 124. La (Braque) 90. 7 33 Hooke. 216 foreshortening 110.101 engraving 243 erasers/erasing 55. 122.141. to draw 120.
76 Libeskind. 234 iron-gall 35. 230 invented creatures 106-107 250-251 invented objects 89.91 Study for Plate 59 of INDEX illumination see lighting Illustration for Jacques Fath (Gruau) 160.243 carbon 35 Chinese 30. 73 Kigell. 220. Gustav 49 Knopf. 114 hatched 244 layered 118 pace of 65 pale 40 rapid 49. Matisse. 72. 78 Study ofThree Male Figures 110. 13 Cloudburst of Material Possessions 200. 248. David 78 M Mackintosh. Victor 134 Profile Head 134.181 L Landline (Bryan) 202.96. drawing from 183. 36. 242 light 96 to depict drawing with 1 76 painting with 176 . 37 lines 118 pastel 162 pencil 31.The (Robinson) 108. 183 vertical 156 linear distance 97 linear perspective 69. 178 motifs: A r t Nouveau 9 7 stylized 51 mountains 216-217 movement: of animals 30-31 of humans 7 79. 252 Muscles of the Head and Neck (Durelli) 134. 77 Miller. 203. 181 luminosity 115 Lynch.109. 83 white 122 ink impressions 222 ink spatters 234 installations 176. 33 J justness 228-229 N naive art 74 negative space 53. 201 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels 12. 163 pens 36 measuring 116 memory. Charles Rennie 48. 205. Alphonse 90. 58-59.102. Piet 52. Florence 128 lighting in 167 Pitt Rivers.141.104. 220. 757 mandalas 219. 158 Man Lying Down in a Cloak (Flaxman) 156. 220. 201 head and neck sections of female mold for Sforza Horse 89 Madonna of the Rocks 244 perspective study for Adoration of the Magi 74. 28 Two Impressions from a Cut-out Paper Disk 222 Huyler Stephen R 225 261 Kinecar. 185 Mucha. 184.124. 34. Kathe 181 Losbrunch (The Outbreak) 180. 97 Murillo. 244. 244 Dragon 36. 31 Klimt. 34-35 acrylic 35 bistre 35.Pieuvre (Octopus) 28. 252 ink 16.109. Marie 244 cloth drawing 244.227 to "bend" straight 97 compositional 228-229 cut 202. 166. Johan 32. 63. 160 In the Duchess's Kitchen (Rackham) 176. apparent 97 Leonardo da Vinci 74.276. Oxford 250 music 70-71 Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks (Knopf) 32. 219 Mondrian. 49 Rose 49 Maelbeke Madonna (Van Eyck) 156. 181 Klee.120. 249 and gouache 30 Indian 35. 220.182 Moore. 244 ink 36 252-253 Documents Decoratifs 90. 226 Modernism 67. Phyll: hands 18 lifting out 204. 53 monoprint 787. 111. 35. Henry 178 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object 178. 205 masterworks. Paul 227 Polyphonic Setting for White 226. 74-77. drawing from 126-127. 159 Japanese 35 to make 36 sepia 35 walnut 36. 225 masking tape 204. 170-173.134 K Kettlehut. 53 Tree II 52. Bartolome: Moses Striking the Rock ofHoreb 252. 789.141 Metropolis (film) 72. I Murderous Attacks 33 Kollwitz. 60. 103 Neolithic chalk tablet 220. 756 priming for 140. 227 Newsome. 99.33 Mysterious Affairs of the lighting 2 7. 54 silver point 156 leg sections 158 length.115 98.112. 176. artistic 240-241. 190 metal pens see dip pens metal point 25. 156 magnification 93 Man in Armor (Van Dyck) 158. Erich 73 design for Metropolis 72. 221 endless 31 free 113. Oxford 106 Prado. Henri 111 Blue Nude 1110. 135 museums 44. 73 Michelangelo Buonarroti 48. 177 influences. Daniel 70 Arctic Flowers 70 Lieb.167 line(s) 132.166 La Specola. 244 lithograph 198 Losbruch (Kollwitz) 180. 203 landscape 206-208 brushed 14 Landscape in Hoboku Style (Sesshu) 14 layers 146 chalk 53 gouache 30 ink 28. 227 Scene of Comical Riders 30. Madrid 171 University Museum of Natural History. 110 Sistine Chapel ceiling 116 Middle Eastern drawing 50-51. Rose: Tantalus or the Future of Man 20 minimal line drawing 99 mirror use of 120 mixed media 28.
34-35. 239 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat (Seurat) 112.199 Profile Head (Newsome) oil pastels 162. 1 2 4 priming for metal point 140. Stella 48 Cypripedium calceolus L 49 rotated view 7 65 Rubens. 227 portfolios 20 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser de Noailles (Holbein) 132. 7 72 Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland.Toyo: Landscape in Hoboku . 736 portraits. 181 Rodin. 9 8 . 36.262 INDEX Newton. 36. 205 157. Man 131. 205 pointillism 112 polyphonic painting 227 Polyphonic Setting for White (Klee) 226. 91 outsider artists 33.176 Real Life Is Rubbish 176.2 3 age and youth sleeping subjects 148-149 150-151 Renaissance 109 Rhinoceros (Durer) 26. 38. 38. The (Abe) 220 Picasso. 160. 72 Noble. 164. Arthur 177 In the Duchess's Kitchen 176. Russell 228. Cheval et Oiseau 30.131 Cottage Among Trees 52. 73 Noble.36. 219. Heath 181 The Kinecar 180. 243.52 pen and wash 158. 71 Satire of the Queen's Dress (Wodall) 158. 7 76 receding space 206 Redon. Odilon 242 The Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity 242. 97. 243. 2 2 0 for oil pastels 162 stained 230 to stretch 140-141 tissue 21. Peter Paul 126-127 Embracing pose(s): balanced 146 quick 118-119 positive form 103 posture: of artist 22 of subject 3 8 .54 pastel 162 perspective 1 0 0 . 181 pencil(s) 54 charcoal 204 colored 762. 161. Erik 70. 1 1 7 aerial 206 linear 69.104 Pieuvre (Hugo) 28. 68 Satie. 78 single-point 74.184 fountain 34.40. 36. 74. 733 Portrait de Marie-Laure (Giacometti) 136. Paul 73 Nobson Central 72. 162 O p A r t 98 optical illusions 96-99 outline 33. 36. Pablo 6 7 . Faune.37. 1 3 2 quill pens 34. Georges 112 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 112. 76 plastic eraser 55. 203 Scene of Comical Riders (Klee) 30. 28 pigment 162 bright 50 Caput Mortuum 7 4 7 for three-tone drawing 141.oise au Bandeau 132. 52 pens 36 scalpel 54 drawing with 202. to draw 146-147 R Rackham.37. 7 70 Ray. 234 disposable 182-183 felt-tip 162. 139 Real Life is Rubbish (Noble and Webster) 176.139 Autoportrait 138.226. 1 6 9 to hold 2 2 . J 76 nudes 114-115 to make 36 metal see dip quill 34. and Webster. 230 parallel planes 79 Parisian street 86-87 pastels 162 to blend 205 to hold 23 layers 162 pencils 162 pen(s): dip 34 . 1 6 3 .Tim. 36.141 prints/printing: aquatint 240 dry-point etching 181 engraving 243 monoprint 181.37 scientific instruments 9 2 .Paul'sBaptistry (Hawksmoor) 68. 141 Piranesi. Sue 104. 114 rollerball 182 Rorschach blot 99 Rose (Mackintosh) 48. 26 Riley. 7 73 self-portraits: Basquiat 138. 242 reed pens 34.71 Hotel de la Suzonnieres 70. 244 Q s Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape (Wolfli) 2 79 St. 4 8 putty eraser 55. 103. 36 pen and brush 8 3 pen and ink 70. 7 77 three-point 80. 76-79. 75 Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range 241 petroglyphs 221. 216. 1 1 6 accelerated 2 2 .7 77 rapidograph 70 Raphael 110. Giovanni Battista 74. 122. 159. 37 38. 163. 74-77. 772 234-237 Sesshu. 739 semi-abstract drawings Style 14 Seurat. 75 Two Courtyards 75.240. 224 0 layers 31. 212 Japanese 2 1 . 40-41. 230 paper(s) 21 colored 162 drawing 144. 782 relief 757 silk-screen 739 woodblock 134. 9 0 . 166 fiber-tip 782. 239 Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 238. 4 9 Rose of Mohammed 50.The (Beuys) 112.759. 7 38 Ray 138. 734 Protea nitida (Bauer) 48. 244 reed 34. Bridget 98 Robinson. 165. Martin 238. 1 1 6 . Auguste 114 Two Women 114. 57 Ross-Craig. 165 figure 118 filled 37 pencil 48. 30 Fran<. 759 P Page. 36 relief printing 757 Rembrandt van Rijn 52. 732 influence of 240 painting with light 78.9 3 Schongauer. Isaac 92 Telescope 92 Newton's Cenotaph (Boullee) 72. 241 Physical Space. 81 two-point 74.
A n t h o n y 152.1 4 1 . 9 2 Tesshu.1 0 5 vision 9 6 Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects (Grandville) 242. 249 t o describe 39. 53 trees. 75. Adolf: Giant-Grape Saint-Mary-Castle 219 Woman at Her Toilet ( T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c ) 74 w o o d b l o c k print 157. 159 Wolfli. 9 4 z Z e n calligraphy 232-233 contrast 96 t o grade 163 ink 37 pencil 5 4 t o r t i l l o n 205 T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c . 7 6 1 spots. 6 9 Wodall. b l o w n 248 steel p e n s see d i p p e n s still life 89. 230 t h r e e . 1 9 9 Two Courtyards (Piranesi) 75. 1 9 9 . Vincent 95 Chair 94.5 3 in l a n d s c a p e 2 0 6 . 4 4 boat 209 botanical 4 9 G e r i c a u l t ' s cats 2 9 from Goya 170-173 125. M . 7 77. Jan 1 5 6 Maelbeke Madonna 1 5 6 . 186.2 0 1 .27 skull 747.d i m e n s i o n a l d r a w i n g 68. 75 Skeleton of the Horse ( S t u b b s ) 26. 2 9 wind. t o d r a w 5 2 . t o lay 1 4 0 . Paul 2 4 1 Achilles Chases Hector 2 4 0 . Man in Armor 1 5 8 .141 S i m b l e t . 115. h e a d a n d n e c k sections o f female m o l d f o r (Leonardo) 89 shading 2 9 s h a d o w s 28. 1 2 Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse 71. 7 79 Shoshone petroglyph 240.241 s i l k . 1 6 .1 8 5 Tree II ( M o n d r i a n ) 52.41. 1 4 5 travel journal 2 0 .12 W a l t e r .125 W o o d f i n e . v i e w s o f 85.199 tissue p a p e r 21. 1 4 4 . 156 Van Gogh. 9 5 pens 36 v a n i s h i n g p o i n t 74. Study of (Michelangelo) 110. Sarah 9 4 Chair Cut Out 94. H e n r i de: Woman at Her Toilet 14 t r a n s p a r e n t v i e w 92. 725 fabric 1 6 8 T h o m a s . 164. 199.158 158. Augustin ( B a l t a r d ) 6 7 w e t and dry brush-strokes 2 4 9 Turner. drawing with 104-105 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt ( G a u d i ) 68. G e o r g e 2 7 Skeleton of the Horse 26. t o draw 1 9 8 . 1 7 7 free 8 0 V e n i c e . 69. William 159 Satire of the Queen's Dress INDEX 226. 2 7 studies: b i r d s 7 2 . 161. 1 3 . 170 shoes 1 6 4 stylized m o t i f 51 Summer Flowers 63. 743 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City ( F r e n z ) 1 6 0 . 141 Three Male Figures.d i m e n s i o n a l 1 0 4 . 206-207 202. 241. T i m W e s t Fagade of the Church of St.1 9 9 wire. 2 4 4 . 7 70 Tiber 214-215 Untitled ( T w o m b l y ) 2 2 0 . 1 6 6 t r a p e z i u s m u s c l e 142. 221 . 77.243 Leonardo's machines 12.Yamaoka 233 t e x t u r e 2 2 2 . 2 3 4 . t o d r a w 1 0 1 viewfinder 57 Views from Velletri ( C l a u d e L o r r a i n ) 152. 2 2 0 influence o f 2 4 0 Untitled 220.J. 158 V a n Eyck. 7 6 Two Impressions from a Cut-Out Paper Disk ( H u g o ) 2 2 2 Two Monsters 2 4 2 . 102-103 tonal marks. 65 symbols 138. W . 96.Sforza Horse. C y 138. 57. 79. Taylor A n i t a 115 All and Nothing 1 1 4 . 202 violin.2 1 3 Stubbs. John: Focusing on the Negative 14 w a s h . 2 0 0 Ship in a Storm 1 9 8 . 199 shoes 1 6 4 . 97. 182. 156 layers 7 5 6 priming for 140. 69. 174 T w o m b l y . 226 V Van Dyck. t h r e e . 2 3 0 tonal contrast 96 tonal distance 9 7 t o n a l d r a w i n g 9 6 .9 1 storms. 2 4 2 w Wallis. 245 sharpener 54 Ship in a Storm ( T u r n e r ) 1 9 8 . 7 75 Telescope ( N e w t o n ) 9 2 . 49. 2 4 7 t h r e e . 243 (Bosch) T Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos ( G o y a ) 2 4 0 . John 25 Flying Fish 25 Wild Striped Cat Sketches of ( G e r i c a u l t ) 28. 1 4 1 w a t e r c o l o r 25. phrased 146 tonal modeling 161 tonal range 169 t o n a l surfaces 2 2 7 tonal width 97 t o n e ( s ) 33.1 4 5 .120. 1 8 4 .216 W e b s t e r . t o d r a w 2 0 0 .1 6 5 shorthand diagram 142 Shoshone buffalo hide painting 178. 1 8 4 .13 M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s m a l e figures 110. 2 2 6 . A l f r e d 1 1 . 7 9 0 vessels. Sue see N o b l e . 76. 1 4 1 . 240 Two Women Embracing ( R o d i n ) 114. 7 1 4 . 104-105. 2 2 7 Untitled 2001 ( C a t l i n g ) u 263 W h i t e . 2 1 2 .t o n e d r a w i n g 140. 74. 9 0 .s c r e e n p r i n t i n g 139 silver p o i n t 1 4 0 . Sarah: child's m a p 75. 1 4 0 .
A n n a P l u c i n s k a . Psychiatric Institute of the University of Heidelberg. Sarah D u n c a n . R u t h P a r k i n s o n . Julie O u g h t o n . 1 0 8 : Arts C o u n c i l Collection. Sophie Laurimore.bridgeman. Toulouse. 7 1 : I M E C / A r c h i v e s E r i k Satie. L o n d o n . 2 2 7 : Paul Klee Stiftung. 2 2 4 : P r i n z h o m Collection. Paris a n d D A C S . 1 9 : Getty Images/© Succession Picasso / D A C S 2 0 0 5 . Anders/ © D A C S 2 0 0 5 . Winthrop. Amsterdam. 181: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. c o . Paris. support. Italy. U K . K u n s t m u s e u m Bern/© D A C S 2 0 0 5 . Psychiatric Institute of the U n i v e r s i t y of Heidelberg.bridgeman. Paris. A . Diana Bell. L e n . Patty Stansfield. 1 5 4 : akg-images/Musee National d'Art Moderne. Picture Credits 8: Corbis/Hubert Stadler.co. A . H e l e n S h u t t l e w o r t h . Sammy De Grave. France.l. a n d encouragement i n m a k i n g this book: M a m o r u Abe.bridgeman. 1 5 6 : Graphische S a m m l u n g Albertina. 2 8 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. Lisbon. Paul T h o m a s . Anita Taylor. 130: The Metropolitan M u s e u m of Art/Robert L e h m a n Collection. Fund. University of Oxford. Paula Regan. 2 2 0 : Mamaru Abe.uk/Private Collection.uk/Musee des Augustins. Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (t). 1 5 9 : Bodleian Library. Berlin/Staatsbibliothek zu A l l other images © Sarah Simblet . Flossie. J o n Roome.bridgeman. 5 2 : T h e Metropolitan Museum of Art/Bequest of Mrs. London/Bequeathed by Charles Landseer. Publisher's Acknowledgments Dorling Kindersley w o u l d like to thank Caroline H u n t for editorial contribution.Strang Print Room ( b ) ./Galerie Sylvie Nissen. 132: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. K e w ft)). 1975 ( 1 9 7 5 . 1 3 5 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library.co. 1 9 6 : Museum of the History of Science.co. Also. Germany/Joerg P. 115: Anita Taylor.bridgeman. B e r l i n .a. 1 7 8 : © T h e British M u s e u m / H e n r y Moore F o u n d a t i o n . 158: Calouste Gulbenkian Museum. 9 7 6 ) . Pamela Ellis for compiling the index. 114: Musee Rodin. 111: Fondation Beyeler/Riehen (Bale)/© Succession H Matisse/DACS 2005. R . 174: Artothek/Munich. u k / O n Loan to the H a m b u r g Kunsthalle. Basel. U K . F i n n . 137: © The British Museum. 9 5 : V a n Gogh M u s e u m . Paris a n d D A C S . Havemeyer. 2 1 8 : Adolf-Wdlfli-Stiftung. Paris. Antonia Cunliffe Davis. Kunstmuseum Bern. papers. Copyright Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens. Japan. Productions Clovis Prevost (c).co. B M G . K a t h r y n W i l k i n s o n . 179: www.co. Corporation of London. Paris/ © Succession Picasso / D A C S 2005. Sir Brinsley F o r d . K e v i n a n d Rebecca Slingsby. 5 3 : Collection of the Gemeentemuseum D e n Haag/Mondrian Trust. 1 5 : w w w . 1 . 7 0 : Studio Daniel L i b e s k i n d . Jean Pierre Roy. c o .bridgeman. 9 3 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. 1901. L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . 2 4 5 : Oona Grimes. Portugal.co.264 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Acknowledgments Author's Acknowledgments: T h e author wishes to thank the following people for their enormous help. B e m d Kunzig. M a n d y Earey. B e r l i n . 51: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. 2 4 0 : w w w . u k / L o u v r e . b r i d g e m a n .co. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. R o s e m a r y S c o u l a r . 16: www. G e r m a n y . 9 0 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/© A D A G P . 2 4 1 : Corbis/David M u e n c h ( b ) . London/courtesy of Stuart Shave. D a w n Henderson. G i n a R o w l a n d . Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. .uk/Private Collection. 221: Gagosian Gallery/Private Collection (b). 4 8 : T h e N a t u r a l H i s t o r y M u s e u m .co. Illustrated London News Picture Library/The Bystander (b). O. R o y a n d D i a n n e Simblet. Rocio Arnaez. T o n y G r i s o n i . 29: Fogg A n Museum/Collections Baron de Vita: Grenville L. L o n d o n . 68: www. Paris. G e r m a n y . Berlin (b).uk/Mucha Trust. Graphische Sammlung.co. b r i d g e m a n . 1 3 6 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Centre Pompidou-MNAM-CCI. 177: Mary Evans Picture Library. Sarah Woodfine. 9 2 : Science Photo L i b r a r y .bridgeman. L o n d o n (t). Natalie G o d w i n .r. 2 4 4 : Ashmolean Museum. 1 9 8 : Dover Publications. 139: Galerie Marion Meyer/© Man Ray Trust / A D A G P . Staatliche Museen z u Berlin/Jorg P. 176: Modem Art. 9 1 : www. 1 6 0 : Rene G R U A U s. 1 6 1 : D C C o m i c s I n c . 3 3 : Prinzhom Collection. 157: U C L Art Collections ./© D A C S 2 0 0 5 ( t ) ./Private Collection/© D A C S 2005. Oxford. 5 0 : Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (1).uk/Kettle's Yard. 2 4 2 : Photo Scala. 17: J o h n Walter. 73: Berlin F i l m Museum (t). P h y l l Kiggell. a n d D e p a r t m e n t s o f E n t o m o l o g y a n d Zoology at the University of Oxford. 1929 (29. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. George M c G a v i n . J o h n Walter. F r a n c e . NY. 3 2 : Pepys Library. 2 2 2 : Pierre Georgel/Private Collection. 1 3 3 : Artothek/Kupferstichkabinett. Angela Palmer. O o n a G r i m e s . Paris and D A C S .bridgeman.bridgeman. 113: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. 75: © The British Museum (b). S i m o n L e w i s . Orientabteilung/Ruth Schacht. Wolfson College. 2 3 8 : akg-images. 69: Institut Amatller d'Art Hispanic (tl). and Tamsin Woodward Smith. Germany. Clare Bryan. Magdalene College Cambridge. Anders. 2 4 : © T h e British Museum. L o n d o n . A n d y C r a w f o r d for p h o t o g r a p h y a n d L . 1 3 8 : © Christie's Images Ltd/© A D AGP. b r i d g e m a n . 13: www. J o h n Roberts.Paris ( b ) .co. . Christopher Davis.100. Kirsten Norrie.20-21 a n d 246-47. 2 6 : Topfoto. 225: Stephen P Huyler. Carole A s h . 11: www. Agnieszka Mlicka. Paris.uk /Biblioteca Nacional. 4 6 : B r i t i s h Library. Florence/MoMA. 1879. 6 6 : w w w . a n d brushes o n pp. Maureen Paley Interim Art (b). © Tate. (r). 9 4 : Sarah Woodfine. 1 3 4 : © T h e British Museum. T h e R u s k i n School of D r a w i n g a n d Fine A r t . 2 0 3 : Clare Bryan (t). 243: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. Angela W i l k e s . H . 2 0 2 : © T h e British Museum. J a c k a n d Brian Catling. 2 0 1 : T h e Royal Collection © 2 0 0 2 H e r Majesty Queen Elizabeth I I . Dover Publications/ISBN: 0486229912 (t).939).uk/Private Collection. 1 1 0 : www. H a m b u r g . H e a t h e r M c C a r r y . 88: www. 112: Yale University A r t Gallery/Everett V Meeks. B . 226: Brian Catling. University of Cambridge. Andy Crawford. Jackie Douglas. c o .uk /© Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery. 2 0 0 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . for s u p p l y i n g the d r a w i n g books.uk/Guildhall Library. London 2005. 180: www. Paul T h o m a s ( t ) . K u n s t m u s e u m . 3 1 : Tom Powel Imaging. C o r n e l i s o n & Son. 72: akg-images. 2 7 : Royal Academy of Arts. L o n d o n . L o n d o n . 199: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee des arts asiatiquesGuimet. 49: Hunterian Museum (t). Paris. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin. 30: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. 2 2 3 : Lebrecht Music and Arts Photo Library/Ricordi. Roddy Bell. Carlo O r t u for picture research s u p p o r t . u k / T o k y o National M u s e u m . Salisbury & South W i l t s h i r e M u s e u m ( t ) . Madrid.uk/British Museum. Inc. H a y w a r d Gallery. Peter L u f f . 74: Corbis.
charcoal. discover new ideas. Creating a Sketchbook—Sarah Simblet's drawings inspire you to explore different subjects and fill your own sketchbooks. Materials and Techniques—how to use a variety of materials—from pencil and ink to pastel. D r a w i n g C l a s s e s — d e t a i l e d step-by-step demonstrations show you how to develop your natural talents.dk.FOR THE ARTIST T h e c o m p l e t e g u i d e to drawing—a unique blend of practical teaching and inspirational insights into classic and contemporary drawings. and improve your drawing skills. and tone. Learn from the Masters—a rich selection of drawings illustrates different approaches to a wide range of subjects. shape. www. and silverpoint—and apply the key elements of drawing including perspective.com Discover more at .