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FOR T H E ARTIST
FOR THE ARTIST
LONDON • NEW YORK MELBOURNE • MUNICH • DELHI Senior Editor Paula Regan Senior Art Editor Mandy Earey Art Editor Anna Plucinska Managing Editor Julie Oughton Managing Art Editor Heather McCarry Art Director Peter Luff Publishing Director Jackie Douglas Production Joanna Bull DTP Designer Adam Walker Picture Research Sarah Smithies US Editor Christine Heilman First American Edition, 2 0 0 5 First Paperback Edition, 2 0 0 9 Published in the United States by DK Publishing 3 7 5 Hudson Street New York, New York 1 0 0 1 4 10 11 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3
6 8 20 22 Master Builders The Order of Sound Future Fictions Pathways of Sight Single-Point Perspective Creating an Imaginary Space Further Aspects of Perspective Theaters Venetian Life Parisian Street
68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86
Foreword Introduction Drawing Books and Papers Posture and Grip
Objects and Instruments
TD075-July 2009 Copyright © 2 0 0 5 Dorling Kindersley Limited Text and authors artworks © Sarah Simblet 2 0 0 4 Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited A Cataloging-in-Publication record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN 9 7 8 - 0 - 7 5 6 6 - 5 1 4 1 - 1 Color reproduction by GRB, Italy Printed and bound in China by Toppan
Still Life Instruments of Vision Bench Marks Light and Illusions Further Illusions How to Draw Ellipses Tonality Drawing with Wire Artifacts and Fictions
90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106
Documentaries Presence and Mood Movement Icon and Design Pen and Ink Drawing with Ink Capturing Character Sleeping Dogs Turtles Dry Birds
26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44
Postures and Poses Choreographs Passion Measurement and Foreshortening Quick Poses Hands and Feet Charcoal Hands Phrasing Contours The Visual Detective La Specola
110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128
Plants and Gardens
Botanical Studies Jeweled Gardens Fast Trees Graphite and Erasers Cropping and Composition Negative Space Fig Tree Summer Flowers Acanthus Spinosus
48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64
Discover more at
Projections Magnetic Fields The Human Condition Disposable Pens The Travel Journal Catching the Moment Grand Canal Crossings Caravans The Big Top
174 Abstract Lines
176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 Process and Harmony Writing Time Chants and Prayers Compositions Being "Just" Collage Zen Calligraphy Nocturnes
220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234
Poise Anatomies Revelations Self-Portraits Silver Point Head and Neck Essential Observations Drawing Portraits Generations Castings
132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 152
Earth and the Elements
Air in Motion Storms Nature Profiles Charcoal Landscapes Drawing in the Round Decaying Boat Cloudburst Notes of Force Mountains
198 200 202 204 206 208 210 212 214 216
Gods and Monsters
Marks of Influence Hauntings Convolutions Brushes Brush Marks Monsters Goya's Monsters Consumed Glossary Index Acknowledgments
240 242 244 246 248 250 252 254 256 259 264
Cloth and Drapery Character Costumes Femmes Fatales Colored Materials Study and Design The Structure of Costume Textures and Patterns Dressing Character Posture Carving
156 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172
especially as travel journals. Others can be held in the h a n d or. and experience. For me personally. by invitation. drawing is the immediate expression of seeing. Some of my drawings cover entire walls. I was also reading among The Confessions of St. Drawing occupies a unique place in every artist and creator's life. geologists. and I refer back to them for years after they are made. a sculptor. These inspirations led me to invent museums. I was training in anatomy and studying how. of Sketch Book for the Artist. texture. that inspired the title and structure MEMORY T H E A T E R S This pen-and-ink drawing was made from imagination during research for my PhD. we learn to see it. and makers of special effects. a cartographer charting the land. and size. and be slowly washed or worn away. They occupy a shelf in my studio. remain unseen by most. be they a child discovering their vision and dexterity. I will always draw. but because it is how I engage with and anchor myself in life. where I expect them to be discovered by some people. Augustine his notes on memory. . a drawing book is the perfect portable private vehicle for your imminent exploration of drawing. not only to make art. who tells me firmly upon approach that they cannot draw. aspirations. We can all learn how to draw. I work with people of diverse ages. By using our imaginations. and feeling. a composer notating a musical score. Drawing is a mirror through which I understand my place in the world. It makes me feel excited to be alive. The most rewarding challenge is always the newcomer. understood (and often misunderstood) our own bodies. thinking. perhaps hidden on a door hinge or a street bench rail.Foreword B Y DRAWING THE WORLD AROUND US. and their importance to so many artists. The very first step is to believe it. through history. and through which I can see how I think. and local c o m m u n i t y classes. undergraduates to fellow professors. in which he describes himself flying and diving in his imagination through pictorial caverns of knowledge. from schoolchildren to senior citizens. and a reflector of experience. art schools. or a quantum physicist trying to see for themselves the fluctuations of our universe. I also make drawing books. night security staff. fashion designer. Some are more traditionally framed and hung in galleries for solo or group exhibitions. still standing by the door. doctors. as a visiting professor at universities. architect. or engineer. I know that with their cooperation I can soon prove them wrong. It is my love of these. For twelve years I have enjoyed the privilege of teaching drawing. we learn to feel truly alive. we have looked at. Chosen in any color. and in a few sessions they will be flying. shape. are made outside as discreet installations. where spaces are shaped by nothing more than the objects and activities contained within them. It is a tool for investigating ideas and recording knowledge. They enfold their viewer and are made on joined sheets of paper that I reach by climbing ladders. Combine these things and the possibilities are endless.
Rio Pinturas 13. and patterns on our clothes. and in meetings. We can always read each others drawings. graffiti. waving to us from many thousands of yearsago. Most adults still feel that certain exquisite pleasure on arriving at a beach to find the tide out and the sand perfect. not just chosen pictures on our walls but everywhere—maps. scrawling shapes and cartoons when on the telephone. "CAVE OF THE HANDS" In this drawing. irreverent to language barriers. The sense of relief we may feel from the information overload of modern commercial life when visiting a country in which we can no longer read every written word. We are surrounded by drawings in our daily lives. signs. but more often because drawing actually helps us to focus and take in what is said. inscribing every fresh part of it with their eager scrapes and trails. and we spend our lives reading it. like a great canvas for them to mark. packaging. logos. Sometimes we draw because we are bored. a great crowd is raising their hands in greeting. in lectures. At home and at work we doodle. Children cannot be restrained from running across the pristine white lawn of newly fallen snow. They have a natural affinity to many modern graffiti signatures. Drawing is international. Cueva de las Marios. is not afforded us by drawing.000-9500 bce .Theseancient silhouettes were drawn with earth pigments rubbed onto rock.8 INTRODUCTION Where We Begin There is a fundamental drive in our human nature to make a mark. We are bombarded with linear and tonal pictorial information.
" Until this day. . The image above is what I gave back to my mother. I was sitting with my mother. I. who in their day-to-day hardship made time to picture themselves and the animals on which they depended. and belonging to place. like all toddlers. created by societies of hunter-gatherers. Eyelashes take up as much of my attention as the head itself. In cave paintings like the one opposite. but I had never yet attempted to figuratively picture my world. I now think this is a picture of proximity. MAKING OUR MARK It seems reasonable to assume that we have engaged in pictorial mark-making for as long as we have made conscious use of our hands. an expression of existence. at age two-anda-half. She gave me a notepad and a red crayon and asked me to draw her "a picture of Daddy. we see our oldest surviving images. and she kept it as my first step beyond the delighted realms of scrawl.9 WHERE WE BEGIN FIRST PORTRAIT For sorre forgotten reason. Cave art was not made for decoration but as a fundamental part of life. On a particular afternoon in September 1974. and the appearance of my strikes of colors. reflecting my experience of looking closely at my father's face. power. enjoying the physical sensation of crayon on paper. had happily scribbled. Even though it is made by a toddler this image would be recognizable to anyone. the hair of my first portrait was most important.
b e p r o u d o f what m a k e s y o u r w o r k individual to y o u . then drag o u r line into a loop. Inhibitions creep in and ideas of good a n d b a d terminate confidence. It was made with a few bold strokes of a steel pen dipped in ink to conjure the dried bee I was holding between my fingers on a pin. W e do n o t hesitate to draw a map. Hours are lost immersed in the glorious world of imagination. Don't b e p e r s u a d e d to draw in a w a y s o m e o n e else . it is important to value your natural abilities a n d ways of seeing. At this point many will insist they cannot draw.10 INTRODUCTION PEN-AND-INK BEE This tiny drawing has been enlarged to show its texture and composition. and from that first unit build and describe the shape of something or someone we know. Young children love to draw. most of us stop. h o w e v e r small a n d u n f o r m e d y o u believe they are. yet still turn to drawing w h e n their verbal language fails or is inadequate. But as adolescents. PROGRESSION T h e r e is a point in all o u r lives w h e n w e first c o n t r o l o u r mark and m a k e it a line. to help a stranger see their way W h e n taking first steps in relearning h o w to draw. As you progress. and this activity plays a vital role in their d e v e l o p m e n t . for example.
After experimenting and trying each new idea. I ask them their reasons for drawing. but it does help to set out facing in the right direction. and which aspects of the vast wealth and diversity of graphic language would be most appropriate to their goals.11 PROGRESSION A UNIQUE SIGHT This innocent yet sophisticated drawing of boats. Enjoy the control of your own journey. . what they most want to achieve. harbor and sea is one of many that Alfred Wallis made from memory while sitting at home. you must decide whether to keep or discard it. and they have never questioned why. He used leftover ship and yacht paint with crayons on cut-out pieces of cardboard boxes. Someone once told them they must draw in this way. Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse c. As you read this b o o k and perhaps attend art classes. remember that all advice is only advice. The journey of every artist demands hard work and discipline. I meet students struggling unhappily with a particular method of drawing. Occasionally. 1925-42 53/8x87/8in (135 x 225 mm) ALFRED WALLIS prefers and tells you is better. He was a retired Cornish fisherman and junk dealer who began drawing at the age of 70 "for company" after his wife died. Think how much would have been lost if anyone had interfered with Alfred Wallis' personal sense of proportion and perspective in the exquisite drawing above.
When we look back at Wallis' seascape (see p. perhaps for comfort or ease as a left-hander or a habitual enjoyment of the challenge. If as artists we nail a subject down too hard. There are only artists." The clarity and empowerment of these words. There should neve: be a slavish obligation to represent things exactly as we collectively agree we see them. the page bristles with the focus of ideas. we can drive out its spirit. I hope. author of The Story of Art. right. not for disguise but as a personal choice. and inspire others. is. We all see differently. The observed world may be our subject. The art historian Professor Sir Ernst Gombrich. There are countless reasons for drawing. and breathtaking wind of a choppy harbor. We also see differently ourselves. embedded in this book. clear-minded understanding of the sea. be visionary. Below. boats. 11). wrote as the opening line of this great work.and collarbones and shoulder blades of a different bird almost become new creatures in themselves. and lose the very thing that attracted us to it. it may not be accurate to our critical adult eye. depending on the occasion and our purpose. but it should be the experienced world we draw. Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels LEONARDO DA VINCI . IDEAS A N D I N V E N T I O N S These active machines. "There really is no such thing as Art. Our imaginations are the tools with which we can increase the essence of life. His notes visually balance his drawings. They are also always written backward.12 INTRODUCTION VISION All artists see the world differently. We BIRD STUDIES The flutter of faint scratches that dance across the pages on the right is an attempt to see the movement and bony weightlessness of a bird. the breast. all raise water From the Archimedes' screw to Leonardo's own cupped wheel. but the child in us knows that this is an all-embracing.
Our drawings are annotated investigations into the mechanisms of nature and of an idea. Don't be disheartened. make a calculation. when it looks tired and still feels wrong. Leonardo drew to invent a machine. it may be best to start afresh. Opposite. My drawings of a housemartin (opposite top) illustrate the importance of repeated study. This also applies if struggling at length with a larger picture. We have both covered our paper with focused. conduct an experiment. More was learned drawing the bird 18 times than would have been understood drawing it only once or twice. while below. shout against a terrible injustice. Decide before you start whether you are drawing to warm up. time spent is not lost. or to discover the best use of a new material.13 VISION should not try to know how every finished picture will look. Each fresh image reflects growing confidence and the experience of the preceding study. stripped-down parts. I drew to understand the apparatus of flight. . but it is important to be clear why we are making it. drawing in pursuit of our own thoughts and understanding. or illustrate a dream. It will be invested through your experience in the new drawing. to express the beauty in a moment's play of light.
fire. mists. Imagine these qualities so strongly that you feel them in your mind and at your fingertips. It denies the importance of accident. and paper. and how it feels to the touch. and we can just make out the distant stains of mountains. This is a detail of a brush-and-ink drawing by a Japanese Buddhist monk. the unknown. trusting my intuition to find a visual equivalence for the sensation of weight within my body. meaning. size. feel. bone. and an island brushed with trees. temperature. we are advised or even required to plan our pictures. depth. and allowed to flow through the brush. Each image relied upon past experience to know the probable behavior of the brush. your marks will become the subject on the paper. and what you discover in the process of making. and opacity of your subject. created centuries and cultures apart. This is the alchemy of drawing. ink. These two brush drawings. We are caught in a shifting focus that makes everything fluid. explain the composition. or ice—you must actually feel it beneath your fingers as you draw. and sometimes beyond. I made it almost unconsciously with a pen and a brush. which can offer keys to other things. and at speeds beyond conscious thought. are both made of ink laid onto wet paper with speed and agile certainty. or imagine—it is not enough to only render its shape. As your hand meets the paper to make a mark. Whatever the material— wood. The physicality.14 INTRODUCTION ALCHEMY At school. it should be responding to the sensation and meaning of the subject it draws. This suits many artists well and is perfectly valid. They each allowed the energy and focus of the moment to be expressed through controlled accident and a degree of the unknown Both drawings were made trusting the marks. Landscape in Haboku Style 15TH CENTURY . and spirit of each subject was held strongly but loosely between the fingertips. water. and position in space. metal. and practice each part before putting the final image together. Our position asvieweris unsteady. However. As you draw any subject—something you see. silk. W e float toward the quiet vista as it also moves toward us. Know the texture. excessive planning can get in the way of the imagination. You must also think of its intrinsic nature: its purpose. balance. BRUSHED LANDSCAPE FLOWING SKELETON T h e gliding poise of this walking anatomy comes as much from the feeling of movement as it does from the feeling of drawing. declare the idea. If you can do this.
which evoke realities o f place and the p o w e r o f moment. pastel. more than 100 years after its making.16 INTRODUCTION PLACE A N D MOMENT The heat and teeming atmosphere o f this Parisian dressing room. right is set inside a rib cage. He dazzles us with flashes o f light and dabbed marks o f shadow. Focusing on the Negative 2004 22 x 30 in (56 x 76 cm) J O H N WALTER . Lautrec's flamboyant splashes o f petticoats and pantaloons are drawn with long sweeps of chalk and brushed oil paint. one of many luminous works in watercolor. gold leaf and spray paint. c. made by a young British artist who creates alphabets o f the absurd f r o m familiar childhood characters. lives on. like folded insects.1896 Woman at her Toilet 41 x 26 in (104 x 66 cm) TOULOUSE LAUTREC RIB-CAGE D R A M A Thus drama. stand table-sized with furniture legs attached t o b o t h sides of their jacket. acrylic. left. W a l t e r also makes books: some.
diary-like observations. Enjoy discovering what your hand and the material can do. Such books are personal: the territory of new exploration and experiment. Drawing is exploratory. One of the advantages of a drawing book is that you can shut it.17 FREEING THE HAND If you are just beginning to learn how to draw. Put them away and look at them later. at a point when you feel you are not making progress. take your time and don't worry if you need to make several attempts to grasp a concept. Start by choosing a material you like the look of and cover a piece of paper with different marks. Much will be learned on these test sheets and in your first drawings. FREEINGTHEHAND . just through the act of making. Try to keep all of your first drawings. you will naturally make progress on your own in response to concentration and the decision to look and draw. As you follow lessons in this book. even those you dislike. try not to grip your pen worrying about the technical terms you might have heard. you will be surprised and encouraged to see how far you have come. potential ideas still forming. Ignore these at first and allow yourself the freedom to play. Pages do not have to lie open for other people to inspect and comment on. and mistakes are a valuable process of learning. and miscellaneous items of inspiration. With no help and advice at all. Choose other materials and do the same. It is yours.
it will be your creation as you discover your own personal vision. caught between action and repose. To these I have added my own drawings to explain elementary materials and techniques and offer introductory approaches. Picasso is poised smiling. However. and enfolding new media. An artist's personal voice is something that also evolves through lessons learned. and many more reasons for drawing the world.18 INTRODUCTION THE THINKING EYE Techniques and materials are the grammar and vocabulary of drawing and can be studied and shared. I was particularly attracted to their gentle articulation and understated determination. threedimensionally. seek ideas in the life around you. The chapters of this book present 90 different artists' ways of seeing. it is this voice that is the subtle part of their art and something that ultimately. adapting its form and occupation. It rarely flourishes in isolation. Drawing is a living language that over millennia has grown and changed. Look to your own experience and also learn from the work of others. comes from within. but not confined to them. Imagination needs nourishment. 150). and became a great subject for me. when they are more experienced. As you draw. In the total wealth of these pages. This practical journey will take you through the door into the vivid heart of drawing. ELECTRIC BULL With a penlight. the path is yours. Its sensuous and flowing line seems to drift like smoke. staring straight through his image of a bull. A N ARTIST'S HANDS These are the hands of the artist Phyll Kiggell (see p. Picasso Painting with Light at the Madoura Pottery 1949 . Picasso has just finished his drawing. The real drawing book has yet to come. which is held frozen in space by a camera lens. which of course he cannot see. Once there.Their elegant strength seems to summon a lifetime of drawing. Note that the drawing classes are allocated to subjects. we still only glimpse a corner of the magnitude of this subject and the infinity of what can be achieved.
C O V E R E D H A R D B O U N D : Ideal f o r c a r r y i n g a r o u n d . 4. pastels.b o u n d b o o k w i l l s o o n s h o w y o u h o w it is m a d e . it is better to have them made at a lumber yard or home improvement store. quality. cut. Alternatively. c h o o s e s m a l l e r h a r d . t h e i r jackets w i l l a c t like d r a w i n g b o a r d s a n d p r o t e c t y o u r w o r k . ties on either side to keep your papers in place. R I N G .q u a l i t y r i n g . 5.b o u n d p a d if y o u w i s h t o keep your drawings together long-term.20 INTRODUCTION Drawing Books and Papers T o BEGIN YOUR EXPLORATION o f d r a w i n g . a n d crayons.b o u n d b o o k s t h a t fit in y o u r p o c k e t o r bag. c h o o s e larger f o r m a t s t o give y o u s c o p e f o r e x p e r i m e n t . Dissecting a d i s c a r d e d h a r d . a l e n g t h o f black elastic t i e d a r o u n d t h e m i d d l e will h o l d the contents together w h e n y o u f o l d in c o l l e c t e d items. Purchase a h i g h . A high-quality one will last a DRAWING BOOKS Select d r a w i n g b o o k s t o suit y o u r aims. C O L O R E D PAPERS: Large a r t supply stores o f t e n sell t h i c k b o o k s full o f c o l o r e d p a p e r s . b e a w a r e t h a t p a p e r t e x t u r e effects a n d changes t h e i r marks. Many artists invent ways o f binding their o w n books. color. Smooth plywood. Homemade books can be assembled easily from found materials or selections of loose sheet papers. thick enough not to flex. and glued t o a s t r i p o f bias binding. and cost. These are perfect f o r w o r k i n g in novels. Drawing boards are invaluable. is perfect. T h e hardb o a r d j a c k e t is s t r e t c h e d w i t h canvas beneath t h e p a p e r sleeve.h a n d s t o r e s make unique subjects f o r e x p e r i m e n t s a n d collage. study the structure of a good portfolio and make your own. which are also sold in an enormous range. N o t e t h e w i d e l y differing c h o i c e o f p a p e r s w i t h w h i c h t h e s e are m a d e . They can be very expensive in art stores. C A N V A S . binding. H o w e v e r r i n g bindings o f t e n break. stitched. 2002 Tantalus o r The Future of Man 81/2 x61/4in (215 x 158 mm) ROSE MILLER . cheap corrugated plastic ones fall apart in days. F O U N D B O O K S : O l d p r i n t e d 3 . There are dozens to choose from. 6. be sure they fit comfortably under your arm. Gleaming store purchases vary greatly in format. thickness. It is also useful to own a portfolio. a n d r e f e r e n c e b o o k s f o u n d in s e c o n d .B O U N D PADS: T h e s e are t h e least expensive a n d useful f o r o p e n i n g flat. Art students often make use of printed books picked up from secondhand stores into which they draw. F o r e v e n i n g classes. and handles to lift the weight of your artworks. F o r traveling. catalogs. 2. y o u n e e d a lifetime. drawing book. Sand the edges to avoid splinters. c o l o r If planning t o use pencils. BLACK P O C K E T B O O K S : Hand-sized w i t h ready-made elastic binder and a marker ribbon. You simply need two strong boards hinged together well. H O M E M A D E : I m a d e this b o o k f r o m drawing paper that I folded. t h i s is h o w I l e a r n e d . texture. If you intend to carry your boards for a distance. Most contain thin p a p e r and are perfect f o r use w i t h disposable pens. and collage their ideas. 1. Calculate a range of useful dimensions and have several cut at once.
fine. and hot pressed papers. Use with a brush in clean water Water makes a dark mark like ink and becomes invisible again when dry. 21. size. JAPANESE PAPER: Strong. MAGIC PAPER: A reusable sheet for testing ideas without creating waste. SAUNDERS WATERFORD N O T 300GMS: Mid-quality textured watercolor paper. VELIN ARCHES 250GMS: Printmaking paper available in black white. It is available in white or cream. FABRIANO INGRES: Thin. and other plant fibers. white textured paper that can take abrasive use of any medium.Papers differ in thickness (weight). mold-. mulberry. They are hand-. from pencil to paint 9. 13. blocks. ITALIAN PARCHMENT: Imitation-animal-skin parchment that is translucent and slightly waxy. smooth. used to imprint lines of these colors onto a surface. Use for brushwork drawings. and white. color. Ph. and cream sheets or rolls. and rolls. C A R B O N PAPER: Available in dark and light blue. METALLIC PAPER: Thin paper in different metallic colors. FABRIANO ACADEMIA: Standard medium-range multipurpose paper Use with any media. It is also excellent for drawing with marker pens on layered sheets. Use cheap paper for rough ideas and quality paper for work to last See the glossary ( p p .TISSUE PAPER: Place sheets between drawing book pages to keep images from printing on each other and use for delicate collage. GLASSINE: Sold as protective wrapping. Cotton papers are high-quality and acid-free. 14. or rolls. pastel paper in flecked pastel colors with a distinctive ribbed marking. turning brown and brittle. 12. 15.5 9 ) for explanations of rough. and cost. T W O RIVERS Y E L L O W 410GMS: See Two Rivers Green 19. Cheap wood-pulp papers are acidic. it is made from rice. also good for drawing with colored pencils. yellow. printed on one side only. 100% cotton and sold in sheets. 8. 17. red. 22. cold. texture. PAPERS . absorbency. C A N S O N : Inexpensive lightweight pastel paper in many colors. and translucent. 7. 10. or machine made in sheets. resisting deterioration. blocks. FABRIANO R O U G H 600GMS: Very heavy. For use with any media. bamboo. 11. AQUARELLE ARCHES 300GMS:The very top quality hot-pressed (smooth) watercolor paper. 18. 2 5 6 . not. tough. 16. 20. T W O RIVERS GREEN 410G MS: Very heavy tinted textured cold-pressed watercolor paper See Two Rivers Yellow.
This photograph illustrates how some people hold a pen to write. and subject. a n d look to the left of it at your subject. but you need to understand that the expression of a line or mark originates in the body and flows t h r o u g h the shoulder.22 INTRODUCTION Posture and Grip T o DRAW WELL. your whole relaxed b o d y should be involved. Ideally. If your body posture is well balanced and you can move freely. This cramped grip tires your hand and makes small. In this book we will look at parallels between drawing and music. your drawing will reflect this. a n d h a n d to the fingertips. and look to the right. Use the side of your little fingernail as a support on the page. should be able to look comfortably straight ahead at your picture plane. arm. With your hand in this position. You cannot draw like this—your hand is locked and your fingers can barely move. Placing your easel o n the w r o n g side folds y o u r b o d y against your drawing arm. if left-handed. Relaxed fingers: Hold the pencil away from its tip and relax your fingers. but wherever possible. SPACE TO WORK Cramped grip. you Drawing classes can be cramped places. If using an upright easel. 116-17). place it on the correct side: if right-handed. Examples are shown here. It will also reflect discomfort if you are in any way cramped. you can draw lines freely and achieve a significant arc of movement. There are also parallels to dance. don't sit too close to the paper. place it on your left. If seated on a b e n c h easel (a donkey). or with your drawing board angled between your lap and a chair. Turning your drawing sideways or upside-own will also help reveal what is wrong. b u t it should n o t be forgotten that many people make remarkable a n d striking works drawing with their feet or holding their brush or pencil in their mouths. flowing space between your hand. There should be an open. . place it on your right. How you hold your drawing materials is also important. Accelerated perspective also occurs if you look down the surface steeply (see pp. strangledlooking drawings. your lines will distort. body. make sure you have enough room to back away and view your work. If your hand twists to maneuver between the paper and your body. Regularly step back 6-9 ft (2-3 m) to check your progress. You do not have to dance to draw. From a distance you will spot errors you cannot see close up.
This can be used to great effect. liquid will run down your hand. GRAVITY Remember that gravity affects the flow of ink and paint. hold your material as you find most comfortable. ALL MEDIA There are no rules as to how you should hold your drawing media. not up to the paper Brushes can be used on upright paper but dip Anticipating effects: A fully loaded pens need a level surface. To stop this. Brush calligraphy: This comfortable. Remember you can also draw just by dipping your fingers in pigment—this is how many women draw in rural India. depending upon what it is and how large you are working. Large scale: POSTURE AND GRIP U n f a m i l i a r i t y : T h e habitual movements of our handwriting style will sometimes infringe upon our drawing. If you turn a brush or dip pen up into the air to draw above your hand. arm. brush pressed against an upright surface will cause a dribble of ink to run down your drawing. roughly marking out a large-scale work. upright way of holding the brush near its base is similar to the Japanese way used in Zen calligraphy (see pp. find an unfamiliar. But be careful not to tense your fingers. alternative way of holding the pencil. Large amounts of ink can be applied without fear of uncontrolled running if the paper is flat. or change to the wrong hand. Soft media: Short materials such as pastels and charcoal can be accommodated in the palm. or it can spoil your work if not anticipated.23 This loose "candle" grip is very useful when drawing with your arm extended. This can give a new lease on life to your mark-making. It is most comfortable when reaching to draw above your head. .232-33). As long as your fingers. and body are not restricted.
" Animals perpetually feed our imaginations.. and people. 1590 J O H N WHITE capture form and movement from the m a n n e r i s m s of honking geese. Together they made maps and documented animals. animals provide a perfect subject with which to begin. 1540. and pioneer born c. bats. dogs. their different speeds and patterns of action. insects.Animals H UMANS HAVE DRAWN ANIMALS from the beginning of our time. In medieval England. In 19th-century Europe this became a "science. and we still see escapees from its pages carved and grinning as the gargoyles of churches. and snakes have between them engendered harpies. and learn how to Flying Fish c. plants. sleeping dogs. JOHN WHITE British artist. fish. W h e n lost to explain our own emotions. the Latin bestiary was one of the most popular picture books—an illustrated dictionary of one hundred parts. which very likely leaped o n t o the deck of Sir Walter Raleigh's ship Tiger as it sailed north from the Caribbean to Virginia in 1585. to be there at the m o m e n t of discovery. who described in words what White drew. floating turtles. Facial features were analyzed in terms of their animal likeness.drawe to lief one of each kinde of thing that is strange to us in England." Paranoid newcomers c r a m m e d into swelling industrial cities used handbooks of physiognomy to identify and judge their neighbors. mermaids. offer challenges and delights to draw. 11 x91/4in (277 x 234 mm) . m u s e u m .m o u n t e d skeletons of birds. we have employed artists on expeditions. In this chapter we discover the use of pens and ink through the delineation of insects. out are now oxidized and so appear black W h e n less preoccupied with understanding ourselves. and silent. Europeans on board had never seen such a thing. O v e r the centuries. For the novice artist. We have drawn them on the walls of caves to evoke their kinship and power. and dragons. and this very drawing was to endure many copies and plagiarisms after its triumphant return to the English court of Queen Elizabeth I. from which personality and predicted behavior were " d e d u c e d . they are perhaps our favorite pictorial preoccupation. or scampering through the initials and borders of pictures from that time. On the Roanoke voyages of Sir Walter Raleigh. White's commission was to ". This drawing is made in black lead (metal point) with watercolor Highlights of silver would have gleamed. As children we delight in the humanized trials of Tom and Jerry and their c a r t o o n relations.. cartographer. birds. we turn and take the features of beasts. and to bring h o m e drawn documentaries of their finds." He worked with the scientist Thomas Harriot. After the subject of ourselves. W e have drawn them in m a n u s c r i p t s to explain our genesis and to c o u n t their species into Noah's ark. each dedicated to the moralized tale of an animal or monster The bestiary profoundly influenced the art of its period. which are so unlike ours. Framed in the z o o or in domestic cohabitation. Here (left) we see J o h n White's exquisite record of a flying fish. werewolves.
draftsman. Contemporary texts related accounts of the beast as the mortal enemy of the elephant and rare relative of the "more common" unicorn. writer. and wrote four books on proportion. and mathematician. Stubbs's Anatomy of the Horse achieved similar documentary status. Sailing to Rome. it is still consulted by veterinarians today. but the drowned animal washed ashore. Converted into a print. Durer's image changed eager hands until it was known across Europe. Life-like This is Durer's original quill-and-ink drawing made after an anonymous Portuguese drawing. Meanwhile. printmaker. Durer traveled widely to study at different European schools of art. Original Ink Drawing of a Rhinoceros 1515 ALBRECHT DURER 103/4 x 161/2 in ( 2 7 4 x 4 2 0 mm) . it continued its journey to Rome. It is such a lifelike triumph of imagination and intelligence that for centuries zoologists never questioned its authority. The first live rhinoceros to reach Europe came from India in May 1515. inspiring countless works of art and so touching people's imaginations that later. Unsurpassed. It was to become the animal's only accepted likeness for 250 years. He studied the image and drew his own interpretation. DURER'S RHINOCEROS AND STUBBS'S skeletal Durer. they were rejected. He in turn sent the mysterious creature to the Pope via Marseilles at the request of the King of France. filled journals with ideas and observations. the ship was lost.26 ANIMALS Documentaries horse are superb affirmations of the power of drawing as a recorder and communicator of knowledge. when more accurate portrayals were made without armor and scales. years after its publication. a gift to the Portuguese King. a drawing of it arrived in Nuremberg. the home of ALBRECHT DURER German Renaissance painter. naturalist. Carefully stuffed.
Stubbs w a s o n e o f t h e first E u r o p e a n artists t o m a k e a n a c c u r a t e representation o f the rhinoceros. is no other work like it. Table of the III of the Horse (rear Skeleton view) mm) 1756-58 1 4 x 7 in ( 3 5 4 x 1 8 0 GEORGE STUBBS .GEORGE STUBBS B r i t i s h e q u i n e a n d s o c i e t y p o r t r a i t painter. a n d anatomist. L o n d o n . He translated his own drawings into engravings for publication. naturalist. Dissections Stubbs took his knife and his pencil and physically climbed inside the horse. His painted p o r t r a i t o f t h e b e a s t is in t h e R o y a l C o l l e g e o f S u r g e o n s o f England. which has never diminished. and therefore invented the lighting that Compare how Stubbs and Durer both invented lighting to portray the reality of their animals. in t h r e e v i e w s — r e a r f r o n t . He composed makes each horse appear so real and each plate from his three-dimensional. Stubbs's m o s t c e l e b r a t e d publication. Anatomy of the Horse. c o m p r i s e s 1 8 p l a t e s s h o w i n g d i s s e c t i o n s in l a y e r s f r o m b o n e t h r o u g h m u s c u l a t u r e t o skin. The entire project was developed over ten years. Lighting Stubbs's breathtaking international work won immediate There acclaim. knowledge of parts. a n d s i d e . dissecting and drawing until he understood the mechanisms of its power and grace. Dissections were made over a total of 18 months. composed from notes and observations. This is one of Stubbs' original finished pencil drawings.
her b o n y frame. linseed oil soaked into the paper has made shadows and repelled the ink to create translucent tentacles. saying ". A s if disturbed from its gritty b e d by our presence and curiosity. Hugo's page is f l o o d e d w i t h the fearful presence of a remembered octopus. conjured b y the hand of a great author of French literary fiction. novelist. Apparently drawn in its o w n ink. it silently rises to the light.. I've ended up mixing in pencil. Hugo's novels Les Miserables and Dame have become classics of film and stage. Surrounding sprays of graphite powder are stuck into washes of oil and ink to suggest glutinous depths. playwright. He wrote to poet and art critic Charles-Pierre Baudelaire about his experiments.". He has w a t c h e d her p o u n c e . snarl.. and Pieuvre 1866-69 91/2 x81/8in (242 x 207 mm) VICTOR H U G O . sepia. The octopus is formed in layers applied and distressed with a brush. His copious drawings are characterized by mixed media. charcoal.. coal dust. and all sorts of bizarre concoctions which manage to convey above all in mind. The Hunchback of Notre Layers and shadows Throughout this drawing. and her distinctive temperament. soot. Gericault's sheet a p p e a r s almost s c r a t c h e d b y the f e r o c i o u s play of his cat. Gericault took a sharp p e n c i l to m a k e repeated direct o b s e r v a t i o n s f r o m life. By contrast. and leader of the French Romantic movement. Hugo used graphite powder. H u g o mixed his media and drew from m e m o r y and imagination to create narrative atmosphere. and a love of accident. drama. more or less what I have in view. her sharp teeth. VICTOR HUGO Poet.28 ANIMALS Presence and Mood THESE DRAWINGS HAVE BEEN CHOSEN to s h o w t w o v e r y different ways of picturing a wild animal.. drawing her again and again to pin d o w n the texture of her loose skin. and turn. ink and linseed oil on paper. Mixed media Here. the ominous beast unwinds from the dark of the sea and of our nightmares.
118-119). Paris. fiery. focused upon seeing will lead to a greater understanding of the subject Much is learned from repeated study. 124-25 and p.l i v e d French R o m a n t i c painter and lithographer Largely self-taught. 144. horses w e r e a favorite subject t o g e t h e r w i t h politics and history. displayed in the Louvre. H e is best k n o w n f o r his gigantic painting.29 THEODORE GERICAULT C o n t r o v e r s i a l . Here. The Raft of the Medusa. undertraces unify and vitalize the composition. standing sideways. and keep trying again. At the center of the page is crammed drawings the outline of a horse. Before paper became so cheap. Repeated study This drawing demonstrates of feeling confident repeat different the importance subject Remaining enough to isolate parts of a views. Undertraces Beneath these graphite studies we see traces Tones On the top row we see clearly how Gericault laid broad areas of tone using fast. artists reused sheets and them full of studies. Beginners are advised to follow the natural contours of form as shown on pp. diagonal strokes of his pencil. and it can be applied to any subject (see pp. facing right. of drawings Gericault erased. since it can lead to a flattened form. of previous Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 1817-18 121/2 x 151/2 in ( 3 1 9 x 3 9 8 mm) T H E O D O R E GERICAULT . parallel. s h o r t . Tones that do not follow surface contour is very difficult to do well.
flapping bird. and waves breaking distantly below. the first abstract movement of the 20th century.30 ANIMALS Movement M O V E M E N T IS OFTEN THE CHARACTERISTIC b y w h i c h w e their lines and the power of their beasts. flattened animals composed almost entirely of movement. draftsman. the whinnying of a frantic horse. we see semi-abstract. The ink is used to make sharply defined solid. identify an animal: the fast cheetah. hooked. made only a year apart. and brown. printmaker ceramicist graphic and stage designer who lived in France. gray. His hand must have shuddered and twitched just like the constant actions of this humorous meeting. Ink and gouache This drawing is made in black Chinese ink and gouache (opaque watercolor) applied with a brush. In Picasso's drawing. Artists commonly focus on such actions. noise is everywhere. or proud. and scrolled lines. In these two drawings. Faune. quivering horse. Picasso cofounded Cubism. Both Picasso and Klee have enclosed their subjects to compress and amplify the speed of PABLO PICASSO A prolific Spanish painter sculptor. Cheval et Oiseau 1936 173/8 x 211/4 in ( 4 4 0 x 5 4 0 m m ) PABLO PICASSO . with George Braque (see p90). These media complement and amplify each other with their brilliant contrast. slow tortoise. overwhelmed by a screeching bird. The fact that they never stand still influences the movement in his line. dissolving faun kneels stranded. Gouache is brushed softly in translucent hazy layers of cool blue. His powdery. taking them to guide their hand in bringing form and essence together. Klee's riders are constructed from all the gestures of greeting mules.
Chicago PAUL KLEE . W i t h his drawings Kleeb o u n d sophisticated theories to personal and often witty childlike imagery. Scene der Komischen of Comical Reiter Riders) (Scene 1935 161/2x111/2in ( 4 1 9 x 2 9 1 mm) M o r t o n G . creatures. and t e a c h e r at t h e Bauhaus school. draftsman. turning our eye and around inside the and postures of the paper- thin on pictorial space. Layers of marks In this pale Dentil drawing we see layers of' agitated marks that together present a kind of visual "itch." They chatter around bodies in groups. He is a u t h o r o f The Thinking Eye (1923). violinist. N e u m a n n Family Collection. They remain in contact with the surface of the page and scribble back and forth as they maneuver from one area to another. top all happily of each other in the Endless lines Look closely at how Klee's lines rarely leave the paper and how they are free from the constraint of finite shape.PAUL KLEE Swiss painter. printmaker. well-worn copies o f w h i c h are found in m a n y art schools. The entire drawing suggests the endless small movements of horses standing still. sculptor.
The ship The upper decks of the ship appear curved toward us at both ends. It is simply how we read his perspective. balance. later called a galleon. His birds stare. adding washes of color with a fine brush. He studied the anatomy of fish. the expression of its eye. fins. drawings of animals that are each held tightly in a surprising space: a giant fish wears a ship's hull. and blackbirds fly in formation through a mosaic of text. and s e c t i o n s o f ships. The fish It is likely that Baker drew with a quill dipped in irongall ink. This drawing illustrates Baker's theory. Knopf's drawing opposite is the personal enigmatic expression of a mind gripped by illness. In just one drawing he has displayed more angles of his design than we would expect to see from a single viewpoint Fragments English 1586 101/2 x 153/8 in (270 x 390 mm) MATTHEW BAKER of Ancient Shipwrightry . In contrast to the practical clarity of Baker's thought. it would achieve greater speed. slim stern). mathematician. b a s e d o n his studies o f fish. and to assess our next move. Baker did not intend this. seemingly looking for our attention. and from them learned that if he designed his ship with a "cod's head MATTHEW BAKER Master shipwright. B a k e r initiated t h e scientific p r a c t i c e o f naval a r c h i t e c t u r e and applied h y d r o d y n a m i c s . and author o f Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (1586). Baker lived in an era when ships were built without drawn plans. Exquisite details in this drawing include the lips of the fish.32 ANIMALS Icon and Design IN THESE T W O MANUSCRIPTS we discover diagrammatic and mackerel's tail" (full bow. and scales. and steerage. Below we see his revolutionary design for an Elizabethan warship. which in application gave strength and advantage to the English fighting the Spanish Armada. t h e earliest geometrically defined elevations. and the carefully observed gills. plans.
firmly outlined. The text. numbered.JOHANN KNOPF An " O u t s i d e r " a r t i s t w h o s u f f e r e d f r o m m e n t a l illness. w h i c h o f t e n f e a t u r e as s y m b o l i c creatures in his drawings.K n o p f b e l i e v e d h e c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h e language o f birds. JOHANN KNOPF . The main group is placed in a circle drawn with a compass. T h e G e r m a n a r t historian Outline and tone The blackbirds illuminating this frantic manuscript are drawn in pencil. circle and the birds. written last of all. appears to be stirred like water by the presence of the The Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks UNDATED 133/8 x 115/8 in (340 x 2 9 6 mm) and psychiatrist Hans Prinzhom collected this image. and filled evenly with tone.
Quills were later cut from feathers. which scratch rather than draw. F O U N T A I N PENS: These vary in quality and nib width. QUILLS: These are cut from the barrel of a flight or tail feather. then pour a little warm gum water into it and temper the two together. and it is still in use today. They fit into wooden holders. 3. The bar is then rubbed into water on a slate block to produce ink. and spatters can be made with an exotic choice of inks. A German recipe of 1531 gives a simple description: "Take a wax candle. The paste from either recipe is pressed and dried into a bar for storage. distinguished manufacture. which range greatly in their handling and character of line. they are associated with rapid. In the Far East. producing a different line. from the acacia tree. a n d m e t a l p o i n t s . Each pen has a unique character. That is an ink. Masters choose brands of long. 2. 4. The Chinese used animal or fish glue. Intricate or dramatic lines. 5 0 0 years ago. the recipes for which have been handed down over centuries. Avoid needle-sharp mapping pens. s t i c k s . ink is traditionally applied with a brush (see pp. spots. and first used by the Egyptians. and hold it under a clean basin until the soot hangs to it. where reeds were gathered. Early artists recommended raven and crow for especially fine work. while metal nibs began as rare gifts in gold and silver before being perfected by the British steel industry. The best are goose or swan. you can have great fun drawing the world around you. Only fill with suitable inks. simultaneously 4 . high-quality Chinese and Japanese inks are subtler and more complex than those produced in Europe. expressive drawing techniques such as the ones we explore in this chapter 1. METAL PENS: Inexpensive removable steel nibs are available in a range of widths. Responsive to slight changes in pressure. Dip pens began their history in the Nile River. REED PENS: A broad nib can be cut from bamboo or another tubular grass. The Egyptians and Chinese are credited with the invention of carbon ink.34 ANIMALS Pen and Ink W I T H A HANDFUL OF FEATHERS." "Gum" refers to gum arabic extracted Dip pens are essential and inexpensive drawing tools. Today.246-47). light it. The reservoir gives a constant flow of ink for very long unbroken lines and continuous bottle-free use. PENS .
charred bone (Ivory Black). suspended in a binder and stored as a solid block Blocks are imported today 7. It dries with a sheen and clogs uncleaned pens. C A R B O N INK: Traditionally produced from oil or resin soot (Lamp Black). I R O N . Inks can be lightfast or non-lightfast. they produce a golden dye for drawing. is the ink of a cuttlefish or squid extracted post-mortem. dated. reduced. and sieved. INKS 9. The complexities of traditional iron-gall ink are explained on p. roastedwine sediment (Yeast Black). or charcoal. Bistre is the more humane use of soot scraped from the fireplace and ground into wine. Now we also have acrylic ranges in many colors.35 PEN AND INK Four types of ink were common before the 20th century. .36. bistre. Crushed. and can be mixed and diluted to create subtler colors and tones. 8. and most can be homemade. Waterproof types contain shellac. I N D I A N INK: Carbon ink sold today in liquid form. 5. and are still in use today: carbon (Chinese and Indian).G A L L INK: Abnormal spherical growths caused by parasitic wasps can be collected from some oak trees in fall. Excellent for drawing they are bright and non-clogging. boiled. SEPIA A N D BISTRE INKS: Sepia. iron-gall. from are not 6. ACRYLIC / CALLIGRAPHY INKS: Available in black and a range of colors. an often misused term. Non-waterproof Indian inks can be reworked with a wet brush after drying. Old stock turns solid and bottlesChina. Beechwood soot is best. They are the easiest inks to use. waterproof or non-waterproof. and sepia.
giving a s h o r t . 2 4 4 is an e x q u i s i t e e x a m p l e . red-brown. drawn to glisten with a dryer nib. . and turned brown with time. Oak galls.36 ANIMALS Drawing With Ink To MAKE A QUILL OR REED PEN. Although oak galls and walnut skins are harmless. the blade and cut away from you. always be cautious when experimenting with recipes. and delicious to draw with. are surprisingly tough. Rembrandt. I u s e d t h e s e qualities t o d r a w t h e w o r m s above. U n d e r heavy pressure. galls were ground with iron sulfate to make an unstable solution. QUILL PENS Q u i l l s a r e highly r e s p o n s i v e t o c h a n g e s in p r e s s u r e . The darkest of this grasshopper wings) were made (around the head first. Collect skins from the ground beneath trees once they are blackened. Walnut ink is gloopy. a n d d e v e l o p e d t h e quill instead. sieved. T h e y give a finer. can also be collected from affected trees. d r y mark. Practice to gain a feel for how materials behave. Some of Michelangelo's drawings are now a little eaten by their own ink. crushed. giving longer lines. of a loaded nib. Scribes o f t h e M i d d l e Ages. Running fresh. r e s e r v e d t h e i r use f o r large c h o i r b o o k s . fleshy skins that surround ripe walnuts. Reed marks The darker left wing of this beetle was drawn with the wet inky stroke wing. forming the REED PENS R e e dpens dispense ink quickly. for example. reduced. since t h e D u t c h w e r e t h e first t o realize t h a t they could be hardened and i m p r o v e d w i t h heat t r e a t m e n t in ash o r sand. M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s d r a g o n o n p . finding reed p e n s unwieldy. keep all your fingers behind basis of iron-gall ink. and boiled to make a golden ink. a n d M a t i s s e also e n j o y e d t h e m . it was gray-purple. m o r e e x t e n d e d line than reed and a m o r e organic line t h a n m e t a l . V a n G o g h . then cut a final nib (feathers. Quills are also called D u t c h pens. It also oxidized and ate or burned paper. It dried black.) You can make ink easily from the boiled. For centuries. Paler strokes were made where the mark has the legs and antennae the ink ran out. The lighter right Quill marks Quills carry more ink than strokes and for as reeds. appears broken to show paper beneath. t h e y stick a n d j u d d e r f o r w a r d .
sharp. The of pigment to fall to the edges effect of the shape. it is important to feel for when the ink will run out and to know how much ink you pick up when dipping the nib. W h e n the nib is pressed upside down. marks become fine and needle-sharp. . giving a graded. clean strokes. o r being ruined as fountain pens would be under the same pressure. Each layer of of the drying droplet dome the drawing was left to dry before adding more. Loaded with ink and pressed hard. particles then filled with a droplet of ink. they splay to make thick o r double lines. White markings were drawn last Tones Here we see subtle tones of diluted ink beneath the undiluted black rim of a beetle's wing. breaking.37 METAL PENS Metal pens give long. withstanding great pressure without sticking. tonal Ink layers The wings of this beetle were drawn in layers using black and white ink on pale gray paper. DRAWING WITH INK Filled outlines Each segment of wing was outlined. When using dip pens.
and a large drawing book or plenty of paper Use masking tape to secure pages against the wind." If you don't like a stroke. It happens that goose feathers also provide artists with the best type of quills. Dip your pen in ink. steel nibs are fine. Experiment. Attempt with a loose hand to capture their posture and outline. That said. and boldly plunge into your drawing. Cover a sheet. Posture . Illustrating this exercise on Oxford Port Meadow. Empathize. be bold and press firmly. to absorb blots when drawing.38 ANIMALS Capturing Character GEESE ARE EXCELLENT SUBJECTS to draw when practicing the first use of pen and ink. so pick a spot where other people can keep them entertained. MATERIALS NEEDED Look for a bird expressing a simple posture. Study them before drawing. Take a cup and water for diluting a range of tones. waddle. draw what the bird is doing. there is no obligation to prepare a quill. test your limits. and quickly draw around it using only three or four strokes. Take no more than ten seconds to draw each one and make lots of drawings. Cover your drawing book pages in speedy responses to the geese and try to capture each bird in as few lines as possible. make another one. touch the bottle's rim to drain the excess. It teaches confidence and focus through intensive repetition. Focus on it. Geese are nosy birds. and bellyflop off the waterside. Quick drawing trains you to see what is most important about a subject and to mark only its most essential expression. I covered eleven sheets in sixty quick drawings—in less than an hour. You cannot break the nib. not on your drawing. and be brave. Focus on the geese. Watch their heavy feathered bodies flap. Try to hold the whole posture in your mind's eye. and there is no "wrong. Pack plenty of tissue around a bottle of calligraphy or acrylic ink.
Use more lines than before to express these. look among the birds for more complicated actions such as shaking off water. and don't worry about mechanical facts or accuracy.39 Action With growing confidence. CAPTURING CHARACTER Texture Gradually allow yourself more lines to describe the texture of each bird as well as its posture and action. flapping. . running. Again. Avoid detail unless really tempted by a close-up visit Fluctuate the pressure of your pen in response to how you know the bird would feel if you touched it. and diving. draw the feeling of what you see.
and a tissue for blotting drawn lines that appear too dark. Sleeping animals present the artist with ideal opportunities to study their texture. Dip the nib quickly again into water and again drain it. Then dip the nib quickly into a glass of water and drain the excess again. a d o g w h o w a s a l w a y s town. engaged in his and everyone else's business. MAKING A PALE LINE To make a pale line. and personality." . your drawing book. a dip pen and ink of your choice (see pp. and even then he twitched and stretched in dreams. and drain the excess by touching the nib against the rim of the bottle.34-37). Ras Curled Up Asleep "Capturing the true character of a cherished companion is best achieved with objective determination rather than sentimental shyness. Make a test sheet to discover your control of diluting on the nib. These drawings are not an analysis of his anatomy or breed but the expression of his satisfied comfort in a deep sleep after a night out on the together with a glass of water for diluting tones on the nib. For this class you will need one oblivious dog.40 ANIMALS Sleeping Dogs R A S WAS A GREAT CHARACTER. This will give a medium-gray line. first dip your pen in ink. Now it will make a pale line. The only time he remained still was when he was sleeping. form.
. To add texture. and the shadows in his coat. Remain focused on the whole dog and. second thoughts may be different Changing your mind is a positive aspect o f seeing and thinking. Here I marked the features of Ras's head. 2 Reload your pen with ink. c o n c e r n e d a b o u t detail.41 DRAWING YOUR DOG Be bold in this exercise. ignoring all detail. W i t h pale lies. see how the animal's posture determines its whole shape. Character is better captured drawing quickly with confidence than w o r k i n g slowly. Trust your intuition. Then I immediately rebalanced the drawing with lines around his hind quarters. 3 Gradually introduce darker tones. Layers o f thoughts can bring a drawing alive. Then. tail.It is essential when drawing any subject (even something abstract) to know how it feels andtoemulate this with your line. add more detail. D o not go back over lines you are pleased with—doing so dulls their lively freshness. this time to create a line a little darker in tone. ears. in bold layers. I added ink to Ras's nose. quickly draw what you see. alter the pressure and moisture of your line in response to howyouknow your dog feels when you ruffle itscoat. First lines are first thoughts. Here. to emphasize how he is curled up. SLEEPING DOGS 1 Fix your eyes at the center of the dog.
offering plenty of time for the artist to draw the pose. swinging their limbs and shells with a slow circular movement. they stretch and paddle.Turtles to observe. as if caught in a camera freeze-frame. THE ELONGATION AND BUOYANCY of a group of turtles is fascinating . Beyond the glass wall of the aquarium. A perfect subject for the beginner. turtles often pause unexpectedly.
balance. weightlessness of the kiwi.Dry Birds THESE ARE THE ARTICULATED BONES o f a k i w i a n d a h o u s e - martin drawn in a museum using a steel pen. India ink. With speed. and sharp. I made repeated studies of the housemartin to discover its mechanism of flight. I sought to capture the form. and water. I darkened lines as each drawing progressed. dry. . Beginning with very pale tones.
From its history there is one overriding lesson to be learned: the importance of looking and seeing with our own eyes. robust. The revolution came in the 1530s. shape. Fledgling years Botanist and apothecary who compiled the Hortus Eystettensis of scientific research bore manifold explosions of knowledge in a fever of discovery.000 species of plants are depicted life-size drawn. Conrad von Gemmingen. and beauty. We draw them to celebrate their beauty and range. season. and to ornament our lives. Botanical illustration is a precisely defined and scientific art. the punctuation of space with structure and mass. infinitely vivid. Chapters are arranged by out. to catalog our knowledge.Plants and Gardens W E SHARE THIS PLANET with the more ancient. nurture. we now have laid before us fourto show how well their colours complement each other infinite wealth of material to explore. Both embrace the anticipation of evolving shape. It was published plain in 1611 and withhand-paintedplates in poured off ships returning from the New World and were eagerly collected and 1613. We collect. Plants are the principal inspiration of the decorative arts—from Roman Corinthian columns crowned with carved leaves of the acanthus. —-the largest and most influential botanical book of the early Natural scientists accompanied explorers to document unknown finds. Rich owners of private gardens commissioned large-format florilegiums commissioned the volume to document his private garden to immortalize their personal taste and power of acquisition. manipulations of light and shade. we see very different cultural visions of plants and gardens and use pencils and plants to learn the pictorial values of space. In this chapter. Later. and diverse kingdom of plants. He sent boxes of plants to Nuremburgburned with the urgency and excitement of explaining every plant's form. Classifications were set in367copperengravings. Medieval knowledge was not gained by the first-hand observation of life but by reading. B A S I L I U SBESLER when botanists founded new work upon the direct study of plants. on which our lives depend. and the drawn pages ofthesame name. After Here Aconthus spinosus is combined with forget-me-nots and-a-half centuries of intensive observation. as opposed to only herbal. where a number of uncredited artistsd r e wthem for Besler. an There are close parallels between the acts of gardening and drawing. color. and texture. PriceBishopof Eichstatt specimens. and hybridize them for our sustenance and pleasure. and the Acanthus spinosus constant but exhilarating struggle to make a living image feel right. to the proliferation of floral designs with which we have dressed ourselves and furnished our homes for centuries.Morethan 1. Plants seventeenth century. Botanic gardens were established and expanded. Early European illustrators were trapped within dogma that was determined by ancient scholarship. and focus. Patrons funded the breeding of decorative. 1613 187/8x153/4in(480 x 400 mm) BASILIUS BESLER . the microscope was refined to unfold yet another world. form.
subtle union of beauty.48 PLANTS AND GARDENS THE SCIENTIFIC VALUE OF A BOTANICAL DRAWING lies i n its Botanical Studies were specimens that often refused to stay still. He has made the spatial and physical relationships in this drawing all the more real by placing a single. Outline Bauer prepared a pencil outline before laying in fleshy succulent hues and tones of watercolor. and meticulous precision. It is likely Bauer would have studied these under a microscope. Dissections Across the lower part of this drawing we can see dissections of seed pods and petals. petal tip over a lower leaf Protea nitida 201/4 x141/4in (513 x 362 mm) FRANZ BAUER 1796 . Stella Ross-Craig said of the need to d r a w from a dried herbarium plant "I could make it live again. and Franz Bauer and his brother Ferdinand were employed there to draw specimens. and seeds conventionally a p p e a r o n o n e plate. M a c k i n t o s h e x p r e s s e s the f o l d e d petals of a broken rose b u d so delicately w e can sense the perfume. insect-ravaged. o p t i m i s m . detail. fruit. B e h i n d detailed. stems. Light in this drawing is given by the paleness of the paper showing between washes of darker tones. W i t h bright F R A N Z BAUER An Austrian artist who trained at the Schonbrunn Imperial Gardens in Vienna. Each plant must b e clearly distinguished from its closest relative. and wilted. flowers. measured drawings. or that were diseased. The King was then establishing the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. Sir Joseph Banks. o p e n i n g a n d c l o s i n g i n the w a r m t h a n d light of the studio. Botanical art c o n c e a l s the challenge of its m a k i n g . delicate. They are counted among the most accomplished 18th-century botanical artists. Here. naturalist explorer and advisor to King George III invited Bauer to London in 1 7 9 0 ." Her slipper orchid s h o w s that botanical drawing must often resolve the challenge of its subject's p r o d u c i n g parts in different seasons — r o o t s . leaves. T h e rest of u s are free to d r a w as w e w i s h . s u c h as w e see here in Bauer's Protea nitida.
H e r Drawings of British Plants. A s m a n y of her drawings are kept G a r d e n s . Closer to fiction can come together perfectly.286 studies for her book Drawings of British Plants." This line drawing is one of 1. Rose 1894 103/4 x 83/4 in ( 2 7 5 x 2 2 1 mm) CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH STELLA ROSS-CRAIG A j o i n e d t h e staff a t t h e R o y a l B o t a n i c G a r d e n s . and follow shadow. S h e also o f thousands o f contributed an drawings.7 3 in 3 1 p a r t s . found among Mackintosh's than reality. and it shows how design. p u b l i s h e d 1 9 4 8 . sensual pencil drawing is later works. and speed depends upon the immediate perception of the essential characteristics of the plant. imagination. a n d f o u n d e r o f t h e G l a s g o w S c h o o l o f A r t M a c k i n t o s h ' s flair h a d an e n o r m o u s i n f l u e n c e o n t h e a v a n t .g a r d e in G e r m a n y a n d A u s t r i a . Pencil lines cling to. and perfect coordination of hand and eye. and observation the nuance and contour of every in one image. Curtis's Botanical Magazine. Line Drawing of Cypripedium calceolus L c. Ross-Craig said of her work "Plants that wither rapidly present a very difficult problem to which there is only one answer—speed. BOTANICAL STUDIES Lines and shadows This lush.49 C H A R L E S RENNIE MACKINTOSH Scottish a r c h i t e c t d e s i g n e r painter. 1970 x 81/4 in ( 3 2 5 x 2 1 0 m m ) STELLA ROSS-CRAIG .. as at trained botanical artist Ross-Craig Swift lines The drawing was planned in pencil and then overworked with a lithographic pen. it is small and discreet.000 Kew to archive accessible t o d a y v i a t h e I n t e r n e t of o n British flora. a n d he inspired. L o n d o n in 1 9 2 9 . a m o n g o t h e r s . is r e c o g n i z e d as tne m o s t c o m p l e t e a n d i m p o r t a n t work 3. G u s t a v K l i m t In his r e t i r e m e n t Mackintosh m a d e n u m e r o u s inventive pencil a n d w a t e r c o l o r d r a w i n g s o f plants.. K e w .
The first Mughal Emperor Babur's Garden of Fidelity (Bagh-e Vaja). which he personally created near Kabul. painting. . paper is brimming with the beauty and celebration of nature. Envoys chatter outside the gate. Babur directs his gardeners in the design and planting of this quartered chahar bagh. Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity c. fluctuations in scale. Afghanistan. Every fiber of AMONG DRAWINGS FROM BISHNDAS A N D N A N H A Little is known of these Mughal painters who were related as uncle and nephew and commissioned to illustrate the pages of Babur's journal.50 PLANTS AND GARDENS Jeweled Gardens the Middle East we find exquisite stylization of form and upright formality in pictorial space. urgent attentive human activity. Opposite is the Rose of Mohammed. the sumptuous petals permeated with prayer and wisdom. in the early 16th century. anticipating their view. Drawing. Bishndas was probably responsible for the overall design. in miniature. and Nanha. Below. 1590 85/8 x55/8in (219 x 1 4 4 mm) BISHNDAS AND NANHA Bright pigment These pages were illuminated by Mughal artists in the late 16th century. roses took their form in a bead of perspiration on the brow of Mohammed as he passed through his heavenly journey. a notable portrait painter drew the faces. and calligraphy are brought together to hold the sacred names of prophets and the 99 beautiful names of God. Upright shallow perspectives. By Muslim tradition. The white of the page shines through the brilliant color. is remembered in the pages of his journal. uniform focus. and miraculous growth. They used a fine brush to lay pigment over a line drawing. and attention to detail are all shared with medieval European manuscript drawings.
It is n o w k e p t in Border The elegant border of this drawing was mode with a pen and ruler It cleverly compresses and defines the composition. Note how each bud is essentially the same shape. and how the shape has been repeated freehand. The Rose of Mohammed 1708 9 1 / 2 x 61/2 in ( 2 4 0 x 1 6 5 mm) FROM THE TURKISH M A N U S C R I P T AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH . Sacred words The central rose is more solid than any other on the page. fragmenting its detail in a whisper of prayers. G e r m a n y . However. Stylized motif A fine brush has been used throughout this drawing to apply inks and watercolors. The physical anatomy of the rosebud has been studied and translated into a repeated stylized motif.AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH This is a detail o f a page from a n 1 8 t h . t h e Staatsbibliothek zu Arabic. look closely and you will see words written in gold fluttering over the form of the flower. so that overlapping petals and stems give an impression of fulfillment and abundance.c e n t u r y Turkish manuscnpt a book of religious e t h i c s w r i t t e n in the O r i e n t a l C o l l e c t i o n s of Berlin.
PLANTS AND GARDENS
IN CONTRAST TO THE QUIET, formal detail of other drawings in this chapter, these powerful fast trees enact the actions of plants. Each tree reaches out and holds its landscape with dynamism and pulse. In both drawings we find testament to the inexorable energy of growth. Rembrandt expresses a delicate quickness. Gentle lines draw a warm breeze through this remote wooded garden. Rustling in a loose foliage of soft marks, his pen evokes the weight of abundant activity on this late summer's day. Mondrian's arch of scratching branches is drawn with such force it will always be alive. We can still feel his hand storming across the paper. Set within a frame of smudged landscape, the tree possesses a musical agitation. This characteristic will increase in the artist's later abstract work. Here, we see a punctuated ordering of space. Sharp branches cut out negative shapes of winter sky.
R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter; etcher; and draftsman. Rembrandt's prolific output comprises oil paintings of historical and religious subjects together with group and self- portraits. His emotive etchings and pen and ink drawings (see also p. 174) are great resources for artists learning to understand the potential of these media.
Pen and ink lines describing foliage also tell
us the directions of sunlight and wind. An arc crossing the bottom of the drawing from one side to the other supports the scene and separates us from the landscape beyond. Compare Rembrandt's arc to that of Mondrian's. and note the similar treatment of low horizons in both works emphasizing the height and dominance of trees.
Cottage Among Trees 1648-50 63/4 x121/8in ( I 7 I x 308 mm) R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN
Atmosphere Here we see how shapes of negative space are as important as the physical subject they enclose (see pp.58-59). Mondrian has again lightly dragged his chalk on its side to evoke a wet depth of atmosphere. These passive gray marks contrast with the assertive tension of the tree.
Dutch Pure abstract painter preoccupied w i t h line and plane relationships. W i t h increasing austerity, Mondrian banished t h e subject from his drawings, in his later w o r k he also banished space, composing visual h a r m o n i e s using only straight lines a n d flat planes o f black, w h i t e , gray, o r p r i m a r y color.
Winter ground Short vertical marks along thebottomof this drawing reveal the length oftheblackchalk Mondrian used. Rubbed onitsside,itroughly blocks in the ground. Thecrudeeconomy of line is all we need tofeelthecold, wet, unwelcoming quality ofthiswinterearth.
Branches and trunk Lines shaping the branches of the tree are built up in layers. To make the trunk more dense, the artist has rubbed and smudged preliminary marks with his fingers before firmly overdrawing with new lines. Solid black lines are achieved by pressing the chalk hard. When used lightly, it shows the texture of the paper. Tree: Study for the Grey 1911 23 x 335/8 in ( 5 8 4 x 8 5 5 m m ) Tree
PLANTS AND GARDENS
Graphite and Erasers
GRAPHITE, FROM THE G R E E K word
This drawing illustrates a range of achieved with graphite pencils of different grades.
Modern pencils are graded from 9H (hard and pale) to 9B (black and soft). Graphiteclay sticks are also available, together with a powder form. All possess a natural sheen and are erasable to a varying degree. Graphite drawings smudge easily, so fixative, a form of varnish, can be used to hold a drawn surface in place. It is applied as a fine mist from an aerosol can, or from a bottle using a diffuser. For the beginner, ordinary hairspray is an effective and cheaper alternative.
(to write), is a soft and brittle carbon. It was first mined in Cumbria, England, in 1 5 6 4 , and was initially used in small, pure pieces bound in lengths of string. Pencils as we know them—with their slender wood casing and "lead" of graphite—were invented in France in 1794 by Nicolas-Jaques Conte. He discovered that milled graphite mixed with clay and water, press-molded, and baked to a high temperature produces a harder and paler medium than graphite alone.
3B pencil A range of mark and textures can be achieved with a 3B pencil when you vary its pressure, speed, and direction, as this detail shows.
Here is a selection of 14 items to illustrate a basic range of pencils, graphite sticks, sharpeners, erasers, and fixative.
1. AND 2. HB AND 3B PENCILS: It is unnecessary to possess every grade of pencil. HB, the central and most common grade, is perfect for making delicate lines. 3B gives a blacker tone. A great variety of effects can be achieved with just these two. 3. WATER-SOLUBLE PENCIL Effective for atmospheric drawing, but be aware of how watery tones can dull the impact of the line. 4. AND 5. MECHANICAL PENCIL Thick or fine leads are made in a range of grades. They are particularly useful because they do not require a sharpener 6. ROUND SOLID GRAPHITE PENCIL: Excellent for large-scale drawing, producing thick bold lines. A range of grades can be honed with a craft knife or sharpener 7. THICK GRAPHITE STICK: For large-scale drawing. Graded soft, medium, and hard. It crushes to produce graphite powder 8. SQUARE GRAPHITE STICK: Useful for making broad, sweeping marks in large-scale drawing. If worn and rounded, the stick can be snapped into pieces to regain the sharp, square end. 9. CRAFT KNIFE AND BLADES: Handles are sold in two sizes to fit large or small blades, and blades are sold in a range of shapes. Perfect for sharpening pencils to a long point, to cut lines in paper or to remove areas. 10. PENCIL SHARPENER: Makes a uniform point. Keep one in your pocket for drawing outside the studio, together with an envelope for shavings.
HB and 5B Layers of tone have been built up withHBand5Bpencils. Softer pencils require less pressure to make a mark, revealing the texture of the paper surface. It is important to keep the point of the pencil sharp with either a craft knife or a sharpener.
ERASING AND FIXING
Erasers can be used t o blend and s o f t e n lines, o r t o r e m o v e altogether. Fixative them prevents
GRAPHITE AND ERASERS
s m u d g i n g a n d s e c u r e s lines.
Using fixative You can use fixative while drawing to hold the definition of lines you wish to gently fade but not remove entirely, for which you would use an eraser.
11. P L A S T I C E R A S E R : Avoid cheap colored erasers that may stain drawings with grease and dye. White brands are available in soft and hard versions.
P U T T Y RUBBER:
W a r m it in your hand before use. It is excellent for removing powdery materials, and for making crisp sweeps of light across a delicate pencil drawing
13. D I F F U S E R : Helleborus corsicus (Corsican hellebore) fixative, or to spray mists of ink.
PLANTS AND GARDENS
Cropping and Composition
M A N Y STUDENTS WILL START a d r a w i n g i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e
that its skin nearly touches the boundary. The meaning of the same drawing changes simply by its relationship to the space it occupies. The size of any subject, its placement on the page, the size of the page, and its overall proportion are all discrete and essential aspects of successful picture-making. Before you begin to draw, think carefully about where to place your subject. Are you are happy with your paper? If not, change it; add more, take some away, or turn it around. Do not just accept what you are given, adapt it to what you need.
paper. Focused on the shape and detail of their subject, they remain happily unaware that there is, or should be, any relationship between what they are drawing and the surface they are drawing it on. The paper is only paper, and the troublesome subject floats somewhere in the expanse of it. However, a single fig drawn in the middle of a large, empty square of paper gives quite a different impression from the same fig drawn on such an intimately small square
CHOOSING A VIEW
A Single Fig
"The size, shape, and orientation of the paper are so integral to the composition that they determine the impact and meaning of the drawing."
its illumination. spaces between things are as important as the things themselves. and lines describing shadows cast by the fruit . a device to help you decide what t o draw.O u r focus is on the white cloth supporting the figs.57 THE VIEWFINDER T h e s e pencil drawings o f figs d e m o n s t r a t e different crops and compositions. bottom-left t o top-right. U s e it as a starting point. and therefore apparently suspended from. the uppermost edge of the drawing. Here the left fig is attached to. The angle of the fruit together with dark shadow (top left) and bright light(bottom right) suggest a diagonal division across the whole drawing. CROPPING AND COMPOSITION Off-center and diagonal Here I held my viewfinder so the fig appeared upper-left in the space. This drawing hasbeencropped to emphasize space between thefruit. A card with a small rectangle cut out o f it makes a useful viewfinder C l o s e o n e e y e t o look through the hole. When subjects touch two or more edges. as also shown here. t h e n m o v e t h e c a r d t o e x p l o r e different views. its stem and shadow framing a white center. running corner t o corner. they establish a tension and unity with the paper. Space as the subject Inallpictures. Touching the edge When the subject o f a drawing touches one edge of the paper it attaches t o it visually.
remember to draw only space. In your own version. their subject and composition will become more real. which is shown in the three steps below. Looking at negative space overrides the problem of drawing what you know. Remember that plants do move! Therefore it is best to complete your drawing in one sitting if possible. third. rather than what you see in front of you. then added a second shape. a foundation stone in picture-making. It is an astonishingly simple device that many artists use and I strongly recommend. position. Draw a complete shape Map outward from the center Erase and adjust lines until correct . fourth. an eraser. but if the artist does. shapes of air cut out and defined by the physicality of our environment? When we look into the branches of a tree. do we see myriad distinct and unique shapes of daylight or do we just see branches? Why as artists should we look at the air? Every space in a picture has a shape. erasing and adjusting lines until itlooked right. a sharp H B pencil. and so on. dynamic. unified. Follow these from left to right and see how I began with one complete shape between two parts of a leaf. Viewers appreciating a finished image may not see shapes of space. this ensures a consistent view. Negative space is the simple key to getting positive shape right. In following this class. and engaging.The box opposite isolates an area. and a role to play.58 PLANTS AND GARDENS Negative Space UNCONSCIOUSLY WE ASSESS spatial relationships all the time to guide ourselves through the world. Unfamiliar shapes of negative space reveal the real shape of a positive subject. and a fresh page in your drawing book. you will need a similar large-leaved plant. The drawing opposite is of the uppermost leaves of a potted fig tree. It helps to start at the center and map outward. not leaves. WHERE TO START Arrange your plant and paper so you can look back and forth by barely moving your head. tone. But how often do we look at the air between things.
Here I drew only spaces, adding one to another until the leaves were revealed. Besides looking at negative space, there are two other useful things to do when a drawing feels wrong but you cannot see why: look at it in a mirror or turn it upside down. errors and suggest changes.
Spaces between leaves
Either view will
WALKING IN THE ALPUJARRAS in A n d a l u c i a ,
Spain, I drew a bare fig tree clinging to the wall of an almond grove; a perfect subject for seeing negative space. I marked its essential frame of large branches first, frequently erasing lines and changing my mind until the balance felt right.
S a l v i a , RIBES, CLEMATIS, Allium, Passiflora, and Acanthus
drawn with an H pencil by observing the
negative spaces between the stems, petals, and leaves. I arranged the flowers on a sheet of paper in a cool r o o m and rapidly sketched a composition. Then I put them in water, taking the stems out one at a time to draw.
Excessive detail leaves no space for the eye to rest or imagination to wander. 62-63). If an artist changes the pace of their line and focus of their attention. interfolding points of detail with areas of loose suggestion. . our eyes travel and adjust from one point of focus to another. they emulate our experience of seeing.Acanthus Spinosus As we LOOK AROUND. We never see everything at once. Compare changes of pace and focus here to the flatter finish of Summer Flowers (see pp. gathering less distinct information on the way.
designers. to help them create new form.Architecture I N THE CONTEMPORARY PRACTICES of architecture. and in the 19th century it was given the name the Golden Section. film-set design. space. and from West Facade of the Church of St Augustin. 74-75). with gray and brown watercolor wash. Since the first flowering of Modernism in the early 20th century. they have the Golden Section. and sound.This is a pencil drawing. At the core of their practice.The church is still in use today. which can be clearly seen in ancient Greek architecture. coupled with the importance of exercizing your imagination. the device that has since governed most of our picture-making (sec pp. mass. This harmony. and architects of ancient Greece who first pursued the formula for "divine proportion. Perhaps in the sheer planes of some of our greatest modern buildings it is finding its clearest expression. philosophers. fine artists. and writers have been breaking away from traditional forms of representation to seek new expressions of shape. architects and designers can imaginatively "climb inside" three-dimensional space and. to 20th-century film fantasy. It was the mathematicians. they also have a diagrammatic language for communicating plans to builders. time. the formula for perfection spread through Europe. made by the architect himself. once there. we find the most recent steps in the evolution of graphic language. European conventions of pictorial perspective have lost their monopoly on seeing. Among the drawings of this chapter we look from 17th-century ecclesiastical calm. It was also during the Renaissance that the architect Brunelleschi invented linear perspective. Baltard designed the Church of St. which was the first church in the capital to be built entirely of metal and then clad in stone. Paris 1871-74 the child's view to the infinity of the vanishing point. drawing plans around themselves within a program as opposed to on a flat sheet of paper. from political commentary to musical abstraction. Yet the pursuit of divine proportion and harmony remains. Augustin. Architects have been fine-tuning their specialized branch of drawing for centuries. Computer programs allow the virtual drawing of ideas. architects. filmmakers. was preserved into the Renaissance where it became a foundation stone for thinking and creativity From 15thcentury Italy. VICTOR BALTARD French architect employed by the city of Paris. invaluable to understand and apply when you choose." reflecting the eye's love of unity in difference. Linear perspective is a marvelous device. composers. balance. add and subtract ideas. It is the focus of practical class in this chapter. Through the animation of the screen. each VICTOR BALTARD . of the west facade of St Augustin. Since Picasso and Braque's revolution of Cubism in around 1907. and computer game imaging. Besides sketches of first thoughts and polished drawings of the finished look for clients.
Blenheim Palace. and an inscribed entablature. testing gravity to calculate the inverted shapes of domes. Hawksmoor established his reputation with university and church architecture including All Souls College. describe a finished look to a client. and ultimately to show builders what to do. NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR One of Britain's "three great" Baroque architects (along with Sir Christopher Wren and Sir John Vanbrugh). and six London churches. Lines define structure while washes suggest light and atmosphere. structure. and the shapes of interior domes and apses. A student of Wren's. Drawings underpin every great human-made structure like hidden linear ghosts at their core. Hampton Court Palace. marks the end of a long journey from the first few marks the architect made on a sheet of paper. Finished surface On the left the finished surface of the building is given depth and emphasis by immaculate vertical and horizontal brush strokes of shadow. densely layered lines in mists of color weave the presence of the expected building into shape. Three aspects This subtle and sophisticated drawing made in pen and wash displays three distinct aspects of Hawksmoor's baptistry. 1711-12 NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR . relative levels. Hawksmoor's drawing is both a plan and an evocation. materials. embodying a massive investment of ideas. and later an assistant to Vanbrugh. Gaudi's fluid architecture grew up through many kinds of drawing. The photograph opposite shows his studio hung with metal pendulums. a three-dimensional drawing made with wires and weights. calculate function. he also worked on St Paul's Cathedral. pilasters. Cut-away interior On the right a section cut through the center of the building reveals material thicknesses. Architects draw for many reasons: to visualize ideas.68 ARCHITECTURE Master Builders EVERY NEW BUILDING. We see the modeled detail of Corinthian columns. Together they explain how interior structure and space define exterior form and shape. Oxford. Pillars and floor At the base of the drawing a compass-drawn plan tilted downward through 90 degrees illustrates the arrangement of pillars around a central circular floor. and labor. St Paul's Baptistry c. and balance. evoke presence. and Castle Howard. Below it.
This sculptural drawingenvisionsthe finished crypt glowingandethereal as if caught in thelightof red morning sun. Wire and watercolor three-dimensional preferred to calculate Above is a drawing form in the made withlinkedwires and weights. light. Gaudi's cathedral in Barcelona. and apartment homes are distinguished by their Their and Flowering curves of stone or concrete are often encrusted with Gaudi was inspired by medieval and oriental art. Gaudi air than on paper. embellishment. unique organic manipulation of high shapes. and his love of music. To the right isawatercolordrawing thought to havebeenmade over a photograph ofthemodelabove. churches. Guell Crypt of its at the Time Construction c. The Art Nouveau movement. 1910 24x181/4( 6 1 0 x 4 7 5mm) A N T O N I O GAUDI .69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt c. 1900 ANTONIO GAUDI ANTONIO GAUDI Visionary Catalan architect.
He also produces urban and landscape designs. such a rapport in both of these drawings. Contemporary musicians commonly collaborate with artists by interpreting images as sound. We can see. and rooms. Libeskind's numerous commissions include concert halls and museums. Libeskind studied music before transferring to architecture. p. He also contributed to plans for the rebuilding of the World Trade Center site in New York. We can imagine how a musician might interpret this drawing by looking at the abstract visual rhythms of masses composed of long straight poles. a refillable pen that feeds a constant supply of ink through a fine tubular nib. corridors. and arched dotted lines depict the radius of doors. Arctic Flowers 1980 DANIEL LIBESKIND . Visual rhythms In the lower half of this drawing architectural language has broken loose: escaped and transformed into an image of rebellious pleasure. flat boards. Floor plan This drawing has been made with a rapidograph. while the composer Erik Satie has made an enclosure of quiet order and grace. Both men used rulers and pens to carefully and slowly construct their compositions. and exhibitions of his drawings.70 ARCHITECTURE The Order of Sound B O T H OF THESE VISIONARY DRAWINGS o c c u p y a s l e n d e r . There has always DANIEL LIBESKIND A Polish American architect of international acclaim.223). Floor space appears divided by discernible walls. and dotted lines. Across the top and center right of the image w e perceive an almost recognizable architectural plan. installations. Libeskind begins quietly in the upper space of his drawing. and in a sense hear. and the spaces between his windows and turrets are the visual equivalent of pauses in h i s m u s i c c o m p o s i t i o n s for p i a n o (see also Bussotti. theater sets. Satie draws quietly throughout. short curved poles. The architect and musician Daniel Libeskind has drawn a stampeding cacophany of airborne architectural detail. upright pictorial space. before cascading into a riot of line and sound below. been a natural affinity between the visual rhythms of pictures and the audible rhythms of music.
o f which he was the sole m e m b e r Parcel paper Satie has drawn this fantasy hotel using a ruler. theater. andfouredges of the paper tothecompositionand impact animage. Compare the even and and the shape wall to the elegantly stylized order of the many windows of arrangement of details and the shape of the wall in Babur's Garden of Fidelity on p. lived a l o n e . Eastern influence The upright image Eastern is reminiscent and medieval of Middle pictorial space and subject of this European drawing. a conventional dip or fountain pen. and ink on a fragment folded brown paper—a of everyday happened material of scrap that to be at hand.H i s witty. Onpp. H e p e r f o r m e d in cabarets. Satie collaborated w i t h hisfriends J e a n C o c t e a u a n d P i c a s s o . effectively additional lines in a work. They definespaceand pictorial balance.ERIK SATIE F r e n c h pianist and c o m p o s e r for t h e piano. and founded his o w n church. a n d ballet. 1 8 9 3 77/8 x 51/2 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 4 0 mm) ERIK SATIE . minimalist s c o r e s scandalized a u d i e n c e s with o r c h e s t r a t i o n s f o r t h e foghorn and typewriter.narrowshape of its paper. Hotel de la Suzonnieres c. dressed eccentrically. the perimeter Composition Look how well this drawingfitsand resonates with the upright.Edges are how are of orientation.50.56—57 we discussed important the shape.
enter the long-shadowed architecture of imaginary worlds. Boullee lived in Paris. experiencing a fascinating conflict between curiosity and desolation. Among preparations for Fritz Langs film Metropolis. arched vaults. the ominous globe exists only as a series of drawings. cylinders. We glide over exquisitely drawn wastelands of damage and abandonment. This shift makes the cenotaph appear three-dimensional.96. ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE French architectural theorist. This is the work of an architectural theoretician. Light illusions This pen-and-wash drawing shows a subtle application of the principles of illumination demonstrated with an egg on p. painter. we find other Utopian visions Paul Nobles epic drawing summons an imperfect and disturbing township where ruin and activity are equal and strange. spheres. and draftsman. made in 1926. and taught at t h e A c a d e m i e d'Architecture. Within it. antlike mortals might have speculated upon the universe. His celebrated imaginary buildings are characterized by pyramids. and dramatic lighting. Newton's Cenotaph 1784 153/4 x 25 in ( 4 0 2 x 635 m m ) ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE . Boullee's monolithic apparition was drawn as a monument to Sir Isaac Newton. Art director Erich Kettlehut's vertiginous design for the city of a slavelike populace had a future influence on movies such as Blade Runner.The lower-left section of the building appears relatively pale against a darker sky. and the reverse is true on the right.72 ARCHITECTURE T H E S E T H R E E HIGHLY DETAILED DRAWINGS Future Fictions invite us to soaring above normal life.
intensely detailed graphite drawings explaining and questioning t h e geography. Working on toned paper such as this gives an artist greater scope for dramatic lighting effects than if they work on white paper. and m o d e l . Fritz Lang's Metropolis c.Building shapes are works can be read as text. Nobson Central 9 ft 1 0 in x 1 3 f t 2 in (3 x 4 m ) PAUL N O B L E 1998-99 . FUTURE FICTIONS Brush and ink This is a dramatic drawing from a film that shaped the history of world cinema. Kettlehut drew using a fine and relatively dry brush dipped in black. architecture.73 ERICH KETTLEHUT Influential film a r t director. Nobson political visions of humanity Newtown. used forced perspective camera t e c h n i q u e s t o amplify t h e m a g n i t u d e o f buildings in relation t o human characters. 1926 ERICH KETTLEHUT PAUL N O B L E British c o n t e m p o r a r y artist who creates m o n u m e n t a l . Kettlehut and his c o . and morality o f an invented place called His satires exhibited w o r l d w i d e .a r t director O t t o Hunte. together with c i n e m a t o g r a p h e r Karl Freund.m a k e r In t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f Metropolis. mythology. draftsman. gray. Its sheerscaleengulfs the viewer and demands based time and patience to on letters and in some beread. and are Graphite shapes Nobson Central isoneof a series of very large graphite drawings of the spoil and detritus of Nobson Newtown. and white ink on brown-gray paper.
Note how architectural features conform to lines and how human figures diminish in size toward thevanishingpoint. linear perspective is distinct from more ancient systems practiced in the East. All forms of perspective are of equal value. Pull the thread taut and rotate it slowly above the drawing. and those of Naive artists and children. Sometimes shared with Naive artists. observations. this perspective is often an imagined bird's-eye view in which details are mapped according to logic and importance rather than how they might appear in real life. Here Leonardo provides a superb example of a single vanishing point. 206-07). LEONARDO DA VINCI One of the greatest artists. Study of Perspective Adoration of the for the Magi 1481 61/2 x111/2in (165 x 290 mm) LEONARDO DA VINCI . inventors. Press the pin into Leonardo's vanishing point. Piranesi an example of two. but is most easily seen and understood in pictures of buildings and interiors. and age eight.74 ARCHITECTURE Pathways of Sight LINEAR PERSPECTIVE (also called vanishing-point perspective) is a simple device for calculating the relative size of things in pictorial space. and inventions— essential reading for inquiring minds. It can be applied to any subject. I contribute the child's perspective. See how the thread corresponds to each converging line. In his notebooks. Invented by Italian artist and architect Brunelleschi in 1413 (late in the history of art). Single-point perspective Tie a thread to a pin. scientists. We use it to structure illusions of depth. Leonardo recorded constant streams of ideas. and thinkers ever to have lived. It is also distinguished from aerial perspective (see pp. found at the center of all converging lines.
England 1980 9 x 16 in (228 x 405 mm) S A R A H SIMBLET GIOVANNI BATTISTA PIRANESI Italian artist. at the top of each lateral column base. visionary and practical understanding of ancient Rome.SARAH SIMBLET I made this drawing (at age 8) in response to a local bookstore's request for children to draw their village. Mark these points with your pin and follow the converging lines of the drawing by rotating your thread. and designer Piranesi's prolific architectural drawings. Two-point perspective Sunlight through this colonnade a great example of two-point perspective. It shows how children usually map large scenes in flat layers one above the other. 1740 5 1 / 2 x 83/8 in (141 x 212 mm) G I O V A N N I B A T T I S T A PIRANESI points are located on either side of the drawing. Breamore Village. architect. and theoretical writing strongly influenced neoclassicism. Lightly marked illuminates vanishing Two Courtyards c. a points in logical narrative of memories. Note the rather large rabbits and pheasants the hills. . Children are uninhibited and problems with one element being obscured by another rarely arise. Scale Our farmhouse my experience was in the woods. issues of scale when making room for important their story. including all they recall about the subject. which I saw from home every day. This drawing Young children typically maps ignore on and understanding of the nearby village. New Forest.
Each line should pass through one corner of the rectangle. Next. This lesson shows you how to make a simple illusion of space defined by two boxes and three flat boards. draw a horizon line across your paper Mark a spot on the horizon line. Extend each dotted line to the edge of your drawing. discovering the image as it progressed. (See p. This ensures that the second rectangle aligns with the shape and 4 Draw four short lines to connect the four corners of the two rectangles. On the previous page we looked at its essential mechanism through drawings by Leonardo and Piranesi. You have completed your first box. DRAWING BOXES 1 Using a ruler and a sharp HB pencil.98 for an important note on oscillation. Piranesi planned his drawing with only the essential lines needed. In contrast. corresponding to a single vanishing point. Note that if you place large structures in the foreground and smaller ones closer to your vanishing point. imagine. then follow the ten steps below. Surround the vanishing point with a small rectangle. using a sharp HB pencil and ruler. Study these pages first before embarking on this lesson.) .76 ARCHITECTURE Single-Point Perspective MASTERING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE i s e a s i e r t h a n y o u m a y First read through. Draw each step over the preceding one to build up a single image. Leonardo began with a grid of many lines within which he invented his scene. This is where we will begin. you will amplify the illusion of distance. Draw four dotted lines radiating out from the vanishing point. this is your vanishing point. 2 3 corners must each touch a dotted line. try composing your own space. Erase the dotted construction lines.
asIhavedonehere. 6 As in step 2. with two dotted lines.77 SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE 5 Draw a new rectangle. larger rectangle. and erase the dotted lines. Connect this to the vanishing point— again. N e x t draw a slanting line to mark the height of the first flat board. 1 0 Erase all ofthedottedlinestoseeyourfinishedboxes Thickeningtheiredges. draw a second. when inventing your own compositions. 8 Complete the second box with short lines as in step 4. The board's sides should be parallel. 9 Use dotted lines connecting the slanting linetothe vanishing point to locate the top. Note that this does not surround the vanishing point In the future. The four comers must each touch a dotted line to be sureitaligns with the first. the closer it will appear to the viewer. bottom. The larger you make your second rectangle. you can place rectangles anywhere youwishin relation to a vanishing point. 7 As in step 3. andfarside of this first board. Continue the dotted lines out toward the edge of your drawing. . draw four dotted lines radiating from your vanishing point Pass these through each comer of the new rectangle. Repeat this to add two more boards to the composition.willhelptomake them appear more solid.
it is interaction that makes the work richer. artist and film director. As David Lynch. Linear perspective will support y o u by providing a frame in which to b u i l d your picture as it did for Leonardo. Every work talks In this class. then let the space suggest its c o n t e n t s and purpose. APPLYING PERSPECTIVE An Imagined Scaffold "Enjoy your illusion as you make it and it will become more real. p . O n a fresh page in your d r a w i n g b o o k . you will find white adhesive stationery labels are useful for covering errors or changing the direction of your idea. It highlights the importance of having faith in your imagination and trusting your ability to invent. Then follow the three given steps. it will take you places you never dreamed of. 7 4 ) . If using a fibertip pen as I have done for this drawing. w h e t h e r it is a film or a painting.78 ARCHITECTURE Creating an Imaginary Space T H I S CLASS USES SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE t o c r e a t e a s i m p l e to you and if you listen to it. I always start with a script but I don't follow it all the way through to the end. The m i s t a k e n belief that we s h o u l d k n o w exactly what o u r finished drawings will l o o k like before we m a k e t h e m prevents many people from ever starting. draw a b o x as shown opposite. A lot more happens when you open yourself up to the work and let yourself act and react to it." imaginary room." . once said: "I never end up with what I set out to do. let simple lines suggest a simple space.
Here. parallel planes such as walls converge toward the vanishing point.There is great pleasure tobefoundin spending time inventing interiors. and floors and ceilings also converge and rise o r lower toward the horizon. With some practice.drawthehorizonlineand vanishingpoint.79 DRAWING A SIMPLE ROOM Essentials t o remember: objects and people dimmish in size as they move farther away. This initial space will be transparent and open to change. you will beableto draw more complex objects orpeoplewithin them. horizontal. . additional lines have established the different surfaces and how they relate to each other.Addanarray of converging lines to provide a "scaffold" for vertical. CREATING AN IMAGINARY SPACE 1First. 3 Remove the construction lines with an eraser and the room will becomeclearer. 2 first before adding furniture. and leaning surfaces. The space has become more solid and real.
They could be drawn on any scale from miniature to monumental. The boxes drawn here are seen partly or entirely disassociated from a horizon line drawn across the bottom of the image.80 ARCHITECTURE Further Aspects of Perspective W E ARE ACCUSTOMED TO SEEING our e n v i r o n m e n t from a relatively constant point of view. Elaborations . These elaborations could continue indefinitely across a sheet of paper in pursuit of complex and intricate ideas. That is where we e to find them. To draw such a view APPLICATION Copy these drawings to see and feel how they work before inventing your own versions. Only when y o u might employ t h r e e . Copying what you see in the work of others will help you to understand what they have done. do verticals appear inclined. 76-79). I have elaborated on the simple boxes above. Free vanishing points On paper we can enjoy the freedom of fantastic structural invention without limitations of solid materials or gravity. Search for the application of these perspectives among works by other artists in this book and in galleries. T h i s is d e m o n s t r a t e d immediately below. Further aspects of three-point perspective are also illustrated opposite. T h i n k of standing at the top of a skyscraper and imagine h o w its parallel sides would appear to converge below you. they can be placed anywhere inspaceto describe the perspective of flyi c tilted objects. From our normal eye level.p o i n t perspective ( s h o w n opposite top). a n d this is how we have drawn them so far (see pp. verticals appear p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the g r o u n d . but they are not confined to this level. our eye level is very high and we look down. Vanishing points are commonly found on horizon—our eye level. Here. showing y o u h o w to draw curved surfaces and a tiled floor. T h e y d o n o t have to relate to each other. o r to the h o r i z o n . Potentially. located anywhere inside or outside the pictorial space. It is important to realize that you can have as many vanishing points as you wish. or low and we look u p .
tostraightlines can amplify drama in a picture. and therefore tension.81 FURTHER ASPECTS OF Three-point towers This drawing depicts three-point perspective. Note that altering the distance between the three dots above will tilt the level of the floor . An array of curved lines (drawn freehand) link the two lateral points. PERSPECTIVE Three-point curves Here. they mark the corners of the floor tiles.Finally. (Turn the book around to see a view looking up. Three-point checkered floor This d bottom floor. you will see how. Iusedthese lines as a guide t o draw the curvature of boxes and panels flying through space. I then drew three fanned groups of lines connecting each of the three points above to the seven points below. Giving curvature.I added horizontal lines t o define the tiles. by adding a third point you can achieve a sense of incline. Where thelinescross. useful for representing steep views looking up or down tall structures. three vanishing points are evenly spaced along a horizon line. I marked the toplinewith three evenly spaced points and the line with seven.75.) By comparing this drawing t o Piranesi's example of two-point perspective on p.Istarted with two parallel lines.
I visited many anatomical theaters and museums. . These walnut-skin ink pen and brush drawings show imagined views of theaters that do not exist but were inspired by places I studied.Theaters RESEARCHING FOR MY P H D . making drawings to resolve questions and express personal responses to the nature and history of anatomy.
Venetian Life sitting point buildings ThisP E N .I N KDRAWING is one of a series I made while next to the Rialto Bridge in Venice. the water.A N D . The vanishing of the drawing is directly opposite as we look across The constancy of the bridge and surrounding frames the movement in the life that flows past. .
W e also explore v o l u m e and form in the classes by spinning lines to make vessels. With the sudden onset of mass production. making a clear instruction t o his bronzemeaning. we look at the importance are the only creatures on Earth w h o actually design and create great ranges of things. or used on stage hood for a mold t o make theheado f a horse f oas a p r o p — i m b u e d with e n o u g h energy or character can "become" a man. to record an observed detail. drawings were needed to instruct workers on the factory floor.Objects and Instruments T HE THINGS WE INVENT describe our lives. design. H e has described a casting through metaphor. A chair. drawn. or to explain and present a finished concept to a client. of light in the creation of pictorial illusions. 1493 117/8c81/4in (300 x 210 m m ) LEONARDO D A V I N Ccreating I . Technical drawing was speedily developed as a meticulous international code of m e a s u r e m e n t and explanation. fictional realities caster of h o w t o make it andhowit will w o r k . planned. Birds follow instinct to make a nest. each demanding more of the other as they increased in sophistication. Engineers and designers of our objects and instruments make drawings for many reasons: to test an idea that is yet to be made. too. History will be learned from the artifacts w e leave behind. hooked bars that can be pulled and tied closely form. It was in this era that the blueprint was born. In past eras. and the way in w h i c h the brain reacts Head and Neck Sections of Female Mold for the Sforza Horse to visual stimulus and optical illusions. It is shaped in sections w i t h Artists have for centuries studied and expressed composition. or drawing w e see Leonardo daVinci'sprecision as can be given meaning. C o m m o n items. from s p o o n s and pens to chairs and bicycles. passing them on to others through the act of making. but humans LEONARDO DA VINCI Inthisbeautiful red chalk Our items all have a purpose—practical or ornamental—and all have a meaning. r an equestrian statue. Artists also make images of objects that can never exist. these. In this chapter. even more advanced drawings are made on computers. and the behavior of light through making still-life paintings and together. have often carried great weights of allegorical once. craftsmen had held plans in their memory. sculpted. T h e Industrial Revolution c h a n g e d the traditional w a y s in w h i c h objects were designed. Today. color. and some apes use simple tools. texture. drawing c. Previously. for example—whether. Artists and actors use the meanings of things to communicate a speculative mechanic. that test our logic with a sense of mystery. for example. H e has described contour and function at drawings. and made. are all made bearing the signature of our time and place. T h e precision of engineering d r a w i n g s e v o l v e d alongside machine tools. and a wire violin. illuminating snail shells.
silverware. not of place but of things. There is a fragile eloquence to these objects as they drift in slow motion past our gaze. .Braque marshals all the forces of perspective. "I believe [it] is the most radicalattempttostampout ambiguity and to enforce one readingofthepicture—that of a manmade construction. Statue D'Epouvante 1913 2 f t 5 in x 3 ft 5 in (0. not to work in harmony.. Mucha's drawing glistens with possession..73 x 1 m) GEORGES BRAQUE .90 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS Still Life THESE DRAWINGS REVEAL t w o o p p o s i t e m o t i v a t i o n s i n we can. Below. steaming with music and conversation. Braques image is a Cubist collage. T h i s is a designers drawing made to enthuse surface and style in its delicate brushing of china. One of the great joys of this movement in art is the musicality of its multipoint view. and shading. and glass objects of exquisite elegance for only the gentlest of touch and appreciation. wood-look wallpaper. He takes us into the bustle of the Paris cafe. a colored canvas. Braques "justly" arranged combination of cut black card. Even today GEORGES BRAQUE French painter who as a young man was influenced by the work of the Fauves and of Cezanne. perfect i n their newly made availability. Opposite. Braque established Cubism in partnership with Picasso just before World War I. but to clash in virtual deadlock. texture. charcoal. His work is characterized by calm and harmonious still-life compositions. still feel this projected moment. Clashes The art historian Ernst Gombrich said of Cubism." La Cuitare. representing still life. and a journal jacket with words makes this drawing chatter about the moment.
and New York. For ten years Mucha designed theater posters exclusively for the actress Sarah Bernhardt. Study for Plate 59 from "Documents Decoratifs" 17x121/4(430 x 310 mm) ALPHONSE MUCHA 1902 . The three plates facing us were drawn with a compass. and also stamps and bank notes. Art Nouveau motifs This is a preliminary study for a subsequent print. Black watercolor washes and lines of white gouache have been added with a fine brush. He designed the Austrian pavilion for the Paris World Fair in 1900. Chicago.flowers. Look at the two spoons at toprightand see how has suggested that they are so brilliantly shiny they reflect the background color.fruit. Pans.ALPHONSE MUCHA Czech graphic artist and painter who worked in Prague. Art Nouveau curling motifs of birds. He is best known for posters featuring ethereal women in typical Art Nouveau style. Background color Between the delicate shadows and highlights of these glazed and surfaces ofthebackground metal color of the Mucha we see a large amount paper. and fish have been outlined using a sharp pencil.
each reflecting a view of his own world—his window. Newton used this instrument to calculate the speed required to escape earth's gravity. It was then reflected up inside the tube and. In the graphic work of these two great men of science. we see drawing Instruments of Vision found among his letters. astronomer. The power of this drawing reflects the pure passion of discovery. offering a transparent view. It is a diagrammatic explanation of how to catch and magnify a star in a mirrored tube. 0 0 0 perfect hemispheres. drawing is there to pin the moment down. and Fellow of the University o f C a m b r i d g e . He counted 1 4 . With dotted lines Newton has drawn his arrangement of elements inside the tube. and philosopher Newton was President of the Royal Society. Newton's drawing of his first reflecting telescope is ISAAC N E W T O N English scientist. Their delicate construction is only as valuable as the measurements they make. From the concept of capturing the infinite to the mapping of microscopic sight. into the eyepiece. a tree outside. Transparent view Newton's reflecting telescope focused light in a parabolic mirror. Hooke's head of a drone fly seen through a microscope may represent the first time man and insect came face to face. alchemist. w h e r e he developed his three greatest theories: the law o f motion. mathematician. the law o f gravity. Look how confidently he draws with ink the sphere of this wooden globe by which his telescope rotates. A disembodied eye at the top of the drawing indicates where to look. Ink lines Several drawings appear among Newton's letters. and his hand moving across the light. and the nature o f light and color. Newton's 1672 ISAAC Telescope NEWTON . via a second mirror.92 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS by their very nature must gauge or chronicle precision. shape the very cause and effect of investigatory thought. each one skillfully rendered with the alarmingly matter-of-fact ease of explaining the commonplace.
It is an exhilarating read. ROBERT H O O K E 93 Magnifications This acutely detailed engraved drawing is taken from Hooke's Micrographia (pub. 1665). and anchor escarpment.An experimental scientist who drew many of his discoveries. a breathtaking book containing many of his drawings showing some of the first microscopic and telescopic magnifications of our environment Hooke's text and illustrations carry us to the moment of discovery. universal joint a prototype respirator clock balance. and calculated the theory of combustion. Hooke invented the camera diaphragm. The Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 1665 ROBERT HOOKE 111/2 x 105/8 in (294 x 270 mm) .
it has so m u c h familiar personality that it seems to talk to us.94 INSTRUMENTS W H E N WE DRAW A COMMON OBJECT like a chair. this chair p r e s e n t s us with a clever visual contradiction: deeply drawn shadows tell us it must be solid. Van Gogh's tipsy seat is a metaphor for an absent person. craft. A renegade from the p a p e r dolls' h o u s e . and w h e r e the chair b e l o n g s . and has drawings in numerous public and private collections. and winner of the 2004 Jerwood Drawing Prize. and place in the world are truly seen. Its wobbly gait and squashed s y m m e t r y m u m b l e endless h o m e y tales about the life it has seen. From component parts we understand how to put it together and make it stand sensible in space. OBJECTS AND SARAH WOODFINE British contemporary artist graduate of the Royal Academy Schools. Drawn in more-or-less c o n v e n t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . Bench Marks W e are left a little c o n f u s e d as to what we s h o u l d do. its character. Sarah Woodfines flat cut-out m o d e l plan is a witty and surprising drawing. Woodfine exhibits internationally. W i t h h o m e y c o n t r a s t . while the tabs make us see a flat paper cut-out. each drawn with the s a m e unfaltering lines and tones that are between reality and impossibility. has published several catalogs of her work. Chair Cut Out 2002 22'A x 23 in (565 x 585 mm) SARAH WOODFINE . Two-dimensional was made This highly finished drawing ruler using a sharp pencil and on smooth white drawing paper glistening dark drawings are artificial representations of known Woodfine's two-dimensional things balanced in the world.
and Starry Cypress Night. inner recording while Fierce strokes This is a portrait of the mechanical drew immediately and almost harshly. Cornfield and Sunflowers.hehas marked the full emotion of the subject with a fierce grip of concentration. what direct in their he saw and describing his felt. not is made present in only strokes and is subdued to distract us from flat a meaningful chair. drawn opposite way of plan. Van Chair 1890 VINCENT VAN GOGH . Among van Gogh's best-known canvases are Trees. His passionate brush and pencil strokes are honest and of also turmoil and growing alarm at the world around him. The floor few as engagement with the chair.95 VINCENTVAN GOGH Dutch painter who produced over 800 paintings and 850 drawings in only the last ten year's of his life.
reads only m o v e m e n t a n d can often m a k e mistakes. form. Before starting a tonal drawing of any subject. Artists emulate and manipulate this effect in their pictures. try this experiment. The small squares are identical in tone. think about its illumination. U p s i d e . but do not appear so. Three factors change it: the amount of light it receives. Here w e look briefly at our perception of light a n d darkness a n d our interpretation of diagrammatic illusions. T h e slightest recognition is instantly matched to our wealth of experience a n d expectation. S o m e o n e passes our o p e n door. or colored surface is never constant. See how its "edge" smoothly changes from light against dark to dark against light.d o w n patterns of light on our retinas. atmosphere. less developed than the center. On acloudyday. gray. The rim of light on the egg is reflected light received from surrounding paper. are translated into a world of space. the adjustment of our eyes (in growing accustomed to a level of light). Tape them to the glass. two identical mid-gray squares are seen against black and paler gray squares. The outermost edge of our vision. a n d our ability to see forms in c l o u d s or fire. To interpret visual s t i m u l u s . your eye around the circumference of the egg. a n d m o v e m e n t .96 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Light and Illusions SEEING IS MIRACULOUS.At one point you will catchenoughlight lighter than the white one. a n d we can be fooled. transmitted to the brain as chains of electrical impulses. We will even see things that d o not exist because minimal information suggests they are likely to be there. Run The bottom-left quarter of the egg lightens slightly toward its "edge" when seen against the darker shadow cast on the paper. Gray squares To further examine changes in tone. perhaps. Are you happy LIGHT AND SHADOW with what you see? Does the light enhance the subject? Could you alter and improve it? On pp.This effect is caused by the contrast of their surroundings. o u r b r a i n s search for n a m e a b l e things.102-03 deep shadows cast across shells make their form easier to perceive. w e turn our head but n o one w a s there. one blackandone white. Card experiment cho can gra on . Below the bottom "edge" of the egg there is a rim of light reflected onto the paper by the underside of the egg. We perceive one to be lighter than theother. We only need small prompts. From across the room both will appear black card and fold and retapeitwith half sticking out. and the proximity of contrasting tones. Below. a lit photograph of an egg shows essential points to observe in tonal drawing. a n d are q u i c k to p r o p o s e ideas. Through these we can enjoy witnessing our o w n d e c e p t i o n a n d b a f f l e m e n t a n d u n d e r s t a n d certain factors that are very useful in picture-making. Adjust the angleofthe protruding part and again stepback. cards the same size. The two tones meet without a division or outline between. W e learn to read light and shadow in our environment as indicators of solidity and depth of space. The egg's darkest region is seen against a lighter background. The perceived tone of a black white. Here. hence our recognition of a cartoon face c o m p o s e d of three lines. The egg's lightest region is seen against a darker background.
w h i l e t h i n n e r lines recede.p o i n t p e r s p e c t i v e d r a w i n g s w i t h a large n u m b e r o f c o n v e r g i n g rays b e h i n d y o u r horizontals. by d i r e c t e d a r r o w s ( A ) . respectively. O f t e ndoingso w i l l s p o i l y o u r w o r k . Bending straight lines Linear distance These t w o jugs have b e e n d r a w n w i t h lines o f d i f f e r i n g thicknesses. In a t o n a l d r a w i n g . If y o u w i s h t o m a k e a t o n a l drawing. Y o u m a y e x p e r i e n c e s o m e t h i n g similar h a p p e n i n g w h e n y o u m a k e s i n g l e . b u t t h e u p r i g h t o n e l o o k s t a l l e r (B). t h i c k e r l i n e s a p p e a r t o stand forward. T h e r e is n o obligation t o a d d b l o c k s o f t o n e t o a l i n e a r d r a w i n g . B o t h are identical in length. T w o horizontal lines o f equal length are m a d e t o l o o k longer and shorter. start o u t w i t h one.97 LINE VERSUS TONE In l i n e a r d r a w i n g s . In this t o n a l image w e read w h i t e as f a t t e r t h a n black. In this linear drawing w e read t h i c k as closer a n d t h i n as f a r t h e r away. LIGHT AND ILLUSIONS Tonal width T h e s e black a n d w h i t e bands are o f equal thickness o n e i t h e r side o f t h e i r central division. A n u p r i g h t line stands in t h e c e n t e r o f a h o r i z o n t a l line. l i g h t e r surfaces s t a n d f o r w a r d w h i l e d a r k e r s u r f a c e s recede. . Seven parallel lines are m a d e t o tilt t o w a r d and away f r o m each o t h e r by n u m e r o u s s h o r t strokes crossing t h e m diagonally ( A ) . Apparent lengths T h e s e optical illusions s h o w h o w lines o f identical length can b e m a d e t o l o o k quite different f r o m each o t h e r by t h e addition o r association o f o t h e r lines. S h o r t h o r i z o n t a l lines o f identical length are m a d e t o l o o k d i f f e r e n t by c o n v e r g i n g lines beside t h e m ( C ) . O b s e r v e h o w each white b a n d appears t h i c k e r t h a n its black c o u n t e r p a r t . T h i s fundamental o p p o s i t e is a reason w h y l i n e a r a n d t o n a l d r a w i n g does not a l w a y s c o m b i n e w e l l in t h e s a m e i m a g e . T h e jug d r a w n w i t h a t h i n line appears f a r t h e r away t h a n t h e j u g d r a w n w i t h a t h i c k e r line. T w o relatively t h i c k parallel lines are m a d e t o b e n d away f r o m each o t h e r as t h e y pass in f r o n t o f an a r r a y o f c o n v e r g i n g f i n e lines ( B ) .
76. Artists can communicate much in few lines and the viewer will do the rest of the work. as s h o w n o n t h e right. Yet many illusions. w e can only look f r o m one t o the o t h e r If an artist is not aware this can happen in their image. Artists make pictorial illusions when they paint or draw. it oscillates between t w o possibilities. such as Bridget Riley. w h e n drawing the outline o f a three-dimensional form. It is possible t o r e a d i t t w o ways: as a t r u n c a t e d r e c t a n g u l a r p y r a m i d seen d i r e c t l y f r o m a b o v e . perfected the acceleration of perspective (see pp. In the 1960's. Some artists use known optical illusions to make art. including some shown here. are still not agreeably understood.98 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Further Illusions PSYCHOLOGISTS AND PHYSIOLOGISTS have studied optical illusions for decades in pursuit of what they tell us about the brain.s i d e d r e c t a n g u l a r t r a y ( b o t h are illustrated far r i g h t ) "The brain is so eager to name a fragment we see that we need only a suggestion to grasp the whole. Two ways of seeing T h i s is t h e b o x c r e a t e d in t h e f o u r t h step o n p. It is a curious fact that w e can never see both options at once. it can oscillate b e t w e e n facing t o w a r d o r a w a y f r o m us. among others.116-17) to make painted figures look correct when viewed from below. Michelangelo. o r as a s l o p i n g . made paintings that depended upon the physical sensation of our brain's reaction to known optical illusions. Today we are bombarded with images but rarely have difficulty reading them. Ancient Greek architects knew parallel upright lines appeared to bend toward each other in the middle. and so calculated precisely how much to fatten columns to make them appear straight. SEEING TWO OPTIONS Sometimes. w e will find that in terms of the direction it faces. C l o s i n g t h e surface o f t h e f o r m seals o u r d e c i s i o n as t o w h i c h w a y it faces. A few suggestive marks will tip the decision one way o r the o t h e r Closing the surface W h e n a t r a n s p a r e n t elliptical o b j e c t has b e e n d r a w n . such as t h e dish seen h e r e o n t h e left. Op(tical) artists." . others adjust works to avoid their effects. their picture could be ambiguous. and we learn to read the styles of diverse cultures and periods.
this is a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f t h e viewer's b r a i n b e i n g willing t o d o a large a m o u n t o f t h e w o r k in d e c i p h e r i n g a p i c t u r e .99 Impossible objects T h e s e clever configurations o f outlines and t o n a l surfaces convince us at a glance that we are seeing a solid three-dimensional triangle and a three-pronged fork. His highly d i s p u t e d and i m p r e c i s e science involves s h o w i n g u n p r e p a r e d p a t i e n t s t e n p a r t i c u l a r ink b l o t s a n d asking t h e m t o i n t e r p r e t w h a t t h e y see. W e should r e m e m b e r t h a t o u r brains will always search f o r a p i c t u r e — i n ink blots. B e l o w is a b r i g h t n e s s c o n t r a s t illusion. T h e a r t i s t M. w e see t w o overlapping triangles: o n e outlined in black b e n e a t h a n o t h e r in solid w h i t e . T h e s e e x a m p l e s illustrate h o w little is n e e d e d t o c o n v e y an image. b u t w e believe w e see t h e m because e n o u g h f r a g m e n t a r y i n f o r m a t i o n is given f o r o u r brains t o c o n c l u d e t h e y are v e r y likely t h e r e . N e i t h e r triangle exists. O n l y o n closer inspection we realize that t h e s e o b j e c t s are fooling us. S o m e artists use ink blots t o p r o m p t t h e beginning o f an image. 1 6 t h . This effect can o c c u r naturally w h e n looking at a b r i g h t l y lit w h i t e g r i d such as a w i n d o w f r a m e against t h e night sky. P e r c e i v i n g a w h o l e i m a g e f r o m m i n i m a l lines T h i s is a w i d e l y r e p r o d u c e d visual j o k e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e C a r r a c c i b r o t h e r s . Yet still w e try resolve t h e m . C o u n t t h e n u m b e r o f d a r k spots y o u can see. — a n d so t h e artist can create m u c h o u t o f an impression w i t h o u t overdescribing. F a m i l i a r i t y in r a n d o m s h a p e s T h e Rorschach test was established by t h e 1 9 t h . FURTHER ILLUSIONS Seeing things that are n o t t h e r e H e r e o n t h e left. M u c h can b e e x p r e s s e d in o n l y a f e w marks. e t c . T h e patient's answers are t h e n diagnosed as a psychological profile. T h e y a r e o f t e n c r e d i t e d w i t h t h e invention o f t h e c o m i c c a r t o o n . . clouds. T h e t e s t e x p l o r e s o u r n o r m a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o find things w e can n a m e a m o n g r a n d o m shapes. This simple five-line d r a w i n g is o f a C a p u c h i n priest asleep in his pulpit. C Escher u s e d this phenomenon t o great effect in his many p o p u l a r d r a w i n g s o f puzzles and impossible buildings. C o u p l e d w i t h t h e Rorschach b l o t above.c e n t u r y Italian painters.c e n t u r y Swiss psychologist H e r m a n n Rorschach. smoke. Minimal-line j o k e s such as this rely u p o n t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y v i e w e r ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e shapes.
Watch the tip of your pen and see it draw an ellipse in the air Keep this movement going while gently lowering the pen onto the paper like the needle of a record player closing on the disc (only it is your lowering hand that spins. I have drawn these for you here. The second common error is to tilt the upper and lower ellipses at different angles. w e use ellipses to give a sense of perspective. not the paper!) As the pen touches down. a n d in o n e bold stroke. though. you will achieve steadiness with practice. smoothly. for example. there are three common errors people stumble upon. third common error is to draw upper and lover ellipses with different-sized apertures. I have exaggerated this error here. suggesting that the vessel is lopsided. like a disposable plastic cup that has been crushed in your hand. for example plates or bowls on a table. The first common error is to draw two pointed ellipses. that this is o n l y o n e w a y view. However. such as bowls and cups. Be aware. Cubism. as if the table surface slopes upward beneath the vessel. w h e n seen at an angle. even if y o u r hand w o b b l e s a little at first. circles change into ellipses. while its upper rim remains level. springlike forms like those I have drawn below. A wobbling but confident ellipse will still be more convincing than a slow. spin your hand in a relaxed circle. giving the cylinder four corners. Don't worry if it is uneven— just try again. Cover a sheet of paper with spinning. hesitant one that has edged its w a y nervously around the vessel's rim. keep it spinning. To make a cylindrical object appear real in our pictorial space. How to Draw Ellipses of seeing. (see p. and these narrow or widen depending on the height of our view. describing many sides of an object simultaneously. WHERE TO START In the air above a spacious sheet of scrap paper. Ellipse are best d r a w n quickly. since this is h o w w e experience them in e v e r y d a y use. .100 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS W E VISUALIZE CYLINDRICAL VESSELS. COMMON ERRORS W h e n drawing cylindrical objects in perspective.90) takes a different as essentially circular.
HOW TO DRAW E L L I P S E S A Single Vessel One Inside Another Grouped Together Finding Shape and Volume Draw an imagined vessel in one continuous spinning line.101 DRAWING VESSELS Once you have mastered drawing free-hand springs. thereby hiding lines that show the other sides. Seeing Through Allow lines to travel around each vessel as if it were transparent. Create a Solid Surface Once you have drawn the shape and volume of each form. enlarging and diminishing the ellipse to determine the overall shape and volume. Altering the pressure—and therefore tone—of the line as it spins gives the impression of light shining on one side. working from top to bottom. you can start to control your spinning ellipse to make a vessel. . you can make it solid by building up highlights and tones on visible surfaces. Draw quickly.
simply shapes and subtleties of light and dark meeting each other with no divisions in between. or you can begin with a mid-gray ground and model light out of darkness (see opposite bottom). Remember that shadows. making complicated or subtle surfaces easier to see and understand. two opposite methods of achieving the same result. Draw the largest and most distinct areas of light and darkness first. LIGHT TO DARK DARK TO LIGHT . if any. it will inhibit your perception of tone. In the finished drawing there should be few. You can begin with outlines and build slowly from light to dark (see opposite top). and strong contrasts are easier to draw. and solid objects are all of equal importance. It maximizes the range of tones between black and white. t h e r e a r e p r i n c i p a l l y Dramatic lighting emphasizes texture and contour. beams of light. if light shines in them. OBJECTS AND Start by arranging a choice of shells on a sheet of paper to your left if you are right-handed (or vice versa). Illuminate them with a gooseneck lamp placed very close and directed away from your eyes. leaving detail until last. It is important to place them on the correct side so as to draw comfortably (see pp.102 INSTRUMENTS Tonality W H E N MAKING A TONAL DRAWING.22-23). Gradually hone your drawing. Relaxing your eyes out of focus as you draw will help to dissolve the distraction of detail. outlines.
56-57). until you are happy frame. and edges definingthespacialrelationships between are important aspects of your composition them. Remember that its size. boldly 2 3 Keeping your eyes out of focus. Draw in the details last of all. Continue working between light and dark to refine the drawing. with broad sweeps of the eraser. Treat positive form and negative space (see pp. Erase and make changes to roughly place the shells inside your with your composition. Let your eyes go out of focus while looking gently layer marks to create an even tone at your subject and paper: Draw the most ofmid-graywithin a rectangle. pale lines with equal importance. Use quick. Relaxing your eyes out of focus will help to eliminate distracting details. Use your pencil to develop these in relation to the areas of light.103 LIGHT TO DARK (LINE TO TONE) TONALITY 1 Using a sharp HB pencil. shape. . Honetheshapesand angles of the shells. look at the main areas of darkness. loose. Avoid a rough significant areas of light in your gray rectangle with texture and do not press the graphite hardwhite plastic eraser Ignore all detail and draw a into thepaperor you will not be able to erase it. Fll in broad areas first and leave all detail until last. DARK TO LIGHT (TONE TO TONE) 1 Using the flattened tip of an HB pencil. 2 3 Gentlydissolveoutlines so that areas oflightanddark meet without a line between them. draw a rectangle.
PEN LINES Once you have created your three-dimensional violin (opposite). They can also be made in space.104 OBJECTS AND I N S T R U M E N T S Drawing with Wire DRAWINGS DO NOT HAVE to be two-dimensional. The second is that after achieving this simple example. and on p. On p. try drawing it with a pen on paper Use bold. 19 Picasso draws with a pen-light for the camera. On p. you can create your own more ambitious works. 176 the British artists Noble and Webster draw with domestic refuse in a beam of light.69 we see how the architect Antonio Gaudi drew proposed domes using suspended wires and weights. and on p. our image is stronger if we understand and can visualize what is happening on the other side too. This class uses thin-gauge wire to create a threedimensional violin. Seeing through a wire drawing of a known object such as a violin gives us a visual and tactile understanding of all its sides and shapes at once. Place the instrument on a plain surface and illuminate it with a desk lamp to add the delicate dimension of shadows. .220 Mamoru Abe draws with forged steel rods. There are essentially three lessons to be learned. The first is that figurative and abstract drawings can be made in space. three-dimensional drawings teach us about the totality of forms in space. Third. and physical relationships between them. When drawing anything viewed from one side on paper. smooth. continuous lines.
but thin enough to be easily manipulated inyourfingers Here. thin wire will make a smaller drawing. and thick wire a larger one. and pinch and bend it to shape the base of the instrument Repeat this process to make the identical upper side of the instrument. Once you have completed the body. 2 3 If needed. I used garden wire and cut it carefully with pruners. Then begin to define its uppermost surface with Scurves and the bridge. Cut a length. Join the two sides together with four short pieces of wire. begin to shape the curvature of the fingerboard. Here. 1 Decide how big to draw your violin relative to the gauge of your wire. These will hold the sides apart and help to keep the form in shape.105 SETTING UP DRAWING WITH WIRE Follow these steps to draw a three-dimensional violin Choose a gauge of wire sturdy enough to hold the shape ofyourfinished drawing. I started with the scroll at the top and fixed the four component wires with two drawings of tuning pegs. 4 . brace the two ends of the violin with a length of wire along the back.
England. they invented new anthropological finds—objects that reflected the distant past and their immediate future. . I had the privilege of drawing their inventions. some of which are shown here. Using found materials. Oxford.Artifacts and Fictions IN 1993 I WORKED with a group of schoolchildren who were responding to the astonishing objects in the collection of the Pitt Rivers Museum.
W e understand every curve and balance of to the theory that the eves are the windows of the soul. It also looks at the representation of the b o d y b11y4o n d traditional life drawing. Strangely. She the body is still essential. These classes are popular around the world. In this period. while Leonardo opened the body to see and projected onto a woman's body draw the celebratory discover for himself our physical mechanisms. much Western contemporary art. R.The Body O UR BODIES MAKE us TANGIBLE. Leonardo drew a man within a circle and square. herimpressive presence because we are given such Life drawing no longer dominates the art school curriculum. history paintings and other stories. W I L L I A M S technology. is the most c o m m o n subject in art. This chapter addresses issues that are most commonly faced by beginners attending life-drawing classes. giving physical foundation undulating land. diseased. and because the female was deemed inferior. WILLIAMS he sought perfection in the infinitesimal measurement of the body and produced four Contemporary photographer volumes of illustrated explanation. Artists are thought to have b e g u n drawing from the nude during the Italian Renaissance. Michelangelo attended dissections to made this image by light sectioning: fine beams of light perfect his understanding of surface form. the junior workshop apprentices posed as part of their duties. R. portraiture. while Durer took his research further— A. focus has turned to the vulnerability of flesh: how it can be damaged. but the study of a controlled. and anatomical and erotic art. W e are the only creatures on Earth that can make our own image. the Bay Area Models' Guild h o l d s a quarterly life-drawing m a r a t h o n aprinton Kodak transfer paper with green-colored dye added celebrating the great diversity of human proportion. Williams were decades ahead of their medical counterparts. During this time. and surgically rebuilt. Renaissance artists studying anatomy from dissection clinically trained and specialized as a medical illustrator. It gives physical and emotive form to religious narratives. myths and fables. 3 x 7 in (300 x 180 . The body remains at the core of over the initially white lines. in our privileged and comfortable society. artists also tried to define ideal proportions in the body. Look closely at Renaissance drawings of the female b o d y and you will see that m o s t are actually y o u n g m e n with minor adjustments. He even believed he had located the soul contours of her form like a cartographer's map of in the pituitary fossa beneath the brain and behind the eyes. Artists now explore the interior of the body with new media and Lateral Contour Map of a Full-Term Primipara Produced by Light 1979 A. a n d w e d r a w o u r s e l v e s to a s s e r t o u r e x i s t e n c e . explaining ranges e/ of materials and techniques and showing diversities of thought and purpose in making. This F finished image was produced as r a n c i s c o . The human body. and in San could easily be transferred into three dimensions. Drawings were usually made from the male nude to avoid offending the church. from video and X-ray to thermal imaging. sculptural description of her form. clothed or nude.
so that we read this drawing like a sculptural frieze. By way of contrast.110 T H E BODY THESE DISTINCTIVE WORKS show two strikingly different ways of modeling the body on paper. filling the page with her presence. and studied to learn from the works of Michelangelo and Leonardo besides whom he was soon ranked. RAFFAELLO SANZIO (RAPHAEL) Italian High Renaissance painter: Raphael is best known for his images of the Madonna and Child. Here three male nudes are compressed into very shallow pictorial space. and Vatican frescos. Raphael's study of fallen m e n leaves no doubt that they are in anguish. while Matisse used scissors and glue to cut out and paste a flat collage of brilliant color. Principal figures m i r r o r e a c h other. Raphael drew delicate tones of black chalk on tinted paper. But the meanings of each gesture and the materials and methods by which they Postures and Poses were m a d e contrast greatly. In a single drawing we see equally o b s e r v e d studies of f o r e s h o r t e n i n g (see pp. altar pieces. we see the e s s e n c e of h e r b e a u t y w i t h o u t a single detail. T h e y b o t h raise one arm to cup their head in their hand. She u n f o l d s and s t r e t c h e s shapely limbs.116-17). Muscular dramatic postures reflect the influence of Michelangelo and the Renaissance celebration of the idealized male body. In this highly s o p h i s t i c a t e d a b s t r a c t i o n . Matisse's b l u e n u d e sings with life and c e l e b r a t i o n . anatomy. and human defeat. Three Guards 1500-20 91/4 x143/8in (234 x 365 mm) RAPHAEL . He trained under Perugino. Sculptural frieze This is a preparatory drawing for Raphael's painting of the Resurrection of Christ. while supporting the weight of their body with the other.
and Islamic art.. foundamong many other groups of papercut these works as an elderly man confined to his bed or wheelchair. Matisse became an artist after studying law. a mental soother. printmaker. serenity. His calligraphic natural abstractions of form grew brighter. teacher and principal exponent o f Fauvism—a movement established in 1905 in which bold color is the most essential element." of is an art of balance.like an appeasing influence. Matisse Soothing influence This drawing expresses the achievement of Matisse's personal aim: "What I dream and depressing subject matter.designer writer. fabric.or like a good armchair in which to rest from physical fatigue. as his w o r k matured. his pattern. freer.. devoid of troubling Blue Nude 1 1952 413/4 HENRY MATISSE . lifelong love of brilliant They celebrate the culmination of spectacular and sometimes drawings..sculptor.which might be.... and more energetic Color and form This collage is one of a series of Blue Nudes.111 HENRY MATISSE French painter: draftsman.
or abruptly meeting. and c o m p l e m e n t a r y hues. turned gray. w h o sits propped in the contradictory darkness of a hot summer's day. Tone and light In this black conte drawing. agreeing to coalesce and show us the form of a waiting boy. If Seurat had added white. only tones blending into. Light is given by the paper alone. and muddied the brilliance of the drawing. and color His applied theories still influence painters in their manipulation and rendering of local. 162) and an eraser to model teeming points of artificial light amid GEORGES SEURAT French painter classically educated in the Ingres school of thought. reflected. Using the paper to create light is important for beginners to learn. Here. like small birds attendant on the meditation. Below. Typically. Beuys's magician. T h e space around h i m chatters with symbols. Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 1883-84 91/2 x 121/4 in (241 x 312 m m GEORGES SEURAT . it is as if the very atoms of air are made visible. Seurat evolved a distinctive t e c h n i q u e called p o i n t i l l i s m — i m a g e s literally made from myriad points of color.112 T H E BODY Choreographs T I M E IS A SIGNIFICANT E L E M E N T i n t h e m a k i n g o f a l l d r a w i n g s . Seurat engaged in lifelong studies of line. Opposite. In his f a m o u s paintings of social e n g a g e m e n t . form. other tones. we c o m p a r e a skillful design that absorbed m u c h time in its making with the quickness of an idea marked instantly. it would have mixed with unseen black dust. velvet d a r k n e s s . there are no outlines. scratched in seconds. stands in counterpoise holding a dark globe and his thoughts in m o m e n t a r y balance. in a perfect e x a m p l e . he used b l a c k c o n t e (see p. His drawings are similarly u n i q u e .
Unbroken lines stream from his simultaneously movement. and drawings. CHOREOGRAPHS the profound power materials with spiritual or of Free lines This pale pencil drawing is Beuys.113 JOSEPH BEUYS One of the most influential German artists of the 20th century. transience. He was a shaman who believed in intuition and in the investment of healing force. taught workshops with a cult following. This figure is drawn intuitively. and made installations. Beuys gave performances. and that These aspects of the work convey fractured visibility. free from the constraint of immaculate form opposite) impetus is irrelevant to the and meaning of this work (as we see in Seurat's drawing representation.gold. His The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland UNDATED 113/4 J O S E P H BEUYS x81/4in (297 x 210 mm) . and blood. Our focus joins shoulders. Perfectly modeled rather conventional for Joseph Focus Beuys's hand moved quickly to draw dotted lines flowing downward on either side of the figure. in different positions. Many of his other symbolic works on paper have been drawn with materials such as honey. iodine. video art.
flushed skin made ruddy and black with crushed cinders. Rodin produced portraits and statues of public and literary figures. Rodin employed models to move freely or pose together in his studio.000 drawings shown in rotation at the Musee Rodin. Delicate strokes This is one of about 7. In Rodins work. But what is stranger to us now is that they were also outraged by his free use of line. Inspired by Michelangelo. was perceived as scandalous. its soft. Anita Taylor has drawn her protective body hug out of the darkly glistening compression of willow charcoal and the dynamism of her shy but momentous femininity. In both drawings. His exquisite flow of paint beyond "outlines. he typically drew them with a few delicate strokes of pencil and brushed watercolor. Our bodies radiate the passion of our thoughts and so become beacons of our frailty and power. Paris.114 BODY Passion SUMMONING HUMANITY in a drawing of the nude is a subtle and emotional task. We are asked to gaze u p o n her flesh. sweeping lines— of either purple silk fabric or cool studio air—that imprint and amplify their past and future movements. 125/8x 9 in (320 x 229 mm) AUGUSTE RODIN Two Women 1911 Embracing . the fierceness of the women's kiss is beautifully matched by the tenderness of his line. the women are framed and caressed by long. They whisper and writhe in a brushed and sultry embrace that devours our watching. Opposite. and went on to inspire generations of artists. and one of hundreds of rapid studies of nudes. THE AUGUSTE RODIN French Romantic sculptor and prolific draftsman employed as an ornamental mason until the age of 42. As here. his w o r k is characterized by deliberate un-finish and powerfully modeled emotion." as seen here. Achieving international acclaim in mid-life. Free lines Rodin's public audience was understandably shocked by the eroticism of his drawings. We are involved not as a shabby voyeur but as a bystander engaged through our recognition of shared joy.
the impression of luminosity All and Nothing 1999 67 x447/8in (170 x 1 1 4 cm) ANITA TAYLOR . leaving her lightest marks at the deepest level of the image and applying darker marks above. A thinner sheet might have crumpled and torn under such vigorous force of making. scrutiny. erased and drawn again. Charcoal Taylor has drawn freely with charcoal and an eraser on thick. London. and gaze. draftsman. intimately reflecting upon the emotions and meaning of nudity. professor and Vice Principal of Wimbledon School of Art. and rework rich depths of light and tone. textured paper. The sturdy surface of the sheet has allowed her to press hard when needed. Luminosity Layered marks flicker likefirelight as they sculpt the woman's body. exposure. Taylor's immense self-portraits explore the relationship between the artist as maker and the artist as model.I 15 ANITA T A Y L O R Painter. Taylor has drawn. This order of light below and dark above gives glowing from within.
when beginners prop their board in their lap and look down at too steep an angle. elbow. without taking off. and to draw what we see. and wrist joints. Spend time making comparisons before you draw. If your arm is not straight. or shrivelling at odd. Rome. To avoid its effects ensure you always look flat onto the surface of your page. London). persistence. rather that what we believe we know from experience. just making them helps you see. In the life class it is the mechanism for ensuring that a drawn figure lies correctly in pictorial space . the skull in Holbein's The Ambassadors (The National Gallery. elongated as if stretched across the plaster. helping us to see more clearly. The length of exposed pencil is your measurement. 1 Hold your arm straight. How to make and apply these is explained below and opposite. plummeting. we would arrive to find many of the same figures strangely distorted. and a few measured comparisons are key. more extreme examples have been made for court entertainment. and measurements do not have to be carried to the paper and slavishly drawn the same size they appear on your pencil. Close one eye. unfathomable angles.116 T H E BODY Measurement and Foreshortening FORESHORTENING IS AN ASPECT of perspective. It is not so hard. Up close on the scaffold we would witness Michelangelo's subtle application of accelerated perspective. you will make inconsistent and unrelated comparisons. We also look at another very interesting branch called accelerated (or anamorphic) perspective. for example. which is imperceptible from below. Imagine Michelangelo's murals in the Sistine Chapel. Accelerated perspective plays a great role in much art. This is chiefly a correcting device by which figurative painters and sculptors have for centuries countered the effects of our viewing their work from far below or on the curvature of a vault. to be translated by mirrors or seen from only one point in the room." . "Simple measured comparisons reveal surprising truths about proportion. There is no need to mark them all down on paper. MEASURING This is a simple method of making measured comparisons for relating the true size of one part to another This is a tool to assist observation and thinking. Move the tip of your thumb down to a second chosen point. with dramatic illusions of figures painted in normal proportion. patience. Smaller. 2 Hold your pencil upright. Lock your shoulder. It is not complicated. 3 Keep your pencil perpendicular Measure and compare at any angle. Align the top with a point on your subject. or coming forward. It can also be a little demon in the life room. But if we could take a scaffold and climb up to the work. Return to this posture every time.limbs happily receding.
. looking d o w n t h e p a p e r at t h e a n g l e at w h i c h I d r e w . See h o w d i f f e r e n t t h e relative heights o f t h e s e shapes are f r o m w h a t w e m i g h t e x p e c t in real life. To m a k e f o r m s l o o k c o r r e c t . y o u must let go o f w h a t y o u k n o w f r o m e x p e r i e n c e a b o u t t h e relative sizes o f b o d y parts and trust y o u r eyes. Keep t h e b o a r d steady and draw. t a p e s o m e p a p e r t o a board. C o m p a r e t h e heights o f t h e nose and eye shapes t o t h o s e o f t h e f o r e a r m . which feels strange. Stand its b o t t o m edge o n y o u r lap. L o o k at y o u r m o d e l as if he o r she is a flat series o f shapes o n e o n t o p o f a n o t h e r Measure t h e height and w i d t h o f each shape and c o m p a r e it t o its neighbor. W e appear t o be looking d o w n o n a w o m a n s t a n d i n g b e n e a t h us.117 ACCELERATED PERSPECTIVE To discover h o w this w o r k s . A t a c e r t a i n angle. T h i s is t h e s a m e d r a w i n g p h o t o g r a p h e d f r o m above. MEASUREMENT AND FORESHORTENING Tilt t h e t o p edge o f this b o o k t o w a r d you and look d o w n o n this figure f r o m a b o v e . FORESHORTENING To f o r e s h o r t e n a figure. adjusting a n o n y m o u s shapes. belly. Lean t h e t o p e d g e t o w a r d y o u and find a p o s i t i o n w h e r e y o u can c o m f o r t a b l y l o o k d o w n t h e p a p e r at an angle o f a b o u t 4 0 degrees. h e r p r o p o r t i o n s will appear correct. S o o n t h e b o d y will lie d o w n in space. P r o p o r t i o n s will only l o o k c o r r e c t f r o m t h e angle at w h i c h y o u make t h e drawing. a n d thighs. W o r k a r o u n d t h e figure. pleasingly f o r e s h o r t e n e d . y o u r hand travels f a r t h e r than y o u expect.
THE SEQUENCE OF POSES H e r e the model was asked to move every t w o minutes. Be bold and dive into your drawing with c o n f i d e n c e . To draw this effect. Start each new drawing by lightly marking the model's height with a loose line in ten seconds. Avoid drawing up one side and down the other. make the upper body smaller give your model a high waist. feeling. her center of balance is normally found in a vertical line beneath her head. work back and forth across the body. working from her center to her feet and to her head.118 BODY Quick Poses DRAWING QUICK POSES l o c k s y o u r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n t o what is most essential. and height. . height. Leave first thoughts in place. Balance When a model stands upright on both feet. Outline To outline a figure. and slightly enlarge her legs and feet. balance. propelling you to make immediate assessments and trust them. and energy. imagine holding up a plumb line. T h i s q u i c k e x p l o r a t o r y line does not perfectly describe shape but expresses a decision about overall flow of form. To see this. Height This pose leans away into space above our eye level. Layered lines give d e p t h . and stance before honing her balance and expression. because it results in two unrelated sides drifting apart. I used a sharp H B pencil and began each drawing by marking her outline. and work over t h e m with further o b s e r v a t i o n s .
Tilt Movement Here. This drawing shows how different observations be overlaid to bring a drawing alive. Most of us have a tendency to over-straighten the drawn figure. the activity of circular lines and the repetition of limbs suggest movement. and this should be avoided Twist QUICK POSES A model standing on one leg usually drops the opposite hip. .119 The twist of a model is most easily and expressively captured if it is exaggerated. The tilt of the pelvis is then counter balanced by the model's shoulders tilting the other way (as seen here).
2 Build your drawing gradually from light to dark. Focus instead on how planes change direction across the knuckles from one side of the hand or foot to the other. and they need not be daunting to draw.120 BODY Hands and Feet THERE ARE MANY different ways of approaching h a n d s and THE of form. Group the fingers together as one mass. Do not separate them yet. Don't worry about achieving perfect solutions. or those of a friend. A mirror increases your range of views. express structure and gesture far more successfully and easily than ten worried outlines wandering up and down between the fingers and toes. and a gooseneck lamp casts shadows that clarify planes and depths GESTURES OF THE HAND Curled Fingers 1 Open Palm Start honing the shapes of the dominant planes. These planes. but regard these practice studies as ongoing processes of thought and observatio Add details such as nails last if you wish. and ignore all details. W h e n starting. Keep lines open to change and take measurements if they help. starting with the largest. swiftly marking its essential gesture. Practice by drawing your own hands and feet. drawn in relation to each other. it is important to leave aside all details of the fingers and toes. Then subdivide each shape so that you w o r k from large to small. 3 . especially the lengthwise divisions between them. Draw large shapes and their orientation. This exercise is useful when struggling with proportion. Begin by drawing lines to encompass the whole hand. It also helps the beginner to progress from drawing outlines to drawing confidently across the surface of the whole form. general to specific. feet.
these are what give a drawing its tangible structure.121 HANDS AND FEET MOVEMENTS OF THE FOOT Flat Stance Raised Heel Instep 1 Let your first marks be light. and don't worry about accuracy t o begin with. as if with a chisel. . Look for key angles without becoming distracted by detail. and spontaneity.as though out o f wood. It can be a mistake. flattened planes. however. Try t o express the whole foot and t o encapsulate its entire shape and direction in a few marks. Leave aside all detail. Nowimagineyou are carving the foot insidethepaper. Hew it roughly in broad. and rapid. t o remove t o o many early lines. depth. loose. 2 3 Use an eraser t o refine decisions o r t o suggest areas o f light.
Compare its nature in close-up to that of willow charcoal used on pp." . Opposite. The white lines demonstrate what is often called "bracelet shading. I also used white ink with a steel dip pen.204-05.Charcoal Hands T H E S E DRAWINGS ARE MADE in compressed charcoal.
length. 118-19). before honing his or her shape (see pp. I make these lines in the first five to ten seconds of a drawing to locate the presence.HERE TRACES OF RAPID initial lines are still seen within and outside each body. Phrasing Contours . and posture of the model.
characters.The Visual Detective DRAWING FROM MASTERWORKS was once a staple component of an artist's education. feeling them through the attentive movements of your own hand. Drawing work by another artist enables you to discover and understand the inventive hand in their composition. Forms. I draw in museums in support of written research and as an artist seeking answers to questions about the practicalities of image making. perspectives. It is now viewed with some skepticism and often seen as academic. . and narrative pulse become vivid when you realize them in the middle of your study.
. Walls are lined with hundreds of faintly animated body parts. there is a unique museum of 18th-century anatomical waxes. Florence. 126-27.La Specola At17V i a Romana. each modeled from dissection. Life-size women wearing wigs recline on beds of embroidered silk in cabinets of mahogany and Venetian glass This is a detail of a compressed charcoal drawing measuring 14 x 10 ft (4. These almost life-size figures were composed from my imagination and achieved with the help af studies discussed on pp.3 x 3 m) made in response to La Specola.
we use the delicate medium of silver point to look at foundation structures of the head. live. their stance. and it is very rewarding. look directly at us. Beginners often draw themselves as a way of establishing their practice. abstract or figurative. Rembrandt's famous multitude of self-portraits.139). W h e n drawing a person. single or of groups. made as he passed through the ages of man. 1790-92 4 x 3 in ( 1 0 2 x 7 6 m m ) F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A and memorize the basic structure that we all share. Movie director Alfred similarly signed his films by playing a fleeting role: he walks through an extra. the meaning of their face. and satirical or metaphorical. Self-portraiture gives every artist a constant. Once you understand Self-Portrait in a Cocked Hat c. Goya's w o r k s include many royal and society p o r t r a i t s . you can capture the subtlety. Our homes are filled with images of our loved ones and of those in our families who have gone before. bells. or a glimpse of him is caught in a photograph used as a prop. historical. his changes in pressure and Hitchcock length o f line. For centuries. and p r i n t m a k e r . To create a face is to see and interpret the essence of an identity. and expression of the individual. and shoulders. and lucrative genre for artists. and their posture can be changed with just one line. a single line can deliver an entire expression. or whose eyes can seem to follow us around the room Portraiture is a constant. in a miniature self-portrait magnified opposite. throat. It also reminds us o f b o t h t h e intimacy and a scene as scrutiny o f an honest portrait. Equally. is here to both meet and look through us. The returning image was of crucial consideration in any proposal. who. painters have dropped discreet records of themselves into commissioned narratives so that they can remain a face in the crowd. We are also reassured by keeping records of ourselves. became more poignant as he progressed. We can mold and animate qualities of expression out of objects and fragments of disassociated things—for example. usually strangers from past times. Goya. This enlargement o f his miniature p o r t r a i treveals t h e s p e e d and agility o f his p e n and about himself. and in a few scrolling rafts of pen lines and stubbled dots. Portraits can be highly or loosely detailed. In this chapter. and a handprint (see p. compliant subject to scrutinize. or past us. gathered all that he knew FRANCISCO DE GOYA V i s i o n a r y Spanish painter. draftsman. Past rulers sent painters across continents to bring back a likeness in advance of a prospective royal marriage. religious. character. The truth is that we all like looking at faces and observing the billions of variations that make us individuals. neck. buttons. Halls and palaces are filled with pictures of the mighty and significant. having been documented and preserved. Man Ray's self-portrait of scored lines. and social and political commentaries.Portraiture IN P O R T R A I T U R E W E MEET PEOPLE. . and secular narratives.
we can enjoy and learn from them. We can read so much about them by studying their gaze. and pressure as it conducts our eye through the image. teetering on the brink of older age. It takes a truly accomplished a few strokes. one eye already cast askew into the autumn of her life. caught in her last moments of youth. While with longer consideration. There is a common misunderstanding that a drawing with only a few lines is both less finished and easier to make than a drawing with more. It is the portrait of a countrywoman. stealthily using his chalk to find contours and mass.30). He makes his flair and skill look easy. Picasso has left to posterity many hundreds of magnificent line drawings. length. whisking a timeless girl onto the page. The truth is often the opposite. PABLO PICASSO Spanish Cubist painter (see also p. Without faltering.132 PORTRAITURE Poise THE BALANCE BETWEEN a mark and a blank space is often a tantalizing form of perfection. We can actually count that he struck the paper 40 times. Picasso strikes and scrolls his pencil. they serve as a great lesson that it is not always necessary to add tone to your drawing. Holbein maps the still landscape of Dorothea's body in questioning marks. breadth. Through exhibitions and copies in books. Her face is drawn tenderly and with a luminous glow. The Tightness of a line is felt in its speed. For the beginner. adding smudges of tone for weight and solidity. How could the addition of shadows have enhanced this image? Few strokes The simplicity of Picasso's line is breathtaking. Here the grace and beauty of two young women are held forever. hand to capture something well in only Frangoise au Bandeau 1946 660 x 505 mm (26 x197/8in) PABLO PICASSO . The aesthetic sense of a line being just right can make a drawing sing.
presses against the binding across her face. he designed c o u r t costumes. Blended colors In this portrait drawn with colored chalks on slightly textured paper. and its downward slope crowns the diagonal of the composition. which. made a popular series o f w o o d c u t prints titled The Dance of Death. The peak of her cap clips the uppermost edge. Holbein was employed toward the end of his life by King Henry VIII of England. Cropping This regal composition fits its paper perfectly. Her folded forearms support and frame her weight above.133 HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER German p o r t r a i t painter draftsman. He outlined her nose but not her upper lip. and designer f r o m Basel. Holbein has cropped and pinned his subject within the four outermost lines of the image—the edges of the page. gently flushed. Holbein unified the woman with her background by gently blending colors from her clothes and face into the atmosphere around her. Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 1516 51/8 x121/4in (385 x 310 m m ) HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER . and produced numerous society portraits such as this one here. In addition t o his numerous exquisite portraits in oil.
Contrasts Sharp. confusing. continues to exhibit regularly. Durelli has m a d e a few m i n o r mistakes. but they are irrelevant here. London. Nerves. dark tones of graphite blended into the paper. It floats in space. distorted. . the face is one of the hardest parts to dissect. VICTOR NEWSOME British sculptor painter and draftsman. dark lines made with a pencil appear against smooth. or defined by. solid above and almost hollow below. N e w s o m e ' s eerily shadowed form is smooth and bears a linear grain evocative of w o o d . In fact. The style of Durelli's d r a w i n g opposite sings with the confidence of truth and precision. This is a m a r v e l o u s interpretation of the truth. Highlights of white gouache were dry Profile Head late in the making. taught at numerous British art schools from 1962-77. and has works in major collections including the Tate Gallery. This is one of a number of similar disembodied female heads seen behind. using a fine and relatively 1982 13 x 181/8 in (328 x 460 mm) VICTOR NEWSOME brush. perhaps applied using a tortillon. Delicate muscles are integrated with the skin and fat that is to be r e m o v e d . blood vessels. Psychological drama is contained behind a grid. its highly clarified detail claiming to be d r a w n from observation.134 PORTRAITURE Anatomies These highly finished drawings express the emotional power and physicality of the head and neck. The real dissection w o u l d have been far more c o m p l e x . and unpleasant to see. Newsome was awarded the Prix de Rome in 1960. and glands also complicate form. Anatomically. the contours of a grid. while white painted flecks and wisps suggest electrical illumination.
It is hard to think of a more difficult medium with which to achieve such linear perfection. Stylized parallel lines are reminiscent of engravings. and it is likely that this drawing was intended for reproduction as a print. w h e n contracted. Pencil numbers refer to the list of muscles written beneath. pull their points o f attachment t o w a r d each other . which.135 ANATOMIES ANTONIO DURELLI Linear perfection This is a red chalk drawing of extraordinary accomplishment. Durelli's experience as an engraver is reflected in his stylized drawing o f muscle fibers. Red Chalk the Muscles 1837 173/8 x 145/8 in ( 4 4 0 x 3 7 2 m m ) ANTONIO DURELLI and Pencil Drawing and of Neck of the Head Little is k n o w n o f this M i l a n e s e p a i n t e r a n d engraver w h o c a m e from a family o f artists.
Then. Portrait de Marie-Laure de Noailles c. each locked into a visionary gaze. He is best known for his bronze sculptures of human form. Opposite. They show us clearly the bones of drawing. 1948 77/8 x 6 in (200 x 150 mm) ALBERTO GIACOMETTI . The camera watches him at work. ALBERTO GIACOMETTI Swiss sculptor. Flesh is built and personality carved simultaneously. cutting and carving the paper with matted and spiraling restless energy. Without paint and with very little tone. We are brought intimately close to this man gazing up to heaven. while his hand stabs and thrusts Revelations like a conductors baton. Bellini gently conjures the features of his saint with soft marks that tease his presence out of shadows into the light. and heads. They confuse our perception of scale by being intimately fragile and at the same time far removed. Similar movements sculpted the head below into its page. with speed and urgency. as if seen from a distance. close enough to touch his hair and feel his breath. Both works demonstrate how simple lines can be made complex by being intense. Agitated marks make patches of tone that cut away the space around the character. painter draftsman. which are characteristically elongated. necks. and with staccato flinches his hyperactive eye moves from paper to model. and poet After studying in Geneva and Italy. There is a film of Giacometti drawing. Giacometti settled in Paris. he drew over the whole image at once.136 PORTRAITURE THESE ARE DRAWINGS of shoulders. Energy This is a portrait of a woman drawn with black crayon on a plain page of a book Lines search for the essence of form. Speed Giacometti probably began with an oval shape placed in relation to the proportion of the page. each portrait is inscribed onto the page.
These are pinholes. Sometimes different narrative same character was reused in compositions.5 9 ) . H e p r e f e r r e d religious t o classical t h e m e s .25 6 . Mantegna.G I O V A N N I BELLINI A prominent member of a large family o f V e n e t i a n painters. a n d his w o r k is d i s t i n c t i v e l y calm. Character This is one of many cartoons produced by Bellini the and his family. lyrical. transferring which were made in the process of the saint to his final place in the composition of a painting (see Glossary pp. H e t a u g h t G i o r g i o n e Barbarelli and Titian. Bellini s t u d i e d u n d e r his f a t h e r J a c o p o . a n d c o n t e m p l a t i v e . Head and Shoulders of a Man 73/8 x 21/4 in ( 1 8 6 x 5 8 UNDATED GIOVANNI BELLINI . a n d b r o t h e r in-law. Transfer This delicate humorous chalk a drawing is a cartoon—not image but a type of template used to plan the composition of a larger work Look closely and you will see rows of tiny dots along every significant line in the picture.
In 1986 he traveled to Africa and showed his work in Abidjan on the Ivory Coast He also exhibited in Germany and France.221). scratched into its surface. and sheet metal before being snapped up by the New York contemporary art scene. made with great energy. and everything flux. Man Ray's playful silk-screen assembly of color blocks. The incandescent New York painter Jean Michel Basquiat pictured himself here in naked silhouette. and buttons rings with surrealist wit and agile improvisation. postcards. drawn. scrolls. It is an image of confrontation—the ever-controversial young artist roars at us from his abstract city-scape. scratched lines.138 PORTRAITURE THE MIRROR OF SELF-PORTRAITURE offers artists infinite reflections of. spear-brandishing warrior. It is an opportunity to look deep without the infringement of courtesies owed to a commissioning sitter. and confrontations with. The figure's position is unequivocal and defiant while around him is in a state Without the essential of cultural and figure we would elegant belookingat a sophisticated painting of signs. bells. Islands of graphic marks. their most immediate and best-known subject: themselves. float and shimmer in the shallow pictorial space. signing their work SAMO. Signs and symbols with symbols This painting shudders that ore written. It has proved to be a subject of piercing scrutiny. JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT Short-lived American painter and graffiti artist who began his blazing nine-year career drawing on lower Manhattan subway trains with a friend. skull- Self-Portraits headed. and attitudes. and indulgence. political outcry. a tribal. The artist has finished his portrait with the signature of his hand smacked in the middle like a kiss: a declaration of existence as old as man's first drawing. Al Diaz. humor. similar to work by Cy Twombly (see p. marks. Later Basquiat sold drawings on T-shirts. Self Portrait 1982 9 4 x 7 6 in (239 x 193 cm) JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT .
caked in thick printing ink or paint.139 MAN RAY American surrealist photographer. printmaker and cofounder of the New York Dada movement. Frame White lines are seemingly (though not actually) scratched through ink to frame this face. painter. while a squeegee was used to drag thick lilac-brown ink across the silk pushing it though exposed areas onto the paper below. last of all. The first part of the stenciled image was already marked on the silk The screen and paper were then held tightly together. Man Ray lived and worked in Paris. Man Ray probably used his own hand. They suggest speed and make the picture look immediate and spontaneous. They experimented with camera-free photography working directly onto photographic paper Silk and ink This is a silkscreen print made through the following process: the paper was laid on a flat surface and a frame stretched with fine silk was placed on top. Black ink was printed next and then white. where he collaborated with the artist Laslo MoholyNagy. During the 1920's and 30s. The handprint appears to be made directly. Autoportrait 1916 195/8 MAN RAY .
Opposite. 144-45. copper. platinum. 2 . who used it to outline initials and border characters before painting. artists mixed white lead. Pages 142 to 147 are illustrated in silver point and techniques are explained on pp. W e t o n e length o f g u m . Be swift and firm. and alloys work on matt emulsion. o n e t o fit each side o f t h e b o a r d — t h e s e will make t h e glued f r a m e t h a t holds y o u r p a p e r in place. Straighten the w o r s t buckles. I t is a v a i l a b l e f r o m all a r t s h o p s . Lightly s p o n g e o f f t h e excess. and make o r buy a holder. and gold have also been used. Stretched paper remains taut as a d r u m . c h o o s e a s o f t full b r u s h t h a t c a n c a r r y p l e n t y o f l i q u i d . Numerous early European artists also enjoyed its fine qualities (see p. bone. it leaves a deposit. or wood." Lead. Z I N C W H I T E G O U A C H E : Dilute with w a t e r A d d c o l o r i f r e q u i r e d (as opposite) 4 .54) can also b e used. I combined silver point with painted white gouache on a pink ground. Historically. b e f o r e priming stretched paper. I m a k e m y o w n f r o m o l d dip pens. and t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h strips a b o v e and b e l o w . For i m p o r t a n t a d v i c e o n p r e p a r a t i o n a n d use. the surface must be primed with a ground such as gouache. key. w h i t e d r a w i n g paper) and cut it t o fit y o u r d r a w i n g b o a r d w i t h a generous b o r d e r a r o u n d its edges. Gesso o r m a t t e m u l s i o n c a n a l s o b e u s e d . S i l v e r is b e s t . illuminators of medieval m a n u s c r i p t s . S O F T F U L L B R U S H : W h e n laying a w a s h .54-55). choose a silver object. T h e p a p e r will l o o k b u c k l e d . SILVER P O I N T W I R E H O L D E R : T h e s e c a n b e p u r c h a s e d a n d t e n d t o b e heavy. Take a sheet o f any t y p e o f p a p e r (for e x a m p l e . This browns with age unless sealed by fixative (see pp. 2. Lay a clean d r a w i n g b o a r d o n a flat surface. Metal point is simply a strip of metal bound in a holder. laid on paper. If w o r k i n g o n an emulsion-painted wall. M a k e s u r e i t is c o m p l e t e l y clean t o avoid u n w a n t e d streaks. Drawn across a prepared surface. s e e p . 1 4 4 . was familiar to or eggshells with animal glue.s t r i p a n d use i t t o fix o n e side o f t h e p a p e r t o t h e b o a r d . 156). 5. which quickly oxidizes into a gray line. b u t d o n ' t w o r r y .140 PORTRAITURE Silver P o i n t SILVER OR METAL POINT STRETCHING PAPER A sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has been made w e t with the strokes o f a paintbrush will buckle d u e t o its uneven expansion. s o m e m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n o t h e r s . M E T A L OBJECTS: All metal objects m a r k a p r e p a r e d surface. purchase silver wire. an exciting indication of how large-scale drawings could be made on a wall. and is therefore useful w h e n using w a t e r c o l o r as well as silver point. 3 . MATERIALS 1 Find a clean sponge and b o w l o r d e e p t r a y a n d fill it w i t h w a t e r W e t t h e p a p e r evenly in t h e t r a y o r o n t h e b o a r d . This is called a three-tone drawing. E m p t y mechanical pencils designed f o r t h i c k leads ( s e e p. or ring. W e t a n d fix a s e c o n d strip t o t h e o p p o s i t e side. Note h o w domestic paintwork marks with a coin. p a r c h m e n t . Find a n i t e m t h a t y o u can h o l d a n d draw with comfortably. 1. SILVER W I R E : Purchase different gauge lengths f r o m a traditional a r t supplier o r jeweler. you will need t o stretch paper and lay a wash (see right and opposite). To begin. Metal point does not work on ordinary paper. The most c o m m o n metal has always been silver—hence the term "silver point.Tear o f f f o u r lengths o f b r o w n p a p e r g u m tape.
LAYING A WASH It your stretched paper so as to prime it for silver point. Beware of the tape's coming loose at any point while drying. Make an even line across to the right. leaving a smooth surface. overlapping lines until you reach the bottom. so put newspaper under the lower edge. Prop up your board of dry. any extra will keep.141 SILVER POINT 3 Leave the paper to dry flat. Runs blend into each other evenly. Mix a very wet but not weak solution of gouache in a jar with a lid (add pigment at this stage for a three-tone drawing). Dry thoroughly before laying a wash. and let tests dry before deciding to change the mixture. v e r y little at a time. I used a powder pigment called Caput Mortuum. Dip a soft. Keep adding smooth. T h r e e . is necessary to lay a wash o Three-tone When coloring ground. The next step will make a small mess.t o n e silver point drawing of a skull . as the paper will be ruined by a raised ridge. Make enough to cover your paper. Reload the brush and add a second line overlapping it beneath. Leave the wash to dry thoroughly before you begin to draw. Here. Keep testing on spare paper. stretched paper at a 45-degree angle. slowly add powder pigment or gouache from a tube. full brush into the gouache and start in the top left corner. It will slowly straighten and become taut.
Head and Neck
THE HEAD AND NECK are best conceived as one unit arranged in four parts: cranium, face, neck, and throat. Each is of equal importance. The cranium is essentially egg-shaped and pivots on the first vertebra. The face is suspended beneath, like a softly curved triangle. The n e c k — a powerful, shapely column of layered muscles rigged to vertebrae—adjusts and holds the angle and expression of the head. The throat is delicate, hard, and lumpy to the touch, formed of cartilaginous rings, glands, thin muscles, and looser skin. Framing the throat, two columnar neck muscles (sternomastoids) project the head forward and also turn it to the opposite side.
This is a simple shorthand diagram representing the cranium, face, neck, and throat. It can be learned and visualized in different positions very easily, giving the novice a firm footing on which to stand and develop their drawings of the head and neck.
Cranium Begin with an egg shape. Tilt it on the paper to change the position of the head.
Face Draw a rounded triangular shape below the forward point of the egg to represent the face.
Neck This shape represents the trapezius; the largest surface muscle of the neck and shoulders.
Throat A triangular shape represents the throat. (The nose makes the diagram clearer)
After copying the diagram above, animate it. Practice drawing the cranium at different angles, add the face beneath, then the neck, shoulders, and throat. Shape your diagrams so they are more lifelike, but avoid adding detailed features too soon.
143 These three drawings demonstrate (from left to right) the following: why the cranium may be considered egg-shaped; now the face can be seen as a curved triangle suspended beneath and where the division lies between the two; and the form of sternomastoid muscles that frame thethroatsodistinctlywhen the head is turned and inclined forward.
The skull and the frame of the throat
HEAD AND NECK
Bones of the cranium are locked together by jagged joints. Sinuses in the frontal (forehead) bone between and beneath the eyebrows are larger in men, making their brows pronounced and often ridged compared to those of women.
Bones of the face house our sight, smell, taste, The skull pivots on the first vertebra or "atlas," and speech. Cartilage extending from nasal bones after the Greek god condemned to carry the shapesthenose.Pads of fat resting on the base of Earth. The jaw hinges in front of the ears. Behind, eacheyesocket support the eyeballs in position. If bony ridges give anchor to the sternomastoid thefatisreducedby old age, eyes look sunken. muscles rising from the breast- and collarbones.
Three useful generalizations
General rules about the relative positions of body parts can hinder artists as much as help them, since they are often based on classical ideals rather than thediversityoflife.However,some generalizations can help as a rough guide to start with, so long as good observation takes over as soon as possible.
In general, when the face is relaxed (not smiling or frowning), the corners of the mouth are found directly beneath the pupils of the eyes. Vertical lines can be drawn down from the pupils to meet the corners of the mouth.
The height of a young adult's ear is often the same as their nose and found on the same level. There is no general rule for growing children, and remember that ears grow again in old age, which is most obvious in men.
The height of the face is about the length of the handspan and the eye is normally halfway down the total height of the head. A common error is to draw the eyes too high up on the face.
T H E DELICACY OF SILVER POINT
(see pp. 140-41) is perfect for
such as a beach pebble. Here, I stretched drawing paper and laid a wash of white gouache (see pp.140-41). As you can see, the line and tone of silver point varies with pressure, but only slightly. Too much pressure cuts the ground. Silver point erases, but so does ground. Erased ground can be repaired gently with extra gouache. You can also use gouache to paint over mistakes and make corrections.
small, detailed drawings. The drawings below and opposite show useful observations of the head and neck, which are explained in the captions below. Each drawing was made with a silver wire held in a large-gauge mechanical pencil. Newly clipped wires are sharp and cut rather than draw. Before use, they need to be rubbed and smoothed on a stone
Here I imagined placing my silver point wire against the skin of each head and neck and, working in parallel bands from the crown downward, I traced the undulation of surfaces. Linear bands imagined around the head and neck can help you t o clearly see the tilt of the head and relative levels of the features. Ask a friend t o model for you and try this exercise life-size using a pencil and eraser
Seeing that the face is never flat
Drawings below left and center are summaries of the generalizations given on p.143. Far right is an image to remind us that the face is never flat. It slopes back to varying degrees among individuals, from the tip of the nose t o the ears. For example, note that the innermost corners of the eyes are farther forward in space than the outermost corners.
General measurements, side
General measurements, front
View from above
Male and female head and neck
Men's necks a r e g e n e r a l l y s h o r t e r a n d t h i c k e r t h a n w o m e n ' s b e c a u s e t h e angles a n d levels o f c e r t a i n b o n e s a r e d i f f e r e n t b e t w e e n t h e sexes ( i n d i c a t e d h e r e b y d o t t e d lines) a n d m e n are n o r m a l l y m o r e muscular. T h e male t h y r o i d cartilage ( A d a m ' s apple) is larger a n d m o r e visible than t h e f e m a l e . L a r g e r f e m a l e t h y r o i d glands also s o f t e n t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e t h r o a t .
The largest m u s c l e o f t h e s h o u l d e r s a n d n e c k is called the trapezius. A r r a n g e d on e i t h e r side o f t h e spine, it shapes t h e u p p e r back and neck above the s h o u l d e r blades. C o n t r a c t i n g in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h d e e p e r and surrounding muscles, it raises and l o w e r s t h e shoulders a n d d r a w s t h e h e a d backtoeitherside.
USING A SHARP 3 B PENCIL, I drew this head quickly from imagination, evolving its character and expression from the scheme of four parts: cranium, face, neck, a n d throat (see p. 142). Here, five steps show you how to practice doing the same. This approach can be used to draw from imagination or from life. Keep your wrist loose and hold your pencil away from its point (see pp.22-23). Build the layers of your drawing from pale to dark, a n d from general balance a n d form to specific detail. Remember that successful drawings are built on foundations of "seeing the whole," then dividing the whole into smaller parts, with details brought in last of all. Phrased tonal marks modeling this girls skin and hair follow the technique demonstrated by Goya in his self-portrait on p. 130. Turn to Goya's drawing and study how, in a circle beginning across his hat, moving down his hair, and around his coat, he flows lines over surfaces to describe their contour. As you build from steps 1 to 5, bring phrased groups of lines across the surfaces of your form, using their directions to capture the expression of the head and neck. If unsure, copy my steps until you gain the confidence to make your own decisions.
This drawing is the final stage of the four steps opposite. Here, I have enlarged the eye, and moved it back into the head by trimming the length of the upper lid and adding a more pronounced lower lid. It is important to set eyes far enough back from the relatively prominent nose; too close to it and the face flattens. Hair swept back and extended behind the cranium balances the regal pose. Lines shaping the hair echo those marking the cranium in step 1. Here, the lower part of step 1 comes through as wisps of hair across her face and ear
Portrait of a Young Girl
avoid drawing too dark. Moving from the back of the neck. 3 Place the eye beneath the cranium. so it is important to the life of the image that while controlled. they are also still sweeping and confident. The nose and ear begin to shape the head.147 Building up the portrait DRAWING PORTRAITS 1 Gently spin pale lines in a softly drawn shape representing the cranium. over the cranium. I modeled the outline of the character I imagined light shining from above and in front and adjusted the pressure of lines to reflect this. too soon. 2 Rapidly add shorthand shapes to represent the face. First lines will remain visible in the final drawing. The eye announces the nature and expression of the emerging person.Theangle at which you draw this shape of the paper will determine the angle of the finished head. neck. 4 . Keep your first lines light. down the face to the throat. and throat. I used light to describe the upper lid first with a shadow beneath for the lower lid and open eye. Here.
T o DRAW PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGES. muscular tension. and gravity. Above all. the texture of hair. empathize. . be aware of the subtle differences in skin surface. a n d t h o s e w h o a r e Generations asleep (see overleaf).
Castings DRAWING IN THE PRADO MUSEUM. . Madrid. I used the nib upside down to gain needle-sharp precision. seeking the dominant contours of each individual expression. Van Dyke's noble cast of characters was modeled more finely. Fast lines carve out the features of Goya's soup-slurping hag. with a steel dip pen and acrylic ink.
g l o s s y folds. and intent. T h e p a p e r p a t t e r n is p e r h a p s the m o s t w i d e l y k n o w n of c o s t u m e d r a w i n g s : a formalized plan of lines. and i n d e e d image b e c a m e the property also of the industrial classes. and e x u b e r a n c e . Like it or not. P o p u l a r f a s h i o n d e s i g n e x p l o d e d w i t h the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n . was a Belarussian A r t Deco theater fantasies and desires to immediately possess a version of the same. b u t influenced Parisian fashion and interiordecor. it is the public sign by w h i c h w e are j u d g e d . dancer leaps through swaths of golden cloth. e m u l a t e textures. charcoal. articulate a d a n g e r o u s satirical j o k e . so that c h o i c e . Cities c h a n g e d all. Petersburg and later exiled designers' ideas and are surprised and delighted b y their continual f l o w of inspiration. and even invisible by the w a y w e dress. theb u t b y the w a y it s p e a k s w i t h its flying. intriguing. and s y m b o l s that lets m e n and w o m e n in all countries and areas have w o r k i n g access to the latest fashions. D e s i g n e r s create m a s t e r p i e c e s of haute couture LEON BAKST for H o l l y w o o d stars. Practical classes Bacchante 1911 l o o k at r a n g e s of c o l o r e d m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d i n g p a s t e l s a n d felt-tip p e n s . c o s t u m e o f f e r s a r i c h v o c a b u l a r y of t e x t u r e s a n d c o l o r . In psychology. In this c h a p t e r w e see h o w c l o t h i n g c a n s e e m to p o s s e s s the w e i g h t and m o n u m e n t a l i t y of stone. toParis. outrageous.This voluptuous above all a physical p u p p e t w i t h w h i c h to animate character and narrate personality. caricatured p l u m e s . c u l t u r e . gesture. and atmosphere. c r u m p l e s . and gouache. Samoylovich Rosenberg. w a r m t h . variety.Costume W E MAKE OURSELVES EXOTIC. st 111/4 x 81/2 in (285 x 220 mm) u d i e d L E O NB A K S T and explore the characterization of fabric t h r o u g h m o v e m e n t . arichand unusual combination of pencil. shapes. . of Scheherazade. or b u l g e s . Previously. fulfilling lavish and spectacular briefs. for e x a m p l e — d e s i g n e d the w a r d r o b e s of p o p e s a n d k i n g s . a n d p r o f e s s i o n — b e g a n life as a d r a w i n g . and everything w e h a v e c h o s e n for o u r w a r d r o b e s — r e f l e c t o r s of o u r taste.As artistic director of the It is s h o c k i n g to t h i n k h o w m a n y m i l l i o n s of d r a w i n g s m u s t be m a d e a n d d i s c a r d e d Ballet Russe. T h e rural masses w o r e h o m e s p u n simplicity. Bakst's designs and costumes immediately To the fine artist. T h e e n t o u r a g e of the theatrical stage o f t e n l e a d s the c a t w a l k . cool. and be so expressive of temperament that it overtakes the need for an o c c u p y i n g h u m a n form. personality. he and cofounder Serge Diaghilev took Paris by eac storm in 1910 with their production h year in the industrial f r e n z y of creating o u r image and aspirations. a n d c o u r t i e r tailors f o l l o w e d suit. Designers all over the w o r l d c o n t i n u a l l y p e n and b r u s h lines to lash us w i t h color. woman was drawn by Bakst one year later for the ballet Narcisse. while court p a i n t e r s — M i c h e l a n g e l o and Holbein. a n d w e will c o l l e c t patterns. o n l y the w e a l t h y c o u l d afford to h a v e c o s t u m e s specially m a d e . w h i c h in turn feed c o n s u m e r Lev. W e dress ourselves and costume designer trained in in St. known as Leon Bakst. Artists do this not so m u c h b y the style of a figure's garment. S t r u c t u r e is t h o u g h the i n v e n t i o n of shoes. a n d s u b t l e t o n e s . or calm u s w i t h chic.
it is only possible to create very thin. dragons. resonate with their wearers startled expression. Flaxmans sleeper—perhaps a pilgrim or a soldier resting between campaigns—has wedged himself into the cleft of some great building to grab a moment of peace. swirling printed fabrics. The quiet stillness of this image is achieved by a masterly economy of stylized line. Vertical lines The highly controlled lines of this drawing cascade from top to bottom of the image. Maelbeke I44I Madonna 11 x 7 in (278 x 180 m m ) JAN V A N EYCK . Opposite. Delicate marks Silver (or metal) point is the most delicate of traditional drawing media (see pp. Above them. bands around the columns. Her gown is carved and polished as if made from marble. best k n o w n f o r his G h e n t altarpiece ( 1 4 3 2 ) a n d m a r r i a g e p o r t r a i t o f Giovanni A r n o l f i n i and his w i f e (1434). Short and subtle horizontal punctuations are only given in the background by sections of floor. H e m e t i c u l o u s l y a r r a n g e d subjects t o c o n v e y d e e p e r meaning. and snakelike marks. Below this. He has layered these slowly and carefully so as not to cut through the ground and produce a white mark just where he intended a dark one. her marble garment holds u p the infant Christ in a fountain of compressed line. the vaulted stone roof echoes and crowns the moment. Van Eyck's highly polished w o r k is c e l e b r a t e d f o r its disguised symbolism. However. Keisai Eisen's intense. the carefully composed outline of his cloak shows us how the artist would have also begun his immaculate rendering of the Virgin's clothes. With a stylus such as Van Eyck used here. Church and deities are drawn as JAN VAN EYCK Flemish oil p a i n t e r f r o m L i m b o u r g . and the kneeling abbot is a ghost by comparison. Sculpted one.156 COSTUME Cloth and Drapery EACH OF THESE FIGURES is ninety percent cloth. delicate lines. Marble gown We will never know if Van Eyck considered this drawing unfinished or intended the kneeling abbot to remain transient and ghostly. and implied striation in the stone of the architecture. the Madonna and her architecture are both dressed in the same manner. with their jagged edges.140-41). In Van Eyck's drawing below. folds and patterns of material speak more resolutely of their wearers than any small glimpses of body we can see. Their uninterrupted emphasis is entirely vertical.
The inked block is laid face-down on damp paper and pressed to make the print. Respected for his sumptuous images of geisha and editions of erotic prints. and Man Lying Down in a Cloak I 787-94 21/4 JOHN FLAXMAN x 41/8 in (57 x 105 mm) . and teacher Distinctive linear illustrations for the works of Homer. draftsman. one over the other. flat sheets of wood. he also co-edited and expanded the Ukiyo-e Ruiko (History of Prints of the Floating World). the angle of the head. Position In this pen and ink drawing. Dante. Aeschylus earned Flaxman an international reputation. designer. and the feet notched against the pillar tell us that A lines holds him into the cleft. Koimurasaki of Tama-ya 1810-50 15 x101/4in (381 x 260 mm) KEISAI EISEN The Courtesan JOHN F L A X M A N English late 18th-century neoclassical sculptor. writer and printmaker Keisai Eisen took his name from the masters Kano Hakkeisai and Kikugawa Eizan. an 18th-19th century document on the lives of the ukiyo-e artists. which are sometimes also cut into pieces like a jigsaw puzzle. the cloak sliding to the ground. Parts of the image to be left unprinted are gouged out with a metal tool. Remaining raised areas of wood are rolled with colored inks. each delivering a different part and color of the design. Images are drawn onto smooth. stone wall of downward-stroked this sleeper's position is momentary. This complex numerous blocks prepared image and may have been made with printed separately. CLOTH AND DRAPERY Relief printing This is a woodblock print made by a relief process.157 KEISAI EISEN Japanese draftsman.
a n d w a s e m p l o y e d as c o u r t painter t o King Charles I. w h e r e . The slight uncertainty of the pose and the limp cloak suggest a little more metal than man. for she would not have been amused and William Wodall might have been stretching his luck. cinema. The metal. and even formal portraiture. Opposite is a dangerous drawing. A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE Flemish painter and draftsman. Its color is also reflected in the metal. Leg sections in both support the figure without taking our attention away from the main garment above. Flowing scarf The knight's scarf of gilded blue is drawn in a pale wash over red ink lines. The aged queen is compared to an overdressed bird. A flamboyant territory. Pen and wash In the graphic accuracy of this armored knight we see the idealized identity of a warrior from another time: a gleaming defender of the realm. a scurrilous cartoon by a courtier of Queen Elizabeth I. Anthony Van Dyke's Man in Armor is a masterpiece of drawn surface. Its warm surface flows in contrast to the stiff metal armor. Details and voices are worn externally with great imagination. t h r o u g h n u m e r o u s p o r t r a i t and C h u r c h commissions. Man in Armor UNDATED 1 6 x 9 1 / 2 in ( 4 0 5 x 2 4 0 m m ) A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE . It is presumed Her Royal Highness never saw it. cartoon. He has been rendered on this olive<olored page with pen and gray wash worked over a red and black under-drawing. where sometimes there just might not be anybody inside. cloth. lace. all ruffs and wrinkles. and feather were all CHARACTER COSTUMES REPRESENT observed with closely crafted conviction. 160. Van D y k e was chief assistant t o Rubens f o r t w o years. A s a y o u n g man. theater. Leg section Compare mid-shin the section of white boots cropped to the section of similarly cropped trousers in drawings Gruau's drawing on p. In 1 6 3 2 he m o v e d p e r m a n e n t l y t o L o n d o n .158 COSTUME Character Costumes an extreme form of the clothed figure. b e f o r e traveling t o Italy. Fine examples can be plucked from fashion. he c o o l e d and redefined his style.
bitten nature. t h e Ridolfi Plot. t h e Jesuit Mission. By her old upto three tiers supported on sticks. A Ruffs and feathers Starched white ruffs worn at court and by society grew steadily larger as Elizabeth's reign progressed. suggest the use of iron-gall ink (see p. Beneath the lethal fan is the body of a bird of trimmed feathers suggest age. hooded with an overinflated fluffy ruff eye pins us. manuscript comprising six c a n t o s .159 WILLIAM W O D A L L A u t h o r and illustrator o f The Aaes of Queene a Elizabeth poem Allegorized.1599 71/2 WILLIAM x 51/4 in ( 1 9 0 x 1 3 4 mm) WODALL . and saturations showing through from the other side. she is shown as a grossly disproportioned bird. and her pride. t h e Rising. while a raised foot pauses to assess the next displaying a fan of daggers. Satire of the Queen's Dress c. Northern Satire This is a quill-and-ink satire of the elderly queen's pride-As head of state and fashion. Top-heavy. it was customary to Iron-gall ink Wodall's dangerous caricature steps daintily the written lines of her dedicated page.35). here dark tawny owl. the queen is masterfully rebalanced by words at her feet The whole drawing's blackened. t h e B a b i n g t o n Plot. T h e poem recounts t h e six m a j o r crises o f Elizabeth's reign: t h e Spanish A r m a d a .
Fine lines drawn against the building behind her echo the threads on which we have all seen arachnids drop and hang. and both share the power of scarlet and black.160 COSTUME Femmes Fatales THESE DEVASTATING femmes fatales force back the onlooker with their demure.F r e n c h f a s h i o n i l l u s t r a t o r w h o in his l o n g and esteemed career w o r k e d with many of the g r e a t e s t d e s i g n e r s o f 2 0 t h . The black red.c e n t u r y haute i n n u m e r o u s m a g a z i n e s i n c l u d i n g Elle. She has been drawn with brushes dipped into India ink and gouache. ofcroppedtrousershere to the device of the w Illustration 1949 for Jacques Fath in L ' O f f i c i e l d e la C o u t u r e RENE GRUAU . studio-like rectangle of paper. G r u a u ' s highly distinctive d r a w i n g s have a p p e a r e d Couture. muscular aggression. Drying time in between applications ensured the colors did not run into each other. Fashion and fantasy drawings invent prototypes of ideals and perfection—be they for the catwalk or the fast-paced pages of comic books. His model is outlined. Vogue. Gruau uses starkly cut negative space (see pp.and tilted to the same de a little deeper than sp kneestogivehergravity. Composition Look how well this image is frame knee is parallel to the bottom edge spacehorizontalline cropping the trousers be outermostuprightbordersof her cuffs are similar above her head thesidesoftheimage. 158. Compare the compositio beneathVanDyke'sstudy of armor on p. demanding attention with gesture and flair. possibly over a pencil outline.5 9 ) and a three-spoke balance of cuffs and cropped trousers to create an almost flag-like emblem of power. Spider-Girl leaps like an insect. and gray pigments were applied separately. RENE GRUAU I t a l i a n . Harpers & Queen. a n d L'Officiel de la couture. Airbrushed reflective surfaces further amplify our perception of speed. India ink and gouache This swish of confidence and style our enters the page turning everyone's head. as is Spider-Girl opposite. 5 8 . Rene Gruau's bold gouache drawing of smoothly swaying sophistication captures a brilliantly cut garment and frames it with great dynamism in a white. Gruau's model regally swans to the fore with cool pride. elegant chic and svelte. diving to catch us in the grip of her machine-like limbs.
moon. It is outside the picture frame.RON F R E N Z Contemporary American graphic artist w h o designs and pencils the dynamic scenes of numerous superheroes featured in Marvel Comics.74-77). The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones. at Their extensions will meet the same single vanishing (see point pp. Buildings. Airbrushed color and with tonal focus. MARVEL C O M I C S . Sharp focus black outlines in this drawing create a hyper-real dynamic. to the right of its center. beginning with Star Wars. In your mind's eye extend the uprights out of the top of the picture. sky. a great characteristic superhero comics. This s modeling applied over the top give the image a sleek and mechanical of gravity. Single-point understand perspective To how Frenz created up therefore the effect of steeply between looking buildings—and howyou can do the same in your own work—take calculate where a ruler the and single vanishing point lies. not far above the drawing. Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 2001-04 R O N FRENZ. and Amazing Spider-Man. Align your ruler to the upright of each building. He began work on Spider-Girl in 1998. Frenz has drawn for Marvel for about 20 years. and has been the title's regular artist since 2003. and figure are all locked into equally shatp through the traditional process of a pencilled outline over-drawn ink.
which he left unfixed to retain its brightness. intensity. quality. Pastels are finer. paper-wrapped. used to make colors. oily pigment. great for tin . 3. made in about 80 colors. Bright pastels are more brilliant on colored paper. Try materials that are new and unfamiliar. and can be softened and manipulated with degrees of heat. and cost are laid out for our pleasure and perusal. Be aware that fixative dulls pastel. 4. crumbly. hue. OIL PASTELS Oil-based. you may be pleasantly surprised to discover something you could not have imagined using. though lines can develop greasy stains around the edges if the paper is not first stretched and treated with a gelatin paste laid as a wash. and subtlety. Degas built his pastels in layers. fixing each layer on the front. soft. I suggest you do so. and CHALK PASTELS Pastel pencils make fine lines (as above). COLORED PENCILS: Dry pigments ground together with chalk. or wax and a binder are shaped into fine strips and encased in w o o d like a graphite pencil. 2. plants. Store loose pastels in dry rice to keep them clean. The higher the quality (and cost). Beware—some are toxic. and synthetics. colored materials available. Before making substantial investments. FELT-TIP PENS: Instant-drying alcoholor water-based inks stored in the barrels of the pens are delivered via smooth nylon o r felt tips of varying shapes and thicknesses. clay. The worst are like revolting old lipsticks that get everywhere except where you intend. C o n t e crayons are square-formed. Many products are sold individually and in boxed sets. Seemingly infinite choices of texture. See h o w they work and return later for more of what proved best for you. They vary hugely in cost. animals. 1. including iridescents. the finer and more subtle the texture and color should be. Many artists apply fixative to the back of their work. except the final layer.162 COSTUME Colored Materials ART STORES BRIM OVER w i t h t h e m a n y wherever permitted. quality and cost T h e best are paperwrapped sticks of sumptuous. these work best when slightly warm. They work well on PIGMENTS Pigments. shape. Pastel pencils are slender and in w o o d casing. wash. allowing it to fix slightly from behind. Often. the diverse are made in brands of basic member of the family. purchase a small selection of different items you think you will like. mixed on the paper and scratched into (as below). are derived from many sources: rocks. CHALK PASTELS: Blackboard chalk is sidewalk work. Children's wax crayons are relatives. minerals. insects. slightly oily to the touch. unwrapped harder pastels. The nontoxic range below represents a suggested starting point for experiment. and sold in many colors. Most stores leave small pads of paper on their counters for customers to test materials. OIL PASTELS: Many colors. Sticks and conte crayons make thicker marks (as below). chalkbased but very subtle. there are disparities between the apparent nature or color of what you hold in your hand and its performance on paper. Dissolve in turpentine or mineral spirits to produce oil paint or or dark paper. Use them to draw lightly (as above left) or thickly. size. and can be a great rediscovery for bold drawings.
or clay-based thin crayons in wood casing. others dissolve in water or turpentine to make a wash. Some are nonsoluble. Some give richer lines than others. it is still a great champion and support for those beginners feeling shyly obligated to tone down their love of color to conform with what others say they should use. so it is best to test them before buying. Fine lines can be achieved (as above). Diverse brands are harder or soften greasier or chalkier in use. . Colors can be blended as shown right) and tones graded by altering pressure. If you love smooth blocks and lines of colon felt-tip pens are perfect. 111). FELT-TIP PENS Although not made with felt-tip pen.163 COLORED PENCILS These are wax. Brands made for designers sold in enormous ranges of colors are far more subtle and sophisticated than those made for children. leaving the paper to shine through for highlights (as below). Think of Matisse's Blue Nude (see p.
c o v e r a large sheet o f p a p e r w i t h line drawings o f several shoes. Turn t h e m in different d i r e c t i o n s and o b s e r v e t h e i r s t r u c t u r e and f o r m . and volume in space (see pp. and they have been concealed in buildings to ward off misfortune. As artifacts in museums. if y o u m a k e p l e n t y o f d r a w i n g s as o p p o s e d t o o n l y a f e w . To set up. you will need several large sheets of drawing paper. structure. Linear Outline Using fine pens. will discover m o r e . a n d e x p e r i e n c e visible p r o g r e s s . Superstitions and fetishes are attached to them: we are told never to put new shoes on a table. personality. while artists have painted their boots or those of others as personal portraits and memorials. 104-07). style. and after studying familiar shoes we use the information learned to invent new ones. REPEATED STUDY T o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s class. I m a d e n u m e r o u s s h e e t s o f d r a w i n g s . You.164 COSTUME Study and Design they reflect our age. This class takes the shoe as its subject in building on earlier lessons concerned with seeing through objects to understand their function. D r a w each o n e first as a solid object. Here we go one step further. e n j o y i n g t h e study a n d i n v e n t i o n o f shoes. the era in which we live. social and economic status. they record and reflect our common history. a range of colored felt-tip pens with both fine and broad tips. . t h e n again as if transparent. values. S H O E S TELL LIFE STORIES. and how we stand and walk. imagining y o u can see t h r o u g h it. and a selection of shoes. t o o . 100-01 and pp.
STUDY AND DESIGN
study the surface contours using fineand broad-tipped felt-tip pens. For best results, it is important to be bold and brief. Draw firmly, fast, and with as few strokes as possible. Build up each shoe from light to dark andleavesome paper showing through to create highlights.
Design Your Own
Using what you have learned from the previous steps about the structures of your shoes, and about the use of pens, invent new designs from your imagination. Start with fine outlines and progress to colored and textured surfaces. Modify your ideas by rotating the views.
The Structure of Costume
MUSEUMS ARE AN INFINITELY
rich resource for the artist and
information given by a period style. Arrange to visit a costume museum or ask a friend to model clothes for you at home. Using fine felt-tip pens, begin with quick, pale impressions of each garment's shape before homing in on its borders and seams. Try to draw transparent views wherever possible to record the relationships between all component parts. Aim to draw enough information for it to be possible to make up a version of the garment using paper pinned to a tailor's dummy.
designer. They often give quite unexpected gems of ideas and information—whatever the subject. These drawings, made in a costume museum, demonstrate ways of recording structural information and detail for later use in the studio. They could form the basis of new designs for a fashion project or theater production, for example. Drawings of shoes on pp. 164-65 show how new designs can be evolved from the structural
It is usually best when collecting information for reference to apply the restraint of dispassionate observation. Set yourself the test of drawing facts with as little artistic license or embellishment as possible. Here I chose fine felt-tip pens because they are at their best when used swiftly, and therefore encourage bold, unhesitant decisions.
Swift lines record the hanging weight of this gentleman's coat, the relative proportions of its layers, and minimal details of the buttons and cuffs.
Thick velvet fabric is pulled tight beneath and across the bust by a single button. This transparent view shows how the fabric falls loosely in straight panels beneath the level of the sleeve.
W h e n visiting museums, be prepared f o r l o w lighting, which can make it hard t o see and draw. A book can help if attached t o your drawing board.
Adding stripes and dashes of color with a thicker pen brings out the glossy sheen and sculptural rigidity of this dress, which would have been worn over a whalebone corset. small reading light designed t o clip o n t o a
THE STRUCTURE OF COSTUME
In small drawings such as these, use thick pens to color entire sections with a few marks, as I did here down the side of the bodice.
The light, frilly bulk of this crinoline dress is propelled forward with lines. pinching its gathers and sways that are hiding a horsehair bustle. fleets of quick
THIS CLASS FOCUSES ON how to draw textures through the collection of fabric, pattern, and embroidery samples from a costume m u s e u m . This formal method, using ruled squares, can create an invaluable library of ideas a n d i n f o r m a t i o n for future r e f e r e n c e — w h e n painting a clothed figure, or preparing a textile project, for example. However, if making a book of samples for a project, remember that it is important to also include collages of f o u n d materials (see pp.230-31) To d r a w a fabric texture, b e g i n by concentrating o n h o w y o u i m a g i n e it w o u l d feel if you t o u c h e d it. Decide if it w o u l d be rough, s m o o t h , w a r m , cold, thick, thin, tough, or fragile, for example. As you draw, believe you can feel these qualities at your fingertips a n d that your pencil is responding to the sensation. Undulate the pressure of your lines and marks according to the feeling of the fabric rather than its appearance. Let your pencil enact the sensation of touching its surface.
and to experiment more loosely with mixed media.
This starchy, quilted, b o w e d creation started life as an imagined corset, I intended t o d r a w together in one sculptural f o r m a range o f t h e details opposite. T h e garment quickly got o u t o f hand. T h e r e is great e n j o y m e n t in letting y o u r imagination run wild w h e n inventing costumes. If you are unable t o visit a costume museum, many exciting fabric details and textures can be found in y o u r o w n closet o r home.
Colored pencils give precision and tonal range; they can be faded but not erased. Lightly use an HB graphite pencil if you wish to plan a design first. Pressed hard, colored pencils build up a waxy finish of brilliant color. Used lightly, they appear powdery and show the texture of the paper.
TEXTURES AND PATTERNS
Silk and braid
shape. selected from different pages of my original book. look at how Goya delineated volumes of thick fabric to express the posture. Madrid. I made a drawing book full of studies seeking to understand how he composed drama and pathos in his narratives (see also pp. and 252-53).126-27.Dressing Character I O N C E SPENT THREE MONTHS researching the work of Francisco de Goya at the Prado Museum. These characters. 172-73. and motivation of an individual. . identity.
T H E S E PENCIL STUDIES. Posture Carving also taken from my Madrid drawing book (see pp. and tangible. I carefully copied the direction of each of his lines. and visible. To understand how he did this.170—71). . are copies of works by Goya in which he makes air seem heavier than flesh. as it rushes and carves fabric-wrapped forms like rivers and desert winds shaping the earth.
Blockbuster movies. Second. We can direct close. we can learn most about handling pen and ink. Seeing through Rembrandt's eyes. Storytelling and people-watching are obsessive human activities. but drawings of gathered people tell them most directly. paintings depicting scenes from history. a crowd tells the story from a distance. the viewer is not directly made the finer lines of Saskia. types. too. He is also the artist from whom props to add layers of meaning and attitude. and instantly engage with the action of the scene. The spaces between people and the positions they occupy on a page are vital to our understanding of the psychology or emotion of an event. . heighten or subdue drama with subtleties of exaggeration or caricature. Drawings selected for this chapter explore these Saskia Lying in Bedand a Nurse ranges of proximity 1638 9 x61/2in (227 x 164 mm) and a travel journal. Washes of shadow behind engaged and as a natural voyeur can feel invisible while watching the scene. We read tensions and exchanges between people. daily newspapers.Gatherings A LL DRAWINGS TELL STORIES. With a pocket full of disposable pens we also go out and draw the expressions of gathered people. and distance—so drawings of gathered people can be loosely arranged in three took only minutes to make and yet it lives for centuries. Saskia. the speed and printmaker and one of the greatest and most influential density of its lines. the viewer. the viewer's attention in a scene by the format of its composition. It middle. Third. are implicated in this marital exchange made over the head of the anonymous nurse. Her all-too-clear expression shows annoyance and irritation with her husband. vivid portrait of his wife captures our attention. R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN in the delivery of narrative. in spite of how it may seem. soap operas. and so. and therefore seem to see. and its illumination. this is not the portrait of an old woman. presumably while he is making this drawing. finding corners in crowded places to inscribe their action and energy onto the page. we can R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter draftsman. even up her were laid with a brush. Here. there are no longer individuals but one significant group or mass action. television documentaries. Rembrandt's bored and frustrated wife. Later in their lives. furniture. First. He in turn scorches the paper with his view and a certain speed of seeing all. As artists. stares out from her gloomy sickbed. and novels—our staple cultural diet—are driven by a fascination with shared experience and the detail of what happens in other people's lives. and other masters of Western Art. the direct exchange (as shown here) where one or more characters hold eye Aneedproduced the thicker lines of the nurse. we. comics. while a quill contact with. This J u s t as there are three parts to a traditional landscape drawing—the foreground. We can also use clothes. Saskia died after childbirth.
Pans fly oft the stove. and projector. In both works. and on. the Cat. narrative is delivered through the air. and smoke billows around the agitated jives of the Duchess. for example. Pencil on paper important but only the beginning of possibility the combination of three-dimensional space.. the C o o k . junk. F o r e a c h w o r k ." (Tim Noble) Drawing with light it is important to think about what you is Here timelessly we see a in can draw with. In one of R a c k h a m s great illustrations for Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland. plates shatter. a kitchen explodes in o u r faces. Below. c o m p o s e d garbage p r o d u c e s a c a l m . and projectors to create their anarchic punk satires of modern life. or even the office photocopier. h a l o e d portrait of the artists seated b a c k to b a c k . via the animated clutter of o u r material lives. refuse."Anything that.. TIM N O B L E A N D SUE W E B S T E R British artists who collaborate using neon. Real Life is Rubbish 2002 Dimensions variable TIM N O B L E A N D SUE WEBSTER . Here. T h e i m m a c u l a t e d r a w i n g is only r e v e a l e d w h e n t h e b e a m of a p r o j e c t o r c a s t s t h e s h a d o w Projections of the h e a p o n t o a wall. garbage and chaos are piled a n d e x p l o d e d in r o o m s full of event.176 GATHERINGS SOME DRAWINGS ARE MADE e n t i r e l y o f i l l u m i n a t i o n that floods drama into the viewers gaze. and in. Think about what else you could use: a laser smoke. t h e y select and arrange familiar items of street detritus into what appears to be an u n p l e a s a n t pile. N o b l e a n d W e b s t e r s w i t t y a n d o f t e n s u b v e r s i v e d r a w i n g s are also c o n t e m p o r a r y art installations. and Alice. hearth i m p l e m e n t s crash at o u r feet.kicks against the mundane things that close down your mind is a refreshing and good thing.
tabletop. are very large compared to on p. Find the singleperspective pp. a n d an unmistakable graphic style. See how the In the Duchess's Kitchen 1907 77/8 x 6 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 5 0 m m ) ARTHUR RACKHAM . by vivid children's Rakham's w o r k is characterized fantasy. and Poe's Tales Imagination. amplifying movement outward from the vanishing point. H e is best k n o w n forillustratingIrving's Rip vanWinkle. humor. beams. 100 to see for make elliptical objects and pans fly through the the foreground. we find several devices already explored through our drawing classes. Rackham Vanishing point In this marvelous drama made with pen.177 ARTHUR RACKHAM British watercolorist and book illustrator. and watercolor. and Alice's shoulder. The wood grain acts like marks of speed behind the scene. This makes the story appear to leap out at us. ink.Stowe's ofMysteryand Queer Little Folks. Refer back to the drawing class how pots In drawn objects and elements that those behind.76-77) above vanishing point (see that is about3/4in (2 cm) oak converge at this point. Depth Billows of smoke expand and are lighter as they come forward.
as if Moore's wrapping has been literally outstretched. HENRY MOORE Crowd 1942 Looking at Tied-up Object . join in the waiting. Magnetic Fields sculpture.178 GATHERINGS we have seen in the pairs and trios of drawings by masters and makers. audiences. and action of a buffalo hunt. M o o r e t o u r e d Italy as a young man. expressing his dry humor about O F ALL THE CONTRASTS HENRY MOORE British s c u l p t o r w h o t r a i n e d a n d taught at t h e R C A . Moore's spectators appear to have walked a long way from nowhere to witness and wait beside this mysterious obelisque. perhaps these two are the most extreme. and art in the landscape. This is an ironic drawing from Moore. a n d l o v e d t o d r a w in t h e BritishMuseum. meaning. In culture. as fellow watchers. a great Shoshone drawing blazes with the color. The image stands out among his more usual graphic works in which he hones and carves semi-abstract human forms. heat. Chalk and graphite This fog-bound but humorous gathering of souls is made in graphite and colored chalk with gray wash. The mournful gray landscape of Henry Moore's northern British field has gathered by night an overcoated audience to stand and wait before a wrapped and roped monument. and composition they are polar opposites. which still narrates vivid days in the lives of an energetic nation. London. A glimmer of gold light appears from the left No explanation is given. This is just one of many precious artifacts from a lost time. a sculptor. and we.The human form w a s the vehicle o f his expression and h e w a s t h e official W o r l d W a r II artist. Opposite.
horses. tolearnhow to paint a scene on a hide are and buffalo circle and charge the perimeters of a skin "field. and helping our eye to dart around.179 SHOSHONE SCHOOL Stylized characters This vital image of a buffalo hunt is made with pigment Members of the Shoshone community wishing painted within dark outlines on a stretched elk hide. Skills are taught not center chant or dance to the beat of a drum. Stylized hunters." Men at the instructed to sit and watch. MAGNETIC FIELDS Horses It is interesting to note how the outstretched limbs ofthesehorses echo European images of the runningBuffalo horse before the sequence-photographer Muybridge taught us to 19TH understand their movement differently. Each color is evenly distributed throughout the scene. creating harmonious balance with words but through silent demonstration. Hunt CENTURY SHOSHONE SCHOOL .
W I L L I A M BLAKE British visionary. We also see qualities of line. color. w h i c h b y their c h o i c e a n d h a n d l i n g a c t u a l l y b e c o m e the force a n d spirit of e a c h i m a g e . Brushed line and wash This is an ink-outlined drawing made with a fine brush on paper with added washes of watercolor The image was subsequently redrawn as a line engraving. inextinguishable in its fortitude and h u m o r . w h e r e he w a t c h e s a t u r b u l e n t s p i r a l of p u n i s h m e n t f o r the d a m n e d .180 GATHERINGS The Human Condition IN THE SPECTRUM of these vastly d i f f e r e n t g a t h e r i n g s of p e o p l e . w e f i n d a spiritual v i s i o n . w r i t e r a r t i s t . a n d f o c u s . Misted in translucent layers of paint. a pink-inked cinema wobbles along with string. p o e t . Opposite. Blake w a s d r i v e n b y a passion f o r j u s t i c e a n d a p r o f o u n d b e l i e f in his v i s i t a t i o n s f r o m angels. era as Kollwitz. Heath Robinson lived through the same war-torn. a n d the gentle h u m o r of sedate r i d i c u l e . B l a k e h a s i l l u m i n a t e d his s a d d e n e d Virgil on the s h o r e s of a d a r k w o r l d . a n d e n g r a v e r w h o p o w e r f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e d his o w n t e x t s in a d d i t i o n t o D a n t e ' s Divine Comedy. t h e Bible. The muscularity of Blake's figures was inspired by Michelangelo's works. The Circle of the (The Whirlwind 1824 of Lustful Lovers) mm) 143/4 x 207/8i n ( 3 7 4 x 5 3 0 WILLIAM BLAKE . a n d o t h e r w o r k s . pale souls of the lustful are being s p u n into yet another realm of hell. and sweetened the often bleak years with his impractical inventions. m a r k . K a t h e K o l l w i t z s c r a t c h e d a n d e n g r a v e d her a r m y of c l a y . It illustrates a scene from Dante's Divine Comedy.f o o t e d t r o g l o d y t e s w h o rage into w a r like a m u d s l i d e of revenge. texture. a d e a t h c h a r g e of brutality.
Kollwitz survived the two World Wars. Losbruch (The Outbreak) 1955 20 x 233/8 in (507 x 592 mm) KATHE KOLLWITZ HEATH ROBINSON humorous illustrator and a regular contributor to magazines and journals such as The Sketch and The Bystander. and clearly focused. and her powerful and sensitive drawings center on nurture. THE HUMAN CONDITION Scratched lines This is a dry-point etching with monoprint. With masterful gentility. White marks were made with a dusting of French chalk on the artist's finger to wipe away ink leaving clean metal. and controlled smears on the metal surface printed as tones. humor by making his characters earnest.181 KATHE KOLLWITZ German printmaker. He created sincere. sculptor and draftsman. The image was scratched directly onto a metal plate. Ink rolled over was selectively polished off using a rag. What remained in scratched grooves printed on damp paper as lines. plodding along with hazy. Robinson and Kollwitz (above) share almost identical life dates and their work expresses a shared history from opposite sides oftheworld wars. Heath Robinson shows England in a past era. and the impact of death and war upon women. however meager or ridiculous their activity. who lived in a poor district of Berlin. children. poverty. British Pen and wash This is a pen-andwatercolor drawing made for a color-platereproduction in an edition of T h e Bystander. stoical bemusement. HEATH ROBINSON The Kinecar 1926 103/8 x 15 in (262 x 380 mm) . and the family home.
or put the paper in your pocket instantly without fear of smudging. Ideal f o r precision w o r k (see p p . a disposable pen with its clip-on cap goes anywhere. including l u m i n o u s a n d m e t a l l i c . turn the page. 7 6 . they each offer distinct and sometimes unexpected qualities. fine fiber-tip Drawing with a fine fiber-tip pen.182 GATHERINGS Disposable Pens (ballpoints. c h o o s e p e n s l a b e l e d " p e r m a n e n t " o r "lightfast. fibertips. p e r m a n e n t . Lines t h i c k e n as t h e p e n w e a r s o u t G r a n d Canal (see pp. So many stores sell them. a n d pressure-sensitive. aiming for correct outlines would result in drawing too slowly to c a t c h the moment. 2. W h i t e gel p e n s a r e v e r y e f f e c t i v e o n d a r k papers. or idea." 1. and in most pockets so I can always record a thought DISPOSABLE PENS QUICK NOTES O n a c o l d day in Venice. Unlike pencils. w a t e r . indent paper. a n d ranges o f colors. T h e r e w e r e c seconds t o snatch this impression b e t w e e n their emergence from one bridge and disappearance b e n e a t h t h e next. R O L L E R B A L L : A c o n s t a n t i n k flow 3 . The f o u r i l l u s t r a t e d h e r e r e p r e s e n t a basic r a n g e . gel pens) are the most convenient of all materials with which to travel. or turn into washes and make monoprints if flooded with an alcohol-based substance such as hairspray. FIBER-TIP: M a n u f a c t u r e d f o r artists a n d d e s i g n e r s in a r a n g e o f w i d t h s .7 7 and 214-15). shut your book. t h e y a r e lightfast. . a ballpoint will make faint lines. they can be obtained within minutes. blob when old.188-89) and Caravans (see pp. 4. dark sheen. trusting shape and form to follow. I swiftly focused on gesture. 192-93) w e r e b o t h m a d e w i t h a ballpoint. in the car. build to a rich. Available in blacks and ranges of colors. G E L P E N : P r o d u c e d in b l a c k w h i t e . Quick-drying. I keep quantities at home. if y o u w i s h y o u r d r a w i n g s t o last a n d n o t fade o r b l u r w i t h t i m e a n d e x p o s u r e t o light. At a time like this. rollerballs.r e s i s t a n t . in the studio. these pens enable you to sketch. t w o tourists and their gondolier drifter past m e o n a canal. Insensitive t o p r e s s u r e : lines d o n o t v a r y in w i d t h o r t o n e . jot notes. B A L L P O I N T : Black a n d b o l d c o l o r s o f f e r d i v e r s e qualities. dropped in your pocket and forgotten till needed. which can snap or pierce through your clothes. is d e l i v e r e d t h r o u g h a m e t a l t u b e o v e r a t i n y ball bearing. R e m e m b e r . For example. CHOICES AVAILABLE T h e r e a r e m a n y d i s p o s a b l e p e n s t o c h o o s e from.
Earlier I had witnessed a crammed en masse in a fleet of hired gondolas complete with musicians and choir.31 . not form. Compare this Klee's mules on p. crowd of fellow travelers Fast lines These scribbled lines model the mass and shadows of heads belonging passengers packed into the boat. Fast lines focus on action.FROMMEMORY Here I used the same fiber-tip pen to compose a scene from memory.
Don't worry about measuring angles. focus on the action of the event. Above all. if animated. let it enter the stage and perform. if a person was stout.184 GATHERINGS The Travel Journal I CANNOT OVERSTATE THE JOY of making a travel journal. You will make outlines. when out drawing. Movement . of course. However. Each one was witnessed and drawn immediately from the afterimage of what I had just seen. all action is in the line of his coat and directed by his nose. make them stouter. angles will happen as a matter of course. pocket notebook and a fiber-tip pen. Let the line of the flying coat fly and the hanging arm hang. and companionship. You must learn to trust your memory and to draw what impressed you most. A curatorial assistant flies to do a chore (right). life will not slow and wait for you to catch it. No camera can tie you to a time or people in the same way. animate them more. not its outline. I caught fleeting glimpses of gathered people and solitary souls going about their affairs. Circular lines buzz around a man puzzling at the end of a train platform (left). just draw the action. Push toward caricature and this will draw out of your memory what was most important. FLEETING MOMENTS Walking through Venice with a small. activity. Every drawing writes an indelible memory of place. black. Each line acts its part in the narrative. Exaggeration helps. but they should not be what you dwell on.
Observation THE TRAVEL JOURNAL The same willowy assistant dashes about his work. I am watched by the aggravated guard.185 A large lady is photographed in front of a delicate work of art. Expression . The rush of his legs isamplifiedby their blurred lines. I drew him three times on the same page to catch a range of his physical expressions. In turn. eager to herd us all from his house of responsibility.
Identify the principal character and draw him or her first. and reason for happening. and clothing or bags hang. For example. Here I have recreated my drawing in steps to show you how to set about capturing such a scene. focus on action. flap. Place the person carefully. placement. elevate them in the pictorial space. When your attention has been caught. and there met this sullen custodian. not outline. and involvement in the story. start by focusing on its action. or pushes. Be aware that their placement on the page is part of the narrative. or bulge. ACTION AND DETAIL W h e n drawing people. I took refuge in a church in Venice. if they are being devious. For example. and you decide to draw the moment. pulls. decide how faces and bodies contort. .186 GATHERINGS Catching the Moment On A BITTERLY COLD November day. Here the custodian projects fastidious ownership of his desk and pamphlets by pushing from behind the center of the space and challenging our entry to his image. if they are being haughty. He and his simpering assistant would not allow me in. furniture leans. you might place them lower down. forcing me to remain at the back and look at them. and let every detail speak by its size. emotion. rather than the works of art they guarded.
W i t h a few strokes. CATCHING THE MOMENT The assistant Identify t h e antagonist ( o r second character) in t h e scene. a pillar locates t h e scene in a depth o f space. who is largely expressed through the shape and fall o f his raincoat and his way o f using a note pad. Decide where t o place them t o emphasize their role. D r a w their action. Draw their action and props. . continue adding characters. Decide where you will place them o n the paper t o emphasize their action and intent. which is pushed toward us in a gesture of confrontation.187 The custodian Identify your principal character a n d their psychological role in the scene. In the final step (left) I reinforced t h e custodian's desk. If drawing a more complex scene. Here. together with any immediate props they are using. I added t h e assistant. such as the desk and pamphlets seen here.
and buildings. where vertical mooring poles give space and pulse to the horizontal speed of water quickly. . I developed detailofthis drawing from memory using a ballpoint pen. An imminent deluge of tourists urged me to work catching no more than the skeleton of the view.Grand Canal T H E CANALS OF VENICE are bustling places full of occupation.
Each person was glimpsed in an instant. note only their most essential action and feature. then the bridge beneath them. Characters in the foreground were drawn first. Venetians flow across a stepped bridge and cascade into the streets beyond. Caricature each person slightly. followed by the streets. To catch characters like this.Crossings DURING THIS RUSH HOUR. and drawn immediately from memory. .
. quiet afternoon.Caravans T H E PARAPHERNALIA O F TRAVEL i s an intriguing part of circus life. I used a ballpoint pen to compose a series of scenes. Sitting at a distance on a hot. Caravans and other backstage activity convey expectations of energy and repose. and a great subject to draw. I found this circus by chance in the Swiss mountains.
trees. or the wind carries it away. pages o f softly i l l u m i n a t e d craters and lunar "seas" c o v e r e d in m a t h e m a t i c a l and s h o r t h a n d calculations. Richard Long. It is Earths satellite. 199). a contemporary environmental artist. These conditions are very difficult to express well. and even how the Sun illuminates. and experiment. but it can be seen as a lens to our observation of this planet. speculation. H e a l s o p r o d u c e d an a l b u m o f 1 8 0 exquisite pencil drawings. Oxford. surrounded by the bright instruments of centuries of navigation.Earth and the Elements I T MAY SEEM PERVERSE to start a chapter titled "Earth and the Elements" with an image of the Moon. Beginners will often choose calm. William Turner is said to have had himself lashed to a ship's mast to comprehend the storm (see p. how the soil is scorched. and its draws the tides of the seas. England. Russell d r e w this. as opposed the physicality of Earth. the face of the Moon. a n d a n astronomer w h o dedicated 20 years t o studying t h e M o o n . t h e first-ever accurate image o f t h e M o o n ' s surface. t w o e n g r a v e d m a p s k n o w n as The Lunar Planispheres. There is a sense of the heroic in drawing outside—we race to catch a form before the tide engulfs it. makes his work by the act of walking. a n d a m o o n globe called t h e Selenographia. marking the ground with lines of footprints or by turning stones. when little stirs and empty blue skies offer even less to latch lines to. Take chances against the rain and work with the wind or fog. learning to draw light out of dark. rivers. 5 f t x 5 ft 6 in ( 1 5 2 x 1 6 8 c m ) J O H N RUSSELL . By drawing such momentous and everyday events. The forces of nature. and meteor impacts have scarred. so J o h n Russell's tour de f o r c e drawing (opposite) was a masterpiece of observation in his time. are the real subjects in great landscape drawings. arranging them in perfect circles on the mountainside or in lines drifting out of sight beneath low clouds. It is better to get up before dawn. to be ready to draw the new light as it breaks across the land. In this chapter Moon Pastel 1795 Drawing we experiment with charcoal. and take bold steps in emulating the swell of clouds and the forces of torrential water. This is the world's first accurate image of the Moon. or has cracked and fallen under the weight of water. Weather is essential in all landscape drawing. and the sea. What they have drawn is the force of nature on these properties: how the wind heaves the night ocean. how the mountain cut by ice and rain is now fleetingly lit. JOHN RUSSELL A p o r t r a i t pastelist t o King G e o r g e III o f England. sunny days. the sun comes out to blind it. The pastel drawing was constructed from myriad telescopic observations almost 200 years before the Apollo Moon landing. artists see for themselves that which is momentary and eternal. they are the animators of your subject. It now hangs on the staircase of the History of Science Museum. our companion. Look closely at works by many artists and you will see that they have not represented hills. Just as NASA photographs of Earth have had a profound effect on the way we view our fragile home.
Below. the government. He knew how the world bends and stutters under such gusts. lifts. is already lost. Fluid strokes inflate the woman's dress and pin shadows to the ground. Dots and dashes suggest receding trees out of focus. a scratched ghost. has b e c o m e a hysterical kite. we can soon learn to draw its force. and solidity. the bourgeoisie. T h e ship. distance.Through political drawings he fired his sharp wit at the king. fluttering heavily. Hokusais sedate wind presses reeds a n d the j o u r n e y s o f young ladies. Danger of Wearing Balloon Petticoats UNDATED HONORE DAUMIER . painter. and gives motion to each image. T h e great master of English seascape is c o n d u c t i n g with his graphic energy. Daumier's c a r t o o n shines with the brilliance of his comic memory. and the legal profession. sculptor. a sail b r o k e n loose in a stormy marriage. H O N O R E DAUMIER French satirical cartoonist lithographer.198 EARTH AND THE E L E M E N T S Air in Motion THE GREAT INVISIBLE SUBJECT o f these d r a w i n g s is t h e w i n d . undramatic b u t brimming with stylized realism. and pioneer ofexpressionism. seeing how it shakes. like an umbrella forced inside-out. serving a prison sentence for his views. This wife. Crayon and limestone This is a lithograph. and by observing its tides and eddies in our o w n environment. Flapping kimonos and an onlooker turning his b a c k have the magic of a m o m e n t caught. speed. A hard waxy was drawn across a heavy limestone Varying definitions crayon of lire and depths of tone conspire to give volume. By Turner carries us to the heart of the maelstrom. Terrifying waves of merciless nature roar across the paper. Hazy vertical marks reveal buildings into the mist.
M.M. TURNER KATSUSHIKA HOKUSAI Prolific J a p a n e s e c o l o r w o o d . Wind direction wood-block This is a colored To represent the blows lifted flowed wind.199 J. and history painter w h o s e p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t a b o v e all w a s light. Landscape a n d city life w e r e his principal subjects. W . Ship in a Storm c. painter. into this very as pressed sheet The paper's through own coior is brought banks of mist and fog. horizontally then and of the it into the stream Plants also bend and flow right to Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 1802 81/2 HOKUSAI KATSUSHIKA x 131/2 in ( 2 1 7 x 3 4 3 mm) . A outline scratched of a skeletal into penciled ship is while and the waves.b l o c kprintmaker. T U R N E R British landscape. a n d his b e s t .l o v e dw o r k s i n c l u d e 1 0 0 v i e w s o f M o u n t Fuji and 1 2 v o l u m e s o f Manga. wind.i n f l u e n c e d b y examples o f W e s t e r n art obtained through D u t c h t r a d i n g in Nagasaki. AIR IN MOTION Pencil and watercolor subdued brushed.W. leans the whole composition swells around its fateful center. including being lashed t o a ship's m a s t in o r d e r to study a storm. absorbent watercolor and are Stains of splashed. 1826 91/2 x 113/4 in ( 2 4 1 x 3 0 0 m m ) J. T h e r e a r e m a n y stories o f his p a s s i o n a t e w o r k i n g methods. T u r n e r w o r k e d in oils a n d w a t e r c o l o r s a n d s k e t c h e d c o p i o u s l y o n his travels. seascape. from left print. Hokusai direction (from clothing from has chosen which it the right). H o k u s a i in t u r n has since significantly influenced European art. d e s i g n e r a n d b o o k i l l u s t r a t o r .
as a subject and second. this is a writer's narrative of terror. EARTH AND THE VICTOR HUGO French novelist and artist (see also p. grab their b r u s h . Pen and brush Hugo drew first with pen and ink.198) admires the majesty of nature. His subjects include ruins. Leonardos Cloudburst of Material Possessions is o n e of his m o s t enigmatic and mysterious works. as a gestural storm on the paper. water. D o m e s t i c o b j e c t s we can o w n and name fall from the clouds. Le Bateau-Vision 1864 71/2 x 1 0 in ( 1 9 2 x 2 5 5 m m ) VICTOR H U G O . and tossed o b j e c t s — a perfect subject in which artists can forget themselves. with a brush. active surfaces of water. and swim into the page. drawing was Hugo's principal means o f expression. leaving nothing but a glimpse of moonlight glistening on the froth below. it is difficult to contemplate its brooding and night-soaked heart. In periods b e t w e e n writing. lines of rain escorting them to b o u n c e and clatter. or charcoal. T h e m e n a c i n g darkness of Hugo's storm b e l o w is so convincing.28). By contrast. inks. marks. composing banks of waves and dense. and t h e sea s t u d i e d f r o m his h o m e in Guernsey in t h e Channel Islands. He brings us to stare into a place that no sane human would enter. as if drawn j u s t this year. he blanketed the drawing in darkness. T h e very nature of b o t h is turmoil and an interweaving of elements. h a u n t e d shadows. this is a b o m b a r d m e n t from o u r h o m e s . Turner (see p. Opposite. ink. An update on biblical showers of fish and frogs.200 ELEMENTS Storms STORMS CAN BE SEEN and drawn in two ways: first. Then. It looks so contemporary. fantasy palaces.
It is interesting to speculate how engineering might have developed if his ideas had been shared with the world earlier Ink and chalk This is a pen and ink drawing with touches of black chalk. and they passed through private hands for 400 years before becoming widely known. He bequeathed his drawings to a friend. envisioning machines centuries before their making (helicopters and bicycles. There is a little magic in recognizing many items from our homes something like a rake. Each item that has crashed from heaven is drawn in such a way that we can feel Leonardo's nib picking it up in the speed of a doodle.LEONARDO DA VINCI Leonardo devised many artifacts of our modern lives. together with half the contents of our garage. a hook. He was left-handed and wrote backwards in Italian from left to right. and a wheel. a bell. Above and below are examples of his mirror handwriting. for example). Cloudburst of Material Possessions 1510-12 45/8 x 43/8 in ( 1 1 7 x 1 1 1 mm) L E O N A R D O DA VINCI .
she teased away fragments of paper to illuminate her view. thick. Drawing with a scalpel. Even distilled from all other detail. sea-. C L A U D E LORRAIN French classical landscape painter draftsman. Over first lines. Claude has used a fine nib to delineate segments of land as they recede into space. Views from Velletri c. his unsurpassed handling of light. Claude Lorrain drew directly on location. a horizon line can trigger our recognition. She was inspired by her research of aerial plans of London and the story of an alien map butterfly (see caption). and famed for. rich. Claude is distinguished by. rapidly layering contours to shape place. Whether land-. Nature Profiles Opposite below. watching his hand and eye at work together. and we can imagine standing over his shoulder. or cityscape. Segments The top half of the drawing is a view as we enter the valley. cooler tones receding into the distance are applied with a brush. made inside a book.1638 85/8 x 121/2 in (219 x 320 mm) CLAUDE LORRAIN . Clare Bryan took panoramic photographs of the English South Downs. and dry marks in the foreground appear to be made with his finger. and mood simultaneously. it is the unique calligraphic signature of the place in which we stand. In the lower half he has walked downhill a little. atmosphere.202 ELEMENTS THE PROFILE OF A HORIZON is a line we immediately recognize and respond to. Paler. and etcher who lived most of his life in 17th-century Rome. transferred it to a scroll. In a very different work (opposite above). and across to the right. EARTH AND THE Bryan cut the profile of a city. which he used to unify his compositions. and after tracing her captured line.
then hunted destroyed. drawings Ideas of introduction Clare Bryan to research introduced down and led NATURE PROFILES and removal historical plans and aerial growth of London showing its population since Roman times. The edges of each here) fade into the solid paper unpopulated with a scalpel landscape.203 Scalpel-drawn This book-bound drawing was inspired by the story of a foreign butterfly wrongly to Great Britain in 1912. specialty bookbinder. On turning the pages of City. Her recent paper photographic.The horizon was drawn with a City Landline 2003 271/2x 59 in (70 x 150 cm) scalpel.5-m)scroll. progressively settlement (cropped more and more paper is drawn away to show the expansion of human page of an around the river. and visiting professor at numerous art schools. source workisilluminatedby standing its lower edge on a CLARE BRYAN . printmaker graphic designer. and digital print-based works reflect upon the histories and poetry of "left behind and in-between spaces. 2001 CLARE BRYAN C L A R E BRYAN 3ritish artist." Cut line This is a small section of a preparatory 5-ft(1.
b e e c h . between your middle finger and thumb. As its name implies. only a little thicker. and offers a rich. b l a c k e r . black finish. THIN WILLOW CHARCOAL: I used a piece like this to make the drawing opposite. CHARCOAL PENCIL: Types made by different manufacturers vary in quality and density of line. feather. it is compressed and m o l d e d at high pressure. resulting in a stick that gives a blacker. 7. a n d m o r e i n d e l i b l e by soaking it in linseed oil. SQUARE COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Not often sold. 4. Smooth paper accepts few particles. LIFTING OUT This technique is a very easy method of drawing a crisp. Charcoal lifts away from paper easily with the very light touch o f an eraser. Slightly dull the tape's stickiness before use t o prevent it from lifting out more than you intend. THICK W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 2 Keep the tape above your drawing. vine. blacker. Alternatively. MEDIUM W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 5. It is also easily erased if the maker of the mark is not happy with the result. It c a n be m a d e duller. but some specialists stock compressed charcoal in delicate square sticks. 2. sticky side down. In use. Try itworking on big paper covering a wall. without touching the surface. CHALK CHARCOAL: Technically. Willow is the most c o m m o n wood. a piece of fresh bread. Use any fine-point pen or pencil (I used a ballpoint) to draw a firm line on the back of the Big pieces are perfect for very large-scale drawings—even larger than yourself. fine.54). A great find when available. cylindrical. Then lift it away. . Artists have also used lime. Essentially. the heel o f y o u r h a n d . resulting in a pale line. The same as above. white line into the blackor grayness of willow charcoal.204 E A R T H AND THE E L E M E N T S Charcoal CHARCOAL IS PRODUCED from wood baked slowly without exposure to air. Lines are achieved by d e p o s i t i n g particles in the grain o f paper. a n d p l u m .m a d e c o m p r e s s e d charcoal. Boxes often contain a range of thicknesses to choose for different needs. you can p u r c h a s e m a c h i n e . 162) or graphite (see p. 6. It does n o t erase easily. 1. 3 A white line is lifted out by the tape. or fingertip. It allows you greater precision in your mark-making than if you rub away the charcoal with an eraser. B u n d l e s o f twigs were traditionally sealed into earthenware j a r s or wet clay and heated slowly and intensely in a fire or kiln. harder line. it looks gray and feels like chalk. so it chars b l a c k as o p p o s e d to igniting a n d turning to ash. Not to be confused with square conte sticks (see p. The tip snaps easily to renew a sharp edge if required. Hold it over your drawing RANGE AVAILABLE Charcoal (in its several forms shown here) is loved or loathed by the beginner to whom it is often recommended because it produces pleasing results quickly. leaving u n d e r t r a c e s of first thoughts. tape. and heavier than willow. a rag. this does not exist. C h a r c o a l naturally glistens. COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Machine-made. maple. 3. 1 Suspend a length of masking tape. R o u g h paper c a n b e loaded. they are all intended for fine work. Beware of cheap brands selling dyed chalk as compressed charcoal.
MASKING TAPE: An invaluable resource. Lift out broader marks with a larger implement. T O R T I L L O N : This is a tight roll of paper used to blend charcoal. Use high quality (very sticky) to fix paper to walls and boards. . graphite. 8 . CHARCOAL Lifting out This detail shows an example of where I used the lifting-out technique demonstrated opposite to draw flashes of lightning against rain clouds.212-13 were made by altering the pressure applied to the charcoal. Here. Layers can be peeled away to refresh its surface. as is fresh (unbuttered!) bread. sold in several widths. or any other dry media.205 ERASING Thickly applied charcoal quickly o v e r c o m e s a plastic eraser A w a r m (soft and tacky) putty eraser is more effective. Different tones seen throughout the main drawing on pp. Cotton swabs also work. 10. pastels. 9. Use cheaper (less sticky) for lifting out. Here we used a ballpoint. PEN: Any fine pen or pencil can be used to draw on the back of masking tape when lifting out. I used a plastic eraser effectively on thinly applied charcoal.
especially when making first excursions into aerial perspective. Excessive detail can be admired for its skill and achievement. and a cushion in a plastic bag to sit on. pack your materials (as advised below) and set off for a local view or your nearest arboretum. to contain each of your compositions. When you arrive. I relaxed my eyes out of focus to dissolve distracting detail into abstract patches of light and darkness. begin by marking out several small squares on your paper. Landscape drawings are traditionally arranged in three parts: a detailed foreground.212-13).206 EARTH AND THE ELEMENTS Landscapes TREES ALONE OFFER MARVELOUS shapes to draw. our brains search for nameable things and will perceive complete pictures from very little information. the less you describe. 9 8 . Don't worry if it is cloudy: clouds add drama and perspective and make good subjects in themselves (see pp. a reel of masking tape. but is often less evocative and engaging. Then I drew the shape of the tonal patches I perceived. At its worst. The long view is hidden behind trees. Pack several thick and thin sticks of willow charcoal. Successful drawings often only suggest the qualities of the scene without overdescribing them. and an abstract. it results in flat planes of clutter.9 9 we noted that in response to visual stimulus. On p p . a less distinct middle ground composed of shapes and textures. They are also good markers of receding space. hazy distance. MATERIALS In this first view there is only a foreground and middle distance. an eraser your drawing book or a board and paper fixative (or hairspray). Ironically. This term simply means that as land rolls away into the distance. To experiment with drawing landscapes and the use of charcoal. details blur and colors grow paler and bluer. It is the visible effect of the atmosphere between where you stand and what you see in the distance. Seeing tones . the more you encourage the viewer's imagination to join in and see.
Remember. This composition turned out a little flat because I have an almost even quantity of earth and sky. Exploring the view Redrawing the scene above.207 LANDSCAPES In my second square I explored a simple view contrasting soft. dark trees with bright. rounded. the trunk of a bare tree. horizontal regions of grass. shadows. full of information you can use to create what you want! Inventing drama . and broke a view through the hedge into the distance with a dark sky threatening rain. It is better to give distinctly more pictorial space to one or the other (see below). your view is your inspiration. I have invented drama with diagonals set against each other I tilted the earth.
1 5 my first drawing of the whole view of the Tiber led me to see the real subject of the day. This first drawing serves as a process of arrival. which was the flow of water over rocks. Building on earlier studies of structure in space using shoes (pp. s e e k places in light After my first drawing. The mud of the tidal shore in Rye. so the paper is not made blinding and your hand cannot cast a shadow on your work. making the scene below led me to focus on the decaying boat opposite. your challenge now is to find a sculptural subject in the landscape.164-65) and a wire violin (pp. observing it from several views so as to better understand it as a whole. and seeing what the real choice of subject is. bare ribs. EARTH AND THE FINDING THE SUBJECT Finding a remarkable subject is even better when you can circumnavigate it in an arena of space. taking with you your drawing book and pen. settling my concentration. Similarly.208 ELEMENTS Drawing in the Round WHEN DRAWING IN THE LANDSCAPE. England has embedded within it the decaying skeleton of a burned fishing boat." . and tiller still standing proud. 2 1 4 . on p p .104-05). shade out of the glare of the sun. engine. For example. I usually begin by making an image of the whole view. Circling a subject and drawing it from several views imprints on your memory a better understanding of its three-dimensional form. "Drawing in the round means to literally walk around your subject. I am then able to home in on what interests me most for further study.
and structure. 3 This impression notes the angle of the broken boat. careful lines to establish the skeleton that gives this wreck its distinct form. W h e n you have found your subject. Overleaf: Decaying Boat 4 . looking more at the boat than at the paper From this low position I have emphasized how the boat is swallowed in mud by outlining its shadow on the ground. ROUND 2 In this tail-end view. make a series o f drawings f r o m different positions. Each n e w drawing gives a different insight. unfussy lines. I spent equal time looking at the subject and the paper. DRAWING IN THE 1 Here.209 SERIES OF STUDIES This stunning ghost o f a boat comes into v i e w t w i c e a day. character. and the order and shape of its component parts. The outline ties a shape of darkness to the boat like a weight so that it becomes part of its form. its overall balance. I drew with quick. w h e n t h e sea recedes. marking straight. I looked more boldly at the planes and the dynamic of the sculptural craft My lines have become darker and more forceful as confidence in my understanding of the vessel grew.
was made with gentle but unhesitating s p e e d . L o o k i n g b a c k and forth from the heavens to firmly taped-down paper.Cloudburst THIS STORM DRAWING.20-21) using a thin stick of willow charcoal. hot-pressed drawing p a p e r (see pp. I worked quickly to catch and weave the turbulent contrasts of rising wind and approaching water before the drawing could be washed away. m a d e on s m o o t h . .
black. shaping the city. since ancient times. focusing on the river's eddies. pulse. and rhythmic detail as it passed through the ancient gully of the city. I drew with a needle-fine fiber-tip pen. .Notes of Force T H E GREAT FLOWING TIBER RIVER has cut through Rome. pocket-sized notebook. On the pages of a small.
I used a dip pen and waterproof India ink with brushed watercolor to draw the view. . The strong diagonal of the composition from bottom left to top right carries the eye through changes of height and focus from the foreground to the mountains beyond.Mountains SITTING IN THE SHADE of a tree on the Greek island of Antiparos.
abstraction is not so easy to define. and history. ADOLF WOLFLI One of the greatest masters of Art Brut. However. As you approach the classes in this chapter. and have been making abstract drawings for centuries—Japanese calligraphy. sounds. and poetic myth roar and cascade within his tightly framed pages. expressive marks and shapes are at the core of natural. Indian mandalas. only rediscovered.8 cm) A D O L F WOLFLI Abstraction is a direct. yet my kinship to abstraction is fundamental. picturing a stabilized world was impossible and Modernism rode forth with vigor. be brave and enjoy them. Museum of Fine Arts. It is actually its foundation and its infrastructure. all pictorial representations are abstractions of reality. Outsider artists. liberating. poet. direction. My own work is firmly centered in figuration. and Aboriginal art. precisely because it does not have to represent a physical object. Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape 1915 413/8 x 285/8 in (105 x 72. Swirling. From another viewpoint. . writhing torrents of color. Many concepts and feelings can only be expressed through marks. writer and composer who suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and was resident in the Waldau Aslyum near Berne. Not everything we know has a physical form in the world. He made thousands of drawings to chronicle his complex life. many nonWestern cultures have highly sophisticated abstractions at the core of their art. The fate of Old World thinking was finally sealed with the brutality of World War I. actions. or gestures. and emotion.Abstract Lines T HE DEVELOPMENT OF W E S T E R N abstract art at the beginning of the 20th century significantly paralleled major changes in world thought. His drawings are collected and exhibited internationally and held by the Adolf Wolfli Foundation. From one point of view. Artists were given a different tool—a line threaded directly from their subconscious to their hand—and with it they began to map a bold new landscape of marks and concepts that would dramatically and forever change the face of Western art. which are essentially abstract. opposite. First marks. it is simply itself. for example. It also underpins and gives strength and unity to all figurative work. and young children show us that abstract. don't be timid. and it has always been with us. spontaneous image-making. Wolfli was a Swiss draftsman. Perhaps in Western culture we bred this intuitive freedom out of ourselves in our insistence on complex figuration. It was not invented in the 20th century. such as Adolf Wolfli. The growing rise of Darwinian ideas coupled with Freudian and Marxist perspectives forced Western society to reconsider its origins and future. strike the paper to find form. Afterward. Berne. People are often scared by abstraction and see it as the enemy of figurative art. Internal workings of the mind were suddenly free to find a new language of expression. drawn sound. fictional language. An abstract mark is often a better conductor of a thought or feeling. and independent means of communication. I begin every image by feeling its meaning. belief.
The Physical Space 1990 3 0 x 30 ft ( 9 1 4 x 9 1 4 cm) MAMORU ABE . sit in silent harmony. Five forged steel shapes. silence. or. This the paper rest within the amplifies framelike of the floor from the ceiling.220 A B S T R A C T LINES Process and Harmony SOMETIMES A DRAWN LINE sings on the surface of its support. It can proclaim mood. akin to stones in a Zen garden. and plaster in galleries and landscapes. staining redbrown lines into the white surface. it can keep reforming through the inherent repetition of a process. Sometimes it smolders like a deep shadow. Moisture produced rust. iron. water. forged steel. Damp Japanese paper was laid over carefully arranged iron bars. and Assistant Professor of Fine A r t at Fukuoka University. quoting ink marks on a page. MAMORU ABE Japanese sculptor and installation artist. rhythmically engaged with itself. Mamoru Abe prepares an image that will appear through the chemistry of iron. Changes paper. scrolling across the canvas in an intimate crescendo. A line can be finished in a second. Lines. and temperature rim of floor space. Iron rods in tone. texture. and texture their bracing separation reaching between from beneath Pillars of the gallery are made part of this drawing by their inclusion in the paper. Twombly's mesmeric wax line worked over house paint is like a signature. and patient watching. tone. He travels widely to research ancient sacred sites. and sensitivity with its thickness and pressure of touch. as Twombly shows us opposite. salt. and wood are also part of the work. ice. A Neolithic chalk tablet bears cut lines that were slowly carved. Below. brass. Abe works with materials such as soil. Abe's physical drawing is a sculptural installation.
Twombly was presented with a Golden Lion award for lifetime achievement. energetic. theories suggest astrological observations. the Babylonian world map. and the worship of the sun and ancient gods. burials. and Untitled 1970 Here we might seek to grasp letters in the turning of his line. and sensuous drawing from painting. such as the Rosetta stone. CY TWOMBLY . Twombly has language works CY TWOMBLY Contemporary American artist who emerged through the 1950s New York art scene in the heyday of Abstract Expressionism and Action Painting. At the 2001 Venice Biennale.England.000-2. that challenges the separation of word from image. evolved a raw. This example is one of two chalk tablets found in a Late-Neolithic pit. The central pictorial space is also similarly cut and divided by the considered arrangement of straight lines. emotive. and American Indian petroglyphs (see p. PROCESS AND HARMONY Cut lines Chalk carves easily. close to Stonehenge in Wiltshire. Precise lines suggest the use of a sharp flint The framed rectangle of this image is echoed in that of Abe's installation.221 ANCIENT CARVINGS Many ancient cultures have made and left behind drawings and texts carved into stones or animal bone. Many of his graffiti-like combine abstract gestures with statements.Thesite's purpose is unknown. Neolithic Chalk Tablet 3.241).400BCE 21/4 x 21/4 in (58 x 58 mm) ARTIST UNKNOWN Language Over the course of fifty years.
drawing here can b e described in t e r m s o f a G e r m a n philosophical idea a b o u t is t h e i n s t a n t r e c o g n i t i o n t h e p o w e r o f m o m e n t .28. broke new ground in the 1950s with graphic scores now considered among the most extreme. have striven to break down old pictorial and musical structures to explore new and unfettered modes of expression. Both abstract drawing and composition involve the perfect sequencing of sounds and marks against space and silence. opposite. interpret. and inventive of his time. music manuscript requiring instrumentalists to improvise. brushed night skies over them with ink then lifted the disks to reveal white moons. abstract. Similarity in gritty texture suggests that here. and lifted them away to leave impressions of watery planets and seas. a configuration. Gestalt. and let the drying meniscus deposit granules in linear drifts such as we would see in the satellite photographic mapping of rivers. abstract artists and composers unique." An innovator who never fails to surprise. o f t e n e x p r e s s e d in v i s u a l t e r m s . The scores are also exhibited in galleries as visual art. here he anticipates abstract expressionism by 100 years. Hugo. Here he appears t o have saturated the cut-out moon disks with gritty pigment. Ink impressions When drawing nightscapes Hugo often laid paper disks in place of the moon. Bussotti. pressed them face down. Texture Compare this drawing to Hugo's octopus on p. o r a pattern o f elements s o unified as a w h o l e t h e y c a n n o t b e e x p l a i n e d asa s u m o f parts. said. A graphic score is a V I C T O R H U G O Hugo's abstract French novelist w h o m a d e m a n y drawings in m i x e d m e d i a ( s e e also p. he mixed graphite into ink. His drawing writes the time of its own physical process by expressing the extreme concentration of the moment in which it was made. and participate in the composition. Gestalt o f an unnameable thing.222 ABSTRACT LINES Writing Time SINCE THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY.28). beautiful. Marks across the center appear to be made with his fingers. "There is nothing like dream to create the future. Two Impressions Paper 1853-55 VICTOR HUGO Disk from a Cut-Out . below. too.
Following the notes. Circular Score for "Due Voci" c. 1958 SYLVANO BUSSOTTI . Compare this work to that of Libeskind on p.223 W R I T I N G TIME SYLVANO BUSSOTTI Italian avant-garde composer and principal 20thcentury exponent of the graphic score. we can feel their rhythm and easily attach sounds to them. Sound and rhythm This flickering rondo of sound written in pen on a hand-ruled stave can be heard in our imaginations as much as seen. Bussotti's first mature work. a far cry from any recognized musical notation. This is a page from Due Voci. His later works become increasingly abstract. 70 in relation to Bussotti's clustered notes to the left of his rondo and open space to the right.
T h e s e p h o t o g r a p h s d o c u m e n t the meditative drawings o f two w o m e n living worlds apart in different countries.228-29) has been adjusted with each movement of the rags to draw a cosmos of balance and perfection. they m a k e a visual a n d physical e c h o that t o u c h e s s o m e deep part of the human spirit. Compositional rightness (see pp. MARIE LIEB Little is known of this w o m a n for w h o m the act of drawing was essential. This takes a form in most cultures. In the late 1 9 t h century. d i p p i n g h e r fingers into a pot o f rice flour. an a n o n y m o u s w o m a n in the southeast Indian state o f Tamil Nadu m a k e s a ritual drawing o n the b r i c k courtyard o f h e r h o m e . Cell Floor With Torn Strips of Cloth 1894 MARIE LIEB . It will protect the place from evil and make a pleasing invitation to good spirits.224 A B S T R A C T LINES Chants and Prayers WHEN ABSTRACT LINES are organized in repetition. She tore c l o t h into strips a n d used these to draw patterns a n d symbols o n h e r cell floor. making objects and images outside o f mainstream culture. O p p o s i t e . Marie Lieb w a s a psychiatric patient in the Heidelberg Asylum. Lieb is one o f countless thousands of "Outsider" artists—diverse individuals including ordinary citizens. social outcasts. it is found in the regularity o f ordered lines or a pattern. Cloth is the simple instrument with which she has conducted and ordered her universe. for e x a m p l e . and sufferers of psychiatric illnesses—who have always existed. and c i r c u m s t a n c e s . centuries. Germany. cultures. Visually. In music it can be felt in the diversity of plainsong and African d r u m m i n g . Torn cloth This is one of two published photographs showing Marie Leib's torn cloth strips significantly placed on her cell floor.
and birds.225 STEPHEN P. lecturer on the subjects of Indian art and Indian women's identity. women pride themselves on never repeating a design.000 images. chalk. or flowers are marked or arranged on the ground or on the walls of homes. cultural anthropologist. Huyler is the author of Painted Prayers. among others. Motifs are geometrical or based on plants. lime. Designs and motifs Rangoii (or mandalas) are ritual drawings made by many millions of women across rural India. In daily practice.HUYLER Photographer art historian. animals. Popular magazines feature new ideas each week and on special occasions there may be contests. Materials such as rice flour. at the University of London and Ohio State University. and in places of worship and celebration. Skills are handed down through generations and from friend to friend.Theseare widely published in journals and are the subjects of international exhibitions. Painted Prayers UNDATED STEPHEN R HUYLER . and for over 30 years has traveled extensively through the Indian subcontinent creating an edited archive of 200.
BRIAN CATLING British sculptor poet. Catling's abstract drawings are usually made in series and in parallel to written poetry and sculptural installations. structure. but similarities in mood. With no depth of field. Oval moons eclipse each other and oscillate between landforms and portraiture. gold paint and iridescent gouache mixed with water. Untitled 2001 2001 153/4x 215/8 in ( 4 0 0 x 550 mm) BRIAN C A T L I N G . Their energy can therefore be a purer expression of an idea or emotion. it is ruled and contained in one dimension by its interlocking ink-lined borders. These two works present complex compositions with differing intensions and methods of making. Ruskin School. Mixed media This is a collage of torn white and gray tissue paper previously stained with ink. and water-resistant layers of spray and enamel paint on thick paper. Oxford. Catling's torn paper shapes and shadows spill light out of their frame like a fractured mirror. and choice of hues. free from the direct imaging of known physical things. figurative representation—that is. rocks or heads in a subdued atmosphere of dream. and Fellow of Linacre College. Klee's mathematical maze of thinly washed surface resonates with meticulous planning. filmmaker Professor of Fine Art. performance and installation artist. They each find their pathways and equilibrium in atmosphere and suggestion. Catling's works made for international galleries and museums involve drawing as a tool in their development and making.226 ABSTRACT LINES Compositions ABSTRACT DRAWINGS ARE LARGELY or entirely free from using the viewer's eye to track and unfold layers of meaning.
He explained his polyphonic painting as "a harmony of several color voices" searching for a visual parallel to music.97-99. Klee also felt that a line represents the passing of time.227 PAUL K L E E Swiss painter and sculptor (see also p. ruler. and wrote copiously about the natures and relationships of color and form. It is a geometric harmony of straight lines and tonally graded flat colors that by their arrangement draw our eyes inward to their white center. Geometric harmony This is a work on paper made with a sharp ink pen. philosophized. Kunstmuseum Bern PAUL KLEE . Polyphon Gefasstes Weiss (White Framed Polyphonically) 1930 131/8x95/8 in (333 x 245 mm) Paul-Klee-Stiftung. Line and surface Klee observed the visual capacity of lines to push or pull within an image. and brush.31). Klee painted. We can see some diagrammatic examples of this among the optical illusions on pp. whereas tonal surfaces are perceived more immediately as a whole. watercolor. and might be read as active or passive. drew.
"I have experimented endlessly with this idea. w i l l c h a n g e w i t h e v e r y r e a r r a n g e m e n t . for instance. a b u n c h of keys. angles. the late garden designer Russell Page explains. media. but an easy o n e to u n d e r s t a n d . s o m e will be more or less h a r m o n i o u s . culture. the impression y o u receive from t h e m . It is found in all great art and design. b u t e v e r y n o w a n d again you will hit on an arrangement w h i c h appears just. Take. or degree of figuration. their impact. Set up a sheet of paper with a rectangle drawn on it. M a n y of their inter-relationships will be meaningless. Seek it when looking at other artists' work and in your everyday environment. As y o u m o v e them around. It is also found in nature. and put them o n a tray. There is a single m o m e n t w h e n all proportions. after being continuously adjusted. a glass. and elements settle in definitive balance.228 ABSTRACT LINES Being "Just" A SENSE OF "JUST" (or rightness) is a difficult concept to explain. there is a clear feeling when. This balance is what every artist and designer searches a n d feels for when making an image." . Feel for it when youdraw.Thisexercise will help you start. or on a page. W h e n m o v i n g objects around in your yard. regardless of style. they reach a perfect position. "Whenall pictorial elements come together in pleasing and perfect balance. and an apple. or home. In his b o o k The Education of a Gardener." SETTING UP Justness can be harmonious or deliberately discordant. and ten straight sticks painted black. they are just.
Feel for the rightness of their grouping and their relationships to surrounding spaces. making the composition seem to float beneath. .229 WHERE TO START Take ten sticks of equal length. A stick touching the rectangle links the composition to the frame. W h e n the composition falls into place. Within a rectangle on a flat sheet of paper set about making a composition using no other rule than a sense of "just.56-57). horizontals dominate the lower area. suggesting a horizon. fix it with glue. Arrange them so they touch or cross in a series of intersecting balances. B E I N G "JUST" 1 Arrange your ten sticks in t w o groups of five. painted black. as shown here. 2 3 In the step above. Remember the drawn rectangle is a part of the composition (see pp. horizontals dominate the top." Move the sticks to find alignments and imagined perspectives. In the final step (left) there is an even balance. Here. Move the sticks out into the rectangle. which now becomes a tight frame.
stain and dry a sheet of tissue paper using blueink. scissors.228-29).." (Russell Page) . which is the shifting. and tones. he went on to say ". Images and fragments torn from day-to-day life can be brought together to make a chorus of ideas and emotions. correction fluid or white paint. or discordance. To prepare for this lesson." overlapping placement of materials on a flat plane. glue. "My understanding is that every object [or shape] emanates—sends out vibrations beyond its physical body which are specific to itself. you start composing by adding or subtracting shapes and textures and using colors and tones to achieve the impression you want to m a k e — w h e t h e r dramatic or s u b d u e d . a compass. harmonious.Youwill also need spare white paper. or even strident. colors and textures can be manipulated until their pictorial harmony. and black ink. found or made items. Collage offers the artist a liberating palette of SETTING UP This lesson in collage is a direct continuation of the compositional lines made in the previous class. Cut or torn layers and shapes.230 ABSTRACT LINES Collage H E R E W E EXPERIMENT with collage.69 and Abe's installation on p. hard or soft. colors. This principal also applies to three-dimensional drawings such as Gaudi's work with wire and weights on p.. an infinite range of voices and meaning. they become a scaffold for the addition of further textures.220. feels "just" (see pp. Once the ten painted black sticks are set and glued in place. ready-made depths and surfaces. Returning to Russell Page.
solidity. Obscuring the blue disks.231 WHAT TO DO Lay the final step of the previous lesson (p.228) in front of you. four circles of blue tissue paper. This can also give a sense of fragmentation or punctuation to the composition. draw. then cut out. and with a compass and scissors.The single disk that is folded with its straight edge facing up appears heavier than those that are flat. they deepen pictorial space. In the last step (left). Glue them in place once they feel "just" Translucent circular disks of tissue paper give color tone. Cut six small rectangles the same proportion as your whole image. 2 3 Torn white paper moved over the surface adds masks of rough-edged irregular volume. and shadow to thepicture. COLLAGE 1 Regular-sized pieces of white paper are moved over the surface to disrupt the even lines. . correction fluid and ink marks add further dimensions.
" [Tanchu Terayama. A MODERN JAPANESE meditative art form inspired by the teachings of Yamaoka Tesshu (1836-1888). Hitsuzendo drawings aspire to "breathe with the energy and vitality of eternal life" achieved through "a state of no mind—beyond thought.Zen Calligraphy HITSUZENDO. is the practice of Zen through the calligraphic marks of a brush dipped in carbon ink. Zen Brushwork]. and expectation. . emotion.
. These vibrate against washes of shadow and pitch-black mass. I flicked spatters of ink and rubbed the paper with a wet and a dry brush to achieve these effects. discord is balanced against rhythm to create mood.Nocturnes IN THIS QUARTET of semi-abstract drawings made with India ink. Lines made with a steel dip pen take on a scratchy nervousness.
or in smoke.Gods and Monsters OUR SACRED AND SECULAR need to visualize demons. Star Wars. our eye circulates around a flutter of leather and scaly wings. or strange. a collaboration between the two will ensure that your drawings glow with originality. look for images in the folds of clothing. We then add substances we dislike: unidentified fluids. Neither should be slave or master. which were widely distributed and influential in his time. angels. a human-animal mix that implies this could MARTIN SCHONGAUER German painter and engraver who settled to work in Colmar Alsace. Throughout this book images are presented to excite and surprise and drawing classes created to increase your confidence. and damnation are found in most world faiths. our literate and more secular Western society still hungers for another world and to ravenously indulge its fascination for the marvelous. Depictions of God or of gods in the contexts of daily life. serpentine tails. Here. happen to us. impossible. Reading the place name I momentarily glimpsed an alternative meaning. thousands of paintings. In the Christian churches of Europe. beasts. in the cracks of walls. and stained-glass windows deliver powerful visual sermons to the once-illiterate populace. which is to have eaten a nun—it inspired the drawing on p. Be inspired by the irrational comedy of word association or puns. all of which originated as hundreds of drawings. The salvation of heaven and terrors of hell are represented equally—enough to make any sinner shudder. Monsters take advantage of both. Schongauer is best known for his prints. aliens. movie studios now brim with as many monsters as the visual art of the Medieval and Renaissance Church. and the Alien trilogy. for example. paradise. Lord of the Rings. and deep fur—and we alter their scale. When creating monsters. Images we are now surrounded by bear testimony to the power and resourcefulness of their collective imagination. wings. sculptures. We love our fear of the hybrid—ideally. and the faces of God have for centuries given artists a feast for the extremes of their imagination. feathers. For example. a Catherine wheel of drawn sparks spiraling around the quietly resolute saint. Feeding this demand. I was on a train passing through Nuneaton. We watch with captivated pleasure movies such as The Fly.247. England. Fantasy is most successful when founded on strong and familiar visual logic. Humans are equally troubled by the imperceptibly small and the enormous. To learn to flex your imagination. Perhaps the Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 1485 121/4 x 9 in (312 x 230 mm) MARTIN SCHONGAUER most important conclusion in this final chapter is to advise you to develop your skills in parallel with the joy of your unfolding imagination. scales. Today. we select details of animals farthest from ourselves and that are widely thought disturbing—reptilian and insect features. .
and church murals. noisy seascape on p. reading from a book of asses. In this ass. quoting great paintings and popular culture to add cunning twists to his satires. Many students leave white backgrounds in their work. which can swamp the subject Here. and exposed the superstitions. such asinine behavior can be hereditary.240 GODS AND M O N S T E R S Marks of Influence marking the influence of one artist upon another. He would be graceless if he stood. This continuity enriches the making of art and our heritage. and men clubbing each other to death. Visions experienced in front of the drawing sometimes instruct the making of a new one. The title "And So Was His Grandfather" adds that should we not already know. his lover a dog. whose impassioned work begins with light tapestry cartoons. rushing. Goya later recorded the horrors of Napoleonic occupation. This act defines the vision and continues the line of spirit guides. vanity. Opposite. Los Caprichos. Pictorially. it allows the mule to stand forward. Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 1799 81/2 x 6 in (218 x 154 mm) FRANCISCO DE GOYA . we see the international icon of stupidity. plain wall suggests a blinkered view of nothing. a wave to join Achilles' chase of Hector. Paul Thomas's studies of Picasso and Twombly can be traced directly. The well-dressed mule is cumbersome. barren land rising like MYRIAD CHAINS RUN THROUGH ART HISTORY. to Picasso's similarly tight. They depict as if by lamplight the devil and witches.30. Compare his dark.220. crammed tightly at his desk. below. portraits. Other drawn versions of this image are more savage and frightening. Near the end of his life he made his "Black Paintings" on the walls of his home. In this softer aquatint he poses for his portrait Textured background The aquatint process has been used to great effect in making a gritty toned background. deranged masses. and follies of court through copious graphic works including his best-known prints. Francisco de Goya was a master of borrowing. The high. hags. a Shoshone seeking guidance and power meditates at the sacred site of a petroglyph. Aquatint Goya has drawn a learned man as an ass. Violent white marks symbolizing Achilles' rage resonate with the energy of Twombly's script on p. Opposite below. Saturn devouring his son. Goya's plainly textured gray background pushes back the space behind the illuminated simply subject. F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A Spanish court painter printmaker and draftsman.
and personal and social struggles. Parallel lines within the body of the figure are likely to denote power. values.241 MARKS OF INFLUENCE PAUL T H O M A S British contemporary artist whose epic graphic work questions and reflects upon issues of European identity. Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range UNDATED ARTIST UNKNOWN . Achilles Chases Hector 1996 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) PAUL THOMAS SHOSHONE PETROGLYPH The Shoshone people of Wyoming name petroglyph sites Poha Kahni. Wind River Reservation. of the earth. Simple wall stones cleverly state their cold solidity while also fading from our attention as the scene roars by. Wyoming. Thomas conducts his explorations in the mine of Greek and Roman mythology. perhaps a stone." Each sacred image drawn into rock belongs to one of three realms in the Shoshone world: the realm of the sky. by a supplicant in a trance of meditation. meaning "place of power. or of the water Chipped image This is a sacred creature of the sky chipped onto rock at Dinwoody Lake. White marks like flashes of light are cut though graphite with an eraser to reveal the paper beneath. ideals. Graphite marks Here Achilles chases Hector around the walls of Troy before killing him. A vivid spectrum of energized graphite marks and a masterly composition give this drawing vitality and speed. It was made with a sharp implement.
Our subconscious can be drawn with pleasure and ease. Redon's eyeball balloon rises up. Redon lifted them out with some sort of eraser. The monsters of Bosch grew from his observations of beggars going about their trade in 15th. graphic artist. Here we see how he evolved their injuries into new limbs and warped proportions. They float toward us like a horrid visitation. Children are also delighted to invent a monster or ghoul. Redon explored the darker side of the human imagination through symbols and mysticism. and scuttle over all known reality. 115. The Eye Like a Strange Mounts Balloon 165/8 x131/8in (422 x 332 mm) ODILON REDON 1882 Toward Infinity . we see parallel slanting pale marks that might have been made with fresh bread—a very effective eraser used before the wide availability of rubber or plastic.242 MONSTERS of the unknown is a classical and constant occupation for the artist. as he did the grass. GODS AND Erasure In this charcoal drawing. which sometimes—half-dressed and carrying a familiar trophy— stride. We may feel safe so long as the eye looks heavenward. and writer In contrast t o the light and visual accent of contemporary Impressionism.204-05 will enable you to produce a similar effect of white lines shining out of dark charcoal. crawl.and 16th-century Holland. If it were to turn and stare this way. lifting its cranial passenger over a seascape of repose. T H E EXPLORATION AND DEPICTION Hauntings Grandville has drawn a scurrying zoo of half-known demons and animals that appear to have been stolen from the glass eye of the microscope. the writers Joris-Karl Huysmans and Stephane Mallarme. ODILON REDON French painter draftsman. to the right of the balloon. Compare worked textures throughout the whole of this image to those found throughout Anita Taylor's charcoal drawing on p. Lifting out Fine strings of the hot-air balloon appear dark against the sky and light against the balloon. H e was influenced by his friends. the shock would be extreme. below left. Techniques demonstrated on pp.
include The Haywain. and he illustrated the Fables of La Fontaine and Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe. Most of his work is in the Prado Museum. Smiling. teeming with the exhilaration of unrestrained fantasy. This image is from one of Grandville's best-known publications. Quill and ink This typical Bosch monster is a quill drawing in bistre ink The phrasing of light and contour here is masterly. Two Monsters UNDATED 45/8 x61/2in (117 x 163 mm) HIERONYMUS BOSCH . which is still available today. Light shines from the right.243 J E A N I G N A C E ISIDORE GERARD ("GRANDVILLE") French graphic artist and political satirist. 1840 61/8 x41/2in ( 1 5 5 x 1 1 5 mm) GRANDVILLE HIERONYMUS BOSCH Dutch painter Bosch's highly detailed iconographic religious panel paintings. His other major works include Metamorphoses du Jour (1828). The quality of the line is therefore uniform throughout. Madrid. Garden of Earthly Delights. A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects c. grimacing. Les Animaux (1840). sucker-faced creatures dash and trundle toward it They are drawn solidly to emphasize their earthbound weight. Comic little headbands of waving hair express more hysteria than fear. Last Judgment. and Ship of Fools. HAUNTINGS Engraving This is an engraving made so that Grandville's original drawing could be reproduced.
and engineer Among Michelangelo's great works are the painted ceiling and altar wall of the Sistine Chapel. pinnacled. David. Grimes' delicately cavorting figures dive into and consume each other. lion. In her studio. and marble sculptures including Pieto. Grimes found the genesis of her beast not among animals. she formed a series of ghostly pale. muscular tension is carved out of the paper using layered. the dome of the Vatican. Michelangelo's dragon. topple. but in the seductive landscape of Leonardo da Vinci's oil painting Madonna of the Rocks. sometimes artists purposefully tie a knot in the configuration to disturb. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI Florentine painter sculptor. Chalk and ink A quill dipped in brown ink was worked over black chalk on this reused sheet. A snake eating its own tail is a universal image of the eternal and continuous. remembering the cavernous. architect. His entire drawing wrestles and weaves the viewer's eye into its retracting folds. and dog. as we might expect. hatched lines. Opposite.244 GODS AND MONSTERS Convolutions THESE CONVOLUTED DRAWINGS were made almost 5 0 0 years apart. Dragon 1522 10 x 133/8 in ( 2 5 4 x 3 3 8 m m ) MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI . St Peter's square. and mist-swathed land. Scaly. Two previously drawn faces become humorous antagonists to the beast. and dying slaves. gamboling copulations. wraps and coils its lithe body ready to strike or whimper at a touch. snake. They share between them the pleasures of inventing a hybrid beast. a stunning hybrid of a swan. poet. phrased over the contours of form and bridging darker areas of shadow. However. below. and play with its perfection and meaning.
details evolved slowly using a drier brush. Ink-wash delicately gouache (smooth) and gouache brushed drawing on This is a and was hot-pressed Shadows The dark shadow of the Other the ink-wash earth was made with a brushstroke of ink laid into wet paper.245 CONVOLUTIONS O O N A GRIMES British contemporary artist and professor of printmaking at the Ruskin School. each one iridescent and crumbly like a weathered while oyster. It is one of a series of fragile earth figures inspired by rocks. How Clever of God #84 2002 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) O O N A GRIMES . London. her under heavy here. London. Grimes exhibits internationally and features in the collections of the New York Public Library and the Victoria and Albert Museum. Oxford. The image formed directly without first making a pencil outline. and the Camberwell and Slade Schools of Fine Art. The large space around figure has been cropped Grimes drawings to flatten presses them. boards finished paper.
13. Slightly less flexible than the squirrel-hair sword liner 9.Theyhold plenty of ink and make continuous. M T RA S AEIL . SYNTHETIC-HAIR LINER: This brush gives a medium line and is firm with a spring to the touch. 12. Always clean them thoroughly. SYNTHETIC-HAIR S W O R D LINER: A lining brush with high ink-holding capacity and a fine point. 2. and has a fine tip for detailed work. Shorter brushes designed for other purposes run out of ink more quickly. Soaps purchased from good art supply stores will gently cleanse particles of pigment that become trapped in the hairs or ferrule. 7. LARGER JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with natural hair held in a plastic ferrule on a bamboo handle. This brush has a broad wash capability and can achieve a very wide range of marks. SABLE-HAIR RIGGER: Made with very long kolinsky sable hairs. ideally suited to drawing. all perfect for drawing and. How you care for your brushes will determine how long they last. and effects. and writers. fingers. dense. this brush has a soft drawing tip and small ink-holding capacity. SYNTHETIC-HAIR BRUSH: Bound in a synthetic ferrule with good inkholding capacity and good spring and control. the very opposite of pencil or silver point. and wrist into a fluid and soft touch. POINTED SQUIRREL-HAIR MOP: With a synthetic quill ferrule and extra high inkholding capacity." 6. SABLE-HAIR LINER: Made with ordinary sable hair surrounding an extralong. 3. shape. thicknesses. Some are bold. materials. and very fine lines. return them to their pointed shape. JAPANESE PAINTING BRUSH: Made with natural hair. ink-laden tip allow an expression that is beyond the linear. needle-sharp center of kolinsky red sable hair. Suitable for wash techniques but also capable of very fine detail. Brushes vary in size. between them. and texture. it has good inkholding capacity and is very flexible. SQUIRREL-HAIR S W O R D LINER:This brush has a maximum ink-holding capacity and an extremely fine and flexible point 8. 1. washes. SMALL JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with sable hair. with a fine point for delicate work 4. making rt ideally suited to Japanese painting and small-scale calligraphy. liners.246 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brushes T H E BRUSH IS A VOLUPTUOUS and delicate weights. giving a variety of lines. and hold prodigious weights of ink or paint. S Y N T H E T I C . it has good wash capabilities. L A R G E R S Y N T H E T I C . drawing tool extending the arm.H A I R RIGGER: Made with long synthetic hair for fine-point work It has a good ink-holding capacity and is slightly more resilient than sable hair with more "snap. It is capable of very fine pointing. Some used by master calligraphers are 2-3 in (5-8 cm) in diameter 11. This design supplies the fine tip with a long continuity of ink 5. It has exceptional painting characteristics. flowing. P O I N T E D T R A D I T I O N A L WRITER: The ferrule is made from a small duck quill. It is still relatively small in the total range of Japanese brushes. The living marks of a wet. 10. The brushes shown here are a mixture of This is a selection of riggers.H A I R LINER: Very responsive oriental-style liner This to the touch. and never leave them standing on their tip in a jar of water. which holds long sable hair This brush holds large amounts of ink for long lines and points well for detailed work. others are as fine as a whisker with a gentle touch.
247 BRUSHES .
the degree of pressure applied. the speed of the s t r o k e . softness.) I . unglazed earthenware dish. length. Here I drew with a soft Japanese painting brush (see pp. and to make pools and stains o n the page. splashes. w i t h m y face close. and spatters. I rubbed a block of Chinese ink (see p. and above all w h e t h e r the b r u s h is saturated with pigment or relatively dry. and type of its hairs. It also depends on the angle at w h i c h it is held. b l o w i n g h a r d o n t h e m several t i m e s t o disperse t h e ink ( c l o s e y o u r eyes if y o u t r y this.246-47). A single brush has almost balletic potential to draw fine or undulating lines and curves. the texture and a b s o r b e n c y of the paper ( w h i c h m a y be d a m p or dry).248 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brush Marks A S I N G L E BRUSH will m a k e an e n o r m o u s range of m a r k s depending u p o n the width.35) into two tablespoons of water in a shallow. I had left the end of the ink block in the water overnight to make it easier to dissolve. SETTING UP Blowing spots T h e s e t h r e e s p i d e r y c r e a t u r e s (above right and below) w e r e m a d e by d r o p p i n g s p o t s o f ink f r o m a b r u s h o n t o t h e p a g e and.
. a n d t h e w a y it d i s t r i b u t e s w h e n t h e b r u s h is d a b b e d o n its s i d e . t h e effects of the b r u s h r u n n i n g o u t o f ink. a n d b r u s h . b l e e d i n g f r o m strokes b e l o w left.249 Gritty texture T h e details o f t h e largest creatures b e l o w and opposite s h o w the granular texture of Chinese b l o c k ink. BRUSH MARKS Wet and dry strokes A m o n g these concentrated drawings ink made into with the same w a t e r y lines. w e see fine lines and s p o t s .
. I borrowed small and fragile specimens from the University Museum of Natural History. and used their detail to draw new creatures that might at first seem familiar.Monsters THESE LITTLE CREATURES o f i n k and i n v e n t i o n were b o r n out of animal and bird studies. Oxford. until we look again.
formal composition. . thin works made by Bartolome Murillo in Seville about 120 years earlier. With further research. I found relationships between all four paintings in terms of shapes. They are a pair and hang opposite each other. Among his "Black Paintings" in the Prado Museum. Madrid. Isidore. Through studying and drawing these great paintings I have discovered that they are based on a pair of similarly long. Goya often invented his monsters out of characters seen in other painters' works. two of my own drawings show you how Goya's devil (below) is based on the shape of Murillo's boy on a horse (top right). showing us that gallery study is not just for the student and beginner. Here. and narrative twists.Goya's Monsters W I T H CUNNING BRILLIANCE. are two long. thin works titled The Witches' Sabbath and The Procession of St. Goya's witches have been literally drawn and evolved out of the shapes of Murillo's prophet and pilgrims.
little comments on politeness and sexual politics.Consumed THIS IS A SERIES OF CARTOONS I m a d e s o m e years ago. drawn rapidly and with great joy. . Sometimes drawings come out of nowhere and surprise even the artist.
F r o m t h e French v e r b coller. Calligraphy Beautiful h a n d w r i t i n g . o r o t h e r (usually large) w o r k — s e e Pouncing. o f t e n d i s t o r t e d forms and vivid colors. A l s o c a l l e d t h e h o r i z o n line. Fauvism A n early 2 0 t h . R o u g h p a p e r is m a d e b e t w e e n t w o blankets t h a t . Contre jour A F r e n c h t e r m m e a n i n g " a g a i n s t day. Air brush A mechanical. a r e r o l l e d t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders. s u c h as a s c r e e n . A h u m o r o u s d r a w i n g o r parody. usually at a n a c u t e angle t o t h e s u r f a c e . A l s o called r i n g l e t shading. Engraving 1. Composition T h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e p a r t s o f an i m a g e t o m a k e u p the whole. 2. Crosshatching Parallel lines d r a w n across o n e a n o t h e r at right angles. as o p p o s e d t o t h e s t r a i g h t e d g e o f a sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has b e e n machine-trimmed. Acid-free paper P a p e r w i t h a neutral p H t h a t will n o t darken o r d e t e r i o r a t e excessively w i t h age. Eye level T h e i m a g i n a r y h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e a t t h e s a m e h e i g h t as t h e a v e r a g e p e r s o n ' s eyes. Blotting T h e use o f a b s o r b e n t m a t e r i a l t o lift a w a y excess liquid. Ferrule T h e s h o r t m e t a l t u b e t h a t s u r r o u n d s a n d g n p s t h e hairs o f a p a i n t b r u s h a n d fixes t h e m t o t h e brush handle. A g e n e r a l t e r m t h a t describes t h e various processes o f c u t t i n g a design i n t o a plate o r b l o c k o f m e t a l o r w o o d . Conservation grade D e s c r i b e s a range o f materials t h a t d o n o t d e c a y and cannot be broken d o w n by insects. in w h i c h t h e subject's distinctive features o r peculiarities are deliberately exaggerated f o r c o m i c o r g r o t e s q u e effect. w h e n v i e w e d f r o m a specified point. Blending M e r g i n g t w o o r m o r e neighboring colors o r tones t o g e t h e r using a tortillon. See also Hotpressed papers. t o g e t h e r w i t h a t h i c k felt b l a n k e t T h e w h o l e s a n d w i c h o f l a y e r s is t h e n railed t h r o u g h t h e press t o m a k e a p r i n t D r y p o i n t is a very portable and immediate m e t h o d o f printmaking. A " s h a l l o w d e p t h o f field" m e a n s t h e p i c t u r e appears t o have only a shallow s p a c e inside i t Diffuse T o s o f t e n o r m a k e less brilliant. pastel. written with a broad-nibbed pen o r brush. Anamorphic distortion Stretching an i m a g e across a p i c t u r e surface so t h a t it can o n l y b e u n d e r s t o o d . a n d given t h e n a m e Sho. m e a n i n g " t o stick" Dry media M e d i a t h a t a r e n o t w e t o r o i l y — f o r e x a m p l e . Field In a t w o ." D e s c r i b e s a p a i n t i n g in w h i c h t h e light s o u r c e is b e h i n d t h e s u b j e c t F o r e x a m p l e . T h e m o v e m e n t was started by a g r o u p o f French artists including H e n r i Matisse. C o p p e r p l a t e engravings w e r e widely used t o r e p r o d u c e images b e f o r e p h o t o g r a p h y . Collage C o l l e c t e d materials such as c o l o r e d p a p e r s . chance mark-making. Fixative Liquid acrylic resin a n d l a c q u e r t h i n n e r usually a p p l i e d as a n a e r o s o l s p r a y m i s t t o t h e surface o f a d r y .c e n t u r y painting m o v e m e n t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e use o f b o l d . in w h i c h parts o f an image are depicted v e r y brightly and dramatically against d a r k n e s s . r a t h e r t h a n r e c o r d e d o n a film o r plate. R e m b r a n d t is a great master o f chiaroscuro. 2. t h e field is t h e a p p a r e n t a n d b e l i e v a b l e space inside t h e p i c t u r e . Deckle edge T h e i r r e g u l a r e d g e o f a s h e e t o f m o l d . m e a n i n g "beauty". F r o m t h e G r e e k kallos. Aerial perspective The effect of the a t m o s p h e r e o v e r distance as it lightens t o n e s a n d cools c o l o r s progressively t o w a r d t h e horizon." It w a s first given t o t o n a l paintings m a d e in o n e c o l o r — s e e Grisaille. Fixative lightly glues t h e d r a w i n g t o t h e surface o f t h e p a p e r t o p r e v e n t smudging. Camera obscura A d a r k e n e d c h a m b e r i n t o w h i c h an i m a g e o f w h a t is o u t s i d e is received t h r o u g h a small o p e n i n g o r lens a n d f o c u s e d in natural c o l o r o n a facing surface. for example. so t h a t ink r e m a i n s o n l y in t h e g r o o v e s o f s c r a t c h e d lines. p h o t o g r a p h s . T h e b l a n k e t s g i v e t h e p a p e r its rough texture o r "tooth. Bracelet shading C u r v e d parallel lines t h a t f o l l o w t h e c o n t o u r s o f f o r m . A p o t e n t i a l l y h a r s h m e t h o d o f p r o d u c i n g t o n e s in a d r a w i n g .s i z e d r a w i n g m a d e for t h e purpose o f transferring a design t o a painting.m e d i a d r a w i n g . w h e n a p e r s o n is p a i n t e d standing a g a i n s t a w i n d o w . A l s o called m u s e u m g r a d e . Erasure T h e a c t o f r e m o v i n g a n i m a g e f r o m a surface. Bleed T h e e f f e c t o f t w o w e t colors running into one another o r o n e color applied t o a w e t surface a n d a l l o w e d t o d i s p e r s e . Camera lucida A n optical device t h a t p r o j e c t s an image o f an o b j e c t o n t o a plain s u r f a c e so t h a t it can be traced. It is p u t o n a Body color See Gouache. pressurized t o o l used f o r spraying fine mists o f s m o o t h c o l o r P i g m e n t is d e l i v e r e d b y a j e t o f air n o t t h e bristles o f a brush. linseed oil o r egg y o l k Caricature A representation Contour line A line t h a t f o l l o w s t h e s h a p e o f a surface." " N o t " p r e s s e d p a p e r is r o l l e d a s e c o n d t i m e w i t h o u t blankets t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders t o p r o d u c e a s m o o t h e r b u t still slightly t e x t u r e d s u r f a c e . charcoal. L a t e r it c a m e t o m e a n h i g h l y c o n t r a s t e d light effects. In t h e Far East calligraphy is a highly r e s p e c t e d a r t f o r m . Chiaroscuro A 1 7 t h .m a d e paper. s u c h as a d r a w i n g o r painting.c e n t u r y Italian t e r m m e a n i n g "clear-obscure. It can also seal a silver p o i n t d r a w i n g t o p r e v e n t t h e oxidization (browning) o f t h e Drypoint A d r a w i n g is s c r a t c h e d directly o n t o a m e t a l plate w i t h a m e t a l t o o l h e l d like apen.256 GLOSSARY Glossary Accidental drawing Random. W o r d s o r symbols are Cold-pressed papers P a p e r manufactured with a "not" o r " r o u g h " surface. Binder A substance t h a t holds particles o f p i g m e n t t o g e t h e r in a paint f o r m u l a t i o n . o r will o n l y a p p e a r n o r m a l . T h e name " n o t " simply refers t o t h e fact t h a t t h e cylinders are n o t h o t in t e m p e r a t u r e .The plate is t h e n r o l l e d w i t h ink a n d polished with a rag. T h e prints t a k e n from t h e s e plates o r blocks. A f u l l . S o m e t i m e s f e r r u l e s a r e m a d e o f plastic o r o t h e r materials. p r a c t i c e d meditatively w i t h a brush.d i m e n s i o n a l i m a g e . a n d attaches t h e m t o t h e s u p p o r t — f o r example. a n d g r a p h i t e . t h e l i g h t is b e h i n d h i m o r her. D a m p p a p e r is laid o n t o p . A i r b r u s h e s are u s e d in t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c o m i c s . In t h e W e s t p e n calligraphy is u s e d t o c r e a t e f o r m a l a n d d e c o r a t i v e t e x t s . Cartoon 1. and readymade objects arranged and stuck o n t o a flat surface. U s e d as a c o r r e c t i n g device o r pictorial game. n e w s p a p e r cuttings. Also called accelerated perspective. tapestry. p r i n t i n g press face up.
Hairspray is an effective and inexpensive alternative. Also used by artists' materials manufacturers to indicate the use of a substitute pigment—for example. the finely ground particles of plant. 2. oil-based printing ink is rolled evenly onto a smooth metal. Focus 1 . but each print will be unique. Monochrome Usually refers to a black." A piece of paper is placed on top of an object or rough surface. format" (abbreviated to "portrait"). or a family of colors.257 metal line. oil-. are painted in grisaille and appear to be made of stone. Artists can paint freely over dry masking fluid. Pointillism A technique of using points or dots of pure color in such a way that when the picture is viewed from a distance they react Masking tape Invaluable.The degree to which detail is defined. Hot-pressed papers (HP) Paper made using hot cylinders. and translucent paper—a delicate material used in collage. aiming to represent facts rather than an interpretation of the subject. It is then peeled away.Theground provides a particular color or texture beneath the image. Impressing Stamping or printing. so that (using vanishing point perspective) the object appears to change shape and become narrower or smaller as it recedes. and gray drawing. or plastic surface. Foreshortening A method of depicting an object at an angle to the surface of the picture. the surface of the stone is made wet before being rolled with a thin film of oilbased printing ink. Lightfast A term confirming that pigment in the product will not fade with exposure to light. cadmium yellow hue. pastel. shape. Paper is laid on top and a rapid drawing is made on the back of it The paper lifts away to reveal the image on its other side.The paper then bears a crayon impression or copy of the surface that was underneath it A number of Surrealists. Hatching (cross-) See Crosshatching. It improves the bonding properties Frottage A French term meaning "rubbing. . The surface can be reloaded or redrawn with more medium. Dark tones are laid down first then an eraser or masking tape is used to lift away particles of the drawing media to reveal the lightness of the paper beneath. Lifting out A method of creating highlights and mid-tones in a drymedia drawing (such as charcoal or graphite). multiH u e A term for a color. After several intervening processes. or canvas and allowed to dry before an image is drawn or painted. and by artists representing stone sculptures in a painting. Grisaille is occasionally seen in church stained-glass windows. ink. or can be otherwise used to create an image—for example. Monoprinting A direct method of printing in which wet medium (water-. Also refers to an additive used to control the application properties of a color Golden Section A proportion in which a straight line or rectangle is divided into two unequal parts in such a way that the ratio of the smaller part to the greater part is the same as that of the greater part to the whole. It can be used with any wet media to isolate or protect parts of an image from further Optical blending See Pointillism. Usually an academic drawing observed from life. Gamut A complete range or extent Glassine A type of thin. rock. Ground A wet solution usually of gouache or gesso (chalk and animal glue) brushed onto paper board. Grisaille A painting in gray or a grayish color Often made by students as a tonal exercise. glossy. F o r m The outer surface of a three-dimensional object. Plumb line A line from which a weight is suspended in order to determine verticality or depth. upright images are called "portrait which is used as a binding agent in many liquid media. and masking off areas of a drawing that the artist wishes to keep untouched by media applied above or beside the tape. to describe a surface to which paint will adhere readily. It is a strong adhesive. Padua. Papercut A type of collage in which flat sheets of paper are cut into an image. enabling them to stick to paper It also helps to maintain a stable dispersion of pigment particles in water as the film of a wash dries. Rubens used grisaille to paint small images for engravers. which has a rough surface). F o r m a t T h e size. white. Masking fluid Clear or opaque latex fluid developed for watercolor painting. or spirit-based) is applied to a surface that is then pressed onto paper and removed to leave a print. This method incorporates the excitement of accidental and unpredicted marks. Alternatively. then rubbed over carefully but vigorously with a crayon. Objective drawing Refers to the concept of objectivity. graphite. A small image might be described as small format Horizontal images are often said to be "landscape format" (abbreviated G u m arabic The natural to"landscape"). Picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. or synthetic material that are suspended in a medium to constitute paint. The ink attaches to the oil-based image and is repelled by the wet stone. work. This effect emulates what we see in real life. materials that produce marks on a surface. or even a beam of light. it is the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work Pigment Any substance used as a coloring agent—for example. This may be disregarded in real life. and it has a history in enamel work. Medium A generic term for art Key A painting is said to be "high key" when the colors and tones are bright and "low key" when they are dark or somber The term is also used Gouache Opaque watercolor Also called body color. Lithography A method of printmaking in which a drawing or painting is made directly onto a smooth slab of particular limestone or a metal plate using an oilbased crayon or ink. mineral. Giotto's Virtues and Vices in the Arena Chapel. of the ingredients in inks and watercolors. used for fixing paper to walls and boards. which give it a smooth surface (as opposed to cold-pressed paper. and that will "escape" or change over time. Paper is then pressed against the stone to take a print. glass. or a drawing made in any single color GLOSSARY Linear perspective A form of perspective in which parallel lines are represented as converging. lifting out charcoal and other dry media. Negative space The space between things. but in picture-making it is as important as the objects/subjects themselves. Fugitive A term given to a pigment that it is not stable. including Max Ernst used frottage in their work.while secretion of the acacia tree. to give the illusion of depth and distance. and is also used as a size. with the area beneath remaining unaffected. or for wrapping and protecting a finished piece of work. A point of interest in a drawing. sticky paper tape. purpose. and orientation of the image.
Etienne de material) dabbed through the Silhouette (1709-67). Props An abbreviation of the word properties. usually diluted with water and applied with a brush. sometimes drawn from a and leaving only the pricked sheet of shadow cast on a wall. Alternatively. or pen. "Spirits" or "oil" of turpentine refer to the volatile portion used by artists to thin or dilute oil-based paint. or the right-hand page in a book. and chrysanthemum—which in Chinese tradition are called "The Four Gentlemen. Zen paintings usually depict scenes of nature and plants such as bamboo. Pounce (a fine for an unpopular 18th-century powder of charcoal or similar French politician. and paperweights. using a brush. Size A weak glue used for filling the porous surface of wood or canvas in order to seal it. Wash A technique using ink. and flowers. or gouache. Single-point perspective The most basic form of linear perspective in which there is only one vanishing point. by imposing a grid that is then scaled up to a larger size. or mark using an inked or pigment-covered surface. meaning objects used in setting up a life model or still life. Serigraphy Silk-screen printing. cut-out profile made along every outline of the usually made in black paper image. evolved by engineers and architects for the purpose of conveying W a t e r c o l o r A painting accurate structural information. a point at which receding parallel lines meet Verso The back or underside of a piece of paper. The crude material is called oleoresin. Tortillon A short. plum blossom. Sfumato An Italian term meaning "smoky. glasses. ink. or ceramic glazing to reveal a different color beneath. Tone A degree of lightness or darkness. pointed instrument used for marking or engraving." Applied to the blurring or softening of sharp outlines by the subtle and gradual blending of one tone into another Sgraffito A technique of scratching or cutting through a surface of paint. Technical drawing A universal it is often used in conjunction language of lines and measurements with line drawings in pen and that is used to make diagrammatic ink—for images. in order to flick the pigment onto the image surface. a sheet of paper is placed beneath and pinpricks are Silhouette A flat. or wood. Viewpoint The position from which something is observed or considered. a tightly folded piece of cotton batting can be used for the same effect. Volume The amount of space occupied by an object or an area of space in itself. Turpentine A colorless solvent distilled from the resinous sap of pine trees. A term borrowed from the theater. Stippling Applying color or tone in areas of fine dots or flecks. tight." Materials for Zen brushwork include round brushes of varied size. giving it a brilliance.258 GLOSSARY together optically. Support The structure on which an image is made—for example. or point on which parallel lines converge to give the impression of receding space. Subjective drawing A drawing that expresses the personal view and interpretation of the artist An invented image. fine paper. whose pinpricks creates a "connect-thepersonal pastime was making dots" replica of the image on the cut-out portraits. commonly referred to as the lead. to model areas of light and shade. Artists' prints are normally made in multiple. Pouncing If a large drawing or design (called a cartoon) is to be Shadow Darkness cast by the transferred to a surface such as a obscuring of light. carbon ink. Sketch A quick or rough drawing. The translucent Tint A color mixed with white. or any physical object that can be stamped or pressed onto a surface to leave an impression. pencil. paper or canvas.Thedrawing is removed. Zen A school of Mahayana Buddhism that asserts that enlightenment can come through meditation and intuition rather than faith. Shade A that is color mixed (or toned) with black Shading A lay term for adding tone to a drawing. Named paper in place. Scale Describes the size of one element in relation to another Sepia A brown pigment taken from the sun-dried ink sacs of cuttlefish and used to make ink or watercolor The term is now often incorrectly used to refer to brown colors. Zen brushwork This is an oriental meditative art form originating in China and practised for many centuries in Japan. Squeegee A rubber-trimmed scraper used in the screenprinting process for dragging ink across a surface. an ink stone usually cut from slate. Recto The front or top side of a piece of paper. Zen brushwork encompasses calligraphy and painting. or the left-hand page in a book. Although drawings can be made with wash alone. Printmaking The act of making a picture. wall or tapestry. W e t media Any liquid media— for example. Vanishing point In linear perspective. Stylus A sharp. in tone running from black to white or vice versa. . which are then called editions. Underdrawing A pale preliminary drawing made prior to adding layers of another medium such as oil paint or watercolor Value The extent to which a color reflects or transmits light This is the equivalent of tone in a black and white image. such as an inscribed sheet of metal. design. Spattering A mottled texture produced by drawing your fingers across the bristles of a stiff brush loaded with pigment. fruit. or watercolor paint.Technicaldrawing has been example. acrylic. pointed roll of white paper that is used to blend dry media. creating more vibrant effects than if the same colors were physically mixed together with a brush. orchids. Strip Core of a pencil. watercolor. plaster or cloth surface beneath. nature of watercolor allows the white surface of the paper to Tonal scale A scale of gradations shine through. Still life A picture composed of inanimate objects such as bowls. compound of water-soluble pigment. Squaring up A method of enlarging and transferring an image from one surface to another. plaster.
198 cartoon (preparatory drawing) 137 (satirical) 159. 26 geese 38-39 Gericault's cats 28. 75 Circle of the Lustful (Blake) 180. 178 Cubism 67. 199 Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya (Eisen) 156. 206.226. Statue d'Epouvante 90 calligraphy. 90 La Guitare. 72 bracelet shading 122 Braque. 111.44-45. 230-231 Cubist 90. 94 chalk(s) 53. to model 110-111 border 51 Bosch. 13 architectural drawing 67-71 Arctic Flowers (Libeskind) 70. 28 Klee's horses 30. 204-205. 186 charcoal 114. (Ross-Craig) 49 to hold brush for 23 caricature 159. 133. 243 botanical drawing 48-49 Boullee. 71 Blake. 74. Mamaru 104. 242 to blend 205 compressed 122. 241 action.89. Franz 48 Protea nitida 48 Bellini.184. 223 Circular Score for "Due Voce" 223 children's art 9. Clare 203 City 202. 81 cut-out model plan 94. 98. Leon: Bacchante 155 balance. 41 principal 186. 71 Bacchante (Bakst) 155 background: color 91 textured 240 Baker Matthew: Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry 32 Bakst.212 to erase 205 to hold 23 pencils 204 willow 114. 9 Chair (Van Gogh) 94. Jean Michel 138 Self-Portrait 138 Bateau-Vision.13. Le (Hugo) 200. 29 Hugo's octopus 28. 221 animals. 193 in lifting out 204.198.115 anatomical drawing 134-135 anatomical theaters 82-83 anatomical waxes 128 ancient carvings 221.163 dry media 205 Blue Nude (Matisse) 110. 78 aerial perspective 206 airbrushing 160. 139 Nanha) 50. 74. 30 sleeping dog 38-39 Stubbs's horse skeleton 26. 50.27 turtles 42-43 aquatint 240 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels (Leonardo) 12.186 see also movement Adoration of the Magi perspective study (Leonardo) 74.162 Conte. 244 and graphite 178 . 162 character: to capture 38-39. 90. Sylvano 222.169 colors: airbrushed 161 background 91 A Abe. Georges 67.44-45 bird studies 12. 165. to draw 100 Cypripedium calceolus L. 247-248 carving see lines. 70 Art Nouveau motifs 91 Autoportrait (Ray) 138. Hieronymus 243 Two Monsters 242. 204. 71 conte 112. 38-39. 158. 180 Circular Score for "Due Voce" (Bussotti) 223 circus scenes 192-195 City (Bryan) 202. 113 bird bones 12. to express 39. 189. 163. 157 cropping 56-57. Augustin 67 Basquiat. 226-227 Acanthus spinosus 65 accelerated perspective 22. 180 blending: color 133. 201 collage 111. Joseph 113 The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland 112. 75. 244 head and neck 144 phrased 124-125 contrast: brightness 99 of media 30 tonal 96. 8 cave paintings 8. 202 cloth. 13. William: The Circle of the Lustful 180. Victor: West Facade of the Church of St. to depict 156-157 Cloudburst of Material Possessions (Leonardo) 200. layers 53 chalk pastels 162. 182. 161 Akhlaq-I Rasul Allah manuscript 51. 203 Claude Lorrain 202 Views from Velletri 202. 206 checkered floor 80. 203 Landline 202.50. Basilius 47 Beuys. 90.184.51 All and Nothing (Taylor) 114. 94 cylindrical objects. 90 colored materials 162-163 colored pencils 162. 137 Besler. 160 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object (Moore) 178. Giovanni 137 Head and Shoulders of a Man 136. 190 Caricature of a Woman (Daumier) 198. 9. 128. 40-41 Durer's rhinoceros 26. center of 118 ballpoint 182. 81 135. cut Catling. 250 Bishndas and Nanha: Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity 50. to draw 80. 200 Bauer.133.Index Page numbers in italics refer t o captions and illustrations Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity (Bishndas and 259 INDEX B bread (as eraser) 205. 52 cotton swabs 205 Coup de Vent a Asajigabare (Hokusai) 198. Filippo 67. 230 The Physical Space 220 abstract drawing 219. 203 Buffalo Hunt (Shoshone) 178. Nicolas-Jacques 54 contours 146. 179 Bussotti.100 curves. 242 Brunelleschi. 74 brush (es) 246-247 Japanese 248 for laying a wash 140 marks 248-249 to hold 23 brush drawings 14-15 Bryan. Etienne-Louis 72 Newton's Cenotaph 72.163 graded 227 composition 56-57. Brian 226 Untitled 2001 226 "Cave of the Hands" (Cueva de las Manas) 8.31 Picasso's horse and bird 30. 95 Chair Cut Out (Woodfine) 94. Zen c 232-233 blended 133.163 body. 198.117 Achilles Chases Hector (Thomas) 240. 222. 116. to draw 25. 205 Baltard. 134 costume(s) 155 character 158-159 structure of 166-167 Cottage Among Trees (Rembrandt) 52. 220.
drypoint 181 exaggeration 184 expressionism 198 E ye and Head of a Drone Fly (Hooke) 92. 104-105. 203 Hotel de la Suzonnieres (Satie) 70. 200 F fabric. 160 hitsuzendo 233 light to dark 102.230 three-tone 140. Oona 245 How Clever of God #84 244. 243 graphic score 222. 122. 91 Dragon (Michelangelo) 36.157 ellipses 100. 240 170-173 five Ships in a Port with Lighthouse (Wallis) 11. 73. 160 Faune. Alberto 136 Portrait of Marie-Laure de Noailles 136.216 Durelli.91. 32 framing 139 Franfoise au Bandeau (Picasso) 132. 765 hitsuzendo drawings 233 Hokusai. 163. 203 semi-abstract 234-237 three-dimensional 68. 241 to blend 205 and chalk 178 and ink 28. 240. Nicholas 68 St Paul's Baptistry 68 head and neck to draw 142-145 Head and Shoulders of a Man (Bellini) 136. 134.160. Rene 160 Illustration for Jacques Fath E easel.260 INDEX D Dada 139 Daumien Honore 198 Caricature of a Woman 198. position of 22 Eisen. proportions of 143 fantasy drawings 72-73. Edgar 162 depth. Victor 200. fiber-tip pen 182. 162 Flaxman. 240 Black Paintings 152. C .207. Robert 93 Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 92. 69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt 68. Keisai 157 The Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya 156. Sir Ernst 12.103 with eraser 103. 799 Holbein. 230 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction 68. 161 changing 216 Focusing on the Negative (Walter) 16 foliage 52. 90 gouache 30.160. 144 Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (Baker) 32. to suggest 177 see also perspective diagonals diffuser 55 dip pens 34.104. Hans 133 The Ambassadors 116 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 132.216.111 feet.146 from masterworks 126-127.69 Gerard. 55. 135 Duren Albrecht 26. 40. 30 Fauves/fauvism 90. 125. 161 fashion drawings 160. 69. The 242. 131 Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 240. 160 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction (Gaudi) 68.103.117 fountain pens 34. 55.97. 77 How Clever of God #84 244. La (Braque) 90. 41 in the round 208-209 with scalpel 202. Antonio 68. 252 depiction of fabric monsters 252-253 Self Portrait in a Cocked Hat 130. 90 G Gaudi.184 165. Study for Plate 59 (Mucha) 90. 52 foreground 208. 115 Escher.189. 25 focus 65. 137 heads. 222 Grimes.101 engraving 243 erasers/erasing 55. Ron 161 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 161 160.252-253 from memory 183. 161 fashion 160. 163.115 exploratory 17 fantasy 72-73.198 Degas. Jean Ignace Isidore see Grandville Gericault.John 157 Man Lying Down in a Cloak 156. Statue d'Epouvante. 134.109 Rhinoceros 26.102-103 drawing board 20 drawing books 20-21 drawing paper 144.166 170-173 Gestalt 222 Giacometti. 170-173. Katsushika 199 Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 198. Cheval et Oiseau (Picasso) 30. 245 Hugo.244 drawing(s): abstract 219. 112. 120. 157 . 220 dry brush 234 234 57. disposable pens 182-183 dissections: botanical 48 of horse 27 distance: illusion of see perspective linear 97 tonal 97 Documents Decoratifs. 223. 141 tonal 96. 134. 226-227 anatomical 134-135 architectural 67-71 botanical 48-49 brush 14-15 dark to light 102.141. 136 Golden Section 67 Gombrich.141.244. 29 H hands. to draw 78. 132 Frenz. 79. 113. to draw 120. 71 minimal line 99 and music 70-71 quick 38-39. 190 Middle Eastern 50-51. to draw 168-169 in Goya's artworks face. 245 layers 30 Goya. 122 Hawksmoor.116. 245 Gruau.121 felt-tip pens 162. 160 as ground for metal point 140.12 fixative 54.Theodore 29 Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 28. M.144 and ink 30. 37 Grandville 243 A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the Near-Microscopic World of Scale Insects 242. Antonio 135 Muscles of the Head and Neck 134. 93 eye level 80 Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity. 7 33 Hooke. position of 143. 124. 216 foreshortening 110. 99 etching. 205 drawing with 103. Francisco de 131. 69 Guitare.112. 202. 55.37. 223 graphite 54. 26 Flying Fish (White) 25. to draw 134-137 Helleborus corsicus 55 highlights 91. 222. 242 eyes. 93 horizon 52. 222 Le Bateau-Vision 200. 69.
I Murderous Attacks 33 Kollwitz. 249 and gouache 30 Indian 35. 60. Charles Rennie 48. Oxford 106 Prado. 163 pens 36 measuring 116 memory. 63. 74-77.124. Madrid 171 University Museum of Natural History. Kathe 181 Losbrunch (The Outbreak) 180.167 line(s) 132.182 Moore. Florence 128 lighting in 167 Pitt Rivers. 227 Newsome. 31 Klimt.91 Study for Plate 59 of INDEX illumination see lighting Illustration for Jacques Fath (Gruau) 160. 234 iron-gall 35. 160 In the Duchess's Kitchen (Rackham) 176. 111. 158 Man Lying Down in a Cloak (Flaxman) 156. Paul 227 Polyphonic Setting for White 226. 252 Muscles of the Head and Neck (Durelli) 134. 166. 35.227 to "bend" straight 97 compositional 228-229 cut 202. 190 metal pens see dip pens metal point 25. 220.112. 28 Two Impressions from a Cut-out Paper Disk 222 Huyler Stephen R 225 261 Kinecar. Victor 134 Profile Head 134.The (Robinson) 108. Gustav 49 Knopf. 183 vertical 156 linear distance 97 linear perspective 69. Erich 73 design for Metropolis 72. 159 Japanese 35 to make 36 sepia 35 walnut 36. Alphonse 90.102.276. 73 Kigell. apparent 97 Leonardo da Vinci 74. 205. 54 silver point 156 leg sections 158 length. 181 Klee.166 La Specola. 99.243 carbon 35 Chinese 30.104. 252 ink 16. 244 lithograph 198 Losbruch (Kollwitz) 180. 34. Henry 178 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object 178. 181 luminosity 115 Lynch. 220. 13 Cloudburst of Material Possessions 200. Matisse. 53 Tree II 52. Daniel 70 Arctic Flowers 70 Lieb.115 98. 201 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels 12.96.141 Metropolis (film) 72. 73 Michelangelo Buonarroti 48. 77 Miller. 220. 248. 76 Libeskind. 220. drawing from 126-127. 205 masterworks. 756 priming for 140. 789.109. 114 hatched 244 layered 118 pace of 65 pale 40 rapid 49. Johan 32. 176. Rose: Tantalus or the Future of Man 20 minimal line drawing 99 mirror use of 120 mixed media 28. Piet 52. 201 head and neck sections of female mold for Sforza Horse 89 Madonna of the Rocks 244 perspective study for Adoration of the Magi 74. Oxford 250 music 70-71 Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks (Knopf) 32. 49 Rose 49 Maelbeke Madonna (Van Eyck) 156. 72. 227 Scene of Comical Riders 30. 78 Study ofThree Male Figures 110. 242 light 96 to depict drawing with 1 76 painting with 176 .134 K Kettlehut. 203 landscape 206-208 brushed 14 Landscape in Hoboku Style (Sesshu) 14 layers 146 chalk 53 gouache 30 ink 28. 170-173. 83 white 122 ink impressions 222 ink spatters 234 installations 176. 33 J justness 228-229 N naive art 74 negative space 53.Pieuvre (Octopus) 28. 244 Dragon 36. 230 invented creatures 106-107 250-251 invented objects 89. drawing from 183. 244.181 L Landline (Bryan) 202. 34-35 acrylic 35 bistre 35. 135 museums 44. 219 Mondrian. 177 influences.141.33 Mysterious Affairs of the lighting 2 7. 221 endless 31 free 113. 178 motifs: A r t Nouveau 9 7 stylized 51 mountains 216-217 movement: of animals 30-31 of humans 7 79. 53 monoprint 787.109. 36. 156 magnification 93 Man in Armor (Van Dyck) 158. Henri 111 Blue Nude 1110. 203. David 78 M Mackintosh. 37 lines 118 pastel 162 pencil 31. 97 Murillo. 185 Mucha.120. Phyll: hands 18 lifting out 204. 757 mandalas 219. 225 masking tape 204. Bartolome: Moses Striking the Rock ofHoreb 252. 58-59. 103 Neolithic chalk tablet 220. artistic 240-241. 110 Sistine Chapel ceiling 116 Middle Eastern drawing 50-51. 184. 226 Modernism 67. Marie 244 cloth drawing 244. 244 ink 36 252-253 Documents Decoratifs 90.
244 Q s Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape (Wolfli) 2 79 St. 36.71 Hotel de la Suzonnieres 70. 52 pens 36 scalpel 54 drawing with 202.176 Real Life Is Rubbish 176.oise au Bandeau 132. 165. 782 relief 757 silk-screen 739 woodblock 134. 166 fiber-tip 782.Toyo: Landscape in Hoboku . 772 234-237 Sesshu. 7 76 receding space 206 Redon. Heath 181 The Kinecar 180. 7 73 self-portraits: Basquiat 138. 181 pencil(s) 54 charcoal 204 colored 762. 227 portfolios 20 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser de Noailles (Holbein) 132. 122. 34-35. Peter Paul 126-127 Embracing pose(s): balanced 146 quick 118-119 positive form 103 posture: of artist 22 of subject 3 8 . Giovanni Battista 74. 243. 1 2 4 priming for metal point 140. 736 portraits. 7 77 three-point 80. 244 reed 34.131 Cottage Among Trees 52. and Webster. 30 Fran<. 38. 26 Riley.37. Auguste 114 Two Women 114. 76-79. Faune. 37 38. 9 0 .2 3 age and youth sleeping subjects 148-149 150-151 Renaissance 109 Rhinoceros (Durer) 26. 36 pen and brush 8 3 pen and ink 70. 38. 203 Scene of Comical Riders (Klee) 30. 36. 7 38 Ray 138. Bridget 98 Robinson.54 pastel 162 perspective 1 0 0 .184 fountain 34. 241 Physical Space.199 Profile Head (Newsome) oil pastels 162. 36. 75 Two Courtyards 75. 212 Japanese 2 1 . 2 2 0 for oil pastels 162 stained 230 to stretch 140-141 tissue 21.Tim. 81 two-point 74. 230 parallel planes 79 Parisian street 86-87 pastels 162 to blend 205 to hold 23 layers 162 pencils 162 pen(s): dip 34 . Sue 104. 224 0 layers 31. to draw 146-147 R Rackham.759. 139 Real Life is Rubbish (Noble and Webster) 176. Stella 48 Cypripedium calceolus L 49 rotated view 7 65 Rubens. Paul 73 Nobson Central 72. Russell 228. 242 reed pens 34. 91 outsider artists 33. 78 single-point 74.36.37. 1 1 6 accelerated 2 2 . 234 disposable 182-183 felt-tip 162. 4 9 Rose of Mohammed 50.139 Autoportrait 138. 230 paper(s) 21 colored 162 drawing 144. 1 3 2 quill pens 34.141 prints/printing: aquatint 240 dry-point etching 181 engraving 243 monoprint 181. 57 Ross-Craig. 74-77. 7 70 Ray. Man 131. 243.52 pen and wash 158. 163. Martin 238. 219. 164. Erik 70. Cheval et Oiseau 30.The (Beuys) 112. 1 6 3 . 76 plastic eraser 55.240. J 76 nudes 114-115 to make 36 metal see dip quill 34. Isaac 92 Telescope 92 Newton's Cenotaph (Boullee) 72. 75 Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range 241 petroglyphs 221. 114 rollerball 182 Rorschach blot 99 Rose (Mackintosh) 48. 28 pigment 162 bright 50 Caput Mortuum 7 4 7 for three-tone drawing 141. 36. 759 P Page. 40-41. 733 Portrait de Marie-Laure (Giacometti) 136. 160.9 3 Schongauer. Odilon 242 The Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity 242. 73 Noble.262 INDEX Newton.226. Arthur 177 In the Duchess's Kitchen 176. 1 6 9 to hold 2 2 . 239 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat (Seurat) 112. 74.7 77 rapidograph 70 Raphael 110. 1 1 6 . 4 8 putty eraser 55. 205 pointillism 112 polyphonic painting 227 Polyphonic Setting for White (Klee) 226. 141 Piranesi.37 scientific instruments 9 2 . 36 relief printing 757 Rembrandt van Rijn 52. 103. 239 Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 238. 181 Rodin.104 Pieuvre (Hugo) 28. 739 semi-abstract drawings Style 14 Seurat. Georges 112 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 112. 71 Satire of the Queen's Dress (Wodall) 158. 216. 205 157. 72 Noble. 36. 159. 162 O p A r t 98 optical illusions 96-99 outline 33. 68 Satie. 161. 732 influence of 240 painting with light 78. 7 72 Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland. 97. 734 Protea nitida (Bauer) 48.40. Pablo 6 7 . 9 8 .Paul'sBaptistry (Hawksmoor) 68. 1 1 7 aerial 206 linear 69. 165 figure 118 filled 37 pencil 48. The (Abe) 220 Picasso.
27 skull 747. 725 fabric 1 6 8 T h o m a s . 158 V a n Eyck. v i e w s o f 85. 1 4 0 . 2 4 7 t h r e e . 164. 9 4 z Z e n calligraphy 232-233 contrast 96 t o grade 163 ink 37 pencil 5 4 t o r t i l l o n 205 T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c . 7 6 Two Impressions from a Cut-Out Paper Disk ( H u g o ) 2 2 2 Two Monsters 2 4 2 . 1 8 4 . 74. 1 9 9 Two Courtyards (Piranesi) 75. Sarah 9 4 Chair Cut Out 94. 2 1 2 . 1 3 .9 1 storms. A n t h o n y 152. Adolf: Giant-Grape Saint-Mary-Castle 219 Woman at Her Toilet ( T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c ) 74 w o o d b l o c k print 157. 7 79 Shoshone petroglyph 240. 249 t o describe 39. Man in Armor 1 5 8 . 96.J. 1 4 1 . h e a d a n d n e c k sections o f female m o l d f o r (Leonardo) 89 shading 2 9 s h a d o w s 28.t o n e d r a w i n g 140.Yamaoka 233 t e x t u r e 2 2 2 . 230 t h r e e . 7 1 4 . 2 2 7 Untitled 2001 ( C a t l i n g ) u 263 W h i t e .1 4 5 . 1 8 4 .1 8 5 Tree II ( M o n d r i a n ) 52. 97.2 1 3 Stubbs. 159 Wolfli. 174 T w o m b l y . 6 9 Wodall. 240 Two Women Embracing ( R o d i n ) 114. 243 (Bosch) T Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos ( G o y a ) 2 4 0 .125 W o o d f i n e . Study of (Michelangelo) 110.158 158. phrased 146 tonal modeling 161 tonal range 169 t o n a l surfaces 2 2 7 tonal width 97 t o n e ( s ) 33. 1 6 . William 159 Satire of the Queen's Dress INDEX 226. 76. 57. Vincent 95 Chair 94. 2 3 0 tonal contrast 96 tonal distance 9 7 t o n a l d r a w i n g 9 6 . 2 9 wind.199 tissue p a p e r 21. 53 trees. 2 4 2 w Wallis. 1 4 4 . 199. 75 Skeleton of the Horse ( S t u b b s ) 26. 7 70 Tiber 214-215 Untitled ( T w o m b l y ) 2 2 0 . Sue see N o b l e . 7 77. 69. t o lay 1 4 0 . 104-105.241 s i l k . 69. 743 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City ( F r e n z ) 1 6 0 .1 9 9 wire. A l f r e d 1 1 . 2 2 0 influence o f 2 4 0 Untitled 220. T i m W e s t Fagade of the Church of St.Sforza Horse. 206-207 202. t o d r a w 1 0 1 viewfinder 57 Views from Velletri ( C l a u d e L o r r a i n ) 152.216 W e b s t e r . 202 violin. John: Focusing on the Negative 14 w a s h . 4 4 boat 209 botanical 4 9 G e r i c a u l t ' s cats 2 9 from Goya 170-173 125. G e o r g e 2 7 Skeleton of the Horse 26. 49. C y 138. Sarah: child's m a p 75.12 W a l t e r . 1 9 9 .13 M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s m a l e figures 110. 170 shoes 1 6 4 stylized m o t i f 51 Summer Flowers 63. 9 5 pens 36 v a n i s h i n g p o i n t 74. John 25 Flying Fish 25 Wild Striped Cat Sketches of ( G e r i c a u l t ) 28. 7 6 1 spots. 156 Van Gogh. 7 9 0 vessels.5 3 in l a n d s c a p e 2 0 6 . 221 .1 6 5 shorthand diagram 142 Shoshone buffalo hide painting 178. t o d r a w 5 2 .2 0 1 . 2 0 0 Ship in a Storm 1 9 8 .141 S i m b l e t .s c r e e n p r i n t i n g 139 silver p o i n t 1 4 0 . Taylor A n i t a 115 All and Nothing 1 1 4 . H e n r i de: Woman at Her Toilet 14 t r a n s p a r e n t v i e w 92. M .243 Leonardo's machines 12. 141 Three Male Figures. 1 6 6 t r a p e z i u s m u s c l e 142. 182. t o draw 1 9 8 . 9 2 Tesshu. Paul 2 4 1 Achilles Chases Hector 2 4 0 . 199 shoes 1 6 4 . b l o w n 248 steel p e n s see d i p p e n s still life 89.d i m e n s i o n a l d r a w i n g 68. Augustin ( B a l t a r d ) 6 7 w e t and dry brush-strokes 2 4 9 Turner. 65 symbols 138. 77. 2 3 4 . 1 4 5 travel journal 2 0 . 2 7 studies: b i r d s 7 2 . 9 0 . 186. 1 2 Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse 71. 226 V Van Dyck. 245 sharpener 54 Ship in a Storm ( T u r n e r ) 1 9 8 . 102-103 tonal marks. 7 75 Telescope ( N e w t o n ) 9 2 .41.1 4 1 .d i m e n s i o n a l 1 0 4 . Jan 1 5 6 Maelbeke Madonna 1 5 6 . 75. 2 2 6 . 1 4 1 w a t e r c o l o r 25.120. 241.1 0 5 vision 9 6 Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects (Grandville) 242. 1 7 7 free 8 0 V e n i c e . t o d r a w 2 0 0 . 161. t h r e e . 115. 2 4 4 . W . drawing with 104-105 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt ( G a u d i ) 68. 79. 156 layers 7 5 6 priming for 140.
D a w n Henderson. 2 0 2 : © T h e British Museum. Paris/ © Succession Picasso / D A C S 2005.100. Winthrop. 1 5 9 : Bodleian Library. 114: Musee Rodin. C o r n e l i s o n & Son. 221: Gagosian Gallery/Private Collection (b). 2 0 3 : Clare Bryan (t). 1 5 6 : Graphische S a m m l u n g Albertina.uk/Private Collection. University of Cambridge. G i n a R o w l a n d . Antonia Cunliffe Davis. Paris. B . A n d y C r a w f o r d for p h o t o g r a p h y a n d L . Florence/MoMA. 72: akg-images. 2 2 7 : Paul Klee Stiftung. Anita Taylor. Agnieszka Mlicka. 30: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. U K . Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. G e r m a n y . 9 4 : Sarah Woodfine. Sophie Laurimore. K u n s t m u s e u m Bern/© D A C S 2 0 0 5 . O o n a G r i m e s . Picture Credits 8: Corbis/Hubert Stadler. 2 6 : Topfoto. 2 4 1 : Corbis/David M u e n c h ( b ) . 74: Corbis. 13: www. 2 2 3 : Lebrecht Music and Arts Photo Library/Ricordi. 176: Modem Art. for s u p p l y i n g the d r a w i n g books. L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . Paula Regan. Natalie G o d w i n . 1 3 4 : © T h e British Museum.co. 4 6 : B r i t i s h Library. a n d D e p a r t m e n t s o f E n t o m o l o g y a n d Zoology at the University of Oxford. B e m d Kunzig. 113: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. 1929 (29. 3 1 : Tom Powel Imaging. 2 2 4 : P r i n z h o m Collection. H e l e n S h u t t l e w o r t h . Peter L u f f . A n n a P l u c i n s k a . 7 1 : I M E C / A r c h i v e s E r i k Satie. b r i d g e m a n . 9 3 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. Pamela Ellis for compiling the index. 1 1 0 : www. 1 3 8 : © Christie's Images Ltd/© A D AGP.bridgeman. u k / T o k y o National M u s e u m . 1 3 3 : Artothek/Kupferstichkabinett. P h y l l Kiggell. Sir Brinsley F o r d . 2 1 8 : Adolf-Wdlfli-Stiftung. L o n d o n . Paris a n d D A C S . Lisbon.co. Oxford. Graphische Sammlung. 157: U C L Art Collections . 1879. Carlo O r t u for picture research s u p p o r t . 1 9 8 : Dover Publications. 177: Mary Evans Picture Library.bridgeman. R u t h P a r k i n s o n . France. Andy Crawford. 132: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso.264 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Acknowledgments Author's Acknowledgments: T h e author wishes to thank the following people for their enormous help. 3 3 : Prinzhom Collection. 1 5 4 : akg-images/Musee National d'Art Moderne. 9 1 : www. 7 0 : Studio Daniel L i b e s k i n d . 158: Calouste Gulbenkian Museum. K u n s t m u s e u m . 2 3 8 : akg-images. Inc. Fund. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. 2 4 0 : w w w . J o n Roome. 1 0 8 : Arts C o u n c i l Collection. Madrid. A .uk /© Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery. 174: Artothek/Munich.a.bridgeman. 1 9 6 : Museum of the History of Science. B e r l i n . 16: www. 2 2 0 : Mamaru Abe. Corporation of London. b r i d g e m a n . Salisbury & South W i l t s h i r e M u s e u m ( t ) . Kunstmuseum Bern. Paris. Maureen Paley Interim Art (b)./© D A C S 2 0 0 5 ( t ) . Paul T h o m a s ( t ) . 73: Berlin F i l m Museum (t). 1 5 : w w w . Paris. 111: Fondation Beyeler/Riehen (Bale)/© Succession H Matisse/DACS 2005. Sarah Woodfine. Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (t).uk/Private Collection.uk/Musee des Augustins. 6 6 : w w w . Sarah D u n c a n . 179: www. Angela Palmer. Paris. a n d brushes o n pp. 130: The Metropolitan M u s e u m of Art/Robert L e h m a n Collection. T o n y G r i s o n i . papers.co.co. u k / L o u v r e . 2 2 2 : Pierre Georgel/Private Collection. Diana Bell.co. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin/Jorg P. 1 7 8 : © T h e British M u s e u m / H e n r y Moore F o u n d a t i o n . b r i d g e m a n . S i m o n L e w i s . J a c k a n d Brian Catling. G e r m a n y . Japan. Publisher's Acknowledgments Dorling Kindersley w o u l d like to thank Caroline H u n t for editorial contribution. R o s e m a r y S c o u l a r .Strang Print Room ( b ) . R .l. Christopher Davis. L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . 139: Galerie Marion Meyer/© Man Ray Trust / A D A G P . Illustrated London News Picture Library/The Bystander (b). (r). Magdalene College Cambridge. 9 2 : Science Photo L i b r a r y .bridgeman. 2 0 0 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. J o h n Roberts. 51: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. 2 7 : Royal Academy of Arts. Paris. Sammy De Grave. 1 9 : Getty Images/© Succession Picasso / D A C S 2 0 0 5 . 9 7 6 ) . U K . Patty Stansfield. 180: www.uk/Mucha Trust. 137: © The British Museum. L o n d o n (t).uk/British Museum. 4 8 : T h e N a t u r a l H i s t o r y M u s e u m . M a n d y Earey. 181: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. Psychiatric Institute of the U n i v e r s i t y of Heidelberg. L o n d o n .939). K e w ft)). 1 3 5 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. 1901. 2 4 2 : Photo Scala. Amsterdam. F i n n . Wolfson College.co. London 2005. 2 4 4 : Ashmolean Museum. Dover Publications/ISBN: 0486229912 (t). Germany. and Tamsin Woodward Smith. Portugal. .20-21 a n d 246-47. Toulouse. L e n . Berlin (b). 112: Yale University A r t Gallery/Everett V Meeks. 225: Stephen P Huyler. Anders/ © D A C S 2 0 0 5 . Angela W i l k e s . 75: © The British Museum (b). 2 8 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. H . J o h n Walter. F r a n c e . L o n d o n . 1 3 6 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Centre Pompidou-MNAM-CCI. T h e R u s k i n School of D r a w i n g a n d Fine A r t . Paris and D A C S . Flossie. Copyright Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens. 17: J o h n Walter.uk/Private Collection. Paris a n d D A C S . Julie O u g h t o n . 243: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. Jean Pierre Roy. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin. Carole A s h . Paul T h o m a s . Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. George M c G a v i n . London/courtesy of Stuart Shave. 199: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee des arts asiatiquesGuimet. H a y w a r d Gallery. 5 2 : T h e Metropolitan Museum of Art/Bequest of Mrs. 1 6 0 : Rene G R U A U s. © Tate. Orientabteilung/Ruth Schacht.co. Clare Bryan.uk/Kettle's Yard. 1 6 1 : D C C o m i c s I n c . Paris. University of Oxford.co. L o n d o n . 9 5 : V a n Gogh M u s e u m . Also. 2 4 5 : Oona Grimes. 68: www. 1975 ( 1 9 7 5 . 69: Institut Amatller d'Art Hispanic (tl). H a m b u r g . 49: Hunterian Museum (t). Jackie Douglas. support.bridgeman. B M G . Anders. NY. u k / O n Loan to the H a m b u r g Kunsthalle. Roddy Bell. L o n d o n . A . Rocio Arnaez.uk /Biblioteca Nacional. 5 0 : Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (1). a n d encouragement i n m a k i n g this book: M a m o r u Abe. 11: www. 2 4 : © T h e British Museum. 1 . Italy. Havemeyer.Paris ( b ) . K a t h r y n W i l k i n s o n . c o . ./Galerie Sylvie Nissen. 2 0 1 : T h e Royal Collection © 2 0 0 2 H e r Majesty Queen Elizabeth I I . Berlin/Staatsbibliothek zu A l l other images © Sarah Simblet . K e v i n a n d Rebecca Slingsby. B e r l i n . Productions Clovis Prevost (c). Germany/Joerg P. Psychiatric Institute of the University of Heidelberg.bridgeman. R o y a n d D i a n n e Simblet.co. London/Bequeathed by Charles Landseer. 9 0 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/© A D A G P .bridgeman.bridgeman.r. 226: Brian Catling. Basel.bridgeman. 5 3 : Collection of the Gemeentemuseum D e n Haag/Mondrian Trust.uk/Guildhall Library. 115: Anita Taylor. 29: Fogg A n Museum/Collections Baron de Vita: Grenville L.co. 3 2 : Pepys Library. 88: www. Kirsten Norrie. c o . H e a t h e r M c C a r r y . c o . O./Private Collection/© D A C S 2005.
charcoal. and silverpoint—and apply the key elements of drawing including perspective. Materials and Techniques—how to use a variety of materials—from pencil and ink to pastel. shape. Learn from the Masters—a rich selection of drawings illustrates different approaches to a wide range of subjects. www. and tone. discover new ideas.com Discover more at . D r a w i n g C l a s s e s — d e t a i l e d step-by-step demonstrations show you how to develop your natural talents.dk. Creating a Sketchbook—Sarah Simblet's drawings inspire you to explore different subjects and fill your own sketchbooks. and improve your drawing skills.FOR THE ARTIST T h e c o m p l e t e g u i d e to drawing—a unique blend of practical teaching and inspirational insights into classic and contemporary drawings.
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