An innovative, practical approach to drawing the world around you

SARAH SIMBLET

BOOK
FOR T H E ARTIST

BOOK

FOR THE ARTIST

SARAH SIMBLET

DK PUBLISHING

CONTENTS
LONDON • NEW YORK MELBOURNE • MUNICH • DELHI Senior Editor Paula Regan Senior Art Editor Mandy Earey Art Editor Anna Plucinska Managing Editor Julie Oughton Managing Art Editor Heather McCarry Art Director Peter Luff Publishing Director Jackie Douglas Production Joanna Bull DTP Designer Adam Walker Picture Research Sarah Smithies US Editor Christine Heilman First American Edition, 2 0 0 5 First Paperback Edition, 2 0 0 9 Published in the United States by DK Publishing 3 7 5 Hudson Street New York, New York 1 0 0 1 4 10 11 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3

Architecture
6 8 20 22 Master Builders The Order of Sound Future Fictions Pathways of Sight Single-Point Perspective Creating an Imaginary Space Further Aspects of Perspective Theaters Venetian Life Parisian Street

66
68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86

Foreword Introduction Drawing Books and Papers Posture and Grip

Objects and Instruments

TD075-July 2009 Copyright © 2 0 0 5 Dorling Kindersley Limited Text and authors artworks © Sarah Simblet 2 0 0 4 Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited A Cataloging-in-Publication record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN 9 7 8 - 0 - 7 5 6 6 - 5 1 4 1 - 1 Color reproduction by GRB, Italy Printed and bound in China by Toppan

Still Life Instruments of Vision Bench Marks Light and Illusions Further Illusions How to Draw Ellipses Tonality Drawing with Wire Artifacts and Fictions

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90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106

Animals
Documentaries Presence and Mood Movement Icon and Design Pen and Ink Drawing with Ink Capturing Character Sleeping Dogs Turtles Dry Birds

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26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44

The Body
Postures and Poses Choreographs Passion Measurement and Foreshortening Quick Poses Hands and Feet Charcoal Hands Phrasing Contours The Visual Detective La Specola

108
110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128

Plants and Gardens
Botanical Studies Jeweled Gardens Fast Trees Graphite and Erasers Cropping and Composition Negative Space Fig Tree Summer Flowers Acanthus Spinosus

46
48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64

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Gatherings
Projections Magnetic Fields The Human Condition Disposable Pens The Travel Journal Catching the Moment Grand Canal Crossings Caravans The Big Top

174 Abstract Lines
176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 Process and Harmony Writing Time Chants and Prayers Compositions Being "Just" Collage Zen Calligraphy Nocturnes

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220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234

Portraiture
Poise Anatomies Revelations Self-Portraits Silver Point Head and Neck Essential Observations Drawing Portraits Generations Castings

130
132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 152

Earth and the Elements
Air in Motion Storms Nature Profiles Charcoal Landscapes Drawing in the Round Decaying Boat Cloudburst Notes of Force Mountains

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198 200 202 204 206 208 210 212 214 216

Gods and Monsters
Marks of Influence Hauntings Convolutions Brushes Brush Marks Monsters Goya's Monsters Consumed Glossary Index Acknowledgments

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240 242 244 246 248 250 252 254 256 259 264

Costume
Cloth and Drapery Character Costumes Femmes Fatales Colored Materials Study and Design The Structure of Costume Textures and Patterns Dressing Character Posture Carving

154
156 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172

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aspirations. For twelve years I have enjoyed the privilege of teaching drawing. fashion designer. I was training in anatomy and studying how. a cartographer charting the land. or a quantum physicist trying to see for themselves the fluctuations of our universe. By using our imaginations. but because it is how I engage with and anchor myself in life. night security staff. I also make drawing books. geologists.Foreword B Y DRAWING THE WORLD AROUND US. understood (and often misunderstood) our own bodies. and size. through history. and I refer back to them for years after they are made. Drawing is a mirror through which I understand my place in the world. I work with people of diverse ages. Combine these things and the possibilities are endless. These inspirations led me to invent museums. thinking. texture. shape. and their importance to so many artists. It makes me feel excited to be alive. be they a child discovering their vision and dexterity. from schoolchildren to senior citizens. perhaps hidden on a door hinge or a street bench rail. art schools. and in a few sessions they will be flying. Some are more traditionally framed and hung in galleries for solo or group exhibitions. we learn to feel truly alive. doctors. I was also reading among The Confessions of St. and feeling. as a visiting professor at universities. architect. For me personally. I know that with their cooperation I can soon prove them wrong. Chosen in any color. where I expect them to be discovered by some people. and experience. and a reflector of experience. still standing by the door. We can all learn how to draw. not only to make art. I will always draw. Augustine his notes on memory. where spaces are shaped by nothing more than the objects and activities contained within them. and makers of special effects. The most rewarding challenge is always the newcomer. we have looked at. undergraduates to fellow professors. Drawing occupies a unique place in every artist and creator's life. and local c o m m u n i t y classes. It is a tool for investigating ideas and recording knowledge. a sculptor. remain unseen by most. . Others can be held in the h a n d or. Some of my drawings cover entire walls. or engineer. that inspired the title and structure MEMORY T H E A T E R S This pen-and-ink drawing was made from imagination during research for my PhD. and through which I can see how I think. are made outside as discreet installations. and be slowly washed or worn away. we learn to see it. especially as travel journals. a drawing book is the perfect portable private vehicle for your imminent exploration of drawing. It is my love of these. of Sketch Book for the Artist. a composer notating a musical score. They occupy a shelf in my studio. in which he describes himself flying and diving in his imagination through pictorial caverns of knowledge. They enfold their viewer and are made on joined sheets of paper that I reach by climbing ladders. The very first step is to believe it. drawing is the immediate expression of seeing. who tells me firmly upon approach that they cannot draw. by invitation.

They have a natural affinity to many modern graffiti signatures. irreverent to language barriers. inscribing every fresh part of it with their eager scrapes and trails. and we spend our lives reading it. is not afforded us by drawing. a great crowd is raising their hands in greeting. We can always read each others drawings. We are surrounded by drawings in our daily lives. scrawling shapes and cartoons when on the telephone. not just chosen pictures on our walls but everywhere—maps. The sense of relief we may feel from the information overload of modern commercial life when visiting a country in which we can no longer read every written word. like a great canvas for them to mark.8 INTRODUCTION Where We Begin There is a fundamental drive in our human nature to make a mark. logos. signs. Cueva de las Marios.000-9500 bce . Drawing is international. Sometimes we draw because we are bored. Rio Pinturas 13. Most adults still feel that certain exquisite pleasure on arriving at a beach to find the tide out and the sand perfect. "CAVE OF THE HANDS" In this drawing. but more often because drawing actually helps us to focus and take in what is said. Children cannot be restrained from running across the pristine white lawn of newly fallen snow. waving to us from many thousands of yearsago. in lectures. graffiti. We are bombarded with linear and tonal pictorial information. At home and at work we doodle.Theseancient silhouettes were drawn with earth pigments rubbed onto rock. packaging. and patterns on our clothes. and in meetings.

The image above is what I gave back to my mother. enjoying the physical sensation of crayon on paper. I. In cave paintings like the one opposite. had happily scribbled. at age two-anda-half. . and belonging to place. Even though it is made by a toddler this image would be recognizable to anyone. an expression of existence. I was sitting with my mother.9 WHERE WE BEGIN FIRST PORTRAIT For sorre forgotten reason. but I had never yet attempted to figuratively picture my world. like all toddlers. and the appearance of my strikes of colors. I now think this is a picture of proximity. created by societies of hunter-gatherers. She gave me a notepad and a red crayon and asked me to draw her "a picture of Daddy. Cave art was not made for decoration but as a fundamental part of life. who in their day-to-day hardship made time to picture themselves and the animals on which they depended. reflecting my experience of looking closely at my father's face. On a particular afternoon in September 1974. the hair of my first portrait was most important. power." Until this day. we see our oldest surviving images. MAKING OUR MARK It seems reasonable to assume that we have engaged in pictorial mark-making for as long as we have made conscious use of our hands. and she kept it as my first step beyond the delighted realms of scrawl. Eyelashes take up as much of my attention as the head itself.

it is important to value your natural abilities a n d ways of seeing. As you progress. then drag o u r line into a loop. PROGRESSION T h e r e is a point in all o u r lives w h e n w e first c o n t r o l o u r mark and m a k e it a line.10 INTRODUCTION PEN-AND-INK BEE This tiny drawing has been enlarged to show its texture and composition. But as adolescents. It was made with a few bold strokes of a steel pen dipped in ink to conjure the dried bee I was holding between my fingers on a pin. h o w e v e r small a n d u n f o r m e d y o u believe they are. Don't b e p e r s u a d e d to draw in a w a y s o m e o n e else . Inhibitions creep in and ideas of good a n d b a d terminate confidence. b e p r o u d o f what m a k e s y o u r w o r k individual to y o u . Young children love to draw. most of us stop. Hours are lost immersed in the glorious world of imagination. At this point many will insist they cannot draw. yet still turn to drawing w h e n their verbal language fails or is inadequate. for example. W e do n o t hesitate to draw a map. and from that first unit build and describe the shape of something or someone we know. to help a stranger see their way W h e n taking first steps in relearning h o w to draw. and this activity plays a vital role in their d e v e l o p m e n t .

The journey of every artist demands hard work and discipline. After experimenting and trying each new idea. but it does help to set out facing in the right direction. Enjoy the control of your own journey. He used leftover ship and yacht paint with crayons on cut-out pieces of cardboard boxes. I ask them their reasons for drawing. 1925-42 53/8x87/8in (135 x 225 mm) ALFRED WALLIS prefers and tells you is better. what they most want to achieve. and which aspects of the vast wealth and diversity of graphic language would be most appropriate to their goals. He was a retired Cornish fisherman and junk dealer who began drawing at the age of 70 "for company" after his wife died. Someone once told them they must draw in this way. Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse c. As you read this b o o k and perhaps attend art classes. harbor and sea is one of many that Alfred Wallis made from memory while sitting at home. I meet students struggling unhappily with a particular method of drawing. Occasionally. and they have never questioned why. Think how much would have been lost if anyone had interfered with Alfred Wallis' personal sense of proportion and perspective in the exquisite drawing above. you must decide whether to keep or discard it. remember that all advice is only advice.11 PROGRESSION A UNIQUE SIGHT This innocent yet sophisticated drawing of boats. .

be visionary. We BIRD STUDIES The flutter of faint scratches that dance across the pages on the right is an attempt to see the movement and bony weightlessness of a bird. There are countless reasons for drawing. boats. There should neve: be a slavish obligation to represent things exactly as we collectively agree we see them. When we look back at Wallis' seascape (see p. We all see differently. depending on the occasion and our purpose. The observed world may be our subject.12 INTRODUCTION VISION All artists see the world differently. but it should be the experienced world we draw. but the child in us knows that this is an all-embracing. the breast. and lose the very thing that attracted us to it. perhaps for comfort or ease as a left-hander or a habitual enjoyment of the challenge. right. clear-minded understanding of the sea. IDEAS A N D I N V E N T I O N S These active machines. There are only artists. His notes visually balance his drawings.and collarbones and shoulder blades of a different bird almost become new creatures in themselves. We also see differently ourselves. we can drive out its spirit. author of The Story of Art. embedded in this book. and inspire others. all raise water From the Archimedes' screw to Leonardo's own cupped wheel. it may not be accurate to our critical adult eye. If as artists we nail a subject down too hard. Our imaginations are the tools with which we can increase the essence of life. Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels LEONARDO DA VINCI . "There really is no such thing as Art. wrote as the opening line of this great work. and breathtaking wind of a choppy harbor. 11). Below. I hope. The art historian Professor Sir Ernst Gombrich." The clarity and empowerment of these words. the page bristles with the focus of ideas. They are also always written backward. not for disguise but as a personal choice. is.

while below. stripped-down parts. Opposite. but it is important to be clear why we are making it. or to discover the best use of a new material. drawing in pursuit of our own thoughts and understanding. . More was learned drawing the bird 18 times than would have been understood drawing it only once or twice. Each fresh image reflects growing confidence and the experience of the preceding study. This also applies if struggling at length with a larger picture. Don't be disheartened. Leonardo drew to invent a machine. to express the beauty in a moment's play of light.13 VISION should not try to know how every finished picture will look. We have both covered our paper with focused. Our drawings are annotated investigations into the mechanisms of nature and of an idea. time spent is not lost. it may be best to start afresh. shout against a terrible injustice. It will be invested through your experience in the new drawing. or illustrate a dream. My drawings of a housemartin (opposite top) illustrate the importance of repeated study. I drew to understand the apparatus of flight. conduct an experiment. Decide before you start whether you are drawing to warm up. make a calculation. when it looks tired and still feels wrong.

This suits many artists well and is perfectly valid. We are caught in a shifting focus that makes everything fluid. or imagine—it is not enough to only render its shape. and we can just make out the distant stains of mountains. balance. I made it almost unconsciously with a pen and a brush. mists. Whatever the material— wood. Know the texture. and position in space. and opacity of your subject. bone. and at speeds beyond conscious thought. and what you discover in the process of making. It denies the importance of accident. fire. declare the idea. water. Imagine these qualities so strongly that you feel them in your mind and at your fingertips. Our position asvieweris unsteady. silk. As you draw any subject—something you see. ink. and sometimes beyond. trusting my intuition to find a visual equivalence for the sensation of weight within my body. the unknown. The physicality. feel. metal. excessive planning can get in the way of the imagination. are both made of ink laid onto wet paper with speed and agile certainty. This is a detail of a brush-and-ink drawing by a Japanese Buddhist monk. meaning. As your hand meets the paper to make a mark. and how it feels to the touch. and allowed to flow through the brush. They each allowed the energy and focus of the moment to be expressed through controlled accident and a degree of the unknown Both drawings were made trusting the marks. and spirit of each subject was held strongly but loosely between the fingertips. Landscape in Haboku Style 15TH CENTURY . temperature. However. Each image relied upon past experience to know the probable behavior of the brush. your marks will become the subject on the paper. These two brush drawings. You must also think of its intrinsic nature: its purpose. which can offer keys to other things. and paper. it should be responding to the sensation and meaning of the subject it draws. size. explain the composition. and an island brushed with trees. W e float toward the quiet vista as it also moves toward us. depth. If you can do this. This is the alchemy of drawing. or ice—you must actually feel it beneath your fingers as you draw. and practice each part before putting the final image together. created centuries and cultures apart. we are advised or even required to plan our pictures.14 INTRODUCTION ALCHEMY At school. BRUSHED LANDSCAPE FLOWING SKELETON T h e gliding poise of this walking anatomy comes as much from the feeling of movement as it does from the feeling of drawing.

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stand table-sized with furniture legs attached t o b o t h sides of their jacket. more than 100 years after its making. W a l t e r also makes books: some.16 INTRODUCTION PLACE A N D MOMENT The heat and teeming atmosphere o f this Parisian dressing room. made by a young British artist who creates alphabets o f the absurd f r o m familiar childhood characters. right is set inside a rib cage. left. He dazzles us with flashes o f light and dabbed marks o f shadow. c.1896 Woman at her Toilet 41 x 26 in (104 x 66 cm) TOULOUSE LAUTREC RIB-CAGE D R A M A Thus drama. Focusing on the Negative 2004 22 x 30 in (56 x 76 cm) J O H N WALTER . Lautrec's flamboyant splashes o f petticoats and pantaloons are drawn with long sweeps of chalk and brushed oil paint. pastel. one of many luminous works in watercolor. acrylic. lives on. like folded insects. gold leaf and spray paint. which evoke realities o f place and the p o w e r o f moment.

Choose other materials and do the same. FREEINGTHEHAND . Pages do not have to lie open for other people to inspect and comment on. Drawing is exploratory. With no help and advice at all. try not to grip your pen worrying about the technical terms you might have heard. It is yours. One of the advantages of a drawing book is that you can shut it. you will naturally make progress on your own in response to concentration and the decision to look and draw. take your time and don't worry if you need to make several attempts to grasp a concept. and miscellaneous items of inspiration. at a point when you feel you are not making progress. Start by choosing a material you like the look of and cover a piece of paper with different marks. even those you dislike. Ignore these at first and allow yourself the freedom to play. As you follow lessons in this book. Enjoy discovering what your hand and the material can do. Put them away and look at them later. Much will be learned on these test sheets and in your first drawings. potential ideas still forming. Try to keep all of your first drawings. Such books are personal: the territory of new exploration and experiment.17 FREEING THE HAND If you are just beginning to learn how to draw. you will be surprised and encouraged to see how far you have come. diary-like observations. just through the act of making. and mistakes are a valuable process of learning.

comes from within. caught between action and repose. Look to your own experience and also learn from the work of others. The chapters of this book present 90 different artists' ways of seeing. Drawing is a living language that over millennia has grown and changed. However. which of course he cannot see. 150). Note that the drawing classes are allocated to subjects. staring straight through his image of a bull. An artist's personal voice is something that also evolves through lessons learned. it will be your creation as you discover your own personal vision. but not confined to them. when they are more experienced. ELECTRIC BULL With a penlight.Their elegant strength seems to summon a lifetime of drawing. and became a great subject for me. and many more reasons for drawing the world. and enfolding new media. I was particularly attracted to their gentle articulation and understated determination. threedimensionally. which is held frozen in space by a camera lens. seek ideas in the life around you. Picasso Painting with Light at the Madoura Pottery 1949 . Picasso is poised smiling. As you draw.18 INTRODUCTION THE THINKING EYE Techniques and materials are the grammar and vocabulary of drawing and can be studied and shared. we still only glimpse a corner of the magnitude of this subject and the infinity of what can be achieved. A N ARTIST'S HANDS These are the hands of the artist Phyll Kiggell (see p. To these I have added my own drawings to explain elementary materials and techniques and offer introductory approaches. Imagination needs nourishment. Once there. It rarely flourishes in isolation. adapting its form and occupation. Picasso has just finished his drawing. This practical journey will take you through the door into the vivid heart of drawing. The real drawing book has yet to come. it is this voice that is the subtle part of their art and something that ultimately. Its sensuous and flowing line seems to drift like smoke. In the total wealth of these pages. the path is yours.

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cheap corrugated plastic ones fall apart in days.b o u n d b o o k w i l l s o o n s h o w y o u h o w it is m a d e . y o u n e e d a lifetime. c h o o s e larger f o r m a t s t o give y o u s c o p e f o r e x p e r i m e n t . T h e hardb o a r d j a c k e t is s t r e t c h e d w i t h canvas beneath t h e p a p e r sleeve. Many artists invent ways o f binding their o w n books. be sure they fit comfortably under your arm. pastels. catalogs.q u a l i t y r i n g . it is better to have them made at a lumber yard or home improvement store. These are perfect f o r w o r k i n g in novels. 4. cut. Sand the edges to avoid splinters. Drawing boards are invaluable. Homemade books can be assembled easily from found materials or selections of loose sheet papers. c h o o s e s m a l l e r h a r d . binding. There are dozens to choose from.b o u n d b o o k s t h a t fit in y o u r p o c k e t o r bag. Most contain thin p a p e r and are perfect f o r use w i t h disposable pens.C O V E R E D H A R D B O U N D : Ideal f o r c a r r y i n g a r o u n d . A high-quality one will last a DRAWING BOOKS Select d r a w i n g b o o k s t o suit y o u r aims. N o t e t h e w i d e l y differing c h o i c e o f p a p e r s w i t h w h i c h t h e s e are m a d e . 2. is perfect. H o w e v e r r i n g bindings o f t e n break. c o l o r If planning t o use pencils. 2002 Tantalus o r The Future of Man 81/2 x61/4in (215 x 158 mm) ROSE MILLER . study the structure of a good portfolio and make your own. If you intend to carry your boards for a distance. Purchase a h i g h . 5. thick enough not to flex. Smooth plywood. quality. You simply need two strong boards hinged together well. texture. C A N V A S . and handles to lift the weight of your artworks. a n d crayons. They can be very expensive in art stores. ties on either side to keep your papers in place.b o u n d p a d if y o u w i s h t o keep your drawings together long-term. stitched. b e a w a r e t h a t p a p e r t e x t u r e effects a n d changes t h e i r marks. a n d r e f e r e n c e b o o k s f o u n d in s e c o n d . t h i s is h o w I l e a r n e d . F o r e v e n i n g classes. and collage their ideas. Dissecting a d i s c a r d e d h a r d . color. H O M E M A D E : I m a d e this b o o k f r o m drawing paper that I folded. It is also useful to own a portfolio. 6. R I N G . a l e n g t h o f black elastic t i e d a r o u n d t h e m i d d l e will h o l d the contents together w h e n y o u f o l d in c o l l e c t e d items. drawing book. C O L O R E D PAPERS: Large a r t supply stores o f t e n sell t h i c k b o o k s full o f c o l o r e d p a p e r s . thickness. and glued t o a s t r i p o f bias binding.B O U N D PADS: T h e s e are t h e least expensive a n d useful f o r o p e n i n g flat. Alternatively. BLACK P O C K E T B O O K S : Hand-sized w i t h ready-made elastic binder and a marker ribbon. t h e i r jackets w i l l a c t like d r a w i n g b o a r d s a n d p r o t e c t y o u r w o r k . Calculate a range of useful dimensions and have several cut at once. Art students often make use of printed books picked up from secondhand stores into which they draw. which are also sold in an enormous range. and cost. F o r traveling. Gleaming store purchases vary greatly in format. 1. F O U N D B O O K S : O l d p r i n t e d 3 .20 INTRODUCTION Drawing Books and Papers T o BEGIN YOUR EXPLORATION o f d r a w i n g .h a n d s t o r e s make unique subjects f o r e x p e r i m e n t s a n d collage.

T W O RIVERS GREEN 410G MS: Very heavy tinted textured cold-pressed watercolor paper See Two Rivers Yellow. tough. 14. T W O RIVERS Y E L L O W 410GMS: See Two Rivers Green 19. 8. 100% cotton and sold in sheets. blocks. It is also excellent for drawing with marker pens on layered sheets. blocks. or rolls. SAUNDERS WATERFORD N O T 300GMS: Mid-quality textured watercolor paper. size. white textured paper that can take abrasive use of any medium. and white. mold-. not. It is available in white or cream. PAPERS . 18. For use with any media. pastel paper in flecked pastel colors with a distinctive ribbed marking. 2 5 6 . absorbency. Cotton papers are high-quality and acid-free. ITALIAN PARCHMENT: Imitation-animal-skin parchment that is translucent and slightly waxy. 20. 15. MAGIC PAPER: A reusable sheet for testing ideas without creating waste. it is made from rice. Use cheap paper for rough ideas and quality paper for work to last See the glossary ( p p . and rolls. 12. printed on one side only. used to imprint lines of these colors onto a surface. resisting deterioration. 7. 13.TISSUE PAPER: Place sheets between drawing book pages to keep images from printing on each other and use for delicate collage. Use for brushwork drawings. yellow. Cheap wood-pulp papers are acidic. 11. FABRIANO ACADEMIA: Standard medium-range multipurpose paper Use with any media.Papers differ in thickness (weight). fine. and hot pressed papers. texture. from pencil to paint 9. 21. C A R B O N PAPER: Available in dark and light blue. and cost. red. and translucent.5 9 ) for explanations of rough. They are hand-. mulberry. or machine made in sheets. smooth. FABRIANO INGRES: Thin. Ph. JAPANESE PAPER: Strong. FABRIANO R O U G H 600GMS: Very heavy. 10. C A N S O N : Inexpensive lightweight pastel paper in many colors. turning brown and brittle. color. VELIN ARCHES 250GMS: Printmaking paper available in black white. Use with a brush in clean water Water makes a dark mark like ink and becomes invisible again when dry. bamboo. GLASSINE: Sold as protective wrapping. 16. and other plant fibers. 22. 17. AQUARELLE ARCHES 300GMS:The very top quality hot-pressed (smooth) watercolor paper. also good for drawing with colored pencils. METALLIC PAPER: Thin paper in different metallic colors. cold. and cream sheets or rolls.

should be able to look comfortably straight ahead at your picture plane. strangledlooking drawings. SPACE TO WORK Cramped grip. but you need to understand that the expression of a line or mark originates in the body and flows t h r o u g h the shoulder. It will also reflect discomfort if you are in any way cramped. Accelerated perspective also occurs if you look down the surface steeply (see pp. you Drawing classes can be cramped places. You cannot draw like this—your hand is locked and your fingers can barely move. your drawing will reflect this. if left-handed. but wherever possible. How you hold your drawing materials is also important. Regularly step back 6-9 ft (2-3 m) to check your progress. a n d h a n d to the fingertips. Relaxed fingers: Hold the pencil away from its tip and relax your fingers. flowing space between your hand. make sure you have enough room to back away and view your work. Examples are shown here. Turning your drawing sideways or upside-own will also help reveal what is wrong. If your hand twists to maneuver between the paper and your body. place it on the correct side: if right-handed. This photograph illustrates how some people hold a pen to write. don't sit too close to the paper. Use the side of your little fingernail as a support on the page. you can draw lines freely and achieve a significant arc of movement. and subject.22 INTRODUCTION Posture and Grip T o DRAW WELL. If using an upright easel. and look to the right. place it on your left. There are also parallels to dance. There should be an open. Ideally. b u t it should n o t be forgotten that many people make remarkable a n d striking works drawing with their feet or holding their brush or pencil in their mouths. With your hand in this position. arm. or with your drawing board angled between your lap and a chair. In this book we will look at parallels between drawing and music. You do not have to dance to draw. . your lines will distort. If your body posture is well balanced and you can move freely. place it on your right. body. If seated on a b e n c h easel (a donkey). your whole relaxed b o d y should be involved. 116-17). From a distance you will spot errors you cannot see close up. a n d look to the left of it at your subject. This cramped grip tires your hand and makes small. Placing your easel o n the w r o n g side folds y o u r b o d y against your drawing arm.

232-33).23 This loose "candle" grip is very useful when drawing with your arm extended. Large amounts of ink can be applied without fear of uncontrolled running if the paper is flat. depending upon what it is and how large you are working. hold your material as you find most comfortable. This can be used to great effect. But be careful not to tense your fingers. arm. . To stop this. upright way of holding the brush near its base is similar to the Japanese way used in Zen calligraphy (see pp. liquid will run down your hand. This can give a new lease on life to your mark-making. As long as your fingers. brush pressed against an upright surface will cause a dribble of ink to run down your drawing. not up to the paper Brushes can be used on upright paper but dip Anticipating effects: A fully loaded pens need a level surface. Large scale: POSTURE AND GRIP U n f a m i l i a r i t y : T h e habitual movements of our handwriting style will sometimes infringe upon our drawing. alternative way of holding the pencil. Brush calligraphy: This comfortable. find an unfamiliar. or change to the wrong hand. Remember you can also draw just by dipping your fingers in pigment—this is how many women draw in rural India. It is most comfortable when reaching to draw above your head. Soft media: Short materials such as pastels and charcoal can be accommodated in the palm. If you turn a brush or dip pen up into the air to draw above your hand. or it can spoil your work if not anticipated. GRAVITY Remember that gravity affects the flow of ink and paint. roughly marking out a large-scale work. ALL MEDIA There are no rules as to how you should hold your drawing media. and body are not restricted.

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White's commission was to ". On the Roanoke voyages of Sir Walter Raleigh. their different speeds and patterns of action. sleeping dogs. For the novice artist. W h e n lost to explain our own emotions. Here (left) we see J o h n White's exquisite record of a flying fish. cartographer. animals provide a perfect subject with which to begin. or scampering through the initials and borders of pictures from that time. we have employed artists on expeditions. " Animals perpetually feed our imaginations. out are now oxidized and so appear black W h e n less preoccupied with understanding ourselves. which very likely leaped o n t o the deck of Sir Walter Raleigh's ship Tiger as it sailed north from the Caribbean to Virginia in 1585. Facial features were analyzed in terms of their animal likeness. and silent. who described in words what White drew. This drawing is made in black lead (metal point) with watercolor Highlights of silver would have gleamed.. Framed in the z o o or in domestic cohabitation. W e have drawn them in m a n u s c r i p t s to explain our genesis and to c o u n t their species into Noah's ark. which are so unlike ours. they are perhaps our favorite pictorial preoccupation. Europeans on board had never seen such a thing. We have drawn them on the walls of caves to evoke their kinship and power. and to bring h o m e drawn documentaries of their finds. mermaids. and people. and dragons. floating turtles. In this chapter we discover the use of pens and ink through the delineation of insects. offer challenges and delights to draw. from which personality and predicted behavior were " d e d u c e d . In medieval England." He worked with the scientist Thomas Harriot. In 19th-century Europe this became a "science. and learn how to Flying Fish c.m o u n t e d skeletons of birds. and we still see escapees from its pages carved and grinning as the gargoyles of churches." Paranoid newcomers c r a m m e d into swelling industrial cities used handbooks of physiognomy to identify and judge their neighbors. 11 x91/4in (277 x 234 mm) . to be there at the m o m e n t of discovery. the Latin bestiary was one of the most popular picture books—an illustrated dictionary of one hundred parts. and snakes have between them engendered harpies. werewolves.Animals H UMANS HAVE DRAWN ANIMALS from the beginning of our time. each dedicated to the moralized tale of an animal or monster The bestiary profoundly influenced the art of its period. O v e r the centuries. bats. After the subject of ourselves. m u s e u m .. 1590 J O H N WHITE capture form and movement from the m a n n e r i s m s of honking geese. and this very drawing was to endure many copies and plagiarisms after its triumphant return to the English court of Queen Elizabeth I. As children we delight in the humanized trials of Tom and Jerry and their c a r t o o n relations. we turn and take the features of beasts. fish. insects. plants.drawe to lief one of each kinde of thing that is strange to us in England. Together they made maps and documented animals. 1540. JOHN WHITE British artist. and pioneer born c. dogs. birds.

Converted into a print. draftsman. inspiring countless works of art and so touching people's imaginations that later. printmaker. but the drowned animal washed ashore. Contemporary texts related accounts of the beast as the mortal enemy of the elephant and rare relative of the "more common" unicorn. they were rejected. Life-like This is Durer's original quill-and-ink drawing made after an anonymous Portuguese drawing.26 ANIMALS Documentaries horse are superb affirmations of the power of drawing as a recorder and communicator of knowledge. He studied the image and drew his own interpretation. Durer's image changed eager hands until it was known across Europe. naturalist. it continued its journey to Rome. and wrote four books on proportion. He in turn sent the mysterious creature to the Pope via Marseilles at the request of the King of France. It is such a lifelike triumph of imagination and intelligence that for centuries zoologists never questioned its authority. It was to become the animal's only accepted likeness for 250 years. Carefully stuffed. the home of ALBRECHT DURER German Renaissance painter. a gift to the Portuguese King. and mathematician. years after its publication. Unsurpassed. The first live rhinoceros to reach Europe came from India in May 1515. filled journals with ideas and observations. Meanwhile. Sailing to Rome. Durer traveled widely to study at different European schools of art. a drawing of it arrived in Nuremberg. writer. Original Ink Drawing of a Rhinoceros 1515 ALBRECHT DURER 103/4 x 161/2 in ( 2 7 4 x 4 2 0 mm) . DURER'S RHINOCEROS AND STUBBS'S skeletal Durer. when more accurate portrayals were made without armor and scales. the ship was lost. Stubbs's Anatomy of the Horse achieved similar documentary status. it is still consulted by veterinarians today.

Table of the III of the Horse (rear Skeleton view) mm) 1756-58 1 4 x 7 in ( 3 5 4 x 1 8 0 GEORGE STUBBS . dissecting and drawing until he understood the mechanisms of its power and grace. Lighting Stubbs's breathtaking international work won immediate There acclaim.GEORGE STUBBS B r i t i s h e q u i n e a n d s o c i e t y p o r t r a i t painter. This is one of Stubbs' original finished pencil drawings. and therefore invented the lighting that Compare how Stubbs and Durer both invented lighting to portray the reality of their animals. is no other work like it. His painted p o r t r a i t o f t h e b e a s t is in t h e R o y a l C o l l e g e o f S u r g e o n s o f England. Dissections Stubbs took his knife and his pencil and physically climbed inside the horse. Stubbs's m o s t c e l e b r a t e d publication. a n d s i d e . composed from notes and observations. Stubbs w a s o n e o f t h e first E u r o p e a n artists t o m a k e a n a c c u r a t e representation o f the rhinoceros. He translated his own drawings into engravings for publication. naturalist. which has never diminished. knowledge of parts. He composed makes each horse appear so real and each plate from his three-dimensional. a n d anatomist. c o m p r i s e s 1 8 p l a t e s s h o w i n g d i s s e c t i o n s in l a y e r s f r o m b o n e t h r o u g h m u s c u l a t u r e t o skin. Anatomy of the Horse. Dissections were made over a total of 18 months. L o n d o n . in t h r e e v i e w s — r e a r f r o n t . The entire project was developed over ten years.

ink and linseed oil on paper. conjured b y the hand of a great author of French literary fiction. Apparently drawn in its o w n ink. Gericault's sheet a p p e a r s almost s c r a t c h e d b y the f e r o c i o u s play of his cat. The Hunchback of Notre Layers and shadows Throughout this drawing. charcoal. The octopus is formed in layers applied and distressed with a brush.. and leader of the French Romantic movement. Hugo's page is f l o o d e d w i t h the fearful presence of a remembered octopus. her sharp teeth. and a love of accident. snarl. linseed oil soaked into the paper has made shadows and repelled the ink to create translucent tentacles. the ominous beast unwinds from the dark of the sea and of our nightmares. H u g o mixed his media and drew from m e m o r y and imagination to create narrative atmosphere.. His copious drawings are characterized by mixed media. Mixed media Here.". He has w a t c h e d her p o u n c e . He wrote to poet and art critic Charles-Pierre Baudelaire about his experiments. coal dust. playwright. Gericault took a sharp p e n c i l to m a k e repeated direct o b s e r v a t i o n s f r o m life.. VICTOR HUGO Poet. and turn. and all sorts of bizarre concoctions which manage to convey above all in mind. saying ". By contrast. drawing her again and again to pin d o w n the texture of her loose skin. novelist.. more or less what I have in view. drama.28 ANIMALS Presence and Mood THESE DRAWINGS HAVE BEEN CHOSEN to s h o w t w o v e r y different ways of picturing a wild animal. sepia. it silently rises to the light. her b o n y frame. and Pieuvre 1866-69 91/2 x81/8in (242 x 207 mm) VICTOR H U G O . soot. and her distinctive temperament. I've ended up mixing in pencil. Hugo used graphite powder. Surrounding sprays of graphite powder are stuck into washes of oil and ink to suggest glutinous depths. A s if disturbed from its gritty b e d by our presence and curiosity. Hugo's novels Les Miserables and Dame have become classics of film and stage.

artists reused sheets and them full of studies. At the center of the page is crammed drawings the outline of a horse. Tones that do not follow surface contour is very difficult to do well. 144. displayed in the Louvre. standing sideways.l i v e d French R o m a n t i c painter and lithographer Largely self-taught.118-119). 124-25 and p. Beginners are advised to follow the natural contours of form as shown on pp. Paris. facing right. of previous Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 1817-18 121/2 x 151/2 in ( 3 1 9 x 3 9 8 mm) T H E O D O R E GERICAULT . The Raft of the Medusa. Here. parallel. undertraces unify and vitalize the composition. and it can be applied to any subject (see pp. horses w e r e a favorite subject t o g e t h e r w i t h politics and history. diagonal strokes of his pencil. H e is best k n o w n f o r his gigantic painting. of drawings Gericault erased. Before paper became so cheap. Repeated study This drawing demonstrates of feeling confident repeat different the importance subject Remaining enough to isolate parts of a views. s h o r t . Undertraces Beneath these graphite studies we see traces Tones On the top row we see clearly how Gericault laid broad areas of tone using fast. and keep trying again. since it can lead to a flattened form. fiery.29 THEODORE GERICAULT C o n t r o v e r s i a l . focused upon seeing will lead to a greater understanding of the subject Much is learned from repeated study.

Both Picasso and Klee have enclosed their subjects to compress and amplify the speed of PABLO PICASSO A prolific Spanish painter sculptor. flapping bird. His powdery. the first abstract movement of the 20th century. draftsman. Gouache is brushed softly in translucent hazy layers of cool blue. we see semi-abstract. His hand must have shuddered and twitched just like the constant actions of this humorous meeting. The fact that they never stand still influences the movement in his line. Artists commonly focus on such actions. and scrolled lines. Cheval et Oiseau 1936 173/8 x 211/4 in ( 4 4 0 x 5 4 0 m m ) PABLO PICASSO . and waves breaking distantly below. In these two drawings. overwhelmed by a screeching bird. the whinnying of a frantic horse. printmaker ceramicist graphic and stage designer who lived in France. quivering horse. identify an animal: the fast cheetah. and brown. Ink and gouache This drawing is made in black Chinese ink and gouache (opaque watercolor) applied with a brush. Faune. noise is everywhere. or proud. hooked. with George Braque (see p90). In Picasso's drawing. made only a year apart. taking them to guide their hand in bringing form and essence together. The ink is used to make sharply defined solid. dissolving faun kneels stranded.30 ANIMALS Movement M O V E M E N T IS OFTEN THE CHARACTERISTIC b y w h i c h w e their lines and the power of their beasts. flattened animals composed almost entirely of movement. gray. slow tortoise. Picasso cofounded Cubism. These media complement and amplify each other with their brilliant contrast. Klee's riders are constructed from all the gestures of greeting mules.

draftsman. N e u m a n n Family Collection. printmaker. They remain in contact with the surface of the page and scribble back and forth as they maneuver from one area to another. W i t h his drawings Kleeb o u n d sophisticated theories to personal and often witty childlike imagery. creatures." They chatter around bodies in groups. Scene der Komischen of Comical Reiter Riders) (Scene 1935 161/2x111/2in ( 4 1 9 x 2 9 1 mm) M o r t o n G . sculptor. violinist. Layers of marks In this pale Dentil drawing we see layers of' agitated marks that together present a kind of visual "itch. top all happily of each other in the Endless lines Look closely at how Klee's lines rarely leave the paper and how they are free from the constraint of finite shape. He is a u t h o r o f The Thinking Eye (1923). The entire drawing suggests the endless small movements of horses standing still.PAUL KLEE Swiss painter. and t e a c h e r at t h e Bauhaus school. turning our eye and around inside the and postures of the paper- thin on pictorial space. well-worn copies o f w h i c h are found in m a n y art schools. Chicago PAUL KLEE .

The ship The upper decks of the ship appear curved toward us at both ends. In contrast to the practical clarity of Baker's thought. Baker lived in an era when ships were built without drawn plans. and scales. slim stern). This drawing illustrates Baker's theory. B a k e r initiated t h e scientific p r a c t i c e o f naval a r c h i t e c t u r e and applied h y d r o d y n a m i c s . In just one drawing he has displayed more angles of his design than we would expect to see from a single viewpoint Fragments English 1586 101/2 x 153/8 in (270 x 390 mm) MATTHEW BAKER of Ancient Shipwrightry . He studied the anatomy of fish. adding washes of color with a fine brush. mathematician. fins. t h e earliest geometrically defined elevations. drawings of animals that are each held tightly in a surprising space: a giant fish wears a ship's hull. and s e c t i o n s o f ships. Knopf's drawing opposite is the personal enigmatic expression of a mind gripped by illness. Baker did not intend this. the expression of its eye.32 ANIMALS Icon and Design IN THESE T W O MANUSCRIPTS we discover diagrammatic and mackerel's tail" (full bow. balance. it would achieve greater speed. The fish It is likely that Baker drew with a quill dipped in irongall ink. later called a galleon. It is simply how we read his perspective. Exquisite details in this drawing include the lips of the fish. Below we see his revolutionary design for an Elizabethan warship. b a s e d o n his studies o f fish. and blackbirds fly in formation through a mosaic of text. His birds stare. and the carefully observed gills. which in application gave strength and advantage to the English fighting the Spanish Armada. plans. seemingly looking for our attention. and from them learned that if he designed his ship with a "cod's head MATTHEW BAKER Master shipwright. and to assess our next move. and author o f Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (1586). and steerage.

appears to be stirred like water by the presence of the The Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks UNDATED 133/8 x 115/8 in (340 x 2 9 6 mm) and psychiatrist Hans Prinzhom collected this image. and filled evenly with tone. circle and the birds. written last of all. The text. T h e G e r m a n a r t historian Outline and tone The blackbirds illuminating this frantic manuscript are drawn in pencil. JOHANN KNOPF .JOHANN KNOPF An " O u t s i d e r " a r t i s t w h o s u f f e r e d f r o m m e n t a l illness. firmly outlined.K n o p f b e l i e v e d h e c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h e language o f birds. The main group is placed in a circle drawn with a compass. w h i c h o f t e n f e a t u r e as s y m b o l i c creatures in his drawings. numbered.

producing a different line. A German recipe of 1531 gives a simple description: "Take a wax candle. which scratch rather than draw. Masters choose brands of long. Quills were later cut from feathers. spots.34 ANIMALS Pen and Ink W I T H A HANDFUL OF FEATHERS. and hold it under a clean basin until the soot hangs to it. Intricate or dramatic lines. QUILLS: These are cut from the barrel of a flight or tail feather. In the Far East. F O U N T A I N PENS: These vary in quality and nib width. Early artists recommended raven and crow for especially fine work. where reeds were gathered. METAL PENS: Inexpensive removable steel nibs are available in a range of widths. Avoid needle-sharp mapping pens. from the acacia tree." "Gum" refers to gum arabic extracted Dip pens are essential and inexpensive drawing tools. a n d m e t a l p o i n t s . PENS .246-47). 4. the recipes for which have been handed down over centuries. That is an ink. Each pen has a unique character. light it. 2. The reservoir gives a constant flow of ink for very long unbroken lines and continuous bottle-free use. then pour a little warm gum water into it and temper the two together. They fit into wooden holders. expressive drawing techniques such as the ones we explore in this chapter 1. 3. The Egyptians and Chinese are credited with the invention of carbon ink. 5 0 0 years ago. high-quality Chinese and Japanese inks are subtler and more complex than those produced in Europe. and it is still in use today. Today. Responsive to slight changes in pressure. and spatters can be made with an exotic choice of inks. distinguished manufacture. and first used by the Egyptians. REED PENS: A broad nib can be cut from bamboo or another tubular grass. they are associated with rapid. Only fill with suitable inks. The best are goose or swan. which range greatly in their handling and character of line. The Chinese used animal or fish glue. The bar is then rubbed into water on a slate block to produce ink. ink is traditionally applied with a brush (see pp. The paste from either recipe is pressed and dried into a bar for storage. you can have great fun drawing the world around you. simultaneously 4 . s t i c k s . while metal nibs began as rare gifts in gold and silver before being perfected by the British steel industry. Dip pens began their history in the Nile River.

Waterproof types contain shellac. I R O N . C A R B O N INK: Traditionally produced from oil or resin soot (Lamp Black). Bistre is the more humane use of soot scraped from the fireplace and ground into wine. I N D I A N INK: Carbon ink sold today in liquid form. dated. Beechwood soot is best. iron-gall. INKS 9. is the ink of a cuttlefish or squid extracted post-mortem. It dries with a sheen and clogs uncleaned pens. and can be mixed and diluted to create subtler colors and tones. an often misused term. SEPIA A N D BISTRE INKS: Sepia. or charcoal. The complexities of traditional iron-gall ink are explained on p. charred bone (Ivory Black). Old stock turns solid and bottlesChina.35 PEN AND INK Four types of ink were common before the 20th century. and most can be homemade. ACRYLIC / CALLIGRAPHY INKS: Available in black and a range of colors. reduced. Now we also have acrylic ranges in many colors. and are still in use today: carbon (Chinese and Indian).36. from are not 6. bistre. and sepia. Crushed. boiled. Excellent for drawing they are bright and non-clogging. . 5. and sieved. Non-waterproof Indian inks can be reworked with a wet brush after drying. they produce a golden dye for drawing. roastedwine sediment (Yeast Black). suspended in a binder and stored as a solid block Blocks are imported today 7. waterproof or non-waterproof. They are the easiest inks to use. Inks can be lightfast or non-lightfast. 8.G A L L INK: Abnormal spherical growths caused by parasitic wasps can be collected from some oak trees in fall.

for example. always be cautious when experimenting with recipes. It also oxidized and ate or burned paper. fleshy skins that surround ripe walnuts. Oak galls. red-brown. Rembrandt. giving a s h o r t . sieved. t h e y stick a n d j u d d e r f o r w a r d . a n d d e v e l o p e d t h e quill instead. It dried black. Walnut ink is gloopy.) You can make ink easily from the boiled. d r y mark. the blade and cut away from you. are surprisingly tough. I u s e d t h e s e qualities t o d r a w t h e w o r m s above. QUILL PENS Q u i l l s a r e highly r e s p o n s i v e t o c h a n g e s in p r e s s u r e . Although oak galls and walnut skins are harmless. it was gray-purple. 2 4 4 is an e x q u i s i t e e x a m p l e . M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s d r a g o n o n p . T h e y give a finer. The lighter right Quill marks Quills carry more ink than strokes and for as reeds. Some of Michelangelo's drawings are now a little eaten by their own ink. The darkest of this grasshopper wings) were made (around the head first. finding reed p e n s unwieldy. giving longer lines. can also be collected from affected trees. and delicious to draw with. forming the REED PENS R e e dpens dispense ink quickly.36 ANIMALS Drawing With Ink To MAKE A QUILL OR REED PEN. a n d M a t i s s e also e n j o y e d t h e m . . U n d e r heavy pressure. Scribes o f t h e M i d d l e Ages. keep all your fingers behind basis of iron-gall ink. Collect skins from the ground beneath trees once they are blackened. crushed. Practice to gain a feel for how materials behave. V a n G o g h . galls were ground with iron sulfate to make an unstable solution. Quills are also called D u t c h pens. For centuries. then cut a final nib (feathers. Reed marks The darker left wing of this beetle was drawn with the wet inky stroke wing. of a loaded nib. Running fresh. and turned brown with time. and boiled to make a golden ink. since t h e D u t c h w e r e t h e first t o realize t h a t they could be hardened and i m p r o v e d w i t h heat t r e a t m e n t in ash o r sand. appears broken to show paper beneath. drawn to glisten with a dryer nib. r e s e r v e d t h e i r use f o r large c h o i r b o o k s . Paler strokes were made where the mark has the legs and antennae the ink ran out. m o r e e x t e n d e d line than reed and a m o r e organic line t h a n m e t a l . reduced.

breaking. W h e n the nib is pressed upside down. sharp. . withstanding great pressure without sticking. Each layer of of the drying droplet dome the drawing was left to dry before adding more. When using dip pens. White markings were drawn last Tones Here we see subtle tones of diluted ink beneath the undiluted black rim of a beetle's wing. giving a graded. Loaded with ink and pressed hard. particles then filled with a droplet of ink. DRAWING WITH INK Filled outlines Each segment of wing was outlined. they splay to make thick o r double lines. marks become fine and needle-sharp.37 METAL PENS Metal pens give long. tonal Ink layers The wings of this beetle were drawn in layers using black and white ink on pale gray paper. o r being ruined as fountain pens would be under the same pressure. it is important to feel for when the ink will run out and to know how much ink you pick up when dipping the nib. The of pigment to fall to the edges effect of the shape. clean strokes.

touch the bottle's rim to drain the excess. Take no more than ten seconds to draw each one and make lots of drawings." If you don't like a stroke. and boldly plunge into your drawing. be bold and press firmly. MATERIALS NEEDED Look for a bird expressing a simple posture. Experiment. Try to hold the whole posture in your mind's eye. I covered eleven sheets in sixty quick drawings—in less than an hour. Geese are nosy birds. It happens that goose feathers also provide artists with the best type of quills. and quickly draw around it using only three or four strokes. Focus on it. Pack plenty of tissue around a bottle of calligraphy or acrylic ink. and bellyflop off the waterside. You cannot break the nib. Watch their heavy feathered bodies flap. That said. Cover your drawing book pages in speedy responses to the geese and try to capture each bird in as few lines as possible. It teaches confidence and focus through intensive repetition. Posture . Take a cup and water for diluting a range of tones. to absorb blots when drawing. Quick drawing trains you to see what is most important about a subject and to mark only its most essential expression. test your limits. Attempt with a loose hand to capture their posture and outline. there is no obligation to prepare a quill. waddle. Focus on the geese. not on your drawing. steel nibs are fine. draw what the bird is doing. make another one. Empathize. and be brave. Dip your pen in ink. and a large drawing book or plenty of paper Use masking tape to secure pages against the wind.38 ANIMALS Capturing Character GEESE ARE EXCELLENT SUBJECTS to draw when practicing the first use of pen and ink. Cover a sheet. Illustrating this exercise on Oxford Port Meadow. Study them before drawing. and there is no "wrong. so pick a spot where other people can keep them entertained.

Again. draw the feeling of what you see. running. CAPTURING CHARACTER Texture Gradually allow yourself more lines to describe the texture of each bird as well as its posture and action. . look among the birds for more complicated actions such as shaking off water. flapping. Avoid detail unless really tempted by a close-up visit Fluctuate the pressure of your pen in response to how you know the bird would feel if you touched it.39 Action With growing confidence. and don't worry about mechanical facts or accuracy. Use more lines than before to express these. and diving.

a d o g w h o w a s a l w a y s town. and personality. MAKING A PALE LINE To make a pale line. This will give a medium-gray line. your drawing book. and a tissue for blotting drawn lines that appear too dark. Now it will make a pale line. These drawings are not an analysis of his anatomy or breed but the expression of his satisfied comfort in a deep sleep after a night out on the together with a glass of water for diluting tones on the nib. For this class you will need one oblivious dog. and even then he twitched and stretched in dreams. first dip your pen in ink. Make a test sheet to discover your control of diluting on the nib. The only time he remained still was when he was sleeping." .40 ANIMALS Sleeping Dogs R A S WAS A GREAT CHARACTER. Then dip the nib quickly into a glass of water and drain the excess again. and drain the excess by touching the nib against the rim of the bottle. a dip pen and ink of your choice (see pp. engaged in his and everyone else's business. form.34-37). Sleeping animals present the artist with ideal opportunities to study their texture. Ras Curled Up Asleep "Capturing the true character of a cherished companion is best achieved with objective determination rather than sentimental shyness. Dip the nib quickly again into water and again drain it.

Trust your intuition. to emphasize how he is curled up. alter the pressure and moisture of your line in response to howyouknow your dog feels when you ruffle itscoat. add more detail. second thoughts may be different Changing your mind is a positive aspect o f seeing and thinking. Here. tail. . c o n c e r n e d a b o u t detail. ears. Layers o f thoughts can bring a drawing alive.It is essential when drawing any subject (even something abstract) to know how it feels andtoemulate this with your line. ignoring all detail. D o not go back over lines you are pleased with—doing so dulls their lively freshness. Here I marked the features of Ras's head. I added ink to Ras's nose. 3 Gradually introduce darker tones. SLEEPING DOGS 1 Fix your eyes at the center of the dog. and the shadows in his coat. 2 Reload your pen with ink. see how the animal's posture determines its whole shape. Character is better captured drawing quickly with confidence than w o r k i n g slowly. Remain focused on the whole dog and. quickly draw what you see. Then. in bold layers. this time to create a line a little darker in tone.41 DRAWING YOUR DOG Be bold in this exercise. First lines are first thoughts. Then I immediately rebalanced the drawing with lines around his hind quarters. W i t h pale lies. To add texture.

Beyond the glass wall of the aquarium. A perfect subject for the beginner. swinging their limbs and shells with a slow circular movement. they stretch and paddle. offering plenty of time for the artist to draw the pose. THE ELONGATION AND BUOYANCY of a group of turtles is fascinating .Turtles to observe. turtles often pause unexpectedly. as if caught in a camera freeze-frame.

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Beginning with very pale tones. I darkened lines as each drawing progressed. and water. I sought to capture the form. and sharp. India ink.Dry Birds THESE ARE THE ARTICULATED BONES o f a k i w i a n d a h o u s e - martin drawn in a museum using a steel pen. With speed. . I made repeated studies of the housemartin to discover its mechanism of flight. balance. dry. weightlessness of the kiwi.

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Patrons funded the breeding of decorative. After Here Aconthus spinosus is combined with forget-me-nots and-a-half centuries of intensive observation. Botanical illustration is a precisely defined and scientific art. infinitely vivid. Later. and the drawn pages ofthesame name. and texture. Conrad von Gemmingen. Chapters are arranged by out. From its history there is one overriding lesson to be learned: the importance of looking and seeing with our own eyes. an There are close parallels between the acts of gardening and drawing. Plants are the principal inspiration of the decorative arts—from Roman Corinthian columns crowned with carved leaves of the acanthus.Plants and Gardens W E SHARE THIS PLANET with the more ancient. We collect. and hybridize them for our sustenance and pleasure. as opposed to only herbal. and focus. Rich owners of private gardens commissioned large-format florilegiums commissioned the volume to document his private garden to immortalize their personal taste and power of acquisition. on which our lives depend. Both embrace the anticipation of evolving shape. and to ornament our lives. the punctuation of space with structure and mass. form. We draw them to celebrate their beauty and range. —-the largest and most influential botanical book of the early Natural scientists accompanied explorers to document unknown finds. we now have laid before us fourto show how well their colours complement each other infinite wealth of material to explore. the microscope was refined to unfold yet another world. Botanic gardens were established and expanded. Medieval knowledge was not gained by the first-hand observation of life but by reading. robust. He sent boxes of plants to Nuremburgburned with the urgency and excitement of explaining every plant's form.Morethan 1. nurture. to catalog our knowledge. Plants seventeenth century. and diverse kingdom of plants. we see very different cultural visions of plants and gardens and use pencils and plants to learn the pictorial values of space. In this chapter. where a number of uncredited artistsd r e wthem for Besler. and beauty. manipulations of light and shade. Early European illustrators were trapped within dogma that was determined by ancient scholarship. It was published plain in 1611 and withhand-paintedplates in poured off ships returning from the New World and were eagerly collected and 1613. Fledgling years Botanist and apothecary who compiled the Hortus Eystettensis of scientific research bore manifold explosions of knowledge in a fever of discovery. shape.000 species of plants are depicted life-size drawn. and the Acanthus spinosus constant but exhilarating struggle to make a living image feel right. Classifications were set in367copperengravings. PriceBishopof Eichstatt specimens. color. The revolution came in the 1530s. to the proliferation of floral designs with which we have dressed ourselves and furnished our homes for centuries. B A S I L I U SBESLER when botanists founded new work upon the direct study of plants. season. 1613 187/8x153/4in(480 x 400 mm) BASILIUS BESLER .

and Franz Bauer and his brother Ferdinand were employed there to draw specimens. T h e rest of u s are free to d r a w as w e w i s h . detail. measured drawings. Stella Ross-Craig said of the need to d r a w from a dried herbarium plant "I could make it live again. stems. Outline Bauer prepared a pencil outline before laying in fleshy succulent hues and tones of watercolor. They are counted among the most accomplished 18th-century botanical artists. Light in this drawing is given by the paleness of the paper showing between washes of darker tones. and meticulous precision. leaves. He has made the spatial and physical relationships in this drawing all the more real by placing a single. Dissections Across the lower part of this drawing we can see dissections of seed pods and petals. The King was then establishing the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. and seeds conventionally a p p e a r o n o n e plate. delicate. B e h i n d detailed. subtle union of beauty. petal tip over a lower leaf Protea nitida 201/4 x141/4in (513 x 362 mm) FRANZ BAUER 1796 . W i t h bright F R A N Z BAUER An Austrian artist who trained at the Schonbrunn Imperial Gardens in Vienna. fruit. Sir Joseph Banks. Botanical art c o n c e a l s the challenge of its m a k i n g . and wilted. It is likely Bauer would have studied these under a microscope. naturalist explorer and advisor to King George III invited Bauer to London in 1 7 9 0 . M a c k i n t o s h e x p r e s s e s the f o l d e d petals of a broken rose b u d so delicately w e can sense the perfume. or that were diseased.48 PLANTS AND GARDENS THE SCIENTIFIC VALUE OF A BOTANICAL DRAWING lies i n its Botanical Studies were specimens that often refused to stay still. o p t i m i s m . flowers. o p e n i n g a n d c l o s i n g i n the w a r m t h a n d light of the studio. s u c h as w e see here in Bauer's Protea nitida. Here. Each plant must b e clearly distinguished from its closest relative. insect-ravaged." Her slipper orchid s h o w s that botanical drawing must often resolve the challenge of its subject's p r o d u c i n g parts in different seasons — r o o t s .

BOTANICAL STUDIES Lines and shadows This lush. A s m a n y of her drawings are kept G a r d e n s . S h e also o f thousands o f contributed an drawings. and speed depends upon the immediate perception of the essential characteristics of the plant. is r e c o g n i z e d as tne m o s t c o m p l e t e a n d i m p o r t a n t work 3.. p u b l i s h e d 1 9 4 8 . Closer to fiction can come together perfectly. sensual pencil drawing is later works. and follow shadow. and it shows how design.g a r d e in G e r m a n y a n d A u s t r i a . imagination. Pencil lines cling to. L o n d o n in 1 9 2 9 . H e r Drawings of British Plants. as at trained botanical artist Ross-Craig Swift lines The drawing was planned in pencil and then overworked with a lithographic pen.. Curtis's Botanical Magazine. found among Mackintosh's than reality. Line Drawing of Cypripedium calceolus L c. a n d f o u n d e r o f t h e G l a s g o w S c h o o l o f A r t M a c k i n t o s h ' s flair h a d an e n o r m o u s i n f l u e n c e o n t h e a v a n t . and observation the nuance and contour of every in one image. G u s t a v K l i m t In his r e t i r e m e n t Mackintosh m a d e n u m e r o u s inventive pencil a n d w a t e r c o l o r d r a w i n g s o f plants. Ross-Craig said of her work "Plants that wither rapidly present a very difficult problem to which there is only one answer—speed. it is small and discreet." This line drawing is one of 1.286 studies for her book Drawings of British Plants. K e w .7 3 in 3 1 p a r t s . and perfect coordination of hand and eye.000 Kew to archive accessible t o d a y v i a t h e I n t e r n e t of o n British flora. a n d he inspired. a m o n g o t h e r s . Rose 1894 103/4 x 83/4 in ( 2 7 5 x 2 2 1 mm) CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH STELLA ROSS-CRAIG A j o i n e d t h e staff a t t h e R o y a l B o t a n i c G a r d e n s . 1970 x 81/4 in ( 3 2 5 x 2 1 0 m m ) STELLA ROSS-CRAIG .49 C H A R L E S RENNIE MACKINTOSH Scottish a r c h i t e c t d e s i g n e r painter.

Envoys chatter outside the gate. By Muslim tradition. which he personally created near Kabul. paper is brimming with the beauty and celebration of nature. roses took their form in a bead of perspiration on the brow of Mohammed as he passed through his heavenly journey. uniform focus. in miniature. Drawing. is remembered in the pages of his journal. fluctuations in scale. in the early 16th century. Below. The white of the page shines through the brilliant color. and Nanha. the sumptuous petals permeated with prayer and wisdom. Every fiber of AMONG DRAWINGS FROM BISHNDAS A N D N A N H A Little is known of these Mughal painters who were related as uncle and nephew and commissioned to illustrate the pages of Babur's journal. and calligraphy are brought together to hold the sacred names of prophets and the 99 beautiful names of God. They used a fine brush to lay pigment over a line drawing. a notable portrait painter drew the faces. Bishndas was probably responsible for the overall design. and attention to detail are all shared with medieval European manuscript drawings. The first Mughal Emperor Babur's Garden of Fidelity (Bagh-e Vaja). Babur directs his gardeners in the design and planting of this quartered chahar bagh. painting. and miraculous growth. Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity c. Opposite is the Rose of Mohammed. 1590 85/8 x55/8in (219 x 1 4 4 mm) BISHNDAS AND NANHA Bright pigment These pages were illuminated by Mughal artists in the late 16th century. Afghanistan. Upright shallow perspectives. urgent attentive human activity. . anticipating their view.50 PLANTS AND GARDENS Jeweled Gardens the Middle East we find exquisite stylization of form and upright formality in pictorial space.

Sacred words The central rose is more solid than any other on the page. Note how each bud is essentially the same shape.AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH This is a detail o f a page from a n 1 8 t h . and how the shape has been repeated freehand. fragmenting its detail in a whisper of prayers. It is n o w k e p t in Border The elegant border of this drawing was mode with a pen and ruler It cleverly compresses and defines the composition. look closely and you will see words written in gold fluttering over the form of the flower. The Rose of Mohammed 1708 9 1 / 2 x 61/2 in ( 2 4 0 x 1 6 5 mm) FROM THE TURKISH M A N U S C R I P T AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH . The physical anatomy of the rosebud has been studied and translated into a repeated stylized motif. G e r m a n y .c e n t u r y Turkish manuscnpt a book of religious e t h i c s w r i t t e n in the O r i e n t a l C o l l e c t i o n s of Berlin. so that overlapping petals and stems give an impression of fulfillment and abundance. However. Stylized motif A fine brush has been used throughout this drawing to apply inks and watercolors. t h e Staatsbibliothek zu Arabic.

52

PLANTS AND GARDENS

Fast Trees
IN CONTRAST TO THE QUIET, formal detail of other drawings in this chapter, these powerful fast trees enact the actions of plants. Each tree reaches out and holds its landscape with dynamism and pulse. In both drawings we find testament to the inexorable energy of growth. Rembrandt expresses a delicate quickness. Gentle lines draw a warm breeze through this remote wooded garden. Rustling in a loose foliage of soft marks, his pen evokes the weight of abundant activity on this late summer's day. Mondrian's arch of scratching branches is drawn with such force it will always be alive. We can still feel his hand storming across the paper. Set within a frame of smudged landscape, the tree possesses a musical agitation. This characteristic will increase in the artist's later abstract work. Here, we see a punctuated ordering of space. Sharp branches cut out negative shapes of winter sky.

R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter; etcher; and draftsman. Rembrandt's prolific output comprises oil paintings of historical and religious subjects together with group and self- portraits. His emotive etchings and pen and ink drawings (see also p. 174) are great resources for artists learning to understand the potential of these media.

Horizon

Pen and ink lines describing foliage also tell

us the directions of sunlight and wind. An arc crossing the bottom of the drawing from one side to the other supports the scene and separates us from the landscape beyond. Compare Rembrandt's arc to that of Mondrian's. and note the similar treatment of low horizons in both works emphasizing the height and dominance of trees.

Cottage Among Trees 1648-50 63/4 x121/8in ( I 7 I x 308 mm) R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN

53

FAST TREES

PIET

MONDRIAN

Atmosphere Here we see how shapes of negative space are as important as the physical subject they enclose (see pp.58-59). Mondrian has again lightly dragged his chalk on its side to evoke a wet depth of atmosphere. These passive gray marks contrast with the assertive tension of the tree.

Dutch Pure abstract painter preoccupied w i t h line and plane relationships. W i t h increasing austerity, Mondrian banished t h e subject from his drawings, in his later w o r k he also banished space, composing visual h a r m o n i e s using only straight lines a n d flat planes o f black, w h i t e , gray, o r p r i m a r y color.

Winter ground Short vertical marks along thebottomof this drawing reveal the length oftheblackchalk Mondrian used. Rubbed onitsside,itroughly blocks in the ground. Thecrudeeconomy of line is all we need tofeelthecold, wet, unwelcoming quality ofthiswinterearth.

Branches and trunk Lines shaping the branches of the tree are built up in layers. To make the trunk more dense, the artist has rubbed and smudged preliminary marks with his fingers before firmly overdrawing with new lines. Solid black lines are achieved by pressing the chalk hard. When used lightly, it shows the texture of the paper. Tree: Study for the Grey 1911 23 x 335/8 in ( 5 8 4 x 8 5 5 m m ) Tree

PIET MONDRIAN

54

PLANTS AND GARDENS

Graphite and Erasers
GRAPHITE, FROM THE G R E E K word

USING GRAPHITE
This drawing illustrates a range of achieved with graphite pencils of different grades.

graphein

Modern pencils are graded from 9H (hard and pale) to 9B (black and soft). Graphiteclay sticks are also available, together with a powder form. All possess a natural sheen and are erasable to a varying degree. Graphite drawings smudge easily, so fixative, a form of varnish, can be used to hold a drawn surface in place. It is applied as a fine mist from an aerosol can, or from a bottle using a diffuser. For the beginner, ordinary hairspray is an effective and cheaper alternative.

(to write), is a soft and brittle carbon. It was first mined in Cumbria, England, in 1 5 6 4 , and was initially used in small, pure pieces bound in lengths of string. Pencils as we know them—with their slender wood casing and "lead" of graphite—were invented in France in 1794 by Nicolas-Jaques Conte. He discovered that milled graphite mixed with clay and water, press-molded, and baked to a high temperature produces a harder and paler medium than graphite alone.

3B pencil A range of mark and textures can be achieved with a 3B pencil when you vary its pressure, speed, and direction, as this detail shows.

MATERIALS
Here is a selection of 14 items to illustrate a basic range of pencils, graphite sticks, sharpeners, erasers, and fixative.
1. AND 2. HB AND 3B PENCILS: It is unnecessary to possess every grade of pencil. HB, the central and most common grade, is perfect for making delicate lines. 3B gives a blacker tone. A great variety of effects can be achieved with just these two. 3. WATER-SOLUBLE PENCIL Effective for atmospheric drawing, but be aware of how watery tones can dull the impact of the line. 4. AND 5. MECHANICAL PENCIL Thick or fine leads are made in a range of grades. They are particularly useful because they do not require a sharpener 6. ROUND SOLID GRAPHITE PENCIL: Excellent for large-scale drawing, producing thick bold lines. A range of grades can be honed with a craft knife or sharpener 7. THICK GRAPHITE STICK: For large-scale drawing. Graded soft, medium, and hard. It crushes to produce graphite powder 8. SQUARE GRAPHITE STICK: Useful for making broad, sweeping marks in large-scale drawing. If worn and rounded, the stick can be snapped into pieces to regain the sharp, square end. 9. CRAFT KNIFE AND BLADES: Handles are sold in two sizes to fit large or small blades, and blades are sold in a range of shapes. Perfect for sharpening pencils to a long point, to cut lines in paper or to remove areas. 10. PENCIL SHARPENER: Makes a uniform point. Keep one in your pocket for drawing outside the studio, together with an envelope for shavings.

HB and 5B Layers of tone have been built up withHBand5Bpencils. Softer pencils require less pressure to make a mark, revealing the texture of the paper surface. It is important to keep the point of the pencil sharp with either a craft knife or a sharpener.

55

ERASING AND FIXING
Erasers can be used t o blend and s o f t e n lines, o r t o r e m o v e altogether. Fixative them prevents

GRAPHITE AND ERASERS

s m u d g i n g a n d s e c u r e s lines.

Using fixative You can use fixative while drawing to hold the definition of lines you wish to gently fade but not remove entirely, for which you would use an eraser.

11. P L A S T I C E R A S E R : Avoid cheap colored erasers that may stain drawings with grease and dye. White brands are available in soft and hard versions.

12.

P U T T Y RUBBER:

W a r m it in your hand before use. It is excellent for removing powdery materials, and for making crisp sweeps of light across a delicate pencil drawing

13. D I F F U S E R : Helleborus corsicus (Corsican hellebore) fixative, or to spray mists of ink.

56

PLANTS AND GARDENS

Cropping and Composition
M A N Y STUDENTS WILL START a d r a w i n g i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e

that its skin nearly touches the boundary. The meaning of the same drawing changes simply by its relationship to the space it occupies. The size of any subject, its placement on the page, the size of the page, and its overall proportion are all discrete and essential aspects of successful picture-making. Before you begin to draw, think carefully about where to place your subject. Are you are happy with your paper? If not, change it; add more, take some away, or turn it around. Do not just accept what you are given, adapt it to what you need.

paper. Focused on the shape and detail of their subject, they remain happily unaware that there is, or should be, any relationship between what they are drawing and the surface they are drawing it on. The paper is only paper, and the troublesome subject floats somewhere in the expanse of it. However, a single fig drawn in the middle of a large, empty square of paper gives quite a different impression from the same fig drawn on such an intimately small square

CHOOSING A VIEW

A Single Fig

"The size, shape, and orientation of the paper are so integral to the composition that they determine the impact and meaning of the drawing."

spaces between things are as important as the things themselves. Here the left fig is attached to. t h e n m o v e t h e c a r d t o e x p l o r e different views. This drawing hasbeencropped to emphasize space between thefruit. and lines describing shadows cast by the fruit . bottom-left t o top-right. and therefore apparently suspended from. the uppermost edge of the drawing. When subjects touch two or more edges. as also shown here.57 THE VIEWFINDER T h e s e pencil drawings o f figs d e m o n s t r a t e different crops and compositions. a device to help you decide what t o draw. its illumination. The angle of the fruit together with dark shadow (top left) and bright light(bottom right) suggest a diagonal division across the whole drawing. Space as the subject Inallpictures. Touching the edge When the subject o f a drawing touches one edge of the paper it attaches t o it visually. they establish a tension and unity with the paper.O u r focus is on the white cloth supporting the figs. its stem and shadow framing a white center. A card with a small rectangle cut out o f it makes a useful viewfinder C l o s e o n e e y e t o look through the hole. CROPPING AND COMPOSITION Off-center and diagonal Here I held my viewfinder so the fig appeared upper-left in the space. running corner t o corner. U s e it as a starting point.

The drawing opposite is of the uppermost leaves of a potted fig tree. and so on. erasing and adjusting lines until itlooked right. not leaves. then added a second shape. an eraser. their subject and composition will become more real. this ensures a consistent view. remember to draw only space. and engaging. dynamic. WHERE TO START Arrange your plant and paper so you can look back and forth by barely moving your head. But how often do we look at the air between things. shapes of air cut out and defined by the physicality of our environment? When we look into the branches of a tree. do we see myriad distinct and unique shapes of daylight or do we just see branches? Why as artists should we look at the air? Every space in a picture has a shape. third. It helps to start at the center and map outward. rather than what you see in front of you. Draw a complete shape Map outward from the center Erase and adjust lines until correct . In your own version. fourth. It is an astonishingly simple device that many artists use and I strongly recommend. you will need a similar large-leaved plant. which is shown in the three steps below. and a fresh page in your drawing book. In following this class. but if the artist does. Remember that plants do move! Therefore it is best to complete your drawing in one sitting if possible. Negative space is the simple key to getting positive shape right.58 PLANTS AND GARDENS Negative Space UNCONSCIOUSLY WE ASSESS spatial relationships all the time to guide ourselves through the world. Follow these from left to right and see how I began with one complete shape between two parts of a leaf. unified. a foundation stone in picture-making.The box opposite isolates an area. a sharp H B pencil. and a role to play. position. Looking at negative space overrides the problem of drawing what you know. tone. Viewers appreciating a finished image may not see shapes of space. Unfamiliar shapes of negative space reveal the real shape of a positive subject.

59

Here I drew only spaces, adding one to another until the leaves were revealed. Besides looking at negative space, there are two other useful things to do when a drawing feels wrong but you cannot see why: look at it in a mirror or turn it upside down. errors and suggest changes.

Spaces between leaves

Either view will

NEGATIVE SPACE

Fig Tree
WALKING IN THE ALPUJARRAS in A n d a l u c i a ,

Spain, I drew a bare fig tree clinging to the wall of an almond grove; a perfect subject for seeing negative space. I marked its essential frame of large branches first, frequently erasing lines and changing my mind until the balance felt right.

S a l v i a , RIBES, CLEMATIS, Allium, Passiflora, and Acanthus

Summer Flowers

Alchemilla,

drawn with an H pencil by observing the

negative spaces between the stems, petals, and leaves. I arranged the flowers on a sheet of paper in a cool r o o m and rapidly sketched a composition. Then I put them in water, taking the stems out one at a time to draw.

.

Excessive detail leaves no space for the eye to rest or imagination to wander. Compare changes of pace and focus here to the flatter finish of Summer Flowers (see pp. our eyes travel and adjust from one point of focus to another. 62-63). If an artist changes the pace of their line and focus of their attention. We never see everything at once. interfolding points of detail with areas of loose suggestion.Acanthus Spinosus As we LOOK AROUND. . they emulate our experience of seeing. gathering less distinct information on the way.

.

European conventions of pictorial perspective have lost their monopoly on seeing. each VICTOR BALTARD . and writers have been breaking away from traditional forms of representation to seek new expressions of shape. from political commentary to musical abstraction. Baltard designed the Church of St.This is a pencil drawing. to help them create new form. of the west facade of St Augustin. time. Linear perspective is a marvelous device. coupled with the importance of exercizing your imagination. Computer programs allow the virtual drawing of ideas. Through the animation of the screen.Architecture I N THE CONTEMPORARY PRACTICES of architecture. fine artists. It is the focus of practical class in this chapter. add and subtract ideas. At the core of their practice. to 20th-century film fantasy. designers. and from West Facade of the Church of St Augustin. invaluable to understand and apply when you choose. and in the 19th century it was given the name the Golden Section. and sound. Since Picasso and Braque's revolution of Cubism in around 1907. Paris 1871-74 the child's view to the infinity of the vanishing point.The church is still in use today. was preserved into the Renaissance where it became a foundation stone for thinking and creativity From 15thcentury Italy. the device that has since governed most of our picture-making (sec pp. with gray and brown watercolor wash. filmmakers. the formula for perfection spread through Europe. 74-75)." reflecting the eye's love of unity in difference. architects and designers can imaginatively "climb inside" three-dimensional space and. space. film-set design. Architects have been fine-tuning their specialized branch of drawing for centuries. which was the first church in the capital to be built entirely of metal and then clad in stone. once there. which can be clearly seen in ancient Greek architecture. they also have a diagrammatic language for communicating plans to builders. VICTOR BALTARD French architect employed by the city of Paris. we find the most recent steps in the evolution of graphic language. mass. and architects of ancient Greece who first pursued the formula for "divine proportion. Perhaps in the sheer planes of some of our greatest modern buildings it is finding its clearest expression. drawing plans around themselves within a program as opposed to on a flat sheet of paper. This harmony. It was also during the Renaissance that the architect Brunelleschi invented linear perspective. It was the mathematicians. they have the Golden Section. balance. philosophers. Since the first flowering of Modernism in the early 20th century. Among the drawings of this chapter we look from 17th-century ecclesiastical calm. and computer game imaging. Besides sketches of first thoughts and polished drawings of the finished look for clients. composers. Yet the pursuit of divine proportion and harmony remains. made by the architect himself. architects. Augustin.

marks the end of a long journey from the first few marks the architect made on a sheet of paper. Three aspects This subtle and sophisticated drawing made in pen and wash displays three distinct aspects of Hawksmoor's baptistry. and ultimately to show builders what to do. Hawksmoor's drawing is both a plan and an evocation. materials. pilasters. Cut-away interior On the right a section cut through the center of the building reveals material thicknesses. and later an assistant to Vanbrugh. relative levels. and balance. densely layered lines in mists of color weave the presence of the expected building into shape. Together they explain how interior structure and space define exterior form and shape. Finished surface On the left the finished surface of the building is given depth and emphasis by immaculate vertical and horizontal brush strokes of shadow. and Castle Howard. describe a finished look to a client. Below it. 1711-12 NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR . Oxford. The photograph opposite shows his studio hung with metal pendulums. Architects draw for many reasons: to visualize ideas. Lines define structure while washes suggest light and atmosphere. Drawings underpin every great human-made structure like hidden linear ghosts at their core. Hampton Court Palace.68 ARCHITECTURE Master Builders EVERY NEW BUILDING. and labor. calculate function. Gaudi's fluid architecture grew up through many kinds of drawing. structure. and six London churches. We see the modeled detail of Corinthian columns. testing gravity to calculate the inverted shapes of domes. a three-dimensional drawing made with wires and weights. Hawksmoor established his reputation with university and church architecture including All Souls College. Blenheim Palace. A student of Wren's. evoke presence. St Paul's Baptistry c. and an inscribed entablature. and the shapes of interior domes and apses. NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR One of Britain's "three great" Baroque architects (along with Sir Christopher Wren and Sir John Vanbrugh). he also worked on St Paul's Cathedral. embodying a massive investment of ideas. Pillars and floor At the base of the drawing a compass-drawn plan tilted downward through 90 degrees illustrates the arrangement of pillars around a central circular floor.

1910 24x181/4( 6 1 0 x 4 7 5mm) A N T O N I O GAUDI . and his love of music. churches. light. This sculptural drawingenvisionsthe finished crypt glowingandethereal as if caught in thelightof red morning sun. and apartment homes are distinguished by their Their and Flowering curves of stone or concrete are often encrusted with Gaudi was inspired by medieval and oriental art. Gaudi's cathedral in Barcelona.69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt c. unique organic manipulation of high shapes. 1900 ANTONIO GAUDI ANTONIO GAUDI Visionary Catalan architect. Guell Crypt of its at the Time Construction c. The Art Nouveau movement. Gaudi air than on paper. embellishment. Wire and watercolor three-dimensional preferred to calculate Above is a drawing form in the made withlinkedwires and weights. To the right isawatercolordrawing thought to havebeenmade over a photograph ofthemodelabove.

p. He also contributed to plans for the rebuilding of the World Trade Center site in New York. The architect and musician Daniel Libeskind has drawn a stampeding cacophany of airborne architectural detail. theater sets. and exhibitions of his drawings. flat boards. installations. a refillable pen that feeds a constant supply of ink through a fine tubular nib. upright pictorial space. while the composer Erik Satie has made an enclosure of quiet order and grace. Both men used rulers and pens to carefully and slowly construct their compositions. Floor space appears divided by discernible walls. and the spaces between his windows and turrets are the visual equivalent of pauses in h i s m u s i c c o m p o s i t i o n s for p i a n o (see also Bussotti. such a rapport in both of these drawings. corridors. There has always DANIEL LIBESKIND A Polish American architect of international acclaim. Contemporary musicians commonly collaborate with artists by interpreting images as sound. He also produces urban and landscape designs. Floor plan This drawing has been made with a rapidograph. and arched dotted lines depict the radius of doors. Libeskind studied music before transferring to architecture. and rooms.70 ARCHITECTURE The Order of Sound B O T H OF THESE VISIONARY DRAWINGS o c c u p y a s l e n d e r . Arctic Flowers 1980 DANIEL LIBESKIND . Libeskind begins quietly in the upper space of his drawing.223). and dotted lines. Libeskind's numerous commissions include concert halls and museums. and in a sense hear. before cascading into a riot of line and sound below. short curved poles. We can imagine how a musician might interpret this drawing by looking at the abstract visual rhythms of masses composed of long straight poles. Visual rhythms In the lower half of this drawing architectural language has broken loose: escaped and transformed into an image of rebellious pleasure. We can see. Across the top and center right of the image w e perceive an almost recognizable architectural plan. been a natural affinity between the visual rhythms of pictures and the audible rhythms of music. Satie draws quietly throughout.

Eastern influence The upright image Eastern is reminiscent and medieval of Middle pictorial space and subject of this European drawing. Hotel de la Suzonnieres c.H i s witty. Onpp. o f which he was the sole m e m b e r Parcel paper Satie has drawn this fantasy hotel using a ruler. They definespaceand pictorial balance. the perimeter Composition Look how well this drawingfitsand resonates with the upright.Edges are how are of orientation.ERIK SATIE F r e n c h pianist and c o m p o s e r for t h e piano. lived a l o n e . andfouredges of the paper tothecompositionand impact animage.56—57 we discussed important the shape.50.narrowshape of its paper. minimalist s c o r e s scandalized a u d i e n c e s with o r c h e s t r a t i o n s f o r t h e foghorn and typewriter. dressed eccentrically. 1 8 9 3 77/8 x 51/2 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 4 0 mm) ERIK SATIE . and ink on a fragment folded brown paper—a of everyday happened material of scrap that to be at hand. theater. effectively additional lines in a work. and founded his o w n church. Compare the even and and the shape wall to the elegantly stylized order of the many windows of arrangement of details and the shape of the wall in Babur's Garden of Fidelity on p. a conventional dip or fountain pen. a n d ballet. H e p e r f o r m e d in cabarets. Satie collaborated w i t h hisfriends J e a n C o c t e a u a n d P i c a s s o .

painter. Boullee's monolithic apparition was drawn as a monument to Sir Isaac Newton. we find other Utopian visions Paul Nobles epic drawing summons an imperfect and disturbing township where ruin and activity are equal and strange. Newton's Cenotaph 1784 153/4 x 25 in ( 4 0 2 x 635 m m ) ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE . This shift makes the cenotaph appear three-dimensional. His celebrated imaginary buildings are characterized by pyramids. Art director Erich Kettlehut's vertiginous design for the city of a slavelike populace had a future influence on movies such as Blade Runner. This is the work of an architectural theoretician. enter the long-shadowed architecture of imaginary worlds. and the reverse is true on the right. cylinders.The lower-left section of the building appears relatively pale against a darker sky. experiencing a fascinating conflict between curiosity and desolation. Boullee lived in Paris. We glide over exquisitely drawn wastelands of damage and abandonment. Within it.96. the ominous globe exists only as a series of drawings. arched vaults. and draftsman. and taught at t h e A c a d e m i e d'Architecture. ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE French architectural theorist. Among preparations for Fritz Langs film Metropolis. Light illusions This pen-and-wash drawing shows a subtle application of the principles of illumination demonstrated with an egg on p. spheres. made in 1926. antlike mortals might have speculated upon the universe. and dramatic lighting.72 ARCHITECTURE T H E S E T H R E E HIGHLY DETAILED DRAWINGS Future Fictions invite us to soaring above normal life.

mythology. and are Graphite shapes Nobson Central isoneof a series of very large graphite drawings of the spoil and detritus of Nobson Newtown.73 ERICH KETTLEHUT Influential film a r t director.a r t director O t t o Hunte. draftsman. Nobson Central 9 ft 1 0 in x 1 3 f t 2 in (3 x 4 m ) PAUL N O B L E 1998-99 . and white ink on brown-gray paper. Kettlehut drew using a fine and relatively dry brush dipped in black. FUTURE FICTIONS Brush and ink This is a dramatic drawing from a film that shaped the history of world cinema. 1926 ERICH KETTLEHUT PAUL N O B L E British c o n t e m p o r a r y artist who creates m o n u m e n t a l . Kettlehut and his c o . together with c i n e m a t o g r a p h e r Karl Freund. used forced perspective camera t e c h n i q u e s t o amplify t h e m a g n i t u d e o f buildings in relation t o human characters. Nobson political visions of humanity Newtown. and morality o f an invented place called His satires exhibited w o r l d w i d e . and m o d e l . architecture. Working on toned paper such as this gives an artist greater scope for dramatic lighting effects than if they work on white paper. Its sheerscaleengulfs the viewer and demands based time and patience to on letters and in some beread. Fritz Lang's Metropolis c.m a k e r In t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f Metropolis.Building shapes are works can be read as text. gray. intensely detailed graphite drawings explaining and questioning t h e geography.

It can be applied to any subject. but is most easily seen and understood in pictures of buildings and interiors. LEONARDO DA VINCI One of the greatest artists. Note how architectural features conform to lines and how human figures diminish in size toward thevanishingpoint. scientists. Pull the thread taut and rotate it slowly above the drawing. Here Leonardo provides a superb example of a single vanishing point. I contribute the child's perspective. Leonardo recorded constant streams of ideas. inventors. See how the thread corresponds to each converging line. Piranesi an example of two. found at the center of all converging lines.74 ARCHITECTURE Pathways of Sight LINEAR PERSPECTIVE (also called vanishing-point perspective) is a simple device for calculating the relative size of things in pictorial space. observations. Study of Perspective Adoration of the for the Magi 1481 61/2 x111/2in (165 x 290 mm) LEONARDO DA VINCI . this perspective is often an imagined bird's-eye view in which details are mapped according to logic and importance rather than how they might appear in real life. We use it to structure illusions of depth. and thinkers ever to have lived. In his notebooks. 206-07). Press the pin into Leonardo's vanishing point. linear perspective is distinct from more ancient systems practiced in the East. and those of Naive artists and children. and age eight. and inventions— essential reading for inquiring minds. It is also distinguished from aerial perspective (see pp. Sometimes shared with Naive artists. Invented by Italian artist and architect Brunelleschi in 1413 (late in the history of art). All forms of perspective are of equal value. Single-point perspective Tie a thread to a pin.

Breamore Village. which I saw from home every day. a points in logical narrative of memories. and theoretical writing strongly influenced neoclassicism. . at the top of each lateral column base. 1740 5 1 / 2 x 83/8 in (141 x 212 mm) G I O V A N N I B A T T I S T A PIRANESI points are located on either side of the drawing.SARAH SIMBLET I made this drawing (at age 8) in response to a local bookstore's request for children to draw their village. This drawing Young children typically maps ignore on and understanding of the nearby village. New Forest. Note the rather large rabbits and pheasants the hills. Lightly marked illuminates vanishing Two Courtyards c. England 1980 9 x 16 in (228 x 405 mm) S A R A H SIMBLET GIOVANNI BATTISTA PIRANESI Italian artist. issues of scale when making room for important their story. and designer Piranesi's prolific architectural drawings. It shows how children usually map large scenes in flat layers one above the other. architect. Mark these points with your pin and follow the converging lines of the drawing by rotating your thread. including all they recall about the subject. Scale Our farmhouse my experience was in the woods. visionary and practical understanding of ancient Rome. Two-point perspective Sunlight through this colonnade a great example of two-point perspective. Children are uninhibited and problems with one element being obscured by another rarely arise.

try composing your own space. using a sharp HB pencil and ruler. Note that if you place large structures in the foreground and smaller ones closer to your vanishing point. Piranesi planned his drawing with only the essential lines needed. This is where we will begin. then follow the ten steps below.) . Leonardo began with a grid of many lines within which he invented his scene. (See p. imagine. Draw four dotted lines radiating out from the vanishing point. You have completed your first box. corresponding to a single vanishing point. On the previous page we looked at its essential mechanism through drawings by Leonardo and Piranesi.98 for an important note on oscillation. Extend each dotted line to the edge of your drawing. this is your vanishing point. Erase the dotted construction lines. This lesson shows you how to make a simple illusion of space defined by two boxes and three flat boards. This ensures that the second rectangle aligns with the shape and 4 Draw four short lines to connect the four corners of the two rectangles. DRAWING BOXES 1 Using a ruler and a sharp HB pencil. In contrast. 2 3 corners must each touch a dotted line. Surround the vanishing point with a small rectangle. draw a horizon line across your paper Mark a spot on the horizon line. Next. you will amplify the illusion of distance. discovering the image as it progressed. Each line should pass through one corner of the rectangle. Study these pages first before embarking on this lesson. Draw each step over the preceding one to build up a single image.76 ARCHITECTURE Single-Point Perspective MASTERING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE i s e a s i e r t h a n y o u m a y First read through.

andfarside of this first board. Note that this does not surround the vanishing point In the future. and erase the dotted lines. the closer it will appear to the viewer. The board's sides should be parallel. 8 Complete the second box with short lines as in step 4. 6 As in step 2. larger rectangle. bottom. N e x t draw a slanting line to mark the height of the first flat board. 1 0 Erase all ofthedottedlinestoseeyourfinishedboxes Thickeningtheiredges. draw a second. 9 Use dotted lines connecting the slanting linetothe vanishing point to locate the top. .77 SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE 5 Draw a new rectangle. The four comers must each touch a dotted line to be sureitaligns with the first. Continue the dotted lines out toward the edge of your drawing. The larger you make your second rectangle.asIhavedonehere. with two dotted lines. Repeat this to add two more boards to the composition. Connect this to the vanishing point— again.willhelptomake them appear more solid. when inventing your own compositions. 7 As in step 3. draw four dotted lines radiating from your vanishing point Pass these through each comer of the new rectangle. you can place rectangles anywhere youwishin relation to a vanishing point.

w h e t h e r it is a film or a painting. If using a fibertip pen as I have done for this drawing." . Every work talks In this class. I always start with a script but I don't follow it all the way through to the end. once said: "I never end up with what I set out to do. O n a fresh page in your d r a w i n g b o o k . draw a b o x as shown opposite. Then follow the three given steps. artist and film director. Linear perspective will support y o u by providing a frame in which to b u i l d your picture as it did for Leonardo. p . let simple lines suggest a simple space." imaginary room. It highlights the importance of having faith in your imagination and trusting your ability to invent. then let the space suggest its c o n t e n t s and purpose. As David Lynch. it is interaction that makes the work richer.78 ARCHITECTURE Creating an Imaginary Space T H I S CLASS USES SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE t o c r e a t e a s i m p l e to you and if you listen to it. it will take you places you never dreamed of. A lot more happens when you open yourself up to the work and let yourself act and react to it. APPLYING PERSPECTIVE An Imagined Scaffold "Enjoy your illusion as you make it and it will become more real. The m i s t a k e n belief that we s h o u l d k n o w exactly what o u r finished drawings will l o o k like before we m a k e t h e m prevents many people from ever starting. you will find white adhesive stationery labels are useful for covering errors or changing the direction of your idea. 7 4 ) .

79 DRAWING A SIMPLE ROOM Essentials t o remember: objects and people dimmish in size as they move farther away. This initial space will be transparent and open to change.drawthehorizonlineand vanishingpoint. parallel planes such as walls converge toward the vanishing point. you will beableto draw more complex objects orpeoplewithin them. horizontal. . additional lines have established the different surfaces and how they relate to each other. CREATING AN IMAGINARY SPACE 1First. and leaning surfaces. With some practice. 2 first before adding furniture. The space has become more solid and real.Addanarray of converging lines to provide a "scaffold" for vertical. Here.There is great pleasure tobefoundin spending time inventing interiors. 3 Remove the construction lines with an eraser and the room will becomeclearer. and floors and ceilings also converge and rise o r lower toward the horizon.

That is where we e to find them. a n d this is how we have drawn them so far (see pp. I have elaborated on the simple boxes above. T h i n k of standing at the top of a skyscraper and imagine h o w its parallel sides would appear to converge below you. they can be placed anywhere inspaceto describe the perspective of flyi c tilted objects. The boxes drawn here are seen partly or entirely disassociated from a horizon line drawn across the bottom of the image. Copying what you see in the work of others will help you to understand what they have done. Here.80 ARCHITECTURE Further Aspects of Perspective W E ARE ACCUSTOMED TO SEEING our e n v i r o n m e n t from a relatively constant point of view. Vanishing points are commonly found on horizon—our eye level. located anywhere inside or outside the pictorial space. 76-79). Search for the application of these perspectives among works by other artists in this book and in galleries. showing y o u h o w to draw curved surfaces and a tiled floor. It is important to realize that you can have as many vanishing points as you wish. Only when y o u might employ t h r e e . They could be drawn on any scale from miniature to monumental. do verticals appear inclined. but they are not confined to this level. or low and we look u p . our eye level is very high and we look down. o r to the h o r i z o n . T h e y d o n o t have to relate to each other.p o i n t perspective ( s h o w n opposite top). These elaborations could continue indefinitely across a sheet of paper in pursuit of complex and intricate ideas. Elaborations . Free vanishing points On paper we can enjoy the freedom of fantastic structural invention without limitations of solid materials or gravity. To draw such a view APPLICATION Copy these drawings to see and feel how they work before inventing your own versions. From our normal eye level. T h i s is d e m o n s t r a t e d immediately below. Potentially. verticals appear p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the g r o u n d . Further aspects of three-point perspective are also illustrated opposite.

81 FURTHER ASPECTS OF Three-point towers This drawing depicts three-point perspective. Note that altering the distance between the three dots above will tilt the level of the floor . Three-point checkered floor This d bottom floor.Finally. I then drew three fanned groups of lines connecting each of the three points above to the seven points below. PERSPECTIVE Three-point curves Here.Istarted with two parallel lines. they mark the corners of the floor tiles. Where thelinescross. three vanishing points are evenly spaced along a horizon line. Iusedthese lines as a guide t o draw the curvature of boxes and panels flying through space. useful for representing steep views looking up or down tall structures. tostraightlines can amplify drama in a picture.75. Giving curvature.) By comparing this drawing t o Piranesi's example of two-point perspective on p. I marked the toplinewith three evenly spaced points and the line with seven. by adding a third point you can achieve a sense of incline. An array of curved lines (drawn freehand) link the two lateral points. (Turn the book around to see a view looking up.I added horizontal lines t o define the tiles. and therefore tension. you will see how.

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Theaters RESEARCHING FOR MY P H D . making drawings to resolve questions and express personal responses to the nature and history of anatomy. These walnut-skin ink pen and brush drawings show imagined views of theaters that do not exist but were inspired by places I studied. I visited many anatomical theaters and museums. .

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.A N D .Venetian Life sitting point buildings ThisP E N .I N KDRAWING is one of a series I made while next to the Rialto Bridge in Venice. The vanishing of the drawing is directly opposite as we look across The constancy of the bridge and surrounding frames the movement in the life that flows past. the water.

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1493 117/8c81/4in (300 x 210 m m ) LEONARDO D A V I N Ccreating I . color. or to explain and present a finished concept to a client. Previously. A chair. In this chapter. T h e Industrial Revolution c h a n g e d the traditional w a y s in w h i c h objects were designed. drawing c. illuminating snail shells. With the sudden onset of mass production. texture. T h e precision of engineering d r a w i n g s e v o l v e d alongside machine tools. and made. Engineers and designers of our objects and instruments make drawings for many reasons: to test an idea that is yet to be made. sculpted. too. have often carried great weights of allegorical once. drawn. and some apes use simple tools. craftsmen had held plans in their memory. Artists and actors use the meanings of things to communicate a speculative mechanic. and a wire violin. Technical drawing was speedily developed as a meticulous international code of m e a s u r e m e n t and explanation. W e also explore v o l u m e and form in the classes by spinning lines to make vessels. drawings were needed to instruct workers on the factory floor. and the way in w h i c h the brain reacts Head and Neck Sections of Female Mold for the Sforza Horse to visual stimulus and optical illusions. History will be learned from the artifacts w e leave behind. r an equestrian statue. we look at the importance are the only creatures on Earth w h o actually design and create great ranges of things. H e has described a casting through metaphor. are all made bearing the signature of our time and place. these. or drawing w e see Leonardo daVinci'sprecision as can be given meaning. each demanding more of the other as they increased in sophistication. passing them on to others through the act of making. and the behavior of light through making still-life paintings and together. fictional realities caster of h o w t o make it andhowit will w o r k . making a clear instruction t o his bronzemeaning. H e has described contour and function at drawings.Objects and Instruments T HE THINGS WE INVENT describe our lives. from s p o o n s and pens to chairs and bicycles. that test our logic with a sense of mystery. hooked bars that can be pulled and tied closely form. planned. C o m m o n items. but humans LEONARDO DA VINCI Inthisbeautiful red chalk Our items all have a purpose—practical or ornamental—and all have a meaning. of light in the creation of pictorial illusions. It was in this era that the blueprint was born. Today. design. or used on stage hood for a mold t o make theheado f a horse f oas a p r o p — i m b u e d with e n o u g h energy or character can "become" a man. Artists also make images of objects that can never exist. to record an observed detail. even more advanced drawings are made on computers. for example. for example—whether. It is shaped in sections w i t h Artists have for centuries studied and expressed composition. Birds follow instinct to make a nest. In past eras.

Braque established Cubism in partnership with Picasso just before World War I." La Cuitare. representing still life. "I believe [it] is the most radicalattempttostampout ambiguity and to enforce one readingofthepicture—that of a manmade construction. Braques "justly" arranged combination of cut black card. . and glass objects of exquisite elegance for only the gentlest of touch and appreciation. Clashes The art historian Ernst Gombrich said of Cubism. T h i s is a designers drawing made to enthuse surface and style in its delicate brushing of china.. but to clash in virtual deadlock. One of the great joys of this movement in art is the musicality of its multipoint view. Statue D'Epouvante 1913 2 f t 5 in x 3 ft 5 in (0. charcoal. Even today GEORGES BRAQUE French painter who as a young man was influenced by the work of the Fauves and of Cezanne. He takes us into the bustle of the Paris cafe. and shading. still feel this projected moment.73 x 1 m) GEORGES BRAQUE . not to work in harmony. perfect i n their newly made availability. silverware. There is a fragile eloquence to these objects as they drift in slow motion past our gaze. a colored canvas. Opposite. not of place but of things. steaming with music and conversation. His work is characterized by calm and harmonious still-life compositions. and a journal jacket with words makes this drawing chatter about the moment..Braque marshals all the forces of perspective. texture. Below. wood-look wallpaper. Mucha's drawing glistens with possession.90 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS Still Life THESE DRAWINGS REVEAL t w o o p p o s i t e m o t i v a t i o n s i n we can. Braques image is a Cubist collage.

and also stamps and bank notes. Art Nouveau motifs This is a preliminary study for a subsequent print. Art Nouveau curling motifs of birds. He is best known for posters featuring ethereal women in typical Art Nouveau style. Study for Plate 59 from "Documents Decoratifs" 17x121/4(430 x 310 mm) ALPHONSE MUCHA 1902 . and New York.flowers. The three plates facing us were drawn with a compass.ALPHONSE MUCHA Czech graphic artist and painter who worked in Prague.fruit. Chicago. Pans. and fish have been outlined using a sharp pencil. Look at the two spoons at toprightand see how has suggested that they are so brilliantly shiny they reflect the background color. For ten years Mucha designed theater posters exclusively for the actress Sarah Bernhardt. He designed the Austrian pavilion for the Paris World Fair in 1900. Background color Between the delicate shadows and highlights of these glazed and surfaces ofthebackground metal color of the Mucha we see a large amount paper. Black watercolor washes and lines of white gouache have been added with a fine brush.

and his hand moving across the light. 0 0 0 perfect hemispheres. Their delicate construction is only as valuable as the measurements they make. It was then reflected up inside the tube and. each one skillfully rendered with the alarmingly matter-of-fact ease of explaining the commonplace. into the eyepiece. Newton used this instrument to calculate the speed required to escape earth's gravity.92 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS by their very nature must gauge or chronicle precision. a tree outside. and philosopher Newton was President of the Royal Society. A disembodied eye at the top of the drawing indicates where to look. In the graphic work of these two great men of science. Look how confidently he draws with ink the sphere of this wooden globe by which his telescope rotates. shape the very cause and effect of investigatory thought. mathematician. Ink lines Several drawings appear among Newton's letters. The power of this drawing reflects the pure passion of discovery. w h e r e he developed his three greatest theories: the law o f motion. and Fellow of the University o f C a m b r i d g e . each reflecting a view of his own world—his window. It is a diagrammatic explanation of how to catch and magnify a star in a mirrored tube. Hooke's head of a drone fly seen through a microscope may represent the first time man and insect came face to face. the law o f gravity. we see drawing Instruments of Vision found among his letters. and the nature o f light and color. drawing is there to pin the moment down. Newton's drawing of his first reflecting telescope is ISAAC N E W T O N English scientist. With dotted lines Newton has drawn his arrangement of elements inside the tube. astronomer. From the concept of capturing the infinite to the mapping of microscopic sight. offering a transparent view. Transparent view Newton's reflecting telescope focused light in a parabolic mirror. Newton's 1672 ISAAC Telescope NEWTON . alchemist. via a second mirror. He counted 1 4 .

and anchor escarpment. ROBERT H O O K E 93 Magnifications This acutely detailed engraved drawing is taken from Hooke's Micrographia (pub. The Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 1665 ROBERT HOOKE 111/2 x 105/8 in (294 x 270 mm) . It is an exhilarating read. and calculated the theory of combustion. a breathtaking book containing many of his drawings showing some of the first microscopic and telescopic magnifications of our environment Hooke's text and illustrations carry us to the moment of discovery. universal joint a prototype respirator clock balance. Hooke invented the camera diaphragm. 1665).An experimental scientist who drew many of his discoveries.

94 INSTRUMENTS W H E N WE DRAW A COMMON OBJECT like a chair. and winner of the 2004 Jerwood Drawing Prize. From component parts we understand how to put it together and make it stand sensible in space. Its wobbly gait and squashed s y m m e t r y m u m b l e endless h o m e y tales about the life it has seen. and w h e r e the chair b e l o n g s . while the tabs make us see a flat paper cut-out. craft. Woodfine exhibits internationally. this chair p r e s e n t s us with a clever visual contradiction: deeply drawn shadows tell us it must be solid. and place in the world are truly seen. A renegade from the p a p e r dolls' h o u s e . Drawn in more-or-less c o n v e n t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . Chair Cut Out 2002 22'A x 23 in (565 x 585 mm) SARAH WOODFINE . each drawn with the s a m e unfaltering lines and tones that are between reality and impossibility. W i t h h o m e y c o n t r a s t . Two-dimensional was made This highly finished drawing ruler using a sharp pencil and on smooth white drawing paper glistening dark drawings are artificial representations of known Woodfine's two-dimensional things balanced in the world. and has drawings in numerous public and private collections. Van Gogh's tipsy seat is a metaphor for an absent person. Bench Marks W e are left a little c o n f u s e d as to what we s h o u l d do. Sarah Woodfines flat cut-out m o d e l plan is a witty and surprising drawing. it has so m u c h familiar personality that it seems to talk to us. has published several catalogs of her work. OBJECTS AND SARAH WOODFINE British contemporary artist graduate of the Royal Academy Schools. its character.

hehas marked the full emotion of the subject with a fierce grip of concentration. what direct in their he saw and describing his felt. drawn opposite way of plan. The floor few as engagement with the chair. not is made present in only strokes and is subdued to distract us from flat a meaningful chair. Cornfield and Sunflowers. inner recording while Fierce strokes This is a portrait of the mechanical drew immediately and almost harshly. Among van Gogh's best-known canvases are Trees.95 VINCENTVAN GOGH Dutch painter who produced over 800 paintings and 850 drawings in only the last ten year's of his life. and Starry Cypress Night. His passionate brush and pencil strokes are honest and of also turmoil and growing alarm at the world around him. Van Chair 1890 VINCENT VAN GOGH .

We only need small prompts.102-03 deep shadows cast across shells make their form easier to perceive. Run The bottom-left quarter of the egg lightens slightly toward its "edge" when seen against the darker shadow cast on the paper. a n d are q u i c k to p r o p o s e ideas. transmitted to the brain as chains of electrical impulses. On acloudyday. W e learn to read light and shadow in our environment as indicators of solidity and depth of space. reads only m o v e m e n t a n d can often m a k e mistakes. Card experiment cho can gra on . From across the room both will appear black card and fold and retapeitwith half sticking out. less developed than the center. w e turn our head but n o one w a s there. hence our recognition of a cartoon face c o m p o s e d of three lines. o u r b r a i n s search for n a m e a b l e things. Here w e look briefly at our perception of light a n d darkness a n d our interpretation of diagrammatic illusions. are translated into a world of space. a n d m o v e m e n t .d o w n patterns of light on our retinas. but do not appear so. a n d we can be fooled. Below. atmosphere. gray. your eye around the circumference of the egg. and the proximity of contrasting tones. Below the bottom "edge" of the egg there is a rim of light reflected onto the paper by the underside of the egg. The egg's lightest region is seen against a darker background. Are you happy LIGHT AND SHADOW with what you see? Does the light enhance the subject? Could you alter and improve it? On pp. Here.96 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Light and Illusions SEEING IS MIRACULOUS. Through these we can enjoy witnessing our o w n d e c e p t i o n a n d b a f f l e m e n t a n d u n d e r s t a n d certain factors that are very useful in picture-making. The rim of light on the egg is reflected light received from surrounding paper. cards the same size.This effect is caused by the contrast of their surroundings. perhaps. The two tones meet without a division or outline between. The perceived tone of a black white. Three factors change it: the amount of light it receives. Adjust the angleofthe protruding part and again stepback. To interpret visual s t i m u l u s . S o m e o n e passes our o p e n door. one blackandone white. a lit photograph of an egg shows essential points to observe in tonal drawing. form. U p s i d e .At one point you will catchenoughlight lighter than the white one. the adjustment of our eyes (in growing accustomed to a level of light). try this experiment. think about its illumination. Gray squares To further examine changes in tone. or colored surface is never constant. We perceive one to be lighter than theother. We will even see things that d o not exist because minimal information suggests they are likely to be there. See how its "edge" smoothly changes from light against dark to dark against light. Tape them to the glass. Before starting a tonal drawing of any subject. The egg's darkest region is seen against a lighter background. Artists emulate and manipulate this effect in their pictures. T h e slightest recognition is instantly matched to our wealth of experience a n d expectation. a n d our ability to see forms in c l o u d s or fire. The outermost edge of our vision. The small squares are identical in tone. two identical mid-gray squares are seen against black and paler gray squares.

p o i n t p e r s p e c t i v e d r a w i n g s w i t h a large n u m b e r o f c o n v e r g i n g rays b e h i n d y o u r horizontals. l i g h t e r surfaces s t a n d f o r w a r d w h i l e d a r k e r s u r f a c e s recede. T h e jug d r a w n w i t h a t h i n line appears f a r t h e r away t h a n t h e j u g d r a w n w i t h a t h i c k e r line. A n u p r i g h t line stands in t h e c e n t e r o f a h o r i z o n t a l line. Seven parallel lines are m a d e t o tilt t o w a r d and away f r o m each o t h e r by n u m e r o u s s h o r t strokes crossing t h e m diagonally ( A ) .97 LINE VERSUS TONE In l i n e a r d r a w i n g s . Bending straight lines Linear distance These t w o jugs have b e e n d r a w n w i t h lines o f d i f f e r i n g thicknesses. w h i l e t h i n n e r lines recede. by d i r e c t e d a r r o w s ( A ) . T h i s fundamental o p p o s i t e is a reason w h y l i n e a r a n d t o n a l d r a w i n g does not a l w a y s c o m b i n e w e l l in t h e s a m e i m a g e . B o t h are identical in length. t h i c k e r l i n e s a p p e a r t o stand forward. T w o horizontal lines o f equal length are m a d e t o l o o k longer and shorter. T w o relatively t h i c k parallel lines are m a d e t o b e n d away f r o m each o t h e r as t h e y pass in f r o n t o f an a r r a y o f c o n v e r g i n g f i n e lines ( B ) . Apparent lengths T h e s e optical illusions s h o w h o w lines o f identical length can b e m a d e t o l o o k quite different f r o m each o t h e r by t h e addition o r association o f o t h e r lines. Y o u m a y e x p e r i e n c e s o m e t h i n g similar h a p p e n i n g w h e n y o u m a k e s i n g l e . . T h e r e is n o obligation t o a d d b l o c k s o f t o n e t o a l i n e a r d r a w i n g . LIGHT AND ILLUSIONS Tonal width T h e s e black a n d w h i t e bands are o f equal thickness o n e i t h e r side o f t h e i r central division. In this t o n a l image w e read w h i t e as f a t t e r t h a n black. respectively. If y o u w i s h t o m a k e a t o n a l drawing. O b s e r v e h o w each white b a n d appears t h i c k e r t h a n its black c o u n t e r p a r t . In a t o n a l d r a w i n g . O f t e ndoingso w i l l s p o i l y o u r w o r k . In this linear drawing w e read t h i c k as closer a n d t h i n as f a r t h e r away. S h o r t h o r i z o n t a l lines o f identical length are m a d e t o l o o k d i f f e r e n t by c o n v e r g i n g lines beside t h e m ( C ) . start o u t w i t h one. b u t t h e u p r i g h t o n e l o o k s t a l l e r (B).

It is possible t o r e a d i t t w o ways: as a t r u n c a t e d r e c t a n g u l a r p y r a m i d seen d i r e c t l y f r o m a b o v e . including some shown here.116-17) to make painted figures look correct when viewed from below. as s h o w n o n t h e right. Op(tical) artists.76. are still not agreeably understood. A few suggestive marks will tip the decision one way o r the o t h e r Closing the surface W h e n a t r a n s p a r e n t elliptical o b j e c t has b e e n d r a w n ." . made paintings that depended upon the physical sensation of our brain's reaction to known optical illusions.s i d e d r e c t a n g u l a r t r a y ( b o t h are illustrated far r i g h t ) "The brain is so eager to name a fragment we see that we need only a suggestion to grasp the whole. C l o s i n g t h e surface o f t h e f o r m seals o u r d e c i s i o n as t o w h i c h w a y it faces. it can oscillate b e t w e e n facing t o w a r d o r a w a y f r o m us. In the 1960's. and so calculated precisely how much to fatten columns to make them appear straight. o r as a s l o p i n g . It is a curious fact that w e can never see both options at once. such as Bridget Riley. such as t h e dish seen h e r e o n t h e left. Some artists use known optical illusions to make art. Artists make pictorial illusions when they paint or draw. and we learn to read the styles of diverse cultures and periods. w e will find that in terms of the direction it faces. among others. it oscillates between t w o possibilities. others adjust works to avoid their effects. Michelangelo. Two ways of seeing T h i s is t h e b o x c r e a t e d in t h e f o u r t h step o n p. SEEING TWO OPTIONS Sometimes. Yet many illusions. Today we are bombarded with images but rarely have difficulty reading them. Artists can communicate much in few lines and the viewer will do the rest of the work. w h e n drawing the outline o f a three-dimensional form. their picture could be ambiguous.98 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Further Illusions PSYCHOLOGISTS AND PHYSIOLOGISTS have studied optical illusions for decades in pursuit of what they tell us about the brain. Ancient Greek architects knew parallel upright lines appeared to bend toward each other in the middle. perfected the acceleration of perspective (see pp. w e can only look f r o m one t o the o t h e r If an artist is not aware this can happen in their image.

. Minimal-line j o k e s such as this rely u p o n t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y v i e w e r ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e shapes. This simple five-line d r a w i n g is o f a C a p u c h i n priest asleep in his pulpit.c e n t u r y Italian painters. C Escher u s e d this phenomenon t o great effect in his many p o p u l a r d r a w i n g s o f puzzles and impossible buildings. b u t w e believe w e see t h e m because e n o u g h f r a g m e n t a r y i n f o r m a t i o n is given f o r o u r brains t o c o n c l u d e t h e y are v e r y likely t h e r e . Yet still w e try resolve t h e m . smoke. B e l o w is a b r i g h t n e s s c o n t r a s t illusion. This effect can o c c u r naturally w h e n looking at a b r i g h t l y lit w h i t e g r i d such as a w i n d o w f r a m e against t h e night sky. e t c . C o u p l e d w i t h t h e Rorschach b l o t above. w e see t w o overlapping triangles: o n e outlined in black b e n e a t h a n o t h e r in solid w h i t e . 1 6 t h . T h e patient's answers are t h e n diagnosed as a psychological profile. F a m i l i a r i t y in r a n d o m s h a p e s T h e Rorschach test was established by t h e 1 9 t h . FURTHER ILLUSIONS Seeing things that are n o t t h e r e H e r e o n t h e left. — a n d so t h e artist can create m u c h o u t o f an impression w i t h o u t overdescribing. C o u n t t h e n u m b e r o f d a r k spots y o u can see. M u c h can b e e x p r e s s e d in o n l y a f e w marks. His highly d i s p u t e d and i m p r e c i s e science involves s h o w i n g u n p r e p a r e d p a t i e n t s t e n p a r t i c u l a r ink b l o t s a n d asking t h e m t o i n t e r p r e t w h a t t h e y see. N e i t h e r triangle exists. T h e a r t i s t M. W e should r e m e m b e r t h a t o u r brains will always search f o r a p i c t u r e — i n ink blots. O n l y o n closer inspection we realize that t h e s e o b j e c t s are fooling us. T h e s e e x a m p l e s illustrate h o w little is n e e d e d t o c o n v e y an image. S o m e artists use ink blots t o p r o m p t t h e beginning o f an image. T h e t e s t e x p l o r e s o u r n o r m a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o find things w e can n a m e a m o n g r a n d o m shapes. P e r c e i v i n g a w h o l e i m a g e f r o m m i n i m a l lines T h i s is a w i d e l y r e p r o d u c e d visual j o k e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e C a r r a c c i b r o t h e r s . T h e y a r e o f t e n c r e d i t e d w i t h t h e invention o f t h e c o m i c c a r t o o n . clouds.c e n t u r y Swiss psychologist H e r m a n n Rorschach.99 Impossible objects T h e s e clever configurations o f outlines and t o n a l surfaces convince us at a glance that we are seeing a solid three-dimensional triangle and a three-pronged fork. this is a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f t h e viewer's b r a i n b e i n g willing t o d o a large a m o u n t o f t h e w o r k in d e c i p h e r i n g a p i c t u r e .

COMMON ERRORS W h e n drawing cylindrical objects in perspective. (see p. Be aware. for example. smoothly. circles change into ellipses. like a disposable plastic cup that has been crushed in your hand. there are three common errors people stumble upon. Ellipse are best d r a w n quickly. keep it spinning. describing many sides of an object simultaneously. giving the cylinder four corners. Don't worry if it is uneven— just try again.90) takes a different as essentially circular. a n d in o n e bold stroke. The first common error is to draw two pointed ellipses. w h e n seen at an angle. To make a cylindrical object appear real in our pictorial space. that this is o n l y o n e w a y view. I have exaggerated this error here. Watch the tip of your pen and see it draw an ellipse in the air Keep this movement going while gently lowering the pen onto the paper like the needle of a record player closing on the disc (only it is your lowering hand that spins. WHERE TO START In the air above a spacious sheet of scrap paper. I have drawn these for you here. and these narrow or widen depending on the height of our view. not the paper!) As the pen touches down. since this is h o w w e experience them in e v e r y d a y use. A wobbling but confident ellipse will still be more convincing than a slow. The second common error is to tilt the upper and lower ellipses at different angles. third common error is to draw upper and lover ellipses with different-sized apertures. suggesting that the vessel is lopsided. you will achieve steadiness with practice. as if the table surface slopes upward beneath the vessel. However. while its upper rim remains level. even if y o u r hand w o b b l e s a little at first. .100 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS W E VISUALIZE CYLINDRICAL VESSELS. spin your hand in a relaxed circle. though. Cubism. springlike forms like those I have drawn below. for example plates or bowls on a table. hesitant one that has edged its w a y nervously around the vessel's rim. How to Draw Ellipses of seeing. such as bowls and cups. w e use ellipses to give a sense of perspective. Cover a sheet of paper with spinning.

working from top to bottom.101 DRAWING VESSELS Once you have mastered drawing free-hand springs. enlarging and diminishing the ellipse to determine the overall shape and volume. HOW TO DRAW E L L I P S E S A Single Vessel One Inside Another Grouped Together Finding Shape and Volume Draw an imagined vessel in one continuous spinning line. you can start to control your spinning ellipse to make a vessel. Create a Solid Surface Once you have drawn the shape and volume of each form. Draw quickly. thereby hiding lines that show the other sides. you can make it solid by building up highlights and tones on visible surfaces. Seeing Through Allow lines to travel around each vessel as if it were transparent. Altering the pressure—and therefore tone—of the line as it spins gives the impression of light shining on one side. .

22-23). leaving detail until last. making complicated or subtle surfaces easier to see and understand. simply shapes and subtleties of light and dark meeting each other with no divisions in between. Draw the largest and most distinct areas of light and darkness first. You can begin with outlines and build slowly from light to dark (see opposite top). Gradually hone your drawing. if any. or you can begin with a mid-gray ground and model light out of darkness (see opposite bottom). LIGHT TO DARK DARK TO LIGHT . two opposite methods of achieving the same result. In the finished drawing there should be few. and strong contrasts are easier to draw. Remember that shadows. if light shines in them. It is important to place them on the correct side so as to draw comfortably (see pp. and solid objects are all of equal importance. outlines. beams of light. Illuminate them with a gooseneck lamp placed very close and directed away from your eyes. Relaxing your eyes out of focus as you draw will help to dissolve the distraction of detail. It maximizes the range of tones between black and white.102 INSTRUMENTS Tonality W H E N MAKING A TONAL DRAWING. t h e r e a r e p r i n c i p a l l y Dramatic lighting emphasizes texture and contour. OBJECTS AND Start by arranging a choice of shells on a sheet of paper to your left if you are right-handed (or vice versa). it will inhibit your perception of tone.

Avoid a rough significant areas of light in your gray rectangle with texture and do not press the graphite hardwhite plastic eraser Ignore all detail and draw a into thepaperor you will not be able to erase it. Remember that its size. Let your eyes go out of focus while looking gently layer marks to create an even tone at your subject and paper: Draw the most ofmid-graywithin a rectangle. and edges definingthespacialrelationships between are important aspects of your composition them. . shape. look at the main areas of darkness. boldly 2 3 Keeping your eyes out of focus. Fll in broad areas first and leave all detail until last. Use your pencil to develop these in relation to the areas of light. Continue working between light and dark to refine the drawing. with broad sweeps of the eraser. draw a rectangle. Use quick. Relaxing your eyes out of focus will help to eliminate distracting details. 2 3 Gentlydissolveoutlines so that areas oflightanddark meet without a line between them. DARK TO LIGHT (TONE TO TONE) 1 Using the flattened tip of an HB pencil. loose. until you are happy frame.56-57). Draw in the details last of all. Honetheshapesand angles of the shells. Erase and make changes to roughly place the shells inside your with your composition. Treat positive form and negative space (see pp. pale lines with equal importance.103 LIGHT TO DARK (LINE TO TONE) TONALITY 1 Using a sharp HB pencil.

and on p. The first is that figurative and abstract drawings can be made in space. The second is that after achieving this simple example. our image is stronger if we understand and can visualize what is happening on the other side too. and physical relationships between them. Third. 176 the British artists Noble and Webster draw with domestic refuse in a beam of light. . three-dimensional drawings teach us about the totality of forms in space. Place the instrument on a plain surface and illuminate it with a desk lamp to add the delicate dimension of shadows. This class uses thin-gauge wire to create a threedimensional violin. On p. When drawing anything viewed from one side on paper. and on p. continuous lines.104 OBJECTS AND I N S T R U M E N T S Drawing with Wire DRAWINGS DO NOT HAVE to be two-dimensional. PEN LINES Once you have created your three-dimensional violin (opposite). try drawing it with a pen on paper Use bold. There are essentially three lessons to be learned. smooth. 19 Picasso draws with a pen-light for the camera. On p.220 Mamoru Abe draws with forged steel rods. They can also be made in space. you can create your own more ambitious works.69 we see how the architect Antonio Gaudi drew proposed domes using suspended wires and weights. Seeing through a wire drawing of a known object such as a violin gives us a visual and tactile understanding of all its sides and shapes at once.

and pinch and bend it to shape the base of the instrument Repeat this process to make the identical upper side of the instrument. These will hold the sides apart and help to keep the form in shape. 2 3 If needed. Join the two sides together with four short pieces of wire. I used garden wire and cut it carefully with pruners. but thin enough to be easily manipulated inyourfingers Here. thin wire will make a smaller drawing. Once you have completed the body. begin to shape the curvature of the fingerboard. 4 . Then begin to define its uppermost surface with Scurves and the bridge. 1 Decide how big to draw your violin relative to the gauge of your wire. Cut a length. and thick wire a larger one. Here. I started with the scroll at the top and fixed the four component wires with two drawings of tuning pegs. brace the two ends of the violin with a length of wire along the back.105 SETTING UP DRAWING WITH WIRE Follow these steps to draw a three-dimensional violin Choose a gauge of wire sturdy enough to hold the shape ofyourfinished drawing.

I had the privilege of drawing their inventions. they invented new anthropological finds—objects that reflected the distant past and their immediate future. England. Using found materials. some of which are shown here. .Artifacts and Fictions IN 1993 I WORKED with a group of schoolchildren who were responding to the astonishing objects in the collection of the Pitt Rivers Museum. Oxford.

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Renaissance artists studying anatomy from dissection clinically trained and specialized as a medical illustrator. a n d w e d r a w o u r s e l v e s to a s s e r t o u r e x i s t e n c e . diseased. focus has turned to the vulnerability of flesh: how it can be damaged. W I L L I A M S technology. R. Look closely at Renaissance drawings of the female b o d y and you will see that m o s t are actually y o u n g m e n with minor adjustments. Drawings were usually made from the male nude to avoid offending the church. Artists are thought to have b e g u n drawing from the nude during the Italian Renaissance. Artists now explore the interior of the body with new media and Lateral Contour Map of a Full-Term Primipara Produced by Light 1979 A. much Western contemporary art. Williams were decades ahead of their medical counterparts. and because the female was deemed inferior. sculptural description of her form. Michelangelo attended dissections to made this image by light sectioning: fine beams of light perfect his understanding of surface form. 3 x 7 in (300 x 180 . artists also tried to define ideal proportions in the body.The Body O UR BODIES MAKE us TANGIBLE. myths and fables. It gives physical and emotive form to religious narratives. the junior workshop apprentices posed as part of their duties. During this time. Leonardo drew a man within a circle and square. and anatomical and erotic art. This F finished image was produced as r a n c i s c o . giving physical foundation undulating land. herimpressive presence because we are given such Life drawing no longer dominates the art school curriculum. explaining ranges e/ of materials and techniques and showing diversities of thought and purpose in making. Strangely. These classes are popular around the world. clothed or nude. R. in our privileged and comfortable society. W e understand every curve and balance of to the theory that the eves are the windows of the soul. the Bay Area Models' Guild h o l d s a quarterly life-drawing m a r a t h o n aprinton Kodak transfer paper with green-colored dye added celebrating the great diversity of human proportion. It also looks at the representation of the b o d y b11y4o n d traditional life drawing. and in San could easily be transferred into three dimensions. and surgically rebuilt. portraiture. He even believed he had located the soul contours of her form like a cartographer's map of in the pituitary fossa beneath the brain and behind the eyes. W e are the only creatures on Earth that can make our own image. from video and X-ray to thermal imaging. In this period. WILLIAMS he sought perfection in the infinitesimal measurement of the body and produced four Contemporary photographer volumes of illustrated explanation. while Durer took his research further— A. The human body. while Leonardo opened the body to see and projected onto a woman's body draw the celebratory discover for himself our physical mechanisms. She the body is still essential. is the most c o m m o n subject in art. The body remains at the core of over the initially white lines. This chapter addresses issues that are most commonly faced by beginners attending life-drawing classes. history paintings and other stories. but the study of a controlled.

while Matisse used scissors and glue to cut out and paste a flat collage of brilliant color. while supporting the weight of their body with the other. Raphael's study of fallen m e n leaves no doubt that they are in anguish. and studied to learn from the works of Michelangelo and Leonardo besides whom he was soon ranked. Matisse's b l u e n u d e sings with life and c e l e b r a t i o n . and Vatican frescos. She u n f o l d s and s t r e t c h e s shapely limbs. In a single drawing we see equally o b s e r v e d studies of f o r e s h o r t e n i n g (see pp. we see the e s s e n c e of h e r b e a u t y w i t h o u t a single detail. filling the page with her presence. He trained under Perugino. T h e y b o t h raise one arm to cup their head in their hand. Here three male nudes are compressed into very shallow pictorial space. In this highly s o p h i s t i c a t e d a b s t r a c t i o n . Principal figures m i r r o r e a c h other. By way of contrast. and human defeat. so that we read this drawing like a sculptural frieze. Muscular dramatic postures reflect the influence of Michelangelo and the Renaissance celebration of the idealized male body. But the meanings of each gesture and the materials and methods by which they Postures and Poses were m a d e contrast greatly. Sculptural frieze This is a preparatory drawing for Raphael's painting of the Resurrection of Christ. RAFFAELLO SANZIO (RAPHAEL) Italian High Renaissance painter: Raphael is best known for his images of the Madonna and Child. anatomy.110 T H E BODY THESE DISTINCTIVE WORKS show two strikingly different ways of modeling the body on paper. altar pieces. Raphael drew delicate tones of black chalk on tinted paper. Three Guards 1500-20 91/4 x143/8in (234 x 365 mm) RAPHAEL .116-17).

designer writer.sculptor.. freer.." of is an art of balance. lifelong love of brilliant They celebrate the culmination of spectacular and sometimes drawings. as his w o r k matured. Matisse became an artist after studying law. and Islamic art. serenity. devoid of troubling Blue Nude 1 1952 413/4 HENRY MATISSE . printmaker... a mental soother. teacher and principal exponent o f Fauvism—a movement established in 1905 in which bold color is the most essential element.. his pattern. His calligraphic natural abstractions of form grew brighter..or like a good armchair in which to rest from physical fatigue. Matisse Soothing influence This drawing expresses the achievement of Matisse's personal aim: "What I dream and depressing subject matter.111 HENRY MATISSE French painter: draftsman.which might be.like an appeasing influence. fabric. foundamong many other groups of papercut these works as an elderly man confined to his bed or wheelchair. and more energetic Color and form This collage is one of a series of Blue Nudes.

Light is given by the paper alone. velvet d a r k n e s s . scratched in seconds. form. Beuys's magician. reflected. Using the paper to create light is important for beginners to learn. If Seurat had added white. Seurat evolved a distinctive t e c h n i q u e called p o i n t i l l i s m — i m a g e s literally made from myriad points of color. Opposite. it would have mixed with unseen black dust. T h e space around h i m chatters with symbols. His drawings are similarly u n i q u e . Here. and muddied the brilliance of the drawing. Tone and light In this black conte drawing. like small birds attendant on the meditation. only tones blending into. turned gray. stands in counterpoise holding a dark globe and his thoughts in m o m e n t a r y balance. it is as if the very atoms of air are made visible. we c o m p a r e a skillful design that absorbed m u c h time in its making with the quickness of an idea marked instantly. and color His applied theories still influence painters in their manipulation and rendering of local. or abruptly meeting. agreeing to coalesce and show us the form of a waiting boy. Below. he used b l a c k c o n t e (see p. and c o m p l e m e n t a r y hues. In his f a m o u s paintings of social e n g a g e m e n t . other tones.112 T H E BODY Choreographs T I M E IS A SIGNIFICANT E L E M E N T i n t h e m a k i n g o f a l l d r a w i n g s . w h o sits propped in the contradictory darkness of a hot summer's day. in a perfect e x a m p l e . there are no outlines. Typically. 162) and an eraser to model teeming points of artificial light amid GEORGES SEURAT French painter classically educated in the Ingres school of thought. Seurat engaged in lifelong studies of line. Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 1883-84 91/2 x 121/4 in (241 x 312 m m GEORGES SEURAT .

gold. taught workshops with a cult following. Perfectly modeled rather conventional for Joseph Focus Beuys's hand moved quickly to draw dotted lines flowing downward on either side of the figure. video art. Our focus joins shoulders. CHOREOGRAPHS the profound power materials with spiritual or of Free lines This pale pencil drawing is Beuys. and that These aspects of the work convey fractured visibility. free from the constraint of immaculate form opposite) impetus is irrelevant to the and meaning of this work (as we see in Seurat's drawing representation. Unbroken lines stream from his simultaneously movement. iodine. Many of his other symbolic works on paper have been drawn with materials such as honey. and made installations. Beuys gave performances. and blood. This figure is drawn intuitively. His The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland UNDATED 113/4 J O S E P H BEUYS x81/4in (297 x 210 mm) . transience. He was a shaman who believed in intuition and in the investment of healing force. and drawings.113 JOSEPH BEUYS One of the most influential German artists of the 20th century. in different positions.

Free lines Rodin's public audience was understandably shocked by the eroticism of his drawings. its soft. Our bodies radiate the passion of our thoughts and so become beacons of our frailty and power. They whisper and writhe in a brushed and sultry embrace that devours our watching. the fierceness of the women's kiss is beautifully matched by the tenderness of his line. In Rodins work. Rodin employed models to move freely or pose together in his studio.000 drawings shown in rotation at the Musee Rodin. the women are framed and caressed by long. Opposite. he typically drew them with a few delicate strokes of pencil and brushed watercolor. In both drawings. his w o r k is characterized by deliberate un-finish and powerfully modeled emotion. Paris." as seen here. 125/8x 9 in (320 x 229 mm) AUGUSTE RODIN Two Women 1911 Embracing . THE AUGUSTE RODIN French Romantic sculptor and prolific draftsman employed as an ornamental mason until the age of 42. was perceived as scandalous. Inspired by Michelangelo. Achieving international acclaim in mid-life. flushed skin made ruddy and black with crushed cinders. As here. But what is stranger to us now is that they were also outraged by his free use of line. Rodin produced portraits and statues of public and literary figures. Anita Taylor has drawn her protective body hug out of the darkly glistening compression of willow charcoal and the dynamism of her shy but momentous femininity. Delicate strokes This is one of about 7.114 BODY Passion SUMMONING HUMANITY in a drawing of the nude is a subtle and emotional task. His exquisite flow of paint beyond "outlines. and went on to inspire generations of artists. and one of hundreds of rapid studies of nudes. sweeping lines— of either purple silk fabric or cool studio air—that imprint and amplify their past and future movements. We are asked to gaze u p o n her flesh. We are involved not as a shabby voyeur but as a bystander engaged through our recognition of shared joy.

This order of light below and dark above gives glowing from within. and gaze. Luminosity Layered marks flicker likefirelight as they sculpt the woman's body. draftsman. Taylor has drawn. erased and drawn again. and rework rich depths of light and tone. London. Taylor's immense self-portraits explore the relationship between the artist as maker and the artist as model. A thinner sheet might have crumpled and torn under such vigorous force of making. exposure. intimately reflecting upon the emotions and meaning of nudity. Charcoal Taylor has drawn freely with charcoal and an eraser on thick. textured paper. The sturdy surface of the sheet has allowed her to press hard when needed.I 15 ANITA T A Y L O R Painter. the impression of luminosity All and Nothing 1999 67 x447/8in (170 x 1 1 4 cm) ANITA TAYLOR . scrutiny. professor and Vice Principal of Wimbledon School of Art. leaving her lightest marks at the deepest level of the image and applying darker marks above.

If your arm is not straight. Move the tip of your thumb down to a second chosen point. and wrist joints. to be translated by mirrors or seen from only one point in the room. 2 Hold your pencil upright. which is imperceptible from below. It is not complicated. We also look at another very interesting branch called accelerated (or anamorphic) perspective.116 T H E BODY Measurement and Foreshortening FORESHORTENING IS AN ASPECT of perspective. To avoid its effects ensure you always look flat onto the surface of your page. just making them helps you see. In the life class it is the mechanism for ensuring that a drawn figure lies correctly in pictorial space . Lock your shoulder. It is not so hard. 1 Hold your arm straight. or shrivelling at odd. Smaller. MEASURING This is a simple method of making measured comparisons for relating the true size of one part to another This is a tool to assist observation and thinking. The length of exposed pencil is your measurement." . plummeting. when beginners prop their board in their lap and look down at too steep an angle. patience. elbow. How to make and apply these is explained below and opposite.limbs happily receding. with dramatic illusions of figures painted in normal proportion. and measurements do not have to be carried to the paper and slavishly drawn the same size they appear on your pencil. Spend time making comparisons before you draw. without taking off. or coming forward. Up close on the scaffold we would witness Michelangelo's subtle application of accelerated perspective. Rome. we would arrive to find many of the same figures strangely distorted. elongated as if stretched across the plaster. unfathomable angles. Close one eye. Align the top with a point on your subject. But if we could take a scaffold and climb up to the work. London). Imagine Michelangelo's murals in the Sistine Chapel. persistence. Accelerated perspective plays a great role in much art. It can also be a little demon in the life room. This is chiefly a correcting device by which figurative painters and sculptors have for centuries countered the effects of our viewing their work from far below or on the curvature of a vault. There is no need to mark them all down on paper. rather that what we believe we know from experience. "Simple measured comparisons reveal surprising truths about proportion. and to draw what we see. 3 Keep your pencil perpendicular Measure and compare at any angle. more extreme examples have been made for court entertainment. the skull in Holbein's The Ambassadors (The National Gallery. and a few measured comparisons are key. you will make inconsistent and unrelated comparisons. Return to this posture every time. for example. helping us to see more clearly.

adjusting a n o n y m o u s shapes. C o m p a r e t h e heights o f t h e nose and eye shapes t o t h o s e o f t h e f o r e a r m . A t a c e r t a i n angle. MEASUREMENT AND FORESHORTENING Tilt t h e t o p edge o f this b o o k t o w a r d you and look d o w n o n this figure f r o m a b o v e . W o r k a r o u n d t h e figure. Keep t h e b o a r d steady and draw. Stand its b o t t o m edge o n y o u r lap.117 ACCELERATED PERSPECTIVE To discover h o w this w o r k s . looking d o w n t h e p a p e r at t h e a n g l e at w h i c h I d r e w . See h o w d i f f e r e n t t h e relative heights o f t h e s e shapes are f r o m w h a t w e m i g h t e x p e c t in real life. Lean t h e t o p e d g e t o w a r d y o u and find a p o s i t i o n w h e r e y o u can c o m f o r t a b l y l o o k d o w n t h e p a p e r at an angle o f a b o u t 4 0 degrees. h e r p r o p o r t i o n s will appear correct. W e appear t o be looking d o w n o n a w o m a n s t a n d i n g b e n e a t h us. S o o n t h e b o d y will lie d o w n in space. T h i s is t h e s a m e d r a w i n g p h o t o g r a p h e d f r o m above. FORESHORTENING To f o r e s h o r t e n a figure. which feels strange. a n d thighs. y o u must let go o f w h a t y o u k n o w f r o m e x p e r i e n c e a b o u t t h e relative sizes o f b o d y parts and trust y o u r eyes. y o u r hand travels f a r t h e r than y o u expect. pleasingly f o r e s h o r t e n e d . P r o p o r t i o n s will only l o o k c o r r e c t f r o m t h e angle at w h i c h y o u make t h e drawing. . t a p e s o m e p a p e r t o a board. belly. To m a k e f o r m s l o o k c o r r e c t . L o o k at y o u r m o d e l as if he o r she is a flat series o f shapes o n e o n t o p o f a n o t h e r Measure t h e height and w i d t h o f each shape and c o m p a r e it t o its neighbor.

. Balance When a model stands upright on both feet. I used a sharp H B pencil and began each drawing by marking her outline. because it results in two unrelated sides drifting apart. feeling. THE SEQUENCE OF POSES H e r e the model was asked to move every t w o minutes. T h i s q u i c k e x p l o r a t o r y line does not perfectly describe shape but expresses a decision about overall flow of form. height. balance. Leave first thoughts in place. make the upper body smaller give your model a high waist. and height. To draw this effect. work back and forth across the body. Be bold and dive into your drawing with c o n f i d e n c e . her center of balance is normally found in a vertical line beneath her head. Avoid drawing up one side and down the other. Outline To outline a figure. and work over t h e m with further o b s e r v a t i o n s . To see this. working from her center to her feet and to her head. imagine holding up a plumb line. and slightly enlarge her legs and feet. propelling you to make immediate assessments and trust them. and stance before honing her balance and expression. Start each new drawing by lightly marking the model's height with a loose line in ten seconds. Layered lines give d e p t h . and energy.118 BODY Quick Poses DRAWING QUICK POSES l o c k s y o u r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n t o what is most essential. Height This pose leans away into space above our eye level.

Most of us have a tendency to over-straighten the drawn figure. and this should be avoided Twist QUICK POSES A model standing on one leg usually drops the opposite hip. . This drawing shows how different observations be overlaid to bring a drawing alive. Tilt Movement Here.119 The twist of a model is most easily and expressively captured if it is exaggerated. the activity of circular lines and the repetition of limbs suggest movement. The tilt of the pelvis is then counter balanced by the model's shoulders tilting the other way (as seen here).

swiftly marking its essential gesture. and a gooseneck lamp casts shadows that clarify planes and depths GESTURES OF THE HAND Curled Fingers 1 Open Palm Start honing the shapes of the dominant planes. Draw large shapes and their orientation. but regard these practice studies as ongoing processes of thought and observatio Add details such as nails last if you wish. 3 . and they need not be daunting to draw. Do not separate them yet. express structure and gesture far more successfully and easily than ten worried outlines wandering up and down between the fingers and toes. drawn in relation to each other. Keep lines open to change and take measurements if they help. Practice by drawing your own hands and feet. Begin by drawing lines to encompass the whole hand. Then subdivide each shape so that you w o r k from large to small. and ignore all details. A mirror increases your range of views. Group the fingers together as one mass. it is important to leave aside all details of the fingers and toes. Don't worry about achieving perfect solutions. general to specific. or those of a friend. It also helps the beginner to progress from drawing outlines to drawing confidently across the surface of the whole form. especially the lengthwise divisions between them. These planes. W h e n starting. starting with the largest. 2 Build your drawing gradually from light to dark. Focus instead on how planes change direction across the knuckles from one side of the hand or foot to the other. feet.120 BODY Hands and Feet THERE ARE MANY different ways of approaching h a n d s and THE of form. This exercise is useful when struggling with proportion.

as if with a chisel. Leave aside all detail. Look for key angles without becoming distracted by detail. however. 2 3 Use an eraser t o refine decisions o r t o suggest areas o f light. and spontaneity. Nowimagineyou are carving the foot insidethepaper. Try t o express the whole foot and t o encapsulate its entire shape and direction in a few marks. flattened planes. t o remove t o o many early lines. It can be a mistake. and rapid. and don't worry about accuracy t o begin with.121 HANDS AND FEET MOVEMENTS OF THE FOOT Flat Stance Raised Heel Instep 1 Let your first marks be light. Hew it roughly in broad. . loose.as though out o f wood. depth. these are what give a drawing its tangible structure.

The white lines demonstrate what is often called "bracelet shading. Compare its nature in close-up to that of willow charcoal used on pp." .204-05. I also used white ink with a steel dip pen. Opposite.Charcoal Hands T H E S E DRAWINGS ARE MADE in compressed charcoal.

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before honing his or her shape (see pp. length. Phrasing Contours . and posture of the model. 118-19).HERE TRACES OF RAPID initial lines are still seen within and outside each body. I make these lines in the first five to ten seconds of a drawing to locate the presence.

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and narrative pulse become vivid when you realize them in the middle of your study. Drawing work by another artist enables you to discover and understand the inventive hand in their composition. characters. I draw in museums in support of written research and as an artist seeking answers to questions about the practicalities of image making. perspectives. It is now viewed with some skepticism and often seen as academic. Forms. . feeling them through the attentive movements of your own hand.The Visual Detective DRAWING FROM MASTERWORKS was once a staple component of an artist's education.

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Walls are lined with hundreds of faintly animated body parts. Life-size women wearing wigs recline on beds of embroidered silk in cabinets of mahogany and Venetian glass This is a detail of a compressed charcoal drawing measuring 14 x 10 ft (4. each modeled from dissection. Florence. These almost life-size figures were composed from my imagination and achieved with the help af studies discussed on pp.3 x 3 m) made in response to La Specola.La Specola At17V i a Romana. . there is a unique museum of 18th-century anatomical waxes. 126-27.

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is here to both meet and look through us. and shoulders. and social and political commentaries. Our homes are filled with images of our loved ones and of those in our families who have gone before. Equally. compliant subject to scrutinize. a single line can deliver an entire expression. Goya. abstract or figurative. Beginners often draw themselves as a way of establishing their practice. 1790-92 4 x 3 in ( 1 0 2 x 7 6 m m ) F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A and memorize the basic structure that we all share. . throat. Past rulers sent painters across continents to bring back a likeness in advance of a prospective royal marriage. Once you understand Self-Portrait in a Cocked Hat c. buttons. For centuries. their stance. This enlargement o f his miniature p o r t r a i treveals t h e s p e e d and agility o f his p e n and about himself. neck. usually strangers from past times. gathered all that he knew FRANCISCO DE GOYA V i s i o n a r y Spanish painter. the meaning of their face.139). Portraits can be highly or loosely detailed.Portraiture IN P O R T R A I T U R E W E MEET PEOPLE. religious. To create a face is to see and interpret the essence of an identity. single or of groups. Halls and palaces are filled with pictures of the mighty and significant. in a miniature self-portrait magnified opposite. painters have dropped discreet records of themselves into commissioned narratives so that they can remain a face in the crowd. and satirical or metaphorical. we use the delicate medium of silver point to look at foundation structures of the head. made as he passed through the ages of man. and p r i n t m a k e r . In this chapter. and it is very rewarding. Man Ray's self-portrait of scored lines. or a glimpse of him is caught in a photograph used as a prop. live. his changes in pressure and Hitchcock length o f line. Self-portraiture gives every artist a constant. and their posture can be changed with just one line. Goya's w o r k s include many royal and society p o r t r a i t s . bells. and in a few scrolling rafts of pen lines and stubbled dots. It also reminds us o f b o t h t h e intimacy and a scene as scrutiny o f an honest portrait. became more poignant as he progressed. and a handprint (see p. W h e n drawing a person. We can mold and animate qualities of expression out of objects and fragments of disassociated things—for example. The returning image was of crucial consideration in any proposal. and expression of the individual. Movie director Alfred similarly signed his films by playing a fleeting role: he walks through an extra. character. who. look directly at us. We are also reassured by keeping records of ourselves. The truth is that we all like looking at faces and observing the billions of variations that make us individuals. Rembrandt's famous multitude of self-portraits. draftsman. and lucrative genre for artists. you can capture the subtlety. or past us. historical. having been documented and preserved. or whose eyes can seem to follow us around the room Portraiture is a constant. and secular narratives.

they serve as a great lesson that it is not always necessary to add tone to your drawing. Through exhibitions and copies in books. We can actually count that he struck the paper 40 times. The aesthetic sense of a line being just right can make a drawing sing. Picasso has left to posterity many hundreds of magnificent line drawings. There is a common misunderstanding that a drawing with only a few lines is both less finished and easier to make than a drawing with more. Picasso strikes and scrolls his pencil. PABLO PICASSO Spanish Cubist painter (see also p. He makes his flair and skill look easy. Without faltering. We can read so much about them by studying their gaze.30). teetering on the brink of older age. How could the addition of shadows have enhanced this image? Few strokes The simplicity of Picasso's line is breathtaking. length. It is the portrait of a countrywoman. Holbein maps the still landscape of Dorothea's body in questioning marks. stealthily using his chalk to find contours and mass. The Tightness of a line is felt in its speed. For the beginner. hand to capture something well in only Frangoise au Bandeau 1946 660 x 505 mm (26 x197/8in) PABLO PICASSO . Her face is drawn tenderly and with a luminous glow. While with longer consideration. caught in her last moments of youth. Here the grace and beauty of two young women are held forever. It takes a truly accomplished a few strokes. whisking a timeless girl onto the page. one eye already cast askew into the autumn of her life.132 PORTRAITURE Poise THE BALANCE BETWEEN a mark and a blank space is often a tantalizing form of perfection. and pressure as it conducts our eye through the image. we can enjoy and learn from them. breadth. The truth is often the opposite. adding smudges of tone for weight and solidity.

Holbein has cropped and pinned his subject within the four outermost lines of the image—the edges of the page. presses against the binding across her face. and designer f r o m Basel. Holbein was employed toward the end of his life by King Henry VIII of England. Holbein unified the woman with her background by gently blending colors from her clothes and face into the atmosphere around her.133 HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER German p o r t r a i t painter draftsman. Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 1516 51/8 x121/4in (385 x 310 m m ) HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER . which. made a popular series o f w o o d c u t prints titled The Dance of Death. Blended colors In this portrait drawn with colored chalks on slightly textured paper. gently flushed. he designed c o u r t costumes. Cropping This regal composition fits its paper perfectly. and produced numerous society portraits such as this one here. Her folded forearms support and frame her weight above. He outlined her nose but not her upper lip. In addition t o his numerous exquisite portraits in oil. The peak of her cap clips the uppermost edge. and its downward slope crowns the diagonal of the composition.

VICTOR NEWSOME British sculptor painter and draftsman. and has works in major collections including the Tate Gallery. dark tones of graphite blended into the paper. Nerves. Durelli has m a d e a few m i n o r mistakes. confusing. The style of Durelli's d r a w i n g opposite sings with the confidence of truth and precision. Contrasts Sharp. distorted. and unpleasant to see. . Highlights of white gouache were dry Profile Head late in the making. perhaps applied using a tortillon. Psychological drama is contained behind a grid. the face is one of the hardest parts to dissect. It floats in space. This is one of a number of similar disembodied female heads seen behind. or defined by. its highly clarified detail claiming to be d r a w n from observation. Newsome was awarded the Prix de Rome in 1960. Delicate muscles are integrated with the skin and fat that is to be r e m o v e d . dark lines made with a pencil appear against smooth. taught at numerous British art schools from 1962-77.134 PORTRAITURE Anatomies These highly finished drawings express the emotional power and physicality of the head and neck. but they are irrelevant here. This is a m a r v e l o u s interpretation of the truth. solid above and almost hollow below. N e w s o m e ' s eerily shadowed form is smooth and bears a linear grain evocative of w o o d . while white painted flecks and wisps suggest electrical illumination. continues to exhibit regularly. blood vessels. using a fine and relatively 1982 13 x 181/8 in (328 x 460 mm) VICTOR NEWSOME brush. London. The real dissection w o u l d have been far more c o m p l e x . In fact. the contours of a grid. Anatomically. and glands also complicate form.

135 ANATOMIES ANTONIO DURELLI Linear perfection This is a red chalk drawing of extraordinary accomplishment. Pencil numbers refer to the list of muscles written beneath. pull their points o f attachment t o w a r d each other . It is hard to think of a more difficult medium with which to achieve such linear perfection. Durelli's experience as an engraver is reflected in his stylized drawing o f muscle fibers. and it is likely that this drawing was intended for reproduction as a print. which. w h e n contracted. Red Chalk the Muscles 1837 173/8 x 145/8 in ( 4 4 0 x 3 7 2 m m ) ANTONIO DURELLI and Pencil Drawing and of Neck of the Head Little is k n o w n o f this M i l a n e s e p a i n t e r a n d engraver w h o c a m e from a family o f artists. Stylized parallel lines are reminiscent of engravings.

Both works demonstrate how simple lines can be made complex by being intense.136 PORTRAITURE THESE ARE DRAWINGS of shoulders. Speed Giacometti probably began with an oval shape placed in relation to the proportion of the page. with speed and urgency. necks. Flesh is built and personality carved simultaneously. cutting and carving the paper with matted and spiraling restless energy. which are characteristically elongated. each locked into a visionary gaze. Then. he drew over the whole image at once. He is best known for his bronze sculptures of human form. and heads. ALBERTO GIACOMETTI Swiss sculptor. and with staccato flinches his hyperactive eye moves from paper to model. while his hand stabs and thrusts Revelations like a conductors baton. each portrait is inscribed onto the page. They confuse our perception of scale by being intimately fragile and at the same time far removed. 1948 77/8 x 6 in (200 x 150 mm) ALBERTO GIACOMETTI . We are brought intimately close to this man gazing up to heaven. They show us clearly the bones of drawing. There is a film of Giacometti drawing. Portrait de Marie-Laure de Noailles c. Giacometti settled in Paris. painter draftsman. Bellini gently conjures the features of his saint with soft marks that tease his presence out of shadows into the light. Agitated marks make patches of tone that cut away the space around the character. and poet After studying in Geneva and Italy. The camera watches him at work. as if seen from a distance. Without paint and with very little tone. Opposite. Energy This is a portrait of a woman drawn with black crayon on a plain page of a book Lines search for the essence of form. Similar movements sculpted the head below into its page. close enough to touch his hair and feel his breath.

5 9 ) . Head and Shoulders of a Man 73/8 x 21/4 in ( 1 8 6 x 5 8 UNDATED GIOVANNI BELLINI . H e p r e f e r r e d religious t o classical t h e m e s . These are pinholes. Sometimes different narrative same character was reused in compositions. Transfer This delicate humorous chalk a drawing is a cartoon—not image but a type of template used to plan the composition of a larger work Look closely and you will see rows of tiny dots along every significant line in the picture. a n d b r o t h e r in-law. H e t a u g h t G i o r g i o n e Barbarelli and Titian. Mantegna. transferring which were made in the process of the saint to his final place in the composition of a painting (see Glossary pp.G I O V A N N I BELLINI A prominent member of a large family o f V e n e t i a n painters.25 6 . Bellini s t u d i e d u n d e r his f a t h e r J a c o p o . lyrical. a n d c o n t e m p l a t i v e . a n d his w o r k is d i s t i n c t i v e l y calm. Character This is one of many cartoons produced by Bellini the and his family.

similar to work by Cy Twombly (see p. scratched lines. scrolls.138 PORTRAITURE THE MIRROR OF SELF-PORTRAITURE offers artists infinite reflections of. and confrontations with. bells. drawn. political outcry. Later Basquiat sold drawings on T-shirts. and buttons rings with surrealist wit and agile improvisation. It is an image of confrontation—the ever-controversial young artist roars at us from his abstract city-scape. The artist has finished his portrait with the signature of his hand smacked in the middle like a kiss: a declaration of existence as old as man's first drawing. Man Ray's playful silk-screen assembly of color blocks. Al Diaz. postcards. Islands of graphic marks. It has proved to be a subject of piercing scrutiny. float and shimmer in the shallow pictorial space. It is an opportunity to look deep without the infringement of courtesies owed to a commissioning sitter. and everything flux. spear-brandishing warrior. and indulgence. skull- Self-Portraits headed. marks. made with great energy. their most immediate and best-known subject: themselves. Signs and symbols with symbols This painting shudders that ore written. a tribal. and sheet metal before being snapped up by the New York contemporary art scene. JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT Short-lived American painter and graffiti artist who began his blazing nine-year career drawing on lower Manhattan subway trains with a friend. and attitudes. signing their work SAMO. The incandescent New York painter Jean Michel Basquiat pictured himself here in naked silhouette. scratched into its surface. Self Portrait 1982 9 4 x 7 6 in (239 x 193 cm) JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT . humor.221). In 1986 he traveled to Africa and showed his work in Abidjan on the Ivory Coast He also exhibited in Germany and France. The figure's position is unequivocal and defiant while around him is in a state Without the essential of cultural and figure we would elegant belookingat a sophisticated painting of signs.

where he collaborated with the artist Laslo MoholyNagy. They experimented with camera-free photography working directly onto photographic paper Silk and ink This is a silkscreen print made through the following process: the paper was laid on a flat surface and a frame stretched with fine silk was placed on top. They suggest speed and make the picture look immediate and spontaneous. Autoportrait 1916 195/8 MAN RAY . Black ink was printed next and then white. last of all. while a squeegee was used to drag thick lilac-brown ink across the silk pushing it though exposed areas onto the paper below. Man Ray lived and worked in Paris. The first part of the stenciled image was already marked on the silk The screen and paper were then held tightly together. Man Ray probably used his own hand. caked in thick printing ink or paint. During the 1920's and 30s. printmaker and cofounder of the New York Dada movement.139 MAN RAY American surrealist photographer. Frame White lines are seemingly (though not actually) scratched through ink to frame this face. The handprint appears to be made directly. painter.

M a k e s u r e i t is c o m p l e t e l y clean t o avoid u n w a n t e d streaks. Take a sheet o f any t y p e o f p a p e r (for e x a m p l e . the surface must be primed with a ground such as gouache. For i m p o r t a n t a d v i c e o n p r e p a r a t i o n a n d use. W e t a n d fix a s e c o n d strip t o t h e o p p o s i t e side. Drawn across a prepared surface. choose a silver object. 144-45. laid on paper. c h o o s e a s o f t full b r u s h t h a t c a n c a r r y p l e n t y o f l i q u i d . p a r c h m e n t . and gold have also been used.140 PORTRAITURE Silver P o i n t SILVER OR METAL POINT STRETCHING PAPER A sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has been made w e t with the strokes o f a paintbrush will buckle d u e t o its uneven expansion. Lay a clean d r a w i n g b o a r d o n a flat surface. and t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h strips a b o v e and b e l o w . MATERIALS 1 Find a clean sponge and b o w l o r d e e p t r a y a n d fill it w i t h w a t e r W e t t h e p a p e r evenly in t h e t r a y o r o n t h e b o a r d . T h e p a p e r will l o o k b u c k l e d . Note h o w domestic paintwork marks with a coin. The most c o m m o n metal has always been silver—hence the term "silver point.54) can also b e used. Lightly s p o n g e o f f t h e excess. S i l v e r is b e s t . If w o r k i n g o n an emulsion-painted wall. and make o r buy a holder. Metal point does not work on ordinary paper. W e t o n e length o f g u m . or wood. s o m e m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n o t h e r s . o n e t o fit each side o f t h e b o a r d — t h e s e will make t h e glued f r a m e t h a t holds y o u r p a p e r in place. b e f o r e priming stretched paper. SILVER P O I N T W I R E H O L D E R : T h e s e c a n b e p u r c h a s e d a n d t e n d t o b e heavy. it leaves a deposit. was familiar to or eggshells with animal glue. 1.s t r i p a n d use i t t o fix o n e side o f t h e p a p e r t o t h e b o a r d . 1 4 4 . who used it to outline initials and border characters before painting. Numerous early European artists also enjoyed its fine qualities (see p.54-55). an exciting indication of how large-scale drawings could be made on a wall. I t is a v a i l a b l e f r o m all a r t s h o p s . This browns with age unless sealed by fixative (see pp. illuminators of medieval m a n u s c r i p t s ." Lead. copper. I combined silver point with painted white gouache on a pink ground. Z I N C W H I T E G O U A C H E : Dilute with w a t e r A d d c o l o r i f r e q u i r e d (as opposite) 4 . Metal point is simply a strip of metal bound in a holder. SILVER W I R E : Purchase different gauge lengths f r o m a traditional a r t supplier o r jeweler. Straighten the w o r s t buckles. and alloys work on matt emulsion. which quickly oxidizes into a gray line. you will need t o stretch paper and lay a wash (see right and opposite). platinum. E m p t y mechanical pencils designed f o r t h i c k leads ( s e e p. purchase silver wire. 5. To begin. S O F T F U L L B R U S H : W h e n laying a w a s h . Stretched paper remains taut as a d r u m . Be swift and firm. s e e p . 156). key. and is therefore useful w h e n using w a t e r c o l o r as well as silver point. artists mixed white lead. Gesso o r m a t t e m u l s i o n c a n a l s o b e u s e d . This is called a three-tone drawing. Historically. 2 . b u t d o n ' t w o r r y . 2. Pages 142 to 147 are illustrated in silver point and techniques are explained on pp.Tear o f f f o u r lengths o f b r o w n p a p e r g u m tape. or ring. w h i t e d r a w i n g paper) and cut it t o fit y o u r d r a w i n g b o a r d w i t h a generous b o r d e r a r o u n d its edges. Find a n i t e m t h a t y o u can h o l d a n d draw with comfortably. Opposite. 3 . I m a k e m y o w n f r o m o l d dip pens. bone. M E T A L OBJECTS: All metal objects m a r k a p r e p a r e d surface.

is necessary to lay a wash o Three-tone When coloring ground. so put newspaper under the lower edge. Prop up your board of dry. as the paper will be ruined by a raised ridge. overlapping lines until you reach the bottom. The next step will make a small mess. Dip a soft. Here. Make an even line across to the right.t o n e silver point drawing of a skull . Reload the brush and add a second line overlapping it beneath. I used a powder pigment called Caput Mortuum. v e r y little at a time. T h r e e .141 SILVER POINT 3 Leave the paper to dry flat. Make enough to cover your paper. Keep adding smooth. leaving a smooth surface. It will slowly straighten and become taut. Dry thoroughly before laying a wash. slowly add powder pigment or gouache from a tube. LAYING A WASH It your stretched paper so as to prime it for silver point. Leave the wash to dry thoroughly before you begin to draw. any extra will keep. Runs blend into each other evenly. Keep testing on spare paper. Beware of the tape's coming loose at any point while drying. stretched paper at a 45-degree angle. and let tests dry before deciding to change the mixture. Mix a very wet but not weak solution of gouache in a jar with a lid (add pigment at this stage for a three-tone drawing). full brush into the gouache and start in the top left corner.

142

PORTRAITURE

Head and Neck
THE HEAD AND NECK are best conceived as one unit arranged in four parts: cranium, face, neck, and throat. Each is of equal importance. The cranium is essentially egg-shaped and pivots on the first vertebra. The face is suspended beneath, like a softly curved triangle. The n e c k — a powerful, shapely column of layered muscles rigged to vertebrae—adjusts and holds the angle and expression of the head. The throat is delicate, hard, and lumpy to the touch, formed of cartilaginous rings, glands, thin muscles, and looser skin. Framing the throat, two columnar neck muscles (sternomastoids) project the head forward and also turn it to the opposite side.

This is a simple shorthand diagram representing the cranium, face, neck, and throat. It can be learned and visualized in different positions very easily, giving the novice a firm footing on which to stand and develop their drawings of the head and neck.

Shorthand diagram

Cranium Begin with an egg shape. Tilt it on the paper to change the position of the head.

Face Draw a rounded triangular shape below the forward point of the egg to represent the face.

Neck This shape represents the trapezius; the largest surface muscle of the neck and shoulders.

Throat A triangular shape represents the throat. (The nose makes the diagram clearer)

Applied shorthand

After copying the diagram above, animate it. Practice drawing the cranium at different angles, add the face beneath, then the neck, shoulders, and throat. Shape your diagrams so they are more lifelike, but avoid adding detailed features too soon.

143 These three drawings demonstrate (from left to right) the following: why the cranium may be considered egg-shaped; now the face can be seen as a curved triangle suspended beneath and where the division lies between the two; and the form of sternomastoid muscles that frame thethroatsodistinctlywhen the head is turned and inclined forward.

The skull and the frame of the throat

HEAD AND NECK

Bones of the cranium are locked together by jagged joints. Sinuses in the frontal (forehead) bone between and beneath the eyebrows are larger in men, making their brows pronounced and often ridged compared to those of women.

Bones of the face house our sight, smell, taste, The skull pivots on the first vertebra or "atlas," and speech. Cartilage extending from nasal bones after the Greek god condemned to carry the shapesthenose.Pads of fat resting on the base of Earth. The jaw hinges in front of the ears. Behind, eacheyesocket support the eyeballs in position. If bony ridges give anchor to the sternomastoid thefatisreducedby old age, eyes look sunken. muscles rising from the breast- and collarbones.

Three useful generalizations

General rules about the relative positions of body parts can hinder artists as much as help them, since they are often based on classical ideals rather than thediversityoflife.However,some generalizations can help as a rough guide to start with, so long as good observation takes over as soon as possible.

In general, when the face is relaxed (not smiling or frowning), the corners of the mouth are found directly beneath the pupils of the eyes. Vertical lines can be drawn down from the pupils to meet the corners of the mouth.

The height of a young adult's ear is often the same as their nose and found on the same level. There is no general rule for growing children, and remember that ears grow again in old age, which is most obvious in men.

The height of the face is about the length of the handspan and the eye is normally halfway down the total height of the head. A common error is to draw the eyes too high up on the face.

144

PORTRAITURE

Essential Observations
T H E DELICACY OF SILVER POINT

(see pp. 140-41) is perfect for

such as a beach pebble. Here, I stretched drawing paper and laid a wash of white gouache (see pp.140-41). As you can see, the line and tone of silver point varies with pressure, but only slightly. Too much pressure cuts the ground. Silver point erases, but so does ground. Erased ground can be repaired gently with extra gouache. You can also use gouache to paint over mistakes and make corrections.

small, detailed drawings. The drawings below and opposite show useful observations of the head and neck, which are explained in the captions below. Each drawing was made with a silver wire held in a large-gauge mechanical pencil. Newly clipped wires are sharp and cut rather than draw. Before use, they need to be rubbed and smoothed on a stone

Here I imagined placing my silver point wire against the skin of each head and neck and, working in parallel bands from the crown downward, I traced the undulation of surfaces. Linear bands imagined around the head and neck can help you t o clearly see the tilt of the head and relative levels of the features. Ask a friend t o model for you and try this exercise life-size using a pencil and eraser

Contours

Tilted forward

Tilted backward

Three-quarter view

Seeing that the face is never flat

Drawings below left and center are summaries of the generalizations given on p.143. Far right is an image to remind us that the face is never flat. It slopes back to varying degrees among individuals, from the tip of the nose t o the ears. For example, note that the innermost corners of the eyes are farther forward in space than the outermost corners.

General measurements, side

General measurements, front

View from above

145

Male and female head and neck
Men's necks a r e g e n e r a l l y s h o r t e r a n d t h i c k e r t h a n w o m e n ' s b e c a u s e t h e angles a n d levels o f c e r t a i n b o n e s a r e d i f f e r e n t b e t w e e n t h e sexes ( i n d i c a t e d h e r e b y d o t t e d lines) a n d m e n are n o r m a l l y m o r e muscular. T h e male t h y r o i d cartilage ( A d a m ' s apple) is larger a n d m o r e visible than t h e f e m a l e . L a r g e r f e m a l e t h y r o i d glands also s o f t e n t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e t h r o a t .

ESSENTIAL OBSERVATIONS
Female skull

Male

skeleton

Male

skull

Trapezius muscle
The largest m u s c l e o f t h e s h o u l d e r s a n d n e c k is called the trapezius. A r r a n g e d on e i t h e r side o f t h e spine, it shapes t h e u p p e r back and neck above the s h o u l d e r blades. C o n t r a c t i n g in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h d e e p e r and surrounding muscles, it raises and l o w e r s t h e shoulders a n d d r a w s t h e h e a d backtoeitherside.

The whole

muscle

Upper

half with

sternomastoids

Above

with head

straight

Above

with head

forward

Side with

sternomastoid

Front with

sternomastoid

146

PORTRAITURE

Drawing Portraits
USING A SHARP 3 B PENCIL, I drew this head quickly from imagination, evolving its character and expression from the scheme of four parts: cranium, face, neck, a n d throat (see p. 142). Here, five steps show you how to practice doing the same. This approach can be used to draw from imagination or from life. Keep your wrist loose and hold your pencil away from its point (see pp.22-23). Build the layers of your drawing from pale to dark, a n d from general balance a n d form to specific detail. Remember that successful drawings are built on foundations of "seeing the whole," then dividing the whole into smaller parts, with details brought in last of all. Phrased tonal marks modeling this girls skin and hair follow the technique demonstrated by Goya in his self-portrait on p. 130. Turn to Goya's drawing and study how, in a circle beginning across his hat, moving down his hair, and around his coat, he flows lines over surfaces to describe their contour. As you build from steps 1 to 5, bring phrased groups of lines across the surfaces of your form, using their directions to capture the expression of the head and neck. If unsure, copy my steps until you gain the confidence to make your own decisions.

This drawing is the final stage of the four steps opposite. Here, I have enlarged the eye, and moved it back into the head by trimming the length of the upper lid and adding a more pronounced lower lid. It is important to set eyes far enough back from the relatively prominent nose; too close to it and the face flattens. Hair swept back and extended behind the cranium balances the regal pose. Lines shaping the hair echo those marking the cranium in step 1. Here, the lower part of step 1 comes through as wisps of hair across her face and ear

BALANCED POSE

Portrait of a Young Girl

Moving from the back of the neck. The eye announces the nature and expression of the emerging person. avoid drawing too dark. so it is important to the life of the image that while controlled. too soon. I modeled the outline of the character I imagined light shining from above and in front and adjusted the pressure of lines to reflect this. The nose and ear begin to shape the head. neck. Here. 4 . and throat. 2 Rapidly add shorthand shapes to represent the face. 3 Place the eye beneath the cranium. they are also still sweeping and confident. over the cranium.Theangle at which you draw this shape of the paper will determine the angle of the finished head. First lines will remain visible in the final drawing. Keep your first lines light.147 Building up the portrait DRAWING PORTRAITS 1 Gently spin pale lines in a softly drawn shape representing the cranium. I used light to describe the upper lid first with a shadow beneath for the lower lid and open eye. down the face to the throat.

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be aware of the subtle differences in skin surface. empathize. . Above all. a n d t h o s e w h o a r e Generations asleep (see overleaf). and gravity. muscular tension. the texture of hair.T o DRAW PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGES.

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Madrid. Fast lines carve out the features of Goya's soup-slurping hag. . seeking the dominant contours of each individual expression. Van Dyke's noble cast of characters was modeled more finely. with a steel dip pen and acrylic ink.Castings DRAWING IN THE PRADO MUSEUM. I used the nib upside down to gain needle-sharp precision.

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T h e e n t o u r a g e of the theatrical stage o f t e n l e a d s the c a t w a l k . so that c h o i c e . a n d c o u r t i e r tailors f o l l o w e d suit. S t r u c t u r e is t h o u g h the i n v e n t i o n of shoes. Like it or not. cool. shapes. a n d w e will c o l l e c t patterns. caricatured p l u m e s . or calm u s w i t h chic. charcoal. woman was drawn by Bakst one year later for the ballet Narcisse. while court p a i n t e r s — M i c h e l a n g e l o and Holbein. c o s t u m e o f f e r s a r i c h v o c a b u l a r y of t e x t u r e s a n d c o l o r . and atmosphere. toParis. dancer leaps through swaths of golden cloth. . fulfilling lavish and spectacular briefs. Cities c h a n g e d all. Previously.Costume W E MAKE OURSELVES EXOTIC. w h i c h in turn feed c o n s u m e r Lev. and everything w e h a v e c h o s e n for o u r w a r d r o b e s — r e f l e c t o r s of o u r taste. and be so expressive of temperament that it overtakes the need for an o c c u p y i n g h u m a n form. intriguing. and i n d e e d image b e c a m e the property also of the industrial classes. and e x u b e r a n c e . theb u t b y the w a y it s p e a k s w i t h its flying. and s y m b o l s that lets m e n and w o m e n in all countries and areas have w o r k i n g access to the latest fashions. T h e p a p e r p a t t e r n is p e r h a p s the m o s t w i d e l y k n o w n of c o s t u m e d r a w i n g s : a formalized plan of lines. or b u l g e s . Bakst's designs and costumes immediately To the fine artist. P o p u l a r f a s h i o n d e s i g n e x p l o d e d w i t h the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n . a n d s u b t l e t o n e s . c u l t u r e . c r u m p l e s . a n d p r o f e s s i o n — b e g a n life as a d r a w i n g . Petersburg and later exiled designers' ideas and are surprised and delighted b y their continual f l o w of inspiration. it is the public sign by w h i c h w e are j u d g e d . g l o s s y folds. he and cofounder Serge Diaghilev took Paris by eac storm in 1910 with their production h year in the industrial f r e n z y of creating o u r image and aspirations. for e x a m p l e — d e s i g n e d the w a r d r o b e s of p o p e s a n d k i n g s . e m u l a t e textures. and even invisible by the w a y w e dress. and gouache. st 111/4 x 81/2 in (285 x 220 mm) u d i e d L E O NB A K S T and explore the characterization of fabric t h r o u g h m o v e m e n t . and intent. Samoylovich Rosenberg. articulate a d a n g e r o u s satirical j o k e . b u t influenced Parisian fashion and interiordecor. Practical classes Bacchante 1911 l o o k at r a n g e s of c o l o r e d m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d i n g p a s t e l s a n d felt-tip p e n s . Designers all over the w o r l d c o n t i n u a l l y p e n and b r u s h lines to lash us w i t h color. arichand unusual combination of pencil. D e s i g n e r s create m a s t e r p i e c e s of haute couture LEON BAKST for H o l l y w o o d stars. personality. W e dress ourselves and costume designer trained in in St.This voluptuous above all a physical p u p p e t w i t h w h i c h to animate character and narrate personality. T h e rural masses w o r e h o m e s p u n simplicity. w a r m t h . was a Belarussian A r t Deco theater fantasies and desires to immediately possess a version of the same. o n l y the w e a l t h y c o u l d afford to h a v e c o s t u m e s specially m a d e . Artists do this not so m u c h b y the style of a figure's garment. outrageous. gesture. of Scheherazade. known as Leon Bakst. In this c h a p t e r w e see h o w c l o t h i n g c a n s e e m to p o s s e s s the w e i g h t and m o n u m e n t a l i t y of stone.As artistic director of the It is s h o c k i n g to t h i n k h o w m a n y m i l l i o n s of d r a w i n g s m u s t be m a d e a n d d i s c a r d e d Ballet Russe. variety. In psychology.

Church and deities are drawn as JAN VAN EYCK Flemish oil p a i n t e r f r o m L i m b o u r g . Delicate marks Silver (or metal) point is the most delicate of traditional drawing media (see pp. her marble garment holds u p the infant Christ in a fountain of compressed line. Keisai Eisen's intense. Below this. and snakelike marks. Above them. with their jagged edges. Short and subtle horizontal punctuations are only given in the background by sections of floor. delicate lines. Maelbeke I44I Madonna 11 x 7 in (278 x 180 m m ) JAN V A N EYCK . Flaxmans sleeper—perhaps a pilgrim or a soldier resting between campaigns—has wedged himself into the cleft of some great building to grab a moment of peace. the vaulted stone roof echoes and crowns the moment. The quiet stillness of this image is achieved by a masterly economy of stylized line. Vertical lines The highly controlled lines of this drawing cascade from top to bottom of the image.140-41). In Van Eyck's drawing below. and the kneeling abbot is a ghost by comparison. folds and patterns of material speak more resolutely of their wearers than any small glimpses of body we can see. Their uninterrupted emphasis is entirely vertical. bands around the columns. and implied striation in the stone of the architecture. it is only possible to create very thin. the carefully composed outline of his cloak shows us how the artist would have also begun his immaculate rendering of the Virgin's clothes. resonate with their wearers startled expression. swirling printed fabrics. Her gown is carved and polished as if made from marble. With a stylus such as Van Eyck used here. He has layered these slowly and carefully so as not to cut through the ground and produce a white mark just where he intended a dark one. Sculpted one. the Madonna and her architecture are both dressed in the same manner. Opposite. H e m e t i c u l o u s l y a r r a n g e d subjects t o c o n v e y d e e p e r meaning. However.156 COSTUME Cloth and Drapery EACH OF THESE FIGURES is ninety percent cloth. Van Eyck's highly polished w o r k is c e l e b r a t e d f o r its disguised symbolism. dragons. best k n o w n f o r his G h e n t altarpiece ( 1 4 3 2 ) a n d m a r r i a g e p o r t r a i t o f Giovanni A r n o l f i n i and his w i f e (1434). Marble gown We will never know if Van Eyck considered this drawing unfinished or intended the kneeling abbot to remain transient and ghostly.

Position In this pen and ink drawing. Remaining raised areas of wood are rolled with colored inks. and teacher Distinctive linear illustrations for the works of Homer.157 KEISAI EISEN Japanese draftsman. each delivering a different part and color of the design. Aeschylus earned Flaxman an international reputation. Dante. an 18th-19th century document on the lives of the ukiyo-e artists. flat sheets of wood. Respected for his sumptuous images of geisha and editions of erotic prints. Images are drawn onto smooth. the cloak sliding to the ground. one over the other. stone wall of downward-stroked this sleeper's position is momentary. draftsman. and Man Lying Down in a Cloak I 787-94 21/4 JOHN FLAXMAN x 41/8 in (57 x 105 mm) . This complex numerous blocks prepared image and may have been made with printed separately. the angle of the head. and the feet notched against the pillar tell us that A lines holds him into the cleft. Parts of the image to be left unprinted are gouged out with a metal tool. CLOTH AND DRAPERY Relief printing This is a woodblock print made by a relief process. he also co-edited and expanded the Ukiyo-e Ruiko (History of Prints of the Floating World). Koimurasaki of Tama-ya 1810-50 15 x101/4in (381 x 260 mm) KEISAI EISEN The Courtesan JOHN F L A X M A N English late 18th-century neoclassical sculptor. designer. The inked block is laid face-down on damp paper and pressed to make the print. writer and printmaker Keisai Eisen took his name from the masters Kano Hakkeisai and Kikugawa Eizan. which are sometimes also cut into pieces like a jigsaw puzzle.

The aged queen is compared to an overdressed bird. and even formal portraiture. Man in Armor UNDATED 1 6 x 9 1 / 2 in ( 4 0 5 x 2 4 0 m m ) A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE . In 1 6 3 2 he m o v e d p e r m a n e n t l y t o L o n d o n . The metal. Leg sections in both support the figure without taking our attention away from the main garment above. Van D y k e was chief assistant t o Rubens f o r t w o years. cinema. all ruffs and wrinkles. Its warm surface flows in contrast to the stiff metal armor. cartoon. theater. A flamboyant territory. He has been rendered on this olive<olored page with pen and gray wash worked over a red and black under-drawing. cloth. where sometimes there just might not be anybody inside. Its color is also reflected in the metal. Leg section Compare mid-shin the section of white boots cropped to the section of similarly cropped trousers in drawings Gruau's drawing on p. Opposite is a dangerous drawing. and feather were all CHARACTER COSTUMES REPRESENT observed with closely crafted conviction. a scurrilous cartoon by a courtier of Queen Elizabeth I. a n d w a s e m p l o y e d as c o u r t painter t o King Charles I. Details and voices are worn externally with great imagination. for she would not have been amused and William Wodall might have been stretching his luck. Pen and wash In the graphic accuracy of this armored knight we see the idealized identity of a warrior from another time: a gleaming defender of the realm. Flowing scarf The knight's scarf of gilded blue is drawn in a pale wash over red ink lines. Fine examples can be plucked from fashion. 160.158 COSTUME Character Costumes an extreme form of the clothed figure. w h e r e . A s a y o u n g man. Anthony Van Dyke's Man in Armor is a masterpiece of drawn surface. t h r o u g h n u m e r o u s p o r t r a i t and C h u r c h commissions. he c o o l e d and redefined his style. A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE Flemish painter and draftsman. It is presumed Her Royal Highness never saw it. lace. b e f o r e traveling t o Italy. The slight uncertainty of the pose and the limp cloak suggest a little more metal than man.

1599 71/2 WILLIAM x 51/4 in ( 1 9 0 x 1 3 4 mm) WODALL . the queen is masterfully rebalanced by words at her feet The whole drawing's blackened. t h e B a b i n g t o n Plot. Top-heavy. and saturations showing through from the other side. A Ruffs and feathers Starched white ruffs worn at court and by society grew steadily larger as Elizabeth's reign progressed.159 WILLIAM W O D A L L A u t h o r and illustrator o f The Aaes of Queene a Elizabeth poem Allegorized. Satire of the Queen's Dress c. manuscript comprising six c a n t o s . t h e Jesuit Mission. t h e Ridolfi Plot. By her old upto three tiers supported on sticks. t h e Rising. she is shown as a grossly disproportioned bird. Beneath the lethal fan is the body of a bird of trimmed feathers suggest age.35). bitten nature. T h e poem recounts t h e six m a j o r crises o f Elizabeth's reign: t h e Spanish A r m a d a . it was customary to Iron-gall ink Wodall's dangerous caricature steps daintily the written lines of her dedicated page. here dark tawny owl. hooded with an overinflated fluffy ruff eye pins us. while a raised foot pauses to assess the next displaying a fan of daggers. Northern Satire This is a quill-and-ink satire of the elderly queen's pride-As head of state and fashion. suggest the use of iron-gall ink (see p. and her pride.

Vogue. Fashion and fantasy drawings invent prototypes of ideals and perfection—be they for the catwalk or the fast-paced pages of comic books. and both share the power of scarlet and black. muscular aggression. RENE GRUAU I t a l i a n .5 9 ) and a three-spoke balance of cuffs and cropped trousers to create an almost flag-like emblem of power. Compare the compositio beneathVanDyke'sstudy of armor on p.and tilted to the same de a little deeper than sp kneestogivehergravity. Fine lines drawn against the building behind her echo the threads on which we have all seen arachnids drop and hang. She has been drawn with brushes dipped into India ink and gouache. and gray pigments were applied separately. a n d L'Officiel de la couture. The black red. possibly over a pencil outline. Spider-Girl leaps like an insect. His model is outlined. Composition Look how well this image is frame knee is parallel to the bottom edge spacehorizontalline cropping the trousers be outermostuprightbordersof her cuffs are similar above her head thesidesoftheimage.160 COSTUME Femmes Fatales THESE DEVASTATING femmes fatales force back the onlooker with their demure. as is Spider-Girl opposite. elegant chic and svelte. demanding attention with gesture and flair. studio-like rectangle of paper. G r u a u ' s highly distinctive d r a w i n g s have a p p e a r e d Couture. 158.c e n t u r y haute i n n u m e r o u s m a g a z i n e s i n c l u d i n g Elle. Airbrushed reflective surfaces further amplify our perception of speed. Gruau uses starkly cut negative space (see pp.F r e n c h f a s h i o n i l l u s t r a t o r w h o in his l o n g and esteemed career w o r k e d with many of the g r e a t e s t d e s i g n e r s o f 2 0 t h . Harpers & Queen. Gruau's model regally swans to the fore with cool pride. Rene Gruau's bold gouache drawing of smoothly swaying sophistication captures a brilliantly cut garment and frames it with great dynamism in a white. diving to catch us in the grip of her machine-like limbs. 5 8 . ofcroppedtrousershere to the device of the w Illustration 1949 for Jacques Fath in L ' O f f i c i e l d e la C o u t u r e RENE GRUAU . India ink and gouache This swish of confidence and style our enters the page turning everyone's head. Drying time in between applications ensured the colors did not run into each other.

This s modeling applied over the top give the image a sleek and mechanical of gravity. Single-point understand perspective To how Frenz created up therefore the effect of steeply between looking buildings—and howyou can do the same in your own work—take calculate where a ruler the and single vanishing point lies. to the right of its center. not far above the drawing. at Their extensions will meet the same single vanishing (see point pp. Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 2001-04 R O N FRENZ. and figure are all locked into equally shatp through the traditional process of a pencilled outline over-drawn ink. sky. Align your ruler to the upright of each building. and Amazing Spider-Man. moon. Sharp focus black outlines in this drawing create a hyper-real dynamic.74-77). MARVEL C O M I C S . Airbrushed color and with tonal focus. Frenz has drawn for Marvel for about 20 years. In your mind's eye extend the uprights out of the top of the picture. Buildings. It is outside the picture frame. a great characteristic superhero comics. He began work on Spider-Girl in 1998. and has been the title's regular artist since 2003. The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones. beginning with Star Wars.RON F R E N Z Contemporary American graphic artist w h o designs and pencils the dynamic scenes of numerous superheroes featured in Marvel Comics.

Store loose pastels in dry rice to keep them clean. 2. crumbly. Degas built his pastels in layers. CHALK PASTELS: Blackboard chalk is sidewalk work. great for tin . Children's wax crayons are relatives. OIL PASTELS: Many colors. Before making substantial investments. and can be a great rediscovery for bold drawings. shape. 4. Most stores leave small pads of paper on their counters for customers to test materials. or wax and a binder are shaped into fine strips and encased in w o o d like a graphite pencil. The worst are like revolting old lipsticks that get everywhere except where you intend. intensity. though lines can develop greasy stains around the edges if the paper is not first stretched and treated with a gelatin paste laid as a wash. COLORED PENCILS: Dry pigments ground together with chalk. quality and cost T h e best are paperwrapped sticks of sumptuous. 1. Many products are sold individually and in boxed sets. used to make colors. Pastels are finer. you may be pleasantly surprised to discover something you could not have imagined using. C o n t e crayons are square-formed. Try materials that are new and unfamiliar. The nontoxic range below represents a suggested starting point for experiment. I suggest you do so. fixing each layer on the front. slightly oily to the touch. Dissolve in turpentine or mineral spirits to produce oil paint or or dark paper. and synthetics. and can be softened and manipulated with degrees of heat. and cost are laid out for our pleasure and perusal. oily pigment. Seemingly infinite choices of texture. See h o w they work and return later for more of what proved best for you. chalkbased but very subtle. Many artists apply fixative to the back of their work. Sticks and conte crayons make thicker marks (as below). unwrapped harder pastels. Often. size. insects. clay. purchase a small selection of different items you think you will like. The higher the quality (and cost). FELT-TIP PENS: Instant-drying alcoholor water-based inks stored in the barrels of the pens are delivered via smooth nylon o r felt tips of varying shapes and thicknesses. quality. and CHALK PASTELS Pastel pencils make fine lines (as above). these work best when slightly warm. They vary hugely in cost. wash. hue. OIL PASTELS Oil-based. soft. Use them to draw lightly (as above left) or thickly. minerals. are derived from many sources: rocks. the diverse are made in brands of basic member of the family. and sold in many colors. Beware—some are toxic. including iridescents. which he left unfixed to retain its brightness. the finer and more subtle the texture and color should be. animals. Bright pastels are more brilliant on colored paper. mixed on the paper and scratched into (as below). allowing it to fix slightly from behind. made in about 80 colors. except the final layer. 3.162 COSTUME Colored Materials ART STORES BRIM OVER w i t h t h e m a n y wherever permitted. Pastel pencils are slender and in w o o d casing. They work well on PIGMENTS Pigments. Be aware that fixative dulls pastel. there are disparities between the apparent nature or color of what you hold in your hand and its performance on paper. and subtlety. plants. colored materials available. paper-wrapped.

or clay-based thin crayons in wood casing. 111). . Think of Matisse's Blue Nude (see p.163 COLORED PENCILS These are wax. Colors can be blended as shown right) and tones graded by altering pressure. FELT-TIP PENS Although not made with felt-tip pen. Some are nonsoluble. Brands made for designers sold in enormous ranges of colors are far more subtle and sophisticated than those made for children. Fine lines can be achieved (as above). so it is best to test them before buying. others dissolve in water or turpentine to make a wash. it is still a great champion and support for those beginners feeling shyly obligated to tone down their love of color to conform with what others say they should use. leaving the paper to shine through for highlights (as below). Some give richer lines than others. If you love smooth blocks and lines of colon felt-tip pens are perfect. Diverse brands are harder or soften greasier or chalkier in use.

the era in which we live. I m a d e n u m e r o u s s h e e t s o f d r a w i n g s . will discover m o r e . and they have been concealed in buildings to ward off misfortune. style. t o o . . and how we stand and walk. Superstitions and fetishes are attached to them: we are told never to put new shoes on a table. 104-07). a n d e x p e r i e n c e visible p r o g r e s s . Linear Outline Using fine pens. structure. To set up. You. 100-01 and pp. values. Here we go one step further. This class takes the shoe as its subject in building on earlier lessons concerned with seeing through objects to understand their function. e n j o y i n g t h e study a n d i n v e n t i o n o f shoes. a range of colored felt-tip pens with both fine and broad tips. and a selection of shoes. personality. As artifacts in museums. if y o u m a k e p l e n t y o f d r a w i n g s as o p p o s e d t o o n l y a f e w . you will need several large sheets of drawing paper.164 COSTUME Study and Design they reflect our age. t h e n again as if transparent. c o v e r a large sheet o f p a p e r w i t h line drawings o f several shoes. D r a w each o n e first as a solid object. REPEATED STUDY T o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s class. while artists have painted their boots or those of others as personal portraits and memorials. social and economic status. they record and reflect our common history. Turn t h e m in different d i r e c t i o n s and o b s e r v e t h e i r s t r u c t u r e and f o r m . imagining y o u can see t h r o u g h it. S H O E S TELL LIFE STORIES. and volume in space (see pp. and after studying familiar shoes we use the information learned to invent new ones.

165

The Surface
Next,

STUDY AND DESIGN

study the surface contours using fineand broad-tipped felt-tip pens. For best results, it is important to be bold and brief. Draw firmly, fast, and with as few strokes as possible. Build up each shoe from light to dark andleavesome paper showing through to create highlights.

Design Your Own

Using what you have learned from the previous steps about the structures of your shoes, and about the use of pens, invent new designs from your imagination. Start with fine outlines and progress to colored and textured surfaces. Modify your ideas by rotating the views.

166

COSTUME

The Structure of Costume
MUSEUMS ARE AN INFINITELY

rich resource for the artist and

information given by a period style. Arrange to visit a costume museum or ask a friend to model clothes for you at home. Using fine felt-tip pens, begin with quick, pale impressions of each garment's shape before homing in on its borders and seams. Try to draw transparent views wherever possible to record the relationships between all component parts. Aim to draw enough information for it to be possible to make up a version of the garment using paper pinned to a tailor's dummy.

designer. They often give quite unexpected gems of ideas and information—whatever the subject. These drawings, made in a costume museum, demonstrate ways of recording structural information and detail for later use in the studio. They could form the basis of new designs for a fashion project or theater production, for example. Drawings of shoes on pp. 164-65 show how new designs can be evolved from the structural

OBSERVATION
It is usually best when collecting information for reference to apply the restraint of dispassionate observation. Set yourself the test of drawing facts with as little artistic license or embellishment as possible. Here I chose fine felt-tip pens because they are at their best when used swiftly, and therefore encourage bold, unhesitant decisions.

Swift lines record the hanging weight of this gentleman's coat, the relative proportions of its layers, and minimal details of the buttons and cuffs.

Thick velvet fabric is pulled tight beneath and across the bust by a single button. This transparent view shows how the fabric falls loosely in straight panels beneath the level of the sleeve.

167

LIGHTING
W h e n visiting museums, be prepared f o r l o w lighting, which can make it hard t o see and draw. A book can help if attached t o your drawing board.

Adding stripes and dashes of color with a thicker pen brings out the glossy sheen and sculptural rigidity of this dress, which would have been worn over a whalebone corset. small reading light designed t o clip o n t o a

THE STRUCTURE OF COSTUME

In small drawings such as these, use thick pens to color entire sections with a few marks, as I did here down the side of the bodice.

The light, frilly bulk of this crinoline dress is propelled forward with lines. pinching its gathers and sways that are hiding a horsehair bustle. fleets of quick

168

COSTUME

Textures and.Patterns
THIS CLASS FOCUSES ON how to draw textures through the collection of fabric, pattern, and embroidery samples from a costume m u s e u m . This formal method, using ruled squares, can create an invaluable library of ideas a n d i n f o r m a t i o n for future r e f e r e n c e — w h e n painting a clothed figure, or preparing a textile project, for example. However, if making a book of samples for a project, remember that it is important to also include collages of f o u n d materials (see pp.230-31) To d r a w a fabric texture, b e g i n by concentrating o n h o w y o u i m a g i n e it w o u l d feel if you t o u c h e d it. Decide if it w o u l d be rough, s m o o t h , w a r m , cold, thick, thin, tough, or fragile, for example. As you draw, believe you can feel these qualities at your fingertips a n d that your pencil is responding to the sensation. Undulate the pressure of your lines and marks according to the feeling of the fabric rather than its appearance. Let your pencil enact the sensation of touching its surface.

and to experiment more loosely with mixed media.

INVENTING COSTUMES
This starchy, quilted, b o w e d creation started life as an imagined corset, I intended t o d r a w together in one sculptural f o r m a range o f t h e details opposite. T h e garment quickly got o u t o f hand. T h e r e is great e n j o y m e n t in letting y o u r imagination run wild w h e n inventing costumes. If you are unable t o visit a costume museum, many exciting fabric details and textures can be found in y o u r o w n closet o r home.

169

COLORED PENCILS
Colored pencils give precision and tonal range; they can be faded but not erased. Lightly use an HB graphite pencil if you wish to plan a design first. Pressed hard, colored pencils build up a waxy finish of brilliant color. Used lightly, they appear powdery and show the texture of the paper.

TEXTURES AND PATTERNS
Wool

Silk and braid

Ribbon

Embroidered leather

Feathers

Pearls

Knit

Tassels

Outline stitch

.

and 252-53). identity. Madrid. .Dressing Character I O N C E SPENT THREE MONTHS researching the work of Francisco de Goya at the Prado Museum.126-27. look at how Goya delineated volumes of thick fabric to express the posture. These characters. shape. selected from different pages of my original book. I made a drawing book full of studies seeking to understand how he composed drama and pathos in his narratives (see also pp. and motivation of an individual. 172-73.

To understand how he did this. are copies of works by Goya in which he makes air seem heavier than flesh. Posture Carving also taken from my Madrid drawing book (see pp. I carefully copied the direction of each of his lines. and visible.170—71). and tangible. . as it rushes and carves fabric-wrapped forms like rivers and desert winds shaping the earth.T H E S E PENCIL STUDIES.

.

.

vivid portrait of his wife captures our attention. too. the viewer's attention in a scene by the format of its composition. presumably while he is making this drawing. daily newspapers. Her all-too-clear expression shows annoyance and irritation with her husband. heighten or subdue drama with subtleties of exaggeration or caricature. The spaces between people and the positions they occupy on a page are vital to our understanding of the psychology or emotion of an event. . the viewer. He is also the artist from whom props to add layers of meaning and attitude. soap operas. Third. while a quill contact with. and so. but drawings of gathered people tell them most directly. It middle. Storytelling and people-watching are obsessive human activities. R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN in the delivery of narrative. Later in their lives. and novels—our staple cultural diet—are driven by a fascination with shared experience and the detail of what happens in other people's lives. a crowd tells the story from a distance. and therefore seem to see. there are no longer individuals but one significant group or mass action. stares out from her gloomy sickbed. even up her were laid with a brush. Saskia. Blockbuster movies. This J u s t as there are three parts to a traditional landscape drawing—the foreground. Seeing through Rembrandt's eyes. Saskia died after childbirth. types. are implicated in this marital exchange made over the head of the anonymous nurse. First. Here. we. we can learn most about handling pen and ink. We can also use clothes. Washes of shadow behind engaged and as a natural voyeur can feel invisible while watching the scene. He in turn scorches the paper with his view and a certain speed of seeing all. As artists. Rembrandt's bored and frustrated wife. and other masters of Western Art. and its illumination. the viewer is not directly made the finer lines of Saskia. the speed and printmaker and one of the greatest and most influential density of its lines. comics. in spite of how it may seem. Drawings selected for this chapter explore these Saskia Lying in Bedand a Nurse ranges of proximity 1638 9 x61/2in (227 x 164 mm) and a travel journal. With a pocket full of disposable pens we also go out and draw the expressions of gathered people. paintings depicting scenes from history. Second. we can R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter draftsman. and instantly engage with the action of the scene. and distance—so drawings of gathered people can be loosely arranged in three took only minutes to make and yet it lives for centuries. television documentaries. the direct exchange (as shown here) where one or more characters hold eye Aneedproduced the thicker lines of the nurse. finding corners in crowded places to inscribe their action and energy onto the page.Gatherings A LL DRAWINGS TELL STORIES. We can direct close. this is not the portrait of an old woman. We read tensions and exchanges between people. furniture.

. and in. or even the office photocopier. Real Life is Rubbish 2002 Dimensions variable TIM N O B L E A N D SUE WEBSTER . Pencil on paper important but only the beginning of possibility the combination of three-dimensional space." (Tim Noble) Drawing with light it is important to think about what you is Here timelessly we see a in can draw with. T h e i m m a c u l a t e d r a w i n g is only r e v e a l e d w h e n t h e b e a m of a p r o j e c t o r c a s t s t h e s h a d o w Projections of the h e a p o n t o a wall. and projector. the Cat. Here. junk. a kitchen explodes in o u r faces. and smoke billows around the agitated jives of the Duchess. the C o o k . and on. plates shatter.. TIM N O B L E A N D SUE W E B S T E R British artists who collaborate using neon. garbage and chaos are piled a n d e x p l o d e d in r o o m s full of event. refuse. Pans fly oft the stove. In both works. and Alice. t h e y select and arrange familiar items of street detritus into what appears to be an u n p l e a s a n t pile.176 GATHERINGS SOME DRAWINGS ARE MADE e n t i r e l y o f i l l u m i n a t i o n that floods drama into the viewers gaze. N o b l e a n d W e b s t e r s w i t t y a n d o f t e n s u b v e r s i v e d r a w i n g s are also c o n t e m p o r a r y art installations. via the animated clutter of o u r material lives."Anything that. hearth i m p l e m e n t s crash at o u r feet. narrative is delivered through the air. F o r e a c h w o r k .kicks against the mundane things that close down your mind is a refreshing and good thing. Think about what else you could use: a laser smoke. for example. Below. and projectors to create their anarchic punk satires of modern life. h a l o e d portrait of the artists seated b a c k to b a c k . In one of R a c k h a m s great illustrations for Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland. c o m p o s e d garbage p r o d u c e s a c a l m .

Stowe's ofMysteryand Queer Little Folks. beams. Rackham Vanishing point In this marvelous drama made with pen. This makes the story appear to leap out at us. Refer back to the drawing class how pots In drawn objects and elements that those behind. The wood grain acts like marks of speed behind the scene. are very large compared to on p. humor. Depth Billows of smoke expand and are lighter as they come forward. 100 to see for make elliptical objects and pans fly through the the foreground. a n d an unmistakable graphic style. See how the In the Duchess's Kitchen 1907 77/8 x 6 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 5 0 m m ) ARTHUR RACKHAM . tabletop. ink.76-77) above vanishing point (see that is about3/4in (2 cm) oak converge at this point.177 ARTHUR RACKHAM British watercolorist and book illustrator. H e is best k n o w n forillustratingIrving's Rip vanWinkle. by vivid children's Rakham's w o r k is characterized fantasy. and watercolor. we find several devices already explored through our drawing classes. and Poe's Tales Imagination. Find the singleperspective pp. and Alice's shoulder. amplifying movement outward from the vanishing point.

Moore's spectators appear to have walked a long way from nowhere to witness and wait beside this mysterious obelisque. a sculptor. as fellow watchers. which still narrates vivid days in the lives of an energetic nation. join in the waiting. audiences. a n d l o v e d t o d r a w in t h e BritishMuseum. and action of a buffalo hunt. HENRY MOORE Crowd 1942 Looking at Tied-up Object . meaning.178 GATHERINGS we have seen in the pairs and trios of drawings by masters and makers. Magnetic Fields sculpture. Opposite. and composition they are polar opposites. as if Moore's wrapping has been literally outstretched. Chalk and graphite This fog-bound but humorous gathering of souls is made in graphite and colored chalk with gray wash. heat. and art in the landscape. and we. M o o r e t o u r e d Italy as a young man. London. expressing his dry humor about O F ALL THE CONTRASTS HENRY MOORE British s c u l p t o r w h o t r a i n e d a n d taught at t h e R C A .The human form w a s the vehicle o f his expression and h e w a s t h e official W o r l d W a r II artist. In culture. The image stands out among his more usual graphic works in which he hones and carves semi-abstract human forms. This is an ironic drawing from Moore. perhaps these two are the most extreme. This is just one of many precious artifacts from a lost time. The mournful gray landscape of Henry Moore's northern British field has gathered by night an overcoated audience to stand and wait before a wrapped and roped monument. A glimmer of gold light appears from the left No explanation is given. a great Shoshone drawing blazes with the color.

Hunt CENTURY SHOSHONE SCHOOL . Skills are taught not center chant or dance to the beat of a drum. Each color is evenly distributed throughout the scene. Stylized hunters." Men at the instructed to sit and watch. tolearnhow to paint a scene on a hide are and buffalo circle and charge the perimeters of a skin "field. horses. MAGNETIC FIELDS Horses It is interesting to note how the outstretched limbs ofthesehorses echo European images of the runningBuffalo horse before the sequence-photographer Muybridge taught us to 19TH understand their movement differently. creating harmonious balance with words but through silent demonstration. and helping our eye to dart around.179 SHOSHONE SCHOOL Stylized characters This vital image of a buffalo hunt is made with pigment Members of the Shoshone community wishing painted within dark outlines on a stretched elk hide.

a n d the gentle h u m o r of sedate r i d i c u l e . a d e a t h c h a r g e of brutality. K a t h e K o l l w i t z s c r a t c h e d a n d e n g r a v e d her a r m y of c l a y . Opposite. a pink-inked cinema wobbles along with string. It illustrates a scene from Dante's Divine Comedy. inextinguishable in its fortitude and h u m o r . We also see qualities of line. pale souls of the lustful are being s p u n into yet another realm of hell. p o e t . w r i t e r a r t i s t .180 GATHERINGS The Human Condition IN THE SPECTRUM of these vastly d i f f e r e n t g a t h e r i n g s of p e o p l e . a n d e n g r a v e r w h o p o w e r f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e d his o w n t e x t s in a d d i t i o n t o D a n t e ' s Divine Comedy. Blake w a s d r i v e n b y a passion f o r j u s t i c e a n d a p r o f o u n d b e l i e f in his v i s i t a t i o n s f r o m angels. Misted in translucent layers of paint. era as Kollwitz. w h i c h b y their c h o i c e a n d h a n d l i n g a c t u a l l y b e c o m e the force a n d spirit of e a c h i m a g e . Brushed line and wash This is an ink-outlined drawing made with a fine brush on paper with added washes of watercolor The image was subsequently redrawn as a line engraving. w h e r e he w a t c h e s a t u r b u l e n t s p i r a l of p u n i s h m e n t f o r the d a m n e d . and sweetened the often bleak years with his impractical inventions. a n d f o c u s . B l a k e h a s i l l u m i n a t e d his s a d d e n e d Virgil on the s h o r e s of a d a r k w o r l d . a n d o t h e r w o r k s . w e f i n d a spiritual v i s i o n . color. Heath Robinson lived through the same war-torn. t h e Bible. texture.f o o t e d t r o g l o d y t e s w h o rage into w a r like a m u d s l i d e of revenge. m a r k . The Circle of the (The Whirlwind 1824 of Lustful Lovers) mm) 143/4 x 207/8i n ( 3 7 4 x 5 3 0 WILLIAM BLAKE . W I L L I A M BLAKE British visionary. The muscularity of Blake's figures was inspired by Michelangelo's works.

and the impact of death and war upon women. humor by making his characters earnest. stoical bemusement. THE HUMAN CONDITION Scratched lines This is a dry-point etching with monoprint. who lived in a poor district of Berlin. Robinson and Kollwitz (above) share almost identical life dates and their work expresses a shared history from opposite sides oftheworld wars. and clearly focused. What remained in scratched grooves printed on damp paper as lines. White marks were made with a dusting of French chalk on the artist's finger to wipe away ink leaving clean metal. children. and controlled smears on the metal surface printed as tones. poverty. He created sincere. British Pen and wash This is a pen-andwatercolor drawing made for a color-platereproduction in an edition of T h e Bystander. however meager or ridiculous their activity. and the family home. HEATH ROBINSON The Kinecar 1926 103/8 x 15 in (262 x 380 mm) . Kollwitz survived the two World Wars. sculptor and draftsman. and her powerful and sensitive drawings center on nurture. Heath Robinson shows England in a past era. plodding along with hazy. The image was scratched directly onto a metal plate. Losbruch (The Outbreak) 1955 20 x 233/8 in (507 x 592 mm) KATHE KOLLWITZ HEATH ROBINSON humorous illustrator and a regular contributor to magazines and journals such as The Sketch and The Bystander.181 KATHE KOLLWITZ German printmaker. Ink rolled over was selectively polished off using a rag. With masterful gentility.

c h o o s e p e n s l a b e l e d " p e r m a n e n t " o r "lightfast. blob when old. a ballpoint will make faint lines. these pens enable you to sketch. dark sheen. turn the page. 7 6 . T h e r e w e r e c seconds t o snatch this impression b e t w e e n their emergence from one bridge and disappearance b e n e a t h t h e next. Unlike pencils. CHOICES AVAILABLE T h e r e a r e m a n y d i s p o s a b l e p e n s t o c h o o s e from. R O L L E R B A L L : A c o n s t a n t i n k flow 3 . trusting shape and form to follow. shut your book. B A L L P O I N T : Black a n d b o l d c o l o r s o f f e r d i v e r s e qualities. p e r m a n e n t . I swiftly focused on gesture. . So many stores sell them. a n d pressure-sensitive. which can snap or pierce through your clothes. rollerballs. is d e l i v e r e d t h r o u g h a m e t a l t u b e o v e r a t i n y ball bearing. Available in blacks and ranges of colors. t w o tourists and their gondolier drifter past m e o n a canal. 4. Ideal f o r precision w o r k (see p p . For example. At a time like this. they each offer distinct and sometimes unexpected qualities. The f o u r i l l u s t r a t e d h e r e r e p r e s e n t a basic r a n g e . gel pens) are the most convenient of all materials with which to travel. a n d ranges o f colors. Quick-drying. fibertips. dropped in your pocket and forgotten till needed. FIBER-TIP: M a n u f a c t u r e d f o r artists a n d d e s i g n e r s in a r a n g e o f w i d t h s . including l u m i n o u s a n d m e t a l l i c . 2.7 7 and 214-15). and in most pockets so I can always record a thought DISPOSABLE PENS QUICK NOTES O n a c o l d day in Venice. Lines t h i c k e n as t h e p e n w e a r s o u t G r a n d Canal (see pp.r e s i s t a n t . W h i t e gel p e n s a r e v e r y e f f e c t i v e o n d a r k papers. 192-93) w e r e b o t h m a d e w i t h a ballpoint. they can be obtained within minutes. indent paper. jot notes. or turn into washes and make monoprints if flooded with an alcohol-based substance such as hairspray. Insensitive t o p r e s s u r e : lines d o n o t v a r y in w i d t h o r t o n e .182 GATHERINGS Disposable Pens (ballpoints. build to a rich. in the car. a disposable pen with its clip-on cap goes anywhere. fine fiber-tip Drawing with a fine fiber-tip pen." 1. if y o u w i s h y o u r d r a w i n g s t o last a n d n o t fade o r b l u r w i t h t i m e a n d e x p o s u r e t o light. aiming for correct outlines would result in drawing too slowly to c a t c h the moment. G E L P E N : P r o d u c e d in b l a c k w h i t e .188-89) and Caravans (see pp. or idea. t h e y a r e lightfast. in the studio. R e m e m b e r . or put the paper in your pocket instantly without fear of smudging. I keep quantities at home. w a t e r .

crowd of fellow travelers Fast lines These scribbled lines model the mass and shadows of heads belonging passengers packed into the boat. not form. Earlier I had witnessed a crammed en masse in a fleet of hired gondolas complete with musicians and choir. Fast lines focus on action.FROMMEMORY Here I used the same fiber-tip pen to compose a scene from memory.31 . Compare this Klee's mules on p.

black. Exaggeration helps. Circular lines buzz around a man puzzling at the end of a train platform (left).184 GATHERINGS The Travel Journal I CANNOT OVERSTATE THE JOY of making a travel journal. animate them more. not its outline. However. pocket notebook and a fiber-tip pen. when out drawing. just draw the action. You will make outlines. You must learn to trust your memory and to draw what impressed you most. let it enter the stage and perform. of course. Let the line of the flying coat fly and the hanging arm hang. Each line acts its part in the narrative. Movement . No camera can tie you to a time or people in the same way. life will not slow and wait for you to catch it. Above all. Every drawing writes an indelible memory of place. Each one was witnessed and drawn immediately from the afterimage of what I had just seen. if animated. but they should not be what you dwell on. and companionship. activity. all action is in the line of his coat and directed by his nose. make them stouter. focus on the action of the event. Don't worry about measuring angles. FLEETING MOMENTS Walking through Venice with a small. I caught fleeting glimpses of gathered people and solitary souls going about their affairs. Push toward caricature and this will draw out of your memory what was most important. if a person was stout. A curatorial assistant flies to do a chore (right). angles will happen as a matter of course.

Observation THE TRAVEL JOURNAL The same willowy assistant dashes about his work. eager to herd us all from his house of responsibility. I am watched by the aggravated guard. In turn. The rush of his legs isamplifiedby their blurred lines. I drew him three times on the same page to catch a range of his physical expressions.185 A large lady is photographed in front of a delicate work of art. Expression .

and let every detail speak by its size. focus on action. and there met this sullen custodian. For example. pulls. elevate them in the pictorial space. and involvement in the story. not outline. placement. furniture leans. you might place them lower down. When your attention has been caught. For example. Identify the principal character and draw him or her first. . or bulge. if they are being haughty. Place the person carefully. ACTION AND DETAIL W h e n drawing people. and reason for happening. I took refuge in a church in Venice. decide how faces and bodies contort. emotion. Here the custodian projects fastidious ownership of his desk and pamphlets by pushing from behind the center of the space and challenging our entry to his image. and you decide to draw the moment. He and his simpering assistant would not allow me in. Here I have recreated my drawing in steps to show you how to set about capturing such a scene. and clothing or bags hang. if they are being devious. Be aware that their placement on the page is part of the narrative.186 GATHERINGS Catching the Moment On A BITTERLY COLD November day. rather than the works of art they guarded. flap. or pushes. start by focusing on its action. forcing me to remain at the back and look at them.

who is largely expressed through the shape and fall o f his raincoat and his way o f using a note pad. which is pushed toward us in a gesture of confrontation. such as the desk and pamphlets seen here. together with any immediate props they are using. D r a w their action. Decide where you will place them o n the paper t o emphasize their action and intent. . a pillar locates t h e scene in a depth o f space. Draw their action and props. Here. Decide where t o place them t o emphasize their role. CATCHING THE MOMENT The assistant Identify t h e antagonist ( o r second character) in t h e scene. If drawing a more complex scene. continue adding characters. I added t h e assistant. In the final step (left) I reinforced t h e custodian's desk.187 The custodian Identify your principal character a n d their psychological role in the scene. W i t h a few strokes.

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where vertical mooring poles give space and pulse to the horizontal speed of water quickly.Grand Canal T H E CANALS OF VENICE are bustling places full of occupation. An imminent deluge of tourists urged me to work catching no more than the skeleton of the view. and buildings. . I developed detailofthis drawing from memory using a ballpoint pen.

Venetians flow across a stepped bridge and cascade into the streets beyond.Crossings DURING THIS RUSH HOUR. then the bridge beneath them. Each person was glimpsed in an instant. followed by the streets. note only their most essential action and feature. To catch characters like this. . and drawn immediately from memory. Characters in the foreground were drawn first. Caricature each person slightly.

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Caravans and other backstage activity convey expectations of energy and repose.Caravans T H E PARAPHERNALIA O F TRAVEL i s an intriguing part of circus life. quiet afternoon. I used a ballpoint pen to compose a series of scenes. . Sitting at a distance on a hot. and a great subject to draw. I found this circus by chance in the Swiss mountains.

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and even how the Sun illuminates. 199). so J o h n Russell's tour de f o r c e drawing (opposite) was a masterpiece of observation in his time. or has cracked and fallen under the weight of water. These conditions are very difficult to express well. they are the animators of your subject. Richard Long. and the sea. England. a n d a n astronomer w h o dedicated 20 years t o studying t h e M o o n . are the real subjects in great landscape drawings. Take chances against the rain and work with the wind or fog. It is Earths satellite. Oxford. Just as NASA photographs of Earth have had a profound effect on the way we view our fragile home. Look closely at works by many artists and you will see that they have not represented hills. t w o e n g r a v e d m a p s k n o w n as The Lunar Planispheres. The pastel drawing was constructed from myriad telescopic observations almost 200 years before the Apollo Moon landing. surrounded by the bright instruments of centuries of navigation. a n d a m o o n globe called t h e Selenographia. the sun comes out to blind it.Earth and the Elements I T MAY SEEM PERVERSE to start a chapter titled "Earth and the Elements" with an image of the Moon. and meteor impacts have scarred. Weather is essential in all landscape drawing. It is better to get up before dawn. rivers. as opposed the physicality of Earth. how the soil is scorched. our companion. trees. when little stirs and empty blue skies offer even less to latch lines to. artists see for themselves that which is momentary and eternal. makes his work by the act of walking. to be ready to draw the new light as it breaks across the land. speculation. 5 f t x 5 ft 6 in ( 1 5 2 x 1 6 8 c m ) J O H N RUSSELL . learning to draw light out of dark. William Turner is said to have had himself lashed to a ship's mast to comprehend the storm (see p. but it can be seen as a lens to our observation of this planet. By drawing such momentous and everyday events. pages o f softly i l l u m i n a t e d craters and lunar "seas" c o v e r e d in m a t h e m a t i c a l and s h o r t h a n d calculations. marking the ground with lines of footprints or by turning stones. the face of the Moon. and experiment. In this chapter Moon Pastel 1795 Drawing we experiment with charcoal. t h e first-ever accurate image o f t h e M o o n ' s surface. Russell d r e w this. and its draws the tides of the seas. how the mountain cut by ice and rain is now fleetingly lit. JOHN RUSSELL A p o r t r a i t pastelist t o King G e o r g e III o f England. and take bold steps in emulating the swell of clouds and the forces of torrential water. arranging them in perfect circles on the mountainside or in lines drifting out of sight beneath low clouds. It now hangs on the staircase of the History of Science Museum. or the wind carries it away. The forces of nature. There is a sense of the heroic in drawing outside—we race to catch a form before the tide engulfs it. What they have drawn is the force of nature on these properties: how the wind heaves the night ocean. a contemporary environmental artist. sunny days. H e a l s o p r o d u c e d an a l b u m o f 1 8 0 exquisite pencil drawings. Beginners will often choose calm. This is the world's first accurate image of the Moon.

seeing how it shakes. Crayon and limestone This is a lithograph. Hazy vertical marks reveal buildings into the mist. T h e great master of English seascape is c o n d u c t i n g with his graphic energy. He knew how the world bends and stutters under such gusts. is already lost. Danger of Wearing Balloon Petticoats UNDATED HONORE DAUMIER . and solidity. A hard waxy was drawn across a heavy limestone Varying definitions crayon of lire and depths of tone conspire to give volume.198 EARTH AND THE E L E M E N T S Air in Motion THE GREAT INVISIBLE SUBJECT o f these d r a w i n g s is t h e w i n d . Fluid strokes inflate the woman's dress and pin shadows to the ground. and gives motion to each image. Dots and dashes suggest receding trees out of focus. sculptor. we can soon learn to draw its force. like an umbrella forced inside-out. speed. a scratched ghost. This wife. By Turner carries us to the heart of the maelstrom. and the legal profession. H O N O R E DAUMIER French satirical cartoonist lithographer. the bourgeoisie. distance. Below. and pioneer ofexpressionism. T h e ship. fluttering heavily. has b e c o m e a hysterical kite. Terrifying waves of merciless nature roar across the paper. serving a prison sentence for his views. Flapping kimonos and an onlooker turning his b a c k have the magic of a m o m e n t caught. and by observing its tides and eddies in our o w n environment. the government. Daumier's c a r t o o n shines with the brilliance of his comic memory. undramatic b u t brimming with stylized realism. painter. a sail b r o k e n loose in a stormy marriage. Hokusais sedate wind presses reeds a n d the j o u r n e y s o f young ladies. lifts.Through political drawings he fired his sharp wit at the king.

absorbent watercolor and are Stains of splashed. painter. a n d his b e s t . Hokusai direction (from clothing from has chosen which it the right).199 J. wind. leans the whole composition swells around its fateful center. T u r n e r w o r k e d in oils a n d w a t e r c o l o r s a n d s k e t c h e d c o p i o u s l y o n his travels. A outline scratched of a skeletal into penciled ship is while and the waves. into this very as pressed sheet The paper's through own coior is brought banks of mist and fog. including being lashed t o a ship's m a s t in o r d e r to study a storm. and history painter w h o s e p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t a b o v e all w a s light. horizontally then and of the it into the stream Plants also bend and flow right to Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 1802 81/2 HOKUSAI KATSUSHIKA x 131/2 in ( 2 1 7 x 3 4 3 mm) .W. TURNER KATSUSHIKA HOKUSAI Prolific J a p a n e s e c o l o r w o o d .b l o c kprintmaker. W . T h e r e a r e m a n y stories o f his p a s s i o n a t e w o r k i n g methods.M. H o k u s a i in t u r n has since significantly influenced European art. from left print. AIR IN MOTION Pencil and watercolor subdued brushed. Landscape a n d city life w e r e his principal subjects. T U R N E R British landscape.M.l o v e dw o r k s i n c l u d e 1 0 0 v i e w s o f M o u n t Fuji and 1 2 v o l u m e s o f Manga.i n f l u e n c e d b y examples o f W e s t e r n art obtained through D u t c h t r a d i n g in Nagasaki. seascape. d e s i g n e r a n d b o o k i l l u s t r a t o r . 1826 91/2 x 113/4 in ( 2 4 1 x 3 0 0 m m ) J. Wind direction wood-block This is a colored To represent the blows lifted flowed wind. Ship in a Storm c.

lines of rain escorting them to b o u n c e and clatter. and tossed o b j e c t s — a perfect subject in which artists can forget themselves. and swim into the page. or charcoal. Then. drawing was Hugo's principal means o f expression. as a gestural storm on the paper. active surfaces of water. as if drawn j u s t this year. composing banks of waves and dense. Pen and brush Hugo drew first with pen and ink. Leonardos Cloudburst of Material Possessions is o n e of his m o s t enigmatic and mysterious works. h a u n t e d shadows. By contrast. it is difficult to contemplate its brooding and night-soaked heart. fantasy palaces. D o m e s t i c o b j e c t s we can o w n and name fall from the clouds. Opposite. grab their b r u s h . inks. Turner (see p. T h e very nature of b o t h is turmoil and an interweaving of elements. and t h e sea s t u d i e d f r o m his h o m e in Guernsey in t h e Channel Islands. Le Bateau-Vision 1864 71/2 x 1 0 in ( 1 9 2 x 2 5 5 m m ) VICTOR H U G O . He brings us to stare into a place that no sane human would enter. he blanketed the drawing in darkness. T h e m e n a c i n g darkness of Hugo's storm b e l o w is so convincing. as a subject and second. with a brush. It looks so contemporary. In periods b e t w e e n writing. An update on biblical showers of fish and frogs. this is a b o m b a r d m e n t from o u r h o m e s . this is a writer's narrative of terror.198) admires the majesty of nature. ink. leaving nothing but a glimpse of moonlight glistening on the froth below.28).200 ELEMENTS Storms STORMS CAN BE SEEN and drawn in two ways: first. EARTH AND THE VICTOR HUGO French novelist and artist (see also p. His subjects include ruins. water. marks.

and they passed through private hands for 400 years before becoming widely known. a bell. There is a little magic in recognizing many items from our homes something like a rake. envisioning machines centuries before their making (helicopters and bicycles.LEONARDO DA VINCI Leonardo devised many artifacts of our modern lives. He bequeathed his drawings to a friend. for example). He was left-handed and wrote backwards in Italian from left to right. Above and below are examples of his mirror handwriting. and a wheel. It is interesting to speculate how engineering might have developed if his ideas had been shared with the world earlier Ink and chalk This is a pen and ink drawing with touches of black chalk. Cloudburst of Material Possessions 1510-12 45/8 x 43/8 in ( 1 1 7 x 1 1 1 mm) L E O N A R D O DA VINCI . together with half the contents of our garage. Each item that has crashed from heaven is drawn in such a way that we can feel Leonardo's nib picking it up in the speed of a doodle. a hook.

watching his hand and eye at work together. sea-. Claude Lorrain drew directly on location. In a very different work (opposite above). it is the unique calligraphic signature of the place in which we stand. Segments The top half of the drawing is a view as we enter the valley. and mood simultaneously.202 ELEMENTS THE PROFILE OF A HORIZON is a line we immediately recognize and respond to. Claude is distinguished by. and etcher who lived most of his life in 17th-century Rome. Claude has used a fine nib to delineate segments of land as they recede into space. cooler tones receding into the distance are applied with a brush. made inside a book. and dry marks in the foreground appear to be made with his finger. EARTH AND THE Bryan cut the profile of a city. In the lower half he has walked downhill a little. transferred it to a scroll. and we can imagine standing over his shoulder. rich. or cityscape. She was inspired by her research of aerial plans of London and the story of an alien map butterfly (see caption). and famed for. rapidly layering contours to shape place. she teased away fragments of paper to illuminate her view. Whether land-. Nature Profiles Opposite below. a horizon line can trigger our recognition. Views from Velletri c. Paler.1638 85/8 x 121/2 in (219 x 320 mm) CLAUDE LORRAIN . Drawing with a scalpel. Even distilled from all other detail. Clare Bryan took panoramic photographs of the English South Downs. atmosphere. Over first lines. which he used to unify his compositions. thick. and after tracing her captured line. and across to the right. his unsurpassed handling of light. C L A U D E LORRAIN French classical landscape painter draftsman.

progressively settlement (cropped more and more paper is drawn away to show the expansion of human page of an around the river. and visiting professor at numerous art schools. source workisilluminatedby standing its lower edge on a CLARE BRYAN .5-m)scroll. then hunted destroyed. printmaker graphic designer." Cut line This is a small section of a preparatory 5-ft(1. specialty bookbinder. drawings Ideas of introduction Clare Bryan to research introduced down and led NATURE PROFILES and removal historical plans and aerial growth of London showing its population since Roman times. Her recent paper photographic. On turning the pages of City. and digital print-based works reflect upon the histories and poetry of "left behind and in-between spaces. The edges of each here) fade into the solid paper unpopulated with a scalpel landscape.203 Scalpel-drawn This book-bound drawing was inspired by the story of a foreign butterfly wrongly to Great Britain in 1912.The horizon was drawn with a City Landline 2003 271/2x 59 in (70 x 150 cm) scalpel. 2001 CLARE BRYAN C L A R E BRYAN 3ritish artist.

Then lift it away. A great find when available. LIFTING OUT This technique is a very easy method of drawing a crisp. this does not exist. and heavier than willow. It does n o t erase easily. Not to be confused with square conte sticks (see p. 3. 162) or graphite (see p. a n d p l u m . resulting in a pale line. a piece of fresh bread. The tip snaps easily to renew a sharp edge if required. B u n d l e s o f twigs were traditionally sealed into earthenware j a r s or wet clay and heated slowly and intensely in a fire or kiln. between your middle finger and thumb. blacker. the heel o f y o u r h a n d . a rag. leaving u n d e r t r a c e s of first thoughts. a n d m o r e i n d e l i b l e by soaking it in linseed oil. It allows you greater precision in your mark-making than if you rub away the charcoal with an eraser. Try itworking on big paper covering a wall. 6. you can p u r c h a s e m a c h i n e .54). MEDIUM W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 5. vine. 2. Hold it over your drawing RANGE AVAILABLE Charcoal (in its several forms shown here) is loved or loathed by the beginner to whom it is often recommended because it produces pleasing results quickly. C h a r c o a l naturally glistens. 1. resulting in a stick that gives a blacker. Use any fine-point pen or pencil (I used a ballpoint) to draw a firm line on the back of the Big pieces are perfect for very large-scale drawings—even larger than yourself. Beware of cheap brands selling dyed chalk as compressed charcoal. so it chars b l a c k as o p p o s e d to igniting a n d turning to ash. The same as above. It c a n be m a d e duller. or fingertip. they are all intended for fine work. Smooth paper accepts few particles. Alternatively. sticky side down. fine. 3 A white line is lifted out by the tape. but some specialists stock compressed charcoal in delicate square sticks. SQUARE COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Not often sold. CHARCOAL PENCIL: Types made by different manufacturers vary in quality and density of line. Artists have also used lime. b l a c k e r . In use. Lines are achieved by d e p o s i t i n g particles in the grain o f paper. black finish. harder line. maple. . tape. Essentially. 7. COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Machine-made. THIN WILLOW CHARCOAL: I used a piece like this to make the drawing opposite. 4. THICK W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 2 Keep the tape above your drawing. without touching the surface. it looks gray and feels like chalk. Willow is the most c o m m o n wood. 1 Suspend a length of masking tape. Boxes often contain a range of thicknesses to choose for different needs. Slightly dull the tape's stickiness before use t o prevent it from lifting out more than you intend. b e e c h .204 E A R T H AND THE E L E M E N T S Charcoal CHARCOAL IS PRODUCED from wood baked slowly without exposure to air. white line into the blackor grayness of willow charcoal.m a d e c o m p r e s s e d charcoal. R o u g h paper c a n b e loaded. it is compressed and m o l d e d at high pressure. It is also easily erased if the maker of the mark is not happy with the result. CHALK CHARCOAL: Technically. feather. As its name implies. and offers a rich. only a little thicker. Charcoal lifts away from paper easily with the very light touch o f an eraser. cylindrical.

10. Lift out broader marks with a larger implement. CHARCOAL Lifting out This detail shows an example of where I used the lifting-out technique demonstrated opposite to draw flashes of lightning against rain clouds. MASKING TAPE: An invaluable resource.212-13 were made by altering the pressure applied to the charcoal. Here we used a ballpoint. Use cheaper (less sticky) for lifting out. 8 . 9. Here. Use high quality (very sticky) to fix paper to walls and boards. Different tones seen throughout the main drawing on pp. Cotton swabs also work. pastels.205 ERASING Thickly applied charcoal quickly o v e r c o m e s a plastic eraser A w a r m (soft and tacky) putty eraser is more effective. Layers can be peeled away to refresh its surface. T O R T I L L O N : This is a tight roll of paper used to blend charcoal. I used a plastic eraser effectively on thinly applied charcoal. . PEN: Any fine pen or pencil can be used to draw on the back of masking tape when lifting out. sold in several widths. as is fresh (unbuttered!) bread. graphite. or any other dry media.

a reel of masking tape. an eraser your drawing book or a board and paper fixative (or hairspray). details blur and colors grow paler and bluer. to contain each of your compositions.212-13). and an abstract. I relaxed my eyes out of focus to dissolve distracting detail into abstract patches of light and darkness. Ironically. it results in flat planes of clutter.9 9 we noted that in response to visual stimulus. pack your materials (as advised below) and set off for a local view or your nearest arboretum. Landscape drawings are traditionally arranged in three parts: a detailed foreground. At its worst. Then I drew the shape of the tonal patches I perceived. especially when making first excursions into aerial perspective. On p p . Don't worry if it is cloudy: clouds add drama and perspective and make good subjects in themselves (see pp. The long view is hidden behind trees. 9 8 . but is often less evocative and engaging. When you arrive. the less you describe. To experiment with drawing landscapes and the use of charcoal. This term simply means that as land rolls away into the distance. Excessive detail can be admired for its skill and achievement. Successful drawings often only suggest the qualities of the scene without overdescribing them. Pack several thick and thin sticks of willow charcoal. hazy distance.206 EARTH AND THE ELEMENTS Landscapes TREES ALONE OFFER MARVELOUS shapes to draw. begin by marking out several small squares on your paper. It is the visible effect of the atmosphere between where you stand and what you see in the distance. and a cushion in a plastic bag to sit on. a less distinct middle ground composed of shapes and textures. They are also good markers of receding space. the more you encourage the viewer's imagination to join in and see. our brains search for nameable things and will perceive complete pictures from very little information. Seeing tones . MATERIALS In this first view there is only a foreground and middle distance.

I have invented drama with diagonals set against each other I tilted the earth. and broke a view through the hedge into the distance with a dark sky threatening rain. rounded. horizontal regions of grass. Remember. the trunk of a bare tree.207 LANDSCAPES In my second square I explored a simple view contrasting soft. Exploring the view Redrawing the scene above. shadows. This composition turned out a little flat because I have an almost even quantity of earth and sky. dark trees with bright. full of information you can use to create what you want! Inventing drama . It is better to give distinctly more pictorial space to one or the other (see below). your view is your inspiration.

The mud of the tidal shore in Rye. "Drawing in the round means to literally walk around your subject. and tiller still standing proud. 2 1 4 . Building on earlier studies of structure in space using shoes (pp.208 ELEMENTS Drawing in the Round WHEN DRAWING IN THE LANDSCAPE. For example. I am then able to home in on what interests me most for further study. on p p .164-65) and a wire violin (pp. s e e k places in light After my first drawing. your challenge now is to find a sculptural subject in the landscape. and seeing what the real choice of subject is. settling my concentration. EARTH AND THE FINDING THE SUBJECT Finding a remarkable subject is even better when you can circumnavigate it in an arena of space. This first drawing serves as a process of arrival. engine." . observing it from several views so as to better understand it as a whole. I usually begin by making an image of the whole view. taking with you your drawing book and pen. bare ribs.104-05). making the scene below led me to focus on the decaying boat opposite. Circling a subject and drawing it from several views imprints on your memory a better understanding of its three-dimensional form. so the paper is not made blinding and your hand cannot cast a shadow on your work. which was the flow of water over rocks. England has embedded within it the decaying skeleton of a burned fishing boat.1 5 my first drawing of the whole view of the Tiber led me to see the real subject of the day. shade out of the glare of the sun. Similarly.

and the order and shape of its component parts. character. I drew with quick. 3 This impression notes the angle of the broken boat.209 SERIES OF STUDIES This stunning ghost o f a boat comes into v i e w t w i c e a day. The outline ties a shape of darkness to the boat like a weight so that it becomes part of its form. its overall balance. Each n e w drawing gives a different insight. and structure. I spent equal time looking at the subject and the paper. W h e n you have found your subject. Overleaf: Decaying Boat 4 . careful lines to establish the skeleton that gives this wreck its distinct form. unfussy lines. marking straight. make a series o f drawings f r o m different positions. looking more at the boat than at the paper From this low position I have emphasized how the boat is swallowed in mud by outlining its shadow on the ground. w h e n t h e sea recedes. I looked more boldly at the planes and the dynamic of the sculptural craft My lines have become darker and more forceful as confidence in my understanding of the vessel grew. ROUND 2 In this tail-end view. DRAWING IN THE 1 Here.

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I worked quickly to catch and weave the turbulent contrasts of rising wind and approaching water before the drawing could be washed away. was made with gentle but unhesitating s p e e d . . hot-pressed drawing p a p e r (see pp.20-21) using a thin stick of willow charcoal.Cloudburst THIS STORM DRAWING. L o o k i n g b a c k and forth from the heavens to firmly taped-down paper. m a d e on s m o o t h .

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. focusing on the river's eddies.Notes of Force T H E GREAT FLOWING TIBER RIVER has cut through Rome. black. I drew with a needle-fine fiber-tip pen. and rhythmic detail as it passed through the ancient gully of the city. pocket-sized notebook. pulse. shaping the city. On the pages of a small. since ancient times.

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.Mountains SITTING IN THE SHADE of a tree on the Greek island of Antiparos. I used a dip pen and waterproof India ink with brushed watercolor to draw the view. The strong diagonal of the composition from bottom left to top right carries the eye through changes of height and focus from the foreground to the mountains beyond.

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Afterward. His drawings are collected and exhibited internationally and held by the Adolf Wolfli Foundation. and independent means of communication. Internal workings of the mind were suddenly free to find a new language of expression. Wolfli was a Swiss draftsman. writhing torrents of color. Not everything we know has a physical form in the world. and history. The growing rise of Darwinian ideas coupled with Freudian and Marxist perspectives forced Western society to reconsider its origins and future. I begin every image by feeling its meaning. precisely because it does not have to represent a physical object. He made thousands of drawings to chronicle his complex life. many nonWestern cultures have highly sophisticated abstractions at the core of their art. Berne. As you approach the classes in this chapter. Museum of Fine Arts. However. drawn sound. ADOLF WOLFLI One of the greatest masters of Art Brut. actions. and have been making abstract drawings for centuries—Japanese calligraphy. or gestures. it is simply itself. My own work is firmly centered in figuration.8 cm) A D O L F WOLFLI Abstraction is a direct. Perhaps in Western culture we bred this intuitive freedom out of ourselves in our insistence on complex figuration. don't be timid. for example. and young children show us that abstract. sounds. It is actually its foundation and its infrastructure. Swirling. Outsider artists. From one point of view. It was not invented in the 20th century. Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape 1915 413/8 x 285/8 in (105 x 72. strike the paper to find form. only rediscovered. . opposite. First marks. liberating. direction. writer and composer who suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and was resident in the Waldau Aslyum near Berne. belief. and poetic myth roar and cascade within his tightly framed pages. Indian mandalas. Many concepts and feelings can only be expressed through marks. Artists were given a different tool—a line threaded directly from their subconscious to their hand—and with it they began to map a bold new landscape of marks and concepts that would dramatically and forever change the face of Western art. From another viewpoint. be brave and enjoy them. such as Adolf Wolfli. fictional language. People are often scared by abstraction and see it as the enemy of figurative art. which are essentially abstract. abstraction is not so easy to define. spontaneous image-making. expressive marks and shapes are at the core of natural.Abstract Lines T HE DEVELOPMENT OF W E S T E R N abstract art at the beginning of the 20th century significantly paralleled major changes in world thought. yet my kinship to abstraction is fundamental. An abstract mark is often a better conductor of a thought or feeling. It also underpins and gives strength and unity to all figurative work. and it has always been with us. and Aboriginal art. and emotion. poet. picturing a stabilized world was impossible and Modernism rode forth with vigor. all pictorial representations are abstractions of reality. The fate of Old World thinking was finally sealed with the brutality of World War I.

scrolling across the canvas in an intimate crescendo. or. tone. ice. Iron rods in tone. staining redbrown lines into the white surface. Changes paper. Twombly's mesmeric wax line worked over house paint is like a signature. A line can be finished in a second. Damp Japanese paper was laid over carefully arranged iron bars. Lines. silence. MAMORU ABE Japanese sculptor and installation artist. akin to stones in a Zen garden. Below. brass. Five forged steel shapes. salt. texture. and sensitivity with its thickness and pressure of touch. It can proclaim mood. quoting ink marks on a page. water. and wood are also part of the work. and plaster in galleries and landscapes. and texture their bracing separation reaching between from beneath Pillars of the gallery are made part of this drawing by their inclusion in the paper.220 A B S T R A C T LINES Process and Harmony SOMETIMES A DRAWN LINE sings on the surface of its support. A Neolithic chalk tablet bears cut lines that were slowly carved. and patient watching. Abe's physical drawing is a sculptural installation. sit in silent harmony. Mamoru Abe prepares an image that will appear through the chemistry of iron. Abe works with materials such as soil. Moisture produced rust. it can keep reforming through the inherent repetition of a process. iron. Sometimes it smolders like a deep shadow. He travels widely to research ancient sacred sites. forged steel. The Physical Space 1990 3 0 x 30 ft ( 9 1 4 x 9 1 4 cm) MAMORU ABE . rhythmically engaged with itself. and Assistant Professor of Fine A r t at Fukuoka University. as Twombly shows us opposite. and temperature rim of floor space. This the paper rest within the amplifies framelike of the floor from the ceiling.

PROCESS AND HARMONY Cut lines Chalk carves easily. CY TWOMBLY . and the worship of the sun and ancient gods.England. Many of his graffiti-like combine abstract gestures with statements. such as the Rosetta stone.400BCE 21/4 x 21/4 in (58 x 58 mm) ARTIST UNKNOWN Language Over the course of fifty years.Twombly was presented with a Golden Lion award for lifetime achievement. and American Indian petroglyphs (see p. Precise lines suggest the use of a sharp flint The framed rectangle of this image is echoed in that of Abe's installation. Twombly has language works CY TWOMBLY Contemporary American artist who emerged through the 1950s New York art scene in the heyday of Abstract Expressionism and Action Painting. and Untitled 1970 Here we might seek to grasp letters in the turning of his line. emotive. energetic. burials.000-2.241). the Babylonian world map. theories suggest astrological observations. This example is one of two chalk tablets found in a Late-Neolithic pit. At the 2001 Venice Biennale.221 ANCIENT CARVINGS Many ancient cultures have made and left behind drawings and texts carved into stones or animal bone. Neolithic Chalk Tablet 3. The central pictorial space is also similarly cut and divided by the considered arrangement of straight lines.Thesite's purpose is unknown. that challenges the separation of word from image. close to Stonehenge in Wiltshire. and sensuous drawing from painting. evolved a raw.

a configuration. Both abstract drawing and composition involve the perfect sequencing of sounds and marks against space and silence. beautiful." An innovator who never fails to surprise. A graphic score is a V I C T O R H U G O Hugo's abstract French novelist w h o m a d e m a n y drawings in m i x e d m e d i a ( s e e also p. o f t e n e x p r e s s e d in v i s u a l t e r m s . abstract. here he anticipates abstract expressionism by 100 years. Gestalt o f an unnameable thing. His drawing writes the time of its own physical process by expressing the extreme concentration of the moment in which it was made. Marks across the center appear to be made with his fingers. have striven to break down old pictorial and musical structures to explore new and unfettered modes of expression. Two Impressions Paper 1853-55 VICTOR HUGO Disk from a Cut-Out . o r a pattern o f elements s o unified as a w h o l e t h e y c a n n o t b e e x p l a i n e d asa s u m o f parts. The scores are also exhibited in galleries as visual art. Here he appears t o have saturated the cut-out moon disks with gritty pigment. below. Ink impressions When drawing nightscapes Hugo often laid paper disks in place of the moon. drawing here can b e described in t e r m s o f a G e r m a n philosophical idea a b o u t is t h e i n s t a n t r e c o g n i t i o n t h e p o w e r o f m o m e n t . brushed night skies over them with ink then lifted the disks to reveal white moons. and inventive of his time. Hugo. broke new ground in the 1950s with graphic scores now considered among the most extreme. interpret. Texture Compare this drawing to Hugo's octopus on p. abstract artists and composers unique. pressed them face down. opposite. music manuscript requiring instrumentalists to improvise. "There is nothing like dream to create the future. and lifted them away to leave impressions of watery planets and seas. Bussotti. Similarity in gritty texture suggests that here. and let the drying meniscus deposit granules in linear drifts such as we would see in the satellite photographic mapping of rivers. and participate in the composition. Gestalt.28. said. he mixed graphite into ink. too.222 ABSTRACT LINES Writing Time SINCE THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY.28).

we can feel their rhythm and easily attach sounds to them. Sound and rhythm This flickering rondo of sound written in pen on a hand-ruled stave can be heard in our imaginations as much as seen. Circular Score for "Due Voci" c. 1958 SYLVANO BUSSOTTI . Bussotti's first mature work. His later works become increasingly abstract.223 W R I T I N G TIME SYLVANO BUSSOTTI Italian avant-garde composer and principal 20thcentury exponent of the graphic score. 70 in relation to Bussotti's clustered notes to the left of his rondo and open space to the right. This is a page from Due Voci. a far cry from any recognized musical notation. Following the notes. Compare this work to that of Libeskind on p.

an a n o n y m o u s w o m a n in the southeast Indian state o f Tamil Nadu m a k e s a ritual drawing o n the b r i c k courtyard o f h e r h o m e . they m a k e a visual a n d physical e c h o that t o u c h e s s o m e deep part of the human spirit. Lieb is one o f countless thousands of "Outsider" artists—diverse individuals including ordinary citizens. In music it can be felt in the diversity of plainsong and African d r u m m i n g . for e x a m p l e . d i p p i n g h e r fingers into a pot o f rice flour. Cell Floor With Torn Strips of Cloth 1894 MARIE LIEB . She tore c l o t h into strips a n d used these to draw patterns a n d symbols o n h e r cell floor. O p p o s i t e . MARIE LIEB Little is known of this w o m a n for w h o m the act of drawing was essential.224 A B S T R A C T LINES Chants and Prayers WHEN ABSTRACT LINES are organized in repetition. social outcasts. T h e s e p h o t o g r a p h s d o c u m e n t the meditative drawings o f two w o m e n living worlds apart in different countries. Cloth is the simple instrument with which she has conducted and ordered her universe. Marie Lieb w a s a psychiatric patient in the Heidelberg Asylum. Compositional rightness (see pp. making objects and images outside o f mainstream culture. it is found in the regularity o f ordered lines or a pattern. In the late 1 9 t h century. Torn cloth This is one of two published photographs showing Marie Leib's torn cloth strips significantly placed on her cell floor. Germany. and sufferers of psychiatric illnesses—who have always existed.228-29) has been adjusted with each movement of the rags to draw a cosmos of balance and perfection. centuries. cultures. and c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Visually. It will protect the place from evil and make a pleasing invitation to good spirits. This takes a form in most cultures.

animals.225 STEPHEN P. In daily practice. Designs and motifs Rangoii (or mandalas) are ritual drawings made by many millions of women across rural India. Popular magazines feature new ideas each week and on special occasions there may be contests. and for over 30 years has traveled extensively through the Indian subcontinent creating an edited archive of 200.HUYLER Photographer art historian. lime. Skills are handed down through generations and from friend to friend. Painted Prayers UNDATED STEPHEN R HUYLER . women pride themselves on never repeating a design. Huyler is the author of Painted Prayers.000 images. cultural anthropologist. or flowers are marked or arranged on the ground or on the walls of homes. and birds. Motifs are geometrical or based on plants. and in places of worship and celebration.Theseare widely published in journals and are the subjects of international exhibitions. among others. Materials such as rice flour. at the University of London and Ohio State University. chalk. lecturer on the subjects of Indian art and Indian women's identity.

Untitled 2001 2001 153/4x 215/8 in ( 4 0 0 x 550 mm) BRIAN C A T L I N G . They each find their pathways and equilibrium in atmosphere and suggestion. With no depth of field. rocks or heads in a subdued atmosphere of dream. Oxford. Mixed media This is a collage of torn white and gray tissue paper previously stained with ink. and choice of hues. filmmaker Professor of Fine Art. and Fellow of Linacre College. Catling's works made for international galleries and museums involve drawing as a tool in their development and making. figurative representation—that is. and water-resistant layers of spray and enamel paint on thick paper. Klee's mathematical maze of thinly washed surface resonates with meticulous planning. gold paint and iridescent gouache mixed with water. free from the direct imaging of known physical things. Catling's abstract drawings are usually made in series and in parallel to written poetry and sculptural installations. but similarities in mood. These two works present complex compositions with differing intensions and methods of making. structure. performance and installation artist. it is ruled and contained in one dimension by its interlocking ink-lined borders. Their energy can therefore be a purer expression of an idea or emotion. Ruskin School. BRIAN CATLING British sculptor poet. Oval moons eclipse each other and oscillate between landforms and portraiture. Catling's torn paper shapes and shadows spill light out of their frame like a fractured mirror.226 ABSTRACT LINES Compositions ABSTRACT DRAWINGS ARE LARGELY or entirely free from using the viewer's eye to track and unfold layers of meaning.

watercolor. and brush. It is a geometric harmony of straight lines and tonally graded flat colors that by their arrangement draw our eyes inward to their white center. philosophized. whereas tonal surfaces are perceived more immediately as a whole. We can see some diagrammatic examples of this among the optical illusions on pp. drew. Geometric harmony This is a work on paper made with a sharp ink pen. Kunstmuseum Bern PAUL KLEE .31).227 PAUL K L E E Swiss painter and sculptor (see also p. and wrote copiously about the natures and relationships of color and form.97-99. He explained his polyphonic painting as "a harmony of several color voices" searching for a visual parallel to music. Polyphon Gefasstes Weiss (White Framed Polyphonically) 1930 131/8x95/8 in (333 x 245 mm) Paul-Klee-Stiftung. Klee painted. and might be read as active or passive. Klee also felt that a line represents the passing of time. Line and surface Klee observed the visual capacity of lines to push or pull within an image. ruler.

the late garden designer Russell Page explains. they reach a perfect position." SETTING UP Justness can be harmonious or deliberately discordant. media. w i l l c h a n g e w i t h e v e r y r e a r r a n g e m e n t . their impact. There is a single m o m e n t w h e n all proportions. the impression y o u receive from t h e m . It is also found in nature. for instance. "I have experimented endlessly with this idea. or degree of figuration. angles. M a n y of their inter-relationships will be meaningless.228 ABSTRACT LINES Being "Just" A SENSE OF "JUST" (or rightness) is a difficult concept to explain. a glass. culture." . or on a page. In his b o o k The Education of a Gardener. s o m e will be more or less h a r m o n i o u s . "Whenall pictorial elements come together in pleasing and perfect balance. there is a clear feeling when.Thisexercise will help you start. b u t e v e r y n o w a n d again you will hit on an arrangement w h i c h appears just. but an easy o n e to u n d e r s t a n d . or home. a b u n c h of keys. Set up a sheet of paper with a rectangle drawn on it. and an apple. Seek it when looking at other artists' work and in your everyday environment. This balance is what every artist and designer searches a n d feels for when making an image. they are just. As y o u m o v e them around. W h e n m o v i n g objects around in your yard. regardless of style. and ten straight sticks painted black. and put them o n a tray. Feel for it when youdraw. Take. after being continuously adjusted. and elements settle in definitive balance. It is found in all great art and design.

horizontals dominate the lower area. horizontals dominate the top. painted black. Move the sticks out into the rectangle.56-57). Remember the drawn rectangle is a part of the composition (see pp. making the composition seem to float beneath. Within a rectangle on a flat sheet of paper set about making a composition using no other rule than a sense of "just. which now becomes a tight frame. suggesting a horizon.229 WHERE TO START Take ten sticks of equal length. W h e n the composition falls into place." Move the sticks to find alignments and imagined perspectives. 2 3 In the step above. B E I N G "JUST" 1 Arrange your ten sticks in t w o groups of five. In the final step (left) there is an even balance. Feel for the rightness of their grouping and their relationships to surrounding spaces. as shown here. Arrange them so they touch or cross in a series of intersecting balances. . fix it with glue. A stick touching the rectangle links the composition to the frame. Here.

stain and dry a sheet of tissue paper using blueink.. Returning to Russell Page.228-29). Images and fragments torn from day-to-day life can be brought together to make a chorus of ideas and emotions.. or discordance. found or made items. an infinite range of voices and meaning. he went on to say ". Collage offers the artist a liberating palette of SETTING UP This lesson in collage is a direct continuation of the compositional lines made in the previous class. hard or soft. glue. a compass. colors and textures can be manipulated until their pictorial harmony. Cut or torn layers and shapes. Once the ten painted black sticks are set and glued in place. ready-made depths and surfaces. To prepare for this lesson.230 ABSTRACT LINES Collage H E R E W E EXPERIMENT with collage. feels "just" (see pp." overlapping placement of materials on a flat plane." (Russell Page) . harmonious. they become a scaffold for the addition of further textures. or even strident. scissors. This principal also applies to three-dimensional drawings such as Gaudi's work with wire and weights on p.220.Youwill also need spare white paper. colors. and tones. which is the shifting.69 and Abe's installation on p. correction fluid or white paint. "My understanding is that every object [or shape] emanates—sends out vibrations beyond its physical body which are specific to itself. you start composing by adding or subtracting shapes and textures and using colors and tones to achieve the impression you want to m a k e — w h e t h e r dramatic or s u b d u e d . and black ink.

. and shadow to thepicture. Obscuring the blue disks. solidity. COLLAGE 1 Regular-sized pieces of white paper are moved over the surface to disrupt the even lines. four circles of blue tissue paper. and with a compass and scissors. Glue them in place once they feel "just" Translucent circular disks of tissue paper give color tone.231 WHAT TO DO Lay the final step of the previous lesson (p. In the last step (left). they deepen pictorial space. Cut six small rectangles the same proportion as your whole image.228) in front of you.The single disk that is folded with its straight edge facing up appears heavier than those that are flat. then cut out. correction fluid and ink marks add further dimensions. 2 3 Torn white paper moved over the surface adds masks of rough-edged irregular volume. This can also give a sense of fragmentation or punctuation to the composition. draw.

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emotion. Hitsuzendo drawings aspire to "breathe with the energy and vitality of eternal life" achieved through "a state of no mind—beyond thought. is the practice of Zen through the calligraphic marks of a brush dipped in carbon ink. . A MODERN JAPANESE meditative art form inspired by the teachings of Yamaoka Tesshu (1836-1888). and expectation." [Tanchu Terayama. Zen Brushwork].Zen Calligraphy HITSUZENDO.

. These vibrate against washes of shadow and pitch-black mass.Nocturnes IN THIS QUARTET of semi-abstract drawings made with India ink. discord is balanced against rhythm to create mood. I flicked spatters of ink and rubbed the paper with a wet and a dry brush to achieve these effects. Lines made with a steel dip pen take on a scratchy nervousness.

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a collaboration between the two will ensure that your drawings glow with originality. feathers. and damnation are found in most world faiths. Be inspired by the irrational comedy of word association or puns. .Gods and Monsters OUR SACRED AND SECULAR need to visualize demons. Humans are equally troubled by the imperceptibly small and the enormous. which were widely distributed and influential in his time. for example. Monsters take advantage of both. Star Wars. In the Christian churches of Europe. all of which originated as hundreds of drawings. and stained-glass windows deliver powerful visual sermons to the once-illiterate populace. and the faces of God have for centuries given artists a feast for the extremes of their imagination.247. Lord of the Rings. happen to us. Fantasy is most successful when founded on strong and familiar visual logic. thousands of paintings. Neither should be slave or master. Throughout this book images are presented to excite and surprise and drawing classes created to increase your confidence. scales. serpentine tails. Today. a Catherine wheel of drawn sparks spiraling around the quietly resolute saint. Here. our literate and more secular Western society still hungers for another world and to ravenously indulge its fascination for the marvelous. and the Alien trilogy. angels. our eye circulates around a flutter of leather and scaly wings. paradise. Depictions of God or of gods in the contexts of daily life. We love our fear of the hybrid—ideally. beasts. a human-animal mix that implies this could MARTIN SCHONGAUER German painter and engraver who settled to work in Colmar Alsace. When creating monsters. in the cracks of walls. Schongauer is best known for his prints. aliens. impossible. or strange. Reading the place name I momentarily glimpsed an alternative meaning. For example. Images we are now surrounded by bear testimony to the power and resourcefulness of their collective imagination. To learn to flex your imagination. or in smoke. we select details of animals farthest from ourselves and that are widely thought disturbing—reptilian and insect features. movie studios now brim with as many monsters as the visual art of the Medieval and Renaissance Church. sculptures. look for images in the folds of clothing. and deep fur—and we alter their scale. Feeding this demand. Perhaps the Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 1485 121/4 x 9 in (312 x 230 mm) MARTIN SCHONGAUER most important conclusion in this final chapter is to advise you to develop your skills in parallel with the joy of your unfolding imagination. We watch with captivated pleasure movies such as The Fly. The salvation of heaven and terrors of hell are represented equally—enough to make any sinner shudder. England. which is to have eaten a nun—it inspired the drawing on p. We then add substances we dislike: unidentified fluids. I was on a train passing through Nuneaton. wings.

crammed tightly at his desk. quoting great paintings and popular culture to add cunning twists to his satires. Francisco de Goya was a master of borrowing. it allows the mule to stand forward. and men clubbing each other to death. Visions experienced in front of the drawing sometimes instruct the making of a new one. we see the international icon of stupidity. Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 1799 81/2 x 6 in (218 x 154 mm) FRANCISCO DE GOYA . Near the end of his life he made his "Black Paintings" on the walls of his home. deranged masses. to Picasso's similarly tight. F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A Spanish court painter printmaker and draftsman. Saturn devouring his son. a wave to join Achilles' chase of Hector. This continuity enriches the making of art and our heritage. Opposite below. noisy seascape on p. Many students leave white backgrounds in their work. In this ass. a Shoshone seeking guidance and power meditates at the sacred site of a petroglyph. The high. This act defines the vision and continues the line of spirit guides. Aquatint Goya has drawn a learned man as an ass.220. Violent white marks symbolizing Achilles' rage resonate with the energy of Twombly's script on p. plain wall suggests a blinkered view of nothing. The well-dressed mule is cumbersome. below. and church murals. and exposed the superstitions.240 GODS AND M O N S T E R S Marks of Influence marking the influence of one artist upon another. Compare his dark. whose impassioned work begins with light tapestry cartoons. Los Caprichos. hags. Goya later recorded the horrors of Napoleonic occupation. In this softer aquatint he poses for his portrait Textured background The aquatint process has been used to great effect in making a gritty toned background. vanity. rushing. Pictorially. He would be graceless if he stood. Goya's plainly textured gray background pushes back the space behind the illuminated simply subject. Paul Thomas's studies of Picasso and Twombly can be traced directly.30. The title "And So Was His Grandfather" adds that should we not already know. reading from a book of asses. Other drawn versions of this image are more savage and frightening. such asinine behavior can be hereditary. barren land rising like MYRIAD CHAINS RUN THROUGH ART HISTORY. which can swamp the subject Here. Opposite. his lover a dog. They depict as if by lamplight the devil and witches. and follies of court through copious graphic works including his best-known prints. portraits.

Wind River Reservation. meaning "place of power. and personal and social struggles. Graphite marks Here Achilles chases Hector around the walls of Troy before killing him. of the earth.241 MARKS OF INFLUENCE PAUL T H O M A S British contemporary artist whose epic graphic work questions and reflects upon issues of European identity. A vivid spectrum of energized graphite marks and a masterly composition give this drawing vitality and speed. perhaps a stone. Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range UNDATED ARTIST UNKNOWN . values. Wyoming. ideals. or of the water Chipped image This is a sacred creature of the sky chipped onto rock at Dinwoody Lake. Achilles Chases Hector 1996 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) PAUL THOMAS SHOSHONE PETROGLYPH The Shoshone people of Wyoming name petroglyph sites Poha Kahni." Each sacred image drawn into rock belongs to one of three realms in the Shoshone world: the realm of the sky. White marks like flashes of light are cut though graphite with an eraser to reveal the paper beneath. Simple wall stones cleverly state their cold solidity while also fading from our attention as the scene roars by. Parallel lines within the body of the figure are likely to denote power. Thomas conducts his explorations in the mine of Greek and Roman mythology. by a supplicant in a trance of meditation. It was made with a sharp implement.

They float toward us like a horrid visitation. The Eye Like a Strange Mounts Balloon 165/8 x131/8in (422 x 332 mm) ODILON REDON 1882 Toward Infinity . Redon lifted them out with some sort of eraser. to the right of the balloon. Techniques demonstrated on pp. H e was influenced by his friends. If it were to turn and stare this way. and scuttle over all known reality. Our subconscious can be drawn with pleasure and ease. 115. and writer In contrast t o the light and visual accent of contemporary Impressionism. as he did the grass. ODILON REDON French painter draftsman.and 16th-century Holland. Redon's eyeball balloon rises up. Here we see how he evolved their injuries into new limbs and warped proportions.204-05 will enable you to produce a similar effect of white lines shining out of dark charcoal. below left. The monsters of Bosch grew from his observations of beggars going about their trade in 15th. Compare worked textures throughout the whole of this image to those found throughout Anita Taylor's charcoal drawing on p. Redon explored the darker side of the human imagination through symbols and mysticism. GODS AND Erasure In this charcoal drawing. We may feel safe so long as the eye looks heavenward. we see parallel slanting pale marks that might have been made with fresh bread—a very effective eraser used before the wide availability of rubber or plastic. Children are also delighted to invent a monster or ghoul. the writers Joris-Karl Huysmans and Stephane Mallarme. which sometimes—half-dressed and carrying a familiar trophy— stride. crawl. Lifting out Fine strings of the hot-air balloon appear dark against the sky and light against the balloon. graphic artist. T H E EXPLORATION AND DEPICTION Hauntings Grandville has drawn a scurrying zoo of half-known demons and animals that appear to have been stolen from the glass eye of the microscope. the shock would be extreme. lifting its cranial passenger over a seascape of repose.242 MONSTERS of the unknown is a classical and constant occupation for the artist.

include The Haywain. Comic little headbands of waving hair express more hysteria than fear. Light shines from the right. Quill and ink This typical Bosch monster is a quill drawing in bistre ink The phrasing of light and contour here is masterly. This image is from one of Grandville's best-known publications. Smiling. HAUNTINGS Engraving This is an engraving made so that Grandville's original drawing could be reproduced. teeming with the exhilaration of unrestrained fantasy. The quality of the line is therefore uniform throughout. Madrid. 1840 61/8 x41/2in ( 1 5 5 x 1 1 5 mm) GRANDVILLE HIERONYMUS BOSCH Dutch painter Bosch's highly detailed iconographic religious panel paintings. Last Judgment. Les Animaux (1840). grimacing. which is still available today. Garden of Earthly Delights. and he illustrated the Fables of La Fontaine and Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe. His other major works include Metamorphoses du Jour (1828). A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects c. Two Monsters UNDATED 45/8 x61/2in (117 x 163 mm) HIERONYMUS BOSCH . and Ship of Fools. Most of his work is in the Prado Museum.243 J E A N I G N A C E ISIDORE GERARD ("GRANDVILLE") French graphic artist and political satirist. sucker-faced creatures dash and trundle toward it They are drawn solidly to emphasize their earthbound weight.

and dog. pinnacled. and play with its perfection and meaning. poet. a stunning hybrid of a swan. lion. They share between them the pleasures of inventing a hybrid beast. St Peter's square. hatched lines. Scaly. as we might expect. and engineer Among Michelangelo's great works are the painted ceiling and altar wall of the Sistine Chapel. she formed a series of ghostly pale. gamboling copulations. Michelangelo's dragon. the dome of the Vatican. phrased over the contours of form and bridging darker areas of shadow. David. In her studio. snake. but in the seductive landscape of Leonardo da Vinci's oil painting Madonna of the Rocks. sometimes artists purposefully tie a knot in the configuration to disturb. muscular tension is carved out of the paper using layered. below.244 GODS AND MONSTERS Convolutions THESE CONVOLUTED DRAWINGS were made almost 5 0 0 years apart. and mist-swathed land. Chalk and ink A quill dipped in brown ink was worked over black chalk on this reused sheet. Grimes found the genesis of her beast not among animals. architect. Grimes' delicately cavorting figures dive into and consume each other. A snake eating its own tail is a universal image of the eternal and continuous. However. His entire drawing wrestles and weaves the viewer's eye into its retracting folds. remembering the cavernous. and dying slaves. topple. Two previously drawn faces become humorous antagonists to the beast. Opposite. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI Florentine painter sculptor. and marble sculptures including Pieto. Dragon 1522 10 x 133/8 in ( 2 5 4 x 3 3 8 m m ) MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI . wraps and coils its lithe body ready to strike or whimper at a touch.

Oxford. boards finished paper. details evolved slowly using a drier brush. Grimes exhibits internationally and features in the collections of the New York Public Library and the Victoria and Albert Museum. The image formed directly without first making a pencil outline. London. It is one of a series of fragile earth figures inspired by rocks. and the Camberwell and Slade Schools of Fine Art. How Clever of God #84 2002 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) O O N A GRIMES .245 CONVOLUTIONS O O N A GRIMES British contemporary artist and professor of printmaking at the Ruskin School. each one iridescent and crumbly like a weathered while oyster. her under heavy here. Ink-wash delicately gouache (smooth) and gouache brushed drawing on This is a and was hot-pressed Shadows The dark shadow of the Other the ink-wash earth was made with a brushstroke of ink laid into wet paper. The large space around figure has been cropped Grimes drawings to flatten presses them. London.

Some are bold. 1. SQUIRREL-HAIR S W O R D LINER:This brush has a maximum ink-holding capacity and an extremely fine and flexible point 8. the very opposite of pencil or silver point.H A I R LINER: Very responsive oriental-style liner This to the touch. this brush has a soft drawing tip and small ink-holding capacity. and has a fine tip for detailed work. fingers. dense. Soaps purchased from good art supply stores will gently cleanse particles of pigment that become trapped in the hairs or ferrule. thicknesses. and hold prodigious weights of ink or paint. SYNTHETIC-HAIR S W O R D LINER: A lining brush with high ink-holding capacity and a fine point. with a fine point for delicate work 4. Suitable for wash techniques but also capable of very fine detail. It is still relatively small in the total range of Japanese brushes. Shorter brushes designed for other purposes run out of ink more quickly. SMALL JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with sable hair. between them. needle-sharp center of kolinsky red sable hair. others are as fine as a whisker with a gentle touch. all perfect for drawing and. M T RA S AEIL . JAPANESE PAINTING BRUSH: Made with natural hair. It is capable of very fine pointing. L A R G E R S Y N T H E T I C . ink-laden tip allow an expression that is beyond the linear." 6. 3. which holds long sable hair This brush holds large amounts of ink for long lines and points well for detailed work. flowing. and writers. 2. 7. Slightly less flexible than the squirrel-hair sword liner 9. 10. SABLE-HAIR RIGGER: Made with very long kolinsky sable hairs.Theyhold plenty of ink and make continuous. LARGER JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with natural hair held in a plastic ferrule on a bamboo handle. This brush has a broad wash capability and can achieve a very wide range of marks. It has exceptional painting characteristics. and very fine lines. P O I N T E D T R A D I T I O N A L WRITER: The ferrule is made from a small duck quill. and texture. SYNTHETIC-HAIR BRUSH: Bound in a synthetic ferrule with good inkholding capacity and good spring and control. The brushes shown here are a mixture of This is a selection of riggers. materials. shape. The living marks of a wet.H A I R RIGGER: Made with long synthetic hair for fine-point work It has a good ink-holding capacity and is slightly more resilient than sable hair with more "snap. and never leave them standing on their tip in a jar of water. and wrist into a fluid and soft touch. POINTED SQUIRREL-HAIR MOP: With a synthetic quill ferrule and extra high inkholding capacity. This design supplies the fine tip with a long continuity of ink 5. 13. return them to their pointed shape. Always clean them thoroughly. Some used by master calligraphers are 2-3 in (5-8 cm) in diameter 11. ideally suited to drawing. 12. making rt ideally suited to Japanese painting and small-scale calligraphy. liners. Brushes vary in size. SYNTHETIC-HAIR LINER: This brush gives a medium line and is firm with a spring to the touch. it has good inkholding capacity and is very flexible. S Y N T H E T I C . it has good wash capabilities. and effects. drawing tool extending the arm. washes. SABLE-HAIR LINER: Made with ordinary sable hair surrounding an extralong.246 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brushes T H E BRUSH IS A VOLUPTUOUS and delicate weights. giving a variety of lines. How you care for your brushes will determine how long they last.

247 BRUSHES .

248 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brush Marks A S I N G L E BRUSH will m a k e an e n o r m o u s range of m a r k s depending u p o n the width. unglazed earthenware dish. softness. splashes. SETTING UP Blowing spots T h e s e t h r e e s p i d e r y c r e a t u r e s (above right and below) w e r e m a d e by d r o p p i n g s p o t s o f ink f r o m a b r u s h o n t o t h e p a g e and. length. and type of its hairs. It also depends on the angle at w h i c h it is held. b l o w i n g h a r d o n t h e m several t i m e s t o disperse t h e ink ( c l o s e y o u r eyes if y o u t r y this.35) into two tablespoons of water in a shallow. and spatters. the speed of the s t r o k e . the texture and a b s o r b e n c y of the paper ( w h i c h m a y be d a m p or dry). I had left the end of the ink block in the water overnight to make it easier to dissolve. A single brush has almost balletic potential to draw fine or undulating lines and curves.) I . I rubbed a block of Chinese ink (see p. the degree of pressure applied. w i t h m y face close. and above all w h e t h e r the b r u s h is saturated with pigment or relatively dry. Here I drew with a soft Japanese painting brush (see pp. and to make pools and stains o n the page.246-47).

. b l e e d i n g f r o m strokes b e l o w left. BRUSH MARKS Wet and dry strokes A m o n g these concentrated drawings ink made into with the same w a t e r y lines. w e see fine lines and s p o t s . a n d t h e w a y it d i s t r i b u t e s w h e n t h e b r u s h is d a b b e d o n its s i d e . t h e effects of the b r u s h r u n n i n g o u t o f ink.249 Gritty texture T h e details o f t h e largest creatures b e l o w and opposite s h o w the granular texture of Chinese b l o c k ink. a n d b r u s h .

Oxford.Monsters THESE LITTLE CREATURES o f i n k and i n v e n t i o n were b o r n out of animal and bird studies. . and used their detail to draw new creatures that might at first seem familiar. I borrowed small and fragile specimens from the University Museum of Natural History. until we look again.

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Isidore. Goya often invented his monsters out of characters seen in other painters' works. Through studying and drawing these great paintings I have discovered that they are based on a pair of similarly long. Here. formal composition. .Goya's Monsters W I T H CUNNING BRILLIANCE. Goya's witches have been literally drawn and evolved out of the shapes of Murillo's prophet and pilgrims. showing us that gallery study is not just for the student and beginner. thin works made by Bartolome Murillo in Seville about 120 years earlier. They are a pair and hang opposite each other. I found relationships between all four paintings in terms of shapes. Among his "Black Paintings" in the Prado Museum. Madrid. are two long. two of my own drawings show you how Goya's devil (below) is based on the shape of Murillo's boy on a horse (top right). and narrative twists. thin works titled The Witches' Sabbath and The Procession of St. With further research.

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.Consumed THIS IS A SERIES OF CARTOONS I m a d e s o m e years ago. drawn rapidly and with great joy. little comments on politeness and sexual politics. Sometimes drawings come out of nowhere and surprise even the artist.

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o r will o n l y a p p e a r n o r m a l . Blotting T h e use o f a b s o r b e n t m a t e r i a l t o lift a w a y excess liquid. n e w s p a p e r cuttings. 2. Ferrule T h e s h o r t m e t a l t u b e t h a t s u r r o u n d s a n d g n p s t h e hairs o f a p a i n t b r u s h a n d fixes t h e m t o t h e brush handle. written with a broad-nibbed pen o r brush. Collage C o l l e c t e d materials such as c o l o r e d p a p e r s . charcoal. r a t h e r t h a n r e c o r d e d o n a film o r plate. chance mark-making. a n d attaches t h e m t o t h e s u p p o r t — f o r example." " N o t " p r e s s e d p a p e r is r o l l e d a s e c o n d t i m e w i t h o u t blankets t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders t o p r o d u c e a s m o o t h e r b u t still slightly t e x t u r e d s u r f a c e . Crosshatching Parallel lines d r a w n across o n e a n o t h e r at right angles. t h e field is t h e a p p a r e n t a n d b e l i e v a b l e space inside t h e p i c t u r e . m e a n i n g "beauty". Chiaroscuro A 1 7 t h . In t h e W e s t p e n calligraphy is u s e d t o c r e a t e f o r m a l a n d d e c o r a t i v e t e x t s . a n d given t h e n a m e Sho. Deckle edge T h e i r r e g u l a r e d g e o f a s h e e t o f m o l d . W o r d s o r symbols are Cold-pressed papers P a p e r manufactured with a "not" o r " r o u g h " surface. Bracelet shading C u r v e d parallel lines t h a t f o l l o w t h e c o n t o u r s o f f o r m . R o u g h p a p e r is m a d e b e t w e e n t w o blankets t h a t . t o g e t h e r w i t h a t h i c k felt b l a n k e t T h e w h o l e s a n d w i c h o f l a y e r s is t h e n railed t h r o u g h t h e press t o m a k e a p r i n t D r y p o i n t is a very portable and immediate m e t h o d o f printmaking. s u c h as a s c r e e n ." D e s c r i b e s a p a i n t i n g in w h i c h t h e light s o u r c e is b e h i n d t h e s u b j e c t F o r e x a m p l e . T h e b l a n k e t s g i v e t h e p a p e r its rough texture o r "tooth. Fauvism A n early 2 0 t h . for example. F r o m t h e G r e e k kallos. p r a c t i c e d meditatively w i t h a brush. in w h i c h parts o f an image are depicted v e r y brightly and dramatically against d a r k n e s s . A " s h a l l o w d e p t h o f field" m e a n s t h e p i c t u r e appears t o have only a shallow s p a c e inside i t Diffuse T o s o f t e n o r m a k e less brilliant. T h e m o v e m e n t was started by a g r o u p o f French artists including H e n r i Matisse. tapestry. pressurized t o o l used f o r spraying fine mists o f s m o o t h c o l o r P i g m e n t is d e l i v e r e d b y a j e t o f air n o t t h e bristles o f a brush. S o m e t i m e s f e r r u l e s a r e m a d e o f plastic o r o t h e r materials. In t h e Far East calligraphy is a highly r e s p e c t e d a r t f o r m . Engraving 1.m e d i a d r a w i n g . Blending M e r g i n g t w o o r m o r e neighboring colors o r tones t o g e t h e r using a tortillon. D a m p p a p e r is laid o n t o p . L a t e r it c a m e t o m e a n h i g h l y c o n t r a s t e d light effects. T h e prints t a k e n from t h e s e plates o r blocks. p h o t o g r a p h s . Calligraphy Beautiful h a n d w r i t i n g .c e n t u r y Italian t e r m m e a n i n g "clear-obscure. Composition T h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e p a r t s o f an i m a g e t o m a k e u p the whole. t h e l i g h t is b e h i n d h i m o r her. a r e r o l l e d t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders. o f t e n d i s t o r t e d forms and vivid colors. Field In a t w o . in w h i c h t h e subject's distinctive features o r peculiarities are deliberately exaggerated f o r c o m i c o r g r o t e s q u e effect. See also Hotpressed papers. pastel. w h e n a p e r s o n is p a i n t e d standing a g a i n s t a w i n d o w . A f u l l . A h u m o r o u s d r a w i n g o r parody. A g e n e r a l t e r m t h a t describes t h e various processes o f c u t t i n g a design i n t o a plate o r b l o c k o f m e t a l o r w o o d . Acid-free paper P a p e r w i t h a neutral p H t h a t will n o t darken o r d e t e r i o r a t e excessively w i t h age. Camera lucida A n optical device t h a t p r o j e c t s an image o f an o b j e c t o n t o a plain s u r f a c e so t h a t it can be traced. A l s o called r i n g l e t shading. F r o m t h e French v e r b coller. Cartoon 1. m e a n i n g " t o stick" Dry media M e d i a t h a t a r e n o t w e t o r o i l y — f o r e x a m p l e . Erasure T h e a c t o f r e m o v i n g a n i m a g e f r o m a surface. Conservation grade D e s c r i b e s a range o f materials t h a t d o n o t d e c a y and cannot be broken d o w n by insects.256 GLOSSARY Glossary Accidental drawing Random. A i r b r u s h e s are u s e d in t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c o m i c s . Contre jour A F r e n c h t e r m m e a n i n g " a g a i n s t day. and readymade objects arranged and stuck o n t o a flat surface. C o p p e r p l a t e engravings w e r e widely used t o r e p r o d u c e images b e f o r e p h o t o g r a p h y . Anamorphic distortion Stretching an i m a g e across a p i c t u r e surface so t h a t it can o n l y b e u n d e r s t o o d . Binder A substance t h a t holds particles o f p i g m e n t t o g e t h e r in a paint f o r m u l a t i o n ." It w a s first given t o t o n a l paintings m a d e in o n e c o l o r — s e e Grisaille. Fixative lightly glues t h e d r a w i n g t o t h e surface o f t h e p a p e r t o p r e v e n t smudging.d i m e n s i o n a l i m a g e . Aerial perspective The effect of the a t m o s p h e r e o v e r distance as it lightens t o n e s a n d cools c o l o r s progressively t o w a r d t h e horizon. Fixative Liquid acrylic resin a n d l a c q u e r t h i n n e r usually a p p l i e d as a n a e r o s o l s p r a y m i s t t o t h e surface o f a d r y .c e n t u r y painting m o v e m e n t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e use o f b o l d . w h e n v i e w e d f r o m a specified point. a n d g r a p h i t e .The plate is t h e n r o l l e d w i t h ink a n d polished with a rag. p r i n t i n g press face up. Air brush A mechanical. A l s o called m u s e u m g r a d e . Also called accelerated perspective. A l s o c a l l e d t h e h o r i z o n line. s u c h as a d r a w i n g o r painting. A p o t e n t i a l l y h a r s h m e t h o d o f p r o d u c i n g t o n e s in a d r a w i n g . Camera obscura A d a r k e n e d c h a m b e r i n t o w h i c h an i m a g e o f w h a t is o u t s i d e is received t h r o u g h a small o p e n i n g o r lens a n d f o c u s e d in natural c o l o r o n a facing surface. U s e d as a c o r r e c t i n g device o r pictorial game. so t h a t ink r e m a i n s o n l y in t h e g r o o v e s o f s c r a t c h e d lines. linseed oil o r egg y o l k Caricature A representation Contour line A line t h a t f o l l o w s t h e s h a p e o f a surface. usually at a n a c u t e angle t o t h e s u r f a c e . o r o t h e r (usually large) w o r k — s e e Pouncing. R e m b r a n d t is a great master o f chiaroscuro. Bleed T h e e f f e c t o f t w o w e t colors running into one another o r o n e color applied t o a w e t surface a n d a l l o w e d t o d i s p e r s e . It is p u t o n a Body color See Gouache. Eye level T h e i m a g i n a r y h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e a t t h e s a m e h e i g h t as t h e a v e r a g e p e r s o n ' s eyes. 2. It can also seal a silver p o i n t d r a w i n g t o p r e v e n t t h e oxidization (browning) o f t h e Drypoint A d r a w i n g is s c r a t c h e d directly o n t o a m e t a l plate w i t h a m e t a l t o o l h e l d like apen.m a d e paper.s i z e d r a w i n g m a d e for t h e purpose o f transferring a design t o a painting. T h e name " n o t " simply refers t o t h e fact t h a t t h e cylinders are n o t h o t in t e m p e r a t u r e . as o p p o s e d t o t h e s t r a i g h t e d g e o f a sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has b e e n machine-trimmed.

so that (using vanishing point perspective) the object appears to change shape and become narrower or smaller as it recedes. graphite. mineral. or even a beam of light. oil-based printing ink is rolled evenly onto a smooth metal. to give the illusion of depth and distance. Paper is then pressed against the stone to take a print. This method incorporates the excitement of accidental and unpredicted marks. Alternatively. Plumb line A line from which a weight is suspended in order to determine verticality or depth. rock. Focus 1 . It improves the bonding properties Frottage A French term meaning "rubbing. Foreshortening A method of depicting an object at an angle to the surface of the picture. with the area beneath remaining unaffected. or synthetic material that are suspended in a medium to constitute paint. materials that produce marks on a surface. or a drawing made in any single color GLOSSARY Linear perspective A form of perspective in which parallel lines are represented as converging. Hatching (cross-) See Crosshatching. white. and that will "escape" or change over time. It is a strong adhesive. It can be used with any wet media to isolate or protect parts of an image from further Optical blending See Pointillism. . glossy. Monochrome Usually refers to a black. Impressing Stamping or printing. enabling them to stick to paper It also helps to maintain a stable dispersion of pigment particles in water as the film of a wash dries. Lightfast A term confirming that pigment in the product will not fade with exposure to light. and orientation of the image. Medium A generic term for art Key A painting is said to be "high key" when the colors and tones are bright and "low key" when they are dark or somber The term is also used Gouache Opaque watercolor Also called body color. Picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. Masking fluid Clear or opaque latex fluid developed for watercolor painting. Lifting out A method of creating highlights and mid-tones in a drymedia drawing (such as charcoal or graphite). Papercut A type of collage in which flat sheets of paper are cut into an image. and it has a history in enamel work. then rubbed over carefully but vigorously with a crayon. the surface of the stone is made wet before being rolled with a thin film of oilbased printing ink. the finely ground particles of plant. oil-. cadmium yellow hue. The surface can be reloaded or redrawn with more medium. Objective drawing Refers to the concept of objectivity. Hairspray is an effective and inexpensive alternative. ink. After several intervening processes. are painted in grisaille and appear to be made of stone. Dark tones are laid down first then an eraser or masking tape is used to lift away particles of the drawing media to reveal the lightness of the paper beneath. to describe a surface to which paint will adhere readily. Also refers to an additive used to control the application properties of a color Golden Section A proportion in which a straight line or rectangle is divided into two unequal parts in such a way that the ratio of the smaller part to the greater part is the same as that of the greater part to the whole. Usually an academic drawing observed from life. glass.The degree to which detail is defined. Grisaille is occasionally seen in church stained-glass windows. lifting out charcoal and other dry media. The ink attaches to the oil-based image and is repelled by the wet stone. aiming to represent facts rather than an interpretation of the subject. 2. F o r m The outer surface of a three-dimensional object. format" (abbreviated to "portrait"). Ground A wet solution usually of gouache or gesso (chalk and animal glue) brushed onto paper board.257 metal line. Fugitive A term given to a pigment that it is not stable. upright images are called "portrait which is used as a binding agent in many liquid media.The paper then bears a crayon impression or copy of the surface that was underneath it A number of Surrealists. but in picture-making it is as important as the objects/subjects themselves. or for wrapping and protecting a finished piece of work. or canvas and allowed to dry before an image is drawn or painted. Also used by artists' materials manufacturers to indicate the use of a substitute pigment—for example. Artists can paint freely over dry masking fluid. it is the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work Pigment Any substance used as a coloring agent—for example. Gamut A complete range or extent Glassine A type of thin. Padua.Theground provides a particular color or texture beneath the image. multiH u e A term for a color. A point of interest in a drawing. or a family of colors. It is then peeled away. Rubens used grisaille to paint small images for engravers.while secretion of the acacia tree. sticky paper tape. shape. Monoprinting A direct method of printing in which wet medium (water-. purpose. including Max Ernst used frottage in their work. Grisaille A painting in gray or a grayish color Often made by students as a tonal exercise. and by artists representing stone sculptures in a painting. This may be disregarded in real life. and is also used as a size. Negative space The space between things. of the ingredients in inks and watercolors. or spirit-based) is applied to a surface that is then pressed onto paper and removed to leave a print. but each print will be unique. A small image might be described as small format Horizontal images are often said to be "landscape format" (abbreviated G u m arabic The natural to"landscape"). Paper is laid on top and a rapid drawing is made on the back of it The paper lifts away to reveal the image on its other side. used for fixing paper to walls and boards. and translucent paper—a delicate material used in collage. which give it a smooth surface (as opposed to cold-pressed paper. Giotto's Virtues and Vices in the Arena Chapel." A piece of paper is placed on top of an object or rough surface. or can be otherwise used to create an image—for example. Lithography A method of printmaking in which a drawing or painting is made directly onto a smooth slab of particular limestone or a metal plate using an oilbased crayon or ink. F o r m a t T h e size. This effect emulates what we see in real life. which has a rough surface). Hot-pressed papers (HP) Paper made using hot cylinders. and gray drawing. Pointillism A technique of using points or dots of pure color in such a way that when the picture is viewed from a distance they react Masking tape Invaluable. work. pastel. and masking off areas of a drawing that the artist wishes to keep untouched by media applied above or beside the tape. or plastic surface.

A term borrowed from the theater. Zen brushwork encompasses calligraphy and painting. and chrysanthemum—which in Chinese tradition are called "The Four Gentlemen. using a brush. plaster. Stylus A sharp. Vanishing point In linear perspective. evolved by engineers and architects for the purpose of conveying W a t e r c o l o r A painting accurate structural information. Underdrawing A pale preliminary drawing made prior to adding layers of another medium such as oil paint or watercolor Value The extent to which a color reflects or transmits light This is the equivalent of tone in a black and white image. whose pinpricks creates a "connect-thepersonal pastime was making dots" replica of the image on the cut-out portraits. or mark using an inked or pigment-covered surface. Turpentine A colorless solvent distilled from the resinous sap of pine trees. Subjective drawing A drawing that expresses the personal view and interpretation of the artist An invented image. glasses. carbon ink. Zen brushwork This is an oriental meditative art form originating in China and practised for many centuries in Japan. pointed roll of white paper that is used to blend dry media. meaning objects used in setting up a life model or still life. creating more vibrant effects than if the same colors were physically mixed together with a brush. Technical drawing A universal it is often used in conjunction language of lines and measurements with line drawings in pen and that is used to make diagrammatic ink—for images. an ink stone usually cut from slate. tight. or pen. orchids. Zen A school of Mahayana Buddhism that asserts that enlightenment can come through meditation and intuition rather than faith. Support The structure on which an image is made—for example. Alternatively. The crude material is called oleoresin. plum blossom. Squeegee A rubber-trimmed scraper used in the screenprinting process for dragging ink across a surface. Printmaking The act of making a picture. Tone A degree of lightness or darkness. sometimes drawn from a and leaving only the pricked sheet of shadow cast on a wall. or any physical object that can be stamped or pressed onto a surface to leave an impression. Pouncing If a large drawing or design (called a cartoon) is to be Shadow Darkness cast by the transferred to a surface such as a obscuring of light. paper or canvas. Serigraphy Silk-screen printing. Props An abbreviation of the word properties. and paperweights. . Tortillon A short. wall or tapestry. or point on which parallel lines converge to give the impression of receding space. such as an inscribed sheet of metal. W e t media Any liquid media— for example. pencil. in tone running from black to white or vice versa. compound of water-soluble pigment. Single-point perspective The most basic form of linear perspective in which there is only one vanishing point. Recto The front or top side of a piece of paper. Zen paintings usually depict scenes of nature and plants such as bamboo. The translucent Tint A color mixed with white.Technicaldrawing has been example. Artists' prints are normally made in multiple. watercolor. Size A weak glue used for filling the porous surface of wood or canvas in order to seal it. a point at which receding parallel lines meet Verso The back or underside of a piece of paper. by imposing a grid that is then scaled up to a larger size.258 GLOSSARY together optically. Volume The amount of space occupied by an object or an area of space in itself." Applied to the blurring or softening of sharp outlines by the subtle and gradual blending of one tone into another Sgraffito A technique of scratching or cutting through a surface of paint. fine paper. "Spirits" or "oil" of turpentine refer to the volatile portion used by artists to thin or dilute oil-based paint. or the left-hand page in a book. pointed instrument used for marking or engraving. cut-out profile made along every outline of the usually made in black paper image. fruit. giving it a brilliance. or wood.Thedrawing is removed. Named paper in place. a sheet of paper is placed beneath and pinpricks are Silhouette A flat. acrylic. and flowers. Wash A technique using ink. Shade A that is color mixed (or toned) with black Shading A lay term for adding tone to a drawing. nature of watercolor allows the white surface of the paper to Tonal scale A scale of gradations shine through. Sketch A quick or rough drawing. plaster or cloth surface beneath. usually diluted with water and applied with a brush. to model areas of light and shade. or watercolor paint. design. or ceramic glazing to reveal a different color beneath. in order to flick the pigment onto the image surface. a tightly folded piece of cotton batting can be used for the same effect. or the right-hand page in a book." Materials for Zen brushwork include round brushes of varied size. which are then called editions. Sfumato An Italian term meaning "smoky. Squaring up A method of enlarging and transferring an image from one surface to another. Etienne de material) dabbed through the Silhouette (1709-67). Although drawings can be made with wash alone. Viewpoint The position from which something is observed or considered. commonly referred to as the lead. Stippling Applying color or tone in areas of fine dots or flecks. Strip Core of a pencil. ink. Still life A picture composed of inanimate objects such as bowls. Scale Describes the size of one element in relation to another Sepia A brown pigment taken from the sun-dried ink sacs of cuttlefish and used to make ink or watercolor The term is now often incorrectly used to refer to brown colors. Pounce (a fine for an unpopular 18th-century powder of charcoal or similar French politician. Spattering A mottled texture produced by drawing your fingers across the bristles of a stiff brush loaded with pigment. or gouache.

Victor: West Facade of the Church of St. 72 bracelet shading 122 Braque.Index Page numbers in italics refer t o captions and illustrations Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity (Bishndas and 259 INDEX B bread (as eraser) 205. Georges 67. 190 Caricature of a Woman (Daumier) 198. 90 La Guitare. 180 Circular Score for "Due Voce" (Bussotti) 223 circus scenes 192-195 City (Bryan) 202. 74. 242 Brunelleschi. 203 Landline 202. Hieronymus 243 Two Monsters 242. 200 Bauer. 201 collage 111. 161 Akhlaq-I Rasul Allah manuscript 51. 162 character: to capture 38-39. 250 Bishndas and Nanha: Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity 50. 193 in lifting out 204. 222. 226-227 Acanthus spinosus 65 accelerated perspective 22. 90 colored materials 162-163 colored pencils 162.27 turtles 42-43 aquatint 240 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels (Leonardo) 12. Jean Michel 138 Self-Portrait 138 Bateau-Vision.162 Conte. 179 Bussotti. Zen c 232-233 blended 133. 26 geese 38-39 Gericault's cats 28. 241 action.186 see also movement Adoration of the Magi perspective study (Leonardo) 74.117 Achilles Chases Hector (Thomas) 240.163 dry media 205 Blue Nude (Matisse) 110. 74 brush (es) 246-247 Japanese 248 for laying a wash 140 marks 248-249 to hold 23 brush drawings 14-15 Bryan.184. 9 Chair (Van Gogh) 94. 128. 94 cylindrical objects. 230 The Physical Space 220 abstract drawing 219. 203 Buffalo Hunt (Shoshone) 178. 206 checkered floor 80. 160 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object (Moore) 178.133. Augustin 67 Basquiat. 13 architectural drawing 67-71 Arctic Flowers (Libeskind) 70. 133. 157 cropping 56-57. 75. 230-231 Cubist 90. 158. 29 Hugo's octopus 28. 198. 111. 38-39. 52 cotton swabs 205 Coup de Vent a Asajigabare (Hokusai) 198. 134 costume(s) 155 character 158-159 structure of 166-167 Cottage Among Trees (Rembrandt) 52. 204-205. 75 Circle of the Lustful (Blake) 180.198. 78 aerial perspective 206 airbrushing 160. 182. 41 principal 186. Statue d'Epouvante 90 calligraphy.44-45. Basilius 47 Beuys. 165. Clare 203 City 202. 189. 137 Besler.169 colors: airbrushed 161 background 91 A Abe.163 graded 227 composition 56-57.226. 74. layers 53 chalk pastels 162.115 anatomical drawing 134-135 anatomical theaters 82-83 anatomical waxes 128 ancient carvings 221.163 body.51 All and Nothing (Taylor) 114. 242 to blend 205 compressed 122. 90. 13. 198 cartoon (preparatory drawing) 137 (satirical) 159. 81 135. 139 Nanha) 50.13. 243 botanical drawing 48-49 Boullee. Joseph 113 The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland 112. 28 Klee's horses 30. 90. Nicolas-Jacques 54 contours 146. 244 head and neck 144 phrased 124-125 contrast: brightness 99 of media 30 tonal 96. 116. 70 Art Nouveau motifs 91 Autoportrait (Ray) 138. 220. to draw 25. to draw 100 Cypripedium calceolus L. to depict 156-157 Cloudburst of Material Possessions (Leonardo) 200. 94 chalk(s) 53. 244 and graphite 178 . 206. to model 110-111 border 51 Bosch. cut Catling. center of 118 ballpoint 182. Etienne-Louis 72 Newton's Cenotaph 72. 202 cloth. Giovanni 137 Head and Shoulders of a Man 136.50. 247-248 carving see lines. 98. 71 Blake. 95 Chair Cut Out (Woodfine) 94. Sylvano 222.184. to draw 80. (Ross-Craig) 49 to hold brush for 23 caricature 159. Brian 226 Untitled 2001 226 "Cave of the Hands" (Cueva de las Manas) 8. 30 sleeping dog 38-39 Stubbs's horse skeleton 26. 178 Cubism 67. 205 Baltard. 199 Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya (Eisen) 156. Le (Hugo) 200. 221 animals. 180 blending: color 133. Filippo 67. 40-41 Durer's rhinoceros 26.31 Picasso's horse and bird 30. 203 Claude Lorrain 202 Views from Velletri 202. 204. 163. 113 bird bones 12. William: The Circle of the Lustful 180. Franz 48 Protea nitida 48 Bellini. 8 cave paintings 8. to express 39. 50. Mamaru 104.100 curves.44-45 bird studies 12. 223 Circular Score for "Due Voce" 223 children's art 9. 71 Bacchante (Bakst) 155 background: color 91 textured 240 Baker Matthew: Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry 32 Bakst.89. Leon: Bacchante 155 balance. 186 charcoal 114.212 to erase 205 to hold 23 pencils 204 willow 114. 81 cut-out model plan 94. 71 conte 112. 9.

160. 160 Faune. 73. 240 Black Paintings 152. 40. 134. 52 foreground 208. 7 33 Hooke. 55. Sir Ernst 12. Alberto 136 Portrait of Marie-Laure de Noailles 136. 799 Holbein. 69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt 68. 90 G Gaudi. 144 Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (Baker) 32.112. Nicholas 68 St Paul's Baptistry 68 head and neck to draw 142-145 Head and Shoulders of a Man (Bellini) 136. Study for Plate 59 (Mucha) 90. drypoint 181 exaggeration 184 expressionism 198 E ye and Head of a Drone Fly (Hooke) 92.252-253 from memory 183. 69 Guitare. 93 horizon 52. disposable pens 182-183 dissections: botanical 48 of horse 27 distance: illusion of see perspective linear 97 tonal 97 Documents Decoratifs. 203 semi-abstract 234-237 three-dimensional 68. 41 in the round 208-209 with scalpel 202.198 Degas. 190 Middle Eastern 50-51.216. 136 Golden Section 67 Gombrich. 162 Flaxman. Oona 245 How Clever of God #84 244. Edgar 162 depth.103. Ron 161 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 161 160. 160 as ground for metal point 140. 163.97. 243 graphic score 222. fiber-tip pen 182. 79. 200 F fabric. 30 Fauves/fauvism 90. 230 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction 68. 220 dry brush 234 234 57. 141 tonal 96. 115 Escher.260 INDEX D Dada 139 Daumien Honore 198 Caricature of a Woman 198. 222 Grimes. 69. proportions of 143 fantasy drawings 72-73.115 exploratory 17 fantasy 72-73. 242 eyes. 216 foreshortening 110. 222 Le Bateau-Vision 200. 160 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction (Gaudi) 68. Antonio 135 Muscles of the Head and Neck 134. Rene 160 Illustration for Jacques Fath E easel. 135 Duren Albrecht 26. 55.216 Durelli.207.12 fixative 54. 245 Gruau. 134. to draw 134-137 Helleborus corsicus 55 highlights 91. Cheval et Oiseau (Picasso) 30. Jean Ignace Isidore see Grandville Gericault.157 ellipses 100.117 fountain pens 34.104. 122. 91 Dragon (Michelangelo) 36.91.244. Victor 200.101 engraving 243 erasers/erasing 55. 71 minimal line 99 and music 70-71 quick 38-39. 240. 226-227 anatomical 134-135 architectural 67-71 botanical 48-49 brush 14-15 dark to light 102. 99 etching. 93 eye level 80 Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity. Antonio 68. 202. Robert 93 Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 92. Keisai 157 The Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya 156.109 Rhinoceros 26.103 with eraser 103.102-103 drawing board 20 drawing books 20-21 drawing paper 144. 112. 37 Grandville 243 A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the Near-Microscopic World of Scale Insects 242. 77 How Clever of God #84 244. Katsushika 199 Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 198. M. 90 gouache 30. 29 H hands. 245 layers 30 Goya. 104-105.230 three-tone 140.116. 765 hitsuzendo drawings 233 Hokusai.160.121 felt-tip pens 162.111 feet. 161 fashion 160. 163.John 157 Man Lying Down in a Cloak 156. 161 fashion drawings 160. 240 170-173 five Ships in a Port with Lighthouse (Wallis) 11.146 from masterworks 126-127. 205 drawing with 103. 120. 252 depiction of fabric monsters 252-253 Self Portrait in a Cocked Hat 130. position of 143. 69. to suggest 177 see also perspective diagonals diffuser 55 dip pens 34. position of 22 Eisen. 222. 223 graphite 54. 113. Hans 133 The Ambassadors 116 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 132. 223.244 drawing(s): abstract 219. C .144 and ink 30. 170-173. La (Braque) 90. 160 hitsuzendo 233 light to dark 102. 125. 122 Hawksmoor.37. 25 focus 65. 157 . 134. 26 Flying Fish (White) 25. Statue d'Epouvante. 137 heads. 132 Frenz.69 Gerard.Theodore 29 Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 28. The 242.184 165.166 170-173 Gestalt 222 Giacometti. to draw 168-169 in Goya's artworks face. Francisco de 131.141. 241 to blend 205 and chalk 178 and ink 28. 55.141. 161 changing 216 Focusing on the Negative (Walter) 16 foliage 52. to draw 78. to draw 120. 131 Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 240.189. 124. 203 Hotel de la Suzonnieres (Satie) 70. 245 Hugo. 32 framing 139 Franfoise au Bandeau (Picasso) 132.

201 head and neck sections of female mold for Sforza Horse 89 Madonna of the Rocks 244 perspective study for Adoration of the Magi 74. Oxford 250 music 70-71 Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks (Knopf) 32. 220. 35.182 Moore. 201 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels 12. Phyll: hands 18 lifting out 204.Pieuvre (Octopus) 28. apparent 97 Leonardo da Vinci 74. Daniel 70 Arctic Flowers 70 Lieb. Madrid 171 University Museum of Natural History. 181 Klee. 31 Klimt. 757 mandalas 219. 37 lines 118 pastel 162 pencil 31. 181 luminosity 115 Lynch. 103 Neolithic chalk tablet 220.96. 252 Muscles of the Head and Neck (Durelli) 134. Oxford 106 Prado. 72.227 to "bend" straight 97 compositional 228-229 cut 202. drawing from 126-127. 244 ink 36 252-253 Documents Decoratifs 90. Kathe 181 Losbrunch (The Outbreak) 180. 221 endless 31 free 113. 54 silver point 156 leg sections 158 length. Marie 244 cloth drawing 244.181 L Landline (Bryan) 202. 183 vertical 156 linear distance 97 linear perspective 69. 166. 28 Two Impressions from a Cut-out Paper Disk 222 Huyler Stephen R 225 261 Kinecar. 34-35 acrylic 35 bistre 35. 53 Tree II 52. 205. 58-59.134 K Kettlehut. 185 Mucha. Henri 111 Blue Nude 1110. I Murderous Attacks 33 Kollwitz.243 carbon 35 Chinese 30.104.115 98. 176. 74-77.91 Study for Plate 59 of INDEX illumination see lighting Illustration for Jacques Fath (Gruau) 160. Rose: Tantalus or the Future of Man 20 minimal line drawing 99 mirror use of 120 mixed media 28. 249 and gouache 30 Indian 35. 170-173. drawing from 183. 77 Miller. 190 metal pens see dip pens metal point 25. 220. 178 motifs: A r t Nouveau 9 7 stylized 51 mountains 216-217 movement: of animals 30-31 of humans 7 79. 159 Japanese 35 to make 36 sepia 35 walnut 36. 234 iron-gall 35. Alphonse 90. Erich 73 design for Metropolis 72. 33 J justness 228-229 N naive art 74 negative space 53. 226 Modernism 67.109. 789. 227 Scene of Comical Riders 30. 756 priming for 140. 230 invented creatures 106-107 250-251 invented objects 89. 73 Michelangelo Buonarroti 48. 13 Cloudburst of Material Possessions 200. 111.167 line(s) 132. 73 Kigell. 163 pens 36 measuring 116 memory. 252 ink 16.33 Mysterious Affairs of the lighting 2 7.109. Paul 227 Polyphonic Setting for White 226. 220.124. 244 lithograph 198 Losbruch (Kollwitz) 180. 110 Sistine Chapel ceiling 116 Middle Eastern drawing 50-51. 63. artistic 240-241. 97 Murillo. 158 Man Lying Down in a Cloak (Flaxman) 156. 135 museums 44. 83 white 122 ink impressions 222 ink spatters 234 installations 176.112. 219 Mondrian. 76 Libeskind. 220.The (Robinson) 108. 78 Study ofThree Male Figures 110. 36. Victor 134 Profile Head 134. 114 hatched 244 layered 118 pace of 65 pale 40 rapid 49. Johan 32. 248.102.141. Gustav 49 Knopf. 49 Rose 49 Maelbeke Madonna (Van Eyck) 156. David 78 M Mackintosh.276. 244. 156 magnification 93 Man in Armor (Van Dyck) 158. Florence 128 lighting in 167 Pitt Rivers. 60. 160 In the Duchess's Kitchen (Rackham) 176. 205 masterworks. Charles Rennie 48. 177 influences.120. 203. Henry 178 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object 178.166 La Specola. 34. Bartolome: Moses Striking the Rock ofHoreb 252. 184.141 Metropolis (film) 72. 99. 244 Dragon 36. 53 monoprint 787. 242 light 96 to depict drawing with 1 76 painting with 176 . 225 masking tape 204. 227 Newsome. Matisse. Piet 52. 203 landscape 206-208 brushed 14 Landscape in Hoboku Style (Sesshu) 14 layers 146 chalk 53 gouache 30 ink 28.

7 72 Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland. 160. 181 Rodin. 165. 36.759. 159.37 scientific instruments 9 2 . 239 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat (Seurat) 112. Paul 73 Nobson Central 72. 227 portfolios 20 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser de Noailles (Holbein) 132. 234 disposable 182-183 felt-tip 162. 141 Piranesi. 40-41. 72 Noble.37. 2 2 0 for oil pastels 162 stained 230 to stretch 140-141 tissue 21. Giovanni Battista 74. 242 reed pens 34. 164. 1 1 6 . 91 outsider artists 33. 76 plastic eraser 55. Stella 48 Cypripedium calceolus L 49 rotated view 7 65 Rubens. 78 single-point 74. 1 1 6 accelerated 2 2 . 9 0 . 103. 7 38 Ray 138. Cheval et Oiseau 30. 28 pigment 162 bright 50 Caput Mortuum 7 4 7 for three-tone drawing 141. 7 76 receding space 206 Redon. Man 131. Faune. 4 8 putty eraser 55. 9 8 .104 Pieuvre (Hugo) 28. 205 157. 224 0 layers 31.226. 161.Tim. 181 pencil(s) 54 charcoal 204 colored 762. 243. 75 Two Courtyards 75. 216. Odilon 242 The Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity 242.9 3 Schongauer.37. Pablo 6 7 . 122. 734 Protea nitida (Bauer) 48. 7 73 self-portraits: Basquiat 138. 34-35. 162 O p A r t 98 optical illusions 96-99 outline 33. 36. 71 Satire of the Queen's Dress (Wodall) 158. Arthur 177 In the Duchess's Kitchen 176.54 pastel 162 perspective 1 0 0 . 736 portraits. 36. 7 70 Ray. 1 3 2 quill pens 34. 36. 239 Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 238. 244 Q s Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape (Wolfli) 2 79 St. 759 P Page. 203 Scene of Comical Riders (Klee) 30. 74-77. 732 influence of 240 painting with light 78. 4 9 Rose of Mohammed 50. and Webster. 81 two-point 74. 1 2 4 priming for metal point 140. 139 Real Life is Rubbish (Noble and Webster) 176. 37 38. 97. 36 pen and brush 8 3 pen and ink 70. Peter Paul 126-127 Embracing pose(s): balanced 146 quick 118-119 positive form 103 posture: of artist 22 of subject 3 8 .71 Hotel de la Suzonnieres 70. 26 Riley. 1 6 9 to hold 2 2 .184 fountain 34. 163.7 77 rapidograph 70 Raphael 110. 38. 75 Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range 241 petroglyphs 221. 782 relief 757 silk-screen 739 woodblock 134. 219.oise au Bandeau 132. Martin 238. Russell 228. 212 Japanese 2 1 .2 3 age and youth sleeping subjects 148-149 150-151 Renaissance 109 Rhinoceros (Durer) 26. 36. 739 semi-abstract drawings Style 14 Seurat. 30 Fran<. Heath 181 The Kinecar 180. 1 6 3 . 205 pointillism 112 polyphonic painting 227 Polyphonic Setting for White (Klee) 226.131 Cottage Among Trees 52. 772 234-237 Sesshu.52 pen and wash 158. Erik 70. 230 paper(s) 21 colored 162 drawing 144. 166 fiber-tip 782. 76-79.Paul'sBaptistry (Hawksmoor) 68. Georges 112 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 112. 733 Portrait de Marie-Laure (Giacometti) 136. 244 reed 34. 38. 241 Physical Space. 68 Satie. 1 1 7 aerial 206 linear 69. J 76 nudes 114-115 to make 36 metal see dip quill 34. 57 Ross-Craig. Isaac 92 Telescope 92 Newton's Cenotaph (Boullee) 72.240. 243. 114 rollerball 182 Rorschach blot 99 Rose (Mackintosh) 48. 165 figure 118 filled 37 pencil 48. Bridget 98 Robinson.The (Beuys) 112.262 INDEX Newton. to draw 146-147 R Rackham. 36 relief printing 757 Rembrandt van Rijn 52.Toyo: Landscape in Hoboku . 230 parallel planes 79 Parisian street 86-87 pastels 162 to blend 205 to hold 23 layers 162 pencils 162 pen(s): dip 34 . Sue 104. 7 77 three-point 80. 52 pens 36 scalpel 54 drawing with 202.176 Real Life Is Rubbish 176. 73 Noble.139 Autoportrait 138. The (Abe) 220 Picasso. Auguste 114 Two Women 114.40. 74.36.199 Profile Head (Newsome) oil pastels 162.141 prints/printing: aquatint 240 dry-point etching 181 engraving 243 monoprint 181.

M . 75 Skeleton of the Horse ( S t u b b s ) 26. John 25 Flying Fish 25 Wild Striped Cat Sketches of ( G e r i c a u l t ) 28. 7 6 1 spots.125 W o o d f i n e .d i m e n s i o n a l d r a w i n g 68. H e n r i de: Woman at Her Toilet 14 t r a n s p a r e n t v i e w 92. phrased 146 tonal modeling 161 tonal range 169 t o n a l surfaces 2 2 7 tonal width 97 t o n e ( s ) 33. 2 3 0 tonal contrast 96 tonal distance 9 7 t o n a l d r a w i n g 9 6 . 9 0 . Study of (Michelangelo) 110. 7 79 Shoshone petroglyph 240. Jan 1 5 6 Maelbeke Madonna 1 5 6 . 1 4 0 . Man in Armor 1 5 8 . 2 4 7 t h r e e . 2 1 2 . 102-103 tonal marks. Sue see N o b l e . t o draw 1 9 8 . 159 Wolfli. 240 Two Women Embracing ( R o d i n ) 114. 9 5 pens 36 v a n i s h i n g p o i n t 74. 141 Three Male Figures. t o d r a w 2 0 0 . 241. 69. 2 2 7 Untitled 2001 ( C a t l i n g ) u 263 W h i t e . 1 7 7 free 8 0 V e n i c e .158 158.13 M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s m a l e figures 110.5 3 in l a n d s c a p e 2 0 6 . 1 2 Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse 71. 164. v i e w s o f 85. Vincent 95 Chair 94. 202 violin. William 159 Satire of the Queen's Dress INDEX 226.1 4 1 . b l o w n 248 steel p e n s see d i p p e n s still life 89. Augustin ( B a l t a r d ) 6 7 w e t and dry brush-strokes 2 4 9 Turner. Sarah: child's m a p 75. 161.216 W e b s t e r .2 0 1 . 725 fabric 1 6 8 T h o m a s .141 S i m b l e t . Paul 2 4 1 Achilles Chases Hector 2 4 0 . t o d r a w 5 2 . 4 4 boat 209 botanical 4 9 G e r i c a u l t ' s cats 2 9 from Goya 170-173 125. 97.1 8 5 Tree II ( M o n d r i a n ) 52.d i m e n s i o n a l 1 0 4 . 2 7 studies: b i r d s 7 2 .27 skull 747.1 9 9 wire. 1 9 9 Two Courtyards (Piranesi) 75. h e a d a n d n e c k sections o f female m o l d f o r (Leonardo) 89 shading 2 9 s h a d o w s 28. 7 1 4 . 69.243 Leonardo's machines 12. 743 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City ( F r e n z ) 1 6 0 . G e o r g e 2 7 Skeleton of the Horse 26. T i m W e s t Fagade of the Church of St.J. 7 77. 53 trees. 2 3 4 .12 W a l t e r . 49.199 tissue p a p e r 21. 1 3 .1 0 5 vision 9 6 Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects (Grandville) 242. 245 sharpener 54 Ship in a Storm ( T u r n e r ) 1 9 8 . 2 9 wind.241 s i l k .t o n e d r a w i n g 140. 182. 170 shoes 1 6 4 stylized m o t i f 51 Summer Flowers 63. 174 T w o m b l y . 1 4 1 w a t e r c o l o r 25. drawing with 104-105 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt ( G a u d i ) 68. 1 4 1 . 221 . 156 layers 7 5 6 priming for 140. 6 9 Wodall. 243 (Bosch) T Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos ( G o y a ) 2 4 0 . C y 138. 2 4 4 . 158 V a n Eyck. 249 t o describe 39. 104-105. 7 75 Telescope ( N e w t o n ) 9 2 . 74. 7 9 0 vessels. 1 4 5 travel journal 2 0 .s c r e e n p r i n t i n g 139 silver p o i n t 1 4 0 . Taylor A n i t a 115 All and Nothing 1 1 4 . 7 6 Two Impressions from a Cut-Out Paper Disk ( H u g o ) 2 2 2 Two Monsters 2 4 2 .41. 206-207 202. 77. 1 9 9 . 65 symbols 138. 75. 1 8 4 . Adolf: Giant-Grape Saint-Mary-Castle 219 Woman at Her Toilet ( T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c ) 74 w o o d b l o c k print 157. t o lay 1 4 0 . t o d r a w 1 0 1 viewfinder 57 Views from Velletri ( C l a u d e L o r r a i n ) 152.Sforza Horse.Yamaoka 233 t e x t u r e 2 2 2 .1 6 5 shorthand diagram 142 Shoshone buffalo hide painting 178.1 4 5 . 9 2 Tesshu. 7 70 Tiber 214-215 Untitled ( T w o m b l y ) 2 2 0 . 199. 230 t h r e e . 156 Van Gogh. 96. 1 4 4 . 2 0 0 Ship in a Storm 1 9 8 . 2 4 2 w Wallis. Sarah 9 4 Chair Cut Out 94. 199 shoes 1 6 4 . 79. W . 186. t h r e e . 9 4 z Z e n calligraphy 232-233 contrast 96 t o grade 163 ink 37 pencil 5 4 t o r t i l l o n 205 T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c . John: Focusing on the Negative 14 w a s h . 1 6 6 t r a p e z i u s m u s c l e 142. 57. A n t h o n y 152. 1 8 4 . 1 6 . 226 V Van Dyck. 2 2 6 .9 1 storms. 115. A l f r e d 1 1 .120.2 1 3 Stubbs. 2 2 0 influence o f 2 4 0 Untitled 220. 76.

. Carole A s h . 68: www. Jackie Douglas. Italy. 2 7 : Royal Academy of Arts. Graphische Sammlung. Productions Clovis Prevost (c). Salisbury & South W i l t s h i r e M u s e u m ( t ) . L o n d o n . 3 3 : Prinzhom Collection. 1 3 8 : © Christie's Images Ltd/© A D AGP. Fund. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. 88: www. 1901. 75: © The British Museum (b). NY. S i m o n L e w i s . 180: www. 1 6 1 : D C C o m i c s I n c . 2 1 8 : Adolf-Wdlfli-Stiftung. University of Cambridge. Germany/Joerg P. 9 7 6 ) . 4 6 : B r i t i s h Library.Paris ( b ) . London/courtesy of Stuart Shave. Sophie Laurimore. Corporation of London. Anita Taylor. Illustrated London News Picture Library/The Bystander (b). 2 4 4 : Ashmolean Museum. 74: Corbis. Clare Bryan. Paris. Orientabteilung/Ruth Schacht. R o y a n d D i a n n e Simblet. Wolfson College. Kunstmuseum Bern. 7 0 : Studio Daniel L i b e s k i n d . c o . D a w n Henderson. 5 2 : T h e Metropolitan Museum of Art/Bequest of Mrs. 132: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. Psychiatric Institute of the U n i v e r s i t y of Heidelberg.r. L o n d o n (t).co. 1 6 0 : Rene G R U A U s. 2 2 2 : Pierre Georgel/Private Collection. Paris. H .bridgeman.uk/Private Collection. Natalie G o d w i n . Winthrop. P h y l l Kiggell. 9 1 : www. 1 9 : Getty Images/© Succession Picasso / D A C S 2 0 0 5 . Paula Regan. Pamela Ellis for compiling the index. 1 3 4 : © T h e British Museum. Paris a n d D A C S . 69: Institut Amatller d'Art Hispanic (tl). 9 0 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/© A D A G P . France. L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . Julie O u g h t o n .bridgeman.co. L o n d o n . Flossie. Toulouse. 199: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee des arts asiatiquesGuimet. b r i d g e m a n . B e r l i n . George M c G a v i n .uk/Musee des Augustins. Sarah Woodfine.bridgeman. 51: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz.20-21 a n d 246-47. Paris/ © Succession Picasso / D A C S 2005. Roddy Bell. Diana Bell. K u n s t m u s e u m Bern/© D A C S 2 0 0 5 . 111: Fondation Beyeler/Riehen (Bale)/© Succession H Matisse/DACS 2005.co. R o s e m a r y S c o u l a r . 225: Stephen P Huyler. Patty Stansfield. L o n d o n . 226: Brian Catling. Sir Brinsley F o r d . 30: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . B . University of Oxford. Florence/MoMA. C o r n e l i s o n & Son. G e r m a n y . for s u p p l y i n g the d r a w i n g books. Berlin/Staatsbibliothek zu A l l other images © Sarah Simblet . and Tamsin Woodward Smith. London 2005./Private Collection/© D A C S 2005. T h e R u s k i n School of D r a w i n g a n d Fine A r t .bridgeman. Portugal.bridgeman. 2 2 4 : P r i n z h o m Collection. 1975 ( 1 9 7 5 . Peter L u f f . Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (t). a n d encouragement i n m a k i n g this book: M a m o r u Abe. 1 5 : w w w .co. J a c k a n d Brian Catling.uk/British Museum. 17: J o h n Walter. Copyright Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens.uk /© Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery. Magdalene College Cambridge. Anders.co. 2 4 0 : w w w . Madrid. b r i d g e m a n . Antonia Cunliffe Davis. Berlin (b). Sarah D u n c a n . L e n . b r i d g e m a n . Germany.bridgeman. 157: U C L Art Collections . J o n Roome. Angela W i l k e s ./© D A C S 2 0 0 5 ( t ) .bridgeman.co. 174: Artothek/Munich. Maureen Paley Interim Art (b). G e r m a n y . London/Bequeathed by Charles Landseer./Galerie Sylvie Nissen. 1879. 115: Anita Taylor. Sammy De Grave. Paul T h o m a s . 1 5 4 : akg-images/Musee National d'Art Moderne.uk/Guildhall Library. u k / T o k y o National M u s e u m .co.a. 1 5 9 : Bodleian Library. Christopher Davis.264 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Acknowledgments Author's Acknowledgments: T h e author wishes to thank the following people for their enormous help. T o n y G r i s o n i . 13: www. Oxford. Publisher's Acknowledgments Dorling Kindersley w o u l d like to thank Caroline H u n t for editorial contribution. U K . Amsterdam. A n n a P l u c i n s k a . Paris a n d D A C S .100. c o . 2 4 5 : Oona Grimes. . 2 8 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. 181: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. Lisbon. 73: Berlin F i l m Museum (t). 9 3 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. 72: akg-images. 179: www. 16: www. © Tate.Strang Print Room ( b ) . 1 0 8 : Arts C o u n c i l Collection.co. M a n d y Earey. Agnieszka Mlicka. J o h n Walter. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin. 9 2 : Science Photo L i b r a r y . papers. F r a n c e . B e m d Kunzig. 2 2 7 : Paul Klee Stiftung. 2 0 2 : © T h e British Museum. U K .uk/Mucha Trust. H a m b u r g . Angela Palmer. K u n s t m u s e u m . 2 0 1 : T h e Royal Collection © 2 0 0 2 H e r Majesty Queen Elizabeth I I . Carlo O r t u for picture research s u p p o r t . 1 3 6 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Centre Pompidou-MNAM-CCI. Paul T h o m a s ( t ) . 2 0 0 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. H a y w a r d Gallery. H e l e n S h u t t l e w o r t h . 11: www. 137: © The British Museum. 1929 (29. 176: Modem Art. a n d brushes o n pp. 9 4 : Sarah Woodfine. Picture Credits 8: Corbis/Hubert Stadler. 1 9 6 : Museum of the History of Science. 114: Musee Rodin. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. Jean Pierre Roy. 139: Galerie Marion Meyer/© Man Ray Trust / A D A G P . O o n a G r i m e s . 2 2 0 : Mamaru Abe. u k / O n Loan to the H a m b u r g Kunsthalle. Paris. A . H e a t h e r M c C a r r y .l. Rocio Arnaez. 221: Gagosian Gallery/Private Collection (b). 9 5 : V a n Gogh M u s e u m .uk/Kettle's Yard. 1 5 6 : Graphische S a m m l u n g Albertina. 3 2 : Pepys Library. 113: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. R u t h P a r k i n s o n .uk/Private Collection. Kirsten Norrie.co. O. 49: Hunterian Museum (t). Andy Crawford. a n d D e p a r t m e n t s o f E n t o m o l o g y a n d Zoology at the University of Oxford. 1 3 5 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library.uk/Private Collection. u k / L o u v r e . Inc.bridgeman. K e v i n a n d Rebecca Slingsby. B e r l i n . Paris. support. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. 5 0 : Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (1). Also. J o h n Roberts. 5 3 : Collection of the Gemeentemuseum D e n Haag/Mondrian Trust. 177: Mary Evans Picture Library. Paris. 2 6 : Topfoto. 4 8 : T h e N a t u r a l H i s t o r y M u s e u m . B M G . 1 9 8 : Dover Publications. Dover Publications/ISBN: 0486229912 (t). 130: The Metropolitan M u s e u m of Art/Robert L e h m a n Collection. A n d y C r a w f o r d for p h o t o g r a p h y a n d L . 6 6 : w w w . R . 29: Fogg A n Museum/Collections Baron de Vita: Grenville L. Havemeyer. Japan. 3 1 : Tom Powel Imaging. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin/Jorg P. 2 3 8 : akg-images. L o n d o n . Psychiatric Institute of the University of Heidelberg. G i n a R o w l a n d . 2 2 3 : Lebrecht Music and Arts Photo Library/Ricordi. A . K a t h r y n W i l k i n s o n . K e w ft)). 1 7 8 : © T h e British M u s e u m / H e n r y Moore F o u n d a t i o n . 243: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. 2 0 3 : Clare Bryan (t).uk /Biblioteca Nacional. 1 . L o n d o n . 112: Yale University A r t Gallery/Everett V Meeks.co. 2 4 2 : Photo Scala. Paris and D A C S . 1 3 3 : Artothek/Kupferstichkabinett. Basel. (r).bridgeman.939). Paris. F i n n . 1 1 0 : www. 158: Calouste Gulbenkian Museum. c o . 2 4 1 : Corbis/David M u e n c h ( b ) . 2 4 : © T h e British Museum. 7 1 : I M E C / A r c h i v e s E r i k Satie. Anders/ © D A C S 2 0 0 5 .

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