An innovative, practical approach to drawing the world around you
FOR T H E ARTIST
FOR THE ARTIST
LONDON • NEW YORK MELBOURNE • MUNICH • DELHI Senior Editor Paula Regan Senior Art Editor Mandy Earey Art Editor Anna Plucinska Managing Editor Julie Oughton Managing Art Editor Heather McCarry Art Director Peter Luff Publishing Director Jackie Douglas Production Joanna Bull DTP Designer Adam Walker Picture Research Sarah Smithies US Editor Christine Heilman First American Edition, 2 0 0 5 First Paperback Edition, 2 0 0 9 Published in the United States by DK Publishing 3 7 5 Hudson Street New York, New York 1 0 0 1 4 10 11 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3
6 8 20 22 Master Builders The Order of Sound Future Fictions Pathways of Sight Single-Point Perspective Creating an Imaginary Space Further Aspects of Perspective Theaters Venetian Life Parisian Street
68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86
Foreword Introduction Drawing Books and Papers Posture and Grip
Objects and Instruments
TD075-July 2009 Copyright © 2 0 0 5 Dorling Kindersley Limited Text and authors artworks © Sarah Simblet 2 0 0 4 Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited A Cataloging-in-Publication record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN 9 7 8 - 0 - 7 5 6 6 - 5 1 4 1 - 1 Color reproduction by GRB, Italy Printed and bound in China by Toppan
Still Life Instruments of Vision Bench Marks Light and Illusions Further Illusions How to Draw Ellipses Tonality Drawing with Wire Artifacts and Fictions
90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106
Documentaries Presence and Mood Movement Icon and Design Pen and Ink Drawing with Ink Capturing Character Sleeping Dogs Turtles Dry Birds
26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44
Postures and Poses Choreographs Passion Measurement and Foreshortening Quick Poses Hands and Feet Charcoal Hands Phrasing Contours The Visual Detective La Specola
110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128
Plants and Gardens
Botanical Studies Jeweled Gardens Fast Trees Graphite and Erasers Cropping and Composition Negative Space Fig Tree Summer Flowers Acanthus Spinosus
48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64
Discover more at
Projections Magnetic Fields The Human Condition Disposable Pens The Travel Journal Catching the Moment Grand Canal Crossings Caravans The Big Top
174 Abstract Lines
176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 Process and Harmony Writing Time Chants and Prayers Compositions Being "Just" Collage Zen Calligraphy Nocturnes
220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234
Poise Anatomies Revelations Self-Portraits Silver Point Head and Neck Essential Observations Drawing Portraits Generations Castings
132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 152
Earth and the Elements
Air in Motion Storms Nature Profiles Charcoal Landscapes Drawing in the Round Decaying Boat Cloudburst Notes of Force Mountains
198 200 202 204 206 208 210 212 214 216
Gods and Monsters
Marks of Influence Hauntings Convolutions Brushes Brush Marks Monsters Goya's Monsters Consumed Glossary Index Acknowledgments
240 242 244 246 248 250 252 254 256 259 264
Cloth and Drapery Character Costumes Femmes Fatales Colored Materials Study and Design The Structure of Costume Textures and Patterns Dressing Character Posture Carving
156 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172
Y DRAWING THE WORLD AROUND
US. that inspired the title and structure
MEMORY T H E A T E R S
This pen-and-ink drawing was made from imagination during research for my PhD. These inspirations led me to invent museums. Chosen in any color. Drawing is a mirror through which I understand my place in the world. I know that with their cooperation I can soon prove them wrong. Others can be held in the h a n d or. and be slowly washed or worn away. For me personally. night security staff. The very first step is to believe it. still standing by the door. aspirations. are made outside as discreet installations. be they a child discovering their vision and dexterity. a cartographer charting the land. a sculptor. and through which I can see how I think. Augustine his notes on memory. perhaps hidden on a door hinge or a street bench rail. They occupy a shelf in my studio. They enfold their viewer and are made on joined sheets of paper that I reach by climbing ladders. texture. or engineer. The most rewarding challenge is always the newcomer. I will always draw. shape. architect. fashion designer. where spaces are shaped by nothing more than the objects and activities contained within them. We can all learn how to draw. Some of my drawings cover entire walls. I was also reading among The Confessions of St. I work with people of diverse ages. For twelve years I have enjoyed the privilege of teaching drawing. through history. and I refer back to them for years after they are made. we learn to see it. thinking. Some are more traditionally framed and hung in galleries for solo or group exhibitions. we have looked at. It is my love of these. who tells me firmly upon approach that they cannot draw. Combine these things and the possibilities are endless. and a reflector of experience. we learn
to feel truly alive. by invitation. but because it is how I engage with and anchor myself in life. It makes me feel excited to be alive. geologists.
. and their importance to so many artists. and experience. Drawing occupies a unique place in every artist and creator's life. and size. where I expect them to be discovered by some people. from schoolchildren to senior citizens. It is a tool for investigating ideas and recording knowledge. and local c o m m u n i t y classes. in which he describes himself flying and diving in his imagination through pictorial caverns of knowledge. not only to make art. art schools. understood (and often misunderstood) our own bodies. as a visiting professor at universities. I also make drawing books. remain unseen by most. especially as travel journals. and makers of special effects. a composer notating a musical score. drawing is the immediate expression of seeing. and in a few sessions they will be flying. By using our imaginations. and feeling. doctors. a drawing book is the perfect portable private vehicle for your imminent exploration of drawing. or a quantum physicist trying to see for themselves the fluctuations of our universe.
of Sketch Book for the Artist. I was training in anatomy and studying how. undergraduates to fellow professors.
is not afforded us by drawing. We are bombarded with linear and tonal pictorial information. scrawling shapes and cartoons when on the telephone. inscribing every fresh part of it with their eager scrapes and trails. Children cannot be restrained from running across the pristine white lawn of newly fallen snow. Cueva de las Marios. but more often because drawing actually helps us to focus and take in what is said. and we spend our lives reading it.Theseancient silhouettes were drawn with earth pigments rubbed onto rock. At home and at work we doodle. and in meetings. not just chosen pictures on our walls but everywhere—maps. graffiti. The sense of relief we may feel from the information overload of modern commercial life when visiting a country in which we can no longer read every written word. logos. They have a natural affinity to many modern graffiti signatures. signs. Most adults still feel that certain exquisite pleasure on arriving at a beach to find the tide out and the sand perfect. a great crowd is raising their hands in greeting.000-9500 bce
. and patterns on our clothes. waving to us from many thousands of yearsago. Drawing is international. We are surrounded by drawings in our daily lives. irreverent to language barriers. packaging.
"CAVE OF THE HANDS"
In this drawing. in lectures. like a great canvas for them to mark. We can always read each others drawings. Sometimes we draw because we are bored.8
Where We Begin
There is a fundamental drive in our human nature to make a mark. Rio Pinturas
and the appearance of my strikes of colors. Even though it is made by a toddler this image would be recognizable to anyone. reflecting my experience of looking closely at my father's face." Until this day. enjoying the physical sensation of crayon on paper.9
WHERE WE BEGIN
FIRST PORTRAIT For sorre forgotten reason. I was sitting with my mother.
MAKING OUR MARK
It seems reasonable to assume that we have engaged in pictorial mark-making for as long as we have made conscious use of our hands. power. Cave art was not made for decoration but as a fundamental part of life. and she kept it as my first step beyond the delighted realms of scrawl.
. an expression of existence. I. She gave me a notepad and a red crayon and asked me to draw her "a picture of Daddy. On a particular afternoon in September 1974. The image above is what I gave back to my mother. and belonging to place. I now think this is a picture of proximity. created by societies of hunter-gatherers. but I had never yet attempted to figuratively picture my world. we see our oldest surviving images. who in their day-to-day hardship made time to picture themselves and the animals on which they depended. had happily scribbled. In cave paintings like the one opposite. like all toddlers. Eyelashes take up as much of my attention as the head itself. the hair of my first portrait was most important. at age two-anda-half.
PEN-AND-INK BEE This tiny drawing has been enlarged to show its texture and composition. then drag o u r line into a loop. At this point many will insist they cannot draw. h o w e v e r small a n d u n f o r m e d y o u believe they are. most of us stop. to help a stranger see their way W h e n taking first steps in relearning h o w to draw. for example. As you progress. W e do n o t hesitate to draw a map. Young children love to draw.
T h e r e is a point in all o u r lives w h e n w e first c o n t r o l o u r mark and m a k e it a line. yet still turn to drawing w h e n their verbal language fails or is inadequate. Don't b e p e r s u a d e d to draw in a w a y s o m e o n e else
. It was made with a few bold strokes of a steel pen dipped in ink to conjure the dried bee I was holding between my fingers on a pin. But as adolescents. and from that first unit build and describe the shape of something or someone we know. Hours are lost immersed in the glorious world of imagination. b e p r o u d o f what m a k e s y o u r w o r k individual to y o u . and this activity plays a vital role in their d e v e l o p m e n t . it is important to value your natural abilities a n d ways of seeing. Inhibitions creep in and ideas of good a n d b a d terminate confidence.
He used leftover ship and yacht paint with crayons on cut-out pieces of cardboard boxes.11
A UNIQUE SIGHT
This innocent yet sophisticated drawing of boats. and which aspects of the vast wealth and diversity of graphic language would be most appropriate to their goals. I meet students struggling unhappily with a particular method of drawing. remember that all advice is only advice. The journey of every artist demands hard work and discipline. Think how much would have been lost if anyone had interfered with Alfred Wallis' personal sense of proportion and perspective in the exquisite drawing above.
Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse
c. you must decide whether to keep or discard it. what they most want to achieve. As you read this b o o k and perhaps attend art classes. harbor and sea is one of many that Alfred Wallis made from memory while sitting at home. Enjoy the control of your own journey. I ask them their reasons for drawing. Someone once told them they must draw in this way. After experimenting and trying each new idea. 1925-42 53/8x87/8in (135 x 225 mm) ALFRED WALLIS
prefers and tells you is better.
. and they have never questioned why. He was a retired Cornish fisherman and junk dealer who began drawing at the age of 70 "for company" after his wife died. but it does help to set out facing in the right direction.
We all see differently.12
All artists see the world differently. We also see differently ourselves. There are only artists. His notes visually balance his drawings. The observed world may be our subject. is. author of The Story of Art. but the child in us knows that this is an all-embracing. There are countless reasons for drawing. Below.
IDEAS A N D I N V E N T I O N S
These active machines. clear-minded understanding of the sea. I hope. the breast. wrote as the opening line of this great work. and inspire others. it may not be accurate to our critical adult eye. perhaps for comfort or ease as a left-hander or a habitual enjoyment of the challenge. If as artists we nail a subject down too hard. but it should be the experienced world we draw. boats." The clarity and empowerment of these words. When we look back at Wallis' seascape (see p. "There really is no such thing as Art.
Screws and Water
LEONARDO DA VINCI
. all raise water From the Archimedes' screw to Leonardo's own cupped wheel.and collarbones and shoulder blades of a different bird almost become new creatures in themselves. The art historian Professor Sir Ernst Gombrich. There should neve: be a slavish obligation to represent things exactly as we collectively agree we see them. Our imaginations are the tools with which we can increase the essence of life. the page bristles with the focus of ideas. 11). embedded in this book. and lose the very thing that attracted us to it. depending on the occasion and our purpose. We
The flutter of faint scratches that dance across the pages on the right is an attempt to see the movement and bony weightlessness of a bird. be visionary. we can drive out its spirit. and breathtaking wind of a choppy harbor. right. not for disguise but as a personal choice. They are also always written backward.
Opposite. Decide before you start whether you are drawing to warm up. Don't be disheartened.
stripped-down parts. or illustrate a dream. drawing in pursuit of our own thoughts and understanding. shout against a terrible injustice. It will be invested through your experience in the new drawing.13
should not try to know how every finished picture will look. My drawings of a housemartin (opposite top) illustrate the importance of repeated study. More was learned drawing the bird 18 times than would have been understood drawing it only once or twice. to express the beauty in a moment's play of light. while below. or to discover the best use of a new material. Each fresh image reflects growing confidence and the experience of the preceding study. We have both covered our paper with focused. This also applies if struggling at length with a larger picture. time spent is not lost. conduct an experiment. make a calculation. Leonardo drew to invent a machine. it may be best to start afresh. Our drawings are annotated investigations into the mechanisms of nature and of an idea. I drew to understand the apparatus of flight. but it is important to be clear why we are making it.
. when it looks tired and still feels wrong.
explain the composition. It denies the importance of accident. Whatever the material— wood. Our position asvieweris unsteady. If you can do this. and position in space. Know the texture. declare the idea. are both made of ink laid onto wet paper with speed and agile certainty. balance. As your hand meets the paper to make a mark. fire. W e float toward the quiet vista as it also moves toward us. your marks will become the subject on the paper. temperature. I made it almost unconsciously with a pen and a brush. bone. mists.
T h e gliding poise of this walking anatomy comes as much from the feeling of movement as it does from the feeling of drawing.
Landscape in Haboku Style 15TH CENTURY
. feel. However. These two brush drawings. and at speeds beyond conscious thought. and paper. and spirit of each subject was held strongly but loosely between the fingertips. depth. This is the alchemy of drawing. You must also think of its intrinsic nature: its purpose. it should be responding to the sensation and meaning of the subject it draws. excessive planning can get in the way of the imagination. or ice—you must actually feel it beneath your fingers as you draw. created centuries and cultures apart. The physicality. and allowed to flow through the brush.
This is a detail of a brush-and-ink drawing by a Japanese Buddhist monk. water.14
At school. size. we are advised or even required to plan our pictures. and how it feels to the touch. trusting my intuition to find a visual equivalence for the sensation of weight within my body. Imagine these qualities so strongly that you feel them in your mind and at your fingertips. Each image relied upon past experience to know the probable behavior of the brush. They each allowed the energy and focus of the moment to be expressed through controlled accident and a degree of the unknown Both drawings were made trusting the marks. As you draw any subject—something you see. metal. ink. or imagine—it is not enough to only render its shape. silk. and what you discover in the process of making. and an island brushed with trees. meaning. and we can just make out the distant stains of mountains. and practice each part before putting the final image together. and opacity of your subject. which can offer keys to other things. the unknown. This suits many artists well and is perfectly valid. We are caught in a shifting focus that makes everything fluid. and sometimes beyond.
W a l t e r also makes books: some. which evoke realities o f place and the p o w e r o f moment. Lautrec's flamboyant splashes o f petticoats and pantaloons are drawn with long sweeps of chalk and brushed oil paint. stand table-sized with furniture legs attached t o b o t h sides of their jacket. made by a young British artist who creates alphabets o f the absurd f r o m familiar childhood characters. more than 100 years after its making. gold leaf and spray paint. acrylic. pastel.16
PLACE A N D MOMENT
The heat and teeming atmosphere o f this Parisian dressing room. He dazzles us with flashes o f light and dabbed marks o f shadow. like folded insects. right is set inside a rib cage.1896
Woman at her Toilet
41 x 26 in (104 x 66 cm)
RIB-CAGE D R A M A
Thus drama. one of many luminous works in watercolor.
c. left. lives on.
Focusing on the Negative 2004
22 x 30 in (56 x 76 cm)
J O H N WALTER
potential ideas still forming. Pages do not have to lie open for other people to inspect and comment on.
. Start by choosing a material you like the look of and cover a piece of paper with different marks. Put them away and look at them later. Much will be learned on these test sheets and in your first drawings. and mistakes are a valuable process of learning. and miscellaneous items of inspiration. diary-like observations. at a point when you feel you are not making progress. just through the act of making.17
FREEING THE HAND
If you are just beginning to learn how to draw. Enjoy discovering what your hand and the material can do. you will naturally make progress on your own in response to concentration and the decision to look and draw. With no help and advice at all. It is yours. you will be surprised and encouraged to see how far you have come. take your time and don't worry if you need to make several attempts to grasp a concept. Such books are personal: the territory of new exploration and experiment. Choose other materials and do the same. even those you dislike. As you follow lessons in this book. Ignore these at first and allow yourself the freedom to play. Try to keep all of your first drawings. One of the advantages of a drawing book is that you can shut it. try not to grip your pen worrying about the technical terms you might have heard. Drawing is exploratory.
and became a great subject for me. which is held frozen in space by a camera lens.18
THE THINKING EYE
Techniques and materials are the grammar and vocabulary of drawing and can be studied and shared. it is this voice that is the subtle part of their art and something that ultimately. It rarely flourishes in isolation. As you draw. adapting its form and occupation. it will be your creation as you discover your own personal vision. threedimensionally. caught between action and repose. and many more reasons for drawing the world. I was particularly attracted to their gentle articulation and understated determination. The real drawing book has yet to come.
Picasso Painting with Light at the Madoura Pottery
. An artist's personal voice is something that also evolves through lessons learned. Once there. and enfolding new media. Picasso is poised smiling. In the total wealth of these pages.
With a penlight.Their elegant strength seems to summon a lifetime of drawing. 150). Look to your own experience and also learn from the work of others. when they are more experienced. Imagination needs nourishment. staring straight through his image of a bull. However. seek ideas in the life around you. To these I have added my own drawings to explain elementary materials and techniques and offer introductory approaches. Its sensuous and flowing line seems to drift like smoke. The chapters of this book present 90 different artists' ways of seeing. which of course he cannot see. Note that the drawing classes are allocated to subjects. we still only glimpse a corner of the magnitude of this subject and the infinity of what can be achieved. Picasso has just finished his drawing. This practical journey will take you through the door into the vivid heart of drawing.
A N ARTIST'S HANDS
These are the hands of the artist Phyll Kiggell (see p. the path is yours. Drawing is a living language that over millennia has grown and changed. comes from within. but not confined to them.
cut. study the structure of a good portfolio and make your own. which are also sold in an enormous range. is perfect. quality. pastels. 4. it is better to have them made at a lumber yard or home improvement store.q u a l i t y r i n g . Calculate a range of useful dimensions and have several cut at once. Homemade books can be assembled easily from found materials or selections of loose sheet papers. catalogs. texture. binding. Gleaming store purchases vary greatly in format. C O L O R E D PAPERS: Large a r t supply stores o f t e n sell t h i c k b o o k s full o f c o l o r e d p a p e r s .20
Drawing Books and Papers
T o BEGIN YOUR EXPLORATION o f d r a w i n g . F O U N D B O O K S : O l d p r i n t e d 3 . They can be very expensive in art stores. R I N G . BLACK P O C K E T B O O K S : Hand-sized w i t h ready-made elastic binder and a marker ribbon. y o u n e e d a
lifetime. b e a w a r e t h a t p a p e r t e x t u r e effects a n d changes t h e i r marks. A high-quality one will last a
Select d r a w i n g b o o k s t o suit y o u r aims.
1. 2. c h o o s e s m a l l e r h a r d . T h e hardb o a r d j a c k e t is s t r e t c h e d w i t h canvas beneath t h e p a p e r sleeve. stitched. thick enough not to flex. cheap corrugated plastic ones fall apart in days. and glued t o a s t r i p o f bias binding. F o r e v e n i n g classes. Alternatively. a n d crayons. Most contain thin p a p e r and are perfect f o r use w i t h disposable pens. 6. F o r traveling.h a n d s t o r e s make unique subjects f o r e x p e r i m e n t s a n d collage. H o w e v e r r i n g bindings o f t e n break.C O V E R E D H A R D B O U N D : Ideal f o r c a r r y i n g a r o u n d . N o t e t h e w i d e l y differing c h o i c e o f p a p e r s w i t h w h i c h t h e s e are m a d e . ties on either side to keep your papers in place. C A N V A S . and cost. color. 5.b o u n d b o o k w i l l s o o n s h o w y o u h o w it is m a d e .
Tantalus o r The Future of Man
81/2 x61/4in (215 x 158 mm) ROSE MILLER
.b o u n d p a d if y o u w i s h t o keep your drawings together long-term. Art students often make use of printed books picked up from secondhand stores into which they draw. t h e i r jackets w i l l a c t like d r a w i n g b o a r d s a n d p r o t e c t y o u r w o r k .b o u n d b o o k s t h a t fit in y o u r p o c k e t o r bag. Many artists invent ways o f binding their o w n books. a n d r e f e r e n c e b o o k s f o u n d in s e c o n d . Purchase a h i g h . be sure they fit comfortably under your arm.B O U N D PADS: T h e s e are t h e least expensive a n d useful f o r o p e n i n g flat. H O M E M A D E : I m a d e this b o o k f r o m drawing paper that I folded. There are dozens to choose from. and collage their ideas. c o l o r If planning t o use pencils. thickness. Smooth plywood. It is also useful to own a portfolio. c h o o s e larger f o r m a t s t o give y o u s c o p e f o r e x p e r i m e n t . Drawing boards are invaluable. t h i s is h o w I l e a r n e d . These are perfect f o r w o r k i n g in novels. If you intend to carry your boards for a distance. a l e n g t h o f black elastic t i e d a r o u n d t h e m i d d l e will h o l d the contents together w h e n y o u f o l d in c o l l e c t e d items.
drawing book. Sand the edges to avoid splinters. Dissecting a d i s c a r d e d h a r d . You simply need two strong boards hinged together well. and handles to lift the weight of your artworks.
5 9 ) for explanations of rough. and other plant fibers. Use for brushwork drawings. and cream sheets or rolls. T W O RIVERS GREEN 410G MS: Very heavy tinted textured cold-pressed watercolor paper See Two Rivers Yellow. cold. and white. 22. printed on one side only. blocks. Use cheap paper for rough ideas and quality paper for work to last See the glossary ( p p . They are hand-. FABRIANO ACADEMIA: Standard medium-range multipurpose paper Use with any media. 21. texture. also good for drawing with colored pencils. mulberry. 2 5 6 . yellow. SAUNDERS WATERFORD N O T 300GMS: Mid-quality textured watercolor paper. 13. red. turning brown and brittle. C A N S O N : Inexpensive lightweight pastel paper in many colors. and hot pressed papers. 100% cotton and sold in sheets. used to imprint lines of these colors onto a surface. or machine made in sheets. 16. Ph. smooth. Cotton papers are high-quality and acid-free. and rolls. 15. white textured paper that can take abrasive use of any medium. Cheap wood-pulp papers are acidic. 20. C A R B O N PAPER: Available in dark and light blue. ITALIAN PARCHMENT: Imitation-animal-skin parchment that is translucent and slightly waxy. and translucent. METALLIC PAPER: Thin paper in different metallic colors. and cost. For use with any media. absorbency. GLASSINE: Sold as protective wrapping. fine. T W O RIVERS Y E L L O W 410GMS: See Two Rivers Green 19. It is available in white or cream. from pencil to paint 9. size. VELIN ARCHES 250GMS: Printmaking paper available in black white. Use with a brush in clean water Water makes a dark mark like ink and becomes invisible again when dry. 14.Papers differ in thickness (weight). 17. JAPANESE PAPER: Strong. blocks. not. 18. 11. FABRIANO INGRES: Thin. tough. or rolls. resisting deterioration. FABRIANO R O U G H 600GMS: Very heavy. bamboo.TISSUE PAPER: Place sheets between drawing book pages to keep images from printing on each other and use for delicate collage. it is made from rice. mold-. AQUARELLE ARCHES 300GMS:The very top quality hot-pressed (smooth) watercolor paper.
. pastel paper in flecked pastel colors with a distinctive ribbed marking. 12. MAGIC PAPER: A reusable sheet for testing ideas without creating waste. 8.
7. 10. color. It is also excellent for drawing with marker pens on layered sheets.
your lines will distort. and subject. a n d look to the left of it at your subject. but you need to understand that the expression of a line or mark originates in the body and flows t h r o u g h the shoulder. body. 116-17). If seated on a b e n c h easel (a donkey). Turning your drawing sideways or upside-own will also help reveal what is wrong. You cannot draw like this—your hand is locked and your fingers can barely move. place it on your left. or with your drawing board angled between your lap and a chair. With your hand in this position. you
Drawing classes can be cramped places. your whole relaxed b o d y should be involved. make sure you have enough room to back away and view your work.
Relaxed fingers: Hold the pencil away from its tip and relax your fingers. flowing space between your hand. You do not have to dance to draw. There are also parallels to dance. Examples are shown here. Accelerated perspective also occurs if you look down the surface steeply (see pp. don't sit too close to the paper. place it on your right. If your hand twists to maneuver between the paper and your body. a n d h a n d to the fingertips. If using an upright easel.
. you can draw lines freely and achieve a significant arc of movement. This cramped grip tires your hand and makes small. if left-handed. Regularly step back 6-9 ft (2-3 m) to check your progress.22
Posture and Grip
T o DRAW WELL. From a distance you will spot errors you cannot see close up. your drawing will reflect this. It will also reflect discomfort if you are in any way cramped. Ideally. and look to the right. This photograph illustrates how some people hold a pen to write. but wherever possible. How you hold your drawing materials is also important. arm. Placing your easel o n the w r o n g side folds y o u r b o d y against your drawing arm. In this book we will look at parallels between drawing and music. There should be an open. Use the side of your little fingernail as a support on the page. If your body posture is well balanced and you can move freely. b u t it should n o t be forgotten that many people make remarkable a n d striking works drawing with their feet or holding their brush or pencil in their mouths. strangledlooking drawings.
SPACE TO WORK
Cramped grip. place it on the correct side: if right-handed. should be able to look comfortably straight ahead at your picture plane.
depending upon what it is and how large you are working. or it can spoil your work if not anticipated. alternative way of holding the pencil. not up to the paper Brushes can be used on upright paper but dip Anticipating effects: A fully loaded pens need a level surface. upright way of holding the brush near its base is similar to the Japanese way used in Zen calligraphy (see pp.232-33).
There are no rules as to how you should hold your drawing media. roughly marking out a large-scale work.
POSTURE AND GRIP
U n f a m i l i a r i t y : T h e habitual
movements of our handwriting style will sometimes infringe upon our drawing. arm. Large amounts of ink can be applied without fear of uncontrolled running if the paper is flat. hold your material as you find most comfortable.
. But be careful not to tense your fingers. brush pressed against an upright surface will cause a dribble of ink to run down your drawing. and body are not restricted. or change to the wrong hand. This can be used to great effect. This can give a new lease on life to your mark-making. liquid will run down your hand. find an unfamiliar. If you turn a brush or dip pen up into the air to draw above your hand.
Short materials such as pastels and charcoal can be accommodated in the palm.23
This loose "candle" grip is very useful when drawing with your arm extended.
Brush calligraphy: This comfortable. To stop this. As long as your fingers. It is most comfortable when reaching to draw above your head.
Remember that gravity affects the flow of ink and paint. Remember you can also draw just by dipping your fingers in pigment—this is how many women draw in rural India.
" He worked with the scientist Thomas Harriot. we turn and take the features of beasts.. O v e r the centuries. floating turtles. W h e n lost to explain our own emotions. Here (left) we see J o h n White's exquisite record of a flying fish. and snakes have between them engendered harpies. W e have drawn them in m a n u s c r i p t s to explain our genesis and to c o u n t their species into Noah's ark. This drawing is made in black lead (metal point) with watercolor Highlights of silver would have gleamed.
11 x91/4in (277 x 234 mm)
.drawe to lief one of each kinde of thing that is strange to us in England. each dedicated to the moralized tale of an animal or monster The bestiary profoundly influenced the art of its period. and learn how to
c. to be there at the m o m e n t of discovery. Europeans on board had never seen such a thing. insects. After the subject of
ourselves. and pioneer born c. birds. fish. For the novice artist. On the Roanoke voyages of Sir Walter Raleigh. Together they made maps and documented animals. and this very drawing was to endure many copies and plagiarisms after its triumphant return to the English court of Queen Elizabeth I. Facial features were analyzed in terms of their animal likeness. the Latin bestiary was one of the most popular picture books—an illustrated dictionary of one hundred parts. plants. cartographer. who described in words what White drew. Framed in the z o o or in domestic cohabitation." Paranoid newcomers c r a m m e d into swelling industrial cities used handbooks of physiognomy to identify and judge their neighbors. " Animals perpetually feed our imaginations. and dragons. animals provide a perfect subject with which to begin. and to bring h o m e drawn documentaries of their finds. and silent. We have drawn
them on the walls of caves to evoke their kinship and power. or scampering through the initials and borders of pictures from that time. their different speeds and patterns of action. m u s e u m .Animals
UMANS HAVE DRAWN ANIMALS
from the beginning of our time. from which personality and predicted behavior were " d e d u c e d . out are now oxidized and so appear black
W h e n less preoccupied with understanding ourselves. dogs.. 1590
J O H N WHITE
capture form and movement from the m a n n e r i s m s of honking geese. White's commission was to ". which are so unlike ours. As children we delight in the humanized trials of Tom and Jerry and their c a r t o o n relations.m o u n t e d skeletons of birds. In this chapter we discover the use of pens and ink through the delineation of insects. werewolves. In medieval England. and we still see escapees from its pages carved and grinning as the gargoyles of churches. bats. In 19th-century Europe this became a "science. which very likely leaped o n t o the deck of Sir Walter Raleigh's ship Tiger as it sailed north from the Caribbean to Virginia in 1585.
JOHN WHITE British artist. 1540. offer challenges and delights to draw. we have employed artists on expeditions. sleeping dogs. they are perhaps our favorite pictorial preoccupation. mermaids. and people.
Unsurpassed. Sailing to Rome. It is such a lifelike triumph of imagination and intelligence that for centuries zoologists never questioned its authority. Durer's image changed eager hands until it was known across Europe. Carefully stuffed. He studied the image and drew his own interpretation. a gift to the Portuguese King. and wrote four books on proportion.
Life-like This is Durer's original quill-and-ink drawing made after an anonymous Portuguese drawing. years after its publication. Converted into a print. filled journals with ideas and observations.26
horse are superb affirmations of the power of drawing as a recorder and communicator of knowledge. writer. the ship was lost. when more accurate portrayals were made without armor and scales. He in turn sent the mysterious creature to the Pope via Marseilles at the request of the King of France. and mathematician. they were rejected. naturalist. draftsman. Contemporary texts related accounts of the beast as the mortal enemy of the elephant and rare relative of the "more common" unicorn. printmaker.
Original Ink Drawing of a Rhinoceros
103/4 x 161/2 in ( 2 7 4 x 4 2 0 mm)
. it is still consulted by veterinarians today. it continued its journey to Rome. Durer traveled widely to study at different European schools of art. a drawing of it arrived in Nuremberg. The first live rhinoceros to reach Europe came from India in May 1515. Stubbs's Anatomy of the Horse achieved similar documentary status. Meanwhile. the home of
ALBRECHT DURER German Renaissance painter. but the drowned animal washed ashore.
DURER'S RHINOCEROS AND STUBBS'S skeletal
Durer. inspiring countless works of art and so touching people's imaginations that later. It was to become the animal's only accepted likeness for 250 years.
a n d s i d e . Anatomy of the Horse. Dissections were made over a total of 18 months. c o m p r i s e s 1 8 p l a t e s s h o w i n g d i s s e c t i o n s in l a y e r s f r o m b o n e t h r o u g h m u s c u l a t u r e t o skin. naturalist. His painted p o r t r a i t o f t h e b e a s t is in t h e R o y a l C o l l e g e o f S u r g e o n s o f England. He translated his own drawings into engravings for publication. in t h r e e v i e w s — r e a r f r o n t .
Table of the
III of the Horse (rear
Skeleton view) mm)
1 4 x 7 in ( 3 5 4 x 1 8 0 GEORGE STUBBS
Lighting Stubbs's breathtaking international
acclaim. dissecting and drawing until he understood the mechanisms of its power and grace. This is one of Stubbs' original finished pencil drawings. The entire project was developed over ten years.
is no other work like it. Stubbs's m o s t c e l e b r a t e d publication.GEORGE STUBBS
B r i t i s h e q u i n e a n d s o c i e t y p o r t r a i t painter. which has never diminished. Stubbs w a s o n e o f t h e first E u r o p e a n artists t o m a k e a n a c c u r a t e representation o f the rhinoceros. a n d anatomist. L o n d o n . He composed makes each horse appear so real and
each plate from his three-dimensional.
knowledge of parts.
Dissections Stubbs took his knife and his pencil and physically climbed inside the horse. composed from notes and observations. and therefore invented the lighting that Compare how Stubbs and Durer both invented lighting to portray the reality of their animals.
and her distinctive temperament. conjured b y the hand of a great author of French literary fiction. saying ". snarl.
Mixed media Here. her sharp teeth. Hugo used graphite powder. Gericault took a sharp p e n c i l to m a k e repeated direct o b s e r v a t i o n s f r o m life. and all sorts of bizarre concoctions which manage to convey above all in mind.. I've ended up mixing in pencil.
The Hunchback of Notre
Layers and shadows Throughout this drawing. novelist. more or less what I have in view. sepia. and
1866-69 91/2 x81/8in (242 x 207 mm) VICTOR H U G O
. and a love of accident. He has w a t c h e d her p o u n c e . Apparently drawn in its o w n ink. and turn.28
Presence and Mood
THESE DRAWINGS HAVE BEEN CHOSEN to s h o w t w o v e r y different ways of picturing a wild animal. charcoal. and leader of the French Romantic movement.
VICTOR HUGO Poet. it silently rises to the light. Gericault's sheet a p p e a r s almost s c r a t c h e d b y the f e r o c i o u s play of his cat. A s if disturbed from its gritty b e d by our presence and curiosity. H u g o mixed his media and drew from m e m o r y and imagination to create narrative atmosphere.. Hugo's page is f l o o d e d w i t h the fearful presence of a remembered octopus. His copious drawings are characterized by mixed media. By contrast. soot. The octopus is formed in layers applied and distressed with a brush.". the ominous beast unwinds from the dark of the sea and of our nightmares. coal dust. He wrote to poet and art critic Charles-Pierre Baudelaire about his experiments. ink and linseed oil on paper. drama. playwright. Hugo's novels Les Miserables and Dame have become classics of film and stage. drawing her again and again to pin d o w n the texture of her loose skin. her b o n y frame. linseed oil soaked into the paper has made shadows and repelled the ink to create translucent tentacles.. Surrounding sprays of graphite powder are stuck into washes of oil and ink to suggest glutinous depths..
displayed in the Louvre. The Raft of the Medusa.
focused upon seeing will lead to a greater understanding of the subject Much is learned from repeated study. standing sideways.
Repeated study This drawing demonstrates of feeling confident repeat different
the importance subject Remaining
enough to isolate parts of a
of drawings Gericault
erased. s h o r t . 124-25 and p. horses w e r e a favorite subject t o g e t h e r w i t h politics and history. and keep trying again. parallel. Beginners are advised to follow the natural contours of form as shown on pp.118-119).29
C o n t r o v e r s i a l .l i v e d French R o m a n t i c painter and lithographer Largely self-taught. Tones that do not follow surface contour is very difficult to do well. facing right. and it can be applied
any subject (see
pp. undertraces unify and vitalize the composition. of previous
Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat
121/2 x 151/2 in ( 3 1 9 x 3 9 8 mm) T H E O D O R E GERICAULT
Beneath these graphite studies we see
Tones On the top row we see clearly how Gericault laid broad areas of tone using fast. artists reused sheets and them full of studies. 144. Here. H e is best k n o w n f o r his gigantic painting. At the center of the page is crammed drawings
the outline of a horse. Before paper became so cheap. Paris. diagonal strokes of his pencil. since it can lead to a flattened form. fiery.
His hand must have shuddered and twitched just like the constant actions of this humorous meeting.30
M O V E M E N T IS OFTEN THE CHARACTERISTIC b y w h i c h w e
their lines and the power of their beasts. quivering horse. flapping bird. draftsman. hooked.
identify an animal: the fast cheetah. His powdery. The ink is used to make sharply defined solid. The fact that they never stand still influences the movement in his line. slow tortoise.
Faune. Picasso cofounded Cubism. Both Picasso and Klee have enclosed their subjects to compress and amplify the speed of
A prolific Spanish painter sculptor. or proud. overwhelmed by a screeching bird. made only a year apart. we see semi-abstract. flattened animals composed almost entirely of movement. with George Braque (see p90). In Picasso's drawing. the first abstract movement of the 20th century. In these two drawings. and brown. Klee's riders are constructed from all the gestures of greeting mules.
Ink and gouache This drawing is made in black Chinese ink and gouache (opaque watercolor) applied with a brush. taking them to guide their hand in bringing form and essence together. the whinnying of a frantic horse. gray. Artists commonly focus on such actions. and scrolled lines. noise is everywhere. Cheval et Oiseau
1936 173/8 x 211/4 in ( 4 4 0 x 5 4 0 m m )
. dissolving faun kneels stranded. These media complement and amplify each other with their brilliant contrast. Gouache is brushed softly in translucent hazy layers of cool blue. printmaker ceramicist graphic and stage designer who lived in France. and waves breaking distantly below.
The entire drawing suggests the endless small movements of horses standing still. turning our eye and around inside the and postures of the paper-
on pictorial space. well-worn copies o f w h i c h are found in m a n y art schools. They remain in contact with the surface of the page and scribble back and forth as they maneuver from one area to another." They chatter around bodies in groups. and t e a c h e r at t h e Bauhaus school. violinist.
all happily of each other in the
Endless lines Look closely at how Klee's lines rarely leave the paper and how they are free from the constraint of finite shape.
Layers of marks
In this pale
Dentil drawing we see layers of' agitated marks that together present a kind of visual "itch. W i t h his drawings Kleeb o u n d sophisticated theories to personal and often witty childlike imagery. He is a u t h o r o f The Thinking Eye (1923). printmaker.
der Komischen of Comical
161/2x111/2in ( 4 1 9 x 2 9 1 mm) M o r t o n G .
Swiss painter. sculptor. Chicago PAUL KLEE
. N e u m a n n Family Collection. draftsman.
fins. and blackbirds fly in formation through a mosaic of text. He studied the anatomy of fish.32
Icon and Design
THESE T W O MANUSCRIPTS
we discover diagrammatic
and mackerel's tail" (full bow. B a k e r initiated t h e scientific p r a c t i c e o f naval a r c h i t e c t u r e and applied h y d r o d y n a m i c s . plans. later called a galleon. and author o f Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (1586). In just one drawing he has displayed more angles of his design than we would expect to see from a single viewpoint Fragments English 1586 101/2 x 153/8 in (270 x 390 mm) MATTHEW BAKER of Ancient Shipwrightry
. and from them learned that if he designed his ship with a "cod's head
Master shipwright. This drawing illustrates Baker's theory. It is simply how we read his perspective. Exquisite details in this drawing include the lips of the fish.
The fish It is likely that Baker drew with a quill dipped in irongall ink. Below we see his revolutionary design for an Elizabethan warship. balance. Baker lived in an era when ships were built without drawn plans. slim stern). and scales. His birds stare.
drawings of animals that are each held tightly in a surprising space: a giant fish wears a ship's hull. Knopf's drawing opposite is the personal enigmatic expression of a mind gripped by illness. and to assess our next move. t h e earliest geometrically defined elevations. it would achieve greater speed. Baker did not intend this. b a s e d o n his studies o f fish. which in application gave strength and advantage to the English fighting the Spanish Armada. In contrast to the practical clarity of Baker's thought. mathematician.
The ship The upper decks of the ship appear curved toward us at both ends. and steerage. seemingly looking for our attention. adding washes of color with a fine brush. and s e c t i o n s o f ships. and the carefully observed gills. the expression of its eye.
and filled evenly with tone. The main group is placed in a circle drawn with a compass. The text.
. w h i c h o f t e n f e a t u r e as s y m b o l i c creatures in his drawings. numbered.K n o p f b e l i e v e d h e c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h e language o f birds.JOHANN KNOPF
An " O u t s i d e r " a r t i s t w h o s u f f e r e d f r o m m e n t a l illness. firmly outlined. written last of all. appears to be stirred like water by the presence of the
The Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks
UNDATED 133/8 x 115/8 in (340 x 2 9 6 mm)
and psychiatrist Hans Prinzhom collected this image. T h e G e r m a n a r t historian
Outline and tone The blackbirds illuminating this frantic manuscript are drawn in pencil.
circle and the birds.
QUILLS: These are cut from the barrel of a flight or tail feather. they are associated with rapid. and spatters can be made with an exotic choice of inks. The best are goose or swan.
you can have great fun drawing the world around you.
. simultaneously 4 . Quills were later cut from feathers. Avoid needle-sharp mapping pens.
from the acacia tree. 3. 2. Masters choose brands of long. F O U N T A I N PENS: These vary in quality and nib width. which range greatly in their handling and character of line. producing a different line. Responsive to slight changes in pressure. while metal nibs began as rare gifts in gold and silver before being perfected by the British steel industry. high-quality Chinese and Japanese inks are subtler and more complex than those produced in Europe. expressive drawing techniques such as the ones we explore in this chapter
1. which scratch rather than draw." "Gum" refers to gum arabic extracted
Dip pens are essential and inexpensive drawing tools. light it. Early artists recommended raven and crow for especially fine work. ink is traditionally applied with a brush (see pp. Dip pens began their history in the Nile River. then pour a little warm gum water into it and temper the two together. The Chinese used animal or fish glue.34
Pen and Ink
W I T H A HANDFUL OF FEATHERS. and first used by the Egyptians. 4. The bar is then rubbed into water on a slate block to produce ink.246-47). The paste from either recipe is pressed and dried into a bar for storage. where reeds were gathered. spots. 5 0 0 years ago. They fit into wooden holders. distinguished manufacture. and hold it under a clean basin until the soot hangs to it. REED PENS: A broad nib can be cut from bamboo or another tubular grass. the recipes for which have been handed down over centuries. Intricate or dramatic lines. and it is still in use today. a n d m e t a l p o i n t s . Only fill with suitable inks. That is an ink. A German recipe of 1531 gives a simple description: "Take a wax candle. The reservoir gives a constant flow of ink for very long unbroken lines and continuous bottle-free use. The Egyptians and Chinese are credited with the invention of carbon ink. s t i c k s . METAL PENS: Inexpensive removable steel nibs are available in a range of widths. Each pen has a unique character. Today. In the Far East.
5. from are not 6. charred bone (Ivory Black).
9. and sepia. ACRYLIC / CALLIGRAPHY INKS:
Available in black and a range of colors. Non-waterproof Indian inks can be reworked with a wet brush after drying. dated.G A L L INK: Abnormal spherical growths caused by parasitic wasps can be collected from some oak trees in fall. It dries with a sheen and clogs uncleaned pens. is the ink of a cuttlefish or squid extracted post-mortem.
. SEPIA A N D BISTRE INKS: Sepia. an often misused term. They are the easiest inks to use. or charcoal. suspended in a binder and stored as a solid block Blocks are imported today 7. I R O N . iron-gall. and most can be homemade. bistre. Crushed. and are still in use today: carbon (Chinese and Indian). The complexities of traditional iron-gall ink are explained on p. Bistre is the more humane use of soot scraped from the fireplace and ground into wine. boiled. and can be mixed and diluted to create subtler colors and tones. Now we also have acrylic ranges in many colors. Old stock turns solid and bottlesChina.36. I N D I A N INK: Carbon ink sold today in liquid form. Excellent for drawing they are bright and non-clogging.35
PEN AND INK
Four types of ink were common before the 20th century. they produce a golden dye for drawing. Inks can be lightfast or non-lightfast. and sieved. Beechwood soot is best. Waterproof types contain shellac. 8. waterproof or non-waterproof. roastedwine sediment (Yeast Black). reduced. C A R B O N INK: Traditionally produced from oil or resin soot (Lamp Black).
then cut a final nib (feathers. sieved. 2 4 4 is an e x q u i s i t e e x a m p l e . t h e y stick a n d j u d d e r f o r w a r d .) You can make ink easily from the boiled. galls were ground with iron sulfate to make an unstable solution. Paler strokes were made
where the mark has
the legs and antennae the ink ran out.36
Drawing With Ink
MAKE A QUILL OR REED PEN. Rembrandt. For centuries. always be cautious when experimenting with recipes. Oak galls. The lighter right
than strokes and for as
reeds. V a n G o g h . giving longer lines. giving a s h o r t . Collect skins from the ground beneath trees once they are blackened. It also oxidized and ate or burned paper. m o r e e x t e n d e d line than reed and a m o r e organic line t h a n m e t a l . crushed.
keep all your fingers behind
basis of iron-gall ink. red-brown. and delicious to draw with.
Reed marks The darker left wing of this beetle was drawn with the wet inky stroke wing. Although oak galls and walnut skins are harmless. Scribes o f t h e M i d d l e Ages. a n d M a t i s s e also e n j o y e d t h e m . I u s e d t h e s e qualities t o d r a w t h e w o r m s above. Running fresh. M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s d r a g o n o n p . d r y mark. of a loaded nib. a n d d e v e l o p e d t h e quill instead. reduced. Some of Michelangelo's drawings are now a little eaten by their own ink. It dried black. fleshy skins that surround ripe walnuts. since t h e D u t c h w e r e t h e first t o realize t h a t they could be hardened and i m p r o v e d w i t h heat t r e a t m e n t in ash o r sand. U n d e r heavy pressure. and turned brown with time. can also be collected from affected trees. are surprisingly tough. Quills are also called D u t c h pens. it was gray-purple. forming the
R e e dpens dispense ink quickly.
. appears broken to show paper beneath. Practice to gain a feel for how materials behave. and boiled to make a golden ink.
the blade and cut away from you.
Q u i l l s a r e highly r e s p o n s i v e t o c h a n g e s in p r e s s u r e . r e s e r v e d t h e i r use f o r large c h o i r b o o k s . for example. Walnut ink is gloopy. T h e y give a finer. drawn to glisten with a dryer nib. The darkest of this grasshopper wings) were made (around the head
first. finding reed p e n s unwieldy.
particles then filled with a droplet of ink. it is important to feel for when the ink will run out and to know how much ink you pick up when dipping the nib. W h e n the nib is pressed upside down. giving a graded. The of pigment to fall to the edges effect of the shape. Each layer of of the drying droplet dome the drawing was left to dry before adding more. breaking. White markings were drawn last
Tones Here we see subtle tones of diluted ink beneath the undiluted black rim of a beetle's wing.
. Loaded with ink and pressed hard. o r being ruined as fountain pens would be under the same pressure. clean strokes. tonal
Ink layers The wings of this beetle
drawn in layers using black and white ink on pale gray paper. marks become fine and needle-sharp. sharp. withstanding great pressure without sticking. When using dip pens. they splay to make thick o r double lines.37
Metal pens give long.
DRAWING WITH INK
Filled outlines Each segment of wing was outlined.
It teaches confidence and focus through intensive repetition. steel nibs are fine. and quickly draw around it using only three or four strokes. Cover a sheet.
Look for a bird expressing a simple posture. Geese are nosy birds. be bold and press firmly." If you don't like a stroke. You cannot break the nib.
Pack plenty of tissue around a bottle of calligraphy or acrylic ink. Focus on the geese. Focus on it. Illustrating this exercise on Oxford Port Meadow. Quick drawing trains you to see what is most important about a subject and to mark only its most essential expression. and a large drawing book or plenty of paper Use masking tape to secure pages against the wind. test your limits. not on your drawing. there is no obligation to prepare a quill. and be brave. draw what the bird is doing. touch the bottle's rim to drain the excess. Cover your drawing book pages in speedy responses to the geese and try to capture each bird in as few lines as possible. Watch their heavy feathered bodies flap. Attempt with a loose hand to capture their posture and outline.38
GEESE ARE EXCELLENT SUBJECTS to draw when practicing the first use of pen and ink. Try to hold the whole posture in your mind's eye.
. so pick a spot where other people can keep them entertained. and bellyflop off the waterside. That said. Dip your pen in ink. I covered eleven sheets in sixty quick drawings—in less than an hour. Take a cup and water for diluting a range of tones. It happens that goose feathers also provide artists with the best type of quills. Take no more than ten seconds to draw each one and make lots of drawings. Experiment. Empathize. make another one. waddle. and there is no "wrong. to absorb blots when drawing. Study them before drawing. and boldly plunge into your drawing.
and don't worry about mechanical facts or accuracy.
With growing confidence. draw the feeling of what you see.
Gradually allow yourself more lines to describe the texture of each bird as well as its posture and action. Again. Avoid detail unless really tempted by a close-up visit Fluctuate the pressure of your pen in response to how you know the bird would feel if you touched it. and diving. running. look among the birds for more complicated actions such as shaking off water. Use more lines than before to express these. flapping.
and drain the excess by touching the nib against the rim of the bottle. Dip the nib quickly again into water and again drain it. a dip pen and ink of your choice (see pp. Make a test sheet to discover your control of diluting on the nib. and even then he twitched and stretched in dreams.
engaged in his and everyone else's business. Sleeping animals present the artist with ideal opportunities to study their texture.
Ras Curled Up Asleep
"Capturing the true character of a cherished companion is best achieved with objective determination rather than sentimental shyness. The only time he remained still was when he was sleeping.34-37). Then dip the nib quickly into a glass of water and drain the excess again. first dip your pen in ink. form. and a tissue for blotting drawn lines that appear too dark.40
R A S WAS A GREAT CHARACTER.
MAKING A PALE LINE
To make a pale line. This will give a medium-gray line."
. and personality. a d o g w h o w a s a l w a y s
town. your drawing book. For this class you will need one oblivious dog. Now it will make a pale line. These drawings are not an analysis of his anatomy or breed but the expression of his satisfied comfort in a deep sleep after a night out on the
together with a glass of water for diluting tones on the nib.
Layers o f thoughts can bring a drawing alive.
Then. Trust your intuition. in bold layers.
Reload your pen with ink.
Gradually introduce darker tones. tail. D o not go back over lines you are pleased with—doing so dulls their lively freshness. ignoring all detail.It is essential when drawing any subject (even something abstract) to know how it feels andtoemulate this with your line.
. second thoughts may be different Changing your mind is a positive aspect o f seeing and thinking.41
DRAWING YOUR DOG
Be bold in this exercise. c o n c e r n e d a b o u t detail.
Fix your eyes at the center of the dog. Character is better captured drawing quickly with confidence than w o r k i n g slowly. Here I marked the features of Ras's head. to emphasize how he is curled up. To add texture. Then I immediately rebalanced the drawing with lines around his hind quarters. add more detail. and the shadows in his coat. W i t h pale lies. this time to create a line a little darker in tone. Here. I added ink to Ras's nose. Remain focused on the whole dog and. ears. quickly draw what you see. see how the animal's posture determines its whole shape. alter the pressure and moisture of your line in response to howyouknow your dog feels when you ruffle itscoat. First lines are first thoughts.
as if caught in a camera freeze-frame.
THE ELONGATION AND BUOYANCY of a group of turtles is fascinating
. turtles often pause unexpectedly. swinging their limbs and shells with a slow circular movement. offering plenty of time for the artist to draw the pose. Beyond the glass wall of the aquarium. they stretch and paddle. A perfect subject for the beginner.Turtles
. I sought to capture the form. India ink.Dry Birds
THESE ARE THE ARTICULATED BONES o f a k i w i a n d a h o u s e -
martin drawn in a museum using a steel pen. I made repeated studies of the housemartin to discover its mechanism of flight. dry. and sharp. I darkened lines as each drawing progressed. balance. With speed. and water. weightlessness of the kiwi. Beginning with very pale tones.
Rich owners of private gardens commissioned large-format florilegiums commissioned the volume to document his private garden to immortalize their personal taste and power of acquisition. We draw them to celebrate their beauty and range.
B A S I L I U SBESLER when botanists founded new work upon the direct study of plants. We collect. —-the largest and most influential botanical book of the early Natural scientists accompanied explorers to document unknown finds.
187/8x153/4in(480 x 400 mm) BASILIUS BESLER
. Medieval knowledge was not gained by the first-hand observation of life but by reading. Plants seventeenth century. infinitely vivid. Plants are the principal inspiration of the decorative arts—from Roman Corinthian columns crowned with carved leaves of the acanthus. we now have laid before us fourto show how well their colours complement each other infinite wealth of material to explore. and beauty. as opposed to only herbal. and diverse
kingdom of plants. Botanical illustration is a precisely defined and scientific art. PriceBishopof Eichstatt specimens. nurture. and
hybridize them for our sustenance and pleasure. and to ornament our lives. where a number of uncredited artistsd r e wthem for Besler.Plants and Gardens
E SHARE THIS PLANET
with the more ancient. Both embrace the anticipation of evolving shape. From its history there is one overriding lesson to be learned: the importance of looking and seeing with our own eyes. form. an
There are close parallels between the acts of gardening and drawing. He sent boxes of plants to Nuremburgburned with the urgency and excitement of explaining every plant's form.000 species of plants are depicted life-size drawn. color. Early European illustrators were trapped within dogma that was determined by ancient scholarship. The revolution came in the 1530s. and texture. and focus. to catalog our knowledge. It was published plain in 1611 and withhand-paintedplates in poured off ships returning from the New World and were eagerly collected and 1613. and the drawn pages ofthesame name. Fledgling years Botanist and apothecary who compiled the Hortus Eystettensis of scientific research bore manifold explosions of knowledge in a fever of discovery. manipulations of light and shade. season.Morethan 1. the punctuation of space with structure and mass. In this chapter. we see very different cultural visions of plants and gardens and use pencils and plants to learn the pictorial values of space. Chapters are arranged by out. Patrons funded the breeding of decorative. Conrad von Gemmingen. and the
constant but exhilarating struggle to make a living image feel right. shape. on which our lives depend. Classifications were set in367copperengravings. robust. Later. Botanic gardens were established and expanded. After Here Aconthus spinosus is combined with forget-me-nots and-a-half centuries of intensive observation. to the proliferation of floral designs with which we have dressed ourselves and furnished our homes for centuries. the microscope was refined to unfold yet another world.
The King was then establishing the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. Botanical art c o n c e a l s the challenge of its m a k i n g . and Franz Bauer and his brother Ferdinand were employed there to draw specimens. Stella Ross-Craig said of the need to d r a w from a dried herbarium plant "I could make it live again. They are counted among the most accomplished 18th-century botanical artists. T h e rest of u s are free to d r a w as w e w i s h . or that were diseased. petal tip over a lower leaf
Protea nitida 201/4 x141/4in (513 x 362 mm) FRANZ BAUER
. M a c k i n t o s h e x p r e s s e s the f o l d e d petals of a broken rose b u d so delicately w e can sense the perfume. leaves.
o p t i m i s m . s u c h as w e see here in Bauer's Protea nitida. stems. Light in this drawing is given by the paleness of the paper showing between washes of darker tones. delicate. detail. Here. flowers. He has made the spatial and physical relationships in this drawing all the more real by placing a single. fruit.
Outline Bauer prepared a pencil outline before laying in fleshy succulent hues and tones of watercolor.
subtle union of beauty. and seeds conventionally a p p e a r o n o n e plate. naturalist explorer and advisor to King George III invited Bauer to London in 1 7 9 0 . and wilted. It is likely Bauer would have studied these under a microscope. measured drawings. and meticulous precision.48
PLANTS AND GARDENS
THE SCIENTIFIC VALUE OF A BOTANICAL DRAWING lies i n its
were specimens that often refused to stay still. W i t h bright
F R A N Z BAUER An Austrian artist who trained at the Schonbrunn Imperial Gardens in Vienna.
o p e n i n g a n d c l o s i n g i n the w a r m t h a n d light of the studio. Each plant must b e clearly distinguished from its closest relative." Her slipper orchid s h o w s that botanical drawing must often resolve the challenge of its subject's p r o d u c i n g parts in different seasons — r o o t s .
Dissections Across the lower part of this drawing we can see dissections of seed pods and petals. B e h i n d detailed. insect-ravaged. Sir Joseph Banks.
K e w . is r e c o g n i z e d as tne m o s t c o m p l e t e a n d i m p o r t a n t work 3.
Line Drawing of Cypripedium calceolus L c. Curtis's Botanical Magazine. and perfect coordination of hand and eye.49 C H A R L E S RENNIE MACKINTOSH
Scottish a r c h i t e c t d e s i g n e r painter.
Lines and shadows
This lush. A s m a n y of her drawings are kept G a r d e n s ..7 3 in 3 1 p a r t s . and speed depends upon the immediate perception of the essential characteristics of the plant. G u s t a v K l i m t In his r e t i r e m e n t Mackintosh m a d e n u m e r o u s inventive pencil a n d w a t e r c o l o r d r a w i n g s o f plants.
Rose 1894 103/4 x 83/4 in ( 2 7 5 x 2 2 1 mm) CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH
A j o i n e d t h e staff a t t h e R o y a l B o t a n i c G a r d e n s .
found among Mackintosh's
than reality." This line drawing is one of 1. Closer to fiction can come together perfectly. H e r Drawings of British Plants. imagination. as at trained botanical artist Ross-Craig
Swift lines The drawing was planned in pencil and then overworked with a lithographic pen. p u b l i s h e d 1 9 4 8 . Ross-Craig said of her work "Plants that wither rapidly present a very difficult problem to which there is only one answer—speed.g a r d e in G e r m a n y a n d A u s t r i a .000 Kew to archive accessible t o d a y v i a t h e I n t e r n e t of o n British flora. and it shows how design. 1970 x 81/4 in ( 3 2 5 x 2 1 0 m m ) STELLA ROSS-CRAIG
.. Pencil lines cling to. L o n d o n in 1 9 2 9 . a n d f o u n d e r o f t h e G l a s g o w S c h o o l o f A r t M a c k i n t o s h ' s flair h a d an e n o r m o u s i n f l u e n c e o n t h e a v a n t . a n d he inspired. and follow shadow. a m o n g o t h e r s .286 studies for her book Drawings of British Plants. S h e also o f thousands o f contributed an drawings. it is small and discreet. and observation the nuance and contour of every in one image. sensual pencil drawing is later works.
uniform focus. They used a fine brush to lay pigment over a line drawing. Opposite is the Rose of Mohammed. fluctuations in scale. Babur directs his gardeners in the design and planting of this quartered chahar bagh. and calligraphy are brought together to hold the sacred names of prophets and the 99 beautiful names of God. the sumptuous petals permeated with prayer and wisdom. which he personally created near Kabul. urgent attentive human activity. a notable portrait painter drew the faces. Below. By Muslim tradition. in the early 16th century.
Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity c. Afghanistan. Every fiber of
AMONG DRAWINGS FROM
BISHNDAS A N D N A N H A Little is known of these Mughal painters who were related as uncle and nephew and commissioned to illustrate the pages of Babur's journal. Drawing. painting. is remembered in the pages of his journal. Upright shallow perspectives. Envoys chatter outside the gate.50
PLANTS AND GARDENS
the Middle East we find exquisite stylization of form and upright formality in pictorial space. anticipating their view.
. roses took their form in a bead of perspiration on the brow of Mohammed as he passed through his heavenly journey. The white of the page shines through the brilliant color. and Nanha. The first Mughal Emperor Babur's Garden of Fidelity (Bagh-e Vaja). Bishndas was probably responsible for the overall design. and attention to detail are all shared with medieval European manuscript drawings. and miraculous growth. in miniature.
paper is brimming with the beauty and celebration of nature. 1590 85/8 x55/8in (219 x 1 4 4 mm) BISHNDAS AND NANHA
Bright pigment These pages were illuminated by Mughal artists in the late 16th century.
However. fragmenting its detail in a whisper of prayers. t h e Staatsbibliothek zu Arabic. Note how each bud is essentially the same shape. so that overlapping petals and stems give an impression of fulfillment and abundance.AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH
This is a detail o f a page from a n 1 8 t h . and how the shape has been repeated freehand. look closely and you will see words written in gold fluttering over the form of the flower.c e n t u r y Turkish manuscnpt a book of religious e t h i c s w r i t t e n in the O r i e n t a l C o l l e c t i o n s of Berlin.
Sacred words The central rose is more solid than any other on the page. The physical anatomy of the rosebud has been studied and translated into a repeated stylized motif.
The Rose of
9 1 / 2 x 61/2 in ( 2 4 0 x 1 6 5 mm) FROM THE TURKISH M A N U S C R I P T AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH
. G e r m a n y .
Stylized motif A fine brush has been used throughout this drawing to apply inks and watercolors. It is n o w k e p t in
Border The elegant border of this drawing was mode with a pen and ruler It cleverly compresses and defines the composition.
PLANTS AND GARDENS
IN CONTRAST TO THE QUIET, formal detail of other drawings in this chapter, these powerful fast trees enact the actions of plants. Each tree reaches out and holds its landscape with dynamism and pulse. In both drawings we find testament to the inexorable energy of growth. Rembrandt expresses a delicate quickness. Gentle lines draw a warm breeze through this remote wooded garden. Rustling in a loose foliage of soft marks, his pen evokes the weight of abundant activity on this late summer's day. Mondrian's arch of scratching branches is drawn with such force it will always be alive. We can still feel his hand storming across the paper. Set within a frame of smudged landscape, the tree possesses a musical agitation. This characteristic will increase in the artist's later abstract work. Here, we see a punctuated ordering of space. Sharp branches cut out negative shapes of winter sky.
R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter; etcher; and draftsman. Rembrandt's prolific output comprises oil paintings of historical and religious subjects together with group and self- portraits. His emotive etchings and pen and ink drawings (see also p. 174) are great resources for artists learning to understand the potential of these media.
Pen and ink lines describing foliage also tell
us the directions of sunlight and wind. An arc crossing the bottom of the drawing from one side to the other supports the scene and separates us from the landscape beyond. Compare Rembrandt's arc to that of Mondrian's. and note the similar treatment of low horizons in both works emphasizing the height and dominance of trees.
Cottage Among Trees 1648-50 63/4 x121/8in ( I 7 I x 308 mm) R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN
Atmosphere Here we see how shapes of negative space are as important as the physical subject they enclose (see pp.58-59). Mondrian has again lightly dragged his chalk on its side to evoke a wet depth of atmosphere. These passive gray marks contrast with the assertive tension of the tree.
Dutch Pure abstract painter preoccupied w i t h line and plane relationships. W i t h increasing austerity, Mondrian banished t h e subject from his drawings, in his later w o r k he also banished space, composing visual h a r m o n i e s using only straight lines a n d flat planes o f black, w h i t e , gray, o r p r i m a r y color.
Winter ground Short vertical marks along thebottomof this drawing reveal the length oftheblackchalk Mondrian used. Rubbed onitsside,itroughly blocks in the ground. Thecrudeeconomy of line is all we need tofeelthecold, wet, unwelcoming quality ofthiswinterearth.
Branches and trunk Lines shaping the branches of the tree are built up in layers. To make the trunk more dense, the artist has rubbed and smudged preliminary marks with his fingers before firmly overdrawing with new lines. Solid black lines are achieved by pressing the chalk hard. When used lightly, it shows the texture of the paper. Tree: Study for the Grey 1911 23 x 335/8 in ( 5 8 4 x 8 5 5 m m ) Tree
PLANTS AND GARDENS
Graphite and Erasers
GRAPHITE, FROM THE G R E E K word
This drawing illustrates a range of achieved with graphite pencils of different grades.
Modern pencils are graded from 9H (hard and pale) to 9B (black and soft). Graphiteclay sticks are also available, together with a powder form. All possess a natural sheen and are erasable to a varying degree. Graphite drawings smudge easily, so fixative, a form of varnish, can be used to hold a drawn surface in place. It is applied as a fine mist from an aerosol can, or from a bottle using a diffuser. For the beginner, ordinary hairspray is an effective and cheaper alternative.
(to write), is a soft and brittle carbon. It was first mined in Cumbria, England, in 1 5 6 4 , and was initially used in small, pure pieces bound in lengths of string. Pencils as we know them—with their slender wood casing and "lead" of graphite—were invented in France in 1794 by Nicolas-Jaques Conte. He discovered that milled graphite mixed with clay and water, press-molded, and baked to a high temperature produces a harder and paler medium than graphite alone.
3B pencil A range of mark and textures can be achieved with a 3B pencil when you vary its pressure, speed, and direction, as this detail shows.
Here is a selection of 14 items to illustrate a basic range of pencils, graphite sticks, sharpeners, erasers, and fixative.
1. AND 2. HB AND 3B PENCILS: It is unnecessary to possess every grade of pencil. HB, the central and most common grade, is perfect for making delicate lines. 3B gives a blacker tone. A great variety of effects can be achieved with just these two. 3. WATER-SOLUBLE PENCIL Effective for atmospheric drawing, but be aware of how watery tones can dull the impact of the line. 4. AND 5. MECHANICAL PENCIL Thick or fine leads are made in a range of grades. They are particularly useful because they do not require a sharpener 6. ROUND SOLID GRAPHITE PENCIL: Excellent for large-scale drawing, producing thick bold lines. A range of grades can be honed with a craft knife or sharpener 7. THICK GRAPHITE STICK: For large-scale drawing. Graded soft, medium, and hard. It crushes to produce graphite powder 8. SQUARE GRAPHITE STICK: Useful for making broad, sweeping marks in large-scale drawing. If worn and rounded, the stick can be snapped into pieces to regain the sharp, square end. 9. CRAFT KNIFE AND BLADES: Handles are sold in two sizes to fit large or small blades, and blades are sold in a range of shapes. Perfect for sharpening pencils to a long point, to cut lines in paper or to remove areas. 10. PENCIL SHARPENER: Makes a uniform point. Keep one in your pocket for drawing outside the studio, together with an envelope for shavings.
HB and 5B Layers of tone have been built up withHBand5Bpencils. Softer pencils require less pressure to make a mark, revealing the texture of the paper surface. It is important to keep the point of the pencil sharp with either a craft knife or a sharpener.
ERASING AND FIXING
Erasers can be used t o blend and s o f t e n lines, o r t o r e m o v e altogether. Fixative them prevents
GRAPHITE AND ERASERS
s m u d g i n g a n d s e c u r e s lines.
Using fixative You can use fixative while drawing to hold the definition of lines you wish to gently fade but not remove entirely, for which you would use an eraser.
11. P L A S T I C E R A S E R : Avoid cheap colored erasers that may stain drawings with grease and dye. White brands are available in soft and hard versions.
P U T T Y RUBBER:
W a r m it in your hand before use. It is excellent for removing powdery materials, and for making crisp sweeps of light across a delicate pencil drawing
13. D I F F U S E R : Helleborus corsicus (Corsican hellebore) fixative, or to spray mists of ink.
PLANTS AND GARDENS
Cropping and Composition
M A N Y STUDENTS WILL START a d r a w i n g i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e
that its skin nearly touches the boundary. The meaning of the same drawing changes simply by its relationship to the space it occupies. The size of any subject, its placement on the page, the size of the page, and its overall proportion are all discrete and essential aspects of successful picture-making. Before you begin to draw, think carefully about where to place your subject. Are you are happy with your paper? If not, change it; add more, take some away, or turn it around. Do not just accept what you are given, adapt it to what you need.
paper. Focused on the shape and detail of their subject, they remain happily unaware that there is, or should be, any relationship between what they are drawing and the surface they are drawing it on. The paper is only paper, and the troublesome subject floats somewhere in the expanse of it. However, a single fig drawn in the middle of a large, empty square of paper gives quite a different impression from the same fig drawn on such an intimately small square
CHOOSING A VIEW
A Single Fig
"The size, shape, and orientation of the paper are so integral to the composition that they determine the impact and meaning of the drawing."
When subjects touch two or more edges. spaces between things are as important as the things themselves.O u r focus is on the white cloth supporting the figs. U s e it as a starting point. they establish a tension and unity with the paper. and lines describing shadows cast by the fruit
. bottom-left t o top-right.
Touching the edge
the subject o f a drawing touches one edge of the paper it attaches t o it visually.
Space as the subject
Inallpictures. and therefore apparently suspended from. a device to help you decide what t o draw. its illumination. A card with a small rectangle cut out o f it makes a useful viewfinder C l o s e o n e e y e t o look through the hole.
CROPPING AND COMPOSITION
Off-center and diagonal
Here I held my viewfinder so the fig appeared upper-left in the space. This drawing hasbeencropped to emphasize space between thefruit. as also shown here. t h e n m o v e t h e c a r d t o e x p l o r e different views.57
T h e s e pencil drawings o f figs d e m o n s t r a t e different crops and compositions. the uppermost edge of the drawing. The angle of the fruit together with dark shadow (top left) and bright light(bottom right) suggest a diagonal division across the whole drawing. its stem and shadow framing a white center. Here the left fig is attached to. running corner t o corner.
fourth. Remember that plants do move! Therefore it is best to complete your drawing in one sitting if possible. and engaging. position. The drawing opposite is of the uppermost leaves of a potted fig tree. dynamic. Follow these from left to right and see how I began with one complete shape between two parts of a leaf. Looking at negative space overrides the problem of drawing what you know. rather than what you see in front of you. which is shown in the three steps below. remember to draw only space. then added a second shape. erasing and adjusting lines until itlooked right.58
PLANTS AND GARDENS
UNCONSCIOUSLY WE ASSESS spatial relationships all the time to guide ourselves through the world. and a fresh page in your drawing book. a sharp H B pencil. and a role to play. shapes of air cut out and defined by the physicality of our environment? When we look into the branches of a tree. a foundation stone in picture-making. In following this class. It is an astonishingly simple device that many artists use and I strongly recommend. third. tone. their subject and composition will become more real. an eraser. It helps to start at the center and map outward. Unfamiliar shapes of negative space reveal the real shape of a positive subject. In your own version. but if the artist does. Viewers appreciating a finished image may not see shapes of space.The box opposite isolates an area. not leaves. do we see myriad distinct and unique shapes of daylight or do we just see branches? Why as artists should we look at the air? Every space in a picture has a shape.
WHERE TO START
Arrange your plant and paper so you can look back and forth by barely moving your head.
Draw a complete shape
Map outward from the center
Erase and adjust lines until correct
. Negative space is the simple key to getting positive shape right. you will need a similar large-leaved plant. unified. But how often do we look at the air between things. and so on. this ensures a consistent view.
Here I drew only spaces, adding one to another until the leaves were revealed. Besides looking at negative space, there are two other useful things to do when a drawing feels wrong but you cannot see why: look at it in a mirror or turn it upside down. errors and suggest changes.
Spaces between leaves
Either view will
WALKING IN THE ALPUJARRAS in A n d a l u c i a ,
Spain, I drew a bare fig tree clinging to the wall of an almond grove; a perfect subject for seeing negative space. I marked its essential frame of large branches first, frequently erasing lines and changing my mind until the balance felt right.
S a l v i a , RIBES, CLEMATIS, Allium, Passiflora, and Acanthus
drawn with an H pencil by observing the
negative spaces between the stems, petals, and leaves. I arranged the flowers on a sheet of paper in a cool r o o m and rapidly sketched a composition. Then I put them in water, taking the stems out one at a time to draw.
We never see everything at once. they emulate our experience of seeing. 62-63). gathering less distinct information on the way. our eyes travel and adjust from one point of focus to another. If an artist changes the pace of their line and focus of their attention.
As we LOOK AROUND. Excessive detail leaves no space for the eye to rest or imagination to wander. Compare changes of pace and focus here to the flatter finish of Summer Flowers (see pp. interfolding points of detail with areas of loose suggestion.
time. It is the focus of practical class in this chapter. Linear perspective is a marvelous device. It was the mathematicians. fine artists. the device that has since governed most of our picture-making (sec pp. space. Besides sketches of first thoughts and polished drawings of the finished look for clients. Computer
programs allow the virtual drawing of ideas. and in the 19th century it was given the name the Golden Section. add and subtract ideas. Perhaps in the sheer planes of some of our greatest modern buildings it is finding its clearest expression. filmmakers. the formula for perfection spread through Europe. film-set design. It was also during the Renaissance that the architect Brunelleschi invented linear perspective. each
. coupled with the importance of exercizing your imagination. Baltard designed the Church of St. of the west facade of St Augustin. and architects of ancient Greece who first pursued the formula for "divine proportion. which was the first church in the capital to be built entirely of metal and then clad in stone. with gray and brown watercolor wash.
VICTOR BALTARD French architect employed by the city of Paris. invaluable to understand and apply when you choose.The church is still in use today. and from
West Facade of the Church of St Augustin.Architecture
of architecture. Since the first flowering of Modernism in the early 20th century. architects. they have the Golden Section. to 20th-century film fantasy." reflecting the eye's love of unity in difference. 74-75).This is a pencil drawing. Architects have been fine-tuning their specialized branch of drawing for centuries. designers.
composers. once there. drawing plans around themselves within a program as opposed to on a flat sheet of paper. balance. At the core of their practice. This harmony. made by the architect himself. Paris
the child's view to the infinity of the vanishing point. we find the most recent steps in the evolution of graphic language. Yet the pursuit of divine proportion and harmony remains. Through the animation of the screen. they also have a diagrammatic language for communicating plans to builders. architects and designers can imaginatively "climb inside" three-dimensional space and. which can be clearly seen in ancient Greek architecture. and computer game
imaging. Since Picasso and Braque's revolution of Cubism in around 1907. and sound. was preserved into the Renaissance where it became a foundation stone for thinking and creativity From 15thcentury Italy. from political commentary to musical abstraction. European conventions of pictorial perspective have lost their monopoly on seeing. to help them create new form. Augustin. and writers have been breaking away from traditional forms of representation to seek new expressions of shape. philosophers. mass. Among the drawings of this chapter we look from 17th-century ecclesiastical calm.
testing gravity to calculate the inverted shapes of domes. Below it. materials. Architects draw for many reasons: to visualize ideas.
On the right a section
cut through the center of the building reveals material thicknesses. a three-dimensional drawing made with wires and weights.
On the left the finished
surface of the building is given depth and emphasis by immaculate vertical and horizontal brush strokes of shadow.68
EVERY NEW BUILDING. and labor. he also worked on St Paul's Cathedral. A student of Wren's. pilasters. Gaudi's fluid architecture grew up through many kinds of drawing. Drawings underpin every great human-made structure like hidden linear ghosts at their core. relative levels. Hampton Court Palace. NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR
One of Britain's "three great" Baroque architects (along with Sir Christopher Wren and Sir John Vanbrugh). marks the end of a long journey from the first few marks the architect made on a sheet of paper. Together they explain how interior structure and space define exterior form and shape. Blenheim Palace.
St Paul's Baptistry c. and balance. and ultimately to show builders what to do. evoke presence. densely layered lines in mists of color weave the presence of the expected building into shape.
Pillars and floor At the base of the drawing a compass-drawn plan tilted downward through 90 degrees illustrates the arrangement of pillars around a central circular floor. and Castle Howard. The photograph opposite shows his studio hung with metal pendulums. 1711-12 NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR
. Oxford. and the shapes of interior domes and apses. Hawksmoor's drawing is both a plan and an evocation.
Three aspects This subtle and sophisticated drawing made in pen and wash displays three distinct aspects of Hawksmoor's baptistry. and later an assistant to Vanbrugh. We see the modeled detail of Corinthian columns. and an inscribed entablature. Hawksmoor established his reputation with university and church architecture including All Souls College. embodying a massive investment of ideas. structure. and six London churches. calculate function. describe a finished look to a client. Lines define structure while washes suggest light and atmosphere.
embellishment. The Art Nouveau movement. Gaudi air than on paper. unique organic manipulation of high shapes. light.69
Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt
c. This sculptural drawingenvisionsthe finished crypt glowingandethereal as if caught in thelightof red morning sun. and his love of music. 1910 24x181/4( 6 1 0 x 4 7 5mm) A N T O N I O GAUDI
Wire and watercolor three-dimensional preferred to calculate
Above is a drawing form in the made
withlinkedwires and weights. and apartment homes are distinguished by their Their and Flowering curves of stone or concrete are often encrusted with Gaudi was inspired by medieval and oriental art. 1900
ANTONIO GAUDI Visionary Catalan architect. churches. Gaudi's cathedral in Barcelona. To the right isawatercolordrawing thought to havebeenmade over a photograph ofthemodelabove.
Crypt of its
This drawing has
been made with a rapidograph. short curved poles. theater sets. before cascading into a riot of line and sound below. a refillable pen that feeds a constant supply of ink through a fine tubular nib.
Arctic Flowers 1980 DANIEL LIBESKIND
. Libeskind's numerous commissions include concert halls and museums.
upright pictorial space.70 ARCHITECTURE
The Order of Sound
B O T H OF THESE VISIONARY DRAWINGS o c c u p y a s l e n d e r .
been a natural affinity between the visual rhythms of pictures and the audible rhythms of music. Satie draws quietly throughout. We can see. and arched dotted lines depict the radius of doors. Libeskind studied music before transferring to architecture. and rooms. Across the top and center right of the image w e perceive an almost recognizable architectural plan. and exhibitions of his drawings. and dotted lines. p. Libeskind begins quietly in the upper space of his drawing. such a rapport in both of these drawings. and the spaces between his windows and turrets are the visual equivalent of pauses in
h i s m u s i c c o m p o s i t i o n s for p i a n o (see also Bussotti.223). installations. Floor space appears divided by discernible walls. He also produces urban and landscape designs. flat boards.
Visual rhythms In the lower half of this drawing architectural language has broken loose: escaped and transformed into an image of rebellious pleasure. The architect and musician Daniel Libeskind has drawn a stampeding cacophany of airborne architectural detail. We can imagine how a musician might interpret this drawing by looking at the abstract visual rhythms of masses composed of long straight poles. He also contributed to plans for the rebuilding of the World Trade Center site in New York. while the composer Erik Satie has made an enclosure of quiet order and grace. Both men used rulers and pens to carefully and slowly construct their compositions. corridors. and in a sense hear. There has always
DANIEL LIBESKIND A Polish American architect of international acclaim. Contemporary musicians commonly collaborate with artists by interpreting images as sound.
1 8 9 3 77/8 x 51/2 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 4 0 mm) ERIK SATIE
.Edges are how are of orientation. andfouredges of the paper tothecompositionand impact animage.H i s witty.
upright image Eastern is reminiscent and medieval of Middle
pictorial space and subject of this European
drawing. minimalist s c o r e s scandalized a u d i e n c e s with o r c h e s t r a t i o n s f o r t h e foghorn and typewriter. and ink on a fragment folded brown paper—a of everyday happened material of scrap that
to be at hand.narrowshape of its paper. Satie collaborated w i t h hisfriends J e a n C o c t e a u a n d P i c a s s o .50. a conventional dip or fountain pen.
Suzonnieres c. o f which he was the sole m e m b e r
Satie has drawn
this fantasy hotel using a ruler.
additional lines in a work. and founded his o w n church. the perimeter
Composition Look how well this drawingfitsand resonates with the upright. a n d ballet.ERIK SATIE
F r e n c h pianist and c o m p o s e r for t h e piano.
the even and and the shape wall to the
elegantly stylized order of the many windows of arrangement of details and the shape of the wall in Babur's Garden of Fidelity on p. They definespaceand pictorial balance. dressed eccentrically.56—57 we discussed important the shape. lived a l o n e . H e p e r f o r m e d in cabarets. theater. Onpp.
arched vaults. His celebrated imaginary buildings are characterized by pyramids. Boullee's monolithic apparition was drawn as a monument to Sir Isaac Newton. This is the work of an architectural theoretician.
153/4 x 25 in ( 4 0 2 x 635 m m ) ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE
. and draftsman. made in 1926. We glide over exquisitely drawn wastelands of damage and abandonment. Art director Erich Kettlehut's vertiginous design for the city of a slavelike populace had a future influence on movies such as Blade Runner. and the reverse is true on the right.
French architectural theorist.72 ARCHITECTURE
T H E S E T H R E E HIGHLY DETAILED DRAWINGS
invite us to
soaring above normal life. Boullee lived in Paris. Within it.96.
enter the long-shadowed architecture of imaginary worlds. experiencing a fascinating conflict between curiosity and desolation. and dramatic lighting. This shift makes the cenotaph appear three-dimensional.
Light illusions This pen-and-wash drawing shows a subtle application of the principles of illumination demonstrated with an egg on p. the ominous globe exists only as a series of drawings. we find other Utopian visions
Paul Nobles epic drawing summons an imperfect and disturbing township where ruin and activity are equal and strange. and taught at t h e A c a d e m i e d'Architecture. antlike mortals might have speculated upon the universe. spheres. painter.The lower-left section of the building appears relatively pale against a darker sky. Among preparations for Fritz Langs film Metropolis. cylinders.
ft 1 0 in x 1 3 f t 2 in (3 x 4 m ) PAUL N O B L E
PAUL N O B L E British c o n t e m p o r a r y artist who creates m o n u m e n t a l . Kettlehut and his c o . and are
Graphite shapes Nobson Central isoneof a series of very large graphite drawings of the spoil and detritus of Nobson Newtown. draftsman. Its sheerscaleengulfs the viewer and demands based time and patience to on letters and in some beread.a r t director O t t o Hunte.m a k e r In t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f Metropolis. Working on toned paper such as this gives an artist greater scope for dramatic lighting effects than if they work on white paper. Kettlehut drew using a fine and relatively dry brush dipped in black.73
ERICH KETTLEHUT Influential film a r t director. and morality o f an invented place called His satires exhibited w o r l d w i d e . mythology. gray.
Brush and ink This is a dramatic drawing from a film that shaped the history of world cinema. and white ink on brown-gray paper. architecture. together with c i n e m a t o g r a p h e r Karl Freund. used forced perspective camera t e c h n i q u e s t o amplify t h e m a g n i t u d e o f buildings in relation t o human characters. Nobson political visions of humanity Newtown. and m o d e l .
Fritz Lang's Metropolis c. intensely detailed graphite drawings explaining and questioning t h e geography.Building shapes are works can be read as text.
Note how architectural features conform to lines and how human figures diminish in size toward thevanishingpoint. Invented by Italian artist and architect Brunelleschi in 1413 (late in the history of art). this perspective is often an imagined bird's-eye view in which details are mapped according to logic and importance rather than how they might appear in real life. scientists. and age eight. Piranesi an example of two. observations. It can be applied to any subject. Press the pin into Leonardo's vanishing point. Sometimes shared with Naive artists. All forms of perspective are of equal value. I contribute the child's perspective.
Study of Perspective Adoration of the
1481 61/2 x111/2in (165 x 290 mm)
LEONARDO DA VINCI
. linear perspective is distinct from more ancient systems practiced in the East. and thinkers ever to have lived. inventors.
LEONARDO DA VINCI One of the greatest artists. but is most easily seen and understood in pictures of buildings and interiors. Leonardo recorded constant streams of ideas.
Single-point perspective Tie a thread to a pin. Here Leonardo provides a superb example of a single vanishing point. See how the thread corresponds to each converging line. 206-07). In his notebooks.74
Pathways of Sight
LINEAR PERSPECTIVE (also called vanishing-point perspective) is a simple device for calculating the relative size of things in pictorial space. It is also distinguished from aerial perspective (see pp. and those of Naive artists and children. found at the center of all converging lines. and inventions— essential reading for inquiring minds. We use it to structure illusions of depth. Pull the thread taut and rotate it slowly above the drawing.
Breamore Village. England 1980 9 x 16 in (228 x 405 mm) S A R A H SIMBLET
GIOVANNI BATTISTA PIRANESI
I made this drawing (at age 8) in response to a local bookstore's request for children to draw their village.
Scale Our farmhouse my experience
was in the woods. Children are uninhibited and problems with one element being obscured by another rarely arise. Lightly marked
Two Courtyards c. Note the rather large rabbits and pheasants
issues of scale when making room for important
their story. It shows how children usually map large scenes in flat layers one above the other. architect. and theoretical writing strongly influenced neoclassicism. New Forest. and designer Piranesi's prolific architectural drawings. This drawing Young children typically
maps ignore on
of the nearby village. including all they recall about the subject. visionary and practical understanding of ancient Rome.
Two-point perspective Sunlight through this colonnade a great example of two-point perspective. which I saw from home every day. a points in
logical narrative of memories. at the top of each lateral column base. 1740 5 1 / 2 x 83/8 in (141 x 212 mm) G I O V A N N I B A T T I S T A PIRANESI
points are located on either side of the drawing. Mark these points with your pin and follow the converging lines of the drawing by rotating your thread.
Erase the dotted construction lines. This lesson shows you how to make a simple illusion of space defined by two boxes and three flat boards. On the previous page we looked at its essential mechanism through drawings by Leonardo and Piranesi. draw a horizon line across your paper Mark a spot on the horizon line. discovering the image as it progressed. Piranesi planned his drawing with only the essential lines needed. This is where we will begin.
imagine. Each line should pass through one corner of the rectangle. this is your vanishing point.98 for an important note on oscillation.
corners must each touch a dotted line. (See p. try composing your own space. Next. Study these pages first before embarking on this lesson. This ensures that the second rectangle aligns with the shape and
Draw four short lines to connect the four corners of the two rectangles.)
MASTERING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE i s e a s i e r t h a n y o u m a y
First read through. using a sharp HB pencil and ruler. corresponding to a single vanishing point.
Draw four dotted lines radiating out from the vanishing point. Draw each step over the preceding one to build up a single image. You have completed your first box. Extend each dotted line to the edge of your drawing. In contrast. then follow the ten steps below.
Using a ruler and a sharp HB pencil. Note that if you place large structures in the foreground and smaller ones closer to your vanishing point. Leonardo began with a grid of many lines within which he invented his scene. Surround the vanishing point with a small rectangle. you will amplify the illusion of distance.
Use dotted lines connecting the slanting linetothe vanishing point to locate the top. The board's sides should be parallel.
As in step 3. and erase the dotted lines. Repeat this to add two more boards to the composition. N e x t draw a slanting line to mark the height of the first flat board. larger rectangle. draw four dotted lines radiating from your vanishing point Pass these through each comer of the new rectangle.
Draw a new rectangle.willhelptomake them appear more solid. bottom. Connect this to the vanishing point— again. you can place rectangles anywhere youwishin relation to a vanishing point. draw a second.
0 Erase all ofthedottedlinestoseeyourfinishedboxes
As in step 2. The four comers must each touch a dotted line to be sureitaligns with the first. Continue the dotted lines out toward the edge of your drawing. andfarside of this first board. with two dotted lines.asIhavedonehere. Note that this does not surround the vanishing point In the future. the closer it will appear to the viewer. The larger you make your second rectangle. when inventing your own compositions.
Complete the second box with short lines as in step 4.
it will take you places you never dreamed of."
imaginary room. As David Lynch. Then follow the three given steps. O n
a fresh page in your d r a w i n g b o o k . It highlights the importance of having faith in your imagination and trusting your ability to invent. draw a b o x as shown opposite. A lot more happens when you open yourself up to the work and let yourself act and react to it. then let the space suggest its c o n t e n t s and purpose. The m i s t a k e n belief that we s h o u l d k n o w exactly what o u r finished drawings will l o o k like before we m a k e t h e m prevents many people from ever starting. let simple lines suggest a simple space. artist and film director. it is interaction that makes the work richer."
. If using a fibertip pen as I have done for this drawing.78
Creating an Imaginary Space
T H I S CLASS USES SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE t o c r e a t e a s i m p l e
to you and if you listen to it. you will find white adhesive stationery labels are useful for covering errors or changing the direction of your idea. p . w h e t h e r it is a film or a painting.
An Imagined Scaffold
"Enjoy your illusion as you make it and it will become more real. once said: "I never end up with what I set out to do. Linear perspective will support y o u by providing a frame in which to b u i l d your picture as it did for Leonardo. 7 4 ) . Every work talks
In this class. I always start with a script but I don't follow it all the way through to the end.
additional lines have established the different surfaces and how they relate to each other. This initial space will be transparent and open to change.
Remove the construction lines with an eraser and the room will becomeclearer.There is great pleasure tobefoundin spending time inventing interiors.
2 first before adding furniture. horizontal. Here. parallel planes such as walls converge toward the vanishing point.Addanarray of converging lines to provide a "scaffold" for vertical. and leaning surfaces.drawthehorizonlineand vanishingpoint. With some practice. you will beableto draw more complex objects orpeoplewithin them. The space has become more solid and real. and floors and ceilings also converge and rise o r lower toward the horizon.79
DRAWING A SIMPLE ROOM
Essentials t o remember: objects and people dimmish in size as they move farther away.
CREATING AN IMAGINARY SPACE
showing y o u h o w to draw curved surfaces and a tiled floor. but they are not confined to this level. I have elaborated on the simple boxes above. These elaborations could continue indefinitely across a sheet of paper in pursuit of complex and intricate ideas. The boxes drawn here are seen partly or entirely disassociated from a horizon line drawn across the bottom of the image. Potentially.
Free vanishing points
On paper we can enjoy the freedom of fantastic structural invention without limitations of solid materials or gravity. or low and we look u p . T h i s is d e m o n s t r a t e d immediately below. Copying what you see in the work of others will help you to understand what they have done. our eye level is very high and we look down. T h e y d o n o t have to relate to each other. It is important to realize that you can have as many vanishing points as you wish.
Vanishing points are commonly found on horizon—our eye level. o r to the h o r i z o n . a n d this is how we have drawn them so far (see pp. do verticals appear inclined. Only when y o u might employ t h r e e . To draw such a view
Copy these drawings to see and feel how they work before inventing your own versions. They could be drawn on any scale from miniature to monumental. verticals appear p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the g r o u n d . Search for the application of these perspectives among works by other artists in this book and in galleries. located anywhere inside or outside the pictorial space. T h i n k of standing at the top of a skyscraper and imagine h o w its parallel sides would appear to converge below you. That is where we e to find them.
. From our normal eye level.80 ARCHITECTURE
Further Aspects of Perspective
W E ARE ACCUSTOMED TO SEEING our e n v i r o n m e n t from a relatively constant point of view.p o i n t perspective ( s h o w n opposite top). Further aspects of three-point perspective are also illustrated opposite. 76-79). Here. they can be placed anywhere inspaceto describe the perspective of flyi c tilted objects.
floor. by adding a third point you can achieve a sense of incline. (Turn the book around to see a view looking up. An array of curved lines (drawn freehand) link the two lateral points.Istarted with two parallel lines.
Here. you will see how.Finally.I added horizontal lines t o define the tiles. useful for representing steep views looking up or down tall structures. Iusedthese lines as a guide t o draw the curvature of boxes and panels flying through space. tostraightlines can amplify drama in a picture. Giving curvature. and therefore tension. I then drew three fanned groups of lines connecting each of the three points above to the seven points below. Where thelinescross. I marked the toplinewith three evenly spaced points and the line with seven.75.81 FURTHER ASPECTS OF
This drawing depicts three-point perspective. three vanishing points are evenly spaced along a horizon line.) By comparing this drawing t o Piranesi's example of two-point perspective on p. Note that altering the distance between the three dots above will tilt the level of the floor
. they mark the corners of the floor tiles.
making drawings to resolve questions and express personal responses to the nature and history of anatomy. These walnut-skin ink pen and brush drawings show imagined views of theaters that do not exist but were inspired by places I studied. I
visited many anatomical
theaters and museums.
RESEARCHING FOR MY P H D .
The vanishing of the drawing is directly opposite as we look across The constancy of the bridge and surrounding frames the movement in the life that flows past.
the water.A N D .I N KDRAWING is one of a series I made while next to the Rialto Bridge in Venice.
sitting point buildings
ThisP E N .
History will be learned from the artifacts w e leave behind. and the way in w h i c h the brain reacts
Head and Neck Sections of Female Mold for the Sforza Horse
to visual stimulus and optical illusions. or drawing w e see Leonardo daVinci'sprecision as can be given meaning. each demanding more of the other as they increased in sophistication. In this chapter. drawings were needed to instruct workers on the factory floor. have often carried great weights of allegorical once. planned. these. It was in this era that the blueprint was born. Birds follow instinct to make a nest. 1493 117/8c81/4in (300 x 210 m m ) LEONARDO D A V I N Ccreating I
. too. are all made bearing the signature of our time and place. texture. or to explain and present a finished concept to a client. Previously. r an equestrian statue. C o m m o n items. It is shaped in sections w i t h Artists have for centuries studied and expressed composition. passing them on to others through the act of making. Artists and actors use the meanings of things to communicate a speculative mechanic. drawn. illuminating snail shells. Technical drawing was speedily developed as a meticulous international code of m e a s u r e m e n t and explanation. hooked bars that can be pulled and tied closely form. and some apes use simple tools. A chair. W e also explore v o l u m e and form in the classes by spinning lines to make vessels. to record an observed detail. sculpted. Artists also make images of objects that can never exist. In past eras.Objects and Instruments
HE THINGS WE INVENT describe our lives. from s p o o n s and pens to chairs and bicycles. for example. or used on stage hood for a mold t o make theheado f a horse f oas a p r o p — i m b u e d with e n o u g h energy or character can "become" a man. With the sudden onset of mass production. for example—whether. even more advanced drawings are made on computers.
drawing c. but humans
LEONARDO DA VINCI Inthisbeautiful red chalk Our items all have a purpose—practical or ornamental—and all have a meaning. Today. T h e Industrial Revolution c h a n g e d the traditional w a y s in w h i c h objects were designed. T h e precision of engineering d r a w i n g s e v o l v e d alongside machine tools.
of light in the creation of pictorial illusions. fictional realities caster of h o w t o make it andhowit will w o r k . and made. and a wire violin. we look at the importance
are the only creatures on Earth w h o actually design and create great ranges of things. H e has described a casting through metaphor. craftsmen had held plans in their memory. and the behavior of light through making still-life paintings and together. that test our logic with a sense of mystery. color. H e has described contour and function at drawings. making a clear instruction t o his bronzemeaning. Engineers and designers of our objects and instruments make drawings for many reasons: to test an idea that is yet to be made. design.
OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS
THESE DRAWINGS REVEAL t w o o p p o s i t e m o t i v a t i o n s i n
we can. charcoal. and shading. and a journal jacket with words makes this drawing chatter about the moment. silverware. texture. There is a fragile eloquence to these objects as they drift in slow motion past our gaze. Mucha's drawing glistens with possession. Below. "I believe [it] is the most radicalattempttostampout ambiguity and to enforce one readingofthepicture—that of a manmade construction. Braque established Cubism in partnership with Picasso just before World War I.Braque marshals all the forces of perspective. but to clash in virtual deadlock. and glass objects of exquisite elegance for only the gentlest of touch and appreciation.
Clashes The art historian Ernst Gombrich said of Cubism. steaming with music and conversation. Even today
GEORGES BRAQUE French painter who as a young man was influenced by the work of the Fauves and of Cezanne. a colored canvas. His work is characterized by calm and harmonious still-life compositions.. not to work in harmony. still feel this projected moment.73 x 1 m)
.. not of place but of things. He takes us into the bustle of the Paris cafe. wood-look wallpaper. T h i s is a designers drawing made to enthuse surface and style in its delicate brushing of china. perfect i n their newly made availability. One of the great joys of this movement in art is the musicality of its multipoint view." La Cuitare. .
representing still life. Statue D'Epouvante
1913 2 f t 5 in x 3 ft 5 in (0. Braques image is a Cubist collage. Braques "justly" arranged combination of cut black card.
He is best known for posters featuring ethereal women in typical Art Nouveau style.
Art Nouveau motifs This is a preliminary study for a subsequent print. Look at the two spoons at toprightand see how has suggested that they are so brilliantly shiny they reflect the background color. and New York.flowers. and also stamps and bank notes.ALPHONSE MUCHA Czech graphic artist and painter who worked in Prague. For ten years Mucha designed theater posters exclusively for the actress Sarah Bernhardt. Art Nouveau curling motifs of birds.fruit. Pans. Black watercolor washes and lines of white gouache have been added with a fine brush. Chicago. The three plates facing us were drawn with a compass.
Background color Between the delicate shadows and highlights of these glazed and surfaces ofthebackground metal color of the Mucha we see a large amount
paper. and fish have been outlined using a sharp pencil.
Study for Plate 59 from "Documents Decoratifs" 17x121/4(430 x 310 mm) ALPHONSE MUCHA
. He designed the Austrian pavilion for the Paris World Fair in 1900.
each reflecting a view of his own world—his window. It is a diagrammatic explanation of how to catch and magnify a star in a mirrored tube. offering a transparent view. Newton's drawing of his first reflecting telescope is
ISAAC N E W T O N
English scientist. mathematician.
Newton's 1672 ISAAC
. via a second mirror. The power of this drawing reflects the pure passion of discovery. Look how confidently he draws with ink the sphere of this wooden globe by which his telescope rotates. Newton used this instrument to calculate the speed required to escape earth's gravity. It was then reflected up inside the tube and. each one skillfully rendered with the alarmingly matter-of-fact ease of explaining the commonplace.
Transparent view Newton's reflecting telescope focused light in a parabolic mirror. drawing is there to pin the moment down. w h e r e he developed his three greatest theories: the law o f motion. He counted 1 4 . the law o f gravity. and philosopher Newton was President of the Royal Society. With dotted lines Newton has drawn his arrangement of elements inside the tube. Hooke's head of a drone fly seen through a microscope may represent the first time man and insect came face to face. a tree outside. From the concept of capturing the infinite to the mapping of microscopic sight.92
OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS
SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS by their very nature must gauge or chronicle precision.
shape the very cause and effect of investigatory thought. astronomer.
Ink lines Several drawings appear among Newton's letters. we see drawing
Instruments of Vision
found among his letters. A disembodied eye at the top of the drawing indicates where to look. Their delicate construction is only as valuable as the measurements they make. alchemist. and Fellow of the University o f C a m b r i d g e . In the graphic work of these two great men of science. into the eyepiece. 0 0 0 perfect hemispheres. and the nature o f light and color. and his hand moving across the light.
ROBERT H O O K E
Magnifications This acutely detailed engraved drawing
is taken from Hooke's Micrographia (pub. a breathtaking book containing many of his drawings showing some of the first microscopic and telescopic magnifications of our environment Hooke's text and illustrations carry us to the moment of discovery.
The Eye and Head of a Drone Fly
111/2 x 105/8 in (294 x 270 mm)
. and anchor escarpment. universal joint a prototype respirator clock balance. Hooke invented the camera diaphragm. It is an exhilarating read. 1665). and calculated the theory of combustion.An experimental scientist who drew many of his discoveries.
its character. Drawn in more-or-less c o n v e n t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . Woodfine exhibits internationally. and has drawings in numerous public and private collections.
SARAH WOODFINE British contemporary artist graduate of the Royal Academy Schools. Sarah Woodfines flat cut-out m o d e l plan is a witty and surprising drawing. it has so m u c h familiar personality that it seems to talk to us. each drawn with the s a m e unfaltering lines and tones that are between reality and impossibility. From component parts we understand how to put it together and make it stand sensible in space. craft.
Chair Cut Out 2002 22'A x 23 in (565 x 585 mm) SARAH WOODFINE
. W i t h h o m e y c o n t r a s t .
Two-dimensional was made
This highly finished
using a sharp pencil and
on smooth white drawing paper glistening dark drawings are artificial representations of known
Woodfine's two-dimensional things balanced
in the world. while the tabs make us see a flat paper cut-out. and winner of the 2004 Jerwood Drawing Prize. Its wobbly gait and squashed s y m m e t r y m u m b l e endless h o m e y tales about the life it has seen.94
W H E N WE DRAW A COMMON OBJECT like a chair. and w h e r e the chair b e l o n g s . Van Gogh's tipsy seat is a metaphor for an absent person. and place in the world are truly seen. this chair p r e s e n t s us with a clever visual contradiction: deeply drawn shadows tell us it must be solid. A renegade from the p a p e r dolls' h o u s e .
W e are left a little c o n f u s e d as to what we s h o u l d do. has published several catalogs of her work.
direct in their he saw and describing his
felt. The floor few as engagement with the chair. not is made present in only strokes and is subdued to distract us from flat a meaningful chair.hehas marked the full emotion of the subject with a fierce grip of concentration. drawn opposite way of plan.95
Dutch painter who produced over 800 paintings and 850 drawings in only the last ten year's of his life. His passionate brush and pencil strokes are honest
and of also turmoil and growing alarm at the world around him. Van
VINCENT VAN GOGH
. and Starry Cypress
Night. Cornfield and Sunflowers. Among van Gogh's best-known canvases
are Trees. inner
Fierce strokes This is a portrait of the mechanical drew immediately and almost harshly.
a n d we can be fooled.
The perceived tone of a black white. Are you happy
LIGHT AND SHADOW
with what you see? Does the light enhance the subject? Could you alter and improve it? On pp. Adjust the angleofthe protruding part and again stepback. a n d our ability to see forms in c l o u d s or fire. Three factors change it: the amount of light it receives. Here w e look briefly at our perception of light a n d darkness a n d our interpretation of diagrammatic illusions. T h e slightest recognition is instantly matched to our wealth of experience a n d expectation. are translated into a world of space. think about its illumination.
W e learn to read light and shadow in our environment as indicators of solidity and depth of space. Below. cards the same size. two identical mid-gray squares are seen against black and paler gray squares.
.d o w n patterns of light on our retinas. but do not appear so.102-03 deep shadows cast across shells make their form easier to perceive. The rim of light on the egg is reflected light received from surrounding paper. a lit photograph of an egg shows essential points to observe in tonal drawing. hence our recognition of a cartoon face c o m p o s e d of three lines. The outermost edge of our vision. form.
To further examine changes in tone. See how its "edge" smoothly changes from light against dark to dark against light. We will even see things that d o not exist because minimal information suggests they are likely to be there. perhaps. We perceive one to be lighter than theother. atmosphere. Tape them to the glass. To interpret visual s t i m u l u s . transmitted to the brain as chains of electrical impulses. The egg's lightest region is seen against a darker background. o u r b r a i n s search for n a m e a b l e things. Run The bottom-left quarter of the egg lightens slightly toward its "edge" when seen against the darker shadow cast on the paper. From across the room both will appear black card and fold and retapeitwith half sticking out. Here.
The egg's darkest region is seen against a lighter background. try this experiment. the adjustment of our eyes (in growing accustomed to a level of light).This effect is caused by the contrast of their surroundings. and the proximity of contrasting tones.96
O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S
Light and Illusions
SEEING IS MIRACULOUS. Artists emulate and manipulate this effect in their pictures. U p s i d e . less developed than the center. or colored surface is never constant. We only need small prompts. The two tones meet without a division or outline between. reads only m o v e m e n t a n d can often m a k e mistakes. Below the bottom "edge" of the egg there is a rim of light reflected onto the paper by the underside of the egg. Through these we can enjoy witnessing our o w n d e c e p t i o n a n d b a f f l e m e n t a n d u n d e r s t a n d certain factors that are very useful in picture-making. Before starting a tonal drawing of any subject. one blackandone white. a n d m o v e m e n t . The small squares are identical in tone. On acloudyday. your eye around the circumference of the egg. w e turn our head but n o one w a s there. a n d are q u i c k to p r o p o s e ideas. S o m e o n e passes our o p e n door.At one point you will catchenoughlight lighter than the white one. gray.
If y o u w i s h t o m a k e a t o n a l drawing. T h e jug d r a w n w i t h a t h i n line appears f a r t h e r away t h a n t h e j u g d r a w n w i t h a t h i c k e r line.
LIGHT AND ILLUSIONS
T h e s e black a n d w h i t e bands are o f equal thickness o n e i t h e r side o f t h e i r central division. start o u t w i t h one. T w o horizontal lines o f equal length are m a d e t o l o o k longer and shorter. Y o u m a y e x p e r i e n c e s o m e t h i n g similar h a p p e n i n g w h e n y o u m a k e s i n g l e . O b s e r v e h o w each white b a n d appears t h i c k e r t h a n its black c o u n t e r p a r t . S h o r t h o r i z o n t a l lines o f identical length are m a d e t o l o o k d i f f e r e n t by c o n v e r g i n g lines beside t h e m ( C ) .97
LINE VERSUS TONE
In l i n e a r d r a w i n g s . In this linear drawing w e read t h i c k as closer a n d t h i n as f a r t h e r away. In a t o n a l d r a w i n g .p o i n t p e r s p e c t i v e d r a w i n g s w i t h a large n u m b e r o f c o n v e r g i n g rays b e h i n d y o u r horizontals.
Bending straight lines Linear distance
These t w o jugs have b e e n d r a w n w i t h lines o f d i f f e r i n g thicknesses. l i g h t e r surfaces s t a n d f o r w a r d w h i l e d a r k e r s u r f a c e s recede. b u t t h e u p r i g h t o n e l o o k s t a l l e r (B). t h i c k e r l i n e s a p p e a r t o stand forward. by d i r e c t e d a r r o w s ( A ) .
. T h e r e is n o obligation t o a d d b l o c k s o f t o n e t o a l i n e a r d r a w i n g . respectively. A n u p r i g h t line stands in t h e c e n t e r o f a h o r i z o n t a l line. T h i s fundamental o p p o s i t e is a reason w h y l i n e a r a n d t o n a l d r a w i n g does not a l w a y s c o m b i n e w e l l in t h e s a m e i m a g e . O f t e ndoingso w i l l s p o i l y o u r w o r k . Seven parallel lines are m a d e t o tilt t o w a r d and away f r o m each o t h e r by n u m e r o u s s h o r t strokes crossing t h e m diagonally ( A ) . In this t o n a l image w e read w h i t e as f a t t e r t h a n black. T w o relatively t h i c k parallel lines are m a d e t o b e n d away f r o m each o t h e r as t h e y pass in f r o n t o f an a r r a y o f c o n v e r g i n g f i n e lines ( B ) . B o t h are identical in length.
T h e s e optical illusions s h o w h o w lines o f identical length can b e m a d e t o l o o k quite different f r o m each o t h e r by t h e addition o r association o f o t h e r lines. w h i l e t h i n n e r lines recede.
as s h o w n o n t h e right. and we learn to read the styles of diverse cultures and periods. perfected the acceleration of perspective (see pp. It is possible t o r e a d i t t w o ways: as a t r u n c a t e d r e c t a n g u l a r p y r a m i d seen d i r e c t l y f r o m a b o v e .
Two ways of seeing
T h i s is t h e b o x c r e a t e d in t h e f o u r t h step o n p. Today we are bombarded with images but rarely have difficulty reading them. A few suggestive marks will tip the decision one way o r the o t h e r
Closing the surface
W h e n a t r a n s p a r e n t elliptical o b j e c t has b e e n d r a w n .116-17) to make
painted figures look correct when viewed from below. such as Bridget Riley. w h e n drawing the outline o f a three-dimensional form. w e will find that in terms of the direction it faces.s i d e d r e c t a n g u l a r t r a y ( b o t h are illustrated far r i g h t )
"The brain is so eager to name a fragment we see that we need only a suggestion to grasp the whole. it oscillates between t w o possibilities. Ancient Greek architects knew parallel upright lines appeared to bend toward each other in the middle. made paintings that depended upon the physical sensation of our brain's reaction to known optical illusions. w e can only look f r o m one t o the o t h e r If an artist is not aware this can happen in their image. among others. It is a curious fact that w e can never see both options at once. including some shown here. Artists can communicate much in few lines and the viewer will do the rest of the work. Artists make pictorial illusions when they paint or draw. Yet many illusions.76. Op(tical) artists. In the 1960's."
. C l o s i n g t h e surface o f t h e f o r m seals o u r d e c i s i o n as t o w h i c h w a y it faces. Some artists use known optical illusions to make art.
SEEING TWO OPTIONS
Sometimes. Michelangelo. o r as a s l o p i n g . and so calculated precisely how much to fatten columns to make them appear straight.98
O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S
PSYCHOLOGISTS AND PHYSIOLOGISTS have studied optical illusions for decades in pursuit of what they tell us about the brain. their picture could be ambiguous. are still not agreeably understood. such as t h e dish seen h e r e o n t h e left. it can oscillate b e t w e e n facing t o w a r d o r a w a y f r o m us. others adjust works to avoid their effects.
1 6 t h . w e see t w o overlapping triangles: o n e outlined in black b e n e a t h a n o t h e r in solid w h i t e . T h e t e s t e x p l o r e s o u r n o r m a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o find things w e can n a m e a m o n g r a n d o m shapes.99
T h e s e clever configurations o f outlines and t o n a l surfaces convince us at a glance that we are seeing a solid three-dimensional triangle and a three-pronged fork. C Escher u s e d this phenomenon t o great effect in his many p o p u l a r d r a w i n g s o f puzzles and impossible buildings.c e n t u r y Swiss psychologist H e r m a n n Rorschach. N e i t h e r triangle exists. O n l y o n closer inspection we realize that t h e s e o b j e c t s are fooling us. smoke. T h e patient's answers are t h e n diagnosed as a psychological profile. This simple five-line d r a w i n g is o f a C a p u c h i n priest asleep in his pulpit.
P e r c e i v i n g a w h o l e i m a g e f r o m m i n i m a l lines
T h i s is a w i d e l y r e p r o d u c e d visual j o k e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e C a r r a c c i b r o t h e r s .c e n t u r y Italian painters. B e l o w is a b r i g h t n e s s c o n t r a s t illusion. clouds. S o m e artists use ink blots t o p r o m p t t h e beginning o f an image. This effect can o c c u r naturally w h e n looking at a b r i g h t l y lit w h i t e g r i d such as a w i n d o w f r a m e against t h e night sky. T h e s e e x a m p l e s illustrate h o w little is n e e d e d t o c o n v e y an image. b u t w e believe w e see t h e m because e n o u g h f r a g m e n t a r y i n f o r m a t i o n is given f o r o u r brains t o c o n c l u d e t h e y are v e r y likely t h e r e .
F a m i l i a r i t y in r a n d o m s h a p e s
T h e Rorschach test was established by t h e 1 9 t h . — a n d so t h e artist can create m u c h o u t o f an impression w i t h o u t overdescribing. Minimal-line j o k e s such as this rely u p o n t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y v i e w e r ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e shapes. M u c h can b e e x p r e s s e d in o n l y a f e w marks. His highly d i s p u t e d and i m p r e c i s e science involves s h o w i n g u n p r e p a r e d p a t i e n t s t e n p a r t i c u l a r ink b l o t s a n d asking t h e m t o i n t e r p r e t w h a t t h e y see. C o u p l e d w i t h t h e Rorschach b l o t above.
Seeing things that are n o t t h e r e
H e r e o n t h e left. W e should r e m e m b e r t h a t o u r brains will always search f o r a p i c t u r e — i n ink blots. T h e a r t i s t M. e t c . T h e y a r e o f t e n c r e d i t e d w i t h t h e invention o f t h e c o m i c c a r t o o n . this is a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f t h e viewer's b r a i n b e i n g willing t o d o a large a m o u n t o f t h e w o r k in d e c i p h e r i n g a p i c t u r e . Yet still w e try resolve t h e m . C o u n t t h e n u m b e r o f d a r k spots y o u can see.
such as bowls and cups.
W h e n drawing cylindrical objects in perspective. giving the cylinder four corners.
Cubism. A wobbling but confident ellipse will still be more convincing than a slow.100
OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS
W E VISUALIZE CYLINDRICAL VESSELS. a n d in o n e bold stroke.
for example. not the paper!) As the pen touches down. while its upper rim remains level. and these narrow or widen depending on the height of our view. Be aware. However. Ellipse are best d r a w n quickly.
third common error is to draw upper and lover ellipses with different-sized apertures.
WHERE TO START
In the air above a spacious sheet of scrap paper. w h e n seen at an angle. though. (see p. as if the table surface slopes upward beneath the vessel. since this is h o w w e experience them in e v e r y d a y use. you will achieve steadiness with practice. hesitant one that has edged its w a y nervously around the vessel's rim. for example plates or bowls on a table.90) takes a different
as essentially circular. even if y o u r hand w o b b l e s a little at first. describing many sides of an object simultaneously. Cover a sheet of paper with spinning. I have drawn these for you here. I have exaggerated this error here. that this is o n l y o n e w a y
view. spin your hand in a relaxed circle. circles change into ellipses. there are three common errors people stumble upon. smoothly. To make a cylindrical object appear real in our pictorial space. w e use ellipses to give a sense of perspective. Watch the tip of your pen and see it draw an ellipse in the air Keep this movement going while gently lowering the pen onto the paper like the needle of a record player closing on the disc (only it is your lowering hand that spins.
The first common error is to draw two pointed ellipses. Don't worry if it is uneven— just try again. springlike forms like those I have drawn below.
The second common error is to tilt the upper and lower ellipses at different angles. keep it spinning. suggesting that the vessel is lopsided. like a disposable plastic cup that has been crushed in your hand.
How to Draw Ellipses
Create a Solid Surface Once you have drawn the shape and volume of each form. you can make it solid by building up highlights and tones on visible surfaces.101
Once you have mastered drawing free-hand springs. you can start to control your spinning ellipse to make a vessel. Draw quickly. enlarging and diminishing the ellipse to determine the overall shape and volume.
Seeing Through Allow lines to travel around each vessel as if it were transparent. working from top to bottom.
HOW TO DRAW E L L I P S E S
A Single Vessel One Inside Another Grouped Together
Finding Shape and Volume Draw an imagined vessel in one continuous spinning line. Altering the pressure—and therefore tone—of the line as it spins gives the impression of light shining on one side. thereby hiding lines that show the other sides.
LIGHT TO DARK
DARK TO LIGHT
. making complicated or subtle surfaces easier to see and understand. or you can begin with a mid-gray ground and model light out of darkness (see opposite bottom). You can begin with outlines and build slowly from light to dark (see opposite top). It maximizes the range of tones between black and white. simply shapes and subtleties of light and dark meeting each other with no divisions in between. it will inhibit your perception of tone. outlines. leaving detail until last. beams of light. In the finished drawing there should be few. if any.22-23). Illuminate them with a gooseneck lamp
placed very close and directed away from your eyes. Gradually hone your drawing. if light shines in them.
Start by arranging a choice of shells on a sheet of paper to your left if you are right-handed (or vice versa). t h e r e a r e p r i n c i p a l l y
Dramatic lighting emphasizes texture and contour. and solid objects are all of equal importance.102
W H E N MAKING A TONAL DRAWING. It is important to place them on the correct side so as to draw comfortably (see pp. Draw the largest and most distinct areas of light and darkness first.
two opposite methods of achieving the same result. Remember that shadows. Relaxing your eyes out of focus as you draw will help to dissolve the distraction of detail. and strong contrasts are easier to draw.
Treat positive form and negative space (see pp. loose. draw a rectangle. Honetheshapesand angles of the shells. Avoid a rough significant areas of light in your gray rectangle with texture and do not press the graphite hardwhite plastic eraser Ignore all detail and draw a into thepaperor you will not be able to erase it.56-57). with broad sweeps of the eraser. until you are happy frame.103
LIGHT TO DARK (LINE TO TONE)
Using a sharp HB pencil. Fll in broad areas first and leave all detail until last. shape.
DARK TO LIGHT (TONE TO TONE)
Using the flattened tip of an HB pencil. boldly
Keeping your eyes out of focus. and edges definingthespacialrelationships between are important aspects of your composition them. Erase and make changes to roughly place the shells inside your with your composition. Remember that its size.
. look at the main areas of darkness. Use your pencil to develop these in relation to the areas of light. pale lines with equal importance. Use quick.
Gentlydissolveoutlines so that areas oflightanddark meet without a line between them. Draw in the details last of all. Let your eyes go out of focus while looking gently layer marks to create an even tone at your subject and paper: Draw the most ofmid-graywithin a rectangle. Continue working between light and dark to refine the drawing. Relaxing your eyes out of focus will help to eliminate distracting details.
try drawing it with a pen on paper Use bold. On p. three-dimensional drawings teach us about the totality of forms in space. When drawing anything viewed from one side on paper. 176 the British artists Noble and Webster draw with domestic refuse in a beam of light. There are essentially three lessons to be learned. and on p. This class uses thin-gauge wire to create a threedimensional violin. Seeing through a wire drawing of a known object such as a violin gives us a visual and tactile understanding of all its sides and shapes at once. and on p. continuous lines. our image is stronger if we understand and can visualize what is happening on the other side too.
. The second is that after achieving this simple example.104
OBJECTS AND I N S T R U M E N T S
Drawing with Wire
DRAWINGS DO NOT HAVE to be two-dimensional. 19 Picasso draws with a pen-light for the camera. you can create your own more ambitious works. The first is that figurative and abstract drawings can be made in space. On p. and physical relationships between them. smooth. Third.
Once you have created your three-dimensional violin (opposite). They can also be made in space.220 Mamoru Abe draws with forged steel rods.69 we see how the architect Antonio Gaudi drew proposed domes using suspended wires and weights. Place the instrument on a plain surface and illuminate it with a desk lamp to add the delicate dimension of shadows.
I used garden wire and cut it carefully with pruners. thin wire will make a smaller drawing. I started with the scroll at the top and fixed the four component wires with two drawings of tuning pegs. Cut a length.105
DRAWING WITH WIRE
Follow these steps to draw a three-dimensional violin Choose a gauge of wire sturdy enough to hold the shape ofyourfinished drawing. and pinch and bend it to shape the base of the instrument
Repeat this process to make the identical upper side of the instrument. These will hold the sides apart and help to keep the form in shape.
Once you have completed the body. but thin enough to be easily manipulated inyourfingers Here. Here. Then begin to define its uppermost surface with Scurves and the bridge.
. and thick wire a larger one. Join the two sides together with four short pieces of wire. brace the two ends of the violin with a length of wire along the back.
Decide how big to draw your violin relative to the gauge of your wire. begin to shape the curvature of the fingerboard.
. Oxford. Using found materials. some of which are shown here.Artifacts and Fictions
with a group of schoolchildren who were responding
to the astonishing objects in the collection of the Pitt Rivers Museum. England. they invented new anthropological finds—objects that reflected the distant past and their immediate future. I had the privilege of drawing their inventions.
W I L L I A M S
technology. diseased. During this time. is the most c o m m o n subject in art.The Body
UR BODIES MAKE us TANGIBLE. These classes are popular around the world. W e
are the only creatures on Earth that can make our own image. sculptural description of her form. He even believed he had located the soul contours of her form like a cartographer's map of in the pituitary fossa beneath the brain and behind the eyes. It also looks at the representation of the b o d y b11y4o n d traditional life drawing. R. This F finished image was produced as r a n c i s c o . while Leonardo opened the body to see and projected onto a woman's body draw the celebratory discover for himself our physical mechanisms. while Durer took his research further—
A. the junior workshop apprentices posed as part of their duties. R. Michelangelo attended dissections to made this image by light sectioning: fine beams of light perfect his understanding of surface form. portraiture. Artists are thought to have b e g u n drawing from the nude during the Italian Renaissance. It gives physical and emotive form to religious narratives. Look closely at Renaissance drawings of the female b o d y and you will see that m o s t are actually y o u n g m e n with minor adjustments. This chapter addresses issues that are most commonly faced by beginners attending life-drawing classes. and surgically rebuilt. Williams were decades ahead of their medical counterparts. She the body is still essential. The body remains at the core of over the initially white lines. The human body. giving physical foundation undulating land. but the study of a controlled.
clothed or nude. the Bay Area Models' Guild h o l d s a quarterly life-drawing m a r a t h o n aprinton Kodak transfer paper with green-colored dye added celebrating the great diversity of human proportion. in our privileged and comfortable society. Drawings were usually made from the male nude to avoid offending the church. herimpressive presence because we are given such Life drawing no longer dominates the art school curriculum. focus has turned to the vulnerability of flesh: how it can be damaged. and in San could easily be transferred into three dimensions. Renaissance artists studying anatomy from dissection clinically trained and specialized as a medical illustrator. and because the female was deemed inferior.
much Western contemporary art. Leonardo drew a man within a circle and square. and anatomical and erotic art. explaining ranges e/ of materials and techniques and showing diversities of thought and purpose in making. Strangely. artists also tried to define ideal proportions in the body. WILLIAMS
he sought perfection in the infinitesimal measurement of the body and produced four
Contemporary photographer volumes of illustrated explanation.
x 7 in (300 x 180
. a n d w e d r a w o u r s e l v e s to a s s e r t o u r e x i s t e n c e . myths and fables. history paintings and other stories. from video and X-ray to thermal imaging. Artists now explore the interior of the body with new media and
Lateral Contour Map of a Full-Term Primipara Produced by Light 1979 A. W e understand every curve and balance of to the theory that the eves are the windows of the soul. In this period.
filling the page with her presence.
Three Guards 1500-20 91/4 x143/8in (234 x 365 mm) RAPHAEL
. She u n f o l d s and s t r e t c h e s shapely limbs. Raphael's study of fallen m e n leaves no doubt that they are in anguish. and human defeat.
RAFFAELLO SANZIO (RAPHAEL)
Italian High Renaissance painter: Raphael is best known for his images of the Madonna and Child. altar pieces. Principal figures m i r r o r e a c h other. In a single drawing we see equally o b s e r v e d studies of f o r e s h o r t e n i n g (see
anatomy. But the meanings of each gesture and the materials and methods by which they
Postures and Poses
were m a d e contrast greatly. In this highly s o p h i s t i c a t e d a b s t r a c t i o n . Raphael drew delicate tones of black chalk on tinted paper.
Matisse's b l u e n u d e sings with life and c e l e b r a t i o n . Here three male nudes are compressed into very shallow pictorial space.
Sculptural frieze This is a preparatory drawing for Raphael's painting of the Resurrection of Christ. and studied to learn from the works of Michelangelo and Leonardo besides whom he was soon ranked. we see the e s s e n c e of h e r b e a u t y w i t h o u t a single detail.116-17). so that we read this drawing like a sculptural frieze. while supporting the weight of their body with the other.110
T H E BODY
THESE DISTINCTIVE WORKS show two strikingly different ways of modeling the body on paper. By way of contrast. while Matisse used scissors and glue to cut out and paste a flat collage of brilliant color. and Vatican frescos. Muscular dramatic postures reflect the influence of Michelangelo and the Renaissance celebration of the idealized male body. T h e y b o t h raise one arm to cup their head in their hand. He trained under Perugino.
foundamong many other groups of papercut these works as an elderly man confined to his bed or wheelchair.. and Islamic art. serenity.
freer. a mental soother..or like a good armchair in which to rest from physical fatigue..which might be. his pattern. Matisse
Soothing influence This drawing expresses the achievement of Matisse's personal aim: "What I dream and depressing subject matter. printmaker.. fabric.designer writer. devoid of troubling
Blue Nude 1 1952 413/4 HENRY MATISSE
.." of is an art of balance.111
French painter: draftsman. and more energetic
Color and form This collage is one of a series of Blue Nudes.. as his w o r k matured. His calligraphic natural abstractions of form grew brighter. teacher and principal exponent o f Fauvism—a movement established in 1905 in which bold color is the most essential element. Matisse became an artist after studying law.sculptor.like an appeasing influence. lifelong love of brilliant They celebrate the culmination of spectacular and sometimes drawings.
only tones blending into. and c o m p l e m e n t a r y hues. or abruptly meeting. Seurat engaged in lifelong studies of line. there are no outlines. In his f a m o u s paintings of social e n g a g e m e n t . T h e space around h i m chatters with symbols. and muddied the brilliance of the drawing. If Seurat had added white. other tones. and color His applied theories still influence painters in their manipulation and rendering of local. Seurat evolved a distinctive t e c h n i q u e called p o i n t i l l i s m — i m a g e s literally made from myriad points of color. His drawings are similarly u n i q u e . Opposite.
velvet d a r k n e s s . Light is given by the paper alone. w h o sits propped in the contradictory darkness of a hot summer's day. like small birds attendant on the meditation. Using the paper to create light is important for beginners to learn. scratched in seconds. Beuys's magician. stands in counterpoise holding a dark globe and his thoughts in m o m e n t a r y balance.
Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 1883-84
91/2 x 121/4 in (241 x 312 m m GEORGES SEURAT
. we c o m p a r e a skillful design that absorbed m u c h time in its making with the quickness of an idea marked instantly. 162) and an eraser to model teeming points of artificial light amid
GEORGES SEURAT French painter classically educated in the Ingres school of thought. in a perfect e x a m p l e . Typically. it would have mixed with unseen black dust.112
T H E BODY
T I M E IS A SIGNIFICANT E L E M E N T i n t h e m a k i n g o f a l l d r a w i n g s . Below.
Here. form. turned gray. it is as if the very atoms of air are made visible.
Tone and light In this black conte drawing. agreeing to coalesce and show us the form of a waiting boy. he used b l a c k c o n t e (see p. reflected.
in different positions. taught workshops with a cult following.gold. transience.
the profound power materials with spiritual or
Free lines This pale pencil drawing is Beuys. video art. Perfectly modeled rather conventional for Joseph
Focus Beuys's hand
quickly to draw dotted lines flowing downward on either side of the figure.113
JOSEPH BEUYS One of the most influential German artists of the 20th century. This figure is drawn intuitively. Beuys gave performances. Our focus joins
The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland UNDATED 113/4 J O S E P H BEUYS x81/4in (297 x 210 mm)
. free from the constraint of immaculate form opposite) impetus is irrelevant to the and meaning of this work (as we see in Seurat's drawing representation. Unbroken lines stream from his simultaneously movement. iodine. He was a shaman who believed in intuition and in the investment of healing force. and made installations. Many of his other symbolic works on paper have been drawn with materials such as honey. and that These aspects of the work convey fractured visibility. and blood. and drawings.
Anita Taylor has drawn her protective body hug out of the darkly glistening compression of willow charcoal and the dynamism of her shy but momentous femininity. Opposite.114
SUMMONING HUMANITY in a drawing of the nude is a subtle and emotional task. Paris. We are asked to gaze u p o n her flesh. sweeping lines— of either purple silk fabric or cool studio air—that imprint and amplify their past and future movements. and one of hundreds of rapid studies of nudes. In Rodins work. Achieving international acclaim in mid-life.
Rodin's public audience
understandably shocked by the eroticism of his drawings. Rodin employed models to move freely or pose together in his studio. As here. and went on to inspire generations of artists. its soft. But what is stranger to us now is that they were also outraged by his free use of line.
This is one of about
7. his w o r k is characterized by deliberate un-finish and powerfully modeled emotion. Rodin produced portraits and statues of public and literary figures. Our bodies radiate the passion of our thoughts and so become beacons of our frailty and power. His exquisite flow of paint beyond "outlines. They whisper and writhe in a brushed and sultry embrace that devours our watching. We are involved not as a shabby voyeur but as a bystander engaged through our recognition of shared joy.000 drawings shown in rotation at the Musee Rodin. was perceived as scandalous. the women are framed and caressed by long. he typically drew them with a few delicate strokes of pencil and brushed watercolor.
AUGUSTE RODIN French Romantic sculptor and prolific draftsman employed as an ornamental mason until the age of 42. flushed skin made ruddy and black with crushed cinders.
125/8x 9 in (320 x 229 mm) AUGUSTE RODIN
Two Women 1911
. In both drawings. the fierceness of the women's kiss is beautifully matched by the tenderness of his line." as seen here. Inspired by Michelangelo.
This order of light below and dark above gives glowing from within. Taylor's immense self-portraits explore the relationship between the artist as maker and the artist as model. professor and Vice Principal of Wimbledon School of Art. scrutiny.
Charcoal Taylor has drawn freely with charcoal and an eraser on thick. and gaze. intimately reflecting upon the emotions and meaning of nudity.
Luminosity Layered marks flicker likefirelight as they sculpt the woman's body. exposure. draftsman. leaving her lightest marks at the deepest level of the image and applying darker marks above. The sturdy surface of the sheet has allowed her to press hard when needed. Taylor has drawn. textured paper.I 15
ANITA T A Y L O R Painter. erased and drawn again. and rework rich depths of light and tone. A thinner sheet might have crumpled and torn under such vigorous force of making. the impression of luminosity
All and Nothing 1999 67 x447/8in (170 x 1 1 4 cm) ANITA TAYLOR
when beginners prop their board in their lap and look down at too steep an angle.116
T H E BODY
Measurement and Foreshortening
FORESHORTENING IS AN ASPECT of perspective. But if we could take a scaffold and climb up to the work. unfathomable angles. It is not complicated. more extreme examples have been made for court entertainment. Return to this posture every time. Lock your shoulder.
"Simple measured comparisons reveal surprising truths about proportion. for example. Rome.
This is a simple method of making measured comparisons for relating the true size of one part to another This is a tool to assist observation and thinking. Close one eye. rather that what we believe we know from experience. How to make and apply these is explained below and opposite.
Accelerated perspective plays a great role in much art. To avoid its effects ensure you always look flat onto the surface of your page. patience. the skull in Holbein's The Ambassadors (The National Gallery.limbs happily receding. and measurements do not have to be carried to the paper and slavishly drawn the same size they appear on your pencil. London). or shrivelling at odd. without taking off. elongated as if stretched across the plaster. persistence. Smaller. Spend time making comparisons before you draw. This is chiefly a correcting device by which figurative painters and sculptors have for centuries countered the effects of our viewing their work from far below or on the curvature of a vault. There is no need to mark them all down on paper. we would arrive to find many of the same figures strangely distorted. or coming forward.
Hold your arm straight. We also look at another very interesting branch called accelerated (or anamorphic) perspective. Move the tip of your thumb down to a second chosen point. The length of exposed pencil is your measurement. plummeting. If your arm is not straight.
Hold your pencil upright. with dramatic illusions of figures painted in normal proportion."
. which is imperceptible from below. and a few measured comparisons are key. and wrist joints. and to draw what we see. Imagine Michelangelo's murals in the Sistine Chapel. It is not so hard. elbow.
Keep your pencil perpendicular Measure and compare at any angle. just making them helps you see. you will make inconsistent and unrelated comparisons. It can also be a little demon in the life room. In the life class it is the mechanism for ensuring that a drawn figure lies correctly in pictorial space . to be translated by mirrors or seen from only one point in the room. Up close on the scaffold we would witness Michelangelo's subtle application of accelerated perspective. helping us to see more clearly. Align the top with a point on your subject.
which feels strange. a n d thighs. adjusting a n o n y m o u s shapes. t a p e s o m e p a p e r t o a board. Lean t h e t o p e d g e t o w a r d y o u and find a p o s i t i o n w h e r e y o u can c o m f o r t a b l y l o o k d o w n t h e p a p e r at an angle o f a b o u t 4 0 degrees. A t a c e r t a i n angle.
MEASUREMENT AND FORESHORTENING
Tilt t h e t o p edge o f this b o o k t o w a r d you and look d o w n o n this figure f r o m a b o v e .
C o m p a r e t h e heights o f t h e nose and eye shapes t o t h o s e o f t h e f o r e a r m . P r o p o r t i o n s will only l o o k c o r r e c t f r o m t h e angle at w h i c h y o u make t h e drawing. W o r k a r o u n d t h e figure. pleasingly f o r e s h o r t e n e d .
To f o r e s h o r t e n a figure. y o u r hand travels f a r t h e r than y o u expect. To m a k e f o r m s l o o k c o r r e c t . looking d o w n t h e p a p e r at t h e a n g l e at w h i c h I d r e w . Keep t h e b o a r d steady and draw. W e appear t o be looking d o w n o n a w o m a n s t a n d i n g b e n e a t h us.
T h i s is t h e s a m e d r a w i n g p h o t o g r a p h e d f r o m above. belly. Stand its b o t t o m edge o n y o u r lap. S o o n t h e b o d y will lie d o w n in space. y o u must let go o f w h a t y o u k n o w f r o m e x p e r i e n c e a b o u t t h e relative sizes o f b o d y parts and trust y o u r eyes.
. h e r p r o p o r t i o n s will appear correct.117
To discover h o w this w o r k s . L o o k at y o u r m o d e l as if he o r she is a flat series o f shapes o n e o n t o p o f a n o t h e r Measure t h e height and w i d t h o f each shape and c o m p a r e it t o its neighbor. See h o w d i f f e r e n t t h e relative heights o f t h e s e shapes are f r o m w h a t w e m i g h t e x p e c t in real life.
Be bold and dive into your drawing with c o n f i d e n c e .
This pose leans away into space above our eye level. Avoid drawing up one side and down the other. propelling you to make immediate assessments and trust them. and height. and energy. Start each new drawing by lightly marking the model's height with a loose line in ten seconds. and stance before honing her balance and expression. work back and forth across the body.
To outline a figure.
. To draw this effect. working from her center to her feet and to her head. balance. because it results in two unrelated sides drifting apart. and work over t h e m with further o b s e r v a t i o n s . Layered lines give d e p t h . I used a sharp H B pencil and began each drawing by marking her outline.118
DRAWING QUICK POSES l o c k s y o u r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n t o what is most essential.
When a model stands upright on both feet. her center of balance is normally found in a vertical line beneath her head. feeling. and slightly enlarge her legs and feet. imagine holding up a plumb line. T h i s q u i c k e x p l o r a t o r y line does not perfectly describe shape but expresses a decision about overall flow of form. height. To see this. make the upper body smaller give your model a high waist.
SEQUENCE OF POSES
H e r e the model was asked to move every t w o minutes. Leave first thoughts in place.
the activity of circular lines and the repetition of limbs suggest movement. The tilt of the pelvis is then counter balanced by the model's shoulders tilting the other way (as seen here).
. and this should be avoided
A model standing on one leg usually drops the opposite hip. This drawing shows how different observations be overlaid to bring a drawing alive.119
The twist of a model is most easily and expressively captured if it is exaggerated. Most of us have a tendency to over-straighten the drawn figure.
Begin by drawing lines to encompass the whole hand. W h e n starting. it is important to leave aside all details of the fingers and toes. and ignore all details. starting with the largest.
Build your drawing gradually from light to dark.
. especially the lengthwise divisions between them. Practice by drawing your own hands and feet. general to specific. It also helps the beginner to progress from drawing outlines to drawing confidently across the surface of the whole form. drawn in relation to each other. Group the fingers together as one mass.
feet. This exercise is useful when struggling with proportion. or those of a friend. but regard these practice studies as ongoing processes of thought and observatio Add details such as nails last if you wish. Do not separate them yet. Draw large shapes and their orientation. Don't worry about achieving perfect solutions. A mirror increases your range of views. Keep lines open to change and take measurements if they help. These planes. Then subdivide each shape so that you w o r k from large to small.120
Hands and Feet
THERE ARE MANY different ways of approaching h a n d s and
of form. and they need not be daunting to draw. and a gooseneck lamp casts shadows that clarify planes and depths
GESTURES OF THE HAND
Open Palm Start honing the shapes of the dominant planes. express structure and gesture far more successfully and easily than ten worried outlines wandering up and down between the fingers and toes. swiftly marking its essential gesture. Focus instead on how planes change direction across the knuckles from one side of the hand or foot to the other.
however.as though out o f wood. and don't worry about accuracy t o begin with. these are what give a drawing its tangible structure. depth. flattened planes. Look for key angles without becoming distracted by detail.
. Try t o express the whole foot and t o encapsulate its entire shape and direction in a few marks.
Use an eraser t o refine decisions o r t o suggest areas o f light. as if with a chisel.121
HANDS AND FEET
MOVEMENTS OF THE FOOT
Let your first marks be light. and spontaneity. t o remove t o o many early lines. It can be a mistake. Hew it roughly in broad. and rapid.
Nowimagineyou are carving the foot insidethepaper. Leave aside all detail. loose.
its nature in close-up to that of willow charcoal used on pp. Opposite. I also used white ink with a steel dip pen.204-05."
. The white lines demonstrate what is often called "bracelet shading.Charcoal Hands
T H E S E DRAWINGS ARE MADE
in compressed charcoal.
before honing his or her shape (see pp. length. and posture of the model. I make these lines in the first five to ten seconds of a drawing to locate the presence.
.HERE TRACES OF RAPID initial lines are still seen within and outside each body. 118-19).
feeling them through the attentive movements of your own hand.
. perspectives. characters.
It is now viewed with some skepticism and often seen as academic. Drawing work by another artist enables you to discover and understand the inventive hand in their composition.The Visual Detective
DRAWING FROM MASTERWORKS
was once a staple component of an artist's education. and narrative pulse become vivid when you realize them in the middle of your study. I draw in museums in support of written research and as an artist seeking answers to questions about the practicalities of image making. Forms.
At17V i a Romana. Life-size women wearing wigs recline on beds of embroidered silk in cabinets of mahogany and Venetian glass This is a detail of a compressed charcoal drawing measuring 14 x 10 ft (4. 126-27.
. each modeled from dissection.3 x 3 m) made in response to La Specola. These almost life-size figures were composed from my imagination and achieved with the help af studies discussed on pp. there is a unique museum of 18th-century anatomical waxes. Florence. Walls are lined with hundreds of faintly animated body parts.
abstract or figurative. Our homes are filled with images of our loved ones and of those in our families who have gone before. throat. Once you understand
Self-Portrait in a Cocked Hat c. The returning image was of crucial consideration in any proposal. painters have dropped discreet records of themselves into commissioned narratives so that they can remain a face in the crowd. and satirical or metaphorical.139). you can capture the subtlety. their stance.
Beginners often draw themselves as a way of establishing their practice.
a face is to see and interpret the essence of an identity. Man Ray's self-portrait of scored lines. historical. and their posture can be changed with just one line. who. buttons. gathered all that he knew
FRANCISCO DE GOYA V i s i o n a r y Spanish painter. This enlargement o f his miniature p o r t r a i treveals t h e s p e e d and agility o f his p e n and
about himself. It also reminds us o f b o t h t h e intimacy and a scene as scrutiny o f an honest portrait. Rembrandt's famous multitude of self-portraits. bells. neck. and a handprint (see
p. compliant subject to scrutinize. and shoulders. or whose eyes can seem to follow us around the room Portraiture is a constant. Movie director Alfred similarly signed his films by playing a fleeting role: he walks through an extra. Self-portraiture gives every artist a constant. W h e n drawing a person. and it is very rewarding. live. and p r i n t m a k e r . Past rulers sent painters across continents to bring back a likeness in advance of a prospective royal marriage.
IN P O R T R A I T U R E W E
PEOPLE. Goya's w o r k s include many royal and society p o r t r a i t s . is here to both meet and look through us. 1790-92 4 x 3 in ( 1 0 2 x 7 6 m m ) F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A
and memorize the basic structure that we all share. religious. having been
documented and preserved. the meaning of their face. Goya. In this chapter. look directly at us. or a glimpse of him is caught in a photograph used as a prop. a single line can deliver an entire expression. made as he passed through the ages of man. Portraits can be highly or loosely detailed. became more poignant as he progressed. character. and social and political commentaries. or past us. we use the delicate medium of silver point to look at foundation structures of the head.
his changes in pressure and Hitchcock length o f line. in a miniature self-portrait magnified opposite. Equally. For centuries. and in a few scrolling rafts of pen lines and stubbled dots. Halls and palaces are filled with pictures of the mighty and significant. and secular narratives. We can mold and animate qualities of expression out of objects and fragments of disassociated things—for example. and expression of the individual. single or of groups. draftsman. and lucrative genre for artists. We are also reassured by keeping records of ourselves.
usually strangers from past times. The truth is that we all like looking at faces and observing the billions of variations that make us individuals.
How could the addition of shadows have enhanced this image?
The simplicity of
Picasso's line is breathtaking. We can actually count that he struck the paper 40 times. The aesthetic sense of a line being just right can make a drawing sing. Picasso strikes and scrolls his pencil. one eye already cast askew into the autumn of her life. Holbein maps the still landscape of Dorothea's body in questioning marks. It is the portrait of a countrywoman. The truth is often the opposite. length. Her face is drawn tenderly and with a luminous glow. Here the grace and beauty of two young women are held forever.132
THE BALANCE BETWEEN a mark and a blank space is often a tantalizing form of perfection. Through exhibitions and copies in books. adding smudges of tone for weight and solidity. caught in her last moments of youth. There is a common misunderstanding that a drawing with only a few lines is both less finished and easier to make than a drawing with more.
PABLO PICASSO Spanish Cubist painter (see also p. they serve as a great lesson that it is not always necessary to add tone to your drawing. We can read so much about them by studying their gaze. teetering on the brink of older age. While with longer consideration. whisking a timeless girl onto the page. we can enjoy and learn from them. He makes his flair and skill look easy. Without faltering. stealthily using his chalk to find contours and mass.30). For the beginner. Picasso has left to posterity many hundreds of magnificent line drawings. hand to capture something well in only
Frangoise au Bandeau 1946 660 x 505 mm (26 x197/8in) PABLO PICASSO
. and pressure as it conducts our eye through the image. The Tightness of a line is felt in its speed. It takes a truly accomplished a few strokes. breadth.
Blended colors In this portrait drawn with colored chalks on slightly textured paper. he designed c o u r t costumes. Her folded forearms support and frame her weight above. He outlined her nose but not her upper lip. Holbein unified the woman with her background by gently blending colors from her clothes and face into the atmosphere around her. presses against the binding across her face. The peak of her cap clips the uppermost edge. In addition t o his numerous exquisite portraits in oil. and designer f r o m Basel.
Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser
1516 51/8 x121/4in (385 x 310 m m ) HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER
Cropping This regal composition fits its paper perfectly. gently flushed. made a popular series o f w o o d c u t prints titled The Dance of Death.133
HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER
German p o r t r a i t painter draftsman. and its downward slope crowns the diagonal of the composition. and produced numerous society portraits such as this one here. Holbein was employed toward the end of his life by King Henry VIII of England. Holbein has cropped and pinned his subject within the four outermost lines of the image—the edges of the page. which.
continues to exhibit regularly. Anatomically. and unpleasant to see. solid above and almost hollow below. dark lines made with a pencil
against smooth. It floats in space. dark tones of graphite blended into the paper. N e w s o m e ' s eerily shadowed form is smooth and bears a linear grain evocative of w o o d . its highly clarified detail claiming to be d r a w n from observation. Newsome was awarded the Prix de Rome in 1960. Delicate muscles are integrated with the skin and fat that is to be r e m o v e d .
Sharp. using a fine and relatively
13 x 181/8 in (328 x 460 mm) VICTOR NEWSOME
brush. taught at numerous British art schools from 1962-77. distorted. This is a m a r v e l o u s interpretation of the truth. This is one of a number of similar disembodied female heads seen behind. and has works in major collections including the Tate Gallery. Durelli has m a d e a few m i n o r mistakes.
British sculptor painter and draftsman. while white painted flecks and wisps suggest electrical illumination. Psychological drama is contained behind a grid. London. the contours of a grid.
These highly finished drawings express the emotional power and physicality of the head and neck. The real dissection w o u l d have been far more c o m p l e x . the face is one of the hardest parts to dissect. or defined by. confusing. In fact. perhaps applied using a tortillon. blood vessels. Nerves. The style of Durelli's d r a w i n g opposite sings with the confidence of truth and precision. but they are irrelevant here. and glands also complicate form. Highlights of white gouache were dry
late in the making.
Pencil numbers refer to the list of muscles written beneath. which. and it is likely that this drawing was intended for reproduction as a print.135
Linear perfection This is a red chalk drawing of extraordinary accomplishment. Red Chalk the Muscles 1837 173/8 x 145/8 in ( 4 4 0 x 3 7 2 m m ) ANTONIO DURELLI and Pencil Drawing and of Neck of the Head
Little is k n o w n o f this M i l a n e s e p a i n t e r a n d engraver w h o c a m e from a family o f artists. Stylized parallel lines are reminiscent of engravings. Durelli's experience as an engraver is reflected in his stylized drawing o f muscle fibers. It is hard to think of a more difficult medium with which to achieve such linear perfection. pull their points o f attachment t o w a r d each other
. w h e n contracted.
There is a film of Giacometti drawing. and with staccato flinches his hyperactive eye moves from paper to model. Then. Agitated marks make patches of tone that cut away the space around the character. They show us clearly the bones of drawing. while his hand stabs and thrusts
like a conductors baton. cutting and carving the paper with matted and spiraling restless energy. Giacometti settled in Paris. We are brought intimately close to this man gazing up to heaven.
Energy This is a portrait of a woman drawn with black crayon on a plain page of a book Lines search for the essence of form. Both works demonstrate how simple lines can be made complex by being intense. 1948 77/8 x 6 in (200 x 150 mm) ALBERTO GIACOMETTI
. each portrait is inscribed onto the page. Bellini gently conjures the features of his saint with soft marks that tease his presence out of shadows into the light. and heads. painter draftsman. Opposite. with speed and urgency. Flesh is built and personality carved simultaneously. The camera watches him at work. close enough to touch his hair and feel his breath. each locked into a visionary gaze. which are characteristically elongated. He is best known for his bronze sculptures of human form. necks.
ALBERTO GIACOMETTI Swiss sculptor. and poet After studying in Geneva and Italy.
began with an oval shape placed in relation to the proportion of the page. Without paint and with very little tone. he drew over the whole image at once. Similar movements sculpted the head below into its page. as if seen from a distance.
Portrait de Marie-Laure de Noailles c. They confuse our perception of scale by being intimately fragile and at the same time far removed.136
THESE ARE DRAWINGS
These are pinholes. a n d c o n t e m p l a t i v e .25 6 .5 9 ) . a n d b r o t h e r in-law. Sometimes different narrative
same character was reused in compositions. transferring which
were made in the process of the saint to his final place in the composition of a painting (see Glossary pp.G I O V A N N I BELLINI
A prominent member of a large family o f V e n e t i a n painters.
Character This is one of many cartoons produced by Bellini the and his family. Bellini s t u d i e d u n d e r his f a t h e r J a c o p o . Mantegna.
Shoulders of a Man 73/8 x 21/4 in ( 1 8 6 x 5 8 UNDATED
. H e p r e f e r r e d religious t o classical t h e m e s .
Transfer This delicate humorous
drawing is a cartoon—not
image but a type
of template used to plan the composition of a larger work Look closely and you will see rows of tiny dots along every significant line in the picture. a n d his w o r k is d i s t i n c t i v e l y calm. lyrical. H e t a u g h t G i o r g i o n e Barbarelli and Titian.
political outcry. The incandescent New York painter Jean Michel Basquiat pictured himself here in naked silhouette. scratched lines.
scratched into its surface. made with great energy. The figure's position is unequivocal and defiant while around him is in a state Without the essential of cultural and
figure we would elegant
belookingat a sophisticated
painting of signs. In 1986 he traveled to Africa and showed his work in Abidjan on the Ivory Coast He also exhibited in Germany and France. and confrontations with. marks. and attitudes. The artist has finished his portrait with the signature of his hand smacked in the middle like a kiss: a declaration of existence as old as man's first drawing. Later Basquiat sold drawings on T-shirts.221). drawn. spear-brandishing warrior. similar to work by Cy Twombly (see p. Al Diaz. humor. float and shimmer in the shallow pictorial space. It has proved to be a subject of piercing scrutiny. their most immediate and best-known subject: themselves. bells. and sheet metal before being snapped up by the New York contemporary art scene. Islands of graphic marks.138
THE MIRROR OF SELF-PORTRAITURE offers artists infinite reflections of. a tribal.
JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT
Short-lived American painter and graffiti artist who began his blazing nine-year career drawing on lower Manhattan subway trains with a friend.
Signs and symbols with symbols
that ore written. skull-
headed. It is an opportunity to look deep without the infringement of courtesies owed to a commissioning sitter. and buttons rings with surrealist wit and agile improvisation. and indulgence. scrolls. signing their work SAMO. It is an image of confrontation—the ever-controversial young artist roars at us from his abstract city-scape. Man Ray's playful silk-screen assembly of color blocks. and everything flux.
Self Portrait 1982 9 4 x 7 6 in (239 x 193 cm) JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT
Frame White lines are seemingly (though not actually) scratched through ink to frame this face.
Autoportrait 1916 195/8 MAN RAY
. The handprint appears to be made directly. The first part of the stenciled image was already marked on the silk The screen and paper were then held tightly together. They suggest speed and make the picture look immediate and spontaneous. caked in thick printing ink or paint. During the 1920's and 30s. printmaker and cofounder of the New York Dada movement. Man Ray lived and worked in Paris. while a squeegee was used to drag thick lilac-brown ink across the silk pushing it though exposed areas onto the paper below. They experimented with camera-free photography working directly onto photographic paper
Silk and ink This is a silkscreen print made through the following process: the paper was laid on a flat surface and a frame stretched with fine silk was placed on top. Black ink was printed next and then white. where he collaborated with the artist Laslo MoholyNagy. painter. Man Ray probably used his own hand. last of all.139
American surrealist photographer.
illuminators of medieval m a n u s c r i p t s . b u t d o n ' t w o r r y . it leaves a deposit. M a k e s u r e i t is c o m p l e t e l y clean t o avoid u n w a n t e d streaks. Historically. 144-45. purchase silver wire. 2. 5. T h e p a p e r will l o o k b u c k l e d . Pages 142 to 147 are illustrated in silver point and techniques are explained on pp. Take a sheet o f any t y p e o f p a p e r (for e x a m p l e . and make o r buy a holder. Be swift and firm. M E T A L OBJECTS: All metal objects m a r k a p r e p a r e d surface." Lead.s t r i p a n d use i t t o fix o n e side o f t h e p a p e r t o t h e b o a r d . SILVER P O I N T W I R E H O L D E R : T h e s e c a n b e p u r c h a s e d a n d t e n d t o b e heavy.
Find a clean sponge and b o w l o r d e e p t r a y a n d fill it w i t h w a t e r W e t t h e p a p e r evenly in t h e t r a y o r o n t h e b o a r d .
1. bone. Metal point is simply a strip of metal bound in a holder. Find a n i t e m t h a t y o u can h o l d a n d draw with comfortably. and t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h strips a b o v e and b e l o w .
Straighten the w o r s t buckles. platinum. key. The most c o m m o n metal has always been silver—hence the term "silver point. SILVER W I R E : Purchase different gauge lengths f r o m a traditional a r t supplier o r jeweler. I combined silver point with painted white gouache on a pink ground. Numerous early European artists also enjoyed its fine qualities (see p. and alloys work on matt emulsion. I m a k e m y o w n f r o m o l d dip pens.
. Stretched paper remains taut as a d r u m .54) can also b e used. o n e t o fit each side o f t h e b o a r d — t h e s e will make t h e glued f r a m e t h a t holds y o u r p a p e r in place. S i l v e r is b e s t . For i m p o r t a n t a d v i c e o n p r e p a r a t i o n a n d use. I t is a v a i l a b l e f r o m all a r t s h o p s . choose a silver object. If w o r k i n g o n an emulsion-painted wall. s e e p . Drawn across a prepared surface. copper. or wood. Lay a clean d r a w i n g b o a r d o n a flat surface. w h i t e d r a w i n g paper) and cut it t o fit y o u r d r a w i n g b o a r d w i t h a generous b o r d e r a r o u n d its edges.140
Silver P o i n t
SILVER OR METAL POINT
A sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has been made w e t with the strokes o f a paintbrush will buckle d u e t o its uneven expansion. E m p t y mechanical pencils designed f o r t h i c k leads ( s e e p. and gold have also been used. This browns with age unless sealed by fixative (see pp. Opposite. Metal point does not work on ordinary paper. Note h o w domestic paintwork marks with a coin. artists mixed white lead. b e f o r e priming stretched paper. 3 .54-55). s o m e m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n o t h e r s . p a r c h m e n t . an exciting indication of how large-scale drawings could be made on a wall. S O F T F U L L B R U S H : W h e n laying a w a s h . W e t a n d fix a s e c o n d strip t o t h e o p p o s i t e side. laid on paper. 156).
was familiar to
or eggshells with animal glue. Lightly s p o n g e o f f t h e excess. you will need t o stretch paper and lay a wash (see right and opposite).Tear o f f f o u r lengths o f b r o w n p a p e r g u m tape. c h o o s e a s o f t full b r u s h t h a t c a n c a r r y p l e n t y o f l i q u i d . Gesso o r m a t t e m u l s i o n c a n a l s o b e u s e d .
To begin. W e t o n e length o f g u m . 1 4 4 . or ring. Z I N C W H I T E G O U A C H E : Dilute with w a t e r A d d c o l o r i f r e q u i r e d (as opposite) 4 . and is therefore useful w h e n using w a t e r c o l o r as well as silver point. the surface must be primed with a ground such as gouache. who used it to outline initials and border characters before painting. which quickly oxidizes into a gray line. This is called a three-tone drawing.
Here. and let tests dry before deciding to change the mixture. The next step will make a small mess. T h r e e .
It will slowly straighten and become taut. overlapping lines until you reach the bottom. leaving a smooth surface. I used a powder pigment called Caput Mortuum. slowly add powder pigment or gouache from a tube.t o n e silver point drawing of a skull
Leave the paper to dry flat. Keep testing on spare paper. Dry thoroughly before laying a wash. as the paper will be ruined by a raised ridge. Make enough to cover your paper. any extra will keep. Beware of the tape's coming loose at any point while drying. v e r y little at a time. Leave the wash to dry thoroughly before you begin to draw. Runs blend into each other evenly. is necessary to lay a wash
Three-tone When coloring ground.
LAYING A WASH
It your stretched paper so as to prime it for silver point. Make an even line across to the right. Dip a soft. Mix a very wet but not weak solution of gouache in a jar with a lid (add pigment at this stage for a three-tone drawing). Reload the brush and add a second line overlapping it beneath. Prop up your board of dry. stretched paper at a 45-degree angle. full brush into the gouache and start in the top left corner. so put newspaper under the lower edge. Keep adding smooth.
Head and Neck
THE HEAD AND NECK are best conceived as one unit arranged in four parts: cranium, face, neck, and throat. Each is of equal importance. The cranium is essentially egg-shaped and pivots on the first vertebra. The face is suspended beneath, like a softly curved triangle. The n e c k — a powerful, shapely column of layered muscles rigged to vertebrae—adjusts and holds the angle and expression of the head. The throat is delicate, hard, and lumpy to the touch, formed of cartilaginous rings, glands, thin muscles, and looser skin. Framing the throat, two columnar neck muscles (sternomastoids) project the head forward and also turn it to the opposite side.
This is a simple shorthand diagram representing the cranium, face, neck, and throat. It can be learned and visualized in different positions very easily, giving the novice a firm footing on which to stand and develop their drawings of the head and neck.
Cranium Begin with an egg shape. Tilt it on the paper to change the position of the head.
Face Draw a rounded triangular shape below the forward point of the egg to represent the face.
Neck This shape represents the trapezius; the largest surface muscle of the neck and shoulders.
Throat A triangular shape represents the throat. (The nose makes the diagram clearer)
After copying the diagram above, animate it. Practice drawing the cranium at different angles, add the face beneath, then the neck, shoulders, and throat. Shape your diagrams so they are more lifelike, but avoid adding detailed features too soon.
143 These three drawings demonstrate (from left to right) the following: why the cranium may be considered egg-shaped; now the face can be seen as a curved triangle suspended beneath and where the division lies between the two; and the form of sternomastoid muscles that frame thethroatsodistinctlywhen the head is turned and inclined forward.
The skull and the frame of the throat
HEAD AND NECK
Bones of the cranium are locked together by jagged joints. Sinuses in the frontal (forehead) bone between and beneath the eyebrows are larger in men, making their brows pronounced and often ridged compared to those of women.
Bones of the face house our sight, smell, taste, The skull pivots on the first vertebra or "atlas," and speech. Cartilage extending from nasal bones after the Greek god condemned to carry the shapesthenose.Pads of fat resting on the base of Earth. The jaw hinges in front of the ears. Behind, eacheyesocket support the eyeballs in position. If bony ridges give anchor to the sternomastoid thefatisreducedby old age, eyes look sunken. muscles rising from the breast- and collarbones.
Three useful generalizations
General rules about the relative positions of body parts can hinder artists as much as help them, since they are often based on classical ideals rather than thediversityoflife.However,some generalizations can help as a rough guide to start with, so long as good observation takes over as soon as possible.
In general, when the face is relaxed (not smiling or frowning), the corners of the mouth are found directly beneath the pupils of the eyes. Vertical lines can be drawn down from the pupils to meet the corners of the mouth.
The height of a young adult's ear is often the same as their nose and found on the same level. There is no general rule for growing children, and remember that ears grow again in old age, which is most obvious in men.
The height of the face is about the length of the handspan and the eye is normally halfway down the total height of the head. A common error is to draw the eyes too high up on the face.
T H E DELICACY OF SILVER POINT
(see pp. 140-41) is perfect for
such as a beach pebble. Here, I stretched drawing paper and laid a wash of white gouache (see pp.140-41). As you can see, the line and tone of silver point varies with pressure, but only slightly. Too much pressure cuts the ground. Silver point erases, but so does ground. Erased ground can be repaired gently with extra gouache. You can also use gouache to paint over mistakes and make corrections.
small, detailed drawings. The drawings below and opposite show useful observations of the head and neck, which are explained in the captions below. Each drawing was made with a silver wire held in a large-gauge mechanical pencil. Newly clipped wires are sharp and cut rather than draw. Before use, they need to be rubbed and smoothed on a stone
Here I imagined placing my silver point wire against the skin of each head and neck and, working in parallel bands from the crown downward, I traced the undulation of surfaces. Linear bands imagined around the head and neck can help you t o clearly see the tilt of the head and relative levels of the features. Ask a friend t o model for you and try this exercise life-size using a pencil and eraser
Seeing that the face is never flat
Drawings below left and center are summaries of the generalizations given on p.143. Far right is an image to remind us that the face is never flat. It slopes back to varying degrees among individuals, from the tip of the nose t o the ears. For example, note that the innermost corners of the eyes are farther forward in space than the outermost corners.
General measurements, side
General measurements, front
View from above
Male and female head and neck
Men's necks a r e g e n e r a l l y s h o r t e r a n d t h i c k e r t h a n w o m e n ' s b e c a u s e t h e angles a n d levels o f c e r t a i n b o n e s a r e d i f f e r e n t b e t w e e n t h e sexes ( i n d i c a t e d h e r e b y d o t t e d lines) a n d m e n are n o r m a l l y m o r e muscular. T h e male t h y r o i d cartilage ( A d a m ' s apple) is larger a n d m o r e visible than t h e f e m a l e . L a r g e r f e m a l e t h y r o i d glands also s o f t e n t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e t h r o a t .
The largest m u s c l e o f t h e s h o u l d e r s a n d n e c k is called the trapezius. A r r a n g e d on e i t h e r side o f t h e spine, it shapes t h e u p p e r back and neck above the s h o u l d e r blades. C o n t r a c t i n g in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h d e e p e r and surrounding muscles, it raises and l o w e r s t h e shoulders a n d d r a w s t h e h e a d backtoeitherside.
USING A SHARP 3 B PENCIL, I drew this head quickly from imagination, evolving its character and expression from the scheme of four parts: cranium, face, neck, a n d throat (see p. 142). Here, five steps show you how to practice doing the same. This approach can be used to draw from imagination or from life. Keep your wrist loose and hold your pencil away from its point (see pp.22-23). Build the layers of your drawing from pale to dark, a n d from general balance a n d form to specific detail. Remember that successful drawings are built on foundations of "seeing the whole," then dividing the whole into smaller parts, with details brought in last of all. Phrased tonal marks modeling this girls skin and hair follow the technique demonstrated by Goya in his self-portrait on p. 130. Turn to Goya's drawing and study how, in a circle beginning across his hat, moving down his hair, and around his coat, he flows lines over surfaces to describe their contour. As you build from steps 1 to 5, bring phrased groups of lines across the surfaces of your form, using their directions to capture the expression of the head and neck. If unsure, copy my steps until you gain the confidence to make your own decisions.
This drawing is the final stage of the four steps opposite. Here, I have enlarged the eye, and moved it back into the head by trimming the length of the upper lid and adding a more pronounced lower lid. It is important to set eyes far enough back from the relatively prominent nose; too close to it and the face flattens. Hair swept back and extended behind the cranium balances the regal pose. Lines shaping the hair echo those marking the cranium in step 1. Here, the lower part of step 1 comes through as wisps of hair across her face and ear
Portrait of a Young Girl
Rapidly add shorthand shapes to represent the face.Theangle at which you draw this shape of the paper will determine the angle of the finished head. First lines will remain visible in the final drawing.
Place the eye beneath the cranium. and throat.147
Building up the portrait
Gently spin pale lines in a softly drawn shape representing the cranium. The nose and ear begin to shape the head. down the face to the throat. I used light to describe the upper lid first with a shadow beneath for the lower lid and open eye. they are also still sweeping and confident. neck. I modeled the outline of the character I imagined light shining from above and in front and adjusted the pressure of lines to reflect this. so it is important to the life of the image that while controlled. Here. The eye announces the nature and expression of the emerging person. avoid drawing too dark. Keep your first lines light.
Moving from the back of the neck. too soon. over the cranium.
and gravity.T o DRAW PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGES. muscular tension. a n d t h o s e w h o a r e
asleep (see overleaf). the texture of hair. Above all.
. be aware of the subtle differences in skin surface. empathize.
I used the nib upside down to gain needle-sharp precision. Fast lines carve out the features of Goya's soup-slurping hag.
. with a steel dip pen
and acrylic ink.
Madrid. Van Dyke's noble cast of characters was modeled more finely. seeking the dominant contours of each individual expression.Castings
DRAWING IN THE PRADO MUSEUM.
fulfilling lavish and spectacular briefs. woman was drawn by Bakst one year later for the ballet Narcisse. Bakst's designs and costumes immediately To the fine artist. w a r m t h . and gouache. Samoylovich Rosenberg. c r u m p l e s . and intent. theb u t b y the w a y it s p e a k s w i t h its flying. so that c h o i c e . and atmosphere. D e s i g n e r s create m a s t e r p i e c e s of haute couture
H o l l y w o o d stars. outrageous. w h i c h in turn feed c o n s u m e r Lev. o n l y the w e a l t h y c o u l d afford to h a v e c o s t u m e s specially m a d e . variety. S t r u c t u r e is t h o u g h the i n v e n t i o n of shoes. for e x a m p l e — d e s i g n e d the w a r d r o b e s of p o p e s a n d k i n g s . T h e e n t o u r a g e of the theatrical stage o f t e n l e a d s the c a t w a l k . it is the public sign by w h i c h w e are j u d g e d . and e x u b e r a n c e . b u t influenced Parisian fashion and interiordecor. Practical classes
l o o k at r a n g e s of c o l o r e d m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d i n g p a s t e l s a n d felt-tip p e n s .Costume
E MAKE OURSELVES EXOTIC. a n d c o u r t i e r tailors f o l l o w e d suit.This voluptuous above all a physical p u p p e t w i t h w h i c h to animate character and narrate personality. T h e p a p e r p a t t e r n is p e r h a p s the m o s t w i d e l y k n o w n of c o s t u m e d r a w i n g s : a formalized plan of lines. P o p u l a r f a s h i o n d e s i g n e x p l o d e d w i t h the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n . Artists do this not so m u c h b y the style of a figure's garment. and be so expressive of temperament that it overtakes the need for an o c c u p y i n g h u m a n form. gesture. caricatured p l u m e s . Cities c h a n g e d all. personality. toParis. or b u l g e s . and s y m b o l s that lets m e n and w o m e n in all countries and areas have w o r k i n g access to the latest fashions. he and cofounder Serge Diaghilev took Paris by eac storm in 1910 with their production h year in the industrial f r e n z y of creating o u r image and aspirations. known as Leon Bakst.
. and everything w e h a v e c h o s e n for o u r w a r d r o b e s — r e f l e c t o r s of o u r taste. charcoal. cool. and i n d e e d image b e c a m e the property also of the industrial classes. a n d p r o f e s s i o n — b e g a n life as a d r a w i n g . a n d w e will c o l l e c t patterns. intriguing. and even invisible by the w a y w e dress. shapes.
st 111/4 x 81/2 in (285 x 220 mm) u d i e d L E O NB A K S T
and explore the characterization of fabric t h r o u g h m o v e m e n t . was a Belarussian A r t Deco theater fantasies and desires to immediately possess a version of the same. articulate a d a n g e r o u s satirical j o k e . Like it or not. or calm u s w i t h chic. c o s t u m e o f f e r s a r i c h v o c a b u l a r y of t e x t u r e s a n d c o l o r . g l o s s y folds. Designers all over the w o r l d c o n t i n u a l l y p e n and b r u s h lines to lash us w i t h color. c u l t u r e . arichand unusual combination of pencil. e m u l a t e textures. W e dress ourselves and costume designer trained in in St. Petersburg and later exiled designers' ideas and are surprised and delighted b y their continual f l o w of inspiration. T h e rural masses w o r e h o m e s p u n simplicity. while court p a i n t e r s — M i c h e l a n g e l o and Holbein. dancer leaps through swaths of golden cloth. Previously.As artistic director of the It is s h o c k i n g to t h i n k h o w m a n y m i l l i o n s of d r a w i n g s m u s t be m a d e a n d d i s c a r d e d Ballet Russe. In psychology. In this c h a p t e r w e see h o w c l o t h i n g c a n s e e m to p o s s e s s the w e i g h t and m o n u m e n t a l i t y of stone. a n d s u b t l e t o n e s . of Scheherazade.
Short and subtle horizontal punctuations are only given in the background by sections of floor.
Silver (or metal) point is the most delicate
of traditional drawing media (see pp. The quiet stillness of this image is achieved by a masterly economy of stylized line. Below this. with their jagged edges. best k n o w n f o r his G h e n t altarpiece ( 1 4 3 2 ) a n d m a r r i a g e p o r t r a i t o f Giovanni A r n o l f i n i and his w i f e (1434). her marble garment holds u p the infant Christ in a fountain of compressed line.
Vertical lines The highly controlled lines of this drawing cascade from top to bottom of the image. With a stylus such as Van Eyck used here. and the kneeling abbot is a ghost by comparison.
Marble gown We will never know if Van Eyck considered this drawing unfinished or intended the kneeling abbot to remain transient and ghostly. bands around the columns. the Madonna and her architecture are both dressed in the same manner. Sculpted
one. the carefully composed outline of his cloak shows us how the artist would have also begun his immaculate rendering of the Virgin's clothes.
folds and patterns of material speak more resolutely of their wearers than any small glimpses of body we can see. H e m e t i c u l o u s l y a r r a n g e d subjects t o c o n v e y d e e p e r meaning. Their uninterrupted emphasis is entirely vertical. Church and deities are drawn as
Flemish oil p a i n t e r f r o m L i m b o u r g . it is only possible to create very thin. and implied striation in the stone of the architecture. Flaxmans sleeper—perhaps a pilgrim or a soldier resting between campaigns—has wedged himself into the cleft of some great building to grab a moment of peace. the vaulted stone roof echoes and crowns the moment. He has layered these slowly and carefully so as not to cut through the ground and produce a white mark just where he intended a dark one. resonate with their wearers startled expression.
11 x 7 in (278 x 180 m m ) JAN V A N EYCK
.140-41). Opposite. dragons. In Van Eyck's drawing below. delicate lines. Van Eyck's highly polished w o r k is c e l e b r a t e d f o r its disguised symbolism.156
Cloth and Drapery
EACH OF THESE FIGURES
is ninety percent cloth. However. and snakelike marks. Her gown is carved and polished as if made from marble. Above them. swirling printed fabrics. Keisai Eisen's intense.
which are sometimes also cut into pieces like a jigsaw puzzle. stone wall of downward-stroked this sleeper's position is momentary. This complex numerous blocks prepared image and may have been made with printed separately. he also co-edited and expanded the Ukiyo-e Ruiko (History of Prints of the Floating World). an 18th-19th century document on the lives of the ukiyo-e artists.
Position In this pen and ink drawing.
Man Lying Down in a Cloak I 787-94 21/4 JOHN FLAXMAN x 41/8 in (57 x 105 mm)
. Remaining raised areas of wood are rolled with colored inks. each delivering a different part and color of the design. Aeschylus earned Flaxman an international reputation. writer and printmaker Keisai Eisen took his name from the masters Kano Hakkeisai and Kikugawa Eizan. the cloak sliding to the ground. designer. Parts of the image to be left unprinted are gouged out with a metal tool. flat sheets of wood. The inked block is laid face-down on damp paper and pressed to make the print. Dante. the angle of the head. Respected for his sumptuous images of geisha and editions of erotic prints. Images are drawn onto smooth. and the feet notched against the pillar tell us that A lines holds him into the cleft.157
CLOTH AND DRAPERY
Relief printing This is a woodblock print made by a relief process.
Koimurasaki of Tama-ya 1810-50 15 x101/4in (381 x 260 mm) KEISAI EISEN
JOHN F L A X M A N
English late 18th-century neoclassical sculptor. draftsman. and teacher Distinctive linear illustrations for the works of Homer. one over the other.
1 6 x 9 1 / 2 in ( 4 0 5 x 2 4 0 m m ) A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE
. Opposite is a dangerous drawing. Leg sections in both
support the figure without taking our attention away from the main garment above. The metal. for she would not have been amused and William Wodall might have been stretching his luck.
Leg section Compare mid-shin
the section of white boots
to the section of similarly cropped
trousers in drawings
Gruau's drawing on p. In 1 6 3 2 he m o v e d p e r m a n e n t l y t o L o n d o n .
A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE
Flemish painter and draftsman. a n d w a s e m p l o y e d as c o u r t painter t o King Charles I. theater. all ruffs and wrinkles. The aged queen is compared to an overdressed bird.158
an extreme form of the clothed figure. w h e r e .
Pen and wash
In the graphic accuracy of this armored
knight we see the idealized identity of a warrior from another time: a gleaming defender of the realm. He has been rendered on this olive<olored page with pen and gray wash worked over a red and black under-drawing. 160. Details and voices are worn externally with great imagination. and even formal portraiture. lace. Anthony Van Dyke's Man in Armor is a masterpiece of drawn surface. Van D y k e was chief assistant t o Rubens f o r t w o years. Its color is also reflected in the metal. a scurrilous cartoon by a courtier of Queen Elizabeth I. t h r o u g h n u m e r o u s p o r t r a i t and C h u r c h commissions. he c o o l e d and redefined his style. where sometimes there just might not be anybody inside. The slight uncertainty of the pose and the limp cloak suggest a little more metal than man. A flamboyant territory. It is presumed Her Royal Highness never saw it. A s a y o u n g man. cartoon. cloth. and feather were all
CHARACTER COSTUMES REPRESENT
observed with closely crafted conviction. cinema.
Flowing scarf The knight's scarf of gilded blue is drawn in a pale wash over red ink lines. Fine examples can be plucked from fashion. b e f o r e traveling t o Italy. Its warm surface flows in contrast to the stiff metal armor.
Ruffs and feathers
Starched white ruffs worn at court and by
society grew steadily larger as Elizabeth's reign progressed. while a raised foot pauses to assess the next displaying a fan of daggers.1599
51/4 in ( 1 9 0 x 1 3 4
. t h e Ridolfi Plot. suggest the use of iron-gall ink (see p. she is shown as a grossly disproportioned bird. and saturations showing through from the other side. T h e
poem recounts t h e six m a j o r crises o f Elizabeth's reign: t h e Spanish A r m a d a .35). here dark tawny owl.
Dress c. manuscript
six c a n t o s .159
WILLIAM W O D A L L
A u t h o r and illustrator o f The Aaes of Queene a Elizabeth poem Allegorized. t h e Jesuit Mission. Beneath the lethal fan is the body of a bird of trimmed feathers suggest age. the queen is masterfully rebalanced by words at her feet The whole drawing's blackened. Northern
Satire This is a quill-and-ink satire of the elderly queen's pride-As head of state and fashion. hooded with an overinflated fluffy ruff eye pins us. t h e Rising. Top-heavy. bitten nature. t h e B a b i n g t o n Plot. it was customary to
Iron-gall ink Wodall's
dangerous caricature steps daintily
the written lines of her dedicated page. By her old upto three tiers supported on sticks. and her pride.
c e n t u r y haute i n n u m e r o u s m a g a z i n e s i n c l u d i n g Elle. and gray pigments were applied separately. a n d L'Officiel de la couture. Compare the compositio beneathVanDyke'sstudy of armor on p. elegant chic and svelte. diving to catch us in the grip of her machine-like limbs. studio-like rectangle of paper.
India ink and gouache
This swish of confidence and style our
enters the page turning everyone's head.
I t a l i a n . Fine lines drawn against the building behind her echo the threads on which we have all seen arachnids drop and hang.160
THESE DEVASTATING femmes fatales force back the onlooker with their demure.5 9 ) and a three-spoke balance of cuffs and cropped trousers to create an almost flag-like emblem of power. demanding attention with gesture and flair. Gruau's model regally swans to the fore with cool pride.F r e n c h f a s h i o n i l l u s t r a t o r w h o in his l o n g and esteemed career w o r k e d with many of the g r e a t e s t d e s i g n e r s o f 2 0 t h . She has been drawn with brushes dipped into India ink and gouache. Vogue. 158. 5 8 . Fashion and fantasy drawings invent prototypes of ideals and perfection—be they for the catwalk or the fast-paced pages of comic books. Harpers & Queen. Rene Gruau's bold gouache drawing of smoothly swaying sophistication captures a brilliantly cut garment and frames it with great dynamism in a white.
ofcroppedtrousershere to the device of the w
L ' O f f i c i e l d e la C o u t u r e RENE GRUAU
. G r u a u ' s highly distinctive d r a w i n g s have a p p e a r e d Couture. Airbrushed reflective surfaces further amplify our perception of speed. His model is outlined. Drying time in between applications ensured the colors did not run into each other. muscular aggression.and tilted to the same de
a little deeper than sp
kneestogivehergravity. and both share the power of scarlet and black. Spider-Girl leaps like an insect. possibly over a pencil outline. as is Spider-Girl opposite.
Composition Look how well this image is frame knee is parallel to the bottom edge
spacehorizontalline cropping the trousers be
outermostuprightbordersof her cuffs are similar above her head
thesidesoftheimage. Gruau uses starkly cut negative space (see pp. The black red.
created up therefore
the effect of steeply between
howyou can do the same in your own work—take calculate where a ruler the and single
vanishing point lies.
Free-Falling Through City
R O N FRENZ. a great characteristic superhero comics. He began work on Spider-Girl in 1998. It is outside the picture frame.74-77). to the right of its center. sky. Align your ruler to the upright of each building. This s
modeling applied over the top give the image a sleek and mechanical of
gravity. and figure are all locked into equally shatp through the traditional process of a pencilled outline over-drawn ink. at
Their extensions will meet the same single vanishing (see
pp. and has been the title's regular artist since 2003.RON F R E N Z Contemporary American graphic artist w h o designs and pencils the dynamic scenes of numerous superheroes featured in Marvel Comics. MARVEL C O M I C S
. Frenz has drawn for Marvel for about 20 years.
this drawing create a
dynamic. not far above the drawing. moon. beginning with Star Wars. The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones. Airbrushed color and with tonal
focus. In your mind's eye extend the uprights out of the top of the picture. and Amazing Spider-Man.
and can be a great rediscovery for bold drawings. Beware—some are toxic. unwrapped harder pastels. mixed on the paper and scratched into (as below). crumbly. Bright pastels are more brilliant on colored paper. Store loose pastels in dry rice to keep them clean. Use them to draw lightly (as above left) or thickly. though lines can develop greasy stains around the edges if the paper is not first stretched and treated with a gelatin paste laid as a wash. Try materials that are new and unfamiliar. Many artists apply fixative to the back of their work. C o n t e crayons are square-formed. made in about 80 colors. which he left unfixed to retain its brightness. 2. and can be softened and manipulated with degrees of heat. quality and cost T h e best are paperwrapped sticks of sumptuous.
Oil-based. and subtlety. size. OIL PASTELS: Many colors. Dissolve in turpentine or mineral spirits to produce oil paint or or dark paper.
the diverse are made in brands of basic member of the family. hue. or wax and a binder are shaped into fine strips and encased in w o o d like a graphite pencil. clay. purchase a small selection of different items you think you will like. are derived from many sources: rocks. the finer and more subtle the texture and color should be.
colored materials available. animals. quality.
1. plants. Degas built his pastels in layers. insects. Before making substantial investments. including iridescents. Seemingly infinite choices of texture. and
Pastel pencils make fine lines (as above). Pastel pencils are slender and in w o o d casing.162
ART STORES BRIM OVER w i t h t h e m a n y
wherever permitted. CHALK PASTELS: Blackboard chalk is sidewalk work. and cost are laid out for our pleasure and perusal. The worst are like revolting old lipsticks that get everywhere except where you intend. chalkbased but very subtle. Pastels are finer. oily pigment. these work best when slightly warm. I suggest you do so. intensity. wash. slightly oily to the touch. used to make colors. Be aware that fixative dulls pastel. Sticks and conte crayons make thicker marks (as below). and sold in many colors. They work well on
Pigments. shape. soft. Often. and synthetics. there are disparities between the apparent nature or color of what you hold in your hand and its performance on paper. you may be pleasantly surprised to discover something you could not have imagined using. paper-wrapped. 3. Most stores leave small pads of paper on their counters for customers to test materials. FELT-TIP PENS: Instant-drying alcoholor water-based inks stored in the barrels of the pens are delivered via smooth nylon o r felt tips of varying shapes and thicknesses. They vary hugely in cost. allowing it to fix slightly from behind. See h o w they work and return later for more of what proved best for you. COLORED PENCILS: Dry pigments ground together with chalk. Children's wax crayons are relatives. The nontoxic range below represents a suggested starting point for experiment. The higher the quality (and cost). 4. except the final layer. Many products are sold individually and in boxed sets. great for
. fixing each layer on the front. minerals.
. 111). Think of
Matisse's Blue Nude (see p.
Brands made for designers sold in enormous ranges of colors are far more subtle and sophisticated than those made for children. others dissolve in water or turpentine to make a wash. it is still a great champion and support for those beginners feeling shyly obligated to tone down their love of color to conform with what others say they should use. Colors can be blended as shown right) and tones graded by altering pressure. leaving the paper to shine through for highlights (as below). If you love smooth blocks and lines of colon felt-tip pens are perfect.
Although not made with felt-tip pen. so it is best to test them before buying.or clay-based thin crayons in wood casing. Fine lines can be achieved (as above). Diverse brands are harder or soften greasier or chalkier in use.163
These are wax. Some are nonsoluble. Some give richer lines than others.
values. 100-01 and pp. a n d e x p e r i e n c e visible p r o g r e s s . D r a w each o n e first as a solid object. style. and a selection of shoes. and they have been concealed in buildings to ward off misfortune.
This class takes the shoe as its subject in building on earlier lessons concerned with seeing through objects to understand their function. and volume in space (see pp. e n j o y i n g t h e study a n d i n v e n t i o n o f shoes. c o v e r a large sheet o f p a p e r w i t h line drawings o f several shoes.164
Study and Design
they reflect our age. structure.
. social and economic status. t h e n again as if transparent. As artifacts in museums. will discover m o r e . imagining y o u can see t h r o u g h it. a range of colored felt-tip pens with both fine and broad tips. 104-07). you will need several large sheets of drawing paper. and how we stand and walk. they record and reflect our common history. and after studying familiar shoes we use the information learned to invent new ones. t o o . Turn t h e m in different d i r e c t i o n s and o b s e r v e t h e i r s t r u c t u r e and f o r m . personality. while artists have painted their boots or those of others as personal portraits and memorials. To set up.
T o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s class.
Using fine pens. You. Superstitions and fetishes are attached to them: we are told never to put new shoes on a table. if y o u m a k e p l e n t y o f d r a w i n g s as o p p o s e d t o o n l y a f e w . Here we go one step further.
S H O E S TELL LIFE STORIES. the era in which we live. I m a d e n u m e r o u s s h e e t s o f d r a w i n g s .
STUDY AND DESIGN
study the surface contours using fineand broad-tipped felt-tip pens. For best results, it is important to be bold and brief. Draw firmly, fast, and with as few strokes as possible. Build up each shoe from light to dark andleavesome paper showing through to create highlights.
Design Your Own
Using what you have learned from the previous steps about the structures of your shoes, and about the use of pens, invent new designs from your imagination. Start with fine outlines and progress to colored and textured surfaces. Modify your ideas by rotating the views.
The Structure of Costume
MUSEUMS ARE AN INFINITELY
rich resource for the artist and
information given by a period style. Arrange to visit a costume museum or ask a friend to model clothes for you at home. Using fine felt-tip pens, begin with quick, pale impressions of each garment's shape before homing in on its borders and seams. Try to draw transparent views wherever possible to record the relationships between all component parts. Aim to draw enough information for it to be possible to make up a version of the garment using paper pinned to a tailor's dummy.
designer. They often give quite unexpected gems of ideas and information—whatever the subject. These drawings, made in a costume museum, demonstrate ways of recording structural information and detail for later use in the studio. They could form the basis of new designs for a fashion project or theater production, for example. Drawings of shoes on pp. 164-65 show how new designs can be evolved from the structural
It is usually best when collecting information for reference to apply the restraint of dispassionate observation. Set yourself the test of drawing facts with as little artistic license or embellishment as possible. Here I chose fine felt-tip pens because they are at their best when used swiftly, and therefore encourage bold, unhesitant decisions.
Swift lines record the hanging weight of this gentleman's coat, the relative proportions of its layers, and minimal details of the buttons and cuffs.
Thick velvet fabric is pulled tight beneath and across the bust by a single button. This transparent view shows how the fabric falls loosely in straight panels beneath the level of the sleeve.
W h e n visiting museums, be prepared f o r l o w lighting, which can make it hard t o see and draw. A book can help if attached t o your drawing board.
Adding stripes and dashes of color with a thicker pen brings out the glossy sheen and sculptural rigidity of this dress, which would have been worn over a whalebone corset. small reading light designed t o clip o n t o a
THE STRUCTURE OF COSTUME
In small drawings such as these, use thick pens to color entire sections with a few marks, as I did here down the side of the bodice.
The light, frilly bulk of this crinoline dress is propelled forward with lines. pinching its gathers and sways that are hiding a horsehair bustle. fleets of quick
THIS CLASS FOCUSES ON how to draw textures through the collection of fabric, pattern, and embroidery samples from a costume m u s e u m . This formal method, using ruled squares, can create an invaluable library of ideas a n d i n f o r m a t i o n for future r e f e r e n c e — w h e n painting a clothed figure, or preparing a textile project, for example. However, if making a book of samples for a project, remember that it is important to also include collages of f o u n d materials (see pp.230-31) To d r a w a fabric texture, b e g i n by concentrating o n h o w y o u i m a g i n e it w o u l d feel if you t o u c h e d it. Decide if it w o u l d be rough, s m o o t h , w a r m , cold, thick, thin, tough, or fragile, for example. As you draw, believe you can feel these qualities at your fingertips a n d that your pencil is responding to the sensation. Undulate the pressure of your lines and marks according to the feeling of the fabric rather than its appearance. Let your pencil enact the sensation of touching its surface.
and to experiment more loosely with mixed media.
This starchy, quilted, b o w e d creation started life as an imagined corset, I intended t o d r a w together in one sculptural f o r m a range o f t h e details opposite. T h e garment quickly got o u t o f hand. T h e r e is great e n j o y m e n t in letting y o u r imagination run wild w h e n inventing costumes. If you are unable t o visit a costume museum, many exciting fabric details and textures can be found in y o u r o w n closet o r home.
Colored pencils give precision and tonal range; they can be faded but not erased. Lightly use an HB graphite pencil if you wish to plan a design first. Pressed hard, colored pencils build up a waxy finish of brilliant color. Used lightly, they appear powdery and show the texture of the paper.
TEXTURES AND PATTERNS
Silk and braid
. I made a drawing book full of studies seeking to understand how he composed drama and pathos in his narratives (see also pp. shape.126-27.Dressing Character
O N C E SPENT THREE MONTHS
researching the work of Francisco de
Goya at the Prado Museum. and motivation of an individual. 172-73. and 252-53). look at how Goya delineated volumes of thick fabric to express the posture. selected from different pages of my original book. These
of works by Goya in which he makes air seem heavier than flesh. and visible.
also taken from my Madrid drawing book (see
pp. I carefully copied the direction of each of his lines.T H E S E PENCIL STUDIES. To understand how he did this.
. and tangible. as it rushes and carves fabric-wrapped forms like rivers and desert winds shaping the earth.
and novels—our staple cultural diet—are driven by a fascination with shared experience and the detail of what happens in other people's lives. furniture. He in turn scorches the paper with his view and a certain speed of seeing all. Second. television documentaries.
We read tensions and exchanges between people. We can direct
close. the viewer is not directly made the finer lines of Saskia. and instantly engage with the
action of the scene. He is also the artist from whom props to add layers of meaning and attitude. presumably while he is making this drawing. too. As artists. we can learn most about handling pen and ink. soap operas. This J u s t as there are three parts to a traditional landscape drawing—the foreground. finding
corners in crowded places to inscribe their action and energy onto the page. the direct exchange (as shown here) where one or more characters hold eye Aneedproduced the thicker lines of the nurse.
but drawings of gathered people tell them most directly. Drawings selected for this chapter explore these
Saskia Lying in Bedand a Nurse ranges of proximity 1638 9 x61/2in (227 x 164 mm) and a travel journal. Third. stares out from her gloomy sickbed. are implicated in this marital exchange made over the head of the anonymous nurse.
. types. It middle. Storytelling and people-watching are obsessive human activities. R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN
in the delivery of narrative. Blockbuster movies. we can
R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter draftsman. daily newspapers. With a pocket full of disposable pens we also go out and draw the expressions of gathered people. in spite of how it may seem. Washes of shadow behind engaged and as a natural voyeur can feel invisible while watching the scene. Saskia died after childbirth. paintings depicting scenes from history. First. and other masters of Western Art. the viewer's attention in a scene by the format of its composition. and distance—so drawings of gathered people can be loosely arranged in three took only minutes to make and yet it lives for centuries. Here. we. The spaces between people and the positions they occupy on a page are vital to our understanding of the psychology or emotion of an event. We can also use clothes. a crowd tells the story from a distance. even up her were laid with a brush. while a quill contact with. and therefore seem to see. Saskia. comics.
heighten or subdue drama with subtleties of exaggeration or caricature. Later in their lives. Seeing through Rembrandt's eyes. this is not the portrait of an old woman. Her all-too-clear expression shows annoyance and irritation with her husband. and its illumination. the viewer. Rembrandt's bored and frustrated wife. there are no longer individuals but one significant group or mass action. and so. vivid portrait of his wife captures our attention. the speed and printmaker and one of the greatest and most influential density of its lines.Gatherings
LL DRAWINGS TELL STORIES.
and projectors to create their anarchic punk satires of modern life.
TIM N O B L E A N D SUE W E B S T E R
British artists who collaborate using neon. via the animated clutter of o u r material lives. N o b l e a n d W e b s t e r s w i t t y a n d o f t e n s u b v e r s i v e d r a w i n g s are also c o n t e m p o r a r y art installations.. the C o o k .. h a l o e d portrait of the artists seated b a c k to b a c k .kicks against the mundane things that close down your mind is a refreshing and good thing. In one of R a c k h a m s great illustrations for Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland. and smoke billows around the agitated jives of the Duchess. Here.176
SOME DRAWINGS ARE MADE e n t i r e l y o f i l l u m i n a t i o n that floods drama into the viewers gaze. hearth i m p l e m e n t s crash at o u r feet. or even the office photocopier. T h e i m m a c u l a t e d r a w i n g is only r e v e a l e d w h e n t h e b e a m of a p r o j e c t o r c a s t s t h e s h a d o w
of the h e a p o n t o a wall. refuse. In both works. t h e y select and arrange familiar items of street detritus into what appears to be an u n p l e a s a n t pile. F o r e a c h w o r k ." (Tim Noble)
with light it is important
to think about what you is Here timelessly we see a in
can draw with. the Cat. narrative is delivered through the air. a kitchen explodes in o u r faces. junk.
Real Life is Rubbish 2002 Dimensions variable
TIM N O B L E A N D SUE WEBSTER
. and on. plates shatter. for example. and
projector. and Alice. and in. c o m p o s e d garbage p r o d u c e s a c a l m . Pans fly oft
the stove. Think about what else you could use: a laser smoke. Below. Pencil on paper important but only the beginning of possibility
space. garbage and chaos are piled a n d e x p l o d e d in r o o m s full of event."Anything that.
and watercolor. amplifying movement outward from the vanishing point. are very large compared to on p. See how the
In the Duchess's
77/8 x 6 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 5 0 m m ) ARTHUR RACKHAM
. and Poe's Tales Imagination. This makes the story appear to leap out at us. ink. by vivid children's
Rakham's w o r k is characterized fantasy. a n d
an unmistakable graphic style. beams. tabletop. H e is best k n o w n forillustratingIrving's Rip vanWinkle. and
Alice's shoulder. Find the singleperspective pp. we find several devices already explored through our drawing classes.Stowe's ofMysteryand Queer Little Folks. 100 to see for make elliptical objects and pans fly through the the foreground. humor. The wood grain acts like marks of speed behind the scene. Refer back to the drawing class how pots In drawn objects and elements that those behind.
Depth Billows of smoke expand and are lighter as they come forward. Rackham
Vanishing point In this marvelous drama made with pen.76-77) above vanishing point (see that is about3/4in (2 cm) oak converge at this point.177
British watercolorist and book illustrator.
and we. London. The mournful gray landscape of Henry Moore's northern British field has gathered by night an overcoated audience to stand and wait before a wrapped and roped monument. a sculptor. expressing his dry humor about
O F ALL THE CONTRASTS
HENRY MOORE British s c u l p t o r w h o t r a i n e d a n d taught at t h e R C A . heat. A glimmer of gold light appears from the left No explanation is given. and composition they are polar opposites. audiences. which still narrates vivid days in the lives of an energetic nation. and art in the landscape.178
we have seen in the pairs and trios of drawings by masters and makers. a n d l o v e d t o d r a w in t h e BritishMuseum. a great Shoshone drawing blazes with the color. Moore's spectators appear to have walked a long way from nowhere to witness and wait beside this mysterious obelisque.
Chalk and graphite This fog-bound but humorous gathering of souls is made in graphite and colored chalk with gray wash. This is just one of many precious artifacts from a lost time. as fellow watchers. as if Moore's wrapping has been literally outstretched. Opposite. meaning. HENRY MOORE Crowd 1942 Looking at Tied-up Object
.The human form w a s the vehicle o f his expression and h e w a s t h e official W o r l d W a r II artist. join in the waiting. In culture. M o o r e t o u r e d Italy as a young man. perhaps these two are the most extreme. This is an ironic drawing from Moore. and action of a buffalo hunt.
sculpture. The image stands out among his more usual graphic works in which he hones and carves semi-abstract human forms.
Hunt CENTURY SHOSHONE SCHOOL
. Stylized hunters.
and helping our eye to dart around." Men at the instructed to sit and watch.
Horses It is interesting to note how the outstretched
ofthesehorses echo European images of the runningBuffalo horse before the sequence-photographer Muybridge taught us to 19TH understand their movement differently.179
SHOSHONE SCHOOL Stylized characters This vital image of a buffalo hunt is made with pigment Members of the Shoshone community wishing painted within dark outlines on a stretched elk hide. tolearnhow to paint a scene on a hide are and buffalo circle and charge the perimeters of a skin "field. creating harmonious balance with words but through silent demonstration. Skills are taught not center chant or dance to the beat of a drum. Each color is evenly distributed throughout the scene. horses.
The Human Condition
IN THE SPECTRUM of these vastly d i f f e r e n t g a t h e r i n g s of p e o p l e . m a r k . a n d the gentle h u m o r of sedate r i d i c u l e . We also see qualities of line.f o o t e d t r o g l o d y t e s w h o rage into w a r like a m u d s l i d e of revenge.
W I L L I A M BLAKE
British visionary. It illustrates a scene from Dante's Divine Comedy. w h e r e he w a t c h e s a t u r b u l e n t s p i r a l of p u n i s h m e n t f o r the d a m n e d .
Brushed line and wash This is an ink-outlined drawing made with a fine brush on paper with added washes of watercolor The image was subsequently redrawn as a line engraving. w h i c h b y their c h o i c e a n d h a n d l i n g a c t u a l l y b e c o m e the force a n d spirit of e a c h i m a g e . and sweetened the often bleak years with his impractical inventions. inextinguishable in its fortitude and h u m o r . B l a k e h a s i l l u m i n a t e d his s a d d e n e d Virgil on the s h o r e s of a d a r k w o r l d . era as Kollwitz. K a t h e K o l l w i t z s c r a t c h e d a n d e n g r a v e d her a r m y of c l a y . a n d f o c u s . Blake w a s d r i v e n b y a passion f o r j u s t i c e a n d a p r o f o u n d b e l i e f in his v i s i t a t i o n s f r o m angels. a n d e n g r a v e r w h o p o w e r f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e d his o w n t e x t s in a d d i t i o n t o D a n t e ' s Divine Comedy. w r i t e r a r t i s t . color. Misted in translucent layers of paint. p o e t . texture. The muscularity of Blake's figures was inspired by Michelangelo's works. t h e Bible. a d e a t h c h a r g e of brutality. a pink-inked cinema wobbles along with string. a n d o t h e r w o r k s . Opposite.
The Circle of the (The Whirlwind 1824 of
Lustful Lovers) mm)
143/4 x 207/8i n ( 3 7 4 x 5 3 0 WILLIAM BLAKE
. w e f i n d a spiritual v i s i o n . Heath Robinson lived through the same war-torn. pale souls of the lustful are being s p u n into yet another realm of hell.
Kollwitz survived the two World Wars. stoical bemusement. poverty. plodding along with hazy.
The Kinecar 1926 103/8 x 15 in (262 x 380 mm)
Pen and wash This is a pen-andwatercolor drawing made for a color-platereproduction in an edition of T h e Bystander.181
German printmaker. sculptor and draftsman. White marks were made with a dusting of French chalk on the artist's finger to wipe away ink leaving clean metal. Ink rolled over was selectively polished off using a rag. and controlled smears on the metal surface printed as tones. children. Heath Robinson shows England in a past era. He created sincere. and clearly focused. however meager or ridiculous their activity. Robinson and Kollwitz (above) share almost identical life dates and their work expresses a shared history from opposite sides oftheworld wars. The image was scratched directly onto a metal plate. With masterful gentility. What remained in scratched grooves printed on damp paper as lines.
THE HUMAN CONDITION
Scratched lines This is a dry-point etching with monoprint.
Losbruch (The Outbreak) 1955 20 x 233/8 in (507 x 592 mm)
humorous illustrator and a regular contributor to magazines and journals such as The Sketch and The Bystander. and the family home. humor by making his characters earnest. and the impact of death and war upon women. and her powerful and sensitive drawings center on nurture. who lived in a poor district of Berlin.
T h e r e a r e m a n y d i s p o s a b l e p e n s t o c h o o s e from. and in most pockets so I can always record a thought
O n a c o l d day in Venice. dropped in your pocket and forgotten till needed. B A L L P O I N T : Black a n d b o l d c o l o r s o f f e r d i v e r s e qualities. aiming for correct outlines would result in drawing too slowly to c a t c h the moment. trusting shape and form to follow. The f o u r i l l u s t r a t e d h e r e r e p r e s e n t a basic r a n g e . 2. a ballpoint will make faint lines. in the studio. or put the paper in your pocket instantly without fear of smudging. a disposable pen with its clip-on cap goes anywhere. Available in blacks and ranges of colors. shut your book.
or idea. a n d pressure-sensitive. they each offer distinct and sometimes unexpected qualities.182
(ballpoints. w a t e r . W h i t e gel p e n s a r e v e r y e f f e c t i v e o n d a r k papers. these pens enable you to sketch. they can be obtained within minutes. I swiftly focused on gesture.r e s i s t a n t .
is d e l i v e r e d t h r o u g h a m e t a l t u b e o v e r a t i n y ball bearing. if y o u w i s h y o u r d r a w i n g s t o last a n d n o t fade o r b l u r w i t h t i m e a n d e x p o s u r e t o light. So many stores sell them.188-89) and Caravans (see pp.7 7 and 214-15). turn the page. fibertips. p e r m a n e n t . which can snap or pierce through your clothes. rollerballs. Insensitive t o p r e s s u r e : lines d o n o t v a r y in w i d t h o r t o n e . T h e r e w e r e c seconds t o snatch this impression b e t w e e n their emergence from one bridge and disappearance b e n e a t h t h e next. I keep quantities at home. For example.
Drawing with a fine fiber-tip
pen. 7 6 .
1. 192-93) w e r e b o t h m a d e w i t h a ballpoint. indent paper. At a time like this.
4. G E L P E N : P r o d u c e d in b l a c k w h i t e . R e m e m b e r . in the car. build to a rich. c h o o s e p e n s l a b e l e d " p e r m a n e n t " o r "lightfast. or turn into washes and make monoprints if flooded with an alcohol-based substance such as hairspray. including l u m i n o u s a n d m e t a l l i c . gel pens) are the most convenient of all materials with which to travel. Ideal f o r precision w o r k (see p p . dark sheen. t h e y a r e lightfast. t w o tourists and their gondolier drifter past m e o n a canal. FIBER-TIP: M a n u f a c t u r e d f o r artists a n d d e s i g n e r s in a r a n g e o f w i d t h s . Quick-drying. a n d ranges o f colors. Lines t h i c k e n as t h e p e n w e a r s o u t G r a n d Canal (see pp. Unlike pencils. blob when old. R O L L E R B A L L : A c o n s t a n t i n k flow 3 .
Here I used the same fiber-tip pen to compose a scene from memory. Earlier I had witnessed a crammed en masse in a fleet of hired gondolas complete with musicians and choir. Compare this
lines focus on action. not form.
crowd of fellow
Fast lines These
the mass and shadows of heads belonging
into the boat.
if a person was stout. life will not slow and wait for you to catch it. Let the line of the flying coat fly and the hanging arm hang. just draw the action. Each line acts its part in the narrative. black.
. Push toward caricature and this will draw out of your memory what was most important. No camera can tie you to a time or people in the same way. focus on the action of the event. all action is in the line of his coat and directed by his nose. Each one was witnessed and drawn immediately from the afterimage of what I had just seen. Don't worry about measuring angles. if animated. activity.184
The Travel Journal
I CANNOT OVERSTATE THE JOY of making a travel journal.
Walking through Venice with a small. Above all.
Circular lines buzz around a man puzzling at the end of a train platform (left). pocket notebook and a fiber-tip pen. animate them more. angles will happen as a matter of course. Exaggeration helps. You will make outlines. You must learn to trust your memory and to draw what impressed you most. when out drawing. A curatorial assistant flies to do a chore (right). However. I caught fleeting glimpses of gathered people and solitary souls going about their affairs. let it enter the stage and perform. Every drawing writes an indelible memory of place. and companionship. make them stouter. but they should not be what you dwell on. of course. not its outline.
eager to herd us all from his house of responsibility. The rush of his legs isamplifiedby their blurred lines.
THE TRAVEL JOURNAL
The same willowy assistant dashes about his work. In turn. I drew him three times on the same page to catch a range of his physical expressions.185
A large lady is photographed in front of a delicate work of art. I am watched by the aggravated guard.
Identify the principal character and draw him or her first. When your attention has been caught. decide how faces and bodies contort. forcing me to remain at the back and look at them. and let every detail speak by its size. if they are being haughty. and clothing or bags hang.
. flap. placement. and there met this sullen custodian. Place the person carefully. Here the custodian projects fastidious ownership of his desk and pamphlets by pushing from behind the center of the space and challenging our entry to his image. if they are being devious.186
Catching the Moment
On A BITTERLY COLD November day. start by focusing on its action. For example. He and his simpering assistant would not allow me in. Be aware that their placement on the page is part of the narrative. elevate them in the pictorial space. For example. and involvement in the story. pulls. or bulge. you might place them lower down. emotion. not outline. focus on action. and reason for happening. furniture leans. or pushes. rather than the works of art they guarded. and you decide to draw the moment. I took refuge in a church in Venice.
ACTION AND DETAIL
W h e n drawing people. Here I have recreated my drawing in steps to show you how to set about capturing such a scene.
If drawing a more complex scene. I added t h e assistant. Draw their action and props. Decide where t o place them t o emphasize their role. who is largely expressed through the shape and fall o f his raincoat and his way o f using a note pad. Decide where you will place them o n the paper t o emphasize their action and intent.
. together with any immediate props they are using. such as the desk and pamphlets seen here.
CATCHING THE MOMENT
Identify t h e antagonist ( o r second character) in t h e scene. W i t h a few strokes. D r a w their action. which is pushed toward us in a gesture of confrontation. a pillar locates t h e scene in a depth o f space. In the final step (left) I reinforced t h e custodian's desk.187
Identify your principal character a n d their psychological role in the scene. continue adding characters. Here.
An imminent deluge of tourists urged me to work catching no more than the skeleton of the view.Grand Canal
T H E CANALS OF VENICE
are bustling places full of occupation. and buildings.
. I developed
detailofthis drawing from memory using a ballpoint pen. where
vertical mooring poles give space and pulse to the horizontal speed of water quickly.
followed by the streets.
. Each person was glimpsed in an instant. Caricature each person slightly.Crossings
DURING THIS RUSH HOUR. Characters in the foreground were drawn first. note only their most essential action and feature.
Venetians flow across a stepped
bridge and cascade into the streets beyond. then the bridge beneath them. and drawn immediately from memory. To catch characters like this.
. I found this circus by chance in the Swiss mountains. Sitting at a distance on a hot. quiet afternoon. I used a ballpoint pen to compose a series of scenes. Caravans and other backstage activity convey expectations of energy and repose. and a great subject to draw.Caravans
T H E PARAPHERNALIA O F TRAVEL i s
part of circus life.
Beginners will often choose calm. the face of the Moon. The pastel drawing was constructed from myriad telescopic observations almost 200 years before the Apollo Moon landing.
5 f t x 5 ft 6 in ( 1 5 2 x 1 6 8 c m ) J O H N RUSSELL
. marking the ground with lines of footprints or by turning stones. speculation.
A p o r t r a i t pastelist t o King G e o r g e III o f England. our companion. to be ready to draw the new light as it breaks across the land. Oxford. they are the animators of your subject. It is better to get up before dawn. This is the world's first accurate image of the Moon. and experiment. These conditions are very difficult to express well. H e a l s o p r o d u c e d an a l b u m o f 1 8 0 exquisite pencil drawings. t w o e n g r a v e d m a p s k n o w n as The Lunar Planispheres. The forces of nature. how the mountain cut by ice and rain is now fleetingly lit. learning to draw light out of dark. Look closely at works by many artists and you will see that they have not represented hills. surrounded by the bright instruments of centuries of navigation. England. and its draws the tides of the seas. a n d a n astronomer w h o dedicated 20 years t o studying t h e M o o n . makes his work by the act of walking. and meteor impacts have scarred. What they have drawn is the force of nature on these properties: how the wind heaves the night ocean. and take bold steps in emulating the swell of clouds and the forces of torrential water.Earth and the Elements
T MAY SEEM PERVERSE
to start a chapter titled "Earth and the Elements" with an image
of the Moon. sunny days. Take chances against the rain and work with the wind or fog. how the soil is scorched. the sun comes out to blind it. when little stirs and empty blue skies offer even less to latch lines to. pages o f softly i l l u m i n a t e d craters and lunar "seas" c o v e r e d in m a t h e m a t i c a l and s h o r t h a n d calculations. trees. and the sea. In this chapter
Moon Pastel 1795
we experiment with charcoal. There is a sense of the heroic in drawing outside—we race to catch a form before the tide engulfs it. arranging them in perfect circles on the mountainside or in lines drifting out of sight beneath low clouds. 199). It is Earths
William Turner is said to have had himself lashed to a ship's mast to comprehend the storm (see p. Richard Long. so J o h n Russell's tour de f o r c e drawing (opposite) was a masterpiece of observation in his time. rivers. or the wind carries it away. a contemporary environmental artist. Just as NASA photographs of Earth have had a profound effect on the way we view our fragile home. a n d a m o o n globe called t h e Selenographia. t h e first-ever accurate image o f t h e M o o n ' s surface. Russell d r e w this. By drawing such momentous and everyday events. and even how the Sun illuminates. or has cracked and fallen under the weight of water. are the real subjects in great landscape drawings. It now hangs on the staircase of the History of Science Museum. artists see for themselves that which is momentary and eternal. as opposed the physicality of Earth. but it can be seen as a lens to our observation of this planet. Weather is essential in all landscape drawing.
and by observing its tides and eddies in our o w n environment. T h e ship. Daumier's c a r t o o n shines with the brilliance of his comic memory.
Crayon and limestone This is a lithograph. lifts. distance. Fluid strokes inflate the woman's dress and pin shadows to the ground. Hokusais sedate wind presses reeds a n d the j o u r n e y s o f young ladies. is already lost. the bourgeoisie. and gives motion to each image. a scratched ghost. and pioneer ofexpressionism. undramatic b u t brimming with stylized realism.198
EARTH AND THE E L E M E N T S
Air in Motion
THE GREAT INVISIBLE SUBJECT o f these d r a w i n g s is t h e w i n d .Through political drawings he fired his sharp wit at the king. and solidity. we can soon learn to draw its force. This wife. and the legal profession.
Danger of Wearing Balloon Petticoats UNDATED
. speed. T h e great master of English seascape is c o n d u c t i n g with his graphic energy. A hard waxy was drawn across a heavy limestone Varying definitions
crayon of lire
and depths of tone conspire to give volume. Dots and dashes suggest receding trees out of focus. a sail b r o k e n loose in a stormy marriage.
seeing how it shakes. He knew how the world bends and stutters under such gusts.
H O N O R E DAUMIER
French satirical cartoonist lithographer. By
Turner carries us to the heart of the maelstrom. the government. fluttering heavily. Hazy vertical marks reveal buildings into the mist. Terrifying waves of merciless nature roar across the paper. has b e c o m e a hysterical kite. Flapping kimonos and an onlooker turning his b a c k have the magic of a m o m e n t caught. serving a prison sentence for his views. Below. like an umbrella forced inside-out. sculptor. painter.
into this very as
sheet The paper's through
own coior is brought
banks of mist and fog. leans
the whole composition swells around its fateful
center. d e s i g n e r a n d b o o k i l l u s t r a t o r . T U R N E R British landscape.b l o c kprintmaker.
Wind direction wood-block
This is a colored To represent the blows lifted flowed wind. A outline scratched of a skeletal into
ship is while and
the waves. seascape. painter.M.l o v e dw o r k s i n c l u d e 1 0 0 v i e w s o f M o u n t Fuji and 1 2 v o l u m e s o f Manga. absorbent watercolor and are
AIR IN MOTION
Pencil and watercolor subdued brushed. TURNER
KATSUSHIKA HOKUSAI Prolific J a p a n e s e c o l o r w o o d . W . a n d his b e s t .i n f l u e n c e d b y examples o f W e s t e r n art obtained through D u t c h t r a d i n g in Nagasaki. H o k u s a i in t u r n has since significantly influenced European art. Landscape a n d city life w e r e his principal subjects.W. horizontally
then and of the
it into the stream
Plants also bend and flow right to
Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 1802 81/2 HOKUSAI KATSUSHIKA x 131/2 in ( 2 1 7 x 3 4 3 mm)
wind. including being lashed t o a ship's m a s t in o r d e r to study a storm. and history painter w h o s e p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t a b o v e all w a s light. Hokusai direction (from clothing from
has chosen which it
the right). from left
print. T h e r e a r e m a n y stories o f his p a s s i o n a t e w o r k i n g methods. T u r n e r w o r k e d in oils a n d w a t e r c o l o r s a n d s k e t c h e d c o p i o u s l y o n his travels.
Ship in a Storm c.M. 1826 91/2 x 113/4 in ( 2 4 1 x 3 0 0 m m ) J.
His subjects include ruins.
Pen and brush Hugo drew first with pen and ink. Turner (see p. and tossed o b j e c t s — a perfect subject in which artists can forget themselves. and t h e sea s t u d i e d f r o m his h o m e in Guernsey in t h e Channel Islands. as if drawn j u s t this year. water. T h e very nature of b o t h is turmoil and an interweaving of elements. and swim into the page. as a subject and second. composing banks of waves and dense.
EARTH AND THE
French novelist and artist (see also p. as a gestural storm on the paper. inks. or charcoal. drawing was Hugo's principal means o f expression. Opposite. with a brush. It looks so contemporary. this is a b o m b a r d m e n t from o u r h o m e s . it is difficult to contemplate its brooding and night-soaked heart. h a u n t e d shadows. this is a writer's narrative of terror. T h e m e n a c i n g darkness of Hugo's storm b e l o w is so convincing.
Le Bateau-Vision 1864 71/2 x 1 0 in ( 1 9 2 x 2 5 5 m m ) VICTOR H U G O
. ink. marks.200
STORMS CAN BE SEEN and drawn in two ways: first. leaving nothing but a glimpse of moonlight glistening on the froth below. In periods b e t w e e n writing. fantasy palaces. grab their b r u s h . An update on biblical showers of fish and frogs.28). D o m e s t i c o b j e c t s we can o w n and name fall from the clouds. active surfaces of water. By contrast. Leonardos Cloudburst of Material Possessions is o n e of his m o s t enigmatic and mysterious works.198) admires the majesty of nature. lines of rain escorting them to b o u n c e and clatter. Then. He brings us to stare into a place that no sane human would enter. he blanketed the drawing in darkness.
LEONARDO DA VINCI Leonardo devised many artifacts of our modern lives. a hook. Above and below are examples of his mirror handwriting.
Cloudburst of Material Possessions 1510-12 45/8 x 43/8 in ( 1 1 7 x 1 1 1 mm) L E O N A R D O DA VINCI
. a bell. for example). He bequeathed his drawings to a friend. and a wheel. It is interesting to speculate how engineering might have developed if his ideas had been shared with the world earlier
Ink and chalk This is a pen and ink drawing with touches of black chalk. together with half the contents of our garage. and they passed through private hands for 400 years before becoming widely known. He was left-handed
and wrote backwards in Italian from left to right. envisioning machines centuries before their making (helicopters and bicycles. There is a little magic in recognizing many items from our homes something like a rake. Each item that has crashed from heaven is drawn in such a way that we can feel Leonardo's nib picking it up in the speed of a doodle.
EARTH AND THE
Bryan cut the profile of a city. she teased away fragments of paper to illuminate her view. Over first lines. his unsurpassed handling of light. cooler tones receding into the distance are applied with a brush.
C L A U D E LORRAIN
French classical landscape painter draftsman.202
THE PROFILE OF A HORIZON is a line we immediately recognize and respond to. a horizon line can trigger our recognition. Paler. and across to the right. and we can imagine standing over his shoulder. watching his hand and eye at work together. Drawing with a scalpel. which he used to unify his compositions.
Opposite below. Claude Lorrain drew directly on location. made inside a book. Clare Bryan took panoramic photographs of the English South Downs. and dry marks in the foreground appear to be made with his finger. and after tracing her captured line. and mood simultaneously. and famed for.
Views from Velletri
The top half of the drawing is a view as we enter the
valley. or cityscape. She was inspired by her research of aerial plans of London and the story of an alien map butterfly (see caption). Whether land-. Claude is distinguished by. rapidly layering contours to shape place. Even distilled from all other detail. it is the unique calligraphic signature of the place in which we stand. and etcher who lived most of his life in 17th-century Rome. sea-. In a very different work (opposite above). rich. Claude has used a fine nib to delineate segments of land as they recede into space. In the lower half he has walked downhill a little. atmosphere. thick.1638
85/8 x 121/2 in (219 x 320 mm) CLAUDE LORRAIN
. transferred it to a scroll.
specialty bookbinder. drawings Ideas of introduction Clare Bryan to research introduced down and led
historical plans and aerial growth
of London showing its population
since Roman times."
Cut line This is a small section of a preparatory 5-ft(1.203
Scalpel-drawn This book-bound drawing was inspired by the story of a foreign butterfly wrongly to Great Britain in 1912. The edges of each here) fade into the solid paper unpopulated with a scalpel
landscape. On turning the pages of City. source
workisilluminatedby standing its lower edge on a
CLARE BRYAN C L A R E BRYAN
3ritish artist. and digital print-based works reflect upon the histories and poetry of "left behind and in-between spaces. then hunted destroyed.5-m)scroll. printmaker graphic designer.The horizon was drawn with a
Landline 2003 271/2x 59 in (70 x 150 cm)
scalpel. Her recent paper photographic. and visiting professor at numerous art schools. progressively settlement (cropped more and more paper is drawn away to show the expansion of human page of an around the river.
SQUARE COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Not often sold. black finish. A great find when available. B u n d l e s o f twigs were traditionally sealed into earthenware j a r s or wet clay and heated slowly and intensely in a fire or kiln. Essentially. Then lift it away. 4. 6. they are all intended for fine work. 3. resulting in a pale line. THICK W I L L O W CHARCOAL:
Keep the tape above your drawing. MEDIUM W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 5.204
E A R T H AND THE E L E M E N T S
CHARCOAL IS PRODUCED from wood baked slowly without exposure to air. it is compressed and m o l d e d at high pressure. C h a r c o a l naturally glistens. vine. fine. 2. In use. It c a n be m a d e duller. harder line. feather. Alternatively. Boxes often contain a range of thicknesses to choose for different needs. THIN WILLOW CHARCOAL: I used a piece like this to make the drawing opposite.m a d e c o m p r e s s e d charcoal. Smooth paper accepts few particles. you can p u r c h a s e m a c h i n e . the heel o f y o u r h a n d . it looks gray and feels like chalk.
A white line is lifted out by the tape. b e e c h . resulting in a stick that gives a blacker. so it chars b l a c k as o p p o s e d to igniting a n d turning to ash.
1. CHARCOAL PENCIL: Types made by different manufacturers vary in quality and density of line.
. The tip snaps easily to renew a sharp edge if required. Artists have also used lime. CHALK CHARCOAL: Technically. It allows you greater precision in your mark-making than if you rub away the charcoal with an eraser. and heavier than willow. Willow is the most c o m m o n wood. b l a c k e r . Hold it over your drawing
Charcoal (in its several forms shown here) is loved or loathed by the beginner to whom it is often recommended because it produces pleasing results quickly. COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Machine-made.54). It is also easily erased if the maker of the mark is not happy with the result. this does not exist. Not to be confused with square conte sticks (see p. blacker. sticky side down.
The same as above. As its name implies. Use any fine-point
pen or pencil (I used a ballpoint) to draw a firm line on the back of the
Big pieces are perfect for very large-scale drawings—even larger than yourself. and offers a rich. Try itworking on big paper covering a wall.
between your middle finger and
thumb. 7. maple. white line into the blackor grayness of willow charcoal. Beware of cheap brands selling dyed chalk as compressed charcoal.
without touching the surface. a n d m o r e i n d e l i b l e by soaking it in linseed oil. Slightly dull the
tape's stickiness before use t o prevent it from lifting out more than you intend. cylindrical. Lines are achieved by d e p o s i t i n g particles in the grain o f paper. or fingertip. Charcoal lifts away from paper easily with the very light touch o f an eraser. a piece of fresh bread. a rag. a n d p l u m . only a little thicker. It does n o t erase easily. R o u g h paper c a n b e loaded. leaving u n d e r t r a c e s of first thoughts.
This technique is a very easy method of drawing a crisp. but some specialists stock compressed charcoal in delicate square sticks. 162) or graphite (see p.
Suspend a length of masking
PEN: Any fine pen or pencil can be used to draw on the back of masking tape when lifting out. pastels. T O R T I L L O N : This is a tight roll of paper used to blend charcoal. Layers can be peeled away to refresh its surface. I used a plastic eraser effectively on thinly applied charcoal. Here we used a ballpoint.
. Different tones seen throughout the main drawing on pp.
Lifting out This detail shows an example of where I used the lifting-out technique demonstrated opposite to draw flashes of lightning against rain clouds. 10. Lift out broader marks with a larger implement. Use cheaper (less sticky) for lifting out.
8 . MASKING TAPE: An invaluable resource. graphite. Here. Use high quality (very sticky) to fix paper to walls and boards. 9.212-13 were made by altering the pressure applied to the charcoal. Cotton swabs also work.205
Thickly applied charcoal quickly o v e r c o m e s a plastic eraser A w a r m (soft and tacky) putty eraser is more effective. sold in several widths. or any other dry media. as is fresh (unbuttered!) bread.
On p p . At its worst. Successful drawings often only suggest the qualities of the scene without overdescribing them.9 9 we noted that in response to visual stimulus. It is the visible effect of the atmosphere between where you stand and what you see in the distance. the more you encourage the viewer's imagination to join in and see. Ironically. They are also good markers of receding space.
. I relaxed my eyes out of focus to dissolve distracting detail into abstract patches of light and darkness. pack your materials (as advised below) and set off for a local view or your nearest arboretum. To experiment with drawing landscapes and the use of charcoal.
Pack several thick and thin sticks of willow charcoal. 9 8 . it results in flat planes of clutter. The long view is hidden behind trees. the less you describe. a less distinct middle ground composed of shapes and textures. hazy distance. Excessive detail can be admired for its skill and achievement.212-13). especially when making first excursions into aerial perspective. a reel of masking tape. This term simply means that as land rolls away into the distance. and an abstract. details blur and colors grow paler and bluer. Landscape drawings are traditionally arranged in three parts: a detailed foreground. but is often less evocative and engaging. When you arrive. an eraser your drawing book or a board and paper fixative (or hairspray). to contain each of your compositions.
In this first view there is only a foreground and middle distance. Don't worry if it is cloudy: clouds add drama and perspective and make good subjects in themselves (see pp. Then I drew the shape of the tonal patches I perceived.206
EARTH AND THE ELEMENTS
TREES ALONE OFFER MARVELOUS shapes to draw. our brains search for nameable things and will perceive complete pictures from very little information. begin by marking out several small squares on your paper. and a cushion in a plastic bag to sit on.
full of information you can use to create what you want!
. rounded. I have invented drama with diagonals set against each other I tilted the earth. Remember. This composition turned out a little flat because I have an almost even quantity of earth and sky.207 LANDSCAPES
In my second square I explored a simple view contrasting soft. horizontal regions of grass. your view is your inspiration.
Exploring the view
Redrawing the scene above. It is better to give distinctly more pictorial space to one or the other (see below). shadows. and broke a view through the hedge into the distance with a dark sky threatening rain. the trunk of a bare tree. dark trees with bright.
engine. Building on earlier studies of structure in space using shoes (pp. I am then able to home in on what interests me most for further study. For example. on p p . so the paper is not made blinding and your hand cannot cast a shadow on your work. making the scene below led me to focus on the decaying boat opposite. and seeing what the real choice of subject is.208
Drawing in the Round
WHEN DRAWING IN THE LANDSCAPE. England has embedded within it the decaying skeleton of a burned fishing boat. 2 1 4 . your challenge now is to find a sculptural subject in the landscape. Similarly. I usually begin by making an image of the whole view.
EARTH AND THE
FINDING THE SUBJECT
Finding a remarkable subject is even better when you can circumnavigate it in an arena of space. The mud of the tidal shore in Rye.
"Drawing in the round means to literally walk around your subject. Circling a subject and drawing it from several views imprints on your memory a better understanding of its three-dimensional form. taking with you your drawing book and pen. settling my concentration.164-65) and a wire violin (pp.104-05)."
. observing it from several views so as to better understand it as a whole.
shade out of the glare of the sun.1 5 my first drawing of the whole view of the Tiber led me to see the real subject of the day. and tiller still standing proud. bare ribs. s e e k places in light
After my first drawing. which was the flow of water over rocks. This first drawing serves as a process of arrival.
looking more at the boat than at the paper
From this low position I have emphasized how the boat is swallowed in mud by outlining its shadow on the ground. I drew with quick. make a series o f drawings f r o m different positions. I spent equal time looking at the subject and the paper. I looked more boldly at the planes and the dynamic of the sculptural craft My lines have become darker and more forceful as confidence in my understanding of the vessel grew. Overleaf: Decaying Boat
. Each n e w drawing gives a different insight. and structure. character.209
SERIES OF STUDIES
This stunning ghost o f a boat comes into v i e w t w i c e a day. careful lines to establish the skeleton that gives this wreck its distinct form.
DRAWING IN THE
Here. and the order and shape of its component parts. W h e n you have found your subject.
This impression notes the angle of the broken boat. w h e n t h e sea recedes. marking straight.
In this tail-end view. unfussy lines. its overall balance. The outline ties a shape of darkness to the boat like a weight so that it becomes part of its form.
.20-21) using a thin stick of willow charcoal. hot-pressed drawing p a p e r (see pp. was made with gentle but unhesitating s p e e d . m a d e on s m o o t h . I worked quickly to catch and weave the turbulent contrasts of rising wind and approaching water before the drawing could be washed away. L o o k i n g b a c k and forth from the heavens to firmly taped-down paper.Cloudburst
THIS STORM DRAWING.
and rhythmic detail as it passed through the ancient gully of the city. I drew with a needle-fine fiber-tip pen. focusing on the river's eddies.
. pulse.Notes of Force
T H E GREAT FLOWING TIBER RIVER
has cut through Rome. pocket-sized notebook. On the pages of a small. shaping the city. black. since
. The strong diagonal of the composition from bottom left to top right carries the eye through changes of height and focus from the foreground to the mountains beyond.Mountains
SITTING IN THE SHADE
of a tree on the Greek island of Antiparos.
I used a dip pen and waterproof India ink with brushed watercolor to draw the view.
People are often scared by abstraction and see it as the enemy of figurative art. precisely because it does not have to represent a physical object. fictional language. such as Adolf Wolfli. spontaneous image-making. It was not invented in the 20th century.
One of the greatest masters of Art Brut. and Aboriginal art.Abstract Lines
HE DEVELOPMENT OF W E S T E R N
abstract art at the beginning of the 20th century
significantly paralleled major changes in world thought. Internal workings of the mind were suddenly free to find a new language of expression. all pictorial representations are abstractions of reality. belief. As you approach the classes in this chapter. Afterward. My own work is firmly centered in figuration. He made thousands of drawings to chronicle his complex life.
1915 413/8 x 285/8 in (105 x 72. From another viewpoint.
Indian mandalas. and have been making abstract drawings for centuries—Japanese calligraphy. be brave and enjoy them. The
growing rise of Darwinian ideas coupled with Freudian and Marxist perspectives forced Western society to reconsider its origins and future. It is actually its foundation and its infrastructure. direction. An abstract mark is often a better conductor of a thought or feeling. poet. and poetic myth roar and cascade within his tightly framed pages. only rediscovered. and emotion. picturing a stabilized world was impossible and Modernism rode forth with vigor. opposite. Artists were given a different tool—a line threaded directly from their subconscious to their hand—and with it they began to map a bold new landscape of marks and concepts that would dramatically and forever change the face of Western art. many nonWestern cultures have highly sophisticated abstractions at the core of their art. and it has always been with us. for example. and independent means of communication.8 cm) A D O L F WOLFLI
Abstraction is a direct. It also underpins and gives strength and unity to all figurative work. writhing torrents of color. and young children show us that abstract. Many concepts and feelings can only be expressed through marks. expressive marks and shapes are at the core of natural. it is simply itself. Perhaps in Western culture we bred this intuitive freedom out of ourselves in our insistence on complex figuration.
. and history. However. drawn sound. writer and composer who suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and was resident in the Waldau Aslyum near Berne. or gestures. liberating. His drawings are collected and exhibited internationally and held by the Adolf Wolfli Foundation. Berne. strike the paper to find form. abstraction is not so easy to define. Wolfli was a Swiss draftsman. I begin every image by feeling its meaning. yet my kinship to abstraction is fundamental. Swirling. Outsider artists. From one point of view. which are essentially abstract. don't be timid. First marks. The fate of Old World thinking was finally sealed with the brutality of World War I. Museum of Fine Arts. Not everything we know has a physical form in the world. sounds. actions.
Lines. or. and Assistant Professor of Fine A r t at Fukuoka University. Twombly's mesmeric wax line worked over house paint is like a signature. akin to stones in a Zen garden. texture.220
A B S T R A C T LINES
Process and Harmony
SOMETIMES A DRAWN LINE
sings on the surface of its support. forged steel.
MAMORU ABE Japanese sculptor and installation artist.
and patient watching. it can keep reforming through the inherent repetition of a process. A Neolithic chalk tablet bears cut lines that were slowly carved. A line can be finished in a second. and plaster in galleries and landscapes. Five forged steel shapes. and sensitivity with its thickness and pressure of touch. Iron rods in tone. He travels widely to research ancient sacred sites. ice. silence. as Twombly shows us opposite. sit in silent harmony.
The Physical Space 1990 3 0 x 30 ft ( 9 1 4 x 9 1 4 cm) MAMORU ABE
. rhythmically engaged with itself. and wood are also part of the work. Abe works with materials such as soil. tone. and texture their bracing separation reaching between from beneath
Pillars of the gallery are made
of this drawing by their inclusion in the paper. quoting ink marks on a page. brass. salt.
Sometimes it smolders like a deep shadow. Damp Japanese paper was laid over carefully arranged iron bars. This the paper rest within the
of the floor from the ceiling. Abe's physical drawing is a sculptural installation. scrolling across the canvas in an intimate crescendo. and temperature
rim of floor space. Below. water. Mamoru Abe prepares an image that will appear through the chemistry of iron. iron. It can proclaim mood. Moisture produced rust. staining redbrown lines into the white surface.
The central pictorial space is also similarly cut and divided by the considered arrangement of straight lines. the Babylonian world map.
that challenges the separation of word from image.
Neolithic Chalk Tablet
3.000-2. Precise lines suggest the use of a sharp flint The framed rectangle of this image is echoed in that of Abe's installation. and American Indian petroglyphs (see p. burials. At the 2001 Venice Biennale.241). and sensuous drawing from painting. This example is one of two chalk tablets found in a Late-Neolithic pit. Twombly has language works
CY TWOMBLY Contemporary American artist who emerged through the 1950s New York art scene in the heyday of Abstract Expressionism and Action Painting. close to Stonehenge in Wiltshire.400BCE 21/4
x 21/4 in (58 x 58 mm) ARTIST UNKNOWN
Language Over the course of fifty years.
PROCESS AND HARMONY
Cut lines Chalk carves easily. energetic.England.221
ANCIENT CARVINGS Many ancient cultures have made and left behind drawings and texts carved into stones or animal bone.
. and the worship of the sun and ancient gods. such as the Rosetta stone. theories suggest astrological observations.Thesite's purpose is unknown.Twombly was presented with a Golden Lion award for lifetime achievement. Many of his graffiti-like combine abstract gestures with statements. emotive.
evolved a raw. and
might seek to grasp letters in the turning of his line.
28. brushed night skies over them with ink then lifted the disks to reveal white moons. beautiful. pressed them face down.
have striven to break down old pictorial and musical structures to explore new and unfettered modes of expression. Gestalt. His drawing writes the time of its own physical process by expressing the extreme concentration of the moment in which it was made. Gestalt o f an unnameable thing. opposite. music manuscript requiring instrumentalists to improvise. drawing here can b e described in t e r m s o f a G e r m a n philosophical idea a b o u t is t h e i n s t a n t r e c o g n i t i o n t h e p o w e r o f m o m e n t . here he anticipates abstract expressionism by 100 years. and let the drying meniscus deposit granules in linear drifts such as we would see in the satellite photographic mapping of rivers. below. said. Marks across the center appear to be made with his fingers.
Ink impressions When drawing nightscapes Hugo often laid paper disks in place of the moon. Similarity in gritty texture suggests that here.222
SINCE THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY. The scores are also exhibited in galleries as visual art. abstract. a configuration. and participate in the composition. Both abstract drawing and composition involve the perfect sequencing of sounds and marks against space and silence. Hugo.
Texture Compare this drawing to Hugo's octopus on p. abstract artists and composers
unique. o r a pattern o f elements s o unified as a w h o l e t h e y c a n n o t b e e x p l a i n e d asa s u m o f parts. "There is nothing like dream to create the future. too.28). Here he appears t o have saturated the cut-out moon disks with gritty pigment. and lifted them away to leave impressions of watery planets and seas. A graphic score is a
V I C T O R
H U G O Hugo's abstract
French novelist w h o m a d e m a n y drawings in m i x e d m e d i a ( s e e also p. broke new ground in the 1950s with graphic scores now considered among the most extreme. o f t e n e x p r e s s e d in v i s u a l t e r m s . and inventive of his time.
Two Impressions Paper 1853-55 VICTOR HUGO Disk
. interpret. he mixed graphite into ink. Bussotti." An innovator who never fails to surprise.
Circular Score for "Due Voci" c. we can feel their rhythm and easily attach sounds to them. a far cry from any recognized musical notation. Following the notes. Bussotti's first mature work. This is a page from Due Voci. 70 in relation to Bussotti's clustered notes to the left of his rondo and open space to the right. His later works become increasingly abstract.
Sound and rhythm This flickering rondo of sound written in pen on a hand-ruled stave can be heard in our imaginations as much as seen. Compare this work to that of Libeskind on p. 1958 SYLVANO BUSSOTTI
W R I T I N G TIME
SYLVANO BUSSOTTI Italian avant-garde composer and principal 20thcentury exponent of the graphic score.
T h e s e p h o t o g r a p h s d o c u m e n t the meditative drawings o f two w o m e n living worlds apart in different countries. and sufferers of psychiatric illnesses—who have always existed. an a n o n y m o u s w o m a n in the southeast Indian state o f Tamil Nadu m a k e s a ritual drawing o n the b r i c k courtyard o f h e r h o m e . for e x a m p l e . making objects and images outside o f mainstream culture. O p p o s i t e . Marie Lieb w a s a psychiatric patient in the Heidelberg Asylum. Compositional rightness (see pp. cultures.224
A B S T R A C T LINES
Chants and Prayers
WHEN ABSTRACT LINES are organized in repetition. it is found in the regularity o f ordered lines or a pattern. Germany.
Little is known of this w o m a n for w h o m the act of drawing was essential. In music it can be felt in the diversity of plainsong and African d r u m m i n g . Cloth is the simple instrument with which she has conducted and ordered her universe. they m a k e a visual a n d physical e c h o that t o u c h e s s o m e deep part of the human spirit. and c i r c u m s t a n c e s . centuries. It will protect the place from evil and make a pleasing invitation to good spirits. social outcasts. Lieb is one o f countless thousands of "Outsider" artists—diverse individuals including ordinary citizens. She tore c l o t h into strips a n d used these to draw patterns a n d symbols o n h e r cell floor. Torn cloth This is one of two published photographs showing Marie Leib's torn cloth strips significantly placed on her cell floor. Visually. This takes a form in most cultures.
Cell Floor With Torn Strips of Cloth
1894 MARIE LIEB
. d i p p i n g h e r fingers into a pot o f rice flour. In the late 1 9 t h century.228-29) has been adjusted with each movement of the rags to draw a cosmos of balance and perfection.
lime. or flowers are marked or arranged on the ground or on the walls of homes. at the University of London and Ohio State University. lecturer on the subjects of Indian art and Indian women's identity. Huyler is the author of Painted Prayers.
Designs and motifs
Rangoii (or mandalas) are ritual
drawings made by many millions of women across rural India. women pride themselves on never repeating a design. Popular magazines feature new ideas each week and on special occasions there may be contests. chalk. Materials such as rice flour. animals.225
STEPHEN P. Skills are handed down through generations and from friend to friend. In daily practice.
Painted Prayers UNDATED STEPHEN R HUYLER
.000 images. and in places of worship and celebration. and birds. cultural anthropologist. among others. and for over 30 years has traveled extensively through the Indian subcontinent creating an edited archive of 200.Theseare widely published in journals and are the subjects of international exhibitions.HUYLER Photographer art historian. Motifs are geometrical or based on plants.
With no depth of field.
BRIAN CATLING British sculptor poet. but similarities in mood. Oxford.
figurative representation—that is. free from the direct imaging of known physical things. and Fellow of Linacre College. filmmaker Professor of Fine Art. structure. rocks or heads in a subdued atmosphere of dream. gold paint and iridescent gouache mixed with water. They each find their pathways and equilibrium in atmosphere and suggestion. Catling's torn paper shapes and shadows spill light out of their frame like a fractured mirror. Klee's mathematical maze of thinly washed surface resonates with meticulous planning. Oval moons eclipse each other and oscillate between landforms and portraiture. These two works present complex compositions with differing intensions and methods of making. Catling's abstract drawings are usually made in series and in parallel to written poetry and sculptural installations. Their energy can therefore be a purer expression of an idea or emotion. and water-resistant layers of spray and enamel paint on thick paper. and choice of hues. Ruskin School.226
ABSTRACT DRAWINGS ARE LARGELY
or entirely free from
using the viewer's eye to track and unfold layers of meaning. Catling's works made for international galleries and museums involve drawing as a tool in their development and making.
Mixed media This is a collage of torn white and gray tissue paper previously stained with ink.
153/4x 215/8 in ( 4 0 0 x 550 mm) BRIAN C A T L I N G
. it is ruled and contained in one dimension by its interlocking ink-lined borders. performance and installation artist.
and wrote copiously about the natures and relationships of color and form. drew. and might be read as active or passive. and brush.227
PAUL K L E E Swiss painter and sculptor (see also p. ruler.
Geometric harmony This is a work on paper made with a sharp ink pen. Kunstmuseum Bern PAUL KLEE
. We can see some diagrammatic examples of this among the optical illusions on pp. whereas tonal surfaces are perceived more immediately as a whole.
Line and surface
the visual capacity of lines to push or pull within an image. Klee painted. It is a geometric harmony of straight lines and tonally graded flat colors that by their arrangement draw our eyes inward to their white center.31).97-99. Klee also felt that a line represents the passing of time. philosophized.
Polyphon Gefasstes Weiss (White Framed Polyphonically) 1930 131/8x95/8 in (333 x 245 mm) Paul-Klee-Stiftung. He explained his polyphonic painting as "a harmony of several color voices" searching for a visual parallel to music. watercolor.
and elements settle in definitive balance. "I have experimented endlessly with this idea. angles. There is a single m o m e n t w h e n all proportions. but an easy o n e to u n d e r s t a n d ."
Justness can be harmonious or deliberately discordant. culture. they are just. W h e n m o v i n g objects around in your yard. a b u n c h of keys. the late garden designer Russell Page explains. or home. As y o u m o v e them around. regardless of style. they reach a perfect position. Set up a sheet of paper with a rectangle drawn on it. Feel for it when youdraw. and ten straight sticks painted black.Thisexercise will help you start. a glass. This balance is what every artist and designer searches a n d feels for when making an image. It is also found in nature. w i l l c h a n g e w i t h e v e r y r e a r r a n g e m e n t . b u t e v e r y n o w a n d again you will hit on an arrangement w h i c h appears just. and put them o n a tray. M a n y of their inter-relationships will be meaningless.228
A SENSE OF "JUST" (or rightness) is a difficult concept to explain. s o m e will be more or less h a r m o n i o u s . media. or on a page. after being continuously adjusted. their impact."
. the impression y o u receive from t h e m . It is found in all great art and design. Seek it when looking at other artists' work and in your everyday environment. there is a clear feeling when. and an apple. Take. In his b o o k The Education of a Gardener.
"Whenall pictorial elements come together in pleasing and perfect balance. or degree of figuration. for instance.
suggesting a horizon. Arrange them so they touch or cross in a series of intersecting balances. In the final step (left) there is an even balance.
In the step above. painted black. as shown here.
Move the sticks out into the rectangle. Within a rectangle on a flat sheet of paper set about making a composition using no other rule than a sense of "just. W h e n the composition falls into place. making the composition seem to float beneath.
B E I N G "JUST"
Arrange your ten sticks in t w o groups of five. Here.229
WHERE TO START
Take ten sticks of equal length. fix it with glue. which now becomes a tight frame." Move the sticks to find alignments and imagined perspectives. Remember the drawn rectangle is a part of the composition (see pp. Feel for the rightness of their grouping and their relationships to surrounding spaces. horizontals dominate the lower area.56-57). A stick touching the rectangle links the composition to the frame. horizontals dominate the top.
H E R E W E EXPERIMENT
ready-made depths and surfaces. which is the shifting.228-29). feels "just" (see pp. harmonious.69 and Abe's installation on p. and black ink. correction fluid or white paint."
. Cut or torn layers and shapes. stain and dry a sheet of tissue paper using blueink. they become a scaffold for the addition of further textures. you start composing by adding or subtracting shapes and textures and using colors and tones to achieve the impression you want to m a k e — w h e t h e r dramatic or s u b d u e d ."
overlapping placement of materials on a flat plane. Returning to Russell Page. This principal
also applies to three-dimensional drawings such as Gaudi's work with wire and weights on p.. hard or soft. Collage offers the artist a liberating palette of
This lesson in collage is a direct continuation of the compositional lines made in the previous class. he went on to say ". Images and fragments torn from day-to-day life can be brought together to make a chorus of ideas and emotions. or even strident. or discordance.. and tones. a compass. colors and textures can be manipulated until their pictorial harmony. To prepare for this lesson.Youwill also need spare white paper. scissors. Once the ten painted black sticks are set and glued in place. found or made items. an infinite range of voices and meaning.
"My understanding is that every object [or shape] emanates—sends out vibrations beyond its physical body which are specific to itself. colors. glue.220.
and shadow to thepicture. This can also give a sense of fragmentation or punctuation to the composition. draw. solidity. correction fluid and ink marks add further dimensions. and with a compass and scissors.The single disk that is folded with its straight edge facing up appears heavier than those that are flat.
Regular-sized pieces of white paper are moved over the surface to disrupt the even lines. four circles of blue tissue paper. In the last step (left). Obscuring the blue disks. then cut out. they deepen pictorial space.228) in front of you.
Torn white paper moved over the surface adds masks of rough-edged irregular volume. Cut six small rectangles the same proportion as your whole image. Glue them in place once they feel "just"
Translucent circular disks of tissue paper give color tone.
WHAT TO DO
Lay the final step of the previous lesson (p.
and expectation. is the practice of Zen through the calligraphic marks of a brush dipped in carbon ink. Hitsuzendo drawings aspire to "breathe with the energy and vitality of eternal life" achieved through "a state of no mind—beyond thought." [Tanchu Terayama.
. emotion. A MODERN JAPANESE
meditative art form inspired by the teachings
of Yamaoka Tesshu (1836-1888).Zen Calligraphy
IN THIS QUARTET
of semi-abstract drawings made with
India ink. I flicked spatters of ink and rubbed the paper with a wet and a dry brush to achieve these effects. These vibrate against washes of shadow and pitch-black mass. Lines made with a steel dip pen take on a scratchy nervousness.
. discord is balanced against rhythm to create mood.
which is to have eaten a nun—it inspired the drawing on p. which were widely distributed and influential in his time. For example.Gods and Monsters
OUR SACRED AND SECULAR
need to visualize demons. a human-animal mix that implies this could
MARTIN SCHONGAUER German painter and engraver who settled to work in Colmar Alsace. Images we are now surrounded by bear testimony to the power and resourcefulness of their collective imagination. a collaboration between the two will ensure that your drawings glow with originality. Lord of the Rings. England. Schongauer is best known for his prints. Perhaps the
Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 1485 121/4 x 9 in (312 x 230 mm) MARTIN SCHONGAUER
most important conclusion in this final chapter is to advise you to develop your skills in parallel with the joy of your unfolding imagination. Be inspired by the irrational comedy of word association or puns. and the Alien trilogy. Fantasy is most successful when founded on strong and familiar visual logic. Feeding this demand. and deep fur—and we alter their scale. and stained-glass windows deliver powerful visual sermons to the once-illiterate populace. thousands of paintings. in the cracks of walls. look for images in the folds of clothing. Throughout this book images are presented to excite and surprise and drawing classes created to increase your confidence. In the Christian churches of Europe. When creating monsters. and damnation are found in most world faiths.247. beasts. Humans are equally troubled by the imperceptibly small and the enormous. our literate and more secular Western society still hungers for another world and to ravenously indulge its fascination for the marvelous. sculptures. To learn to flex your imagination. I was on a train passing through Nuneaton. wings. We love our fear of the hybrid—ideally. The salvation of heaven and terrors of hell are represented equally—enough to make any sinner shudder. feathers. all of which originated as hundreds of drawings. We watch with captivated pleasure movies such as The Fly. We then add substances we dislike: unidentified fluids. scales. angels.
. Neither should be slave or master. movie studios now brim with as many monsters as the visual art of the Medieval and Renaissance Church. Depictions of God or of gods in the contexts of daily life. we select details of animals farthest from ourselves and that are widely thought disturbing—reptilian and insect features. or strange. Reading the place name I momentarily glimpsed an alternative meaning. Star Wars. paradise. a Catherine wheel of drawn sparks spiraling around the quietly resolute saint. or in smoke. for example.
happen to us. aliens. Here. Today. our eye circulates around a flutter of leather and scaly wings. Monsters take advantage of both. and the
faces of God have for centuries given artists a feast for the extremes of their imagination. impossible. serpentine tails.
Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 1799 81/2 x 6 in (218 x 154 mm) FRANCISCO DE GOYA
. reading from a book of asses. crammed tightly at his desk. a Shoshone seeking guidance and power meditates at the sacred site of a petroglyph. and exposed the superstitions. Opposite below. Compare his dark. He would be graceless if he stood. Visions experienced in front of the drawing sometimes instruct the making of a new one. quoting great paintings and popular culture to add cunning twists to his satires. The well-dressed mule is cumbersome. rushing.240
GODS AND M O N S T E R S
Marks of Influence
marking the influence of one artist upon another. below. In this softer aquatint he poses for his portrait
The aquatint process has been used
to great effect in making a gritty toned background. and follies of court through copious graphic works including his best-known prints. we see the international icon of stupidity.30. The title "And So Was His Grandfather" adds that should we not already know. This continuity enriches the making of art and our heritage. Pictorially. Goya later recorded the horrors of Napoleonic occupation. and church murals.
F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A
Spanish court painter printmaker and draftsman. They depict as if by lamplight the devil and witches. This act defines the vision and continues the line of spirit guides. plain wall suggests a blinkered view of nothing. portraits. deranged masses. which can swamp the subject Here. In this ass. such asinine behavior can be hereditary. his lover a dog. Many students leave white backgrounds in their work. vanity. Francisco de Goya was a master of borrowing. Los Caprichos. whose impassioned work begins with light tapestry cartoons. noisy seascape on p. Goya's plainly textured gray background pushes back the space behind the illuminated simply subject.220. hags. and men clubbing each other to death. Violent white marks symbolizing Achilles' rage resonate with the energy of Twombly's script on p.
a wave to join Achilles' chase of Hector. Paul Thomas's studies of Picasso and Twombly can be traced directly. The high. Near the end of his life he made his "Black Paintings" on the walls of his home. Saturn devouring his son. barren land rising like
MYRIAD CHAINS RUN THROUGH ART HISTORY. Other drawn versions of this image are more savage and frightening. to Picasso's similarly tight. it allows the mule to stand forward. Opposite.
Aquatint Goya has drawn a learned man as an ass.
Achilles Chases Hector 1996 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) PAUL THOMAS
SHOSHONE PETROGLYPH The Shoshone people of Wyoming name petroglyph sites Poha Kahni.241
MARKS OF INFLUENCE
PAUL T H O M A S British contemporary artist whose epic graphic work questions and reflects upon issues of European identity. A vivid spectrum of energized graphite marks and a masterly composition give this drawing vitality and speed. ideals. of the earth. Wyoming." Each sacred image drawn into rock belongs to one of three realms in the Shoshone world: the realm of the sky.
Here Achilles chases Hector around the
walls of Troy before killing him.
Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range UNDATED ARTIST UNKNOWN
. Thomas conducts his explorations in the mine of Greek and Roman mythology. perhaps a stone. Wind River Reservation. by a supplicant in a trance of meditation. Parallel lines within the body of the figure are likely to denote power. Simple wall stones cleverly state their cold solidity while also fading from our attention as the scene roars by. meaning "place of power. White marks like flashes of light are cut though graphite with an eraser to reveal the paper beneath. or of the water
Chipped image This is a sacred creature of the sky chipped onto rock at Dinwoody Lake. values. It was made with a sharp implement. and personal and social struggles.
lifting its cranial passenger over a seascape of repose. If it were to turn and stare this way. We may feel safe so long as the eye looks heavenward. Our subconscious can be drawn with pleasure and ease. below left.
T H E EXPLORATION AND DEPICTION
Grandville has drawn a scurrying zoo of half-known demons and animals that appear to have been stolen from the glass eye of the microscope. the writers Joris-Karl Huysmans and Stephane Mallarme. Children are also delighted to invent a monster or ghoul. They float toward us like a horrid visitation. as he did the grass. Techniques demonstrated on pp. crawl. and scuttle over all known reality. to the
right of the balloon. Here we see how he evolved their injuries into new limbs and warped proportions.
Lifting out Fine strings of the hot-air balloon appear dark against the sky and light against the balloon. which sometimes—half-dressed and carrying a familiar trophy— stride.
In this charcoal drawing. Redon lifted them out with some sort of eraser. Compare worked textures throughout the whole of this image to those found throughout Anita Taylor's charcoal drawing on p.
The Eye Like a Strange Mounts
165/8 x131/8in (422 x 332 mm) ODILON REDON
of the unknown is a classical and constant occupation for the artist. The monsters of Bosch grew from his observations of beggars going about their trade in 15th.and 16th-century Holland. 115.204-05 will enable you to produce a similar effect of white lines shining out of dark charcoal. the shock would be extreme.
ODILON REDON French painter draftsman. and writer In contrast t o the light and visual accent of contemporary Impressionism. we see parallel slanting pale marks that might have been made with fresh bread—a very effective eraser used before the wide availability of rubber or plastic. graphic artist. Redon explored the darker side of the human imagination through symbols and mysticism. H e was influenced by his friends. Redon's eyeball balloon rises up.
include The Haywain. 1840 61/8 x41/2in ( 1 5 5 x 1 1 5 mm) GRANDVILLE
HIERONYMUS BOSCH Dutch painter Bosch's highly detailed iconographic religious panel paintings. Last Judgment.243
J E A N I G N A C E ISIDORE GERARD ("GRANDVILLE") French graphic artist and political satirist. Smiling.
A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects c. grimacing. The quality of the line is therefore uniform throughout. and Ship of Fools. which is still available today.
Two Monsters UNDATED 45/8 x61/2in (117 x 163 mm) HIERONYMUS BOSCH
. Madrid. Garden of Earthly Delights. sucker-faced creatures dash and trundle toward it They are drawn solidly to emphasize their earthbound weight. Comic little headbands of waving hair express more hysteria than fear. Most of his work is in the Prado Museum. His other major works include Metamorphoses du Jour (1828).
This is an engraving made so
that Grandville's original drawing could be reproduced.
Quill and ink This typical Bosch monster is a quill drawing in bistre ink The phrasing of light and contour here is masterly. This image is from one of Grandville's best-known publications. Les Animaux (1840). Light shines from the right. and he illustrated the Fables of La Fontaine and Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe. teeming with the exhilaration of unrestrained fantasy.
Grimes found the genesis of her beast not among animals. below.
Chalk and ink A quill dipped in brown ink was worked over black chalk on this reused sheet. Scaly. wraps and coils its lithe body ready to strike or whimper at a touch. A snake eating its own tail is a universal image of the eternal and continuous. St Peter's square. sometimes artists purposefully tie a knot in the configuration to disturb. a stunning hybrid of a swan. remembering the cavernous. phrased over the contours of form and bridging darker areas of shadow.
Florentine painter sculptor. and marble sculptures including Pieto. hatched lines. as we might expect. David. pinnacled. They share between them the pleasures of inventing a hybrid beast. poet. muscular tension is carved out of the paper using layered.244
GODS AND MONSTERS
THESE CONVOLUTED DRAWINGS were made almost 5 0 0 years apart. Opposite. Grimes' delicately cavorting figures dive into and consume each other. gamboling copulations. but in the seductive landscape of Leonardo da Vinci's oil painting Madonna of the Rocks. the dome of the Vatican. and mist-swathed land. and dog. and dying slaves. snake. architect. lion. However. Dragon
10 x 133/8 in ( 2 5 4 x 3 3 8 m m ) MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI
. and engineer Among Michelangelo's great works are the painted ceiling and altar wall of the Sistine Chapel. Michelangelo's dragon. His entire drawing wrestles and weaves the viewer's eye into its retracting folds. and play with its perfection and meaning. topple. Two previously drawn faces become humorous antagonists to the beast. she formed a series of ghostly pale. In her studio.
O O N A GRIMES British contemporary artist and professor of printmaking at the Ruskin School. London. London. boards finished
paper. her under heavy here. Grimes exhibits internationally and features in the collections of the New York Public Library and the Victoria and Albert Museum. It is one of a series of fragile earth figures inspired by rocks. details evolved slowly using a drier brush. The image
formed directly without first making a pencil outline.
How Clever of God #84 2002 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) O O N A GRIMES
Ink-wash delicately gouache (smooth)
and gouache brushed drawing on
This is a and was hot-pressed
The dark shadow of the Other the
earth was made with a brushstroke of ink laid into wet paper. each one iridescent and crumbly like a weathered while oyster. Oxford. and the Camberwell and Slade Schools of Fine Art. The large space around figure has been cropped Grimes drawings to flatten presses them.
giving a variety of lines. fingers.Theyhold plenty of ink and make continuous. Shorter brushes designed for other purposes run out of ink more quickly. and very fine lines. and writers. 12. materials. washes. liners. return them to their pointed shape. 13. Brushes vary in size. It is capable of very fine pointing. SYNTHETIC-HAIR LINER: This brush gives a medium line and is firm with a spring to the touch.H A I R LINER: Very responsive oriental-style liner This to the touch. Some used by master calligraphers are 2-3 in (5-8 cm) in diameter 11. SABLE-HAIR RIGGER: Made with very long kolinsky sable hairs. LARGER JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with natural hair held in a plastic ferrule on a bamboo handle. How you care for your brushes will determine how long they last. P O I N T E D T R A D I T I O N A L WRITER: The ferrule is made from a small duck quill. it has good wash capabilities. Some are bold. dense. This design supplies the fine tip with a long continuity of ink 5. 2. The brushes shown here are a mixture of
This is a selection of riggers.
drawing tool extending the arm. SMALL JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with sable hair. 10. The living marks of a wet. JAPANESE PAINTING BRUSH: Made with natural hair.H A I R RIGGER: Made with long synthetic hair for fine-point work It has a good ink-holding capacity and is slightly more resilient than sable hair with more "snap." 6. the very opposite of pencil or silver point. ideally suited to drawing. S Y N T H E T I C .
1. Soaps purchased from good art supply stores will gently cleanse particles of pigment that become trapped in the hairs or ferrule. this brush has a soft drawing tip and small ink-holding capacity. and effects. flowing. shape. It is still relatively small in the total range of Japanese brushes. and texture. ink-laden tip allow an expression that is beyond the linear. It has exceptional painting characteristics. SYNTHETIC-HAIR BRUSH: Bound in a synthetic ferrule with good inkholding capacity and good spring and control. between them. 7. others are as fine as a whisker with a gentle touch. Slightly less flexible than the squirrel-hair sword liner 9. needle-sharp center of kolinsky red sable hair. Suitable for wash techniques but also capable of very fine detail. L A R G E R S Y N T H E T I C . and never leave them standing on their tip in a jar of water. and has a fine tip for detailed work. and hold prodigious weights of ink or paint. thicknesses. which holds long sable hair This brush holds large amounts of ink for long lines and points well for detailed work. making rt ideally suited to Japanese painting and small-scale calligraphy. and wrist into a fluid and soft touch. POINTED SQUIRREL-HAIR MOP: With a synthetic quill ferrule and extra high inkholding capacity. with a fine point for delicate work 4. Always clean them thoroughly. 3.
M T RA S AEIL
. all perfect for drawing and. SABLE-HAIR LINER: Made with ordinary sable hair surrounding an extralong. SYNTHETIC-HAIR S W O R D LINER: A lining brush with high ink-holding capacity and a fine point. This brush has a broad wash capability and can achieve a very wide range of marks.246
GODS A N D M O N S T E R S
T H E BRUSH IS A VOLUPTUOUS
weights. it has good inkholding capacity and is very flexible. SQUIRREL-HAIR S W O R D LINER:This brush has a maximum ink-holding capacity and an extremely fine and flexible point 8.
softness.246-47). the texture and a b s o r b e n c y of the paper ( w h i c h m a y be d a m p or dry).
Here I drew with a soft Japanese painting brush (see pp. A single brush has almost balletic potential to draw fine or undulating lines and curves. I had left the end of the ink block in the water overnight to make it easier to dissolve.)
. w i t h m y face close. unglazed earthenware dish. and type of its hairs. splashes.35) into two tablespoons of water in a shallow. b l o w i n g h a r d o n t h e m several t i m e s t o disperse t h e ink ( c l o s e y o u r eyes if y o u t r y this. It also depends on the angle at w h i c h it is held. and above all w h e t h e r the b r u s h is saturated with pigment or relatively dry.
T h e s e t h r e e s p i d e r y c r e a t u r e s (above right and below) w e r e m a d e by d r o p p i n g s p o t s o f ink f r o m a b r u s h o n t o t h e p a g e and. length. I rubbed a block of Chinese ink (see p. the speed of the s t r o k e . and spatters. the degree of pressure applied.248
GODS A N D M O N S T E R S
A S I N G L E BRUSH will m a k e an e n o r m o u s range of m a r k s depending u p o n the width. and to make pools and stains o n the page.
a n d b r u s h . t h e effects of the b r u s h r u n n i n g o u t o f ink.249
T h e details o f t h e largest creatures b e l o w and opposite s h o w the granular texture of Chinese b l o c k ink.
. a n d t h e w a y it d i s t r i b u t e s w h e n t h e b r u s h is d a b b e d o n its s i d e . w e see fine lines and s p o t s . b l e e d i n g f r o m strokes b e l o w left.
Wet and dry strokes
A m o n g these concentrated drawings ink made into with the same w a t e r y lines.
THESE LITTLE CREATURES o f i n k and i n v e n t i o n were b o r n
out of animal and bird studies.
. I borrowed small and fragile specimens from the University Museum of Natural History. and used their detail to draw new creatures that might at first seem familiar. until we look again.
Here. Among his "Black Paintings" in the Prado Museum. thin works made by Bartolome Murillo in Seville about 120 years earlier. With further research.
. thin works titled The Witches' Sabbath and The Procession of St. Goya's witches have been literally drawn and evolved out of the shapes of Murillo's prophet and pilgrims. Isidore. I found relationships between all four paintings in terms of shapes.Goya's Monsters
W I T H CUNNING BRILLIANCE. Madrid.
Goya often invented his monsters out of characters seen in other
painters' works. are two long. formal composition. showing us that gallery study is not just for the student and beginner. two of my own drawings show you how Goya's devil (below) is based on the shape of Murillo's boy on a horse (top right). Through studying and drawing these great paintings I have discovered that they are based on a pair of similarly long. and narrative twists. They are a pair and hang opposite each other.
Sometimes drawings come out of nowhere and surprise even the artist.
little comments on politeness and sexual politics.Consumed
THIS IS A SERIES OF CARTOONS I m a d e s o m e years ago.
. drawn rapidly and with great joy.
F r o m t h e French v e r b coller.
Blending M e r g i n g t w o o r m o r e
neighboring colors o r tones t o g e t h e r using a tortillon. pastel.c e n t u r y
painting m o v e m e n t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e use o f b o l d .
F r o m t h e G r e e k kallos.
Collage C o l l e c t e d materials such
as c o l o r e d p a p e r s . 2. o r will o n l y a p p e a r n o r m a l . In t h e W e s t p e n calligraphy is u s e d t o c r e a t e f o r m a l a n d d e c o r a t i v e t e x t s . It is p u t o n a
Body color See Gouache.
Camera lucida A n optical device
t h a t p r o j e c t s an image o f an o b j e c t o n t o a plain s u r f a c e so t h a t it can be traced. m e a n i n g " t o stick"
Dry media M e d i a t h a t a r e n o t
w e t o r o i l y — f o r e x a m p l e .
Bleed T h e e f f e c t o f t w o w e t
colors running into one another o r o n e color applied t o a w e t surface a n d a l l o w e d t o d i s p e r s e ." D e s c r i b e s a p a i n t i n g in w h i c h t h e light s o u r c e is b e h i n d t h e s u b j e c t F o r e x a m p l e . as o p p o s e d t o t h e s t r a i g h t e d g e o f a sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has b e e n machine-trimmed.
Blotting T h e use o f a b s o r b e n t
m a t e r i a l t o lift a w a y excess liquid. A f u l l . o r o t h e r (usually large) w o r k — s e e Pouncing.s i z e d r a w i n g
m a d e for t h e purpose o f transferring a design t o a painting.
Deckle edge T h e i r r e g u l a r e d g e
o f a s h e e t o f m o l d . A l s o called m u s e u m g r a d e . In t h e Far East calligraphy is a highly r e s p e c t e d a r t f o r m . T h e b l a n k e t s g i v e t h e p a p e r its rough texture o r "tooth.m e d i a d r a w i n g . See also Hotpressed papers. a n d attaches t h e m t o t h e s u p p o r t — f o r example. L a t e r it c a m e t o m e a n h i g h l y c o n t r a s t e d light effects. r a t h e r t h a n r e c o r d e d o n a film o r plate. U s e d as a c o r r e c t i n g device o r pictorial game. tapestry. o f t e n d i s t o r t e d forms and vivid colors. D a m p p a p e r is laid o n t o p .
Erasure T h e a c t o f r e m o v i n g
a n i m a g e f r o m a surface. T h e name " n o t " simply refers t o t h e fact t h a t t h e cylinders are n o t h o t in t e m p e r a t u r e . n e w s p a p e r cuttings.
Acid-free paper P a p e r w i t h a
neutral p H t h a t will n o t darken o r d e t e r i o r a t e excessively w i t h age. A l s o called r i n g l e t shading.
Conservation grade D e s c r i b e s a
range o f materials t h a t d o n o t d e c a y and cannot be broken d o w n by insects.
chance mark-making. a n d given t h e n a m e Sho. p h o t o g r a p h s .
Ferrule T h e s h o r t m e t a l t u b e
t h a t s u r r o u n d s a n d g n p s t h e hairs o f a p a i n t b r u s h a n d fixes t h e m t o t h e brush handle.
Anamorphic distortion Stretching
an i m a g e across a p i c t u r e surface so t h a t it can o n l y b e u n d e r s t o o d . in w h i c h parts o f an image are depicted v e r y brightly and dramatically against d a r k n e s s . R o u g h p a p e r is m a d e b e t w e e n t w o blankets t h a t
Accidental drawing Random.m a d e paper.
s u c h as a d r a w i n g o r painting.
Camera obscura A d a r k e n e d
c h a m b e r i n t o w h i c h an i m a g e o f w h a t is o u t s i d e is received t h r o u g h a small o p e n i n g o r lens a n d f o c u s e d in natural c o l o r o n a facing surface. s u c h as a s c r e e n . S o m e t i m e s f e r r u l e s a r e m a d e o f plastic o r o t h e r materials. A " s h a l l o w d e p t h o f field" m e a n s t h e p i c t u r e appears t o have only a shallow s p a c e inside i t
Diffuse T o s o f t e n o r m a k e less
Chiaroscuro A 1 7 t h . A l s o c a l l e d t h e h o r i z o n line. Also called accelerated perspective. p r i n t i n g press face up.
Composition T h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f
t h e p a r t s o f an i m a g e t o m a k e u p the whole.
Bracelet shading C u r v e d parallel
lines t h a t f o l l o w t h e c o n t o u r s o f f o r m . A h u m o r o u s d r a w i n g o r parody.
Eye level T h e i m a g i n a r y h o r i z o n t a l
p l a n e a t t h e s a m e h e i g h t as t h e a v e r a g e p e r s o n ' s eyes. T h e prints t a k e n from t h e s e plates o r blocks.
Field In a t w o . usually at a n a c u t e angle t o t h e s u r f a c e . a n d g r a p h i t e ." It w a s first given t o t o n a l paintings m a d e in o n e c o l o r — s e e Grisaille. so t h a t ink r e m a i n s o n l y in t h e g r o o v e s o f s c r a t c h e d lines. 2. written with a broad-nibbed pen o r brush.
Fauvism A n early 2 0 t h . t h e l i g h t is b e h i n d h i m o r her. for example. R e m b r a n d t is a great master o f chiaroscuro. Calligraphy Beautiful h a n d w r i t i n g . A i r b r u s h e s are u s e d in t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c o m i c s . t h e field is t h e a p p a r e n t a n d b e l i e v a b l e space inside t h e p i c t u r e .
Crosshatching Parallel lines
d r a w n across o n e a n o t h e r at right angles. pressurized
t o o l used f o r spraying fine mists o f s m o o t h c o l o r P i g m e n t is d e l i v e r e d b y a j e t o f air n o t t h e bristles o f a brush. Fixative lightly glues t h e d r a w i n g t o t h e surface o f t h e p a p e r t o p r e v e n t smudging. t o g e t h e r w i t h a t h i c k felt b l a n k e t T h e w h o l e s a n d w i c h o f l a y e r s is t h e n railed t h r o u g h t h e press t o m a k e a p r i n t D r y p o i n t is a very portable and immediate m e t h o d o f printmaking.c e n t u r y
Italian t e r m m e a n i n g "clear-obscure. A p o t e n t i a l l y h a r s h m e t h o d o f p r o d u c i n g t o n e s in a d r a w i n g .
Contre jour A F r e n c h t e r m
m e a n i n g " a g a i n s t day.
Air brush A mechanical. w h e n v i e w e d f r o m a specified point. It can also seal a silver p o i n t d r a w i n g t o p r e v e n t t h e oxidization (browning) o f t h e
Drypoint A d r a w i n g is s c r a t c h e d
directly o n t o a m e t a l plate w i t h a m e t a l t o o l h e l d like apen.
Fixative Liquid acrylic resin a n d
l a c q u e r t h i n n e r usually a p p l i e d as a n a e r o s o l s p r a y m i s t t o t h e surface o f a d r y .
in w h i c h t h e subject's distinctive features o r peculiarities are deliberately exaggerated f o r c o m i c o r g r o t e s q u e effect. W o r d s o r symbols are
Cold-pressed papers P a p e r
manufactured with a "not" o r " r o u g h " surface. w h e n a p e r s o n is p a i n t e d standing a g a i n s t a w i n d o w . m e a n i n g "beauty". T h e m o v e m e n t was started by a g r o u p o f French artists including H e n r i Matisse. A g e n e r a l t e r m t h a t describes t h e various processes o f c u t t i n g a design i n t o a plate o r b l o c k o f m e t a l o r w o o d . and readymade objects arranged and stuck o n t o a flat surface. Binder A substance t h a t holds particles o f p i g m e n t t o g e t h e r in a paint f o r m u l a t i o n ." " N o t " p r e s s e d p a p e r is r o l l e d a s e c o n d t i m e w i t h o u t blankets t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders t o p r o d u c e a s m o o t h e r b u t still slightly t e x t u r e d s u r f a c e . linseed oil o r egg y o l k
Contour line A line t h a t f o l l o w s
t h e s h a p e o f a surface.The plate is t h e n r o l l e d w i t h ink a n d polished with a rag. C o p p e r p l a t e engravings w e r e widely used t o r e p r o d u c e images b e f o r e p h o t o g r a p h y . a r e r o l l e d t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders. Engraving 1. p r a c t i c e d meditatively w i t h a brush. charcoal.d i m e n s i o n a l i m a g e .
Aerial perspective The effect of the
a t m o s p h e r e o v e r distance as it lightens t o n e s a n d cools c o l o r s progressively t o w a r d t h e horizon.
ink. used for fixing paper to walls and boards. white.while secretion of the acacia tree. It is a strong adhesive. or a drawing made in any single color
Linear perspective A form of
perspective in which parallel lines are represented as converging. and masking off areas of a drawing that the artist wishes to keep untouched by media applied above or beside the tape. oil-. are painted in grisaille and appear to be made of stone. Artists can paint freely over dry masking fluid. or even a beam of light.
Masking fluid Clear or opaque
latex fluid developed for watercolor painting. Pointillism A technique of using points or dots of pure color in such a way that when the picture is viewed from a distance they react
Masking tape Invaluable. but in picture-making it is as important as the objects/subjects themselves. Giotto's Virtues and Vices in the Arena Chapel. or can be otherwise used to create an image—for example.Theground provides a particular color or texture beneath the image. F o r m a t T h e size. Impressing Stamping or printing. Monoprinting A direct method of printing in which wet medium (water-.
work. graphite. This method incorporates the excitement of accidental and unpredicted marks. shape. Grisaille is occasionally seen in church stained-glass windows. materials that produce marks on a surface. Gamut A complete range or extent Glassine A type of thin. Foreshortening A method of depicting an object at an angle to the surface of the picture. Paper is laid on top and a rapid drawing is made on the back of it The paper lifts away to reveal the image on its other side. purpose. mineral. It improves the bonding properties Frottage A French term meaning "rubbing. or spirit-based) is applied to a surface that is then pressed onto paper and removed to leave a print. it is the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work Pigment Any substance used as a coloring agent—for example. Also used by artists' materials manufacturers to indicate the use of a substitute pigment—for example. or plastic surface. Medium A generic term for art Key A painting is said to be "high key" when the colors and tones are bright and "low key" when they are dark or somber The term is also used Gouache Opaque watercolor Also called body color. with the area beneath remaining unaffected.
Negative space The space
between things. which has a rough surface). of the ingredients in inks and watercolors. and gray drawing. After several intervening processes.
Objective drawing Refers to
the concept of objectivity. A small image might be described as small format Horizontal images are often said to be "landscape format" (abbreviated G u m arabic The natural to"landscape"). Lightfast A term confirming that pigment in the product will not fade with exposure to light. and it has a history in enamel work. Plumb line A line from which a weight is suspended in order to determine verticality or depth. sticky paper tape. and is also used as a size. It can be used with any wet media to isolate or protect parts of an image from further
Optical blending See Pointillism. upright images are called "portrait which is used as a binding agent in many liquid media. 2. but each print will be unique.
Hot-pressed papers (HP)
Paper made using hot cylinders. enabling them to stick to paper It also helps to maintain a stable dispersion of pigment particles in water as the film of a wash dries. This effect emulates what we see in real life. and orientation of the image.The paper then bears a crayon impression or copy of the surface that was underneath it A number of Surrealists. or a family of colors. Also refers to an additive used to control the application properties of a color
Golden Section A proportion in
which a straight line or rectangle is divided into two unequal parts in such a way that the ratio of the smaller part to the greater part is the same as that of the greater part to the whole. the finely ground particles of plant.
. rock. glossy. This may be disregarded in real life. then rubbed over carefully but vigorously with a crayon. to describe a surface to which paint will adhere readily. Alternatively. Lifting out A method of creating highlights and mid-tones in a drymedia drawing (such as charcoal or graphite).
Papercut A type of collage in which flat sheets of paper are cut into an image. Dark tones are laid down first then an eraser or masking tape is used to lift away particles of the drawing media to reveal the lightness of the paper beneath. or canvas and allowed to dry before an image is drawn or painted. Monochrome Usually refers to a black. so that (using vanishing point perspective) the object appears to change shape and become narrower or smaller as it recedes. or for wrapping and protecting a finished piece of work." A piece of paper is placed on top of an object or rough surface. which give it a smooth surface (as opposed to cold-pressed paper. lifting out charcoal and other dry media.
Picture plane In the imaginary space
of a picture. glass. aiming to represent facts rather than an interpretation of the subject. Padua. F o r m The outer surface of a three-dimensional object. It is then peeled away. and by artists representing stone sculptures in a painting. Lithography A method of printmaking in which a drawing or painting is made directly onto a smooth slab of particular limestone or a metal plate using an oilbased crayon or ink. the surface of the stone is made wet before being rolled with a thin film of oilbased printing ink. A point of interest in a drawing. Rubens used grisaille to paint small images for engravers. The surface can be reloaded or redrawn with more medium. Usually an academic drawing observed from life. Ground A wet solution usually of gouache or gesso (chalk and animal glue) brushed onto paper board. cadmium yellow hue.257
metal line. Hatching (cross-) See Crosshatching. Hairspray is an effective and inexpensive alternative. and translucent paper—a delicate material used in collage. and that will "escape" or change over time. or synthetic material that are suspended in a medium to constitute paint.The degree to which detail is defined. oil-based printing ink is rolled evenly onto a smooth metal.
format" (abbreviated to "portrait"). multiH u e A term for a color. The ink attaches to the oil-based image and is repelled by the wet stone. Paper is then pressed against the stone to take a print. pastel. Focus 1 . to give the illusion of depth and distance. including Max Ernst used frottage in their work. Fugitive A term given to a pigment that it is not stable. Grisaille A painting in gray or a grayish color Often made by students as a tonal exercise.
by imposing a grid that is then scaled up to a larger size. carbon ink. commonly referred to as the lead.
. Stippling Applying color or tone in areas of fine dots or flecks. or mark using an inked or pigment-covered surface. glasses. Squaring up A method of enlarging and transferring an image from one surface to another. Pounce (a fine for an unpopular 18th-century powder of charcoal or similar French politician. Squeegee A rubber-trimmed scraper used in the screenprinting process for dragging ink across a surface. pointed roll of white paper that is used to blend dry media. Single-point perspective The most basic form of linear perspective in which there is only one vanishing point. or watercolor paint. Technical drawing A universal it is often used in conjunction language of lines and measurements with line drawings in pen and that is used to make diagrammatic ink—for images. a tightly folded piece of cotton batting can be used for the same effect. Spattering A mottled texture produced by drawing your fingers across the bristles of a stiff brush loaded with pigment. or pen. whose pinpricks creates a "connect-thepersonal pastime was making dots" replica of the image on the cut-out portraits. meaning objects used in setting up a life model or still life. Recto The front or top side of a piece of paper. creating more vibrant effects than if the same colors were physically mixed together with a brush.Thedrawing is removed. Zen brushwork encompasses calligraphy and painting. Underdrawing A pale preliminary drawing made prior to adding layers of another medium such as oil paint or watercolor Value The extent to which a color reflects or transmits light This is the equivalent of tone in a black and white image. giving it a brilliance. which are then called editions. Size A weak glue used for filling the porous surface of wood or canvas in order to seal it. and chrysanthemum—which in Chinese tradition are called "The Four Gentlemen. a sheet of paper is placed beneath and pinpricks are Silhouette A flat. W e t media Any liquid media— for example. "Spirits" or "oil" of turpentine refer to the volatile portion used by artists to thin or dilute oil-based paint. Still life A picture composed of inanimate objects such as bowls. sometimes drawn from a and leaving only the pricked sheet of shadow cast on a wall. Alternatively. or the left-hand page in a book. in order to flick the pigment onto the image surface. ink. and flowers. or the right-hand page in a book. or any physical object that can be stamped or pressed onto a surface to leave an impression.
Viewpoint The position from which something is observed or considered." Applied to the blurring or softening of sharp outlines by the subtle and gradual blending of one tone into another Sgraffito A technique of scratching or cutting through a surface of paint. Support The structure on which an image is made—for example.Technicaldrawing has been example. nature of watercolor allows the white surface of the paper to Tonal scale A scale of gradations shine through. a point at which receding parallel lines meet Verso The back or underside of a piece of paper. Tortillon A short. The translucent Tint A color mixed with white. Sketch A quick or rough drawing. Although drawings can be made with wash alone. to model areas of light and shade.
Shade A that is color mixed (or toned) with black Shading A lay term for adding tone to a drawing. Printmaking The act of making a picture. pencil. plum blossom. such as an inscribed sheet of metal. Zen paintings usually depict scenes of nature and plants such as bamboo. tight. Props An abbreviation of the word properties. Artists' prints are normally made in multiple. in tone running from black to white or vice versa.
Stylus A sharp. Scale Describes the size of one element in relation to another Sepia A brown pigment taken from the sun-dried ink sacs of cuttlefish and used to make ink or watercolor The term is now often incorrectly used to refer to brown colors. A term borrowed from the theater. pointed instrument used for marking or engraving. Sfumato An Italian term meaning "smoky. fine paper.
Pouncing If a large drawing or design (called a cartoon) is to be Shadow Darkness cast by the transferred to a surface such as a obscuring of light. an ink stone usually cut from slate. wall or tapestry. or point on which parallel lines converge to give the impression of receding space. Subjective drawing A drawing that expresses the personal view and interpretation of the artist An invented image. or gouache. Zen A school of Mahayana Buddhism that asserts that enlightenment can come through meditation and intuition rather than faith. plaster. using a brush. Etienne de material) dabbed through the Silhouette (1709-67). Turpentine A colorless solvent distilled from the resinous sap of pine trees. Vanishing point In linear perspective. fruit. plaster or cloth surface beneath. evolved by engineers and architects for the purpose of conveying W a t e r c o l o r A painting accurate structural information." Materials for Zen brushwork include round brushes of varied size. Volume The amount of space occupied by an object or an area of space in itself.
Wash A technique using ink. or ceramic glazing to reveal a different color beneath. acrylic. orchids. Named paper in place. design. watercolor. paper or canvas. Serigraphy Silk-screen printing. and paperweights. or wood. Tone A degree of lightness or darkness. compound of water-soluble pigment. Strip Core of a pencil. usually diluted with water and applied with a brush. cut-out profile made along every outline of the usually made in black paper image. Zen brushwork This is an oriental meditative art form originating in China and practised for many centuries in Japan. The crude material is called oleoresin.258
44-45. 206. 250 Bishndas and Nanha: Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity 50. 29 Hugo's octopus 28.51 All and Nothing (Taylor) 114. 198 cartoon (preparatory drawing) 137 (satirical) 159. 244 and graphite 178
.31 Picasso's horse and bird 30. Augustin 67 Basquiat. 221 animals. Etienne-Louis 72 Newton's Cenotaph 72.44-45 bird studies 12. 28 Klee's horses 30. Giovanni 137 Head and Shoulders of a Man 136. Jean Michel 138 Self-Portrait 138 Bateau-Vision. 26 geese 38-39 Gericault's cats 28. Nicolas-Jacques 54 contours 146. 90. 71 Blake. 157 cropping 56-57. layers 53 chalk pastels 162. 8 cave paintings 8. 74. 74 brush (es) 246-247 Japanese 248 for laying a wash 140 marks 248-249 to hold 23 brush drawings 14-15 Bryan. Leon: Bacchante 155 balance.162 Conte.100 curves. Statue d'Epouvante 90
Nanha) 50. Le (Hugo) 200. 226-227 Acanthus spinosus 65 accelerated perspective 22. to draw 25. (Ross-Craig) 49
to hold brush for 23 caricature 159. 222. 242 to blend 205 compressed 122. 189. to model 110-111 border 51 Bosch.198. Franz 48 Protea nitida 48 Bellini. 160 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object (Moore) 178. 204. 74.169 colors: airbrushed 161 background 91
Abe. 203 Claude Lorrain 202 Views from Velletri 202. 199 Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya (Eisen) 156. 81 cut-out model plan 94. 9.115 anatomical drawing 134-135 anatomical theaters 82-83 anatomical waxes 128 ancient carvings 221. Basilius 47 Beuys.212 to erase 205 to hold 23 pencils 204 willow 114. 190 Caricature of a Woman (Daumier) 198. cut Catling. 71 Bacchante (Bakst) 155 background: color 91 textured 240 Baker Matthew: Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry 32 Bakst. 128. 161 Akhlaq-I Rasul Allah manuscript 51.186 see also movement Adoration of the Magi perspective study (Leonardo) 74. Filippo 67. 158. William: The Circle of the Lustful 180. 134 costume(s) 155 character 158-159 structure of 166-167 Cottage Among Trees (Rembrandt) 52.163 body. 94 cylindrical objects.163 dry media 205 Blue Nude (Matisse) 110. 198. 71 conte 112. Victor: West Facade of the Church of St. 38-39. 137 Besler. 178 Cubism 67. 78 aerial perspective 206 airbrushing 160. 204-205. 242 Brunelleschi. 163. 247-248 carving see lines. 206 checkered floor 80.163 graded 227 composition 56-57. to draw 80. Clare 203 City 202. 111. 13 architectural drawing 67-71 Arctic Flowers (Libeskind) 70. 162 character: to capture 38-39. 52 cotton swabs 205 Coup de Vent a Asajigabare (Hokusai) 198. 133. 193 in lifting out 204. 75 Circle of the Lustful (Blake) 180. 179 Bussotti. Mamaru 104.184. 113 bird bones 12. 243 botanical drawing 48-49 Boullee. Zen
blended 133. 40-41 Durer's rhinoceros 26. 165. 72 bracelet shading 122 Braque. to depict 156-157 Cloudburst of Material Possessions (Leonardo) 200. 241 action.89. to express 39. 94 chalk(s) 53. Brian 226 Untitled 2001 226 "Cave of the Hands" (Cueva de las Manas) 126.96.36.199 turtles 42-43 aquatint 240 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels (Leonardo) 12. 180 blending: color 133. Sylvano 222. 202 cloth. 180 Circular Score for "Due Voce" (Bussotti) 223 circus scenes 192-195 City (Bryan) 202. 182. 201 collage 111. 41 principal 186. 81 135. to draw 100 Cypripedium calceolus L. 223 Circular Score for "Due Voce" 223
children's art 9. Hieronymus 243 Two Monsters 242. 90 La Guitare. 230 The Physical Space 220 abstract drawing 219. 75. 13. 203 Buffalo Hunt (Shoshone) 178.50. 50. 116.184. center of 118 ballpoint 182. 9 Chair (Van Gogh) 94. 203 Landline 202. 90 colored materials 162-163 colored pencils 162.117 Achilles Chases Hector (Thomas) 240. 244 head and neck 144 phrased 124-125 contrast: brightness 99 of media 30 tonal 96. Joseph 113 The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland 112. 98. 30 sleeping dog 38-39 Stubbs's horse skeleton 26. 200 Bauer. 70 Art Nouveau motifs 91 Autoportrait (Ray) 138. 205 Baltard. Georges 67. 90. 95 Chair Cut Out (Woodfine) 94. 230-231 Cubist 90.Index
Page numbers in italics refer t o captions and illustrations Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity (Bishndas and
bread (as eraser) 205.13. 220. 186 charcoal 114.
160.12 fixative 54. 144
Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (Baker) 32. to draw 168-169 in Goya's artworks face. 241 to blend 205 and chalk 178 and ink 28.144 and ink 30. 71 minimal line 99 and music 70-71 quick 38-39.198 Degas. 91 Dragon (Michelangelo) 36. 29
hands.115 exploratory 17 fantasy 72-73. 93 eye level 80 Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity. 124. 190 Middle Eastern 50-51. M. 161 fashion drawings 160. 99 etching. 135 Duren Albrecht 26.Theodore 29 Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 28. 202. Cheval et Oiseau (Picasso) 30. disposable pens 182-183 dissections: botanical 48 of horse 27 distance: illusion of see perspective linear 97 tonal 97 Documents Decoratifs. 69 Guitare. 41 in the round 208-209 with scalpel 202.111 feet. 30 Fauves/fauvism 90. C . Nicholas 68 St Paul's Baptistry 68 head and neck to draw 142-145 Head and Shoulders of a Man (Bellini) 136. 242 eyes. 32 framing 139 Franfoise au Bandeau (Picasso) 132. 79. Statue d'Epouvante. Francisco de 131. position of 143. 243 graphic score 222.John 157 Man Lying Down in a Cloak 156. 157
.97. 163.146 from masterworks 126-127. to draw 120. 226-227 anatomical 134-135 architectural 67-71 botanical 48-49 brush 14-15 dark to light 102. 200
fabric. 216 foreshortening 110.184 165. 222 Grimes. 160 hitsuzendo 233 light to dark 102. 223.103.104. 69. 245 layers 30 Goya.109 Rhinoceros 26.103 with eraser 103. to suggest 177 see also perspective diagonals diffuser 55 dip pens 34. proportions of 143 fantasy drawings 72-73.216. 69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt 68. 55.166 170-173
Gestalt 222 Giacometti. 222 Le Bateau-Vision 200. Antonio 135 Muscles of the Head and Neck 134. 799 Holbein.101 engraving 243 erasers/erasing 55. 137 heads. drypoint 181 exaggeration 184 expressionism 198 E ye and Head of a Drone Fly (Hooke) 92. 7 33 Hooke.244 drawing(s): abstract 219. 765 hitsuzendo drawings 233 Hokusai. 120. Sir Ernst 12. 134.141. 122. 230 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction 68. 122 Hawksmoor. to draw 134-137 Helleborus corsicus 55 highlights 91. 160
Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction (Gaudi) 68. 55. Antonio 68. 223 graphite 54. 73. 93 horizon 52.207.117 fountain pens 34. 205 drawing with 103. 136 Golden Section 67 Gombrich. 161 changing 216 Focusing on the Negative (Walter) 16 foliage 52. 240. 131 Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 240. 160 as ground for metal point 140. Ron 161 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 161
160. 112. 134. 132 Frenz. Jean Ignace Isidore see Grandville Gericault. 170-173. 203 Hotel de la Suzonnieres (Satie) 70.121 felt-tip pens 162. 245 Hugo. 77 How Clever of God #84 244. 69.216
Durelli.102-103 drawing board 20 drawing books 20-21 drawing paper 144.160. 25 focus 65. 40.112. to draw 78.116.91. 160 Faune.252-253 from memory 183. 162 Flaxman. Alberto 136 Portrait of Marie-Laure de Noailles 136.189. Robert 93 Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 92. position of 22 Eisen.230 three-tone 140.260
Dada 139 Daumien Honore 198 Caricature of a Woman 198. 240 170-173
five Ships in a Port with Lighthouse (Wallis) 11.157 ellipses 100. 113. La (Braque) 90. Rene 160 Illustration for Jacques Fath
easel. Hans 133 The Ambassadors 116 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 132. 220 dry brush 234 234 57. 37
Grandville 243 A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the Near-Microscopic World of Scale Insects 242. 163. 104-105. fiber-tip pen 182. The 242. 134. 52 foreground 208. 141 tonal 96.244. 90
Gaudi. 115 Escher. Study for Plate 59 (Mucha) 90. Keisai 157 The Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya 156. Victor 200. 161 fashion 160. 26
Flying Fish (White) 25. 125. 240 Black Paintings 152. 203 semi-abstract 234-237 three-dimensional 68. 252 depiction of fabric monsters 252-253 Self Portrait in a Cocked Hat 130. 55.37. 90 gouache 30. 222.141. Katsushika 199 Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 198. Edgar 162 depth.69 Gerard. 245 Gruau. Oona 245 How Clever of God #84 244.
73 Kigell. 78 Study ofThree Male Figures 110. 249 and gouache 30 Indian 35. 227 Newsome. apparent 97 Leonardo da Vinci 74. Oxford 106 Prado. 114 hatched 244 layered 118 pace of 65 pale 40 rapid 49. 33
naive art 74 negative space 53. Rose: Tantalus or the Future of Man 20 minimal line drawing 99 mirror use of 120 mixed media 28. Florence 128 lighting in 167 Pitt Rivers. 178 motifs: A r t Nouveau 9 7 stylized 51 mountains 216-217 movement: of animals 30-31 of humans 7 79. 177 influences. Matisse. 83 white 122 ink impressions 222 ink spatters 234 installations 176.The (Robinson) 108. 76 Libeskind. David 78
Mackintosh. 244. 205. 53 Tree II 52. 252 Muscles of the Head and Neck (Durelli) 134. 77 Miller. Gustav 49 Knopf.120.109.141 Metropolis (film) 72.167 line(s) 132. 227 Scene of Comical Riders 30.134
Kettlehut.276.Pieuvre (Octopus) 28. drawing from 183. 170-173. Phyll: hands 18
lifting out 204. 757 mandalas 219. 220. 244
lithograph 198 Losbruch (Kollwitz) 180. artistic 240-241. 185 Mucha.182 Moore. 219 Mondrian. Madrid 171 University Museum of Natural History. 99. 205 masterworks.112. 13 Cloudburst of Material Possessions 200.33 Mysterious Affairs of the lighting 2 7. Erich 73 design for Metropolis 72. 789. 184.181
Landline (Bryan) 188.8.131.52. 181 luminosity 115 Lynch. Henry 178 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object 178. 221 endless 31 free 113. 225 masking tape 204. 28 Two Impressions from a Cut-out Paper Disk 222 Huyler Stephen R 225
Kinecar.227 to "bend" straight 97 compositional 228-229 cut 202. 201 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels 12.
Murderous Attacks 33 Kollwitz. 31 Klimt. Bartolome: Moses Striking the Rock ofHoreb 252. 36. 156 magnification 93 Man in Armor (Van Dyck) 158. 74-77. 34.124. 176. 203. Piet 52. 166. Johan 32. 220. 159 Japanese 35 to make 36 sepia 35 walnut 36. Alphonse 90. 190 metal pens see dip pens metal point 25. 234 iron-gall 35.109. 58-59. Henri 111 Blue Nude 1110. 73 Michelangelo Buonarroti 48. 756 priming for 140. 49 Rose 49 Maelbeke Madonna (Van Eyck) 156. Kathe 181 Losbrunch (The Outbreak) 180. 160 In the Duchess's Kitchen (Rackham) 176. 220. 203 landscape 206-208 brushed 14 Landscape in Hoboku Style (Sesshu) 14 layers 146 chalk 53 gouache 30 ink 28. 242 light 96 to depict drawing with 1 76 painting with 176
. 54 silver point 156 leg sections 158 length. 244 ink 36 252-253
Documents Decoratifs 90. 103 Neolithic chalk tablet 220. 248. Oxford 250 music 70-71 Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks (Knopf) 32. 163 pens 36 measuring 116 memory. 37 lines 118 pastel 162 pencil 31.115 98.243 carbon 35 Chinese 30. 35. 181 Klee.166 La Specola. Daniel 70 Arctic Flowers 70 Lieb.91 Study for Plate 59 of
illumination see lighting Illustration for Jacques Fath (Gruau) 160. 110 Sistine Chapel ceiling 116 Middle Eastern drawing 50-51. 158 Man Lying Down in a Cloak (Flaxman) 156. Marie 244 cloth drawing 244. 244 Dragon 36. drawing from 126-127. 53 monoprint 787. 60. Victor 134 Profile Head 134. 201 head and neck sections of female mold for Sforza Horse 89 Madonna of the Rocks 244 perspective study for Adoration of the Magi 74. 226 Modernism 67. 230 invented creatures 106-107 250-251 invented objects 89. 72. 220. 135 museums 44. 34-35 acrylic 35 bistre 35. 63. 183 vertical 156 linear distance 97 linear perspective 69. Charles Rennie 48. 252 ink 16. 97 Murillo. Paul 227 Polyphonic Setting for White 226. 111.104.
219. 73 Noble. 7 70 Ray. 739 semi-abstract drawings Style 14 Seurat. 37 38.The (Beuys) 112.oise au Bandeau 132. 38. 4 8 putty eraser 55. 159. 732 influence of 240 painting with light 78. 244
Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape (Wolfli) 2 79 St. 243.104 Pieuvre (Hugo) 28. Georges 112 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 112.Paul'sBaptistry (Hawksmoor) 68.131 Cottage Among Trees 52. 203 Scene of Comical Riders (Klee) 30. 7 76 receding space 206 Redon. 81 two-point 74.52 pen and wash 158. 759
Page. and Webster. 30 Fran<. Paul 73 Nobson Central 72. 1 1 6 accelerated 2 2 . Peter Paul 126-127 Embracing
pose(s): balanced 146 quick 118-119 positive form 103 posture: of artist 22 of subject 3 8 . 7 73 self-portraits: Basquiat 138. 36 pen and brush 8 3 pen and ink 70. 114 rollerball 182 Rorschach blot 99 Rose (Mackintosh) 48. 9 0 . 57 Ross-Craig.176 Real Life Is Rubbish 176.
Faune.40. 244 reed 34.262
pastel 162 perspective 1 0 0 . Russell 228.7 77 rapidograph 70 Raphael 110. Odilon 242 The Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity 242. 736 portraits. 181 Rodin. 733 Portrait de Marie-Laure (Giacometti) 136.139 Autoportrait 138. 224
31. 4 9 Rose of Mohammed 50. Pablo 6 7 . 162 O p A r t 98 optical illusions 96-99 outline 33.Tim. 36. 38. 205 pointillism 112 polyphonic painting 227 Polyphonic Setting for White (Klee) 226. 242 reed pens 34. Heath 181 The Kinecar 180. 166 fiber-tip 782. 1 6 3 .184 fountain 34. 141 Piranesi. 103. 75 Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range 241 petroglyphs 221. 772 234-237 Sesshu. 1 1 7 aerial 206 linear 69. Sue 104. Giovanni Battista 74. 36. 1 1 6 .37. 7 38 Ray 138. 2 2 0 for oil pastels 162 stained 230 to stretch 140-141 tissue 21. Martin 238. 26 Riley. Cheval et Oiseau 30.199 Profile Head (Newsome)
oil pastels 162.2 3
age and youth sleeping subjects
Renaissance 109 Rhinoceros (Durer) 26. Isaac 92 Telescope 92 Newton's Cenotaph (Boullee) 72. 782 relief 757 silk-screen 739 woodblock 134. 227 portfolios 20 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser de Noailles (Holbein) 132. 36. 7 72 Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland. 230 parallel planes 79 Parisian street 86-87 pastels 162 to blend 205 to hold 23 layers 162 pencils 162 pen(s): dip 34 . 163. 74-77. 161.Toyo: Landscape in Hoboku
. J 76 nudes 114-115
to make 36 metal see dip quill 34. The (Abe) 220 Picasso. 165 figure 118 filled 37 pencil 48. 9 8 . 78 single-point 74. 76-79.36. 71 Satire of the Queen's Dress (Wodall) 158. 76 plastic eraser 55. 230 paper(s) 21 colored 162 drawing 144. 181 pencil(s) 54 charcoal 204 colored 762.759. 165. 52 pens 36
drawing with 202.37. 68 Satie. 36. 234 disposable 182-183 felt-tip 162.37
instruments 9 2 .141 prints/printing: aquatint 240 dry-point etching 181 engraving 243 monoprint 181. 734 Protea nitida (Bauer) 48. Auguste 114 Two Women 114. 239 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat (Seurat) 112.9 3
Schongauer. 7 77 three-point 80. 36 relief printing 757 Rembrandt van Rijn 52. 36. 239 Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 238. Stella 48 Cypripedium calceolus L 49 rotated view 7 65 Rubens. Erik 70. 74. to draw 146-147
Rackham. 212 Japanese 2 1 . Arthur 177 In the Duchess's Kitchen 176. 1 6 9 to hold 2 2 . 75 Two Courtyards 75. 1 2 4 priming for metal point 140. 160. 34-35.240. 216. 28 pigment 162 bright 50 Caput Mortuum 7 4 7 for three-tone drawing 141. 243. 164. 139 Real Life is Rubbish (Noble and Webster) 176. 40-41. 205 157. 241 Physical Space. 1 3 2
quill pens 34.71 Hotel de la Suzonnieres 70. 72 Noble. Bridget 98 Robinson. 91 outsider artists 33. 122. Man 131.226.
230 t h r e e . h e a d a n d n e c k sections o f female m o l d f o r (Leonardo) 89 shading 2 9 s h a d o w s 28. 2 4 7 t h r e e . 2 2 0 influence o f 2 4 0 Untitled 220. G e o r g e 2 7 Skeleton of the Horse 26. 1 6 6 t r a p e z i u s m u s c l e 142. 1 9 9 Two Courtyards (Piranesi) 75. Paul 2 4 1 Achilles Chases Hector 2 4 0 . William 159 Satire of the Queen's Dress
226. 6 9 Wodall. 1 4 5 travel journal 2 0 .9 1 storms. 1 4 1 w a t e r c o l o r 25. 7 6 Two Impressions from a Cut-Out Paper Disk ( H u g o ) 2 2 2 Two Monsters 2 4 2 . 1 7 7 free 8 0 V e n i c e . 65 symbols 138. 164.120.141 S i m b l e t . Sue see N o b l e . 75. t o d r a w 5 2 . Adolf: Giant-Grape Saint-Mary-Castle 219
Woman at Her Toilet ( T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c ) 74 w o o d b l o c k print 157. 174 T w o m b l y . 2 4 2
Wallis. 725 fabric 1 6 8 T h o m a s . t o draw 1 9 8 . 2 2 7 Untitled 2001 ( C a t l i n g )
W h i t e .41. drawing with 104-105 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt ( G a u d i ) 68. t o d r a w 1 0 1 viewfinder 57 Views from Velletri ( C l a u d e L o r r a i n ) 152. t o lay 1 4 0 . 2 7 studies: b i r d s 7 2 . 7 79 Shoshone petroglyph 240. 7 6 1 spots. 9 5 pens 36 v a n i s h i n g p o i n t 74. 161.13 M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s m a l e figures 110. 102-103 tonal marks.J.158
158. 1 4 0 . 2 1 2 . 7 75 Telescope ( N e w t o n ) 9 2 . 76. 7 70 Tiber 214-215
Untitled ( T w o m b l y ) 2 2 0 . v i e w s o f 85. 75 Skeleton of the Horse ( S t u b b s ) 26. 9 0 .12 W a l t e r .d i m e n s i o n a l d r a w i n g 68.2 0 1 . 7 77. 241. 245 sharpener 54 Ship in a Storm ( T u r n e r ) 1 9 8 . 1 4 1 .t o n e d r a w i n g 140.
Taylor A n i t a 115 All and Nothing 1 1 4 . 2 3 0 tonal contrast 96 tonal distance 9 7 t o n a l d r a w i n g 9 6 . 743 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City ( F r e n z ) 1 6 0 . 2 3 4 . 199 shoes 1 6 4 . 243 (Bosch)
Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos ( G o y a ) 2 4 0 . 221
. b l o w n 248 steel p e n s see d i p p e n s still life 89. 9 2 Tesshu. 249 t o describe 39. t o d r a w 2 0 0 .241 s i l k . 1 8 4 . Jan 1 5 6 Maelbeke Madonna 1 5 6 .5 3 in l a n d s c a p e 2 0 6 . H e n r i de: Woman at Her Toilet 14 t r a n s p a r e n t v i e w 92. Vincent 95 Chair 94. 97. C y 138. 49. 7 9 0 vessels. M . 4 4 boat 209 botanical 4 9 G e r i c a u l t ' s cats 2 9 from Goya 170-173 125. Augustin ( B a l t a r d ) 6 7 w e t and dry brush-strokes 2 4 9
Turner. 159 Wolfli. 202
violin. 1 4 4 . 74. 1 3 . 77.125
W o o d f i n e . 158 V a n Eyck. Sarah: child's m a p 75. Sarah 9 4 Chair Cut Out 94.1 4 5 . 96. 156 Van Gogh. 69. 2 2 6 . 57. 186.27 skull 747. John: Focusing on the Negative 14 w a s h . 156 layers 7 5 6 priming for 140. 206-207
202. John 25 Flying Fish 25 Wild Striped Cat Sketches of ( G e r i c a u l t ) 28.d i m e n s i o n a l 1 0 4 . 226
Van Dyck. 115. t h r e e . 2 0 0 Ship in a Storm 1 9 8 .s c r e e n p r i n t i n g 139 silver p o i n t 1 4 0 . 1 9 9 . T i m W e s t Fagade of the Church of St.199
tissue p a p e r 21. 104-105. 1 6 . Man in Armor 1 5 8 . Study of (Michelangelo) 110. 2 9 wind. 240
Two Women Embracing ( R o d i n ) 114. 2 4 4 . 69. 1 2 Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse 71.1 0 5 vision 9 6 Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects (Grandville) 242. phrased 146 tonal modeling 161 tonal range 169 t o n a l surfaces 2 2 7 tonal width 97 t o n e ( s ) 33. 9 4
Z e n calligraphy
contrast 96 t o grade 163 ink 37 pencil 5 4 t o r t i l l o n 205 T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c . 1 8 4 .Sforza Horse. A l f r e d 1 1 . 199. 141 Three Male Figures. 79.1 8 5 Tree II ( M o n d r i a n ) 52. W .1 4 1 .1 6 5 shorthand diagram 142 Shoshone buffalo hide painting 178.2 1 3 Stubbs.243
Leonardo's machines 12.216 W e b s t e r .Yamaoka 233 t e x t u r e 2 2 2 . 170 shoes 1 6 4 stylized m o t i f 51 Summer Flowers 63. 53 trees. A n t h o n y 152. 7 1 4 .1 9 9 wire. 182.
6 6 : w w w .
8: Corbis/Hubert Stadler. 49: Hunterian Museum (t). G i n a R o w l a n d . (r). University of Cambridge. 243: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. 1975 ( 1 9 7 5 . 132: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso.co. Berlin/Staatsbibliothek zu
A l l other images © Sarah Simblet
. 1 9 : Getty Images/© Succession Picasso / D A C S 2 0 0 5 . K u n s t m u s e u m Bern/© D A C S 2 0 0 5 .uk/Private Collection.uk/Musee des Augustins. R o s e m a r y S c o u l a r . © Tate.uk/Private Collection. papers. J o n Roome. B e m d Kunzig. University of Oxford. 9 7 6 ) .
Also. 2 2 2 : Pierre Georgel/Private Collection. Carole A s h . c o . B e r l i n .r. 1 1 0 : www. a n d D e p a r t m e n t s o f E n t o m o l o g y a n d Zoology at the University of Oxford. 115: Anita Taylor. 2 4 4 : Ashmolean Museum. Maureen Paley Interim Art (b). H a y w a r d Gallery. 2 4 : © T h e British Museum. L o n d o n . 68: www. O o n a G r i m e s . B M G . Andy Crawford. 17: J o h n Walter. L o n d o n . 176: Modem Art. 1 6 0 : Rene G R U A U s. Sarah D u n c a n . 9 3 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. 2 0 1 : T h e Royal Collection © 2 0 0 2 H e r Majesty Queen Elizabeth I I .bridgeman. 174: Artothek/Munich. 157: U C L Art Collections . 2 4 2 : Photo Scala. 199: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee des arts asiatiquesGuimet. Orientabteilung/Ruth Schacht. Wolfson College. Graphische Sammlung. Florence/MoMA. L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . 1 5 4 : akg-images/Musee National d'Art Moderne. 1 3 6 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Centre Pompidou-MNAM-CCI. Kirsten Norrie.co. 4 6 : B r i t i s h Library.bridgeman. Carlo O r t u for picture research s u p p o r t . London/Bequeathed by Charles Landseer. 225: Stephen P Huyler.264
T h e author wishes to thank the following people for their enormous help. 72: akg-images. H . 139: Galerie Marion Meyer/© Man Ray Trust / A D A G P . L o n d o n . 2 4 0 : w w w . and Tamsin Woodward Smith. b r i d g e m a n . 2 8 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. G e r m a n y . Angela Palmer. 130: The Metropolitan M u s e u m of Art/Robert L e h m a n Collection. . Pamela Ellis for compiling the index. A n d y C r a w f o r d for p h o t o g r a p h y a n d L . 1 9 6 : Museum of the History of Science. Paris and D A C S . 51: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett.bridgeman. 5 2 : T h e Metropolitan Museum of Art/Bequest of Mrs. 69: Institut Amatller d'Art Hispanic (tl). 2 2 3 : Lebrecht Music and Arts Photo Library/Ricordi. Psychiatric Institute of the U n i v e r s i t y of Heidelberg./Private Collection/© D A C S 2005. 73: Berlin F i l m Museum (t). S i m o n L e w i s . 29: Fogg A n Museum/Collections Baron de Vita: Grenville L. Julie O u g h t o n . Salisbury & South W i l t s h i r e M u s e u m ( t ) . Rocio Arnaez.a.uk /Biblioteca Nacional. Sammy De Grave. c o . b r i d g e m a n . L o n d o n . Copyright Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens. Toulouse. Sophie Laurimore. K e w ft)). 75: © The British Museum (b). J o h n Roberts. 2 2 0 : Mamaru Abe. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin/Jorg P. London 2005. 13: www. 221: Gagosian Gallery/Private Collection (b). 180: www. c o . Anders/ © D A C S 2 0 0 5 . 158: Calouste Gulbenkian Museum. D a w n Henderson.co. 2 0 0 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. U K . Angela W i l k e s . 4 8 : T h e N a t u r a l H i s t o r y M u s e u m .co. H a m b u r g . Dover Publications/ISBN: 0486229912 (t). 1901. a n d brushes o n pp. 1879. Flossie. 113: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. Italy. C o r n e l i s o n & Son. Agnieszka Mlicka. u k / L o u v r e . Illustrated London News Picture Library/The Bystander (b). J o h n Walter. 2 2 4 : P r i n z h o m Collection. O. 1 3 8 : © Christie's Images Ltd/© A D AGP. 1 7 8 : © T h e British M u s e u m / H e n r y Moore F o u n d a t i o n ./© D A C S 2 0 0 5 ( t ) . 111: Fondation Beyeler/Riehen (Bale)/© Succession H Matisse/DACS 2005. 1 3 5 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library.Strang Print Room ( b ) . 2 1 8 : Adolf-Wdlfli-Stiftung. Natalie G o d w i n . . L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . Patty Stansfield. B . 5 0 : Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (1). u k / O n Loan to the H a m b u r g Kunsthalle. NY. support.uk/Private Collection. 1 9 8 : Dover Publications. 177: Mary Evans Picture Library. Clare Bryan. F r a n c e . L o n d o n (t). R . 7 0 : Studio Daniel L i b e s k i n d . 9 5 : V a n Gogh M u s e u m . A . 9 4 : Sarah Woodfine. Psychiatric Institute of the University of Heidelberg. Paris.co./Galerie Sylvie Nissen.uk /© Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery. Jackie Douglas. 30: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. P h y l l Kiggell. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. L o n d o n . L e n . Paris.939). 2 4 5 : Oona Grimes. 114: Musee Rodin. 16: www. 181: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz.uk/Guildhall Library. 1929 (29. Peter L u f f .bridgeman.uk/Mucha Trust. Corporation of London. Paris. K u n s t m u s e u m . 9 1 : www. Paris a n d D A C S .co. G e r m a n y . H e l e n S h u t t l e w o r t h . Fund. Basel. 7 1 : I M E C / A r c h i v e s E r i k Satie. Madrid. T h e R u s k i n School of D r a w i n g a n d Fine A r t . Productions Clovis Prevost (c). Japan. 88: www. Havemeyer. Paris. Oxford. 3 3 : Prinzhom Collection. Anita Taylor. London/courtesy of Stuart Shave. 5 3 : Collection of the Gemeentemuseum D e n Haag/Mondrian Trust. Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (t). R o y a n d D i a n n e Simblet. Paris. A . 74: Corbis. Paris/ © Succession Picasso / D A C S 2005. Magdalene College Cambridge.20-21 a n d 246-47. Jean Pierre Roy.bridgeman. 226: Brian Catling. a n d encouragement i n m a k i n g this book: M a m o r u Abe.co. Sarah Woodfine. 179: www. Roddy Bell. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. K a t h r y n W i l k i n s o n . Berlin (b). George M c G a v i n . 1 3 4 : © T h e British Museum. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin. 1 5 6 : Graphische S a m m l u n g Albertina.co.Paris ( b ) . 2 0 2 : © T h e British Museum. 9 0 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/© A D A G P . M a n d y Earey. T o n y G r i s o n i .bridgeman. Paul T h o m a s . Amsterdam. Kunstmuseum Bern. K e v i n a n d Rebecca Slingsby. Antonia Cunliffe Davis. 1 . 1 0 8 : Arts C o u n c i l Collection. Paula Regan. 137: © The British Museum. 3 2 : Pepys Library.uk/British Museum. 2 6 : Topfoto. Paris a n d D A C S .bridgeman. 3 1 : Tom Powel Imaging. 1 5 9 : Bodleian Library. Winthrop. 2 4 1 : Corbis/David M u e n c h ( b ) . u k / T o k y o National M u s e u m . Germany/Joerg P. U K .co. Portugal. for s u p p l y i n g the d r a w i n g books. 2 7 : Royal Academy of Arts. France. R u t h P a r k i n s o n . A n n a P l u c i n s k a . b r i d g e m a n . 1 6 1 : D C C o m i c s I n c . Paul T h o m a s ( t ) . Sir Brinsley F o r d . 2 2 7 : Paul Klee Stiftung. 9 2 : Science Photo L i b r a r y .bridgeman. Lisbon.100. 2 0 3 : Clare Bryan (t). 1 3 3 : Artothek/Kupferstichkabinett. B e r l i n . 1 5 : w w w . 112: Yale University A r t Gallery/Everett V Meeks. Diana Bell. Paris. Germany. H e a t h e r M c C a r r y . Anders. Christopher Davis.
Dorling Kindersley w o u l d like to thank Caroline H u n t for editorial contribution.co.l.uk/Kettle's Yard. 11: www.bridgeman. F i n n . J a c k a n d Brian Catling. Inc. 2 3 8 : akg-images.
D r a w i n g C l a s s e s — d e t a i l e d step-by-step demonstrations show you how to develop your natural talents.
Materials and Techniques—how to use a variety of materials—from
pencil and ink to pastel. discover new ideas. charcoal.FOR THE ARTIST
T h e c o m p l e t e g u i d e to drawing—a unique blend of practical teaching and inspirational insights into classic and contemporary drawings. and improve your drawing skills.dk.com
Discover more at
Creating a Sketchbook—Sarah Simblet's drawings inspire you to
explore different subjects and fill your own sketchbooks.
Learn from the Masters—a rich selection of drawings illustrates
different approaches to a wide range of subjects. and silverpoint—and apply the key elements of drawing including perspective. and tone. shape.