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FOR T H E ARTIST
FOR THE ARTIST
LONDON • NEW YORK MELBOURNE • MUNICH • DELHI Senior Editor Paula Regan Senior Art Editor Mandy Earey Art Editor Anna Plucinska Managing Editor Julie Oughton Managing Art Editor Heather McCarry Art Director Peter Luff Publishing Director Jackie Douglas Production Joanna Bull DTP Designer Adam Walker Picture Research Sarah Smithies US Editor Christine Heilman First American Edition, 2 0 0 5 First Paperback Edition, 2 0 0 9 Published in the United States by DK Publishing 3 7 5 Hudson Street New York, New York 1 0 0 1 4 10 11 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3
6 8 20 22 Master Builders The Order of Sound Future Fictions Pathways of Sight Single-Point Perspective Creating an Imaginary Space Further Aspects of Perspective Theaters Venetian Life Parisian Street
68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86
Foreword Introduction Drawing Books and Papers Posture and Grip
Objects and Instruments
TD075-July 2009 Copyright © 2 0 0 5 Dorling Kindersley Limited Text and authors artworks © Sarah Simblet 2 0 0 4 Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited A Cataloging-in-Publication record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN 9 7 8 - 0 - 7 5 6 6 - 5 1 4 1 - 1 Color reproduction by GRB, Italy Printed and bound in China by Toppan
Still Life Instruments of Vision Bench Marks Light and Illusions Further Illusions How to Draw Ellipses Tonality Drawing with Wire Artifacts and Fictions
90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106
Documentaries Presence and Mood Movement Icon and Design Pen and Ink Drawing with Ink Capturing Character Sleeping Dogs Turtles Dry Birds
26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44
Postures and Poses Choreographs Passion Measurement and Foreshortening Quick Poses Hands and Feet Charcoal Hands Phrasing Contours The Visual Detective La Specola
110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128
Plants and Gardens
Botanical Studies Jeweled Gardens Fast Trees Graphite and Erasers Cropping and Composition Negative Space Fig Tree Summer Flowers Acanthus Spinosus
48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64
Discover more at
Projections Magnetic Fields The Human Condition Disposable Pens The Travel Journal Catching the Moment Grand Canal Crossings Caravans The Big Top
174 Abstract Lines
176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 Process and Harmony Writing Time Chants and Prayers Compositions Being "Just" Collage Zen Calligraphy Nocturnes
220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234
Poise Anatomies Revelations Self-Portraits Silver Point Head and Neck Essential Observations Drawing Portraits Generations Castings
132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 152
Earth and the Elements
Air in Motion Storms Nature Profiles Charcoal Landscapes Drawing in the Round Decaying Boat Cloudburst Notes of Force Mountains
198 200 202 204 206 208 210 212 214 216
Gods and Monsters
Marks of Influence Hauntings Convolutions Brushes Brush Marks Monsters Goya's Monsters Consumed Glossary Index Acknowledgments
240 242 244 246 248 250 252 254 256 259 264
Cloth and Drapery Character Costumes Femmes Fatales Colored Materials Study and Design The Structure of Costume Textures and Patterns Dressing Character Posture Carving
156 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172
where I expect them to be discovered by some people. we learn to see it. geologists. and a reflector of experience. For me personally. They enfold their viewer and are made on joined sheets of paper that I reach by climbing ladders. and local c o m m u n i t y classes. The most rewarding challenge is always the newcomer. shape. I work with people of diverse ages. Drawing is a mirror through which I understand my place in the world. through history. . I will always draw. are made outside as discreet installations. Augustine his notes on memory. and makers of special effects. Some are more traditionally framed and hung in galleries for solo or group exhibitions. architect. It is a tool for investigating ideas and recording knowledge.Foreword B Y DRAWING THE WORLD AROUND US. thinking. a sculptor. They occupy a shelf in my studio. a cartographer charting the land. or a quantum physicist trying to see for themselves the fluctuations of our universe. undergraduates to fellow professors. and experience. and through which I can see how I think. we have looked at. It makes me feel excited to be alive. and their importance to so many artists. Some of my drawings cover entire walls. We can all learn how to draw. who tells me firmly upon approach that they cannot draw. These inspirations led me to invent museums. By using our imaginations. especially as travel journals. a drawing book is the perfect portable private vehicle for your imminent exploration of drawing. and I refer back to them for years after they are made. that inspired the title and structure MEMORY T H E A T E R S This pen-and-ink drawing was made from imagination during research for my PhD. a composer notating a musical score. and in a few sessions they will be flying. I also make drawing books. in which he describes himself flying and diving in his imagination through pictorial caverns of knowledge. Others can be held in the h a n d or. Drawing occupies a unique place in every artist and creator's life. drawing is the immediate expression of seeing. from schoolchildren to senior citizens. Chosen in any color. but because it is how I engage with and anchor myself in life. of Sketch Book for the Artist. understood (and often misunderstood) our own bodies. as a visiting professor at universities. or engineer. perhaps hidden on a door hinge or a street bench rail. not only to make art. For twelve years I have enjoyed the privilege of teaching drawing. fashion designer. The very first step is to believe it. still standing by the door. I know that with their cooperation I can soon prove them wrong. and be slowly washed or worn away. and feeling. by invitation. texture. art schools. we learn to feel truly alive. It is my love of these. be they a child discovering their vision and dexterity. I was also reading among The Confessions of St. remain unseen by most. I was training in anatomy and studying how. and size. night security staff. where spaces are shaped by nothing more than the objects and activities contained within them. doctors. aspirations. Combine these things and the possibilities are endless.
but more often because drawing actually helps us to focus and take in what is said. irreverent to language barriers. signs. Drawing is international. logos.8 INTRODUCTION Where We Begin There is a fundamental drive in our human nature to make a mark. a great crowd is raising their hands in greeting. packaging. Rio Pinturas 13. inscribing every fresh part of it with their eager scrapes and trails. in lectures. We are bombarded with linear and tonal pictorial information. Cueva de las Marios. We can always read each others drawings. They have a natural affinity to many modern graffiti signatures. Most adults still feel that certain exquisite pleasure on arriving at a beach to find the tide out and the sand perfect. Sometimes we draw because we are bored. not just chosen pictures on our walls but everywhere—maps. scrawling shapes and cartoons when on the telephone. "CAVE OF THE HANDS" In this drawing. We are surrounded by drawings in our daily lives. like a great canvas for them to mark. At home and at work we doodle. waving to us from many thousands of yearsago.Theseancient silhouettes were drawn with earth pigments rubbed onto rock. is not afforded us by drawing. graffiti.000-9500 bce . Children cannot be restrained from running across the pristine white lawn of newly fallen snow. The sense of relief we may feel from the information overload of modern commercial life when visiting a country in which we can no longer read every written word. and we spend our lives reading it. and patterns on our clothes. and in meetings.
and belonging to place. like all toddlers. In cave paintings like the one opposite. MAKING OUR MARK It seems reasonable to assume that we have engaged in pictorial mark-making for as long as we have made conscious use of our hands.9 WHERE WE BEGIN FIRST PORTRAIT For sorre forgotten reason. who in their day-to-day hardship made time to picture themselves and the animals on which they depended. we see our oldest surviving images. created by societies of hunter-gatherers. at age two-anda-half. had happily scribbled. an expression of existence. I. but I had never yet attempted to figuratively picture my world. . and the appearance of my strikes of colors. Even though it is made by a toddler this image would be recognizable to anyone." Until this day. I was sitting with my mother. reflecting my experience of looking closely at my father's face. She gave me a notepad and a red crayon and asked me to draw her "a picture of Daddy. and she kept it as my first step beyond the delighted realms of scrawl. power. Cave art was not made for decoration but as a fundamental part of life. The image above is what I gave back to my mother. the hair of my first portrait was most important. enjoying the physical sensation of crayon on paper. On a particular afternoon in September 1974. Eyelashes take up as much of my attention as the head itself. I now think this is a picture of proximity.
As you progress. Don't b e p e r s u a d e d to draw in a w a y s o m e o n e else . then drag o u r line into a loop. But as adolescents. It was made with a few bold strokes of a steel pen dipped in ink to conjure the dried bee I was holding between my fingers on a pin. most of us stop. At this point many will insist they cannot draw. and from that first unit build and describe the shape of something or someone we know. Hours are lost immersed in the glorious world of imagination. it is important to value your natural abilities a n d ways of seeing. to help a stranger see their way W h e n taking first steps in relearning h o w to draw. Young children love to draw. and this activity plays a vital role in their d e v e l o p m e n t . W e do n o t hesitate to draw a map. h o w e v e r small a n d u n f o r m e d y o u believe they are. yet still turn to drawing w h e n their verbal language fails or is inadequate.10 INTRODUCTION PEN-AND-INK BEE This tiny drawing has been enlarged to show its texture and composition. for example. PROGRESSION T h e r e is a point in all o u r lives w h e n w e first c o n t r o l o u r mark and m a k e it a line. b e p r o u d o f what m a k e s y o u r w o r k individual to y o u . Inhibitions creep in and ideas of good a n d b a d terminate confidence.
After experimenting and trying each new idea. harbor and sea is one of many that Alfred Wallis made from memory while sitting at home.11 PROGRESSION A UNIQUE SIGHT This innocent yet sophisticated drawing of boats. As you read this b o o k and perhaps attend art classes. He used leftover ship and yacht paint with crayons on cut-out pieces of cardboard boxes. Occasionally. Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse c. and which aspects of the vast wealth and diversity of graphic language would be most appropriate to their goals. Think how much would have been lost if anyone had interfered with Alfred Wallis' personal sense of proportion and perspective in the exquisite drawing above. I meet students struggling unhappily with a particular method of drawing. . Enjoy the control of your own journey. and they have never questioned why. you must decide whether to keep or discard it. I ask them their reasons for drawing. but it does help to set out facing in the right direction. He was a retired Cornish fisherman and junk dealer who began drawing at the age of 70 "for company" after his wife died. Someone once told them they must draw in this way. 1925-42 53/8x87/8in (135 x 225 mm) ALFRED WALLIS prefers and tells you is better. The journey of every artist demands hard work and discipline. what they most want to achieve. remember that all advice is only advice.
embedded in this book. is. wrote as the opening line of this great work. Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels LEONARDO DA VINCI . right. perhaps for comfort or ease as a left-hander or a habitual enjoyment of the challenge. depending on the occasion and our purpose. boats. and lose the very thing that attracted us to it. His notes visually balance his drawings. The observed world may be our subject. but the child in us knows that this is an all-embracing. the breast. We BIRD STUDIES The flutter of faint scratches that dance across the pages on the right is an attempt to see the movement and bony weightlessness of a bird. all raise water From the Archimedes' screw to Leonardo's own cupped wheel. The art historian Professor Sir Ernst Gombrich. we can drive out its spirit. IDEAS A N D I N V E N T I O N S These active machines. Below. the page bristles with the focus of ideas. and inspire others. They are also always written backward. We all see differently. and breathtaking wind of a choppy harbor. When we look back at Wallis' seascape (see p. If as artists we nail a subject down too hard. There are only artists. There should neve: be a slavish obligation to represent things exactly as we collectively agree we see them." The clarity and empowerment of these words.and collarbones and shoulder blades of a different bird almost become new creatures in themselves. 11). be visionary. We also see differently ourselves. clear-minded understanding of the sea. Our imaginations are the tools with which we can increase the essence of life. There are countless reasons for drawing. but it should be the experienced world we draw. "There really is no such thing as Art.12 INTRODUCTION VISION All artists see the world differently. author of The Story of Art. not for disguise but as a personal choice. it may not be accurate to our critical adult eye. I hope.
it may be best to start afresh. I drew to understand the apparatus of flight. conduct an experiment. . while below. drawing in pursuit of our own thoughts and understanding. More was learned drawing the bird 18 times than would have been understood drawing it only once or twice. Leonardo drew to invent a machine. but it is important to be clear why we are making it. time spent is not lost. or illustrate a dream. Our drawings are annotated investigations into the mechanisms of nature and of an idea. stripped-down parts. My drawings of a housemartin (opposite top) illustrate the importance of repeated study. Opposite. Decide before you start whether you are drawing to warm up. Each fresh image reflects growing confidence and the experience of the preceding study. make a calculation. or to discover the best use of a new material. when it looks tired and still feels wrong. This also applies if struggling at length with a larger picture. Don't be disheartened. We have both covered our paper with focused. shout against a terrible injustice. It will be invested through your experience in the new drawing.13 VISION should not try to know how every finished picture will look. to express the beauty in a moment's play of light.
and position in space. Whatever the material— wood. mists. ink. we are advised or even required to plan our pictures. and what you discover in the process of making. and an island brushed with trees. We are caught in a shifting focus that makes everything fluid. the unknown. Landscape in Haboku Style 15TH CENTURY . They each allowed the energy and focus of the moment to be expressed through controlled accident and a degree of the unknown Both drawings were made trusting the marks. This is the alchemy of drawing. The physicality. depth. and how it feels to the touch. and sometimes beyond. trusting my intuition to find a visual equivalence for the sensation of weight within my body. As you draw any subject—something you see. silk. Each image relied upon past experience to know the probable behavior of the brush. Our position asvieweris unsteady. created centuries and cultures apart. explain the composition. As your hand meets the paper to make a mark. This is a detail of a brush-and-ink drawing by a Japanese Buddhist monk. and spirit of each subject was held strongly but loosely between the fingertips. bone. or imagine—it is not enough to only render its shape. meaning. it should be responding to the sensation and meaning of the subject it draws. water. and opacity of your subject. and paper. It denies the importance of accident. If you can do this. and allowed to flow through the brush. Imagine these qualities so strongly that you feel them in your mind and at your fingertips. are both made of ink laid onto wet paper with speed and agile certainty. and we can just make out the distant stains of mountains. BRUSHED LANDSCAPE FLOWING SKELETON T h e gliding poise of this walking anatomy comes as much from the feeling of movement as it does from the feeling of drawing. size. temperature. and practice each part before putting the final image together. which can offer keys to other things. This suits many artists well and is perfectly valid. and at speeds beyond conscious thought. Know the texture. However. I made it almost unconsciously with a pen and a brush. balance. or ice—you must actually feel it beneath your fingers as you draw. metal. declare the idea. W e float toward the quiet vista as it also moves toward us. feel. These two brush drawings. excessive planning can get in the way of the imagination.14 INTRODUCTION ALCHEMY At school. fire. your marks will become the subject on the paper. You must also think of its intrinsic nature: its purpose.
Focusing on the Negative 2004 22 x 30 in (56 x 76 cm) J O H N WALTER . gold leaf and spray paint. stand table-sized with furniture legs attached t o b o t h sides of their jacket. right is set inside a rib cage.16 INTRODUCTION PLACE A N D MOMENT The heat and teeming atmosphere o f this Parisian dressing room. acrylic. one of many luminous works in watercolor. lives on. He dazzles us with flashes o f light and dabbed marks o f shadow. which evoke realities o f place and the p o w e r o f moment.1896 Woman at her Toilet 41 x 26 in (104 x 66 cm) TOULOUSE LAUTREC RIB-CAGE D R A M A Thus drama. left. like folded insects. c. made by a young British artist who creates alphabets o f the absurd f r o m familiar childhood characters. more than 100 years after its making. W a l t e r also makes books: some. Lautrec's flamboyant splashes o f petticoats and pantaloons are drawn with long sweeps of chalk and brushed oil paint. pastel.
Such books are personal: the territory of new exploration and experiment. you will naturally make progress on your own in response to concentration and the decision to look and draw. diary-like observations. even those you dislike. With no help and advice at all. Enjoy discovering what your hand and the material can do. One of the advantages of a drawing book is that you can shut it. potential ideas still forming. Try to keep all of your first drawings. at a point when you feel you are not making progress. Pages do not have to lie open for other people to inspect and comment on. try not to grip your pen worrying about the technical terms you might have heard. Much will be learned on these test sheets and in your first drawings. Drawing is exploratory.17 FREEING THE HAND If you are just beginning to learn how to draw. It is yours. just through the act of making. and miscellaneous items of inspiration. FREEINGTHEHAND . Choose other materials and do the same. Put them away and look at them later. Ignore these at first and allow yourself the freedom to play. As you follow lessons in this book. take your time and don't worry if you need to make several attempts to grasp a concept. you will be surprised and encouraged to see how far you have come. and mistakes are a valuable process of learning. Start by choosing a material you like the look of and cover a piece of paper with different marks.
It rarely flourishes in isolation. adapting its form and occupation. The chapters of this book present 90 different artists' ways of seeing. As you draw. An artist's personal voice is something that also evolves through lessons learned. which is held frozen in space by a camera lens. we still only glimpse a corner of the magnitude of this subject and the infinity of what can be achieved.Their elegant strength seems to summon a lifetime of drawing. Picasso is poised smiling. it is this voice that is the subtle part of their art and something that ultimately. Imagination needs nourishment. A N ARTIST'S HANDS These are the hands of the artist Phyll Kiggell (see p. 150). and became a great subject for me. Picasso Painting with Light at the Madoura Pottery 1949 . comes from within. and enfolding new media. the path is yours. Look to your own experience and also learn from the work of others. Picasso has just finished his drawing. which of course he cannot see. I was particularly attracted to their gentle articulation and understated determination. To these I have added my own drawings to explain elementary materials and techniques and offer introductory approaches. Once there. Note that the drawing classes are allocated to subjects. The real drawing book has yet to come. it will be your creation as you discover your own personal vision. staring straight through his image of a bull. when they are more experienced. but not confined to them. threedimensionally. ELECTRIC BULL With a penlight. caught between action and repose.18 INTRODUCTION THE THINKING EYE Techniques and materials are the grammar and vocabulary of drawing and can be studied and shared. In the total wealth of these pages. However. Drawing is a living language that over millennia has grown and changed. seek ideas in the life around you. Its sensuous and flowing line seems to drift like smoke. This practical journey will take you through the door into the vivid heart of drawing. and many more reasons for drawing the world.
F o r e v e n i n g classes. t h e i r jackets w i l l a c t like d r a w i n g b o a r d s a n d p r o t e c t y o u r w o r k . They can be very expensive in art stores. 6. 2. R I N G . 4.q u a l i t y r i n g . F o r traveling. It is also useful to own a portfolio. H o w e v e r r i n g bindings o f t e n break. Art students often make use of printed books picked up from secondhand stores into which they draw. stitched. b e a w a r e t h a t p a p e r t e x t u r e effects a n d changes t h e i r marks.b o u n d b o o k s t h a t fit in y o u r p o c k e t o r bag. C A N V A S . thick enough not to flex. cut. binding. You simply need two strong boards hinged together well. a l e n g t h o f black elastic t i e d a r o u n d t h e m i d d l e will h o l d the contents together w h e n y o u f o l d in c o l l e c t e d items.h a n d s t o r e s make unique subjects f o r e x p e r i m e n t s a n d collage. T h e hardb o a r d j a c k e t is s t r e t c h e d w i t h canvas beneath t h e p a p e r sleeve. Most contain thin p a p e r and are perfect f o r use w i t h disposable pens. a n d crayons. pastels. Sand the edges to avoid splinters. t h i s is h o w I l e a r n e d . catalogs. c h o o s e larger f o r m a t s t o give y o u s c o p e f o r e x p e r i m e n t .B O U N D PADS: T h e s e are t h e least expensive a n d useful f o r o p e n i n g flat. Smooth plywood. color. N o t e t h e w i d e l y differing c h o i c e o f p a p e r s w i t h w h i c h t h e s e are m a d e . Dissecting a d i s c a r d e d h a r d . 1. it is better to have them made at a lumber yard or home improvement store. BLACK P O C K E T B O O K S : Hand-sized w i t h ready-made elastic binder and a marker ribbon. which are also sold in an enormous range. F O U N D B O O K S : O l d p r i n t e d 3 . a n d r e f e r e n c e b o o k s f o u n d in s e c o n d . Calculate a range of useful dimensions and have several cut at once. Gleaming store purchases vary greatly in format. and cost. A high-quality one will last a DRAWING BOOKS Select d r a w i n g b o o k s t o suit y o u r aims. texture. Many artists invent ways o f binding their o w n books. There are dozens to choose from. quality.b o u n d p a d if y o u w i s h t o keep your drawings together long-term. y o u n e e d a lifetime. thickness. C O L O R E D PAPERS: Large a r t supply stores o f t e n sell t h i c k b o o k s full o f c o l o r e d p a p e r s . c h o o s e s m a l l e r h a r d . and handles to lift the weight of your artworks. H O M E M A D E : I m a d e this b o o k f r o m drawing paper that I folded. If you intend to carry your boards for a distance. These are perfect f o r w o r k i n g in novels. c o l o r If planning t o use pencils. Homemade books can be assembled easily from found materials or selections of loose sheet papers. drawing book.20 INTRODUCTION Drawing Books and Papers T o BEGIN YOUR EXPLORATION o f d r a w i n g . Drawing boards are invaluable. is perfect. Alternatively. study the structure of a good portfolio and make your own. cheap corrugated plastic ones fall apart in days. Purchase a h i g h . 5. ties on either side to keep your papers in place. and collage their ideas.C O V E R E D H A R D B O U N D : Ideal f o r c a r r y i n g a r o u n d . be sure they fit comfortably under your arm. and glued t o a s t r i p o f bias binding.b o u n d b o o k w i l l s o o n s h o w y o u h o w it is m a d e . 2002 Tantalus o r The Future of Man 81/2 x61/4in (215 x 158 mm) ROSE MILLER .
It is also excellent for drawing with marker pens on layered sheets. not. They are hand-. absorbency. FABRIANO INGRES: Thin. size. VELIN ARCHES 250GMS: Printmaking paper available in black white. T W O RIVERS GREEN 410G MS: Very heavy tinted textured cold-pressed watercolor paper See Two Rivers Yellow. printed on one side only. cold. Use for brushwork drawings. mold-. and cost. texture. also good for drawing with colored pencils. 100% cotton and sold in sheets. 11.Papers differ in thickness (weight). turning brown and brittle. 13. and white. PAPERS . or machine made in sheets. yellow. resisting deterioration. ITALIAN PARCHMENT: Imitation-animal-skin parchment that is translucent and slightly waxy. white textured paper that can take abrasive use of any medium. Cotton papers are high-quality and acid-free. Use cheap paper for rough ideas and quality paper for work to last See the glossary ( p p . from pencil to paint 9. 14. 21. C A R B O N PAPER: Available in dark and light blue. Cheap wood-pulp papers are acidic. blocks. it is made from rice. GLASSINE: Sold as protective wrapping. JAPANESE PAPER: Strong. MAGIC PAPER: A reusable sheet for testing ideas without creating waste. and other plant fibers. 22. smooth. 18. FABRIANO R O U G H 600GMS: Very heavy. Ph.TISSUE PAPER: Place sheets between drawing book pages to keep images from printing on each other and use for delicate collage. It is available in white or cream. C A N S O N : Inexpensive lightweight pastel paper in many colors. and rolls. METALLIC PAPER: Thin paper in different metallic colors. 20. red. pastel paper in flecked pastel colors with a distinctive ribbed marking. and cream sheets or rolls. Use with a brush in clean water Water makes a dark mark like ink and becomes invisible again when dry. FABRIANO ACADEMIA: Standard medium-range multipurpose paper Use with any media. 15.5 9 ) for explanations of rough. 10. mulberry. or rolls. and translucent. 7. 12. blocks. 8. 16. color. 2 5 6 . tough. SAUNDERS WATERFORD N O T 300GMS: Mid-quality textured watercolor paper. AQUARELLE ARCHES 300GMS:The very top quality hot-pressed (smooth) watercolor paper. used to imprint lines of these colors onto a surface. 17. bamboo. fine. and hot pressed papers. T W O RIVERS Y E L L O W 410GMS: See Two Rivers Green 19. For use with any media.
make sure you have enough room to back away and view your work. You cannot draw like this—your hand is locked and your fingers can barely move. place it on your left. and subject. your whole relaxed b o d y should be involved. body. your lines will distort. . There should be an open. arm. but wherever possible. If your hand twists to maneuver between the paper and your body. How you hold your drawing materials is also important. There are also parallels to dance. you can draw lines freely and achieve a significant arc of movement. 116-17). b u t it should n o t be forgotten that many people make remarkable a n d striking works drawing with their feet or holding their brush or pencil in their mouths. This photograph illustrates how some people hold a pen to write. but you need to understand that the expression of a line or mark originates in the body and flows t h r o u g h the shoulder. It will also reflect discomfort if you are in any way cramped. a n d look to the left of it at your subject. If your body posture is well balanced and you can move freely. place it on your right. Relaxed fingers: Hold the pencil away from its tip and relax your fingers. your drawing will reflect this. Regularly step back 6-9 ft (2-3 m) to check your progress. strangledlooking drawings.22 INTRODUCTION Posture and Grip T o DRAW WELL. or with your drawing board angled between your lap and a chair. Turning your drawing sideways or upside-own will also help reveal what is wrong. In this book we will look at parallels between drawing and music. don't sit too close to the paper. you Drawing classes can be cramped places. You do not have to dance to draw. Placing your easel o n the w r o n g side folds y o u r b o d y against your drawing arm. Accelerated perspective also occurs if you look down the surface steeply (see pp. SPACE TO WORK Cramped grip. With your hand in this position. and look to the right. flowing space between your hand. place it on the correct side: if right-handed. should be able to look comfortably straight ahead at your picture plane. Use the side of your little fingernail as a support on the page. If seated on a b e n c h easel (a donkey). a n d h a n d to the fingertips. Examples are shown here. if left-handed. If using an upright easel. From a distance you will spot errors you cannot see close up. Ideally. This cramped grip tires your hand and makes small.
But be careful not to tense your fingers. Remember you can also draw just by dipping your fingers in pigment—this is how many women draw in rural India. not up to the paper Brushes can be used on upright paper but dip Anticipating effects: A fully loaded pens need a level surface. brush pressed against an upright surface will cause a dribble of ink to run down your drawing. This can be used to great effect. roughly marking out a large-scale work. alternative way of holding the pencil. arm. This can give a new lease on life to your mark-making. If you turn a brush or dip pen up into the air to draw above your hand. and body are not restricted. Soft media: Short materials such as pastels and charcoal can be accommodated in the palm. It is most comfortable when reaching to draw above your head. depending upon what it is and how large you are working. ALL MEDIA There are no rules as to how you should hold your drawing media. GRAVITY Remember that gravity affects the flow of ink and paint. or change to the wrong hand.23 This loose "candle" grip is very useful when drawing with your arm extended.232-33). . Large scale: POSTURE AND GRIP U n f a m i l i a r i t y : T h e habitual movements of our handwriting style will sometimes infringe upon our drawing. or it can spoil your work if not anticipated. To stop this. find an unfamiliar. upright way of holding the brush near its base is similar to the Japanese way used in Zen calligraphy (see pp. hold your material as you find most comfortable. liquid will run down your hand. Brush calligraphy: This comfortable. Large amounts of ink can be applied without fear of uncontrolled running if the paper is flat. As long as your fingers.
cartographer. they are perhaps our favorite pictorial preoccupation. O v e r the centuries. 1590 J O H N WHITE capture form and movement from the m a n n e r i s m s of honking geese.m o u n t e d skeletons of birds. In this chapter we discover the use of pens and ink through the delineation of insects. and people. Together they made maps and documented animals." Paranoid newcomers c r a m m e d into swelling industrial cities used handbooks of physiognomy to identify and judge their neighbors. and to bring h o m e drawn documentaries of their finds. or scampering through the initials and borders of pictures from that time. and pioneer born c. This drawing is made in black lead (metal point) with watercolor Highlights of silver would have gleamed. dogs. offer challenges and delights to draw.Animals H UMANS HAVE DRAWN ANIMALS from the beginning of our time. the Latin bestiary was one of the most popular picture books—an illustrated dictionary of one hundred parts. After the subject of ourselves. from which personality and predicted behavior were " d e d u c e d . As children we delight in the humanized trials of Tom and Jerry and their c a r t o o n relations. and this very drawing was to endure many copies and plagiarisms after its triumphant return to the English court of Queen Elizabeth I. m u s e u m ... their different speeds and patterns of action. mermaids. werewolves. W h e n lost to explain our own emotions. In medieval England. we turn and take the features of beasts. animals provide a perfect subject with which to begin. sleeping dogs. out are now oxidized and so appear black W h e n less preoccupied with understanding ourselves. and silent. we have employed artists on expeditions. We have drawn them on the walls of caves to evoke their kinship and power. " Animals perpetually feed our imaginations. and learn how to Flying Fish c. For the novice artist." He worked with the scientist Thomas Harriot. and snakes have between them engendered harpies. Here (left) we see J o h n White's exquisite record of a flying fish. which are so unlike ours. Facial features were analyzed in terms of their animal likeness. which very likely leaped o n t o the deck of Sir Walter Raleigh's ship Tiger as it sailed north from the Caribbean to Virginia in 1585. White's commission was to ". JOHN WHITE British artist. Europeans on board had never seen such a thing. and dragons. In 19th-century Europe this became a "science. insects. 1540. bats. Framed in the z o o or in domestic cohabitation. fish.drawe to lief one of each kinde of thing that is strange to us in England. each dedicated to the moralized tale of an animal or monster The bestiary profoundly influenced the art of its period. 11 x91/4in (277 x 234 mm) . plants. who described in words what White drew. On the Roanoke voyages of Sir Walter Raleigh. birds. W e have drawn them in m a n u s c r i p t s to explain our genesis and to c o u n t their species into Noah's ark. floating turtles. to be there at the m o m e n t of discovery. and we still see escapees from its pages carved and grinning as the gargoyles of churches.
years after its publication. Unsurpassed. Durer traveled widely to study at different European schools of art. It is such a lifelike triumph of imagination and intelligence that for centuries zoologists never questioned its authority. Life-like This is Durer's original quill-and-ink drawing made after an anonymous Portuguese drawing. draftsman. Meanwhile. DURER'S RHINOCEROS AND STUBBS'S skeletal Durer. Durer's image changed eager hands until it was known across Europe. and mathematician. The first live rhinoceros to reach Europe came from India in May 1515. naturalist. inspiring countless works of art and so touching people's imaginations that later. but the drowned animal washed ashore. Contemporary texts related accounts of the beast as the mortal enemy of the elephant and rare relative of the "more common" unicorn. He in turn sent the mysterious creature to the Pope via Marseilles at the request of the King of France. filled journals with ideas and observations. Sailing to Rome. when more accurate portrayals were made without armor and scales. it continued its journey to Rome. Stubbs's Anatomy of the Horse achieved similar documentary status. printmaker. the home of ALBRECHT DURER German Renaissance painter. Carefully stuffed. they were rejected. the ship was lost. He studied the image and drew his own interpretation. and wrote four books on proportion.26 ANIMALS Documentaries horse are superb affirmations of the power of drawing as a recorder and communicator of knowledge. a gift to the Portuguese King. Original Ink Drawing of a Rhinoceros 1515 ALBRECHT DURER 103/4 x 161/2 in ( 2 7 4 x 4 2 0 mm) . writer. It was to become the animal's only accepted likeness for 250 years. it is still consulted by veterinarians today. Converted into a print. a drawing of it arrived in Nuremberg.
GEORGE STUBBS B r i t i s h e q u i n e a n d s o c i e t y p o r t r a i t painter. Stubbs's m o s t c e l e b r a t e d publication. a n d anatomist. Dissections were made over a total of 18 months. dissecting and drawing until he understood the mechanisms of its power and grace. a n d s i d e . His painted p o r t r a i t o f t h e b e a s t is in t h e R o y a l C o l l e g e o f S u r g e o n s o f England. in t h r e e v i e w s — r e a r f r o n t . This is one of Stubbs' original finished pencil drawings. and therefore invented the lighting that Compare how Stubbs and Durer both invented lighting to portray the reality of their animals. c o m p r i s e s 1 8 p l a t e s s h o w i n g d i s s e c t i o n s in l a y e r s f r o m b o n e t h r o u g h m u s c u l a t u r e t o skin. The entire project was developed over ten years. Anatomy of the Horse. which has never diminished. Lighting Stubbs's breathtaking international work won immediate There acclaim. He translated his own drawings into engravings for publication. Dissections Stubbs took his knife and his pencil and physically climbed inside the horse. knowledge of parts. He composed makes each horse appear so real and each plate from his three-dimensional. composed from notes and observations. Stubbs w a s o n e o f t h e first E u r o p e a n artists t o m a k e a n a c c u r a t e representation o f the rhinoceros. Table of the III of the Horse (rear Skeleton view) mm) 1756-58 1 4 x 7 in ( 3 5 4 x 1 8 0 GEORGE STUBBS . is no other work like it. L o n d o n . naturalist.
He wrote to poet and art critic Charles-Pierre Baudelaire about his experiments. drama. and turn. Surrounding sprays of graphite powder are stuck into washes of oil and ink to suggest glutinous depths. The Hunchback of Notre Layers and shadows Throughout this drawing. and a love of accident. conjured b y the hand of a great author of French literary fiction. Gericault's sheet a p p e a r s almost s c r a t c h e d b y the f e r o c i o u s play of his cat.. Hugo's page is f l o o d e d w i t h the fearful presence of a remembered octopus. Hugo used graphite powder. The octopus is formed in layers applied and distressed with a brush. By contrast. VICTOR HUGO Poet. more or less what I have in view. her b o n y frame. charcoal. Mixed media Here. soot. drawing her again and again to pin d o w n the texture of her loose skin. Gericault took a sharp p e n c i l to m a k e repeated direct o b s e r v a t i o n s f r o m life. it silently rises to the light. saying ". snarl. sepia.".28 ANIMALS Presence and Mood THESE DRAWINGS HAVE BEEN CHOSEN to s h o w t w o v e r y different ways of picturing a wild animal. and leader of the French Romantic movement. His copious drawings are characterized by mixed media. He has w a t c h e d her p o u n c e . the ominous beast unwinds from the dark of the sea and of our nightmares. novelist.. playwright.. and Pieuvre 1866-69 91/2 x81/8in (242 x 207 mm) VICTOR H U G O . ink and linseed oil on paper. Apparently drawn in its o w n ink. linseed oil soaked into the paper has made shadows and repelled the ink to create translucent tentacles. A s if disturbed from its gritty b e d by our presence and curiosity. and her distinctive temperament. H u g o mixed his media and drew from m e m o r y and imagination to create narrative atmosphere. her sharp teeth. I've ended up mixing in pencil. and all sorts of bizarre concoctions which manage to convey above all in mind. Hugo's novels Les Miserables and Dame have become classics of film and stage.. coal dust.
118-119). Before paper became so cheap. standing sideways. focused upon seeing will lead to a greater understanding of the subject Much is learned from repeated study. Undertraces Beneath these graphite studies we see traces Tones On the top row we see clearly how Gericault laid broad areas of tone using fast. Tones that do not follow surface contour is very difficult to do well. s h o r t . and it can be applied to any subject (see pp. 144. parallel. 124-25 and p. H e is best k n o w n f o r his gigantic painting.l i v e d French R o m a n t i c painter and lithographer Largely self-taught. fiery. of previous Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 1817-18 121/2 x 151/2 in ( 3 1 9 x 3 9 8 mm) T H E O D O R E GERICAULT . artists reused sheets and them full of studies. facing right.29 THEODORE GERICAULT C o n t r o v e r s i a l . Paris. At the center of the page is crammed drawings the outline of a horse. diagonal strokes of his pencil. of drawings Gericault erased. and keep trying again. The Raft of the Medusa. displayed in the Louvre. Here. since it can lead to a flattened form. horses w e r e a favorite subject t o g e t h e r w i t h politics and history. Beginners are advised to follow the natural contours of form as shown on pp. undertraces unify and vitalize the composition. Repeated study This drawing demonstrates of feeling confident repeat different the importance subject Remaining enough to isolate parts of a views.
dissolving faun kneels stranded. with George Braque (see p90). Gouache is brushed softly in translucent hazy layers of cool blue. His powdery. Ink and gouache This drawing is made in black Chinese ink and gouache (opaque watercolor) applied with a brush. Picasso cofounded Cubism. flattened animals composed almost entirely of movement. Klee's riders are constructed from all the gestures of greeting mules. Faune. we see semi-abstract. and scrolled lines. The ink is used to make sharply defined solid. The fact that they never stand still influences the movement in his line. taking them to guide their hand in bringing form and essence together. Artists commonly focus on such actions. or proud. made only a year apart. quivering horse. the whinnying of a frantic horse. Both Picasso and Klee have enclosed their subjects to compress and amplify the speed of PABLO PICASSO A prolific Spanish painter sculptor. In Picasso's drawing. His hand must have shuddered and twitched just like the constant actions of this humorous meeting. gray. printmaker ceramicist graphic and stage designer who lived in France. the first abstract movement of the 20th century. overwhelmed by a screeching bird. draftsman. identify an animal: the fast cheetah. slow tortoise.30 ANIMALS Movement M O V E M E N T IS OFTEN THE CHARACTERISTIC b y w h i c h w e their lines and the power of their beasts. In these two drawings. noise is everywhere. and waves breaking distantly below. These media complement and amplify each other with their brilliant contrast. hooked. and brown. Cheval et Oiseau 1936 173/8 x 211/4 in ( 4 4 0 x 5 4 0 m m ) PABLO PICASSO . flapping bird.
sculptor. violinist. The entire drawing suggests the endless small movements of horses standing still. They remain in contact with the surface of the page and scribble back and forth as they maneuver from one area to another. N e u m a n n Family Collection. W i t h his drawings Kleeb o u n d sophisticated theories to personal and often witty childlike imagery. printmaker. creatures. turning our eye and around inside the and postures of the paper- thin on pictorial space. and t e a c h e r at t h e Bauhaus school. well-worn copies o f w h i c h are found in m a n y art schools. Chicago PAUL KLEE .PAUL KLEE Swiss painter. He is a u t h o r o f The Thinking Eye (1923). Scene der Komischen of Comical Reiter Riders) (Scene 1935 161/2x111/2in ( 4 1 9 x 2 9 1 mm) M o r t o n G . Layers of marks In this pale Dentil drawing we see layers of' agitated marks that together present a kind of visual "itch. top all happily of each other in the Endless lines Look closely at how Klee's lines rarely leave the paper and how they are free from the constraint of finite shape. draftsman." They chatter around bodies in groups.
Below we see his revolutionary design for an Elizabethan warship. In just one drawing he has displayed more angles of his design than we would expect to see from a single viewpoint Fragments English 1586 101/2 x 153/8 in (270 x 390 mm) MATTHEW BAKER of Ancient Shipwrightry . This drawing illustrates Baker's theory. it would achieve greater speed. His birds stare. t h e earliest geometrically defined elevations. and from them learned that if he designed his ship with a "cod's head MATTHEW BAKER Master shipwright. and steerage. seemingly looking for our attention. In contrast to the practical clarity of Baker's thought. Baker did not intend this. Exquisite details in this drawing include the lips of the fish. and to assess our next move. B a k e r initiated t h e scientific p r a c t i c e o f naval a r c h i t e c t u r e and applied h y d r o d y n a m i c s . and scales. later called a galleon. balance. mathematician. Baker lived in an era when ships were built without drawn plans. b a s e d o n his studies o f fish.32 ANIMALS Icon and Design IN THESE T W O MANUSCRIPTS we discover diagrammatic and mackerel's tail" (full bow. Knopf's drawing opposite is the personal enigmatic expression of a mind gripped by illness. It is simply how we read his perspective. and author o f Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (1586). and the carefully observed gills. the expression of its eye. fins. and s e c t i o n s o f ships. and blackbirds fly in formation through a mosaic of text. slim stern). plans. which in application gave strength and advantage to the English fighting the Spanish Armada. The fish It is likely that Baker drew with a quill dipped in irongall ink. drawings of animals that are each held tightly in a surprising space: a giant fish wears a ship's hull. The ship The upper decks of the ship appear curved toward us at both ends. adding washes of color with a fine brush. He studied the anatomy of fish.
numbered. circle and the birds. w h i c h o f t e n f e a t u r e as s y m b o l i c creatures in his drawings.K n o p f b e l i e v e d h e c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h e language o f birds. firmly outlined. The text. and filled evenly with tone. The main group is placed in a circle drawn with a compass. T h e G e r m a n a r t historian Outline and tone The blackbirds illuminating this frantic manuscript are drawn in pencil.JOHANN KNOPF An " O u t s i d e r " a r t i s t w h o s u f f e r e d f r o m m e n t a l illness. JOHANN KNOPF . appears to be stirred like water by the presence of the The Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks UNDATED 133/8 x 115/8 in (340 x 2 9 6 mm) and psychiatrist Hans Prinzhom collected this image. written last of all.
ink is traditionally applied with a brush (see pp. 5 0 0 years ago. the recipes for which have been handed down over centuries. distinguished manufacture. In the Far East.34 ANIMALS Pen and Ink W I T H A HANDFUL OF FEATHERS. then pour a little warm gum water into it and temper the two together. a n d m e t a l p o i n t s . METAL PENS: Inexpensive removable steel nibs are available in a range of widths. while metal nibs began as rare gifts in gold and silver before being perfected by the British steel industry." "Gum" refers to gum arabic extracted Dip pens are essential and inexpensive drawing tools. That is an ink. Masters choose brands of long. The reservoir gives a constant flow of ink for very long unbroken lines and continuous bottle-free use. spots. The Chinese used animal or fish glue. simultaneously 4 . Today. Quills were later cut from feathers. expressive drawing techniques such as the ones we explore in this chapter 1. you can have great fun drawing the world around you. which range greatly in their handling and character of line.246-47). 4. The best are goose or swan. and it is still in use today. 2. The bar is then rubbed into water on a slate block to produce ink. 3. F O U N T A I N PENS: These vary in quality and nib width. Avoid needle-sharp mapping pens. Responsive to slight changes in pressure. light it. Intricate or dramatic lines. Each pen has a unique character. The paste from either recipe is pressed and dried into a bar for storage. and hold it under a clean basin until the soot hangs to it. they are associated with rapid. which scratch rather than draw. Only fill with suitable inks. The Egyptians and Chinese are credited with the invention of carbon ink. QUILLS: These are cut from the barrel of a flight or tail feather. Early artists recommended raven and crow for especially fine work. from the acacia tree. and first used by the Egyptians. and spatters can be made with an exotic choice of inks. REED PENS: A broad nib can be cut from bamboo or another tubular grass. s t i c k s . They fit into wooden holders. high-quality Chinese and Japanese inks are subtler and more complex than those produced in Europe. where reeds were gathered. Dip pens began their history in the Nile River. producing a different line. PENS . A German recipe of 1531 gives a simple description: "Take a wax candle.
Crushed. Waterproof types contain shellac. Excellent for drawing they are bright and non-clogging. suspended in a binder and stored as a solid block Blocks are imported today 7. they produce a golden dye for drawing. C A R B O N INK: Traditionally produced from oil or resin soot (Lamp Black). Beechwood soot is best. Now we also have acrylic ranges in many colors. roastedwine sediment (Yeast Black). INKS 9.36.35 PEN AND INK Four types of ink were common before the 20th century. ACRYLIC / CALLIGRAPHY INKS: Available in black and a range of colors. The complexities of traditional iron-gall ink are explained on p. bistre. SEPIA A N D BISTRE INKS: Sepia. and most can be homemade. boiled. 8.G A L L INK: Abnormal spherical growths caused by parasitic wasps can be collected from some oak trees in fall. is the ink of a cuttlefish or squid extracted post-mortem. Bistre is the more humane use of soot scraped from the fireplace and ground into wine. I N D I A N INK: Carbon ink sold today in liquid form. Old stock turns solid and bottlesChina. . from are not 6. iron-gall. It dries with a sheen and clogs uncleaned pens. or charcoal. Inks can be lightfast or non-lightfast. They are the easiest inks to use. and sieved. I R O N . waterproof or non-waterproof. and are still in use today: carbon (Chinese and Indian). charred bone (Ivory Black). and can be mixed and diluted to create subtler colors and tones. 5. an often misused term. dated. and sepia. Non-waterproof Indian inks can be reworked with a wet brush after drying. reduced.
Practice to gain a feel for how materials behave. . of a loaded nib. a n d d e v e l o p e d t h e quill instead. Running fresh. M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s d r a g o n o n p . are surprisingly tough. Some of Michelangelo's drawings are now a little eaten by their own ink. r e s e r v e d t h e i r use f o r large c h o i r b o o k s . d r y mark. it was gray-purple. Although oak galls and walnut skins are harmless. It also oxidized and ate or burned paper. Scribes o f t h e M i d d l e Ages. T h e y give a finer. The darkest of this grasshopper wings) were made (around the head first. t h e y stick a n d j u d d e r f o r w a r d . and boiled to make a golden ink. crushed. appears broken to show paper beneath. QUILL PENS Q u i l l s a r e highly r e s p o n s i v e t o c h a n g e s in p r e s s u r e . and delicious to draw with. m o r e e x t e n d e d line than reed and a m o r e organic line t h a n m e t a l . a n d M a t i s s e also e n j o y e d t h e m .) You can make ink easily from the boiled. Rembrandt. It dried black. since t h e D u t c h w e r e t h e first t o realize t h a t they could be hardened and i m p r o v e d w i t h heat t r e a t m e n t in ash o r sand. Paler strokes were made where the mark has the legs and antennae the ink ran out. forming the REED PENS R e e dpens dispense ink quickly. Walnut ink is gloopy. keep all your fingers behind basis of iron-gall ink. red-brown. for example. the blade and cut away from you. finding reed p e n s unwieldy. fleshy skins that surround ripe walnuts. V a n G o g h . For centuries.36 ANIMALS Drawing With Ink To MAKE A QUILL OR REED PEN. giving a s h o r t . The lighter right Quill marks Quills carry more ink than strokes and for as reeds. sieved. Quills are also called D u t c h pens. always be cautious when experimenting with recipes. then cut a final nib (feathers. I u s e d t h e s e qualities t o d r a w t h e w o r m s above. Reed marks The darker left wing of this beetle was drawn with the wet inky stroke wing. galls were ground with iron sulfate to make an unstable solution. reduced. and turned brown with time. giving longer lines. Collect skins from the ground beneath trees once they are blackened. can also be collected from affected trees. drawn to glisten with a dryer nib. 2 4 4 is an e x q u i s i t e e x a m p l e . U n d e r heavy pressure. Oak galls.
particles then filled with a droplet of ink. clean strokes. When using dip pens. they splay to make thick o r double lines. it is important to feel for when the ink will run out and to know how much ink you pick up when dipping the nib. tonal Ink layers The wings of this beetle were drawn in layers using black and white ink on pale gray paper. breaking. withstanding great pressure without sticking. . DRAWING WITH INK Filled outlines Each segment of wing was outlined. giving a graded. The of pigment to fall to the edges effect of the shape. o r being ruined as fountain pens would be under the same pressure. sharp. Loaded with ink and pressed hard.37 METAL PENS Metal pens give long. White markings were drawn last Tones Here we see subtle tones of diluted ink beneath the undiluted black rim of a beetle's wing. Each layer of of the drying droplet dome the drawing was left to dry before adding more. W h e n the nib is pressed upside down. marks become fine and needle-sharp.
Take a cup and water for diluting a range of tones. It happens that goose feathers also provide artists with the best type of quills. touch the bottle's rim to drain the excess. and bellyflop off the waterside. Focus on the geese. Pack plenty of tissue around a bottle of calligraphy or acrylic ink.38 ANIMALS Capturing Character GEESE ARE EXCELLENT SUBJECTS to draw when practicing the first use of pen and ink. not on your drawing. and be brave. Experiment. steel nibs are fine. and a large drawing book or plenty of paper Use masking tape to secure pages against the wind. Empathize. to absorb blots when drawing. Cover a sheet. That said. and there is no "wrong." If you don't like a stroke. Focus on it. Cover your drawing book pages in speedy responses to the geese and try to capture each bird in as few lines as possible. Take no more than ten seconds to draw each one and make lots of drawings. draw what the bird is doing. Study them before drawing. waddle. be bold and press firmly. so pick a spot where other people can keep them entertained. test your limits. there is no obligation to prepare a quill. Quick drawing trains you to see what is most important about a subject and to mark only its most essential expression. Geese are nosy birds. I covered eleven sheets in sixty quick drawings—in less than an hour. and boldly plunge into your drawing. MATERIALS NEEDED Look for a bird expressing a simple posture. You cannot break the nib. Attempt with a loose hand to capture their posture and outline. It teaches confidence and focus through intensive repetition. Try to hold the whole posture in your mind's eye. Dip your pen in ink. Posture . Illustrating this exercise on Oxford Port Meadow. Watch their heavy feathered bodies flap. make another one. and quickly draw around it using only three or four strokes.
Use more lines than before to express these. Avoid detail unless really tempted by a close-up visit Fluctuate the pressure of your pen in response to how you know the bird would feel if you touched it. running. and don't worry about mechanical facts or accuracy. look among the birds for more complicated actions such as shaking off water. CAPTURING CHARACTER Texture Gradually allow yourself more lines to describe the texture of each bird as well as its posture and action. . flapping. draw the feeling of what you see.39 Action With growing confidence. and diving. Again.
Then dip the nib quickly into a glass of water and drain the excess again. engaged in his and everyone else's business. Make a test sheet to discover your control of diluting on the nib. Ras Curled Up Asleep "Capturing the true character of a cherished companion is best achieved with objective determination rather than sentimental shyness. first dip your pen in ink. MAKING A PALE LINE To make a pale line. For this class you will need one oblivious dog. your drawing book. Dip the nib quickly again into water and again drain it. and personality. Now it will make a pale line. and drain the excess by touching the nib against the rim of the bottle. Sleeping animals present the artist with ideal opportunities to study their texture. a dip pen and ink of your choice (see pp. form. and a tissue for blotting drawn lines that appear too dark.34-37). The only time he remained still was when he was sleeping. and even then he twitched and stretched in dreams. This will give a medium-gray line.40 ANIMALS Sleeping Dogs R A S WAS A GREAT CHARACTER. a d o g w h o w a s a l w a y s town. These drawings are not an analysis of his anatomy or breed but the expression of his satisfied comfort in a deep sleep after a night out on the together with a glass of water for diluting tones on the nib." .
First lines are first thoughts. to emphasize how he is curled up. this time to create a line a little darker in tone. quickly draw what you see. second thoughts may be different Changing your mind is a positive aspect o f seeing and thinking.41 DRAWING YOUR DOG Be bold in this exercise. Then I immediately rebalanced the drawing with lines around his hind quarters. I added ink to Ras's nose. ignoring all detail. in bold layers. Character is better captured drawing quickly with confidence than w o r k i n g slowly. . SLEEPING DOGS 1 Fix your eyes at the center of the dog. 3 Gradually introduce darker tones. Remain focused on the whole dog and. add more detail. Here I marked the features of Ras's head. and the shadows in his coat. c o n c e r n e d a b o u t detail. Here. ears. To add texture. Then. 2 Reload your pen with ink. alter the pressure and moisture of your line in response to howyouknow your dog feels when you ruffle itscoat. D o not go back over lines you are pleased with—doing so dulls their lively freshness. see how the animal's posture determines its whole shape. Trust your intuition. W i t h pale lies. Layers o f thoughts can bring a drawing alive.It is essential when drawing any subject (even something abstract) to know how it feels andtoemulate this with your line. tail.
they stretch and paddle. THE ELONGATION AND BUOYANCY of a group of turtles is fascinating . Beyond the glass wall of the aquarium. offering plenty of time for the artist to draw the pose. turtles often pause unexpectedly.Turtles to observe. as if caught in a camera freeze-frame. A perfect subject for the beginner. swinging their limbs and shells with a slow circular movement.
Beginning with very pale tones. and sharp.Dry Birds THESE ARE THE ARTICULATED BONES o f a k i w i a n d a h o u s e - martin drawn in a museum using a steel pen. I sought to capture the form. India ink. dry. weightlessness of the kiwi. I darkened lines as each drawing progressed. . balance. With speed. and water. I made repeated studies of the housemartin to discover its mechanism of flight.
B A S I L I U SBESLER when botanists founded new work upon the direct study of plants. Medieval knowledge was not gained by the first-hand observation of life but by reading. Patrons funded the breeding of decorative. Both embrace the anticipation of evolving shape. on which our lives depend. Botanic gardens were established and expanded. to catalog our knowledge. form. shape. and beauty. and hybridize them for our sustenance and pleasure. and the Acanthus spinosus constant but exhilarating struggle to make a living image feel right. —-the largest and most influential botanical book of the early Natural scientists accompanied explorers to document unknown finds.Plants and Gardens W E SHARE THIS PLANET with the more ancient. where a number of uncredited artistsd r e wthem for Besler. the microscope was refined to unfold yet another world. Plants seventeenth century. We collect. Botanical illustration is a precisely defined and scientific art. Plants are the principal inspiration of the decorative arts—from Roman Corinthian columns crowned with carved leaves of the acanthus. From its history there is one overriding lesson to be learned: the importance of looking and seeing with our own eyes. Early European illustrators were trapped within dogma that was determined by ancient scholarship. and the drawn pages ofthesame name. as opposed to only herbal. an There are close parallels between the acts of gardening and drawing. and focus. It was published plain in 1611 and withhand-paintedplates in poured off ships returning from the New World and were eagerly collected and 1613. we see very different cultural visions of plants and gardens and use pencils and plants to learn the pictorial values of space. He sent boxes of plants to Nuremburgburned with the urgency and excitement of explaining every plant's form. the punctuation of space with structure and mass.000 species of plants are depicted life-size drawn. After Here Aconthus spinosus is combined with forget-me-nots and-a-half centuries of intensive observation. The revolution came in the 1530s. nurture. we now have laid before us fourto show how well their colours complement each other infinite wealth of material to explore. Later. manipulations of light and shade. Conrad von Gemmingen. season. Fledgling years Botanist and apothecary who compiled the Hortus Eystettensis of scientific research bore manifold explosions of knowledge in a fever of discovery. infinitely vivid. Chapters are arranged by out. We draw them to celebrate their beauty and range.Morethan 1. and diverse kingdom of plants. Classifications were set in367copperengravings. to the proliferation of floral designs with which we have dressed ourselves and furnished our homes for centuries. In this chapter. Rich owners of private gardens commissioned large-format florilegiums commissioned the volume to document his private garden to immortalize their personal taste and power of acquisition. robust. 1613 187/8x153/4in(480 x 400 mm) BASILIUS BESLER . PriceBishopof Eichstatt specimens. color. and to ornament our lives. and texture.
o p e n i n g a n d c l o s i n g i n the w a r m t h a n d light of the studio. The King was then establishing the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. o p t i m i s m . s u c h as w e see here in Bauer's Protea nitida. insect-ravaged. M a c k i n t o s h e x p r e s s e s the f o l d e d petals of a broken rose b u d so delicately w e can sense the perfume. They are counted among the most accomplished 18th-century botanical artists. and meticulous precision." Her slipper orchid s h o w s that botanical drawing must often resolve the challenge of its subject's p r o d u c i n g parts in different seasons — r o o t s . It is likely Bauer would have studied these under a microscope. or that were diseased. stems. B e h i n d detailed. He has made the spatial and physical relationships in this drawing all the more real by placing a single.48 PLANTS AND GARDENS THE SCIENTIFIC VALUE OF A BOTANICAL DRAWING lies i n its Botanical Studies were specimens that often refused to stay still. Outline Bauer prepared a pencil outline before laying in fleshy succulent hues and tones of watercolor. Sir Joseph Banks. flowers. Here. Botanical art c o n c e a l s the challenge of its m a k i n g . fruit. detail. and wilted. and seeds conventionally a p p e a r o n o n e plate. and Franz Bauer and his brother Ferdinand were employed there to draw specimens. measured drawings. W i t h bright F R A N Z BAUER An Austrian artist who trained at the Schonbrunn Imperial Gardens in Vienna. naturalist explorer and advisor to King George III invited Bauer to London in 1 7 9 0 . subtle union of beauty. Each plant must b e clearly distinguished from its closest relative. Dissections Across the lower part of this drawing we can see dissections of seed pods and petals. T h e rest of u s are free to d r a w as w e w i s h . delicate. Light in this drawing is given by the paleness of the paper showing between washes of darker tones. leaves. petal tip over a lower leaf Protea nitida 201/4 x141/4in (513 x 362 mm) FRANZ BAUER 1796 . Stella Ross-Craig said of the need to d r a w from a dried herbarium plant "I could make it live again.
it is small and discreet. BOTANICAL STUDIES Lines and shadows This lush. and follow shadow.286 studies for her book Drawings of British Plants. S h e also o f thousands o f contributed an drawings. a m o n g o t h e r s . and perfect coordination of hand and eye. found among Mackintosh's than reality. and speed depends upon the immediate perception of the essential characteristics of the plant.49 C H A R L E S RENNIE MACKINTOSH Scottish a r c h i t e c t d e s i g n e r painter. A s m a n y of her drawings are kept G a r d e n s . imagination. p u b l i s h e d 1 9 4 8 . a n d f o u n d e r o f t h e G l a s g o w S c h o o l o f A r t M a c k i n t o s h ' s flair h a d an e n o r m o u s i n f l u e n c e o n t h e a v a n t . L o n d o n in 1 9 2 9 ." This line drawing is one of 1. G u s t a v K l i m t In his r e t i r e m e n t Mackintosh m a d e n u m e r o u s inventive pencil a n d w a t e r c o l o r d r a w i n g s o f plants. Curtis's Botanical Magazine. Rose 1894 103/4 x 83/4 in ( 2 7 5 x 2 2 1 mm) CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH STELLA ROSS-CRAIG A j o i n e d t h e staff a t t h e R o y a l B o t a n i c G a r d e n s . Ross-Craig said of her work "Plants that wither rapidly present a very difficult problem to which there is only one answer—speed. is r e c o g n i z e d as tne m o s t c o m p l e t e a n d i m p o r t a n t work 3.7 3 in 3 1 p a r t s . sensual pencil drawing is later works.. Closer to fiction can come together perfectly. Line Drawing of Cypripedium calceolus L c. 1970 x 81/4 in ( 3 2 5 x 2 1 0 m m ) STELLA ROSS-CRAIG . and it shows how design. Pencil lines cling to. as at trained botanical artist Ross-Craig Swift lines The drawing was planned in pencil and then overworked with a lithographic pen. H e r Drawings of British Plants.g a r d e in G e r m a n y a n d A u s t r i a . K e w .000 Kew to archive accessible t o d a y v i a t h e I n t e r n e t of o n British flora.. and observation the nuance and contour of every in one image. a n d he inspired.
1590 85/8 x55/8in (219 x 1 4 4 mm) BISHNDAS AND NANHA Bright pigment These pages were illuminated by Mughal artists in the late 16th century. urgent attentive human activity. Opposite is the Rose of Mohammed. fluctuations in scale. They used a fine brush to lay pigment over a line drawing.50 PLANTS AND GARDENS Jeweled Gardens the Middle East we find exquisite stylization of form and upright formality in pictorial space. The white of the page shines through the brilliant color. and attention to detail are all shared with medieval European manuscript drawings. and miraculous growth. Babur directs his gardeners in the design and planting of this quartered chahar bagh. in miniature. roses took their form in a bead of perspiration on the brow of Mohammed as he passed through his heavenly journey. By Muslim tradition. the sumptuous petals permeated with prayer and wisdom. The first Mughal Emperor Babur's Garden of Fidelity (Bagh-e Vaja). Every fiber of AMONG DRAWINGS FROM BISHNDAS A N D N A N H A Little is known of these Mughal painters who were related as uncle and nephew and commissioned to illustrate the pages of Babur's journal. which he personally created near Kabul. Afghanistan. uniform focus. and Nanha. and calligraphy are brought together to hold the sacred names of prophets and the 99 beautiful names of God. Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity c. paper is brimming with the beauty and celebration of nature. painting. Below. Envoys chatter outside the gate. a notable portrait painter drew the faces. Upright shallow perspectives. Bishndas was probably responsible for the overall design. is remembered in the pages of his journal. Drawing. anticipating their view. . in the early 16th century.
look closely and you will see words written in gold fluttering over the form of the flower.c e n t u r y Turkish manuscnpt a book of religious e t h i c s w r i t t e n in the O r i e n t a l C o l l e c t i o n s of Berlin. and how the shape has been repeated freehand. The physical anatomy of the rosebud has been studied and translated into a repeated stylized motif. The Rose of Mohammed 1708 9 1 / 2 x 61/2 in ( 2 4 0 x 1 6 5 mm) FROM THE TURKISH M A N U S C R I P T AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH . It is n o w k e p t in Border The elegant border of this drawing was mode with a pen and ruler It cleverly compresses and defines the composition. Sacred words The central rose is more solid than any other on the page. t h e Staatsbibliothek zu Arabic. However. Note how each bud is essentially the same shape. so that overlapping petals and stems give an impression of fulfillment and abundance. Stylized motif A fine brush has been used throughout this drawing to apply inks and watercolors. fragmenting its detail in a whisper of prayers.AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH This is a detail o f a page from a n 1 8 t h . G e r m a n y .
PLANTS AND GARDENS
IN CONTRAST TO THE QUIET, formal detail of other drawings in this chapter, these powerful fast trees enact the actions of plants. Each tree reaches out and holds its landscape with dynamism and pulse. In both drawings we find testament to the inexorable energy of growth. Rembrandt expresses a delicate quickness. Gentle lines draw a warm breeze through this remote wooded garden. Rustling in a loose foliage of soft marks, his pen evokes the weight of abundant activity on this late summer's day. Mondrian's arch of scratching branches is drawn with such force it will always be alive. We can still feel his hand storming across the paper. Set within a frame of smudged landscape, the tree possesses a musical agitation. This characteristic will increase in the artist's later abstract work. Here, we see a punctuated ordering of space. Sharp branches cut out negative shapes of winter sky.
R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter; etcher; and draftsman. Rembrandt's prolific output comprises oil paintings of historical and religious subjects together with group and self- portraits. His emotive etchings and pen and ink drawings (see also p. 174) are great resources for artists learning to understand the potential of these media.
Pen and ink lines describing foliage also tell
us the directions of sunlight and wind. An arc crossing the bottom of the drawing from one side to the other supports the scene and separates us from the landscape beyond. Compare Rembrandt's arc to that of Mondrian's. and note the similar treatment of low horizons in both works emphasizing the height and dominance of trees.
Cottage Among Trees 1648-50 63/4 x121/8in ( I 7 I x 308 mm) R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN
Atmosphere Here we see how shapes of negative space are as important as the physical subject they enclose (see pp.58-59). Mondrian has again lightly dragged his chalk on its side to evoke a wet depth of atmosphere. These passive gray marks contrast with the assertive tension of the tree.
Dutch Pure abstract painter preoccupied w i t h line and plane relationships. W i t h increasing austerity, Mondrian banished t h e subject from his drawings, in his later w o r k he also banished space, composing visual h a r m o n i e s using only straight lines a n d flat planes o f black, w h i t e , gray, o r p r i m a r y color.
Winter ground Short vertical marks along thebottomof this drawing reveal the length oftheblackchalk Mondrian used. Rubbed onitsside,itroughly blocks in the ground. Thecrudeeconomy of line is all we need tofeelthecold, wet, unwelcoming quality ofthiswinterearth.
Branches and trunk Lines shaping the branches of the tree are built up in layers. To make the trunk more dense, the artist has rubbed and smudged preliminary marks with his fingers before firmly overdrawing with new lines. Solid black lines are achieved by pressing the chalk hard. When used lightly, it shows the texture of the paper. Tree: Study for the Grey 1911 23 x 335/8 in ( 5 8 4 x 8 5 5 m m ) Tree
PLANTS AND GARDENS
Graphite and Erasers
GRAPHITE, FROM THE G R E E K word
This drawing illustrates a range of achieved with graphite pencils of different grades.
Modern pencils are graded from 9H (hard and pale) to 9B (black and soft). Graphiteclay sticks are also available, together with a powder form. All possess a natural sheen and are erasable to a varying degree. Graphite drawings smudge easily, so fixative, a form of varnish, can be used to hold a drawn surface in place. It is applied as a fine mist from an aerosol can, or from a bottle using a diffuser. For the beginner, ordinary hairspray is an effective and cheaper alternative.
(to write), is a soft and brittle carbon. It was first mined in Cumbria, England, in 1 5 6 4 , and was initially used in small, pure pieces bound in lengths of string. Pencils as we know them—with their slender wood casing and "lead" of graphite—were invented in France in 1794 by Nicolas-Jaques Conte. He discovered that milled graphite mixed with clay and water, press-molded, and baked to a high temperature produces a harder and paler medium than graphite alone.
3B pencil A range of mark and textures can be achieved with a 3B pencil when you vary its pressure, speed, and direction, as this detail shows.
Here is a selection of 14 items to illustrate a basic range of pencils, graphite sticks, sharpeners, erasers, and fixative.
1. AND 2. HB AND 3B PENCILS: It is unnecessary to possess every grade of pencil. HB, the central and most common grade, is perfect for making delicate lines. 3B gives a blacker tone. A great variety of effects can be achieved with just these two. 3. WATER-SOLUBLE PENCIL Effective for atmospheric drawing, but be aware of how watery tones can dull the impact of the line. 4. AND 5. MECHANICAL PENCIL Thick or fine leads are made in a range of grades. They are particularly useful because they do not require a sharpener 6. ROUND SOLID GRAPHITE PENCIL: Excellent for large-scale drawing, producing thick bold lines. A range of grades can be honed with a craft knife or sharpener 7. THICK GRAPHITE STICK: For large-scale drawing. Graded soft, medium, and hard. It crushes to produce graphite powder 8. SQUARE GRAPHITE STICK: Useful for making broad, sweeping marks in large-scale drawing. If worn and rounded, the stick can be snapped into pieces to regain the sharp, square end. 9. CRAFT KNIFE AND BLADES: Handles are sold in two sizes to fit large or small blades, and blades are sold in a range of shapes. Perfect for sharpening pencils to a long point, to cut lines in paper or to remove areas. 10. PENCIL SHARPENER: Makes a uniform point. Keep one in your pocket for drawing outside the studio, together with an envelope for shavings.
HB and 5B Layers of tone have been built up withHBand5Bpencils. Softer pencils require less pressure to make a mark, revealing the texture of the paper surface. It is important to keep the point of the pencil sharp with either a craft knife or a sharpener.
ERASING AND FIXING
Erasers can be used t o blend and s o f t e n lines, o r t o r e m o v e altogether. Fixative them prevents
GRAPHITE AND ERASERS
s m u d g i n g a n d s e c u r e s lines.
Using fixative You can use fixative while drawing to hold the definition of lines you wish to gently fade but not remove entirely, for which you would use an eraser.
11. P L A S T I C E R A S E R : Avoid cheap colored erasers that may stain drawings with grease and dye. White brands are available in soft and hard versions.
P U T T Y RUBBER:
W a r m it in your hand before use. It is excellent for removing powdery materials, and for making crisp sweeps of light across a delicate pencil drawing
13. D I F F U S E R : Helleborus corsicus (Corsican hellebore) fixative, or to spray mists of ink.
PLANTS AND GARDENS
Cropping and Composition
M A N Y STUDENTS WILL START a d r a w i n g i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e
that its skin nearly touches the boundary. The meaning of the same drawing changes simply by its relationship to the space it occupies. The size of any subject, its placement on the page, the size of the page, and its overall proportion are all discrete and essential aspects of successful picture-making. Before you begin to draw, think carefully about where to place your subject. Are you are happy with your paper? If not, change it; add more, take some away, or turn it around. Do not just accept what you are given, adapt it to what you need.
paper. Focused on the shape and detail of their subject, they remain happily unaware that there is, or should be, any relationship between what they are drawing and the surface they are drawing it on. The paper is only paper, and the troublesome subject floats somewhere in the expanse of it. However, a single fig drawn in the middle of a large, empty square of paper gives quite a different impression from the same fig drawn on such an intimately small square
CHOOSING A VIEW
A Single Fig
"The size, shape, and orientation of the paper are so integral to the composition that they determine the impact and meaning of the drawing."
This drawing hasbeencropped to emphasize space between thefruit. Space as the subject Inallpictures.57 THE VIEWFINDER T h e s e pencil drawings o f figs d e m o n s t r a t e different crops and compositions. they establish a tension and unity with the paper. bottom-left t o top-right. When subjects touch two or more edges. its stem and shadow framing a white center. as also shown here. t h e n m o v e t h e c a r d t o e x p l o r e different views. The angle of the fruit together with dark shadow (top left) and bright light(bottom right) suggest a diagonal division across the whole drawing. Here the left fig is attached to. Touching the edge When the subject o f a drawing touches one edge of the paper it attaches t o it visually. its illumination. CROPPING AND COMPOSITION Off-center and diagonal Here I held my viewfinder so the fig appeared upper-left in the space. and lines describing shadows cast by the fruit . U s e it as a starting point. A card with a small rectangle cut out o f it makes a useful viewfinder C l o s e o n e e y e t o look through the hole. running corner t o corner. spaces between things are as important as the things themselves. the uppermost edge of the drawing. and therefore apparently suspended from.O u r focus is on the white cloth supporting the figs. a device to help you decide what t o draw.
and a role to play. an eraser. you will need a similar large-leaved plant. It helps to start at the center and map outward. tone. Viewers appreciating a finished image may not see shapes of space. and a fresh page in your drawing book. a foundation stone in picture-making. dynamic. and so on. not leaves. It is an astonishingly simple device that many artists use and I strongly recommend. their subject and composition will become more real. fourth. do we see myriad distinct and unique shapes of daylight or do we just see branches? Why as artists should we look at the air? Every space in a picture has a shape. position. shapes of air cut out and defined by the physicality of our environment? When we look into the branches of a tree. Follow these from left to right and see how I began with one complete shape between two parts of a leaf. Looking at negative space overrides the problem of drawing what you know. Unfamiliar shapes of negative space reveal the real shape of a positive subject. Remember that plants do move! Therefore it is best to complete your drawing in one sitting if possible. But how often do we look at the air between things.58 PLANTS AND GARDENS Negative Space UNCONSCIOUSLY WE ASSESS spatial relationships all the time to guide ourselves through the world. then added a second shape. unified. In your own version. Draw a complete shape Map outward from the center Erase and adjust lines until correct . and engaging. erasing and adjusting lines until itlooked right. this ensures a consistent view.The box opposite isolates an area. Negative space is the simple key to getting positive shape right. but if the artist does. remember to draw only space. a sharp H B pencil. The drawing opposite is of the uppermost leaves of a potted fig tree. WHERE TO START Arrange your plant and paper so you can look back and forth by barely moving your head. rather than what you see in front of you. which is shown in the three steps below. In following this class. third.
Here I drew only spaces, adding one to another until the leaves were revealed. Besides looking at negative space, there are two other useful things to do when a drawing feels wrong but you cannot see why: look at it in a mirror or turn it upside down. errors and suggest changes.
Spaces between leaves
Either view will
WALKING IN THE ALPUJARRAS in A n d a l u c i a ,
Spain, I drew a bare fig tree clinging to the wall of an almond grove; a perfect subject for seeing negative space. I marked its essential frame of large branches first, frequently erasing lines and changing my mind until the balance felt right.
S a l v i a , RIBES, CLEMATIS, Allium, Passiflora, and Acanthus
drawn with an H pencil by observing the
negative spaces between the stems, petals, and leaves. I arranged the flowers on a sheet of paper in a cool r o o m and rapidly sketched a composition. Then I put them in water, taking the stems out one at a time to draw.
Compare changes of pace and focus here to the flatter finish of Summer Flowers (see pp. they emulate our experience of seeing. Excessive detail leaves no space for the eye to rest or imagination to wander.Acanthus Spinosus As we LOOK AROUND. our eyes travel and adjust from one point of focus to another. We never see everything at once. . gathering less distinct information on the way. If an artist changes the pace of their line and focus of their attention. 62-63). interfolding points of detail with areas of loose suggestion.
architects. they also have a diagrammatic language for communicating plans to builders. This harmony. At the core of their practice. fine artists. with gray and brown watercolor wash. the device that has since governed most of our picture-making (sec pp. which was the first church in the capital to be built entirely of metal and then clad in stone. Yet the pursuit of divine proportion and harmony remains. Besides sketches of first thoughts and polished drawings of the finished look for clients. 74-75). composers. of the west facade of St Augustin. and in the 19th century it was given the name the Golden Section. they have the Golden Section. Through the animation of the screen. Among the drawings of this chapter we look from 17th-century ecclesiastical calm. and architects of ancient Greece who first pursued the formula for "divine proportion. and computer game imaging. VICTOR BALTARD French architect employed by the city of Paris. film-set design. Since Picasso and Braque's revolution of Cubism in around 1907. Perhaps in the sheer planes of some of our greatest modern buildings it is finding its clearest expression. Since the first flowering of Modernism in the early 20th century. to 20th-century film fantasy. once there. add and subtract ideas. we find the most recent steps in the evolution of graphic language. Baltard designed the Church of St. each VICTOR BALTARD . invaluable to understand and apply when you choose. from political commentary to musical abstraction. to help them create new form. balance. Architects have been fine-tuning their specialized branch of drawing for centuries. It was also during the Renaissance that the architect Brunelleschi invented linear perspective. coupled with the importance of exercizing your imagination. It was the mathematicians. philosophers.The church is still in use today. Computer programs allow the virtual drawing of ideas. drawing plans around themselves within a program as opposed to on a flat sheet of paper. made by the architect himself. and writers have been breaking away from traditional forms of representation to seek new expressions of shape. It is the focus of practical class in this chapter. mass. and sound. and from West Facade of the Church of St Augustin. time." reflecting the eye's love of unity in difference. Linear perspective is a marvelous device. space. filmmakers. Augustin. was preserved into the Renaissance where it became a foundation stone for thinking and creativity From 15thcentury Italy. architects and designers can imaginatively "climb inside" three-dimensional space and.Architecture I N THE CONTEMPORARY PRACTICES of architecture. European conventions of pictorial perspective have lost their monopoly on seeing. which can be clearly seen in ancient Greek architecture. designers. Paris 1871-74 the child's view to the infinity of the vanishing point.This is a pencil drawing. the formula for perfection spread through Europe.
We see the modeled detail of Corinthian columns. and balance. embodying a massive investment of ideas. Lines define structure while washes suggest light and atmosphere. pilasters. Below it. he also worked on St Paul's Cathedral. and labor. Cut-away interior On the right a section cut through the center of the building reveals material thicknesses. 1711-12 NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR . describe a finished look to a client.68 ARCHITECTURE Master Builders EVERY NEW BUILDING. Gaudi's fluid architecture grew up through many kinds of drawing. and an inscribed entablature. and the shapes of interior domes and apses. Oxford. marks the end of a long journey from the first few marks the architect made on a sheet of paper. Drawings underpin every great human-made structure like hidden linear ghosts at their core. materials. NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR One of Britain's "three great" Baroque architects (along with Sir Christopher Wren and Sir John Vanbrugh). calculate function. densely layered lines in mists of color weave the presence of the expected building into shape. Three aspects This subtle and sophisticated drawing made in pen and wash displays three distinct aspects of Hawksmoor's baptistry. and Castle Howard. relative levels. evoke presence. structure. testing gravity to calculate the inverted shapes of domes. Hampton Court Palace. Finished surface On the left the finished surface of the building is given depth and emphasis by immaculate vertical and horizontal brush strokes of shadow. Together they explain how interior structure and space define exterior form and shape. Architects draw for many reasons: to visualize ideas. A student of Wren's. and ultimately to show builders what to do. and six London churches. St Paul's Baptistry c. Pillars and floor At the base of the drawing a compass-drawn plan tilted downward through 90 degrees illustrates the arrangement of pillars around a central circular floor. a three-dimensional drawing made with wires and weights. Hawksmoor's drawing is both a plan and an evocation. The photograph opposite shows his studio hung with metal pendulums. and later an assistant to Vanbrugh. Hawksmoor established his reputation with university and church architecture including All Souls College. Blenheim Palace.
and apartment homes are distinguished by their Their and Flowering curves of stone or concrete are often encrusted with Gaudi was inspired by medieval and oriental art. 1900 ANTONIO GAUDI ANTONIO GAUDI Visionary Catalan architect. light. Wire and watercolor three-dimensional preferred to calculate Above is a drawing form in the made withlinkedwires and weights. Guell Crypt of its at the Time Construction c. Gaudi air than on paper. churches. The Art Nouveau movement. embellishment.69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt c. 1910 24x181/4( 6 1 0 x 4 7 5mm) A N T O N I O GAUDI . To the right isawatercolordrawing thought to havebeenmade over a photograph ofthemodelabove. Gaudi's cathedral in Barcelona. and his love of music. unique organic manipulation of high shapes. This sculptural drawingenvisionsthe finished crypt glowingandethereal as if caught in thelightof red morning sun.
We can imagine how a musician might interpret this drawing by looking at the abstract visual rhythms of masses composed of long straight poles. corridors. Visual rhythms In the lower half of this drawing architectural language has broken loose: escaped and transformed into an image of rebellious pleasure. Across the top and center right of the image w e perceive an almost recognizable architectural plan. There has always DANIEL LIBESKIND A Polish American architect of international acclaim. short curved poles. and exhibitions of his drawings. flat boards. and arched dotted lines depict the radius of doors. He also produces urban and landscape designs. and the spaces between his windows and turrets are the visual equivalent of pauses in h i s m u s i c c o m p o s i t i o n s for p i a n o (see also Bussotti. upright pictorial space. Both men used rulers and pens to carefully and slowly construct their compositions. The architect and musician Daniel Libeskind has drawn a stampeding cacophany of airborne architectural detail. before cascading into a riot of line and sound below. Arctic Flowers 1980 DANIEL LIBESKIND . such a rapport in both of these drawings. and rooms. and in a sense hear. a refillable pen that feeds a constant supply of ink through a fine tubular nib. We can see.223). while the composer Erik Satie has made an enclosure of quiet order and grace. been a natural affinity between the visual rhythms of pictures and the audible rhythms of music. He also contributed to plans for the rebuilding of the World Trade Center site in New York. Libeskind studied music before transferring to architecture. Contemporary musicians commonly collaborate with artists by interpreting images as sound. installations. and dotted lines.70 ARCHITECTURE The Order of Sound B O T H OF THESE VISIONARY DRAWINGS o c c u p y a s l e n d e r . Floor plan This drawing has been made with a rapidograph. Libeskind's numerous commissions include concert halls and museums. p. Libeskind begins quietly in the upper space of his drawing. theater sets. Satie draws quietly throughout. Floor space appears divided by discernible walls.
H e p e r f o r m e d in cabarets. theater.50. a n d ballet. Eastern influence The upright image Eastern is reminiscent and medieval of Middle pictorial space and subject of this European drawing. and founded his o w n church. Satie collaborated w i t h hisfriends J e a n C o c t e a u a n d P i c a s s o .56—57 we discussed important the shape.Edges are how are of orientation. Hotel de la Suzonnieres c. the perimeter Composition Look how well this drawingfitsand resonates with the upright. effectively additional lines in a work. and ink on a fragment folded brown paper—a of everyday happened material of scrap that to be at hand.narrowshape of its paper.H i s witty. andfouredges of the paper tothecompositionand impact animage. Onpp. 1 8 9 3 77/8 x 51/2 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 4 0 mm) ERIK SATIE . Compare the even and and the shape wall to the elegantly stylized order of the many windows of arrangement of details and the shape of the wall in Babur's Garden of Fidelity on p. dressed eccentrically. o f which he was the sole m e m b e r Parcel paper Satie has drawn this fantasy hotel using a ruler.ERIK SATIE F r e n c h pianist and c o m p o s e r for t h e piano. minimalist s c o r e s scandalized a u d i e n c e s with o r c h e s t r a t i o n s f o r t h e foghorn and typewriter. lived a l o n e . They definespaceand pictorial balance. a conventional dip or fountain pen.
and dramatic lighting. spheres. antlike mortals might have speculated upon the universe. cylinders.96. and draftsman. the ominous globe exists only as a series of drawings. made in 1926. and taught at t h e A c a d e m i e d'Architecture.72 ARCHITECTURE T H E S E T H R E E HIGHLY DETAILED DRAWINGS Future Fictions invite us to soaring above normal life. Newton's Cenotaph 1784 153/4 x 25 in ( 4 0 2 x 635 m m ) ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE . experiencing a fascinating conflict between curiosity and desolation. arched vaults.The lower-left section of the building appears relatively pale against a darker sky. Boullee's monolithic apparition was drawn as a monument to Sir Isaac Newton. His celebrated imaginary buildings are characterized by pyramids. Light illusions This pen-and-wash drawing shows a subtle application of the principles of illumination demonstrated with an egg on p. enter the long-shadowed architecture of imaginary worlds. ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE French architectural theorist. we find other Utopian visions Paul Nobles epic drawing summons an imperfect and disturbing township where ruin and activity are equal and strange. Within it. Among preparations for Fritz Langs film Metropolis. Boullee lived in Paris. We glide over exquisitely drawn wastelands of damage and abandonment. Art director Erich Kettlehut's vertiginous design for the city of a slavelike populace had a future influence on movies such as Blade Runner. painter. This shift makes the cenotaph appear three-dimensional. This is the work of an architectural theoretician. and the reverse is true on the right.
and are Graphite shapes Nobson Central isoneof a series of very large graphite drawings of the spoil and detritus of Nobson Newtown. Kettlehut drew using a fine and relatively dry brush dipped in black. gray. Working on toned paper such as this gives an artist greater scope for dramatic lighting effects than if they work on white paper. used forced perspective camera t e c h n i q u e s t o amplify t h e m a g n i t u d e o f buildings in relation t o human characters. Fritz Lang's Metropolis c. Its sheerscaleengulfs the viewer and demands based time and patience to on letters and in some beread. mythology. draftsman.a r t director O t t o Hunte.73 ERICH KETTLEHUT Influential film a r t director. Kettlehut and his c o .m a k e r In t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f Metropolis. intensely detailed graphite drawings explaining and questioning t h e geography. and morality o f an invented place called His satires exhibited w o r l d w i d e . architecture. and white ink on brown-gray paper. together with c i n e m a t o g r a p h e r Karl Freund. 1926 ERICH KETTLEHUT PAUL N O B L E British c o n t e m p o r a r y artist who creates m o n u m e n t a l . Nobson Central 9 ft 1 0 in x 1 3 f t 2 in (3 x 4 m ) PAUL N O B L E 1998-99 . FUTURE FICTIONS Brush and ink This is a dramatic drawing from a film that shaped the history of world cinema. Nobson political visions of humanity Newtown.Building shapes are works can be read as text. and m o d e l .
but is most easily seen and understood in pictures of buildings and interiors. this perspective is often an imagined bird's-eye view in which details are mapped according to logic and importance rather than how they might appear in real life. It is also distinguished from aerial perspective (see pp. LEONARDO DA VINCI One of the greatest artists. and thinkers ever to have lived.74 ARCHITECTURE Pathways of Sight LINEAR PERSPECTIVE (also called vanishing-point perspective) is a simple device for calculating the relative size of things in pictorial space. Leonardo recorded constant streams of ideas. and inventions— essential reading for inquiring minds. In his notebooks. It can be applied to any subject. Pull the thread taut and rotate it slowly above the drawing. See how the thread corresponds to each converging line. All forms of perspective are of equal value. Study of Perspective Adoration of the for the Magi 1481 61/2 x111/2in (165 x 290 mm) LEONARDO DA VINCI . linear perspective is distinct from more ancient systems practiced in the East. and those of Naive artists and children. Single-point perspective Tie a thread to a pin. Piranesi an example of two. scientists. Invented by Italian artist and architect Brunelleschi in 1413 (late in the history of art). Here Leonardo provides a superb example of a single vanishing point. Note how architectural features conform to lines and how human figures diminish in size toward thevanishingpoint. I contribute the child's perspective. 206-07). and age eight. observations. Sometimes shared with Naive artists. Press the pin into Leonardo's vanishing point. We use it to structure illusions of depth. inventors. found at the center of all converging lines.
including all they recall about the subject. visionary and practical understanding of ancient Rome. Two-point perspective Sunlight through this colonnade a great example of two-point perspective. and theoretical writing strongly influenced neoclassicism. which I saw from home every day. Scale Our farmhouse my experience was in the woods.SARAH SIMBLET I made this drawing (at age 8) in response to a local bookstore's request for children to draw their village. Breamore Village. Children are uninhibited and problems with one element being obscured by another rarely arise. at the top of each lateral column base. and designer Piranesi's prolific architectural drawings. England 1980 9 x 16 in (228 x 405 mm) S A R A H SIMBLET GIOVANNI BATTISTA PIRANESI Italian artist. It shows how children usually map large scenes in flat layers one above the other. Lightly marked illuminates vanishing Two Courtyards c. . architect. 1740 5 1 / 2 x 83/8 in (141 x 212 mm) G I O V A N N I B A T T I S T A PIRANESI points are located on either side of the drawing. issues of scale when making room for important their story. New Forest. This drawing Young children typically maps ignore on and understanding of the nearby village. a points in logical narrative of memories. Note the rather large rabbits and pheasants the hills. Mark these points with your pin and follow the converging lines of the drawing by rotating your thread.
This lesson shows you how to make a simple illusion of space defined by two boxes and three flat boards. discovering the image as it progressed. Each line should pass through one corner of the rectangle. On the previous page we looked at its essential mechanism through drawings by Leonardo and Piranesi. Draw each step over the preceding one to build up a single image. draw a horizon line across your paper Mark a spot on the horizon line. this is your vanishing point. This is where we will begin.98 for an important note on oscillation.) . Next. corresponding to a single vanishing point. Erase the dotted construction lines. Note that if you place large structures in the foreground and smaller ones closer to your vanishing point. DRAWING BOXES 1 Using a ruler and a sharp HB pencil. You have completed your first box.76 ARCHITECTURE Single-Point Perspective MASTERING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE i s e a s i e r t h a n y o u m a y First read through. try composing your own space. Piranesi planned his drawing with only the essential lines needed. using a sharp HB pencil and ruler. Extend each dotted line to the edge of your drawing. (See p. Surround the vanishing point with a small rectangle. Leonardo began with a grid of many lines within which he invented his scene. imagine. then follow the ten steps below. Draw four dotted lines radiating out from the vanishing point. 2 3 corners must each touch a dotted line. you will amplify the illusion of distance. In contrast. This ensures that the second rectangle aligns with the shape and 4 Draw four short lines to connect the four corners of the two rectangles. Study these pages first before embarking on this lesson.
bottom.77 SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE 5 Draw a new rectangle. N e x t draw a slanting line to mark the height of the first flat board. andfarside of this first board. 6 As in step 2. with two dotted lines. 8 Complete the second box with short lines as in step 4. draw a second. draw four dotted lines radiating from your vanishing point Pass these through each comer of the new rectangle. larger rectangle. Connect this to the vanishing point— again. . The larger you make your second rectangle. The board's sides should be parallel. Continue the dotted lines out toward the edge of your drawing. when inventing your own compositions.asIhavedonehere. and erase the dotted lines. 9 Use dotted lines connecting the slanting linetothe vanishing point to locate the top. the closer it will appear to the viewer. Note that this does not surround the vanishing point In the future. 7 As in step 3. The four comers must each touch a dotted line to be sureitaligns with the first. you can place rectangles anywhere youwishin relation to a vanishing point.willhelptomake them appear more solid. 1 0 Erase all ofthedottedlinestoseeyourfinishedboxes Thickeningtheiredges. Repeat this to add two more boards to the composition.
let simple lines suggest a simple space. I always start with a script but I don't follow it all the way through to the end. APPLYING PERSPECTIVE An Imagined Scaffold "Enjoy your illusion as you make it and it will become more real. p . once said: "I never end up with what I set out to do. then let the space suggest its c o n t e n t s and purpose. It highlights the importance of having faith in your imagination and trusting your ability to invent." . O n a fresh page in your d r a w i n g b o o k . 7 4 ) . it will take you places you never dreamed of. artist and film director.78 ARCHITECTURE Creating an Imaginary Space T H I S CLASS USES SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE t o c r e a t e a s i m p l e to you and if you listen to it. Every work talks In this class. it is interaction that makes the work richer. A lot more happens when you open yourself up to the work and let yourself act and react to it." imaginary room. draw a b o x as shown opposite. w h e t h e r it is a film or a painting. you will find white adhesive stationery labels are useful for covering errors or changing the direction of your idea. If using a fibertip pen as I have done for this drawing. The m i s t a k e n belief that we s h o u l d k n o w exactly what o u r finished drawings will l o o k like before we m a k e t h e m prevents many people from ever starting. Then follow the three given steps. Linear perspective will support y o u by providing a frame in which to b u i l d your picture as it did for Leonardo. As David Lynch.
Here.drawthehorizonlineand vanishingpoint. horizontal. and leaning surfaces. parallel planes such as walls converge toward the vanishing point. The space has become more solid and real.79 DRAWING A SIMPLE ROOM Essentials t o remember: objects and people dimmish in size as they move farther away. you will beableto draw more complex objects orpeoplewithin them. This initial space will be transparent and open to change. 2 first before adding furniture.There is great pleasure tobefoundin spending time inventing interiors. additional lines have established the different surfaces and how they relate to each other. CREATING AN IMAGINARY SPACE 1First.Addanarray of converging lines to provide a "scaffold" for vertical. With some practice. 3 Remove the construction lines with an eraser and the room will becomeclearer. . and floors and ceilings also converge and rise o r lower toward the horizon.
The boxes drawn here are seen partly or entirely disassociated from a horizon line drawn across the bottom of the image. T h i n k of standing at the top of a skyscraper and imagine h o w its parallel sides would appear to converge below you. but they are not confined to this level. showing y o u h o w to draw curved surfaces and a tiled floor. These elaborations could continue indefinitely across a sheet of paper in pursuit of complex and intricate ideas. o r to the h o r i z o n . Only when y o u might employ t h r e e . It is important to realize that you can have as many vanishing points as you wish. T h e y d o n o t have to relate to each other. Vanishing points are commonly found on horizon—our eye level. Elaborations . To draw such a view APPLICATION Copy these drawings to see and feel how they work before inventing your own versions.80 ARCHITECTURE Further Aspects of Perspective W E ARE ACCUSTOMED TO SEEING our e n v i r o n m e n t from a relatively constant point of view. or low and we look u p . 76-79). a n d this is how we have drawn them so far (see pp.p o i n t perspective ( s h o w n opposite top). our eye level is very high and we look down. Free vanishing points On paper we can enjoy the freedom of fantastic structural invention without limitations of solid materials or gravity. Potentially. they can be placed anywhere inspaceto describe the perspective of flyi c tilted objects. Here. Search for the application of these perspectives among works by other artists in this book and in galleries. T h i s is d e m o n s t r a t e d immediately below. verticals appear p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the g r o u n d . From our normal eye level. I have elaborated on the simple boxes above. Further aspects of three-point perspective are also illustrated opposite. They could be drawn on any scale from miniature to monumental. located anywhere inside or outside the pictorial space. do verticals appear inclined. Copying what you see in the work of others will help you to understand what they have done. That is where we e to find them.
tostraightlines can amplify drama in a picture. I marked the toplinewith three evenly spaced points and the line with seven. they mark the corners of the floor tiles.81 FURTHER ASPECTS OF Three-point towers This drawing depicts three-point perspective.Finally. (Turn the book around to see a view looking up. three vanishing points are evenly spaced along a horizon line. PERSPECTIVE Three-point curves Here. Note that altering the distance between the three dots above will tilt the level of the floor . An array of curved lines (drawn freehand) link the two lateral points. Three-point checkered floor This d bottom floor. useful for representing steep views looking up or down tall structures.Istarted with two parallel lines. Iusedthese lines as a guide t o draw the curvature of boxes and panels flying through space. Giving curvature. you will see how. I then drew three fanned groups of lines connecting each of the three points above to the seven points below. and therefore tension. by adding a third point you can achieve a sense of incline. Where thelinescross.I added horizontal lines t o define the tiles.75.) By comparing this drawing t o Piranesi's example of two-point perspective on p.
making drawings to resolve questions and express personal responses to the nature and history of anatomy.Theaters RESEARCHING FOR MY P H D . . I visited many anatomical theaters and museums. These walnut-skin ink pen and brush drawings show imagined views of theaters that do not exist but were inspired by places I studied.
The vanishing of the drawing is directly opposite as we look across The constancy of the bridge and surrounding frames the movement in the life that flows past.Venetian Life sitting point buildings ThisP E N . . the water.A N D .I N KDRAWING is one of a series I made while next to the Rialto Bridge in Venice.
H e has described contour and function at drawings. C o m m o n items. passing them on to others through the act of making. for example. each demanding more of the other as they increased in sophistication. In this chapter. It was in this era that the blueprint was born. illuminating snail shells. r an equestrian statue. to record an observed detail. but humans LEONARDO DA VINCI Inthisbeautiful red chalk Our items all have a purpose—practical or ornamental—and all have a meaning. Technical drawing was speedily developed as a meticulous international code of m e a s u r e m e n t and explanation. have often carried great weights of allegorical once. for example—whether. or used on stage hood for a mold t o make theheado f a horse f oas a p r o p — i m b u e d with e n o u g h energy or character can "become" a man. and made. hooked bars that can be pulled and tied closely form. or to explain and present a finished concept to a client. drawings were needed to instruct workers on the factory floor. Artists and actors use the meanings of things to communicate a speculative mechanic. and a wire violin. fictional realities caster of h o w t o make it andhowit will w o r k . and the way in w h i c h the brain reacts Head and Neck Sections of Female Mold for the Sforza Horse to visual stimulus and optical illusions. Engineers and designers of our objects and instruments make drawings for many reasons: to test an idea that is yet to be made. too. History will be learned from the artifacts w e leave behind. H e has described a casting through metaphor.Objects and Instruments T HE THINGS WE INVENT describe our lives. we look at the importance are the only creatures on Earth w h o actually design and create great ranges of things. drawing c. these. planned. A chair. Birds follow instinct to make a nest. It is shaped in sections w i t h Artists have for centuries studied and expressed composition. sculpted. In past eras. color. from s p o o n s and pens to chairs and bicycles. T h e Industrial Revolution c h a n g e d the traditional w a y s in w h i c h objects were designed. making a clear instruction t o his bronzemeaning. are all made bearing the signature of our time and place. Previously. 1493 117/8c81/4in (300 x 210 m m ) LEONARDO D A V I N Ccreating I . With the sudden onset of mass production. and the behavior of light through making still-life paintings and together. even more advanced drawings are made on computers. of light in the creation of pictorial illusions. Today. W e also explore v o l u m e and form in the classes by spinning lines to make vessels. drawn. and some apes use simple tools. or drawing w e see Leonardo daVinci'sprecision as can be given meaning. design. T h e precision of engineering d r a w i n g s e v o l v e d alongside machine tools. that test our logic with a sense of mystery. texture. Artists also make images of objects that can never exist. craftsmen had held plans in their memory.
90 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS Still Life THESE DRAWINGS REVEAL t w o o p p o s i t e m o t i v a t i o n s i n we can. a colored canvas. One of the great joys of this movement in art is the musicality of its multipoint view. and shading. T h i s is a designers drawing made to enthuse surface and style in its delicate brushing of china. still feel this projected moment.73 x 1 m) GEORGES BRAQUE .. Braques image is a Cubist collage. not to work in harmony. . His work is characterized by calm and harmonious still-life compositions. Statue D'Epouvante 1913 2 f t 5 in x 3 ft 5 in (0. Braque established Cubism in partnership with Picasso just before World War I. charcoal. not of place but of things. Below." La Cuitare. Clashes The art historian Ernst Gombrich said of Cubism. "I believe [it] is the most radicalattempttostampout ambiguity and to enforce one readingofthepicture—that of a manmade construction. Braques "justly" arranged combination of cut black card. texture. perfect i n their newly made availability. There is a fragile eloquence to these objects as they drift in slow motion past our gaze.. and glass objects of exquisite elegance for only the gentlest of touch and appreciation. but to clash in virtual deadlock. Opposite. and a journal jacket with words makes this drawing chatter about the moment.Braque marshals all the forces of perspective. Mucha's drawing glistens with possession. steaming with music and conversation. representing still life. Even today GEORGES BRAQUE French painter who as a young man was influenced by the work of the Fauves and of Cezanne. silverware. wood-look wallpaper. He takes us into the bustle of the Paris cafe.
For ten years Mucha designed theater posters exclusively for the actress Sarah Bernhardt.ALPHONSE MUCHA Czech graphic artist and painter who worked in Prague. Art Nouveau motifs This is a preliminary study for a subsequent print. He designed the Austrian pavilion for the Paris World Fair in 1900. Look at the two spoons at toprightand see how has suggested that they are so brilliantly shiny they reflect the background color. Pans. and also stamps and bank notes. Chicago.flowers. and New York. The three plates facing us were drawn with a compass. Black watercolor washes and lines of white gouache have been added with a fine brush. Background color Between the delicate shadows and highlights of these glazed and surfaces ofthebackground metal color of the Mucha we see a large amount paper. and fish have been outlined using a sharp pencil. Study for Plate 59 from "Documents Decoratifs" 17x121/4(430 x 310 mm) ALPHONSE MUCHA 1902 .fruit. He is best known for posters featuring ethereal women in typical Art Nouveau style. Art Nouveau curling motifs of birds.
Newton's 1672 ISAAC Telescope NEWTON .92 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS by their very nature must gauge or chronicle precision. and the nature o f light and color. Their delicate construction is only as valuable as the measurements they make. shape the very cause and effect of investigatory thought. we see drawing Instruments of Vision found among his letters. the law o f gravity. astronomer. w h e r e he developed his three greatest theories: the law o f motion. It was then reflected up inside the tube and. and Fellow of the University o f C a m b r i d g e . each one skillfully rendered with the alarmingly matter-of-fact ease of explaining the commonplace. Ink lines Several drawings appear among Newton's letters. drawing is there to pin the moment down. Transparent view Newton's reflecting telescope focused light in a parabolic mirror. and his hand moving across the light. The power of this drawing reflects the pure passion of discovery. each reflecting a view of his own world—his window. into the eyepiece. With dotted lines Newton has drawn his arrangement of elements inside the tube. offering a transparent view. alchemist. Look how confidently he draws with ink the sphere of this wooden globe by which his telescope rotates. Hooke's head of a drone fly seen through a microscope may represent the first time man and insect came face to face. a tree outside. Newton used this instrument to calculate the speed required to escape earth's gravity. From the concept of capturing the infinite to the mapping of microscopic sight. 0 0 0 perfect hemispheres. Newton's drawing of his first reflecting telescope is ISAAC N E W T O N English scientist. and philosopher Newton was President of the Royal Society. He counted 1 4 . In the graphic work of these two great men of science. A disembodied eye at the top of the drawing indicates where to look. It is a diagrammatic explanation of how to catch and magnify a star in a mirrored tube. mathematician. via a second mirror.
and calculated the theory of combustion. 1665). Hooke invented the camera diaphragm. It is an exhilarating read.An experimental scientist who drew many of his discoveries. universal joint a prototype respirator clock balance. ROBERT H O O K E 93 Magnifications This acutely detailed engraved drawing is taken from Hooke's Micrographia (pub. a breathtaking book containing many of his drawings showing some of the first microscopic and telescopic magnifications of our environment Hooke's text and illustrations carry us to the moment of discovery. and anchor escarpment. The Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 1665 ROBERT HOOKE 111/2 x 105/8 in (294 x 270 mm) .
Two-dimensional was made This highly finished drawing ruler using a sharp pencil and on smooth white drawing paper glistening dark drawings are artificial representations of known Woodfine's two-dimensional things balanced in the world. A renegade from the p a p e r dolls' h o u s e . and place in the world are truly seen. Drawn in more-or-less c o n v e n t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . while the tabs make us see a flat paper cut-out. Woodfine exhibits internationally. each drawn with the s a m e unfaltering lines and tones that are between reality and impossibility. it has so m u c h familiar personality that it seems to talk to us.94 INSTRUMENTS W H E N WE DRAW A COMMON OBJECT like a chair. and winner of the 2004 Jerwood Drawing Prize. and has drawings in numerous public and private collections. From component parts we understand how to put it together and make it stand sensible in space. Its wobbly gait and squashed s y m m e t r y m u m b l e endless h o m e y tales about the life it has seen. Chair Cut Out 2002 22'A x 23 in (565 x 585 mm) SARAH WOODFINE . craft. Bench Marks W e are left a little c o n f u s e d as to what we s h o u l d do. and w h e r e the chair b e l o n g s . this chair p r e s e n t s us with a clever visual contradiction: deeply drawn shadows tell us it must be solid. has published several catalogs of her work. its character. Van Gogh's tipsy seat is a metaphor for an absent person. W i t h h o m e y c o n t r a s t . Sarah Woodfines flat cut-out m o d e l plan is a witty and surprising drawing. OBJECTS AND SARAH WOODFINE British contemporary artist graduate of the Royal Academy Schools.
and Starry Cypress Night.hehas marked the full emotion of the subject with a fierce grip of concentration.95 VINCENTVAN GOGH Dutch painter who produced over 800 paintings and 850 drawings in only the last ten year's of his life. what direct in their he saw and describing his felt. The floor few as engagement with the chair. Cornfield and Sunflowers. inner recording while Fierce strokes This is a portrait of the mechanical drew immediately and almost harshly. Among van Gogh's best-known canvases are Trees. His passionate brush and pencil strokes are honest and of also turmoil and growing alarm at the world around him. not is made present in only strokes and is subdued to distract us from flat a meaningful chair. Van Chair 1890 VINCENT VAN GOGH . drawn opposite way of plan.
hence our recognition of a cartoon face c o m p o s e d of three lines. We only need small prompts. two identical mid-gray squares are seen against black and paler gray squares. To interpret visual s t i m u l u s . Below the bottom "edge" of the egg there is a rim of light reflected onto the paper by the underside of the egg. Three factors change it: the amount of light it receives. See how its "edge" smoothly changes from light against dark to dark against light. The egg's lightest region is seen against a darker background. a n d we can be fooled. less developed than the center. Run The bottom-left quarter of the egg lightens slightly toward its "edge" when seen against the darker shadow cast on the paper. atmosphere. perhaps. Adjust the angleofthe protruding part and again stepback. cards the same size. are translated into a world of space. Through these we can enjoy witnessing our o w n d e c e p t i o n a n d b a f f l e m e n t a n d u n d e r s t a n d certain factors that are very useful in picture-making. The egg's darkest region is seen against a lighter background. and the proximity of contrasting tones. The two tones meet without a division or outline between. On acloudyday. Here. transmitted to the brain as chains of electrical impulses. gray.At one point you will catchenoughlight lighter than the white one. U p s i d e . try this experiment. Artists emulate and manipulate this effect in their pictures. The outermost edge of our vision.This effect is caused by the contrast of their surroundings. form. Below. reads only m o v e m e n t a n d can often m a k e mistakes. your eye around the circumference of the egg.96 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Light and Illusions SEEING IS MIRACULOUS. o u r b r a i n s search for n a m e a b l e things.102-03 deep shadows cast across shells make their form easier to perceive. Gray squares To further examine changes in tone.d o w n patterns of light on our retinas. the adjustment of our eyes (in growing accustomed to a level of light). or colored surface is never constant. The perceived tone of a black white. a n d our ability to see forms in c l o u d s or fire. W e learn to read light and shadow in our environment as indicators of solidity and depth of space. a lit photograph of an egg shows essential points to observe in tonal drawing. one blackandone white. We perceive one to be lighter than theother. S o m e o n e passes our o p e n door. Before starting a tonal drawing of any subject. but do not appear so. Tape them to the glass. We will even see things that d o not exist because minimal information suggests they are likely to be there. think about its illumination. Are you happy LIGHT AND SHADOW with what you see? Does the light enhance the subject? Could you alter and improve it? On pp. The rim of light on the egg is reflected light received from surrounding paper. Card experiment cho can gra on . From across the room both will appear black card and fold and retapeitwith half sticking out. T h e slightest recognition is instantly matched to our wealth of experience a n d expectation. The small squares are identical in tone. Here w e look briefly at our perception of light a n d darkness a n d our interpretation of diagrammatic illusions. a n d are q u i c k to p r o p o s e ideas. a n d m o v e m e n t . w e turn our head but n o one w a s there.
A n u p r i g h t line stands in t h e c e n t e r o f a h o r i z o n t a l line. In this linear drawing w e read t h i c k as closer a n d t h i n as f a r t h e r away. start o u t w i t h one. T w o horizontal lines o f equal length are m a d e t o l o o k longer and shorter. respectively. w h i l e t h i n n e r lines recede. Bending straight lines Linear distance These t w o jugs have b e e n d r a w n w i t h lines o f d i f f e r i n g thicknesses. If y o u w i s h t o m a k e a t o n a l drawing. Y o u m a y e x p e r i e n c e s o m e t h i n g similar h a p p e n i n g w h e n y o u m a k e s i n g l e . l i g h t e r surfaces s t a n d f o r w a r d w h i l e d a r k e r s u r f a c e s recede. In this t o n a l image w e read w h i t e as f a t t e r t h a n black. LIGHT AND ILLUSIONS Tonal width T h e s e black a n d w h i t e bands are o f equal thickness o n e i t h e r side o f t h e i r central division. O b s e r v e h o w each white b a n d appears t h i c k e r t h a n its black c o u n t e r p a r t . B o t h are identical in length.p o i n t p e r s p e c t i v e d r a w i n g s w i t h a large n u m b e r o f c o n v e r g i n g rays b e h i n d y o u r horizontals. T h e jug d r a w n w i t h a t h i n line appears f a r t h e r away t h a n t h e j u g d r a w n w i t h a t h i c k e r line. O f t e ndoingso w i l l s p o i l y o u r w o r k .97 LINE VERSUS TONE In l i n e a r d r a w i n g s . T h i s fundamental o p p o s i t e is a reason w h y l i n e a r a n d t o n a l d r a w i n g does not a l w a y s c o m b i n e w e l l in t h e s a m e i m a g e . . T w o relatively t h i c k parallel lines are m a d e t o b e n d away f r o m each o t h e r as t h e y pass in f r o n t o f an a r r a y o f c o n v e r g i n g f i n e lines ( B ) . Seven parallel lines are m a d e t o tilt t o w a r d and away f r o m each o t h e r by n u m e r o u s s h o r t strokes crossing t h e m diagonally ( A ) . b u t t h e u p r i g h t o n e l o o k s t a l l e r (B). by d i r e c t e d a r r o w s ( A ) . S h o r t h o r i z o n t a l lines o f identical length are m a d e t o l o o k d i f f e r e n t by c o n v e r g i n g lines beside t h e m ( C ) . t h i c k e r l i n e s a p p e a r t o stand forward. In a t o n a l d r a w i n g . T h e r e is n o obligation t o a d d b l o c k s o f t o n e t o a l i n e a r d r a w i n g . Apparent lengths T h e s e optical illusions s h o w h o w lines o f identical length can b e m a d e t o l o o k quite different f r o m each o t h e r by t h e addition o r association o f o t h e r lines.
w e can only look f r o m one t o the o t h e r If an artist is not aware this can happen in their image. In the 1960's. are still not agreeably understood. Yet many illusions. Today we are bombarded with images but rarely have difficulty reading them. and so calculated precisely how much to fatten columns to make them appear straight. Michelangelo. Artists make pictorial illusions when they paint or draw. Some artists use known optical illusions to make art. such as t h e dish seen h e r e o n t h e left. Ancient Greek architects knew parallel upright lines appeared to bend toward each other in the middle.116-17) to make painted figures look correct when viewed from below. their picture could be ambiguous. it oscillates between t w o possibilities.76. made paintings that depended upon the physical sensation of our brain's reaction to known optical illusions. w e will find that in terms of the direction it faces. Op(tical) artists. o r as a s l o p i n g . C l o s i n g t h e surface o f t h e f o r m seals o u r d e c i s i o n as t o w h i c h w a y it faces. perfected the acceleration of perspective (see pp." . w h e n drawing the outline o f a three-dimensional form. as s h o w n o n t h e right. among others.98 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Further Illusions PSYCHOLOGISTS AND PHYSIOLOGISTS have studied optical illusions for decades in pursuit of what they tell us about the brain. others adjust works to avoid their effects. Artists can communicate much in few lines and the viewer will do the rest of the work. Two ways of seeing T h i s is t h e b o x c r e a t e d in t h e f o u r t h step o n p. A few suggestive marks will tip the decision one way o r the o t h e r Closing the surface W h e n a t r a n s p a r e n t elliptical o b j e c t has b e e n d r a w n . SEEING TWO OPTIONS Sometimes. It is possible t o r e a d i t t w o ways: as a t r u n c a t e d r e c t a n g u l a r p y r a m i d seen d i r e c t l y f r o m a b o v e . It is a curious fact that w e can never see both options at once. including some shown here. it can oscillate b e t w e e n facing t o w a r d o r a w a y f r o m us. such as Bridget Riley.s i d e d r e c t a n g u l a r t r a y ( b o t h are illustrated far r i g h t ) "The brain is so eager to name a fragment we see that we need only a suggestion to grasp the whole. and we learn to read the styles of diverse cultures and periods.
C o u n t t h e n u m b e r o f d a r k spots y o u can see. C Escher u s e d this phenomenon t o great effect in his many p o p u l a r d r a w i n g s o f puzzles and impossible buildings. T h e patient's answers are t h e n diagnosed as a psychological profile. . Minimal-line j o k e s such as this rely u p o n t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y v i e w e r ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e shapes. P e r c e i v i n g a w h o l e i m a g e f r o m m i n i m a l lines T h i s is a w i d e l y r e p r o d u c e d visual j o k e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e C a r r a c c i b r o t h e r s . e t c . C o u p l e d w i t h t h e Rorschach b l o t above. Yet still w e try resolve t h e m . b u t w e believe w e see t h e m because e n o u g h f r a g m e n t a r y i n f o r m a t i o n is given f o r o u r brains t o c o n c l u d e t h e y are v e r y likely t h e r e .c e n t u r y Italian painters. This effect can o c c u r naturally w h e n looking at a b r i g h t l y lit w h i t e g r i d such as a w i n d o w f r a m e against t h e night sky. 1 6 t h . T h e a r t i s t M. smoke. T h e t e s t e x p l o r e s o u r n o r m a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o find things w e can n a m e a m o n g r a n d o m shapes. this is a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f t h e viewer's b r a i n b e i n g willing t o d o a large a m o u n t o f t h e w o r k in d e c i p h e r i n g a p i c t u r e . FURTHER ILLUSIONS Seeing things that are n o t t h e r e H e r e o n t h e left. T h e y a r e o f t e n c r e d i t e d w i t h t h e invention o f t h e c o m i c c a r t o o n . S o m e artists use ink blots t o p r o m p t t h e beginning o f an image.99 Impossible objects T h e s e clever configurations o f outlines and t o n a l surfaces convince us at a glance that we are seeing a solid three-dimensional triangle and a three-pronged fork. B e l o w is a b r i g h t n e s s c o n t r a s t illusion. His highly d i s p u t e d and i m p r e c i s e science involves s h o w i n g u n p r e p a r e d p a t i e n t s t e n p a r t i c u l a r ink b l o t s a n d asking t h e m t o i n t e r p r e t w h a t t h e y see. N e i t h e r triangle exists. This simple five-line d r a w i n g is o f a C a p u c h i n priest asleep in his pulpit. M u c h can b e e x p r e s s e d in o n l y a f e w marks. clouds. — a n d so t h e artist can create m u c h o u t o f an impression w i t h o u t overdescribing.c e n t u r y Swiss psychologist H e r m a n n Rorschach. F a m i l i a r i t y in r a n d o m s h a p e s T h e Rorschach test was established by t h e 1 9 t h . O n l y o n closer inspection we realize that t h e s e o b j e c t s are fooling us. w e see t w o overlapping triangles: o n e outlined in black b e n e a t h a n o t h e r in solid w h i t e . T h e s e e x a m p l e s illustrate h o w little is n e e d e d t o c o n v e y an image. W e should r e m e m b e r t h a t o u r brains will always search f o r a p i c t u r e — i n ink blots.
while its upper rim remains level. springlike forms like those I have drawn below. To make a cylindrical object appear real in our pictorial space. I have drawn these for you here. Don't worry if it is uneven— just try again. w h e n seen at an angle. Cover a sheet of paper with spinning. for example. How to Draw Ellipses of seeing. there are three common errors people stumble upon. and these narrow or widen depending on the height of our view. WHERE TO START In the air above a spacious sheet of scrap paper. keep it spinning. I have exaggerated this error here. A wobbling but confident ellipse will still be more convincing than a slow.90) takes a different as essentially circular. Watch the tip of your pen and see it draw an ellipse in the air Keep this movement going while gently lowering the pen onto the paper like the needle of a record player closing on the disc (only it is your lowering hand that spins. (see p. for example plates or bowls on a table. Be aware. like a disposable plastic cup that has been crushed in your hand. giving the cylinder four corners. suggesting that the vessel is lopsided. w e use ellipses to give a sense of perspective. hesitant one that has edged its w a y nervously around the vessel's rim. spin your hand in a relaxed circle.100 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS W E VISUALIZE CYLINDRICAL VESSELS. Ellipse are best d r a w n quickly. though. smoothly. circles change into ellipses. . since this is h o w w e experience them in e v e r y d a y use. a n d in o n e bold stroke. not the paper!) As the pen touches down. such as bowls and cups. However. third common error is to draw upper and lover ellipses with different-sized apertures. describing many sides of an object simultaneously. that this is o n l y o n e w a y view. The first common error is to draw two pointed ellipses. as if the table surface slopes upward beneath the vessel. even if y o u r hand w o b b l e s a little at first. Cubism. The second common error is to tilt the upper and lower ellipses at different angles. you will achieve steadiness with practice. COMMON ERRORS W h e n drawing cylindrical objects in perspective.
Altering the pressure—and therefore tone—of the line as it spins gives the impression of light shining on one side. you can make it solid by building up highlights and tones on visible surfaces.101 DRAWING VESSELS Once you have mastered drawing free-hand springs. . thereby hiding lines that show the other sides. Create a Solid Surface Once you have drawn the shape and volume of each form. Draw quickly. Seeing Through Allow lines to travel around each vessel as if it were transparent. HOW TO DRAW E L L I P S E S A Single Vessel One Inside Another Grouped Together Finding Shape and Volume Draw an imagined vessel in one continuous spinning line. working from top to bottom. you can start to control your spinning ellipse to make a vessel. enlarging and diminishing the ellipse to determine the overall shape and volume.
it will inhibit your perception of tone. Remember that shadows. if any. if light shines in them. and solid objects are all of equal importance. t h e r e a r e p r i n c i p a l l y Dramatic lighting emphasizes texture and contour. beams of light. It is important to place them on the correct side so as to draw comfortably (see pp. Relaxing your eyes out of focus as you draw will help to dissolve the distraction of detail. Gradually hone your drawing. LIGHT TO DARK DARK TO LIGHT . leaving detail until last. In the finished drawing there should be few. Draw the largest and most distinct areas of light and darkness first. or you can begin with a mid-gray ground and model light out of darkness (see opposite bottom). two opposite methods of achieving the same result.22-23). making complicated or subtle surfaces easier to see and understand. You can begin with outlines and build slowly from light to dark (see opposite top). OBJECTS AND Start by arranging a choice of shells on a sheet of paper to your left if you are right-handed (or vice versa). It maximizes the range of tones between black and white. Illuminate them with a gooseneck lamp placed very close and directed away from your eyes. and strong contrasts are easier to draw.102 INSTRUMENTS Tonality W H E N MAKING A TONAL DRAWING. simply shapes and subtleties of light and dark meeting each other with no divisions in between. outlines.
. loose. boldly 2 3 Keeping your eyes out of focus. with broad sweeps of the eraser. Use quick. Use your pencil to develop these in relation to the areas of light. until you are happy frame. Let your eyes go out of focus while looking gently layer marks to create an even tone at your subject and paper: Draw the most ofmid-graywithin a rectangle. Treat positive form and negative space (see pp. look at the main areas of darkness. Remember that its size. 2 3 Gentlydissolveoutlines so that areas oflightanddark meet without a line between them. Erase and make changes to roughly place the shells inside your with your composition. Draw in the details last of all. pale lines with equal importance. Fll in broad areas first and leave all detail until last. Avoid a rough significant areas of light in your gray rectangle with texture and do not press the graphite hardwhite plastic eraser Ignore all detail and draw a into thepaperor you will not be able to erase it. Honetheshapesand angles of the shells.103 LIGHT TO DARK (LINE TO TONE) TONALITY 1 Using a sharp HB pencil. Continue working between light and dark to refine the drawing. draw a rectangle.56-57). Relaxing your eyes out of focus will help to eliminate distracting details. and edges definingthespacialrelationships between are important aspects of your composition them. shape. DARK TO LIGHT (TONE TO TONE) 1 Using the flattened tip of an HB pencil.
our image is stronger if we understand and can visualize what is happening on the other side too. .69 we see how the architect Antonio Gaudi drew proposed domes using suspended wires and weights. and on p.220 Mamoru Abe draws with forged steel rods. and on p. try drawing it with a pen on paper Use bold. continuous lines. you can create your own more ambitious works. and physical relationships between them. Place the instrument on a plain surface and illuminate it with a desk lamp to add the delicate dimension of shadows. They can also be made in space. There are essentially three lessons to be learned. This class uses thin-gauge wire to create a threedimensional violin. Third. The second is that after achieving this simple example. The first is that figurative and abstract drawings can be made in space.104 OBJECTS AND I N S T R U M E N T S Drawing with Wire DRAWINGS DO NOT HAVE to be two-dimensional. 176 the British artists Noble and Webster draw with domestic refuse in a beam of light. smooth. three-dimensional drawings teach us about the totality of forms in space. Seeing through a wire drawing of a known object such as a violin gives us a visual and tactile understanding of all its sides and shapes at once. On p. On p. 19 Picasso draws with a pen-light for the camera. When drawing anything viewed from one side on paper. PEN LINES Once you have created your three-dimensional violin (opposite).
4 . but thin enough to be easily manipulated inyourfingers Here. thin wire will make a smaller drawing. Cut a length. I started with the scroll at the top and fixed the four component wires with two drawings of tuning pegs.105 SETTING UP DRAWING WITH WIRE Follow these steps to draw a three-dimensional violin Choose a gauge of wire sturdy enough to hold the shape ofyourfinished drawing. and thick wire a larger one. These will hold the sides apart and help to keep the form in shape. Once you have completed the body. Here. and pinch and bend it to shape the base of the instrument Repeat this process to make the identical upper side of the instrument. Join the two sides together with four short pieces of wire. I used garden wire and cut it carefully with pruners. 1 Decide how big to draw your violin relative to the gauge of your wire. 2 3 If needed. Then begin to define its uppermost surface with Scurves and the bridge. begin to shape the curvature of the fingerboard. brace the two ends of the violin with a length of wire along the back.
some of which are shown here. . they invented new anthropological finds—objects that reflected the distant past and their immediate future. Oxford. Using found materials. England. I had the privilege of drawing their inventions.Artifacts and Fictions IN 1993 I WORKED with a group of schoolchildren who were responding to the astonishing objects in the collection of the Pitt Rivers Museum.
This F finished image was produced as r a n c i s c o . W I L L I A M S technology. It gives physical and emotive form to religious narratives. WILLIAMS he sought perfection in the infinitesimal measurement of the body and produced four Contemporary photographer volumes of illustrated explanation. W e understand every curve and balance of to the theory that the eves are the windows of the soul. in our privileged and comfortable society. W e are the only creatures on Earth that can make our own image. Michelangelo attended dissections to made this image by light sectioning: fine beams of light perfect his understanding of surface form. R. He even believed he had located the soul contours of her form like a cartographer's map of in the pituitary fossa beneath the brain and behind the eyes. She the body is still essential. R. while Leonardo opened the body to see and projected onto a woman's body draw the celebratory discover for himself our physical mechanisms. and in San could easily be transferred into three dimensions. sculptural description of her form. and anatomical and erotic art. Drawings were usually made from the male nude to avoid offending the church. the Bay Area Models' Guild h o l d s a quarterly life-drawing m a r a t h o n aprinton Kodak transfer paper with green-colored dye added celebrating the great diversity of human proportion. Williams were decades ahead of their medical counterparts. Artists now explore the interior of the body with new media and Lateral Contour Map of a Full-Term Primipara Produced by Light 1979 A. diseased. much Western contemporary art. the junior workshop apprentices posed as part of their duties. Strangely. a n d w e d r a w o u r s e l v e s to a s s e r t o u r e x i s t e n c e . In this period. The body remains at the core of over the initially white lines. Renaissance artists studying anatomy from dissection clinically trained and specialized as a medical illustrator. is the most c o m m o n subject in art. giving physical foundation undulating land. from video and X-ray to thermal imaging. This chapter addresses issues that are most commonly faced by beginners attending life-drawing classes. and surgically rebuilt. myths and fables. history paintings and other stories. portraiture. During this time. Artists are thought to have b e g u n drawing from the nude during the Italian Renaissance. but the study of a controlled. Look closely at Renaissance drawings of the female b o d y and you will see that m o s t are actually y o u n g m e n with minor adjustments. 3 x 7 in (300 x 180 . focus has turned to the vulnerability of flesh: how it can be damaged. These classes are popular around the world. and because the female was deemed inferior.The Body O UR BODIES MAKE us TANGIBLE. It also looks at the representation of the b o d y b11y4o n d traditional life drawing. clothed or nude. Leonardo drew a man within a circle and square. The human body. artists also tried to define ideal proportions in the body. explaining ranges e/ of materials and techniques and showing diversities of thought and purpose in making. herimpressive presence because we are given such Life drawing no longer dominates the art school curriculum. while Durer took his research further— A.
116-17). Muscular dramatic postures reflect the influence of Michelangelo and the Renaissance celebration of the idealized male body. and Vatican frescos. filling the page with her presence. Raphael's study of fallen m e n leaves no doubt that they are in anguish. Three Guards 1500-20 91/4 x143/8in (234 x 365 mm) RAPHAEL . and studied to learn from the works of Michelangelo and Leonardo besides whom he was soon ranked. and human defeat. In this highly s o p h i s t i c a t e d a b s t r a c t i o n . By way of contrast. In a single drawing we see equally o b s e r v e d studies of f o r e s h o r t e n i n g (see pp. Sculptural frieze This is a preparatory drawing for Raphael's painting of the Resurrection of Christ. He trained under Perugino. T h e y b o t h raise one arm to cup their head in their hand. anatomy. Principal figures m i r r o r e a c h other. we see the e s s e n c e of h e r b e a u t y w i t h o u t a single detail. Matisse's b l u e n u d e sings with life and c e l e b r a t i o n . RAFFAELLO SANZIO (RAPHAEL) Italian High Renaissance painter: Raphael is best known for his images of the Madonna and Child. Raphael drew delicate tones of black chalk on tinted paper. She u n f o l d s and s t r e t c h e s shapely limbs. altar pieces. while supporting the weight of their body with the other. Here three male nudes are compressed into very shallow pictorial space. while Matisse used scissors and glue to cut out and paste a flat collage of brilliant color. so that we read this drawing like a sculptural frieze.110 T H E BODY THESE DISTINCTIVE WORKS show two strikingly different ways of modeling the body on paper. But the meanings of each gesture and the materials and methods by which they Postures and Poses were m a d e contrast greatly.
lifelong love of brilliant They celebrate the culmination of spectacular and sometimes drawings.like an appeasing influence. Matisse Soothing influence This drawing expresses the achievement of Matisse's personal aim: "What I dream and depressing subject matter. foundamong many other groups of papercut these works as an elderly man confined to his bed or wheelchair. printmaker. Matisse became an artist after studying law.which might be. teacher and principal exponent o f Fauvism—a movement established in 1905 in which bold color is the most essential element. freer.. fabric.. a mental soother. as his w o r k matured. devoid of troubling Blue Nude 1 1952 413/4 HENRY MATISSE .sculptor. serenity.or like a good armchair in which to rest from physical fatigue.111 HENRY MATISSE French painter: draftsman..designer writer. and more energetic Color and form This collage is one of a series of Blue Nudes." of is an art of balance. and Islamic art. His calligraphic natural abstractions of form grew brighter. his pattern....
we c o m p a r e a skillful design that absorbed m u c h time in its making with the quickness of an idea marked instantly. and muddied the brilliance of the drawing. Seurat evolved a distinctive t e c h n i q u e called p o i n t i l l i s m — i m a g e s literally made from myriad points of color. stands in counterpoise holding a dark globe and his thoughts in m o m e n t a r y balance. only tones blending into. and color His applied theories still influence painters in their manipulation and rendering of local. form. Below. Light is given by the paper alone. Opposite. 162) and an eraser to model teeming points of artificial light amid GEORGES SEURAT French painter classically educated in the Ingres school of thought. like small birds attendant on the meditation. T h e space around h i m chatters with symbols. turned gray. in a perfect e x a m p l e . it would have mixed with unseen black dust. it is as if the very atoms of air are made visible. he used b l a c k c o n t e (see p. Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 1883-84 91/2 x 121/4 in (241 x 312 m m GEORGES SEURAT . If Seurat had added white. Using the paper to create light is important for beginners to learn. Typically. scratched in seconds. other tones. Here. In his f a m o u s paintings of social e n g a g e m e n t . w h o sits propped in the contradictory darkness of a hot summer's day. Beuys's magician. His drawings are similarly u n i q u e . Tone and light In this black conte drawing. there are no outlines. and c o m p l e m e n t a r y hues.112 T H E BODY Choreographs T I M E IS A SIGNIFICANT E L E M E N T i n t h e m a k i n g o f a l l d r a w i n g s . Seurat engaged in lifelong studies of line. agreeing to coalesce and show us the form of a waiting boy. or abruptly meeting. reflected. velvet d a r k n e s s .
He was a shaman who believed in intuition and in the investment of healing force. and blood. Unbroken lines stream from his simultaneously movement. Our focus joins shoulders. iodine. and that These aspects of the work convey fractured visibility. Many of his other symbolic works on paper have been drawn with materials such as honey. Beuys gave performances. and drawings. transience. CHOREOGRAPHS the profound power materials with spiritual or of Free lines This pale pencil drawing is Beuys. Perfectly modeled rather conventional for Joseph Focus Beuys's hand moved quickly to draw dotted lines flowing downward on either side of the figure.gold. in different positions.113 JOSEPH BEUYS One of the most influential German artists of the 20th century. His The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland UNDATED 113/4 J O S E P H BEUYS x81/4in (297 x 210 mm) . video art. taught workshops with a cult following. This figure is drawn intuitively. and made installations. free from the constraint of immaculate form opposite) impetus is irrelevant to the and meaning of this work (as we see in Seurat's drawing representation.
114 BODY Passion SUMMONING HUMANITY in a drawing of the nude is a subtle and emotional task. and one of hundreds of rapid studies of nudes. Free lines Rodin's public audience was understandably shocked by the eroticism of his drawings. Anita Taylor has drawn her protective body hug out of the darkly glistening compression of willow charcoal and the dynamism of her shy but momentous femininity. its soft. As here. We are involved not as a shabby voyeur but as a bystander engaged through our recognition of shared joy. Inspired by Michelangelo. Delicate strokes This is one of about 7. was perceived as scandalous. Rodin employed models to move freely or pose together in his studio. flushed skin made ruddy and black with crushed cinders. Rodin produced portraits and statues of public and literary figures. and went on to inspire generations of artists. But what is stranger to us now is that they were also outraged by his free use of line. In Rodins work. We are asked to gaze u p o n her flesh. THE AUGUSTE RODIN French Romantic sculptor and prolific draftsman employed as an ornamental mason until the age of 42. his w o r k is characterized by deliberate un-finish and powerfully modeled emotion. the women are framed and caressed by long." as seen here. Paris. His exquisite flow of paint beyond "outlines. They whisper and writhe in a brushed and sultry embrace that devours our watching. sweeping lines— of either purple silk fabric or cool studio air—that imprint and amplify their past and future movements. 125/8x 9 in (320 x 229 mm) AUGUSTE RODIN Two Women 1911 Embracing . Our bodies radiate the passion of our thoughts and so become beacons of our frailty and power. the fierceness of the women's kiss is beautifully matched by the tenderness of his line. Opposite. In both drawings.000 drawings shown in rotation at the Musee Rodin. he typically drew them with a few delicate strokes of pencil and brushed watercolor. Achieving international acclaim in mid-life.
leaving her lightest marks at the deepest level of the image and applying darker marks above. and gaze. intimately reflecting upon the emotions and meaning of nudity.I 15 ANITA T A Y L O R Painter. Luminosity Layered marks flicker likefirelight as they sculpt the woman's body. the impression of luminosity All and Nothing 1999 67 x447/8in (170 x 1 1 4 cm) ANITA TAYLOR . professor and Vice Principal of Wimbledon School of Art. and rework rich depths of light and tone. textured paper. London. draftsman. This order of light below and dark above gives glowing from within. The sturdy surface of the sheet has allowed her to press hard when needed. Taylor has drawn. erased and drawn again. A thinner sheet might have crumpled and torn under such vigorous force of making. Charcoal Taylor has drawn freely with charcoal and an eraser on thick. Taylor's immense self-portraits explore the relationship between the artist as maker and the artist as model. scrutiny. exposure.
Accelerated perspective plays a great role in much art.limbs happily receding. without taking off. Align the top with a point on your subject. Move the tip of your thumb down to a second chosen point. and to draw what we see. To avoid its effects ensure you always look flat onto the surface of your page. and a few measured comparisons are key. 3 Keep your pencil perpendicular Measure and compare at any angle.116 T H E BODY Measurement and Foreshortening FORESHORTENING IS AN ASPECT of perspective. Close one eye. unfathomable angles. Return to this posture every time. you will make inconsistent and unrelated comparisons. when beginners prop their board in their lap and look down at too steep an angle. we would arrive to find many of the same figures strangely distorted. "Simple measured comparisons reveal surprising truths about proportion. MEASURING This is a simple method of making measured comparisons for relating the true size of one part to another This is a tool to assist observation and thinking. which is imperceptible from below. or shrivelling at odd. for example. Rome. helping us to see more clearly. Imagine Michelangelo's murals in the Sistine Chapel. There is no need to mark them all down on paper. It can also be a little demon in the life room. Up close on the scaffold we would witness Michelangelo's subtle application of accelerated perspective. to be translated by mirrors or seen from only one point in the room. 2 Hold your pencil upright. The length of exposed pencil is your measurement. plummeting. Smaller. 1 Hold your arm straight." . the skull in Holbein's The Ambassadors (The National Gallery. more extreme examples have been made for court entertainment. We also look at another very interesting branch called accelerated (or anamorphic) perspective. or coming forward. It is not complicated. persistence. It is not so hard. If your arm is not straight. and wrist joints. elongated as if stretched across the plaster. and measurements do not have to be carried to the paper and slavishly drawn the same size they appear on your pencil. But if we could take a scaffold and climb up to the work. just making them helps you see. with dramatic illusions of figures painted in normal proportion. How to make and apply these is explained below and opposite. London). rather that what we believe we know from experience. patience. Spend time making comparisons before you draw. This is chiefly a correcting device by which figurative painters and sculptors have for centuries countered the effects of our viewing their work from far below or on the curvature of a vault. In the life class it is the mechanism for ensuring that a drawn figure lies correctly in pictorial space . Lock your shoulder. elbow.
T h i s is t h e s a m e d r a w i n g p h o t o g r a p h e d f r o m above. belly. Stand its b o t t o m edge o n y o u r lap. W o r k a r o u n d t h e figure. a n d thighs.117 ACCELERATED PERSPECTIVE To discover h o w this w o r k s . A t a c e r t a i n angle. Keep t h e b o a r d steady and draw. t a p e s o m e p a p e r t o a board. h e r p r o p o r t i o n s will appear correct. To m a k e f o r m s l o o k c o r r e c t . Lean t h e t o p e d g e t o w a r d y o u and find a p o s i t i o n w h e r e y o u can c o m f o r t a b l y l o o k d o w n t h e p a p e r at an angle o f a b o u t 4 0 degrees. W e appear t o be looking d o w n o n a w o m a n s t a n d i n g b e n e a t h us. See h o w d i f f e r e n t t h e relative heights o f t h e s e shapes are f r o m w h a t w e m i g h t e x p e c t in real life. . which feels strange. y o u r hand travels f a r t h e r than y o u expect. looking d o w n t h e p a p e r at t h e a n g l e at w h i c h I d r e w . y o u must let go o f w h a t y o u k n o w f r o m e x p e r i e n c e a b o u t t h e relative sizes o f b o d y parts and trust y o u r eyes. FORESHORTENING To f o r e s h o r t e n a figure. C o m p a r e t h e heights o f t h e nose and eye shapes t o t h o s e o f t h e f o r e a r m . P r o p o r t i o n s will only l o o k c o r r e c t f r o m t h e angle at w h i c h y o u make t h e drawing. adjusting a n o n y m o u s shapes. S o o n t h e b o d y will lie d o w n in space. MEASUREMENT AND FORESHORTENING Tilt t h e t o p edge o f this b o o k t o w a r d you and look d o w n o n this figure f r o m a b o v e . pleasingly f o r e s h o r t e n e d . L o o k at y o u r m o d e l as if he o r she is a flat series o f shapes o n e o n t o p o f a n o t h e r Measure t h e height and w i d t h o f each shape and c o m p a r e it t o its neighbor.
and work over t h e m with further o b s e r v a t i o n s . Start each new drawing by lightly marking the model's height with a loose line in ten seconds. and stance before honing her balance and expression. make the upper body smaller give your model a high waist. T h i s q u i c k e x p l o r a t o r y line does not perfectly describe shape but expresses a decision about overall flow of form. To see this. work back and forth across the body.118 BODY Quick Poses DRAWING QUICK POSES l o c k s y o u r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n t o what is most essential. imagine holding up a plumb line. her center of balance is normally found in a vertical line beneath her head. feeling. Layered lines give d e p t h . Be bold and dive into your drawing with c o n f i d e n c e . and slightly enlarge her legs and feet. Outline To outline a figure. because it results in two unrelated sides drifting apart. and height. balance. Avoid drawing up one side and down the other. Leave first thoughts in place. height. Balance When a model stands upright on both feet. working from her center to her feet and to her head. and energy. To draw this effect. propelling you to make immediate assessments and trust them. I used a sharp H B pencil and began each drawing by marking her outline. . Height This pose leans away into space above our eye level. THE SEQUENCE OF POSES H e r e the model was asked to move every t w o minutes.
the activity of circular lines and the repetition of limbs suggest movement. Most of us have a tendency to over-straighten the drawn figure. This drawing shows how different observations be overlaid to bring a drawing alive. .119 The twist of a model is most easily and expressively captured if it is exaggerated. Tilt Movement Here. The tilt of the pelvis is then counter balanced by the model's shoulders tilting the other way (as seen here). and this should be avoided Twist QUICK POSES A model standing on one leg usually drops the opposite hip.
These planes. W h e n starting. or those of a friend. Begin by drawing lines to encompass the whole hand. Then subdivide each shape so that you w o r k from large to small. 3 . Don't worry about achieving perfect solutions. feet. express structure and gesture far more successfully and easily than ten worried outlines wandering up and down between the fingers and toes. and they need not be daunting to draw. This exercise is useful when struggling with proportion. Focus instead on how planes change direction across the knuckles from one side of the hand or foot to the other. It also helps the beginner to progress from drawing outlines to drawing confidently across the surface of the whole form. Draw large shapes and their orientation. and ignore all details. it is important to leave aside all details of the fingers and toes. and a gooseneck lamp casts shadows that clarify planes and depths GESTURES OF THE HAND Curled Fingers 1 Open Palm Start honing the shapes of the dominant planes. starting with the largest. drawn in relation to each other. Keep lines open to change and take measurements if they help. especially the lengthwise divisions between them. Group the fingers together as one mass. A mirror increases your range of views. Practice by drawing your own hands and feet. swiftly marking its essential gesture.120 BODY Hands and Feet THERE ARE MANY different ways of approaching h a n d s and THE of form. general to specific. Do not separate them yet. 2 Build your drawing gradually from light to dark. but regard these practice studies as ongoing processes of thought and observatio Add details such as nails last if you wish.
and rapid. It can be a mistake. Leave aside all detail. and spontaneity. as if with a chisel.as though out o f wood. flattened planes. depth. Look for key angles without becoming distracted by detail. . these are what give a drawing its tangible structure.121 HANDS AND FEET MOVEMENTS OF THE FOOT Flat Stance Raised Heel Instep 1 Let your first marks be light. Nowimagineyou are carving the foot insidethepaper. Try t o express the whole foot and t o encapsulate its entire shape and direction in a few marks. however. Hew it roughly in broad. 2 3 Use an eraser t o refine decisions o r t o suggest areas o f light. t o remove t o o many early lines. loose. and don't worry about accuracy t o begin with.
The white lines demonstrate what is often called "bracelet shading." . Opposite. Compare its nature in close-up to that of willow charcoal used on pp. I also used white ink with a steel dip pen.204-05.Charcoal Hands T H E S E DRAWINGS ARE MADE in compressed charcoal.
Phrasing Contours . and posture of the model. 118-19). I make these lines in the first five to ten seconds of a drawing to locate the presence.HERE TRACES OF RAPID initial lines are still seen within and outside each body. length. before honing his or her shape (see pp.
. characters. I draw in museums in support of written research and as an artist seeking answers to questions about the practicalities of image making.The Visual Detective DRAWING FROM MASTERWORKS was once a staple component of an artist's education. and narrative pulse become vivid when you realize them in the middle of your study. It is now viewed with some skepticism and often seen as academic. Drawing work by another artist enables you to discover and understand the inventive hand in their composition. Forms. feeling them through the attentive movements of your own hand. perspectives.
there is a unique museum of 18th-century anatomical waxes. 126-27. Walls are lined with hundreds of faintly animated body parts. . These almost life-size figures were composed from my imagination and achieved with the help af studies discussed on pp.3 x 3 m) made in response to La Specola. each modeled from dissection. Life-size women wearing wigs recline on beds of embroidered silk in cabinets of mahogany and Venetian glass This is a detail of a compressed charcoal drawing measuring 14 x 10 ft (4. Florence.La Specola At17V i a Romana.
draftsman. In this chapter. Goya's w o r k s include many royal and society p o r t r a i t s . To create a face is to see and interpret the essence of an identity. usually strangers from past times. neck. a single line can deliver an entire expression. his changes in pressure and Hitchcock length o f line. This enlargement o f his miniature p o r t r a i treveals t h e s p e e d and agility o f his p e n and about himself. historical. Portraits can be highly or loosely detailed. We are also reassured by keeping records of ourselves. bells. Our homes are filled with images of our loved ones and of those in our families who have gone before. Self-portraiture gives every artist a constant.Portraiture IN P O R T R A I T U R E W E MEET PEOPLE. painters have dropped discreet records of themselves into commissioned narratives so that they can remain a face in the crowd. and it is very rewarding. and expression of the individual. gathered all that he knew FRANCISCO DE GOYA V i s i o n a r y Spanish painter. we use the delicate medium of silver point to look at foundation structures of the head. or past us. . and a handprint (see p. religious. having been documented and preserved. For centuries. Goya. Rembrandt's famous multitude of self-portraits. 1790-92 4 x 3 in ( 1 0 2 x 7 6 m m ) F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A and memorize the basic structure that we all share. and in a few scrolling rafts of pen lines and stubbled dots. and satirical or metaphorical. We can mold and animate qualities of expression out of objects and fragments of disassociated things—for example. throat. compliant subject to scrutinize. and their posture can be changed with just one line. Halls and palaces are filled with pictures of the mighty and significant. is here to both meet and look through us. buttons. Movie director Alfred similarly signed his films by playing a fleeting role: he walks through an extra. made as he passed through the ages of man. or whose eyes can seem to follow us around the room Portraiture is a constant. look directly at us. the meaning of their face. and social and political commentaries.139). and shoulders. The truth is that we all like looking at faces and observing the billions of variations that make us individuals. It also reminds us o f b o t h t h e intimacy and a scene as scrutiny o f an honest portrait. character. live. single or of groups. you can capture the subtlety. in a miniature self-portrait magnified opposite. abstract or figurative. Once you understand Self-Portrait in a Cocked Hat c. Beginners often draw themselves as a way of establishing their practice. Man Ray's self-portrait of scored lines. Past rulers sent painters across continents to bring back a likeness in advance of a prospective royal marriage. who. became more poignant as he progressed. and p r i n t m a k e r . or a glimpse of him is caught in a photograph used as a prop. their stance. The returning image was of crucial consideration in any proposal. W h e n drawing a person. and secular narratives. and lucrative genre for artists. Equally.
We can actually count that he struck the paper 40 times. It takes a truly accomplished a few strokes. and pressure as it conducts our eye through the image.30). we can enjoy and learn from them. teetering on the brink of older age. PABLO PICASSO Spanish Cubist painter (see also p. breadth. whisking a timeless girl onto the page. they serve as a great lesson that it is not always necessary to add tone to your drawing. There is a common misunderstanding that a drawing with only a few lines is both less finished and easier to make than a drawing with more. caught in her last moments of youth. Picasso has left to posterity many hundreds of magnificent line drawings. Picasso strikes and scrolls his pencil. adding smudges of tone for weight and solidity. He makes his flair and skill look easy. It is the portrait of a countrywoman. Without faltering. How could the addition of shadows have enhanced this image? Few strokes The simplicity of Picasso's line is breathtaking. The truth is often the opposite.132 PORTRAITURE Poise THE BALANCE BETWEEN a mark and a blank space is often a tantalizing form of perfection. Here the grace and beauty of two young women are held forever. hand to capture something well in only Frangoise au Bandeau 1946 660 x 505 mm (26 x197/8in) PABLO PICASSO . The aesthetic sense of a line being just right can make a drawing sing. stealthily using his chalk to find contours and mass. For the beginner. Her face is drawn tenderly and with a luminous glow. We can read so much about them by studying their gaze. Holbein maps the still landscape of Dorothea's body in questioning marks. The Tightness of a line is felt in its speed. length. Through exhibitions and copies in books. While with longer consideration. one eye already cast askew into the autumn of her life.
The peak of her cap clips the uppermost edge. he designed c o u r t costumes. Holbein was employed toward the end of his life by King Henry VIII of England. Blended colors In this portrait drawn with colored chalks on slightly textured paper.133 HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER German p o r t r a i t painter draftsman. Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 1516 51/8 x121/4in (385 x 310 m m ) HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER . Cropping This regal composition fits its paper perfectly. made a popular series o f w o o d c u t prints titled The Dance of Death. Holbein has cropped and pinned his subject within the four outermost lines of the image—the edges of the page. and its downward slope crowns the diagonal of the composition. gently flushed. and designer f r o m Basel. He outlined her nose but not her upper lip. Holbein unified the woman with her background by gently blending colors from her clothes and face into the atmosphere around her. Her folded forearms support and frame her weight above. which. In addition t o his numerous exquisite portraits in oil. and produced numerous society portraits such as this one here. presses against the binding across her face.
confusing. the contours of a grid. while white painted flecks and wisps suggest electrical illumination. N e w s o m e ' s eerily shadowed form is smooth and bears a linear grain evocative of w o o d . using a fine and relatively 1982 13 x 181/8 in (328 x 460 mm) VICTOR NEWSOME brush. Delicate muscles are integrated with the skin and fat that is to be r e m o v e d . Contrasts Sharp. its highly clarified detail claiming to be d r a w n from observation. Nerves. . London. This is a m a r v e l o u s interpretation of the truth.134 PORTRAITURE Anatomies These highly finished drawings express the emotional power and physicality of the head and neck. Durelli has m a d e a few m i n o r mistakes. It floats in space. solid above and almost hollow below. the face is one of the hardest parts to dissect. Psychological drama is contained behind a grid. and glands also complicate form. The style of Durelli's d r a w i n g opposite sings with the confidence of truth and precision. In fact. This is one of a number of similar disembodied female heads seen behind. Anatomically. continues to exhibit regularly. blood vessels. distorted. VICTOR NEWSOME British sculptor painter and draftsman. and has works in major collections including the Tate Gallery. The real dissection w o u l d have been far more c o m p l e x . taught at numerous British art schools from 1962-77. or defined by. dark lines made with a pencil appear against smooth. Highlights of white gouache were dry Profile Head late in the making. Newsome was awarded the Prix de Rome in 1960. and unpleasant to see. dark tones of graphite blended into the paper. but they are irrelevant here. perhaps applied using a tortillon.
Pencil numbers refer to the list of muscles written beneath. w h e n contracted. Stylized parallel lines are reminiscent of engravings. pull their points o f attachment t o w a r d each other . and it is likely that this drawing was intended for reproduction as a print. It is hard to think of a more difficult medium with which to achieve such linear perfection. Red Chalk the Muscles 1837 173/8 x 145/8 in ( 4 4 0 x 3 7 2 m m ) ANTONIO DURELLI and Pencil Drawing and of Neck of the Head Little is k n o w n o f this M i l a n e s e p a i n t e r a n d engraver w h o c a m e from a family o f artists. Durelli's experience as an engraver is reflected in his stylized drawing o f muscle fibers.135 ANATOMIES ANTONIO DURELLI Linear perfection This is a red chalk drawing of extraordinary accomplishment. which.
Both works demonstrate how simple lines can be made complex by being intense. painter draftsman. with speed and urgency. 1948 77/8 x 6 in (200 x 150 mm) ALBERTO GIACOMETTI . Bellini gently conjures the features of his saint with soft marks that tease his presence out of shadows into the light. Similar movements sculpted the head below into its page.136 PORTRAITURE THESE ARE DRAWINGS of shoulders. each portrait is inscribed onto the page. cutting and carving the paper with matted and spiraling restless energy. as if seen from a distance. while his hand stabs and thrusts Revelations like a conductors baton. They confuse our perception of scale by being intimately fragile and at the same time far removed. necks. Energy This is a portrait of a woman drawn with black crayon on a plain page of a book Lines search for the essence of form. He is best known for his bronze sculptures of human form. The camera watches him at work. and heads. which are characteristically elongated. We are brought intimately close to this man gazing up to heaven. Opposite. Then. each locked into a visionary gaze. Giacometti settled in Paris. Agitated marks make patches of tone that cut away the space around the character. and with staccato flinches his hyperactive eye moves from paper to model. and poet After studying in Geneva and Italy. Without paint and with very little tone. Speed Giacometti probably began with an oval shape placed in relation to the proportion of the page. There is a film of Giacometti drawing. Flesh is built and personality carved simultaneously. They show us clearly the bones of drawing. close enough to touch his hair and feel his breath. ALBERTO GIACOMETTI Swiss sculptor. Portrait de Marie-Laure de Noailles c. he drew over the whole image at once.
Mantegna.25 6 . Head and Shoulders of a Man 73/8 x 21/4 in ( 1 8 6 x 5 8 UNDATED GIOVANNI BELLINI . a n d his w o r k is d i s t i n c t i v e l y calm. H e t a u g h t G i o r g i o n e Barbarelli and Titian. lyrical. Bellini s t u d i e d u n d e r his f a t h e r J a c o p o . Sometimes different narrative same character was reused in compositions. H e p r e f e r r e d religious t o classical t h e m e s . These are pinholes. Transfer This delicate humorous chalk a drawing is a cartoon—not image but a type of template used to plan the composition of a larger work Look closely and you will see rows of tiny dots along every significant line in the picture. a n d b r o t h e r in-law. a n d c o n t e m p l a t i v e . transferring which were made in the process of the saint to his final place in the composition of a painting (see Glossary pp.G I O V A N N I BELLINI A prominent member of a large family o f V e n e t i a n painters.5 9 ) . Character This is one of many cartoons produced by Bellini the and his family.
similar to work by Cy Twombly (see p. drawn. It is an opportunity to look deep without the infringement of courtesies owed to a commissioning sitter. It has proved to be a subject of piercing scrutiny.138 PORTRAITURE THE MIRROR OF SELF-PORTRAITURE offers artists infinite reflections of. spear-brandishing warrior. and indulgence. scrolls. and buttons rings with surrealist wit and agile improvisation. It is an image of confrontation—the ever-controversial young artist roars at us from his abstract city-scape. their most immediate and best-known subject: themselves. The artist has finished his portrait with the signature of his hand smacked in the middle like a kiss: a declaration of existence as old as man's first drawing. JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT Short-lived American painter and graffiti artist who began his blazing nine-year career drawing on lower Manhattan subway trains with a friend. In 1986 he traveled to Africa and showed his work in Abidjan on the Ivory Coast He also exhibited in Germany and France. scratched lines. Al Diaz. and everything flux. signing their work SAMO. Man Ray's playful silk-screen assembly of color blocks. a tribal. and confrontations with.221). Islands of graphic marks. Signs and symbols with symbols This painting shudders that ore written. bells. and sheet metal before being snapped up by the New York contemporary art scene. The incandescent New York painter Jean Michel Basquiat pictured himself here in naked silhouette. Self Portrait 1982 9 4 x 7 6 in (239 x 193 cm) JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT . Later Basquiat sold drawings on T-shirts. political outcry. The figure's position is unequivocal and defiant while around him is in a state Without the essential of cultural and figure we would elegant belookingat a sophisticated painting of signs. made with great energy. float and shimmer in the shallow pictorial space. humor. and attitudes. marks. scratched into its surface. skull- Self-Portraits headed. postcards.
Man Ray probably used his own hand. The first part of the stenciled image was already marked on the silk The screen and paper were then held tightly together. printmaker and cofounder of the New York Dada movement. They suggest speed and make the picture look immediate and spontaneous. Autoportrait 1916 195/8 MAN RAY . Frame White lines are seemingly (though not actually) scratched through ink to frame this face. They experimented with camera-free photography working directly onto photographic paper Silk and ink This is a silkscreen print made through the following process: the paper was laid on a flat surface and a frame stretched with fine silk was placed on top. where he collaborated with the artist Laslo MoholyNagy. The handprint appears to be made directly. painter.139 MAN RAY American surrealist photographer. caked in thick printing ink or paint. During the 1920's and 30s. Black ink was printed next and then white. last of all. while a squeegee was used to drag thick lilac-brown ink across the silk pushing it though exposed areas onto the paper below. Man Ray lived and worked in Paris.
S i l v e r is b e s t . This browns with age unless sealed by fixative (see pp. S O F T F U L L B R U S H : W h e n laying a w a s h . purchase silver wire. Straighten the w o r s t buckles. Note h o w domestic paintwork marks with a coin. 144-45. copper. MATERIALS 1 Find a clean sponge and b o w l o r d e e p t r a y a n d fill it w i t h w a t e r W e t t h e p a p e r evenly in t h e t r a y o r o n t h e b o a r d . which quickly oxidizes into a gray line. s e e p . Lightly s p o n g e o f f t h e excess.s t r i p a n d use i t t o fix o n e side o f t h e p a p e r t o t h e b o a r d . Drawn across a prepared surface. and alloys work on matt emulsion. 2. Take a sheet o f any t y p e o f p a p e r (for e x a m p l e . platinum.140 PORTRAITURE Silver P o i n t SILVER OR METAL POINT STRETCHING PAPER A sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has been made w e t with the strokes o f a paintbrush will buckle d u e t o its uneven expansion. I combined silver point with painted white gouache on a pink ground. 1 4 4 . Find a n i t e m t h a t y o u can h o l d a n d draw with comfortably. c h o o s e a s o f t full b r u s h t h a t c a n c a r r y p l e n t y o f l i q u i d . and is therefore useful w h e n using w a t e r c o l o r as well as silver point. T h e p a p e r will l o o k b u c k l e d . s o m e m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n o t h e r s . w h i t e d r a w i n g paper) and cut it t o fit y o u r d r a w i n g b o a r d w i t h a generous b o r d e r a r o u n d its edges. 5. E m p t y mechanical pencils designed f o r t h i c k leads ( s e e p. Lay a clean d r a w i n g b o a r d o n a flat surface. Historically. Pages 142 to 147 are illustrated in silver point and techniques are explained on pp.54) can also b e used. b u t d o n ' t w o r r y . If w o r k i n g o n an emulsion-painted wall. 156). M a k e s u r e i t is c o m p l e t e l y clean t o avoid u n w a n t e d streaks. W e t o n e length o f g u m . 3 . who used it to outline initials and border characters before painting. I m a k e m y o w n f r o m o l d dip pens. 2 . For i m p o r t a n t a d v i c e o n p r e p a r a t i o n a n d use. Numerous early European artists also enjoyed its fine qualities (see p. p a r c h m e n t . To begin. the surface must be primed with a ground such as gouache. b e f o r e priming stretched paper. I t is a v a i l a b l e f r o m all a r t s h o p s . laid on paper. and gold have also been used. was familiar to or eggshells with animal glue. This is called a three-tone drawing. 1. and make o r buy a holder. SILVER W I R E : Purchase different gauge lengths f r o m a traditional a r t supplier o r jeweler. and t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h strips a b o v e and b e l o w . key. Z I N C W H I T E G O U A C H E : Dilute with w a t e r A d d c o l o r i f r e q u i r e d (as opposite) 4 . SILVER P O I N T W I R E H O L D E R : T h e s e c a n b e p u r c h a s e d a n d t e n d t o b e heavy.54-55). Metal point does not work on ordinary paper. Stretched paper remains taut as a d r u m . Opposite. artists mixed white lead. you will need t o stretch paper and lay a wash (see right and opposite). illuminators of medieval m a n u s c r i p t s . W e t a n d fix a s e c o n d strip t o t h e o p p o s i t e side. or ring.Tear o f f f o u r lengths o f b r o w n p a p e r g u m tape. Metal point is simply a strip of metal bound in a holder. Gesso o r m a t t e m u l s i o n c a n a l s o b e u s e d . or wood." Lead. M E T A L OBJECTS: All metal objects m a r k a p r e p a r e d surface. it leaves a deposit. an exciting indication of how large-scale drawings could be made on a wall. bone. The most c o m m o n metal has always been silver—hence the term "silver point. Be swift and firm. choose a silver object. o n e t o fit each side o f t h e b o a r d — t h e s e will make t h e glued f r a m e t h a t holds y o u r p a p e r in place.
Make enough to cover your paper. stretched paper at a 45-degree angle. It will slowly straighten and become taut. Mix a very wet but not weak solution of gouache in a jar with a lid (add pigment at this stage for a three-tone drawing). as the paper will be ruined by a raised ridge. Here. is necessary to lay a wash o Three-tone When coloring ground. The next step will make a small mess. v e r y little at a time. Beware of the tape's coming loose at any point while drying. Keep adding smooth. Leave the wash to dry thoroughly before you begin to draw. overlapping lines until you reach the bottom. Dip a soft. LAYING A WASH It your stretched paper so as to prime it for silver point. Dry thoroughly before laying a wash. Make an even line across to the right. full brush into the gouache and start in the top left corner.t o n e silver point drawing of a skull .141 SILVER POINT 3 Leave the paper to dry flat. T h r e e . slowly add powder pigment or gouache from a tube. Prop up your board of dry. Reload the brush and add a second line overlapping it beneath. any extra will keep. Keep testing on spare paper. Runs blend into each other evenly. and let tests dry before deciding to change the mixture. so put newspaper under the lower edge. I used a powder pigment called Caput Mortuum. leaving a smooth surface.
Head and Neck
THE HEAD AND NECK are best conceived as one unit arranged in four parts: cranium, face, neck, and throat. Each is of equal importance. The cranium is essentially egg-shaped and pivots on the first vertebra. The face is suspended beneath, like a softly curved triangle. The n e c k — a powerful, shapely column of layered muscles rigged to vertebrae—adjusts and holds the angle and expression of the head. The throat is delicate, hard, and lumpy to the touch, formed of cartilaginous rings, glands, thin muscles, and looser skin. Framing the throat, two columnar neck muscles (sternomastoids) project the head forward and also turn it to the opposite side.
This is a simple shorthand diagram representing the cranium, face, neck, and throat. It can be learned and visualized in different positions very easily, giving the novice a firm footing on which to stand and develop their drawings of the head and neck.
Cranium Begin with an egg shape. Tilt it on the paper to change the position of the head.
Face Draw a rounded triangular shape below the forward point of the egg to represent the face.
Neck This shape represents the trapezius; the largest surface muscle of the neck and shoulders.
Throat A triangular shape represents the throat. (The nose makes the diagram clearer)
After copying the diagram above, animate it. Practice drawing the cranium at different angles, add the face beneath, then the neck, shoulders, and throat. Shape your diagrams so they are more lifelike, but avoid adding detailed features too soon.
143 These three drawings demonstrate (from left to right) the following: why the cranium may be considered egg-shaped; now the face can be seen as a curved triangle suspended beneath and where the division lies between the two; and the form of sternomastoid muscles that frame thethroatsodistinctlywhen the head is turned and inclined forward.
The skull and the frame of the throat
HEAD AND NECK
Bones of the cranium are locked together by jagged joints. Sinuses in the frontal (forehead) bone between and beneath the eyebrows are larger in men, making their brows pronounced and often ridged compared to those of women.
Bones of the face house our sight, smell, taste, The skull pivots on the first vertebra or "atlas," and speech. Cartilage extending from nasal bones after the Greek god condemned to carry the shapesthenose.Pads of fat resting on the base of Earth. The jaw hinges in front of the ears. Behind, eacheyesocket support the eyeballs in position. If bony ridges give anchor to the sternomastoid thefatisreducedby old age, eyes look sunken. muscles rising from the breast- and collarbones.
Three useful generalizations
General rules about the relative positions of body parts can hinder artists as much as help them, since they are often based on classical ideals rather than thediversityoflife.However,some generalizations can help as a rough guide to start with, so long as good observation takes over as soon as possible.
In general, when the face is relaxed (not smiling or frowning), the corners of the mouth are found directly beneath the pupils of the eyes. Vertical lines can be drawn down from the pupils to meet the corners of the mouth.
The height of a young adult's ear is often the same as their nose and found on the same level. There is no general rule for growing children, and remember that ears grow again in old age, which is most obvious in men.
The height of the face is about the length of the handspan and the eye is normally halfway down the total height of the head. A common error is to draw the eyes too high up on the face.
T H E DELICACY OF SILVER POINT
(see pp. 140-41) is perfect for
such as a beach pebble. Here, I stretched drawing paper and laid a wash of white gouache (see pp.140-41). As you can see, the line and tone of silver point varies with pressure, but only slightly. Too much pressure cuts the ground. Silver point erases, but so does ground. Erased ground can be repaired gently with extra gouache. You can also use gouache to paint over mistakes and make corrections.
small, detailed drawings. The drawings below and opposite show useful observations of the head and neck, which are explained in the captions below. Each drawing was made with a silver wire held in a large-gauge mechanical pencil. Newly clipped wires are sharp and cut rather than draw. Before use, they need to be rubbed and smoothed on a stone
Here I imagined placing my silver point wire against the skin of each head and neck and, working in parallel bands from the crown downward, I traced the undulation of surfaces. Linear bands imagined around the head and neck can help you t o clearly see the tilt of the head and relative levels of the features. Ask a friend t o model for you and try this exercise life-size using a pencil and eraser
Seeing that the face is never flat
Drawings below left and center are summaries of the generalizations given on p.143. Far right is an image to remind us that the face is never flat. It slopes back to varying degrees among individuals, from the tip of the nose t o the ears. For example, note that the innermost corners of the eyes are farther forward in space than the outermost corners.
General measurements, side
General measurements, front
View from above
Male and female head and neck
Men's necks a r e g e n e r a l l y s h o r t e r a n d t h i c k e r t h a n w o m e n ' s b e c a u s e t h e angles a n d levels o f c e r t a i n b o n e s a r e d i f f e r e n t b e t w e e n t h e sexes ( i n d i c a t e d h e r e b y d o t t e d lines) a n d m e n are n o r m a l l y m o r e muscular. T h e male t h y r o i d cartilage ( A d a m ' s apple) is larger a n d m o r e visible than t h e f e m a l e . L a r g e r f e m a l e t h y r o i d glands also s o f t e n t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e t h r o a t .
The largest m u s c l e o f t h e s h o u l d e r s a n d n e c k is called the trapezius. A r r a n g e d on e i t h e r side o f t h e spine, it shapes t h e u p p e r back and neck above the s h o u l d e r blades. C o n t r a c t i n g in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h d e e p e r and surrounding muscles, it raises and l o w e r s t h e shoulders a n d d r a w s t h e h e a d backtoeitherside.
USING A SHARP 3 B PENCIL, I drew this head quickly from imagination, evolving its character and expression from the scheme of four parts: cranium, face, neck, a n d throat (see p. 142). Here, five steps show you how to practice doing the same. This approach can be used to draw from imagination or from life. Keep your wrist loose and hold your pencil away from its point (see pp.22-23). Build the layers of your drawing from pale to dark, a n d from general balance a n d form to specific detail. Remember that successful drawings are built on foundations of "seeing the whole," then dividing the whole into smaller parts, with details brought in last of all. Phrased tonal marks modeling this girls skin and hair follow the technique demonstrated by Goya in his self-portrait on p. 130. Turn to Goya's drawing and study how, in a circle beginning across his hat, moving down his hair, and around his coat, he flows lines over surfaces to describe their contour. As you build from steps 1 to 5, bring phrased groups of lines across the surfaces of your form, using their directions to capture the expression of the head and neck. If unsure, copy my steps until you gain the confidence to make your own decisions.
This drawing is the final stage of the four steps opposite. Here, I have enlarged the eye, and moved it back into the head by trimming the length of the upper lid and adding a more pronounced lower lid. It is important to set eyes far enough back from the relatively prominent nose; too close to it and the face flattens. Hair swept back and extended behind the cranium balances the regal pose. Lines shaping the hair echo those marking the cranium in step 1. Here, the lower part of step 1 comes through as wisps of hair across her face and ear
Portrait of a Young Girl
The eye announces the nature and expression of the emerging person. too soon. First lines will remain visible in the final drawing. I modeled the outline of the character I imagined light shining from above and in front and adjusted the pressure of lines to reflect this. I used light to describe the upper lid first with a shadow beneath for the lower lid and open eye. avoid drawing too dark. they are also still sweeping and confident. 4 .147 Building up the portrait DRAWING PORTRAITS 1 Gently spin pale lines in a softly drawn shape representing the cranium. The nose and ear begin to shape the head. so it is important to the life of the image that while controlled. 2 Rapidly add shorthand shapes to represent the face. neck.Theangle at which you draw this shape of the paper will determine the angle of the finished head. and throat. Keep your first lines light. Moving from the back of the neck. Here. 3 Place the eye beneath the cranium. down the face to the throat. over the cranium.
Above all. empathize. and gravity. a n d t h o s e w h o a r e Generations asleep (see overleaf).T o DRAW PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGES. be aware of the subtle differences in skin surface. . the texture of hair. muscular tension.
Castings DRAWING IN THE PRADO MUSEUM. . with a steel dip pen and acrylic ink. Fast lines carve out the features of Goya's soup-slurping hag. seeking the dominant contours of each individual expression. Van Dyke's noble cast of characters was modeled more finely. I used the nib upside down to gain needle-sharp precision. Madrid.
and gouache. c r u m p l e s . T h e rural masses w o r e h o m e s p u n simplicity. gesture. and intent. D e s i g n e r s create m a s t e r p i e c e s of haute couture LEON BAKST for H o l l y w o o d stars. while court p a i n t e r s — M i c h e l a n g e l o and Holbein. and atmosphere. Samoylovich Rosenberg. Artists do this not so m u c h b y the style of a figure's garment. variety. articulate a d a n g e r o u s satirical j o k e . st 111/4 x 81/2 in (285 x 220 mm) u d i e d L E O NB A K S T and explore the characterization of fabric t h r o u g h m o v e m e n t . In this c h a p t e r w e see h o w c l o t h i n g c a n s e e m to p o s s e s s the w e i g h t and m o n u m e n t a l i t y of stone. Practical classes Bacchante 1911 l o o k at r a n g e s of c o l o r e d m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d i n g p a s t e l s a n d felt-tip p e n s . and e x u b e r a n c e . o n l y the w e a l t h y c o u l d afford to h a v e c o s t u m e s specially m a d e . T h e e n t o u r a g e of the theatrical stage o f t e n l e a d s the c a t w a l k . shapes. caricatured p l u m e s . outrageous. Previously. In psychology. toParis. cool. b u t influenced Parisian fashion and interiordecor. dancer leaps through swaths of golden cloth. of Scheherazade.As artistic director of the It is s h o c k i n g to t h i n k h o w m a n y m i l l i o n s of d r a w i n g s m u s t be m a d e a n d d i s c a r d e d Ballet Russe. arichand unusual combination of pencil. Petersburg and later exiled designers' ideas and are surprised and delighted b y their continual f l o w of inspiration. g l o s s y folds. Like it or not. Designers all over the w o r l d c o n t i n u a l l y p e n and b r u s h lines to lash us w i t h color. woman was drawn by Bakst one year later for the ballet Narcisse. and even invisible by the w a y w e dress. w h i c h in turn feed c o n s u m e r Lev. Bakst's designs and costumes immediately To the fine artist. and i n d e e d image b e c a m e the property also of the industrial classes. T h e p a p e r p a t t e r n is p e r h a p s the m o s t w i d e l y k n o w n of c o s t u m e d r a w i n g s : a formalized plan of lines. c o s t u m e o f f e r s a r i c h v o c a b u l a r y of t e x t u r e s a n d c o l o r . theb u t b y the w a y it s p e a k s w i t h its flying. Cities c h a n g e d all. a n d c o u r t i e r tailors f o l l o w e d suit.This voluptuous above all a physical p u p p e t w i t h w h i c h to animate character and narrate personality. so that c h o i c e . and be so expressive of temperament that it overtakes the need for an o c c u p y i n g h u m a n form. it is the public sign by w h i c h w e are j u d g e d . e m u l a t e textures. or b u l g e s . and everything w e h a v e c h o s e n for o u r w a r d r o b e s — r e f l e c t o r s of o u r taste. S t r u c t u r e is t h o u g h the i n v e n t i o n of shoes. c u l t u r e . W e dress ourselves and costume designer trained in in St. personality. charcoal. for e x a m p l e — d e s i g n e d the w a r d r o b e s of p o p e s a n d k i n g s . was a Belarussian A r t Deco theater fantasies and desires to immediately possess a version of the same. w a r m t h .Costume W E MAKE OURSELVES EXOTIC. and s y m b o l s that lets m e n and w o m e n in all countries and areas have w o r k i n g access to the latest fashions. a n d s u b t l e t o n e s . a n d w e will c o l l e c t patterns. fulfilling lavish and spectacular briefs. P o p u l a r f a s h i o n d e s i g n e x p l o d e d w i t h the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n . intriguing. a n d p r o f e s s i o n — b e g a n life as a d r a w i n g . known as Leon Bakst. or calm u s w i t h chic. . he and cofounder Serge Diaghilev took Paris by eac storm in 1910 with their production h year in the industrial f r e n z y of creating o u r image and aspirations.
Below this. However. with their jagged edges. Opposite. Maelbeke I44I Madonna 11 x 7 in (278 x 180 m m ) JAN V A N EYCK . Van Eyck's highly polished w o r k is c e l e b r a t e d f o r its disguised symbolism. it is only possible to create very thin.156 COSTUME Cloth and Drapery EACH OF THESE FIGURES is ninety percent cloth. Church and deities are drawn as JAN VAN EYCK Flemish oil p a i n t e r f r o m L i m b o u r g . the carefully composed outline of his cloak shows us how the artist would have also begun his immaculate rendering of the Virgin's clothes. Delicate marks Silver (or metal) point is the most delicate of traditional drawing media (see pp.140-41). Short and subtle horizontal punctuations are only given in the background by sections of floor. The quiet stillness of this image is achieved by a masterly economy of stylized line. the vaulted stone roof echoes and crowns the moment. best k n o w n f o r his G h e n t altarpiece ( 1 4 3 2 ) a n d m a r r i a g e p o r t r a i t o f Giovanni A r n o l f i n i and his w i f e (1434). Keisai Eisen's intense. Their uninterrupted emphasis is entirely vertical. and implied striation in the stone of the architecture. Flaxmans sleeper—perhaps a pilgrim or a soldier resting between campaigns—has wedged himself into the cleft of some great building to grab a moment of peace. swirling printed fabrics. and snakelike marks. He has layered these slowly and carefully so as not to cut through the ground and produce a white mark just where he intended a dark one. resonate with their wearers startled expression. Vertical lines The highly controlled lines of this drawing cascade from top to bottom of the image. delicate lines. With a stylus such as Van Eyck used here. H e m e t i c u l o u s l y a r r a n g e d subjects t o c o n v e y d e e p e r meaning. Her gown is carved and polished as if made from marble. dragons. folds and patterns of material speak more resolutely of their wearers than any small glimpses of body we can see. her marble garment holds u p the infant Christ in a fountain of compressed line. bands around the columns. Sculpted one. In Van Eyck's drawing below. Marble gown We will never know if Van Eyck considered this drawing unfinished or intended the kneeling abbot to remain transient and ghostly. the Madonna and her architecture are both dressed in the same manner. Above them. and the kneeling abbot is a ghost by comparison.
157 KEISAI EISEN Japanese draftsman. CLOTH AND DRAPERY Relief printing This is a woodblock print made by a relief process. draftsman. which are sometimes also cut into pieces like a jigsaw puzzle. each delivering a different part and color of the design. and Man Lying Down in a Cloak I 787-94 21/4 JOHN FLAXMAN x 41/8 in (57 x 105 mm) . Position In this pen and ink drawing. an 18th-19th century document on the lives of the ukiyo-e artists. writer and printmaker Keisai Eisen took his name from the masters Kano Hakkeisai and Kikugawa Eizan. Images are drawn onto smooth. the angle of the head. and the feet notched against the pillar tell us that A lines holds him into the cleft. the cloak sliding to the ground. stone wall of downward-stroked this sleeper's position is momentary. one over the other. Respected for his sumptuous images of geisha and editions of erotic prints. Aeschylus earned Flaxman an international reputation. and teacher Distinctive linear illustrations for the works of Homer. designer. This complex numerous blocks prepared image and may have been made with printed separately. The inked block is laid face-down on damp paper and pressed to make the print. flat sheets of wood. Koimurasaki of Tama-ya 1810-50 15 x101/4in (381 x 260 mm) KEISAI EISEN The Courtesan JOHN F L A X M A N English late 18th-century neoclassical sculptor. Remaining raised areas of wood are rolled with colored inks. Dante. he also co-edited and expanded the Ukiyo-e Ruiko (History of Prints of the Floating World). Parts of the image to be left unprinted are gouged out with a metal tool.
w h e r e .158 COSTUME Character Costumes an extreme form of the clothed figure. Its color is also reflected in the metal. b e f o r e traveling t o Italy. Man in Armor UNDATED 1 6 x 9 1 / 2 in ( 4 0 5 x 2 4 0 m m ) A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE . A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE Flemish painter and draftsman. He has been rendered on this olive<olored page with pen and gray wash worked over a red and black under-drawing. It is presumed Her Royal Highness never saw it. cinema. lace. 160. Van D y k e was chief assistant t o Rubens f o r t w o years. The aged queen is compared to an overdressed bird. cloth. and even formal portraiture. Its warm surface flows in contrast to the stiff metal armor. The metal. Fine examples can be plucked from fashion. a n d w a s e m p l o y e d as c o u r t painter t o King Charles I. where sometimes there just might not be anybody inside. The slight uncertainty of the pose and the limp cloak suggest a little more metal than man. Flowing scarf The knight's scarf of gilded blue is drawn in a pale wash over red ink lines. Anthony Van Dyke's Man in Armor is a masterpiece of drawn surface. theater. Leg section Compare mid-shin the section of white boots cropped to the section of similarly cropped trousers in drawings Gruau's drawing on p. and feather were all CHARACTER COSTUMES REPRESENT observed with closely crafted conviction. A s a y o u n g man. Leg sections in both support the figure without taking our attention away from the main garment above. cartoon. for she would not have been amused and William Wodall might have been stretching his luck. he c o o l e d and redefined his style. t h r o u g h n u m e r o u s p o r t r a i t and C h u r c h commissions. Opposite is a dangerous drawing. Details and voices are worn externally with great imagination. a scurrilous cartoon by a courtier of Queen Elizabeth I. Pen and wash In the graphic accuracy of this armored knight we see the idealized identity of a warrior from another time: a gleaming defender of the realm. A flamboyant territory. all ruffs and wrinkles. In 1 6 3 2 he m o v e d p e r m a n e n t l y t o L o n d o n .
and saturations showing through from the other side.159 WILLIAM W O D A L L A u t h o r and illustrator o f The Aaes of Queene a Elizabeth poem Allegorized. the queen is masterfully rebalanced by words at her feet The whole drawing's blackened. while a raised foot pauses to assess the next displaying a fan of daggers. here dark tawny owl. T h e poem recounts t h e six m a j o r crises o f Elizabeth's reign: t h e Spanish A r m a d a . manuscript comprising six c a n t o s . By her old upto three tiers supported on sticks. t h e Jesuit Mission. t h e Rising. she is shown as a grossly disproportioned bird. it was customary to Iron-gall ink Wodall's dangerous caricature steps daintily the written lines of her dedicated page. A Ruffs and feathers Starched white ruffs worn at court and by society grew steadily larger as Elizabeth's reign progressed.35). suggest the use of iron-gall ink (see p.1599 71/2 WILLIAM x 51/4 in ( 1 9 0 x 1 3 4 mm) WODALL . t h e B a b i n g t o n Plot. Top-heavy. bitten nature. and her pride. hooded with an overinflated fluffy ruff eye pins us. t h e Ridolfi Plot. Northern Satire This is a quill-and-ink satire of the elderly queen's pride-As head of state and fashion. Beneath the lethal fan is the body of a bird of trimmed feathers suggest age. Satire of the Queen's Dress c.
Harpers & Queen.F r e n c h f a s h i o n i l l u s t r a t o r w h o in his l o n g and esteemed career w o r k e d with many of the g r e a t e s t d e s i g n e r s o f 2 0 t h . possibly over a pencil outline. as is Spider-Girl opposite. RENE GRUAU I t a l i a n . G r u a u ' s highly distinctive d r a w i n g s have a p p e a r e d Couture. Compare the compositio beneathVanDyke'sstudy of armor on p. Fashion and fantasy drawings invent prototypes of ideals and perfection—be they for the catwalk or the fast-paced pages of comic books. Composition Look how well this image is frame knee is parallel to the bottom edge spacehorizontalline cropping the trousers be outermostuprightbordersof her cuffs are similar above her head thesidesoftheimage.c e n t u r y haute i n n u m e r o u s m a g a z i n e s i n c l u d i n g Elle. Fine lines drawn against the building behind her echo the threads on which we have all seen arachnids drop and hang. She has been drawn with brushes dipped into India ink and gouache. muscular aggression. Drying time in between applications ensured the colors did not run into each other.160 COSTUME Femmes Fatales THESE DEVASTATING femmes fatales force back the onlooker with their demure. diving to catch us in the grip of her machine-like limbs. and gray pigments were applied separately. Vogue. 5 8 . Spider-Girl leaps like an insect. Gruau's model regally swans to the fore with cool pride.and tilted to the same de a little deeper than sp kneestogivehergravity. 158. a n d L'Officiel de la couture. demanding attention with gesture and flair. Rene Gruau's bold gouache drawing of smoothly swaying sophistication captures a brilliantly cut garment and frames it with great dynamism in a white. The black red. India ink and gouache This swish of confidence and style our enters the page turning everyone's head. elegant chic and svelte.5 9 ) and a three-spoke balance of cuffs and cropped trousers to create an almost flag-like emblem of power. His model is outlined. studio-like rectangle of paper. Airbrushed reflective surfaces further amplify our perception of speed. and both share the power of scarlet and black. ofcroppedtrousershere to the device of the w Illustration 1949 for Jacques Fath in L ' O f f i c i e l d e la C o u t u r e RENE GRUAU . Gruau uses starkly cut negative space (see pp.
Frenz has drawn for Marvel for about 20 years. He began work on Spider-Girl in 1998. In your mind's eye extend the uprights out of the top of the picture. The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones. Single-point understand perspective To how Frenz created up therefore the effect of steeply between looking buildings—and howyou can do the same in your own work—take calculate where a ruler the and single vanishing point lies. moon. Airbrushed color and with tonal focus. MARVEL C O M I C S . and figure are all locked into equally shatp through the traditional process of a pencilled outline over-drawn ink. It is outside the picture frame. sky. and Amazing Spider-Man. not far above the drawing. This s modeling applied over the top give the image a sleek and mechanical of gravity. Buildings. Sharp focus black outlines in this drawing create a hyper-real dynamic. at Their extensions will meet the same single vanishing (see point pp. Align your ruler to the upright of each building. to the right of its center. beginning with Star Wars. and has been the title's regular artist since 2003.RON F R E N Z Contemporary American graphic artist w h o designs and pencils the dynamic scenes of numerous superheroes featured in Marvel Comics.74-77). Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 2001-04 R O N FRENZ. a great characteristic superhero comics.
and can be a great rediscovery for bold drawings. Seemingly infinite choices of texture. shape. you may be pleasantly surprised to discover something you could not have imagined using. Be aware that fixative dulls pastel. paper-wrapped. size. except the final layer. Children's wax crayons are relatives. Many products are sold individually and in boxed sets. mixed on the paper and scratched into (as below). COLORED PENCILS: Dry pigments ground together with chalk. Try materials that are new and unfamiliar. used to make colors. 3. Bright pastels are more brilliant on colored paper. including iridescents. and cost are laid out for our pleasure and perusal. and subtlety. and sold in many colors. Dissolve in turpentine or mineral spirits to produce oil paint or or dark paper. The nontoxic range below represents a suggested starting point for experiment. clay. They vary hugely in cost. 2. plants.162 COSTUME Colored Materials ART STORES BRIM OVER w i t h t h e m a n y wherever permitted. FELT-TIP PENS: Instant-drying alcoholor water-based inks stored in the barrels of the pens are delivered via smooth nylon o r felt tips of varying shapes and thicknesses. chalkbased but very subtle. and synthetics. unwrapped harder pastels. Pastel pencils are slender and in w o o d casing. See h o w they work and return later for more of what proved best for you. OIL PASTELS: Many colors. The worst are like revolting old lipsticks that get everywhere except where you intend. crumbly. Sticks and conte crayons make thicker marks (as below). OIL PASTELS Oil-based. CHALK PASTELS: Blackboard chalk is sidewalk work. C o n t e crayons are square-formed. 4. the diverse are made in brands of basic member of the family. Beware—some are toxic. Degas built his pastels in layers. They work well on PIGMENTS Pigments. quality and cost T h e best are paperwrapped sticks of sumptuous. intensity. animals. Many artists apply fixative to the back of their work. made in about 80 colors. minerals. colored materials available. and can be softened and manipulated with degrees of heat. the finer and more subtle the texture and color should be. Most stores leave small pads of paper on their counters for customers to test materials. slightly oily to the touch. Use them to draw lightly (as above left) or thickly. great for tin . hue. fixing each layer on the front. oily pigment. Before making substantial investments. are derived from many sources: rocks. 1. The higher the quality (and cost). Often. which he left unfixed to retain its brightness. purchase a small selection of different items you think you will like. soft. or wax and a binder are shaped into fine strips and encased in w o o d like a graphite pencil. insects. Store loose pastels in dry rice to keep them clean. quality. though lines can develop greasy stains around the edges if the paper is not first stretched and treated with a gelatin paste laid as a wash. Pastels are finer. allowing it to fix slightly from behind. there are disparities between the apparent nature or color of what you hold in your hand and its performance on paper. and CHALK PASTELS Pastel pencils make fine lines (as above). these work best when slightly warm. wash. I suggest you do so.
111). it is still a great champion and support for those beginners feeling shyly obligated to tone down their love of color to conform with what others say they should use. Think of Matisse's Blue Nude (see p. Brands made for designers sold in enormous ranges of colors are far more subtle and sophisticated than those made for children. .163 COLORED PENCILS These are wax.or clay-based thin crayons in wood casing. others dissolve in water or turpentine to make a wash. Some are nonsoluble. If you love smooth blocks and lines of colon felt-tip pens are perfect. FELT-TIP PENS Although not made with felt-tip pen. so it is best to test them before buying. Colors can be blended as shown right) and tones graded by altering pressure. Diverse brands are harder or soften greasier or chalkier in use. leaving the paper to shine through for highlights (as below). Some give richer lines than others. Fine lines can be achieved (as above).
100-01 and pp. e n j o y i n g t h e study a n d i n v e n t i o n o f shoes. Superstitions and fetishes are attached to them: we are told never to put new shoes on a table. Linear Outline Using fine pens. I m a d e n u m e r o u s s h e e t s o f d r a w i n g s . a n d e x p e r i e n c e visible p r o g r e s s . and they have been concealed in buildings to ward off misfortune. As artifacts in museums. while artists have painted their boots or those of others as personal portraits and memorials. You.164 COSTUME Study and Design they reflect our age. and a selection of shoes. S H O E S TELL LIFE STORIES. social and economic status. REPEATED STUDY T o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s class. a range of colored felt-tip pens with both fine and broad tips. . if y o u m a k e p l e n t y o f d r a w i n g s as o p p o s e d t o o n l y a f e w . c o v e r a large sheet o f p a p e r w i t h line drawings o f several shoes. values. This class takes the shoe as its subject in building on earlier lessons concerned with seeing through objects to understand their function. personality. structure. the era in which we live. and after studying familiar shoes we use the information learned to invent new ones. they record and reflect our common history. style. and volume in space (see pp. Turn t h e m in different d i r e c t i o n s and o b s e r v e t h e i r s t r u c t u r e and f o r m . t o o . will discover m o r e . you will need several large sheets of drawing paper. Here we go one step further. To set up. 104-07). and how we stand and walk. t h e n again as if transparent. imagining y o u can see t h r o u g h it. D r a w each o n e first as a solid object.
STUDY AND DESIGN
study the surface contours using fineand broad-tipped felt-tip pens. For best results, it is important to be bold and brief. Draw firmly, fast, and with as few strokes as possible. Build up each shoe from light to dark andleavesome paper showing through to create highlights.
Design Your Own
Using what you have learned from the previous steps about the structures of your shoes, and about the use of pens, invent new designs from your imagination. Start with fine outlines and progress to colored and textured surfaces. Modify your ideas by rotating the views.
The Structure of Costume
MUSEUMS ARE AN INFINITELY
rich resource for the artist and
information given by a period style. Arrange to visit a costume museum or ask a friend to model clothes for you at home. Using fine felt-tip pens, begin with quick, pale impressions of each garment's shape before homing in on its borders and seams. Try to draw transparent views wherever possible to record the relationships between all component parts. Aim to draw enough information for it to be possible to make up a version of the garment using paper pinned to a tailor's dummy.
designer. They often give quite unexpected gems of ideas and information—whatever the subject. These drawings, made in a costume museum, demonstrate ways of recording structural information and detail for later use in the studio. They could form the basis of new designs for a fashion project or theater production, for example. Drawings of shoes on pp. 164-65 show how new designs can be evolved from the structural
It is usually best when collecting information for reference to apply the restraint of dispassionate observation. Set yourself the test of drawing facts with as little artistic license or embellishment as possible. Here I chose fine felt-tip pens because they are at their best when used swiftly, and therefore encourage bold, unhesitant decisions.
Swift lines record the hanging weight of this gentleman's coat, the relative proportions of its layers, and minimal details of the buttons and cuffs.
Thick velvet fabric is pulled tight beneath and across the bust by a single button. This transparent view shows how the fabric falls loosely in straight panels beneath the level of the sleeve.
W h e n visiting museums, be prepared f o r l o w lighting, which can make it hard t o see and draw. A book can help if attached t o your drawing board.
Adding stripes and dashes of color with a thicker pen brings out the glossy sheen and sculptural rigidity of this dress, which would have been worn over a whalebone corset. small reading light designed t o clip o n t o a
THE STRUCTURE OF COSTUME
In small drawings such as these, use thick pens to color entire sections with a few marks, as I did here down the side of the bodice.
The light, frilly bulk of this crinoline dress is propelled forward with lines. pinching its gathers and sways that are hiding a horsehair bustle. fleets of quick
THIS CLASS FOCUSES ON how to draw textures through the collection of fabric, pattern, and embroidery samples from a costume m u s e u m . This formal method, using ruled squares, can create an invaluable library of ideas a n d i n f o r m a t i o n for future r e f e r e n c e — w h e n painting a clothed figure, or preparing a textile project, for example. However, if making a book of samples for a project, remember that it is important to also include collages of f o u n d materials (see pp.230-31) To d r a w a fabric texture, b e g i n by concentrating o n h o w y o u i m a g i n e it w o u l d feel if you t o u c h e d it. Decide if it w o u l d be rough, s m o o t h , w a r m , cold, thick, thin, tough, or fragile, for example. As you draw, believe you can feel these qualities at your fingertips a n d that your pencil is responding to the sensation. Undulate the pressure of your lines and marks according to the feeling of the fabric rather than its appearance. Let your pencil enact the sensation of touching its surface.
and to experiment more loosely with mixed media.
This starchy, quilted, b o w e d creation started life as an imagined corset, I intended t o d r a w together in one sculptural f o r m a range o f t h e details opposite. T h e garment quickly got o u t o f hand. T h e r e is great e n j o y m e n t in letting y o u r imagination run wild w h e n inventing costumes. If you are unable t o visit a costume museum, many exciting fabric details and textures can be found in y o u r o w n closet o r home.
Colored pencils give precision and tonal range; they can be faded but not erased. Lightly use an HB graphite pencil if you wish to plan a design first. Pressed hard, colored pencils build up a waxy finish of brilliant color. Used lightly, they appear powdery and show the texture of the paper.
TEXTURES AND PATTERNS
Silk and braid
Dressing Character I O N C E SPENT THREE MONTHS researching the work of Francisco de Goya at the Prado Museum. and motivation of an individual.126-27. . shape. look at how Goya delineated volumes of thick fabric to express the posture. identity. These characters. 172-73. Madrid. and 252-53). selected from different pages of my original book. I made a drawing book full of studies seeking to understand how he composed drama and pathos in his narratives (see also pp.
and tangible. I carefully copied the direction of each of his lines.170—71). and visible. as it rushes and carves fabric-wrapped forms like rivers and desert winds shaping the earth. are copies of works by Goya in which he makes air seem heavier than flesh. Posture Carving also taken from my Madrid drawing book (see pp. . To understand how he did this.T H E S E PENCIL STUDIES.
even up her were laid with a brush. the viewer. R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN in the delivery of narrative. finding corners in crowded places to inscribe their action and energy onto the page. Saskia died after childbirth. He in turn scorches the paper with his view and a certain speed of seeing all. comics. there are no longer individuals but one significant group or mass action. He is also the artist from whom props to add layers of meaning and attitude. Storytelling and people-watching are obsessive human activities. and other masters of Western Art. we. and so. types. It middle. the direct exchange (as shown here) where one or more characters hold eye Aneedproduced the thicker lines of the nurse. Third. and instantly engage with the action of the scene. we can R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter draftsman. First. heighten or subdue drama with subtleties of exaggeration or caricature. Later in their lives. but drawings of gathered people tell them most directly. while a quill contact with. We read tensions and exchanges between people. Second. soap operas. and distance—so drawings of gathered people can be loosely arranged in three took only minutes to make and yet it lives for centuries. Drawings selected for this chapter explore these Saskia Lying in Bedand a Nurse ranges of proximity 1638 9 x61/2in (227 x 164 mm) and a travel journal. and therefore seem to see. the viewer is not directly made the finer lines of Saskia. we can learn most about handling pen and ink. furniture. the viewer's attention in a scene by the format of its composition. paintings depicting scenes from history. As artists. too. Blockbuster movies. the speed and printmaker and one of the greatest and most influential density of its lines. stares out from her gloomy sickbed. and novels—our staple cultural diet—are driven by a fascination with shared experience and the detail of what happens in other people's lives. vivid portrait of his wife captures our attention. are implicated in this marital exchange made over the head of the anonymous nurse. With a pocket full of disposable pens we also go out and draw the expressions of gathered people. Rembrandt's bored and frustrated wife. and its illumination. daily newspapers. Her all-too-clear expression shows annoyance and irritation with her husband. The spaces between people and the positions they occupy on a page are vital to our understanding of the psychology or emotion of an event.Gatherings A LL DRAWINGS TELL STORIES. . presumably while he is making this drawing. Here. Saskia. this is not the portrait of an old woman. television documentaries. in spite of how it may seem. Washes of shadow behind engaged and as a natural voyeur can feel invisible while watching the scene. Seeing through Rembrandt's eyes. We can also use clothes. We can direct close. This J u s t as there are three parts to a traditional landscape drawing—the foreground. a crowd tells the story from a distance.
the C o o k . Think about what else you could use: a laser smoke. Here. In both works. refuse. In one of R a c k h a m s great illustrations for Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland. plates shatter.kicks against the mundane things that close down your mind is a refreshing and good thing."Anything that.176 GATHERINGS SOME DRAWINGS ARE MADE e n t i r e l y o f i l l u m i n a t i o n that floods drama into the viewers gaze. and in. and projectors to create their anarchic punk satires of modern life. Below. or even the office photocopier." (Tim Noble) Drawing with light it is important to think about what you is Here timelessly we see a in can draw with. Real Life is Rubbish 2002 Dimensions variable TIM N O B L E A N D SUE WEBSTER . and smoke billows around the agitated jives of the Duchess. hearth i m p l e m e n t s crash at o u r feet.. garbage and chaos are piled a n d e x p l o d e d in r o o m s full of event. h a l o e d portrait of the artists seated b a c k to b a c k . TIM N O B L E A N D SUE W E B S T E R British artists who collaborate using neon. and on. narrative is delivered through the air. t h e y select and arrange familiar items of street detritus into what appears to be an u n p l e a s a n t pile. T h e i m m a c u l a t e d r a w i n g is only r e v e a l e d w h e n t h e b e a m of a p r o j e c t o r c a s t s t h e s h a d o w Projections of the h e a p o n t o a wall. via the animated clutter of o u r material lives. and Alice. for example. and projector. F o r e a c h w o r k .. junk. a kitchen explodes in o u r faces. Pencil on paper important but only the beginning of possibility the combination of three-dimensional space. Pans fly oft the stove. N o b l e a n d W e b s t e r s w i t t y a n d o f t e n s u b v e r s i v e d r a w i n g s are also c o n t e m p o r a r y art installations. the Cat. c o m p o s e d garbage p r o d u c e s a c a l m .
amplifying movement outward from the vanishing point. by vivid children's Rakham's w o r k is characterized fantasy. tabletop. and watercolor. ink. H e is best k n o w n forillustratingIrving's Rip vanWinkle.76-77) above vanishing point (see that is about3/4in (2 cm) oak converge at this point. See how the In the Duchess's Kitchen 1907 77/8 x 6 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 5 0 m m ) ARTHUR RACKHAM . Rackham Vanishing point In this marvelous drama made with pen. and Poe's Tales Imagination. and Alice's shoulder. The wood grain acts like marks of speed behind the scene. Depth Billows of smoke expand and are lighter as they come forward. humor.177 ARTHUR RACKHAM British watercolorist and book illustrator. Refer back to the drawing class how pots In drawn objects and elements that those behind. a n d an unmistakable graphic style. are very large compared to on p. we find several devices already explored through our drawing classes. Find the singleperspective pp.Stowe's ofMysteryand Queer Little Folks. This makes the story appear to leap out at us. beams. 100 to see for make elliptical objects and pans fly through the the foreground.
and action of a buffalo hunt. and we. a great Shoshone drawing blazes with the color. A glimmer of gold light appears from the left No explanation is given. Magnetic Fields sculpture. expressing his dry humor about O F ALL THE CONTRASTS HENRY MOORE British s c u l p t o r w h o t r a i n e d a n d taught at t h e R C A . as if Moore's wrapping has been literally outstretched.The human form w a s the vehicle o f his expression and h e w a s t h e official W o r l d W a r II artist. and art in the landscape. The image stands out among his more usual graphic works in which he hones and carves semi-abstract human forms. a sculptor. In culture. Opposite. Chalk and graphite This fog-bound but humorous gathering of souls is made in graphite and colored chalk with gray wash. This is an ironic drawing from Moore. and composition they are polar opposites.178 GATHERINGS we have seen in the pairs and trios of drawings by masters and makers. Moore's spectators appear to have walked a long way from nowhere to witness and wait beside this mysterious obelisque. heat. join in the waiting. which still narrates vivid days in the lives of an energetic nation. audiences. a n d l o v e d t o d r a w in t h e BritishMuseum. London. This is just one of many precious artifacts from a lost time. HENRY MOORE Crowd 1942 Looking at Tied-up Object . M o o r e t o u r e d Italy as a young man. perhaps these two are the most extreme. The mournful gray landscape of Henry Moore's northern British field has gathered by night an overcoated audience to stand and wait before a wrapped and roped monument. meaning. as fellow watchers.
Hunt CENTURY SHOSHONE SCHOOL . creating harmonious balance with words but through silent demonstration. and helping our eye to dart around. Each color is evenly distributed throughout the scene.179 SHOSHONE SCHOOL Stylized characters This vital image of a buffalo hunt is made with pigment Members of the Shoshone community wishing painted within dark outlines on a stretched elk hide. tolearnhow to paint a scene on a hide are and buffalo circle and charge the perimeters of a skin "field. MAGNETIC FIELDS Horses It is interesting to note how the outstretched limbs ofthesehorses echo European images of the runningBuffalo horse before the sequence-photographer Muybridge taught us to 19TH understand their movement differently. Skills are taught not center chant or dance to the beat of a drum. horses." Men at the instructed to sit and watch. Stylized hunters.
180 GATHERINGS The Human Condition IN THE SPECTRUM of these vastly d i f f e r e n t g a t h e r i n g s of p e o p l e . p o e t . texture. a pink-inked cinema wobbles along with string. The muscularity of Blake's figures was inspired by Michelangelo's works. Blake w a s d r i v e n b y a passion f o r j u s t i c e a n d a p r o f o u n d b e l i e f in his v i s i t a t i o n s f r o m angels.f o o t e d t r o g l o d y t e s w h o rage into w a r like a m u d s l i d e of revenge. W I L L I A M BLAKE British visionary. a n d o t h e r w o r k s . Opposite. a n d the gentle h u m o r of sedate r i d i c u l e . era as Kollwitz. and sweetened the often bleak years with his impractical inventions. t h e Bible. a d e a t h c h a r g e of brutality. It illustrates a scene from Dante's Divine Comedy. Heath Robinson lived through the same war-torn. color. m a r k . Brushed line and wash This is an ink-outlined drawing made with a fine brush on paper with added washes of watercolor The image was subsequently redrawn as a line engraving. a n d e n g r a v e r w h o p o w e r f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e d his o w n t e x t s in a d d i t i o n t o D a n t e ' s Divine Comedy. Misted in translucent layers of paint. inextinguishable in its fortitude and h u m o r . a n d f o c u s . pale souls of the lustful are being s p u n into yet another realm of hell. w r i t e r a r t i s t . w h i c h b y their c h o i c e a n d h a n d l i n g a c t u a l l y b e c o m e the force a n d spirit of e a c h i m a g e . w h e r e he w a t c h e s a t u r b u l e n t s p i r a l of p u n i s h m e n t f o r the d a m n e d . B l a k e h a s i l l u m i n a t e d his s a d d e n e d Virgil on the s h o r e s of a d a r k w o r l d . The Circle of the (The Whirlwind 1824 of Lustful Lovers) mm) 143/4 x 207/8i n ( 3 7 4 x 5 3 0 WILLIAM BLAKE . We also see qualities of line. K a t h e K o l l w i t z s c r a t c h e d a n d e n g r a v e d her a r m y of c l a y . w e f i n d a spiritual v i s i o n .
stoical bemusement. Losbruch (The Outbreak) 1955 20 x 233/8 in (507 x 592 mm) KATHE KOLLWITZ HEATH ROBINSON humorous illustrator and a regular contributor to magazines and journals such as The Sketch and The Bystander. however meager or ridiculous their activity. humor by making his characters earnest. and the impact of death and war upon women. children. plodding along with hazy. Ink rolled over was selectively polished off using a rag. The image was scratched directly onto a metal plate. Kollwitz survived the two World Wars.181 KATHE KOLLWITZ German printmaker. With masterful gentility. and controlled smears on the metal surface printed as tones. who lived in a poor district of Berlin. and the family home. Robinson and Kollwitz (above) share almost identical life dates and their work expresses a shared history from opposite sides oftheworld wars. sculptor and draftsman. Heath Robinson shows England in a past era. British Pen and wash This is a pen-andwatercolor drawing made for a color-platereproduction in an edition of T h e Bystander. White marks were made with a dusting of French chalk on the artist's finger to wipe away ink leaving clean metal. HEATH ROBINSON The Kinecar 1926 103/8 x 15 in (262 x 380 mm) . poverty. What remained in scratched grooves printed on damp paper as lines. THE HUMAN CONDITION Scratched lines This is a dry-point etching with monoprint. He created sincere. and her powerful and sensitive drawings center on nurture. and clearly focused.
if y o u w i s h y o u r d r a w i n g s t o last a n d n o t fade o r b l u r w i t h t i m e a n d e x p o s u r e t o light.7 7 and 214-15). fine fiber-tip Drawing with a fine fiber-tip pen. T h e r e w e r e c seconds t o snatch this impression b e t w e e n their emergence from one bridge and disappearance b e n e a t h t h e next. 2. 4. is d e l i v e r e d t h r o u g h a m e t a l t u b e o v e r a t i n y ball bearing. dropped in your pocket and forgotten till needed. they each offer distinct and sometimes unexpected qualities. . or turn into washes and make monoprints if flooded with an alcohol-based substance such as hairspray. 192-93) w e r e b o t h m a d e w i t h a ballpoint. a n d pressure-sensitive. they can be obtained within minutes. aiming for correct outlines would result in drawing too slowly to c a t c h the moment. Quick-drying. I swiftly focused on gesture. a disposable pen with its clip-on cap goes anywhere. a n d ranges o f colors. At a time like this. G E L P E N : P r o d u c e d in b l a c k w h i t e . B A L L P O I N T : Black a n d b o l d c o l o r s o f f e r d i v e r s e qualities. in the car. FIBER-TIP: M a n u f a c t u r e d f o r artists a n d d e s i g n e r s in a r a n g e o f w i d t h s . or put the paper in your pocket instantly without fear of smudging. these pens enable you to sketch. which can snap or pierce through your clothes. a ballpoint will make faint lines. jot notes.182 GATHERINGS Disposable Pens (ballpoints. The f o u r i l l u s t r a t e d h e r e r e p r e s e n t a basic r a n g e . 7 6 . indent paper. rollerballs. For example. W h i t e gel p e n s a r e v e r y e f f e c t i v e o n d a r k papers. in the studio. R e m e m b e r ." 1. build to a rich.188-89) and Caravans (see pp. CHOICES AVAILABLE T h e r e a r e m a n y d i s p o s a b l e p e n s t o c h o o s e from. I keep quantities at home.r e s i s t a n t . dark sheen. Lines t h i c k e n as t h e p e n w e a r s o u t G r a n d Canal (see pp. Available in blacks and ranges of colors. c h o o s e p e n s l a b e l e d " p e r m a n e n t " o r "lightfast. t h e y a r e lightfast. Unlike pencils. So many stores sell them. Ideal f o r precision w o r k (see p p . blob when old. trusting shape and form to follow. and in most pockets so I can always record a thought DISPOSABLE PENS QUICK NOTES O n a c o l d day in Venice. w a t e r . including l u m i n o u s a n d m e t a l l i c . gel pens) are the most convenient of all materials with which to travel. t w o tourists and their gondolier drifter past m e o n a canal. Insensitive t o p r e s s u r e : lines d o n o t v a r y in w i d t h o r t o n e . shut your book. or idea. R O L L E R B A L L : A c o n s t a n t i n k flow 3 . turn the page. p e r m a n e n t . fibertips.
Fast lines focus on action.31 . Compare this Klee's mules on p. Earlier I had witnessed a crammed en masse in a fleet of hired gondolas complete with musicians and choir.FROMMEMORY Here I used the same fiber-tip pen to compose a scene from memory. not form. crowd of fellow travelers Fast lines These scribbled lines model the mass and shadows of heads belonging passengers packed into the boat.
A curatorial assistant flies to do a chore (right). Movement . animate them more. pocket notebook and a fiber-tip pen. life will not slow and wait for you to catch it. Above all. However. of course. but they should not be what you dwell on.184 GATHERINGS The Travel Journal I CANNOT OVERSTATE THE JOY of making a travel journal. if animated. black. when out drawing. just draw the action. all action is in the line of his coat and directed by his nose. make them stouter. Circular lines buzz around a man puzzling at the end of a train platform (left). Let the line of the flying coat fly and the hanging arm hang. You will make outlines. angles will happen as a matter of course. FLEETING MOMENTS Walking through Venice with a small. focus on the action of the event. Don't worry about measuring angles. activity. Each one was witnessed and drawn immediately from the afterimage of what I had just seen. let it enter the stage and perform. Every drawing writes an indelible memory of place. Exaggeration helps. Push toward caricature and this will draw out of your memory what was most important. if a person was stout. Each line acts its part in the narrative. and companionship. You must learn to trust your memory and to draw what impressed you most. not its outline. No camera can tie you to a time or people in the same way. I caught fleeting glimpses of gathered people and solitary souls going about their affairs.
In turn. I drew him three times on the same page to catch a range of his physical expressions. The rush of his legs isamplifiedby their blurred lines. Observation THE TRAVEL JOURNAL The same willowy assistant dashes about his work. I am watched by the aggravated guard. eager to herd us all from his house of responsibility.185 A large lady is photographed in front of a delicate work of art. Expression .
decide how faces and bodies contort. ACTION AND DETAIL W h e n drawing people. or bulge. furniture leans. and there met this sullen custodian. if they are being haughty. or pushes. . rather than the works of art they guarded. start by focusing on its action. Here the custodian projects fastidious ownership of his desk and pamphlets by pushing from behind the center of the space and challenging our entry to his image. and clothing or bags hang. you might place them lower down. placement. Be aware that their placement on the page is part of the narrative. elevate them in the pictorial space. He and his simpering assistant would not allow me in. not outline.186 GATHERINGS Catching the Moment On A BITTERLY COLD November day. if they are being devious. and you decide to draw the moment. For example. Identify the principal character and draw him or her first. focus on action. Here I have recreated my drawing in steps to show you how to set about capturing such a scene. and reason for happening. pulls. I took refuge in a church in Venice. forcing me to remain at the back and look at them. Place the person carefully. and let every detail speak by its size. emotion. For example. flap. When your attention has been caught. and involvement in the story.
Decide where you will place them o n the paper t o emphasize their action and intent. together with any immediate props they are using. D r a w their action. W i t h a few strokes. CATCHING THE MOMENT The assistant Identify t h e antagonist ( o r second character) in t h e scene.187 The custodian Identify your principal character a n d their psychological role in the scene. In the final step (left) I reinforced t h e custodian's desk. a pillar locates t h e scene in a depth o f space. Decide where t o place them t o emphasize their role. continue adding characters. . which is pushed toward us in a gesture of confrontation. such as the desk and pamphlets seen here. who is largely expressed through the shape and fall o f his raincoat and his way o f using a note pad. I added t h e assistant. Draw their action and props. If drawing a more complex scene. Here.
.Grand Canal T H E CANALS OF VENICE are bustling places full of occupation. and buildings. An imminent deluge of tourists urged me to work catching no more than the skeleton of the view. where vertical mooring poles give space and pulse to the horizontal speed of water quickly. I developed detailofthis drawing from memory using a ballpoint pen.
. To catch characters like this. followed by the streets. Caricature each person slightly. then the bridge beneath them. note only their most essential action and feature. Characters in the foreground were drawn first. and drawn immediately from memory. Venetians flow across a stepped bridge and cascade into the streets beyond.Crossings DURING THIS RUSH HOUR. Each person was glimpsed in an instant.
I used a ballpoint pen to compose a series of scenes.Caravans T H E PARAPHERNALIA O F TRAVEL i s an intriguing part of circus life. quiet afternoon. I found this circus by chance in the Swiss mountains. Sitting at a distance on a hot. and a great subject to draw. . Caravans and other backstage activity convey expectations of energy and repose.
pages o f softly i l l u m i n a t e d craters and lunar "seas" c o v e r e d in m a t h e m a t i c a l and s h o r t h a n d calculations. There is a sense of the heroic in drawing outside—we race to catch a form before the tide engulfs it. marking the ground with lines of footprints or by turning stones. makes his work by the act of walking. These conditions are very difficult to express well. Look closely at works by many artists and you will see that they have not represented hills. Take chances against the rain and work with the wind or fog. This is the world's first accurate image of the Moon. a n d a n astronomer w h o dedicated 20 years t o studying t h e M o o n . Richard Long. and its draws the tides of the seas. Oxford. William Turner is said to have had himself lashed to a ship's mast to comprehend the storm (see p. In this chapter Moon Pastel 1795 Drawing we experiment with charcoal. artists see for themselves that which is momentary and eternal. Weather is essential in all landscape drawing. learning to draw light out of dark. 199). H e a l s o p r o d u c e d an a l b u m o f 1 8 0 exquisite pencil drawings.Earth and the Elements I T MAY SEEM PERVERSE to start a chapter titled "Earth and the Elements" with an image of the Moon. It now hangs on the staircase of the History of Science Museum. and meteor impacts have scarred. sunny days. are the real subjects in great landscape drawings. trees. By drawing such momentous and everyday events. Russell d r e w this. or the wind carries it away. a n d a m o o n globe called t h e Selenographia. the face of the Moon. speculation. how the mountain cut by ice and rain is now fleetingly lit. What they have drawn is the force of nature on these properties: how the wind heaves the night ocean. arranging them in perfect circles on the mountainside or in lines drifting out of sight beneath low clouds. and the sea. t w o e n g r a v e d m a p s k n o w n as The Lunar Planispheres. or has cracked and fallen under the weight of water. so J o h n Russell's tour de f o r c e drawing (opposite) was a masterpiece of observation in his time. and take bold steps in emulating the swell of clouds and the forces of torrential water. England. Just as NASA photographs of Earth have had a profound effect on the way we view our fragile home. to be ready to draw the new light as it breaks across the land. surrounded by the bright instruments of centuries of navigation. a contemporary environmental artist. The forces of nature. how the soil is scorched. It is Earths satellite. rivers. and even how the Sun illuminates. t h e first-ever accurate image o f t h e M o o n ' s surface. the sun comes out to blind it. and experiment. It is better to get up before dawn. when little stirs and empty blue skies offer even less to latch lines to. but it can be seen as a lens to our observation of this planet. as opposed the physicality of Earth. our companion. JOHN RUSSELL A p o r t r a i t pastelist t o King G e o r g e III o f England. Beginners will often choose calm. 5 f t x 5 ft 6 in ( 1 5 2 x 1 6 8 c m ) J O H N RUSSELL . they are the animators of your subject. The pastel drawing was constructed from myriad telescopic observations almost 200 years before the Apollo Moon landing.
seeing how it shakes. Daumier's c a r t o o n shines with the brilliance of his comic memory. and gives motion to each image. By Turner carries us to the heart of the maelstrom. Terrifying waves of merciless nature roar across the paper. the bourgeoisie. Crayon and limestone This is a lithograph. Flapping kimonos and an onlooker turning his b a c k have the magic of a m o m e n t caught. Fluid strokes inflate the woman's dress and pin shadows to the ground. He knew how the world bends and stutters under such gusts. and pioneer ofexpressionism. serving a prison sentence for his views. like an umbrella forced inside-out. fluttering heavily.Through political drawings he fired his sharp wit at the king. and by observing its tides and eddies in our o w n environment.198 EARTH AND THE E L E M E N T S Air in Motion THE GREAT INVISIBLE SUBJECT o f these d r a w i n g s is t h e w i n d . and the legal profession. and solidity. a sail b r o k e n loose in a stormy marriage. This wife. has b e c o m e a hysterical kite. Below. Dots and dashes suggest receding trees out of focus. painter. Danger of Wearing Balloon Petticoats UNDATED HONORE DAUMIER . lifts. Hazy vertical marks reveal buildings into the mist. undramatic b u t brimming with stylized realism. we can soon learn to draw its force. A hard waxy was drawn across a heavy limestone Varying definitions crayon of lire and depths of tone conspire to give volume. T h e great master of English seascape is c o n d u c t i n g with his graphic energy. speed. is already lost. the government. distance. H O N O R E DAUMIER French satirical cartoonist lithographer. T h e ship. sculptor. Hokusais sedate wind presses reeds a n d the j o u r n e y s o f young ladies. a scratched ghost.
and history painter w h o s e p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t a b o v e all w a s light. T U R N E R British landscape.l o v e dw o r k s i n c l u d e 1 0 0 v i e w s o f M o u n t Fuji and 1 2 v o l u m e s o f Manga.i n f l u e n c e d b y examples o f W e s t e r n art obtained through D u t c h t r a d i n g in Nagasaki. T u r n e r w o r k e d in oils a n d w a t e r c o l o r s a n d s k e t c h e d c o p i o u s l y o n his travels.b l o c kprintmaker. T h e r e a r e m a n y stories o f his p a s s i o n a t e w o r k i n g methods. a n d his b e s t . absorbent watercolor and are Stains of splashed.M. wind. including being lashed t o a ship's m a s t in o r d e r to study a storm. Landscape a n d city life w e r e his principal subjects. A outline scratched of a skeletal into penciled ship is while and the waves. d e s i g n e r a n d b o o k i l l u s t r a t o r .W. Ship in a Storm c. into this very as pressed sheet The paper's through own coior is brought banks of mist and fog. 1826 91/2 x 113/4 in ( 2 4 1 x 3 0 0 m m ) J. W . leans the whole composition swells around its fateful center. Wind direction wood-block This is a colored To represent the blows lifted flowed wind. H o k u s a i in t u r n has since significantly influenced European art. seascape. from left print.M. painter. AIR IN MOTION Pencil and watercolor subdued brushed. Hokusai direction (from clothing from has chosen which it the right). horizontally then and of the it into the stream Plants also bend and flow right to Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 1802 81/2 HOKUSAI KATSUSHIKA x 131/2 in ( 2 1 7 x 3 4 3 mm) .199 J. TURNER KATSUSHIKA HOKUSAI Prolific J a p a n e s e c o l o r w o o d .
It looks so contemporary. In periods b e t w e e n writing. leaving nothing but a glimpse of moonlight glistening on the froth below. ink. as if drawn j u s t this year. active surfaces of water. Pen and brush Hugo drew first with pen and ink. Opposite. grab their b r u s h . inks. and swim into the page. He brings us to stare into a place that no sane human would enter.200 ELEMENTS Storms STORMS CAN BE SEEN and drawn in two ways: first. as a gestural storm on the paper. h a u n t e d shadows. and tossed o b j e c t s — a perfect subject in which artists can forget themselves. fantasy palaces. this is a b o m b a r d m e n t from o u r h o m e s . it is difficult to contemplate its brooding and night-soaked heart. By contrast. he blanketed the drawing in darkness. lines of rain escorting them to b o u n c e and clatter. T h e m e n a c i n g darkness of Hugo's storm b e l o w is so convincing. Then. Le Bateau-Vision 1864 71/2 x 1 0 in ( 1 9 2 x 2 5 5 m m ) VICTOR H U G O . with a brush. Turner (see p. marks. Leonardos Cloudburst of Material Possessions is o n e of his m o s t enigmatic and mysterious works.198) admires the majesty of nature.28). An update on biblical showers of fish and frogs. this is a writer's narrative of terror. T h e very nature of b o t h is turmoil and an interweaving of elements. EARTH AND THE VICTOR HUGO French novelist and artist (see also p. D o m e s t i c o b j e c t s we can o w n and name fall from the clouds. or charcoal. water. and t h e sea s t u d i e d f r o m his h o m e in Guernsey in t h e Channel Islands. as a subject and second. composing banks of waves and dense. His subjects include ruins. drawing was Hugo's principal means o f expression.
together with half the contents of our garage. It is interesting to speculate how engineering might have developed if his ideas had been shared with the world earlier Ink and chalk This is a pen and ink drawing with touches of black chalk. He was left-handed and wrote backwards in Italian from left to right. envisioning machines centuries before their making (helicopters and bicycles. Cloudburst of Material Possessions 1510-12 45/8 x 43/8 in ( 1 1 7 x 1 1 1 mm) L E O N A R D O DA VINCI . Each item that has crashed from heaven is drawn in such a way that we can feel Leonardo's nib picking it up in the speed of a doodle.LEONARDO DA VINCI Leonardo devised many artifacts of our modern lives. There is a little magic in recognizing many items from our homes something like a rake. a bell. and a wheel. for example). and they passed through private hands for 400 years before becoming widely known. a hook. Above and below are examples of his mirror handwriting. He bequeathed his drawings to a friend.
she teased away fragments of paper to illuminate her view. Segments The top half of the drawing is a view as we enter the valley. Claude is distinguished by. Over first lines. Whether land-. Even distilled from all other detail. Claude Lorrain drew directly on location. In the lower half he has walked downhill a little. sea-. cooler tones receding into the distance are applied with a brush. In a very different work (opposite above). Nature Profiles Opposite below. EARTH AND THE Bryan cut the profile of a city. made inside a book. Views from Velletri c. and etcher who lived most of his life in 17th-century Rome. which he used to unify his compositions. rapidly layering contours to shape place. and famed for. C L A U D E LORRAIN French classical landscape painter draftsman. atmosphere. it is the unique calligraphic signature of the place in which we stand.1638 85/8 x 121/2 in (219 x 320 mm) CLAUDE LORRAIN . transferred it to a scroll. Claude has used a fine nib to delineate segments of land as they recede into space. and we can imagine standing over his shoulder. or cityscape. and after tracing her captured line. his unsurpassed handling of light. and mood simultaneously. watching his hand and eye at work together. Drawing with a scalpel. a horizon line can trigger our recognition. rich. Clare Bryan took panoramic photographs of the English South Downs. and across to the right. Paler. She was inspired by her research of aerial plans of London and the story of an alien map butterfly (see caption). thick. and dry marks in the foreground appear to be made with his finger.202 ELEMENTS THE PROFILE OF A HORIZON is a line we immediately recognize and respond to.
progressively settlement (cropped more and more paper is drawn away to show the expansion of human page of an around the river. The edges of each here) fade into the solid paper unpopulated with a scalpel landscape. specialty bookbinder.5-m)scroll. On turning the pages of City." Cut line This is a small section of a preparatory 5-ft(1.203 Scalpel-drawn This book-bound drawing was inspired by the story of a foreign butterfly wrongly to Great Britain in 1912. and visiting professor at numerous art schools. then hunted destroyed. 2001 CLARE BRYAN C L A R E BRYAN 3ritish artist.The horizon was drawn with a City Landline 2003 271/2x 59 in (70 x 150 cm) scalpel. and digital print-based works reflect upon the histories and poetry of "left behind and in-between spaces. Her recent paper photographic. drawings Ideas of introduction Clare Bryan to research introduced down and led NATURE PROFILES and removal historical plans and aerial growth of London showing its population since Roman times. source workisilluminatedby standing its lower edge on a CLARE BRYAN . printmaker graphic designer.
leaving u n d e r t r a c e s of first thoughts. between your middle finger and thumb. LIFTING OUT This technique is a very easy method of drawing a crisp. fine. and offers a rich. R o u g h paper c a n b e loaded. tape. 1. Try itworking on big paper covering a wall. The tip snaps easily to renew a sharp edge if required. Beware of cheap brands selling dyed chalk as compressed charcoal. but some specialists stock compressed charcoal in delicate square sticks. they are all intended for fine work. and heavier than willow. Lines are achieved by d e p o s i t i n g particles in the grain o f paper. cylindrical. 7. harder line. MEDIUM W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 5. It does n o t erase easily. Charcoal lifts away from paper easily with the very light touch o f an eraser. CHARCOAL PENCIL: Types made by different manufacturers vary in quality and density of line. b e e c h . 162) or graphite (see p. a n d m o r e i n d e l i b l e by soaking it in linseed oil. a n d p l u m . B u n d l e s o f twigs were traditionally sealed into earthenware j a r s or wet clay and heated slowly and intensely in a fire or kiln. without touching the surface. In use. Alternatively. 3 A white line is lifted out by the tape. it looks gray and feels like chalk. Smooth paper accepts few particles. sticky side down. white line into the blackor grayness of willow charcoal. black finish. CHALK CHARCOAL: Technically. 6. you can p u r c h a s e m a c h i n e . this does not exist. SQUARE COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Not often sold. 3. b l a c k e r . The same as above. a piece of fresh bread. C h a r c o a l naturally glistens. or fingertip. . the heel o f y o u r h a n d . Boxes often contain a range of thicknesses to choose for different needs. It allows you greater precision in your mark-making than if you rub away the charcoal with an eraser. Artists have also used lime.204 E A R T H AND THE E L E M E N T S Charcoal CHARCOAL IS PRODUCED from wood baked slowly without exposure to air. resulting in a pale line. Hold it over your drawing RANGE AVAILABLE Charcoal (in its several forms shown here) is loved or loathed by the beginner to whom it is often recommended because it produces pleasing results quickly. it is compressed and m o l d e d at high pressure. A great find when available. so it chars b l a c k as o p p o s e d to igniting a n d turning to ash. blacker.54). COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Machine-made. Essentially. Willow is the most c o m m o n wood. THICK W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 2 Keep the tape above your drawing. It is also easily erased if the maker of the mark is not happy with the result. Not to be confused with square conte sticks (see p. 2. only a little thicker. a rag. resulting in a stick that gives a blacker. Use any fine-point pen or pencil (I used a ballpoint) to draw a firm line on the back of the Big pieces are perfect for very large-scale drawings—even larger than yourself. Slightly dull the tape's stickiness before use t o prevent it from lifting out more than you intend. 4. THIN WILLOW CHARCOAL: I used a piece like this to make the drawing opposite. vine.m a d e c o m p r e s s e d charcoal. As its name implies. maple. Then lift it away. feather. 1 Suspend a length of masking tape. It c a n be m a d e duller.
T O R T I L L O N : This is a tight roll of paper used to blend charcoal. graphite. sold in several widths. 10. Here we used a ballpoint. Here.212-13 were made by altering the pressure applied to the charcoal. 9. Use high quality (very sticky) to fix paper to walls and boards. pastels. Cotton swabs also work. Layers can be peeled away to refresh its surface. Different tones seen throughout the main drawing on pp. or any other dry media. MASKING TAPE: An invaluable resource. Lift out broader marks with a larger implement. Use cheaper (less sticky) for lifting out. PEN: Any fine pen or pencil can be used to draw on the back of masking tape when lifting out. CHARCOAL Lifting out This detail shows an example of where I used the lifting-out technique demonstrated opposite to draw flashes of lightning against rain clouds. 8 . I used a plastic eraser effectively on thinly applied charcoal.205 ERASING Thickly applied charcoal quickly o v e r c o m e s a plastic eraser A w a r m (soft and tacky) putty eraser is more effective. as is fresh (unbuttered!) bread. .
to contain each of your compositions. the more you encourage the viewer's imagination to join in and see. On p p . Landscape drawings are traditionally arranged in three parts: a detailed foreground. Pack several thick and thin sticks of willow charcoal. but is often less evocative and engaging. a reel of masking tape.9 9 we noted that in response to visual stimulus. This term simply means that as land rolls away into the distance. Successful drawings often only suggest the qualities of the scene without overdescribing them. The long view is hidden behind trees.206 EARTH AND THE ELEMENTS Landscapes TREES ALONE OFFER MARVELOUS shapes to draw. and a cushion in a plastic bag to sit on. 9 8 . and an abstract.212-13). Seeing tones . When you arrive. especially when making first excursions into aerial perspective. At its worst. pack your materials (as advised below) and set off for a local view or your nearest arboretum. MATERIALS In this first view there is only a foreground and middle distance. begin by marking out several small squares on your paper. a less distinct middle ground composed of shapes and textures. I relaxed my eyes out of focus to dissolve distracting detail into abstract patches of light and darkness. our brains search for nameable things and will perceive complete pictures from very little information. the less you describe. Then I drew the shape of the tonal patches I perceived. Excessive detail can be admired for its skill and achievement. To experiment with drawing landscapes and the use of charcoal. Don't worry if it is cloudy: clouds add drama and perspective and make good subjects in themselves (see pp. an eraser your drawing book or a board and paper fixative (or hairspray). They are also good markers of receding space. hazy distance. It is the visible effect of the atmosphere between where you stand and what you see in the distance. Ironically. details blur and colors grow paler and bluer. it results in flat planes of clutter.
Remember. Exploring the view Redrawing the scene above.207 LANDSCAPES In my second square I explored a simple view contrasting soft. rounded. and broke a view through the hedge into the distance with a dark sky threatening rain. full of information you can use to create what you want! Inventing drama . dark trees with bright. horizontal regions of grass. shadows. It is better to give distinctly more pictorial space to one or the other (see below). This composition turned out a little flat because I have an almost even quantity of earth and sky. I have invented drama with diagonals set against each other I tilted the earth. the trunk of a bare tree. your view is your inspiration.
shade out of the glare of the sun.164-65) and a wire violin (pp. and seeing what the real choice of subject is. so the paper is not made blinding and your hand cannot cast a shadow on your work.1 5 my first drawing of the whole view of the Tiber led me to see the real subject of the day. EARTH AND THE FINDING THE SUBJECT Finding a remarkable subject is even better when you can circumnavigate it in an arena of space. Similarly. This first drawing serves as a process of arrival. engine. taking with you your drawing book and pen. Circling a subject and drawing it from several views imprints on your memory a better understanding of its three-dimensional form. Building on earlier studies of structure in space using shoes (pp. For example. s e e k places in light After my first drawing. I usually begin by making an image of the whole view." . settling my concentration. on p p . observing it from several views so as to better understand it as a whole. which was the flow of water over rocks. England has embedded within it the decaying skeleton of a burned fishing boat. making the scene below led me to focus on the decaying boat opposite.104-05). The mud of the tidal shore in Rye.208 ELEMENTS Drawing in the Round WHEN DRAWING IN THE LANDSCAPE. and tiller still standing proud. I am then able to home in on what interests me most for further study. "Drawing in the round means to literally walk around your subject. bare ribs. your challenge now is to find a sculptural subject in the landscape. 2 1 4 .
character. W h e n you have found your subject. and the order and shape of its component parts. I looked more boldly at the planes and the dynamic of the sculptural craft My lines have become darker and more forceful as confidence in my understanding of the vessel grew. marking straight. careful lines to establish the skeleton that gives this wreck its distinct form. DRAWING IN THE 1 Here. unfussy lines. The outline ties a shape of darkness to the boat like a weight so that it becomes part of its form. and structure. I drew with quick. Overleaf: Decaying Boat 4 . w h e n t h e sea recedes. Each n e w drawing gives a different insight.209 SERIES OF STUDIES This stunning ghost o f a boat comes into v i e w t w i c e a day. I spent equal time looking at the subject and the paper. 3 This impression notes the angle of the broken boat. make a series o f drawings f r o m different positions. its overall balance. looking more at the boat than at the paper From this low position I have emphasized how the boat is swallowed in mud by outlining its shadow on the ground. ROUND 2 In this tail-end view.
L o o k i n g b a c k and forth from the heavens to firmly taped-down paper. I worked quickly to catch and weave the turbulent contrasts of rising wind and approaching water before the drawing could be washed away. .Cloudburst THIS STORM DRAWING. hot-pressed drawing p a p e r (see pp. was made with gentle but unhesitating s p e e d . m a d e on s m o o t h .20-21) using a thin stick of willow charcoal.
and rhythmic detail as it passed through the ancient gully of the city. I drew with a needle-fine fiber-tip pen. focusing on the river's eddies. since ancient times. black. shaping the city. On the pages of a small. pocket-sized notebook. pulse. .Notes of Force T H E GREAT FLOWING TIBER RIVER has cut through Rome.
I used a dip pen and waterproof India ink with brushed watercolor to draw the view.Mountains SITTING IN THE SHADE of a tree on the Greek island of Antiparos. The strong diagonal of the composition from bottom left to top right carries the eye through changes of height and focus from the foreground to the mountains beyond. .
strike the paper to find form. fictional language. and history. be brave and enjoy them. don't be timid. actions. for example. My own work is firmly centered in figuration. drawn sound. The fate of Old World thinking was finally sealed with the brutality of World War I. People are often scared by abstraction and see it as the enemy of figurative art. and Aboriginal art. Not everything we know has a physical form in the world.8 cm) A D O L F WOLFLI Abstraction is a direct.Abstract Lines T HE DEVELOPMENT OF W E S T E R N abstract art at the beginning of the 20th century significantly paralleled major changes in world thought. I begin every image by feeling its meaning. However. Outsider artists. sounds. belief. yet my kinship to abstraction is fundamental. or gestures. and emotion. Swirling. His drawings are collected and exhibited internationally and held by the Adolf Wolfli Foundation. direction. Perhaps in Western culture we bred this intuitive freedom out of ourselves in our insistence on complex figuration. ADOLF WOLFLI One of the greatest masters of Art Brut. many nonWestern cultures have highly sophisticated abstractions at the core of their art. Museum of Fine Arts. From another viewpoint. only rediscovered. spontaneous image-making. It also underpins and gives strength and unity to all figurative work. and have been making abstract drawings for centuries—Japanese calligraphy. opposite. First marks. expressive marks and shapes are at the core of natural. and independent means of communication. such as Adolf Wolfli. and it has always been with us. . liberating. Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape 1915 413/8 x 285/8 in (105 x 72. From one point of view. Many concepts and feelings can only be expressed through marks. Indian mandalas. writhing torrents of color. abstraction is not so easy to define. Internal workings of the mind were suddenly free to find a new language of expression. Afterward. An abstract mark is often a better conductor of a thought or feeling. Berne. He made thousands of drawings to chronicle his complex life. writer and composer who suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and was resident in the Waldau Aslyum near Berne. precisely because it does not have to represent a physical object. Artists were given a different tool—a line threaded directly from their subconscious to their hand—and with it they began to map a bold new landscape of marks and concepts that would dramatically and forever change the face of Western art. it is simply itself. The growing rise of Darwinian ideas coupled with Freudian and Marxist perspectives forced Western society to reconsider its origins and future. It is actually its foundation and its infrastructure. poet. and young children show us that abstract. which are essentially abstract. Wolfli was a Swiss draftsman. picturing a stabilized world was impossible and Modernism rode forth with vigor. It was not invented in the 20th century. and poetic myth roar and cascade within his tightly framed pages. As you approach the classes in this chapter. all pictorial representations are abstractions of reality.
salt. quoting ink marks on a page. and sensitivity with its thickness and pressure of touch. Lines. water. Twombly's mesmeric wax line worked over house paint is like a signature. He travels widely to research ancient sacred sites. and patient watching. Sometimes it smolders like a deep shadow. A line can be finished in a second. Five forged steel shapes. Below. as Twombly shows us opposite. or. Damp Japanese paper was laid over carefully arranged iron bars. akin to stones in a Zen garden. iron. sit in silent harmony. Changes paper. Mamoru Abe prepares an image that will appear through the chemistry of iron. silence. A Neolithic chalk tablet bears cut lines that were slowly carved. MAMORU ABE Japanese sculptor and installation artist.220 A B S T R A C T LINES Process and Harmony SOMETIMES A DRAWN LINE sings on the surface of its support. and plaster in galleries and landscapes. Iron rods in tone. Abe's physical drawing is a sculptural installation. and Assistant Professor of Fine A r t at Fukuoka University. This the paper rest within the amplifies framelike of the floor from the ceiling. scrolling across the canvas in an intimate crescendo. The Physical Space 1990 3 0 x 30 ft ( 9 1 4 x 9 1 4 cm) MAMORU ABE . staining redbrown lines into the white surface. and wood are also part of the work. rhythmically engaged with itself. brass. texture. ice. Abe works with materials such as soil. It can proclaim mood. forged steel. and temperature rim of floor space. it can keep reforming through the inherent repetition of a process. Moisture produced rust. and texture their bracing separation reaching between from beneath Pillars of the gallery are made part of this drawing by their inclusion in the paper. tone.
221 ANCIENT CARVINGS Many ancient cultures have made and left behind drawings and texts carved into stones or animal bone. burials. close to Stonehenge in Wiltshire. and sensuous drawing from painting.England. This example is one of two chalk tablets found in a Late-Neolithic pit. Precise lines suggest the use of a sharp flint The framed rectangle of this image is echoed in that of Abe's installation. At the 2001 Venice Biennale. such as the Rosetta stone. theories suggest astrological observations. emotive. and the worship of the sun and ancient gods. CY TWOMBLY . energetic. and Untitled 1970 Here we might seek to grasp letters in the turning of his line. Neolithic Chalk Tablet 3. evolved a raw.000-2. and American Indian petroglyphs (see p.241). Twombly has language works CY TWOMBLY Contemporary American artist who emerged through the 1950s New York art scene in the heyday of Abstract Expressionism and Action Painting. the Babylonian world map. The central pictorial space is also similarly cut and divided by the considered arrangement of straight lines.Thesite's purpose is unknown.Twombly was presented with a Golden Lion award for lifetime achievement. that challenges the separation of word from image.400BCE 21/4 x 21/4 in (58 x 58 mm) ARTIST UNKNOWN Language Over the course of fifty years. PROCESS AND HARMONY Cut lines Chalk carves easily. Many of his graffiti-like combine abstract gestures with statements.
Similarity in gritty texture suggests that here. Marks across the center appear to be made with his fingers. music manuscript requiring instrumentalists to improvise. Hugo. Texture Compare this drawing to Hugo's octopus on p. o r a pattern o f elements s o unified as a w h o l e t h e y c a n n o t b e e x p l a i n e d asa s u m o f parts. broke new ground in the 1950s with graphic scores now considered among the most extreme. said.28. he mixed graphite into ink. Gestalt. Gestalt o f an unnameable thing. His drawing writes the time of its own physical process by expressing the extreme concentration of the moment in which it was made. have striven to break down old pictorial and musical structures to explore new and unfettered modes of expression. Two Impressions Paper 1853-55 VICTOR HUGO Disk from a Cut-Out . here he anticipates abstract expressionism by 100 years. Here he appears t o have saturated the cut-out moon disks with gritty pigment. and participate in the composition. and lifted them away to leave impressions of watery planets and seas. o f t e n e x p r e s s e d in v i s u a l t e r m s . abstract. below. brushed night skies over them with ink then lifted the disks to reveal white moons. beautiful.28).222 ABSTRACT LINES Writing Time SINCE THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY. pressed them face down. Both abstract drawing and composition involve the perfect sequencing of sounds and marks against space and silence. Bussotti. opposite. and inventive of his time. too. The scores are also exhibited in galleries as visual art. interpret. drawing here can b e described in t e r m s o f a G e r m a n philosophical idea a b o u t is t h e i n s t a n t r e c o g n i t i o n t h e p o w e r o f m o m e n t . and let the drying meniscus deposit granules in linear drifts such as we would see in the satellite photographic mapping of rivers. "There is nothing like dream to create the future. A graphic score is a V I C T O R H U G O Hugo's abstract French novelist w h o m a d e m a n y drawings in m i x e d m e d i a ( s e e also p. abstract artists and composers unique." An innovator who never fails to surprise. Ink impressions When drawing nightscapes Hugo often laid paper disks in place of the moon. a configuration.
His later works become increasingly abstract. 70 in relation to Bussotti's clustered notes to the left of his rondo and open space to the right. Bussotti's first mature work.223 W R I T I N G TIME SYLVANO BUSSOTTI Italian avant-garde composer and principal 20thcentury exponent of the graphic score. Compare this work to that of Libeskind on p. Following the notes. This is a page from Due Voci. Circular Score for "Due Voci" c. Sound and rhythm This flickering rondo of sound written in pen on a hand-ruled stave can be heard in our imaginations as much as seen. we can feel their rhythm and easily attach sounds to them. 1958 SYLVANO BUSSOTTI . a far cry from any recognized musical notation.
O p p o s i t e . centuries. Germany. it is found in the regularity o f ordered lines or a pattern.224 A B S T R A C T LINES Chants and Prayers WHEN ABSTRACT LINES are organized in repetition. This takes a form in most cultures. social outcasts. Cell Floor With Torn Strips of Cloth 1894 MARIE LIEB . In the late 1 9 t h century. for e x a m p l e . Compositional rightness (see pp. and sufferers of psychiatric illnesses—who have always existed. Cloth is the simple instrument with which she has conducted and ordered her universe. an a n o n y m o u s w o m a n in the southeast Indian state o f Tamil Nadu m a k e s a ritual drawing o n the b r i c k courtyard o f h e r h o m e . making objects and images outside o f mainstream culture. In music it can be felt in the diversity of plainsong and African d r u m m i n g . It will protect the place from evil and make a pleasing invitation to good spirits. T h e s e p h o t o g r a p h s d o c u m e n t the meditative drawings o f two w o m e n living worlds apart in different countries. cultures. Marie Lieb w a s a psychiatric patient in the Heidelberg Asylum. d i p p i n g h e r fingers into a pot o f rice flour. MARIE LIEB Little is known of this w o m a n for w h o m the act of drawing was essential. they m a k e a visual a n d physical e c h o that t o u c h e s s o m e deep part of the human spirit. Visually. She tore c l o t h into strips a n d used these to draw patterns a n d symbols o n h e r cell floor. Torn cloth This is one of two published photographs showing Marie Leib's torn cloth strips significantly placed on her cell floor. and c i r c u m s t a n c e s .228-29) has been adjusted with each movement of the rags to draw a cosmos of balance and perfection. Lieb is one o f countless thousands of "Outsider" artists—diverse individuals including ordinary citizens.
or flowers are marked or arranged on the ground or on the walls of homes. women pride themselves on never repeating a design. Skills are handed down through generations and from friend to friend. cultural anthropologist.Theseare widely published in journals and are the subjects of international exhibitions. chalk. Huyler is the author of Painted Prayers. Painted Prayers UNDATED STEPHEN R HUYLER . Designs and motifs Rangoii (or mandalas) are ritual drawings made by many millions of women across rural India. lecturer on the subjects of Indian art and Indian women's identity. Materials such as rice flour. among others. Popular magazines feature new ideas each week and on special occasions there may be contests. and in places of worship and celebration. In daily practice. at the University of London and Ohio State University. and birds.225 STEPHEN P.000 images. Motifs are geometrical or based on plants.HUYLER Photographer art historian. lime. animals. and for over 30 years has traveled extensively through the Indian subcontinent creating an edited archive of 200.
Their energy can therefore be a purer expression of an idea or emotion. Untitled 2001 2001 153/4x 215/8 in ( 4 0 0 x 550 mm) BRIAN C A T L I N G . Catling's works made for international galleries and museums involve drawing as a tool in their development and making. Oval moons eclipse each other and oscillate between landforms and portraiture. and water-resistant layers of spray and enamel paint on thick paper. performance and installation artist. it is ruled and contained in one dimension by its interlocking ink-lined borders. gold paint and iridescent gouache mixed with water. structure. Klee's mathematical maze of thinly washed surface resonates with meticulous planning. Catling's torn paper shapes and shadows spill light out of their frame like a fractured mirror. With no depth of field. Oxford. figurative representation—that is. rocks or heads in a subdued atmosphere of dream. but similarities in mood. Mixed media This is a collage of torn white and gray tissue paper previously stained with ink. Catling's abstract drawings are usually made in series and in parallel to written poetry and sculptural installations. free from the direct imaging of known physical things. These two works present complex compositions with differing intensions and methods of making. They each find their pathways and equilibrium in atmosphere and suggestion.226 ABSTRACT LINES Compositions ABSTRACT DRAWINGS ARE LARGELY or entirely free from using the viewer's eye to track and unfold layers of meaning. BRIAN CATLING British sculptor poet. filmmaker Professor of Fine Art. Ruskin School. and Fellow of Linacre College. and choice of hues.
We can see some diagrammatic examples of this among the optical illusions on pp. ruler. watercolor.227 PAUL K L E E Swiss painter and sculptor (see also p.97-99. Klee also felt that a line represents the passing of time. Klee painted. drew. He explained his polyphonic painting as "a harmony of several color voices" searching for a visual parallel to music. Polyphon Gefasstes Weiss (White Framed Polyphonically) 1930 131/8x95/8 in (333 x 245 mm) Paul-Klee-Stiftung. Geometric harmony This is a work on paper made with a sharp ink pen. and brush. whereas tonal surfaces are perceived more immediately as a whole. philosophized.31). and might be read as active or passive. Kunstmuseum Bern PAUL KLEE . It is a geometric harmony of straight lines and tonally graded flat colors that by their arrangement draw our eyes inward to their white center. and wrote copiously about the natures and relationships of color and form. Line and surface Klee observed the visual capacity of lines to push or pull within an image.
a b u n c h of keys. they reach a perfect position. media. Feel for it when youdraw. This balance is what every artist and designer searches a n d feels for when making an image. regardless of style.Thisexercise will help you start. W h e n m o v i n g objects around in your yard. or degree of figuration." . There is a single m o m e n t w h e n all proportions. Set up a sheet of paper with a rectangle drawn on it. b u t e v e r y n o w a n d again you will hit on an arrangement w h i c h appears just. It is found in all great art and design. Take. or on a page. and ten straight sticks painted black. M a n y of their inter-relationships will be meaningless. "Whenall pictorial elements come together in pleasing and perfect balance. after being continuously adjusted. for instance. As y o u m o v e them around. the impression y o u receive from t h e m . and elements settle in definitive balance. s o m e will be more or less h a r m o n i o u s . or home. and an apple. and put them o n a tray. a glass. their impact. Seek it when looking at other artists' work and in your everyday environment. the late garden designer Russell Page explains. w i l l c h a n g e w i t h e v e r y r e a r r a n g e m e n t . there is a clear feeling when. "I have experimented endlessly with this idea. angles. they are just." SETTING UP Justness can be harmonious or deliberately discordant. It is also found in nature.228 ABSTRACT LINES Being "Just" A SENSE OF "JUST" (or rightness) is a difficult concept to explain. but an easy o n e to u n d e r s t a n d . culture. In his b o o k The Education of a Gardener.
In the final step (left) there is an even balance. which now becomes a tight frame. horizontals dominate the top. Feel for the rightness of their grouping and their relationships to surrounding spaces.229 WHERE TO START Take ten sticks of equal length. as shown here. W h e n the composition falls into place. A stick touching the rectangle links the composition to the frame. 2 3 In the step above. Here. Arrange them so they touch or cross in a series of intersecting balances. B E I N G "JUST" 1 Arrange your ten sticks in t w o groups of five.56-57)." Move the sticks to find alignments and imagined perspectives. Within a rectangle on a flat sheet of paper set about making a composition using no other rule than a sense of "just. Move the sticks out into the rectangle. horizontals dominate the lower area. suggesting a horizon. Remember the drawn rectangle is a part of the composition (see pp. . making the composition seem to float beneath. painted black. fix it with glue.
found or made items. glue. which is the shifting. Images and fragments torn from day-to-day life can be brought together to make a chorus of ideas and emotions.69 and Abe's installation on p.. stain and dry a sheet of tissue paper using blueink. colors. or even strident. scissors." overlapping placement of materials on a flat plane. Cut or torn layers and shapes. Collage offers the artist a liberating palette of SETTING UP This lesson in collage is a direct continuation of the compositional lines made in the previous class. or discordance. you start composing by adding or subtracting shapes and textures and using colors and tones to achieve the impression you want to m a k e — w h e t h e r dramatic or s u b d u e d . correction fluid or white paint.. Returning to Russell Page. harmonious.220.230 ABSTRACT LINES Collage H E R E W E EXPERIMENT with collage. feels "just" (see pp. To prepare for this lesson. they become a scaffold for the addition of further textures. This principal also applies to three-dimensional drawings such as Gaudi's work with wire and weights on p. ready-made depths and surfaces. hard or soft.Youwill also need spare white paper. an infinite range of voices and meaning. and tones. a compass. "My understanding is that every object [or shape] emanates—sends out vibrations beyond its physical body which are specific to itself. and black ink. colors and textures can be manipulated until their pictorial harmony. Once the ten painted black sticks are set and glued in place.228-29). he went on to say "." (Russell Page) .
228) in front of you. four circles of blue tissue paper. This can also give a sense of fragmentation or punctuation to the composition.231 WHAT TO DO Lay the final step of the previous lesson (p. Cut six small rectangles the same proportion as your whole image. correction fluid and ink marks add further dimensions. draw. Glue them in place once they feel "just" Translucent circular disks of tissue paper give color tone. COLLAGE 1 Regular-sized pieces of white paper are moved over the surface to disrupt the even lines. solidity. and with a compass and scissors. and shadow to thepicture. . then cut out. Obscuring the blue disks. they deepen pictorial space. In the last step (left).The single disk that is folded with its straight edge facing up appears heavier than those that are flat. 2 3 Torn white paper moved over the surface adds masks of rough-edged irregular volume.
is the practice of Zen through the calligraphic marks of a brush dipped in carbon ink.Zen Calligraphy HITSUZENDO. A MODERN JAPANESE meditative art form inspired by the teachings of Yamaoka Tesshu (1836-1888). emotion." [Tanchu Terayama. and expectation. . Zen Brushwork]. Hitsuzendo drawings aspire to "breathe with the energy and vitality of eternal life" achieved through "a state of no mind—beyond thought.
These vibrate against washes of shadow and pitch-black mass.Nocturnes IN THIS QUARTET of semi-abstract drawings made with India ink. Lines made with a steel dip pen take on a scratchy nervousness. I flicked spatters of ink and rubbed the paper with a wet and a dry brush to achieve these effects. discord is balanced against rhythm to create mood. .
or in smoke. for example. beasts. or strange. impossible. a collaboration between the two will ensure that your drawings glow with originality. England. When creating monsters. thousands of paintings. Perhaps the Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 1485 121/4 x 9 in (312 x 230 mm) MARTIN SCHONGAUER most important conclusion in this final chapter is to advise you to develop your skills in parallel with the joy of your unfolding imagination. which is to have eaten a nun—it inspired the drawing on p. look for images in the folds of clothing. Feeding this demand. sculptures. Fantasy is most successful when founded on strong and familiar visual logic. paradise. a human-animal mix that implies this could MARTIN SCHONGAUER German painter and engraver who settled to work in Colmar Alsace. The salvation of heaven and terrors of hell are represented equally—enough to make any sinner shudder. serpentine tails. We love our fear of the hybrid—ideally. Monsters take advantage of both. movie studios now brim with as many monsters as the visual art of the Medieval and Renaissance Church. wings. aliens. angels. and the Alien trilogy. . To learn to flex your imagination. Reading the place name I momentarily glimpsed an alternative meaning. Star Wars. we select details of animals farthest from ourselves and that are widely thought disturbing—reptilian and insect features. which were widely distributed and influential in his time. and stained-glass windows deliver powerful visual sermons to the once-illiterate populace. Here. a Catherine wheel of drawn sparks spiraling around the quietly resolute saint. We then add substances we dislike: unidentified fluids. Be inspired by the irrational comedy of word association or puns. Humans are equally troubled by the imperceptibly small and the enormous. all of which originated as hundreds of drawings. Images we are now surrounded by bear testimony to the power and resourcefulness of their collective imagination. in the cracks of walls. and deep fur—and we alter their scale.Gods and Monsters OUR SACRED AND SECULAR need to visualize demons. Lord of the Rings. Schongauer is best known for his prints. Neither should be slave or master. happen to us. In the Christian churches of Europe. We watch with captivated pleasure movies such as The Fly. our eye circulates around a flutter of leather and scaly wings. Depictions of God or of gods in the contexts of daily life. and damnation are found in most world faiths. scales. our literate and more secular Western society still hungers for another world and to ravenously indulge its fascination for the marvelous. I was on a train passing through Nuneaton. feathers. For example. Today. Throughout this book images are presented to excite and surprise and drawing classes created to increase your confidence.247. and the faces of God have for centuries given artists a feast for the extremes of their imagination.
plain wall suggests a blinkered view of nothing. and church murals. Francisco de Goya was a master of borrowing.240 GODS AND M O N S T E R S Marks of Influence marking the influence of one artist upon another. his lover a dog. crammed tightly at his desk. such asinine behavior can be hereditary. rushing. reading from a book of asses. Paul Thomas's studies of Picasso and Twombly can be traced directly.220. hags. below. Los Caprichos. Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 1799 81/2 x 6 in (218 x 154 mm) FRANCISCO DE GOYA . Compare his dark. and exposed the superstitions. They depict as if by lamplight the devil and witches. This continuity enriches the making of art and our heritage. Near the end of his life he made his "Black Paintings" on the walls of his home. Pictorially. and men clubbing each other to death. a Shoshone seeking guidance and power meditates at the sacred site of a petroglyph. In this softer aquatint he poses for his portrait Textured background The aquatint process has been used to great effect in making a gritty toned background. to Picasso's similarly tight. The high. barren land rising like MYRIAD CHAINS RUN THROUGH ART HISTORY. portraits. F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A Spanish court painter printmaker and draftsman. Visions experienced in front of the drawing sometimes instruct the making of a new one.30. Other drawn versions of this image are more savage and frightening. vanity. noisy seascape on p. Opposite below. The title "And So Was His Grandfather" adds that should we not already know. The well-dressed mule is cumbersome. whose impassioned work begins with light tapestry cartoons. Goya's plainly textured gray background pushes back the space behind the illuminated simply subject. He would be graceless if he stood. and follies of court through copious graphic works including his best-known prints. it allows the mule to stand forward. In this ass. Many students leave white backgrounds in their work. which can swamp the subject Here. Saturn devouring his son. a wave to join Achilles' chase of Hector. Goya later recorded the horrors of Napoleonic occupation. deranged masses. Aquatint Goya has drawn a learned man as an ass. This act defines the vision and continues the line of spirit guides. we see the international icon of stupidity. Violent white marks symbolizing Achilles' rage resonate with the energy of Twombly's script on p. quoting great paintings and popular culture to add cunning twists to his satires. Opposite.
Thomas conducts his explorations in the mine of Greek and Roman mythology. Parallel lines within the body of the figure are likely to denote power. It was made with a sharp implement. Wyoming. or of the water Chipped image This is a sacred creature of the sky chipped onto rock at Dinwoody Lake. A vivid spectrum of energized graphite marks and a masterly composition give this drawing vitality and speed. Wind River Reservation. meaning "place of power. Simple wall stones cleverly state their cold solidity while also fading from our attention as the scene roars by. Achilles Chases Hector 1996 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) PAUL THOMAS SHOSHONE PETROGLYPH The Shoshone people of Wyoming name petroglyph sites Poha Kahni. by a supplicant in a trance of meditation. White marks like flashes of light are cut though graphite with an eraser to reveal the paper beneath. perhaps a stone." Each sacred image drawn into rock belongs to one of three realms in the Shoshone world: the realm of the sky. and personal and social struggles. Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range UNDATED ARTIST UNKNOWN . Graphite marks Here Achilles chases Hector around the walls of Troy before killing him.241 MARKS OF INFLUENCE PAUL T H O M A S British contemporary artist whose epic graphic work questions and reflects upon issues of European identity. of the earth. values. ideals.
They float toward us like a horrid visitation. below left. and scuttle over all known reality. we see parallel slanting pale marks that might have been made with fresh bread—a very effective eraser used before the wide availability of rubber or plastic. Redon explored the darker side of the human imagination through symbols and mysticism.204-05 will enable you to produce a similar effect of white lines shining out of dark charcoal. We may feel safe so long as the eye looks heavenward. ODILON REDON French painter draftsman. Here we see how he evolved their injuries into new limbs and warped proportions. T H E EXPLORATION AND DEPICTION Hauntings Grandville has drawn a scurrying zoo of half-known demons and animals that appear to have been stolen from the glass eye of the microscope. GODS AND Erasure In this charcoal drawing. Lifting out Fine strings of the hot-air balloon appear dark against the sky and light against the balloon. Our subconscious can be drawn with pleasure and ease. crawl. 115. Children are also delighted to invent a monster or ghoul. Compare worked textures throughout the whole of this image to those found throughout Anita Taylor's charcoal drawing on p. to the right of the balloon. If it were to turn and stare this way.242 MONSTERS of the unknown is a classical and constant occupation for the artist. Redon's eyeball balloon rises up. lifting its cranial passenger over a seascape of repose.and 16th-century Holland. the shock would be extreme. The monsters of Bosch grew from his observations of beggars going about their trade in 15th. which sometimes—half-dressed and carrying a familiar trophy— stride. graphic artist. as he did the grass. Redon lifted them out with some sort of eraser. The Eye Like a Strange Mounts Balloon 165/8 x131/8in (422 x 332 mm) ODILON REDON 1882 Toward Infinity . the writers Joris-Karl Huysmans and Stephane Mallarme. H e was influenced by his friends. Techniques demonstrated on pp. and writer In contrast t o the light and visual accent of contemporary Impressionism.
and Ship of Fools. Quill and ink This typical Bosch monster is a quill drawing in bistre ink The phrasing of light and contour here is masterly. Light shines from the right. Garden of Earthly Delights. Two Monsters UNDATED 45/8 x61/2in (117 x 163 mm) HIERONYMUS BOSCH . Smiling. Les Animaux (1840).243 J E A N I G N A C E ISIDORE GERARD ("GRANDVILLE") French graphic artist and political satirist. grimacing. A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects c. Most of his work is in the Prado Museum. include The Haywain. Last Judgment. The quality of the line is therefore uniform throughout. sucker-faced creatures dash and trundle toward it They are drawn solidly to emphasize their earthbound weight. Comic little headbands of waving hair express more hysteria than fear. HAUNTINGS Engraving This is an engraving made so that Grandville's original drawing could be reproduced. His other major works include Metamorphoses du Jour (1828). which is still available today. teeming with the exhilaration of unrestrained fantasy. 1840 61/8 x41/2in ( 1 5 5 x 1 1 5 mm) GRANDVILLE HIERONYMUS BOSCH Dutch painter Bosch's highly detailed iconographic religious panel paintings. Madrid. This image is from one of Grandville's best-known publications. and he illustrated the Fables of La Fontaine and Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe.
architect. David. Dragon 1522 10 x 133/8 in ( 2 5 4 x 3 3 8 m m ) MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI . hatched lines. pinnacled. Opposite.244 GODS AND MONSTERS Convolutions THESE CONVOLUTED DRAWINGS were made almost 5 0 0 years apart. St Peter's square. and mist-swathed land. Scaly. and dog. as we might expect. she formed a series of ghostly pale. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI Florentine painter sculptor. and play with its perfection and meaning. Chalk and ink A quill dipped in brown ink was worked over black chalk on this reused sheet. gamboling copulations. and marble sculptures including Pieto. However. muscular tension is carved out of the paper using layered. A snake eating its own tail is a universal image of the eternal and continuous. sometimes artists purposefully tie a knot in the configuration to disturb. the dome of the Vatican. lion. Grimes found the genesis of her beast not among animals. a stunning hybrid of a swan. phrased over the contours of form and bridging darker areas of shadow. poet. topple. and engineer Among Michelangelo's great works are the painted ceiling and altar wall of the Sistine Chapel. wraps and coils its lithe body ready to strike or whimper at a touch. In her studio. His entire drawing wrestles and weaves the viewer's eye into its retracting folds. snake. remembering the cavernous. Michelangelo's dragon. and dying slaves. below. Grimes' delicately cavorting figures dive into and consume each other. Two previously drawn faces become humorous antagonists to the beast. but in the seductive landscape of Leonardo da Vinci's oil painting Madonna of the Rocks. They share between them the pleasures of inventing a hybrid beast.
and the Camberwell and Slade Schools of Fine Art. It is one of a series of fragile earth figures inspired by rocks. her under heavy here. details evolved slowly using a drier brush. Grimes exhibits internationally and features in the collections of the New York Public Library and the Victoria and Albert Museum. How Clever of God #84 2002 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) O O N A GRIMES . London. each one iridescent and crumbly like a weathered while oyster. Oxford. The image formed directly without first making a pencil outline. The large space around figure has been cropped Grimes drawings to flatten presses them. London. boards finished paper.245 CONVOLUTIONS O O N A GRIMES British contemporary artist and professor of printmaking at the Ruskin School. Ink-wash delicately gouache (smooth) and gouache brushed drawing on This is a and was hot-pressed Shadows The dark shadow of the Other the ink-wash earth was made with a brushstroke of ink laid into wet paper.
needle-sharp center of kolinsky red sable hair. materials. and has a fine tip for detailed work. liners. 1.Theyhold plenty of ink and make continuous. S Y N T H E T I C . all perfect for drawing and. flowing. POINTED SQUIRREL-HAIR MOP: With a synthetic quill ferrule and extra high inkholding capacity.H A I R RIGGER: Made with long synthetic hair for fine-point work It has a good ink-holding capacity and is slightly more resilient than sable hair with more "snap. washes. Some used by master calligraphers are 2-3 in (5-8 cm) in diameter 11. This brush has a broad wash capability and can achieve a very wide range of marks. and texture. the very opposite of pencil or silver point. L A R G E R S Y N T H E T I C . It is capable of very fine pointing. SYNTHETIC-HAIR BRUSH: Bound in a synthetic ferrule with good inkholding capacity and good spring and control. ideally suited to drawing. How you care for your brushes will determine how long they last. The living marks of a wet. which holds long sable hair This brush holds large amounts of ink for long lines and points well for detailed work. and never leave them standing on their tip in a jar of water. 10. The brushes shown here are a mixture of This is a selection of riggers. Always clean them thoroughly. Some are bold. LARGER JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with natural hair held in a plastic ferrule on a bamboo handle. SABLE-HAIR RIGGER: Made with very long kolinsky sable hairs. it has good wash capabilities. Suitable for wash techniques but also capable of very fine detail. SQUIRREL-HAIR S W O R D LINER:This brush has a maximum ink-holding capacity and an extremely fine and flexible point 8. making rt ideally suited to Japanese painting and small-scale calligraphy. with a fine point for delicate work 4. 12. and wrist into a fluid and soft touch. JAPANESE PAINTING BRUSH: Made with natural hair. ink-laden tip allow an expression that is beyond the linear. M T RA S AEIL . SMALL JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with sable hair. and hold prodigious weights of ink or paint. 13. dense. return them to their pointed shape. shape. and very fine lines.H A I R LINER: Very responsive oriental-style liner This to the touch. SYNTHETIC-HAIR S W O R D LINER: A lining brush with high ink-holding capacity and a fine point. Brushes vary in size. it has good inkholding capacity and is very flexible. this brush has a soft drawing tip and small ink-holding capacity. Soaps purchased from good art supply stores will gently cleanse particles of pigment that become trapped in the hairs or ferrule. SABLE-HAIR LINER: Made with ordinary sable hair surrounding an extralong. fingers. others are as fine as a whisker with a gentle touch. 3. Shorter brushes designed for other purposes run out of ink more quickly. thicknesses." 6. and writers. and effects. Slightly less flexible than the squirrel-hair sword liner 9.246 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brushes T H E BRUSH IS A VOLUPTUOUS and delicate weights. P O I N T E D T R A D I T I O N A L WRITER: The ferrule is made from a small duck quill. drawing tool extending the arm. between them. giving a variety of lines. It has exceptional painting characteristics. SYNTHETIC-HAIR LINER: This brush gives a medium line and is firm with a spring to the touch. It is still relatively small in the total range of Japanese brushes. 7. 2. This design supplies the fine tip with a long continuity of ink 5.
247 BRUSHES .
splashes. and to make pools and stains o n the page. Here I drew with a soft Japanese painting brush (see pp. and spatters. the speed of the s t r o k e . I had left the end of the ink block in the water overnight to make it easier to dissolve.248 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brush Marks A S I N G L E BRUSH will m a k e an e n o r m o u s range of m a r k s depending u p o n the width. and above all w h e t h e r the b r u s h is saturated with pigment or relatively dry.246-47). It also depends on the angle at w h i c h it is held.) I . the texture and a b s o r b e n c y of the paper ( w h i c h m a y be d a m p or dry). unglazed earthenware dish. length. w i t h m y face close. SETTING UP Blowing spots T h e s e t h r e e s p i d e r y c r e a t u r e s (above right and below) w e r e m a d e by d r o p p i n g s p o t s o f ink f r o m a b r u s h o n t o t h e p a g e and. and type of its hairs. softness. the degree of pressure applied. b l o w i n g h a r d o n t h e m several t i m e s t o disperse t h e ink ( c l o s e y o u r eyes if y o u t r y this. A single brush has almost balletic potential to draw fine or undulating lines and curves.35) into two tablespoons of water in a shallow. I rubbed a block of Chinese ink (see p.
b l e e d i n g f r o m strokes b e l o w left. BRUSH MARKS Wet and dry strokes A m o n g these concentrated drawings ink made into with the same w a t e r y lines. t h e effects of the b r u s h r u n n i n g o u t o f ink. a n d t h e w a y it d i s t r i b u t e s w h e n t h e b r u s h is d a b b e d o n its s i d e . a n d b r u s h . .249 Gritty texture T h e details o f t h e largest creatures b e l o w and opposite s h o w the granular texture of Chinese b l o c k ink. w e see fine lines and s p o t s .
I borrowed small and fragile specimens from the University Museum of Natural History.Monsters THESE LITTLE CREATURES o f i n k and i n v e n t i o n were b o r n out of animal and bird studies. . until we look again. Oxford. and used their detail to draw new creatures that might at first seem familiar.
Here. I found relationships between all four paintings in terms of shapes. formal composition. With further research. Among his "Black Paintings" in the Prado Museum. and narrative twists. Through studying and drawing these great paintings I have discovered that they are based on a pair of similarly long. showing us that gallery study is not just for the student and beginner. thin works made by Bartolome Murillo in Seville about 120 years earlier. Goya's witches have been literally drawn and evolved out of the shapes of Murillo's prophet and pilgrims. two of my own drawings show you how Goya's devil (below) is based on the shape of Murillo's boy on a horse (top right). thin works titled The Witches' Sabbath and The Procession of St.Goya's Monsters W I T H CUNNING BRILLIANCE. . They are a pair and hang opposite each other. are two long. Isidore. Goya often invented his monsters out of characters seen in other painters' works. Madrid.
little comments on politeness and sexual politics.Consumed THIS IS A SERIES OF CARTOONS I m a d e s o m e years ago. . Sometimes drawings come out of nowhere and surprise even the artist. drawn rapidly and with great joy.
c e n t u r y painting m o v e m e n t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e use o f b o l d . It is p u t o n a Body color See Gouache. m e a n i n g " t o stick" Dry media M e d i a t h a t a r e n o t w e t o r o i l y — f o r e x a m p l e . C o p p e r p l a t e engravings w e r e widely used t o r e p r o d u c e images b e f o r e p h o t o g r a p h y . T h e m o v e m e n t was started by a g r o u p o f French artists including H e n r i Matisse. Aerial perspective The effect of the a t m o s p h e r e o v e r distance as it lightens t o n e s a n d cools c o l o r s progressively t o w a r d t h e horizon. s u c h as a s c r e e n . Fauvism A n early 2 0 t h . a r e r o l l e d t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders. Blotting T h e use o f a b s o r b e n t m a t e r i a l t o lift a w a y excess liquid. Field In a t w o ." It w a s first given t o t o n a l paintings m a d e in o n e c o l o r — s e e Grisaille. T h e name " n o t " simply refers t o t h e fact t h a t t h e cylinders are n o t h o t in t e m p e r a t u r e .256 GLOSSARY Glossary Accidental drawing Random. Chiaroscuro A 1 7 t h . chance mark-making.The plate is t h e n r o l l e d w i t h ink a n d polished with a rag. s u c h as a d r a w i n g o r painting. W o r d s o r symbols are Cold-pressed papers P a p e r manufactured with a "not" o r " r o u g h " surface. in w h i c h parts o f an image are depicted v e r y brightly and dramatically against d a r k n e s s . and readymade objects arranged and stuck o n t o a flat surface. A g e n e r a l t e r m t h a t describes t h e various processes o f c u t t i n g a design i n t o a plate o r b l o c k o f m e t a l o r w o o d . F r o m t h e G r e e k kallos. 2. linseed oil o r egg y o l k Caricature A representation Contour line A line t h a t f o l l o w s t h e s h a p e o f a surface. In t h e Far East calligraphy is a highly r e s p e c t e d a r t f o r m .m e d i a d r a w i n g . t h e l i g h t is b e h i n d h i m o r her. Calligraphy Beautiful h a n d w r i t i n g . A f u l l . in w h i c h t h e subject's distinctive features o r peculiarities are deliberately exaggerated f o r c o m i c o r g r o t e s q u e effect. for example. F r o m t h e French v e r b coller. A h u m o r o u s d r a w i n g o r parody. Bleed T h e e f f e c t o f t w o w e t colors running into one another o r o n e color applied t o a w e t surface a n d a l l o w e d t o d i s p e r s e . T h e prints t a k e n from t h e s e plates o r blocks. n e w s p a p e r cuttings. Air brush A mechanical. Deckle edge T h e i r r e g u l a r e d g e o f a s h e e t o f m o l d . A l s o called m u s e u m g r a d e . A l s o c a l l e d t h e h o r i z o n line. See also Hotpressed papers. tapestry. p r i n t i n g press face up. w h e n a p e r s o n is p a i n t e d standing a g a i n s t a w i n d o w . L a t e r it c a m e t o m e a n h i g h l y c o n t r a s t e d light effects. Also called accelerated perspective. Camera lucida A n optical device t h a t p r o j e c t s an image o f an o b j e c t o n t o a plain s u r f a c e so t h a t it can be traced. D a m p p a p e r is laid o n t o p . A i r b r u s h e s are u s e d in t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c o m i c s . Acid-free paper P a p e r w i t h a neutral p H t h a t will n o t darken o r d e t e r i o r a t e excessively w i t h age. as o p p o s e d t o t h e s t r a i g h t e d g e o f a sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has b e e n machine-trimmed. t h e field is t h e a p p a r e n t a n d b e l i e v a b l e space inside t h e p i c t u r e . Engraving 1. a n d attaches t h e m t o t h e s u p p o r t — f o r example. w h e n v i e w e d f r o m a specified point. Camera obscura A d a r k e n e d c h a m b e r i n t o w h i c h an i m a g e o f w h a t is o u t s i d e is received t h r o u g h a small o p e n i n g o r lens a n d f o c u s e d in natural c o l o r o n a facing surface. t o g e t h e r w i t h a t h i c k felt b l a n k e t T h e w h o l e s a n d w i c h o f l a y e r s is t h e n railed t h r o u g h t h e press t o m a k e a p r i n t D r y p o i n t is a very portable and immediate m e t h o d o f printmaking. Anamorphic distortion Stretching an i m a g e across a p i c t u r e surface so t h a t it can o n l y b e u n d e r s t o o d . pastel. Fixative Liquid acrylic resin a n d l a c q u e r t h i n n e r usually a p p l i e d as a n a e r o s o l s p r a y m i s t t o t h e surface o f a d r y . T h e b l a n k e t s g i v e t h e p a p e r its rough texture o r "tooth." " N o t " p r e s s e d p a p e r is r o l l e d a s e c o n d t i m e w i t h o u t blankets t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders t o p r o d u c e a s m o o t h e r b u t still slightly t e x t u r e d s u r f a c e . Cartoon 1. p r a c t i c e d meditatively w i t h a brush. so t h a t ink r e m a i n s o n l y in t h e g r o o v e s o f s c r a t c h e d lines. Contre jour A F r e n c h t e r m m e a n i n g " a g a i n s t day. Collage C o l l e c t e d materials such as c o l o r e d p a p e r s . Erasure T h e a c t o f r e m o v i n g a n i m a g e f r o m a surface. Ferrule T h e s h o r t m e t a l t u b e t h a t s u r r o u n d s a n d g n p s t h e hairs o f a p a i n t b r u s h a n d fixes t h e m t o t h e brush handle. m e a n i n g "beauty". 2. R e m b r a n d t is a great master o f chiaroscuro. S o m e t i m e s f e r r u l e s a r e m a d e o f plastic o r o t h e r materials.s i z e d r a w i n g m a d e for t h e purpose o f transferring a design t o a painting. A l s o called r i n g l e t shading. p h o t o g r a p h s . U s e d as a c o r r e c t i n g device o r pictorial game. A p o t e n t i a l l y h a r s h m e t h o d o f p r o d u c i n g t o n e s in a d r a w i n g . o r will o n l y a p p e a r n o r m a l .d i m e n s i o n a l i m a g e . Binder A substance t h a t holds particles o f p i g m e n t t o g e t h e r in a paint f o r m u l a t i o n . a n d given t h e n a m e Sho. A " s h a l l o w d e p t h o f field" m e a n s t h e p i c t u r e appears t o have only a shallow s p a c e inside i t Diffuse T o s o f t e n o r m a k e less brilliant. R o u g h p a p e r is m a d e b e t w e e n t w o blankets t h a t . written with a broad-nibbed pen o r brush." D e s c r i b e s a p a i n t i n g in w h i c h t h e light s o u r c e is b e h i n d t h e s u b j e c t F o r e x a m p l e . o f t e n d i s t o r t e d forms and vivid colors. Eye level T h e i m a g i n a r y h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e a t t h e s a m e h e i g h t as t h e a v e r a g e p e r s o n ' s eyes. a n d g r a p h i t e .c e n t u r y Italian t e r m m e a n i n g "clear-obscure. Crosshatching Parallel lines d r a w n across o n e a n o t h e r at right angles. charcoal. Bracelet shading C u r v e d parallel lines t h a t f o l l o w t h e c o n t o u r s o f f o r m . pressurized t o o l used f o r spraying fine mists o f s m o o t h c o l o r P i g m e n t is d e l i v e r e d b y a j e t o f air n o t t h e bristles o f a brush. Blending M e r g i n g t w o o r m o r e neighboring colors o r tones t o g e t h e r using a tortillon. usually at a n a c u t e angle t o t h e s u r f a c e . o r o t h e r (usually large) w o r k — s e e Pouncing. Composition T h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e p a r t s o f an i m a g e t o m a k e u p the whole. In t h e W e s t p e n calligraphy is u s e d t o c r e a t e f o r m a l a n d d e c o r a t i v e t e x t s . It can also seal a silver p o i n t d r a w i n g t o p r e v e n t t h e oxidization (browning) o f t h e Drypoint A d r a w i n g is s c r a t c h e d directly o n t o a m e t a l plate w i t h a m e t a l t o o l h e l d like apen. Conservation grade D e s c r i b e s a range o f materials t h a t d o n o t d e c a y and cannot be broken d o w n by insects. r a t h e r t h a n r e c o r d e d o n a film o r plate. Fixative lightly glues t h e d r a w i n g t o t h e surface o f t h e p a p e r t o p r e v e n t smudging.m a d e paper.
materials that produce marks on a surface. pastel. or even a beam of light. to describe a surface to which paint will adhere readily. . Medium A generic term for art Key A painting is said to be "high key" when the colors and tones are bright and "low key" when they are dark or somber The term is also used Gouache Opaque watercolor Also called body color. purpose. Artists can paint freely over dry masking fluid. A point of interest in a drawing. Foreshortening A method of depicting an object at an angle to the surface of the picture. Lightfast A term confirming that pigment in the product will not fade with exposure to light. the finely ground particles of plant. white. glossy. Usually an academic drawing observed from life.257 metal line. Negative space The space between things. or synthetic material that are suspended in a medium to constitute paint." A piece of paper is placed on top of an object or rough surface. Impressing Stamping or printing. Padua. Picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. and masking off areas of a drawing that the artist wishes to keep untouched by media applied above or beside the tape. then rubbed over carefully but vigorously with a crayon. Ground A wet solution usually of gouache or gesso (chalk and animal glue) brushed onto paper board. of the ingredients in inks and watercolors.while secretion of the acacia tree. 2. and gray drawing. This may be disregarded in real life. Fugitive A term given to a pigment that it is not stable. format" (abbreviated to "portrait"). This method incorporates the excitement of accidental and unpredicted marks. F o r m The outer surface of a three-dimensional object. ink. which give it a smooth surface (as opposed to cold-pressed paper. sticky paper tape. Grisaille is occasionally seen in church stained-glass windows. It can be used with any wet media to isolate or protect parts of an image from further Optical blending See Pointillism. multiH u e A term for a color. Masking fluid Clear or opaque latex fluid developed for watercolor painting. used for fixing paper to walls and boards. so that (using vanishing point perspective) the object appears to change shape and become narrower or smaller as it recedes. with the area beneath remaining unaffected. Monoprinting A direct method of printing in which wet medium (water-. The ink attaches to the oil-based image and is repelled by the wet stone. and translucent paper—a delicate material used in collage. Hairspray is an effective and inexpensive alternative. the surface of the stone is made wet before being rolled with a thin film of oilbased printing ink. Hatching (cross-) See Crosshatching.Theground provides a particular color or texture beneath the image.The paper then bears a crayon impression or copy of the surface that was underneath it A number of Surrealists. Hot-pressed papers (HP) Paper made using hot cylinders. but in picture-making it is as important as the objects/subjects themselves. including Max Ernst used frottage in their work. but each print will be unique. cadmium yellow hue. and orientation of the image. F o r m a t T h e size. or for wrapping and protecting a finished piece of work. to give the illusion of depth and distance. mineral. A small image might be described as small format Horizontal images are often said to be "landscape format" (abbreviated G u m arabic The natural to"landscape"). Pointillism A technique of using points or dots of pure color in such a way that when the picture is viewed from a distance they react Masking tape Invaluable.The degree to which detail is defined. Papercut A type of collage in which flat sheets of paper are cut into an image. The surface can be reloaded or redrawn with more medium. aiming to represent facts rather than an interpretation of the subject. upright images are called "portrait which is used as a binding agent in many liquid media. shape. Alternatively. or plastic surface. graphite. Grisaille A painting in gray or a grayish color Often made by students as a tonal exercise. It improves the bonding properties Frottage A French term meaning "rubbing. It is then peeled away. Plumb line A line from which a weight is suspended in order to determine verticality or depth. Also used by artists' materials manufacturers to indicate the use of a substitute pigment—for example. Gamut A complete range or extent Glassine A type of thin. Objective drawing Refers to the concept of objectivity. enabling them to stick to paper It also helps to maintain a stable dispersion of pigment particles in water as the film of a wash dries. Also refers to an additive used to control the application properties of a color Golden Section A proportion in which a straight line or rectangle is divided into two unequal parts in such a way that the ratio of the smaller part to the greater part is the same as that of the greater part to the whole. and that will "escape" or change over time. and it has a history in enamel work. or a drawing made in any single color GLOSSARY Linear perspective A form of perspective in which parallel lines are represented as converging. After several intervening processes. oil-. it is the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work Pigment Any substance used as a coloring agent—for example. rock. Dark tones are laid down first then an eraser or masking tape is used to lift away particles of the drawing media to reveal the lightness of the paper beneath. which has a rough surface). Lithography A method of printmaking in which a drawing or painting is made directly onto a smooth slab of particular limestone or a metal plate using an oilbased crayon or ink. Giotto's Virtues and Vices in the Arena Chapel. This effect emulates what we see in real life. Paper is then pressed against the stone to take a print. are painted in grisaille and appear to be made of stone. Rubens used grisaille to paint small images for engravers. glass. Focus 1 . and is also used as a size. It is a strong adhesive. oil-based printing ink is rolled evenly onto a smooth metal. work. lifting out charcoal and other dry media. or a family of colors. and by artists representing stone sculptures in a painting. Monochrome Usually refers to a black. or canvas and allowed to dry before an image is drawn or painted. or spirit-based) is applied to a surface that is then pressed onto paper and removed to leave a print. Lifting out A method of creating highlights and mid-tones in a drymedia drawing (such as charcoal or graphite). Paper is laid on top and a rapid drawing is made on the back of it The paper lifts away to reveal the image on its other side. or can be otherwise used to create an image—for example.
Technicaldrawing has been example. evolved by engineers and architects for the purpose of conveying W a t e r c o l o r A painting accurate structural information. Tone A degree of lightness or darkness. a sheet of paper is placed beneath and pinpricks are Silhouette A flat. Still life A picture composed of inanimate objects such as bowls. in order to flick the pigment onto the image surface. in tone running from black to white or vice versa. such as an inscribed sheet of metal. acrylic. Artists' prints are normally made in multiple. whose pinpricks creates a "connect-thepersonal pastime was making dots" replica of the image on the cut-out portraits. or pen. fruit.Thedrawing is removed. W e t media Any liquid media— for example. orchids. pointed instrument used for marking or engraving. or point on which parallel lines converge to give the impression of receding space. Named paper in place. tight. glasses. . Subjective drawing A drawing that expresses the personal view and interpretation of the artist An invented image. Shade A that is color mixed (or toned) with black Shading A lay term for adding tone to a drawing. usually diluted with water and applied with a brush. Vanishing point In linear perspective. Pouncing If a large drawing or design (called a cartoon) is to be Shadow Darkness cast by the transferred to a surface such as a obscuring of light. Serigraphy Silk-screen printing. or watercolor paint. sometimes drawn from a and leaving only the pricked sheet of shadow cast on a wall. Zen paintings usually depict scenes of nature and plants such as bamboo. plaster. The crude material is called oleoresin. Volume The amount of space occupied by an object or an area of space in itself. Printmaking The act of making a picture." Applied to the blurring or softening of sharp outlines by the subtle and gradual blending of one tone into another Sgraffito A technique of scratching or cutting through a surface of paint. and chrysanthemum—which in Chinese tradition are called "The Four Gentlemen. A term borrowed from the theater. Size A weak glue used for filling the porous surface of wood or canvas in order to seal it. Zen brushwork This is an oriental meditative art form originating in China and practised for many centuries in Japan. compound of water-soluble pigment. "Spirits" or "oil" of turpentine refer to the volatile portion used by artists to thin or dilute oil-based paint. Turpentine A colorless solvent distilled from the resinous sap of pine trees. Underdrawing A pale preliminary drawing made prior to adding layers of another medium such as oil paint or watercolor Value The extent to which a color reflects or transmits light This is the equivalent of tone in a black and white image. nature of watercolor allows the white surface of the paper to Tonal scale A scale of gradations shine through. or any physical object that can be stamped or pressed onto a surface to leave an impression. cut-out profile made along every outline of the usually made in black paper image. Stylus A sharp. commonly referred to as the lead. and paperweights.258 GLOSSARY together optically. The translucent Tint A color mixed with white. giving it a brilliance. plum blossom. Support The structure on which an image is made—for example. a tightly folded piece of cotton batting can be used for the same effect. watercolor." Materials for Zen brushwork include round brushes of varied size. Zen A school of Mahayana Buddhism that asserts that enlightenment can come through meditation and intuition rather than faith. or the right-hand page in a book. design. Strip Core of a pencil. Sketch A quick or rough drawing. to model areas of light and shade. carbon ink. meaning objects used in setting up a life model or still life. fine paper. paper or canvas. or wood. Alternatively. Recto The front or top side of a piece of paper. or ceramic glazing to reveal a different color beneath. Props An abbreviation of the word properties. Sfumato An Italian term meaning "smoky. Technical drawing A universal it is often used in conjunction language of lines and measurements with line drawings in pen and that is used to make diagrammatic ink—for images. by imposing a grid that is then scaled up to a larger size. Squeegee A rubber-trimmed scraper used in the screenprinting process for dragging ink across a surface. or gouache. Etienne de material) dabbed through the Silhouette (1709-67). pencil. pointed roll of white paper that is used to blend dry media. Zen brushwork encompasses calligraphy and painting. using a brush. creating more vibrant effects than if the same colors were physically mixed together with a brush. Single-point perspective The most basic form of linear perspective in which there is only one vanishing point. Pounce (a fine for an unpopular 18th-century powder of charcoal or similar French politician. or the left-hand page in a book. and flowers. a point at which receding parallel lines meet Verso The back or underside of a piece of paper. Squaring up A method of enlarging and transferring an image from one surface to another. or mark using an inked or pigment-covered surface. Viewpoint The position from which something is observed or considered. Scale Describes the size of one element in relation to another Sepia A brown pigment taken from the sun-dried ink sacs of cuttlefish and used to make ink or watercolor The term is now often incorrectly used to refer to brown colors. wall or tapestry. Spattering A mottled texture produced by drawing your fingers across the bristles of a stiff brush loaded with pigment. which are then called editions. Stippling Applying color or tone in areas of fine dots or flecks. Tortillon A short. ink. Although drawings can be made with wash alone. Wash A technique using ink. plaster or cloth surface beneath. an ink stone usually cut from slate.
230-231 Cubist 90. 199 Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya (Eisen) 156.184. 178 Cubism 67. Nicolas-Jacques 54 contours 146. 179 Bussotti. 157 cropping 56-57. (Ross-Craig) 49 to hold brush for 23 caricature 159. Sylvano 222. 250 Bishndas and Nanha: Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity 50. Hieronymus 243 Two Monsters 242.51 All and Nothing (Taylor) 114. 204. Georges 67. 241 action. 202 cloth.198. Filippo 67. 242 to blend 205 compressed 122. cut Catling. 81 135.162 Conte.13. 74.31 Picasso's horse and bird 30. Augustin 67 Basquiat. 200 Bauer.50. 90 colored materials 162-163 colored pencils 162. to draw 100 Cypripedium calceolus L. Clare 203 City 202.212 to erase 205 to hold 23 pencils 204 willow 114. 160 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object (Moore) 178. 201 collage 111. 244 head and neck 144 phrased 124-125 contrast: brightness 99 of media 30 tonal 96. 134 costume(s) 155 character 158-159 structure of 166-167 Cottage Among Trees (Rembrandt) 52. 52 cotton swabs 205 Coup de Vent a Asajigabare (Hokusai) 198. 165. 40-41 Durer's rhinoceros 26. Leon: Bacchante 155 balance. 111. 222. William: The Circle of the Lustful 180. 190 Caricature of a Woman (Daumier) 198.163 graded 227 composition 56-57. Brian 226 Untitled 2001 226 "Cave of the Hands" (Cueva de las Manas) 8. to draw 80. 226-227 Acanthus spinosus 65 accelerated perspective 22. Basilius 47 Beuys. Mamaru 104. 139 Nanha) 50. 30 sleeping dog 38-39 Stubbs's horse skeleton 26. 9 Chair (Van Gogh) 94.226. 223 Circular Score for "Due Voce" 223 children's art 9. 71 Blake. 28 Klee's horses 30. 75. Giovanni 137 Head and Shoulders of a Man 136. 203 Claude Lorrain 202 Views from Velletri 202. 75 Circle of the Lustful (Blake) 180. 50. 94 chalk(s) 53. Victor: West Facade of the Church of St. Etienne-Louis 72 Newton's Cenotaph 72.186 see also movement Adoration of the Magi perspective study (Leonardo) 74.44-45. 70 Art Nouveau motifs 91 Autoportrait (Ray) 138. 163. 189.133. 137 Besler. 128. Statue d'Epouvante 90 calligraphy. 206. to model 110-111 border 51 Bosch. 78 aerial perspective 206 airbrushing 160.44-45 bird studies 12. 158. 244 and graphite 178 . 9. 193 in lifting out 204. 242 Brunelleschi. 243 botanical drawing 48-49 Boullee. 90. to depict 156-157 Cloudburst of Material Possessions (Leonardo) 200. 13. 220. 247-248 carving see lines. 74 brush (es) 246-247 Japanese 248 for laying a wash 140 marks 248-249 to hold 23 brush drawings 14-15 Bryan. Zen c 232-233 blended 133.115 anatomical drawing 134-135 anatomical theaters 82-83 anatomical waxes 128 ancient carvings 221. 204-205. 161 Akhlaq-I Rasul Allah manuscript 51. 180 Circular Score for "Due Voce" (Bussotti) 223 circus scenes 192-195 City (Bryan) 202.163 dry media 205 Blue Nude (Matisse) 110. 72 bracelet shading 122 Braque. 113 bird bones 12. 26 geese 38-39 Gericault's cats 28. 8 cave paintings 8. 162 character: to capture 38-39. 203 Buffalo Hunt (Shoshone) 178. 71 Bacchante (Bakst) 155 background: color 91 textured 240 Baker Matthew: Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry 32 Bakst. layers 53 chalk pastels 162. 38-39. 116. 90.163 body. Le (Hugo) 200. 221 animals. 186 charcoal 114.117 Achilles Chases Hector (Thomas) 240. Jean Michel 138 Self-Portrait 138 Bateau-Vision. to express 39. 90 La Guitare. 71 conte 112.169 colors: airbrushed 161 background 91 A Abe. to draw 25. 29 Hugo's octopus 28. 230 The Physical Space 220 abstract drawing 219. 98. 180 blending: color 133. 94 cylindrical objects. 203 Landline 202. Joseph 113 The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland 112. 182. 41 principal 186. 206 checkered floor 80.100 curves. 81 cut-out model plan 94. 198 cartoon (preparatory drawing) 137 (satirical) 159. 95 Chair Cut Out (Woodfine) 94. 13 architectural drawing 67-71 Arctic Flowers (Libeskind) 70. 198. Franz 48 Protea nitida 48 Bellini.184. 133.Index Page numbers in italics refer t o captions and illustrations Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity (Bishndas and 259 INDEX B bread (as eraser) 205.27 turtles 42-43 aquatint 240 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels (Leonardo) 12. center of 118 ballpoint 182. 205 Baltard. 74.89.
242 eyes. 245 Hugo. Cheval et Oiseau (Picasso) 30. 765 hitsuzendo drawings 233 Hokusai. Oona 245 How Clever of God #84 244.144 and ink 30. 55. 69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt 68.141. Antonio 68.230 three-tone 140. 55. Victor 200. 223 graphite 54.216 Durelli. 29 H hands.91. 93 eye level 80 Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity.103 with eraser 103.117 fountain pens 34. 220 dry brush 234 234 57. Katsushika 199 Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 198. 243 graphic score 222. 161 fashion 160. 69. 136 Golden Section 67 Gombrich.104. 124.37. 69 Guitare. 240 Black Paintings 152. 26 Flying Fish (White) 25. La (Braque) 90. 161 changing 216 Focusing on the Negative (Walter) 16 foliage 52. 69.121 felt-tip pens 162. 90 gouache 30. 222 Grimes. 55. 104-105. 163. 71 minimal line 99 and music 70-71 quick 38-39. 122. 40. M. Francisco de 131. 141 tonal 96.116. Rene 160 Illustration for Jacques Fath E easel.216. drypoint 181 exaggeration 184 expressionism 198 E ye and Head of a Drone Fly (Hooke) 92.103. 222 Le Bateau-Vision 200.198 Degas. 170-173. 205 drawing with 103. proportions of 143 fantasy drawings 72-73. 77 How Clever of God #84 244. fiber-tip pen 182. 113. C .157 ellipses 100. 125.69 Gerard. 245 layers 30 Goya.260 INDEX D Dada 139 Daumien Honore 198 Caricature of a Woman 198.166 170-173 Gestalt 222 Giacometti. 163. 241 to blend 205 and chalk 178 and ink 28. to draw 78. 25 focus 65. 160 as ground for metal point 140. 134. 240 170-173 five Ships in a Port with Lighthouse (Wallis) 11. to suggest 177 see also perspective diagonals diffuser 55 dip pens 34. 160 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction (Gaudi) 68. Statue d'Epouvante. to draw 120. Edgar 162 depth. Hans 133 The Ambassadors 116 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 132. 216 foreshortening 110. 202.160. 230 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction 68.John 157 Man Lying Down in a Cloak 156.244 drawing(s): abstract 219. 7 33 Hooke. Robert 93 Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 92.101 engraving 243 erasers/erasing 55. 122 Hawksmoor.244. Study for Plate 59 (Mucha) 90. 240. 32 framing 139 Franfoise au Bandeau (Picasso) 132.189. 112.252-253 from memory 183. 52 foreground 208.111 feet.141. 799 Holbein. 115 Escher. 73. 223. 135 Duren Albrecht 26. Ron 161 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 161 160. Antonio 135 Muscles of the Head and Neck 134.146 from masterworks 126-127.12 fixative 54. 137 heads. position of 143. disposable pens 182-183 dissections: botanical 48 of horse 27 distance: illusion of see perspective linear 97 tonal 97 Documents Decoratifs. 157 . Keisai 157 The Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya 156. 93 horizon 52. to draw 134-137 Helleborus corsicus 55 highlights 91. 160 hitsuzendo 233 light to dark 102. position of 22 Eisen.102-103 drawing board 20 drawing books 20-21 drawing paper 144. 41 in the round 208-209 with scalpel 202. 144 Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (Baker) 32. 226-227 anatomical 134-135 architectural 67-71 botanical 48-49 brush 14-15 dark to light 102. 161 fashion drawings 160. 99 etching.109 Rhinoceros 26. 222. 245 Gruau. Nicholas 68 St Paul's Baptistry 68 head and neck to draw 142-145 Head and Shoulders of a Man (Bellini) 136. 160 Faune. 132 Frenz. 200 F fabric. Jean Ignace Isidore see Grandville Gericault.184 165. 190 Middle Eastern 50-51. 131 Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 240. to draw 168-169 in Goya's artworks face. 203 Hotel de la Suzonnieres (Satie) 70. 90 G Gaudi. 120.160. 30 Fauves/fauvism 90. 134.207. The 242.115 exploratory 17 fantasy 72-73. Alberto 136 Portrait of Marie-Laure de Noailles 136. 162 Flaxman. 91 Dragon (Michelangelo) 36.Theodore 29 Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 28. Sir Ernst 12. 203 semi-abstract 234-237 three-dimensional 68.112. 134. 37 Grandville 243 A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the Near-Microscopic World of Scale Insects 242. 79.97. 252 depiction of fabric monsters 252-253 Self Portrait in a Cocked Hat 130.
203 landscape 206-208 brushed 14 Landscape in Hoboku Style (Sesshu) 14 layers 146 chalk 53 gouache 30 ink 28. 227 Newsome. 230 invented creatures 106-107 250-251 invented objects 89. 60. 201 head and neck sections of female mold for Sforza Horse 89 Madonna of the Rocks 244 perspective study for Adoration of the Magi 74. 234 iron-gall 35.167 line(s) 132. 220. Oxford 106 Prado. 53 Tree II 52. David 78 M Mackintosh. Oxford 250 music 70-71 Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks (Knopf) 32.109. Matisse.124. 163 pens 36 measuring 116 memory. 244. Madrid 171 University Museum of Natural History.96. 54 silver point 156 leg sections 158 length. 74-77. 34. 53 monoprint 787. 184.33 Mysterious Affairs of the lighting 2 7. 226 Modernism 67. 248. Paul 227 Polyphonic Setting for White 226. Phyll: hands 18 lifting out 204. 176. Johan 32.276. 111. 158 Man Lying Down in a Cloak (Flaxman) 156. 76 Libeskind. Daniel 70 Arctic Flowers 70 Lieb.243 carbon 35 Chinese 30. 789.120. 220. 201 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels 12. Piet 52.182 Moore. Alphonse 90. Charles Rennie 48. 97 Murillo. Erich 73 design for Metropolis 72.166 La Specola. 220. 110 Sistine Chapel ceiling 116 Middle Eastern drawing 50-51. 244 ink 36 252-253 Documents Decoratifs 90. Kathe 181 Losbrunch (The Outbreak) 180. 103 Neolithic chalk tablet 220.141 Metropolis (film) 72. 58-59. 49 Rose 49 Maelbeke Madonna (Van Eyck) 156. 135 museums 44. 249 and gouache 30 Indian 35.112. 203. Henry 178 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object 178.The (Robinson) 108. 72.227 to "bend" straight 97 compositional 228-229 cut 202. Henri 111 Blue Nude 1110. 28 Two Impressions from a Cut-out Paper Disk 222 Huyler Stephen R 225 261 Kinecar.Pieuvre (Octopus) 28. apparent 97 Leonardo da Vinci 74. 183 vertical 156 linear distance 97 linear perspective 69. 36. 99. 244 Dragon 36. I Murderous Attacks 33 Kollwitz. 205 masterworks. drawing from 126-127. Bartolome: Moses Striking the Rock ofHoreb 252. 114 hatched 244 layered 118 pace of 65 pale 40 rapid 49.141. 37 lines 118 pastel 162 pencil 31. 242 light 96 to depict drawing with 1 76 painting with 176 .102. 220. Marie 244 cloth drawing 244. 166.134 K Kettlehut. 63. Florence 128 lighting in 167 Pitt Rivers. 205. 83 white 122 ink impressions 222 ink spatters 234 installations 176. 160 In the Duchess's Kitchen (Rackham) 176. 34-35 acrylic 35 bistre 35.115 98.91 Study for Plate 59 of INDEX illumination see lighting Illustration for Jacques Fath (Gruau) 160. 178 motifs: A r t Nouveau 9 7 stylized 51 mountains 216-217 movement: of animals 30-31 of humans 7 79. 244 lithograph 198 Losbruch (Kollwitz) 180. 227 Scene of Comical Riders 30. 185 Mucha. 181 luminosity 115 Lynch. drawing from 183. 156 magnification 93 Man in Armor (Van Dyck) 158. 78 Study ofThree Male Figures 110. Gustav 49 Knopf. 73 Kigell.109. 31 Klimt. 190 metal pens see dip pens metal point 25. 252 Muscles of the Head and Neck (Durelli) 134. 221 endless 31 free 113. 219 Mondrian.104. 35. 170-173. 756 priming for 140. 13 Cloudburst of Material Possessions 200. 33 J justness 228-229 N naive art 74 negative space 53. 177 influences. 181 Klee. Victor 134 Profile Head 134. 73 Michelangelo Buonarroti 48. Rose: Tantalus or the Future of Man 20 minimal line drawing 99 mirror use of 120 mixed media 28. 252 ink 16.181 L Landline (Bryan) 202. artistic 240-241. 159 Japanese 35 to make 36 sepia 35 walnut 36. 77 Miller. 225 masking tape 204. 757 mandalas 219.
91 outsider artists 33.The (Beuys) 112. 37 38. 52 pens 36 scalpel 54 drawing with 202. 165 figure 118 filled 37 pencil 48. 230 paper(s) 21 colored 162 drawing 144. 7 38 Ray 138. 216. 9 8 . 165. 732 influence of 240 painting with light 78. 74. 243.Paul'sBaptistry (Hawksmoor) 68. 161. 219. 227 portfolios 20 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser de Noailles (Holbein) 132. to draw 146-147 R Rackham. Isaac 92 Telescope 92 Newton's Cenotaph (Boullee) 72. 166 fiber-tip 782. 78 single-point 74. 733 Portrait de Marie-Laure (Giacometti) 136. 97. Martin 238. 1 1 7 aerial 206 linear 69.40. 76-79. 239 Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 238. 162 O p A r t 98 optical illusions 96-99 outline 33. 26 Riley. 36. 57 Ross-Craig.oise au Bandeau 132. Faune. 1 2 4 priming for metal point 140. 36 pen and brush 8 3 pen and ink 70. 234 disposable 182-183 felt-tip 162. 205 157. 122.141 prints/printing: aquatint 240 dry-point etching 181 engraving 243 monoprint 181. and Webster. Stella 48 Cypripedium calceolus L 49 rotated view 7 65 Rubens. 7 73 self-portraits: Basquiat 138.184 fountain 34. 1 3 2 quill pens 34.54 pastel 162 perspective 1 0 0 . 736 portraits. 203 Scene of Comical Riders (Klee) 30. 28 pigment 162 bright 50 Caput Mortuum 7 4 7 for three-tone drawing 141. 242 reed pens 34. 36. Sue 104. Pablo 6 7 . 38. 40-41.240.Toyo: Landscape in Hoboku . 739 semi-abstract drawings Style 14 Seurat. Man 131. Erik 70. 224 0 layers 31. 212 Japanese 2 1 .262 INDEX Newton. 241 Physical Space.9 3 Schongauer. 73 Noble. Peter Paul 126-127 Embracing pose(s): balanced 146 quick 118-119 positive form 103 posture: of artist 22 of subject 3 8 . 141 Piranesi. 1 1 6 accelerated 2 2 .Tim. 7 70 Ray. 81 two-point 74. Auguste 114 Two Women 114. 181 pencil(s) 54 charcoal 204 colored 762. 72 Noble.37. 4 9 Rose of Mohammed 50. 230 parallel planes 79 Parisian street 86-87 pastels 162 to blend 205 to hold 23 layers 162 pencils 162 pen(s): dip 34 .2 3 age and youth sleeping subjects 148-149 150-151 Renaissance 109 Rhinoceros (Durer) 26. 243.104 Pieuvre (Hugo) 28. 7 72 Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland. 772 234-237 Sesshu. 36. Cheval et Oiseau 30. 7 77 three-point 80. 9 0 . 36. 74-77. 163.37. Georges 112 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 112.759.199 Profile Head (Newsome) oil pastels 162. 75 Two Courtyards 75. 205 pointillism 112 polyphonic painting 227 Polyphonic Setting for White (Klee) 226.7 77 rapidograph 70 Raphael 110. 160. Bridget 98 Robinson. 36.37 scientific instruments 9 2 . 30 Fran<. 159. 1 6 3 . 7 76 receding space 206 Redon.139 Autoportrait 138. 244 reed 34. J 76 nudes 114-115 to make 36 metal see dip quill 34. 1 6 9 to hold 2 2 . 139 Real Life is Rubbish (Noble and Webster) 176. 1 1 6 . 76 plastic eraser 55. Heath 181 The Kinecar 180. Arthur 177 In the Duchess's Kitchen 176. 244 Q s Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape (Wolfli) 2 79 St. 4 8 putty eraser 55.176 Real Life Is Rubbish 176. 239 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat (Seurat) 112.36. 34-35. The (Abe) 220 Picasso. Giovanni Battista 74. 36 relief printing 757 Rembrandt van Rijn 52. Odilon 242 The Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity 242.131 Cottage Among Trees 52.71 Hotel de la Suzonnieres 70. 38.52 pen and wash 158. 71 Satire of the Queen's Dress (Wodall) 158. 68 Satie. 181 Rodin. 782 relief 757 silk-screen 739 woodblock 134. Paul 73 Nobson Central 72. 759 P Page. 114 rollerball 182 Rorschach blot 99 Rose (Mackintosh) 48. 2 2 0 for oil pastels 162 stained 230 to stretch 140-141 tissue 21. Russell 228. 164. 103. 75 Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range 241 petroglyphs 221.226. 734 Protea nitida (Bauer) 48.
141 S i m b l e t . Sarah: child's m a p 75. 199. 2 2 0 influence o f 2 4 0 Untitled 220.Yamaoka 233 t e x t u r e 2 2 2 . 221 . 141 Three Male Figures. 77. t o lay 1 4 0 .243 Leonardo's machines 12. Vincent 95 Chair 94.J. b l o w n 248 steel p e n s see d i p p e n s still life 89. 164. Jan 1 5 6 Maelbeke Madonna 1 5 6 . drawing with 104-105 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt ( G a u d i ) 68. 743 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City ( F r e n z ) 1 6 0 . 69. Paul 2 4 1 Achilles Chases Hector 2 4 0 .5 3 in l a n d s c a p e 2 0 6 . 9 2 Tesshu.d i m e n s i o n a l d r a w i n g 68. 115.158 158. 174 T w o m b l y . 202 violin. v i e w s o f 85. 69. 7 9 0 vessels.120. Sue see N o b l e .199 tissue p a p e r 21. t o d r a w 5 2 . 1 9 9 . Augustin ( B a l t a r d ) 6 7 w e t and dry brush-strokes 2 4 9 Turner.1 0 5 vision 9 6 Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects (Grandville) 242. 65 symbols 138.9 1 storms. 6 9 Wodall.216 W e b s t e r . 2 4 2 w Wallis.1 4 5 . M . t o d r a w 1 0 1 viewfinder 57 Views from Velletri ( C l a u d e L o r r a i n ) 152. 7 75 Telescope ( N e w t o n ) 9 2 .t o n e d r a w i n g 140. 75. 7 79 Shoshone petroglyph 240.241 s i l k . Man in Armor 1 5 8 . 156 Van Gogh. 240 Two Women Embracing ( R o d i n ) 114. h e a d a n d n e c k sections o f female m o l d f o r (Leonardo) 89 shading 2 9 s h a d o w s 28. 1 9 9 Two Courtyards (Piranesi) 75. 156 layers 7 5 6 priming for 140. 2 4 7 t h r e e . John 25 Flying Fish 25 Wild Striped Cat Sketches of ( G e r i c a u l t ) 28.12 W a l t e r . Adolf: Giant-Grape Saint-Mary-Castle 219 Woman at Her Toilet ( T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c ) 74 w o o d b l o c k print 157. t h r e e .1 6 5 shorthand diagram 142 Shoshone buffalo hide painting 178. 206-207 202. 1 4 4 . Taylor A n i t a 115 All and Nothing 1 1 4 .27 skull 747.1 9 9 wire. 241. 182. G e o r g e 2 7 Skeleton of the Horse 26. 96. 2 9 wind. 9 5 pens 36 v a n i s h i n g p o i n t 74. 226 V Van Dyck. 97.s c r e e n p r i n t i n g 139 silver p o i n t 1 4 0 . 1 4 0 . A n t h o n y 152. 158 V a n Eyck. William 159 Satire of the Queen's Dress INDEX 226. 2 3 0 tonal contrast 96 tonal distance 9 7 t o n a l d r a w i n g 9 6 . 2 2 6 . 102-103 tonal marks. 230 t h r e e . 161. t o draw 1 9 8 . 1 6 . 79. 7 6 Two Impressions from a Cut-Out Paper Disk ( H u g o ) 2 2 2 Two Monsters 2 4 2 . 245 sharpener 54 Ship in a Storm ( T u r n e r ) 1 9 8 . C y 138. 7 1 4 .Sforza Horse. 159 Wolfli. 2 1 2 . 9 0 . 1 7 7 free 8 0 V e n i c e . 7 70 Tiber 214-215 Untitled ( T w o m b l y ) 2 2 0 . Study of (Michelangelo) 110.2 1 3 Stubbs.1 8 5 Tree II ( M o n d r i a n ) 52.41. 74. 75 Skeleton of the Horse ( S t u b b s ) 26. 170 shoes 1 6 4 stylized m o t i f 51 Summer Flowers 63. t o d r a w 2 0 0 . A l f r e d 1 1 . 49. 4 4 boat 209 botanical 4 9 G e r i c a u l t ' s cats 2 9 from Goya 170-173 125. H e n r i de: Woman at Her Toilet 14 t r a n s p a r e n t v i e w 92. T i m W e s t Fagade of the Church of St. 76. 53 trees. W . 2 4 4 . 104-105. 199 shoes 1 6 4 .1 4 1 . 2 7 studies: b i r d s 7 2 . 2 3 4 . 1 8 4 .d i m e n s i o n a l 1 0 4 . 725 fabric 1 6 8 T h o m a s . 1 6 6 t r a p e z i u s m u s c l e 142.125 W o o d f i n e . 1 3 . 7 6 1 spots. 186.2 0 1 . 9 4 z Z e n calligraphy 232-233 contrast 96 t o grade 163 ink 37 pencil 5 4 t o r t i l l o n 205 T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c . 1 8 4 . 249 t o describe 39. 1 2 Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse 71. Sarah 9 4 Chair Cut Out 94. John: Focusing on the Negative 14 w a s h . 243 (Bosch) T Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos ( G o y a ) 2 4 0 . 1 4 5 travel journal 2 0 . 2 2 7 Untitled 2001 ( C a t l i n g ) u 263 W h i t e . 57. 1 4 1 . 2 0 0 Ship in a Storm 1 9 8 . 1 4 1 w a t e r c o l o r 25.13 M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s m a l e figures 110. 7 77. phrased 146 tonal modeling 161 tonal range 169 t o n a l surfaces 2 2 7 tonal width 97 t o n e ( s ) 33.
b r i d g e m a n . c o . 4 6 : B r i t i s h Library. B . University of Cambridge. 1 3 6 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Centre Pompidou-MNAM-CCI. Sammy De Grave.uk/Musee des Augustins. Berlin (b). 16: www.uk/Private Collection. 2 2 3 : Lebrecht Music and Arts Photo Library/Ricordi. a n d D e p a r t m e n t s o f E n t o m o l o g y a n d Zoology at the University of Oxford. 74: Corbis.bridgeman.bridgeman. 157: U C L Art Collections . L o n d o n . Copyright Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens. 3 2 : Pepys Library. Oxford. 4 8 : T h e N a t u r a l H i s t o r y M u s e u m . 2 8 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. Psychiatric Institute of the University of Heidelberg. Germany/Joerg P. Rocio Arnaez. 72: akg-images. a n d encouragement i n m a k i n g this book: M a m o r u Abe. K e w ft)). 1 1 0 : www. Paris/ © Succession Picasso / D A C S 2005. Diana Bell. T h e R u s k i n School of D r a w i n g a n d Fine A r t .l. K e v i n a n d Rebecca Slingsby.co. R o s e m a r y S c o u l a r . 2 0 1 : T h e Royal Collection © 2 0 0 2 H e r Majesty Queen Elizabeth I I . . 139: Galerie Marion Meyer/© Man Ray Trust / A D A G P . 137: © The British Museum. 49: Hunterian Museum (t). c o . Pamela Ellis for compiling the index. B M G . Lisbon. Inc. Jackie Douglas. 1 5 9 : Bodleian Library. H e l e n S h u t t l e w o r t h . G i n a R o w l a n d .bridgeman. Peter L u f f . Orientabteilung/Ruth Schacht. 5 2 : T h e Metropolitan Museum of Art/Bequest of Mrs. 9 5 : V a n Gogh M u s e u m . Paris a n d D A C S . Kirsten Norrie.bridgeman. B e m d Kunzig. 9 3 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. 2 4 : © T h e British Museum. Anita Taylor. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin/Jorg P. J a c k a n d Brian Catling. 199: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee des arts asiatiquesGuimet. Psychiatric Institute of the U n i v e r s i t y of Heidelberg. 2 0 2 : © T h e British Museum. 2 6 : Topfoto. O o n a G r i m e s . Wolfson College. 9 7 6 ) ./Galerie Sylvie Nissen.uk/Private Collection. Germany.co.a. B e r l i n . 1 5 4 : akg-images/Musee National d'Art Moderne.uk/Private Collection.co. R . A n n a P l u c i n s k a .uk/Guildhall Library. Basel. Italy. 2 2 7 : Paul Klee Stiftung. Illustrated London News Picture Library/The Bystander (b). 2 0 0 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. H a m b u r g . 9 4 : Sarah Woodfine. Angela Palmer. 2 7 : Royal Academy of Arts. Jean Pierre Roy. 176: Modem Art. 177: Mary Evans Picture Library. 2 4 1 : Corbis/David M u e n c h ( b ) .co./Private Collection/© D A C S 2005. 51: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. 9 1 : www. R o y a n d D i a n n e Simblet. F r a n c e . 1 9 : Getty Images/© Succession Picasso / D A C S 2 0 0 5 . London 2005. Andy Crawford. J o h n Walter. S i m o n L e w i s . 115: Anita Taylor. 1929 (29. 179: www. Japan. 68: www. T o n y G r i s o n i . K u n s t m u s e u m . Florence/MoMA. M a n d y Earey. 30: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. 17: J o h n Walter. L o n d o n . 7 1 : I M E C / A r c h i v e s E r i k Satie. A n d y C r a w f o r d for p h o t o g r a p h y a n d L .bridgeman. Salisbury & South W i l t s h i r e M u s e u m ( t ) . 2 1 8 : Adolf-Wdlfli-Stiftung. Paris. D a w n Henderson. U K . Agnieszka Mlicka.uk/Mucha Trust. Paris. 1 9 8 : Dover Publications. Sir Brinsley F o r d . K a t h r y n W i l k i n s o n .co. L o n d o n . 1 . B e r l i n . 1 6 1 : D C C o m i c s I n c . Angela W i l k e s . 243: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. Paula Regan. Flossie. 181: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. 1879. Christopher Davis. 5 3 : Collection of the Gemeentemuseum D e n Haag/Mondrian Trust. Amsterdam.co. L e n . Magdalene College Cambridge. F i n n . 29: Fogg A n Museum/Collections Baron de Vita: Grenville L. 6 6 : w w w . Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (t). Sarah Woodfine. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin. 1 3 4 : © T h e British Museum. and Tamsin Woodward Smith. London/Bequeathed by Charles Landseer. Productions Clovis Prevost (c). Patty Stansfield. Havemeyer. 2 0 3 : Clare Bryan (t). 11: www.20-21 a n d 246-47. 2 2 2 : Pierre Georgel/Private Collection. Fund. 1 3 5 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. U K . 2 4 2 : Photo Scala. O. 3 3 : Prinzhom Collection. Corporation of London.bridgeman. 174: Artothek/Munich. L o n d o n . 2 2 0 : Mamaru Abe. 69: Institut Amatller d'Art Hispanic (tl). 73: Berlin F i l m Museum (t).uk/British Museum. H a y w a r d Gallery. J o h n Roberts. H e a t h e r M c C a r r y . 1 7 8 : © T h e British M u s e u m / H e n r y Moore F o u n d a t i o n . b r i d g e m a n .bridgeman. France. b r i d g e m a n . H . for s u p p l y i n g the d r a w i n g books. 111: Fondation Beyeler/Riehen (Bale)/© Succession H Matisse/DACS 2005. 88: www.Strang Print Room ( b ) . Paris and D A C S . 1 0 8 : Arts C o u n c i l Collection. Clare Bryan. A . 13: www. Paris. Paris. 1 3 8 : © Christie's Images Ltd/© A D AGP. Picture Credits 8: Corbis/Hubert Stadler.939). K u n s t m u s e u m Bern/© D A C S 2 0 0 5 . 2 3 8 : akg-images.100. 2 4 4 : Ashmolean Museum. 130: The Metropolitan M u s e u m of Art/Robert L e h m a n Collection. papers. u k / T o k y o National M u s e u m . P h y l l Kiggell. 9 2 : Science Photo L i b r a r y .uk /© Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery. Paris. G e r m a n y . 114: Musee Rodin. University of Oxford. NY. 1901. (r)./© D A C S 2 0 0 5 ( t ) . Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett.co. Publisher's Acknowledgments Dorling Kindersley w o u l d like to thank Caroline H u n t for editorial contribution. 1 9 6 : Museum of the History of Science. 2 2 4 : P r i n z h o m Collection. Julie O u g h t o n . L o n d o n (t). Antonia Cunliffe Davis. 132: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. 75: © The British Museum (b). Portugal. London/courtesy of Stuart Shave. Sophie Laurimore. Carole A s h . 7 0 : Studio Daniel L i b e s k i n d . 2 4 0 : w w w . Roddy Bell. 3 1 : Tom Powel Imaging. 9 0 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/© A D A G P . . Paul T h o m a s . a n d brushes o n pp.co.co. 225: Stephen P Huyler. 180: www. 226: Brian Catling.bridgeman. 1 3 3 : Artothek/Kupferstichkabinett. Toulouse.r. L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . support.co. Graphische Sammlung. 1 5 : w w w .bridgeman. 1 6 0 : Rene G R U A U s. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. Madrid. Maureen Paley Interim Art (b). 5 0 : Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (1). c o . R u t h P a r k i n s o n . Dover Publications/ISBN: 0486229912 (t). 2 4 5 : Oona Grimes. 158: Calouste Gulbenkian Museum. Carlo O r t u for picture research s u p p o r t . Natalie G o d w i n .Paris ( b ) . Paris a n d D A C S . A . C o r n e l i s o n & Son. 1 5 6 : Graphische S a m m l u n g Albertina. George M c G a v i n . Anders/ © D A C S 2 0 0 5 . L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . Berlin/Staatsbibliothek zu A l l other images © Sarah Simblet .264 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Acknowledgments Author's Acknowledgments: T h e author wishes to thank the following people for their enormous help. G e r m a n y . Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. L o n d o n . Sarah D u n c a n . Also. Kunstmuseum Bern. Paul T h o m a s ( t ) . J o n Roome. © Tate. 112: Yale University A r t Gallery/Everett V Meeks. u k / L o u v r e . Anders. Winthrop. u k / O n Loan to the H a m b u r g Kunsthalle.uk /Biblioteca Nacional.uk/Kettle's Yard. 221: Gagosian Gallery/Private Collection (b). 1975 ( 1 9 7 5 . Paris. 113: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz.
and tone. Creating a Sketchbook—Sarah Simblet's drawings inspire you to explore different subjects and fill your own sketchbooks. shape. Materials and Techniques—how to use a variety of materials—from pencil and ink to pastel. D r a w i n g C l a s s e s — d e t a i l e d step-by-step demonstrations show you how to develop your natural talents. and silverpoint—and apply the key elements of drawing including perspective.com Discover more at .dk. Learn from the Masters—a rich selection of drawings illustrates different approaches to a wide range of subjects. discover new ideas.FOR THE ARTIST T h e c o m p l e t e g u i d e to drawing—a unique blend of practical teaching and inspirational insights into classic and contemporary drawings. www. and improve your drawing skills. charcoal.
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