An innovative, practical approach to drawing the world around you

SARAH SIMBLET

BOOK
FOR T H E ARTIST

BOOK

FOR THE ARTIST

SARAH SIMBLET

DK PUBLISHING

CONTENTS
LONDON • NEW YORK MELBOURNE • MUNICH • DELHI Senior Editor Paula Regan Senior Art Editor Mandy Earey Art Editor Anna Plucinska Managing Editor Julie Oughton Managing Art Editor Heather McCarry Art Director Peter Luff Publishing Director Jackie Douglas Production Joanna Bull DTP Designer Adam Walker Picture Research Sarah Smithies US Editor Christine Heilman First American Edition, 2 0 0 5 First Paperback Edition, 2 0 0 9 Published in the United States by DK Publishing 3 7 5 Hudson Street New York, New York 1 0 0 1 4 10 11 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3

Architecture
6 8 20 22 Master Builders The Order of Sound Future Fictions Pathways of Sight Single-Point Perspective Creating an Imaginary Space Further Aspects of Perspective Theaters Venetian Life Parisian Street

66
68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86

Foreword Introduction Drawing Books and Papers Posture and Grip

Objects and Instruments

TD075-July 2009 Copyright © 2 0 0 5 Dorling Kindersley Limited Text and authors artworks © Sarah Simblet 2 0 0 4 Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited A Cataloging-in-Publication record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN 9 7 8 - 0 - 7 5 6 6 - 5 1 4 1 - 1 Color reproduction by GRB, Italy Printed and bound in China by Toppan

Still Life Instruments of Vision Bench Marks Light and Illusions Further Illusions How to Draw Ellipses Tonality Drawing with Wire Artifacts and Fictions

88

90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106

Animals
Documentaries Presence and Mood Movement Icon and Design Pen and Ink Drawing with Ink Capturing Character Sleeping Dogs Turtles Dry Birds

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26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44

The Body
Postures and Poses Choreographs Passion Measurement and Foreshortening Quick Poses Hands and Feet Charcoal Hands Phrasing Contours The Visual Detective La Specola

108
110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128

Plants and Gardens
Botanical Studies Jeweled Gardens Fast Trees Graphite and Erasers Cropping and Composition Negative Space Fig Tree Summer Flowers Acanthus Spinosus

46
48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64

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Gatherings
Projections Magnetic Fields The Human Condition Disposable Pens The Travel Journal Catching the Moment Grand Canal Crossings Caravans The Big Top

174 Abstract Lines
176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 Process and Harmony Writing Time Chants and Prayers Compositions Being "Just" Collage Zen Calligraphy Nocturnes

218
220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234

Portraiture
Poise Anatomies Revelations Self-Portraits Silver Point Head and Neck Essential Observations Drawing Portraits Generations Castings

130
132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 152

Earth and the Elements
Air in Motion Storms Nature Profiles Charcoal Landscapes Drawing in the Round Decaying Boat Cloudburst Notes of Force Mountains

196
198 200 202 204 206 208 210 212 214 216

Gods and Monsters
Marks of Influence Hauntings Convolutions Brushes Brush Marks Monsters Goya's Monsters Consumed Glossary Index Acknowledgments

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240 242 244 246 248 250 252 254 256 259 264

Costume
Cloth and Drapery Character Costumes Femmes Fatales Colored Materials Study and Design The Structure of Costume Textures and Patterns Dressing Character Posture Carving

154
156 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172

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I also make drawing books. in which he describes himself flying and diving in his imagination through pictorial caverns of knowledge. They enfold their viewer and are made on joined sheets of paper that I reach by climbing ladders. where spaces are shaped by nothing more than the objects and activities contained within them. fashion designer. remain unseen by most. through history. I was also reading among The Confessions of St. Combine these things and the possibilities are endless. Chosen in any color. a cartographer charting the land. we learn to feel truly alive. where I expect them to be discovered by some people. understood (and often misunderstood) our own bodies. thinking. we have looked at. or engineer. Some of my drawings cover entire walls. as a visiting professor at universities. Augustine his notes on memory. shape. and I refer back to them for years after they are made. are made outside as discreet installations. Some are more traditionally framed and hung in galleries for solo or group exhibitions. For twelve years I have enjoyed the privilege of teaching drawing. from schoolchildren to senior citizens. It makes me feel excited to be alive. These inspirations led me to invent museums. architect. They occupy a shelf in my studio. I know that with their cooperation I can soon prove them wrong. . but because it is how I engage with and anchor myself in life. undergraduates to fellow professors. I work with people of diverse ages. who tells me firmly upon approach that they cannot draw. we learn to see it. It is a tool for investigating ideas and recording knowledge. The very first step is to believe it.Foreword B Y DRAWING THE WORLD AROUND US. night security staff. drawing is the immediate expression of seeing. and be slowly washed or worn away. especially as travel journals. and through which I can see how I think. I was training in anatomy and studying how. a composer notating a musical score. a sculptor. of Sketch Book for the Artist. aspirations. and in a few sessions they will be flying. still standing by the door. We can all learn how to draw. or a quantum physicist trying to see for themselves the fluctuations of our universe. a drawing book is the perfect portable private vehicle for your imminent exploration of drawing. that inspired the title and structure MEMORY T H E A T E R S This pen-and-ink drawing was made from imagination during research for my PhD. and feeling. doctors. not only to make art. and experience. The most rewarding challenge is always the newcomer. For me personally. and makers of special effects. texture. and a reflector of experience. geologists. by invitation. be they a child discovering their vision and dexterity. It is my love of these. I will always draw. and their importance to so many artists. By using our imaginations. art schools. Drawing is a mirror through which I understand my place in the world. and local c o m m u n i t y classes. Drawing occupies a unique place in every artist and creator's life. Others can be held in the h a n d or. perhaps hidden on a door hinge or a street bench rail. and size.

Children cannot be restrained from running across the pristine white lawn of newly fallen snow. At home and at work we doodle. We are surrounded by drawings in our daily lives. and in meetings. a great crowd is raising their hands in greeting. logos. graffiti. but more often because drawing actually helps us to focus and take in what is said. irreverent to language barriers. packaging.000-9500 bce .Theseancient silhouettes were drawn with earth pigments rubbed onto rock. The sense of relief we may feel from the information overload of modern commercial life when visiting a country in which we can no longer read every written word. Drawing is international. signs. and patterns on our clothes. scrawling shapes and cartoons when on the telephone. We can always read each others drawings. inscribing every fresh part of it with their eager scrapes and trails. Cueva de las Marios. We are bombarded with linear and tonal pictorial information. not just chosen pictures on our walls but everywhere—maps. is not afforded us by drawing. and we spend our lives reading it. Sometimes we draw because we are bored. Rio Pinturas 13. Most adults still feel that certain exquisite pleasure on arriving at a beach to find the tide out and the sand perfect.8 INTRODUCTION Where We Begin There is a fundamental drive in our human nature to make a mark. in lectures. waving to us from many thousands of yearsago. They have a natural affinity to many modern graffiti signatures. like a great canvas for them to mark. "CAVE OF THE HANDS" In this drawing.

Eyelashes take up as much of my attention as the head itself. had happily scribbled. Cave art was not made for decoration but as a fundamental part of life. . She gave me a notepad and a red crayon and asked me to draw her "a picture of Daddy. MAKING OUR MARK It seems reasonable to assume that we have engaged in pictorial mark-making for as long as we have made conscious use of our hands." Until this day. reflecting my experience of looking closely at my father's face. created by societies of hunter-gatherers. we see our oldest surviving images. I now think this is a picture of proximity. power.9 WHERE WE BEGIN FIRST PORTRAIT For sorre forgotten reason. and belonging to place. and the appearance of my strikes of colors. and she kept it as my first step beyond the delighted realms of scrawl. at age two-anda-half. The image above is what I gave back to my mother. I was sitting with my mother. I. like all toddlers. an expression of existence. but I had never yet attempted to figuratively picture my world. the hair of my first portrait was most important. enjoying the physical sensation of crayon on paper. In cave paintings like the one opposite. Even though it is made by a toddler this image would be recognizable to anyone. On a particular afternoon in September 1974. who in their day-to-day hardship made time to picture themselves and the animals on which they depended.

then drag o u r line into a loop. h o w e v e r small a n d u n f o r m e d y o u believe they are. It was made with a few bold strokes of a steel pen dipped in ink to conjure the dried bee I was holding between my fingers on a pin. b e p r o u d o f what m a k e s y o u r w o r k individual to y o u . But as adolescents. W e do n o t hesitate to draw a map. Inhibitions creep in and ideas of good a n d b a d terminate confidence. and from that first unit build and describe the shape of something or someone we know. most of us stop. yet still turn to drawing w h e n their verbal language fails or is inadequate.10 INTRODUCTION PEN-AND-INK BEE This tiny drawing has been enlarged to show its texture and composition. Don't b e p e r s u a d e d to draw in a w a y s o m e o n e else . Young children love to draw. Hours are lost immersed in the glorious world of imagination. to help a stranger see their way W h e n taking first steps in relearning h o w to draw. for example. As you progress. it is important to value your natural abilities a n d ways of seeing. At this point many will insist they cannot draw. PROGRESSION T h e r e is a point in all o u r lives w h e n w e first c o n t r o l o u r mark and m a k e it a line. and this activity plays a vital role in their d e v e l o p m e n t .

harbor and sea is one of many that Alfred Wallis made from memory while sitting at home. but it does help to set out facing in the right direction.11 PROGRESSION A UNIQUE SIGHT This innocent yet sophisticated drawing of boats. . Think how much would have been lost if anyone had interfered with Alfred Wallis' personal sense of proportion and perspective in the exquisite drawing above. He used leftover ship and yacht paint with crayons on cut-out pieces of cardboard boxes. I meet students struggling unhappily with a particular method of drawing. you must decide whether to keep or discard it. After experimenting and trying each new idea. I ask them their reasons for drawing. He was a retired Cornish fisherman and junk dealer who began drawing at the age of 70 "for company" after his wife died. 1925-42 53/8x87/8in (135 x 225 mm) ALFRED WALLIS prefers and tells you is better. and which aspects of the vast wealth and diversity of graphic language would be most appropriate to their goals. what they most want to achieve. remember that all advice is only advice. As you read this b o o k and perhaps attend art classes. Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse c. Occasionally. Enjoy the control of your own journey. and they have never questioned why. Someone once told them they must draw in this way. The journey of every artist demands hard work and discipline.

and collarbones and shoulder blades of a different bird almost become new creatures in themselves. but the child in us knows that this is an all-embracing. The art historian Professor Sir Ernst Gombrich. it may not be accurate to our critical adult eye. We BIRD STUDIES The flutter of faint scratches that dance across the pages on the right is an attempt to see the movement and bony weightlessness of a bird. not for disguise but as a personal choice. IDEAS A N D I N V E N T I O N S These active machines. If as artists we nail a subject down too hard. we can drive out its spirit. the breast. right. and lose the very thing that attracted us to it. clear-minded understanding of the sea. We also see differently ourselves. depending on the occasion and our purpose. but it should be the experienced world we draw. be visionary. author of The Story of Art.12 INTRODUCTION VISION All artists see the world differently. There are countless reasons for drawing. They are also always written backward. embedded in this book. Below. The observed world may be our subject. "There really is no such thing as Art." The clarity and empowerment of these words. perhaps for comfort or ease as a left-hander or a habitual enjoyment of the challenge. is. the page bristles with the focus of ideas. I hope. wrote as the opening line of this great work. and breathtaking wind of a choppy harbor. There are only artists. His notes visually balance his drawings. We all see differently. When we look back at Wallis' seascape (see p. There should neve: be a slavish obligation to represent things exactly as we collectively agree we see them. and inspire others. all raise water From the Archimedes' screw to Leonardo's own cupped wheel. 11). Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels LEONARDO DA VINCI . boats. Our imaginations are the tools with which we can increase the essence of life.

This also applies if struggling at length with a larger picture. We have both covered our paper with focused. My drawings of a housemartin (opposite top) illustrate the importance of repeated study. Decide before you start whether you are drawing to warm up. to express the beauty in a moment's play of light. or to discover the best use of a new material. Leonardo drew to invent a machine. or illustrate a dream. but it is important to be clear why we are making it. shout against a terrible injustice. It will be invested through your experience in the new drawing. make a calculation. conduct an experiment. I drew to understand the apparatus of flight. when it looks tired and still feels wrong. stripped-down parts. More was learned drawing the bird 18 times than would have been understood drawing it only once or twice. Each fresh image reflects growing confidence and the experience of the preceding study. it may be best to start afresh. while below. Our drawings are annotated investigations into the mechanisms of nature and of an idea.13 VISION should not try to know how every finished picture will look. drawing in pursuit of our own thoughts and understanding. Opposite. time spent is not lost. . Don't be disheartened.

or ice—you must actually feel it beneath your fingers as you draw. fire. and an island brushed with trees. your marks will become the subject on the paper. declare the idea. it should be responding to the sensation and meaning of the subject it draws. and how it feels to the touch. This is the alchemy of drawing. Whatever the material— wood. size. This is a detail of a brush-and-ink drawing by a Japanese Buddhist monk. and we can just make out the distant stains of mountains. and allowed to flow through the brush. As your hand meets the paper to make a mark. and at speeds beyond conscious thought. meaning. and practice each part before putting the final image together. Landscape in Haboku Style 15TH CENTURY . This suits many artists well and is perfectly valid. and what you discover in the process of making. As you draw any subject—something you see. the unknown. and paper. depth. explain the composition. mists. and sometimes beyond. If you can do this. The physicality. You must also think of its intrinsic nature: its purpose. created centuries and cultures apart. and opacity of your subject. balance. They each allowed the energy and focus of the moment to be expressed through controlled accident and a degree of the unknown Both drawings were made trusting the marks. However. water. and position in space. or imagine—it is not enough to only render its shape. ink. These two brush drawings. BRUSHED LANDSCAPE FLOWING SKELETON T h e gliding poise of this walking anatomy comes as much from the feeling of movement as it does from the feeling of drawing. I made it almost unconsciously with a pen and a brush. are both made of ink laid onto wet paper with speed and agile certainty. excessive planning can get in the way of the imagination. bone. Know the texture. metal. Our position asvieweris unsteady. which can offer keys to other things. It denies the importance of accident.14 INTRODUCTION ALCHEMY At school. Each image relied upon past experience to know the probable behavior of the brush. feel. we are advised or even required to plan our pictures. and spirit of each subject was held strongly but loosely between the fingertips. temperature. W e float toward the quiet vista as it also moves toward us. silk. Imagine these qualities so strongly that you feel them in your mind and at your fingertips. We are caught in a shifting focus that makes everything fluid. trusting my intuition to find a visual equivalence for the sensation of weight within my body.

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left. which evoke realities o f place and the p o w e r o f moment. more than 100 years after its making. acrylic. c. He dazzles us with flashes o f light and dabbed marks o f shadow. Focusing on the Negative 2004 22 x 30 in (56 x 76 cm) J O H N WALTER . lives on. right is set inside a rib cage.1896 Woman at her Toilet 41 x 26 in (104 x 66 cm) TOULOUSE LAUTREC RIB-CAGE D R A M A Thus drama. made by a young British artist who creates alphabets o f the absurd f r o m familiar childhood characters. Lautrec's flamboyant splashes o f petticoats and pantaloons are drawn with long sweeps of chalk and brushed oil paint. gold leaf and spray paint. like folded insects. pastel.16 INTRODUCTION PLACE A N D MOMENT The heat and teeming atmosphere o f this Parisian dressing room. one of many luminous works in watercolor. W a l t e r also makes books: some. stand table-sized with furniture legs attached t o b o t h sides of their jacket.

Try to keep all of your first drawings. Enjoy discovering what your hand and the material can do. Put them away and look at them later. Start by choosing a material you like the look of and cover a piece of paper with different marks. Much will be learned on these test sheets and in your first drawings. Such books are personal: the territory of new exploration and experiment. take your time and don't worry if you need to make several attempts to grasp a concept. even those you dislike. potential ideas still forming. Ignore these at first and allow yourself the freedom to play. you will be surprised and encouraged to see how far you have come. As you follow lessons in this book. try not to grip your pen worrying about the technical terms you might have heard. and mistakes are a valuable process of learning. Pages do not have to lie open for other people to inspect and comment on. at a point when you feel you are not making progress. It is yours.17 FREEING THE HAND If you are just beginning to learn how to draw. One of the advantages of a drawing book is that you can shut it. just through the act of making. you will naturally make progress on your own in response to concentration and the decision to look and draw. Choose other materials and do the same. and miscellaneous items of inspiration. diary-like observations. FREEINGTHEHAND . With no help and advice at all. Drawing is exploratory.

seek ideas in the life around you. Imagination needs nourishment. However. and became a great subject for me. 150). To these I have added my own drawings to explain elementary materials and techniques and offer introductory approaches. Look to your own experience and also learn from the work of others. caught between action and repose. which is held frozen in space by a camera lens.18 INTRODUCTION THE THINKING EYE Techniques and materials are the grammar and vocabulary of drawing and can be studied and shared. which of course he cannot see. An artist's personal voice is something that also evolves through lessons learned. Picasso is poised smiling. threedimensionally. we still only glimpse a corner of the magnitude of this subject and the infinity of what can be achieved. adapting its form and occupation. Note that the drawing classes are allocated to subjects. and many more reasons for drawing the world. it is this voice that is the subtle part of their art and something that ultimately. As you draw. A N ARTIST'S HANDS These are the hands of the artist Phyll Kiggell (see p. ELECTRIC BULL With a penlight. when they are more experienced. This practical journey will take you through the door into the vivid heart of drawing. Picasso has just finished his drawing. the path is yours. Picasso Painting with Light at the Madoura Pottery 1949 . but not confined to them. it will be your creation as you discover your own personal vision. and enfolding new media. staring straight through his image of a bull. Once there. comes from within. I was particularly attracted to their gentle articulation and understated determination.Their elegant strength seems to summon a lifetime of drawing. It rarely flourishes in isolation. The real drawing book has yet to come. The chapters of this book present 90 different artists' ways of seeing. In the total wealth of these pages. Its sensuous and flowing line seems to drift like smoke. Drawing is a living language that over millennia has grown and changed.

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cut. 5.q u a l i t y r i n g . and cost. Most contain thin p a p e r and are perfect f o r use w i t h disposable pens.B O U N D PADS: T h e s e are t h e least expensive a n d useful f o r o p e n i n g flat. These are perfect f o r w o r k i n g in novels. a n d r e f e r e n c e b o o k s f o u n d in s e c o n d . cheap corrugated plastic ones fall apart in days. thickness. catalogs. c h o o s e larger f o r m a t s t o give y o u s c o p e f o r e x p e r i m e n t . H O M E M A D E : I m a d e this b o o k f r o m drawing paper that I folded. It is also useful to own a portfolio. Art students often make use of printed books picked up from secondhand stores into which they draw. binding. If you intend to carry your boards for a distance. 1. Alternatively. 6. thick enough not to flex. F O U N D B O O K S : O l d p r i n t e d 3 . Dissecting a d i s c a r d e d h a r d . be sure they fit comfortably under your arm. Homemade books can be assembled easily from found materials or selections of loose sheet papers. and handles to lift the weight of your artworks. and collage their ideas. 2002 Tantalus o r The Future of Man 81/2 x61/4in (215 x 158 mm) ROSE MILLER .h a n d s t o r e s make unique subjects f o r e x p e r i m e n t s a n d collage. You simply need two strong boards hinged together well.b o u n d b o o k s t h a t fit in y o u r p o c k e t o r bag. drawing book. H o w e v e r r i n g bindings o f t e n break. Purchase a h i g h . t h e i r jackets w i l l a c t like d r a w i n g b o a r d s a n d p r o t e c t y o u r w o r k . b e a w a r e t h a t p a p e r t e x t u r e effects a n d changes t h e i r marks. texture. is perfect. which are also sold in an enormous range. stitched. Sand the edges to avoid splinters. BLACK P O C K E T B O O K S : Hand-sized w i t h ready-made elastic binder and a marker ribbon. R I N G . a n d crayons. F o r e v e n i n g classes. a l e n g t h o f black elastic t i e d a r o u n d t h e m i d d l e will h o l d the contents together w h e n y o u f o l d in c o l l e c t e d items. There are dozens to choose from. Smooth plywood. and glued t o a s t r i p o f bias binding. Calculate a range of useful dimensions and have several cut at once. ties on either side to keep your papers in place. A high-quality one will last a DRAWING BOOKS Select d r a w i n g b o o k s t o suit y o u r aims. C A N V A S . pastels. t h i s is h o w I l e a r n e d . Gleaming store purchases vary greatly in format. color. it is better to have them made at a lumber yard or home improvement store. Many artists invent ways o f binding their o w n books.20 INTRODUCTION Drawing Books and Papers T o BEGIN YOUR EXPLORATION o f d r a w i n g . c h o o s e s m a l l e r h a r d .b o u n d p a d if y o u w i s h t o keep your drawings together long-term.C O V E R E D H A R D B O U N D : Ideal f o r c a r r y i n g a r o u n d . Drawing boards are invaluable. study the structure of a good portfolio and make your own. 2. They can be very expensive in art stores. C O L O R E D PAPERS: Large a r t supply stores o f t e n sell t h i c k b o o k s full o f c o l o r e d p a p e r s .b o u n d b o o k w i l l s o o n s h o w y o u h o w it is m a d e . F o r traveling. y o u n e e d a lifetime. c o l o r If planning t o use pencils. N o t e t h e w i d e l y differing c h o i c e o f p a p e r s w i t h w h i c h t h e s e are m a d e . T h e hardb o a r d j a c k e t is s t r e t c h e d w i t h canvas beneath t h e p a p e r sleeve. quality. 4.

16. used to imprint lines of these colors onto a surface. Ph. 20. and white. T W O RIVERS GREEN 410G MS: Very heavy tinted textured cold-pressed watercolor paper See Two Rivers Yellow. Cheap wood-pulp papers are acidic. MAGIC PAPER: A reusable sheet for testing ideas without creating waste. and rolls. METALLIC PAPER: Thin paper in different metallic colors. It is also excellent for drawing with marker pens on layered sheets. They are hand-. FABRIANO INGRES: Thin. SAUNDERS WATERFORD N O T 300GMS: Mid-quality textured watercolor paper. 100% cotton and sold in sheets.TISSUE PAPER: Place sheets between drawing book pages to keep images from printing on each other and use for delicate collage. FABRIANO ACADEMIA: Standard medium-range multipurpose paper Use with any media. or machine made in sheets. Use for brushwork drawings. blocks. 10. For use with any media. and hot pressed papers. 8. or rolls. 14. from pencil to paint 9. 17. not. VELIN ARCHES 250GMS: Printmaking paper available in black white. Cotton papers are high-quality and acid-free.Papers differ in thickness (weight). 12. turning brown and brittle. mold-. texture.5 9 ) for explanations of rough. printed on one side only. 15. yellow. JAPANESE PAPER: Strong. AQUARELLE ARCHES 300GMS:The very top quality hot-pressed (smooth) watercolor paper. cold. ITALIAN PARCHMENT: Imitation-animal-skin parchment that is translucent and slightly waxy. 21. T W O RIVERS Y E L L O W 410GMS: See Two Rivers Green 19. and other plant fibers. C A R B O N PAPER: Available in dark and light blue. blocks. 2 5 6 . It is available in white or cream. pastel paper in flecked pastel colors with a distinctive ribbed marking. tough. Use with a brush in clean water Water makes a dark mark like ink and becomes invisible again when dry. bamboo. also good for drawing with colored pencils. smooth. fine. 13. and translucent. red. FABRIANO R O U G H 600GMS: Very heavy. size. and cost. Use cheap paper for rough ideas and quality paper for work to last See the glossary ( p p . 22. C A N S O N : Inexpensive lightweight pastel paper in many colors. resisting deterioration. 11. and cream sheets or rolls. absorbency. 18. 7. PAPERS . color. mulberry. GLASSINE: Sold as protective wrapping. white textured paper that can take abrasive use of any medium. it is made from rice.

make sure you have enough room to back away and view your work. a n d h a n d to the fingertips. In this book we will look at parallels between drawing and music. This photograph illustrates how some people hold a pen to write. Relaxed fingers: Hold the pencil away from its tip and relax your fingers. Accelerated perspective also occurs if you look down the surface steeply (see pp. There are also parallels to dance. Turning your drawing sideways or upside-own will also help reveal what is wrong. 116-17). a n d look to the left of it at your subject. place it on your left. This cramped grip tires your hand and makes small. b u t it should n o t be forgotten that many people make remarkable a n d striking works drawing with their feet or holding their brush or pencil in their mouths. If using an upright easel. and subject. don't sit too close to the paper. Ideally. arm. or with your drawing board angled between your lap and a chair. body. SPACE TO WORK Cramped grip. . place it on the correct side: if right-handed. Placing your easel o n the w r o n g side folds y o u r b o d y against your drawing arm. but wherever possible. should be able to look comfortably straight ahead at your picture plane. but you need to understand that the expression of a line or mark originates in the body and flows t h r o u g h the shoulder.22 INTRODUCTION Posture and Grip T o DRAW WELL. You cannot draw like this—your hand is locked and your fingers can barely move. if left-handed. If seated on a b e n c h easel (a donkey). strangledlooking drawings. place it on your right. your lines will distort. How you hold your drawing materials is also important. You do not have to dance to draw. From a distance you will spot errors you cannot see close up. If your body posture is well balanced and you can move freely. There should be an open. It will also reflect discomfort if you are in any way cramped. Use the side of your little fingernail as a support on the page. With your hand in this position. Examples are shown here. your drawing will reflect this. your whole relaxed b o d y should be involved. and look to the right. flowing space between your hand. Regularly step back 6-9 ft (2-3 m) to check your progress. you Drawing classes can be cramped places. If your hand twists to maneuver between the paper and your body. you can draw lines freely and achieve a significant arc of movement.

Brush calligraphy: This comfortable. . find an unfamiliar. and body are not restricted. But be careful not to tense your fingers. hold your material as you find most comfortable. liquid will run down your hand. or it can spoil your work if not anticipated. To stop this. As long as your fingers. It is most comfortable when reaching to draw above your head. Soft media: Short materials such as pastels and charcoal can be accommodated in the palm. This can be used to great effect. depending upon what it is and how large you are working. This can give a new lease on life to your mark-making. ALL MEDIA There are no rules as to how you should hold your drawing media.232-33). GRAVITY Remember that gravity affects the flow of ink and paint. brush pressed against an upright surface will cause a dribble of ink to run down your drawing. roughly marking out a large-scale work. arm. If you turn a brush or dip pen up into the air to draw above your hand. upright way of holding the brush near its base is similar to the Japanese way used in Zen calligraphy (see pp. not up to the paper Brushes can be used on upright paper but dip Anticipating effects: A fully loaded pens need a level surface. Large amounts of ink can be applied without fear of uncontrolled running if the paper is flat.23 This loose "candle" grip is very useful when drawing with your arm extended. Remember you can also draw just by dipping your fingers in pigment—this is how many women draw in rural India. alternative way of holding the pencil. or change to the wrong hand. Large scale: POSTURE AND GRIP U n f a m i l i a r i t y : T h e habitual movements of our handwriting style will sometimes infringe upon our drawing.

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and dragons. and snakes have between them engendered harpies.. we have employed artists on expeditions. Europeans on board had never seen such a thing.drawe to lief one of each kinde of thing that is strange to us in England. m u s e u m . " Animals perpetually feed our imaginations. We have drawn them on the walls of caves to evoke their kinship and power. out are now oxidized and so appear black W h e n less preoccupied with understanding ourselves. we turn and take the features of beasts. W h e n lost to explain our own emotions. fish. For the novice artist.m o u n t e d skeletons of birds. animals provide a perfect subject with which to begin." Paranoid newcomers c r a m m e d into swelling industrial cities used handbooks of physiognomy to identify and judge their neighbors. and to bring h o m e drawn documentaries of their finds. floating turtles. Together they made maps and documented animals. On the Roanoke voyages of Sir Walter Raleigh." He worked with the scientist Thomas Harriot. In medieval England. mermaids. plants. White's commission was to ". JOHN WHITE British artist. dogs. 11 x91/4in (277 x 234 mm) . who described in words what White drew. bats. cartographer.. Facial features were analyzed in terms of their animal likeness. Framed in the z o o or in domestic cohabitation. sleeping dogs. the Latin bestiary was one of the most popular picture books—an illustrated dictionary of one hundred parts. As children we delight in the humanized trials of Tom and Jerry and their c a r t o o n relations. and we still see escapees from its pages carved and grinning as the gargoyles of churches. to be there at the m o m e n t of discovery. 1590 J O H N WHITE capture form and movement from the m a n n e r i s m s of honking geese. or scampering through the initials and borders of pictures from that time. In 19th-century Europe this became a "science. and learn how to Flying Fish c. werewolves. their different speeds and patterns of action. Here (left) we see J o h n White's exquisite record of a flying fish. This drawing is made in black lead (metal point) with watercolor Highlights of silver would have gleamed. which are so unlike ours. and people. and this very drawing was to endure many copies and plagiarisms after its triumphant return to the English court of Queen Elizabeth I.Animals H UMANS HAVE DRAWN ANIMALS from the beginning of our time. offer challenges and delights to draw. birds. which very likely leaped o n t o the deck of Sir Walter Raleigh's ship Tiger as it sailed north from the Caribbean to Virginia in 1585. In this chapter we discover the use of pens and ink through the delineation of insects. O v e r the centuries. After the subject of ourselves. they are perhaps our favorite pictorial preoccupation. W e have drawn them in m a n u s c r i p t s to explain our genesis and to c o u n t their species into Noah's ark. and silent. insects. and pioneer born c. from which personality and predicted behavior were " d e d u c e d . 1540. each dedicated to the moralized tale of an animal or monster The bestiary profoundly influenced the art of its period.

DURER'S RHINOCEROS AND STUBBS'S skeletal Durer. and mathematician. It was to become the animal's only accepted likeness for 250 years. Life-like This is Durer's original quill-and-ink drawing made after an anonymous Portuguese drawing. but the drowned animal washed ashore. it is still consulted by veterinarians today. inspiring countless works of art and so touching people's imaginations that later. years after its publication. It is such a lifelike triumph of imagination and intelligence that for centuries zoologists never questioned its authority. the ship was lost. Converted into a print. the home of ALBRECHT DURER German Renaissance painter. it continued its journey to Rome. draftsman. a gift to the Portuguese King. naturalist. a drawing of it arrived in Nuremberg. they were rejected. He in turn sent the mysterious creature to the Pope via Marseilles at the request of the King of France. filled journals with ideas and observations. Meanwhile. printmaker. He studied the image and drew his own interpretation. and wrote four books on proportion. writer. Sailing to Rome. Contemporary texts related accounts of the beast as the mortal enemy of the elephant and rare relative of the "more common" unicorn. Stubbs's Anatomy of the Horse achieved similar documentary status. Unsurpassed. when more accurate portrayals were made without armor and scales.26 ANIMALS Documentaries horse are superb affirmations of the power of drawing as a recorder and communicator of knowledge. Original Ink Drawing of a Rhinoceros 1515 ALBRECHT DURER 103/4 x 161/2 in ( 2 7 4 x 4 2 0 mm) . Carefully stuffed. The first live rhinoceros to reach Europe came from India in May 1515. Durer traveled widely to study at different European schools of art. Durer's image changed eager hands until it was known across Europe.

Table of the III of the Horse (rear Skeleton view) mm) 1756-58 1 4 x 7 in ( 3 5 4 x 1 8 0 GEORGE STUBBS . L o n d o n . Anatomy of the Horse. a n d anatomist. He translated his own drawings into engravings for publication.GEORGE STUBBS B r i t i s h e q u i n e a n d s o c i e t y p o r t r a i t painter. is no other work like it. knowledge of parts. in t h r e e v i e w s — r e a r f r o n t . and therefore invented the lighting that Compare how Stubbs and Durer both invented lighting to portray the reality of their animals. Dissections Stubbs took his knife and his pencil and physically climbed inside the horse. c o m p r i s e s 1 8 p l a t e s s h o w i n g d i s s e c t i o n s in l a y e r s f r o m b o n e t h r o u g h m u s c u l a t u r e t o skin. which has never diminished. He composed makes each horse appear so real and each plate from his three-dimensional. His painted p o r t r a i t o f t h e b e a s t is in t h e R o y a l C o l l e g e o f S u r g e o n s o f England. composed from notes and observations. This is one of Stubbs' original finished pencil drawings. Dissections were made over a total of 18 months. Stubbs's m o s t c e l e b r a t e d publication. dissecting and drawing until he understood the mechanisms of its power and grace. a n d s i d e . naturalist. The entire project was developed over ten years. Lighting Stubbs's breathtaking international work won immediate There acclaim. Stubbs w a s o n e o f t h e first E u r o p e a n artists t o m a k e a n a c c u r a t e representation o f the rhinoceros.

soot. He has w a t c h e d her p o u n c e . I've ended up mixing in pencil. her b o n y frame. novelist. playwright... By contrast. Surrounding sprays of graphite powder are stuck into washes of oil and ink to suggest glutinous depths. charcoal.. Hugo used graphite powder. Hugo's page is f l o o d e d w i t h the fearful presence of a remembered octopus.. His copious drawings are characterized by mixed media. ink and linseed oil on paper. her sharp teeth. and leader of the French Romantic movement. more or less what I have in view. snarl. it silently rises to the light. and her distinctive temperament. Mixed media Here. sepia. linseed oil soaked into the paper has made shadows and repelled the ink to create translucent tentacles. and Pieuvre 1866-69 91/2 x81/8in (242 x 207 mm) VICTOR H U G O . Apparently drawn in its o w n ink. He wrote to poet and art critic Charles-Pierre Baudelaire about his experiments. saying ". drawing her again and again to pin d o w n the texture of her loose skin. and a love of accident.". coal dust. VICTOR HUGO Poet. and all sorts of bizarre concoctions which manage to convey above all in mind. Gericault took a sharp p e n c i l to m a k e repeated direct o b s e r v a t i o n s f r o m life. the ominous beast unwinds from the dark of the sea and of our nightmares. Hugo's novels Les Miserables and Dame have become classics of film and stage. drama. The Hunchback of Notre Layers and shadows Throughout this drawing. A s if disturbed from its gritty b e d by our presence and curiosity. Gericault's sheet a p p e a r s almost s c r a t c h e d b y the f e r o c i o u s play of his cat.28 ANIMALS Presence and Mood THESE DRAWINGS HAVE BEEN CHOSEN to s h o w t w o v e r y different ways of picturing a wild animal. conjured b y the hand of a great author of French literary fiction. and turn. H u g o mixed his media and drew from m e m o r y and imagination to create narrative atmosphere. The octopus is formed in layers applied and distressed with a brush.

Beginners are advised to follow the natural contours of form as shown on pp. The Raft of the Medusa. s h o r t .29 THEODORE GERICAULT C o n t r o v e r s i a l . horses w e r e a favorite subject t o g e t h e r w i t h politics and history. displayed in the Louvre. standing sideways. Before paper became so cheap. undertraces unify and vitalize the composition. and keep trying again. Undertraces Beneath these graphite studies we see traces Tones On the top row we see clearly how Gericault laid broad areas of tone using fast. 144.l i v e d French R o m a n t i c painter and lithographer Largely self-taught. parallel. H e is best k n o w n f o r his gigantic painting. facing right. fiery. Tones that do not follow surface contour is very difficult to do well. diagonal strokes of his pencil.118-119). of previous Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 1817-18 121/2 x 151/2 in ( 3 1 9 x 3 9 8 mm) T H E O D O R E GERICAULT . artists reused sheets and them full of studies. Here. At the center of the page is crammed drawings the outline of a horse. since it can lead to a flattened form. Paris. focused upon seeing will lead to a greater understanding of the subject Much is learned from repeated study. Repeated study This drawing demonstrates of feeling confident repeat different the importance subject Remaining enough to isolate parts of a views. and it can be applied to any subject (see pp. 124-25 and p. of drawings Gericault erased.

identify an animal: the fast cheetah. Cheval et Oiseau 1936 173/8 x 211/4 in ( 4 4 0 x 5 4 0 m m ) PABLO PICASSO . made only a year apart. Ink and gouache This drawing is made in black Chinese ink and gouache (opaque watercolor) applied with a brush. Both Picasso and Klee have enclosed their subjects to compress and amplify the speed of PABLO PICASSO A prolific Spanish painter sculptor. hooked. draftsman. noise is everywhere. flapping bird. His hand must have shuddered and twitched just like the constant actions of this humorous meeting. and waves breaking distantly below. Faune. taking them to guide their hand in bringing form and essence together. The fact that they never stand still influences the movement in his line. and brown. dissolving faun kneels stranded. flattened animals composed almost entirely of movement. In these two drawings. Klee's riders are constructed from all the gestures of greeting mules. slow tortoise. In Picasso's drawing. His powdery. quivering horse. the whinnying of a frantic horse. or proud. Picasso cofounded Cubism. the first abstract movement of the 20th century. These media complement and amplify each other with their brilliant contrast. printmaker ceramicist graphic and stage designer who lived in France. overwhelmed by a screeching bird. Gouache is brushed softly in translucent hazy layers of cool blue. and scrolled lines. gray. The ink is used to make sharply defined solid.30 ANIMALS Movement M O V E M E N T IS OFTEN THE CHARACTERISTIC b y w h i c h w e their lines and the power of their beasts. Artists commonly focus on such actions. with George Braque (see p90). we see semi-abstract.

printmaker. W i t h his drawings Kleeb o u n d sophisticated theories to personal and often witty childlike imagery. N e u m a n n Family Collection." They chatter around bodies in groups.PAUL KLEE Swiss painter. creatures. Scene der Komischen of Comical Reiter Riders) (Scene 1935 161/2x111/2in ( 4 1 9 x 2 9 1 mm) M o r t o n G . sculptor. top all happily of each other in the Endless lines Look closely at how Klee's lines rarely leave the paper and how they are free from the constraint of finite shape. Layers of marks In this pale Dentil drawing we see layers of' agitated marks that together present a kind of visual "itch. Chicago PAUL KLEE . and t e a c h e r at t h e Bauhaus school. The entire drawing suggests the endless small movements of horses standing still. He is a u t h o r o f The Thinking Eye (1923). turning our eye and around inside the and postures of the paper- thin on pictorial space. well-worn copies o f w h i c h are found in m a n y art schools. They remain in contact with the surface of the page and scribble back and forth as they maneuver from one area to another. violinist. draftsman.

and author o f Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (1586). In contrast to the practical clarity of Baker's thought. Baker lived in an era when ships were built without drawn plans. which in application gave strength and advantage to the English fighting the Spanish Armada. In just one drawing he has displayed more angles of his design than we would expect to see from a single viewpoint Fragments English 1586 101/2 x 153/8 in (270 x 390 mm) MATTHEW BAKER of Ancient Shipwrightry . and blackbirds fly in formation through a mosaic of text. and s e c t i o n s o f ships. it would achieve greater speed. The fish It is likely that Baker drew with a quill dipped in irongall ink. This drawing illustrates Baker's theory. and to assess our next move. Knopf's drawing opposite is the personal enigmatic expression of a mind gripped by illness. t h e earliest geometrically defined elevations. and steerage. Baker did not intend this. Below we see his revolutionary design for an Elizabethan warship. and the carefully observed gills. later called a galleon. The ship The upper decks of the ship appear curved toward us at both ends. His birds stare. and scales. adding washes of color with a fine brush. the expression of its eye. Exquisite details in this drawing include the lips of the fish. B a k e r initiated t h e scientific p r a c t i c e o f naval a r c h i t e c t u r e and applied h y d r o d y n a m i c s . seemingly looking for our attention. mathematician. fins. He studied the anatomy of fish. b a s e d o n his studies o f fish. plans. and from them learned that if he designed his ship with a "cod's head MATTHEW BAKER Master shipwright. drawings of animals that are each held tightly in a surprising space: a giant fish wears a ship's hull. balance. slim stern). It is simply how we read his perspective.32 ANIMALS Icon and Design IN THESE T W O MANUSCRIPTS we discover diagrammatic and mackerel's tail" (full bow.

firmly outlined. w h i c h o f t e n f e a t u r e as s y m b o l i c creatures in his drawings.JOHANN KNOPF An " O u t s i d e r " a r t i s t w h o s u f f e r e d f r o m m e n t a l illness. appears to be stirred like water by the presence of the The Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks UNDATED 133/8 x 115/8 in (340 x 2 9 6 mm) and psychiatrist Hans Prinzhom collected this image. written last of all. T h e G e r m a n a r t historian Outline and tone The blackbirds illuminating this frantic manuscript are drawn in pencil. JOHANN KNOPF . numbered. The text.K n o p f b e l i e v e d h e c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h e language o f birds. and filled evenly with tone. The main group is placed in a circle drawn with a compass. circle and the birds.

light it. Today. 4. Responsive to slight changes in pressure. Intricate or dramatic lines. 2. a n d m e t a l p o i n t s . The paste from either recipe is pressed and dried into a bar for storage. The reservoir gives a constant flow of ink for very long unbroken lines and continuous bottle-free use. METAL PENS: Inexpensive removable steel nibs are available in a range of widths. Early artists recommended raven and crow for especially fine work. The Egyptians and Chinese are credited with the invention of carbon ink. and spatters can be made with an exotic choice of inks. and hold it under a clean basin until the soot hangs to it. Each pen has a unique character. ink is traditionally applied with a brush (see pp. spots. where reeds were gathered. A German recipe of 1531 gives a simple description: "Take a wax candle.246-47). F O U N T A I N PENS: These vary in quality and nib width. from the acacia tree. distinguished manufacture. PENS . and first used by the Egyptians.34 ANIMALS Pen and Ink W I T H A HANDFUL OF FEATHERS. That is an ink. The bar is then rubbed into water on a slate block to produce ink. The Chinese used animal or fish glue. The best are goose or swan. Avoid needle-sharp mapping pens." "Gum" refers to gum arabic extracted Dip pens are essential and inexpensive drawing tools. you can have great fun drawing the world around you. while metal nibs began as rare gifts in gold and silver before being perfected by the British steel industry. QUILLS: These are cut from the barrel of a flight or tail feather. Masters choose brands of long. expressive drawing techniques such as the ones we explore in this chapter 1. 3. they are associated with rapid. producing a different line. 5 0 0 years ago. Dip pens began their history in the Nile River. Quills were later cut from feathers. then pour a little warm gum water into it and temper the two together. which range greatly in their handling and character of line. They fit into wooden holders. the recipes for which have been handed down over centuries. s t i c k s . which scratch rather than draw. and it is still in use today. In the Far East. REED PENS: A broad nib can be cut from bamboo or another tubular grass. high-quality Chinese and Japanese inks are subtler and more complex than those produced in Europe. Only fill with suitable inks. simultaneously 4 .

is the ink of a cuttlefish or squid extracted post-mortem. and sepia.35 PEN AND INK Four types of ink were common before the 20th century. from are not 6. and are still in use today: carbon (Chinese and Indian). ACRYLIC / CALLIGRAPHY INKS: Available in black and a range of colors. charred bone (Ivory Black). or charcoal. Now we also have acrylic ranges in many colors. and most can be homemade. waterproof or non-waterproof. C A R B O N INK: Traditionally produced from oil or resin soot (Lamp Black). 8. roastedwine sediment (Yeast Black). The complexities of traditional iron-gall ink are explained on p.36. and sieved. Waterproof types contain shellac. suspended in a binder and stored as a solid block Blocks are imported today 7. SEPIA A N D BISTRE INKS: Sepia. dated. bistre. Old stock turns solid and bottlesChina. They are the easiest inks to use. boiled. Bistre is the more humane use of soot scraped from the fireplace and ground into wine. Crushed.G A L L INK: Abnormal spherical growths caused by parasitic wasps can be collected from some oak trees in fall. they produce a golden dye for drawing. Beechwood soot is best. . It dries with a sheen and clogs uncleaned pens. I N D I A N INK: Carbon ink sold today in liquid form. and can be mixed and diluted to create subtler colors and tones. I R O N . reduced. Inks can be lightfast or non-lightfast. Non-waterproof Indian inks can be reworked with a wet brush after drying. an often misused term. Excellent for drawing they are bright and non-clogging. INKS 9. iron-gall. 5.

finding reed p e n s unwieldy. 2 4 4 is an e x q u i s i t e e x a m p l e . It dried black. and delicious to draw with. keep all your fingers behind basis of iron-gall ink. galls were ground with iron sulfate to make an unstable solution. Although oak galls and walnut skins are harmless. sieved. I u s e d t h e s e qualities t o d r a w t h e w o r m s above. red-brown. reduced. Collect skins from the ground beneath trees once they are blackened. appears broken to show paper beneath. Oak galls. of a loaded nib. Walnut ink is gloopy. T h e y give a finer. r e s e r v e d t h e i r use f o r large c h o i r b o o k s . giving a s h o r t . can also be collected from affected trees. It also oxidized and ate or burned paper. giving longer lines. a n d d e v e l o p e d t h e quill instead. crushed. it was gray-purple. Rembrandt. Paler strokes were made where the mark has the legs and antennae the ink ran out. For centuries. d r y mark. The darkest of this grasshopper wings) were made (around the head first.36 ANIMALS Drawing With Ink To MAKE A QUILL OR REED PEN. and boiled to make a golden ink. a n d M a t i s s e also e n j o y e d t h e m . QUILL PENS Q u i l l s a r e highly r e s p o n s i v e t o c h a n g e s in p r e s s u r e . U n d e r heavy pressure. the blade and cut away from you. then cut a final nib (feathers. Reed marks The darker left wing of this beetle was drawn with the wet inky stroke wing. . Some of Michelangelo's drawings are now a little eaten by their own ink. forming the REED PENS R e e dpens dispense ink quickly. Scribes o f t h e M i d d l e Ages. Quills are also called D u t c h pens. V a n G o g h . and turned brown with time. drawn to glisten with a dryer nib. Practice to gain a feel for how materials behave. t h e y stick a n d j u d d e r f o r w a r d . fleshy skins that surround ripe walnuts. m o r e e x t e n d e d line than reed and a m o r e organic line t h a n m e t a l .) You can make ink easily from the boiled. M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s d r a g o n o n p . always be cautious when experimenting with recipes. since t h e D u t c h w e r e t h e first t o realize t h a t they could be hardened and i m p r o v e d w i t h heat t r e a t m e n t in ash o r sand. Running fresh. The lighter right Quill marks Quills carry more ink than strokes and for as reeds. for example. are surprisingly tough.

it is important to feel for when the ink will run out and to know how much ink you pick up when dipping the nib. sharp. Loaded with ink and pressed hard. When using dip pens. o r being ruined as fountain pens would be under the same pressure. they splay to make thick o r double lines. Each layer of of the drying droplet dome the drawing was left to dry before adding more. withstanding great pressure without sticking. DRAWING WITH INK Filled outlines Each segment of wing was outlined. particles then filled with a droplet of ink. tonal Ink layers The wings of this beetle were drawn in layers using black and white ink on pale gray paper. breaking. giving a graded. The of pigment to fall to the edges effect of the shape. marks become fine and needle-sharp.37 METAL PENS Metal pens give long. clean strokes. . W h e n the nib is pressed upside down. White markings were drawn last Tones Here we see subtle tones of diluted ink beneath the undiluted black rim of a beetle's wing.

not on your drawing. and bellyflop off the waterside. Cover your drawing book pages in speedy responses to the geese and try to capture each bird in as few lines as possible. to absorb blots when drawing. Experiment. It teaches confidence and focus through intensive repetition. and boldly plunge into your drawing. and quickly draw around it using only three or four strokes. Study them before drawing. I covered eleven sheets in sixty quick drawings—in less than an hour. Geese are nosy birds. so pick a spot where other people can keep them entertained. be bold and press firmly. Attempt with a loose hand to capture their posture and outline. waddle. Quick drawing trains you to see what is most important about a subject and to mark only its most essential expression. Illustrating this exercise on Oxford Port Meadow. Posture . draw what the bird is doing. Watch their heavy feathered bodies flap." If you don't like a stroke. Take no more than ten seconds to draw each one and make lots of drawings. Empathize. MATERIALS NEEDED Look for a bird expressing a simple posture. make another one. Focus on it. Try to hold the whole posture in your mind's eye. Focus on the geese. there is no obligation to prepare a quill. Cover a sheet. Dip your pen in ink. Take a cup and water for diluting a range of tones. test your limits.38 ANIMALS Capturing Character GEESE ARE EXCELLENT SUBJECTS to draw when practicing the first use of pen and ink. Pack plenty of tissue around a bottle of calligraphy or acrylic ink. That said. You cannot break the nib. touch the bottle's rim to drain the excess. and there is no "wrong. and a large drawing book or plenty of paper Use masking tape to secure pages against the wind. and be brave. It happens that goose feathers also provide artists with the best type of quills. steel nibs are fine.

39 Action With growing confidence. running. look among the birds for more complicated actions such as shaking off water. Use more lines than before to express these. Avoid detail unless really tempted by a close-up visit Fluctuate the pressure of your pen in response to how you know the bird would feel if you touched it. . flapping. CAPTURING CHARACTER Texture Gradually allow yourself more lines to describe the texture of each bird as well as its posture and action. and don't worry about mechanical facts or accuracy. and diving. Again. draw the feeling of what you see.

and a tissue for blotting drawn lines that appear too dark. For this class you will need one oblivious dog.40 ANIMALS Sleeping Dogs R A S WAS A GREAT CHARACTER. your drawing book. Then dip the nib quickly into a glass of water and drain the excess again. These drawings are not an analysis of his anatomy or breed but the expression of his satisfied comfort in a deep sleep after a night out on the together with a glass of water for diluting tones on the nib. Sleeping animals present the artist with ideal opportunities to study their texture. and even then he twitched and stretched in dreams. MAKING A PALE LINE To make a pale line. engaged in his and everyone else's business. first dip your pen in ink. The only time he remained still was when he was sleeping. a d o g w h o w a s a l w a y s town. and drain the excess by touching the nib against the rim of the bottle. This will give a medium-gray line." . Ras Curled Up Asleep "Capturing the true character of a cherished companion is best achieved with objective determination rather than sentimental shyness. and personality. Dip the nib quickly again into water and again drain it. Make a test sheet to discover your control of diluting on the nib.34-37). Now it will make a pale line. form. a dip pen and ink of your choice (see pp.

second thoughts may be different Changing your mind is a positive aspect o f seeing and thinking. and the shadows in his coat. in bold layers. Layers o f thoughts can bring a drawing alive. 2 Reload your pen with ink.41 DRAWING YOUR DOG Be bold in this exercise. SLEEPING DOGS 1 Fix your eyes at the center of the dog. tail. add more detail. ears. Remain focused on the whole dog and. . this time to create a line a little darker in tone. Trust your intuition. Here. c o n c e r n e d a b o u t detail. I added ink to Ras's nose. ignoring all detail. see how the animal's posture determines its whole shape. To add texture. Then. Here I marked the features of Ras's head. alter the pressure and moisture of your line in response to howyouknow your dog feels when you ruffle itscoat. to emphasize how he is curled up. W i t h pale lies. Then I immediately rebalanced the drawing with lines around his hind quarters. 3 Gradually introduce darker tones.It is essential when drawing any subject (even something abstract) to know how it feels andtoemulate this with your line. quickly draw what you see. First lines are first thoughts. D o not go back over lines you are pleased with—doing so dulls their lively freshness. Character is better captured drawing quickly with confidence than w o r k i n g slowly.

they stretch and paddle. turtles often pause unexpectedly. swinging their limbs and shells with a slow circular movement. Beyond the glass wall of the aquarium.Turtles to observe. offering plenty of time for the artist to draw the pose. THE ELONGATION AND BUOYANCY of a group of turtles is fascinating . A perfect subject for the beginner. as if caught in a camera freeze-frame.

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and sharp. Beginning with very pale tones.Dry Birds THESE ARE THE ARTICULATED BONES o f a k i w i a n d a h o u s e - martin drawn in a museum using a steel pen. balance. I sought to capture the form. India ink. With speed. . and water. weightlessness of the kiwi. dry. I made repeated studies of the housemartin to discover its mechanism of flight. I darkened lines as each drawing progressed.

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nurture. we see very different cultural visions of plants and gardens and use pencils and plants to learn the pictorial values of space. Plants seventeenth century. After Here Aconthus spinosus is combined with forget-me-nots and-a-half centuries of intensive observation. form. and hybridize them for our sustenance and pleasure. Chapters are arranged by out. Classifications were set in367copperengravings. Both embrace the anticipation of evolving shape. PriceBishopof Eichstatt specimens. to catalog our knowledge. Conrad von Gemmingen. We collect. From its history there is one overriding lesson to be learned: the importance of looking and seeing with our own eyes. on which our lives depend. Botanic gardens were established and expanded. and to ornament our lives. to the proliferation of floral designs with which we have dressed ourselves and furnished our homes for centuries.Plants and Gardens W E SHARE THIS PLANET with the more ancient. and beauty. manipulations of light and shade. We draw them to celebrate their beauty and range. He sent boxes of plants to Nuremburgburned with the urgency and excitement of explaining every plant's form. and the Acanthus spinosus constant but exhilarating struggle to make a living image feel right. as opposed to only herbal. and the drawn pages ofthesame name. Patrons funded the breeding of decorative. The revolution came in the 1530s. It was published plain in 1611 and withhand-paintedplates in poured off ships returning from the New World and were eagerly collected and 1613. and focus. an There are close parallels between the acts of gardening and drawing. color. In this chapter. —-the largest and most influential botanical book of the early Natural scientists accompanied explorers to document unknown finds. robust. we now have laid before us fourto show how well their colours complement each other infinite wealth of material to explore. and texture. Botanical illustration is a precisely defined and scientific art. the punctuation of space with structure and mass. where a number of uncredited artistsd r e wthem for Besler. Medieval knowledge was not gained by the first-hand observation of life but by reading.000 species of plants are depicted life-size drawn. and diverse kingdom of plants. Fledgling years Botanist and apothecary who compiled the Hortus Eystettensis of scientific research bore manifold explosions of knowledge in a fever of discovery. the microscope was refined to unfold yet another world. season. infinitely vivid. Later. Rich owners of private gardens commissioned large-format florilegiums commissioned the volume to document his private garden to immortalize their personal taste and power of acquisition. Early European illustrators were trapped within dogma that was determined by ancient scholarship. shape. 1613 187/8x153/4in(480 x 400 mm) BASILIUS BESLER . B A S I L I U SBESLER when botanists founded new work upon the direct study of plants. Plants are the principal inspiration of the decorative arts—from Roman Corinthian columns crowned with carved leaves of the acanthus.Morethan 1.

T h e rest of u s are free to d r a w as w e w i s h . Light in this drawing is given by the paleness of the paper showing between washes of darker tones. flowers. Sir Joseph Banks. and wilted. leaves. o p t i m i s m . Each plant must b e clearly distinguished from its closest relative. fruit. It is likely Bauer would have studied these under a microscope. Dissections Across the lower part of this drawing we can see dissections of seed pods and petals. He has made the spatial and physical relationships in this drawing all the more real by placing a single. Outline Bauer prepared a pencil outline before laying in fleshy succulent hues and tones of watercolor. M a c k i n t o s h e x p r e s s e s the f o l d e d petals of a broken rose b u d so delicately w e can sense the perfume. and seeds conventionally a p p e a r o n o n e plate. and meticulous precision." Her slipper orchid s h o w s that botanical drawing must often resolve the challenge of its subject's p r o d u c i n g parts in different seasons — r o o t s . W i t h bright F R A N Z BAUER An Austrian artist who trained at the Schonbrunn Imperial Gardens in Vienna. naturalist explorer and advisor to King George III invited Bauer to London in 1 7 9 0 . detail. Here. s u c h as w e see here in Bauer's Protea nitida. or that were diseased. The King was then establishing the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. insect-ravaged. Botanical art c o n c e a l s the challenge of its m a k i n g . measured drawings. and Franz Bauer and his brother Ferdinand were employed there to draw specimens. o p e n i n g a n d c l o s i n g i n the w a r m t h a n d light of the studio. B e h i n d detailed. stems.48 PLANTS AND GARDENS THE SCIENTIFIC VALUE OF A BOTANICAL DRAWING lies i n its Botanical Studies were specimens that often refused to stay still. Stella Ross-Craig said of the need to d r a w from a dried herbarium plant "I could make it live again. subtle union of beauty. delicate. petal tip over a lower leaf Protea nitida 201/4 x141/4in (513 x 362 mm) FRANZ BAUER 1796 . They are counted among the most accomplished 18th-century botanical artists.

286 studies for her book Drawings of British Plants. Rose 1894 103/4 x 83/4 in ( 2 7 5 x 2 2 1 mm) CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH STELLA ROSS-CRAIG A j o i n e d t h e staff a t t h e R o y a l B o t a n i c G a r d e n s . it is small and discreet. imagination. a m o n g o t h e r s . a n d he inspired. K e w . and speed depends upon the immediate perception of the essential characteristics of the plant. p u b l i s h e d 1 9 4 8 ." This line drawing is one of 1.000 Kew to archive accessible t o d a y v i a t h e I n t e r n e t of o n British flora. sensual pencil drawing is later works. Curtis's Botanical Magazine.. H e r Drawings of British Plants.49 C H A R L E S RENNIE MACKINTOSH Scottish a r c h i t e c t d e s i g n e r painter.g a r d e in G e r m a n y a n d A u s t r i a . and observation the nuance and contour of every in one image.7 3 in 3 1 p a r t s . L o n d o n in 1 9 2 9 . Pencil lines cling to. and perfect coordination of hand and eye. S h e also o f thousands o f contributed an drawings. and it shows how design.. A s m a n y of her drawings are kept G a r d e n s . found among Mackintosh's than reality. and follow shadow. a n d f o u n d e r o f t h e G l a s g o w S c h o o l o f A r t M a c k i n t o s h ' s flair h a d an e n o r m o u s i n f l u e n c e o n t h e a v a n t . 1970 x 81/4 in ( 3 2 5 x 2 1 0 m m ) STELLA ROSS-CRAIG . Closer to fiction can come together perfectly. BOTANICAL STUDIES Lines and shadows This lush. as at trained botanical artist Ross-Craig Swift lines The drawing was planned in pencil and then overworked with a lithographic pen. is r e c o g n i z e d as tne m o s t c o m p l e t e a n d i m p o r t a n t work 3. G u s t a v K l i m t In his r e t i r e m e n t Mackintosh m a d e n u m e r o u s inventive pencil a n d w a t e r c o l o r d r a w i n g s o f plants. Ross-Craig said of her work "Plants that wither rapidly present a very difficult problem to which there is only one answer—speed. Line Drawing of Cypripedium calceolus L c.

Upright shallow perspectives. Below. Opposite is the Rose of Mohammed. Envoys chatter outside the gate.50 PLANTS AND GARDENS Jeweled Gardens the Middle East we find exquisite stylization of form and upright formality in pictorial space. in the early 16th century. paper is brimming with the beauty and celebration of nature. The white of the page shines through the brilliant color. and attention to detail are all shared with medieval European manuscript drawings. Bishndas was probably responsible for the overall design. The first Mughal Emperor Babur's Garden of Fidelity (Bagh-e Vaja). which he personally created near Kabul. and Nanha. By Muslim tradition. the sumptuous petals permeated with prayer and wisdom. Every fiber of AMONG DRAWINGS FROM BISHNDAS A N D N A N H A Little is known of these Mughal painters who were related as uncle and nephew and commissioned to illustrate the pages of Babur's journal. Afghanistan. Babur directs his gardeners in the design and planting of this quartered chahar bagh. anticipating their view. is remembered in the pages of his journal. fluctuations in scale. Drawing. 1590 85/8 x55/8in (219 x 1 4 4 mm) BISHNDAS AND NANHA Bright pigment These pages were illuminated by Mughal artists in the late 16th century. urgent attentive human activity. uniform focus. a notable portrait painter drew the faces. . roses took their form in a bead of perspiration on the brow of Mohammed as he passed through his heavenly journey. and miraculous growth. in miniature. Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity c. and calligraphy are brought together to hold the sacred names of prophets and the 99 beautiful names of God. painting. They used a fine brush to lay pigment over a line drawing.

AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH This is a detail o f a page from a n 1 8 t h . It is n o w k e p t in Border The elegant border of this drawing was mode with a pen and ruler It cleverly compresses and defines the composition. The Rose of Mohammed 1708 9 1 / 2 x 61/2 in ( 2 4 0 x 1 6 5 mm) FROM THE TURKISH M A N U S C R I P T AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH . However. G e r m a n y . Stylized motif A fine brush has been used throughout this drawing to apply inks and watercolors. Sacred words The central rose is more solid than any other on the page. Note how each bud is essentially the same shape. t h e Staatsbibliothek zu Arabic. The physical anatomy of the rosebud has been studied and translated into a repeated stylized motif. look closely and you will see words written in gold fluttering over the form of the flower.c e n t u r y Turkish manuscnpt a book of religious e t h i c s w r i t t e n in the O r i e n t a l C o l l e c t i o n s of Berlin. fragmenting its detail in a whisper of prayers. and how the shape has been repeated freehand. so that overlapping petals and stems give an impression of fulfillment and abundance.

52

PLANTS AND GARDENS

Fast Trees
IN CONTRAST TO THE QUIET, formal detail of other drawings in this chapter, these powerful fast trees enact the actions of plants. Each tree reaches out and holds its landscape with dynamism and pulse. In both drawings we find testament to the inexorable energy of growth. Rembrandt expresses a delicate quickness. Gentle lines draw a warm breeze through this remote wooded garden. Rustling in a loose foliage of soft marks, his pen evokes the weight of abundant activity on this late summer's day. Mondrian's arch of scratching branches is drawn with such force it will always be alive. We can still feel his hand storming across the paper. Set within a frame of smudged landscape, the tree possesses a musical agitation. This characteristic will increase in the artist's later abstract work. Here, we see a punctuated ordering of space. Sharp branches cut out negative shapes of winter sky.

R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter; etcher; and draftsman. Rembrandt's prolific output comprises oil paintings of historical and religious subjects together with group and self- portraits. His emotive etchings and pen and ink drawings (see also p. 174) are great resources for artists learning to understand the potential of these media.

Horizon

Pen and ink lines describing foliage also tell

us the directions of sunlight and wind. An arc crossing the bottom of the drawing from one side to the other supports the scene and separates us from the landscape beyond. Compare Rembrandt's arc to that of Mondrian's. and note the similar treatment of low horizons in both works emphasizing the height and dominance of trees.

Cottage Among Trees 1648-50 63/4 x121/8in ( I 7 I x 308 mm) R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN

53

FAST TREES

PIET

MONDRIAN

Atmosphere Here we see how shapes of negative space are as important as the physical subject they enclose (see pp.58-59). Mondrian has again lightly dragged his chalk on its side to evoke a wet depth of atmosphere. These passive gray marks contrast with the assertive tension of the tree.

Dutch Pure abstract painter preoccupied w i t h line and plane relationships. W i t h increasing austerity, Mondrian banished t h e subject from his drawings, in his later w o r k he also banished space, composing visual h a r m o n i e s using only straight lines a n d flat planes o f black, w h i t e , gray, o r p r i m a r y color.

Winter ground Short vertical marks along thebottomof this drawing reveal the length oftheblackchalk Mondrian used. Rubbed onitsside,itroughly blocks in the ground. Thecrudeeconomy of line is all we need tofeelthecold, wet, unwelcoming quality ofthiswinterearth.

Branches and trunk Lines shaping the branches of the tree are built up in layers. To make the trunk more dense, the artist has rubbed and smudged preliminary marks with his fingers before firmly overdrawing with new lines. Solid black lines are achieved by pressing the chalk hard. When used lightly, it shows the texture of the paper. Tree: Study for the Grey 1911 23 x 335/8 in ( 5 8 4 x 8 5 5 m m ) Tree

PIET MONDRIAN

54

PLANTS AND GARDENS

Graphite and Erasers
GRAPHITE, FROM THE G R E E K word

USING GRAPHITE
This drawing illustrates a range of achieved with graphite pencils of different grades.

graphein

Modern pencils are graded from 9H (hard and pale) to 9B (black and soft). Graphiteclay sticks are also available, together with a powder form. All possess a natural sheen and are erasable to a varying degree. Graphite drawings smudge easily, so fixative, a form of varnish, can be used to hold a drawn surface in place. It is applied as a fine mist from an aerosol can, or from a bottle using a diffuser. For the beginner, ordinary hairspray is an effective and cheaper alternative.

(to write), is a soft and brittle carbon. It was first mined in Cumbria, England, in 1 5 6 4 , and was initially used in small, pure pieces bound in lengths of string. Pencils as we know them—with their slender wood casing and "lead" of graphite—were invented in France in 1794 by Nicolas-Jaques Conte. He discovered that milled graphite mixed with clay and water, press-molded, and baked to a high temperature produces a harder and paler medium than graphite alone.

3B pencil A range of mark and textures can be achieved with a 3B pencil when you vary its pressure, speed, and direction, as this detail shows.

MATERIALS
Here is a selection of 14 items to illustrate a basic range of pencils, graphite sticks, sharpeners, erasers, and fixative.
1. AND 2. HB AND 3B PENCILS: It is unnecessary to possess every grade of pencil. HB, the central and most common grade, is perfect for making delicate lines. 3B gives a blacker tone. A great variety of effects can be achieved with just these two. 3. WATER-SOLUBLE PENCIL Effective for atmospheric drawing, but be aware of how watery tones can dull the impact of the line. 4. AND 5. MECHANICAL PENCIL Thick or fine leads are made in a range of grades. They are particularly useful because they do not require a sharpener 6. ROUND SOLID GRAPHITE PENCIL: Excellent for large-scale drawing, producing thick bold lines. A range of grades can be honed with a craft knife or sharpener 7. THICK GRAPHITE STICK: For large-scale drawing. Graded soft, medium, and hard. It crushes to produce graphite powder 8. SQUARE GRAPHITE STICK: Useful for making broad, sweeping marks in large-scale drawing. If worn and rounded, the stick can be snapped into pieces to regain the sharp, square end. 9. CRAFT KNIFE AND BLADES: Handles are sold in two sizes to fit large or small blades, and blades are sold in a range of shapes. Perfect for sharpening pencils to a long point, to cut lines in paper or to remove areas. 10. PENCIL SHARPENER: Makes a uniform point. Keep one in your pocket for drawing outside the studio, together with an envelope for shavings.

HB and 5B Layers of tone have been built up withHBand5Bpencils. Softer pencils require less pressure to make a mark, revealing the texture of the paper surface. It is important to keep the point of the pencil sharp with either a craft knife or a sharpener.

55

ERASING AND FIXING
Erasers can be used t o blend and s o f t e n lines, o r t o r e m o v e altogether. Fixative them prevents

GRAPHITE AND ERASERS

s m u d g i n g a n d s e c u r e s lines.

Using fixative You can use fixative while drawing to hold the definition of lines you wish to gently fade but not remove entirely, for which you would use an eraser.

11. P L A S T I C E R A S E R : Avoid cheap colored erasers that may stain drawings with grease and dye. White brands are available in soft and hard versions.

12.

P U T T Y RUBBER:

W a r m it in your hand before use. It is excellent for removing powdery materials, and for making crisp sweeps of light across a delicate pencil drawing

13. D I F F U S E R : Helleborus corsicus (Corsican hellebore) fixative, or to spray mists of ink.

56

PLANTS AND GARDENS

Cropping and Composition
M A N Y STUDENTS WILL START a d r a w i n g i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e

that its skin nearly touches the boundary. The meaning of the same drawing changes simply by its relationship to the space it occupies. The size of any subject, its placement on the page, the size of the page, and its overall proportion are all discrete and essential aspects of successful picture-making. Before you begin to draw, think carefully about where to place your subject. Are you are happy with your paper? If not, change it; add more, take some away, or turn it around. Do not just accept what you are given, adapt it to what you need.

paper. Focused on the shape and detail of their subject, they remain happily unaware that there is, or should be, any relationship between what they are drawing and the surface they are drawing it on. The paper is only paper, and the troublesome subject floats somewhere in the expanse of it. However, a single fig drawn in the middle of a large, empty square of paper gives quite a different impression from the same fig drawn on such an intimately small square

CHOOSING A VIEW

A Single Fig

"The size, shape, and orientation of the paper are so integral to the composition that they determine the impact and meaning of the drawing."

Here the left fig is attached to. bottom-left t o top-right. The angle of the fruit together with dark shadow (top left) and bright light(bottom right) suggest a diagonal division across the whole drawing. its stem and shadow framing a white center. its illumination. This drawing hasbeencropped to emphasize space between thefruit. and therefore apparently suspended from. When subjects touch two or more edges. t h e n m o v e t h e c a r d t o e x p l o r e different views. running corner t o corner. spaces between things are as important as the things themselves. a device to help you decide what t o draw.O u r focus is on the white cloth supporting the figs. U s e it as a starting point. as also shown here. they establish a tension and unity with the paper. Space as the subject Inallpictures.57 THE VIEWFINDER T h e s e pencil drawings o f figs d e m o n s t r a t e different crops and compositions. CROPPING AND COMPOSITION Off-center and diagonal Here I held my viewfinder so the fig appeared upper-left in the space. Touching the edge When the subject o f a drawing touches one edge of the paper it attaches t o it visually. and lines describing shadows cast by the fruit . A card with a small rectangle cut out o f it makes a useful viewfinder C l o s e o n e e y e t o look through the hole. the uppermost edge of the drawing.

unified. and a fresh page in your drawing book. Unfamiliar shapes of negative space reveal the real shape of a positive subject. dynamic. tone. It is an astonishingly simple device that many artists use and I strongly recommend. But how often do we look at the air between things. an eraser.The box opposite isolates an area. a foundation stone in picture-making. fourth. Negative space is the simple key to getting positive shape right. In your own version. this ensures a consistent view. Looking at negative space overrides the problem of drawing what you know. WHERE TO START Arrange your plant and paper so you can look back and forth by barely moving your head. rather than what you see in front of you. third. but if the artist does. and engaging. It helps to start at the center and map outward. Viewers appreciating a finished image may not see shapes of space. and so on. their subject and composition will become more real. which is shown in the three steps below. Remember that plants do move! Therefore it is best to complete your drawing in one sitting if possible. erasing and adjusting lines until itlooked right. not leaves. Draw a complete shape Map outward from the center Erase and adjust lines until correct . In following this class. and a role to play. then added a second shape. The drawing opposite is of the uppermost leaves of a potted fig tree. Follow these from left to right and see how I began with one complete shape between two parts of a leaf. remember to draw only space. do we see myriad distinct and unique shapes of daylight or do we just see branches? Why as artists should we look at the air? Every space in a picture has a shape. a sharp H B pencil. shapes of air cut out and defined by the physicality of our environment? When we look into the branches of a tree.58 PLANTS AND GARDENS Negative Space UNCONSCIOUSLY WE ASSESS spatial relationships all the time to guide ourselves through the world. you will need a similar large-leaved plant. position.

59

Here I drew only spaces, adding one to another until the leaves were revealed. Besides looking at negative space, there are two other useful things to do when a drawing feels wrong but you cannot see why: look at it in a mirror or turn it upside down. errors and suggest changes.

Spaces between leaves

Either view will

NEGATIVE SPACE

Fig Tree
WALKING IN THE ALPUJARRAS in A n d a l u c i a ,

Spain, I drew a bare fig tree clinging to the wall of an almond grove; a perfect subject for seeing negative space. I marked its essential frame of large branches first, frequently erasing lines and changing my mind until the balance felt right.

S a l v i a , RIBES, CLEMATIS, Allium, Passiflora, and Acanthus

Summer Flowers

Alchemilla,

drawn with an H pencil by observing the

negative spaces between the stems, petals, and leaves. I arranged the flowers on a sheet of paper in a cool r o o m and rapidly sketched a composition. Then I put them in water, taking the stems out one at a time to draw.

.

62-63). Compare changes of pace and focus here to the flatter finish of Summer Flowers (see pp. If an artist changes the pace of their line and focus of their attention. . our eyes travel and adjust from one point of focus to another.Acanthus Spinosus As we LOOK AROUND. interfolding points of detail with areas of loose suggestion. they emulate our experience of seeing. Excessive detail leaves no space for the eye to rest or imagination to wander. We never see everything at once. gathering less distinct information on the way.

.

74-75). composers. Besides sketches of first thoughts and polished drawings of the finished look for clients. with gray and brown watercolor wash. Baltard designed the Church of St. European conventions of pictorial perspective have lost their monopoly on seeing. to help them create new form. VICTOR BALTARD French architect employed by the city of Paris. Computer programs allow the virtual drawing of ideas. Since Picasso and Braque's revolution of Cubism in around 1907. and computer game imaging. we find the most recent steps in the evolution of graphic language. Perhaps in the sheer planes of some of our greatest modern buildings it is finding its clearest expression. to 20th-century film fantasy. film-set design. once there. It was the mathematicians. architects and designers can imaginatively "climb inside" three-dimensional space and. space. coupled with the importance of exercizing your imagination. drawing plans around themselves within a program as opposed to on a flat sheet of paper.This is a pencil drawing. Augustin. and in the 19th century it was given the name the Golden Section. filmmakers. add and subtract ideas. the device that has since governed most of our picture-making (sec pp. which was the first church in the capital to be built entirely of metal and then clad in stone. from political commentary to musical abstraction. they have the Golden Section. architects. designers. philosophers. made by the architect himself. invaluable to understand and apply when you choose. mass. Paris 1871-74 the child's view to the infinity of the vanishing point. This harmony.Architecture I N THE CONTEMPORARY PRACTICES of architecture. and writers have been breaking away from traditional forms of representation to seek new expressions of shape. and sound. It is the focus of practical class in this chapter. each VICTOR BALTARD . was preserved into the Renaissance where it became a foundation stone for thinking and creativity From 15thcentury Italy. which can be clearly seen in ancient Greek architecture.The church is still in use today. At the core of their practice. balance. and architects of ancient Greece who first pursued the formula for "divine proportion. Among the drawings of this chapter we look from 17th-century ecclesiastical calm. Since the first flowering of Modernism in the early 20th century. they also have a diagrammatic language for communicating plans to builders. Architects have been fine-tuning their specialized branch of drawing for centuries. Yet the pursuit of divine proportion and harmony remains. the formula for perfection spread through Europe. fine artists. of the west facade of St Augustin. Linear perspective is a marvelous device. and from West Facade of the Church of St Augustin. It was also during the Renaissance that the architect Brunelleschi invented linear perspective. time." reflecting the eye's love of unity in difference. Through the animation of the screen.

Gaudi's fluid architecture grew up through many kinds of drawing. A student of Wren's. 1711-12 NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR . testing gravity to calculate the inverted shapes of domes. and Castle Howard. relative levels. Finished surface On the left the finished surface of the building is given depth and emphasis by immaculate vertical and horizontal brush strokes of shadow. embodying a massive investment of ideas. he also worked on St Paul's Cathedral. Drawings underpin every great human-made structure like hidden linear ghosts at their core. marks the end of a long journey from the first few marks the architect made on a sheet of paper. Three aspects This subtle and sophisticated drawing made in pen and wash displays three distinct aspects of Hawksmoor's baptistry. The photograph opposite shows his studio hung with metal pendulums. and later an assistant to Vanbrugh. and labor. a three-dimensional drawing made with wires and weights. Below it. We see the modeled detail of Corinthian columns. describe a finished look to a client. Lines define structure while washes suggest light and atmosphere. evoke presence. Hawksmoor's drawing is both a plan and an evocation. calculate function.68 ARCHITECTURE Master Builders EVERY NEW BUILDING. Architects draw for many reasons: to visualize ideas. Hampton Court Palace. Pillars and floor At the base of the drawing a compass-drawn plan tilted downward through 90 degrees illustrates the arrangement of pillars around a central circular floor. and the shapes of interior domes and apses. Hawksmoor established his reputation with university and church architecture including All Souls College. Blenheim Palace. structure. Cut-away interior On the right a section cut through the center of the building reveals material thicknesses. NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR One of Britain's "three great" Baroque architects (along with Sir Christopher Wren and Sir John Vanbrugh). Together they explain how interior structure and space define exterior form and shape. and an inscribed entablature. St Paul's Baptistry c. Oxford. and six London churches. densely layered lines in mists of color weave the presence of the expected building into shape. pilasters. materials. and balance. and ultimately to show builders what to do.

To the right isawatercolordrawing thought to havebeenmade over a photograph ofthemodelabove. Wire and watercolor three-dimensional preferred to calculate Above is a drawing form in the made withlinkedwires and weights. Guell Crypt of its at the Time Construction c.69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt c. embellishment. light. churches. This sculptural drawingenvisionsthe finished crypt glowingandethereal as if caught in thelightof red morning sun. The Art Nouveau movement. 1900 ANTONIO GAUDI ANTONIO GAUDI Visionary Catalan architect. Gaudi air than on paper. and his love of music. unique organic manipulation of high shapes. and apartment homes are distinguished by their Their and Flowering curves of stone or concrete are often encrusted with Gaudi was inspired by medieval and oriental art. Gaudi's cathedral in Barcelona. 1910 24x181/4( 6 1 0 x 4 7 5mm) A N T O N I O GAUDI .

and the spaces between his windows and turrets are the visual equivalent of pauses in h i s m u s i c c o m p o s i t i o n s for p i a n o (see also Bussotti. corridors. We can see. such a rapport in both of these drawings. Arctic Flowers 1980 DANIEL LIBESKIND . Libeskind studied music before transferring to architecture. and in a sense hear. while the composer Erik Satie has made an enclosure of quiet order and grace. installations. a refillable pen that feeds a constant supply of ink through a fine tubular nib. short curved poles. Contemporary musicians commonly collaborate with artists by interpreting images as sound. flat boards. Floor space appears divided by discernible walls. We can imagine how a musician might interpret this drawing by looking at the abstract visual rhythms of masses composed of long straight poles. theater sets. Libeskind's numerous commissions include concert halls and museums. and dotted lines. upright pictorial space.70 ARCHITECTURE The Order of Sound B O T H OF THESE VISIONARY DRAWINGS o c c u p y a s l e n d e r . He also contributed to plans for the rebuilding of the World Trade Center site in New York. There has always DANIEL LIBESKIND A Polish American architect of international acclaim. The architect and musician Daniel Libeskind has drawn a stampeding cacophany of airborne architectural detail. Libeskind begins quietly in the upper space of his drawing. before cascading into a riot of line and sound below. and rooms. Visual rhythms In the lower half of this drawing architectural language has broken loose: escaped and transformed into an image of rebellious pleasure. Both men used rulers and pens to carefully and slowly construct their compositions. He also produces urban and landscape designs.223). Satie draws quietly throughout. and exhibitions of his drawings. and arched dotted lines depict the radius of doors. p. Floor plan This drawing has been made with a rapidograph. Across the top and center right of the image w e perceive an almost recognizable architectural plan. been a natural affinity between the visual rhythms of pictures and the audible rhythms of music.

effectively additional lines in a work. a conventional dip or fountain pen. They definespaceand pictorial balance. Hotel de la Suzonnieres c. Compare the even and and the shape wall to the elegantly stylized order of the many windows of arrangement of details and the shape of the wall in Babur's Garden of Fidelity on p. the perimeter Composition Look how well this drawingfitsand resonates with the upright.narrowshape of its paper. Onpp. and ink on a fragment folded brown paper—a of everyday happened material of scrap that to be at hand. 1 8 9 3 77/8 x 51/2 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 4 0 mm) ERIK SATIE . Eastern influence The upright image Eastern is reminiscent and medieval of Middle pictorial space and subject of this European drawing. minimalist s c o r e s scandalized a u d i e n c e s with o r c h e s t r a t i o n s f o r t h e foghorn and typewriter. and founded his o w n church. o f which he was the sole m e m b e r Parcel paper Satie has drawn this fantasy hotel using a ruler.ERIK SATIE F r e n c h pianist and c o m p o s e r for t h e piano. Satie collaborated w i t h hisfriends J e a n C o c t e a u a n d P i c a s s o . dressed eccentrically. H e p e r f o r m e d in cabarets.Edges are how are of orientation. a n d ballet. andfouredges of the paper tothecompositionand impact animage. theater.50.H i s witty. lived a l o n e .56—57 we discussed important the shape.

Boullee's monolithic apparition was drawn as a monument to Sir Isaac Newton. Newton's Cenotaph 1784 153/4 x 25 in ( 4 0 2 x 635 m m ) ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE . and dramatic lighting. antlike mortals might have speculated upon the universe. we find other Utopian visions Paul Nobles epic drawing summons an imperfect and disturbing township where ruin and activity are equal and strange. and the reverse is true on the right. Among preparations for Fritz Langs film Metropolis. made in 1926. cylinders. This shift makes the cenotaph appear three-dimensional. the ominous globe exists only as a series of drawings. and taught at t h e A c a d e m i e d'Architecture. His celebrated imaginary buildings are characterized by pyramids.96. Light illusions This pen-and-wash drawing shows a subtle application of the principles of illumination demonstrated with an egg on p.72 ARCHITECTURE T H E S E T H R E E HIGHLY DETAILED DRAWINGS Future Fictions invite us to soaring above normal life. This is the work of an architectural theoretician. painter. spheres. Boullee lived in Paris. Within it. ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE French architectural theorist. arched vaults. experiencing a fascinating conflict between curiosity and desolation.The lower-left section of the building appears relatively pale against a darker sky. enter the long-shadowed architecture of imaginary worlds. Art director Erich Kettlehut's vertiginous design for the city of a slavelike populace had a future influence on movies such as Blade Runner. and draftsman. We glide over exquisitely drawn wastelands of damage and abandonment.

Kettlehut drew using a fine and relatively dry brush dipped in black.Building shapes are works can be read as text. together with c i n e m a t o g r a p h e r Karl Freund. architecture. and are Graphite shapes Nobson Central isoneof a series of very large graphite drawings of the spoil and detritus of Nobson Newtown. used forced perspective camera t e c h n i q u e s t o amplify t h e m a g n i t u d e o f buildings in relation t o human characters. and white ink on brown-gray paper.a r t director O t t o Hunte. Nobson political visions of humanity Newtown.73 ERICH KETTLEHUT Influential film a r t director. and m o d e l . mythology. Kettlehut and his c o . Fritz Lang's Metropolis c. Its sheerscaleengulfs the viewer and demands based time and patience to on letters and in some beread.m a k e r In t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f Metropolis. Nobson Central 9 ft 1 0 in x 1 3 f t 2 in (3 x 4 m ) PAUL N O B L E 1998-99 . draftsman. gray. Working on toned paper such as this gives an artist greater scope for dramatic lighting effects than if they work on white paper. and morality o f an invented place called His satires exhibited w o r l d w i d e . intensely detailed graphite drawings explaining and questioning t h e geography. FUTURE FICTIONS Brush and ink This is a dramatic drawing from a film that shaped the history of world cinema. 1926 ERICH KETTLEHUT PAUL N O B L E British c o n t e m p o r a r y artist who creates m o n u m e n t a l .

and inventions— essential reading for inquiring minds. and thinkers ever to have lived. scientists. It is also distinguished from aerial perspective (see pp. Leonardo recorded constant streams of ideas. 206-07). All forms of perspective are of equal value. Here Leonardo provides a superb example of a single vanishing point. We use it to structure illusions of depth. Single-point perspective Tie a thread to a pin. and age eight. In his notebooks. this perspective is often an imagined bird's-eye view in which details are mapped according to logic and importance rather than how they might appear in real life. found at the center of all converging lines. Invented by Italian artist and architect Brunelleschi in 1413 (late in the history of art). Press the pin into Leonardo's vanishing point. Pull the thread taut and rotate it slowly above the drawing. linear perspective is distinct from more ancient systems practiced in the East.74 ARCHITECTURE Pathways of Sight LINEAR PERSPECTIVE (also called vanishing-point perspective) is a simple device for calculating the relative size of things in pictorial space. and those of Naive artists and children. It can be applied to any subject. Sometimes shared with Naive artists. inventors. LEONARDO DA VINCI One of the greatest artists. Piranesi an example of two. observations. but is most easily seen and understood in pictures of buildings and interiors. See how the thread corresponds to each converging line. I contribute the child's perspective. Study of Perspective Adoration of the for the Magi 1481 61/2 x111/2in (165 x 290 mm) LEONARDO DA VINCI . Note how architectural features conform to lines and how human figures diminish in size toward thevanishingpoint.

architect. issues of scale when making room for important their story. including all they recall about the subject. Two-point perspective Sunlight through this colonnade a great example of two-point perspective. Lightly marked illuminates vanishing Two Courtyards c. New Forest. a points in logical narrative of memories. Breamore Village. It shows how children usually map large scenes in flat layers one above the other. which I saw from home every day. visionary and practical understanding of ancient Rome. England 1980 9 x 16 in (228 x 405 mm) S A R A H SIMBLET GIOVANNI BATTISTA PIRANESI Italian artist. and designer Piranesi's prolific architectural drawings. Children are uninhibited and problems with one element being obscured by another rarely arise. Scale Our farmhouse my experience was in the woods. and theoretical writing strongly influenced neoclassicism.SARAH SIMBLET I made this drawing (at age 8) in response to a local bookstore's request for children to draw their village. . Note the rather large rabbits and pheasants the hills. This drawing Young children typically maps ignore on and understanding of the nearby village. Mark these points with your pin and follow the converging lines of the drawing by rotating your thread. at the top of each lateral column base. 1740 5 1 / 2 x 83/8 in (141 x 212 mm) G I O V A N N I B A T T I S T A PIRANESI points are located on either side of the drawing.

Erase the dotted construction lines. (See p. this is your vanishing point. Study these pages first before embarking on this lesson. Surround the vanishing point with a small rectangle. Each line should pass through one corner of the rectangle. Note that if you place large structures in the foreground and smaller ones closer to your vanishing point. imagine. you will amplify the illusion of distance. This is where we will begin. This lesson shows you how to make a simple illusion of space defined by two boxes and three flat boards. draw a horizon line across your paper Mark a spot on the horizon line. Next. Draw four dotted lines radiating out from the vanishing point. corresponding to a single vanishing point. On the previous page we looked at its essential mechanism through drawings by Leonardo and Piranesi. using a sharp HB pencil and ruler. In contrast. You have completed your first box.) . DRAWING BOXES 1 Using a ruler and a sharp HB pencil. Draw each step over the preceding one to build up a single image. This ensures that the second rectangle aligns with the shape and 4 Draw four short lines to connect the four corners of the two rectangles. 2 3 corners must each touch a dotted line. Piranesi planned his drawing with only the essential lines needed. Extend each dotted line to the edge of your drawing. then follow the ten steps below. try composing your own space.76 ARCHITECTURE Single-Point Perspective MASTERING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE i s e a s i e r t h a n y o u m a y First read through.98 for an important note on oscillation. Leonardo began with a grid of many lines within which he invented his scene. discovering the image as it progressed.

77 SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE 5 Draw a new rectangle. 8 Complete the second box with short lines as in step 4. Repeat this to add two more boards to the composition. The four comers must each touch a dotted line to be sureitaligns with the first. draw four dotted lines radiating from your vanishing point Pass these through each comer of the new rectangle. N e x t draw a slanting line to mark the height of the first flat board. draw a second. 7 As in step 3. Note that this does not surround the vanishing point In the future. 1 0 Erase all ofthedottedlinestoseeyourfinishedboxes Thickeningtheiredges. larger rectangle. the closer it will appear to the viewer. . bottom. when inventing your own compositions. and erase the dotted lines. 9 Use dotted lines connecting the slanting linetothe vanishing point to locate the top. you can place rectangles anywhere youwishin relation to a vanishing point. 6 As in step 2.willhelptomake them appear more solid. The board's sides should be parallel. andfarside of this first board. Connect this to the vanishing point— again. Continue the dotted lines out toward the edge of your drawing.asIhavedonehere. with two dotted lines. The larger you make your second rectangle.

you will find white adhesive stationery labels are useful for covering errors or changing the direction of your idea. Every work talks In this class. artist and film director. Then follow the three given steps. It highlights the importance of having faith in your imagination and trusting your ability to invent. then let the space suggest its c o n t e n t s and purpose. p . it will take you places you never dreamed of. I always start with a script but I don't follow it all the way through to the end.78 ARCHITECTURE Creating an Imaginary Space T H I S CLASS USES SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE t o c r e a t e a s i m p l e to you and if you listen to it." imaginary room. it is interaction that makes the work richer. w h e t h e r it is a film or a painting. let simple lines suggest a simple space. draw a b o x as shown opposite. Linear perspective will support y o u by providing a frame in which to b u i l d your picture as it did for Leonardo. A lot more happens when you open yourself up to the work and let yourself act and react to it. If using a fibertip pen as I have done for this drawing. once said: "I never end up with what I set out to do. APPLYING PERSPECTIVE An Imagined Scaffold "Enjoy your illusion as you make it and it will become more real. The m i s t a k e n belief that we s h o u l d k n o w exactly what o u r finished drawings will l o o k like before we m a k e t h e m prevents many people from ever starting." . O n a fresh page in your d r a w i n g b o o k . 7 4 ) . As David Lynch.

. parallel planes such as walls converge toward the vanishing point. Here. 2 first before adding furniture. With some practice.There is great pleasure tobefoundin spending time inventing interiors.drawthehorizonlineand vanishingpoint. you will beableto draw more complex objects orpeoplewithin them. This initial space will be transparent and open to change. The space has become more solid and real.79 DRAWING A SIMPLE ROOM Essentials t o remember: objects and people dimmish in size as they move farther away. CREATING AN IMAGINARY SPACE 1First. 3 Remove the construction lines with an eraser and the room will becomeclearer. additional lines have established the different surfaces and how they relate to each other. and floors and ceilings also converge and rise o r lower toward the horizon. horizontal.Addanarray of converging lines to provide a "scaffold" for vertical. and leaning surfaces.

It is important to realize that you can have as many vanishing points as you wish. They could be drawn on any scale from miniature to monumental. o r to the h o r i z o n . T h i n k of standing at the top of a skyscraper and imagine h o w its parallel sides would appear to converge below you. Free vanishing points On paper we can enjoy the freedom of fantastic structural invention without limitations of solid materials or gravity. T h e y d o n o t have to relate to each other. verticals appear p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the g r o u n d . Here. Vanishing points are commonly found on horizon—our eye level. Elaborations . showing y o u h o w to draw curved surfaces and a tiled floor. Copying what you see in the work of others will help you to understand what they have done. a n d this is how we have drawn them so far (see pp. but they are not confined to this level. I have elaborated on the simple boxes above. our eye level is very high and we look down. do verticals appear inclined. From our normal eye level. Further aspects of three-point perspective are also illustrated opposite. Only when y o u might employ t h r e e . or low and we look u p . T h i s is d e m o n s t r a t e d immediately below. To draw such a view APPLICATION Copy these drawings to see and feel how they work before inventing your own versions. The boxes drawn here are seen partly or entirely disassociated from a horizon line drawn across the bottom of the image. 76-79). located anywhere inside or outside the pictorial space. they can be placed anywhere inspaceto describe the perspective of flyi c tilted objects.p o i n t perspective ( s h o w n opposite top).80 ARCHITECTURE Further Aspects of Perspective W E ARE ACCUSTOMED TO SEEING our e n v i r o n m e n t from a relatively constant point of view. These elaborations could continue indefinitely across a sheet of paper in pursuit of complex and intricate ideas. Potentially. That is where we e to find them. Search for the application of these perspectives among works by other artists in this book and in galleries.

75. I then drew three fanned groups of lines connecting each of the three points above to the seven points below. Giving curvature. Where thelinescross.Finally. they mark the corners of the floor tiles. tostraightlines can amplify drama in a picture.) By comparing this drawing t o Piranesi's example of two-point perspective on p. An array of curved lines (drawn freehand) link the two lateral points. Note that altering the distance between the three dots above will tilt the level of the floor . (Turn the book around to see a view looking up. Three-point checkered floor This d bottom floor. you will see how. Iusedthese lines as a guide t o draw the curvature of boxes and panels flying through space. useful for representing steep views looking up or down tall structures.Istarted with two parallel lines. PERSPECTIVE Three-point curves Here.81 FURTHER ASPECTS OF Three-point towers This drawing depicts three-point perspective. by adding a third point you can achieve a sense of incline.I added horizontal lines t o define the tiles. three vanishing points are evenly spaced along a horizon line. and therefore tension. I marked the toplinewith three evenly spaced points and the line with seven.

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These walnut-skin ink pen and brush drawings show imagined views of theaters that do not exist but were inspired by places I studied. I visited many anatomical theaters and museums. making drawings to resolve questions and express personal responses to the nature and history of anatomy. .Theaters RESEARCHING FOR MY P H D .

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.I N KDRAWING is one of a series I made while next to the Rialto Bridge in Venice.Venetian Life sitting point buildings ThisP E N . The vanishing of the drawing is directly opposite as we look across The constancy of the bridge and surrounding frames the movement in the life that flows past. the water.A N D .

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that test our logic with a sense of mystery. for example. It is shaped in sections w i t h Artists have for centuries studied and expressed composition. It was in this era that the blueprint was born. passing them on to others through the act of making. these. In this chapter. drawn. Birds follow instinct to make a nest. and made. H e has described a casting through metaphor. Previously. T h e precision of engineering d r a w i n g s e v o l v e d alongside machine tools. drawing c. In past eras. are all made bearing the signature of our time and place. texture. Today. sculpted. T h e Industrial Revolution c h a n g e d the traditional w a y s in w h i c h objects were designed. and the behavior of light through making still-life paintings and together. With the sudden onset of mass production. and some apes use simple tools. A chair. each demanding more of the other as they increased in sophistication. fictional realities caster of h o w t o make it andhowit will w o r k . to record an observed detail. 1493 117/8c81/4in (300 x 210 m m ) LEONARDO D A V I N Ccreating I . but humans LEONARDO DA VINCI Inthisbeautiful red chalk Our items all have a purpose—practical or ornamental—and all have a meaning. craftsmen had held plans in their memory. or drawing w e see Leonardo daVinci'sprecision as can be given meaning. Artists and actors use the meanings of things to communicate a speculative mechanic. Technical drawing was speedily developed as a meticulous international code of m e a s u r e m e n t and explanation. even more advanced drawings are made on computers. or used on stage hood for a mold t o make theheado f a horse f oas a p r o p — i m b u e d with e n o u g h energy or character can "become" a man. drawings were needed to instruct workers on the factory floor. and the way in w h i c h the brain reacts Head and Neck Sections of Female Mold for the Sforza Horse to visual stimulus and optical illusions. illuminating snail shells. Artists also make images of objects that can never exist. from s p o o n s and pens to chairs and bicycles. History will be learned from the artifacts w e leave behind. making a clear instruction t o his bronzemeaning. design. C o m m o n items. for example—whether. or to explain and present a finished concept to a client. H e has described contour and function at drawings. too. hooked bars that can be pulled and tied closely form. Engineers and designers of our objects and instruments make drawings for many reasons: to test an idea that is yet to be made. r an equestrian statue.Objects and Instruments T HE THINGS WE INVENT describe our lives. and a wire violin. have often carried great weights of allegorical once. W e also explore v o l u m e and form in the classes by spinning lines to make vessels. we look at the importance are the only creatures on Earth w h o actually design and create great ranges of things. of light in the creation of pictorial illusions. color. planned.

Below." La Cuitare. silverware. Opposite.73 x 1 m) GEORGES BRAQUE . representing still life. "I believe [it] is the most radicalattempttostampout ambiguity and to enforce one readingofthepicture—that of a manmade construction. One of the great joys of this movement in art is the musicality of its multipoint view. and glass objects of exquisite elegance for only the gentlest of touch and appreciation.90 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS Still Life THESE DRAWINGS REVEAL t w o o p p o s i t e m o t i v a t i o n s i n we can. T h i s is a designers drawing made to enthuse surface and style in its delicate brushing of china. a colored canvas. texture. Clashes The art historian Ernst Gombrich said of Cubism. wood-look wallpaper. Statue D'Epouvante 1913 2 f t 5 in x 3 ft 5 in (0. not of place but of things. charcoal. Braques image is a Cubist collage. and a journal jacket with words makes this drawing chatter about the moment. and shading. Braques "justly" arranged combination of cut black card.Braque marshals all the forces of perspective. but to clash in virtual deadlock. Even today GEORGES BRAQUE French painter who as a young man was influenced by the work of the Fauves and of Cezanne. Braque established Cubism in partnership with Picasso just before World War I. still feel this projected moment. steaming with music and conversation.. . not to work in harmony. There is a fragile eloquence to these objects as they drift in slow motion past our gaze. His work is characterized by calm and harmonious still-life compositions.. perfect i n their newly made availability. Mucha's drawing glistens with possession. He takes us into the bustle of the Paris cafe.

flowers.ALPHONSE MUCHA Czech graphic artist and painter who worked in Prague. Chicago.fruit. For ten years Mucha designed theater posters exclusively for the actress Sarah Bernhardt. He is best known for posters featuring ethereal women in typical Art Nouveau style. Study for Plate 59 from "Documents Decoratifs" 17x121/4(430 x 310 mm) ALPHONSE MUCHA 1902 . The three plates facing us were drawn with a compass. Background color Between the delicate shadows and highlights of these glazed and surfaces ofthebackground metal color of the Mucha we see a large amount paper. Art Nouveau motifs This is a preliminary study for a subsequent print. and New York. Pans. Art Nouveau curling motifs of birds. Look at the two spoons at toprightand see how has suggested that they are so brilliantly shiny they reflect the background color. Black watercolor washes and lines of white gouache have been added with a fine brush. He designed the Austrian pavilion for the Paris World Fair in 1900. and fish have been outlined using a sharp pencil. and also stamps and bank notes.

Their delicate construction is only as valuable as the measurements they make. shape the very cause and effect of investigatory thought. alchemist. Newton used this instrument to calculate the speed required to escape earth's gravity. It is a diagrammatic explanation of how to catch and magnify a star in a mirrored tube. With dotted lines Newton has drawn his arrangement of elements inside the tube. From the concept of capturing the infinite to the mapping of microscopic sight. Hooke's head of a drone fly seen through a microscope may represent the first time man and insect came face to face. into the eyepiece. mathematician. and philosopher Newton was President of the Royal Society. In the graphic work of these two great men of science. Newton's 1672 ISAAC Telescope NEWTON . and the nature o f light and color. via a second mirror. astronomer. we see drawing Instruments of Vision found among his letters. drawing is there to pin the moment down. Transparent view Newton's reflecting telescope focused light in a parabolic mirror. Newton's drawing of his first reflecting telescope is ISAAC N E W T O N English scientist. A disembodied eye at the top of the drawing indicates where to look. a tree outside. The power of this drawing reflects the pure passion of discovery. and Fellow of the University o f C a m b r i d g e . w h e r e he developed his three greatest theories: the law o f motion. He counted 1 4 . offering a transparent view. and his hand moving across the light.92 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS by their very nature must gauge or chronicle precision. Ink lines Several drawings appear among Newton's letters. Look how confidently he draws with ink the sphere of this wooden globe by which his telescope rotates. each reflecting a view of his own world—his window. each one skillfully rendered with the alarmingly matter-of-fact ease of explaining the commonplace. It was then reflected up inside the tube and. the law o f gravity. 0 0 0 perfect hemispheres.

The Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 1665 ROBERT HOOKE 111/2 x 105/8 in (294 x 270 mm) . universal joint a prototype respirator clock balance. 1665). ROBERT H O O K E 93 Magnifications This acutely detailed engraved drawing is taken from Hooke's Micrographia (pub. a breathtaking book containing many of his drawings showing some of the first microscopic and telescopic magnifications of our environment Hooke's text and illustrations carry us to the moment of discovery. and anchor escarpment. It is an exhilarating read. Hooke invented the camera diaphragm.An experimental scientist who drew many of his discoveries. and calculated the theory of combustion.

craft. and w h e r e the chair b e l o n g s . Van Gogh's tipsy seat is a metaphor for an absent person. Woodfine exhibits internationally. From component parts we understand how to put it together and make it stand sensible in space. and has drawings in numerous public and private collections. has published several catalogs of her work.94 INSTRUMENTS W H E N WE DRAW A COMMON OBJECT like a chair. it has so m u c h familiar personality that it seems to talk to us. OBJECTS AND SARAH WOODFINE British contemporary artist graduate of the Royal Academy Schools. A renegade from the p a p e r dolls' h o u s e . its character. Drawn in more-or-less c o n v e n t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . and place in the world are truly seen. Chair Cut Out 2002 22'A x 23 in (565 x 585 mm) SARAH WOODFINE . Two-dimensional was made This highly finished drawing ruler using a sharp pencil and on smooth white drawing paper glistening dark drawings are artificial representations of known Woodfine's two-dimensional things balanced in the world. while the tabs make us see a flat paper cut-out. Sarah Woodfines flat cut-out m o d e l plan is a witty and surprising drawing. this chair p r e s e n t s us with a clever visual contradiction: deeply drawn shadows tell us it must be solid. W i t h h o m e y c o n t r a s t . Bench Marks W e are left a little c o n f u s e d as to what we s h o u l d do. Its wobbly gait and squashed s y m m e t r y m u m b l e endless h o m e y tales about the life it has seen. and winner of the 2004 Jerwood Drawing Prize. each drawn with the s a m e unfaltering lines and tones that are between reality and impossibility.

Among van Gogh's best-known canvases are Trees.95 VINCENTVAN GOGH Dutch painter who produced over 800 paintings and 850 drawings in only the last ten year's of his life. inner recording while Fierce strokes This is a portrait of the mechanical drew immediately and almost harshly. Van Chair 1890 VINCENT VAN GOGH . His passionate brush and pencil strokes are honest and of also turmoil and growing alarm at the world around him. what direct in their he saw and describing his felt.hehas marked the full emotion of the subject with a fierce grip of concentration. drawn opposite way of plan. and Starry Cypress Night. not is made present in only strokes and is subdued to distract us from flat a meaningful chair. The floor few as engagement with the chair. Cornfield and Sunflowers.

Gray squares To further examine changes in tone. the adjustment of our eyes (in growing accustomed to a level of light). Tape them to the glass. two identical mid-gray squares are seen against black and paler gray squares. a n d our ability to see forms in c l o u d s or fire.This effect is caused by the contrast of their surroundings. Here w e look briefly at our perception of light a n d darkness a n d our interpretation of diagrammatic illusions. are translated into a world of space.At one point you will catchenoughlight lighter than the white one. The egg's lightest region is seen against a darker background.96 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Light and Illusions SEEING IS MIRACULOUS. o u r b r a i n s search for n a m e a b l e things.d o w n patterns of light on our retinas. less developed than the center. Adjust the angleofthe protruding part and again stepback. Artists emulate and manipulate this effect in their pictures. transmitted to the brain as chains of electrical impulses. The rim of light on the egg is reflected light received from surrounding paper. Here. but do not appear so. Run The bottom-left quarter of the egg lightens slightly toward its "edge" when seen against the darker shadow cast on the paper. The egg's darkest region is seen against a lighter background. atmosphere. perhaps. w e turn our head but n o one w a s there. your eye around the circumference of the egg. gray. The perceived tone of a black white. Through these we can enjoy witnessing our o w n d e c e p t i o n a n d b a f f l e m e n t a n d u n d e r s t a n d certain factors that are very useful in picture-making. hence our recognition of a cartoon face c o m p o s e d of three lines. Are you happy LIGHT AND SHADOW with what you see? Does the light enhance the subject? Could you alter and improve it? On pp.102-03 deep shadows cast across shells make their form easier to perceive. or colored surface is never constant. a n d we can be fooled. T h e slightest recognition is instantly matched to our wealth of experience a n d expectation. On acloudyday. The outermost edge of our vision. Card experiment cho can gra on . We will even see things that d o not exist because minimal information suggests they are likely to be there. a lit photograph of an egg shows essential points to observe in tonal drawing. Before starting a tonal drawing of any subject. W e learn to read light and shadow in our environment as indicators of solidity and depth of space. a n d m o v e m e n t . We only need small prompts. reads only m o v e m e n t a n d can often m a k e mistakes. See how its "edge" smoothly changes from light against dark to dark against light. a n d are q u i c k to p r o p o s e ideas. The two tones meet without a division or outline between. U p s i d e . Below. From across the room both will appear black card and fold and retapeitwith half sticking out. form. cards the same size. think about its illumination. one blackandone white. To interpret visual s t i m u l u s . The small squares are identical in tone. and the proximity of contrasting tones. We perceive one to be lighter than theother. S o m e o n e passes our o p e n door. Three factors change it: the amount of light it receives. try this experiment. Below the bottom "edge" of the egg there is a rim of light reflected onto the paper by the underside of the egg.

Y o u m a y e x p e r i e n c e s o m e t h i n g similar h a p p e n i n g w h e n y o u m a k e s i n g l e . .97 LINE VERSUS TONE In l i n e a r d r a w i n g s . S h o r t h o r i z o n t a l lines o f identical length are m a d e t o l o o k d i f f e r e n t by c o n v e r g i n g lines beside t h e m ( C ) . O f t e ndoingso w i l l s p o i l y o u r w o r k . T w o horizontal lines o f equal length are m a d e t o l o o k longer and shorter. l i g h t e r surfaces s t a n d f o r w a r d w h i l e d a r k e r s u r f a c e s recede. LIGHT AND ILLUSIONS Tonal width T h e s e black a n d w h i t e bands are o f equal thickness o n e i t h e r side o f t h e i r central division. O b s e r v e h o w each white b a n d appears t h i c k e r t h a n its black c o u n t e r p a r t . A n u p r i g h t line stands in t h e c e n t e r o f a h o r i z o n t a l line. T h i s fundamental o p p o s i t e is a reason w h y l i n e a r a n d t o n a l d r a w i n g does not a l w a y s c o m b i n e w e l l in t h e s a m e i m a g e . w h i l e t h i n n e r lines recede. T w o relatively t h i c k parallel lines are m a d e t o b e n d away f r o m each o t h e r as t h e y pass in f r o n t o f an a r r a y o f c o n v e r g i n g f i n e lines ( B ) . In a t o n a l d r a w i n g . respectively.p o i n t p e r s p e c t i v e d r a w i n g s w i t h a large n u m b e r o f c o n v e r g i n g rays b e h i n d y o u r horizontals. T h e jug d r a w n w i t h a t h i n line appears f a r t h e r away t h a n t h e j u g d r a w n w i t h a t h i c k e r line. start o u t w i t h one. B o t h are identical in length. Apparent lengths T h e s e optical illusions s h o w h o w lines o f identical length can b e m a d e t o l o o k quite different f r o m each o t h e r by t h e addition o r association o f o t h e r lines. T h e r e is n o obligation t o a d d b l o c k s o f t o n e t o a l i n e a r d r a w i n g . In this linear drawing w e read t h i c k as closer a n d t h i n as f a r t h e r away. by d i r e c t e d a r r o w s ( A ) . In this t o n a l image w e read w h i t e as f a t t e r t h a n black. If y o u w i s h t o m a k e a t o n a l drawing. Bending straight lines Linear distance These t w o jugs have b e e n d r a w n w i t h lines o f d i f f e r i n g thicknesses. b u t t h e u p r i g h t o n e l o o k s t a l l e r (B). t h i c k e r l i n e s a p p e a r t o stand forward. Seven parallel lines are m a d e t o tilt t o w a r d and away f r o m each o t h e r by n u m e r o u s s h o r t strokes crossing t h e m diagonally ( A ) .

such as t h e dish seen h e r e o n t h e left. In the 1960's. made paintings that depended upon the physical sensation of our brain's reaction to known optical illusions. such as Bridget Riley. w e will find that in terms of the direction it faces. It is possible t o r e a d i t t w o ways: as a t r u n c a t e d r e c t a n g u l a r p y r a m i d seen d i r e c t l y f r o m a b o v e . and we learn to read the styles of diverse cultures and periods.76. A few suggestive marks will tip the decision one way o r the o t h e r Closing the surface W h e n a t r a n s p a r e n t elliptical o b j e c t has b e e n d r a w n . their picture could be ambiguous. C l o s i n g t h e surface o f t h e f o r m seals o u r d e c i s i o n as t o w h i c h w a y it faces. Artists make pictorial illusions when they paint or draw.s i d e d r e c t a n g u l a r t r a y ( b o t h are illustrated far r i g h t ) "The brain is so eager to name a fragment we see that we need only a suggestion to grasp the whole. it oscillates between t w o possibilities.98 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Further Illusions PSYCHOLOGISTS AND PHYSIOLOGISTS have studied optical illusions for decades in pursuit of what they tell us about the brain. Michelangelo. among others. SEEING TWO OPTIONS Sometimes. and so calculated precisely how much to fatten columns to make them appear straight. perfected the acceleration of perspective (see pp. Ancient Greek architects knew parallel upright lines appeared to bend toward each other in the middle. are still not agreeably understood. o r as a s l o p i n g . Op(tical) artists. Some artists use known optical illusions to make art. others adjust works to avoid their effects. Two ways of seeing T h i s is t h e b o x c r e a t e d in t h e f o u r t h step o n p.116-17) to make painted figures look correct when viewed from below. including some shown here." . It is a curious fact that w e can never see both options at once. Artists can communicate much in few lines and the viewer will do the rest of the work. w h e n drawing the outline o f a three-dimensional form. it can oscillate b e t w e e n facing t o w a r d o r a w a y f r o m us. w e can only look f r o m one t o the o t h e r If an artist is not aware this can happen in their image. Yet many illusions. Today we are bombarded with images but rarely have difficulty reading them. as s h o w n o n t h e right.

e t c . P e r c e i v i n g a w h o l e i m a g e f r o m m i n i m a l lines T h i s is a w i d e l y r e p r o d u c e d visual j o k e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e C a r r a c c i b r o t h e r s . S o m e artists use ink blots t o p r o m p t t h e beginning o f an image. smoke. b u t w e believe w e see t h e m because e n o u g h f r a g m e n t a r y i n f o r m a t i o n is given f o r o u r brains t o c o n c l u d e t h e y are v e r y likely t h e r e . T h e y a r e o f t e n c r e d i t e d w i t h t h e invention o f t h e c o m i c c a r t o o n . M u c h can b e e x p r e s s e d in o n l y a f e w marks. Minimal-line j o k e s such as this rely u p o n t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y v i e w e r ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e shapes.c e n t u r y Italian painters. T h e a r t i s t M.99 Impossible objects T h e s e clever configurations o f outlines and t o n a l surfaces convince us at a glance that we are seeing a solid three-dimensional triangle and a three-pronged fork. This simple five-line d r a w i n g is o f a C a p u c h i n priest asleep in his pulpit. F a m i l i a r i t y in r a n d o m s h a p e s T h e Rorschach test was established by t h e 1 9 t h . C o u p l e d w i t h t h e Rorschach b l o t above. 1 6 t h . T h e patient's answers are t h e n diagnosed as a psychological profile. w e see t w o overlapping triangles: o n e outlined in black b e n e a t h a n o t h e r in solid w h i t e . W e should r e m e m b e r t h a t o u r brains will always search f o r a p i c t u r e — i n ink blots. clouds. T h e t e s t e x p l o r e s o u r n o r m a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o find things w e can n a m e a m o n g r a n d o m shapes. His highly d i s p u t e d and i m p r e c i s e science involves s h o w i n g u n p r e p a r e d p a t i e n t s t e n p a r t i c u l a r ink b l o t s a n d asking t h e m t o i n t e r p r e t w h a t t h e y see.c e n t u r y Swiss psychologist H e r m a n n Rorschach. C Escher u s e d this phenomenon t o great effect in his many p o p u l a r d r a w i n g s o f puzzles and impossible buildings. . B e l o w is a b r i g h t n e s s c o n t r a s t illusion. This effect can o c c u r naturally w h e n looking at a b r i g h t l y lit w h i t e g r i d such as a w i n d o w f r a m e against t h e night sky. Yet still w e try resolve t h e m . O n l y o n closer inspection we realize that t h e s e o b j e c t s are fooling us. this is a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f t h e viewer's b r a i n b e i n g willing t o d o a large a m o u n t o f t h e w o r k in d e c i p h e r i n g a p i c t u r e . FURTHER ILLUSIONS Seeing things that are n o t t h e r e H e r e o n t h e left. C o u n t t h e n u m b e r o f d a r k spots y o u can see. — a n d so t h e artist can create m u c h o u t o f an impression w i t h o u t overdescribing. T h e s e e x a m p l e s illustrate h o w little is n e e d e d t o c o n v e y an image. N e i t h e r triangle exists.

third common error is to draw upper and lover ellipses with different-sized apertures. you will achieve steadiness with practice. I have drawn these for you here. However.100 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS W E VISUALIZE CYLINDRICAL VESSELS. even if y o u r hand w o b b l e s a little at first. giving the cylinder four corners. I have exaggerated this error here. Be aware.90) takes a different as essentially circular. for example. Cubism. while its upper rim remains level. spin your hand in a relaxed circle. not the paper!) As the pen touches down. as if the table surface slopes upward beneath the vessel. smoothly. springlike forms like those I have drawn below. Cover a sheet of paper with spinning. Don't worry if it is uneven— just try again. Watch the tip of your pen and see it draw an ellipse in the air Keep this movement going while gently lowering the pen onto the paper like the needle of a record player closing on the disc (only it is your lowering hand that spins. that this is o n l y o n e w a y view. for example plates or bowls on a table. w h e n seen at an angle. (see p. suggesting that the vessel is lopsided. since this is h o w w e experience them in e v e r y d a y use. hesitant one that has edged its w a y nervously around the vessel's rim. though. . WHERE TO START In the air above a spacious sheet of scrap paper. and these narrow or widen depending on the height of our view. A wobbling but confident ellipse will still be more convincing than a slow. w e use ellipses to give a sense of perspective. keep it spinning. describing many sides of an object simultaneously. like a disposable plastic cup that has been crushed in your hand. To make a cylindrical object appear real in our pictorial space. circles change into ellipses. COMMON ERRORS W h e n drawing cylindrical objects in perspective. How to Draw Ellipses of seeing. The second common error is to tilt the upper and lower ellipses at different angles. a n d in o n e bold stroke. there are three common errors people stumble upon. such as bowls and cups. The first common error is to draw two pointed ellipses. Ellipse are best d r a w n quickly.

101 DRAWING VESSELS Once you have mastered drawing free-hand springs. . working from top to bottom. you can make it solid by building up highlights and tones on visible surfaces. thereby hiding lines that show the other sides. Create a Solid Surface Once you have drawn the shape and volume of each form. Seeing Through Allow lines to travel around each vessel as if it were transparent. enlarging and diminishing the ellipse to determine the overall shape and volume. you can start to control your spinning ellipse to make a vessel. HOW TO DRAW E L L I P S E S A Single Vessel One Inside Another Grouped Together Finding Shape and Volume Draw an imagined vessel in one continuous spinning line. Draw quickly. Altering the pressure—and therefore tone—of the line as it spins gives the impression of light shining on one side.

making complicated or subtle surfaces easier to see and understand. It is important to place them on the correct side so as to draw comfortably (see pp. Gradually hone your drawing. outlines.102 INSTRUMENTS Tonality W H E N MAKING A TONAL DRAWING. You can begin with outlines and build slowly from light to dark (see opposite top). or you can begin with a mid-gray ground and model light out of darkness (see opposite bottom).22-23). In the finished drawing there should be few. and strong contrasts are easier to draw. if light shines in them. It maximizes the range of tones between black and white. Draw the largest and most distinct areas of light and darkness first. leaving detail until last. t h e r e a r e p r i n c i p a l l y Dramatic lighting emphasizes texture and contour. and solid objects are all of equal importance. LIGHT TO DARK DARK TO LIGHT . Illuminate them with a gooseneck lamp placed very close and directed away from your eyes. OBJECTS AND Start by arranging a choice of shells on a sheet of paper to your left if you are right-handed (or vice versa). beams of light. Relaxing your eyes out of focus as you draw will help to dissolve the distraction of detail. if any. Remember that shadows. it will inhibit your perception of tone. simply shapes and subtleties of light and dark meeting each other with no divisions in between. two opposite methods of achieving the same result.

Erase and make changes to roughly place the shells inside your with your composition.56-57). look at the main areas of darkness. DARK TO LIGHT (TONE TO TONE) 1 Using the flattened tip of an HB pencil. Use quick. pale lines with equal importance. Relaxing your eyes out of focus will help to eliminate distracting details. 2 3 Gentlydissolveoutlines so that areas oflightanddark meet without a line between them. Continue working between light and dark to refine the drawing. Fll in broad areas first and leave all detail until last. draw a rectangle.103 LIGHT TO DARK (LINE TO TONE) TONALITY 1 Using a sharp HB pencil. boldly 2 3 Keeping your eyes out of focus. shape. Draw in the details last of all. Treat positive form and negative space (see pp. and edges definingthespacialrelationships between are important aspects of your composition them. . Avoid a rough significant areas of light in your gray rectangle with texture and do not press the graphite hardwhite plastic eraser Ignore all detail and draw a into thepaperor you will not be able to erase it. Use your pencil to develop these in relation to the areas of light. Remember that its size. loose. with broad sweeps of the eraser. Honetheshapesand angles of the shells. Let your eyes go out of focus while looking gently layer marks to create an even tone at your subject and paper: Draw the most ofmid-graywithin a rectangle. until you are happy frame.

continuous lines. Third. PEN LINES Once you have created your three-dimensional violin (opposite). On p.69 we see how the architect Antonio Gaudi drew proposed domes using suspended wires and weights. 19 Picasso draws with a pen-light for the camera. The first is that figurative and abstract drawings can be made in space. There are essentially three lessons to be learned. On p. The second is that after achieving this simple example. and on p. smooth. This class uses thin-gauge wire to create a threedimensional violin.220 Mamoru Abe draws with forged steel rods. and physical relationships between them. our image is stronger if we understand and can visualize what is happening on the other side too. When drawing anything viewed from one side on paper. Seeing through a wire drawing of a known object such as a violin gives us a visual and tactile understanding of all its sides and shapes at once. you can create your own more ambitious works. . 176 the British artists Noble and Webster draw with domestic refuse in a beam of light. They can also be made in space. three-dimensional drawings teach us about the totality of forms in space. Place the instrument on a plain surface and illuminate it with a desk lamp to add the delicate dimension of shadows. and on p.104 OBJECTS AND I N S T R U M E N T S Drawing with Wire DRAWINGS DO NOT HAVE to be two-dimensional. try drawing it with a pen on paper Use bold.

1 Decide how big to draw your violin relative to the gauge of your wire. Here. These will hold the sides apart and help to keep the form in shape. but thin enough to be easily manipulated inyourfingers Here. Then begin to define its uppermost surface with Scurves and the bridge. 4 . and thick wire a larger one. Cut a length.105 SETTING UP DRAWING WITH WIRE Follow these steps to draw a three-dimensional violin Choose a gauge of wire sturdy enough to hold the shape ofyourfinished drawing. and pinch and bend it to shape the base of the instrument Repeat this process to make the identical upper side of the instrument. brace the two ends of the violin with a length of wire along the back. I used garden wire and cut it carefully with pruners. begin to shape the curvature of the fingerboard. Join the two sides together with four short pieces of wire. 2 3 If needed. thin wire will make a smaller drawing. I started with the scroll at the top and fixed the four component wires with two drawings of tuning pegs. Once you have completed the body.

Oxford. they invented new anthropological finds—objects that reflected the distant past and their immediate future. England. I had the privilege of drawing their inventions. Using found materials. . some of which are shown here.Artifacts and Fictions IN 1993 I WORKED with a group of schoolchildren who were responding to the astonishing objects in the collection of the Pitt Rivers Museum.

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These classes are popular around the world. Look closely at Renaissance drawings of the female b o d y and you will see that m o s t are actually y o u n g m e n with minor adjustments. W e understand every curve and balance of to the theory that the eves are the windows of the soul. explaining ranges e/ of materials and techniques and showing diversities of thought and purpose in making. Drawings were usually made from the male nude to avoid offending the church. The body remains at the core of over the initially white lines. It also looks at the representation of the b o d y b11y4o n d traditional life drawing. In this period. R.The Body O UR BODIES MAKE us TANGIBLE. portraiture. while Leonardo opened the body to see and projected onto a woman's body draw the celebratory discover for himself our physical mechanisms. history paintings and other stories. This F finished image was produced as r a n c i s c o . a n d w e d r a w o u r s e l v e s to a s s e r t o u r e x i s t e n c e . much Western contemporary art. It gives physical and emotive form to religious narratives. in our privileged and comfortable society. Renaissance artists studying anatomy from dissection clinically trained and specialized as a medical illustrator. while Durer took his research further— A. Michelangelo attended dissections to made this image by light sectioning: fine beams of light perfect his understanding of surface form. diseased. Williams were decades ahead of their medical counterparts. WILLIAMS he sought perfection in the infinitesimal measurement of the body and produced four Contemporary photographer volumes of illustrated explanation. and anatomical and erotic art. myths and fables. Artists are thought to have b e g u n drawing from the nude during the Italian Renaissance. R. from video and X-ray to thermal imaging. and because the female was deemed inferior. and surgically rebuilt. focus has turned to the vulnerability of flesh: how it can be damaged. He even believed he had located the soul contours of her form like a cartographer's map of in the pituitary fossa beneath the brain and behind the eyes. is the most c o m m o n subject in art. herimpressive presence because we are given such Life drawing no longer dominates the art school curriculum. Artists now explore the interior of the body with new media and Lateral Contour Map of a Full-Term Primipara Produced by Light 1979 A. the junior workshop apprentices posed as part of their duties. but the study of a controlled. and in San could easily be transferred into three dimensions. During this time. sculptural description of her form. 3 x 7 in (300 x 180 . artists also tried to define ideal proportions in the body. Strangely. Leonardo drew a man within a circle and square. clothed or nude. She the body is still essential. the Bay Area Models' Guild h o l d s a quarterly life-drawing m a r a t h o n aprinton Kodak transfer paper with green-colored dye added celebrating the great diversity of human proportion. The human body. W e are the only creatures on Earth that can make our own image. W I L L I A M S technology. giving physical foundation undulating land. This chapter addresses issues that are most commonly faced by beginners attending life-drawing classes.

Here three male nudes are compressed into very shallow pictorial space. RAFFAELLO SANZIO (RAPHAEL) Italian High Renaissance painter: Raphael is best known for his images of the Madonna and Child. and human defeat.110 T H E BODY THESE DISTINCTIVE WORKS show two strikingly different ways of modeling the body on paper. while Matisse used scissors and glue to cut out and paste a flat collage of brilliant color. T h e y b o t h raise one arm to cup their head in their hand. so that we read this drawing like a sculptural frieze. Muscular dramatic postures reflect the influence of Michelangelo and the Renaissance celebration of the idealized male body. In this highly s o p h i s t i c a t e d a b s t r a c t i o n . Three Guards 1500-20 91/4 x143/8in (234 x 365 mm) RAPHAEL . and studied to learn from the works of Michelangelo and Leonardo besides whom he was soon ranked. while supporting the weight of their body with the other. By way of contrast. we see the e s s e n c e of h e r b e a u t y w i t h o u t a single detail. Sculptural frieze This is a preparatory drawing for Raphael's painting of the Resurrection of Christ. filling the page with her presence. Raphael drew delicate tones of black chalk on tinted paper. anatomy. altar pieces. and Vatican frescos. Raphael's study of fallen m e n leaves no doubt that they are in anguish. She u n f o l d s and s t r e t c h e s shapely limbs. But the meanings of each gesture and the materials and methods by which they Postures and Poses were m a d e contrast greatly. In a single drawing we see equally o b s e r v e d studies of f o r e s h o r t e n i n g (see pp. Principal figures m i r r o r e a c h other. He trained under Perugino. Matisse's b l u e n u d e sings with life and c e l e b r a t i o n .116-17).

as his w o r k matured. and more energetic Color and form This collage is one of a series of Blue Nudes.. lifelong love of brilliant They celebrate the culmination of spectacular and sometimes drawings." of is an art of balance. fabric. Matisse became an artist after studying law.which might be... his pattern. a mental soother. His calligraphic natural abstractions of form grew brighter. devoid of troubling Blue Nude 1 1952 413/4 HENRY MATISSE . serenity. printmaker. freer.111 HENRY MATISSE French painter: draftsman. and Islamic art... foundamong many other groups of papercut these works as an elderly man confined to his bed or wheelchair.designer writer..sculptor.like an appeasing influence.or like a good armchair in which to rest from physical fatigue. Matisse Soothing influence This drawing expresses the achievement of Matisse's personal aim: "What I dream and depressing subject matter. teacher and principal exponent o f Fauvism—a movement established in 1905 in which bold color is the most essential element.

like small birds attendant on the meditation. stands in counterpoise holding a dark globe and his thoughts in m o m e n t a r y balance. scratched in seconds. Here. If Seurat had added white. 162) and an eraser to model teeming points of artificial light amid GEORGES SEURAT French painter classically educated in the Ingres school of thought. we c o m p a r e a skillful design that absorbed m u c h time in its making with the quickness of an idea marked instantly. form. it is as if the very atoms of air are made visible. or abruptly meeting. Beuys's magician. and c o m p l e m e n t a r y hues. Tone and light In this black conte drawing. w h o sits propped in the contradictory darkness of a hot summer's day. it would have mixed with unseen black dust. and muddied the brilliance of the drawing. Light is given by the paper alone. other tones. turned gray. Opposite. in a perfect e x a m p l e . Below. velvet d a r k n e s s . T h e space around h i m chatters with symbols. Using the paper to create light is important for beginners to learn. and color His applied theories still influence painters in their manipulation and rendering of local. agreeing to coalesce and show us the form of a waiting boy. Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 1883-84 91/2 x 121/4 in (241 x 312 m m GEORGES SEURAT . Seurat engaged in lifelong studies of line. he used b l a c k c o n t e (see p. only tones blending into. Typically. reflected. Seurat evolved a distinctive t e c h n i q u e called p o i n t i l l i s m — i m a g e s literally made from myriad points of color. In his f a m o u s paintings of social e n g a g e m e n t .112 T H E BODY Choreographs T I M E IS A SIGNIFICANT E L E M E N T i n t h e m a k i n g o f a l l d r a w i n g s . His drawings are similarly u n i q u e . there are no outlines.

free from the constraint of immaculate form opposite) impetus is irrelevant to the and meaning of this work (as we see in Seurat's drawing representation. His The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland UNDATED 113/4 J O S E P H BEUYS x81/4in (297 x 210 mm) . Unbroken lines stream from his simultaneously movement. Our focus joins shoulders. CHOREOGRAPHS the profound power materials with spiritual or of Free lines This pale pencil drawing is Beuys.gold. Beuys gave performances. He was a shaman who believed in intuition and in the investment of healing force. and drawings. and made installations. video art. taught workshops with a cult following. Perfectly modeled rather conventional for Joseph Focus Beuys's hand moved quickly to draw dotted lines flowing downward on either side of the figure. in different positions.113 JOSEPH BEUYS One of the most influential German artists of the 20th century. and that These aspects of the work convey fractured visibility. transience. Many of his other symbolic works on paper have been drawn with materials such as honey. This figure is drawn intuitively. and blood. iodine.

his w o r k is characterized by deliberate un-finish and powerfully modeled emotion. he typically drew them with a few delicate strokes of pencil and brushed watercolor.000 drawings shown in rotation at the Musee Rodin. Paris. flushed skin made ruddy and black with crushed cinders. His exquisite flow of paint beyond "outlines. and one of hundreds of rapid studies of nudes. was perceived as scandalous." as seen here. THE AUGUSTE RODIN French Romantic sculptor and prolific draftsman employed as an ornamental mason until the age of 42. sweeping lines— of either purple silk fabric or cool studio air—that imprint and amplify their past and future movements. As here. the fierceness of the women's kiss is beautifully matched by the tenderness of his line. We are involved not as a shabby voyeur but as a bystander engaged through our recognition of shared joy. 125/8x 9 in (320 x 229 mm) AUGUSTE RODIN Two Women 1911 Embracing . its soft. But what is stranger to us now is that they were also outraged by his free use of line. and went on to inspire generations of artists. They whisper and writhe in a brushed and sultry embrace that devours our watching. In both drawings. the women are framed and caressed by long. Opposite. Delicate strokes This is one of about 7. Free lines Rodin's public audience was understandably shocked by the eroticism of his drawings. Our bodies radiate the passion of our thoughts and so become beacons of our frailty and power. We are asked to gaze u p o n her flesh. Inspired by Michelangelo. Anita Taylor has drawn her protective body hug out of the darkly glistening compression of willow charcoal and the dynamism of her shy but momentous femininity. Rodin produced portraits and statues of public and literary figures. In Rodins work. Rodin employed models to move freely or pose together in his studio.114 BODY Passion SUMMONING HUMANITY in a drawing of the nude is a subtle and emotional task. Achieving international acclaim in mid-life.

Taylor has drawn. Charcoal Taylor has drawn freely with charcoal and an eraser on thick. leaving her lightest marks at the deepest level of the image and applying darker marks above. London. and rework rich depths of light and tone. exposure. The sturdy surface of the sheet has allowed her to press hard when needed. professor and Vice Principal of Wimbledon School of Art.I 15 ANITA T A Y L O R Painter. the impression of luminosity All and Nothing 1999 67 x447/8in (170 x 1 1 4 cm) ANITA TAYLOR . draftsman. textured paper. A thinner sheet might have crumpled and torn under such vigorous force of making. and gaze. scrutiny. Taylor's immense self-portraits explore the relationship between the artist as maker and the artist as model. erased and drawn again. This order of light below and dark above gives glowing from within. Luminosity Layered marks flicker likefirelight as they sculpt the woman's body. intimately reflecting upon the emotions and meaning of nudity.

Lock your shoulder. Move the tip of your thumb down to a second chosen point. with dramatic illusions of figures painted in normal proportion. Align the top with a point on your subject. just making them helps you see. or coming forward. MEASURING This is a simple method of making measured comparisons for relating the true size of one part to another This is a tool to assist observation and thinking. Spend time making comparisons before you draw. It can also be a little demon in the life room. rather that what we believe we know from experience. you will make inconsistent and unrelated comparisons. 1 Hold your arm straight. Rome. Imagine Michelangelo's murals in the Sistine Chapel.limbs happily receding. How to make and apply these is explained below and opposite. unfathomable angles. the skull in Holbein's The Ambassadors (The National Gallery. elongated as if stretched across the plaster. and to draw what we see. and wrist joints. and measurements do not have to be carried to the paper and slavishly drawn the same size they appear on your pencil. Return to this posture every time. This is chiefly a correcting device by which figurative painters and sculptors have for centuries countered the effects of our viewing their work from far below or on the curvature of a vault. helping us to see more clearly. we would arrive to find many of the same figures strangely distorted. to be translated by mirrors or seen from only one point in the room. We also look at another very interesting branch called accelerated (or anamorphic) perspective. Close one eye. persistence. The length of exposed pencil is your measurement. Accelerated perspective plays a great role in much art. when beginners prop their board in their lap and look down at too steep an angle. London). 2 Hold your pencil upright. Up close on the scaffold we would witness Michelangelo's subtle application of accelerated perspective. It is not so hard. 3 Keep your pencil perpendicular Measure and compare at any angle. without taking off. It is not complicated." . Smaller. more extreme examples have been made for court entertainment. But if we could take a scaffold and climb up to the work. There is no need to mark them all down on paper.116 T H E BODY Measurement and Foreshortening FORESHORTENING IS AN ASPECT of perspective. or shrivelling at odd. In the life class it is the mechanism for ensuring that a drawn figure lies correctly in pictorial space . To avoid its effects ensure you always look flat onto the surface of your page. patience. which is imperceptible from below. and a few measured comparisons are key. If your arm is not straight. "Simple measured comparisons reveal surprising truths about proportion. elbow. plummeting. for example.

S o o n t h e b o d y will lie d o w n in space. Stand its b o t t o m edge o n y o u r lap. A t a c e r t a i n angle. MEASUREMENT AND FORESHORTENING Tilt t h e t o p edge o f this b o o k t o w a r d you and look d o w n o n this figure f r o m a b o v e . h e r p r o p o r t i o n s will appear correct. L o o k at y o u r m o d e l as if he o r she is a flat series o f shapes o n e o n t o p o f a n o t h e r Measure t h e height and w i d t h o f each shape and c o m p a r e it t o its neighbor. W e appear t o be looking d o w n o n a w o m a n s t a n d i n g b e n e a t h us. t a p e s o m e p a p e r t o a board. C o m p a r e t h e heights o f t h e nose and eye shapes t o t h o s e o f t h e f o r e a r m . . To m a k e f o r m s l o o k c o r r e c t . adjusting a n o n y m o u s shapes. looking d o w n t h e p a p e r at t h e a n g l e at w h i c h I d r e w . T h i s is t h e s a m e d r a w i n g p h o t o g r a p h e d f r o m above. See h o w d i f f e r e n t t h e relative heights o f t h e s e shapes are f r o m w h a t w e m i g h t e x p e c t in real life. W o r k a r o u n d t h e figure. Keep t h e b o a r d steady and draw. which feels strange. Lean t h e t o p e d g e t o w a r d y o u and find a p o s i t i o n w h e r e y o u can c o m f o r t a b l y l o o k d o w n t h e p a p e r at an angle o f a b o u t 4 0 degrees.117 ACCELERATED PERSPECTIVE To discover h o w this w o r k s . FORESHORTENING To f o r e s h o r t e n a figure. y o u must let go o f w h a t y o u k n o w f r o m e x p e r i e n c e a b o u t t h e relative sizes o f b o d y parts and trust y o u r eyes. pleasingly f o r e s h o r t e n e d . y o u r hand travels f a r t h e r than y o u expect. belly. P r o p o r t i o n s will only l o o k c o r r e c t f r o m t h e angle at w h i c h y o u make t h e drawing. a n d thighs.

working from her center to her feet and to her head. Outline To outline a figure. Layered lines give d e p t h . make the upper body smaller give your model a high waist. because it results in two unrelated sides drifting apart. her center of balance is normally found in a vertical line beneath her head. Start each new drawing by lightly marking the model's height with a loose line in ten seconds. and height. height. Height This pose leans away into space above our eye level. and energy. feeling. propelling you to make immediate assessments and trust them. To draw this effect. Avoid drawing up one side and down the other. . To see this. T h i s q u i c k e x p l o r a t o r y line does not perfectly describe shape but expresses a decision about overall flow of form. balance. Be bold and dive into your drawing with c o n f i d e n c e . I used a sharp H B pencil and began each drawing by marking her outline. and stance before honing her balance and expression. Balance When a model stands upright on both feet. imagine holding up a plumb line. and slightly enlarge her legs and feet. and work over t h e m with further o b s e r v a t i o n s . Leave first thoughts in place.118 BODY Quick Poses DRAWING QUICK POSES l o c k s y o u r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n t o what is most essential. work back and forth across the body. THE SEQUENCE OF POSES H e r e the model was asked to move every t w o minutes.

119 The twist of a model is most easily and expressively captured if it is exaggerated. The tilt of the pelvis is then counter balanced by the model's shoulders tilting the other way (as seen here). . Tilt Movement Here. This drawing shows how different observations be overlaid to bring a drawing alive. the activity of circular lines and the repetition of limbs suggest movement. and this should be avoided Twist QUICK POSES A model standing on one leg usually drops the opposite hip. Most of us have a tendency to over-straighten the drawn figure.

It also helps the beginner to progress from drawing outlines to drawing confidently across the surface of the whole form. Focus instead on how planes change direction across the knuckles from one side of the hand or foot to the other. general to specific. it is important to leave aside all details of the fingers and toes. or those of a friend. but regard these practice studies as ongoing processes of thought and observatio Add details such as nails last if you wish. W h e n starting. Then subdivide each shape so that you w o r k from large to small. This exercise is useful when struggling with proportion. swiftly marking its essential gesture. Practice by drawing your own hands and feet. These planes. drawn in relation to each other. Don't worry about achieving perfect solutions. especially the lengthwise divisions between them. Begin by drawing lines to encompass the whole hand. A mirror increases your range of views. Do not separate them yet. and ignore all details. starting with the largest. feet.120 BODY Hands and Feet THERE ARE MANY different ways of approaching h a n d s and THE of form. 2 Build your drawing gradually from light to dark. Group the fingers together as one mass. and a gooseneck lamp casts shadows that clarify planes and depths GESTURES OF THE HAND Curled Fingers 1 Open Palm Start honing the shapes of the dominant planes. 3 . Keep lines open to change and take measurements if they help. Draw large shapes and their orientation. and they need not be daunting to draw. express structure and gesture far more successfully and easily than ten worried outlines wandering up and down between the fingers and toes.

as if with a chisel. and rapid. Try t o express the whole foot and t o encapsulate its entire shape and direction in a few marks. however. Leave aside all detail. 2 3 Use an eraser t o refine decisions o r t o suggest areas o f light. It can be a mistake. flattened planes. Hew it roughly in broad. t o remove t o o many early lines.121 HANDS AND FEET MOVEMENTS OF THE FOOT Flat Stance Raised Heel Instep 1 Let your first marks be light. Look for key angles without becoming distracted by detail. Nowimagineyou are carving the foot insidethepaper. loose. . these are what give a drawing its tangible structure.as though out o f wood. and don't worry about accuracy t o begin with. and spontaneity. depth.

Compare its nature in close-up to that of willow charcoal used on pp." . The white lines demonstrate what is often called "bracelet shading. Opposite. I also used white ink with a steel dip pen.Charcoal Hands T H E S E DRAWINGS ARE MADE in compressed charcoal.204-05.

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before honing his or her shape (see pp. I make these lines in the first five to ten seconds of a drawing to locate the presence. and posture of the model.HERE TRACES OF RAPID initial lines are still seen within and outside each body. 118-19). Phrasing Contours . length.

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Forms. feeling them through the attentive movements of your own hand. and narrative pulse become vivid when you realize them in the middle of your study. It is now viewed with some skepticism and often seen as academic.The Visual Detective DRAWING FROM MASTERWORKS was once a staple component of an artist's education. characters. Drawing work by another artist enables you to discover and understand the inventive hand in their composition. perspectives. . I draw in museums in support of written research and as an artist seeking answers to questions about the practicalities of image making.

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Life-size women wearing wigs recline on beds of embroidered silk in cabinets of mahogany and Venetian glass This is a detail of a compressed charcoal drawing measuring 14 x 10 ft (4. 126-27. . These almost life-size figures were composed from my imagination and achieved with the help af studies discussed on pp. Florence.La Specola At17V i a Romana. there is a unique museum of 18th-century anatomical waxes. each modeled from dissection.3 x 3 m) made in response to La Specola. Walls are lined with hundreds of faintly animated body parts.

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live. the meaning of their face. buttons. neck. and it is very rewarding. 1790-92 4 x 3 in ( 1 0 2 x 7 6 m m ) F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A and memorize the basic structure that we all share. We can mold and animate qualities of expression out of objects and fragments of disassociated things—for example. and lucrative genre for artists. To create a face is to see and interpret the essence of an identity. or whose eyes can seem to follow us around the room Portraiture is a constant. religious. and secular narratives. painters have dropped discreet records of themselves into commissioned narratives so that they can remain a face in the crowd. Past rulers sent painters across continents to bring back a likeness in advance of a prospective royal marriage. single or of groups. W h e n drawing a person. The truth is that we all like looking at faces and observing the billions of variations that make us individuals. and shoulders. in a miniature self-portrait magnified opposite. Halls and palaces are filled with pictures of the mighty and significant. The returning image was of crucial consideration in any proposal. having been documented and preserved. Rembrandt's famous multitude of self-portraits. and a handprint (see p. made as he passed through the ages of man. and social and political commentaries. you can capture the subtlety. Man Ray's self-portrait of scored lines. Self-portraiture gives every artist a constant. their stance. Movie director Alfred similarly signed his films by playing a fleeting role: he walks through an extra. compliant subject to scrutinize. is here to both meet and look through us. draftsman. Goya's w o r k s include many royal and society p o r t r a i t s . Our homes are filled with images of our loved ones and of those in our families who have gone before. who. and p r i n t m a k e r . and their posture can be changed with just one line. . For centuries. character. Equally. and in a few scrolling rafts of pen lines and stubbled dots. This enlargement o f his miniature p o r t r a i treveals t h e s p e e d and agility o f his p e n and about himself. We are also reassured by keeping records of ourselves. became more poignant as he progressed. and expression of the individual. or past us. look directly at us. Goya. his changes in pressure and Hitchcock length o f line. Portraits can be highly or loosely detailed. Once you understand Self-Portrait in a Cocked Hat c. throat. In this chapter. Beginners often draw themselves as a way of establishing their practice. abstract or figurative. and satirical or metaphorical. historical. or a glimpse of him is caught in a photograph used as a prop. bells. gathered all that he knew FRANCISCO DE GOYA V i s i o n a r y Spanish painter. usually strangers from past times.Portraiture IN P O R T R A I T U R E W E MEET PEOPLE.139). a single line can deliver an entire expression. It also reminds us o f b o t h t h e intimacy and a scene as scrutiny o f an honest portrait. we use the delicate medium of silver point to look at foundation structures of the head.

Picasso has left to posterity many hundreds of magnificent line drawings. we can enjoy and learn from them. It takes a truly accomplished a few strokes. breadth. The Tightness of a line is felt in its speed. length. Through exhibitions and copies in books. He makes his flair and skill look easy. hand to capture something well in only Frangoise au Bandeau 1946 660 x 505 mm (26 x197/8in) PABLO PICASSO . We can read so much about them by studying their gaze. and pressure as it conducts our eye through the image. Here the grace and beauty of two young women are held forever. they serve as a great lesson that it is not always necessary to add tone to your drawing. Picasso strikes and scrolls his pencil. It is the portrait of a countrywoman. The aesthetic sense of a line being just right can make a drawing sing. While with longer consideration. teetering on the brink of older age. We can actually count that he struck the paper 40 times. PABLO PICASSO Spanish Cubist painter (see also p. There is a common misunderstanding that a drawing with only a few lines is both less finished and easier to make than a drawing with more. one eye already cast askew into the autumn of her life.132 PORTRAITURE Poise THE BALANCE BETWEEN a mark and a blank space is often a tantalizing form of perfection.30). The truth is often the opposite. For the beginner. How could the addition of shadows have enhanced this image? Few strokes The simplicity of Picasso's line is breathtaking. adding smudges of tone for weight and solidity. stealthily using his chalk to find contours and mass. whisking a timeless girl onto the page. Without faltering. Her face is drawn tenderly and with a luminous glow. Holbein maps the still landscape of Dorothea's body in questioning marks. caught in her last moments of youth.

Holbein has cropped and pinned his subject within the four outermost lines of the image—the edges of the page. Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 1516 51/8 x121/4in (385 x 310 m m ) HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER . Holbein unified the woman with her background by gently blending colors from her clothes and face into the atmosphere around her. gently flushed. Holbein was employed toward the end of his life by King Henry VIII of England. Blended colors In this portrait drawn with colored chalks on slightly textured paper.133 HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER German p o r t r a i t painter draftsman. presses against the binding across her face. which. Cropping This regal composition fits its paper perfectly. made a popular series o f w o o d c u t prints titled The Dance of Death. He outlined her nose but not her upper lip. The peak of her cap clips the uppermost edge. and produced numerous society portraits such as this one here. and its downward slope crowns the diagonal of the composition. he designed c o u r t costumes. In addition t o his numerous exquisite portraits in oil. and designer f r o m Basel. Her folded forearms support and frame her weight above.

confusing. Delicate muscles are integrated with the skin and fat that is to be r e m o v e d . Psychological drama is contained behind a grid. distorted. dark lines made with a pencil appear against smooth. the contours of a grid. In fact. perhaps applied using a tortillon. Nerves. and has works in major collections including the Tate Gallery. or defined by. and glands also complicate form. dark tones of graphite blended into the paper. It floats in space. London. continues to exhibit regularly. while white painted flecks and wisps suggest electrical illumination. blood vessels. solid above and almost hollow below. Anatomically. This is a m a r v e l o u s interpretation of the truth. Durelli has m a d e a few m i n o r mistakes. N e w s o m e ' s eerily shadowed form is smooth and bears a linear grain evocative of w o o d . Newsome was awarded the Prix de Rome in 1960.134 PORTRAITURE Anatomies These highly finished drawings express the emotional power and physicality of the head and neck. This is one of a number of similar disembodied female heads seen behind. . The style of Durelli's d r a w i n g opposite sings with the confidence of truth and precision. Contrasts Sharp. VICTOR NEWSOME British sculptor painter and draftsman. its highly clarified detail claiming to be d r a w n from observation. using a fine and relatively 1982 13 x 181/8 in (328 x 460 mm) VICTOR NEWSOME brush. and unpleasant to see. but they are irrelevant here. The real dissection w o u l d have been far more c o m p l e x . taught at numerous British art schools from 1962-77. Highlights of white gouache were dry Profile Head late in the making. the face is one of the hardest parts to dissect.

135 ANATOMIES ANTONIO DURELLI Linear perfection This is a red chalk drawing of extraordinary accomplishment. and it is likely that this drawing was intended for reproduction as a print. which. It is hard to think of a more difficult medium with which to achieve such linear perfection. Red Chalk the Muscles 1837 173/8 x 145/8 in ( 4 4 0 x 3 7 2 m m ) ANTONIO DURELLI and Pencil Drawing and of Neck of the Head Little is k n o w n o f this M i l a n e s e p a i n t e r a n d engraver w h o c a m e from a family o f artists. Pencil numbers refer to the list of muscles written beneath. w h e n contracted. Stylized parallel lines are reminiscent of engravings. pull their points o f attachment t o w a r d each other . Durelli's experience as an engraver is reflected in his stylized drawing o f muscle fibers.

cutting and carving the paper with matted and spiraling restless energy. 1948 77/8 x 6 in (200 x 150 mm) ALBERTO GIACOMETTI . Bellini gently conjures the features of his saint with soft marks that tease his presence out of shadows into the light. There is a film of Giacometti drawing. and heads. Agitated marks make patches of tone that cut away the space around the character. he drew over the whole image at once. while his hand stabs and thrusts Revelations like a conductors baton. Opposite. close enough to touch his hair and feel his breath. ALBERTO GIACOMETTI Swiss sculptor. They show us clearly the bones of drawing. painter draftsman. We are brought intimately close to this man gazing up to heaven. Similar movements sculpted the head below into its page. as if seen from a distance. The camera watches him at work. Speed Giacometti probably began with an oval shape placed in relation to the proportion of the page. and poet After studying in Geneva and Italy. and with staccato flinches his hyperactive eye moves from paper to model. necks. Energy This is a portrait of a woman drawn with black crayon on a plain page of a book Lines search for the essence of form. They confuse our perception of scale by being intimately fragile and at the same time far removed. which are characteristically elongated. each portrait is inscribed onto the page. He is best known for his bronze sculptures of human form. each locked into a visionary gaze. Both works demonstrate how simple lines can be made complex by being intense. Portrait de Marie-Laure de Noailles c.136 PORTRAITURE THESE ARE DRAWINGS of shoulders. with speed and urgency. Giacometti settled in Paris. Then. Without paint and with very little tone. Flesh is built and personality carved simultaneously.

transferring which were made in the process of the saint to his final place in the composition of a painting (see Glossary pp. a n d b r o t h e r in-law.G I O V A N N I BELLINI A prominent member of a large family o f V e n e t i a n painters. Sometimes different narrative same character was reused in compositions. H e t a u g h t G i o r g i o n e Barbarelli and Titian. a n d c o n t e m p l a t i v e . Mantegna. H e p r e f e r r e d religious t o classical t h e m e s . Bellini s t u d i e d u n d e r his f a t h e r J a c o p o . Character This is one of many cartoons produced by Bellini the and his family. Head and Shoulders of a Man 73/8 x 21/4 in ( 1 8 6 x 5 8 UNDATED GIOVANNI BELLINI . Transfer This delicate humorous chalk a drawing is a cartoon—not image but a type of template used to plan the composition of a larger work Look closely and you will see rows of tiny dots along every significant line in the picture. These are pinholes. a n d his w o r k is d i s t i n c t i v e l y calm.5 9 ) .25 6 . lyrical.

bells. The artist has finished his portrait with the signature of his hand smacked in the middle like a kiss: a declaration of existence as old as man's first drawing. Islands of graphic marks. In 1986 he traveled to Africa and showed his work in Abidjan on the Ivory Coast He also exhibited in Germany and France. and indulgence. scratched lines. Al Diaz. Man Ray's playful silk-screen assembly of color blocks.138 PORTRAITURE THE MIRROR OF SELF-PORTRAITURE offers artists infinite reflections of. similar to work by Cy Twombly (see p. It is an opportunity to look deep without the infringement of courtesies owed to a commissioning sitter. drawn. a tribal. It is an image of confrontation—the ever-controversial young artist roars at us from his abstract city-scape. Later Basquiat sold drawings on T-shirts. marks. JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT Short-lived American painter and graffiti artist who began his blazing nine-year career drawing on lower Manhattan subway trains with a friend. postcards. spear-brandishing warrior. political outcry. signing their work SAMO. The figure's position is unequivocal and defiant while around him is in a state Without the essential of cultural and figure we would elegant belookingat a sophisticated painting of signs. scratched into its surface. float and shimmer in the shallow pictorial space.221). Self Portrait 1982 9 4 x 7 6 in (239 x 193 cm) JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT . and buttons rings with surrealist wit and agile improvisation. and confrontations with. Signs and symbols with symbols This painting shudders that ore written. scrolls. and sheet metal before being snapped up by the New York contemporary art scene. their most immediate and best-known subject: themselves. The incandescent New York painter Jean Michel Basquiat pictured himself here in naked silhouette. skull- Self-Portraits headed. It has proved to be a subject of piercing scrutiny. made with great energy. and everything flux. and attitudes. humor.

printmaker and cofounder of the New York Dada movement.139 MAN RAY American surrealist photographer. painter. The first part of the stenciled image was already marked on the silk The screen and paper were then held tightly together. Frame White lines are seemingly (though not actually) scratched through ink to frame this face. last of all. During the 1920's and 30s. Black ink was printed next and then white. Autoportrait 1916 195/8 MAN RAY . They suggest speed and make the picture look immediate and spontaneous. where he collaborated with the artist Laslo MoholyNagy. The handprint appears to be made directly. Man Ray lived and worked in Paris. caked in thick printing ink or paint. Man Ray probably used his own hand. while a squeegee was used to drag thick lilac-brown ink across the silk pushing it though exposed areas onto the paper below. They experimented with camera-free photography working directly onto photographic paper Silk and ink This is a silkscreen print made through the following process: the paper was laid on a flat surface and a frame stretched with fine silk was placed on top.

or wood. Opposite. platinum. who used it to outline initials and border characters before painting. copper. b e f o r e priming stretched paper. Metal point is simply a strip of metal bound in a holder. and alloys work on matt emulsion. Find a n i t e m t h a t y o u can h o l d a n d draw with comfortably. you will need t o stretch paper and lay a wash (see right and opposite). p a r c h m e n t .54) can also b e used. which quickly oxidizes into a gray line. Historically. W e t o n e length o f g u m .Tear o f f f o u r lengths o f b r o w n p a p e r g u m tape. o n e t o fit each side o f t h e b o a r d — t h e s e will make t h e glued f r a m e t h a t holds y o u r p a p e r in place. Straighten the w o r s t buckles. Note h o w domestic paintwork marks with a coin. The most c o m m o n metal has always been silver—hence the term "silver point. Drawn across a prepared surface. s e e p . M E T A L OBJECTS: All metal objects m a r k a p r e p a r e d surface." Lead. w h i t e d r a w i n g paper) and cut it t o fit y o u r d r a w i n g b o a r d w i t h a generous b o r d e r a r o u n d its edges.s t r i p a n d use i t t o fix o n e side o f t h e p a p e r t o t h e b o a r d . an exciting indication of how large-scale drawings could be made on a wall. Lay a clean d r a w i n g b o a r d o n a flat surface. 2 . Lightly s p o n g e o f f t h e excess. Metal point does not work on ordinary paper. artists mixed white lead.54-55). I m a k e m y o w n f r o m o l d dip pens. SILVER W I R E : Purchase different gauge lengths f r o m a traditional a r t supplier o r jeweler. it leaves a deposit. This is called a three-tone drawing. 1 4 4 . c h o o s e a s o f t full b r u s h t h a t c a n c a r r y p l e n t y o f l i q u i d . I combined silver point with painted white gouache on a pink ground. S i l v e r is b e s t . Stretched paper remains taut as a d r u m . 144-45. and gold have also been used. SILVER P O I N T W I R E H O L D E R : T h e s e c a n b e p u r c h a s e d a n d t e n d t o b e heavy. For i m p o r t a n t a d v i c e o n p r e p a r a t i o n a n d use. 2. 3 . Pages 142 to 147 are illustrated in silver point and techniques are explained on pp. laid on paper. MATERIALS 1 Find a clean sponge and b o w l o r d e e p t r a y a n d fill it w i t h w a t e r W e t t h e p a p e r evenly in t h e t r a y o r o n t h e b o a r d . To begin. b u t d o n ' t w o r r y . bone. W e t a n d fix a s e c o n d strip t o t h e o p p o s i t e side. the surface must be primed with a ground such as gouache. S O F T F U L L B R U S H : W h e n laying a w a s h . choose a silver object.140 PORTRAITURE Silver P o i n t SILVER OR METAL POINT STRETCHING PAPER A sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has been made w e t with the strokes o f a paintbrush will buckle d u e t o its uneven expansion. This browns with age unless sealed by fixative (see pp. E m p t y mechanical pencils designed f o r t h i c k leads ( s e e p. I t is a v a i l a b l e f r o m all a r t s h o p s . s o m e m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n o t h e r s . and make o r buy a holder. was familiar to or eggshells with animal glue. key. Z I N C W H I T E G O U A C H E : Dilute with w a t e r A d d c o l o r i f r e q u i r e d (as opposite) 4 . Be swift and firm. 5. and t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h strips a b o v e and b e l o w . illuminators of medieval m a n u s c r i p t s . and is therefore useful w h e n using w a t e r c o l o r as well as silver point. Gesso o r m a t t e m u l s i o n c a n a l s o b e u s e d . purchase silver wire. T h e p a p e r will l o o k b u c k l e d . M a k e s u r e i t is c o m p l e t e l y clean t o avoid u n w a n t e d streaks. 156). If w o r k i n g o n an emulsion-painted wall. Numerous early European artists also enjoyed its fine qualities (see p. or ring. 1. Take a sheet o f any t y p e o f p a p e r (for e x a m p l e .

full brush into the gouache and start in the top left corner. It will slowly straighten and become taut. The next step will make a small mess. LAYING A WASH It your stretched paper so as to prime it for silver point. stretched paper at a 45-degree angle. v e r y little at a time. Runs blend into each other evenly.t o n e silver point drawing of a skull . Mix a very wet but not weak solution of gouache in a jar with a lid (add pigment at this stage for a three-tone drawing). T h r e e . Keep testing on spare paper.141 SILVER POINT 3 Leave the paper to dry flat. as the paper will be ruined by a raised ridge. Make enough to cover your paper. Dry thoroughly before laying a wash. Here. leaving a smooth surface. I used a powder pigment called Caput Mortuum. Leave the wash to dry thoroughly before you begin to draw. Dip a soft. overlapping lines until you reach the bottom. is necessary to lay a wash o Three-tone When coloring ground. Make an even line across to the right. so put newspaper under the lower edge. and let tests dry before deciding to change the mixture. Prop up your board of dry. Reload the brush and add a second line overlapping it beneath. any extra will keep. Beware of the tape's coming loose at any point while drying. slowly add powder pigment or gouache from a tube. Keep adding smooth.

142

PORTRAITURE

Head and Neck
THE HEAD AND NECK are best conceived as one unit arranged in four parts: cranium, face, neck, and throat. Each is of equal importance. The cranium is essentially egg-shaped and pivots on the first vertebra. The face is suspended beneath, like a softly curved triangle. The n e c k — a powerful, shapely column of layered muscles rigged to vertebrae—adjusts and holds the angle and expression of the head. The throat is delicate, hard, and lumpy to the touch, formed of cartilaginous rings, glands, thin muscles, and looser skin. Framing the throat, two columnar neck muscles (sternomastoids) project the head forward and also turn it to the opposite side.

This is a simple shorthand diagram representing the cranium, face, neck, and throat. It can be learned and visualized in different positions very easily, giving the novice a firm footing on which to stand and develop their drawings of the head and neck.

Shorthand diagram

Cranium Begin with an egg shape. Tilt it on the paper to change the position of the head.

Face Draw a rounded triangular shape below the forward point of the egg to represent the face.

Neck This shape represents the trapezius; the largest surface muscle of the neck and shoulders.

Throat A triangular shape represents the throat. (The nose makes the diagram clearer)

Applied shorthand

After copying the diagram above, animate it. Practice drawing the cranium at different angles, add the face beneath, then the neck, shoulders, and throat. Shape your diagrams so they are more lifelike, but avoid adding detailed features too soon.

143 These three drawings demonstrate (from left to right) the following: why the cranium may be considered egg-shaped; now the face can be seen as a curved triangle suspended beneath and where the division lies between the two; and the form of sternomastoid muscles that frame thethroatsodistinctlywhen the head is turned and inclined forward.

The skull and the frame of the throat

HEAD AND NECK

Bones of the cranium are locked together by jagged joints. Sinuses in the frontal (forehead) bone between and beneath the eyebrows are larger in men, making their brows pronounced and often ridged compared to those of women.

Bones of the face house our sight, smell, taste, The skull pivots on the first vertebra or "atlas," and speech. Cartilage extending from nasal bones after the Greek god condemned to carry the shapesthenose.Pads of fat resting on the base of Earth. The jaw hinges in front of the ears. Behind, eacheyesocket support the eyeballs in position. If bony ridges give anchor to the sternomastoid thefatisreducedby old age, eyes look sunken. muscles rising from the breast- and collarbones.

Three useful generalizations

General rules about the relative positions of body parts can hinder artists as much as help them, since they are often based on classical ideals rather than thediversityoflife.However,some generalizations can help as a rough guide to start with, so long as good observation takes over as soon as possible.

In general, when the face is relaxed (not smiling or frowning), the corners of the mouth are found directly beneath the pupils of the eyes. Vertical lines can be drawn down from the pupils to meet the corners of the mouth.

The height of a young adult's ear is often the same as their nose and found on the same level. There is no general rule for growing children, and remember that ears grow again in old age, which is most obvious in men.

The height of the face is about the length of the handspan and the eye is normally halfway down the total height of the head. A common error is to draw the eyes too high up on the face.

144

PORTRAITURE

Essential Observations
T H E DELICACY OF SILVER POINT

(see pp. 140-41) is perfect for

such as a beach pebble. Here, I stretched drawing paper and laid a wash of white gouache (see pp.140-41). As you can see, the line and tone of silver point varies with pressure, but only slightly. Too much pressure cuts the ground. Silver point erases, but so does ground. Erased ground can be repaired gently with extra gouache. You can also use gouache to paint over mistakes and make corrections.

small, detailed drawings. The drawings below and opposite show useful observations of the head and neck, which are explained in the captions below. Each drawing was made with a silver wire held in a large-gauge mechanical pencil. Newly clipped wires are sharp and cut rather than draw. Before use, they need to be rubbed and smoothed on a stone

Here I imagined placing my silver point wire against the skin of each head and neck and, working in parallel bands from the crown downward, I traced the undulation of surfaces. Linear bands imagined around the head and neck can help you t o clearly see the tilt of the head and relative levels of the features. Ask a friend t o model for you and try this exercise life-size using a pencil and eraser

Contours

Tilted forward

Tilted backward

Three-quarter view

Seeing that the face is never flat

Drawings below left and center are summaries of the generalizations given on p.143. Far right is an image to remind us that the face is never flat. It slopes back to varying degrees among individuals, from the tip of the nose t o the ears. For example, note that the innermost corners of the eyes are farther forward in space than the outermost corners.

General measurements, side

General measurements, front

View from above

145

Male and female head and neck
Men's necks a r e g e n e r a l l y s h o r t e r a n d t h i c k e r t h a n w o m e n ' s b e c a u s e t h e angles a n d levels o f c e r t a i n b o n e s a r e d i f f e r e n t b e t w e e n t h e sexes ( i n d i c a t e d h e r e b y d o t t e d lines) a n d m e n are n o r m a l l y m o r e muscular. T h e male t h y r o i d cartilage ( A d a m ' s apple) is larger a n d m o r e visible than t h e f e m a l e . L a r g e r f e m a l e t h y r o i d glands also s o f t e n t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e t h r o a t .

ESSENTIAL OBSERVATIONS
Female skull

Male

skeleton

Male

skull

Trapezius muscle
The largest m u s c l e o f t h e s h o u l d e r s a n d n e c k is called the trapezius. A r r a n g e d on e i t h e r side o f t h e spine, it shapes t h e u p p e r back and neck above the s h o u l d e r blades. C o n t r a c t i n g in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h d e e p e r and surrounding muscles, it raises and l o w e r s t h e shoulders a n d d r a w s t h e h e a d backtoeitherside.

The whole

muscle

Upper

half with

sternomastoids

Above

with head

straight

Above

with head

forward

Side with

sternomastoid

Front with

sternomastoid

146

PORTRAITURE

Drawing Portraits
USING A SHARP 3 B PENCIL, I drew this head quickly from imagination, evolving its character and expression from the scheme of four parts: cranium, face, neck, a n d throat (see p. 142). Here, five steps show you how to practice doing the same. This approach can be used to draw from imagination or from life. Keep your wrist loose and hold your pencil away from its point (see pp.22-23). Build the layers of your drawing from pale to dark, a n d from general balance a n d form to specific detail. Remember that successful drawings are built on foundations of "seeing the whole," then dividing the whole into smaller parts, with details brought in last of all. Phrased tonal marks modeling this girls skin and hair follow the technique demonstrated by Goya in his self-portrait on p. 130. Turn to Goya's drawing and study how, in a circle beginning across his hat, moving down his hair, and around his coat, he flows lines over surfaces to describe their contour. As you build from steps 1 to 5, bring phrased groups of lines across the surfaces of your form, using their directions to capture the expression of the head and neck. If unsure, copy my steps until you gain the confidence to make your own decisions.

This drawing is the final stage of the four steps opposite. Here, I have enlarged the eye, and moved it back into the head by trimming the length of the upper lid and adding a more pronounced lower lid. It is important to set eyes far enough back from the relatively prominent nose; too close to it and the face flattens. Hair swept back and extended behind the cranium balances the regal pose. Lines shaping the hair echo those marking the cranium in step 1. Here, the lower part of step 1 comes through as wisps of hair across her face and ear

BALANCED POSE

Portrait of a Young Girl

avoid drawing too dark. too soon. Moving from the back of the neck. down the face to the throat. The nose and ear begin to shape the head. 2 Rapidly add shorthand shapes to represent the face. I used light to describe the upper lid first with a shadow beneath for the lower lid and open eye. so it is important to the life of the image that while controlled. neck. and throat. 3 Place the eye beneath the cranium. Here.147 Building up the portrait DRAWING PORTRAITS 1 Gently spin pale lines in a softly drawn shape representing the cranium. 4 . they are also still sweeping and confident. over the cranium. First lines will remain visible in the final drawing.Theangle at which you draw this shape of the paper will determine the angle of the finished head. I modeled the outline of the character I imagined light shining from above and in front and adjusted the pressure of lines to reflect this. Keep your first lines light. The eye announces the nature and expression of the emerging person.

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empathize. muscular tension. and gravity. Above all. a n d t h o s e w h o a r e Generations asleep (see overleaf). the texture of hair.T o DRAW PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGES. . be aware of the subtle differences in skin surface.

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Van Dyke's noble cast of characters was modeled more finely. I used the nib upside down to gain needle-sharp precision. . Fast lines carve out the features of Goya's soup-slurping hag.Castings DRAWING IN THE PRADO MUSEUM. seeking the dominant contours of each individual expression. with a steel dip pen and acrylic ink. Madrid.

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arichand unusual combination of pencil. or calm u s w i t h chic. was a Belarussian A r t Deco theater fantasies and desires to immediately possess a version of the same. variety. o n l y the w e a l t h y c o u l d afford to h a v e c o s t u m e s specially m a d e . personality. a n d p r o f e s s i o n — b e g a n life as a d r a w i n g . D e s i g n e r s create m a s t e r p i e c e s of haute couture LEON BAKST for H o l l y w o o d stars. P o p u l a r f a s h i o n d e s i g n e x p l o d e d w i t h the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n .Costume W E MAKE OURSELVES EXOTIC. articulate a d a n g e r o u s satirical j o k e . theb u t b y the w a y it s p e a k s w i t h its flying. W e dress ourselves and costume designer trained in in St. and everything w e h a v e c h o s e n for o u r w a r d r o b e s — r e f l e c t o r s of o u r taste. he and cofounder Serge Diaghilev took Paris by eac storm in 1910 with their production h year in the industrial f r e n z y of creating o u r image and aspirations. Previously. Like it or not. and e x u b e r a n c e . known as Leon Bakst. S t r u c t u r e is t h o u g h the i n v e n t i o n of shoes. Bakst's designs and costumes immediately To the fine artist. a n d w e will c o l l e c t patterns. b u t influenced Parisian fashion and interiordecor. caricatured p l u m e s . and gouache. Cities c h a n g e d all.This voluptuous above all a physical p u p p e t w i t h w h i c h to animate character and narrate personality. for e x a m p l e — d e s i g n e d the w a r d r o b e s of p o p e s a n d k i n g s . a n d s u b t l e t o n e s . gesture. while court p a i n t e r s — M i c h e l a n g e l o and Holbein. . In psychology. it is the public sign by w h i c h w e are j u d g e d . cool. In this c h a p t e r w e see h o w c l o t h i n g c a n s e e m to p o s s e s s the w e i g h t and m o n u m e n t a l i t y of stone.As artistic director of the It is s h o c k i n g to t h i n k h o w m a n y m i l l i o n s of d r a w i n g s m u s t be m a d e a n d d i s c a r d e d Ballet Russe. and s y m b o l s that lets m e n and w o m e n in all countries and areas have w o r k i n g access to the latest fashions. Practical classes Bacchante 1911 l o o k at r a n g e s of c o l o r e d m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d i n g p a s t e l s a n d felt-tip p e n s . w a r m t h . g l o s s y folds. a n d c o u r t i e r tailors f o l l o w e d suit. and atmosphere. st 111/4 x 81/2 in (285 x 220 mm) u d i e d L E O NB A K S T and explore the characterization of fabric t h r o u g h m o v e m e n t . Samoylovich Rosenberg. intriguing. or b u l g e s . c u l t u r e . shapes. T h e rural masses w o r e h o m e s p u n simplicity. and i n d e e d image b e c a m e the property also of the industrial classes. T h e e n t o u r a g e of the theatrical stage o f t e n l e a d s the c a t w a l k . outrageous. and intent. T h e p a p e r p a t t e r n is p e r h a p s the m o s t w i d e l y k n o w n of c o s t u m e d r a w i n g s : a formalized plan of lines. and be so expressive of temperament that it overtakes the need for an o c c u p y i n g h u m a n form. Petersburg and later exiled designers' ideas and are surprised and delighted b y their continual f l o w of inspiration. toParis. Designers all over the w o r l d c o n t i n u a l l y p e n and b r u s h lines to lash us w i t h color. so that c h o i c e . of Scheherazade. woman was drawn by Bakst one year later for the ballet Narcisse. charcoal. e m u l a t e textures. and even invisible by the w a y w e dress. fulfilling lavish and spectacular briefs. c r u m p l e s . w h i c h in turn feed c o n s u m e r Lev. Artists do this not so m u c h b y the style of a figure's garment. dancer leaps through swaths of golden cloth. c o s t u m e o f f e r s a r i c h v o c a b u l a r y of t e x t u r e s a n d c o l o r .

He has layered these slowly and carefully so as not to cut through the ground and produce a white mark just where he intended a dark one. and implied striation in the stone of the architecture. Their uninterrupted emphasis is entirely vertical. dragons. with their jagged edges. bands around the columns. the carefully composed outline of his cloak shows us how the artist would have also begun his immaculate rendering of the Virgin's clothes. and the kneeling abbot is a ghost by comparison. resonate with their wearers startled expression. With a stylus such as Van Eyck used here. The quiet stillness of this image is achieved by a masterly economy of stylized line. Maelbeke I44I Madonna 11 x 7 in (278 x 180 m m ) JAN V A N EYCK . Keisai Eisen's intense. Flaxmans sleeper—perhaps a pilgrim or a soldier resting between campaigns—has wedged himself into the cleft of some great building to grab a moment of peace.140-41). the Madonna and her architecture are both dressed in the same manner.156 COSTUME Cloth and Drapery EACH OF THESE FIGURES is ninety percent cloth. swirling printed fabrics. Above them. her marble garment holds u p the infant Christ in a fountain of compressed line. H e m e t i c u l o u s l y a r r a n g e d subjects t o c o n v e y d e e p e r meaning. In Van Eyck's drawing below. Opposite. Delicate marks Silver (or metal) point is the most delicate of traditional drawing media (see pp. However. Vertical lines The highly controlled lines of this drawing cascade from top to bottom of the image. Short and subtle horizontal punctuations are only given in the background by sections of floor. it is only possible to create very thin. Marble gown We will never know if Van Eyck considered this drawing unfinished or intended the kneeling abbot to remain transient and ghostly. Van Eyck's highly polished w o r k is c e l e b r a t e d f o r its disguised symbolism. Below this. best k n o w n f o r his G h e n t altarpiece ( 1 4 3 2 ) a n d m a r r i a g e p o r t r a i t o f Giovanni A r n o l f i n i and his w i f e (1434). and snakelike marks. Church and deities are drawn as JAN VAN EYCK Flemish oil p a i n t e r f r o m L i m b o u r g . folds and patterns of material speak more resolutely of their wearers than any small glimpses of body we can see. the vaulted stone roof echoes and crowns the moment. Her gown is carved and polished as if made from marble. Sculpted one. delicate lines.

Respected for his sumptuous images of geisha and editions of erotic prints. Parts of the image to be left unprinted are gouged out with a metal tool. Images are drawn onto smooth. stone wall of downward-stroked this sleeper's position is momentary. which are sometimes also cut into pieces like a jigsaw puzzle. flat sheets of wood. and Man Lying Down in a Cloak I 787-94 21/4 JOHN FLAXMAN x 41/8 in (57 x 105 mm) . the cloak sliding to the ground. Dante. one over the other. each delivering a different part and color of the design. designer. writer and printmaker Keisai Eisen took his name from the masters Kano Hakkeisai and Kikugawa Eizan. CLOTH AND DRAPERY Relief printing This is a woodblock print made by a relief process. The inked block is laid face-down on damp paper and pressed to make the print. Koimurasaki of Tama-ya 1810-50 15 x101/4in (381 x 260 mm) KEISAI EISEN The Courtesan JOHN F L A X M A N English late 18th-century neoclassical sculptor. the angle of the head. draftsman. Aeschylus earned Flaxman an international reputation. Position In this pen and ink drawing. and teacher Distinctive linear illustrations for the works of Homer.157 KEISAI EISEN Japanese draftsman. Remaining raised areas of wood are rolled with colored inks. and the feet notched against the pillar tell us that A lines holds him into the cleft. he also co-edited and expanded the Ukiyo-e Ruiko (History of Prints of the Floating World). an 18th-19th century document on the lives of the ukiyo-e artists. This complex numerous blocks prepared image and may have been made with printed separately.

t h r o u g h n u m e r o u s p o r t r a i t and C h u r c h commissions. The metal. Opposite is a dangerous drawing. A flamboyant territory. Flowing scarf The knight's scarf of gilded blue is drawn in a pale wash over red ink lines. He has been rendered on this olive<olored page with pen and gray wash worked over a red and black under-drawing. he c o o l e d and redefined his style. Fine examples can be plucked from fashion. A s a y o u n g man. theater. cinema. Its warm surface flows in contrast to the stiff metal armor. The slight uncertainty of the pose and the limp cloak suggest a little more metal than man. cartoon. A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE Flemish painter and draftsman. 160. In 1 6 3 2 he m o v e d p e r m a n e n t l y t o L o n d o n . It is presumed Her Royal Highness never saw it. where sometimes there just might not be anybody inside. Anthony Van Dyke's Man in Armor is a masterpiece of drawn surface. w h e r e . Pen and wash In the graphic accuracy of this armored knight we see the idealized identity of a warrior from another time: a gleaming defender of the realm. Van D y k e was chief assistant t o Rubens f o r t w o years. all ruffs and wrinkles. lace. for she would not have been amused and William Wodall might have been stretching his luck. Leg section Compare mid-shin the section of white boots cropped to the section of similarly cropped trousers in drawings Gruau's drawing on p. Man in Armor UNDATED 1 6 x 9 1 / 2 in ( 4 0 5 x 2 4 0 m m ) A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE . Details and voices are worn externally with great imagination. a scurrilous cartoon by a courtier of Queen Elizabeth I. The aged queen is compared to an overdressed bird.158 COSTUME Character Costumes an extreme form of the clothed figure. Its color is also reflected in the metal. cloth. and feather were all CHARACTER COSTUMES REPRESENT observed with closely crafted conviction. a n d w a s e m p l o y e d as c o u r t painter t o King Charles I. Leg sections in both support the figure without taking our attention away from the main garment above. and even formal portraiture. b e f o r e traveling t o Italy.

hooded with an overinflated fluffy ruff eye pins us.159 WILLIAM W O D A L L A u t h o r and illustrator o f The Aaes of Queene a Elizabeth poem Allegorized. t h e Ridolfi Plot. and saturations showing through from the other side. she is shown as a grossly disproportioned bird. the queen is masterfully rebalanced by words at her feet The whole drawing's blackened. it was customary to Iron-gall ink Wodall's dangerous caricature steps daintily the written lines of her dedicated page. while a raised foot pauses to assess the next displaying a fan of daggers. manuscript comprising six c a n t o s . t h e Rising. bitten nature. T h e poem recounts t h e six m a j o r crises o f Elizabeth's reign: t h e Spanish A r m a d a .35). Beneath the lethal fan is the body of a bird of trimmed feathers suggest age. and her pride. A Ruffs and feathers Starched white ruffs worn at court and by society grew steadily larger as Elizabeth's reign progressed. Top-heavy. t h e Jesuit Mission. suggest the use of iron-gall ink (see p. t h e B a b i n g t o n Plot. Satire of the Queen's Dress c. Northern Satire This is a quill-and-ink satire of the elderly queen's pride-As head of state and fashion. here dark tawny owl.1599 71/2 WILLIAM x 51/4 in ( 1 9 0 x 1 3 4 mm) WODALL . By her old upto three tiers supported on sticks.

as is Spider-Girl opposite. 158.c e n t u r y haute i n n u m e r o u s m a g a z i n e s i n c l u d i n g Elle. a n d L'Officiel de la couture. Gruau uses starkly cut negative space (see pp. and both share the power of scarlet and black. Gruau's model regally swans to the fore with cool pride. India ink and gouache This swish of confidence and style our enters the page turning everyone's head. diving to catch us in the grip of her machine-like limbs.5 9 ) and a three-spoke balance of cuffs and cropped trousers to create an almost flag-like emblem of power. Compare the compositio beneathVanDyke'sstudy of armor on p. His model is outlined. The black red.160 COSTUME Femmes Fatales THESE DEVASTATING femmes fatales force back the onlooker with their demure. muscular aggression.and tilted to the same de a little deeper than sp kneestogivehergravity. She has been drawn with brushes dipped into India ink and gouache. studio-like rectangle of paper. demanding attention with gesture and flair. Rene Gruau's bold gouache drawing of smoothly swaying sophistication captures a brilliantly cut garment and frames it with great dynamism in a white. Drying time in between applications ensured the colors did not run into each other. and gray pigments were applied separately. elegant chic and svelte. Composition Look how well this image is frame knee is parallel to the bottom edge spacehorizontalline cropping the trousers be outermostuprightbordersof her cuffs are similar above her head thesidesoftheimage. Fine lines drawn against the building behind her echo the threads on which we have all seen arachnids drop and hang. Harpers & Queen. G r u a u ' s highly distinctive d r a w i n g s have a p p e a r e d Couture. 5 8 . ofcroppedtrousershere to the device of the w Illustration 1949 for Jacques Fath in L ' O f f i c i e l d e la C o u t u r e RENE GRUAU . Spider-Girl leaps like an insect. RENE GRUAU I t a l i a n . Vogue. Airbrushed reflective surfaces further amplify our perception of speed.F r e n c h f a s h i o n i l l u s t r a t o r w h o in his l o n g and esteemed career w o r k e d with many of the g r e a t e s t d e s i g n e r s o f 2 0 t h . Fashion and fantasy drawings invent prototypes of ideals and perfection—be they for the catwalk or the fast-paced pages of comic books. possibly over a pencil outline.

Frenz has drawn for Marvel for about 20 years. Buildings. MARVEL C O M I C S . to the right of its center. This s modeling applied over the top give the image a sleek and mechanical of gravity. Single-point understand perspective To how Frenz created up therefore the effect of steeply between looking buildings—and howyou can do the same in your own work—take calculate where a ruler the and single vanishing point lies.74-77). Align your ruler to the upright of each building. and Amazing Spider-Man. Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 2001-04 R O N FRENZ. moon. and figure are all locked into equally shatp through the traditional process of a pencilled outline over-drawn ink. and has been the title's regular artist since 2003. Airbrushed color and with tonal focus. He began work on Spider-Girl in 1998. It is outside the picture frame. at Their extensions will meet the same single vanishing (see point pp. Sharp focus black outlines in this drawing create a hyper-real dynamic. a great characteristic superhero comics. In your mind's eye extend the uprights out of the top of the picture. beginning with Star Wars. sky. The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones.RON F R E N Z Contemporary American graphic artist w h o designs and pencils the dynamic scenes of numerous superheroes featured in Marvel Comics. not far above the drawing.

size. crumbly. Degas built his pastels in layers. are derived from many sources: rocks. and sold in many colors. colored materials available. and CHALK PASTELS Pastel pencils make fine lines (as above). or wax and a binder are shaped into fine strips and encased in w o o d like a graphite pencil. shape. The worst are like revolting old lipsticks that get everywhere except where you intend. and can be softened and manipulated with degrees of heat. though lines can develop greasy stains around the edges if the paper is not first stretched and treated with a gelatin paste laid as a wash. 3. Store loose pastels in dry rice to keep them clean. Use them to draw lightly (as above left) or thickly. quality. and cost are laid out for our pleasure and perusal. Most stores leave small pads of paper on their counters for customers to test materials. Sticks and conte crayons make thicker marks (as below). animals. I suggest you do so. FELT-TIP PENS: Instant-drying alcoholor water-based inks stored in the barrels of the pens are delivered via smooth nylon o r felt tips of varying shapes and thicknesses. including iridescents. intensity. They vary hugely in cost. Pastels are finer. minerals. Many products are sold individually and in boxed sets. Be aware that fixative dulls pastel. unwrapped harder pastels. CHALK PASTELS: Blackboard chalk is sidewalk work. great for tin . the finer and more subtle the texture and color should be. chalkbased but very subtle. wash. quality and cost T h e best are paperwrapped sticks of sumptuous. allowing it to fix slightly from behind. made in about 80 colors. mixed on the paper and scratched into (as below). oily pigment. Bright pastels are more brilliant on colored paper. clay. OIL PASTELS: Many colors. you may be pleasantly surprised to discover something you could not have imagined using. See h o w they work and return later for more of what proved best for you. Before making substantial investments. there are disparities between the apparent nature or color of what you hold in your hand and its performance on paper. The nontoxic range below represents a suggested starting point for experiment. purchase a small selection of different items you think you will like. plants. used to make colors. 1.162 COSTUME Colored Materials ART STORES BRIM OVER w i t h t h e m a n y wherever permitted. hue. the diverse are made in brands of basic member of the family. OIL PASTELS Oil-based. Seemingly infinite choices of texture. Pastel pencils are slender and in w o o d casing. and subtlety. Often. COLORED PENCILS: Dry pigments ground together with chalk. C o n t e crayons are square-formed. these work best when slightly warm. and synthetics. soft. except the final layer. paper-wrapped. slightly oily to the touch. 4. and can be a great rediscovery for bold drawings. Children's wax crayons are relatives. 2. insects. Dissolve in turpentine or mineral spirits to produce oil paint or or dark paper. Try materials that are new and unfamiliar. fixing each layer on the front. The higher the quality (and cost). which he left unfixed to retain its brightness. Beware—some are toxic. They work well on PIGMENTS Pigments. Many artists apply fixative to the back of their work.

Fine lines can be achieved (as above). Diverse brands are harder or soften greasier or chalkier in use.or clay-based thin crayons in wood casing. Think of Matisse's Blue Nude (see p. Colors can be blended as shown right) and tones graded by altering pressure. If you love smooth blocks and lines of colon felt-tip pens are perfect. Some give richer lines than others. FELT-TIP PENS Although not made with felt-tip pen. . Brands made for designers sold in enormous ranges of colors are far more subtle and sophisticated than those made for children. so it is best to test them before buying. others dissolve in water or turpentine to make a wash. 111). it is still a great champion and support for those beginners feeling shyly obligated to tone down their love of color to conform with what others say they should use.163 COLORED PENCILS These are wax. Some are nonsoluble. leaving the paper to shine through for highlights (as below).

values. As artifacts in museums. personality. social and economic status. and after studying familiar shoes we use the information learned to invent new ones. will discover m o r e . structure. Turn t h e m in different d i r e c t i o n s and o b s e r v e t h e i r s t r u c t u r e and f o r m . t h e n again as if transparent. D r a w each o n e first as a solid object. if y o u m a k e p l e n t y o f d r a w i n g s as o p p o s e d t o o n l y a f e w . style. they record and reflect our common history. e n j o y i n g t h e study a n d i n v e n t i o n o f shoes. a n d e x p e r i e n c e visible p r o g r e s s . I m a d e n u m e r o u s s h e e t s o f d r a w i n g s . S H O E S TELL LIFE STORIES. To set up. imagining y o u can see t h r o u g h it. 100-01 and pp. . and a selection of shoes. you will need several large sheets of drawing paper. and how we stand and walk.164 COSTUME Study and Design they reflect our age. You. This class takes the shoe as its subject in building on earlier lessons concerned with seeing through objects to understand their function. and volume in space (see pp. 104-07). Here we go one step further. and they have been concealed in buildings to ward off misfortune. while artists have painted their boots or those of others as personal portraits and memorials. Superstitions and fetishes are attached to them: we are told never to put new shoes on a table. c o v e r a large sheet o f p a p e r w i t h line drawings o f several shoes. t o o . a range of colored felt-tip pens with both fine and broad tips. the era in which we live. REPEATED STUDY T o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s class. Linear Outline Using fine pens.

165

The Surface
Next,

STUDY AND DESIGN

study the surface contours using fineand broad-tipped felt-tip pens. For best results, it is important to be bold and brief. Draw firmly, fast, and with as few strokes as possible. Build up each shoe from light to dark andleavesome paper showing through to create highlights.

Design Your Own

Using what you have learned from the previous steps about the structures of your shoes, and about the use of pens, invent new designs from your imagination. Start with fine outlines and progress to colored and textured surfaces. Modify your ideas by rotating the views.

166

COSTUME

The Structure of Costume
MUSEUMS ARE AN INFINITELY

rich resource for the artist and

information given by a period style. Arrange to visit a costume museum or ask a friend to model clothes for you at home. Using fine felt-tip pens, begin with quick, pale impressions of each garment's shape before homing in on its borders and seams. Try to draw transparent views wherever possible to record the relationships between all component parts. Aim to draw enough information for it to be possible to make up a version of the garment using paper pinned to a tailor's dummy.

designer. They often give quite unexpected gems of ideas and information—whatever the subject. These drawings, made in a costume museum, demonstrate ways of recording structural information and detail for later use in the studio. They could form the basis of new designs for a fashion project or theater production, for example. Drawings of shoes on pp. 164-65 show how new designs can be evolved from the structural

OBSERVATION
It is usually best when collecting information for reference to apply the restraint of dispassionate observation. Set yourself the test of drawing facts with as little artistic license or embellishment as possible. Here I chose fine felt-tip pens because they are at their best when used swiftly, and therefore encourage bold, unhesitant decisions.

Swift lines record the hanging weight of this gentleman's coat, the relative proportions of its layers, and minimal details of the buttons and cuffs.

Thick velvet fabric is pulled tight beneath and across the bust by a single button. This transparent view shows how the fabric falls loosely in straight panels beneath the level of the sleeve.

167

LIGHTING
W h e n visiting museums, be prepared f o r l o w lighting, which can make it hard t o see and draw. A book can help if attached t o your drawing board.

Adding stripes and dashes of color with a thicker pen brings out the glossy sheen and sculptural rigidity of this dress, which would have been worn over a whalebone corset. small reading light designed t o clip o n t o a

THE STRUCTURE OF COSTUME

In small drawings such as these, use thick pens to color entire sections with a few marks, as I did here down the side of the bodice.

The light, frilly bulk of this crinoline dress is propelled forward with lines. pinching its gathers and sways that are hiding a horsehair bustle. fleets of quick

168

COSTUME

Textures and.Patterns
THIS CLASS FOCUSES ON how to draw textures through the collection of fabric, pattern, and embroidery samples from a costume m u s e u m . This formal method, using ruled squares, can create an invaluable library of ideas a n d i n f o r m a t i o n for future r e f e r e n c e — w h e n painting a clothed figure, or preparing a textile project, for example. However, if making a book of samples for a project, remember that it is important to also include collages of f o u n d materials (see pp.230-31) To d r a w a fabric texture, b e g i n by concentrating o n h o w y o u i m a g i n e it w o u l d feel if you t o u c h e d it. Decide if it w o u l d be rough, s m o o t h , w a r m , cold, thick, thin, tough, or fragile, for example. As you draw, believe you can feel these qualities at your fingertips a n d that your pencil is responding to the sensation. Undulate the pressure of your lines and marks according to the feeling of the fabric rather than its appearance. Let your pencil enact the sensation of touching its surface.

and to experiment more loosely with mixed media.

INVENTING COSTUMES
This starchy, quilted, b o w e d creation started life as an imagined corset, I intended t o d r a w together in one sculptural f o r m a range o f t h e details opposite. T h e garment quickly got o u t o f hand. T h e r e is great e n j o y m e n t in letting y o u r imagination run wild w h e n inventing costumes. If you are unable t o visit a costume museum, many exciting fabric details and textures can be found in y o u r o w n closet o r home.

169

COLORED PENCILS
Colored pencils give precision and tonal range; they can be faded but not erased. Lightly use an HB graphite pencil if you wish to plan a design first. Pressed hard, colored pencils build up a waxy finish of brilliant color. Used lightly, they appear powdery and show the texture of the paper.

TEXTURES AND PATTERNS
Wool

Silk and braid

Ribbon

Embroidered leather

Feathers

Pearls

Knit

Tassels

Outline stitch

.

. look at how Goya delineated volumes of thick fabric to express the posture.126-27. Madrid. and 252-53). identity. shape. These characters. I made a drawing book full of studies seeking to understand how he composed drama and pathos in his narratives (see also pp. selected from different pages of my original book. 172-73. and motivation of an individual.Dressing Character I O N C E SPENT THREE MONTHS researching the work of Francisco de Goya at the Prado Museum.

as it rushes and carves fabric-wrapped forms like rivers and desert winds shaping the earth. and visible.T H E S E PENCIL STUDIES. are copies of works by Goya in which he makes air seem heavier than flesh.170—71). . I carefully copied the direction of each of his lines. and tangible. To understand how he did this. Posture Carving also taken from my Madrid drawing book (see pp.

.

.

Rembrandt's bored and frustrated wife. vivid portrait of his wife captures our attention. soap operas. We read tensions and exchanges between people. It middle. the viewer. finding corners in crowded places to inscribe their action and energy onto the page. heighten or subdue drama with subtleties of exaggeration or caricature. too. Drawings selected for this chapter explore these Saskia Lying in Bedand a Nurse ranges of proximity 1638 9 x61/2in (227 x 164 mm) and a travel journal. television documentaries. R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN in the delivery of narrative. a crowd tells the story from a distance. we can learn most about handling pen and ink. and instantly engage with the action of the scene. daily newspapers. and other masters of Western Art. even up her were laid with a brush.Gatherings A LL DRAWINGS TELL STORIES. the viewer is not directly made the finer lines of Saskia. Seeing through Rembrandt's eyes. and so. and its illumination. the speed and printmaker and one of the greatest and most influential density of its lines. types. we can R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter draftsman. comics. He in turn scorches the paper with his view and a certain speed of seeing all. Third. As artists. are implicated in this marital exchange made over the head of the anonymous nurse. We can direct close. Blockbuster movies. Second. and therefore seem to see. Storytelling and people-watching are obsessive human activities. Later in their lives. Here. First. The spaces between people and the positions they occupy on a page are vital to our understanding of the psychology or emotion of an event. and distance—so drawings of gathered people can be loosely arranged in three took only minutes to make and yet it lives for centuries. this is not the portrait of an old woman. in spite of how it may seem. Her all-too-clear expression shows annoyance and irritation with her husband. Washes of shadow behind engaged and as a natural voyeur can feel invisible while watching the scene. while a quill contact with. the direct exchange (as shown here) where one or more characters hold eye Aneedproduced the thicker lines of the nurse. and novels—our staple cultural diet—are driven by a fascination with shared experience and the detail of what happens in other people's lives. . but drawings of gathered people tell them most directly. We can also use clothes. Saskia died after childbirth. He is also the artist from whom props to add layers of meaning and attitude. paintings depicting scenes from history. the viewer's attention in a scene by the format of its composition. With a pocket full of disposable pens we also go out and draw the expressions of gathered people. there are no longer individuals but one significant group or mass action. presumably while he is making this drawing. Saskia. we. This J u s t as there are three parts to a traditional landscape drawing—the foreground. furniture. stares out from her gloomy sickbed.

the Cat. Real Life is Rubbish 2002 Dimensions variable TIM N O B L E A N D SUE WEBSTER . In both works. hearth i m p l e m e n t s crash at o u r feet. garbage and chaos are piled a n d e x p l o d e d in r o o m s full of event. N o b l e a n d W e b s t e r s w i t t y a n d o f t e n s u b v e r s i v e d r a w i n g s are also c o n t e m p o r a r y art installations. and in." (Tim Noble) Drawing with light it is important to think about what you is Here timelessly we see a in can draw with. the C o o k . refuse. plates shatter. Pencil on paper important but only the beginning of possibility the combination of three-dimensional space. F o r e a c h w o r k . junk. narrative is delivered through the air. a kitchen explodes in o u r faces. In one of R a c k h a m s great illustrations for Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland. Think about what else you could use: a laser smoke.kicks against the mundane things that close down your mind is a refreshing and good thing."Anything that. and on. T h e i m m a c u l a t e d r a w i n g is only r e v e a l e d w h e n t h e b e a m of a p r o j e c t o r c a s t s t h e s h a d o w Projections of the h e a p o n t o a wall. via the animated clutter of o u r material lives. c o m p o s e d garbage p r o d u c e s a c a l m . TIM N O B L E A N D SUE W E B S T E R British artists who collaborate using neon.176 GATHERINGS SOME DRAWINGS ARE MADE e n t i r e l y o f i l l u m i n a t i o n that floods drama into the viewers gaze. or even the office photocopier. and Alice. h a l o e d portrait of the artists seated b a c k to b a c k . for example. and projectors to create their anarchic punk satires of modern life.. Here. and projector.. Pans fly oft the stove. t h e y select and arrange familiar items of street detritus into what appears to be an u n p l e a s a n t pile. Below. and smoke billows around the agitated jives of the Duchess.

by vivid children's Rakham's w o r k is characterized fantasy. we find several devices already explored through our drawing classes. are very large compared to on p. amplifying movement outward from the vanishing point. Find the singleperspective pp. The wood grain acts like marks of speed behind the scene. See how the In the Duchess's Kitchen 1907 77/8 x 6 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 5 0 m m ) ARTHUR RACKHAM . and Poe's Tales Imagination. humor. beams. H e is best k n o w n forillustratingIrving's Rip vanWinkle.76-77) above vanishing point (see that is about3/4in (2 cm) oak converge at this point. This makes the story appear to leap out at us. ink. 100 to see for make elliptical objects and pans fly through the the foreground. and watercolor. Rackham Vanishing point In this marvelous drama made with pen.Stowe's ofMysteryand Queer Little Folks. a n d an unmistakable graphic style. tabletop. Depth Billows of smoke expand and are lighter as they come forward. and Alice's shoulder.177 ARTHUR RACKHAM British watercolorist and book illustrator. Refer back to the drawing class how pots In drawn objects and elements that those behind.

In culture. as if Moore's wrapping has been literally outstretched. perhaps these two are the most extreme. Moore's spectators appear to have walked a long way from nowhere to witness and wait beside this mysterious obelisque. The image stands out among his more usual graphic works in which he hones and carves semi-abstract human forms. meaning. M o o r e t o u r e d Italy as a young man. Chalk and graphite This fog-bound but humorous gathering of souls is made in graphite and colored chalk with gray wash. join in the waiting. and art in the landscape. The mournful gray landscape of Henry Moore's northern British field has gathered by night an overcoated audience to stand and wait before a wrapped and roped monument. London. Opposite. This is just one of many precious artifacts from a lost time. heat. audiences. a great Shoshone drawing blazes with the color. a sculptor. HENRY MOORE Crowd 1942 Looking at Tied-up Object . This is an ironic drawing from Moore. and we.The human form w a s the vehicle o f his expression and h e w a s t h e official W o r l d W a r II artist.178 GATHERINGS we have seen in the pairs and trios of drawings by masters and makers. Magnetic Fields sculpture. expressing his dry humor about O F ALL THE CONTRASTS HENRY MOORE British s c u l p t o r w h o t r a i n e d a n d taught at t h e R C A . and composition they are polar opposites. and action of a buffalo hunt. a n d l o v e d t o d r a w in t h e BritishMuseum. which still narrates vivid days in the lives of an energetic nation. A glimmer of gold light appears from the left No explanation is given. as fellow watchers.

" Men at the instructed to sit and watch. Stylized hunters.179 SHOSHONE SCHOOL Stylized characters This vital image of a buffalo hunt is made with pigment Members of the Shoshone community wishing painted within dark outlines on a stretched elk hide. Each color is evenly distributed throughout the scene. Skills are taught not center chant or dance to the beat of a drum. Hunt CENTURY SHOSHONE SCHOOL . tolearnhow to paint a scene on a hide are and buffalo circle and charge the perimeters of a skin "field. and helping our eye to dart around. horses. creating harmonious balance with words but through silent demonstration. MAGNETIC FIELDS Horses It is interesting to note how the outstretched limbs ofthesehorses echo European images of the runningBuffalo horse before the sequence-photographer Muybridge taught us to 19TH understand their movement differently.

Heath Robinson lived through the same war-torn. K a t h e K o l l w i t z s c r a t c h e d a n d e n g r a v e d her a r m y of c l a y . B l a k e h a s i l l u m i n a t e d his s a d d e n e d Virgil on the s h o r e s of a d a r k w o r l d . p o e t . The muscularity of Blake's figures was inspired by Michelangelo's works. w h i c h b y their c h o i c e a n d h a n d l i n g a c t u a l l y b e c o m e the force a n d spirit of e a c h i m a g e . w r i t e r a r t i s t . a n d f o c u s . a d e a t h c h a r g e of brutality. color. a n d o t h e r w o r k s . m a r k . Brushed line and wash This is an ink-outlined drawing made with a fine brush on paper with added washes of watercolor The image was subsequently redrawn as a line engraving. inextinguishable in its fortitude and h u m o r . Opposite. a pink-inked cinema wobbles along with string. a n d e n g r a v e r w h o p o w e r f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e d his o w n t e x t s in a d d i t i o n t o D a n t e ' s Divine Comedy. It illustrates a scene from Dante's Divine Comedy. t h e Bible.f o o t e d t r o g l o d y t e s w h o rage into w a r like a m u d s l i d e of revenge. w e f i n d a spiritual v i s i o n . w h e r e he w a t c h e s a t u r b u l e n t s p i r a l of p u n i s h m e n t f o r the d a m n e d . pale souls of the lustful are being s p u n into yet another realm of hell. W I L L I A M BLAKE British visionary.180 GATHERINGS The Human Condition IN THE SPECTRUM of these vastly d i f f e r e n t g a t h e r i n g s of p e o p l e . Misted in translucent layers of paint. We also see qualities of line. Blake w a s d r i v e n b y a passion f o r j u s t i c e a n d a p r o f o u n d b e l i e f in his v i s i t a t i o n s f r o m angels. era as Kollwitz. and sweetened the often bleak years with his impractical inventions. The Circle of the (The Whirlwind 1824 of Lustful Lovers) mm) 143/4 x 207/8i n ( 3 7 4 x 5 3 0 WILLIAM BLAKE . texture. a n d the gentle h u m o r of sedate r i d i c u l e .

He created sincere. THE HUMAN CONDITION Scratched lines This is a dry-point etching with monoprint. and the family home. With masterful gentility. poverty. and the impact of death and war upon women. What remained in scratched grooves printed on damp paper as lines. who lived in a poor district of Berlin. and her powerful and sensitive drawings center on nurture. sculptor and draftsman. and clearly focused. Heath Robinson shows England in a past era. children. stoical bemusement. Robinson and Kollwitz (above) share almost identical life dates and their work expresses a shared history from opposite sides oftheworld wars. humor by making his characters earnest. White marks were made with a dusting of French chalk on the artist's finger to wipe away ink leaving clean metal. however meager or ridiculous their activity. Ink rolled over was selectively polished off using a rag. Kollwitz survived the two World Wars. The image was scratched directly onto a metal plate. plodding along with hazy. HEATH ROBINSON The Kinecar 1926 103/8 x 15 in (262 x 380 mm) . and controlled smears on the metal surface printed as tones. Losbruch (The Outbreak) 1955 20 x 233/8 in (507 x 592 mm) KATHE KOLLWITZ HEATH ROBINSON humorous illustrator and a regular contributor to magazines and journals such as The Sketch and The Bystander. British Pen and wash This is a pen-andwatercolor drawing made for a color-platereproduction in an edition of T h e Bystander.181 KATHE KOLLWITZ German printmaker.

which can snap or pierce through your clothes. CHOICES AVAILABLE T h e r e a r e m a n y d i s p o s a b l e p e n s t o c h o o s e from. if y o u w i s h y o u r d r a w i n g s t o last a n d n o t fade o r b l u r w i t h t i m e a n d e x p o s u r e t o light. dropped in your pocket and forgotten till needed. dark sheen. is d e l i v e r e d t h r o u g h a m e t a l t u b e o v e r a t i n y ball bearing. FIBER-TIP: M a n u f a c t u r e d f o r artists a n d d e s i g n e r s in a r a n g e o f w i d t h s .188-89) and Caravans (see pp. turn the page.7 7 and 214-15). blob when old. these pens enable you to sketch. R O L L E R B A L L : A c o n s t a n t i n k flow 3 . aiming for correct outlines would result in drawing too slowly to c a t c h the moment. or put the paper in your pocket instantly without fear of smudging. Lines t h i c k e n as t h e p e n w e a r s o u t G r a n d Canal (see pp. rollerballs. Available in blacks and ranges of colors. 2. fine fiber-tip Drawing with a fine fiber-tip pen. T h e r e w e r e c seconds t o snatch this impression b e t w e e n their emergence from one bridge and disappearance b e n e a t h t h e next. or idea. jot notes. or turn into washes and make monoprints if flooded with an alcohol-based substance such as hairspray. B A L L P O I N T : Black a n d b o l d c o l o r s o f f e r d i v e r s e qualities. a ballpoint will make faint lines. they each offer distinct and sometimes unexpected qualities. a n d pressure-sensitive. they can be obtained within minutes.r e s i s t a n t . For example. and in most pockets so I can always record a thought DISPOSABLE PENS QUICK NOTES O n a c o l d day in Venice. w a t e r . Insensitive t o p r e s s u r e : lines d o n o t v a r y in w i d t h o r t o n e .182 GATHERINGS Disposable Pens (ballpoints." 1. At a time like this. 7 6 . . in the car. The f o u r i l l u s t r a t e d h e r e r e p r e s e n t a basic r a n g e . t w o tourists and their gondolier drifter past m e o n a canal. G E L P E N : P r o d u c e d in b l a c k w h i t e . I keep quantities at home. Ideal f o r precision w o r k (see p p . in the studio. 4. including l u m i n o u s a n d m e t a l l i c . R e m e m b e r . So many stores sell them. Quick-drying. shut your book. I swiftly focused on gesture. trusting shape and form to follow. indent paper. 192-93) w e r e b o t h m a d e w i t h a ballpoint. W h i t e gel p e n s a r e v e r y e f f e c t i v e o n d a r k papers. c h o o s e p e n s l a b e l e d " p e r m a n e n t " o r "lightfast. a n d ranges o f colors. t h e y a r e lightfast. fibertips. Unlike pencils. gel pens) are the most convenient of all materials with which to travel. p e r m a n e n t . a disposable pen with its clip-on cap goes anywhere. build to a rich.

Compare this Klee's mules on p.31 . crowd of fellow travelers Fast lines These scribbled lines model the mass and shadows of heads belonging passengers packed into the boat.FROMMEMORY Here I used the same fiber-tip pen to compose a scene from memory. Earlier I had witnessed a crammed en masse in a fleet of hired gondolas complete with musicians and choir. not form. Fast lines focus on action.

black. Movement . Circular lines buzz around a man puzzling at the end of a train platform (left). focus on the action of the event. if animated. Each line acts its part in the narrative. You will make outlines. You must learn to trust your memory and to draw what impressed you most. animate them more. just draw the action. Every drawing writes an indelible memory of place. and companionship. angles will happen as a matter of course. make them stouter. I caught fleeting glimpses of gathered people and solitary souls going about their affairs. Each one was witnessed and drawn immediately from the afterimage of what I had just seen.184 GATHERINGS The Travel Journal I CANNOT OVERSTATE THE JOY of making a travel journal. let it enter the stage and perform. if a person was stout. all action is in the line of his coat and directed by his nose. activity. Exaggeration helps. when out drawing. Push toward caricature and this will draw out of your memory what was most important. of course. Don't worry about measuring angles. pocket notebook and a fiber-tip pen. A curatorial assistant flies to do a chore (right). Above all. life will not slow and wait for you to catch it. not its outline. FLEETING MOMENTS Walking through Venice with a small. No camera can tie you to a time or people in the same way. However. but they should not be what you dwell on. Let the line of the flying coat fly and the hanging arm hang.

I am watched by the aggravated guard. Observation THE TRAVEL JOURNAL The same willowy assistant dashes about his work. In turn.185 A large lady is photographed in front of a delicate work of art. I drew him three times on the same page to catch a range of his physical expressions. The rush of his legs isamplifiedby their blurred lines. Expression . eager to herd us all from his house of responsibility.

you might place them lower down. When your attention has been caught.186 GATHERINGS Catching the Moment On A BITTERLY COLD November day. He and his simpering assistant would not allow me in. rather than the works of art they guarded. . I took refuge in a church in Venice. furniture leans. decide how faces and bodies contort. if they are being devious. if they are being haughty. and clothing or bags hang. ACTION AND DETAIL W h e n drawing people. and let every detail speak by its size. For example. Identify the principal character and draw him or her first. elevate them in the pictorial space. and reason for happening. emotion. Place the person carefully. placement. Be aware that their placement on the page is part of the narrative. or bulge. not outline. and you decide to draw the moment. Here the custodian projects fastidious ownership of his desk and pamphlets by pushing from behind the center of the space and challenging our entry to his image. forcing me to remain at the back and look at them. Here I have recreated my drawing in steps to show you how to set about capturing such a scene. and there met this sullen custodian. For example. start by focusing on its action. flap. or pushes. and involvement in the story. pulls. focus on action.

If drawing a more complex scene. which is pushed toward us in a gesture of confrontation. Decide where you will place them o n the paper t o emphasize their action and intent. Decide where t o place them t o emphasize their role. . In the final step (left) I reinforced t h e custodian's desk. W i t h a few strokes. a pillar locates t h e scene in a depth o f space. CATCHING THE MOMENT The assistant Identify t h e antagonist ( o r second character) in t h e scene. I added t h e assistant. D r a w their action. who is largely expressed through the shape and fall o f his raincoat and his way o f using a note pad. Here.187 The custodian Identify your principal character a n d their psychological role in the scene. such as the desk and pamphlets seen here. together with any immediate props they are using. continue adding characters. Draw their action and props.

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I developed detailofthis drawing from memory using a ballpoint pen. An imminent deluge of tourists urged me to work catching no more than the skeleton of the view. where vertical mooring poles give space and pulse to the horizontal speed of water quickly.Grand Canal T H E CANALS OF VENICE are bustling places full of occupation. . and buildings.

. Each person was glimpsed in an instant. note only their most essential action and feature. Venetians flow across a stepped bridge and cascade into the streets beyond. To catch characters like this. then the bridge beneath them. followed by the streets.Crossings DURING THIS RUSH HOUR. Caricature each person slightly. Characters in the foreground were drawn first. and drawn immediately from memory.

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I found this circus by chance in the Swiss mountains. Caravans and other backstage activity convey expectations of energy and repose. I used a ballpoint pen to compose a series of scenes. quiet afternoon. . Sitting at a distance on a hot.Caravans T H E PARAPHERNALIA O F TRAVEL i s an intriguing part of circus life. and a great subject to draw.

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are the real subjects in great landscape drawings. t w o e n g r a v e d m a p s k n o w n as The Lunar Planispheres. the sun comes out to blind it. It is Earths satellite. pages o f softly i l l u m i n a t e d craters and lunar "seas" c o v e r e d in m a t h e m a t i c a l and s h o r t h a n d calculations. speculation. or the wind carries it away. Oxford. a contemporary environmental artist. they are the animators of your subject. Just as NASA photographs of Earth have had a profound effect on the way we view our fragile home. This is the world's first accurate image of the Moon. surrounded by the bright instruments of centuries of navigation. how the soil is scorched. a n d a m o o n globe called t h e Selenographia. trees. England. rivers. but it can be seen as a lens to our observation of this planet. to be ready to draw the new light as it breaks across the land. There is a sense of the heroic in drawing outside—we race to catch a form before the tide engulfs it. H e a l s o p r o d u c e d an a l b u m o f 1 8 0 exquisite pencil drawings. 5 f t x 5 ft 6 in ( 1 5 2 x 1 6 8 c m ) J O H N RUSSELL . Look closely at works by many artists and you will see that they have not represented hills. and take bold steps in emulating the swell of clouds and the forces of torrential water. learning to draw light out of dark. and meteor impacts have scarred. t h e first-ever accurate image o f t h e M o o n ' s surface. and its draws the tides of the seas. and experiment. and the sea. By drawing such momentous and everyday events. arranging them in perfect circles on the mountainside or in lines drifting out of sight beneath low clouds. artists see for themselves that which is momentary and eternal. how the mountain cut by ice and rain is now fleetingly lit. It now hangs on the staircase of the History of Science Museum. What they have drawn is the force of nature on these properties: how the wind heaves the night ocean. These conditions are very difficult to express well. or has cracked and fallen under the weight of water. when little stirs and empty blue skies offer even less to latch lines to. our companion. The pastel drawing was constructed from myriad telescopic observations almost 200 years before the Apollo Moon landing. William Turner is said to have had himself lashed to a ship's mast to comprehend the storm (see p. Russell d r e w this. It is better to get up before dawn. the face of the Moon. a n d a n astronomer w h o dedicated 20 years t o studying t h e M o o n . sunny days. as opposed the physicality of Earth. Beginners will often choose calm. Weather is essential in all landscape drawing. In this chapter Moon Pastel 1795 Drawing we experiment with charcoal. and even how the Sun illuminates. makes his work by the act of walking. 199).Earth and the Elements I T MAY SEEM PERVERSE to start a chapter titled "Earth and the Elements" with an image of the Moon. Take chances against the rain and work with the wind or fog. JOHN RUSSELL A p o r t r a i t pastelist t o King G e o r g e III o f England. so J o h n Russell's tour de f o r c e drawing (opposite) was a masterpiece of observation in his time. Richard Long. marking the ground with lines of footprints or by turning stones. The forces of nature.

Danger of Wearing Balloon Petticoats UNDATED HONORE DAUMIER . and solidity. This wife. sculptor. a sail b r o k e n loose in a stormy marriage. and the legal profession. Below. Terrifying waves of merciless nature roar across the paper. Flapping kimonos and an onlooker turning his b a c k have the magic of a m o m e n t caught. painter. seeing how it shakes. has b e c o m e a hysterical kite. lifts. and by observing its tides and eddies in our o w n environment. Hazy vertical marks reveal buildings into the mist. Daumier's c a r t o o n shines with the brilliance of his comic memory.198 EARTH AND THE E L E M E N T S Air in Motion THE GREAT INVISIBLE SUBJECT o f these d r a w i n g s is t h e w i n d . the government. is already lost. Dots and dashes suggest receding trees out of focus. Crayon and limestone This is a lithograph.Through political drawings he fired his sharp wit at the king. A hard waxy was drawn across a heavy limestone Varying definitions crayon of lire and depths of tone conspire to give volume. He knew how the world bends and stutters under such gusts. we can soon learn to draw its force. fluttering heavily. and pioneer ofexpressionism. H O N O R E DAUMIER French satirical cartoonist lithographer. the bourgeoisie. T h e great master of English seascape is c o n d u c t i n g with his graphic energy. By Turner carries us to the heart of the maelstrom. T h e ship. Hokusais sedate wind presses reeds a n d the j o u r n e y s o f young ladies. like an umbrella forced inside-out. serving a prison sentence for his views. distance. a scratched ghost. Fluid strokes inflate the woman's dress and pin shadows to the ground. and gives motion to each image. undramatic b u t brimming with stylized realism. speed.

TURNER KATSUSHIKA HOKUSAI Prolific J a p a n e s e c o l o r w o o d . leans the whole composition swells around its fateful center. from left print. and history painter w h o s e p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t a b o v e all w a s light.b l o c kprintmaker. Ship in a Storm c. W .i n f l u e n c e d b y examples o f W e s t e r n art obtained through D u t c h t r a d i n g in Nagasaki. painter. absorbent watercolor and are Stains of splashed. horizontally then and of the it into the stream Plants also bend and flow right to Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 1802 81/2 HOKUSAI KATSUSHIKA x 131/2 in ( 2 1 7 x 3 4 3 mm) . d e s i g n e r a n d b o o k i l l u s t r a t o r . T u r n e r w o r k e d in oils a n d w a t e r c o l o r s a n d s k e t c h e d c o p i o u s l y o n his travels. into this very as pressed sheet The paper's through own coior is brought banks of mist and fog. Landscape a n d city life w e r e his principal subjects. AIR IN MOTION Pencil and watercolor subdued brushed. Wind direction wood-block This is a colored To represent the blows lifted flowed wind. T h e r e a r e m a n y stories o f his p a s s i o n a t e w o r k i n g methods.l o v e dw o r k s i n c l u d e 1 0 0 v i e w s o f M o u n t Fuji and 1 2 v o l u m e s o f Manga. seascape.199 J. Hokusai direction (from clothing from has chosen which it the right). T U R N E R British landscape. 1826 91/2 x 113/4 in ( 2 4 1 x 3 0 0 m m ) J.M. A outline scratched of a skeletal into penciled ship is while and the waves. a n d his b e s t . wind. H o k u s a i in t u r n has since significantly influenced European art. including being lashed t o a ship's m a s t in o r d e r to study a storm.W.M.

lines of rain escorting them to b o u n c e and clatter. active surfaces of water. It looks so contemporary. and swim into the page. as if drawn j u s t this year. water. or charcoal. it is difficult to contemplate its brooding and night-soaked heart. composing banks of waves and dense. drawing was Hugo's principal means o f expression. as a subject and second. and tossed o b j e c t s — a perfect subject in which artists can forget themselves. By contrast. grab their b r u s h . Turner (see p. this is a writer's narrative of terror. he blanketed the drawing in darkness. fantasy palaces. An update on biblical showers of fish and frogs.198) admires the majesty of nature.200 ELEMENTS Storms STORMS CAN BE SEEN and drawn in two ways: first. as a gestural storm on the paper. D o m e s t i c o b j e c t s we can o w n and name fall from the clouds.28). Leonardos Cloudburst of Material Possessions is o n e of his m o s t enigmatic and mysterious works. Pen and brush Hugo drew first with pen and ink. Then. inks. ink. T h e very nature of b o t h is turmoil and an interweaving of elements. EARTH AND THE VICTOR HUGO French novelist and artist (see also p. this is a b o m b a r d m e n t from o u r h o m e s . h a u n t e d shadows. leaving nothing but a glimpse of moonlight glistening on the froth below. and t h e sea s t u d i e d f r o m his h o m e in Guernsey in t h e Channel Islands. His subjects include ruins. marks. T h e m e n a c i n g darkness of Hugo's storm b e l o w is so convincing. Le Bateau-Vision 1864 71/2 x 1 0 in ( 1 9 2 x 2 5 5 m m ) VICTOR H U G O . Opposite. with a brush. He brings us to stare into a place that no sane human would enter. In periods b e t w e e n writing.

envisioning machines centuries before their making (helicopters and bicycles. There is a little magic in recognizing many items from our homes something like a rake. for example).LEONARDO DA VINCI Leonardo devised many artifacts of our modern lives. and a wheel. a hook. together with half the contents of our garage. Cloudburst of Material Possessions 1510-12 45/8 x 43/8 in ( 1 1 7 x 1 1 1 mm) L E O N A R D O DA VINCI . a bell. He was left-handed and wrote backwards in Italian from left to right. It is interesting to speculate how engineering might have developed if his ideas had been shared with the world earlier Ink and chalk This is a pen and ink drawing with touches of black chalk. Each item that has crashed from heaven is drawn in such a way that we can feel Leonardo's nib picking it up in the speed of a doodle. and they passed through private hands for 400 years before becoming widely known. Above and below are examples of his mirror handwriting. He bequeathed his drawings to a friend.

she teased away fragments of paper to illuminate her view. and we can imagine standing over his shoulder. In the lower half he has walked downhill a little. and famed for. and after tracing her captured line. rich.1638 85/8 x 121/2 in (219 x 320 mm) CLAUDE LORRAIN . his unsurpassed handling of light. sea-. Over first lines. Views from Velletri c. EARTH AND THE Bryan cut the profile of a city. and across to the right. Whether land-. thick. C L A U D E LORRAIN French classical landscape painter draftsman. Claude is distinguished by.202 ELEMENTS THE PROFILE OF A HORIZON is a line we immediately recognize and respond to. Clare Bryan took panoramic photographs of the English South Downs. She was inspired by her research of aerial plans of London and the story of an alien map butterfly (see caption). cooler tones receding into the distance are applied with a brush. watching his hand and eye at work together. In a very different work (opposite above). it is the unique calligraphic signature of the place in which we stand. and etcher who lived most of his life in 17th-century Rome. Paler. Even distilled from all other detail. or cityscape. which he used to unify his compositions. atmosphere. Drawing with a scalpel. Claude Lorrain drew directly on location. and dry marks in the foreground appear to be made with his finger. Claude has used a fine nib to delineate segments of land as they recede into space. Nature Profiles Opposite below. and mood simultaneously. Segments The top half of the drawing is a view as we enter the valley. made inside a book. transferred it to a scroll. a horizon line can trigger our recognition. rapidly layering contours to shape place.

2001 CLARE BRYAN C L A R E BRYAN 3ritish artist. The edges of each here) fade into the solid paper unpopulated with a scalpel landscape. then hunted destroyed. On turning the pages of City. and digital print-based works reflect upon the histories and poetry of "left behind and in-between spaces. progressively settlement (cropped more and more paper is drawn away to show the expansion of human page of an around the river.5-m)scroll.203 Scalpel-drawn This book-bound drawing was inspired by the story of a foreign butterfly wrongly to Great Britain in 1912." Cut line This is a small section of a preparatory 5-ft(1. specialty bookbinder.The horizon was drawn with a City Landline 2003 271/2x 59 in (70 x 150 cm) scalpel. drawings Ideas of introduction Clare Bryan to research introduced down and led NATURE PROFILES and removal historical plans and aerial growth of London showing its population since Roman times. source workisilluminatedby standing its lower edge on a CLARE BRYAN . printmaker graphic designer. and visiting professor at numerous art schools. Her recent paper photographic.

162) or graphite (see p. this does not exist. C h a r c o a l naturally glistens. b l a c k e r . Then lift it away. A great find when available. Charcoal lifts away from paper easily with the very light touch o f an eraser. blacker. it is compressed and m o l d e d at high pressure. a n d p l u m . resulting in a stick that gives a blacker. Smooth paper accepts few particles. Artists have also used lime. fine. As its name implies. and offers a rich.m a d e c o m p r e s s e d charcoal. MEDIUM W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 5. they are all intended for fine work. B u n d l e s o f twigs were traditionally sealed into earthenware j a r s or wet clay and heated slowly and intensely in a fire or kiln. 2. black finish. R o u g h paper c a n b e loaded. resulting in a pale line. 6. It c a n be m a d e duller. Use any fine-point pen or pencil (I used a ballpoint) to draw a firm line on the back of the Big pieces are perfect for very large-scale drawings—even larger than yourself. the heel o f y o u r h a n d . 4. a rag. Hold it over your drawing RANGE AVAILABLE Charcoal (in its several forms shown here) is loved or loathed by the beginner to whom it is often recommended because it produces pleasing results quickly. tape. harder line. In use. THIN WILLOW CHARCOAL: I used a piece like this to make the drawing opposite. Essentially. Not to be confused with square conte sticks (see p. but some specialists stock compressed charcoal in delicate square sticks. 1 Suspend a length of masking tape. vine. you can p u r c h a s e m a c h i n e . The tip snaps easily to renew a sharp edge if required. CHALK CHARCOAL: Technically. leaving u n d e r t r a c e s of first thoughts. 3. and heavier than willow. maple. it looks gray and feels like chalk. Try itworking on big paper covering a wall. cylindrical. a n d m o r e i n d e l i b l e by soaking it in linseed oil. Lines are achieved by d e p o s i t i n g particles in the grain o f paper. a piece of fresh bread. SQUARE COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Not often sold. Alternatively. Boxes often contain a range of thicknesses to choose for different needs. 3 A white line is lifted out by the tape. It does n o t erase easily. 7.204 E A R T H AND THE E L E M E N T S Charcoal CHARCOAL IS PRODUCED from wood baked slowly without exposure to air. Beware of cheap brands selling dyed chalk as compressed charcoal. feather. Willow is the most c o m m o n wood. only a little thicker. white line into the blackor grayness of willow charcoal. without touching the surface. It is also easily erased if the maker of the mark is not happy with the result. 1. sticky side down. It allows you greater precision in your mark-making than if you rub away the charcoal with an eraser. The same as above. LIFTING OUT This technique is a very easy method of drawing a crisp. or fingertip. b e e c h . COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Machine-made. . Slightly dull the tape's stickiness before use t o prevent it from lifting out more than you intend. between your middle finger and thumb.54). THICK W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 2 Keep the tape above your drawing. CHARCOAL PENCIL: Types made by different manufacturers vary in quality and density of line. so it chars b l a c k as o p p o s e d to igniting a n d turning to ash.

205 ERASING Thickly applied charcoal quickly o v e r c o m e s a plastic eraser A w a r m (soft and tacky) putty eraser is more effective. 10. MASKING TAPE: An invaluable resource. Use cheaper (less sticky) for lifting out. Cotton swabs also work. PEN: Any fine pen or pencil can be used to draw on the back of masking tape when lifting out.212-13 were made by altering the pressure applied to the charcoal. Here we used a ballpoint. Different tones seen throughout the main drawing on pp. Lift out broader marks with a larger implement. graphite. 9. 8 . pastels. I used a plastic eraser effectively on thinly applied charcoal. Use high quality (very sticky) to fix paper to walls and boards. Here. Layers can be peeled away to refresh its surface. . T O R T I L L O N : This is a tight roll of paper used to blend charcoal. sold in several widths. or any other dry media. as is fresh (unbuttered!) bread. CHARCOAL Lifting out This detail shows an example of where I used the lifting-out technique demonstrated opposite to draw flashes of lightning against rain clouds.

a reel of masking tape. especially when making first excursions into aerial perspective. To experiment with drawing landscapes and the use of charcoal. a less distinct middle ground composed of shapes and textures. but is often less evocative and engaging. begin by marking out several small squares on your paper. and a cushion in a plastic bag to sit on. our brains search for nameable things and will perceive complete pictures from very little information. to contain each of your compositions. At its worst. details blur and colors grow paler and bluer. Don't worry if it is cloudy: clouds add drama and perspective and make good subjects in themselves (see pp. an eraser your drawing book or a board and paper fixative (or hairspray). hazy distance. the more you encourage the viewer's imagination to join in and see. This term simply means that as land rolls away into the distance. Ironically. They are also good markers of receding space. When you arrive. MATERIALS In this first view there is only a foreground and middle distance. I relaxed my eyes out of focus to dissolve distracting detail into abstract patches of light and darkness.9 9 we noted that in response to visual stimulus. Pack several thick and thin sticks of willow charcoal. Then I drew the shape of the tonal patches I perceived. It is the visible effect of the atmosphere between where you stand and what you see in the distance. it results in flat planes of clutter. the less you describe. The long view is hidden behind trees.212-13). Seeing tones . Successful drawings often only suggest the qualities of the scene without overdescribing them. pack your materials (as advised below) and set off for a local view or your nearest arboretum. and an abstract. Landscape drawings are traditionally arranged in three parts: a detailed foreground. On p p . 9 8 .206 EARTH AND THE ELEMENTS Landscapes TREES ALONE OFFER MARVELOUS shapes to draw. Excessive detail can be admired for its skill and achievement.

Exploring the view Redrawing the scene above. and broke a view through the hedge into the distance with a dark sky threatening rain.207 LANDSCAPES In my second square I explored a simple view contrasting soft. the trunk of a bare tree. shadows. I have invented drama with diagonals set against each other I tilted the earth. horizontal regions of grass. It is better to give distinctly more pictorial space to one or the other (see below). dark trees with bright. your view is your inspiration. full of information you can use to create what you want! Inventing drama . This composition turned out a little flat because I have an almost even quantity of earth and sky. rounded. Remember.

making the scene below led me to focus on the decaying boat opposite. settling my concentration. which was the flow of water over rocks. Building on earlier studies of structure in space using shoes (pp. bare ribs. on p p . so the paper is not made blinding and your hand cannot cast a shadow on your work.1 5 my first drawing of the whole view of the Tiber led me to see the real subject of the day. Similarly. s e e k places in light After my first drawing. Circling a subject and drawing it from several views imprints on your memory a better understanding of its three-dimensional form. For example. shade out of the glare of the sun.208 ELEMENTS Drawing in the Round WHEN DRAWING IN THE LANDSCAPE. "Drawing in the round means to literally walk around your subject. This first drawing serves as a process of arrival. and tiller still standing proud. and seeing what the real choice of subject is. EARTH AND THE FINDING THE SUBJECT Finding a remarkable subject is even better when you can circumnavigate it in an arena of space. 2 1 4 .164-65) and a wire violin (pp. I usually begin by making an image of the whole view. taking with you your drawing book and pen. England has embedded within it the decaying skeleton of a burned fishing boat.104-05). engine. observing it from several views so as to better understand it as a whole." . The mud of the tidal shore in Rye. I am then able to home in on what interests me most for further study. your challenge now is to find a sculptural subject in the landscape.

marking straight. Overleaf: Decaying Boat 4 . I spent equal time looking at the subject and the paper. Each n e w drawing gives a different insight. I looked more boldly at the planes and the dynamic of the sculptural craft My lines have become darker and more forceful as confidence in my understanding of the vessel grew. and structure. careful lines to establish the skeleton that gives this wreck its distinct form. The outline ties a shape of darkness to the boat like a weight so that it becomes part of its form. I drew with quick. DRAWING IN THE 1 Here. looking more at the boat than at the paper From this low position I have emphasized how the boat is swallowed in mud by outlining its shadow on the ground. character. 3 This impression notes the angle of the broken boat. and the order and shape of its component parts. make a series o f drawings f r o m different positions. unfussy lines. its overall balance. ROUND 2 In this tail-end view. w h e n t h e sea recedes.209 SERIES OF STUDIES This stunning ghost o f a boat comes into v i e w t w i c e a day. W h e n you have found your subject.

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I worked quickly to catch and weave the turbulent contrasts of rising wind and approaching water before the drawing could be washed away. hot-pressed drawing p a p e r (see pp. m a d e on s m o o t h . was made with gentle but unhesitating s p e e d . L o o k i n g b a c k and forth from the heavens to firmly taped-down paper.20-21) using a thin stick of willow charcoal. .Cloudburst THIS STORM DRAWING.

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and rhythmic detail as it passed through the ancient gully of the city. pocket-sized notebook. black. On the pages of a small.Notes of Force T H E GREAT FLOWING TIBER RIVER has cut through Rome. shaping the city. . pulse. since ancient times. I drew with a needle-fine fiber-tip pen. focusing on the river's eddies.

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Mountains SITTING IN THE SHADE of a tree on the Greek island of Antiparos. I used a dip pen and waterproof India ink with brushed watercolor to draw the view. The strong diagonal of the composition from bottom left to top right carries the eye through changes of height and focus from the foreground to the mountains beyond. .

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An abstract mark is often a better conductor of a thought or feeling. It was not invented in the 20th century. such as Adolf Wolfli. expressive marks and shapes are at the core of natural. and have been making abstract drawings for centuries—Japanese calligraphy. From another viewpoint. belief. drawn sound. Museum of Fine Arts. However. which are essentially abstract. . Perhaps in Western culture we bred this intuitive freedom out of ourselves in our insistence on complex figuration.8 cm) A D O L F WOLFLI Abstraction is a direct. writer and composer who suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and was resident in the Waldau Aslyum near Berne. it is simply itself. and Aboriginal art. Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape 1915 413/8 x 285/8 in (105 x 72. picturing a stabilized world was impossible and Modernism rode forth with vigor. precisely because it does not have to represent a physical object. and poetic myth roar and cascade within his tightly framed pages. and independent means of communication. Outsider artists. yet my kinship to abstraction is fundamental. fictional language. for example. writhing torrents of color. Swirling. From one point of view. opposite. only rediscovered. don't be timid. abstraction is not so easy to define. and young children show us that abstract. strike the paper to find form. The fate of Old World thinking was finally sealed with the brutality of World War I. and history. actions. His drawings are collected and exhibited internationally and held by the Adolf Wolfli Foundation. direction. Internal workings of the mind were suddenly free to find a new language of expression. Afterward. He made thousands of drawings to chronicle his complex life. As you approach the classes in this chapter. Indian mandalas. Artists were given a different tool—a line threaded directly from their subconscious to their hand—and with it they began to map a bold new landscape of marks and concepts that would dramatically and forever change the face of Western art. Wolfli was a Swiss draftsman. My own work is firmly centered in figuration. Many concepts and feelings can only be expressed through marks. liberating. and it has always been with us. sounds.Abstract Lines T HE DEVELOPMENT OF W E S T E R N abstract art at the beginning of the 20th century significantly paralleled major changes in world thought. or gestures. It also underpins and gives strength and unity to all figurative work. The growing rise of Darwinian ideas coupled with Freudian and Marxist perspectives forced Western society to reconsider its origins and future. People are often scared by abstraction and see it as the enemy of figurative art. ADOLF WOLFLI One of the greatest masters of Art Brut. all pictorial representations are abstractions of reality. be brave and enjoy them. poet. First marks. Not everything we know has a physical form in the world. many nonWestern cultures have highly sophisticated abstractions at the core of their art. spontaneous image-making. I begin every image by feeling its meaning. and emotion. Berne. It is actually its foundation and its infrastructure.

This the paper rest within the amplifies framelike of the floor from the ceiling. The Physical Space 1990 3 0 x 30 ft ( 9 1 4 x 9 1 4 cm) MAMORU ABE . Damp Japanese paper was laid over carefully arranged iron bars. Twombly's mesmeric wax line worked over house paint is like a signature. and plaster in galleries and landscapes. as Twombly shows us opposite. scrolling across the canvas in an intimate crescendo. Sometimes it smolders like a deep shadow. and texture their bracing separation reaching between from beneath Pillars of the gallery are made part of this drawing by their inclusion in the paper. Abe's physical drawing is a sculptural installation. Five forged steel shapes. and sensitivity with its thickness and pressure of touch. He travels widely to research ancient sacred sites. forged steel. Lines. and wood are also part of the work. MAMORU ABE Japanese sculptor and installation artist. iron. Below. texture. sit in silent harmony. brass. Moisture produced rust.220 A B S T R A C T LINES Process and Harmony SOMETIMES A DRAWN LINE sings on the surface of its support. water. and temperature rim of floor space. quoting ink marks on a page. Abe works with materials such as soil. Mamoru Abe prepares an image that will appear through the chemistry of iron. it can keep reforming through the inherent repetition of a process. A Neolithic chalk tablet bears cut lines that were slowly carved. rhythmically engaged with itself. and Assistant Professor of Fine A r t at Fukuoka University. or. A line can be finished in a second. silence. ice. tone. Iron rods in tone. staining redbrown lines into the white surface. and patient watching. It can proclaim mood. Changes paper. salt. akin to stones in a Zen garden.

and American Indian petroglyphs (see p. that challenges the separation of word from image. evolved a raw. and Untitled 1970 Here we might seek to grasp letters in the turning of his line. This example is one of two chalk tablets found in a Late-Neolithic pit.400BCE 21/4 x 21/4 in (58 x 58 mm) ARTIST UNKNOWN Language Over the course of fifty years. and sensuous drawing from painting. Many of his graffiti-like combine abstract gestures with statements.Twombly was presented with a Golden Lion award for lifetime achievement. PROCESS AND HARMONY Cut lines Chalk carves easily.000-2.England. theories suggest astrological observations.241). Neolithic Chalk Tablet 3. Precise lines suggest the use of a sharp flint The framed rectangle of this image is echoed in that of Abe's installation. Twombly has language works CY TWOMBLY Contemporary American artist who emerged through the 1950s New York art scene in the heyday of Abstract Expressionism and Action Painting. CY TWOMBLY .Thesite's purpose is unknown. close to Stonehenge in Wiltshire. such as the Rosetta stone. the Babylonian world map. and the worship of the sun and ancient gods. The central pictorial space is also similarly cut and divided by the considered arrangement of straight lines. At the 2001 Venice Biennale. emotive. burials. energetic.221 ANCIENT CARVINGS Many ancient cultures have made and left behind drawings and texts carved into stones or animal bone.

a configuration. His drawing writes the time of its own physical process by expressing the extreme concentration of the moment in which it was made. Ink impressions When drawing nightscapes Hugo often laid paper disks in place of the moon. and inventive of his time. beautiful. abstract. o f t e n e x p r e s s e d in v i s u a l t e r m s . drawing here can b e described in t e r m s o f a G e r m a n philosophical idea a b o u t is t h e i n s t a n t r e c o g n i t i o n t h e p o w e r o f m o m e n t . opposite. Here he appears t o have saturated the cut-out moon disks with gritty pigment. music manuscript requiring instrumentalists to improvise. Gestalt o f an unnameable thing. have striven to break down old pictorial and musical structures to explore new and unfettered modes of expression. said. and participate in the composition. and let the drying meniscus deposit granules in linear drifts such as we would see in the satellite photographic mapping of rivers. too. Similarity in gritty texture suggests that here.28. Gestalt. o r a pattern o f elements s o unified as a w h o l e t h e y c a n n o t b e e x p l a i n e d asa s u m o f parts. Two Impressions Paper 1853-55 VICTOR HUGO Disk from a Cut-Out ." An innovator who never fails to surprise. abstract artists and composers unique. he mixed graphite into ink. Marks across the center appear to be made with his fingers. Both abstract drawing and composition involve the perfect sequencing of sounds and marks against space and silence. Bussotti.28). broke new ground in the 1950s with graphic scores now considered among the most extreme. The scores are also exhibited in galleries as visual art. Texture Compare this drawing to Hugo's octopus on p. "There is nothing like dream to create the future. Hugo. below. brushed night skies over them with ink then lifted the disks to reveal white moons.222 ABSTRACT LINES Writing Time SINCE THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY. and lifted them away to leave impressions of watery planets and seas. here he anticipates abstract expressionism by 100 years. pressed them face down. interpret. A graphic score is a V I C T O R H U G O Hugo's abstract French novelist w h o m a d e m a n y drawings in m i x e d m e d i a ( s e e also p.

Following the notes. His later works become increasingly abstract. 70 in relation to Bussotti's clustered notes to the left of his rondo and open space to the right. Bussotti's first mature work. Sound and rhythm This flickering rondo of sound written in pen on a hand-ruled stave can be heard in our imaginations as much as seen. Compare this work to that of Libeskind on p. a far cry from any recognized musical notation. Circular Score for "Due Voci" c. This is a page from Due Voci.223 W R I T I N G TIME SYLVANO BUSSOTTI Italian avant-garde composer and principal 20thcentury exponent of the graphic score. we can feel their rhythm and easily attach sounds to them. 1958 SYLVANO BUSSOTTI .

they m a k e a visual a n d physical e c h o that t o u c h e s s o m e deep part of the human spirit. MARIE LIEB Little is known of this w o m a n for w h o m the act of drawing was essential. Germany. Compositional rightness (see pp.224 A B S T R A C T LINES Chants and Prayers WHEN ABSTRACT LINES are organized in repetition. O p p o s i t e . Marie Lieb w a s a psychiatric patient in the Heidelberg Asylum. She tore c l o t h into strips a n d used these to draw patterns a n d symbols o n h e r cell floor. Cell Floor With Torn Strips of Cloth 1894 MARIE LIEB . centuries. In the late 1 9 t h century. Visually. In music it can be felt in the diversity of plainsong and African d r u m m i n g . and sufferers of psychiatric illnesses—who have always existed. social outcasts.228-29) has been adjusted with each movement of the rags to draw a cosmos of balance and perfection. T h e s e p h o t o g r a p h s d o c u m e n t the meditative drawings o f two w o m e n living worlds apart in different countries. This takes a form in most cultures. making objects and images outside o f mainstream culture. Torn cloth This is one of two published photographs showing Marie Leib's torn cloth strips significantly placed on her cell floor. and c i r c u m s t a n c e s . it is found in the regularity o f ordered lines or a pattern. Cloth is the simple instrument with which she has conducted and ordered her universe. It will protect the place from evil and make a pleasing invitation to good spirits. for e x a m p l e . Lieb is one o f countless thousands of "Outsider" artists—diverse individuals including ordinary citizens. cultures. an a n o n y m o u s w o m a n in the southeast Indian state o f Tamil Nadu m a k e s a ritual drawing o n the b r i c k courtyard o f h e r h o m e . d i p p i n g h e r fingers into a pot o f rice flour.

lime. Huyler is the author of Painted Prayers.Theseare widely published in journals and are the subjects of international exhibitions. chalk. Designs and motifs Rangoii (or mandalas) are ritual drawings made by many millions of women across rural India.000 images.HUYLER Photographer art historian. and for over 30 years has traveled extensively through the Indian subcontinent creating an edited archive of 200.225 STEPHEN P. lecturer on the subjects of Indian art and Indian women's identity. and in places of worship and celebration. Painted Prayers UNDATED STEPHEN R HUYLER . Skills are handed down through generations and from friend to friend. among others. or flowers are marked or arranged on the ground or on the walls of homes. Popular magazines feature new ideas each week and on special occasions there may be contests. cultural anthropologist. and birds. Materials such as rice flour. In daily practice. Motifs are geometrical or based on plants. women pride themselves on never repeating a design. at the University of London and Ohio State University. animals.

performance and installation artist. it is ruled and contained in one dimension by its interlocking ink-lined borders. Ruskin School. and Fellow of Linacre College. structure. figurative representation—that is. Catling's works made for international galleries and museums involve drawing as a tool in their development and making. Catling's abstract drawings are usually made in series and in parallel to written poetry and sculptural installations. They each find their pathways and equilibrium in atmosphere and suggestion. Klee's mathematical maze of thinly washed surface resonates with meticulous planning. and choice of hues. Oxford. With no depth of field. filmmaker Professor of Fine Art. Their energy can therefore be a purer expression of an idea or emotion.226 ABSTRACT LINES Compositions ABSTRACT DRAWINGS ARE LARGELY or entirely free from using the viewer's eye to track and unfold layers of meaning. Mixed media This is a collage of torn white and gray tissue paper previously stained with ink. Oval moons eclipse each other and oscillate between landforms and portraiture. BRIAN CATLING British sculptor poet. These two works present complex compositions with differing intensions and methods of making. gold paint and iridescent gouache mixed with water. rocks or heads in a subdued atmosphere of dream. free from the direct imaging of known physical things. Untitled 2001 2001 153/4x 215/8 in ( 4 0 0 x 550 mm) BRIAN C A T L I N G . Catling's torn paper shapes and shadows spill light out of their frame like a fractured mirror. and water-resistant layers of spray and enamel paint on thick paper. but similarities in mood.

We can see some diagrammatic examples of this among the optical illusions on pp.227 PAUL K L E E Swiss painter and sculptor (see also p. Polyphon Gefasstes Weiss (White Framed Polyphonically) 1930 131/8x95/8 in (333 x 245 mm) Paul-Klee-Stiftung. Geometric harmony This is a work on paper made with a sharp ink pen. Line and surface Klee observed the visual capacity of lines to push or pull within an image.97-99.31). watercolor. whereas tonal surfaces are perceived more immediately as a whole. It is a geometric harmony of straight lines and tonally graded flat colors that by their arrangement draw our eyes inward to their white center. He explained his polyphonic painting as "a harmony of several color voices" searching for a visual parallel to music. Klee painted. ruler. Klee also felt that a line represents the passing of time. and wrote copiously about the natures and relationships of color and form. Kunstmuseum Bern PAUL KLEE . drew. and brush. philosophized. and might be read as active or passive.

angles. b u t e v e r y n o w a n d again you will hit on an arrangement w h i c h appears just. There is a single m o m e n t w h e n all proportions." SETTING UP Justness can be harmonious or deliberately discordant. "Whenall pictorial elements come together in pleasing and perfect balance. w i l l c h a n g e w i t h e v e r y r e a r r a n g e m e n t . culture. after being continuously adjusted. media. or home. a b u n c h of keys. Take. for instance. regardless of style. the late garden designer Russell Page explains. the impression y o u receive from t h e m . M a n y of their inter-relationships will be meaningless. "I have experimented endlessly with this idea. and put them o n a tray.Thisexercise will help you start. Feel for it when youdraw. but an easy o n e to u n d e r s t a n d . Seek it when looking at other artists' work and in your everyday environment. This balance is what every artist and designer searches a n d feels for when making an image. It is found in all great art and design. In his b o o k The Education of a Gardener. and ten straight sticks painted black.228 ABSTRACT LINES Being "Just" A SENSE OF "JUST" (or rightness) is a difficult concept to explain. their impact. or degree of figuration. and elements settle in definitive balance. W h e n m o v i n g objects around in your yard. As y o u m o v e them around. there is a clear feeling when. they are just. or on a page." . Set up a sheet of paper with a rectangle drawn on it. they reach a perfect position. s o m e will be more or less h a r m o n i o u s . and an apple. a glass. It is also found in nature.

229 WHERE TO START Take ten sticks of equal length. making the composition seem to float beneath. Feel for the rightness of their grouping and their relationships to surrounding spaces. fix it with glue. W h e n the composition falls into place. suggesting a horizon. Within a rectangle on a flat sheet of paper set about making a composition using no other rule than a sense of "just. 2 3 In the step above. In the final step (left) there is an even balance. Move the sticks out into the rectangle. A stick touching the rectangle links the composition to the frame. which now becomes a tight frame. B E I N G "JUST" 1 Arrange your ten sticks in t w o groups of five. Remember the drawn rectangle is a part of the composition (see pp.56-57)." Move the sticks to find alignments and imagined perspectives. Here. painted black. horizontals dominate the lower area. as shown here. horizontals dominate the top. Arrange them so they touch or cross in a series of intersecting balances. .

" (Russell Page) . This principal also applies to three-dimensional drawings such as Gaudi's work with wire and weights on p. hard or soft. and tones. which is the shifting. colors and textures can be manipulated until their pictorial harmony. "My understanding is that every object [or shape] emanates—sends out vibrations beyond its physical body which are specific to itself. colors. found or made items. correction fluid or white paint. Once the ten painted black sticks are set and glued in place. a compass. glue. harmonious. and black ink. ready-made depths and surfaces.220. Cut or torn layers and shapes. you start composing by adding or subtracting shapes and textures and using colors and tones to achieve the impression you want to m a k e — w h e t h e r dramatic or s u b d u e d . Collage offers the artist a liberating palette of SETTING UP This lesson in collage is a direct continuation of the compositional lines made in the previous class..228-29). or even strident. they become a scaffold for the addition of further textures.. or discordance. an infinite range of voices and meaning." overlapping placement of materials on a flat plane.Youwill also need spare white paper. To prepare for this lesson.69 and Abe's installation on p. feels "just" (see pp. he went on to say ".230 ABSTRACT LINES Collage H E R E W E EXPERIMENT with collage. Images and fragments torn from day-to-day life can be brought together to make a chorus of ideas and emotions. stain and dry a sheet of tissue paper using blueink. Returning to Russell Page. scissors.

This can also give a sense of fragmentation or punctuation to the composition. and with a compass and scissors.The single disk that is folded with its straight edge facing up appears heavier than those that are flat. then cut out.228) in front of you. solidity. COLLAGE 1 Regular-sized pieces of white paper are moved over the surface to disrupt the even lines.231 WHAT TO DO Lay the final step of the previous lesson (p. Cut six small rectangles the same proportion as your whole image. and shadow to thepicture. correction fluid and ink marks add further dimensions. four circles of blue tissue paper. In the last step (left). Glue them in place once they feel "just" Translucent circular disks of tissue paper give color tone. draw. . they deepen pictorial space. Obscuring the blue disks. 2 3 Torn white paper moved over the surface adds masks of rough-edged irregular volume.

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is the practice of Zen through the calligraphic marks of a brush dipped in carbon ink. A MODERN JAPANESE meditative art form inspired by the teachings of Yamaoka Tesshu (1836-1888).Zen Calligraphy HITSUZENDO." [Tanchu Terayama. Zen Brushwork]. . and expectation. emotion. Hitsuzendo drawings aspire to "breathe with the energy and vitality of eternal life" achieved through "a state of no mind—beyond thought.

discord is balanced against rhythm to create mood. Lines made with a steel dip pen take on a scratchy nervousness.Nocturnes IN THIS QUARTET of semi-abstract drawings made with India ink. These vibrate against washes of shadow and pitch-black mass. I flicked spatters of ink and rubbed the paper with a wet and a dry brush to achieve these effects. .

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In the Christian churches of Europe. Feeding this demand. for example. feathers. Depictions of God or of gods in the contexts of daily life. and the faces of God have for centuries given artists a feast for the extremes of their imagination. and damnation are found in most world faiths. Humans are equally troubled by the imperceptibly small and the enormous. and deep fur—and we alter their scale. For example. paradise. a Catherine wheel of drawn sparks spiraling around the quietly resolute saint. a collaboration between the two will ensure that your drawings glow with originality. . To learn to flex your imagination. Fantasy is most successful when founded on strong and familiar visual logic. We love our fear of the hybrid—ideally. Be inspired by the irrational comedy of word association or puns.247. look for images in the folds of clothing. sculptures. scales. angels. or strange. I was on a train passing through Nuneaton. wings. and stained-glass windows deliver powerful visual sermons to the once-illiterate populace. Star Wars. England. impossible. Today. our literate and more secular Western society still hungers for another world and to ravenously indulge its fascination for the marvelous. aliens. in the cracks of walls. and the Alien trilogy. Monsters take advantage of both. Reading the place name I momentarily glimpsed an alternative meaning. serpentine tails.Gods and Monsters OUR SACRED AND SECULAR need to visualize demons. When creating monsters. We then add substances we dislike: unidentified fluids. Throughout this book images are presented to excite and surprise and drawing classes created to increase your confidence. Perhaps the Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 1485 121/4 x 9 in (312 x 230 mm) MARTIN SCHONGAUER most important conclusion in this final chapter is to advise you to develop your skills in parallel with the joy of your unfolding imagination. beasts. Neither should be slave or master. all of which originated as hundreds of drawings. which were widely distributed and influential in his time. Lord of the Rings. The salvation of heaven and terrors of hell are represented equally—enough to make any sinner shudder. We watch with captivated pleasure movies such as The Fly. happen to us. movie studios now brim with as many monsters as the visual art of the Medieval and Renaissance Church. Here. thousands of paintings. which is to have eaten a nun—it inspired the drawing on p. a human-animal mix that implies this could MARTIN SCHONGAUER German painter and engraver who settled to work in Colmar Alsace. our eye circulates around a flutter of leather and scaly wings. we select details of animals farthest from ourselves and that are widely thought disturbing—reptilian and insect features. or in smoke. Schongauer is best known for his prints. Images we are now surrounded by bear testimony to the power and resourcefulness of their collective imagination.

and exposed the superstitions. a Shoshone seeking guidance and power meditates at the sacred site of a petroglyph. Opposite. In this softer aquatint he poses for his portrait Textured background The aquatint process has been used to great effect in making a gritty toned background. and church murals. Goya later recorded the horrors of Napoleonic occupation. whose impassioned work begins with light tapestry cartoons. He would be graceless if he stood. F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A Spanish court painter printmaker and draftsman. The well-dressed mule is cumbersome. quoting great paintings and popular culture to add cunning twists to his satires. The high. vanity. his lover a dog. Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 1799 81/2 x 6 in (218 x 154 mm) FRANCISCO DE GOYA . In this ass.220. and men clubbing each other to death. plain wall suggests a blinkered view of nothing. hags.30. deranged masses. portraits.240 GODS AND M O N S T E R S Marks of Influence marking the influence of one artist upon another. crammed tightly at his desk. Violent white marks symbolizing Achilles' rage resonate with the energy of Twombly's script on p. we see the international icon of stupidity. This continuity enriches the making of art and our heritage. Many students leave white backgrounds in their work. The title "And So Was His Grandfather" adds that should we not already know. Los Caprichos. Other drawn versions of this image are more savage and frightening. Aquatint Goya has drawn a learned man as an ass. below. Goya's plainly textured gray background pushes back the space behind the illuminated simply subject. Visions experienced in front of the drawing sometimes instruct the making of a new one. Compare his dark. Francisco de Goya was a master of borrowing. reading from a book of asses. a wave to join Achilles' chase of Hector. noisy seascape on p. which can swamp the subject Here. and follies of court through copious graphic works including his best-known prints. to Picasso's similarly tight. This act defines the vision and continues the line of spirit guides. Saturn devouring his son. it allows the mule to stand forward. such asinine behavior can be hereditary. Pictorially. rushing. Opposite below. They depict as if by lamplight the devil and witches. Near the end of his life he made his "Black Paintings" on the walls of his home. Paul Thomas's studies of Picasso and Twombly can be traced directly. barren land rising like MYRIAD CHAINS RUN THROUGH ART HISTORY.

" Each sacred image drawn into rock belongs to one of three realms in the Shoshone world: the realm of the sky. by a supplicant in a trance of meditation. Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range UNDATED ARTIST UNKNOWN . It was made with a sharp implement. meaning "place of power. values. Wind River Reservation. Wyoming. Graphite marks Here Achilles chases Hector around the walls of Troy before killing him. and personal and social struggles. or of the water Chipped image This is a sacred creature of the sky chipped onto rock at Dinwoody Lake. Thomas conducts his explorations in the mine of Greek and Roman mythology. Simple wall stones cleverly state their cold solidity while also fading from our attention as the scene roars by. Parallel lines within the body of the figure are likely to denote power. ideals.241 MARKS OF INFLUENCE PAUL T H O M A S British contemporary artist whose epic graphic work questions and reflects upon issues of European identity. Achilles Chases Hector 1996 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) PAUL THOMAS SHOSHONE PETROGLYPH The Shoshone people of Wyoming name petroglyph sites Poha Kahni. White marks like flashes of light are cut though graphite with an eraser to reveal the paper beneath. of the earth. perhaps a stone. A vivid spectrum of energized graphite marks and a masterly composition give this drawing vitality and speed.

below left. graphic artist.242 MONSTERS of the unknown is a classical and constant occupation for the artist. If it were to turn and stare this way. Redon explored the darker side of the human imagination through symbols and mysticism. Redon lifted them out with some sort of eraser. Children are also delighted to invent a monster or ghoul. we see parallel slanting pale marks that might have been made with fresh bread—a very effective eraser used before the wide availability of rubber or plastic. and scuttle over all known reality. We may feel safe so long as the eye looks heavenward. Techniques demonstrated on pp. They float toward us like a horrid visitation. Redon's eyeball balloon rises up. the writers Joris-Karl Huysmans and Stephane Mallarme. crawl. H e was influenced by his friends. 115. and writer In contrast t o the light and visual accent of contemporary Impressionism. which sometimes—half-dressed and carrying a familiar trophy— stride.204-05 will enable you to produce a similar effect of white lines shining out of dark charcoal.and 16th-century Holland. lifting its cranial passenger over a seascape of repose. Lifting out Fine strings of the hot-air balloon appear dark against the sky and light against the balloon. Our subconscious can be drawn with pleasure and ease. The monsters of Bosch grew from his observations of beggars going about their trade in 15th. to the right of the balloon. the shock would be extreme. Here we see how he evolved their injuries into new limbs and warped proportions. as he did the grass. ODILON REDON French painter draftsman. Compare worked textures throughout the whole of this image to those found throughout Anita Taylor's charcoal drawing on p. The Eye Like a Strange Mounts Balloon 165/8 x131/8in (422 x 332 mm) ODILON REDON 1882 Toward Infinity . T H E EXPLORATION AND DEPICTION Hauntings Grandville has drawn a scurrying zoo of half-known demons and animals that appear to have been stolen from the glass eye of the microscope. GODS AND Erasure In this charcoal drawing.

Last Judgment. teeming with the exhilaration of unrestrained fantasy. 1840 61/8 x41/2in ( 1 5 5 x 1 1 5 mm) GRANDVILLE HIERONYMUS BOSCH Dutch painter Bosch's highly detailed iconographic religious panel paintings. The quality of the line is therefore uniform throughout. which is still available today.243 J E A N I G N A C E ISIDORE GERARD ("GRANDVILLE") French graphic artist and political satirist. and Ship of Fools. Comic little headbands of waving hair express more hysteria than fear. Garden of Earthly Delights. HAUNTINGS Engraving This is an engraving made so that Grandville's original drawing could be reproduced. Two Monsters UNDATED 45/8 x61/2in (117 x 163 mm) HIERONYMUS BOSCH . Quill and ink This typical Bosch monster is a quill drawing in bistre ink The phrasing of light and contour here is masterly. grimacing. Madrid. Most of his work is in the Prado Museum. and he illustrated the Fables of La Fontaine and Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe. This image is from one of Grandville's best-known publications. Light shines from the right. Smiling. Les Animaux (1840). sucker-faced creatures dash and trundle toward it They are drawn solidly to emphasize their earthbound weight. A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects c. include The Haywain. His other major works include Metamorphoses du Jour (1828).

Michelangelo's dragon. phrased over the contours of form and bridging darker areas of shadow. and play with its perfection and meaning. David. gamboling copulations. as we might expect. Opposite. Grimes' delicately cavorting figures dive into and consume each other. and dying slaves. They share between them the pleasures of inventing a hybrid beast. A snake eating its own tail is a universal image of the eternal and continuous. Grimes found the genesis of her beast not among animals. she formed a series of ghostly pale. poet. and engineer Among Michelangelo's great works are the painted ceiling and altar wall of the Sistine Chapel. St Peter's square. hatched lines. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI Florentine painter sculptor. below. lion. wraps and coils its lithe body ready to strike or whimper at a touch. sometimes artists purposefully tie a knot in the configuration to disturb. Dragon 1522 10 x 133/8 in ( 2 5 4 x 3 3 8 m m ) MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI .244 GODS AND MONSTERS Convolutions THESE CONVOLUTED DRAWINGS were made almost 5 0 0 years apart. Chalk and ink A quill dipped in brown ink was worked over black chalk on this reused sheet. remembering the cavernous. His entire drawing wrestles and weaves the viewer's eye into its retracting folds. a stunning hybrid of a swan. snake. pinnacled. topple. However. and dog. Scaly. and mist-swathed land. the dome of the Vatican. Two previously drawn faces become humorous antagonists to the beast. architect. In her studio. but in the seductive landscape of Leonardo da Vinci's oil painting Madonna of the Rocks. and marble sculptures including Pieto. muscular tension is carved out of the paper using layered.

London. Oxford. How Clever of God #84 2002 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) O O N A GRIMES . The large space around figure has been cropped Grimes drawings to flatten presses them. and the Camberwell and Slade Schools of Fine Art. London.245 CONVOLUTIONS O O N A GRIMES British contemporary artist and professor of printmaking at the Ruskin School. It is one of a series of fragile earth figures inspired by rocks. Ink-wash delicately gouache (smooth) and gouache brushed drawing on This is a and was hot-pressed Shadows The dark shadow of the Other the ink-wash earth was made with a brushstroke of ink laid into wet paper. details evolved slowly using a drier brush. her under heavy here. each one iridescent and crumbly like a weathered while oyster. Grimes exhibits internationally and features in the collections of the New York Public Library and the Victoria and Albert Museum. boards finished paper. The image formed directly without first making a pencil outline.

it has good inkholding capacity and is very flexible. Some used by master calligraphers are 2-3 in (5-8 cm) in diameter 11. materials. which holds long sable hair This brush holds large amounts of ink for long lines and points well for detailed work. JAPANESE PAINTING BRUSH: Made with natural hair. SQUIRREL-HAIR S W O R D LINER:This brush has a maximum ink-holding capacity and an extremely fine and flexible point 8. POINTED SQUIRREL-HAIR MOP: With a synthetic quill ferrule and extra high inkholding capacity. all perfect for drawing and. Soaps purchased from good art supply stores will gently cleanse particles of pigment that become trapped in the hairs or ferrule.H A I R RIGGER: Made with long synthetic hair for fine-point work It has a good ink-holding capacity and is slightly more resilient than sable hair with more "snap. This design supplies the fine tip with a long continuity of ink 5. and writers. LARGER JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with natural hair held in a plastic ferrule on a bamboo handle. Slightly less flexible than the squirrel-hair sword liner 9. between them. Always clean them thoroughly. needle-sharp center of kolinsky red sable hair. 12. drawing tool extending the arm. 7. L A R G E R S Y N T H E T I C . It has exceptional painting characteristics. Some are bold. making rt ideally suited to Japanese painting and small-scale calligraphy.H A I R LINER: Very responsive oriental-style liner This to the touch. liners. S Y N T H E T I C . The brushes shown here are a mixture of This is a selection of riggers. SABLE-HAIR LINER: Made with ordinary sable hair surrounding an extralong. It is still relatively small in the total range of Japanese brushes. with a fine point for delicate work 4. and never leave them standing on their tip in a jar of water. and very fine lines. fingers. shape. Brushes vary in size. 10. giving a variety of lines. Suitable for wash techniques but also capable of very fine detail. It is capable of very fine pointing. and has a fine tip for detailed work. SYNTHETIC-HAIR S W O R D LINER: A lining brush with high ink-holding capacity and a fine point. How you care for your brushes will determine how long they last. the very opposite of pencil or silver point. SMALL JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with sable hair. and hold prodigious weights of ink or paint. others are as fine as a whisker with a gentle touch. washes. dense. and wrist into a fluid and soft touch. flowing. 13. Shorter brushes designed for other purposes run out of ink more quickly.246 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brushes T H E BRUSH IS A VOLUPTUOUS and delicate weights. ink-laden tip allow an expression that is beyond the linear. SYNTHETIC-HAIR LINER: This brush gives a medium line and is firm with a spring to the touch. it has good wash capabilities. this brush has a soft drawing tip and small ink-holding capacity. ideally suited to drawing. and texture. 3. thicknesses. M T RA S AEIL .Theyhold plenty of ink and make continuous. 2. SYNTHETIC-HAIR BRUSH: Bound in a synthetic ferrule with good inkholding capacity and good spring and control. 1." 6. SABLE-HAIR RIGGER: Made with very long kolinsky sable hairs. This brush has a broad wash capability and can achieve a very wide range of marks. and effects. The living marks of a wet. return them to their pointed shape. P O I N T E D T R A D I T I O N A L WRITER: The ferrule is made from a small duck quill.

247 BRUSHES .

and above all w h e t h e r the b r u s h is saturated with pigment or relatively dry. the texture and a b s o r b e n c y of the paper ( w h i c h m a y be d a m p or dry). and spatters.35) into two tablespoons of water in a shallow. b l o w i n g h a r d o n t h e m several t i m e s t o disperse t h e ink ( c l o s e y o u r eyes if y o u t r y this.) I . length. the degree of pressure applied. It also depends on the angle at w h i c h it is held. I rubbed a block of Chinese ink (see p. w i t h m y face close. I had left the end of the ink block in the water overnight to make it easier to dissolve. the speed of the s t r o k e . softness. and type of its hairs.246-47). unglazed earthenware dish. splashes. A single brush has almost balletic potential to draw fine or undulating lines and curves. Here I drew with a soft Japanese painting brush (see pp.248 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brush Marks A S I N G L E BRUSH will m a k e an e n o r m o u s range of m a r k s depending u p o n the width. and to make pools and stains o n the page. SETTING UP Blowing spots T h e s e t h r e e s p i d e r y c r e a t u r e s (above right and below) w e r e m a d e by d r o p p i n g s p o t s o f ink f r o m a b r u s h o n t o t h e p a g e and.

a n d t h e w a y it d i s t r i b u t e s w h e n t h e b r u s h is d a b b e d o n its s i d e . t h e effects of the b r u s h r u n n i n g o u t o f ink. a n d b r u s h . w e see fine lines and s p o t s .249 Gritty texture T h e details o f t h e largest creatures b e l o w and opposite s h o w the granular texture of Chinese b l o c k ink. . BRUSH MARKS Wet and dry strokes A m o n g these concentrated drawings ink made into with the same w a t e r y lines. b l e e d i n g f r o m strokes b e l o w left.

until we look again. . I borrowed small and fragile specimens from the University Museum of Natural History. Oxford. and used their detail to draw new creatures that might at first seem familiar.Monsters THESE LITTLE CREATURES o f i n k and i n v e n t i o n were b o r n out of animal and bird studies.

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thin works titled The Witches' Sabbath and The Procession of St. With further research. Here. I found relationships between all four paintings in terms of shapes. Among his "Black Paintings" in the Prado Museum. They are a pair and hang opposite each other. showing us that gallery study is not just for the student and beginner. Goya often invented his monsters out of characters seen in other painters' works. Goya's witches have been literally drawn and evolved out of the shapes of Murillo's prophet and pilgrims. and narrative twists. Madrid. Isidore. thin works made by Bartolome Murillo in Seville about 120 years earlier. are two long. . Through studying and drawing these great paintings I have discovered that they are based on a pair of similarly long. formal composition. two of my own drawings show you how Goya's devil (below) is based on the shape of Murillo's boy on a horse (top right).Goya's Monsters W I T H CUNNING BRILLIANCE.

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Consumed THIS IS A SERIES OF CARTOONS I m a d e s o m e years ago. Sometimes drawings come out of nowhere and surprise even the artist. drawn rapidly and with great joy. little comments on politeness and sexual politics. .

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2. a n d attaches t h e m t o t h e s u p p o r t — f o r example.c e n t u r y Italian t e r m m e a n i n g "clear-obscure.The plate is t h e n r o l l e d w i t h ink a n d polished with a rag." It w a s first given t o t o n a l paintings m a d e in o n e c o l o r — s e e Grisaille. Eye level T h e i m a g i n a r y h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e a t t h e s a m e h e i g h t as t h e a v e r a g e p e r s o n ' s eyes. Blending M e r g i n g t w o o r m o r e neighboring colors o r tones t o g e t h e r using a tortillon. T h e name " n o t " simply refers t o t h e fact t h a t t h e cylinders are n o t h o t in t e m p e r a t u r e . Binder A substance t h a t holds particles o f p i g m e n t t o g e t h e r in a paint f o r m u l a t i o n . Anamorphic distortion Stretching an i m a g e across a p i c t u r e surface so t h a t it can o n l y b e u n d e r s t o o d . usually at a n a c u t e angle t o t h e s u r f a c e .m a d e paper. o r o t h e r (usually large) w o r k — s e e Pouncing. and readymade objects arranged and stuck o n t o a flat surface. In t h e Far East calligraphy is a highly r e s p e c t e d a r t f o r m . for example. pressurized t o o l used f o r spraying fine mists o f s m o o t h c o l o r P i g m e n t is d e l i v e r e d b y a j e t o f air n o t t h e bristles o f a brush. as o p p o s e d t o t h e s t r a i g h t e d g e o f a sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has b e e n machine-trimmed.s i z e d r a w i n g m a d e for t h e purpose o f transferring a design t o a painting. Fauvism A n early 2 0 t h . Acid-free paper P a p e r w i t h a neutral p H t h a t will n o t darken o r d e t e r i o r a t e excessively w i t h age." D e s c r i b e s a p a i n t i n g in w h i c h t h e light s o u r c e is b e h i n d t h e s u b j e c t F o r e x a m p l e . chance mark-making. Composition T h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e p a r t s o f an i m a g e t o m a k e u p the whole. Collage C o l l e c t e d materials such as c o l o r e d p a p e r s . It can also seal a silver p o i n t d r a w i n g t o p r e v e n t t h e oxidization (browning) o f t h e Drypoint A d r a w i n g is s c r a t c h e d directly o n t o a m e t a l plate w i t h a m e t a l t o o l h e l d like apen. Field In a t w o . r a t h e r t h a n r e c o r d e d o n a film o r plate. Fixative lightly glues t h e d r a w i n g t o t h e surface o f t h e p a p e r t o p r e v e n t smudging. Ferrule T h e s h o r t m e t a l t u b e t h a t s u r r o u n d s a n d g n p s t h e hairs o f a p a i n t b r u s h a n d fixes t h e m t o t h e brush handle. Calligraphy Beautiful h a n d w r i t i n g . Chiaroscuro A 1 7 t h . o f t e n d i s t o r t e d forms and vivid colors. so t h a t ink r e m a i n s o n l y in t h e g r o o v e s o f s c r a t c h e d lines. w h e n a p e r s o n is p a i n t e d standing a g a i n s t a w i n d o w . t o g e t h e r w i t h a t h i c k felt b l a n k e t T h e w h o l e s a n d w i c h o f l a y e r s is t h e n railed t h r o u g h t h e press t o m a k e a p r i n t D r y p o i n t is a very portable and immediate m e t h o d o f printmaking. See also Hotpressed papers. A l s o called m u s e u m g r a d e . Erasure T h e a c t o f r e m o v i n g a n i m a g e f r o m a surface. F r o m t h e G r e e k kallos. Deckle edge T h e i r r e g u l a r e d g e o f a s h e e t o f m o l d .256 GLOSSARY Glossary Accidental drawing Random. Fixative Liquid acrylic resin a n d l a c q u e r t h i n n e r usually a p p l i e d as a n a e r o s o l s p r a y m i s t t o t h e surface o f a d r y . p h o t o g r a p h s . W o r d s o r symbols are Cold-pressed papers P a p e r manufactured with a "not" o r " r o u g h " surface." " N o t " p r e s s e d p a p e r is r o l l e d a s e c o n d t i m e w i t h o u t blankets t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders t o p r o d u c e a s m o o t h e r b u t still slightly t e x t u r e d s u r f a c e . A i r b r u s h e s are u s e d in t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c o m i c s . It is p u t o n a Body color See Gouache. Camera lucida A n optical device t h a t p r o j e c t s an image o f an o b j e c t o n t o a plain s u r f a c e so t h a t it can be traced. R o u g h p a p e r is m a d e b e t w e e n t w o blankets t h a t . tapestry. 2. n e w s p a p e r cuttings. L a t e r it c a m e t o m e a n h i g h l y c o n t r a s t e d light effects. Bleed T h e e f f e c t o f t w o w e t colors running into one another o r o n e color applied t o a w e t surface a n d a l l o w e d t o d i s p e r s e . Contre jour A F r e n c h t e r m m e a n i n g " a g a i n s t day. Cartoon 1. o r will o n l y a p p e a r n o r m a l . a n d g r a p h i t e . Also called accelerated perspective. linseed oil o r egg y o l k Caricature A representation Contour line A line t h a t f o l l o w s t h e s h a p e o f a surface. t h e field is t h e a p p a r e n t a n d b e l i e v a b l e space inside t h e p i c t u r e . T h e m o v e m e n t was started by a g r o u p o f French artists including H e n r i Matisse. A " s h a l l o w d e p t h o f field" m e a n s t h e p i c t u r e appears t o have only a shallow s p a c e inside i t Diffuse T o s o f t e n o r m a k e less brilliant. A g e n e r a l t e r m t h a t describes t h e various processes o f c u t t i n g a design i n t o a plate o r b l o c k o f m e t a l o r w o o d . A p o t e n t i a l l y h a r s h m e t h o d o f p r o d u c i n g t o n e s in a d r a w i n g . R e m b r a n d t is a great master o f chiaroscuro. t h e l i g h t is b e h i n d h i m o r her. S o m e t i m e s f e r r u l e s a r e m a d e o f plastic o r o t h e r materials.d i m e n s i o n a l i m a g e . pastel. T h e prints t a k e n from t h e s e plates o r blocks. Aerial perspective The effect of the a t m o s p h e r e o v e r distance as it lightens t o n e s a n d cools c o l o r s progressively t o w a r d t h e horizon. T h e b l a n k e t s g i v e t h e p a p e r its rough texture o r "tooth. s u c h as a d r a w i n g o r painting. C o p p e r p l a t e engravings w e r e widely used t o r e p r o d u c e images b e f o r e p h o t o g r a p h y . w h e n v i e w e d f r o m a specified point. F r o m t h e French v e r b coller. charcoal. Camera obscura A d a r k e n e d c h a m b e r i n t o w h i c h an i m a g e o f w h a t is o u t s i d e is received t h r o u g h a small o p e n i n g o r lens a n d f o c u s e d in natural c o l o r o n a facing surface.c e n t u r y painting m o v e m e n t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e use o f b o l d . Engraving 1. p r i n t i n g press face up. p r a c t i c e d meditatively w i t h a brush. m e a n i n g " t o stick" Dry media M e d i a t h a t a r e n o t w e t o r o i l y — f o r e x a m p l e . Bracelet shading C u r v e d parallel lines t h a t f o l l o w t h e c o n t o u r s o f f o r m .m e d i a d r a w i n g . a n d given t h e n a m e Sho. A h u m o r o u s d r a w i n g o r parody. written with a broad-nibbed pen o r brush. A l s o called r i n g l e t shading. Conservation grade D e s c r i b e s a range o f materials t h a t d o n o t d e c a y and cannot be broken d o w n by insects. Blotting T h e use o f a b s o r b e n t m a t e r i a l t o lift a w a y excess liquid. Air brush A mechanical. D a m p p a p e r is laid o n t o p . A f u l l . in w h i c h t h e subject's distinctive features o r peculiarities are deliberately exaggerated f o r c o m i c o r g r o t e s q u e effect. In t h e W e s t p e n calligraphy is u s e d t o c r e a t e f o r m a l a n d d e c o r a t i v e t e x t s . s u c h as a s c r e e n . m e a n i n g "beauty". in w h i c h parts o f an image are depicted v e r y brightly and dramatically against d a r k n e s s . a r e r o l l e d t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders. U s e d as a c o r r e c t i n g device o r pictorial game. Crosshatching Parallel lines d r a w n across o n e a n o t h e r at right angles. A l s o c a l l e d t h e h o r i z o n line.

to give the illusion of depth and distance. It improves the bonding properties Frottage A French term meaning "rubbing. pastel. . Hatching (cross-) See Crosshatching. This effect emulates what we see in real life. The ink attaches to the oil-based image and is repelled by the wet stone. the finely ground particles of plant. Rubens used grisaille to paint small images for engravers. The surface can be reloaded or redrawn with more medium. Grisaille A painting in gray or a grayish color Often made by students as a tonal exercise. Objective drawing Refers to the concept of objectivity. It is a strong adhesive. Ground A wet solution usually of gouache or gesso (chalk and animal glue) brushed onto paper board. Fugitive A term given to a pigment that it is not stable. Papercut A type of collage in which flat sheets of paper are cut into an image. Plumb line A line from which a weight is suspended in order to determine verticality or depth. Gamut A complete range or extent Glassine A type of thin. Hairspray is an effective and inexpensive alternative. Paper is laid on top and a rapid drawing is made on the back of it The paper lifts away to reveal the image on its other side. Picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. Lightfast A term confirming that pigment in the product will not fade with exposure to light. then rubbed over carefully but vigorously with a crayon. Pointillism A technique of using points or dots of pure color in such a way that when the picture is viewed from a distance they react Masking tape Invaluable. to describe a surface to which paint will adhere readily. including Max Ernst used frottage in their work. Usually an academic drawing observed from life. aiming to represent facts rather than an interpretation of the subject. and translucent paper—a delicate material used in collage. A small image might be described as small format Horizontal images are often said to be "landscape format" (abbreviated G u m arabic The natural to"landscape"). Padua. so that (using vanishing point perspective) the object appears to change shape and become narrower or smaller as it recedes. or for wrapping and protecting a finished piece of work. with the area beneath remaining unaffected. upright images are called "portrait which is used as a binding agent in many liquid media. glass. or spirit-based) is applied to a surface that is then pressed onto paper and removed to leave a print. Hot-pressed papers (HP) Paper made using hot cylinders. Lifting out A method of creating highlights and mid-tones in a drymedia drawing (such as charcoal or graphite). This may be disregarded in real life. Dark tones are laid down first then an eraser or masking tape is used to lift away particles of the drawing media to reveal the lightness of the paper beneath. which has a rough surface). F o r m The outer surface of a three-dimensional object. glossy. A point of interest in a drawing. or synthetic material that are suspended in a medium to constitute paint. and orientation of the image. Impressing Stamping or printing. Monoprinting A direct method of printing in which wet medium (water-. and by artists representing stone sculptures in a painting. and masking off areas of a drawing that the artist wishes to keep untouched by media applied above or beside the tape. Masking fluid Clear or opaque latex fluid developed for watercolor painting. of the ingredients in inks and watercolors. or even a beam of light.while secretion of the acacia tree. Also refers to an additive used to control the application properties of a color Golden Section A proportion in which a straight line or rectangle is divided into two unequal parts in such a way that the ratio of the smaller part to the greater part is the same as that of the greater part to the whole. and it has a history in enamel work. Negative space The space between things. Giotto's Virtues and Vices in the Arena Chapel. work. are painted in grisaille and appear to be made of stone. but in picture-making it is as important as the objects/subjects themselves. or canvas and allowed to dry before an image is drawn or painted. or can be otherwise used to create an image—for example. Medium A generic term for art Key A painting is said to be "high key" when the colors and tones are bright and "low key" when they are dark or somber The term is also used Gouache Opaque watercolor Also called body color. lifting out charcoal and other dry media. purpose. After several intervening processes. oil-based printing ink is rolled evenly onto a smooth metal. sticky paper tape. or a drawing made in any single color GLOSSARY Linear perspective A form of perspective in which parallel lines are represented as converging. Monochrome Usually refers to a black. F o r m a t T h e size. Grisaille is occasionally seen in church stained-glass windows. Focus 1 . Also used by artists' materials manufacturers to indicate the use of a substitute pigment—for example. the surface of the stone is made wet before being rolled with a thin film of oilbased printing ink. oil-. mineral. multiH u e A term for a color. graphite. which give it a smooth surface (as opposed to cold-pressed paper. used for fixing paper to walls and boards. and gray drawing. ink. materials that produce marks on a surface. This method incorporates the excitement of accidental and unpredicted marks." A piece of paper is placed on top of an object or rough surface. Paper is then pressed against the stone to take a print. rock.257 metal line. Alternatively. and is also used as a size. shape. Artists can paint freely over dry masking fluid. but each print will be unique. it is the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work Pigment Any substance used as a coloring agent—for example. and that will "escape" or change over time.The degree to which detail is defined. 2. It is then peeled away. Foreshortening A method of depicting an object at an angle to the surface of the picture. enabling them to stick to paper It also helps to maintain a stable dispersion of pigment particles in water as the film of a wash dries.Theground provides a particular color or texture beneath the image. Lithography A method of printmaking in which a drawing or painting is made directly onto a smooth slab of particular limestone or a metal plate using an oilbased crayon or ink. or plastic surface. cadmium yellow hue.The paper then bears a crayon impression or copy of the surface that was underneath it A number of Surrealists. or a family of colors. white. format" (abbreviated to "portrait"). It can be used with any wet media to isolate or protect parts of an image from further Optical blending See Pointillism.

"Spirits" or "oil" of turpentine refer to the volatile portion used by artists to thin or dilute oil-based paint. Named paper in place. Although drawings can be made with wash alone. Viewpoint The position from which something is observed or considered. Alternatively. usually diluted with water and applied with a brush. fine paper. or any physical object that can be stamped or pressed onto a surface to leave an impression. Squaring up A method of enlarging and transferring an image from one surface to another. whose pinpricks creates a "connect-thepersonal pastime was making dots" replica of the image on the cut-out portraits. Props An abbreviation of the word properties. pointed roll of white paper that is used to blend dry media. Squeegee A rubber-trimmed scraper used in the screenprinting process for dragging ink across a surface. or wood. to model areas of light and shade. an ink stone usually cut from slate." Materials for Zen brushwork include round brushes of varied size. The crude material is called oleoresin. in tone running from black to white or vice versa. Etienne de material) dabbed through the Silhouette (1709-67). Size A weak glue used for filling the porous surface of wood or canvas in order to seal it. A term borrowed from the theater. Still life A picture composed of inanimate objects such as bowls. tight. in order to flick the pigment onto the image surface. plaster. compound of water-soluble pigment. Tone A degree of lightness or darkness. glasses. Stippling Applying color or tone in areas of fine dots or flecks. nature of watercolor allows the white surface of the paper to Tonal scale A scale of gradations shine through. meaning objects used in setting up a life model or still life. Turpentine A colorless solvent distilled from the resinous sap of pine trees. Technical drawing A universal it is often used in conjunction language of lines and measurements with line drawings in pen and that is used to make diagrammatic ink—for images. a point at which receding parallel lines meet Verso The back or underside of a piece of paper. creating more vibrant effects than if the same colors were physically mixed together with a brush. watercolor. Stylus A sharp. Vanishing point In linear perspective. Sketch A quick or rough drawing. plaster or cloth surface beneath. The translucent Tint A color mixed with white. and paperweights. design. cut-out profile made along every outline of the usually made in black paper image. a sheet of paper is placed beneath and pinpricks are Silhouette A flat. or mark using an inked or pigment-covered surface. Spattering A mottled texture produced by drawing your fingers across the bristles of a stiff brush loaded with pigment. Serigraphy Silk-screen printing. Sfumato An Italian term meaning "smoky. orchids. Pounce (a fine for an unpopular 18th-century powder of charcoal or similar French politician. Tortillon A short. pointed instrument used for marking or engraving. and chrysanthemum—which in Chinese tradition are called "The Four Gentlemen. Shade A that is color mixed (or toned) with black Shading A lay term for adding tone to a drawing. . Pouncing If a large drawing or design (called a cartoon) is to be Shadow Darkness cast by the transferred to a surface such as a obscuring of light. or point on which parallel lines converge to give the impression of receding space. Printmaking The act of making a picture. or gouache. ink. such as an inscribed sheet of metal. Wash A technique using ink. sometimes drawn from a and leaving only the pricked sheet of shadow cast on a wall. W e t media Any liquid media— for example. evolved by engineers and architects for the purpose of conveying W a t e r c o l o r A painting accurate structural information. giving it a brilliance. Volume The amount of space occupied by an object or an area of space in itself. or pen. pencil." Applied to the blurring or softening of sharp outlines by the subtle and gradual blending of one tone into another Sgraffito A technique of scratching or cutting through a surface of paint. Zen A school of Mahayana Buddhism that asserts that enlightenment can come through meditation and intuition rather than faith. acrylic. commonly referred to as the lead. Zen brushwork This is an oriental meditative art form originating in China and practised for many centuries in Japan. paper or canvas. wall or tapestry. or watercolor paint. Artists' prints are normally made in multiple. or the left-hand page in a book. Single-point perspective The most basic form of linear perspective in which there is only one vanishing point. carbon ink. Zen paintings usually depict scenes of nature and plants such as bamboo. or the right-hand page in a book. and flowers. plum blossom.Thedrawing is removed. Support The structure on which an image is made—for example. Recto The front or top side of a piece of paper. by imposing a grid that is then scaled up to a larger size. Subjective drawing A drawing that expresses the personal view and interpretation of the artist An invented image. a tightly folded piece of cotton batting can be used for the same effect. Scale Describes the size of one element in relation to another Sepia A brown pigment taken from the sun-dried ink sacs of cuttlefish and used to make ink or watercolor The term is now often incorrectly used to refer to brown colors. Underdrawing A pale preliminary drawing made prior to adding layers of another medium such as oil paint or watercolor Value The extent to which a color reflects or transmits light This is the equivalent of tone in a black and white image. Strip Core of a pencil. fruit. Zen brushwork encompasses calligraphy and painting.258 GLOSSARY together optically.Technicaldrawing has been example. which are then called editions. or ceramic glazing to reveal a different color beneath. using a brush.

200 Bauer. 52 cotton swabs 205 Coup de Vent a Asajigabare (Hokusai) 198. 98. 242 Brunelleschi. to model 110-111 border 51 Bosch. 161 Akhlaq-I Rasul Allah manuscript 51. to draw 100 Cypripedium calceolus L. Franz 48 Protea nitida 48 Bellini. center of 118 ballpoint 182. 230-231 Cubist 90.163 graded 227 composition 56-57. 243 botanical drawing 48-49 Boullee.51 All and Nothing (Taylor) 114. to draw 80. 128. 198. Filippo 67. William: The Circle of the Lustful 180. 203 Claude Lorrain 202 Views from Velletri 202. Leon: Bacchante 155 balance. Brian 226 Untitled 2001 226 "Cave of the Hands" (Cueva de las Manas) 8.100 curves.226. 29 Hugo's octopus 28. Basilius 47 Beuys. 241 action. cut Catling. 116. 189. 134 costume(s) 155 character 158-159 structure of 166-167 Cottage Among Trees (Rembrandt) 52.117 Achilles Chases Hector (Thomas) 240. Mamaru 104. (Ross-Craig) 49 to hold brush for 23 caricature 159. Clare 203 City 202.198.Index Page numbers in italics refer t o captions and illustrations Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity (Bishndas and 259 INDEX B bread (as eraser) 205. Jean Michel 138 Self-Portrait 138 Bateau-Vision.89. 162 character: to capture 38-39. Giovanni 137 Head and Shoulders of a Man 136. 70 Art Nouveau motifs 91 Autoportrait (Ray) 138. 180 blending: color 133. 90. 230 The Physical Space 220 abstract drawing 219. 206. layers 53 chalk pastels 162. 81 135. 182.163 body.31 Picasso's horse and bird 30.212 to erase 205 to hold 23 pencils 204 willow 114.163 dry media 205 Blue Nude (Matisse) 110. 205 Baltard. 206 checkered floor 80. 28 Klee's horses 30. 71 Bacchante (Bakst) 155 background: color 91 textured 240 Baker Matthew: Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry 32 Bakst. 38-39. Augustin 67 Basquiat. 90 La Guitare. 244 and graphite 178 . Hieronymus 243 Two Monsters 242. 186 charcoal 114. 50. 41 principal 186.44-45 bird studies 12. 226-227 Acanthus spinosus 65 accelerated perspective 22.13. Sylvano 222. 26 geese 38-39 Gericault's cats 28.50. Le (Hugo) 200. Joseph 113 The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland 112. 81 cut-out model plan 94.27 turtles 42-43 aquatint 240 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels (Leonardo) 12. 242 to blend 205 compressed 122.162 Conte. 75. 74. 30 sleeping dog 38-39 Stubbs's horse skeleton 26. 204-205. 78 aerial perspective 206 airbrushing 160. to express 39.184. 90 colored materials 162-163 colored pencils 162. 180 Circular Score for "Due Voce" (Bussotti) 223 circus scenes 192-195 City (Bryan) 202. 13 architectural drawing 67-71 Arctic Flowers (Libeskind) 70. 165. 94 cylindrical objects. 71 conte 112. 72 bracelet shading 122 Braque. 90. 137 Besler. 163. Victor: West Facade of the Church of St. 71 Blake. 220. Statue d'Epouvante 90 calligraphy. to depict 156-157 Cloudburst of Material Possessions (Leonardo) 200. 201 collage 111. 160 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object (Moore) 178. 157 cropping 56-57. Zen c 232-233 blended 133. 74 brush (es) 246-247 Japanese 248 for laying a wash 140 marks 248-249 to hold 23 brush drawings 14-15 Bryan. 13. Etienne-Louis 72 Newton's Cenotaph 72. 8 cave paintings 8. 40-41 Durer's rhinoceros 26. 222. 94 chalk(s) 53. 250 Bishndas and Nanha: Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity 50.115 anatomical drawing 134-135 anatomical theaters 82-83 anatomical waxes 128 ancient carvings 221.169 colors: airbrushed 161 background 91 A Abe.44-45. Nicolas-Jacques 54 contours 146.133. 198 cartoon (preparatory drawing) 137 (satirical) 159. 223 Circular Score for "Due Voce" 223 children's art 9. 199 Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya (Eisen) 156.186 see also movement Adoration of the Magi perspective study (Leonardo) 74. 113 bird bones 12. 244 head and neck 144 phrased 124-125 contrast: brightness 99 of media 30 tonal 96. 158. 133. 203 Landline 202. 193 in lifting out 204. to draw 25. Georges 67. 221 animals. 247-248 carving see lines. 139 Nanha) 50. 204. 95 Chair Cut Out (Woodfine) 94. 179 Bussotti. 111. 9. 178 Cubism 67. 9 Chair (Van Gogh) 94. 74. 202 cloth. 203 Buffalo Hunt (Shoshone) 178. 190 Caricature of a Woman (Daumier) 198.184. 75 Circle of the Lustful (Blake) 180.

91 Dragon (Michelangelo) 36. 136 Golden Section 67 Gombrich.97. 226-227 anatomical 134-135 architectural 67-71 botanical 48-49 brush 14-15 dark to light 102. Edgar 162 depth. position of 22 Eisen.104. 222 Le Bateau-Vision 200. 55.216 Durelli.91. The 242. 32 framing 139 Franfoise au Bandeau (Picasso) 132. Katsushika 199 Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 198.184 165. 157 . 124. 134. 69. 245 layers 30 Goya.12 fixative 54.121 felt-tip pens 162. 73. 41 in the round 208-209 with scalpel 202. 202. 55. to draw 168-169 in Goya's artworks face. 137 heads. 134.260 INDEX D Dada 139 Daumien Honore 198 Caricature of a Woman 198.252-253 from memory 183.141. 120. 160 Faune.103. 230 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction 68. 104-105. 170-173.69 Gerard. 132 Frenz. Robert 93 Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 92.244 drawing(s): abstract 219. proportions of 143 fantasy drawings 72-73. 40. 26 Flying Fish (White) 25. to draw 134-137 Helleborus corsicus 55 highlights 91. 93 horizon 52. 71 minimal line 99 and music 70-71 quick 38-39. 144 Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (Baker) 32. 141 tonal 96. 37 Grandville 243 A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the Near-Microscopic World of Scale Insects 242. Victor 200. Statue d'Epouvante. 55. 245 Hugo. M. 160 hitsuzendo 233 light to dark 102. 200 F fabric. 112. 240 Black Paintings 152.102-103 drawing board 20 drawing books 20-21 drawing paper 144. 163.111 feet.101 engraving 243 erasers/erasing 55.117 fountain pens 34.144 and ink 30.109 Rhinoceros 26.37.141. Cheval et Oiseau (Picasso) 30. Keisai 157 The Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya 156. Hans 133 The Ambassadors 116 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 132. Francisco de 131.230 three-tone 140. 243 graphic score 222.160. C . Jean Ignace Isidore see Grandville Gericault. 160 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction (Gaudi) 68. Rene 160 Illustration for Jacques Fath E easel.207. 190 Middle Eastern 50-51. position of 143. 113. 77 How Clever of God #84 244. 90 gouache 30. 240. 25 focus 65. 203 semi-abstract 234-237 three-dimensional 68. 135 Duren Albrecht 26. Sir Ernst 12. Ron 161 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 161 160.112. 122. 252 depiction of fabric monsters 252-253 Self Portrait in a Cocked Hat 130. 161 fashion drawings 160. to suggest 177 see also perspective diagonals diffuser 55 dip pens 34. 220 dry brush 234 234 57. 30 Fauves/fauvism 90. 29 H hands. 90 G Gaudi. to draw 120. drypoint 181 exaggeration 184 expressionism 198 E ye and Head of a Drone Fly (Hooke) 92. 69 Guitare. Antonio 135 Muscles of the Head and Neck 134. 162 Flaxman. Alberto 136 Portrait of Marie-Laure de Noailles 136. 134. 223 graphite 54. 222 Grimes.157 ellipses 100. 69. 125.160. 161 changing 216 Focusing on the Negative (Walter) 16 foliage 52. 203 Hotel de la Suzonnieres (Satie) 70. 799 Holbein. 122 Hawksmoor. Study for Plate 59 (Mucha) 90. 79. 765 hitsuzendo drawings 233 Hokusai. 222. 223.116. 216 foreshortening 110. 69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt 68.198 Degas.115 exploratory 17 fantasy 72-73. Antonio 68. 240 170-173 five Ships in a Port with Lighthouse (Wallis) 11. 7 33 Hooke. 205 drawing with 103. 163.189.146 from masterworks 126-127.244. 245 Gruau. 93 eye level 80 Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity. Oona 245 How Clever of God #84 244. disposable pens 182-183 dissections: botanical 48 of horse 27 distance: illusion of see perspective linear 97 tonal 97 Documents Decoratifs. 242 eyes. 99 etching. fiber-tip pen 182. 115 Escher.Theodore 29 Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 28.166 170-173 Gestalt 222 Giacometti. 161 fashion 160. 131 Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 240. 241 to blend 205 and chalk 178 and ink 28.103 with eraser 103.John 157 Man Lying Down in a Cloak 156. 160 as ground for metal point 140. to draw 78. 52 foreground 208. La (Braque) 90.216. Nicholas 68 St Paul's Baptistry 68 head and neck to draw 142-145 Head and Shoulders of a Man (Bellini) 136.

242 light 96 to depict drawing with 1 76 painting with 176 . 203 landscape 206-208 brushed 14 Landscape in Hoboku Style (Sesshu) 14 layers 146 chalk 53 gouache 30 ink 28. Bartolome: Moses Striking the Rock ofHoreb 252. 185 Mucha. I Murderous Attacks 33 Kollwitz. 33 J justness 228-229 N naive art 74 negative space 53.33 Mysterious Affairs of the lighting 2 7. 201 head and neck sections of female mold for Sforza Horse 89 Madonna of the Rocks 244 perspective study for Adoration of the Magi 74. Paul 227 Polyphonic Setting for White 226. 190 metal pens see dip pens metal point 25. Matisse. Johan 32. Marie 244 cloth drawing 244. 226 Modernism 67. 103 Neolithic chalk tablet 220. 53 monoprint 787. Charles Rennie 48. 249 and gouache 30 Indian 35. 176. 49 Rose 49 Maelbeke Madonna (Van Eyck) 156. 35. 36. 156 magnification 93 Man in Armor (Van Dyck) 158. Piet 52. 110 Sistine Chapel ceiling 116 Middle Eastern drawing 50-51. Oxford 250 music 70-71 Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks (Knopf) 32. 244 Dragon 36. Oxford 106 Prado. 248.91 Study for Plate 59 of INDEX illumination see lighting Illustration for Jacques Fath (Gruau) 160. 159 Japanese 35 to make 36 sepia 35 walnut 36. 227 Newsome. 53 Tree II 52. 54 silver point 156 leg sections 158 length. 220.276. 756 priming for 140. 99. Gustav 49 Knopf. Florence 128 lighting in 167 Pitt Rivers. 227 Scene of Comical Riders 30. 28 Two Impressions from a Cut-out Paper Disk 222 Huyler Stephen R 225 261 Kinecar. Kathe 181 Losbrunch (The Outbreak) 180.141 Metropolis (film) 72. 219 Mondrian. Erich 73 design for Metropolis 72. Alphonse 90.102. 178 motifs: A r t Nouveau 9 7 stylized 51 mountains 216-217 movement: of animals 30-31 of humans 7 79. artistic 240-241. apparent 97 Leonardo da Vinci 74. 203. 183 vertical 156 linear distance 97 linear perspective 69. 13 Cloudburst of Material Possessions 200. David 78 M Mackintosh.112. 76 Libeskind. 63. 170-173. 72. 166. 60.109. Phyll: hands 18 lifting out 204. 83 white 122 ink impressions 222 ink spatters 234 installations 176.Pieuvre (Octopus) 28.181 L Landline (Bryan) 202. Victor 134 Profile Head 134. 230 invented creatures 106-107 250-251 invented objects 89. 34-35 acrylic 35 bistre 35. 34.227 to "bend" straight 97 compositional 228-229 cut 202. 220. 201 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels 12. 160 In the Duchess's Kitchen (Rackham) 176.134 K Kettlehut. 234 iron-gall 35. 244. 135 museums 44. 58-59. Rose: Tantalus or the Future of Man 20 minimal line drawing 99 mirror use of 120 mixed media 28.The (Robinson) 108. 789. 181 Klee. 163 pens 36 measuring 116 memory. 31 Klimt. 205. 78 Study ofThree Male Figures 110. 74-77. 73 Michelangelo Buonarroti 48. 114 hatched 244 layered 118 pace of 65 pale 40 rapid 49. 111. 181 luminosity 115 Lynch. 220. 244 ink 36 252-253 Documents Decoratifs 90. 252 ink 16. 225 masking tape 204.124. 184.141. 757 mandalas 219. Daniel 70 Arctic Flowers 70 Lieb. 158 Man Lying Down in a Cloak (Flaxman) 156.182 Moore. 97 Murillo.109.115 98.243 carbon 35 Chinese 30. 37 lines 118 pastel 162 pencil 31. 77 Miller. 221 endless 31 free 113. 244 lithograph 198 Losbruch (Kollwitz) 180.120. 73 Kigell. Madrid 171 University Museum of Natural History. 205 masterworks. Henri 111 Blue Nude 1110.96. 177 influences. drawing from 183.167 line(s) 132.104. 220. 252 Muscles of the Head and Neck (Durelli) 134. Henry 178 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object 178.166 La Specola. drawing from 126-127.

76-79.Tim. 36 pen and brush 8 3 pen and ink 70. 38. 203 Scene of Comical Riders (Klee) 30. 9 8 .240. 2 2 0 for oil pastels 162 stained 230 to stretch 140-141 tissue 21.40. 739 semi-abstract drawings Style 14 Seurat. 162 O p A r t 98 optical illusions 96-99 outline 33.37. 72 Noble.9 3 Schongauer. 81 two-point 74.Paul'sBaptistry (Hawksmoor) 68. Odilon 242 The Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity 242. 239 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat (Seurat) 112. 9 0 . Stella 48 Cypripedium calceolus L 49 rotated view 7 65 Rubens. 34-35. 165. 1 1 6 . J 76 nudes 114-115 to make 36 metal see dip quill 34. 97. Bridget 98 Robinson. Russell 228. 74. 230 parallel planes 79 Parisian street 86-87 pastels 162 to blend 205 to hold 23 layers 162 pencils 162 pen(s): dip 34 . 36. to draw 146-147 R Rackham. Sue 104. Peter Paul 126-127 Embracing pose(s): balanced 146 quick 118-119 positive form 103 posture: of artist 22 of subject 3 8 . 224 0 layers 31.131 Cottage Among Trees 52.37. 244 Q s Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape (Wolfli) 2 79 St. 78 single-point 74. 1 3 2 quill pens 34.176 Real Life Is Rubbish 176. 76 plastic eraser 55. 36. 75 Two Courtyards 75. 205 pointillism 112 polyphonic painting 227 Polyphonic Setting for White (Klee) 226. Pablo 6 7 . Giovanni Battista 74. 7 77 three-point 80. 1 6 3 .226. 4 9 Rose of Mohammed 50. 230 paper(s) 21 colored 162 drawing 144. Martin 238.184 fountain 34.141 prints/printing: aquatint 240 dry-point etching 181 engraving 243 monoprint 181.71 Hotel de la Suzonnieres 70. 71 Satire of the Queen's Dress (Wodall) 158. 7 70 Ray. 7 72 Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland.262 INDEX Newton. 212 Japanese 2 1 . 36. 30 Fran<. Arthur 177 In the Duchess's Kitchen 176. 1 1 7 aerial 206 linear 69.7 77 rapidograph 70 Raphael 110. 114 rollerball 182 Rorschach blot 99 Rose (Mackintosh) 48. 759 P Page. 219. 26 Riley.139 Autoportrait 138. 7 38 Ray 138. 160. 166 fiber-tip 782. 38. 734 Protea nitida (Bauer) 48. 139 Real Life is Rubbish (Noble and Webster) 176. 242 reed pens 34. Man 131. 141 Piranesi. 73 Noble.2 3 age and youth sleeping subjects 148-149 150-151 Renaissance 109 Rhinoceros (Durer) 26. Paul 73 Nobson Central 72. 165 figure 118 filled 37 pencil 48.104 Pieuvre (Hugo) 28. 1 1 6 accelerated 2 2 . 736 portraits. 234 disposable 182-183 felt-tip 162.199 Profile Head (Newsome) oil pastels 162.oise au Bandeau 132. 1 2 4 priming for metal point 140. 52 pens 36 scalpel 54 drawing with 202.Toyo: Landscape in Hoboku . 239 Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 238. 103. 181 Rodin. 243. Erik 70. 732 influence of 240 painting with light 78. 7 73 self-portraits: Basquiat 138. 91 outsider artists 33. Heath 181 The Kinecar 180. 241 Physical Space. 68 Satie. 75 Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range 241 petroglyphs 221. 159. 36. Faune. 782 relief 757 silk-screen 739 woodblock 134.52 pen and wash 158. Cheval et Oiseau 30. 216. 37 38. The (Abe) 220 Picasso. 122. 74-77. 205 157. 36. 36 relief printing 757 Rembrandt van Rijn 52. 57 Ross-Craig.54 pastel 162 perspective 1 0 0 . 772 234-237 Sesshu. 28 pigment 162 bright 50 Caput Mortuum 7 4 7 for three-tone drawing 141.The (Beuys) 112.759. Isaac 92 Telescope 92 Newton's Cenotaph (Boullee) 72. 161. Auguste 114 Two Women 114. 164. 227 portfolios 20 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser de Noailles (Holbein) 132. 4 8 putty eraser 55. and Webster.36. 733 Portrait de Marie-Laure (Giacometti) 136. Georges 112 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 112. 1 6 9 to hold 2 2 . 243. 40-41. 163.37 scientific instruments 9 2 . 7 76 receding space 206 Redon. 181 pencil(s) 54 charcoal 204 colored 762. 244 reed 34.

2 0 0 Ship in a Storm 1 9 8 . 57.2 0 1 . 1 4 1 w a t e r c o l o r 25. 182. 2 2 0 influence o f 2 4 0 Untitled 220. phrased 146 tonal modeling 161 tonal range 169 t o n a l surfaces 2 2 7 tonal width 97 t o n e ( s ) 33. 2 3 0 tonal contrast 96 tonal distance 9 7 t o n a l d r a w i n g 9 6 . 69. 206-207 202.216 W e b s t e r . 1 7 7 free 8 0 V e n i c e .41.1 8 5 Tree II ( M o n d r i a n ) 52. T i m W e s t Fagade of the Church of St.243 Leonardo's machines 12. 1 9 9 Two Courtyards (Piranesi) 75. 2 4 7 t h r e e .27 skull 747.199 tissue p a p e r 21. 7 70 Tiber 214-215 Untitled ( T w o m b l y ) 2 2 0 .241 s i l k . 69.J. 199 shoes 1 6 4 . 141 Three Male Figures. 75.s c r e e n p r i n t i n g 139 silver p o i n t 1 4 0 . 2 3 4 . 1 4 5 travel journal 2 0 . Study of (Michelangelo) 110. 2 1 2 . 221 .1 9 9 wire. 159 Wolfli.125 W o o d f i n e . t o draw 1 9 8 . 1 6 . Jan 1 5 6 Maelbeke Madonna 1 5 6 . W . Sarah 9 4 Chair Cut Out 94. t o d r a w 2 0 0 . 7 9 0 vessels.141 S i m b l e t . Taylor A n i t a 115 All and Nothing 1 1 4 .d i m e n s i o n a l 1 0 4 . 7 79 Shoshone petroglyph 240.Sforza Horse. John: Focusing on the Negative 14 w a s h . 2 4 4 . 174 T w o m b l y . Man in Armor 1 5 8 . 241. drawing with 104-105 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt ( G a u d i ) 68. 7 1 4 . 245 sharpener 54 Ship in a Storm ( T u r n e r ) 1 9 8 . 226 V Van Dyck. 7 77. Paul 2 4 1 Achilles Chases Hector 2 4 0 .2 1 3 Stubbs. 170 shoes 1 6 4 stylized m o t i f 51 Summer Flowers 63. 102-103 tonal marks. 240 Two Women Embracing ( R o d i n ) 114. 2 7 studies: b i r d s 7 2 . 77. 161. 76. 9 0 .158 158. 7 6 Two Impressions from a Cut-Out Paper Disk ( H u g o ) 2 2 2 Two Monsters 2 4 2 . 1 4 0 .1 4 1 . 74. Sarah: child's m a p 75. 2 9 wind. 1 9 9 . 186. 156 Van Gogh. 9 4 z Z e n calligraphy 232-233 contrast 96 t o grade 163 ink 37 pencil 5 4 t o r t i l l o n 205 T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c .1 0 5 vision 9 6 Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects (Grandville) 242. 164.9 1 storms.120. 1 4 4 . Augustin ( B a l t a r d ) 6 7 w e t and dry brush-strokes 2 4 9 Turner. 725 fabric 1 6 8 T h o m a s . William 159 Satire of the Queen's Dress INDEX 226. A l f r e d 1 1 . t o lay 1 4 0 . 158 V a n Eyck. M . 9 2 Tesshu. 2 2 6 . 65 symbols 138. 743 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City ( F r e n z ) 1 6 0 . 49. t o d r a w 5 2 . G e o r g e 2 7 Skeleton of the Horse 26. 104-105. 2 2 7 Untitled 2001 ( C a t l i n g ) u 263 W h i t e .1 6 5 shorthand diagram 142 Shoshone buffalo hide painting 178. 1 8 4 . 7 6 1 spots. 243 (Bosch) T Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos ( G o y a ) 2 4 0 . 75 Skeleton of the Horse ( S t u b b s ) 26. 1 2 Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse 71. 115. 79. 1 6 6 t r a p e z i u s m u s c l e 142. Adolf: Giant-Grape Saint-Mary-Castle 219 Woman at Her Toilet ( T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c ) 74 w o o d b l o c k print 157.Yamaoka 233 t e x t u r e 2 2 2 . 9 5 pens 36 v a n i s h i n g p o i n t 74. 6 9 Wodall. 156 layers 7 5 6 priming for 140. 97. John 25 Flying Fish 25 Wild Striped Cat Sketches of ( G e r i c a u l t ) 28. 199. 1 4 1 . 202 violin. v i e w s o f 85. 2 4 2 w Wallis.t o n e d r a w i n g 140.12 W a l t e r . b l o w n 248 steel p e n s see d i p p e n s still life 89. t o d r a w 1 0 1 viewfinder 57 Views from Velletri ( C l a u d e L o r r a i n ) 152. C y 138. Vincent 95 Chair 94. Sue see N o b l e . t h r e e . A n t h o n y 152. H e n r i de: Woman at Her Toilet 14 t r a n s p a r e n t v i e w 92. 1 8 4 . 1 3 . 230 t h r e e . h e a d a n d n e c k sections o f female m o l d f o r (Leonardo) 89 shading 2 9 s h a d o w s 28. 249 t o describe 39.13 M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s m a l e figures 110. 96. 4 4 boat 209 botanical 4 9 G e r i c a u l t ' s cats 2 9 from Goya 170-173 125.5 3 in l a n d s c a p e 2 0 6 . 7 75 Telescope ( N e w t o n ) 9 2 .d i m e n s i o n a l d r a w i n g 68.1 4 5 . 53 trees.

Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (t). Psychiatric Institute of the U n i v e r s i t y of Heidelberg. H e a t h e r M c C a r r y . 177: Mary Evans Picture Library. H a y w a r d Gallery. 115: Anita Taylor. Paris/ © Succession Picasso / D A C S 2005. 49: Hunterian Museum (t). NY. L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . 157: U C L Art Collections .uk/Private Collection.264 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Acknowledgments Author's Acknowledgments: T h e author wishes to thank the following people for their enormous help. Peter L u f f . Florence/MoMA. L o n d o n . B e m d Kunzig. 1 5 4 : akg-images/Musee National d'Art Moderne. R . Japan. A .uk/Musee des Augustins. 7 0 : Studio Daniel L i b e s k i n d . Sir Brinsley F o r d . Berlin/Staatsbibliothek zu A l l other images © Sarah Simblet . support. Paris. Magdalene College Cambridge. Winthrop. 1 3 8 : © Christie's Images Ltd/© A D AGP. 51: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. L o n d o n (t). K u n s t m u s e u m Bern/© D A C S 2 0 0 5 .bridgeman. 9 2 : Science Photo L i b r a r y .co. George M c G a v i n . Sophie Laurimore. J a c k a n d Brian Catling. Rocio Arnaez. 5 3 : Collection of the Gemeentemuseum D e n Haag/Mondrian Trust.bridgeman.20-21 a n d 246-47. 2 2 2 : Pierre Georgel/Private Collection. Lisbon. Paris a n d D A C S . Salisbury & South W i l t s h i r e M u s e u m ( t ) . University of Cambridge. H . Havemeyer./Private Collection/© D A C S 2005. c o . 9 3 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. 111: Fondation Beyeler/Riehen (Bale)/© Succession H Matisse/DACS 2005. 5 2 : T h e Metropolitan Museum of Art/Bequest of Mrs. Maureen Paley Interim Art (b). Roddy Bell. K u n s t m u s e u m . Madrid. u k / O n Loan to the H a m b u r g Kunsthalle. Patty Stansfield./Galerie Sylvie Nissen. 1879. 2 4 : © T h e British Museum. L o n d o n .co. 1 5 6 : Graphische S a m m l u n g Albertina. 9 0 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/© A D A G P . 69: Institut Amatller d'Art Hispanic (tl). Julie O u g h t o n . 112: Yale University A r t Gallery/Everett V Meeks. 2 8 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. 1 9 8 : Dover Publications. 174: Artothek/Munich. A n n a P l u c i n s k a . 2 0 2 : © T h e British Museum. 226: Brian Catling. 2 4 5 : Oona Grimes. 2 2 7 : Paul Klee Stiftung. L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . 1 7 8 : © T h e British M u s e u m / H e n r y Moore F o u n d a t i o n . Agnieszka Mlicka. G e r m a n y . Andy Crawford. and Tamsin Woodward Smith. 2 3 8 : akg-images. 2 2 3 : Lebrecht Music and Arts Photo Library/Ricordi.uk/Guildhall Library. 2 0 1 : T h e Royal Collection © 2 0 0 2 H e r Majesty Queen Elizabeth I I . Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett.co. 68: www. A . c o . Sarah D u n c a n . G i n a R o w l a n d .Strang Print Room ( b ) . 2 0 0 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. 11: www. 2 4 0 : w w w . U K . 1975 ( 1 9 7 5 .bridgeman. 9 1 : www. J o h n Roberts. London/courtesy of Stuart Shave. 17: J o h n Walter. 180: www. M a n d y Earey. 176: Modem Art. Germany. 2 4 1 : Corbis/David M u e n c h ( b ) . papers.bridgeman. 199: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee des arts asiatiquesGuimet. 1 0 8 : Arts C o u n c i l Collection. Angela W i l k e s . 132: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. O. Graphische Sammlung. D a w n Henderson. 1 . T o n y G r i s o n i . 158: Calouste Gulbenkian Museum. 1901. Picture Credits 8: Corbis/Hubert Stadler. 139: Galerie Marion Meyer/© Man Ray Trust / A D A G P . 9 7 6 ) . 3 3 : Prinzhom Collection. University of Oxford. Paris a n d D A C S . L o n d o n . 5 0 : Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (1). Anders/ © D A C S 2 0 0 5 .uk/Private Collection. 243: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. L o n d o n . 6 6 : w w w .co. Jackie Douglas. Paul T h o m a s ( t ) . 130: The Metropolitan M u s e u m of Art/Robert L e h m a n Collection. c o . Anders. Sarah Woodfine. 113: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. Corporation of London. 2 4 4 : Ashmolean Museum. Berlin (b). R u t h P a r k i n s o n . 9 5 : V a n Gogh M u s e u m . 73: Berlin F i l m Museum (t). Wolfson College. 1 1 0 : www. 1 3 5 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library.uk /© Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery. H a m b u r g . Basel. B M G . 2 6 : Topfoto. Inc.bridgeman. 3 1 : Tom Powel Imaging. Also. Natalie G o d w i n . a n d brushes o n pp. Kunstmuseum Bern. J o h n Walter. 1 9 6 : Museum of the History of Science. 1 3 4 : © T h e British Museum. London 2005. Angela Palmer. 13: www. P h y l l Kiggell.bridgeman. 2 2 0 : Mamaru Abe. Amsterdam. R o s e m a r y S c o u l a r .bridgeman. T h e R u s k i n School of D r a w i n g a n d Fine A r t . 29: Fogg A n Museum/Collections Baron de Vita: Grenville L. © Tate. H e l e n S h u t t l e w o r t h . 2 2 4 : P r i n z h o m Collection. for s u p p l y i n g the d r a w i n g books. Clare Bryan. (r). 2 1 8 : Adolf-Wdlfli-Stiftung. K e w ft)). 1 5 : w w w . 2 0 3 : Clare Bryan (t). Carole A s h .uk/Kettle's Yard. Fund. Toulouse. Paris.uk/Private Collection. 1 3 3 : Artothek/Kupferstichkabinett. S i m o n L e w i s . K a t h r y n W i l k i n s o n .co. Portugal. Jean Pierre Roy. Psychiatric Institute of the University of Heidelberg. Anita Taylor. B e r l i n . 2 7 : Royal Academy of Arts. a n d encouragement i n m a k i n g this book: M a m o r u Abe.r. 181: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz.uk/British Museum. A n d y C r a w f o r d for p h o t o g r a p h y a n d L . Paris. u k / T o k y o National M u s e u m . France. Copyright Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens./© D A C S 2 0 0 5 ( t ) . 1929 (29. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin. Kirsten Norrie.uk /Biblioteca Nacional. b r i d g e m a n . J o n Roome. b r i d g e m a n . Staatliche Museen z u Berlin/Jorg P. Diana Bell.co. L o n d o n . 179: www. Paula Regan.co. 16: www. 137: © The British Museum. 225: Stephen P Huyler.bridgeman. Flossie. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. Dover Publications/ISBN: 0486229912 (t). . 1 3 6 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Centre Pompidou-MNAM-CCI. Oxford. F r a n c e . 9 4 : Sarah Woodfine. 7 1 : I M E C / A r c h i v e s E r i k Satie. R o y a n d D i a n n e Simblet.Paris ( b ) . Italy. 72: akg-images. 1 5 9 : Bodleian Library. Carlo O r t u for picture research s u p p o r t . B e r l i n . b r i d g e m a n . 3 2 : Pepys Library. 74: Corbis. 4 6 : B r i t i s h Library. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. Sammy De Grave. O o n a G r i m e s . a n d D e p a r t m e n t s o f E n t o m o l o g y a n d Zoology at the University of Oxford. 1 6 0 : Rene G R U A U s. u k / L o u v r e . 1 9 : Getty Images/© Succession Picasso / D A C S 2 0 0 5 . Paris and D A C S .uk/Mucha Trust. 1 6 1 : D C C o m i c s I n c . Paris.co. U K . Publisher's Acknowledgments Dorling Kindersley w o u l d like to thank Caroline H u n t for editorial contribution. C o r n e l i s o n & Son. 4 8 : T h e N a t u r a l H i s t o r y M u s e u m . Paul T h o m a s .a.939). Germany/Joerg P. 75: © The British Museum (b).100. Illustrated London News Picture Library/The Bystander (b).bridgeman. Antonia Cunliffe Davis.l. G e r m a n y . Christopher Davis.co. 221: Gagosian Gallery/Private Collection (b). . 114: Musee Rodin. 2 4 2 : Photo Scala. Productions Clovis Prevost (c). 30: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. Orientabteilung/Ruth Schacht. Pamela Ellis for compiling the index. London/Bequeathed by Charles Landseer. 88: www. Paris. B . Paris. K e v i n a n d Rebecca Slingsby.co. L e n . F i n n .

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