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FOR T H E ARTIST
FOR THE ARTIST
LONDON • NEW YORK MELBOURNE • MUNICH • DELHI Senior Editor Paula Regan Senior Art Editor Mandy Earey Art Editor Anna Plucinska Managing Editor Julie Oughton Managing Art Editor Heather McCarry Art Director Peter Luff Publishing Director Jackie Douglas Production Joanna Bull DTP Designer Adam Walker Picture Research Sarah Smithies US Editor Christine Heilman First American Edition, 2 0 0 5 First Paperback Edition, 2 0 0 9 Published in the United States by DK Publishing 3 7 5 Hudson Street New York, New York 1 0 0 1 4 10 11 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3
6 8 20 22 Master Builders The Order of Sound Future Fictions Pathways of Sight Single-Point Perspective Creating an Imaginary Space Further Aspects of Perspective Theaters Venetian Life Parisian Street
68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86
Foreword Introduction Drawing Books and Papers Posture and Grip
Objects and Instruments
TD075-July 2009 Copyright © 2 0 0 5 Dorling Kindersley Limited Text and authors artworks © Sarah Simblet 2 0 0 4 Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited A Cataloging-in-Publication record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN 9 7 8 - 0 - 7 5 6 6 - 5 1 4 1 - 1 Color reproduction by GRB, Italy Printed and bound in China by Toppan
Still Life Instruments of Vision Bench Marks Light and Illusions Further Illusions How to Draw Ellipses Tonality Drawing with Wire Artifacts and Fictions
90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106
Documentaries Presence and Mood Movement Icon and Design Pen and Ink Drawing with Ink Capturing Character Sleeping Dogs Turtles Dry Birds
26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44
Postures and Poses Choreographs Passion Measurement and Foreshortening Quick Poses Hands and Feet Charcoal Hands Phrasing Contours The Visual Detective La Specola
110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128
Plants and Gardens
Botanical Studies Jeweled Gardens Fast Trees Graphite and Erasers Cropping and Composition Negative Space Fig Tree Summer Flowers Acanthus Spinosus
48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64
Discover more at
Projections Magnetic Fields The Human Condition Disposable Pens The Travel Journal Catching the Moment Grand Canal Crossings Caravans The Big Top
174 Abstract Lines
176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 Process and Harmony Writing Time Chants and Prayers Compositions Being "Just" Collage Zen Calligraphy Nocturnes
220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234
Poise Anatomies Revelations Self-Portraits Silver Point Head and Neck Essential Observations Drawing Portraits Generations Castings
132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 152
Earth and the Elements
Air in Motion Storms Nature Profiles Charcoal Landscapes Drawing in the Round Decaying Boat Cloudburst Notes of Force Mountains
198 200 202 204 206 208 210 212 214 216
Gods and Monsters
Marks of Influence Hauntings Convolutions Brushes Brush Marks Monsters Goya's Monsters Consumed Glossary Index Acknowledgments
240 242 244 246 248 250 252 254 256 259 264
Cloth and Drapery Character Costumes Femmes Fatales Colored Materials Study and Design The Structure of Costume Textures and Patterns Dressing Character Posture Carving
156 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172
where spaces are shaped by nothing more than the objects and activities contained within them. I know that with their cooperation I can soon prove them wrong. we have looked at. Some are more traditionally framed and hung in galleries for solo or group exhibitions. It is my love of these. we learn to see it.Foreword B Y DRAWING THE WORLD AROUND US. where I expect them to be discovered by some people. and through which I can see how I think. undergraduates to fellow professors. Some of my drawings cover entire walls. and local c o m m u n i t y classes. I work with people of diverse ages. I will always draw. and makers of special effects. that inspired the title and structure MEMORY T H E A T E R S This pen-and-ink drawing was made from imagination during research for my PhD. understood (and often misunderstood) our own bodies. Others can be held in the h a n d or. I also make drawing books. It is a tool for investigating ideas and recording knowledge. be they a child discovering their vision and dexterity. They occupy a shelf in my studio. from schoolchildren to senior citizens. These inspirations led me to invent museums. still standing by the door. art schools. shape. or engineer. who tells me firmly upon approach that they cannot draw. a composer notating a musical score. and I refer back to them for years after they are made. and be slowly washed or worn away. drawing is the immediate expression of seeing. and in a few sessions they will be flying. Chosen in any color. architect. a drawing book is the perfect portable private vehicle for your imminent exploration of drawing. Drawing is a mirror through which I understand my place in the world. remain unseen by most. geologists. as a visiting professor at universities. I was training in anatomy and studying how. For me personally. a cartographer charting the land. of Sketch Book for the Artist. . and size. especially as travel journals. are made outside as discreet installations. aspirations. we learn to feel truly alive. and a reflector of experience. or a quantum physicist trying to see for themselves the fluctuations of our universe. texture. by invitation. By using our imaginations. and experience. The most rewarding challenge is always the newcomer. but because it is how I engage with and anchor myself in life. We can all learn how to draw. through history. fashion designer. I was also reading among The Confessions of St. They enfold their viewer and are made on joined sheets of paper that I reach by climbing ladders. a sculptor. It makes me feel excited to be alive. not only to make art. The very first step is to believe it. and feeling. Combine these things and the possibilities are endless. Augustine his notes on memory. in which he describes himself flying and diving in his imagination through pictorial caverns of knowledge. Drawing occupies a unique place in every artist and creator's life. thinking. perhaps hidden on a door hinge or a street bench rail. doctors. and their importance to so many artists. For twelve years I have enjoyed the privilege of teaching drawing. night security staff.
Children cannot be restrained from running across the pristine white lawn of newly fallen snow. waving to us from many thousands of yearsago. inscribing every fresh part of it with their eager scrapes and trails.Theseancient silhouettes were drawn with earth pigments rubbed onto rock. is not afforded us by drawing. Drawing is international. not just chosen pictures on our walls but everywhere—maps. graffiti. packaging. like a great canvas for them to mark. and in meetings. We can always read each others drawings. "CAVE OF THE HANDS" In this drawing. signs.8 INTRODUCTION Where We Begin There is a fundamental drive in our human nature to make a mark. Sometimes we draw because we are bored. We are bombarded with linear and tonal pictorial information. logos. a great crowd is raising their hands in greeting. Rio Pinturas 13. At home and at work we doodle. and we spend our lives reading it. but more often because drawing actually helps us to focus and take in what is said. They have a natural affinity to many modern graffiti signatures. The sense of relief we may feel from the information overload of modern commercial life when visiting a country in which we can no longer read every written word. in lectures. We are surrounded by drawings in our daily lives. and patterns on our clothes. Most adults still feel that certain exquisite pleasure on arriving at a beach to find the tide out and the sand perfect. irreverent to language barriers.000-9500 bce . scrawling shapes and cartoons when on the telephone. Cueva de las Marios.
an expression of existence. . we see our oldest surviving images. She gave me a notepad and a red crayon and asked me to draw her "a picture of Daddy. enjoying the physical sensation of crayon on paper. power. the hair of my first portrait was most important. On a particular afternoon in September 1974. reflecting my experience of looking closely at my father's face. at age two-anda-half." Until this day. and she kept it as my first step beyond the delighted realms of scrawl. MAKING OUR MARK It seems reasonable to assume that we have engaged in pictorial mark-making for as long as we have made conscious use of our hands. Cave art was not made for decoration but as a fundamental part of life. I now think this is a picture of proximity. who in their day-to-day hardship made time to picture themselves and the animals on which they depended. Even though it is made by a toddler this image would be recognizable to anyone. created by societies of hunter-gatherers. and belonging to place. and the appearance of my strikes of colors. like all toddlers. but I had never yet attempted to figuratively picture my world. had happily scribbled. In cave paintings like the one opposite. I was sitting with my mother. The image above is what I gave back to my mother. I. Eyelashes take up as much of my attention as the head itself.9 WHERE WE BEGIN FIRST PORTRAIT For sorre forgotten reason.
As you progress. Don't b e p e r s u a d e d to draw in a w a y s o m e o n e else . At this point many will insist they cannot draw. b e p r o u d o f what m a k e s y o u r w o r k individual to y o u . It was made with a few bold strokes of a steel pen dipped in ink to conjure the dried bee I was holding between my fingers on a pin. W e do n o t hesitate to draw a map. Inhibitions creep in and ideas of good a n d b a d terminate confidence. most of us stop. yet still turn to drawing w h e n their verbal language fails or is inadequate. and this activity plays a vital role in their d e v e l o p m e n t . h o w e v e r small a n d u n f o r m e d y o u believe they are. PROGRESSION T h e r e is a point in all o u r lives w h e n w e first c o n t r o l o u r mark and m a k e it a line. and from that first unit build and describe the shape of something or someone we know. Hours are lost immersed in the glorious world of imagination.10 INTRODUCTION PEN-AND-INK BEE This tiny drawing has been enlarged to show its texture and composition. Young children love to draw. But as adolescents. it is important to value your natural abilities a n d ways of seeing. then drag o u r line into a loop. to help a stranger see their way W h e n taking first steps in relearning h o w to draw. for example.
I ask them their reasons for drawing. The journey of every artist demands hard work and discipline. you must decide whether to keep or discard it. remember that all advice is only advice. He was a retired Cornish fisherman and junk dealer who began drawing at the age of 70 "for company" after his wife died. After experimenting and trying each new idea. Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse c. 1925-42 53/8x87/8in (135 x 225 mm) ALFRED WALLIS prefers and tells you is better. but it does help to set out facing in the right direction. Enjoy the control of your own journey. As you read this b o o k and perhaps attend art classes. Someone once told them they must draw in this way. I meet students struggling unhappily with a particular method of drawing. what they most want to achieve. Think how much would have been lost if anyone had interfered with Alfred Wallis' personal sense of proportion and perspective in the exquisite drawing above.11 PROGRESSION A UNIQUE SIGHT This innocent yet sophisticated drawing of boats. and which aspects of the vast wealth and diversity of graphic language would be most appropriate to their goals. He used leftover ship and yacht paint with crayons on cut-out pieces of cardboard boxes. Occasionally. and they have never questioned why. harbor and sea is one of many that Alfred Wallis made from memory while sitting at home. .
We BIRD STUDIES The flutter of faint scratches that dance across the pages on the right is an attempt to see the movement and bony weightlessness of a bird. We all see differently. right. There are countless reasons for drawing. There should neve: be a slavish obligation to represent things exactly as we collectively agree we see them. Our imaginations are the tools with which we can increase the essence of life. all raise water From the Archimedes' screw to Leonardo's own cupped wheel.12 INTRODUCTION VISION All artists see the world differently. be visionary. Below. We also see differently ourselves. perhaps for comfort or ease as a left-hander or a habitual enjoyment of the challenge. and breathtaking wind of a choppy harbor. and inspire others. They are also always written backward. IDEAS A N D I N V E N T I O N S These active machines. the page bristles with the focus of ideas. not for disguise but as a personal choice. but the child in us knows that this is an all-embracing. wrote as the opening line of this great work.and collarbones and shoulder blades of a different bird almost become new creatures in themselves. is. it may not be accurate to our critical adult eye. the breast. When we look back at Wallis' seascape (see p. Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels LEONARDO DA VINCI . clear-minded understanding of the sea. boats. There are only artists. His notes visually balance his drawings. we can drive out its spirit. The art historian Professor Sir Ernst Gombrich. The observed world may be our subject. "There really is no such thing as Art. depending on the occasion and our purpose. If as artists we nail a subject down too hard. I hope. and lose the very thing that attracted us to it. but it should be the experienced world we draw." The clarity and empowerment of these words. 11). author of The Story of Art. embedded in this book.
Don't be disheartened. drawing in pursuit of our own thoughts and understanding. or to discover the best use of a new material. Our drawings are annotated investigations into the mechanisms of nature and of an idea. .13 VISION should not try to know how every finished picture will look. Leonardo drew to invent a machine. it may be best to start afresh. I drew to understand the apparatus of flight. but it is important to be clear why we are making it. make a calculation. More was learned drawing the bird 18 times than would have been understood drawing it only once or twice. or illustrate a dream. conduct an experiment. stripped-down parts. shout against a terrible injustice. Opposite. to express the beauty in a moment's play of light. when it looks tired and still feels wrong. Decide before you start whether you are drawing to warm up. This also applies if struggling at length with a larger picture. We have both covered our paper with focused. Each fresh image reflects growing confidence and the experience of the preceding study. My drawings of a housemartin (opposite top) illustrate the importance of repeated study. time spent is not lost. It will be invested through your experience in the new drawing. while below.
I made it almost unconsciously with a pen and a brush. This is a detail of a brush-and-ink drawing by a Japanese Buddhist monk. trusting my intuition to find a visual equivalence for the sensation of weight within my body. Imagine these qualities so strongly that you feel them in your mind and at your fingertips. Know the texture. These two brush drawings. which can offer keys to other things. They each allowed the energy and focus of the moment to be expressed through controlled accident and a degree of the unknown Both drawings were made trusting the marks. Each image relied upon past experience to know the probable behavior of the brush. water. we are advised or even required to plan our pictures. and what you discover in the process of making. meaning. and allowed to flow through the brush. This is the alchemy of drawing. size. explain the composition. are both made of ink laid onto wet paper with speed and agile certainty. and paper. Whatever the material— wood.14 INTRODUCTION ALCHEMY At school. However. and sometimes beyond. As your hand meets the paper to make a mark. depth. W e float toward the quiet vista as it also moves toward us. it should be responding to the sensation and meaning of the subject it draws. balance. If you can do this. your marks will become the subject on the paper. and at speeds beyond conscious thought. metal. excessive planning can get in the way of the imagination. As you draw any subject—something you see. declare the idea. temperature. Our position asvieweris unsteady. created centuries and cultures apart. BRUSHED LANDSCAPE FLOWING SKELETON T h e gliding poise of this walking anatomy comes as much from the feeling of movement as it does from the feeling of drawing. fire. silk. It denies the importance of accident. This suits many artists well and is perfectly valid. ink. or imagine—it is not enough to only render its shape. Landscape in Haboku Style 15TH CENTURY . and we can just make out the distant stains of mountains. the unknown. or ice—you must actually feel it beneath your fingers as you draw. and opacity of your subject. You must also think of its intrinsic nature: its purpose. and position in space. bone. We are caught in a shifting focus that makes everything fluid. and an island brushed with trees. and practice each part before putting the final image together. The physicality. mists. and how it feels to the touch. feel. and spirit of each subject was held strongly but loosely between the fingertips.
more than 100 years after its making. left. acrylic. Focusing on the Negative 2004 22 x 30 in (56 x 76 cm) J O H N WALTER . c. which evoke realities o f place and the p o w e r o f moment. one of many luminous works in watercolor. Lautrec's flamboyant splashes o f petticoats and pantaloons are drawn with long sweeps of chalk and brushed oil paint.16 INTRODUCTION PLACE A N D MOMENT The heat and teeming atmosphere o f this Parisian dressing room.1896 Woman at her Toilet 41 x 26 in (104 x 66 cm) TOULOUSE LAUTREC RIB-CAGE D R A M A Thus drama. gold leaf and spray paint. pastel. like folded insects. made by a young British artist who creates alphabets o f the absurd f r o m familiar childhood characters. lives on. He dazzles us with flashes o f light and dabbed marks o f shadow. right is set inside a rib cage. W a l t e r also makes books: some. stand table-sized with furniture legs attached t o b o t h sides of their jacket.
take your time and don't worry if you need to make several attempts to grasp a concept. One of the advantages of a drawing book is that you can shut it. Such books are personal: the territory of new exploration and experiment. just through the act of making. Enjoy discovering what your hand and the material can do. It is yours. Start by choosing a material you like the look of and cover a piece of paper with different marks. diary-like observations. Ignore these at first and allow yourself the freedom to play. With no help and advice at all. Pages do not have to lie open for other people to inspect and comment on. and mistakes are a valuable process of learning. Much will be learned on these test sheets and in your first drawings. even those you dislike. As you follow lessons in this book. and miscellaneous items of inspiration. Choose other materials and do the same. Try to keep all of your first drawings. Put them away and look at them later. you will be surprised and encouraged to see how far you have come. you will naturally make progress on your own in response to concentration and the decision to look and draw.17 FREEING THE HAND If you are just beginning to learn how to draw. Drawing is exploratory. potential ideas still forming. FREEINGTHEHAND . at a point when you feel you are not making progress. try not to grip your pen worrying about the technical terms you might have heard.
Once there. the path is yours. Picasso has just finished his drawing. The chapters of this book present 90 different artists' ways of seeing. I was particularly attracted to their gentle articulation and understated determination. staring straight through his image of a bull. Drawing is a living language that over millennia has grown and changed. Picasso Painting with Light at the Madoura Pottery 1949 . An artist's personal voice is something that also evolves through lessons learned. As you draw. Picasso is poised smiling. but not confined to them. Its sensuous and flowing line seems to drift like smoke.Their elegant strength seems to summon a lifetime of drawing. and enfolding new media. caught between action and repose. The real drawing book has yet to come. A N ARTIST'S HANDS These are the hands of the artist Phyll Kiggell (see p. comes from within. it will be your creation as you discover your own personal vision. To these I have added my own drawings to explain elementary materials and techniques and offer introductory approaches. ELECTRIC BULL With a penlight. we still only glimpse a corner of the magnitude of this subject and the infinity of what can be achieved. In the total wealth of these pages. when they are more experienced. 150). However. Look to your own experience and also learn from the work of others. it is this voice that is the subtle part of their art and something that ultimately. adapting its form and occupation.18 INTRODUCTION THE THINKING EYE Techniques and materials are the grammar and vocabulary of drawing and can be studied and shared. This practical journey will take you through the door into the vivid heart of drawing. Note that the drawing classes are allocated to subjects. threedimensionally. It rarely flourishes in isolation. and many more reasons for drawing the world. and became a great subject for me. which of course he cannot see. seek ideas in the life around you. which is held frozen in space by a camera lens. Imagination needs nourishment.
catalogs.b o u n d p a d if y o u w i s h t o keep your drawings together long-term. be sure they fit comfortably under your arm. Drawing boards are invaluable. N o t e t h e w i d e l y differing c h o i c e o f p a p e r s w i t h w h i c h t h e s e are m a d e . thickness. Alternatively. H O M E M A D E : I m a d e this b o o k f r o m drawing paper that I folded. There are dozens to choose from. A high-quality one will last a DRAWING BOOKS Select d r a w i n g b o o k s t o suit y o u r aims. 5. c o l o r If planning t o use pencils. 2002 Tantalus o r The Future of Man 81/2 x61/4in (215 x 158 mm) ROSE MILLER . ties on either side to keep your papers in place. Many artists invent ways o f binding their o w n books. Dissecting a d i s c a r d e d h a r d . Purchase a h i g h . t h e i r jackets w i l l a c t like d r a w i n g b o a r d s a n d p r o t e c t y o u r w o r k .b o u n d b o o k s t h a t fit in y o u r p o c k e t o r bag.q u a l i t y r i n g . BLACK P O C K E T B O O K S : Hand-sized w i t h ready-made elastic binder and a marker ribbon. pastels. T h e hardb o a r d j a c k e t is s t r e t c h e d w i t h canvas beneath t h e p a p e r sleeve. texture. t h i s is h o w I l e a r n e d .B O U N D PADS: T h e s e are t h e least expensive a n d useful f o r o p e n i n g flat. These are perfect f o r w o r k i n g in novels. a l e n g t h o f black elastic t i e d a r o u n d t h e m i d d l e will h o l d the contents together w h e n y o u f o l d in c o l l e c t e d items. b e a w a r e t h a t p a p e r t e x t u r e effects a n d changes t h e i r marks. Gleaming store purchases vary greatly in format. Most contain thin p a p e r and are perfect f o r use w i t h disposable pens. R I N G . C O L O R E D PAPERS: Large a r t supply stores o f t e n sell t h i c k b o o k s full o f c o l o r e d p a p e r s . 6. color. Art students often make use of printed books picked up from secondhand stores into which they draw. Smooth plywood. They can be very expensive in art stores. Calculate a range of useful dimensions and have several cut at once. and glued t o a s t r i p o f bias binding. F o r e v e n i n g classes. binding. a n d r e f e r e n c e b o o k s f o u n d in s e c o n d .C O V E R E D H A R D B O U N D : Ideal f o r c a r r y i n g a r o u n d . F O U N D B O O K S : O l d p r i n t e d 3 . H o w e v e r r i n g bindings o f t e n break. it is better to have them made at a lumber yard or home improvement store.b o u n d b o o k w i l l s o o n s h o w y o u h o w it is m a d e . 1.20 INTRODUCTION Drawing Books and Papers T o BEGIN YOUR EXPLORATION o f d r a w i n g . y o u n e e d a lifetime. c h o o s e larger f o r m a t s t o give y o u s c o p e f o r e x p e r i m e n t . which are also sold in an enormous range. cheap corrugated plastic ones fall apart in days. and handles to lift the weight of your artworks.h a n d s t o r e s make unique subjects f o r e x p e r i m e n t s a n d collage. stitched. and collage their ideas. You simply need two strong boards hinged together well. and cost. study the structure of a good portfolio and make your own. Sand the edges to avoid splinters. a n d crayons. It is also useful to own a portfolio. is perfect. F o r traveling. drawing book. If you intend to carry your boards for a distance. quality. cut. C A N V A S . c h o o s e s m a l l e r h a r d . 4. Homemade books can be assembled easily from found materials or selections of loose sheet papers. thick enough not to flex. 2.
11. For use with any media. Ph. turning brown and brittle. from pencil to paint 9. and cream sheets or rolls. blocks. 20. Use with a brush in clean water Water makes a dark mark like ink and becomes invisible again when dry. Cheap wood-pulp papers are acidic. C A R B O N PAPER: Available in dark and light blue. and cost. PAPERS . or rolls. ITALIAN PARCHMENT: Imitation-animal-skin parchment that is translucent and slightly waxy. 13. absorbency. yellow. 22. 12. tough. and hot pressed papers. They are hand-.5 9 ) for explanations of rough. 100% cotton and sold in sheets. also good for drawing with colored pencils. 16. FABRIANO INGRES: Thin. printed on one side only. mulberry. 7. or machine made in sheets. cold. It is also excellent for drawing with marker pens on layered sheets. T W O RIVERS Y E L L O W 410GMS: See Two Rivers Green 19. white textured paper that can take abrasive use of any medium. T W O RIVERS GREEN 410G MS: Very heavy tinted textured cold-pressed watercolor paper See Two Rivers Yellow. VELIN ARCHES 250GMS: Printmaking paper available in black white. bamboo. Use cheap paper for rough ideas and quality paper for work to last See the glossary ( p p . resisting deterioration. 17. pastel paper in flecked pastel colors with a distinctive ribbed marking. 15. not. It is available in white or cream. size.TISSUE PAPER: Place sheets between drawing book pages to keep images from printing on each other and use for delicate collage. FABRIANO R O U G H 600GMS: Very heavy. 8. and other plant fibers. FABRIANO ACADEMIA: Standard medium-range multipurpose paper Use with any media. AQUARELLE ARCHES 300GMS:The very top quality hot-pressed (smooth) watercolor paper. JAPANESE PAPER: Strong. it is made from rice. and translucent. mold-. blocks.Papers differ in thickness (weight). smooth. MAGIC PAPER: A reusable sheet for testing ideas without creating waste. Use for brushwork drawings. 10. 18. METALLIC PAPER: Thin paper in different metallic colors. color. 2 5 6 . and rolls. SAUNDERS WATERFORD N O T 300GMS: Mid-quality textured watercolor paper. GLASSINE: Sold as protective wrapping. 21. C A N S O N : Inexpensive lightweight pastel paper in many colors. 14. fine. and white. used to imprint lines of these colors onto a surface. texture. red. Cotton papers are high-quality and acid-free.
22 INTRODUCTION Posture and Grip T o DRAW WELL. Ideally. if left-handed. Examples are shown here. you can draw lines freely and achieve a significant arc of movement. but wherever possible. If your body posture is well balanced and you can move freely. you Drawing classes can be cramped places. and subject. With your hand in this position. and look to the right. 116-17). If your hand twists to maneuver between the paper and your body. should be able to look comfortably straight ahead at your picture plane. This cramped grip tires your hand and makes small. your whole relaxed b o d y should be involved. place it on the correct side: if right-handed. Use the side of your little fingernail as a support on the page. don't sit too close to the paper. There should be an open. Accelerated perspective also occurs if you look down the surface steeply (see pp. From a distance you will spot errors you cannot see close up. Turning your drawing sideways or upside-own will also help reveal what is wrong. Relaxed fingers: Hold the pencil away from its tip and relax your fingers. It will also reflect discomfort if you are in any way cramped. SPACE TO WORK Cramped grip. but you need to understand that the expression of a line or mark originates in the body and flows t h r o u g h the shoulder. Regularly step back 6-9 ft (2-3 m) to check your progress. or with your drawing board angled between your lap and a chair. You do not have to dance to draw. a n d look to the left of it at your subject. This photograph illustrates how some people hold a pen to write. b u t it should n o t be forgotten that many people make remarkable a n d striking works drawing with their feet or holding their brush or pencil in their mouths. You cannot draw like this—your hand is locked and your fingers can barely move. arm. your lines will distort. Placing your easel o n the w r o n g side folds y o u r b o d y against your drawing arm. If seated on a b e n c h easel (a donkey). place it on your right. . There are also parallels to dance. make sure you have enough room to back away and view your work. strangledlooking drawings. place it on your left. In this book we will look at parallels between drawing and music. How you hold your drawing materials is also important. your drawing will reflect this. body. flowing space between your hand. a n d h a n d to the fingertips. If using an upright easel.
not up to the paper Brushes can be used on upright paper but dip Anticipating effects: A fully loaded pens need a level surface. GRAVITY Remember that gravity affects the flow of ink and paint. roughly marking out a large-scale work. alternative way of holding the pencil. To stop this. and body are not restricted. Remember you can also draw just by dipping your fingers in pigment—this is how many women draw in rural India. find an unfamiliar. If you turn a brush or dip pen up into the air to draw above your hand. upright way of holding the brush near its base is similar to the Japanese way used in Zen calligraphy (see pp. or change to the wrong hand. As long as your fingers. Brush calligraphy: This comfortable. arm. Large amounts of ink can be applied without fear of uncontrolled running if the paper is flat.23 This loose "candle" grip is very useful when drawing with your arm extended. It is most comfortable when reaching to draw above your head. . depending upon what it is and how large you are working.232-33). or it can spoil your work if not anticipated. hold your material as you find most comfortable. Soft media: Short materials such as pastels and charcoal can be accommodated in the palm. This can be used to great effect. This can give a new lease on life to your mark-making. Large scale: POSTURE AND GRIP U n f a m i l i a r i t y : T h e habitual movements of our handwriting style will sometimes infringe upon our drawing. brush pressed against an upright surface will cause a dribble of ink to run down your drawing. But be careful not to tense your fingers. liquid will run down your hand. ALL MEDIA There are no rules as to how you should hold your drawing media.
cartographer. 11 x91/4in (277 x 234 mm) . In medieval England. and dragons. White's commission was to ". which very likely leaped o n t o the deck of Sir Walter Raleigh's ship Tiger as it sailed north from the Caribbean to Virginia in 1585. and pioneer born c. m u s e u m . For the novice artist. mermaids. we turn and take the features of beasts. they are perhaps our favorite pictorial preoccupation. to be there at the m o m e n t of discovery.. W h e n lost to explain our own emotions. birds.drawe to lief one of each kinde of thing that is strange to us in England. 1590 J O H N WHITE capture form and movement from the m a n n e r i s m s of honking geese. 1540. and people. floating turtles. JOHN WHITE British artist. from which personality and predicted behavior were " d e d u c e d .. we have employed artists on expeditions. Here (left) we see J o h n White's exquisite record of a flying fish. On the Roanoke voyages of Sir Walter Raleigh. and silent. their different speeds and patterns of action. This drawing is made in black lead (metal point) with watercolor Highlights of silver would have gleamed. In 19th-century Europe this became a "science." He worked with the scientist Thomas Harriot. which are so unlike ours. and to bring h o m e drawn documentaries of their finds. who described in words what White drew. Facial features were analyzed in terms of their animal likeness. dogs. or scampering through the initials and borders of pictures from that time. and snakes have between them engendered harpies. fish. plants. Framed in the z o o or in domestic cohabitation. After the subject of ourselves. each dedicated to the moralized tale of an animal or monster The bestiary profoundly influenced the art of its period. and we still see escapees from its pages carved and grinning as the gargoyles of churches. and learn how to Flying Fish c. and this very drawing was to endure many copies and plagiarisms after its triumphant return to the English court of Queen Elizabeth I. Europeans on board had never seen such a thing. werewolves. As children we delight in the humanized trials of Tom and Jerry and their c a r t o o n relations. We have drawn them on the walls of caves to evoke their kinship and power. In this chapter we discover the use of pens and ink through the delineation of insects. offer challenges and delights to draw. sleeping dogs. the Latin bestiary was one of the most popular picture books—an illustrated dictionary of one hundred parts. out are now oxidized and so appear black W h e n less preoccupied with understanding ourselves. " Animals perpetually feed our imaginations." Paranoid newcomers c r a m m e d into swelling industrial cities used handbooks of physiognomy to identify and judge their neighbors. animals provide a perfect subject with which to begin. insects. Together they made maps and documented animals. bats.Animals H UMANS HAVE DRAWN ANIMALS from the beginning of our time. W e have drawn them in m a n u s c r i p t s to explain our genesis and to c o u n t their species into Noah's ark.m o u n t e d skeletons of birds. O v e r the centuries.
filled journals with ideas and observations. a drawing of it arrived in Nuremberg. Converted into a print. but the drowned animal washed ashore. Meanwhile. Original Ink Drawing of a Rhinoceros 1515 ALBRECHT DURER 103/4 x 161/2 in ( 2 7 4 x 4 2 0 mm) . It is such a lifelike triumph of imagination and intelligence that for centuries zoologists never questioned its authority. it is still consulted by veterinarians today. years after its publication. when more accurate portrayals were made without armor and scales. Carefully stuffed. It was to become the animal's only accepted likeness for 250 years. DURER'S RHINOCEROS AND STUBBS'S skeletal Durer. The first live rhinoceros to reach Europe came from India in May 1515. and wrote four books on proportion. draftsman. Durer's image changed eager hands until it was known across Europe. Unsurpassed. Stubbs's Anatomy of the Horse achieved similar documentary status. He studied the image and drew his own interpretation. the home of ALBRECHT DURER German Renaissance painter. inspiring countless works of art and so touching people's imaginations that later.26 ANIMALS Documentaries horse are superb affirmations of the power of drawing as a recorder and communicator of knowledge. Durer traveled widely to study at different European schools of art. they were rejected. Contemporary texts related accounts of the beast as the mortal enemy of the elephant and rare relative of the "more common" unicorn. naturalist. Sailing to Rome. writer. printmaker. and mathematician. the ship was lost. a gift to the Portuguese King. He in turn sent the mysterious creature to the Pope via Marseilles at the request of the King of France. Life-like This is Durer's original quill-and-ink drawing made after an anonymous Portuguese drawing. it continued its journey to Rome.
composed from notes and observations. Anatomy of the Horse. dissecting and drawing until he understood the mechanisms of its power and grace. Lighting Stubbs's breathtaking international work won immediate There acclaim. He translated his own drawings into engravings for publication. which has never diminished. This is one of Stubbs' original finished pencil drawings. L o n d o n . a n d s i d e . is no other work like it. Stubbs's m o s t c e l e b r a t e d publication. Dissections Stubbs took his knife and his pencil and physically climbed inside the horse. Stubbs w a s o n e o f t h e first E u r o p e a n artists t o m a k e a n a c c u r a t e representation o f the rhinoceros. knowledge of parts. and therefore invented the lighting that Compare how Stubbs and Durer both invented lighting to portray the reality of their animals. naturalist. a n d anatomist. Table of the III of the Horse (rear Skeleton view) mm) 1756-58 1 4 x 7 in ( 3 5 4 x 1 8 0 GEORGE STUBBS . in t h r e e v i e w s — r e a r f r o n t . His painted p o r t r a i t o f t h e b e a s t is in t h e R o y a l C o l l e g e o f S u r g e o n s o f England. c o m p r i s e s 1 8 p l a t e s s h o w i n g d i s s e c t i o n s in l a y e r s f r o m b o n e t h r o u g h m u s c u l a t u r e t o skin. Dissections were made over a total of 18 months.GEORGE STUBBS B r i t i s h e q u i n e a n d s o c i e t y p o r t r a i t painter. The entire project was developed over ten years. He composed makes each horse appear so real and each plate from his three-dimensional.
He has w a t c h e d her p o u n c e . and all sorts of bizarre concoctions which manage to convey above all in mind. novelist.. By contrast. drama. and turn. and a love of accident. sepia.. and Pieuvre 1866-69 91/2 x81/8in (242 x 207 mm) VICTOR H U G O . His copious drawings are characterized by mixed media. it silently rises to the light. conjured b y the hand of a great author of French literary fiction. The Hunchback of Notre Layers and shadows Throughout this drawing. He wrote to poet and art critic Charles-Pierre Baudelaire about his experiments. Apparently drawn in its o w n ink. drawing her again and again to pin d o w n the texture of her loose skin.". The octopus is formed in layers applied and distressed with a brush. Mixed media Here. her sharp teeth. I've ended up mixing in pencil. Hugo used graphite powder. Gericault's sheet a p p e a r s almost s c r a t c h e d b y the f e r o c i o u s play of his cat. the ominous beast unwinds from the dark of the sea and of our nightmares. soot.. playwright. Hugo's page is f l o o d e d w i t h the fearful presence of a remembered octopus. H u g o mixed his media and drew from m e m o r y and imagination to create narrative atmosphere.28 ANIMALS Presence and Mood THESE DRAWINGS HAVE BEEN CHOSEN to s h o w t w o v e r y different ways of picturing a wild animal. A s if disturbed from its gritty b e d by our presence and curiosity.. Hugo's novels Les Miserables and Dame have become classics of film and stage. charcoal. ink and linseed oil on paper. her b o n y frame. VICTOR HUGO Poet. coal dust. linseed oil soaked into the paper has made shadows and repelled the ink to create translucent tentacles. saying ". more or less what I have in view. Gericault took a sharp p e n c i l to m a k e repeated direct o b s e r v a t i o n s f r o m life. Surrounding sprays of graphite powder are stuck into washes of oil and ink to suggest glutinous depths. and her distinctive temperament. snarl. and leader of the French Romantic movement.
144. and keep trying again. Beginners are advised to follow the natural contours of form as shown on pp. Repeated study This drawing demonstrates of feeling confident repeat different the importance subject Remaining enough to isolate parts of a views. horses w e r e a favorite subject t o g e t h e r w i t h politics and history. Tones that do not follow surface contour is very difficult to do well. of drawings Gericault erased. since it can lead to a flattened form. fiery. of previous Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 1817-18 121/2 x 151/2 in ( 3 1 9 x 3 9 8 mm) T H E O D O R E GERICAULT . displayed in the Louvre. facing right.l i v e d French R o m a n t i c painter and lithographer Largely self-taught. At the center of the page is crammed drawings the outline of a horse.29 THEODORE GERICAULT C o n t r o v e r s i a l . Here. undertraces unify and vitalize the composition. diagonal strokes of his pencil. Paris. Undertraces Beneath these graphite studies we see traces Tones On the top row we see clearly how Gericault laid broad areas of tone using fast. s h o r t . 124-25 and p. parallel. Before paper became so cheap. and it can be applied to any subject (see pp. The Raft of the Medusa. artists reused sheets and them full of studies.118-119). standing sideways. focused upon seeing will lead to a greater understanding of the subject Much is learned from repeated study. H e is best k n o w n f o r his gigantic painting.
with George Braque (see p90). and waves breaking distantly below.30 ANIMALS Movement M O V E M E N T IS OFTEN THE CHARACTERISTIC b y w h i c h w e their lines and the power of their beasts. flapping bird. Gouache is brushed softly in translucent hazy layers of cool blue. The ink is used to make sharply defined solid. The fact that they never stand still influences the movement in his line. hooked. In these two drawings. gray. These media complement and amplify each other with their brilliant contrast. flattened animals composed almost entirely of movement. identify an animal: the fast cheetah. His hand must have shuddered and twitched just like the constant actions of this humorous meeting. overwhelmed by a screeching bird. quivering horse. His powdery. printmaker ceramicist graphic and stage designer who lived in France. Artists commonly focus on such actions. dissolving faun kneels stranded. and brown. the whinnying of a frantic horse. Klee's riders are constructed from all the gestures of greeting mules. Cheval et Oiseau 1936 173/8 x 211/4 in ( 4 4 0 x 5 4 0 m m ) PABLO PICASSO . Ink and gouache This drawing is made in black Chinese ink and gouache (opaque watercolor) applied with a brush. Both Picasso and Klee have enclosed their subjects to compress and amplify the speed of PABLO PICASSO A prolific Spanish painter sculptor. noise is everywhere. In Picasso's drawing. or proud. taking them to guide their hand in bringing form and essence together. and scrolled lines. draftsman. the first abstract movement of the 20th century. slow tortoise. Picasso cofounded Cubism. made only a year apart. we see semi-abstract. Faune.
They remain in contact with the surface of the page and scribble back and forth as they maneuver from one area to another. W i t h his drawings Kleeb o u n d sophisticated theories to personal and often witty childlike imagery. top all happily of each other in the Endless lines Look closely at how Klee's lines rarely leave the paper and how they are free from the constraint of finite shape. creatures.PAUL KLEE Swiss painter. N e u m a n n Family Collection. The entire drawing suggests the endless small movements of horses standing still. Scene der Komischen of Comical Reiter Riders) (Scene 1935 161/2x111/2in ( 4 1 9 x 2 9 1 mm) M o r t o n G . and t e a c h e r at t h e Bauhaus school. draftsman. sculptor. well-worn copies o f w h i c h are found in m a n y art schools. Layers of marks In this pale Dentil drawing we see layers of' agitated marks that together present a kind of visual "itch. Chicago PAUL KLEE ." They chatter around bodies in groups. turning our eye and around inside the and postures of the paper- thin on pictorial space. violinist. printmaker. He is a u t h o r o f The Thinking Eye (1923).
The fish It is likely that Baker drew with a quill dipped in irongall ink. t h e earliest geometrically defined elevations. and the carefully observed gills. and from them learned that if he designed his ship with a "cod's head MATTHEW BAKER Master shipwright. Knopf's drawing opposite is the personal enigmatic expression of a mind gripped by illness. Exquisite details in this drawing include the lips of the fish. B a k e r initiated t h e scientific p r a c t i c e o f naval a r c h i t e c t u r e and applied h y d r o d y n a m i c s . This drawing illustrates Baker's theory. balance.32 ANIMALS Icon and Design IN THESE T W O MANUSCRIPTS we discover diagrammatic and mackerel's tail" (full bow. it would achieve greater speed. In contrast to the practical clarity of Baker's thought. fins. mathematician. Baker did not intend this. and blackbirds fly in formation through a mosaic of text. and to assess our next move. and s e c t i o n s o f ships. In just one drawing he has displayed more angles of his design than we would expect to see from a single viewpoint Fragments English 1586 101/2 x 153/8 in (270 x 390 mm) MATTHEW BAKER of Ancient Shipwrightry . It is simply how we read his perspective. Baker lived in an era when ships were built without drawn plans. b a s e d o n his studies o f fish. and author o f Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (1586). seemingly looking for our attention. adding washes of color with a fine brush. plans. drawings of animals that are each held tightly in a surprising space: a giant fish wears a ship's hull. later called a galleon. His birds stare. and steerage. He studied the anatomy of fish. and scales. slim stern). the expression of its eye. The ship The upper decks of the ship appear curved toward us at both ends. which in application gave strength and advantage to the English fighting the Spanish Armada. Below we see his revolutionary design for an Elizabethan warship.
and filled evenly with tone. JOHANN KNOPF . circle and the birds. T h e G e r m a n a r t historian Outline and tone The blackbirds illuminating this frantic manuscript are drawn in pencil. The main group is placed in a circle drawn with a compass. numbered. w h i c h o f t e n f e a t u r e as s y m b o l i c creatures in his drawings.JOHANN KNOPF An " O u t s i d e r " a r t i s t w h o s u f f e r e d f r o m m e n t a l illness. firmly outlined.K n o p f b e l i e v e d h e c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h e language o f birds. written last of all. The text. appears to be stirred like water by the presence of the The Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks UNDATED 133/8 x 115/8 in (340 x 2 9 6 mm) and psychiatrist Hans Prinzhom collected this image.
A German recipe of 1531 gives a simple description: "Take a wax candle. simultaneously 4 . 2. 5 0 0 years ago. The reservoir gives a constant flow of ink for very long unbroken lines and continuous bottle-free use. and first used by the Egyptians. then pour a little warm gum water into it and temper the two together. The best are goose or swan. they are associated with rapid. and hold it under a clean basin until the soot hangs to it. 4. from the acacia tree. Only fill with suitable inks. s t i c k s . the recipes for which have been handed down over centuries. QUILLS: These are cut from the barrel of a flight or tail feather. METAL PENS: Inexpensive removable steel nibs are available in a range of widths. Quills were later cut from feathers. Masters choose brands of long. The Chinese used animal or fish glue. light it. The paste from either recipe is pressed and dried into a bar for storage. Dip pens began their history in the Nile River. you can have great fun drawing the world around you. expressive drawing techniques such as the ones we explore in this chapter 1. PENS . and it is still in use today. which range greatly in their handling and character of line.246-47). which scratch rather than draw. Each pen has a unique character. distinguished manufacture. spots. The Egyptians and Chinese are credited with the invention of carbon ink. REED PENS: A broad nib can be cut from bamboo or another tubular grass. That is an ink. and spatters can be made with an exotic choice of inks. F O U N T A I N PENS: These vary in quality and nib width. Responsive to slight changes in pressure. Early artists recommended raven and crow for especially fine work. Avoid needle-sharp mapping pens. In the Far East. 3. Intricate or dramatic lines. producing a different line. a n d m e t a l p o i n t s . while metal nibs began as rare gifts in gold and silver before being perfected by the British steel industry.34 ANIMALS Pen and Ink W I T H A HANDFUL OF FEATHERS. ink is traditionally applied with a brush (see pp. where reeds were gathered. They fit into wooden holders. The bar is then rubbed into water on a slate block to produce ink." "Gum" refers to gum arabic extracted Dip pens are essential and inexpensive drawing tools. high-quality Chinese and Japanese inks are subtler and more complex than those produced in Europe. Today.
and sieved.35 PEN AND INK Four types of ink were common before the 20th century. they produce a golden dye for drawing. and can be mixed and diluted to create subtler colors and tones. suspended in a binder and stored as a solid block Blocks are imported today 7. I N D I A N INK: Carbon ink sold today in liquid form. I R O N . It dries with a sheen and clogs uncleaned pens. roastedwine sediment (Yeast Black). from are not 6. Waterproof types contain shellac. They are the easiest inks to use. iron-gall. Crushed. The complexities of traditional iron-gall ink are explained on p. is the ink of a cuttlefish or squid extracted post-mortem. boiled. dated. 8. Old stock turns solid and bottlesChina. waterproof or non-waterproof. an often misused term. Inks can be lightfast or non-lightfast.36. Now we also have acrylic ranges in many colors. charred bone (Ivory Black). C A R B O N INK: Traditionally produced from oil or resin soot (Lamp Black). and most can be homemade. Excellent for drawing they are bright and non-clogging. Beechwood soot is best. bistre. Non-waterproof Indian inks can be reworked with a wet brush after drying. SEPIA A N D BISTRE INKS: Sepia. 5. ACRYLIC / CALLIGRAPHY INKS: Available in black and a range of colors. or charcoal. Bistre is the more humane use of soot scraped from the fireplace and ground into wine. reduced. INKS 9. .G A L L INK: Abnormal spherical growths caused by parasitic wasps can be collected from some oak trees in fall. and sepia. and are still in use today: carbon (Chinese and Indian).
then cut a final nib (feathers. It also oxidized and ate or burned paper. Rembrandt. Some of Michelangelo's drawings are now a little eaten by their own ink. are surprisingly tough. giving longer lines. forming the REED PENS R e e dpens dispense ink quickly. fleshy skins that surround ripe walnuts. crushed. drawn to glisten with a dryer nib. QUILL PENS Q u i l l s a r e highly r e s p o n s i v e t o c h a n g e s in p r e s s u r e .36 ANIMALS Drawing With Ink To MAKE A QUILL OR REED PEN. sieved. It dried black. for example. Quills are also called D u t c h pens. Scribes o f t h e M i d d l e Ages. can also be collected from affected trees. M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s d r a g o n o n p . Oak galls. the blade and cut away from you. m o r e e x t e n d e d line than reed and a m o r e organic line t h a n m e t a l . U n d e r heavy pressure. I u s e d t h e s e qualities t o d r a w t h e w o r m s above. Walnut ink is gloopy. 2 4 4 is an e x q u i s i t e e x a m p l e . since t h e D u t c h w e r e t h e first t o realize t h a t they could be hardened and i m p r o v e d w i t h heat t r e a t m e n t in ash o r sand. a n d d e v e l o p e d t h e quill instead. and turned brown with time. . r e s e r v e d t h e i r use f o r large c h o i r b o o k s . The darkest of this grasshopper wings) were made (around the head first. galls were ground with iron sulfate to make an unstable solution. giving a s h o r t . T h e y give a finer. and delicious to draw with. Paler strokes were made where the mark has the legs and antennae the ink ran out.) You can make ink easily from the boiled. For centuries. finding reed p e n s unwieldy. of a loaded nib. always be cautious when experimenting with recipes. d r y mark. t h e y stick a n d j u d d e r f o r w a r d . and boiled to make a golden ink. red-brown. Reed marks The darker left wing of this beetle was drawn with the wet inky stroke wing. The lighter right Quill marks Quills carry more ink than strokes and for as reeds. reduced. keep all your fingers behind basis of iron-gall ink. Practice to gain a feel for how materials behave. appears broken to show paper beneath. Collect skins from the ground beneath trees once they are blackened. Although oak galls and walnut skins are harmless. Running fresh. V a n G o g h . it was gray-purple. a n d M a t i s s e also e n j o y e d t h e m .
. o r being ruined as fountain pens would be under the same pressure. clean strokes. it is important to feel for when the ink will run out and to know how much ink you pick up when dipping the nib. The of pigment to fall to the edges effect of the shape. marks become fine and needle-sharp. particles then filled with a droplet of ink. DRAWING WITH INK Filled outlines Each segment of wing was outlined. Loaded with ink and pressed hard. giving a graded. they splay to make thick o r double lines. When using dip pens. Each layer of of the drying droplet dome the drawing was left to dry before adding more. withstanding great pressure without sticking.37 METAL PENS Metal pens give long. sharp. W h e n the nib is pressed upside down. White markings were drawn last Tones Here we see subtle tones of diluted ink beneath the undiluted black rim of a beetle's wing. tonal Ink layers The wings of this beetle were drawn in layers using black and white ink on pale gray paper. breaking.
Quick drawing trains you to see what is most important about a subject and to mark only its most essential expression. Dip your pen in ink. Attempt with a loose hand to capture their posture and outline. so pick a spot where other people can keep them entertained. I covered eleven sheets in sixty quick drawings—in less than an hour. waddle.38 ANIMALS Capturing Character GEESE ARE EXCELLENT SUBJECTS to draw when practicing the first use of pen and ink. It teaches confidence and focus through intensive repetition. Experiment. Study them before drawing. Try to hold the whole posture in your mind's eye. to absorb blots when drawing. Empathize. That said. and a large drawing book or plenty of paper Use masking tape to secure pages against the wind. be bold and press firmly. Cover a sheet. and there is no "wrong. Pack plenty of tissue around a bottle of calligraphy or acrylic ink. draw what the bird is doing. It happens that goose feathers also provide artists with the best type of quills. Take no more than ten seconds to draw each one and make lots of drawings. Focus on the geese. Illustrating this exercise on Oxford Port Meadow. and be brave. steel nibs are fine." If you don't like a stroke. Focus on it. touch the bottle's rim to drain the excess. Watch their heavy feathered bodies flap. make another one. and boldly plunge into your drawing. Take a cup and water for diluting a range of tones. not on your drawing. and bellyflop off the waterside. You cannot break the nib. Cover your drawing book pages in speedy responses to the geese and try to capture each bird in as few lines as possible. test your limits. there is no obligation to prepare a quill. Geese are nosy birds. Posture . MATERIALS NEEDED Look for a bird expressing a simple posture. and quickly draw around it using only three or four strokes.
CAPTURING CHARACTER Texture Gradually allow yourself more lines to describe the texture of each bird as well as its posture and action. and don't worry about mechanical facts or accuracy. and diving.39 Action With growing confidence. Use more lines than before to express these. Avoid detail unless really tempted by a close-up visit Fluctuate the pressure of your pen in response to how you know the bird would feel if you touched it. Again. . flapping. running. draw the feeling of what you see. look among the birds for more complicated actions such as shaking off water.
your drawing book. engaged in his and everyone else's business. a d o g w h o w a s a l w a y s town. and drain the excess by touching the nib against the rim of the bottle. and even then he twitched and stretched in dreams. MAKING A PALE LINE To make a pale line. Now it will make a pale line. This will give a medium-gray line. first dip your pen in ink. a dip pen and ink of your choice (see pp. and personality. and a tissue for blotting drawn lines that appear too dark. Sleeping animals present the artist with ideal opportunities to study their texture. Make a test sheet to discover your control of diluting on the nib.34-37). For this class you will need one oblivious dog. Dip the nib quickly again into water and again drain it. The only time he remained still was when he was sleeping." . form. Then dip the nib quickly into a glass of water and drain the excess again. These drawings are not an analysis of his anatomy or breed but the expression of his satisfied comfort in a deep sleep after a night out on the together with a glass of water for diluting tones on the nib.40 ANIMALS Sleeping Dogs R A S WAS A GREAT CHARACTER. Ras Curled Up Asleep "Capturing the true character of a cherished companion is best achieved with objective determination rather than sentimental shyness.
in bold layers. add more detail. 3 Gradually introduce darker tones. alter the pressure and moisture of your line in response to howyouknow your dog feels when you ruffle itscoat. ignoring all detail. . Here I marked the features of Ras's head. tail. second thoughts may be different Changing your mind is a positive aspect o f seeing and thinking.It is essential when drawing any subject (even something abstract) to know how it feels andtoemulate this with your line. W i t h pale lies. and the shadows in his coat. I added ink to Ras's nose. to emphasize how he is curled up. Trust your intuition. ears. D o not go back over lines you are pleased with—doing so dulls their lively freshness. Character is better captured drawing quickly with confidence than w o r k i n g slowly.41 DRAWING YOUR DOG Be bold in this exercise. Layers o f thoughts can bring a drawing alive. c o n c e r n e d a b o u t detail. quickly draw what you see. this time to create a line a little darker in tone. First lines are first thoughts. Here. see how the animal's posture determines its whole shape. Then I immediately rebalanced the drawing with lines around his hind quarters. To add texture. SLEEPING DOGS 1 Fix your eyes at the center of the dog. Then. Remain focused on the whole dog and. 2 Reload your pen with ink.
they stretch and paddle.Turtles to observe. A perfect subject for the beginner. THE ELONGATION AND BUOYANCY of a group of turtles is fascinating . offering plenty of time for the artist to draw the pose. swinging their limbs and shells with a slow circular movement. as if caught in a camera freeze-frame. turtles often pause unexpectedly. Beyond the glass wall of the aquarium.
. I darkened lines as each drawing progressed. India ink. weightlessness of the kiwi.Dry Birds THESE ARE THE ARTICULATED BONES o f a k i w i a n d a h o u s e - martin drawn in a museum using a steel pen. I made repeated studies of the housemartin to discover its mechanism of flight. dry. balance. and sharp. and water. Beginning with very pale tones. I sought to capture the form. With speed.
and beauty. we see very different cultural visions of plants and gardens and use pencils and plants to learn the pictorial values of space. and to ornament our lives. Early European illustrators were trapped within dogma that was determined by ancient scholarship. season. We draw them to celebrate their beauty and range. Plants seventeenth century. Both embrace the anticipation of evolving shape. where a number of uncredited artistsd r e wthem for Besler. Later. robust. to the proliferation of floral designs with which we have dressed ourselves and furnished our homes for centuries. B A S I L I U SBESLER when botanists founded new work upon the direct study of plants. PriceBishopof Eichstatt specimens. In this chapter. color. the microscope was refined to unfold yet another world. After Here Aconthus spinosus is combined with forget-me-nots and-a-half centuries of intensive observation. and hybridize them for our sustenance and pleasure. Classifications were set in367copperengravings. we now have laid before us fourto show how well their colours complement each other infinite wealth of material to explore. on which our lives depend. Fledgling years Botanist and apothecary who compiled the Hortus Eystettensis of scientific research bore manifold explosions of knowledge in a fever of discovery. shape. Medieval knowledge was not gained by the first-hand observation of life but by reading. Plants are the principal inspiration of the decorative arts—from Roman Corinthian columns crowned with carved leaves of the acanthus. Botanic gardens were established and expanded. the punctuation of space with structure and mass. 1613 187/8x153/4in(480 x 400 mm) BASILIUS BESLER . It was published plain in 1611 and withhand-paintedplates in poured off ships returning from the New World and were eagerly collected and 1613. infinitely vivid. He sent boxes of plants to Nuremburgburned with the urgency and excitement of explaining every plant's form. nurture. as opposed to only herbal. to catalog our knowledge. The revolution came in the 1530s. Chapters are arranged by out.000 species of plants are depicted life-size drawn. From its history there is one overriding lesson to be learned: the importance of looking and seeing with our own eyes. Patrons funded the breeding of decorative. We collect. form.Plants and Gardens W E SHARE THIS PLANET with the more ancient. Rich owners of private gardens commissioned large-format florilegiums commissioned the volume to document his private garden to immortalize their personal taste and power of acquisition. —-the largest and most influential botanical book of the early Natural scientists accompanied explorers to document unknown finds. and the Acanthus spinosus constant but exhilarating struggle to make a living image feel right. Botanical illustration is a precisely defined and scientific art. manipulations of light and shade. an There are close parallels between the acts of gardening and drawing. and focus. and the drawn pages ofthesame name.Morethan 1. and texture. Conrad von Gemmingen. and diverse kingdom of plants.
petal tip over a lower leaf Protea nitida 201/4 x141/4in (513 x 362 mm) FRANZ BAUER 1796 . Botanical art c o n c e a l s the challenge of its m a k i n g . delicate. naturalist explorer and advisor to King George III invited Bauer to London in 1 7 9 0 . o p t i m i s m . o p e n i n g a n d c l o s i n g i n the w a r m t h a n d light of the studio. W i t h bright F R A N Z BAUER An Austrian artist who trained at the Schonbrunn Imperial Gardens in Vienna. Light in this drawing is given by the paleness of the paper showing between washes of darker tones. Stella Ross-Craig said of the need to d r a w from a dried herbarium plant "I could make it live again. subtle union of beauty. The King was then establishing the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. leaves. They are counted among the most accomplished 18th-century botanical artists. T h e rest of u s are free to d r a w as w e w i s h . and Franz Bauer and his brother Ferdinand were employed there to draw specimens. Sir Joseph Banks. and wilted. fruit. and seeds conventionally a p p e a r o n o n e plate. M a c k i n t o s h e x p r e s s e s the f o l d e d petals of a broken rose b u d so delicately w e can sense the perfume. Here.48 PLANTS AND GARDENS THE SCIENTIFIC VALUE OF A BOTANICAL DRAWING lies i n its Botanical Studies were specimens that often refused to stay still. He has made the spatial and physical relationships in this drawing all the more real by placing a single. Outline Bauer prepared a pencil outline before laying in fleshy succulent hues and tones of watercolor. Each plant must b e clearly distinguished from its closest relative. flowers." Her slipper orchid s h o w s that botanical drawing must often resolve the challenge of its subject's p r o d u c i n g parts in different seasons — r o o t s . It is likely Bauer would have studied these under a microscope. detail. B e h i n d detailed. Dissections Across the lower part of this drawing we can see dissections of seed pods and petals. insect-ravaged. measured drawings. stems. s u c h as w e see here in Bauer's Protea nitida. and meticulous precision. or that were diseased.
H e r Drawings of British Plants.. Closer to fiction can come together perfectly. it is small and discreet. a m o n g o t h e r s .. BOTANICAL STUDIES Lines and shadows This lush. K e w . is r e c o g n i z e d as tne m o s t c o m p l e t e a n d i m p o r t a n t work 3. G u s t a v K l i m t In his r e t i r e m e n t Mackintosh m a d e n u m e r o u s inventive pencil a n d w a t e r c o l o r d r a w i n g s o f plants. Ross-Craig said of her work "Plants that wither rapidly present a very difficult problem to which there is only one answer—speed. and observation the nuance and contour of every in one image. a n d f o u n d e r o f t h e G l a s g o w S c h o o l o f A r t M a c k i n t o s h ' s flair h a d an e n o r m o u s i n f l u e n c e o n t h e a v a n t .286 studies for her book Drawings of British Plants. Line Drawing of Cypripedium calceolus L c. sensual pencil drawing is later works. S h e also o f thousands o f contributed an drawings. Pencil lines cling to.49 C H A R L E S RENNIE MACKINTOSH Scottish a r c h i t e c t d e s i g n e r painter. a n d he inspired.g a r d e in G e r m a n y a n d A u s t r i a . imagination. found among Mackintosh's than reality. L o n d o n in 1 9 2 9 . A s m a n y of her drawings are kept G a r d e n s . and speed depends upon the immediate perception of the essential characteristics of the plant. Rose 1894 103/4 x 83/4 in ( 2 7 5 x 2 2 1 mm) CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH STELLA ROSS-CRAIG A j o i n e d t h e staff a t t h e R o y a l B o t a n i c G a r d e n s . p u b l i s h e d 1 9 4 8 . 1970 x 81/4 in ( 3 2 5 x 2 1 0 m m ) STELLA ROSS-CRAIG . Curtis's Botanical Magazine.000 Kew to archive accessible t o d a y v i a t h e I n t e r n e t of o n British flora. and follow shadow." This line drawing is one of 1. and it shows how design. and perfect coordination of hand and eye. as at trained botanical artist Ross-Craig Swift lines The drawing was planned in pencil and then overworked with a lithographic pen.7 3 in 3 1 p a r t s .
paper is brimming with the beauty and celebration of nature. 1590 85/8 x55/8in (219 x 1 4 4 mm) BISHNDAS AND NANHA Bright pigment These pages were illuminated by Mughal artists in the late 16th century. Bishndas was probably responsible for the overall design.50 PLANTS AND GARDENS Jeweled Gardens the Middle East we find exquisite stylization of form and upright formality in pictorial space. anticipating their view. which he personally created near Kabul. in the early 16th century. and Nanha. Babur directs his gardeners in the design and planting of this quartered chahar bagh. the sumptuous petals permeated with prayer and wisdom. Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity c. Below. painting. fluctuations in scale. uniform focus. roses took their form in a bead of perspiration on the brow of Mohammed as he passed through his heavenly journey. Opposite is the Rose of Mohammed. Drawing. The white of the page shines through the brilliant color. and calligraphy are brought together to hold the sacred names of prophets and the 99 beautiful names of God. Envoys chatter outside the gate. urgent attentive human activity. and miraculous growth. and attention to detail are all shared with medieval European manuscript drawings. is remembered in the pages of his journal. Upright shallow perspectives. in miniature. . a notable portrait painter drew the faces. They used a fine brush to lay pigment over a line drawing. Afghanistan. The first Mughal Emperor Babur's Garden of Fidelity (Bagh-e Vaja). By Muslim tradition. Every fiber of AMONG DRAWINGS FROM BISHNDAS A N D N A N H A Little is known of these Mughal painters who were related as uncle and nephew and commissioned to illustrate the pages of Babur's journal.
G e r m a n y . It is n o w k e p t in Border The elegant border of this drawing was mode with a pen and ruler It cleverly compresses and defines the composition. The physical anatomy of the rosebud has been studied and translated into a repeated stylized motif. Sacred words The central rose is more solid than any other on the page. so that overlapping petals and stems give an impression of fulfillment and abundance. Note how each bud is essentially the same shape. Stylized motif A fine brush has been used throughout this drawing to apply inks and watercolors. look closely and you will see words written in gold fluttering over the form of the flower. However.c e n t u r y Turkish manuscnpt a book of religious e t h i c s w r i t t e n in the O r i e n t a l C o l l e c t i o n s of Berlin. and how the shape has been repeated freehand. t h e Staatsbibliothek zu Arabic. fragmenting its detail in a whisper of prayers.AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH This is a detail o f a page from a n 1 8 t h . The Rose of Mohammed 1708 9 1 / 2 x 61/2 in ( 2 4 0 x 1 6 5 mm) FROM THE TURKISH M A N U S C R I P T AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH .
PLANTS AND GARDENS
IN CONTRAST TO THE QUIET, formal detail of other drawings in this chapter, these powerful fast trees enact the actions of plants. Each tree reaches out and holds its landscape with dynamism and pulse. In both drawings we find testament to the inexorable energy of growth. Rembrandt expresses a delicate quickness. Gentle lines draw a warm breeze through this remote wooded garden. Rustling in a loose foliage of soft marks, his pen evokes the weight of abundant activity on this late summer's day. Mondrian's arch of scratching branches is drawn with such force it will always be alive. We can still feel his hand storming across the paper. Set within a frame of smudged landscape, the tree possesses a musical agitation. This characteristic will increase in the artist's later abstract work. Here, we see a punctuated ordering of space. Sharp branches cut out negative shapes of winter sky.
R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter; etcher; and draftsman. Rembrandt's prolific output comprises oil paintings of historical and religious subjects together with group and self- portraits. His emotive etchings and pen and ink drawings (see also p. 174) are great resources for artists learning to understand the potential of these media.
Pen and ink lines describing foliage also tell
us the directions of sunlight and wind. An arc crossing the bottom of the drawing from one side to the other supports the scene and separates us from the landscape beyond. Compare Rembrandt's arc to that of Mondrian's. and note the similar treatment of low horizons in both works emphasizing the height and dominance of trees.
Cottage Among Trees 1648-50 63/4 x121/8in ( I 7 I x 308 mm) R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN
Atmosphere Here we see how shapes of negative space are as important as the physical subject they enclose (see pp.58-59). Mondrian has again lightly dragged his chalk on its side to evoke a wet depth of atmosphere. These passive gray marks contrast with the assertive tension of the tree.
Dutch Pure abstract painter preoccupied w i t h line and plane relationships. W i t h increasing austerity, Mondrian banished t h e subject from his drawings, in his later w o r k he also banished space, composing visual h a r m o n i e s using only straight lines a n d flat planes o f black, w h i t e , gray, o r p r i m a r y color.
Winter ground Short vertical marks along thebottomof this drawing reveal the length oftheblackchalk Mondrian used. Rubbed onitsside,itroughly blocks in the ground. Thecrudeeconomy of line is all we need tofeelthecold, wet, unwelcoming quality ofthiswinterearth.
Branches and trunk Lines shaping the branches of the tree are built up in layers. To make the trunk more dense, the artist has rubbed and smudged preliminary marks with his fingers before firmly overdrawing with new lines. Solid black lines are achieved by pressing the chalk hard. When used lightly, it shows the texture of the paper. Tree: Study for the Grey 1911 23 x 335/8 in ( 5 8 4 x 8 5 5 m m ) Tree
PLANTS AND GARDENS
Graphite and Erasers
GRAPHITE, FROM THE G R E E K word
This drawing illustrates a range of achieved with graphite pencils of different grades.
Modern pencils are graded from 9H (hard and pale) to 9B (black and soft). Graphiteclay sticks are also available, together with a powder form. All possess a natural sheen and are erasable to a varying degree. Graphite drawings smudge easily, so fixative, a form of varnish, can be used to hold a drawn surface in place. It is applied as a fine mist from an aerosol can, or from a bottle using a diffuser. For the beginner, ordinary hairspray is an effective and cheaper alternative.
(to write), is a soft and brittle carbon. It was first mined in Cumbria, England, in 1 5 6 4 , and was initially used in small, pure pieces bound in lengths of string. Pencils as we know them—with their slender wood casing and "lead" of graphite—were invented in France in 1794 by Nicolas-Jaques Conte. He discovered that milled graphite mixed with clay and water, press-molded, and baked to a high temperature produces a harder and paler medium than graphite alone.
3B pencil A range of mark and textures can be achieved with a 3B pencil when you vary its pressure, speed, and direction, as this detail shows.
Here is a selection of 14 items to illustrate a basic range of pencils, graphite sticks, sharpeners, erasers, and fixative.
1. AND 2. HB AND 3B PENCILS: It is unnecessary to possess every grade of pencil. HB, the central and most common grade, is perfect for making delicate lines. 3B gives a blacker tone. A great variety of effects can be achieved with just these two. 3. WATER-SOLUBLE PENCIL Effective for atmospheric drawing, but be aware of how watery tones can dull the impact of the line. 4. AND 5. MECHANICAL PENCIL Thick or fine leads are made in a range of grades. They are particularly useful because they do not require a sharpener 6. ROUND SOLID GRAPHITE PENCIL: Excellent for large-scale drawing, producing thick bold lines. A range of grades can be honed with a craft knife or sharpener 7. THICK GRAPHITE STICK: For large-scale drawing. Graded soft, medium, and hard. It crushes to produce graphite powder 8. SQUARE GRAPHITE STICK: Useful for making broad, sweeping marks in large-scale drawing. If worn and rounded, the stick can be snapped into pieces to regain the sharp, square end. 9. CRAFT KNIFE AND BLADES: Handles are sold in two sizes to fit large or small blades, and blades are sold in a range of shapes. Perfect for sharpening pencils to a long point, to cut lines in paper or to remove areas. 10. PENCIL SHARPENER: Makes a uniform point. Keep one in your pocket for drawing outside the studio, together with an envelope for shavings.
HB and 5B Layers of tone have been built up withHBand5Bpencils. Softer pencils require less pressure to make a mark, revealing the texture of the paper surface. It is important to keep the point of the pencil sharp with either a craft knife or a sharpener.
ERASING AND FIXING
Erasers can be used t o blend and s o f t e n lines, o r t o r e m o v e altogether. Fixative them prevents
GRAPHITE AND ERASERS
s m u d g i n g a n d s e c u r e s lines.
Using fixative You can use fixative while drawing to hold the definition of lines you wish to gently fade but not remove entirely, for which you would use an eraser.
11. P L A S T I C E R A S E R : Avoid cheap colored erasers that may stain drawings with grease and dye. White brands are available in soft and hard versions.
P U T T Y RUBBER:
W a r m it in your hand before use. It is excellent for removing powdery materials, and for making crisp sweeps of light across a delicate pencil drawing
13. D I F F U S E R : Helleborus corsicus (Corsican hellebore) fixative, or to spray mists of ink.
PLANTS AND GARDENS
Cropping and Composition
M A N Y STUDENTS WILL START a d r a w i n g i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e
that its skin nearly touches the boundary. The meaning of the same drawing changes simply by its relationship to the space it occupies. The size of any subject, its placement on the page, the size of the page, and its overall proportion are all discrete and essential aspects of successful picture-making. Before you begin to draw, think carefully about where to place your subject. Are you are happy with your paper? If not, change it; add more, take some away, or turn it around. Do not just accept what you are given, adapt it to what you need.
paper. Focused on the shape and detail of their subject, they remain happily unaware that there is, or should be, any relationship between what they are drawing and the surface they are drawing it on. The paper is only paper, and the troublesome subject floats somewhere in the expanse of it. However, a single fig drawn in the middle of a large, empty square of paper gives quite a different impression from the same fig drawn on such an intimately small square
CHOOSING A VIEW
A Single Fig
"The size, shape, and orientation of the paper are so integral to the composition that they determine the impact and meaning of the drawing."
CROPPING AND COMPOSITION Off-center and diagonal Here I held my viewfinder so the fig appeared upper-left in the space.57 THE VIEWFINDER T h e s e pencil drawings o f figs d e m o n s t r a t e different crops and compositions. bottom-left t o top-right. spaces between things are as important as the things themselves. they establish a tension and unity with the paper. U s e it as a starting point. a device to help you decide what t o draw. This drawing hasbeencropped to emphasize space between thefruit. its illumination. Here the left fig is attached to. When subjects touch two or more edges. and lines describing shadows cast by the fruit .O u r focus is on the white cloth supporting the figs. Space as the subject Inallpictures. The angle of the fruit together with dark shadow (top left) and bright light(bottom right) suggest a diagonal division across the whole drawing. and therefore apparently suspended from. running corner t o corner. Touching the edge When the subject o f a drawing touches one edge of the paper it attaches t o it visually. its stem and shadow framing a white center. as also shown here. t h e n m o v e t h e c a r d t o e x p l o r e different views. the uppermost edge of the drawing. A card with a small rectangle cut out o f it makes a useful viewfinder C l o s e o n e e y e t o look through the hole.
Looking at negative space overrides the problem of drawing what you know. In your own version. but if the artist does. WHERE TO START Arrange your plant and paper so you can look back and forth by barely moving your head. which is shown in the three steps below. fourth. But how often do we look at the air between things. this ensures a consistent view. third. remember to draw only space. Draw a complete shape Map outward from the center Erase and adjust lines until correct . Viewers appreciating a finished image may not see shapes of space. then added a second shape. and engaging. Negative space is the simple key to getting positive shape right. Follow these from left to right and see how I began with one complete shape between two parts of a leaf. and a fresh page in your drawing book. do we see myriad distinct and unique shapes of daylight or do we just see branches? Why as artists should we look at the air? Every space in a picture has a shape.The box opposite isolates an area. a sharp H B pencil. Remember that plants do move! Therefore it is best to complete your drawing in one sitting if possible. an eraser. It helps to start at the center and map outward. not leaves. It is an astonishingly simple device that many artists use and I strongly recommend. unified. and so on. erasing and adjusting lines until itlooked right. and a role to play. The drawing opposite is of the uppermost leaves of a potted fig tree. you will need a similar large-leaved plant. shapes of air cut out and defined by the physicality of our environment? When we look into the branches of a tree. position. Unfamiliar shapes of negative space reveal the real shape of a positive subject. tone. In following this class. a foundation stone in picture-making. their subject and composition will become more real. dynamic. rather than what you see in front of you.58 PLANTS AND GARDENS Negative Space UNCONSCIOUSLY WE ASSESS spatial relationships all the time to guide ourselves through the world.
Here I drew only spaces, adding one to another until the leaves were revealed. Besides looking at negative space, there are two other useful things to do when a drawing feels wrong but you cannot see why: look at it in a mirror or turn it upside down. errors and suggest changes.
Spaces between leaves
Either view will
WALKING IN THE ALPUJARRAS in A n d a l u c i a ,
Spain, I drew a bare fig tree clinging to the wall of an almond grove; a perfect subject for seeing negative space. I marked its essential frame of large branches first, frequently erasing lines and changing my mind until the balance felt right.
S a l v i a , RIBES, CLEMATIS, Allium, Passiflora, and Acanthus
drawn with an H pencil by observing the
negative spaces between the stems, petals, and leaves. I arranged the flowers on a sheet of paper in a cool r o o m and rapidly sketched a composition. Then I put them in water, taking the stems out one at a time to draw.
Compare changes of pace and focus here to the flatter finish of Summer Flowers (see pp. . We never see everything at once. our eyes travel and adjust from one point of focus to another. gathering less distinct information on the way.Acanthus Spinosus As we LOOK AROUND. 62-63). interfolding points of detail with areas of loose suggestion. Excessive detail leaves no space for the eye to rest or imagination to wander. they emulate our experience of seeing. If an artist changes the pace of their line and focus of their attention.
and architects of ancient Greece who first pursued the formula for "divine proportion. made by the architect himself. film-set design. once there. It was the mathematicians. Yet the pursuit of divine proportion and harmony remains. philosophers. fine artists. which was the first church in the capital to be built entirely of metal and then clad in stone. Since the first flowering of Modernism in the early 20th century. and writers have been breaking away from traditional forms of representation to seek new expressions of shape. which can be clearly seen in ancient Greek architecture.This is a pencil drawing." reflecting the eye's love of unity in difference. balance. filmmakers. time. Paris 1871-74 the child's view to the infinity of the vanishing point. European conventions of pictorial perspective have lost their monopoly on seeing. VICTOR BALTARD French architect employed by the city of Paris. mass. It was also during the Renaissance that the architect Brunelleschi invented linear perspective. architects and designers can imaginatively "climb inside" three-dimensional space and. add and subtract ideas. Linear perspective is a marvelous device. we find the most recent steps in the evolution of graphic language. Perhaps in the sheer planes of some of our greatest modern buildings it is finding its clearest expression. architects. and from West Facade of the Church of St Augustin. Since Picasso and Braque's revolution of Cubism in around 1907. designers. 74-75). the formula for perfection spread through Europe. drawing plans around themselves within a program as opposed to on a flat sheet of paper. they also have a diagrammatic language for communicating plans to builders. Computer programs allow the virtual drawing of ideas. to help them create new form. was preserved into the Renaissance where it became a foundation stone for thinking and creativity From 15thcentury Italy. from political commentary to musical abstraction. At the core of their practice. they have the Golden Section. Through the animation of the screen. and computer game imaging. Architects have been fine-tuning their specialized branch of drawing for centuries. It is the focus of practical class in this chapter. Baltard designed the Church of St. coupled with the importance of exercizing your imagination. of the west facade of St Augustin. This harmony. invaluable to understand and apply when you choose.The church is still in use today. each VICTOR BALTARD . the device that has since governed most of our picture-making (sec pp. Among the drawings of this chapter we look from 17th-century ecclesiastical calm. Augustin.Architecture I N THE CONTEMPORARY PRACTICES of architecture. and sound. Besides sketches of first thoughts and polished drawings of the finished look for clients. and in the 19th century it was given the name the Golden Section. with gray and brown watercolor wash. composers. to 20th-century film fantasy. space.
1711-12 NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR . a three-dimensional drawing made with wires and weights. Three aspects This subtle and sophisticated drawing made in pen and wash displays three distinct aspects of Hawksmoor's baptistry. Oxford. Together they explain how interior structure and space define exterior form and shape. The photograph opposite shows his studio hung with metal pendulums. relative levels. Lines define structure while washes suggest light and atmosphere. pilasters. St Paul's Baptistry c. Architects draw for many reasons: to visualize ideas. materials. describe a finished look to a client. marks the end of a long journey from the first few marks the architect made on a sheet of paper. Finished surface On the left the finished surface of the building is given depth and emphasis by immaculate vertical and horizontal brush strokes of shadow. structure. and six London churches.68 ARCHITECTURE Master Builders EVERY NEW BUILDING. and ultimately to show builders what to do. and the shapes of interior domes and apses. evoke presence. and balance. he also worked on St Paul's Cathedral. and labor. We see the modeled detail of Corinthian columns. Cut-away interior On the right a section cut through the center of the building reveals material thicknesses. Gaudi's fluid architecture grew up through many kinds of drawing. Pillars and floor At the base of the drawing a compass-drawn plan tilted downward through 90 degrees illustrates the arrangement of pillars around a central circular floor. calculate function. Drawings underpin every great human-made structure like hidden linear ghosts at their core. A student of Wren's. and an inscribed entablature. NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR One of Britain's "three great" Baroque architects (along with Sir Christopher Wren and Sir John Vanbrugh). Blenheim Palace. testing gravity to calculate the inverted shapes of domes. Hampton Court Palace. embodying a massive investment of ideas. Hawksmoor established his reputation with university and church architecture including All Souls College. densely layered lines in mists of color weave the presence of the expected building into shape. Hawksmoor's drawing is both a plan and an evocation. and later an assistant to Vanbrugh. and Castle Howard. Below it.
Wire and watercolor three-dimensional preferred to calculate Above is a drawing form in the made withlinkedwires and weights. To the right isawatercolordrawing thought to havebeenmade over a photograph ofthemodelabove. unique organic manipulation of high shapes. Guell Crypt of its at the Time Construction c. light. This sculptural drawingenvisionsthe finished crypt glowingandethereal as if caught in thelightof red morning sun. Gaudi air than on paper. and his love of music.69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt c. 1900 ANTONIO GAUDI ANTONIO GAUDI Visionary Catalan architect. The Art Nouveau movement. 1910 24x181/4( 6 1 0 x 4 7 5mm) A N T O N I O GAUDI . embellishment. Gaudi's cathedral in Barcelona. and apartment homes are distinguished by their Their and Flowering curves of stone or concrete are often encrusted with Gaudi was inspired by medieval and oriental art. churches.
Across the top and center right of the image w e perceive an almost recognizable architectural plan. corridors. Arctic Flowers 1980 DANIEL LIBESKIND . Libeskind's numerous commissions include concert halls and museums. before cascading into a riot of line and sound below. been a natural affinity between the visual rhythms of pictures and the audible rhythms of music. He also produces urban and landscape designs. such a rapport in both of these drawings. Contemporary musicians commonly collaborate with artists by interpreting images as sound.223). The architect and musician Daniel Libeskind has drawn a stampeding cacophany of airborne architectural detail. and dotted lines. Satie draws quietly throughout. Floor space appears divided by discernible walls. and in a sense hear. and arched dotted lines depict the radius of doors. a refillable pen that feeds a constant supply of ink through a fine tubular nib. There has always DANIEL LIBESKIND A Polish American architect of international acclaim. and exhibitions of his drawings. We can see. Libeskind begins quietly in the upper space of his drawing. p.70 ARCHITECTURE The Order of Sound B O T H OF THESE VISIONARY DRAWINGS o c c u p y a s l e n d e r . Libeskind studied music before transferring to architecture. installations. upright pictorial space. short curved poles. and rooms. flat boards. and the spaces between his windows and turrets are the visual equivalent of pauses in h i s m u s i c c o m p o s i t i o n s for p i a n o (see also Bussotti. He also contributed to plans for the rebuilding of the World Trade Center site in New York. We can imagine how a musician might interpret this drawing by looking at the abstract visual rhythms of masses composed of long straight poles. Visual rhythms In the lower half of this drawing architectural language has broken loose: escaped and transformed into an image of rebellious pleasure. theater sets. while the composer Erik Satie has made an enclosure of quiet order and grace. Floor plan This drawing has been made with a rapidograph. Both men used rulers and pens to carefully and slowly construct their compositions.
ERIK SATIE F r e n c h pianist and c o m p o s e r for t h e piano. and founded his o w n church. Hotel de la Suzonnieres c.50. o f which he was the sole m e m b e r Parcel paper Satie has drawn this fantasy hotel using a ruler. a n d ballet.H i s witty. Satie collaborated w i t h hisfriends J e a n C o c t e a u a n d P i c a s s o . andfouredges of the paper tothecompositionand impact animage. the perimeter Composition Look how well this drawingfitsand resonates with the upright. and ink on a fragment folded brown paper—a of everyday happened material of scrap that to be at hand. minimalist s c o r e s scandalized a u d i e n c e s with o r c h e s t r a t i o n s f o r t h e foghorn and typewriter. effectively additional lines in a work. theater. They definespaceand pictorial balance.narrowshape of its paper.56—57 we discussed important the shape. dressed eccentrically. Eastern influence The upright image Eastern is reminiscent and medieval of Middle pictorial space and subject of this European drawing. a conventional dip or fountain pen. H e p e r f o r m e d in cabarets. Compare the even and and the shape wall to the elegantly stylized order of the many windows of arrangement of details and the shape of the wall in Babur's Garden of Fidelity on p. Onpp. 1 8 9 3 77/8 x 51/2 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 4 0 mm) ERIK SATIE . lived a l o n e .Edges are how are of orientation.
Within it. Among preparations for Fritz Langs film Metropolis. Boullee lived in Paris. His celebrated imaginary buildings are characterized by pyramids. cylinders. and taught at t h e A c a d e m i e d'Architecture. Boullee's monolithic apparition was drawn as a monument to Sir Isaac Newton. enter the long-shadowed architecture of imaginary worlds. arched vaults. and draftsman. Newton's Cenotaph 1784 153/4 x 25 in ( 4 0 2 x 635 m m ) ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE . experiencing a fascinating conflict between curiosity and desolation. the ominous globe exists only as a series of drawings. painter. Art director Erich Kettlehut's vertiginous design for the city of a slavelike populace had a future influence on movies such as Blade Runner. This shift makes the cenotaph appear three-dimensional.72 ARCHITECTURE T H E S E T H R E E HIGHLY DETAILED DRAWINGS Future Fictions invite us to soaring above normal life.96. This is the work of an architectural theoretician. spheres. Light illusions This pen-and-wash drawing shows a subtle application of the principles of illumination demonstrated with an egg on p. and the reverse is true on the right. ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE French architectural theorist. made in 1926. and dramatic lighting. we find other Utopian visions Paul Nobles epic drawing summons an imperfect and disturbing township where ruin and activity are equal and strange. We glide over exquisitely drawn wastelands of damage and abandonment.The lower-left section of the building appears relatively pale against a darker sky. antlike mortals might have speculated upon the universe.
and morality o f an invented place called His satires exhibited w o r l d w i d e .Building shapes are works can be read as text. draftsman. and m o d e l . gray. and are Graphite shapes Nobson Central isoneof a series of very large graphite drawings of the spoil and detritus of Nobson Newtown.73 ERICH KETTLEHUT Influential film a r t director. Nobson political visions of humanity Newtown. architecture. Nobson Central 9 ft 1 0 in x 1 3 f t 2 in (3 x 4 m ) PAUL N O B L E 1998-99 . Kettlehut drew using a fine and relatively dry brush dipped in black. Working on toned paper such as this gives an artist greater scope for dramatic lighting effects than if they work on white paper. Kettlehut and his c o .m a k e r In t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f Metropolis.a r t director O t t o Hunte. Its sheerscaleengulfs the viewer and demands based time and patience to on letters and in some beread. intensely detailed graphite drawings explaining and questioning t h e geography. Fritz Lang's Metropolis c. together with c i n e m a t o g r a p h e r Karl Freund. 1926 ERICH KETTLEHUT PAUL N O B L E British c o n t e m p o r a r y artist who creates m o n u m e n t a l . mythology. FUTURE FICTIONS Brush and ink This is a dramatic drawing from a film that shaped the history of world cinema. used forced perspective camera t e c h n i q u e s t o amplify t h e m a g n i t u d e o f buildings in relation t o human characters. and white ink on brown-gray paper.
and inventions— essential reading for inquiring minds. It is also distinguished from aerial perspective (see pp. See how the thread corresponds to each converging line. Invented by Italian artist and architect Brunelleschi in 1413 (late in the history of art). I contribute the child's perspective. Piranesi an example of two. Pull the thread taut and rotate it slowly above the drawing. this perspective is often an imagined bird's-eye view in which details are mapped according to logic and importance rather than how they might appear in real life. Study of Perspective Adoration of the for the Magi 1481 61/2 x111/2in (165 x 290 mm) LEONARDO DA VINCI . LEONARDO DA VINCI One of the greatest artists. We use it to structure illusions of depth. Sometimes shared with Naive artists. Here Leonardo provides a superb example of a single vanishing point. observations. Single-point perspective Tie a thread to a pin. Leonardo recorded constant streams of ideas. and thinkers ever to have lived. In his notebooks. found at the center of all converging lines. All forms of perspective are of equal value. Press the pin into Leonardo's vanishing point. It can be applied to any subject. scientists. and age eight. Note how architectural features conform to lines and how human figures diminish in size toward thevanishingpoint. but is most easily seen and understood in pictures of buildings and interiors. 206-07). linear perspective is distinct from more ancient systems practiced in the East. and those of Naive artists and children.74 ARCHITECTURE Pathways of Sight LINEAR PERSPECTIVE (also called vanishing-point perspective) is a simple device for calculating the relative size of things in pictorial space. inventors.
architect. visionary and practical understanding of ancient Rome. which I saw from home every day. including all they recall about the subject. Scale Our farmhouse my experience was in the woods. This drawing Young children typically maps ignore on and understanding of the nearby village. Children are uninhibited and problems with one element being obscured by another rarely arise. New Forest. Lightly marked illuminates vanishing Two Courtyards c.SARAH SIMBLET I made this drawing (at age 8) in response to a local bookstore's request for children to draw their village. . It shows how children usually map large scenes in flat layers one above the other. Two-point perspective Sunlight through this colonnade a great example of two-point perspective. at the top of each lateral column base. a points in logical narrative of memories. issues of scale when making room for important their story. 1740 5 1 / 2 x 83/8 in (141 x 212 mm) G I O V A N N I B A T T I S T A PIRANESI points are located on either side of the drawing. England 1980 9 x 16 in (228 x 405 mm) S A R A H SIMBLET GIOVANNI BATTISTA PIRANESI Italian artist. Mark these points with your pin and follow the converging lines of the drawing by rotating your thread. Breamore Village. Note the rather large rabbits and pheasants the hills. and theoretical writing strongly influenced neoclassicism. and designer Piranesi's prolific architectural drawings.
In contrast. try composing your own space. Erase the dotted construction lines. You have completed your first box. corresponding to a single vanishing point. discovering the image as it progressed. Extend each dotted line to the edge of your drawing.98 for an important note on oscillation. draw a horizon line across your paper Mark a spot on the horizon line. Piranesi planned his drawing with only the essential lines needed. Next. Each line should pass through one corner of the rectangle.) .76 ARCHITECTURE Single-Point Perspective MASTERING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE i s e a s i e r t h a n y o u m a y First read through. Draw each step over the preceding one to build up a single image. Surround the vanishing point with a small rectangle. (See p. Leonardo began with a grid of many lines within which he invented his scene. This is where we will begin. Note that if you place large structures in the foreground and smaller ones closer to your vanishing point. Study these pages first before embarking on this lesson. This ensures that the second rectangle aligns with the shape and 4 Draw four short lines to connect the four corners of the two rectangles. 2 3 corners must each touch a dotted line. imagine. On the previous page we looked at its essential mechanism through drawings by Leonardo and Piranesi. DRAWING BOXES 1 Using a ruler and a sharp HB pencil. Draw four dotted lines radiating out from the vanishing point. This lesson shows you how to make a simple illusion of space defined by two boxes and three flat boards. using a sharp HB pencil and ruler. then follow the ten steps below. this is your vanishing point. you will amplify the illusion of distance.
and erase the dotted lines.77 SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE 5 Draw a new rectangle. andfarside of this first board. 1 0 Erase all ofthedottedlinestoseeyourfinishedboxes Thickeningtheiredges. draw a second. when inventing your own compositions. 9 Use dotted lines connecting the slanting linetothe vanishing point to locate the top.willhelptomake them appear more solid.asIhavedonehere. N e x t draw a slanting line to mark the height of the first flat board. Note that this does not surround the vanishing point In the future. bottom. with two dotted lines. Repeat this to add two more boards to the composition. The four comers must each touch a dotted line to be sureitaligns with the first. Connect this to the vanishing point— again. . The board's sides should be parallel. draw four dotted lines radiating from your vanishing point Pass these through each comer of the new rectangle. Continue the dotted lines out toward the edge of your drawing. you can place rectangles anywhere youwishin relation to a vanishing point. 6 As in step 2. 8 Complete the second box with short lines as in step 4. the closer it will appear to the viewer. larger rectangle. 7 As in step 3. The larger you make your second rectangle.
let simple lines suggest a simple space. I always start with a script but I don't follow it all the way through to the end. w h e t h e r it is a film or a painting. draw a b o x as shown opposite. 7 4 ) . A lot more happens when you open yourself up to the work and let yourself act and react to it.78 ARCHITECTURE Creating an Imaginary Space T H I S CLASS USES SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE t o c r e a t e a s i m p l e to you and if you listen to it. it will take you places you never dreamed of. O n a fresh page in your d r a w i n g b o o k . The m i s t a k e n belief that we s h o u l d k n o w exactly what o u r finished drawings will l o o k like before we m a k e t h e m prevents many people from ever starting. it is interaction that makes the work richer. APPLYING PERSPECTIVE An Imagined Scaffold "Enjoy your illusion as you make it and it will become more real. Linear perspective will support y o u by providing a frame in which to b u i l d your picture as it did for Leonardo. you will find white adhesive stationery labels are useful for covering errors or changing the direction of your idea. artist and film director. once said: "I never end up with what I set out to do. If using a fibertip pen as I have done for this drawing. It highlights the importance of having faith in your imagination and trusting your ability to invent. p . then let the space suggest its c o n t e n t s and purpose. As David Lynch." . Then follow the three given steps." imaginary room. Every work talks In this class.
and leaning surfaces. This initial space will be transparent and open to change. and floors and ceilings also converge and rise o r lower toward the horizon. With some practice. parallel planes such as walls converge toward the vanishing point. The space has become more solid and real.There is great pleasure tobefoundin spending time inventing interiors.Addanarray of converging lines to provide a "scaffold" for vertical. horizontal. additional lines have established the different surfaces and how they relate to each other. 2 first before adding furniture.79 DRAWING A SIMPLE ROOM Essentials t o remember: objects and people dimmish in size as they move farther away.drawthehorizonlineand vanishingpoint. you will beableto draw more complex objects orpeoplewithin them. . CREATING AN IMAGINARY SPACE 1First. 3 Remove the construction lines with an eraser and the room will becomeclearer. Here.
o r to the h o r i z o n . Further aspects of three-point perspective are also illustrated opposite. Only when y o u might employ t h r e e . located anywhere inside or outside the pictorial space. T h i n k of standing at the top of a skyscraper and imagine h o w its parallel sides would appear to converge below you. Search for the application of these perspectives among works by other artists in this book and in galleries. Here. a n d this is how we have drawn them so far (see pp. our eye level is very high and we look down. do verticals appear inclined. The boxes drawn here are seen partly or entirely disassociated from a horizon line drawn across the bottom of the image.p o i n t perspective ( s h o w n opposite top). It is important to realize that you can have as many vanishing points as you wish. I have elaborated on the simple boxes above. verticals appear p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the g r o u n d . That is where we e to find them. From our normal eye level. T h i s is d e m o n s t r a t e d immediately below. Potentially. 76-79). Elaborations . These elaborations could continue indefinitely across a sheet of paper in pursuit of complex and intricate ideas. To draw such a view APPLICATION Copy these drawings to see and feel how they work before inventing your own versions.80 ARCHITECTURE Further Aspects of Perspective W E ARE ACCUSTOMED TO SEEING our e n v i r o n m e n t from a relatively constant point of view. Copying what you see in the work of others will help you to understand what they have done. They could be drawn on any scale from miniature to monumental. but they are not confined to this level. they can be placed anywhere inspaceto describe the perspective of flyi c tilted objects. Vanishing points are commonly found on horizon—our eye level. showing y o u h o w to draw curved surfaces and a tiled floor. or low and we look u p . Free vanishing points On paper we can enjoy the freedom of fantastic structural invention without limitations of solid materials or gravity. T h e y d o n o t have to relate to each other.
useful for representing steep views looking up or down tall structures. Giving curvature. I then drew three fanned groups of lines connecting each of the three points above to the seven points below. An array of curved lines (drawn freehand) link the two lateral points. Note that altering the distance between the three dots above will tilt the level of the floor . I marked the toplinewith three evenly spaced points and the line with seven. tostraightlines can amplify drama in a picture. and therefore tension. they mark the corners of the floor tiles. Where thelinescross.) By comparing this drawing t o Piranesi's example of two-point perspective on p. (Turn the book around to see a view looking up. by adding a third point you can achieve a sense of incline. PERSPECTIVE Three-point curves Here.75. you will see how. Three-point checkered floor This d bottom floor.Finally.I added horizontal lines t o define the tiles.81 FURTHER ASPECTS OF Three-point towers This drawing depicts three-point perspective. three vanishing points are evenly spaced along a horizon line.Istarted with two parallel lines. Iusedthese lines as a guide t o draw the curvature of boxes and panels flying through space.
These walnut-skin ink pen and brush drawings show imagined views of theaters that do not exist but were inspired by places I studied. .Theaters RESEARCHING FOR MY P H D . making drawings to resolve questions and express personal responses to the nature and history of anatomy. I visited many anatomical theaters and museums.
I N KDRAWING is one of a series I made while next to the Rialto Bridge in Venice. the water. . The vanishing of the drawing is directly opposite as we look across The constancy of the bridge and surrounding frames the movement in the life that flows past.A N D .Venetian Life sitting point buildings ThisP E N .
1493 117/8c81/4in (300 x 210 m m ) LEONARDO D A V I N Ccreating I . sculpted. C o m m o n items. illuminating snail shells. Engineers and designers of our objects and instruments make drawings for many reasons: to test an idea that is yet to be made. Artists also make images of objects that can never exist. drawn. or to explain and present a finished concept to a client. Technical drawing was speedily developed as a meticulous international code of m e a s u r e m e n t and explanation. drawing c. or used on stage hood for a mold t o make theheado f a horse f oas a p r o p — i m b u e d with e n o u g h energy or character can "become" a man. even more advanced drawings are made on computers. but humans LEONARDO DA VINCI Inthisbeautiful red chalk Our items all have a purpose—practical or ornamental—and all have a meaning. each demanding more of the other as they increased in sophistication. are all made bearing the signature of our time and place. Today. It was in this era that the blueprint was born. or drawing w e see Leonardo daVinci'sprecision as can be given meaning. making a clear instruction t o his bronzemeaning. we look at the importance are the only creatures on Earth w h o actually design and create great ranges of things. of light in the creation of pictorial illusions. and the way in w h i c h the brain reacts Head and Neck Sections of Female Mold for the Sforza Horse to visual stimulus and optical illusions. r an equestrian statue. and a wire violin. and some apes use simple tools. craftsmen had held plans in their memory. to record an observed detail. W e also explore v o l u m e and form in the classes by spinning lines to make vessels. History will be learned from the artifacts w e leave behind. In this chapter. passing them on to others through the act of making. and made. too. hooked bars that can be pulled and tied closely form. planned. Previously. texture. T h e Industrial Revolution c h a n g e d the traditional w a y s in w h i c h objects were designed. H e has described a casting through metaphor. In past eras. fictional realities caster of h o w t o make it andhowit will w o r k . Artists and actors use the meanings of things to communicate a speculative mechanic. T h e precision of engineering d r a w i n g s e v o l v e d alongside machine tools. drawings were needed to instruct workers on the factory floor. With the sudden onset of mass production. that test our logic with a sense of mystery. design. from s p o o n s and pens to chairs and bicycles. for example—whether. H e has described contour and function at drawings. and the behavior of light through making still-life paintings and together. It is shaped in sections w i t h Artists have for centuries studied and expressed composition. A chair. color. have often carried great weights of allegorical once. for example.Objects and Instruments T HE THINGS WE INVENT describe our lives. these. Birds follow instinct to make a nest.
and glass objects of exquisite elegance for only the gentlest of touch and appreciation." La Cuitare. His work is characterized by calm and harmonious still-life compositions. Clashes The art historian Ernst Gombrich said of Cubism. silverware. Braque established Cubism in partnership with Picasso just before World War I.. and shading. Below.73 x 1 m) GEORGES BRAQUE . steaming with music and conversation. perfect i n their newly made availability. T h i s is a designers drawing made to enthuse surface and style in its delicate brushing of china. . but to clash in virtual deadlock. wood-look wallpaper.Braque marshals all the forces of perspective. not to work in harmony. Mucha's drawing glistens with possession. and a journal jacket with words makes this drawing chatter about the moment. "I believe [it] is the most radicalattempttostampout ambiguity and to enforce one readingofthepicture—that of a manmade construction. representing still life.90 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS Still Life THESE DRAWINGS REVEAL t w o o p p o s i t e m o t i v a t i o n s i n we can. Braques "justly" arranged combination of cut black card.. Statue D'Epouvante 1913 2 f t 5 in x 3 ft 5 in (0. texture. One of the great joys of this movement in art is the musicality of its multipoint view. Opposite. Even today GEORGES BRAQUE French painter who as a young man was influenced by the work of the Fauves and of Cezanne. charcoal. not of place but of things. a colored canvas. still feel this projected moment. Braques image is a Cubist collage. There is a fragile eloquence to these objects as they drift in slow motion past our gaze. He takes us into the bustle of the Paris cafe.
and fish have been outlined using a sharp pencil.flowers. Chicago. Art Nouveau motifs This is a preliminary study for a subsequent print. Pans. He designed the Austrian pavilion for the Paris World Fair in 1900. Black watercolor washes and lines of white gouache have been added with a fine brush. The three plates facing us were drawn with a compass. He is best known for posters featuring ethereal women in typical Art Nouveau style.fruit. and New York. Art Nouveau curling motifs of birds. Study for Plate 59 from "Documents Decoratifs" 17x121/4(430 x 310 mm) ALPHONSE MUCHA 1902 .ALPHONSE MUCHA Czech graphic artist and painter who worked in Prague. and also stamps and bank notes. Background color Between the delicate shadows and highlights of these glazed and surfaces ofthebackground metal color of the Mucha we see a large amount paper. Look at the two spoons at toprightand see how has suggested that they are so brilliantly shiny they reflect the background color. For ten years Mucha designed theater posters exclusively for the actress Sarah Bernhardt.
Hooke's head of a drone fly seen through a microscope may represent the first time man and insect came face to face.92 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS by their very nature must gauge or chronicle precision. A disembodied eye at the top of the drawing indicates where to look. astronomer. He counted 1 4 . into the eyepiece. the law o f gravity. and Fellow of the University o f C a m b r i d g e . From the concept of capturing the infinite to the mapping of microscopic sight. Transparent view Newton's reflecting telescope focused light in a parabolic mirror. via a second mirror. Newton's 1672 ISAAC Telescope NEWTON . Look how confidently he draws with ink the sphere of this wooden globe by which his telescope rotates. shape the very cause and effect of investigatory thought. The power of this drawing reflects the pure passion of discovery. 0 0 0 perfect hemispheres. each one skillfully rendered with the alarmingly matter-of-fact ease of explaining the commonplace. With dotted lines Newton has drawn his arrangement of elements inside the tube. In the graphic work of these two great men of science. It was then reflected up inside the tube and. and the nature o f light and color. alchemist. w h e r e he developed his three greatest theories: the law o f motion. offering a transparent view. It is a diagrammatic explanation of how to catch and magnify a star in a mirrored tube. a tree outside. and philosopher Newton was President of the Royal Society. Ink lines Several drawings appear among Newton's letters. we see drawing Instruments of Vision found among his letters. each reflecting a view of his own world—his window. Newton's drawing of his first reflecting telescope is ISAAC N E W T O N English scientist. mathematician. drawing is there to pin the moment down. Newton used this instrument to calculate the speed required to escape earth's gravity. Their delicate construction is only as valuable as the measurements they make. and his hand moving across the light.
and calculated the theory of combustion. ROBERT H O O K E 93 Magnifications This acutely detailed engraved drawing is taken from Hooke's Micrographia (pub. 1665). The Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 1665 ROBERT HOOKE 111/2 x 105/8 in (294 x 270 mm) . a breathtaking book containing many of his drawings showing some of the first microscopic and telescopic magnifications of our environment Hooke's text and illustrations carry us to the moment of discovery. universal joint a prototype respirator clock balance. Hooke invented the camera diaphragm. and anchor escarpment. It is an exhilarating read.An experimental scientist who drew many of his discoveries.
this chair p r e s e n t s us with a clever visual contradiction: deeply drawn shadows tell us it must be solid. OBJECTS AND SARAH WOODFINE British contemporary artist graduate of the Royal Academy Schools. it has so m u c h familiar personality that it seems to talk to us. Its wobbly gait and squashed s y m m e t r y m u m b l e endless h o m e y tales about the life it has seen. Sarah Woodfines flat cut-out m o d e l plan is a witty and surprising drawing. its character. has published several catalogs of her work. Van Gogh's tipsy seat is a metaphor for an absent person.94 INSTRUMENTS W H E N WE DRAW A COMMON OBJECT like a chair. Two-dimensional was made This highly finished drawing ruler using a sharp pencil and on smooth white drawing paper glistening dark drawings are artificial representations of known Woodfine's two-dimensional things balanced in the world. W i t h h o m e y c o n t r a s t . From component parts we understand how to put it together and make it stand sensible in space. and winner of the 2004 Jerwood Drawing Prize. and w h e r e the chair b e l o n g s . Chair Cut Out 2002 22'A x 23 in (565 x 585 mm) SARAH WOODFINE . each drawn with the s a m e unfaltering lines and tones that are between reality and impossibility. while the tabs make us see a flat paper cut-out. craft. Bench Marks W e are left a little c o n f u s e d as to what we s h o u l d do. and place in the world are truly seen. Drawn in more-or-less c o n v e n t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . Woodfine exhibits internationally. and has drawings in numerous public and private collections. A renegade from the p a p e r dolls' h o u s e .
Cornfield and Sunflowers.hehas marked the full emotion of the subject with a fierce grip of concentration. not is made present in only strokes and is subdued to distract us from flat a meaningful chair. inner recording while Fierce strokes This is a portrait of the mechanical drew immediately and almost harshly. and Starry Cypress Night. drawn opposite way of plan. Among van Gogh's best-known canvases are Trees. what direct in their he saw and describing his felt. Van Chair 1890 VINCENT VAN GOGH . His passionate brush and pencil strokes are honest and of also turmoil and growing alarm at the world around him.95 VINCENTVAN GOGH Dutch painter who produced over 800 paintings and 850 drawings in only the last ten year's of his life. The floor few as engagement with the chair.
perhaps. Card experiment cho can gra on . Artists emulate and manipulate this effect in their pictures. Below the bottom "edge" of the egg there is a rim of light reflected onto the paper by the underside of the egg. are translated into a world of space.d o w n patterns of light on our retinas. T h e slightest recognition is instantly matched to our wealth of experience a n d expectation. a n d we can be fooled. two identical mid-gray squares are seen against black and paler gray squares. The outermost edge of our vision. We perceive one to be lighter than theother. w e turn our head but n o one w a s there. Before starting a tonal drawing of any subject. Through these we can enjoy witnessing our o w n d e c e p t i o n a n d b a f f l e m e n t a n d u n d e r s t a n d certain factors that are very useful in picture-making. Below. o u r b r a i n s search for n a m e a b l e things. The small squares are identical in tone. The egg's darkest region is seen against a lighter background. hence our recognition of a cartoon face c o m p o s e d of three lines. To interpret visual s t i m u l u s .96 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Light and Illusions SEEING IS MIRACULOUS. Adjust the angleofthe protruding part and again stepback. think about its illumination. your eye around the circumference of the egg. U p s i d e . Here w e look briefly at our perception of light a n d darkness a n d our interpretation of diagrammatic illusions. form. a n d our ability to see forms in c l o u d s or fire. a lit photograph of an egg shows essential points to observe in tonal drawing. Tape them to the glass. Are you happy LIGHT AND SHADOW with what you see? Does the light enhance the subject? Could you alter and improve it? On pp. a n d m o v e m e n t . the adjustment of our eyes (in growing accustomed to a level of light). or colored surface is never constant. transmitted to the brain as chains of electrical impulses. The perceived tone of a black white. reads only m o v e m e n t a n d can often m a k e mistakes. gray.This effect is caused by the contrast of their surroundings. cards the same size. W e learn to read light and shadow in our environment as indicators of solidity and depth of space. but do not appear so. Three factors change it: the amount of light it receives. We will even see things that d o not exist because minimal information suggests they are likely to be there. atmosphere. From across the room both will appear black card and fold and retapeitwith half sticking out. Run The bottom-left quarter of the egg lightens slightly toward its "edge" when seen against the darker shadow cast on the paper.102-03 deep shadows cast across shells make their form easier to perceive. S o m e o n e passes our o p e n door. a n d are q u i c k to p r o p o s e ideas. The rim of light on the egg is reflected light received from surrounding paper. try this experiment. On acloudyday. See how its "edge" smoothly changes from light against dark to dark against light. one blackandone white. Gray squares To further examine changes in tone. and the proximity of contrasting tones. We only need small prompts.At one point you will catchenoughlight lighter than the white one. The two tones meet without a division or outline between. The egg's lightest region is seen against a darker background. Here. less developed than the center.
l i g h t e r surfaces s t a n d f o r w a r d w h i l e d a r k e r s u r f a c e s recede. T h e r e is n o obligation t o a d d b l o c k s o f t o n e t o a l i n e a r d r a w i n g . Y o u m a y e x p e r i e n c e s o m e t h i n g similar h a p p e n i n g w h e n y o u m a k e s i n g l e . T w o horizontal lines o f equal length are m a d e t o l o o k longer and shorter. A n u p r i g h t line stands in t h e c e n t e r o f a h o r i z o n t a l line. . S h o r t h o r i z o n t a l lines o f identical length are m a d e t o l o o k d i f f e r e n t by c o n v e r g i n g lines beside t h e m ( C ) . Bending straight lines Linear distance These t w o jugs have b e e n d r a w n w i t h lines o f d i f f e r i n g thicknesses.p o i n t p e r s p e c t i v e d r a w i n g s w i t h a large n u m b e r o f c o n v e r g i n g rays b e h i n d y o u r horizontals. by d i r e c t e d a r r o w s ( A ) . O f t e ndoingso w i l l s p o i l y o u r w o r k . t h i c k e r l i n e s a p p e a r t o stand forward. T h i s fundamental o p p o s i t e is a reason w h y l i n e a r a n d t o n a l d r a w i n g does not a l w a y s c o m b i n e w e l l in t h e s a m e i m a g e . start o u t w i t h one. In this t o n a l image w e read w h i t e as f a t t e r t h a n black. Apparent lengths T h e s e optical illusions s h o w h o w lines o f identical length can b e m a d e t o l o o k quite different f r o m each o t h e r by t h e addition o r association o f o t h e r lines. If y o u w i s h t o m a k e a t o n a l drawing. T h e jug d r a w n w i t h a t h i n line appears f a r t h e r away t h a n t h e j u g d r a w n w i t h a t h i c k e r line. O b s e r v e h o w each white b a n d appears t h i c k e r t h a n its black c o u n t e r p a r t . LIGHT AND ILLUSIONS Tonal width T h e s e black a n d w h i t e bands are o f equal thickness o n e i t h e r side o f t h e i r central division. In this linear drawing w e read t h i c k as closer a n d t h i n as f a r t h e r away. Seven parallel lines are m a d e t o tilt t o w a r d and away f r o m each o t h e r by n u m e r o u s s h o r t strokes crossing t h e m diagonally ( A ) . w h i l e t h i n n e r lines recede. T w o relatively t h i c k parallel lines are m a d e t o b e n d away f r o m each o t h e r as t h e y pass in f r o n t o f an a r r a y o f c o n v e r g i n g f i n e lines ( B ) . respectively.97 LINE VERSUS TONE In l i n e a r d r a w i n g s . B o t h are identical in length. In a t o n a l d r a w i n g . b u t t h e u p r i g h t o n e l o o k s t a l l e r (B).
Ancient Greek architects knew parallel upright lines appeared to bend toward each other in the middle.116-17) to make painted figures look correct when viewed from below. among others. Op(tical) artists. their picture could be ambiguous. w h e n drawing the outline o f a three-dimensional form. it can oscillate b e t w e e n facing t o w a r d o r a w a y f r o m us. Artists make pictorial illusions when they paint or draw." . including some shown here. made paintings that depended upon the physical sensation of our brain's reaction to known optical illusions. others adjust works to avoid their effects. w e will find that in terms of the direction it faces. In the 1960's. It is possible t o r e a d i t t w o ways: as a t r u n c a t e d r e c t a n g u l a r p y r a m i d seen d i r e c t l y f r o m a b o v e . Michelangelo. as s h o w n o n t h e right. such as Bridget Riley. It is a curious fact that w e can never see both options at once.s i d e d r e c t a n g u l a r t r a y ( b o t h are illustrated far r i g h t ) "The brain is so eager to name a fragment we see that we need only a suggestion to grasp the whole. such as t h e dish seen h e r e o n t h e left.98 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Further Illusions PSYCHOLOGISTS AND PHYSIOLOGISTS have studied optical illusions for decades in pursuit of what they tell us about the brain. A few suggestive marks will tip the decision one way o r the o t h e r Closing the surface W h e n a t r a n s p a r e n t elliptical o b j e c t has b e e n d r a w n . Yet many illusions. SEEING TWO OPTIONS Sometimes. w e can only look f r o m one t o the o t h e r If an artist is not aware this can happen in their image. Two ways of seeing T h i s is t h e b o x c r e a t e d in t h e f o u r t h step o n p. Artists can communicate much in few lines and the viewer will do the rest of the work. and we learn to read the styles of diverse cultures and periods. Today we are bombarded with images but rarely have difficulty reading them.76. are still not agreeably understood. and so calculated precisely how much to fatten columns to make them appear straight. perfected the acceleration of perspective (see pp. C l o s i n g t h e surface o f t h e f o r m seals o u r d e c i s i o n as t o w h i c h w a y it faces. o r as a s l o p i n g . Some artists use known optical illusions to make art. it oscillates between t w o possibilities.
O n l y o n closer inspection we realize that t h e s e o b j e c t s are fooling us. P e r c e i v i n g a w h o l e i m a g e f r o m m i n i m a l lines T h i s is a w i d e l y r e p r o d u c e d visual j o k e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e C a r r a c c i b r o t h e r s . b u t w e believe w e see t h e m because e n o u g h f r a g m e n t a r y i n f o r m a t i o n is given f o r o u r brains t o c o n c l u d e t h e y are v e r y likely t h e r e . e t c . T h e y a r e o f t e n c r e d i t e d w i t h t h e invention o f t h e c o m i c c a r t o o n . F a m i l i a r i t y in r a n d o m s h a p e s T h e Rorschach test was established by t h e 1 9 t h . B e l o w is a b r i g h t n e s s c o n t r a s t illusion.c e n t u r y Swiss psychologist H e r m a n n Rorschach. T h e s e e x a m p l e s illustrate h o w little is n e e d e d t o c o n v e y an image. This effect can o c c u r naturally w h e n looking at a b r i g h t l y lit w h i t e g r i d such as a w i n d o w f r a m e against t h e night sky.99 Impossible objects T h e s e clever configurations o f outlines and t o n a l surfaces convince us at a glance that we are seeing a solid three-dimensional triangle and a three-pronged fork. this is a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f t h e viewer's b r a i n b e i n g willing t o d o a large a m o u n t o f t h e w o r k in d e c i p h e r i n g a p i c t u r e . His highly d i s p u t e d and i m p r e c i s e science involves s h o w i n g u n p r e p a r e d p a t i e n t s t e n p a r t i c u l a r ink b l o t s a n d asking t h e m t o i n t e r p r e t w h a t t h e y see. T h e patient's answers are t h e n diagnosed as a psychological profile. 1 6 t h . T h e t e s t e x p l o r e s o u r n o r m a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o find things w e can n a m e a m o n g r a n d o m shapes. — a n d so t h e artist can create m u c h o u t o f an impression w i t h o u t overdescribing. w e see t w o overlapping triangles: o n e outlined in black b e n e a t h a n o t h e r in solid w h i t e .c e n t u r y Italian painters. M u c h can b e e x p r e s s e d in o n l y a f e w marks. . W e should r e m e m b e r t h a t o u r brains will always search f o r a p i c t u r e — i n ink blots. N e i t h e r triangle exists. Minimal-line j o k e s such as this rely u p o n t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y v i e w e r ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e shapes. C o u p l e d w i t h t h e Rorschach b l o t above. smoke. C Escher u s e d this phenomenon t o great effect in his many p o p u l a r d r a w i n g s o f puzzles and impossible buildings. This simple five-line d r a w i n g is o f a C a p u c h i n priest asleep in his pulpit. clouds. S o m e artists use ink blots t o p r o m p t t h e beginning o f an image. C o u n t t h e n u m b e r o f d a r k spots y o u can see. Yet still w e try resolve t h e m . FURTHER ILLUSIONS Seeing things that are n o t t h e r e H e r e o n t h e left. T h e a r t i s t M.
spin your hand in a relaxed circle. Cover a sheet of paper with spinning. and these narrow or widen depending on the height of our view. COMMON ERRORS W h e n drawing cylindrical objects in perspective. giving the cylinder four corners. like a disposable plastic cup that has been crushed in your hand. springlike forms like those I have drawn below. you will achieve steadiness with practice. . smoothly. third common error is to draw upper and lover ellipses with different-sized apertures. WHERE TO START In the air above a spacious sheet of scrap paper. even if y o u r hand w o b b l e s a little at first. while its upper rim remains level. However. The second common error is to tilt the upper and lower ellipses at different angles. suggesting that the vessel is lopsided. The first common error is to draw two pointed ellipses. circles change into ellipses. for example plates or bowls on a table. Don't worry if it is uneven— just try again. describing many sides of an object simultaneously. hesitant one that has edged its w a y nervously around the vessel's rim. keep it spinning. Watch the tip of your pen and see it draw an ellipse in the air Keep this movement going while gently lowering the pen onto the paper like the needle of a record player closing on the disc (only it is your lowering hand that spins. not the paper!) As the pen touches down.100 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS W E VISUALIZE CYLINDRICAL VESSELS. as if the table surface slopes upward beneath the vessel. How to Draw Ellipses of seeing. (see p. Cubism. for example. w e use ellipses to give a sense of perspective. A wobbling but confident ellipse will still be more convincing than a slow. such as bowls and cups. Be aware. a n d in o n e bold stroke. w h e n seen at an angle. I have exaggerated this error here. that this is o n l y o n e w a y view. To make a cylindrical object appear real in our pictorial space. though. there are three common errors people stumble upon.90) takes a different as essentially circular. since this is h o w w e experience them in e v e r y d a y use. Ellipse are best d r a w n quickly. I have drawn these for you here.
. Draw quickly. you can make it solid by building up highlights and tones on visible surfaces.101 DRAWING VESSELS Once you have mastered drawing free-hand springs. Create a Solid Surface Once you have drawn the shape and volume of each form. working from top to bottom. you can start to control your spinning ellipse to make a vessel. HOW TO DRAW E L L I P S E S A Single Vessel One Inside Another Grouped Together Finding Shape and Volume Draw an imagined vessel in one continuous spinning line. enlarging and diminishing the ellipse to determine the overall shape and volume. Altering the pressure—and therefore tone—of the line as it spins gives the impression of light shining on one side. thereby hiding lines that show the other sides. Seeing Through Allow lines to travel around each vessel as if it were transparent.
LIGHT TO DARK DARK TO LIGHT . Illuminate them with a gooseneck lamp placed very close and directed away from your eyes. outlines. beams of light. and solid objects are all of equal importance. t h e r e a r e p r i n c i p a l l y Dramatic lighting emphasizes texture and contour. You can begin with outlines and build slowly from light to dark (see opposite top). leaving detail until last. and strong contrasts are easier to draw. OBJECTS AND Start by arranging a choice of shells on a sheet of paper to your left if you are right-handed (or vice versa). Remember that shadows.22-23). it will inhibit your perception of tone. if any. Draw the largest and most distinct areas of light and darkness first. Relaxing your eyes out of focus as you draw will help to dissolve the distraction of detail. It maximizes the range of tones between black and white. or you can begin with a mid-gray ground and model light out of darkness (see opposite bottom). making complicated or subtle surfaces easier to see and understand. It is important to place them on the correct side so as to draw comfortably (see pp. simply shapes and subtleties of light and dark meeting each other with no divisions in between. two opposite methods of achieving the same result. Gradually hone your drawing.102 INSTRUMENTS Tonality W H E N MAKING A TONAL DRAWING. In the finished drawing there should be few. if light shines in them.
103 LIGHT TO DARK (LINE TO TONE) TONALITY 1 Using a sharp HB pencil. shape. Avoid a rough significant areas of light in your gray rectangle with texture and do not press the graphite hardwhite plastic eraser Ignore all detail and draw a into thepaperor you will not be able to erase it. and edges definingthespacialrelationships between are important aspects of your composition them. until you are happy frame. 2 3 Gentlydissolveoutlines so that areas oflightanddark meet without a line between them. boldly 2 3 Keeping your eyes out of focus. Let your eyes go out of focus while looking gently layer marks to create an even tone at your subject and paper: Draw the most ofmid-graywithin a rectangle. Treat positive form and negative space (see pp. Relaxing your eyes out of focus will help to eliminate distracting details. . Remember that its size. Continue working between light and dark to refine the drawing. Fll in broad areas first and leave all detail until last. pale lines with equal importance. DARK TO LIGHT (TONE TO TONE) 1 Using the flattened tip of an HB pencil. Use your pencil to develop these in relation to the areas of light. Draw in the details last of all. Erase and make changes to roughly place the shells inside your with your composition. loose.56-57). draw a rectangle. Use quick. look at the main areas of darkness. with broad sweeps of the eraser. Honetheshapesand angles of the shells.
continuous lines. Place the instrument on a plain surface and illuminate it with a desk lamp to add the delicate dimension of shadows. our image is stronger if we understand and can visualize what is happening on the other side too.220 Mamoru Abe draws with forged steel rods. you can create your own more ambitious works. try drawing it with a pen on paper Use bold. On p. On p. The second is that after achieving this simple example.69 we see how the architect Antonio Gaudi drew proposed domes using suspended wires and weights. They can also be made in space. The first is that figurative and abstract drawings can be made in space. 176 the British artists Noble and Webster draw with domestic refuse in a beam of light. This class uses thin-gauge wire to create a threedimensional violin. There are essentially three lessons to be learned. When drawing anything viewed from one side on paper. 19 Picasso draws with a pen-light for the camera. three-dimensional drawings teach us about the totality of forms in space. Third. PEN LINES Once you have created your three-dimensional violin (opposite). and on p. Seeing through a wire drawing of a known object such as a violin gives us a visual and tactile understanding of all its sides and shapes at once. . smooth. and on p. and physical relationships between them.104 OBJECTS AND I N S T R U M E N T S Drawing with Wire DRAWINGS DO NOT HAVE to be two-dimensional.
These will hold the sides apart and help to keep the form in shape. thin wire will make a smaller drawing. 1 Decide how big to draw your violin relative to the gauge of your wire. 2 3 If needed. Here. Cut a length. 4 . but thin enough to be easily manipulated inyourfingers Here. Then begin to define its uppermost surface with Scurves and the bridge. begin to shape the curvature of the fingerboard. and thick wire a larger one. I used garden wire and cut it carefully with pruners. brace the two ends of the violin with a length of wire along the back.105 SETTING UP DRAWING WITH WIRE Follow these steps to draw a three-dimensional violin Choose a gauge of wire sturdy enough to hold the shape ofyourfinished drawing. I started with the scroll at the top and fixed the four component wires with two drawings of tuning pegs. Join the two sides together with four short pieces of wire. and pinch and bend it to shape the base of the instrument Repeat this process to make the identical upper side of the instrument. Once you have completed the body.
England.Artifacts and Fictions IN 1993 I WORKED with a group of schoolchildren who were responding to the astonishing objects in the collection of the Pitt Rivers Museum. some of which are shown here. Using found materials. they invented new anthropological finds—objects that reflected the distant past and their immediate future. I had the privilege of drawing their inventions. . Oxford.
Look closely at Renaissance drawings of the female b o d y and you will see that m o s t are actually y o u n g m e n with minor adjustments. artists also tried to define ideal proportions in the body. Drawings were usually made from the male nude to avoid offending the church. This F finished image was produced as r a n c i s c o . Renaissance artists studying anatomy from dissection clinically trained and specialized as a medical illustrator. focus has turned to the vulnerability of flesh: how it can be damaged. This chapter addresses issues that are most commonly faced by beginners attending life-drawing classes. much Western contemporary art. explaining ranges e/ of materials and techniques and showing diversities of thought and purpose in making. In this period. while Durer took his research further— A. 3 x 7 in (300 x 180 . R. WILLIAMS he sought perfection in the infinitesimal measurement of the body and produced four Contemporary photographer volumes of illustrated explanation. from video and X-ray to thermal imaging. The human body. a n d w e d r a w o u r s e l v e s to a s s e r t o u r e x i s t e n c e . These classes are popular around the world. and surgically rebuilt. portraiture. in our privileged and comfortable society. The body remains at the core of over the initially white lines. R. Leonardo drew a man within a circle and square. It also looks at the representation of the b o d y b11y4o n d traditional life drawing. myths and fables. and in San could easily be transferred into three dimensions. Artists now explore the interior of the body with new media and Lateral Contour Map of a Full-Term Primipara Produced by Light 1979 A. During this time. and because the female was deemed inferior. the junior workshop apprentices posed as part of their duties. He even believed he had located the soul contours of her form like a cartographer's map of in the pituitary fossa beneath the brain and behind the eyes. but the study of a controlled. W e understand every curve and balance of to the theory that the eves are the windows of the soul. herimpressive presence because we are given such Life drawing no longer dominates the art school curriculum.The Body O UR BODIES MAKE us TANGIBLE. and anatomical and erotic art. sculptural description of her form. is the most c o m m o n subject in art. It gives physical and emotive form to religious narratives. W e are the only creatures on Earth that can make our own image. clothed or nude. giving physical foundation undulating land. the Bay Area Models' Guild h o l d s a quarterly life-drawing m a r a t h o n aprinton Kodak transfer paper with green-colored dye added celebrating the great diversity of human proportion. She the body is still essential. Williams were decades ahead of their medical counterparts. diseased. history paintings and other stories. while Leonardo opened the body to see and projected onto a woman's body draw the celebratory discover for himself our physical mechanisms. W I L L I A M S technology. Strangely. Artists are thought to have b e g u n drawing from the nude during the Italian Renaissance. Michelangelo attended dissections to made this image by light sectioning: fine beams of light perfect his understanding of surface form.
He trained under Perugino. filling the page with her presence. while Matisse used scissors and glue to cut out and paste a flat collage of brilliant color. T h e y b o t h raise one arm to cup their head in their hand. we see the e s s e n c e of h e r b e a u t y w i t h o u t a single detail. Matisse's b l u e n u d e sings with life and c e l e b r a t i o n . In a single drawing we see equally o b s e r v e d studies of f o r e s h o r t e n i n g (see pp.110 T H E BODY THESE DISTINCTIVE WORKS show two strikingly different ways of modeling the body on paper. Three Guards 1500-20 91/4 x143/8in (234 x 365 mm) RAPHAEL . Muscular dramatic postures reflect the influence of Michelangelo and the Renaissance celebration of the idealized male body. RAFFAELLO SANZIO (RAPHAEL) Italian High Renaissance painter: Raphael is best known for his images of the Madonna and Child. so that we read this drawing like a sculptural frieze.116-17). altar pieces. By way of contrast. and Vatican frescos. In this highly s o p h i s t i c a t e d a b s t r a c t i o n . She u n f o l d s and s t r e t c h e s shapely limbs. But the meanings of each gesture and the materials and methods by which they Postures and Poses were m a d e contrast greatly. Principal figures m i r r o r e a c h other. Raphael's study of fallen m e n leaves no doubt that they are in anguish. while supporting the weight of their body with the other. Raphael drew delicate tones of black chalk on tinted paper. Sculptural frieze This is a preparatory drawing for Raphael's painting of the Resurrection of Christ. anatomy. Here three male nudes are compressed into very shallow pictorial space. and human defeat. and studied to learn from the works of Michelangelo and Leonardo besides whom he was soon ranked.
His calligraphic natural abstractions of form grew brighter.like an appeasing influence.. lifelong love of brilliant They celebrate the culmination of spectacular and sometimes drawings.. Matisse Soothing influence This drawing expresses the achievement of Matisse's personal aim: "What I dream and depressing subject matter. and more energetic Color and form This collage is one of a series of Blue Nudes. fabric.which might be. and Islamic art.111 HENRY MATISSE French painter: draftsman. teacher and principal exponent o f Fauvism—a movement established in 1905 in which bold color is the most essential element. a mental soother. printmaker. Matisse became an artist after studying law. foundamong many other groups of papercut these works as an elderly man confined to his bed or wheelchair. freer. serenity.. devoid of troubling Blue Nude 1 1952 413/4 HENRY MATISSE . his pattern.. as his w o r k matured." of is an art of balance.designer writer...or like a good armchair in which to rest from physical fatigue.sculptor.
Seurat evolved a distinctive t e c h n i q u e called p o i n t i l l i s m — i m a g e s literally made from myriad points of color. stands in counterpoise holding a dark globe and his thoughts in m o m e n t a r y balance. form. Here. Beuys's magician. only tones blending into. Seurat engaged in lifelong studies of line. it would have mixed with unseen black dust. Tone and light In this black conte drawing. agreeing to coalesce and show us the form of a waiting boy. Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 1883-84 91/2 x 121/4 in (241 x 312 m m GEORGES SEURAT . In his f a m o u s paintings of social e n g a g e m e n t . other tones. Using the paper to create light is important for beginners to learn. it is as if the very atoms of air are made visible. Below.112 T H E BODY Choreographs T I M E IS A SIGNIFICANT E L E M E N T i n t h e m a k i n g o f a l l d r a w i n g s . reflected. and muddied the brilliance of the drawing. there are no outlines. Light is given by the paper alone. like small birds attendant on the meditation. and color His applied theories still influence painters in their manipulation and rendering of local. and c o m p l e m e n t a r y hues. we c o m p a r e a skillful design that absorbed m u c h time in its making with the quickness of an idea marked instantly. velvet d a r k n e s s . scratched in seconds. If Seurat had added white. or abruptly meeting. 162) and an eraser to model teeming points of artificial light amid GEORGES SEURAT French painter classically educated in the Ingres school of thought. turned gray. he used b l a c k c o n t e (see p. T h e space around h i m chatters with symbols. His drawings are similarly u n i q u e . Typically. Opposite. in a perfect e x a m p l e . w h o sits propped in the contradictory darkness of a hot summer's day.
taught workshops with a cult following. This figure is drawn intuitively. transience. in different positions. Our focus joins shoulders. and drawings. He was a shaman who believed in intuition and in the investment of healing force. and that These aspects of the work convey fractured visibility. Perfectly modeled rather conventional for Joseph Focus Beuys's hand moved quickly to draw dotted lines flowing downward on either side of the figure. and made installations.113 JOSEPH BEUYS One of the most influential German artists of the 20th century. Beuys gave performances. Many of his other symbolic works on paper have been drawn with materials such as honey. His The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland UNDATED 113/4 J O S E P H BEUYS x81/4in (297 x 210 mm) . Unbroken lines stream from his simultaneously movement.gold. iodine. and blood. free from the constraint of immaculate form opposite) impetus is irrelevant to the and meaning of this work (as we see in Seurat's drawing representation. video art. CHOREOGRAPHS the profound power materials with spiritual or of Free lines This pale pencil drawing is Beuys.
125/8x 9 in (320 x 229 mm) AUGUSTE RODIN Two Women 1911 Embracing .114 BODY Passion SUMMONING HUMANITY in a drawing of the nude is a subtle and emotional task. Achieving international acclaim in mid-life. In Rodins work. sweeping lines— of either purple silk fabric or cool studio air—that imprint and amplify their past and future movements. Our bodies radiate the passion of our thoughts and so become beacons of our frailty and power. Paris. His exquisite flow of paint beyond "outlines. But what is stranger to us now is that they were also outraged by his free use of line. was perceived as scandalous. They whisper and writhe in a brushed and sultry embrace that devours our watching. Inspired by Michelangelo. Opposite. Delicate strokes This is one of about 7. his w o r k is characterized by deliberate un-finish and powerfully modeled emotion. he typically drew them with a few delicate strokes of pencil and brushed watercolor. and went on to inspire generations of artists. its soft. and one of hundreds of rapid studies of nudes. In both drawings." as seen here. the fierceness of the women's kiss is beautifully matched by the tenderness of his line. We are asked to gaze u p o n her flesh. Anita Taylor has drawn her protective body hug out of the darkly glistening compression of willow charcoal and the dynamism of her shy but momentous femininity. Free lines Rodin's public audience was understandably shocked by the eroticism of his drawings. flushed skin made ruddy and black with crushed cinders.000 drawings shown in rotation at the Musee Rodin. the women are framed and caressed by long. THE AUGUSTE RODIN French Romantic sculptor and prolific draftsman employed as an ornamental mason until the age of 42. Rodin employed models to move freely or pose together in his studio. We are involved not as a shabby voyeur but as a bystander engaged through our recognition of shared joy. As here. Rodin produced portraits and statues of public and literary figures.
and gaze.I 15 ANITA T A Y L O R Painter. London. Taylor's immense self-portraits explore the relationship between the artist as maker and the artist as model. Charcoal Taylor has drawn freely with charcoal and an eraser on thick. intimately reflecting upon the emotions and meaning of nudity. Luminosity Layered marks flicker likefirelight as they sculpt the woman's body. The sturdy surface of the sheet has allowed her to press hard when needed. A thinner sheet might have crumpled and torn under such vigorous force of making. textured paper. This order of light below and dark above gives glowing from within. professor and Vice Principal of Wimbledon School of Art. scrutiny. draftsman. the impression of luminosity All and Nothing 1999 67 x447/8in (170 x 1 1 4 cm) ANITA TAYLOR . erased and drawn again. and rework rich depths of light and tone. exposure. Taylor has drawn. leaving her lightest marks at the deepest level of the image and applying darker marks above.
There is no need to mark them all down on paper. If your arm is not straight. persistence. elongated as if stretched across the plaster. we would arrive to find many of the same figures strangely distorted. just making them helps you see. 3 Keep your pencil perpendicular Measure and compare at any angle. To avoid its effects ensure you always look flat onto the surface of your page. or coming forward. The length of exposed pencil is your measurement. unfathomable angles. In the life class it is the mechanism for ensuring that a drawn figure lies correctly in pictorial space . "Simple measured comparisons reveal surprising truths about proportion. and to draw what we see. more extreme examples have been made for court entertainment. 1 Hold your arm straight. It is not so hard. without taking off. or shrivelling at odd. the skull in Holbein's The Ambassadors (The National Gallery. Up close on the scaffold we would witness Michelangelo's subtle application of accelerated perspective. Lock your shoulder. It can also be a little demon in the life room. which is imperceptible from below. to be translated by mirrors or seen from only one point in the room. plummeting. Return to this posture every time. and a few measured comparisons are key. Imagine Michelangelo's murals in the Sistine Chapel. Spend time making comparisons before you draw. and measurements do not have to be carried to the paper and slavishly drawn the same size they appear on your pencil. when beginners prop their board in their lap and look down at too steep an angle.limbs happily receding. with dramatic illusions of figures painted in normal proportion. Close one eye. and wrist joints. But if we could take a scaffold and climb up to the work. 2 Hold your pencil upright. London). patience. helping us to see more clearly. Rome. MEASURING This is a simple method of making measured comparisons for relating the true size of one part to another This is a tool to assist observation and thinking. We also look at another very interesting branch called accelerated (or anamorphic) perspective. elbow. you will make inconsistent and unrelated comparisons. This is chiefly a correcting device by which figurative painters and sculptors have for centuries countered the effects of our viewing their work from far below or on the curvature of a vault. It is not complicated. How to make and apply these is explained below and opposite. Move the tip of your thumb down to a second chosen point. rather that what we believe we know from experience. Smaller. Accelerated perspective plays a great role in much art.116 T H E BODY Measurement and Foreshortening FORESHORTENING IS AN ASPECT of perspective. Align the top with a point on your subject." . for example.
See h o w d i f f e r e n t t h e relative heights o f t h e s e shapes are f r o m w h a t w e m i g h t e x p e c t in real life. MEASUREMENT AND FORESHORTENING Tilt t h e t o p edge o f this b o o k t o w a r d you and look d o w n o n this figure f r o m a b o v e . To m a k e f o r m s l o o k c o r r e c t . C o m p a r e t h e heights o f t h e nose and eye shapes t o t h o s e o f t h e f o r e a r m . pleasingly f o r e s h o r t e n e d . adjusting a n o n y m o u s shapes. T h i s is t h e s a m e d r a w i n g p h o t o g r a p h e d f r o m above. FORESHORTENING To f o r e s h o r t e n a figure. W e appear t o be looking d o w n o n a w o m a n s t a n d i n g b e n e a t h us. Stand its b o t t o m edge o n y o u r lap. y o u must let go o f w h a t y o u k n o w f r o m e x p e r i e n c e a b o u t t h e relative sizes o f b o d y parts and trust y o u r eyes. . W o r k a r o u n d t h e figure. belly. y o u r hand travels f a r t h e r than y o u expect. a n d thighs. h e r p r o p o r t i o n s will appear correct. which feels strange. Keep t h e b o a r d steady and draw. S o o n t h e b o d y will lie d o w n in space. P r o p o r t i o n s will only l o o k c o r r e c t f r o m t h e angle at w h i c h y o u make t h e drawing. L o o k at y o u r m o d e l as if he o r she is a flat series o f shapes o n e o n t o p o f a n o t h e r Measure t h e height and w i d t h o f each shape and c o m p a r e it t o its neighbor. looking d o w n t h e p a p e r at t h e a n g l e at w h i c h I d r e w .117 ACCELERATED PERSPECTIVE To discover h o w this w o r k s . A t a c e r t a i n angle. t a p e s o m e p a p e r t o a board. Lean t h e t o p e d g e t o w a r d y o u and find a p o s i t i o n w h e r e y o u can c o m f o r t a b l y l o o k d o w n t h e p a p e r at an angle o f a b o u t 4 0 degrees.
Be bold and dive into your drawing with c o n f i d e n c e . work back and forth across the body. and slightly enlarge her legs and feet. To draw this effect.118 BODY Quick Poses DRAWING QUICK POSES l o c k s y o u r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n t o what is most essential. height. Avoid drawing up one side and down the other. balance. T h i s q u i c k e x p l o r a t o r y line does not perfectly describe shape but expresses a decision about overall flow of form. make the upper body smaller give your model a high waist. Outline To outline a figure. and height. and energy. Start each new drawing by lightly marking the model's height with a loose line in ten seconds. because it results in two unrelated sides drifting apart. . Layered lines give d e p t h . her center of balance is normally found in a vertical line beneath her head. imagine holding up a plumb line. working from her center to her feet and to her head. propelling you to make immediate assessments and trust them. I used a sharp H B pencil and began each drawing by marking her outline. and work over t h e m with further o b s e r v a t i o n s . THE SEQUENCE OF POSES H e r e the model was asked to move every t w o minutes. Leave first thoughts in place. Balance When a model stands upright on both feet. Height This pose leans away into space above our eye level. To see this. and stance before honing her balance and expression. feeling.
Tilt Movement Here. This drawing shows how different observations be overlaid to bring a drawing alive. The tilt of the pelvis is then counter balanced by the model's shoulders tilting the other way (as seen here). . the activity of circular lines and the repetition of limbs suggest movement. and this should be avoided Twist QUICK POSES A model standing on one leg usually drops the opposite hip. Most of us have a tendency to over-straighten the drawn figure.119 The twist of a model is most easily and expressively captured if it is exaggerated.
3 . it is important to leave aside all details of the fingers and toes. drawn in relation to each other. Then subdivide each shape so that you w o r k from large to small. It also helps the beginner to progress from drawing outlines to drawing confidently across the surface of the whole form. swiftly marking its essential gesture. Focus instead on how planes change direction across the knuckles from one side of the hand or foot to the other. general to specific. and they need not be daunting to draw. especially the lengthwise divisions between them. feet. This exercise is useful when struggling with proportion. Do not separate them yet. Keep lines open to change and take measurements if they help. Group the fingers together as one mass. Don't worry about achieving perfect solutions. A mirror increases your range of views.120 BODY Hands and Feet THERE ARE MANY different ways of approaching h a n d s and THE of form. and a gooseneck lamp casts shadows that clarify planes and depths GESTURES OF THE HAND Curled Fingers 1 Open Palm Start honing the shapes of the dominant planes. 2 Build your drawing gradually from light to dark. Draw large shapes and their orientation. These planes. but regard these practice studies as ongoing processes of thought and observatio Add details such as nails last if you wish. Begin by drawing lines to encompass the whole hand. or those of a friend. starting with the largest. Practice by drawing your own hands and feet. and ignore all details. W h e n starting. express structure and gesture far more successfully and easily than ten worried outlines wandering up and down between the fingers and toes.
Hew it roughly in broad. and spontaneity. . flattened planes. as if with a chisel.121 HANDS AND FEET MOVEMENTS OF THE FOOT Flat Stance Raised Heel Instep 1 Let your first marks be light. and don't worry about accuracy t o begin with. Nowimagineyou are carving the foot insidethepaper. t o remove t o o many early lines. 2 3 Use an eraser t o refine decisions o r t o suggest areas o f light.as though out o f wood. depth. Leave aside all detail. Try t o express the whole foot and t o encapsulate its entire shape and direction in a few marks. It can be a mistake. these are what give a drawing its tangible structure. loose. however. and rapid. Look for key angles without becoming distracted by detail.
204-05. The white lines demonstrate what is often called "bracelet shading. Compare its nature in close-up to that of willow charcoal used on pp." . I also used white ink with a steel dip pen. Opposite.Charcoal Hands T H E S E DRAWINGS ARE MADE in compressed charcoal.
HERE TRACES OF RAPID initial lines are still seen within and outside each body. I make these lines in the first five to ten seconds of a drawing to locate the presence. 118-19). Phrasing Contours . and posture of the model. before honing his or her shape (see pp. length.
Forms. and narrative pulse become vivid when you realize them in the middle of your study. . It is now viewed with some skepticism and often seen as academic. Drawing work by another artist enables you to discover and understand the inventive hand in their composition. perspectives. feeling them through the attentive movements of your own hand. I draw in museums in support of written research and as an artist seeking answers to questions about the practicalities of image making.The Visual Detective DRAWING FROM MASTERWORKS was once a staple component of an artist's education. characters.
each modeled from dissection. 126-27. Florence. Life-size women wearing wigs recline on beds of embroidered silk in cabinets of mahogany and Venetian glass This is a detail of a compressed charcoal drawing measuring 14 x 10 ft (4.3 x 3 m) made in response to La Specola. Walls are lined with hundreds of faintly animated body parts. .La Specola At17V i a Romana. These almost life-size figures were composed from my imagination and achieved with the help af studies discussed on pp. there is a unique museum of 18th-century anatomical waxes.
you can capture the subtlety. his changes in pressure and Hitchcock length o f line.Portraiture IN P O R T R A I T U R E W E MEET PEOPLE. and lucrative genre for artists. buttons. and their posture can be changed with just one line. draftsman. . and satirical or metaphorical. the meaning of their face. became more poignant as he progressed. W h e n drawing a person.139). gathered all that he knew FRANCISCO DE GOYA V i s i o n a r y Spanish painter. historical. bells. made as he passed through the ages of man. Our homes are filled with images of our loved ones and of those in our families who have gone before. throat. Movie director Alfred similarly signed his films by playing a fleeting role: he walks through an extra. usually strangers from past times. neck. Self-portraiture gives every artist a constant. having been documented and preserved. Rembrandt's famous multitude of self-portraits. we use the delicate medium of silver point to look at foundation structures of the head. and p r i n t m a k e r . In this chapter. painters have dropped discreet records of themselves into commissioned narratives so that they can remain a face in the crowd. and shoulders. and it is very rewarding. The truth is that we all like looking at faces and observing the billions of variations that make us individuals. look directly at us. in a miniature self-portrait magnified opposite. or past us. Past rulers sent painters across continents to bring back a likeness in advance of a prospective royal marriage. and secular narratives. and in a few scrolling rafts of pen lines and stubbled dots. 1790-92 4 x 3 in ( 1 0 2 x 7 6 m m ) F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A and memorize the basic structure that we all share. is here to both meet and look through us. and expression of the individual. Goya's w o r k s include many royal and society p o r t r a i t s . For centuries. single or of groups. This enlargement o f his miniature p o r t r a i treveals t h e s p e e d and agility o f his p e n and about himself. a single line can deliver an entire expression. compliant subject to scrutinize. Man Ray's self-portrait of scored lines. their stance. and social and political commentaries. We can mold and animate qualities of expression out of objects and fragments of disassociated things—for example. Halls and palaces are filled with pictures of the mighty and significant. Equally. who. character. religious. abstract or figurative. To create a face is to see and interpret the essence of an identity. live. Beginners often draw themselves as a way of establishing their practice. and a handprint (see p. Once you understand Self-Portrait in a Cocked Hat c. Portraits can be highly or loosely detailed. or a glimpse of him is caught in a photograph used as a prop. We are also reassured by keeping records of ourselves. It also reminds us o f b o t h t h e intimacy and a scene as scrutiny o f an honest portrait. The returning image was of crucial consideration in any proposal. or whose eyes can seem to follow us around the room Portraiture is a constant. Goya.
132 PORTRAITURE Poise THE BALANCE BETWEEN a mark and a blank space is often a tantalizing form of perfection. one eye already cast askew into the autumn of her life. and pressure as it conducts our eye through the image. we can enjoy and learn from them. For the beginner. caught in her last moments of youth. Holbein maps the still landscape of Dorothea's body in questioning marks. Without faltering. whisking a timeless girl onto the page. PABLO PICASSO Spanish Cubist painter (see also p. The truth is often the opposite. While with longer consideration.30). How could the addition of shadows have enhanced this image? Few strokes The simplicity of Picasso's line is breathtaking. Her face is drawn tenderly and with a luminous glow. Picasso strikes and scrolls his pencil. Through exhibitions and copies in books. The Tightness of a line is felt in its speed. The aesthetic sense of a line being just right can make a drawing sing. Picasso has left to posterity many hundreds of magnificent line drawings. hand to capture something well in only Frangoise au Bandeau 1946 660 x 505 mm (26 x197/8in) PABLO PICASSO . There is a common misunderstanding that a drawing with only a few lines is both less finished and easier to make than a drawing with more. length. He makes his flair and skill look easy. We can actually count that he struck the paper 40 times. Here the grace and beauty of two young women are held forever. teetering on the brink of older age. breadth. We can read so much about them by studying their gaze. stealthily using his chalk to find contours and mass. It takes a truly accomplished a few strokes. It is the portrait of a countrywoman. they serve as a great lesson that it is not always necessary to add tone to your drawing. adding smudges of tone for weight and solidity.
Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 1516 51/8 x121/4in (385 x 310 m m ) HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER . and produced numerous society portraits such as this one here. and designer f r o m Basel. Cropping This regal composition fits its paper perfectly. he designed c o u r t costumes. gently flushed. made a popular series o f w o o d c u t prints titled The Dance of Death. Holbein was employed toward the end of his life by King Henry VIII of England. In addition t o his numerous exquisite portraits in oil. and its downward slope crowns the diagonal of the composition. Blended colors In this portrait drawn with colored chalks on slightly textured paper.133 HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER German p o r t r a i t painter draftsman. Holbein unified the woman with her background by gently blending colors from her clothes and face into the atmosphere around her. which. Her folded forearms support and frame her weight above. The peak of her cap clips the uppermost edge. presses against the binding across her face. Holbein has cropped and pinned his subject within the four outermost lines of the image—the edges of the page. He outlined her nose but not her upper lip.
Delicate muscles are integrated with the skin and fat that is to be r e m o v e d . perhaps applied using a tortillon. Psychological drama is contained behind a grid. This is a m a r v e l o u s interpretation of the truth. blood vessels. It floats in space. Anatomically. The real dissection w o u l d have been far more c o m p l e x . taught at numerous British art schools from 1962-77. continues to exhibit regularly. Nerves. In fact. while white painted flecks and wisps suggest electrical illumination. distorted. Contrasts Sharp. but they are irrelevant here. This is one of a number of similar disembodied female heads seen behind. using a fine and relatively 1982 13 x 181/8 in (328 x 460 mm) VICTOR NEWSOME brush. Highlights of white gouache were dry Profile Head late in the making. London. solid above and almost hollow below. dark tones of graphite blended into the paper. the face is one of the hardest parts to dissect. VICTOR NEWSOME British sculptor painter and draftsman.134 PORTRAITURE Anatomies These highly finished drawings express the emotional power and physicality of the head and neck. N e w s o m e ' s eerily shadowed form is smooth and bears a linear grain evocative of w o o d . or defined by. and has works in major collections including the Tate Gallery. and unpleasant to see. Newsome was awarded the Prix de Rome in 1960. the contours of a grid. . The style of Durelli's d r a w i n g opposite sings with the confidence of truth and precision. confusing. and glands also complicate form. its highly clarified detail claiming to be d r a w n from observation. dark lines made with a pencil appear against smooth. Durelli has m a d e a few m i n o r mistakes.
which. Pencil numbers refer to the list of muscles written beneath. w h e n contracted. Durelli's experience as an engraver is reflected in his stylized drawing o f muscle fibers. Red Chalk the Muscles 1837 173/8 x 145/8 in ( 4 4 0 x 3 7 2 m m ) ANTONIO DURELLI and Pencil Drawing and of Neck of the Head Little is k n o w n o f this M i l a n e s e p a i n t e r a n d engraver w h o c a m e from a family o f artists. Stylized parallel lines are reminiscent of engravings. pull their points o f attachment t o w a r d each other . It is hard to think of a more difficult medium with which to achieve such linear perfection.135 ANATOMIES ANTONIO DURELLI Linear perfection This is a red chalk drawing of extraordinary accomplishment. and it is likely that this drawing was intended for reproduction as a print.
with speed and urgency. necks. Energy This is a portrait of a woman drawn with black crayon on a plain page of a book Lines search for the essence of form. Agitated marks make patches of tone that cut away the space around the character. Speed Giacometti probably began with an oval shape placed in relation to the proportion of the page. as if seen from a distance. They show us clearly the bones of drawing. They confuse our perception of scale by being intimately fragile and at the same time far removed.136 PORTRAITURE THESE ARE DRAWINGS of shoulders. Portrait de Marie-Laure de Noailles c. each portrait is inscribed onto the page. each locked into a visionary gaze. Without paint and with very little tone. Bellini gently conjures the features of his saint with soft marks that tease his presence out of shadows into the light. He is best known for his bronze sculptures of human form. Then. which are characteristically elongated. Flesh is built and personality carved simultaneously. There is a film of Giacometti drawing. Opposite. painter draftsman. and heads. Similar movements sculpted the head below into its page. close enough to touch his hair and feel his breath. ALBERTO GIACOMETTI Swiss sculptor. cutting and carving the paper with matted and spiraling restless energy. he drew over the whole image at once. Giacometti settled in Paris. while his hand stabs and thrusts Revelations like a conductors baton. We are brought intimately close to this man gazing up to heaven. and poet After studying in Geneva and Italy. The camera watches him at work. and with staccato flinches his hyperactive eye moves from paper to model. Both works demonstrate how simple lines can be made complex by being intense. 1948 77/8 x 6 in (200 x 150 mm) ALBERTO GIACOMETTI .
a n d c o n t e m p l a t i v e . Head and Shoulders of a Man 73/8 x 21/4 in ( 1 8 6 x 5 8 UNDATED GIOVANNI BELLINI . Bellini s t u d i e d u n d e r his f a t h e r J a c o p o . H e p r e f e r r e d religious t o classical t h e m e s . transferring which were made in the process of the saint to his final place in the composition of a painting (see Glossary pp. Transfer This delicate humorous chalk a drawing is a cartoon—not image but a type of template used to plan the composition of a larger work Look closely and you will see rows of tiny dots along every significant line in the picture.25 6 . These are pinholes. Sometimes different narrative same character was reused in compositions. lyrical.G I O V A N N I BELLINI A prominent member of a large family o f V e n e t i a n painters. a n d b r o t h e r in-law. Character This is one of many cartoons produced by Bellini the and his family.5 9 ) . Mantegna. H e t a u g h t G i o r g i o n e Barbarelli and Titian. a n d his w o r k is d i s t i n c t i v e l y calm.
similar to work by Cy Twombly (see p. In 1986 he traveled to Africa and showed his work in Abidjan on the Ivory Coast He also exhibited in Germany and France. The figure's position is unequivocal and defiant while around him is in a state Without the essential of cultural and figure we would elegant belookingat a sophisticated painting of signs. It is an image of confrontation—the ever-controversial young artist roars at us from his abstract city-scape. and confrontations with. Islands of graphic marks. Man Ray's playful silk-screen assembly of color blocks. scrolls. and indulgence. scratched lines. spear-brandishing warrior. bells. Self Portrait 1982 9 4 x 7 6 in (239 x 193 cm) JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT . float and shimmer in the shallow pictorial space. and sheet metal before being snapped up by the New York contemporary art scene. JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT Short-lived American painter and graffiti artist who began his blazing nine-year career drawing on lower Manhattan subway trains with a friend. It is an opportunity to look deep without the infringement of courtesies owed to a commissioning sitter.138 PORTRAITURE THE MIRROR OF SELF-PORTRAITURE offers artists infinite reflections of. political outcry. humor. Al Diaz. It has proved to be a subject of piercing scrutiny. drawn. their most immediate and best-known subject: themselves. skull- Self-Portraits headed. and everything flux. The artist has finished his portrait with the signature of his hand smacked in the middle like a kiss: a declaration of existence as old as man's first drawing. postcards. a tribal. made with great energy. and attitudes. Later Basquiat sold drawings on T-shirts. scratched into its surface. The incandescent New York painter Jean Michel Basquiat pictured himself here in naked silhouette. and buttons rings with surrealist wit and agile improvisation. marks. Signs and symbols with symbols This painting shudders that ore written. signing their work SAMO.221).
printmaker and cofounder of the New York Dada movement. The first part of the stenciled image was already marked on the silk The screen and paper were then held tightly together. During the 1920's and 30s. The handprint appears to be made directly. They suggest speed and make the picture look immediate and spontaneous. Man Ray probably used his own hand. Black ink was printed next and then white. painter. last of all. Man Ray lived and worked in Paris. They experimented with camera-free photography working directly onto photographic paper Silk and ink This is a silkscreen print made through the following process: the paper was laid on a flat surface and a frame stretched with fine silk was placed on top. Autoportrait 1916 195/8 MAN RAY .139 MAN RAY American surrealist photographer. while a squeegee was used to drag thick lilac-brown ink across the silk pushing it though exposed areas onto the paper below. where he collaborated with the artist Laslo MoholyNagy. caked in thick printing ink or paint. Frame White lines are seemingly (though not actually) scratched through ink to frame this face.
Lightly s p o n g e o f f t h e excess. you will need t o stretch paper and lay a wash (see right and opposite). and t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h strips a b o v e and b e l o w . Drawn across a prepared surface. b u t d o n ' t w o r r y . and is therefore useful w h e n using w a t e r c o l o r as well as silver point. Metal point does not work on ordinary paper. I combined silver point with painted white gouache on a pink ground. SILVER W I R E : Purchase different gauge lengths f r o m a traditional a r t supplier o r jeweler. platinum. I t is a v a i l a b l e f r o m all a r t s h o p s . Note h o w domestic paintwork marks with a coin. SILVER P O I N T W I R E H O L D E R : T h e s e c a n b e p u r c h a s e d a n d t e n d t o b e heavy. bone. Historically. 2. 2 . I m a k e m y o w n f r o m o l d dip pens. copper. and make o r buy a holder. 156). 1. Take a sheet o f any t y p e o f p a p e r (for e x a m p l e . or wood. W e t a n d fix a s e c o n d strip t o t h e o p p o s i t e side. Z I N C W H I T E G O U A C H E : Dilute with w a t e r A d d c o l o r i f r e q u i r e d (as opposite) 4 . Pages 142 to 147 are illustrated in silver point and techniques are explained on pp. or ring. Numerous early European artists also enjoyed its fine qualities (see p. the surface must be primed with a ground such as gouache. 1 4 4 . Straighten the w o r s t buckles. For i m p o r t a n t a d v i c e o n p r e p a r a t i o n a n d use. If w o r k i n g o n an emulsion-painted wall. choose a silver object. who used it to outline initials and border characters before painting. p a r c h m e n t . W e t o n e length o f g u m . Gesso o r m a t t e m u l s i o n c a n a l s o b e u s e d .Tear o f f f o u r lengths o f b r o w n p a p e r g u m tape. The most c o m m o n metal has always been silver—hence the term "silver point.54) can also b e used. o n e t o fit each side o f t h e b o a r d — t h e s e will make t h e glued f r a m e t h a t holds y o u r p a p e r in place. w h i t e d r a w i n g paper) and cut it t o fit y o u r d r a w i n g b o a r d w i t h a generous b o r d e r a r o u n d its edges. Find a n i t e m t h a t y o u can h o l d a n d draw with comfortably. an exciting indication of how large-scale drawings could be made on a wall. b e f o r e priming stretched paper. key. s e e p . and alloys work on matt emulsion. c h o o s e a s o f t full b r u s h t h a t c a n c a r r y p l e n t y o f l i q u i d . 3 . Be swift and firm. Stretched paper remains taut as a d r u m . and gold have also been used.140 PORTRAITURE Silver P o i n t SILVER OR METAL POINT STRETCHING PAPER A sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has been made w e t with the strokes o f a paintbrush will buckle d u e t o its uneven expansion. 144-45. artists mixed white lead. S O F T F U L L B R U S H : W h e n laying a w a s h . s o m e m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n o t h e r s . T h e p a p e r will l o o k b u c k l e d . laid on paper. MATERIALS 1 Find a clean sponge and b o w l o r d e e p t r a y a n d fill it w i t h w a t e r W e t t h e p a p e r evenly in t h e t r a y o r o n t h e b o a r d . which quickly oxidizes into a gray line. Opposite." Lead.s t r i p a n d use i t t o fix o n e side o f t h e p a p e r t o t h e b o a r d . was familiar to or eggshells with animal glue. illuminators of medieval m a n u s c r i p t s . purchase silver wire.54-55). E m p t y mechanical pencils designed f o r t h i c k leads ( s e e p. S i l v e r is b e s t . Lay a clean d r a w i n g b o a r d o n a flat surface. 5. M a k e s u r e i t is c o m p l e t e l y clean t o avoid u n w a n t e d streaks. This browns with age unless sealed by fixative (see pp. M E T A L OBJECTS: All metal objects m a r k a p r e p a r e d surface. Metal point is simply a strip of metal bound in a holder. it leaves a deposit. To begin. This is called a three-tone drawing.
Here. It will slowly straighten and become taut. so put newspaper under the lower edge. I used a powder pigment called Caput Mortuum. any extra will keep. Make enough to cover your paper. LAYING A WASH It your stretched paper so as to prime it for silver point. T h r e e . slowly add powder pigment or gouache from a tube. Dry thoroughly before laying a wash. Make an even line across to the right. Reload the brush and add a second line overlapping it beneath. as the paper will be ruined by a raised ridge. Mix a very wet but not weak solution of gouache in a jar with a lid (add pigment at this stage for a three-tone drawing). and let tests dry before deciding to change the mixture. The next step will make a small mess. overlapping lines until you reach the bottom. is necessary to lay a wash o Three-tone When coloring ground. Beware of the tape's coming loose at any point while drying. Keep testing on spare paper. Dip a soft. full brush into the gouache and start in the top left corner. stretched paper at a 45-degree angle. leaving a smooth surface. Runs blend into each other evenly. Leave the wash to dry thoroughly before you begin to draw.141 SILVER POINT 3 Leave the paper to dry flat. Keep adding smooth. Prop up your board of dry. v e r y little at a time.t o n e silver point drawing of a skull .
Head and Neck
THE HEAD AND NECK are best conceived as one unit arranged in four parts: cranium, face, neck, and throat. Each is of equal importance. The cranium is essentially egg-shaped and pivots on the first vertebra. The face is suspended beneath, like a softly curved triangle. The n e c k — a powerful, shapely column of layered muscles rigged to vertebrae—adjusts and holds the angle and expression of the head. The throat is delicate, hard, and lumpy to the touch, formed of cartilaginous rings, glands, thin muscles, and looser skin. Framing the throat, two columnar neck muscles (sternomastoids) project the head forward and also turn it to the opposite side.
This is a simple shorthand diagram representing the cranium, face, neck, and throat. It can be learned and visualized in different positions very easily, giving the novice a firm footing on which to stand and develop their drawings of the head and neck.
Cranium Begin with an egg shape. Tilt it on the paper to change the position of the head.
Face Draw a rounded triangular shape below the forward point of the egg to represent the face.
Neck This shape represents the trapezius; the largest surface muscle of the neck and shoulders.
Throat A triangular shape represents the throat. (The nose makes the diagram clearer)
After copying the diagram above, animate it. Practice drawing the cranium at different angles, add the face beneath, then the neck, shoulders, and throat. Shape your diagrams so they are more lifelike, but avoid adding detailed features too soon.
143 These three drawings demonstrate (from left to right) the following: why the cranium may be considered egg-shaped; now the face can be seen as a curved triangle suspended beneath and where the division lies between the two; and the form of sternomastoid muscles that frame thethroatsodistinctlywhen the head is turned and inclined forward.
The skull and the frame of the throat
HEAD AND NECK
Bones of the cranium are locked together by jagged joints. Sinuses in the frontal (forehead) bone between and beneath the eyebrows are larger in men, making their brows pronounced and often ridged compared to those of women.
Bones of the face house our sight, smell, taste, The skull pivots on the first vertebra or "atlas," and speech. Cartilage extending from nasal bones after the Greek god condemned to carry the shapesthenose.Pads of fat resting on the base of Earth. The jaw hinges in front of the ears. Behind, eacheyesocket support the eyeballs in position. If bony ridges give anchor to the sternomastoid thefatisreducedby old age, eyes look sunken. muscles rising from the breast- and collarbones.
Three useful generalizations
General rules about the relative positions of body parts can hinder artists as much as help them, since they are often based on classical ideals rather than thediversityoflife.However,some generalizations can help as a rough guide to start with, so long as good observation takes over as soon as possible.
In general, when the face is relaxed (not smiling or frowning), the corners of the mouth are found directly beneath the pupils of the eyes. Vertical lines can be drawn down from the pupils to meet the corners of the mouth.
The height of a young adult's ear is often the same as their nose and found on the same level. There is no general rule for growing children, and remember that ears grow again in old age, which is most obvious in men.
The height of the face is about the length of the handspan and the eye is normally halfway down the total height of the head. A common error is to draw the eyes too high up on the face.
T H E DELICACY OF SILVER POINT
(see pp. 140-41) is perfect for
such as a beach pebble. Here, I stretched drawing paper and laid a wash of white gouache (see pp.140-41). As you can see, the line and tone of silver point varies with pressure, but only slightly. Too much pressure cuts the ground. Silver point erases, but so does ground. Erased ground can be repaired gently with extra gouache. You can also use gouache to paint over mistakes and make corrections.
small, detailed drawings. The drawings below and opposite show useful observations of the head and neck, which are explained in the captions below. Each drawing was made with a silver wire held in a large-gauge mechanical pencil. Newly clipped wires are sharp and cut rather than draw. Before use, they need to be rubbed and smoothed on a stone
Here I imagined placing my silver point wire against the skin of each head and neck and, working in parallel bands from the crown downward, I traced the undulation of surfaces. Linear bands imagined around the head and neck can help you t o clearly see the tilt of the head and relative levels of the features. Ask a friend t o model for you and try this exercise life-size using a pencil and eraser
Seeing that the face is never flat
Drawings below left and center are summaries of the generalizations given on p.143. Far right is an image to remind us that the face is never flat. It slopes back to varying degrees among individuals, from the tip of the nose t o the ears. For example, note that the innermost corners of the eyes are farther forward in space than the outermost corners.
General measurements, side
General measurements, front
View from above
Male and female head and neck
Men's necks a r e g e n e r a l l y s h o r t e r a n d t h i c k e r t h a n w o m e n ' s b e c a u s e t h e angles a n d levels o f c e r t a i n b o n e s a r e d i f f e r e n t b e t w e e n t h e sexes ( i n d i c a t e d h e r e b y d o t t e d lines) a n d m e n are n o r m a l l y m o r e muscular. T h e male t h y r o i d cartilage ( A d a m ' s apple) is larger a n d m o r e visible than t h e f e m a l e . L a r g e r f e m a l e t h y r o i d glands also s o f t e n t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e t h r o a t .
The largest m u s c l e o f t h e s h o u l d e r s a n d n e c k is called the trapezius. A r r a n g e d on e i t h e r side o f t h e spine, it shapes t h e u p p e r back and neck above the s h o u l d e r blades. C o n t r a c t i n g in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h d e e p e r and surrounding muscles, it raises and l o w e r s t h e shoulders a n d d r a w s t h e h e a d backtoeitherside.
USING A SHARP 3 B PENCIL, I drew this head quickly from imagination, evolving its character and expression from the scheme of four parts: cranium, face, neck, a n d throat (see p. 142). Here, five steps show you how to practice doing the same. This approach can be used to draw from imagination or from life. Keep your wrist loose and hold your pencil away from its point (see pp.22-23). Build the layers of your drawing from pale to dark, a n d from general balance a n d form to specific detail. Remember that successful drawings are built on foundations of "seeing the whole," then dividing the whole into smaller parts, with details brought in last of all. Phrased tonal marks modeling this girls skin and hair follow the technique demonstrated by Goya in his self-portrait on p. 130. Turn to Goya's drawing and study how, in a circle beginning across his hat, moving down his hair, and around his coat, he flows lines over surfaces to describe their contour. As you build from steps 1 to 5, bring phrased groups of lines across the surfaces of your form, using their directions to capture the expression of the head and neck. If unsure, copy my steps until you gain the confidence to make your own decisions.
This drawing is the final stage of the four steps opposite. Here, I have enlarged the eye, and moved it back into the head by trimming the length of the upper lid and adding a more pronounced lower lid. It is important to set eyes far enough back from the relatively prominent nose; too close to it and the face flattens. Hair swept back and extended behind the cranium balances the regal pose. Lines shaping the hair echo those marking the cranium in step 1. Here, the lower part of step 1 comes through as wisps of hair across her face and ear
Portrait of a Young Girl
Moving from the back of the neck. so it is important to the life of the image that while controlled. down the face to the throat. 3 Place the eye beneath the cranium. Here. avoid drawing too dark. I used light to describe the upper lid first with a shadow beneath for the lower lid and open eye. I modeled the outline of the character I imagined light shining from above and in front and adjusted the pressure of lines to reflect this. 2 Rapidly add shorthand shapes to represent the face. The eye announces the nature and expression of the emerging person. too soon. The nose and ear begin to shape the head. First lines will remain visible in the final drawing.Theangle at which you draw this shape of the paper will determine the angle of the finished head. over the cranium. 4 . and throat. they are also still sweeping and confident.147 Building up the portrait DRAWING PORTRAITS 1 Gently spin pale lines in a softly drawn shape representing the cranium. neck. Keep your first lines light.
. Above all.T o DRAW PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGES. the texture of hair. a n d t h o s e w h o a r e Generations asleep (see overleaf). be aware of the subtle differences in skin surface. empathize. muscular tension. and gravity.
Castings DRAWING IN THE PRADO MUSEUM. Fast lines carve out the features of Goya's soup-slurping hag. Madrid. Van Dyke's noble cast of characters was modeled more finely. I used the nib upside down to gain needle-sharp precision. seeking the dominant contours of each individual expression. with a steel dip pen and acrylic ink. .
personality. woman was drawn by Bakst one year later for the ballet Narcisse. T h e e n t o u r a g e of the theatrical stage o f t e n l e a d s the c a t w a l k . outrageous. toParis. arichand unusual combination of pencil. a n d w e will c o l l e c t patterns. known as Leon Bakst. . and e x u b e r a n c e . of Scheherazade. g l o s s y folds. Practical classes Bacchante 1911 l o o k at r a n g e s of c o l o r e d m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d i n g p a s t e l s a n d felt-tip p e n s . caricatured p l u m e s . it is the public sign by w h i c h w e are j u d g e d . he and cofounder Serge Diaghilev took Paris by eac storm in 1910 with their production h year in the industrial f r e n z y of creating o u r image and aspirations. e m u l a t e textures. c o s t u m e o f f e r s a r i c h v o c a b u l a r y of t e x t u r e s a n d c o l o r . variety. w h i c h in turn feed c o n s u m e r Lev. for e x a m p l e — d e s i g n e d the w a r d r o b e s of p o p e s a n d k i n g s . b u t influenced Parisian fashion and interiordecor. articulate a d a n g e r o u s satirical j o k e . In psychology. c u l t u r e . intriguing. and even invisible by the w a y w e dress. and atmosphere. Petersburg and later exiled designers' ideas and are surprised and delighted b y their continual f l o w of inspiration. W e dress ourselves and costume designer trained in in St. and be so expressive of temperament that it overtakes the need for an o c c u p y i n g h u m a n form. or b u l g e s . gesture. a n d c o u r t i e r tailors f o l l o w e d suit. Artists do this not so m u c h b y the style of a figure's garment.This voluptuous above all a physical p u p p e t w i t h w h i c h to animate character and narrate personality.Costume W E MAKE OURSELVES EXOTIC. fulfilling lavish and spectacular briefs. T h e rural masses w o r e h o m e s p u n simplicity. and s y m b o l s that lets m e n and w o m e n in all countries and areas have w o r k i n g access to the latest fashions. a n d s u b t l e t o n e s .As artistic director of the It is s h o c k i n g to t h i n k h o w m a n y m i l l i o n s of d r a w i n g s m u s t be m a d e a n d d i s c a r d e d Ballet Russe. and gouache. o n l y the w e a l t h y c o u l d afford to h a v e c o s t u m e s specially m a d e . so that c h o i c e . and i n d e e d image b e c a m e the property also of the industrial classes. Samoylovich Rosenberg. S t r u c t u r e is t h o u g h the i n v e n t i o n of shoes. and everything w e h a v e c h o s e n for o u r w a r d r o b e s — r e f l e c t o r s of o u r taste. st 111/4 x 81/2 in (285 x 220 mm) u d i e d L E O NB A K S T and explore the characterization of fabric t h r o u g h m o v e m e n t . shapes. Designers all over the w o r l d c o n t i n u a l l y p e n and b r u s h lines to lash us w i t h color. cool. charcoal. or calm u s w i t h chic. Cities c h a n g e d all. while court p a i n t e r s — M i c h e l a n g e l o and Holbein. In this c h a p t e r w e see h o w c l o t h i n g c a n s e e m to p o s s e s s the w e i g h t and m o n u m e n t a l i t y of stone. a n d p r o f e s s i o n — b e g a n life as a d r a w i n g . Bakst's designs and costumes immediately To the fine artist. P o p u l a r f a s h i o n d e s i g n e x p l o d e d w i t h the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n . Like it or not. and intent. c r u m p l e s . D e s i g n e r s create m a s t e r p i e c e s of haute couture LEON BAKST for H o l l y w o o d stars. T h e p a p e r p a t t e r n is p e r h a p s the m o s t w i d e l y k n o w n of c o s t u m e d r a w i n g s : a formalized plan of lines. w a r m t h . was a Belarussian A r t Deco theater fantasies and desires to immediately possess a version of the same. dancer leaps through swaths of golden cloth. theb u t b y the w a y it s p e a k s w i t h its flying. Previously.
However. dragons. it is only possible to create very thin. Opposite. Delicate marks Silver (or metal) point is the most delicate of traditional drawing media (see pp. the vaulted stone roof echoes and crowns the moment. the carefully composed outline of his cloak shows us how the artist would have also begun his immaculate rendering of the Virgin's clothes. Van Eyck's highly polished w o r k is c e l e b r a t e d f o r its disguised symbolism. Vertical lines The highly controlled lines of this drawing cascade from top to bottom of the image. Their uninterrupted emphasis is entirely vertical. He has layered these slowly and carefully so as not to cut through the ground and produce a white mark just where he intended a dark one. with their jagged edges. her marble garment holds u p the infant Christ in a fountain of compressed line. Flaxmans sleeper—perhaps a pilgrim or a soldier resting between campaigns—has wedged himself into the cleft of some great building to grab a moment of peace. Below this. Church and deities are drawn as JAN VAN EYCK Flemish oil p a i n t e r f r o m L i m b o u r g . and the kneeling abbot is a ghost by comparison. With a stylus such as Van Eyck used here. folds and patterns of material speak more resolutely of their wearers than any small glimpses of body we can see. best k n o w n f o r his G h e n t altarpiece ( 1 4 3 2 ) a n d m a r r i a g e p o r t r a i t o f Giovanni A r n o l f i n i and his w i f e (1434). Short and subtle horizontal punctuations are only given in the background by sections of floor. Above them. swirling printed fabrics. Her gown is carved and polished as if made from marble. and implied striation in the stone of the architecture.140-41). H e m e t i c u l o u s l y a r r a n g e d subjects t o c o n v e y d e e p e r meaning. and snakelike marks. bands around the columns. resonate with their wearers startled expression.156 COSTUME Cloth and Drapery EACH OF THESE FIGURES is ninety percent cloth. the Madonna and her architecture are both dressed in the same manner. Marble gown We will never know if Van Eyck considered this drawing unfinished or intended the kneeling abbot to remain transient and ghostly. In Van Eyck's drawing below. Maelbeke I44I Madonna 11 x 7 in (278 x 180 m m ) JAN V A N EYCK . The quiet stillness of this image is achieved by a masterly economy of stylized line. Keisai Eisen's intense. Sculpted one. delicate lines.
the angle of the head. draftsman. each delivering a different part and color of the design. one over the other. which are sometimes also cut into pieces like a jigsaw puzzle. he also co-edited and expanded the Ukiyo-e Ruiko (History of Prints of the Floating World).157 KEISAI EISEN Japanese draftsman. The inked block is laid face-down on damp paper and pressed to make the print. Remaining raised areas of wood are rolled with colored inks. Koimurasaki of Tama-ya 1810-50 15 x101/4in (381 x 260 mm) KEISAI EISEN The Courtesan JOHN F L A X M A N English late 18th-century neoclassical sculptor. CLOTH AND DRAPERY Relief printing This is a woodblock print made by a relief process. the cloak sliding to the ground. Position In this pen and ink drawing. designer. and Man Lying Down in a Cloak I 787-94 21/4 JOHN FLAXMAN x 41/8 in (57 x 105 mm) . Respected for his sumptuous images of geisha and editions of erotic prints. stone wall of downward-stroked this sleeper's position is momentary. This complex numerous blocks prepared image and may have been made with printed separately. Parts of the image to be left unprinted are gouged out with a metal tool. and the feet notched against the pillar tell us that A lines holds him into the cleft. and teacher Distinctive linear illustrations for the works of Homer. Images are drawn onto smooth. Dante. flat sheets of wood. Aeschylus earned Flaxman an international reputation. writer and printmaker Keisai Eisen took his name from the masters Kano Hakkeisai and Kikugawa Eizan. an 18th-19th century document on the lives of the ukiyo-e artists.
a n d w a s e m p l o y e d as c o u r t painter t o King Charles I. Fine examples can be plucked from fashion. and even formal portraiture. and feather were all CHARACTER COSTUMES REPRESENT observed with closely crafted conviction. He has been rendered on this olive<olored page with pen and gray wash worked over a red and black under-drawing. theater. Leg sections in both support the figure without taking our attention away from the main garment above. Van D y k e was chief assistant t o Rubens f o r t w o years. lace. for she would not have been amused and William Wodall might have been stretching his luck. Opposite is a dangerous drawing. cartoon. cloth. Its color is also reflected in the metal. cinema. t h r o u g h n u m e r o u s p o r t r a i t and C h u r c h commissions. The metal. The aged queen is compared to an overdressed bird. A flamboyant territory. Details and voices are worn externally with great imagination. Leg section Compare mid-shin the section of white boots cropped to the section of similarly cropped trousers in drawings Gruau's drawing on p. Man in Armor UNDATED 1 6 x 9 1 / 2 in ( 4 0 5 x 2 4 0 m m ) A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE . where sometimes there just might not be anybody inside. Pen and wash In the graphic accuracy of this armored knight we see the idealized identity of a warrior from another time: a gleaming defender of the realm. Flowing scarf The knight's scarf of gilded blue is drawn in a pale wash over red ink lines. he c o o l e d and redefined his style.158 COSTUME Character Costumes an extreme form of the clothed figure. In 1 6 3 2 he m o v e d p e r m a n e n t l y t o L o n d o n . b e f o r e traveling t o Italy. all ruffs and wrinkles. w h e r e . A s a y o u n g man. Its warm surface flows in contrast to the stiff metal armor. It is presumed Her Royal Highness never saw it. A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE Flemish painter and draftsman. a scurrilous cartoon by a courtier of Queen Elizabeth I. The slight uncertainty of the pose and the limp cloak suggest a little more metal than man. Anthony Van Dyke's Man in Armor is a masterpiece of drawn surface. 160.
and her pride.159 WILLIAM W O D A L L A u t h o r and illustrator o f The Aaes of Queene a Elizabeth poem Allegorized. T h e poem recounts t h e six m a j o r crises o f Elizabeth's reign: t h e Spanish A r m a d a . manuscript comprising six c a n t o s . Top-heavy. here dark tawny owl. while a raised foot pauses to assess the next displaying a fan of daggers. Beneath the lethal fan is the body of a bird of trimmed feathers suggest age. Northern Satire This is a quill-and-ink satire of the elderly queen's pride-As head of state and fashion. t h e Rising.1599 71/2 WILLIAM x 51/4 in ( 1 9 0 x 1 3 4 mm) WODALL . t h e Jesuit Mission. suggest the use of iron-gall ink (see p. By her old upto three tiers supported on sticks. she is shown as a grossly disproportioned bird.35). Satire of the Queen's Dress c. A Ruffs and feathers Starched white ruffs worn at court and by society grew steadily larger as Elizabeth's reign progressed. t h e Ridolfi Plot. bitten nature. hooded with an overinflated fluffy ruff eye pins us. the queen is masterfully rebalanced by words at her feet The whole drawing's blackened. and saturations showing through from the other side. it was customary to Iron-gall ink Wodall's dangerous caricature steps daintily the written lines of her dedicated page. t h e B a b i n g t o n Plot.
Rene Gruau's bold gouache drawing of smoothly swaying sophistication captures a brilliantly cut garment and frames it with great dynamism in a white. RENE GRUAU I t a l i a n . Airbrushed reflective surfaces further amplify our perception of speed. demanding attention with gesture and flair. Fine lines drawn against the building behind her echo the threads on which we have all seen arachnids drop and hang. Drying time in between applications ensured the colors did not run into each other. Composition Look how well this image is frame knee is parallel to the bottom edge spacehorizontalline cropping the trousers be outermostuprightbordersof her cuffs are similar above her head thesidesoftheimage. Fashion and fantasy drawings invent prototypes of ideals and perfection—be they for the catwalk or the fast-paced pages of comic books. studio-like rectangle of paper.5 9 ) and a three-spoke balance of cuffs and cropped trousers to create an almost flag-like emblem of power. The black red. muscular aggression. as is Spider-Girl opposite. and gray pigments were applied separately. 158.and tilted to the same de a little deeper than sp kneestogivehergravity. Spider-Girl leaps like an insect. Harpers & Queen. His model is outlined.F r e n c h f a s h i o n i l l u s t r a t o r w h o in his l o n g and esteemed career w o r k e d with many of the g r e a t e s t d e s i g n e r s o f 2 0 t h . Compare the compositio beneathVanDyke'sstudy of armor on p. elegant chic and svelte. Gruau's model regally swans to the fore with cool pride.c e n t u r y haute i n n u m e r o u s m a g a z i n e s i n c l u d i n g Elle. Gruau uses starkly cut negative space (see pp. She has been drawn with brushes dipped into India ink and gouache. Vogue. diving to catch us in the grip of her machine-like limbs. and both share the power of scarlet and black. G r u a u ' s highly distinctive d r a w i n g s have a p p e a r e d Couture. 5 8 . a n d L'Officiel de la couture. possibly over a pencil outline. India ink and gouache This swish of confidence and style our enters the page turning everyone's head.160 COSTUME Femmes Fatales THESE DEVASTATING femmes fatales force back the onlooker with their demure. ofcroppedtrousershere to the device of the w Illustration 1949 for Jacques Fath in L ' O f f i c i e l d e la C o u t u r e RENE GRUAU .
In your mind's eye extend the uprights out of the top of the picture. beginning with Star Wars. moon. This s modeling applied over the top give the image a sleek and mechanical of gravity. He began work on Spider-Girl in 1998. The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones. Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 2001-04 R O N FRENZ. sky. and Amazing Spider-Man. and has been the title's regular artist since 2003. not far above the drawing. Single-point understand perspective To how Frenz created up therefore the effect of steeply between looking buildings—and howyou can do the same in your own work—take calculate where a ruler the and single vanishing point lies. Frenz has drawn for Marvel for about 20 years. It is outside the picture frame.74-77). Airbrushed color and with tonal focus. Sharp focus black outlines in this drawing create a hyper-real dynamic. Buildings. Align your ruler to the upright of each building. and figure are all locked into equally shatp through the traditional process of a pencilled outline over-drawn ink.RON F R E N Z Contemporary American graphic artist w h o designs and pencils the dynamic scenes of numerous superheroes featured in Marvel Comics. to the right of its center. MARVEL C O M I C S . at Their extensions will meet the same single vanishing (see point pp. a great characteristic superhero comics.
quality. Bright pastels are more brilliant on colored paper. oily pigment. Beware—some are toxic. Most stores leave small pads of paper on their counters for customers to test materials. unwrapped harder pastels. C o n t e crayons are square-formed. Try materials that are new and unfamiliar. They work well on PIGMENTS Pigments. and synthetics. Be aware that fixative dulls pastel. size. They vary hugely in cost. though lines can develop greasy stains around the edges if the paper is not first stretched and treated with a gelatin paste laid as a wash. Pastel pencils are slender and in w o o d casing. CHALK PASTELS: Blackboard chalk is sidewalk work. The nontoxic range below represents a suggested starting point for experiment. 4. minerals. Pastels are finer. Store loose pastels in dry rice to keep them clean. Many artists apply fixative to the back of their work. crumbly. Dissolve in turpentine or mineral spirits to produce oil paint or or dark paper. slightly oily to the touch. Degas built his pastels in layers. Use them to draw lightly (as above left) or thickly. allowing it to fix slightly from behind. paper-wrapped. and subtlety. quality and cost T h e best are paperwrapped sticks of sumptuous. OIL PASTELS Oil-based. hue. purchase a small selection of different items you think you will like. the diverse are made in brands of basic member of the family. intensity. fixing each layer on the front. The worst are like revolting old lipsticks that get everywhere except where you intend. or wax and a binder are shaped into fine strips and encased in w o o d like a graphite pencil. and can be a great rediscovery for bold drawings. used to make colors. I suggest you do so. Children's wax crayons are relatives. clay. 1. See h o w they work and return later for more of what proved best for you. Seemingly infinite choices of texture. and cost are laid out for our pleasure and perusal. great for tin . chalkbased but very subtle. mixed on the paper and scratched into (as below).162 COSTUME Colored Materials ART STORES BRIM OVER w i t h t h e m a n y wherever permitted. made in about 80 colors. shape. Sticks and conte crayons make thicker marks (as below). FELT-TIP PENS: Instant-drying alcoholor water-based inks stored in the barrels of the pens are delivered via smooth nylon o r felt tips of varying shapes and thicknesses. 2. soft. animals. insects. the finer and more subtle the texture and color should be. and CHALK PASTELS Pastel pencils make fine lines (as above). these work best when slightly warm. and can be softened and manipulated with degrees of heat. Before making substantial investments. wash. there are disparities between the apparent nature or color of what you hold in your hand and its performance on paper. including iridescents. 3. except the final layer. you may be pleasantly surprised to discover something you could not have imagined using. plants. Often. Many products are sold individually and in boxed sets. COLORED PENCILS: Dry pigments ground together with chalk. The higher the quality (and cost). OIL PASTELS: Many colors. colored materials available. are derived from many sources: rocks. which he left unfixed to retain its brightness. and sold in many colors.
Think of Matisse's Blue Nude (see p. Some give richer lines than others.163 COLORED PENCILS These are wax.or clay-based thin crayons in wood casing. 111). Diverse brands are harder or soften greasier or chalkier in use. If you love smooth blocks and lines of colon felt-tip pens are perfect. so it is best to test them before buying. . Colors can be blended as shown right) and tones graded by altering pressure. Brands made for designers sold in enormous ranges of colors are far more subtle and sophisticated than those made for children. others dissolve in water or turpentine to make a wash. leaving the paper to shine through for highlights (as below). it is still a great champion and support for those beginners feeling shyly obligated to tone down their love of color to conform with what others say they should use. Some are nonsoluble. FELT-TIP PENS Although not made with felt-tip pen. Fine lines can be achieved (as above).
To set up. the era in which we live. structure. and after studying familiar shoes we use the information learned to invent new ones. imagining y o u can see t h r o u g h it. and a selection of shoes. e n j o y i n g t h e study a n d i n v e n t i o n o f shoes. style. As artifacts in museums. will discover m o r e .164 COSTUME Study and Design they reflect our age. 104-07). t h e n again as if transparent. Here we go one step further. S H O E S TELL LIFE STORIES. I m a d e n u m e r o u s s h e e t s o f d r a w i n g s . REPEATED STUDY T o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s class. personality. Superstitions and fetishes are attached to them: we are told never to put new shoes on a table. D r a w each o n e first as a solid object. a range of colored felt-tip pens with both fine and broad tips. values. 100-01 and pp. while artists have painted their boots or those of others as personal portraits and memorials. . they record and reflect our common history. if y o u m a k e p l e n t y o f d r a w i n g s as o p p o s e d t o o n l y a f e w . t o o . You. social and economic status. a n d e x p e r i e n c e visible p r o g r e s s . and volume in space (see pp. you will need several large sheets of drawing paper. Linear Outline Using fine pens. This class takes the shoe as its subject in building on earlier lessons concerned with seeing through objects to understand their function. and they have been concealed in buildings to ward off misfortune. Turn t h e m in different d i r e c t i o n s and o b s e r v e t h e i r s t r u c t u r e and f o r m . c o v e r a large sheet o f p a p e r w i t h line drawings o f several shoes. and how we stand and walk.
STUDY AND DESIGN
study the surface contours using fineand broad-tipped felt-tip pens. For best results, it is important to be bold and brief. Draw firmly, fast, and with as few strokes as possible. Build up each shoe from light to dark andleavesome paper showing through to create highlights.
Design Your Own
Using what you have learned from the previous steps about the structures of your shoes, and about the use of pens, invent new designs from your imagination. Start with fine outlines and progress to colored and textured surfaces. Modify your ideas by rotating the views.
The Structure of Costume
MUSEUMS ARE AN INFINITELY
rich resource for the artist and
information given by a period style. Arrange to visit a costume museum or ask a friend to model clothes for you at home. Using fine felt-tip pens, begin with quick, pale impressions of each garment's shape before homing in on its borders and seams. Try to draw transparent views wherever possible to record the relationships between all component parts. Aim to draw enough information for it to be possible to make up a version of the garment using paper pinned to a tailor's dummy.
designer. They often give quite unexpected gems of ideas and information—whatever the subject. These drawings, made in a costume museum, demonstrate ways of recording structural information and detail for later use in the studio. They could form the basis of new designs for a fashion project or theater production, for example. Drawings of shoes on pp. 164-65 show how new designs can be evolved from the structural
It is usually best when collecting information for reference to apply the restraint of dispassionate observation. Set yourself the test of drawing facts with as little artistic license or embellishment as possible. Here I chose fine felt-tip pens because they are at their best when used swiftly, and therefore encourage bold, unhesitant decisions.
Swift lines record the hanging weight of this gentleman's coat, the relative proportions of its layers, and minimal details of the buttons and cuffs.
Thick velvet fabric is pulled tight beneath and across the bust by a single button. This transparent view shows how the fabric falls loosely in straight panels beneath the level of the sleeve.
W h e n visiting museums, be prepared f o r l o w lighting, which can make it hard t o see and draw. A book can help if attached t o your drawing board.
Adding stripes and dashes of color with a thicker pen brings out the glossy sheen and sculptural rigidity of this dress, which would have been worn over a whalebone corset. small reading light designed t o clip o n t o a
THE STRUCTURE OF COSTUME
In small drawings such as these, use thick pens to color entire sections with a few marks, as I did here down the side of the bodice.
The light, frilly bulk of this crinoline dress is propelled forward with lines. pinching its gathers and sways that are hiding a horsehair bustle. fleets of quick
THIS CLASS FOCUSES ON how to draw textures through the collection of fabric, pattern, and embroidery samples from a costume m u s e u m . This formal method, using ruled squares, can create an invaluable library of ideas a n d i n f o r m a t i o n for future r e f e r e n c e — w h e n painting a clothed figure, or preparing a textile project, for example. However, if making a book of samples for a project, remember that it is important to also include collages of f o u n d materials (see pp.230-31) To d r a w a fabric texture, b e g i n by concentrating o n h o w y o u i m a g i n e it w o u l d feel if you t o u c h e d it. Decide if it w o u l d be rough, s m o o t h , w a r m , cold, thick, thin, tough, or fragile, for example. As you draw, believe you can feel these qualities at your fingertips a n d that your pencil is responding to the sensation. Undulate the pressure of your lines and marks according to the feeling of the fabric rather than its appearance. Let your pencil enact the sensation of touching its surface.
and to experiment more loosely with mixed media.
This starchy, quilted, b o w e d creation started life as an imagined corset, I intended t o d r a w together in one sculptural f o r m a range o f t h e details opposite. T h e garment quickly got o u t o f hand. T h e r e is great e n j o y m e n t in letting y o u r imagination run wild w h e n inventing costumes. If you are unable t o visit a costume museum, many exciting fabric details and textures can be found in y o u r o w n closet o r home.
Colored pencils give precision and tonal range; they can be faded but not erased. Lightly use an HB graphite pencil if you wish to plan a design first. Pressed hard, colored pencils build up a waxy finish of brilliant color. Used lightly, they appear powdery and show the texture of the paper.
TEXTURES AND PATTERNS
Silk and braid
126-27. 172-73. Madrid. identity. look at how Goya delineated volumes of thick fabric to express the posture. I made a drawing book full of studies seeking to understand how he composed drama and pathos in his narratives (see also pp. and 252-53). These characters.Dressing Character I O N C E SPENT THREE MONTHS researching the work of Francisco de Goya at the Prado Museum. shape. . and motivation of an individual. selected from different pages of my original book.
as it rushes and carves fabric-wrapped forms like rivers and desert winds shaping the earth.T H E S E PENCIL STUDIES. . To understand how he did this. Posture Carving also taken from my Madrid drawing book (see pp. are copies of works by Goya in which he makes air seem heavier than flesh. and visible.170—71). I carefully copied the direction of each of his lines. and tangible.
stares out from her gloomy sickbed. a crowd tells the story from a distance. the direct exchange (as shown here) where one or more characters hold eye Aneedproduced the thicker lines of the nurse. Her all-too-clear expression shows annoyance and irritation with her husband. we can learn most about handling pen and ink. and distance—so drawings of gathered people can be loosely arranged in three took only minutes to make and yet it lives for centuries. . We can also use clothes. and instantly engage with the action of the scene. we. the viewer. paintings depicting scenes from history. we can R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter draftsman. vivid portrait of his wife captures our attention. Here. Saskia died after childbirth. the viewer's attention in a scene by the format of its composition. Washes of shadow behind engaged and as a natural voyeur can feel invisible while watching the scene. Saskia. heighten or subdue drama with subtleties of exaggeration or caricature. Rembrandt's bored and frustrated wife. soap operas. Blockbuster movies. Seeing through Rembrandt's eyes. furniture. the viewer is not directly made the finer lines of Saskia. and other masters of Western Art. We read tensions and exchanges between people. television documentaries. As artists. It middle. This J u s t as there are three parts to a traditional landscape drawing—the foreground. R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN in the delivery of narrative. Later in their lives. The spaces between people and the positions they occupy on a page are vital to our understanding of the psychology or emotion of an event. there are no longer individuals but one significant group or mass action. Drawings selected for this chapter explore these Saskia Lying in Bedand a Nurse ranges of proximity 1638 9 x61/2in (227 x 164 mm) and a travel journal. Second. but drawings of gathered people tell them most directly. finding corners in crowded places to inscribe their action and energy onto the page. and its illumination. presumably while he is making this drawing. too. are implicated in this marital exchange made over the head of the anonymous nurse. We can direct close. daily newspapers. the speed and printmaker and one of the greatest and most influential density of its lines. and novels—our staple cultural diet—are driven by a fascination with shared experience and the detail of what happens in other people's lives. With a pocket full of disposable pens we also go out and draw the expressions of gathered people. Storytelling and people-watching are obsessive human activities. and therefore seem to see. in spite of how it may seem. Third. and so. this is not the portrait of an old woman. He is also the artist from whom props to add layers of meaning and attitude. First. even up her were laid with a brush. He in turn scorches the paper with his view and a certain speed of seeing all. while a quill contact with.Gatherings A LL DRAWINGS TELL STORIES. comics. types.
Pans fly oft the stove. and projectors to create their anarchic punk satires of modern life. plates shatter. Real Life is Rubbish 2002 Dimensions variable TIM N O B L E A N D SUE WEBSTER . t h e y select and arrange familiar items of street detritus into what appears to be an u n p l e a s a n t pile. c o m p o s e d garbage p r o d u c e s a c a l m ." (Tim Noble) Drawing with light it is important to think about what you is Here timelessly we see a in can draw with. garbage and chaos are piled a n d e x p l o d e d in r o o m s full of event. narrative is delivered through the air. F o r e a c h w o r k . Here. and smoke billows around the agitated jives of the Duchess. the Cat. the C o o k . and on. In both works. N o b l e a n d W e b s t e r s w i t t y a n d o f t e n s u b v e r s i v e d r a w i n g s are also c o n t e m p o r a r y art installations. hearth i m p l e m e n t s crash at o u r feet.. Pencil on paper important but only the beginning of possibility the combination of three-dimensional space. a kitchen explodes in o u r faces..kicks against the mundane things that close down your mind is a refreshing and good thing."Anything that. junk. T h e i m m a c u l a t e d r a w i n g is only r e v e a l e d w h e n t h e b e a m of a p r o j e c t o r c a s t s t h e s h a d o w Projections of the h e a p o n t o a wall. refuse. and in.176 GATHERINGS SOME DRAWINGS ARE MADE e n t i r e l y o f i l l u m i n a t i o n that floods drama into the viewers gaze. and Alice. h a l o e d portrait of the artists seated b a c k to b a c k . TIM N O B L E A N D SUE W E B S T E R British artists who collaborate using neon. via the animated clutter of o u r material lives. Think about what else you could use: a laser smoke. or even the office photocopier. In one of R a c k h a m s great illustrations for Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland. and projector. for example. Below.
This makes the story appear to leap out at us. Refer back to the drawing class how pots In drawn objects and elements that those behind. and Alice's shoulder. tabletop. amplifying movement outward from the vanishing point. are very large compared to on p. Depth Billows of smoke expand and are lighter as they come forward. and watercolor. by vivid children's Rakham's w o r k is characterized fantasy.Stowe's ofMysteryand Queer Little Folks. 100 to see for make elliptical objects and pans fly through the the foreground. and Poe's Tales Imagination. Find the singleperspective pp. a n d an unmistakable graphic style. Rackham Vanishing point In this marvelous drama made with pen. we find several devices already explored through our drawing classes.76-77) above vanishing point (see that is about3/4in (2 cm) oak converge at this point. The wood grain acts like marks of speed behind the scene. H e is best k n o w n forillustratingIrving's Rip vanWinkle. humor. ink.177 ARTHUR RACKHAM British watercolorist and book illustrator. See how the In the Duchess's Kitchen 1907 77/8 x 6 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 5 0 m m ) ARTHUR RACKHAM . beams.
Magnetic Fields sculpture. Opposite. perhaps these two are the most extreme. and art in the landscape. and we. expressing his dry humor about O F ALL THE CONTRASTS HENRY MOORE British s c u l p t o r w h o t r a i n e d a n d taught at t h e R C A . This is an ironic drawing from Moore. M o o r e t o u r e d Italy as a young man.178 GATHERINGS we have seen in the pairs and trios of drawings by masters and makers. In culture. a n d l o v e d t o d r a w in t h e BritishMuseum. audiences. a great Shoshone drawing blazes with the color. which still narrates vivid days in the lives of an energetic nation. a sculptor. The image stands out among his more usual graphic works in which he hones and carves semi-abstract human forms. A glimmer of gold light appears from the left No explanation is given. The mournful gray landscape of Henry Moore's northern British field has gathered by night an overcoated audience to stand and wait before a wrapped and roped monument. London. and action of a buffalo hunt. Moore's spectators appear to have walked a long way from nowhere to witness and wait beside this mysterious obelisque. This is just one of many precious artifacts from a lost time. meaning. join in the waiting.The human form w a s the vehicle o f his expression and h e w a s t h e official W o r l d W a r II artist. HENRY MOORE Crowd 1942 Looking at Tied-up Object . and composition they are polar opposites. Chalk and graphite This fog-bound but humorous gathering of souls is made in graphite and colored chalk with gray wash. as fellow watchers. heat. as if Moore's wrapping has been literally outstretched.
179 SHOSHONE SCHOOL Stylized characters This vital image of a buffalo hunt is made with pigment Members of the Shoshone community wishing painted within dark outlines on a stretched elk hide. tolearnhow to paint a scene on a hide are and buffalo circle and charge the perimeters of a skin "field. Skills are taught not center chant or dance to the beat of a drum. Each color is evenly distributed throughout the scene. and helping our eye to dart around. Stylized hunters. horses. Hunt CENTURY SHOSHONE SCHOOL ." Men at the instructed to sit and watch. creating harmonious balance with words but through silent demonstration. MAGNETIC FIELDS Horses It is interesting to note how the outstretched limbs ofthesehorses echo European images of the runningBuffalo horse before the sequence-photographer Muybridge taught us to 19TH understand their movement differently.
a d e a t h c h a r g e of brutality. The muscularity of Blake's figures was inspired by Michelangelo's works. W I L L I A M BLAKE British visionary. w h e r e he w a t c h e s a t u r b u l e n t s p i r a l of p u n i s h m e n t f o r the d a m n e d . w h i c h b y their c h o i c e a n d h a n d l i n g a c t u a l l y b e c o m e the force a n d spirit of e a c h i m a g e . era as Kollwitz. K a t h e K o l l w i t z s c r a t c h e d a n d e n g r a v e d her a r m y of c l a y . a n d o t h e r w o r k s . Heath Robinson lived through the same war-torn. texture. Opposite. p o e t .180 GATHERINGS The Human Condition IN THE SPECTRUM of these vastly d i f f e r e n t g a t h e r i n g s of p e o p l e . a n d f o c u s .f o o t e d t r o g l o d y t e s w h o rage into w a r like a m u d s l i d e of revenge. a pink-inked cinema wobbles along with string. inextinguishable in its fortitude and h u m o r . B l a k e h a s i l l u m i n a t e d his s a d d e n e d Virgil on the s h o r e s of a d a r k w o r l d . color. m a r k . and sweetened the often bleak years with his impractical inventions. t h e Bible. Misted in translucent layers of paint. a n d e n g r a v e r w h o p o w e r f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e d his o w n t e x t s in a d d i t i o n t o D a n t e ' s Divine Comedy. The Circle of the (The Whirlwind 1824 of Lustful Lovers) mm) 143/4 x 207/8i n ( 3 7 4 x 5 3 0 WILLIAM BLAKE . w e f i n d a spiritual v i s i o n . We also see qualities of line. a n d the gentle h u m o r of sedate r i d i c u l e . pale souls of the lustful are being s p u n into yet another realm of hell. Brushed line and wash This is an ink-outlined drawing made with a fine brush on paper with added washes of watercolor The image was subsequently redrawn as a line engraving. It illustrates a scene from Dante's Divine Comedy. w r i t e r a r t i s t . Blake w a s d r i v e n b y a passion f o r j u s t i c e a n d a p r o f o u n d b e l i e f in his v i s i t a t i o n s f r o m angels.
British Pen and wash This is a pen-andwatercolor drawing made for a color-platereproduction in an edition of T h e Bystander. however meager or ridiculous their activity. Ink rolled over was selectively polished off using a rag. stoical bemusement. and clearly focused. He created sincere. The image was scratched directly onto a metal plate. Heath Robinson shows England in a past era. HEATH ROBINSON The Kinecar 1926 103/8 x 15 in (262 x 380 mm) . THE HUMAN CONDITION Scratched lines This is a dry-point etching with monoprint. and the impact of death and war upon women. and the family home. poverty. Robinson and Kollwitz (above) share almost identical life dates and their work expresses a shared history from opposite sides oftheworld wars. and controlled smears on the metal surface printed as tones. With masterful gentility. Losbruch (The Outbreak) 1955 20 x 233/8 in (507 x 592 mm) KATHE KOLLWITZ HEATH ROBINSON humorous illustrator and a regular contributor to magazines and journals such as The Sketch and The Bystander. What remained in scratched grooves printed on damp paper as lines. plodding along with hazy.181 KATHE KOLLWITZ German printmaker. sculptor and draftsman. and her powerful and sensitive drawings center on nurture. humor by making his characters earnest. who lived in a poor district of Berlin. Kollwitz survived the two World Wars. children. White marks were made with a dusting of French chalk on the artist's finger to wipe away ink leaving clean metal.
a ballpoint will make faint lines.7 7 and 214-15). T h e r e w e r e c seconds t o snatch this impression b e t w e e n their emergence from one bridge and disappearance b e n e a t h t h e next. a disposable pen with its clip-on cap goes anywhere.r e s i s t a n t . a n d ranges o f colors. Ideal f o r precision w o r k (see p p . and in most pockets so I can always record a thought DISPOSABLE PENS QUICK NOTES O n a c o l d day in Venice. if y o u w i s h y o u r d r a w i n g s t o last a n d n o t fade o r b l u r w i t h t i m e a n d e x p o s u r e t o light. I swiftly focused on gesture. At a time like this. So many stores sell them. they can be obtained within minutes. G E L P E N : P r o d u c e d in b l a c k w h i t e . is d e l i v e r e d t h r o u g h a m e t a l t u b e o v e r a t i n y ball bearing. 7 6 . or put the paper in your pocket instantly without fear of smudging. c h o o s e p e n s l a b e l e d " p e r m a n e n t " o r "lightfast. aiming for correct outlines would result in drawing too slowly to c a t c h the moment.182 GATHERINGS Disposable Pens (ballpoints. fine fiber-tip Drawing with a fine fiber-tip pen. or idea. build to a rich. which can snap or pierce through your clothes. indent paper. jot notes. dropped in your pocket and forgotten till needed. Unlike pencils. t w o tourists and their gondolier drifter past m e o n a canal. CHOICES AVAILABLE T h e r e a r e m a n y d i s p o s a b l e p e n s t o c h o o s e from. R O L L E R B A L L : A c o n s t a n t i n k flow 3 . in the car. Quick-drying. a n d pressure-sensitive. or turn into washes and make monoprints if flooded with an alcohol-based substance such as hairspray. dark sheen. including l u m i n o u s a n d m e t a l l i c . they each offer distinct and sometimes unexpected qualities. turn the page. t h e y a r e lightfast. 192-93) w e r e b o t h m a d e w i t h a ballpoint. these pens enable you to sketch. Available in blacks and ranges of colors. gel pens) are the most convenient of all materials with which to travel. 2. trusting shape and form to follow. . Lines t h i c k e n as t h e p e n w e a r s o u t G r a n d Canal (see pp. rollerballs." 1.188-89) and Caravans (see pp. shut your book. in the studio. fibertips. w a t e r . Insensitive t o p r e s s u r e : lines d o n o t v a r y in w i d t h o r t o n e . R e m e m b e r . FIBER-TIP: M a n u f a c t u r e d f o r artists a n d d e s i g n e r s in a r a n g e o f w i d t h s . 4. For example. B A L L P O I N T : Black a n d b o l d c o l o r s o f f e r d i v e r s e qualities. p e r m a n e n t . The f o u r i l l u s t r a t e d h e r e r e p r e s e n t a basic r a n g e . I keep quantities at home. blob when old. W h i t e gel p e n s a r e v e r y e f f e c t i v e o n d a r k papers.
not form. Earlier I had witnessed a crammed en masse in a fleet of hired gondolas complete with musicians and choir.31 .FROMMEMORY Here I used the same fiber-tip pen to compose a scene from memory. crowd of fellow travelers Fast lines These scribbled lines model the mass and shadows of heads belonging passengers packed into the boat. Compare this Klee's mules on p. Fast lines focus on action.
No camera can tie you to a time or people in the same way. Circular lines buzz around a man puzzling at the end of a train platform (left). Every drawing writes an indelible memory of place. Above all. FLEETING MOMENTS Walking through Venice with a small. angles will happen as a matter of course. when out drawing. make them stouter. activity. pocket notebook and a fiber-tip pen. all action is in the line of his coat and directed by his nose. if animated. just draw the action. Let the line of the flying coat fly and the hanging arm hang. You must learn to trust your memory and to draw what impressed you most. of course. Movement . I caught fleeting glimpses of gathered people and solitary souls going about their affairs. Exaggeration helps. animate them more. However. let it enter the stage and perform. Push toward caricature and this will draw out of your memory what was most important.184 GATHERINGS The Travel Journal I CANNOT OVERSTATE THE JOY of making a travel journal. Each line acts its part in the narrative. but they should not be what you dwell on. and companionship. if a person was stout. not its outline. You will make outlines. Don't worry about measuring angles. focus on the action of the event. life will not slow and wait for you to catch it. A curatorial assistant flies to do a chore (right). black. Each one was witnessed and drawn immediately from the afterimage of what I had just seen.
I am watched by the aggravated guard. The rush of his legs isamplifiedby their blurred lines. I drew him three times on the same page to catch a range of his physical expressions. eager to herd us all from his house of responsibility. Expression . In turn.185 A large lady is photographed in front of a delicate work of art. Observation THE TRAVEL JOURNAL The same willowy assistant dashes about his work.
not outline. decide how faces and bodies contort. furniture leans. Here the custodian projects fastidious ownership of his desk and pamphlets by pushing from behind the center of the space and challenging our entry to his image. and clothing or bags hang. or pushes. focus on action.186 GATHERINGS Catching the Moment On A BITTERLY COLD November day. When your attention has been caught. you might place them lower down. Place the person carefully. For example. ACTION AND DETAIL W h e n drawing people. emotion. Identify the principal character and draw him or her first. forcing me to remain at the back and look at them. Be aware that their placement on the page is part of the narrative. Here I have recreated my drawing in steps to show you how to set about capturing such a scene. and you decide to draw the moment. and let every detail speak by its size. and involvement in the story. rather than the works of art they guarded. start by focusing on its action. elevate them in the pictorial space. and reason for happening. flap. He and his simpering assistant would not allow me in. if they are being devious. pulls. or bulge. . I took refuge in a church in Venice. and there met this sullen custodian. if they are being haughty. placement. For example.
who is largely expressed through the shape and fall o f his raincoat and his way o f using a note pad. . continue adding characters. which is pushed toward us in a gesture of confrontation. Decide where t o place them t o emphasize their role. Decide where you will place them o n the paper t o emphasize their action and intent. CATCHING THE MOMENT The assistant Identify t h e antagonist ( o r second character) in t h e scene. W i t h a few strokes. In the final step (left) I reinforced t h e custodian's desk. I added t h e assistant. Here. Draw their action and props.187 The custodian Identify your principal character a n d their psychological role in the scene. D r a w their action. together with any immediate props they are using. If drawing a more complex scene. such as the desk and pamphlets seen here. a pillar locates t h e scene in a depth o f space.
An imminent deluge of tourists urged me to work catching no more than the skeleton of the view.Grand Canal T H E CANALS OF VENICE are bustling places full of occupation. and buildings. I developed detailofthis drawing from memory using a ballpoint pen. where vertical mooring poles give space and pulse to the horizontal speed of water quickly. .
Each person was glimpsed in an instant. . Characters in the foreground were drawn first. then the bridge beneath them. Caricature each person slightly. Venetians flow across a stepped bridge and cascade into the streets beyond.Crossings DURING THIS RUSH HOUR. To catch characters like this. followed by the streets. and drawn immediately from memory. note only their most essential action and feature.
quiet afternoon. and a great subject to draw. I found this circus by chance in the Swiss mountains. Sitting at a distance on a hot. I used a ballpoint pen to compose a series of scenes. .Caravans T H E PARAPHERNALIA O F TRAVEL i s an intriguing part of circus life. Caravans and other backstage activity convey expectations of energy and repose.
Beginners will often choose calm. and meteor impacts have scarred. These conditions are very difficult to express well. It now hangs on the staircase of the History of Science Museum. the sun comes out to blind it. but it can be seen as a lens to our observation of this planet. or the wind carries it away. t h e first-ever accurate image o f t h e M o o n ' s surface. By drawing such momentous and everyday events. and the sea. 5 f t x 5 ft 6 in ( 1 5 2 x 1 6 8 c m ) J O H N RUSSELL . Weather is essential in all landscape drawing. they are the animators of your subject. trees. a n d a m o o n globe called t h e Selenographia. and even how the Sun illuminates. The forces of nature. are the real subjects in great landscape drawings. arranging them in perfect circles on the mountainside or in lines drifting out of sight beneath low clouds. It is better to get up before dawn. sunny days. There is a sense of the heroic in drawing outside—we race to catch a form before the tide engulfs it. Just as NASA photographs of Earth have had a profound effect on the way we view our fragile home. learning to draw light out of dark. a contemporary environmental artist. to be ready to draw the new light as it breaks across the land. JOHN RUSSELL A p o r t r a i t pastelist t o King G e o r g e III o f England. William Turner is said to have had himself lashed to a ship's mast to comprehend the storm (see p. 199). when little stirs and empty blue skies offer even less to latch lines to. H e a l s o p r o d u c e d an a l b u m o f 1 8 0 exquisite pencil drawings. Look closely at works by many artists and you will see that they have not represented hills. rivers. makes his work by the act of walking. so J o h n Russell's tour de f o r c e drawing (opposite) was a masterpiece of observation in his time. the face of the Moon. Richard Long. a n d a n astronomer w h o dedicated 20 years t o studying t h e M o o n . Take chances against the rain and work with the wind or fog. surrounded by the bright instruments of centuries of navigation. how the soil is scorched. pages o f softly i l l u m i n a t e d craters and lunar "seas" c o v e r e d in m a t h e m a t i c a l and s h o r t h a n d calculations. This is the world's first accurate image of the Moon. t w o e n g r a v e d m a p s k n o w n as The Lunar Planispheres. It is Earths satellite. speculation. our companion. England. Russell d r e w this. The pastel drawing was constructed from myriad telescopic observations almost 200 years before the Apollo Moon landing. Oxford. how the mountain cut by ice and rain is now fleetingly lit. marking the ground with lines of footprints or by turning stones. and its draws the tides of the seas. artists see for themselves that which is momentary and eternal.Earth and the Elements I T MAY SEEM PERVERSE to start a chapter titled "Earth and the Elements" with an image of the Moon. What they have drawn is the force of nature on these properties: how the wind heaves the night ocean. In this chapter Moon Pastel 1795 Drawing we experiment with charcoal. and take bold steps in emulating the swell of clouds and the forces of torrential water. as opposed the physicality of Earth. and experiment. or has cracked and fallen under the weight of water.
sculptor. and by observing its tides and eddies in our o w n environment. Below. He knew how the world bends and stutters under such gusts. speed. T h e ship. Hazy vertical marks reveal buildings into the mist. a sail b r o k e n loose in a stormy marriage. T h e great master of English seascape is c o n d u c t i n g with his graphic energy. and gives motion to each image. the bourgeoisie. distance. By Turner carries us to the heart of the maelstrom.Through political drawings he fired his sharp wit at the king. Dots and dashes suggest receding trees out of focus. a scratched ghost. Fluid strokes inflate the woman's dress and pin shadows to the ground. Danger of Wearing Balloon Petticoats UNDATED HONORE DAUMIER . and pioneer ofexpressionism. Flapping kimonos and an onlooker turning his b a c k have the magic of a m o m e n t caught. This wife. we can soon learn to draw its force. and the legal profession. undramatic b u t brimming with stylized realism. and solidity. lifts. the government. Daumier's c a r t o o n shines with the brilliance of his comic memory. Crayon and limestone This is a lithograph. H O N O R E DAUMIER French satirical cartoonist lithographer. serving a prison sentence for his views. painter. A hard waxy was drawn across a heavy limestone Varying definitions crayon of lire and depths of tone conspire to give volume.198 EARTH AND THE E L E M E N T S Air in Motion THE GREAT INVISIBLE SUBJECT o f these d r a w i n g s is t h e w i n d . Hokusais sedate wind presses reeds a n d the j o u r n e y s o f young ladies. seeing how it shakes. has b e c o m e a hysterical kite. fluttering heavily. like an umbrella forced inside-out. Terrifying waves of merciless nature roar across the paper. is already lost.
absorbent watercolor and are Stains of splashed.b l o c kprintmaker. from left print. TURNER KATSUSHIKA HOKUSAI Prolific J a p a n e s e c o l o r w o o d . T U R N E R British landscape. 1826 91/2 x 113/4 in ( 2 4 1 x 3 0 0 m m ) J. seascape. Wind direction wood-block This is a colored To represent the blows lifted flowed wind. Hokusai direction (from clothing from has chosen which it the right). AIR IN MOTION Pencil and watercolor subdued brushed. wind. Landscape a n d city life w e r e his principal subjects.M. and history painter w h o s e p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t a b o v e all w a s light. painter. leans the whole composition swells around its fateful center. a n d his b e s t .l o v e dw o r k s i n c l u d e 1 0 0 v i e w s o f M o u n t Fuji and 1 2 v o l u m e s o f Manga.W. T u r n e r w o r k e d in oils a n d w a t e r c o l o r s a n d s k e t c h e d c o p i o u s l y o n his travels.199 J. A outline scratched of a skeletal into penciled ship is while and the waves.M. including being lashed t o a ship's m a s t in o r d e r to study a storm. Ship in a Storm c. into this very as pressed sheet The paper's through own coior is brought banks of mist and fog. W . H o k u s a i in t u r n has since significantly influenced European art. horizontally then and of the it into the stream Plants also bend and flow right to Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 1802 81/2 HOKUSAI KATSUSHIKA x 131/2 in ( 2 1 7 x 3 4 3 mm) .i n f l u e n c e d b y examples o f W e s t e r n art obtained through D u t c h t r a d i n g in Nagasaki. T h e r e a r e m a n y stories o f his p a s s i o n a t e w o r k i n g methods. d e s i g n e r a n d b o o k i l l u s t r a t o r .
as if drawn j u s t this year. inks. composing banks of waves and dense. it is difficult to contemplate its brooding and night-soaked heart. EARTH AND THE VICTOR HUGO French novelist and artist (see also p. or charcoal. leaving nothing but a glimpse of moonlight glistening on the froth below. Le Bateau-Vision 1864 71/2 x 1 0 in ( 1 9 2 x 2 5 5 m m ) VICTOR H U G O . he blanketed the drawing in darkness. as a gestural storm on the paper. He brings us to stare into a place that no sane human would enter. lines of rain escorting them to b o u n c e and clatter. and swim into the page. this is a writer's narrative of terror. water. D o m e s t i c o b j e c t s we can o w n and name fall from the clouds. ink. this is a b o m b a r d m e n t from o u r h o m e s . as a subject and second. Then. In periods b e t w e e n writing. drawing was Hugo's principal means o f expression. T h e m e n a c i n g darkness of Hugo's storm b e l o w is so convincing. Pen and brush Hugo drew first with pen and ink. marks. grab their b r u s h . Turner (see p. By contrast. Leonardos Cloudburst of Material Possessions is o n e of his m o s t enigmatic and mysterious works. Opposite. T h e very nature of b o t h is turmoil and an interweaving of elements. and t h e sea s t u d i e d f r o m his h o m e in Guernsey in t h e Channel Islands.200 ELEMENTS Storms STORMS CAN BE SEEN and drawn in two ways: first. and tossed o b j e c t s — a perfect subject in which artists can forget themselves. with a brush.28).198) admires the majesty of nature. h a u n t e d shadows. active surfaces of water. His subjects include ruins. An update on biblical showers of fish and frogs. fantasy palaces. It looks so contemporary.
There is a little magic in recognizing many items from our homes something like a rake. envisioning machines centuries before their making (helicopters and bicycles. together with half the contents of our garage.LEONARDO DA VINCI Leonardo devised many artifacts of our modern lives. He bequeathed his drawings to a friend. and a wheel. Cloudburst of Material Possessions 1510-12 45/8 x 43/8 in ( 1 1 7 x 1 1 1 mm) L E O N A R D O DA VINCI . and they passed through private hands for 400 years before becoming widely known. a hook. He was left-handed and wrote backwards in Italian from left to right. a bell. It is interesting to speculate how engineering might have developed if his ideas had been shared with the world earlier Ink and chalk This is a pen and ink drawing with touches of black chalk. Above and below are examples of his mirror handwriting. for example). Each item that has crashed from heaven is drawn in such a way that we can feel Leonardo's nib picking it up in the speed of a doodle.
rich. Clare Bryan took panoramic photographs of the English South Downs. a horizon line can trigger our recognition. or cityscape. Whether land-. made inside a book. and we can imagine standing over his shoulder. sea-. and etcher who lived most of his life in 17th-century Rome. rapidly layering contours to shape place. Even distilled from all other detail. In a very different work (opposite above). which he used to unify his compositions. and after tracing her captured line. She was inspired by her research of aerial plans of London and the story of an alien map butterfly (see caption). thick. his unsurpassed handling of light. watching his hand and eye at work together. Drawing with a scalpel. Views from Velletri c. Claude is distinguished by. transferred it to a scroll. In the lower half he has walked downhill a little. Claude has used a fine nib to delineate segments of land as they recede into space. Nature Profiles Opposite below. atmosphere. Over first lines. and famed for. it is the unique calligraphic signature of the place in which we stand. and mood simultaneously. EARTH AND THE Bryan cut the profile of a city.1638 85/8 x 121/2 in (219 x 320 mm) CLAUDE LORRAIN . she teased away fragments of paper to illuminate her view. Segments The top half of the drawing is a view as we enter the valley. Claude Lorrain drew directly on location.202 ELEMENTS THE PROFILE OF A HORIZON is a line we immediately recognize and respond to. and across to the right. and dry marks in the foreground appear to be made with his finger. cooler tones receding into the distance are applied with a brush. Paler. C L A U D E LORRAIN French classical landscape painter draftsman.
On turning the pages of City. then hunted destroyed.5-m)scroll. progressively settlement (cropped more and more paper is drawn away to show the expansion of human page of an around the river. specialty bookbinder. and digital print-based works reflect upon the histories and poetry of "left behind and in-between spaces. Her recent paper photographic. drawings Ideas of introduction Clare Bryan to research introduced down and led NATURE PROFILES and removal historical plans and aerial growth of London showing its population since Roman times.203 Scalpel-drawn This book-bound drawing was inspired by the story of a foreign butterfly wrongly to Great Britain in 1912. The edges of each here) fade into the solid paper unpopulated with a scalpel landscape. printmaker graphic designer. 2001 CLARE BRYAN C L A R E BRYAN 3ritish artist.The horizon was drawn with a City Landline 2003 271/2x 59 in (70 x 150 cm) scalpel. source workisilluminatedby standing its lower edge on a CLARE BRYAN . and visiting professor at numerous art schools." Cut line This is a small section of a preparatory 5-ft(1.
Essentially. Slightly dull the tape's stickiness before use t o prevent it from lifting out more than you intend. tape. . a rag. the heel o f y o u r h a n d . THICK W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 2 Keep the tape above your drawing. and offers a rich. maple. only a little thicker. it looks gray and feels like chalk. THIN WILLOW CHARCOAL: I used a piece like this to make the drawing opposite. but some specialists stock compressed charcoal in delicate square sticks. 1 Suspend a length of masking tape. The same as above. Charcoal lifts away from paper easily with the very light touch o f an eraser. It c a n be m a d e duller. black finish. or fingertip. 3. Willow is the most c o m m o n wood. It is also easily erased if the maker of the mark is not happy with the result. CHARCOAL PENCIL: Types made by different manufacturers vary in quality and density of line. 2. white line into the blackor grayness of willow charcoal. The tip snaps easily to renew a sharp edge if required. they are all intended for fine work. LIFTING OUT This technique is a very easy method of drawing a crisp. 3 A white line is lifted out by the tape. MEDIUM W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 5. between your middle finger and thumb. harder line. so it chars b l a c k as o p p o s e d to igniting a n d turning to ash. resulting in a stick that gives a blacker. Then lift it away. leaving u n d e r t r a c e s of first thoughts. SQUARE COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Not often sold. a piece of fresh bread. Not to be confused with square conte sticks (see p. Try itworking on big paper covering a wall. feather.54). CHALK CHARCOAL: Technically. COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Machine-made. it is compressed and m o l d e d at high pressure. b l a c k e r . vine. It allows you greater precision in your mark-making than if you rub away the charcoal with an eraser. without touching the surface. 7. Boxes often contain a range of thicknesses to choose for different needs.m a d e c o m p r e s s e d charcoal. cylindrical. you can p u r c h a s e m a c h i n e . A great find when available. 162) or graphite (see p. fine. Artists have also used lime. 1. resulting in a pale line. In use. 6. Use any fine-point pen or pencil (I used a ballpoint) to draw a firm line on the back of the Big pieces are perfect for very large-scale drawings—even larger than yourself. Lines are achieved by d e p o s i t i n g particles in the grain o f paper. C h a r c o a l naturally glistens. It does n o t erase easily. Alternatively. B u n d l e s o f twigs were traditionally sealed into earthenware j a r s or wet clay and heated slowly and intensely in a fire or kiln. Beware of cheap brands selling dyed chalk as compressed charcoal. and heavier than willow. As its name implies. b e e c h . sticky side down. 4. R o u g h paper c a n b e loaded. this does not exist.204 E A R T H AND THE E L E M E N T S Charcoal CHARCOAL IS PRODUCED from wood baked slowly without exposure to air. a n d m o r e i n d e l i b l e by soaking it in linseed oil. Hold it over your drawing RANGE AVAILABLE Charcoal (in its several forms shown here) is loved or loathed by the beginner to whom it is often recommended because it produces pleasing results quickly. blacker. a n d p l u m . Smooth paper accepts few particles.
or any other dry media. MASKING TAPE: An invaluable resource. pastels. graphite. Here. Cotton swabs also work. sold in several widths. 8 . Lift out broader marks with a larger implement. Layers can be peeled away to refresh its surface. Here we used a ballpoint. PEN: Any fine pen or pencil can be used to draw on the back of masking tape when lifting out.205 ERASING Thickly applied charcoal quickly o v e r c o m e s a plastic eraser A w a r m (soft and tacky) putty eraser is more effective. . Use high quality (very sticky) to fix paper to walls and boards. Use cheaper (less sticky) for lifting out. Different tones seen throughout the main drawing on pp. I used a plastic eraser effectively on thinly applied charcoal. as is fresh (unbuttered!) bread.212-13 were made by altering the pressure applied to the charcoal. CHARCOAL Lifting out This detail shows an example of where I used the lifting-out technique demonstrated opposite to draw flashes of lightning against rain clouds. T O R T I L L O N : This is a tight roll of paper used to blend charcoal. 10. 9.
When you arrive.9 9 we noted that in response to visual stimulus.212-13). Seeing tones . and an abstract. an eraser your drawing book or a board and paper fixative (or hairspray). 9 8 . It is the visible effect of the atmosphere between where you stand and what you see in the distance. Landscape drawings are traditionally arranged in three parts: a detailed foreground. Excessive detail can be admired for its skill and achievement. the more you encourage the viewer's imagination to join in and see. MATERIALS In this first view there is only a foreground and middle distance. and a cushion in a plastic bag to sit on. To experiment with drawing landscapes and the use of charcoal. pack your materials (as advised below) and set off for a local view or your nearest arboretum. the less you describe. a less distinct middle ground composed of shapes and textures. The long view is hidden behind trees. Pack several thick and thin sticks of willow charcoal. to contain each of your compositions. begin by marking out several small squares on your paper. a reel of masking tape. it results in flat planes of clutter. Ironically. but is often less evocative and engaging. They are also good markers of receding space. Don't worry if it is cloudy: clouds add drama and perspective and make good subjects in themselves (see pp. On p p . especially when making first excursions into aerial perspective.206 EARTH AND THE ELEMENTS Landscapes TREES ALONE OFFER MARVELOUS shapes to draw. details blur and colors grow paler and bluer. Then I drew the shape of the tonal patches I perceived. hazy distance. I relaxed my eyes out of focus to dissolve distracting detail into abstract patches of light and darkness. This term simply means that as land rolls away into the distance. At its worst. Successful drawings often only suggest the qualities of the scene without overdescribing them. our brains search for nameable things and will perceive complete pictures from very little information.
horizontal regions of grass. shadows. rounded. It is better to give distinctly more pictorial space to one or the other (see below).207 LANDSCAPES In my second square I explored a simple view contrasting soft. full of information you can use to create what you want! Inventing drama . Exploring the view Redrawing the scene above. and broke a view through the hedge into the distance with a dark sky threatening rain. I have invented drama with diagonals set against each other I tilted the earth. the trunk of a bare tree. Remember. your view is your inspiration. dark trees with bright. This composition turned out a little flat because I have an almost even quantity of earth and sky.
1 5 my first drawing of the whole view of the Tiber led me to see the real subject of the day. This first drawing serves as a process of arrival. Similarly. which was the flow of water over rocks. For example." .104-05). s e e k places in light After my first drawing. taking with you your drawing book and pen.208 ELEMENTS Drawing in the Round WHEN DRAWING IN THE LANDSCAPE.164-65) and a wire violin (pp. settling my concentration. EARTH AND THE FINDING THE SUBJECT Finding a remarkable subject is even better when you can circumnavigate it in an arena of space. "Drawing in the round means to literally walk around your subject. and seeing what the real choice of subject is. The mud of the tidal shore in Rye. England has embedded within it the decaying skeleton of a burned fishing boat. 2 1 4 . on p p . shade out of the glare of the sun. bare ribs. Circling a subject and drawing it from several views imprints on your memory a better understanding of its three-dimensional form. I usually begin by making an image of the whole view. I am then able to home in on what interests me most for further study. making the scene below led me to focus on the decaying boat opposite. observing it from several views so as to better understand it as a whole. so the paper is not made blinding and your hand cannot cast a shadow on your work. Building on earlier studies of structure in space using shoes (pp. your challenge now is to find a sculptural subject in the landscape. engine. and tiller still standing proud.
and structure. unfussy lines. make a series o f drawings f r o m different positions. and the order and shape of its component parts. Each n e w drawing gives a different insight. I spent equal time looking at the subject and the paper. w h e n t h e sea recedes. careful lines to establish the skeleton that gives this wreck its distinct form. W h e n you have found your subject. character. marking straight. 3 This impression notes the angle of the broken boat.209 SERIES OF STUDIES This stunning ghost o f a boat comes into v i e w t w i c e a day. I looked more boldly at the planes and the dynamic of the sculptural craft My lines have become darker and more forceful as confidence in my understanding of the vessel grew. I drew with quick. ROUND 2 In this tail-end view. its overall balance. looking more at the boat than at the paper From this low position I have emphasized how the boat is swallowed in mud by outlining its shadow on the ground. The outline ties a shape of darkness to the boat like a weight so that it becomes part of its form. Overleaf: Decaying Boat 4 . DRAWING IN THE 1 Here.
m a d e on s m o o t h . was made with gentle but unhesitating s p e e d .Cloudburst THIS STORM DRAWING. L o o k i n g b a c k and forth from the heavens to firmly taped-down paper. I worked quickly to catch and weave the turbulent contrasts of rising wind and approaching water before the drawing could be washed away.20-21) using a thin stick of willow charcoal. . hot-pressed drawing p a p e r (see pp.
since ancient times. focusing on the river's eddies. pocket-sized notebook. On the pages of a small.Notes of Force T H E GREAT FLOWING TIBER RIVER has cut through Rome. and rhythmic detail as it passed through the ancient gully of the city. shaping the city. I drew with a needle-fine fiber-tip pen. black. . pulse.
.Mountains SITTING IN THE SHADE of a tree on the Greek island of Antiparos. The strong diagonal of the composition from bottom left to top right carries the eye through changes of height and focus from the foreground to the mountains beyond. I used a dip pen and waterproof India ink with brushed watercolor to draw the view.
and it has always been with us. However. Outsider artists. From one point of view. writhing torrents of color. and poetic myth roar and cascade within his tightly framed pages. I begin every image by feeling its meaning. It was not invented in the 20th century. People are often scared by abstraction and see it as the enemy of figurative art. Not everything we know has a physical form in the world. Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape 1915 413/8 x 285/8 in (105 x 72. actions. which are essentially abstract. ADOLF WOLFLI One of the greatest masters of Art Brut. such as Adolf Wolfli. and Aboriginal art. Artists were given a different tool—a line threaded directly from their subconscious to their hand—and with it they began to map a bold new landscape of marks and concepts that would dramatically and forever change the face of Western art. abstraction is not so easy to define. drawn sound. be brave and enjoy them. Internal workings of the mind were suddenly free to find a new language of expression. It also underpins and gives strength and unity to all figurative work. The growing rise of Darwinian ideas coupled with Freudian and Marxist perspectives forced Western society to reconsider its origins and future. belief. An abstract mark is often a better conductor of a thought or feeling. Afterward. Many concepts and feelings can only be expressed through marks. precisely because it does not have to represent a physical object. . As you approach the classes in this chapter. only rediscovered. opposite. Berne. It is actually its foundation and its infrastructure. or gestures.8 cm) A D O L F WOLFLI Abstraction is a direct. From another viewpoint. My own work is firmly centered in figuration. and independent means of communication. spontaneous image-making. He made thousands of drawings to chronicle his complex life. Perhaps in Western culture we bred this intuitive freedom out of ourselves in our insistence on complex figuration. don't be timid. for example. Indian mandalas. liberating. and have been making abstract drawings for centuries—Japanese calligraphy. it is simply itself. strike the paper to find form. many nonWestern cultures have highly sophisticated abstractions at the core of their art. expressive marks and shapes are at the core of natural. First marks. and emotion. writer and composer who suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and was resident in the Waldau Aslyum near Berne. fictional language. The fate of Old World thinking was finally sealed with the brutality of World War I. sounds. direction. picturing a stabilized world was impossible and Modernism rode forth with vigor. poet. Museum of Fine Arts. His drawings are collected and exhibited internationally and held by the Adolf Wolfli Foundation. Wolfli was a Swiss draftsman. and history. and young children show us that abstract.Abstract Lines T HE DEVELOPMENT OF W E S T E R N abstract art at the beginning of the 20th century significantly paralleled major changes in world thought. Swirling. all pictorial representations are abstractions of reality. yet my kinship to abstraction is fundamental.
and patient watching. A Neolithic chalk tablet bears cut lines that were slowly carved. Iron rods in tone. and temperature rim of floor space. ice. Lines. silence. Twombly's mesmeric wax line worked over house paint is like a signature. rhythmically engaged with itself. Changes paper. The Physical Space 1990 3 0 x 30 ft ( 9 1 4 x 9 1 4 cm) MAMORU ABE . He travels widely to research ancient sacred sites. staining redbrown lines into the white surface. scrolling across the canvas in an intimate crescendo. as Twombly shows us opposite.220 A B S T R A C T LINES Process and Harmony SOMETIMES A DRAWN LINE sings on the surface of its support. Sometimes it smolders like a deep shadow. This the paper rest within the amplifies framelike of the floor from the ceiling. Five forged steel shapes. Moisture produced rust. texture. and wood are also part of the work. and Assistant Professor of Fine A r t at Fukuoka University. tone. Abe works with materials such as soil. MAMORU ABE Japanese sculptor and installation artist. quoting ink marks on a page. and plaster in galleries and landscapes. it can keep reforming through the inherent repetition of a process. sit in silent harmony. brass. Mamoru Abe prepares an image that will appear through the chemistry of iron. Abe's physical drawing is a sculptural installation. and sensitivity with its thickness and pressure of touch. It can proclaim mood. water. A line can be finished in a second. Damp Japanese paper was laid over carefully arranged iron bars. or. akin to stones in a Zen garden. Below. forged steel. salt. iron. and texture their bracing separation reaching between from beneath Pillars of the gallery are made part of this drawing by their inclusion in the paper.
England. Neolithic Chalk Tablet 3. The central pictorial space is also similarly cut and divided by the considered arrangement of straight lines. that challenges the separation of word from image. and the worship of the sun and ancient gods. This example is one of two chalk tablets found in a Late-Neolithic pit. and American Indian petroglyphs (see p.221 ANCIENT CARVINGS Many ancient cultures have made and left behind drawings and texts carved into stones or animal bone. At the 2001 Venice Biennale.241). such as the Rosetta stone. theories suggest astrological observations. emotive.Twombly was presented with a Golden Lion award for lifetime achievement. close to Stonehenge in Wiltshire.Thesite's purpose is unknown.400BCE 21/4 x 21/4 in (58 x 58 mm) ARTIST UNKNOWN Language Over the course of fifty years. energetic. CY TWOMBLY . Twombly has language works CY TWOMBLY Contemporary American artist who emerged through the 1950s New York art scene in the heyday of Abstract Expressionism and Action Painting. Many of his graffiti-like combine abstract gestures with statements. PROCESS AND HARMONY Cut lines Chalk carves easily. and Untitled 1970 Here we might seek to grasp letters in the turning of his line. and sensuous drawing from painting. burials. evolved a raw.000-2. the Babylonian world map. Precise lines suggest the use of a sharp flint The framed rectangle of this image is echoed in that of Abe's installation.
a configuration. interpret. and participate in the composition. Bussotti. "There is nothing like dream to create the future. said. Similarity in gritty texture suggests that here. music manuscript requiring instrumentalists to improvise." An innovator who never fails to surprise. beautiful. Both abstract drawing and composition involve the perfect sequencing of sounds and marks against space and silence. he mixed graphite into ink. opposite. drawing here can b e described in t e r m s o f a G e r m a n philosophical idea a b o u t is t h e i n s t a n t r e c o g n i t i o n t h e p o w e r o f m o m e n t . pressed them face down. and let the drying meniscus deposit granules in linear drifts such as we would see in the satellite photographic mapping of rivers.28). too. and lifted them away to leave impressions of watery planets and seas.28. below. His drawing writes the time of its own physical process by expressing the extreme concentration of the moment in which it was made. Gestalt o f an unnameable thing. abstract artists and composers unique. o f t e n e x p r e s s e d in v i s u a l t e r m s . Two Impressions Paper 1853-55 VICTOR HUGO Disk from a Cut-Out . The scores are also exhibited in galleries as visual art. brushed night skies over them with ink then lifted the disks to reveal white moons. Hugo. broke new ground in the 1950s with graphic scores now considered among the most extreme. Marks across the center appear to be made with his fingers. have striven to break down old pictorial and musical structures to explore new and unfettered modes of expression. here he anticipates abstract expressionism by 100 years. A graphic score is a V I C T O R H U G O Hugo's abstract French novelist w h o m a d e m a n y drawings in m i x e d m e d i a ( s e e also p. o r a pattern o f elements s o unified as a w h o l e t h e y c a n n o t b e e x p l a i n e d asa s u m o f parts.222 ABSTRACT LINES Writing Time SINCE THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY. and inventive of his time. Texture Compare this drawing to Hugo's octopus on p. Gestalt. Ink impressions When drawing nightscapes Hugo often laid paper disks in place of the moon. Here he appears t o have saturated the cut-out moon disks with gritty pigment. abstract.
Bussotti's first mature work. we can feel their rhythm and easily attach sounds to them. a far cry from any recognized musical notation. His later works become increasingly abstract. Sound and rhythm This flickering rondo of sound written in pen on a hand-ruled stave can be heard in our imaginations as much as seen. Following the notes. Circular Score for "Due Voci" c. This is a page from Due Voci. 70 in relation to Bussotti's clustered notes to the left of his rondo and open space to the right. Compare this work to that of Libeskind on p. 1958 SYLVANO BUSSOTTI .223 W R I T I N G TIME SYLVANO BUSSOTTI Italian avant-garde composer and principal 20thcentury exponent of the graphic score.
Lieb is one o f countless thousands of "Outsider" artists—diverse individuals including ordinary citizens. Visually.224 A B S T R A C T LINES Chants and Prayers WHEN ABSTRACT LINES are organized in repetition. This takes a form in most cultures. It will protect the place from evil and make a pleasing invitation to good spirits. making objects and images outside o f mainstream culture. for e x a m p l e . MARIE LIEB Little is known of this w o m a n for w h o m the act of drawing was essential. an a n o n y m o u s w o m a n in the southeast Indian state o f Tamil Nadu m a k e s a ritual drawing o n the b r i c k courtyard o f h e r h o m e . Cell Floor With Torn Strips of Cloth 1894 MARIE LIEB . it is found in the regularity o f ordered lines or a pattern. cultures. In the late 1 9 t h century. and sufferers of psychiatric illnesses—who have always existed. they m a k e a visual a n d physical e c h o that t o u c h e s s o m e deep part of the human spirit. She tore c l o t h into strips a n d used these to draw patterns a n d symbols o n h e r cell floor. In music it can be felt in the diversity of plainsong and African d r u m m i n g . Compositional rightness (see pp. social outcasts. d i p p i n g h e r fingers into a pot o f rice flour. and c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Cloth is the simple instrument with which she has conducted and ordered her universe. O p p o s i t e . Marie Lieb w a s a psychiatric patient in the Heidelberg Asylum.228-29) has been adjusted with each movement of the rags to draw a cosmos of balance and perfection. centuries. Torn cloth This is one of two published photographs showing Marie Leib's torn cloth strips significantly placed on her cell floor. T h e s e p h o t o g r a p h s d o c u m e n t the meditative drawings o f two w o m e n living worlds apart in different countries. Germany.
chalk. Designs and motifs Rangoii (or mandalas) are ritual drawings made by many millions of women across rural India. or flowers are marked or arranged on the ground or on the walls of homes. Motifs are geometrical or based on plants. and in places of worship and celebration. women pride themselves on never repeating a design. Popular magazines feature new ideas each week and on special occasions there may be contests. lime. and birds. at the University of London and Ohio State University.Theseare widely published in journals and are the subjects of international exhibitions. In daily practice. lecturer on the subjects of Indian art and Indian women's identity.HUYLER Photographer art historian.000 images.225 STEPHEN P. Materials such as rice flour. Huyler is the author of Painted Prayers. Painted Prayers UNDATED STEPHEN R HUYLER . and for over 30 years has traveled extensively through the Indian subcontinent creating an edited archive of 200. among others. animals. cultural anthropologist. Skills are handed down through generations and from friend to friend.
BRIAN CATLING British sculptor poet. These two works present complex compositions with differing intensions and methods of making. Mixed media This is a collage of torn white and gray tissue paper previously stained with ink. and water-resistant layers of spray and enamel paint on thick paper. Catling's abstract drawings are usually made in series and in parallel to written poetry and sculptural installations. it is ruled and contained in one dimension by its interlocking ink-lined borders. rocks or heads in a subdued atmosphere of dream. performance and installation artist. Catling's torn paper shapes and shadows spill light out of their frame like a fractured mirror. Catling's works made for international galleries and museums involve drawing as a tool in their development and making. and Fellow of Linacre College. Ruskin School. gold paint and iridescent gouache mixed with water. Klee's mathematical maze of thinly washed surface resonates with meticulous planning. Their energy can therefore be a purer expression of an idea or emotion. but similarities in mood. structure. filmmaker Professor of Fine Art.226 ABSTRACT LINES Compositions ABSTRACT DRAWINGS ARE LARGELY or entirely free from using the viewer's eye to track and unfold layers of meaning. and choice of hues. Oxford. free from the direct imaging of known physical things. Untitled 2001 2001 153/4x 215/8 in ( 4 0 0 x 550 mm) BRIAN C A T L I N G . figurative representation—that is. Oval moons eclipse each other and oscillate between landforms and portraiture. They each find their pathways and equilibrium in atmosphere and suggestion. With no depth of field.
and might be read as active or passive. Geometric harmony This is a work on paper made with a sharp ink pen. philosophized. Polyphon Gefasstes Weiss (White Framed Polyphonically) 1930 131/8x95/8 in (333 x 245 mm) Paul-Klee-Stiftung. Klee painted. whereas tonal surfaces are perceived more immediately as a whole. and wrote copiously about the natures and relationships of color and form. watercolor. and brush. He explained his polyphonic painting as "a harmony of several color voices" searching for a visual parallel to music. Line and surface Klee observed the visual capacity of lines to push or pull within an image. It is a geometric harmony of straight lines and tonally graded flat colors that by their arrangement draw our eyes inward to their white center. ruler. Kunstmuseum Bern PAUL KLEE .31). drew.227 PAUL K L E E Swiss painter and sculptor (see also p. We can see some diagrammatic examples of this among the optical illusions on pp.97-99. Klee also felt that a line represents the passing of time.
Take. or degree of figuration. angles. In his b o o k The Education of a Gardener. they are just. their impact. they reach a perfect position. regardless of style. Seek it when looking at other artists' work and in your everyday environment. M a n y of their inter-relationships will be meaningless.Thisexercise will help you start. or on a page. It is found in all great art and design. there is a clear feeling when. a b u n c h of keys. after being continuously adjusted. It is also found in nature. b u t e v e r y n o w a n d again you will hit on an arrangement w h i c h appears just. Feel for it when youdraw. the late garden designer Russell Page explains. As y o u m o v e them around. There is a single m o m e n t w h e n all proportions. W h e n m o v i n g objects around in your yard. the impression y o u receive from t h e m . but an easy o n e to u n d e r s t a n d . culture. This balance is what every artist and designer searches a n d feels for when making an image. and an apple. or home. and elements settle in definitive balance. w i l l c h a n g e w i t h e v e r y r e a r r a n g e m e n t . "Whenall pictorial elements come together in pleasing and perfect balance. "I have experimented endlessly with this idea. for instance.228 ABSTRACT LINES Being "Just" A SENSE OF "JUST" (or rightness) is a difficult concept to explain. s o m e will be more or less h a r m o n i o u s . and put them o n a tray." . Set up a sheet of paper with a rectangle drawn on it." SETTING UP Justness can be harmonious or deliberately discordant. and ten straight sticks painted black. media. a glass.
painted black. horizontals dominate the lower area. W h e n the composition falls into place." Move the sticks to find alignments and imagined perspectives. 2 3 In the step above. Feel for the rightness of their grouping and their relationships to surrounding spaces.56-57). fix it with glue. In the final step (left) there is an even balance. A stick touching the rectangle links the composition to the frame. Within a rectangle on a flat sheet of paper set about making a composition using no other rule than a sense of "just.229 WHERE TO START Take ten sticks of equal length. B E I N G "JUST" 1 Arrange your ten sticks in t w o groups of five. as shown here. Arrange them so they touch or cross in a series of intersecting balances. . horizontals dominate the top. making the composition seem to float beneath. which now becomes a tight frame. suggesting a horizon. Move the sticks out into the rectangle. Here. Remember the drawn rectangle is a part of the composition (see pp.
or discordance.69 and Abe's installation on p. glue. he went on to say ".Youwill also need spare white paper. hard or soft. This principal also applies to three-dimensional drawings such as Gaudi's work with wire and weights on p.230 ABSTRACT LINES Collage H E R E W E EXPERIMENT with collage." overlapping placement of materials on a flat plane. an infinite range of voices and meaning. Returning to Russell Page. ready-made depths and surfaces. colors and textures can be manipulated until their pictorial harmony. Cut or torn layers and shapes. they become a scaffold for the addition of further textures. "My understanding is that every object [or shape] emanates—sends out vibrations beyond its physical body which are specific to itself. To prepare for this lesson. and black ink. feels "just" (see pp. or even strident. found or made items. colors. Collage offers the artist a liberating palette of SETTING UP This lesson in collage is a direct continuation of the compositional lines made in the previous class. and tones. scissors. Images and fragments torn from day-to-day life can be brought together to make a chorus of ideas and emotions. correction fluid or white paint. harmonious..228-29). a compass. which is the shifting.220. Once the ten painted black sticks are set and glued in place. stain and dry a sheet of tissue paper using blueink.." (Russell Page) . you start composing by adding or subtracting shapes and textures and using colors and tones to achieve the impression you want to m a k e — w h e t h e r dramatic or s u b d u e d .
231 WHAT TO DO Lay the final step of the previous lesson (p. draw. solidity. and with a compass and scissors. This can also give a sense of fragmentation or punctuation to the composition. they deepen pictorial space. four circles of blue tissue paper. then cut out. and shadow to thepicture. COLLAGE 1 Regular-sized pieces of white paper are moved over the surface to disrupt the even lines. correction fluid and ink marks add further dimensions. Glue them in place once they feel "just" Translucent circular disks of tissue paper give color tone.The single disk that is folded with its straight edge facing up appears heavier than those that are flat. Obscuring the blue disks. Cut six small rectangles the same proportion as your whole image. 2 3 Torn white paper moved over the surface adds masks of rough-edged irregular volume. .228) in front of you. In the last step (left).
" [Tanchu Terayama.Zen Calligraphy HITSUZENDO. emotion. Hitsuzendo drawings aspire to "breathe with the energy and vitality of eternal life" achieved through "a state of no mind—beyond thought. . Zen Brushwork]. A MODERN JAPANESE meditative art form inspired by the teachings of Yamaoka Tesshu (1836-1888). and expectation. is the practice of Zen through the calligraphic marks of a brush dipped in carbon ink.
I flicked spatters of ink and rubbed the paper with a wet and a dry brush to achieve these effects.Nocturnes IN THIS QUARTET of semi-abstract drawings made with India ink. These vibrate against washes of shadow and pitch-black mass. discord is balanced against rhythm to create mood. Lines made with a steel dip pen take on a scratchy nervousness. .
Perhaps the Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 1485 121/4 x 9 in (312 x 230 mm) MARTIN SCHONGAUER most important conclusion in this final chapter is to advise you to develop your skills in parallel with the joy of your unfolding imagination. happen to us. sculptures. The salvation of heaven and terrors of hell are represented equally—enough to make any sinner shudder. impossible. and the faces of God have for centuries given artists a feast for the extremes of their imagination. To learn to flex your imagination. which were widely distributed and influential in his time. and the Alien trilogy. and deep fur—and we alter their scale. all of which originated as hundreds of drawings. in the cracks of walls. we select details of animals farthest from ourselves and that are widely thought disturbing—reptilian and insect features. We love our fear of the hybrid—ideally. angels. our eye circulates around a flutter of leather and scaly wings. Today. a collaboration between the two will ensure that your drawings glow with originality. or strange. thousands of paintings. I was on a train passing through Nuneaton. movie studios now brim with as many monsters as the visual art of the Medieval and Renaissance Church. Images we are now surrounded by bear testimony to the power and resourcefulness of their collective imagination. Humans are equally troubled by the imperceptibly small and the enormous. Lord of the Rings. Star Wars. For example. We watch with captivated pleasure movies such as The Fly. for example. Monsters take advantage of both. Fantasy is most successful when founded on strong and familiar visual logic. Be inspired by the irrational comedy of word association or puns.Gods and Monsters OUR SACRED AND SECULAR need to visualize demons. When creating monsters.247. . In the Christian churches of Europe. beasts. a Catherine wheel of drawn sparks spiraling around the quietly resolute saint. Here. serpentine tails. Feeding this demand. scales. Throughout this book images are presented to excite and surprise and drawing classes created to increase your confidence. wings. England. We then add substances we dislike: unidentified fluids. a human-animal mix that implies this could MARTIN SCHONGAUER German painter and engraver who settled to work in Colmar Alsace. our literate and more secular Western society still hungers for another world and to ravenously indulge its fascination for the marvelous. look for images in the folds of clothing. feathers. paradise. which is to have eaten a nun—it inspired the drawing on p. and damnation are found in most world faiths. aliens. Reading the place name I momentarily glimpsed an alternative meaning. and stained-glass windows deliver powerful visual sermons to the once-illiterate populace. Neither should be slave or master. Depictions of God or of gods in the contexts of daily life. or in smoke. Schongauer is best known for his prints.
quoting great paintings and popular culture to add cunning twists to his satires. Paul Thomas's studies of Picasso and Twombly can be traced directly. Opposite below. The title "And So Was His Grandfather" adds that should we not already know. This act defines the vision and continues the line of spirit guides. Pictorially. whose impassioned work begins with light tapestry cartoons. to Picasso's similarly tight.220. Aquatint Goya has drawn a learned man as an ass. Near the end of his life he made his "Black Paintings" on the walls of his home. Other drawn versions of this image are more savage and frightening. a Shoshone seeking guidance and power meditates at the sacred site of a petroglyph. Violent white marks symbolizing Achilles' rage resonate with the energy of Twombly's script on p.240 GODS AND M O N S T E R S Marks of Influence marking the influence of one artist upon another. Many students leave white backgrounds in their work. noisy seascape on p. Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 1799 81/2 x 6 in (218 x 154 mm) FRANCISCO DE GOYA . F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A Spanish court painter printmaker and draftsman. Goya later recorded the horrors of Napoleonic occupation. They depict as if by lamplight the devil and witches. and exposed the superstitions. below. In this softer aquatint he poses for his portrait Textured background The aquatint process has been used to great effect in making a gritty toned background. deranged masses. his lover a dog. vanity. Visions experienced in front of the drawing sometimes instruct the making of a new one. Opposite. He would be graceless if he stood. Compare his dark. which can swamp the subject Here. such asinine behavior can be hereditary. portraits. hags. crammed tightly at his desk. we see the international icon of stupidity. plain wall suggests a blinkered view of nothing. In this ass. and church murals. and men clubbing each other to death. Francisco de Goya was a master of borrowing. and follies of court through copious graphic works including his best-known prints. rushing. reading from a book of asses. a wave to join Achilles' chase of Hector. it allows the mule to stand forward. barren land rising like MYRIAD CHAINS RUN THROUGH ART HISTORY. Goya's plainly textured gray background pushes back the space behind the illuminated simply subject. This continuity enriches the making of art and our heritage. The high. The well-dressed mule is cumbersome. Saturn devouring his son. Los Caprichos.30.
Graphite marks Here Achilles chases Hector around the walls of Troy before killing him. Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range UNDATED ARTIST UNKNOWN . Thomas conducts his explorations in the mine of Greek and Roman mythology." Each sacred image drawn into rock belongs to one of three realms in the Shoshone world: the realm of the sky. Parallel lines within the body of the figure are likely to denote power. Wyoming. and personal and social struggles. or of the water Chipped image This is a sacred creature of the sky chipped onto rock at Dinwoody Lake. White marks like flashes of light are cut though graphite with an eraser to reveal the paper beneath. Wind River Reservation. A vivid spectrum of energized graphite marks and a masterly composition give this drawing vitality and speed. Simple wall stones cleverly state their cold solidity while also fading from our attention as the scene roars by. of the earth. perhaps a stone. meaning "place of power. ideals.241 MARKS OF INFLUENCE PAUL T H O M A S British contemporary artist whose epic graphic work questions and reflects upon issues of European identity. Achilles Chases Hector 1996 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) PAUL THOMAS SHOSHONE PETROGLYPH The Shoshone people of Wyoming name petroglyph sites Poha Kahni. values. It was made with a sharp implement. by a supplicant in a trance of meditation.
H e was influenced by his friends. Techniques demonstrated on pp. GODS AND Erasure In this charcoal drawing. to the right of the balloon. graphic artist. Compare worked textures throughout the whole of this image to those found throughout Anita Taylor's charcoal drawing on p.and 16th-century Holland. We may feel safe so long as the eye looks heavenward. lifting its cranial passenger over a seascape of repose. the writers Joris-Karl Huysmans and Stephane Mallarme. we see parallel slanting pale marks that might have been made with fresh bread—a very effective eraser used before the wide availability of rubber or plastic. The Eye Like a Strange Mounts Balloon 165/8 x131/8in (422 x 332 mm) ODILON REDON 1882 Toward Infinity .204-05 will enable you to produce a similar effect of white lines shining out of dark charcoal. ODILON REDON French painter draftsman. and writer In contrast t o the light and visual accent of contemporary Impressionism. and scuttle over all known reality. 115. Redon lifted them out with some sort of eraser. which sometimes—half-dressed and carrying a familiar trophy— stride. T H E EXPLORATION AND DEPICTION Hauntings Grandville has drawn a scurrying zoo of half-known demons and animals that appear to have been stolen from the glass eye of the microscope.242 MONSTERS of the unknown is a classical and constant occupation for the artist. If it were to turn and stare this way. below left. as he did the grass. Redon's eyeball balloon rises up. Our subconscious can be drawn with pleasure and ease. The monsters of Bosch grew from his observations of beggars going about their trade in 15th. Children are also delighted to invent a monster or ghoul. the shock would be extreme. crawl. Here we see how he evolved their injuries into new limbs and warped proportions. Redon explored the darker side of the human imagination through symbols and mysticism. Lifting out Fine strings of the hot-air balloon appear dark against the sky and light against the balloon. They float toward us like a horrid visitation.
243 J E A N I G N A C E ISIDORE GERARD ("GRANDVILLE") French graphic artist and political satirist. teeming with the exhilaration of unrestrained fantasy. and Ship of Fools. The quality of the line is therefore uniform throughout. grimacing. Smiling. Comic little headbands of waving hair express more hysteria than fear. HAUNTINGS Engraving This is an engraving made so that Grandville's original drawing could be reproduced. His other major works include Metamorphoses du Jour (1828). and he illustrated the Fables of La Fontaine and Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe. sucker-faced creatures dash and trundle toward it They are drawn solidly to emphasize their earthbound weight. Garden of Earthly Delights. Quill and ink This typical Bosch monster is a quill drawing in bistre ink The phrasing of light and contour here is masterly. Madrid. Last Judgment. Two Monsters UNDATED 45/8 x61/2in (117 x 163 mm) HIERONYMUS BOSCH . Les Animaux (1840). Most of his work is in the Prado Museum. 1840 61/8 x41/2in ( 1 5 5 x 1 1 5 mm) GRANDVILLE HIERONYMUS BOSCH Dutch painter Bosch's highly detailed iconographic religious panel paintings. include The Haywain. This image is from one of Grandville's best-known publications. Light shines from the right. A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects c. which is still available today.
and mist-swathed land. and dying slaves. Grimes' delicately cavorting figures dive into and consume each other. a stunning hybrid of a swan. David. topple. His entire drawing wrestles and weaves the viewer's eye into its retracting folds. pinnacled. Dragon 1522 10 x 133/8 in ( 2 5 4 x 3 3 8 m m ) MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI . as we might expect. but in the seductive landscape of Leonardo da Vinci's oil painting Madonna of the Rocks. lion. muscular tension is carved out of the paper using layered. the dome of the Vatican. Two previously drawn faces become humorous antagonists to the beast. and play with its perfection and meaning. phrased over the contours of form and bridging darker areas of shadow. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI Florentine painter sculptor. Grimes found the genesis of her beast not among animals. and engineer Among Michelangelo's great works are the painted ceiling and altar wall of the Sistine Chapel. hatched lines. snake. A snake eating its own tail is a universal image of the eternal and continuous. architect. St Peter's square. Chalk and ink A quill dipped in brown ink was worked over black chalk on this reused sheet. poet. and marble sculptures including Pieto. she formed a series of ghostly pale. gamboling copulations.244 GODS AND MONSTERS Convolutions THESE CONVOLUTED DRAWINGS were made almost 5 0 0 years apart. They share between them the pleasures of inventing a hybrid beast. sometimes artists purposefully tie a knot in the configuration to disturb. However. In her studio. Scaly. remembering the cavernous. wraps and coils its lithe body ready to strike or whimper at a touch. Opposite. Michelangelo's dragon. and dog. below.
her under heavy here. The image formed directly without first making a pencil outline. London. It is one of a series of fragile earth figures inspired by rocks. and the Camberwell and Slade Schools of Fine Art. London. How Clever of God #84 2002 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) O O N A GRIMES . Ink-wash delicately gouache (smooth) and gouache brushed drawing on This is a and was hot-pressed Shadows The dark shadow of the Other the ink-wash earth was made with a brushstroke of ink laid into wet paper.245 CONVOLUTIONS O O N A GRIMES British contemporary artist and professor of printmaking at the Ruskin School. details evolved slowly using a drier brush. Oxford. each one iridescent and crumbly like a weathered while oyster. The large space around figure has been cropped Grimes drawings to flatten presses them. boards finished paper. Grimes exhibits internationally and features in the collections of the New York Public Library and the Victoria and Albert Museum.
SYNTHETIC-HAIR S W O R D LINER: A lining brush with high ink-holding capacity and a fine point.246 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brushes T H E BRUSH IS A VOLUPTUOUS and delicate weights. the very opposite of pencil or silver point. making rt ideally suited to Japanese painting and small-scale calligraphy. with a fine point for delicate work 4. It is still relatively small in the total range of Japanese brushes. SABLE-HAIR RIGGER: Made with very long kolinsky sable hairs. SMALL JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with sable hair. all perfect for drawing and. thicknesses. L A R G E R S Y N T H E T I C . 12. giving a variety of lines. SABLE-HAIR LINER: Made with ordinary sable hair surrounding an extralong. LARGER JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with natural hair held in a plastic ferrule on a bamboo handle. shape. return them to their pointed shape. and very fine lines. JAPANESE PAINTING BRUSH: Made with natural hair. How you care for your brushes will determine how long they last.H A I R LINER: Very responsive oriental-style liner This to the touch. flowing." 6. The living marks of a wet. ideally suited to drawing. needle-sharp center of kolinsky red sable hair. Always clean them thoroughly. Shorter brushes designed for other purposes run out of ink more quickly. It is capable of very fine pointing. 1. it has good inkholding capacity and is very flexible.H A I R RIGGER: Made with long synthetic hair for fine-point work It has a good ink-holding capacity and is slightly more resilient than sable hair with more "snap. Soaps purchased from good art supply stores will gently cleanse particles of pigment that become trapped in the hairs or ferrule. Brushes vary in size. and writers. It has exceptional painting characteristics. liners. 7. dense. drawing tool extending the arm. The brushes shown here are a mixture of This is a selection of riggers. washes. and texture. Suitable for wash techniques but also capable of very fine detail. and effects. 13. 10. SQUIRREL-HAIR S W O R D LINER:This brush has a maximum ink-holding capacity and an extremely fine and flexible point 8. S Y N T H E T I C . fingers. and never leave them standing on their tip in a jar of water. This design supplies the fine tip with a long continuity of ink 5. SYNTHETIC-HAIR LINER: This brush gives a medium line and is firm with a spring to the touch. Slightly less flexible than the squirrel-hair sword liner 9. and has a fine tip for detailed work. materials. this brush has a soft drawing tip and small ink-holding capacity. 3. This brush has a broad wash capability and can achieve a very wide range of marks. SYNTHETIC-HAIR BRUSH: Bound in a synthetic ferrule with good inkholding capacity and good spring and control. others are as fine as a whisker with a gentle touch. which holds long sable hair This brush holds large amounts of ink for long lines and points well for detailed work. between them. and hold prodigious weights of ink or paint. it has good wash capabilities. and wrist into a fluid and soft touch. M T RA S AEIL .Theyhold plenty of ink and make continuous. Some are bold. POINTED SQUIRREL-HAIR MOP: With a synthetic quill ferrule and extra high inkholding capacity. Some used by master calligraphers are 2-3 in (5-8 cm) in diameter 11. P O I N T E D T R A D I T I O N A L WRITER: The ferrule is made from a small duck quill. 2. ink-laden tip allow an expression that is beyond the linear.
247 BRUSHES .
and type of its hairs. length.35) into two tablespoons of water in a shallow. It also depends on the angle at w h i c h it is held. the degree of pressure applied. Here I drew with a soft Japanese painting brush (see pp. I had left the end of the ink block in the water overnight to make it easier to dissolve. SETTING UP Blowing spots T h e s e t h r e e s p i d e r y c r e a t u r e s (above right and below) w e r e m a d e by d r o p p i n g s p o t s o f ink f r o m a b r u s h o n t o t h e p a g e and. A single brush has almost balletic potential to draw fine or undulating lines and curves.246-47).248 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brush Marks A S I N G L E BRUSH will m a k e an e n o r m o u s range of m a r k s depending u p o n the width.) I . the texture and a b s o r b e n c y of the paper ( w h i c h m a y be d a m p or dry). unglazed earthenware dish. softness. and to make pools and stains o n the page. I rubbed a block of Chinese ink (see p. and spatters. the speed of the s t r o k e . b l o w i n g h a r d o n t h e m several t i m e s t o disperse t h e ink ( c l o s e y o u r eyes if y o u t r y this. and above all w h e t h e r the b r u s h is saturated with pigment or relatively dry. w i t h m y face close. splashes.
b l e e d i n g f r o m strokes b e l o w left.249 Gritty texture T h e details o f t h e largest creatures b e l o w and opposite s h o w the granular texture of Chinese b l o c k ink. t h e effects of the b r u s h r u n n i n g o u t o f ink. . a n d b r u s h . w e see fine lines and s p o t s . BRUSH MARKS Wet and dry strokes A m o n g these concentrated drawings ink made into with the same w a t e r y lines. a n d t h e w a y it d i s t r i b u t e s w h e n t h e b r u s h is d a b b e d o n its s i d e .
I borrowed small and fragile specimens from the University Museum of Natural History. . Oxford. and used their detail to draw new creatures that might at first seem familiar.Monsters THESE LITTLE CREATURES o f i n k and i n v e n t i o n were b o r n out of animal and bird studies. until we look again.
thin works made by Bartolome Murillo in Seville about 120 years earlier. showing us that gallery study is not just for the student and beginner.Goya's Monsters W I T H CUNNING BRILLIANCE. two of my own drawings show you how Goya's devil (below) is based on the shape of Murillo's boy on a horse (top right). Through studying and drawing these great paintings I have discovered that they are based on a pair of similarly long. Isidore. . With further research. thin works titled The Witches' Sabbath and The Procession of St. I found relationships between all four paintings in terms of shapes. Among his "Black Paintings" in the Prado Museum. Goya's witches have been literally drawn and evolved out of the shapes of Murillo's prophet and pilgrims. formal composition. Madrid. They are a pair and hang opposite each other. Goya often invented his monsters out of characters seen in other painters' works. and narrative twists. Here. are two long.
Sometimes drawings come out of nowhere and surprise even the artist. little comments on politeness and sexual politics. drawn rapidly and with great joy.Consumed THIS IS A SERIES OF CARTOONS I m a d e s o m e years ago. .
Camera lucida A n optical device t h a t p r o j e c t s an image o f an o b j e c t o n t o a plain s u r f a c e so t h a t it can be traced. Composition T h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e p a r t s o f an i m a g e t o m a k e u p the whole. See also Hotpressed papers. R o u g h p a p e r is m a d e b e t w e e n t w o blankets t h a t . A f u l l . U s e d as a c o r r e c t i n g device o r pictorial game. C o p p e r p l a t e engravings w e r e widely used t o r e p r o d u c e images b e f o r e p h o t o g r a p h y . Chiaroscuro A 1 7 t h . A l s o c a l l e d t h e h o r i z o n line. Collage C o l l e c t e d materials such as c o l o r e d p a p e r s . o r will o n l y a p p e a r n o r m a l . Deckle edge T h e i r r e g u l a r e d g e o f a s h e e t o f m o l d ." D e s c r i b e s a p a i n t i n g in w h i c h t h e light s o u r c e is b e h i n d t h e s u b j e c t F o r e x a m p l e . Fixative Liquid acrylic resin a n d l a c q u e r t h i n n e r usually a p p l i e d as a n a e r o s o l s p r a y m i s t t o t h e surface o f a d r y . Erasure T h e a c t o f r e m o v i n g a n i m a g e f r o m a surface. T h e b l a n k e t s g i v e t h e p a p e r its rough texture o r "tooth. p r a c t i c e d meditatively w i t h a brush. It can also seal a silver p o i n t d r a w i n g t o p r e v e n t t h e oxidization (browning) o f t h e Drypoint A d r a w i n g is s c r a t c h e d directly o n t o a m e t a l plate w i t h a m e t a l t o o l h e l d like apen. Engraving 1. A p o t e n t i a l l y h a r s h m e t h o d o f p r o d u c i n g t o n e s in a d r a w i n g . T h e prints t a k e n from t h e s e plates o r blocks. s u c h as a d r a w i n g o r painting. m e a n i n g "beauty". Ferrule T h e s h o r t m e t a l t u b e t h a t s u r r o u n d s a n d g n p s t h e hairs o f a p a i n t b r u s h a n d fixes t h e m t o t h e brush handle. A i r b r u s h e s are u s e d in t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c o m i c s . pressurized t o o l used f o r spraying fine mists o f s m o o t h c o l o r P i g m e n t is d e l i v e r e d b y a j e t o f air n o t t h e bristles o f a brush. Conservation grade D e s c r i b e s a range o f materials t h a t d o n o t d e c a y and cannot be broken d o w n by insects. r a t h e r t h a n r e c o r d e d o n a film o r plate. o r o t h e r (usually large) w o r k — s e e Pouncing. w h e n a p e r s o n is p a i n t e d standing a g a i n s t a w i n d o w . T h e m o v e m e n t was started by a g r o u p o f French artists including H e n r i Matisse. Also called accelerated perspective. t h e l i g h t is b e h i n d h i m o r her. o f t e n d i s t o r t e d forms and vivid colors. so t h a t ink r e m a i n s o n l y in t h e g r o o v e s o f s c r a t c h e d lines. t o g e t h e r w i t h a t h i c k felt b l a n k e t T h e w h o l e s a n d w i c h o f l a y e r s is t h e n railed t h r o u g h t h e press t o m a k e a p r i n t D r y p o i n t is a very portable and immediate m e t h o d o f printmaking. In t h e W e s t p e n calligraphy is u s e d t o c r e a t e f o r m a l a n d d e c o r a t i v e t e x t s . m e a n i n g " t o stick" Dry media M e d i a t h a t a r e n o t w e t o r o i l y — f o r e x a m p l e .256 GLOSSARY Glossary Accidental drawing Random. S o m e t i m e s f e r r u l e s a r e m a d e o f plastic o r o t h e r materials.m a d e paper. in w h i c h t h e subject's distinctive features o r peculiarities are deliberately exaggerated f o r c o m i c o r g r o t e s q u e effect. Calligraphy Beautiful h a n d w r i t i n g . as o p p o s e d t o t h e s t r a i g h t e d g e o f a sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has b e e n machine-trimmed. F r o m t h e French v e r b coller. A l s o called m u s e u m g r a d e .c e n t u r y Italian t e r m m e a n i n g "clear-obscure. written with a broad-nibbed pen o r brush. a r e r o l l e d t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders. F r o m t h e G r e e k kallos. usually at a n a c u t e angle t o t h e s u r f a c e . n e w s p a p e r cuttings. A g e n e r a l t e r m t h a t describes t h e various processes o f c u t t i n g a design i n t o a plate o r b l o c k o f m e t a l o r w o o d . Field In a t w o . Binder A substance t h a t holds particles o f p i g m e n t t o g e t h e r in a paint f o r m u l a t i o n . p h o t o g r a p h s . Aerial perspective The effect of the a t m o s p h e r e o v e r distance as it lightens t o n e s a n d cools c o l o r s progressively t o w a r d t h e horizon. In t h e Far East calligraphy is a highly r e s p e c t e d a r t f o r m . tapestry. Blotting T h e use o f a b s o r b e n t m a t e r i a l t o lift a w a y excess liquid. and readymade objects arranged and stuck o n t o a flat surface. D a m p p a p e r is laid o n t o p . t h e field is t h e a p p a r e n t a n d b e l i e v a b l e space inside t h e p i c t u r e . Anamorphic distortion Stretching an i m a g e across a p i c t u r e surface so t h a t it can o n l y b e u n d e r s t o o d . chance mark-making. a n d given t h e n a m e Sho. A l s o called r i n g l e t shading. A h u m o r o u s d r a w i n g o r parody. Cartoon 1. A " s h a l l o w d e p t h o f field" m e a n s t h e p i c t u r e appears t o have only a shallow s p a c e inside i t Diffuse T o s o f t e n o r m a k e less brilliant." " N o t " p r e s s e d p a p e r is r o l l e d a s e c o n d t i m e w i t h o u t blankets t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders t o p r o d u c e a s m o o t h e r b u t still slightly t e x t u r e d s u r f a c e . Eye level T h e i m a g i n a r y h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e a t t h e s a m e h e i g h t as t h e a v e r a g e p e r s o n ' s eyes.The plate is t h e n r o l l e d w i t h ink a n d polished with a rag.c e n t u r y painting m o v e m e n t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e use o f b o l d . Fauvism A n early 2 0 t h .m e d i a d r a w i n g . R e m b r a n d t is a great master o f chiaroscuro. linseed oil o r egg y o l k Caricature A representation Contour line A line t h a t f o l l o w s t h e s h a p e o f a surface. W o r d s o r symbols are Cold-pressed papers P a p e r manufactured with a "not" o r " r o u g h " surface. in w h i c h parts o f an image are depicted v e r y brightly and dramatically against d a r k n e s s . pastel. w h e n v i e w e d f r o m a specified point. Contre jour A F r e n c h t e r m m e a n i n g " a g a i n s t day. charcoal. Acid-free paper P a p e r w i t h a neutral p H t h a t will n o t darken o r d e t e r i o r a t e excessively w i t h age. a n d g r a p h i t e . a n d attaches t h e m t o t h e s u p p o r t — f o r example. Fixative lightly glues t h e d r a w i n g t o t h e surface o f t h e p a p e r t o p r e v e n t smudging. p r i n t i n g press face up. Blending M e r g i n g t w o o r m o r e neighboring colors o r tones t o g e t h e r using a tortillon. Bleed T h e e f f e c t o f t w o w e t colors running into one another o r o n e color applied t o a w e t surface a n d a l l o w e d t o d i s p e r s e . s u c h as a s c r e e n . L a t e r it c a m e t o m e a n h i g h l y c o n t r a s t e d light effects. T h e name " n o t " simply refers t o t h e fact t h a t t h e cylinders are n o t h o t in t e m p e r a t u r e . Camera obscura A d a r k e n e d c h a m b e r i n t o w h i c h an i m a g e o f w h a t is o u t s i d e is received t h r o u g h a small o p e n i n g o r lens a n d f o c u s e d in natural c o l o r o n a facing surface. Crosshatching Parallel lines d r a w n across o n e a n o t h e r at right angles. Bracelet shading C u r v e d parallel lines t h a t f o l l o w t h e c o n t o u r s o f f o r m .s i z e d r a w i n g m a d e for t h e purpose o f transferring a design t o a painting. It is p u t o n a Body color See Gouache. for example. Air brush A mechanical.d i m e n s i o n a l i m a g e ." It w a s first given t o t o n a l paintings m a d e in o n e c o l o r — s e e Grisaille. 2. 2.
while secretion of the acacia tree. Lightfast A term confirming that pigment in the product will not fade with exposure to light. which has a rough surface). F o r m The outer surface of a three-dimensional object. A point of interest in a drawing. upright images are called "portrait which is used as a binding agent in many liquid media. It is a strong adhesive.Theground provides a particular color or texture beneath the image. so that (using vanishing point perspective) the object appears to change shape and become narrower or smaller as it recedes. lifting out charcoal and other dry media. Ground A wet solution usually of gouache or gesso (chalk and animal glue) brushed onto paper board. used for fixing paper to walls and boards. aiming to represent facts rather than an interpretation of the subject. Hairspray is an effective and inexpensive alternative. cadmium yellow hue. A small image might be described as small format Horizontal images are often said to be "landscape format" (abbreviated G u m arabic The natural to"landscape"). or canvas and allowed to dry before an image is drawn or painted. Impressing Stamping or printing. sticky paper tape. oil-. glossy. purpose. Also used by artists' materials manufacturers to indicate the use of a substitute pigment—for example. or for wrapping and protecting a finished piece of work. Papercut A type of collage in which flat sheets of paper are cut into an image. oil-based printing ink is rolled evenly onto a smooth metal. pastel. Usually an academic drawing observed from life. The ink attaches to the oil-based image and is repelled by the wet stone. and is also used as a size. then rubbed over carefully but vigorously with a crayon. and masking off areas of a drawing that the artist wishes to keep untouched by media applied above or beside the tape. Lithography A method of printmaking in which a drawing or painting is made directly onto a smooth slab of particular limestone or a metal plate using an oilbased crayon or ink. . It is then peeled away. Plumb line A line from which a weight is suspended in order to determine verticality or depth. and orientation of the image. Medium A generic term for art Key A painting is said to be "high key" when the colors and tones are bright and "low key" when they are dark or somber The term is also used Gouache Opaque watercolor Also called body color. Focus 1 . Paper is laid on top and a rapid drawing is made on the back of it The paper lifts away to reveal the image on its other side. It improves the bonding properties Frottage A French term meaning "rubbing. are painted in grisaille and appear to be made of stone. Hatching (cross-) See Crosshatching. enabling them to stick to paper It also helps to maintain a stable dispersion of pigment particles in water as the film of a wash dries. and translucent paper—a delicate material used in collage. Monochrome Usually refers to a black. rock. and it has a history in enamel work. or plastic surface. to give the illusion of depth and distance. Padua. white. Dark tones are laid down first then an eraser or masking tape is used to lift away particles of the drawing media to reveal the lightness of the paper beneath. This method incorporates the excitement of accidental and unpredicted marks. Foreshortening A method of depicting an object at an angle to the surface of the picture. Rubens used grisaille to paint small images for engravers. F o r m a t T h e size. Gamut A complete range or extent Glassine A type of thin. of the ingredients in inks and watercolors. the finely ground particles of plant. multiH u e A term for a color. or spirit-based) is applied to a surface that is then pressed onto paper and removed to leave a print. This effect emulates what we see in real life. or can be otherwise used to create an image—for example. Lifting out A method of creating highlights and mid-tones in a drymedia drawing (such as charcoal or graphite).The degree to which detail is defined. and by artists representing stone sculptures in a painting. Giotto's Virtues and Vices in the Arena Chapel. Also refers to an additive used to control the application properties of a color Golden Section A proportion in which a straight line or rectangle is divided into two unequal parts in such a way that the ratio of the smaller part to the greater part is the same as that of the greater part to the whole. which give it a smooth surface (as opposed to cold-pressed paper. ink. It can be used with any wet media to isolate or protect parts of an image from further Optical blending See Pointillism. to describe a surface to which paint will adhere readily. Objective drawing Refers to the concept of objectivity. Artists can paint freely over dry masking fluid. the surface of the stone is made wet before being rolled with a thin film of oilbased printing ink. Alternatively. format" (abbreviated to "portrait"). This may be disregarded in real life. glass. work. 2. and that will "escape" or change over time." A piece of paper is placed on top of an object or rough surface. or a drawing made in any single color GLOSSARY Linear perspective A form of perspective in which parallel lines are represented as converging. it is the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work Pigment Any substance used as a coloring agent—for example.257 metal line. After several intervening processes. or a family of colors. Fugitive A term given to a pigment that it is not stable. Paper is then pressed against the stone to take a print. The surface can be reloaded or redrawn with more medium. materials that produce marks on a surface. with the area beneath remaining unaffected. including Max Ernst used frottage in their work. shape. Grisaille is occasionally seen in church stained-glass windows. but each print will be unique. or even a beam of light. mineral. Grisaille A painting in gray or a grayish color Often made by students as a tonal exercise. Hot-pressed papers (HP) Paper made using hot cylinders.The paper then bears a crayon impression or copy of the surface that was underneath it A number of Surrealists. and gray drawing. but in picture-making it is as important as the objects/subjects themselves. graphite. Monoprinting A direct method of printing in which wet medium (water-. or synthetic material that are suspended in a medium to constitute paint. Masking fluid Clear or opaque latex fluid developed for watercolor painting. Pointillism A technique of using points or dots of pure color in such a way that when the picture is viewed from a distance they react Masking tape Invaluable. Negative space The space between things. Picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture.
meaning objects used in setting up a life model or still life." Applied to the blurring or softening of sharp outlines by the subtle and gradual blending of one tone into another Sgraffito A technique of scratching or cutting through a surface of paint. Strip Core of a pencil. nature of watercolor allows the white surface of the paper to Tonal scale A scale of gradations shine through. Etienne de material) dabbed through the Silhouette (1709-67). paper or canvas. Printmaking The act of making a picture. orchids.258 GLOSSARY together optically. usually diluted with water and applied with a brush. carbon ink. using a brush. Volume The amount of space occupied by an object or an area of space in itself. and paperweights.Thedrawing is removed. in order to flick the pigment onto the image surface. Although drawings can be made with wash alone. or wood. Technical drawing A universal it is often used in conjunction language of lines and measurements with line drawings in pen and that is used to make diagrammatic ink—for images. Viewpoint The position from which something is observed or considered. fruit. Wash A technique using ink. or pen. . evolved by engineers and architects for the purpose of conveying W a t e r c o l o r A painting accurate structural information. Pouncing If a large drawing or design (called a cartoon) is to be Shadow Darkness cast by the transferred to a surface such as a obscuring of light. "Spirits" or "oil" of turpentine refer to the volatile portion used by artists to thin or dilute oil-based paint. Squeegee A rubber-trimmed scraper used in the screenprinting process for dragging ink across a surface.Technicaldrawing has been example. pointed instrument used for marking or engraving. Sfumato An Italian term meaning "smoky. or any physical object that can be stamped or pressed onto a surface to leave an impression. plaster. Size A weak glue used for filling the porous surface of wood or canvas in order to seal it. Stippling Applying color or tone in areas of fine dots or flecks. giving it a brilliance. The crude material is called oleoresin. Stylus A sharp. Underdrawing A pale preliminary drawing made prior to adding layers of another medium such as oil paint or watercolor Value The extent to which a color reflects or transmits light This is the equivalent of tone in a black and white image. Tortillon A short. wall or tapestry. ink. design. The translucent Tint A color mixed with white. or ceramic glazing to reveal a different color beneath. Still life A picture composed of inanimate objects such as bowls. or the left-hand page in a book. plum blossom. Zen brushwork This is an oriental meditative art form originating in China and practised for many centuries in Japan. compound of water-soluble pigment. Scale Describes the size of one element in relation to another Sepia A brown pigment taken from the sun-dried ink sacs of cuttlefish and used to make ink or watercolor The term is now often incorrectly used to refer to brown colors. watercolor. A term borrowed from the theater. Named paper in place." Materials for Zen brushwork include round brushes of varied size. Zen brushwork encompasses calligraphy and painting. a tightly folded piece of cotton batting can be used for the same effect. tight. creating more vibrant effects than if the same colors were physically mixed together with a brush. Turpentine A colorless solvent distilled from the resinous sap of pine trees. an ink stone usually cut from slate. Subjective drawing A drawing that expresses the personal view and interpretation of the artist An invented image. Single-point perspective The most basic form of linear perspective in which there is only one vanishing point. Shade A that is color mixed (or toned) with black Shading A lay term for adding tone to a drawing. such as an inscribed sheet of metal. pencil. Spattering A mottled texture produced by drawing your fingers across the bristles of a stiff brush loaded with pigment. plaster or cloth surface beneath. Recto The front or top side of a piece of paper. Serigraphy Silk-screen printing. Zen A school of Mahayana Buddhism that asserts that enlightenment can come through meditation and intuition rather than faith. by imposing a grid that is then scaled up to a larger size. glasses. Squaring up A method of enlarging and transferring an image from one surface to another. Zen paintings usually depict scenes of nature and plants such as bamboo. or watercolor paint. which are then called editions. Artists' prints are normally made in multiple. or gouache. to model areas of light and shade. in tone running from black to white or vice versa. Sketch A quick or rough drawing. Alternatively. or mark using an inked or pigment-covered surface. whose pinpricks creates a "connect-thepersonal pastime was making dots" replica of the image on the cut-out portraits. Tone A degree of lightness or darkness. or point on which parallel lines converge to give the impression of receding space. a point at which receding parallel lines meet Verso The back or underside of a piece of paper. commonly referred to as the lead. and flowers. sometimes drawn from a and leaving only the pricked sheet of shadow cast on a wall. Vanishing point In linear perspective. Props An abbreviation of the word properties. a sheet of paper is placed beneath and pinpricks are Silhouette A flat. W e t media Any liquid media— for example. acrylic. Pounce (a fine for an unpopular 18th-century powder of charcoal or similar French politician. fine paper. cut-out profile made along every outline of the usually made in black paper image. and chrysanthemum—which in Chinese tradition are called "The Four Gentlemen. or the right-hand page in a book. Support The structure on which an image is made—for example. pointed roll of white paper that is used to blend dry media.
134 costume(s) 155 character 158-159 structure of 166-167 Cottage Among Trees (Rembrandt) 52. Statue d'Epouvante 90 calligraphy.51 All and Nothing (Taylor) 114. Joseph 113 The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland 112.163 body. 161 Akhlaq-I Rasul Allah manuscript 51. 71 conte 112. 72 bracelet shading 122 Braque. 94 chalk(s) 53. 198 cartoon (preparatory drawing) 137 (satirical) 159. 9 Chair (Van Gogh) 94. Leon: Bacchante 155 balance. Brian 226 Untitled 2001 226 "Cave of the Hands" (Cueva de las Manas) 8. 137 Besler. 180 Circular Score for "Due Voce" (Bussotti) 223 circus scenes 192-195 City (Bryan) 202. 74 brush (es) 246-247 Japanese 248 for laying a wash 140 marks 248-249 to hold 23 brush drawings 14-15 Bryan. 162 character: to capture 38-39.13. 204-205. 98. Franz 48 Protea nitida 48 Bellini.198. Giovanni 137 Head and Shoulders of a Man 136. Filippo 67. layers 53 chalk pastels 162. cut Catling. 190 Caricature of a Woman (Daumier) 198. Augustin 67 Basquiat. William: The Circle of the Lustful 180. 241 action. Etienne-Louis 72 Newton's Cenotaph 72. Zen c 232-233 blended 133. 226-227 Acanthus spinosus 65 accelerated perspective 22. Jean Michel 138 Self-Portrait 138 Bateau-Vision. 203 Claude Lorrain 202 Views from Velletri 202. 157 cropping 56-57. 165.Index Page numbers in italics refer t o captions and illustrations Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity (Bishndas and 259 INDEX B bread (as eraser) 205. 243 botanical drawing 48-49 Boullee. (Ross-Craig) 49 to hold brush for 23 caricature 159.50. to draw 100 Cypripedium calceolus L. 133. to express 39. Basilius 47 Beuys.44-45 bird studies 12. Victor: West Facade of the Church of St. to model 110-111 border 51 Bosch. 71 Blake. 90 La Guitare. 206. 182.100 curves. Georges 67.184. 90. 221 animals. Hieronymus 243 Two Monsters 242. Clare 203 City 202. 30 sleeping dog 38-39 Stubbs's horse skeleton 26.31 Picasso's horse and bird 30. 71 Bacchante (Bakst) 155 background: color 91 textured 240 Baker Matthew: Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry 32 Bakst. 81 cut-out model plan 94.184. 178 Cubism 67. 74. 222. 139 Nanha) 50. 160 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object (Moore) 178. Sylvano 222. 70 Art Nouveau motifs 91 Autoportrait (Ray) 138. 186 charcoal 114.186 see also movement Adoration of the Magi perspective study (Leonardo) 74. 199 Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya (Eisen) 156. 180 blending: color 133. 189. 81 135.27 turtles 42-43 aquatint 240 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels (Leonardo) 12. 247-248 carving see lines. 206 checkered floor 80. 75. 26 geese 38-39 Gericault's cats 28.169 colors: airbrushed 161 background 91 A Abe. Le (Hugo) 200.133. 75 Circle of the Lustful (Blake) 180. 116. 94 cylindrical objects. 163. 198. 244 and graphite 178 . 52 cotton swabs 205 Coup de Vent a Asajigabare (Hokusai) 198. to depict 156-157 Cloudburst of Material Possessions (Leonardo) 200. 202 cloth. 250 Bishndas and Nanha: Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity 50.163 dry media 205 Blue Nude (Matisse) 110.44-45. 204. 29 Hugo's octopus 28. 78 aerial perspective 206 airbrushing 160. 13 architectural drawing 67-71 Arctic Flowers (Libeskind) 70.226.163 graded 227 composition 56-57. 242 Brunelleschi. 41 principal 186.162 Conte. to draw 25. 128. 230-231 Cubist 90.89.117 Achilles Chases Hector (Thomas) 240. to draw 80. 158.212 to erase 205 to hold 23 pencils 204 willow 114. Mamaru 104. 193 in lifting out 204. 201 collage 111. 38-39. 205 Baltard. center of 118 ballpoint 182. 179 Bussotti. Nicolas-Jacques 54 contours 146. 90. 223 Circular Score for "Due Voce" 223 children's art 9. 9. 8 cave paintings 8. 200 Bauer. 50. 242 to blend 205 compressed 122. 230 The Physical Space 220 abstract drawing 219. 95 Chair Cut Out (Woodfine) 94. 40-41 Durer's rhinoceros 26. 28 Klee's horses 30. 90 colored materials 162-163 colored pencils 162. 111. 74.115 anatomical drawing 134-135 anatomical theaters 82-83 anatomical waxes 128 ancient carvings 221. 220. 203 Buffalo Hunt (Shoshone) 178. 203 Landline 202. 13. 113 bird bones 12. 244 head and neck 144 phrased 124-125 contrast: brightness 99 of media 30 tonal 96.
Jean Ignace Isidore see Grandville Gericault. 226-227 anatomical 134-135 architectural 67-71 botanical 48-49 brush 14-15 dark to light 102.37. 161 fashion drawings 160. 69.John 157 Man Lying Down in a Cloak 156. 203 Hotel de la Suzonnieres (Satie) 70. 245 Hugo. to draw 120. 113. 216 foreshortening 110. 222 Grimes. 222 Le Bateau-Vision 200. 136 Golden Section 67 Gombrich. Antonio 68. The 242.121 felt-tip pens 162. Francisco de 131. 243 graphic score 222. 122. to draw 78. Ron 161 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 161 160. 162 Flaxman.97.144 and ink 30. 160 as ground for metal point 140. 55.112.115 exploratory 17 fantasy 72-73. Katsushika 199 Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 198. drypoint 181 exaggeration 184 expressionism 198 E ye and Head of a Drone Fly (Hooke) 92. 37 Grandville 243 A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the Near-Microscopic World of Scale Insects 242. 29 H hands. fiber-tip pen 182.103 with eraser 103. position of 22 Eisen. 241 to blend 205 and chalk 178 and ink 28. 144 Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (Baker) 32.Theodore 29 Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 28. 223 graphite 54. 40. 55. Nicholas 68 St Paul's Baptistry 68 head and neck to draw 142-145 Head and Shoulders of a Man (Bellini) 136. 141 tonal 96.109 Rhinoceros 26. 160 hitsuzendo 233 light to dark 102.189. 122 Hawksmoor.207. 240 170-173 five Ships in a Port with Lighthouse (Wallis) 11. 223. 99 etching. 252 depiction of fabric monsters 252-253 Self Portrait in a Cocked Hat 130. Study for Plate 59 (Mucha) 90.91. 73. proportions of 143 fantasy drawings 72-73. 245 Gruau.160. 799 Holbein. 230 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction 68. 200 F fabric. 134. 161 fashion 160. 132 Frenz.260 INDEX D Dada 139 Daumien Honore 198 Caricature of a Woman 198. to draw 168-169 in Goya's artworks face. Sir Ernst 12. 190 Middle Eastern 50-51.252-253 from memory 183.216. position of 143.101 engraving 243 erasers/erasing 55.102-103 drawing board 20 drawing books 20-21 drawing paper 144. 161 changing 216 Focusing on the Negative (Walter) 16 foliage 52.103. 90 gouache 30. 203 semi-abstract 234-237 three-dimensional 68. to suggest 177 see also perspective diagonals diffuser 55 dip pens 34. Rene 160 Illustration for Jacques Fath E easel. 55. Hans 133 The Ambassadors 116 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 132. 25 focus 65.116.104. 160 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction (Gaudi) 68. 93 eye level 80 Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity. 41 in the round 208-209 with scalpel 202. Cheval et Oiseau (Picasso) 30.160. 240.141. La (Braque) 90. Robert 93 Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 92. 170-173.111 feet.198 Degas.184 165. Oona 245 How Clever of God #84 244. 115 Escher.141.230 three-tone 140.146 from masterworks 126-127. 77 How Clever of God #84 244. 69. 160 Faune. 79.216 Durelli. M. 245 layers 30 Goya. disposable pens 182-183 dissections: botanical 48 of horse 27 distance: illusion of see perspective linear 97 tonal 97 Documents Decoratifs. 30 Fauves/fauvism 90. Victor 200. Edgar 162 depth. 120. 163. 71 minimal line 99 and music 70-71 quick 38-39. 69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt 68. 93 horizon 52. 242 eyes. 124. to draw 134-137 Helleborus corsicus 55 highlights 91. 220 dry brush 234 234 57. 134.244.69 Gerard. Alberto 136 Portrait of Marie-Laure de Noailles 136. Antonio 135 Muscles of the Head and Neck 134. 32 framing 139 Franfoise au Bandeau (Picasso) 132. 7 33 Hooke.166 170-173 Gestalt 222 Giacometti. 135 Duren Albrecht 26.157 ellipses 100. 112. Statue d'Epouvante.12 fixative 54. 125. 137 heads. 765 hitsuzendo drawings 233 Hokusai. 104-105. 240 Black Paintings 152.117 fountain pens 34. 26 Flying Fish (White) 25. 90 G Gaudi. 163. 52 foreground 208. 69 Guitare. 134. 91 Dragon (Michelangelo) 36. 202. 222. C . 131 Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 240. 157 . Keisai 157 The Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya 156.244 drawing(s): abstract 219. 205 drawing with 103.
201 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels 12. 33 J justness 228-229 N naive art 74 negative space 53. 789. 252 ink 16. 163 pens 36 measuring 116 memory. Bartolome: Moses Striking the Rock ofHoreb 252. Piet 52. 53 monoprint 787. 183 vertical 156 linear distance 97 linear perspective 69. artistic 240-241. 31 Klimt.96. 219 Mondrian. 244 ink 36 252-253 Documents Decoratifs 90. 178 motifs: A r t Nouveau 9 7 stylized 51 mountains 216-217 movement: of animals 30-31 of humans 7 79. 158 Man Lying Down in a Cloak (Flaxman) 156.166 La Specola. 248. 201 head and neck sections of female mold for Sforza Horse 89 Madonna of the Rocks 244 perspective study for Adoration of the Magi 74. 73 Michelangelo Buonarroti 48. Johan 32. 205 masterworks. Rose: Tantalus or the Future of Man 20 minimal line drawing 99 mirror use of 120 mixed media 28. 35.243 carbon 35 Chinese 30. drawing from 126-127. 220. 230 invented creatures 106-107 250-251 invented objects 89.227 to "bend" straight 97 compositional 228-229 cut 202. 221 endless 31 free 113. Kathe 181 Losbrunch (The Outbreak) 180. 53 Tree II 52. 757 mandalas 219. Gustav 49 Knopf.The (Robinson) 108. 58-59. 97 Murillo. 99. Marie 244 cloth drawing 244. 225 masking tape 204. 77 Miller. 76 Libeskind. 72. drawing from 183. 181 luminosity 115 Lynch.134 K Kettlehut. Oxford 106 Prado. Florence 128 lighting in 167 Pitt Rivers.104. 203 landscape 206-208 brushed 14 Landscape in Hoboku Style (Sesshu) 14 layers 146 chalk 53 gouache 30 ink 28.Pieuvre (Octopus) 28. 63. 185 Mucha. 54 silver point 156 leg sections 158 length. 156 magnification 93 Man in Armor (Van Dyck) 158. 83 white 122 ink impressions 222 ink spatters 234 installations 176.182 Moore.102.120. I Murderous Attacks 33 Kollwitz. 34. 110 Sistine Chapel ceiling 116 Middle Eastern drawing 50-51.115 98.112. 244. Matisse. Henry 178 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object 178. 60. 244 Dragon 36. 227 Scene of Comical Riders 30. 244 lithograph 198 Losbruch (Kollwitz) 180. 184. 234 iron-gall 35.141 Metropolis (film) 72. 220. 181 Klee. 13 Cloudburst of Material Possessions 200. Henri 111 Blue Nude 1110. 177 influences.141. 159 Japanese 35 to make 36 sepia 35 walnut 36.91 Study for Plate 59 of INDEX illumination see lighting Illustration for Jacques Fath (Gruau) 160. 49 Rose 49 Maelbeke Madonna (Van Eyck) 156.33 Mysterious Affairs of the lighting 2 7. 170-173. 36. 249 and gouache 30 Indian 35.181 L Landline (Bryan) 202. Alphonse 90. 74-77. 111. David 78 M Mackintosh. 205. 78 Study ofThree Male Figures 110. Madrid 171 University Museum of Natural History. 114 hatched 244 layered 118 pace of 65 pale 40 rapid 49. 34-35 acrylic 35 bistre 35.276. 160 In the Duchess's Kitchen (Rackham) 176.167 line(s) 132. Victor 134 Profile Head 134. Daniel 70 Arctic Flowers 70 Lieb. Charles Rennie 48. 190 metal pens see dip pens metal point 25. 756 priming for 140. Erich 73 design for Metropolis 72. Oxford 250 music 70-71 Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks (Knopf) 32. 73 Kigell. 176. Phyll: hands 18 lifting out 204. 220. 226 Modernism 126.96.36.199. 135 museums 44. 242 light 96 to depict drawing with 1 76 painting with 176 . 28 Two Impressions from a Cut-out Paper Disk 222 Huyler Stephen R 225 261 Kinecar. apparent 97 Leonardo da Vinci 74. 227 Newsome. 252 Muscles of the Head and Neck (Durelli) 134. 166. 203. 220. Paul 227 Polyphonic Setting for White 226. 103 Neolithic chalk tablet 220. 37 lines 118 pastel 162 pencil 31.
36. 2 2 0 for oil pastels 162 stained 230 to stretch 140-141 tissue 21. 734 Protea nitida (Bauer) 48. 234 disposable 182-183 felt-tip 162. 244 Q s Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape (Wolfli) 2 79 St.37 scientific instruments 9 2 . 26 Riley. 736 portraits. 38. 7 76 receding space 206 Redon. and Webster. 732 influence of 240 painting with light 78.176 Real Life Is Rubbish 176. 1 3 2 quill pens 34. 205 pointillism 112 polyphonic painting 227 Polyphonic Setting for White (Klee) 226. Erik 70. 242 reed pens 34. 181 Rodin. Auguste 114 Two Women 114. 739 semi-abstract drawings Style 14 Seurat. 241 Physical Space. 36 pen and brush 8 3 pen and ink 70. 75 Two Courtyards 75.36. Isaac 92 Telescope 92 Newton's Cenotaph (Boullee) 72. Arthur 177 In the Duchess's Kitchen 176. 243. Georges 112 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 112. J 76 nudes 114-115 to make 36 metal see dip quill 34. Man 131. Giovanni Battista 74. 160.104 Pieuvre (Hugo) 28. 239 Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 238. 181 pencil(s) 54 charcoal 204 colored 762. 161. Paul 73 Nobson Central 72. 759 P Page. 243. 7 77 three-point 80.Tim. 68 Satie.Toyo: Landscape in Hoboku . 91 outsider artists 33. 4 9 Rose of Mohammed 50. 74-77. Stella 48 Cypripedium calceolus L 49 rotated view 7 65 Rubens.139 Autoportrait 138. Sue 104. 1 2 4 priming for metal point 140. 71 Satire of the Queen's Dress (Wodall) 158. 159. 230 parallel planes 79 Parisian street 86-87 pastels 162 to blend 205 to hold 23 layers 162 pencils 162 pen(s): dip 34 . 216. 28 pigment 162 bright 50 Caput Mortuum 7 4 7 for three-tone drawing 141. 139 Real Life is Rubbish (Noble and Webster) 176. 30 Fran<. 163. Russell 228. 7 73 self-portraits: Basquiat 138.2 3 age and youth sleeping subjects 148-149 150-151 Renaissance 109 Rhinoceros (Durer) 26. 9 0 .37. 772 234-237 Sesshu. 782 relief 757 silk-screen 739 woodblock 134. Martin 238. 162 O p A r t 98 optical illusions 96-99 outline 33. 38.759. 36.Paul'sBaptistry (Hawksmoor) 68. 7 70 Ray.40.226. 81 two-point 74.184 fountain 34. Cheval et Oiseau 30. 103. 212 Japanese 2 1 . 1 6 9 to hold 2 2 . to draw 146-147 R Rackham. 72 Noble. 36.54 pastel 162 perspective 1 0 0 . 1 1 6 .262 INDEX Newton.71 Hotel de la Suzonnieres 70.199 Profile Head (Newsome) oil pastels 162. 36 relief printing 757 Rembrandt van Rijn 52. 57 Ross-Craig. 1 6 3 . 97. 239 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat (Seurat) 112. 36. 74. 36. 205 157. 4 8 putty eraser 55. Peter Paul 126-127 Embracing pose(s): balanced 146 quick 118-119 positive form 103 posture: of artist 22 of subject 3 8 . 1 1 6 accelerated 2 2 . 141 Piranesi. 219. Bridget 98 Robinson. Odilon 242 The Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity 242. 164. 78 single-point 74. 76-79. Faune. 203 Scene of Comical Riders (Klee) 30. 52 pens 36 scalpel 54 drawing with 202. 40-41. 75 Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range 241 petroglyphs 221. 76 plastic eraser 55. Pablo 6 7 . 9 8 . 122. 7 38 Ray 138. 165.52 pen and wash 158. 37 38. Heath 181 The Kinecar 180. 114 rollerball 182 Rorschach blot 99 Rose (Mackintosh) 48. 7 72 Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland.37. 1 1 7 aerial 206 linear 69. 73 Noble. 166 fiber-tip 782. 224 0 layers 31. The (Abe) 220 Picasso. 227 portfolios 20 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser de Noailles (Holbein) 132.141 prints/printing: aquatint 240 dry-point etching 181 engraving 243 monoprint 181.oise au Bandeau 132.The (Beuys) 112.7 77 rapidograph 70 Raphael 110.9 3 Schongauer. 244 reed 34. 165 figure 118 filled 37 pencil 48. 34-35. 230 paper(s) 21 colored 162 drawing 144. 733 Portrait de Marie-Laure (Giacometti) 136.240.131 Cottage Among Trees 52.
75. Sue see N o b l e . 221 .199 tissue p a p e r 21. 9 4 z Z e n calligraphy 232-233 contrast 96 t o grade 163 ink 37 pencil 5 4 t o r t i l l o n 205 T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c . 1 4 4 . h e a d a n d n e c k sections o f female m o l d f o r (Leonardo) 89 shading 2 9 s h a d o w s 28. Sarah: child's m a p 75. 7 6 Two Impressions from a Cut-Out Paper Disk ( H u g o ) 2 2 2 Two Monsters 2 4 2 . 102-103 tonal marks. 2 7 studies: b i r d s 7 2 . t o d r a w 5 2 . W .1 4 1 .Sforza Horse. 186. v i e w s o f 85.120. 79. 57.41. 7 79 Shoshone petroglyph 240. 158 V a n Eyck. 2 9 wind.241 s i l k . 74. 2 4 4 . 4 4 boat 209 botanical 4 9 G e r i c a u l t ' s cats 2 9 from Goya 170-173 125. 115.2 0 1 .1 9 9 wire. b l o w n 248 steel p e n s see d i p p e n s still life 89. 1 4 0 .Yamaoka 233 t e x t u r e 2 2 2 . 743 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City ( F r e n z ) 1 6 0 .9 1 storms.125 W o o d f i n e . 53 trees. 9 5 pens 36 v a n i s h i n g p o i n t 74. 206-207 202. 7 9 0 vessels. John: Focusing on the Negative 14 w a s h . t o d r a w 2 0 0 . 1 8 4 .d i m e n s i o n a l 1 0 4 . 199 shoes 1 6 4 . 2 3 4 . t h r e e . 2 0 0 Ship in a Storm 1 9 8 . 9 0 . C y 138. 7 77. 156 layers 7 5 6 priming for 140. Taylor A n i t a 115 All and Nothing 1 1 4 . Jan 1 5 6 Maelbeke Madonna 1 5 6 .t o n e d r a w i n g 140.1 6 5 shorthand diagram 142 Shoshone buffalo hide painting 178.216 W e b s t e r . 1 4 5 travel journal 2 0 . Study of (Michelangelo) 110. 2 1 2 . 1 9 9 Two Courtyards (Piranesi) 75.1 8 5 Tree II ( M o n d r i a n ) 52.158 158. 1 4 1 . 9 2 Tesshu. t o d r a w 1 0 1 viewfinder 57 Views from Velletri ( C l a u d e L o r r a i n ) 152. 161.5 3 in l a n d s c a p e 2 0 6 . 65 symbols 138. 96. 202 violin. 1 7 7 free 8 0 V e n i c e .27 skull 747.243 Leonardo's machines 12. A n t h o n y 152. 164. T i m W e s t Fagade of the Church of St. 49. William 159 Satire of the Queen's Dress INDEX 226. 76. 230 t h r e e . Man in Armor 1 5 8 . 2 2 0 influence o f 2 4 0 Untitled 220. 7 70 Tiber 214-215 Untitled ( T w o m b l y ) 2 2 0 .13 M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s m a l e figures 110. t o draw 1 9 8 .J. 1 6 6 t r a p e z i u s m u s c l e 142. 249 t o describe 39. G e o r g e 2 7 Skeleton of the Horse 26. 725 fabric 1 6 8 T h o m a s . H e n r i de: Woman at Her Toilet 14 t r a n s p a r e n t v i e w 92. 1 9 9 . 1 8 4 . Vincent 95 Chair 94. 240 Two Women Embracing ( R o d i n ) 114. 241. 170 shoes 1 6 4 stylized m o t i f 51 Summer Flowers 63. 2 3 0 tonal contrast 96 tonal distance 9 7 t o n a l d r a w i n g 9 6 .2 1 3 Stubbs. 7 1 4 . Augustin ( B a l t a r d ) 6 7 w e t and dry brush-strokes 2 4 9 Turner. 2 4 2 w Wallis. 156 Van Gogh.1 0 5 vision 9 6 Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects (Grandville) 242. 245 sharpener 54 Ship in a Storm ( T u r n e r ) 1 9 8 . Paul 2 4 1 Achilles Chases Hector 2 4 0 . t o lay 1 4 0 . 199. 182. M . 77. 141 Three Male Figures. 2 4 7 t h r e e . drawing with 104-105 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt ( G a u d i ) 68. 69. 1 2 Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse 71. 243 (Bosch) T Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos ( G o y a ) 2 4 0 .1 4 5 . 159 Wolfli.141 S i m b l e t . 2 2 6 . 97. 174 T w o m b l y . 7 6 1 spots. 75 Skeleton of the Horse ( S t u b b s ) 26.d i m e n s i o n a l d r a w i n g 68. John 25 Flying Fish 25 Wild Striped Cat Sketches of ( G e r i c a u l t ) 28. 226 V Van Dyck. 6 9 Wodall. Adolf: Giant-Grape Saint-Mary-Castle 219 Woman at Her Toilet ( T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c ) 74 w o o d b l o c k print 157. 1 6 . A l f r e d 1 1 . 1 3 . 1 4 1 w a t e r c o l o r 25. 104-105.s c r e e n p r i n t i n g 139 silver p o i n t 1 4 0 .12 W a l t e r . 2 2 7 Untitled 2001 ( C a t l i n g ) u 263 W h i t e . phrased 146 tonal modeling 161 tonal range 169 t o n a l surfaces 2 2 7 tonal width 97 t o n e ( s ) 33. 7 75 Telescope ( N e w t o n ) 9 2 . 69. Sarah 9 4 Chair Cut Out 94.
G e r m a n y . A n n a P l u c i n s k a . Italy.co. 2 0 2 : © T h e British Museum. 225: Stephen P Huyler. Paris/ © Succession Picasso / D A C S 2005. 1 3 5 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. c o . c o . b r i d g e m a n . K e w ft)). Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. 1 7 8 : © T h e British M u s e u m / H e n r y Moore F o u n d a t i o n . 2 7 : Royal Academy of Arts. 29: Fogg A n Museum/Collections Baron de Vita: Grenville L.co. 226: Brian Catling. Andy Crawford. 158: Calouste Gulbenkian Museum. 1 9 8 : Dover Publications. J o h n Roberts. Salisbury & South W i l t s h i r e M u s e u m ( t ) . Peter L u f f . Lisbon. 2 4 1 : Corbis/David M u e n c h ( b ) . B . Psychiatric Institute of the University of Heidelberg. 5 0 : Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (1). D a w n Henderson. Winthrop.l. Roddy Bell. support. R . Psychiatric Institute of the U n i v e r s i t y of Heidelberg. 73: Berlin F i l m Museum (t). 4 8 : T h e N a t u r a l H i s t o r y M u s e u m .a. Rocio Arnaez. Florence/MoMA. 9 1 : www. 7 0 : Studio Daniel L i b e s k i n d . K a t h r y n W i l k i n s o n . 30: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. 88: www. 2 1 8 : Adolf-Wdlfli-Stiftung. Jean Pierre Roy. London/courtesy of Stuart Shave. 174: Artothek/Munich. Maureen Paley Interim Art (b). 180: www. 2 0 1 : T h e Royal Collection © 2 0 0 2 H e r Majesty Queen Elizabeth I I .bridgeman. Wolfson College. Picture Credits 8: Corbis/Hubert Stadler. Angela W i l k e s .bridgeman. 1929 (29. France. 112: Yale University A r t Gallery/Everett V Meeks. 9 2 : Science Photo L i b r a r y . Paris and D A C S . H e a t h e r M c C a r r y . 1 6 1 : D C C o m i c s I n c . Corporation of London. Dover Publications/ISBN: 0486229912 (t). 2 4 5 : Oona Grimes.uk/Guildhall Library. T o n y G r i s o n i . 1975 ( 1 9 7 5 . Angela Palmer.uk/Musee des Augustins. F i n n . G i n a R o w l a n d . M a n d y Earey. 9 4 : Sarah Woodfine. Sarah Woodfine. R u t h P a r k i n s o n . 1 3 3 : Artothek/Kupferstichkabinett. 137: © The British Museum. © Tate. Germany. Kirsten Norrie. 2 0 3 : Clare Bryan (t). Diana Bell. L o n d o n . a n d brushes o n pp.100. 2 3 8 : akg-images. 3 1 : Tom Powel Imaging.uk/British Museum. 221: Gagosian Gallery/Private Collection (b). 2 8 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. 1 5 4 : akg-images/Musee National d'Art Moderne. Germany/Joerg P. b r i d g e m a n . 179: www.co. 2 6 : Topfoto. Anders/ © D A C S 2 0 0 5 . 16: www.264 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Acknowledgments Author's Acknowledgments: T h e author wishes to thank the following people for their enormous help.uk/Private Collection. Christopher Davis. Sarah D u n c a n . George M c G a v i n .939). Agnieszka Mlicka. Paris.uk/Kettle's Yard. H . 2 2 7 : Paul Klee Stiftung.uk /© Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery. L o n d o n . 130: The Metropolitan M u s e u m of Art/Robert L e h m a n Collection. 1 3 8 : © Christie's Images Ltd/© A D AGP. 2 4 2 : Photo Scala. Publisher's Acknowledgments Dorling Kindersley w o u l d like to thank Caroline H u n t for editorial contribution. a n d encouragement i n m a k i n g this book: M a m o r u Abe. 1 5 6 : Graphische S a m m l u n g Albertina. K u n s t m u s e u m Bern/© D A C S 2 0 0 5 . 243: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. 68: www. K u n s t m u s e u m . Japan. Havemeyer. Basel.bridgeman. 9 0 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/© A D A G P . S i m o n L e w i s . 5 3 : Collection of the Gemeentemuseum D e n Haag/Mondrian Trust. 74: Corbis. O o n a G r i m e s . Berlin/Staatsbibliothek zu A l l other images © Sarah Simblet . 1879. U K . B e r l i n . H a y w a r d Gallery. u k / O n Loan to the H a m b u r g Kunsthalle. 1 0 8 : Arts C o u n c i l Collection. 139: Galerie Marion Meyer/© Man Ray Trust / A D A G P . (r). Copyright Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens. Paul T h o m a s ( t ) . Paris. Magdalene College Cambridge. 2 4 : © T h e British Museum.co. 2 4 0 : w w w . 4 6 : B r i t i s h Library. Berlin (b). University of Cambridge. 1 9 6 : Museum of the History of Science.Paris ( b ) . 1 3 6 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Centre Pompidou-MNAM-CCI. 9 5 : V a n Gogh M u s e u m . C o r n e l i s o n & Son.uk/Private Collection. H a m b u r g . 111: Fondation Beyeler/Riehen (Bale)/© Succession H Matisse/DACS 2005. 2 2 3 : Lebrecht Music and Arts Photo Library/Ricordi.20-21 a n d 246-47.bridgeman. Fund. 9 3 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. J o n Roome. Kunstmuseum Bern. Amsterdam. Pamela Ellis for compiling the index.bridgeman. R o y a n d D i a n n e Simblet. L o n d o n (t). 2 0 0 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France.bridgeman. H e l e n S h u t t l e w o r t h . R o s e m a r y S c o u l a r . University of Oxford.co.uk /Biblioteca Nacional. 115: Anita Taylor. Illustrated London News Picture Library/The Bystander (b). London/Bequeathed by Charles Landseer. L e n .bridgeman. 2 4 4 : Ashmolean Museum. 113: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. Carlo O r t u for picture research s u p p o r t . Carole A s h . Oxford. Sammy De Grave. 1 5 9 : Bodleian Library. Julie O u g h t o n . 17: J o h n Walter. 181: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz.bridgeman. Graphische Sammlung. Also. Toulouse. 1 6 0 : Rene G R U A U s. Paris. P h y l l Kiggell.r. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin/Jorg P. NY. 75: © The British Museum (b). . U K .co.uk/Private Collection. Inc.Strang Print Room ( b ) . u k / L o u v r e . 157: U C L Art Collections ./© D A C S 2 0 0 5 ( t ) . L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . 132: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. Madrid. Natalie G o d w i n .uk/Mucha Trust. J o h n Walter. Clare Bryan. 1901. b r i d g e m a n . 1 3 4 : © T h e British Museum. 51: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz.bridgeman. for s u p p l y i n g the d r a w i n g books. Sir Brinsley F o r d . u k / T o k y o National M u s e u m . 11: www. Paris. 114: Musee Rodin. Paris a n d D A C S . 1 . 49: Hunterian Museum (t). Paris.co. Anders. London 2005./Galerie Sylvie Nissen. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. 2 2 2 : Pierre Georgel/Private Collection. Paris. 1 1 0 : www. A . Antonia Cunliffe Davis. Anita Taylor. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. 199: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee des arts asiatiquesGuimet. papers. c o . 3 3 : Prinzhom Collection. Productions Clovis Prevost (c). Jackie Douglas. L o n d o n ./Private Collection/© D A C S 2005. 5 2 : T h e Metropolitan Museum of Art/Bequest of Mrs. 177: Mary Evans Picture Library. 69: Institut Amatller d'Art Hispanic (tl). A n d y C r a w f o r d for p h o t o g r a p h y a n d L . 13: www. 1 9 : Getty Images/© Succession Picasso / D A C S 2 0 0 5 .co. 176: Modem Art. L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 .co.co. Paris a n d D A C S . a n d D e p a r t m e n t s o f E n t o m o l o g y a n d Zoology at the University of Oxford. 2 2 4 : P r i n z h o m Collection. G e r m a n y . K e v i n a n d Rebecca Slingsby. A . 2 2 0 : Mamaru Abe. Portugal. . J a c k a n d Brian Catling. Orientabteilung/Ruth Schacht. O. B e r l i n . 1 5 : w w w . Patty Stansfield. Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (t). 72: akg-images. Paul T h o m a s . F r a n c e . T h e R u s k i n School of D r a w i n g a n d Fine A r t . B M G . Staatliche Museen z u Berlin. L o n d o n . 9 7 6 ) . 3 2 : Pepys Library. Sophie Laurimore. B e m d Kunzig. 6 6 : w w w . Flossie. 7 1 : I M E C / A r c h i v e s E r i k Satie. Paula Regan. L o n d o n . and Tamsin Woodward Smith.
Materials and Techniques—how to use a variety of materials—from pencil and ink to pastel. and tone.com Discover more at . discover new ideas.FOR THE ARTIST T h e c o m p l e t e g u i d e to drawing—a unique blend of practical teaching and inspirational insights into classic and contemporary drawings. Learn from the Masters—a rich selection of drawings illustrates different approaches to a wide range of subjects. shape. D r a w i n g C l a s s e s — d e t a i l e d step-by-step demonstrations show you how to develop your natural talents. and improve your drawing skills. and silverpoint—and apply the key elements of drawing including perspective. Creating a Sketchbook—Sarah Simblet's drawings inspire you to explore different subjects and fill your own sketchbooks. www.dk. charcoal.
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