An innovative, practical approach to drawing the world around you
FOR T H E ARTIST
FOR THE ARTIST
LONDON • NEW YORK MELBOURNE • MUNICH • DELHI Senior Editor Paula Regan Senior Art Editor Mandy Earey Art Editor Anna Plucinska Managing Editor Julie Oughton Managing Art Editor Heather McCarry Art Director Peter Luff Publishing Director Jackie Douglas Production Joanna Bull DTP Designer Adam Walker Picture Research Sarah Smithies US Editor Christine Heilman First American Edition, 2 0 0 5 First Paperback Edition, 2 0 0 9 Published in the United States by DK Publishing 3 7 5 Hudson Street New York, New York 1 0 0 1 4 10 11 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3
6 8 20 22 Master Builders The Order of Sound Future Fictions Pathways of Sight Single-Point Perspective Creating an Imaginary Space Further Aspects of Perspective Theaters Venetian Life Parisian Street
68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86
Foreword Introduction Drawing Books and Papers Posture and Grip
Objects and Instruments
TD075-July 2009 Copyright © 2 0 0 5 Dorling Kindersley Limited Text and authors artworks © Sarah Simblet 2 0 0 4 Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited A Cataloging-in-Publication record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN 9 7 8 - 0 - 7 5 6 6 - 5 1 4 1 - 1 Color reproduction by GRB, Italy Printed and bound in China by Toppan
Still Life Instruments of Vision Bench Marks Light and Illusions Further Illusions How to Draw Ellipses Tonality Drawing with Wire Artifacts and Fictions
90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106
Documentaries Presence and Mood Movement Icon and Design Pen and Ink Drawing with Ink Capturing Character Sleeping Dogs Turtles Dry Birds
26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44
Postures and Poses Choreographs Passion Measurement and Foreshortening Quick Poses Hands and Feet Charcoal Hands Phrasing Contours The Visual Detective La Specola
110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128
Plants and Gardens
Botanical Studies Jeweled Gardens Fast Trees Graphite and Erasers Cropping and Composition Negative Space Fig Tree Summer Flowers Acanthus Spinosus
48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64
Discover more at
Projections Magnetic Fields The Human Condition Disposable Pens The Travel Journal Catching the Moment Grand Canal Crossings Caravans The Big Top
174 Abstract Lines
176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 Process and Harmony Writing Time Chants and Prayers Compositions Being "Just" Collage Zen Calligraphy Nocturnes
220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234
Poise Anatomies Revelations Self-Portraits Silver Point Head and Neck Essential Observations Drawing Portraits Generations Castings
132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 152
Earth and the Elements
Air in Motion Storms Nature Profiles Charcoal Landscapes Drawing in the Round Decaying Boat Cloudburst Notes of Force Mountains
198 200 202 204 206 208 210 212 214 216
Gods and Monsters
Marks of Influence Hauntings Convolutions Brushes Brush Marks Monsters Goya's Monsters Consumed Glossary Index Acknowledgments
240 242 244 246 248 250 252 254 256 259 264
Cloth and Drapery Character Costumes Femmes Fatales Colored Materials Study and Design The Structure of Costume Textures and Patterns Dressing Character Posture Carving
156 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172
a drawing book is the perfect portable private vehicle for your imminent exploration of drawing. remain unseen by most. I was training in anatomy and studying how. and size. texture. art schools. geologists.Foreword
Y DRAWING THE WORLD AROUND
US. perhaps hidden on a door hinge or a street bench rail. undergraduates to fellow professors. Some are more traditionally framed and hung in galleries for solo or group exhibitions. It is my love of these. that inspired the title and structure
MEMORY T H E A T E R S
This pen-and-ink drawing was made from imagination during research for my PhD. By using our imaginations. drawing is the immediate expression of seeing. and a reflector of experience. where I expect them to be discovered by some people. Chosen in any color. and be slowly washed or worn away. from schoolchildren to senior citizens. understood (and often misunderstood) our own bodies. The most rewarding challenge is always the newcomer. where spaces are shaped by nothing more than the objects and activities contained within them. who tells me firmly upon approach that they cannot draw. and in a few sessions they will be flying. I also make drawing books. It makes me feel excited to be alive. These inspirations led me to invent museums. and I refer back to them for years after they are made. Drawing occupies a unique place in every artist and creator's life. and experience. and feeling. are made outside as discreet installations. still standing by the door. It is a tool for investigating ideas and recording knowledge. I was also reading among The Confessions of St. we learn
to feel truly alive. I will always draw. as a visiting professor at universities. or a quantum physicist trying to see for themselves the fluctuations of our universe. night security staff. Combine these things and the possibilities are endless. architect. aspirations. especially as travel journals. doctors. Augustine his notes on memory. a composer notating a musical score. through history. but because it is how I engage with and anchor myself in life. in which he describes himself flying and diving in his imagination through pictorial caverns of knowledge. Some of my drawings cover entire walls. Drawing is a mirror through which I understand my place in the world. or engineer. we have looked at. I know that with their cooperation I can soon prove them wrong. For twelve years I have enjoyed the privilege of teaching drawing. a sculptor. and makers of special effects.
of Sketch Book for the Artist. a cartographer charting the land. and through which I can see how I think.
. be they a child discovering their vision and dexterity. we learn to see it. I work with people of diverse ages. They occupy a shelf in my studio. We can all learn how to draw. and local c o m m u n i t y classes. Others can be held in the h a n d or. shape. by invitation. The very first step is to believe it. fashion designer. not only to make art. They enfold their viewer and are made on joined sheets of paper that I reach by climbing ladders. For me personally. thinking. and their importance to so many artists.
in lectures. packaging.8
Where We Begin
There is a fundamental drive in our human nature to make a mark. Most adults still feel that certain exquisite pleasure on arriving at a beach to find the tide out and the sand perfect. but more often because drawing actually helps us to focus and take in what is said. We can always read each others drawings. At home and at work we doodle. Sometimes we draw because we are bored. not just chosen pictures on our walls but everywhere—maps.000-9500 bce
. irreverent to language barriers.Theseancient silhouettes were drawn with earth pigments rubbed onto rock. a great crowd is raising their hands in greeting. Cueva de las Marios. We are surrounded by drawings in our daily lives. The sense of relief we may feel from the information overload of modern commercial life when visiting a country in which we can no longer read every written word. is not afforded us by drawing. and we spend our lives reading it. signs.
"CAVE OF THE HANDS"
In this drawing. Children cannot be restrained from running across the pristine white lawn of newly fallen snow. scrawling shapes and cartoons when on the telephone. waving to us from many thousands of yearsago. graffiti. They have a natural affinity to many modern graffiti signatures. and patterns on our clothes. We are bombarded with linear and tonal pictorial information. like a great canvas for them to mark. Rio Pinturas
13. inscribing every fresh part of it with their eager scrapes and trails. logos. Drawing is international. and in meetings.
but I had never yet attempted to figuratively picture my world. Eyelashes take up as much of my attention as the head itself. the hair of my first portrait was most important. and she kept it as my first step beyond the delighted realms of scrawl." Until this day. and the appearance of my strikes of colors.
. Even though it is made by a toddler this image would be recognizable to anyone. an expression of existence. enjoying the physical sensation of crayon on paper. Cave art was not made for decoration but as a fundamental part of life. we see our oldest surviving images. reflecting my experience of looking closely at my father's face. like all toddlers.9
WHERE WE BEGIN
FIRST PORTRAIT For sorre forgotten reason. She gave me a notepad and a red crayon and asked me to draw her "a picture of Daddy. had happily scribbled. On a particular afternoon in September 1974. I. created by societies of hunter-gatherers. who in their day-to-day hardship made time to picture themselves and the animals on which they depended. power. and belonging to place. In cave paintings like the one opposite.
MAKING OUR MARK
It seems reasonable to assume that we have engaged in pictorial mark-making for as long as we have made conscious use of our hands. I now think this is a picture of proximity. at age two-anda-half. I was sitting with my mother. The image above is what I gave back to my mother.
then drag o u r line into a loop. most of us stop. Young children love to draw. As you progress. But as adolescents. and this activity plays a vital role in their d e v e l o p m e n t . W e do n o t hesitate to draw a map. to help a stranger see their way W h e n taking first steps in relearning h o w to draw. and from that first unit build and describe the shape of something or someone we know. It was made with a few bold strokes of a steel pen dipped in ink to conjure the dried bee I was holding between my fingers on a pin. At this point many will insist they cannot draw. h o w e v e r small a n d u n f o r m e d y o u believe they are.10
PEN-AND-INK BEE This tiny drawing has been enlarged to show its texture and composition. Hours are lost immersed in the glorious world of imagination. for example.
T h e r e is a point in all o u r lives w h e n w e first c o n t r o l o u r mark and m a k e it a line. Don't b e p e r s u a d e d to draw in a w a y s o m e o n e else
. yet still turn to drawing w h e n their verbal language fails or is inadequate. Inhibitions creep in and ideas of good a n d b a d terminate confidence. b e p r o u d o f what m a k e s y o u r w o r k individual to y o u . it is important to value your natural abilities a n d ways of seeing.
Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse
c. As you read this b o o k and perhaps attend art classes. After experimenting and trying each new idea. Enjoy the control of your own journey. The journey of every artist demands hard work and discipline. you must decide whether to keep or discard it. but it does help to set out facing in the right direction. I ask them their reasons for drawing. 1925-42 53/8x87/8in (135 x 225 mm) ALFRED WALLIS
prefers and tells you is better. remember that all advice is only advice.11
A UNIQUE SIGHT
This innocent yet sophisticated drawing of boats. what they most want to achieve. Think how much would have been lost if anyone had interfered with Alfred Wallis' personal sense of proportion and perspective in the exquisite drawing above. harbor and sea is one of many that Alfred Wallis made from memory while sitting at home. He was a retired Cornish fisherman and junk dealer who began drawing at the age of 70 "for company" after his wife died.
Occasionally. and which aspects of the vast wealth and diversity of graphic language would be most appropriate to their goals. I meet students struggling unhappily with a particular method of drawing. and they have never questioned why. He used leftover ship and yacht paint with crayons on cut-out pieces of cardboard boxes.
. Someone once told them they must draw in this way.
The observed world may be our subject. We also see differently ourselves. it may not be accurate to our critical adult eye. embedded in this book. Below.and collarbones and shoulder blades of a different bird almost become new creatures in themselves. We all see differently. but the child in us knows that this is an all-embracing. and inspire others." The clarity and empowerment of these words. right. and lose the very thing that attracted us to it. I hope. The art historian Professor Sir Ernst Gombrich. We
The flutter of faint scratches that dance across the pages on the right is an attempt to see the movement and bony weightlessness of a bird. and breathtaking wind of a choppy harbor. If as artists we nail a subject down too hard. but it should be the experienced world we draw. boats. There are only artists. They are also always written backward. depending on the occasion and our purpose. all raise water From the Archimedes' screw to Leonardo's own cupped wheel.
IDEAS A N D I N V E N T I O N S
These active machines. clear-minded understanding of the sea. we can drive out its spirit. When we look back at Wallis' seascape (see p. There are countless reasons for drawing. perhaps for comfort or ease as a left-hander or a habitual enjoyment of the challenge. is. the page bristles with the focus of ideas.12
All artists see the world differently. There should neve: be a slavish obligation to represent things exactly as we collectively agree we see them. wrote as the opening line of this great work. Our imaginations are the tools with which we can increase the essence of life. His notes visually balance his drawings. 11). author of The Story of Art. "There really is no such thing as Art. the breast. be visionary.
Screws and Water
LEONARDO DA VINCI
. not for disguise but as a personal choice.
My drawings of a housemartin (opposite top) illustrate the importance of repeated study. it may be best to start afresh. make a calculation. Each fresh image reflects growing confidence and the experience of the preceding study. while below.
. Decide before you start whether you are drawing to warm up. Leonardo drew to invent a machine.13
should not try to know how every finished picture will look. Don't be disheartened. time spent is not lost. but it is important to be clear why we are making it. shout against a terrible injustice. or to discover the best use of a new material. to express the beauty in a moment's play of light. drawing in pursuit of our own thoughts and understanding. or illustrate a dream. I drew to understand the apparatus of flight. More was learned drawing the bird 18 times than would have been understood drawing it only once or twice. This also applies if struggling at length with a larger picture. It will be invested through your experience in the new drawing. conduct an experiment. Opposite.
stripped-down parts. We have both covered our paper with focused. Our drawings are annotated investigations into the mechanisms of nature and of an idea. when it looks tired and still feels wrong.
we are advised or even required to plan our pictures. As you draw any subject—something you see. and an island brushed with trees. temperature. If you can do this. Imagine these qualities so strongly that you feel them in your mind and at your fingertips. However. depth. explain the composition. the unknown. created centuries and cultures apart. mists. are both made of ink laid onto wet paper with speed and agile certainty. These two brush drawings. and paper. meaning. and practice each part before putting the final image together. The physicality. Know the texture. and what you discover in the process of making. and position in space. This suits many artists well and is perfectly valid. or imagine—it is not enough to only render its shape. and at speeds beyond conscious thought. and allowed to flow through the brush. and sometimes beyond. declare the idea. feel. size. bone. trusting my intuition to find a visual equivalence for the sensation of weight within my body.14
At school. and opacity of your subject. It denies the importance of accident. ink.
This is a detail of a brush-and-ink drawing by a Japanese Buddhist monk. This is the alchemy of drawing. which can offer keys to other things. Whatever the material— wood. fire. and how it feels to the touch. silk. Our position asvieweris unsteady. We are caught in a shifting focus that makes everything fluid.
Landscape in Haboku Style 15TH CENTURY
. Each image relied upon past experience to know the probable behavior of the brush. balance. excessive planning can get in the way of the imagination. metal. or ice—you must actually feel it beneath your fingers as you draw. I made it almost unconsciously with a pen and a brush. your marks will become the subject on the paper. and we can just make out the distant stains of mountains. W e float toward the quiet vista as it also moves toward us. it should be responding to the sensation and meaning of the subject it draws. You must also think of its intrinsic nature: its purpose. water. As your hand meets the paper to make a mark.
T h e gliding poise of this walking anatomy comes as much from the feeling of movement as it does from the feeling of drawing. and spirit of each subject was held strongly but loosely between the fingertips. They each allowed the energy and focus of the moment to be expressed through controlled accident and a degree of the unknown Both drawings were made trusting the marks.
like folded insects. which evoke realities o f place and the p o w e r o f moment. stand table-sized with furniture legs attached t o b o t h sides of their jacket. Lautrec's flamboyant splashes o f petticoats and pantaloons are drawn with long sweeps of chalk and brushed oil paint. right is set inside a rib cage. He dazzles us with flashes o f light and dabbed marks o f shadow. left.
c. lives on.16
PLACE A N D MOMENT
The heat and teeming atmosphere o f this Parisian dressing room.
Focusing on the Negative 2004
22 x 30 in (56 x 76 cm)
J O H N WALTER
. gold leaf and spray paint. pastel. made by a young British artist who creates alphabets o f the absurd f r o m familiar childhood characters.1896
Woman at her Toilet
41 x 26 in (104 x 66 cm)
RIB-CAGE D R A M A
Thus drama. more than 100 years after its making. one of many luminous works in watercolor. acrylic. W a l t e r also makes books: some.
and mistakes are a valuable process of learning. Start by choosing a material you like the look of and cover a piece of paper with different marks. just through the act of making. Choose other materials and do the same. As you follow lessons in this book. Try to keep all of your first drawings. you will naturally make progress on your own in response to concentration and the decision to look and draw. With no help and advice at all. potential ideas still forming. take your time and don't worry if you need to make several attempts to grasp a concept. Enjoy discovering what your hand and the material can do. Pages do not have to lie open for other people to inspect and comment on. Put them away and look at them later. and miscellaneous items of inspiration. try not to grip your pen worrying about the technical terms you might have heard.
. at a point when you feel you are not making progress. It is yours. Ignore these at first and allow yourself the freedom to play.17
FREEING THE HAND
If you are just beginning to learn how to draw. One of the advantages of a drawing book is that you can shut it. diary-like observations. Drawing is exploratory. even those you dislike. Much will be learned on these test sheets and in your first drawings. Such books are personal: the territory of new exploration and experiment. you will be surprised and encouraged to see how far you have come.
we still only glimpse a corner of the magnitude of this subject and the infinity of what can be achieved. which is held frozen in space by a camera lens. It rarely flourishes in isolation.
Picasso Painting with Light at the Madoura Pottery
. when they are more experienced. the path is yours. I was particularly attracted to their gentle articulation and understated determination. To these I have added my own drawings to explain elementary materials and techniques and offer introductory approaches. Look to your own experience and also learn from the work of others. and many more reasons for drawing the world. In the total wealth of these pages. seek ideas in the life around you. Note that the drawing classes are allocated to subjects. As you draw. However. Drawing is a living language that over millennia has grown and changed. but not confined to them. Picasso is poised smiling. threedimensionally. and enfolding new media. The chapters of this book present 90 different artists' ways of seeing. it will be your creation as you discover your own personal vision. it is this voice that is the subtle part of their art and something that ultimately. adapting its form and occupation. Its sensuous and flowing line seems to drift like smoke. comes from within. caught between action and repose. staring straight through his image of a bull. Picasso has just finished his drawing. 150). Imagination needs nourishment.Their elegant strength seems to summon a lifetime of drawing.18
THE THINKING EYE
Techniques and materials are the grammar and vocabulary of drawing and can be studied and shared. Once there.
A N ARTIST'S HANDS
These are the hands of the artist Phyll Kiggell (see p.
With a penlight. The real drawing book has yet to come. which of course he cannot see. An artist's personal voice is something that also evolves through lessons learned. and became a great subject for me. This practical journey will take you through the door into the vivid heart of drawing.
6. study the structure of a good portfolio and make your own.
Tantalus o r The Future of Man
81/2 x61/4in (215 x 158 mm) ROSE MILLER
. quality. cheap corrugated plastic ones fall apart in days.b o u n d p a d if y o u w i s h t o keep your drawings together long-term.B O U N D PADS: T h e s e are t h e least expensive a n d useful f o r o p e n i n g flat. and cost. be sure they fit comfortably under your arm.
drawing book. c o l o r If planning t o use pencils. T h e hardb o a r d j a c k e t is s t r e t c h e d w i t h canvas beneath t h e p a p e r sleeve. Many artists invent ways o f binding their o w n books. There are dozens to choose from. C A N V A S . F O U N D B O O K S : O l d p r i n t e d 3 . and glued t o a s t r i p o f bias binding. Calculate a range of useful dimensions and have several cut at once. You simply need two strong boards hinged together well. Art students often make use of printed books picked up from secondhand stores into which they draw. Gleaming store purchases vary greatly in format. Alternatively.h a n d s t o r e s make unique subjects f o r e x p e r i m e n t s a n d collage. and handles to lift the weight of your artworks. A high-quality one will last a
Select d r a w i n g b o o k s t o suit y o u r aims. N o t e t h e w i d e l y differing c h o i c e o f p a p e r s w i t h w h i c h t h e s e are m a d e . Drawing boards are invaluable. Sand the edges to avoid splinters. cut. R I N G . H O M E M A D E : I m a d e this b o o k f r o m drawing paper that I folded. t h i s is h o w I l e a r n e d . color. a n d crayons. and collage their ideas. 4. a n d r e f e r e n c e b o o k s f o u n d in s e c o n d . pastels. b e a w a r e t h a t p a p e r t e x t u r e effects a n d changes t h e i r marks. Smooth plywood. Most contain thin p a p e r and are perfect f o r use w i t h disposable pens. Homemade books can be assembled easily from found materials or selections of loose sheet papers. is perfect. These are perfect f o r w o r k i n g in novels. Purchase a h i g h .b o u n d b o o k s t h a t fit in y o u r p o c k e t o r bag. t h e i r jackets w i l l a c t like d r a w i n g b o a r d s a n d p r o t e c t y o u r w o r k . C O L O R E D PAPERS: Large a r t supply stores o f t e n sell t h i c k b o o k s full o f c o l o r e d p a p e r s . F o r e v e n i n g classes. They can be very expensive in art stores. F o r traveling. It is also useful to own a portfolio. which are also sold in an enormous range. y o u n e e d a
lifetime. BLACK P O C K E T B O O K S : Hand-sized w i t h ready-made elastic binder and a marker ribbon. texture. If you intend to carry your boards for a distance. stitched.q u a l i t y r i n g . thick enough not to flex.b o u n d b o o k w i l l s o o n s h o w y o u h o w it is m a d e . it is better to have them made at a lumber yard or home improvement store. Dissecting a d i s c a r d e d h a r d . catalogs. 2.20
Drawing Books and Papers
T o BEGIN YOUR EXPLORATION o f d r a w i n g . ties on either side to keep your papers in place. 5. c h o o s e s m a l l e r h a r d .
1.C O V E R E D H A R D B O U N D : Ideal f o r c a r r y i n g a r o u n d . thickness. binding. a l e n g t h o f black elastic t i e d a r o u n d t h e m i d d l e will h o l d the contents together w h e n y o u f o l d in c o l l e c t e d items. H o w e v e r r i n g bindings o f t e n break. c h o o s e larger f o r m a t s t o give y o u s c o p e f o r e x p e r i m e n t .
Use for brushwork drawings. C A N S O N : Inexpensive lightweight pastel paper in many colors. 14. and rolls. SAUNDERS WATERFORD N O T 300GMS: Mid-quality textured watercolor paper. and cream sheets or rolls. 17. 18. JAPANESE PAPER: Strong. pastel paper in flecked pastel colors with a distinctive ribbed marking. They are hand-. Cotton papers are high-quality and acid-free. turning brown and brittle. C A R B O N PAPER: Available in dark and light blue. bamboo. and hot pressed papers. 15. printed on one side only. mulberry. absorbency. GLASSINE: Sold as protective wrapping. Use with a brush in clean water Water makes a dark mark like ink and becomes invisible again when dry. MAGIC PAPER: A reusable sheet for testing ideas without creating waste. fine. red. and translucent. 8. yellow. white textured paper that can take abrasive use of any medium. blocks. T W O RIVERS GREEN 410G MS: Very heavy tinted textured cold-pressed watercolor paper See Two Rivers Yellow. 21. FABRIANO ACADEMIA: Standard medium-range multipurpose paper Use with any media. blocks. 22. FABRIANO R O U G H 600GMS: Very heavy. 2 5 6 .
7. resisting deterioration. Cheap wood-pulp papers are acidic. not. also good for drawing with colored pencils. mold-. or rolls. It is also excellent for drawing with marker pens on layered sheets. ITALIAN PARCHMENT: Imitation-animal-skin parchment that is translucent and slightly waxy. and cost.5 9 ) for explanations of rough. used to imprint lines of these colors onto a surface. smooth. texture. and other plant fibers. tough. 13. FABRIANO INGRES: Thin. Use cheap paper for rough ideas and quality paper for work to last See the glossary ( p p . VELIN ARCHES 250GMS: Printmaking paper available in black white. or machine made in sheets. 16. For use with any media. T W O RIVERS Y E L L O W 410GMS: See Two Rivers Green 19. METALLIC PAPER: Thin paper in different metallic colors. 10. 20. It is available in white or cream. size.Papers differ in thickness (weight). 100% cotton and sold in sheets. 12. cold. AQUARELLE ARCHES 300GMS:The very top quality hot-pressed (smooth) watercolor paper. it is made from rice. and white. 11.
. Ph.TISSUE PAPER: Place sheets between drawing book pages to keep images from printing on each other and use for delicate collage. from pencil to paint 9. color.
place it on your left.22
Posture and Grip
T o DRAW WELL. If seated on a b e n c h easel (a donkey). and look to the right. but you need to understand that the expression of a line or mark originates in the body and flows t h r o u g h the shoulder.
SPACE TO WORK
Cramped grip. arm. flowing space between your hand. your lines will distort. If using an upright easel. Accelerated perspective also occurs if you look down the surface steeply (see pp. If your hand twists to maneuver between the paper and your body. With your hand in this position. a n d look to the left of it at your subject. but wherever possible. a n d h a n d to the fingertips. Ideally. should be able to look comfortably straight ahead at your picture plane. How you hold your drawing materials is also important. In this book we will look at parallels between drawing and music. Regularly step back 6-9 ft (2-3 m) to check your progress. don't sit too close to the paper. place it on your right.
. From a distance you will spot errors you cannot see close up. your drawing will reflect this.
Relaxed fingers: Hold the pencil away from its tip and relax your fingers. 116-17). body. It will also reflect discomfort if you are in any way cramped. you can draw lines freely and achieve a significant arc of movement. or with your drawing board angled between your lap and a chair. Placing your easel o n the w r o n g side folds y o u r b o d y against your drawing arm. There should be an open. if left-handed. make sure you have enough room to back away and view your work. Use the side of your little fingernail as a support on the page. Examples are shown here. b u t it should n o t be forgotten that many people make remarkable a n d striking works drawing with their feet or holding their brush or pencil in their mouths. and subject. This photograph illustrates how some people hold a pen to write. strangledlooking drawings. your whole relaxed b o d y should be involved. This cramped grip tires your hand and makes small. Turning your drawing sideways or upside-own will also help reveal what is wrong. you
Drawing classes can be cramped places. place it on the correct side: if right-handed. You do not have to dance to draw. There are also parallels to dance. You cannot draw like this—your hand is locked and your fingers can barely move. If your body posture is well balanced and you can move freely.
upright way of holding the brush near its base is similar to the Japanese way used in Zen calligraphy (see pp. not up to the paper Brushes can be used on upright paper but dip Anticipating effects: A fully loaded pens need a level surface.
. hold your material as you find most comfortable. If you turn a brush or dip pen up into the air to draw above your hand. and body are not restricted. arm. To stop this. depending upon what it is and how large you are working. roughly marking out a large-scale work. brush pressed against an upright surface will cause a dribble of ink to run down your drawing.
Short materials such as pastels and charcoal can be accommodated in the palm. find an unfamiliar. liquid will run down your hand. Large amounts of ink can be applied without fear of uncontrolled running if the paper is flat.23
This loose "candle" grip is very useful when drawing with your arm extended.
POSTURE AND GRIP
U n f a m i l i a r i t y : T h e habitual
movements of our handwriting style will sometimes infringe upon our drawing. But be careful not to tense your fingers. alternative way of holding the pencil. This can give a new lease on life to your mark-making. As long as your fingers. This can be used to great effect.
Remember that gravity affects the flow of ink and paint.232-33). It is most comfortable when reaching to draw above your head. or it can spoil your work if not anticipated. or change to the wrong hand.
Brush calligraphy: This comfortable. Remember you can also draw just by dipping your fingers in pigment—this is how many women draw in rural India.
There are no rules as to how you should hold your drawing media.
which are so unlike ours. " Animals perpetually feed our imaginations. Facial features were analyzed in terms of their animal likeness. m u s e u m .drawe to lief one of each kinde of thing that is strange to us in England. they are perhaps our favorite pictorial preoccupation. 1540." Paranoid newcomers c r a m m e d into swelling industrial cities used handbooks of physiognomy to identify and judge their neighbors. Together they made maps and documented animals.m o u n t e d skeletons of birds. 1590
J O H N WHITE
capture form and movement from the m a n n e r i s m s of honking geese. plants. In 19th-century Europe this became a "science.Animals
UMANS HAVE DRAWN ANIMALS
from the beginning of our time." He worked with the scientist Thomas Harriot. After the subject of
ourselves. White's commission was to ". each dedicated to the moralized tale of an animal or monster The bestiary profoundly influenced the art of its period. who described in words what White drew. from which personality and predicted behavior were " d e d u c e d . offer challenges and delights to draw. In medieval England. dogs. insects. their different speeds and patterns of action. Europeans on board had never seen such a thing. This drawing is made in black lead (metal point) with watercolor Highlights of silver would have gleamed. and dragons. fish. which very likely leaped o n t o the deck of Sir Walter Raleigh's ship Tiger as it sailed north from the Caribbean to Virginia in 1585. or scampering through the initials and borders of pictures from that time. and to bring h o m e drawn documentaries of their finds.. to be there at the m o m e n t of discovery. werewolves.. and we still see escapees from its pages carved and grinning as the gargoyles of churches. O v e r the centuries. the Latin bestiary was one of the most popular picture books—an illustrated dictionary of one hundred parts. As children we delight in the humanized trials of Tom and Jerry and their c a r t o o n relations. and snakes have between them engendered harpies. mermaids. and people. bats. and this very drawing was to endure many copies and plagiarisms after its triumphant return to the English court of Queen Elizabeth I. out are now oxidized and so appear black
W h e n less preoccupied with understanding ourselves. we turn and take the features of beasts.
11 x91/4in (277 x 234 mm)
. We have drawn
them on the walls of caves to evoke their kinship and power. floating turtles. sleeping dogs. For the novice artist. animals provide a perfect subject with which to begin. W h e n lost to explain our own emotions. In this chapter we discover the use of pens and ink through the delineation of insects. cartographer. and pioneer born c. Framed in the z o o or in domestic cohabitation. W e have drawn them in m a n u s c r i p t s to explain our genesis and to c o u n t their species into Noah's ark. we have employed artists on expeditions.
JOHN WHITE British artist. Here (left) we see J o h n White's exquisite record of a flying fish. and silent. birds. and learn how to
c. On the Roanoke voyages of Sir Walter Raleigh.
Durer traveled widely to study at different European schools of art.
Life-like This is Durer's original quill-and-ink drawing made after an anonymous Portuguese drawing. Meanwhile.
DURER'S RHINOCEROS AND STUBBS'S skeletal
Durer. Unsurpassed. but the drowned animal washed ashore. inspiring countless works of art and so touching people's imaginations that later. it continued its journey to Rome. filled journals with ideas and observations. He in turn sent the mysterious creature to the Pope via Marseilles at the request of the King of France. The first live rhinoceros to reach Europe came from India in May 1515. the ship was lost. Stubbs's Anatomy of the Horse achieved similar documentary status. writer. It was to become the animal's only accepted likeness for 250 years. Durer's image changed eager hands until it was known across Europe. Converted into a print. naturalist. it is still consulted by veterinarians today. Sailing to Rome.26
horse are superb affirmations of the power of drawing as a recorder and communicator of knowledge. they were rejected. Contemporary texts related accounts of the beast as the mortal enemy of the elephant and rare relative of the "more common" unicorn. a drawing of it arrived in Nuremberg. printmaker. the home of
ALBRECHT DURER German Renaissance painter. He studied the image and drew his own interpretation. a gift to the Portuguese King. draftsman. and wrote four books on proportion. and mathematician. It is such a lifelike triumph of imagination and intelligence that for centuries zoologists never questioned its authority.
Original Ink Drawing of a Rhinoceros
103/4 x 161/2 in ( 2 7 4 x 4 2 0 mm)
. years after its publication. Carefully stuffed. when more accurate portrayals were made without armor and scales.
c o m p r i s e s 1 8 p l a t e s s h o w i n g d i s s e c t i o n s in l a y e r s f r o m b o n e t h r o u g h m u s c u l a t u r e t o skin. a n d anatomist. and therefore invented the lighting that Compare how Stubbs and Durer both invented lighting to portray the reality of their animals.
Lighting Stubbs's breathtaking international
acclaim. which has never diminished. His painted p o r t r a i t o f t h e b e a s t is in t h e R o y a l C o l l e g e o f S u r g e o n s o f England.GEORGE STUBBS
B r i t i s h e q u i n e a n d s o c i e t y p o r t r a i t painter.
Dissections Stubbs took his knife and his pencil and physically climbed inside the horse.
is no other work like it.
knowledge of parts. Stubbs w a s o n e o f t h e first E u r o p e a n artists t o m a k e a n a c c u r a t e representation o f the rhinoceros. naturalist. Dissections were made over a total of 18 months. L o n d o n . dissecting and drawing until he understood the mechanisms of its power and grace.
Table of the
III of the Horse (rear
Skeleton view) mm)
1 4 x 7 in ( 3 5 4 x 1 8 0 GEORGE STUBBS
. Stubbs's m o s t c e l e b r a t e d publication. in t h r e e v i e w s — r e a r f r o n t . This is one of Stubbs' original finished pencil drawings. He translated his own drawings into engravings for publication. Anatomy of the Horse. a n d s i d e . He composed makes each horse appear so real and
each plate from his three-dimensional. composed from notes and observations. The entire project was developed over ten years.
linseed oil soaked into the paper has made shadows and repelled the ink to create translucent tentacles. H u g o mixed his media and drew from m e m o r y and imagination to create narrative atmosphere. A s if disturbed from its gritty b e d by our presence and curiosity. more or less what I have in view. and a love of accident. Hugo's page is f l o o d e d w i t h the fearful presence of a remembered octopus. her b o n y frame. and
1866-69 91/2 x81/8in (242 x 207 mm) VICTOR H U G O
. the ominous beast unwinds from the dark of the sea and of our nightmares.. and leader of the French Romantic movement. and her distinctive temperament.28
Presence and Mood
THESE DRAWINGS HAVE BEEN CHOSEN to s h o w t w o v e r y different ways of picturing a wild animal. Apparently drawn in its o w n ink. coal dust. soot. Hugo's novels Les Miserables and Dame have become classics of film and stage. Surrounding sprays of graphite powder are stuck into washes of oil and ink to suggest glutinous depths.
The Hunchback of Notre
Layers and shadows Throughout this drawing. He wrote to poet and art critic Charles-Pierre Baudelaire about his experiments. By contrast. ink and linseed oil on paper. conjured b y the hand of a great author of French literary fiction. and all sorts of bizarre concoctions which manage to convey above all in mind. The octopus is formed in layers applied and distressed with a brush. He has w a t c h e d her p o u n c e . sepia. Gericault's sheet a p p e a r s almost s c r a t c h e d b y the f e r o c i o u s play of his cat. drama. snarl..
VICTOR HUGO Poet.
Mixed media Here.. her sharp teeth. it silently rises to the light. and turn. Gericault took a sharp p e n c i l to m a k e repeated direct o b s e r v a t i o n s f r o m life. drawing her again and again to pin d o w n the texture of her loose skin. novelist.. saying ".". His copious drawings are characterized by mixed media. playwright. Hugo used graphite powder. charcoal. I've ended up mixing in pencil.
parallel. diagonal strokes of his pencil.
focused upon seeing will lead to a greater understanding of the subject Much is learned from repeated study. At the center of the page is crammed drawings
the outline of a horse. since it can lead to a flattened form. The Raft of the Medusa. Before paper became so cheap. Tones that do not follow surface contour is very difficult to do well. 144.
Repeated study This drawing demonstrates of feeling confident repeat different
the importance subject Remaining
enough to isolate parts of a
views.l i v e d French R o m a n t i c painter and lithographer Largely self-taught. H e is best k n o w n f o r his gigantic painting. s h o r t . horses w e r e a favorite subject t o g e t h e r w i t h politics and history. Paris. fiery. Beginners are advised to follow the natural contours of form as shown on pp. Here. displayed in the Louvre. undertraces unify and vitalize the composition. and it can be applied
any subject (see
pp.118-119). artists reused sheets and them full of studies.
of drawings Gericault
erased. facing right. of previous
Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat
121/2 x 151/2 in ( 3 1 9 x 3 9 8 mm) T H E O D O R E GERICAULT
Beneath these graphite studies we see
Tones On the top row we see clearly how Gericault laid broad areas of tone using fast. 124-25 and p. standing sideways.29
C o n t r o v e r s i a l . and keep trying again.
flapping bird. quivering horse. Picasso cofounded Cubism. His powdery. we see semi-abstract. draftsman. or proud. His hand must have shuddered and twitched just like the constant actions of this humorous meeting. printmaker ceramicist graphic and stage designer who lived in France.
Faune. the whinnying of a frantic horse.
Ink and gouache This drawing is made in black Chinese ink and gouache (opaque watercolor) applied with a brush. the first abstract movement of the 20th century. overwhelmed by a screeching bird.30
M O V E M E N T IS OFTEN THE CHARACTERISTIC b y w h i c h w e
their lines and the power of their beasts. In Picasso's drawing. These media complement and amplify each other with their brilliant contrast. slow tortoise. noise is everywhere. dissolving faun kneels stranded. taking them to guide their hand in bringing form and essence together. made only a year apart. and waves breaking distantly below.
identify an animal: the fast cheetah. hooked. The ink is used to make sharply defined solid. Artists commonly focus on such actions. Cheval et Oiseau
1936 173/8 x 211/4 in ( 4 4 0 x 5 4 0 m m )
. and brown. Gouache is brushed softly in translucent hazy layers of cool blue. gray. The fact that they never stand still influences the movement in his line. In these two drawings. flattened animals composed almost entirely of movement. Klee's riders are constructed from all the gestures of greeting mules. Both Picasso and Klee have enclosed their subjects to compress and amplify the speed of
A prolific Spanish painter sculptor. and scrolled lines. with George Braque (see p90).
and t e a c h e r at t h e Bauhaus school. printmaker. violinist. N e u m a n n Family Collection. well-worn copies o f w h i c h are found in m a n y art schools. draftsman. The entire drawing suggests the endless small movements of horses standing still.
Layers of marks
In this pale
Dentil drawing we see layers of' agitated marks that together present a kind of visual "itch. He is a u t h o r o f The Thinking Eye (1923)." They chatter around bodies in groups. turning our eye and around inside the and postures of the paper-
on pictorial space.PAUL
Swiss painter. Chicago PAUL KLEE
. They remain in contact with the surface of the page and scribble back and forth as they maneuver from one area to another.
der Komischen of Comical
161/2x111/2in ( 4 1 9 x 2 9 1 mm) M o r t o n G .
all happily of each other in the
Endless lines Look closely at how Klee's lines rarely leave the paper and how they are free from the constraint of finite shape. W i t h his drawings Kleeb o u n d sophisticated theories to personal and often witty childlike imagery.
the expression of its eye. B a k e r initiated t h e scientific p r a c t i c e o f naval a r c h i t e c t u r e and applied h y d r o d y n a m i c s . b a s e d o n his studies o f fish. later called a galleon.
The fish It is likely that Baker drew with a quill dipped in irongall ink. Knopf's drawing opposite is the personal enigmatic expression of a mind gripped by illness.32
Icon and Design
THESE T W O MANUSCRIPTS
we discover diagrammatic
and mackerel's tail" (full bow. adding washes of color with a fine brush. mathematician. and blackbirds fly in formation through a mosaic of text. He studied the anatomy of fish. Baker did not intend this. fins. slim stern). This drawing illustrates Baker's theory. and steerage. and scales. it would achieve greater speed. Baker lived in an era when ships were built without drawn plans. and author o f Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (1586). balance. and from them learned that if he designed his ship with a "cod's head
drawings of animals that are each held tightly in a surprising space: a giant fish wears a ship's hull. In contrast to the practical clarity of Baker's thought. which in application gave strength and advantage to the English fighting the Spanish Armada. Exquisite details in this drawing include the lips of the fish. Below we see his revolutionary design for an Elizabethan warship. t h e earliest geometrically defined elevations. It is simply how we read his perspective. seemingly looking for our attention. and s e c t i o n s o f ships. plans. In just one drawing he has displayed more angles of his design than we would expect to see from a single viewpoint Fragments English 1586 101/2 x 153/8 in (270 x 390 mm) MATTHEW BAKER of Ancient Shipwrightry
. His birds stare.
The ship The upper decks of the ship appear curved toward us at both ends. and the carefully observed gills. and to assess our next move.
The text. written last of all.JOHANN KNOPF
An " O u t s i d e r " a r t i s t w h o s u f f e r e d f r o m m e n t a l illness.
. appears to be stirred like water by the presence of the
The Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks
UNDATED 133/8 x 115/8 in (340 x 2 9 6 mm)
and psychiatrist Hans Prinzhom collected this image. firmly outlined. T h e G e r m a n a r t historian
Outline and tone The blackbirds illuminating this frantic manuscript are drawn in pencil. The main group is placed in a circle drawn with a compass.K n o p f b e l i e v e d h e c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h e language o f birds.
circle and the birds. w h i c h o f t e n f e a t u r e as s y m b o l i c creatures in his drawings. numbered. and filled evenly with tone.
Each pen has a unique character. expressive drawing techniques such as the ones we explore in this chapter
1. and it is still in use today. REED PENS: A broad nib can be cut from bamboo or another tubular grass. where reeds were gathered. a n d m e t a l p o i n t s . Dip pens began their history in the Nile River. Only fill with suitable inks. They fit into wooden holders. distinguished manufacture. while metal nibs began as rare gifts in gold and silver before being perfected by the British steel industry. and hold it under a clean basin until the soot hangs to it. Early artists recommended raven and crow for especially fine work.246-47). The paste from either recipe is pressed and dried into a bar for storage. which scratch rather than draw. 5 0 0 years ago. The bar is then rubbed into water on a slate block to produce ink. In the Far East. simultaneously 4 . which range greatly in their handling and character of line.34
Pen and Ink
W I T H A HANDFUL OF FEATHERS. The Chinese used animal or fish glue. 4. Today. 2. s t i c k s . producing a different line." "Gum" refers to gum arabic extracted
Dip pens are essential and inexpensive drawing tools. Avoid needle-sharp mapping pens. The Egyptians and Chinese are credited with the invention of carbon ink. the recipes for which have been handed down over centuries. A German recipe of 1531 gives a simple description: "Take a wax candle. light it. they are associated with rapid. Masters choose brands of long. The best are goose or swan.
you can have great fun drawing the world around you. 3. and first used by the Egyptians. METAL PENS: Inexpensive removable steel nibs are available in a range of widths. Quills were later cut from feathers. and spatters can be made with an exotic choice of inks. ink is traditionally applied with a brush (see pp. Responsive to slight changes in pressure. then pour a little warm gum water into it and temper the two together. That is an ink. spots. high-quality Chinese and Japanese inks are subtler and more complex than those produced in Europe.
from the acacia tree. QUILLS: These are cut from the barrel of a flight or tail feather.
. F O U N T A I N PENS: These vary in quality and nib width. The reservoir gives a constant flow of ink for very long unbroken lines and continuous bottle-free use. Intricate or dramatic lines.
boiled. is the ink of a cuttlefish or squid extracted post-mortem. I N D I A N INK: Carbon ink sold today in liquid form. Bistre is the more humane use of soot scraped from the fireplace and ground into wine. reduced.35
PEN AND INK
Four types of ink were common before the 20th century. waterproof or non-waterproof. and sepia. Crushed. they produce a golden dye for drawing. Now we also have acrylic ranges in many colors. roastedwine sediment (Yeast Black). They are the easiest inks to use.36. dated. charred bone (Ivory Black). bistre.G A L L INK: Abnormal spherical growths caused by parasitic wasps can be collected from some oak trees in fall. Non-waterproof Indian inks can be reworked with a wet brush after drying.
5. from are not 6. suspended in a binder and stored as a solid block Blocks are imported today 7. It dries with a sheen and clogs uncleaned pens. ACRYLIC / CALLIGRAPHY INKS:
Available in black and a range of colors.
9. Inks can be lightfast or non-lightfast. SEPIA A N D BISTRE INKS: Sepia. Excellent for drawing they are bright and non-clogging. and sieved. and most can be homemade. The complexities of traditional iron-gall ink are explained on p. iron-gall. and can be mixed and diluted to create subtler colors and tones. an often misused term.
. Waterproof types contain shellac. or charcoal. C A R B O N INK: Traditionally produced from oil or resin soot (Lamp Black). and are still in use today: carbon (Chinese and Indian). Old stock turns solid and bottlesChina. I R O N . Beechwood soot is best. 8.
of a loaded nib. giving longer lines.
Reed marks The darker left wing of this beetle was drawn with the wet inky stroke wing. Some of Michelangelo's drawings are now a little eaten by their own ink. red-brown. U n d e r heavy pressure. Scribes o f t h e M i d d l e Ages. Walnut ink is gloopy. giving a s h o r t . and delicious to draw with. Oak galls. then cut a final nib (feathers.
. can also be collected from affected trees. 2 4 4 is an e x q u i s i t e e x a m p l e . T h e y give a finer. galls were ground with iron sulfate to make an unstable solution. It dried black. Paler strokes were made
where the mark has
the legs and antennae the ink ran out. a n d M a t i s s e also e n j o y e d t h e m . d r y mark. M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s d r a g o n o n p . m o r e e x t e n d e d line than reed and a m o r e organic line t h a n m e t a l . Practice to gain a feel for how materials behave. I u s e d t h e s e qualities t o d r a w t h e w o r m s above. forming the
R e e dpens dispense ink quickly.
keep all your fingers behind
basis of iron-gall ink.
the blade and cut away from you. For centuries. since t h e D u t c h w e r e t h e first t o realize t h a t they could be hardened and i m p r o v e d w i t h heat t r e a t m e n t in ash o r sand. are surprisingly tough. Quills are also called D u t c h pens. Running fresh. for example. it was gray-purple. and turned brown with time. crushed. and boiled to make a golden ink. The lighter right
than strokes and for as
Q u i l l s a r e highly r e s p o n s i v e t o c h a n g e s in p r e s s u r e . appears broken to show paper beneath. Rembrandt. It also oxidized and ate or burned paper. t h e y stick a n d j u d d e r f o r w a r d . r e s e r v e d t h e i r use f o r large c h o i r b o o k s . always be cautious when experimenting with recipes. The darkest of this grasshopper wings) were made (around the head
first. finding reed p e n s unwieldy. drawn to glisten with a dryer nib. reduced. a n d d e v e l o p e d t h e quill instead. V a n G o g h . Collect skins from the ground beneath trees once they are blackened. fleshy skins that surround ripe walnuts.36
Drawing With Ink
MAKE A QUILL OR REED PEN. sieved.) You can make ink easily from the boiled. Although oak galls and walnut skins are harmless.
withstanding great pressure without sticking. particles then filled with a droplet of ink. W h e n the nib is pressed upside down. they splay to make thick o r double lines. sharp.37
Metal pens give long. Loaded with ink and pressed hard. marks become fine and needle-sharp. The of pigment to fall to the edges effect of the shape.
. When using dip pens. tonal
Ink layers The wings of this beetle
drawn in layers using black and white ink on pale gray paper. it is important to feel for when the ink will run out and to know how much ink you pick up when dipping the nib.
DRAWING WITH INK
Filled outlines Each segment of wing was outlined. clean strokes. White markings were drawn last
Tones Here we see subtle tones of diluted ink beneath the undiluted black rim of a beetle's wing. giving a graded. Each layer of of the drying droplet dome the drawing was left to dry before adding more. breaking. o r being ruined as fountain pens would be under the same pressure.
I covered eleven sheets in sixty quick drawings—in less than an hour. be bold and press firmly. Focus on the geese.
Look for a bird expressing a simple posture. to absorb blots when drawing. waddle. Focus on it. and quickly draw around it using only three or four strokes. so pick a spot where other people can keep them entertained. It happens that goose feathers also provide artists with the best type of quills.
. and be brave.38
GEESE ARE EXCELLENT SUBJECTS to draw when practicing the first use of pen and ink. Take no more than ten seconds to draw each one and make lots of drawings. That said. and boldly plunge into your drawing." If you don't like a stroke. Study them before drawing. Take a cup and water for diluting a range of tones. Cover your drawing book pages in speedy responses to the geese and try to capture each bird in as few lines as possible. Geese are nosy birds. Experiment. and a large drawing book or plenty of paper Use masking tape to secure pages against the wind. Empathize. Dip your pen in ink. make another one. not on your drawing. You cannot break the nib. It teaches confidence and focus through intensive repetition. and bellyflop off the waterside. there is no obligation to prepare a quill.
Pack plenty of tissue around a bottle of calligraphy or acrylic ink. touch the bottle's rim to drain the excess. Try to hold the whole posture in your mind's eye. test your limits. Quick drawing trains you to see what is most important about a subject and to mark only its most essential expression. Illustrating this exercise on Oxford Port Meadow. Watch their heavy feathered bodies flap. draw what the bird is doing. Cover a sheet. and there is no "wrong. Attempt with a loose hand to capture their posture and outline. steel nibs are fine.
Avoid detail unless really tempted by a close-up visit Fluctuate the pressure of your pen in response to how you know the bird would feel if you touched it. and diving.
. running. flapping.39
With growing confidence. look among the birds for more complicated actions such as shaking off water. and don't worry about mechanical facts or accuracy.
Gradually allow yourself more lines to describe the texture of each bird as well as its posture and action. draw the feeling of what you see. Again. Use more lines than before to express these.
Ras Curled Up Asleep
"Capturing the true character of a cherished companion is best achieved with objective determination rather than sentimental shyness. form. and drain the excess by touching the nib against the rim of the bottle.
MAKING A PALE LINE
To make a pale line. Dip the nib quickly again into water and again drain it. Make a test sheet to discover your control of diluting on the nib. and even then he twitched and stretched in dreams. first dip your pen in ink. These drawings are not an analysis of his anatomy or breed but the expression of his satisfied comfort in a deep sleep after a night out on the
together with a glass of water for diluting tones on the nib. This will give a medium-gray line. and a tissue for blotting drawn lines that appear too dark."
.34-37). Now it will make a pale line.40
R A S WAS A GREAT CHARACTER. The only time he remained still was when he was sleeping. a d o g w h o w a s a l w a y s
town. Then dip the nib quickly into a glass of water and drain the excess again.
engaged in his and everyone else's business. and personality. Sleeping animals present the artist with ideal opportunities to study their texture. your drawing book. a dip pen and ink of your choice (see pp. For this class you will need one oblivious dog.
alter the pressure and moisture of your line in response to howyouknow your dog feels when you ruffle itscoat.
Then. tail. I added ink to Ras's nose. and the shadows in his coat.
Fix your eyes at the center of the dog. to emphasize how he is curled up.
Reload your pen with ink. quickly draw what you see. Then I immediately rebalanced the drawing with lines around his hind quarters. ignoring all detail. in bold layers. ears.
.It is essential when drawing any subject (even something abstract) to know how it feels andtoemulate this with your line. W i t h pale lies. To add texture.
Gradually introduce darker tones. Remain focused on the whole dog and. Character is better captured drawing quickly with confidence than w o r k i n g slowly. see how the animal's posture determines its whole shape. Here I marked the features of Ras's head. c o n c e r n e d a b o u t detail.41
DRAWING YOUR DOG
Be bold in this exercise. Layers o f thoughts can bring a drawing alive. second thoughts may be different Changing your mind is a positive aspect o f seeing and thinking. Here. Trust your intuition. this time to create a line a little darker in tone. D o not go back over lines you are pleased with—doing so dulls their lively freshness. add more detail. First lines are first thoughts.
Beyond the glass wall of the aquarium. they stretch and paddle. as if caught in a camera freeze-frame. turtles often pause unexpectedly.
THE ELONGATION AND BUOYANCY of a group of turtles is fascinating
. A perfect subject for the beginner. swinging their limbs and shells with a slow circular movement.Turtles
to observe. offering plenty of time for the artist to draw the pose.
I made repeated studies of the housemartin to discover its mechanism of flight. I darkened lines as each drawing progressed. I sought to capture the form. With speed. dry.Dry Birds
THESE ARE THE ARTICULATED BONES o f a k i w i a n d a h o u s e -
martin drawn in a museum using a steel pen. and water. Beginning with very pale tones. and sharp. weightlessness of the kiwi. India ink.
After Here Aconthus spinosus is combined with forget-me-nots and-a-half centuries of intensive observation. In this chapter. Patrons funded the breeding of decorative. we see very different cultural visions of plants and gardens and use pencils and plants to learn the pictorial values of space. as opposed to only herbal. and focus. shape. an
There are close parallels between the acts of gardening and drawing. Plants seventeenth century.000 species of plants are depicted life-size drawn. Medieval knowledge was not gained by the first-hand observation of life but by reading. nurture. on which our lives depend. to the proliferation of floral designs with which we have dressed ourselves and furnished our homes for centuries. Both embrace the anticipation of evolving shape.Plants and Gardens
E SHARE THIS PLANET
with the more ancient. and beauty. where a number of uncredited artistsd r e wthem for Besler. and the drawn pages ofthesame name. we now have laid before us fourto show how well their colours complement each other infinite wealth of material to explore. and to ornament our lives. and texture. the microscope was refined to unfold yet another world. infinitely vivid. We draw them to celebrate their beauty and range. Conrad von Gemmingen. —-the largest and most influential botanical book of the early Natural scientists accompanied explorers to document unknown finds.
B A S I L I U SBESLER when botanists founded new work upon the direct study of plants. Rich owners of private gardens commissioned large-format florilegiums commissioned the volume to document his private garden to immortalize their personal taste and power of acquisition. From its history there is one overriding lesson to be learned: the importance of looking and seeing with our own eyes. to catalog our knowledge. form. Classifications were set in367copperengravings. Later. The revolution came in the 1530s. and the
constant but exhilarating struggle to make a living image feel right. color. It was published plain in 1611 and withhand-paintedplates in poured off ships returning from the New World and were eagerly collected and 1613. PriceBishopof Eichstatt specimens. Chapters are arranged by out. Botanical illustration is a precisely defined and scientific art. season. manipulations of light and shade. Fledgling years Botanist and apothecary who compiled the Hortus Eystettensis of scientific research bore manifold explosions of knowledge in a fever of discovery. Plants are the principal inspiration of the decorative arts—from Roman Corinthian columns crowned with carved leaves of the acanthus.
187/8x153/4in(480 x 400 mm) BASILIUS BESLER
. and diverse
kingdom of plants. Botanic gardens were established and expanded. and
hybridize them for our sustenance and pleasure. Early European illustrators were trapped within dogma that was determined by ancient scholarship. We collect.Morethan 1. robust. He sent boxes of plants to Nuremburgburned with the urgency and excitement of explaining every plant's form. the punctuation of space with structure and mass.
flowers. petal tip over a lower leaf
Protea nitida 201/4 x141/4in (513 x 362 mm) FRANZ BAUER
. and seeds conventionally a p p e a r o n o n e plate.
subtle union of beauty." Her slipper orchid s h o w s that botanical drawing must often resolve the challenge of its subject's p r o d u c i n g parts in different seasons — r o o t s . insect-ravaged. or that were diseased. delicate. Stella Ross-Craig said of the need to d r a w from a dried herbarium plant "I could make it live again. W i t h bright
F R A N Z BAUER An Austrian artist who trained at the Schonbrunn Imperial Gardens in Vienna. M a c k i n t o s h e x p r e s s e s the f o l d e d petals of a broken rose b u d so delicately w e can sense the perfume. s u c h as w e see here in Bauer's Protea nitida. and meticulous precision. fruit. naturalist explorer and advisor to King George III invited Bauer to London in 1 7 9 0 .
Outline Bauer prepared a pencil outline before laying in fleshy succulent hues and tones of watercolor. Botanical art c o n c e a l s the challenge of its m a k i n g . measured drawings. Here.
Dissections Across the lower part of this drawing we can see dissections of seed pods and petals. They are counted among the most accomplished 18th-century botanical artists.
o p t i m i s m . B e h i n d detailed. stems. It is likely Bauer would have studied these under a microscope.
o p e n i n g a n d c l o s i n g i n the w a r m t h a n d light of the studio.48
PLANTS AND GARDENS
THE SCIENTIFIC VALUE OF A BOTANICAL DRAWING lies i n its
were specimens that often refused to stay still. T h e rest of u s are free to d r a w as w e w i s h . Sir Joseph Banks. He has made the spatial and physical relationships in this drawing all the more real by placing a single. detail. and Franz Bauer and his brother Ferdinand were employed there to draw specimens. leaves. The King was then establishing the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. Light in this drawing is given by the paleness of the paper showing between washes of darker tones. and wilted. Each plant must b e clearly distinguished from its closest relative.
Curtis's Botanical Magazine. it is small and discreet.7 3 in 3 1 p a r t s .286 studies for her book Drawings of British Plants. is r e c o g n i z e d as tne m o s t c o m p l e t e a n d i m p o r t a n t work 3. Closer to fiction can come together perfectly. L o n d o n in 1 9 2 9 . and follow shadow. p u b l i s h e d 1 9 4 8 . a m o n g o t h e r s . G u s t a v K l i m t In his r e t i r e m e n t Mackintosh m a d e n u m e r o u s inventive pencil a n d w a t e r c o l o r d r a w i n g s o f plants. and speed depends upon the immediate perception of the essential characteristics of the plant..
found among Mackintosh's
than reality. S h e also o f thousands o f contributed an drawings. 1970 x 81/4 in ( 3 2 5 x 2 1 0 m m ) STELLA ROSS-CRAIG
. and perfect coordination of hand and eye..g a r d e in G e r m a n y a n d A u s t r i a . and observation the nuance and contour of every in one image.
Lines and shadows
Line Drawing of Cypripedium calceolus L c.000 Kew to archive accessible t o d a y v i a t h e I n t e r n e t of o n British flora. K e w .49 C H A R L E S RENNIE MACKINTOSH
Scottish a r c h i t e c t d e s i g n e r painter. a n d he inspired. and it shows how design. imagination. A s m a n y of her drawings are kept G a r d e n s . as at trained botanical artist Ross-Craig
Swift lines The drawing was planned in pencil and then overworked with a lithographic pen. a n d f o u n d e r o f t h e G l a s g o w S c h o o l o f A r t M a c k i n t o s h ' s flair h a d an e n o r m o u s i n f l u e n c e o n t h e a v a n t . H e r Drawings of British Plants.
Rose 1894 103/4 x 83/4 in ( 2 7 5 x 2 2 1 mm) CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH
A j o i n e d t h e staff a t t h e R o y a l B o t a n i c G a r d e n s . sensual pencil drawing is later works. Ross-Craig said of her work "Plants that wither rapidly present a very difficult problem to which there is only one answer—speed." This line drawing is one of 1. Pencil lines cling to.
uniform focus. and Nanha. Babur directs his gardeners in the design and planting of this quartered chahar bagh. Every fiber of
AMONG DRAWINGS FROM
BISHNDAS A N D N A N H A Little is known of these Mughal painters who were related as uncle and nephew and commissioned to illustrate the pages of Babur's journal. The white of the page shines through the brilliant color.
Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity c. and calligraphy are brought together to hold the sacred names of prophets and the 99 beautiful names of God.
paper is brimming with the beauty and celebration of nature. and miraculous growth. a notable portrait painter drew the faces. in miniature. The first Mughal Emperor Babur's Garden of Fidelity (Bagh-e Vaja).50
PLANTS AND GARDENS
the Middle East we find exquisite stylization of form and upright formality in pictorial space. roses took their form in a bead of perspiration on the brow of Mohammed as he passed through his heavenly journey. By Muslim tradition. is remembered in the pages of his journal. Opposite is the Rose of Mohammed. urgent attentive human activity. painting. Bishndas was probably responsible for the overall design. the sumptuous petals permeated with prayer and wisdom. Upright shallow perspectives. in the early 16th century. They used a fine brush to lay pigment over a line drawing. anticipating their view. which he personally created near Kabul. Below. Afghanistan. fluctuations in scale. 1590 85/8 x55/8in (219 x 1 4 4 mm) BISHNDAS AND NANHA
Bright pigment These pages were illuminated by Mughal artists in the late 16th century. Drawing. Envoys chatter outside the gate. and attention to detail are all shared with medieval European manuscript drawings.
fragmenting its detail in a whisper of prayers.
Sacred words The central rose is more solid than any other on the page. However. It is n o w k e p t in
Border The elegant border of this drawing was mode with a pen and ruler It cleverly compresses and defines the composition. so that overlapping petals and stems give an impression of fulfillment and abundance. Note how each bud is essentially the same shape. G e r m a n y . and how the shape has been repeated freehand. look closely and you will see words written in gold fluttering over the form of the flower.
The Rose of
9 1 / 2 x 61/2 in ( 2 4 0 x 1 6 5 mm) FROM THE TURKISH M A N U S C R I P T AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH
.c e n t u r y Turkish manuscnpt a book of religious e t h i c s w r i t t e n in the O r i e n t a l C o l l e c t i o n s of Berlin. t h e Staatsbibliothek zu Arabic.
Stylized motif A fine brush has been used throughout this drawing to apply inks and watercolors. The physical anatomy of the rosebud has been studied and translated into a repeated stylized motif.AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH
This is a detail o f a page from a n 1 8 t h .
PLANTS AND GARDENS
IN CONTRAST TO THE QUIET, formal detail of other drawings in this chapter, these powerful fast trees enact the actions of plants. Each tree reaches out and holds its landscape with dynamism and pulse. In both drawings we find testament to the inexorable energy of growth. Rembrandt expresses a delicate quickness. Gentle lines draw a warm breeze through this remote wooded garden. Rustling in a loose foliage of soft marks, his pen evokes the weight of abundant activity on this late summer's day. Mondrian's arch of scratching branches is drawn with such force it will always be alive. We can still feel his hand storming across the paper. Set within a frame of smudged landscape, the tree possesses a musical agitation. This characteristic will increase in the artist's later abstract work. Here, we see a punctuated ordering of space. Sharp branches cut out negative shapes of winter sky.
R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter; etcher; and draftsman. Rembrandt's prolific output comprises oil paintings of historical and religious subjects together with group and self- portraits. His emotive etchings and pen and ink drawings (see also p. 174) are great resources for artists learning to understand the potential of these media.
Pen and ink lines describing foliage also tell
us the directions of sunlight and wind. An arc crossing the bottom of the drawing from one side to the other supports the scene and separates us from the landscape beyond. Compare Rembrandt's arc to that of Mondrian's. and note the similar treatment of low horizons in both works emphasizing the height and dominance of trees.
Cottage Among Trees 1648-50 63/4 x121/8in ( I 7 I x 308 mm) R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN
Atmosphere Here we see how shapes of negative space are as important as the physical subject they enclose (see pp.58-59). Mondrian has again lightly dragged his chalk on its side to evoke a wet depth of atmosphere. These passive gray marks contrast with the assertive tension of the tree.
Dutch Pure abstract painter preoccupied w i t h line and plane relationships. W i t h increasing austerity, Mondrian banished t h e subject from his drawings, in his later w o r k he also banished space, composing visual h a r m o n i e s using only straight lines a n d flat planes o f black, w h i t e , gray, o r p r i m a r y color.
Winter ground Short vertical marks along thebottomof this drawing reveal the length oftheblackchalk Mondrian used. Rubbed onitsside,itroughly blocks in the ground. Thecrudeeconomy of line is all we need tofeelthecold, wet, unwelcoming quality ofthiswinterearth.
Branches and trunk Lines shaping the branches of the tree are built up in layers. To make the trunk more dense, the artist has rubbed and smudged preliminary marks with his fingers before firmly overdrawing with new lines. Solid black lines are achieved by pressing the chalk hard. When used lightly, it shows the texture of the paper. Tree: Study for the Grey 1911 23 x 335/8 in ( 5 8 4 x 8 5 5 m m ) Tree
PLANTS AND GARDENS
Graphite and Erasers
GRAPHITE, FROM THE G R E E K word
This drawing illustrates a range of achieved with graphite pencils of different grades.
Modern pencils are graded from 9H (hard and pale) to 9B (black and soft). Graphiteclay sticks are also available, together with a powder form. All possess a natural sheen and are erasable to a varying degree. Graphite drawings smudge easily, so fixative, a form of varnish, can be used to hold a drawn surface in place. It is applied as a fine mist from an aerosol can, or from a bottle using a diffuser. For the beginner, ordinary hairspray is an effective and cheaper alternative.
(to write), is a soft and brittle carbon. It was first mined in Cumbria, England, in 1 5 6 4 , and was initially used in small, pure pieces bound in lengths of string. Pencils as we know them—with their slender wood casing and "lead" of graphite—were invented in France in 1794 by Nicolas-Jaques Conte. He discovered that milled graphite mixed with clay and water, press-molded, and baked to a high temperature produces a harder and paler medium than graphite alone.
3B pencil A range of mark and textures can be achieved with a 3B pencil when you vary its pressure, speed, and direction, as this detail shows.
Here is a selection of 14 items to illustrate a basic range of pencils, graphite sticks, sharpeners, erasers, and fixative.
1. AND 2. HB AND 3B PENCILS: It is unnecessary to possess every grade of pencil. HB, the central and most common grade, is perfect for making delicate lines. 3B gives a blacker tone. A great variety of effects can be achieved with just these two. 3. WATER-SOLUBLE PENCIL Effective for atmospheric drawing, but be aware of how watery tones can dull the impact of the line. 4. AND 5. MECHANICAL PENCIL Thick or fine leads are made in a range of grades. They are particularly useful because they do not require a sharpener 6. ROUND SOLID GRAPHITE PENCIL: Excellent for large-scale drawing, producing thick bold lines. A range of grades can be honed with a craft knife or sharpener 7. THICK GRAPHITE STICK: For large-scale drawing. Graded soft, medium, and hard. It crushes to produce graphite powder 8. SQUARE GRAPHITE STICK: Useful for making broad, sweeping marks in large-scale drawing. If worn and rounded, the stick can be snapped into pieces to regain the sharp, square end. 9. CRAFT KNIFE AND BLADES: Handles are sold in two sizes to fit large or small blades, and blades are sold in a range of shapes. Perfect for sharpening pencils to a long point, to cut lines in paper or to remove areas. 10. PENCIL SHARPENER: Makes a uniform point. Keep one in your pocket for drawing outside the studio, together with an envelope for shavings.
HB and 5B Layers of tone have been built up withHBand5Bpencils. Softer pencils require less pressure to make a mark, revealing the texture of the paper surface. It is important to keep the point of the pencil sharp with either a craft knife or a sharpener.
ERASING AND FIXING
Erasers can be used t o blend and s o f t e n lines, o r t o r e m o v e altogether. Fixative them prevents
GRAPHITE AND ERASERS
s m u d g i n g a n d s e c u r e s lines.
Using fixative You can use fixative while drawing to hold the definition of lines you wish to gently fade but not remove entirely, for which you would use an eraser.
11. P L A S T I C E R A S E R : Avoid cheap colored erasers that may stain drawings with grease and dye. White brands are available in soft and hard versions.
P U T T Y RUBBER:
W a r m it in your hand before use. It is excellent for removing powdery materials, and for making crisp sweeps of light across a delicate pencil drawing
13. D I F F U S E R : Helleborus corsicus (Corsican hellebore) fixative, or to spray mists of ink.
PLANTS AND GARDENS
Cropping and Composition
M A N Y STUDENTS WILL START a d r a w i n g i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e
that its skin nearly touches the boundary. The meaning of the same drawing changes simply by its relationship to the space it occupies. The size of any subject, its placement on the page, the size of the page, and its overall proportion are all discrete and essential aspects of successful picture-making. Before you begin to draw, think carefully about where to place your subject. Are you are happy with your paper? If not, change it; add more, take some away, or turn it around. Do not just accept what you are given, adapt it to what you need.
paper. Focused on the shape and detail of their subject, they remain happily unaware that there is, or should be, any relationship between what they are drawing and the surface they are drawing it on. The paper is only paper, and the troublesome subject floats somewhere in the expanse of it. However, a single fig drawn in the middle of a large, empty square of paper gives quite a different impression from the same fig drawn on such an intimately small square
CHOOSING A VIEW
A Single Fig
"The size, shape, and orientation of the paper are so integral to the composition that they determine the impact and meaning of the drawing."
The angle of the fruit together with dark shadow (top left) and bright light(bottom right) suggest a diagonal division across the whole drawing. they establish a tension and unity with the paper. its stem and shadow framing a white center.
Space as the subject
Inallpictures. When subjects touch two or more edges.
CROPPING AND COMPOSITION
Off-center and diagonal
Here I held my viewfinder so the fig appeared upper-left in the space. and therefore apparently suspended from. Here the left fig is attached to. A card with a small rectangle cut out o f it makes a useful viewfinder C l o s e o n e e y e t o look through the hole.
Touching the edge
the subject o f a drawing touches one edge of the paper it attaches t o it visually. running corner t o corner. and lines describing shadows cast by the fruit
. bottom-left t o top-right.O u r focus is on the white cloth supporting the figs. spaces between things are as important as the things themselves. t h e n m o v e t h e c a r d t o e x p l o r e different views. This drawing hasbeencropped to emphasize space between thefruit. U s e it as a starting point. the uppermost edge of the drawing. a device to help you decide what t o draw. its illumination.57
T h e s e pencil drawings o f figs d e m o n s t r a t e different crops and compositions. as also shown here.
and engaging. Looking at negative space overrides the problem of drawing what you know. Viewers appreciating a finished image may not see shapes of space. rather than what you see in front of you. shapes of air cut out and defined by the physicality of our environment? When we look into the branches of a tree. and so on. dynamic. which is shown in the three steps below. In following this class. Follow these from left to right and see how I began with one complete shape between two parts of a leaf. and a fresh page in your drawing book.
Draw a complete shape
Map outward from the center
Erase and adjust lines until correct
. In your own version.
WHERE TO START
Arrange your plant and paper so you can look back and forth by barely moving your head. but if the artist does. a foundation stone in picture-making. But how often do we look at the air between things. their subject and composition will become more real.The box opposite isolates an area. this ensures a consistent view. then added a second shape. fourth. and a role to play.58
PLANTS AND GARDENS
UNCONSCIOUSLY WE ASSESS spatial relationships all the time to guide ourselves through the world. The drawing opposite is of the uppermost leaves of a potted fig tree. Unfamiliar shapes of negative space reveal the real shape of a positive subject. tone. Negative space is the simple key to getting positive shape right. not leaves. unified. a sharp H B pencil. It is an astonishingly simple device that many artists use and I strongly recommend. third. you will need a similar large-leaved plant. an eraser. do we see myriad distinct and unique shapes of daylight or do we just see branches? Why as artists should we look at the air? Every space in a picture has a shape. It helps to start at the center and map outward. erasing and adjusting lines until itlooked right. position. remember to draw only space. Remember that plants do move! Therefore it is best to complete your drawing in one sitting if possible.
Here I drew only spaces, adding one to another until the leaves were revealed. Besides looking at negative space, there are two other useful things to do when a drawing feels wrong but you cannot see why: look at it in a mirror or turn it upside down. errors and suggest changes.
Spaces between leaves
Either view will
WALKING IN THE ALPUJARRAS in A n d a l u c i a ,
Spain, I drew a bare fig tree clinging to the wall of an almond grove; a perfect subject for seeing negative space. I marked its essential frame of large branches first, frequently erasing lines and changing my mind until the balance felt right.
S a l v i a , RIBES, CLEMATIS, Allium, Passiflora, and Acanthus
drawn with an H pencil by observing the
negative spaces between the stems, petals, and leaves. I arranged the flowers on a sheet of paper in a cool r o o m and rapidly sketched a composition. Then I put them in water, taking the stems out one at a time to draw.
Excessive detail leaves no space for the eye to rest or imagination to wander. gathering less distinct information on the way. If an artist changes the pace of their line and focus of their attention. 62-63).
. they emulate our experience of seeing. interfolding points of detail with areas of loose suggestion. We never see everything at once. our eyes travel and adjust from one point of focus to another. Compare changes of pace and focus here to the flatter finish of Summer Flowers (see pp.Acanthus Spinosus
As we LOOK AROUND.
composers. 74-75). Since Picasso and Braque's revolution of Cubism in around 1907. balance. add and subtract ideas." reflecting the eye's love of unity in difference. Among the drawings of this chapter we look from 17th-century ecclesiastical calm. mass. and from
West Facade of the Church of St Augustin. they have the Golden Section. philosophers. It was also during the Renaissance that the architect Brunelleschi invented linear perspective.
VICTOR BALTARD French architect employed by the city of Paris. Augustin. Yet the pursuit of divine proportion and harmony remains. This harmony.This is a pencil drawing. Linear perspective is a marvelous device. European conventions of pictorial perspective have lost their monopoly on seeing. and architects of ancient Greece who first pursued the formula for "divine proportion. once there. of the west facade of St Augustin. Architects have been fine-tuning their specialized branch of drawing for centuries. coupled with the importance of exercizing your imagination. and in the 19th century it was given the name the Golden Section. to help them create new form. It is the focus of practical class in this chapter. space. with gray and brown watercolor wash. It was the mathematicians. Through the animation of the screen. which was the first church in the capital to be built entirely of metal and then clad in stone. Paris
the child's view to the infinity of the vanishing point. Since the first flowering of Modernism in the early 20th century. we find the most recent steps in the evolution of graphic language. fine artists. invaluable to understand and apply when you choose. architects and designers can imaginatively "climb inside" three-dimensional space and. architects. Computer
programs allow the virtual drawing of ideas. from political commentary to musical abstraction. and writers have been breaking away from traditional forms of representation to seek new expressions of shape. which can be clearly seen in ancient Greek architecture. and computer game
imaging. filmmakers. to 20th-century film fantasy. they also have a diagrammatic language for communicating plans to builders. designers.The church is still in use today. drawing plans around themselves within a program as opposed to on a flat sheet of paper. was preserved into the Renaissance where it became a foundation stone for thinking and creativity From 15thcentury Italy. At the core of their practice. made by the architect himself. and sound. time. the formula for perfection spread through Europe. film-set design. Baltard designed the Church of St. each
. the device that has since governed most of our picture-making (sec pp. Perhaps in the sheer planes of some of our greatest modern buildings it is finding its clearest expression. Besides sketches of first thoughts and polished drawings of the finished look for clients.Architecture
Hawksmoor's drawing is both a plan and an evocation. and balance. he also worked on St Paul's Cathedral. Hampton Court Palace. Oxford. structure. relative levels. marks the end of a long journey from the first few marks the architect made on a sheet of paper. A student of Wren's. Blenheim Palace. and six London churches. and an inscribed entablature. and the shapes of interior domes and apses. and Castle Howard. a three-dimensional drawing made with wires and weights. We see the modeled detail of Corinthian columns.
Pillars and floor At the base of the drawing a compass-drawn plan tilted downward through 90 degrees illustrates the arrangement of pillars around a central circular floor. describe a finished look to a client. Lines define structure while washes suggest light and atmosphere. Together they explain how interior structure and space define exterior form and shape. The photograph opposite shows his studio hung with metal pendulums. Hawksmoor established his reputation with university and church architecture including All Souls College.
St Paul's Baptistry c. evoke presence. embodying a massive investment of ideas. and ultimately to show builders what to do. and labor.
On the right a section
cut through the center of the building reveals material thicknesses. materials. and later an assistant to Vanbrugh. Drawings underpin every great human-made structure like hidden linear ghosts at their core. NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR
One of Britain's "three great" Baroque architects (along with Sir Christopher Wren and Sir John Vanbrugh). testing gravity to calculate the inverted shapes of domes. 1711-12 NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR
On the left the finished
surface of the building is given depth and emphasis by immaculate vertical and horizontal brush strokes of shadow. Gaudi's fluid architecture grew up through many kinds of drawing. Below it. densely layered lines in mists of color weave the presence of the expected building into shape. calculate function. pilasters. Architects draw for many reasons: to visualize ideas.68
EVERY NEW BUILDING.
Three aspects This subtle and sophisticated drawing made in pen and wash displays three distinct aspects of Hawksmoor's baptistry.
light. Gaudi's cathedral in Barcelona.69
Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt
c. churches. 1910 24x181/4( 6 1 0 x 4 7 5mm) A N T O N I O GAUDI
Wire and watercolor three-dimensional preferred to calculate
Above is a drawing form in the made
withlinkedwires and weights. The Art Nouveau movement.
Crypt of its
c. and his love of music. This sculptural drawingenvisionsthe finished crypt glowingandethereal as if caught in thelightof red morning sun. Gaudi air than on paper. embellishment. 1900
ANTONIO GAUDI Visionary Catalan architect. unique organic manipulation of high shapes. To the right isawatercolordrawing thought to havebeenmade over a photograph ofthemodelabove. and apartment homes are distinguished by their Their and Flowering curves of stone or concrete are often encrusted with Gaudi was inspired by medieval and oriental art.
There has always
DANIEL LIBESKIND A Polish American architect of international acclaim.223).70 ARCHITECTURE
The Order of Sound
B O T H OF THESE VISIONARY DRAWINGS o c c u p y a s l e n d e r . Across the top and center right of the image w e perceive an almost recognizable architectural plan. He also produces urban and landscape designs. short curved poles. Libeskind studied music before transferring to architecture.
been a natural affinity between the visual rhythms of pictures and the audible rhythms of music. Satie draws quietly throughout.
upright pictorial space. and rooms. and in a sense hear. He also contributed to plans for the rebuilding of the World Trade Center site in New York. a refillable pen that feeds a constant supply of ink through a fine tubular nib. We can see. Contemporary musicians commonly collaborate with artists by interpreting images as sound. Libeskind's numerous commissions include concert halls and museums. and dotted lines. such a rapport in both of these drawings. while the composer Erik Satie has made an enclosure of quiet order and grace. before cascading into a riot of line and sound below. installations.
Visual rhythms In the lower half of this drawing architectural language has broken loose: escaped and transformed into an image of rebellious pleasure. Both men used rulers and pens to carefully and slowly construct their compositions. p. Libeskind begins quietly in the upper space of his drawing. theater sets. and arched dotted lines depict the radius of doors.
Arctic Flowers 1980 DANIEL LIBESKIND
This drawing has
been made with a rapidograph. and the spaces between his windows and turrets are the visual equivalent of pauses in
h i s m u s i c c o m p o s i t i o n s for p i a n o (see also Bussotti. The architect and musician Daniel Libeskind has drawn a stampeding cacophany of airborne architectural detail. flat boards. and exhibitions of his drawings. We can imagine how a musician might interpret this drawing by looking at the abstract visual rhythms of masses composed of long straight poles. Floor space appears divided by discernible walls.
narrowshape of its paper. dressed eccentrically.56—57 we discussed important the shape.
Suzonnieres c. the perimeter
Composition Look how well this drawingfitsand resonates with the upright. Onpp. and ink on a fragment folded brown paper—a of everyday happened material of scrap that
to be at hand. o f which he was the sole m e m b e r
Satie has drawn
this fantasy hotel using a ruler. lived a l o n e . a conventional dip or fountain pen. minimalist s c o r e s scandalized a u d i e n c e s with o r c h e s t r a t i o n s f o r t h e foghorn and typewriter. H e p e r f o r m e d in cabarets.Edges are how are of orientation. and founded his o w n church.
upright image Eastern is reminiscent and medieval of Middle
pictorial space and subject of this European
drawing. theater.ERIK SATIE
F r e n c h pianist and c o m p o s e r for t h e piano. Satie collaborated w i t h hisfriends J e a n C o c t e a u a n d P i c a s s o . They definespaceand pictorial balance. a n d ballet.
additional lines in a work.50.
the even and and the shape wall to the
elegantly stylized order of the many windows of arrangement of details and the shape of the wall in Babur's Garden of Fidelity on p. 1 8 9 3 77/8 x 51/2 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 4 0 mm) ERIK SATIE
. andfouredges of the paper tothecompositionand impact animage.H i s witty.
French architectural theorist. cylinders. we find other Utopian visions
Paul Nobles epic drawing summons an imperfect and disturbing township where ruin and activity are equal and strange. the ominous globe exists only as a series of drawings. This is the work of an architectural theoretician. Within it. Boullee's monolithic apparition was drawn as a monument to Sir Isaac Newton. and the reverse is true on the right. experiencing a fascinating conflict between curiosity and desolation. and taught at t h e A c a d e m i e d'Architecture. Boullee lived in Paris. made in 1926. and draftsman. arched vaults. antlike mortals might have speculated upon the universe. and dramatic lighting.
Light illusions This pen-and-wash drawing shows a subtle application of the principles of illumination demonstrated with an egg on p.
153/4 x 25 in ( 4 0 2 x 635 m m ) ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE
enter the long-shadowed architecture of imaginary worlds. This shift makes the cenotaph appear three-dimensional.The lower-left section of the building appears relatively pale against a darker sky. Art director Erich Kettlehut's vertiginous design for the city of a slavelike populace had a future influence on movies such as Blade Runner. Among preparations for Fritz Langs film Metropolis. We glide over exquisitely drawn wastelands of damage and abandonment. painter.96. spheres. His celebrated imaginary buildings are characterized by pyramids.72 ARCHITECTURE
T H E S E T H R E E HIGHLY DETAILED DRAWINGS
invite us to
soaring above normal life.
Graphite shapes Nobson Central isoneof a series of very large graphite drawings of the spoil and detritus of Nobson Newtown.
Fritz Lang's Metropolis c.
ft 1 0 in x 1 3 f t 2 in (3 x 4 m ) PAUL N O B L E
. intensely detailed graphite drawings explaining and questioning t h e geography. Its sheerscaleengulfs the viewer and demands based time and patience to on letters and in some beread. mythology.73
ERICH KETTLEHUT Influential film a r t director. Nobson political visions of humanity Newtown. 1926
PAUL N O B L E British c o n t e m p o r a r y artist who creates m o n u m e n t a l . and morality o f an invented place called His satires exhibited w o r l d w i d e . architecture. draftsman.Building shapes are works can be read as text. Kettlehut drew using a fine and relatively dry brush dipped in black. gray. together with c i n e m a t o g r a p h e r Karl Freund. Working on toned paper such as this gives an artist greater scope for dramatic lighting effects than if they work on white paper. and white ink on brown-gray paper.
Brush and ink This is a dramatic drawing from a film that shaped the history of world cinema.m a k e r In t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f Metropolis.a r t director O t t o Hunte. and m o d e l . Kettlehut and his c o . used forced perspective camera t e c h n i q u e s t o amplify t h e m a g n i t u d e o f buildings in relation t o human characters.
LEONARDO DA VINCI One of the greatest artists. found at the center of all converging lines. Piranesi an example of two.74
Pathways of Sight
LINEAR PERSPECTIVE (also called vanishing-point perspective) is a simple device for calculating the relative size of things in pictorial space. and age eight. I contribute the child's perspective.
Study of Perspective Adoration of the
1481 61/2 x111/2in (165 x 290 mm)
LEONARDO DA VINCI
. Invented by Italian artist and architect Brunelleschi in 1413 (late in the history of art). inventors. linear perspective is distinct from more ancient systems practiced in the East. this perspective is often an imagined bird's-eye view in which details are mapped according to logic and importance rather than how they might appear in real life. scientists. Leonardo recorded constant streams of ideas. Here Leonardo provides a superb example of a single vanishing point. All forms of perspective are of equal value. It can be applied to any subject. and thinkers ever to have lived. It is also distinguished from aerial perspective (see pp. Sometimes shared with Naive artists. In his notebooks. and inventions— essential reading for inquiring minds. but is most easily seen and understood in pictures of buildings and interiors. Note how architectural features conform to lines and how human figures diminish in size toward thevanishingpoint.
Single-point perspective Tie a thread to a pin. Press the pin into Leonardo's vanishing point. Pull the thread taut and rotate it slowly above the drawing. 206-07). and those of Naive artists and children. observations. We use it to structure illusions of depth. See how the thread corresponds to each converging line.
Two Courtyards c. which I saw from home every day. Children are uninhibited and problems with one element being obscured by another rarely arise.SARAH SIMBLET
I made this drawing (at age 8) in response to a local bookstore's request for children to draw their village.
Breamore Village. and theoretical writing strongly influenced neoclassicism. It shows how children usually map large scenes in flat layers one above the other. at the top of each lateral column base. architect.
Scale Our farmhouse my experience
was in the woods. and designer Piranesi's prolific architectural drawings.
. including all they recall about the subject. England 1980 9 x 16 in (228 x 405 mm) S A R A H SIMBLET
GIOVANNI BATTISTA PIRANESI
Italian artist. This drawing Young children typically
maps ignore on
of the nearby village. New Forest. Note the rather large rabbits and pheasants
the hills. visionary and practical understanding of ancient Rome.
issues of scale when making room for important
their story. Mark these points with your pin and follow the converging lines of the drawing by rotating your thread. a points in
logical narrative of memories.
Two-point perspective Sunlight through this colonnade a great example of two-point perspective. 1740 5 1 / 2 x 83/8 in (141 x 212 mm) G I O V A N N I B A T T I S T A PIRANESI
points are located on either side of the drawing.
Surround the vanishing point with a small rectangle. try composing your own space. you will amplify the illusion of distance. Piranesi planned his drawing with only the essential lines needed. This ensures that the second rectangle aligns with the shape and
Draw four short lines to connect the four corners of the two rectangles.)
imagine. corresponding to a single vanishing point. This is where we will begin. then follow the ten steps below.
Using a ruler and a sharp HB pencil. discovering the image as it progressed. Erase the dotted construction lines. this is your vanishing point. In contrast. Next. Note that if you place large structures in the foreground and smaller ones closer to your vanishing point. Extend each dotted line to the edge of your drawing. You have completed your first box. Draw each step over the preceding one to build up a single image. Study these pages first before embarking on this lesson.
Draw four dotted lines radiating out from the vanishing point. (See p. Leonardo began with a grid of many lines within which he invented his scene. This lesson shows you how to make a simple illusion of space defined by two boxes and three flat boards. draw a horizon line across your paper Mark a spot on the horizon line. using a sharp HB pencil and ruler. On the previous page we looked at its essential mechanism through drawings by Leonardo and Piranesi.76
MASTERING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE i s e a s i e r t h a n y o u m a y
First read through.
corners must each touch a dotted line.98 for an important note on oscillation. Each line should pass through one corner of the rectangle.
with two dotted lines. The board's sides should be parallel. Note that this does not surround the vanishing point In the future. draw a second. N e x t draw a slanting line to mark the height of the first flat board.
As in step 3.
Complete the second box with short lines as in step 4. Connect this to the vanishing point— again. the closer it will appear to the viewer. The four comers must each touch a dotted line to be sureitaligns with the first. Repeat this to add two more boards to the composition. Continue the dotted lines out toward the edge of your drawing. when inventing your own compositions.
As in step 2. larger rectangle.
. and erase the dotted lines. andfarside of this first board.77
Draw a new rectangle. draw four dotted lines radiating from your vanishing point Pass these through each comer of the new rectangle. you can place rectangles anywhere youwishin relation to a vanishing point.asIhavedonehere. The larger you make your second rectangle.
0 Erase all ofthedottedlinestoseeyourfinishedboxes
Thickeningtheiredges. bottom.willhelptomake them appear more solid.
Use dotted lines connecting the slanting linetothe vanishing point to locate the top.
Every work talks
In this class. It highlights the importance of having faith in your imagination and trusting your ability to invent. it is interaction that makes the work richer. I always start with a script but I don't follow it all the way through to the end. it will take you places you never dreamed of. once said: "I never end up with what I set out to do. then let the space suggest its c o n t e n t s and purpose. Linear perspective will support y o u by providing a frame in which to b u i l d your picture as it did for Leonardo."
imaginary room. Then follow the three given steps. The m i s t a k e n belief that we s h o u l d k n o w exactly what o u r finished drawings will l o o k like before we m a k e t h e m prevents many people from ever starting. w h e t h e r it is a film or a painting."
. you will find white adhesive stationery labels are useful for covering errors or changing the direction of your idea.78
Creating an Imaginary Space
T H I S CLASS USES SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE t o c r e a t e a s i m p l e
to you and if you listen to it. A lot more happens when you open yourself up to the work and let yourself act and react to it. O n
a fresh page in your d r a w i n g b o o k . If using a fibertip pen as I have done for this drawing. draw a b o x as shown opposite. As David Lynch. artist and film director. p . 7 4 ) . let simple lines suggest a simple space.
An Imagined Scaffold
"Enjoy your illusion as you make it and it will become more real.
parallel planes such as walls converge toward the vanishing point. and leaning surfaces. you will beableto draw more complex objects orpeoplewithin them. This initial space will be transparent and open to change.79
DRAWING A SIMPLE ROOM
Essentials t o remember: objects and people dimmish in size as they move farther away.
CREATING AN IMAGINARY SPACE
1First. additional lines have established the different surfaces and how they relate to each other. The space has become more solid and real. and floors and ceilings also converge and rise o r lower toward the horizon. With some practice.drawthehorizonlineand vanishingpoint.Addanarray of converging lines to provide a "scaffold" for vertical. Here. horizontal.
Remove the construction lines with an eraser and the room will becomeclearer.There is great pleasure tobefoundin spending time inventing interiors.
2 first before adding furniture.
Search for the application of these perspectives among works by other artists in this book and in galleries. do verticals appear inclined. verticals appear p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the g r o u n d .
Free vanishing points
On paper we can enjoy the freedom of fantastic structural invention without limitations of solid materials or gravity. T h i s is d e m o n s t r a t e d immediately below. The boxes drawn here are seen partly or entirely disassociated from a horizon line drawn across the bottom of the image. a n d this is how we have drawn them so far (see pp. That is where we e to find them. located anywhere inside or outside the pictorial space.80 ARCHITECTURE
Further Aspects of Perspective
W E ARE ACCUSTOMED TO SEEING our e n v i r o n m e n t from a relatively constant point of view. showing y o u h o w to draw curved surfaces and a tiled floor. Further aspects of three-point perspective are also illustrated opposite. o r to the h o r i z o n . Here. Potentially. T h e y d o n o t have to relate to each other. I have elaborated on the simple boxes above. T h i n k of standing at the top of a skyscraper and imagine h o w its parallel sides would appear to converge below you.
Vanishing points are commonly found on horizon—our eye level. or low and we look u p . It is important to realize that you can have as many vanishing points as you wish. These elaborations could continue indefinitely across a sheet of paper in pursuit of complex and intricate ideas. From our normal eye level.
. Copying what you see in the work of others will help you to understand what they have done. Only when y o u might employ t h r e e . they can be placed anywhere inspaceto describe the perspective of flyi c tilted objects. our eye level is very high and we look down. They could be drawn on any scale from miniature to monumental. To draw such a view
Copy these drawings to see and feel how they work before inventing your own versions.p o i n t perspective ( s h o w n opposite top). 76-79). but they are not confined to this level.
I marked the toplinewith three evenly spaced points and the line with seven. and therefore tension. An array of curved lines (drawn freehand) link the two lateral points. Note that altering the distance between the three dots above will tilt the level of the floor
.81 FURTHER ASPECTS OF
This drawing depicts three-point perspective. you will see how.Istarted with two parallel lines. by adding a third point you can achieve a sense of incline. tostraightlines can amplify drama in a picture. Iusedthese lines as a guide t o draw the curvature of boxes and panels flying through space. they mark the corners of the floor tiles. Where thelinescross. three vanishing points are evenly spaced along a horizon line.I added horizontal lines t o define the tiles.
Here.) By comparing this drawing t o Piranesi's example of two-point perspective on p. (Turn the book around to see a view looking up.
floor.Finally. useful for representing steep views looking up or down tall structures.75. I then drew three fanned groups of lines connecting each of the three points above to the seven points below. Giving curvature.
RESEARCHING FOR MY P H D . making drawings to resolve questions and express personal responses to the nature and history of anatomy.
. These walnut-skin ink pen and brush drawings show imagined views of theaters that do not exist but were inspired by places I studied. I
visited many anatomical
theaters and museums.
I N KDRAWING is one of a series I made while next to the Rialto Bridge in Venice.
sitting point buildings
ThisP E N . The vanishing of the drawing is directly opposite as we look across The constancy of the bridge and surrounding frames the movement in the life that flows past.A N D .
these. craftsmen had held plans in their memory. to record an observed detail. that test our logic with a sense of mystery. for example—whether. design. It is shaped in sections w i t h Artists have for centuries studied and expressed composition. drawings were needed to instruct workers on the factory floor. Artists also make images of objects that can never exist. texture. and made. color. but humans
LEONARDO DA VINCI Inthisbeautiful red chalk Our items all have a purpose—practical or ornamental—and all have a meaning. C o m m o n items. r an equestrian statue. from s p o o n s and pens to chairs and bicycles. T h e precision of engineering d r a w i n g s e v o l v e d alongside machine tools. In this chapter. passing them on to others through the act of making. Engineers and designers of our objects and instruments make drawings for many reasons: to test an idea that is yet to be made. making a clear instruction t o his bronzemeaning. Previously. With the sudden onset of mass production. fictional realities caster of h o w t o make it andhowit will w o r k . for example. drawn. W e also explore v o l u m e and form in the classes by spinning lines to make vessels. H e has described a casting through metaphor. too. In past eras.
drawing c. Technical drawing was speedily developed as a meticulous international code of m e a s u r e m e n t and explanation. have often carried great weights of allegorical once. T h e Industrial Revolution c h a n g e d the traditional w a y s in w h i c h objects were designed. or to explain and present a finished concept to a client. and the way in w h i c h the brain reacts
Head and Neck Sections of Female Mold for the Sforza Horse
to visual stimulus and optical illusions. are all made bearing the signature of our time and place. History will be learned from the artifacts w e leave behind. Today.Objects and Instruments
HE THINGS WE INVENT describe our lives. 1493 117/8c81/4in (300 x 210 m m ) LEONARDO D A V I N Ccreating I
. A chair. we look at the importance
are the only creatures on Earth w h o actually design and create great ranges of things.
of light in the creation of pictorial illusions. each demanding more of the other as they increased in sophistication. or drawing w e see Leonardo daVinci'sprecision as can be given meaning. illuminating snail shells. H e has described contour and function at drawings. Birds follow instinct to make a nest. planned. or used on stage hood for a mold t o make theheado f a horse f oas a p r o p — i m b u e d with e n o u g h energy or character can "become" a man. It was in this era that the blueprint was born. Artists and actors use the meanings of things to communicate a speculative mechanic. hooked bars that can be pulled and tied closely form. sculpted. and a wire violin. even more advanced drawings are made on computers. and the behavior of light through making still-life paintings and together. and some apes use simple tools.
perfect i n their newly made availability. "I believe [it] is the most radicalattempttostampout ambiguity and to enforce one readingofthepicture—that of a manmade construction. steaming with music and conversation. charcoal.
Clashes The art historian Ernst Gombrich said of Cubism. Statue D'Epouvante
1913 2 f t 5 in x 3 ft 5 in (0. . Opposite. Below. Braques "justly" arranged combination of cut black card. still feel this projected moment. but to clash in virtual deadlock.. and shading. not to work in harmony. and a journal jacket with words makes this drawing chatter about the moment. His work is characterized by calm and harmonious still-life compositions.90
OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS
THESE DRAWINGS REVEAL t w o o p p o s i t e m o t i v a t i o n s i n
we can. Mucha's drawing glistens with possession." La Cuitare. Braques image is a Cubist collage. wood-look wallpaper.. texture.73 x 1 m)
. not of place but of things. Braque established Cubism in partnership with Picasso just before World War I. He takes us into the bustle of the Paris cafe. silverware. One of the great joys of this movement in art is the musicality of its multipoint view. and glass objects of exquisite elegance for only the gentlest of touch and appreciation.
representing still life. There is a fragile eloquence to these objects as they drift in slow motion past our gaze. Even today
GEORGES BRAQUE French painter who as a young man was influenced by the work of the Fauves and of Cezanne. T h i s is a designers drawing made to enthuse surface and style in its delicate brushing of china.Braque marshals all the forces of perspective. a colored canvas.
Art Nouveau curling motifs of birds. Black watercolor washes and lines of white gouache have been added with a fine brush. He is best known for posters featuring ethereal women in typical Art Nouveau style. Pans.flowers. and fish have been outlined using a sharp pencil. The three plates facing us were drawn with a compass.ALPHONSE MUCHA Czech graphic artist and painter who worked in Prague. and New York. Look at the two spoons at toprightand see how has suggested that they are so brilliantly shiny they reflect the background color.
Background color Between the delicate shadows and highlights of these glazed and surfaces ofthebackground metal color of the Mucha we see a large amount
paper. and also stamps and bank notes. For ten years Mucha designed theater posters exclusively for the actress Sarah Bernhardt.
Study for Plate 59 from "Documents Decoratifs" 17x121/4(430 x 310 mm) ALPHONSE MUCHA
. He designed the Austrian pavilion for the Paris World Fair in 1900.
Art Nouveau motifs This is a preliminary study for a subsequent print.fruit. Chicago.
astronomer. w h e r e he developed his three greatest theories: the law o f motion. A disembodied eye at the top of the drawing indicates where to look. mathematician.
Ink lines Several drawings appear among Newton's letters. we see drawing
Instruments of Vision
found among his letters. each one skillfully rendered with the alarmingly matter-of-fact ease of explaining the commonplace. and his hand moving across the light.
Transparent view Newton's reflecting telescope focused light in a parabolic mirror. offering a transparent view.92
OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS
SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS by their very nature must gauge or chronicle precision. It is a diagrammatic explanation of how to catch and magnify a star in a mirrored tube.
shape the very cause and effect of investigatory thought. Look how confidently he draws with ink the sphere of this wooden globe by which his telescope rotates. Hooke's head of a drone fly seen through a microscope may represent the first time man and insect came face to face. In the graphic work of these two great men of science. The power of this drawing reflects the pure passion of discovery. the law o f gravity. 0 0 0 perfect hemispheres. each reflecting a view of his own world—his window. It was then reflected up inside the tube and. a tree outside.
Newton's 1672 ISAAC
. Newton's drawing of his first reflecting telescope is
ISAAC N E W T O N
English scientist. He counted 1 4 . Newton used this instrument to calculate the speed required to escape earth's gravity. drawing is there to pin the moment down. and the nature o f light and color. With dotted lines Newton has drawn his arrangement of elements inside the tube. From the concept of capturing the infinite to the mapping of microscopic sight. Their delicate construction is only as valuable as the measurements they make. via a second mirror. and philosopher Newton was President of the Royal Society. alchemist. and Fellow of the University o f C a m b r i d g e . into the eyepiece.
ROBERT H O O K E
Magnifications This acutely detailed engraved drawing
is taken from Hooke's Micrographia (pub. 1665). It is an exhilarating read. universal joint a prototype respirator clock balance. a breathtaking book containing many of his drawings showing some of the first microscopic and telescopic magnifications of our environment Hooke's text and illustrations carry us to the moment of discovery.An experimental scientist who drew many of his discoveries.
The Eye and Head of a Drone Fly
111/2 x 105/8 in (294 x 270 mm)
. and anchor escarpment. and calculated the theory of combustion. Hooke invented the camera diaphragm.
and place in the world are truly seen. Its wobbly gait and squashed s y m m e t r y m u m b l e endless h o m e y tales about the life it has seen. while the tabs make us see a flat paper cut-out. From component parts we understand how to put it together and make it stand sensible in space. W i t h h o m e y c o n t r a s t . it has so m u c h familiar personality that it seems to talk to us. and w h e r e the chair b e l o n g s . Van Gogh's tipsy seat is a metaphor for an absent person. Drawn in more-or-less c o n v e n t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . craft.
Chair Cut Out 2002 22'A x 23 in (565 x 585 mm) SARAH WOODFINE
. each drawn with the s a m e unfaltering lines and tones that are between reality and impossibility. and has drawings in numerous public and private collections. Sarah Woodfines flat cut-out m o d e l plan is a witty and surprising drawing. has published several catalogs of her work. this chair p r e s e n t s us with a clever visual contradiction: deeply drawn shadows tell us it must be solid. and winner of the 2004 Jerwood Drawing Prize. Woodfine exhibits internationally.
W e are left a little c o n f u s e d as to what we s h o u l d do.94
W H E N WE DRAW A COMMON OBJECT like a chair. A renegade from the p a p e r dolls' h o u s e .
Two-dimensional was made
This highly finished
using a sharp pencil and
on smooth white drawing paper glistening dark drawings are artificial representations of known
Woodfine's two-dimensional things balanced
in the world.
SARAH WOODFINE British contemporary artist graduate of the Royal Academy Schools. its character.
and Starry Cypress
VINCENT VAN GOGH
.hehas marked the full emotion of the subject with a fierce grip of concentration. drawn opposite way of plan.95
Dutch painter who produced over 800 paintings and 850 drawings in only the last ten year's of his life.
direct in their he saw and describing his
felt. His passionate brush and pencil strokes are honest
and of also turmoil and growing alarm at the world around him. The floor few as engagement with the chair. Cornfield and Sunflowers. inner
Fierce strokes This is a portrait of the mechanical drew immediately and almost harshly. not is made present in only strokes and is subdued to distract us from flat a meaningful chair. Among van Gogh's best-known canvases
a n d m o v e m e n t .
The perceived tone of a black white. o u r b r a i n s search for n a m e a b l e things. think about its illumination. the adjustment of our eyes (in growing accustomed to a level of light).
To further examine changes in tone. perhaps. S o m e o n e passes our o p e n door. The small squares are identical in tone. On acloudyday.This effect is caused by the contrast of their surroundings. and the proximity of contrasting tones. Below the bottom "edge" of the egg there is a rim of light reflected onto the paper by the underside of the egg. The two tones meet without a division or outline between. atmosphere. or colored surface is never constant. but do not appear so. Three factors change it: the amount of light it receives. your eye around the circumference of the egg. Here. U p s i d e . transmitted to the brain as chains of electrical impulses. a lit photograph of an egg shows essential points to observe in tonal drawing.96
O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S
Light and Illusions
SEEING IS MIRACULOUS. To interpret visual s t i m u l u s . See how its "edge" smoothly changes from light against dark to dark against light. less developed than the center. We only need small prompts. one blackandone white. The egg's lightest region is seen against a darker background. form. try this experiment. Here w e look briefly at our perception of light a n d darkness a n d our interpretation of diagrammatic illusions. Are you happy
LIGHT AND SHADOW
with what you see? Does the light enhance the subject? Could you alter and improve it? On pp. Through these we can enjoy witnessing our o w n d e c e p t i o n a n d b a f f l e m e n t a n d u n d e r s t a n d certain factors that are very useful in picture-making. hence our recognition of a cartoon face c o m p o s e d of three lines. a n d our ability to see forms in c l o u d s or fire.
W e learn to read light and shadow in our environment as indicators of solidity and depth of space. reads only m o v e m e n t a n d can often m a k e mistakes. a n d we can be fooled. two identical mid-gray squares are seen against black and paler gray squares. Artists emulate and manipulate this effect in their pictures. Before starting a tonal drawing of any subject. w e turn our head but n o one w a s there. We perceive one to be lighter than theother. From across the room both will appear black card and fold and retapeitwith half sticking out.At one point you will catchenoughlight lighter than the white one. are translated into a world of space.
. We will even see things that d o not exist because minimal information suggests they are likely to be there.d o w n patterns of light on our retinas. Adjust the angleofthe protruding part and again stepback. gray. The rim of light on the egg is reflected light received from surrounding paper. Tape them to the glass. Below.
The egg's darkest region is seen against a lighter background. T h e slightest recognition is instantly matched to our wealth of experience a n d expectation.102-03 deep shadows cast across shells make their form easier to perceive. The outermost edge of our vision. cards the same size. Run The bottom-left quarter of the egg lightens slightly toward its "edge" when seen against the darker shadow cast on the paper. a n d are q u i c k to p r o p o s e ideas.
. If y o u w i s h t o m a k e a t o n a l drawing. t h i c k e r l i n e s a p p e a r t o stand forward. T w o relatively t h i c k parallel lines are m a d e t o b e n d away f r o m each o t h e r as t h e y pass in f r o n t o f an a r r a y o f c o n v e r g i n g f i n e lines ( B ) . T w o horizontal lines o f equal length are m a d e t o l o o k longer and shorter. b u t t h e u p r i g h t o n e l o o k s t a l l e r (B). In this t o n a l image w e read w h i t e as f a t t e r t h a n black. In a t o n a l d r a w i n g . w h i l e t h i n n e r lines recede. T h i s fundamental o p p o s i t e is a reason w h y l i n e a r a n d t o n a l d r a w i n g does not a l w a y s c o m b i n e w e l l in t h e s a m e i m a g e . l i g h t e r surfaces s t a n d f o r w a r d w h i l e d a r k e r s u r f a c e s recede.97
LINE VERSUS TONE
In l i n e a r d r a w i n g s . Seven parallel lines are m a d e t o tilt t o w a r d and away f r o m each o t h e r by n u m e r o u s s h o r t strokes crossing t h e m diagonally ( A ) . by d i r e c t e d a r r o w s ( A ) . respectively. In this linear drawing w e read t h i c k as closer a n d t h i n as f a r t h e r away.
T h e s e optical illusions s h o w h o w lines o f identical length can b e m a d e t o l o o k quite different f r o m each o t h e r by t h e addition o r association o f o t h e r lines.
LIGHT AND ILLUSIONS
T h e s e black a n d w h i t e bands are o f equal thickness o n e i t h e r side o f t h e i r central division. T h e r e is n o obligation t o a d d b l o c k s o f t o n e t o a l i n e a r d r a w i n g . start o u t w i t h one. T h e jug d r a w n w i t h a t h i n line appears f a r t h e r away t h a n t h e j u g d r a w n w i t h a t h i c k e r line. O b s e r v e h o w each white b a n d appears t h i c k e r t h a n its black c o u n t e r p a r t . O f t e ndoingso w i l l s p o i l y o u r w o r k . B o t h are identical in length.
Bending straight lines Linear distance
These t w o jugs have b e e n d r a w n w i t h lines o f d i f f e r i n g thicknesses. A n u p r i g h t line stands in t h e c e n t e r o f a h o r i z o n t a l line. Y o u m a y e x p e r i e n c e s o m e t h i n g similar h a p p e n i n g w h e n y o u m a k e s i n g l e . S h o r t h o r i z o n t a l lines o f identical length are m a d e t o l o o k d i f f e r e n t by c o n v e r g i n g lines beside t h e m ( C ) .p o i n t p e r s p e c t i v e d r a w i n g s w i t h a large n u m b e r o f c o n v e r g i n g rays b e h i n d y o u r horizontals.
others adjust works to avoid their effects."
. their picture could be ambiguous. It is possible t o r e a d i t t w o ways: as a t r u n c a t e d r e c t a n g u l a r p y r a m i d seen d i r e c t l y f r o m a b o v e . perfected the acceleration of perspective (see pp.
SEEING TWO OPTIONS
Sometimes. A few suggestive marks will tip the decision one way o r the o t h e r
Closing the surface
W h e n a t r a n s p a r e n t elliptical o b j e c t has b e e n d r a w n . among others. In the 1960's.s i d e d r e c t a n g u l a r t r a y ( b o t h are illustrated far r i g h t )
"The brain is so eager to name a fragment we see that we need only a suggestion to grasp the whole. C l o s i n g t h e surface o f t h e f o r m seals o u r d e c i s i o n as t o w h i c h w a y it faces. and so calculated precisely how much to fatten columns to make them appear straight.
Two ways of seeing
T h i s is t h e b o x c r e a t e d in t h e f o u r t h step o n p. Op(tical) artists. and we learn to read the styles of diverse cultures and periods. w e can only look f r o m one t o the o t h e r If an artist is not aware this can happen in their image. Some artists use known optical illusions to make art. Yet many illusions. Ancient Greek architects knew parallel upright lines appeared to bend toward each other in the middle. such as t h e dish seen h e r e o n t h e left. including some shown here. as s h o w n o n t h e right. Today we are bombarded with images but rarely have difficulty reading them. made paintings that depended upon the physical sensation of our brain's reaction to known optical illusions. It is a curious fact that w e can never see both options at once.76. w e will find that in terms of the direction it faces. Artists make pictorial illusions when they paint or draw.116-17) to make
painted figures look correct when viewed from below. w h e n drawing the outline o f a three-dimensional form. are still not agreeably understood. Artists can communicate much in few lines and the viewer will do the rest of the work. it oscillates between t w o possibilities. it can oscillate b e t w e e n facing t o w a r d o r a w a y f r o m us. o r as a s l o p i n g .98
O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S
PSYCHOLOGISTS AND PHYSIOLOGISTS have studied optical illusions for decades in pursuit of what they tell us about the brain. Michelangelo. such as Bridget Riley.
C o u p l e d w i t h t h e Rorschach b l o t above.
. B e l o w is a b r i g h t n e s s c o n t r a s t illusion.99
T h e s e clever configurations o f outlines and t o n a l surfaces convince us at a glance that we are seeing a solid three-dimensional triangle and a three-pronged fork. clouds.c e n t u r y Italian painters. Yet still w e try resolve t h e m . — a n d so t h e artist can create m u c h o u t o f an impression w i t h o u t overdescribing. T h e s e e x a m p l e s illustrate h o w little is n e e d e d t o c o n v e y an image. w e see t w o overlapping triangles: o n e outlined in black b e n e a t h a n o t h e r in solid w h i t e . W e should r e m e m b e r t h a t o u r brains will always search f o r a p i c t u r e — i n ink blots.
Seeing things that are n o t t h e r e
H e r e o n t h e left. C o u n t t h e n u m b e r o f d a r k spots y o u can see. This effect can o c c u r naturally w h e n looking at a b r i g h t l y lit w h i t e g r i d such as a w i n d o w f r a m e against t h e night sky. b u t w e believe w e see t h e m because e n o u g h f r a g m e n t a r y i n f o r m a t i o n is given f o r o u r brains t o c o n c l u d e t h e y are v e r y likely t h e r e . this is a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f t h e viewer's b r a i n b e i n g willing t o d o a large a m o u n t o f t h e w o r k in d e c i p h e r i n g a p i c t u r e . N e i t h e r triangle exists. T h e y a r e o f t e n c r e d i t e d w i t h t h e invention o f t h e c o m i c c a r t o o n .
P e r c e i v i n g a w h o l e i m a g e f r o m m i n i m a l lines
T h i s is a w i d e l y r e p r o d u c e d visual j o k e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e C a r r a c c i b r o t h e r s . His highly d i s p u t e d and i m p r e c i s e science involves s h o w i n g u n p r e p a r e d p a t i e n t s t e n p a r t i c u l a r ink b l o t s a n d asking t h e m t o i n t e r p r e t w h a t t h e y see. smoke. C Escher u s e d this phenomenon t o great effect in his many p o p u l a r d r a w i n g s o f puzzles and impossible buildings. This simple five-line d r a w i n g is o f a C a p u c h i n priest asleep in his pulpit. T h e a r t i s t M.
F a m i l i a r i t y in r a n d o m s h a p e s
T h e Rorschach test was established by t h e 1 9 t h . Minimal-line j o k e s such as this rely u p o n t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y v i e w e r ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e shapes. S o m e artists use ink blots t o p r o m p t t h e beginning o f an image. T h e t e s t e x p l o r e s o u r n o r m a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o find things w e can n a m e a m o n g r a n d o m shapes. T h e patient's answers are t h e n diagnosed as a psychological profile. M u c h can b e e x p r e s s e d in o n l y a f e w marks. e t c . O n l y o n closer inspection we realize that t h e s e o b j e c t s are fooling us. 1 6 t h .c e n t u r y Swiss psychologist H e r m a n n Rorschach.
keep it spinning. springlike forms like those I have drawn below. suggesting that the vessel is lopsided. since this is h o w w e experience them in e v e r y d a y use.
WHERE TO START
In the air above a spacious sheet of scrap paper.100
OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS
W E VISUALIZE CYLINDRICAL VESSELS. To make a cylindrical object appear real in our pictorial space. giving the cylinder four corners.
. for example plates or bowls on a table. Be aware. spin your hand in a relaxed circle. describing many sides of an object simultaneously.
The first common error is to draw two pointed ellipses. I have drawn these for you here. w e use ellipses to give a sense of perspective. though.
The second common error is to tilt the upper and lower ellipses at different angles.
third common error is to draw upper and lover ellipses with different-sized apertures. A wobbling but confident ellipse will still be more convincing than a slow. w h e n seen at an angle. while its upper rim remains level. hesitant one that has edged its w a y nervously around the vessel's rim. and these narrow or widen depending on the height of our view. as if the table surface slopes upward beneath the vessel.
Cubism. I have exaggerated this error here. smoothly. like a disposable plastic cup that has been crushed in your hand. a n d in o n e bold stroke. (see p.
W h e n drawing cylindrical objects in perspective.90) takes a different
as essentially circular. Don't worry if it is uneven— just try again. that this is o n l y o n e w a y
How to Draw Ellipses
of seeing. there are three common errors people stumble upon. Watch the tip of your pen and see it draw an ellipse in the air Keep this movement going while gently lowering the pen onto the paper like the needle of a record player closing on the disc (only it is your lowering hand that spins. Cover a sheet of paper with spinning.
for example. circles change into ellipses. However. not the paper!) As the pen touches down. even if y o u r hand w o b b l e s a little at first. Ellipse are best d r a w n quickly. such as bowls and cups. you will achieve steadiness with practice.
you can start to control your spinning ellipse to make a vessel.
. Draw quickly.
Seeing Through Allow lines to travel around each vessel as if it were transparent. thereby hiding lines that show the other sides. you can make it solid by building up highlights and tones on visible surfaces.101
Once you have mastered drawing free-hand springs. working from top to bottom. Altering the pressure—and therefore tone—of the line as it spins gives the impression of light shining on one side.
HOW TO DRAW E L L I P S E S
A Single Vessel One Inside Another Grouped Together
Finding Shape and Volume Draw an imagined vessel in one continuous spinning line.
Create a Solid Surface Once you have drawn the shape and volume of each form. enlarging and diminishing the ellipse to determine the overall shape and volume.
Illuminate them with a gooseneck lamp
placed very close and directed away from your eyes. Gradually hone your drawing. t h e r e a r e p r i n c i p a l l y
Dramatic lighting emphasizes texture and contour. outlines. beams of light. It is important to place them on the correct side so as to draw comfortably (see pp. You can begin with outlines and build slowly from light to dark (see opposite top). it will inhibit your perception of tone. if light shines in them. and solid objects are all of equal importance. or you can begin with a mid-gray ground and model light out of darkness (see opposite bottom). In the finished drawing there should be few. leaving detail until last.
Start by arranging a choice of shells on a sheet of paper to your left if you are right-handed (or vice versa). and strong contrasts are easier to draw. Remember that shadows. simply shapes and subtleties of light and dark meeting each other with no divisions in between.22-23). Relaxing your eyes out of focus as you draw will help to dissolve the distraction of detail. making complicated or subtle surfaces easier to see and understand.
LIGHT TO DARK
DARK TO LIGHT
. It maximizes the range of tones between black and white.102
W H E N MAKING A TONAL DRAWING. if any.
two opposite methods of achieving the same result. Draw the largest and most distinct areas of light and darkness first.
Gentlydissolveoutlines so that areas oflightanddark meet without a line between them. Continue working between light and dark to refine the drawing. loose. shape. Draw in the details last of all. boldly
Keeping your eyes out of focus. Fll in broad areas first and leave all detail until last. Remember that its size. Erase and make changes to roughly place the shells inside your with your composition. Treat positive form and negative space (see pp.
DARK TO LIGHT (TONE TO TONE)
Using the flattened tip of an HB pencil. look at the main areas of darkness.56-57). with broad sweeps of the eraser.103
LIGHT TO DARK (LINE TO TONE)
Using a sharp HB pencil.
. Avoid a rough significant areas of light in your gray rectangle with texture and do not press the graphite hardwhite plastic eraser Ignore all detail and draw a into thepaperor you will not be able to erase it. pale lines with equal importance. draw a rectangle. Relaxing your eyes out of focus will help to eliminate distracting details. Use quick. Honetheshapesand angles of the shells. until you are happy frame. Let your eyes go out of focus while looking gently layer marks to create an even tone at your subject and paper: Draw the most ofmid-graywithin a rectangle. Use your pencil to develop these in relation to the areas of light. and edges definingthespacialrelationships between are important aspects of your composition them.
continuous lines.69 we see how the architect Antonio Gaudi drew proposed domes using suspended wires and weights. The first is that figurative and abstract drawings can be made in space. and on p.220 Mamoru Abe draws with forged steel rods. The second is that after achieving this simple example. you can create your own more ambitious works. and physical relationships between them.
. On p. When drawing anything viewed from one side on paper.104
OBJECTS AND I N S T R U M E N T S
Drawing with Wire
DRAWINGS DO NOT HAVE to be two-dimensional. There are essentially three lessons to be learned. 19 Picasso draws with a pen-light for the camera. our image is stronger if we understand and can visualize what is happening on the other side too. three-dimensional drawings teach us about the totality of forms in space. This class uses thin-gauge wire to create a threedimensional violin. Place the instrument on a plain surface and illuminate it with a desk lamp to add the delicate dimension of shadows. try drawing it with a pen on paper Use bold. On p. Seeing through a wire drawing of a known object such as a violin gives us a visual and tactile understanding of all its sides and shapes at once. They can also be made in space. 176 the British artists Noble and Webster draw with domestic refuse in a beam of light. smooth.
Once you have created your three-dimensional violin (opposite). and on p. Third.
Cut a length. Then begin to define its uppermost surface with Scurves and the bridge. thin wire will make a smaller drawing. I started with the scroll at the top and fixed the four component wires with two drawings of tuning pegs.
. brace the two ends of the violin with a length of wire along the back. Join the two sides together with four short pieces of wire. begin to shape the curvature of the fingerboard. but thin enough to be easily manipulated inyourfingers Here.
If needed. I used garden wire and cut it carefully with pruners. These will hold the sides apart and help to keep the form in shape.
Decide how big to draw your violin relative to the gauge of your wire.
Once you have completed the body.105
DRAWING WITH WIRE
Follow these steps to draw a three-dimensional violin Choose a gauge of wire sturdy enough to hold the shape ofyourfinished drawing. and pinch and bend it to shape the base of the instrument
Repeat this process to make the identical upper side of the instrument. and thick wire a larger one. Here.
I had the privilege of drawing their inventions. Oxford.Artifacts and Fictions
with a group of schoolchildren who were responding
to the astonishing objects in the collection of the Pitt Rivers Museum. they invented new anthropological finds—objects that reflected the distant past and their immediate future.
. some of which are shown here. Using found materials. England.
herimpressive presence because we are given such Life drawing no longer dominates the art school curriculum. Leonardo drew a man within a circle and square. and because the female was deemed inferior. W e
are the only creatures on Earth that can make our own image. Michelangelo attended dissections to made this image by light sectioning: fine beams of light perfect his understanding of surface form. Renaissance artists studying anatomy from dissection clinically trained and specialized as a medical illustrator. This chapter addresses issues that are most commonly faced by beginners attending life-drawing classes. explaining ranges e/ of materials and techniques and showing diversities of thought and purpose in making. Williams were decades ahead of their medical counterparts. It gives physical and emotive form to religious narratives. During this time. while Durer took his research further—
A. in our privileged and comfortable society. She the body is still essential. focus has turned to the vulnerability of flesh: how it can be damaged.
much Western contemporary art. Artists are thought to have b e g u n drawing from the nude during the Italian Renaissance. the Bay Area Models' Guild h o l d s a quarterly life-drawing m a r a t h o n aprinton Kodak transfer paper with green-colored dye added celebrating the great diversity of human proportion. artists also tried to define ideal proportions in the body. is the most c o m m o n subject in art. while Leonardo opened the body to see and projected onto a woman's body draw the celebratory discover for himself our physical mechanisms. giving physical foundation undulating land. and surgically rebuilt. He even believed he had located the soul contours of her form like a cartographer's map of in the pituitary fossa beneath the brain and behind the eyes. sculptural description of her form. portraiture. In this period. but the study of a controlled. diseased. Look closely at Renaissance drawings of the female b o d y and you will see that m o s t are actually y o u n g m e n with minor adjustments. W e understand every curve and balance of to the theory that the eves are the windows of the soul. R. history paintings and other stories.
clothed or nude. from video and X-ray to thermal imaging. This F finished image was produced as r a n c i s c o . myths and fables. Artists now explore the interior of the body with new media and
Lateral Contour Map of a Full-Term Primipara Produced by Light 1979 A. W I L L I A M S
technology. a n d w e d r a w o u r s e l v e s to a s s e r t o u r e x i s t e n c e . It also looks at the representation of the b o d y b11y4o n d traditional life drawing. The human body. and in San could easily be transferred into three dimensions. Strangely. Drawings were usually made from the male nude to avoid offending the church.
x 7 in (300 x 180
. R. the junior workshop apprentices posed as part of their duties. and anatomical and erotic art. WILLIAMS
he sought perfection in the infinitesimal measurement of the body and produced four
Contemporary photographer volumes of illustrated explanation. The body remains at the core of over the initially white lines. These classes are popular around the world.The Body
UR BODIES MAKE us TANGIBLE.
She u n f o l d s and s t r e t c h e s shapely limbs.
Three Guards 1500-20 91/4 x143/8in (234 x 365 mm) RAPHAEL
. filling the page with her presence. and human defeat.
RAFFAELLO SANZIO (RAPHAEL)
Italian High Renaissance painter: Raphael is best known for his images of the Madonna and Child. T h e y b o t h raise one arm to cup their head in their hand. Raphael's study of fallen m e n leaves no doubt that they are in anguish. But the meanings of each gesture and the materials and methods by which they
Postures and Poses
were m a d e contrast greatly. while supporting the weight of their body with the other. He trained under Perugino. Muscular dramatic postures reflect the influence of Michelangelo and the Renaissance celebration of the idealized male body. and studied to learn from the works of Michelangelo and Leonardo besides whom he was soon ranked.
anatomy. altar pieces. In this highly s o p h i s t i c a t e d a b s t r a c t i o n .110
T H E BODY
THESE DISTINCTIVE WORKS show two strikingly different ways of modeling the body on paper. and Vatican frescos. By way of contrast. Here three male nudes are compressed into very shallow pictorial space. In a single drawing we see equally o b s e r v e d studies of f o r e s h o r t e n i n g (see
pp. Principal figures m i r r o r e a c h other.
Sculptural frieze This is a preparatory drawing for Raphael's painting of the Resurrection of Christ. while Matisse used scissors and glue to cut out and paste a flat collage of brilliant color. so that we read this drawing like a sculptural frieze.116-17). we see the e s s e n c e of h e r b e a u t y w i t h o u t a single detail. Raphael drew delicate tones of black chalk on tinted paper.
Matisse's b l u e n u d e sings with life and c e l e b r a t i o n .
or like a good armchair in which to rest from physical fatigue..
freer. His calligraphic natural abstractions of form grew brighter.111
French painter: draftsman. a mental soother. teacher and principal exponent o f Fauvism—a movement established in 1905 in which bold color is the most essential element.. serenity. and more energetic
Color and form This collage is one of a series of Blue Nudes... Matisse
Soothing influence This drawing expresses the achievement of Matisse's personal aim: "What I dream and depressing subject matter." of is an art of balance.which might be. lifelong love of brilliant They celebrate the culmination of spectacular and sometimes drawings.like an appeasing influence. his pattern. fabric.sculptor. devoid of troubling
Blue Nude 1 1952 413/4 HENRY MATISSE
...designer writer. Matisse became an artist after studying law. printmaker. as his w o r k matured. and Islamic art. foundamong many other groups of papercut these works as an elderly man confined to his bed or wheelchair.
Here. he used b l a c k c o n t e (see p. form. agreeing to coalesce and show us the form of a waiting boy.112
T H E BODY
T I M E IS A SIGNIFICANT E L E M E N T i n t h e m a k i n g o f a l l d r a w i n g s . stands in counterpoise holding a dark globe and his thoughts in m o m e n t a r y balance. T h e space around h i m chatters with symbols. we c o m p a r e a skillful design that absorbed m u c h time in its making with the quickness of an idea marked instantly. reflected. In his f a m o u s paintings of social e n g a g e m e n t . w h o sits propped in the contradictory darkness of a hot summer's day. turned gray. or abruptly meeting. 162) and an eraser to model teeming points of artificial light amid
GEORGES SEURAT French painter classically educated in the Ingres school of thought. Using the paper to create light is important for beginners to learn. it is as if the very atoms of air are made visible. Seurat evolved a distinctive t e c h n i q u e called p o i n t i l l i s m — i m a g e s literally made from myriad points of color. only tones blending into. Below. like small birds attendant on the meditation. Beuys's magician. and c o m p l e m e n t a r y hues. His drawings are similarly u n i q u e . and muddied the brilliance of the drawing. it would have mixed with unseen black dust. in a perfect e x a m p l e . Light is given by the paper alone. Typically. If Seurat had added white. Opposite. scratched in seconds.
velvet d a r k n e s s . there are no outlines. and color His applied theories still influence painters in their manipulation and rendering of local. other tones.
Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 1883-84
91/2 x 121/4 in (241 x 312 m m GEORGES SEURAT
. Seurat engaged in lifelong studies of line.
Tone and light In this black conte drawing.
and drawings. Perfectly modeled rather conventional for Joseph
Focus Beuys's hand
quickly to draw dotted lines flowing downward on either side of the figure. free from the constraint of immaculate form opposite) impetus is irrelevant to the and meaning of this work (as we see in Seurat's drawing representation. taught workshops with a cult following.gold. and blood. His
The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland UNDATED 113/4 J O S E P H BEUYS x81/4in (297 x 210 mm)
. video art. and that These aspects of the work convey fractured visibility. transience. This figure is drawn intuitively. in different positions. Beuys gave performances. Our focus joins
shoulders. He was a shaman who believed in intuition and in the investment of healing force.113
JOSEPH BEUYS One of the most influential German artists of the 20th century. iodine. Many of his other symbolic works on paper have been drawn with materials such as honey.
the profound power materials with spiritual or
Free lines This pale pencil drawing is Beuys. Unbroken lines stream from his simultaneously movement. and made installations.
But what is stranger to us now is that they were also outraged by his free use of line. flushed skin made ruddy and black with crushed cinders. In Rodins work. Inspired by Michelangelo. Rodin employed models to move freely or pose together in his studio. Anita Taylor has drawn her protective body hug out of the darkly glistening compression of willow charcoal and the dynamism of her shy but momentous femininity. the women are framed and caressed by long. Our bodies radiate the passion of our thoughts and so become beacons of our frailty and power. sweeping lines— of either purple silk fabric or cool studio air—that imprint and amplify their past and future movements." as seen here.
AUGUSTE RODIN French Romantic sculptor and prolific draftsman employed as an ornamental mason until the age of 42. In both drawings. its soft. His exquisite flow of paint beyond "outlines. was perceived as scandalous.
125/8x 9 in (320 x 229 mm) AUGUSTE RODIN
Two Women 1911
SUMMONING HUMANITY in a drawing of the nude is a subtle and emotional task. and went on to inspire generations of artists. They whisper and writhe in a brushed and sultry embrace that devours our watching. Paris. and one of hundreds of rapid studies of nudes. As here. his w o r k is characterized by deliberate un-finish and powerfully modeled emotion. We are involved not as a shabby voyeur but as a bystander engaged through our recognition of shared joy. he typically drew them with a few delicate strokes of pencil and brushed watercolor. We are asked to gaze u p o n her flesh. Rodin produced portraits and statues of public and literary figures.
This is one of about
7. Opposite. the fierceness of the women's kiss is beautifully matched by the tenderness of his line. Achieving international acclaim in mid-life.
Rodin's public audience
understandably shocked by the eroticism of his drawings.000 drawings shown in rotation at the Musee Rodin.
ANITA T A Y L O R Painter. Taylor has drawn. Taylor's immense self-portraits explore the relationship between the artist as maker and the artist as model. and rework rich depths of light and tone. draftsman. leaving her lightest marks at the deepest level of the image and applying darker marks above. This order of light below and dark above gives glowing from within. A thinner sheet might have crumpled and torn under such vigorous force of making. scrutiny. exposure. London. erased and drawn again.
Charcoal Taylor has drawn freely with charcoal and an eraser on thick.
Luminosity Layered marks flicker likefirelight as they sculpt the woman's body. and gaze. intimately reflecting upon the emotions and meaning of nudity. the impression of luminosity
All and Nothing 1999 67 x447/8in (170 x 1 1 4 cm) ANITA TAYLOR
. professor and Vice Principal of Wimbledon School of Art. The sturdy surface of the sheet has allowed her to press hard when needed. textured paper.
Return to this posture every time. patience. How to make and apply these is explained below and opposite. But if we could take a scaffold and climb up to the work. you will make inconsistent and unrelated comparisons. If your arm is not straight. and to draw what we see. Imagine Michelangelo's murals in the Sistine Chapel. It is not so hard. unfathomable angles. We also look at another very interesting branch called accelerated (or anamorphic) perspective. for example. persistence. Move the tip of your thumb down to a second chosen point. Lock your shoulder.
Hold your pencil upright. when beginners prop their board in their lap and look down at too steep an angle. and wrist joints. elbow. plummeting. It can also be a little demon in the life room.
Accelerated perspective plays a great role in much art. This is chiefly a correcting device by which figurative painters and sculptors have for centuries countered the effects of our viewing their work from far below or on the curvature of a vault. rather that what we believe we know from experience. Align the top with a point on your subject. to be translated by mirrors or seen from only one point in the room. There is no need to mark them all down on paper. we would arrive to find many of the same figures strangely distorted. more extreme examples have been made for court entertainment.
Hold your arm straight. and measurements do not have to be carried to the paper and slavishly drawn the same size they appear on your pencil.
This is a simple method of making measured comparisons for relating the true size of one part to another This is a tool to assist observation and thinking. and a few measured comparisons are key.116
T H E BODY
Measurement and Foreshortening
FORESHORTENING IS AN ASPECT of perspective. or shrivelling at odd. just making them helps you see.
"Simple measured comparisons reveal surprising truths about proportion. Rome.
Keep your pencil perpendicular Measure and compare at any angle. elongated as if stretched across the plaster. The length of exposed pencil is your measurement. To avoid its effects ensure you always look flat onto the surface of your page.limbs happily receding. It is not complicated. which is imperceptible from below. Close one eye. London). with dramatic illusions of figures painted in normal proportion. In the life class it is the mechanism for ensuring that a drawn figure lies correctly in pictorial space ."
. Up close on the scaffold we would witness Michelangelo's subtle application of accelerated perspective. Smaller. the skull in Holbein's The Ambassadors (The National Gallery. Spend time making comparisons before you draw. without taking off. helping us to see more clearly. or coming forward.
T h i s is t h e s a m e d r a w i n g p h o t o g r a p h e d f r o m above.
MEASUREMENT AND FORESHORTENING
Tilt t h e t o p edge o f this b o o k t o w a r d you and look d o w n o n this figure f r o m a b o v e . Lean t h e t o p e d g e t o w a r d y o u and find a p o s i t i o n w h e r e y o u can c o m f o r t a b l y l o o k d o w n t h e p a p e r at an angle o f a b o u t 4 0 degrees. y o u must let go o f w h a t y o u k n o w f r o m e x p e r i e n c e a b o u t t h e relative sizes o f b o d y parts and trust y o u r eyes.
C o m p a r e t h e heights o f t h e nose and eye shapes t o t h o s e o f t h e f o r e a r m . P r o p o r t i o n s will only l o o k c o r r e c t f r o m t h e angle at w h i c h y o u make t h e drawing. L o o k at y o u r m o d e l as if he o r she is a flat series o f shapes o n e o n t o p o f a n o t h e r Measure t h e height and w i d t h o f each shape and c o m p a r e it t o its neighbor. W o r k a r o u n d t h e figure. See h o w d i f f e r e n t t h e relative heights o f t h e s e shapes are f r o m w h a t w e m i g h t e x p e c t in real life. pleasingly f o r e s h o r t e n e d . a n d thighs. which feels strange. A t a c e r t a i n angle. h e r p r o p o r t i o n s will appear correct.
To f o r e s h o r t e n a figure. S o o n t h e b o d y will lie d o w n in space. To m a k e f o r m s l o o k c o r r e c t . belly.117
To discover h o w this w o r k s . Keep t h e b o a r d steady and draw. looking d o w n t h e p a p e r at t h e a n g l e at w h i c h I d r e w . y o u r hand travels f a r t h e r than y o u expect. W e appear t o be looking d o w n o n a w o m a n s t a n d i n g b e n e a t h us. Stand its b o t t o m edge o n y o u r lap. adjusting a n o n y m o u s shapes. t a p e s o m e p a p e r t o a board.
To draw this effect. and slightly enlarge her legs and feet.
This pose leans away into space above our eye level.
To outline a figure. and height.
When a model stands upright on both feet. Be bold and dive into your drawing with c o n f i d e n c e . I used a sharp H B pencil and began each drawing by marking her outline.
SEQUENCE OF POSES
H e r e the model was asked to move every t w o minutes.118
DRAWING QUICK POSES l o c k s y o u r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n t o what is most essential. and energy. and work over t h e m with further o b s e r v a t i o n s . and stance before honing her balance and expression. balance. feeling. because it results in two unrelated sides drifting apart. Leave first thoughts in place. working from her center to her feet and to her head. height. her center of balance is normally found in a vertical line beneath her head. make the upper body smaller give your model a high waist. To see this.
. Avoid drawing up one side and down the other. Start each new drawing by lightly marking the model's height with a loose line in ten seconds. T h i s q u i c k e x p l o r a t o r y line does not perfectly describe shape but expresses a decision about overall flow of form. imagine holding up a plumb line. Layered lines give d e p t h . work back and forth across the body. propelling you to make immediate assessments and trust them.
the activity of circular lines and the repetition of limbs suggest movement. and this should be avoided
A model standing on one leg usually drops the opposite hip. This drawing shows how different observations be overlaid to bring a drawing alive.
The twist of a model is most easily and expressively captured if it is exaggerated. The tilt of the pelvis is then counter balanced by the model's shoulders tilting the other way (as seen here). Most of us have a tendency to over-straighten the drawn figure.
This exercise is useful when struggling with proportion. general to specific.
Hands and Feet
THERE ARE MANY different ways of approaching h a n d s and
of form. and ignore all details.
Build your drawing gradually from light to dark. starting with the largest. W h e n starting. express structure and gesture far more successfully and easily than ten worried outlines wandering up and down between the fingers and toes. Keep lines open to change and take measurements if they help. or those of a friend. Practice by drawing your own hands and feet. Draw large shapes and their orientation.
Begin by drawing lines to encompass the whole hand. swiftly marking its essential gesture. Group the fingers together as one mass. it is important to leave aside all details of the fingers and toes. especially the lengthwise divisions between them. It also helps the beginner to progress from drawing outlines to drawing confidently across the surface of the whole form. drawn in relation to each other. These planes. Do not separate them yet. Don't worry about achieving perfect solutions. Focus instead on how planes change direction across the knuckles from one side of the hand or foot to the other.
. A mirror increases your range of views. and a gooseneck lamp casts shadows that clarify planes and depths
GESTURES OF THE HAND
Open Palm Start honing the shapes of the dominant planes. but regard these practice studies as ongoing processes of thought and observatio Add details such as nails last if you wish. Then subdivide each shape so that you w o r k from large to small. and they need not be daunting to draw.
Try t o express the whole foot and t o encapsulate its entire shape and direction in a few marks. loose.
. and don't worry about accuracy t o begin with. these are what give a drawing its tangible structure. Hew it roughly in broad. Look for key angles without becoming distracted by detail. It can be a mistake.as though out o f wood.121
HANDS AND FEET
MOVEMENTS OF THE FOOT
Let your first marks be light. and rapid.
Nowimagineyou are carving the foot insidethepaper. depth. and spontaneity. as if with a chisel. however. t o remove t o o many early lines. Leave aside all detail.
Use an eraser t o refine decisions o r t o suggest areas o f light. flattened planes.
T H E S E DRAWINGS ARE MADE
in compressed charcoal. The white lines demonstrate what is often called "bracelet shading. I also used white ink with a steel dip pen. Compare
its nature in close-up to that of willow charcoal used on pp."
and posture of the model.
. before honing his or her shape (see pp. 118-19).HERE TRACES OF RAPID initial lines are still seen within and outside each body. I make these lines in the first five to ten seconds of a drawing to locate the presence. length.
Forms. perspectives. characters. Drawing work by another artist enables you to discover and understand the inventive hand in their composition. I draw in museums in support of written research and as an artist seeking answers to questions about the practicalities of image making.The Visual Detective
DRAWING FROM MASTERWORKS
was once a staple component of an artist's education.
It is now viewed with some skepticism and often seen as academic. and narrative pulse become vivid when you realize them in the middle of your study.
. feeling them through the attentive movements of your own hand.
These almost life-size figures were composed from my imagination and achieved with the help af studies discussed on pp.La Specola
At17V i a Romana. 126-27. Florence. there is a unique museum of 18th-century anatomical waxes. Life-size women wearing wigs recline on beds of embroidered silk in cabinets of mahogany and Venetian glass This is a detail of a compressed charcoal drawing measuring 14 x 10 ft (4. Walls are lined with hundreds of faintly animated body parts.3 x 3 m) made in response to La Specola. each modeled from dissection.
and social and political commentaries. or a glimpse of him is caught in a photograph used as a prop.
his changes in pressure and Hitchcock length o f line. Rembrandt's famous multitude of self-portraits.139). who. Once you understand
Self-Portrait in a Cocked Hat c. buttons. is here to both meet and look through us. Our homes are filled with images of our loved ones and of those in our families who have gone before. historical. compliant subject to scrutinize. look directly at us. single or of groups.
. In this chapter. the meaning of their face. neck. Goya's w o r k s include many royal and society p o r t r a i t s . or past us. It also reminds us o f b o t h t h e intimacy and a scene as scrutiny o f an honest portrait. The truth is that we all like looking at faces and observing the billions of variations that make us individuals. and secular narratives. and it is very rewarding.
Beginners often draw themselves as a way of establishing their practice. and their posture can be changed with just one line. Man Ray's self-portrait of scored lines. religious.
usually strangers from past times. live. or whose eyes can seem to follow us around the room Portraiture is a constant. W h e n drawing a person. we use the delicate medium of silver point to look at foundation structures of the head. Equally.
a face is to see and interpret the essence of an identity. and p r i n t m a k e r . bells. in a miniature self-portrait magnified opposite. became more poignant as he progressed. and satirical or metaphorical. made as he passed through the ages of man. having been
documented and preserved. For centuries. gathered all that he knew
FRANCISCO DE GOYA V i s i o n a r y Spanish painter. Past rulers sent painters across continents to bring back a likeness in advance of a prospective royal marriage. throat. We can mold and animate qualities of expression out of objects and fragments of disassociated things—for example. 1790-92 4 x 3 in ( 1 0 2 x 7 6 m m ) F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A
and memorize the basic structure that we all share. their stance. The returning image was of crucial consideration in any proposal. draftsman. This enlargement o f his miniature p o r t r a i treveals t h e s p e e d and agility o f his p e n and
IN P O R T R A I T U R E W E
PEOPLE. Movie director Alfred similarly signed his films by playing a fleeting role: he walks through an extra. abstract or figurative. Halls and palaces are filled with pictures of the mighty and significant. and lucrative genre for artists. and expression of the individual. We are also reassured by keeping records of ourselves. painters have dropped discreet records of themselves into commissioned narratives so that they can remain a face in the crowd. and in a few scrolling rafts of pen lines and stubbled dots. a single line can deliver an entire expression. and shoulders. character. Portraits can be highly or loosely detailed. and a handprint (see
p. you can capture the subtlety. Goya. Self-portraiture gives every artist a constant.
For the beginner. We can read so much about them by studying their gaze. adding smudges of tone for weight and solidity. Picasso strikes and scrolls his pencil. The truth is often the opposite. While with longer consideration.
PABLO PICASSO Spanish Cubist painter (see also p. We can actually count that he struck the paper 40 times. Her face is drawn tenderly and with a luminous glow. Picasso has left to posterity many hundreds of magnificent line drawings. It is the portrait of a countrywoman. How could the addition of shadows have enhanced this image?
The simplicity of
Picasso's line is breathtaking. caught in her last moments of youth. and pressure as it conducts our eye through the image. The Tightness of a line is felt in its speed. Holbein maps the still landscape of Dorothea's body in questioning marks. breadth. length. hand to capture something well in only
Frangoise au Bandeau 1946 660 x 505 mm (26 x197/8in) PABLO PICASSO
. stealthily using his chalk to find contours and mass. they serve as a great lesson that it is not always necessary to add tone to your drawing. Through exhibitions and copies in books. It takes a truly accomplished a few strokes. one eye already cast askew into the autumn of her life. There is a common misunderstanding that a drawing with only a few lines is both less finished and easier to make than a drawing with more. Without faltering. teetering on the brink of older age. Here the grace and beauty of two young women are held forever. we can enjoy and learn from them.132
THE BALANCE BETWEEN a mark and a blank space is often a tantalizing form of perfection. He makes his flair and skill look easy. whisking a timeless girl onto the page.30). The aesthetic sense of a line being just right can make a drawing sing.
and produced numerous society portraits such as this one here. The peak of her cap clips the uppermost edge. he designed c o u r t costumes.
Cropping This regal composition fits its paper perfectly. Holbein unified the woman with her background by gently blending colors from her clothes and face into the atmosphere around her. made a popular series o f w o o d c u t prints titled The Dance of Death.133
HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER
German p o r t r a i t painter draftsman. presses against the binding across her face.
Blended colors In this portrait drawn with colored chalks on slightly textured paper. In addition t o his numerous exquisite portraits in oil. Holbein has cropped and pinned his subject within the four outermost lines of the image—the edges of the page. which. gently flushed. and its downward slope crowns the diagonal of the composition. and designer f r o m Basel. Her folded forearms support and frame her weight above. He outlined her nose but not her upper lip.
Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser
1516 51/8 x121/4in (385 x 310 m m ) HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER
. Holbein was employed toward the end of his life by King Henry VIII of England.
Highlights of white gouache were dry
late in the making. dark lines made with a pencil
against smooth. Delicate muscles are integrated with the skin and fat that is to be r e m o v e d . or defined by. its highly clarified detail claiming to be d r a w n from observation. distorted. but they are irrelevant here. The real dissection w o u l d have been far more c o m p l e x . and unpleasant to see. the contours of a grid. and glands also complicate form. N e w s o m e ' s eerily shadowed form is smooth and bears a linear grain evocative of w o o d . This is a m a r v e l o u s interpretation of the truth. London. confusing.
Sharp. Psychological drama is contained behind a grid. dark tones of graphite blended into the paper. perhaps applied using a tortillon.
. In fact. taught at numerous British art schools from 1962-77. The style of Durelli's d r a w i n g opposite sings with the confidence of truth and precision. using a fine and relatively
13 x 181/8 in (328 x 460 mm) VICTOR NEWSOME
brush. while white painted flecks and wisps suggest electrical illumination. blood vessels. solid above and almost hollow below. Durelli has m a d e a few m i n o r mistakes. the face is one of the hardest parts to dissect. Newsome was awarded the Prix de Rome in 1960.
British sculptor painter and draftsman. continues to exhibit regularly. Nerves. Anatomically. This is one of a number of similar disembodied female heads seen behind. and has works in major collections including the Tate Gallery. It floats in space.134
These highly finished drawings express the emotional power and physicality of the head and neck.
Pencil numbers refer to the list of muscles written beneath. It is hard to think of a more difficult medium with which to achieve such linear perfection. Red Chalk the Muscles 1837 173/8 x 145/8 in ( 4 4 0 x 3 7 2 m m ) ANTONIO DURELLI and Pencil Drawing and of Neck of the Head
Little is k n o w n o f this M i l a n e s e p a i n t e r a n d engraver w h o c a m e from a family o f artists. pull their points o f attachment t o w a r d each other
. which. Durelli's experience as an engraver is reflected in his stylized drawing o f muscle fibers. w h e n contracted. Stylized parallel lines are reminiscent of engravings. and it is likely that this drawing was intended for reproduction as a print.135
Linear perfection This is a red chalk drawing of extraordinary accomplishment.
Then. Agitated marks make patches of tone that cut away the space around the character. They show us clearly the bones of drawing. while his hand stabs and thrusts
like a conductors baton. with speed and urgency. There is a film of Giacometti drawing. The camera watches him at work. he drew over the whole image at once.136
THESE ARE DRAWINGS
Energy This is a portrait of a woman drawn with black crayon on a plain page of a book Lines search for the essence of form. each locked into a visionary gaze. necks. Giacometti settled in Paris. close enough to touch his hair and feel his breath. They confuse our perception of scale by being intimately fragile and at the same time far removed. and heads. We are brought intimately close to this man gazing up to heaven. He is best known for his bronze sculptures of human form. 1948 77/8 x 6 in (200 x 150 mm) ALBERTO GIACOMETTI
. which are characteristically elongated. Without paint and with very little tone. Both works demonstrate how simple lines can be made complex by being intense. each portrait is inscribed onto the page. Opposite. as if seen from a distance. and poet After studying in Geneva and Italy. Bellini gently conjures the features of his saint with soft marks that tease his presence out of shadows into the light.
began with an oval shape placed in relation to the proportion of the page. Similar movements sculpted the head below into its page. and with staccato flinches his hyperactive eye moves from paper to model. cutting and carving the paper with matted and spiraling restless energy. painter draftsman.
ALBERTO GIACOMETTI Swiss sculptor.
Portrait de Marie-Laure de Noailles c. Flesh is built and personality carved simultaneously.
G I O V A N N I BELLINI
A prominent member of a large family o f V e n e t i a n painters.
Shoulders of a Man 73/8 x 21/4 in ( 1 8 6 x 5 8 UNDATED
.25 6 . transferring which
were made in the process of the saint to his final place in the composition of a painting (see Glossary pp.
Transfer This delicate humorous
drawing is a cartoon—not
image but a type
of template used to plan the composition of a larger work Look closely and you will see rows of tiny dots along every significant line in the picture. a n d his w o r k is d i s t i n c t i v e l y calm. a n d c o n t e m p l a t i v e . Mantegna. Bellini s t u d i e d u n d e r his f a t h e r J a c o p o .5 9 ) . These are pinholes.
Character This is one of many cartoons produced by Bellini the and his family. H e p r e f e r r e d religious t o classical t h e m e s . a n d b r o t h e r in-law. Sometimes different narrative
same character was reused in compositions. lyrical. H e t a u g h t G i o r g i o n e Barbarelli and Titian.
It has proved to be a subject of piercing scrutiny. Later Basquiat sold drawings on T-shirts. In 1986 he traveled to Africa and showed his work in Abidjan on the Ivory Coast He also exhibited in Germany and France. The incandescent New York painter Jean Michel Basquiat pictured himself here in naked silhouette. humor. postcards. and everything flux. The artist has finished his portrait with the signature of his hand smacked in the middle like a kiss: a declaration of existence as old as man's first drawing. and attitudes. skull-
headed. It is an opportunity to look deep without the infringement of courtesies owed to a commissioning sitter.
Signs and symbols with symbols
that ore written. their most immediate and best-known subject: themselves. spear-brandishing warrior.
JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT
Short-lived American painter and graffiti artist who began his blazing nine-year career drawing on lower Manhattan subway trains with a friend. similar to work by Cy Twombly (see p. marks. drawn. signing their work SAMO. a tribal. and confrontations with. and sheet metal before being snapped up by the New York contemporary art scene. and indulgence. The figure's position is unequivocal and defiant while around him is in a state Without the essential of cultural and
figure we would elegant
belookingat a sophisticated
painting of signs.138
THE MIRROR OF SELF-PORTRAITURE offers artists infinite reflections of. float and shimmer in the shallow pictorial space. bells. scratched lines. Al Diaz. Islands of graphic marks.
Self Portrait 1982 9 4 x 7 6 in (239 x 193 cm) JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT
. political outcry. scrolls. and buttons rings with surrealist wit and agile improvisation. made with great energy.
scratched into its surface. It is an image of confrontation—the ever-controversial young artist roars at us from his abstract city-scape. Man Ray's playful silk-screen assembly of color blocks.221).
Black ink was printed next and then white. The handprint appears to be made directly.
Autoportrait 1916 195/8 MAN RAY
. printmaker and cofounder of the New York Dada movement. where he collaborated with the artist Laslo MoholyNagy. painter. During the 1920's and 30s.139
American surrealist photographer. Man Ray lived and worked in Paris. They suggest speed and make the picture look immediate and spontaneous.
Frame White lines are seemingly (though not actually) scratched through ink to frame this face. They experimented with camera-free photography working directly onto photographic paper
Silk and ink This is a silkscreen print made through the following process: the paper was laid on a flat surface and a frame stretched with fine silk was placed on top. Man Ray probably used his own hand. caked in thick printing ink or paint. while a squeegee was used to drag thick lilac-brown ink across the silk pushing it though exposed areas onto the paper below. The first part of the stenciled image was already marked on the silk The screen and paper were then held tightly together. last of all.
the surface must be primed with a ground such as gouache. S i l v e r is b e s t . and is therefore useful w h e n using w a t e r c o l o r as well as silver point. Numerous early European artists also enjoyed its fine qualities (see p. Note h o w domestic paintwork marks with a coin. S O F T F U L L B R U S H : W h e n laying a w a s h . 144-45. Pages 142 to 147 are illustrated in silver point and techniques are explained on pp. W e t o n e length o f g u m . 1 4 4 . 3 . or wood. 2. For i m p o r t a n t a d v i c e o n p r e p a r a t i o n a n d use. Stretched paper remains taut as a d r u m . or ring. The most c o m m o n metal has always been silver—hence the term "silver point. This browns with age unless sealed by fixative (see pp. o n e t o fit each side o f t h e b o a r d — t h e s e will make t h e glued f r a m e t h a t holds y o u r p a p e r in place.54-55). I m a k e m y o w n f r o m o l d dip pens. platinum. Gesso o r m a t t e m u l s i o n c a n a l s o b e u s e d . key. Take a sheet o f any t y p e o f p a p e r (for e x a m p l e . and t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h strips a b o v e and b e l o w . copper.Tear o f f f o u r lengths o f b r o w n p a p e r g u m tape. and gold have also been used. Opposite. laid on paper. and alloys work on matt emulsion. which quickly oxidizes into a gray line. b e f o r e priming stretched paper." Lead.s t r i p a n d use i t t o fix o n e side o f t h e p a p e r t o t h e b o a r d .
was familiar to
or eggshells with animal glue. Be swift and firm. SILVER P O I N T W I R E H O L D E R : T h e s e c a n b e p u r c h a s e d a n d t e n d t o b e heavy. W e t a n d fix a s e c o n d strip t o t h e o p p o s i t e side.
illuminators of medieval m a n u s c r i p t s . it leaves a deposit. Historically. bone. 156).
Find a clean sponge and b o w l o r d e e p t r a y a n d fill it w i t h w a t e r W e t t h e p a p e r evenly in t h e t r a y o r o n t h e b o a r d . you will need t o stretch paper and lay a wash (see right and opposite). choose a silver object. c h o o s e a s o f t full b r u s h t h a t c a n c a r r y p l e n t y o f l i q u i d . Lay a clean d r a w i n g b o a r d o n a flat surface. purchase silver wire. If w o r k i n g o n an emulsion-painted wall. Drawn across a prepared surface. w h i t e d r a w i n g paper) and cut it t o fit y o u r d r a w i n g b o a r d w i t h a generous b o r d e r a r o u n d its edges.54) can also b e used. and make o r buy a holder. s e e p . 5. Lightly s p o n g e o f f t h e excess.
Straighten the w o r s t buckles. Find a n i t e m t h a t y o u can h o l d a n d draw with comfortably. p a r c h m e n t . SILVER W I R E : Purchase different gauge lengths f r o m a traditional a r t supplier o r jeweler. Metal point does not work on ordinary paper. an exciting indication of how large-scale drawings could be made on a wall. s o m e m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n o t h e r s . b u t d o n ' t w o r r y . who used it to outline initials and border characters before painting. Z I N C W H I T E G O U A C H E : Dilute with w a t e r A d d c o l o r i f r e q u i r e d (as opposite) 4 .
. M a k e s u r e i t is c o m p l e t e l y clean t o avoid u n w a n t e d streaks. artists mixed white lead. M E T A L OBJECTS: All metal objects m a r k a p r e p a r e d surface. Metal point is simply a strip of metal bound in a holder. E m p t y mechanical pencils designed f o r t h i c k leads ( s e e p. T h e p a p e r will l o o k b u c k l e d .140
Silver P o i n t
SILVER OR METAL POINT
A sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has been made w e t with the strokes o f a paintbrush will buckle d u e t o its uneven expansion. I t is a v a i l a b l e f r o m all a r t s h o p s . I combined silver point with painted white gouache on a pink ground.
1. This is called a three-tone drawing.
Keep testing on spare paper. Dip a soft. overlapping lines until you reach the bottom. Make enough to cover your paper. v e r y little at a time. Prop up your board of dry. so put newspaper under the lower edge.
LAYING A WASH
It your stretched paper so as to prime it for silver point.t o n e silver point drawing of a skull
. is necessary to lay a wash
Three-tone When coloring ground. The next step will make a small mess. Leave the wash to dry thoroughly before you begin to draw. Dry thoroughly before laying a wash. Beware of the tape's coming loose at any point while drying. slowly add powder pigment or gouache from a tube. Here. leaving a smooth surface.141
Leave the paper to dry flat. T h r e e . as the paper will be ruined by a raised ridge. stretched paper at a 45-degree angle. Keep adding smooth. full brush into the gouache and start in the top left corner. Make an even line across to the right.
It will slowly straighten and become taut. Reload the brush and add a second line overlapping it beneath. Runs blend into each other evenly. I used a powder pigment called Caput Mortuum. any extra will keep. and let tests dry before deciding to change the mixture. Mix a very wet but not weak solution of gouache in a jar with a lid (add pigment at this stage for a three-tone drawing).
Head and Neck
THE HEAD AND NECK are best conceived as one unit arranged in four parts: cranium, face, neck, and throat. Each is of equal importance. The cranium is essentially egg-shaped and pivots on the first vertebra. The face is suspended beneath, like a softly curved triangle. The n e c k — a powerful, shapely column of layered muscles rigged to vertebrae—adjusts and holds the angle and expression of the head. The throat is delicate, hard, and lumpy to the touch, formed of cartilaginous rings, glands, thin muscles, and looser skin. Framing the throat, two columnar neck muscles (sternomastoids) project the head forward and also turn it to the opposite side.
This is a simple shorthand diagram representing the cranium, face, neck, and throat. It can be learned and visualized in different positions very easily, giving the novice a firm footing on which to stand and develop their drawings of the head and neck.
Cranium Begin with an egg shape. Tilt it on the paper to change the position of the head.
Face Draw a rounded triangular shape below the forward point of the egg to represent the face.
Neck This shape represents the trapezius; the largest surface muscle of the neck and shoulders.
Throat A triangular shape represents the throat. (The nose makes the diagram clearer)
After copying the diagram above, animate it. Practice drawing the cranium at different angles, add the face beneath, then the neck, shoulders, and throat. Shape your diagrams so they are more lifelike, but avoid adding detailed features too soon.
143 These three drawings demonstrate (from left to right) the following: why the cranium may be considered egg-shaped; now the face can be seen as a curved triangle suspended beneath and where the division lies between the two; and the form of sternomastoid muscles that frame thethroatsodistinctlywhen the head is turned and inclined forward.
The skull and the frame of the throat
HEAD AND NECK
Bones of the cranium are locked together by jagged joints. Sinuses in the frontal (forehead) bone between and beneath the eyebrows are larger in men, making their brows pronounced and often ridged compared to those of women.
Bones of the face house our sight, smell, taste, The skull pivots on the first vertebra or "atlas," and speech. Cartilage extending from nasal bones after the Greek god condemned to carry the shapesthenose.Pads of fat resting on the base of Earth. The jaw hinges in front of the ears. Behind, eacheyesocket support the eyeballs in position. If bony ridges give anchor to the sternomastoid thefatisreducedby old age, eyes look sunken. muscles rising from the breast- and collarbones.
Three useful generalizations
General rules about the relative positions of body parts can hinder artists as much as help them, since they are often based on classical ideals rather than thediversityoflife.However,some generalizations can help as a rough guide to start with, so long as good observation takes over as soon as possible.
In general, when the face is relaxed (not smiling or frowning), the corners of the mouth are found directly beneath the pupils of the eyes. Vertical lines can be drawn down from the pupils to meet the corners of the mouth.
The height of a young adult's ear is often the same as their nose and found on the same level. There is no general rule for growing children, and remember that ears grow again in old age, which is most obvious in men.
The height of the face is about the length of the handspan and the eye is normally halfway down the total height of the head. A common error is to draw the eyes too high up on the face.
T H E DELICACY OF SILVER POINT
(see pp. 140-41) is perfect for
such as a beach pebble. Here, I stretched drawing paper and laid a wash of white gouache (see pp.140-41). As you can see, the line and tone of silver point varies with pressure, but only slightly. Too much pressure cuts the ground. Silver point erases, but so does ground. Erased ground can be repaired gently with extra gouache. You can also use gouache to paint over mistakes and make corrections.
small, detailed drawings. The drawings below and opposite show useful observations of the head and neck, which are explained in the captions below. Each drawing was made with a silver wire held in a large-gauge mechanical pencil. Newly clipped wires are sharp and cut rather than draw. Before use, they need to be rubbed and smoothed on a stone
Here I imagined placing my silver point wire against the skin of each head and neck and, working in parallel bands from the crown downward, I traced the undulation of surfaces. Linear bands imagined around the head and neck can help you t o clearly see the tilt of the head and relative levels of the features. Ask a friend t o model for you and try this exercise life-size using a pencil and eraser
Seeing that the face is never flat
Drawings below left and center are summaries of the generalizations given on p.143. Far right is an image to remind us that the face is never flat. It slopes back to varying degrees among individuals, from the tip of the nose t o the ears. For example, note that the innermost corners of the eyes are farther forward in space than the outermost corners.
General measurements, side
General measurements, front
View from above
Male and female head and neck
Men's necks a r e g e n e r a l l y s h o r t e r a n d t h i c k e r t h a n w o m e n ' s b e c a u s e t h e angles a n d levels o f c e r t a i n b o n e s a r e d i f f e r e n t b e t w e e n t h e sexes ( i n d i c a t e d h e r e b y d o t t e d lines) a n d m e n are n o r m a l l y m o r e muscular. T h e male t h y r o i d cartilage ( A d a m ' s apple) is larger a n d m o r e visible than t h e f e m a l e . L a r g e r f e m a l e t h y r o i d glands also s o f t e n t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e t h r o a t .
The largest m u s c l e o f t h e s h o u l d e r s a n d n e c k is called the trapezius. A r r a n g e d on e i t h e r side o f t h e spine, it shapes t h e u p p e r back and neck above the s h o u l d e r blades. C o n t r a c t i n g in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h d e e p e r and surrounding muscles, it raises and l o w e r s t h e shoulders a n d d r a w s t h e h e a d backtoeitherside.
USING A SHARP 3 B PENCIL, I drew this head quickly from imagination, evolving its character and expression from the scheme of four parts: cranium, face, neck, a n d throat (see p. 142). Here, five steps show you how to practice doing the same. This approach can be used to draw from imagination or from life. Keep your wrist loose and hold your pencil away from its point (see pp.22-23). Build the layers of your drawing from pale to dark, a n d from general balance a n d form to specific detail. Remember that successful drawings are built on foundations of "seeing the whole," then dividing the whole into smaller parts, with details brought in last of all. Phrased tonal marks modeling this girls skin and hair follow the technique demonstrated by Goya in his self-portrait on p. 130. Turn to Goya's drawing and study how, in a circle beginning across his hat, moving down his hair, and around his coat, he flows lines over surfaces to describe their contour. As you build from steps 1 to 5, bring phrased groups of lines across the surfaces of your form, using their directions to capture the expression of the head and neck. If unsure, copy my steps until you gain the confidence to make your own decisions.
This drawing is the final stage of the four steps opposite. Here, I have enlarged the eye, and moved it back into the head by trimming the length of the upper lid and adding a more pronounced lower lid. It is important to set eyes far enough back from the relatively prominent nose; too close to it and the face flattens. Hair swept back and extended behind the cranium balances the regal pose. Lines shaping the hair echo those marking the cranium in step 1. Here, the lower part of step 1 comes through as wisps of hair across her face and ear
Portrait of a Young Girl
The nose and ear begin to shape the head.Theangle at which you draw this shape of the paper will determine the angle of the finished head.
Rapidly add shorthand shapes to represent the face. and throat. too soon. Here.
. First lines will remain visible in the final drawing. Keep your first lines light. avoid drawing too dark. so it is important to the life of the image that while controlled.147
Building up the portrait
Gently spin pale lines in a softly drawn shape representing the cranium. over the cranium.
Moving from the back of the neck. The eye announces the nature and expression of the emerging person. neck. they are also still sweeping and confident. down the face to the throat. I used light to describe the upper lid first with a shadow beneath for the lower lid and open eye.
Place the eye beneath the cranium. I modeled the outline of the character I imagined light shining from above and in front and adjusted the pressure of lines to reflect this.
T o DRAW PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGES.
. and gravity. be aware of the subtle differences in skin surface. the texture of hair. Above all. a n d t h o s e w h o a r e
asleep (see overleaf). empathize. muscular tension.
Fast lines carve out the features of Goya's soup-slurping hag.
. Van Dyke's noble cast of characters was modeled more finely. I used the nib upside down to gain needle-sharp precision. with a steel dip pen
and acrylic ink.Castings
DRAWING IN THE PRADO MUSEUM.
Madrid. seeking the dominant contours of each individual expression.
arichand unusual combination of pencil. g l o s s y folds. articulate a d a n g e r o u s satirical j o k e . c u l t u r e . or calm u s w i t h chic. he and cofounder Serge Diaghilev took Paris by eac storm in 1910 with their production h year in the industrial f r e n z y of creating o u r image and aspirations. T h e rural masses w o r e h o m e s p u n simplicity. caricatured p l u m e s . and intent.Costume
E MAKE OURSELVES EXOTIC. and e x u b e r a n c e . charcoal. w h i c h in turn feed c o n s u m e r Lev. In psychology. T h e p a p e r p a t t e r n is p e r h a p s the m o s t w i d e l y k n o w n of c o s t u m e d r a w i n g s : a formalized plan of lines. fulfilling lavish and spectacular briefs. shapes. S t r u c t u r e is t h o u g h the i n v e n t i o n of shoes. w a r m t h .
. it is the public sign by w h i c h w e are j u d g e d . or b u l g e s . and s y m b o l s that lets m e n and w o m e n in all countries and areas have w o r k i n g access to the latest fashions. In this c h a p t e r w e see h o w c l o t h i n g c a n s e e m to p o s s e s s the w e i g h t and m o n u m e n t a l i t y of stone.As artistic director of the It is s h o c k i n g to t h i n k h o w m a n y m i l l i o n s of d r a w i n g s m u s t be m a d e a n d d i s c a r d e d Ballet Russe. D e s i g n e r s create m a s t e r p i e c e s of haute couture
H o l l y w o o d stars. T h e e n t o u r a g e of the theatrical stage o f t e n l e a d s the c a t w a l k . cool.
st 111/4 x 81/2 in (285 x 220 mm) u d i e d L E O NB A K S T
and explore the characterization of fabric t h r o u g h m o v e m e n t . and even invisible by the w a y w e dress. a n d p r o f e s s i o n — b e g a n life as a d r a w i n g .This voluptuous above all a physical p u p p e t w i t h w h i c h to animate character and narrate personality. outrageous. personality. c r u m p l e s . known as Leon Bakst. of Scheherazade. and atmosphere. so that c h o i c e . gesture. Designers all over the w o r l d c o n t i n u a l l y p e n and b r u s h lines to lash us w i t h color. intriguing. e m u l a t e textures. Bakst's designs and costumes immediately To the fine artist. Previously. variety. a n d c o u r t i e r tailors f o l l o w e d suit. c o s t u m e o f f e r s a r i c h v o c a b u l a r y of t e x t u r e s a n d c o l o r . b u t influenced Parisian fashion and interiordecor. theb u t b y the w a y it s p e a k s w i t h its flying. Artists do this not so m u c h b y the style of a figure's garment. W e dress ourselves and costume designer trained in in St. and gouache. Practical classes
l o o k at r a n g e s of c o l o r e d m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d i n g p a s t e l s a n d felt-tip p e n s . Like it or not. while court p a i n t e r s — M i c h e l a n g e l o and Holbein. a n d s u b t l e t o n e s . a n d w e will c o l l e c t patterns. P o p u l a r f a s h i o n d e s i g n e x p l o d e d w i t h the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n . Samoylovich Rosenberg. for e x a m p l e — d e s i g n e d the w a r d r o b e s of p o p e s a n d k i n g s . woman was drawn by Bakst one year later for the ballet Narcisse. and i n d e e d image b e c a m e the property also of the industrial classes. toParis. Petersburg and later exiled designers' ideas and are surprised and delighted b y their continual f l o w of inspiration. and everything w e h a v e c h o s e n for o u r w a r d r o b e s — r e f l e c t o r s of o u r taste. Cities c h a n g e d all. and be so expressive of temperament that it overtakes the need for an o c c u p y i n g h u m a n form. was a Belarussian A r t Deco theater fantasies and desires to immediately possess a version of the same. o n l y the w e a l t h y c o u l d afford to h a v e c o s t u m e s specially m a d e . dancer leaps through swaths of golden cloth.
Church and deities are drawn as
Flemish oil p a i n t e r f r o m L i m b o u r g .
Marble gown We will never know if Van Eyck considered this drawing unfinished or intended the kneeling abbot to remain transient and ghostly. Opposite. delicate lines. the Madonna and her architecture are both dressed in the same manner. bands around the columns. the vaulted stone roof echoes and crowns the moment. and the kneeling abbot is a ghost by comparison. best k n o w n f o r his G h e n t altarpiece ( 1 4 3 2 ) a n d m a r r i a g e p o r t r a i t o f Giovanni A r n o l f i n i and his w i f e (1434). it is only possible to create very thin. the carefully composed outline of his cloak shows us how the artist would have also begun his immaculate rendering of the Virgin's clothes. her marble garment holds u p the infant Christ in a fountain of compressed line. and snakelike marks.
folds and patterns of material speak more resolutely of their wearers than any small glimpses of body we can see. Their uninterrupted emphasis is entirely vertical. Van Eyck's highly polished w o r k is c e l e b r a t e d f o r its disguised symbolism.
11 x 7 in (278 x 180 m m ) JAN V A N EYCK
. He has layered these slowly and carefully so as not to cut through the ground and produce a white mark just where he intended a dark one.
Silver (or metal) point is the most delicate
of traditional drawing media (see pp.140-41). Short and subtle horizontal punctuations are only given in the background by sections of floor.156
Cloth and Drapery
EACH OF THESE FIGURES
is ninety percent cloth. and implied striation in the stone of the architecture. With a stylus such as Van Eyck used here. resonate with their wearers startled expression. Below this. Her gown is carved and polished as if made from marble. Keisai Eisen's intense. swirling printed fabrics. Above them. dragons. H e m e t i c u l o u s l y a r r a n g e d subjects t o c o n v e y d e e p e r meaning. In Van Eyck's drawing below. Flaxmans sleeper—perhaps a pilgrim or a soldier resting between campaigns—has wedged himself into the cleft of some great building to grab a moment of peace. Sculpted
one. However. with their jagged edges.
Vertical lines The highly controlled lines of this drawing cascade from top to bottom of the image. The quiet stillness of this image is achieved by a masterly economy of stylized line.
flat sheets of wood. designer. writer and printmaker Keisai Eisen took his name from the masters Kano Hakkeisai and Kikugawa Eizan. The inked block is laid face-down on damp paper and pressed to make the print. which are sometimes also cut into pieces like a jigsaw puzzle. an 18th-19th century document on the lives of the ukiyo-e artists. Images are drawn onto smooth. Respected for his sumptuous images of geisha and editions of erotic prints. and the feet notched against the pillar tell us that A lines holds him into the cleft.
CLOTH AND DRAPERY
Relief printing This is a woodblock print made by a relief process.
Position In this pen and ink drawing. stone wall of downward-stroked this sleeper's position is momentary. each delivering a different part and color of the design. and teacher Distinctive linear illustrations for the works of Homer. he also co-edited and expanded the Ukiyo-e Ruiko (History of Prints of the Floating World). Remaining raised areas of wood are rolled with colored inks. the angle of the head. draftsman. This complex numerous blocks prepared image and may have been made with printed separately. Parts of the image to be left unprinted are gouged out with a metal tool. Dante.
Man Lying Down in a Cloak I 787-94 21/4 JOHN FLAXMAN x 41/8 in (57 x 105 mm)
. the cloak sliding to the ground.
Koimurasaki of Tama-ya 1810-50 15 x101/4in (381 x 260 mm) KEISAI EISEN
JOHN F L A X M A N
English late 18th-century neoclassical sculptor. Aeschylus earned Flaxman an international reputation. one over the other.157
A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE
Flemish painter and draftsman. he c o o l e d and redefined his style. In 1 6 3 2 he m o v e d p e r m a n e n t l y t o L o n d o n . for she would not have been amused and William Wodall might have been stretching his luck. cinema. and feather were all
CHARACTER COSTUMES REPRESENT
observed with closely crafted conviction. where sometimes there just might not be anybody inside. The metal. Opposite is a dangerous drawing. w h e r e .
Pen and wash
In the graphic accuracy of this armored
knight we see the idealized identity of a warrior from another time: a gleaming defender of the realm. lace. Fine examples can be plucked from fashion. A s a y o u n g man. a scurrilous cartoon by a courtier of Queen Elizabeth I. t h r o u g h n u m e r o u s p o r t r a i t and C h u r c h commissions. Van D y k e was chief assistant t o Rubens f o r t w o years.158
an extreme form of the clothed figure. all ruffs and wrinkles. The aged queen is compared to an overdressed bird. A flamboyant territory. The slight uncertainty of the pose and the limp cloak suggest a little more metal than man.
1 6 x 9 1 / 2 in ( 4 0 5 x 2 4 0 m m ) A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE
Flowing scarf The knight's scarf of gilded blue is drawn in a pale wash over red ink lines. Its color is also reflected in the metal.
Leg section Compare mid-shin
the section of white boots
to the section of similarly cropped
trousers in drawings
Gruau's drawing on p. b e f o r e traveling t o Italy. Its warm surface flows in contrast to the stiff metal armor. theater. cartoon. a n d w a s e m p l o y e d as c o u r t painter t o King Charles I. He has been rendered on this olive<olored page with pen and gray wash worked over a red and black under-drawing. Anthony Van Dyke's Man in Armor is a masterpiece of drawn surface. cloth. It is presumed Her Royal Highness never saw it. Details and voices are worn externally with great imagination. Leg sections in both
support the figure without taking our attention away from the main garment above. and even formal portraiture.
51/4 in ( 1 9 0 x 1 3 4
. t h e Rising. bitten nature. manuscript
six c a n t o s . T h e
poem recounts t h e six m a j o r crises o f Elizabeth's reign: t h e Spanish A r m a d a . hooded with an overinflated fluffy ruff eye pins us. t h e Ridolfi Plot. suggest the use of iron-gall ink (see p.
Dress c.35). Beneath the lethal fan is the body of a bird of trimmed feathers suggest age. while a raised foot pauses to assess the next displaying a fan of daggers. she is shown as a grossly disproportioned bird. t h e Jesuit Mission. Top-heavy. the queen is masterfully rebalanced by words at her feet The whole drawing's blackened. By her old upto three tiers supported on sticks.159
WILLIAM W O D A L L
A u t h o r and illustrator o f The Aaes of Queene a Elizabeth poem Allegorized. and saturations showing through from the other side. A
Ruffs and feathers
Starched white ruffs worn at court and by
society grew steadily larger as Elizabeth's reign progressed. t h e B a b i n g t o n Plot. and her pride. here dark tawny owl. Northern
Satire This is a quill-and-ink satire of the elderly queen's pride-As head of state and fashion. it was customary to
Iron-gall ink Wodall's
dangerous caricature steps daintily
the written lines of her dedicated page.
Spider-Girl leaps like an insect.and tilted to the same de
a little deeper than sp
kneestogivehergravity. possibly over a pencil outline. diving to catch us in the grip of her machine-like limbs. G r u a u ' s highly distinctive d r a w i n g s have a p p e a r e d Couture. Airbrushed reflective surfaces further amplify our perception of speed. The black red. His model is outlined. Drying time in between applications ensured the colors did not run into each other. studio-like rectangle of paper. Fashion and fantasy drawings invent prototypes of ideals and perfection—be they for the catwalk or the fast-paced pages of comic books. Gruau's model regally swans to the fore with cool pride. as is Spider-Girl opposite. Harpers & Queen. Fine lines drawn against the building behind her echo the threads on which we have all seen arachnids drop and hang.
ofcroppedtrousershere to the device of the w
L ' O f f i c i e l d e la C o u t u r e RENE GRUAU
. Compare the compositio beneathVanDyke'sstudy of armor on p.
I t a l i a n . and gray pigments were applied separately. Vogue.5 9 ) and a three-spoke balance of cuffs and cropped trousers to create an almost flag-like emblem of power.F r e n c h f a s h i o n i l l u s t r a t o r w h o in his l o n g and esteemed career w o r k e d with many of the g r e a t e s t d e s i g n e r s o f 2 0 t h . Rene Gruau's bold gouache drawing of smoothly swaying sophistication captures a brilliantly cut garment and frames it with great dynamism in a white. She has been drawn with brushes dipped into India ink and gouache. demanding attention with gesture and flair. elegant chic and svelte.
Composition Look how well this image is frame knee is parallel to the bottom edge
spacehorizontalline cropping the trousers be
outermostuprightbordersof her cuffs are similar above her head
thesidesoftheimage. a n d L'Officiel de la couture.
India ink and gouache
This swish of confidence and style our
enters the page turning everyone's head.160
THESE DEVASTATING femmes fatales force back the onlooker with their demure. and both share the power of scarlet and black.c e n t u r y haute i n n u m e r o u s m a g a z i n e s i n c l u d i n g Elle. 158. muscular aggression. 5 8 . Gruau uses starkly cut negative space (see pp.
modeling applied over the top give the image a sleek and mechanical of
Free-Falling Through City
R O N FRENZ.
this drawing create a
dynamic. a great characteristic superhero comics.74-77). at
Their extensions will meet the same single vanishing (see
pp. MARVEL C O M I C S
. to the right of its center. Buildings. not far above the drawing.RON F R E N Z Contemporary American graphic artist w h o designs and pencils the dynamic scenes of numerous superheroes featured in Marvel Comics. It is outside the picture frame. moon. and has been the title's regular artist since 2003. In your mind's eye extend the uprights out of the top of the picture. Align your ruler to the upright of each building. Frenz has drawn for Marvel for about 20 years. and Amazing Spider-Man. sky. The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones.
created up therefore
the effect of steeply between
howyou can do the same in your own work—take calculate where a ruler the and single
vanishing point lies. He began work on Spider-Girl in 1998. Airbrushed color and with tonal
focus. and figure are all locked into equally shatp through the traditional process of a pencilled outline over-drawn ink. beginning with Star Wars.
oily pigment. Be aware that fixative dulls pastel. animals. mixed on the paper and scratched into (as below). Many products are sold individually and in boxed sets. which he left unfixed to retain its brightness. shape. and can be softened and manipulated with degrees of heat. The nontoxic range below represents a suggested starting point for experiment. quality and cost T h e best are paperwrapped sticks of sumptuous. though lines can develop greasy stains around the edges if the paper is not first stretched and treated with a gelatin paste laid as a wash. 4. COLORED PENCILS: Dry pigments ground together with chalk. fixing each layer on the front. Children's wax crayons are relatives.
colored materials available. Try materials that are new and unfamiliar. Degas built his pastels in layers. crumbly. They work well on
Pigments. used to make colors. slightly oily to the touch. CHALK PASTELS: Blackboard chalk is sidewalk work. you may be pleasantly surprised to discover something you could not have imagined using. soft. the finer and more subtle the texture and color should be. The worst are like revolting old lipsticks that get everywhere except where you intend. Bright pastels are more brilliant on colored paper. quality. these work best when slightly warm. clay. there are disparities between the apparent nature or color of what you hold in your hand and its performance on paper. Pastels are finer. size. wash. are derived from many sources: rocks. Often. except the final layer. Many artists apply fixative to the back of their work. Before making substantial investments. I suggest you do so. hue. 3. Pastel pencils are slender and in w o o d casing. See h o w they work and return later for more of what proved best for you. made in about 80 colors. FELT-TIP PENS: Instant-drying alcoholor water-based inks stored in the barrels of the pens are delivered via smooth nylon o r felt tips of varying shapes and thicknesses. 2. Dissolve in turpentine or mineral spirits to produce oil paint or or dark paper. purchase a small selection of different items you think you will like. They vary hugely in cost. and subtlety. Store loose pastels in dry rice to keep them clean.162
ART STORES BRIM OVER w i t h t h e m a n y
wherever permitted. C o n t e crayons are square-formed. insects. Beware—some are toxic. plants. great for
. unwrapped harder pastels. The higher the quality (and cost). and can be a great rediscovery for bold drawings. OIL PASTELS: Many colors. allowing it to fix slightly from behind.
Oil-based. and sold in many colors. including iridescents. minerals. Seemingly infinite choices of texture. intensity. paper-wrapped. and cost are laid out for our pleasure and perusal.
the diverse are made in brands of basic member of the family. or wax and a binder are shaped into fine strips and encased in w o o d like a graphite pencil. and
Pastel pencils make fine lines (as above). Use them to draw lightly (as above left) or thickly. Most stores leave small pads of paper on their counters for customers to test materials. and synthetics. Sticks and conte crayons make thicker marks (as below). chalkbased but very subtle.
These are wax. If you love smooth blocks and lines of colon felt-tip pens are perfect. Some give richer lines than others.
Although not made with felt-tip pen. 111). Think of
Matisse's Blue Nude (see p. Diverse brands are harder or soften greasier or chalkier in use. so it is best to test them before buying.
. it is still a great champion and support for those beginners feeling shyly obligated to tone down their love of color to conform with what others say they should use. others dissolve in water or turpentine to make a wash. Colors can be blended as shown right) and tones graded by altering pressure. leaving the paper to shine through for highlights (as below). Some are nonsoluble.
Brands made for designers sold in enormous ranges of colors are far more subtle and sophisticated than those made for children.or clay-based thin crayons in wood casing. Fine lines can be achieved (as above).
t h e n again as if transparent. Turn t h e m in different d i r e c t i o n s and o b s e r v e t h e i r s t r u c t u r e and f o r m . and they have been concealed in buildings to ward off misfortune. and volume in space (see pp. and how we stand and walk. e n j o y i n g t h e study a n d i n v e n t i o n o f shoes. the era in which we live. if y o u m a k e p l e n t y o f d r a w i n g s as o p p o s e d t o o n l y a f e w . a n d e x p e r i e n c e visible p r o g r e s s . they record and reflect our common history. imagining y o u can see t h r o u g h it. I m a d e n u m e r o u s s h e e t s o f d r a w i n g s . As artifacts in museums.
T o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s class. social and economic status. will discover m o r e . 104-07). structure.
. You. Superstitions and fetishes are attached to them: we are told never to put new shoes on a table. while artists have painted their boots or those of others as personal portraits and memorials. values. a range of colored felt-tip pens with both fine and broad tips.
This class takes the shoe as its subject in building on earlier lessons concerned with seeing through objects to understand their function. and after studying familiar shoes we use the information learned to invent new ones.
Using fine pens. you will need several large sheets of drawing paper. c o v e r a large sheet o f p a p e r w i t h line drawings o f several shoes.
S H O E S TELL LIFE STORIES. 100-01 and pp.164
Study and Design
they reflect our age. D r a w each o n e first as a solid object. Here we go one step further. To set up. and a selection of shoes. style. t o o . personality.
STUDY AND DESIGN
study the surface contours using fineand broad-tipped felt-tip pens. For best results, it is important to be bold and brief. Draw firmly, fast, and with as few strokes as possible. Build up each shoe from light to dark andleavesome paper showing through to create highlights.
Design Your Own
Using what you have learned from the previous steps about the structures of your shoes, and about the use of pens, invent new designs from your imagination. Start with fine outlines and progress to colored and textured surfaces. Modify your ideas by rotating the views.
The Structure of Costume
MUSEUMS ARE AN INFINITELY
rich resource for the artist and
information given by a period style. Arrange to visit a costume museum or ask a friend to model clothes for you at home. Using fine felt-tip pens, begin with quick, pale impressions of each garment's shape before homing in on its borders and seams. Try to draw transparent views wherever possible to record the relationships between all component parts. Aim to draw enough information for it to be possible to make up a version of the garment using paper pinned to a tailor's dummy.
designer. They often give quite unexpected gems of ideas and information—whatever the subject. These drawings, made in a costume museum, demonstrate ways of recording structural information and detail for later use in the studio. They could form the basis of new designs for a fashion project or theater production, for example. Drawings of shoes on pp. 164-65 show how new designs can be evolved from the structural
It is usually best when collecting information for reference to apply the restraint of dispassionate observation. Set yourself the test of drawing facts with as little artistic license or embellishment as possible. Here I chose fine felt-tip pens because they are at their best when used swiftly, and therefore encourage bold, unhesitant decisions.
Swift lines record the hanging weight of this gentleman's coat, the relative proportions of its layers, and minimal details of the buttons and cuffs.
Thick velvet fabric is pulled tight beneath and across the bust by a single button. This transparent view shows how the fabric falls loosely in straight panels beneath the level of the sleeve.
W h e n visiting museums, be prepared f o r l o w lighting, which can make it hard t o see and draw. A book can help if attached t o your drawing board.
Adding stripes and dashes of color with a thicker pen brings out the glossy sheen and sculptural rigidity of this dress, which would have been worn over a whalebone corset. small reading light designed t o clip o n t o a
THE STRUCTURE OF COSTUME
In small drawings such as these, use thick pens to color entire sections with a few marks, as I did here down the side of the bodice.
The light, frilly bulk of this crinoline dress is propelled forward with lines. pinching its gathers and sways that are hiding a horsehair bustle. fleets of quick
THIS CLASS FOCUSES ON how to draw textures through the collection of fabric, pattern, and embroidery samples from a costume m u s e u m . This formal method, using ruled squares, can create an invaluable library of ideas a n d i n f o r m a t i o n for future r e f e r e n c e — w h e n painting a clothed figure, or preparing a textile project, for example. However, if making a book of samples for a project, remember that it is important to also include collages of f o u n d materials (see pp.230-31) To d r a w a fabric texture, b e g i n by concentrating o n h o w y o u i m a g i n e it w o u l d feel if you t o u c h e d it. Decide if it w o u l d be rough, s m o o t h , w a r m , cold, thick, thin, tough, or fragile, for example. As you draw, believe you can feel these qualities at your fingertips a n d that your pencil is responding to the sensation. Undulate the pressure of your lines and marks according to the feeling of the fabric rather than its appearance. Let your pencil enact the sensation of touching its surface.
and to experiment more loosely with mixed media.
This starchy, quilted, b o w e d creation started life as an imagined corset, I intended t o d r a w together in one sculptural f o r m a range o f t h e details opposite. T h e garment quickly got o u t o f hand. T h e r e is great e n j o y m e n t in letting y o u r imagination run wild w h e n inventing costumes. If you are unable t o visit a costume museum, many exciting fabric details and textures can be found in y o u r o w n closet o r home.
Colored pencils give precision and tonal range; they can be faded but not erased. Lightly use an HB graphite pencil if you wish to plan a design first. Pressed hard, colored pencils build up a waxy finish of brilliant color. Used lightly, they appear powdery and show the texture of the paper.
TEXTURES AND PATTERNS
Silk and braid
Madrid. and motivation of an individual. look at how Goya delineated volumes of thick fabric to express the posture.
. shape.126-27. 172-73. These
characters. selected from different pages of my original book. I made a drawing book full of studies seeking to understand how he composed drama and pathos in his narratives (see also pp.Dressing Character
O N C E SPENT THREE MONTHS
researching the work of Francisco de
Goya at the Prado Museum. identity. and 252-53).
I carefully copied the direction of each of his lines.170—71). and visible.
also taken from my Madrid drawing book (see
of works by Goya in which he makes air seem heavier than flesh. and tangible. To understand how he did this. as it rushes and carves fabric-wrapped forms like rivers and desert winds shaping the earth.T H E S E PENCIL STUDIES.
This J u s t as there are three parts to a traditional landscape drawing—the foreground.
We read tensions and exchanges between people. We can direct
close. Third. a crowd tells the story from a distance. The spaces between people and the positions they occupy on a page are vital to our understanding of the psychology or emotion of an event. Seeing through Rembrandt's eyes. and so. this is not the portrait of an old woman. and its illumination.Gatherings
LL DRAWINGS TELL STORIES. furniture. the viewer's attention in a scene by the format of its composition. while a quill contact with.
. daily newspapers. Washes of shadow behind engaged and as a natural voyeur can feel invisible while watching the scene. in spite of how it may seem. even up her were laid with a brush. presumably while he is making this drawing. the direct exchange (as shown here) where one or more characters hold eye Aneedproduced the thicker lines of the nurse. Drawings selected for this chapter explore these
Saskia Lying in Bedand a Nurse ranges of proximity 1638 9 x61/2in (227 x 164 mm) and a travel journal. the viewer is not directly made the finer lines of Saskia. Storytelling and people-watching are obsessive human activities. Rembrandt's bored and frustrated wife. we can
R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter draftsman. With a pocket full of disposable pens we also go out and draw the expressions of gathered people. vivid portrait of his wife captures our attention. We can also use clothes. Later in their lives. and instantly engage with the
action of the scene. we can learn most about handling pen and ink. the speed and printmaker and one of the greatest and most influential density of its lines. First. It middle. and novels—our staple cultural diet—are driven by a fascination with shared experience and the detail of what happens in other people's lives. and distance—so drawings of gathered people can be loosely arranged in three took only minutes to make and yet it lives for centuries. and other masters of Western Art. comics. He in turn scorches the paper with his view and a certain speed of seeing all. Saskia died after childbirth. Here. we. the viewer. television documentaries. Her all-too-clear expression shows annoyance and irritation with her husband. there are no longer individuals but one significant group or mass action. types. and therefore seem to see. stares out from her gloomy sickbed. soap operas.
heighten or subdue drama with subtleties of exaggeration or caricature.
but drawings of gathered people tell them most directly. Second. He is also the artist from whom props to add layers of meaning and attitude. too. As artists. finding
corners in crowded places to inscribe their action and energy onto the page. Blockbuster movies. R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN
in the delivery of narrative. are implicated in this marital exchange made over the head of the anonymous nurse. paintings depicting scenes from history. Saskia.
"Anything that. Think about what else you could use: a laser smoke. and Alice.. or even the office photocopier.
Real Life is Rubbish 2002 Dimensions variable
TIM N O B L E A N D SUE WEBSTER
. and projectors to create their anarchic punk satires of modern life." (Tim Noble)
with light it is important
to think about what you is Here timelessly we see a in
can draw with. and smoke billows around the agitated jives of the Duchess.kicks against the mundane things that close down your mind is a refreshing and good thing. garbage and chaos are piled a n d e x p l o d e d in r o o m s full of event. c o m p o s e d garbage p r o d u c e s a c a l m . for example. the Cat. and in. h a l o e d portrait of the artists seated b a c k to b a c k . via the animated clutter of o u r material lives. N o b l e a n d W e b s t e r s w i t t y a n d o f t e n s u b v e r s i v e d r a w i n g s are also c o n t e m p o r a r y art installations.. hearth i m p l e m e n t s crash at o u r feet. T h e i m m a c u l a t e d r a w i n g is only r e v e a l e d w h e n t h e b e a m of a p r o j e c t o r c a s t s t h e s h a d o w
of the h e a p o n t o a wall. In one of R a c k h a m s great illustrations for Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland. and on. refuse. a kitchen explodes in o u r faces. Here. In both works. F o r e a c h w o r k . narrative is delivered through the air. the C o o k . Pans fly oft
TIM N O B L E A N D SUE W E B S T E R
British artists who collaborate using neon. Pencil on paper important but only the beginning of possibility
space. plates shatter. t h e y select and arrange familiar items of street detritus into what appears to be an u n p l e a s a n t pile. junk. Below. and
SOME DRAWINGS ARE MADE e n t i r e l y o f i l l u m i n a t i o n that floods drama into the viewers gaze.
we find several devices already explored through our drawing classes.Stowe's ofMysteryand Queer Little Folks.76-77) above vanishing point (see that is about3/4in (2 cm) oak converge at this point. This makes the story appear to leap out at us.
Depth Billows of smoke expand and are lighter as they come forward. tabletop.177
British watercolorist and book illustrator. Refer back to the drawing class how pots In drawn objects and elements that those behind. are very large compared to on p. 100 to see for make elliptical objects and pans fly through the the foreground. amplifying movement outward from the vanishing point. humor. H e is best k n o w n forillustratingIrving's Rip vanWinkle. by vivid children's
Rakham's w o r k is characterized fantasy. See how the
In the Duchess's
77/8 x 6 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 5 0 m m ) ARTHUR RACKHAM
. The wood grain acts like marks of speed behind the scene. ink. Find the singleperspective pp. and watercolor. Rackham
Vanishing point In this marvelous drama made with pen. and Poe's Tales Imagination. beams. a n d
an unmistakable graphic style. and
expressing his dry humor about
O F ALL THE CONTRASTS
HENRY MOORE British s c u l p t o r w h o t r a i n e d a n d taught at t h e R C A .
Chalk and graphite This fog-bound but humorous gathering of souls is made in graphite and colored chalk with gray wash. Moore's spectators appear to have walked a long way from nowhere to witness and wait beside this mysterious obelisque. and art in the landscape. and we. and composition they are polar opposites. This is an ironic drawing from Moore. a sculptor. a n d l o v e d t o d r a w in t h e BritishMuseum. London. heat. meaning. as if Moore's wrapping has been literally outstretched. and action of a buffalo hunt. join in the waiting.The human form w a s the vehicle o f his expression and h e w a s t h e official W o r l d W a r II artist. which still narrates vivid days in the lives of an energetic nation. A glimmer of gold light appears from the left No explanation is given.178
we have seen in the pairs and trios of drawings by masters and makers. This is just one of many precious artifacts from a lost time.
sculpture. M o o r e t o u r e d Italy as a young man. audiences. HENRY MOORE Crowd 1942 Looking at Tied-up Object
. as fellow watchers. Opposite. perhaps these two are the most extreme. a great Shoshone drawing blazes with the color. The mournful gray landscape of Henry Moore's northern British field has gathered by night an overcoated audience to stand and wait before a wrapped and roped monument. In culture. The image stands out among his more usual graphic works in which he hones and carves semi-abstract human forms.
tolearnhow to paint a scene on a hide are and buffalo circle and charge the perimeters of a skin "field. Stylized hunters. horses. Each color is evenly distributed throughout the scene. Skills are taught not center chant or dance to the beat of a drum.
Hunt CENTURY SHOSHONE SCHOOL
SHOSHONE SCHOOL Stylized characters This vital image of a buffalo hunt is made with pigment Members of the Shoshone community wishing painted within dark outlines on a stretched elk hide.
and helping our eye to dart around. creating harmonious balance with words but through silent demonstration." Men at the instructed to sit and watch.
Horses It is interesting to note how the outstretched
ofthesehorses echo European images of the runningBuffalo horse before the sequence-photographer Muybridge taught us to 19TH understand their movement differently.
a n d o t h e r w o r k s . Opposite. B l a k e h a s i l l u m i n a t e d his s a d d e n e d Virgil on the s h o r e s of a d a r k w o r l d . a pink-inked cinema wobbles along with string. a d e a t h c h a r g e of brutality.
W I L L I A M BLAKE
British visionary. w e f i n d a spiritual v i s i o n . m a r k .f o o t e d t r o g l o d y t e s w h o rage into w a r like a m u d s l i d e of revenge. Misted in translucent layers of paint. texture. inextinguishable in its fortitude and h u m o r . t h e Bible. color. pale souls of the lustful are being s p u n into yet another realm of hell. w h e r e he w a t c h e s a t u r b u l e n t s p i r a l of p u n i s h m e n t f o r the d a m n e d . Heath Robinson lived through the same war-torn. w h i c h b y their c h o i c e a n d h a n d l i n g a c t u a l l y b e c o m e the force a n d spirit of e a c h i m a g e . K a t h e K o l l w i t z s c r a t c h e d a n d e n g r a v e d her a r m y of c l a y .
Brushed line and wash This is an ink-outlined drawing made with a fine brush on paper with added washes of watercolor The image was subsequently redrawn as a line engraving.180
The Human Condition
IN THE SPECTRUM of these vastly d i f f e r e n t g a t h e r i n g s of p e o p l e . a n d e n g r a v e r w h o p o w e r f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e d his o w n t e x t s in a d d i t i o n t o D a n t e ' s Divine Comedy. a n d the gentle h u m o r of sedate r i d i c u l e . era as Kollwitz. It illustrates a scene from Dante's Divine Comedy. Blake w a s d r i v e n b y a passion f o r j u s t i c e a n d a p r o f o u n d b e l i e f in his v i s i t a t i o n s f r o m angels. a n d f o c u s . We also see qualities of line. p o e t . and sweetened the often bleak years with his impractical inventions. w r i t e r a r t i s t . The muscularity of Blake's figures was inspired by Michelangelo's works.
The Circle of the (The Whirlwind 1824 of
Lustful Lovers) mm)
143/4 x 207/8i n ( 3 7 4 x 5 3 0 WILLIAM BLAKE
however meager or ridiculous their activity. Ink rolled over was selectively polished off using a rag. Heath Robinson shows England in a past era. Robinson and Kollwitz (above) share almost identical life dates and their work expresses a shared history from opposite sides oftheworld wars. He created sincere. and controlled smears on the metal surface printed as tones. stoical bemusement. Kollwitz survived the two World Wars. and clearly focused. With masterful gentility. humor by making his characters earnest. poverty. and the impact of death and war upon women. children.181
German printmaker. plodding along with hazy. and her powerful and sensitive drawings center on nurture. British
Pen and wash This is a pen-andwatercolor drawing made for a color-platereproduction in an edition of T h e Bystander. sculptor and draftsman.
The Kinecar 1926 103/8 x 15 in (262 x 380 mm)
THE HUMAN CONDITION
Scratched lines This is a dry-point etching with monoprint.
Losbruch (The Outbreak) 1955 20 x 233/8 in (507 x 592 mm)
humorous illustrator and a regular contributor to magazines and journals such as The Sketch and The Bystander. who lived in a poor district of Berlin. What remained in scratched grooves printed on damp paper as lines. and the family home. White marks were made with a dusting of French chalk on the artist's finger to wipe away ink leaving clean metal. The image was scratched directly onto a metal plate.
or idea. Lines t h i c k e n as t h e p e n w e a r s o u t G r a n d Canal (see pp. FIBER-TIP: M a n u f a c t u r e d f o r artists a n d d e s i g n e r s in a r a n g e o f w i d t h s . a n d ranges o f colors. 7 6 .7 7 and 214-15). So many stores sell them. trusting shape and form to follow. For example. aiming for correct outlines would result in drawing too slowly to c a t c h the moment. build to a rich. and in most pockets so I can always record a thought
O n a c o l d day in Venice. shut your book. a ballpoint will make faint lines. Ideal f o r precision w o r k (see p p . or turn into washes and make monoprints if flooded with an alcohol-based substance such as hairspray. if y o u w i s h y o u r d r a w i n g s t o last a n d n o t fade o r b l u r w i t h t i m e a n d e x p o s u r e t o light.
. B A L L P O I N T : Black a n d b o l d c o l o r s o f f e r d i v e r s e qualities. R O L L E R B A L L : A c o n s t a n t i n k flow 3 . indent paper. 2. t w o tourists and their gondolier drifter past m e o n a canal. rollerballs.
is d e l i v e r e d t h r o u g h a m e t a l t u b e o v e r a t i n y ball bearing. The f o u r i l l u s t r a t e d h e r e r e p r e s e n t a basic r a n g e . At a time like this. R e m e m b e r .188-89) and Caravans (see pp.r e s i s t a n t .
T h e r e a r e m a n y d i s p o s a b l e p e n s t o c h o o s e from. I swiftly focused on gesture. W h i t e gel p e n s a r e v e r y e f f e c t i v e o n d a r k papers. Unlike pencils. T h e r e w e r e c seconds t o snatch this impression b e t w e e n their emergence from one bridge and disappearance b e n e a t h t h e next. in the studio. w a t e r . p e r m a n e n t . dark sheen. or put the paper in your pocket instantly without fear of smudging. gel pens) are the most convenient of all materials with which to travel. these pens enable you to sketch. including l u m i n o u s a n d m e t a l l i c . c h o o s e p e n s l a b e l e d " p e r m a n e n t " o r "lightfast. fibertips. they can be obtained within minutes. a disposable pen with its clip-on cap goes anywhere.
Drawing with a fine fiber-tip
pen. 192-93) w e r e b o t h m a d e w i t h a ballpoint. Available in blacks and ranges of colors.182
(ballpoints. blob when old. they each offer distinct and sometimes unexpected qualities. a n d pressure-sensitive. Quick-drying. in the car. Insensitive t o p r e s s u r e : lines d o n o t v a r y in w i d t h o r t o n e ."
1. G E L P E N : P r o d u c e d in b l a c k w h i t e . which can snap or pierce through your clothes. turn the page. jot notes.
4. dropped in your pocket and forgotten till needed. I keep quantities at home. t h e y a r e lightfast.
lines focus on action.FROMMEMORY
Here I used the same fiber-tip pen to compose a scene from memory. not form. Compare this
p. Earlier I had witnessed a crammed en masse in a fleet of hired gondolas complete with musicians and choir.
crowd of fellow
Fast lines These
the mass and shadows of heads belonging
into the boat.31
Above all. black. Let the line of the flying coat fly and the hanging arm hang. However. let it enter the stage and perform. You will make outlines. if animated. not its outline. of course. make them stouter. if a person was stout. A curatorial assistant flies to do a chore (right). Don't worry about measuring angles. activity. No camera can tie you to a time or people in the same way. Exaggeration helps. but they should not be what you dwell on. Each one was witnessed and drawn immediately from the afterimage of what I had just seen. life will not slow and wait for you to catch it.
Walking through Venice with a small. just draw the action.184
The Travel Journal
I CANNOT OVERSTATE THE JOY of making a travel journal. Each line acts its part in the narrative. Every drawing writes an indelible memory of place. focus on the action of the event.
. I caught fleeting glimpses of gathered people and solitary souls going about their affairs. all action is in the line of his coat and directed by his nose. and companionship. angles will happen as a matter of course. Push toward caricature and this will draw out of your memory what was most important. animate them more. You must learn to trust your memory and to draw what impressed you most.
Circular lines buzz around a man puzzling at the end of a train platform (left). when out drawing. pocket notebook and a fiber-tip pen.
A large lady is photographed in front of a delicate work of art. I am watched by the aggravated guard. The rush of his legs isamplifiedby their blurred lines.
THE TRAVEL JOURNAL
The same willowy assistant dashes about his work. eager to herd us all from his house of responsibility. I drew him three times on the same page to catch a range of his physical expressions.
placement. and clothing or bags hang. start by focusing on its action. For example. and there met this sullen custodian. and reason for happening. if they are being devious. Here the custodian projects fastidious ownership of his desk and pamphlets by pushing from behind the center of the space and challenging our entry to his image. emotion. Identify the principal character and draw him or her first. furniture leans. you might place them lower down. rather than the works of art they guarded. elevate them in the pictorial space. Be aware that their placement on the page is part of the narrative. and involvement in the story. Here I have recreated my drawing in steps to show you how to set about capturing such a scene. forcing me to remain at the back and look at them. Place the person carefully. and you decide to draw the moment.
. He and his simpering assistant would not allow me in. flap. if they are being haughty.186
Catching the Moment
On A BITTERLY COLD November day. and let every detail speak by its size. or bulge. focus on action. pulls. I took refuge in a church in Venice. For example.
ACTION AND DETAIL
W h e n drawing people. When your attention has been caught. or pushes. not outline. decide how faces and bodies contort.
Decide where you will place them o n the paper t o emphasize their action and intent. In the final step (left) I reinforced t h e custodian's desk. continue adding characters.
Identify your principal character a n d their psychological role in the scene. Here. who is largely expressed through the shape and fall o f his raincoat and his way o f using a note pad. W i t h a few strokes. a pillar locates t h e scene in a depth o f space. If drawing a more complex scene. I added t h e assistant. Draw their action and props. together with any immediate props they are using. D r a w their action. such as the desk and pamphlets seen here. Decide where t o place them t o emphasize their role.
CATCHING THE MOMENT
Identify t h e antagonist ( o r second character) in t h e scene. which is pushed toward us in a gesture of confrontation.
vertical mooring poles give space and pulse to the horizontal speed of water quickly. An imminent deluge of tourists urged me to work catching no more than the skeleton of the view. I developed
detailofthis drawing from memory using a ballpoint pen.
T H E CANALS OF VENICE
are bustling places full of occupation. and buildings.
DURING THIS RUSH HOUR.
Venetians flow across a stepped
bridge and cascade into the streets beyond. note only their most essential action and feature. Characters in the foreground were drawn first. To catch characters like this. Caricature each person slightly. and drawn immediately from memory. followed by the streets. Each person was glimpsed in an instant.
. then the bridge beneath them.
T H E PARAPHERNALIA O F TRAVEL i s
part of circus life.
. I used a ballpoint pen to compose a series of scenes. Caravans and other backstage activity convey expectations of energy and repose. Sitting at a distance on a hot. and a great subject to draw. I found this circus by chance in the Swiss mountains.
but it can be seen as a lens to our observation of this planet. Oxford. t w o e n g r a v e d m a p s k n o w n as The Lunar Planispheres. rivers.Earth and the Elements
T MAY SEEM PERVERSE
to start a chapter titled "Earth and the Elements" with an image
of the Moon. It is Earths
satellite. learning to draw light out of dark. Richard Long. the sun comes out to blind it. they are the animators of your subject. Take chances against the rain and work with the wind or fog. England.
5 f t x 5 ft 6 in ( 1 5 2 x 1 6 8 c m ) J O H N RUSSELL
. and meteor impacts have scarred. and even how the Sun illuminates. a n d a m o o n globe called t h e Selenographia. as opposed the physicality of Earth. In this chapter
Moon Pastel 1795
we experiment with charcoal. how the mountain cut by ice and rain is now fleetingly lit. makes his work by the act of walking. sunny days. and the sea. arranging them in perfect circles on the mountainside or in lines drifting out of sight beneath low clouds. t h e first-ever accurate image o f t h e M o o n ' s surface. so J o h n Russell's tour de f o r c e drawing (opposite) was a masterpiece of observation in his time. speculation. to be ready to draw the new light as it breaks across the land. Look closely at works by many artists and you will see that they have not represented hills. These conditions are very difficult to express well. Just as NASA photographs of Earth have had a profound effect on the way we view our fragile home. surrounded by the bright instruments of centuries of navigation. Weather is essential in all landscape drawing. What they have drawn is the force of nature on these properties: how the wind heaves the night ocean. marking the ground with lines of footprints or by turning stones. Russell d r e w this. and take bold steps in emulating the swell of clouds and the forces of torrential water. trees. The pastel drawing was constructed from myriad telescopic observations almost 200 years before the Apollo Moon landing. It now hangs on the staircase of the History of Science Museum. and its draws the tides of the seas. artists see for themselves that which is momentary and eternal. are the real subjects in great landscape drawings. a contemporary environmental artist. By drawing such momentous and everyday events. or the wind carries it away. when little stirs and empty blue skies offer even less to latch lines to. a n d a n astronomer w h o dedicated 20 years t o studying t h e M o o n . how the soil is scorched. It is better to get up before dawn. our companion. or has cracked and fallen under the weight of water. Beginners will often choose calm. and experiment. pages o f softly i l l u m i n a t e d craters and lunar "seas" c o v e r e d in m a t h e m a t i c a l and s h o r t h a n d calculations. This is the world's first accurate image of the Moon.
William Turner is said to have had himself lashed to a ship's mast to comprehend the storm (see p. the face of the Moon.
A p o r t r a i t pastelist t o King G e o r g e III o f England. H e a l s o p r o d u c e d an a l b u m o f 1 8 0 exquisite pencil drawings. 199). There is a sense of the heroic in drawing outside—we race to catch a form before the tide engulfs it. The forces of nature.
seeing how it shakes. serving a prison sentence for his views. a sail b r o k e n loose in a stormy marriage. undramatic b u t brimming with stylized realism. Flapping kimonos and an onlooker turning his b a c k have the magic of a m o m e n t caught. distance. fluttering heavily. and gives motion to each image. the government. A hard waxy was drawn across a heavy limestone Varying definitions
crayon of lire
and depths of tone conspire to give volume. Below. lifts. a scratched ghost. speed.
Crayon and limestone This is a lithograph. Fluid strokes inflate the woman's dress and pin shadows to the ground. and pioneer ofexpressionism. we can soon learn to draw its force. Terrifying waves of merciless nature roar across the paper. He knew how the world bends and stutters under such gusts. This wife.Through political drawings he fired his sharp wit at the king. Hokusais sedate wind presses reeds a n d the j o u r n e y s o f young ladies.
Danger of Wearing Balloon Petticoats UNDATED
. Dots and dashes suggest receding trees out of focus.198
EARTH AND THE E L E M E N T S
Air in Motion
THE GREAT INVISIBLE SUBJECT o f these d r a w i n g s is t h e w i n d . Daumier's c a r t o o n shines with the brilliance of his comic memory. painter. and the legal profession. and solidity. T h e great master of English seascape is c o n d u c t i n g with his graphic energy. has b e c o m e a hysterical kite. the bourgeoisie. By
Turner carries us to the heart of the maelstrom.
H O N O R E DAUMIER
French satirical cartoonist lithographer. T h e ship. Hazy vertical marks reveal buildings into the mist. sculptor. and by observing its tides and eddies in our o w n environment. is already lost. like an umbrella forced inside-out.
absorbent watercolor and are
J. Landscape a n d city life w e r e his principal subjects. d e s i g n e r a n d b o o k i l l u s t r a t o r . a n d his b e s t .i n f l u e n c e d b y examples o f W e s t e r n art obtained through D u t c h t r a d i n g in Nagasaki. painter. horizontally
then and of the
it into the stream
Plants also bend and flow right to
Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 1802 81/2 HOKUSAI KATSUSHIKA x 131/2 in ( 2 1 7 x 3 4 3 mm)
. from left
print.b l o c kprintmaker.M. into this very as
sheet The paper's through
own coior is brought
banks of mist and fog. T u r n e r w o r k e d in oils a n d w a t e r c o l o r s a n d s k e t c h e d c o p i o u s l y o n his travels.
Ship in a Storm c. leans
the whole composition swells around its fateful
center. 1826 91/2 x 113/4 in ( 2 4 1 x 3 0 0 m m ) J. T h e r e a r e m a n y stories o f his p a s s i o n a t e w o r k i n g methods. including being lashed t o a ship's m a s t in o r d e r to study a storm.
AIR IN MOTION
Pencil and watercolor subdued brushed. T U R N E R British landscape.l o v e dw o r k s i n c l u d e 1 0 0 v i e w s o f M o u n t Fuji and 1 2 v o l u m e s o f Manga.W. seascape. H o k u s a i in t u r n has since significantly influenced European art. A outline scratched of a skeletal into
ship is while and
the waves. W . TURNER
KATSUSHIKA HOKUSAI Prolific J a p a n e s e c o l o r w o o d . and history painter w h o s e p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t a b o v e all w a s light.
Wind direction wood-block
This is a colored To represent the blows lifted flowed wind. Hokusai direction (from clothing from
has chosen which it
lines of rain escorting them to b o u n c e and clatter. or charcoal. active surfaces of water. He brings us to stare into a place that no sane human would enter. Then. Opposite. T h e m e n a c i n g darkness of Hugo's storm b e l o w is so convincing. fantasy palaces. By contrast. Turner (see p. h a u n t e d shadows. and swim into the page.28). grab their b r u s h .
Pen and brush Hugo drew first with pen and ink. An update on biblical showers of fish and frogs. with a brush.198) admires the majesty of nature. It looks so contemporary. His subjects include ruins. this is a b o m b a r d m e n t from o u r h o m e s . he blanketed the drawing in darkness. drawing was Hugo's principal means o f expression. water. composing banks of waves and dense.
EARTH AND THE
French novelist and artist (see also p. D o m e s t i c o b j e c t s we can o w n and name fall from the clouds.
Le Bateau-Vision 1864 71/2 x 1 0 in ( 1 9 2 x 2 5 5 m m ) VICTOR H U G O
. as a gestural storm on the paper. and t h e sea s t u d i e d f r o m his h o m e in Guernsey in t h e Channel Islands. this is a writer's narrative of terror. inks. ink. and tossed o b j e c t s — a perfect subject in which artists can forget themselves.200
STORMS CAN BE SEEN and drawn in two ways: first. as a subject and second. as if drawn j u s t this year. In periods b e t w e e n writing. T h e very nature of b o t h is turmoil and an interweaving of elements. Leonardos Cloudburst of Material Possessions is o n e of his m o s t enigmatic and mysterious works. it is difficult to contemplate its brooding and night-soaked heart. leaving nothing but a glimpse of moonlight glistening on the froth below. marks.
Cloudburst of Material Possessions 1510-12 45/8 x 43/8 in ( 1 1 7 x 1 1 1 mm) L E O N A R D O DA VINCI
. and a wheel. It is interesting to speculate how engineering might have developed if his ideas had been shared with the world earlier
Ink and chalk This is a pen and ink drawing with touches of black chalk. There is a little magic in recognizing many items from our homes something like a rake. He bequeathed his drawings to a friend. envisioning machines centuries before their making (helicopters and bicycles. together with half the contents of our garage. and they passed through private hands for 400 years before becoming widely known. Each item that has crashed from heaven is drawn in such a way that we can feel Leonardo's nib picking it up in the speed of a doodle. He was left-handed
and wrote backwards in Italian from left to right. a hook. for example). Above and below are examples of his mirror handwriting. a bell.LEONARDO DA VINCI Leonardo devised many artifacts of our modern lives.
Even distilled from all other detail. She was inspired by her research of aerial plans of London and the story of an alien map butterfly (see caption). In a very different work (opposite above). Claude is distinguished by. Drawing with a scalpel. Claude Lorrain drew directly on location.
Opposite below. Whether land-. Paler. and etcher who lived most of his life in 17th-century Rome. cooler tones receding into the distance are applied with a brush.
C L A U D E LORRAIN
French classical landscape painter draftsman.
EARTH AND THE
Bryan cut the profile of a city. or cityscape.1638
85/8 x 121/2 in (219 x 320 mm) CLAUDE LORRAIN
. and dry marks in the foreground appear to be made with his finger. Over first lines. and famed for. watching his hand and eye at work together. a horizon line can trigger our recognition. Claude has used a fine nib to delineate segments of land as they recede into space.202
THE PROFILE OF A HORIZON is a line we immediately recognize and respond to. made inside a book. she teased away fragments of paper to illuminate her view. sea-. which he used to unify his compositions. and mood simultaneously. and we can imagine standing over his shoulder. rich. transferred it to a scroll. it is the unique calligraphic signature of the place in which we stand. and after tracing her captured line.
The top half of the drawing is a view as we enter the
valley. and across to the right.
Views from Velletri
c. In the lower half he has walked downhill a little. Clare Bryan took panoramic photographs of the English South Downs. atmosphere. rapidly layering contours to shape place. thick. his unsurpassed handling of light.
workisilluminatedby standing its lower edge on a
CLARE BRYAN C L A R E BRYAN
Cut line This is a small section of a preparatory 5-ft(1. then hunted destroyed. The edges of each here) fade into the solid paper unpopulated with a scalpel
landscape. Her recent paper photographic.The horizon was drawn with a
Landline 2003 271/2x 59 in (70 x 150 cm)
scalpel. On turning the pages of City. printmaker graphic designer. and visiting professor at numerous art schools. progressively settlement (cropped more and more paper is drawn away to show the expansion of human page of an around the river.5-m)scroll. and digital print-based works reflect upon the histories and poetry of "left behind and in-between spaces. drawings Ideas of introduction Clare Bryan to research introduced down and led
historical plans and aerial growth
of London showing its population
since Roman times. specialty bookbinder.203
Scalpel-drawn This book-bound drawing was inspired by the story of a foreign butterfly wrongly to Great Britain in 1912.
E A R T H AND THE E L E M E N T S
CHARCOAL IS PRODUCED from wood baked slowly without exposure to air. so it chars b l a c k as o p p o s e d to igniting a n d turning to ash. MEDIUM W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 5. As its name implies.
without touching the surface. It allows you greater precision in your mark-making than if you rub away the charcoal with an eraser.
This technique is a very easy method of drawing a crisp. sticky side down. a n d m o r e i n d e l i b l e by soaking it in linseed oil. Not to be confused with square conte sticks (see p. CHARCOAL PENCIL: Types made by different manufacturers vary in quality and density of line. vine. Slightly dull the
tape's stickiness before use t o prevent it from lifting out more than you intend. blacker. fine. COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Machine-made.
tape. Artists have also used lime. b e e c h . R o u g h paper c a n b e loaded. SQUARE COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Not often sold. CHALK CHARCOAL: Technically. Beware of cheap brands selling dyed chalk as compressed charcoal. 162) or graphite (see p.
The same as above. THIN WILLOW CHARCOAL: I used a piece like this to make the drawing opposite. cylindrical. it is compressed and m o l d e d at high pressure. Smooth paper accepts few particles. 2.
between your middle finger and
thumb. you can p u r c h a s e m a c h i n e . maple. Willow is the most c o m m o n wood. In use.54). feather. and heavier than willow. It is also easily erased if the maker of the mark is not happy with the result. Hold it over your drawing
Charcoal (in its several forms shown here) is loved or loathed by the beginner to whom it is often recommended because it produces pleasing results quickly. it looks gray and feels like chalk. It c a n be m a d e duller. The tip snaps easily to renew a sharp edge if required. leaving u n d e r t r a c e s of first thoughts. or fingertip. Essentially. resulting in a stick that gives a blacker. 3. white line into the blackor grayness of willow charcoal. 6. a rag. 7.
Suspend a length of masking
tape. THICK W I L L O W CHARCOAL:
Keep the tape above your drawing.
1. Then lift it away. but some specialists stock compressed charcoal in delicate square sticks.
. Lines are achieved by d e p o s i t i n g particles in the grain o f paper.m a d e c o m p r e s s e d charcoal. 4. harder line. the heel o f y o u r h a n d . a n d p l u m . b l a c k e r . and offers a rich. resulting in a pale line. A great find when available. B u n d l e s o f twigs were traditionally sealed into earthenware j a r s or wet clay and heated slowly and intensely in a fire or kiln. a piece of fresh bread. Try itworking on big paper covering a wall. only a little thicker. Boxes often contain a range of thicknesses to choose for different needs.
A white line is lifted out by the tape. It does n o t erase easily. this does not exist. Alternatively. C h a r c o a l naturally glistens. black finish. Use any fine-point
pen or pencil (I used a ballpoint) to draw a firm line on the back of the
Big pieces are perfect for very large-scale drawings—even larger than yourself. they are all intended for fine work. Charcoal lifts away from paper easily with the very light touch o f an eraser.
. MASKING TAPE: An invaluable resource.205
Thickly applied charcoal quickly o v e r c o m e s a plastic eraser A w a r m (soft and tacky) putty eraser is more effective. 10. Here we used a ballpoint. Cotton swabs also work. PEN: Any fine pen or pencil can be used to draw on the back of masking tape when lifting out. pastels. Here.
Lifting out This detail shows an example of where I used the lifting-out technique demonstrated opposite to draw flashes of lightning against rain clouds. Layers can be peeled away to refresh its surface. or any other dry media. Use high quality (very sticky) to fix paper to walls and boards. Different tones seen throughout the main drawing on pp. Use cheaper (less sticky) for lifting out. T O R T I L L O N : This is a tight roll of paper used to blend charcoal.212-13 were made by altering the pressure applied to the charcoal. Lift out broader marks with a larger implement. as is fresh (unbuttered!) bread.
8 . I used a plastic eraser effectively on thinly applied charcoal. sold in several widths. graphite. 9.
EARTH AND THE ELEMENTS
TREES ALONE OFFER MARVELOUS shapes to draw. the less you describe. the more you encourage the viewer's imagination to join in and see.
. They are also good markers of receding space. pack your materials (as advised below) and set off for a local view or your nearest arboretum. a less distinct middle ground composed of shapes and textures. Excessive detail can be admired for its skill and achievement. Successful drawings often only suggest the qualities of the scene without overdescribing them. an eraser your drawing book or a board and paper fixative (or hairspray). to contain each of your compositions. 9 8 . The long view is hidden behind trees. but is often less evocative and engaging.9 9 we noted that in response to visual stimulus. When you arrive. On p p . Ironically.
In this first view there is only a foreground and middle distance.212-13). details blur and colors grow paler and bluer. and an abstract. hazy distance. our brains search for nameable things and will perceive complete pictures from very little information. begin by marking out several small squares on your paper. Then I drew the shape of the tonal patches I perceived. especially when making first excursions into aerial perspective. It is the visible effect of the atmosphere between where you stand and what you see in the distance.
Pack several thick and thin sticks of willow charcoal. a reel of masking tape. I relaxed my eyes out of focus to dissolve distracting detail into abstract patches of light and darkness. Landscape drawings are traditionally arranged in three parts: a detailed foreground. To experiment with drawing landscapes and the use of charcoal. it results in flat planes of clutter. At its worst. This term simply means that as land rolls away into the distance. and a cushion in a plastic bag to sit on. Don't worry if it is cloudy: clouds add drama and perspective and make good subjects in themselves (see pp.
Exploring the view
Redrawing the scene above. horizontal regions of grass. shadows. It is better to give distinctly more pictorial space to one or the other (see below). and broke a view through the hedge into the distance with a dark sky threatening rain. This composition turned out a little flat because I have an almost even quantity of earth and sky. dark trees with bright. rounded. Remember. your view is your inspiration. full of information you can use to create what you want!
In my second square I explored a simple view contrasting soft. the trunk of a bare tree. I have invented drama with diagonals set against each other I tilted the earth.
104-05). bare ribs.1 5 my first drawing of the whole view of the Tiber led me to see the real subject of the day. so the paper is not made blinding and your hand cannot cast a shadow on your work. and tiller still standing proud. This first drawing serves as a process of arrival. making the scene below led me to focus on the decaying boat opposite.
"Drawing in the round means to literally walk around your subject.
shade out of the glare of the sun. For example.
EARTH AND THE
FINDING THE SUBJECT
Finding a remarkable subject is even better when you can circumnavigate it in an arena of space. settling my concentration.164-65) and a wire violin (pp. Similarly. on p p . I am then able to home in on what interests me most for further study.208
Drawing in the Round
WHEN DRAWING IN THE LANDSCAPE. observing it from several views so as to better understand it as a whole. 2 1 4 . The mud of the tidal shore in Rye. taking with you your drawing book and pen. s e e k places in light
After my first drawing. Building on earlier studies of structure in space using shoes (pp."
. Circling a subject and drawing it from several views imprints on your memory a better understanding of its three-dimensional form. I usually begin by making an image of the whole view. engine. your challenge now is to find a sculptural subject in the landscape. England has embedded within it the decaying skeleton of a burned fishing boat. which was the flow of water over rocks. and seeing what the real choice of subject is.
W h e n you have found your subject. unfussy lines. Overleaf: Decaying Boat
. character. w h e n t h e sea recedes.
DRAWING IN THE
Here. I spent equal time looking at the subject and the paper.
This impression notes the angle of the broken boat. careful lines to establish the skeleton that gives this wreck its distinct form. I looked more boldly at the planes and the dynamic of the sculptural craft My lines have become darker and more forceful as confidence in my understanding of the vessel grew. and the order and shape of its component parts. The outline ties a shape of darkness to the boat like a weight so that it becomes part of its form.209
SERIES OF STUDIES
This stunning ghost o f a boat comes into v i e w t w i c e a day. make a series o f drawings f r o m different positions. looking more at the boat than at the paper
From this low position I have emphasized how the boat is swallowed in mud by outlining its shadow on the ground. its overall balance. and structure. marking straight. I drew with quick. Each n e w drawing gives a different insight.
In this tail-end view.
L o o k i n g b a c k and forth from the heavens to firmly taped-down paper. was made with gentle but unhesitating s p e e d . hot-pressed drawing p a p e r (see pp.20-21) using a thin stick of willow charcoal. m a d e on s m o o t h .Cloudburst
THIS STORM DRAWING. I worked quickly to catch and weave the turbulent contrasts of rising wind and approaching water before the drawing could be washed away.
black. pocket-sized notebook. pulse.
.Notes of Force
T H E GREAT FLOWING TIBER RIVER
has cut through Rome. shaping the city. I drew with a needle-fine fiber-tip pen. focusing on the river's eddies. and rhythmic detail as it passed through the ancient gully of the city. since
ancient times. On the pages of a small.
SITTING IN THE SHADE
of a tree on the Greek island of Antiparos. The strong diagonal of the composition from bottom left to top right carries the eye through changes of height and focus from the foreground to the mountains beyond.
I used a dip pen and waterproof India ink with brushed watercolor to draw the view.
picturing a stabilized world was impossible and Modernism rode forth with vigor. strike the paper to find form. poet. He made thousands of drawings to chronicle his complex life. actions. liberating.Abstract Lines
HE DEVELOPMENT OF W E S T E R N
abstract art at the beginning of the 20th century
significantly paralleled major changes in world thought. all pictorial representations are abstractions of reality. Wolfli was a Swiss draftsman. and poetic myth roar and cascade within his tightly framed pages. direction. it is simply itself. Internal workings of the mind were suddenly free to find a new language of expression. and history. His drawings are collected and exhibited internationally and held by the Adolf Wolfli Foundation. It also underpins and gives strength and unity to all figurative work. It was not invented in the 20th century. opposite. belief. Many concepts and feelings can only be expressed through marks. First marks.
1915 413/8 x 285/8 in (105 x 72. yet my kinship to abstraction is fundamental. Perhaps in Western culture we bred this intuitive freedom out of ourselves in our insistence on complex figuration. As you approach the classes in this chapter. Afterward. Museum of Fine Arts. abstraction is not so easy to define. for example. drawn sound. fictional language. It is actually its foundation and its infrastructure. The
growing rise of Darwinian ideas coupled with Freudian and Marxist perspectives forced Western society to reconsider its origins and future.
. From another viewpoint. Not everything we know has a physical form in the world. writer and composer who suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and was resident in the Waldau Aslyum near Berne. be brave and enjoy them. don't be timid. and Aboriginal art. precisely because it does not have to represent a physical object. I begin every image by feeling its meaning. Artists were given a different tool—a line threaded directly from their subconscious to their hand—and with it they began to map a bold new landscape of marks and concepts that would dramatically and forever change the face of Western art. and it has always been with us.
One of the greatest masters of Art Brut.8 cm) A D O L F WOLFLI
Abstraction is a direct. From one point of view. and independent means of communication. many nonWestern cultures have highly sophisticated abstractions at the core of their art. spontaneous image-making. or gestures. Berne. Swirling. writhing torrents of color.
Indian mandalas. such as Adolf Wolfli. People are often scared by abstraction and see it as the enemy of figurative art. However. Outsider artists. expressive marks and shapes are at the core of natural. sounds. An abstract mark is often a better conductor of a thought or feeling. only rediscovered. My own work is firmly centered in figuration. and young children show us that abstract. and emotion. which are essentially abstract. The fate of Old World thinking was finally sealed with the brutality of World War I. and have been making abstract drawings for centuries—Japanese calligraphy.
Five forged steel shapes. Abe works with materials such as soil. and wood are also part of the work. or. and temperature
rim of floor space. iron.
Sometimes it smolders like a deep shadow. water. and plaster in galleries and landscapes. Mamoru Abe prepares an image that will appear through the chemistry of iron. as Twombly shows us opposite. rhythmically engaged with itself. A Neolithic chalk tablet bears cut lines that were slowly carved. quoting ink marks on a page. and Assistant Professor of Fine A r t at Fukuoka University.
MAMORU ABE Japanese sculptor and installation artist. Moisture produced rust.
The Physical Space 1990 3 0 x 30 ft ( 9 1 4 x 9 1 4 cm) MAMORU ABE
. it can keep reforming through the inherent repetition of a process. staining redbrown lines into the white surface. texture.220
A B S T R A C T LINES
Process and Harmony
SOMETIMES A DRAWN LINE
sings on the surface of its support. Changes
paper. forged steel. Twombly's mesmeric wax line worked over house paint is like a signature. It can proclaim mood. Damp Japanese paper was laid over carefully arranged iron bars.
Lines. tone. Iron rods in tone. A line can be finished in a second. ice. salt. He travels widely to research ancient sacred sites. sit in silent harmony. and sensitivity with its thickness and pressure of touch. scrolling across the canvas in an intimate crescendo. This the paper rest within the
of the floor from the ceiling. silence.
and patient watching. and texture their bracing separation reaching between from beneath
Pillars of the gallery are made
of this drawing by their inclusion in the paper. brass. Abe's physical drawing is a sculptural installation. akin to stones in a Zen garden. Below.
Twombly has language works
CY TWOMBLY Contemporary American artist who emerged through the 1950s New York art scene in the heyday of Abstract Expressionism and Action Painting. burials.
Neolithic Chalk Tablet
3. theories suggest astrological observations. and sensuous drawing from painting. The central pictorial space is also similarly cut and divided by the considered arrangement of straight lines.England.241). Precise lines suggest the use of a sharp flint The framed rectangle of this image is echoed in that of Abe's installation.
that challenges the separation of word from image. This example is one of two chalk tablets found in a Late-Neolithic pit. and American Indian petroglyphs (see p.
PROCESS AND HARMONY
Cut lines Chalk carves easily.000-2. emotive. Many of his graffiti-like combine abstract gestures with statements. At the 2001 Venice Biennale. and
might seek to grasp letters in the turning of his line.Twombly was presented with a Golden Lion award for lifetime achievement. the Babylonian world map. close to Stonehenge in Wiltshire.Thesite's purpose is unknown.221
ANCIENT CARVINGS Many ancient cultures have made and left behind drawings and texts carved into stones or animal bone. such as the Rosetta stone. and the worship of the sun and ancient gods.400BCE 21/4
x 21/4 in (58 x 58 mm) ARTIST UNKNOWN
Language Over the course of fifty years.
evolved a raw.
below. pressed them face down. Hugo. and let the drying meniscus deposit granules in linear drifts such as we would see in the satellite photographic mapping of rivers. Gestalt. and inventive of his time. here he anticipates abstract expressionism by 100 years. beautiful.
Texture Compare this drawing to Hugo's octopus on p.28). too. and lifted them away to leave impressions of watery planets and seas.
have striven to break down old pictorial and musical structures to explore new and unfettered modes of expression. Marks across the center appear to be made with his fingers. o r a pattern o f elements s o unified as a w h o l e t h e y c a n n o t b e e x p l a i n e d asa s u m o f parts. His drawing writes the time of its own physical process by expressing the extreme concentration of the moment in which it was made. The scores are also exhibited in galleries as visual art. Both abstract drawing and composition involve the perfect sequencing of sounds and marks against space and silence. Bussotti. Gestalt o f an unnameable thing. abstract. "There is nothing like dream to create the future. drawing here can b e described in t e r m s o f a G e r m a n philosophical idea a b o u t is t h e i n s t a n t r e c o g n i t i o n t h e p o w e r o f m o m e n t . broke new ground in the 1950s with graphic scores now considered among the most extreme. abstract artists and composers
unique. said. A graphic score is a
V I C T O R
H U G O Hugo's abstract
French novelist w h o m a d e m a n y drawings in m i x e d m e d i a ( s e e also p. o f t e n e x p r e s s e d in v i s u a l t e r m s ." An innovator who never fails to surprise.
Two Impressions Paper 1853-55 VICTOR HUGO Disk
. music manuscript requiring instrumentalists to improvise. Here he appears t o have saturated the cut-out moon disks with gritty pigment. a configuration.
Ink impressions When drawing nightscapes Hugo often laid paper disks in place of the moon. brushed night skies over them with ink then lifted the disks to reveal white moons.222
SINCE THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY. and participate in the composition. he mixed graphite into ink. Similarity in gritty texture suggests that here. interpret.28. opposite.
W R I T I N G TIME
SYLVANO BUSSOTTI Italian avant-garde composer and principal 20thcentury exponent of the graphic score. This is a page from Due Voci. Compare this work to that of Libeskind on p. His later works become increasingly abstract.
Circular Score for "Due Voci" c. 1958 SYLVANO BUSSOTTI
. we can feel their rhythm and easily attach sounds to them. Bussotti's first mature work. 70 in relation to Bussotti's clustered notes to the left of his rondo and open space to the right. a far cry from any recognized musical notation.
Sound and rhythm This flickering rondo of sound written in pen on a hand-ruled stave can be heard in our imaginations as much as seen. Following the notes.
and sufferers of psychiatric illnesses—who have always existed. In the late 1 9 t h century.224
A B S T R A C T LINES
Chants and Prayers
WHEN ABSTRACT LINES are organized in repetition. making objects and images outside o f mainstream culture. It will protect the place from evil and make a pleasing invitation to good spirits.228-29) has been adjusted with each movement of the rags to draw a cosmos of balance and perfection.
Cell Floor With Torn Strips of Cloth
1894 MARIE LIEB
. Compositional rightness (see pp. T h e s e p h o t o g r a p h s d o c u m e n t the meditative drawings o f two w o m e n living worlds apart in different countries. Torn cloth This is one of two published photographs showing Marie Leib's torn cloth strips significantly placed on her cell floor. Germany. centuries. they m a k e a visual a n d physical e c h o that t o u c h e s s o m e deep part of the human spirit. This takes a form in most cultures. it is found in the regularity o f ordered lines or a pattern.
Little is known of this w o m a n for w h o m the act of drawing was essential. social outcasts. an a n o n y m o u s w o m a n in the southeast Indian state o f Tamil Nadu m a k e s a ritual drawing o n the b r i c k courtyard o f h e r h o m e . In music it can be felt in the diversity of plainsong and African d r u m m i n g . Marie Lieb w a s a psychiatric patient in the Heidelberg Asylum. O p p o s i t e . cultures. for e x a m p l e . Cloth is the simple instrument with which she has conducted and ordered her universe. Visually. She tore c l o t h into strips a n d used these to draw patterns a n d symbols o n h e r cell floor. and c i r c u m s t a n c e s . d i p p i n g h e r fingers into a pot o f rice flour. Lieb is one o f countless thousands of "Outsider" artists—diverse individuals including ordinary citizens.
000 images. chalk. lime.HUYLER Photographer art historian. women pride themselves on never repeating a design. In daily practice. Materials such as rice flour. animals. or flowers are marked or arranged on the ground or on the walls of homes. at the University of London and Ohio State University. lecturer on the subjects of Indian art and Indian women's identity.225
STEPHEN P. Skills are handed down through generations and from friend to friend. and in places of worship and celebration.Theseare widely published in journals and are the subjects of international exhibitions. and for over 30 years has traveled extensively through the Indian subcontinent creating an edited archive of 200. Huyler is the author of Painted Prayers. cultural anthropologist. among others. Motifs are geometrical or based on plants. Popular magazines feature new ideas each week and on special occasions there may be contests. and birds.
Designs and motifs
Rangoii (or mandalas) are ritual
drawings made by many millions of women across rural India.
Painted Prayers UNDATED STEPHEN R HUYLER
Mixed media This is a collage of torn white and gray tissue paper previously stained with ink.226
ABSTRACT DRAWINGS ARE LARGELY
or entirely free from
using the viewer's eye to track and unfold layers of meaning. Klee's mathematical maze of thinly washed surface resonates with meticulous planning. They each find their pathways and equilibrium in atmosphere and suggestion. Oval moons eclipse each other and oscillate between landforms and portraiture. structure. free from the direct imaging of known physical things. Catling's torn paper shapes and shadows spill light out of their frame like a fractured mirror. Catling's abstract drawings are usually made in series and in parallel to written poetry and sculptural installations. gold paint and iridescent gouache mixed with water. These two works present complex compositions with differing intensions and methods of making.
figurative representation—that is. performance and installation artist. and water-resistant layers of spray and enamel paint on thick paper. rocks or heads in a subdued atmosphere of dream. With no depth of field. but similarities in mood.
BRIAN CATLING British sculptor poet. Their energy can therefore be a purer expression of an idea or emotion.
153/4x 215/8 in ( 4 0 0 x 550 mm) BRIAN C A T L I N G
. Ruskin School. Oxford. and Fellow of Linacre College. filmmaker Professor of Fine Art. and choice of hues. Catling's works made for international galleries and museums involve drawing as a tool in their development and making. it is ruled and contained in one dimension by its interlocking ink-lined borders.
97-99. whereas tonal surfaces are perceived more immediately as a whole. and brush. ruler.31).
Geometric harmony This is a work on paper made with a sharp ink pen.
Line and surface
the visual capacity of lines to push or pull within an image. philosophized. He explained his polyphonic painting as "a harmony of several color voices" searching for a visual parallel to music.
Polyphon Gefasstes Weiss (White Framed Polyphonically) 1930 131/8x95/8 in (333 x 245 mm) Paul-Klee-Stiftung. and might be read as active or passive. watercolor. Klee painted. We can see some diagrammatic examples of this among the optical illusions on pp. and wrote copiously about the natures and relationships of color and form. drew.227
PAUL K L E E Swiss painter and sculptor (see also p. Kunstmuseum Bern PAUL KLEE
. It is a geometric harmony of straight lines and tonally graded flat colors that by their arrangement draw our eyes inward to their white center. Klee also felt that a line represents the passing of time.
Seek it when looking at other artists' work and in your everyday environment. Take. This balance is what every artist and designer searches a n d feels for when making an image."
Justness can be harmonious or deliberately discordant. there is a clear feeling when. and elements settle in definitive balance. media. they reach a perfect position. Set up a sheet of paper with a rectangle drawn on it. b u t e v e r y n o w a n d again you will hit on an arrangement w h i c h appears just.
"Whenall pictorial elements come together in pleasing and perfect balance."
. and put them o n a tray. regardless of style. M a n y of their inter-relationships will be meaningless. or home. Feel for it when youdraw. or degree of figuration. W h e n m o v i n g objects around in your yard. culture. "I have experimented endlessly with this idea. It is also found in nature. In his b o o k The Education of a Gardener. angles. or on a page. but an easy o n e to u n d e r s t a n d . the late garden designer Russell Page explains. s o m e will be more or less h a r m o n i o u s . for instance. a glass.Thisexercise will help you start. they are just. and an apple.228
A SENSE OF "JUST" (or rightness) is a difficult concept to explain. the impression y o u receive from t h e m . after being continuously adjusted. It is found in all great art and design. their impact. a b u n c h of keys. and ten straight sticks painted black. w i l l c h a n g e w i t h e v e r y r e a r r a n g e m e n t . There is a single m o m e n t w h e n all proportions. As y o u m o v e them around.
Here. In the final step (left) there is an even balance. Arrange them so they touch or cross in a series of intersecting balances. fix it with glue. W h e n the composition falls into place.56-57). Remember the drawn rectangle is a part of the composition (see pp.
." Move the sticks to find alignments and imagined perspectives. Feel for the rightness of their grouping and their relationships to surrounding spaces. horizontals dominate the top. which now becomes a tight frame. Within a rectangle on a flat sheet of paper set about making a composition using no other rule than a sense of "just.
B E I N G "JUST"
Arrange your ten sticks in t w o groups of five. suggesting a horizon.229
WHERE TO START
Take ten sticks of equal length.
Move the sticks out into the rectangle. making the composition seem to float beneath. as shown here. painted black. A stick touching the rectangle links the composition to the frame. horizontals dominate the lower area.
In the step above.
or even strident. found or made items. you start composing by adding or subtracting shapes and textures and using colors and tones to achieve the impression you want to m a k e — w h e t h e r dramatic or s u b d u e d .Youwill also need spare white paper.69 and Abe's installation on p. and black ink. colors. colors and textures can be manipulated until their pictorial harmony..
ready-made depths and surfaces. which is the shifting.230
H E R E W E EXPERIMENT
with collage. an infinite range of voices and meaning. Once the ten painted black sticks are set and glued in place. Returning to Russell Page. Cut or torn layers and shapes. they become a scaffold for the addition of further textures."
overlapping placement of materials on a flat plane. feels "just" (see pp. stain and dry a sheet of tissue paper using blueink..
"My understanding is that every object [or shape] emanates—sends out vibrations beyond its physical body which are specific to itself. scissors. This principal
also applies to three-dimensional drawings such as Gaudi's work with wire and weights on p. Collage offers the artist a liberating palette of
This lesson in collage is a direct continuation of the compositional lines made in the previous class. correction fluid or white paint. a compass.228-29). he went on to say ". glue. harmonious. or discordance.220. and tones. hard or soft. Images and fragments torn from day-to-day life can be brought together to make a chorus of ideas and emotions."
. To prepare for this lesson.
.228) in front of you. Cut six small rectangles the same proportion as your whole image. solidity. Glue them in place once they feel "just"
Translucent circular disks of tissue paper give color tone. This can also give a sense of fragmentation or punctuation to the composition. correction fluid and ink marks add further dimensions. then cut out.
Torn white paper moved over the surface adds masks of rough-edged irregular volume. In the last step (left). four circles of blue tissue paper. and shadow to thepicture.
Regular-sized pieces of white paper are moved over the surface to disrupt the even lines. draw. they deepen pictorial space. Obscuring the blue disks. and with a compass and scissors.231
WHAT TO DO
Lay the final step of the previous lesson (p.The single disk that is folded with its straight edge facing up appears heavier than those that are flat.
is the practice of Zen through the calligraphic marks of a brush dipped in carbon ink. Hitsuzendo drawings aspire to "breathe with the energy and vitality of eternal life" achieved through "a state of no mind—beyond thought. emotion. A MODERN JAPANESE
meditative art form inspired by the teachings
of Yamaoka Tesshu (1836-1888). and expectation.
Zen Brushwork]." [Tanchu Terayama.Zen Calligraphy
I flicked spatters of ink and rubbed the paper with a wet and a dry brush to achieve these effects. discord is balanced against rhythm to create mood.
. These vibrate against washes of shadow and pitch-black mass. Lines made with a steel dip pen take on a scratchy nervousness.Nocturnes
IN THIS QUARTET
of semi-abstract drawings made with
our literate and more secular Western society still hungers for another world and to ravenously indulge its fascination for the marvelous. and stained-glass windows deliver powerful visual sermons to the once-illiterate populace. look for images in the folds of clothing.
happen to us. Lord of the Rings. a collaboration between the two will ensure that your drawings glow with originality. impossible. our eye circulates around a flutter of leather and scaly wings. feathers. Images we are now surrounded by bear testimony to the power and resourcefulness of their collective imagination. and deep fur—and we alter their scale. Depictions of God or of gods in the contexts of daily life. Humans are equally troubled by the imperceptibly small and the enormous. in the cracks of walls. The salvation of heaven and terrors of hell are represented equally—enough to make any sinner shudder. For example. and damnation are found in most world faiths. and the
faces of God have for centuries given artists a feast for the extremes of their imagination. Monsters take advantage of both. a human-animal mix that implies this could
MARTIN SCHONGAUER German painter and engraver who settled to work in Colmar Alsace. or in smoke.
. We watch with captivated pleasure movies such as The Fly.247. paradise. We love our fear of the hybrid—ideally. a Catherine wheel of drawn sparks spiraling around the quietly resolute saint. or strange. Throughout this book images are presented to excite and surprise and drawing classes created to increase your confidence.Gods and Monsters
OUR SACRED AND SECULAR
need to visualize demons. Be inspired by the irrational comedy of word association or puns. all of which originated as hundreds of drawings. I was on a train passing through Nuneaton. Reading the place name I momentarily glimpsed an alternative meaning. Here. Neither should be slave or master. for example. Fantasy is most successful when founded on strong and familiar visual logic. We then add substances we dislike: unidentified fluids. sculptures. aliens. England. When creating monsters. movie studios now brim with as many monsters as the visual art of the Medieval and Renaissance Church. Feeding this demand. Today. To learn to flex your imagination. Perhaps the
Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 1485 121/4 x 9 in (312 x 230 mm) MARTIN SCHONGAUER
most important conclusion in this final chapter is to advise you to develop your skills in parallel with the joy of your unfolding imagination. which is to have eaten a nun—it inspired the drawing on p. In the Christian churches of Europe. wings. we select details of animals farthest from ourselves and that are widely thought disturbing—reptilian and insect features. scales. serpentine tails. Star Wars. thousands of paintings. angels. Schongauer is best known for his prints. which were widely distributed and influential in his time. and the Alien trilogy. beasts.
and church murals. Visions experienced in front of the drawing sometimes instruct the making of a new one. and exposed the superstitions. plain wall suggests a blinkered view of nothing. to Picasso's similarly tight. a Shoshone seeking guidance and power meditates at the sacred site of a petroglyph. it allows the mule to stand forward. Saturn devouring his son. He would be graceless if he stood. Francisco de Goya was a master of borrowing. and follies of court through copious graphic works including his best-known prints. This continuity enriches the making of art and our heritage.220. Many students leave white backgrounds in their work. Pictorially. Paul Thomas's studies of Picasso and Twombly can be traced directly. Goya's plainly textured gray background pushes back the space behind the illuminated simply subject.240
GODS AND M O N S T E R S
Marks of Influence
marking the influence of one artist upon another. whose impassioned work begins with light tapestry cartoons. This act defines the vision and continues the line of spirit guides. which can swamp the subject Here. we see the international icon of stupidity. such asinine behavior can be hereditary. quoting great paintings and popular culture to add cunning twists to his satires. They depict as if by lamplight the devil and witches. vanity. barren land rising like
MYRIAD CHAINS RUN THROUGH ART HISTORY. crammed tightly at his desk. reading from a book of asses.
Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 1799 81/2 x 6 in (218 x 154 mm) FRANCISCO DE GOYA
.30. rushing. Goya later recorded the horrors of Napoleonic occupation. Other drawn versions of this image are more savage and frightening. Compare his dark. Near the end of his life he made his "Black Paintings" on the walls of his home. In this softer aquatint he poses for his portrait
The aquatint process has been used
to great effect in making a gritty toned background. his lover a dog. Opposite.
a wave to join Achilles' chase of Hector. and men clubbing each other to death. The well-dressed mule is cumbersome. Violent white marks symbolizing Achilles' rage resonate with the energy of Twombly's script on p. deranged masses. In this ass. portraits. Los Caprichos. below. noisy seascape on p.
Aquatint Goya has drawn a learned man as an ass. hags. The high.
F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A
Spanish court painter printmaker and draftsman. Opposite below. The title "And So Was His Grandfather" adds that should we not already know.
or of the water
Chipped image This is a sacred creature of the sky chipped onto rock at Dinwoody Lake. Wyoming. Parallel lines within the body of the figure are likely to denote power.241
MARKS OF INFLUENCE
PAUL T H O M A S British contemporary artist whose epic graphic work questions and reflects upon issues of European identity. and personal and social struggles. perhaps a stone. by a supplicant in a trance of meditation. values. Thomas conducts his explorations in the mine of Greek and Roman mythology. ideals.
Achilles Chases Hector 1996 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) PAUL THOMAS
SHOSHONE PETROGLYPH The Shoshone people of Wyoming name petroglyph sites Poha Kahni. Wind River Reservation. of the earth. A vivid spectrum of energized graphite marks and a masterly composition give this drawing vitality and speed. Simple wall stones cleverly state their cold solidity while also fading from our attention as the scene roars by.
Here Achilles chases Hector around the
walls of Troy before killing him. White marks like flashes of light are cut though graphite with an eraser to reveal the paper beneath. meaning "place of power.
Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range UNDATED ARTIST UNKNOWN
." Each sacred image drawn into rock belongs to one of three realms in the Shoshone world: the realm of the sky. It was made with a sharp implement.
the writers Joris-Karl Huysmans and Stephane Mallarme. and scuttle over all known reality. Here we see how he evolved their injuries into new limbs and warped proportions. Our subconscious can be drawn with pleasure and ease. H e was influenced by his friends.204-05 will enable you to produce a similar effect of white lines shining out of dark charcoal. We may feel safe so long as the eye looks heavenward. 115.
Lifting out Fine strings of the hot-air balloon appear dark against the sky and light against the balloon. lifting its cranial passenger over a seascape of repose. crawl.
The Eye Like a Strange Mounts
165/8 x131/8in (422 x 332 mm) ODILON REDON
. the shock would be extreme. graphic artist. The monsters of Bosch grew from his observations of beggars going about their trade in 15th. as he did the grass. Redon lifted them out with some sort of eraser. Techniques demonstrated on pp. we see parallel slanting pale marks that might have been made with fresh bread—a very effective eraser used before the wide availability of rubber or plastic.
In this charcoal drawing. and writer In contrast t o the light and visual accent of contemporary Impressionism. They float toward us like a horrid visitation. Redon explored the darker side of the human imagination through symbols and mysticism.and 16th-century Holland. below left.242
of the unknown is a classical and constant occupation for the artist. If it were to turn and stare this way. Redon's eyeball balloon rises up. which sometimes—half-dressed and carrying a familiar trophy— stride.
T H E EXPLORATION AND DEPICTION
Grandville has drawn a scurrying zoo of half-known demons and animals that appear to have been stolen from the glass eye of the microscope. to the
right of the balloon. Compare worked textures throughout the whole of this image to those found throughout Anita Taylor's charcoal drawing on p.
ODILON REDON French painter draftsman. Children are also delighted to invent a monster or ghoul.
1840 61/8 x41/2in ( 1 5 5 x 1 1 5 mm) GRANDVILLE
HIERONYMUS BOSCH Dutch painter Bosch's highly detailed iconographic religious panel paintings.
Quill and ink This typical Bosch monster is a quill drawing in bistre ink The phrasing of light and contour here is masterly.
Two Monsters UNDATED 45/8 x61/2in (117 x 163 mm) HIERONYMUS BOSCH
This is an engraving made so
that Grandville's original drawing could be reproduced.
A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects c. and Ship of Fools. Garden of Earthly Delights. The quality of the line is therefore uniform throughout. Last Judgment. include The Haywain. grimacing.243
J E A N I G N A C E ISIDORE GERARD ("GRANDVILLE") French graphic artist and political satirist. Madrid. This image is from one of Grandville's best-known publications. His other major works include Metamorphoses du Jour (1828). Most of his work is in the Prado Museum. Smiling. and he illustrated the Fables of La Fontaine and Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe. Les Animaux (1840). Light shines from the right. sucker-faced creatures dash and trundle toward it They are drawn solidly to emphasize their earthbound weight. which is still available today. Comic little headbands of waving hair express more hysteria than fear. teeming with the exhilaration of unrestrained fantasy.
His entire drawing wrestles and weaves the viewer's eye into its retracting folds.
Florentine painter sculptor.244
GODS AND MONSTERS
THESE CONVOLUTED DRAWINGS were made almost 5 0 0 years apart. pinnacled. remembering the cavernous. In her studio. architect. lion. However. muscular tension is carved out of the paper using layered. but in the seductive landscape of Leonardo da Vinci's oil painting Madonna of the Rocks. wraps and coils its lithe body ready to strike or whimper at a touch. Grimes found the genesis of her beast not among animals. sometimes artists purposefully tie a knot in the configuration to disturb. a stunning hybrid of a swan. she formed a series of ghostly pale. and mist-swathed land. hatched lines. phrased over the contours of form and bridging darker areas of shadow. A snake eating its own tail is a universal image of the eternal and continuous. and dying slaves. Dragon
10 x 133/8 in ( 2 5 4 x 3 3 8 m m ) MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI
Chalk and ink A quill dipped in brown ink was worked over black chalk on this reused sheet. below. David. snake. as we might expect. gamboling copulations. Two previously drawn faces become humorous antagonists to the beast. Grimes' delicately cavorting figures dive into and consume each other. and marble sculptures including Pieto. Scaly. and dog. poet. topple. and play with its perfection and meaning. St Peter's square. and engineer Among Michelangelo's great works are the painted ceiling and altar wall of the Sistine Chapel. Michelangelo's dragon. Opposite. They share between them the pleasures of inventing a hybrid beast. the dome of the Vatican.
London. London. It is one of a series of fragile earth figures inspired by rocks. Grimes exhibits internationally and features in the collections of the New York Public Library and the Victoria and Albert Museum. and the Camberwell and Slade Schools of Fine Art.
How Clever of God #84 2002 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) O O N A GRIMES
. The large space around figure has been cropped Grimes drawings to flatten presses them.245 CONVOLUTIONS
O O N A GRIMES British contemporary artist and professor of printmaking at the Ruskin School.
Ink-wash delicately gouache (smooth)
and gouache brushed drawing on
This is a and was hot-pressed
The dark shadow of the Other the
earth was made with a brushstroke of ink laid into wet paper. The image
formed directly without first making a pencil outline. boards finished
paper. Oxford. her under heavy here. details evolved slowly using a drier brush. each one iridescent and crumbly like a weathered while oyster.
SABLE-HAIR LINER: Made with ordinary sable hair surrounding an extralong. SMALL JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with sable hair. shape. washes.
1. making rt ideally suited to Japanese painting and small-scale calligraphy. P O I N T E D T R A D I T I O N A L WRITER: The ferrule is made from a small duck quill. 3. which holds long sable hair This brush holds large amounts of ink for long lines and points well for detailed work.H A I R RIGGER: Made with long synthetic hair for fine-point work It has a good ink-holding capacity and is slightly more resilient than sable hair with more "snap. all perfect for drawing and. and wrist into a fluid and soft touch. this brush has a soft drawing tip and small ink-holding capacity. Shorter brushes designed for other purposes run out of ink more quickly. JAPANESE PAINTING BRUSH: Made with natural hair. needle-sharp center of kolinsky red sable hair. others are as fine as a whisker with a gentle touch. it has good inkholding capacity and is very flexible. 12. return them to their pointed shape. giving a variety of lines. and texture. The living marks of a wet. Always clean them thoroughly.
drawing tool extending the arm. ink-laden tip allow an expression that is beyond the linear. Brushes vary in size. Soaps purchased from good art supply stores will gently cleanse particles of pigment that become trapped in the hairs or ferrule. and hold prodigious weights of ink or paint. it has good wash capabilities. SYNTHETIC-HAIR LINER: This brush gives a medium line and is firm with a spring to the touch.Theyhold plenty of ink and make continuous. and very fine lines. between them. dense. Slightly less flexible than the squirrel-hair sword liner 9. This design supplies the fine tip with a long continuity of ink 5. materials. The brushes shown here are a mixture of
This is a selection of riggers.H A I R LINER: Very responsive oriental-style liner This to the touch. liners. and has a fine tip for detailed work. flowing. SQUIRREL-HAIR S W O R D LINER:This brush has a maximum ink-holding capacity and an extremely fine and flexible point 8. LARGER JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with natural hair held in a plastic ferrule on a bamboo handle. SYNTHETIC-HAIR BRUSH: Bound in a synthetic ferrule with good inkholding capacity and good spring and control." 6. and effects. 10. POINTED SQUIRREL-HAIR MOP: With a synthetic quill ferrule and extra high inkholding capacity. and never leave them standing on their tip in a jar of water.
M T RA S AEIL
. with a fine point for delicate work 4. SYNTHETIC-HAIR S W O R D LINER: A lining brush with high ink-holding capacity and a fine point. ideally suited to drawing. Suitable for wash techniques but also capable of very fine detail. This brush has a broad wash capability and can achieve a very wide range of marks. It is still relatively small in the total range of Japanese brushes. Some are bold. and writers. It has exceptional painting characteristics. L A R G E R S Y N T H E T I C . fingers. the very opposite of pencil or silver point. Some used by master calligraphers are 2-3 in (5-8 cm) in diameter 11. thicknesses. SABLE-HAIR RIGGER: Made with very long kolinsky sable hairs.246
GODS A N D M O N S T E R S
T H E BRUSH IS A VOLUPTUOUS
weights. It is capable of very fine pointing. 7. 13. 2. How you care for your brushes will determine how long they last. S Y N T H E T I C .
the texture and a b s o r b e n c y of the paper ( w h i c h m a y be d a m p or dry). and to make pools and stains o n the page. b l o w i n g h a r d o n t h e m several t i m e s t o disperse t h e ink ( c l o s e y o u r eyes if y o u t r y this. splashes. and above all w h e t h e r the b r u s h is saturated with pigment or relatively dry. the degree of pressure applied.246-47). It also depends on the angle at w h i c h it is held. w i t h m y face close. length. the speed of the s t r o k e . A single brush has almost balletic potential to draw fine or undulating lines and curves.)
. I had left the end of the ink block in the water overnight to make it easier to dissolve. and type of its hairs.35) into two tablespoons of water in a shallow. softness. I rubbed a block of Chinese ink (see p. unglazed earthenware dish.
Here I drew with a soft Japanese painting brush (see pp.248
GODS A N D M O N S T E R S
A S I N G L E BRUSH will m a k e an e n o r m o u s range of m a r k s depending u p o n the width.
T h e s e t h r e e s p i d e r y c r e a t u r e s (above right and below) w e r e m a d e by d r o p p i n g s p o t s o f ink f r o m a b r u s h o n t o t h e p a g e and. and spatters.
. b l e e d i n g f r o m strokes b e l o w left.249
T h e details o f t h e largest creatures b e l o w and opposite s h o w the granular texture of Chinese b l o c k ink. w e see fine lines and s p o t s . a n d b r u s h . a n d t h e w a y it d i s t r i b u t e s w h e n t h e b r u s h is d a b b e d o n its s i d e . t h e effects of the b r u s h r u n n i n g o u t o f ink.
Wet and dry strokes
A m o n g these concentrated drawings ink made into with the same w a t e r y lines.
. I borrowed small and fragile specimens from the University Museum of Natural History. until we look again.Monsters
THESE LITTLE CREATURES o f i n k and i n v e n t i o n were b o r n
out of animal and bird studies. and used their detail to draw new creatures that might at first seem familiar. Oxford.
thin works made by Bartolome Murillo in Seville about 120 years earlier. Here. I found relationships between all four paintings in terms of shapes. formal composition.Goya's Monsters
W I T H CUNNING BRILLIANCE. Goya's witches have been literally drawn and evolved out of the shapes of Murillo's prophet and pilgrims.
. Isidore. Among his "Black Paintings" in the Prado Museum. two of my own drawings show you how Goya's devil (below) is based on the shape of Murillo's boy on a horse (top right).
Goya often invented his monsters out of characters seen in other
painters' works. thin works titled The Witches' Sabbath and The Procession of St. They are a pair and hang opposite each other. and narrative twists. With further research. showing us that gallery study is not just for the student and beginner. are two long. Madrid. Through studying and drawing these great paintings I have discovered that they are based on a pair of similarly long.
. Sometimes drawings come out of nowhere and surprise even the artist. drawn rapidly and with great joy.
little comments on politeness and sexual politics.Consumed
THIS IS A SERIES OF CARTOONS I m a d e s o m e years ago.
linseed oil o r egg y o l k
Contour line A line t h a t f o l l o w s
t h e s h a p e o f a surface. T h e name " n o t " simply refers t o t h e fact t h a t t h e cylinders are n o t h o t in t e m p e r a t u r e .
Air brush A mechanical.
Blending M e r g i n g t w o o r m o r e
neighboring colors o r tones t o g e t h e r using a tortillon.
Bleed T h e e f f e c t o f t w o w e t
colors running into one another o r o n e color applied t o a w e t surface a n d a l l o w e d t o d i s p e r s e . w h e n a p e r s o n is p a i n t e d standing a g a i n s t a w i n d o w .s i z e d r a w i n g
m a d e for t h e purpose o f transferring a design t o a painting.
Accidental drawing Random. o r will o n l y a p p e a r n o r m a l .
Contre jour A F r e n c h t e r m
m e a n i n g " a g a i n s t day. R o u g h p a p e r is m a d e b e t w e e n t w o blankets t h a t
. for example. T h e m o v e m e n t was started by a g r o u p o f French artists including H e n r i Matisse. L a t e r it c a m e t o m e a n h i g h l y c o n t r a s t e d light effects. A g e n e r a l t e r m t h a t describes t h e various processes o f c u t t i n g a design i n t o a plate o r b l o c k o f m e t a l o r w o o d . s u c h as a s c r e e n . A l s o c a l l e d t h e h o r i z o n line. as o p p o s e d t o t h e s t r a i g h t e d g e o f a sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has b e e n machine-trimmed.
s u c h as a d r a w i n g o r painting.
Fixative Liquid acrylic resin a n d
l a c q u e r t h i n n e r usually a p p l i e d as a n a e r o s o l s p r a y m i s t t o t h e surface o f a d r y . 2. S o m e t i m e s f e r r u l e s a r e m a d e o f plastic o r o t h e r materials. r a t h e r t h a n r e c o r d e d o n a film o r plate. t h e l i g h t is b e h i n d h i m o r her.
Field In a t w o .m a d e paper. A l s o called m u s e u m g r a d e . A p o t e n t i a l l y h a r s h m e t h o d o f p r o d u c i n g t o n e s in a d r a w i n g . in w h i c h parts o f an image are depicted v e r y brightly and dramatically against d a r k n e s s . D a m p p a p e r is laid o n t o p . o r o t h e r (usually large) w o r k — s e e Pouncing. It is p u t o n a
Body color See Gouache.c e n t u r y
Italian t e r m m e a n i n g "clear-obscure. 2. T h e b l a n k e t s g i v e t h e p a p e r its rough texture o r "tooth. written with a broad-nibbed pen o r brush.
Camera obscura A d a r k e n e d
c h a m b e r i n t o w h i c h an i m a g e o f w h a t is o u t s i d e is received t h r o u g h a small o p e n i n g o r lens a n d f o c u s e d in natural c o l o r o n a facing surface. w h e n v i e w e d f r o m a specified point.
Fauvism A n early 2 0 t h .d i m e n s i o n a l i m a g e . so t h a t ink r e m a i n s o n l y in t h e g r o o v e s o f s c r a t c h e d lines.m e d i a d r a w i n g . C o p p e r p l a t e engravings w e r e widely used t o r e p r o d u c e images b e f o r e p h o t o g r a p h y . In t h e Far East calligraphy is a highly r e s p e c t e d a r t f o r m . usually at a n a c u t e angle t o t h e s u r f a c e . U s e d as a c o r r e c t i n g device o r pictorial game. Also called accelerated perspective. a n d g r a p h i t e ." D e s c r i b e s a p a i n t i n g in w h i c h t h e light s o u r c e is b e h i n d t h e s u b j e c t F o r e x a m p l e . It can also seal a silver p o i n t d r a w i n g t o p r e v e n t t h e oxidization (browning) o f t h e
Drypoint A d r a w i n g is s c r a t c h e d
directly o n t o a m e t a l plate w i t h a m e t a l t o o l h e l d like apen. p r a c t i c e d meditatively w i t h a brush. n e w s p a p e r cuttings.
Crosshatching Parallel lines
d r a w n across o n e a n o t h e r at right angles. Fixative lightly glues t h e d r a w i n g t o t h e surface o f t h e p a p e r t o p r e v e n t smudging.
F r o m t h e G r e e k kallos.
Camera lucida A n optical device
t h a t p r o j e c t s an image o f an o b j e c t o n t o a plain s u r f a c e so t h a t it can be traced." " N o t " p r e s s e d p a p e r is r o l l e d a s e c o n d t i m e w i t h o u t blankets t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders t o p r o d u c e a s m o o t h e r b u t still slightly t e x t u r e d s u r f a c e . T h e prints t a k e n from t h e s e plates o r blocks.The plate is t h e n r o l l e d w i t h ink a n d polished with a rag. and readymade objects arranged and stuck o n t o a flat surface.
Anamorphic distortion Stretching
an i m a g e across a p i c t u r e surface so t h a t it can o n l y b e u n d e r s t o o d . R e m b r a n d t is a great master o f chiaroscuro. t h e field is t h e a p p a r e n t a n d b e l i e v a b l e space inside t h e p i c t u r e .
Erasure T h e a c t o f r e m o v i n g
a n i m a g e f r o m a surface.
Bracelet shading C u r v e d parallel
lines t h a t f o l l o w t h e c o n t o u r s o f f o r m . tapestry.
Aerial perspective The effect of the
a t m o s p h e r e o v e r distance as it lightens t o n e s a n d cools c o l o r s progressively t o w a r d t h e horizon. p h o t o g r a p h s ." It w a s first given t o t o n a l paintings m a d e in o n e c o l o r — s e e Grisaille. t o g e t h e r w i t h a t h i c k felt b l a n k e t T h e w h o l e s a n d w i c h o f l a y e r s is t h e n railed t h r o u g h t h e press t o m a k e a p r i n t D r y p o i n t is a very portable and immediate m e t h o d o f printmaking. o f t e n d i s t o r t e d forms and vivid colors. Binder A substance t h a t holds particles o f p i g m e n t t o g e t h e r in a paint f o r m u l a t i o n .
in w h i c h t h e subject's distinctive features o r peculiarities are deliberately exaggerated f o r c o m i c o r g r o t e s q u e effect.
Composition T h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f
t h e p a r t s o f an i m a g e t o m a k e u p the whole. m e a n i n g "beauty". a n d attaches t h e m t o t h e s u p p o r t — f o r example. In t h e W e s t p e n calligraphy is u s e d t o c r e a t e f o r m a l a n d d e c o r a t i v e t e x t s . Engraving 1. pressurized
t o o l used f o r spraying fine mists o f s m o o t h c o l o r P i g m e n t is d e l i v e r e d b y a j e t o f air n o t t h e bristles o f a brush. Calligraphy Beautiful h a n d w r i t i n g . A h u m o r o u s d r a w i n g o r parody. p r i n t i n g press face up.
Conservation grade D e s c r i b e s a
range o f materials t h a t d o n o t d e c a y and cannot be broken d o w n by insects. A f u l l . charcoal. A " s h a l l o w d e p t h o f field" m e a n s t h e p i c t u r e appears t o have only a shallow s p a c e inside i t
Diffuse T o s o f t e n o r m a k e less
brilliant.c e n t u r y
painting m o v e m e n t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e use o f b o l d . A l s o called r i n g l e t shading.
Chiaroscuro A 1 7 t h . A i r b r u s h e s are u s e d in t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c o m i c s . pastel.
Acid-free paper P a p e r w i t h a
neutral p H t h a t will n o t darken o r d e t e r i o r a t e excessively w i t h age. F r o m t h e French v e r b coller.
Blotting T h e use o f a b s o r b e n t
m a t e r i a l t o lift a w a y excess liquid.
Deckle edge T h e i r r e g u l a r e d g e
o f a s h e e t o f m o l d . a n d given t h e n a m e Sho. See also Hotpressed papers.
Collage C o l l e c t e d materials such
as c o l o r e d p a p e r s .
Ferrule T h e s h o r t m e t a l t u b e
t h a t s u r r o u n d s a n d g n p s t h e hairs o f a p a i n t b r u s h a n d fixes t h e m t o t h e brush handle.
Eye level T h e i m a g i n a r y h o r i z o n t a l
p l a n e a t t h e s a m e h e i g h t as t h e a v e r a g e p e r s o n ' s eyes. a r e r o l l e d t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders. m e a n i n g " t o stick"
Dry media M e d i a t h a t a r e n o t
w e t o r o i l y — f o r e x a m p l e . W o r d s o r symbols are
Cold-pressed papers P a p e r
manufactured with a "not" o r " r o u g h " surface.
metal line.Theground provides a particular color or texture beneath the image. After several intervening processes. Monoprinting A direct method of printing in which wet medium (water-. ink.
Negative space The space
between things. Alternatively. sticky paper tape.
. the finely ground particles of plant. Dark tones are laid down first then an eraser or masking tape is used to lift away particles of the drawing media to reveal the lightness of the paper beneath. 2. Pointillism A technique of using points or dots of pure color in such a way that when the picture is viewed from a distance they react
Masking tape Invaluable. to describe a surface to which paint will adhere readily. or plastic surface.while secretion of the acacia tree. Rubens used grisaille to paint small images for engravers.
work. or spirit-based) is applied to a surface that is then pressed onto paper and removed to leave a print. It is a strong adhesive. It is then peeled away. or can be otherwise used to create an image—for example. and by artists representing stone sculptures in a painting. which has a rough surface). This may be disregarded in real life. F o r m The outer surface of a three-dimensional object. A small image might be described as small format Horizontal images are often said to be "landscape format" (abbreviated G u m arabic The natural to"landscape"). Lightfast A term confirming that pigment in the product will not fade with exposure to light. are painted in grisaille and appear to be made of stone. Giotto's Virtues and Vices in the Arena Chapel.
Masking fluid Clear or opaque
latex fluid developed for watercolor painting. glass. and it has a history in enamel work. Usually an academic drawing observed from life. purpose. to give the illusion of depth and distance. Gamut A complete range or extent Glassine A type of thin. but each print will be unique.
format" (abbreviated to "portrait"). and is also used as a size. cadmium yellow hue. shape. Monochrome Usually refers to a black. the surface of the stone is made wet before being rolled with a thin film of oilbased printing ink. with the area beneath remaining unaffected. and gray drawing.
Hot-pressed papers (HP)
Paper made using hot cylinders." A piece of paper is placed on top of an object or rough surface. lifting out charcoal and other dry media. of the ingredients in inks and watercolors. Ground A wet solution usually of gouache or gesso (chalk and animal glue) brushed onto paper board. Also refers to an additive used to control the application properties of a color
Golden Section A proportion in
which a straight line or rectangle is divided into two unequal parts in such a way that the ratio of the smaller part to the greater part is the same as that of the greater part to the whole. Grisaille A painting in gray or a grayish color Often made by students as a tonal exercise.
Objective drawing Refers to
the concept of objectivity. Plumb line A line from which a weight is suspended in order to determine verticality or depth.The degree to which detail is defined. which give it a smooth surface (as opposed to cold-pressed paper. pastel. This effect emulates what we see in real life.
Picture plane In the imaginary space
of a picture. or for wrapping and protecting a finished piece of work. and masking off areas of a drawing that the artist wishes to keep untouched by media applied above or beside the tape. The ink attaches to the oil-based image and is repelled by the wet stone. then rubbed over carefully but vigorously with a crayon. rock. Also used by artists' materials manufacturers to indicate the use of a substitute pigment—for example. Padua. Impressing Stamping or printing. or synthetic material that are suspended in a medium to constitute paint. or a family of colors. and orientation of the image. upright images are called "portrait which is used as a binding agent in many liquid media. graphite. including Max Ernst used frottage in their work. mineral. The surface can be reloaded or redrawn with more medium. A point of interest in a drawing. or even a beam of light. and translucent paper—a delicate material used in collage. oil-based printing ink is rolled evenly onto a smooth metal. but in picture-making it is as important as the objects/subjects themselves. enabling them to stick to paper It also helps to maintain a stable dispersion of pigment particles in water as the film of a wash dries. aiming to represent facts rather than an interpretation of the subject. oil-. or a drawing made in any single color
Linear perspective A form of
perspective in which parallel lines are represented as converging. Lithography A method of printmaking in which a drawing or painting is made directly onto a smooth slab of particular limestone or a metal plate using an oilbased crayon or ink. Focus 1 .
Papercut A type of collage in which flat sheets of paper are cut into an image. and that will "escape" or change over time. it is the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work Pigment Any substance used as a coloring agent—for example. It improves the bonding properties Frottage A French term meaning "rubbing. Fugitive A term given to a pigment that it is not stable. It can be used with any wet media to isolate or protect parts of an image from further
Optical blending See Pointillism. white. Foreshortening A method of depicting an object at an angle to the surface of the picture. glossy.The paper then bears a crayon impression or copy of the surface that was underneath it A number of Surrealists. used for fixing paper to walls and boards. materials that produce marks on a surface. Hairspray is an effective and inexpensive alternative. F o r m a t T h e size. Artists can paint freely over dry masking fluid. This method incorporates the excitement of accidental and unpredicted marks. Grisaille is occasionally seen in church stained-glass windows. multiH u e A term for a color. Medium A generic term for art Key A painting is said to be "high key" when the colors and tones are bright and "low key" when they are dark or somber The term is also used Gouache Opaque watercolor Also called body color. Paper is then pressed against the stone to take a print. Hatching (cross-) See Crosshatching. Paper is laid on top and a rapid drawing is made on the back of it The paper lifts away to reveal the image on its other side. Lifting out A method of creating highlights and mid-tones in a drymedia drawing (such as charcoal or graphite). or canvas and allowed to dry before an image is drawn or painted. so that (using vanishing point perspective) the object appears to change shape and become narrower or smaller as it recedes.
Wash A technique using ink. Etienne de material) dabbed through the Silhouette (1709-67). a tightly folded piece of cotton batting can be used for the same effect. a point at which receding parallel lines meet Verso The back or underside of a piece of paper. Zen brushwork encompasses calligraphy and painting. Props An abbreviation of the word properties. Size A weak glue used for filling the porous surface of wood or canvas in order to seal it. nature of watercolor allows the white surface of the paper to Tonal scale A scale of gradations shine through. using a brush. plaster. Support The structure on which an image is made—for example." Applied to the blurring or softening of sharp outlines by the subtle and gradual blending of one tone into another Sgraffito A technique of scratching or cutting through a surface of paint. design. W e t media Any liquid media— for example. giving it a brilliance. Tone A degree of lightness or darkness. a sheet of paper is placed beneath and pinpricks are Silhouette A flat. The translucent Tint A color mixed with white. Tortillon A short. Strip Core of a pencil. Zen A school of Mahayana Buddhism that asserts that enlightenment can come through meditation and intuition rather than faith.Thedrawing is removed. A term borrowed from the theater. or the right-hand page in a book." Materials for Zen brushwork include round brushes of varied size. whose pinpricks creates a "connect-thepersonal pastime was making dots" replica of the image on the cut-out portraits. The crude material is called oleoresin. and paperweights. or gouache. such as an inscribed sheet of metal. Squeegee A rubber-trimmed scraper used in the screenprinting process for dragging ink across a surface. and chrysanthemum—which in Chinese tradition are called "The Four Gentlemen. Serigraphy Silk-screen printing. plum blossom. Scale Describes the size of one element in relation to another Sepia A brown pigment taken from the sun-dried ink sacs of cuttlefish and used to make ink or watercolor The term is now often incorrectly used to refer to brown colors. compound of water-soluble pigment. carbon ink. Subjective drawing A drawing that expresses the personal view and interpretation of the artist An invented image. or ceramic glazing to reveal a different color beneath. Artists' prints are normally made in multiple.
Viewpoint The position from which something is observed or considered.
Stylus A sharp. Squaring up A method of enlarging and transferring an image from one surface to another. acrylic.
. Zen brushwork This is an oriental meditative art form originating in China and practised for many centuries in Japan. in tone running from black to white or vice versa. ink. or any physical object that can be stamped or pressed onto a surface to leave an impression. Still life A picture composed of inanimate objects such as bowls. Alternatively. orchids. Named paper in place. Technical drawing A universal it is often used in conjunction language of lines and measurements with line drawings in pen and that is used to make diagrammatic ink—for images. Vanishing point In linear perspective. Zen paintings usually depict scenes of nature and plants such as bamboo. tight. to model areas of light and shade. watercolor. Volume The amount of space occupied by an object or an area of space in itself. or wood. Stippling Applying color or tone in areas of fine dots or flecks. Underdrawing A pale preliminary drawing made prior to adding layers of another medium such as oil paint or watercolor Value The extent to which a color reflects or transmits light This is the equivalent of tone in a black and white image. or point on which parallel lines converge to give the impression of receding space.258
together optically. "Spirits" or "oil" of turpentine refer to the volatile portion used by artists to thin or dilute oil-based paint. Recto The front or top side of a piece of paper.
Shade A that is color mixed (or toned) with black Shading A lay term for adding tone to a drawing. pointed instrument used for marking or engraving. Sketch A quick or rough drawing. or watercolor paint. wall or tapestry. or mark using an inked or pigment-covered surface. fine paper.Technicaldrawing has been example. pencil. fruit. meaning objects used in setting up a life model or still life. evolved by engineers and architects for the purpose of conveying W a t e r c o l o r A painting accurate structural information. and flowers.
Pouncing If a large drawing or design (called a cartoon) is to be Shadow Darkness cast by the transferred to a surface such as a obscuring of light. an ink stone usually cut from slate. which are then called editions. plaster or cloth surface beneath. usually diluted with water and applied with a brush. paper or canvas. by imposing a grid that is then scaled up to a larger size. pointed roll of white paper that is used to blend dry media. creating more vibrant effects than if the same colors were physically mixed together with a brush. Pounce (a fine for an unpopular 18th-century powder of charcoal or similar French politician. or the left-hand page in a book. Spattering A mottled texture produced by drawing your fingers across the bristles of a stiff brush loaded with pigment. Although drawings can be made with wash alone. in order to flick the pigment onto the image surface. Single-point perspective The most basic form of linear perspective in which there is only one vanishing point. Turpentine A colorless solvent distilled from the resinous sap of pine trees. commonly referred to as the lead. cut-out profile made along every outline of the usually made in black paper image. glasses. Printmaking The act of making a picture. or pen. Sfumato An Italian term meaning "smoky. sometimes drawn from a and leaving only the pricked sheet of shadow cast on a wall.
230 The Physical Space 220 abstract drawing 219. 26 geese 38-39 Gericault's cats 28. 242 Brunelleschi. to express 39. 178 Cubism 67. 250 Bishndas and Nanha: Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity 50. 182.184. 72 bracelet shading 122 Braque. 8 cave paintings 8. 230-231 Cubist 90. 139
Nanha) 50. 128. 203 Claude Lorrain 202 Views from Velletri 202. 95 Chair Cut Out (Woodfine) 94. (Ross-Craig) 49
to hold brush for 23 caricature 159. 75. 242 to blend 205 compressed 122. 160 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object (Moore) 178.51 All and Nothing (Taylor) 114. 71 conte 112. 179 Bussotti.13. 203 Buffalo Hunt (Shoshone) 178.89. 223 Circular Score for "Due Voce" 223
children's art 9. 90 La Guitare. 9. 204-205.226.115 anatomical drawing 134-135 anatomical theaters 82-83 anatomical waxes 128 ancient carvings 221.198. Augustin 67 Basquiat. layers 53 chalk pastels 162. Leon: Bacchante 155 balance. 13 architectural drawing 67-71 Arctic Flowers (Libeskind) 70. 75 Circle of the Lustful (Blake) 180. 98. 116. 186 charcoal 114. 203 Landline 202. 9 Chair (Van Gogh) 94. 157 cropping 56-57.133. cut Catling. 241 action.184. 94 chalk(s) 53.117 Achilles Chases Hector (Thomas) 240. 113 bird bones 12.44-45.Index
Page numbers in italics refer t o captions and illustrations Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity (Bishndas and
bread (as eraser) 205. 222. 133. 243 botanical drawing 48-49 Boullee.100 curves. 71 Bacchante (Bakst) 155 background: color 91 textured 240 Baker Matthew: Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry 32 Bakst. 90 colored materials 162-163 colored pencils 162. 204. 29 Hugo's octopus 28. Victor: West Facade of the Church of St. 81 135. to draw 25. 161 Akhlaq-I Rasul Allah manuscript 51. 220.169 colors: airbrushed 161 background 91
Abe. William: The Circle of the Lustful 180. Etienne-Louis 72 Newton's Cenotaph 72. Zen
blended 133. 30 sleeping dog 38-39 Stubbs's horse skeleton 26. 70 Art Nouveau motifs 91 Autoportrait (Ray) 138. Mamaru 104. 206. 247-248 carving see lines. 244 and graphite 178
. 90.31 Picasso's horse and bird 30. Jean Michel 138 Self-Portrait 138 Bateau-Vision.186 see also movement Adoration of the Magi perspective study (Leonardo) 74. 193 in lifting out 204. 162 character: to capture 38-39. 81 cut-out model plan 94.163 graded 227 composition 56-57. 189.50. 40-41 Durer's rhinoceros 26. 13. to model 110-111 border 51 Bosch. Giovanni 137 Head and Shoulders of a Man 136. Joseph 113 The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland 112. Hieronymus 243 Two Monsters 242.162 Conte. 74. Franz 48 Protea nitida 48 Bellini. 199 Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya (Eisen) 156. 165. to draw 100 Cypripedium calceolus L. 206 checkered floor 80. 94 cylindrical objects. 158. to draw 80.163 body. 90.27 turtles 42-43 aquatint 240 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels (Leonardo) 12. 74 brush (es) 246-247 Japanese 248 for laying a wash 140 marks 248-249 to hold 23 brush drawings 14-15 Bryan. 202 cloth. 201 collage 111. Statue d'Epouvante 90
calligraphy. center of 118 ballpoint 182.212 to erase 205 to hold 23 pencils 204 willow 114. 134 costume(s) 155 character 158-159 structure of 166-167 Cottage Among Trees (Rembrandt) 52. 78 aerial perspective 206 airbrushing 160. 244 head and neck 144 phrased 124-125 contrast: brightness 99 of media 30 tonal 96. 205 Baltard. 52 cotton swabs 205 Coup de Vent a Asajigabare (Hokusai) 198. Basilius 47 Beuys. 50. 137 Besler. Sylvano 222. 226-227 Acanthus spinosus 65 accelerated perspective 22. 111. 28 Klee's horses 30.44-45 bird studies 12. 190 Caricature of a Woman (Daumier) 198. 74. 180 blending: color 133. 38-39. 198. to depict 156-157 Cloudburst of Material Possessions (Leonardo) 200. 180 Circular Score for "Due Voce" (Bussotti) 223 circus scenes 192-195 City (Bryan) 202.163 dry media 205 Blue Nude (Matisse) 110. 163. Brian 226 Untitled 2001 226 "Cave of the Hands" (Cueva de las Manas) 8. Georges 67. 198 cartoon (preparatory drawing) 137 (satirical) 159. 41 principal 186. 71 Blake. Clare 203 City 202. Nicolas-Jacques 54 contours 146. Filippo 67. Le (Hugo) 200. 221 animals. 200 Bauer.
Statue d'Epouvante. Jean Ignace Isidore see Grandville Gericault. 69. 134. 91 Dragon (Michelangelo) 36. 104-105. Francisco de 131. 73.160. 71 minimal line 99 and music 70-71 quick 38-39.198 Degas. 55. 163. Study for Plate 59 (Mucha) 90. 55. 765 hitsuzendo drawings 233 Hokusai.260
Dada 139 Daumien Honore 198 Caricature of a Woman 198. 132 Frenz. 200
fabric.230 three-tone 140.102-103 drawing board 20 drawing books 20-21 drawing paper 144.144 and ink 30. 160
Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction (Gaudi) 68. 240 170-173
five Ships in a Port with Lighthouse (Wallis) 11. to suggest 177 see also perspective diagonals diffuser 55 dip pens 34. 160 hitsuzendo 233 light to dark 102. 37
Grandville 243 A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the Near-Microscopic World of Scale Insects 242. 162 Flaxman.104. 93 horizon 52. 245 Gruau. Sir Ernst 12. 40.112. La (Braque) 90. 157
. Oona 245 How Clever of God #84 244. Rene 160 Illustration for Jacques Fath
easel.97. disposable pens 182-183 dissections: botanical 48 of horse 27 distance: illusion of see perspective linear 97 tonal 97 Documents Decoratifs. 243 graphic score 222. 120. 245 layers 30 Goya. 136 Golden Section 67 Gombrich. 226-227 anatomical 134-135 architectural 67-71 botanical 48-49 brush 14-15 dark to light 102. 69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt 68. 55. Antonio 135 Muscles of the Head and Neck 134. 25 focus 65. 205 drawing with 103. 137 heads. 113.116. M. 90
Flying Fish (White) 25. 122. 99 etching. The 242. 160 as ground for metal point 140.115 exploratory 17 fantasy 72-73. 190 Middle Eastern 50-51. 52 foreground 208.157 ellipses 100. 93 eye level 80 Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity. 32 framing 139 Franfoise au Bandeau (Picasso) 132.91. Ron 161 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 161
160. Robert 93 Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 92. C . 161 changing 216 Focusing on the Negative (Walter) 16 foliage 52. 799 Holbein. 216 foreshortening 110. 252 depiction of fabric monsters 252-253 Self Portrait in a Cocked Hat 130. 124. 240. position of 22 Eisen.207. Antonio 68. 90 gouache 30. 125.244.244 drawing(s): abstract 219. proportions of 143 fantasy drawings 72-73. 202. 141 tonal 96. 242 eyes. Cheval et Oiseau (Picasso) 30.141. 134. Victor 200. 220 dry brush 234 234 57. 7 33 Hooke. 30 Fauves/fauvism 90. 135 Duren Albrecht 26. 134. fiber-tip pen 182. 245 Hugo. Katsushika 199 Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 198.252-253 from memory 183. 69 Guitare. Keisai 157 The Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya 156. to draw 168-169 in Goya's artworks face. 223. 112.184 165. 79.37.146 from masterworks 126-127. 222 Le Bateau-Vision 200. drypoint 181 exaggeration 184 expressionism 198 E ye and Head of a Drone Fly (Hooke) 92.166 170-173
Gestalt 222 Giacometti. Alberto 136 Portrait of Marie-Laure de Noailles 136. position of 143. Nicholas 68 St Paul's Baptistry 68 head and neck to draw 142-145 Head and Shoulders of a Man (Bellini) 136.117 fountain pens 34. 203 semi-abstract 234-237 three-dimensional 68.121 felt-tip pens 162. 41 in the round 208-209 with scalpel 202. 240 Black Paintings 152. 222 Grimes.John 157 Man Lying Down in a Cloak 156. 170-173.12 fixative 54.101 engraving 243 erasers/erasing 55. 69. 161 fashion drawings 160. 241 to blend 205 and chalk 178 and ink 28. 161 fashion 160. to draw 120.216. 163. 144
Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (Baker) 32. to draw 78. 29
hands.103 with eraser 103. to draw 134-137 Helleborus corsicus 55 highlights 91. Edgar 162 depth. 222.Theodore 29 Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 28.111 feet. 223 graphite 54.160. 131 Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 240. 230 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction 68. 115 Escher.216
Durelli.109 Rhinoceros 26.103. 203 Hotel de la Suzonnieres (Satie) 70. 77 How Clever of God #84 244. Hans 133 The Ambassadors 116 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 132. 160 Faune.69 Gerard. 122 Hawksmoor.189.
244 ink 36 252-253
Documents Decoratifs 90. 166. 176. Henri 111 Blue Nude 1110. 221 endless 31 free 113. Johan 32. 53 monoprint 787. 74-77. Florence 128 lighting in 167 Pitt Rivers. 181 Klee. 31 Klimt. 227 Newsome. 184. 99. Oxford 250 music 70-71 Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks (Knopf) 32. 160 In the Duchess's Kitchen (Rackham) 176.104. 242 light 96 to depict drawing with 1 76 painting with 176
. 103 Neolithic chalk tablet 220. 252 Muscles of the Head and Neck (Durelli) 134. 201 head and neck sections of female mold for Sforza Horse 89 Madonna of the Rocks 244 perspective study for Adoration of the Magi 74. Gustav 49 Knopf. 756 priming for 140.102. Marie 244 cloth drawing 244.91 Study for Plate 59 of
illumination see lighting Illustration for Jacques Fath (Gruau) 160. 226 Modernism 67. 34-35 acrylic 35 bistre 35. 789.276. 757 mandalas 219. Alphonse 90. 220.120. 203. 220. 49 Rose 49 Maelbeke Madonna (Van Eyck) 156. 248. 158 Man Lying Down in a Cloak (Flaxman) 156. Phyll: hands 18
lifting out 204. 34. 114 hatched 244 layered 118 pace of 65 pale 40 rapid 49. Madrid 171 University Museum of Natural History. 35. 72. 58-59.33 Mysterious Affairs of the lighting 2 7. 73 Kigell. Victor 134 Profile Head 134. 76 Libeskind. 190 metal pens see dip pens metal point 25. Charles Rennie 48.109.Pieuvre (Octopus) 28. 185 Mucha.141 Metropolis (film) 72. 36. Daniel 70 Arctic Flowers 70 Lieb. 53 Tree II 52. 60. 77 Miller. 244
lithograph 198 Losbruch (Kollwitz) 180.109. Matisse.227 to "bend" straight 97 compositional 228-229 cut 202. 54 silver point 156 leg sections 158 length. drawing from 126-127. David 78
Mackintosh. 225 masking tape 204. 219 Mondrian. 73 Michelangelo Buonarroti 48. 163 pens 36 measuring 116 memory. 178 motifs: A r t Nouveau 9 7 stylized 51 mountains 216-217 movement: of animals 30-31 of humans 7 79. artistic 240-241.
Murderous Attacks 33 Kollwitz. 13 Cloudburst of Material Possessions 200. 220. apparent 97 Leonardo da Vinci 74. 135 museums 44. 37 lines 118 pastel 162 pencil 31. 63. drawing from 183. Erich 73 design for Metropolis 72. 220. 249 and gouache 30 Indian 35. 83 white 122 ink impressions 222 ink spatters 234 installations 176. 205. 252 ink 16.243 carbon 35 Chinese 30. 234 iron-gall 35. Rose: Tantalus or the Future of Man 20 minimal line drawing 99 mirror use of 120 mixed media 28. 227 Scene of Comical Riders 30. 230 invented creatures 106-107 250-251 invented objects 89. Bartolome: Moses Striking the Rock ofHoreb 252. 111. Henry 178 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object 178. 159 Japanese 35 to make 36 sepia 35 walnut 36. Kathe 181 Losbrunch (The Outbreak) 180.115 98. 177 influences.112. 156 magnification 93 Man in Armor (Van Dyck) 158. 244. 28 Two Impressions from a Cut-out Paper Disk 222 Huyler Stephen R 225
Kettlehut.124. 170-173.166 La Specola. Piet 52. 244 Dragon 36. Oxford 106 Prado. 183 vertical 156 linear distance 97 linear perspective 69.182 Moore.181
Landline (Bryan) 202. 203 landscape 206-208 brushed 14 Landscape in Hoboku Style (Sesshu) 14 layers 146 chalk 53 gouache 30 ink 28.167 line(s) 132.141. 33
naive art 74 negative space 53. 97 Murillo.The (Robinson) 108.96. 205 masterworks. 201 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels 12. 110 Sistine Chapel ceiling 116 Middle Eastern drawing 50-51. 181 luminosity 115 Lynch. 78 Study ofThree Male Figures 110. Paul 227 Polyphonic Setting for White 226.
162 O p A r t 98 optical illusions 96-99 outline 33.131 Cottage Among Trees 52. 1 6 3 . 1 2 4 priming for metal point 140. 74. 181 Rodin. 230 paper(s) 21 colored 162 drawing 144. Georges 112 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 112. 36. 203 Scene of Comical Riders (Klee) 30. 57 Ross-Craig. 4 8 putty eraser 55. Stella 48 Cypripedium calceolus L 49 rotated view 7 65 Rubens. 72 Noble.199 Profile Head (Newsome)
oil pastels 162.
Faune. 81 two-point 74.184 fountain 34. 244
Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape (Wolfli) 2 79 St.37. 91 outsider artists 33.176 Real Life Is Rubbish 176. Pablo 6 7 . 165.141 prints/printing: aquatint 240 dry-point etching 181 engraving 243 monoprint 181. 160.9 3
Schongauer. 7 76 receding space 206 Redon. Peter Paul 126-127 Embracing
pose(s): balanced 146 quick 118-119 positive form 103 posture: of artist 22 of subject 3 8 . 40-41. 9 0 . 9 8 . 1 6 9 to hold 2 2 . Bridget 98 Robinson. 772 234-237 Sesshu.37
instruments 9 2 . 159. 243.oise au Bandeau 132. 239 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat (Seurat) 112. to draw 146-147
Rackham. 732 influence of 240 painting with light 78. 7 72 Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland. 52 pens 36
drawing with 202. 7 38 Ray 138.71 Hotel de la Suzonnieres 70. Odilon 242 The Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity 242. 227 portfolios 20 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser de Noailles (Holbein) 132. 241 Physical Space. 38. 166 fiber-tip 782. The (Abe) 220 Picasso. 7 77 three-point 80. 75 Two Courtyards 75. Heath 181 The Kinecar 180.The (Beuys) 112. 36. 181 pencil(s) 54 charcoal 204 colored 762. 74-77.Toyo: Landscape in Hoboku
.7 77 rapidograph 70 Raphael 110.40. 7 70 Ray. and Webster. 1 1 6 accelerated 2 2 . 78 single-point 74. 1 1 6 . Russell 228. 36. 165 figure 118 filled 37 pencil 48.104 Pieuvre (Hugo) 28.36. 230 parallel planes 79 Parisian street 86-87 pastels 162 to blend 205 to hold 23 layers 162 pencils 162 pen(s): dip 34 . 243. Giovanni Battista 74.Tim. 7 73 self-portraits: Basquiat 138. Man 131.759. 75 Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range 241 petroglyphs 221. 2 2 0 for oil pastels 162 stained 230 to stretch 140-141 tissue 21. 36. 76-79. 36. 37 38.262
Newton.226. 73 Noble. Arthur 177 In the Duchess's Kitchen 176. Sue 104.37. 739 semi-abstract drawings Style 14 Seurat. 234 disposable 182-183 felt-tip 162. 30 Fran<.2 3
age and youth sleeping subjects
Renaissance 109 Rhinoceros (Durer) 26. 205 157. 28 pigment 162 bright 50 Caput Mortuum 7 4 7 for three-tone drawing 141. 224
31.52 pen and wash 158. 36 relief printing 757 Rembrandt van Rijn 52. 242 reed pens 34. 1 1 7 aerial 206 linear 69. 759
Page. 782 relief 757 silk-screen 739 woodblock 134. 122. Paul 73 Nobson Central 72.139 Autoportrait 138. 34-35. 103. 139 Real Life is Rubbish (Noble and Webster) 176. 4 9 Rose of Mohammed 50. 141 Piranesi. Erik 70. 736 portraits. 219. 36 pen and brush 8 3 pen and ink 70. 163. 97. J 76 nudes 114-115
to make 36 metal see dip quill 34. 205 pointillism 112 polyphonic painting 227 Polyphonic Setting for White (Klee) 226. 161. 1 3 2
quill pens 34. 114 rollerball 182 Rorschach blot 99 Rose (Mackintosh) 48. 244 reed 34. 68 Satie.54
pastel 162 perspective 1 0 0 . 76 plastic eraser 55. 216. 733 Portrait de Marie-Laure (Giacometti) 136. 164. 71 Satire of the Queen's Dress (Wodall) 158. Auguste 114 Two Women 114. Cheval et Oiseau 30. Martin 238. Isaac 92 Telescope 92 Newton's Cenotaph (Boullee) 72. 26 Riley. 239 Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 238. 38. 734 Protea nitida (Bauer) 48.240. 212 Japanese 2 1 .Paul'sBaptistry (Hawksmoor) 68.
1 7 7 free 8 0 V e n i c e . 6 9 Wodall. 7 79 Shoshone petroglyph 240. 2 4 2
Wallis. 96. Study of (Michelangelo) 110.1 0 5 vision 9 6 Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects (Grandville) 242. Vincent 95 Chair 94. 1 4 1 .t o n e d r a w i n g 140. 97. 9 4
Z e n calligraphy
contrast 96 t o grade 163 ink 37 pencil 5 4 t o r t i l l o n 205 T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c . 1 2 Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse 71. Adolf: Giant-Grape Saint-Mary-Castle 219
Woman at Her Toilet ( T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c ) 74 w o o d b l o c k print 157.241 s i l k . A l f r e d 1 1 .Sforza Horse. 2 4 4 . 221
. 57. 7 6 Two Impressions from a Cut-Out Paper Disk ( H u g o ) 2 2 2 Two Monsters 2 4 2 . t o draw 1 9 8 . 164.27 skull 747. 174 T w o m b l y . 159 Wolfli. 1 9 9 Two Courtyards (Piranesi) 75. Paul 2 4 1 Achilles Chases Hector 2 4 0 . 1 4 0 . H e n r i de: Woman at Her Toilet 14 t r a n s p a r e n t v i e w 92. 7 6 1 spots. 156 layers 7 5 6 priming for 140. 199. b l o w n 248 steel p e n s see d i p p e n s still life 89. Sarah 9 4 Chair Cut Out 94.1 6 5 shorthand diagram 142 Shoshone buffalo hide painting 178. 77. 1 6 .1 8 5 Tree II ( M o n d r i a n ) 52.
Taylor A n i t a 115 All and Nothing 1 1 4 . 725 fabric 1 6 8 T h o m a s . 1 4 5 travel journal 2 0 .d i m e n s i o n a l 1 0 4 .J. 1 6 6 t r a p e z i u s m u s c l e 142. 9 2 Tesshu. 2 7 studies: b i r d s 7 2 .d i m e n s i o n a l d r a w i n g 68. 199 shoes 1 6 4 . 206-207
Leonardo's machines 12. 241. 65 symbols 138.12 W a l t e r . 4 4 boat 209 botanical 4 9 G e r i c a u l t ' s cats 2 9 from Goya 170-173 125.1 4 1 . 2 4 7 t h r e e . 2 2 7 Untitled 2001 ( C a t l i n g )
W h i t e . Man in Armor 1 5 8 .141 S i m b l e t . 202
violin. drawing with 104-105 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt ( G a u d i ) 68. 245 sharpener 54 Ship in a Storm ( T u r n e r ) 1 9 8 . 69. 158 V a n Eyck. 69. A n t h o n y 152. John 25 Flying Fish 25 Wild Striped Cat Sketches of ( G e r i c a u l t ) 28. 79. 156 Van Gogh. 1 9 9 . t h r e e . 53 trees. 2 2 0 influence o f 2 4 0 Untitled 220. 1 8 4 . T i m W e s t Fagade of the Church of St. v i e w s o f 85. 226
Van Dyck.13 M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s m a l e figures 110. 243 (Bosch)
Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos ( G o y a ) 2 4 0 . 9 0 . 182. h e a d a n d n e c k sections o f female m o l d f o r (Leonardo) 89 shading 2 9 s h a d o w s 28.120. 170 shoes 1 6 4 stylized m o t i f 51 Summer Flowers 63. t o lay 1 4 0 . Augustin ( B a l t a r d ) 6 7 w e t and dry brush-strokes 2 4 9
Turner. 2 9 wind.125
W o o d f i n e . C y 138. phrased 146 tonal modeling 161 tonal range 169 t o n a l surfaces 2 2 7 tonal width 97 t o n e ( s ) 33. t o d r a w 2 0 0 . 75 Skeleton of the Horse ( S t u b b s ) 26. M .Yamaoka 233 t e x t u r e 2 2 2 .9 1 storms. 74.5 3 in l a n d s c a p e 2 0 6 . t o d r a w 5 2 .1 9 9 wire. 102-103 tonal marks. 249 t o describe 39. 7 1 4 . W . 75.2 1 3 Stubbs. 186. 7 70 Tiber 214-215
Untitled ( T w o m b l y ) 2 2 0 . John: Focusing on the Negative 14 w a s h . 7 75 Telescope ( N e w t o n ) 9 2 . 161. 2 1 2 . 7 77. 141 Three Male Figures.216 W e b s t e r . Jan 1 5 6 Maelbeke Madonna 1 5 6 . 743 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City ( F r e n z ) 1 6 0 . 2 2 6 . t o d r a w 1 0 1 viewfinder 57 Views from Velletri ( C l a u d e L o r r a i n ) 152. 2 0 0 Ship in a Storm 1 9 8 . 104-105. 115. 76. 240
Two Women Embracing ( R o d i n ) 114. 9 5 pens 36 v a n i s h i n g p o i n t 74.41. 1 3 . 49. Sue see N o b l e . 1 4 4 .1 4 5 .s c r e e n p r i n t i n g 139 silver p o i n t 1 4 0 . G e o r g e 2 7 Skeleton of the Horse 26. 1 4 1 w a t e r c o l o r 25. William 159 Satire of the Queen's Dress
226. Sarah: child's m a p 75. 2 3 4 .158
158. 2 3 0 tonal contrast 96 tonal distance 9 7 t o n a l d r a w i n g 9 6 .2 0 1 . 230 t h r e e . 1 8 4 .199
tissue p a p e r 21. 7 9 0 vessels.
a n d encouragement i n m a k i n g this book: M a m o r u Abe. Japan. Carole A s h . Inc.r. 179: www. 1 5 4 : akg-images/Musee National d'Art Moderne. 9 7 6 ) . 88: www.co. Productions Clovis Prevost (c)./Galerie Sylvie Nissen. a n d D e p a r t m e n t s o f E n t o m o l o g y a n d Zoology at the University of Oxford. Fund. 30: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. Paris. 180: www. France.bridgeman. Paris. B e m d Kunzig. 157: U C L Art Collections . H e l e n S h u t t l e w o r t h . 2 4 : © T h e British Museum. 72: akg-images. Clare Bryan. 1 3 4 : © T h e British Museum. Julie O u g h t o n . and Tamsin Woodward Smith. Paris. 5 2 : T h e Metropolitan Museum of Art/Bequest of Mrs. 137: © The British Museum. A n d y C r a w f o r d for p h o t o g r a p h y a n d L . Italy. Maureen Paley Interim Art (b). Christopher Davis. 73: Berlin F i l m Museum (t). support.uk/Private Collection. Peter L u f f . 130: The Metropolitan M u s e u m of Art/Robert L e h m a n Collection. 2 4 2 : Photo Scala.uk/Musee des Augustins. c o .uk/Guildhall Library. 2 0 2 : © T h e British Museum. 3 2 : Pepys Library. A n n a P l u c i n s k a . Natalie G o d w i n . .co. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin/Jorg P. Jackie Douglas. 115: Anita Taylor. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. Anita Taylor. b r i d g e m a n . 29: Fogg A n Museum/Collections Baron de Vita: Grenville L. Paris/ © Succession Picasso / D A C S 2005./Private Collection/© D A C S 2005. 9 1 : www. K e v i n a n d Rebecca Slingsby.l. J o h n Roberts. 9 4 : Sarah Woodfine. Sophie Laurimore. 2 2 3 : Lebrecht Music and Arts Photo Library/Ricordi. 1 5 9 : Bodleian Library. 226: Brian Catling. P h y l l Kiggell. 2 0 0 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. Psychiatric Institute of the University of Heidelberg. 9 0 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/© A D A G P . H . K u n s t m u s e u m Bern/© D A C S 2 0 0 5 . Sammy De Grave. Sir Brinsley F o r d . 11: www. Germany/Joerg P.uk/Mucha Trust. K e w ft)). b r i d g e m a n . 1 9 : Getty Images/© Succession Picasso / D A C S 2 0 0 5 . Berlin/Staatsbibliothek zu
A l l other images © Sarah Simblet
. Copyright Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens. 3 1 : Tom Powel Imaging.co. Wolfson College.uk/British Museum. 2 7 : Royal Academy of Arts. 49: Hunterian Museum (t). G e r m a n y .uk/Private Collection. C o r n e l i s o n & Son. Angela Palmer. Salisbury & South W i l t s h i r e M u s e u m ( t ) .bridgeman. R o y a n d D i a n n e Simblet. Kunstmuseum Bern. 69: Institut Amatller d'Art Hispanic (tl). Toulouse. D a w n Henderson.co. Germany. 177: Mary Evans Picture Library. 4 8 : T h e N a t u r a l H i s t o r y M u s e u m .co. H e a t h e r M c C a r r y . Antonia Cunliffe Davis. 2 0 3 : Clare Bryan (t). L o n d o n . Berlin (b). L o n d o n . u k / L o u v r e . Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. 2 3 8 : akg-images. U K . 1 3 5 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. O o n a G r i m e s . 1 6 0 : Rene G R U A U s. a n d brushes o n pp. Dover Publications/ISBN: 0486229912 (t). Paris a n d D A C S . 2 4 5 : Oona Grimes. J a c k a n d Brian Catling. 1 6 1 : D C C o m i c s I n c . Anders/ © D A C S 2 0 0 5 . 16: www.co. L o n d o n . 75: © The British Museum (b). Paul T h o m a s ( t ) . 17: J o h n Walter. 225: Stephen P Huyler. London 2005. 113: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz.
Dorling Kindersley w o u l d like to thank Caroline H u n t for editorial contribution. Andy Crawford. 1 5 6 : Graphische S a m m l u n g Albertina.bridgeman. 1 9 8 : Dover Publications.uk/Kettle's Yard. S i m o n L e w i s . 5 0 : Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (1). Kirsten Norrie. NY. Illustrated London News Picture Library/The Bystander (b). Rocio Arnaez. c o . 1929 (29. 2 4 4 : Ashmolean Museum.
Also. 199: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee des arts asiatiquesGuimet. 181: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz.co.bridgeman. J o h n Walter. 74: Corbis. Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (t). G i n a R o w l a n d . 2 8 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. Carlo O r t u for picture research s u p p o r t . Oxford. Agnieszka Mlicka.264
T h e author wishes to thank the following people for their enormous help. J o n Roome. u k / T o k y o National M u s e u m . Winthrop.co. K a t h r y n W i l k i n s o n .Paris ( b ) . 68: www. G e r m a n y . R o s e m a r y S c o u l a r . L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . 2 2 0 : Mamaru Abe. Diana Bell.Strang Print Room ( b ) . 1 9 6 : Museum of the History of Science. R . 9 2 : Science Photo L i b r a r y . 2 4 1 : Corbis/David M u e n c h ( b ) .bridgeman. 114: Musee Rodin.
8: Corbis/Hubert Stadler. papers. Havemeyer. Psychiatric Institute of the U n i v e r s i t y of Heidelberg. Paris. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. 2 2 4 : P r i n z h o m Collection. Paul T h o m a s .bridgeman. . Flossie. Amsterdam. L o n d o n . H a m b u r g . 9 3 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. U K . 176: Modem Art. Paris and D A C S . 7 0 : Studio Daniel L i b e s k i n d . Pamela Ellis for compiling the index. Magdalene College Cambridge. F i n n . Staatliche Museen z u Berlin. © Tate. Angela W i l k e s . B . 1901. u k / O n Loan to the H a m b u r g Kunsthalle. Anders. 9 5 : V a n Gogh M u s e u m . Madrid. K u n s t m u s e u m . c o . 2 6 : Topfoto. 221: Gagosian Gallery/Private Collection (b). 13: www.939). R u t h P a r k i n s o n . Sarah D u n c a n . Basel. 5 3 : Collection of the Gemeentemuseum D e n Haag/Mondrian Trust. 132: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. T h e R u s k i n School of D r a w i n g a n d Fine A r t . 1 . 2 2 2 : Pierre Georgel/Private Collection. Patty Stansfield. 112: Yale University A r t Gallery/Everett V Meeks.uk/Private Collection.100. Corporation of London. 4 6 : B r i t i s h Library.uk /Biblioteca Nacional. B e r l i n . A . 158: Calouste Gulbenkian Museum.uk /© Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery./© D A C S 2 0 0 5 ( t ) . T o n y G r i s o n i .bridgeman. Orientabteilung/Ruth Schacht. 111: Fondation Beyeler/Riehen (Bale)/© Succession H Matisse/DACS 2005. F r a n c e . Roddy Bell. 139: Galerie Marion Meyer/© Man Ray Trust / A D A G P . L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . 243: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. Graphische Sammlung. 1 3 3 : Artothek/Kupferstichkabinett. London/Bequeathed by Charles Landseer.bridgeman. George M c G a v i n . University of Oxford. O. L e n . 2 1 8 : Adolf-Wdlfli-Stiftung. 3 3 : Prinzhom Collection. Paris a n d D A C S . (r).20-21 a n d 246-47. 1 1 0 : www. Paris. 51: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. 6 6 : w w w . Paula Regan.a.co. M a n d y Earey. Portugal. 1975 ( 1 9 7 5 . 174: Artothek/Munich. 1 0 8 : Arts C o u n c i l Collection. for s u p p l y i n g the d r a w i n g books. Jean Pierre Roy. L o n d o n (t). University of Cambridge. 2 2 7 : Paul Klee Stiftung. 1 3 8 : © Christie's Images Ltd/© A D AGP. Lisbon. Paris. London/courtesy of Stuart Shave. Florence/MoMA. 1879. Sarah Woodfine.co. B M G . b r i d g e m a n . L o n d o n .bridgeman. 2 0 1 : T h e Royal Collection © 2 0 0 2 H e r Majesty Queen Elizabeth I I . 1 5 : w w w . 7 1 : I M E C / A r c h i v e s E r i k Satie. 1 3 6 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Centre Pompidou-MNAM-CCI. H a y w a r d Gallery. 2 4 0 : w w w . A . 1 7 8 : © T h e British M u s e u m / H e n r y Moore F o u n d a t i o n . B e r l i n .
Creating a Sketchbook—Sarah Simblet's drawings inspire you to
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