An innovative, practical approach to drawing the world around you







LONDON • NEW YORK MELBOURNE • MUNICH • DELHI Senior Editor Paula Regan Senior Art Editor Mandy Earey Art Editor Anna Plucinska Managing Editor Julie Oughton Managing Art Editor Heather McCarry Art Director Peter Luff Publishing Director Jackie Douglas Production Joanna Bull DTP Designer Adam Walker Picture Research Sarah Smithies US Editor Christine Heilman First American Edition, 2 0 0 5 First Paperback Edition, 2 0 0 9 Published in the United States by DK Publishing 3 7 5 Hudson Street New York, New York 1 0 0 1 4 10 11 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3

6 8 20 22 Master Builders The Order of Sound Future Fictions Pathways of Sight Single-Point Perspective Creating an Imaginary Space Further Aspects of Perspective Theaters Venetian Life Parisian Street

68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86

Foreword Introduction Drawing Books and Papers Posture and Grip

Objects and Instruments

TD075-July 2009 Copyright © 2 0 0 5 Dorling Kindersley Limited Text and authors artworks © Sarah Simblet 2 0 0 4 Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited A Cataloging-in-Publication record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN 9 7 8 - 0 - 7 5 6 6 - 5 1 4 1 - 1 Color reproduction by GRB, Italy Printed and bound in China by Toppan

Still Life Instruments of Vision Bench Marks Light and Illusions Further Illusions How to Draw Ellipses Tonality Drawing with Wire Artifacts and Fictions


90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106

Documentaries Presence and Mood Movement Icon and Design Pen and Ink Drawing with Ink Capturing Character Sleeping Dogs Turtles Dry Birds

26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44

The Body
Postures and Poses Choreographs Passion Measurement and Foreshortening Quick Poses Hands and Feet Charcoal Hands Phrasing Contours The Visual Detective La Specola

110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128

Plants and Gardens
Botanical Studies Jeweled Gardens Fast Trees Graphite and Erasers Cropping and Composition Negative Space Fig Tree Summer Flowers Acanthus Spinosus

48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64

Discover more at

Projections Magnetic Fields The Human Condition Disposable Pens The Travel Journal Catching the Moment Grand Canal Crossings Caravans The Big Top

174 Abstract Lines
176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 Process and Harmony Writing Time Chants and Prayers Compositions Being "Just" Collage Zen Calligraphy Nocturnes

220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234

Poise Anatomies Revelations Self-Portraits Silver Point Head and Neck Essential Observations Drawing Portraits Generations Castings

132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 152

Earth and the Elements
Air in Motion Storms Nature Profiles Charcoal Landscapes Drawing in the Round Decaying Boat Cloudburst Notes of Force Mountains

198 200 202 204 206 208 210 212 214 216

Gods and Monsters
Marks of Influence Hauntings Convolutions Brushes Brush Marks Monsters Goya's Monsters Consumed Glossary Index Acknowledgments

240 242 244 246 248 250 252 254 256 259 264

Cloth and Drapery Character Costumes Femmes Fatales Colored Materials Study and Design The Structure of Costume Textures and Patterns Dressing Character Posture Carving

156 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172


are made outside as discreet installations. We can all learn how to draw. I work with people of diverse ages. in which he describes himself flying and diving in his imagination through pictorial caverns of knowledge. It makes me feel excited to be alive. and their importance to so many artists. doctors. where I expect them to be discovered by some people. by invitation. undergraduates to fellow professors. and size. and through which I can see how I think. perhaps hidden on a door hinge or a street bench rail. and local c o m m u n i t y classes. through history. The most rewarding challenge is always the newcomer. a cartographer charting the land. and experience. It is a tool for investigating ideas and recording knowledge. especially as travel journals. I know that with their cooperation I can soon prove them wrong. Some of my drawings cover entire walls. The very first step is to believe it. and I refer back to them for years after they are made. and a reflector of experience. Others can be held in the h a n d or.Foreword B Y DRAWING THE WORLD AROUND US. Drawing is a mirror through which I understand my place in the world. or a quantum physicist trying to see for themselves the fluctuations of our universe. art schools. we learn to feel truly alive. Drawing occupies a unique place in every artist and creator's life. texture. a drawing book is the perfect portable private vehicle for your imminent exploration of drawing. but because it is how I engage with and anchor myself in life. where spaces are shaped by nothing more than the objects and activities contained within them. of Sketch Book for the Artist. I was also reading among The Confessions of St. architect. geologists. that inspired the title and structure MEMORY T H E A T E R S This pen-and-ink drawing was made from imagination during research for my PhD. I was training in anatomy and studying how. . we have looked at. I also make drawing books. a sculptor. Augustine his notes on memory. from schoolchildren to senior citizens. It is my love of these. I will always draw. Combine these things and the possibilities are endless. and feeling. fashion designer. remain unseen by most. By using our imaginations. shape. Some are more traditionally framed and hung in galleries for solo or group exhibitions. and makers of special effects. be they a child discovering their vision and dexterity. thinking. They occupy a shelf in my studio. aspirations. and in a few sessions they will be flying. night security staff. a composer notating a musical score. These inspirations led me to invent museums. They enfold their viewer and are made on joined sheets of paper that I reach by climbing ladders. understood (and often misunderstood) our own bodies. Chosen in any color. not only to make art. For twelve years I have enjoyed the privilege of teaching drawing. as a visiting professor at universities. drawing is the immediate expression of seeing. For me personally. we learn to see it. or engineer. and be slowly washed or worn away. still standing by the door. who tells me firmly upon approach that they cannot draw.

Rio Pinturas 13. not just chosen pictures on our walls but everywhere—maps. and patterns on our clothes. and we spend our lives reading it. logos. is not afforded us by drawing. inscribing every fresh part of it with their eager scrapes and trails.000-9500 bce . We can always read each others drawings. Cueva de las Marios.Theseancient silhouettes were drawn with earth pigments rubbed onto rock. At home and at work we doodle. packaging. waving to us from many thousands of yearsago. signs. in lectures. scrawling shapes and cartoons when on the telephone. Drawing is international. Sometimes we draw because we are bored. and in meetings. irreverent to language barriers. but more often because drawing actually helps us to focus and take in what is said. like a great canvas for them to mark. Most adults still feel that certain exquisite pleasure on arriving at a beach to find the tide out and the sand perfect. "CAVE OF THE HANDS" In this drawing. They have a natural affinity to many modern graffiti signatures. The sense of relief we may feel from the information overload of modern commercial life when visiting a country in which we can no longer read every written word. We are surrounded by drawings in our daily lives. We are bombarded with linear and tonal pictorial information. Children cannot be restrained from running across the pristine white lawn of newly fallen snow. a great crowd is raising their hands in greeting.8 INTRODUCTION Where We Begin There is a fundamental drive in our human nature to make a mark. graffiti.

at age two-anda-half. I was sitting with my mother. and the appearance of my strikes of colors. Eyelashes take up as much of my attention as the head itself. On a particular afternoon in September 1974. Even though it is made by a toddler this image would be recognizable to anyone. created by societies of hunter-gatherers. I. Cave art was not made for decoration but as a fundamental part of life. an expression of existence. we see our oldest surviving images. the hair of my first portrait was most important. MAKING OUR MARK It seems reasonable to assume that we have engaged in pictorial mark-making for as long as we have made conscious use of our hands. I now think this is a picture of proximity. and belonging to place. who in their day-to-day hardship made time to picture themselves and the animals on which they depended. had happily scribbled. and she kept it as my first step beyond the delighted realms of scrawl." Until this day.9 WHERE WE BEGIN FIRST PORTRAIT For sorre forgotten reason. power. enjoying the physical sensation of crayon on paper. She gave me a notepad and a red crayon and asked me to draw her "a picture of Daddy. The image above is what I gave back to my mother. . but I had never yet attempted to figuratively picture my world. reflecting my experience of looking closely at my father's face. In cave paintings like the one opposite. like all toddlers.

10 INTRODUCTION PEN-AND-INK BEE This tiny drawing has been enlarged to show its texture and composition. W e do n o t hesitate to draw a map. At this point many will insist they cannot draw. As you progress. yet still turn to drawing w h e n their verbal language fails or is inadequate. to help a stranger see their way W h e n taking first steps in relearning h o w to draw. But as adolescents. Hours are lost immersed in the glorious world of imagination. for example. b e p r o u d o f what m a k e s y o u r w o r k individual to y o u . and this activity plays a vital role in their d e v e l o p m e n t . it is important to value your natural abilities a n d ways of seeing. Inhibitions creep in and ideas of good a n d b a d terminate confidence. PROGRESSION T h e r e is a point in all o u r lives w h e n w e first c o n t r o l o u r mark and m a k e it a line. It was made with a few bold strokes of a steel pen dipped in ink to conjure the dried bee I was holding between my fingers on a pin. most of us stop. Young children love to draw. and from that first unit build and describe the shape of something or someone we know. then drag o u r line into a loop. h o w e v e r small a n d u n f o r m e d y o u believe they are. Don't b e p e r s u a d e d to draw in a w a y s o m e o n e else .

After experimenting and trying each new idea. He used leftover ship and yacht paint with crayons on cut-out pieces of cardboard boxes. and they have never questioned why. He was a retired Cornish fisherman and junk dealer who began drawing at the age of 70 "for company" after his wife died. I meet students struggling unhappily with a particular method of drawing. 1925-42 53/8x87/8in (135 x 225 mm) ALFRED WALLIS prefers and tells you is better. As you read this b o o k and perhaps attend art classes. harbor and sea is one of many that Alfred Wallis made from memory while sitting at home. you must decide whether to keep or discard it. Enjoy the control of your own journey. Occasionally. Think how much would have been lost if anyone had interfered with Alfred Wallis' personal sense of proportion and perspective in the exquisite drawing above. .11 PROGRESSION A UNIQUE SIGHT This innocent yet sophisticated drawing of boats. but it does help to set out facing in the right direction. I ask them their reasons for drawing. remember that all advice is only advice. what they most want to achieve. Someone once told them they must draw in this way. and which aspects of the vast wealth and diversity of graphic language would be most appropriate to their goals. Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse c. The journey of every artist demands hard work and discipline.

and lose the very thing that attracted us to it. the page bristles with the focus of ideas. We BIRD STUDIES The flutter of faint scratches that dance across the pages on the right is an attempt to see the movement and bony weightlessness of a bird. clear-minded understanding of the sea. perhaps for comfort or ease as a left-hander or a habitual enjoyment of the challenge. embedded in this book. There should neve: be a slavish obligation to represent things exactly as we collectively agree we see them. but the child in us knows that this is an all-embracing. author of The Story of Art. the breast. depending on the occasion and our purpose." The clarity and empowerment of these words. The art historian Professor Sir Ernst Gombrich. right. 11). "There really is no such thing as Art. I hope. but it should be the experienced world we draw. When we look back at Wallis' seascape (see p. The observed world may be our subject. be visionary. If as artists we nail a subject down too hard. and inspire others. We all see differently. Our imaginations are the tools with which we can increase the essence of life. IDEAS A N D I N V E N T I O N S These active machines. boats. Below. There are only artists.12 INTRODUCTION VISION All artists see the world differently. There are countless reasons for drawing. Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels LEONARDO DA VINCI . and breathtaking wind of a choppy harbor. it may not be accurate to our critical adult eye. wrote as the opening line of this great work. is. not for disguise but as a personal choice.and collarbones and shoulder blades of a different bird almost become new creatures in themselves. His notes visually balance his drawings. all raise water From the Archimedes' screw to Leonardo's own cupped wheel. we can drive out its spirit. We also see differently ourselves. They are also always written backward.

time spent is not lost. but it is important to be clear why we are making it. Leonardo drew to invent a machine. We have both covered our paper with focused. It will be invested through your experience in the new drawing. Opposite. Decide before you start whether you are drawing to warm up. stripped-down parts. drawing in pursuit of our own thoughts and understanding. while below. More was learned drawing the bird 18 times than would have been understood drawing it only once or twice.13 VISION should not try to know how every finished picture will look. Our drawings are annotated investigations into the mechanisms of nature and of an idea. This also applies if struggling at length with a larger picture. I drew to understand the apparatus of flight. it may be best to start afresh. shout against a terrible injustice. to express the beauty in a moment's play of light. or to discover the best use of a new material. Don't be disheartened. . or illustrate a dream. make a calculation. conduct an experiment. when it looks tired and still feels wrong. My drawings of a housemartin (opposite top) illustrate the importance of repeated study. Each fresh image reflects growing confidence and the experience of the preceding study.

As you draw any subject—something you see. fire. Whatever the material— wood. Landscape in Haboku Style 15TH CENTURY . mists. and at speeds beyond conscious thought. BRUSHED LANDSCAPE FLOWING SKELETON T h e gliding poise of this walking anatomy comes as much from the feeling of movement as it does from the feeling of drawing. silk. excessive planning can get in the way of the imagination. or ice—you must actually feel it beneath your fingers as you draw.14 INTRODUCTION ALCHEMY At school. We are caught in a shifting focus that makes everything fluid. and an island brushed with trees. and sometimes beyond. or imagine—it is not enough to only render its shape. and position in space. which can offer keys to other things. and what you discover in the process of making. and spirit of each subject was held strongly but loosely between the fingertips. metal. size. depth. feel. declare the idea. explain the composition. and paper. we are advised or even required to plan our pictures. These two brush drawings. This suits many artists well and is perfectly valid. and opacity of your subject. meaning. Each image relied upon past experience to know the probable behavior of the brush. water. Imagine these qualities so strongly that you feel them in your mind and at your fingertips. your marks will become the subject on the paper. They each allowed the energy and focus of the moment to be expressed through controlled accident and a degree of the unknown Both drawings were made trusting the marks. You must also think of its intrinsic nature: its purpose. it should be responding to the sensation and meaning of the subject it draws. trusting my intuition to find a visual equivalence for the sensation of weight within my body. W e float toward the quiet vista as it also moves toward us. bone. temperature. and allowed to flow through the brush. the unknown. As your hand meets the paper to make a mark. balance. and practice each part before putting the final image together. and we can just make out the distant stains of mountains. The physicality. I made it almost unconsciously with a pen and a brush. However. This is the alchemy of drawing. are both made of ink laid onto wet paper with speed and agile certainty. Our position asvieweris unsteady. If you can do this. and how it feels to the touch. It denies the importance of accident. created centuries and cultures apart. This is a detail of a brush-and-ink drawing by a Japanese Buddhist monk. Know the texture. ink.


lives on.1896 Woman at her Toilet 41 x 26 in (104 x 66 cm) TOULOUSE LAUTREC RIB-CAGE D R A M A Thus drama. acrylic. W a l t e r also makes books: some.16 INTRODUCTION PLACE A N D MOMENT The heat and teeming atmosphere o f this Parisian dressing room. gold leaf and spray paint. like folded insects. stand table-sized with furniture legs attached t o b o t h sides of their jacket. left. pastel. Lautrec's flamboyant splashes o f petticoats and pantaloons are drawn with long sweeps of chalk and brushed oil paint. c. right is set inside a rib cage. He dazzles us with flashes o f light and dabbed marks o f shadow. which evoke realities o f place and the p o w e r o f moment. Focusing on the Negative 2004 22 x 30 in (56 x 76 cm) J O H N WALTER . made by a young British artist who creates alphabets o f the absurd f r o m familiar childhood characters. one of many luminous works in watercolor. more than 100 years after its making.

One of the advantages of a drawing book is that you can shut it. It is yours. FREEINGTHEHAND . even those you dislike. Start by choosing a material you like the look of and cover a piece of paper with different marks. you will be surprised and encouraged to see how far you have come. Drawing is exploratory. Enjoy discovering what your hand and the material can do. potential ideas still forming. take your time and don't worry if you need to make several attempts to grasp a concept. Pages do not have to lie open for other people to inspect and comment on. Try to keep all of your first drawings. diary-like observations. Such books are personal: the territory of new exploration and experiment. As you follow lessons in this book. at a point when you feel you are not making progress. Choose other materials and do the same. try not to grip your pen worrying about the technical terms you might have heard. Much will be learned on these test sheets and in your first drawings. Ignore these at first and allow yourself the freedom to play. and miscellaneous items of inspiration. you will naturally make progress on your own in response to concentration and the decision to look and draw. and mistakes are a valuable process of learning. With no help and advice at all.17 FREEING THE HAND If you are just beginning to learn how to draw. just through the act of making. Put them away and look at them later.

when they are more experienced. A N ARTIST'S HANDS These are the hands of the artist Phyll Kiggell (see p. It rarely flourishes in isolation. and many more reasons for drawing the world. caught between action and repose. However. it will be your creation as you discover your own personal vision. and became a great subject for me. The real drawing book has yet to come. This practical journey will take you through the door into the vivid heart of drawing. adapting its form and occupation. To these I have added my own drawings to explain elementary materials and techniques and offer introductory approaches. Drawing is a living language that over millennia has grown and changed. In the total wealth of these pages. Picasso Painting with Light at the Madoura Pottery 1949 . Imagination needs nourishment. the path is yours.Their elegant strength seems to summon a lifetime of drawing. it is this voice that is the subtle part of their art and something that ultimately. 150). and enfolding new media. I was particularly attracted to their gentle articulation and understated determination. we still only glimpse a corner of the magnitude of this subject and the infinity of what can be achieved. seek ideas in the life around you. which of course he cannot see. Picasso is poised smiling. Once there. The chapters of this book present 90 different artists' ways of seeing. Note that the drawing classes are allocated to subjects. staring straight through his image of a bull. Look to your own experience and also learn from the work of others. As you draw. comes from within. threedimensionally. Picasso has just finished his drawing. Its sensuous and flowing line seems to drift like smoke. An artist's personal voice is something that also evolves through lessons learned.18 INTRODUCTION THE THINKING EYE Techniques and materials are the grammar and vocabulary of drawing and can be studied and shared. but not confined to them. which is held frozen in space by a camera lens. ELECTRIC BULL With a penlight.


1. They can be very expensive in art stores. thickness. H O M E M A D E : I m a d e this b o o k f r o m drawing paper that I folded. N o t e t h e w i d e l y differing c h o i c e o f p a p e r s w i t h w h i c h t h e s e are m a d e . be sure they fit comfortably under your arm. c o l o r If planning t o use pencils. color. Homemade books can be assembled easily from found materials or selections of loose sheet papers. 2. Dissecting a d i s c a r d e d h a r d . drawing book.b o u n d p a d if y o u w i s h t o keep your drawings together long-term. cut. F o r e v e n i n g classes. b e a w a r e t h a t p a p e r t e x t u r e effects a n d changes t h e i r marks. A high-quality one will last a DRAWING BOOKS Select d r a w i n g b o o k s t o suit y o u r aims. quality. 2002 Tantalus o r The Future of Man 81/2 x61/4in (215 x 158 mm) ROSE MILLER . which are also sold in an enormous range. c h o o s e s m a l l e r h a r d . Sand the edges to avoid splinters. and cost. If you intend to carry your boards for a distance. a l e n g t h o f black elastic t i e d a r o u n d t h e m i d d l e will h o l d the contents together w h e n y o u f o l d in c o l l e c t e d items.20 INTRODUCTION Drawing Books and Papers T o BEGIN YOUR EXPLORATION o f d r a w i n g . Many artists invent ways o f binding their o w n books. cheap corrugated plastic ones fall apart in days. and glued t o a s t r i p o f bias binding. R I N G . catalogs. 5. thick enough not to flex. C O L O R E D PAPERS: Large a r t supply stores o f t e n sell t h i c k b o o k s full o f c o l o r e d p a p e r s .C O V E R E D H A R D B O U N D : Ideal f o r c a r r y i n g a r o u n d . and collage their ideas. 4. T h e hardb o a r d j a c k e t is s t r e t c h e d w i t h canvas beneath t h e p a p e r sleeve.b o u n d b o o k w i l l s o o n s h o w y o u h o w it is m a d e . Most contain thin p a p e r and are perfect f o r use w i t h disposable pens. BLACK P O C K E T B O O K S : Hand-sized w i t h ready-made elastic binder and a marker ribbon. t h e i r jackets w i l l a c t like d r a w i n g b o a r d s a n d p r o t e c t y o u r w o r k . You simply need two strong boards hinged together well. and handles to lift the weight of your artworks. study the structure of a good portfolio and make your own. Calculate a range of useful dimensions and have several cut at once. stitched. ties on either side to keep your papers in place. binding. c h o o s e larger f o r m a t s t o give y o u s c o p e f o r e x p e r i m e n t . Gleaming store purchases vary greatly in format. pastels. a n d crayons. it is better to have them made at a lumber yard or home improvement store. 6. F O U N D B O O K S : O l d p r i n t e d 3 .h a n d s t o r e s make unique subjects f o r e x p e r i m e n t s a n d collage. F o r traveling.B O U N D PADS: T h e s e are t h e least expensive a n d useful f o r o p e n i n g flat. y o u n e e d a lifetime. Purchase a h i g h . a n d r e f e r e n c e b o o k s f o u n d in s e c o n d . t h i s is h o w I l e a r n e d . H o w e v e r r i n g bindings o f t e n break. Drawing boards are invaluable.q u a l i t y r i n g . is perfect. Smooth plywood. texture. Art students often make use of printed books picked up from secondhand stores into which they draw. These are perfect f o r w o r k i n g in novels. Alternatively. C A N V A S .b o u n d b o o k s t h a t fit in y o u r p o c k e t o r bag. It is also useful to own a portfolio. There are dozens to choose from.

16. C A R B O N PAPER: Available in dark and light blue. from pencil to paint 9. Use cheap paper for rough ideas and quality paper for work to last See the glossary ( p p . size. FABRIANO R O U G H 600GMS: Very heavy. white textured paper that can take abrasive use of any medium. JAPANESE PAPER: Strong. bamboo. also good for drawing with colored pencils. Cheap wood-pulp papers are acidic. yellow. 12. 100% cotton and sold in sheets. and translucent. FABRIANO ACADEMIA: Standard medium-range multipurpose paper Use with any media. 21. It is available in white or cream. Use with a brush in clean water Water makes a dark mark like ink and becomes invisible again when dry. 7. 20. GLASSINE: Sold as protective wrapping. PAPERS .Papers differ in thickness (weight). pastel paper in flecked pastel colors with a distinctive ribbed marking. 8. 2 5 6 . AQUARELLE ARCHES 300GMS:The very top quality hot-pressed (smooth) watercolor paper. ITALIAN PARCHMENT: Imitation-animal-skin parchment that is translucent and slightly waxy. and rolls. or rolls. FABRIANO INGRES: Thin. color. used to imprint lines of these colors onto a surface. printed on one side only. cold. 18. They are hand-. and cost. 15. and cream sheets or rolls.5 9 ) for explanations of rough.TISSUE PAPER: Place sheets between drawing book pages to keep images from printing on each other and use for delicate collage. and hot pressed papers. blocks. fine. Cotton papers are high-quality and acid-free. T W O RIVERS Y E L L O W 410GMS: See Two Rivers Green 19. absorbency. MAGIC PAPER: A reusable sheet for testing ideas without creating waste. 22. C A N S O N : Inexpensive lightweight pastel paper in many colors. mold-. VELIN ARCHES 250GMS: Printmaking paper available in black white. smooth. METALLIC PAPER: Thin paper in different metallic colors. texture. It is also excellent for drawing with marker pens on layered sheets. mulberry. Ph. For use with any media. red. 17. tough. 14. 11. SAUNDERS WATERFORD N O T 300GMS: Mid-quality textured watercolor paper. or machine made in sheets. it is made from rice. and white. and other plant fibers. turning brown and brittle. blocks. resisting deterioration. 10. 13. not. T W O RIVERS GREEN 410G MS: Very heavy tinted textured cold-pressed watercolor paper See Two Rivers Yellow. Use for brushwork drawings.

. This photograph illustrates how some people hold a pen to write. place it on your left. but wherever possible. If seated on a b e n c h easel (a donkey). Regularly step back 6-9 ft (2-3 m) to check your progress. With your hand in this position. If using an upright easel. Accelerated perspective also occurs if you look down the surface steeply (see pp. a n d look to the left of it at your subject. make sure you have enough room to back away and view your work. a n d h a n d to the fingertips. Relaxed fingers: Hold the pencil away from its tip and relax your fingers. 116-17). b u t it should n o t be forgotten that many people make remarkable a n d striking works drawing with their feet or holding their brush or pencil in their mouths. If your hand twists to maneuver between the paper and your body.22 INTRODUCTION Posture and Grip T o DRAW WELL. Placing your easel o n the w r o n g side folds y o u r b o d y against your drawing arm. strangledlooking drawings. you Drawing classes can be cramped places. Examples are shown here. Ideally. You cannot draw like this—your hand is locked and your fingers can barely move. and subject. but you need to understand that the expression of a line or mark originates in the body and flows t h r o u g h the shoulder. your drawing will reflect this. Turning your drawing sideways or upside-own will also help reveal what is wrong. you can draw lines freely and achieve a significant arc of movement. How you hold your drawing materials is also important. flowing space between your hand. This cramped grip tires your hand and makes small. From a distance you will spot errors you cannot see close up. You do not have to dance to draw. place it on your right. don't sit too close to the paper. if left-handed. should be able to look comfortably straight ahead at your picture plane. Use the side of your little fingernail as a support on the page. It will also reflect discomfort if you are in any way cramped. your lines will distort. your whole relaxed b o d y should be involved. SPACE TO WORK Cramped grip. arm. There are also parallels to dance. If your body posture is well balanced and you can move freely. place it on the correct side: if right-handed. and look to the right. or with your drawing board angled between your lap and a chair. body. In this book we will look at parallels between drawing and music. There should be an open.

and body are not restricted. But be careful not to tense your fingers. It is most comfortable when reaching to draw above your head. This can be used to great effect. .232-33). or it can spoil your work if not anticipated.23 This loose "candle" grip is very useful when drawing with your arm extended. As long as your fingers. depending upon what it is and how large you are working. hold your material as you find most comfortable. Soft media: Short materials such as pastels and charcoal can be accommodated in the palm. roughly marking out a large-scale work. Large scale: POSTURE AND GRIP U n f a m i l i a r i t y : T h e habitual movements of our handwriting style will sometimes infringe upon our drawing. If you turn a brush or dip pen up into the air to draw above your hand. Large amounts of ink can be applied without fear of uncontrolled running if the paper is flat. brush pressed against an upright surface will cause a dribble of ink to run down your drawing. GRAVITY Remember that gravity affects the flow of ink and paint. To stop this. arm. This can give a new lease on life to your mark-making. Remember you can also draw just by dipping your fingers in pigment—this is how many women draw in rural India. find an unfamiliar. not up to the paper Brushes can be used on upright paper but dip Anticipating effects: A fully loaded pens need a level surface. Brush calligraphy: This comfortable. alternative way of holding the pencil. or change to the wrong hand. liquid will run down your hand. ALL MEDIA There are no rules as to how you should hold your drawing media. upright way of holding the brush near its base is similar to the Japanese way used in Zen calligraphy (see pp.


W h e n lost to explain our own emotions. O v e r the centuries.. we have employed artists on expeditions. and snakes have between them engendered harpies. cartographer. In medieval England. and dragons. JOHN WHITE British artist. and people. In 19th-century Europe this became a "science. dogs. werewolves. 1590 J O H N WHITE capture form and movement from the m a n n e r i s m s of honking geese. sleeping dogs. their different speeds and patterns of action. and we still see escapees from its pages carved and grinning as the gargoyles of churches. the Latin bestiary was one of the most popular picture books—an illustrated dictionary of one hundred parts." He worked with the scientist Thomas Harriot. out are now oxidized and so appear black W h e n less preoccupied with understanding ourselves." Paranoid newcomers c r a m m e d into swelling industrial cities used handbooks of physiognomy to identify and judge their neighbors. W e have drawn them in m a n u s c r i p t s to explain our genesis and to c o u n t their species into Noah's ark. or scampering through the initials and borders of pictures from that time. This drawing is made in black lead (metal point) with watercolor Highlights of silver would have gleamed. they are perhaps our favorite pictorial preoccupation. we turn and take the features of beasts.Animals H UMANS HAVE DRAWN ANIMALS from the beginning of our time. We have drawn them on the walls of caves to evoke their kinship and power. and pioneer born c. Framed in the z o o or in domestic cohabitation. insects. 1540. 11 x91/4in (277 x 234 mm) . birds. After the subject of ourselves. and silent. from which personality and predicted behavior were " d e d u c e d ..m o u n t e d skeletons of birds. " Animals perpetually feed our imaginations. animals provide a perfect subject with which to begin. fish. who described in words what White drew. floating turtles. White's commission was to ". and this very drawing was to endure many copies and plagiarisms after its triumphant return to the English court of Queen Elizabeth I. plants. bats. and to bring h o m e drawn documentaries of their finds. Europeans on board had never seen such a thing. Facial features were analyzed in terms of their animal likeness. which are so unlike ours. mermaids. Together they made maps and documented animals. On the Roanoke voyages of Sir Walter Raleigh. In this chapter we discover the use of pens and ink through the delineation of insects. offer challenges and delights to draw. For the novice artist. and learn how to Flying Fish c. each dedicated to the moralized tale of an animal or monster The bestiary profoundly influenced the art of its period. As children we delight in the humanized trials of Tom and Jerry and their c a r t o o n relations. m u s e u m . to be there at the m o m e n t of discovery.drawe to lief one of each kinde of thing that is strange to us in England. which very likely leaped o n t o the deck of Sir Walter Raleigh's ship Tiger as it sailed north from the Caribbean to Virginia in 1585. Here (left) we see J o h n White's exquisite record of a flying fish.

Original Ink Drawing of a Rhinoceros 1515 ALBRECHT DURER 103/4 x 161/2 in ( 2 7 4 x 4 2 0 mm) . Contemporary texts related accounts of the beast as the mortal enemy of the elephant and rare relative of the "more common" unicorn. It was to become the animal's only accepted likeness for 250 years. He in turn sent the mysterious creature to the Pope via Marseilles at the request of the King of France. inspiring countless works of art and so touching people's imaginations that later. Stubbs's Anatomy of the Horse achieved similar documentary status. Meanwhile. a gift to the Portuguese King. Life-like This is Durer's original quill-and-ink drawing made after an anonymous Portuguese drawing. naturalist. draftsman. Durer's image changed eager hands until it was known across Europe. they were rejected. Unsurpassed. the home of ALBRECHT DURER German Renaissance painter. and wrote four books on proportion. Durer traveled widely to study at different European schools of art. it is still consulted by veterinarians today. Converted into a print. The first live rhinoceros to reach Europe came from India in May 1515. writer. It is such a lifelike triumph of imagination and intelligence that for centuries zoologists never questioned its authority. DURER'S RHINOCEROS AND STUBBS'S skeletal Durer. printmaker. and mathematician. Carefully stuffed. He studied the image and drew his own interpretation. Sailing to Rome. a drawing of it arrived in Nuremberg. but the drowned animal washed ashore. filled journals with ideas and observations. years after its publication. it continued its journey to Rome.26 ANIMALS Documentaries horse are superb affirmations of the power of drawing as a recorder and communicator of knowledge. when more accurate portrayals were made without armor and scales. the ship was lost.

c o m p r i s e s 1 8 p l a t e s s h o w i n g d i s s e c t i o n s in l a y e r s f r o m b o n e t h r o u g h m u s c u l a t u r e t o skin. He composed makes each horse appear so real and each plate from his three-dimensional. a n d anatomist.GEORGE STUBBS B r i t i s h e q u i n e a n d s o c i e t y p o r t r a i t painter. The entire project was developed over ten years. He translated his own drawings into engravings for publication. knowledge of parts. dissecting and drawing until he understood the mechanisms of its power and grace. composed from notes and observations. in t h r e e v i e w s — r e a r f r o n t . is no other work like it. which has never diminished. Dissections were made over a total of 18 months. Table of the III of the Horse (rear Skeleton view) mm) 1756-58 1 4 x 7 in ( 3 5 4 x 1 8 0 GEORGE STUBBS . Stubbs w a s o n e o f t h e first E u r o p e a n artists t o m a k e a n a c c u r a t e representation o f the rhinoceros. This is one of Stubbs' original finished pencil drawings. Dissections Stubbs took his knife and his pencil and physically climbed inside the horse. L o n d o n . Stubbs's m o s t c e l e b r a t e d publication. His painted p o r t r a i t o f t h e b e a s t is in t h e R o y a l C o l l e g e o f S u r g e o n s o f England. naturalist. Lighting Stubbs's breathtaking international work won immediate There acclaim. and therefore invented the lighting that Compare how Stubbs and Durer both invented lighting to portray the reality of their animals. a n d s i d e . Anatomy of the Horse.

. He wrote to poet and art critic Charles-Pierre Baudelaire about his experiments. her sharp teeth. ink and linseed oil on paper.". Hugo's page is f l o o d e d w i t h the fearful presence of a remembered octopus. conjured b y the hand of a great author of French literary fiction. the ominous beast unwinds from the dark of the sea and of our nightmares. and her distinctive temperament. A s if disturbed from its gritty b e d by our presence and curiosity. By contrast. soot. Apparently drawn in its o w n ink.. it silently rises to the light. and turn. Hugo's novels Les Miserables and Dame have become classics of film and stage. and all sorts of bizarre concoctions which manage to convey above all in mind. The Hunchback of Notre Layers and shadows Throughout this drawing. His copious drawings are characterized by mixed media. Gericault's sheet a p p e a r s almost s c r a t c h e d b y the f e r o c i o u s play of his cat.. Hugo used graphite powder. playwright. Surrounding sprays of graphite powder are stuck into washes of oil and ink to suggest glutinous depths. linseed oil soaked into the paper has made shadows and repelled the ink to create translucent tentacles. H u g o mixed his media and drew from m e m o r y and imagination to create narrative atmosphere. more or less what I have in view. novelist.28 ANIMALS Presence and Mood THESE DRAWINGS HAVE BEEN CHOSEN to s h o w t w o v e r y different ways of picturing a wild animal. saying ". He has w a t c h e d her p o u n c e . snarl. I've ended up mixing in pencil. and Pieuvre 1866-69 91/2 x81/8in (242 x 207 mm) VICTOR H U G O . VICTOR HUGO Poet. coal dust. charcoal. Gericault took a sharp p e n c i l to m a k e repeated direct o b s e r v a t i o n s f r o m life.. drawing her again and again to pin d o w n the texture of her loose skin. drama. sepia. and leader of the French Romantic movement. Mixed media Here. her b o n y frame. The octopus is formed in layers applied and distressed with a brush. and a love of accident.

s h o r t . Repeated study This drawing demonstrates of feeling confident repeat different the importance subject Remaining enough to isolate parts of a views. Here.29 THEODORE GERICAULT C o n t r o v e r s i a l . focused upon seeing will lead to a greater understanding of the subject Much is learned from repeated study. since it can lead to a flattened form. and it can be applied to any subject (see pp. and keep trying again. artists reused sheets and them full of studies. undertraces unify and vitalize the composition. facing right. of drawings Gericault erased. Beginners are advised to follow the natural contours of form as shown on pp. 144. of previous Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 1817-18 121/2 x 151/2 in ( 3 1 9 x 3 9 8 mm) T H E O D O R E GERICAULT . parallel. Before paper became so cheap. Tones that do not follow surface contour is very difficult to do well. Undertraces Beneath these graphite studies we see traces Tones On the top row we see clearly how Gericault laid broad areas of tone using fast. fiery. horses w e r e a favorite subject t o g e t h e r w i t h politics and history. displayed in the Louvre. Paris. H e is best k n o w n f o r his gigantic painting. standing sideways. diagonal strokes of his pencil. The Raft of the Medusa. 124-25 and p. At the center of the page is crammed drawings the outline of a horse.118-119).l i v e d French R o m a n t i c painter and lithographer Largely self-taught.

In Picasso's drawing. made only a year apart. Klee's riders are constructed from all the gestures of greeting mules. Faune. or proud. The fact that they never stand still influences the movement in his line. with George Braque (see p90). flattened animals composed almost entirely of movement. flapping bird. These media complement and amplify each other with their brilliant contrast. Artists commonly focus on such actions. identify an animal: the fast cheetah. His hand must have shuddered and twitched just like the constant actions of this humorous meeting. Cheval et Oiseau 1936 173/8 x 211/4 in ( 4 4 0 x 5 4 0 m m ) PABLO PICASSO . the whinnying of a frantic horse. The ink is used to make sharply defined solid. Ink and gouache This drawing is made in black Chinese ink and gouache (opaque watercolor) applied with a brush. dissolving faun kneels stranded. the first abstract movement of the 20th century. His powdery. we see semi-abstract. In these two drawings. noise is everywhere. Gouache is brushed softly in translucent hazy layers of cool blue. hooked. and brown. slow tortoise. draftsman. and scrolled lines. quivering horse. gray. Both Picasso and Klee have enclosed their subjects to compress and amplify the speed of PABLO PICASSO A prolific Spanish painter sculptor. printmaker ceramicist graphic and stage designer who lived in France.30 ANIMALS Movement M O V E M E N T IS OFTEN THE CHARACTERISTIC b y w h i c h w e their lines and the power of their beasts. taking them to guide their hand in bringing form and essence together. Picasso cofounded Cubism. and waves breaking distantly below. overwhelmed by a screeching bird.

They remain in contact with the surface of the page and scribble back and forth as they maneuver from one area to another. turning our eye and around inside the and postures of the paper- thin on pictorial space. sculptor. Layers of marks In this pale Dentil drawing we see layers of' agitated marks that together present a kind of visual "itch." They chatter around bodies in groups. Chicago PAUL KLEE .PAUL KLEE Swiss painter. well-worn copies o f w h i c h are found in m a n y art schools. violinist. and t e a c h e r at t h e Bauhaus school. The entire drawing suggests the endless small movements of horses standing still. printmaker. N e u m a n n Family Collection. creatures. Scene der Komischen of Comical Reiter Riders) (Scene 1935 161/2x111/2in ( 4 1 9 x 2 9 1 mm) M o r t o n G . top all happily of each other in the Endless lines Look closely at how Klee's lines rarely leave the paper and how they are free from the constraint of finite shape. draftsman. W i t h his drawings Kleeb o u n d sophisticated theories to personal and often witty childlike imagery. He is a u t h o r o f The Thinking Eye (1923).

which in application gave strength and advantage to the English fighting the Spanish Armada. it would achieve greater speed. plans. B a k e r initiated t h e scientific p r a c t i c e o f naval a r c h i t e c t u r e and applied h y d r o d y n a m i c s . b a s e d o n his studies o f fish. and blackbirds fly in formation through a mosaic of text. later called a galleon. and s e c t i o n s o f ships. His birds stare. the expression of its eye. and to assess our next move. t h e earliest geometrically defined elevations. drawings of animals that are each held tightly in a surprising space: a giant fish wears a ship's hull. Knopf's drawing opposite is the personal enigmatic expression of a mind gripped by illness. Below we see his revolutionary design for an Elizabethan warship. It is simply how we read his perspective. and steerage. The fish It is likely that Baker drew with a quill dipped in irongall ink. fins. Baker did not intend this. seemingly looking for our attention. The ship The upper decks of the ship appear curved toward us at both ends. In contrast to the practical clarity of Baker's thought. mathematician. Exquisite details in this drawing include the lips of the fish. and from them learned that if he designed his ship with a "cod's head MATTHEW BAKER Master shipwright. and scales. In just one drawing he has displayed more angles of his design than we would expect to see from a single viewpoint Fragments English 1586 101/2 x 153/8 in (270 x 390 mm) MATTHEW BAKER of Ancient Shipwrightry . He studied the anatomy of fish. slim stern). This drawing illustrates Baker's theory.32 ANIMALS Icon and Design IN THESE T W O MANUSCRIPTS we discover diagrammatic and mackerel's tail" (full bow. balance. adding washes of color with a fine brush. and author o f Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (1586). and the carefully observed gills. Baker lived in an era when ships were built without drawn plans.

The text. and filled evenly with tone. JOHANN KNOPF . circle and the birds. written last of all. T h e G e r m a n a r t historian Outline and tone The blackbirds illuminating this frantic manuscript are drawn in pencil. The main group is placed in a circle drawn with a compass.K n o p f b e l i e v e d h e c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h e language o f birds. firmly outlined. numbered.JOHANN KNOPF An " O u t s i d e r " a r t i s t w h o s u f f e r e d f r o m m e n t a l illness. appears to be stirred like water by the presence of the The Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks UNDATED 133/8 x 115/8 in (340 x 2 9 6 mm) and psychiatrist Hans Prinzhom collected this image. w h i c h o f t e n f e a t u r e as s y m b o l i c creatures in his drawings.

5 0 0 years ago. REED PENS: A broad nib can be cut from bamboo or another tubular grass. and hold it under a clean basin until the soot hangs to it. and first used by the Egyptians.34 ANIMALS Pen and Ink W I T H A HANDFUL OF FEATHERS." "Gum" refers to gum arabic extracted Dip pens are essential and inexpensive drawing tools. The reservoir gives a constant flow of ink for very long unbroken lines and continuous bottle-free use. Masters choose brands of long. Avoid needle-sharp mapping pens. The bar is then rubbed into water on a slate block to produce ink. QUILLS: These are cut from the barrel of a flight or tail feather. high-quality Chinese and Japanese inks are subtler and more complex than those produced in Europe. Intricate or dramatic lines. The paste from either recipe is pressed and dried into a bar for storage. spots. A German recipe of 1531 gives a simple description: "Take a wax candle. which range greatly in their handling and character of line. where reeds were gathered. PENS . expressive drawing techniques such as the ones we explore in this chapter 1. F O U N T A I N PENS: These vary in quality and nib width. which scratch rather than draw. Early artists recommended raven and crow for especially fine work. Quills were later cut from feathers. you can have great fun drawing the world around you. they are associated with rapid.246-47). Dip pens began their history in the Nile River. That is an ink. In the Far East. ink is traditionally applied with a brush (see pp. The Egyptians and Chinese are credited with the invention of carbon ink. a n d m e t a l p o i n t s . and spatters can be made with an exotic choice of inks. then pour a little warm gum water into it and temper the two together. METAL PENS: Inexpensive removable steel nibs are available in a range of widths. The Chinese used animal or fish glue. The best are goose or swan. 4. They fit into wooden holders. producing a different line. Each pen has a unique character. while metal nibs began as rare gifts in gold and silver before being perfected by the British steel industry. 2. distinguished manufacture. Responsive to slight changes in pressure. and it is still in use today. light it. Today. 3. s t i c k s . simultaneously 4 . Only fill with suitable inks. the recipes for which have been handed down over centuries. from the acacia tree.

8. . waterproof or non-waterproof. from are not 6. and most can be homemade. Crushed.36. is the ink of a cuttlefish or squid extracted post-mortem. and can be mixed and diluted to create subtler colors and tones. bistre. Bistre is the more humane use of soot scraped from the fireplace and ground into wine. iron-gall. an often misused term. C A R B O N INK: Traditionally produced from oil or resin soot (Lamp Black). roastedwine sediment (Yeast Black). charred bone (Ivory Black). They are the easiest inks to use.35 PEN AND INK Four types of ink were common before the 20th century. and sepia. The complexities of traditional iron-gall ink are explained on p. and are still in use today: carbon (Chinese and Indian). dated. suspended in a binder and stored as a solid block Blocks are imported today 7. and sieved. ACRYLIC / CALLIGRAPHY INKS: Available in black and a range of colors. INKS 9. I N D I A N INK: Carbon ink sold today in liquid form.G A L L INK: Abnormal spherical growths caused by parasitic wasps can be collected from some oak trees in fall. Inks can be lightfast or non-lightfast. or charcoal. I R O N . SEPIA A N D BISTRE INKS: Sepia. 5. Beechwood soot is best. they produce a golden dye for drawing. Excellent for drawing they are bright and non-clogging. Non-waterproof Indian inks can be reworked with a wet brush after drying. It dries with a sheen and clogs uncleaned pens. Waterproof types contain shellac. boiled. Old stock turns solid and bottlesChina. reduced. Now we also have acrylic ranges in many colors.

m o r e e x t e n d e d line than reed and a m o r e organic line t h a n m e t a l . fleshy skins that surround ripe walnuts. and delicious to draw with. Scribes o f t h e M i d d l e Ages. and turned brown with time. crushed. The lighter right Quill marks Quills carry more ink than strokes and for as reeds. giving longer lines. Practice to gain a feel for how materials behave. M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s d r a g o n o n p . galls were ground with iron sulfate to make an unstable solution. can also be collected from affected trees. giving a s h o r t . It also oxidized and ate or burned paper. the blade and cut away from you. and boiled to make a golden ink. T h e y give a finer. Paler strokes were made where the mark has the legs and antennae the ink ran out. For centuries. then cut a final nib (feathers. 2 4 4 is an e x q u i s i t e e x a m p l e . t h e y stick a n d j u d d e r f o r w a r d . keep all your fingers behind basis of iron-gall ink. finding reed p e n s unwieldy. Walnut ink is gloopy. r e s e r v e d t h e i r use f o r large c h o i r b o o k s . . It dried black.) You can make ink easily from the boiled. The darkest of this grasshopper wings) were made (around the head first. I u s e d t h e s e qualities t o d r a w t h e w o r m s above. U n d e r heavy pressure. Quills are also called D u t c h pens.36 ANIMALS Drawing With Ink To MAKE A QUILL OR REED PEN. of a loaded nib. QUILL PENS Q u i l l s a r e highly r e s p o n s i v e t o c h a n g e s in p r e s s u r e . d r y mark. appears broken to show paper beneath. Collect skins from the ground beneath trees once they are blackened. since t h e D u t c h w e r e t h e first t o realize t h a t they could be hardened and i m p r o v e d w i t h heat t r e a t m e n t in ash o r sand. Although oak galls and walnut skins are harmless. sieved. forming the REED PENS R e e dpens dispense ink quickly. reduced. Rembrandt. drawn to glisten with a dryer nib. red-brown. V a n G o g h . Oak galls. a n d M a t i s s e also e n j o y e d t h e m . a n d d e v e l o p e d t h e quill instead. for example. it was gray-purple. Running fresh. are surprisingly tough. Some of Michelangelo's drawings are now a little eaten by their own ink. Reed marks The darker left wing of this beetle was drawn with the wet inky stroke wing. always be cautious when experimenting with recipes.

37 METAL PENS Metal pens give long. Each layer of of the drying droplet dome the drawing was left to dry before adding more. particles then filled with a droplet of ink. sharp. clean strokes. o r being ruined as fountain pens would be under the same pressure. DRAWING WITH INK Filled outlines Each segment of wing was outlined. When using dip pens. giving a graded. it is important to feel for when the ink will run out and to know how much ink you pick up when dipping the nib. breaking. The of pigment to fall to the edges effect of the shape. White markings were drawn last Tones Here we see subtle tones of diluted ink beneath the undiluted black rim of a beetle's wing. W h e n the nib is pressed upside down. withstanding great pressure without sticking. marks become fine and needle-sharp. Loaded with ink and pressed hard. they splay to make thick o r double lines. tonal Ink layers The wings of this beetle were drawn in layers using black and white ink on pale gray paper. .

Dip your pen in ink. not on your drawing. Try to hold the whole posture in your mind's eye. It teaches confidence and focus through intensive repetition. and quickly draw around it using only three or four strokes. Empathize. Pack plenty of tissue around a bottle of calligraphy or acrylic ink. Experiment. waddle. Posture . and there is no "wrong. and bellyflop off the waterside. Geese are nosy birds. Take a cup and water for diluting a range of tones. draw what the bird is doing. That said. Attempt with a loose hand to capture their posture and outline." If you don't like a stroke. there is no obligation to prepare a quill. and be brave. be bold and press firmly. Watch their heavy feathered bodies flap. Quick drawing trains you to see what is most important about a subject and to mark only its most essential expression. Focus on the geese. Take no more than ten seconds to draw each one and make lots of drawings. touch the bottle's rim to drain the excess. MATERIALS NEEDED Look for a bird expressing a simple posture. Study them before drawing. Focus on it. Illustrating this exercise on Oxford Port Meadow. so pick a spot where other people can keep them entertained. You cannot break the nib. and a large drawing book or plenty of paper Use masking tape to secure pages against the wind. test your limits. steel nibs are fine. I covered eleven sheets in sixty quick drawings—in less than an hour. Cover a sheet. and boldly plunge into your drawing. It happens that goose feathers also provide artists with the best type of quills. to absorb blots when drawing. make another one. Cover your drawing book pages in speedy responses to the geese and try to capture each bird in as few lines as possible.38 ANIMALS Capturing Character GEESE ARE EXCELLENT SUBJECTS to draw when practicing the first use of pen and ink.

flapping. draw the feeling of what you see. and don't worry about mechanical facts or accuracy. Again. Use more lines than before to express these.39 Action With growing confidence. look among the birds for more complicated actions such as shaking off water. running. Avoid detail unless really tempted by a close-up visit Fluctuate the pressure of your pen in response to how you know the bird would feel if you touched it. CAPTURING CHARACTER Texture Gradually allow yourself more lines to describe the texture of each bird as well as its posture and action. . and diving.

form. Now it will make a pale line.40 ANIMALS Sleeping Dogs R A S WAS A GREAT CHARACTER. Sleeping animals present the artist with ideal opportunities to study their texture. and a tissue for blotting drawn lines that appear too dark. a dip pen and ink of your choice (see pp. first dip your pen in ink. and drain the excess by touching the nib against the rim of the bottle. These drawings are not an analysis of his anatomy or breed but the expression of his satisfied comfort in a deep sleep after a night out on the together with a glass of water for diluting tones on the nib. Then dip the nib quickly into a glass of water and drain the excess again. and personality. engaged in his and everyone else's business. Make a test sheet to discover your control of diluting on the nib. Ras Curled Up Asleep "Capturing the true character of a cherished companion is best achieved with objective determination rather than sentimental shyness. Dip the nib quickly again into water and again drain it." . a d o g w h o w a s a l w a y s town.34-37). For this class you will need one oblivious dog. The only time he remained still was when he was sleeping. your drawing book. This will give a medium-gray line. and even then he twitched and stretched in dreams. MAKING A PALE LINE To make a pale line.

see how the animal's posture determines its whole shape. Character is better captured drawing quickly with confidence than w o r k i n g slowly. and the shadows in his coat.It is essential when drawing any subject (even something abstract) to know how it feels andtoemulate this with your line. alter the pressure and moisture of your line in response to howyouknow your dog feels when you ruffle itscoat. 3 Gradually introduce darker tones. c o n c e r n e d a b o u t detail. Here I marked the features of Ras's head.41 DRAWING YOUR DOG Be bold in this exercise. ears. . Then. add more detail. ignoring all detail. To add texture. Trust your intuition. 2 Reload your pen with ink. quickly draw what you see. D o not go back over lines you are pleased with—doing so dulls their lively freshness. in bold layers. to emphasize how he is curled up. this time to create a line a little darker in tone. second thoughts may be different Changing your mind is a positive aspect o f seeing and thinking. Remain focused on the whole dog and. SLEEPING DOGS 1 Fix your eyes at the center of the dog. I added ink to Ras's nose. Here. Layers o f thoughts can bring a drawing alive. Then I immediately rebalanced the drawing with lines around his hind quarters. tail. W i t h pale lies. First lines are first thoughts.

swinging their limbs and shells with a slow circular movement. as if caught in a camera freeze-frame. Beyond the glass wall of the aquarium. THE ELONGATION AND BUOYANCY of a group of turtles is fascinating . offering plenty of time for the artist to draw the pose. A perfect subject for the beginner.Turtles to observe. they stretch and paddle. turtles often pause unexpectedly.


Dry Birds THESE ARE THE ARTICULATED BONES o f a k i w i a n d a h o u s e - martin drawn in a museum using a steel pen. balance. dry. With speed. India ink. I darkened lines as each drawing progressed. Beginning with very pale tones. and sharp. weightlessness of the kiwi. . I made repeated studies of the housemartin to discover its mechanism of flight. and water. I sought to capture the form.



Chapters are arranged by out. and to ornament our lives. Medieval knowledge was not gained by the first-hand observation of life but by reading. season. Botanic gardens were established and expanded. we see very different cultural visions of plants and gardens and use pencils and plants to learn the pictorial values of space. Classifications were set in367copperengravings. manipulations of light and shade. After Here Aconthus spinosus is combined with forget-me-nots and-a-half centuries of intensive observation. where a number of uncredited artistsd r e wthem for Besler. We draw them to celebrate their beauty and range. Later. infinitely vivid. 1613 187/8x153/4in(480 x 400 mm) BASILIUS BESLER . Plants seventeenth century. as opposed to only herbal. to catalog our knowledge. The revolution came in the 1530s. an There are close parallels between the acts of gardening and drawing. and diverse kingdom of plants. Botanical illustration is a precisely defined and scientific art.Morethan 1.000 species of plants are depicted life-size drawn. Plants are the principal inspiration of the decorative arts—from Roman Corinthian columns crowned with carved leaves of the acanthus. Conrad von Gemmingen. and the drawn pages ofthesame name. Early European illustrators were trapped within dogma that was determined by ancient scholarship. and hybridize them for our sustenance and pleasure. and the Acanthus spinosus constant but exhilarating struggle to make a living image feel right. form. From its history there is one overriding lesson to be learned: the importance of looking and seeing with our own eyes. we now have laid before us fourto show how well their colours complement each other infinite wealth of material to explore.Plants and Gardens W E SHARE THIS PLANET with the more ancient. nurture. and beauty. PriceBishopof Eichstatt specimens. It was published plain in 1611 and withhand-paintedplates in poured off ships returning from the New World and were eagerly collected and 1613. shape. We collect. He sent boxes of plants to Nuremburgburned with the urgency and excitement of explaining every plant's form. robust. Fledgling years Botanist and apothecary who compiled the Hortus Eystettensis of scientific research bore manifold explosions of knowledge in a fever of discovery. B A S I L I U SBESLER when botanists founded new work upon the direct study of plants. Patrons funded the breeding of decorative. and texture. Rich owners of private gardens commissioned large-format florilegiums commissioned the volume to document his private garden to immortalize their personal taste and power of acquisition. to the proliferation of floral designs with which we have dressed ourselves and furnished our homes for centuries. and focus. the microscope was refined to unfold yet another world. In this chapter. the punctuation of space with structure and mass. Both embrace the anticipation of evolving shape. on which our lives depend. —-the largest and most influential botanical book of the early Natural scientists accompanied explorers to document unknown finds. color.

Dissections Across the lower part of this drawing we can see dissections of seed pods and petals. subtle union of beauty." Her slipper orchid s h o w s that botanical drawing must often resolve the challenge of its subject's p r o d u c i n g parts in different seasons — r o o t s . flowers. He has made the spatial and physical relationships in this drawing all the more real by placing a single. s u c h as w e see here in Bauer's Protea nitida. W i t h bright F R A N Z BAUER An Austrian artist who trained at the Schonbrunn Imperial Gardens in Vienna. Stella Ross-Craig said of the need to d r a w from a dried herbarium plant "I could make it live again. and wilted. T h e rest of u s are free to d r a w as w e w i s h . They are counted among the most accomplished 18th-century botanical artists. Outline Bauer prepared a pencil outline before laying in fleshy succulent hues and tones of watercolor. The King was then establishing the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew.48 PLANTS AND GARDENS THE SCIENTIFIC VALUE OF A BOTANICAL DRAWING lies i n its Botanical Studies were specimens that often refused to stay still. Here. M a c k i n t o s h e x p r e s s e s the f o l d e d petals of a broken rose b u d so delicately w e can sense the perfume. Light in this drawing is given by the paleness of the paper showing between washes of darker tones. Each plant must b e clearly distinguished from its closest relative. stems. detail. and seeds conventionally a p p e a r o n o n e plate. B e h i n d detailed. It is likely Bauer would have studied these under a microscope. and Franz Bauer and his brother Ferdinand were employed there to draw specimens. fruit. delicate. or that were diseased. Botanical art c o n c e a l s the challenge of its m a k i n g . measured drawings. naturalist explorer and advisor to King George III invited Bauer to London in 1 7 9 0 . insect-ravaged. o p t i m i s m . petal tip over a lower leaf Protea nitida 201/4 x141/4in (513 x 362 mm) FRANZ BAUER 1796 . leaves. o p e n i n g a n d c l o s i n g i n the w a r m t h a n d light of the studio. Sir Joseph Banks. and meticulous precision.

and it shows how design. p u b l i s h e d 1 9 4 8 . Closer to fiction can come together perfectly. Pencil lines cling to. a m o n g o t h e r s .000 Kew to archive accessible t o d a y v i a t h e I n t e r n e t of o n British flora. and observation the nuance and contour of every in one image. K e w . as at trained botanical artist Ross-Craig Swift lines The drawing was planned in pencil and then overworked with a lithographic pen. it is small and discreet. Ross-Craig said of her work "Plants that wither rapidly present a very difficult problem to which there is only one answer—speed. L o n d o n in 1 9 2 9 . A s m a n y of her drawings are kept G a r d e n s . a n d f o u n d e r o f t h e G l a s g o w S c h o o l o f A r t M a c k i n t o s h ' s flair h a d an e n o r m o u s i n f l u e n c e o n t h e a v a n t . and follow shadow." This line drawing is one of 1.g a r d e in G e r m a n y a n d A u s t r i a . imagination.286 studies for her book Drawings of British Plants.7 3 in 3 1 p a r t s . sensual pencil drawing is later works. G u s t a v K l i m t In his r e t i r e m e n t Mackintosh m a d e n u m e r o u s inventive pencil a n d w a t e r c o l o r d r a w i n g s o f plants. S h e also o f thousands o f contributed an drawings. and perfect coordination of hand and eye.49 C H A R L E S RENNIE MACKINTOSH Scottish a r c h i t e c t d e s i g n e r painter. and speed depends upon the immediate perception of the essential characteristics of the plant. 1970 x 81/4 in ( 3 2 5 x 2 1 0 m m ) STELLA ROSS-CRAIG . Line Drawing of Cypripedium calceolus L c. H e r Drawings of British Plants. found among Mackintosh's than reality... BOTANICAL STUDIES Lines and shadows This lush. Rose 1894 103/4 x 83/4 in ( 2 7 5 x 2 2 1 mm) CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH STELLA ROSS-CRAIG A j o i n e d t h e staff a t t h e R o y a l B o t a n i c G a r d e n s . a n d he inspired. is r e c o g n i z e d as tne m o s t c o m p l e t e a n d i m p o r t a n t work 3. Curtis's Botanical Magazine.

Opposite is the Rose of Mohammed. urgent attentive human activity. in the early 16th century. and Nanha. and miraculous growth. Afghanistan. Upright shallow perspectives. Every fiber of AMONG DRAWINGS FROM BISHNDAS A N D N A N H A Little is known of these Mughal painters who were related as uncle and nephew and commissioned to illustrate the pages of Babur's journal. and calligraphy are brought together to hold the sacred names of prophets and the 99 beautiful names of God. anticipating their view. a notable portrait painter drew the faces. which he personally created near Kabul. The white of the page shines through the brilliant color. paper is brimming with the beauty and celebration of nature. Envoys chatter outside the gate. and attention to detail are all shared with medieval European manuscript drawings. 1590 85/8 x55/8in (219 x 1 4 4 mm) BISHNDAS AND NANHA Bright pigment These pages were illuminated by Mughal artists in the late 16th century. uniform focus. painting. roses took their form in a bead of perspiration on the brow of Mohammed as he passed through his heavenly journey. the sumptuous petals permeated with prayer and wisdom. in miniature. fluctuations in scale. The first Mughal Emperor Babur's Garden of Fidelity (Bagh-e Vaja). . Bishndas was probably responsible for the overall design.50 PLANTS AND GARDENS Jeweled Gardens the Middle East we find exquisite stylization of form and upright formality in pictorial space. Below. Drawing. is remembered in the pages of his journal. By Muslim tradition. They used a fine brush to lay pigment over a line drawing. Babur directs his gardeners in the design and planting of this quartered chahar bagh. Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity c.

and how the shape has been repeated freehand. Sacred words The central rose is more solid than any other on the page. G e r m a n y . The physical anatomy of the rosebud has been studied and translated into a repeated stylized motif. Stylized motif A fine brush has been used throughout this drawing to apply inks and watercolors. The Rose of Mohammed 1708 9 1 / 2 x 61/2 in ( 2 4 0 x 1 6 5 mm) FROM THE TURKISH M A N U S C R I P T AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH . t h e Staatsbibliothek zu Arabic. However. It is n o w k e p t in Border The elegant border of this drawing was mode with a pen and ruler It cleverly compresses and defines the composition. fragmenting its detail in a whisper of prayers. Note how each bud is essentially the same shape.AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH This is a detail o f a page from a n 1 8 t h . look closely and you will see words written in gold fluttering over the form of the flower.c e n t u r y Turkish manuscnpt a book of religious e t h i c s w r i t t e n in the O r i e n t a l C o l l e c t i o n s of Berlin. so that overlapping petals and stems give an impression of fulfillment and abundance.



Fast Trees
IN CONTRAST TO THE QUIET, formal detail of other drawings in this chapter, these powerful fast trees enact the actions of plants. Each tree reaches out and holds its landscape with dynamism and pulse. In both drawings we find testament to the inexorable energy of growth. Rembrandt expresses a delicate quickness. Gentle lines draw a warm breeze through this remote wooded garden. Rustling in a loose foliage of soft marks, his pen evokes the weight of abundant activity on this late summer's day. Mondrian's arch of scratching branches is drawn with such force it will always be alive. We can still feel his hand storming across the paper. Set within a frame of smudged landscape, the tree possesses a musical agitation. This characteristic will increase in the artist's later abstract work. Here, we see a punctuated ordering of space. Sharp branches cut out negative shapes of winter sky.

R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter; etcher; and draftsman. Rembrandt's prolific output comprises oil paintings of historical and religious subjects together with group and self- portraits. His emotive etchings and pen and ink drawings (see also p. 174) are great resources for artists learning to understand the potential of these media.


Pen and ink lines describing foliage also tell

us the directions of sunlight and wind. An arc crossing the bottom of the drawing from one side to the other supports the scene and separates us from the landscape beyond. Compare Rembrandt's arc to that of Mondrian's. and note the similar treatment of low horizons in both works emphasizing the height and dominance of trees.

Cottage Among Trees 1648-50 63/4 x121/8in ( I 7 I x 308 mm) R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN





Atmosphere Here we see how shapes of negative space are as important as the physical subject they enclose (see pp.58-59). Mondrian has again lightly dragged his chalk on its side to evoke a wet depth of atmosphere. These passive gray marks contrast with the assertive tension of the tree.

Dutch Pure abstract painter preoccupied w i t h line and plane relationships. W i t h increasing austerity, Mondrian banished t h e subject from his drawings, in his later w o r k he also banished space, composing visual h a r m o n i e s using only straight lines a n d flat planes o f black, w h i t e , gray, o r p r i m a r y color.

Winter ground Short vertical marks along thebottomof this drawing reveal the length oftheblackchalk Mondrian used. Rubbed onitsside,itroughly blocks in the ground. Thecrudeeconomy of line is all we need tofeelthecold, wet, unwelcoming quality ofthiswinterearth.

Branches and trunk Lines shaping the branches of the tree are built up in layers. To make the trunk more dense, the artist has rubbed and smudged preliminary marks with his fingers before firmly overdrawing with new lines. Solid black lines are achieved by pressing the chalk hard. When used lightly, it shows the texture of the paper. Tree: Study for the Grey 1911 23 x 335/8 in ( 5 8 4 x 8 5 5 m m ) Tree




Graphite and Erasers

This drawing illustrates a range of achieved with graphite pencils of different grades.


Modern pencils are graded from 9H (hard and pale) to 9B (black and soft). Graphiteclay sticks are also available, together with a powder form. All possess a natural sheen and are erasable to a varying degree. Graphite drawings smudge easily, so fixative, a form of varnish, can be used to hold a drawn surface in place. It is applied as a fine mist from an aerosol can, or from a bottle using a diffuser. For the beginner, ordinary hairspray is an effective and cheaper alternative.

(to write), is a soft and brittle carbon. It was first mined in Cumbria, England, in 1 5 6 4 , and was initially used in small, pure pieces bound in lengths of string. Pencils as we know them—with their slender wood casing and "lead" of graphite—were invented in France in 1794 by Nicolas-Jaques Conte. He discovered that milled graphite mixed with clay and water, press-molded, and baked to a high temperature produces a harder and paler medium than graphite alone.

3B pencil A range of mark and textures can be achieved with a 3B pencil when you vary its pressure, speed, and direction, as this detail shows.

Here is a selection of 14 items to illustrate a basic range of pencils, graphite sticks, sharpeners, erasers, and fixative.
1. AND 2. HB AND 3B PENCILS: It is unnecessary to possess every grade of pencil. HB, the central and most common grade, is perfect for making delicate lines. 3B gives a blacker tone. A great variety of effects can be achieved with just these two. 3. WATER-SOLUBLE PENCIL Effective for atmospheric drawing, but be aware of how watery tones can dull the impact of the line. 4. AND 5. MECHANICAL PENCIL Thick or fine leads are made in a range of grades. They are particularly useful because they do not require a sharpener 6. ROUND SOLID GRAPHITE PENCIL: Excellent for large-scale drawing, producing thick bold lines. A range of grades can be honed with a craft knife or sharpener 7. THICK GRAPHITE STICK: For large-scale drawing. Graded soft, medium, and hard. It crushes to produce graphite powder 8. SQUARE GRAPHITE STICK: Useful for making broad, sweeping marks in large-scale drawing. If worn and rounded, the stick can be snapped into pieces to regain the sharp, square end. 9. CRAFT KNIFE AND BLADES: Handles are sold in two sizes to fit large or small blades, and blades are sold in a range of shapes. Perfect for sharpening pencils to a long point, to cut lines in paper or to remove areas. 10. PENCIL SHARPENER: Makes a uniform point. Keep one in your pocket for drawing outside the studio, together with an envelope for shavings.

HB and 5B Layers of tone have been built up withHBand5Bpencils. Softer pencils require less pressure to make a mark, revealing the texture of the paper surface. It is important to keep the point of the pencil sharp with either a craft knife or a sharpener.


Erasers can be used t o blend and s o f t e n lines, o r t o r e m o v e altogether. Fixative them prevents


s m u d g i n g a n d s e c u r e s lines.

Using fixative You can use fixative while drawing to hold the definition of lines you wish to gently fade but not remove entirely, for which you would use an eraser.

11. P L A S T I C E R A S E R : Avoid cheap colored erasers that may stain drawings with grease and dye. White brands are available in soft and hard versions.



W a r m it in your hand before use. It is excellent for removing powdery materials, and for making crisp sweeps of light across a delicate pencil drawing

13. D I F F U S E R : Helleborus corsicus (Corsican hellebore) fixative, or to spray mists of ink.



Cropping and Composition
M A N Y STUDENTS WILL START a d r a w i n g i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e

that its skin nearly touches the boundary. The meaning of the same drawing changes simply by its relationship to the space it occupies. The size of any subject, its placement on the page, the size of the page, and its overall proportion are all discrete and essential aspects of successful picture-making. Before you begin to draw, think carefully about where to place your subject. Are you are happy with your paper? If not, change it; add more, take some away, or turn it around. Do not just accept what you are given, adapt it to what you need.

paper. Focused on the shape and detail of their subject, they remain happily unaware that there is, or should be, any relationship between what they are drawing and the surface they are drawing it on. The paper is only paper, and the troublesome subject floats somewhere in the expanse of it. However, a single fig drawn in the middle of a large, empty square of paper gives quite a different impression from the same fig drawn on such an intimately small square


A Single Fig

"The size, shape, and orientation of the paper are so integral to the composition that they determine the impact and meaning of the drawing."

as also shown here. When subjects touch two or more edges.O u r focus is on the white cloth supporting the figs. running corner t o corner. U s e it as a starting point. bottom-left t o top-right. the uppermost edge of the drawing. This drawing hasbeencropped to emphasize space between thefruit. Space as the subject Inallpictures. A card with a small rectangle cut out o f it makes a useful viewfinder C l o s e o n e e y e t o look through the hole. t h e n m o v e t h e c a r d t o e x p l o r e different views. and lines describing shadows cast by the fruit . CROPPING AND COMPOSITION Off-center and diagonal Here I held my viewfinder so the fig appeared upper-left in the space. its stem and shadow framing a white center.57 THE VIEWFINDER T h e s e pencil drawings o f figs d e m o n s t r a t e different crops and compositions. The angle of the fruit together with dark shadow (top left) and bright light(bottom right) suggest a diagonal division across the whole drawing. and therefore apparently suspended from. they establish a tension and unity with the paper. its illumination. Touching the edge When the subject o f a drawing touches one edge of the paper it attaches t o it visually. spaces between things are as important as the things themselves. a device to help you decide what t o draw. Here the left fig is attached to.

not leaves. unified. position. do we see myriad distinct and unique shapes of daylight or do we just see branches? Why as artists should we look at the air? Every space in a picture has a shape. this ensures a consistent view. a sharp H B pencil. third.The box opposite isolates an area. erasing and adjusting lines until itlooked right. Looking at negative space overrides the problem of drawing what you know. dynamic. fourth. and so on. tone. but if the artist does. It helps to start at the center and map outward. But how often do we look at the air between things. remember to draw only space. Negative space is the simple key to getting positive shape right. WHERE TO START Arrange your plant and paper so you can look back and forth by barely moving your head. you will need a similar large-leaved plant. and engaging. Remember that plants do move! Therefore it is best to complete your drawing in one sitting if possible. shapes of air cut out and defined by the physicality of our environment? When we look into the branches of a tree. In following this class. In your own version. which is shown in the three steps below. It is an astonishingly simple device that many artists use and I strongly recommend. and a role to play. an eraser. Draw a complete shape Map outward from the center Erase and adjust lines until correct . then added a second shape. and a fresh page in your drawing book. Unfamiliar shapes of negative space reveal the real shape of a positive subject. Follow these from left to right and see how I began with one complete shape between two parts of a leaf. their subject and composition will become more real. a foundation stone in picture-making. The drawing opposite is of the uppermost leaves of a potted fig tree. Viewers appreciating a finished image may not see shapes of space.58 PLANTS AND GARDENS Negative Space UNCONSCIOUSLY WE ASSESS spatial relationships all the time to guide ourselves through the world. rather than what you see in front of you.


Here I drew only spaces, adding one to another until the leaves were revealed. Besides looking at negative space, there are two other useful things to do when a drawing feels wrong but you cannot see why: look at it in a mirror or turn it upside down. errors and suggest changes.

Spaces between leaves

Either view will


Fig Tree
WALKING IN THE ALPUJARRAS in A n d a l u c i a ,

Spain, I drew a bare fig tree clinging to the wall of an almond grove; a perfect subject for seeing negative space. I marked its essential frame of large branches first, frequently erasing lines and changing my mind until the balance felt right.

S a l v i a , RIBES, CLEMATIS, Allium, Passiflora, and Acanthus

Summer Flowers


drawn with an H pencil by observing the

negative spaces between the stems, petals, and leaves. I arranged the flowers on a sheet of paper in a cool r o o m and rapidly sketched a composition. Then I put them in water, taking the stems out one at a time to draw.


our eyes travel and adjust from one point of focus to another. they emulate our experience of seeing. We never see everything at once. 62-63). interfolding points of detail with areas of loose suggestion. Compare changes of pace and focus here to the flatter finish of Summer Flowers (see pp. If an artist changes the pace of their line and focus of their attention.Acanthus Spinosus As we LOOK AROUND. . gathering less distinct information on the way. Excessive detail leaves no space for the eye to rest or imagination to wander.


Since Picasso and Braque's revolution of Cubism in around 1907. add and subtract ideas. coupled with the importance of exercizing your imagination. This harmony. was preserved into the Renaissance where it became a foundation stone for thinking and creativity From 15thcentury Italy. European conventions of pictorial perspective have lost their monopoly on seeing. and in the 19th century it was given the name the Golden Section. each VICTOR BALTARD . the device that has since governed most of our picture-making (sec pp. film-set design. and architects of ancient Greece who first pursued the formula for "divine proportion. time. which can be clearly seen in ancient Greek architecture." reflecting the eye's love of unity in difference. Architects have been fine-tuning their specialized branch of drawing for centuries. Through the animation of the screen. Augustin. mass. they also have a diagrammatic language for communicating plans to builders. which was the first church in the capital to be built entirely of metal and then clad in stone.Architecture I N THE CONTEMPORARY PRACTICES of architecture. It was also during the Renaissance that the architect Brunelleschi invented linear perspective. Linear perspective is a marvelous device. fine artists. At the core of their practice. balance. Perhaps in the sheer planes of some of our greatest modern buildings it is finding its clearest expression. and from West Facade of the Church of St Augustin. Baltard designed the Church of St. the formula for perfection spread through Europe. 74-75). Yet the pursuit of divine proportion and harmony remains. Paris 1871-74 the child's view to the infinity of the vanishing point. made by the architect himself. Among the drawings of this chapter we look from 17th-century ecclesiastical calm. and writers have been breaking away from traditional forms of representation to seek new expressions of shape.The church is still in use today. and sound. It was the mathematicians. It is the focus of practical class in this chapter. philosophers.This is a pencil drawing. and computer game imaging. drawing plans around themselves within a program as opposed to on a flat sheet of paper. space. Besides sketches of first thoughts and polished drawings of the finished look for clients. composers. to help them create new form. they have the Golden Section. invaluable to understand and apply when you choose. filmmakers. Since the first flowering of Modernism in the early 20th century. with gray and brown watercolor wash. to 20th-century film fantasy. VICTOR BALTARD French architect employed by the city of Paris. architects. designers. of the west facade of St Augustin. once there. architects and designers can imaginatively "climb inside" three-dimensional space and. we find the most recent steps in the evolution of graphic language. from political commentary to musical abstraction. Computer programs allow the virtual drawing of ideas.

Three aspects This subtle and sophisticated drawing made in pen and wash displays three distinct aspects of Hawksmoor's baptistry. pilasters. NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR One of Britain's "three great" Baroque architects (along with Sir Christopher Wren and Sir John Vanbrugh). St Paul's Baptistry c. Blenheim Palace. marks the end of a long journey from the first few marks the architect made on a sheet of paper. a three-dimensional drawing made with wires and weights. he also worked on St Paul's Cathedral. materials. A student of Wren's. Hawksmoor's drawing is both a plan and an evocation. Below it. and ultimately to show builders what to do. and labor. calculate function. embodying a massive investment of ideas. Hampton Court Palace. Together they explain how interior structure and space define exterior form and shape. 1711-12 NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR . and balance. Architects draw for many reasons: to visualize ideas. and the shapes of interior domes and apses. Lines define structure while washes suggest light and atmosphere. and an inscribed entablature. Drawings underpin every great human-made structure like hidden linear ghosts at their core. We see the modeled detail of Corinthian columns. and Castle Howard. and six London churches. evoke presence. Finished surface On the left the finished surface of the building is given depth and emphasis by immaculate vertical and horizontal brush strokes of shadow. densely layered lines in mists of color weave the presence of the expected building into shape. and later an assistant to Vanbrugh. describe a finished look to a client. Oxford. Cut-away interior On the right a section cut through the center of the building reveals material thicknesses. Hawksmoor established his reputation with university and church architecture including All Souls College. The photograph opposite shows his studio hung with metal pendulums.68 ARCHITECTURE Master Builders EVERY NEW BUILDING. Pillars and floor At the base of the drawing a compass-drawn plan tilted downward through 90 degrees illustrates the arrangement of pillars around a central circular floor. structure. Gaudi's fluid architecture grew up through many kinds of drawing. relative levels. testing gravity to calculate the inverted shapes of domes.

Gaudi air than on paper. embellishment. 1910 24x181/4( 6 1 0 x 4 7 5mm) A N T O N I O GAUDI . Gaudi's cathedral in Barcelona. 1900 ANTONIO GAUDI ANTONIO GAUDI Visionary Catalan architect. light. unique organic manipulation of high shapes. and apartment homes are distinguished by their Their and Flowering curves of stone or concrete are often encrusted with Gaudi was inspired by medieval and oriental art.69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt c. This sculptural drawingenvisionsthe finished crypt glowingandethereal as if caught in thelightof red morning sun. Wire and watercolor three-dimensional preferred to calculate Above is a drawing form in the made withlinkedwires and weights. To the right isawatercolordrawing thought to havebeenmade over a photograph ofthemodelabove. and his love of music. The Art Nouveau movement. Guell Crypt of its at the Time Construction c. churches.

short curved poles. and the spaces between his windows and turrets are the visual equivalent of pauses in h i s m u s i c c o m p o s i t i o n s for p i a n o (see also Bussotti. a refillable pen that feeds a constant supply of ink through a fine tubular nib. Both men used rulers and pens to carefully and slowly construct their compositions. Floor plan This drawing has been made with a rapidograph. He also contributed to plans for the rebuilding of the World Trade Center site in New York. Floor space appears divided by discernible walls. Across the top and center right of the image w e perceive an almost recognizable architectural plan. upright pictorial space. and exhibitions of his drawings.223). Visual rhythms In the lower half of this drawing architectural language has broken loose: escaped and transformed into an image of rebellious pleasure. Arctic Flowers 1980 DANIEL LIBESKIND . and in a sense hear. There has always DANIEL LIBESKIND A Polish American architect of international acclaim. and rooms. We can see.70 ARCHITECTURE The Order of Sound B O T H OF THESE VISIONARY DRAWINGS o c c u p y a s l e n d e r . Contemporary musicians commonly collaborate with artists by interpreting images as sound. Libeskind begins quietly in the upper space of his drawing. He also produces urban and landscape designs. such a rapport in both of these drawings. installations. Libeskind studied music before transferring to architecture. before cascading into a riot of line and sound below. while the composer Erik Satie has made an enclosure of quiet order and grace. Satie draws quietly throughout. p. theater sets. and dotted lines. corridors. and arched dotted lines depict the radius of doors. We can imagine how a musician might interpret this drawing by looking at the abstract visual rhythms of masses composed of long straight poles. Libeskind's numerous commissions include concert halls and museums. flat boards. The architect and musician Daniel Libeskind has drawn a stampeding cacophany of airborne architectural detail. been a natural affinity between the visual rhythms of pictures and the audible rhythms of music.

H e p e r f o r m e d in cabarets. Compare the even and and the shape wall to the elegantly stylized order of the many windows of arrangement of details and the shape of the wall in Babur's Garden of Fidelity on p. the perimeter Composition Look how well this drawingfitsand resonates with the upright. They definespaceand pictorial balance. a n d ballet.ERIK SATIE F r e n c h pianist and c o m p o s e r for t h e piano. andfouredges of the paper tothecompositionand impact animage. effectively additional lines in a work. and founded his o w n church.narrowshape of its paper. 1 8 9 3 77/8 x 51/2 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 4 0 mm) ERIK SATIE . and ink on a fragment folded brown paper—a of everyday happened material of scrap that to be at hand. dressed eccentrically.50. lived a l o n e .56—57 we discussed important the shape. Eastern influence The upright image Eastern is reminiscent and medieval of Middle pictorial space and subject of this European drawing. theater. Onpp. Satie collaborated w i t h hisfriends J e a n C o c t e a u a n d P i c a s s o .H i s witty. o f which he was the sole m e m b e r Parcel paper Satie has drawn this fantasy hotel using a ruler.Edges are how are of orientation. a conventional dip or fountain pen. minimalist s c o r e s scandalized a u d i e n c e s with o r c h e s t r a t i o n s f o r t h e foghorn and typewriter. Hotel de la Suzonnieres c.

we find other Utopian visions Paul Nobles epic drawing summons an imperfect and disturbing township where ruin and activity are equal and strange. antlike mortals might have speculated upon the universe. made in 1926. and the reverse is true on the right. Within it. spheres. Light illusions This pen-and-wash drawing shows a subtle application of the principles of illumination demonstrated with an egg on p. His celebrated imaginary buildings are characterized by pyramids. Among preparations for Fritz Langs film Metropolis. We glide over exquisitely drawn wastelands of damage and abandonment. and draftsman. ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE French architectural theorist. enter the long-shadowed architecture of imaginary worlds. arched vaults. cylinders. This shift makes the cenotaph appear three-dimensional. painter. Newton's Cenotaph 1784 153/4 x 25 in ( 4 0 2 x 635 m m ) ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE . Art director Erich Kettlehut's vertiginous design for the city of a slavelike populace had a future influence on movies such as Blade Runner. Boullee's monolithic apparition was drawn as a monument to Sir Isaac Newton.The lower-left section of the building appears relatively pale against a darker sky. Boullee lived in Paris.96. the ominous globe exists only as a series of drawings. experiencing a fascinating conflict between curiosity and desolation.72 ARCHITECTURE T H E S E T H R E E HIGHLY DETAILED DRAWINGS Future Fictions invite us to soaring above normal life. and taught at t h e A c a d e m i e d'Architecture. and dramatic lighting. This is the work of an architectural theoretician.

mythology.Building shapes are works can be read as text.m a k e r In t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f Metropolis. Nobson Central 9 ft 1 0 in x 1 3 f t 2 in (3 x 4 m ) PAUL N O B L E 1998-99 . Fritz Lang's Metropolis c. Working on toned paper such as this gives an artist greater scope for dramatic lighting effects than if they work on white paper. together with c i n e m a t o g r a p h e r Karl Freund. intensely detailed graphite drawings explaining and questioning t h e geography. Kettlehut and his c o . gray. and white ink on brown-gray paper.a r t director O t t o Hunte. Nobson political visions of humanity Newtown. and are Graphite shapes Nobson Central isoneof a series of very large graphite drawings of the spoil and detritus of Nobson Newtown. draftsman. used forced perspective camera t e c h n i q u e s t o amplify t h e m a g n i t u d e o f buildings in relation t o human characters. Kettlehut drew using a fine and relatively dry brush dipped in black. 1926 ERICH KETTLEHUT PAUL N O B L E British c o n t e m p o r a r y artist who creates m o n u m e n t a l . architecture. Its sheerscaleengulfs the viewer and demands based time and patience to on letters and in some beread.73 ERICH KETTLEHUT Influential film a r t director. FUTURE FICTIONS Brush and ink This is a dramatic drawing from a film that shaped the history of world cinema. and m o d e l . and morality o f an invented place called His satires exhibited w o r l d w i d e .

Note how architectural features conform to lines and how human figures diminish in size toward thevanishingpoint. See how the thread corresponds to each converging line. Piranesi an example of two. Single-point perspective Tie a thread to a pin. and thinkers ever to have lived. and those of Naive artists and children. LEONARDO DA VINCI One of the greatest artists. I contribute the child's perspective. Study of Perspective Adoration of the for the Magi 1481 61/2 x111/2in (165 x 290 mm) LEONARDO DA VINCI . In his notebooks. All forms of perspective are of equal value. scientists. 206-07). Here Leonardo provides a superb example of a single vanishing point. inventors. It can be applied to any subject. Sometimes shared with Naive artists. this perspective is often an imagined bird's-eye view in which details are mapped according to logic and importance rather than how they might appear in real life. and age eight. found at the center of all converging lines. observations. but is most easily seen and understood in pictures of buildings and interiors. It is also distinguished from aerial perspective (see pp. Invented by Italian artist and architect Brunelleschi in 1413 (late in the history of art). Leonardo recorded constant streams of ideas.74 ARCHITECTURE Pathways of Sight LINEAR PERSPECTIVE (also called vanishing-point perspective) is a simple device for calculating the relative size of things in pictorial space. and inventions— essential reading for inquiring minds. Press the pin into Leonardo's vanishing point. We use it to structure illusions of depth. linear perspective is distinct from more ancient systems practiced in the East. Pull the thread taut and rotate it slowly above the drawing.

Scale Our farmhouse my experience was in the woods.SARAH SIMBLET I made this drawing (at age 8) in response to a local bookstore's request for children to draw their village. and designer Piranesi's prolific architectural drawings. a points in logical narrative of memories. This drawing Young children typically maps ignore on and understanding of the nearby village. 1740 5 1 / 2 x 83/8 in (141 x 212 mm) G I O V A N N I B A T T I S T A PIRANESI points are located on either side of the drawing. Mark these points with your pin and follow the converging lines of the drawing by rotating your thread. Two-point perspective Sunlight through this colonnade a great example of two-point perspective. including all they recall about the subject. visionary and practical understanding of ancient Rome. at the top of each lateral column base. . Note the rather large rabbits and pheasants the hills. It shows how children usually map large scenes in flat layers one above the other. Lightly marked illuminates vanishing Two Courtyards c. New Forest. Children are uninhibited and problems with one element being obscured by another rarely arise. and theoretical writing strongly influenced neoclassicism. which I saw from home every day. architect. England 1980 9 x 16 in (228 x 405 mm) S A R A H SIMBLET GIOVANNI BATTISTA PIRANESI Italian artist. Breamore Village. issues of scale when making room for important their story.

) . you will amplify the illusion of distance. imagine. This lesson shows you how to make a simple illusion of space defined by two boxes and three flat boards. Surround the vanishing point with a small rectangle. Draw each step over the preceding one to build up a single image. corresponding to a single vanishing point. this is your vanishing point. Study these pages first before embarking on this lesson. Note that if you place large structures in the foreground and smaller ones closer to your vanishing point. Piranesi planned his drawing with only the essential lines needed. then follow the ten steps below. 2 3 corners must each touch a dotted line. This ensures that the second rectangle aligns with the shape and 4 Draw four short lines to connect the four corners of the two rectangles. DRAWING BOXES 1 Using a ruler and a sharp HB pencil. Next. discovering the image as it progressed. (See p. In contrast. On the previous page we looked at its essential mechanism through drawings by Leonardo and Piranesi. try composing your own space. Extend each dotted line to the edge of your drawing. You have completed your first box. This is where we will begin. Leonardo began with a grid of many lines within which he invented his scene. draw a horizon line across your paper Mark a spot on the horizon line. using a sharp HB pencil and ruler. Erase the dotted construction lines. Draw four dotted lines radiating out from the vanishing point. Each line should pass through one corner of the rectangle.98 for an important note on oscillation.76 ARCHITECTURE Single-Point Perspective MASTERING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE i s e a s i e r t h a n y o u m a y First read through.

N e x t draw a slanting line to mark the height of the first flat board. Connect this to the vanishing point— again. with two dotted lines. 8 Complete the second box with short lines as in step 4. you can place rectangles anywhere youwishin relation to a vanishing point. bottom.77 SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE 5 Draw a new rectangle. Note that this does not surround the vanishing point In the future.asIhavedonehere. the closer it will appear to the viewer. The board's sides should be parallel. andfarside of this first board. Repeat this to add two more boards to the composition. and erase the dotted lines. 9 Use dotted lines connecting the slanting linetothe vanishing point to locate the top. 1 0 Erase all ofthedottedlinestoseeyourfinishedboxes Thickeningtheiredges. 7 As in step 3. when inventing your own compositions. 6 As in step 2. draw four dotted lines radiating from your vanishing point Pass these through each comer of the new rectangle. larger rectangle. Continue the dotted lines out toward the edge of your drawing. . The larger you make your second rectangle. draw a second. The four comers must each touch a dotted line to be sureitaligns with the first.willhelptomake them appear more solid.

Linear perspective will support y o u by providing a frame in which to b u i l d your picture as it did for Leonardo. Every work talks In this class. draw a b o x as shown opposite. once said: "I never end up with what I set out to do. As David Lynch. w h e t h e r it is a film or a painting. p . A lot more happens when you open yourself up to the work and let yourself act and react to it. it is interaction that makes the work richer. It highlights the importance of having faith in your imagination and trusting your ability to invent. Then follow the three given steps. The m i s t a k e n belief that we s h o u l d k n o w exactly what o u r finished drawings will l o o k like before we m a k e t h e m prevents many people from ever starting." imaginary room. O n a fresh page in your d r a w i n g b o o k . If using a fibertip pen as I have done for this drawing.78 ARCHITECTURE Creating an Imaginary Space T H I S CLASS USES SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE t o c r e a t e a s i m p l e to you and if you listen to it. it will take you places you never dreamed of. you will find white adhesive stationery labels are useful for covering errors or changing the direction of your idea. artist and film director. I always start with a script but I don't follow it all the way through to the end. let simple lines suggest a simple space." . then let the space suggest its c o n t e n t s and purpose. APPLYING PERSPECTIVE An Imagined Scaffold "Enjoy your illusion as you make it and it will become more real. 7 4 ) .

The space has become more solid and real. you will beableto draw more complex objects orpeoplewithin them. additional lines have established the different surfaces and how they relate to each other. 3 Remove the construction lines with an eraser and the room will becomeclearer.79 DRAWING A SIMPLE ROOM Essentials t o remember: objects and people dimmish in size as they move farther away.Addanarray of converging lines to provide a "scaffold" for vertical.There is great pleasure tobefoundin spending time inventing interiors. 2 first before adding furniture. With some practice. This initial space will be transparent and open to change. CREATING AN IMAGINARY SPACE 1First. .drawthehorizonlineand vanishingpoint. and floors and ceilings also converge and rise o r lower toward the horizon. parallel planes such as walls converge toward the vanishing point. and leaning surfaces. Here. horizontal.

To draw such a view APPLICATION Copy these drawings to see and feel how they work before inventing your own versions. It is important to realize that you can have as many vanishing points as you wish. Vanishing points are commonly found on horizon—our eye level.p o i n t perspective ( s h o w n opposite top). verticals appear p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the g r o u n d . Only when y o u might employ t h r e e . Potentially. These elaborations could continue indefinitely across a sheet of paper in pursuit of complex and intricate ideas. From our normal eye level. showing y o u h o w to draw curved surfaces and a tiled floor. T h i n k of standing at the top of a skyscraper and imagine h o w its parallel sides would appear to converge below you. o r to the h o r i z o n . a n d this is how we have drawn them so far (see pp. they can be placed anywhere inspaceto describe the perspective of flyi c tilted objects. 76-79). or low and we look u p . Elaborations . T h e y d o n o t have to relate to each other. Here.80 ARCHITECTURE Further Aspects of Perspective W E ARE ACCUSTOMED TO SEEING our e n v i r o n m e n t from a relatively constant point of view. located anywhere inside or outside the pictorial space. They could be drawn on any scale from miniature to monumental. That is where we e to find them. Copying what you see in the work of others will help you to understand what they have done. The boxes drawn here are seen partly or entirely disassociated from a horizon line drawn across the bottom of the image. T h i s is d e m o n s t r a t e d immediately below. Further aspects of three-point perspective are also illustrated opposite. do verticals appear inclined. Search for the application of these perspectives among works by other artists in this book and in galleries. our eye level is very high and we look down. Free vanishing points On paper we can enjoy the freedom of fantastic structural invention without limitations of solid materials or gravity. but they are not confined to this level. I have elaborated on the simple boxes above.

I added horizontal lines t o define the tiles. Iusedthese lines as a guide t o draw the curvature of boxes and panels flying through space. Three-point checkered floor This d bottom floor.81 FURTHER ASPECTS OF Three-point towers This drawing depicts three-point perspective.) By comparing this drawing t o Piranesi's example of two-point perspective on p. and therefore tension. tostraightlines can amplify drama in a picture. An array of curved lines (drawn freehand) link the two lateral points. you will see how. three vanishing points are evenly spaced along a horizon line.75. Giving curvature. (Turn the book around to see a view looking up. I then drew three fanned groups of lines connecting each of the three points above to the seven points below. PERSPECTIVE Three-point curves Here. they mark the corners of the floor tiles. useful for representing steep views looking up or down tall structures. I marked the toplinewith three evenly spaced points and the line with seven. Where thelinescross.Finally. Note that altering the distance between the three dots above will tilt the level of the floor .Istarted with two parallel lines. by adding a third point you can achieve a sense of incline.


I visited many anatomical theaters and museums.Theaters RESEARCHING FOR MY P H D . making drawings to resolve questions and express personal responses to the nature and history of anatomy. . These walnut-skin ink pen and brush drawings show imagined views of theaters that do not exist but were inspired by places I studied.


the water. .I N KDRAWING is one of a series I made while next to the Rialto Bridge in Venice.A N D .Venetian Life sitting point buildings ThisP E N . The vanishing of the drawing is directly opposite as we look across The constancy of the bridge and surrounding frames the movement in the life that flows past.




Today. but humans LEONARDO DA VINCI Inthisbeautiful red chalk Our items all have a purpose—practical or ornamental—and all have a meaning. that test our logic with a sense of mystery. drawn. even more advanced drawings are made on computers. and some apes use simple tools. these. of light in the creation of pictorial illusions. In this chapter. Artists also make images of objects that can never exist. passing them on to others through the act of making. or drawing w e see Leonardo daVinci'sprecision as can be given meaning. have often carried great weights of allegorical once. and a wire violin. or to explain and present a finished concept to a client. each demanding more of the other as they increased in sophistication. texture. T h e precision of engineering d r a w i n g s e v o l v e d alongside machine tools. for example—whether. making a clear instruction t o his bronzemeaning. illuminating snail shells. History will be learned from the artifacts w e leave behind. With the sudden onset of mass production. Artists and actors use the meanings of things to communicate a speculative mechanic. too. craftsmen had held plans in their memory. drawing c. drawings were needed to instruct workers on the factory floor. In past eras. W e also explore v o l u m e and form in the classes by spinning lines to make vessels. and made. Previously. we look at the importance are the only creatures on Earth w h o actually design and create great ranges of things. Engineers and designers of our objects and instruments make drawings for many reasons: to test an idea that is yet to be made. H e has described a casting through metaphor. are all made bearing the signature of our time and place. C o m m o n items. sculpted. from s p o o n s and pens to chairs and bicycles. It was in this era that the blueprint was born. planned. It is shaped in sections w i t h Artists have for centuries studied and expressed composition. 1493 117/8c81/4in (300 x 210 m m ) LEONARDO D A V I N Ccreating I . fictional realities caster of h o w t o make it andhowit will w o r k . and the behavior of light through making still-life paintings and together. Technical drawing was speedily developed as a meticulous international code of m e a s u r e m e n t and explanation. Birds follow instinct to make a nest. for example. T h e Industrial Revolution c h a n g e d the traditional w a y s in w h i c h objects were designed. color.Objects and Instruments T HE THINGS WE INVENT describe our lives. hooked bars that can be pulled and tied closely form. to record an observed detail. A chair. and the way in w h i c h the brain reacts Head and Neck Sections of Female Mold for the Sforza Horse to visual stimulus and optical illusions. H e has described contour and function at drawings. design. or used on stage hood for a mold t o make theheado f a horse f oas a p r o p — i m b u e d with e n o u g h energy or character can "become" a man. r an equestrian statue.

and shading..Braque marshals all the forces of perspective." La Cuitare. There is a fragile eloquence to these objects as they drift in slow motion past our gaze. Braque established Cubism in partnership with Picasso just before World War I. perfect i n their newly made availability. silverware.90 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS Still Life THESE DRAWINGS REVEAL t w o o p p o s i t e m o t i v a t i o n s i n we can. One of the great joys of this movement in art is the musicality of its multipoint view. texture. and glass objects of exquisite elegance for only the gentlest of touch and appreciation. Braques "justly" arranged combination of cut black card. Clashes The art historian Ernst Gombrich said of Cubism. and a journal jacket with words makes this drawing chatter about the moment. T h i s is a designers drawing made to enthuse surface and style in its delicate brushing of china. Braques image is a Cubist collage. Below. Even today GEORGES BRAQUE French painter who as a young man was influenced by the work of the Fauves and of Cezanne.73 x 1 m) GEORGES BRAQUE . representing still life. . but to clash in virtual deadlock. His work is characterized by calm and harmonious still-life compositions. charcoal. not to work in harmony. Mucha's drawing glistens with possession. steaming with music and conversation. wood-look wallpaper. a colored canvas. "I believe [it] is the most radicalattempttostampout ambiguity and to enforce one readingofthepicture—that of a manmade construction. still feel this projected moment.. Opposite. Statue D'Epouvante 1913 2 f t 5 in x 3 ft 5 in (0. not of place but of things. He takes us into the bustle of the Paris cafe.

Pans. and New Study for Plate 59 from "Documents Decoratifs" 17x121/4(430 x 310 mm) ALPHONSE MUCHA 1902 . He is best known for posters featuring ethereal women in typical Art Nouveau style. He designed the Austrian pavilion for the Paris World Fair in 1900. Look at the two spoons at toprightand see how has suggested that they are so brilliantly shiny they reflect the background color.fruit. Art Nouveau motifs This is a preliminary study for a subsequent print. and fish have been outlined using a sharp pencil.ALPHONSE MUCHA Czech graphic artist and painter who worked in Prague. For ten years Mucha designed theater posters exclusively for the actress Sarah Bernhardt. Black watercolor washes and lines of white gouache have been added with a fine brush. Chicago. Art Nouveau curling motifs of birds. and also stamps and bank notes. Background color Between the delicate shadows and highlights of these glazed and surfaces ofthebackground metal color of the Mucha we see a large amount paper. The three plates facing us were drawn with a compass.

each reflecting a view of his own world—his window. Newton's drawing of his first reflecting telescope is ISAAC N E W T O N English scientist. Hooke's head of a drone fly seen through a microscope may represent the first time man and insect came face to face. Newton's 1672 ISAAC Telescope NEWTON . He counted 1 4 . 0 0 0 perfect hemispheres. In the graphic work of these two great men of science. drawing is there to pin the moment down. Transparent view Newton's reflecting telescope focused light in a parabolic mirror. offering a transparent view. It is a diagrammatic explanation of how to catch and magnify a star in a mirrored tube. we see drawing Instruments of Vision found among his letters. and his hand moving across the light. A disembodied eye at the top of the drawing indicates where to look. the law o f gravity. and the nature o f light and color. The power of this drawing reflects the pure passion of discovery. Their delicate construction is only as valuable as the measurements they make. With dotted lines Newton has drawn his arrangement of elements inside the tube. w h e r e he developed his three greatest theories: the law o f motion. and Fellow of the University o f C a m b r i d g e . into the eyepiece. astronomer. Newton used this instrument to calculate the speed required to escape earth's gravity. via a second mirror. shape the very cause and effect of investigatory thought. and philosopher Newton was President of the Royal Society. each one skillfully rendered with the alarmingly matter-of-fact ease of explaining the commonplace. From the concept of capturing the infinite to the mapping of microscopic sight.92 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS by their very nature must gauge or chronicle precision. Look how confidently he draws with ink the sphere of this wooden globe by which his telescope rotates. It was then reflected up inside the tube and. alchemist. Ink lines Several drawings appear among Newton's letters. mathematician. a tree outside.

and anchor escarpment. The Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 1665 ROBERT HOOKE 111/2 x 105/8 in (294 x 270 mm) . and calculated the theory of combustion.An experimental scientist who drew many of his discoveries. Hooke invented the camera diaphragm. ROBERT H O O K E 93 Magnifications This acutely detailed engraved drawing is taken from Hooke's Micrographia (pub. It is an exhilarating read. 1665). universal joint a prototype respirator clock balance. a breathtaking book containing many of his drawings showing some of the first microscopic and telescopic magnifications of our environment Hooke's text and illustrations carry us to the moment of discovery.

Chair Cut Out 2002 22'A x 23 in (565 x 585 mm) SARAH WOODFINE .94 INSTRUMENTS W H E N WE DRAW A COMMON OBJECT like a chair. while the tabs make us see a flat paper cut-out. each drawn with the s a m e unfaltering lines and tones that are between reality and impossibility. and w h e r e the chair b e l o n g s . Its wobbly gait and squashed s y m m e t r y m u m b l e endless h o m e y tales about the life it has seen. its character. craft. has published several catalogs of her work. Drawn in more-or-less c o n v e n t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . Woodfine exhibits internationally. and winner of the 2004 Jerwood Drawing Prize. A renegade from the p a p e r dolls' h o u s e . it has so m u c h familiar personality that it seems to talk to us. OBJECTS AND SARAH WOODFINE British contemporary artist graduate of the Royal Academy Schools. From component parts we understand how to put it together and make it stand sensible in space. and place in the world are truly seen. and has drawings in numerous public and private collections. Bench Marks W e are left a little c o n f u s e d as to what we s h o u l d do. W i t h h o m e y c o n t r a s t . Van Gogh's tipsy seat is a metaphor for an absent person. Two-dimensional was made This highly finished drawing ruler using a sharp pencil and on smooth white drawing paper glistening dark drawings are artificial representations of known Woodfine's two-dimensional things balanced in the world. this chair p r e s e n t s us with a clever visual contradiction: deeply drawn shadows tell us it must be solid. Sarah Woodfines flat cut-out m o d e l plan is a witty and surprising drawing.

Van Chair 1890 VINCENT VAN GOGH . Cornfield and Sunflowers. His passionate brush and pencil strokes are honest and of also turmoil and growing alarm at the world around him. The floor few as engagement with the chair. not is made present in only strokes and is subdued to distract us from flat a meaningful chair.hehas marked the full emotion of the subject with a fierce grip of concentration. and Starry Cypress Night. inner recording while Fierce strokes This is a portrait of the mechanical drew immediately and almost harshly. what direct in their he saw and describing his felt. Among van Gogh's best-known canvases are Trees. drawn opposite way of plan.95 VINCENTVAN GOGH Dutch painter who produced over 800 paintings and 850 drawings in only the last ten year's of his life.

The rim of light on the egg is reflected light received from surrounding paper.At one point you will catchenoughlight lighter than the white one. The egg's lightest region is seen against a darker background. the adjustment of our eyes (in growing accustomed to a level of light). Through these we can enjoy witnessing our o w n d e c e p t i o n a n d b a f f l e m e n t a n d u n d e r s t a n d certain factors that are very useful in picture-making. To interpret visual s t i m u l u s .d o w n patterns of light on our retinas. try this experiment. The perceived tone of a black white. Before starting a tonal drawing of any subject. Below the bottom "edge" of the egg there is a rim of light reflected onto the paper by the underside of the egg. gray. T h e slightest recognition is instantly matched to our wealth of experience a n d expectation. transmitted to the brain as chains of electrical impulses. hence our recognition of a cartoon face c o m p o s e d of three lines. Here. are translated into a world of space. a n d we can be fooled. less developed than the center. reads only m o v e m e n t a n d can often m a k e mistakes. On acloudyday. your eye around the circumference of the egg. form. a lit photograph of an egg shows essential points to observe in tonal drawing.102-03 deep shadows cast across shells make their form easier to perceive. Three factors change it: the amount of light it receives. w e turn our head but n o one w a s there. one blackandone white. Run The bottom-left quarter of the egg lightens slightly toward its "edge" when seen against the darker shadow cast on the paper.96 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Light and Illusions SEEING IS MIRACULOUS.This effect is caused by the contrast of their surroundings. o u r b r a i n s search for n a m e a b l e things. a n d m o v e m e n t . or colored surface is never constant. The two tones meet without a division or outline between. The outermost edge of our vision. U p s i d e . Below. Adjust the angleofthe protruding part and again stepback. The small squares are identical in tone. Card experiment cho can gra on . W e learn to read light and shadow in our environment as indicators of solidity and depth of space. Are you happy LIGHT AND SHADOW with what you see? Does the light enhance the subject? Could you alter and improve it? On pp. perhaps. cards the same size. Artists emulate and manipulate this effect in their pictures. See how its "edge" smoothly changes from light against dark to dark against light. but do not appear so. We only need small prompts. We perceive one to be lighter than theother. a n d are q u i c k to p r o p o s e ideas. Here w e look briefly at our perception of light a n d darkness a n d our interpretation of diagrammatic illusions. Tape them to the glass. atmosphere. The egg's darkest region is seen against a lighter background. think about its illumination. a n d our ability to see forms in c l o u d s or fire. two identical mid-gray squares are seen against black and paler gray squares. We will even see things that d o not exist because minimal information suggests they are likely to be there. Gray squares To further examine changes in tone. and the proximity of contrasting tones. S o m e o n e passes our o p e n door. From across the room both will appear black card and fold and retapeitwith half sticking out.

O f t e ndoingso w i l l s p o i l y o u r w o r k . O b s e r v e h o w each white b a n d appears t h i c k e r t h a n its black c o u n t e r p a r t . T h i s fundamental o p p o s i t e is a reason w h y l i n e a r a n d t o n a l d r a w i n g does not a l w a y s c o m b i n e w e l l in t h e s a m e i m a g e . T h e jug d r a w n w i t h a t h i n line appears f a r t h e r away t h a n t h e j u g d r a w n w i t h a t h i c k e r line. l i g h t e r surfaces s t a n d f o r w a r d w h i l e d a r k e r s u r f a c e s recede. . T w o horizontal lines o f equal length are m a d e t o l o o k longer and shorter. T w o relatively t h i c k parallel lines are m a d e t o b e n d away f r o m each o t h e r as t h e y pass in f r o n t o f an a r r a y o f c o n v e r g i n g f i n e lines ( B ) . respectively.97 LINE VERSUS TONE In l i n e a r d r a w i n g s . In a t o n a l d r a w i n g . Bending straight lines Linear distance These t w o jugs have b e e n d r a w n w i t h lines o f d i f f e r i n g thicknesses. If y o u w i s h t o m a k e a t o n a l drawing. B o t h are identical in length. b u t t h e u p r i g h t o n e l o o k s t a l l e r (B). w h i l e t h i n n e r lines recede. In this t o n a l image w e read w h i t e as f a t t e r t h a n black. Seven parallel lines are m a d e t o tilt t o w a r d and away f r o m each o t h e r by n u m e r o u s s h o r t strokes crossing t h e m diagonally ( A ) .p o i n t p e r s p e c t i v e d r a w i n g s w i t h a large n u m b e r o f c o n v e r g i n g rays b e h i n d y o u r horizontals. t h i c k e r l i n e s a p p e a r t o stand forward. start o u t w i t h one. Y o u m a y e x p e r i e n c e s o m e t h i n g similar h a p p e n i n g w h e n y o u m a k e s i n g l e . S h o r t h o r i z o n t a l lines o f identical length are m a d e t o l o o k d i f f e r e n t by c o n v e r g i n g lines beside t h e m ( C ) . Apparent lengths T h e s e optical illusions s h o w h o w lines o f identical length can b e m a d e t o l o o k quite different f r o m each o t h e r by t h e addition o r association o f o t h e r lines. by d i r e c t e d a r r o w s ( A ) . In this linear drawing w e read t h i c k as closer a n d t h i n as f a r t h e r away. LIGHT AND ILLUSIONS Tonal width T h e s e black a n d w h i t e bands are o f equal thickness o n e i t h e r side o f t h e i r central division. T h e r e is n o obligation t o a d d b l o c k s o f t o n e t o a l i n e a r d r a w i n g . A n u p r i g h t line stands in t h e c e n t e r o f a h o r i z o n t a l line.

Some artists use known optical illusions to make art. it can oscillate b e t w e e n facing t o w a r d o r a w a y f r o m us. including some shown here. and we learn to read the styles of diverse cultures and periods. C l o s i n g t h e surface o f t h e f o r m seals o u r d e c i s i o n as t o w h i c h w a y it faces. Ancient Greek architects knew parallel upright lines appeared to bend toward each other in the middle. such as Bridget Riley. their picture could be ambiguous. w h e n drawing the outline o f a three-dimensional form. Artists can communicate much in few lines and the viewer will do the rest of the work. it oscillates between t w o possibilities. o r as a s l o p i n g . Today we are bombarded with images but rarely have difficulty reading them. In the 1960's. w e will find that in terms of the direction it faces. such as t h e dish seen h e r e o n t h e left." . Op(tical) artists. Two ways of seeing T h i s is t h e b o x c r e a t e d in t h e f o u r t h step o n p. made paintings that depended upon the physical sensation of our brain's reaction to known optical illusions. as s h o w n o n t h e right.98 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Further Illusions PSYCHOLOGISTS AND PHYSIOLOGISTS have studied optical illusions for decades in pursuit of what they tell us about the brain.76. SEEING TWO OPTIONS Sometimes. Artists make pictorial illusions when they paint or draw. others adjust works to avoid their effects. It is a curious fact that w e can never see both options at once. among others. Michelangelo. w e can only look f r o m one t o the o t h e r If an artist is not aware this can happen in their image. and so calculated precisely how much to fatten columns to make them appear straight.s i d e d r e c t a n g u l a r t r a y ( b o t h are illustrated far r i g h t ) "The brain is so eager to name a fragment we see that we need only a suggestion to grasp the whole.116-17) to make painted figures look correct when viewed from below. It is possible t o r e a d i t t w o ways: as a t r u n c a t e d r e c t a n g u l a r p y r a m i d seen d i r e c t l y f r o m a b o v e . are still not agreeably understood. Yet many illusions. A few suggestive marks will tip the decision one way o r the o t h e r Closing the surface W h e n a t r a n s p a r e n t elliptical o b j e c t has b e e n d r a w n . perfected the acceleration of perspective (see pp.

smoke. S o m e artists use ink blots t o p r o m p t t h e beginning o f an image. This simple five-line d r a w i n g is o f a C a p u c h i n priest asleep in his pulpit. N e i t h e r triangle exists. P e r c e i v i n g a w h o l e i m a g e f r o m m i n i m a l lines T h i s is a w i d e l y r e p r o d u c e d visual j o k e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e C a r r a c c i b r o t h e r s . b u t w e believe w e see t h e m because e n o u g h f r a g m e n t a r y i n f o r m a t i o n is given f o r o u r brains t o c o n c l u d e t h e y are v e r y likely t h e r e . T h e y a r e o f t e n c r e d i t e d w i t h t h e invention o f t h e c o m i c c a r t o o n . C o u n t t h e n u m b e r o f d a r k spots y o u can see. FURTHER ILLUSIONS Seeing things that are n o t t h e r e H e r e o n t h e left. His highly d i s p u t e d and i m p r e c i s e science involves s h o w i n g u n p r e p a r e d p a t i e n t s t e n p a r t i c u l a r ink b l o t s a n d asking t h e m t o i n t e r p r e t w h a t t h e y see. C Escher u s e d this phenomenon t o great effect in his many p o p u l a r d r a w i n g s o f puzzles and impossible buildings. e t c . Minimal-line j o k e s such as this rely u p o n t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y v i e w e r ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e shapes. T h e patient's answers are t h e n diagnosed as a psychological profile. clouds. C o u p l e d w i t h t h e Rorschach b l o t above. O n l y o n closer inspection we realize that t h e s e o b j e c t s are fooling us. F a m i l i a r i t y in r a n d o m s h a p e s T h e Rorschach test was established by t h e 1 9 t h . T h e t e s t e x p l o r e s o u r n o r m a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o find things w e can n a m e a m o n g r a n d o m shapes. this is a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f t h e viewer's b r a i n b e i n g willing t o d o a large a m o u n t o f t h e w o r k in d e c i p h e r i n g a p i c t u r e . . — a n d so t h e artist can create m u c h o u t o f an impression w i t h o u t overdescribing. T h e a r t i s t M. M u c h can b e e x p r e s s e d in o n l y a f e w marks.c e n t u r y Swiss psychologist H e r m a n n Rorschach. This effect can o c c u r naturally w h e n looking at a b r i g h t l y lit w h i t e g r i d such as a w i n d o w f r a m e against t h e night sky. 1 6 t h . Yet still w e try resolve t h e m . T h e s e e x a m p l e s illustrate h o w little is n e e d e d t o c o n v e y an image. B e l o w is a b r i g h t n e s s c o n t r a s t illusion. w e see t w o overlapping triangles: o n e outlined in black b e n e a t h a n o t h e r in solid w h i t e .99 Impossible objects T h e s e clever configurations o f outlines and t o n a l surfaces convince us at a glance that we are seeing a solid three-dimensional triangle and a three-pronged fork.c e n t u r y Italian painters. W e should r e m e m b e r t h a t o u r brains will always search f o r a p i c t u r e — i n ink blots.

w e use ellipses to give a sense of perspective. w h e n seen at an angle. as if the table surface slopes upward beneath the vessel. The second common error is to tilt the upper and lower ellipses at different angles. keep it spinning. third common error is to draw upper and lover ellipses with different-sized apertures. though. . Cover a sheet of paper with spinning. COMMON ERRORS W h e n drawing cylindrical objects in perspective. that this is o n l y o n e w a y view. describing many sides of an object simultaneously. hesitant one that has edged its w a y nervously around the vessel's rim. springlike forms like those I have drawn below. you will achieve steadiness with practice. To make a cylindrical object appear real in our pictorial space. since this is h o w w e experience them in e v e r y d a y use. there are three common errors people stumble upon. for example plates or bowls on a table. Ellipse are best d r a w n quickly. Cubism. giving the cylinder four corners. for example. (see p. However. Watch the tip of your pen and see it draw an ellipse in the air Keep this movement going while gently lowering the pen onto the paper like the needle of a record player closing on the disc (only it is your lowering hand that spins. The first common error is to draw two pointed ellipses. Be aware.90) takes a different as essentially circular. I have drawn these for you here. A wobbling but confident ellipse will still be more convincing than a slow. like a disposable plastic cup that has been crushed in your hand. How to Draw Ellipses of seeing. smoothly. not the paper!) As the pen touches down.100 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS W E VISUALIZE CYLINDRICAL VESSELS. WHERE TO START In the air above a spacious sheet of scrap paper. spin your hand in a relaxed circle. while its upper rim remains level. such as bowls and cups. and these narrow or widen depending on the height of our view. suggesting that the vessel is lopsided. a n d in o n e bold stroke. circles change into ellipses. Don't worry if it is uneven— just try again. I have exaggerated this error here. even if y o u r hand w o b b l e s a little at first.

enlarging and diminishing the ellipse to determine the overall shape and volume. . HOW TO DRAW E L L I P S E S A Single Vessel One Inside Another Grouped Together Finding Shape and Volume Draw an imagined vessel in one continuous spinning line. Create a Solid Surface Once you have drawn the shape and volume of each form. working from top to bottom. Altering the pressure—and therefore tone—of the line as it spins gives the impression of light shining on one side. Seeing Through Allow lines to travel around each vessel as if it were transparent.101 DRAWING VESSELS Once you have mastered drawing free-hand springs. you can make it solid by building up highlights and tones on visible surfaces. you can start to control your spinning ellipse to make a vessel. thereby hiding lines that show the other sides. Draw quickly.

making complicated or subtle surfaces easier to see and understand. outlines. it will inhibit your perception of tone. leaving detail until last. Relaxing your eyes out of focus as you draw will help to dissolve the distraction of detail. if any. Draw the largest and most distinct areas of light and darkness first. Remember that shadows. Illuminate them with a gooseneck lamp placed very close and directed away from your eyes. and strong contrasts are easier to draw. beams of light. two opposite methods of achieving the same result. and solid objects are all of equal importance. t h e r e a r e p r i n c i p a l l y Dramatic lighting emphasizes texture and contour. OBJECTS AND Start by arranging a choice of shells on a sheet of paper to your left if you are right-handed (or vice versa). Gradually hone your drawing. It maximizes the range of tones between black and white. simply shapes and subtleties of light and dark meeting each other with no divisions in between.22-23). or you can begin with a mid-gray ground and model light out of darkness (see opposite bottom). LIGHT TO DARK DARK TO LIGHT . You can begin with outlines and build slowly from light to dark (see opposite top).102 INSTRUMENTS Tonality W H E N MAKING A TONAL DRAWING. It is important to place them on the correct side so as to draw comfortably (see pp. if light shines in them. In the finished drawing there should be few.

103 LIGHT TO DARK (LINE TO TONE) TONALITY 1 Using a sharp HB pencil. Avoid a rough significant areas of light in your gray rectangle with texture and do not press the graphite hardwhite plastic eraser Ignore all detail and draw a into thepaperor you will not be able to erase it.56-57). look at the main areas of darkness. . until you are happy frame. Treat positive form and negative space (see pp. Honetheshapesand angles of the shells. Relaxing your eyes out of focus will help to eliminate distracting details. Let your eyes go out of focus while looking gently layer marks to create an even tone at your subject and paper: Draw the most ofmid-graywithin a rectangle. loose. DARK TO LIGHT (TONE TO TONE) 1 Using the flattened tip of an HB pencil. Erase and make changes to roughly place the shells inside your with your composition. with broad sweeps of the eraser. boldly 2 3 Keeping your eyes out of focus. shape. Remember that its size. draw a rectangle. and edges definingthespacialrelationships between are important aspects of your composition them. 2 3 Gentlydissolveoutlines so that areas oflightanddark meet without a line between them. Use quick. Use your pencil to develop these in relation to the areas of light. Fll in broad areas first and leave all detail until last. pale lines with equal importance. Continue working between light and dark to refine the drawing. Draw in the details last of all.

three-dimensional drawings teach us about the totality of forms in space. This class uses thin-gauge wire to create a threedimensional violin. and physical relationships between them. On p.220 Mamoru Abe draws with forged steel rods. The second is that after achieving this simple example. PEN LINES Once you have created your three-dimensional violin (opposite). try drawing it with a pen on paper Use bold. When drawing anything viewed from one side on paper. 19 Picasso draws with a pen-light for the camera. Seeing through a wire drawing of a known object such as a violin gives us a visual and tactile understanding of all its sides and shapes at once.104 OBJECTS AND I N S T R U M E N T S Drawing with Wire DRAWINGS DO NOT HAVE to be two-dimensional. Third. On p. continuous lines. There are essentially three lessons to be learned. They can also be made in space. our image is stronger if we understand and can visualize what is happening on the other side too. The first is that figurative and abstract drawings can be made in space. Place the instrument on a plain surface and illuminate it with a desk lamp to add the delicate dimension of shadows.69 we see how the architect Antonio Gaudi drew proposed domes using suspended wires and weights. smooth. and on p. . and on p. 176 the British artists Noble and Webster draw with domestic refuse in a beam of light. you can create your own more ambitious works.

Here. begin to shape the curvature of the fingerboard. and pinch and bend it to shape the base of the instrument Repeat this process to make the identical upper side of the instrument. thin wire will make a smaller drawing. and thick wire a larger one. Join the two sides together with four short pieces of wire. 4 . Once you have completed the body.105 SETTING UP DRAWING WITH WIRE Follow these steps to draw a three-dimensional violin Choose a gauge of wire sturdy enough to hold the shape ofyourfinished drawing. but thin enough to be easily manipulated inyourfingers Here. I used garden wire and cut it carefully with pruners. brace the two ends of the violin with a length of wire along the back. I started with the scroll at the top and fixed the four component wires with two drawings of tuning pegs. 2 3 If needed. Cut a length. These will hold the sides apart and help to keep the form in shape. Then begin to define its uppermost surface with Scurves and the bridge. 1 Decide how big to draw your violin relative to the gauge of your wire.

Artifacts and Fictions IN 1993 I WORKED with a group of schoolchildren who were responding to the astonishing objects in the collection of the Pitt Rivers Museum. they invented new anthropological finds—objects that reflected the distant past and their immediate future. I had the privilege of drawing their inventions. some of which are shown here. Oxford. . Using found materials. England.



It also looks at the representation of the b o d y b11y4o n d traditional life drawing. much Western contemporary art. The body remains at the core of over the initially white lines. in our privileged and comfortable society. W e understand every curve and balance of to the theory that the eves are the windows of the soul. the Bay Area Models' Guild h o l d s a quarterly life-drawing m a r a t h o n aprinton Kodak transfer paper with green-colored dye added celebrating the great diversity of human proportion. from video and X-ray to thermal imaging. The human body. WILLIAMS he sought perfection in the infinitesimal measurement of the body and produced four Contemporary photographer volumes of illustrated explanation. myths and fables. Strangely. and in San could easily be transferred into three dimensions. He even believed he had located the soul contours of her form like a cartographer's map of in the pituitary fossa beneath the brain and behind the eyes. a n d w e d r a w o u r s e l v e s to a s s e r t o u r e x i s t e n c e . Williams were decades ahead of their medical counterparts. Look closely at Renaissance drawings of the female b o d y and you will see that m o s t are actually y o u n g m e n with minor adjustments. In this period. 3 x 7 in (300 x 180 . explaining ranges e/ of materials and techniques and showing diversities of thought and purpose in making. while Leonardo opened the body to see and projected onto a woman's body draw the celebratory discover for himself our physical mechanisms. diseased. These classes are popular around the world. focus has turned to the vulnerability of flesh: how it can be damaged. but the study of a controlled. clothed or nude. R. while Durer took his research further— A. and anatomical and erotic art. giving physical foundation undulating land. W I L L I A M S technology. This chapter addresses issues that are most commonly faced by beginners attending life-drawing classes. history paintings and other stories. Leonardo drew a man within a circle and square. and surgically rebuilt. sculptural description of her form. the junior workshop apprentices posed as part of their duties. Artists now explore the interior of the body with new media and Lateral Contour Map of a Full-Term Primipara Produced by Light 1979 A. and because the female was deemed inferior. Renaissance artists studying anatomy from dissection clinically trained and specialized as a medical illustrator. artists also tried to define ideal proportions in the body. She the body is still essential. W e are the only creatures on Earth that can make our own image. Michelangelo attended dissections to made this image by light sectioning: fine beams of light perfect his understanding of surface form. During this time. Artists are thought to have b e g u n drawing from the nude during the Italian Renaissance. It gives physical and emotive form to religious narratives. This F finished image was produced as r a n c i s c o . herimpressive presence because we are given such Life drawing no longer dominates the art school curriculum. Drawings were usually made from the male nude to avoid offending the church.The Body O UR BODIES MAKE us TANGIBLE. portraiture. R. is the most c o m m o n subject in art.

He trained under Perugino. altar pieces. Muscular dramatic postures reflect the influence of Michelangelo and the Renaissance celebration of the idealized male body. Three Guards 1500-20 91/4 x143/8in (234 x 365 mm) RAPHAEL . Here three male nudes are compressed into very shallow pictorial space.116-17). so that we read this drawing like a sculptural frieze. filling the page with her presence. and studied to learn from the works of Michelangelo and Leonardo besides whom he was soon ranked. and human defeat. She u n f o l d s and s t r e t c h e s shapely limbs. Matisse's b l u e n u d e sings with life and c e l e b r a t i o n . Principal figures m i r r o r e a c h other. and Vatican frescos. RAFFAELLO SANZIO (RAPHAEL) Italian High Renaissance painter: Raphael is best known for his images of the Madonna and Child. But the meanings of each gesture and the materials and methods by which they Postures and Poses were m a d e contrast greatly. Raphael's study of fallen m e n leaves no doubt that they are in anguish. we see the e s s e n c e of h e r b e a u t y w i t h o u t a single detail. T h e y b o t h raise one arm to cup their head in their hand. anatomy. while Matisse used scissors and glue to cut out and paste a flat collage of brilliant color. while supporting the weight of their body with the other. Sculptural frieze This is a preparatory drawing for Raphael's painting of the Resurrection of Christ. In this highly s o p h i s t i c a t e d a b s t r a c t i o n . In a single drawing we see equally o b s e r v e d studies of f o r e s h o r t e n i n g (see pp. Raphael drew delicate tones of black chalk on tinted paper.110 T H E BODY THESE DISTINCTIVE WORKS show two strikingly different ways of modeling the body on paper. By way of contrast.

sculptor. His calligraphic natural abstractions of form grew an appeasing influence. Matisse became an artist after studying law. lifelong love of brilliant They celebrate the culmination of spectacular and sometimes drawings.. Matisse Soothing influence This drawing expresses the achievement of Matisse's personal aim: "What I dream and depressing subject matter. freer. as his w o r k matured.. printmaker.designer writer." of is an art of balance.. teacher and principal exponent o f Fauvism—a movement established in 1905 in which bold color is the most essential element.111 HENRY MATISSE French painter: draftsman. serenity. foundamong many other groups of papercut these works as an elderly man confined to his bed or wheelchair.. and more energetic Color and form This collage is one of a series of Blue Nudes. and Islamic art. devoid of troubling Blue Nude 1 1952 413/4 HENRY MATISSE . a mental soother. his pattern.or like a good armchair in which to rest from physical fatigue. fabric...which might be.

other tones. we c o m p a r e a skillful design that absorbed m u c h time in its making with the quickness of an idea marked instantly. Using the paper to create light is important for beginners to learn. velvet d a r k n e s s . it would have mixed with unseen black dust. reflected. turned gray. in a perfect e x a m p l e . stands in counterpoise holding a dark globe and his thoughts in m o m e n t a r y balance. 162) and an eraser to model teeming points of artificial light amid GEORGES SEURAT French painter classically educated in the Ingres school of thought. Typically. Seurat evolved a distinctive t e c h n i q u e called p o i n t i l l i s m — i m a g e s literally made from myriad points of color. or abruptly meeting. and muddied the brilliance of the drawing. w h o sits propped in the contradictory darkness of a hot summer's day. it is as if the very atoms of air are made visible. and color His applied theories still influence painters in their manipulation and rendering of local. Here. Beuys's magician. and c o m p l e m e n t a r y hues. If Seurat had added white. scratched in seconds. he used b l a c k c o n t e (see p. Tone and light In this black conte drawing. His drawings are similarly u n i q u e . like small birds attendant on the meditation.112 T H E BODY Choreographs T I M E IS A SIGNIFICANT E L E M E N T i n t h e m a k i n g o f a l l d r a w i n g s . Opposite. Light is given by the paper alone. Below. form. Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 1883-84 91/2 x 121/4 in (241 x 312 m m GEORGES SEURAT . In his f a m o u s paintings of social e n g a g e m e n t . Seurat engaged in lifelong studies of line. T h e space around h i m chatters with symbols. there are no outlines. only tones blending into. agreeing to coalesce and show us the form of a waiting boy.

Unbroken lines stream from his simultaneously movement. taught workshops with a cult following. in different positions. Our focus joins shoulders. and blood. CHOREOGRAPHS the profound power materials with spiritual or of Free lines This pale pencil drawing is Beuys. and made installations. Beuys gave performances. iodine. transience. free from the constraint of immaculate form opposite) impetus is irrelevant to the and meaning of this work (as we see in Seurat's drawing representation. This figure is drawn intuitively. and drawings.113 JOSEPH BEUYS One of the most influential German artists of the 20th century. video Perfectly modeled rather conventional for Joseph Focus Beuys's hand moved quickly to draw dotted lines flowing downward on either side of the figure. Many of his other symbolic works on paper have been drawn with materials such as honey. He was a shaman who believed in intuition and in the investment of healing force. and that These aspects of the work convey fractured visibility. His The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland UNDATED 113/4 J O S E P H BEUYS x81/4in (297 x 210 mm) .

Rodin employed models to move freely or pose together in his studio. sweeping lines— of either purple silk fabric or cool studio air—that imprint and amplify their past and future movements. In both drawings. Opposite. His exquisite flow of paint beyond "outlines.114 BODY Passion SUMMONING HUMANITY in a drawing of the nude is a subtle and emotional task. Inspired by Michelangelo.000 drawings shown in rotation at the Musee Rodin. THE AUGUSTE RODIN French Romantic sculptor and prolific draftsman employed as an ornamental mason until the age of 42. In Rodins work. the women are framed and caressed by long. flushed skin made ruddy and black with crushed cinders. They whisper and writhe in a brushed and sultry embrace that devours our watching. Anita Taylor has drawn her protective body hug out of the darkly glistening compression of willow charcoal and the dynamism of her shy but momentous femininity. and one of hundreds of rapid studies of nudes. We are asked to gaze u p o n her flesh. was perceived as scandalous. he typically drew them with a few delicate strokes of pencil and brushed watercolor. Delicate strokes This is one of about 7. As here. Free lines Rodin's public audience was understandably shocked by the eroticism of his drawings. its soft. Rodin produced portraits and statues of public and literary figures. 125/8x 9 in (320 x 229 mm) AUGUSTE RODIN Two Women 1911 Embracing . But what is stranger to us now is that they were also outraged by his free use of line. Paris." as seen here. Achieving international acclaim in mid-life. We are involved not as a shabby voyeur but as a bystander engaged through our recognition of shared joy. and went on to inspire generations of artists. the fierceness of the women's kiss is beautifully matched by the tenderness of his line. Our bodies radiate the passion of our thoughts and so become beacons of our frailty and power. his w o r k is characterized by deliberate un-finish and powerfully modeled emotion.

Taylor has drawn. Taylor's immense self-portraits explore the relationship between the artist as maker and the artist as model. erased and drawn again. This order of light below and dark above gives glowing from within. Luminosity Layered marks flicker likefirelight as they sculpt the woman's body. intimately reflecting upon the emotions and meaning of nudity. leaving her lightest marks at the deepest level of the image and applying darker marks above. draftsman. professor and Vice Principal of Wimbledon School of Art. A thinner sheet might have crumpled and torn under such vigorous force of making.I 15 ANITA T A Y L O R Painter. The sturdy surface of the sheet has allowed her to press hard when needed. the impression of luminosity All and Nothing 1999 67 x447/8in (170 x 1 1 4 cm) ANITA TAYLOR . exposure. and rework rich depths of light and tone. Charcoal Taylor has drawn freely with charcoal and an eraser on thick. textured paper. and gaze. London. scrutiny.

Spend time making comparisons before you draw. elbow. Imagine Michelangelo's murals in the Sistine Chapel. you will make inconsistent and unrelated comparisons. If your arm is not straight. Accelerated perspective plays a great role in much art. The length of exposed pencil is your measurement. plummeting. just making them helps you see. London). which is imperceptible from below. Smaller. Close one eye. How to make and apply these is explained below and opposite. But if we could take a scaffold and climb up to the work. the skull in Holbein's The Ambassadors (The National Gallery. It can also be a little demon in the life room. In the life class it is the mechanism for ensuring that a drawn figure lies correctly in pictorial space . 1 Hold your arm straight. when beginners prop their board in their lap and look down at too steep an angle. 3 Keep your pencil perpendicular Measure and compare at any angle. for example. There is no need to mark them all down on paper." . without taking off. or shrivelling at odd. Return to this posture every time. "Simple measured comparisons reveal surprising truths about proportion. rather that what we believe we know from experience. We also look at another very interesting branch called accelerated (or anamorphic) perspective. Align the top with a point on your subject. to be translated by mirrors or seen from only one point in the room. This is chiefly a correcting device by which figurative painters and sculptors have for centuries countered the effects of our viewing their work from far below or on the curvature of a vault. Move the tip of your thumb down to a second chosen point. unfathomable angles. and a few measured comparisons are key. It is not so hard.limbs happily receding. elongated as if stretched across the plaster. or coming forward. with dramatic illusions of figures painted in normal proportion.116 T H E BODY Measurement and Foreshortening FORESHORTENING IS AN ASPECT of perspective. and wrist joints. 2 Hold your pencil upright. persistence. more extreme examples have been made for court entertainment. MEASURING This is a simple method of making measured comparisons for relating the true size of one part to another This is a tool to assist observation and thinking. To avoid its effects ensure you always look flat onto the surface of your page. Rome. It is not complicated. Up close on the scaffold we would witness Michelangelo's subtle application of accelerated perspective. patience. Lock your shoulder. and measurements do not have to be carried to the paper and slavishly drawn the same size they appear on your pencil. helping us to see more clearly. and to draw what we see. we would arrive to find many of the same figures strangely distorted.

A t a c e r t a i n angle. which feels strange. FORESHORTENING To f o r e s h o r t e n a figure.117 ACCELERATED PERSPECTIVE To discover h o w this w o r k s . Stand its b o t t o m edge o n y o u r lap. Keep t h e b o a r d steady and draw. W o r k a r o u n d t h e figure. P r o p o r t i o n s will only l o o k c o r r e c t f r o m t h e angle at w h i c h y o u make t h e drawing. T h i s is t h e s a m e d r a w i n g p h o t o g r a p h e d f r o m above. S o o n t h e b o d y will lie d o w n in space. . pleasingly f o r e s h o r t e n e d . L o o k at y o u r m o d e l as if he o r she is a flat series o f shapes o n e o n t o p o f a n o t h e r Measure t h e height and w i d t h o f each shape and c o m p a r e it t o its neighbor. belly. t a p e s o m e p a p e r t o a board. See h o w d i f f e r e n t t h e relative heights o f t h e s e shapes are f r o m w h a t w e m i g h t e x p e c t in real life. y o u r hand travels f a r t h e r than y o u expect. y o u must let go o f w h a t y o u k n o w f r o m e x p e r i e n c e a b o u t t h e relative sizes o f b o d y parts and trust y o u r eyes. Lean t h e t o p e d g e t o w a r d y o u and find a p o s i t i o n w h e r e y o u can c o m f o r t a b l y l o o k d o w n t h e p a p e r at an angle o f a b o u t 4 0 degrees. a n d thighs. W e appear t o be looking d o w n o n a w o m a n s t a n d i n g b e n e a t h us. MEASUREMENT AND FORESHORTENING Tilt t h e t o p edge o f this b o o k t o w a r d you and look d o w n o n this figure f r o m a b o v e . adjusting a n o n y m o u s shapes. To m a k e f o r m s l o o k c o r r e c t . looking d o w n t h e p a p e r at t h e a n g l e at w h i c h I d r e w . C o m p a r e t h e heights o f t h e nose and eye shapes t o t h o s e o f t h e f o r e a r m . h e r p r o p o r t i o n s will appear correct.

Leave first thoughts in place. Balance When a model stands upright on both feet. . and stance before honing her balance and expression. balance. and slightly enlarge her legs and feet. because it results in two unrelated sides drifting apart. and height. height. To draw this effect. and work over t h e m with further o b s e r v a t i o n s . feeling. make the upper body smaller give your model a high waist. Layered lines give d e p t h . her center of balance is normally found in a vertical line beneath her head. work back and forth across the body. propelling you to make immediate assessments and trust them. T h i s q u i c k e x p l o r a t o r y line does not perfectly describe shape but expresses a decision about overall flow of form. THE SEQUENCE OF POSES H e r e the model was asked to move every t w o minutes. Be bold and dive into your drawing with c o n f i d e n c e . Start each new drawing by lightly marking the model's height with a loose line in ten seconds. working from her center to her feet and to her head. Height This pose leans away into space above our eye level.118 BODY Quick Poses DRAWING QUICK POSES l o c k s y o u r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n t o what is most essential. To see this. Outline To outline a figure. I used a sharp H B pencil and began each drawing by marking her outline. imagine holding up a plumb line. and energy. Avoid drawing up one side and down the other.

119 The twist of a model is most easily and expressively captured if it is exaggerated. and this should be avoided Twist QUICK POSES A model standing on one leg usually drops the opposite hip. the activity of circular lines and the repetition of limbs suggest movement. The tilt of the pelvis is then counter balanced by the model's shoulders tilting the other way (as seen here). Most of us have a tendency to over-straighten the drawn figure. . Tilt Movement Here. This drawing shows how different observations be overlaid to bring a drawing alive.

general to specific. especially the lengthwise divisions between them. A mirror increases your range of views. Group the fingers together as one mass. swiftly marking its essential gesture. Focus instead on how planes change direction across the knuckles from one side of the hand or foot to the other. starting with the largest. and a gooseneck lamp casts shadows that clarify planes and depths GESTURES OF THE HAND Curled Fingers 1 Open Palm Start honing the shapes of the dominant planes. and ignore all details. feet. Draw large shapes and their orientation. Keep lines open to change and take measurements if they help. This exercise is useful when struggling with proportion. it is important to leave aside all details of the fingers and toes. Don't worry about achieving perfect solutions. Then subdivide each shape so that you w o r k from large to small. Practice by drawing your own hands and feet. Do not separate them yet. or those of a friend. 3 . and they need not be daunting to draw. W h e n starting. but regard these practice studies as ongoing processes of thought and observatio Add details such as nails last if you wish.120 BODY Hands and Feet THERE ARE MANY different ways of approaching h a n d s and THE of form. Begin by drawing lines to encompass the whole hand. drawn in relation to each other. These planes. 2 Build your drawing gradually from light to dark. It also helps the beginner to progress from drawing outlines to drawing confidently across the surface of the whole form. express structure and gesture far more successfully and easily than ten worried outlines wandering up and down between the fingers and toes.

It can be a mistake. these are what give a drawing its tangible structure. however. 2 3 Use an eraser t o refine decisions o r t o suggest areas o f light. loose. as if with a chisel. though out o f wood. and don't worry about accuracy t o begin with. flattened planes.121 HANDS AND FEET MOVEMENTS OF THE FOOT Flat Stance Raised Heel Instep 1 Let your first marks be light. and rapid. t o remove t o o many early lines. Try t o express the whole foot and t o encapsulate its entire shape and direction in a few marks. Leave aside all detail. . and spontaneity. Hew it roughly in broad. Nowimagineyou are carving the foot insidethepaper. Look for key angles without becoming distracted by detail.

Charcoal Hands T H E S E DRAWINGS ARE MADE in compressed charcoal. I also used white ink with a steel dip pen." . Compare its nature in close-up to that of willow charcoal used on pp. Opposite.204-05. The white lines demonstrate what is often called "bracelet shading.


Phrasing Contours . I make these lines in the first five to ten seconds of a drawing to locate the presence. 118-19).HERE TRACES OF RAPID initial lines are still seen within and outside each body. before honing his or her shape (see pp. and posture of the model. length.


Forms. perspectives. I draw in museums in support of written research and as an artist seeking answers to questions about the practicalities of image making. Drawing work by another artist enables you to discover and understand the inventive hand in their composition. . characters. and narrative pulse become vivid when you realize them in the middle of your study. feeling them through the attentive movements of your own hand. It is now viewed with some skepticism and often seen as academic.The Visual Detective DRAWING FROM MASTERWORKS was once a staple component of an artist's education.


Life-size women wearing wigs recline on beds of embroidered silk in cabinets of mahogany and Venetian glass This is a detail of a compressed charcoal drawing measuring 14 x 10 ft (4. Walls are lined with hundreds of faintly animated body parts. These almost life-size figures were composed from my imagination and achieved with the help af studies discussed on pp.La Specola At17V i a Romana. . each modeled from dissection. 126-27. there is a unique museum of 18th-century anatomical waxes.3 x 3 m) made in response to La Specola. Florence.



and it is very rewarding. look directly at us. and secular narratives. We can mold and animate qualities of expression out of objects and fragments of disassociated things—for example. single or of groups. The truth is that we all like looking at faces and observing the billions of variations that make us individuals. live. character. or a glimpse of him is caught in a photograph used as a prop. compliant subject to scrutinize. throat. Portraits can be highly or loosely detailed. usually strangers from past times. Halls and palaces are filled with pictures of the mighty and significant. made as he passed through the ages of man. For centuries. Past rulers sent painters across continents to bring back a likeness in advance of a prospective royal marriage. and satirical or metaphorical. his changes in pressure and Hitchcock length o f line. the meaning of their face. a single line can deliver an entire expression. who. The returning image was of crucial consideration in any proposal. and lucrative genre for artists. is here to both meet and look through us. . bells. painters have dropped discreet records of themselves into commissioned narratives so that they can remain a face in the crowd. in a miniature self-portrait magnified opposite. or whose eyes can seem to follow us around the room Portraiture is a constant. and in a few scrolling rafts of pen lines and stubbled dots. This enlargement o f his miniature p o r t r a i treveals t h e s p e e d and agility o f his p e n and about himself. and p r i n t m a k e r . Man Ray's self-portrait of scored lines. or past us. Movie director Alfred similarly signed his films by playing a fleeting role: he walks through an extra. Once you understand Self-Portrait in a Cocked Hat c. became more poignant as he progressed. and their posture can be changed with just one line. and expression of the individual. abstract or figurative. gathered all that he knew FRANCISCO DE GOYA V i s i o n a r y Spanish painter.Portraiture IN P O R T R A I T U R E W E MEET PEOPLE. Self-portraiture gives every artist a constant. and shoulders. neck. Our homes are filled with images of our loved ones and of those in our families who have gone before. We are also reassured by keeping records of ourselves. you can capture the subtlety. Goya's w o r k s include many royal and society p o r t r a i t s . and social and political commentaries. historical.139). Rembrandt's famous multitude of self-portraits. Goya. To create a face is to see and interpret the essence of an identity. religious. In this chapter. having been documented and preserved. W h e n drawing a person. and a handprint (see p. Equally. Beginners often draw themselves as a way of establishing their practice. draftsman. It also reminds us o f b o t h t h e intimacy and a scene as scrutiny o f an honest portrait. buttons. their stance. we use the delicate medium of silver point to look at foundation structures of the head. 1790-92 4 x 3 in ( 1 0 2 x 7 6 m m ) F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A and memorize the basic structure that we all share.

PABLO PICASSO Spanish Cubist painter (see also p. We can read so much about them by studying their gaze. length. Picasso has left to posterity many hundreds of magnificent line drawings. whisking a timeless girl onto the page. Her face is drawn tenderly and with a luminous glow. one eye already cast askew into the autumn of her life. adding smudges of tone for weight and solidity. The Tightness of a line is felt in its speed. hand to capture something well in only Frangoise au Bandeau 1946 660 x 505 mm (26 x197/8in) PABLO PICASSO . breadth. He makes his flair and skill look easy. they serve as a great lesson that it is not always necessary to add tone to your drawing. The truth is often the opposite. It takes a truly accomplished a few strokes. Here the grace and beauty of two young women are held forever. caught in her last moments of youth. While with longer consideration. It is the portrait of a countrywoman. We can actually count that he struck the paper 40 times. Without faltering. For the beginner. There is a common misunderstanding that a drawing with only a few lines is both less finished and easier to make than a drawing with more. Holbein maps the still landscape of Dorothea's body in questioning marks.132 PORTRAITURE Poise THE BALANCE BETWEEN a mark and a blank space is often a tantalizing form of perfection. and pressure as it conducts our eye through the image.30). Picasso strikes and scrolls his pencil. we can enjoy and learn from them. Through exhibitions and copies in books. How could the addition of shadows have enhanced this image? Few strokes The simplicity of Picasso's line is breathtaking. The aesthetic sense of a line being just right can make a drawing sing. stealthily using his chalk to find contours and mass. teetering on the brink of older age.

made a popular series o f w o o d c u t prints titled The Dance of Death. The peak of her cap clips the uppermost edge. Cropping This regal composition fits its paper perfectly. Holbein has cropped and pinned his subject within the four outermost lines of the image—the edges of the page. and produced numerous society portraits such as this one here. which.133 HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER German p o r t r a i t painter draftsman. Holbein was employed toward the end of his life by King Henry VIII of England. Her folded forearms support and frame her weight above. gently flushed. Blended colors In this portrait drawn with colored chalks on slightly textured paper. Holbein unified the woman with her background by gently blending colors from her clothes and face into the atmosphere around her. presses against the binding across her face. He outlined her nose but not her upper lip. Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 1516 51/8 x121/4in (385 x 310 m m ) HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER . and its downward slope crowns the diagonal of the composition. In addition t o his numerous exquisite portraits in oil. he designed c o u r t costumes. and designer f r o m Basel.

Contrasts Sharp. dark lines made with a pencil appear against smooth. or defined by. its highly clarified detail claiming to be d r a w n from observation. London. Psychological drama is contained behind a grid. blood vessels. Nerves. using a fine and relatively 1982 13 x 181/8 in (328 x 460 mm) VICTOR NEWSOME brush. Highlights of white gouache were dry Profile Head late in the making. continues to exhibit regularly. and unpleasant to see. perhaps applied using a tortillon. This is one of a number of similar disembodied female heads seen behind. and glands also complicate form. This is a m a r v e l o u s interpretation of the truth. dark tones of graphite blended into the paper. Newsome was awarded the Prix de Rome in 1960. In fact. and has works in major collections including the Tate Gallery. while white painted flecks and wisps suggest electrical illumination. The real dissection w o u l d have been far more c o m p l e x . N e w s o m e ' s eerily shadowed form is smooth and bears a linear grain evocative of w o o d . Anatomically. . solid above and almost hollow below.134 PORTRAITURE Anatomies These highly finished drawings express the emotional power and physicality of the head and neck. but they are irrelevant here. It floats in space. The style of Durelli's d r a w i n g opposite sings with the confidence of truth and precision. VICTOR NEWSOME British sculptor painter and draftsman. Durelli has m a d e a few m i n o r mistakes. distorted. Delicate muscles are integrated with the skin and fat that is to be r e m o v e d . the contours of a grid. taught at numerous British art schools from 1962-77. the face is one of the hardest parts to dissect. confusing.

which. and it is likely that this drawing was intended for reproduction as a print. Pencil numbers refer to the list of muscles written beneath. w h e n contracted. Stylized parallel lines are reminiscent of engravings. Durelli's experience as an engraver is reflected in his stylized drawing o f muscle fibers. Red Chalk the Muscles 1837 173/8 x 145/8 in ( 4 4 0 x 3 7 2 m m ) ANTONIO DURELLI and Pencil Drawing and of Neck of the Head Little is k n o w n o f this M i l a n e s e p a i n t e r a n d engraver w h o c a m e from a family o f artists. It is hard to think of a more difficult medium with which to achieve such linear perfection. pull their points o f attachment t o w a r d each other .135 ANATOMIES ANTONIO DURELLI Linear perfection This is a red chalk drawing of extraordinary accomplishment.

Similar movements sculpted the head below into its page. close enough to touch his hair and feel his breath. necks. while his hand stabs and thrusts Revelations like a conductors baton. There is a film of Giacometti drawing. Flesh is built and personality carved simultaneously. Agitated marks make patches of tone that cut away the space around the character. They confuse our perception of scale by being intimately fragile and at the same time far removed. He is best known for his bronze sculptures of human form. cutting and carving the paper with matted and spiraling restless energy. Bellini gently conjures the features of his saint with soft marks that tease his presence out of shadows into the light. each portrait is inscribed onto the page. Both works demonstrate how simple lines can be made complex by being intense. and poet After studying in Geneva and Italy. Opposite. Then. The camera watches him at work.136 PORTRAITURE THESE ARE DRAWINGS of shoulders. Without paint and with very little tone. Giacometti settled in Paris. he drew over the whole image at once. 1948 77/8 x 6 in (200 x 150 mm) ALBERTO GIACOMETTI . Portrait de Marie-Laure de Noailles c. ALBERTO GIACOMETTI Swiss sculptor. and heads. painter draftsman. Speed Giacometti probably began with an oval shape placed in relation to the proportion of the page. Energy This is a portrait of a woman drawn with black crayon on a plain page of a book Lines search for the essence of form. which are characteristically elongated. each locked into a visionary gaze. with speed and urgency. and with staccato flinches his hyperactive eye moves from paper to model. They show us clearly the bones of drawing. We are brought intimately close to this man gazing up to heaven. as if seen from a distance.

H e p r e f e r r e d religious t o classical t h e m e s . These are pinholes.25 6 . a n d c o n t e m p l a t i v e .5 9 ) . lyrical. H e t a u g h t G i o r g i o n e Barbarelli and Titian. a n d his w o r k is d i s t i n c t i v e l y calm. Sometimes different narrative same character was reused in compositions.G I O V A N N I BELLINI A prominent member of a large family o f V e n e t i a n painters. Mantegna. Bellini s t u d i e d u n d e r his f a t h e r J a c o p o . a n d b r o t h e r in-law. Character This is one of many cartoons produced by Bellini the and his family. Transfer This delicate humorous chalk a drawing is a cartoon—not image but a type of template used to plan the composition of a larger work Look closely and you will see rows of tiny dots along every significant line in the picture. Head and Shoulders of a Man 73/8 x 21/4 in ( 1 8 6 x 5 8 UNDATED GIOVANNI BELLINI . transferring which were made in the process of the saint to his final place in the composition of a painting (see Glossary pp.

The artist has finished his portrait with the signature of his hand smacked in the middle like a kiss: a declaration of existence as old as man's first drawing. and attitudes. and buttons rings with surrealist wit and agile improvisation. political outcry. It is an opportunity to look deep without the infringement of courtesies owed to a commissioning sitter. Self Portrait 1982 9 4 x 7 6 in (239 x 193 cm) JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT . humor. and sheet metal before being snapped up by the New York contemporary art scene. float and shimmer in the shallow pictorial space. The incandescent New York painter Jean Michel Basquiat pictured himself here in naked silhouette.138 PORTRAITURE THE MIRROR OF SELF-PORTRAITURE offers artists infinite reflections of. Signs and symbols with symbols This painting shudders that ore written. postcards. a tribal. marks. Al Diaz. scratched into its surface. similar to work by Cy Twombly (see p. spear-brandishing warrior. made with great energy. In 1986 he traveled to Africa and showed his work in Abidjan on the Ivory Coast He also exhibited in Germany and France. and everything flux. drawn. skull- Self-Portraits headed. Later Basquiat sold drawings on T-shirts.221). signing their work SAMO. JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT Short-lived American painter and graffiti artist who began his blazing nine-year career drawing on lower Manhattan subway trains with a friend. Man Ray's playful silk-screen assembly of color blocks. It is an image of confrontation—the ever-controversial young artist roars at us from his abstract city-scape. and confrontations with. scrolls. The figure's position is unequivocal and defiant while around him is in a state Without the essential of cultural and figure we would elegant belookingat a sophisticated painting of signs. and indulgence. It has proved to be a subject of piercing scrutiny. scratched lines. bells. their most immediate and best-known subject: themselves. Islands of graphic marks.

Frame White lines are seemingly (though not actually) scratched through ink to frame this face.139 MAN RAY American surrealist photographer. Black ink was printed next and then white. Autoportrait 1916 195/8 MAN RAY . last of all. where he collaborated with the artist Laslo MoholyNagy. The first part of the stenciled image was already marked on the silk The screen and paper were then held tightly together. Man Ray probably used his own hand. while a squeegee was used to drag thick lilac-brown ink across the silk pushing it though exposed areas onto the paper below. Man Ray lived and worked in Paris. The handprint appears to be made directly. caked in thick printing ink or paint. They suggest speed and make the picture look immediate and spontaneous. They experimented with camera-free photography working directly onto photographic paper Silk and ink This is a silkscreen print made through the following process: the paper was laid on a flat surface and a frame stretched with fine silk was placed on top. printmaker and cofounder of the New York Dada movement. painter. During the 1920's and 30s.

Historically. I t is a v a i l a b l e f r o m all a r t s h o p s . 2. If w o r k i n g o n an emulsion-painted wall. W e t a n d fix a s e c o n d strip t o t h e o p p o s i t e side. Gesso o r m a t t e m u l s i o n c a n a l s o b e u s e d . 3 . This is called a three-tone drawing. bone. an exciting indication of how large-scale drawings could be made on a wall. and t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h strips a b o v e and b e l o w . 5. and alloys work on matt emulsion. or ring. S i l v e r is b e s t . Metal point is simply a strip of metal bound in a holder. copper. This browns with age unless sealed by fixative (see pp. E m p t y mechanical pencils designed f o r t h i c k leads ( s e e p. who used it to outline initials and border characters before painting. Z I N C W H I T E G O U A C H E : Dilute with w a t e r A d d c o l o r i f r e q u i r e d (as opposite) 4 . o n e t o fit each side o f t h e b o a r d — t h e s e will make t h e glued f r a m e t h a t holds y o u r p a p e r in place. you will need t o stretch paper and lay a wash (see right and opposite). I m a k e m y o w n f r o m o l d dip pens. s o m e m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n o t h e r s .54-55). 2 .s t r i p a n d use i t t o fix o n e side o f t h e p a p e r t o t h e b o a r d . SILVER W I R E : Purchase different gauge lengths f r o m a traditional a r t supplier o r jeweler. which quickly oxidizes into a gray line. laid on paper. key. The most c o m m o n metal has always been silver—hence the term "silver point. and is therefore useful w h e n using w a t e r c o l o r as well as silver point. 1. the surface must be primed with a ground such as gouache. M E T A L OBJECTS: All metal objects m a r k a p r e p a r e d surface. W e t o n e length o f g u m . b u t d o n ' t w o r r y . Stretched paper remains taut as a d r u m . it leaves a deposit. and make o r buy a holder. Metal point does not work on ordinary paper. Opposite. Lay a clean d r a w i n g b o a r d o n a flat surface. Take a sheet o f any t y p e o f p a p e r (for e x a m p l e . Pages 142 to 147 are illustrated in silver point and techniques are explained on pp. p a r c h m e n t . T h e p a p e r will l o o k b u c k l e d . 156). Numerous early European artists also enjoyed its fine qualities (see p. choose a silver object." Lead. Note h o w domestic paintwork marks with a coin. For i m p o r t a n t a d v i c e o n p r e p a r a t i o n a n d use.54) can also b e used. 144-45. MATERIALS 1 Find a clean sponge and b o w l o r d e e p t r a y a n d fill it w i t h w a t e r W e t t h e p a p e r evenly in t h e t r a y o r o n t h e b o a r d .140 PORTRAITURE Silver P o i n t SILVER OR METAL POINT STRETCHING PAPER A sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has been made w e t with the strokes o f a paintbrush will buckle d u e t o its uneven expansion. M a k e s u r e i t is c o m p l e t e l y clean t o avoid u n w a n t e d streaks. SILVER P O I N T W I R E H O L D E R : T h e s e c a n b e p u r c h a s e d a n d t e n d t o b e heavy. was familiar to or eggshells with animal glue. Find a n i t e m t h a t y o u can h o l d a n d draw with comfortably. platinum. Be swift and firm. or wood. 1 4 4 . I combined silver point with painted white gouache on a pink ground. Straighten the w o r s t buckles. c h o o s e a s o f t full b r u s h t h a t c a n c a r r y p l e n t y o f l i q u i d . s e e p . To begin. S O F T F U L L B R U S H : W h e n laying a w a s h . Drawn across a prepared surface. artists mixed white lead. w h i t e d r a w i n g paper) and cut it t o fit y o u r d r a w i n g b o a r d w i t h a generous b o r d e r a r o u n d its edges. purchase silver wire. and gold have also been used. illuminators of medieval m a n u s c r i p t s . b e f o r e priming stretched paper. Lightly s p o n g e o f f t h e excess.Tear o f f f o u r lengths o f b r o w n p a p e r g u m tape.

Reload the brush and add a second line overlapping it beneath. Dip a soft. full brush into the gouache and start in the top left corner. Here. and let tests dry before deciding to change the mixture. Mix a very wet but not weak solution of gouache in a jar with a lid (add pigment at this stage for a three-tone drawing). Make enough to cover your paper. v e r y little at a time. as the paper will be ruined by a raised ridge. I used a powder pigment called Caput Mortuum.t o n e silver point drawing of a skull . any extra will keep. leaving a smooth surface. is necessary to lay a wash o Three-tone When coloring ground. T h r e e . LAYING A WASH It your stretched paper so as to prime it for silver point. Keep adding smooth. stretched paper at a 45-degree angle. Make an even line across to the right. Keep testing on spare paper. Dry thoroughly before laying a wash. Prop up your board of dry. It will slowly straighten and become taut.141 SILVER POINT 3 Leave the paper to dry flat. so put newspaper under the lower edge. Leave the wash to dry thoroughly before you begin to draw. overlapping lines until you reach the bottom. Beware of the tape's coming loose at any point while drying. The next step will make a small mess. Runs blend into each other evenly. slowly add powder pigment or gouache from a tube.



Head and Neck
THE HEAD AND NECK are best conceived as one unit arranged in four parts: cranium, face, neck, and throat. Each is of equal importance. The cranium is essentially egg-shaped and pivots on the first vertebra. The face is suspended beneath, like a softly curved triangle. The n e c k — a powerful, shapely column of layered muscles rigged to vertebrae—adjusts and holds the angle and expression of the head. The throat is delicate, hard, and lumpy to the touch, formed of cartilaginous rings, glands, thin muscles, and looser skin. Framing the throat, two columnar neck muscles (sternomastoids) project the head forward and also turn it to the opposite side.

This is a simple shorthand diagram representing the cranium, face, neck, and throat. It can be learned and visualized in different positions very easily, giving the novice a firm footing on which to stand and develop their drawings of the head and neck.

Shorthand diagram

Cranium Begin with an egg shape. Tilt it on the paper to change the position of the head.

Face Draw a rounded triangular shape below the forward point of the egg to represent the face.

Neck This shape represents the trapezius; the largest surface muscle of the neck and shoulders.

Throat A triangular shape represents the throat. (The nose makes the diagram clearer)

Applied shorthand

After copying the diagram above, animate it. Practice drawing the cranium at different angles, add the face beneath, then the neck, shoulders, and throat. Shape your diagrams so they are more lifelike, but avoid adding detailed features too soon.

143 These three drawings demonstrate (from left to right) the following: why the cranium may be considered egg-shaped; now the face can be seen as a curved triangle suspended beneath and where the division lies between the two; and the form of sternomastoid muscles that frame thethroatsodistinctlywhen the head is turned and inclined forward.

The skull and the frame of the throat


Bones of the cranium are locked together by jagged joints. Sinuses in the frontal (forehead) bone between and beneath the eyebrows are larger in men, making their brows pronounced and often ridged compared to those of women.

Bones of the face house our sight, smell, taste, The skull pivots on the first vertebra or "atlas," and speech. Cartilage extending from nasal bones after the Greek god condemned to carry the shapesthenose.Pads of fat resting on the base of Earth. The jaw hinges in front of the ears. Behind, eacheyesocket support the eyeballs in position. If bony ridges give anchor to the sternomastoid thefatisreducedby old age, eyes look sunken. muscles rising from the breast- and collarbones.

Three useful generalizations

General rules about the relative positions of body parts can hinder artists as much as help them, since they are often based on classical ideals rather than thediversityoflife.However,some generalizations can help as a rough guide to start with, so long as good observation takes over as soon as possible.

In general, when the face is relaxed (not smiling or frowning), the corners of the mouth are found directly beneath the pupils of the eyes. Vertical lines can be drawn down from the pupils to meet the corners of the mouth.

The height of a young adult's ear is often the same as their nose and found on the same level. There is no general rule for growing children, and remember that ears grow again in old age, which is most obvious in men.

The height of the face is about the length of the handspan and the eye is normally halfway down the total height of the head. A common error is to draw the eyes too high up on the face.



Essential Observations

(see pp. 140-41) is perfect for

such as a beach pebble. Here, I stretched drawing paper and laid a wash of white gouache (see pp.140-41). As you can see, the line and tone of silver point varies with pressure, but only slightly. Too much pressure cuts the ground. Silver point erases, but so does ground. Erased ground can be repaired gently with extra gouache. You can also use gouache to paint over mistakes and make corrections.

small, detailed drawings. The drawings below and opposite show useful observations of the head and neck, which are explained in the captions below. Each drawing was made with a silver wire held in a large-gauge mechanical pencil. Newly clipped wires are sharp and cut rather than draw. Before use, they need to be rubbed and smoothed on a stone

Here I imagined placing my silver point wire against the skin of each head and neck and, working in parallel bands from the crown downward, I traced the undulation of surfaces. Linear bands imagined around the head and neck can help you t o clearly see the tilt of the head and relative levels of the features. Ask a friend t o model for you and try this exercise life-size using a pencil and eraser


Tilted forward

Tilted backward

Three-quarter view

Seeing that the face is never flat

Drawings below left and center are summaries of the generalizations given on p.143. Far right is an image to remind us that the face is never flat. It slopes back to varying degrees among individuals, from the tip of the nose t o the ears. For example, note that the innermost corners of the eyes are farther forward in space than the outermost corners.

General measurements, side

General measurements, front

View from above


Male and female head and neck
Men's necks a r e g e n e r a l l y s h o r t e r a n d t h i c k e r t h a n w o m e n ' s b e c a u s e t h e angles a n d levels o f c e r t a i n b o n e s a r e d i f f e r e n t b e t w e e n t h e sexes ( i n d i c a t e d h e r e b y d o t t e d lines) a n d m e n are n o r m a l l y m o r e muscular. T h e male t h y r o i d cartilage ( A d a m ' s apple) is larger a n d m o r e visible than t h e f e m a l e . L a r g e r f e m a l e t h y r o i d glands also s o f t e n t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e t h r o a t .

Female skull





Trapezius muscle
The largest m u s c l e o f t h e s h o u l d e r s a n d n e c k is called the trapezius. A r r a n g e d on e i t h e r side o f t h e spine, it shapes t h e u p p e r back and neck above the s h o u l d e r blades. C o n t r a c t i n g in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h d e e p e r and surrounding muscles, it raises and l o w e r s t h e shoulders a n d d r a w s t h e h e a d backtoeitherside.

The whole



half with



with head



with head


Side with


Front with




Drawing Portraits
USING A SHARP 3 B PENCIL, I drew this head quickly from imagination, evolving its character and expression from the scheme of four parts: cranium, face, neck, a n d throat (see p. 142). Here, five steps show you how to practice doing the same. This approach can be used to draw from imagination or from life. Keep your wrist loose and hold your pencil away from its point (see pp.22-23). Build the layers of your drawing from pale to dark, a n d from general balance a n d form to specific detail. Remember that successful drawings are built on foundations of "seeing the whole," then dividing the whole into smaller parts, with details brought in last of all. Phrased tonal marks modeling this girls skin and hair follow the technique demonstrated by Goya in his self-portrait on p. 130. Turn to Goya's drawing and study how, in a circle beginning across his hat, moving down his hair, and around his coat, he flows lines over surfaces to describe their contour. As you build from steps 1 to 5, bring phrased groups of lines across the surfaces of your form, using their directions to capture the expression of the head and neck. If unsure, copy my steps until you gain the confidence to make your own decisions.

This drawing is the final stage of the four steps opposite. Here, I have enlarged the eye, and moved it back into the head by trimming the length of the upper lid and adding a more pronounced lower lid. It is important to set eyes far enough back from the relatively prominent nose; too close to it and the face flattens. Hair swept back and extended behind the cranium balances the regal pose. Lines shaping the hair echo those marking the cranium in step 1. Here, the lower part of step 1 comes through as wisps of hair across her face and ear


Portrait of a Young Girl

I modeled the outline of the character I imagined light shining from above and in front and adjusted the pressure of lines to reflect this. avoid drawing too dark. 2 Rapidly add shorthand shapes to represent the face. 3 Place the eye beneath the cranium. and throat. down the face to the throat. too soon. Keep your first lines light. The eye announces the nature and expression of the emerging person. neck.147 Building up the portrait DRAWING PORTRAITS 1 Gently spin pale lines in a softly drawn shape representing the cranium.Theangle at which you draw this shape of the paper will determine the angle of the finished head. they are also still sweeping and confident. over the cranium. so it is important to the life of the image that while controlled. 4 . Here. The nose and ear begin to shape the head. Moving from the back of the neck. First lines will remain visible in the final drawing. I used light to describe the upper lid first with a shadow beneath for the lower lid and open eye.


the texture of hair. . be aware of the subtle differences in skin surface.T o DRAW PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGES. muscular tension. and gravity. Above all. empathize. a n d t h o s e w h o a r e Generations asleep (see overleaf).



Fast lines carve out the features of Goya's soup-slurping hag. with a steel dip pen and acrylic ink.Castings DRAWING IN THE PRADO MUSEUM. . Madrid. seeking the dominant contours of each individual expression. I used the nib upside down to gain needle-sharp precision. Van Dyke's noble cast of characters was modeled more finely.



o n l y the w e a l t h y c o u l d afford to h a v e c o s t u m e s specially m a d e . caricatured p l u m e s . and be so expressive of temperament that it overtakes the need for an o c c u p y i n g h u m a n form. arichand unusual combination of pencil. Previously. S t r u c t u r e is t h o u g h the i n v e n t i o n of shoes. known as Leon Bakst. for e x a m p l e — d e s i g n e d the w a r d r o b e s of p o p e s a n d k i n g s . c u l t u r e . a n d s u b t l e t o n e s . and everything w e h a v e c h o s e n for o u r w a r d r o b e s — r e f l e c t o r s of o u r taste. cool. so that c h o i c e . and intent. a n d p r o f e s s i o n — b e g a n life as a d r a w i n g . while court p a i n t e r s — M i c h e l a n g e l o and Holbein. charcoal. g l o s s y folds. and gouache. Artists do this not so m u c h b y the style of a figure's garment. w a r m t h . was a Belarussian A r t Deco theater fantasies and desires to immediately possess a version of the same. outrageous. gesture. or calm u s w i t h chic. and e x u b e r a n c e . b u t influenced Parisian fashion and interiordecor. Petersburg and later exiled designers' ideas and are surprised and delighted b y their continual f l o w of inspiration. he and cofounder Serge Diaghilev took Paris by eac storm in 1910 with their production h year in the industrial f r e n z y of creating o u r image and aspirations. and even invisible by the w a y w e dress. fulfilling lavish and spectacular briefs. articulate a d a n g e r o u s satirical j o k e . Like it or not. In this c h a p t e r w e see h o w c l o t h i n g c a n s e e m to p o s s e s s the w e i g h t and m o n u m e n t a l i t y of stone. intriguing. . c o s t u m e o f f e r s a r i c h v o c a b u l a r y of t e x t u r e s a n d c o l o r . a n d w e will c o l l e c t patterns. woman was drawn by Bakst one year later for the ballet Narcisse. it is the public sign by w h i c h w e are j u d g e d . and i n d e e d image b e c a m e the property also of the industrial classes. T h e e n t o u r a g e of the theatrical stage o f t e n l e a d s the c a t w a l k . Designers all over the w o r l d c o n t i n u a l l y p e n and b r u s h lines to lash us w i t h color. W e dress ourselves and costume designer trained in in St.This voluptuous above all a physical p u p p e t w i t h w h i c h to animate character and narrate personality. T h e rural masses w o r e h o m e s p u n simplicity. T h e p a p e r p a t t e r n is p e r h a p s the m o s t w i d e l y k n o w n of c o s t u m e d r a w i n g s : a formalized plan of lines. In psychology. toParis. P o p u l a r f a s h i o n d e s i g n e x p l o d e d w i t h the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n . shapes. Samoylovich Rosenberg. w h i c h in turn feed c o n s u m e r Lev. of Scheherazade. D e s i g n e r s create m a s t e r p i e c e s of haute couture LEON BAKST for H o l l y w o o d stars. theb u t b y the w a y it s p e a k s w i t h its flying. or b u l g e s . variety. Bakst's designs and costumes immediately To the fine artist. and s y m b o l s that lets m e n and w o m e n in all countries and areas have w o r k i n g access to the latest fashions. Practical classes Bacchante 1911 l o o k at r a n g e s of c o l o r e d m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d i n g p a s t e l s a n d felt-tip p e n s . c r u m p l e s . a n d c o u r t i e r tailors f o l l o w e d suit. Cities c h a n g e d all. st 111/4 x 81/2 in (285 x 220 mm) u d i e d L E O NB A K S T and explore the characterization of fabric t h r o u g h m o v e m e n t .Costume W E MAKE OURSELVES EXOTIC. dancer leaps through swaths of golden cloth. e m u l a t e textures.As artistic director of the It is s h o c k i n g to t h i n k h o w m a n y m i l l i o n s of d r a w i n g s m u s t be m a d e a n d d i s c a r d e d Ballet Russe. personality. and atmosphere.

Van Eyck's highly polished w o r k is c e l e b r a t e d f o r its disguised symbolism. and implied striation in the stone of the architecture.140-41).156 COSTUME Cloth and Drapery EACH OF THESE FIGURES is ninety percent cloth. Sculpted one. the carefully composed outline of his cloak shows us how the artist would have also begun his immaculate rendering of the Virgin's clothes. He has layered these slowly and carefully so as not to cut through the ground and produce a white mark just where he intended a dark one. Marble gown We will never know if Van Eyck considered this drawing unfinished or intended the kneeling abbot to remain transient and ghostly. folds and patterns of material speak more resolutely of their wearers than any small glimpses of body we can see. and snakelike marks. resonate with their wearers startled expression. Below this. H e m e t i c u l o u s l y a r r a n g e d subjects t o c o n v e y d e e p e r meaning. the Madonna and her architecture are both dressed in the same manner. With a stylus such as Van Eyck used here. Delicate marks Silver (or metal) point is the most delicate of traditional drawing media (see pp. with their jagged edges. Church and deities are drawn as JAN VAN EYCK Flemish oil p a i n t e r f r o m L i m b o u r g . Short and subtle horizontal punctuations are only given in the background by sections of floor. The quiet stillness of this image is achieved by a masterly economy of stylized line. it is only possible to create very thin. swirling printed fabrics. bands around the columns. Flaxmans sleeper—perhaps a pilgrim or a soldier resting between campaigns—has wedged himself into the cleft of some great building to grab a moment of peace. and the kneeling abbot is a ghost by comparison. delicate lines. best k n o w n f o r his G h e n t altarpiece ( 1 4 3 2 ) a n d m a r r i a g e p o r t r a i t o f Giovanni A r n o l f i n i and his w i f e (1434). Maelbeke I44I Madonna 11 x 7 in (278 x 180 m m ) JAN V A N EYCK . Above them. Her gown is carved and polished as if made from marble. Their uninterrupted emphasis is entirely vertical. In Van Eyck's drawing below. her marble garment holds u p the infant Christ in a fountain of compressed line. dragons. Keisai Eisen's intense. Vertical lines The highly controlled lines of this drawing cascade from top to bottom of the image. However. the vaulted stone roof echoes and crowns the moment. Opposite.

designer. writer and printmaker Keisai Eisen took his name from the masters Kano Hakkeisai and Kikugawa Eizan. Position In this pen and ink drawing. stone wall of downward-stroked this sleeper's position is momentary. the cloak sliding to the ground. Remaining raised areas of wood are rolled with colored inks. an 18th-19th century document on the lives of the ukiyo-e artists. This complex numerous blocks prepared image and may have been made with printed separately. Images are drawn onto smooth. CLOTH AND DRAPERY Relief printing This is a woodblock print made by a relief process. and the feet notched against the pillar tell us that A lines holds him into the cleft. Respected for his sumptuous images of geisha and editions of erotic prints. which are sometimes also cut into pieces like a jigsaw puzzle. one over the other. the angle of the head. and Man Lying Down in a Cloak I 787-94 21/4 JOHN FLAXMAN x 41/8 in (57 x 105 mm) . each delivering a different part and color of the design. he also co-edited and expanded the Ukiyo-e Ruiko (History of Prints of the Floating World). Koimurasaki of Tama-ya 1810-50 15 x101/4in (381 x 260 mm) KEISAI EISEN The Courtesan JOHN F L A X M A N English late 18th-century neoclassical sculptor. The inked block is laid face-down on damp paper and pressed to make the print.157 KEISAI EISEN Japanese draftsman. and teacher Distinctive linear illustrations for the works of Homer. draftsman. Aeschylus earned Flaxman an international reputation. Parts of the image to be left unprinted are gouged out with a metal tool. Dante. flat sheets of wood.

cartoon. The metal. Details and voices are worn externally with great imagination. he c o o l e d and redefined his style. cloth. Fine examples can be plucked from fashion. He has been rendered on this olive<olored page with pen and gray wash worked over a red and black under-drawing. Man in Armor UNDATED 1 6 x 9 1 / 2 in ( 4 0 5 x 2 4 0 m m ) A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE . Leg section Compare mid-shin the section of white boots cropped to the section of similarly cropped trousers in drawings Gruau's drawing on p. b e f o r e traveling t o Italy. where sometimes there just might not be anybody inside. w h e r e . A flamboyant territory. for she would not have been amused and William Wodall might have been stretching his luck. The aged queen is compared to an overdressed bird. Its warm surface flows in contrast to the stiff metal armor. Its color is also reflected in the metal. Van D y k e was chief assistant t o Rubens f o r t w o years. It is presumed Her Royal Highness never saw it. A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE Flemish painter and draftsman. a n d w a s e m p l o y e d as c o u r t painter t o King Charles I. a scurrilous cartoon by a courtier of Queen Elizabeth I. cinema. t h r o u g h n u m e r o u s p o r t r a i t and C h u r c h commissions. lace. all ruffs and wrinkles. Leg sections in both support the figure without taking our attention away from the main garment above. A s a y o u n g man.158 COSTUME Character Costumes an extreme form of the clothed figure. theater. Anthony Van Dyke's Man in Armor is a masterpiece of drawn surface. and feather were all CHARACTER COSTUMES REPRESENT observed with closely crafted conviction. 160. Opposite is a dangerous drawing. In 1 6 3 2 he m o v e d p e r m a n e n t l y t o L o n d o n . Flowing scarf The knight's scarf of gilded blue is drawn in a pale wash over red ink lines. The slight uncertainty of the pose and the limp cloak suggest a little more metal than man. and even formal portraiture. Pen and wash In the graphic accuracy of this armored knight we see the idealized identity of a warrior from another time: a gleaming defender of the realm.

here dark tawny owl. t h e B a b i n g t o n Plot. t h e Ridolfi Plot. A Ruffs and feathers Starched white ruffs worn at court and by society grew steadily larger as Elizabeth's reign progressed. hooded with an overinflated fluffy ruff eye pins us.159 WILLIAM W O D A L L A u t h o r and illustrator o f The Aaes of Queene a Elizabeth poem Allegorized. t h e Jesuit Mission. Top-heavy. bitten nature. the queen is masterfully rebalanced by words at her feet The whole drawing's blackened. T h e poem recounts t h e six m a j o r crises o f Elizabeth's reign: t h e Spanish A r m a d a . Beneath the lethal fan is the body of a bird of trimmed feathers suggest age. By her old upto three tiers supported on sticks. it was customary to Iron-gall ink Wodall's dangerous caricature steps daintily the written lines of her dedicated page. manuscript comprising six c a n t o s . t h e Rising. suggest the use of iron-gall ink (see p. and saturations showing through from the other side. Northern Satire This is a quill-and-ink satire of the elderly queen's pride-As head of state and fashion. and her pride. she is shown as a grossly disproportioned bird.1599 71/2 WILLIAM x 51/4 in ( 1 9 0 x 1 3 4 mm) WODALL . Satire of the Queen's Dress c. while a raised foot pauses to assess the next displaying a fan of daggers.35).

The black red. Airbrushed reflective surfaces further amplify our perception of speed. Fine lines drawn against the building behind her echo the threads on which we have all seen arachnids drop and hang. Gruau uses starkly cut negative space (see pp.c e n t u r y haute i n n u m e r o u s m a g a z i n e s i n c l u d i n g Elle. She has been drawn with brushes dipped into India ink and gouache. Spider-Girl leaps like an insect. studio-like rectangle of paper. as is Spider-Girl opposite. 5 8 . possibly over a pencil outline. muscular aggression. and gray pigments were applied separately. Drying time in between applications ensured the colors did not run into each other. and both share the power of scarlet and black.5 9 ) and a three-spoke balance of cuffs and cropped trousers to create an almost flag-like emblem of power. RENE GRUAU I t a l i a n .and tilted to the same de a little deeper than sp kneestogivehergravity. diving to catch us in the grip of her machine-like limbs. Harpers & Queen. Fashion and fantasy drawings invent prototypes of ideals and perfection—be they for the catwalk or the fast-paced pages of comic books. Compare the compositio beneathVanDyke'sstudy of armor on p. ofcroppedtrousershere to the device of the w Illustration 1949 for Jacques Fath in L ' O f f i c i e l d e la C o u t u r e RENE GRUAU .160 COSTUME Femmes Fatales THESE DEVASTATING femmes fatales force back the onlooker with their demure. Rene Gruau's bold gouache drawing of smoothly swaying sophistication captures a brilliantly cut garment and frames it with great dynamism in a white. demanding attention with gesture and flair. elegant chic and svelte. a n d L'Officiel de la couture.F r e n c h f a s h i o n i l l u s t r a t o r w h o in his l o n g and esteemed career w o r k e d with many of the g r e a t e s t d e s i g n e r s o f 2 0 t h . His model is outlined. 158. G r u a u ' s highly distinctive d r a w i n g s have a p p e a r e d Couture. Gruau's model regally swans to the fore with cool pride. Vogue. India ink and gouache This swish of confidence and style our enters the page turning everyone's head. Composition Look how well this image is frame knee is parallel to the bottom edge spacehorizontalline cropping the trousers be outermostuprightbordersof her cuffs are similar above her head thesidesoftheimage.

It is outside the picture frame. In your mind's eye extend the uprights out of the top of the picture. not far above the drawing. Buildings. and figure are all locked into equally shatp through the traditional process of a pencilled outline over-drawn ink. Frenz has drawn for Marvel for about 20 years. Sharp focus black outlines in this drawing create a hyper-real dynamic. This s modeling applied over the top give the image a sleek and mechanical of gravity. moon.RON F R E N Z Contemporary American graphic artist w h o designs and pencils the dynamic scenes of numerous superheroes featured in Marvel Comics. Align your ruler to the upright of each building.74-77). at Their extensions will meet the same single vanishing (see point pp. beginning with Star Wars. He began work on Spider-Girl in 1998. to the right of its center. Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 2001-04 R O N FRENZ. The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones. and has been the title's regular artist since 2003. a great characteristic superhero comics. and Amazing Spider-Man. sky. Airbrushed color and with tonal focus. Single-point understand perspective To how Frenz created up therefore the effect of steeply between looking buildings—and howyou can do the same in your own work—take calculate where a ruler the and single vanishing point lies. MARVEL C O M I C S .

162 COSTUME Colored Materials ART STORES BRIM OVER w i t h t h e m a n y wherever permitted. C o n t e crayons are square-formed. and sold in many colors. 3. there are disparities between the apparent nature or color of what you hold in your hand and its performance on paper. See h o w they work and return later for more of what proved best for you. quality. and cost are laid out for our pleasure and perusal. 2. made in about 80 colors. Use them to draw lightly (as above left) or thickly. clay. which he left unfixed to retain its brightness. 1. hue. purchase a small selection of different items you think you will like. 4. plants. Most stores leave small pads of paper on their counters for customers to test materials. quality and cost T h e best are paperwrapped sticks of sumptuous. and subtlety. OIL PASTELS Oil-based. are derived from many sources: rocks. great for tin . CHALK PASTELS: Blackboard chalk is sidewalk work. Be aware that fixative dulls pastel. unwrapped harder pastels. fixing each layer on the front. Before making substantial investments. allowing it to fix slightly from behind. The worst are like revolting old lipsticks that get everywhere except where you intend. insects. Seemingly infinite choices of texture. They vary hugely in cost. Often. minerals. chalkbased but very subtle. crumbly. oily pigment. Pastel pencils are slender and in w o o d casing. and can be a great rediscovery for bold drawings. FELT-TIP PENS: Instant-drying alcoholor water-based inks stored in the barrels of the pens are delivered via smooth nylon o r felt tips of varying shapes and thicknesses. the diverse are made in brands of basic member of the family. Dissolve in turpentine or mineral spirits to produce oil paint or or dark paper. Many products are sold individually and in boxed sets. Degas built his pastels in layers. The nontoxic range below represents a suggested starting point for experiment. Store loose pastels in dry rice to keep them clean. animals. these work best when slightly warm. intensity. The higher the quality (and cost). COLORED PENCILS: Dry pigments ground together with chalk. size. Many artists apply fixative to the back of their work. shape. slightly oily to the touch. paper-wrapped. Sticks and conte crayons make thicker marks (as below). Pastels are finer. used to make colors. wash. Bright pastels are more brilliant on colored paper. or wax and a binder are shaped into fine strips and encased in w o o d like a graphite pencil. They work well on PIGMENTS Pigments. Children's wax crayons are relatives. and CHALK PASTELS Pastel pencils make fine lines (as above). OIL PASTELS: Many colors. though lines can develop greasy stains around the edges if the paper is not first stretched and treated with a gelatin paste laid as a wash. you may be pleasantly surprised to discover something you could not have imagined using. and synthetics. I suggest you do so. soft. except the final layer. mixed on the paper and scratched into (as below). Try materials that are new and unfamiliar. colored materials available. and can be softened and manipulated with degrees of heat. including iridescents. Beware—some are toxic. the finer and more subtle the texture and color should be.

Some are nonsoluble. Brands made for designers sold in enormous ranges of colors are far more subtle and sophisticated than those made for children. Diverse brands are harder or soften greasier or chalkier in use. Fine lines can be achieved (as above). If you love smooth blocks and lines of colon felt-tip pens are perfect. others dissolve in water or turpentine to make a wash. Think of Matisse's Blue Nude (see p. FELT-TIP PENS Although not made with felt-tip pen.or clay-based thin crayons in wood casing. Colors can be blended as shown right) and tones graded by altering pressure. .163 COLORED PENCILS These are wax. leaving the paper to shine through for highlights (as below). so it is best to test them before buying. Some give richer lines than others. it is still a great champion and support for those beginners feeling shyly obligated to tone down their love of color to conform with what others say they should use. 111).

164 COSTUME Study and Design they reflect our age. style. values. REPEATED STUDY T o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s class. S H O E S TELL LIFE STORIES. and they have been concealed in buildings to ward off misfortune. Here we go one step further. a range of colored felt-tip pens with both fine and broad tips. they record and reflect our common history. 100-01 and pp. if y o u m a k e p l e n t y o f d r a w i n g s as o p p o s e d t o o n l y a f e w . D r a w each o n e first as a solid object. and a selection of shoes. personality. 104-07). . t o o . I m a d e n u m e r o u s s h e e t s o f d r a w i n g s . imagining y o u can see t h r o u g h it. social and economic status. a n d e x p e r i e n c e visible p r o g r e s s . you will need several large sheets of drawing paper. the era in which we live. will discover m o r e . As artifacts in museums. Superstitions and fetishes are attached to them: we are told never to put new shoes on a table. and after studying familiar shoes we use the information learned to invent new ones. Linear Outline Using fine pens. c o v e r a large sheet o f p a p e r w i t h line drawings o f several shoes. and volume in space (see pp. Turn t h e m in different d i r e c t i o n s and o b s e r v e t h e i r s t r u c t u r e and f o r m . You. To set up. while artists have painted their boots or those of others as personal portraits and memorials. This class takes the shoe as its subject in building on earlier lessons concerned with seeing through objects to understand their function. and how we stand and walk. structure. t h e n again as if transparent. e n j o y i n g t h e study a n d i n v e n t i o n o f shoes.


The Surface


study the surface contours using fineand broad-tipped felt-tip pens. For best results, it is important to be bold and brief. Draw firmly, fast, and with as few strokes as possible. Build up each shoe from light to dark andleavesome paper showing through to create highlights.

Design Your Own

Using what you have learned from the previous steps about the structures of your shoes, and about the use of pens, invent new designs from your imagination. Start with fine outlines and progress to colored and textured surfaces. Modify your ideas by rotating the views.



The Structure of Costume

rich resource for the artist and

information given by a period style. Arrange to visit a costume museum or ask a friend to model clothes for you at home. Using fine felt-tip pens, begin with quick, pale impressions of each garment's shape before homing in on its borders and seams. Try to draw transparent views wherever possible to record the relationships between all component parts. Aim to draw enough information for it to be possible to make up a version of the garment using paper pinned to a tailor's dummy.

designer. They often give quite unexpected gems of ideas and information—whatever the subject. These drawings, made in a costume museum, demonstrate ways of recording structural information and detail for later use in the studio. They could form the basis of new designs for a fashion project or theater production, for example. Drawings of shoes on pp. 164-65 show how new designs can be evolved from the structural

It is usually best when collecting information for reference to apply the restraint of dispassionate observation. Set yourself the test of drawing facts with as little artistic license or embellishment as possible. Here I chose fine felt-tip pens because they are at their best when used swiftly, and therefore encourage bold, unhesitant decisions.

Swift lines record the hanging weight of this gentleman's coat, the relative proportions of its layers, and minimal details of the buttons and cuffs.

Thick velvet fabric is pulled tight beneath and across the bust by a single button. This transparent view shows how the fabric falls loosely in straight panels beneath the level of the sleeve.


W h e n visiting museums, be prepared f o r l o w lighting, which can make it hard t o see and draw. A book can help if attached t o your drawing board.

Adding stripes and dashes of color with a thicker pen brings out the glossy sheen and sculptural rigidity of this dress, which would have been worn over a whalebone corset. small reading light designed t o clip o n t o a


In small drawings such as these, use thick pens to color entire sections with a few marks, as I did here down the side of the bodice.

The light, frilly bulk of this crinoline dress is propelled forward with lines. pinching its gathers and sways that are hiding a horsehair bustle. fleets of quick



Textures and.Patterns
THIS CLASS FOCUSES ON how to draw textures through the collection of fabric, pattern, and embroidery samples from a costume m u s e u m . This formal method, using ruled squares, can create an invaluable library of ideas a n d i n f o r m a t i o n for future r e f e r e n c e — w h e n painting a clothed figure, or preparing a textile project, for example. However, if making a book of samples for a project, remember that it is important to also include collages of f o u n d materials (see pp.230-31) To d r a w a fabric texture, b e g i n by concentrating o n h o w y o u i m a g i n e it w o u l d feel if you t o u c h e d it. Decide if it w o u l d be rough, s m o o t h , w a r m , cold, thick, thin, tough, or fragile, for example. As you draw, believe you can feel these qualities at your fingertips a n d that your pencil is responding to the sensation. Undulate the pressure of your lines and marks according to the feeling of the fabric rather than its appearance. Let your pencil enact the sensation of touching its surface.

and to experiment more loosely with mixed media.

This starchy, quilted, b o w e d creation started life as an imagined corset, I intended t o d r a w together in one sculptural f o r m a range o f t h e details opposite. T h e garment quickly got o u t o f hand. T h e r e is great e n j o y m e n t in letting y o u r imagination run wild w h e n inventing costumes. If you are unable t o visit a costume museum, many exciting fabric details and textures can be found in y o u r o w n closet o r home.


Colored pencils give precision and tonal range; they can be faded but not erased. Lightly use an HB graphite pencil if you wish to plan a design first. Pressed hard, colored pencils build up a waxy finish of brilliant color. Used lightly, they appear powdery and show the texture of the paper.


Silk and braid


Embroidered leather





Outline stitch


look at how Goya delineated volumes of thick fabric to express the posture. selected from different pages of my original book. 172-73. These characters. and 252-53). . I made a drawing book full of studies seeking to understand how he composed drama and pathos in his narratives (see also pp.126-27. Madrid. identity. shape.Dressing Character I O N C E SPENT THREE MONTHS researching the work of Francisco de Goya at the Prado Museum. and motivation of an individual.

Posture Carving also taken from my Madrid drawing book (see pp. are copies of works by Goya in which he makes air seem heavier than flesh. . and visible. and tangible. I carefully copied the direction of each of his lines. To understand how he did this. as it rushes and carves fabric-wrapped forms like rivers and desert winds shaping the earth.170—71).T H E S E PENCIL STUDIES.



heighten or subdue drama with subtleties of exaggeration or caricature. this is not the portrait of an old woman. With a pocket full of disposable pens we also go out and draw the expressions of gathered people. and distance—so drawings of gathered people can be loosely arranged in three took only minutes to make and yet it lives for centuries. . and instantly engage with the action of the scene. furniture. Rembrandt's bored and frustrated wife. stares out from her gloomy sickbed. too. the viewer. Seeing through Rembrandt's eyes. we. television documentaries. the speed and printmaker and one of the greatest and most influential density of its lines. finding corners in crowded places to inscribe their action and energy onto the page. we can learn most about handling pen and ink. R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN in the delivery of narrative. This J u s t as there are three parts to a traditional landscape drawing—the foreground. First. Saskia died after childbirth. Her all-too-clear expression shows annoyance and irritation with her husband. and therefore seem to see. We read tensions and exchanges between people. Third. while a quill contact with. the viewer is not directly made the finer lines of Saskia. presumably while he is making this drawing. We can direct close. Storytelling and people-watching are obsessive human activities. even up her were laid with a brush. and other masters of Western Art. are implicated in this marital exchange made over the head of the anonymous nurse. Saskia. Second. and its illumination. in spite of how it may seem. and so. Later in their lives. but drawings of gathered people tell them most directly.Gatherings A LL DRAWINGS TELL STORIES. paintings depicting scenes from history. the direct exchange (as shown here) where one or more characters hold eye Aneedproduced the thicker lines of the nurse. vivid portrait of his wife captures our attention. As artists. we can R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter draftsman. daily newspapers. We can also use clothes. Washes of shadow behind engaged and as a natural voyeur can feel invisible while watching the scene. Drawings selected for this chapter explore these Saskia Lying in Bedand a Nurse ranges of proximity 1638 9 x61/2in (227 x 164 mm) and a travel journal. types. It middle. Blockbuster movies. He in turn scorches the paper with his view and a certain speed of seeing all. comics. He is also the artist from whom props to add layers of meaning and attitude. Here. the viewer's attention in a scene by the format of its composition. there are no longer individuals but one significant group or mass action. soap operas. and novels—our staple cultural diet—are driven by a fascination with shared experience and the detail of what happens in other people's lives. The spaces between people and the positions they occupy on a page are vital to our understanding of the psychology or emotion of an event. a crowd tells the story from a distance.

" (Tim Noble) Drawing with light it is important to think about what you is Here timelessly we see a in can draw with. junk. In both works. and projector. plates shatter. F o r e a c h w o r k . Real Life is Rubbish 2002 Dimensions variable TIM N O B L E A N D SUE WEBSTER . the C o o k .. narrative is delivered through the air. Below. t h e y select and arrange familiar items of street detritus into what appears to be an u n p l e a s a n t pile. and Alice. TIM N O B L E A N D SUE W E B S T E R British artists who collaborate using neon. and in. via the animated clutter of o u r material lives.. and smoke billows around the agitated jives of the Duchess. Pencil on paper important but only the beginning of possibility the combination of three-dimensional space. N o b l e a n d W e b s t e r s w i t t y a n d o f t e n s u b v e r s i v e d r a w i n g s are also c o n t e m p o r a r y art installations. c o m p o s e d garbage p r o d u c e s a c a l m . Think about what else you could use: a laser smoke. or even the office photocopier. and on. Here."Anything that.176 GATHERINGS SOME DRAWINGS ARE MADE e n t i r e l y o f i l l u m i n a t i o n that floods drama into the viewers gaze. hearth i m p l e m e n t s crash at o u r feet. a kitchen explodes in o u r faces. T h e i m m a c u l a t e d r a w i n g is only r e v e a l e d w h e n t h e b e a m of a p r o j e c t o r c a s t s t h e s h a d o w Projections of the h e a p o n t o a wall. for example. and projectors to create their anarchic punk satires of modern life. h a l o e d portrait of the artists seated b a c k to b a c k . Pans fly oft the stove. the Cat. In one of R a c k h a m s great illustrations for Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland. garbage and chaos are piled a n d e x p l o d e d in r o o m s full of event. refuse.kicks against the mundane things that close down your mind is a refreshing and good thing.

tabletop.Stowe's ofMysteryand Queer Little Folks. Depth Billows of smoke expand and are lighter as they come forward. Find the singleperspective pp. H e is best k n o w n forillustratingIrving's Rip vanWinkle. by vivid children's Rakham's w o r k is characterized fantasy. are very large compared to on p.177 ARTHUR RACKHAM British watercolorist and book illustrator. Refer back to the drawing class how pots In drawn objects and elements that those behind. and Alice's shoulder. This makes the story appear to leap out at us. beams. humor.76-77) above vanishing point (see that is about3/4in (2 cm) oak converge at this point. ink. and Poe's Tales Imagination. amplifying movement outward from the vanishing point. and watercolor. Rackham Vanishing point In this marvelous drama made with pen. a n d an unmistakable graphic style. 100 to see for make elliptical objects and pans fly through the the foreground. See how the In the Duchess's Kitchen 1907 77/8 x 6 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 5 0 m m ) ARTHUR RACKHAM . The wood grain acts like marks of speed behind the scene. we find several devices already explored through our drawing classes.

and we. and action of a buffalo hunt. a n d l o v e d t o d r a w in t h e BritishMuseum. as fellow watchers.The human form w a s the vehicle o f his expression and h e w a s t h e official W o r l d W a r II artist. A glimmer of gold light appears from the left No explanation is given. This is an ironic drawing from Moore. join in the waiting. HENRY MOORE Crowd 1942 Looking at Tied-up Object . In culture. audiences. and composition they are polar opposites. M o o r e t o u r e d Italy as a young man.178 GATHERINGS we have seen in the pairs and trios of drawings by masters and makers. The mournful gray landscape of Henry Moore's northern British field has gathered by night an overcoated audience to stand and wait before a wrapped and roped monument. expressing his dry humor about O F ALL THE CONTRASTS HENRY MOORE British s c u l p t o r w h o t r a i n e d a n d taught at t h e R C A . and art in the landscape. Opposite. perhaps these two are the most extreme. meaning. Chalk and graphite This fog-bound but humorous gathering of souls is made in graphite and colored chalk with gray wash. heat. a sculptor. This is just one of many precious artifacts from a lost time. as if Moore's wrapping has been literally outstretched. Moore's spectators appear to have walked a long way from nowhere to witness and wait beside this mysterious obelisque. a great Shoshone drawing blazes with the color. London. Magnetic Fields sculpture. which still narrates vivid days in the lives of an energetic nation. The image stands out among his more usual graphic works in which he hones and carves semi-abstract human forms.

tolearnhow to paint a scene on a hide are and buffalo circle and charge the perimeters of a skin "field. creating harmonious balance with words but through silent demonstration. Each color is evenly distributed throughout the scene. Stylized hunters. Skills are taught not center chant or dance to the beat of a drum.179 SHOSHONE SCHOOL Stylized characters This vital image of a buffalo hunt is made with pigment Members of the Shoshone community wishing painted within dark outlines on a stretched elk hide. MAGNETIC FIELDS Horses It is interesting to note how the outstretched limbs ofthesehorses echo European images of the runningBuffalo horse before the sequence-photographer Muybridge taught us to 19TH understand their movement differently. Hunt CENTURY SHOSHONE SCHOOL . horses." Men at the instructed to sit and watch. and helping our eye to dart around.

a n d e n g r a v e r w h o p o w e r f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e d his o w n t e x t s in a d d i t i o n t o D a n t e ' s Divine Comedy. a d e a t h c h a r g e of brutality. and sweetened the often bleak years with his impractical inventions.180 GATHERINGS The Human Condition IN THE SPECTRUM of these vastly d i f f e r e n t g a t h e r i n g s of p e o p l e . a n d the gentle h u m o r of sedate r i d i c u l e . m a r k . w e f i n d a spiritual v i s i o n . w r i t e r a r t i s t . inextinguishable in its fortitude and h u m o r . texture. t h e Bible. pale souls of the lustful are being s p u n into yet another realm of hell. era as Kollwitz. Misted in translucent layers of paint. Brushed line and wash This is an ink-outlined drawing made with a fine brush on paper with added washes of watercolor The image was subsequently redrawn as a line engraving. a pink-inked cinema wobbles along with string. Heath Robinson lived through the same war-torn. The Circle of the (The Whirlwind 1824 of Lustful Lovers) mm) 143/4 x 207/8i n ( 3 7 4 x 5 3 0 WILLIAM BLAKE . W I L L I A M BLAKE British visionary. The muscularity of Blake's figures was inspired by Michelangelo's works. a n d o t h e r w o r k s . p o e t . a n d f o c u s . It illustrates a scene from Dante's Divine Comedy. color. K a t h e K o l l w i t z s c r a t c h e d a n d e n g r a v e d her a r m y of c l a y . w h i c h b y their c h o i c e a n d h a n d l i n g a c t u a l l y b e c o m e the force a n d spirit of e a c h i m a g e . We also see qualities of line.f o o t e d t r o g l o d y t e s w h o rage into w a r like a m u d s l i d e of revenge. Opposite. B l a k e h a s i l l u m i n a t e d his s a d d e n e d Virgil on the s h o r e s of a d a r k w o r l d . Blake w a s d r i v e n b y a passion f o r j u s t i c e a n d a p r o f o u n d b e l i e f in his v i s i t a t i o n s f r o m angels. w h e r e he w a t c h e s a t u r b u l e n t s p i r a l of p u n i s h m e n t f o r the d a m n e d .

Robinson and Kollwitz (above) share almost identical life dates and their work expresses a shared history from opposite sides oftheworld wars. With masterful gentility. stoical bemusement. He created sincere. Losbruch (The Outbreak) 1955 20 x 233/8 in (507 x 592 mm) KATHE KOLLWITZ HEATH ROBINSON humorous illustrator and a regular contributor to magazines and journals such as The Sketch and The Bystander. What remained in scratched grooves printed on damp paper as lines. Ink rolled over was selectively polished off using a rag. children. British Pen and wash This is a pen-andwatercolor drawing made for a color-platereproduction in an edition of T h e Bystander. however meager or ridiculous their activity. White marks were made with a dusting of French chalk on the artist's finger to wipe away ink leaving clean metal. HEATH ROBINSON The Kinecar 1926 103/8 x 15 in (262 x 380 mm) . Heath Robinson shows England in a past era. and controlled smears on the metal surface printed as tones. plodding along with hazy. humor by making his characters earnest. The image was scratched directly onto a metal plate. who lived in a poor district of Berlin. THE HUMAN CONDITION Scratched lines This is a dry-point etching with monoprint. and clearly focused. and her powerful and sensitive drawings center on nurture. and the impact of death and war upon women. and the family home. Kollwitz survived the two World Wars. sculptor and draftsman. poverty.181 KATHE KOLLWITZ German printmaker.

or put the paper in your pocket instantly without fear of smudging. dark sheen. in the studio. B A L L P O I N T : Black a n d b o l d c o l o r s o f f e r d i v e r s e qualities. dropped in your pocket and forgotten till needed. c h o o s e p e n s l a b e l e d " p e r m a n e n t " o r "lightfast.r e s i s t a n t . shut your book. Unlike pencils. p e r m a n e n t . t h e y a r e lightfast. build to a rich. which can snap or pierce through your clothes. T h e r e w e r e c seconds t o snatch this impression b e t w e e n their emergence from one bridge and disappearance b e n e a t h t h e next. Quick-drying. The f o u r i l l u s t r a t e d h e r e r e p r e s e n t a basic r a n g e . blob when old. FIBER-TIP: M a n u f a c t u r e d f o r artists a n d d e s i g n e r s in a r a n g e o f w i d t h s . in the car. aiming for correct outlines would result in drawing too slowly to c a t c h the moment. a n d ranges o f colors. At a time like this. Insensitive t o p r e s s u r e : lines d o n o t v a r y in w i d t h o r t o n e . a ballpoint will make faint lines. these pens enable you to sketch. W h i t e gel p e n s a r e v e r y e f f e c t i v e o n d a r k papers. CHOICES AVAILABLE T h e r e a r e m a n y d i s p o s a b l e p e n s t o c h o o s e from. or idea. a disposable pen with its clip-on cap goes anywhere. R e m e m b e r . is d e l i v e r e d t h r o u g h a m e t a l t u b e o v e r a t i n y ball bearing.182 GATHERINGS Disposable Pens (ballpoints. 192-93) w e r e b o t h m a d e w i t h a ballpoint. turn the page." 1. if y o u w i s h y o u r d r a w i n g s t o last a n d n o t fade o r b l u r w i t h t i m e a n d e x p o s u r e t o light. and in most pockets so I can always record a thought DISPOSABLE PENS QUICK NOTES O n a c o l d day in Venice. or turn into washes and make monoprints if flooded with an alcohol-based substance such as hairspray. Lines t h i c k e n as t h e p e n w e a r s o u t G r a n d Canal (see pp. R O L L E R B A L L : A c o n s t a n t i n k flow 3 . 2. I swiftly focused on gesture. including l u m i n o u s a n d m e t a l l i c .188-89) and Caravans (see pp. gel pens) are the most convenient of all materials with which to travel. I keep quantities at home. they can be obtained within minutes.7 7 and 214-15). G E L P E N : P r o d u c e d in b l a c k w h i t e . t w o tourists and their gondolier drifter past m e o n a canal. a n d pressure-sensitive. fibertips. Ideal f o r precision w o r k (see p p . For example. . So many stores sell them. rollerballs. fine fiber-tip Drawing with a fine fiber-tip pen. Available in blacks and ranges of colors. trusting shape and form to follow. they each offer distinct and sometimes unexpected qualities. w a t e r . 7 6 . 4. jot notes. indent paper.

Earlier I had witnessed a crammed en masse in a fleet of hired gondolas complete with musicians and choir.FROMMEMORY Here I used the same fiber-tip pen to compose a scene from memory. not form. Compare this Klee's mules on p.31 . Fast lines focus on action. crowd of fellow travelers Fast lines These scribbled lines model the mass and shadows of heads belonging passengers packed into the boat.

focus on the action of the event. pocket notebook and a fiber-tip pen. animate them more. Don't worry about measuring angles. A curatorial assistant flies to do a chore (right). if animated. just draw the action. Every drawing writes an indelible memory of place. Each one was witnessed and drawn immediately from the afterimage of what I had just seen. let it enter the stage and perform. Each line acts its part in the narrative.184 GATHERINGS The Travel Journal I CANNOT OVERSTATE THE JOY of making a travel journal. Exaggeration helps. However. but they should not be what you dwell on. of course. if a person was stout. Above all. when out drawing. No camera can tie you to a time or people in the same way. Let the line of the flying coat fly and the hanging arm hang. life will not slow and wait for you to catch it. I caught fleeting glimpses of gathered people and solitary souls going about their affairs. You must learn to trust your memory and to draw what impressed you most. Push toward caricature and this will draw out of your memory what was most important. activity. not its outline. Circular lines buzz around a man puzzling at the end of a train platform (left). and companionship. Movement . angles will happen as a matter of course. FLEETING MOMENTS Walking through Venice with a small. all action is in the line of his coat and directed by his nose. You will make outlines. black. make them stouter.

In turn. The rush of his legs isamplifiedby their blurred lines. I drew him three times on the same page to catch a range of his physical expressions. I am watched by the aggravated guard. Observation THE TRAVEL JOURNAL The same willowy assistant dashes about his work. Expression . eager to herd us all from his house of responsibility.185 A large lady is photographed in front of a delicate work of art.

rather than the works of art they guarded. When your attention has been caught. For example. start by focusing on its action.186 GATHERINGS Catching the Moment On A BITTERLY COLD November day. Here the custodian projects fastidious ownership of his desk and pamphlets by pushing from behind the center of the space and challenging our entry to his image. Place the person carefully. forcing me to remain at the back and look at them. decide how faces and bodies contort. if they are being haughty. you might place them lower down. and clothing or bags hang. and there met this sullen custodian. or pushes. pulls. furniture leans. Identify the principal character and draw him or her first. elevate them in the pictorial space. not outline. and reason for happening. He and his simpering assistant would not allow me in. focus on action. flap. or bulge. For example. Here I have recreated my drawing in steps to show you how to set about capturing such a scene. Be aware that their placement on the page is part of the narrative. I took refuge in a church in Venice. and let every detail speak by its size. and involvement in the story. if they are being devious. emotion. ACTION AND DETAIL W h e n drawing people. . placement. and you decide to draw the moment.

who is largely expressed through the shape and fall o f his raincoat and his way o f using a note pad. In the final step (left) I reinforced t h e custodian's desk.187 The custodian Identify your principal character a n d their psychological role in the scene. together with any immediate props they are using. Decide where you will place them o n the paper t o emphasize their action and intent. D r a w their action. a pillar locates t h e scene in a depth o f space. CATCHING THE MOMENT The assistant Identify t h e antagonist ( o r second character) in t h e scene. I added t h e assistant. Draw their action and props. continue adding characters. which is pushed toward us in a gesture of confrontation. If drawing a more complex scene. W i t h a few strokes. Decide where t o place them t o emphasize their role. Here. such as the desk and pamphlets seen here. .


and buildings. An imminent deluge of tourists urged me to work catching no more than the skeleton of the view. I developed detailofthis drawing from memory using a ballpoint pen. where vertical mooring poles give space and pulse to the horizontal speed of water quickly. .Grand Canal T H E CANALS OF VENICE are bustling places full of occupation.

note only their most essential action and feature. and drawn immediately from memory. .Crossings DURING THIS RUSH HOUR. Each person was glimpsed in an instant. Caricature each person slightly. then the bridge beneath them. Characters in the foreground were drawn first. Venetians flow across a stepped bridge and cascade into the streets beyond. followed by the streets. To catch characters like this.



. Caravans and other backstage activity convey expectations of energy and repose. I found this circus by chance in the Swiss mountains.Caravans T H E PARAPHERNALIA O F TRAVEL i s an intriguing part of circus life. quiet afternoon. Sitting at a distance on a hot. I used a ballpoint pen to compose a series of scenes. and a great subject to draw.




a n d a n astronomer w h o dedicated 20 years t o studying t h e M o o n . Russell d r e w this. when little stirs and empty blue skies offer even less to latch lines to. how the mountain cut by ice and rain is now fleetingly lit. Look closely at works by many artists and you will see that they have not represented hills. William Turner is said to have had himself lashed to a ship's mast to comprehend the storm (see p. The forces of nature. and its draws the tides of the seas. pages o f softly i l l u m i n a t e d craters and lunar "seas" c o v e r e d in m a t h e m a t i c a l and s h o r t h a n d calculations. our companion. Beginners will often choose calm. 5 f t x 5 ft 6 in ( 1 5 2 x 1 6 8 c m ) J O H N RUSSELL . Weather is essential in all landscape drawing. a contemporary environmental artist. This is the world's first accurate image of the Moon. and experiment. Take chances against the rain and work with the wind or fog. England. rivers. trees.Earth and the Elements I T MAY SEEM PERVERSE to start a chapter titled "Earth and the Elements" with an image of the Moon. It now hangs on the staircase of the History of Science Museum. In this chapter Moon Pastel 1795 Drawing we experiment with charcoal. so J o h n Russell's tour de f o r c e drawing (opposite) was a masterpiece of observation in his time. the face of the Moon. These conditions are very difficult to express well. Just as NASA photographs of Earth have had a profound effect on the way we view our fragile home. arranging them in perfect circles on the mountainside or in lines drifting out of sight beneath low clouds. and meteor impacts have scarred. or has cracked and fallen under the weight of water. or the wind carries it away. The pastel drawing was constructed from myriad telescopic observations almost 200 years before the Apollo Moon landing. Richard Long. speculation. a n d a m o o n globe called t h e Selenographia. 199). learning to draw light out of dark. What they have drawn is the force of nature on these properties: how the wind heaves the night ocean. they are the animators of your subject. as opposed the physicality of Earth. how the soil is scorched. are the real subjects in great landscape drawings. to be ready to draw the new light as it breaks across the land. Oxford. There is a sense of the heroic in drawing outside—we race to catch a form before the tide engulfs it. t h e first-ever accurate image o f t h e M o o n ' s surface. and the sea. artists see for themselves that which is momentary and eternal. but it can be seen as a lens to our observation of this planet. and even how the Sun illuminates. JOHN RUSSELL A p o r t r a i t pastelist t o King G e o r g e III o f England. the sun comes out to blind it. makes his work by the act of walking. marking the ground with lines of footprints or by turning stones. and take bold steps in emulating the swell of clouds and the forces of torrential water. t w o e n g r a v e d m a p s k n o w n as The Lunar Planispheres. It is Earths satellite. sunny days. It is better to get up before dawn. By drawing such momentous and everyday events. H e a l s o p r o d u c e d an a l b u m o f 1 8 0 exquisite pencil drawings. surrounded by the bright instruments of centuries of navigation.

A hard waxy was drawn across a heavy limestone Varying definitions crayon of lire and depths of tone conspire to give volume. He knew how the world bends and stutters under such gusts. and pioneer ofexpressionism. we can soon learn to draw its force. and by observing its tides and eddies in our o w n environment. undramatic b u t brimming with stylized realism. By Turner carries us to the heart of the maelstrom. Hazy vertical marks reveal buildings into the mist. T h e ship. and solidity. Hokusais sedate wind presses reeds a n d the j o u r n e y s o f young ladies. like an umbrella forced inside-out. This wife. seeing how it shakes. lifts. Flapping kimonos and an onlooker turning his b a c k have the magic of a m o m e n t caught. and the legal profession. and gives motion to each image. Daumier's c a r t o o n shines with the brilliance of his comic memory.Through political drawings he fired his sharp wit at the king. painter. Danger of Wearing Balloon Petticoats UNDATED HONORE DAUMIER . fluttering heavily. H O N O R E DAUMIER French satirical cartoonist lithographer. sculptor. distance. serving a prison sentence for his views. T h e great master of English seascape is c o n d u c t i n g with his graphic energy. Dots and dashes suggest receding trees out of focus. the bourgeoisie. speed. is already lost. a sail b r o k e n loose in a stormy marriage. Crayon and limestone This is a lithograph. Fluid strokes inflate the woman's dress and pin shadows to the ground.198 EARTH AND THE E L E M E N T S Air in Motion THE GREAT INVISIBLE SUBJECT o f these d r a w i n g s is t h e w i n d . Terrifying waves of merciless nature roar across the paper. a scratched ghost. has b e c o m e a hysterical kite. the government. Below.

from left print. a n d his b e s t . Hokusai direction (from clothing from has chosen which it the right). T u r n e r w o r k e d in oils a n d w a t e r c o l o r s a n d s k e t c h e d c o p i o u s l y o n his travels.M. 1826 91/2 x 113/4 in ( 2 4 1 x 3 0 0 m m ) J.M.199 J. absorbent watercolor and are Stains of splashed.i n f l u e n c e d b y examples o f W e s t e r n art obtained through D u t c h t r a d i n g in Nagasaki. horizontally then and of the it into the stream Plants also bend and flow right to Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 1802 81/2 HOKUSAI KATSUSHIKA x 131/2 in ( 2 1 7 x 3 4 3 mm) .l o v e dw o r k s i n c l u d e 1 0 0 v i e w s o f M o u n t Fuji and 1 2 v o l u m e s o f Manga. d e s i g n e r a n d b o o k i l l u s t r a t o r . painter. H o k u s a i in t u r n has since significantly influenced European art. leans the whole composition swells around its fateful center. W .W. wind. into this very as pressed sheet The paper's through own coior is brought banks of mist and fog. Wind direction wood-block This is a colored To represent the blows lifted flowed wind. TURNER KATSUSHIKA HOKUSAI Prolific J a p a n e s e c o l o r w o o d . A outline scratched of a skeletal into penciled ship is while and the waves. AIR IN MOTION Pencil and watercolor subdued brushed. Ship in a Storm c. T U R N E R British landscape. T h e r e a r e m a n y stories o f his p a s s i o n a t e w o r k i n g methods. including being lashed t o a ship's m a s t in o r d e r to study a storm. seascape.b l o c kprintmaker. and history painter w h o s e p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t a b o v e all w a s light. Landscape a n d city life w e r e his principal subjects.

he blanketed the drawing in darkness. as a subject and second. composing banks of waves and dense.198) admires the majesty of nature. lines of rain escorting them to b o u n c e and clatter. and swim into the page. active surfaces of water. water. T h e very nature of b o t h is turmoil and an interweaving of elements. D o m e s t i c o b j e c t s we can o w n and name fall from the clouds. Leonardos Cloudburst of Material Possessions is o n e of his m o s t enigmatic and mysterious works. it is difficult to contemplate its brooding and night-soaked heart. inks. Le Bateau-Vision 1864 71/2 x 1 0 in ( 1 9 2 x 2 5 5 m m ) VICTOR H U G O . He brings us to stare into a place that no sane human would enter. marks. EARTH AND THE VICTOR HUGO French novelist and artist (see also p. Pen and brush Hugo drew first with pen and ink. An update on biblical showers of fish and frogs. this is a b o m b a r d m e n t from o u r h o m e s . this is a writer's narrative of terror. fantasy palaces. In periods b e t w e e n writing. ink. drawing was Hugo's principal means o f expression. with a brush. grab their b r u s h . as if drawn j u s t this year. Opposite. and t h e sea s t u d i e d f r o m his h o m e in Guernsey in t h e Channel Islands. Turner (see p.28). or charcoal. as a gestural storm on the paper. Then. h a u n t e d shadows. It looks so contemporary. His subjects include ruins.200 ELEMENTS Storms STORMS CAN BE SEEN and drawn in two ways: first. leaving nothing but a glimpse of moonlight glistening on the froth below. and tossed o b j e c t s — a perfect subject in which artists can forget themselves. T h e m e n a c i n g darkness of Hugo's storm b e l o w is so convincing. By contrast.

together with half the contents of our garage. a bell. and a wheel. It is interesting to speculate how engineering might have developed if his ideas had been shared with the world earlier Ink and chalk This is a pen and ink drawing with touches of black chalk. Cloudburst of Material Possessions 1510-12 45/8 x 43/8 in ( 1 1 7 x 1 1 1 mm) L E O N A R D O DA VINCI . Above and below are examples of his mirror handwriting. He was left-handed and wrote backwards in Italian from left to right. a hook. envisioning machines centuries before their making (helicopters and bicycles. He bequeathed his drawings to a friend. Each item that has crashed from heaven is drawn in such a way that we can feel Leonardo's nib picking it up in the speed of a doodle.LEONARDO DA VINCI Leonardo devised many artifacts of our modern lives. for example). and they passed through private hands for 400 years before becoming widely known. There is a little magic in recognizing many items from our homes something like a rake.

Over first lines. Clare Bryan took panoramic photographs of the English South Downs. Claude has used a fine nib to delineate segments of land as they recede into space. Paler. Whether land-.1638 85/8 x 121/2 in (219 x 320 mm) CLAUDE LORRAIN . and dry marks in the foreground appear to be made with his finger. cooler tones receding into the distance are applied with a brush. and etcher who lived most of his life in 17th-century Rome. In the lower half he has walked downhill a little. and across to the right. Drawing with a scalpel. it is the unique calligraphic signature of the place in which we stand. She was inspired by her research of aerial plans of London and the story of an alien map butterfly (see caption). thick. Even distilled from all other detail. she teased away fragments of paper to illuminate her view. or cityscape. Claude is distinguished by. and famed for. Claude Lorrain drew directly on location. sea-. EARTH AND THE Bryan cut the profile of a city. Views from Velletri c. rapidly layering contours to shape place. In a very different work (opposite above). and after tracing her captured line. atmosphere. C L A U D E LORRAIN French classical landscape painter draftsman. Segments The top half of the drawing is a view as we enter the valley. rich. and we can imagine standing over his shoulder. watching his hand and eye at work together. a horizon line can trigger our recognition.202 ELEMENTS THE PROFILE OF A HORIZON is a line we immediately recognize and respond to. made inside a book. which he used to unify his compositions. his unsurpassed handling of light. Nature Profiles Opposite below. and mood simultaneously. transferred it to a scroll.

The edges of each here) fade into the solid paper unpopulated with a scalpel landscape. Her recent paper photographic.5-m)scroll. progressively settlement (cropped more and more paper is drawn away to show the expansion of human page of an around the river. and visiting professor at numerous art schools. printmaker graphic designer. and digital print-based works reflect upon the histories and poetry of "left behind and in-between spaces." Cut line This is a small section of a preparatory 5-ft(1.203 Scalpel-drawn This book-bound drawing was inspired by the story of a foreign butterfly wrongly to Great Britain in 1912. 2001 CLARE BRYAN C L A R E BRYAN 3ritish artist. On turning the pages of City. drawings Ideas of introduction Clare Bryan to research introduced down and led NATURE PROFILES and removal historical plans and aerial growth of London showing its population since Roman times.The horizon was drawn with a City Landline 2003 271/2x 59 in (70 x 150 cm) scalpel. then hunted destroyed. specialty bookbinder. source workisilluminatedby standing its lower edge on a CLARE BRYAN .

maple. 1 Suspend a length of masking tape.m a d e c o m p r e s s e d charcoal. leaving u n d e r t r a c e s of first thoughts. THICK W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 2 Keep the tape above your drawing. It allows you greater precision in your mark-making than if you rub away the charcoal with an eraser. the heel o f y o u r h a n d . Hold it over your drawing RANGE AVAILABLE Charcoal (in its several forms shown here) is loved or loathed by the beginner to whom it is often recommended because it produces pleasing results quickly. Use any fine-point pen or pencil (I used a ballpoint) to draw a firm line on the back of the Big pieces are perfect for very large-scale drawings—even larger than yourself. vine. 7. THIN WILLOW CHARCOAL: I used a piece like this to make the drawing opposite. white line into the blackor grayness of willow charcoal. MEDIUM W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 5. Try itworking on big paper covering a wall. The same as above.54).204 E A R T H AND THE E L E M E N T S Charcoal CHARCOAL IS PRODUCED from wood baked slowly without exposure to air. a rag. black finish. tape. a n d p l u m . It c a n be m a d e duller. or fingertip. The tip snaps easily to renew a sharp edge if required. resulting in a stick that gives a blacker. 2. Willow is the most c o m m o n wood. . 162) or graphite (see p. Beware of cheap brands selling dyed chalk as compressed charcoal. 3 A white line is lifted out by the tape. R o u g h paper c a n b e loaded. this does not exist. and offers a rich. Not to be confused with square conte sticks (see p. only a little thicker. Charcoal lifts away from paper easily with the very light touch o f an eraser. it looks gray and feels like chalk. you can p u r c h a s e m a c h i n e . Alternatively. but some specialists stock compressed charcoal in delicate square sticks. and heavier than willow. a piece of fresh bread. 1. It does n o t erase easily. CHALK CHARCOAL: Technically. Smooth paper accepts few particles. CHARCOAL PENCIL: Types made by different manufacturers vary in quality and density of line. SQUARE COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Not often sold. Boxes often contain a range of thicknesses to choose for different needs. 4. blacker. B u n d l e s o f twigs were traditionally sealed into earthenware j a r s or wet clay and heated slowly and intensely in a fire or kiln. b l a c k e r . b e e c h . between your middle finger and thumb. It is also easily erased if the maker of the mark is not happy with the result. so it chars b l a c k as o p p o s e d to igniting a n d turning to ash. sticky side down. C h a r c o a l naturally glistens. 6. without touching the surface. harder line. As its name implies. Then lift it away. LIFTING OUT This technique is a very easy method of drawing a crisp. a n d m o r e i n d e l i b l e by soaking it in linseed oil. Slightly dull the tape's stickiness before use t o prevent it from lifting out more than you intend. In use. A great find when available. 3. fine. Lines are achieved by d e p o s i t i n g particles in the grain o f paper. Artists have also used lime. COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Machine-made. feather. it is compressed and m o l d e d at high pressure. they are all intended for fine work. Essentially. resulting in a pale line. cylindrical.

8 . 9.212-13 were made by altering the pressure applied to the charcoal. I used a plastic eraser effectively on thinly applied charcoal. Here we used a ballpoint. Lift out broader marks with a larger implement. Use high quality (very sticky) to fix paper to walls and boards.205 ERASING Thickly applied charcoal quickly o v e r c o m e s a plastic eraser A w a r m (soft and tacky) putty eraser is more effective. pastels. Cotton swabs also work. Here. 10. . CHARCOAL Lifting out This detail shows an example of where I used the lifting-out technique demonstrated opposite to draw flashes of lightning against rain clouds. or any other dry media. Different tones seen throughout the main drawing on pp. graphite. as is fresh (unbuttered!) bread. T O R T I L L O N : This is a tight roll of paper used to blend charcoal. Layers can be peeled away to refresh its surface. MASKING TAPE: An invaluable resource. Use cheaper (less sticky) for lifting out. sold in several widths. PEN: Any fine pen or pencil can be used to draw on the back of masking tape when lifting out.

pack your materials (as advised below) and set off for a local view or your nearest arboretum. MATERIALS In this first view there is only a foreground and middle distance. to contain each of your compositions. At its worst. The long view is hidden behind trees. I relaxed my eyes out of focus to dissolve distracting detail into abstract patches of light and darkness. an eraser your drawing book or a board and paper fixative (or hairspray). Don't worry if it is cloudy: clouds add drama and perspective and make good subjects in themselves (see pp. Seeing tones . They are also good markers of receding space. Landscape drawings are traditionally arranged in three parts: a detailed foreground. the more you encourage the viewer's imagination to join in and see. a reel of masking tape. This term simply means that as land rolls away into the distance. Then I drew the shape of the tonal patches I perceived. a less distinct middle ground composed of shapes and textures. but is often less evocative and engaging. To experiment with drawing landscapes and the use of charcoal. details blur and colors grow paler and bluer. Pack several thick and thin sticks of willow charcoal. and a cushion in a plastic bag to sit on.212-13). it results in flat planes of clutter. and an abstract. It is the visible effect of the atmosphere between where you stand and what you see in the distance. On p p .206 EARTH AND THE ELEMENTS Landscapes TREES ALONE OFFER MARVELOUS shapes to draw. hazy distance. our brains search for nameable things and will perceive complete pictures from very little information.9 9 we noted that in response to visual stimulus. begin by marking out several small squares on your paper. Ironically. Successful drawings often only suggest the qualities of the scene without overdescribing them. When you arrive. Excessive detail can be admired for its skill and achievement. 9 8 . especially when making first excursions into aerial perspective. the less you describe.

This composition turned out a little flat because I have an almost even quantity of earth and sky. It is better to give distinctly more pictorial space to one or the other (see below). horizontal regions of grass. Exploring the view Redrawing the scene above. your view is your inspiration.207 LANDSCAPES In my second square I explored a simple view contrasting soft. rounded. and broke a view through the hedge into the distance with a dark sky threatening rain. Remember. full of information you can use to create what you want! Inventing drama . shadows. the trunk of a bare tree. dark trees with bright. I have invented drama with diagonals set against each other I tilted the earth.

on p p .104-05). making the scene below led me to focus on the decaying boat opposite. I am then able to home in on what interests me most for further study. taking with you your drawing book and pen. bare ribs. settling my concentration. s e e k places in light After my first drawing. Circling a subject and drawing it from several views imprints on your memory a better understanding of its three-dimensional form. and tiller still standing proud. This first drawing serves as a process of arrival. engine. 2 1 4 . and seeing what the real choice of subject is. I usually begin by making an image of the whole view.164-65) and a wire violin (pp. observing it from several views so as to better understand it as a whole.1 5 my first drawing of the whole view of the Tiber led me to see the real subject of the day. your challenge now is to find a sculptural subject in the landscape. so the paper is not made blinding and your hand cannot cast a shadow on your work. The mud of the tidal shore in Rye. which was the flow of water over rocks. Building on earlier studies of structure in space using shoes (pp. shade out of the glare of the sun. Similarly. "Drawing in the round means to literally walk around your subject.208 ELEMENTS Drawing in the Round WHEN DRAWING IN THE LANDSCAPE. England has embedded within it the decaying skeleton of a burned fishing boat." . EARTH AND THE FINDING THE SUBJECT Finding a remarkable subject is even better when you can circumnavigate it in an arena of space. For example.

and the order and shape of its component parts. marking straight. I spent equal time looking at the subject and the paper. careful lines to establish the skeleton that gives this wreck its distinct form. 3 This impression notes the angle of the broken boat. make a series o f drawings f r o m different positions. and structure.209 SERIES OF STUDIES This stunning ghost o f a boat comes into v i e w t w i c e a day. DRAWING IN THE 1 Here. ROUND 2 In this tail-end view. I looked more boldly at the planes and the dynamic of the sculptural craft My lines have become darker and more forceful as confidence in my understanding of the vessel grew. Each n e w drawing gives a different insight. character. looking more at the boat than at the paper From this low position I have emphasized how the boat is swallowed in mud by outlining its shadow on the ground. Overleaf: Decaying Boat 4 . The outline ties a shape of darkness to the boat like a weight so that it becomes part of its form. its overall balance. W h e n you have found your subject. unfussy lines. I drew with quick. w h e n t h e sea recedes.



was made with gentle but unhesitating s p e e d . hot-pressed drawing p a p e r (see pp. m a d e on s m o o t h . L o o k i n g b a c k and forth from the heavens to firmly taped-down paper. I worked quickly to catch and weave the turbulent contrasts of rising wind and approaching water before the drawing could be washed away.20-21) using a thin stick of willow charcoal. .Cloudburst THIS STORM DRAWING.


pulse. focusing on the river's eddies.Notes of Force T H E GREAT FLOWING TIBER RIVER has cut through Rome. pocket-sized notebook. shaping the city. I drew with a needle-fine fiber-tip pen. and rhythmic detail as it passed through the ancient gully of the city. black. . On the pages of a small. since ancient times.


.Mountains SITTING IN THE SHADE of a tree on the Greek island of Antiparos. I used a dip pen and waterproof India ink with brushed watercolor to draw the view. The strong diagonal of the composition from bottom left to top right carries the eye through changes of height and focus from the foreground to the mountains beyond.



fictional language. liberating. It also underpins and gives strength and unity to all figurative work. Perhaps in Western culture we bred this intuitive freedom out of ourselves in our insistence on complex figuration. abstraction is not so easy to define. Museum of Fine Arts. only rediscovered. direction. His drawings are collected and exhibited internationally and held by the Adolf Wolfli Foundation. People are often scared by abstraction and see it as the enemy of figurative art. many nonWestern cultures have highly sophisticated abstractions at the core of their art. From another viewpoint. However. Artists were given a different tool—a line threaded directly from their subconscious to their hand—and with it they began to map a bold new landscape of marks and concepts that would dramatically and forever change the face of Western art. and Aboriginal art. Wolfli was a Swiss draftsman. ADOLF WOLFLI One of the greatest masters of Art Brut. It was not invented in the 20th century. Many concepts and feelings can only be expressed through marks. I begin every image by feeling its meaning. Outsider artists. Berne. be brave and enjoy them.8 cm) A D O L F WOLFLI Abstraction is a direct. Swirling. opposite. all pictorial representations are abstractions of reality. spontaneous image-making. precisely because it does not have to represent a physical object. which are essentially abstract. The growing rise of Darwinian ideas coupled with Freudian and Marxist perspectives forced Western society to reconsider its origins and future. Indian mandalas. it is simply itself. or gestures.Abstract Lines T HE DEVELOPMENT OF W E S T E R N abstract art at the beginning of the 20th century significantly paralleled major changes in world thought. An abstract mark is often a better conductor of a thought or feeling. such as Adolf Wolfli. . drawn sound. writer and composer who suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and was resident in the Waldau Aslyum near Berne. don't be timid. yet my kinship to abstraction is fundamental. My own work is firmly centered in figuration. and it has always been with us. Internal workings of the mind were suddenly free to find a new language of expression. and young children show us that abstract. for example. and emotion. actions. belief. and history. picturing a stabilized world was impossible and Modernism rode forth with vigor. As you approach the classes in this chapter. sounds. Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape 1915 413/8 x 285/8 in (105 x 72. expressive marks and shapes are at the core of natural. and poetic myth roar and cascade within his tightly framed pages. Not everything we know has a physical form in the world. strike the paper to find form. and independent means of communication. From one point of view. and have been making abstract drawings for centuries—Japanese calligraphy. He made thousands of drawings to chronicle his complex life. It is actually its foundation and its infrastructure. writhing torrents of color. First marks. The fate of Old World thinking was finally sealed with the brutality of World War I. Afterward. poet.

and wood are also part of the work. forged steel. Damp Japanese paper was laid over carefully arranged iron bars. and sensitivity with its thickness and pressure of touch. Sometimes it smolders like a deep shadow. Iron rods in tone. A Neolithic chalk tablet bears cut lines that were slowly carved. He travels widely to research ancient sacred sites. quoting ink marks on a page. or. ice. and Assistant Professor of Fine A r t at Fukuoka University. Five forged steel shapes. Abe's physical drawing is a sculptural installation. rhythmically engaged with itself. salt. MAMORU ABE Japanese sculptor and installation artist.220 A B S T R A C T LINES Process and Harmony SOMETIMES A DRAWN LINE sings on the surface of its support. Below. scrolling across the canvas in an intimate crescendo. Abe works with materials such as soil. Mamoru Abe prepares an image that will appear through the chemistry of iron. and temperature rim of floor space. tone. silence. The Physical Space 1990 3 0 x 30 ft ( 9 1 4 x 9 1 4 cm) MAMORU ABE . akin to stones in a Zen garden. A line can be finished in a second. sit in silent harmony. water. staining redbrown lines into the white surface. texture. Moisture produced rust. iron. This the paper rest within the amplifies framelike of the floor from the ceiling. and plaster in galleries and landscapes. It can proclaim mood. Twombly's mesmeric wax line worked over house paint is like a signature. and texture their bracing separation reaching between from beneath Pillars of the gallery are made part of this drawing by their inclusion in the paper. as Twombly shows us opposite. and patient watching. it can keep reforming through the inherent repetition of a process. Lines. brass. Changes paper.

241). Neolithic Chalk Tablet 3. Precise lines suggest the use of a sharp flint The framed rectangle of this image is echoed in that of Abe's installation. evolved a raw.Thesite's purpose is unknown. The central pictorial space is also similarly cut and divided by the considered arrangement of straight lines. and sensuous drawing from painting.Twombly was presented with a Golden Lion award for lifetime achievement.England. At the 2001 Venice Biennale. Many of his graffiti-like combine abstract gestures with statements.400BCE 21/4 x 21/4 in (58 x 58 mm) ARTIST UNKNOWN Language Over the course of fifty years. PROCESS AND HARMONY Cut lines Chalk carves easily. the Babylonian world map. that challenges the separation of word from image. CY TWOMBLY . such as the Rosetta stone. and American Indian petroglyphs (see p. emotive. and Untitled 1970 Here we might seek to grasp letters in the turning of his line.221 ANCIENT CARVINGS Many ancient cultures have made and left behind drawings and texts carved into stones or animal bone. energetic. theories suggest astrological observations.000-2. burials. Twombly has language works CY TWOMBLY Contemporary American artist who emerged through the 1950s New York art scene in the heyday of Abstract Expressionism and Action Painting. and the worship of the sun and ancient gods. close to Stonehenge in Wiltshire. This example is one of two chalk tablets found in a Late-Neolithic pit.

pressed them face down. and let the drying meniscus deposit granules in linear drifts such as we would see in the satellite photographic mapping of rivers. and lifted them away to leave impressions of watery planets and seas. Here he appears t o have saturated the cut-out moon disks with gritty pigment. o f t e n e x p r e s s e d in v i s u a l t e r m s . o r a pattern o f elements s o unified as a w h o l e t h e y c a n n o t b e e x p l a i n e d asa s u m o f parts. abstract. broke new ground in the 1950s with graphic scores now considered among the most extreme. said." An innovator who never fails to surprise. Two Impressions Paper 1853-55 VICTOR HUGO Disk from a Cut-Out . A graphic score is a V I C T O R H U G O Hugo's abstract French novelist w h o m a d e m a n y drawings in m i x e d m e d i a ( s e e also p. "There is nothing like dream to create the future. Marks across the center appear to be made with his fingers. music manuscript requiring instrumentalists to improvise. beautiful. interpret. His drawing writes the time of its own physical process by expressing the extreme concentration of the moment in which it was made. brushed night skies over them with ink then lifted the disks to reveal white moons. below. Ink impressions When drawing nightscapes Hugo often laid paper disks in place of the moon. Texture Compare this drawing to Hugo's octopus on p. Similarity in gritty texture suggests that here. Bussotti. here he anticipates abstract expressionism by 100 years. Gestalt. abstract artists and composers unique.222 ABSTRACT LINES Writing Time SINCE THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY. a configuration. Both abstract drawing and composition involve the perfect sequencing of sounds and marks against space and silence. have striven to break down old pictorial and musical structures to explore new and unfettered modes of expression. drawing here can b e described in t e r m s o f a G e r m a n philosophical idea a b o u t is t h e i n s t a n t r e c o g n i t i o n t h e p o w e r o f m o m e n t . Gestalt o f an unnameable thing. opposite. too. The scores are also exhibited in galleries as visual art.28.28). and inventive of his time. he mixed graphite into ink. and participate in the composition. Hugo.

Following the notes. This is a page from Due Voci. Circular Score for "Due Voci" c. Compare this work to that of Libeskind on p. Bussotti's first mature work.223 W R I T I N G TIME SYLVANO BUSSOTTI Italian avant-garde composer and principal 20thcentury exponent of the graphic score. Sound and rhythm This flickering rondo of sound written in pen on a hand-ruled stave can be heard in our imaginations as much as seen. we can feel their rhythm and easily attach sounds to them. His later works become increasingly abstract. 70 in relation to Bussotti's clustered notes to the left of his rondo and open space to the right. 1958 SYLVANO BUSSOTTI . a far cry from any recognized musical notation.

228-29) has been adjusted with each movement of the rags to draw a cosmos of balance and perfection. She tore c l o t h into strips a n d used these to draw patterns a n d symbols o n h e r cell floor.224 A B S T R A C T LINES Chants and Prayers WHEN ABSTRACT LINES are organized in repetition. Compositional rightness (see pp. an a n o n y m o u s w o m a n in the southeast Indian state o f Tamil Nadu m a k e s a ritual drawing o n the b r i c k courtyard o f h e r h o m e . In the late 1 9 t h century. Marie Lieb w a s a psychiatric patient in the Heidelberg Asylum. and c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Cell Floor With Torn Strips of Cloth 1894 MARIE LIEB . Cloth is the simple instrument with which she has conducted and ordered her universe. O p p o s i t e . Lieb is one o f countless thousands of "Outsider" artists—diverse individuals including ordinary citizens. It will protect the place from evil and make a pleasing invitation to good spirits. Torn cloth This is one of two published photographs showing Marie Leib's torn cloth strips significantly placed on her cell floor. and sufferers of psychiatric illnesses—who have always existed. In music it can be felt in the diversity of plainsong and African d r u m m i n g . they m a k e a visual a n d physical e c h o that t o u c h e s s o m e deep part of the human spirit. making objects and images outside o f mainstream culture. This takes a form in most cultures. for e x a m p l e . T h e s e p h o t o g r a p h s d o c u m e n t the meditative drawings o f two w o m e n living worlds apart in different countries. it is found in the regularity o f ordered lines or a pattern. social outcasts. d i p p i n g h e r fingers into a pot o f rice flour. centuries. MARIE LIEB Little is known of this w o m a n for w h o m the act of drawing was essential. Visually. Germany. cultures.

In daily practice. Motifs are geometrical or based on plants. women pride themselves on never repeating a design. Designs and motifs Rangoii (or mandalas) are ritual drawings made by many millions of women across rural India. Skills are handed down through generations and from friend to friend. cultural anthropologist. animals. Popular magazines feature new ideas each week and on special occasions there may be contests.225 STEPHEN P. among others.000 images. Painted Prayers UNDATED STEPHEN R HUYLER . Materials such as rice flour. and birds. lime. at the University of London and Ohio State University. or flowers are marked or arranged on the ground or on the walls of homes. and for over 30 years has traveled extensively through the Indian subcontinent creating an edited archive of 200.HUYLER Photographer art historian. and in places of worship and celebration. Huyler is the author of Painted Prayers.Theseare widely published in journals and are the subjects of international exhibitions. chalk. lecturer on the subjects of Indian art and Indian women's identity.

and choice of hues. but similarities in mood. BRIAN CATLING British sculptor poet. Oval moons eclipse each other and oscillate between landforms and portraiture.226 ABSTRACT LINES Compositions ABSTRACT DRAWINGS ARE LARGELY or entirely free from using the viewer's eye to track and unfold layers of meaning. Klee's mathematical maze of thinly washed surface resonates with meticulous planning. performance and installation artist. They each find their pathways and equilibrium in atmosphere and suggestion. gold paint and iridescent gouache mixed with water. Mixed media This is a collage of torn white and gray tissue paper previously stained with ink. Oxford. Untitled 2001 2001 153/4x 215/8 in ( 4 0 0 x 550 mm) BRIAN C A T L I N G . Catling's abstract drawings are usually made in series and in parallel to written poetry and sculptural installations. These two works present complex compositions with differing intensions and methods of making. Catling's works made for international galleries and museums involve drawing as a tool in their development and making. Their energy can therefore be a purer expression of an idea or emotion. rocks or heads in a subdued atmosphere of dream. structure. and Fellow of Linacre College. Ruskin School. filmmaker Professor of Fine Art. it is ruled and contained in one dimension by its interlocking ink-lined borders. figurative representation—that is. Catling's torn paper shapes and shadows spill light out of their frame like a fractured mirror. free from the direct imaging of known physical things. and water-resistant layers of spray and enamel paint on thick paper. With no depth of field.

He explained his polyphonic painting as "a harmony of several color voices" searching for a visual parallel to music. and wrote copiously about the natures and relationships of color and form. Klee also felt that a line represents the passing of time. watercolor. ruler.97-99. Polyphon Gefasstes Weiss (White Framed Polyphonically) 1930 131/8x95/8 in (333 x 245 mm) Paul-Klee-Stiftung. Geometric harmony This is a work on paper made with a sharp ink pen. drew. and brush. It is a geometric harmony of straight lines and tonally graded flat colors that by their arrangement draw our eyes inward to their white center. philosophized.31). We can see some diagrammatic examples of this among the optical illusions on pp. Line and surface Klee observed the visual capacity of lines to push or pull within an image. and might be read as active or passive. Kunstmuseum Bern PAUL KLEE .227 PAUL K L E E Swiss painter and sculptor (see also p. Klee painted. whereas tonal surfaces are perceived more immediately as a whole.

or on a page. "Whenall pictorial elements come together in pleasing and perfect balance. they are just. It is found in all great art and design. the late garden designer Russell Page explains. their impact. Set up a sheet of paper with a rectangle drawn on it. There is a single m o m e n t w h e n all proportions. and an apple. w i l l c h a n g e w i t h e v e r y r e a r r a n g e m e n t . or home. This balance is what every artist and designer searches a n d feels for when making an image. but an easy o n e to u n d e r s t a n d . Seek it when looking at other artists' work and in your everyday environment. s o m e will be more or less h a r m o n i o u s . there is a clear feeling when. and put them o n a tray. for instance. culture. b u t e v e r y n o w a n d again you will hit on an arrangement w h i c h appears just.Thisexercise will help you start. and ten straight sticks painted black. Feel for it when youdraw. or degree of figuration. the impression y o u receive from t h e m . "I have experimented endlessly with this idea." SETTING UP Justness can be harmonious or deliberately discordant. they reach a perfect position. regardless of style. and elements settle in definitive balance.228 ABSTRACT LINES Being "Just" A SENSE OF "JUST" (or rightness) is a difficult concept to explain. angles. In his b o o k The Education of a Gardener. a glass." . media. a b u n c h of keys. It is also found in nature. after being continuously adjusted. W h e n m o v i n g objects around in your yard. Take. As y o u m o v e them around. M a n y of their inter-relationships will be meaningless.

fix it with glue. A stick touching the rectangle links the composition to the frame. suggesting a horizon. Arrange them so they touch or cross in a series of intersecting balances.229 WHERE TO START Take ten sticks of equal length.56-57). painted black. W h e n the composition falls into place. as shown here. Feel for the rightness of their grouping and their relationships to surrounding spaces. Within a rectangle on a flat sheet of paper set about making a composition using no other rule than a sense of "just. . B E I N G "JUST" 1 Arrange your ten sticks in t w o groups of five. Remember the drawn rectangle is a part of the composition (see pp. In the final step (left) there is an even balance. horizontals dominate the lower area. which now becomes a tight frame." Move the sticks to find alignments and imagined perspectives. Move the sticks out into the rectangle. Here. 2 3 In the step above. making the composition seem to float beneath. horizontals dominate the top.

harmonious.." (Russell Page) . an infinite range of voices and meaning. stain and dry a sheet of tissue paper using blueink. Returning to Russell Page.228-29).220. glue. or even strident. or discordance. "My understanding is that every object [or shape] emanates—sends out vibrations beyond its physical body which are specific to itself. found or made items. ready-made depths and surfaces. Once the ten painted black sticks are set and glued in place. Images and fragments torn from day-to-day life can be brought together to make a chorus of ideas and emotions. which is the shifting.69 and Abe's installation on p. and tones. colors. scissors. and black ink. To prepare for this lesson. a compass. Collage offers the artist a liberating palette of SETTING UP This lesson in collage is a direct continuation of the compositional lines made in the previous class. Cut or torn layers and shapes. you start composing by adding or subtracting shapes and textures and using colors and tones to achieve the impression you want to m a k e — w h e t h e r dramatic or s u b d u e d ." overlapping placement of materials on a flat plane. they become a scaffold for the addition of further textures.. hard or soft.230 ABSTRACT LINES Collage H E R E W E EXPERIMENT with collage.Youwill also need spare white paper. This principal also applies to three-dimensional drawings such as Gaudi's work with wire and weights on p. he went on to say ". correction fluid or white paint. feels "just" (see pp. colors and textures can be manipulated until their pictorial harmony.

and shadow to thepicture. Cut six small rectangles the same proportion as your whole image. they deepen pictorial space. This can also give a sense of fragmentation or punctuation to the composition. COLLAGE 1 Regular-sized pieces of white paper are moved over the surface to disrupt the even lines. Glue them in place once they feel "just" Translucent circular disks of tissue paper give color tone. solidity. correction fluid and ink marks add further dimensions. .228) in front of you. Obscuring the blue disks. then cut out. and with a compass and scissors.231 WHAT TO DO Lay the final step of the previous lesson (p.The single disk that is folded with its straight edge facing up appears heavier than those that are flat. draw. 2 3 Torn white paper moved over the surface adds masks of rough-edged irregular volume. In the last step (left). four circles of blue tissue paper.


emotion. is the practice of Zen through the calligraphic marks of a brush dipped in carbon ink. . A MODERN JAPANESE meditative art form inspired by the teachings of Yamaoka Tesshu (1836-1888). and expectation. Hitsuzendo drawings aspire to "breathe with the energy and vitality of eternal life" achieved through "a state of no mind—beyond thought.Zen Calligraphy HITSUZENDO." [Tanchu Terayama. Zen Brushwork].

discord is balanced against rhythm to create mood. . These vibrate against washes of shadow and pitch-black mass.Nocturnes IN THIS QUARTET of semi-abstract drawings made with India ink. I flicked spatters of ink and rubbed the paper with a wet and a dry brush to achieve these effects. Lines made with a steel dip pen take on a scratchy nervousness.





in the cracks of walls. When creating monsters. a collaboration between the two will ensure that your drawings glow with originality. which is to have eaten a nun—it inspired the drawing on p. Schongauer is best known for his prints. Throughout this book images are presented to excite and surprise and drawing classes created to increase your confidence. We then add substances we dislike: unidentified fluids. To learn to flex your imagination. For example. Here. Images we are now surrounded by bear testimony to the power and resourcefulness of their collective imagination. for example. look for images in the folds of clothing. Depictions of God or of gods in the contexts of daily life. angels. a human-animal mix that implies this could MARTIN SCHONGAUER German painter and engraver who settled to work in Colmar Alsace. and the Alien trilogy. all of which originated as hundreds of drawings. . happen to us. or strange. Be inspired by the irrational comedy of word association or puns. movie studios now brim with as many monsters as the visual art of the Medieval and Renaissance Church. England. Monsters take advantage of both. and stained-glass windows deliver powerful visual sermons to the once-illiterate populace. We watch with captivated pleasure movies such as The Fly. serpentine tails. Perhaps the Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 1485 121/4 x 9 in (312 x 230 mm) MARTIN SCHONGAUER most important conclusion in this final chapter is to advise you to develop your skills in parallel with the joy of your unfolding imagination. which were widely distributed and influential in his time. we select details of animals farthest from ourselves and that are widely thought disturbing—reptilian and insect features. Lord of the Rings. Reading the place name I momentarily glimpsed an alternative meaning. a Catherine wheel of drawn sparks spiraling around the quietly resolute saint. and deep fur—and we alter their scale. feathers. thousands of paintings. our literate and more secular Western society still hungers for another world and to ravenously indulge its fascination for the marvelous. our eye circulates around a flutter of leather and scaly wings. Star Wars. The salvation of heaven and terrors of hell are represented equally—enough to make any sinner shudder. Neither should be slave or master. paradise. beasts. scales. and damnation are found in most world faiths. Today. sculptures. In the Christian churches of Europe. and the faces of God have for centuries given artists a feast for the extremes of their imagination. aliens. wings.Gods and Monsters OUR SACRED AND SECULAR need to visualize demons. I was on a train passing through Nuneaton. Humans are equally troubled by the imperceptibly small and the enormous. We love our fear of the hybrid—ideally. impossible. Fantasy is most successful when founded on strong and familiar visual logic.247. Feeding this demand. or in smoke.

a wave to join Achilles' chase of Hector. Near the end of his life he made his "Black Paintings" on the walls of his home. and follies of court through copious graphic works including his best-known prints. vanity. F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A Spanish court painter printmaker and draftsman. Goya later recorded the horrors of Napoleonic occupation. Goya's plainly textured gray background pushes back the space behind the illuminated simply subject. plain wall suggests a blinkered view of nothing. Opposite below. such asinine behavior can be hereditary. In this ass. In this softer aquatint he poses for his portrait Textured background The aquatint process has been used to great effect in making a gritty toned background. a Shoshone seeking guidance and power meditates at the sacred site of a petroglyph. we see the international icon of stupidity. Aquatint Goya has drawn a learned man as an ass. quoting great paintings and popular culture to add cunning twists to his satires. portraits. below. The title "And So Was His Grandfather" adds that should we not already know. This act defines the vision and continues the line of spirit guides. Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 1799 81/2 x 6 in (218 x 154 mm) FRANCISCO DE GOYA . which can swamp the subject Here. This continuity enriches the making of art and our heritage. He would be graceless if he stood. Paul Thomas's studies of Picasso and Twombly can be traced directly. Violent white marks symbolizing Achilles' rage resonate with the energy of Twombly's script on p. Many students leave white backgrounds in their work. whose impassioned work begins with light tapestry cartoons. Visions experienced in front of the drawing sometimes instruct the making of a new one. The well-dressed mule is cumbersome. Pictorially. Compare his dark. and church murals. crammed tightly at his desk. reading from a book of asses. rushing.240 GODS AND M O N S T E R S Marks of Influence marking the influence of one artist upon another. Other drawn versions of this image are more savage and frightening. They depict as if by lamplight the devil and witches.30. and exposed the superstitions. hags. it allows the mule to stand forward. The high. Saturn devouring his son. Opposite. his lover a dog.220. Los Caprichos. Francisco de Goya was a master of borrowing. deranged masses. noisy seascape on p. to Picasso's similarly tight. barren land rising like MYRIAD CHAINS RUN THROUGH ART HISTORY. and men clubbing each other to death.

Wind River Reservation. ideals. or of the water Chipped image This is a sacred creature of the sky chipped onto rock at Dinwoody Lake. meaning "place of power." Each sacred image drawn into rock belongs to one of three realms in the Shoshone world: the realm of the sky. Thomas conducts his explorations in the mine of Greek and Roman mythology. values. Parallel lines within the body of the figure are likely to denote power. and personal and social struggles. Simple wall stones cleverly state their cold solidity while also fading from our attention as the scene roars by.241 MARKS OF INFLUENCE PAUL T H O M A S British contemporary artist whose epic graphic work questions and reflects upon issues of European identity. A vivid spectrum of energized graphite marks and a masterly composition give this drawing vitality and speed. by a supplicant in a trance of meditation. Graphite marks Here Achilles chases Hector around the walls of Troy before killing him. Achilles Chases Hector 1996 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) PAUL THOMAS SHOSHONE PETROGLYPH The Shoshone people of Wyoming name petroglyph sites Poha Kahni. White marks like flashes of light are cut though graphite with an eraser to reveal the paper beneath. perhaps a stone. of the earth. It was made with a sharp implement. Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range UNDATED ARTIST UNKNOWN . Wyoming.

to the right of the balloon.and 16th-century Holland. and scuttle over all known reality. crawl. ODILON REDON French painter draftsman. Redon explored the darker side of the human imagination through symbols and mysticism. We may feel safe so long as the eye looks heavenward. Redon's eyeball balloon rises up. graphic artist. They float toward us like a horrid visitation. which sometimes—half-dressed and carrying a familiar trophy— stride. Techniques demonstrated on pp. Here we see how he evolved their injuries into new limbs and warped proportions. Children are also delighted to invent a monster or ghoul.242 MONSTERS of the unknown is a classical and constant occupation for the artist. we see parallel slanting pale marks that might have been made with fresh bread—a very effective eraser used before the wide availability of rubber or plastic. GODS AND Erasure In this charcoal drawing. Compare worked textures throughout the whole of this image to those found throughout Anita Taylor's charcoal drawing on p. 115. Lifting out Fine strings of the hot-air balloon appear dark against the sky and light against the balloon. Our subconscious can be drawn with pleasure and ease. H e was influenced by his friends. T H E EXPLORATION AND DEPICTION Hauntings Grandville has drawn a scurrying zoo of half-known demons and animals that appear to have been stolen from the glass eye of the microscope. The Eye Like a Strange Mounts Balloon 165/8 x131/8in (422 x 332 mm) ODILON REDON 1882 Toward Infinity . Redon lifted them out with some sort of eraser.204-05 will enable you to produce a similar effect of white lines shining out of dark charcoal. the writers Joris-Karl Huysmans and Stephane Mallarme. and writer In contrast t o the light and visual accent of contemporary Impressionism. the shock would be extreme. below left. If it were to turn and stare this way. The monsters of Bosch grew from his observations of beggars going about their trade in 15th. lifting its cranial passenger over a seascape of repose. as he did the grass.

Comic little headbands of waving hair express more hysteria than fear. teeming with the exhilaration of unrestrained fantasy. HAUNTINGS Engraving This is an engraving made so that Grandville's original drawing could be reproduced. Light shines from the right. sucker-faced creatures dash and trundle toward it They are drawn solidly to emphasize their earthbound weight. A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects c. include The Haywain. Smiling.243 J E A N I G N A C E ISIDORE GERARD ("GRANDVILLE") French graphic artist and political satirist. Two Monsters UNDATED 45/8 x61/2in (117 x 163 mm) HIERONYMUS BOSCH . Most of his work is in the Prado Museum. Quill and ink This typical Bosch monster is a quill drawing in bistre ink The phrasing of light and contour here is masterly. Madrid. Les Animaux (1840). His other major works include Metamorphoses du Jour (1828). 1840 61/8 x41/2in ( 1 5 5 x 1 1 5 mm) GRANDVILLE HIERONYMUS BOSCH Dutch painter Bosch's highly detailed iconographic religious panel paintings. grimacing. This image is from one of Grandville's best-known publications. and Ship of Fools. Garden of Earthly Delights. Last Judgment. The quality of the line is therefore uniform throughout. and he illustrated the Fables of La Fontaine and Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe. which is still available today.

and mist-swathed land. David. sometimes artists purposefully tie a knot in the configuration to disturb. Dragon 1522 10 x 133/8 in ( 2 5 4 x 3 3 8 m m ) MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI . Grimes' delicately cavorting figures dive into and consume each other. and play with its perfection and meaning. she formed a series of ghostly pale. remembering the cavernous. and engineer Among Michelangelo's great works are the painted ceiling and altar wall of the Sistine Chapel. lion. pinnacled. His entire drawing wrestles and weaves the viewer's eye into its retracting folds. A snake eating its own tail is a universal image of the eternal and continuous. and dog. poet. wraps and coils its lithe body ready to strike or whimper at a touch. the dome of the Vatican. St Peter's square. a stunning hybrid of a swan. Chalk and ink A quill dipped in brown ink was worked over black chalk on this reused sheet. as we might expect. muscular tension is carved out of the paper using layered. Two previously drawn faces become humorous antagonists to the beast. architect. and marble sculptures including Pieto. Scaly. but in the seductive landscape of Leonardo da Vinci's oil painting Madonna of the Rocks. Opposite. snake.244 GODS AND MONSTERS Convolutions THESE CONVOLUTED DRAWINGS were made almost 5 0 0 years apart. They share between them the pleasures of inventing a hybrid beast. topple. Michelangelo's dragon. gamboling copulations. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI Florentine painter sculptor. hatched lines. In her studio. However. Grimes found the genesis of her beast not among animals. and dying slaves. below. phrased over the contours of form and bridging darker areas of shadow.

each one iridescent and crumbly like a weathered while oyster. Oxford. her under heavy here. Grimes exhibits internationally and features in the collections of the New York Public Library and the Victoria and Albert Museum. boards finished paper. The image formed directly without first making a pencil outline. and the Camberwell and Slade Schools of Fine Art. details evolved slowly using a drier brush.245 CONVOLUTIONS O O N A GRIMES British contemporary artist and professor of printmaking at the Ruskin School. It is one of a series of fragile earth figures inspired by rocks. How Clever of God #84 2002 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) O O N A GRIMES . London. Ink-wash delicately gouache (smooth) and gouache brushed drawing on This is a and was hot-pressed Shadows The dark shadow of the Other the ink-wash earth was made with a brushstroke of ink laid into wet paper. The large space around figure has been cropped Grimes drawings to flatten presses them. London.

with a fine point for delicate work 4. and hold prodigious weights of ink or paint. Some are bold. SYNTHETIC-HAIR BRUSH: Bound in a synthetic ferrule with good inkholding capacity and good spring and control. SYNTHETIC-HAIR S W O R D LINER: A lining brush with high ink-holding capacity and a fine point. giving a variety of lines. 2. ink-laden tip allow an expression that is beyond the linear. This brush has a broad wash capability and can achieve a very wide range of marks.Theyhold plenty of ink and make continuous. 13. and never leave them standing on their tip in a jar of water. SYNTHETIC-HAIR LINER: This brush gives a medium line and is firm with a spring to the touch. 1. Shorter brushes designed for other purposes run out of ink more quickly. and texture. thicknesses. SABLE-HAIR RIGGER: Made with very long kolinsky sable hairs. It is capable of very fine pointing. making rt ideally suited to Japanese painting and small-scale calligraphy. 3. and very fine lines. the very opposite of pencil or silver point. and has a fine tip for detailed work. between them. L A R G E R S Y N T H E T I C . Suitable for wash techniques but also capable of very fine detail. Brushes vary in size. all perfect for drawing and." 6.H A I R LINER: Very responsive oriental-style liner This to the touch. flowing. 12. dense. Some used by master calligraphers are 2-3 in (5-8 cm) in diameter 11. washes. Slightly less flexible than the squirrel-hair sword liner 9. and writers. others are as fine as a whisker with a gentle touch.H A I R RIGGER: Made with long synthetic hair for fine-point work It has a good ink-holding capacity and is slightly more resilient than sable hair with more "snap. This design supplies the fine tip with a long continuity of ink 5. SQUIRREL-HAIR S W O R D LINER:This brush has a maximum ink-holding capacity and an extremely fine and flexible point 8. P O I N T E D T R A D I T I O N A L WRITER: The ferrule is made from a small duck quill. Soaps purchased from good art supply stores will gently cleanse particles of pigment that become trapped in the hairs or ferrule. S Y N T H E T I C . 7. needle-sharp center of kolinsky red sable hair. which holds long sable hair This brush holds large amounts of ink for long lines and points well for detailed work. and effects. 10. SMALL JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with sable hair.246 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brushes T H E BRUSH IS A VOLUPTUOUS and delicate weights. It has exceptional painting characteristics. return them to their pointed shape. it has good inkholding capacity and is very flexible. ideally suited to drawing. It is still relatively small in the total range of Japanese brushes. fingers. M T RA S AEIL . LARGER JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with natural hair held in a plastic ferrule on a bamboo handle. materials. How you care for your brushes will determine how long they last. POINTED SQUIRREL-HAIR MOP: With a synthetic quill ferrule and extra high inkholding capacity. and wrist into a fluid and soft touch. The living marks of a wet. liners. The brushes shown here are a mixture of This is a selection of riggers. this brush has a soft drawing tip and small ink-holding capacity. shape. Always clean them thoroughly. JAPANESE PAINTING BRUSH: Made with natural hair. it has good wash capabilities. drawing tool extending the arm. SABLE-HAIR LINER: Made with ordinary sable hair surrounding an extralong.


the degree of pressure applied.246-47). the texture and a b s o r b e n c y of the paper ( w h i c h m a y be d a m p or dry). unglazed earthenware dish. the speed of the s t r o k e . and spatters. b l o w i n g h a r d o n t h e m several t i m e s t o disperse t h e ink ( c l o s e y o u r eyes if y o u t r y this. I had left the end of the ink block in the water overnight to make it easier to dissolve.248 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brush Marks A S I N G L E BRUSH will m a k e an e n o r m o u s range of m a r k s depending u p o n the width.) I . I rubbed a block of Chinese ink (see p. and type of its hairs. and above all w h e t h e r the b r u s h is saturated with pigment or relatively dry. and to make pools and stains o n the page.35) into two tablespoons of water in a shallow. length. softness. splashes. w i t h m y face close. A single brush has almost balletic potential to draw fine or undulating lines and curves. SETTING UP Blowing spots T h e s e t h r e e s p i d e r y c r e a t u r e s (above right and below) w e r e m a d e by d r o p p i n g s p o t s o f ink f r o m a b r u s h o n t o t h e p a g e and. Here I drew with a soft Japanese painting brush (see pp. It also depends on the angle at w h i c h it is held.

a n d b r u s h . w e see fine lines and s p o t s . b l e e d i n g f r o m strokes b e l o w left. a n d t h e w a y it d i s t r i b u t e s w h e n t h e b r u s h is d a b b e d o n its s i d e . t h e effects of the b r u s h r u n n i n g o u t o f ink.249 Gritty texture T h e details o f t h e largest creatures b e l o w and opposite s h o w the granular texture of Chinese b l o c k ink. BRUSH MARKS Wet and dry strokes A m o n g these concentrated drawings ink made into with the same w a t e r y lines. .

. Oxford.Monsters THESE LITTLE CREATURES o f i n k and i n v e n t i o n were b o r n out of animal and bird studies. and used their detail to draw new creatures that might at first seem familiar. until we look again. I borrowed small and fragile specimens from the University Museum of Natural History.


Among his "Black Paintings" in the Prado Museum. thin works made by Bartolome Murillo in Seville about 120 years earlier. and narrative twists. thin works titled The Witches' Sabbath and The Procession of St. two of my own drawings show you how Goya's devil (below) is based on the shape of Murillo's boy on a horse (top right). formal composition. They are a pair and hang opposite each other. With further research. Through studying and drawing these great paintings I have discovered that they are based on a pair of similarly long. are two long. Isidore. I found relationships between all four paintings in terms of shapes. Here. Goya's witches have been literally drawn and evolved out of the shapes of Murillo's prophet and pilgrims. Madrid.Goya's Monsters W I T H CUNNING BRILLIANCE. Goya often invented his monsters out of characters seen in other painters' works. showing us that gallery study is not just for the student and beginner. .


little comments on politeness and sexual politics.Consumed THIS IS A SERIES OF CARTOONS I m a d e s o m e years ago. . drawn rapidly and with great joy. Sometimes drawings come out of nowhere and surprise even the artist.


Field In a t w o . In t h e W e s t p e n calligraphy is u s e d t o c r e a t e f o r m a l a n d d e c o r a t i v e t e x t s . Acid-free paper P a p e r w i t h a neutral p H t h a t will n o t darken o r d e t e r i o r a t e excessively w i t h age. s u c h as a d r a w i n g o r painting. Blending M e r g i n g t w o o r m o r e neighboring colors o r tones t o g e t h e r using a tortillon. Cartoon 1. Erasure T h e a c t o f r e m o v i n g a n i m a g e f r o m a surface." D e s c r i b e s a p a i n t i n g in w h i c h t h e light s o u r c e is b e h i n d t h e s u b j e c t F o r e x a m p l e . t h e l i g h t is b e h i n d h i m o r her. pressurized t o o l used f o r spraying fine mists o f s m o o t h c o l o r P i g m e n t is d e l i v e r e d b y a j e t o f air n o t t h e bristles o f a brush. a r e r o l l e d t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders. In t h e Far East calligraphy is a highly r e s p e c t e d a r t f o r m . Anamorphic distortion Stretching an i m a g e across a p i c t u r e surface so t h a t it can o n l y b e u n d e r s t o o d . A g e n e r a l t e r m t h a t describes t h e various processes o f c u t t i n g a design i n t o a plate o r b l o c k o f m e t a l o r w o o d .The plate is t h e n r o l l e d w i t h ink a n d polished with a rag. A l s o called r i n g l e t shading. L a t e r it c a m e t o m e a n h i g h l y c o n t r a s t e d light effects. Engraving 1. o r o t h e r (usually large) w o r k — s e e Pouncing. for example. w h e n a p e r s o n is p a i n t e d standing a g a i n s t a w i n d o w . Eye level T h e i m a g i n a r y h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e a t t h e s a m e h e i g h t as t h e a v e r a g e p e r s o n ' s eyes. m e a n i n g "beauty".c e n t u r y painting m o v e m e n t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e use o f b o l d . Bracelet shading C u r v e d parallel lines t h a t f o l l o w t h e c o n t o u r s o f f o r m . S o m e t i m e s f e r r u l e s a r e m a d e o f plastic o r o t h e r materials. s u c h as a s c r e e n . Blotting T h e use o f a b s o r b e n t m a t e r i a l t o lift a w a y excess liquid. Crosshatching Parallel lines d r a w n across o n e a n o t h e r at right angles. Air brush A mechanical.c e n t u r y Italian t e r m m e a n i n g "clear-obscure. in w h i c h parts o f an image are depicted v e r y brightly and dramatically against d a r k n e s s . w h e n v i e w e d f r o m a specified point. F r o m t h e French v e r b coller. Binder A substance t h a t holds particles o f p i g m e n t t o g e t h e r in a paint f o r m u l a t i o n . t h e field is t h e a p p a r e n t a n d b e l i e v a b l e space inside t h e p i c t u r e . A p o t e n t i a l l y h a r s h m e t h o d o f p r o d u c i n g t o n e s in a d r a w i n g . Fixative lightly glues t h e d r a w i n g t o t h e surface o f t h e p a p e r t o p r e v e n t smudging. A h u m o r o u s d r a w i n g o r parody. p r a c t i c e d meditatively w i t h a brush. A l s o called m u s e u m g r a d e . Camera obscura A d a r k e n e d c h a m b e r i n t o w h i c h an i m a g e o f w h a t is o u t s i d e is received t h r o u g h a small o p e n i n g o r lens a n d f o c u s e d in natural c o l o r o n a facing surface. p r i n t i n g press face up. W o r d s o r symbols are Cold-pressed papers P a p e r manufactured with a "not" o r " r o u g h " surface.256 GLOSSARY Glossary Accidental drawing Random. Camera lucida A n optical device t h a t p r o j e c t s an image o f an o b j e c t o n t o a plain s u r f a c e so t h a t it can be traced. a n d given t h e n a m e Sho. Also called accelerated perspective. Collage C o l l e c t e d materials such as c o l o r e d p a p e r s .s i z e d r a w i n g m a d e for t h e purpose o f transferring a design t o a painting. Deckle edge T h e i r r e g u l a r e d g e o f a s h e e t o f m o l d . a n d g r a p h i t e . as o p p o s e d t o t h e s t r a i g h t e d g e o f a sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has b e e n machine-trimmed. usually at a n a c u t e angle t o t h e s u r f a c e . T h e m o v e m e n t was started by a g r o u p o f French artists including H e n r i Matisse. p h o t o g r a p h s . A l s o c a l l e d t h e h o r i z o n line. D a m p p a p e r is laid o n t o p . r a t h e r t h a n r e c o r d e d o n a film o r plate. C o p p e r p l a t e engravings w e r e widely used t o r e p r o d u c e images b e f o r e p h o t o g r a p h y . pastel. chance mark-making. o r will o n l y a p p e a r n o r m a l . T h e prints t a k e n from t h e s e plates o r blocks. F r o m t h e G r e e k kallos. A " s h a l l o w d e p t h o f field" m e a n s t h e p i c t u r e appears t o have only a shallow s p a c e inside i t Diffuse T o s o f t e n o r m a k e less brilliant. 2. Aerial perspective The effect of the a t m o s p h e r e o v e r distance as it lightens t o n e s a n d cools c o l o r s progressively t o w a r d t h e horizon. Composition T h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e p a r t s o f an i m a g e t o m a k e u p the whole. R e m b r a n d t is a great master o f chiaroscuro. charcoal. so t h a t ink r e m a i n s o n l y in t h e g r o o v e s o f s c r a t c h e d lines. Calligraphy Beautiful h a n d w r i t i n g . It can also seal a silver p o i n t d r a w i n g t o p r e v e n t t h e oxidization (browning) o f t h e Drypoint A d r a w i n g is s c r a t c h e d directly o n t o a m e t a l plate w i t h a m e t a l t o o l h e l d like apen.m a d e paper. Conservation grade D e s c r i b e s a range o f materials t h a t d o n o t d e c a y and cannot be broken d o w n by insects." It w a s first given t o t o n a l paintings m a d e in o n e c o l o r — s e e Grisaille. n e w s p a p e r cuttings. 2. A i r b r u s h e s are u s e d in t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c o m i c s . m e a n i n g " t o stick" Dry media M e d i a t h a t a r e n o t w e t o r o i l y — f o r e x a m p l e . Chiaroscuro A 1 7 t h . R o u g h p a p e r is m a d e b e t w e e n t w o blankets t h a t . Contre jour A F r e n c h t e r m m e a n i n g " a g a i n s t day. T h e b l a n k e t s g i v e t h e p a p e r its rough texture o r "tooth. T h e name " n o t " simply refers t o t h e fact t h a t t h e cylinders are n o t h o t in t e m p e r a t u r e .d i m e n s i o n a l i m a g e . A f u l l . See also Hotpressed papers. tapestry. in w h i c h t h e subject's distinctive features o r peculiarities are deliberately exaggerated f o r c o m i c o r g r o t e s q u e effect." " N o t " p r e s s e d p a p e r is r o l l e d a s e c o n d t i m e w i t h o u t blankets t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders t o p r o d u c e a s m o o t h e r b u t still slightly t e x t u r e d s u r f a c e . o f t e n d i s t o r t e d forms and vivid colors. Ferrule T h e s h o r t m e t a l t u b e t h a t s u r r o u n d s a n d g n p s t h e hairs o f a p a i n t b r u s h a n d fixes t h e m t o t h e brush handle. It is p u t o n a Body color See Gouache. written with a broad-nibbed pen o r brush. Fauvism A n early 2 0 t h . and readymade objects arranged and stuck o n t o a flat surface. t o g e t h e r w i t h a t h i c k felt b l a n k e t T h e w h o l e s a n d w i c h o f l a y e r s is t h e n railed t h r o u g h t h e press t o m a k e a p r i n t D r y p o i n t is a very portable and immediate m e t h o d o f printmaking. a n d attaches t h e m t o t h e s u p p o r t — f o r example. linseed oil o r egg y o l k Caricature A representation Contour line A line t h a t f o l l o w s t h e s h a p e o f a surface.m e d i a d r a w i n g . Bleed T h e e f f e c t o f t w o w e t colors running into one another o r o n e color applied t o a w e t surface a n d a l l o w e d t o d i s p e r s e . U s e d as a c o r r e c t i n g device o r pictorial game. Fixative Liquid acrylic resin a n d l a c q u e r t h i n n e r usually a p p l i e d as a n a e r o s o l s p r a y m i s t t o t h e surface o f a d r y .

materials that produce marks on a surface. or synthetic material that are suspended in a medium to constitute paint. Artists can paint freely over dry masking fluid. Medium A generic term for art Key A painting is said to be "high key" when the colors and tones are bright and "low key" when they are dark or somber The term is also used Gouache Opaque watercolor Also called body color.while secretion of the acacia tree. Focus 1 . Foreshortening A method of depicting an object at an angle to the surface of the picture. Padua. Impressing Stamping or printing. which has a rough surface). Paper is then pressed against the stone to take a print.Theground provides a particular color or texture beneath the image. A small image might be described as small format Horizontal images are often said to be "landscape format" (abbreviated G u m arabic The natural to"landscape"). it is the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work Pigment Any substance used as a coloring agent—for example. This method incorporates the excitement of accidental and unpredicted marks. Hot-pressed papers (HP) Paper made using hot cylinders. Objective drawing Refers to the concept of objectivity. Monochrome Usually refers to a black. 2. Masking fluid Clear or opaque latex fluid developed for watercolor painting. A point of interest in a drawing." A piece of paper is placed on top of an object or rough surface. format" (abbreviated to "portrait"). Hairspray is an effective and inexpensive alternative. or even a beam of light. This effect emulates what we see in real life. but in picture-making it is as important as the objects/subjects themselves. upright images are called "portrait which is used as a binding agent in many liquid media. to describe a surface to which paint will adhere readily. including Max Ernst used frottage in their work. or can be otherwise used to create an image—for example. sticky paper tape. It can be used with any wet media to isolate or protect parts of an image from further Optical blending See Pointillism. ink. glass. Lithography A method of printmaking in which a drawing or painting is made directly onto a smooth slab of particular limestone or a metal plate using an oilbased crayon or ink. and that will "escape" or change over time. Lifting out A method of creating highlights and mid-tones in a drymedia drawing (such as charcoal or graphite). graphite. lifting out charcoal and other dry media. then rubbed over carefully but vigorously with a crayon.257 metal line. Plumb line A line from which a weight is suspended in order to determine verticality or depth. which give it a smooth surface (as opposed to cold-pressed paper. and is also used as a size. Picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. Rubens used grisaille to paint small images for engravers. enabling them to stick to paper It also helps to maintain a stable dispersion of pigment particles in water as the film of a wash dries. cadmium yellow hue. with the area beneath remaining unaffected. and orientation of the image. purpose. . and by artists representing stone sculptures in a painting. Pointillism A technique of using points or dots of pure color in such a way that when the picture is viewed from a distance they react Masking tape Invaluable. or for wrapping and protecting a finished piece of work. and masking off areas of a drawing that the artist wishes to keep untouched by media applied above or beside the tape. and it has a history in enamel work. Fugitive A term given to a pigment that it is not stable. Papercut A type of collage in which flat sheets of paper are cut into an image. Giotto's Virtues and Vices in the Arena Chapel. mineral. are painted in grisaille and appear to be made of stone. Lightfast A term confirming that pigment in the product will not fade with exposure to light. F o r m a t T h e size.The degree to which detail is defined. Gamut A complete range or extent Glassine A type of thin. or a drawing made in any single color GLOSSARY Linear perspective A form of perspective in which parallel lines are represented as converging.The paper then bears a crayon impression or copy of the surface that was underneath it A number of Surrealists. work. rock. aiming to represent facts rather than an interpretation of the subject. Usually an academic drawing observed from life. Grisaille is occasionally seen in church stained-glass windows. used for fixing paper to walls and boards. or a family of colors. glossy. Paper is laid on top and a rapid drawing is made on the back of it The paper lifts away to reveal the image on its other side. shape. oil-based printing ink is rolled evenly onto a smooth metal. Also used by artists' materials manufacturers to indicate the use of a substitute pigment—for example. of the ingredients in inks and watercolors. oil-. It is then peeled away. The ink attaches to the oil-based image and is repelled by the wet stone. Dark tones are laid down first then an eraser or masking tape is used to lift away particles of the drawing media to reveal the lightness of the paper beneath. and gray drawing. F o r m The outer surface of a three-dimensional object. multiH u e A term for a color. to give the illusion of depth and distance. or canvas and allowed to dry before an image is drawn or painted. and translucent paper—a delicate material used in collage. so that (using vanishing point perspective) the object appears to change shape and become narrower or smaller as it recedes. the surface of the stone is made wet before being rolled with a thin film of oilbased printing ink. Ground A wet solution usually of gouache or gesso (chalk and animal glue) brushed onto paper board. It is a strong adhesive. Negative space The space between things. pastel. the finely ground particles of plant. Alternatively. Grisaille A painting in gray or a grayish color Often made by students as a tonal exercise. Monoprinting A direct method of printing in which wet medium (water-. or plastic surface. white. Hatching (cross-) See Crosshatching. Also refers to an additive used to control the application properties of a color Golden Section A proportion in which a straight line or rectangle is divided into two unequal parts in such a way that the ratio of the smaller part to the greater part is the same as that of the greater part to the whole. After several intervening processes. This may be disregarded in real life. The surface can be reloaded or redrawn with more medium. It improves the bonding properties Frottage A French term meaning "rubbing. or spirit-based) is applied to a surface that is then pressed onto paper and removed to leave a print. but each print will be unique.

or ceramic glazing to reveal a different color beneath. Viewpoint The position from which something is observed or considered. usually diluted with water and applied with a brush. and chrysanthemum—which in Chinese tradition are called "The Four Gentlemen. Zen A school of Mahayana Buddhism that asserts that enlightenment can come through meditation and intuition rather than faith. a sheet of paper is placed beneath and pinpricks are Silhouette A flat. which are then called editions. or pen. such as an inscribed sheet of metal. Printmaking The act of making a picture. Zen brushwork This is an oriental meditative art form originating in China and practised for many centuries in Japan. Zen paintings usually depict scenes of nature and plants such as bamboo. acrylic. Underdrawing A pale preliminary drawing made prior to adding layers of another medium such as oil paint or watercolor Value The extent to which a color reflects or transmits light This is the equivalent of tone in a black and white image. and flowers. The translucent Tint A color mixed with white. Support The structure on which an image is made—for example. sometimes drawn from a and leaving only the pricked sheet of shadow cast on a wall." Applied to the blurring or softening of sharp outlines by the subtle and gradual blending of one tone into another Sgraffito A technique of scratching or cutting through a surface of paint. glasses. meaning objects used in setting up a life model or still life. Subjective drawing A drawing that expresses the personal view and interpretation of the artist An invented image. a point at which receding parallel lines meet Verso The back or underside of a piece of paper. ink. in tone running from black to white or vice versa. Recto The front or top side of a piece of paper. pointed instrument used for marking or engraving. Scale Describes the size of one element in relation to another Sepia A brown pigment taken from the sun-dried ink sacs of cuttlefish and used to make ink or watercolor The term is now often incorrectly used to refer to brown colors. plaster or cloth surface beneath. fruit. Stylus A sharp. wall or tapestry. or wood. orchids. Shade A that is color mixed (or toned) with black Shading A lay term for adding tone to a drawing. Volume The amount of space occupied by an object or an area of space in itself.258 GLOSSARY together optically. Serigraphy Silk-screen printing. or point on which parallel lines converge to give the impression of receding space. or the right-hand page in a book. Sfumato An Italian term meaning "smoky. Squeegee A rubber-trimmed scraper used in the screenprinting process for dragging ink across a surface. or any physical object that can be stamped or pressed onto a surface to leave an impression. and paperweights. Sketch A quick or rough drawing. evolved by engineers and architects for the purpose of conveying W a t e r c o l o r A painting accurate structural information. W e t media Any liquid media— for example. giving it a brilliance." Materials for Zen brushwork include round brushes of varied size. commonly referred to as the lead. an ink stone usually cut from slate. Named paper in place. Single-point perspective The most basic form of linear perspective in which there is only one vanishing point. pencil. or the left-hand page in a book.Thedrawing is removed. Vanishing point In linear perspective. Pouncing If a large drawing or design (called a cartoon) is to be Shadow Darkness cast by the transferred to a surface such as a obscuring of light. pointed roll of white paper that is used to blend dry media. watercolor. tight. Technical drawing A universal it is often used in conjunction language of lines and measurements with line drawings in pen and that is used to make diagrammatic ink—for images. Pounce (a fine for an unpopular 18th-century powder of charcoal or similar French politician. Wash A technique using ink. nature of watercolor allows the white surface of the paper to Tonal scale A scale of gradations shine through. compound of water-soluble pigment. Tortillon A short. to model areas of light and shade. . Turpentine A colorless solvent distilled from the resinous sap of pine trees. by imposing a grid that is then scaled up to a larger size. creating more vibrant effects than if the same colors were physically mixed together with a brush. in order to flick the pigment onto the image surface. design.Technicaldrawing has been example. Size A weak glue used for filling the porous surface of wood or canvas in order to seal it. or watercolor paint. a tightly folded piece of cotton batting can be used for the same effect. using a brush. Zen brushwork encompasses calligraphy and painting. or gouache. Squaring up A method of enlarging and transferring an image from one surface to another. carbon ink. Still life A picture composed of inanimate objects such as bowls. whose pinpricks creates a "connect-thepersonal pastime was making dots" replica of the image on the cut-out portraits. Tone A degree of lightness or darkness. The crude material is called oleoresin. plum blossom. Artists' prints are normally made in multiple. fine paper. or mark using an inked or pigment-covered surface. Spattering A mottled texture produced by drawing your fingers across the bristles of a stiff brush loaded with pigment. A term borrowed from the theater. cut-out profile made along every outline of the usually made in black paper image. Etienne de material) dabbed through the Silhouette (1709-67). Alternatively. paper or canvas. Although drawings can be made with wash alone. Props An abbreviation of the word properties. "Spirits" or "oil" of turpentine refer to the volatile portion used by artists to thin or dilute oil-based paint. plaster. Stippling Applying color or tone in areas of fine dots or flecks. Strip Core of a pencil.

72 bracelet shading 122 Braque. 133. Hieronymus 243 Two Monsters 242.184. 200 Bauer. 38-39. layers 53 chalk pastels 162. 81 135. 74. 247-248 carving see lines. Sylvano 222. 223 Circular Score for "Due Voce" 223 children's art 9. 186 charcoal 114. 220.212 to erase 205 to hold 23 pencils 204 willow 114. 244 head and neck 144 phrased 124-125 contrast: brightness 99 of media 30 tonal 96. to depict 156-157 Cloudburst of Material Possessions (Leonardo) 200. 71 conte 112. Zen c 232-233 blended 133. 134 costume(s) 155 character 158-159 structure of 166-167 Cottage Among Trees (Rembrandt) 52. 199 Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya (Eisen) 156. 161 Akhlaq-I Rasul Allah manuscript 51. Augustin 67 Basquiat. 26 geese 38-39 Gericault's cats 28. 90. 180 blending: color 133. 71 Blake. Victor: West Facade of the Church of St. 29 Hugo's octopus 28.198. 111. 165. 74 brush (es) 246-247 Japanese 248 for laying a wash 140 marks 248-249 to hold 23 brush drawings 14-15 Bryan. 205 Baltard. Joseph 113 The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland 112.186 see also movement Adoration of the Magi perspective study (Leonardo) 74. 202 cloth. 162 character: to capture 38-39.133. 90.163 dry media 205 Blue Nude (Matisse) 110. to draw 100 Cypripedium calceolus L.169 colors: airbrushed 161 background 91 A Abe. 94 chalk(s) 53.51 All and Nothing (Taylor) 114. 81 cut-out model plan 94. 90 La Guitare. 204. 243 botanical drawing 48-49 Boullee. 193 in lifting out 204.44-45 bird studies 12. Jean Michel 138 Self-Portrait 138 Bateau-Vision.Index Page numbers in italics refer t o captions and illustrations Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity (Bishndas and 259 INDEX B bread (as eraser) 205. 94 cylindrical objects. 128. 203 Claude Lorrain 202 Views from Velletri 202. 242 to blend 205 compressed 122. (Ross-Craig) 49 to hold brush for 23 caricature 159. cut Catling.117 Achilles Chases Hector (Thomas) 240.27 turtles 42-43 aquatint 240 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels (Leonardo) 12. 28 Klee's horses 30. Mamaru 104. 222. 9. 221 animals. Leon: Bacchante 155 balance. 40-41 Durer's rhinoceros 26. 113 bird bones 12.115 anatomical drawing 134-135 anatomical theaters 82-83 anatomical waxes 128 ancient carvings 221. 160 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object (Moore) 178.31 Picasso's horse and bird 30. 198.163 body. 70 Art Nouveau motifs 91 Autoportrait (Ray) 138. Nicolas-Jacques 54 contours 146. 13. 157 cropping 56-57. to model 110-111 border 51 Bosch. 75.100 curves. 242 Brunelleschi. 158. 226-227 Acanthus spinosus 65 accelerated perspective 22. 137 Besler. 30 sleeping dog 38-39 Stubbs's horse skeleton 26. 189. Etienne-Louis 72 Newton's Cenotaph 72. 179 Bussotti. 71 Bacchante (Bakst) 155 background: color 91 textured 240 Baker Matthew: Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry 32 Bakst. 203 Buffalo Hunt (Shoshone) 178. 241 action. 201 collage 111. 52 cotton swabs 205 Coup de Vent a Asajigabare (Hokusai) 198.226. Filippo 67. 75 Circle of the Lustful (Blake) 180. Brian 226 Untitled 2001 226 "Cave of the Hands" (Cueva de las Manas) 8. Giovanni 137 Head and Shoulders of a Man 136.162 Conte. Franz 48 Protea nitida 48 Bellini. to draw 25.50. Statue d'Epouvante 90 calligraphy. 116. 180 Circular Score for "Due Voce" (Bussotti) 223 circus scenes 192-195 City (Bryan) 202. 8 cave paintings 8. 98. 230 The Physical Space 220 abstract drawing 219. to draw 80. William: The Circle of the Lustful 180. 203 Landline 202. 90 colored materials 162-163 colored pencils 162. 50. 178 Cubism 67. 204-205. 250 Bishndas and Nanha: Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity 50.89.13. 139 Nanha) 50. 190 Caricature of a Woman (Daumier) 198. 206. 230-231 Cubist 90. 41 principal 186. 206 checkered floor 80. 95 Chair Cut Out (Woodfine) 94. Georges 67. 9 Chair (Van Gogh) 94. 244 and graphite 178 . Le (Hugo) 200. Basilius 47 Beuys. 182. 13 architectural drawing 67-71 Arctic Flowers (Libeskind) 70. to express 39.44-45. 198 cartoon (preparatory drawing) 137 (satirical) 159. Clare 203 City 202.163 graded 227 composition 56-57. 163. 74.184. 78 aerial perspective 206 airbrushing 160. center of 118 ballpoint 182.

144 and ink 30. 222 Grimes.216 Durelli. 242 eyes. 160 Faune. 222. 144 Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (Baker) 32. fiber-tip pen 182. Jean Ignace Isidore see Grandville Gericault.260 INDEX D Dada 139 Daumien Honore 198 Caricature of a Woman 198. 161 fashion drawings 160.160. 162 Flaxman. 134. 799 Holbein. Keisai 157 The Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya 156. Edgar 162 depth. to draw 78. 240.97. 125.141.37. Ron 161 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 161 160.John 157 Man Lying Down in a Cloak 156. 113. 134. 141 tonal 96.101 engraving 243 erasers/erasing 55. 163. Nicholas 68 St Paul's Baptistry 68 head and neck to draw 142-145 Head and Shoulders of a Man (Bellini) 136. 41 in the round 208-209 with scalpel 202. 37 Grandville 243 A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the Near-Microscopic World of Scale Insects 242. 220 dry brush 234 234 57. 134. 190 Middle Eastern 50-51. 90 G Gaudi. 223. Antonio 135 Muscles of the Head and Neck 134. 40.157 ellipses 100. Oona 245 How Clever of God #84 244. Study for Plate 59 (Mucha) 90.141. 115 Escher.160. 765 hitsuzendo drawings 233 Hokusai.121 felt-tip pens 162. 124. 245 Gruau. Sir Ernst 12. 55. 122 Hawksmoor. 160 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction (Gaudi) 68. 202. 32 framing 139 Franfoise au Bandeau (Picasso) 132. 241 to blend 205 and chalk 178 and ink 28. 252 depiction of fabric monsters 252-253 Self Portrait in a Cocked Hat 130. Rene 160 Illustration for Jacques Fath E easel. 122. 136 Golden Section 67 Gombrich. 93 horizon 52. 77 How Clever of God #84 244. 69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt 68. 79. to draw 120. 205 drawing with 103. 7 33 Hooke. 132 Frenz. 240 Black Paintings 152. 131 Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 240. La (Braque) 90. 91 Dragon (Michelangelo) 36. to suggest 177 see also perspective diagonals diffuser 55 dip pens 34. 52 foreground 208. 245 layers 30 Goya.252-253 from memory 183. 200 F fabric. The 242. 25 focus 65. Statue d'Epouvante. position of 22 Eisen. 170-173.166 170-173 Gestalt 222 Giacometti. 73.207. Katsushika 199 Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 198. Victor 200. to draw 134-137 Helleborus corsicus 55 highlights 91. disposable pens 182-183 dissections: botanical 48 of horse 27 distance: illusion of see perspective linear 97 tonal 97 Documents Decoratifs. 93 eye level 80 Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity. 216 foreshortening 110.116. 223 graphite 54. 120. 90 gouache 30.216. 240 170-173 five Ships in a Port with Lighthouse (Wallis) 11.91. 55.Theodore 29 Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 28. to draw 168-169 in Goya's artworks face.111 feet.12 fixative 54.102-103 drawing board 20 drawing books 20-21 drawing paper 144. position of 143. 243 graphic score 222.198 Degas.104. 222 Le Bateau-Vision 200.184 165. Alberto 136 Portrait of Marie-Laure de Noailles 136.189. 137 heads. C .244 drawing(s): abstract 219.69 Gerard. Francisco de 131. 71 minimal line 99 and music 70-71 quick 38-39.117 fountain pens 34. 99 etching. Antonio 68. 69.109 Rhinoceros 26. 203 Hotel de la Suzonnieres (Satie) 70. drypoint 181 exaggeration 184 expressionism 198 E ye and Head of a Drone Fly (Hooke) 92. 104-105. 161 fashion 160. Cheval et Oiseau (Picasso) 30. 26 Flying Fish (White) 25. 226-227 anatomical 134-135 architectural 67-71 botanical 48-49 brush 14-15 dark to light 102.112. proportions of 143 fantasy drawings 72-73.230 three-tone 140.103. 30 Fauves/fauvism 90. Robert 93 Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 92. 160 as ground for metal point 140. 160 hitsuzendo 233 light to dark 102.103 with eraser 103. 29 H hands. 55. 203 semi-abstract 234-237 three-dimensional 68. Hans 133 The Ambassadors 116 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 132. 157 .146 from masterworks 126-127.115 exploratory 17 fantasy 72-73.244. M. 112. 230 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction 68. 245 Hugo. 163. 161 changing 216 Focusing on the Negative (Walter) 16 foliage 52. 69 Guitare. 69. 135 Duren Albrecht 26.

230 invented creatures 106-107 250-251 invented objects 89. Daniel 70 Arctic Flowers 70 Lieb. Gustav 49 Knopf.167 line(s) 132.134 K Kettlehut. 249 and gouache 30 Indian 35. 159 Japanese 35 to make 36 sepia 35 walnut 36. apparent 97 Leonardo da Vinci 74. 178 motifs: A r t Nouveau 9 7 stylized 51 mountains 216-217 movement: of animals 30-31 of humans 7 79. 177 influences. 789. Bartolome: Moses Striking the Rock ofHoreb 252. 156 magnification 93 Man in Armor (Van Dyck) 158. 252 ink 16. 220. Charles Rennie 48. 34. Johan 32.91 Study for Plate 59 of INDEX illumination see lighting Illustration for Jacques Fath (Gruau) 160. 221 endless 31 free 113. 201 head and neck sections of female mold for Sforza Horse 89 Madonna of the Rocks 244 perspective study for Adoration of the Magi 74. 63. 77 Miller. 72. Henri 111 Blue Nude 1110. 13 Cloudburst of Material Possessions 200. 190 metal pens see dip pens metal point 25. 183 vertical 156 linear distance 97 linear perspective 69. 135 museums 44. 99. 248. 158 Man Lying Down in a Cloak (Flaxman) 156. 49 Rose 49 Maelbeke Madonna (Van Eyck) 156. 73 Kigell.243 carbon 35 Chinese 30. Alphonse 90. 201 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels 12.115 98. 234 iron-gall 35. 54 silver point 156 leg sections 158 length. 244 ink 36 252-253 Documents Decoratifs 90.141. 111. 181 luminosity 115 Lynch. 226 Modernism 67. Paul 227 Polyphonic Setting for White 226. 28 Two Impressions from a Cut-out Paper Disk 222 Huyler Stephen R 225 261 Kinecar. 205. 227 Newsome. Marie 244 cloth drawing 244. Erich 73 design for Metropolis 72. 31 Klimt. 58-59. 166. Kathe 181 Losbrunch (The Outbreak) 180.96. 756 priming for 140. Matisse.227 to "bend" straight 97 compositional 228-229 cut 202. 53 monoprint 787. 83 white 122 ink impressions 222 ink spatters 234 installations 176. 205 masterworks. 181 Klee.Pieuvre (Octopus) 28. 37 lines 118 pastel 162 pencil 31.181 L Landline (Bryan) 202. 76 Libeskind. 176. 757 mandalas 36.124. 244 lithograph 198 Losbruch (Kollwitz) 180. 163 pens 36 measuring 116 memory. Rose: Tantalus or the Future of Man 20 minimal line drawing 99 mirror use of 120 mixed media 28.112. 203 landscape 206-208 brushed 14 Landscape in Hoboku Style (Sesshu) 14 layers 146 chalk 53 gouache 30 ink 28. 34-35 acrylic 35 bistre 35. 219 Mondrian. drawing from 126-127. Oxford 250 music 70-71 Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks (Knopf) 32. 220. Piet 52. Oxford 106 Prado. 97 Murillo. 160 In the Duchess's Kitchen (Rackham) 176. 78 Study ofThree Male Figures 110.182 Moore. 60. 203. Madrid 171 University Museum of Natural History. 225 masking tape 204. Florence 128 lighting in 167 Pitt Rivers. Phyll: hands 18 lifting out 204. 35.33 Mysterious Affairs of the lighting 2 7. artistic 240-241.166 La Specola. drawing from 183. 244. 103 Neolithic chalk tablet 220. 244 Dragon 36. 74-77. 114 hatched 244 layered 118 pace of 65 pale 40 rapid 49. 170-173.141 Metropolis (film) 72. 110 Sistine Chapel ceiling 116 Middle Eastern drawing 50-51. Henry 178 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object 178.276. 227 Scene of Comical Riders 30. 252 Muscles of the Head and Neck (Durelli) 134. 33 J justness 228-229 N naive art 74 negative space 53. David 78 M Mackintosh. 184.The (Robinson) 108. I Murderous Attacks 33 Kollwitz. 220. Victor 134 Profile Head 134.102. 220. 53 Tree II 52. 242 light 96 to depict drawing with 1 76 painting with 176 .109. 185 Mucha. 73 Michelangelo Buonarroti 48.

Bridget 98 Robinson.37. 68 Satie. 36.176 Real Life Is Rubbish 176. 36 pen and brush 8 3 pen and ink 70.40. 28 pigment 162 bright 50 Caput Mortuum 7 4 7 for three-tone drawing 141. 36. 7 76 receding space 206 Redon. Peter Paul 126-127 Embracing pose(s): balanced 146 quick 118-119 positive form 103 posture: of artist 22 of subject 3 8 . 759 P Page. Man 131. to draw 146-147 R Rackham. 122. 227 portfolios 20 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser de Noailles (Holbein) 132. 163. 75 Two Courtyards 75. Auguste 114 Two Women 114. 9 0 . 103.Paul'sBaptistry (Hawksmoor) 68. 114 rollerball 182 Rorschach blot 99 Rose (Mackintosh) 48. 1 6 3 . Paul 73 Nobson Central 72. 244 reed 34. 219. 141 Piranesi.7 77 rapidograph 70 Raphael 110. 241 Physical Space. 230 paper(s) 21 colored 162 drawing 144. 4 8 putty eraser 55.184 fountain 34. J 76 nudes 114-115 to make 36 metal see dip quill 34. 74-77. 732 influence of 240 painting with light 78.oise au Bandeau 132.104 Pieuvre (Hugo) 28. Martin 238. 1 3 2 quill pens 34. 36. 181 Rodin. 36 relief printing 757 Rembrandt van Rijn 52. 239 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat (Seurat) 112. 205 pointillism 112 polyphonic painting 227 Polyphonic Setting for White (Klee) 226. 75 Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range 241 petroglyphs 221. 159. 81 two-point 74. 162 O p A r t 98 optical illusions 96-99 outline 33. Sue 104. Georges 112 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 112. 7 70 Ray. 2 2 0 for oil pastels 162 stained 230 to stretch 140-141 tissue 21. 34-35. 7 72 Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland. 30 Fran<. 165 figure 118 filled 37 pencil 48. 4 9 Rose of Mohammed 50. 230 parallel planes 79 Parisian street 86-87 pastels 162 to blend 205 to hold 23 layers 162 pencils 162 pen(s): dip 34 . 739 semi-abstract drawings Style 14 Seurat. and Webster. 203 Scene of Comical Riders (Klee) 30. 239 Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 238. The (Abe) 220 Picasso.Tim.141 prints/printing: aquatint 240 dry-point etching 181 engraving 243 monoprint 181. 91 outsider artists 33. Cheval et Oiseau 30. 1 1 7 aerial 206 linear 69. 36.199 Profile Head (Newsome) oil pastels 162. 243. 734 Protea nitida (Bauer) 48.240.139 Autoportrait 138. 733 Portrait de Marie-Laure (Giacometti) 136. 7 38 Ray 138. 1 2 4 priming for metal point 140. 72 Noble.37. 234 disposable 182-183 felt-tip 162. 36. 205 157.54 pastel 162 perspective 1 0 0 . 164. 1 1 6 . Isaac 92 Telescope 92 Newton's Cenotaph (Boullee) 72.52 pen and wash 158. 166 fiber-tip 782.226. 224 0 layers 31. 97. 74. 37 38. 165. Pablo 6 7 . 160.759. 9 8 . 242 reed pens 34. 1 1 6 accelerated 2 2 . 139 Real Life is Rubbish (Noble and Webster) 176. Arthur 177 In the Duchess's Kitchen 176. 57 Ross-Craig. 78 single-point 74. Erik 70. 52 pens 36 scalpel 54 drawing with 202. 26 Riley. Russell 228.9 3 Schongauer. Stella 48 Cypripedium calceolus L 49 rotated view 7 65 Rubens. Odilon 242 The Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity 242. 161.The (Beuys) 112. 216. Heath 181 The Kinecar 180. 73 Noble. 244 Q s Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape (Wolfli) 2 79 St. 7 73 self-portraits: Basquiat 138. 7 77 three-point 80. 181 pencil(s) 54 charcoal 204 colored 762. 76-79.2 3 age and youth sleeping subjects 148-149 150-151 Renaissance 109 Rhinoceros (Durer) 26. 71 Satire of the Queen's Dress (Wodall) 158.36. Faune. 1 6 9 to hold 2 2 . 38.131 Cottage Among Trees 52. 772 234-237 Sesshu.262 INDEX Newton.71 Hotel de la Suzonnieres 70.Toyo: Landscape in Hoboku . 40-41. Giovanni Battista 74. 243. 212 Japanese 2 1 . 76 plastic eraser 55. 736 portraits. 38. 782 relief 757 silk-screen 739 woodblock 134.37 scientific instruments 9 2 .

115. 1 4 4 . 1 2 Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse 71. 2 4 4 . 164.s c r e e n p r i n t i n g 139 silver p o i n t 1 4 0 . t o d r a w 2 0 0 . Sarah: child's m a p 75. 141 Three Male Figures. Study of (Michelangelo) 110. v i e w s o f 85. 9 2 Tesshu.5 3 in l a n d s c a p e 2 0 6 . 102-103 tonal marks.Sforza Horse. 182.d i m e n s i o n a l 1 0 4 . John 25 Flying Fish 25 Wild Striped Cat Sketches of ( G e r i c a u l t ) 28.t o n e d r a w i n g 140. 7 79 Shoshone petroglyph 240. 2 2 7 Untitled 2001 ( C a t l i n g ) u 263 W h i t e .41. 2 7 studies: b i r d s 7 2 . 158 V a n Eyck. 243 (Bosch) T Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos ( G o y a ) 2 4 0 . 9 4 z Z e n calligraphy 232-233 contrast 96 t o grade 163 ink 37 pencil 5 4 t o r t i l l o n 205 T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c . Man in Armor 1 5 8 . phrased 146 tonal modeling 161 tonal range 169 t o n a l surfaces 2 2 7 tonal width 97 t o n e ( s ) 33. 1 4 1 . Augustin ( B a l t a r d ) 6 7 w e t and dry brush-strokes 2 4 9 Turner. 202 violin. t h r e e . 156 layers 7 5 6 priming for 140. 245 sharpener 54 Ship in a Storm ( T u r n e r ) 1 9 8 . 7 70 Tiber 214-215 Untitled ( T w o m b l y ) 2 2 0 . 9 5 pens 36 v a n i s h i n g p o i n t 74. 2 4 7 t h r e e . 2 9 wind.1 6 5 shorthand diagram 142 Shoshone buffalo hide painting 178. 79. G e o r g e 2 7 Skeleton of the Horse 26. 7 6 Two Impressions from a Cut-Out Paper Disk ( H u g o ) 2 2 2 Two Monsters 2 4 2 .199 tissue p a p e r 21. 199. 170 shoes 1 6 4 stylized m o t i f 51 Summer Flowers 63. 49.1 8 5 Tree II ( M o n d r i a n ) 52. 221 . Sue see N o b l e . T i m W e s t Fagade of the Church of St. 1 9 9 Two Courtyards (Piranesi) 75.141 S i m b l e t . drawing with 104-105 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt ( G a u d i ) 68. Jan 1 5 6 Maelbeke Madonna 1 5 6 . 1 4 5 travel journal 2 0 . H e n r i de: Woman at Her Toilet 14 t r a n s p a r e n t v i e w 92. b l o w n 248 steel p e n s see d i p p e n s still life 89. 241. 186. 2 0 0 Ship in a Storm 1 9 8 .120. 96. 9 0 . 743 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City ( F r e n z ) 1 6 0 .9 1 storms. Vincent 95 Chair 94. Paul 2 4 1 Achilles Chases Hector 2 4 0 .125 W o o d f i n e .241 s i l k . 76. 7 77. 1 6 . 53 trees. 249 t o describe 39. 725 fabric 1 6 8 T h o m a s . 69. Sarah 9 4 Chair Cut Out 94. John: Focusing on the Negative 14 w a s h . William 159 Satire of the Queen's Dress INDEX 226. 6 9 Wodall. 1 8 4 . A l f r e d 1 1 .J. h e a d a n d n e c k sections o f female m o l d f o r (Leonardo) 89 shading 2 9 s h a d o w s 28. 174 T w o m b l y . 2 1 2 .1 4 1 . t o draw 1 9 8 .d i m e n s i o n a l d r a w i n g 68. Taylor A n i t a 115 All and Nothing 1 1 4 . 4 4 boat 209 botanical 4 9 G e r i c a u l t ' s cats 2 9 from Goya 170-173 125. 1 8 4 . 230 t h r e e . 159 Wolfli. 7 9 0 vessels.243 Leonardo's machines 12.2 0 1 . t o d r a w 5 2 .1 0 5 vision 9 6 Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects (Grandville) 242.12 W a l t e r . C y 138. 1 4 1 w a t e r c o l o r 25. 7 1 4 . 7 75 Telescope ( N e w t o n ) 9 2 .2 1 3 Stubbs.216 W e b s t e r . 206-207 202. 74. 1 9 9 . 104-105. t o d r a w 1 0 1 viewfinder 57 Views from Velletri ( C l a u d e L o r r a i n ) 152. 69. 1 3 . 57. 161.158 158. 75 Skeleton of the Horse ( S t u b b s ) 26. t o lay 1 4 0 . 1 6 6 t r a p e z i u s m u s c l e 142. 2 2 0 influence o f 2 4 0 Untitled 220. 7 6 1 spots.Yamaoka 233 t e x t u r e 2 2 2 . 240 Two Women Embracing ( R o d i n ) 114.13 M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s m a l e figures 110.27 skull 747.1 9 9 wire. 75.1 4 5 . 156 Van Gogh. 77. 1 7 7 free 8 0 V e n i c e . 2 3 0 tonal contrast 96 tonal distance 9 7 t o n a l d r a w i n g 9 6 . 2 4 2 w Wallis. 97. 226 V Van Dyck. W . 1 4 0 . Adolf: Giant-Grape Saint-Mary-Castle 219 Woman at Her Toilet ( T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c ) 74 w o o d b l o c k print 157. A n t h o n y 152. 2 3 4 . 65 symbols 138. M . 2 2 6 . 199 shoes 1 6 4 .

2 2 4 : P r i n z h o m Collection. Paris. G e r m a n y . papers. Germany/Joerg P. Publisher's Acknowledgments Dorling Kindersley w o u l d like to thank Caroline H u n t for editorial c o . Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (t). Dover Publications/ISBN: 0486229912 (t). Paris a n d D A C S . B e r l i n . Salisbury & South W i l t s h i r e M u s e u m ( t ) . b r i d g e m a n . 9 4 : Sarah Woodfine. University of Oxford. T h e R u s k i n School of D r a w i n g a n d Fine A r t . George M c G a v i n . 158: Calouste Gulbenkian Museum. 2 3 8 : akg-images. Portugal. Andy Crawford. 9 2 : Science Photo L i b r a r y . Havemeyer. U K . 9 7 6 ) . O. K u n s t m u s e u m Bern/© D A C S 2 0 0 5 . 11: www. L o n d o n (t)./Private Collection/© D A C S 2005. 157: U C L Art Collections . G e r m a n y . D a w n Henderson. 1 3 5 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. A n n a P l u c i n s k a .939).uk/Musee des Augustins. B . 1 9 8 : Dover Publications. Anders. 221: Gagosian Gallery/Private Collection (b). Magdalene College Cambridge. a n d D e p a r t m e n t s o f E n t o m o l o g y a n d Zoology at the University of Oxford. 1 3 4 : © T h e British Museum. S i m o n L e w i s . L o n d o n . 1879. Psychiatric Institute of the University of Heidelberg. a n d encouragement i n m a k i n g this book: M a m o r u Abe. Also. University of's Yard. 114: Musee Rodin. Paris. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. 2 4 2 : Photo Scala. 16: www. b r i d g e m a n .co. 1 6 1 : D C C o m i c s I n c . A . L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . Carlo O r t u for picture research s u p p o r t . K u n s t m u s e u m . Paris/ © Succession Picasso / D A C S 2005. B e r l i n . NY. Paris. and Tamsin Woodward Natalie G o d w i n . support. 225: Stephen P Huyler. Paula Regan. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin/Jorg P. Kirsten Norrie. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. 3 2 : Pepys Library. Productions Clovis Prevost (c). R o y a n d D i a n n e Simblet. Copyright Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens. 2 6 : Topfoto. Christopher Davis. G i n a R o w l a n d .264 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Acknowledgments Author's Acknowledgments: T h e author wishes to thank the following people for their enormous help. A . L o n d o n . K e v i n a n d Rebecca Slingsby. T o n y G r i s o n i . H .bridgeman. Anders/ © D A C S 2 0 0 5 .Strang Print Room ( b ) .uk /Biblioteca Nacional. 1 3 6 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Centre /© Birmingham Museums and Art 49: Hunterian Museum (t). 2 2 7 : Paul Klee Stiftung. Peter L u f f . Corporation of London. c o . 112: Yale University A r t Gallery/Everett V Meeks. 73: Berlin F i l m Museum (t). Paul T h o m a s . Maureen Paley Interim Art (b).co. L e n . J o h n Roberts. 174: Artothek/Munich. 1 7 8 : © T h e British M u s e u m / H e n r y Moore F o u n d a t i o n . J o n Roome. 2 4 4 : Ashmolean Museum. London 2005. 74: Corbis. Fund. Paris and D A C S . 1 9 : Getty Images/© Succession Picasso / D A C S 2 0 0 5 . A n d y C r a w f o r d for p h o t o g r a p h y a n d L .uk/Private Collection. 72: akg-images. 1901. 226: Brian Catling. H e l e n S h u t t l e w o r t h . J a c k a n d Brian Catling. 1 5 : w w w . R u t h P a r k i n s o n . Angela Palmer. H a y w a r d Gallery. 1 6 0 : Rene G R U A U s.Paris ( b ) . Diana Bell. Toulouse. Berlin/Staatsbibliothek zu A l l other images © Sarah Simblet . 176: Modem Art. L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . 9 3 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. 17: J o h n Walter.100. R o s e m a r y S c o u l a r . Paris. Illustrated London News Picture Library/The Bystander (b). Inc. 5 3 : Collection of the Gemeentemuseum D e n Haag/Mondrian Trust. 7 1 : I M E C / A r c h i v e s E r i k Satie. 3 3 : Prinzhom Collection. Paris a n d D A C S . Sophie Laurimore. 9 1 : www. Agnieszka Mlicka. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. 1929 (29. 51: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Flossie. a n d brushes o n pp. 4 8 : T h e N a t u r a l H i s t o r y M u s e u m .20-21 a n d 246-47. Roddy Museum.l. Pamela Ellis for compiling the index. Italy. Sarah Woodfine. 1975 ( 1 9 7 5 . Sammy De Grave.bridgeman. 88: www. 2 2 2 : Pierre Georgel/Private Collection. 2 0 1 : T h e Royal Collection © 2 0 0 2 H e r Majesty Queen Elizabeth I I . 1 3 3 : Artothek/Kupferstichkabinett. 7 0 : Studio Daniel L i b e s k i n d . 5 2 : T h e Metropolitan Museum of Art/Bequest of Mrs. Paris. Clare Bryan. 1 5 9 : Bodleian Library. London/Bequeathed by Charles Landseer. Paris. 111: Fondation Beyeler/Riehen (Bale)/© Succession H Matisse/DACS 2005. Sir Brinsley F o r d . 243: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz.bridgeman. London/courtesy of Stuart Trust. .uk/Private Collection. M a n d y L o n d o n . 1 3 8 : © Christie's Images Ltd/© A D AGP. 180: www. C o r n e l i s o n & Son.bridgeman. Amsterdam. 4 6 : B r i t i s h Library. Julie O u g h t o n . Wolfson College. 130: The Metropolitan M u s e u m of Art/Robert L e h m a n Collection. 1 . 2 1 8 : Adolf-Wdlfli-Stiftung. Madrid. Berlin (b). © Tate. J o h n Walter. F r a n c e . 115: Anita Taylor. Jean Pierre Roy. Antonia Cunliffe Davis. 2 7 : Royal Academy of Arts. 1 5 6 : Graphische S a m m l u n g Albertina. 9 0 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/© A D A G P . 1 5 4 : akg-images/Musee National d'Art Moderne. 181: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. u k / T o k y o National M u s e u m . Carole A s h . 1 0 8 : Arts C o u n c i l Collection. L o n d o n . 29: Fogg A n Museum/Collections Baron de Vita: Grenville L. u k / L o u v r e . F i n n . (r). L o n d o n . B e m d Kunzig. 113: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. 2 0 3 : Clare Bryan (t). 2 4 0 : w w w . 5 0 : Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (1). H a m b u r g ./Galerie Sylvie 179: www. Angela W i l k e s . K e w ft)). H e a t h e r M c C a r r y . 75: © The British Museum (b). Staatliche Museen z u Berlin. Picture Credits 8: Corbis/Hubert Stadler.a. France. 9 5 : V a n Gogh M u s e u m . 132: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. Psychiatric Institute of the U n i v e r s i t y of Heidelberg./© D A C S 2 0 0 5 ( t ) . Florence/MoMA. Kunstmuseum Bern. c o . 2 8 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. b r i d g e m a n . Basel. . Lisbon.bridgeman. Anita Taylor. U K . 69: Institut Amatller d'Art Hispanic (tl). B M G . 2 4 : © T h e British Museum. P h y l l Kiggell. 139: Galerie Marion Meyer/© Man Ray Trust / A D A G P . 199: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee des arts asiatiquesGuimet. O o n a G r i m e s . 6 6 : w w w . Japan. Orientabteilung/Ruth Schacht. Jackie Douglas. 2 0 0 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. 1 1 0 : www.r. 1 9 6 : Museum of the History of Collection. 2 2 3 : Lebrecht Music and Arts Photo Library/Ricordi. Patty Stansfield. Winthrop. 2 4 5 : Oona Grimes. Germany. K a t h r y n W i l k i n s o n . Paul T h o m a s ( t ) . Rocio Arnaez. 13: www. Sarah D u n c a n . u k / O n Loan to the H a m b u r g Kunsthalle. R . for s u p p l y i n g the d r a w i n g books. Graphische Sammlung. 68: Oxford. 2 4 1 : Corbis/David M u e n c h ( b ) . 137: © The British Museum. 30: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso.bridgeman. 2 2 0 : Mamaru Abe. 177: Mary Evans Picture Library. 3 1 : Tom Powel Imaging. 2 0 2 : © T h e British Library.

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