An innovative, practical approach to drawing the world around you







LONDON • NEW YORK MELBOURNE • MUNICH • DELHI Senior Editor Paula Regan Senior Art Editor Mandy Earey Art Editor Anna Plucinska Managing Editor Julie Oughton Managing Art Editor Heather McCarry Art Director Peter Luff Publishing Director Jackie Douglas Production Joanna Bull DTP Designer Adam Walker Picture Research Sarah Smithies US Editor Christine Heilman First American Edition, 2 0 0 5 First Paperback Edition, 2 0 0 9 Published in the United States by DK Publishing 3 7 5 Hudson Street New York, New York 1 0 0 1 4 10 11 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3

6 8 20 22 Master Builders The Order of Sound Future Fictions Pathways of Sight Single-Point Perspective Creating an Imaginary Space Further Aspects of Perspective Theaters Venetian Life Parisian Street

68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86

Foreword Introduction Drawing Books and Papers Posture and Grip

Objects and Instruments

TD075-July 2009 Copyright © 2 0 0 5 Dorling Kindersley Limited Text and authors artworks © Sarah Simblet 2 0 0 4 Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited A Cataloging-in-Publication record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN 9 7 8 - 0 - 7 5 6 6 - 5 1 4 1 - 1 Color reproduction by GRB, Italy Printed and bound in China by Toppan

Still Life Instruments of Vision Bench Marks Light and Illusions Further Illusions How to Draw Ellipses Tonality Drawing with Wire Artifacts and Fictions


90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106

Documentaries Presence and Mood Movement Icon and Design Pen and Ink Drawing with Ink Capturing Character Sleeping Dogs Turtles Dry Birds

26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44

The Body
Postures and Poses Choreographs Passion Measurement and Foreshortening Quick Poses Hands and Feet Charcoal Hands Phrasing Contours The Visual Detective La Specola

110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128

Plants and Gardens
Botanical Studies Jeweled Gardens Fast Trees Graphite and Erasers Cropping and Composition Negative Space Fig Tree Summer Flowers Acanthus Spinosus

48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64

Discover more at

Projections Magnetic Fields The Human Condition Disposable Pens The Travel Journal Catching the Moment Grand Canal Crossings Caravans The Big Top

174 Abstract Lines
176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 Process and Harmony Writing Time Chants and Prayers Compositions Being "Just" Collage Zen Calligraphy Nocturnes

220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234

Poise Anatomies Revelations Self-Portraits Silver Point Head and Neck Essential Observations Drawing Portraits Generations Castings

132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 152

Earth and the Elements
Air in Motion Storms Nature Profiles Charcoal Landscapes Drawing in the Round Decaying Boat Cloudburst Notes of Force Mountains

198 200 202 204 206 208 210 212 214 216

Gods and Monsters
Marks of Influence Hauntings Convolutions Brushes Brush Marks Monsters Goya's Monsters Consumed Glossary Index Acknowledgments

240 242 244 246 248 250 252 254 256 259 264

Cloth and Drapery Character Costumes Femmes Fatales Colored Materials Study and Design The Structure of Costume Textures and Patterns Dressing Character Posture Carving

156 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172


Some are more traditionally framed and hung in galleries for solo or group exhibitions. where I expect them to be discovered by some people. by invitation. and a reflector of experience. and makers of special effects. fashion designer. architect. and I refer back to them for years after they are made. The most rewarding challenge is always the newcomer. I will always draw. especially as travel journals. a drawing book is the perfect portable private vehicle for your imminent exploration of drawing. I also make drawing books. we learn to feel truly alive.Foreword B Y DRAWING THE WORLD AROUND US. For me personally. not only to make art. be they a child discovering their vision and dexterity. through history. and local c o m m u n i t y classes. or a quantum physicist trying to see for themselves the fluctuations of our universe. texture. They enfold their viewer and are made on joined sheets of paper that I reach by climbing ladders. are made outside as discreet installations. I work with people of diverse ages. Augustine his notes on memory. and size. They occupy a shelf in my studio. of Sketch Book for the Artist. but because it is how I engage with and anchor myself in life. I was also reading among The Confessions of St. aspirations. Some of my drawings cover entire walls. where spaces are shaped by nothing more than the objects and activities contained within them. we have looked at. still standing by the door. drawing is the immediate expression of seeing. It is a tool for investigating ideas and recording knowledge. By using our imaginations. and experience. shape. Drawing is a mirror through which I understand my place in the world. geologists. Chosen in any color. and be slowly washed or worn away. a cartographer charting the land. For twelve years I have enjoyed the privilege of teaching drawing. in which he describes himself flying and diving in his imagination through pictorial caverns of knowledge. remain unseen by most. and their importance to so many artists. Others can be held in the h a n d or. We can all learn how to draw. a sculptor. and feeling. The very first step is to believe it. It makes me feel excited to be alive. we learn to see it. I was training in anatomy and studying how. Drawing occupies a unique place in every artist and creator's life. undergraduates to fellow professors. thinking. a composer notating a musical score. who tells me firmly upon approach that they cannot draw. art schools. night security staff. These inspirations led me to invent museums. perhaps hidden on a door hinge or a street bench rail. understood (and often misunderstood) our own bodies. as a visiting professor at universities. Combine these things and the possibilities are endless. and in a few sessions they will be flying. that inspired the title and structure MEMORY T H E A T E R S This pen-and-ink drawing was made from imagination during research for my PhD. It is my love of these. or engineer. I know that with their cooperation I can soon prove them wrong. and through which I can see how I think. . from schoolchildren to senior citizens. doctors.

Rio Pinturas 13. inscribing every fresh part of it with their eager scrapes and trails.Theseancient silhouettes were drawn with earth pigments rubbed onto rock. packaging. Most adults still feel that certain exquisite pleasure on arriving at a beach to find the tide out and the sand perfect. and patterns on our clothes. We are bombarded with linear and tonal pictorial information. At home and at work we doodle. Sometimes we draw because we are bored. We can always read each others drawings. like a great canvas for them to mark. Children cannot be restrained from running across the pristine white lawn of newly fallen snow.000-9500 bce . graffiti. a great crowd is raising their hands in greeting. "CAVE OF THE HANDS" In this drawing. Cueva de las Marios. Drawing is international. and in meetings. not just chosen pictures on our walls but everywhere—maps. but more often because drawing actually helps us to focus and take in what is said. They have a natural affinity to many modern graffiti signatures. scrawling shapes and cartoons when on the telephone. The sense of relief we may feel from the information overload of modern commercial life when visiting a country in which we can no longer read every written word. signs. logos. and we spend our lives reading it. irreverent to language barriers. waving to us from many thousands of yearsago. in lectures. We are surrounded by drawings in our daily lives.8 INTRODUCTION Where We Begin There is a fundamental drive in our human nature to make a mark. is not afforded us by drawing.

9 WHERE WE BEGIN FIRST PORTRAIT For sorre forgotten reason. we see our oldest surviving images. and she kept it as my first step beyond the delighted realms of scrawl. enjoying the physical sensation of crayon on paper. had happily scribbled. but I had never yet attempted to figuratively picture my world. and the appearance of my strikes of colors. and belonging to place. In cave paintings like the one opposite. at age two-anda-half. I was sitting with my mother. MAKING OUR MARK It seems reasonable to assume that we have engaged in pictorial mark-making for as long as we have made conscious use of our hands. . the hair of my first portrait was most important. like all toddlers. I now think this is a picture of proximity. On a particular afternoon in September 1974. an expression of existence. The image above is what I gave back to my mother. Eyelashes take up as much of my attention as the head itself. Even though it is made by a toddler this image would be recognizable to anyone. She gave me a notepad and a red crayon and asked me to draw her "a picture of Daddy. power. Cave art was not made for decoration but as a fundamental part of life. reflecting my experience of looking closely at my father's face." Until this day. I. who in their day-to-day hardship made time to picture themselves and the animals on which they depended. created by societies of hunter-gatherers.

h o w e v e r small a n d u n f o r m e d y o u believe they are. b e p r o u d o f what m a k e s y o u r w o r k individual to y o u . yet still turn to drawing w h e n their verbal language fails or is inadequate. But as adolescents. Young children love to draw. Don't b e p e r s u a d e d to draw in a w a y s o m e o n e else . At this point many will insist they cannot draw. Inhibitions creep in and ideas of good a n d b a d terminate confidence. to help a stranger see their way W h e n taking first steps in relearning h o w to draw. As you progress. PROGRESSION T h e r e is a point in all o u r lives w h e n w e first c o n t r o l o u r mark and m a k e it a line. Hours are lost immersed in the glorious world of imagination. it is important to value your natural abilities a n d ways of seeing. W e do n o t hesitate to draw a map. then drag o u r line into a loop. for example. most of us stop. It was made with a few bold strokes of a steel pen dipped in ink to conjure the dried bee I was holding between my fingers on a pin. and this activity plays a vital role in their d e v e l o p m e n t . and from that first unit build and describe the shape of something or someone we know.10 INTRODUCTION PEN-AND-INK BEE This tiny drawing has been enlarged to show its texture and composition.

and which aspects of the vast wealth and diversity of graphic language would be most appropriate to their goals. and they have never questioned why. what they most want to achieve. remember that all advice is only advice.11 PROGRESSION A UNIQUE SIGHT This innocent yet sophisticated drawing of boats. Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse c. Enjoy the control of your own journey. Think how much would have been lost if anyone had interfered with Alfred Wallis' personal sense of proportion and perspective in the exquisite drawing above. He used leftover ship and yacht paint with crayons on cut-out pieces of cardboard boxes. Someone once told them they must draw in this way. The journey of every artist demands hard work and discipline. I ask them their reasons for drawing. but it does help to set out facing in the right direction. As you read this b o o k and perhaps attend art classes. I meet students struggling unhappily with a particular method of drawing. Occasionally. . 1925-42 53/8x87/8in (135 x 225 mm) ALFRED WALLIS prefers and tells you is better. After experimenting and trying each new idea. you must decide whether to keep or discard it. He was a retired Cornish fisherman and junk dealer who began drawing at the age of 70 "for company" after his wife died. harbor and sea is one of many that Alfred Wallis made from memory while sitting at home.

Below. Our imaginations are the tools with which we can increase the essence of life. and lose the very thing that attracted us to it. If as artists we nail a subject down too hard. not for disguise but as a personal choice.12 INTRODUCTION VISION All artists see the world differently. His notes visually balance his drawings. I hope. but the child in us knows that this is an all-embracing. clear-minded understanding of the sea. it may not be accurate to our critical adult eye. There are countless reasons for drawing. There should neve: be a slavish obligation to represent things exactly as we collectively agree we see them. perhaps for comfort or ease as a left-hander or a habitual enjoyment of the challenge. we can drive out its spirit. is. They are also always written backward.and collarbones and shoulder blades of a different bird almost become new creatures in themselves. the breast. and breathtaking wind of a choppy harbor. We also see differently ourselves. We all see differently. author of The Story of Art. embedded in this book. We BIRD STUDIES The flutter of faint scratches that dance across the pages on the right is an attempt to see the movement and bony weightlessness of a bird. There are only artists. 11). Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels LEONARDO DA VINCI . be visionary. The observed world may be our subject. right. When we look back at Wallis' seascape (see p. IDEAS A N D I N V E N T I O N S These active machines. boats." The clarity and empowerment of these words. depending on the occasion and our purpose. and inspire others. The art historian Professor Sir Ernst Gombrich. all raise water From the Archimedes' screw to Leonardo's own cupped wheel. "There really is no such thing as Art. wrote as the opening line of this great work. the page bristles with the focus of ideas. but it should be the experienced world we draw.

shout against a terrible injustice. conduct an experiment. to express the beauty in a moment's play of light. when it looks tired and still feels wrong. drawing in pursuit of our own thoughts and understanding. time spent is not lost. My drawings of a housemartin (opposite top) illustrate the importance of repeated study. but it is important to be clear why we are making it. make a calculation. Decide before you start whether you are drawing to warm up. We have both covered our paper with focused. I drew to understand the apparatus of flight. . stripped-down parts. Opposite. or to discover the best use of a new material. Don't be disheartened. This also applies if struggling at length with a larger picture. Leonardo drew to invent a machine. It will be invested through your experience in the new drawing.13 VISION should not try to know how every finished picture will look. Each fresh image reflects growing confidence and the experience of the preceding study. or illustrate a dream. Our drawings are annotated investigations into the mechanisms of nature and of an idea. it may be best to start afresh. while below. More was learned drawing the bird 18 times than would have been understood drawing it only once or twice.

The physicality. and allowed to flow through the brush. Each image relied upon past experience to know the probable behavior of the brush. It denies the importance of accident. silk. or imagine—it is not enough to only render its shape. bone. we are advised or even required to plan our pictures. and how it feels to the touch. As you draw any subject—something you see. BRUSHED LANDSCAPE FLOWING SKELETON T h e gliding poise of this walking anatomy comes as much from the feeling of movement as it does from the feeling of drawing. are both made of ink laid onto wet paper with speed and agile certainty. They each allowed the energy and focus of the moment to be expressed through controlled accident and a degree of the unknown Both drawings were made trusting the marks. depth. If you can do this. your marks will become the subject on the paper. and practice each part before putting the final image together. and an island brushed with trees. Imagine these qualities so strongly that you feel them in your mind and at your fingertips. I made it almost unconsciously with a pen and a brush. ink. feel. which can offer keys to other things. explain the composition. it should be responding to the sensation and meaning of the subject it draws. As your hand meets the paper to make a mark. temperature. This is the alchemy of drawing.14 INTRODUCTION ALCHEMY At school. metal. fire. Our position asvieweris unsteady. mists. excessive planning can get in the way of the imagination. balance. Landscape in Haboku Style 15TH CENTURY . This suits many artists well and is perfectly valid. However. and position in space. meaning. These two brush drawings. Whatever the material— wood. and we can just make out the distant stains of mountains. created centuries and cultures apart. and at speeds beyond conscious thought. and paper. and spirit of each subject was held strongly but loosely between the fingertips. We are caught in a shifting focus that makes everything fluid. This is a detail of a brush-and-ink drawing by a Japanese Buddhist monk. and what you discover in the process of making. You must also think of its intrinsic nature: its purpose. Know the texture. the unknown. size. and opacity of your subject. or ice—you must actually feel it beneath your fingers as you draw. declare the idea. trusting my intuition to find a visual equivalence for the sensation of weight within my body. water. and sometimes beyond. W e float toward the quiet vista as it also moves toward us.


left. more than 100 years after its making. gold leaf and spray paint. pastel. acrylic.16 INTRODUCTION PLACE A N D MOMENT The heat and teeming atmosphere o f this Parisian dressing room. made by a young British artist who creates alphabets o f the absurd f r o m familiar childhood characters. right is set inside a rib cage. like folded insects. which evoke realities o f place and the p o w e r o f moment.1896 Woman at her Toilet 41 x 26 in (104 x 66 cm) TOULOUSE LAUTREC RIB-CAGE D R A M A Thus drama. He dazzles us with flashes o f light and dabbed marks o f shadow. W a l t e r also makes books: some. Lautrec's flamboyant splashes o f petticoats and pantaloons are drawn with long sweeps of chalk and brushed oil paint. c. stand table-sized with furniture legs attached t o b o t h sides of their jacket. one of many luminous works in watercolor. lives on. Focusing on the Negative 2004 22 x 30 in (56 x 76 cm) J O H N WALTER .

FREEINGTHEHAND . Put them away and look at them later. Such books are personal: the territory of new exploration and experiment. potential ideas still forming. diary-like observations. you will naturally make progress on your own in response to concentration and the decision to look and draw. Drawing is exploratory. Enjoy discovering what your hand and the material can do. Try to keep all of your first drawings. just through the act of making.17 FREEING THE HAND If you are just beginning to learn how to draw. One of the advantages of a drawing book is that you can shut it. Choose other materials and do the same. As you follow lessons in this book. you will be surprised and encouraged to see how far you have come. and mistakes are a valuable process of learning. Ignore these at first and allow yourself the freedom to play. Start by choosing a material you like the look of and cover a piece of paper with different marks. even those you dislike. Much will be learned on these test sheets and in your first drawings. Pages do not have to lie open for other people to inspect and comment on. and miscellaneous items of inspiration. try not to grip your pen worrying about the technical terms you might have heard. It is yours. With no help and advice at all. at a point when you feel you are not making progress. take your time and don't worry if you need to make several attempts to grasp a concept.

I was particularly attracted to their gentle articulation and understated determination. Imagination needs nourishment. and many more reasons for drawing the world. comes from within. Note that the drawing classes are allocated to subjects. which is held frozen in space by a camera lens. The chapters of this book present 90 different artists' ways of seeing. but not confined to them. and became a great subject for me. Once there. ELECTRIC BULL With a penlight. adapting its form and occupation. As you draw. it is this voice that is the subtle part of their art and something that ultimately. Drawing is a living language that over millennia has grown and changed.Their elegant strength seems to summon a lifetime of drawing. An artist's personal voice is something that also evolves through lessons learned. Look to your own experience and also learn from the work of others. This practical journey will take you through the door into the vivid heart of drawing. the path is yours. threedimensionally. Its sensuous and flowing line seems to drift like smoke. The real drawing book has yet to come. and enfolding new media. caught between action and repose. Picasso Painting with Light at the Madoura Pottery 1949 . Picasso has just finished his drawing.18 INTRODUCTION THE THINKING EYE Techniques and materials are the grammar and vocabulary of drawing and can be studied and shared. To these I have added my own drawings to explain elementary materials and techniques and offer introductory approaches. which of course he cannot see. when they are more experienced. However. Picasso is poised smiling. it will be your creation as you discover your own personal vision. we still only glimpse a corner of the magnitude of this subject and the infinity of what can be achieved. 150). A N ARTIST'S HANDS These are the hands of the artist Phyll Kiggell (see p. In the total wealth of these pages. staring straight through his image of a bull. It rarely flourishes in isolation. seek ideas in the life around you.


be sure they fit comfortably under your arm. It is also useful to own a portfolio.b o u n d b o o k s t h a t fit in y o u r p o c k e t o r bag.b o u n d p a d if y o u w i s h t o keep your drawings together long-term. Many artists invent ways o f binding their o w n books. c h o o s e s m a l l e r h a r d . H O M E M A D E : I m a d e this b o o k f r o m drawing paper that I folded. BLACK P O C K E T B O O K S : Hand-sized w i t h ready-made elastic binder and a marker ribbon. catalogs. b e a w a r e t h a t p a p e r t e x t u r e effects a n d changes t h e i r marks. They can be very expensive in art stores. There are dozens to choose from.b o u n d b o o k w i l l s o o n s h o w y o u h o w it is m a d e . Art students often make use of printed books picked up from secondhand stores into which they draw. is perfect. If you intend to carry your boards for a distance. 2002 Tantalus o r The Future of Man 81/2 x61/4in (215 x 158 mm) ROSE MILLER . 2. H o w e v e r r i n g bindings o f t e n break. Dissecting a d i s c a r d e d h a r d . Alternatively.20 INTRODUCTION Drawing Books and Papers T o BEGIN YOUR EXPLORATION o f d r a w i n g . y o u n e e d a lifetime. binding. quality. and glued t o a s t r i p o f bias binding. You simply need two strong boards hinged together well. These are perfect f o r w o r k i n g in novels. study the structure of a good portfolio and make your own. Purchase a h i g h . t h i s is h o w I l e a r n e d . 5. T h e hardb o a r d j a c k e t is s t r e t c h e d w i t h canvas beneath t h e p a p e r sleeve.C O V E R E D H A R D B O U N D : Ideal f o r c a r r y i n g a r o u n d . texture. N o t e t h e w i d e l y differing c h o i c e o f p a p e r s w i t h w h i c h t h e s e are m a d e .B O U N D PADS: T h e s e are t h e least expensive a n d useful f o r o p e n i n g flat. 1. 6. thickness. thick enough not to flex. F o r e v e n i n g classes. Drawing boards are invaluable. C O L O R E D PAPERS: Large a r t supply stores o f t e n sell t h i c k b o o k s full o f c o l o r e d p a p e r s . and collage their ideas. C A N V A S . c o l o r If planning t o use pencils. which are also sold in an enormous range. pastels. A high-quality one will last a DRAWING BOOKS Select d r a w i n g b o o k s t o suit y o u r aims. cheap corrugated plastic ones fall apart in days. Gleaming store purchases vary greatly in format. it is better to have them made at a lumber yard or home improvement store. Calculate a range of useful dimensions and have several cut at once.q u a l i t y r i n g . t h e i r jackets w i l l a c t like d r a w i n g b o a r d s a n d p r o t e c t y o u r w o r k . Smooth plywood. c h o o s e larger f o r m a t s t o give y o u s c o p e f o r e x p e r i m e n t . 4. Homemade books can be assembled easily from found materials or selections of loose sheet papers. Most contain thin p a p e r and are perfect f o r use w i t h disposable pens. a n d crayons. drawing book. cut. F O U N D B O O K S : O l d p r i n t e d 3 . color. and handles to lift the weight of your artworks. R I N G . and cost. stitched. a l e n g t h o f black elastic t i e d a r o u n d t h e m i d d l e will h o l d the contents together w h e n y o u f o l d in c o l l e c t e d items. Sand the edges to avoid splinters. F o r traveling. a n d r e f e r e n c e b o o k s f o u n d in s e c o n d . ties on either side to keep your papers in place.h a n d s t o r e s make unique subjects f o r e x p e r i m e n t s a n d collage.

and cream sheets or rolls. pastel paper in flecked pastel colors with a distinctive ribbed marking. fine. C A R B O N PAPER: Available in dark and light blue. blocks. Use for brushwork drawings. GLASSINE: Sold as protective wrapping.TISSUE PAPER: Place sheets between drawing book pages to keep images from printing on each other and use for delicate collage. 15. 12. blocks. FABRIANO INGRES: Thin. or machine made in sheets. not. T W O RIVERS Y E L L O W 410GMS: See Two Rivers Green 19. MAGIC PAPER: A reusable sheet for testing ideas without creating waste.5 9 ) for explanations of rough. 21. red. Use cheap paper for rough ideas and quality paper for work to last See the glossary ( p p . bamboo. 11. and hot pressed papers. 18. METALLIC PAPER: Thin paper in different metallic colors. 22. tough. C A N S O N : Inexpensive lightweight pastel paper in many colors. texture. Use with a brush in clean water Water makes a dark mark like ink and becomes invisible again when dry. printed on one side only. cold. 100% cotton and sold in sheets. 16. For use with any media. color. PAPERS . and other plant fibers. Cotton papers are high-quality and acid-free. T W O RIVERS GREEN 410G MS: Very heavy tinted textured cold-pressed watercolor paper See Two Rivers Yellow. yellow. resisting deterioration. and white.Papers differ in thickness (weight). FABRIANO ACADEMIA: Standard medium-range multipurpose paper Use with any media. and cost. mold-. 17. VELIN ARCHES 250GMS: Printmaking paper available in black white. 13. from pencil to paint 9. absorbency. 2 5 6 . and translucent. turning brown and brittle. Cheap wood-pulp papers are acidic. JAPANESE PAPER: Strong. It is also excellent for drawing with marker pens on layered sheets. 7. used to imprint lines of these colors onto a surface. or rolls. 14. SAUNDERS WATERFORD N O T 300GMS: Mid-quality textured watercolor paper. smooth. mulberry. it is made from rice. white textured paper that can take abrasive use of any medium. size. Ph. FABRIANO R O U G H 600GMS: Very heavy. ITALIAN PARCHMENT: Imitation-animal-skin parchment that is translucent and slightly waxy. AQUARELLE ARCHES 300GMS:The very top quality hot-pressed (smooth) watercolor paper. also good for drawing with colored pencils. 10. It is available in white or cream. They are hand-. and rolls. 20. 8.

116-17). Regularly step back 6-9 ft (2-3 m) to check your progress. a n d h a n d to the fingertips. b u t it should n o t be forgotten that many people make remarkable a n d striking works drawing with their feet or holding their brush or pencil in their mouths. your lines will distort. strangledlooking drawings. In this book we will look at parallels between drawing and music. Ideally. Relaxed fingers: Hold the pencil away from its tip and relax your fingers. SPACE TO WORK Cramped grip. and look to the right. Use the side of your little fingernail as a support on the page. flowing space between your hand. . or with your drawing board angled between your lap and a chair. don't sit too close to the paper. Examples are shown here. you can draw lines freely and achieve a significant arc of movement. body. How you hold your drawing materials is also important. make sure you have enough room to back away and view your work. you Drawing classes can be cramped places. but wherever possible. If your body posture is well balanced and you can move freely. If your hand twists to maneuver between the paper and your body.22 INTRODUCTION Posture and Grip T o DRAW WELL. arm. You cannot draw like this—your hand is locked and your fingers can barely move. but you need to understand that the expression of a line or mark originates in the body and flows t h r o u g h the shoulder. This photograph illustrates how some people hold a pen to write. your whole relaxed b o d y should be involved. This cramped grip tires your hand and makes small. a n d look to the left of it at your subject. place it on your right. should be able to look comfortably straight ahead at your picture plane. if left-handed. and subject. Turning your drawing sideways or upside-own will also help reveal what is wrong. If seated on a b e n c h easel (a donkey). place it on your left. From a distance you will spot errors you cannot see close up. It will also reflect discomfort if you are in any way cramped. If using an upright easel. your drawing will reflect this. Accelerated perspective also occurs if you look down the surface steeply (see pp. With your hand in this position. There should be an open. place it on the correct side: if right-handed. There are also parallels to dance. Placing your easel o n the w r o n g side folds y o u r b o d y against your drawing arm. You do not have to dance to draw.

liquid will run down your hand. If you turn a brush or dip pen up into the air to draw above your hand. depending upon what it is and how large you are working. find an unfamiliar. or change to the wrong hand. This can be used to great effect. As long as your fingers. or it can spoil your work if not anticipated.23 This loose "candle" grip is very useful when drawing with your arm extended. . alternative way of holding the pencil. arm. Large amounts of ink can be applied without fear of uncontrolled running if the paper is flat. Remember you can also draw just by dipping your fingers in pigment—this is how many women draw in rural India. roughly marking out a large-scale work. To stop this. It is most comfortable when reaching to draw above your head. and body are not restricted. ALL MEDIA There are no rules as to how you should hold your drawing media.232-33). upright way of holding the brush near its base is similar to the Japanese way used in Zen calligraphy (see pp. Large scale: POSTURE AND GRIP U n f a m i l i a r i t y : T h e habitual movements of our handwriting style will sometimes infringe upon our drawing. Soft media: Short materials such as pastels and charcoal can be accommodated in the palm. hold your material as you find most comfortable. brush pressed against an upright surface will cause a dribble of ink to run down your drawing. But be careful not to tense your fingers. This can give a new lease on life to your mark-making. GRAVITY Remember that gravity affects the flow of ink and paint. not up to the paper Brushes can be used on upright paper but dip Anticipating effects: A fully loaded pens need a level surface. Brush calligraphy: This comfortable.


W h e n lost to explain our own emotions. 1540. Framed in the z o o or in domestic cohabitation. and dragons. After the subject of ourselves. fish. JOHN WHITE British artist. out are now oxidized and so appear black W h e n less preoccupied with understanding ourselves. mermaids. the Latin bestiary was one of the most popular picture books—an illustrated dictionary of one hundred parts. " Animals perpetually feed our imaginations. W e have drawn them in m a n u s c r i p t s to explain our genesis and to c o u n t their species into Noah's ark. Facial features were analyzed in terms of their animal likeness. their different speeds and patterns of action. 11 x91/4in (277 x 234 mm) . insects. we turn and take the features of beasts. For the novice artist. who described in words what White drew. In medieval England. which are so unlike ours. We have drawn them on the walls of caves to evoke their kinship and power. dogs. and learn how to Flying Fish c. In this chapter we discover the use of pens and ink through the delineation of insects." He worked with the scientist Thomas Harriot. or scampering through the initials and borders of pictures from that time. m u s e u m . offer challenges and delights to draw. and to bring h o m e drawn documentaries of their finds. and snakes have between them engendered harpies. werewolves. from which personality and predicted behavior were " d e d u c e d . bats. As children we delight in the humanized trials of Tom and Jerry and their c a r t o o n relations.m o u n t e d skeletons of birds. and people..drawe to lief one of each kinde of thing that is strange to us in England. Here (left) we see J o h n White's exquisite record of a flying fish. they are perhaps our favorite pictorial preoccupation. 1590 J O H N WHITE capture form and movement from the m a n n e r i s m s of honking geese. Europeans on board had never seen such a thing. White's commission was to ". and we still see escapees from its pages carved and grinning as the gargoyles of churches. In 19th-century Europe this became a "science. floating turtles. Together they made maps and documented animals. plants. On the Roanoke voyages of Sir Walter Raleigh. to be there at the m o m e n t of discovery. and this very drawing was to endure many copies and plagiarisms after its triumphant return to the English court of Queen Elizabeth I. each dedicated to the moralized tale of an animal or monster The bestiary profoundly influenced the art of its period. animals provide a perfect subject with which to begin. which very likely leaped o n t o the deck of Sir Walter Raleigh's ship Tiger as it sailed north from the Caribbean to Virginia in 1585. birds. and silent. we have employed artists on expeditions. O v e r the centuries.." Paranoid newcomers c r a m m e d into swelling industrial cities used handbooks of physiognomy to identify and judge their neighbors. This drawing is made in black lead (metal point) with watercolor Highlights of silver would have gleamed. cartographer.Animals H UMANS HAVE DRAWN ANIMALS from the beginning of our time. and pioneer born c. sleeping dogs.

they were rejected. the home of ALBRECHT DURER German Renaissance painter. inspiring countless works of art and so touching people's imaginations that later. Contemporary texts related accounts of the beast as the mortal enemy of the elephant and rare relative of the "more common" unicorn. Sailing to Rome. Durer's image changed eager hands until it was known across Europe. years after its publication. Original Ink Drawing of a Rhinoceros 1515 ALBRECHT DURER 103/4 x 161/2 in ( 2 7 4 x 4 2 0 mm) . Stubbs's Anatomy of the Horse achieved similar documentary status. Life-like This is Durer's original quill-and-ink drawing made after an anonymous Portuguese drawing. it continued its journey to Rome. a drawing of it arrived in Nuremberg. the ship was lost. a gift to the Portuguese King. filled journals with ideas and observations. Converted into a print. The first live rhinoceros to reach Europe came from India in May 1515. naturalist. but the drowned animal washed ashore. Unsurpassed. draftsman.26 ANIMALS Documentaries horse are superb affirmations of the power of drawing as a recorder and communicator of knowledge. It was to become the animal's only accepted likeness for 250 years. when more accurate portrayals were made without armor and scales. it is still consulted by veterinarians today. writer. Carefully stuffed. Meanwhile. He studied the image and drew his own interpretation. and wrote four books on proportion. Durer traveled widely to study at different European schools of art. and mathematician. DURER'S RHINOCEROS AND STUBBS'S skeletal Durer. It is such a lifelike triumph of imagination and intelligence that for centuries zoologists never questioned its authority. He in turn sent the mysterious creature to the Pope via Marseilles at the request of the King of France. printmaker.

which has never diminished. in t h r e e v i e w s — r e a r f r o n t . This is one of Stubbs' original finished pencil drawings. knowledge of parts. He composed makes each horse appear so real and each plate from his three-dimensional. The entire project was developed over ten years.GEORGE STUBBS B r i t i s h e q u i n e a n d s o c i e t y p o r t r a i t painter. Lighting Stubbs's breathtaking international work won immediate There acclaim. a n d s i d e . naturalist. Anatomy of the Horse. and therefore invented the lighting that Compare how Stubbs and Durer both invented lighting to portray the reality of their animals. He translated his own drawings into engravings for publication. a n d anatomist. is no other work like it. His painted p o r t r a i t o f t h e b e a s t is in t h e R o y a l C o l l e g e o f S u r g e o n s o f England. c o m p r i s e s 1 8 p l a t e s s h o w i n g d i s s e c t i o n s in l a y e r s f r o m b o n e t h r o u g h m u s c u l a t u r e t o skin. Dissections Stubbs took his knife and his pencil and physically climbed inside the horse. Dissections were made over a total of 18 months. Table of the III of the Horse (rear Skeleton view) mm) 1756-58 1 4 x 7 in ( 3 5 4 x 1 8 0 GEORGE STUBBS . Stubbs w a s o n e o f t h e first E u r o p e a n artists t o m a k e a n a c c u r a t e representation o f the rhinoceros. Stubbs's m o s t c e l e b r a t e d publication. dissecting and drawing until he understood the mechanisms of its power and grace. composed from notes and observations. L o n d o n .

. novelist. I've ended up mixing in pencil. drawing her again and again to pin d o w n the texture of her loose skin. The octopus is formed in layers applied and distressed with a brush. Mixed media Here. charcoal. H u g o mixed his media and drew from m e m o r y and imagination to create narrative atmosphere.". drama. it silently rises to the light. Apparently drawn in its o w n ink. and Pieuvre 1866-69 91/2 x81/8in (242 x 207 mm) VICTOR H U G O . His copious drawings are characterized by mixed media.. Surrounding sprays of graphite powder are stuck into washes of oil and ink to suggest glutinous depths. Hugo's page is f l o o d e d w i t h the fearful presence of a remembered octopus. linseed oil soaked into the paper has made shadows and repelled the ink to create translucent tentacles. Hugo's novels Les Miserables and Dame have become classics of film and stage. He wrote to poet and art critic Charles-Pierre Baudelaire about his experiments. and a love of accident. her sharp teeth. The Hunchback of Notre Layers and shadows Throughout this drawing. the ominous beast unwinds from the dark of the sea and of our nightmares. and all sorts of bizarre concoctions which manage to convey above all in mind. By contrast. He has w a t c h e d her p o u n c e . coal dust. soot. and her distinctive temperament. saying ". Hugo used graphite powder. conjured b y the hand of a great author of French literary fiction. and turn. A s if disturbed from its gritty b e d by our presence and curiosity. Gericault took a sharp p e n c i l to m a k e repeated direct o b s e r v a t i o n s f r o m life. VICTOR HUGO Poet.. more or less what I have in view. Gericault's sheet a p p e a r s almost s c r a t c h e d b y the f e r o c i o u s play of his cat.. her b o n y frame. ink and linseed oil on paper.28 ANIMALS Presence and Mood THESE DRAWINGS HAVE BEEN CHOSEN to s h o w t w o v e r y different ways of picturing a wild animal. and leader of the French Romantic movement. snarl. playwright. sepia.

29 THEODORE GERICAULT C o n t r o v e r s i a l . 144. standing sideways.118-119). Undertraces Beneath these graphite studies we see traces Tones On the top row we see clearly how Gericault laid broad areas of tone using fast. diagonal strokes of his pencil. s h o r t . fiery. Repeated study This drawing demonstrates of feeling confident repeat different the importance subject Remaining enough to isolate parts of a views. horses w e r e a favorite subject t o g e t h e r w i t h politics and history. Paris. At the center of the page is crammed drawings the outline of a horse. The Raft of the Medusa. Beginners are advised to follow the natural contours of form as shown on pp. Before paper became so cheap. Here. facing right. parallel. and keep trying again.l i v e d French R o m a n t i c painter and lithographer Largely self-taught. and it can be applied to any subject (see pp. since it can lead to a flattened form. artists reused sheets and them full of studies. of drawings Gericault erased. 124-25 and p. focused upon seeing will lead to a greater understanding of the subject Much is learned from repeated study. undertraces unify and vitalize the composition. of previous Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 1817-18 121/2 x 151/2 in ( 3 1 9 x 3 9 8 mm) T H E O D O R E GERICAULT . displayed in the Louvre. Tones that do not follow surface contour is very difficult to do well. H e is best k n o w n f o r his gigantic painting.

with George Braque (see p90). Gouache is brushed softly in translucent hazy layers of cool blue. noise is everywhere. and waves breaking distantly below. identify an animal: the fast cheetah. overwhelmed by a screeching bird. Both Picasso and Klee have enclosed their subjects to compress and amplify the speed of PABLO PICASSO A prolific Spanish painter sculptor. His hand must have shuddered and twitched just like the constant actions of this humorous meeting. flattened animals composed almost entirely of movement. the first abstract movement of the 20th century.30 ANIMALS Movement M O V E M E N T IS OFTEN THE CHARACTERISTIC b y w h i c h w e their lines and the power of their beasts. and brown. Picasso cofounded Cubism. Artists commonly focus on such actions. the whinnying of a frantic horse. In Picasso's drawing. In these two drawings. slow tortoise. gray. His powdery. These media complement and amplify each other with their brilliant contrast. and scrolled lines. dissolving faun kneels stranded. Ink and gouache This drawing is made in black Chinese ink and gouache (opaque watercolor) applied with a brush. Faune. The fact that they never stand still influences the movement in his line. taking them to guide their hand in bringing form and essence together. quivering horse. made only a year apart. draftsman. we see semi-abstract. flapping bird. hooked. Cheval et Oiseau 1936 173/8 x 211/4 in ( 4 4 0 x 5 4 0 m m ) PABLO PICASSO . or proud. printmaker ceramicist graphic and stage designer who lived in France. The ink is used to make sharply defined solid. Klee's riders are constructed from all the gestures of greeting mules.

W i t h his drawings Kleeb o u n d sophisticated theories to personal and often witty childlike imagery. N e u m a n n Family Collection. well-worn copies o f w h i c h are found in m a n y art schools. Chicago PAUL KLEE . printmaker. draftsman. creatures. Layers of marks In this pale Dentil drawing we see layers of' agitated marks that together present a kind of visual "itch. violinist. sculptor. turning our eye and around inside the and postures of the paper- thin on pictorial space. Scene der Komischen of Comical Reiter Riders) (Scene 1935 161/2x111/2in ( 4 1 9 x 2 9 1 mm) M o r t o n G . top all happily of each other in the Endless lines Look closely at how Klee's lines rarely leave the paper and how they are free from the constraint of finite shape. The entire drawing suggests the endless small movements of horses standing still. They remain in contact with the surface of the page and scribble back and forth as they maneuver from one area to another." They chatter around bodies in groups. and t e a c h e r at t h e Bauhaus school.PAUL KLEE Swiss painter. He is a u t h o r o f The Thinking Eye (1923).

B a k e r initiated t h e scientific p r a c t i c e o f naval a r c h i t e c t u r e and applied h y d r o d y n a m i c s . and author o f Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (1586). adding washes of color with a fine brush. The ship The upper decks of the ship appear curved toward us at both ends. In just one drawing he has displayed more angles of his design than we would expect to see from a single viewpoint Fragments English 1586 101/2 x 153/8 in (270 x 390 mm) MATTHEW BAKER of Ancient Shipwrightry . fins. He studied the anatomy of fish. and s e c t i o n s o f ships. Baker lived in an era when ships were built without drawn plans. Knopf's drawing opposite is the personal enigmatic expression of a mind gripped by illness. His birds stare.32 ANIMALS Icon and Design IN THESE T W O MANUSCRIPTS we discover diagrammatic and mackerel's tail" (full bow. it would achieve greater speed. and to assess our next move. Baker did not intend this. and blackbirds fly in formation through a mosaic of text. balance. and steerage. and from them learned that if he designed his ship with a "cod's head MATTHEW BAKER Master shipwright. In contrast to the practical clarity of Baker's thought. seemingly looking for our attention. Exquisite details in this drawing include the lips of the fish. and scales. The fish It is likely that Baker drew with a quill dipped in irongall ink. the expression of its eye. drawings of animals that are each held tightly in a surprising space: a giant fish wears a ship's hull. t h e earliest geometrically defined elevations. later called a galleon. plans. b a s e d o n his studies o f fish. It is simply how we read his perspective. Below we see his revolutionary design for an Elizabethan warship. mathematician. This drawing illustrates Baker's theory. which in application gave strength and advantage to the English fighting the Spanish Armada. and the carefully observed gills. slim stern).

numbered. The text. T h e G e r m a n a r t historian Outline and tone The blackbirds illuminating this frantic manuscript are drawn in pencil. circle and the birds. The main group is placed in a circle drawn with a compass.JOHANN KNOPF An " O u t s i d e r " a r t i s t w h o s u f f e r e d f r o m m e n t a l illness. w h i c h o f t e n f e a t u r e as s y m b o l i c creatures in his drawings. written last of all. firmly outlined.K n o p f b e l i e v e d h e c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h e language o f birds. appears to be stirred like water by the presence of the The Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks UNDATED 133/8 x 115/8 in (340 x 2 9 6 mm) and psychiatrist Hans Prinzhom collected this image. JOHANN KNOPF . and filled evenly with tone.

A German recipe of 1531 gives a simple description: "Take a wax candle. PENS . producing a different line. Early artists recommended raven and crow for especially fine work. which range greatly in their handling and character of line. The paste from either recipe is pressed and dried into a bar for storage. a n d m e t a l p o i n t s .34 ANIMALS Pen and Ink W I T H A HANDFUL OF FEATHERS. Dip pens began their history in the Nile River. spots. 5 0 0 years ago. Today. and it is still in use today. The best are goose or swan. They fit into wooden holders. from the acacia tree. The Chinese used animal or fish glue. In the Far East. Avoid needle-sharp mapping pens. distinguished manufacture. 2. F O U N T A I N PENS: These vary in quality and nib width. QUILLS: These are cut from the barrel of a flight or tail feather. where reeds were gathered. and hold it under a clean basin until the soot hangs to it. then pour a little warm gum water into it and temper the two together. the recipes for which have been handed down over centuries. high-quality Chinese and Japanese inks are subtler and more complex than those produced in Europe. Intricate or dramatic lines. you can have great fun drawing the world around you. Quills were later cut from feathers. REED PENS: A broad nib can be cut from bamboo or another tubular grass. simultaneously 4 . The reservoir gives a constant flow of ink for very long unbroken lines and continuous bottle-free use. they are associated with rapid. The Egyptians and Chinese are credited with the invention of carbon ink. Each pen has a unique character. Only fill with suitable inks. and first used by the Egyptians. Masters choose brands of long. s t i c k s . which scratch rather than draw. 4. The bar is then rubbed into water on a slate block to produce ink.246-47). and spatters can be made with an exotic choice of inks. That is an ink." "Gum" refers to gum arabic extracted Dip pens are essential and inexpensive drawing tools. Responsive to slight changes in pressure. light it. ink is traditionally applied with a brush (see pp. METAL PENS: Inexpensive removable steel nibs are available in a range of widths. while metal nibs began as rare gifts in gold and silver before being perfected by the British steel industry. expressive drawing techniques such as the ones we explore in this chapter 1. 3.

they produce a golden dye for drawing. Bistre is the more humane use of soot scraped from the fireplace and ground into wine. boiled. I R O N . ACRYLIC / CALLIGRAPHY INKS: Available in black and a range of colors. SEPIA A N D BISTRE INKS: Sepia. Inks can be lightfast or non-lightfast. The complexities of traditional iron-gall ink are explained on p. and can be mixed and diluted to create subtler colors and tones. C A R B O N INK: Traditionally produced from oil or resin soot (Lamp Black). 5.G A L L INK: Abnormal spherical growths caused by parasitic wasps can be collected from some oak trees in fall. bistre. Old stock turns solid and bottlesChina. and sieved. from are not 6.36. roastedwine sediment (Yeast Black). reduced. and most can be homemade. 8. They are the easiest inks to use. an often misused term. and are still in use today: carbon (Chinese and Indian). charred bone (Ivory Black). Beechwood soot is best. Now we also have acrylic ranges in many colors. INKS 9. or charcoal.35 PEN AND INK Four types of ink were common before the 20th century. Crushed. Excellent for drawing they are bright and non-clogging. Waterproof types contain shellac. Non-waterproof Indian inks can be reworked with a wet brush after drying. is the ink of a cuttlefish or squid extracted post-mortem. and sepia. It dries with a sheen and clogs uncleaned pens. . iron-gall. suspended in a binder and stored as a solid block Blocks are imported today 7. dated. I N D I A N INK: Carbon ink sold today in liquid form. waterproof or non-waterproof.

t h e y stick a n d j u d d e r f o r w a r d . U n d e r heavy pressure. Reed marks The darker left wing of this beetle was drawn with the wet inky stroke wing. appears broken to show paper beneath. Scribes o f t h e M i d d l e Ages. Walnut ink is gloopy. are surprisingly tough. Practice to gain a feel for how materials behave. the blade and cut away from you. Rembrandt. r e s e r v e d t h e i r use f o r large c h o i r b o o k s . Quills are also called D u t c h pens. a n d d e v e l o p e d t h e quill instead. It also oxidized and ate or burned paper. Paler strokes were made where the mark has the legs and antennae the ink ran out. 2 4 4 is an e x q u i s i t e e x a m p l e .36 ANIMALS Drawing With Ink To MAKE A QUILL OR REED PEN. Oak galls. sieved. a n d M a t i s s e also e n j o y e d t h e m . and delicious to draw with. red-brown.) You can make ink easily from the boiled. and turned brown with time. and boiled to make a golden ink. for example. since t h e D u t c h w e r e t h e first t o realize t h a t they could be hardened and i m p r o v e d w i t h heat t r e a t m e n t in ash o r sand. galls were ground with iron sulfate to make an unstable solution. of a loaded nib. d r y mark. giving longer lines. Although oak galls and walnut skins are harmless. M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s d r a g o n o n p . forming the REED PENS R e e dpens dispense ink quickly. Running fresh. then cut a final nib (feathers. QUILL PENS Q u i l l s a r e highly r e s p o n s i v e t o c h a n g e s in p r e s s u r e . finding reed p e n s unwieldy. . always be cautious when experimenting with recipes. The darkest of this grasshopper wings) were made (around the head first. drawn to glisten with a dryer nib. crushed. For centuries. m o r e e x t e n d e d line than reed and a m o r e organic line t h a n m e t a l . T h e y give a finer. it was gray-purple. Collect skins from the ground beneath trees once they are blackened. fleshy skins that surround ripe walnuts. can also be collected from affected trees. Some of Michelangelo's drawings are now a little eaten by their own ink. It dried black. giving a s h o r t . reduced. V a n G o g h . keep all your fingers behind basis of iron-gall ink. The lighter right Quill marks Quills carry more ink than strokes and for as reeds. I u s e d t h e s e qualities t o d r a w t h e w o r m s above.

When using dip pens. . giving a graded. DRAWING WITH INK Filled outlines Each segment of wing was outlined. withstanding great pressure without sticking. tonal Ink layers The wings of this beetle were drawn in layers using black and white ink on pale gray paper. W h e n the nib is pressed upside down. clean strokes. Each layer of of the drying droplet dome the drawing was left to dry before adding more.37 METAL PENS Metal pens give long. o r being ruined as fountain pens would be under the same pressure. breaking. Loaded with ink and pressed hard. particles then filled with a droplet of ink. sharp. they splay to make thick o r double lines. White markings were drawn last Tones Here we see subtle tones of diluted ink beneath the undiluted black rim of a beetle's wing. it is important to feel for when the ink will run out and to know how much ink you pick up when dipping the nib. The of pigment to fall to the edges effect of the shape. marks become fine and needle-sharp.

Attempt with a loose hand to capture their posture and outline. be bold and press firmly.38 ANIMALS Capturing Character GEESE ARE EXCELLENT SUBJECTS to draw when practicing the first use of pen and ink. not on your drawing. Experiment. and boldly plunge into your drawing. Cover a sheet. to absorb blots when drawing. It teaches confidence and focus through intensive repetition. I covered eleven sheets in sixty quick drawings—in less than an hour. draw what the bird is doing. and bellyflop off the waterside. make another one. Study them before drawing. Posture . and a large drawing book or plenty of paper Use masking tape to secure pages against the wind. and quickly draw around it using only three or four strokes." If you don't like a stroke. test your limits. so pick a spot where other people can keep them entertained. Focus on the geese. Pack plenty of tissue around a bottle of calligraphy or acrylic ink. Geese are nosy birds. Focus on it. waddle. there is no obligation to prepare a quill. Take a cup and water for diluting a range of tones. Watch their heavy feathered bodies flap. MATERIALS NEEDED Look for a bird expressing a simple posture. It happens that goose feathers also provide artists with the best type of quills. Empathize. That said. Try to hold the whole posture in your mind's eye. Cover your drawing book pages in speedy responses to the geese and try to capture each bird in as few lines as possible. and there is no "wrong. You cannot break the nib. Illustrating this exercise on Oxford Port Meadow. Dip your pen in ink. steel nibs are fine. Quick drawing trains you to see what is most important about a subject and to mark only its most essential expression. touch the bottle's rim to drain the excess. Take no more than ten seconds to draw each one and make lots of drawings. and be brave.

39 Action With growing confidence. Again. draw the feeling of what you see. CAPTURING CHARACTER Texture Gradually allow yourself more lines to describe the texture of each bird as well as its posture and action. Avoid detail unless really tempted by a close-up visit Fluctuate the pressure of your pen in response to how you know the bird would feel if you touched it. and don't worry about mechanical facts or accuracy. running. flapping. Use more lines than before to express these. look among the birds for more complicated actions such as shaking off water. . and diving.

and a tissue for blotting drawn lines that appear too dark. a d o g w h o w a s a l w a y s town. Ras Curled Up Asleep "Capturing the true character of a cherished companion is best achieved with objective determination rather than sentimental shyness. form. The only time he remained still was when he was sleeping.40 ANIMALS Sleeping Dogs R A S WAS A GREAT CHARACTER. a dip pen and ink of your choice (see pp. and even then he twitched and stretched in dreams. Make a test sheet to discover your control of diluting on the nib. Now it will make a pale line. MAKING A PALE LINE To make a pale line. Then dip the nib quickly into a glass of water and drain the excess again. your drawing book. Dip the nib quickly again into water and again drain it. and drain the excess by touching the nib against the rim of the bottle. Sleeping animals present the artist with ideal opportunities to study their texture. first dip your pen in ink. These drawings are not an analysis of his anatomy or breed but the expression of his satisfied comfort in a deep sleep after a night out on the together with a glass of water for diluting tones on the nib. This will give a medium-gray line.34-37). engaged in his and everyone else's business. and personality. For this class you will need one oblivious dog." .

. alter the pressure and moisture of your line in response to howyouknow your dog feels when you ruffle itscoat. tail. quickly draw what you see. ears. in bold layers. Layers o f thoughts can bring a drawing alive. I added ink to Ras's nose. To add texture. to emphasize how he is curled up. Then I immediately rebalanced the drawing with lines around his hind quarters. second thoughts may be different Changing your mind is a positive aspect o f seeing and thinking.It is essential when drawing any subject (even something abstract) to know how it feels andtoemulate this with your line. Here. Here I marked the features of Ras's head. and the shadows in his coat. see how the animal's posture determines its whole shape. First lines are first thoughts. Trust your intuition. this time to create a line a little darker in tone. 2 Reload your pen with ink. Then. ignoring all detail. c o n c e r n e d a b o u t detail. 3 Gradually introduce darker tones. SLEEPING DOGS 1 Fix your eyes at the center of the dog. Remain focused on the whole dog and.41 DRAWING YOUR DOG Be bold in this exercise. D o not go back over lines you are pleased with—doing so dulls their lively freshness. add more detail. W i t h pale lies. Character is better captured drawing quickly with confidence than w o r k i n g slowly.

Beyond the glass wall of the aquarium.Turtles to observe. swinging their limbs and shells with a slow circular movement. offering plenty of time for the artist to draw the pose. they stretch and paddle. A perfect subject for the beginner. as if caught in a camera freeze-frame. THE ELONGATION AND BUOYANCY of a group of turtles is fascinating . turtles often pause unexpectedly.


With speed. and water. I made repeated studies of the housemartin to discover its mechanism of flight. weightlessness of the kiwi. dry. I darkened lines as each drawing progressed.Dry Birds THESE ARE THE ARTICULATED BONES o f a k i w i a n d a h o u s e - martin drawn in a museum using a steel pen. I sought to capture the form. Beginning with very pale tones. . India ink. and sharp. balance.



Conrad von Gemmingen. an There are close parallels between the acts of gardening and drawing. B A S I L I U SBESLER when botanists founded new work upon the direct study of plants. Botanic gardens were established and expanded. we see very different cultural visions of plants and gardens and use pencils and plants to learn the pictorial values of space. He sent boxes of plants to Nuremburgburned with the urgency and excitement of explaining every plant's form. The revolution came in the 1530s. Early European illustrators were trapped within dogma that was determined by ancient scholarship. Medieval knowledge was not gained by the first-hand observation of life but by reading.Morethan 1. infinitely vivid. Plants seventeenth century. 1613 187/8x153/4in(480 x 400 mm) BASILIUS BESLER . Rich owners of private gardens commissioned large-format florilegiums commissioned the volume to document his private garden to immortalize their personal taste and power of acquisition. the microscope was refined to unfold yet another world.Plants and Gardens W E SHARE THIS PLANET with the more ancient. manipulations of light and shade. to the proliferation of floral designs with which we have dressed ourselves and furnished our homes for centuries. After Here Aconthus spinosus is combined with forget-me-nots and-a-half centuries of intensive observation. Patrons funded the breeding of decorative. and focus. —-the largest and most influential botanical book of the early Natural scientists accompanied explorers to document unknown finds. form. as opposed to only herbal. Classifications were set in367copperengravings. Fledgling years Botanist and apothecary who compiled the Hortus Eystettensis of scientific research bore manifold explosions of knowledge in a fever of discovery. Botanical illustration is a precisely defined and scientific art.000 species of plants are depicted life-size drawn. and the drawn pages ofthesame name. and diverse kingdom of plants. on which our lives depend. and beauty. and to ornament our lives. season. PriceBishopof Eichstatt specimens. It was published plain in 1611 and withhand-paintedplates in poured off ships returning from the New World and were eagerly collected and 1613. Later. robust. In this chapter. nurture. to catalog our knowledge. color. where a number of uncredited artistsd r e wthem for Besler. Both embrace the anticipation of evolving shape. the punctuation of space with structure and mass. shape. Chapters are arranged by out. Plants are the principal inspiration of the decorative arts—from Roman Corinthian columns crowned with carved leaves of the acanthus. We draw them to celebrate their beauty and range. and texture. From its history there is one overriding lesson to be learned: the importance of looking and seeing with our own eyes. We collect. and the Acanthus spinosus constant but exhilarating struggle to make a living image feel right. we now have laid before us fourto show how well their colours complement each other infinite wealth of material to explore. and hybridize them for our sustenance and pleasure.

o p t i m i s m . and wilted. petal tip over a lower leaf Protea nitida 201/4 x141/4in (513 x 362 mm) FRANZ BAUER 1796 . flowers. Stella Ross-Craig said of the need to d r a w from a dried herbarium plant "I could make it live again. Botanical art c o n c e a l s the challenge of its m a k i n g . and seeds conventionally a p p e a r o n o n e plate. It is likely Bauer would have studied these under a microscope. The King was then establishing the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. detail. Each plant must b e clearly distinguished from its closest relative. leaves. Here. measured drawings. They are counted among the most accomplished 18th-century botanical artists.48 PLANTS AND GARDENS THE SCIENTIFIC VALUE OF A BOTANICAL DRAWING lies i n its Botanical Studies were specimens that often refused to stay still. stems. Light in this drawing is given by the paleness of the paper showing between washes of darker tones. o p e n i n g a n d c l o s i n g i n the w a r m t h a n d light of the studio. and Franz Bauer and his brother Ferdinand were employed there to draw specimens. subtle union of beauty. W i t h bright F R A N Z BAUER An Austrian artist who trained at the Schonbrunn Imperial Gardens in Vienna. fruit. Outline Bauer prepared a pencil outline before laying in fleshy succulent hues and tones of watercolor." Her slipper orchid s h o w s that botanical drawing must often resolve the challenge of its subject's p r o d u c i n g parts in different seasons — r o o t s . T h e rest of u s are free to d r a w as w e w i s h . Sir Joseph Banks. B e h i n d detailed. naturalist explorer and advisor to King George III invited Bauer to London in 1 7 9 0 . or that were diseased. s u c h as w e see here in Bauer's Protea nitida. insect-ravaged. Dissections Across the lower part of this drawing we can see dissections of seed pods and petals. He has made the spatial and physical relationships in this drawing all the more real by placing a single. and meticulous precision. M a c k i n t o s h e x p r e s s e s the f o l d e d petals of a broken rose b u d so delicately w e can sense the perfume. delicate.

Curtis's Botanical Magazine. and perfect coordination of hand and eye.. and speed depends upon the immediate perception of the essential characteristics of the plant.000 Kew to archive accessible t o d a y v i a t h e I n t e r n e t of o n British flora. L o n d o n in 1 9 2 9 . a m o n g o t h e r s . 1970 x 81/4 in ( 3 2 5 x 2 1 0 m m ) STELLA ROSS-CRAIG . a n d f o u n d e r o f t h e G l a s g o w S c h o o l o f A r t M a c k i n t o s h ' s flair h a d an e n o r m o u s i n f l u e n c e o n t h e a v a n t ." This line drawing is one of 1. A s m a n y of her drawings are kept G a r d e n s . is r e c o g n i z e d as tne m o s t c o m p l e t e a n d i m p o r t a n t work 3. it is small and discreet..7 3 in 3 1 p a r t s . BOTANICAL STUDIES Lines and shadows This lush. as at trained botanical artist Ross-Craig Swift lines The drawing was planned in pencil and then overworked with a lithographic pen. G u s t a v K l i m t In his r e t i r e m e n t Mackintosh m a d e n u m e r o u s inventive pencil a n d w a t e r c o l o r d r a w i n g s o f plants. Pencil lines cling to.g a r d e in G e r m a n y a n d A u s t r i a .49 C H A R L E S RENNIE MACKINTOSH Scottish a r c h i t e c t d e s i g n e r painter. Ross-Craig said of her work "Plants that wither rapidly present a very difficult problem to which there is only one answer—speed. a n d he inspired. H e r Drawings of British Plants. Line Drawing of Cypripedium calceolus L c. K e w .286 studies for her book Drawings of British Plants. and it shows how design. Rose 1894 103/4 x 83/4 in ( 2 7 5 x 2 2 1 mm) CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH STELLA ROSS-CRAIG A j o i n e d t h e staff a t t h e R o y a l B o t a n i c G a r d e n s . S h e also o f thousands o f contributed an drawings. p u b l i s h e d 1 9 4 8 . Closer to fiction can come together perfectly. and observation the nuance and contour of every in one image. and follow shadow. found among Mackintosh's than reality. sensual pencil drawing is later works. imagination.

uniform focus. in the early 16th century. Bishndas was probably responsible for the overall design. They used a fine brush to lay pigment over a line drawing. painting. a notable portrait painter drew the faces. Below. is remembered in the pages of his journal.50 PLANTS AND GARDENS Jeweled Gardens the Middle East we find exquisite stylization of form and upright formality in pictorial space. Drawing. Envoys chatter outside the gate. in miniature. Opposite is the Rose of Mohammed. Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity c. and attention to detail are all shared with medieval European manuscript drawings. Afghanistan. fluctuations in scale. Babur directs his gardeners in the design and planting of this quartered chahar bagh. anticipating their view. paper is brimming with the beauty and celebration of nature. Every fiber of AMONG DRAWINGS FROM BISHNDAS A N D N A N H A Little is known of these Mughal painters who were related as uncle and nephew and commissioned to illustrate the pages of Babur's journal. which he personally created near Kabul. roses took their form in a bead of perspiration on the brow of Mohammed as he passed through his heavenly journey. the sumptuous petals permeated with prayer and wisdom. Upright shallow perspectives. 1590 85/8 x55/8in (219 x 1 4 4 mm) BISHNDAS AND NANHA Bright pigment These pages were illuminated by Mughal artists in the late 16th century. The white of the page shines through the brilliant color. and miraculous growth. urgent attentive human activity. . and Nanha. By Muslim tradition. The first Mughal Emperor Babur's Garden of Fidelity (Bagh-e Vaja). and calligraphy are brought together to hold the sacred names of prophets and the 99 beautiful names of God.

Sacred words The central rose is more solid than any other on the page. The Rose of Mohammed 1708 9 1 / 2 x 61/2 in ( 2 4 0 x 1 6 5 mm) FROM THE TURKISH M A N U S C R I P T AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH . The physical anatomy of the rosebud has been studied and translated into a repeated stylized motif. Note how each bud is essentially the same shape. fragmenting its detail in a whisper of prayers. t h e Staatsbibliothek zu Arabic.AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH This is a detail o f a page from a n 1 8 t h .c e n t u r y Turkish manuscnpt a book of religious e t h i c s w r i t t e n in the O r i e n t a l C o l l e c t i o n s of Berlin. It is n o w k e p t in Border The elegant border of this drawing was mode with a pen and ruler It cleverly compresses and defines the composition. However. Stylized motif A fine brush has been used throughout this drawing to apply inks and watercolors. so that overlapping petals and stems give an impression of fulfillment and abundance. look closely and you will see words written in gold fluttering over the form of the flower. and how the shape has been repeated freehand. G e r m a n y .



Fast Trees
IN CONTRAST TO THE QUIET, formal detail of other drawings in this chapter, these powerful fast trees enact the actions of plants. Each tree reaches out and holds its landscape with dynamism and pulse. In both drawings we find testament to the inexorable energy of growth. Rembrandt expresses a delicate quickness. Gentle lines draw a warm breeze through this remote wooded garden. Rustling in a loose foliage of soft marks, his pen evokes the weight of abundant activity on this late summer's day. Mondrian's arch of scratching branches is drawn with such force it will always be alive. We can still feel his hand storming across the paper. Set within a frame of smudged landscape, the tree possesses a musical agitation. This characteristic will increase in the artist's later abstract work. Here, we see a punctuated ordering of space. Sharp branches cut out negative shapes of winter sky.

R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter; etcher; and draftsman. Rembrandt's prolific output comprises oil paintings of historical and religious subjects together with group and self- portraits. His emotive etchings and pen and ink drawings (see also p. 174) are great resources for artists learning to understand the potential of these media.


Pen and ink lines describing foliage also tell

us the directions of sunlight and wind. An arc crossing the bottom of the drawing from one side to the other supports the scene and separates us from the landscape beyond. Compare Rembrandt's arc to that of Mondrian's. and note the similar treatment of low horizons in both works emphasizing the height and dominance of trees.

Cottage Among Trees 1648-50 63/4 x121/8in ( I 7 I x 308 mm) R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN





Atmosphere Here we see how shapes of negative space are as important as the physical subject they enclose (see pp.58-59). Mondrian has again lightly dragged his chalk on its side to evoke a wet depth of atmosphere. These passive gray marks contrast with the assertive tension of the tree.

Dutch Pure abstract painter preoccupied w i t h line and plane relationships. W i t h increasing austerity, Mondrian banished t h e subject from his drawings, in his later w o r k he also banished space, composing visual h a r m o n i e s using only straight lines a n d flat planes o f black, w h i t e , gray, o r p r i m a r y color.

Winter ground Short vertical marks along thebottomof this drawing reveal the length oftheblackchalk Mondrian used. Rubbed onitsside,itroughly blocks in the ground. Thecrudeeconomy of line is all we need tofeelthecold, wet, unwelcoming quality ofthiswinterearth.

Branches and trunk Lines shaping the branches of the tree are built up in layers. To make the trunk more dense, the artist has rubbed and smudged preliminary marks with his fingers before firmly overdrawing with new lines. Solid black lines are achieved by pressing the chalk hard. When used lightly, it shows the texture of the paper. Tree: Study for the Grey 1911 23 x 335/8 in ( 5 8 4 x 8 5 5 m m ) Tree




Graphite and Erasers

This drawing illustrates a range of achieved with graphite pencils of different grades.


Modern pencils are graded from 9H (hard and pale) to 9B (black and soft). Graphiteclay sticks are also available, together with a powder form. All possess a natural sheen and are erasable to a varying degree. Graphite drawings smudge easily, so fixative, a form of varnish, can be used to hold a drawn surface in place. It is applied as a fine mist from an aerosol can, or from a bottle using a diffuser. For the beginner, ordinary hairspray is an effective and cheaper alternative.

(to write), is a soft and brittle carbon. It was first mined in Cumbria, England, in 1 5 6 4 , and was initially used in small, pure pieces bound in lengths of string. Pencils as we know them—with their slender wood casing and "lead" of graphite—were invented in France in 1794 by Nicolas-Jaques Conte. He discovered that milled graphite mixed with clay and water, press-molded, and baked to a high temperature produces a harder and paler medium than graphite alone.

3B pencil A range of mark and textures can be achieved with a 3B pencil when you vary its pressure, speed, and direction, as this detail shows.

Here is a selection of 14 items to illustrate a basic range of pencils, graphite sticks, sharpeners, erasers, and fixative.
1. AND 2. HB AND 3B PENCILS: It is unnecessary to possess every grade of pencil. HB, the central and most common grade, is perfect for making delicate lines. 3B gives a blacker tone. A great variety of effects can be achieved with just these two. 3. WATER-SOLUBLE PENCIL Effective for atmospheric drawing, but be aware of how watery tones can dull the impact of the line. 4. AND 5. MECHANICAL PENCIL Thick or fine leads are made in a range of grades. They are particularly useful because they do not require a sharpener 6. ROUND SOLID GRAPHITE PENCIL: Excellent for large-scale drawing, producing thick bold lines. A range of grades can be honed with a craft knife or sharpener 7. THICK GRAPHITE STICK: For large-scale drawing. Graded soft, medium, and hard. It crushes to produce graphite powder 8. SQUARE GRAPHITE STICK: Useful for making broad, sweeping marks in large-scale drawing. If worn and rounded, the stick can be snapped into pieces to regain the sharp, square end. 9. CRAFT KNIFE AND BLADES: Handles are sold in two sizes to fit large or small blades, and blades are sold in a range of shapes. Perfect for sharpening pencils to a long point, to cut lines in paper or to remove areas. 10. PENCIL SHARPENER: Makes a uniform point. Keep one in your pocket for drawing outside the studio, together with an envelope for shavings.

HB and 5B Layers of tone have been built up withHBand5Bpencils. Softer pencils require less pressure to make a mark, revealing the texture of the paper surface. It is important to keep the point of the pencil sharp with either a craft knife or a sharpener.


Erasers can be used t o blend and s o f t e n lines, o r t o r e m o v e altogether. Fixative them prevents


s m u d g i n g a n d s e c u r e s lines.

Using fixative You can use fixative while drawing to hold the definition of lines you wish to gently fade but not remove entirely, for which you would use an eraser.

11. P L A S T I C E R A S E R : Avoid cheap colored erasers that may stain drawings with grease and dye. White brands are available in soft and hard versions.



W a r m it in your hand before use. It is excellent for removing powdery materials, and for making crisp sweeps of light across a delicate pencil drawing

13. D I F F U S E R : Helleborus corsicus (Corsican hellebore) fixative, or to spray mists of ink.



Cropping and Composition
M A N Y STUDENTS WILL START a d r a w i n g i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e

that its skin nearly touches the boundary. The meaning of the same drawing changes simply by its relationship to the space it occupies. The size of any subject, its placement on the page, the size of the page, and its overall proportion are all discrete and essential aspects of successful picture-making. Before you begin to draw, think carefully about where to place your subject. Are you are happy with your paper? If not, change it; add more, take some away, or turn it around. Do not just accept what you are given, adapt it to what you need.

paper. Focused on the shape and detail of their subject, they remain happily unaware that there is, or should be, any relationship between what they are drawing and the surface they are drawing it on. The paper is only paper, and the troublesome subject floats somewhere in the expanse of it. However, a single fig drawn in the middle of a large, empty square of paper gives quite a different impression from the same fig drawn on such an intimately small square


A Single Fig

"The size, shape, and orientation of the paper are so integral to the composition that they determine the impact and meaning of the drawing."

Here the left fig is attached to. The angle of the fruit together with dark shadow (top left) and bright light(bottom right) suggest a diagonal division across the whole drawing. the uppermost edge of the drawing. as also shown here. When subjects touch two or more edges. spaces between things are as important as the things themselves. U s e it as a starting point. CROPPING AND COMPOSITION Off-center and diagonal Here I held my viewfinder so the fig appeared upper-left in the space.O u r focus is on the white cloth supporting the figs. Touching the edge When the subject o f a drawing touches one edge of the paper it attaches t o it visually. A card with a small rectangle cut out o f it makes a useful viewfinder C l o s e o n e e y e t o look through the hole.57 THE VIEWFINDER T h e s e pencil drawings o f figs d e m o n s t r a t e different crops and compositions. running corner t o corner. a device to help you decide what t o draw. This drawing hasbeencropped to emphasize space between thefruit. its stem and shadow framing a white center. and therefore apparently suspended from. its illumination. t h e n m o v e t h e c a r d t o e x p l o r e different views. and lines describing shadows cast by the fruit . Space as the subject Inallpictures. bottom-left t o top-right. they establish a tension and unity with the paper.

Negative space is the simple key to getting positive shape right. position. this ensures a consistent view. a sharp H B pencil. dynamic. Looking at negative space overrides the problem of drawing what you know. It is an astonishingly simple device that many artists use and I strongly recommend. then added a second shape. but if the artist does. you will need a similar large-leaved plant. and a fresh page in your drawing book. unified. In your own version. third. a foundation stone in picture-making. shapes of air cut out and defined by the physicality of our environment? When we look into the branches of a tree. Unfamiliar shapes of negative space reveal the real shape of a positive subject.The box opposite isolates an area. But how often do we look at the air between things. It helps to start at the center and map outward. do we see myriad distinct and unique shapes of daylight or do we just see branches? Why as artists should we look at the air? Every space in a picture has a shape. an eraser. WHERE TO START Arrange your plant and paper so you can look back and forth by barely moving your head. and engaging. tone. not leaves. Viewers appreciating a finished image may not see shapes of space. In following this class. which is shown in the three steps below. erasing and adjusting lines until itlooked right. Follow these from left to right and see how I began with one complete shape between two parts of a leaf. fourth. Draw a complete shape Map outward from the center Erase and adjust lines until correct . rather than what you see in front of you. Remember that plants do move! Therefore it is best to complete your drawing in one sitting if possible. and a role to play. their subject and composition will become more real. and so on.58 PLANTS AND GARDENS Negative Space UNCONSCIOUSLY WE ASSESS spatial relationships all the time to guide ourselves through the world. The drawing opposite is of the uppermost leaves of a potted fig tree. remember to draw only space.


Here I drew only spaces, adding one to another until the leaves were revealed. Besides looking at negative space, there are two other useful things to do when a drawing feels wrong but you cannot see why: look at it in a mirror or turn it upside down. errors and suggest changes.

Spaces between leaves

Either view will


Fig Tree
WALKING IN THE ALPUJARRAS in A n d a l u c i a ,

Spain, I drew a bare fig tree clinging to the wall of an almond grove; a perfect subject for seeing negative space. I marked its essential frame of large branches first, frequently erasing lines and changing my mind until the balance felt right.

S a l v i a , RIBES, CLEMATIS, Allium, Passiflora, and Acanthus

Summer Flowers


drawn with an H pencil by observing the

negative spaces between the stems, petals, and leaves. I arranged the flowers on a sheet of paper in a cool r o o m and rapidly sketched a composition. Then I put them in water, taking the stems out one at a time to draw.


gathering less distinct information on the way. our eyes travel and adjust from one point of focus to another. they emulate our experience of seeing. We never see everything at once.Acanthus Spinosus As we LOOK AROUND. interfolding points of detail with areas of loose suggestion. Compare changes of pace and focus here to the flatter finish of Summer Flowers (see pp. 62-63). If an artist changes the pace of their line and focus of their attention. . Excessive detail leaves no space for the eye to rest or imagination to wander.


once there. Since Picasso and Braque's revolution of Cubism in around 1907. fine artists. philosophers. Baltard designed the Church of St. and writers have been breaking away from traditional forms of representation to seek new expressions of shape. Perhaps in the sheer planes of some of our greatest modern buildings it is finding its clearest expression. At the core of their practice. we find the most recent steps in the evolution of graphic language. Paris 1871-74 the child's view to the infinity of the vanishing point. balance. to 20th-century film fantasy.The church is still in use today. space. to help them create new form. the device that has since governed most of our picture-making (sec pp. composers. Architects have been fine-tuning their specialized branch of drawing for centuries. It is the focus of practical class in this chapter. which was the first church in the capital to be built entirely of metal and then clad in stone. Computer programs allow the virtual drawing of ideas. European conventions of pictorial perspective have lost their monopoly on seeing." reflecting the eye's love of unity in difference. add and subtract ideas. from political commentary to musical abstraction. 74-75). Besides sketches of first thoughts and polished drawings of the finished look for clients. architects. film-set design. mass. time. Through the animation of the screen. filmmakers. Augustin. architects and designers can imaginatively "climb inside" three-dimensional space and. which can be clearly seen in ancient Greek architecture. and in the 19th century it was given the name the Golden Section. Among the drawings of this chapter we look from 17th-century ecclesiastical calm. the formula for perfection spread through Europe. Since the first flowering of Modernism in the early 20th century. It was the mathematicians. they also have a diagrammatic language for communicating plans to builders.Architecture I N THE CONTEMPORARY PRACTICES of architecture. invaluable to understand and apply when you choose. and architects of ancient Greece who first pursued the formula for "divine proportion. drawing plans around themselves within a program as opposed to on a flat sheet of paper. of the west facade of St Augustin. coupled with the importance of exercizing your imagination. VICTOR BALTARD French architect employed by the city of Paris. with gray and brown watercolor wash. Yet the pursuit of divine proportion and harmony remains. and sound. designers. Linear perspective is a marvelous device. each VICTOR BALTARD . It was also during the Renaissance that the architect Brunelleschi invented linear perspective. and computer game imaging. and from West Facade of the Church of St Augustin. they have the Golden Section. This harmony.This is a pencil drawing. was preserved into the Renaissance where it became a foundation stone for thinking and creativity From 15thcentury Italy. made by the architect himself.

embodying a massive investment of ideas. Blenheim Palace. We see the modeled detail of Corinthian columns. Hampton Court Palace. and Castle Howard. Pillars and floor At the base of the drawing a compass-drawn plan tilted downward through 90 degrees illustrates the arrangement of pillars around a central circular floor. and labor.68 ARCHITECTURE Master Builders EVERY NEW BUILDING. Hawksmoor's drawing is both a plan and an evocation. The photograph opposite shows his studio hung with metal pendulums. and six London churches. Oxford. Cut-away interior On the right a section cut through the center of the building reveals material thicknesses. Gaudi's fluid architecture grew up through many kinds of drawing. Below it. Drawings underpin every great human-made structure like hidden linear ghosts at their core. and an inscribed entablature. Finished surface On the left the finished surface of the building is given depth and emphasis by immaculate vertical and horizontal brush strokes of shadow. A student of Wren's. evoke presence. and later an assistant to Vanbrugh. Three aspects This subtle and sophisticated drawing made in pen and wash displays three distinct aspects of Hawksmoor's baptistry. he also worked on St Paul's Cathedral. calculate function. structure. materials. Architects draw for many reasons: to visualize ideas. describe a finished look to a client. 1711-12 NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR . Hawksmoor established his reputation with university and church architecture including All Souls College. marks the end of a long journey from the first few marks the architect made on a sheet of paper. a three-dimensional drawing made with wires and weights. and ultimately to show builders what to do. St Paul's Baptistry c. Together they explain how interior structure and space define exterior form and shape. pilasters. relative levels. Lines define structure while washes suggest light and atmosphere. densely layered lines in mists of color weave the presence of the expected building into shape. testing gravity to calculate the inverted shapes of domes. NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR One of Britain's "three great" Baroque architects (along with Sir Christopher Wren and Sir John Vanbrugh). and the shapes of interior domes and apses. and balance.

Guell Crypt of its at the Time Construction c. This sculptural drawingenvisionsthe finished crypt glowingandethereal as if caught in thelightof red morning sun. 1900 ANTONIO GAUDI ANTONIO GAUDI Visionary Catalan architect. light. and apartment homes are distinguished by their Their and Flowering curves of stone or concrete are often encrusted with Gaudi was inspired by medieval and oriental art. Gaudi's cathedral in Barcelona. embellishment. The Art Nouveau movement. and his love of music. churches. To the right isawatercolordrawing thought to havebeenmade over a photograph ofthemodelabove. unique organic manipulation of high shapes. Gaudi air than on paper.69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt c. Wire and watercolor three-dimensional preferred to calculate Above is a drawing form in the made withlinkedwires and weights. 1910 24x181/4( 6 1 0 x 4 7 5mm) A N T O N I O GAUDI .

and the spaces between his windows and turrets are the visual equivalent of pauses in h i s m u s i c c o m p o s i t i o n s for p i a n o (see also Bussotti. Libeskind's numerous commissions include concert halls and museums. while the composer Erik Satie has made an enclosure of quiet order and grace. short curved poles. and dotted lines. p. such a rapport in both of these drawings. before cascading into a riot of line and sound below. He also contributed to plans for the rebuilding of the World Trade Center site in New York. and rooms. a refillable pen that feeds a constant supply of ink through a fine tubular nib. Across the top and center right of the image w e perceive an almost recognizable architectural plan. Arctic Flowers 1980 DANIEL LIBESKIND . theater sets. flat boards. and in a sense hear. Libeskind studied music before transferring to architecture. The architect and musician Daniel Libeskind has drawn a stampeding cacophany of airborne architectural detail. There has always DANIEL LIBESKIND A Polish American architect of international acclaim. and exhibitions of his drawings. upright pictorial space. been a natural affinity between the visual rhythms of pictures and the audible rhythms of music. We can see. Both men used rulers and pens to carefully and slowly construct their compositions. Contemporary musicians commonly collaborate with artists by interpreting images as sound. installations. Visual rhythms In the lower half of this drawing architectural language has broken loose: escaped and transformed into an image of rebellious pleasure. and arched dotted lines depict the radius of doors. We can imagine how a musician might interpret this drawing by looking at the abstract visual rhythms of masses composed of long straight poles. He also produces urban and landscape designs. corridors. Floor plan This drawing has been made with a rapidograph. Libeskind begins quietly in the upper space of his drawing. Satie draws quietly throughout.70 ARCHITECTURE The Order of Sound B O T H OF THESE VISIONARY DRAWINGS o c c u p y a s l e n d e r .223). Floor space appears divided by discernible walls.

Satie collaborated w i t h hisfriends J e a n C o c t e a u a n d P i c a s s o . lived a l o n e . 1 8 9 3 77/8 x 51/2 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 4 0 mm) ERIK SATIE . Onpp.56—57 we discussed important the shape.50. andfouredges of the paper tothecompositionand impact animage.ERIK SATIE F r e n c h pianist and c o m p o s e r for t h e piano. effectively additional lines in a work. theater. and ink on a fragment folded brown paper—a of everyday happened material of scrap that to be at hand. and founded his o w n church. Compare the even and and the shape wall to the elegantly stylized order of the many windows of arrangement of details and the shape of the wall in Babur's Garden of Fidelity on p. Hotel de la Suzonnieres c. a conventional dip or fountain pen. o f which he was the sole m e m b e r Parcel paper Satie has drawn this fantasy hotel using a ruler.narrowshape of its paper. H e p e r f o r m e d in cabarets. dressed eccentrically. a n d ballet. minimalist s c o r e s scandalized a u d i e n c e s with o r c h e s t r a t i o n s f o r t h e foghorn and typewriter.Edges are how are of orientation. Eastern influence The upright image Eastern is reminiscent and medieval of Middle pictorial space and subject of this European drawing. They definespaceand pictorial balance.H i s witty. the perimeter Composition Look how well this drawingfitsand resonates with the upright.

The lower-left section of the building appears relatively pale against a darker sky.96. made in 1926. ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE French architectural theorist. and draftsman. we find other Utopian visions Paul Nobles epic drawing summons an imperfect and disturbing township where ruin and activity are equal and strange. This is the work of an architectural theoretician.72 ARCHITECTURE T H E S E T H R E E HIGHLY DETAILED DRAWINGS Future Fictions invite us to soaring above normal life. Boullee lived in Paris. enter the long-shadowed architecture of imaginary worlds. Newton's Cenotaph 1784 153/4 x 25 in ( 4 0 2 x 635 m m ) ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE . cylinders. arched vaults. His celebrated imaginary buildings are characterized by pyramids. spheres. and taught at t h e A c a d e m i e d'Architecture. We glide over exquisitely drawn wastelands of damage and abandonment. Within it. Art director Erich Kettlehut's vertiginous design for the city of a slavelike populace had a future influence on movies such as Blade Runner. and the reverse is true on the right. Boullee's monolithic apparition was drawn as a monument to Sir Isaac Newton. experiencing a fascinating conflict between curiosity and desolation. Among preparations for Fritz Langs film Metropolis. painter. Light illusions This pen-and-wash drawing shows a subtle application of the principles of illumination demonstrated with an egg on p. the ominous globe exists only as a series of drawings. antlike mortals might have speculated upon the universe. and dramatic lighting. This shift makes the cenotaph appear three-dimensional.

draftsman. Nobson Central 9 ft 1 0 in x 1 3 f t 2 in (3 x 4 m ) PAUL N O B L E 1998-99 .73 ERICH KETTLEHUT Influential film a r t director. intensely detailed graphite drawings explaining and questioning t h e geography. Nobson political visions of humanity Newtown. and morality o f an invented place called His satires exhibited w o r l d w i d e .m a k e r In t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f Metropolis. and are Graphite shapes Nobson Central isoneof a series of very large graphite drawings of the spoil and detritus of Nobson Newtown. Kettlehut drew using a fine and relatively dry brush dipped in black. Kettlehut and his c o . Working on toned paper such as this gives an artist greater scope for dramatic lighting effects than if they work on white paper. and white ink on brown-gray paper.Building shapes are works can be read as text. Its sheerscaleengulfs the viewer and demands based time and patience to on letters and in some beread. 1926 ERICH KETTLEHUT PAUL N O B L E British c o n t e m p o r a r y artist who creates m o n u m e n t a l .a r t director O t t o Hunte. used forced perspective camera t e c h n i q u e s t o amplify t h e m a g n i t u d e o f buildings in relation t o human characters. mythology. Fritz Lang's Metropolis c. and m o d e l . together with c i n e m a t o g r a p h e r Karl Freund. FUTURE FICTIONS Brush and ink This is a dramatic drawing from a film that shaped the history of world cinema. architecture. gray.

Study of Perspective Adoration of the for the Magi 1481 61/2 x111/2in (165 x 290 mm) LEONARDO DA VINCI . linear perspective is distinct from more ancient systems practiced in the East. and those of Naive artists and children. I contribute the child's perspective. In his notebooks. All forms of perspective are of equal value. Invented by Italian artist and architect Brunelleschi in 1413 (late in the history of art). Leonardo recorded constant streams of ideas. and inventions— essential reading for inquiring minds.74 ARCHITECTURE Pathways of Sight LINEAR PERSPECTIVE (also called vanishing-point perspective) is a simple device for calculating the relative size of things in pictorial space. observations. inventors. It can be applied to any subject. We use it to structure illusions of depth. Pull the thread taut and rotate it slowly above the drawing. See how the thread corresponds to each converging line. and thinkers ever to have lived. It is also distinguished from aerial perspective (see pp. Sometimes shared with Naive artists. LEONARDO DA VINCI One of the greatest artists. but is most easily seen and understood in pictures of buildings and interiors. this perspective is often an imagined bird's-eye view in which details are mapped according to logic and importance rather than how they might appear in real life. Press the pin into Leonardo's vanishing point. and age eight. scientists. Note how architectural features conform to lines and how human figures diminish in size toward thevanishingpoint. found at the center of all converging lines. Single-point perspective Tie a thread to a pin. Here Leonardo provides a superb example of a single vanishing point. 206-07). Piranesi an example of two.

SARAH SIMBLET I made this drawing (at age 8) in response to a local bookstore's request for children to draw their village. which I saw from home every day. including all they recall about the subject. Children are uninhibited and problems with one element being obscured by another rarely arise. Two-point perspective Sunlight through this colonnade a great example of two-point perspective. Breamore Village. and designer Piranesi's prolific architectural drawings. This drawing Young children typically maps ignore on and understanding of the nearby village. a points in logical narrative of memories. visionary and practical understanding of ancient Rome. . issues of scale when making room for important their story. Scale Our farmhouse my experience was in the woods. architect. at the top of each lateral column base. Mark these points with your pin and follow the converging lines of the drawing by rotating your thread. Lightly marked illuminates vanishing Two Courtyards c. England 1980 9 x 16 in (228 x 405 mm) S A R A H SIMBLET GIOVANNI BATTISTA PIRANESI Italian artist. Note the rather large rabbits and pheasants the hills. It shows how children usually map large scenes in flat layers one above the other. and theoretical writing strongly influenced neoclassicism. New Forest. 1740 5 1 / 2 x 83/8 in (141 x 212 mm) G I O V A N N I B A T T I S T A PIRANESI points are located on either side of the drawing.

using a sharp HB pencil and ruler. Draw each step over the preceding one to build up a single image. Erase the dotted construction lines. Each line should pass through one corner of the rectangle. Piranesi planned his drawing with only the essential lines needed. Next. Note that if you place large structures in the foreground and smaller ones closer to your vanishing point. This lesson shows you how to make a simple illusion of space defined by two boxes and three flat boards. Surround the vanishing point with a small rectangle. 2 3 corners must each touch a dotted line. In contrast. Study these pages first before embarking on this lesson. Draw four dotted lines radiating out from the vanishing point.) . (See p.98 for an important note on oscillation. corresponding to a single vanishing point. DRAWING BOXES 1 Using a ruler and a sharp HB pencil. Leonardo began with a grid of many lines within which he invented his scene. try composing your own space. You have completed your first box. you will amplify the illusion of distance. This ensures that the second rectangle aligns with the shape and 4 Draw four short lines to connect the four corners of the two rectangles. Extend each dotted line to the edge of your drawing. This is where we will begin.76 ARCHITECTURE Single-Point Perspective MASTERING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE i s e a s i e r t h a n y o u m a y First read through. imagine. On the previous page we looked at its essential mechanism through drawings by Leonardo and Piranesi. discovering the image as it progressed. this is your vanishing point. draw a horizon line across your paper Mark a spot on the horizon line. then follow the ten steps below.

7 As in step 3. you can place rectangles anywhere youwishin relation to a vanishing point. The larger you make your second rectangle. draw four dotted lines radiating from your vanishing point Pass these through each comer of the new rectangle. Repeat this to add two more boards to the composition.asIhavedonehere. 8 Complete the second box with short lines as in step 4. larger rectangle.willhelptomake them appear more solid. Continue the dotted lines out toward the edge of your drawing. Note that this does not surround the vanishing point In the future. 6 As in step 2. 1 0 Erase all ofthedottedlinestoseeyourfinishedboxes Thickeningtheiredges. . 9 Use dotted lines connecting the slanting linetothe vanishing point to locate the top. the closer it will appear to the viewer. when inventing your own compositions. Connect this to the vanishing point— again. with two dotted lines. The board's sides should be parallel. andfarside of this first board.77 SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE 5 Draw a new rectangle. N e x t draw a slanting line to mark the height of the first flat board. and erase the dotted lines. The four comers must each touch a dotted line to be sureitaligns with the first. draw a second. bottom.

The m i s t a k e n belief that we s h o u l d k n o w exactly what o u r finished drawings will l o o k like before we m a k e t h e m prevents many people from ever starting. you will find white adhesive stationery labels are useful for covering errors or changing the direction of your idea. draw a b o x as shown opposite. APPLYING PERSPECTIVE An Imagined Scaffold "Enjoy your illusion as you make it and it will become more real. 7 4 ) . As David Lynch. O n a fresh page in your d r a w i n g b o o k ." . it is interaction that makes the work richer. artist and film director. If using a fibertip pen as I have done for this drawing. w h e t h e r it is a film or a painting. it will take you places you never dreamed of." imaginary room. once said: "I never end up with what I set out to do. then let the space suggest its c o n t e n t s and purpose. I always start with a script but I don't follow it all the way through to the end. Linear perspective will support y o u by providing a frame in which to b u i l d your picture as it did for Leonardo. p . let simple lines suggest a simple space. Then follow the three given steps. Every work talks In this class. It highlights the importance of having faith in your imagination and trusting your ability to invent.78 ARCHITECTURE Creating an Imaginary Space T H I S CLASS USES SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE t o c r e a t e a s i m p l e to you and if you listen to it. A lot more happens when you open yourself up to the work and let yourself act and react to it.

Addanarray of converging lines to provide a "scaffold" for vertical.There is great pleasure tobefoundin spending time inventing interiors. additional lines have established the different surfaces and how they relate to each other. horizontal. and floors and ceilings also converge and rise o r lower toward the horizon. . 3 Remove the construction lines with an eraser and the room will becomeclearer. This initial space will be transparent and open to change. and leaning surfaces. 2 first before adding furniture. Here.79 DRAWING A SIMPLE ROOM Essentials t o remember: objects and people dimmish in size as they move farther away. you will beableto draw more complex objects orpeoplewithin them. The space has become more solid and real. CREATING AN IMAGINARY SPACE 1First. parallel planes such as walls converge toward the vanishing point. With some practice.drawthehorizonlineand vanishingpoint.

80 ARCHITECTURE Further Aspects of Perspective W E ARE ACCUSTOMED TO SEEING our e n v i r o n m e n t from a relatively constant point of view. they can be placed anywhere inspaceto describe the perspective of flyi c tilted objects. To draw such a view APPLICATION Copy these drawings to see and feel how they work before inventing your own versions. but they are not confined to this level. T h e y d o n o t have to relate to each other. 76-79). or low and we look u p . Search for the application of these perspectives among works by other artists in this book and in galleries. Vanishing points are commonly found on horizon—our eye level. Further aspects of three-point perspective are also illustrated opposite. showing y o u h o w to draw curved surfaces and a tiled floor. a n d this is how we have drawn them so far (see pp. The boxes drawn here are seen partly or entirely disassociated from a horizon line drawn across the bottom of the image.p o i n t perspective ( s h o w n opposite top). Only when y o u might employ t h r e e . Here. Copying what you see in the work of others will help you to understand what they have done. Elaborations . They could be drawn on any scale from miniature to monumental. From our normal eye level. I have elaborated on the simple boxes above. It is important to realize that you can have as many vanishing points as you wish. These elaborations could continue indefinitely across a sheet of paper in pursuit of complex and intricate ideas. verticals appear p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the g r o u n d . That is where we e to find them. Free vanishing points On paper we can enjoy the freedom of fantastic structural invention without limitations of solid materials or gravity. o r to the h o r i z o n . T h i n k of standing at the top of a skyscraper and imagine h o w its parallel sides would appear to converge below you. T h i s is d e m o n s t r a t e d immediately below. located anywhere inside or outside the pictorial space. Potentially. our eye level is very high and we look down. do verticals appear inclined.

I added horizontal lines t o define the tiles. Where thelinescross. I marked the toplinewith three evenly spaced points and the line with seven.81 FURTHER ASPECTS OF Three-point towers This drawing depicts three-point perspective. and therefore tension. PERSPECTIVE Three-point curves Here. An array of curved lines (drawn freehand) link the two lateral points. useful for representing steep views looking up or down tall structures. I then drew three fanned groups of lines connecting each of the three points above to the seven points below. Giving curvature. Iusedthese lines as a guide t o draw the curvature of boxes and panels flying through space. Three-point checkered floor This d bottom floor. Note that altering the distance between the three dots above will tilt the level of the floor . tostraightlines can amplify drama in a picture. (Turn the book around to see a view looking up. three vanishing points are evenly spaced along a horizon line. they mark the corners of the floor tiles.75.Istarted with two parallel lines. you will see how.Finally. by adding a third point you can achieve a sense of incline.) By comparing this drawing t o Piranesi's example of two-point perspective on p.


making drawings to resolve questions and express personal responses to the nature and history of anatomy. These walnut-skin ink pen and brush drawings show imagined views of theaters that do not exist but were inspired by places I studied. .Theaters RESEARCHING FOR MY P H D . I visited many anatomical theaters and museums.


The vanishing of the drawing is directly opposite as we look across The constancy of the bridge and surrounding frames the movement in the life that flows past.I N KDRAWING is one of a series I made while next to the Rialto Bridge in Venice. .Venetian Life sitting point buildings ThisP E N . the water.A N D .




H e has described a casting through metaphor. drawing c. History will be learned from the artifacts w e leave behind. to record an observed detail. design. It is shaped in sections w i t h Artists have for centuries studied and expressed composition. C o m m o n items. and the behavior of light through making still-life paintings and together. are all made bearing the signature of our time and place. Technical drawing was speedily developed as a meticulous international code of m e a s u r e m e n t and explanation. T h e Industrial Revolution c h a n g e d the traditional w a y s in w h i c h objects were designed. too. from s p o o n s and pens to chairs and bicycles. r an equestrian statue. drawn. or used on stage hood for a mold t o make theheado f a horse f oas a p r o p — i m b u e d with e n o u g h energy or character can "become" a man. W e also explore v o l u m e and form in the classes by spinning lines to make vessels. for example. for example—whether. 1493 117/8c81/4in (300 x 210 m m ) LEONARDO D A V I N Ccreating I . illuminating snail shells. of light in the creation of pictorial illusions. Artists also make images of objects that can never exist. that test our logic with a sense of mystery. these. passing them on to others through the act of making. color. With the sudden onset of mass production. craftsmen had held plans in their memory. Previously. Today. and a wire violin. but humans LEONARDO DA VINCI Inthisbeautiful red chalk Our items all have a purpose—practical or ornamental—and all have a meaning. and made. Artists and actors use the meanings of things to communicate a speculative mechanic. Birds follow instinct to make a nest. and some apes use simple tools. In past eras. or drawing w e see Leonardo daVinci'sprecision as can be given meaning. texture. sculpted. Engineers and designers of our objects and instruments make drawings for many reasons: to test an idea that is yet to be made.Objects and Instruments T HE THINGS WE INVENT describe our lives. each demanding more of the other as they increased in sophistication. we look at the importance are the only creatures on Earth w h o actually design and create great ranges of things. planned. or to explain and present a finished concept to a client. even more advanced drawings are made on computers. hooked bars that can be pulled and tied closely form. drawings were needed to instruct workers on the factory floor. have often carried great weights of allegorical once. It was in this era that the blueprint was born. H e has described contour and function at drawings. making a clear instruction t o his bronzemeaning. A chair. T h e precision of engineering d r a w i n g s e v o l v e d alongside machine tools. fictional realities caster of h o w t o make it andhowit will w o r k . and the way in w h i c h the brain reacts Head and Neck Sections of Female Mold for the Sforza Horse to visual stimulus and optical illusions. In this chapter.

His work is characterized by calm and harmonious still-life compositions. Below.73 x 1 m) GEORGES BRAQUE . One of the great joys of this movement in art is the musicality of its multipoint view. and a journal jacket with words makes this drawing chatter about the moment.. Braque established Cubism in partnership with Picasso just before World War I. . perfect i n their newly made availability. Even today GEORGES BRAQUE French painter who as a young man was influenced by the work of the Fauves and of Cezanne. T h i s is a designers drawing made to enthuse surface and style in its delicate brushing of china. There is a fragile eloquence to these objects as they drift in slow motion past our gaze." La Cuitare. not of place but of things. He takes us into the bustle of the Paris cafe. Braques image is a Cubist collage. texture. Mucha's drawing glistens with possession. Braques "justly" arranged combination of cut black card. charcoal. and shading. steaming with music and conversation. "I believe [it] is the most radicalattempttostampout ambiguity and to enforce one readingofthepicture—that of a manmade construction.Braque marshals all the forces of perspective.. Clashes The art historian Ernst Gombrich said of Cubism. Statue D'Epouvante 1913 2 f t 5 in x 3 ft 5 in (0. and glass objects of exquisite elegance for only the gentlest of touch and appreciation. still feel this projected moment. not to work in harmony. silverware.90 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS Still Life THESE DRAWINGS REVEAL t w o o p p o s i t e m o t i v a t i o n s i n we can. but to clash in virtual deadlock. representing still life. wood-look wallpaper. Opposite. a colored canvas.

Pans. He designed the Austrian pavilion for the Paris World Fair in 1900. He is best known for posters featuring ethereal women in typical Art Nouveau style. and also stamps and bank notes. Study for Plate 59 from "Documents Decoratifs" 17x121/4(430 x 310 mm) ALPHONSE MUCHA 1902 . Black watercolor washes and lines of white gouache have been added with a fine brush. Background color Between the delicate shadows and highlights of these glazed and surfaces ofthebackground metal color of the Mucha we see a large amount paper.ALPHONSE MUCHA Czech graphic artist and painter who worked in Prague. Art Nouveau motifs This is a preliminary study for a subsequent print. Art Nouveau curling motifs of birds. and fish have been outlined using a sharp pencil. For ten years Mucha designed theater posters exclusively for the actress Sarah The three plates facing us were drawn with a compass.fruit. and New York. Chicago. Look at the two spoons at toprightand see how has suggested that they are so brilliantly shiny they reflect the background color.

drawing is there to pin the moment down. and the nature o f light and color. Newton's 1672 ISAAC Telescope NEWTON . each reflecting a view of his own world—his window. and philosopher Newton was President of the Royal Society. With dotted lines Newton has drawn his arrangement of elements inside the tube. Their delicate construction is only as valuable as the measurements they make. Transparent view Newton's reflecting telescope focused light in a parabolic mirror. mathematician. a tree outside. alchemist. Newton used this instrument to calculate the speed required to escape earth's gravity.92 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS by their very nature must gauge or chronicle precision. the law o f gravity. From the concept of capturing the infinite to the mapping of microscopic sight. It was then reflected up inside the tube and. into the eyepiece. A disembodied eye at the top of the drawing indicates where to look. He counted 1 4 . via a second mirror. Look how confidently he draws with ink the sphere of this wooden globe by which his telescope rotates. In the graphic work of these two great men of science. and Fellow of the University o f C a m b r i d g e . Hooke's head of a drone fly seen through a microscope may represent the first time man and insect came face to face. offering a transparent view. w h e r e he developed his three greatest theories: the law o f motion. 0 0 0 perfect hemispheres. and his hand moving across the light. It is a diagrammatic explanation of how to catch and magnify a star in a mirrored tube. shape the very cause and effect of investigatory thought. astronomer. Newton's drawing of his first reflecting telescope is ISAAC N E W T O N English scientist. each one skillfully rendered with the alarmingly matter-of-fact ease of explaining the commonplace. Ink lines Several drawings appear among Newton's letters. The power of this drawing reflects the pure passion of discovery. we see drawing Instruments of Vision found among his letters.

and calculated the theory of combustion. The Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 1665 ROBERT HOOKE 111/2 x 105/8 in (294 x 270 mm) . Hooke invented the camera diaphragm. universal joint a prototype respirator clock balance. a breathtaking book containing many of his drawings showing some of the first microscopic and telescopic magnifications of our environment Hooke's text and illustrations carry us to the moment of discovery.An experimental scientist who drew many of his discoveries. 1665). ROBERT H O O K E 93 Magnifications This acutely detailed engraved drawing is taken from Hooke's Micrographia (pub. It is an exhilarating read. and anchor escarpment.

has published several catalogs of her work. its character. and place in the world are truly seen. Two-dimensional was made This highly finished drawing ruler using a sharp pencil and on smooth white drawing paper glistening dark drawings are artificial representations of known Woodfine's two-dimensional things balanced in the world. OBJECTS AND SARAH WOODFINE British contemporary artist graduate of the Royal Academy Schools. and winner of the 2004 Jerwood Drawing Prize. craft. each drawn with the s a m e unfaltering lines and tones that are between reality and impossibility. Drawn in more-or-less c o n v e n t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . and w h e r e the chair b e l o n g s . W i t h h o m e y c o n t r a s t . while the tabs make us see a flat paper cut-out. it has so m u c h familiar personality that it seems to talk to us. and has drawings in numerous public and private collections. Chair Cut Out 2002 22'A x 23 in (565 x 585 mm) SARAH WOODFINE . Van Gogh's tipsy seat is a metaphor for an absent person. Woodfine exhibits internationally. Bench Marks W e are left a little c o n f u s e d as to what we s h o u l d do. Its wobbly gait and squashed s y m m e t r y m u m b l e endless h o m e y tales about the life it has seen.94 INSTRUMENTS W H E N WE DRAW A COMMON OBJECT like a chair. this chair p r e s e n t s us with a clever visual contradiction: deeply drawn shadows tell us it must be solid. From component parts we understand how to put it together and make it stand sensible in space. A renegade from the p a p e r dolls' h o u s e . Sarah Woodfines flat cut-out m o d e l plan is a witty and surprising drawing.

95 VINCENTVAN GOGH Dutch painter who produced over 800 paintings and 850 drawings in only the last ten year's of his life. drawn opposite way of plan.hehas marked the full emotion of the subject with a fierce grip of concentration. and Starry Cypress Night. Cornfield and Sunflowers. what direct in their he saw and describing his felt. His passionate brush and pencil strokes are honest and of also turmoil and growing alarm at the world around him. Among van Gogh's best-known canvases are Trees. not is made present in only strokes and is subdued to distract us from flat a meaningful chair. inner recording while Fierce strokes This is a portrait of the mechanical drew immediately and almost harshly. The floor few as engagement with the chair. Van Chair 1890 VINCENT VAN GOGH .

The small squares are identical in tone. transmitted to the brain as chains of electrical impulses.This effect is caused by the contrast of their surroundings. T h e slightest recognition is instantly matched to our wealth of experience a n d expectation. The egg's lightest region is seen against a darker background.96 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Light and Illusions SEEING IS MIRACULOUS. a n d m o v e m e n t . Here w e look briefly at our perception of light a n d darkness a n d our interpretation of diagrammatic illusions. think about its illumination. From across the room both will appear black card and fold and retapeitwith half sticking out. cards the same size. a n d we can be fooled. perhaps. The egg's darkest region is seen against a lighter background. o u r b r a i n s search for n a m e a b l e things. S o m e o n e passes our o p e n door. w e turn our head but n o one w a s there. reads only m o v e m e n t a n d can often m a k e mistakes. Below. Before starting a tonal drawing of any subject. The rim of light on the egg is reflected light received from surrounding paper. We perceive one to be lighter than theother. Tape them to the glass. the adjustment of our eyes (in growing accustomed to a level of light). form. Run The bottom-left quarter of the egg lightens slightly toward its "edge" when seen against the darker shadow cast on the paper. or colored surface is never constant. one blackandone white. We will even see things that d o not exist because minimal information suggests they are likely to be there. atmosphere. but do not appear so. are translated into a world of space.At one point you will catchenoughlight lighter than the white one. See how its "edge" smoothly changes from light against dark to dark against light.102-03 deep shadows cast across shells make their form easier to perceive. U p s i d e . Gray squares To further examine changes in tone. and the proximity of contrasting tones. a lit photograph of an egg shows essential points to observe in tonal drawing. We only need small prompts. Artists emulate and manipulate this effect in their pictures. Through these we can enjoy witnessing our o w n d e c e p t i o n a n d b a f f l e m e n t a n d u n d e r s t a n d certain factors that are very useful in picture-making. To interpret visual s t i m u l u s . gray. Three factors change it: the amount of light it receives. The outermost edge of our vision. two identical mid-gray squares are seen against black and paler gray squares. hence our recognition of a cartoon face c o m p o s e d of three lines. try this experiment. a n d are q u i c k to p r o p o s e ideas. Are you happy LIGHT AND SHADOW with what you see? Does the light enhance the subject? Could you alter and improve it? On pp. Card experiment cho can gra on . a n d our ability to see forms in c l o u d s or fire. Below the bottom "edge" of the egg there is a rim of light reflected onto the paper by the underside of the egg. The perceived tone of a black white. Adjust the angleofthe protruding part and again stepback. your eye around the circumference of the egg. Here. On acloudyday. The two tones meet without a division or outline between. W e learn to read light and shadow in our environment as indicators of solidity and depth of space.d o w n patterns of light on our retinas. less developed than the center.

LIGHT AND ILLUSIONS Tonal width T h e s e black a n d w h i t e bands are o f equal thickness o n e i t h e r side o f t h e i r central division. w h i l e t h i n n e r lines recede. Seven parallel lines are m a d e t o tilt t o w a r d and away f r o m each o t h e r by n u m e r o u s s h o r t strokes crossing t h e m diagonally ( A ) . T w o relatively t h i c k parallel lines are m a d e t o b e n d away f r o m each o t h e r as t h e y pass in f r o n t o f an a r r a y o f c o n v e r g i n g f i n e lines ( B ) . T w o horizontal lines o f equal length are m a d e t o l o o k longer and shorter.p o i n t p e r s p e c t i v e d r a w i n g s w i t h a large n u m b e r o f c o n v e r g i n g rays b e h i n d y o u r horizontals. O f t e ndoingso w i l l s p o i l y o u r w o r k . S h o r t h o r i z o n t a l lines o f identical length are m a d e t o l o o k d i f f e r e n t by c o n v e r g i n g lines beside t h e m ( C ) . Bending straight lines Linear distance These t w o jugs have b e e n d r a w n w i t h lines o f d i f f e r i n g thicknesses. by d i r e c t e d a r r o w s ( A ) . In a t o n a l d r a w i n g . O b s e r v e h o w each white b a n d appears t h i c k e r t h a n its black c o u n t e r p a r t . T h e jug d r a w n w i t h a t h i n line appears f a r t h e r away t h a n t h e j u g d r a w n w i t h a t h i c k e r line. t h i c k e r l i n e s a p p e a r t o stand forward. . Y o u m a y e x p e r i e n c e s o m e t h i n g similar h a p p e n i n g w h e n y o u m a k e s i n g l e . l i g h t e r surfaces s t a n d f o r w a r d w h i l e d a r k e r s u r f a c e s recede. A n u p r i g h t line stands in t h e c e n t e r o f a h o r i z o n t a l line. If y o u w i s h t o m a k e a t o n a l drawing. B o t h are identical in length. T h i s fundamental o p p o s i t e is a reason w h y l i n e a r a n d t o n a l d r a w i n g does not a l w a y s c o m b i n e w e l l in t h e s a m e i m a g e . start o u t w i t h one. b u t t h e u p r i g h t o n e l o o k s t a l l e r (B). Apparent lengths T h e s e optical illusions s h o w h o w lines o f identical length can b e m a d e t o l o o k quite different f r o m each o t h e r by t h e addition o r association o f o t h e r lines. T h e r e is n o obligation t o a d d b l o c k s o f t o n e t o a l i n e a r d r a w i n g . In this t o n a l image w e read w h i t e as f a t t e r t h a n black. respectively. In this linear drawing w e read t h i c k as closer a n d t h i n as f a r t h e r away.97 LINE VERSUS TONE In l i n e a r d r a w i n g s .

Artists can communicate much in few lines and the viewer will do the rest of the work. Artists make pictorial illusions when they paint or draw. In the 1960's.76. it can oscillate b e t w e e n facing t o w a r d o r a w a y f r o m us. including some shown here. it oscillates between t w o possibilities. w e can only look f r o m one t o the o t h e r If an artist is not aware this can happen in their image.116-17) to make painted figures look correct when viewed from below. perfected the acceleration of perspective (see pp. and we learn to read the styles of diverse cultures and periods.98 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Further Illusions PSYCHOLOGISTS AND PHYSIOLOGISTS have studied optical illusions for decades in pursuit of what they tell us about the brain. It is a curious fact that w e can never see both options at once. and so calculated precisely how much to fatten columns to make them appear straight. Today we are bombarded with images but rarely have difficulty reading them. are still not agreeably understood. w h e n drawing the outline o f a three-dimensional form. made paintings that depended upon the physical sensation of our brain's reaction to known optical illusions. w e will find that in terms of the direction it faces. such as Bridget Riley. as s h o w n o n t h e right. among others. Op(tical) artists. A few suggestive marks will tip the decision one way o r the o t h e r Closing the surface W h e n a t r a n s p a r e n t elliptical o b j e c t has b e e n d r a w n . such as t h e dish seen h e r e o n t h e left. C l o s i n g t h e surface o f t h e f o r m seals o u r d e c i s i o n as t o w h i c h w a y it faces. their picture could be ambiguous. Yet many illusions. Michelangelo. Some artists use known optical illusions to make art." . Ancient Greek architects knew parallel upright lines appeared to bend toward each other in the middle. SEEING TWO OPTIONS Sometimes. o r as a s l o p i n g . others adjust works to avoid their effects.s i d e d r e c t a n g u l a r t r a y ( b o t h are illustrated far r i g h t ) "The brain is so eager to name a fragment we see that we need only a suggestion to grasp the whole. It is possible t o r e a d i t t w o ways: as a t r u n c a t e d r e c t a n g u l a r p y r a m i d seen d i r e c t l y f r o m a b o v e . Two ways of seeing T h i s is t h e b o x c r e a t e d in t h e f o u r t h step o n p.

c e n t u r y Italian painters. O n l y o n closer inspection we realize that t h e s e o b j e c t s are fooling us. e t c . — a n d so t h e artist can create m u c h o u t o f an impression w i t h o u t overdescribing. This simple five-line d r a w i n g is o f a C a p u c h i n priest asleep in his pulpit. Minimal-line j o k e s such as this rely u p o n t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y v i e w e r ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e shapes. 1 6 t h . M u c h can b e e x p r e s s e d in o n l y a f e w marks.c e n t u r y Swiss psychologist H e r m a n n Rorschach. C o u p l e d w i t h t h e Rorschach b l o t above. this is a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f t h e viewer's b r a i n b e i n g willing t o d o a large a m o u n t o f t h e w o r k in d e c i p h e r i n g a p i c t u r e . . S o m e artists use ink blots t o p r o m p t t h e beginning o f an image. B e l o w is a b r i g h t n e s s c o n t r a s t illusion. T h e a r t i s t M. T h e s e e x a m p l e s illustrate h o w little is n e e d e d t o c o n v e y an image. b u t w e believe w e see t h e m because e n o u g h f r a g m e n t a r y i n f o r m a t i o n is given f o r o u r brains t o c o n c l u d e t h e y are v e r y likely t h e r e . T h e patient's answers are t h e n diagnosed as a psychological profile. His highly d i s p u t e d and i m p r e c i s e science involves s h o w i n g u n p r e p a r e d p a t i e n t s t e n p a r t i c u l a r ink b l o t s a n d asking t h e m t o i n t e r p r e t w h a t t h e y see. T h e y a r e o f t e n c r e d i t e d w i t h t h e invention o f t h e c o m i c c a r t o o n . clouds. N e i t h e r triangle exists. C o u n t t h e n u m b e r o f d a r k spots y o u can see.99 Impossible objects T h e s e clever configurations o f outlines and t o n a l surfaces convince us at a glance that we are seeing a solid three-dimensional triangle and a three-pronged fork. C Escher u s e d this phenomenon t o great effect in his many p o p u l a r d r a w i n g s o f puzzles and impossible buildings. Yet still w e try resolve t h e m . w e see t w o overlapping triangles: o n e outlined in black b e n e a t h a n o t h e r in solid w h i t e . W e should r e m e m b e r t h a t o u r brains will always search f o r a p i c t u r e — i n ink blots. T h e t e s t e x p l o r e s o u r n o r m a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o find things w e can n a m e a m o n g r a n d o m shapes. P e r c e i v i n g a w h o l e i m a g e f r o m m i n i m a l lines T h i s is a w i d e l y r e p r o d u c e d visual j o k e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e C a r r a c c i b r o t h e r s . FURTHER ILLUSIONS Seeing things that are n o t t h e r e H e r e o n t h e left. smoke. This effect can o c c u r naturally w h e n looking at a b r i g h t l y lit w h i t e g r i d such as a w i n d o w f r a m e against t h e night sky. F a m i l i a r i t y in r a n d o m s h a p e s T h e Rorschach test was established by t h e 1 9 t h .

Be aware. for example plates or bowls on a table. smoothly. for example. while its upper rim remains level. such as bowls and cups. third common error is to draw upper and lover ellipses with different-sized apertures.90) takes a different as essentially circular. To make a cylindrical object appear real in our pictorial space. WHERE TO START In the air above a spacious sheet of scrap paper. like a disposable plastic cup that has been crushed in your hand. Cover a sheet of paper with spinning. keep it spinning. a n d in o n e bold stroke. . COMMON ERRORS W h e n drawing cylindrical objects in perspective. w e use ellipses to give a sense of perspective. (see p. Cubism. though. The first common error is to draw two pointed ellipses. The second common error is to tilt the upper and lower ellipses at different angles. Watch the tip of your pen and see it draw an ellipse in the air Keep this movement going while gently lowering the pen onto the paper like the needle of a record player closing on the disc (only it is your lowering hand that spins. suggesting that the vessel is lopsided. there are three common errors people stumble upon. Ellipse are best d r a w n quickly. I have exaggerated this error here. springlike forms like those I have drawn below. not the paper!) As the pen touches down. giving the cylinder four corners. that this is o n l y o n e w a y view. w h e n seen at an angle. spin your hand in a relaxed circle. circles change into ellipses. A wobbling but confident ellipse will still be more convincing than a slow. hesitant one that has edged its w a y nervously around the vessel's rim. I have drawn these for you here. you will achieve steadiness with practice. even if y o u r hand w o b b l e s a little at first. Don't worry if it is uneven— just try again. and these narrow or widen depending on the height of our view.100 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS W E VISUALIZE CYLINDRICAL VESSELS. describing many sides of an object simultaneously. as if the table surface slopes upward beneath the vessel. How to Draw Ellipses of seeing. However. since this is h o w w e experience them in e v e r y d a y use.

thereby hiding lines that show the other sides. enlarging and diminishing the ellipse to determine the overall shape and volume.101 DRAWING VESSELS Once you have mastered drawing free-hand springs. Create a Solid Surface Once you have drawn the shape and volume of each form. working from top to bottom. Altering the pressure—and therefore tone—of the line as it spins gives the impression of light shining on one side. . Draw quickly. Seeing Through Allow lines to travel around each vessel as if it were transparent. you can make it solid by building up highlights and tones on visible surfaces. you can start to control your spinning ellipse to make a vessel. HOW TO DRAW E L L I P S E S A Single Vessel One Inside Another Grouped Together Finding Shape and Volume Draw an imagined vessel in one continuous spinning line.

two opposite methods of achieving the same result. It is important to place them on the correct side so as to draw comfortably (see pp. In the finished drawing there should be few. OBJECTS AND Start by arranging a choice of shells on a sheet of paper to your left if you are right-handed (or vice versa). beams of light. it will inhibit your perception of tone. Gradually hone your drawing. simply shapes and subtleties of light and dark meeting each other with no divisions in between. Remember that shadows. and solid objects are all of equal importance. and strong contrasts are easier to draw.22-23). Illuminate them with a gooseneck lamp placed very close and directed away from your eyes. Draw the largest and most distinct areas of light and darkness first.102 INSTRUMENTS Tonality W H E N MAKING A TONAL DRAWING. making complicated or subtle surfaces easier to see and understand. Relaxing your eyes out of focus as you draw will help to dissolve the distraction of detail. leaving detail until last. You can begin with outlines and build slowly from light to dark (see opposite top). LIGHT TO DARK DARK TO LIGHT . or you can begin with a mid-gray ground and model light out of darkness (see opposite bottom). if any. if light shines in them. It maximizes the range of tones between black and white. outlines. t h e r e a r e p r i n c i p a l l y Dramatic lighting emphasizes texture and contour.

Use your pencil to develop these in relation to the areas of light. loose. Let your eyes go out of focus while looking gently layer marks to create an even tone at your subject and paper: Draw the most ofmid-graywithin a rectangle. Use quick. draw a rectangle. . look at the main areas of darkness.103 LIGHT TO DARK (LINE TO TONE) TONALITY 1 Using a sharp HB pencil. Relaxing your eyes out of focus will help to eliminate distracting details. and edges definingthespacialrelationships between are important aspects of your composition them. shape. DARK TO LIGHT (TONE TO TONE) 1 Using the flattened tip of an HB pencil. Avoid a rough significant areas of light in your gray rectangle with texture and do not press the graphite hardwhite plastic eraser Ignore all detail and draw a into thepaperor you will not be able to erase it. boldly 2 3 Keeping your eyes out of focus. Treat positive form and negative space (see pp. Erase and make changes to roughly place the shells inside your with your composition. pale lines with equal importance.56-57). Fll in broad areas first and leave all detail until last. Draw in the details last of all. with broad sweeps of the eraser. 2 3 Gentlydissolveoutlines so that areas oflightanddark meet without a line between them. Remember that its size. Honetheshapesand angles of the shells. Continue working between light and dark to refine the drawing. until you are happy frame.

and on p. our image is stronger if we understand and can visualize what is happening on the other side too. continuous lines. try drawing it with a pen on paper Use bold.69 we see how the architect Antonio Gaudi drew proposed domes using suspended wires and weights. This class uses thin-gauge wire to create a threedimensional violin. On p. and on p.220 Mamoru Abe draws with forged steel rods. PEN LINES Once you have created your three-dimensional violin (opposite). The first is that figurative and abstract drawings can be made in space. When drawing anything viewed from one side on paper.104 OBJECTS AND I N S T R U M E N T S Drawing with Wire DRAWINGS DO NOT HAVE to be two-dimensional. Seeing through a wire drawing of a known object such as a violin gives us a visual and tactile understanding of all its sides and shapes at once. and physical relationships between them. Place the instrument on a plain surface and illuminate it with a desk lamp to add the delicate dimension of shadows. Third. . you can create your own more ambitious works. On p. They can also be made in space. three-dimensional drawings teach us about the totality of forms in space. There are essentially three lessons to be learned. The second is that after achieving this simple example. smooth. 176 the British artists Noble and Webster draw with domestic refuse in a beam of light. 19 Picasso draws with a pen-light for the camera.

begin to shape the curvature of the fingerboard. Join the two sides together with four short pieces of wire. thin wire will make a smaller drawing.105 SETTING UP DRAWING WITH WIRE Follow these steps to draw a three-dimensional violin Choose a gauge of wire sturdy enough to hold the shape ofyourfinished drawing. Cut a length. 4 . Then begin to define its uppermost surface with Scurves and the bridge. brace the two ends of the violin with a length of wire along the back. I started with the scroll at the top and fixed the four component wires with two drawings of tuning pegs. Here. Once you have completed the body. 2 3 If needed. 1 Decide how big to draw your violin relative to the gauge of your wire. but thin enough to be easily manipulated inyourfingers Here. and pinch and bend it to shape the base of the instrument Repeat this process to make the identical upper side of the instrument. I used garden wire and cut it carefully with pruners. These will hold the sides apart and help to keep the form in shape. and thick wire a larger one.

they invented new anthropological finds—objects that reflected the distant past and their immediate future. I had the privilege of drawing their inventions. England.Artifacts and Fictions IN 1993 I WORKED with a group of schoolchildren who were responding to the astonishing objects in the collection of the Pitt Rivers Museum. some of which are shown here. Using found materials. Oxford. .



much Western contemporary art. It gives physical and emotive form to religious narratives. and surgically rebuilt. Artists are thought to have b e g u n drawing from the nude during the Italian Renaissance. Michelangelo attended dissections to made this image by light sectioning: fine beams of light perfect his understanding of surface form. the Bay Area Models' Guild h o l d s a quarterly life-drawing m a r a t h o n aprinton Kodak transfer paper with green-colored dye added celebrating the great diversity of human proportion. W I L L I A M S technology. This F finished image was produced as r a n c i s c o . Drawings were usually made from the male nude to avoid offending the church.The Body O UR BODIES MAKE us TANGIBLE. She the body is still essential. It also looks at the representation of the b o d y b11y4o n d traditional life drawing. diseased. In this period. and anatomical and erotic art. W e understand every curve and balance of to the theory that the eves are the windows of the soul. The body remains at the core of over the initially white lines. Look closely at Renaissance drawings of the female b o d y and you will see that m o s t are actually y o u n g m e n with minor adjustments. Renaissance artists studying anatomy from dissection clinically trained and specialized as a medical illustrator. 3 x 7 in (300 x 180 . R. Williams were decades ahead of their medical counterparts. giving physical foundation undulating land. and because the female was deemed inferior. clothed or nude. and in San could easily be transferred into three dimensions. These classes are popular around the world. WILLIAMS he sought perfection in the infinitesimal measurement of the body and produced four Contemporary photographer volumes of illustrated explanation. history paintings and other stories. portraiture. W e are the only creatures on Earth that can make our own image. Artists now explore the interior of the body with new media and Lateral Contour Map of a Full-Term Primipara Produced by Light 1979 A. from video and X-ray to thermal imaging. the junior workshop apprentices posed as part of their duties. During this time. This chapter addresses issues that are most commonly faced by beginners attending life-drawing classes. Strangely. artists also tried to define ideal proportions in the body. Leonardo drew a man within a circle and square. focus has turned to the vulnerability of flesh: how it can be damaged. a n d w e d r a w o u r s e l v e s to a s s e r t o u r e x i s t e n c e . is the most c o m m o n subject in art. explaining ranges e/ of materials and techniques and showing diversities of thought and purpose in making. while Durer took his research further— A. The human body. He even believed he had located the soul contours of her form like a cartographer's map of in the pituitary fossa beneath the brain and behind the eyes. but the study of a controlled. herimpressive presence because we are given such Life drawing no longer dominates the art school curriculum. in our privileged and comfortable society. sculptural description of her form. myths and fables. R. while Leonardo opened the body to see and projected onto a woman's body draw the celebratory discover for himself our physical mechanisms.

Muscular dramatic postures reflect the influence of Michelangelo and the Renaissance celebration of the idealized male body. filling the page with her presence. But the meanings of each gesture and the materials and methods by which they Postures and Poses were m a d e contrast greatly. so that we read this drawing like a sculptural frieze. He trained under Perugino. Raphael drew delicate tones of black chalk on tinted paper. She u n f o l d s and s t r e t c h e s shapely limbs. Principal figures m i r r o r e a c h other.116-17). while supporting the weight of their body with the other. RAFFAELLO SANZIO (RAPHAEL) Italian High Renaissance painter: Raphael is best known for his images of the Madonna and Child. In a single drawing we see equally o b s e r v e d studies of f o r e s h o r t e n i n g (see pp. while Matisse used scissors and glue to cut out and paste a flat collage of brilliant color. we see the e s s e n c e of h e r b e a u t y w i t h o u t a single detail. and studied to learn from the works of Michelangelo and Leonardo besides whom he was soon ranked. altar pieces. and Vatican frescos.110 T H E BODY THESE DISTINCTIVE WORKS show two strikingly different ways of modeling the body on paper. anatomy. T h e y b o t h raise one arm to cup their head in their hand. Raphael's study of fallen m e n leaves no doubt that they are in anguish. In this highly s o p h i s t i c a t e d a b s t r a c t i o n . Sculptural frieze This is a preparatory drawing for Raphael's painting of the Resurrection of Christ. By way of contrast. Here three male nudes are compressed into very shallow pictorial space. Matisse's b l u e n u d e sings with life and c e l e b r a t i o n . and human defeat. Three Guards 1500-20 91/4 x143/8in (234 x 365 mm) RAPHAEL .

teacher and principal exponent o f Fauvism—a movement established in 1905 in which bold color is the most essential element.sculptor. lifelong love of brilliant They celebrate the culmination of spectacular and sometimes drawings.or like a good armchair in which to rest from physical fatigue..111 HENRY MATISSE French painter: draftsman. and Islamic an appeasing influence. fabric. his pattern.designer writer. and more energetic Color and form This collage is one of a series of Blue Nudes. devoid of troubling Blue Nude 1 1952 413/4 HENRY MATISSE . His calligraphic natural abstractions of form grew brighter. freer. Matisse became an artist after studying law... Matisse Soothing influence This drawing expresses the achievement of Matisse's personal aim: "What I dream and depressing subject matter.which might be... serenity. foundamong many other groups of papercut these works as an elderly man confined to his bed or wheelchair." of is an art of balance. printmaker. a mental soother. as his w o r k matured.

Here. stands in counterpoise holding a dark globe and his thoughts in m o m e n t a r y balance. Using the paper to create light is important for beginners to learn. turned gray.112 T H E BODY Choreographs T I M E IS A SIGNIFICANT E L E M E N T i n t h e m a k i n g o f a l l d r a w i n g s . form. only tones blending into. it would have mixed with unseen black dust. he used b l a c k c o n t e (see p. w h o sits propped in the contradictory darkness of a hot summer's day. Below. there are no outlines. Beuys's magician. in a perfect e x a m p l e . In his f a m o u s paintings of social e n g a g e m e n t . scratched in seconds. 162) and an eraser to model teeming points of artificial light amid GEORGES SEURAT French painter classically educated in the Ingres school of thought. Tone and light In this black conte drawing. reflected. Seurat evolved a distinctive t e c h n i q u e called p o i n t i l l i s m — i m a g e s literally made from myriad points of color. Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 1883-84 91/2 x 121/4 in (241 x 312 m m GEORGES SEURAT . If Seurat had added white. or abruptly meeting. Typically. agreeing to coalesce and show us the form of a waiting boy. Opposite. and muddied the brilliance of the drawing. T h e space around h i m chatters with symbols. we c o m p a r e a skillful design that absorbed m u c h time in its making with the quickness of an idea marked instantly. it is as if the very atoms of air are made visible. and color His applied theories still influence painters in their manipulation and rendering of local. other tones. velvet d a r k n e s s . like small birds attendant on the meditation. Light is given by the paper alone. and c o m p l e m e n t a r y hues. His drawings are similarly u n i q u e . Seurat engaged in lifelong studies of line.

in different positions. Perfectly modeled rather conventional for Joseph Focus Beuys's hand moved quickly to draw dotted lines flowing downward on either side of the figure. and blood. Our focus joins shoulders. His The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland UNDATED 113/4 J O S E P H BEUYS x81/4in (297 x 210 mm) . taught workshops with a cult following. This figure is drawn intuitively. free from the constraint of immaculate form opposite) impetus is irrelevant to the and meaning of this work (as we see in Seurat's drawing representation. video Many of his other symbolic works on paper have been drawn with materials such as honey. He was a shaman who believed in intuition and in the investment of healing force. and that These aspects of the work convey fractured visibility. Beuys gave performances. transience. and made installations.113 JOSEPH BEUYS One of the most influential German artists of the 20th century. CHOREOGRAPHS the profound power materials with spiritual or of Free lines This pale pencil drawing is Beuys. and drawings. Unbroken lines stream from his simultaneously movement. iodine.

he typically drew them with a few delicate strokes of pencil and brushed watercolor. Inspired by Michelangelo.114 BODY Passion SUMMONING HUMANITY in a drawing of the nude is a subtle and emotional task. and one of hundreds of rapid studies of nudes." as seen here. Delicate strokes This is one of about 7. But what is stranger to us now is that they were also outraged by his free use of line. its soft. They whisper and writhe in a brushed and sultry embrace that devours our watching. His exquisite flow of paint beyond "outlines. Free lines Rodin's public audience was understandably shocked by the eroticism of his drawings. flushed skin made ruddy and black with crushed cinders. and went on to inspire generations of artists. Achieving international acclaim in mid-life. THE AUGUSTE RODIN French Romantic sculptor and prolific draftsman employed as an ornamental mason until the age of 42. the women are framed and caressed by long. Rodin employed models to move freely or pose together in his studio. As here. Rodin produced portraits and statues of public and literary figures. Opposite. We are asked to gaze u p o n her flesh. We are involved not as a shabby voyeur but as a bystander engaged through our recognition of shared joy. sweeping lines— of either purple silk fabric or cool studio air—that imprint and amplify their past and future movements. In Rodins work. Anita Taylor has drawn her protective body hug out of the darkly glistening compression of willow charcoal and the dynamism of her shy but momentous femininity. 125/8x 9 in (320 x 229 mm) AUGUSTE RODIN Two Women 1911 Embracing .000 drawings shown in rotation at the Musee Rodin. Our bodies radiate the passion of our thoughts and so become beacons of our frailty and power. was perceived as scandalous. the fierceness of the women's kiss is beautifully matched by the tenderness of his line. Paris. his w o r k is characterized by deliberate un-finish and powerfully modeled emotion. In both drawings.

Taylor's immense self-portraits explore the relationship between the artist as maker and the artist as model. Luminosity Layered marks flicker likefirelight as they sculpt the woman's body. exposure. professor and Vice Principal of Wimbledon School of Art. textured paper. draftsman. intimately reflecting upon the emotions and meaning of nudity. London. leaving her lightest marks at the deepest level of the image and applying darker marks above. The sturdy surface of the sheet has allowed her to press hard when needed. and rework rich depths of light and tone. This order of light below and dark above gives glowing from within.I 15 ANITA T A Y L O R Painter. Taylor has drawn. erased and drawn again. the impression of luminosity All and Nothing 1999 67 x447/8in (170 x 1 1 4 cm) ANITA TAYLOR . Charcoal Taylor has drawn freely with charcoal and an eraser on thick. scrutiny. and gaze. A thinner sheet might have crumpled and torn under such vigorous force of making.

more extreme examples have been made for court entertainment. elongated as if stretched across the plaster. when beginners prop their board in their lap and look down at too steep an angle. It is not complicated. How to make and apply these is explained below and opposite. Spend time making comparisons before you draw. just making them helps you see.limbs happily receding. which is imperceptible from below. Smaller. "Simple measured comparisons reveal surprising truths about proportion. Close one eye. MEASURING This is a simple method of making measured comparisons for relating the true size of one part to another This is a tool to assist observation and thinking. the skull in Holbein's The Ambassadors (The National Gallery. and wrist joints. It is not so hard. without taking off. Lock your shoulder. persistence. Up close on the scaffold we would witness Michelangelo's subtle application of accelerated perspective. or coming forward. 1 Hold your arm straight. helping us to see more clearly. or shrivelling at odd. 3 Keep your pencil perpendicular Measure and compare at any angle. Move the tip of your thumb down to a second chosen point. elbow. 2 Hold your pencil upright. and a few measured comparisons are key. It can also be a little demon in the life room. to be translated by mirrors or seen from only one point in the room. with dramatic illusions of figures painted in normal proportion. But if we could take a scaffold and climb up to the work.116 T H E BODY Measurement and Foreshortening FORESHORTENING IS AN ASPECT of perspective. The length of exposed pencil is your measurement. We also look at another very interesting branch called accelerated (or anamorphic) perspective. In the life class it is the mechanism for ensuring that a drawn figure lies correctly in pictorial space . There is no need to mark them all down on paper. plummeting." . you will make inconsistent and unrelated comparisons. If your arm is not straight. we would arrive to find many of the same figures strangely distorted. and measurements do not have to be carried to the paper and slavishly drawn the same size they appear on your pencil. unfathomable angles. patience. To avoid its effects ensure you always look flat onto the surface of your page. Imagine Michelangelo's murals in the Sistine Chapel. for example. This is chiefly a correcting device by which figurative painters and sculptors have for centuries countered the effects of our viewing their work from far below or on the curvature of a vault. rather that what we believe we know from experience. London). Rome. Accelerated perspective plays a great role in much art. and to draw what we see. Return to this posture every time. Align the top with a point on your subject.

FORESHORTENING To f o r e s h o r t e n a figure. belly. y o u must let go o f w h a t y o u k n o w f r o m e x p e r i e n c e a b o u t t h e relative sizes o f b o d y parts and trust y o u r eyes. P r o p o r t i o n s will only l o o k c o r r e c t f r o m t h e angle at w h i c h y o u make t h e drawing. . S o o n t h e b o d y will lie d o w n in space. To m a k e f o r m s l o o k c o r r e c t . L o o k at y o u r m o d e l as if he o r she is a flat series o f shapes o n e o n t o p o f a n o t h e r Measure t h e height and w i d t h o f each shape and c o m p a r e it t o its neighbor. h e r p r o p o r t i o n s will appear correct. looking d o w n t h e p a p e r at t h e a n g l e at w h i c h I d r e w . t a p e s o m e p a p e r t o a board. W o r k a r o u n d t h e figure. A t a c e r t a i n angle. Lean t h e t o p e d g e t o w a r d y o u and find a p o s i t i o n w h e r e y o u can c o m f o r t a b l y l o o k d o w n t h e p a p e r at an angle o f a b o u t 4 0 degrees. T h i s is t h e s a m e d r a w i n g p h o t o g r a p h e d f r o m above. which feels strange. W e appear t o be looking d o w n o n a w o m a n s t a n d i n g b e n e a t h us. adjusting a n o n y m o u s shapes. See h o w d i f f e r e n t t h e relative heights o f t h e s e shapes are f r o m w h a t w e m i g h t e x p e c t in real life. pleasingly f o r e s h o r t e n e d . y o u r hand travels f a r t h e r than y o u expect. Stand its b o t t o m edge o n y o u r lap. a n d thighs. MEASUREMENT AND FORESHORTENING Tilt t h e t o p edge o f this b o o k t o w a r d you and look d o w n o n this figure f r o m a b o v e .117 ACCELERATED PERSPECTIVE To discover h o w this w o r k s . C o m p a r e t h e heights o f t h e nose and eye shapes t o t h o s e o f t h e f o r e a r m . Keep t h e b o a r d steady and draw.

balance. Height This pose leans away into space above our eye level. propelling you to make immediate assessments and trust them. . and work over t h e m with further o b s e r v a t i o n s . Leave first thoughts in place. her center of balance is normally found in a vertical line beneath her head. T h i s q u i c k e x p l o r a t o r y line does not perfectly describe shape but expresses a decision about overall flow of form. Outline To outline a figure. Balance When a model stands upright on both feet. I used a sharp H B pencil and began each drawing by marking her outline. work back and forth across the body.118 BODY Quick Poses DRAWING QUICK POSES l o c k s y o u r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n t o what is most essential. and height. height. Be bold and dive into your drawing with c o n f i d e n c e . Layered lines give d e p t h . Avoid drawing up one side and down the other. To draw this effect. To see this. and slightly enlarge her legs and feet. and stance before honing her balance and expression. because it results in two unrelated sides drifting apart. working from her center to her feet and to her head. Start each new drawing by lightly marking the model's height with a loose line in ten seconds. THE SEQUENCE OF POSES H e r e the model was asked to move every t w o minutes. make the upper body smaller give your model a high waist. imagine holding up a plumb line. feeling. and energy.

This drawing shows how different observations be overlaid to bring a drawing alive. the activity of circular lines and the repetition of limbs suggest movement. The tilt of the pelvis is then counter balanced by the model's shoulders tilting the other way (as seen here).119 The twist of a model is most easily and expressively captured if it is exaggerated. Tilt Movement Here. Most of us have a tendency to over-straighten the drawn figure. . and this should be avoided Twist QUICK POSES A model standing on one leg usually drops the opposite hip.

but regard these practice studies as ongoing processes of thought and observatio Add details such as nails last if you wish. This exercise is useful when struggling with proportion. swiftly marking its essential gesture. starting with the largest. Keep lines open to change and take measurements if they help. express structure and gesture far more successfully and easily than ten worried outlines wandering up and down between the fingers and toes. Practice by drawing your own hands and feet. especially the lengthwise divisions between them. and ignore all details. feet. 2 Build your drawing gradually from light to dark. drawn in relation to each other.120 BODY Hands and Feet THERE ARE MANY different ways of approaching h a n d s and THE of form. 3 . Do not separate them yet. Focus instead on how planes change direction across the knuckles from one side of the hand or foot to the other. and they need not be daunting to draw. Then subdivide each shape so that you w o r k from large to small. A mirror increases your range of views. It also helps the beginner to progress from drawing outlines to drawing confidently across the surface of the whole form. Begin by drawing lines to encompass the whole hand. Group the fingers together as one mass. W h e n starting. or those of a friend. and a gooseneck lamp casts shadows that clarify planes and depths GESTURES OF THE HAND Curled Fingers 1 Open Palm Start honing the shapes of the dominant planes. Draw large shapes and their orientation. These planes. Don't worry about achieving perfect solutions. general to specific. it is important to leave aside all details of the fingers and toes.

Nowimagineyou are carving the foot insidethepaper. and rapid. Hew it roughly in broad. however. depth. 2 3 Use an eraser t o refine decisions o r t o suggest areas o f light. Look for key angles without becoming distracted by detail. Leave aside all detail.121 HANDS AND FEET MOVEMENTS OF THE FOOT Flat Stance Raised Heel Instep 1 Let your first marks be though out o f wood. . these are what give a drawing its tangible structure. and spontaneity. flattened planes. Try t o express the whole foot and t o encapsulate its entire shape and direction in a few marks. loose. t o remove t o o many early lines. and don't worry about accuracy t o begin with. as if with a chisel. It can be a mistake.

" .204-05. I also used white ink with a steel dip pen.Charcoal Hands T H E S E DRAWINGS ARE MADE in compressed charcoal. Opposite. The white lines demonstrate what is often called "bracelet shading. Compare its nature in close-up to that of willow charcoal used on pp.


length. and posture of the model. 118-19).HERE TRACES OF RAPID initial lines are still seen within and outside each body. before honing his or her shape (see pp. I make these lines in the first five to ten seconds of a drawing to locate the presence. Phrasing Contours .


and narrative pulse become vivid when you realize them in the middle of your study. It is now viewed with some skepticism and often seen as academic. characters. Drawing work by another artist enables you to discover and understand the inventive hand in their composition. feeling them through the attentive movements of your own hand. perspectives. Forms.The Visual Detective DRAWING FROM MASTERWORKS was once a staple component of an artist's education. I draw in museums in support of written research and as an artist seeking answers to questions about the practicalities of image making. .


. Life-size women wearing wigs recline on beds of embroidered silk in cabinets of mahogany and Venetian glass This is a detail of a compressed charcoal drawing measuring 14 x 10 ft (4.3 x 3 m) made in response to La Specola. each modeled from dissection. 126-27.La Specola At17V i a Romana. there is a unique museum of 18th-century anatomical waxes. Florence. These almost life-size figures were composed from my imagination and achieved with the help af studies discussed on pp. Walls are lined with hundreds of faintly animated body parts.



Beginners often draw themselves as a way of establishing their practice. who. and a handprint (see p. Past rulers sent painters across continents to bring back a likeness in advance of a prospective royal marriage. usually strangers from past times. Our homes are filled with images of our loved ones and of those in our families who have gone before. we use the delicate medium of silver point to look at foundation structures of the head. look directly at us. Portraits can be highly or loosely detailed. having been documented and preserved. and p r i n t m a k e r . character. their stance. bells. Equally. and expression of the individual. Goya. and satirical or metaphorical. 1790-92 4 x 3 in ( 1 0 2 x 7 6 m m ) F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A and memorize the basic structure that we all share. or whose eyes can seem to follow us around the room Portraiture is a constant. and secular narratives.Portraiture IN P O R T R A I T U R E W E MEET PEOPLE. and in a few scrolling rafts of pen lines and stubbled dots. neck.139). and their posture can be changed with just one line. and it is very rewarding. buttons. single or of groups. abstract or figurative. We are also reassured by keeping records of ourselves. in a miniature self-portrait magnified opposite. draftsman. is here to both meet and look through us. or past us. Once you understand Self-Portrait in a Cocked Hat c. and social and political commentaries. Movie director Alfred similarly signed his films by playing a fleeting role: he walks through an extra. you can capture the subtlety. W h e n drawing a person. The truth is that we all like looking at faces and observing the billions of variations that make us individuals. gathered all that he knew FRANCISCO DE GOYA V i s i o n a r y Spanish painter. Goya's w o r k s include many royal and society p o r t r a i t s . We can mold and animate qualities of expression out of objects and fragments of disassociated things—for example. In this chapter. . Halls and palaces are filled with pictures of the mighty and significant. throat. It also reminds us o f b o t h t h e intimacy and a scene as scrutiny o f an honest portrait. or a glimpse of him is caught in a photograph used as a prop. historical. his changes in pressure and Hitchcock length o f line. The returning image was of crucial consideration in any proposal. religious. This enlargement o f his miniature p o r t r a i treveals t h e s p e e d and agility o f his p e n and about himself. To create a face is to see and interpret the essence of an identity. became more poignant as he progressed. live. compliant subject to scrutinize. and lucrative genre for artists. Rembrandt's famous multitude of self-portraits. made as he passed through the ages of man. For centuries. Man Ray's self-portrait of scored lines. painters have dropped discreet records of themselves into commissioned narratives so that they can remain a face in the crowd. Self-portraiture gives every artist a constant. a single line can deliver an entire expression. the meaning of their face. and shoulders.

He makes his flair and skill look easy. While with longer consideration. Through exhibitions and copies in books. we can enjoy and learn from them. and pressure as it conducts our eye through the image. length. caught in her last moments of youth. It takes a truly accomplished a few strokes. breadth. It is the portrait of a countrywoman. We can read so much about them by studying their gaze. one eye already cast askew into the autumn of her life.132 PORTRAITURE Poise THE BALANCE BETWEEN a mark and a blank space is often a tantalizing form of perfection. Picasso strikes and scrolls his pencil. adding smudges of tone for weight and solidity. Her face is drawn tenderly and with a luminous glow. stealthily using his chalk to find contours and mass.30). teetering on the brink of older age. they serve as a great lesson that it is not always necessary to add tone to your drawing. Picasso has left to posterity many hundreds of magnificent line drawings. Here the grace and beauty of two young women are held forever. There is a common misunderstanding that a drawing with only a few lines is both less finished and easier to make than a drawing with more. whisking a timeless girl onto the page. We can actually count that he struck the paper 40 times. The aesthetic sense of a line being just right can make a drawing sing. The Tightness of a line is felt in its speed. Without faltering. PABLO PICASSO Spanish Cubist painter (see also p. How could the addition of shadows have enhanced this image? Few strokes The simplicity of Picasso's line is breathtaking. The truth is often the opposite. Holbein maps the still landscape of Dorothea's body in questioning marks. hand to capture something well in only Frangoise au Bandeau 1946 660 x 505 mm (26 x197/8in) PABLO PICASSO . For the beginner.

presses against the binding across her face. In addition t o his numerous exquisite portraits in oil. The peak of her cap clips the uppermost edge. Holbein has cropped and pinned his subject within the four outermost lines of the image—the edges of the page. which. Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 1516 51/8 x121/4in (385 x 310 m m ) HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER . he designed c o u r t costumes. made a popular series o f w o o d c u t prints titled The Dance of Death. Cropping This regal composition fits its paper perfectly. and designer f r o m Basel. He outlined her nose but not her upper lip.133 HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER German p o r t r a i t painter draftsman. Her folded forearms support and frame her weight above. and its downward slope crowns the diagonal of the composition. and produced numerous society portraits such as this one here. Blended colors In this portrait drawn with colored chalks on slightly textured paper. gently flushed. Holbein unified the woman with her background by gently blending colors from her clothes and face into the atmosphere around her. Holbein was employed toward the end of his life by King Henry VIII of England.

Psychological drama is contained behind a grid. its highly clarified detail claiming to be d r a w n from observation. Newsome was awarded the Prix de Rome in 1960. and glands also complicate form. This is a m a r v e l o u s interpretation of the truth. while white painted flecks and wisps suggest electrical illumination. Delicate muscles are integrated with the skin and fat that is to be r e m o v e d . or defined by. . the contours of a grid. The style of Durelli's d r a w i n g opposite sings with the confidence of truth and precision. Nerves. dark lines made with a pencil appear against smooth. but they are irrelevant here. The real dissection w o u l d have been far more c o m p l e x . distorted. London. dark tones of graphite blended into the paper. It floats in space. and unpleasant to see. perhaps applied using a tortillon. Anatomically.134 PORTRAITURE Anatomies These highly finished drawings express the emotional power and physicality of the head and neck. Durelli has m a d e a few m i n o r mistakes. In fact. using a fine and relatively 1982 13 x 181/8 in (328 x 460 mm) VICTOR NEWSOME brush. taught at numerous British art schools from 1962-77. blood vessels. and has works in major collections including the Tate Gallery. the face is one of the hardest parts to dissect. Contrasts Sharp. confusing. Highlights of white gouache were dry Profile Head late in the making. continues to exhibit regularly. This is one of a number of similar disembodied female heads seen behind. VICTOR NEWSOME British sculptor painter and draftsman. solid above and almost hollow below. N e w s o m e ' s eerily shadowed form is smooth and bears a linear grain evocative of w o o d .

Stylized parallel lines are reminiscent of engravings. which. Pencil numbers refer to the list of muscles written beneath. It is hard to think of a more difficult medium with which to achieve such linear perfection. Red Chalk the Muscles 1837 173/8 x 145/8 in ( 4 4 0 x 3 7 2 m m ) ANTONIO DURELLI and Pencil Drawing and of Neck of the Head Little is k n o w n o f this M i l a n e s e p a i n t e r a n d engraver w h o c a m e from a family o f artists. pull their points o f attachment t o w a r d each other . Durelli's experience as an engraver is reflected in his stylized drawing o f muscle fibers. and it is likely that this drawing was intended for reproduction as a print. w h e n contracted.135 ANATOMIES ANTONIO DURELLI Linear perfection This is a red chalk drawing of extraordinary accomplishment.

We are brought intimately close to this man gazing up to heaven. They show us clearly the bones of drawing. Similar movements sculpted the head below into its page. Bellini gently conjures the features of his saint with soft marks that tease his presence out of shadows into the light. each locked into a visionary gaze. The camera watches him at work. Both works demonstrate how simple lines can be made complex by being intense. There is a film of Giacometti drawing. Without paint and with very little tone. and poet After studying in Geneva and Italy. Energy This is a portrait of a woman drawn with black crayon on a plain page of a book Lines search for the essence of form. He is best known for his bronze sculptures of human form. painter draftsman.136 PORTRAITURE THESE ARE DRAWINGS of shoulders. with speed and urgency. cutting and carving the paper with matted and spiraling restless energy. which are characteristically elongated. Flesh is built and personality carved simultaneously. while his hand stabs and thrusts Revelations like a conductors baton. close enough to touch his hair and feel his breath. and heads. Agitated marks make patches of tone that cut away the space around the character. Then. as if seen from a distance. necks. They confuse our perception of scale by being intimately fragile and at the same time far removed. Giacometti settled in Paris. he drew over the whole image at once. ALBERTO GIACOMETTI Swiss sculptor. 1948 77/8 x 6 in (200 x 150 mm) ALBERTO GIACOMETTI . Portrait de Marie-Laure de Noailles c. each portrait is inscribed onto the page. and with staccato flinches his hyperactive eye moves from paper to model. Opposite. Speed Giacometti probably began with an oval shape placed in relation to the proportion of the page.

a n d b r o t h e r in-law. a n d his w o r k is d i s t i n c t i v e l y calm. H e t a u g h t G i o r g i o n e Barbarelli and Titian. H e p r e f e r r e d religious t o classical t h e m e s .G I O V A N N I BELLINI A prominent member of a large family o f V e n e t i a n painters. Mantegna. transferring which were made in the process of the saint to his final place in the composition of a painting (see Glossary pp. a n d c o n t e m p l a t i v e .5 9 ) . These are pinholes. Character This is one of many cartoons produced by Bellini the and his family. Sometimes different narrative same character was reused in compositions. Bellini s t u d i e d u n d e r his f a t h e r J a c o p o . Transfer This delicate humorous chalk a drawing is a cartoon—not image but a type of template used to plan the composition of a larger work Look closely and you will see rows of tiny dots along every significant line in the picture. Head and Shoulders of a Man 73/8 x 21/4 in ( 1 8 6 x 5 8 UNDATED GIOVANNI BELLINI . lyrical.25 6 .

In 1986 he traveled to Africa and showed his work in Abidjan on the Ivory Coast He also exhibited in Germany and France. Man Ray's playful silk-screen assembly of color blocks. postcards.221). scratched lines. signing their work SAMO. float and shimmer in the shallow pictorial space. their most immediate and best-known subject: themselves. Later Basquiat sold drawings on T-shirts. Self Portrait 1982 9 4 x 7 6 in (239 x 193 cm) JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT . marks. similar to work by Cy Twombly (see p. JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT Short-lived American painter and graffiti artist who began his blazing nine-year career drawing on lower Manhattan subway trains with a friend. and everything flux. It is an image of confrontation—the ever-controversial young artist roars at us from his abstract city-scape. It has proved to be a subject of piercing scrutiny. and confrontations with.138 PORTRAITURE THE MIRROR OF SELF-PORTRAITURE offers artists infinite reflections of. drawn. Islands of graphic marks. Al Diaz. The artist has finished his portrait with the signature of his hand smacked in the middle like a kiss: a declaration of existence as old as man's first drawing. bells. The incandescent New York painter Jean Michel Basquiat pictured himself here in naked silhouette. skull- Self-Portraits headed. political outcry. and attitudes. a tribal. Signs and symbols with symbols This painting shudders that ore written. and buttons rings with surrealist wit and agile improvisation. scrolls. It is an opportunity to look deep without the infringement of courtesies owed to a commissioning sitter. scratched into its surface. and indulgence. humor. and sheet metal before being snapped up by the New York contemporary art scene. made with great energy. The figure's position is unequivocal and defiant while around him is in a state Without the essential of cultural and figure we would elegant belookingat a sophisticated painting of signs. spear-brandishing warrior.

Black ink was printed next and then white. They suggest speed and make the picture look immediate and spontaneous. The handprint appears to be made directly. printmaker and cofounder of the New York Dada movement. where he collaborated with the artist Laslo MoholyNagy. painter. Man Ray lived and worked in Paris. last of all.139 MAN RAY American surrealist photographer. They experimented with camera-free photography working directly onto photographic paper Silk and ink This is a silkscreen print made through the following process: the paper was laid on a flat surface and a frame stretched with fine silk was placed on top. Autoportrait 1916 195/8 MAN RAY . Man Ray probably used his own hand. caked in thick printing ink or paint. The first part of the stenciled image was already marked on the silk The screen and paper were then held tightly together. During the 1920's and 30s. Frame White lines are seemingly (though not actually) scratched through ink to frame this face. while a squeegee was used to drag thick lilac-brown ink across the silk pushing it though exposed areas onto the paper below.

This browns with age unless sealed by fixative (see pp. or wood. Opposite. 3 . SILVER P O I N T W I R E H O L D E R : T h e s e c a n b e p u r c h a s e d a n d t e n d t o b e heavy.54) can also b e used. c h o o s e a s o f t full b r u s h t h a t c a n c a r r y p l e n t y o f l i q u i d . I t is a v a i l a b l e f r o m all a r t s h o p s . it leaves a deposit. you will need t o stretch paper and lay a wash (see right and opposite). To begin. E m p t y mechanical pencils designed f o r t h i c k leads ( s e e p. purchase silver wire. 2. Numerous early European artists also enjoyed its fine qualities (see p. and is therefore useful w h e n using w a t e r c o l o r as well as silver point. W e t o n e length o f g u m . which quickly oxidizes into a gray line. and gold have also been used. Gesso o r m a t t e m u l s i o n c a n a l s o b e u s e d . M a k e s u r e i t is c o m p l e t e l y clean t o avoid u n w a n t e d streaks. 1 4 4 . Lay a clean d r a w i n g b o a r d o n a flat surface. Metal point is simply a strip of metal bound in a holder. Take a sheet o f any t y p e o f p a p e r (for e x a m p l e . MATERIALS 1 Find a clean sponge and b o w l o r d e e p t r a y a n d fill it w i t h w a t e r W e t t h e p a p e r evenly in t h e t r a y o r o n t h e b o a r d . key. 156). S i l v e r is b e s t . and alloys work on matt emulsion. Pages 142 to 147 are illustrated in silver point and techniques are explained on pp. 1. or ring. copper. was familiar to or eggshells with animal glue. Be swift and firm. Stretched paper remains taut as a d r u m . bone. Find a n i t e m t h a t y o u can h o l d a n d draw with comfortably. I m a k e m y o w n f r o m o l d dip pens. The most c o m m o n metal has always been silver—hence the term "silver point. o n e t o fit each side o f t h e b o a r d — t h e s e will make t h e glued f r a m e t h a t holds y o u r p a p e r in place.Tear o f f f o u r lengths o f b r o w n p a p e r g u m tape. and make o r buy a holder. T h e p a p e r will l o o k b u c k l e d . choose a silver object. If w o r k i n g o n an emulsion-painted wall. 144-45. 2 . artists mixed white lead. Lightly s p o n g e o f f t h e excess. s e e p ." Lead. Note h o w domestic paintwork marks with a coin. an exciting indication of how large-scale drawings could be made on a wall. Drawn across a prepared surface. This is called a three-tone drawing. 5. and t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h strips a b o v e and b e l o w . Straighten the w o r s t buckles. I combined silver point with painted white gouache on a pink ground. illuminators of medieval m a n u s c r i p t s . S O F T F U L L B R U S H : W h e n laying a w a s h . b u t d o n ' t w o r r y . For i m p o r t a n t a d v i c e o n p r e p a r a t i o n a n d use. Historically.s t r i p a n d use i t t o fix o n e side o f t h e p a p e r t o t h e b o a r d . Z I N C W H I T E G O U A C H E : Dilute with w a t e r A d d c o l o r i f r e q u i r e d (as opposite) 4 .140 PORTRAITURE Silver P o i n t SILVER OR METAL POINT STRETCHING PAPER A sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has been made w e t with the strokes o f a paintbrush will buckle d u e t o its uneven expansion. p a r c h m e n t . M E T A L OBJECTS: All metal objects m a r k a p r e p a r e d surface. the surface must be primed with a ground such as gouache. who used it to outline initials and border characters before painting. b e f o r e priming stretched paper. W e t a n d fix a s e c o n d strip t o t h e o p p o s i t e side. laid on paper. Metal point does not work on ordinary paper. platinum. s o m e m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n o t h e r s .54-55). SILVER W I R E : Purchase different gauge lengths f r o m a traditional a r t supplier o r jeweler. w h i t e d r a w i n g paper) and cut it t o fit y o u r d r a w i n g b o a r d w i t h a generous b o r d e r a r o u n d its edges.

and let tests dry before deciding to change the mixture. Dip a soft. Leave the wash to dry thoroughly before you begin to draw. stretched paper at a 45-degree angle. Dry thoroughly before laying a wash. The next step will make a small mess. It will slowly straighten and become taut. Here. leaving a smooth surface. Beware of the tape's coming loose at any point while drying. I used a powder pigment called Caput Mortuum. LAYING A WASH It your stretched paper so as to prime it for silver point. any extra will keep. Reload the brush and add a second line overlapping it beneath. Make an even line across to the right. Keep testing on spare paper. Make enough to cover your paper.t o n e silver point drawing of a skull . as the paper will be ruined by a raised ridge. Runs blend into each other evenly. Mix a very wet but not weak solution of gouache in a jar with a lid (add pigment at this stage for a three-tone drawing). is necessary to lay a wash o Three-tone When coloring ground. Keep adding smooth. full brush into the gouache and start in the top left corner. Prop up your board of dry. v e r y little at a time. so put newspaper under the lower edge. slowly add powder pigment or gouache from a tube.141 SILVER POINT 3 Leave the paper to dry flat. overlapping lines until you reach the bottom. T h r e e .



Head and Neck
THE HEAD AND NECK are best conceived as one unit arranged in four parts: cranium, face, neck, and throat. Each is of equal importance. The cranium is essentially egg-shaped and pivots on the first vertebra. The face is suspended beneath, like a softly curved triangle. The n e c k — a powerful, shapely column of layered muscles rigged to vertebrae—adjusts and holds the angle and expression of the head. The throat is delicate, hard, and lumpy to the touch, formed of cartilaginous rings, glands, thin muscles, and looser skin. Framing the throat, two columnar neck muscles (sternomastoids) project the head forward and also turn it to the opposite side.

This is a simple shorthand diagram representing the cranium, face, neck, and throat. It can be learned and visualized in different positions very easily, giving the novice a firm footing on which to stand and develop their drawings of the head and neck.

Shorthand diagram

Cranium Begin with an egg shape. Tilt it on the paper to change the position of the head.

Face Draw a rounded triangular shape below the forward point of the egg to represent the face.

Neck This shape represents the trapezius; the largest surface muscle of the neck and shoulders.

Throat A triangular shape represents the throat. (The nose makes the diagram clearer)

Applied shorthand

After copying the diagram above, animate it. Practice drawing the cranium at different angles, add the face beneath, then the neck, shoulders, and throat. Shape your diagrams so they are more lifelike, but avoid adding detailed features too soon.

143 These three drawings demonstrate (from left to right) the following: why the cranium may be considered egg-shaped; now the face can be seen as a curved triangle suspended beneath and where the division lies between the two; and the form of sternomastoid muscles that frame thethroatsodistinctlywhen the head is turned and inclined forward.

The skull and the frame of the throat


Bones of the cranium are locked together by jagged joints. Sinuses in the frontal (forehead) bone between and beneath the eyebrows are larger in men, making their brows pronounced and often ridged compared to those of women.

Bones of the face house our sight, smell, taste, The skull pivots on the first vertebra or "atlas," and speech. Cartilage extending from nasal bones after the Greek god condemned to carry the shapesthenose.Pads of fat resting on the base of Earth. The jaw hinges in front of the ears. Behind, eacheyesocket support the eyeballs in position. If bony ridges give anchor to the sternomastoid thefatisreducedby old age, eyes look sunken. muscles rising from the breast- and collarbones.

Three useful generalizations

General rules about the relative positions of body parts can hinder artists as much as help them, since they are often based on classical ideals rather than thediversityoflife.However,some generalizations can help as a rough guide to start with, so long as good observation takes over as soon as possible.

In general, when the face is relaxed (not smiling or frowning), the corners of the mouth are found directly beneath the pupils of the eyes. Vertical lines can be drawn down from the pupils to meet the corners of the mouth.

The height of a young adult's ear is often the same as their nose and found on the same level. There is no general rule for growing children, and remember that ears grow again in old age, which is most obvious in men.

The height of the face is about the length of the handspan and the eye is normally halfway down the total height of the head. A common error is to draw the eyes too high up on the face.



Essential Observations

(see pp. 140-41) is perfect for

such as a beach pebble. Here, I stretched drawing paper and laid a wash of white gouache (see pp.140-41). As you can see, the line and tone of silver point varies with pressure, but only slightly. Too much pressure cuts the ground. Silver point erases, but so does ground. Erased ground can be repaired gently with extra gouache. You can also use gouache to paint over mistakes and make corrections.

small, detailed drawings. The drawings below and opposite show useful observations of the head and neck, which are explained in the captions below. Each drawing was made with a silver wire held in a large-gauge mechanical pencil. Newly clipped wires are sharp and cut rather than draw. Before use, they need to be rubbed and smoothed on a stone

Here I imagined placing my silver point wire against the skin of each head and neck and, working in parallel bands from the crown downward, I traced the undulation of surfaces. Linear bands imagined around the head and neck can help you t o clearly see the tilt of the head and relative levels of the features. Ask a friend t o model for you and try this exercise life-size using a pencil and eraser


Tilted forward

Tilted backward

Three-quarter view

Seeing that the face is never flat

Drawings below left and center are summaries of the generalizations given on p.143. Far right is an image to remind us that the face is never flat. It slopes back to varying degrees among individuals, from the tip of the nose t o the ears. For example, note that the innermost corners of the eyes are farther forward in space than the outermost corners.

General measurements, side

General measurements, front

View from above


Male and female head and neck
Men's necks a r e g e n e r a l l y s h o r t e r a n d t h i c k e r t h a n w o m e n ' s b e c a u s e t h e angles a n d levels o f c e r t a i n b o n e s a r e d i f f e r e n t b e t w e e n t h e sexes ( i n d i c a t e d h e r e b y d o t t e d lines) a n d m e n are n o r m a l l y m o r e muscular. T h e male t h y r o i d cartilage ( A d a m ' s apple) is larger a n d m o r e visible than t h e f e m a l e . L a r g e r f e m a l e t h y r o i d glands also s o f t e n t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e t h r o a t .

Female skull





Trapezius muscle
The largest m u s c l e o f t h e s h o u l d e r s a n d n e c k is called the trapezius. A r r a n g e d on e i t h e r side o f t h e spine, it shapes t h e u p p e r back and neck above the s h o u l d e r blades. C o n t r a c t i n g in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h d e e p e r and surrounding muscles, it raises and l o w e r s t h e shoulders a n d d r a w s t h e h e a d backtoeitherside.

The whole



half with



with head



with head


Side with


Front with




Drawing Portraits
USING A SHARP 3 B PENCIL, I drew this head quickly from imagination, evolving its character and expression from the scheme of four parts: cranium, face, neck, a n d throat (see p. 142). Here, five steps show you how to practice doing the same. This approach can be used to draw from imagination or from life. Keep your wrist loose and hold your pencil away from its point (see pp.22-23). Build the layers of your drawing from pale to dark, a n d from general balance a n d form to specific detail. Remember that successful drawings are built on foundations of "seeing the whole," then dividing the whole into smaller parts, with details brought in last of all. Phrased tonal marks modeling this girls skin and hair follow the technique demonstrated by Goya in his self-portrait on p. 130. Turn to Goya's drawing and study how, in a circle beginning across his hat, moving down his hair, and around his coat, he flows lines over surfaces to describe their contour. As you build from steps 1 to 5, bring phrased groups of lines across the surfaces of your form, using their directions to capture the expression of the head and neck. If unsure, copy my steps until you gain the confidence to make your own decisions.

This drawing is the final stage of the four steps opposite. Here, I have enlarged the eye, and moved it back into the head by trimming the length of the upper lid and adding a more pronounced lower lid. It is important to set eyes far enough back from the relatively prominent nose; too close to it and the face flattens. Hair swept back and extended behind the cranium balances the regal pose. Lines shaping the hair echo those marking the cranium in step 1. Here, the lower part of step 1 comes through as wisps of hair across her face and ear


Portrait of a Young Girl

Keep your first lines light. First lines will remain visible in the final drawing. I modeled the outline of the character I imagined light shining from above and in front and adjusted the pressure of lines to reflect this. Moving from the back of the neck. and throat. neck. I used light to describe the upper lid first with a shadow beneath for the lower lid and open eye. Here. down the face to the throat. so it is important to the life of the image that while controlled. too soon.Theangle at which you draw this shape of the paper will determine the angle of the finished head. The eye announces the nature and expression of the emerging person. 2 Rapidly add shorthand shapes to represent the face. over the cranium. 4 .147 Building up the portrait DRAWING PORTRAITS 1 Gently spin pale lines in a softly drawn shape representing the cranium. The nose and ear begin to shape the head. they are also still sweeping and confident. 3 Place the eye beneath the cranium. avoid drawing too dark.


. and gravity. the texture of hair. empathize. Above all. be aware of the subtle differences in skin surface.T o DRAW PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGES. muscular tension. a n d t h o s e w h o a r e Generations asleep (see overleaf).



I used the nib upside down to gain needle-sharp precision. Fast lines carve out the features of Goya's soup-slurping hag.Castings DRAWING IN THE PRADO MUSEUM. Madrid. . Van Dyke's noble cast of characters was modeled more finely. seeking the dominant contours of each individual expression. with a steel dip pen and acrylic ink.



or b u l g e s . for e x a m p l e — d e s i g n e d the w a r d r o b e s of p o p e s a n d k i n g s . e m u l a t e textures. or calm u s w i t h chic. In this c h a p t e r w e see h o w c l o t h i n g c a n s e e m to p o s s e s s the w e i g h t and m o n u m e n t a l i t y of stone. shapes. P o p u l a r f a s h i o n d e s i g n e x p l o d e d w i t h the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n . it is the public sign by w h i c h w e are j u d g e d . and everything w e h a v e c h o s e n for o u r w a r d r o b e s — r e f l e c t o r s of o u r taste. and i n d e e d image b e c a m e the property also of the industrial classes. T h e e n t o u r a g e of the theatrical stage o f t e n l e a d s the c a t w a l k . Like it or not. charcoal. w h i c h in turn feed c o n s u m e r Lev. Petersburg and later exiled designers' ideas and are surprised and delighted b y their continual f l o w of inspiration. a n d c o u r t i e r tailors f o l l o w e d suit. he and cofounder Serge Diaghilev took Paris by eac storm in 1910 with their production h year in the industrial f r e n z y of creating o u r image and aspirations. known as Leon Bakst. Previously. Samoylovich Rosenberg. caricatured p l u m e s . cool. fulfilling lavish and spectacular briefs. personality. and even invisible by the w a y w e dress. articulate a d a n g e r o u s satirical j o k e . woman was drawn by Bakst one year later for the ballet Narcisse.This voluptuous above all a physical p u p p e t w i t h w h i c h to animate character and narrate personality.Costume W E MAKE OURSELVES EXOTIC. arichand unusual combination of pencil. w a r m t h . dancer leaps through swaths of golden cloth. Designers all over the w o r l d c o n t i n u a l l y p e n and b r u s h lines to lash us w i t h color. c u l t u r e . In psychology. D e s i g n e r s create m a s t e r p i e c e s of haute couture LEON BAKST for H o l l y w o o d stars. of Scheherazade. and atmosphere. a n d p r o f e s s i o n — b e g a n life as a d r a w i n g . was a Belarussian A r t Deco theater fantasies and desires to immediately possess a version of the same. toParis. o n l y the w e a l t h y c o u l d afford to h a v e c o s t u m e s specially m a d e . st 111/4 x 81/2 in (285 x 220 mm) u d i e d L E O NB A K S T and explore the characterization of fabric t h r o u g h m o v e m e n t . Cities c h a n g e d all. . intriguing. and gouache. and s y m b o l s that lets m e n and w o m e n in all countries and areas have w o r k i n g access to the latest fashions. variety. a n d s u b t l e t o n e s . Artists do this not so m u c h b y the style of a figure's garment. g l o s s y folds. and be so expressive of temperament that it overtakes the need for an o c c u p y i n g h u m a n form. Practical classes Bacchante 1911 l o o k at r a n g e s of c o l o r e d m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d i n g p a s t e l s a n d felt-tip p e n s . Bakst's designs and costumes immediately To the fine artist. W e dress ourselves and costume designer trained in in St. c r u m p l e s . T h e rural masses w o r e h o m e s p u n simplicity.As artistic director of the It is s h o c k i n g to t h i n k h o w m a n y m i l l i o n s of d r a w i n g s m u s t be m a d e a n d d i s c a r d e d Ballet Russe. c o s t u m e o f f e r s a r i c h v o c a b u l a r y of t e x t u r e s a n d c o l o r . and e x u b e r a n c e . a n d w e will c o l l e c t patterns. outrageous. b u t influenced Parisian fashion and interiordecor. gesture. S t r u c t u r e is t h o u g h the i n v e n t i o n of shoes. so that c h o i c e . T h e p a p e r p a t t e r n is p e r h a p s the m o s t w i d e l y k n o w n of c o s t u m e d r a w i n g s : a formalized plan of lines. and intent. while court p a i n t e r s — M i c h e l a n g e l o and Holbein. theb u t b y the w a y it s p e a k s w i t h its flying.

and snakelike marks. Short and subtle horizontal punctuations are only given in the background by sections of floor. Opposite. it is only possible to create very thin. Maelbeke I44I Madonna 11 x 7 in (278 x 180 m m ) JAN V A N EYCK . Their uninterrupted emphasis is entirely vertical.140-41). Below this. delicate lines. Her gown is carved and polished as if made from marble. best k n o w n f o r his G h e n t altarpiece ( 1 4 3 2 ) a n d m a r r i a g e p o r t r a i t o f Giovanni A r n o l f i n i and his w i f e (1434). her marble garment holds u p the infant Christ in a fountain of compressed line. Above them. With a stylus such as Van Eyck used here. Delicate marks Silver (or metal) point is the most delicate of traditional drawing media (see pp. Keisai Eisen's intense.156 COSTUME Cloth and Drapery EACH OF THESE FIGURES is ninety percent cloth. Marble gown We will never know if Van Eyck considered this drawing unfinished or intended the kneeling abbot to remain transient and ghostly. H e m e t i c u l o u s l y a r r a n g e d subjects t o c o n v e y d e e p e r meaning. The quiet stillness of this image is achieved by a masterly economy of stylized line. resonate with their wearers startled expression. However. the Madonna and her architecture are both dressed in the same manner. and implied striation in the stone of the architecture. with their jagged edges. folds and patterns of material speak more resolutely of their wearers than any small glimpses of body we can see. Church and deities are drawn as JAN VAN EYCK Flemish oil p a i n t e r f r o m L i m b o u r g . swirling printed fabrics. the vaulted stone roof echoes and crowns the moment. bands around the columns. In Van Eyck's drawing below. Van Eyck's highly polished w o r k is c e l e b r a t e d f o r its disguised symbolism. Sculpted one. and the kneeling abbot is a ghost by comparison. dragons. the carefully composed outline of his cloak shows us how the artist would have also begun his immaculate rendering of the Virgin's clothes. Flaxmans sleeper—perhaps a pilgrim or a soldier resting between campaigns—has wedged himself into the cleft of some great building to grab a moment of peace. He has layered these slowly and carefully so as not to cut through the ground and produce a white mark just where he intended a dark one. Vertical lines The highly controlled lines of this drawing cascade from top to bottom of the image.

Remaining raised areas of wood are rolled with colored inks. and teacher Distinctive linear illustrations for the works of Homer. which are sometimes also cut into pieces like a jigsaw puzzle. designer. one over the other. each delivering a different part and color of the design. an 18th-19th century document on the lives of the ukiyo-e artists.157 KEISAI EISEN Japanese draftsman. and the feet notched against the pillar tell us that A lines holds him into the cleft. Koimurasaki of Tama-ya 1810-50 15 x101/4in (381 x 260 mm) KEISAI EISEN The Courtesan JOHN F L A X M A N English late 18th-century neoclassical sculptor. Aeschylus earned Flaxman an international reputation. Images are drawn onto smooth. he also co-edited and expanded the Ukiyo-e Ruiko (History of Prints of the Floating World). writer and printmaker Keisai Eisen took his name from the masters Kano Hakkeisai and Kikugawa Eizan. CLOTH AND DRAPERY Relief printing This is a woodblock print made by a relief process. flat sheets of wood. Parts of the image to be left unprinted are gouged out with a metal tool. Position In this pen and ink drawing. the angle of the head. Respected for his sumptuous images of geisha and editions of erotic prints. the cloak sliding to the ground. stone wall of downward-stroked this sleeper's position is momentary. and Man Lying Down in a Cloak I 787-94 21/4 JOHN FLAXMAN x 41/8 in (57 x 105 mm) . The inked block is laid face-down on damp paper and pressed to make the print. Dante. This complex numerous blocks prepared image and may have been made with printed separately. draftsman.

and even formal portraiture. A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE Flemish painter and draftsman. t h r o u g h n u m e r o u s p o r t r a i t and C h u r c h commissions. cloth. a n d w a s e m p l o y e d as c o u r t painter t o King Charles I. Anthony Van Dyke's Man in Armor is a masterpiece of drawn surface. cinema. Leg section Compare mid-shin the section of white boots cropped to the section of similarly cropped trousers in drawings Gruau's drawing on p. and feather were all CHARACTER COSTUMES REPRESENT observed with closely crafted conviction. The metal. Fine examples can be plucked from fashion. The aged queen is compared to an overdressed bird. The slight uncertainty of the pose and the limp cloak suggest a little more metal than man. Details and voices are worn externally with great imagination. he c o o l e d and redefined his style. A s a y o u n g man.158 COSTUME Character Costumes an extreme form of the clothed figure. for she would not have been amused and William Wodall might have been stretching his luck. all ruffs and wrinkles. It is presumed Her Royal Highness never saw it. Pen and wash In the graphic accuracy of this armored knight we see the idealized identity of a warrior from another time: a gleaming defender of the realm. He has been rendered on this olive<olored page with pen and gray wash worked over a red and black under-drawing. Its warm surface flows in contrast to the stiff metal armor. A flamboyant territory. Flowing scarf The knight's scarf of gilded blue is drawn in a pale wash over red ink lines. 160. Leg sections in both support the figure without taking our attention away from the main garment above. lace. Man in Armor UNDATED 1 6 x 9 1 / 2 in ( 4 0 5 x 2 4 0 m m ) A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE . theater. w h e r e . b e f o r e traveling t o Italy. a scurrilous cartoon by a courtier of Queen Elizabeth I. Van D y k e was chief assistant t o Rubens f o r t w o years. Its color is also reflected in the metal. cartoon. In 1 6 3 2 he m o v e d p e r m a n e n t l y t o L o n d o n . Opposite is a dangerous drawing. where sometimes there just might not be anybody inside.

A Ruffs and feathers Starched white ruffs worn at court and by society grew steadily larger as Elizabeth's reign progressed. Top-heavy.1599 71/2 WILLIAM x 51/4 in ( 1 9 0 x 1 3 4 mm) WODALL . Northern Satire This is a quill-and-ink satire of the elderly queen's pride-As head of state and fashion. and saturations showing through from the other side. and her pride. here dark tawny owl. By her old upto three tiers supported on sticks. T h e poem recounts t h e six m a j o r crises o f Elizabeth's reign: t h e Spanish A r m a d a . Satire of the Queen's Dress c. bitten nature. t h e Jesuit Mission. while a raised foot pauses to assess the next displaying a fan of daggers. t h e B a b i n g t o n Plot.159 WILLIAM W O D A L L A u t h o r and illustrator o f The Aaes of Queene a Elizabeth poem Allegorized. suggest the use of iron-gall ink (see p. she is shown as a grossly disproportioned bird. hooded with an overinflated fluffy ruff eye pins us. Beneath the lethal fan is the body of a bird of trimmed feathers suggest age. t h e Ridolfi Plot.35). t h e Rising. manuscript comprising six c a n t o s . it was customary to Iron-gall ink Wodall's dangerous caricature steps daintily the written lines of her dedicated page. the queen is masterfully rebalanced by words at her feet The whole drawing's blackened.

and tilted to the same de a little deeper than sp kneestogivehergravity. possibly over a pencil outline.5 9 ) and a three-spoke balance of cuffs and cropped trousers to create an almost flag-like emblem of power. Vogue. RENE GRUAU I t a l i a n . The black red. His model is outlined. Rene Gruau's bold gouache drawing of smoothly swaying sophistication captures a brilliantly cut garment and frames it with great dynamism in a white.F r e n c h f a s h i o n i l l u s t r a t o r w h o in his l o n g and esteemed career w o r k e d with many of the g r e a t e s t d e s i g n e r s o f 2 0 t h . and gray pigments were applied separately. studio-like rectangle of paper. Compare the compositio beneathVanDyke'sstudy of armor on p. a n d L'Officiel de la couture. Gruau's model regally swans to the fore with cool pride. 158. 5 8 . as is Spider-Girl opposite. demanding attention with gesture and flair. Gruau uses starkly cut negative space (see pp. ofcroppedtrousershere to the device of the w Illustration 1949 for Jacques Fath in L ' O f f i c i e l d e la C o u t u r e RENE GRUAU . muscular aggression. Harpers & Queen. She has been drawn with brushes dipped into India ink and gouache. Fashion and fantasy drawings invent prototypes of ideals and perfection—be they for the catwalk or the fast-paced pages of comic books.c e n t u r y haute i n n u m e r o u s m a g a z i n e s i n c l u d i n g Elle. Airbrushed reflective surfaces further amplify our perception of speed. India ink and gouache This swish of confidence and style our enters the page turning everyone's head. Drying time in between applications ensured the colors did not run into each other. diving to catch us in the grip of her machine-like limbs. Spider-Girl leaps like an insect. elegant chic and svelte. Composition Look how well this image is frame knee is parallel to the bottom edge spacehorizontalline cropping the trousers be outermostuprightbordersof her cuffs are similar above her head thesidesoftheimage. Fine lines drawn against the building behind her echo the threads on which we have all seen arachnids drop and hang. and both share the power of scarlet and black.160 COSTUME Femmes Fatales THESE DEVASTATING femmes fatales force back the onlooker with their demure. G r u a u ' s highly distinctive d r a w i n g s have a p p e a r e d Couture.

moon. Frenz has drawn for Marvel for about 20 years. at Their extensions will meet the same single vanishing (see point pp. MARVEL C O M I C S . It is outside the picture frame. and figure are all locked into equally shatp through the traditional process of a pencilled outline over-drawn ink. Single-point understand perspective To how Frenz created up therefore the effect of steeply between looking buildings—and howyou can do the same in your own work—take calculate where a ruler the and single vanishing point lies. The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones.74-77). Airbrushed color and with tonal focus.RON F R E N Z Contemporary American graphic artist w h o designs and pencils the dynamic scenes of numerous superheroes featured in Marvel Comics. and has been the title's regular artist since 2003. Align your ruler to the upright of each building. In your mind's eye extend the uprights out of the top of the picture. a great characteristic superhero comics. beginning with Star Wars. to the right of its center. sky. Sharp focus black outlines in this drawing create a hyper-real dynamic. Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 2001-04 R O N FRENZ. This s modeling applied over the top give the image a sleek and mechanical of gravity. and Amazing Spider-Man. Buildings. not far above the drawing. He began work on Spider-Girl in 1998.

crumbly. FELT-TIP PENS: Instant-drying alcoholor water-based inks stored in the barrels of the pens are delivered via smooth nylon o r felt tips of varying shapes and thicknesses. 3. slightly oily to the touch. and subtlety. Be aware that fixative dulls pastel. soft. purchase a small selection of different items you think you will like. They work well on PIGMENTS Pigments. minerals. Beware—some are toxic. and can be a great rediscovery for bold drawings. are derived from many sources: rocks. plants. Store loose pastels in dry rice to keep them clean. wash. though lines can develop greasy stains around the edges if the paper is not first stretched and treated with a gelatin paste laid as a wash. oily pigment. Dissolve in turpentine or mineral spirits to produce oil paint or or dark paper. Many products are sold individually and in boxed sets. Before making substantial investments.162 COSTUME Colored Materials ART STORES BRIM OVER w i t h t h e m a n y wherever permitted. and sold in many colors. used to make colors. the finer and more subtle the texture and color should be. quality. animals. Sticks and conte crayons make thicker marks (as below). and can be softened and manipulated with degrees of heat. The higher the quality (and cost). 1. size. clay. OIL PASTELS Oil-based. insects. and CHALK PASTELS Pastel pencils make fine lines (as above). intensity. you may be pleasantly surprised to discover something you could not have imagined using. CHALK PASTELS: Blackboard chalk is sidewalk work. fixing each layer on the front. unwrapped harder pastels. 2. Many artists apply fixative to the back of their work. The worst are like revolting old lipsticks that get everywhere except where you intend. Bright pastels are more brilliant on colored paper. shape. Pastels are finer. Pastel pencils are slender and in w o o d casing. OIL PASTELS: Many colors. which he left unfixed to retain its brightness. paper-wrapped. See h o w they work and return later for more of what proved best for you. 4. Seemingly infinite choices of texture. They vary hugely in cost. hue. C o n t e crayons are square-formed. Try materials that are new and unfamiliar. The nontoxic range below represents a suggested starting point for experiment. these work best when slightly warm. Use them to draw lightly (as above left) or thickly. the diverse are made in brands of basic member of the family. including iridescents. quality and cost T h e best are paperwrapped sticks of sumptuous. Most stores leave small pads of paper on their counters for customers to test materials. Degas built his pastels in layers. made in about 80 colors. except the final layer. COLORED PENCILS: Dry pigments ground together with chalk. or wax and a binder are shaped into fine strips and encased in w o o d like a graphite pencil. there are disparities between the apparent nature or color of what you hold in your hand and its performance on paper. colored materials available. allowing it to fix slightly from behind. and synthetics. Often. Children's wax crayons are relatives. great for tin . and cost are laid out for our pleasure and perusal. chalkbased but very subtle. mixed on the paper and scratched into (as below). I suggest you do so.

so it is best to test them before buying. Colors can be blended as shown right) and tones graded by altering pressure. Fine lines can be achieved (as above). FELT-TIP PENS Although not made with felt-tip pen. If you love smooth blocks and lines of colon felt-tip pens are perfect. Some are nonsoluble. Some give richer lines than others. Diverse brands are harder or soften greasier or chalkier in use. 111). leaving the paper to shine through for highlights (as below). others dissolve in water or turpentine to make a wash. .or clay-based thin crayons in wood casing. it is still a great champion and support for those beginners feeling shyly obligated to tone down their love of color to conform with what others say they should use. Think of Matisse's Blue Nude (see p. Brands made for designers sold in enormous ranges of colors are far more subtle and sophisticated than those made for children.163 COLORED PENCILS These are wax.

Turn t h e m in different d i r e c t i o n s and o b s e r v e t h e i r s t r u c t u r e and f o r m . 100-01 and pp. and how we stand and walk. REPEATED STUDY T o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s class. imagining y o u can see t h r o u g h it.164 COSTUME Study and Design they reflect our age. social and economic status. and after studying familiar shoes we use the information learned to invent new ones. S H O E S TELL LIFE STORIES. t o o . a n d e x p e r i e n c e visible p r o g r e s s . t h e n again as if transparent. and they have been concealed in buildings to ward off misfortune. the era in which we live. values. you will need several large sheets of drawing paper. D r a w each o n e first as a solid object. This class takes the shoe as its subject in building on earlier lessons concerned with seeing through objects to understand their function. personality. Superstitions and fetishes are attached to them: we are told never to put new shoes on a table. a range of colored felt-tip pens with both fine and broad tips. e n j o y i n g t h e study a n d i n v e n t i o n o f shoes. they record and reflect our common history. if y o u m a k e p l e n t y o f d r a w i n g s as o p p o s e d t o o n l y a f e w . To set up. As artifacts in museums. Linear Outline Using fine pens. I m a d e n u m e r o u s s h e e t s o f d r a w i n g s . style. Here we go one step further. while artists have painted their boots or those of others as personal portraits and memorials. will discover m o r e . . structure. 104-07). and volume in space (see pp. You. and a selection of shoes. c o v e r a large sheet o f p a p e r w i t h line drawings o f several shoes.


The Surface


study the surface contours using fineand broad-tipped felt-tip pens. For best results, it is important to be bold and brief. Draw firmly, fast, and with as few strokes as possible. Build up each shoe from light to dark andleavesome paper showing through to create highlights.

Design Your Own

Using what you have learned from the previous steps about the structures of your shoes, and about the use of pens, invent new designs from your imagination. Start with fine outlines and progress to colored and textured surfaces. Modify your ideas by rotating the views.



The Structure of Costume

rich resource for the artist and

information given by a period style. Arrange to visit a costume museum or ask a friend to model clothes for you at home. Using fine felt-tip pens, begin with quick, pale impressions of each garment's shape before homing in on its borders and seams. Try to draw transparent views wherever possible to record the relationships between all component parts. Aim to draw enough information for it to be possible to make up a version of the garment using paper pinned to a tailor's dummy.

designer. They often give quite unexpected gems of ideas and information—whatever the subject. These drawings, made in a costume museum, demonstrate ways of recording structural information and detail for later use in the studio. They could form the basis of new designs for a fashion project or theater production, for example. Drawings of shoes on pp. 164-65 show how new designs can be evolved from the structural

It is usually best when collecting information for reference to apply the restraint of dispassionate observation. Set yourself the test of drawing facts with as little artistic license or embellishment as possible. Here I chose fine felt-tip pens because they are at their best when used swiftly, and therefore encourage bold, unhesitant decisions.

Swift lines record the hanging weight of this gentleman's coat, the relative proportions of its layers, and minimal details of the buttons and cuffs.

Thick velvet fabric is pulled tight beneath and across the bust by a single button. This transparent view shows how the fabric falls loosely in straight panels beneath the level of the sleeve.


W h e n visiting museums, be prepared f o r l o w lighting, which can make it hard t o see and draw. A book can help if attached t o your drawing board.

Adding stripes and dashes of color with a thicker pen brings out the glossy sheen and sculptural rigidity of this dress, which would have been worn over a whalebone corset. small reading light designed t o clip o n t o a


In small drawings such as these, use thick pens to color entire sections with a few marks, as I did here down the side of the bodice.

The light, frilly bulk of this crinoline dress is propelled forward with lines. pinching its gathers and sways that are hiding a horsehair bustle. fleets of quick



Textures and.Patterns
THIS CLASS FOCUSES ON how to draw textures through the collection of fabric, pattern, and embroidery samples from a costume m u s e u m . This formal method, using ruled squares, can create an invaluable library of ideas a n d i n f o r m a t i o n for future r e f e r e n c e — w h e n painting a clothed figure, or preparing a textile project, for example. However, if making a book of samples for a project, remember that it is important to also include collages of f o u n d materials (see pp.230-31) To d r a w a fabric texture, b e g i n by concentrating o n h o w y o u i m a g i n e it w o u l d feel if you t o u c h e d it. Decide if it w o u l d be rough, s m o o t h , w a r m , cold, thick, thin, tough, or fragile, for example. As you draw, believe you can feel these qualities at your fingertips a n d that your pencil is responding to the sensation. Undulate the pressure of your lines and marks according to the feeling of the fabric rather than its appearance. Let your pencil enact the sensation of touching its surface.

and to experiment more loosely with mixed media.

This starchy, quilted, b o w e d creation started life as an imagined corset, I intended t o d r a w together in one sculptural f o r m a range o f t h e details opposite. T h e garment quickly got o u t o f hand. T h e r e is great e n j o y m e n t in letting y o u r imagination run wild w h e n inventing costumes. If you are unable t o visit a costume museum, many exciting fabric details and textures can be found in y o u r o w n closet o r home.


Colored pencils give precision and tonal range; they can be faded but not erased. Lightly use an HB graphite pencil if you wish to plan a design first. Pressed hard, colored pencils build up a waxy finish of brilliant color. Used lightly, they appear powdery and show the texture of the paper.


Silk and braid


Embroidered leather





Outline stitch


and 252-53).Dressing Character I O N C E SPENT THREE MONTHS researching the work of Francisco de Goya at the Prado Museum. . selected from different pages of my original book. identity. and motivation of an individual. I made a drawing book full of studies seeking to understand how he composed drama and pathos in his narratives (see also pp. These characters. Madrid. 172-73. shape.126-27. look at how Goya delineated volumes of thick fabric to express the posture.

and visible. and tangible. as it rushes and carves fabric-wrapped forms like rivers and desert winds shaping the earth.170—71).T H E S E PENCIL STUDIES. Posture Carving also taken from my Madrid drawing book (see pp. I carefully copied the direction of each of his lines. . are copies of works by Goya in which he makes air seem heavier than flesh. To understand how he did this.



paintings depicting scenes from history. Saskia died after childbirth. furniture. Her all-too-clear expression shows annoyance and irritation with her husband. He in turn scorches the paper with his view and a certain speed of seeing all. He is also the artist from whom props to add layers of meaning and attitude. presumably while he is making this drawing. The spaces between people and the positions they occupy on a page are vital to our understanding of the psychology or emotion of an event. the direct exchange (as shown here) where one or more characters hold eye Aneedproduced the thicker lines of the nurse. too. . soap operas. R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN in the delivery of narrative. Second. vivid portrait of his wife captures our attention. Blockbuster movies. and instantly engage with the action of the scene. and other masters of Western Art. television documentaries. It middle. the viewer. Seeing through Rembrandt's eyes. Storytelling and people-watching are obsessive human activities. in spite of how it may seem. Third. and therefore seem to see. Washes of shadow behind engaged and as a natural voyeur can feel invisible while watching the scene. As artists. and distance—so drawings of gathered people can be loosely arranged in three took only minutes to make and yet it lives for centuries. this is not the portrait of an old woman. Later in their lives. We can direct close. we can R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter draftsman. First. and so. We read tensions and exchanges between people. the viewer's attention in a scene by the format of its composition. the speed and printmaker and one of the greatest and most influential density of its lines. a crowd tells the story from a distance. while a quill contact with. but drawings of gathered people tell them most directly. Saskia. finding corners in crowded places to inscribe their action and energy onto the page. the viewer is not directly made the finer lines of Saskia. Here. even up her were laid with a brush. comics. and novels—our staple cultural diet—are driven by a fascination with shared experience and the detail of what happens in other people's lives. With a pocket full of disposable pens we also go out and draw the expressions of gathered people. there are no longer individuals but one significant group or mass action. Drawings selected for this chapter explore these Saskia Lying in Bedand a Nurse ranges of proximity 1638 9 x61/2in (227 x 164 mm) and a travel journal. This J u s t as there are three parts to a traditional landscape drawing—the foreground. Rembrandt's bored and frustrated wife. we. heighten or subdue drama with subtleties of exaggeration or caricature.Gatherings A LL DRAWINGS TELL STORIES. We can also use clothes. types. are implicated in this marital exchange made over the head of the anonymous nurse. daily newspapers. stares out from her gloomy sickbed. we can learn most about handling pen and ink. and its illumination.

the Cat. Below." (Tim Noble) Drawing with light it is important to think about what you is Here timelessly we see a in can draw with. TIM N O B L E A N D SUE W E B S T E R British artists who collaborate using neon.. Pencil on paper important but only the beginning of possibility the combination of three-dimensional space. and projectors to create their anarchic punk satires of modern life. the C o o k . c o m p o s e d garbage p r o d u c e s a c a l m .kicks against the mundane things that close down your mind is a refreshing and good thing. Pans fly oft the stove. via the animated clutter of o u r material lives."Anything that. Real Life is Rubbish 2002 Dimensions variable TIM N O B L E A N D SUE WEBSTER . for example. N o b l e a n d W e b s t e r s w i t t y a n d o f t e n s u b v e r s i v e d r a w i n g s are also c o n t e m p o r a r y art installations. Think about what else you could use: a laser smoke. plates shatter. and projector. and in. a kitchen explodes in o u r faces. and Alice. narrative is delivered through the air. hearth i m p l e m e n t s crash at o u r feet. h a l o e d portrait of the artists seated b a c k to b a c k . F o r e a c h w o r k . junk. t h e y select and arrange familiar items of street detritus into what appears to be an u n p l e a s a n t pile. and on. In both works.176 GATHERINGS SOME DRAWINGS ARE MADE e n t i r e l y o f i l l u m i n a t i o n that floods drama into the viewers gaze. Here. and smoke billows around the agitated jives of the Duchess. T h e i m m a c u l a t e d r a w i n g is only r e v e a l e d w h e n t h e b e a m of a p r o j e c t o r c a s t s t h e s h a d o w Projections of the h e a p o n t o a wall. or even the office photocopier. refuse.. In one of R a c k h a m s great illustrations for Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland. garbage and chaos are piled a n d e x p l o d e d in r o o m s full of event.

a n d an unmistakable graphic style. we find several devices already explored through our drawing classes. by vivid children's Rakham's w o r k is characterized fantasy. Refer back to the drawing class how pots In drawn objects and elements that those behind. Rackham Vanishing point In this marvelous drama made with pen.76-77) above vanishing point (see that is about3/4in (2 cm) oak converge at this point.Stowe's ofMysteryand Queer Little Folks. This makes the story appear to leap out at us. are very large compared to on p. amplifying movement outward from the vanishing point. and watercolor. beams. humor. The wood grain acts like marks of speed behind the scene. Find the singleperspective pp. 100 to see for make elliptical objects and pans fly through the the foreground. See how the In the Duchess's Kitchen 1907 77/8 x 6 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 5 0 m m ) ARTHUR RACKHAM . and Poe's Tales Imagination. and Alice's shoulder.177 ARTHUR RACKHAM British watercolorist and book illustrator. Depth Billows of smoke expand and are lighter as they come forward. ink. tabletop. H e is best k n o w n forillustratingIrving's Rip vanWinkle.

and art in the landscape.178 GATHERINGS we have seen in the pairs and trios of drawings by masters and makers. A glimmer of gold light appears from the left No explanation is given. M o o r e t o u r e d Italy as a young man. expressing his dry humor about O F ALL THE CONTRASTS HENRY MOORE British s c u l p t o r w h o t r a i n e d a n d taught at t h e R C A . and action of a buffalo hunt. HENRY MOORE Crowd 1942 Looking at Tied-up Object . The image stands out among his more usual graphic works in which he hones and carves semi-abstract human forms. Chalk and graphite This fog-bound but humorous gathering of souls is made in graphite and colored chalk with gray wash. a n d l o v e d t o d r a w in t h e BritishMuseum. audiences. This is just one of many precious artifacts from a lost time. This is an ironic drawing from Moore. meaning. join in the waiting. Moore's spectators appear to have walked a long way from nowhere to witness and wait beside this mysterious obelisque. as if Moore's wrapping has been literally outstretched. a great Shoshone drawing blazes with the color. heat. and composition they are polar opposites. Magnetic Fields sculpture. perhaps these two are the most extreme. which still narrates vivid days in the lives of an energetic nation. a sculptor. London. and we. Opposite. In culture. The mournful gray landscape of Henry Moore's northern British field has gathered by night an overcoated audience to stand and wait before a wrapped and roped monument.The human form w a s the vehicle o f his expression and h e w a s t h e official W o r l d W a r II artist. as fellow watchers.

Each color is evenly distributed throughout the scene. Skills are taught not center chant or dance to the beat of a drum. tolearnhow to paint a scene on a hide are and buffalo circle and charge the perimeters of a skin "field." Men at the instructed to sit and watch. and helping our eye to dart around. Hunt CENTURY SHOSHONE SCHOOL . horses. creating harmonious balance with words but through silent demonstration. Stylized hunters.179 SHOSHONE SCHOOL Stylized characters This vital image of a buffalo hunt is made with pigment Members of the Shoshone community wishing painted within dark outlines on a stretched elk hide. MAGNETIC FIELDS Horses It is interesting to note how the outstretched limbs ofthesehorses echo European images of the runningBuffalo horse before the sequence-photographer Muybridge taught us to 19TH understand their movement differently.

The Circle of the (The Whirlwind 1824 of Lustful Lovers) mm) 143/4 x 207/8i n ( 3 7 4 x 5 3 0 WILLIAM BLAKE . K a t h e K o l l w i t z s c r a t c h e d a n d e n g r a v e d her a r m y of c l a y . a n d the gentle h u m o r of sedate r i d i c u l e . Opposite. color. inextinguishable in its fortitude and h u m o r . t h e Bible. We also see qualities of line. Blake w a s d r i v e n b y a passion f o r j u s t i c e a n d a p r o f o u n d b e l i e f in his v i s i t a t i o n s f r o m angels. a n d e n g r a v e r w h o p o w e r f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e d his o w n t e x t s in a d d i t i o n t o D a n t e ' s Divine Comedy. a n d f o c u s . It illustrates a scene from Dante's Divine Comedy. W I L L I A M BLAKE British visionary. texture.180 GATHERINGS The Human Condition IN THE SPECTRUM of these vastly d i f f e r e n t g a t h e r i n g s of p e o p l e . w r i t e r a r t i s t . a pink-inked cinema wobbles along with string. B l a k e h a s i l l u m i n a t e d his s a d d e n e d Virgil on the s h o r e s of a d a r k w o r l d . w h e r e he w a t c h e s a t u r b u l e n t s p i r a l of p u n i s h m e n t f o r the d a m n e d . Heath Robinson lived through the same war-torn. p o e t . a d e a t h c h a r g e of brutality. and sweetened the often bleak years with his impractical inventions. w e f i n d a spiritual v i s i o n . Misted in translucent layers of paint. Brushed line and wash This is an ink-outlined drawing made with a fine brush on paper with added washes of watercolor The image was subsequently redrawn as a line engraving. The muscularity of Blake's figures was inspired by Michelangelo's works.f o o t e d t r o g l o d y t e s w h o rage into w a r like a m u d s l i d e of revenge. era as Kollwitz. pale souls of the lustful are being s p u n into yet another realm of hell. w h i c h b y their c h o i c e a n d h a n d l i n g a c t u a l l y b e c o m e the force a n d spirit of e a c h i m a g e . m a r k . a n d o t h e r w o r k s .

THE HUMAN CONDITION Scratched lines This is a dry-point etching with monoprint. He created sincere. and clearly focused. sculptor and draftsman. humor by making his characters earnest. and the family home. stoical bemusement. Losbruch (The Outbreak) 1955 20 x 233/8 in (507 x 592 mm) KATHE KOLLWITZ HEATH ROBINSON humorous illustrator and a regular contributor to magazines and journals such as The Sketch and The Bystander. however meager or ridiculous their activity.181 KATHE KOLLWITZ German printmaker. Robinson and Kollwitz (above) share almost identical life dates and their work expresses a shared history from opposite sides oftheworld wars. plodding along with hazy. and the impact of death and war upon women. poverty. Heath Robinson shows England in a past era. Kollwitz survived the two World Wars. and controlled smears on the metal surface printed as tones. Ink rolled over was selectively polished off using a rag. British Pen and wash This is a pen-andwatercolor drawing made for a color-platereproduction in an edition of T h e Bystander. What remained in scratched grooves printed on damp paper as lines. who lived in a poor district of Berlin. and her powerful and sensitive drawings center on nurture. HEATH ROBINSON The Kinecar 1926 103/8 x 15 in (262 x 380 mm) . With masterful gentility. children. The image was scratched directly onto a metal plate. White marks were made with a dusting of French chalk on the artist's finger to wipe away ink leaving clean metal.

CHOICES AVAILABLE T h e r e a r e m a n y d i s p o s a b l e p e n s t o c h o o s e from. Ideal f o r precision w o r k (see p p . build to a rich. So many stores sell them. a n d pressure-sensitive. including l u m i n o u s a n d m e t a l l i c . these pens enable you to sketch. they each offer distinct and sometimes unexpected qualities. trusting shape and form to follow. gel pens) are the most convenient of all materials with which to travel. I keep quantities at home. they can be obtained within minutes. Insensitive t o p r e s s u r e : lines d o n o t v a r y in w i d t h o r t o n e . or idea. indent paper. in the studio. shut your book. aiming for correct outlines would result in drawing too slowly to c a t c h the moment. G E L P E N : P r o d u c e d in b l a c k w h i t e . a ballpoint will make faint lines. w a t e r .7 7 and 214-15). fibertips. is d e l i v e r e d t h r o u g h a m e t a l t u b e o v e r a t i n y ball bearing. 4. and in most pockets so I can always record a thought DISPOSABLE PENS QUICK NOTES O n a c o l d day in Venice. 192-93) w e r e b o t h m a d e w i t h a ballpoint. dark sheen. 2. Available in blacks and ranges of colors. The f o u r i l l u s t r a t e d h e r e r e p r e s e n t a basic r a n g e . a disposable pen with its clip-on cap goes anywhere. if y o u w i s h y o u r d r a w i n g s t o last a n d n o t fade o r b l u r w i t h t i m e a n d e x p o s u r e t o light.188-89) and Caravans (see pp. R e m e m b e r . fine fiber-tip Drawing with a fine fiber-tip pen. p e r m a n e n t . FIBER-TIP: M a n u f a c t u r e d f o r artists a n d d e s i g n e r s in a r a n g e o f w i d t h s . c h o o s e p e n s l a b e l e d " p e r m a n e n t " o r "lightfast. jot notes. rollerballs. Lines t h i c k e n as t h e p e n w e a r s o u t G r a n d Canal (see pp. Unlike pencils. or put the paper in your pocket instantly without fear of smudging.182 GATHERINGS Disposable Pens (ballpoints. At a time like this. . 7 6 . Quick-drying. B A L L P O I N T : Black a n d b o l d c o l o r s o f f e r d i v e r s e qualities. t h e y a r e lightfast. R O L L E R B A L L : A c o n s t a n t i n k flow 3 . For example. in the car." 1. t w o tourists and their gondolier drifter past m e o n a canal. or turn into washes and make monoprints if flooded with an alcohol-based substance such as hairspray. which can snap or pierce through your clothes. turn the page. dropped in your pocket and forgotten till needed. T h e r e w e r e c seconds t o snatch this impression b e t w e e n their emergence from one bridge and disappearance b e n e a t h t h e next. a n d ranges o f colors.r e s i s t a n t . I swiftly focused on gesture. blob when old. W h i t e gel p e n s a r e v e r y e f f e c t i v e o n d a r k papers.

31 . Compare this Klee's mules on p. Earlier I had witnessed a crammed en masse in a fleet of hired gondolas complete with musicians and choir. crowd of fellow travelers Fast lines These scribbled lines model the mass and shadows of heads belonging passengers packed into the boat.FROMMEMORY Here I used the same fiber-tip pen to compose a scene from memory. not form. Fast lines focus on action.

if animated. Circular lines buzz around a man puzzling at the end of a train platform (left). life will not slow and wait for you to catch it. when out drawing. all action is in the line of his coat and directed by his nose. I caught fleeting glimpses of gathered people and solitary souls going about their affairs. Above all. You will make outlines. Let the line of the flying coat fly and the hanging arm hang. Movement . focus on the action of the event. A curatorial assistant flies to do a chore (right). and companionship. make them stouter. FLEETING MOMENTS Walking through Venice with a small. Exaggeration helps. black. not its outline. Don't worry about measuring angles. pocket notebook and a fiber-tip pen. of course. You must learn to trust your memory and to draw what impressed you most. Push toward caricature and this will draw out of your memory what was most important. angles will happen as a matter of course. just draw the action. but they should not be what you dwell on. let it enter the stage and perform. No camera can tie you to a time or people in the same way. activity. animate them more. Each one was witnessed and drawn immediately from the afterimage of what I had just seen. if a person was stout. Every drawing writes an indelible memory of place. Each line acts its part in the narrative. However.184 GATHERINGS The Travel Journal I CANNOT OVERSTATE THE JOY of making a travel journal.

I drew him three times on the same page to catch a range of his physical expressions. In turn. Observation THE TRAVEL JOURNAL The same willowy assistant dashes about his work.185 A large lady is photographed in front of a delicate work of art. I am watched by the aggravated guard. Expression . eager to herd us all from his house of responsibility. The rush of his legs isamplifiedby their blurred lines.

and involvement in the story. if they are being devious. placement. He and his simpering assistant would not allow me in. elevate them in the pictorial space. emotion. focus on action. Here the custodian projects fastidious ownership of his desk and pamphlets by pushing from behind the center of the space and challenging our entry to his image. When your attention has been caught. start by focusing on its action. For example. and you decide to draw the moment. rather than the works of art they guarded. and reason for happening. if they are being haughty. Be aware that their placement on the page is part of the narrative. decide how faces and bodies contort. and there met this sullen custodian. and clothing or bags hang. . forcing me to remain at the back and look at them. and let every detail speak by its size. furniture leans. For example. ACTION AND DETAIL W h e n drawing people. Identify the principal character and draw him or her first. Here I have recreated my drawing in steps to show you how to set about capturing such a scene. or bulge. you might place them lower down. flap. pulls. or pushes.186 GATHERINGS Catching the Moment On A BITTERLY COLD November day. I took refuge in a church in Venice. not outline. Place the person carefully.

a pillar locates t h e scene in a depth o f space.187 The custodian Identify your principal character a n d their psychological role in the scene. . Draw their action and props. Decide where t o place them t o emphasize their role. D r a w their action. which is pushed toward us in a gesture of confrontation. Decide where you will place them o n the paper t o emphasize their action and intent. CATCHING THE MOMENT The assistant Identify t h e antagonist ( o r second character) in t h e scene. If drawing a more complex scene. I added t h e assistant. such as the desk and pamphlets seen here. In the final step (left) I reinforced t h e custodian's desk. who is largely expressed through the shape and fall o f his raincoat and his way o f using a note pad. together with any immediate props they are using. continue adding characters. Here. W i t h a few strokes.


.Grand Canal T H E CANALS OF VENICE are bustling places full of occupation. where vertical mooring poles give space and pulse to the horizontal speed of water quickly. An imminent deluge of tourists urged me to work catching no more than the skeleton of the view. and buildings. I developed detailofthis drawing from memory using a ballpoint pen.

followed by the streets. Characters in the foreground were drawn first. To catch characters like this. note only their most essential action and feature. Each person was glimpsed in an instant. . Caricature each person slightly. then the bridge beneath them. Venetians flow across a stepped bridge and cascade into the streets beyond. and drawn immediately from memory.Crossings DURING THIS RUSH HOUR.



quiet afternoon. and a great subject to draw. I found this circus by chance in the Swiss mountains. Caravans and other backstage activity convey expectations of energy and repose. . Sitting at a distance on a hot. I used a ballpoint pen to compose a series of scenes.Caravans T H E PARAPHERNALIA O F TRAVEL i s an intriguing part of circus life.




artists see for themselves that which is momentary and eternal. By drawing such momentous and everyday events. and even how the Sun illuminates. It now hangs on the staircase of the History of Science Museum. These conditions are very difficult to express well. how the soil is scorched. It is Earths satellite. marking the ground with lines of footprints or by turning stones. Take chances against the rain and work with the wind or fog. surrounded by the bright instruments of centuries of navigation. so J o h n Russell's tour de f o r c e drawing (opposite) was a masterpiece of observation in his time.Earth and the Elements I T MAY SEEM PERVERSE to start a chapter titled "Earth and the Elements" with an image of the Moon. William Turner is said to have had himself lashed to a ship's mast to comprehend the storm (see p. Just as NASA photographs of Earth have had a profound effect on the way we view our fragile home. or has cracked and fallen under the weight of water. but it can be seen as a lens to our observation of this planet. and the sea. Beginners will often choose calm. and meteor impacts have scarred. It is better to get up before dawn. how the mountain cut by ice and rain is now fleetingly lit. t w o e n g r a v e d m a p s k n o w n as The Lunar Planispheres. The pastel drawing was constructed from myriad telescopic observations almost 200 years before the Apollo Moon landing. and its draws the tides of the seas. arranging them in perfect circles on the mountainside or in lines drifting out of sight beneath low clouds. our companion. Look closely at works by many artists and you will see that they have not represented hills. or the wind carries it away. a contemporary environmental artist. as opposed the physicality of Earth. they are the animators of your subject. 199). England. Oxford. pages o f softly i l l u m i n a t e d craters and lunar "seas" c o v e r e d in m a t h e m a t i c a l and s h o r t h a n d calculations. are the real subjects in great landscape drawings. a n d a n astronomer w h o dedicated 20 years t o studying t h e M o o n . and take bold steps in emulating the swell of clouds and the forces of torrential water. a n d a m o o n globe called t h e Selenographia. to be ready to draw the new light as it breaks across the land. sunny days. In this chapter Moon Pastel 1795 Drawing we experiment with charcoal. There is a sense of the heroic in drawing outside—we race to catch a form before the tide engulfs it. t h e first-ever accurate image o f t h e M o o n ' s surface. Weather is essential in all landscape drawing. This is the world's first accurate image of the Moon. speculation. JOHN RUSSELL A p o r t r a i t pastelist t o King G e o r g e III o f England. H e a l s o p r o d u c e d an a l b u m o f 1 8 0 exquisite pencil drawings. and experiment. when little stirs and empty blue skies offer even less to latch lines to. rivers. makes his work by the act of walking. What they have drawn is the force of nature on these properties: how the wind heaves the night ocean. The forces of nature. the face of the Moon. learning to draw light out of dark. the sun comes out to blind it. Russell d r e w this. trees. 5 f t x 5 ft 6 in ( 1 5 2 x 1 6 8 c m ) J O H N RUSSELL . Richard Long.

Hokusais sedate wind presses reeds a n d the j o u r n e y s o f young ladies. speed. fluttering heavily. He knew how the world bends and stutters under such gusts. and gives motion to each image. T h e great master of English seascape is c o n d u c t i n g with his graphic energy. Crayon and limestone This is a lithograph. and by observing its tides and eddies in our o w n environment. Daumier's c a r t o o n shines with the brilliance of his comic memory. we can soon learn to draw its force. A hard waxy was drawn across a heavy limestone Varying definitions crayon of lire and depths of tone conspire to give volume. and pioneer ofexpressionism. has b e c o m e a hysterical kite. sculptor. Fluid strokes inflate the woman's dress and pin shadows to the ground. Dots and dashes suggest receding trees out of focus. H O N O R E DAUMIER French satirical cartoonist lithographer. distance. a scratched ghost. serving a prison sentence for his views. like an umbrella forced inside-out. This wife. lifts.Through political drawings he fired his sharp wit at the king. seeing how it shakes. Terrifying waves of merciless nature roar across the paper. is already lost. the bourgeoisie. painter. Below. the government. Hazy vertical marks reveal buildings into the mist. By Turner carries us to the heart of the maelstrom. a sail b r o k e n loose in a stormy marriage. and the legal profession. and solidity. Danger of Wearing Balloon Petticoats UNDATED HONORE DAUMIER . undramatic b u t brimming with stylized realism. T h e ship.198 EARTH AND THE E L E M E N T S Air in Motion THE GREAT INVISIBLE SUBJECT o f these d r a w i n g s is t h e w i n d . Flapping kimonos and an onlooker turning his b a c k have the magic of a m o m e n t caught.

painter. horizontally then and of the it into the stream Plants also bend and flow right to Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 1802 81/2 HOKUSAI KATSUSHIKA x 131/2 in ( 2 1 7 x 3 4 3 mm) . AIR IN MOTION Pencil and watercolor subdued brushed.199 J. and history painter w h o s e p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t a b o v e all w a s light. absorbent watercolor and are Stains of splashed. Hokusai direction (from clothing from has chosen which it the right).i n f l u e n c e d b y examples o f W e s t e r n art obtained through D u t c h t r a d i n g in Nagasaki. A outline scratched of a skeletal into penciled ship is while and the waves. including being lashed t o a ship's m a s t in o r d e r to study a storm. H o k u s a i in t u r n has since significantly influenced European art. 1826 91/2 x 113/4 in ( 2 4 1 x 3 0 0 m m ) J. leans the whole composition swells around its fateful center. Ship in a Storm c. wind.l o v e dw o r k s i n c l u d e 1 0 0 v i e w s o f M o u n t Fuji and 1 2 v o l u m e s o f Manga. W . from left print. d e s i g n e r a n d b o o k i l l u s t r a t o r .M. T u r n e r w o r k e d in oils a n d w a t e r c o l o r s a n d s k e t c h e d c o p i o u s l y o n his travels. a n d his b e s t . T U R N E R British landscape. Landscape a n d city life w e r e his principal subjects. TURNER KATSUSHIKA HOKUSAI Prolific J a p a n e s e c o l o r w o o d .b l o c kprintmaker. T h e r e a r e m a n y stories o f his p a s s i o n a t e w o r k i n g methods. seascape. into this very as pressed sheet The paper's through own coior is brought banks of mist and fog.W. Wind direction wood-block This is a colored To represent the blows lifted flowed wind.M.

Turner (see p. h a u n t e d shadows. Pen and brush Hugo drew first with pen and ink. An update on biblical showers of fish and frogs. grab their b r u s h . It looks so contemporary. EARTH AND THE VICTOR HUGO French novelist and artist (see also p. as if drawn j u s t this year. as a subject and second. D o m e s t i c o b j e c t s we can o w n and name fall from the clouds. composing banks of waves and dense. Then. T h e m e n a c i n g darkness of Hugo's storm b e l o w is so convincing. active surfaces of water. fantasy palaces. lines of rain escorting them to b o u n c e and clatter. water. He brings us to stare into a place that no sane human would enter. By contrast.200 ELEMENTS Storms STORMS CAN BE SEEN and drawn in two ways: first. leaving nothing but a glimpse of moonlight glistening on the froth below. In periods b e t w e e n writing. His subjects include ruins. and swim into the page. with a brush. ink. this is a b o m b a r d m e n t from o u r h o m e s . this is a writer's narrative of terror. it is difficult to contemplate its brooding and night-soaked heart.28). marks. and t h e sea s t u d i e d f r o m his h o m e in Guernsey in t h e Channel Islands. T h e very nature of b o t h is turmoil and an interweaving of elements. Opposite. he blanketed the drawing in darkness. Le Bateau-Vision 1864 71/2 x 1 0 in ( 1 9 2 x 2 5 5 m m ) VICTOR H U G O . drawing was Hugo's principal means o f expression. and tossed o b j e c t s — a perfect subject in which artists can forget themselves. as a gestural storm on the paper. or charcoal. Leonardos Cloudburst of Material Possessions is o n e of his m o s t enigmatic and mysterious works.198) admires the majesty of nature. inks.

and they passed through private hands for 400 years before becoming widely known.LEONARDO DA VINCI Leonardo devised many artifacts of our modern lives. He was left-handed and wrote backwards in Italian from left to right. It is interesting to speculate how engineering might have developed if his ideas had been shared with the world earlier Ink and chalk This is a pen and ink drawing with touches of black chalk. and a wheel. for example). together with half the contents of our garage. Cloudburst of Material Possessions 1510-12 45/8 x 43/8 in ( 1 1 7 x 1 1 1 mm) L E O N A R D O DA VINCI . a bell. Above and below are examples of his mirror handwriting. a hook. envisioning machines centuries before their making (helicopters and bicycles. He bequeathed his drawings to a friend. There is a little magic in recognizing many items from our homes something like a rake. Each item that has crashed from heaven is drawn in such a way that we can feel Leonardo's nib picking it up in the speed of a doodle.

202 ELEMENTS THE PROFILE OF A HORIZON is a line we immediately recognize and respond to. watching his hand and eye at work together. In a very different work (opposite above). atmosphere. and across to the right. Views from Velletri c. she teased away fragments of paper to illuminate her view. his unsurpassed handling of light. Claude Lorrain drew directly on location. Drawing with a scalpel. and etcher who lived most of his life in 17th-century Rome. and dry marks in the foreground appear to be made with his finger. and famed for. cooler tones receding into the distance are applied with a brush. Whether land-. C L A U D E LORRAIN French classical landscape painter draftsman. sea-. rapidly layering contours to shape place. Segments The top half of the drawing is a view as we enter the valley. and mood simultaneously. Paler. She was inspired by her research of aerial plans of London and the story of an alien map butterfly (see caption). and after tracing her captured line. which he used to unify his compositions. In the lower half he has walked downhill a little. Over first lines. transferred it to a scroll. thick. Claude has used a fine nib to delineate segments of land as they recede into space. EARTH AND THE Bryan cut the profile of a city. a horizon line can trigger our recognition. made inside a book. Even distilled from all other detail. Clare Bryan took panoramic photographs of the English South Downs. or cityscape. Nature Profiles Opposite below. rich. and we can imagine standing over his shoulder. it is the unique calligraphic signature of the place in which we stand. Claude is distinguished by.1638 85/8 x 121/2 in (219 x 320 mm) CLAUDE LORRAIN .

source workisilluminatedby standing its lower edge on a CLARE BRYAN . The edges of each here) fade into the solid paper unpopulated with a scalpel landscape.5-m)scroll." Cut line This is a small section of a preparatory 5-ft(1.The horizon was drawn with a City Landline 2003 271/2x 59 in (70 x 150 cm) scalpel. and visiting professor at numerous art schools.203 Scalpel-drawn This book-bound drawing was inspired by the story of a foreign butterfly wrongly to Great Britain in 1912. specialty bookbinder. Her recent paper photographic. then hunted destroyed. and digital print-based works reflect upon the histories and poetry of "left behind and in-between spaces. 2001 CLARE BRYAN C L A R E BRYAN 3ritish artist. progressively settlement (cropped more and more paper is drawn away to show the expansion of human page of an around the river. printmaker graphic designer. On turning the pages of City. drawings Ideas of introduction Clare Bryan to research introduced down and led NATURE PROFILES and removal historical plans and aerial growth of London showing its population since Roman times.

Willow is the most c o m m o n wood. it looks gray and feels like chalk. b l a c k e r . a n d m o r e i n d e l i b l e by soaking it in linseed oil. a piece of fresh bread. Hold it over your drawing RANGE AVAILABLE Charcoal (in its several forms shown here) is loved or loathed by the beginner to whom it is often recommended because it produces pleasing results quickly. 3. 2. The tip snaps easily to renew a sharp edge if required. Try itworking on big paper covering a wall.54). vine. only a little thicker. leaving u n d e r t r a c e s of first thoughts. . Smooth paper accepts few particles. Essentially. COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Machine-made. feather. and heavier than willow. without touching the surface. Lines are achieved by d e p o s i t i n g particles in the grain o f paper. or fingertip. it is compressed and m o l d e d at high pressure. CHALK CHARCOAL: Technically. Boxes often contain a range of thicknesses to choose for different needs. A great find when available. SQUARE COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Not often sold. they are all intended for fine work. Then lift it away. fine. between your middle finger and thumb. but some specialists stock compressed charcoal in delicate square sticks. 1. you can p u r c h a s e m a c h i n e . It does n o t erase easily. the heel o f y o u r h a n d . B u n d l e s o f twigs were traditionally sealed into earthenware j a r s or wet clay and heated slowly and intensely in a fire or kiln. MEDIUM W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 5. resulting in a stick that gives a blacker. The same as above.m a d e c o m p r e s s e d charcoal. blacker. In use. sticky side down. 1 Suspend a length of masking tape. this does not exist. so it chars b l a c k as o p p o s e d to igniting a n d turning to ash.204 E A R T H AND THE E L E M E N T S Charcoal CHARCOAL IS PRODUCED from wood baked slowly without exposure to air. Alternatively. cylindrical. It is also easily erased if the maker of the mark is not happy with the result. Beware of cheap brands selling dyed chalk as compressed charcoal. CHARCOAL PENCIL: Types made by different manufacturers vary in quality and density of line. maple. R o u g h paper c a n b e loaded. a rag. LIFTING OUT This technique is a very easy method of drawing a crisp. C h a r c o a l naturally glistens. THIN WILLOW CHARCOAL: I used a piece like this to make the drawing opposite. Slightly dull the tape's stickiness before use t o prevent it from lifting out more than you intend. resulting in a pale line. Use any fine-point pen or pencil (I used a ballpoint) to draw a firm line on the back of the Big pieces are perfect for very large-scale drawings—even larger than yourself. and offers a rich. Charcoal lifts away from paper easily with the very light touch o f an eraser. As its name implies. tape. It allows you greater precision in your mark-making than if you rub away the charcoal with an eraser. 4. harder line. white line into the blackor grayness of willow charcoal. 6. THICK W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 2 Keep the tape above your drawing. 3 A white line is lifted out by the tape. Artists have also used lime. black finish. a n d p l u m . b e e c h . 162) or graphite (see p. 7. Not to be confused with square conte sticks (see p. It c a n be m a d e duller.

Here we used a ballpoint. Use cheaper (less sticky) for lifting out. MASKING TAPE: An invaluable resource.212-13 were made by altering the pressure applied to the charcoal. as is fresh (unbuttered!) bread. or any other dry media. graphite. Different tones seen throughout the main drawing on pp. 9. T O R T I L L O N : This is a tight roll of paper used to blend charcoal. Lift out broader marks with a larger implement. sold in several widths. CHARCOAL Lifting out This detail shows an example of where I used the lifting-out technique demonstrated opposite to draw flashes of lightning against rain clouds. Here. Cotton swabs also work. Use high quality (very sticky) to fix paper to walls and boards. pastels. I used a plastic eraser effectively on thinly applied charcoal. Layers can be peeled away to refresh its surface. 10. .205 ERASING Thickly applied charcoal quickly o v e r c o m e s a plastic eraser A w a r m (soft and tacky) putty eraser is more effective. PEN: Any fine pen or pencil can be used to draw on the back of masking tape when lifting out. 8 .

to contain each of your compositions. Landscape drawings are traditionally arranged in three parts: a detailed foreground. a reel of masking tape. Successful drawings often only suggest the qualities of the scene without overdescribing them. especially when making first excursions into aerial perspective.212-13). Then I drew the shape of the tonal patches I perceived. 9 8 . the more you encourage the viewer's imagination to join in and see. Pack several thick and thin sticks of willow charcoal. details blur and colors grow paler and bluer.9 9 we noted that in response to visual stimulus. At its worst. but is often less evocative and engaging. They are also good markers of receding space. our brains search for nameable things and will perceive complete pictures from very little information. Ironically. MATERIALS In this first view there is only a foreground and middle distance. it results in flat planes of clutter. I relaxed my eyes out of focus to dissolve distracting detail into abstract patches of light and darkness. When you arrive. Excessive detail can be admired for its skill and achievement. begin by marking out several small squares on your paper. The long view is hidden behind trees. Seeing tones . a less distinct middle ground composed of shapes and textures. the less you describe. pack your materials (as advised below) and set off for a local view or your nearest arboretum. It is the visible effect of the atmosphere between where you stand and what you see in the distance. Don't worry if it is cloudy: clouds add drama and perspective and make good subjects in themselves (see pp. an eraser your drawing book or a board and paper fixative (or hairspray). On p p . and an abstract. hazy distance. This term simply means that as land rolls away into the distance. and a cushion in a plastic bag to sit on.206 EARTH AND THE ELEMENTS Landscapes TREES ALONE OFFER MARVELOUS shapes to draw. To experiment with drawing landscapes and the use of charcoal.

rounded. and broke a view through the hedge into the distance with a dark sky threatening rain.207 LANDSCAPES In my second square I explored a simple view contrasting soft. Exploring the view Redrawing the scene above. shadows. your view is your inspiration. I have invented drama with diagonals set against each other I tilted the earth. dark trees with bright. This composition turned out a little flat because I have an almost even quantity of earth and sky. horizontal regions of grass. full of information you can use to create what you want! Inventing drama . Remember. the trunk of a bare tree. It is better to give distinctly more pictorial space to one or the other (see below).

settling my concentration.1 5 my first drawing of the whole view of the Tiber led me to see the real subject of the day. so the paper is not made blinding and your hand cannot cast a shadow on your work. s e e k places in light After my first drawing. Similarly. on p p . making the scene below led me to focus on the decaying boat opposite. For example. England has embedded within it the decaying skeleton of a burned fishing boat. shade out of the glare of the sun. observing it from several views so as to better understand it as a whole. EARTH AND THE FINDING THE SUBJECT Finding a remarkable subject is even better when you can circumnavigate it in an arena of space. engine. This first drawing serves as a process of arrival. The mud of the tidal shore in Rye. and seeing what the real choice of subject is.164-65) and a wire violin (pp. taking with you your drawing book and pen." . "Drawing in the round means to literally walk around your subject. I am then able to home in on what interests me most for further study. 2 1 4 . and tiller still standing proud. which was the flow of water over rocks.208 ELEMENTS Drawing in the Round WHEN DRAWING IN THE LANDSCAPE. bare ribs. your challenge now is to find a sculptural subject in the landscape. I usually begin by making an image of the whole view. Circling a subject and drawing it from several views imprints on your memory a better understanding of its three-dimensional form. Building on earlier studies of structure in space using shoes (pp.104-05).

Overleaf: Decaying Boat 4 . marking straight. Each n e w drawing gives a different insight. and the order and shape of its component parts. I spent equal time looking at the subject and the paper. 3 This impression notes the angle of the broken boat. I drew with quick. ROUND 2 In this tail-end view. and structure. W h e n you have found your subject. unfussy lines. looking more at the boat than at the paper From this low position I have emphasized how the boat is swallowed in mud by outlining its shadow on the ground. its overall balance. I looked more boldly at the planes and the dynamic of the sculptural craft My lines have become darker and more forceful as confidence in my understanding of the vessel grew. DRAWING IN THE 1 Here. make a series o f drawings f r o m different positions. character. careful lines to establish the skeleton that gives this wreck its distinct form.209 SERIES OF STUDIES This stunning ghost o f a boat comes into v i e w t w i c e a day. The outline ties a shape of darkness to the boat like a weight so that it becomes part of its form. w h e n t h e sea recedes.



20-21) using a thin stick of willow charcoal. hot-pressed drawing p a p e r (see pp.Cloudburst THIS STORM DRAWING. L o o k i n g b a c k and forth from the heavens to firmly taped-down paper. . m a d e on s m o o t h . was made with gentle but unhesitating s p e e d . I worked quickly to catch and weave the turbulent contrasts of rising wind and approaching water before the drawing could be washed away.


shaping the city. pulse. black. and rhythmic detail as it passed through the ancient gully of the city. since ancient times. On the pages of a small. pocket-sized notebook. . I drew with a needle-fine fiber-tip pen. focusing on the river's eddies.Notes of Force T H E GREAT FLOWING TIBER RIVER has cut through Rome.


Mountains SITTING IN THE SHADE of a tree on the Greek island of Antiparos. The strong diagonal of the composition from bottom left to top right carries the eye through changes of height and focus from the foreground to the mountains beyond. . I used a dip pen and waterproof India ink with brushed watercolor to draw the view.



direction. actions. writer and composer who suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and was resident in the Waldau Aslyum near Berne. The growing rise of Darwinian ideas coupled with Freudian and Marxist perspectives forced Western society to reconsider its origins and future. ADOLF WOLFLI One of the greatest masters of Art Brut. . As you approach the classes in this chapter. abstraction is not so easy to define. yet my kinship to abstraction is fundamental. Museum of Fine Arts. From another viewpoint. be brave and enjoy them. opposite. expressive marks and shapes are at the core of natural. It was not invented in the 20th century. belief. it is simply itself. spontaneous image-making. Not everything we know has a physical form in the world. picturing a stabilized world was impossible and Modernism rode forth with vigor. Berne. writhing torrents of color. I begin every image by feeling its meaning. poet. An abstract mark is often a better conductor of a thought or feeling. and it has always been with us. Many concepts and feelings can only be expressed through marks. such as Adolf Wolfli. and emotion.8 cm) A D O L F WOLFLI Abstraction is a direct. My own work is firmly centered in figuration. strike the paper to find form. and Aboriginal art. It also underpins and gives strength and unity to all figurative work. People are often scared by abstraction and see it as the enemy of figurative art. Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape 1915 413/8 x 285/8 in (105 x 72. Perhaps in Western culture we bred this intuitive freedom out of ourselves in our insistence on complex figuration. From one point of view. First marks. fictional language. many nonWestern cultures have highly sophisticated abstractions at the core of their art. only rediscovered. and history. Outsider artists. which are essentially abstract. liberating. precisely because it does not have to represent a physical object. It is actually its foundation and its infrastructure. However. The fate of Old World thinking was finally sealed with the brutality of World War I. Swirling.Abstract Lines T HE DEVELOPMENT OF W E S T E R N abstract art at the beginning of the 20th century significantly paralleled major changes in world thought. drawn sound. and poetic myth roar and cascade within his tightly framed pages. all pictorial representations are abstractions of reality. don't be timid. for example. or gestures. Wolfli was a Swiss draftsman. Indian mandalas. Afterward. His drawings are collected and exhibited internationally and held by the Adolf Wolfli Foundation. He made thousands of drawings to chronicle his complex life. Internal workings of the mind were suddenly free to find a new language of expression. sounds. and young children show us that abstract. and independent means of communication. and have been making abstract drawings for centuries—Japanese calligraphy. Artists were given a different tool—a line threaded directly from their subconscious to their hand—and with it they began to map a bold new landscape of marks and concepts that would dramatically and forever change the face of Western art.

The Physical Space 1990 3 0 x 30 ft ( 9 1 4 x 9 1 4 cm) MAMORU ABE . Mamoru Abe prepares an image that will appear through the chemistry of iron.220 A B S T R A C T LINES Process and Harmony SOMETIMES A DRAWN LINE sings on the surface of its support. He travels widely to research ancient sacred sites. and Assistant Professor of Fine A r t at Fukuoka University. It can proclaim mood. and wood are also part of the work. Iron rods in tone. or. it can keep reforming through the inherent repetition of a process. and texture their bracing separation reaching between from beneath Pillars of the gallery are made part of this drawing by their inclusion in the paper. and sensitivity with its thickness and pressure of touch. silence. Five forged steel shapes. rhythmically engaged with itself. Abe works with materials such as soil. Sometimes it smolders like a deep shadow. staining redbrown lines into the white surface. Abe's physical drawing is a sculptural installation. A Neolithic chalk tablet bears cut lines that were slowly carved. scrolling across the canvas in an intimate crescendo. sit in silent harmony. Changes paper. iron. Below. akin to stones in a Zen garden. ice. MAMORU ABE Japanese sculptor and installation artist. tone. This the paper rest within the amplifies framelike of the floor from the ceiling. quoting ink marks on a page. Twombly's mesmeric wax line worked over house paint is like a signature. forged steel. Lines. and patient watching. texture. as Twombly shows us opposite. brass. A line can be finished in a second. Damp Japanese paper was laid over carefully arranged iron bars. Moisture produced rust. and plaster in galleries and landscapes. and temperature rim of floor space. water. salt.

221 ANCIENT CARVINGS Many ancient cultures have made and left behind drawings and texts carved into stones or animal bone. and American Indian petroglyphs (see p. and Untitled 1970 Here we might seek to grasp letters in the turning of his line. energetic.England. At the 2001 Venice Biennale. This example is one of two chalk tablets found in a Late-Neolithic pit. The central pictorial space is also similarly cut and divided by the considered arrangement of straight lines. theories suggest astrological observations.Thesite's purpose is unknown. Neolithic Chalk Tablet 3. that challenges the separation of word from image. evolved a raw. burials. and sensuous drawing from painting.241). such as the Rosetta stone. the Babylonian world map.Twombly was presented with a Golden Lion award for lifetime achievement. Twombly has language works CY TWOMBLY Contemporary American artist who emerged through the 1950s New York art scene in the heyday of Abstract Expressionism and Action Painting. Many of his graffiti-like combine abstract gestures with statements. emotive. Precise lines suggest the use of a sharp flint The framed rectangle of this image is echoed in that of Abe's installation.000-2. and the worship of the sun and ancient gods.400BCE 21/4 x 21/4 in (58 x 58 mm) ARTIST UNKNOWN Language Over the course of fifty years. CY TWOMBLY . PROCESS AND HARMONY Cut lines Chalk carves easily. close to Stonehenge in Wiltshire.

brushed night skies over them with ink then lifted the disks to reveal white moons. His drawing writes the time of its own physical process by expressing the extreme concentration of the moment in which it was made. Hugo.28. broke new ground in the 1950s with graphic scores now considered among the most extreme. A graphic score is a V I C T O R H U G O Hugo's abstract French novelist w h o m a d e m a n y drawings in m i x e d m e d i a ( s e e also p. and participate in the composition.222 ABSTRACT LINES Writing Time SINCE THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY. below. Two Impressions Paper 1853-55 VICTOR HUGO Disk from a Cut-Out .28). too. o r a pattern o f elements s o unified as a w h o l e t h e y c a n n o t b e e x p l a i n e d asa s u m o f parts. Ink impressions When drawing nightscapes Hugo often laid paper disks in place of the moon. Gestalt o f an unnameable thing. a configuration. Texture Compare this drawing to Hugo's octopus on p. abstract artists and composers unique. opposite. interpret. The scores are also exhibited in galleries as visual art. and lifted them away to leave impressions of watery planets and seas. abstract. he mixed graphite into ink. pressed them face down. and let the drying meniscus deposit granules in linear drifts such as we would see in the satellite photographic mapping of rivers. Here he appears t o have saturated the cut-out moon disks with gritty pigment. here he anticipates abstract expressionism by 100 years. and inventive of his time. Marks across the center appear to be made with his fingers. beautiful. have striven to break down old pictorial and musical structures to explore new and unfettered modes of expression. "There is nothing like dream to create the future. Gestalt. Bussotti. Both abstract drawing and composition involve the perfect sequencing of sounds and marks against space and silence. said." An innovator who never fails to surprise. Similarity in gritty texture suggests that here. o f t e n e x p r e s s e d in v i s u a l t e r m s . drawing here can b e described in t e r m s o f a G e r m a n philosophical idea a b o u t is t h e i n s t a n t r e c o g n i t i o n t h e p o w e r o f m o m e n t . music manuscript requiring instrumentalists to improvise.

Bussotti's first mature work. a far cry from any recognized musical notation. Circular Score for "Due Voci" c.223 W R I T I N G TIME SYLVANO BUSSOTTI Italian avant-garde composer and principal 20thcentury exponent of the graphic score. Compare this work to that of Libeskind on p. we can feel their rhythm and easily attach sounds to them. His later works become increasingly abstract. 70 in relation to Bussotti's clustered notes to the left of his rondo and open space to the right. Following the notes. 1958 SYLVANO BUSSOTTI . Sound and rhythm This flickering rondo of sound written in pen on a hand-ruled stave can be heard in our imaginations as much as seen. This is a page from Due Voci.

Cell Floor With Torn Strips of Cloth 1894 MARIE LIEB . an a n o n y m o u s w o m a n in the southeast Indian state o f Tamil Nadu m a k e s a ritual drawing o n the b r i c k courtyard o f h e r h o m e . d i p p i n g h e r fingers into a pot o f rice flour. and sufferers of psychiatric illnesses—who have always existed. and c i r c u m s t a n c e s . It will protect the place from evil and make a pleasing invitation to good spirits. social outcasts. centuries. they m a k e a visual a n d physical e c h o that t o u c h e s s o m e deep part of the human spirit. This takes a form in most cultures. Marie Lieb w a s a psychiatric patient in the Heidelberg Asylum. Compositional rightness (see pp. Lieb is one o f countless thousands of "Outsider" artists—diverse individuals including ordinary citizens. She tore c l o t h into strips a n d used these to draw patterns a n d symbols o n h e r cell floor. Visually. MARIE LIEB Little is known of this w o m a n for w h o m the act of drawing was essential. O p p o s i t e . Germany. Cloth is the simple instrument with which she has conducted and ordered her universe.228-29) has been adjusted with each movement of the rags to draw a cosmos of balance and perfection. it is found in the regularity o f ordered lines or a pattern. In music it can be felt in the diversity of plainsong and African d r u m m i n g . Torn cloth This is one of two published photographs showing Marie Leib's torn cloth strips significantly placed on her cell floor.224 A B S T R A C T LINES Chants and Prayers WHEN ABSTRACT LINES are organized in repetition. making objects and images outside o f mainstream culture. for e x a m p l e . cultures. In the late 1 9 t h century. T h e s e p h o t o g r a p h s d o c u m e n t the meditative drawings o f two w o m e n living worlds apart in different countries.

chalk. Designs and motifs Rangoii (or mandalas) are ritual drawings made by many millions of women across rural India.225 STEPHEN P. Materials such as rice flour. cultural anthropologist. Skills are handed down through generations and from friend to friend. or flowers are marked or arranged on the ground or on the walls of homes. lecturer on the subjects of Indian art and Indian women's identity. lime. Popular magazines feature new ideas each week and on special occasions there may be contests.Theseare widely published in journals and are the subjects of international exhibitions.HUYLER Photographer art historian. Motifs are geometrical or based on plants. and for over 30 years has traveled extensively through the Indian subcontinent creating an edited archive of 200. at the University of London and Ohio State University. In daily practice. Painted Prayers UNDATED STEPHEN R HUYLER . animals. and birds. women pride themselves on never repeating a design. and in places of worship and celebration.000 images. Huyler is the author of Painted Prayers. among others.

free from the direct imaging of known physical things. With no depth of field. and choice of hues. Klee's mathematical maze of thinly washed surface resonates with meticulous planning. Catling's works made for international galleries and museums involve drawing as a tool in their development and making. Catling's abstract drawings are usually made in series and in parallel to written poetry and sculptural installations. figurative representation—that is. Their energy can therefore be a purer expression of an idea or emotion. it is ruled and contained in one dimension by its interlocking ink-lined borders. BRIAN CATLING British sculptor poet. structure. and water-resistant layers of spray and enamel paint on thick paper. Ruskin School. but similarities in mood. and Fellow of Linacre College.226 ABSTRACT LINES Compositions ABSTRACT DRAWINGS ARE LARGELY or entirely free from using the viewer's eye to track and unfold layers of meaning. rocks or heads in a subdued atmosphere of dream. filmmaker Professor of Fine Art. These two works present complex compositions with differing intensions and methods of making. Untitled 2001 2001 153/4x 215/8 in ( 4 0 0 x 550 mm) BRIAN C A T L I N G . Oval moons eclipse each other and oscillate between landforms and portraiture. Catling's torn paper shapes and shadows spill light out of their frame like a fractured mirror. gold paint and iridescent gouache mixed with water. Mixed media This is a collage of torn white and gray tissue paper previously stained with ink. performance and installation artist. Oxford. They each find their pathways and equilibrium in atmosphere and suggestion.

31). and might be read as active or passive.97-99. and wrote copiously about the natures and relationships of color and form. Geometric harmony This is a work on paper made with a sharp ink pen. watercolor. It is a geometric harmony of straight lines and tonally graded flat colors that by their arrangement draw our eyes inward to their white center. drew. We can see some diagrammatic examples of this among the optical illusions on pp. He explained his polyphonic painting as "a harmony of several color voices" searching for a visual parallel to music. and brush. Polyphon Gefasstes Weiss (White Framed Polyphonically) 1930 131/8x95/8 in (333 x 245 mm) Paul-Klee-Stiftung. Klee also felt that a line represents the passing of time. Kunstmuseum Bern PAUL KLEE . Line and surface Klee observed the visual capacity of lines to push or pull within an image. Klee painted. philosophized. ruler.227 PAUL K L E E Swiss painter and sculptor (see also p. whereas tonal surfaces are perceived more immediately as a whole.

and elements settle in definitive balance. their impact. or on a page. b u t e v e r y n o w a n d again you will hit on an arrangement w h i c h appears just. they are just. Set up a sheet of paper with a rectangle drawn on it.Thisexercise will help you start. and put them o n a tray. but an easy o n e to u n d e r s t a n d . Feel for it when youdraw." .228 ABSTRACT LINES Being "Just" A SENSE OF "JUST" (or rightness) is a difficult concept to explain. culture. W h e n m o v i n g objects around in your yard. Take. It is found in all great art and design. It is also found in nature. and ten straight sticks painted black. This balance is what every artist and designer searches a n d feels for when making an image. "Whenall pictorial elements come together in pleasing and perfect balance. there is a clear feeling when. angles." SETTING UP Justness can be harmonious or deliberately discordant. a b u n c h of keys. "I have experimented endlessly with this idea. a glass. As y o u m o v e them around. regardless of style. media. w i l l c h a n g e w i t h e v e r y r e a r r a n g e m e n t . they reach a perfect position. There is a single m o m e n t w h e n all proportions. and an apple. M a n y of their inter-relationships will be meaningless. the late garden designer Russell Page explains. the impression y o u receive from t h e m . for instance. after being continuously adjusted. In his b o o k The Education of a Gardener. or degree of figuration. or home. s o m e will be more or less h a r m o n i o u s . Seek it when looking at other artists' work and in your everyday environment.

56-57). Remember the drawn rectangle is a part of the composition (see pp. Here. Move the sticks out into the rectangle. B E I N G "JUST" 1 Arrange your ten sticks in t w o groups of five.229 WHERE TO START Take ten sticks of equal length. W h e n the composition falls into place. as shown here. Feel for the rightness of their grouping and their relationships to surrounding spaces. horizontals dominate the lower area. Arrange them so they touch or cross in a series of intersecting balances. In the final step (left) there is an even balance. suggesting a horizon. 2 3 In the step above. painted black. horizontals dominate the top. ." Move the sticks to find alignments and imagined perspectives. Within a rectangle on a flat sheet of paper set about making a composition using no other rule than a sense of "just. fix it with glue. making the composition seem to float beneath. A stick touching the rectangle links the composition to the frame. which now becomes a tight frame.

This principal also applies to three-dimensional drawings such as Gaudi's work with wire and weights on p. Collage offers the artist a liberating palette of SETTING UP This lesson in collage is a direct continuation of the compositional lines made in the previous class. "My understanding is that every object [or shape] emanates—sends out vibrations beyond its physical body which are specific to itself. stain and dry a sheet of tissue paper using blueink. and black ink.Youwill also need spare white paper. correction fluid or white paint. hard or soft. and tones. a compass. colors and textures can be manipulated until their pictorial harmony. an infinite range of voices and meaning." overlapping placement of materials on a flat plane. glue.230 ABSTRACT LINES Collage H E R E W E EXPERIMENT with collage. found or made items. Cut or torn layers and shapes. you start composing by adding or subtracting shapes and textures and using colors and tones to achieve the impression you want to m a k e — w h e t h e r dramatic or s u b d u e d .228-29)." (Russell Page) . feels "just" (see pp.. he went on to say ". Returning to Russell Page. Once the ten painted black sticks are set and glued in place. or even strident.. colors. harmonious. which is the shifting. they become a scaffold for the addition of further textures.220.69 and Abe's installation on p. scissors. To prepare for this lesson. or discordance. Images and fragments torn from day-to-day life can be brought together to make a chorus of ideas and emotions. ready-made depths and surfaces.

Obscuring the blue disks. . 2 3 Torn white paper moved over the surface adds masks of rough-edged irregular volume. then cut out.The single disk that is folded with its straight edge facing up appears heavier than those that are flat. COLLAGE 1 Regular-sized pieces of white paper are moved over the surface to disrupt the even lines. correction fluid and ink marks add further dimensions. This can also give a sense of fragmentation or punctuation to the composition.231 WHAT TO DO Lay the final step of the previous lesson (p. Glue them in place once they feel "just" Translucent circular disks of tissue paper give color tone. solidity. they deepen pictorial space. draw. and with a compass and scissors. Cut six small rectangles the same proportion as your whole image.228) in front of you. four circles of blue tissue paper. and shadow to thepicture. In the last step (left).


Zen Brushwork]. and expectation. is the practice of Zen through the calligraphic marks of a brush dipped in carbon ink. Hitsuzendo drawings aspire to "breathe with the energy and vitality of eternal life" achieved through "a state of no mind—beyond thought. A MODERN JAPANESE meditative art form inspired by the teachings of Yamaoka Tesshu (1836-1888). ." [Tanchu Terayama. emotion.Zen Calligraphy HITSUZENDO.

Lines made with a steel dip pen take on a scratchy nervousness.Nocturnes IN THIS QUARTET of semi-abstract drawings made with India ink. discord is balanced against rhythm to create mood. These vibrate against washes of shadow and pitch-black mass. I flicked spatters of ink and rubbed the paper with a wet and a dry brush to achieve these effects. .





Here.Gods and Monsters OUR SACRED AND SECULAR need to visualize demons. beasts. all of which originated as hundreds of drawings. and stained-glass windows deliver powerful visual sermons to the once-illiterate populace. or in smoke.247. When creating monsters. wings. happen to us. thousands of paintings. We then add substances we dislike: unidentified fluids. we select details of animals farthest from ourselves and that are widely thought disturbing—reptilian and insect features. and the faces of God have for centuries given artists a feast for the extremes of their imagination. Reading the place name I momentarily glimpsed an alternative meaning. For example. aliens. a human-animal mix that implies this could MARTIN SCHONGAUER German painter and engraver who settled to work in Colmar Alsace. Images we are now surrounded by bear testimony to the power and resourcefulness of their collective imagination. I was on a train passing through Nuneaton. and the Alien trilogy. a Catherine wheel of drawn sparks spiraling around the quietly resolute saint. . paradise. movie studios now brim with as many monsters as the visual art of the Medieval and Renaissance Church. The salvation of heaven and terrors of hell are represented equally—enough to make any sinner shudder. Feeding this demand. our literate and more secular Western society still hungers for another world and to ravenously indulge its fascination for the marvelous. serpentine tails. and deep fur—and we alter their scale. scales. We watch with captivated pleasure movies such as The Fly. Depictions of God or of gods in the contexts of daily life. which is to have eaten a nun—it inspired the drawing on p. We love our fear of the hybrid—ideally. our eye circulates around a flutter of leather and scaly wings. Star Wars. impossible. Humans are equally troubled by the imperceptibly small and the enormous. look for images in the folds of clothing. a collaboration between the two will ensure that your drawings glow with originality. Today. England. Perhaps the Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 1485 121/4 x 9 in (312 x 230 mm) MARTIN SCHONGAUER most important conclusion in this final chapter is to advise you to develop your skills in parallel with the joy of your unfolding imagination. Neither should be slave or master. Monsters take advantage of both. sculptures. angels. In the Christian churches of Europe. Be inspired by the irrational comedy of word association or puns. feathers. Throughout this book images are presented to excite and surprise and drawing classes created to increase your confidence. To learn to flex your imagination. or strange. which were widely distributed and influential in his time. for example. in the cracks of walls. Schongauer is best known for his prints. Fantasy is most successful when founded on strong and familiar visual logic. and damnation are found in most world faiths. Lord of the Rings.

He would be graceless if he stood. Los Caprichos. Many students leave white backgrounds in their work. Pictorially. Other drawn versions of this image are more savage and frightening. F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A Spanish court painter printmaker and draftsman. Visions experienced in front of the drawing sometimes instruct the making of a new one. whose impassioned work begins with light tapestry cartoons. Paul Thomas's studies of Picasso and Twombly can be traced directly. quoting great paintings and popular culture to add cunning twists to his satires. Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 1799 81/2 x 6 in (218 x 154 mm) FRANCISCO DE GOYA . Goya later recorded the horrors of Napoleonic occupation. and follies of court through copious graphic works including his best-known prints. Opposite below. Violent white marks symbolizing Achilles' rage resonate with the energy of Twombly's script on p. below. a Shoshone seeking guidance and power meditates at the sacred site of a petroglyph. Compare his dark. Francisco de Goya was a master of borrowing. Opposite.220. In this softer aquatint he poses for his portrait Textured background The aquatint process has been used to great effect in making a gritty toned background. rushing. deranged masses. This act defines the vision and continues the line of spirit guides. Near the end of his life he made his "Black Paintings" on the walls of his home. This continuity enriches the making of art and our heritage. we see the international icon of stupidity. and men clubbing each other to death. vanity. noisy seascape on p. In this ass. Aquatint Goya has drawn a learned man as an ass. The high. which can swamp the subject Here. plain wall suggests a blinkered view of nothing. They depict as if by lamplight the devil and witches. and exposed the superstitions. Saturn devouring his son. The title "And So Was His Grandfather" adds that should we not already know.240 GODS AND M O N S T E R S Marks of Influence marking the influence of one artist upon another. Goya's plainly textured gray background pushes back the space behind the illuminated simply subject. portraits. such asinine behavior can be hereditary. a wave to join Achilles' chase of Hector. his lover a dog. reading from a book of asses. to Picasso's similarly tight. The well-dressed mule is cumbersome. it allows the mule to stand forward. and church murals.30. barren land rising like MYRIAD CHAINS RUN THROUGH ART HISTORY. hags. crammed tightly at his desk.

values. A vivid spectrum of energized graphite marks and a masterly composition give this drawing vitality and speed. Thomas conducts his explorations in the mine of Greek and Roman mythology. Wyoming. meaning "place of power. Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range UNDATED ARTIST UNKNOWN . Graphite marks Here Achilles chases Hector around the walls of Troy before killing him. It was made with a sharp implement. or of the water Chipped image This is a sacred creature of the sky chipped onto rock at Dinwoody Lake. ideals. and personal and social struggles." Each sacred image drawn into rock belongs to one of three realms in the Shoshone world: the realm of the sky. perhaps a stone. Wind River Reservation. of the earth.241 MARKS OF INFLUENCE PAUL T H O M A S British contemporary artist whose epic graphic work questions and reflects upon issues of European identity. by a supplicant in a trance of meditation. Simple wall stones cleverly state their cold solidity while also fading from our attention as the scene roars by. Parallel lines within the body of the figure are likely to denote power. Achilles Chases Hector 1996 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) PAUL THOMAS SHOSHONE PETROGLYPH The Shoshone people of Wyoming name petroglyph sites Poha Kahni. White marks like flashes of light are cut though graphite with an eraser to reveal the paper beneath.

The Eye Like a Strange Mounts Balloon 165/8 x131/8in (422 x 332 mm) ODILON REDON 1882 Toward Infinity . to the right of the balloon. crawl. Techniques demonstrated on pp. Redon's eyeball balloon rises up. Here we see how he evolved their injuries into new limbs and warped proportions.204-05 will enable you to produce a similar effect of white lines shining out of dark charcoal. 115. They float toward us like a horrid visitation. Redon explored the darker side of the human imagination through symbols and mysticism. H e was influenced by his friends. as he did the grass. Compare worked textures throughout the whole of this image to those found throughout Anita Taylor's charcoal drawing on p.and 16th-century Holland. and scuttle over all known reality. and writer In contrast t o the light and visual accent of contemporary Impressionism. If it were to turn and stare this way.242 MONSTERS of the unknown is a classical and constant occupation for the artist. GODS AND Erasure In this charcoal drawing. Children are also delighted to invent a monster or ghoul. we see parallel slanting pale marks that might have been made with fresh bread—a very effective eraser used before the wide availability of rubber or plastic. Our subconscious can be drawn with pleasure and ease. lifting its cranial passenger over a seascape of repose. graphic artist. Redon lifted them out with some sort of eraser. the shock would be extreme. T H E EXPLORATION AND DEPICTION Hauntings Grandville has drawn a scurrying zoo of half-known demons and animals that appear to have been stolen from the glass eye of the microscope. below left. the writers Joris-Karl Huysmans and Stephane Mallarme. The monsters of Bosch grew from his observations of beggars going about their trade in 15th. which sometimes—half-dressed and carrying a familiar trophy— stride. ODILON REDON French painter draftsman. We may feel safe so long as the eye looks heavenward. Lifting out Fine strings of the hot-air balloon appear dark against the sky and light against the balloon.

include The Haywain. Garden of Earthly Delights. The quality of the line is therefore uniform throughout. Light shines from the right. A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects c. and Ship of Fools. Les Animaux (1840). Comic little headbands of waving hair express more hysteria than fear. 1840 61/8 x41/2in ( 1 5 5 x 1 1 5 mm) GRANDVILLE HIERONYMUS BOSCH Dutch painter Bosch's highly detailed iconographic religious panel paintings. HAUNTINGS Engraving This is an engraving made so that Grandville's original drawing could be reproduced. Smiling. Two Monsters UNDATED 45/8 x61/2in (117 x 163 mm) HIERONYMUS BOSCH . His other major works include Metamorphoses du Jour (1828). teeming with the exhilaration of unrestrained fantasy.243 J E A N I G N A C E ISIDORE GERARD ("GRANDVILLE") French graphic artist and political satirist. and he illustrated the Fables of La Fontaine and Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe. which is still available today. Quill and ink This typical Bosch monster is a quill drawing in bistre ink The phrasing of light and contour here is masterly. grimacing. This image is from one of Grandville's best-known publications. Last Judgment. sucker-faced creatures dash and trundle toward it They are drawn solidly to emphasize their earthbound weight. Most of his work is in the Prado Museum. Madrid.

However. Scaly. hatched lines. pinnacled. below. gamboling copulations. phrased over the contours of form and bridging darker areas of shadow. topple. His entire drawing wrestles and weaves the viewer's eye into its retracting folds. lion. she formed a series of ghostly pale. and marble sculptures including Pieto. Dragon 1522 10 x 133/8 in ( 2 5 4 x 3 3 8 m m ) MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI . and dying slaves. Michelangelo's dragon. and engineer Among Michelangelo's great works are the painted ceiling and altar wall of the Sistine Chapel. Chalk and ink A quill dipped in brown ink was worked over black chalk on this reused sheet. They share between them the pleasures of inventing a hybrid beast.244 GODS AND MONSTERS Convolutions THESE CONVOLUTED DRAWINGS were made almost 5 0 0 years apart. Two previously drawn faces become humorous antagonists to the beast. remembering the cavernous. St Peter's square. as we might expect. but in the seductive landscape of Leonardo da Vinci's oil painting Madonna of the Rocks. architect. the dome of the Vatican. David. and play with its perfection and meaning. In her studio. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI Florentine painter sculptor. and mist-swathed land. Grimes' delicately cavorting figures dive into and consume each other. and dog. A snake eating its own tail is a universal image of the eternal and continuous. snake. sometimes artists purposefully tie a knot in the configuration to disturb. wraps and coils its lithe body ready to strike or whimper at a touch. a stunning hybrid of a swan. Opposite. muscular tension is carved out of the paper using layered. Grimes found the genesis of her beast not among animals. poet.

details evolved slowly using a drier brush. boards finished paper. Grimes exhibits internationally and features in the collections of the New York Public Library and the Victoria and Albert Museum. The image formed directly without first making a pencil outline. and the Camberwell and Slade Schools of Fine Art.245 CONVOLUTIONS O O N A GRIMES British contemporary artist and professor of printmaking at the Ruskin School. Ink-wash delicately gouache (smooth) and gouache brushed drawing on This is a and was hot-pressed Shadows The dark shadow of the Other the ink-wash earth was made with a brushstroke of ink laid into wet paper. The large space around figure has been cropped Grimes drawings to flatten presses them. It is one of a series of fragile earth figures inspired by rocks. London. her under heavy here. each one iridescent and crumbly like a weathered while oyster. Oxford. How Clever of God #84 2002 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) O O N A GRIMES . London.

2. which holds long sable hair This brush holds large amounts of ink for long lines and points well for detailed work. fingers. making rt ideally suited to Japanese painting and small-scale calligraphy. others are as fine as a whisker with a gentle touch. How you care for your brushes will determine how long they last. 3. P O I N T E D T R A D I T I O N A L WRITER: The ferrule is made from a small duck quill. between them. SYNTHETIC-HAIR S W O R D LINER: A lining brush with high ink-holding capacity and a fine point. it has good wash capabilities. with a fine point for delicate work 4. 1. The brushes shown here are a mixture of This is a selection of riggers. SABLE-HAIR LINER: Made with ordinary sable hair surrounding an extralong. and writers. 7. SABLE-HAIR RIGGER: Made with very long kolinsky sable hairs. JAPANESE PAINTING BRUSH: Made with natural hair. It has exceptional painting characteristics. return them to their pointed shape. and hold prodigious weights of ink or paint. the very opposite of pencil or silver point. this brush has a soft drawing tip and small ink-holding capacity.246 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brushes T H E BRUSH IS A VOLUPTUOUS and delicate weights. Suitable for wash techniques but also capable of very fine detail. SQUIRREL-HAIR S W O R D LINER:This brush has a maximum ink-holding capacity and an extremely fine and flexible point 8. SMALL JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with sable hair. thicknesses. liners. LARGER JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with natural hair held in a plastic ferrule on a bamboo handle. L A R G E R S Y N T H E T I C . giving a variety of lines." 6. materials. needle-sharp center of kolinsky red sable hair. ink-laden tip allow an expression that is beyond the linear. ideally suited to drawing.H A I R RIGGER: Made with long synthetic hair for fine-point work It has a good ink-holding capacity and is slightly more resilient than sable hair with more "snap. and never leave them standing on their tip in a jar of water. Some used by master calligraphers are 2-3 in (5-8 cm) in diameter 11. all perfect for drawing and. SYNTHETIC-HAIR BRUSH: Bound in a synthetic ferrule with good inkholding capacity and good spring and control. and has a fine tip for detailed work. 10. It is capable of very fine pointing. SYNTHETIC-HAIR LINER: This brush gives a medium line and is firm with a spring to the touch. and very fine lines. Some are bold. 12. 13. Soaps purchased from good art supply stores will gently cleanse particles of pigment that become trapped in the hairs or ferrule. washes.H A I R LINER: Very responsive oriental-style liner This to the touch. POINTED SQUIRREL-HAIR MOP: With a synthetic quill ferrule and extra high inkholding capacity.Theyhold plenty of ink and make continuous. dense. Always clean them thoroughly. The living marks of a wet. Slightly less flexible than the squirrel-hair sword liner 9. and effects. and wrist into a fluid and soft touch. M T RA S AEIL . Shorter brushes designed for other purposes run out of ink more quickly. it has good inkholding capacity and is very flexible. Brushes vary in size. It is still relatively small in the total range of Japanese brushes. This brush has a broad wash capability and can achieve a very wide range of marks. drawing tool extending the arm. flowing. S Y N T H E T I C . shape. and texture. This design supplies the fine tip with a long continuity of ink 5.


It also depends on the angle at w h i c h it is held. b l o w i n g h a r d o n t h e m several t i m e s t o disperse t h e ink ( c l o s e y o u r eyes if y o u t r y this. Here I drew with a soft Japanese painting brush (see pp. and to make pools and stains o n the page. I had left the end of the ink block in the water overnight to make it easier to dissolve.35) into two tablespoons of water in a shallow. the texture and a b s o r b e n c y of the paper ( w h i c h m a y be d a m p or dry). length. unglazed earthenware dish. and type of its hairs.) I . the degree of pressure applied. A single brush has almost balletic potential to draw fine or undulating lines and curves. splashes. SETTING UP Blowing spots T h e s e t h r e e s p i d e r y c r e a t u r e s (above right and below) w e r e m a d e by d r o p p i n g s p o t s o f ink f r o m a b r u s h o n t o t h e p a g e and. w i t h m y face close. and above all w h e t h e r the b r u s h is saturated with pigment or relatively dry. and spatters. the speed of the s t r o k e . I rubbed a block of Chinese ink (see p.246-47). softness.248 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brush Marks A S I N G L E BRUSH will m a k e an e n o r m o u s range of m a r k s depending u p o n the width.

.249 Gritty texture T h e details o f t h e largest creatures b e l o w and opposite s h o w the granular texture of Chinese b l o c k ink. a n d b r u s h . w e see fine lines and s p o t s . BRUSH MARKS Wet and dry strokes A m o n g these concentrated drawings ink made into with the same w a t e r y lines. b l e e d i n g f r o m strokes b e l o w left. a n d t h e w a y it d i s t r i b u t e s w h e n t h e b r u s h is d a b b e d o n its s i d e . t h e effects of the b r u s h r u n n i n g o u t o f ink.

until we look again.Monsters THESE LITTLE CREATURES o f i n k and i n v e n t i o n were b o r n out of animal and bird studies. . I borrowed small and fragile specimens from the University Museum of Natural History. and used their detail to draw new creatures that might at first seem familiar. Oxford.


With further research. Here. Madrid. showing us that gallery study is not just for the student and beginner. Isidore. formal composition. Through studying and drawing these great paintings I have discovered that they are based on a pair of similarly long. Goya often invented his monsters out of characters seen in other painters' works. I found relationships between all four paintings in terms of shapes. two of my own drawings show you how Goya's devil (below) is based on the shape of Murillo's boy on a horse (top right). Goya's witches have been literally drawn and evolved out of the shapes of Murillo's prophet and pilgrims. Among his "Black Paintings" in the Prado Museum.Goya's Monsters W I T H CUNNING BRILLIANCE. They are a pair and hang opposite each other. and narrative twists. are two long. . thin works made by Bartolome Murillo in Seville about 120 years earlier. thin works titled The Witches' Sabbath and The Procession of St.


drawn rapidly and with great joy. .Consumed THIS IS A SERIES OF CARTOONS I m a d e s o m e years ago. Sometimes drawings come out of nowhere and surprise even the artist. little comments on politeness and sexual politics.


It is p u t o n a Body color See Gouache. S o m e t i m e s f e r r u l e s a r e m a d e o f plastic o r o t h e r materials. See also Hotpressed papers. In t h e Far East calligraphy is a highly r e s p e c t e d a r t f o r m . as o p p o s e d t o t h e s t r a i g h t e d g e o f a sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has b e e n machine-trimmed. Chiaroscuro A 1 7 t h . Erasure T h e a c t o f r e m o v i n g a n i m a g e f r o m a surface. tapestry. Eye level T h e i m a g i n a r y h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e a t t h e s a m e h e i g h t as t h e a v e r a g e p e r s o n ' s eyes. pressurized t o o l used f o r spraying fine mists o f s m o o t h c o l o r P i g m e n t is d e l i v e r e d b y a j e t o f air n o t t h e bristles o f a brush. 2. Conservation grade D e s c r i b e s a range o f materials t h a t d o n o t d e c a y and cannot be broken d o w n by insects. Fixative Liquid acrylic resin a n d l a c q u e r t h i n n e r usually a p p l i e d as a n a e r o s o l s p r a y m i s t t o t h e surface o f a d r y . o f t e n d i s t o r t e d forms and vivid colors. Collage C o l l e c t e d materials such as c o l o r e d p a p e r s . n e w s p a p e r cuttings. R e m b r a n d t is a great master o f chiaroscuro. Bracelet shading C u r v e d parallel lines t h a t f o l l o w t h e c o n t o u r s o f f o r m . U s e d as a c o r r e c t i n g device o r pictorial game. Aerial perspective The effect of the a t m o s p h e r e o v e r distance as it lightens t o n e s a n d cools c o l o r s progressively t o w a r d t h e horizon. F r o m t h e French v e r b coller. Fixative lightly glues t h e d r a w i n g t o t h e surface o f t h e p a p e r t o p r e v e n t smudging. a n d attaches t h e m t o t h e s u p p o r t — f o r example. m e a n i n g " t o stick" Dry media M e d i a t h a t a r e n o t w e t o r o i l y — f o r e x a m p l e . for example. F r o m t h e G r e e k kallos. t h e l i g h t is b e h i n d h i m o r her." It w a s first given t o t o n a l paintings m a d e in o n e c o l o r — s e e Grisaille. T h e m o v e m e n t was started by a g r o u p o f French artists including H e n r i Matisse. Acid-free paper P a p e r w i t h a neutral p H t h a t will n o t darken o r d e t e r i o r a t e excessively w i t h age. o r will o n l y a p p e a r n o r m a l ." D e s c r i b e s a p a i n t i n g in w h i c h t h e light s o u r c e is b e h i n d t h e s u b j e c t F o r e x a m p l e . Composition T h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e p a r t s o f an i m a g e t o m a k e u p the whole. A l s o called m u s e u m g r a d e . Also called accelerated perspective. Deckle edge T h e i r r e g u l a r e d g e o f a s h e e t o f m o l d . L a t e r it c a m e t o m e a n h i g h l y c o n t r a s t e d light effects. Anamorphic distortion Stretching an i m a g e across a p i c t u r e surface so t h a t it can o n l y b e u n d e r s t o o d .m a d e paper. Calligraphy Beautiful h a n d w r i t i n g . A h u m o r o u s d r a w i n g o r parody. Bleed T h e e f f e c t o f t w o w e t colors running into one another o r o n e color applied t o a w e t surface a n d a l l o w e d t o d i s p e r s e . Blotting T h e use o f a b s o r b e n t m a t e r i a l t o lift a w a y excess liquid. Contre jour A F r e n c h t e r m m e a n i n g " a g a i n s t day. s u c h as a s c r e e n . t h e field is t h e a p p a r e n t a n d b e l i e v a b l e space inside t h e p i c t u r e . A g e n e r a l t e r m t h a t describes t h e various processes o f c u t t i n g a design i n t o a plate o r b l o c k o f m e t a l o r w o o d . A i r b r u s h e s are u s e d in t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c o m i c s ." " N o t " p r e s s e d p a p e r is r o l l e d a s e c o n d t i m e w i t h o u t blankets t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders t o p r o d u c e a s m o o t h e r b u t still slightly t e x t u r e d s u r f a c e . Air brush A mechanical. Cartoon 1. Engraving 1. D a m p p a p e r is laid o n t o p .256 GLOSSARY Glossary Accidental drawing Random. written with a broad-nibbed pen o r brush. A l s o called r i n g l e t shading. linseed oil o r egg y o l k Caricature A representation Contour line A line t h a t f o l l o w s t h e s h a p e o f a surface. and readymade objects arranged and stuck o n t o a flat surface. p r i n t i n g press face up. In t h e W e s t p e n calligraphy is u s e d t o c r e a t e f o r m a l a n d d e c o r a t i v e t e x t s . A p o t e n t i a l l y h a r s h m e t h o d o f p r o d u c i n g t o n e s in a d r a w i n g . Ferrule T h e s h o r t m e t a l t u b e t h a t s u r r o u n d s a n d g n p s t h e hairs o f a p a i n t b r u s h a n d fixes t h e m t o t h e brush handle. usually at a n a c u t e angle t o t h e s u r f a c e .c e n t u r y Italian t e r m m e a n i n g "clear-obscure.s i z e d r a w i n g m a d e for t h e purpose o f transferring a design t o a painting. C o p p e r p l a t e engravings w e r e widely used t o r e p r o d u c e images b e f o r e p h o t o g r a p h y . p r a c t i c e d meditatively w i t h a brush. w h e n a p e r s o n is p a i n t e d standing a g a i n s t a w i n d o w . chance mark-making. p h o t o g r a p h s . w h e n v i e w e d f r o m a specified point. m e a n i n g "beauty".m e d i a d r a w i n g . Blending M e r g i n g t w o o r m o r e neighboring colors o r tones t o g e t h e r using a tortillon. Camera lucida A n optical device t h a t p r o j e c t s an image o f an o b j e c t o n t o a plain s u r f a c e so t h a t it can be traced. 2. A l s o c a l l e d t h e h o r i z o n line.The plate is t h e n r o l l e d w i t h ink a n d polished with a rag. charcoal.d i m e n s i o n a l i m a g e . Crosshatching Parallel lines d r a w n across o n e a n o t h e r at right angles. in w h i c h parts o f an image are depicted v e r y brightly and dramatically against d a r k n e s s . Binder A substance t h a t holds particles o f p i g m e n t t o g e t h e r in a paint f o r m u l a t i o n . Fauvism A n early 2 0 t h . Field In a t w o . It can also seal a silver p o i n t d r a w i n g t o p r e v e n t t h e oxidization (browning) o f t h e Drypoint A d r a w i n g is s c r a t c h e d directly o n t o a m e t a l plate w i t h a m e t a l t o o l h e l d like apen.c e n t u r y painting m o v e m e n t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e use o f b o l d . A f u l l . a n d given t h e n a m e Sho. A " s h a l l o w d e p t h o f field" m e a n s t h e p i c t u r e appears t o have only a shallow s p a c e inside i t Diffuse T o s o f t e n o r m a k e less brilliant. R o u g h p a p e r is m a d e b e t w e e n t w o blankets t h a t . a n d g r a p h i t e . o r o t h e r (usually large) w o r k — s e e Pouncing. in w h i c h t h e subject's distinctive features o r peculiarities are deliberately exaggerated f o r c o m i c o r g r o t e s q u e effect. a r e r o l l e d t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders. so t h a t ink r e m a i n s o n l y in t h e g r o o v e s o f s c r a t c h e d lines. T h e prints t a k e n from t h e s e plates o r blocks. T h e name " n o t " simply refers t o t h e fact t h a t t h e cylinders are n o t h o t in t e m p e r a t u r e . T h e b l a n k e t s g i v e t h e p a p e r its rough texture o r "tooth. Camera obscura A d a r k e n e d c h a m b e r i n t o w h i c h an i m a g e o f w h a t is o u t s i d e is received t h r o u g h a small o p e n i n g o r lens a n d f o c u s e d in natural c o l o r o n a facing surface. r a t h e r t h a n r e c o r d e d o n a film o r plate. t o g e t h e r w i t h a t h i c k felt b l a n k e t T h e w h o l e s a n d w i c h o f l a y e r s is t h e n railed t h r o u g h t h e press t o m a k e a p r i n t D r y p o i n t is a very portable and immediate m e t h o d o f printmaking. s u c h as a d r a w i n g o r painting. pastel. W o r d s o r symbols are Cold-pressed papers P a p e r manufactured with a "not" o r " r o u g h " surface.

used for fixing paper to walls and boards. or a family of colors. A point of interest in a drawing. purpose. Plumb line A line from which a weight is suspended in order to determine verticality or depth. so that (using vanishing point perspective) the object appears to change shape and become narrower or smaller as it recedes. white. Negative space The space between things. Giotto's Virtues and Vices in the Arena Chapel. multiH u e A term for a color. are painted in grisaille and appear to be made of stone. Artists can paint freely over dry masking fluid.while secretion of the acacia tree. the finely ground particles of plant. it is the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work Pigment Any substance used as a coloring agent—for example. sticky paper tape. Focus 1 . and it has a history in enamel work. . Also used by artists' materials manufacturers to indicate the use of a substitute pigment—for example. This may be disregarded in real life. materials that produce marks on a surface. Monoprinting A direct method of printing in which wet medium (water-. and masking off areas of a drawing that the artist wishes to keep untouched by media applied above or beside the tape. Masking fluid Clear or opaque latex fluid developed for watercolor painting. cadmium yellow hue. shape. This effect emulates what we see in real life. Pointillism A technique of using points or dots of pure color in such a way that when the picture is viewed from a distance they react Masking tape Invaluable. Lightfast A term confirming that pigment in the product will not fade with exposure to light. Picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. Monochrome Usually refers to a black. Lithography A method of printmaking in which a drawing or painting is made directly onto a smooth slab of particular limestone or a metal plate using an oilbased crayon or ink. enabling them to stick to paper It also helps to maintain a stable dispersion of pigment particles in water as the film of a wash dries. Impressing Stamping or printing. but in picture-making it is as important as the objects/subjects themselves. which give it a smooth surface (as opposed to cold-pressed paper. but each print will be unique. work. and orientation of the image. aiming to represent facts rather than an interpretation of the subject. glossy. Foreshortening A method of depicting an object at an angle to the surface of the picture. lifting out charcoal and other dry media. It is a strong adhesive. and is also used as a size. Medium A generic term for art Key A painting is said to be "high key" when the colors and tones are bright and "low key" when they are dark or somber The term is also used Gouache Opaque watercolor Also called body color. Papercut A type of collage in which flat sheets of paper are cut into an image. upright images are called "portrait which is used as a binding agent in many liquid media. Also refers to an additive used to control the application properties of a color Golden Section A proportion in which a straight line or rectangle is divided into two unequal parts in such a way that the ratio of the smaller part to the greater part is the same as that of the greater part to the whole. F o r m The outer surface of a three-dimensional object. ink.The paper then bears a crayon impression or copy of the surface that was underneath it A number of Surrealists. pastel. the surface of the stone is made wet before being rolled with a thin film of oilbased printing ink.Theground provides a particular color or texture beneath the image. oil-based printing ink is rolled evenly onto a smooth metal. or even a beam of light. glass. This method incorporates the excitement of accidental and unpredicted marks. Lifting out A method of creating highlights and mid-tones in a drymedia drawing (such as charcoal or graphite). oil-. then rubbed over carefully but vigorously with a crayon. Objective drawing Refers to the concept of objectivity. It is then peeled away. or plastic surface. of the ingredients in inks and watercolors.The degree to which detail is defined. Hatching (cross-) See Crosshatching. and translucent paper—a delicate material used in collage. It can be used with any wet media to isolate or protect parts of an image from further Optical blending See Pointillism. Gamut A complete range or extent Glassine A type of thin. which has a rough surface). The surface can be reloaded or redrawn with more medium. A small image might be described as small format Horizontal images are often said to be "landscape format" (abbreviated G u m arabic The natural to"landscape"). and gray drawing. to give the illusion of depth and distance. Dark tones are laid down first then an eraser or masking tape is used to lift away particles of the drawing media to reveal the lightness of the paper beneath. or spirit-based) is applied to a surface that is then pressed onto paper and removed to leave a print. Alternatively. with the area beneath remaining unaffected. Hairspray is an effective and inexpensive alternative. mineral. Usually an academic drawing observed from life. and by artists representing stone sculptures in a painting. It improves the bonding properties Frottage A French term meaning "rubbing. After several intervening processes. or a drawing made in any single color GLOSSARY Linear perspective A form of perspective in which parallel lines are represented as converging. Grisaille A painting in gray or a grayish color Often made by students as a tonal exercise. F o r m a t T h e size. Hot-pressed papers (HP) Paper made using hot cylinders. Paper is then pressed against the stone to take a print." A piece of paper is placed on top of an object or rough surface. graphite. Ground A wet solution usually of gouache or gesso (chalk and animal glue) brushed onto paper board. Paper is laid on top and a rapid drawing is made on the back of it The paper lifts away to reveal the image on its other side. to describe a surface to which paint will adhere readily. Padua. or canvas and allowed to dry before an image is drawn or painted. including Max Ernst used frottage in their work. Grisaille is occasionally seen in church stained-glass windows. or can be otherwise used to create an image—for example. or synthetic material that are suspended in a medium to constitute paint. and that will "escape" or change over time. 2. or for wrapping and protecting a finished piece of work. format" (abbreviated to "portrait"). rock. Fugitive A term given to a pigment that it is not stable. Rubens used grisaille to paint small images for engravers. The ink attaches to the oil-based image and is repelled by the wet stone.257 metal line.

and paperweights. in order to flick the pigment onto the image surface. pointed roll of white paper that is used to blend dry media. Named paper in place. A term borrowed from the theater. Underdrawing A pale preliminary drawing made prior to adding layers of another medium such as oil paint or watercolor Value The extent to which a color reflects or transmits light This is the equivalent of tone in a black and white image. or the right-hand page in a book. Subjective drawing A drawing that expresses the personal view and interpretation of the artist An invented image. W e t media Any liquid media— for example. or the left-hand page in a book. wall or tapestry. plaster. Etienne de material) dabbed through the Silhouette (1709-67). orchids. nature of watercolor allows the white surface of the paper to Tonal scale A scale of gradations shine through. using a brush. Spattering A mottled texture produced by drawing your fingers across the bristles of a stiff brush loaded with pigment. giving it a brilliance. usually diluted with water and applied with a brush. commonly referred to as the lead. in tone running from black to white or vice versa. Zen paintings usually depict scenes of nature and plants such as bamboo. fine paper. Recto The front or top side of a piece of paper. whose pinpricks creates a "connect-thepersonal pastime was making dots" replica of the image on the cut-out portraits. Volume The amount of space occupied by an object or an area of space in itself. Squaring up A method of enlarging and transferring an image from one surface to another. a point at which receding parallel lines meet Verso The back or underside of a piece of paper. or watercolor paint. evolved by engineers and architects for the purpose of conveying W a t e r c o l o r A painting accurate structural information. a sheet of paper is placed beneath and pinpricks are Silhouette A flat. Vanishing point In linear perspective. The crude material is called oleoresin. and chrysanthemum—which in Chinese tradition are called "The Four Gentlemen. Although drawings can be made with wash alone. Support The structure on which an image is made—for example. pencil. or ceramic glazing to reveal a different color beneath. cut-out profile made along every outline of the usually made in black paper image. Tone A degree of lightness or darkness. watercolor. Serigraphy Silk-screen printing. glasses. or any physical object that can be stamped or pressed onto a surface to leave an impression. Stippling Applying color or tone in areas of fine dots or flecks. Tortillon A short. an ink stone usually cut from slate. compound of water-soluble pigment. fruit. creating more vibrant effects than if the same colors were physically mixed together with a brush. "Spirits" or "oil" of turpentine refer to the volatile portion used by artists to thin or dilute oil-based paint. Zen brushwork encompasses calligraphy and painting. Viewpoint The position from which something is observed or considered. paper or canvas. Pouncing If a large drawing or design (called a cartoon) is to be Shadow Darkness cast by the transferred to a surface such as a obscuring of light. such as an inscribed sheet of metal.258 GLOSSARY together optically." Applied to the blurring or softening of sharp outlines by the subtle and gradual blending of one tone into another Sgraffito A technique of scratching or cutting through a surface of paint. and flowers. which are then called editions.Technicaldrawing has been example. Still life A picture composed of inanimate objects such as bowls. Scale Describes the size of one element in relation to another Sepia A brown pigment taken from the sun-dried ink sacs of cuttlefish and used to make ink or watercolor The term is now often incorrectly used to refer to brown colors. carbon ink. ink. acrylic. The translucent Tint A color mixed with white. Technical drawing A universal it is often used in conjunction language of lines and measurements with line drawings in pen and that is used to make diagrammatic ink—for images. sometimes drawn from a and leaving only the pricked sheet of shadow cast on a wall. tight. Alternatively. Printmaking The act of making a picture. Zen brushwork This is an oriental meditative art form originating in China and practised for many centuries in Japan. Zen A school of Mahayana Buddhism that asserts that enlightenment can come through meditation and intuition rather than faith. a tightly folded piece of cotton batting can be used for the same effect. or pen. Artists' prints are normally made in multiple. to model areas of light and shade. Sfumato An Italian term meaning "smoky. Props An abbreviation of the word properties. Stylus A sharp. or point on which parallel lines converge to give the impression of receding space. ." Materials for Zen brushwork include round brushes of varied size. Pounce (a fine for an unpopular 18th-century powder of charcoal or similar French politician. Wash A technique using ink. Turpentine A colorless solvent distilled from the resinous sap of pine trees. Strip Core of a pencil. meaning objects used in setting up a life model or still life. or gouache. or mark using an inked or pigment-covered surface.Thedrawing is removed. Single-point perspective The most basic form of linear perspective in which there is only one vanishing point. or wood. by imposing a grid that is then scaled up to a larger size. plum blossom. design. pointed instrument used for marking or engraving. plaster or cloth surface beneath. Size A weak glue used for filling the porous surface of wood or canvas in order to seal it. Sketch A quick or rough drawing. Squeegee A rubber-trimmed scraper used in the screenprinting process for dragging ink across a surface. Shade A that is color mixed (or toned) with black Shading A lay term for adding tone to a drawing.

Zen c 232-233 blended 133.162 Conte. Giovanni 137 Head and Shoulders of a Man 136.163 graded 227 composition 56-57. 13 architectural drawing 67-71 Arctic Flowers (Libeskind) 70.184. 30 sleeping dog 38-39 Stubbs's horse skeleton 26. 204-205. 203 Claude Lorrain 202 Views from Velletri 202. 250 Bishndas and Nanha: Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity 50. Clare 203 City 202. 52 cotton swabs 205 Coup de Vent a Asajigabare (Hokusai) 198. Jean Michel 138 Self-Portrait 138 Bateau-Vision. 75. Le (Hugo) 200.50. 81 cut-out model plan 94. Statue d'Epouvante 90 calligraphy. 158. 222. to draw 25. 50. Nicolas-Jacques 54 contours 146. 244 head and neck 144 phrased 124-125 contrast: brightness 99 of media 30 tonal 96. 241 action. 78 aerial perspective 206 airbrushing 160.198.184. 163. Leon: Bacchante 155 balance. 74. to model 110-111 border 51 Bosch. 128. Franz 48 Protea nitida 48 Bellini. 71 Bacchante (Bakst) 155 background: color 91 textured 240 Baker Matthew: Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry 32 Bakst. 198 cartoon (preparatory drawing) 137 (satirical) 159. 203 Buffalo Hunt (Shoshone) 178. 182.226. 90. 94 cylindrical objects.44-45 bird studies 12. 180 Circular Score for "Due Voce" (Bussotti) 223 circus scenes 192-195 City (Bryan) 202. 200 Bauer. 81 135. 137 Besler. 242 to blend 205 compressed 122. 9. 180 blending: color 133. 230 The Physical Space 220 abstract drawing 219. 203 Landline 202. 206. Sylvano 222.169 colors: airbrushed 161 background 91 A Abe. 94 chalk(s) 53. 113 bird bones 12. 13. 223 Circular Score for "Due Voce" 223 children's art 9. layers 53 chalk pastels 162. to draw 80.51 All and Nothing (Taylor) 114. Basilius 47 Beuys. to draw 100 Cypripedium calceolus L. 198. 71 conte 112. 38-39. 134 costume(s) 155 character 158-159 structure of 166-167 Cottage Among Trees (Rembrandt) 52. Brian 226 Untitled 2001 226 "Cave of the Hands" (Cueva de las Manas) 8. 226-227 Acanthus spinosus 65 accelerated perspective 22. 116. 221 animals. Etienne-Louis 72 Newton's Cenotaph 72. Mamaru 104. 206 checkered floor 80. Joseph 113 The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland 112. 204.31 Picasso's horse and bird 30. 71 Blake. 165.100 curves. 70 Art Nouveau motifs 91 Autoportrait (Ray) 138. 9 Chair (Van Gogh) 94. 72 bracelet shading 122 Braque. to express 39. 90 colored materials 162-163 colored pencils 162. 190 Caricature of a Woman (Daumier) 198. 139 Nanha) 50. Hieronymus 243 Two Monsters 242. 243 botanical drawing 48-49 Boullee.212 to erase 205 to hold 23 pencils 204 willow 114. 205 Baltard. 133.27 turtles 42-43 aquatint 240 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels (Leonardo) 12. 75 Circle of the Lustful (Blake) 180.13.117 Achilles Chases Hector (Thomas) 240. Filippo 67. 41 principal 186. 95 Chair Cut Out (Woodfine) 94. 193 in lifting out 204.Index Page numbers in italics refer t o captions and illustrations Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity (Bishndas and 259 INDEX B bread (as eraser) 205. 220. 161 Akhlaq-I Rasul Allah manuscript 51. 179 Bussotti.44-45. 40-41 Durer's rhinoceros 26. 29 Hugo's octopus 28.133.115 anatomical drawing 134-135 anatomical theaters 82-83 anatomical waxes 128 ancient carvings 221. 28 Klee's horses 30. 186 charcoal 114. 247-248 carving see lines. 26 geese 38-39 Gericault's cats 28. cut Catling. 90 La Guitare. 90. 202 cloth. 8 cave paintings 8. 201 collage 111. 160 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object (Moore) 178. 74 brush (es) 246-247 Japanese 248 for laying a wash 140 marks 248-249 to hold 23 brush drawings 14-15 Bryan. 162 character: to capture 38-39. 189.89. Georges 67. 244 and graphite 178 . center of 118 ballpoint 182. 199 Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya (Eisen) 156. 242 Brunelleschi. 178 Cubism 67. 74. 111. 98. Victor: West Facade of the Church of St. (Ross-Craig) 49 to hold brush for 23 caricature 159. 230-231 Cubist 90. to depict 156-157 Cloudburst of Material Possessions (Leonardo) 200. Augustin 67 Basquiat.186 see also movement Adoration of the Magi perspective study (Leonardo) 74.163 dry media 205 Blue Nude (Matisse) 110. William: The Circle of the Lustful 180.163 body. 157 cropping 56-57.

205 drawing with 103. Oona 245 How Clever of God #84 244. 55. to draw 168-169 in Goya's artworks face. 115 Escher. The 242. Sir Ernst 12.91.244. 55. 170-173. 203 semi-abstract 234-237 three-dimensional 68.141. 161 fashion drawings 160. 122 Hawksmoor. 220 dry brush 234 234 57. 93 eye level 80 Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity.37. 223. drypoint 181 exaggeration 184 expressionism 198 E ye and Head of a Drone Fly (Hooke) 92. Hans 133 The Ambassadors 116 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 132. Katsushika 199 Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 198. Jean Ignace Isidore see Grandville Gericault.207.112. C .244 drawing(s): abstract 219. Alberto 136 Portrait of Marie-Laure de Noailles 136. to draw 134-137 Helleborus corsicus 55 highlights 91. 216 foreshortening 110. 71 minimal line 99 and music 70-71 quick 38-39. 240 170-173 five Ships in a Port with Lighthouse (Wallis) 11.252-253 from memory 183.101 engraving 243 erasers/erasing 55.121 felt-tip pens 162. 161 changing 216 Focusing on the Negative (Walter) 16 foliage 52. 30 Fauves/fauvism 90.69 Gerard. 136 Golden Section 67 Gombrich.12 fixative 54. 69 Guitare. 765 hitsuzendo drawings 233 Hokusai. Victor 200. 243 graphic score 222.189. 41 in the round 208-209 with scalpel 202. 202. 99 etching. 240 Black Paintings 152.John 157 Man Lying Down in a Cloak 156. 245 Hugo. 241 to blend 205 and chalk 178 and ink 28. 230 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction 68.260 INDEX D Dada 139 Daumien Honore 198 Caricature of a Woman 198. 77 How Clever of God #84 244. 245 layers 30 Goya. 132 Frenz. 32 framing 139 Franfoise au Bandeau (Picasso) 132. to draw 120.216 Durelli. 134. 226-227 anatomical 134-135 architectural 67-71 botanical 48-49 brush 14-15 dark to light 102.103. 137 heads. 79. to draw 78. position of 143. Robert 93 Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 92. 160 Faune. 162 Flaxman. 124. Study for Plate 59 (Mucha) 90.115 exploratory 17 fantasy 72-73. 69. 190 Middle Eastern 50-51.144 and ink 30.198 Degas.160. 104-105.216. 37 Grandville 243 A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the Near-Microscopic World of Scale Insects 242. 157 .230 three-tone 140. 134. 160 hitsuzendo 233 light to dark 102.97. 90 gouache 30.103 with eraser 103.184 165. 161 fashion 160. Cheval et Oiseau (Picasso) 30. 40. position of 22 Eisen.166 170-173 Gestalt 222 Giacometti. 69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt 68. 120.117 fountain pens 34. 222 Grimes. 134.111 feet. 163. Ron 161 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 161 160. 200 F fabric. Rene 160 Illustration for Jacques Fath E easel. 245 Gruau. 113.102-103 drawing board 20 drawing books 20-21 drawing paper 144. proportions of 143 fantasy drawings 72-73. 122. La (Braque) 90. 160 as ground for metal point 140. 222. 163. 90 G Gaudi.109 Rhinoceros 26.157 ellipses 100. Edgar 162 depth. 252 depiction of fabric monsters 252-253 Self Portrait in a Cocked Hat 130. Antonio 68. Antonio 135 Muscles of the Head and Neck 134.146 from masterworks 126-127.Theodore 29 Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 28. 69. 93 horizon 52. 135 Duren Albrecht 26. 240. disposable pens 182-183 dissections: botanical 48 of horse 27 distance: illusion of see perspective linear 97 tonal 97 Documents Decoratifs. Statue d'Epouvante. 144 Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (Baker) 32. 160 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction (Gaudi) 68. 125. 25 focus 65. 29 H hands. 52 foreground 208. Keisai 157 The Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya 156. 55. 203 Hotel de la Suzonnieres (Satie) 70. 222 Le Bateau-Vision 200. 131 Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 240.104. 7 33 Hooke.160. 223 graphite 54. 799 Holbein. 112. 26 Flying Fish (White) 25. 73. to suggest 177 see also perspective diagonals diffuser 55 dip pens 34.116.141. Francisco de 131. fiber-tip pen 182. Nicholas 68 St Paul's Baptistry 68 head and neck to draw 142-145 Head and Shoulders of a Man (Bellini) 136. 242 eyes. 141 tonal 96. M. 91 Dragon (Michelangelo) 36.

170-173. 73 Kigell. 234 iron-gall 35. 185 Mucha. 205 masterworks. 230 invented creatures 106-107 250-251 invented objects 89. 97 Murillo.181 L Landline (Bryan) 202. 184. 205. 220. 244 Dragon 36. 166. artistic 240-241. 201 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels 12. 53 monoprint 787. apparent 97 Leonardo da Vinci 74. 37 lines 118 pastel 162 pencil 31. 160 In the Duchess's Kitchen (Rackham) 176. 54 silver point 156 leg sections 158 length. 176. 72. 63.141 Metropolis (film) 72.115 98.141.Pieuvre (Octopus) 28.134 K Kettlehut.167 line(s) 132. 219 Mondrian. 244 ink 36 252-253 Documents Decoratifs 90. Johan 32. Victor 134 Profile Head 134.182 Moore. 34-35 acrylic 35 bistre 35. 77 Miller.112. 227 Scene of Comical Riders 30. Matisse. 201 head and neck sections of female mold for Sforza Horse 89 Madonna of the Rocks 244 perspective study for Adoration of the Magi 74. 178 motifs: A r t Nouveau 9 7 stylized 51 mountains 216-217 movement: of animals 30-31 of humans 7 79.227 to "bend" straight 97 compositional 228-229 cut 202. drawing from 183. 190 metal pens see dip pens metal point 25. 181 luminosity 115 Lynch. Charles Rennie 48. 226 Modernism 67.109. Daniel 70 Arctic Flowers 70 Lieb. 99. 225 masking tape 204. 73 Michelangelo Buonarroti 48.96. Madrid 171 University Museum of Natural History.109. 757 mandalas 219. 49 Rose 49 Maelbeke Madonna (Van Eyck) 156. 183 vertical 156 linear distance 97 linear perspective 69.124. 181 Klee. 159 Japanese 35 to make 36 sepia 35 walnut 36.The (Robinson) 108. Oxford 250 music 70-71 Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks (Knopf) 32. 220. 227 Newsome. 203 landscape 206-208 brushed 14 Landscape in Hoboku Style (Sesshu) 14 layers 146 chalk 53 gouache 30 ink 28. Paul 227 Polyphonic Setting for White 226. 13 Cloudburst of Material Possessions 200. 249 and gouache 30 Indian 35. Phyll: hands 18 lifting out 204. 203. 252 Muscles of the Head and Neck (Durelli) 134. 83 white 122 ink impressions 222 ink spatters 234 installations 176.102. 135 museums 44. 28 Two Impressions from a Cut-out Paper Disk 222 Huyler Stephen R 225 261 Kinecar. Henri 111 Blue Nude 1110. 31 Klimt. 111. 158 Man Lying Down in a Cloak (Flaxman) 156. 156 magnification 93 Man in Armor (Van Dyck) 158. Marie 244 cloth drawing 244. 252 ink 16. Piet 52. 221 endless 31 free 113. Alphonse 90.91 Study for Plate 59 of INDEX illumination see lighting Illustration for Jacques Fath (Gruau) 160.243 carbon 35 Chinese 30. 248. 244 lithograph 198 Losbruch (Kollwitz) 180. 78 Study ofThree Male Figures 110. 789.104. 244. 103 Neolithic chalk tablet 220. Rose: Tantalus or the Future of Man 20 minimal line drawing 99 mirror use of 120 mixed media 28. 36.33 Mysterious Affairs of the lighting 2 7. 242 light 96 to depict drawing with 1 76 painting with 176 . 220. 114 hatched 244 layered 118 pace of 65 pale 40 rapid 49. 53 Tree II 52. Kathe 181 Losbrunch (The Outbreak) 180. Oxford 106 Prado. I Murderous Attacks 33 Kollwitz. 76 Libeskind.276. 177 influences. 33 J justness 228-229 N naive art 74 negative space 53. Florence 128 lighting in 167 Pitt Rivers. 74-77. drawing from 126-127.166 La Specola. Gustav 49 Knopf. Erich 73 design for Metropolis 72. Bartolome: Moses Striking the Rock ofHoreb 252. 110 Sistine Chapel ceiling 116 Middle Eastern drawing 50-51. 60. 34. Henry 178 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object 178. 35. 220.120. 58-59. David 78 M Mackintosh. 756 priming for 140. 163 pens 36 measuring 116 memory.

71 Hotel de la Suzonnieres 70. 1 3 2 quill pens 34. 1 1 6 accelerated 2 2 . 38. J 76 nudes 114-115 to make 36 metal see dip quill 34. 40-41. 243. 244 reed 34. 162 O p A r t 98 optical illusions 96-99 outline 33.199 Profile Head (Newsome) oil pastels 162. and Webster. 139 Real Life is Rubbish (Noble and Webster) 176. 736 portraits. 114 rollerball 182 Rorschach blot 99 Rose (Mackintosh) 48. Faune. Auguste 114 Two Women 114. 7 77 three-point 80. 91 outsider artists 33. 1 1 7 aerial 206 linear 69. 242 reed pens 34. Russell 228. 181 Rodin. Giovanni Battista 74. Stella 48 Cypripedium calceolus L 49 rotated view 7 65 Rubens. Isaac 92 Telescope 92 Newton's Cenotaph (Boullee) 72. 1 6 9 to hold 2 2 . 734 Protea nitida (Bauer) 48.Toyo: Landscape in Hoboku . 72 Noble. 782 relief 757 silk-screen 739 woodblock 134. 241 Physical Space. 772 234-237 Sesshu. 1 1 6 .52 pen and wash 158. 1 2 4 priming for metal point 140. Pablo 6 7 .37. Bridget 98 Robinson.oise au Bandeau 132. 733 Portrait de Marie-Laure (Giacometti) 136. 205 157. Martin 238. 224 0 layers 31. 165 figure 118 filled 37 pencil 48. 163. 7 72 Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland.37 scientific instruments 9 2 . 244 Q s Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape (Wolfli) 2 79 St. 36.40. 71 Satire of the Queen's Dress (Wodall) 158.240. 28 pigment 162 bright 50 Caput Mortuum 7 4 7 for three-tone drawing 141. 36. Man 131.139 Autoportrait 138. 36 relief printing 757 Rembrandt van Rijn 52. 75 Two Courtyards 75. 165. 205 pointillism 112 polyphonic painting 227 Polyphonic Setting for White (Klee) 226. 7 38 Ray 138. 34-35. to draw 146-147 R Rackham. 7 70 Ray. 234 disposable 182-183 felt-tip 162.184 fountain 34.37. Heath 181 The Kinecar 180. 76 plastic eraser 55. 36 pen and brush 8 3 pen and ink 70. 161. 227 portfolios 20 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser de Noailles (Holbein) 132. 26 Riley. 216.Paul'sBaptistry (Hawksmoor) 68. 164. 230 parallel planes 79 Parisian street 86-87 pastels 162 to blend 205 to hold 23 layers 162 pencils 162 pen(s): dip 34 . 1 6 3 . 239 Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 238. 73 Noble. 7 76 receding space 206 Redon. Georges 112 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 112.54 pastel 162 perspective 1 0 0 . Sue 104. 74-77. 78 single-point 74. 160. 57 Ross-Craig. 732 influence of 240 painting with light 78. 166 fiber-tip 782. 68 Satie. 74. 9 8 . 76-79.2 3 age and youth sleeping subjects 148-149 150-151 Renaissance 109 Rhinoceros (Durer) 26. 219. 103. 4 8 putty eraser 55.262 INDEX Newton. 4 9 Rose of Mohammed 50. 181 pencil(s) 54 charcoal 204 colored 762. Erik 70. 52 pens 36 scalpel 54 drawing with 202.7 77 rapidograph 70 Raphael 110. 75 Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range 241 petroglyphs 221. 203 Scene of Comical Riders (Klee) 30. 97.9 3 Schongauer. 30 Fran<. 36.176 Real Life Is Rubbish 176.226. 9 0 . 759 P Page. 122. 7 73 self-portraits: Basquiat 138.141 prints/printing: aquatint 240 dry-point etching 181 engraving 243 monoprint 181. Arthur 177 In the Duchess's Kitchen 176. The (Abe) 220 Picasso.131 Cottage Among Trees 52. 239 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat (Seurat) 112. 36. 141 Piranesi. 739 semi-abstract drawings Style 14 Seurat.104 Pieuvre (Hugo) 28. 81 two-point 74. 243. 159. 230 paper(s) 21 colored 162 drawing 144. Peter Paul 126-127 Embracing pose(s): balanced 146 quick 118-119 positive form 103 posture: of artist 22 of subject 3 8 . 37 38. Cheval et Oiseau 30.759. 38. Odilon 242 The Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity 242. 212 Japanese 2 1 .Tim.36.The (Beuys) 112. 36. 2 2 0 for oil pastels 162 stained 230 to stretch 140-141 tissue 21. Paul 73 Nobson Central 72.

2 0 1 . 206-207 202. 186. t h r e e . Paul 2 4 1 Achilles Chases Hector 2 4 0 . 115.J. 725 fabric 1 6 8 T h o m a s . C y 138. John 25 Flying Fish 25 Wild Striped Cat Sketches of ( G e r i c a u l t ) 28. Sarah 9 4 Chair Cut Out 94. 7 6 Two Impressions from a Cut-Out Paper Disk ( H u g o ) 2 2 2 Two Monsters 2 4 2 . 7 79 Shoshone petroglyph 240. 1 4 0 .1 0 5 vision 9 6 Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects (Grandville) 242. 241. 9 4 z Z e n calligraphy 232-233 contrast 96 t o grade 163 ink 37 pencil 5 4 t o r t i l l o n 205 T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c . A n t h o n y 152. 226 V Van Dyck. Man in Armor 1 5 8 .27 skull 747. 1 8 4 . 199 shoes 1 6 4 . 74. 2 4 7 t h r e e . 2 7 studies: b i r d s 7 2 .120. 1 4 4 .2 1 3 Stubbs.1 4 1 .d i m e n s i o n a l 1 0 4 . 230 t h r e e .141 S i m b l e t .1 9 9 wire. 69. 202 violin.1 4 5 . 4 4 boat 209 botanical 4 9 G e r i c a u l t ' s cats 2 9 from Goya 170-173 125.243 Leonardo's machines 12. H e n r i de: Woman at Her Toilet 14 t r a n s p a r e n t v i e w 92.41. t o d r a w 2 0 0 . 7 1 4 .Sforza Horse. 1 9 9 Two Courtyards (Piranesi) 75. 2 3 0 tonal contrast 96 tonal distance 9 7 t o n a l d r a w i n g 9 6 . 2 3 4 . t o draw 1 9 8 .t o n e d r a w i n g 140.Yamaoka 233 t e x t u r e 2 2 2 . drawing with 104-105 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt ( G a u d i ) 68. 161. 2 2 0 influence o f 2 4 0 Untitled 220. 164. 96.158 158. 79. 170 shoes 1 6 4 stylized m o t i f 51 Summer Flowers 63. 1 6 6 t r a p e z i u s m u s c l e 142. 221 . Sue see N o b l e . W . 182. 743 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City ( F r e n z ) 1 6 0 . 1 4 1 w a t e r c o l o r 25. 9 0 . t o lay 1 4 0 .s c r e e n p r i n t i n g 139 silver p o i n t 1 4 0 . h e a d a n d n e c k sections o f female m o l d f o r (Leonardo) 89 shading 2 9 s h a d o w s 28. 76.13 M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s m a l e figures 110. 141 Three Male Figures. 53 trees. 104-105. A l f r e d 1 1 . 75.12 W a l t e r . G e o r g e 2 7 Skeleton of the Horse 26. 1 8 4 . 156 layers 7 5 6 priming for 140. T i m W e s t Fagade of the Church of St. 7 75 Telescope ( N e w t o n ) 9 2 . Taylor A n i t a 115 All and Nothing 1 1 4 . 77. 1 2 Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse 71. 65 symbols 138. 158 V a n Eyck. 1 9 9 .1 8 5 Tree II ( M o n d r i a n ) 52. 2 4 2 w Wallis.199 tissue p a p e r 21. 6 9 Wodall. 240 Two Women Embracing ( R o d i n ) 114.5 3 in l a n d s c a p e 2 0 6 .d i m e n s i o n a l d r a w i n g 68. Augustin ( B a l t a r d ) 6 7 w e t and dry brush-strokes 2 4 9 Turner. 75 Skeleton of the Horse ( S t u b b s ) 26. M . 249 t o describe 39. 2 2 7 Untitled 2001 ( C a t l i n g ) u 263 W h i t e .241 s i l k . 1 3 .125 W o o d f i n e . 7 6 1 spots. 245 sharpener 54 Ship in a Storm ( T u r n e r ) 1 9 8 . Vincent 95 Chair 94. 9 2 Tesshu. 2 4 4 . 2 2 6 . John: Focusing on the Negative 14 w a s h . 1 4 1 . 159 Wolfli. Jan 1 5 6 Maelbeke Madonna 1 5 6 . phrased 146 tonal modeling 161 tonal range 169 t o n a l surfaces 2 2 7 tonal width 97 t o n e ( s ) 33. 9 5 pens 36 v a n i s h i n g p o i n t 74. 2 9 wind. 2 0 0 Ship in a Storm 1 9 8 . 1 7 7 free 8 0 V e n i c e . Adolf: Giant-Grape Saint-Mary-Castle 219 Woman at Her Toilet ( T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c ) 74 w o o d b l o c k print 157. 7 70 Tiber 214-215 Untitled ( T w o m b l y ) 2 2 0 .9 1 storms. 1 4 5 travel journal 2 0 . b l o w n 248 steel p e n s see d i p p e n s still life 89. Study of (Michelangelo) 110. 2 1 2 . 243 (Bosch) T Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos ( G o y a ) 2 4 0 . 102-103 tonal marks. 49. 7 9 0 vessels. 7 77. t o d r a w 1 0 1 viewfinder 57 Views from Velletri ( C l a u d e L o r r a i n ) 152. William 159 Satire of the Queen's Dress INDEX 226. 57. v i e w s o f 85. t o d r a w 5 2 . 69. 97. 156 Van Gogh.1 6 5 shorthand diagram 142 Shoshone buffalo hide painting 178.216 W e b s t e r . 1 6 . Sarah: child's m a p 75. 174 T w o m b l y . 199.

U K . Dover Publications/ISBN: 0486229912 (t). Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. 3 1 : Tom Powel Imaging. L o n d o n .co. Germany. Paris. 1 5 9 : Bodleian Library. O. u k / T o k y o National M u s e u m . 69: Institut Amatller d'Art Hispanic (tl). Andy Crawford. Illustrated London News Picture Library/The Bystander (b). Orientabteilung/Ruth Schacht. Berlin/Staatsbibliothek zu A l l other images © Sarah Simblet . L e n . 111: Fondation Beyeler/Riehen (Bale)/© Succession H Matisse/DACS 2005. Collection. G i n a R o w l a n d . 2 4 0 : w w w . 5 2 : T h e Metropolitan Museum of Art/Bequest of Mrs. Anita Taylor. 7 0 : Studio Daniel L i b e s k i n d . and Tamsin Woodward Smith.bridgeman. R u t h P a r k i n s o n . J o n Roome. 88: www.bridgeman. 132: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. Sarah Woodfine. Fund. 2 6 : Topfoto. Wolfson College. B e r l i n . 74: Corbis. 1 3 4 : © T h e British Museum.bridgeman. L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . 1 3 6 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Centre Pompidou-MNAM-CCI. 2 1 8 : Adolf-Wdlfli-Stiftung. 1975 ( 1 9 7 5 . H . 5 3 : Collection of the Gemeentemuseum D e n Haag/Mondrian Trust. L o n d o n . Toulouse. G e r m a n y . 1 5 4 : akg-images/Musee National d'Art Moderne. Graphische Sammlung. a n d D e p a r t m e n t s o f E n t o m o l o g y a n d Zoology at the University of Oxford. 9 5 : V a n Gogh M u s e u m . 1 5 : w w w . 9 7 6 ) . K e w ft)). 5 0 : Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (1). T o n y G r i s o n i . Peter L u f f . Germany/Joerg P. Sophie Laurimore. 9 2 : Science Photo L i b r a r y . 2 2 4 : P r i n z h o m Collection. . Pamela Ellis for compiling the index. 6 6 : w w w . papers. 4 8 : T h e N a t u r a l H i s t o r y M u s e u m . Also. 73: Berlin F i l m Museum (t). U K . Museum. 2 8 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. 1 5 6 : Graphische S a m m l u n g Albertina. K u n s t m u s e u m Bern/© D A C S 2 0 0 5 . 1 3 8 : © Christie's Images Ltd/© A D AGP. 181: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. Clare Bryan. (r). 2 4 4 : Ashmolean Museum. 1 6 0 : Rene G R U A U s. London 2005.bridgeman. Julie O u g h t o n . 174: Artothek/ 130: The Metropolitan M u s e u m of Art/Robert L e h m a n 1 3 5 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. A n n a P l u c i n s k a . Sarah D u n c a n . Kunstmuseum Bern. Paul T h o m a s ( t ) . 1 1 0 : www. L o n d o n . 72: akg-images. 226: Brian Catling.r. 137: © The British Museum. Natalie G o d w i n . Maureen Paley Interim Art (b). Publisher's Acknowledgments Dorling Kindersley w o u l d like to thank Caroline H u n t for editorial contribution.Paris ( b ) . Paris a n d D A C S . Paris/ © Succession Picasso / D A C S 1 0 8 : Arts C o u n c i l Collection. Havemeyer. Portugal. Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (t). 112: Yale University A r t Gallery/Everett V Meeks. for s u p p l y i n g the d r a w i n g books. Sammy De Grave. a n d encouragement i n m a k i n g this book: M a m o r u Abe. 30: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. Paris and D A C S . Kirsten Norrie. Library.l. K e v i n a n d Rebecca Slingsby. B . 9 3 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. 49: Hunterian Museum (t). Copyright Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens. R .uk/Mucha Trust. Angela Palmer. Paris. Italy. 68: www. 9 0 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/© A D A G P .bridgeman. 1 7 8 : © T h e British M u s e u m / H e n r y Moore F o u n d a t i o n ./Galerie Sylvie Nissen. c o . 180: www./Private Collection/© D A C S 2005. Agnieszka Mlicka. Paris. Rocio Arnaez. Salisbury & South W i l t s h i r e M u s e u m ( t ) . A . J a c k a n d Brian Catling. c o . A n d y C r a w f o r d for p h o t o g r a p h y a n d L . 2 2 7 : Paul Klee Stiftung. Carlo O r t u for picture research s u p p o r t . T h e R u s k i n School of D r a w i n g a n d Fine A r t . 1 9 : Getty Images/© Succession Picasso / D A C S 2 0 0 5 . 11: www. P h y l l Kiggell. Jackie Douglas. C o r n e l i s o n & /Biblioteca Nacional. 7 1 : I M E C / A r c h i v e s E r i k Satie. Paris. 199: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee des arts asiatiquesGuimet. 115: Anita Taylor. University of Oxford. A . 1 6 1 : D C C o m i c s I n c .100. London/Bequeathed by Charles Landseer. J o h n Walter. 179: www. 1 9 8 : Dover Publications. B M G R o s e m a r y S c o u l a r . Corporation of 2 2 3 : Lebrecht Music and Arts Photo Library/Ricordi. Magdalene College Cambridge. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin. H e l e n S h u t t l e w o r t h . 157: U C L Art Collections . L o n d o n . K u n s t m u s e u m . G e r m a n y . 113: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz.bridgeman.264 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Acknowledgments Author's Acknowledgments: T h e author wishes to thank the following people for their enormous help. 29: Fogg A n Museum/Collections Baron de Vita: Grenville L. 2 0 3 : Clare Bryan (t). Productions Clovis Prevost (c). L o n d o n . H e a t h e r M c C a r r y . u k / O n Loan to the H a m b u r g Kunsthalle. u k / L o u v r e . H a y w a r d Gallery. Angela W i l k e s . L o n d o n (t).uk/Private Collection. 3 2 : Pepys Library. 114: Musee Rodin. Patty Stansfield. 221: Gagosian Gallery/Private Collection (b). H a m b u r g . /© Birmingham Museums and Art's Yard. University of Cambridge. b r i d g e m a n . Jean Pierre Roy. Basel. 2 0 0 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. 2 2 2 : Pierre Georgel/Private Collection. Florence/MoMA. 2 7 : Royal Academy of Arts. 1901. support. 2 3 8 : akg-images. 13: www. © Tate. J o h n Roberts. 2 0 1 : T h e Royal Collection © 2 0 0 2 H e r Majesty Queen Elizabeth I I . L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . NY. 9 4 : Sarah Collection. Amsterdam. K a t h r y n W i l k i n s o n . 2 4 1 : Corbis/David M u e n c h ( b ) . Lisbon. 158: Calouste Gulbenkian Museum. 1 3 3 : Artothek/Kupferstichkabinett. Christopher Davis. Paul T h o m a s .bridgeman. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin/Jorg P. Inc.20-21 a n d 246-47. Anders/ © D A C S 2 0 0 5 . b r i d g e m a n . Sir Brinsley F o r d . Psychiatric Institute of the U n i v e r s i t y of Heidelberg. Psychiatric Institute of the University of Heidelberg. London/courtesy of Stuart Shave.a. 51: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. 9 1 : F i n n . Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. a n d brushes o n pp. Japan. 243: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz.939). 4 6 : B r i t i s h Library. c o . 75: © The British Museum (b)./© D A C S 2 0 0 5 ( t ) . 139: Galerie Marion Meyer/© Man Ray Trust / A D A G P .bridgeman. 2 0 2 : © T h e British Museum. 17: J o h n Walter. 176: Modem Art. 1929 (29. F r a n c e . 2 4 : © T h e British Museum. Berlin (b). France. Oxford. M a n d y 16: www. 177: Mary Evans Picture Library. Carole A s h . 225: Stephen P Huyler. D a w n Henderson. 2 4 2 : Photo Scala. b r i d g e m a n . O o n a G r i m e s .Strang Print Room ( b ) . Madrid. 1 9 6 : Museum of the History of Science. Picture Credits 8: Corbis/Hubert Stadler. . 2 4 5 : Oona Grimes. 1 . R o y a n d D i a n n e Simblet. George M c G a v i n . 3 3 : Prinzhom des Augustins. Paula Regan. Paris. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. Paris a n d D A C S . B e r l i n .bridgeman. 2 2 0 : Mamaru Abe. Diana Bell. S i m o n L e w i s . B e m d Kunzig. Roddy Bell. Antonia Cunliffe Davis.

Materials and Techniques—how to use a variety of materials—from pencil and ink to pastel. D r a w i n g C l a s s e s — d e t a i l e d step-by-step demonstrations show you how to develop your natural talents. and discover new ideas. Creating a Sketchbook—Sarah Simblet's drawings inspire you to explore different subjects and fill your own sketchbooks. and improve your drawing Discover more at . and silverpoint—and apply the key elements of drawing including perspective. shape. www.FOR THE ARTIST T h e c o m p l e t e g u i d e to drawing—a unique blend of practical teaching and inspirational insights into classic and contemporary drawings. charcoal. Learn from the Masters—a rich selection of drawings illustrates different approaches to a wide range of subjects.

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