An innovative, practical approach to drawing the world around you

SARAH SIMBLET

BOOK
FOR T H E ARTIST

BOOK

FOR THE ARTIST

SARAH SIMBLET

DK PUBLISHING

CONTENTS
LONDON • NEW YORK MELBOURNE • MUNICH • DELHI Senior Editor Paula Regan Senior Art Editor Mandy Earey Art Editor Anna Plucinska Managing Editor Julie Oughton Managing Art Editor Heather McCarry Art Director Peter Luff Publishing Director Jackie Douglas Production Joanna Bull DTP Designer Adam Walker Picture Research Sarah Smithies US Editor Christine Heilman First American Edition, 2 0 0 5 First Paperback Edition, 2 0 0 9 Published in the United States by DK Publishing 3 7 5 Hudson Street New York, New York 1 0 0 1 4 10 11 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3

Architecture
6 8 20 22 Master Builders The Order of Sound Future Fictions Pathways of Sight Single-Point Perspective Creating an Imaginary Space Further Aspects of Perspective Theaters Venetian Life Parisian Street

66
68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86

Foreword Introduction Drawing Books and Papers Posture and Grip

Objects and Instruments

TD075-July 2009 Copyright © 2 0 0 5 Dorling Kindersley Limited Text and authors artworks © Sarah Simblet 2 0 0 4 Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited A Cataloging-in-Publication record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN 9 7 8 - 0 - 7 5 6 6 - 5 1 4 1 - 1 Color reproduction by GRB, Italy Printed and bound in China by Toppan

Still Life Instruments of Vision Bench Marks Light and Illusions Further Illusions How to Draw Ellipses Tonality Drawing with Wire Artifacts and Fictions

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90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106

Animals
Documentaries Presence and Mood Movement Icon and Design Pen and Ink Drawing with Ink Capturing Character Sleeping Dogs Turtles Dry Birds

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26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44

The Body
Postures and Poses Choreographs Passion Measurement and Foreshortening Quick Poses Hands and Feet Charcoal Hands Phrasing Contours The Visual Detective La Specola

108
110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128

Plants and Gardens
Botanical Studies Jeweled Gardens Fast Trees Graphite and Erasers Cropping and Composition Negative Space Fig Tree Summer Flowers Acanthus Spinosus

46
48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64

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Gatherings
Projections Magnetic Fields The Human Condition Disposable Pens The Travel Journal Catching the Moment Grand Canal Crossings Caravans The Big Top

174 Abstract Lines
176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 Process and Harmony Writing Time Chants and Prayers Compositions Being "Just" Collage Zen Calligraphy Nocturnes

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220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234

Portraiture
Poise Anatomies Revelations Self-Portraits Silver Point Head and Neck Essential Observations Drawing Portraits Generations Castings

130
132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 152

Earth and the Elements
Air in Motion Storms Nature Profiles Charcoal Landscapes Drawing in the Round Decaying Boat Cloudburst Notes of Force Mountains

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198 200 202 204 206 208 210 212 214 216

Gods and Monsters
Marks of Influence Hauntings Convolutions Brushes Brush Marks Monsters Goya's Monsters Consumed Glossary Index Acknowledgments

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240 242 244 246 248 250 252 254 256 259 264

Costume
Cloth and Drapery Character Costumes Femmes Fatales Colored Materials Study and Design The Structure of Costume Textures and Patterns Dressing Character Posture Carving

154
156 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172

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I know that with their cooperation I can soon prove them wrong. a composer notating a musical score. I work with people of diverse ages. or a quantum physicist trying to see for themselves the fluctuations of our universe. fashion designer. thinking. Some of my drawings cover entire walls. that inspired the title and structure MEMORY T H E A T E R S This pen-and-ink drawing was made from imagination during research for my PhD. a drawing book is the perfect portable private vehicle for your imminent exploration of drawing. I was also reading among The Confessions of St. and feeling. who tells me firmly upon approach that they cannot draw. doctors. and a reflector of experience. Drawing occupies a unique place in every artist and creator's life. shape. but because it is how I engage with and anchor myself in life. in which he describes himself flying and diving in his imagination through pictorial caverns of knowledge. through history. I was training in anatomy and studying how. and makers of special effects. art schools. We can all learn how to draw. especially as travel journals. still standing by the door. we learn to see it. It makes me feel excited to be alive. of Sketch Book for the Artist. For twelve years I have enjoyed the privilege of teaching drawing. drawing is the immediate expression of seeing. The very first step is to believe it. and their importance to so many artists. geologists. by invitation. not only to make art. or engineer. a cartographer charting the land. Chosen in any color. where I expect them to be discovered by some people. and local c o m m u n i t y classes. be they a child discovering their vision and dexterity. These inspirations led me to invent museums. By using our imaginations. It is a tool for investigating ideas and recording knowledge. . aspirations. I will always draw. The most rewarding challenge is always the newcomer. perhaps hidden on a door hinge or a street bench rail. we learn to feel truly alive. and be slowly washed or worn away. we have looked at. It is my love of these. architect. For me personally. Drawing is a mirror through which I understand my place in the world. are made outside as discreet installations. Others can be held in the h a n d or. They enfold their viewer and are made on joined sheets of paper that I reach by climbing ladders. a sculptor. and through which I can see how I think. Augustine his notes on memory. undergraduates to fellow professors. and in a few sessions they will be flying. where spaces are shaped by nothing more than the objects and activities contained within them. as a visiting professor at universities. texture. remain unseen by most. night security staff.Foreword B Y DRAWING THE WORLD AROUND US. They occupy a shelf in my studio. Combine these things and the possibilities are endless. understood (and often misunderstood) our own bodies. and size. and experience. from schoolchildren to senior citizens. I also make drawing books. Some are more traditionally framed and hung in galleries for solo or group exhibitions. and I refer back to them for years after they are made.

Rio Pinturas 13. Children cannot be restrained from running across the pristine white lawn of newly fallen snow. in lectures. Most adults still feel that certain exquisite pleasure on arriving at a beach to find the tide out and the sand perfect. but more often because drawing actually helps us to focus and take in what is said. They have a natural affinity to many modern graffiti signatures. We can always read each others drawings.8 INTRODUCTION Where We Begin There is a fundamental drive in our human nature to make a mark. logos. irreverent to language barriers. We are bombarded with linear and tonal pictorial information. The sense of relief we may feel from the information overload of modern commercial life when visiting a country in which we can no longer read every written word. a great crowd is raising their hands in greeting. Drawing is international. Cueva de las Marios. "CAVE OF THE HANDS" In this drawing. and in meetings. graffiti. scrawling shapes and cartoons when on the telephone. is not afforded us by drawing.000-9500 bce .Theseancient silhouettes were drawn with earth pigments rubbed onto rock. Sometimes we draw because we are bored. packaging. like a great canvas for them to mark. and patterns on our clothes. signs. At home and at work we doodle. inscribing every fresh part of it with their eager scrapes and trails. not just chosen pictures on our walls but everywhere—maps. We are surrounded by drawings in our daily lives. and we spend our lives reading it. waving to us from many thousands of yearsago.

I now think this is a picture of proximity. I. Eyelashes take up as much of my attention as the head itself. The image above is what I gave back to my mother." Until this day. and belonging to place. the hair of my first portrait was most important. reflecting my experience of looking closely at my father's face. On a particular afternoon in September 1974. . In cave paintings like the one opposite. who in their day-to-day hardship made time to picture themselves and the animals on which they depended. MAKING OUR MARK It seems reasonable to assume that we have engaged in pictorial mark-making for as long as we have made conscious use of our hands. like all toddlers. had happily scribbled. and she kept it as my first step beyond the delighted realms of scrawl. at age two-anda-half. enjoying the physical sensation of crayon on paper. Even though it is made by a toddler this image would be recognizable to anyone. Cave art was not made for decoration but as a fundamental part of life. I was sitting with my mother. we see our oldest surviving images. created by societies of hunter-gatherers. but I had never yet attempted to figuratively picture my world. power. an expression of existence.9 WHERE WE BEGIN FIRST PORTRAIT For sorre forgotten reason. and the appearance of my strikes of colors. She gave me a notepad and a red crayon and asked me to draw her "a picture of Daddy.

Young children love to draw. PROGRESSION T h e r e is a point in all o u r lives w h e n w e first c o n t r o l o u r mark and m a k e it a line.10 INTRODUCTION PEN-AND-INK BEE This tiny drawing has been enlarged to show its texture and composition. h o w e v e r small a n d u n f o r m e d y o u believe they are. b e p r o u d o f what m a k e s y o u r w o r k individual to y o u . As you progress. It was made with a few bold strokes of a steel pen dipped in ink to conjure the dried bee I was holding between my fingers on a pin. and from that first unit build and describe the shape of something or someone we know. then drag o u r line into a loop. Hours are lost immersed in the glorious world of imagination. W e do n o t hesitate to draw a map. it is important to value your natural abilities a n d ways of seeing. and this activity plays a vital role in their d e v e l o p m e n t . to help a stranger see their way W h e n taking first steps in relearning h o w to draw. most of us stop. for example. yet still turn to drawing w h e n their verbal language fails or is inadequate. Inhibitions creep in and ideas of good a n d b a d terminate confidence. But as adolescents. At this point many will insist they cannot draw. Don't b e p e r s u a d e d to draw in a w a y s o m e o n e else .

. The journey of every artist demands hard work and discipline. Think how much would have been lost if anyone had interfered with Alfred Wallis' personal sense of proportion and perspective in the exquisite drawing above. what they most want to achieve. Enjoy the control of your own journey. I ask them their reasons for drawing.11 PROGRESSION A UNIQUE SIGHT This innocent yet sophisticated drawing of boats. but it does help to set out facing in the right direction. He was a retired Cornish fisherman and junk dealer who began drawing at the age of 70 "for company" after his wife died. Occasionally. After experimenting and trying each new idea. and they have never questioned why. As you read this b o o k and perhaps attend art classes. He used leftover ship and yacht paint with crayons on cut-out pieces of cardboard boxes. Someone once told them they must draw in this way. remember that all advice is only advice. harbor and sea is one of many that Alfred Wallis made from memory while sitting at home. and which aspects of the vast wealth and diversity of graphic language would be most appropriate to their goals. you must decide whether to keep or discard it. Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse c. 1925-42 53/8x87/8in (135 x 225 mm) ALFRED WALLIS prefers and tells you is better. I meet students struggling unhappily with a particular method of drawing.

We BIRD STUDIES The flutter of faint scratches that dance across the pages on the right is an attempt to see the movement and bony weightlessness of a bird. the page bristles with the focus of ideas. Below. and lose the very thing that attracted us to it. it may not be accurate to our critical adult eye. all raise water From the Archimedes' screw to Leonardo's own cupped wheel. depending on the occasion and our purpose. When we look back at Wallis' seascape (see p. Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels LEONARDO DA VINCI . and breathtaking wind of a choppy harbor. clear-minded understanding of the sea. right. I hope. The art historian Professor Sir Ernst Gombrich. we can drive out its spirit. author of The Story of Art. the breast. but it should be the experienced world we draw. and inspire others. There are countless reasons for drawing.and collarbones and shoulder blades of a different bird almost become new creatures in themselves. 11). We also see differently ourselves. but the child in us knows that this is an all-embracing. If as artists we nail a subject down too hard. We all see differently. His notes visually balance his drawings. They are also always written backward.12 INTRODUCTION VISION All artists see the world differently. embedded in this book. There are only artists. be visionary." The clarity and empowerment of these words. boats. not for disguise but as a personal choice. The observed world may be our subject. perhaps for comfort or ease as a left-hander or a habitual enjoyment of the challenge. There should neve: be a slavish obligation to represent things exactly as we collectively agree we see them. "There really is no such thing as Art. wrote as the opening line of this great work. is. Our imaginations are the tools with which we can increase the essence of life. IDEAS A N D I N V E N T I O N S These active machines.

to express the beauty in a moment's play of light. Each fresh image reflects growing confidence and the experience of the preceding study. Our drawings are annotated investigations into the mechanisms of nature and of an idea. drawing in pursuit of our own thoughts and understanding. when it looks tired and still feels wrong. This also applies if struggling at length with a larger picture. It will be invested through your experience in the new drawing. I drew to understand the apparatus of flight. while below.13 VISION should not try to know how every finished picture will look. it may be best to start afresh. time spent is not lost. shout against a terrible injustice. Leonardo drew to invent a machine. More was learned drawing the bird 18 times than would have been understood drawing it only once or twice. We have both covered our paper with focused. conduct an experiment. make a calculation. stripped-down parts. My drawings of a housemartin (opposite top) illustrate the importance of repeated study. Opposite. . but it is important to be clear why we are making it. Decide before you start whether you are drawing to warm up. or to discover the best use of a new material. Don't be disheartened. or illustrate a dream.

size. Imagine these qualities so strongly that you feel them in your mind and at your fingertips. water. balance. declare the idea. and paper. your marks will become the subject on the paper. and allowed to flow through the brush. depth. This suits many artists well and is perfectly valid. W e float toward the quiet vista as it also moves toward us. and spirit of each subject was held strongly but loosely between the fingertips. Know the texture. meaning. and an island brushed with trees. It denies the importance of accident. and how it feels to the touch. and opacity of your subject. I made it almost unconsciously with a pen and a brush. and we can just make out the distant stains of mountains. metal. The physicality. Whatever the material— wood. feel. created centuries and cultures apart. temperature. or imagine—it is not enough to only render its shape. You must also think of its intrinsic nature: its purpose. we are advised or even required to plan our pictures. If you can do this. explain the composition. mists. These two brush drawings. This is the alchemy of drawing. As you draw any subject—something you see. However. which can offer keys to other things. and sometimes beyond. bone. and at speeds beyond conscious thought.14 INTRODUCTION ALCHEMY At school. fire. We are caught in a shifting focus that makes everything fluid. BRUSHED LANDSCAPE FLOWING SKELETON T h e gliding poise of this walking anatomy comes as much from the feeling of movement as it does from the feeling of drawing. ink. Our position asvieweris unsteady. trusting my intuition to find a visual equivalence for the sensation of weight within my body. it should be responding to the sensation and meaning of the subject it draws. This is a detail of a brush-and-ink drawing by a Japanese Buddhist monk. Landscape in Haboku Style 15TH CENTURY . are both made of ink laid onto wet paper with speed and agile certainty. excessive planning can get in the way of the imagination. silk. the unknown. As your hand meets the paper to make a mark. and position in space. or ice—you must actually feel it beneath your fingers as you draw. They each allowed the energy and focus of the moment to be expressed through controlled accident and a degree of the unknown Both drawings were made trusting the marks. and what you discover in the process of making. Each image relied upon past experience to know the probable behavior of the brush. and practice each part before putting the final image together.

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acrylic. gold leaf and spray paint.16 INTRODUCTION PLACE A N D MOMENT The heat and teeming atmosphere o f this Parisian dressing room. Focusing on the Negative 2004 22 x 30 in (56 x 76 cm) J O H N WALTER . pastel. more than 100 years after its making. which evoke realities o f place and the p o w e r o f moment. left. stand table-sized with furniture legs attached t o b o t h sides of their jacket. made by a young British artist who creates alphabets o f the absurd f r o m familiar childhood characters. Lautrec's flamboyant splashes o f petticoats and pantaloons are drawn with long sweeps of chalk and brushed oil paint. lives on. right is set inside a rib cage. W a l t e r also makes books: some.1896 Woman at her Toilet 41 x 26 in (104 x 66 cm) TOULOUSE LAUTREC RIB-CAGE D R A M A Thus drama. He dazzles us with flashes o f light and dabbed marks o f shadow. c. like folded insects. one of many luminous works in watercolor.

just through the act of making. take your time and don't worry if you need to make several attempts to grasp a concept. diary-like observations. With no help and advice at all. Ignore these at first and allow yourself the freedom to play. even those you dislike. Choose other materials and do the same. Pages do not have to lie open for other people to inspect and comment on. at a point when you feel you are not making progress. Put them away and look at them later. try not to grip your pen worrying about the technical terms you might have heard. Drawing is exploratory. Much will be learned on these test sheets and in your first drawings. Such books are personal: the territory of new exploration and experiment. and miscellaneous items of inspiration. you will be surprised and encouraged to see how far you have come. Start by choosing a material you like the look of and cover a piece of paper with different marks. potential ideas still forming. and mistakes are a valuable process of learning. you will naturally make progress on your own in response to concentration and the decision to look and draw. It is yours. Enjoy discovering what your hand and the material can do. As you follow lessons in this book. One of the advantages of a drawing book is that you can shut it. FREEINGTHEHAND .17 FREEING THE HAND If you are just beginning to learn how to draw. Try to keep all of your first drawings.

This practical journey will take you through the door into the vivid heart of drawing. adapting its form and occupation. and enfolding new media.Their elegant strength seems to summon a lifetime of drawing. which of course he cannot see. I was particularly attracted to their gentle articulation and understated determination. caught between action and repose. The chapters of this book present 90 different artists' ways of seeing. Picasso is poised smiling. As you draw. and many more reasons for drawing the world. Drawing is a living language that over millennia has grown and changed. when they are more experienced. Once there. An artist's personal voice is something that also evolves through lessons learned. we still only glimpse a corner of the magnitude of this subject and the infinity of what can be achieved. ELECTRIC BULL With a penlight. Look to your own experience and also learn from the work of others. which is held frozen in space by a camera lens. threedimensionally. Picasso has just finished his drawing. Its sensuous and flowing line seems to drift like smoke. but not confined to them. it will be your creation as you discover your own personal vision. To these I have added my own drawings to explain elementary materials and techniques and offer introductory approaches. However. seek ideas in the life around you. 150). Note that the drawing classes are allocated to subjects. Picasso Painting with Light at the Madoura Pottery 1949 . and became a great subject for me. A N ARTIST'S HANDS These are the hands of the artist Phyll Kiggell (see p. In the total wealth of these pages. the path is yours. comes from within. staring straight through his image of a bull. it is this voice that is the subtle part of their art and something that ultimately.18 INTRODUCTION THE THINKING EYE Techniques and materials are the grammar and vocabulary of drawing and can be studied and shared. Imagination needs nourishment. The real drawing book has yet to come. It rarely flourishes in isolation.

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a n d crayons. N o t e t h e w i d e l y differing c h o i c e o f p a p e r s w i t h w h i c h t h e s e are m a d e . F o r traveling. drawing book. ties on either side to keep your papers in place.h a n d s t o r e s make unique subjects f o r e x p e r i m e n t s a n d collage. and cost. which are also sold in an enormous range. Alternatively. study the structure of a good portfolio and make your own. a l e n g t h o f black elastic t i e d a r o u n d t h e m i d d l e will h o l d the contents together w h e n y o u f o l d in c o l l e c t e d items. Sand the edges to avoid splinters. and glued t o a s t r i p o f bias binding.b o u n d b o o k s t h a t fit in y o u r p o c k e t o r bag. cheap corrugated plastic ones fall apart in days. stitched. c h o o s e s m a l l e r h a r d . pastels. H O M E M A D E : I m a d e this b o o k f r o m drawing paper that I folded.B O U N D PADS: T h e s e are t h e least expensive a n d useful f o r o p e n i n g flat. Art students often make use of printed books picked up from secondhand stores into which they draw. 1. Purchase a h i g h . thick enough not to flex. t h e i r jackets w i l l a c t like d r a w i n g b o a r d s a n d p r o t e c t y o u r w o r k . 5. Calculate a range of useful dimensions and have several cut at once. You simply need two strong boards hinged together well. If you intend to carry your boards for a distance. F O U N D B O O K S : O l d p r i n t e d 3 . F o r e v e n i n g classes. be sure they fit comfortably under your arm. is perfect. Dissecting a d i s c a r d e d h a r d .q u a l i t y r i n g . and handles to lift the weight of your artworks. binding. c h o o s e larger f o r m a t s t o give y o u s c o p e f o r e x p e r i m e n t . 6. A high-quality one will last a DRAWING BOOKS Select d r a w i n g b o o k s t o suit y o u r aims. These are perfect f o r w o r k i n g in novels. texture. H o w e v e r r i n g bindings o f t e n break. Smooth plywood. it is better to have them made at a lumber yard or home improvement store. Drawing boards are invaluable. c o l o r If planning t o use pencils.b o u n d b o o k w i l l s o o n s h o w y o u h o w it is m a d e . color. Gleaming store purchases vary greatly in format.C O V E R E D H A R D B O U N D : Ideal f o r c a r r y i n g a r o u n d . R I N G . thickness. catalogs. C O L O R E D PAPERS: Large a r t supply stores o f t e n sell t h i c k b o o k s full o f c o l o r e d p a p e r s . 2. and collage their ideas. a n d r e f e r e n c e b o o k s f o u n d in s e c o n d . quality.20 INTRODUCTION Drawing Books and Papers T o BEGIN YOUR EXPLORATION o f d r a w i n g . Many artists invent ways o f binding their o w n books. Most contain thin p a p e r and are perfect f o r use w i t h disposable pens. BLACK P O C K E T B O O K S : Hand-sized w i t h ready-made elastic binder and a marker ribbon. 4. b e a w a r e t h a t p a p e r t e x t u r e effects a n d changes t h e i r marks. 2002 Tantalus o r The Future of Man 81/2 x61/4in (215 x 158 mm) ROSE MILLER .b o u n d p a d if y o u w i s h t o keep your drawings together long-term. They can be very expensive in art stores. C A N V A S . T h e hardb o a r d j a c k e t is s t r e t c h e d w i t h canvas beneath t h e p a p e r sleeve. y o u n e e d a lifetime. cut. t h i s is h o w I l e a r n e d . Homemade books can be assembled easily from found materials or selections of loose sheet papers. It is also useful to own a portfolio. There are dozens to choose from.

FABRIANO INGRES: Thin. size. 100% cotton and sold in sheets. resisting deterioration. It is available in white or cream. 21. blocks. and hot pressed papers. mold-. smooth. yellow. or rolls. used to imprint lines of these colors onto a surface. FABRIANO R O U G H 600GMS: Very heavy.TISSUE PAPER: Place sheets between drawing book pages to keep images from printing on each other and use for delicate collage. and translucent. For use with any media. 2 5 6 . 17. not. T W O RIVERS GREEN 410G MS: Very heavy tinted textured cold-pressed watercolor paper See Two Rivers Yellow. FABRIANO ACADEMIA: Standard medium-range multipurpose paper Use with any media. cold. Ph. mulberry. GLASSINE: Sold as protective wrapping. 22. white textured paper that can take abrasive use of any medium. and white. ITALIAN PARCHMENT: Imitation-animal-skin parchment that is translucent and slightly waxy. 14. C A N S O N : Inexpensive lightweight pastel paper in many colors. pastel paper in flecked pastel colors with a distinctive ribbed marking. AQUARELLE ARCHES 300GMS:The very top quality hot-pressed (smooth) watercolor paper. Cotton papers are high-quality and acid-free. They are hand-. 16. PAPERS . and cost. and cream sheets or rolls. also good for drawing with colored pencils. and rolls. absorbency. red. tough. SAUNDERS WATERFORD N O T 300GMS: Mid-quality textured watercolor paper. VELIN ARCHES 250GMS: Printmaking paper available in black white. C A R B O N PAPER: Available in dark and light blue.5 9 ) for explanations of rough.Papers differ in thickness (weight). It is also excellent for drawing with marker pens on layered sheets. JAPANESE PAPER: Strong. 20. 7. Use cheap paper for rough ideas and quality paper for work to last See the glossary ( p p . texture. Cheap wood-pulp papers are acidic. 11. and other plant fibers. T W O RIVERS Y E L L O W 410GMS: See Two Rivers Green 19. METALLIC PAPER: Thin paper in different metallic colors. 15. fine. blocks. color. 8. it is made from rice. bamboo. 18. turning brown and brittle. Use with a brush in clean water Water makes a dark mark like ink and becomes invisible again when dry. from pencil to paint 9. Use for brushwork drawings. 13. printed on one side only. 12. or machine made in sheets. 10. MAGIC PAPER: A reusable sheet for testing ideas without creating waste.

SPACE TO WORK Cramped grip. but you need to understand that the expression of a line or mark originates in the body and flows t h r o u g h the shoulder. Turning your drawing sideways or upside-own will also help reveal what is wrong. don't sit too close to the paper. arm. place it on the correct side: if right-handed. you can draw lines freely and achieve a significant arc of movement. With your hand in this position. if left-handed. This photograph illustrates how some people hold a pen to write. Regularly step back 6-9 ft (2-3 m) to check your progress. There are also parallels to dance. b u t it should n o t be forgotten that many people make remarkable a n d striking works drawing with their feet or holding their brush or pencil in their mouths. You cannot draw like this—your hand is locked and your fingers can barely move. should be able to look comfortably straight ahead at your picture plane. It will also reflect discomfort if you are in any way cramped. Accelerated perspective also occurs if you look down the surface steeply (see pp. Relaxed fingers: Hold the pencil away from its tip and relax your fingers. If using an upright easel. Use the side of your little fingernail as a support on the page. Placing your easel o n the w r o n g side folds y o u r b o d y against your drawing arm. How you hold your drawing materials is also important. but wherever possible. you Drawing classes can be cramped places. Examples are shown here. flowing space between your hand. your whole relaxed b o d y should be involved. You do not have to dance to draw. In this book we will look at parallels between drawing and music. If your hand twists to maneuver between the paper and your body. If your body posture is well balanced and you can move freely. or with your drawing board angled between your lap and a chair. a n d h a n d to the fingertips. make sure you have enough room to back away and view your work. a n d look to the left of it at your subject. and look to the right. place it on your left. From a distance you will spot errors you cannot see close up. This cramped grip tires your hand and makes small.22 INTRODUCTION Posture and Grip T o DRAW WELL. place it on your right. your drawing will reflect this. . Ideally. body. If seated on a b e n c h easel (a donkey). 116-17). your lines will distort. and subject. There should be an open. strangledlooking drawings.

find an unfamiliar. and body are not restricted. roughly marking out a large-scale work. brush pressed against an upright surface will cause a dribble of ink to run down your drawing. This can give a new lease on life to your mark-making. liquid will run down your hand. Brush calligraphy: This comfortable.232-33). not up to the paper Brushes can be used on upright paper but dip Anticipating effects: A fully loaded pens need a level surface.23 This loose "candle" grip is very useful when drawing with your arm extended. arm. upright way of holding the brush near its base is similar to the Japanese way used in Zen calligraphy (see pp. As long as your fingers. Remember you can also draw just by dipping your fingers in pigment—this is how many women draw in rural India. Soft media: Short materials such as pastels and charcoal can be accommodated in the palm. If you turn a brush or dip pen up into the air to draw above your hand. . ALL MEDIA There are no rules as to how you should hold your drawing media. Large scale: POSTURE AND GRIP U n f a m i l i a r i t y : T h e habitual movements of our handwriting style will sometimes infringe upon our drawing. It is most comfortable when reaching to draw above your head. GRAVITY Remember that gravity affects the flow of ink and paint. But be careful not to tense your fingers. To stop this. or change to the wrong hand. or it can spoil your work if not anticipated. hold your material as you find most comfortable. depending upon what it is and how large you are working. This can be used to great effect. alternative way of holding the pencil. Large amounts of ink can be applied without fear of uncontrolled running if the paper is flat.

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to be there at the m o m e n t of discovery. W e have drawn them in m a n u s c r i p t s to explain our genesis and to c o u n t their species into Noah's ark. and pioneer born c. This drawing is made in black lead (metal point) with watercolor Highlights of silver would have gleamed. In this chapter we discover the use of pens and ink through the delineation of insects.. insects.m o u n t e d skeletons of birds. In 19th-century Europe this became a "science.Animals H UMANS HAVE DRAWN ANIMALS from the beginning of our time. cartographer. out are now oxidized and so appear black W h e n less preoccupied with understanding ourselves. JOHN WHITE British artist. and we still see escapees from its pages carved and grinning as the gargoyles of churches. werewolves. they are perhaps our favorite pictorial preoccupation.drawe to lief one of each kinde of thing that is strange to us in England. White's commission was to ". sleeping dogs. 1540. W h e n lost to explain our own emotions. which are so unlike ours. Together they made maps and documented animals. and snakes have between them engendered harpies. After the subject of ourselves. Europeans on board had never seen such a thing. For the novice artist. bats. floating turtles. who described in words what White drew. On the Roanoke voyages of Sir Walter Raleigh. the Latin bestiary was one of the most popular picture books—an illustrated dictionary of one hundred parts. offer challenges and delights to draw. we turn and take the features of beasts. from which personality and predicted behavior were " d e d u c e d . We have drawn them on the walls of caves to evoke their kinship and power. fish. O v e r the centuries. which very likely leaped o n t o the deck of Sir Walter Raleigh's ship Tiger as it sailed north from the Caribbean to Virginia in 1585. 11 x91/4in (277 x 234 mm) . Here (left) we see J o h n White's exquisite record of a flying fish. we have employed artists on expeditions. " Animals perpetually feed our imaginations. and dragons.. each dedicated to the moralized tale of an animal or monster The bestiary profoundly influenced the art of its period. animals provide a perfect subject with which to begin. As children we delight in the humanized trials of Tom and Jerry and their c a r t o o n relations. their different speeds and patterns of action. birds. mermaids. 1590 J O H N WHITE capture form and movement from the m a n n e r i s m s of honking geese. dogs. Framed in the z o o or in domestic cohabitation." Paranoid newcomers c r a m m e d into swelling industrial cities used handbooks of physiognomy to identify and judge their neighbors. m u s e u m . and to bring h o m e drawn documentaries of their finds. Facial features were analyzed in terms of their animal likeness. or scampering through the initials and borders of pictures from that time. and this very drawing was to endure many copies and plagiarisms after its triumphant return to the English court of Queen Elizabeth I. In medieval England. plants. and silent. and people. and learn how to Flying Fish c." He worked with the scientist Thomas Harriot.

naturalist. but the drowned animal washed ashore. inspiring countless works of art and so touching people's imaginations that later. It was to become the animal's only accepted likeness for 250 years. He studied the image and drew his own interpretation. and mathematician. a gift to the Portuguese King. the home of ALBRECHT DURER German Renaissance painter. and wrote four books on proportion. Durer traveled widely to study at different European schools of art. years after its publication. when more accurate portrayals were made without armor and scales. Contemporary texts related accounts of the beast as the mortal enemy of the elephant and rare relative of the "more common" unicorn.26 ANIMALS Documentaries horse are superb affirmations of the power of drawing as a recorder and communicator of knowledge. printmaker. DURER'S RHINOCEROS AND STUBBS'S skeletal Durer. writer. draftsman. a drawing of it arrived in Nuremberg. Carefully stuffed. Converted into a print. Life-like This is Durer's original quill-and-ink drawing made after an anonymous Portuguese drawing. It is such a lifelike triumph of imagination and intelligence that for centuries zoologists never questioned its authority. Stubbs's Anatomy of the Horse achieved similar documentary status. Unsurpassed. Meanwhile. Original Ink Drawing of a Rhinoceros 1515 ALBRECHT DURER 103/4 x 161/2 in ( 2 7 4 x 4 2 0 mm) . Sailing to Rome. The first live rhinoceros to reach Europe came from India in May 1515. Durer's image changed eager hands until it was known across Europe. it continued its journey to Rome. they were rejected. the ship was lost. it is still consulted by veterinarians today. filled journals with ideas and observations. He in turn sent the mysterious creature to the Pope via Marseilles at the request of the King of France.

Stubbs's m o s t c e l e b r a t e d publication. naturalist. and therefore invented the lighting that Compare how Stubbs and Durer both invented lighting to portray the reality of their animals. composed from notes and observations. which has never diminished. Stubbs w a s o n e o f t h e first E u r o p e a n artists t o m a k e a n a c c u r a t e representation o f the rhinoceros. The entire project was developed over ten years. knowledge of parts. His painted p o r t r a i t o f t h e b e a s t is in t h e R o y a l C o l l e g e o f S u r g e o n s o f England. Table of the III of the Horse (rear Skeleton view) mm) 1756-58 1 4 x 7 in ( 3 5 4 x 1 8 0 GEORGE STUBBS . a n d anatomist. Dissections Stubbs took his knife and his pencil and physically climbed inside the horse. Anatomy of the Horse. dissecting and drawing until he understood the mechanisms of its power and grace. c o m p r i s e s 1 8 p l a t e s s h o w i n g d i s s e c t i o n s in l a y e r s f r o m b o n e t h r o u g h m u s c u l a t u r e t o skin. This is one of Stubbs' original finished pencil drawings.GEORGE STUBBS B r i t i s h e q u i n e a n d s o c i e t y p o r t r a i t painter. a n d s i d e . L o n d o n . Lighting Stubbs's breathtaking international work won immediate There acclaim. He composed makes each horse appear so real and each plate from his three-dimensional. Dissections were made over a total of 18 months. is no other work like it. He translated his own drawings into engravings for publication. in t h r e e v i e w s — r e a r f r o n t .

By contrast. Hugo's page is f l o o d e d w i t h the fearful presence of a remembered octopus. drama. A s if disturbed from its gritty b e d by our presence and curiosity. VICTOR HUGO Poet. and a love of accident. coal dust. playwright.28 ANIMALS Presence and Mood THESE DRAWINGS HAVE BEEN CHOSEN to s h o w t w o v e r y different ways of picturing a wild animal. He has w a t c h e d her p o u n c e . novelist.. drawing her again and again to pin d o w n the texture of her loose skin. Hugo's novels Les Miserables and Dame have become classics of film and stage. conjured b y the hand of a great author of French literary fiction. Gericault took a sharp p e n c i l to m a k e repeated direct o b s e r v a t i o n s f r o m life. the ominous beast unwinds from the dark of the sea and of our nightmares. The Hunchback of Notre Layers and shadows Throughout this drawing. He wrote to poet and art critic Charles-Pierre Baudelaire about his experiments. and Pieuvre 1866-69 91/2 x81/8in (242 x 207 mm) VICTOR H U G O .". sepia. and her distinctive temperament. and all sorts of bizarre concoctions which manage to convey above all in mind. snarl. more or less what I have in view. Mixed media Here. and turn. Hugo used graphite powder.. Surrounding sprays of graphite powder are stuck into washes of oil and ink to suggest glutinous depths. soot. ink and linseed oil on paper. saying ". Apparently drawn in its o w n ink. her sharp teeth. His copious drawings are characterized by mixed media. and leader of the French Romantic movement. Gericault's sheet a p p e a r s almost s c r a t c h e d b y the f e r o c i o u s play of his cat. linseed oil soaked into the paper has made shadows and repelled the ink to create translucent tentacles. it silently rises to the light. The octopus is formed in layers applied and distressed with a brush. her b o n y frame. charcoal.. H u g o mixed his media and drew from m e m o r y and imagination to create narrative atmosphere. I've ended up mixing in pencil..

144. s h o r t . parallel. Here. artists reused sheets and them full of studies. 124-25 and p. Paris. horses w e r e a favorite subject t o g e t h e r w i t h politics and history. of previous Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 1817-18 121/2 x 151/2 in ( 3 1 9 x 3 9 8 mm) T H E O D O R E GERICAULT . fiery. facing right. displayed in the Louvre.l i v e d French R o m a n t i c painter and lithographer Largely self-taught. Before paper became so cheap. H e is best k n o w n f o r his gigantic painting. The Raft of the Medusa.29 THEODORE GERICAULT C o n t r o v e r s i a l . At the center of the page is crammed drawings the outline of a horse. Tones that do not follow surface contour is very difficult to do well. standing sideways. undertraces unify and vitalize the composition. Undertraces Beneath these graphite studies we see traces Tones On the top row we see clearly how Gericault laid broad areas of tone using fast. since it can lead to a flattened form. Repeated study This drawing demonstrates of feeling confident repeat different the importance subject Remaining enough to isolate parts of a views. Beginners are advised to follow the natural contours of form as shown on pp. and keep trying again. of drawings Gericault erased. and it can be applied to any subject (see pp.118-119). focused upon seeing will lead to a greater understanding of the subject Much is learned from repeated study. diagonal strokes of his pencil.

we see semi-abstract. draftsman. made only a year apart. taking them to guide their hand in bringing form and essence together. Cheval et Oiseau 1936 173/8 x 211/4 in ( 4 4 0 x 5 4 0 m m ) PABLO PICASSO . and scrolled lines. with George Braque (see p90). The fact that they never stand still influences the movement in his line. Picasso cofounded Cubism. slow tortoise. Faune.30 ANIMALS Movement M O V E M E N T IS OFTEN THE CHARACTERISTIC b y w h i c h w e their lines and the power of their beasts. or proud. His powdery. Both Picasso and Klee have enclosed their subjects to compress and amplify the speed of PABLO PICASSO A prolific Spanish painter sculptor. the first abstract movement of the 20th century. flattened animals composed almost entirely of movement. gray. His hand must have shuddered and twitched just like the constant actions of this humorous meeting. The ink is used to make sharply defined solid. Klee's riders are constructed from all the gestures of greeting mules. These media complement and amplify each other with their brilliant contrast. dissolving faun kneels stranded. In these two drawings. Ink and gouache This drawing is made in black Chinese ink and gouache (opaque watercolor) applied with a brush. In Picasso's drawing. hooked. printmaker ceramicist graphic and stage designer who lived in France. Artists commonly focus on such actions. quivering horse. overwhelmed by a screeching bird. Gouache is brushed softly in translucent hazy layers of cool blue. flapping bird. noise is everywhere. and brown. the whinnying of a frantic horse. identify an animal: the fast cheetah. and waves breaking distantly below.

and t e a c h e r at t h e Bauhaus school. Scene der Komischen of Comical Reiter Riders) (Scene 1935 161/2x111/2in ( 4 1 9 x 2 9 1 mm) M o r t o n G . N e u m a n n Family Collection. creatures." They chatter around bodies in groups. Chicago PAUL KLEE . They remain in contact with the surface of the page and scribble back and forth as they maneuver from one area to another. W i t h his drawings Kleeb o u n d sophisticated theories to personal and often witty childlike imagery. sculptor. violinist. The entire drawing suggests the endless small movements of horses standing still. top all happily of each other in the Endless lines Look closely at how Klee's lines rarely leave the paper and how they are free from the constraint of finite shape. printmaker. He is a u t h o r o f The Thinking Eye (1923). Layers of marks In this pale Dentil drawing we see layers of' agitated marks that together present a kind of visual "itch. turning our eye and around inside the and postures of the paper- thin on pictorial space. draftsman.PAUL KLEE Swiss painter. well-worn copies o f w h i c h are found in m a n y art schools.

which in application gave strength and advantage to the English fighting the Spanish Armada. fins. Exquisite details in this drawing include the lips of the fish. He studied the anatomy of fish. the expression of its eye. Baker did not intend this. later called a galleon. and the carefully observed gills. and author o f Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (1586). t h e earliest geometrically defined elevations. The ship The upper decks of the ship appear curved toward us at both ends. and from them learned that if he designed his ship with a "cod's head MATTHEW BAKER Master shipwright. it would achieve greater speed. seemingly looking for our attention. It is simply how we read his perspective. and steerage. balance. and s e c t i o n s o f ships. adding washes of color with a fine brush. Knopf's drawing opposite is the personal enigmatic expression of a mind gripped by illness. B a k e r initiated t h e scientific p r a c t i c e o f naval a r c h i t e c t u r e and applied h y d r o d y n a m i c s . mathematician. In contrast to the practical clarity of Baker's thought. and to assess our next move. Below we see his revolutionary design for an Elizabethan warship. drawings of animals that are each held tightly in a surprising space: a giant fish wears a ship's hull. In just one drawing he has displayed more angles of his design than we would expect to see from a single viewpoint Fragments English 1586 101/2 x 153/8 in (270 x 390 mm) MATTHEW BAKER of Ancient Shipwrightry . This drawing illustrates Baker's theory. and scales. b a s e d o n his studies o f fish. The fish It is likely that Baker drew with a quill dipped in irongall ink.32 ANIMALS Icon and Design IN THESE T W O MANUSCRIPTS we discover diagrammatic and mackerel's tail" (full bow. and blackbirds fly in formation through a mosaic of text. slim stern). His birds stare. Baker lived in an era when ships were built without drawn plans. plans.

JOHANN KNOPF . and filled evenly with tone. numbered. appears to be stirred like water by the presence of the The Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks UNDATED 133/8 x 115/8 in (340 x 2 9 6 mm) and psychiatrist Hans Prinzhom collected this image. circle and the birds.K n o p f b e l i e v e d h e c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h e language o f birds. The main group is placed in a circle drawn with a compass. written last of all. The text. T h e G e r m a n a r t historian Outline and tone The blackbirds illuminating this frantic manuscript are drawn in pencil. w h i c h o f t e n f e a t u r e as s y m b o l i c creatures in his drawings.JOHANN KNOPF An " O u t s i d e r " a r t i s t w h o s u f f e r e d f r o m m e n t a l illness. firmly outlined.

" "Gum" refers to gum arabic extracted Dip pens are essential and inexpensive drawing tools. The Egyptians and Chinese are credited with the invention of carbon ink. In the Far East. 3. 2. The reservoir gives a constant flow of ink for very long unbroken lines and continuous bottle-free use. They fit into wooden holders. they are associated with rapid. high-quality Chinese and Japanese inks are subtler and more complex than those produced in Europe. the recipes for which have been handed down over centuries.246-47). a n d m e t a l p o i n t s . 5 0 0 years ago.34 ANIMALS Pen and Ink W I T H A HANDFUL OF FEATHERS. A German recipe of 1531 gives a simple description: "Take a wax candle. you can have great fun drawing the world around you. where reeds were gathered. producing a different line. s t i c k s . Quills were later cut from feathers. Intricate or dramatic lines. The paste from either recipe is pressed and dried into a bar for storage. while metal nibs began as rare gifts in gold and silver before being perfected by the British steel industry. and hold it under a clean basin until the soot hangs to it. Today. That is an ink. The best are goose or swan. simultaneously 4 . which range greatly in their handling and character of line. Dip pens began their history in the Nile River. PENS . Early artists recommended raven and crow for especially fine work. expressive drawing techniques such as the ones we explore in this chapter 1. spots. Masters choose brands of long. QUILLS: These are cut from the barrel of a flight or tail feather. then pour a little warm gum water into it and temper the two together. distinguished manufacture. from the acacia tree. Avoid needle-sharp mapping pens. F O U N T A I N PENS: These vary in quality and nib width. REED PENS: A broad nib can be cut from bamboo or another tubular grass. ink is traditionally applied with a brush (see pp. Only fill with suitable inks. and first used by the Egyptians. light it. and it is still in use today. Responsive to slight changes in pressure. The Chinese used animal or fish glue. METAL PENS: Inexpensive removable steel nibs are available in a range of widths. Each pen has a unique character. The bar is then rubbed into water on a slate block to produce ink. which scratch rather than draw. and spatters can be made with an exotic choice of inks. 4.

C A R B O N INK: Traditionally produced from oil or resin soot (Lamp Black). .36. suspended in a binder and stored as a solid block Blocks are imported today 7. is the ink of a cuttlefish or squid extracted post-mortem. I R O N . and can be mixed and diluted to create subtler colors and tones. Bistre is the more humane use of soot scraped from the fireplace and ground into wine. or charcoal. boiled. roastedwine sediment (Yeast Black). ACRYLIC / CALLIGRAPHY INKS: Available in black and a range of colors. Crushed. charred bone (Ivory Black).G A L L INK: Abnormal spherical growths caused by parasitic wasps can be collected from some oak trees in fall. Now we also have acrylic ranges in many colors. reduced.35 PEN AND INK Four types of ink were common before the 20th century. an often misused term. and most can be homemade. and sieved. and sepia. They are the easiest inks to use. bistre. dated. 8. Beechwood soot is best. Inks can be lightfast or non-lightfast. and are still in use today: carbon (Chinese and Indian). The complexities of traditional iron-gall ink are explained on p. Waterproof types contain shellac. 5. SEPIA A N D BISTRE INKS: Sepia. waterproof or non-waterproof. Old stock turns solid and bottlesChina. they produce a golden dye for drawing. Excellent for drawing they are bright and non-clogging. iron-gall. Non-waterproof Indian inks can be reworked with a wet brush after drying. It dries with a sheen and clogs uncleaned pens. I N D I A N INK: Carbon ink sold today in liquid form. INKS 9. from are not 6.

always be cautious when experimenting with recipes. Running fresh. I u s e d t h e s e qualities t o d r a w t h e w o r m s above. the blade and cut away from you. sieved. QUILL PENS Q u i l l s a r e highly r e s p o n s i v e t o c h a n g e s in p r e s s u r e .36 ANIMALS Drawing With Ink To MAKE A QUILL OR REED PEN. for example. drawn to glisten with a dryer nib. Quills are also called D u t c h pens. fleshy skins that surround ripe walnuts. forming the REED PENS R e e dpens dispense ink quickly. . and turned brown with time. m o r e e x t e n d e d line than reed and a m o r e organic line t h a n m e t a l . 2 4 4 is an e x q u i s i t e e x a m p l e . Collect skins from the ground beneath trees once they are blackened. T h e y give a finer. M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s d r a g o n o n p . V a n G o g h . and boiled to make a golden ink. then cut a final nib (feathers. Rembrandt. red-brown. Practice to gain a feel for how materials behave. For centuries. t h e y stick a n d j u d d e r f o r w a r d . It dried black. appears broken to show paper beneath. finding reed p e n s unwieldy. giving a s h o r t . and delicious to draw with. The darkest of this grasshopper wings) were made (around the head first. Some of Michelangelo's drawings are now a little eaten by their own ink. of a loaded nib. The lighter right Quill marks Quills carry more ink than strokes and for as reeds. galls were ground with iron sulfate to make an unstable solution. r e s e r v e d t h e i r use f o r large c h o i r b o o k s . reduced. Walnut ink is gloopy. Paler strokes were made where the mark has the legs and antennae the ink ran out. U n d e r heavy pressure.) You can make ink easily from the boiled. crushed. Reed marks The darker left wing of this beetle was drawn with the wet inky stroke wing. it was gray-purple. keep all your fingers behind basis of iron-gall ink. Oak galls. giving longer lines. since t h e D u t c h w e r e t h e first t o realize t h a t they could be hardened and i m p r o v e d w i t h heat t r e a t m e n t in ash o r sand. a n d M a t i s s e also e n j o y e d t h e m . are surprisingly tough. Although oak galls and walnut skins are harmless. Scribes o f t h e M i d d l e Ages. d r y mark. can also be collected from affected trees. a n d d e v e l o p e d t h e quill instead. It also oxidized and ate or burned paper.

sharp. DRAWING WITH INK Filled outlines Each segment of wing was outlined. Each layer of of the drying droplet dome the drawing was left to dry before adding more. The of pigment to fall to the edges effect of the shape. breaking. withstanding great pressure without sticking. . giving a graded.37 METAL PENS Metal pens give long. marks become fine and needle-sharp. When using dip pens. they splay to make thick o r double lines. Loaded with ink and pressed hard. particles then filled with a droplet of ink. W h e n the nib is pressed upside down. o r being ruined as fountain pens would be under the same pressure. it is important to feel for when the ink will run out and to know how much ink you pick up when dipping the nib. White markings were drawn last Tones Here we see subtle tones of diluted ink beneath the undiluted black rim of a beetle's wing. tonal Ink layers The wings of this beetle were drawn in layers using black and white ink on pale gray paper. clean strokes.

waddle. not on your drawing. Take no more than ten seconds to draw each one and make lots of drawings. It teaches confidence and focus through intensive repetition. Watch their heavy feathered bodies flap. Focus on the geese. Empathize. Try to hold the whole posture in your mind's eye. there is no obligation to prepare a quill. draw what the bird is doing. to absorb blots when drawing. and bellyflop off the waterside. I covered eleven sheets in sixty quick drawings—in less than an hour. and boldly plunge into your drawing. Cover a sheet. and a large drawing book or plenty of paper Use masking tape to secure pages against the wind. Quick drawing trains you to see what is most important about a subject and to mark only its most essential expression. Dip your pen in ink. Posture . and be brave. and there is no "wrong. Geese are nosy birds. Study them before drawing. make another one." If you don't like a stroke. Pack plenty of tissue around a bottle of calligraphy or acrylic ink. That said. touch the bottle's rim to drain the excess. and quickly draw around it using only three or four strokes. steel nibs are fine. It happens that goose feathers also provide artists with the best type of quills. so pick a spot where other people can keep them entertained. Take a cup and water for diluting a range of tones. You cannot break the nib. Illustrating this exercise on Oxford Port Meadow. test your limits. Experiment. Attempt with a loose hand to capture their posture and outline. Cover your drawing book pages in speedy responses to the geese and try to capture each bird in as few lines as possible. MATERIALS NEEDED Look for a bird expressing a simple posture. Focus on it. be bold and press firmly.38 ANIMALS Capturing Character GEESE ARE EXCELLENT SUBJECTS to draw when practicing the first use of pen and ink.

Use more lines than before to express these. draw the feeling of what you see.39 Action With growing confidence. . and diving. and don't worry about mechanical facts or accuracy. running. look among the birds for more complicated actions such as shaking off water. flapping. Again. CAPTURING CHARACTER Texture Gradually allow yourself more lines to describe the texture of each bird as well as its posture and action. Avoid detail unless really tempted by a close-up visit Fluctuate the pressure of your pen in response to how you know the bird would feel if you touched it.

These drawings are not an analysis of his anatomy or breed but the expression of his satisfied comfort in a deep sleep after a night out on the together with a glass of water for diluting tones on the nib. MAKING A PALE LINE To make a pale line. and a tissue for blotting drawn lines that appear too dark. a dip pen and ink of your choice (see pp.34-37). Make a test sheet to discover your control of diluting on the nib. first dip your pen in ink. your drawing book. Ras Curled Up Asleep "Capturing the true character of a cherished companion is best achieved with objective determination rather than sentimental shyness. engaged in his and everyone else's business. This will give a medium-gray line. and drain the excess by touching the nib against the rim of the bottle. and personality. Sleeping animals present the artist with ideal opportunities to study their texture." . The only time he remained still was when he was sleeping. Now it will make a pale line. a d o g w h o w a s a l w a y s town. Then dip the nib quickly into a glass of water and drain the excess again.40 ANIMALS Sleeping Dogs R A S WAS A GREAT CHARACTER. form. Dip the nib quickly again into water and again drain it. and even then he twitched and stretched in dreams. For this class you will need one oblivious dog.

SLEEPING DOGS 1 Fix your eyes at the center of the dog. 3 Gradually introduce darker tones. Then I immediately rebalanced the drawing with lines around his hind quarters. .It is essential when drawing any subject (even something abstract) to know how it feels andtoemulate this with your line. in bold layers. Here. ignoring all detail. c o n c e r n e d a b o u t detail. First lines are first thoughts. alter the pressure and moisture of your line in response to howyouknow your dog feels when you ruffle itscoat. Remain focused on the whole dog and. Then. Trust your intuition. D o not go back over lines you are pleased with—doing so dulls their lively freshness.41 DRAWING YOUR DOG Be bold in this exercise. 2 Reload your pen with ink. see how the animal's posture determines its whole shape. add more detail. Character is better captured drawing quickly with confidence than w o r k i n g slowly. Here I marked the features of Ras's head. tail. To add texture. second thoughts may be different Changing your mind is a positive aspect o f seeing and thinking. to emphasize how he is curled up. and the shadows in his coat. Layers o f thoughts can bring a drawing alive. quickly draw what you see. ears. this time to create a line a little darker in tone. W i t h pale lies. I added ink to Ras's nose.

as if caught in a camera freeze-frame. turtles often pause unexpectedly. Beyond the glass wall of the aquarium.Turtles to observe. they stretch and paddle. THE ELONGATION AND BUOYANCY of a group of turtles is fascinating . offering plenty of time for the artist to draw the pose. swinging their limbs and shells with a slow circular movement. A perfect subject for the beginner.

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Beginning with very pale tones. dry. weightlessness of the kiwi. I made repeated studies of the housemartin to discover its mechanism of flight. balance.Dry Birds THESE ARE THE ARTICULATED BONES o f a k i w i a n d a h o u s e - martin drawn in a museum using a steel pen. and sharp. I sought to capture the form. With speed. . India ink. I darkened lines as each drawing progressed. and water.

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shape.000 species of plants are depicted life-size drawn. In this chapter.Plants and Gardens W E SHARE THIS PLANET with the more ancient. It was published plain in 1611 and withhand-paintedplates in poured off ships returning from the New World and were eagerly collected and 1613. nurture. Later. Rich owners of private gardens commissioned large-format florilegiums commissioned the volume to document his private garden to immortalize their personal taste and power of acquisition. We collect. form. Medieval knowledge was not gained by the first-hand observation of life but by reading. From its history there is one overriding lesson to be learned: the importance of looking and seeing with our own eyes. —-the largest and most influential botanical book of the early Natural scientists accompanied explorers to document unknown finds. Botanical illustration is a precisely defined and scientific art. infinitely vivid. and diverse kingdom of plants. an There are close parallels between the acts of gardening and drawing. Patrons funded the breeding of decorative. where a number of uncredited artistsd r e wthem for Besler. and the drawn pages ofthesame name. we see very different cultural visions of plants and gardens and use pencils and plants to learn the pictorial values of space. as opposed to only herbal. and to ornament our lives. After Here Aconthus spinosus is combined with forget-me-nots and-a-half centuries of intensive observation. on which our lives depend. and hybridize them for our sustenance and pleasure. B A S I L I U SBESLER when botanists founded new work upon the direct study of plants. Fledgling years Botanist and apothecary who compiled the Hortus Eystettensis of scientific research bore manifold explosions of knowledge in a fever of discovery. robust. We draw them to celebrate their beauty and range. He sent boxes of plants to Nuremburgburned with the urgency and excitement of explaining every plant's form. to catalog our knowledge.Morethan 1. the microscope was refined to unfold yet another world. manipulations of light and shade. PriceBishopof Eichstatt specimens. we now have laid before us fourto show how well their colours complement each other infinite wealth of material to explore. and texture. 1613 187/8x153/4in(480 x 400 mm) BASILIUS BESLER . and focus. Chapters are arranged by out. Plants seventeenth century. Early European illustrators were trapped within dogma that was determined by ancient scholarship. Both embrace the anticipation of evolving shape. Plants are the principal inspiration of the decorative arts—from Roman Corinthian columns crowned with carved leaves of the acanthus. the punctuation of space with structure and mass. Botanic gardens were established and expanded. season. color. Classifications were set in367copperengravings. to the proliferation of floral designs with which we have dressed ourselves and furnished our homes for centuries. The revolution came in the 1530s. and beauty. and the Acanthus spinosus constant but exhilarating struggle to make a living image feel right. Conrad von Gemmingen.

Dissections Across the lower part of this drawing we can see dissections of seed pods and petals. petal tip over a lower leaf Protea nitida 201/4 x141/4in (513 x 362 mm) FRANZ BAUER 1796 . It is likely Bauer would have studied these under a microscope. T h e rest of u s are free to d r a w as w e w i s h . delicate. He has made the spatial and physical relationships in this drawing all the more real by placing a single. o p e n i n g a n d c l o s i n g i n the w a r m t h a n d light of the studio. and meticulous precision. detail. and seeds conventionally a p p e a r o n o n e plate. Botanical art c o n c e a l s the challenge of its m a k i n g . They are counted among the most accomplished 18th-century botanical artists. stems. Each plant must b e clearly distinguished from its closest relative. or that were diseased. flowers. subtle union of beauty. Stella Ross-Craig said of the need to d r a w from a dried herbarium plant "I could make it live again. M a c k i n t o s h e x p r e s s e s the f o l d e d petals of a broken rose b u d so delicately w e can sense the perfume. Light in this drawing is given by the paleness of the paper showing between washes of darker tones. s u c h as w e see here in Bauer's Protea nitida. B e h i n d detailed. and Franz Bauer and his brother Ferdinand were employed there to draw specimens. and wilted. fruit." Her slipper orchid s h o w s that botanical drawing must often resolve the challenge of its subject's p r o d u c i n g parts in different seasons — r o o t s . W i t h bright F R A N Z BAUER An Austrian artist who trained at the Schonbrunn Imperial Gardens in Vienna. Sir Joseph Banks. The King was then establishing the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. Here. Outline Bauer prepared a pencil outline before laying in fleshy succulent hues and tones of watercolor. leaves. insect-ravaged. naturalist explorer and advisor to King George III invited Bauer to London in 1 7 9 0 . measured drawings. o p t i m i s m .48 PLANTS AND GARDENS THE SCIENTIFIC VALUE OF A BOTANICAL DRAWING lies i n its Botanical Studies were specimens that often refused to stay still.

7 3 in 3 1 p a r t s . Curtis's Botanical Magazine.000 Kew to archive accessible t o d a y v i a t h e I n t e r n e t of o n British flora. Closer to fiction can come together perfectly. and speed depends upon the immediate perception of the essential characteristics of the plant.. p u b l i s h e d 1 9 4 8 ." This line drawing is one of 1.g a r d e in G e r m a n y a n d A u s t r i a .286 studies for her book Drawings of British Plants. and follow shadow. Line Drawing of Cypripedium calceolus L c. and perfect coordination of hand and eye.. Pencil lines cling to. K e w . it is small and discreet. and it shows how design. S h e also o f thousands o f contributed an drawings. H e r Drawings of British Plants. 1970 x 81/4 in ( 3 2 5 x 2 1 0 m m ) STELLA ROSS-CRAIG . is r e c o g n i z e d as tne m o s t c o m p l e t e a n d i m p o r t a n t work 3. BOTANICAL STUDIES Lines and shadows This lush. G u s t a v K l i m t In his r e t i r e m e n t Mackintosh m a d e n u m e r o u s inventive pencil a n d w a t e r c o l o r d r a w i n g s o f plants. a n d he inspired. Rose 1894 103/4 x 83/4 in ( 2 7 5 x 2 2 1 mm) CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH STELLA ROSS-CRAIG A j o i n e d t h e staff a t t h e R o y a l B o t a n i c G a r d e n s .49 C H A R L E S RENNIE MACKINTOSH Scottish a r c h i t e c t d e s i g n e r painter. A s m a n y of her drawings are kept G a r d e n s . as at trained botanical artist Ross-Craig Swift lines The drawing was planned in pencil and then overworked with a lithographic pen. sensual pencil drawing is later works. found among Mackintosh's than reality. Ross-Craig said of her work "Plants that wither rapidly present a very difficult problem to which there is only one answer—speed. and observation the nuance and contour of every in one image. imagination. a n d f o u n d e r o f t h e G l a s g o w S c h o o l o f A r t M a c k i n t o s h ' s flair h a d an e n o r m o u s i n f l u e n c e o n t h e a v a n t . L o n d o n in 1 9 2 9 . a m o n g o t h e r s .

roses took their form in a bead of perspiration on the brow of Mohammed as he passed through his heavenly journey. which he personally created near Kabul. paper is brimming with the beauty and celebration of nature. and attention to detail are all shared with medieval European manuscript drawings. Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity c. Envoys chatter outside the gate. fluctuations in scale. in the early 16th century. a notable portrait painter drew the faces. and Nanha. urgent attentive human activity. Babur directs his gardeners in the design and planting of this quartered chahar bagh.50 PLANTS AND GARDENS Jeweled Gardens the Middle East we find exquisite stylization of form and upright formality in pictorial space. anticipating their view. is remembered in the pages of his journal. The first Mughal Emperor Babur's Garden of Fidelity (Bagh-e Vaja). the sumptuous petals permeated with prayer and wisdom. painting. Upright shallow perspectives. . The white of the page shines through the brilliant color. They used a fine brush to lay pigment over a line drawing. Every fiber of AMONG DRAWINGS FROM BISHNDAS A N D N A N H A Little is known of these Mughal painters who were related as uncle and nephew and commissioned to illustrate the pages of Babur's journal. By Muslim tradition. Opposite is the Rose of Mohammed. Afghanistan. and calligraphy are brought together to hold the sacred names of prophets and the 99 beautiful names of God. 1590 85/8 x55/8in (219 x 1 4 4 mm) BISHNDAS AND NANHA Bright pigment These pages were illuminated by Mughal artists in the late 16th century. uniform focus. Bishndas was probably responsible for the overall design. in miniature. and miraculous growth. Below. Drawing.

Stylized motif A fine brush has been used throughout this drawing to apply inks and watercolors. so that overlapping petals and stems give an impression of fulfillment and abundance. G e r m a n y .AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH This is a detail o f a page from a n 1 8 t h . However. fragmenting its detail in a whisper of prayers. The physical anatomy of the rosebud has been studied and translated into a repeated stylized motif. Note how each bud is essentially the same shape. It is n o w k e p t in Border The elegant border of this drawing was mode with a pen and ruler It cleverly compresses and defines the composition. look closely and you will see words written in gold fluttering over the form of the flower. and how the shape has been repeated freehand. t h e Staatsbibliothek zu Arabic.c e n t u r y Turkish manuscnpt a book of religious e t h i c s w r i t t e n in the O r i e n t a l C o l l e c t i o n s of Berlin. The Rose of Mohammed 1708 9 1 / 2 x 61/2 in ( 2 4 0 x 1 6 5 mm) FROM THE TURKISH M A N U S C R I P T AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH . Sacred words The central rose is more solid than any other on the page.

52

PLANTS AND GARDENS

Fast Trees
IN CONTRAST TO THE QUIET, formal detail of other drawings in this chapter, these powerful fast trees enact the actions of plants. Each tree reaches out and holds its landscape with dynamism and pulse. In both drawings we find testament to the inexorable energy of growth. Rembrandt expresses a delicate quickness. Gentle lines draw a warm breeze through this remote wooded garden. Rustling in a loose foliage of soft marks, his pen evokes the weight of abundant activity on this late summer's day. Mondrian's arch of scratching branches is drawn with such force it will always be alive. We can still feel his hand storming across the paper. Set within a frame of smudged landscape, the tree possesses a musical agitation. This characteristic will increase in the artist's later abstract work. Here, we see a punctuated ordering of space. Sharp branches cut out negative shapes of winter sky.

R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter; etcher; and draftsman. Rembrandt's prolific output comprises oil paintings of historical and religious subjects together with group and self- portraits. His emotive etchings and pen and ink drawings (see also p. 174) are great resources for artists learning to understand the potential of these media.

Horizon

Pen and ink lines describing foliage also tell

us the directions of sunlight and wind. An arc crossing the bottom of the drawing from one side to the other supports the scene and separates us from the landscape beyond. Compare Rembrandt's arc to that of Mondrian's. and note the similar treatment of low horizons in both works emphasizing the height and dominance of trees.

Cottage Among Trees 1648-50 63/4 x121/8in ( I 7 I x 308 mm) R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN

53

FAST TREES

PIET

MONDRIAN

Atmosphere Here we see how shapes of negative space are as important as the physical subject they enclose (see pp.58-59). Mondrian has again lightly dragged his chalk on its side to evoke a wet depth of atmosphere. These passive gray marks contrast with the assertive tension of the tree.

Dutch Pure abstract painter preoccupied w i t h line and plane relationships. W i t h increasing austerity, Mondrian banished t h e subject from his drawings, in his later w o r k he also banished space, composing visual h a r m o n i e s using only straight lines a n d flat planes o f black, w h i t e , gray, o r p r i m a r y color.

Winter ground Short vertical marks along thebottomof this drawing reveal the length oftheblackchalk Mondrian used. Rubbed onitsside,itroughly blocks in the ground. Thecrudeeconomy of line is all we need tofeelthecold, wet, unwelcoming quality ofthiswinterearth.

Branches and trunk Lines shaping the branches of the tree are built up in layers. To make the trunk more dense, the artist has rubbed and smudged preliminary marks with his fingers before firmly overdrawing with new lines. Solid black lines are achieved by pressing the chalk hard. When used lightly, it shows the texture of the paper. Tree: Study for the Grey 1911 23 x 335/8 in ( 5 8 4 x 8 5 5 m m ) Tree

PIET MONDRIAN

54

PLANTS AND GARDENS

Graphite and Erasers
GRAPHITE, FROM THE G R E E K word

USING GRAPHITE
This drawing illustrates a range of achieved with graphite pencils of different grades.

graphein

Modern pencils are graded from 9H (hard and pale) to 9B (black and soft). Graphiteclay sticks are also available, together with a powder form. All possess a natural sheen and are erasable to a varying degree. Graphite drawings smudge easily, so fixative, a form of varnish, can be used to hold a drawn surface in place. It is applied as a fine mist from an aerosol can, or from a bottle using a diffuser. For the beginner, ordinary hairspray is an effective and cheaper alternative.

(to write), is a soft and brittle carbon. It was first mined in Cumbria, England, in 1 5 6 4 , and was initially used in small, pure pieces bound in lengths of string. Pencils as we know them—with their slender wood casing and "lead" of graphite—were invented in France in 1794 by Nicolas-Jaques Conte. He discovered that milled graphite mixed with clay and water, press-molded, and baked to a high temperature produces a harder and paler medium than graphite alone.

3B pencil A range of mark and textures can be achieved with a 3B pencil when you vary its pressure, speed, and direction, as this detail shows.

MATERIALS
Here is a selection of 14 items to illustrate a basic range of pencils, graphite sticks, sharpeners, erasers, and fixative.
1. AND 2. HB AND 3B PENCILS: It is unnecessary to possess every grade of pencil. HB, the central and most common grade, is perfect for making delicate lines. 3B gives a blacker tone. A great variety of effects can be achieved with just these two. 3. WATER-SOLUBLE PENCIL Effective for atmospheric drawing, but be aware of how watery tones can dull the impact of the line. 4. AND 5. MECHANICAL PENCIL Thick or fine leads are made in a range of grades. They are particularly useful because they do not require a sharpener 6. ROUND SOLID GRAPHITE PENCIL: Excellent for large-scale drawing, producing thick bold lines. A range of grades can be honed with a craft knife or sharpener 7. THICK GRAPHITE STICK: For large-scale drawing. Graded soft, medium, and hard. It crushes to produce graphite powder 8. SQUARE GRAPHITE STICK: Useful for making broad, sweeping marks in large-scale drawing. If worn and rounded, the stick can be snapped into pieces to regain the sharp, square end. 9. CRAFT KNIFE AND BLADES: Handles are sold in two sizes to fit large or small blades, and blades are sold in a range of shapes. Perfect for sharpening pencils to a long point, to cut lines in paper or to remove areas. 10. PENCIL SHARPENER: Makes a uniform point. Keep one in your pocket for drawing outside the studio, together with an envelope for shavings.

HB and 5B Layers of tone have been built up withHBand5Bpencils. Softer pencils require less pressure to make a mark, revealing the texture of the paper surface. It is important to keep the point of the pencil sharp with either a craft knife or a sharpener.

55

ERASING AND FIXING
Erasers can be used t o blend and s o f t e n lines, o r t o r e m o v e altogether. Fixative them prevents

GRAPHITE AND ERASERS

s m u d g i n g a n d s e c u r e s lines.

Using fixative You can use fixative while drawing to hold the definition of lines you wish to gently fade but not remove entirely, for which you would use an eraser.

11. P L A S T I C E R A S E R : Avoid cheap colored erasers that may stain drawings with grease and dye. White brands are available in soft and hard versions.

12.

P U T T Y RUBBER:

W a r m it in your hand before use. It is excellent for removing powdery materials, and for making crisp sweeps of light across a delicate pencil drawing

13. D I F F U S E R : Helleborus corsicus (Corsican hellebore) fixative, or to spray mists of ink.

56

PLANTS AND GARDENS

Cropping and Composition
M A N Y STUDENTS WILL START a d r a w i n g i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e

that its skin nearly touches the boundary. The meaning of the same drawing changes simply by its relationship to the space it occupies. The size of any subject, its placement on the page, the size of the page, and its overall proportion are all discrete and essential aspects of successful picture-making. Before you begin to draw, think carefully about where to place your subject. Are you are happy with your paper? If not, change it; add more, take some away, or turn it around. Do not just accept what you are given, adapt it to what you need.

paper. Focused on the shape and detail of their subject, they remain happily unaware that there is, or should be, any relationship between what they are drawing and the surface they are drawing it on. The paper is only paper, and the troublesome subject floats somewhere in the expanse of it. However, a single fig drawn in the middle of a large, empty square of paper gives quite a different impression from the same fig drawn on such an intimately small square

CHOOSING A VIEW

A Single Fig

"The size, shape, and orientation of the paper are so integral to the composition that they determine the impact and meaning of the drawing."

t h e n m o v e t h e c a r d t o e x p l o r e different views.57 THE VIEWFINDER T h e s e pencil drawings o f figs d e m o n s t r a t e different crops and compositions. bottom-left t o top-right. CROPPING AND COMPOSITION Off-center and diagonal Here I held my viewfinder so the fig appeared upper-left in the space. a device to help you decide what t o draw. spaces between things are as important as the things themselves.O u r focus is on the white cloth supporting the figs. Touching the edge When the subject o f a drawing touches one edge of the paper it attaches t o it visually. and lines describing shadows cast by the fruit . This drawing hasbeencropped to emphasize space between thefruit. Here the left fig is attached to. as also shown here. running corner t o corner. and therefore apparently suspended from. they establish a tension and unity with the paper. its illumination. Space as the subject Inallpictures. U s e it as a starting point. When subjects touch two or more edges. its stem and shadow framing a white center. A card with a small rectangle cut out o f it makes a useful viewfinder C l o s e o n e e y e t o look through the hole. the uppermost edge of the drawing. The angle of the fruit together with dark shadow (top left) and bright light(bottom right) suggest a diagonal division across the whole drawing.

but if the artist does.58 PLANTS AND GARDENS Negative Space UNCONSCIOUSLY WE ASSESS spatial relationships all the time to guide ourselves through the world. It helps to start at the center and map outward. which is shown in the three steps below. But how often do we look at the air between things. The drawing opposite is of the uppermost leaves of a potted fig tree. third. a foundation stone in picture-making. Follow these from left to right and see how I began with one complete shape between two parts of a leaf. then added a second shape. and a fresh page in your drawing book. shapes of air cut out and defined by the physicality of our environment? When we look into the branches of a tree. and engaging. tone. do we see myriad distinct and unique shapes of daylight or do we just see branches? Why as artists should we look at the air? Every space in a picture has a shape. In following this class. Viewers appreciating a finished image may not see shapes of space.The box opposite isolates an area. an eraser. their subject and composition will become more real. rather than what you see in front of you. remember to draw only space. It is an astonishingly simple device that many artists use and I strongly recommend. a sharp H B pencil. Remember that plants do move! Therefore it is best to complete your drawing in one sitting if possible. In your own version. Looking at negative space overrides the problem of drawing what you know. unified. fourth. Negative space is the simple key to getting positive shape right. dynamic. Unfamiliar shapes of negative space reveal the real shape of a positive subject. Draw a complete shape Map outward from the center Erase and adjust lines until correct . you will need a similar large-leaved plant. erasing and adjusting lines until itlooked right. this ensures a consistent view. and a role to play. and so on. WHERE TO START Arrange your plant and paper so you can look back and forth by barely moving your head. position. not leaves.

59

Here I drew only spaces, adding one to another until the leaves were revealed. Besides looking at negative space, there are two other useful things to do when a drawing feels wrong but you cannot see why: look at it in a mirror or turn it upside down. errors and suggest changes.

Spaces between leaves

Either view will

NEGATIVE SPACE

Fig Tree
WALKING IN THE ALPUJARRAS in A n d a l u c i a ,

Spain, I drew a bare fig tree clinging to the wall of an almond grove; a perfect subject for seeing negative space. I marked its essential frame of large branches first, frequently erasing lines and changing my mind until the balance felt right.

S a l v i a , RIBES, CLEMATIS, Allium, Passiflora, and Acanthus

Summer Flowers

Alchemilla,

drawn with an H pencil by observing the

negative spaces between the stems, petals, and leaves. I arranged the flowers on a sheet of paper in a cool r o o m and rapidly sketched a composition. Then I put them in water, taking the stems out one at a time to draw.

.

gathering less distinct information on the way. Compare changes of pace and focus here to the flatter finish of Summer Flowers (see pp. Excessive detail leaves no space for the eye to rest or imagination to wander. 62-63). they emulate our experience of seeing. interfolding points of detail with areas of loose suggestion. If an artist changes the pace of their line and focus of their attention. our eyes travel and adjust from one point of focus to another. . We never see everything at once.Acanthus Spinosus As we LOOK AROUND.

.

they also have a diagrammatic language for communicating plans to builders. Perhaps in the sheer planes of some of our greatest modern buildings it is finding its clearest expression. This harmony. and architects of ancient Greece who first pursued the formula for "divine proportion. Yet the pursuit of divine proportion and harmony remains. Since Picasso and Braque's revolution of Cubism in around 1907. and in the 19th century it was given the name the Golden Section. Besides sketches of first thoughts and polished drawings of the finished look for clients. to help them create new form. mass. designers.This is a pencil drawing. and sound. Augustin. Through the animation of the screen. Architects have been fine-tuning their specialized branch of drawing for centuries. balance. Baltard designed the Church of St. invaluable to understand and apply when you choose. to 20th-century film fantasy. Paris 1871-74 the child's view to the infinity of the vanishing point. VICTOR BALTARD French architect employed by the city of Paris. 74-75). add and subtract ideas. Linear perspective is a marvelous device.Architecture I N THE CONTEMPORARY PRACTICES of architecture. time. the device that has since governed most of our picture-making (sec pp. of the west facade of St Augustin. once there. It was also during the Renaissance that the architect Brunelleschi invented linear perspective." reflecting the eye's love of unity in difference. coupled with the importance of exercizing your imagination. philosophers. fine artists. and from West Facade of the Church of St Augustin. drawing plans around themselves within a program as opposed to on a flat sheet of paper. architects and designers can imaginatively "climb inside" three-dimensional space and. European conventions of pictorial perspective have lost their monopoly on seeing. It is the focus of practical class in this chapter. the formula for perfection spread through Europe. each VICTOR BALTARD . and writers have been breaking away from traditional forms of representation to seek new expressions of shape. which can be clearly seen in ancient Greek architecture. we find the most recent steps in the evolution of graphic language. made by the architect himself. Computer programs allow the virtual drawing of ideas. Among the drawings of this chapter we look from 17th-century ecclesiastical calm.The church is still in use today. At the core of their practice. they have the Golden Section. architects. composers. Since the first flowering of Modernism in the early 20th century. which was the first church in the capital to be built entirely of metal and then clad in stone. was preserved into the Renaissance where it became a foundation stone for thinking and creativity From 15thcentury Italy. filmmakers. and computer game imaging. film-set design. with gray and brown watercolor wash. from political commentary to musical abstraction. space. It was the mathematicians.

he also worked on St Paul's Cathedral. evoke presence. Pillars and floor At the base of the drawing a compass-drawn plan tilted downward through 90 degrees illustrates the arrangement of pillars around a central circular floor. We see the modeled detail of Corinthian columns. Below it. Gaudi's fluid architecture grew up through many kinds of drawing. and Castle Howard. Hawksmoor established his reputation with university and church architecture including All Souls College. 1711-12 NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR . NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR One of Britain's "three great" Baroque architects (along with Sir Christopher Wren and Sir John Vanbrugh). Together they explain how interior structure and space define exterior form and shape. Blenheim Palace. and an inscribed entablature. structure. and balance. Oxford. St Paul's Baptistry c. and the shapes of interior domes and apses. and six London churches. A student of Wren's. calculate function. marks the end of a long journey from the first few marks the architect made on a sheet of paper. embodying a massive investment of ideas. and later an assistant to Vanbrugh. and labor. Drawings underpin every great human-made structure like hidden linear ghosts at their core. and ultimately to show builders what to do. pilasters. Three aspects This subtle and sophisticated drawing made in pen and wash displays three distinct aspects of Hawksmoor's baptistry.68 ARCHITECTURE Master Builders EVERY NEW BUILDING. relative levels. describe a finished look to a client. Hawksmoor's drawing is both a plan and an evocation. Cut-away interior On the right a section cut through the center of the building reveals material thicknesses. Lines define structure while washes suggest light and atmosphere. The photograph opposite shows his studio hung with metal pendulums. Hampton Court Palace. Finished surface On the left the finished surface of the building is given depth and emphasis by immaculate vertical and horizontal brush strokes of shadow. Architects draw for many reasons: to visualize ideas. densely layered lines in mists of color weave the presence of the expected building into shape. materials. a three-dimensional drawing made with wires and weights. testing gravity to calculate the inverted shapes of domes.

69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt c. Wire and watercolor three-dimensional preferred to calculate Above is a drawing form in the made withlinkedwires and weights. This sculptural drawingenvisionsthe finished crypt glowingandethereal as if caught in thelightof red morning sun. To the right isawatercolordrawing thought to havebeenmade over a photograph ofthemodelabove. light. unique organic manipulation of high shapes. and his love of music. churches. Gaudi's cathedral in Barcelona. 1900 ANTONIO GAUDI ANTONIO GAUDI Visionary Catalan architect. and apartment homes are distinguished by their Their and Flowering curves of stone or concrete are often encrusted with Gaudi was inspired by medieval and oriental art. Guell Crypt of its at the Time Construction c. 1910 24x181/4( 6 1 0 x 4 7 5mm) A N T O N I O GAUDI . embellishment. The Art Nouveau movement. Gaudi air than on paper.

before cascading into a riot of line and sound below. upright pictorial space. while the composer Erik Satie has made an enclosure of quiet order and grace. and exhibitions of his drawings. We can imagine how a musician might interpret this drawing by looking at the abstract visual rhythms of masses composed of long straight poles. and in a sense hear. Across the top and center right of the image w e perceive an almost recognizable architectural plan. and arched dotted lines depict the radius of doors. a refillable pen that feeds a constant supply of ink through a fine tubular nib. Both men used rulers and pens to carefully and slowly construct their compositions. He also contributed to plans for the rebuilding of the World Trade Center site in New York. Floor plan This drawing has been made with a rapidograph. Libeskind's numerous commissions include concert halls and museums. and rooms. Contemporary musicians commonly collaborate with artists by interpreting images as sound. Visual rhythms In the lower half of this drawing architectural language has broken loose: escaped and transformed into an image of rebellious pleasure. and the spaces between his windows and turrets are the visual equivalent of pauses in h i s m u s i c c o m p o s i t i o n s for p i a n o (see also Bussotti. The architect and musician Daniel Libeskind has drawn a stampeding cacophany of airborne architectural detail. Libeskind studied music before transferring to architecture. installations. corridors. been a natural affinity between the visual rhythms of pictures and the audible rhythms of music. flat boards. He also produces urban and landscape designs. We can see. Satie draws quietly throughout. Arctic Flowers 1980 DANIEL LIBESKIND . p. Libeskind begins quietly in the upper space of his drawing. and dotted lines. Floor space appears divided by discernible walls. such a rapport in both of these drawings. There has always DANIEL LIBESKIND A Polish American architect of international acclaim.70 ARCHITECTURE The Order of Sound B O T H OF THESE VISIONARY DRAWINGS o c c u p y a s l e n d e r . theater sets.223). short curved poles.

the perimeter Composition Look how well this drawingfitsand resonates with the upright. and founded his o w n church. 1 8 9 3 77/8 x 51/2 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 4 0 mm) ERIK SATIE . dressed eccentrically. lived a l o n e . They definespaceand pictorial balance. H e p e r f o r m e d in cabarets.Edges are how are of orientation. Eastern influence The upright image Eastern is reminiscent and medieval of Middle pictorial space and subject of this European drawing. Compare the even and and the shape wall to the elegantly stylized order of the many windows of arrangement of details and the shape of the wall in Babur's Garden of Fidelity on p. minimalist s c o r e s scandalized a u d i e n c e s with o r c h e s t r a t i o n s f o r t h e foghorn and typewriter.ERIK SATIE F r e n c h pianist and c o m p o s e r for t h e piano. o f which he was the sole m e m b e r Parcel paper Satie has drawn this fantasy hotel using a ruler.H i s witty. andfouredges of the paper tothecompositionand impact animage. a conventional dip or fountain pen.56—57 we discussed important the shape. theater. and ink on a fragment folded brown paper—a of everyday happened material of scrap that to be at hand.50.narrowshape of its paper. a n d ballet. Satie collaborated w i t h hisfriends J e a n C o c t e a u a n d P i c a s s o . Hotel de la Suzonnieres c. effectively additional lines in a work. Onpp.

antlike mortals might have speculated upon the universe. the ominous globe exists only as a series of drawings. Boullee's monolithic apparition was drawn as a monument to Sir Isaac Newton.96. and taught at t h e A c a d e m i e d'Architecture. Boullee lived in Paris. we find other Utopian visions Paul Nobles epic drawing summons an imperfect and disturbing township where ruin and activity are equal and strange. and the reverse is true on the right.72 ARCHITECTURE T H E S E T H R E E HIGHLY DETAILED DRAWINGS Future Fictions invite us to soaring above normal life. arched vaults. Art director Erich Kettlehut's vertiginous design for the city of a slavelike populace had a future influence on movies such as Blade Runner. spheres. We glide over exquisitely drawn wastelands of damage and abandonment. made in 1926. painter. cylinders. Within it. experiencing a fascinating conflict between curiosity and desolation. Among preparations for Fritz Langs film Metropolis. enter the long-shadowed architecture of imaginary worlds. This is the work of an architectural theoretician. and dramatic lighting.The lower-left section of the building appears relatively pale against a darker sky. His celebrated imaginary buildings are characterized by pyramids. This shift makes the cenotaph appear three-dimensional. and draftsman. Light illusions This pen-and-wash drawing shows a subtle application of the principles of illumination demonstrated with an egg on p. ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE French architectural theorist. Newton's Cenotaph 1784 153/4 x 25 in ( 4 0 2 x 635 m m ) ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE .

1926 ERICH KETTLEHUT PAUL N O B L E British c o n t e m p o r a r y artist who creates m o n u m e n t a l . together with c i n e m a t o g r a p h e r Karl Freund. and are Graphite shapes Nobson Central isoneof a series of very large graphite drawings of the spoil and detritus of Nobson Newtown. and white ink on brown-gray paper.m a k e r In t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f Metropolis. Fritz Lang's Metropolis c.73 ERICH KETTLEHUT Influential film a r t director. draftsman. Kettlehut drew using a fine and relatively dry brush dipped in black.Building shapes are works can be read as text. used forced perspective camera t e c h n i q u e s t o amplify t h e m a g n i t u d e o f buildings in relation t o human characters. and m o d e l . and morality o f an invented place called His satires exhibited w o r l d w i d e . Working on toned paper such as this gives an artist greater scope for dramatic lighting effects than if they work on white paper. intensely detailed graphite drawings explaining and questioning t h e geography. mythology. Nobson Central 9 ft 1 0 in x 1 3 f t 2 in (3 x 4 m ) PAUL N O B L E 1998-99 . gray. FUTURE FICTIONS Brush and ink This is a dramatic drawing from a film that shaped the history of world cinema. architecture. Kettlehut and his c o . Nobson political visions of humanity Newtown.a r t director O t t o Hunte. Its sheerscaleengulfs the viewer and demands based time and patience to on letters and in some beread.

Invented by Italian artist and architect Brunelleschi in 1413 (late in the history of art). I contribute the child's perspective. LEONARDO DA VINCI One of the greatest artists. Here Leonardo provides a superb example of a single vanishing point. All forms of perspective are of equal value. Press the pin into Leonardo's vanishing point. linear perspective is distinct from more ancient systems practiced in the East. We use it to structure illusions of depth. inventors. Leonardo recorded constant streams of ideas. It can be applied to any subject. and thinkers ever to have lived. observations. 206-07). Piranesi an example of two. Pull the thread taut and rotate it slowly above the drawing. and those of Naive artists and children. In his notebooks. but is most easily seen and understood in pictures of buildings and interiors. found at the center of all converging lines. and age eight. It is also distinguished from aerial perspective (see pp. this perspective is often an imagined bird's-eye view in which details are mapped according to logic and importance rather than how they might appear in real life. Study of Perspective Adoration of the for the Magi 1481 61/2 x111/2in (165 x 290 mm) LEONARDO DA VINCI . and inventions— essential reading for inquiring minds. Sometimes shared with Naive artists. Note how architectural features conform to lines and how human figures diminish in size toward thevanishingpoint. See how the thread corresponds to each converging line.74 ARCHITECTURE Pathways of Sight LINEAR PERSPECTIVE (also called vanishing-point perspective) is a simple device for calculating the relative size of things in pictorial space. scientists. Single-point perspective Tie a thread to a pin.

SARAH SIMBLET I made this drawing (at age 8) in response to a local bookstore's request for children to draw their village. New Forest. Two-point perspective Sunlight through this colonnade a great example of two-point perspective. issues of scale when making room for important their story. Children are uninhibited and problems with one element being obscured by another rarely arise. a points in logical narrative of memories. at the top of each lateral column base. visionary and practical understanding of ancient Rome. Breamore Village. Lightly marked illuminates vanishing Two Courtyards c. and designer Piranesi's prolific architectural drawings. Note the rather large rabbits and pheasants the hills. It shows how children usually map large scenes in flat layers one above the other. England 1980 9 x 16 in (228 x 405 mm) S A R A H SIMBLET GIOVANNI BATTISTA PIRANESI Italian artist. This drawing Young children typically maps ignore on and understanding of the nearby village. architect. which I saw from home every day. . Scale Our farmhouse my experience was in the woods. 1740 5 1 / 2 x 83/8 in (141 x 212 mm) G I O V A N N I B A T T I S T A PIRANESI points are located on either side of the drawing. and theoretical writing strongly influenced neoclassicism. including all they recall about the subject. Mark these points with your pin and follow the converging lines of the drawing by rotating your thread.

draw a horizon line across your paper Mark a spot on the horizon line.98 for an important note on oscillation. Surround the vanishing point with a small rectangle.76 ARCHITECTURE Single-Point Perspective MASTERING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE i s e a s i e r t h a n y o u m a y First read through. Next. try composing your own space. You have completed your first box. Note that if you place large structures in the foreground and smaller ones closer to your vanishing point. Draw four dotted lines radiating out from the vanishing point. Leonardo began with a grid of many lines within which he invented his scene. Extend each dotted line to the edge of your drawing. In contrast. This is where we will begin. Draw each step over the preceding one to build up a single image. discovering the image as it progressed. On the previous page we looked at its essential mechanism through drawings by Leonardo and Piranesi. DRAWING BOXES 1 Using a ruler and a sharp HB pencil. corresponding to a single vanishing point. Piranesi planned his drawing with only the essential lines needed. you will amplify the illusion of distance. then follow the ten steps below. imagine. Erase the dotted construction lines. Each line should pass through one corner of the rectangle. Study these pages first before embarking on this lesson.) . 2 3 corners must each touch a dotted line. using a sharp HB pencil and ruler. This lesson shows you how to make a simple illusion of space defined by two boxes and three flat boards. This ensures that the second rectangle aligns with the shape and 4 Draw four short lines to connect the four corners of the two rectangles. this is your vanishing point. (See p.

asIhavedonehere. and erase the dotted lines. 7 As in step 3. 1 0 Erase all ofthedottedlinestoseeyourfinishedboxes Thickeningtheiredges. . Connect this to the vanishing point— again. The four comers must each touch a dotted line to be sureitaligns with the first. 6 As in step 2. Note that this does not surround the vanishing point In the future. when inventing your own compositions. larger rectangle. the closer it will appear to the viewer.willhelptomake them appear more solid. bottom. 9 Use dotted lines connecting the slanting linetothe vanishing point to locate the top. draw four dotted lines radiating from your vanishing point Pass these through each comer of the new rectangle. with two dotted lines. N e x t draw a slanting line to mark the height of the first flat board. The larger you make your second rectangle. draw a second. you can place rectangles anywhere youwishin relation to a vanishing point.77 SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE 5 Draw a new rectangle. The board's sides should be parallel. andfarside of this first board. Continue the dotted lines out toward the edge of your drawing. 8 Complete the second box with short lines as in step 4. Repeat this to add two more boards to the composition.

Then follow the three given steps. O n a fresh page in your d r a w i n g b o o k . draw a b o x as shown opposite. It highlights the importance of having faith in your imagination and trusting your ability to invent." . I always start with a script but I don't follow it all the way through to the end. If using a fibertip pen as I have done for this drawing. then let the space suggest its c o n t e n t s and purpose. you will find white adhesive stationery labels are useful for covering errors or changing the direction of your idea. As David Lynch. The m i s t a k e n belief that we s h o u l d k n o w exactly what o u r finished drawings will l o o k like before we m a k e t h e m prevents many people from ever starting. 7 4 ) . p . it will take you places you never dreamed of.78 ARCHITECTURE Creating an Imaginary Space T H I S CLASS USES SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE t o c r e a t e a s i m p l e to you and if you listen to it. it is interaction that makes the work richer. A lot more happens when you open yourself up to the work and let yourself act and react to it. artist and film director. let simple lines suggest a simple space. Every work talks In this class. w h e t h e r it is a film or a painting. once said: "I never end up with what I set out to do. APPLYING PERSPECTIVE An Imagined Scaffold "Enjoy your illusion as you make it and it will become more real. Linear perspective will support y o u by providing a frame in which to b u i l d your picture as it did for Leonardo." imaginary room.

This initial space will be transparent and open to change. and leaning surfaces.Addanarray of converging lines to provide a "scaffold" for vertical. and floors and ceilings also converge and rise o r lower toward the horizon. parallel planes such as walls converge toward the vanishing point. The space has become more solid and real. With some practice. 3 Remove the construction lines with an eraser and the room will becomeclearer. horizontal. CREATING AN IMAGINARY SPACE 1First. additional lines have established the different surfaces and how they relate to each other.79 DRAWING A SIMPLE ROOM Essentials t o remember: objects and people dimmish in size as they move farther away.There is great pleasure tobefoundin spending time inventing interiors. Here. 2 first before adding furniture.drawthehorizonlineand vanishingpoint. . you will beableto draw more complex objects orpeoplewithin them.

or low and we look u p . our eye level is very high and we look down. showing y o u h o w to draw curved surfaces and a tiled floor. T h e y d o n o t have to relate to each other. 76-79). they can be placed anywhere inspaceto describe the perspective of flyi c tilted objects. Only when y o u might employ t h r e e . T h i n k of standing at the top of a skyscraper and imagine h o w its parallel sides would appear to converge below you. Search for the application of these perspectives among works by other artists in this book and in galleries. Vanishing points are commonly found on horizon—our eye level. but they are not confined to this level. Copying what you see in the work of others will help you to understand what they have done.p o i n t perspective ( s h o w n opposite top). These elaborations could continue indefinitely across a sheet of paper in pursuit of complex and intricate ideas. The boxes drawn here are seen partly or entirely disassociated from a horizon line drawn across the bottom of the image. I have elaborated on the simple boxes above. a n d this is how we have drawn them so far (see pp. Further aspects of three-point perspective are also illustrated opposite. Elaborations . T h i s is d e m o n s t r a t e d immediately below. To draw such a view APPLICATION Copy these drawings to see and feel how they work before inventing your own versions. They could be drawn on any scale from miniature to monumental. do verticals appear inclined. From our normal eye level. Potentially. Free vanishing points On paper we can enjoy the freedom of fantastic structural invention without limitations of solid materials or gravity.80 ARCHITECTURE Further Aspects of Perspective W E ARE ACCUSTOMED TO SEEING our e n v i r o n m e n t from a relatively constant point of view. It is important to realize that you can have as many vanishing points as you wish. verticals appear p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the g r o u n d . o r to the h o r i z o n . located anywhere inside or outside the pictorial space. That is where we e to find them. Here.

Three-point checkered floor This d bottom floor. Iusedthese lines as a guide t o draw the curvature of boxes and panels flying through space. useful for representing steep views looking up or down tall structures. they mark the corners of the floor tiles.75. three vanishing points are evenly spaced along a horizon line. PERSPECTIVE Three-point curves Here. (Turn the book around to see a view looking up. tostraightlines can amplify drama in a picture.81 FURTHER ASPECTS OF Three-point towers This drawing depicts three-point perspective.Istarted with two parallel lines.I added horizontal lines t o define the tiles. An array of curved lines (drawn freehand) link the two lateral points.Finally. by adding a third point you can achieve a sense of incline.) By comparing this drawing t o Piranesi's example of two-point perspective on p. I marked the toplinewith three evenly spaced points and the line with seven. Note that altering the distance between the three dots above will tilt the level of the floor . I then drew three fanned groups of lines connecting each of the three points above to the seven points below. Where thelinescross. you will see how. Giving curvature. and therefore tension.

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making drawings to resolve questions and express personal responses to the nature and history of anatomy. These walnut-skin ink pen and brush drawings show imagined views of theaters that do not exist but were inspired by places I studied. .Theaters RESEARCHING FOR MY P H D . I visited many anatomical theaters and museums.

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The vanishing of the drawing is directly opposite as we look across The constancy of the bridge and surrounding frames the movement in the life that flows past.I N KDRAWING is one of a series I made while next to the Rialto Bridge in Venice. .A N D .Venetian Life sitting point buildings ThisP E N . the water.

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Previously. fictional realities caster of h o w t o make it andhowit will w o r k . It was in this era that the blueprint was born. and the behavior of light through making still-life paintings and together. It is shaped in sections w i t h Artists have for centuries studied and expressed composition. A chair. but humans LEONARDO DA VINCI Inthisbeautiful red chalk Our items all have a purpose—practical or ornamental—and all have a meaning. drawings were needed to instruct workers on the factory floor. or to explain and present a finished concept to a client. Artists and actors use the meanings of things to communicate a speculative mechanic. hooked bars that can be pulled and tied closely form. making a clear instruction t o his bronzemeaning. T h e Industrial Revolution c h a n g e d the traditional w a y s in w h i c h objects were designed. sculpted. color. History will be learned from the artifacts w e leave behind. or drawing w e see Leonardo daVinci'sprecision as can be given meaning. that test our logic with a sense of mystery. drawing c. design. too. In this chapter. from s p o o n s and pens to chairs and bicycles. C o m m o n items. or used on stage hood for a mold t o make theheado f a horse f oas a p r o p — i m b u e d with e n o u g h energy or character can "become" a man. we look at the importance are the only creatures on Earth w h o actually design and create great ranges of things. drawn. Birds follow instinct to make a nest. to record an observed detail. Today. each demanding more of the other as they increased in sophistication. for example. have often carried great weights of allegorical once. T h e precision of engineering d r a w i n g s e v o l v e d alongside machine tools. H e has described contour and function at drawings. even more advanced drawings are made on computers. 1493 117/8c81/4in (300 x 210 m m ) LEONARDO D A V I N Ccreating I . Technical drawing was speedily developed as a meticulous international code of m e a s u r e m e n t and explanation. H e has described a casting through metaphor.Objects and Instruments T HE THINGS WE INVENT describe our lives. passing them on to others through the act of making. are all made bearing the signature of our time and place. and the way in w h i c h the brain reacts Head and Neck Sections of Female Mold for the Sforza Horse to visual stimulus and optical illusions. Engineers and designers of our objects and instruments make drawings for many reasons: to test an idea that is yet to be made. and made. In past eras. Artists also make images of objects that can never exist. r an equestrian statue. W e also explore v o l u m e and form in the classes by spinning lines to make vessels. With the sudden onset of mass production. of light in the creation of pictorial illusions. and a wire violin. and some apes use simple tools. texture. these. illuminating snail shells. craftsmen had held plans in their memory. planned. for example—whether.

90 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS Still Life THESE DRAWINGS REVEAL t w o o p p o s i t e m o t i v a t i o n s i n we can. and shading. representing still life. Clashes The art historian Ernst Gombrich said of Cubism. not of place but of things. and glass objects of exquisite elegance for only the gentlest of touch and appreciation. texture. His work is characterized by calm and harmonious still-life compositions.Braque marshals all the forces of perspective. There is a fragile eloquence to these objects as they drift in slow motion past our gaze.. a colored canvas. "I believe [it] is the most radicalattempttostampout ambiguity and to enforce one readingofthepicture—that of a manmade construction. Even today GEORGES BRAQUE French painter who as a young man was influenced by the work of the Fauves and of Cezanne. wood-look wallpaper.73 x 1 m) GEORGES BRAQUE . and a journal jacket with words makes this drawing chatter about the moment. Braques image is a Cubist collage. perfect i n their newly made availability. still feel this projected moment. not to work in harmony. . Braques "justly" arranged combination of cut black card. charcoal. steaming with music and conversation." La Cuitare. but to clash in virtual deadlock.. Below. He takes us into the bustle of the Paris cafe. silverware. Mucha's drawing glistens with possession. One of the great joys of this movement in art is the musicality of its multipoint view. Opposite. Braque established Cubism in partnership with Picasso just before World War I. T h i s is a designers drawing made to enthuse surface and style in its delicate brushing of china. Statue D'Epouvante 1913 2 f t 5 in x 3 ft 5 in (0.

Study for Plate 59 from "Documents Decoratifs" 17x121/4(430 x 310 mm) ALPHONSE MUCHA 1902 . He designed the Austrian pavilion for the Paris World Fair in 1900. He is best known for posters featuring ethereal women in typical Art Nouveau style. and fish have been outlined using a sharp pencil. and New York. and also stamps and bank notes. Black watercolor washes and lines of white gouache have been added with a fine brush. Look at the two spoons at toprightand see how has suggested that they are so brilliantly shiny they reflect the background color. The three plates facing us were drawn with a compass. Art Nouveau curling motifs of birds.ALPHONSE MUCHA Czech graphic artist and painter who worked in Prague.flowers. Background color Between the delicate shadows and highlights of these glazed and surfaces ofthebackground metal color of the Mucha we see a large amount paper. Art Nouveau motifs This is a preliminary study for a subsequent print. For ten years Mucha designed theater posters exclusively for the actress Sarah Bernhardt.fruit. Pans. Chicago.

A disembodied eye at the top of the drawing indicates where to look. and the nature o f light and color. Transparent view Newton's reflecting telescope focused light in a parabolic mirror. Newton's drawing of his first reflecting telescope is ISAAC N E W T O N English scientist. via a second mirror. alchemist. each one skillfully rendered with the alarmingly matter-of-fact ease of explaining the commonplace. w h e r e he developed his three greatest theories: the law o f motion. The power of this drawing reflects the pure passion of discovery. shape the very cause and effect of investigatory thought. each reflecting a view of his own world—his window.92 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS by their very nature must gauge or chronicle precision. into the eyepiece. From the concept of capturing the infinite to the mapping of microscopic sight. It was then reflected up inside the tube and. It is a diagrammatic explanation of how to catch and magnify a star in a mirrored tube. and philosopher Newton was President of the Royal Society. Ink lines Several drawings appear among Newton's letters. He counted 1 4 . the law o f gravity. Newton used this instrument to calculate the speed required to escape earth's gravity. With dotted lines Newton has drawn his arrangement of elements inside the tube. drawing is there to pin the moment down. mathematician. Hooke's head of a drone fly seen through a microscope may represent the first time man and insect came face to face. a tree outside. astronomer. Their delicate construction is only as valuable as the measurements they make. In the graphic work of these two great men of science. 0 0 0 perfect hemispheres. Look how confidently he draws with ink the sphere of this wooden globe by which his telescope rotates. Newton's 1672 ISAAC Telescope NEWTON . and Fellow of the University o f C a m b r i d g e . and his hand moving across the light. we see drawing Instruments of Vision found among his letters. offering a transparent view.

a breathtaking book containing many of his drawings showing some of the first microscopic and telescopic magnifications of our environment Hooke's text and illustrations carry us to the moment of discovery. Hooke invented the camera diaphragm. and anchor escarpment. The Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 1665 ROBERT HOOKE 111/2 x 105/8 in (294 x 270 mm) . ROBERT H O O K E 93 Magnifications This acutely detailed engraved drawing is taken from Hooke's Micrographia (pub. universal joint a prototype respirator clock balance. and calculated the theory of combustion.An experimental scientist who drew many of his discoveries. 1665). It is an exhilarating read.

Chair Cut Out 2002 22'A x 23 in (565 x 585 mm) SARAH WOODFINE . its character. it has so m u c h familiar personality that it seems to talk to us. has published several catalogs of her work. and winner of the 2004 Jerwood Drawing Prize. Woodfine exhibits internationally. and has drawings in numerous public and private collections. and place in the world are truly seen. Its wobbly gait and squashed s y m m e t r y m u m b l e endless h o m e y tales about the life it has seen. W i t h h o m e y c o n t r a s t . OBJECTS AND SARAH WOODFINE British contemporary artist graduate of the Royal Academy Schools. craft. Bench Marks W e are left a little c o n f u s e d as to what we s h o u l d do. Drawn in more-or-less c o n v e n t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . and w h e r e the chair b e l o n g s . this chair p r e s e n t s us with a clever visual contradiction: deeply drawn shadows tell us it must be solid. Two-dimensional was made This highly finished drawing ruler using a sharp pencil and on smooth white drawing paper glistening dark drawings are artificial representations of known Woodfine's two-dimensional things balanced in the world. From component parts we understand how to put it together and make it stand sensible in space. Sarah Woodfines flat cut-out m o d e l plan is a witty and surprising drawing. Van Gogh's tipsy seat is a metaphor for an absent person. A renegade from the p a p e r dolls' h o u s e . each drawn with the s a m e unfaltering lines and tones that are between reality and impossibility. while the tabs make us see a flat paper cut-out.94 INSTRUMENTS W H E N WE DRAW A COMMON OBJECT like a chair.

what direct in their he saw and describing his felt.hehas marked the full emotion of the subject with a fierce grip of concentration. Among van Gogh's best-known canvases are Trees. Van Chair 1890 VINCENT VAN GOGH .95 VINCENTVAN GOGH Dutch painter who produced over 800 paintings and 850 drawings in only the last ten year's of his life. and Starry Cypress Night. His passionate brush and pencil strokes are honest and of also turmoil and growing alarm at the world around him. Cornfield and Sunflowers. not is made present in only strokes and is subdued to distract us from flat a meaningful chair. The floor few as engagement with the chair. inner recording while Fierce strokes This is a portrait of the mechanical drew immediately and almost harshly. drawn opposite way of plan.

the adjustment of our eyes (in growing accustomed to a level of light). Gray squares To further examine changes in tone. T h e slightest recognition is instantly matched to our wealth of experience a n d expectation. reads only m o v e m e n t a n d can often m a k e mistakes. form.102-03 deep shadows cast across shells make their form easier to perceive. W e learn to read light and shadow in our environment as indicators of solidity and depth of space. hence our recognition of a cartoon face c o m p o s e d of three lines. Here w e look briefly at our perception of light a n d darkness a n d our interpretation of diagrammatic illusions. Card experiment cho can gra on . a n d are q u i c k to p r o p o s e ideas. The egg's darkest region is seen against a lighter background. less developed than the center. S o m e o n e passes our o p e n door. one blackandone white. w e turn our head but n o one w a s there. Are you happy LIGHT AND SHADOW with what you see? Does the light enhance the subject? Could you alter and improve it? On pp. The perceived tone of a black white. The egg's lightest region is seen against a darker background. and the proximity of contrasting tones. cards the same size. U p s i d e . The two tones meet without a division or outline between. transmitted to the brain as chains of electrical impulses. a n d m o v e m e n t .96 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Light and Illusions SEEING IS MIRACULOUS. We only need small prompts. Through these we can enjoy witnessing our o w n d e c e p t i o n a n d b a f f l e m e n t a n d u n d e r s t a n d certain factors that are very useful in picture-making.At one point you will catchenoughlight lighter than the white one. atmosphere. or colored surface is never constant. perhaps. try this experiment. your eye around the circumference of the egg. Tape them to the glass. To interpret visual s t i m u l u s . a n d we can be fooled. gray. Before starting a tonal drawing of any subject. but do not appear so. a n d our ability to see forms in c l o u d s or fire.d o w n patterns of light on our retinas. The rim of light on the egg is reflected light received from surrounding paper. Adjust the angleofthe protruding part and again stepback. Three factors change it: the amount of light it receives. are translated into a world of space. The small squares are identical in tone. We will even see things that d o not exist because minimal information suggests they are likely to be there. Below. On acloudyday. Run The bottom-left quarter of the egg lightens slightly toward its "edge" when seen against the darker shadow cast on the paper. Here. We perceive one to be lighter than theother. o u r b r a i n s search for n a m e a b l e things. Artists emulate and manipulate this effect in their pictures. Below the bottom "edge" of the egg there is a rim of light reflected onto the paper by the underside of the egg. a lit photograph of an egg shows essential points to observe in tonal drawing. two identical mid-gray squares are seen against black and paler gray squares. The outermost edge of our vision. think about its illumination.This effect is caused by the contrast of their surroundings. See how its "edge" smoothly changes from light against dark to dark against light. From across the room both will appear black card and fold and retapeitwith half sticking out.

w h i l e t h i n n e r lines recede. t h i c k e r l i n e s a p p e a r t o stand forward. T h e jug d r a w n w i t h a t h i n line appears f a r t h e r away t h a n t h e j u g d r a w n w i t h a t h i c k e r line. . T w o relatively t h i c k parallel lines are m a d e t o b e n d away f r o m each o t h e r as t h e y pass in f r o n t o f an a r r a y o f c o n v e r g i n g f i n e lines ( B ) . A n u p r i g h t line stands in t h e c e n t e r o f a h o r i z o n t a l line.p o i n t p e r s p e c t i v e d r a w i n g s w i t h a large n u m b e r o f c o n v e r g i n g rays b e h i n d y o u r horizontals. B o t h are identical in length. l i g h t e r surfaces s t a n d f o r w a r d w h i l e d a r k e r s u r f a c e s recede. by d i r e c t e d a r r o w s ( A ) . LIGHT AND ILLUSIONS Tonal width T h e s e black a n d w h i t e bands are o f equal thickness o n e i t h e r side o f t h e i r central division. T w o horizontal lines o f equal length are m a d e t o l o o k longer and shorter. Seven parallel lines are m a d e t o tilt t o w a r d and away f r o m each o t h e r by n u m e r o u s s h o r t strokes crossing t h e m diagonally ( A ) . b u t t h e u p r i g h t o n e l o o k s t a l l e r (B). respectively. O f t e ndoingso w i l l s p o i l y o u r w o r k . Y o u m a y e x p e r i e n c e s o m e t h i n g similar h a p p e n i n g w h e n y o u m a k e s i n g l e . In a t o n a l d r a w i n g . start o u t w i t h one. O b s e r v e h o w each white b a n d appears t h i c k e r t h a n its black c o u n t e r p a r t . T h i s fundamental o p p o s i t e is a reason w h y l i n e a r a n d t o n a l d r a w i n g does not a l w a y s c o m b i n e w e l l in t h e s a m e i m a g e . S h o r t h o r i z o n t a l lines o f identical length are m a d e t o l o o k d i f f e r e n t by c o n v e r g i n g lines beside t h e m ( C ) . Apparent lengths T h e s e optical illusions s h o w h o w lines o f identical length can b e m a d e t o l o o k quite different f r o m each o t h e r by t h e addition o r association o f o t h e r lines. In this t o n a l image w e read w h i t e as f a t t e r t h a n black. If y o u w i s h t o m a k e a t o n a l drawing. T h e r e is n o obligation t o a d d b l o c k s o f t o n e t o a l i n e a r d r a w i n g . Bending straight lines Linear distance These t w o jugs have b e e n d r a w n w i t h lines o f d i f f e r i n g thicknesses.97 LINE VERSUS TONE In l i n e a r d r a w i n g s . In this linear drawing w e read t h i c k as closer a n d t h i n as f a r t h e r away.

Today we are bombarded with images but rarely have difficulty reading them. C l o s i n g t h e surface o f t h e f o r m seals o u r d e c i s i o n as t o w h i c h w a y it faces.116-17) to make painted figures look correct when viewed from below. Artists make pictorial illusions when they paint or draw. SEEING TWO OPTIONS Sometimes. including some shown here. Artists can communicate much in few lines and the viewer will do the rest of the work. Yet many illusions. It is possible t o r e a d i t t w o ways: as a t r u n c a t e d r e c t a n g u l a r p y r a m i d seen d i r e c t l y f r o m a b o v e . Some artists use known optical illusions to make art." . it can oscillate b e t w e e n facing t o w a r d o r a w a y f r o m us. others adjust works to avoid their effects. and so calculated precisely how much to fatten columns to make them appear straight. are still not agreeably understood. It is a curious fact that w e can never see both options at once. perfected the acceleration of perspective (see pp. and we learn to read the styles of diverse cultures and periods.98 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Further Illusions PSYCHOLOGISTS AND PHYSIOLOGISTS have studied optical illusions for decades in pursuit of what they tell us about the brain. it oscillates between t w o possibilities.76. Op(tical) artists. Michelangelo. made paintings that depended upon the physical sensation of our brain's reaction to known optical illusions. among others. their picture could be ambiguous. o r as a s l o p i n g . w e will find that in terms of the direction it faces. A few suggestive marks will tip the decision one way o r the o t h e r Closing the surface W h e n a t r a n s p a r e n t elliptical o b j e c t has b e e n d r a w n . w h e n drawing the outline o f a three-dimensional form.s i d e d r e c t a n g u l a r t r a y ( b o t h are illustrated far r i g h t ) "The brain is so eager to name a fragment we see that we need only a suggestion to grasp the whole. w e can only look f r o m one t o the o t h e r If an artist is not aware this can happen in their image. Two ways of seeing T h i s is t h e b o x c r e a t e d in t h e f o u r t h step o n p. as s h o w n o n t h e right. Ancient Greek architects knew parallel upright lines appeared to bend toward each other in the middle. such as t h e dish seen h e r e o n t h e left. such as Bridget Riley. In the 1960's.

FURTHER ILLUSIONS Seeing things that are n o t t h e r e H e r e o n t h e left. Yet still w e try resolve t h e m . O n l y o n closer inspection we realize that t h e s e o b j e c t s are fooling us. F a m i l i a r i t y in r a n d o m s h a p e s T h e Rorschach test was established by t h e 1 9 t h .c e n t u r y Swiss psychologist H e r m a n n Rorschach. N e i t h e r triangle exists. C Escher u s e d this phenomenon t o great effect in his many p o p u l a r d r a w i n g s o f puzzles and impossible buildings. C o u n t t h e n u m b e r o f d a r k spots y o u can see. Minimal-line j o k e s such as this rely u p o n t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y v i e w e r ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e shapes.c e n t u r y Italian painters. T h e patient's answers are t h e n diagnosed as a psychological profile. T h e t e s t e x p l o r e s o u r n o r m a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o find things w e can n a m e a m o n g r a n d o m shapes. S o m e artists use ink blots t o p r o m p t t h e beginning o f an image. — a n d so t h e artist can create m u c h o u t o f an impression w i t h o u t overdescribing. . This effect can o c c u r naturally w h e n looking at a b r i g h t l y lit w h i t e g r i d such as a w i n d o w f r a m e against t h e night sky. B e l o w is a b r i g h t n e s s c o n t r a s t illusion. smoke.99 Impossible objects T h e s e clever configurations o f outlines and t o n a l surfaces convince us at a glance that we are seeing a solid three-dimensional triangle and a three-pronged fork. w e see t w o overlapping triangles: o n e outlined in black b e n e a t h a n o t h e r in solid w h i t e . M u c h can b e e x p r e s s e d in o n l y a f e w marks. clouds. P e r c e i v i n g a w h o l e i m a g e f r o m m i n i m a l lines T h i s is a w i d e l y r e p r o d u c e d visual j o k e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e C a r r a c c i b r o t h e r s . 1 6 t h . C o u p l e d w i t h t h e Rorschach b l o t above. this is a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f t h e viewer's b r a i n b e i n g willing t o d o a large a m o u n t o f t h e w o r k in d e c i p h e r i n g a p i c t u r e . T h e a r t i s t M. T h e s e e x a m p l e s illustrate h o w little is n e e d e d t o c o n v e y an image. This simple five-line d r a w i n g is o f a C a p u c h i n priest asleep in his pulpit. b u t w e believe w e see t h e m because e n o u g h f r a g m e n t a r y i n f o r m a t i o n is given f o r o u r brains t o c o n c l u d e t h e y are v e r y likely t h e r e . e t c . T h e y a r e o f t e n c r e d i t e d w i t h t h e invention o f t h e c o m i c c a r t o o n . His highly d i s p u t e d and i m p r e c i s e science involves s h o w i n g u n p r e p a r e d p a t i e n t s t e n p a r t i c u l a r ink b l o t s a n d asking t h e m t o i n t e r p r e t w h a t t h e y see. W e should r e m e m b e r t h a t o u r brains will always search f o r a p i c t u r e — i n ink blots.

as if the table surface slopes upward beneath the vessel. though. a n d in o n e bold stroke. COMMON ERRORS W h e n drawing cylindrical objects in perspective. springlike forms like those I have drawn below. Ellipse are best d r a w n quickly. spin your hand in a relaxed circle. even if y o u r hand w o b b l e s a little at first. Don't worry if it is uneven— just try again.90) takes a different as essentially circular. smoothly. How to Draw Ellipses of seeing. such as bowls and cups. third common error is to draw upper and lover ellipses with different-sized apertures. giving the cylinder four corners. while its upper rim remains level. not the paper!) As the pen touches down. keep it spinning. I have drawn these for you here. since this is h o w w e experience them in e v e r y d a y use. w h e n seen at an angle. Cover a sheet of paper with spinning. for example plates or bowls on a table. WHERE TO START In the air above a spacious sheet of scrap paper. and these narrow or widen depending on the height of our view. circles change into ellipses. w e use ellipses to give a sense of perspective. suggesting that the vessel is lopsided. (see p. . Cubism.100 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS W E VISUALIZE CYLINDRICAL VESSELS. However. The first common error is to draw two pointed ellipses. Be aware. for example. you will achieve steadiness with practice. there are three common errors people stumble upon. like a disposable plastic cup that has been crushed in your hand. Watch the tip of your pen and see it draw an ellipse in the air Keep this movement going while gently lowering the pen onto the paper like the needle of a record player closing on the disc (only it is your lowering hand that spins. describing many sides of an object simultaneously. To make a cylindrical object appear real in our pictorial space. The second common error is to tilt the upper and lower ellipses at different angles. hesitant one that has edged its w a y nervously around the vessel's rim. I have exaggerated this error here. that this is o n l y o n e w a y view. A wobbling but confident ellipse will still be more convincing than a slow.

you can make it solid by building up highlights and tones on visible surfaces. enlarging and diminishing the ellipse to determine the overall shape and volume. working from top to bottom. thereby hiding lines that show the other sides. you can start to control your spinning ellipse to make a vessel. Create a Solid Surface Once you have drawn the shape and volume of each form. Altering the pressure—and therefore tone—of the line as it spins gives the impression of light shining on one side. Draw quickly. HOW TO DRAW E L L I P S E S A Single Vessel One Inside Another Grouped Together Finding Shape and Volume Draw an imagined vessel in one continuous spinning line.101 DRAWING VESSELS Once you have mastered drawing free-hand springs. . Seeing Through Allow lines to travel around each vessel as if it were transparent.

102 INSTRUMENTS Tonality W H E N MAKING A TONAL DRAWING. it will inhibit your perception of tone. and solid objects are all of equal importance. or you can begin with a mid-gray ground and model light out of darkness (see opposite bottom).22-23). Relaxing your eyes out of focus as you draw will help to dissolve the distraction of detail. making complicated or subtle surfaces easier to see and understand. leaving detail until last. Draw the largest and most distinct areas of light and darkness first. In the finished drawing there should be few. You can begin with outlines and build slowly from light to dark (see opposite top). LIGHT TO DARK DARK TO LIGHT . beams of light. two opposite methods of achieving the same result. and strong contrasts are easier to draw. Illuminate them with a gooseneck lamp placed very close and directed away from your eyes. if light shines in them. It is important to place them on the correct side so as to draw comfortably (see pp. t h e r e a r e p r i n c i p a l l y Dramatic lighting emphasizes texture and contour. Remember that shadows. simply shapes and subtleties of light and dark meeting each other with no divisions in between. OBJECTS AND Start by arranging a choice of shells on a sheet of paper to your left if you are right-handed (or vice versa). It maximizes the range of tones between black and white. if any. Gradually hone your drawing. outlines.

Use your pencil to develop these in relation to the areas of light. Draw in the details last of all. Let your eyes go out of focus while looking gently layer marks to create an even tone at your subject and paper: Draw the most ofmid-graywithin a rectangle. DARK TO LIGHT (TONE TO TONE) 1 Using the flattened tip of an HB pencil. until you are happy frame. Relaxing your eyes out of focus will help to eliminate distracting details. look at the main areas of darkness. boldly 2 3 Keeping your eyes out of focus. draw a rectangle. and edges definingthespacialrelationships between are important aspects of your composition them. Honetheshapesand angles of the shells. Avoid a rough significant areas of light in your gray rectangle with texture and do not press the graphite hardwhite plastic eraser Ignore all detail and draw a into thepaperor you will not be able to erase it. with broad sweeps of the eraser.103 LIGHT TO DARK (LINE TO TONE) TONALITY 1 Using a sharp HB pencil. Fll in broad areas first and leave all detail until last. shape. Treat positive form and negative space (see pp. Continue working between light and dark to refine the drawing. Remember that its size. pale lines with equal importance. Erase and make changes to roughly place the shells inside your with your composition. Use quick.56-57). . loose. 2 3 Gentlydissolveoutlines so that areas oflightanddark meet without a line between them.

On p. The first is that figurative and abstract drawings can be made in space. and on p. They can also be made in space. The second is that after achieving this simple example. smooth. Place the instrument on a plain surface and illuminate it with a desk lamp to add the delicate dimension of shadows. and on p. 19 Picasso draws with a pen-light for the camera. 176 the British artists Noble and Webster draw with domestic refuse in a beam of light. and physical relationships between them. our image is stronger if we understand and can visualize what is happening on the other side too.220 Mamoru Abe draws with forged steel rods. you can create your own more ambitious works. continuous lines. try drawing it with a pen on paper Use bold.104 OBJECTS AND I N S T R U M E N T S Drawing with Wire DRAWINGS DO NOT HAVE to be two-dimensional. PEN LINES Once you have created your three-dimensional violin (opposite). There are essentially three lessons to be learned. Third. When drawing anything viewed from one side on paper. On p. This class uses thin-gauge wire to create a threedimensional violin. Seeing through a wire drawing of a known object such as a violin gives us a visual and tactile understanding of all its sides and shapes at once. three-dimensional drawings teach us about the totality of forms in space.69 we see how the architect Antonio Gaudi drew proposed domes using suspended wires and weights. .

4 . I used garden wire and cut it carefully with pruners. 2 3 If needed. I started with the scroll at the top and fixed the four component wires with two drawings of tuning pegs.105 SETTING UP DRAWING WITH WIRE Follow these steps to draw a three-dimensional violin Choose a gauge of wire sturdy enough to hold the shape ofyourfinished drawing. Cut a length. thin wire will make a smaller drawing. brace the two ends of the violin with a length of wire along the back. but thin enough to be easily manipulated inyourfingers Here. 1 Decide how big to draw your violin relative to the gauge of your wire. and pinch and bend it to shape the base of the instrument Repeat this process to make the identical upper side of the instrument. begin to shape the curvature of the fingerboard. Join the two sides together with four short pieces of wire. Here. Once you have completed the body. These will hold the sides apart and help to keep the form in shape. Then begin to define its uppermost surface with Scurves and the bridge. and thick wire a larger one.

I had the privilege of drawing their inventions. some of which are shown here. . England. they invented new anthropological finds—objects that reflected the distant past and their immediate future.Artifacts and Fictions IN 1993 I WORKED with a group of schoolchildren who were responding to the astonishing objects in the collection of the Pitt Rivers Museum. Oxford. Using found materials.

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The body remains at the core of over the initially white lines. Michelangelo attended dissections to made this image by light sectioning: fine beams of light perfect his understanding of surface form. giving physical foundation undulating land. Leonardo drew a man within a circle and square. clothed or nude. During this time. W e are the only creatures on Earth that can make our own image. This F finished image was produced as r a n c i s c o . and surgically rebuilt. in our privileged and comfortable society. herimpressive presence because we are given such Life drawing no longer dominates the art school curriculum. Artists now explore the interior of the body with new media and Lateral Contour Map of a Full-Term Primipara Produced by Light 1979 A. while Leonardo opened the body to see and projected onto a woman's body draw the celebratory discover for himself our physical mechanisms. but the study of a controlled. Artists are thought to have b e g u n drawing from the nude during the Italian Renaissance. She the body is still essential. W e understand every curve and balance of to the theory that the eves are the windows of the soul. The human body. diseased. artists also tried to define ideal proportions in the body. It gives physical and emotive form to religious narratives. history paintings and other stories. the junior workshop apprentices posed as part of their duties. from video and X-ray to thermal imaging. explaining ranges e/ of materials and techniques and showing diversities of thought and purpose in making. and because the female was deemed inferior. focus has turned to the vulnerability of flesh: how it can be damaged. a n d w e d r a w o u r s e l v e s to a s s e r t o u r e x i s t e n c e .The Body O UR BODIES MAKE us TANGIBLE. Renaissance artists studying anatomy from dissection clinically trained and specialized as a medical illustrator. It also looks at the representation of the b o d y b11y4o n d traditional life drawing. while Durer took his research further— A. W I L L I A M S technology. 3 x 7 in (300 x 180 . These classes are popular around the world. WILLIAMS he sought perfection in the infinitesimal measurement of the body and produced four Contemporary photographer volumes of illustrated explanation. sculptural description of her form. myths and fables. portraiture. Drawings were usually made from the male nude to avoid offending the church. He even believed he had located the soul contours of her form like a cartographer's map of in the pituitary fossa beneath the brain and behind the eyes. R. and in San could easily be transferred into three dimensions. R. is the most c o m m o n subject in art. Look closely at Renaissance drawings of the female b o d y and you will see that m o s t are actually y o u n g m e n with minor adjustments. the Bay Area Models' Guild h o l d s a quarterly life-drawing m a r a t h o n aprinton Kodak transfer paper with green-colored dye added celebrating the great diversity of human proportion. This chapter addresses issues that are most commonly faced by beginners attending life-drawing classes. In this period. much Western contemporary art. Strangely. and anatomical and erotic art. Williams were decades ahead of their medical counterparts.

Raphael drew delicate tones of black chalk on tinted paper. filling the page with her presence. and studied to learn from the works of Michelangelo and Leonardo besides whom he was soon ranked. and Vatican frescos. Here three male nudes are compressed into very shallow pictorial space. She u n f o l d s and s t r e t c h e s shapely limbs. He trained under Perugino. Sculptural frieze This is a preparatory drawing for Raphael's painting of the Resurrection of Christ. In this highly s o p h i s t i c a t e d a b s t r a c t i o n . Three Guards 1500-20 91/4 x143/8in (234 x 365 mm) RAPHAEL . while Matisse used scissors and glue to cut out and paste a flat collage of brilliant color. while supporting the weight of their body with the other. Raphael's study of fallen m e n leaves no doubt that they are in anguish. T h e y b o t h raise one arm to cup their head in their hand.116-17). anatomy. Muscular dramatic postures reflect the influence of Michelangelo and the Renaissance celebration of the idealized male body. By way of contrast. But the meanings of each gesture and the materials and methods by which they Postures and Poses were m a d e contrast greatly. and human defeat. In a single drawing we see equally o b s e r v e d studies of f o r e s h o r t e n i n g (see pp. so that we read this drawing like a sculptural frieze. altar pieces. RAFFAELLO SANZIO (RAPHAEL) Italian High Renaissance painter: Raphael is best known for his images of the Madonna and Child. Principal figures m i r r o r e a c h other.110 T H E BODY THESE DISTINCTIVE WORKS show two strikingly different ways of modeling the body on paper. Matisse's b l u e n u d e sings with life and c e l e b r a t i o n . we see the e s s e n c e of h e r b e a u t y w i t h o u t a single detail.

which might be. and more energetic Color and form This collage is one of a series of Blue Nudes. fabric. foundamong many other groups of papercut these works as an elderly man confined to his bed or wheelchair. Matisse Soothing influence This drawing expresses the achievement of Matisse's personal aim: "What I dream and depressing subject matter.111 HENRY MATISSE French painter: draftsman. teacher and principal exponent o f Fauvism—a movement established in 1905 in which bold color is the most essential element.sculptor.or like a good armchair in which to rest from physical fatigue..like an appeasing influence. lifelong love of brilliant They celebrate the culmination of spectacular and sometimes drawings. His calligraphic natural abstractions of form grew brighter. as his w o r k matured. Matisse became an artist after studying law.. a mental soother. and Islamic art." of is an art of balance. serenity... freer... devoid of troubling Blue Nude 1 1952 413/4 HENRY MATISSE .designer writer. his pattern. printmaker.

it is as if the very atoms of air are made visible. Light is given by the paper alone. 162) and an eraser to model teeming points of artificial light amid GEORGES SEURAT French painter classically educated in the Ingres school of thought. agreeing to coalesce and show us the form of a waiting boy. in a perfect e x a m p l e . we c o m p a r e a skillful design that absorbed m u c h time in its making with the quickness of an idea marked instantly. Using the paper to create light is important for beginners to learn. there are no outlines. only tones blending into. Opposite. velvet d a r k n e s s . w h o sits propped in the contradictory darkness of a hot summer's day. Seurat engaged in lifelong studies of line. other tones. In his f a m o u s paintings of social e n g a g e m e n t . turned gray.112 T H E BODY Choreographs T I M E IS A SIGNIFICANT E L E M E N T i n t h e m a k i n g o f a l l d r a w i n g s . and c o m p l e m e n t a r y hues. like small birds attendant on the meditation. it would have mixed with unseen black dust. or abruptly meeting. Beuys's magician. Tone and light In this black conte drawing. Seurat evolved a distinctive t e c h n i q u e called p o i n t i l l i s m — i m a g e s literally made from myriad points of color. Here. reflected. scratched in seconds. If Seurat had added white. Below. form. Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 1883-84 91/2 x 121/4 in (241 x 312 m m GEORGES SEURAT . he used b l a c k c o n t e (see p. Typically. stands in counterpoise holding a dark globe and his thoughts in m o m e n t a r y balance. T h e space around h i m chatters with symbols. and color His applied theories still influence painters in their manipulation and rendering of local. and muddied the brilliance of the drawing. His drawings are similarly u n i q u e .

This figure is drawn intuitively. taught workshops with a cult following. Many of his other symbolic works on paper have been drawn with materials such as honey.113 JOSEPH BEUYS One of the most influential German artists of the 20th century. and drawings. and blood. Our focus joins shoulders. in different positions. Unbroken lines stream from his simultaneously movement. He was a shaman who believed in intuition and in the investment of healing force. CHOREOGRAPHS the profound power materials with spiritual or of Free lines This pale pencil drawing is Beuys. video art. His The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland UNDATED 113/4 J O S E P H BEUYS x81/4in (297 x 210 mm) . and that These aspects of the work convey fractured visibility. and made installations. free from the constraint of immaculate form opposite) impetus is irrelevant to the and meaning of this work (as we see in Seurat's drawing representation. transience.gold. Perfectly modeled rather conventional for Joseph Focus Beuys's hand moved quickly to draw dotted lines flowing downward on either side of the figure. Beuys gave performances. iodine.

" as seen here. Rodin produced portraits and statues of public and literary figures. Inspired by Michelangelo. and one of hundreds of rapid studies of nudes. In Rodins work. But what is stranger to us now is that they were also outraged by his free use of line. Rodin employed models to move freely or pose together in his studio. They whisper and writhe in a brushed and sultry embrace that devours our watching.000 drawings shown in rotation at the Musee Rodin. 125/8x 9 in (320 x 229 mm) AUGUSTE RODIN Two Women 1911 Embracing . Delicate strokes This is one of about 7. THE AUGUSTE RODIN French Romantic sculptor and prolific draftsman employed as an ornamental mason until the age of 42. flushed skin made ruddy and black with crushed cinders. sweeping lines— of either purple silk fabric or cool studio air—that imprint and amplify their past and future movements. he typically drew them with a few delicate strokes of pencil and brushed watercolor. Paris. We are asked to gaze u p o n her flesh. Opposite. Our bodies radiate the passion of our thoughts and so become beacons of our frailty and power. As here. Free lines Rodin's public audience was understandably shocked by the eroticism of his drawings. His exquisite flow of paint beyond "outlines. Achieving international acclaim in mid-life. and went on to inspire generations of artists. Anita Taylor has drawn her protective body hug out of the darkly glistening compression of willow charcoal and the dynamism of her shy but momentous femininity.114 BODY Passion SUMMONING HUMANITY in a drawing of the nude is a subtle and emotional task. was perceived as scandalous. the fierceness of the women's kiss is beautifully matched by the tenderness of his line. his w o r k is characterized by deliberate un-finish and powerfully modeled emotion. In both drawings. its soft. We are involved not as a shabby voyeur but as a bystander engaged through our recognition of shared joy. the women are framed and caressed by long.

London.I 15 ANITA T A Y L O R Painter. exposure. Charcoal Taylor has drawn freely with charcoal and an eraser on thick. and gaze. erased and drawn again. textured paper. professor and Vice Principal of Wimbledon School of Art. scrutiny. A thinner sheet might have crumpled and torn under such vigorous force of making. leaving her lightest marks at the deepest level of the image and applying darker marks above. This order of light below and dark above gives glowing from within. and rework rich depths of light and tone. Luminosity Layered marks flicker likefirelight as they sculpt the woman's body. The sturdy surface of the sheet has allowed her to press hard when needed. Taylor's immense self-portraits explore the relationship between the artist as maker and the artist as model. intimately reflecting upon the emotions and meaning of nudity. the impression of luminosity All and Nothing 1999 67 x447/8in (170 x 1 1 4 cm) ANITA TAYLOR . Taylor has drawn. draftsman.

3 Keep your pencil perpendicular Measure and compare at any angle.limbs happily receding. London). 1 Hold your arm straight. for example. Imagine Michelangelo's murals in the Sistine Chapel. "Simple measured comparisons reveal surprising truths about proportion. which is imperceptible from below. when beginners prop their board in their lap and look down at too steep an angle. persistence. helping us to see more clearly. unfathomable angles." . It is not so hard. 2 Hold your pencil upright. and to draw what we see. patience. The length of exposed pencil is your measurement. elongated as if stretched across the plaster. There is no need to mark them all down on paper. Up close on the scaffold we would witness Michelangelo's subtle application of accelerated perspective. just making them helps you see. If your arm is not straight. We also look at another very interesting branch called accelerated (or anamorphic) perspective. Accelerated perspective plays a great role in much art. Align the top with a point on your subject. without taking off. Spend time making comparisons before you draw. Return to this posture every time. Lock your shoulder. How to make and apply these is explained below and opposite. MEASURING This is a simple method of making measured comparisons for relating the true size of one part to another This is a tool to assist observation and thinking. To avoid its effects ensure you always look flat onto the surface of your page. with dramatic illusions of figures painted in normal proportion. or shrivelling at odd. It is not complicated. more extreme examples have been made for court entertainment. Move the tip of your thumb down to a second chosen point.116 T H E BODY Measurement and Foreshortening FORESHORTENING IS AN ASPECT of perspective. we would arrive to find many of the same figures strangely distorted. elbow. In the life class it is the mechanism for ensuring that a drawn figure lies correctly in pictorial space . and a few measured comparisons are key. you will make inconsistent and unrelated comparisons. But if we could take a scaffold and climb up to the work. Close one eye. and wrist joints. the skull in Holbein's The Ambassadors (The National Gallery. rather that what we believe we know from experience. or coming forward. Rome. It can also be a little demon in the life room. Smaller. to be translated by mirrors or seen from only one point in the room. and measurements do not have to be carried to the paper and slavishly drawn the same size they appear on your pencil. This is chiefly a correcting device by which figurative painters and sculptors have for centuries countered the effects of our viewing their work from far below or on the curvature of a vault. plummeting.

S o o n t h e b o d y will lie d o w n in space.117 ACCELERATED PERSPECTIVE To discover h o w this w o r k s . y o u r hand travels f a r t h e r than y o u expect. FORESHORTENING To f o r e s h o r t e n a figure. W o r k a r o u n d t h e figure. belly. C o m p a r e t h e heights o f t h e nose and eye shapes t o t h o s e o f t h e f o r e a r m . pleasingly f o r e s h o r t e n e d . W e appear t o be looking d o w n o n a w o m a n s t a n d i n g b e n e a t h us. A t a c e r t a i n angle. L o o k at y o u r m o d e l as if he o r she is a flat series o f shapes o n e o n t o p o f a n o t h e r Measure t h e height and w i d t h o f each shape and c o m p a r e it t o its neighbor. a n d thighs. To m a k e f o r m s l o o k c o r r e c t . Keep t h e b o a r d steady and draw. P r o p o r t i o n s will only l o o k c o r r e c t f r o m t h e angle at w h i c h y o u make t h e drawing. Lean t h e t o p e d g e t o w a r d y o u and find a p o s i t i o n w h e r e y o u can c o m f o r t a b l y l o o k d o w n t h e p a p e r at an angle o f a b o u t 4 0 degrees. which feels strange. . T h i s is t h e s a m e d r a w i n g p h o t o g r a p h e d f r o m above. Stand its b o t t o m edge o n y o u r lap. See h o w d i f f e r e n t t h e relative heights o f t h e s e shapes are f r o m w h a t w e m i g h t e x p e c t in real life. y o u must let go o f w h a t y o u k n o w f r o m e x p e r i e n c e a b o u t t h e relative sizes o f b o d y parts and trust y o u r eyes. h e r p r o p o r t i o n s will appear correct. t a p e s o m e p a p e r t o a board. looking d o w n t h e p a p e r at t h e a n g l e at w h i c h I d r e w . MEASUREMENT AND FORESHORTENING Tilt t h e t o p edge o f this b o o k t o w a r d you and look d o w n o n this figure f r o m a b o v e . adjusting a n o n y m o u s shapes.

Avoid drawing up one side and down the other. work back and forth across the body. and work over t h e m with further o b s e r v a t i o n s . To draw this effect. her center of balance is normally found in a vertical line beneath her head. To see this. working from her center to her feet and to her head. and stance before honing her balance and expression. Balance When a model stands upright on both feet. propelling you to make immediate assessments and trust them. balance. height. Layered lines give d e p t h . THE SEQUENCE OF POSES H e r e the model was asked to move every t w o minutes. and slightly enlarge her legs and feet. T h i s q u i c k e x p l o r a t o r y line does not perfectly describe shape but expresses a decision about overall flow of form. and energy. Be bold and dive into your drawing with c o n f i d e n c e . because it results in two unrelated sides drifting apart.118 BODY Quick Poses DRAWING QUICK POSES l o c k s y o u r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n t o what is most essential. Start each new drawing by lightly marking the model's height with a loose line in ten seconds. . and height. make the upper body smaller give your model a high waist. imagine holding up a plumb line. Outline To outline a figure. feeling. I used a sharp H B pencil and began each drawing by marking her outline. Leave first thoughts in place. Height This pose leans away into space above our eye level.

Tilt Movement Here. Most of us have a tendency to over-straighten the drawn figure. . and this should be avoided Twist QUICK POSES A model standing on one leg usually drops the opposite hip. This drawing shows how different observations be overlaid to bring a drawing alive. The tilt of the pelvis is then counter balanced by the model's shoulders tilting the other way (as seen here).119 The twist of a model is most easily and expressively captured if it is exaggerated. the activity of circular lines and the repetition of limbs suggest movement.

These planes. or those of a friend. drawn in relation to each other. It also helps the beginner to progress from drawing outlines to drawing confidently across the surface of the whole form.120 BODY Hands and Feet THERE ARE MANY different ways of approaching h a n d s and THE of form. Group the fingers together as one mass. 3 . Begin by drawing lines to encompass the whole hand. 2 Build your drawing gradually from light to dark. Focus instead on how planes change direction across the knuckles from one side of the hand or foot to the other. W h e n starting. A mirror increases your range of views. feet. and a gooseneck lamp casts shadows that clarify planes and depths GESTURES OF THE HAND Curled Fingers 1 Open Palm Start honing the shapes of the dominant planes. This exercise is useful when struggling with proportion. Practice by drawing your own hands and feet. especially the lengthwise divisions between them. it is important to leave aside all details of the fingers and toes. Keep lines open to change and take measurements if they help. and they need not be daunting to draw. express structure and gesture far more successfully and easily than ten worried outlines wandering up and down between the fingers and toes. Don't worry about achieving perfect solutions. Draw large shapes and their orientation. but regard these practice studies as ongoing processes of thought and observatio Add details such as nails last if you wish. Do not separate them yet. general to specific. Then subdivide each shape so that you w o r k from large to small. starting with the largest. swiftly marking its essential gesture. and ignore all details.

. Try t o express the whole foot and t o encapsulate its entire shape and direction in a few marks.121 HANDS AND FEET MOVEMENTS OF THE FOOT Flat Stance Raised Heel Instep 1 Let your first marks be light.as though out o f wood. as if with a chisel. Look for key angles without becoming distracted by detail. and don't worry about accuracy t o begin with. and spontaneity. these are what give a drawing its tangible structure. Leave aside all detail. and rapid. depth. Hew it roughly in broad. 2 3 Use an eraser t o refine decisions o r t o suggest areas o f light. loose. flattened planes. t o remove t o o many early lines. It can be a mistake. Nowimagineyou are carving the foot insidethepaper. however.

Compare its nature in close-up to that of willow charcoal used on pp. Opposite.Charcoal Hands T H E S E DRAWINGS ARE MADE in compressed charcoal. The white lines demonstrate what is often called "bracelet shading." .204-05. I also used white ink with a steel dip pen.

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Phrasing Contours . I make these lines in the first five to ten seconds of a drawing to locate the presence. 118-19). length.HERE TRACES OF RAPID initial lines are still seen within and outside each body. and posture of the model. before honing his or her shape (see pp.

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I draw in museums in support of written research and as an artist seeking answers to questions about the practicalities of image making. perspectives. . feeling them through the attentive movements of your own hand. and narrative pulse become vivid when you realize them in the middle of your study. Forms. It is now viewed with some skepticism and often seen as academic.The Visual Detective DRAWING FROM MASTERWORKS was once a staple component of an artist's education. Drawing work by another artist enables you to discover and understand the inventive hand in their composition. characters.

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These almost life-size figures were composed from my imagination and achieved with the help af studies discussed on pp. 126-27. Florence.La Specola At17V i a Romana. . Life-size women wearing wigs recline on beds of embroidered silk in cabinets of mahogany and Venetian glass This is a detail of a compressed charcoal drawing measuring 14 x 10 ft (4. there is a unique museum of 18th-century anatomical waxes.3 x 3 m) made in response to La Specola. Walls are lined with hundreds of faintly animated body parts. each modeled from dissection.

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Movie director Alfred similarly signed his films by playing a fleeting role: he walks through an extra. and shoulders. throat. W h e n drawing a person. in a miniature self-portrait magnified opposite. Goya's w o r k s include many royal and society p o r t r a i t s . religious. became more poignant as he progressed. and in a few scrolling rafts of pen lines and stubbled dots. having been documented and preserved. character. For centuries. compliant subject to scrutinize. his changes in pressure and Hitchcock length o f line. the meaning of their face. we use the delicate medium of silver point to look at foundation structures of the head. buttons. It also reminds us o f b o t h t h e intimacy and a scene as scrutiny o f an honest portrait. their stance. and a handprint (see p. This enlargement o f his miniature p o r t r a i treveals t h e s p e e d and agility o f his p e n and about himself. We can mold and animate qualities of expression out of objects and fragments of disassociated things—for example. Goya. Man Ray's self-portrait of scored lines. bells. single or of groups. and it is very rewarding.139). abstract or figurative. and social and political commentaries. and satirical or metaphorical. Rembrandt's famous multitude of self-portraits. 1790-92 4 x 3 in ( 1 0 2 x 7 6 m m ) F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A and memorize the basic structure that we all share. or a glimpse of him is caught in a photograph used as a prop. and p r i n t m a k e r . Equally. or past us.Portraiture IN P O R T R A I T U R E W E MEET PEOPLE. Self-portraiture gives every artist a constant. Halls and palaces are filled with pictures of the mighty and significant. and their posture can be changed with just one line. made as he passed through the ages of man. who. and lucrative genre for artists. is here to both meet and look through us. Our homes are filled with images of our loved ones and of those in our families who have gone before. neck. Beginners often draw themselves as a way of establishing their practice. Past rulers sent painters across continents to bring back a likeness in advance of a prospective royal marriage. In this chapter. historical. gathered all that he knew FRANCISCO DE GOYA V i s i o n a r y Spanish painter. Once you understand Self-Portrait in a Cocked Hat c. The truth is that we all like looking at faces and observing the billions of variations that make us individuals. Portraits can be highly or loosely detailed. you can capture the subtlety. look directly at us. usually strangers from past times. We are also reassured by keeping records of ourselves. and secular narratives. draftsman. To create a face is to see and interpret the essence of an identity. and expression of the individual. . The returning image was of crucial consideration in any proposal. painters have dropped discreet records of themselves into commissioned narratives so that they can remain a face in the crowd. live. a single line can deliver an entire expression. or whose eyes can seem to follow us around the room Portraiture is a constant.

adding smudges of tone for weight and solidity. hand to capture something well in only Frangoise au Bandeau 1946 660 x 505 mm (26 x197/8in) PABLO PICASSO . He makes his flair and skill look easy. Picasso strikes and scrolls his pencil. they serve as a great lesson that it is not always necessary to add tone to your drawing. caught in her last moments of youth. whisking a timeless girl onto the page. It is the portrait of a countrywoman. The aesthetic sense of a line being just right can make a drawing sing. Here the grace and beauty of two young women are held forever. It takes a truly accomplished a few strokes. teetering on the brink of older age. Picasso has left to posterity many hundreds of magnificent line drawings. We can read so much about them by studying their gaze. While with longer consideration.30). For the beginner.132 PORTRAITURE Poise THE BALANCE BETWEEN a mark and a blank space is often a tantalizing form of perfection. and pressure as it conducts our eye through the image. Her face is drawn tenderly and with a luminous glow. Holbein maps the still landscape of Dorothea's body in questioning marks. PABLO PICASSO Spanish Cubist painter (see also p. Through exhibitions and copies in books. The truth is often the opposite. The Tightness of a line is felt in its speed. we can enjoy and learn from them. Without faltering. length. one eye already cast askew into the autumn of her life. How could the addition of shadows have enhanced this image? Few strokes The simplicity of Picasso's line is breathtaking. stealthily using his chalk to find contours and mass. There is a common misunderstanding that a drawing with only a few lines is both less finished and easier to make than a drawing with more. breadth. We can actually count that he struck the paper 40 times.

Her folded forearms support and frame her weight above. Blended colors In this portrait drawn with colored chalks on slightly textured paper. and its downward slope crowns the diagonal of the composition. presses against the binding across her face. and produced numerous society portraits such as this one here. Holbein unified the woman with her background by gently blending colors from her clothes and face into the atmosphere around her. and designer f r o m Basel. which. made a popular series o f w o o d c u t prints titled The Dance of Death.133 HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER German p o r t r a i t painter draftsman. He outlined her nose but not her upper lip. gently flushed. The peak of her cap clips the uppermost edge. Holbein was employed toward the end of his life by King Henry VIII of England. he designed c o u r t costumes. In addition t o his numerous exquisite portraits in oil. Holbein has cropped and pinned his subject within the four outermost lines of the image—the edges of the page. Cropping This regal composition fits its paper perfectly. Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 1516 51/8 x121/4in (385 x 310 m m ) HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER .

blood vessels. but they are irrelevant here. and unpleasant to see. Contrasts Sharp. The style of Durelli's d r a w i n g opposite sings with the confidence of truth and precision. The real dissection w o u l d have been far more c o m p l e x . N e w s o m e ' s eerily shadowed form is smooth and bears a linear grain evocative of w o o d . solid above and almost hollow below.134 PORTRAITURE Anatomies These highly finished drawings express the emotional power and physicality of the head and neck. perhaps applied using a tortillon. while white painted flecks and wisps suggest electrical illumination. dark tones of graphite blended into the paper. taught at numerous British art schools from 1962-77. the face is one of the hardest parts to dissect. its highly clarified detail claiming to be d r a w n from observation. or defined by. dark lines made with a pencil appear against smooth. confusing. In fact. . Anatomically. Nerves. This is one of a number of similar disembodied female heads seen behind. using a fine and relatively 1982 13 x 181/8 in (328 x 460 mm) VICTOR NEWSOME brush. This is a m a r v e l o u s interpretation of the truth. Psychological drama is contained behind a grid. London. VICTOR NEWSOME British sculptor painter and draftsman. the contours of a grid. distorted. Highlights of white gouache were dry Profile Head late in the making. Newsome was awarded the Prix de Rome in 1960. It floats in space. and has works in major collections including the Tate Gallery. continues to exhibit regularly. Durelli has m a d e a few m i n o r mistakes. and glands also complicate form. Delicate muscles are integrated with the skin and fat that is to be r e m o v e d .

w h e n contracted. pull their points o f attachment t o w a r d each other . Durelli's experience as an engraver is reflected in his stylized drawing o f muscle fibers. which. Stylized parallel lines are reminiscent of engravings. It is hard to think of a more difficult medium with which to achieve such linear perfection. and it is likely that this drawing was intended for reproduction as a print. Pencil numbers refer to the list of muscles written beneath. Red Chalk the Muscles 1837 173/8 x 145/8 in ( 4 4 0 x 3 7 2 m m ) ANTONIO DURELLI and Pencil Drawing and of Neck of the Head Little is k n o w n o f this M i l a n e s e p a i n t e r a n d engraver w h o c a m e from a family o f artists.135 ANATOMIES ANTONIO DURELLI Linear perfection This is a red chalk drawing of extraordinary accomplishment.

The camera watches him at work. 1948 77/8 x 6 in (200 x 150 mm) ALBERTO GIACOMETTI . cutting and carving the paper with matted and spiraling restless energy. with speed and urgency. He is best known for his bronze sculptures of human form.136 PORTRAITURE THESE ARE DRAWINGS of shoulders. Then. Energy This is a portrait of a woman drawn with black crayon on a plain page of a book Lines search for the essence of form. necks. Similar movements sculpted the head below into its page. he drew over the whole image at once. which are characteristically elongated. while his hand stabs and thrusts Revelations like a conductors baton. ALBERTO GIACOMETTI Swiss sculptor. They confuse our perception of scale by being intimately fragile and at the same time far removed. There is a film of Giacometti drawing. and poet After studying in Geneva and Italy. Speed Giacometti probably began with an oval shape placed in relation to the proportion of the page. They show us clearly the bones of drawing. close enough to touch his hair and feel his breath. Opposite. Flesh is built and personality carved simultaneously. as if seen from a distance. and with staccato flinches his hyperactive eye moves from paper to model. and heads. Giacometti settled in Paris. We are brought intimately close to this man gazing up to heaven. Agitated marks make patches of tone that cut away the space around the character. painter draftsman. Portrait de Marie-Laure de Noailles c. each portrait is inscribed onto the page. Without paint and with very little tone. Bellini gently conjures the features of his saint with soft marks that tease his presence out of shadows into the light. Both works demonstrate how simple lines can be made complex by being intense. each locked into a visionary gaze.

G I O V A N N I BELLINI A prominent member of a large family o f V e n e t i a n painters. H e t a u g h t G i o r g i o n e Barbarelli and Titian. Sometimes different narrative same character was reused in compositions. a n d his w o r k is d i s t i n c t i v e l y calm. a n d b r o t h e r in-law. These are pinholes. Head and Shoulders of a Man 73/8 x 21/4 in ( 1 8 6 x 5 8 UNDATED GIOVANNI BELLINI . transferring which were made in the process of the saint to his final place in the composition of a painting (see Glossary pp.25 6 . Bellini s t u d i e d u n d e r his f a t h e r J a c o p o .5 9 ) . Transfer This delicate humorous chalk a drawing is a cartoon—not image but a type of template used to plan the composition of a larger work Look closely and you will see rows of tiny dots along every significant line in the picture. Character This is one of many cartoons produced by Bellini the and his family. H e p r e f e r r e d religious t o classical t h e m e s . a n d c o n t e m p l a t i v e . Mantegna. lyrical.

scratched lines. bells. It is an opportunity to look deep without the infringement of courtesies owed to a commissioning sitter. and sheet metal before being snapped up by the New York contemporary art scene. their most immediate and best-known subject: themselves. Signs and symbols with symbols This painting shudders that ore written. a tribal. humor. Islands of graphic marks. and buttons rings with surrealist wit and agile improvisation. JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT Short-lived American painter and graffiti artist who began his blazing nine-year career drawing on lower Manhattan subway trains with a friend. The artist has finished his portrait with the signature of his hand smacked in the middle like a kiss: a declaration of existence as old as man's first drawing.138 PORTRAITURE THE MIRROR OF SELF-PORTRAITURE offers artists infinite reflections of. scratched into its surface. Man Ray's playful silk-screen assembly of color blocks. political outcry. and confrontations with. and everything flux. similar to work by Cy Twombly (see p. float and shimmer in the shallow pictorial space. scrolls. marks. signing their work SAMO. It has proved to be a subject of piercing scrutiny. In 1986 he traveled to Africa and showed his work in Abidjan on the Ivory Coast He also exhibited in Germany and France. Self Portrait 1982 9 4 x 7 6 in (239 x 193 cm) JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT . Later Basquiat sold drawings on T-shirts. The incandescent New York painter Jean Michel Basquiat pictured himself here in naked silhouette. The figure's position is unequivocal and defiant while around him is in a state Without the essential of cultural and figure we would elegant belookingat a sophisticated painting of signs. drawn.221). and indulgence. It is an image of confrontation—the ever-controversial young artist roars at us from his abstract city-scape. spear-brandishing warrior. skull- Self-Portraits headed. and attitudes. made with great energy. Al Diaz. postcards.

The handprint appears to be made directly. where he collaborated with the artist Laslo MoholyNagy. last of all. painter. Autoportrait 1916 195/8 MAN RAY . Man Ray probably used his own hand. During the 1920's and 30s.139 MAN RAY American surrealist photographer. They suggest speed and make the picture look immediate and spontaneous. The first part of the stenciled image was already marked on the silk The screen and paper were then held tightly together. caked in thick printing ink or paint. Man Ray lived and worked in Paris. They experimented with camera-free photography working directly onto photographic paper Silk and ink This is a silkscreen print made through the following process: the paper was laid on a flat surface and a frame stretched with fine silk was placed on top. Black ink was printed next and then white. Frame White lines are seemingly (though not actually) scratched through ink to frame this face. printmaker and cofounder of the New York Dada movement. while a squeegee was used to drag thick lilac-brown ink across the silk pushing it though exposed areas onto the paper below.

and is therefore useful w h e n using w a t e r c o l o r as well as silver point. bone. Straighten the w o r s t buckles. was familiar to or eggshells with animal glue. Gesso o r m a t t e m u l s i o n c a n a l s o b e u s e d . who used it to outline initials and border characters before painting. If w o r k i n g o n an emulsion-painted wall. SILVER P O I N T W I R E H O L D E R : T h e s e c a n b e p u r c h a s e d a n d t e n d t o b e heavy. MATERIALS 1 Find a clean sponge and b o w l o r d e e p t r a y a n d fill it w i t h w a t e r W e t t h e p a p e r evenly in t h e t r a y o r o n t h e b o a r d . and t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h strips a b o v e and b e l o w . 2 . Metal point is simply a strip of metal bound in a holder. M E T A L OBJECTS: All metal objects m a r k a p r e p a r e d surface. For i m p o r t a n t a d v i c e o n p r e p a r a t i o n a n d use. laid on paper. b u t d o n ' t w o r r y .140 PORTRAITURE Silver P o i n t SILVER OR METAL POINT STRETCHING PAPER A sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has been made w e t with the strokes o f a paintbrush will buckle d u e t o its uneven expansion. Lay a clean d r a w i n g b o a r d o n a flat surface. b e f o r e priming stretched paper. T h e p a p e r will l o o k b u c k l e d . 1 4 4 . Be swift and firm. To begin. The most c o m m o n metal has always been silver—hence the term "silver point. c h o o s e a s o f t full b r u s h t h a t c a n c a r r y p l e n t y o f l i q u i d . or ring. 144-45. or wood. artists mixed white lead. s o m e m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n o t h e r s . 3 . Numerous early European artists also enjoyed its fine qualities (see p. I t is a v a i l a b l e f r o m all a r t s h o p s . which quickly oxidizes into a gray line. o n e t o fit each side o f t h e b o a r d — t h e s e will make t h e glued f r a m e t h a t holds y o u r p a p e r in place. the surface must be primed with a ground such as gouache. purchase silver wire. Find a n i t e m t h a t y o u can h o l d a n d draw with comfortably. Take a sheet o f any t y p e o f p a p e r (for e x a m p l e . platinum. 156). choose a silver object. Note h o w domestic paintwork marks with a coin. This is called a three-tone drawing. Pages 142 to 147 are illustrated in silver point and techniques are explained on pp. 2. E m p t y mechanical pencils designed f o r t h i c k leads ( s e e p. an exciting indication of how large-scale drawings could be made on a wall. I combined silver point with painted white gouache on a pink ground. it leaves a deposit. key. copper. w h i t e d r a w i n g paper) and cut it t o fit y o u r d r a w i n g b o a r d w i t h a generous b o r d e r a r o u n d its edges. Historically. and make o r buy a holder." Lead. Drawn across a prepared surface. SILVER W I R E : Purchase different gauge lengths f r o m a traditional a r t supplier o r jeweler.Tear o f f f o u r lengths o f b r o w n p a p e r g u m tape. s e e p . 5. I m a k e m y o w n f r o m o l d dip pens. Metal point does not work on ordinary paper.s t r i p a n d use i t t o fix o n e side o f t h e p a p e r t o t h e b o a r d . you will need t o stretch paper and lay a wash (see right and opposite). Lightly s p o n g e o f f t h e excess. Stretched paper remains taut as a d r u m . S O F T F U L L B R U S H : W h e n laying a w a s h . illuminators of medieval m a n u s c r i p t s . S i l v e r is b e s t . p a r c h m e n t .54-55).54) can also b e used. M a k e s u r e i t is c o m p l e t e l y clean t o avoid u n w a n t e d streaks. Z I N C W H I T E G O U A C H E : Dilute with w a t e r A d d c o l o r i f r e q u i r e d (as opposite) 4 . W e t o n e length o f g u m . This browns with age unless sealed by fixative (see pp. and alloys work on matt emulsion. 1. Opposite. W e t a n d fix a s e c o n d strip t o t h e o p p o s i t e side. and gold have also been used.

Beware of the tape's coming loose at any point while drying. Leave the wash to dry thoroughly before you begin to draw. Dry thoroughly before laying a wash. as the paper will be ruined by a raised ridge.141 SILVER POINT 3 Leave the paper to dry flat. T h r e e . Mix a very wet but not weak solution of gouache in a jar with a lid (add pigment at this stage for a three-tone drawing). It will slowly straighten and become taut. Reload the brush and add a second line overlapping it beneath. Here. Keep adding smooth. and let tests dry before deciding to change the mixture. overlapping lines until you reach the bottom.t o n e silver point drawing of a skull . Dip a soft. so put newspaper under the lower edge. The next step will make a small mess. full brush into the gouache and start in the top left corner. slowly add powder pigment or gouache from a tube. Make enough to cover your paper. Prop up your board of dry. Keep testing on spare paper. stretched paper at a 45-degree angle. any extra will keep. v e r y little at a time. Runs blend into each other evenly. LAYING A WASH It your stretched paper so as to prime it for silver point. Make an even line across to the right. is necessary to lay a wash o Three-tone When coloring ground. leaving a smooth surface. I used a powder pigment called Caput Mortuum.

142

PORTRAITURE

Head and Neck
THE HEAD AND NECK are best conceived as one unit arranged in four parts: cranium, face, neck, and throat. Each is of equal importance. The cranium is essentially egg-shaped and pivots on the first vertebra. The face is suspended beneath, like a softly curved triangle. The n e c k — a powerful, shapely column of layered muscles rigged to vertebrae—adjusts and holds the angle and expression of the head. The throat is delicate, hard, and lumpy to the touch, formed of cartilaginous rings, glands, thin muscles, and looser skin. Framing the throat, two columnar neck muscles (sternomastoids) project the head forward and also turn it to the opposite side.

This is a simple shorthand diagram representing the cranium, face, neck, and throat. It can be learned and visualized in different positions very easily, giving the novice a firm footing on which to stand and develop their drawings of the head and neck.

Shorthand diagram

Cranium Begin with an egg shape. Tilt it on the paper to change the position of the head.

Face Draw a rounded triangular shape below the forward point of the egg to represent the face.

Neck This shape represents the trapezius; the largest surface muscle of the neck and shoulders.

Throat A triangular shape represents the throat. (The nose makes the diagram clearer)

Applied shorthand

After copying the diagram above, animate it. Practice drawing the cranium at different angles, add the face beneath, then the neck, shoulders, and throat. Shape your diagrams so they are more lifelike, but avoid adding detailed features too soon.

143 These three drawings demonstrate (from left to right) the following: why the cranium may be considered egg-shaped; now the face can be seen as a curved triangle suspended beneath and where the division lies between the two; and the form of sternomastoid muscles that frame thethroatsodistinctlywhen the head is turned and inclined forward.

The skull and the frame of the throat

HEAD AND NECK

Bones of the cranium are locked together by jagged joints. Sinuses in the frontal (forehead) bone between and beneath the eyebrows are larger in men, making their brows pronounced and often ridged compared to those of women.

Bones of the face house our sight, smell, taste, The skull pivots on the first vertebra or "atlas," and speech. Cartilage extending from nasal bones after the Greek god condemned to carry the shapesthenose.Pads of fat resting on the base of Earth. The jaw hinges in front of the ears. Behind, eacheyesocket support the eyeballs in position. If bony ridges give anchor to the sternomastoid thefatisreducedby old age, eyes look sunken. muscles rising from the breast- and collarbones.

Three useful generalizations

General rules about the relative positions of body parts can hinder artists as much as help them, since they are often based on classical ideals rather than thediversityoflife.However,some generalizations can help as a rough guide to start with, so long as good observation takes over as soon as possible.

In general, when the face is relaxed (not smiling or frowning), the corners of the mouth are found directly beneath the pupils of the eyes. Vertical lines can be drawn down from the pupils to meet the corners of the mouth.

The height of a young adult's ear is often the same as their nose and found on the same level. There is no general rule for growing children, and remember that ears grow again in old age, which is most obvious in men.

The height of the face is about the length of the handspan and the eye is normally halfway down the total height of the head. A common error is to draw the eyes too high up on the face.

144

PORTRAITURE

Essential Observations
T H E DELICACY OF SILVER POINT

(see pp. 140-41) is perfect for

such as a beach pebble. Here, I stretched drawing paper and laid a wash of white gouache (see pp.140-41). As you can see, the line and tone of silver point varies with pressure, but only slightly. Too much pressure cuts the ground. Silver point erases, but so does ground. Erased ground can be repaired gently with extra gouache. You can also use gouache to paint over mistakes and make corrections.

small, detailed drawings. The drawings below and opposite show useful observations of the head and neck, which are explained in the captions below. Each drawing was made with a silver wire held in a large-gauge mechanical pencil. Newly clipped wires are sharp and cut rather than draw. Before use, they need to be rubbed and smoothed on a stone

Here I imagined placing my silver point wire against the skin of each head and neck and, working in parallel bands from the crown downward, I traced the undulation of surfaces. Linear bands imagined around the head and neck can help you t o clearly see the tilt of the head and relative levels of the features. Ask a friend t o model for you and try this exercise life-size using a pencil and eraser

Contours

Tilted forward

Tilted backward

Three-quarter view

Seeing that the face is never flat

Drawings below left and center are summaries of the generalizations given on p.143. Far right is an image to remind us that the face is never flat. It slopes back to varying degrees among individuals, from the tip of the nose t o the ears. For example, note that the innermost corners of the eyes are farther forward in space than the outermost corners.

General measurements, side

General measurements, front

View from above

145

Male and female head and neck
Men's necks a r e g e n e r a l l y s h o r t e r a n d t h i c k e r t h a n w o m e n ' s b e c a u s e t h e angles a n d levels o f c e r t a i n b o n e s a r e d i f f e r e n t b e t w e e n t h e sexes ( i n d i c a t e d h e r e b y d o t t e d lines) a n d m e n are n o r m a l l y m o r e muscular. T h e male t h y r o i d cartilage ( A d a m ' s apple) is larger a n d m o r e visible than t h e f e m a l e . L a r g e r f e m a l e t h y r o i d glands also s o f t e n t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e t h r o a t .

ESSENTIAL OBSERVATIONS
Female skull

Male

skeleton

Male

skull

Trapezius muscle
The largest m u s c l e o f t h e s h o u l d e r s a n d n e c k is called the trapezius. A r r a n g e d on e i t h e r side o f t h e spine, it shapes t h e u p p e r back and neck above the s h o u l d e r blades. C o n t r a c t i n g in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h d e e p e r and surrounding muscles, it raises and l o w e r s t h e shoulders a n d d r a w s t h e h e a d backtoeitherside.

The whole

muscle

Upper

half with

sternomastoids

Above

with head

straight

Above

with head

forward

Side with

sternomastoid

Front with

sternomastoid

146

PORTRAITURE

Drawing Portraits
USING A SHARP 3 B PENCIL, I drew this head quickly from imagination, evolving its character and expression from the scheme of four parts: cranium, face, neck, a n d throat (see p. 142). Here, five steps show you how to practice doing the same. This approach can be used to draw from imagination or from life. Keep your wrist loose and hold your pencil away from its point (see pp.22-23). Build the layers of your drawing from pale to dark, a n d from general balance a n d form to specific detail. Remember that successful drawings are built on foundations of "seeing the whole," then dividing the whole into smaller parts, with details brought in last of all. Phrased tonal marks modeling this girls skin and hair follow the technique demonstrated by Goya in his self-portrait on p. 130. Turn to Goya's drawing and study how, in a circle beginning across his hat, moving down his hair, and around his coat, he flows lines over surfaces to describe their contour. As you build from steps 1 to 5, bring phrased groups of lines across the surfaces of your form, using their directions to capture the expression of the head and neck. If unsure, copy my steps until you gain the confidence to make your own decisions.

This drawing is the final stage of the four steps opposite. Here, I have enlarged the eye, and moved it back into the head by trimming the length of the upper lid and adding a more pronounced lower lid. It is important to set eyes far enough back from the relatively prominent nose; too close to it and the face flattens. Hair swept back and extended behind the cranium balances the regal pose. Lines shaping the hair echo those marking the cranium in step 1. Here, the lower part of step 1 comes through as wisps of hair across her face and ear

BALANCED POSE

Portrait of a Young Girl

2 Rapidly add shorthand shapes to represent the face. avoid drawing too dark. 3 Place the eye beneath the cranium. Moving from the back of the neck. too soon. Keep your first lines light. First lines will remain visible in the final drawing. down the face to the throat. The eye announces the nature and expression of the emerging person.147 Building up the portrait DRAWING PORTRAITS 1 Gently spin pale lines in a softly drawn shape representing the cranium. neck. over the cranium. Here. they are also still sweeping and confident.Theangle at which you draw this shape of the paper will determine the angle of the finished head. and throat. I used light to describe the upper lid first with a shadow beneath for the lower lid and open eye. I modeled the outline of the character I imagined light shining from above and in front and adjusted the pressure of lines to reflect this. so it is important to the life of the image that while controlled. 4 . The nose and ear begin to shape the head.

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empathize. . muscular tension. and gravity. Above all. the texture of hair. a n d t h o s e w h o a r e Generations asleep (see overleaf).T o DRAW PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGES. be aware of the subtle differences in skin surface.

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Castings DRAWING IN THE PRADO MUSEUM. with a steel dip pen and acrylic ink. I used the nib upside down to gain needle-sharp precision. Fast lines carve out the features of Goya's soup-slurping hag. seeking the dominant contours of each individual expression. . Madrid. Van Dyke's noble cast of characters was modeled more finely.

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c o s t u m e o f f e r s a r i c h v o c a b u l a r y of t e x t u r e s a n d c o l o r . was a Belarussian A r t Deco theater fantasies and desires to immediately possess a version of the same. Bakst's designs and costumes immediately To the fine artist. S t r u c t u r e is t h o u g h the i n v e n t i o n of shoes. shapes. e m u l a t e textures. cool. a n d w e will c o l l e c t patterns. for e x a m p l e — d e s i g n e d the w a r d r o b e s of p o p e s a n d k i n g s . . a n d s u b t l e t o n e s . dancer leaps through swaths of golden cloth. or calm u s w i t h chic. and even invisible by the w a y w e dress. gesture. so that c h o i c e . and be so expressive of temperament that it overtakes the need for an o c c u p y i n g h u m a n form. theb u t b y the w a y it s p e a k s w i t h its flying. arichand unusual combination of pencil. and intent. Petersburg and later exiled designers' ideas and are surprised and delighted b y their continual f l o w of inspiration. it is the public sign by w h i c h w e are j u d g e d . st 111/4 x 81/2 in (285 x 220 mm) u d i e d L E O NB A K S T and explore the characterization of fabric t h r o u g h m o v e m e n t . and gouache. T h e e n t o u r a g e of the theatrical stage o f t e n l e a d s the c a t w a l k . and everything w e h a v e c h o s e n for o u r w a r d r o b e s — r e f l e c t o r s of o u r taste. In psychology. outrageous. of Scheherazade. articulate a d a n g e r o u s satirical j o k e . Designers all over the w o r l d c o n t i n u a l l y p e n and b r u s h lines to lash us w i t h color. caricatured p l u m e s . Artists do this not so m u c h b y the style of a figure's garment. a n d c o u r t i e r tailors f o l l o w e d suit. a n d p r o f e s s i o n — b e g a n life as a d r a w i n g .Costume W E MAKE OURSELVES EXOTIC. W e dress ourselves and costume designer trained in in St. known as Leon Bakst. personality. and s y m b o l s that lets m e n and w o m e n in all countries and areas have w o r k i n g access to the latest fashions. and atmosphere. and i n d e e d image b e c a m e the property also of the industrial classes. c u l t u r e . In this c h a p t e r w e see h o w c l o t h i n g c a n s e e m to p o s s e s s the w e i g h t and m o n u m e n t a l i t y of stone. Samoylovich Rosenberg. fulfilling lavish and spectacular briefs.This voluptuous above all a physical p u p p e t w i t h w h i c h to animate character and narrate personality. g l o s s y folds. Previously. he and cofounder Serge Diaghilev took Paris by eac storm in 1910 with their production h year in the industrial f r e n z y of creating o u r image and aspirations. D e s i g n e r s create m a s t e r p i e c e s of haute couture LEON BAKST for H o l l y w o o d stars. Like it or not. Practical classes Bacchante 1911 l o o k at r a n g e s of c o l o r e d m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d i n g p a s t e l s a n d felt-tip p e n s . T h e p a p e r p a t t e r n is p e r h a p s the m o s t w i d e l y k n o w n of c o s t u m e d r a w i n g s : a formalized plan of lines. P o p u l a r f a s h i o n d e s i g n e x p l o d e d w i t h the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n . T h e rural masses w o r e h o m e s p u n simplicity. woman was drawn by Bakst one year later for the ballet Narcisse. w a r m t h . or b u l g e s . intriguing. while court p a i n t e r s — M i c h e l a n g e l o and Holbein. charcoal. Cities c h a n g e d all. variety. toParis.As artistic director of the It is s h o c k i n g to t h i n k h o w m a n y m i l l i o n s of d r a w i n g s m u s t be m a d e a n d d i s c a r d e d Ballet Russe. w h i c h in turn feed c o n s u m e r Lev. o n l y the w e a l t h y c o u l d afford to h a v e c o s t u m e s specially m a d e . b u t influenced Parisian fashion and interiordecor. and e x u b e r a n c e . c r u m p l e s .

her marble garment holds u p the infant Christ in a fountain of compressed line. Delicate marks Silver (or metal) point is the most delicate of traditional drawing media (see pp. Sculpted one. best k n o w n f o r his G h e n t altarpiece ( 1 4 3 2 ) a n d m a r r i a g e p o r t r a i t o f Giovanni A r n o l f i n i and his w i f e (1434). with their jagged edges. and the kneeling abbot is a ghost by comparison. bands around the columns. H e m e t i c u l o u s l y a r r a n g e d subjects t o c o n v e y d e e p e r meaning. the carefully composed outline of his cloak shows us how the artist would have also begun his immaculate rendering of the Virgin's clothes. In Van Eyck's drawing below. Maelbeke I44I Madonna 11 x 7 in (278 x 180 m m ) JAN V A N EYCK . Above them. However. Opposite. it is only possible to create very thin. Flaxmans sleeper—perhaps a pilgrim or a soldier resting between campaigns—has wedged himself into the cleft of some great building to grab a moment of peace. Below this. He has layered these slowly and carefully so as not to cut through the ground and produce a white mark just where he intended a dark one. With a stylus such as Van Eyck used here.140-41). delicate lines. Keisai Eisen's intense. resonate with their wearers startled expression. the Madonna and her architecture are both dressed in the same manner. folds and patterns of material speak more resolutely of their wearers than any small glimpses of body we can see. and implied striation in the stone of the architecture. Church and deities are drawn as JAN VAN EYCK Flemish oil p a i n t e r f r o m L i m b o u r g . Vertical lines The highly controlled lines of this drawing cascade from top to bottom of the image.156 COSTUME Cloth and Drapery EACH OF THESE FIGURES is ninety percent cloth. Marble gown We will never know if Van Eyck considered this drawing unfinished or intended the kneeling abbot to remain transient and ghostly. Their uninterrupted emphasis is entirely vertical. Short and subtle horizontal punctuations are only given in the background by sections of floor. swirling printed fabrics. Van Eyck's highly polished w o r k is c e l e b r a t e d f o r its disguised symbolism. The quiet stillness of this image is achieved by a masterly economy of stylized line. Her gown is carved and polished as if made from marble. dragons. the vaulted stone roof echoes and crowns the moment. and snakelike marks.

and Man Lying Down in a Cloak I 787-94 21/4 JOHN FLAXMAN x 41/8 in (57 x 105 mm) . an 18th-19th century document on the lives of the ukiyo-e artists. draftsman. the cloak sliding to the ground. designer. Parts of the image to be left unprinted are gouged out with a metal tool. and teacher Distinctive linear illustrations for the works of Homer. which are sometimes also cut into pieces like a jigsaw puzzle. stone wall of downward-stroked this sleeper's position is momentary. writer and printmaker Keisai Eisen took his name from the masters Kano Hakkeisai and Kikugawa Eizan. one over the other. Images are drawn onto smooth. and the feet notched against the pillar tell us that A lines holds him into the cleft. Aeschylus earned Flaxman an international reputation. Koimurasaki of Tama-ya 1810-50 15 x101/4in (381 x 260 mm) KEISAI EISEN The Courtesan JOHN F L A X M A N English late 18th-century neoclassical sculptor. The inked block is laid face-down on damp paper and pressed to make the print. flat sheets of wood. he also co-edited and expanded the Ukiyo-e Ruiko (History of Prints of the Floating World). CLOTH AND DRAPERY Relief printing This is a woodblock print made by a relief process. This complex numerous blocks prepared image and may have been made with printed separately. the angle of the head. Respected for his sumptuous images of geisha and editions of erotic prints. each delivering a different part and color of the design. Remaining raised areas of wood are rolled with colored inks.157 KEISAI EISEN Japanese draftsman. Position In this pen and ink drawing. Dante.

Leg section Compare mid-shin the section of white boots cropped to the section of similarly cropped trousers in drawings Gruau's drawing on p. Van D y k e was chief assistant t o Rubens f o r t w o years. Flowing scarf The knight's scarf of gilded blue is drawn in a pale wash over red ink lines. Its color is also reflected in the metal. where sometimes there just might not be anybody inside. He has been rendered on this olive<olored page with pen and gray wash worked over a red and black under-drawing. cartoon. Anthony Van Dyke's Man in Armor is a masterpiece of drawn surface. all ruffs and wrinkles. Leg sections in both support the figure without taking our attention away from the main garment above. a scurrilous cartoon by a courtier of Queen Elizabeth I. theater. a n d w a s e m p l o y e d as c o u r t painter t o King Charles I. Opposite is a dangerous drawing. and feather were all CHARACTER COSTUMES REPRESENT observed with closely crafted conviction.158 COSTUME Character Costumes an extreme form of the clothed figure. w h e r e . A s a y o u n g man. In 1 6 3 2 he m o v e d p e r m a n e n t l y t o L o n d o n . and even formal portraiture. Details and voices are worn externally with great imagination. Its warm surface flows in contrast to the stiff metal armor. Fine examples can be plucked from fashion. The aged queen is compared to an overdressed bird. The slight uncertainty of the pose and the limp cloak suggest a little more metal than man. he c o o l e d and redefined his style. 160. cloth. cinema. A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE Flemish painter and draftsman. Pen and wash In the graphic accuracy of this armored knight we see the idealized identity of a warrior from another time: a gleaming defender of the realm. Man in Armor UNDATED 1 6 x 9 1 / 2 in ( 4 0 5 x 2 4 0 m m ) A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE . A flamboyant territory. t h r o u g h n u m e r o u s p o r t r a i t and C h u r c h commissions. for she would not have been amused and William Wodall might have been stretching his luck. The metal. b e f o r e traveling t o Italy. lace. It is presumed Her Royal Highness never saw it.

A Ruffs and feathers Starched white ruffs worn at court and by society grew steadily larger as Elizabeth's reign progressed. Satire of the Queen's Dress c. and her pride. suggest the use of iron-gall ink (see p.159 WILLIAM W O D A L L A u t h o r and illustrator o f The Aaes of Queene a Elizabeth poem Allegorized. By her old upto three tiers supported on sticks. while a raised foot pauses to assess the next displaying a fan of daggers. bitten nature. t h e B a b i n g t o n Plot. the queen is masterfully rebalanced by words at her feet The whole drawing's blackened. Top-heavy. hooded with an overinflated fluffy ruff eye pins us. it was customary to Iron-gall ink Wodall's dangerous caricature steps daintily the written lines of her dedicated page. here dark tawny owl.1599 71/2 WILLIAM x 51/4 in ( 1 9 0 x 1 3 4 mm) WODALL . manuscript comprising six c a n t o s . t h e Jesuit Mission. T h e poem recounts t h e six m a j o r crises o f Elizabeth's reign: t h e Spanish A r m a d a . she is shown as a grossly disproportioned bird. Beneath the lethal fan is the body of a bird of trimmed feathers suggest age. and saturations showing through from the other side. t h e Rising. Northern Satire This is a quill-and-ink satire of the elderly queen's pride-As head of state and fashion.35). t h e Ridolfi Plot.

Fashion and fantasy drawings invent prototypes of ideals and perfection—be they for the catwalk or the fast-paced pages of comic books.and tilted to the same de a little deeper than sp kneestogivehergravity.c e n t u r y haute i n n u m e r o u s m a g a z i n e s i n c l u d i n g Elle. Spider-Girl leaps like an insect. Fine lines drawn against the building behind her echo the threads on which we have all seen arachnids drop and hang. muscular aggression. 5 8 . Vogue. Compare the compositio beneathVanDyke'sstudy of armor on p. His model is outlined. and both share the power of scarlet and black. 158. demanding attention with gesture and flair. The black red. Drying time in between applications ensured the colors did not run into each other. G r u a u ' s highly distinctive d r a w i n g s have a p p e a r e d Couture. studio-like rectangle of paper. diving to catch us in the grip of her machine-like limbs. India ink and gouache This swish of confidence and style our enters the page turning everyone's head. Gruau's model regally swans to the fore with cool pride. She has been drawn with brushes dipped into India ink and gouache. Airbrushed reflective surfaces further amplify our perception of speed. possibly over a pencil outline. ofcroppedtrousershere to the device of the w Illustration 1949 for Jacques Fath in L ' O f f i c i e l d e la C o u t u r e RENE GRUAU .F r e n c h f a s h i o n i l l u s t r a t o r w h o in his l o n g and esteemed career w o r k e d with many of the g r e a t e s t d e s i g n e r s o f 2 0 t h . Gruau uses starkly cut negative space (see pp. elegant chic and svelte. and gray pigments were applied separately. Composition Look how well this image is frame knee is parallel to the bottom edge spacehorizontalline cropping the trousers be outermostuprightbordersof her cuffs are similar above her head thesidesoftheimage. Rene Gruau's bold gouache drawing of smoothly swaying sophistication captures a brilliantly cut garment and frames it with great dynamism in a white. a n d L'Officiel de la couture. Harpers & Queen.160 COSTUME Femmes Fatales THESE DEVASTATING femmes fatales force back the onlooker with their demure. as is Spider-Girl opposite.5 9 ) and a three-spoke balance of cuffs and cropped trousers to create an almost flag-like emblem of power. RENE GRUAU I t a l i a n .

In your mind's eye extend the uprights out of the top of the picture. Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 2001-04 R O N FRENZ.RON F R E N Z Contemporary American graphic artist w h o designs and pencils the dynamic scenes of numerous superheroes featured in Marvel Comics. and has been the title's regular artist since 2003. Align your ruler to the upright of each building. This s modeling applied over the top give the image a sleek and mechanical of gravity. a great characteristic superhero comics. Single-point understand perspective To how Frenz created up therefore the effect of steeply between looking buildings—and howyou can do the same in your own work—take calculate where a ruler the and single vanishing point lies. to the right of its center. MARVEL C O M I C S . He began work on Spider-Girl in 1998. Buildings. at Their extensions will meet the same single vanishing (see point pp. Airbrushed color and with tonal focus. moon. sky. Frenz has drawn for Marvel for about 20 years. It is outside the picture frame. Sharp focus black outlines in this drawing create a hyper-real dynamic.74-77). beginning with Star Wars. not far above the drawing. and Amazing Spider-Man. and figure are all locked into equally shatp through the traditional process of a pencilled outline over-drawn ink. The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones.

Most stores leave small pads of paper on their counters for customers to test materials. Before making substantial investments. and subtlety. Be aware that fixative dulls pastel. They vary hugely in cost. oily pigment. See h o w they work and return later for more of what proved best for you. great for tin . Sticks and conte crayons make thicker marks (as below). you may be pleasantly surprised to discover something you could not have imagined using. soft. Try materials that are new and unfamiliar. Dissolve in turpentine or mineral spirits to produce oil paint or or dark paper. crumbly. the diverse are made in brands of basic member of the family. quality. unwrapped harder pastels. slightly oily to the touch. Bright pastels are more brilliant on colored paper. except the final layer. used to make colors. 2. Children's wax crayons are relatives. C o n t e crayons are square-formed. Use them to draw lightly (as above left) or thickly. clay. 4. 3. FELT-TIP PENS: Instant-drying alcoholor water-based inks stored in the barrels of the pens are delivered via smooth nylon o r felt tips of varying shapes and thicknesses. insects. paper-wrapped. Seemingly infinite choices of texture. and synthetics. and can be a great rediscovery for bold drawings. size. plants. Many artists apply fixative to the back of their work. including iridescents. COLORED PENCILS: Dry pigments ground together with chalk. intensity. shape. made in about 80 colors. animals. and sold in many colors. which he left unfixed to retain its brightness. CHALK PASTELS: Blackboard chalk is sidewalk work. there are disparities between the apparent nature or color of what you hold in your hand and its performance on paper. The worst are like revolting old lipsticks that get everywhere except where you intend. wash. OIL PASTELS: Many colors. 1. colored materials available. Store loose pastels in dry rice to keep them clean. I suggest you do so. Often. They work well on PIGMENTS Pigments. OIL PASTELS Oil-based. minerals. purchase a small selection of different items you think you will like. fixing each layer on the front. hue. The nontoxic range below represents a suggested starting point for experiment. quality and cost T h e best are paperwrapped sticks of sumptuous. and CHALK PASTELS Pastel pencils make fine lines (as above).162 COSTUME Colored Materials ART STORES BRIM OVER w i t h t h e m a n y wherever permitted. Pastel pencils are slender and in w o o d casing. though lines can develop greasy stains around the edges if the paper is not first stretched and treated with a gelatin paste laid as a wash. the finer and more subtle the texture and color should be. Pastels are finer. and cost are laid out for our pleasure and perusal. or wax and a binder are shaped into fine strips and encased in w o o d like a graphite pencil. mixed on the paper and scratched into (as below). The higher the quality (and cost). these work best when slightly warm. chalkbased but very subtle. and can be softened and manipulated with degrees of heat. are derived from many sources: rocks. Beware—some are toxic. Many products are sold individually and in boxed sets. Degas built his pastels in layers. allowing it to fix slightly from behind.

If you love smooth blocks and lines of colon felt-tip pens are perfect. Brands made for designers sold in enormous ranges of colors are far more subtle and sophisticated than those made for children.163 COLORED PENCILS These are wax. Fine lines can be achieved (as above). . Think of Matisse's Blue Nude (see p. 111). Some give richer lines than others.or clay-based thin crayons in wood casing. Some are nonsoluble. Diverse brands are harder or soften greasier or chalkier in use. Colors can be blended as shown right) and tones graded by altering pressure. leaving the paper to shine through for highlights (as below). so it is best to test them before buying. FELT-TIP PENS Although not made with felt-tip pen. others dissolve in water or turpentine to make a wash. it is still a great champion and support for those beginners feeling shyly obligated to tone down their love of color to conform with what others say they should use.

I m a d e n u m e r o u s s h e e t s o f d r a w i n g s . you will need several large sheets of drawing paper. S H O E S TELL LIFE STORIES. and how we stand and walk. REPEATED STUDY T o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s class. and after studying familiar shoes we use the information learned to invent new ones. the era in which we live. Superstitions and fetishes are attached to them: we are told never to put new shoes on a table. Turn t h e m in different d i r e c t i o n s and o b s e r v e t h e i r s t r u c t u r e and f o r m . if y o u m a k e p l e n t y o f d r a w i n g s as o p p o s e d t o o n l y a f e w . personality. . Linear Outline Using fine pens. t o o . style. 100-01 and pp. t h e n again as if transparent. they record and reflect our common history. social and economic status. 104-07). As artifacts in museums. will discover m o r e . This class takes the shoe as its subject in building on earlier lessons concerned with seeing through objects to understand their function. and a selection of shoes. c o v e r a large sheet o f p a p e r w i t h line drawings o f several shoes. e n j o y i n g t h e study a n d i n v e n t i o n o f shoes. and volume in space (see pp. and they have been concealed in buildings to ward off misfortune. You. D r a w each o n e first as a solid object. imagining y o u can see t h r o u g h it. To set up. a range of colored felt-tip pens with both fine and broad tips. while artists have painted their boots or those of others as personal portraits and memorials.164 COSTUME Study and Design they reflect our age. a n d e x p e r i e n c e visible p r o g r e s s . structure. values. Here we go one step further.

165

The Surface
Next,

STUDY AND DESIGN

study the surface contours using fineand broad-tipped felt-tip pens. For best results, it is important to be bold and brief. Draw firmly, fast, and with as few strokes as possible. Build up each shoe from light to dark andleavesome paper showing through to create highlights.

Design Your Own

Using what you have learned from the previous steps about the structures of your shoes, and about the use of pens, invent new designs from your imagination. Start with fine outlines and progress to colored and textured surfaces. Modify your ideas by rotating the views.

166

COSTUME

The Structure of Costume
MUSEUMS ARE AN INFINITELY

rich resource for the artist and

information given by a period style. Arrange to visit a costume museum or ask a friend to model clothes for you at home. Using fine felt-tip pens, begin with quick, pale impressions of each garment's shape before homing in on its borders and seams. Try to draw transparent views wherever possible to record the relationships between all component parts. Aim to draw enough information for it to be possible to make up a version of the garment using paper pinned to a tailor's dummy.

designer. They often give quite unexpected gems of ideas and information—whatever the subject. These drawings, made in a costume museum, demonstrate ways of recording structural information and detail for later use in the studio. They could form the basis of new designs for a fashion project or theater production, for example. Drawings of shoes on pp. 164-65 show how new designs can be evolved from the structural

OBSERVATION
It is usually best when collecting information for reference to apply the restraint of dispassionate observation. Set yourself the test of drawing facts with as little artistic license or embellishment as possible. Here I chose fine felt-tip pens because they are at their best when used swiftly, and therefore encourage bold, unhesitant decisions.

Swift lines record the hanging weight of this gentleman's coat, the relative proportions of its layers, and minimal details of the buttons and cuffs.

Thick velvet fabric is pulled tight beneath and across the bust by a single button. This transparent view shows how the fabric falls loosely in straight panels beneath the level of the sleeve.

167

LIGHTING
W h e n visiting museums, be prepared f o r l o w lighting, which can make it hard t o see and draw. A book can help if attached t o your drawing board.

Adding stripes and dashes of color with a thicker pen brings out the glossy sheen and sculptural rigidity of this dress, which would have been worn over a whalebone corset. small reading light designed t o clip o n t o a

THE STRUCTURE OF COSTUME

In small drawings such as these, use thick pens to color entire sections with a few marks, as I did here down the side of the bodice.

The light, frilly bulk of this crinoline dress is propelled forward with lines. pinching its gathers and sways that are hiding a horsehair bustle. fleets of quick

168

COSTUME

Textures and.Patterns
THIS CLASS FOCUSES ON how to draw textures through the collection of fabric, pattern, and embroidery samples from a costume m u s e u m . This formal method, using ruled squares, can create an invaluable library of ideas a n d i n f o r m a t i o n for future r e f e r e n c e — w h e n painting a clothed figure, or preparing a textile project, for example. However, if making a book of samples for a project, remember that it is important to also include collages of f o u n d materials (see pp.230-31) To d r a w a fabric texture, b e g i n by concentrating o n h o w y o u i m a g i n e it w o u l d feel if you t o u c h e d it. Decide if it w o u l d be rough, s m o o t h , w a r m , cold, thick, thin, tough, or fragile, for example. As you draw, believe you can feel these qualities at your fingertips a n d that your pencil is responding to the sensation. Undulate the pressure of your lines and marks according to the feeling of the fabric rather than its appearance. Let your pencil enact the sensation of touching its surface.

and to experiment more loosely with mixed media.

INVENTING COSTUMES
This starchy, quilted, b o w e d creation started life as an imagined corset, I intended t o d r a w together in one sculptural f o r m a range o f t h e details opposite. T h e garment quickly got o u t o f hand. T h e r e is great e n j o y m e n t in letting y o u r imagination run wild w h e n inventing costumes. If you are unable t o visit a costume museum, many exciting fabric details and textures can be found in y o u r o w n closet o r home.

169

COLORED PENCILS
Colored pencils give precision and tonal range; they can be faded but not erased. Lightly use an HB graphite pencil if you wish to plan a design first. Pressed hard, colored pencils build up a waxy finish of brilliant color. Used lightly, they appear powdery and show the texture of the paper.

TEXTURES AND PATTERNS
Wool

Silk and braid

Ribbon

Embroidered leather

Feathers

Pearls

Knit

Tassels

Outline stitch

.

I made a drawing book full of studies seeking to understand how he composed drama and pathos in his narratives (see also pp. selected from different pages of my original book.Dressing Character I O N C E SPENT THREE MONTHS researching the work of Francisco de Goya at the Prado Museum. . and motivation of an individual. identity. shape. These characters. look at how Goya delineated volumes of thick fabric to express the posture.126-27. Madrid. and 252-53). 172-73.

are copies of works by Goya in which he makes air seem heavier than flesh.170—71). To understand how he did this.T H E S E PENCIL STUDIES. I carefully copied the direction of each of his lines. and tangible. . as it rushes and carves fabric-wrapped forms like rivers and desert winds shaping the earth. and visible. Posture Carving also taken from my Madrid drawing book (see pp.

.

.

the viewer is not directly made the finer lines of Saskia. but drawings of gathered people tell them most directly. stares out from her gloomy sickbed. Third. Later in their lives. television documentaries. We read tensions and exchanges between people. the direct exchange (as shown here) where one or more characters hold eye Aneedproduced the thicker lines of the nurse. R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN in the delivery of narrative. Blockbuster movies. too. we can learn most about handling pen and ink. and distance—so drawings of gathered people can be loosely arranged in three took only minutes to make and yet it lives for centuries. Her all-too-clear expression shows annoyance and irritation with her husband. we can R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter draftsman. Seeing through Rembrandt's eyes. heighten or subdue drama with subtleties of exaggeration or caricature. and so. furniture. vivid portrait of his wife captures our attention. Storytelling and people-watching are obsessive human activities. He in turn scorches the paper with his view and a certain speed of seeing all. there are no longer individuals but one significant group or mass action. and instantly engage with the action of the scene. this is not the portrait of an old woman. This J u s t as there are three parts to a traditional landscape drawing—the foreground. are implicated in this marital exchange made over the head of the anonymous nurse. even up her were laid with a brush.Gatherings A LL DRAWINGS TELL STORIES. With a pocket full of disposable pens we also go out and draw the expressions of gathered people. First. soap operas. we. while a quill contact with. Second. As artists. a crowd tells the story from a distance. in spite of how it may seem. It middle. We can also use clothes. and therefore seem to see. types. the speed and printmaker and one of the greatest and most influential density of its lines. comics. . and its illumination. daily newspapers. Rembrandt's bored and frustrated wife. the viewer. paintings depicting scenes from history. The spaces between people and the positions they occupy on a page are vital to our understanding of the psychology or emotion of an event. presumably while he is making this drawing. Here. the viewer's attention in a scene by the format of its composition. He is also the artist from whom props to add layers of meaning and attitude. finding corners in crowded places to inscribe their action and energy onto the page. Washes of shadow behind engaged and as a natural voyeur can feel invisible while watching the scene. We can direct close. and other masters of Western Art. Saskia died after childbirth. Saskia. and novels—our staple cultural diet—are driven by a fascination with shared experience and the detail of what happens in other people's lives. Drawings selected for this chapter explore these Saskia Lying in Bedand a Nurse ranges of proximity 1638 9 x61/2in (227 x 164 mm) and a travel journal.

and projectors to create their anarchic punk satires of modern life. TIM N O B L E A N D SUE W E B S T E R British artists who collaborate using neon. via the animated clutter of o u r material lives. and smoke billows around the agitated jives of the Duchess. hearth i m p l e m e n t s crash at o u r feet. the C o o k . F o r e a c h w o r k . h a l o e d portrait of the artists seated b a c k to b a c k . junk. narrative is delivered through the air. or even the office photocopier. and Alice. Real Life is Rubbish 2002 Dimensions variable TIM N O B L E A N D SUE WEBSTER .176 GATHERINGS SOME DRAWINGS ARE MADE e n t i r e l y o f i l l u m i n a t i o n that floods drama into the viewers gaze. plates shatter. Pencil on paper important but only the beginning of possibility the combination of three-dimensional space. c o m p o s e d garbage p r o d u c e s a c a l m . Below. In both works. In one of R a c k h a m s great illustrations for Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland. and in.kicks against the mundane things that close down your mind is a refreshing and good thing. N o b l e a n d W e b s t e r s w i t t y a n d o f t e n s u b v e r s i v e d r a w i n g s are also c o n t e m p o r a r y art installations.. for example. and on. the Cat. Think about what else you could use: a laser smoke. T h e i m m a c u l a t e d r a w i n g is only r e v e a l e d w h e n t h e b e a m of a p r o j e c t o r c a s t s t h e s h a d o w Projections of the h e a p o n t o a wall. Here. refuse. Pans fly oft the stove.. garbage and chaos are piled a n d e x p l o d e d in r o o m s full of event. and projector. t h e y select and arrange familiar items of street detritus into what appears to be an u n p l e a s a n t pile. a kitchen explodes in o u r faces." (Tim Noble) Drawing with light it is important to think about what you is Here timelessly we see a in can draw with."Anything that.

Refer back to the drawing class how pots In drawn objects and elements that those behind. humor. ink.177 ARTHUR RACKHAM British watercolorist and book illustrator. are very large compared to on p. 100 to see for make elliptical objects and pans fly through the the foreground. by vivid children's Rakham's w o r k is characterized fantasy. and Alice's shoulder. See how the In the Duchess's Kitchen 1907 77/8 x 6 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 5 0 m m ) ARTHUR RACKHAM . Find the singleperspective pp. beams. Rackham Vanishing point In this marvelous drama made with pen. Depth Billows of smoke expand and are lighter as they come forward. and watercolor. H e is best k n o w n forillustratingIrving's Rip vanWinkle.Stowe's ofMysteryand Queer Little Folks. and Poe's Tales Imagination. tabletop.76-77) above vanishing point (see that is about3/4in (2 cm) oak converge at this point. we find several devices already explored through our drawing classes. amplifying movement outward from the vanishing point. This makes the story appear to leap out at us. The wood grain acts like marks of speed behind the scene. a n d an unmistakable graphic style.

a sculptor. and composition they are polar opposites. join in the waiting. perhaps these two are the most extreme. M o o r e t o u r e d Italy as a young man. heat. as if Moore's wrapping has been literally outstretched. expressing his dry humor about O F ALL THE CONTRASTS HENRY MOORE British s c u l p t o r w h o t r a i n e d a n d taught at t h e R C A . A glimmer of gold light appears from the left No explanation is given. a n d l o v e d t o d r a w in t h e BritishMuseum. Magnetic Fields sculpture. meaning. Opposite. HENRY MOORE Crowd 1942 Looking at Tied-up Object . and action of a buffalo hunt. London. In culture. The image stands out among his more usual graphic works in which he hones and carves semi-abstract human forms. The mournful gray landscape of Henry Moore's northern British field has gathered by night an overcoated audience to stand and wait before a wrapped and roped monument. as fellow watchers. which still narrates vivid days in the lives of an energetic nation. a great Shoshone drawing blazes with the color. and art in the landscape.178 GATHERINGS we have seen in the pairs and trios of drawings by masters and makers. This is an ironic drawing from Moore. and we. This is just one of many precious artifacts from a lost time. Moore's spectators appear to have walked a long way from nowhere to witness and wait beside this mysterious obelisque. audiences.The human form w a s the vehicle o f his expression and h e w a s t h e official W o r l d W a r II artist. Chalk and graphite This fog-bound but humorous gathering of souls is made in graphite and colored chalk with gray wash.

MAGNETIC FIELDS Horses It is interesting to note how the outstretched limbs ofthesehorses echo European images of the runningBuffalo horse before the sequence-photographer Muybridge taught us to 19TH understand their movement differently." Men at the instructed to sit and watch. Each color is evenly distributed throughout the scene. creating harmonious balance with words but through silent demonstration. Skills are taught not center chant or dance to the beat of a drum. Hunt CENTURY SHOSHONE SCHOOL . Stylized hunters. horses. and helping our eye to dart around.179 SHOSHONE SCHOOL Stylized characters This vital image of a buffalo hunt is made with pigment Members of the Shoshone community wishing painted within dark outlines on a stretched elk hide. tolearnhow to paint a scene on a hide are and buffalo circle and charge the perimeters of a skin "field.

pale souls of the lustful are being s p u n into yet another realm of hell.180 GATHERINGS The Human Condition IN THE SPECTRUM of these vastly d i f f e r e n t g a t h e r i n g s of p e o p l e . w h e r e he w a t c h e s a t u r b u l e n t s p i r a l of p u n i s h m e n t f o r the d a m n e d . a n d o t h e r w o r k s . We also see qualities of line. a pink-inked cinema wobbles along with string. a n d the gentle h u m o r of sedate r i d i c u l e . t h e Bible. w e f i n d a spiritual v i s i o n . K a t h e K o l l w i t z s c r a t c h e d a n d e n g r a v e d her a r m y of c l a y . inextinguishable in its fortitude and h u m o r . w r i t e r a r t i s t . era as Kollwitz. a n d e n g r a v e r w h o p o w e r f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e d his o w n t e x t s in a d d i t i o n t o D a n t e ' s Divine Comedy. and sweetened the often bleak years with his impractical inventions. Blake w a s d r i v e n b y a passion f o r j u s t i c e a n d a p r o f o u n d b e l i e f in his v i s i t a t i o n s f r o m angels. Heath Robinson lived through the same war-torn. The muscularity of Blake's figures was inspired by Michelangelo's works. It illustrates a scene from Dante's Divine Comedy. Brushed line and wash This is an ink-outlined drawing made with a fine brush on paper with added washes of watercolor The image was subsequently redrawn as a line engraving. a n d f o c u s . a d e a t h c h a r g e of brutality. W I L L I A M BLAKE British visionary. p o e t . m a r k . texture. Misted in translucent layers of paint. The Circle of the (The Whirlwind 1824 of Lustful Lovers) mm) 143/4 x 207/8i n ( 3 7 4 x 5 3 0 WILLIAM BLAKE . Opposite.f o o t e d t r o g l o d y t e s w h o rage into w a r like a m u d s l i d e of revenge. w h i c h b y their c h o i c e a n d h a n d l i n g a c t u a l l y b e c o m e the force a n d spirit of e a c h i m a g e . B l a k e h a s i l l u m i n a t e d his s a d d e n e d Virgil on the s h o r e s of a d a r k w o r l d . color.

THE HUMAN CONDITION Scratched lines This is a dry-point etching with monoprint. humor by making his characters earnest. With masterful gentility. plodding along with hazy. poverty. and the family home. Ink rolled over was selectively polished off using a rag. who lived in a poor district of Berlin. He created sincere. White marks were made with a dusting of French chalk on the artist's finger to wipe away ink leaving clean metal. stoical bemusement.181 KATHE KOLLWITZ German printmaker. Kollwitz survived the two World Wars. and controlled smears on the metal surface printed as tones. What remained in scratched grooves printed on damp paper as lines. and clearly focused. and her powerful and sensitive drawings center on nurture. Losbruch (The Outbreak) 1955 20 x 233/8 in (507 x 592 mm) KATHE KOLLWITZ HEATH ROBINSON humorous illustrator and a regular contributor to magazines and journals such as The Sketch and The Bystander. sculptor and draftsman. Heath Robinson shows England in a past era. children. however meager or ridiculous their activity. HEATH ROBINSON The Kinecar 1926 103/8 x 15 in (262 x 380 mm) . British Pen and wash This is a pen-andwatercolor drawing made for a color-platereproduction in an edition of T h e Bystander. The image was scratched directly onto a metal plate. and the impact of death and war upon women. Robinson and Kollwitz (above) share almost identical life dates and their work expresses a shared history from opposite sides oftheworld wars.

Lines t h i c k e n as t h e p e n w e a r s o u t G r a n d Canal (see pp. dropped in your pocket and forgotten till needed. dark sheen. W h i t e gel p e n s a r e v e r y e f f e c t i v e o n d a r k papers. t w o tourists and their gondolier drifter past m e o n a canal. these pens enable you to sketch.182 GATHERINGS Disposable Pens (ballpoints. in the studio. a n d pressure-sensitive. they can be obtained within minutes.7 7 and 214-15). or put the paper in your pocket instantly without fear of smudging. R e m e m b e r . 4. Unlike pencils. 7 6 . FIBER-TIP: M a n u f a c t u r e d f o r artists a n d d e s i g n e r s in a r a n g e o f w i d t h s . So many stores sell them. and in most pockets so I can always record a thought DISPOSABLE PENS QUICK NOTES O n a c o l d day in Venice. . aiming for correct outlines would result in drawing too slowly to c a t c h the moment. I swiftly focused on gesture. G E L P E N : P r o d u c e d in b l a c k w h i t e ." 1. they each offer distinct and sometimes unexpected qualities. a ballpoint will make faint lines. I keep quantities at home. gel pens) are the most convenient of all materials with which to travel. At a time like this. p e r m a n e n t . which can snap or pierce through your clothes. Quick-drying. blob when old. trusting shape and form to follow. in the car. rollerballs. indent paper. 192-93) w e r e b o t h m a d e w i t h a ballpoint. c h o o s e p e n s l a b e l e d " p e r m a n e n t " o r "lightfast. a disposable pen with its clip-on cap goes anywhere. turn the page.r e s i s t a n t . shut your book. Ideal f o r precision w o r k (see p p . or turn into washes and make monoprints if flooded with an alcohol-based substance such as hairspray. R O L L E R B A L L : A c o n s t a n t i n k flow 3 . jot notes. fine fiber-tip Drawing with a fine fiber-tip pen. CHOICES AVAILABLE T h e r e a r e m a n y d i s p o s a b l e p e n s t o c h o o s e from. t h e y a r e lightfast. Available in blacks and ranges of colors. For example. w a t e r . if y o u w i s h y o u r d r a w i n g s t o last a n d n o t fade o r b l u r w i t h t i m e a n d e x p o s u r e t o light. a n d ranges o f colors. 2. B A L L P O I N T : Black a n d b o l d c o l o r s o f f e r d i v e r s e qualities. is d e l i v e r e d t h r o u g h a m e t a l t u b e o v e r a t i n y ball bearing. Insensitive t o p r e s s u r e : lines d o n o t v a r y in w i d t h o r t o n e .188-89) and Caravans (see pp. or idea. T h e r e w e r e c seconds t o snatch this impression b e t w e e n their emergence from one bridge and disappearance b e n e a t h t h e next. fibertips. build to a rich. The f o u r i l l u s t r a t e d h e r e r e p r e s e n t a basic r a n g e . including l u m i n o u s a n d m e t a l l i c .

Fast lines focus on action. crowd of fellow travelers Fast lines These scribbled lines model the mass and shadows of heads belonging passengers packed into the boat. Compare this Klee's mules on p. not form. Earlier I had witnessed a crammed en masse in a fleet of hired gondolas complete with musicians and choir.FROMMEMORY Here I used the same fiber-tip pen to compose a scene from memory.31 .

angles will happen as a matter of course. focus on the action of the event. You must learn to trust your memory and to draw what impressed you most. when out drawing. Push toward caricature and this will draw out of your memory what was most important. of course. Above all. FLEETING MOMENTS Walking through Venice with a small. Each line acts its part in the narrative. Movement . Don't worry about measuring angles. activity. A curatorial assistant flies to do a chore (right). not its outline. black. all action is in the line of his coat and directed by his nose. Circular lines buzz around a man puzzling at the end of a train platform (left). Every drawing writes an indelible memory of place. No camera can tie you to a time or people in the same way. Let the line of the flying coat fly and the hanging arm hang. and companionship. You will make outlines. pocket notebook and a fiber-tip pen. if a person was stout.184 GATHERINGS The Travel Journal I CANNOT OVERSTATE THE JOY of making a travel journal. life will not slow and wait for you to catch it. I caught fleeting glimpses of gathered people and solitary souls going about their affairs. However. Each one was witnessed and drawn immediately from the afterimage of what I had just seen. Exaggeration helps. let it enter the stage and perform. animate them more. just draw the action. but they should not be what you dwell on. if animated. make them stouter.

I am watched by the aggravated guard. Observation THE TRAVEL JOURNAL The same willowy assistant dashes about his work. In turn.185 A large lady is photographed in front of a delicate work of art. eager to herd us all from his house of responsibility. The rush of his legs isamplifiedby their blurred lines. Expression . I drew him three times on the same page to catch a range of his physical expressions.

Here I have recreated my drawing in steps to show you how to set about capturing such a scene. emotion.186 GATHERINGS Catching the Moment On A BITTERLY COLD November day. furniture leans. and clothing or bags hang. and you decide to draw the moment. Be aware that their placement on the page is part of the narrative. not outline. elevate them in the pictorial space. and reason for happening. I took refuge in a church in Venice. placement. and let every detail speak by its size. if they are being devious. start by focusing on its action. Here the custodian projects fastidious ownership of his desk and pamphlets by pushing from behind the center of the space and challenging our entry to his image. forcing me to remain at the back and look at them. ACTION AND DETAIL W h e n drawing people. Place the person carefully. and there met this sullen custodian. flap. rather than the works of art they guarded. Identify the principal character and draw him or her first. you might place them lower down. focus on action. For example. pulls. if they are being haughty. or pushes. He and his simpering assistant would not allow me in. When your attention has been caught. decide how faces and bodies contort. . and involvement in the story. For example. or bulge.

Draw their action and props. who is largely expressed through the shape and fall o f his raincoat and his way o f using a note pad. Decide where you will place them o n the paper t o emphasize their action and intent. D r a w their action. I added t h e assistant.187 The custodian Identify your principal character a n d their psychological role in the scene. a pillar locates t h e scene in a depth o f space. which is pushed toward us in a gesture of confrontation. Here. Decide where t o place them t o emphasize their role. . CATCHING THE MOMENT The assistant Identify t h e antagonist ( o r second character) in t h e scene. If drawing a more complex scene. In the final step (left) I reinforced t h e custodian's desk. such as the desk and pamphlets seen here. together with any immediate props they are using. W i t h a few strokes. continue adding characters.

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An imminent deluge of tourists urged me to work catching no more than the skeleton of the view.Grand Canal T H E CANALS OF VENICE are bustling places full of occupation. I developed detailofthis drawing from memory using a ballpoint pen. . where vertical mooring poles give space and pulse to the horizontal speed of water quickly. and buildings.

followed by the streets. Caricature each person slightly. then the bridge beneath them. . Each person was glimpsed in an instant. Characters in the foreground were drawn first. and drawn immediately from memory. note only their most essential action and feature. To catch characters like this.Crossings DURING THIS RUSH HOUR. Venetians flow across a stepped bridge and cascade into the streets beyond.

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Caravans and other backstage activity convey expectations of energy and repose. I found this circus by chance in the Swiss mountains.Caravans T H E PARAPHERNALIA O F TRAVEL i s an intriguing part of circus life. I used a ballpoint pen to compose a series of scenes. Sitting at a distance on a hot. . and a great subject to draw. quiet afternoon.

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Richard Long. What they have drawn is the force of nature on these properties: how the wind heaves the night ocean. William Turner is said to have had himself lashed to a ship's mast to comprehend the storm (see p. surrounded by the bright instruments of centuries of navigation. but it can be seen as a lens to our observation of this planet. a n d a m o o n globe called t h e Selenographia. or the wind carries it away. so J o h n Russell's tour de f o r c e drawing (opposite) was a masterpiece of observation in his time. they are the animators of your subject. By drawing such momentous and everyday events. These conditions are very difficult to express well. makes his work by the act of walking. and its draws the tides of the seas. sunny days. and take bold steps in emulating the swell of clouds and the forces of torrential water. the face of the Moon. marking the ground with lines of footprints or by turning stones. It is better to get up before dawn. a contemporary environmental artist. learning to draw light out of dark. as opposed the physicality of Earth. arranging them in perfect circles on the mountainside or in lines drifting out of sight beneath low clouds. how the soil is scorched. Oxford. our companion. Weather is essential in all landscape drawing. how the mountain cut by ice and rain is now fleetingly lit. Look closely at works by many artists and you will see that they have not represented hills.Earth and the Elements I T MAY SEEM PERVERSE to start a chapter titled "Earth and the Elements" with an image of the Moon. 199). Beginners will often choose calm. pages o f softly i l l u m i n a t e d craters and lunar "seas" c o v e r e d in m a t h e m a t i c a l and s h o r t h a n d calculations. Russell d r e w this. This is the world's first accurate image of the Moon. The forces of nature. and meteor impacts have scarred. the sun comes out to blind it. JOHN RUSSELL A p o r t r a i t pastelist t o King G e o r g e III o f England. The pastel drawing was constructed from myriad telescopic observations almost 200 years before the Apollo Moon landing. and even how the Sun illuminates. It is Earths satellite. It now hangs on the staircase of the History of Science Museum. or has cracked and fallen under the weight of water. H e a l s o p r o d u c e d an a l b u m o f 1 8 0 exquisite pencil drawings. speculation. are the real subjects in great landscape drawings. England. artists see for themselves that which is momentary and eternal. rivers. and the sea. a n d a n astronomer w h o dedicated 20 years t o studying t h e M o o n . Take chances against the rain and work with the wind or fog. There is a sense of the heroic in drawing outside—we race to catch a form before the tide engulfs it. t w o e n g r a v e d m a p s k n o w n as The Lunar Planispheres. and experiment. 5 f t x 5 ft 6 in ( 1 5 2 x 1 6 8 c m ) J O H N RUSSELL . In this chapter Moon Pastel 1795 Drawing we experiment with charcoal. trees. Just as NASA photographs of Earth have had a profound effect on the way we view our fragile home. when little stirs and empty blue skies offer even less to latch lines to. t h e first-ever accurate image o f t h e M o o n ' s surface. to be ready to draw the new light as it breaks across the land.

Through political drawings he fired his sharp wit at the king. A hard waxy was drawn across a heavy limestone Varying definitions crayon of lire and depths of tone conspire to give volume. distance. a scratched ghost. Flapping kimonos and an onlooker turning his b a c k have the magic of a m o m e n t caught. Crayon and limestone This is a lithograph. and gives motion to each image. Dots and dashes suggest receding trees out of focus. a sail b r o k e n loose in a stormy marriage. Danger of Wearing Balloon Petticoats UNDATED HONORE DAUMIER . serving a prison sentence for his views. By Turner carries us to the heart of the maelstrom. we can soon learn to draw its force. Below. T h e ship. Fluid strokes inflate the woman's dress and pin shadows to the ground. like an umbrella forced inside-out. H O N O R E DAUMIER French satirical cartoonist lithographer. and solidity. T h e great master of English seascape is c o n d u c t i n g with his graphic energy.198 EARTH AND THE E L E M E N T S Air in Motion THE GREAT INVISIBLE SUBJECT o f these d r a w i n g s is t h e w i n d . Hazy vertical marks reveal buildings into the mist. Daumier's c a r t o o n shines with the brilliance of his comic memory. fluttering heavily. and the legal profession. seeing how it shakes. the government. lifts. sculptor. the bourgeoisie. has b e c o m e a hysterical kite. and pioneer ofexpressionism. This wife. Terrifying waves of merciless nature roar across the paper. He knew how the world bends and stutters under such gusts. Hokusais sedate wind presses reeds a n d the j o u r n e y s o f young ladies. is already lost. undramatic b u t brimming with stylized realism. painter. and by observing its tides and eddies in our o w n environment. speed.

painter. wind. W .M.M. AIR IN MOTION Pencil and watercolor subdued brushed. and history painter w h o s e p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t a b o v e all w a s light.l o v e dw o r k s i n c l u d e 1 0 0 v i e w s o f M o u n t Fuji and 1 2 v o l u m e s o f Manga. horizontally then and of the it into the stream Plants also bend and flow right to Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 1802 81/2 HOKUSAI KATSUSHIKA x 131/2 in ( 2 1 7 x 3 4 3 mm) . Landscape a n d city life w e r e his principal subjects.b l o c kprintmaker. A outline scratched of a skeletal into penciled ship is while and the waves. H o k u s a i in t u r n has since significantly influenced European art.W. TURNER KATSUSHIKA HOKUSAI Prolific J a p a n e s e c o l o r w o o d . T u r n e r w o r k e d in oils a n d w a t e r c o l o r s a n d s k e t c h e d c o p i o u s l y o n his travels. including being lashed t o a ship's m a s t in o r d e r to study a storm. d e s i g n e r a n d b o o k i l l u s t r a t o r . Ship in a Storm c. a n d his b e s t . 1826 91/2 x 113/4 in ( 2 4 1 x 3 0 0 m m ) J.i n f l u e n c e d b y examples o f W e s t e r n art obtained through D u t c h t r a d i n g in Nagasaki. seascape. T U R N E R British landscape. leans the whole composition swells around its fateful center. Hokusai direction (from clothing from has chosen which it the right).199 J. Wind direction wood-block This is a colored To represent the blows lifted flowed wind. absorbent watercolor and are Stains of splashed. T h e r e a r e m a n y stories o f his p a s s i o n a t e w o r k i n g methods. into this very as pressed sheet The paper's through own coior is brought banks of mist and fog. from left print.

lines of rain escorting them to b o u n c e and clatter. By contrast. grab their b r u s h . Pen and brush Hugo drew first with pen and ink.200 ELEMENTS Storms STORMS CAN BE SEEN and drawn in two ways: first. composing banks of waves and dense. water. fantasy palaces. It looks so contemporary. this is a b o m b a r d m e n t from o u r h o m e s . Opposite.198) admires the majesty of nature. h a u n t e d shadows. He brings us to stare into a place that no sane human would enter. or charcoal. active surfaces of water. Turner (see p. His subjects include ruins. this is a writer's narrative of terror. as a gestural storm on the paper. drawing was Hugo's principal means o f expression. with a brush. Leonardos Cloudburst of Material Possessions is o n e of his m o s t enigmatic and mysterious works. leaving nothing but a glimpse of moonlight glistening on the froth below. and swim into the page. and t h e sea s t u d i e d f r o m his h o m e in Guernsey in t h e Channel Islands. marks. T h e m e n a c i n g darkness of Hugo's storm b e l o w is so convincing. it is difficult to contemplate its brooding and night-soaked heart. Le Bateau-Vision 1864 71/2 x 1 0 in ( 1 9 2 x 2 5 5 m m ) VICTOR H U G O . EARTH AND THE VICTOR HUGO French novelist and artist (see also p. as a subject and second. T h e very nature of b o t h is turmoil and an interweaving of elements. D o m e s t i c o b j e c t s we can o w n and name fall from the clouds. as if drawn j u s t this year.28). In periods b e t w e e n writing. Then. An update on biblical showers of fish and frogs. and tossed o b j e c t s — a perfect subject in which artists can forget themselves. he blanketed the drawing in darkness. inks. ink.

Each item that has crashed from heaven is drawn in such a way that we can feel Leonardo's nib picking it up in the speed of a doodle. a hook.LEONARDO DA VINCI Leonardo devised many artifacts of our modern lives. and a wheel. envisioning machines centuries before their making (helicopters and bicycles. He was left-handed and wrote backwards in Italian from left to right. for example). Above and below are examples of his mirror handwriting. He bequeathed his drawings to a friend. Cloudburst of Material Possessions 1510-12 45/8 x 43/8 in ( 1 1 7 x 1 1 1 mm) L E O N A R D O DA VINCI . There is a little magic in recognizing many items from our homes something like a rake. It is interesting to speculate how engineering might have developed if his ideas had been shared with the world earlier Ink and chalk This is a pen and ink drawing with touches of black chalk. and they passed through private hands for 400 years before becoming widely known. together with half the contents of our garage. a bell.

Segments The top half of the drawing is a view as we enter the valley. Clare Bryan took panoramic photographs of the English South Downs. which he used to unify his compositions. his unsurpassed handling of light. cooler tones receding into the distance are applied with a brush. She was inspired by her research of aerial plans of London and the story of an alien map butterfly (see caption). and famed for. rapidly layering contours to shape place. made inside a book. transferred it to a scroll. In the lower half he has walked downhill a little. thick. Claude has used a fine nib to delineate segments of land as they recede into space. Paler. and across to the right. rich. Claude Lorrain drew directly on location. Whether land-. a horizon line can trigger our recognition. it is the unique calligraphic signature of the place in which we stand. EARTH AND THE Bryan cut the profile of a city. atmosphere. Nature Profiles Opposite below.202 ELEMENTS THE PROFILE OF A HORIZON is a line we immediately recognize and respond to. Claude is distinguished by. watching his hand and eye at work together. Drawing with a scalpel. and we can imagine standing over his shoulder. she teased away fragments of paper to illuminate her view.1638 85/8 x 121/2 in (219 x 320 mm) CLAUDE LORRAIN . Over first lines. Views from Velletri c. and etcher who lived most of his life in 17th-century Rome. and dry marks in the foreground appear to be made with his finger. Even distilled from all other detail. or cityscape. sea-. and after tracing her captured line. In a very different work (opposite above). C L A U D E LORRAIN French classical landscape painter draftsman. and mood simultaneously.

source workisilluminatedby standing its lower edge on a CLARE BRYAN . Her recent paper photographic.The horizon was drawn with a City Landline 2003 271/2x 59 in (70 x 150 cm) scalpel. drawings Ideas of introduction Clare Bryan to research introduced down and led NATURE PROFILES and removal historical plans and aerial growth of London showing its population since Roman times. and visiting professor at numerous art schools.203 Scalpel-drawn This book-bound drawing was inspired by the story of a foreign butterfly wrongly to Great Britain in 1912." Cut line This is a small section of a preparatory 5-ft(1. specialty bookbinder. 2001 CLARE BRYAN C L A R E BRYAN 3ritish artist. The edges of each here) fade into the solid paper unpopulated with a scalpel landscape. printmaker graphic designer.5-m)scroll. then hunted destroyed. On turning the pages of City. and digital print-based works reflect upon the histories and poetry of "left behind and in-between spaces. progressively settlement (cropped more and more paper is drawn away to show the expansion of human page of an around the river.

resulting in a stick that gives a blacker. CHALK CHARCOAL: Technically. without touching the surface. In use. Charcoal lifts away from paper easily with the very light touch o f an eraser. The same as above. THICK W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 2 Keep the tape above your drawing. It c a n be m a d e duller. 3 A white line is lifted out by the tape. LIFTING OUT This technique is a very easy method of drawing a crisp. feather. harder line. Lines are achieved by d e p o s i t i n g particles in the grain o f paper. Use any fine-point pen or pencil (I used a ballpoint) to draw a firm line on the back of the Big pieces are perfect for very large-scale drawings—even larger than yourself. The tip snaps easily to renew a sharp edge if required. cylindrical. As its name implies. THIN WILLOW CHARCOAL: I used a piece like this to make the drawing opposite. black finish.m a d e c o m p r e s s e d charcoal.54). COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Machine-made. a piece of fresh bread. Try itworking on big paper covering a wall. Slightly dull the tape's stickiness before use t o prevent it from lifting out more than you intend. fine. a rag. but some specialists stock compressed charcoal in delicate square sticks. so it chars b l a c k as o p p o s e d to igniting a n d turning to ash. the heel o f y o u r h a n d . and offers a rich. leaving u n d e r t r a c e s of first thoughts. b e e c h . this does not exist. MEDIUM W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 5. only a little thicker. Then lift it away. Boxes often contain a range of thicknesses to choose for different needs. 3. Essentially. It is also easily erased if the maker of the mark is not happy with the result. and heavier than willow. Beware of cheap brands selling dyed chalk as compressed charcoal. 162) or graphite (see p.204 E A R T H AND THE E L E M E N T S Charcoal CHARCOAL IS PRODUCED from wood baked slowly without exposure to air. 6. SQUARE COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Not often sold. a n d p l u m . between your middle finger and thumb. 7. Not to be confused with square conte sticks (see p. Willow is the most c o m m o n wood. 2. you can p u r c h a s e m a c h i n e . . sticky side down. 1 Suspend a length of masking tape. maple. blacker. R o u g h paper c a n b e loaded. resulting in a pale line. Alternatively. white line into the blackor grayness of willow charcoal. 4. they are all intended for fine work. It does n o t erase easily. b l a c k e r . CHARCOAL PENCIL: Types made by different manufacturers vary in quality and density of line. B u n d l e s o f twigs were traditionally sealed into earthenware j a r s or wet clay and heated slowly and intensely in a fire or kiln. or fingertip. it looks gray and feels like chalk. It allows you greater precision in your mark-making than if you rub away the charcoal with an eraser. it is compressed and m o l d e d at high pressure. Smooth paper accepts few particles. a n d m o r e i n d e l i b l e by soaking it in linseed oil. Hold it over your drawing RANGE AVAILABLE Charcoal (in its several forms shown here) is loved or loathed by the beginner to whom it is often recommended because it produces pleasing results quickly. A great find when available. Artists have also used lime. 1. tape. C h a r c o a l naturally glistens. vine.

205 ERASING Thickly applied charcoal quickly o v e r c o m e s a plastic eraser A w a r m (soft and tacky) putty eraser is more effective. Layers can be peeled away to refresh its surface. CHARCOAL Lifting out This detail shows an example of where I used the lifting-out technique demonstrated opposite to draw flashes of lightning against rain clouds. Use cheaper (less sticky) for lifting out.212-13 were made by altering the pressure applied to the charcoal. I used a plastic eraser effectively on thinly applied charcoal. pastels. MASKING TAPE: An invaluable resource. Use high quality (very sticky) to fix paper to walls and boards. or any other dry media. Different tones seen throughout the main drawing on pp. 9. sold in several widths. graphite. 10. Cotton swabs also work. T O R T I L L O N : This is a tight roll of paper used to blend charcoal. Here. PEN: Any fine pen or pencil can be used to draw on the back of masking tape when lifting out. as is fresh (unbuttered!) bread. Lift out broader marks with a larger implement. Here we used a ballpoint. 8 . .

Successful drawings often only suggest the qualities of the scene without overdescribing them. especially when making first excursions into aerial perspective.9 9 we noted that in response to visual stimulus. When you arrive. it results in flat planes of clutter.212-13). Excessive detail can be admired for its skill and achievement. 9 8 . begin by marking out several small squares on your paper. To experiment with drawing landscapes and the use of charcoal. At its worst. our brains search for nameable things and will perceive complete pictures from very little information. a reel of masking tape. Seeing tones . This term simply means that as land rolls away into the distance. and a cushion in a plastic bag to sit on. Don't worry if it is cloudy: clouds add drama and perspective and make good subjects in themselves (see pp. On p p .206 EARTH AND THE ELEMENTS Landscapes TREES ALONE OFFER MARVELOUS shapes to draw. the more you encourage the viewer's imagination to join in and see. hazy distance. a less distinct middle ground composed of shapes and textures. details blur and colors grow paler and bluer. pack your materials (as advised below) and set off for a local view or your nearest arboretum. Then I drew the shape of the tonal patches I perceived. MATERIALS In this first view there is only a foreground and middle distance. the less you describe. but is often less evocative and engaging. to contain each of your compositions. It is the visible effect of the atmosphere between where you stand and what you see in the distance. Landscape drawings are traditionally arranged in three parts: a detailed foreground. I relaxed my eyes out of focus to dissolve distracting detail into abstract patches of light and darkness. Ironically. and an abstract. an eraser your drawing book or a board and paper fixative (or hairspray). Pack several thick and thin sticks of willow charcoal. They are also good markers of receding space. The long view is hidden behind trees.

Exploring the view Redrawing the scene above. and broke a view through the hedge into the distance with a dark sky threatening rain. dark trees with bright. rounded. This composition turned out a little flat because I have an almost even quantity of earth and sky. It is better to give distinctly more pictorial space to one or the other (see below). your view is your inspiration. Remember. shadows. I have invented drama with diagonals set against each other I tilted the earth. full of information you can use to create what you want! Inventing drama .207 LANDSCAPES In my second square I explored a simple view contrasting soft. horizontal regions of grass. the trunk of a bare tree.

Circling a subject and drawing it from several views imprints on your memory a better understanding of its three-dimensional form." . on p p . "Drawing in the round means to literally walk around your subject. For example. s e e k places in light After my first drawing. I am then able to home in on what interests me most for further study.164-65) and a wire violin (pp.1 5 my first drawing of the whole view of the Tiber led me to see the real subject of the day. shade out of the glare of the sun. bare ribs. Similarly. your challenge now is to find a sculptural subject in the landscape. Building on earlier studies of structure in space using shoes (pp. and seeing what the real choice of subject is.208 ELEMENTS Drawing in the Round WHEN DRAWING IN THE LANDSCAPE. making the scene below led me to focus on the decaying boat opposite. taking with you your drawing book and pen.104-05). 2 1 4 . England has embedded within it the decaying skeleton of a burned fishing boat. This first drawing serves as a process of arrival. The mud of the tidal shore in Rye. observing it from several views so as to better understand it as a whole. engine. I usually begin by making an image of the whole view. so the paper is not made blinding and your hand cannot cast a shadow on your work. settling my concentration. which was the flow of water over rocks. and tiller still standing proud. EARTH AND THE FINDING THE SUBJECT Finding a remarkable subject is even better when you can circumnavigate it in an arena of space.

I drew with quick. DRAWING IN THE 1 Here. w h e n t h e sea recedes. and the order and shape of its component parts. looking more at the boat than at the paper From this low position I have emphasized how the boat is swallowed in mud by outlining its shadow on the ground. marking straight. ROUND 2 In this tail-end view. The outline ties a shape of darkness to the boat like a weight so that it becomes part of its form. and structure.209 SERIES OF STUDIES This stunning ghost o f a boat comes into v i e w t w i c e a day. 3 This impression notes the angle of the broken boat. I looked more boldly at the planes and the dynamic of the sculptural craft My lines have become darker and more forceful as confidence in my understanding of the vessel grew. Each n e w drawing gives a different insight. I spent equal time looking at the subject and the paper. make a series o f drawings f r o m different positions. Overleaf: Decaying Boat 4 . careful lines to establish the skeleton that gives this wreck its distinct form. unfussy lines. its overall balance. character. W h e n you have found your subject.

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L o o k i n g b a c k and forth from the heavens to firmly taped-down paper. . was made with gentle but unhesitating s p e e d .Cloudburst THIS STORM DRAWING. m a d e on s m o o t h .20-21) using a thin stick of willow charcoal. hot-pressed drawing p a p e r (see pp. I worked quickly to catch and weave the turbulent contrasts of rising wind and approaching water before the drawing could be washed away.

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shaping the city. . pocket-sized notebook. black. focusing on the river's eddies. On the pages of a small.Notes of Force T H E GREAT FLOWING TIBER RIVER has cut through Rome. and rhythmic detail as it passed through the ancient gully of the city. pulse. I drew with a needle-fine fiber-tip pen. since ancient times.

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. I used a dip pen and waterproof India ink with brushed watercolor to draw the view. The strong diagonal of the composition from bottom left to top right carries the eye through changes of height and focus from the foreground to the mountains beyond.Mountains SITTING IN THE SHADE of a tree on the Greek island of Antiparos.

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poet. An abstract mark is often a better conductor of a thought or feeling. opposite. writhing torrents of color. direction. Wolfli was a Swiss draftsman. First marks. be brave and enjoy them. strike the paper to find form. Artists were given a different tool—a line threaded directly from their subconscious to their hand—and with it they began to map a bold new landscape of marks and concepts that would dramatically and forever change the face of Western art. belief. Not everything we know has a physical form in the world. I begin every image by feeling its meaning. for example. and Aboriginal art. fictional language. He made thousands of drawings to chronicle his complex life. From another viewpoint. sounds. The growing rise of Darwinian ideas coupled with Freudian and Marxist perspectives forced Western society to reconsider its origins and future. ADOLF WOLFLI One of the greatest masters of Art Brut. all pictorial representations are abstractions of reality. Outsider artists. and independent means of communication. Perhaps in Western culture we bred this intuitive freedom out of ourselves in our insistence on complex figuration. As you approach the classes in this chapter. Indian mandalas. many nonWestern cultures have highly sophisticated abstractions at the core of their art. liberating. and history. My own work is firmly centered in figuration. actions. yet my kinship to abstraction is fundamental. Many concepts and feelings can only be expressed through marks. Berne. spontaneous image-making. expressive marks and shapes are at the core of natural. It was not invented in the 20th century. and young children show us that abstract. Museum of Fine Arts.Abstract Lines T HE DEVELOPMENT OF W E S T E R N abstract art at the beginning of the 20th century significantly paralleled major changes in world thought. abstraction is not so easy to define. People are often scared by abstraction and see it as the enemy of figurative art.8 cm) A D O L F WOLFLI Abstraction is a direct. His drawings are collected and exhibited internationally and held by the Adolf Wolfli Foundation. it is simply itself. Internal workings of the mind were suddenly free to find a new language of expression. The fate of Old World thinking was finally sealed with the brutality of World War I. writer and composer who suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and was resident in the Waldau Aslyum near Berne. and it has always been with us. Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape 1915 413/8 x 285/8 in (105 x 72. Afterward. precisely because it does not have to represent a physical object. such as Adolf Wolfli. and have been making abstract drawings for centuries—Japanese calligraphy. and emotion. don't be timid. It is actually its foundation and its infrastructure. Swirling. However. drawn sound. or gestures. only rediscovered. picturing a stabilized world was impossible and Modernism rode forth with vigor. which are essentially abstract. and poetic myth roar and cascade within his tightly framed pages. From one point of view. It also underpins and gives strength and unity to all figurative work. .

The Physical Space 1990 3 0 x 30 ft ( 9 1 4 x 9 1 4 cm) MAMORU ABE . water. it can keep reforming through the inherent repetition of a process. scrolling across the canvas in an intimate crescendo. as Twombly shows us opposite. rhythmically engaged with itself. and plaster in galleries and landscapes. He travels widely to research ancient sacred sites. Sometimes it smolders like a deep shadow. akin to stones in a Zen garden. and patient watching. silence. Abe works with materials such as soil. Abe's physical drawing is a sculptural installation. Iron rods in tone. brass. sit in silent harmony. tone. and texture their bracing separation reaching between from beneath Pillars of the gallery are made part of this drawing by their inclusion in the paper. forged steel. and temperature rim of floor space. salt. MAMORU ABE Japanese sculptor and installation artist. A line can be finished in a second. Five forged steel shapes. or. This the paper rest within the amplifies framelike of the floor from the ceiling. and Assistant Professor of Fine A r t at Fukuoka University. Moisture produced rust. Damp Japanese paper was laid over carefully arranged iron bars. Lines. ice. A Neolithic chalk tablet bears cut lines that were slowly carved. Twombly's mesmeric wax line worked over house paint is like a signature. staining redbrown lines into the white surface. and sensitivity with its thickness and pressure of touch. and wood are also part of the work.220 A B S T R A C T LINES Process and Harmony SOMETIMES A DRAWN LINE sings on the surface of its support. Changes paper. quoting ink marks on a page. Mamoru Abe prepares an image that will appear through the chemistry of iron. It can proclaim mood. Below. texture. iron.

Precise lines suggest the use of a sharp flint The framed rectangle of this image is echoed in that of Abe's installation. that challenges the separation of word from image. Many of his graffiti-like combine abstract gestures with statements. At the 2001 Venice Biennale. and sensuous drawing from painting. such as the Rosetta stone. and Untitled 1970 Here we might seek to grasp letters in the turning of his line.England. CY TWOMBLY . theories suggest astrological observations. evolved a raw. Neolithic Chalk Tablet 3.400BCE 21/4 x 21/4 in (58 x 58 mm) ARTIST UNKNOWN Language Over the course of fifty years. The central pictorial space is also similarly cut and divided by the considered arrangement of straight lines. the Babylonian world map. energetic. PROCESS AND HARMONY Cut lines Chalk carves easily. close to Stonehenge in Wiltshire. and the worship of the sun and ancient gods. and American Indian petroglyphs (see p.241).221 ANCIENT CARVINGS Many ancient cultures have made and left behind drawings and texts carved into stones or animal bone. burials. This example is one of two chalk tablets found in a Late-Neolithic pit.000-2. Twombly has language works CY TWOMBLY Contemporary American artist who emerged through the 1950s New York art scene in the heyday of Abstract Expressionism and Action Painting.Twombly was presented with a Golden Lion award for lifetime achievement. emotive.Thesite's purpose is unknown.

Texture Compare this drawing to Hugo's octopus on p. and participate in the composition. Similarity in gritty texture suggests that here.28). here he anticipates abstract expressionism by 100 years. Gestalt o f an unnameable thing. said. Here he appears t o have saturated the cut-out moon disks with gritty pigment. "There is nothing like dream to create the future. Hugo. brushed night skies over them with ink then lifted the disks to reveal white moons. The scores are also exhibited in galleries as visual art. Both abstract drawing and composition involve the perfect sequencing of sounds and marks against space and silence. abstract artists and composers unique.222 ABSTRACT LINES Writing Time SINCE THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY. drawing here can b e described in t e r m s o f a G e r m a n philosophical idea a b o u t is t h e i n s t a n t r e c o g n i t i o n t h e p o w e r o f m o m e n t . Gestalt. His drawing writes the time of its own physical process by expressing the extreme concentration of the moment in which it was made. opposite. o r a pattern o f elements s o unified as a w h o l e t h e y c a n n o t b e e x p l a i n e d asa s u m o f parts. and lifted them away to leave impressions of watery planets and seas. Marks across the center appear to be made with his fingers. abstract. music manuscript requiring instrumentalists to improvise. interpret. have striven to break down old pictorial and musical structures to explore new and unfettered modes of expression. Two Impressions Paper 1853-55 VICTOR HUGO Disk from a Cut-Out . and let the drying meniscus deposit granules in linear drifts such as we would see in the satellite photographic mapping of rivers. below.28. a configuration. beautiful. o f t e n e x p r e s s e d in v i s u a l t e r m s . and inventive of his time. Ink impressions When drawing nightscapes Hugo often laid paper disks in place of the moon." An innovator who never fails to surprise. A graphic score is a V I C T O R H U G O Hugo's abstract French novelist w h o m a d e m a n y drawings in m i x e d m e d i a ( s e e also p. he mixed graphite into ink. Bussotti. broke new ground in the 1950s with graphic scores now considered among the most extreme. pressed them face down. too.

Sound and rhythm This flickering rondo of sound written in pen on a hand-ruled stave can be heard in our imaginations as much as seen. Bussotti's first mature work. 1958 SYLVANO BUSSOTTI . His later works become increasingly abstract. This is a page from Due Voci. Compare this work to that of Libeskind on p. a far cry from any recognized musical notation.223 W R I T I N G TIME SYLVANO BUSSOTTI Italian avant-garde composer and principal 20thcentury exponent of the graphic score. Following the notes. we can feel their rhythm and easily attach sounds to them. 70 in relation to Bussotti's clustered notes to the left of his rondo and open space to the right. Circular Score for "Due Voci" c.

In the late 1 9 t h century. centuries. social outcasts. This takes a form in most cultures. Cloth is the simple instrument with which she has conducted and ordered her universe. It will protect the place from evil and make a pleasing invitation to good spirits. Marie Lieb w a s a psychiatric patient in the Heidelberg Asylum. cultures. Compositional rightness (see pp. O p p o s i t e . d i p p i n g h e r fingers into a pot o f rice flour. Cell Floor With Torn Strips of Cloth 1894 MARIE LIEB . for e x a m p l e . Torn cloth This is one of two published photographs showing Marie Leib's torn cloth strips significantly placed on her cell floor.224 A B S T R A C T LINES Chants and Prayers WHEN ABSTRACT LINES are organized in repetition. Visually. it is found in the regularity o f ordered lines or a pattern. In music it can be felt in the diversity of plainsong and African d r u m m i n g . and sufferers of psychiatric illnesses—who have always existed. making objects and images outside o f mainstream culture. Germany. and c i r c u m s t a n c e s . MARIE LIEB Little is known of this w o m a n for w h o m the act of drawing was essential. Lieb is one o f countless thousands of "Outsider" artists—diverse individuals including ordinary citizens. they m a k e a visual a n d physical e c h o that t o u c h e s s o m e deep part of the human spirit. an a n o n y m o u s w o m a n in the southeast Indian state o f Tamil Nadu m a k e s a ritual drawing o n the b r i c k courtyard o f h e r h o m e . T h e s e p h o t o g r a p h s d o c u m e n t the meditative drawings o f two w o m e n living worlds apart in different countries. She tore c l o t h into strips a n d used these to draw patterns a n d symbols o n h e r cell floor.228-29) has been adjusted with each movement of the rags to draw a cosmos of balance and perfection.

lime. Materials such as rice flour.225 STEPHEN P. or flowers are marked or arranged on the ground or on the walls of homes. Motifs are geometrical or based on plants. Skills are handed down through generations and from friend to friend. at the University of London and Ohio State University.Theseare widely published in journals and are the subjects of international exhibitions. animals. Huyler is the author of Painted Prayers. chalk. lecturer on the subjects of Indian art and Indian women's identity. cultural anthropologist.HUYLER Photographer art historian. Painted Prayers UNDATED STEPHEN R HUYLER . and for over 30 years has traveled extensively through the Indian subcontinent creating an edited archive of 200. Popular magazines feature new ideas each week and on special occasions there may be contests. In daily practice. and birds. and in places of worship and celebration. women pride themselves on never repeating a design. Designs and motifs Rangoii (or mandalas) are ritual drawings made by many millions of women across rural India. among others.000 images.

Untitled 2001 2001 153/4x 215/8 in ( 4 0 0 x 550 mm) BRIAN C A T L I N G .226 ABSTRACT LINES Compositions ABSTRACT DRAWINGS ARE LARGELY or entirely free from using the viewer's eye to track and unfold layers of meaning. Catling's torn paper shapes and shadows spill light out of their frame like a fractured mirror. Catling's works made for international galleries and museums involve drawing as a tool in their development and making. structure. performance and installation artist. With no depth of field. and choice of hues. Catling's abstract drawings are usually made in series and in parallel to written poetry and sculptural installations. free from the direct imaging of known physical things. Their energy can therefore be a purer expression of an idea or emotion. Mixed media This is a collage of torn white and gray tissue paper previously stained with ink. but similarities in mood. Klee's mathematical maze of thinly washed surface resonates with meticulous planning. Ruskin School. rocks or heads in a subdued atmosphere of dream. and Fellow of Linacre College. These two works present complex compositions with differing intensions and methods of making. BRIAN CATLING British sculptor poet. filmmaker Professor of Fine Art. figurative representation—that is. gold paint and iridescent gouache mixed with water. They each find their pathways and equilibrium in atmosphere and suggestion. Oval moons eclipse each other and oscillate between landforms and portraiture. and water-resistant layers of spray and enamel paint on thick paper. Oxford. it is ruled and contained in one dimension by its interlocking ink-lined borders.

It is a geometric harmony of straight lines and tonally graded flat colors that by their arrangement draw our eyes inward to their white center. We can see some diagrammatic examples of this among the optical illusions on pp. ruler.97-99. whereas tonal surfaces are perceived more immediately as a whole. Polyphon Gefasstes Weiss (White Framed Polyphonically) 1930 131/8x95/8 in (333 x 245 mm) Paul-Klee-Stiftung. and wrote copiously about the natures and relationships of color and form. Line and surface Klee observed the visual capacity of lines to push or pull within an image. Klee also felt that a line represents the passing of time. and brush. Kunstmuseum Bern PAUL KLEE . drew.227 PAUL K L E E Swiss painter and sculptor (see also p. Klee painted. watercolor. and might be read as active or passive. He explained his polyphonic painting as "a harmony of several color voices" searching for a visual parallel to music.31). philosophized. Geometric harmony This is a work on paper made with a sharp ink pen.

they reach a perfect position. It is found in all great art and design. M a n y of their inter-relationships will be meaningless. the impression y o u receive from t h e m . It is also found in nature. their impact. a glass. Seek it when looking at other artists' work and in your everyday environment. there is a clear feeling when. "I have experimented endlessly with this idea. media. Take. As y o u m o v e them around. culture. or degree of figuration. W h e n m o v i n g objects around in your yard. a b u n c h of keys. after being continuously adjusted. Set up a sheet of paper with a rectangle drawn on it. and put them o n a tray. but an easy o n e to u n d e r s t a n d . they are just. and elements settle in definitive balance. This balance is what every artist and designer searches a n d feels for when making an image." . or on a page. s o m e will be more or less h a r m o n i o u s . There is a single m o m e n t w h e n all proportions.Thisexercise will help you start. for instance. regardless of style. or home. and an apple. angles. Feel for it when youdraw.228 ABSTRACT LINES Being "Just" A SENSE OF "JUST" (or rightness) is a difficult concept to explain. w i l l c h a n g e w i t h e v e r y r e a r r a n g e m e n t . In his b o o k The Education of a Gardener. b u t e v e r y n o w a n d again you will hit on an arrangement w h i c h appears just. "Whenall pictorial elements come together in pleasing and perfect balance." SETTING UP Justness can be harmonious or deliberately discordant. and ten straight sticks painted black. the late garden designer Russell Page explains.

In the final step (left) there is an even balance. horizontals dominate the top. suggesting a horizon. Move the sticks out into the rectangle. Here.56-57). painted black. 2 3 In the step above. which now becomes a tight frame. as shown here." Move the sticks to find alignments and imagined perspectives. Feel for the rightness of their grouping and their relationships to surrounding spaces. W h e n the composition falls into place. horizontals dominate the lower area. making the composition seem to float beneath. . Arrange them so they touch or cross in a series of intersecting balances.229 WHERE TO START Take ten sticks of equal length. B E I N G "JUST" 1 Arrange your ten sticks in t w o groups of five. Remember the drawn rectangle is a part of the composition (see pp. A stick touching the rectangle links the composition to the frame. fix it with glue. Within a rectangle on a flat sheet of paper set about making a composition using no other rule than a sense of "just.

Returning to Russell Page. Collage offers the artist a liberating palette of SETTING UP This lesson in collage is a direct continuation of the compositional lines made in the previous class. hard or soft. they become a scaffold for the addition of further textures. or discordance.Youwill also need spare white paper. harmonious.69 and Abe's installation on p. colors and textures can be manipulated until their pictorial harmony. Once the ten painted black sticks are set and glued in place. colors. To prepare for this lesson.228-29). stain and dry a sheet of tissue paper using blueink.230 ABSTRACT LINES Collage H E R E W E EXPERIMENT with collage. This principal also applies to three-dimensional drawings such as Gaudi's work with wire and weights on p. which is the shifting.. scissors." (Russell Page) . feels "just" (see pp. Cut or torn layers and shapes. and black ink.220. found or made items. Images and fragments torn from day-to-day life can be brought together to make a chorus of ideas and emotions. ready-made depths and surfaces.. "My understanding is that every object [or shape] emanates—sends out vibrations beyond its physical body which are specific to itself. and tones. he went on to say ". correction fluid or white paint. you start composing by adding or subtracting shapes and textures and using colors and tones to achieve the impression you want to m a k e — w h e t h e r dramatic or s u b d u e d . an infinite range of voices and meaning. or even strident." overlapping placement of materials on a flat plane. glue. a compass.

correction fluid and ink marks add further dimensions. In the last step (left).231 WHAT TO DO Lay the final step of the previous lesson (p. Glue them in place once they feel "just" Translucent circular disks of tissue paper give color tone. . they deepen pictorial space. and with a compass and scissors. then cut out. Obscuring the blue disks. Cut six small rectangles the same proportion as your whole image. This can also give a sense of fragmentation or punctuation to the composition.The single disk that is folded with its straight edge facing up appears heavier than those that are flat.228) in front of you. 2 3 Torn white paper moved over the surface adds masks of rough-edged irregular volume. COLLAGE 1 Regular-sized pieces of white paper are moved over the surface to disrupt the even lines. and shadow to thepicture. solidity. draw. four circles of blue tissue paper.

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" [Tanchu Terayama. A MODERN JAPANESE meditative art form inspired by the teachings of Yamaoka Tesshu (1836-1888).Zen Calligraphy HITSUZENDO. and expectation. is the practice of Zen through the calligraphic marks of a brush dipped in carbon ink. Hitsuzendo drawings aspire to "breathe with the energy and vitality of eternal life" achieved through "a state of no mind—beyond thought. emotion. . Zen Brushwork].

I flicked spatters of ink and rubbed the paper with a wet and a dry brush to achieve these effects. .Nocturnes IN THIS QUARTET of semi-abstract drawings made with India ink. discord is balanced against rhythm to create mood. Lines made with a steel dip pen take on a scratchy nervousness. These vibrate against washes of shadow and pitch-black mass.

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movie studios now brim with as many monsters as the visual art of the Medieval and Renaissance Church. For example. We watch with captivated pleasure movies such as The Fly. beasts. . Feeding this demand. We then add substances we dislike: unidentified fluids. in the cracks of walls. our literate and more secular Western society still hungers for another world and to ravenously indulge its fascination for the marvelous. we select details of animals farthest from ourselves and that are widely thought disturbing—reptilian and insect features. look for images in the folds of clothing.247. sculptures. scales. thousands of paintings. England. a collaboration between the two will ensure that your drawings glow with originality. angels. paradise. Today. and damnation are found in most world faiths. Here. and stained-glass windows deliver powerful visual sermons to the once-illiterate populace. Be inspired by the irrational comedy of word association or puns. Images we are now surrounded by bear testimony to the power and resourcefulness of their collective imagination. serpentine tails. feathers. Lord of the Rings. Monsters take advantage of both. and deep fur—and we alter their scale. or in smoke. and the faces of God have for centuries given artists a feast for the extremes of their imagination. which were widely distributed and influential in his time. or strange. impossible. a Catherine wheel of drawn sparks spiraling around the quietly resolute saint. happen to us. aliens. We love our fear of the hybrid—ideally. Perhaps the Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 1485 121/4 x 9 in (312 x 230 mm) MARTIN SCHONGAUER most important conclusion in this final chapter is to advise you to develop your skills in parallel with the joy of your unfolding imagination. I was on a train passing through Nuneaton. which is to have eaten a nun—it inspired the drawing on p. To learn to flex your imagination. and the Alien trilogy. for example. In the Christian churches of Europe. our eye circulates around a flutter of leather and scaly wings. Throughout this book images are presented to excite and surprise and drawing classes created to increase your confidence. Depictions of God or of gods in the contexts of daily life. Fantasy is most successful when founded on strong and familiar visual logic. The salvation of heaven and terrors of hell are represented equally—enough to make any sinner shudder. Reading the place name I momentarily glimpsed an alternative meaning. Schongauer is best known for his prints. wings. Star Wars. a human-animal mix that implies this could MARTIN SCHONGAUER German painter and engraver who settled to work in Colmar Alsace. Neither should be slave or master. When creating monsters. all of which originated as hundreds of drawings.Gods and Monsters OUR SACRED AND SECULAR need to visualize demons. Humans are equally troubled by the imperceptibly small and the enormous.

Paul Thomas's studies of Picasso and Twombly can be traced directly. Los Caprichos. This continuity enriches the making of art and our heritage. a wave to join Achilles' chase of Hector. it allows the mule to stand forward. Goya's plainly textured gray background pushes back the space behind the illuminated simply subject. deranged masses. crammed tightly at his desk. hags. noisy seascape on p. Aquatint Goya has drawn a learned man as an ass. Opposite below. The well-dressed mule is cumbersome. a Shoshone seeking guidance and power meditates at the sacred site of a petroglyph. F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A Spanish court painter printmaker and draftsman. barren land rising like MYRIAD CHAINS RUN THROUGH ART HISTORY. portraits. This act defines the vision and continues the line of spirit guides. and men clubbing each other to death. whose impassioned work begins with light tapestry cartoons.220. Opposite. The title "And So Was His Grandfather" adds that should we not already know. In this ass. They depict as if by lamplight the devil and witches. Francisco de Goya was a master of borrowing. and follies of court through copious graphic works including his best-known prints.30.240 GODS AND M O N S T E R S Marks of Influence marking the influence of one artist upon another. Other drawn versions of this image are more savage and frightening. and exposed the superstitions. below. Compare his dark. Near the end of his life he made his "Black Paintings" on the walls of his home. quoting great paintings and popular culture to add cunning twists to his satires. reading from a book of asses. rushing. In this softer aquatint he poses for his portrait Textured background The aquatint process has been used to great effect in making a gritty toned background. He would be graceless if he stood. we see the international icon of stupidity. Many students leave white backgrounds in their work. Goya later recorded the horrors of Napoleonic occupation. vanity. Pictorially. The high. and church murals. to Picasso's similarly tight. Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 1799 81/2 x 6 in (218 x 154 mm) FRANCISCO DE GOYA . Visions experienced in front of the drawing sometimes instruct the making of a new one. Violent white marks symbolizing Achilles' rage resonate with the energy of Twombly's script on p. his lover a dog. such asinine behavior can be hereditary. plain wall suggests a blinkered view of nothing. Saturn devouring his son. which can swamp the subject Here.

Parallel lines within the body of the figure are likely to denote power. Graphite marks Here Achilles chases Hector around the walls of Troy before killing him. Wyoming. by a supplicant in a trance of meditation. perhaps a stone. White marks like flashes of light are cut though graphite with an eraser to reveal the paper beneath. values. Achilles Chases Hector 1996 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) PAUL THOMAS SHOSHONE PETROGLYPH The Shoshone people of Wyoming name petroglyph sites Poha Kahni. meaning "place of power. ideals. Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range UNDATED ARTIST UNKNOWN ." Each sacred image drawn into rock belongs to one of three realms in the Shoshone world: the realm of the sky. of the earth. Simple wall stones cleverly state their cold solidity while also fading from our attention as the scene roars by. and personal and social struggles. It was made with a sharp implement. Wind River Reservation. Thomas conducts his explorations in the mine of Greek and Roman mythology.241 MARKS OF INFLUENCE PAUL T H O M A S British contemporary artist whose epic graphic work questions and reflects upon issues of European identity. A vivid spectrum of energized graphite marks and a masterly composition give this drawing vitality and speed. or of the water Chipped image This is a sacred creature of the sky chipped onto rock at Dinwoody Lake.

Redon's eyeball balloon rises up. 115. the writers Joris-Karl Huysmans and Stephane Mallarme. crawl. below left. We may feel safe so long as the eye looks heavenward. graphic artist. Here we see how he evolved their injuries into new limbs and warped proportions.242 MONSTERS of the unknown is a classical and constant occupation for the artist. ODILON REDON French painter draftsman. we see parallel slanting pale marks that might have been made with fresh bread—a very effective eraser used before the wide availability of rubber or plastic. Techniques demonstrated on pp. T H E EXPLORATION AND DEPICTION Hauntings Grandville has drawn a scurrying zoo of half-known demons and animals that appear to have been stolen from the glass eye of the microscope. Redon lifted them out with some sort of eraser. The monsters of Bosch grew from his observations of beggars going about their trade in 15th. Our subconscious can be drawn with pleasure and ease. They float toward us like a horrid visitation.204-05 will enable you to produce a similar effect of white lines shining out of dark charcoal. GODS AND Erasure In this charcoal drawing. to the right of the balloon. Compare worked textures throughout the whole of this image to those found throughout Anita Taylor's charcoal drawing on p. as he did the grass.and 16th-century Holland. Redon explored the darker side of the human imagination through symbols and mysticism. the shock would be extreme. and scuttle over all known reality. lifting its cranial passenger over a seascape of repose. and writer In contrast t o the light and visual accent of contemporary Impressionism. Lifting out Fine strings of the hot-air balloon appear dark against the sky and light against the balloon. H e was influenced by his friends. Children are also delighted to invent a monster or ghoul. The Eye Like a Strange Mounts Balloon 165/8 x131/8in (422 x 332 mm) ODILON REDON 1882 Toward Infinity . which sometimes—half-dressed and carrying a familiar trophy— stride. If it were to turn and stare this way.

243 J E A N I G N A C E ISIDORE GERARD ("GRANDVILLE") French graphic artist and political satirist. Last Judgment. Two Monsters UNDATED 45/8 x61/2in (117 x 163 mm) HIERONYMUS BOSCH . HAUNTINGS Engraving This is an engraving made so that Grandville's original drawing could be reproduced. which is still available today. His other major works include Metamorphoses du Jour (1828). A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects c. Smiling. and Ship of Fools. sucker-faced creatures dash and trundle toward it They are drawn solidly to emphasize their earthbound weight. include The Haywain. Comic little headbands of waving hair express more hysteria than fear. This image is from one of Grandville's best-known publications. Light shines from the right. 1840 61/8 x41/2in ( 1 5 5 x 1 1 5 mm) GRANDVILLE HIERONYMUS BOSCH Dutch painter Bosch's highly detailed iconographic religious panel paintings. Quill and ink This typical Bosch monster is a quill drawing in bistre ink The phrasing of light and contour here is masterly. teeming with the exhilaration of unrestrained fantasy. Madrid. and he illustrated the Fables of La Fontaine and Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe. The quality of the line is therefore uniform throughout. Garden of Earthly Delights. Most of his work is in the Prado Museum. grimacing. Les Animaux (1840).

Dragon 1522 10 x 133/8 in ( 2 5 4 x 3 3 8 m m ) MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI . A snake eating its own tail is a universal image of the eternal and continuous. David. Opposite. pinnacled. and play with its perfection and meaning. St Peter's square. and mist-swathed land. Michelangelo's dragon. Grimes found the genesis of her beast not among animals. the dome of the Vatican. a stunning hybrid of a swan. topple. hatched lines. lion. architect. remembering the cavernous. she formed a series of ghostly pale. sometimes artists purposefully tie a knot in the configuration to disturb. muscular tension is carved out of the paper using layered. His entire drawing wrestles and weaves the viewer's eye into its retracting folds. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI Florentine painter sculptor. They share between them the pleasures of inventing a hybrid beast. snake. and dying slaves. Grimes' delicately cavorting figures dive into and consume each other. as we might expect. but in the seductive landscape of Leonardo da Vinci's oil painting Madonna of the Rocks. gamboling copulations.244 GODS AND MONSTERS Convolutions THESE CONVOLUTED DRAWINGS were made almost 5 0 0 years apart. wraps and coils its lithe body ready to strike or whimper at a touch. below. However. Two previously drawn faces become humorous antagonists to the beast. Chalk and ink A quill dipped in brown ink was worked over black chalk on this reused sheet. and dog. and marble sculptures including Pieto. phrased over the contours of form and bridging darker areas of shadow. In her studio. poet. Scaly. and engineer Among Michelangelo's great works are the painted ceiling and altar wall of the Sistine Chapel.

Oxford. boards finished paper.245 CONVOLUTIONS O O N A GRIMES British contemporary artist and professor of printmaking at the Ruskin School. The image formed directly without first making a pencil outline. It is one of a series of fragile earth figures inspired by rocks. Ink-wash delicately gouache (smooth) and gouache brushed drawing on This is a and was hot-pressed Shadows The dark shadow of the Other the ink-wash earth was made with a brushstroke of ink laid into wet paper. London. each one iridescent and crumbly like a weathered while oyster. London. How Clever of God #84 2002 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) O O N A GRIMES . her under heavy here. The large space around figure has been cropped Grimes drawings to flatten presses them. Grimes exhibits internationally and features in the collections of the New York Public Library and the Victoria and Albert Museum. and the Camberwell and Slade Schools of Fine Art. details evolved slowly using a drier brush.

ideally suited to drawing. SABLE-HAIR RIGGER: Made with very long kolinsky sable hairs. needle-sharp center of kolinsky red sable hair. fingers. It has exceptional painting characteristics. It is still relatively small in the total range of Japanese brushes. Some used by master calligraphers are 2-3 in (5-8 cm) in diameter 11. with a fine point for delicate work 4. it has good wash capabilities. liners. the very opposite of pencil or silver point. and never leave them standing on their tip in a jar of water. JAPANESE PAINTING BRUSH: Made with natural hair. 10. LARGER JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with natural hair held in a plastic ferrule on a bamboo handle. shape. SQUIRREL-HAIR S W O R D LINER:This brush has a maximum ink-holding capacity and an extremely fine and flexible point 8. and very fine lines. SMALL JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with sable hair. 3. washes. S Y N T H E T I C . Suitable for wash techniques but also capable of very fine detail. and writers. Shorter brushes designed for other purposes run out of ink more quickly. 7. POINTED SQUIRREL-HAIR MOP: With a synthetic quill ferrule and extra high inkholding capacity. It is capable of very fine pointing. materials. which holds long sable hair This brush holds large amounts of ink for long lines and points well for detailed work. The living marks of a wet. Slightly less flexible than the squirrel-hair sword liner 9. and hold prodigious weights of ink or paint. and effects." 6. and has a fine tip for detailed work.246 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brushes T H E BRUSH IS A VOLUPTUOUS and delicate weights. all perfect for drawing and. Soaps purchased from good art supply stores will gently cleanse particles of pigment that become trapped in the hairs or ferrule. SABLE-HAIR LINER: Made with ordinary sable hair surrounding an extralong. 2. ink-laden tip allow an expression that is beyond the linear. The brushes shown here are a mixture of This is a selection of riggers. dense. making rt ideally suited to Japanese painting and small-scale calligraphy. thicknesses. SYNTHETIC-HAIR BRUSH: Bound in a synthetic ferrule with good inkholding capacity and good spring and control. This brush has a broad wash capability and can achieve a very wide range of marks. M T RA S AEIL . flowing. others are as fine as a whisker with a gentle touch. between them. Always clean them thoroughly. 12. and texture. How you care for your brushes will determine how long they last. it has good inkholding capacity and is very flexible. This design supplies the fine tip with a long continuity of ink 5.H A I R LINER: Very responsive oriental-style liner This to the touch. Some are bold. SYNTHETIC-HAIR S W O R D LINER: A lining brush with high ink-holding capacity and a fine point. SYNTHETIC-HAIR LINER: This brush gives a medium line and is firm with a spring to the touch. and wrist into a fluid and soft touch.Theyhold plenty of ink and make continuous. P O I N T E D T R A D I T I O N A L WRITER: The ferrule is made from a small duck quill. giving a variety of lines. Brushes vary in size. return them to their pointed shape. 13.H A I R RIGGER: Made with long synthetic hair for fine-point work It has a good ink-holding capacity and is slightly more resilient than sable hair with more "snap. this brush has a soft drawing tip and small ink-holding capacity. L A R G E R S Y N T H E T I C . drawing tool extending the arm. 1.

247 BRUSHES .

It also depends on the angle at w h i c h it is held. A single brush has almost balletic potential to draw fine or undulating lines and curves. w i t h m y face close. and type of its hairs. softness. and above all w h e t h e r the b r u s h is saturated with pigment or relatively dry.35) into two tablespoons of water in a shallow. the texture and a b s o r b e n c y of the paper ( w h i c h m a y be d a m p or dry). unglazed earthenware dish.246-47). SETTING UP Blowing spots T h e s e t h r e e s p i d e r y c r e a t u r e s (above right and below) w e r e m a d e by d r o p p i n g s p o t s o f ink f r o m a b r u s h o n t o t h e p a g e and. I had left the end of the ink block in the water overnight to make it easier to dissolve. the degree of pressure applied. the speed of the s t r o k e . length. and to make pools and stains o n the page. and spatters. b l o w i n g h a r d o n t h e m several t i m e s t o disperse t h e ink ( c l o s e y o u r eyes if y o u t r y this. splashes.248 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brush Marks A S I N G L E BRUSH will m a k e an e n o r m o u s range of m a r k s depending u p o n the width. I rubbed a block of Chinese ink (see p. Here I drew with a soft Japanese painting brush (see pp.) I .

a n d b r u s h .249 Gritty texture T h e details o f t h e largest creatures b e l o w and opposite s h o w the granular texture of Chinese b l o c k ink. . t h e effects of the b r u s h r u n n i n g o u t o f ink. w e see fine lines and s p o t s . b l e e d i n g f r o m strokes b e l o w left. a n d t h e w a y it d i s t r i b u t e s w h e n t h e b r u s h is d a b b e d o n its s i d e . BRUSH MARKS Wet and dry strokes A m o n g these concentrated drawings ink made into with the same w a t e r y lines.

I borrowed small and fragile specimens from the University Museum of Natural History.Monsters THESE LITTLE CREATURES o f i n k and i n v e n t i o n were b o r n out of animal and bird studies. . Oxford. until we look again. and used their detail to draw new creatures that might at first seem familiar.

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formal composition. Through studying and drawing these great paintings I have discovered that they are based on a pair of similarly long. thin works titled The Witches' Sabbath and The Procession of St. two of my own drawings show you how Goya's devil (below) is based on the shape of Murillo's boy on a horse (top right). Goya's witches have been literally drawn and evolved out of the shapes of Murillo's prophet and pilgrims. With further research. and narrative twists. . Among his "Black Paintings" in the Prado Museum. Goya often invented his monsters out of characters seen in other painters' works. are two long. showing us that gallery study is not just for the student and beginner. I found relationships between all four paintings in terms of shapes. thin works made by Bartolome Murillo in Seville about 120 years earlier.Goya's Monsters W I T H CUNNING BRILLIANCE. They are a pair and hang opposite each other. Isidore. Madrid. Here.

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. little comments on politeness and sexual politics. Sometimes drawings come out of nowhere and surprise even the artist. drawn rapidly and with great joy.Consumed THIS IS A SERIES OF CARTOONS I m a d e s o m e years ago.

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a n d attaches t h e m t o t h e s u p p o r t — f o r example. t h e l i g h t is b e h i n d h i m o r her. Cartoon 1. pastel. m e a n i n g "beauty". Calligraphy Beautiful h a n d w r i t i n g .m a d e paper." It w a s first given t o t o n a l paintings m a d e in o n e c o l o r — s e e Grisaille. Aerial perspective The effect of the a t m o s p h e r e o v e r distance as it lightens t o n e s a n d cools c o l o r s progressively t o w a r d t h e horizon. Camera lucida A n optical device t h a t p r o j e c t s an image o f an o b j e c t o n t o a plain s u r f a c e so t h a t it can be traced.256 GLOSSARY Glossary Accidental drawing Random. w h e n v i e w e d f r o m a specified point. Deckle edge T h e i r r e g u l a r e d g e o f a s h e e t o f m o l d . Blotting T h e use o f a b s o r b e n t m a t e r i a l t o lift a w a y excess liquid. U s e d as a c o r r e c t i n g device o r pictorial game. Bleed T h e e f f e c t o f t w o w e t colors running into one another o r o n e color applied t o a w e t surface a n d a l l o w e d t o d i s p e r s e . Fixative lightly glues t h e d r a w i n g t o t h e surface o f t h e p a p e r t o p r e v e n t smudging. and readymade objects arranged and stuck o n t o a flat surface. W o r d s o r symbols are Cold-pressed papers P a p e r manufactured with a "not" o r " r o u g h " surface. Anamorphic distortion Stretching an i m a g e across a p i c t u r e surface so t h a t it can o n l y b e u n d e r s t o o d . Conservation grade D e s c r i b e s a range o f materials t h a t d o n o t d e c a y and cannot be broken d o w n by insects. Fixative Liquid acrylic resin a n d l a c q u e r t h i n n e r usually a p p l i e d as a n a e r o s o l s p r a y m i s t t o t h e surface o f a d r y . It can also seal a silver p o i n t d r a w i n g t o p r e v e n t t h e oxidization (browning) o f t h e Drypoint A d r a w i n g is s c r a t c h e d directly o n t o a m e t a l plate w i t h a m e t a l t o o l h e l d like apen. p r a c t i c e d meditatively w i t h a brush. Air brush A mechanical. Ferrule T h e s h o r t m e t a l t u b e t h a t s u r r o u n d s a n d g n p s t h e hairs o f a p a i n t b r u s h a n d fixes t h e m t o t h e brush handle. R e m b r a n d t is a great master o f chiaroscuro. Bracelet shading C u r v e d parallel lines t h a t f o l l o w t h e c o n t o u r s o f f o r m . o r will o n l y a p p e a r n o r m a l . o r o t h e r (usually large) w o r k — s e e Pouncing. Composition T h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e p a r t s o f an i m a g e t o m a k e u p the whole. F r o m t h e French v e r b coller. m e a n i n g " t o stick" Dry media M e d i a t h a t a r e n o t w e t o r o i l y — f o r e x a m p l e . in w h i c h parts o f an image are depicted v e r y brightly and dramatically against d a r k n e s s . Fauvism A n early 2 0 t h . written with a broad-nibbed pen o r brush. s u c h as a d r a w i n g o r painting.c e n t u r y Italian t e r m m e a n i n g "clear-obscure. 2." " N o t " p r e s s e d p a p e r is r o l l e d a s e c o n d t i m e w i t h o u t blankets t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders t o p r o d u c e a s m o o t h e r b u t still slightly t e x t u r e d s u r f a c e .The plate is t h e n r o l l e d w i t h ink a n d polished with a rag. usually at a n a c u t e angle t o t h e s u r f a c e . o f t e n d i s t o r t e d forms and vivid colors. a n d given t h e n a m e Sho. Contre jour A F r e n c h t e r m m e a n i n g " a g a i n s t day.s i z e d r a w i n g m a d e for t h e purpose o f transferring a design t o a painting. A l s o c a l l e d t h e h o r i z o n line. Engraving 1. A h u m o r o u s d r a w i n g o r parody. for example. r a t h e r t h a n r e c o r d e d o n a film o r plate. charcoal. p r i n t i n g press face up. A l s o called m u s e u m g r a d e . tapestry. T h e m o v e m e n t was started by a g r o u p o f French artists including H e n r i Matisse. a r e r o l l e d t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders. It is p u t o n a Body color See Gouache. n e w s p a p e r cuttings. T h e prints t a k e n from t h e s e plates o r blocks. s u c h as a s c r e e n . A f u l l . In t h e Far East calligraphy is a highly r e s p e c t e d a r t f o r m . A l s o called r i n g l e t shading. a n d g r a p h i t e . A i r b r u s h e s are u s e d in t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c o m i c s . C o p p e r p l a t e engravings w e r e widely used t o r e p r o d u c e images b e f o r e p h o t o g r a p h y . w h e n a p e r s o n is p a i n t e d standing a g a i n s t a w i n d o w .d i m e n s i o n a l i m a g e . chance mark-making. F r o m t h e G r e e k kallos. T h e name " n o t " simply refers t o t h e fact t h a t t h e cylinders are n o t h o t in t e m p e r a t u r e . 2. See also Hotpressed papers. A p o t e n t i a l l y h a r s h m e t h o d o f p r o d u c i n g t o n e s in a d r a w i n g . as o p p o s e d t o t h e s t r a i g h t e d g e o f a sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has b e e n machine-trimmed." D e s c r i b e s a p a i n t i n g in w h i c h t h e light s o u r c e is b e h i n d t h e s u b j e c t F o r e x a m p l e . Also called accelerated perspective. t o g e t h e r w i t h a t h i c k felt b l a n k e t T h e w h o l e s a n d w i c h o f l a y e r s is t h e n railed t h r o u g h t h e press t o m a k e a p r i n t D r y p o i n t is a very portable and immediate m e t h o d o f printmaking. L a t e r it c a m e t o m e a n h i g h l y c o n t r a s t e d light effects. p h o t o g r a p h s . pressurized t o o l used f o r spraying fine mists o f s m o o t h c o l o r P i g m e n t is d e l i v e r e d b y a j e t o f air n o t t h e bristles o f a brush. t h e field is t h e a p p a r e n t a n d b e l i e v a b l e space inside t h e p i c t u r e . Camera obscura A d a r k e n e d c h a m b e r i n t o w h i c h an i m a g e o f w h a t is o u t s i d e is received t h r o u g h a small o p e n i n g o r lens a n d f o c u s e d in natural c o l o r o n a facing surface. Blending M e r g i n g t w o o r m o r e neighboring colors o r tones t o g e t h e r using a tortillon. R o u g h p a p e r is m a d e b e t w e e n t w o blankets t h a t . D a m p p a p e r is laid o n t o p . so t h a t ink r e m a i n s o n l y in t h e g r o o v e s o f s c r a t c h e d lines. in w h i c h t h e subject's distinctive features o r peculiarities are deliberately exaggerated f o r c o m i c o r g r o t e s q u e effect. Binder A substance t h a t holds particles o f p i g m e n t t o g e t h e r in a paint f o r m u l a t i o n .m e d i a d r a w i n g . S o m e t i m e s f e r r u l e s a r e m a d e o f plastic o r o t h e r materials. Crosshatching Parallel lines d r a w n across o n e a n o t h e r at right angles. A g e n e r a l t e r m t h a t describes t h e various processes o f c u t t i n g a design i n t o a plate o r b l o c k o f m e t a l o r w o o d . A " s h a l l o w d e p t h o f field" m e a n s t h e p i c t u r e appears t o have only a shallow s p a c e inside i t Diffuse T o s o f t e n o r m a k e less brilliant. In t h e W e s t p e n calligraphy is u s e d t o c r e a t e f o r m a l a n d d e c o r a t i v e t e x t s .c e n t u r y painting m o v e m e n t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e use o f b o l d . Field In a t w o . Collage C o l l e c t e d materials such as c o l o r e d p a p e r s . T h e b l a n k e t s g i v e t h e p a p e r its rough texture o r "tooth. Eye level T h e i m a g i n a r y h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e a t t h e s a m e h e i g h t as t h e a v e r a g e p e r s o n ' s eyes. linseed oil o r egg y o l k Caricature A representation Contour line A line t h a t f o l l o w s t h e s h a p e o f a surface. Erasure T h e a c t o f r e m o v i n g a n i m a g e f r o m a surface. Acid-free paper P a p e r w i t h a neutral p H t h a t will n o t darken o r d e t e r i o r a t e excessively w i t h age. Chiaroscuro A 1 7 t h .

rock. Foreshortening A method of depicting an object at an angle to the surface of the picture. . After several intervening processes. it is the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work Pigment Any substance used as a coloring agent—for example. or a family of colors. Impressing Stamping or printing. so that (using vanishing point perspective) the object appears to change shape and become narrower or smaller as it recedes. and is also used as a size. Hairspray is an effective and inexpensive alternative. pastel. or even a beam of light. work. Giotto's Virtues and Vices in the Arena Chapel. Hot-pressed papers (HP) Paper made using hot cylinders. or synthetic material that are suspended in a medium to constitute paint. Medium A generic term for art Key A painting is said to be "high key" when the colors and tones are bright and "low key" when they are dark or somber The term is also used Gouache Opaque watercolor Also called body color. ink. Negative space The space between things.Theground provides a particular color or texture beneath the image. Paper is laid on top and a rapid drawing is made on the back of it The paper lifts away to reveal the image on its other side. Lightfast A term confirming that pigment in the product will not fade with exposure to light. shape. or spirit-based) is applied to a surface that is then pressed onto paper and removed to leave a print. but in picture-making it is as important as the objects/subjects themselves. Papercut A type of collage in which flat sheets of paper are cut into an image. Focus 1 . Monoprinting A direct method of printing in which wet medium (water-. the surface of the stone is made wet before being rolled with a thin film of oilbased printing ink. and it has a history in enamel work. Plumb line A line from which a weight is suspended in order to determine verticality or depth. or canvas and allowed to dry before an image is drawn or painted.The paper then bears a crayon impression or copy of the surface that was underneath it A number of Surrealists. to give the illusion of depth and distance. Lifting out A method of creating highlights and mid-tones in a drymedia drawing (such as charcoal or graphite). It can be used with any wet media to isolate or protect parts of an image from further Optical blending See Pointillism. This may be disregarded in real life. Dark tones are laid down first then an eraser or masking tape is used to lift away particles of the drawing media to reveal the lightness of the paper beneath. but each print will be unique." A piece of paper is placed on top of an object or rough surface. It improves the bonding properties Frottage A French term meaning "rubbing. Picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. and orientation of the image. including Max Ernst used frottage in their work. used for fixing paper to walls and boards. The ink attaches to the oil-based image and is repelled by the wet stone. Usually an academic drawing observed from life. white. A small image might be described as small format Horizontal images are often said to be "landscape format" (abbreviated G u m arabic The natural to"landscape"). oil-based printing ink is rolled evenly onto a smooth metal. multiH u e A term for a color. Gamut A complete range or extent Glassine A type of thin. Objective drawing Refers to the concept of objectivity. glass. of the ingredients in inks and watercolors. or for wrapping and protecting a finished piece of work. Paper is then pressed against the stone to take a print. sticky paper tape. enabling them to stick to paper It also helps to maintain a stable dispersion of pigment particles in water as the film of a wash dries. cadmium yellow hue. or can be otherwise used to create an image—for example. Masking fluid Clear or opaque latex fluid developed for watercolor painting. upright images are called "portrait which is used as a binding agent in many liquid media. materials that produce marks on a surface. are painted in grisaille and appear to be made of stone. F o r m The outer surface of a three-dimensional object. Artists can paint freely over dry masking fluid. or plastic surface. Grisaille A painting in gray or a grayish color Often made by students as a tonal exercise.The degree to which detail is defined. Alternatively. It is a strong adhesive. Rubens used grisaille to paint small images for engravers. Grisaille is occasionally seen in church stained-glass windows. then rubbed over carefully but vigorously with a crayon. with the area beneath remaining unaffected. or a drawing made in any single color GLOSSARY Linear perspective A form of perspective in which parallel lines are represented as converging. Also refers to an additive used to control the application properties of a color Golden Section A proportion in which a straight line or rectangle is divided into two unequal parts in such a way that the ratio of the smaller part to the greater part is the same as that of the greater part to the whole. glossy. Lithography A method of printmaking in which a drawing or painting is made directly onto a smooth slab of particular limestone or a metal plate using an oilbased crayon or ink. mineral. the finely ground particles of plant. and that will "escape" or change over time. format" (abbreviated to "portrait"). graphite. Monochrome Usually refers to a black. F o r m a t T h e size. A point of interest in a drawing. Fugitive A term given to a pigment that it is not stable. purpose. and masking off areas of a drawing that the artist wishes to keep untouched by media applied above or beside the tape. 2.while secretion of the acacia tree. aiming to represent facts rather than an interpretation of the subject.257 metal line. lifting out charcoal and other dry media. Hatching (cross-) See Crosshatching. which give it a smooth surface (as opposed to cold-pressed paper. This method incorporates the excitement of accidental and unpredicted marks. oil-. and gray drawing. to describe a surface to which paint will adhere readily. and by artists representing stone sculptures in a painting. This effect emulates what we see in real life. Pointillism A technique of using points or dots of pure color in such a way that when the picture is viewed from a distance they react Masking tape Invaluable. Padua. Ground A wet solution usually of gouache or gesso (chalk and animal glue) brushed onto paper board. and translucent paper—a delicate material used in collage. The surface can be reloaded or redrawn with more medium. Also used by artists' materials manufacturers to indicate the use of a substitute pigment—for example. which has a rough surface). It is then peeled away.

Stylus A sharp. Alternatively. commonly referred to as the lead. Squaring up A method of enlarging and transferring an image from one surface to another. Shade A that is color mixed (or toned) with black Shading A lay term for adding tone to a drawing. or any physical object that can be stamped or pressed onto a surface to leave an impression. acrylic. Stippling Applying color or tone in areas of fine dots or flecks. pencil. evolved by engineers and architects for the purpose of conveying W a t e r c o l o r A painting accurate structural information. Tone A degree of lightness or darkness. plaster. plum blossom. by imposing a grid that is then scaled up to a larger size. Zen paintings usually depict scenes of nature and plants such as bamboo. pointed roll of white paper that is used to blend dry media. W e t media Any liquid media— for example. a tightly folded piece of cotton batting can be used for the same effect. nature of watercolor allows the white surface of the paper to Tonal scale A scale of gradations shine through. Spattering A mottled texture produced by drawing your fingers across the bristles of a stiff brush loaded with pigment. Pounce (a fine for an unpopular 18th-century powder of charcoal or similar French politician. Strip Core of a pencil. Sfumato An Italian term meaning "smoky. wall or tapestry. Single-point perspective The most basic form of linear perspective in which there is only one vanishing point. or watercolor paint. fine paper.Technicaldrawing has been example. sometimes drawn from a and leaving only the pricked sheet of shadow cast on a wall. Support The structure on which an image is made—for example.258 GLOSSARY together optically. Artists' prints are normally made in multiple. Serigraphy Silk-screen printing. fruit. ink. in order to flick the pigment onto the image surface. or wood. orchids. Pouncing If a large drawing or design (called a cartoon) is to be Shadow Darkness cast by the transferred to a surface such as a obscuring of light. cut-out profile made along every outline of the usually made in black paper image. The translucent Tint A color mixed with white. . tight. carbon ink. Although drawings can be made with wash alone. Subjective drawing A drawing that expresses the personal view and interpretation of the artist An invented image. plaster or cloth surface beneath. design. and paperweights. The crude material is called oleoresin. Props An abbreviation of the word properties. Underdrawing A pale preliminary drawing made prior to adding layers of another medium such as oil paint or watercolor Value The extent to which a color reflects or transmits light This is the equivalent of tone in a black and white image. Zen brushwork encompasses calligraphy and painting. Vanishing point In linear perspective. or ceramic glazing to reveal a different color beneath. watercolor. and chrysanthemum—which in Chinese tradition are called "The Four Gentlemen. giving it a brilliance. or the right-hand page in a book. Volume The amount of space occupied by an object or an area of space in itself. and flowers. Size A weak glue used for filling the porous surface of wood or canvas in order to seal it. Named paper in place. A term borrowed from the theater. Turpentine A colorless solvent distilled from the resinous sap of pine trees. Technical drawing A universal it is often used in conjunction language of lines and measurements with line drawings in pen and that is used to make diagrammatic ink—for images." Materials for Zen brushwork include round brushes of varied size. in tone running from black to white or vice versa. Etienne de material) dabbed through the Silhouette (1709-67). such as an inscribed sheet of metal. which are then called editions." Applied to the blurring or softening of sharp outlines by the subtle and gradual blending of one tone into another Sgraffito A technique of scratching or cutting through a surface of paint. usually diluted with water and applied with a brush. Printmaking The act of making a picture.Thedrawing is removed. a point at which receding parallel lines meet Verso The back or underside of a piece of paper. Tortillon A short. compound of water-soluble pigment. Recto The front or top side of a piece of paper. using a brush. "Spirits" or "oil" of turpentine refer to the volatile portion used by artists to thin or dilute oil-based paint. pointed instrument used for marking or engraving. Scale Describes the size of one element in relation to another Sepia A brown pigment taken from the sun-dried ink sacs of cuttlefish and used to make ink or watercolor The term is now often incorrectly used to refer to brown colors. to model areas of light and shade. paper or canvas. Still life A picture composed of inanimate objects such as bowls. glasses. Zen brushwork This is an oriental meditative art form originating in China and practised for many centuries in Japan. or pen. Viewpoint The position from which something is observed or considered. or point on which parallel lines converge to give the impression of receding space. or the left-hand page in a book. an ink stone usually cut from slate. a sheet of paper is placed beneath and pinpricks are Silhouette A flat. Wash A technique using ink. Zen A school of Mahayana Buddhism that asserts that enlightenment can come through meditation and intuition rather than faith. or mark using an inked or pigment-covered surface. Squeegee A rubber-trimmed scraper used in the screenprinting process for dragging ink across a surface. or gouache. meaning objects used in setting up a life model or still life. creating more vibrant effects than if the same colors were physically mixed together with a brush. whose pinpricks creates a "connect-thepersonal pastime was making dots" replica of the image on the cut-out portraits. Sketch A quick or rough drawing.

160 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object (Moore) 178. layers 53 chalk pastels 162. 95 Chair Cut Out (Woodfine) 94. 162 character: to capture 38-39. 50.184.89. 71 Bacchante (Bakst) 155 background: color 91 textured 240 Baker Matthew: Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry 32 Bakst. Giovanni 137 Head and Shoulders of a Man 136. 90. 204-205. center of 118 ballpoint 182. 38-39.115 anatomical drawing 134-135 anatomical theaters 82-83 anatomical waxes 128 ancient carvings 221. 200 Bauer. 113 bird bones 12. 163. 242 to blend 205 compressed 122. Le (Hugo) 200. 198 cartoon (preparatory drawing) 137 (satirical) 159. 243 botanical drawing 48-49 Boullee. 94 chalk(s) 53. Mamaru 104. 71 conte 112. 75.184.163 graded 227 composition 56-57. 190 Caricature of a Woman (Daumier) 198.163 body. 90 La Guitare. 186 charcoal 114. Hieronymus 243 Two Monsters 242. 230 The Physical Space 220 abstract drawing 219. Filippo 67. 137 Besler. 206 checkered floor 80. 202 cloth.100 curves. 223 Circular Score for "Due Voce" 223 children's art 9. 226-227 Acanthus spinosus 65 accelerated perspective 22. 203 Landline 202. Basilius 47 Beuys.163 dry media 205 Blue Nude (Matisse) 110. 72 bracelet shading 122 Braque. 205 Baltard. 250 Bishndas and Nanha: Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity 50. 74 brush (es) 246-247 Japanese 248 for laying a wash 140 marks 248-249 to hold 23 brush drawings 14-15 Bryan.44-45. 98. 13.31 Picasso's horse and bird 30.44-45 bird studies 12. 29 Hugo's octopus 28. 30 sleeping dog 38-39 Stubbs's horse skeleton 26.51 All and Nothing (Taylor) 114.226. 189. 204. 199 Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya (Eisen) 156. 134 costume(s) 155 character 158-159 structure of 166-167 Cottage Among Trees (Rembrandt) 52. 9. 111. 206. to express 39. 193 in lifting out 204. 158.13. Zen c 232-233 blended 133.Index Page numbers in italics refer t o captions and illustrations Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity (Bishndas and 259 INDEX B bread (as eraser) 205.162 Conte. 244 head and neck 144 phrased 124-125 contrast: brightness 99 of media 30 tonal 96. 41 principal 186. to depict 156-157 Cloudburst of Material Possessions (Leonardo) 200.212 to erase 205 to hold 23 pencils 204 willow 114. 220. 133. 28 Klee's horses 30. 230-231 Cubist 90. 182. 9 Chair (Van Gogh) 94. 165. to draw 80. 242 Brunelleschi. Nicolas-Jacques 54 contours 146. Clare 203 City 202.50. 161 Akhlaq-I Rasul Allah manuscript 51. 247-248 carving see lines. Jean Michel 138 Self-Portrait 138 Bateau-Vision. 75 Circle of the Lustful (Blake) 180. 52 cotton swabs 205 Coup de Vent a Asajigabare (Hokusai) 198. 81 135. 128. Etienne-Louis 72 Newton's Cenotaph 72. 40-41 Durer's rhinoceros 26. Augustin 67 Basquiat. Sylvano 222. 8 cave paintings 8. 221 animals. 70 Art Nouveau motifs 91 Autoportrait (Ray) 138. 26 geese 38-39 Gericault's cats 28. 78 aerial perspective 206 airbrushing 160. 179 Bussotti. William: The Circle of the Lustful 180. to model 110-111 border 51 Bosch. 13 architectural drawing 67-71 Arctic Flowers (Libeskind) 70. 157 cropping 56-57.27 turtles 42-43 aquatint 240 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels (Leonardo) 12. to draw 25. 178 Cubism 67. Victor: West Facade of the Church of St. Statue d'Epouvante 90 calligraphy. Brian 226 Untitled 2001 226 "Cave of the Hands" (Cueva de las Manas) 8. 180 Circular Score for "Due Voce" (Bussotti) 223 circus scenes 192-195 City (Bryan) 202. 201 collage 111. 74. 244 and graphite 178 . 180 blending: color 133. 94 cylindrical objects. Franz 48 Protea nitida 48 Bellini. 90. 74.117 Achilles Chases Hector (Thomas) 240.133. Georges 67. 71 Blake.169 colors: airbrushed 161 background 91 A Abe. 203 Claude Lorrain 202 Views from Velletri 202.186 see also movement Adoration of the Magi perspective study (Leonardo) 74. 81 cut-out model plan 94. 198. cut Catling. 241 action. Joseph 113 The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland 112. 222. Leon: Bacchante 155 balance. 90 colored materials 162-163 colored pencils 162. 203 Buffalo Hunt (Shoshone) 178. 139 Nanha) 50.198. (Ross-Craig) 49 to hold brush for 23 caricature 159. to draw 100 Cypripedium calceolus L. 116.

55.12 fixative 54.141. 99 etching.121 felt-tip pens 162. 799 Holbein. Cheval et Oiseau (Picasso) 30. 32 framing 139 Franfoise au Bandeau (Picasso) 132. to draw 120.157 ellipses 100. 79. 245 Gruau. 25 focus 65. 91 Dragon (Michelangelo) 36.37. 41 in the round 208-209 with scalpel 202.146 from masterworks 126-127. 55.244 drawing(s): abstract 219.John 157 Man Lying Down in a Cloak 156.198 Degas. fiber-tip pen 182. 131 Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 240.144 and ink 30. 122. 125. 77 How Clever of God #84 244. Rene 160 Illustration for Jacques Fath E easel. 157 . 220 dry brush 234 234 57. 120. 40. 73. Nicholas 68 St Paul's Baptistry 68 head and neck to draw 142-145 Head and Shoulders of a Man (Bellini) 136. 252 depiction of fabric monsters 252-253 Self Portrait in a Cocked Hat 130. 71 minimal line 99 and music 70-71 quick 38-39.112. to suggest 177 see also perspective diagonals diffuser 55 dip pens 34. Jean Ignace Isidore see Grandville Gericault.115 exploratory 17 fantasy 72-73. 222. 93 horizon 52.117 fountain pens 34. 216 foreshortening 110. 205 drawing with 103. 69.101 engraving 243 erasers/erasing 55. 223. 112.69 Gerard. 29 H hands. Keisai 157 The Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya 156. 230 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction 68. 69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt 68. 37 Grandville 243 A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the Near-Microscopic World of Scale Insects 242. 90 G Gaudi. 141 tonal 96.102-103 drawing board 20 drawing books 20-21 drawing paper 144. position of 143. 144 Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (Baker) 32. Statue d'Epouvante. 163.216.166 170-173 Gestalt 222 Giacometti.160. 134. to draw 78.216 Durelli.104. M. proportions of 143 fantasy drawings 72-73. Victor 200. position of 22 Eisen. 55.207. Hans 133 The Ambassadors 116 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 132. 170-173. 69 Guitare.141. Antonio 68. 242 eyes. 163.91. drypoint 181 exaggeration 184 expressionism 198 E ye and Head of a Drone Fly (Hooke) 92. 134. 200 F fabric. Katsushika 199 Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 198. 162 Flaxman. 124. 134. Francisco de 131. 135 Duren Albrecht 26.260 INDEX D Dada 139 Daumien Honore 198 Caricature of a Woman 198. 52 foreground 208. 203 Hotel de la Suzonnieres (Satie) 70. to draw 134-137 Helleborus corsicus 55 highlights 91. 240 170-173 five Ships in a Port with Lighthouse (Wallis) 11.111 feet. 245 layers 30 Goya. 93 eye level 80 Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity. to draw 168-169 in Goya's artworks face. 104-105. 241 to blend 205 and chalk 178 and ink 28. Robert 93 Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 92.103 with eraser 103. Antonio 135 Muscles of the Head and Neck 134. Ron 161 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 161 160.109 Rhinoceros 26.184 165.Theodore 29 Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 28. 90 gouache 30.116. 30 Fauves/fauvism 90. 765 hitsuzendo drawings 233 Hokusai. Oona 245 How Clever of God #84 244. The 242.230 three-tone 140.103. 160 hitsuzendo 233 light to dark 102. 115 Escher. 240 Black Paintings 152. 161 changing 216 Focusing on the Negative (Walter) 16 foliage 52. 222 Grimes. 113. Study for Plate 59 (Mucha) 90.244. 243 graphic score 222.97. 161 fashion 160. 245 Hugo. 69. disposable pens 182-183 dissections: botanical 48 of horse 27 distance: illusion of see perspective linear 97 tonal 97 Documents Decoratifs. Edgar 162 depth. C . 160 as ground for metal point 140. 226-227 anatomical 134-135 architectural 67-71 botanical 48-49 brush 14-15 dark to light 102.252-253 from memory 183. 203 semi-abstract 234-237 three-dimensional 68. 26 Flying Fish (White) 25. 122 Hawksmoor. Alberto 136 Portrait of Marie-Laure de Noailles 136. 7 33 Hooke. 190 Middle Eastern 50-51. 223 graphite 54. 222 Le Bateau-Vision 200. 240.160.189. 132 Frenz. 136 Golden Section 67 Gombrich. 160 Faune. 161 fashion drawings 160. 137 heads. 202. Sir Ernst 12. La (Braque) 90. 160 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction (Gaudi) 68.

141 Metropolis (film) 72. 34. 220. 178 motifs: A r t Nouveau 9 7 stylized 51 mountains 216-217 movement: of animals 30-31 of humans 7 79. 220. 177 influences. 35. 163 pens 36 measuring 116 memory.The (Robinson) 108.104. 219 Mondrian. 83 white 122 ink impressions 222 ink spatters 234 installations 176. 159 Japanese 35 to make 36 sepia 35 walnut 36. 31 Klimt. 181 luminosity 115 Lynch. I Murderous Attacks 33 Kollwitz.227 to "bend" straight 97 compositional 228-229 cut 202.181 L Landline (Bryan) 202. 110 Sistine Chapel ceiling 116 Middle Eastern drawing 50-51. Matisse. artistic 240-241. 221 endless 31 free 113.243 carbon 35 Chinese 30. 33 J justness 228-229 N naive art 74 negative space 53. Rose: Tantalus or the Future of Man 20 minimal line drawing 99 mirror use of 120 mixed media 28. 225 masking tape 204. 244 Dragon 36. Erich 73 design for Metropolis 72. 252 ink 16. 181 Klee. 37 lines 118 pastel 162 pencil 31. 114 hatched 244 layered 118 pace of 65 pale 40 rapid 49.96. 111. 244. 34-35 acrylic 35 bistre 35. 183 vertical 156 linear distance 97 linear perspective 69. Bartolome: Moses Striking the Rock ofHoreb 252. Alphonse 90. 185 Mucha.109. 201 head and neck sections of female mold for Sforza Horse 89 Madonna of the Rocks 244 perspective study for Adoration of the Magi 74. 205. Victor 134 Profile Head 134.124. 757 mandalas 219. 160 In the Duchess's Kitchen (Rackham) 176. 220. 76 Libeskind. Kathe 181 Losbrunch (The Outbreak) 180. 201 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels 12. Oxford 250 music 70-71 Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks (Knopf) 32. 789. 28 Two Impressions from a Cut-out Paper Disk 222 Huyler Stephen R 225 261 Kinecar.141.102.167 line(s) 132.120.109. 756 priming for 140.134 K Kettlehut. apparent 97 Leonardo da Vinci 74. Paul 227 Polyphonic Setting for White 226. 53 monoprint 787. 220. Daniel 70 Arctic Flowers 70 Lieb. 77 Miller.Pieuvre (Octopus) 28. 72.33 Mysterious Affairs of the lighting 2 7. drawing from 183. Florence 128 lighting in 167 Pitt Rivers. 158 Man Lying Down in a Cloak (Flaxman) 156. 252 Muscles of the Head and Neck (Durelli) 134. 135 museums 44. 63. 244 lithograph 198 Losbruch (Kollwitz) 180. 13 Cloudburst of Material Possessions 200.276. 97 Murillo. Oxford 106 Prado.166 La Specola. 49 Rose 49 Maelbeke Madonna (Van Eyck) 156. 176.115 98. 248. 156 magnification 93 Man in Armor (Van Dyck) 158.182 Moore. Johan 32. 60. Piet 52. 58-59. 234 iron-gall 35. drawing from 126-127. 170-173. 73 Kigell. 54 silver point 156 leg sections 158 length. 74-77. 226 Modernism 67. 73 Michelangelo Buonarroti 48. Marie 244 cloth drawing 244. 242 light 96 to depict drawing with 1 76 painting with 176 . 103 Neolithic chalk tablet 220. 205 masterworks. Madrid 171 University Museum of Natural History. 227 Newsome. 230 invented creatures 106-107 250-251 invented objects 89. 244 ink 36 252-253 Documents Decoratifs 90. Henry 178 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object 178. 184. 227 Scene of Comical Riders 30. 99. 249 and gouache 30 Indian 35. 203. Phyll: hands 18 lifting out 204. 53 Tree II 52. Charles Rennie 48.112. Gustav 49 Knopf. 78 Study ofThree Male Figures 110. 203 landscape 206-208 brushed 14 Landscape in Hoboku Style (Sesshu) 14 layers 146 chalk 53 gouache 30 ink 28. David 78 M Mackintosh. 190 metal pens see dip pens metal point 25. 36. Henri 111 Blue Nude 1110. 166.91 Study for Plate 59 of INDEX illumination see lighting Illustration for Jacques Fath (Gruau) 160.

36. 216. 1 1 6 . 36. 7 77 three-point 80.759.262 INDEX Newton.131 Cottage Among Trees 52. J 76 nudes 114-115 to make 36 metal see dip quill 34. 2 2 0 for oil pastels 162 stained 230 to stretch 140-141 tissue 21. 1 3 2 quill pens 34. 759 P Page. Auguste 114 Two Women 114. Isaac 92 Telescope 92 Newton's Cenotaph (Boullee) 72.Toyo: Landscape in Hoboku . 1 6 3 . 139 Real Life is Rubbish (Noble and Webster) 176. 7 38 Ray 138. 40-41. 241 Physical Space. 78 single-point 74. 166 fiber-tip 782. The (Abe) 220 Picasso. 141 Piranesi. and Webster.2 3 age and youth sleeping subjects 148-149 150-151 Renaissance 109 Rhinoceros (Durer) 26. 164. 227 portfolios 20 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser de Noailles (Holbein) 132. Erik 70. 76 plastic eraser 55. 1 2 4 priming for metal point 140.54 pastel 162 perspective 1 0 0 . 91 outsider artists 33. 36. 72 Noble. 733 Portrait de Marie-Laure (Giacometti) 136. 772 234-237 Sesshu. 7 76 receding space 206 Redon. 732 influence of 240 painting with light 78. 243. 73 Noble.9 3 Schongauer.141 prints/printing: aquatint 240 dry-point etching 181 engraving 243 monoprint 181. 244 Q s Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape (Wolfli) 2 79 St. 239 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat (Seurat) 112. 165 figure 118 filled 37 pencil 48. 163.52 pen and wash 158. 26 Riley. 1 6 9 to hold 2 2 . Man 131. 243. 52 pens 36 scalpel 54 drawing with 202. Faune. Arthur 177 In the Duchess's Kitchen 176. 1 1 6 accelerated 2 2 . 205 157. 9 0 .199 Profile Head (Newsome) oil pastels 162. Bridget 98 Robinson. 36 relief printing 757 Rembrandt van Rijn 52. 161. 230 paper(s) 21 colored 162 drawing 144. 30 Fran<. 181 Rodin.176 Real Life Is Rubbish 176. 57 Ross-Craig. Giovanni Battista 74. 81 two-point 74.71 Hotel de la Suzonnieres 70. 9 8 . 7 70 Ray. 28 pigment 162 bright 50 Caput Mortuum 7 4 7 for three-tone drawing 141. 36 pen and brush 8 3 pen and ink 70. 75 Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range 241 petroglyphs 221. 242 reed pens 34.37. 75 Two Courtyards 75. 219. 36. 230 parallel planes 79 Parisian street 86-87 pastels 162 to blend 205 to hold 23 layers 162 pencils 162 pen(s): dip 34 . 4 8 putty eraser 55. 103. Peter Paul 126-127 Embracing pose(s): balanced 146 quick 118-119 positive form 103 posture: of artist 22 of subject 3 8 . Pablo 6 7 .139 Autoportrait 138.Paul'sBaptistry (Hawksmoor) 68. 76-79. Sue 104. 734 Protea nitida (Bauer) 48. 38. 736 portraits. Paul 73 Nobson Central 72.oise au Bandeau 132. 159. Heath 181 The Kinecar 180. 234 disposable 182-183 felt-tip 162. 122.37. 244 reed 34. 782 relief 757 silk-screen 739 woodblock 134. 34-35. 205 pointillism 112 polyphonic painting 227 Polyphonic Setting for White (Klee) 226. Odilon 242 The Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity 242.184 fountain 34. 181 pencil(s) 54 charcoal 204 colored 762. 38. 74-77.240. 114 rollerball 182 Rorschach blot 99 Rose (Mackintosh) 48. 239 Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 238. 7 73 self-portraits: Basquiat 138.226. Stella 48 Cypripedium calceolus L 49 rotated view 7 65 Rubens. 739 semi-abstract drawings Style 14 Seurat. to draw 146-147 R Rackham. 68 Satie. 162 O p A r t 98 optical illusions 96-99 outline 33. Georges 112 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 112. 203 Scene of Comical Riders (Klee) 30.The (Beuys) 112. 36. 36.37 scientific instruments 9 2 . Russell 228. 4 9 Rose of Mohammed 50. 37 38. Martin 238.104 Pieuvre (Hugo) 28.7 77 rapidograph 70 Raphael 110. 74. 160.Tim. 165. Cheval et Oiseau 30. 212 Japanese 2 1 . 71 Satire of the Queen's Dress (Wodall) 158. 224 0 layers 31.40. 1 1 7 aerial 206 linear 69. 97. 7 72 Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland.

12 W a l t e r . 49. 2 4 2 w Wallis. W . 170 shoes 1 6 4 stylized m o t i f 51 Summer Flowers 63. 115.216 W e b s t e r . 75. 4 4 boat 209 botanical 4 9 G e r i c a u l t ' s cats 2 9 from Goya 170-173 125. 164. 9 4 z Z e n calligraphy 232-233 contrast 96 t o grade 163 ink 37 pencil 5 4 t o r t i l l o n 205 T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c . 226 V Van Dyck. 1 4 1 w a t e r c o l o r 25. Sue see N o b l e . 1 4 1 . 141 Three Male Figures.243 Leonardo's machines 12.13 M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s m a l e figures 110. 7 79 Shoshone petroglyph 240. 241. G e o r g e 2 7 Skeleton of the Horse 26. T i m W e s t Fagade of the Church of St. t h r e e .5 3 in l a n d s c a p e 2 0 6 . 7 9 0 vessels. 1 8 4 . A l f r e d 1 1 . Sarah: child's m a p 75. b l o w n 248 steel p e n s see d i p p e n s still life 89. 1 7 7 free 8 0 V e n i c e . 2 2 7 Untitled 2001 ( C a t l i n g ) u 263 W h i t e . 7 1 4 . 7 75 Telescope ( N e w t o n ) 9 2 . 1 9 9 . M . t o lay 1 4 0 . 1 4 5 travel journal 2 0 . 7 6 Two Impressions from a Cut-Out Paper Disk ( H u g o ) 2 2 2 Two Monsters 2 4 2 . 2 1 2 . Augustin ( B a l t a r d ) 6 7 w e t and dry brush-strokes 2 4 9 Turner. 1 4 4 . 2 0 0 Ship in a Storm 1 9 8 . 102-103 tonal marks. A n t h o n y 152.9 1 storms. Study of (Michelangelo) 110. 1 6 6 t r a p e z i u s m u s c l e 142. 1 8 4 .1 0 5 vision 9 6 Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects (Grandville) 242. 7 6 1 spots. 6 9 Wodall. 2 7 studies: b i r d s 7 2 . H e n r i de: Woman at Her Toilet 14 t r a n s p a r e n t v i e w 92. 2 3 4 .120.Yamaoka 233 t e x t u r e 2 2 2 . Vincent 95 Chair 94. 1 6 . 221 . 2 3 0 tonal contrast 96 tonal distance 9 7 t o n a l d r a w i n g 9 6 .199 tissue p a p e r 21. John 25 Flying Fish 25 Wild Striped Cat Sketches of ( G e r i c a u l t ) 28. Man in Armor 1 5 8 .158 158. h e a d a n d n e c k sections o f female m o l d f o r (Leonardo) 89 shading 2 9 s h a d o w s 28.d i m e n s i o n a l d r a w i n g 68. C y 138. t o d r a w 2 0 0 . 202 violin.d i m e n s i o n a l 1 0 4 . 69. 1 3 . 249 t o describe 39. Taylor A n i t a 115 All and Nothing 1 1 4 . 743 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City ( F r e n z ) 1 6 0 . 79. 206-207 202. 9 0 . 161.J. 97. 725 fabric 1 6 8 T h o m a s . 69.27 skull 747. 243 (Bosch) T Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos ( G o y a ) 2 4 0 . 186. 2 4 4 . 230 t h r e e . 74. 77.41. Paul 2 4 1 Achilles Chases Hector 2 4 0 . 1 2 Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse 71. William 159 Satire of the Queen's Dress INDEX 226.s c r e e n p r i n t i n g 139 silver p o i n t 1 4 0 . 245 sharpener 54 Ship in a Storm ( T u r n e r ) 1 9 8 .125 W o o d f i n e .241 s i l k . 158 V a n Eyck. t o d r a w 1 0 1 viewfinder 57 Views from Velletri ( C l a u d e L o r r a i n ) 152. t o d r a w 5 2 . 76.1 8 5 Tree II ( M o n d r i a n ) 52. 174 T w o m b l y . 1 9 9 Two Courtyards (Piranesi) 75.2 1 3 Stubbs. 7 70 Tiber 214-215 Untitled ( T w o m b l y ) 2 2 0 . 159 Wolfli. 1 4 0 . 199 shoes 1 6 4 . 75 Skeleton of the Horse ( S t u b b s ) 26. 182. 199. 240 Two Women Embracing ( R o d i n ) 114. John: Focusing on the Negative 14 w a s h . 2 2 0 influence o f 2 4 0 Untitled 220. 9 5 pens 36 v a n i s h i n g p o i n t 74.141 S i m b l e t .2 0 1 . 156 layers 7 5 6 priming for 140.1 9 9 wire.1 4 5 . Sarah 9 4 Chair Cut Out 94. 2 2 6 . 65 symbols 138. v i e w s o f 85.t o n e d r a w i n g 140. 9 2 Tesshu. Jan 1 5 6 Maelbeke Madonna 1 5 6 . Adolf: Giant-Grape Saint-Mary-Castle 219 Woman at Her Toilet ( T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c ) 74 w o o d b l o c k print 157. 2 4 7 t h r e e . 104-105. 7 77.1 4 1 . 53 trees. drawing with 104-105 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt ( G a u d i ) 68. 2 9 wind. phrased 146 tonal modeling 161 tonal range 169 t o n a l surfaces 2 2 7 tonal width 97 t o n e ( s ) 33.1 6 5 shorthand diagram 142 Shoshone buffalo hide painting 178. 57.Sforza Horse. t o draw 1 9 8 . 96. 156 Van Gogh.

J o h n Walter. Germany/Joerg P. Madrid. b r i d g e m a n .co. Anders/ © D A C S 2 0 0 5 . . B M G . Carlo O r t u for picture research s u p p o r t . 72: akg-images. 243: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz.939). 112: Yale University A r t Gallery/Everett V Meeks. Illustrated London News Picture Library/The Bystander (b). Sarah Woodfine. 13: www. 17: J o h n Walter. A n d y C r a w f o r d for p h o t o g r a p h y a n d L . 2 4 2 : Photo Scala. 2 6 : Topfoto. 2 4 5 : Oona Grimes. 130: The Metropolitan M u s e u m of Art/Robert L e h m a n Collection. 69: Institut Amatller d'Art Hispanic (tl). 2 2 7 : Paul Klee Stiftung. 9 0 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/© A D A G P . Fund. Peter L u f f .264 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Acknowledgments Author's Acknowledgments: T h e author wishes to thank the following people for their enormous help.r. © Tate. K u n s t m u s e u m . G e r m a n y .bridgeman. 1901. Carole A s h .bridgeman. 1 3 3 : Artothek/Kupferstichkabinett. L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . 180: www. Jean Pierre Roy. B e r l i n . . and Tamsin Woodward Smith. Roddy Bell. 49: Hunterian Museum (t). University of Cambridge. Sarah D u n c a n . u k / T o k y o National M u s e u m . 179: www.bridgeman. R o y a n d D i a n n e Simblet. 9 4 : Sarah Woodfine. 9 7 6 ) .uk/Private Collection. 157: U C L Art Collections . Paul T h o m a s ( t ) . Corporation of London.co. Paula Regan. 1 3 8 : © Christie's Images Ltd/© A D AGP. 1 5 : w w w . 1 6 0 : Rene G R U A U s. A . 2 0 3 : Clare Bryan (t). R . Natalie G o d w i n . (r). Julie O u g h t o n . 1 1 0 : www. F r a n c e . Havemeyer. 6 6 : w w w . 9 3 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. Italy. 132: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. 9 1 : www. 177: Mary Evans Picture Library. c o . c o . George M c G a v i n . K e w ft)). 2 4 : © T h e British Museum. London 2005. c o . Productions Clovis Prevost (c).bridgeman. Paris a n d D A C S .uk/Musee des Augustins.uk /Biblioteca Nacional. 1 . 2 8 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. Orientabteilung/Ruth Schacht. 2 2 4 : P r i n z h o m Collection. H e a t h e r M c C a r r y . T o n y G r i s o n i .co. Pamela Ellis for compiling the index. Dover Publications/ISBN: 0486229912 (t). 7 0 : Studio Daniel L i b e s k i n d . 1 9 : Getty Images/© Succession Picasso / D A C S 2 0 0 5 .co. 226: Brian Catling.100./Galerie Sylvie Nissen. 3 1 : Tom Powel Imaging.co. U K . U K . 1975 ( 1 9 7 5 . 7 1 : I M E C / A r c h i v e s E r i k Satie. Paris. 221: Gagosian Gallery/Private Collection (b). Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. Sammy De Grave. 1 9 6 : Museum of the History of Science. Amsterdam. a n d encouragement i n m a k i n g this book: M a m o r u Abe. S i m o n L e w i s ./© D A C S 2 0 0 5 ( t ) . L o n d o n . Staatliche Museen z u Berlin/Jorg P. Paris. Anita Taylor. papers. R u t h P a r k i n s o n . J o h n Roberts. 1 3 6 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Centre Pompidou-MNAM-CCI. Berlin (b). Portugal. 1929 (29. Paris and D A C S . G i n a R o w l a n d . u k / O n Loan to the H a m b u r g Kunsthalle. 11: www.bridgeman. L o n d o n . 16: www. Germany. 158: Calouste Gulbenkian Museum. Kunstmuseum Bern. Angela Palmer. Angela W i l k e s . 30: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (t). Also. 1 0 8 : Arts C o u n c i l Collection. Lisbon. Maureen Paley Interim Art (b). Paris. Wolfson College. 1 6 1 : D C C o m i c s I n c .uk/British Museum. 111: Fondation Beyeler/Riehen (Bale)/© Succession H Matisse/DACS 2005. T h e R u s k i n School of D r a w i n g a n d Fine A r t . 3 2 : Pepys Library.co. 1 5 4 : akg-images/Musee National d'Art Moderne. 29: Fogg A n Museum/Collections Baron de Vita: Grenville L.uk/Mucha Trust. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. 2 7 : Royal Academy of Arts. 73: Berlin F i l m Museum (t). 2 0 2 : © T h e British Museum. 2 4 1 : Corbis/David M u e n c h ( b ) . for s u p p l y i n g the d r a w i n g books. L o n d o n (t). Agnieszka Mlicka. 75: © The British Museum (b). 2 4 0 : w w w . 174: Artothek/Munich. 2 1 8 : Adolf-Wdlfli-Stiftung. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett.co. Picture Credits 8: Corbis/Hubert Stadler. Paris. Paris/ © Succession Picasso / D A C S 2005. C o r n e l i s o n & Son. u k / L o u v r e . b r i d g e m a n . Florence/MoMA./Private Collection/© D A C S 2005. J a c k a n d Brian Catling. 2 0 1 : T h e Royal Collection © 2 0 0 2 H e r Majesty Queen Elizabeth I I . Psychiatric Institute of the U n i v e r s i t y of Heidelberg.20-21 a n d 246-47. 3 3 : Prinzhom Collection.uk/Guildhall Library. 5 2 : T h e Metropolitan Museum of Art/Bequest of Mrs. Copyright Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens.uk/Private Collection. 1 7 8 : © T h e British M u s e u m / H e n r y Moore F o u n d a t i o n . Paris. 88: www. Paris. J o n Roome. 176: Modem Art. L o n d o n . K e v i n a n d Rebecca Slingsby. L e n .l. Inc. L o n d o n . 9 5 : V a n Gogh M u s e u m .bridgeman. Toulouse. University of Oxford. L o n d o n . Japan. H a y w a r d Gallery. O.co. Paul T h o m a s . France. 5 0 : Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (1). R o s e m a r y S c o u l a r . Berlin/Staatsbibliothek zu A l l other images © Sarah Simblet . H e l e n S h u t t l e w o r t h . P h y l l Kiggell.bridgeman. a n d brushes o n pp. 51: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. Sir Brinsley F o r d . 2 4 4 : Ashmolean Museum. F i n n . Christopher Davis. 2 2 0 : Mamaru Abe. 2 3 8 : akg-images.co. K u n s t m u s e u m Bern/© D A C S 2 0 0 5 . Kirsten Norrie. 1 9 8 : Dover Publications. Psychiatric Institute of the University of Heidelberg. 4 6 : B r i t i s h Library. O o n a G r i m e s . Graphische Sammlung. Magdalene College Cambridge. M a n d y Earey. Winthrop. 137: © The British Museum. 225: Stephen P Huyler. Paris a n d D A C S . Basel. 2 0 0 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France.uk/Private Collection. B e m d Kunzig.bridgeman. 1879. a n d D e p a r t m e n t s o f E n t o m o l o g y a n d Zoology at the University of Oxford.uk /© Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery. Antonia Cunliffe Davis. support.co. 74: Corbis. G e r m a n y . Andy Crawford. 68: www.bridgeman. Diana Bell.Paris ( b ) . NY. Sophie Laurimore. Patty Stansfield.Strang Print Room ( b ) . A n n a P l u c i n s k a . 1 5 6 : Graphische S a m m l u n g Albertina. Rocio Arnaez. Salisbury & South W i l t s h i r e M u s e u m ( t ) .a. Publisher's Acknowledgments Dorling Kindersley w o u l d like to thank Caroline H u n t for editorial contribution. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin. Anders. Clare Bryan. H a m b u r g . 114: Musee Rodin. 199: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee des arts asiatiquesGuimet. 1 3 4 : © T h e British Museum. London/Bequeathed by Charles Landseer. H . K a t h r y n W i l k i n s o n . London/courtesy of Stuart Shave.uk/Kettle's Yard. 181: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. 115: Anita Taylor. 9 2 : Science Photo L i b r a r y . Oxford. 1 5 9 : Bodleian Library. Jackie Douglas. A . 2 2 2 : Pierre Georgel/Private Collection. D a w n Henderson. 1 3 5 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. Flossie. 139: Galerie Marion Meyer/© Man Ray Trust / A D A G P . b r i d g e m a n . B e r l i n . L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . B . 4 8 : T h e N a t u r a l H i s t o r y M u s e u m . 5 3 : Collection of the Gemeentemuseum D e n Haag/Mondrian Trust. 113: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. 2 2 3 : Lebrecht Music and Arts Photo Library/Ricordi.

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