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FOR T H E ARTIST
FOR THE ARTIST
LONDON • NEW YORK MELBOURNE • MUNICH • DELHI Senior Editor Paula Regan Senior Art Editor Mandy Earey Art Editor Anna Plucinska Managing Editor Julie Oughton Managing Art Editor Heather McCarry Art Director Peter Luff Publishing Director Jackie Douglas Production Joanna Bull DTP Designer Adam Walker Picture Research Sarah Smithies US Editor Christine Heilman First American Edition, 2 0 0 5 First Paperback Edition, 2 0 0 9 Published in the United States by DK Publishing 3 7 5 Hudson Street New York, New York 1 0 0 1 4 10 11 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3
6 8 20 22 Master Builders The Order of Sound Future Fictions Pathways of Sight Single-Point Perspective Creating an Imaginary Space Further Aspects of Perspective Theaters Venetian Life Parisian Street
68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86
Foreword Introduction Drawing Books and Papers Posture and Grip
Objects and Instruments
TD075-July 2009 Copyright © 2 0 0 5 Dorling Kindersley Limited Text and authors artworks © Sarah Simblet 2 0 0 4 Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited A Cataloging-in-Publication record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN 9 7 8 - 0 - 7 5 6 6 - 5 1 4 1 - 1 Color reproduction by GRB, Italy Printed and bound in China by Toppan
Still Life Instruments of Vision Bench Marks Light and Illusions Further Illusions How to Draw Ellipses Tonality Drawing with Wire Artifacts and Fictions
90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106
Documentaries Presence and Mood Movement Icon and Design Pen and Ink Drawing with Ink Capturing Character Sleeping Dogs Turtles Dry Birds
26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44
Postures and Poses Choreographs Passion Measurement and Foreshortening Quick Poses Hands and Feet Charcoal Hands Phrasing Contours The Visual Detective La Specola
110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128
Plants and Gardens
Botanical Studies Jeweled Gardens Fast Trees Graphite and Erasers Cropping and Composition Negative Space Fig Tree Summer Flowers Acanthus Spinosus
48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64
Discover more at
Projections Magnetic Fields The Human Condition Disposable Pens The Travel Journal Catching the Moment Grand Canal Crossings Caravans The Big Top
174 Abstract Lines
176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 Process and Harmony Writing Time Chants and Prayers Compositions Being "Just" Collage Zen Calligraphy Nocturnes
220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234
Poise Anatomies Revelations Self-Portraits Silver Point Head and Neck Essential Observations Drawing Portraits Generations Castings
132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 152
Earth and the Elements
Air in Motion Storms Nature Profiles Charcoal Landscapes Drawing in the Round Decaying Boat Cloudburst Notes of Force Mountains
198 200 202 204 206 208 210 212 214 216
Gods and Monsters
Marks of Influence Hauntings Convolutions Brushes Brush Marks Monsters Goya's Monsters Consumed Glossary Index Acknowledgments
240 242 244 246 248 250 252 254 256 259 264
Cloth and Drapery Character Costumes Femmes Fatales Colored Materials Study and Design The Structure of Costume Textures and Patterns Dressing Character Posture Carving
156 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172
where I expect them to be discovered by some people. are made outside as discreet installations. perhaps hidden on a door hinge or a street bench rail. a cartographer charting the land. I was also reading among The Confessions of St. I know that with their cooperation I can soon prove them wrong. and experience. I also make drawing books. who tells me firmly upon approach that they cannot draw. Augustine his notes on memory. a drawing book is the perfect portable private vehicle for your imminent exploration of drawing. It is my love of these. They enfold their viewer and are made on joined sheets of paper that I reach by climbing ladders. or engineer. The very first step is to believe it. in which he describes himself flying and diving in his imagination through pictorial caverns of knowledge. We can all learn how to draw. and through which I can see how I think. Some of my drawings cover entire walls. thinking. undergraduates to fellow professors. These inspirations led me to invent museums.Foreword B Y DRAWING THE WORLD AROUND US. by invitation. where spaces are shaped by nothing more than the objects and activities contained within them. especially as travel journals. and a reflector of experience. from schoolchildren to senior citizens. we have looked at. doctors. still standing by the door. and size. we learn to feel truly alive. I was training in anatomy and studying how. and I refer back to them for years after they are made. fashion designer. Drawing occupies a unique place in every artist and creator's life. art schools. drawing is the immediate expression of seeing. and makers of special effects. It is a tool for investigating ideas and recording knowledge. we learn to see it. a composer notating a musical score. shape. For twelve years I have enjoyed the privilege of teaching drawing. . architect. The most rewarding challenge is always the newcomer. that inspired the title and structure MEMORY T H E A T E R S This pen-and-ink drawing was made from imagination during research for my PhD. Some are more traditionally framed and hung in galleries for solo or group exhibitions. aspirations. Chosen in any color. of Sketch Book for the Artist. By using our imaginations. Combine these things and the possibilities are endless. but because it is how I engage with and anchor myself in life. night security staff. through history. be they a child discovering their vision and dexterity. not only to make art. They occupy a shelf in my studio. and their importance to so many artists. a sculptor. and local c o m m u n i t y classes. as a visiting professor at universities. texture. Others can be held in the h a n d or. For me personally. Drawing is a mirror through which I understand my place in the world. and in a few sessions they will be flying. and be slowly washed or worn away. I work with people of diverse ages. or a quantum physicist trying to see for themselves the fluctuations of our universe. It makes me feel excited to be alive. and feeling. understood (and often misunderstood) our own bodies. geologists. I will always draw. remain unseen by most.
irreverent to language barriers. We are surrounded by drawings in our daily lives. like a great canvas for them to mark.8 INTRODUCTION Where We Begin There is a fundamental drive in our human nature to make a mark. but more often because drawing actually helps us to focus and take in what is said. Drawing is international. not just chosen pictures on our walls but everywhere—maps. scrawling shapes and cartoons when on the telephone. Cueva de las Marios. logos. waving to us from many thousands of yearsago. and patterns on our clothes. At home and at work we doodle.Theseancient silhouettes were drawn with earth pigments rubbed onto rock. is not afforded us by drawing. Most adults still feel that certain exquisite pleasure on arriving at a beach to find the tide out and the sand perfect. and in meetings. We are bombarded with linear and tonal pictorial information. "CAVE OF THE HANDS" In this drawing. graffiti. Sometimes we draw because we are bored. Rio Pinturas 13. They have a natural affinity to many modern graffiti signatures. inscribing every fresh part of it with their eager scrapes and trails. and we spend our lives reading it. Children cannot be restrained from running across the pristine white lawn of newly fallen snow. a great crowd is raising their hands in greeting. packaging. The sense of relief we may feel from the information overload of modern commercial life when visiting a country in which we can no longer read every written word. signs.000-9500 bce . in lectures. We can always read each others drawings.
Even though it is made by a toddler this image would be recognizable to anyone. we see our oldest surviving images. but I had never yet attempted to figuratively picture my world. at age two-anda-half. enjoying the physical sensation of crayon on paper." Until this day. an expression of existence. and belonging to place. In cave paintings like the one opposite. and the appearance of my strikes of colors. . who in their day-to-day hardship made time to picture themselves and the animals on which they depended. I now think this is a picture of proximity. power. Eyelashes take up as much of my attention as the head itself. Cave art was not made for decoration but as a fundamental part of life. The image above is what I gave back to my mother. She gave me a notepad and a red crayon and asked me to draw her "a picture of Daddy. and she kept it as my first step beyond the delighted realms of scrawl. I. On a particular afternoon in September 1974. had happily scribbled. created by societies of hunter-gatherers. MAKING OUR MARK It seems reasonable to assume that we have engaged in pictorial mark-making for as long as we have made conscious use of our hands. the hair of my first portrait was most important. I was sitting with my mother.9 WHERE WE BEGIN FIRST PORTRAIT For sorre forgotten reason. reflecting my experience of looking closely at my father's face. like all toddlers.
At this point many will insist they cannot draw. for example. then drag o u r line into a loop. W e do n o t hesitate to draw a map. h o w e v e r small a n d u n f o r m e d y o u believe they are. it is important to value your natural abilities a n d ways of seeing. But as adolescents.10 INTRODUCTION PEN-AND-INK BEE This tiny drawing has been enlarged to show its texture and composition. and from that first unit build and describe the shape of something or someone we know. PROGRESSION T h e r e is a point in all o u r lives w h e n w e first c o n t r o l o u r mark and m a k e it a line. Don't b e p e r s u a d e d to draw in a w a y s o m e o n e else . It was made with a few bold strokes of a steel pen dipped in ink to conjure the dried bee I was holding between my fingers on a pin. As you progress. and this activity plays a vital role in their d e v e l o p m e n t . b e p r o u d o f what m a k e s y o u r w o r k individual to y o u . Inhibitions creep in and ideas of good a n d b a d terminate confidence. most of us stop. yet still turn to drawing w h e n their verbal language fails or is inadequate. to help a stranger see their way W h e n taking first steps in relearning h o w to draw. Hours are lost immersed in the glorious world of imagination. Young children love to draw.
I ask them their reasons for drawing. Someone once told them they must draw in this way. He used leftover ship and yacht paint with crayons on cut-out pieces of cardboard boxes. and they have never questioned why. 1925-42 53/8x87/8in (135 x 225 mm) ALFRED WALLIS prefers and tells you is better. The journey of every artist demands hard work and discipline. Enjoy the control of your own journey. As you read this b o o k and perhaps attend art classes. Think how much would have been lost if anyone had interfered with Alfred Wallis' personal sense of proportion and perspective in the exquisite drawing above. remember that all advice is only advice. After experimenting and trying each new idea. harbor and sea is one of many that Alfred Wallis made from memory while sitting at home.11 PROGRESSION A UNIQUE SIGHT This innocent yet sophisticated drawing of boats. . Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse c. what they most want to achieve. He was a retired Cornish fisherman and junk dealer who began drawing at the age of 70 "for company" after his wife died. and which aspects of the vast wealth and diversity of graphic language would be most appropriate to their goals. Occasionally. you must decide whether to keep or discard it. but it does help to set out facing in the right direction. I meet students struggling unhappily with a particular method of drawing.
not for disguise but as a personal choice. we can drive out its spirit. be visionary. The observed world may be our subject. There are only artists.and collarbones and shoulder blades of a different bird almost become new creatures in themselves. wrote as the opening line of this great work. it may not be accurate to our critical adult eye. clear-minded understanding of the sea." The clarity and empowerment of these words. but the child in us knows that this is an all-embracing. "There really is no such thing as Art. depending on the occasion and our purpose. IDEAS A N D I N V E N T I O N S These active machines. The art historian Professor Sir Ernst Gombrich. boats. perhaps for comfort or ease as a left-hander or a habitual enjoyment of the challenge. When we look back at Wallis' seascape (see p. We BIRD STUDIES The flutter of faint scratches that dance across the pages on the right is an attempt to see the movement and bony weightlessness of a bird. embedded in this book. the breast. 11). and lose the very thing that attracted us to it.12 INTRODUCTION VISION All artists see the world differently. the page bristles with the focus of ideas. If as artists we nail a subject down too hard. There are countless reasons for drawing. Below. His notes visually balance his drawings. We also see differently ourselves. Our imaginations are the tools with which we can increase the essence of life. and inspire others. but it should be the experienced world we draw. and breathtaking wind of a choppy harbor. right. I hope. Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels LEONARDO DA VINCI . author of The Story of Art. is. We all see differently. They are also always written backward. all raise water From the Archimedes' screw to Leonardo's own cupped wheel. There should neve: be a slavish obligation to represent things exactly as we collectively agree we see them.
Decide before you start whether you are drawing to warm up. . My drawings of a housemartin (opposite top) illustrate the importance of repeated study. Our drawings are annotated investigations into the mechanisms of nature and of an idea. Leonardo drew to invent a machine. shout against a terrible injustice. This also applies if struggling at length with a larger picture. or to discover the best use of a new material.13 VISION should not try to know how every finished picture will look. conduct an experiment. We have both covered our paper with focused. it may be best to start afresh. drawing in pursuit of our own thoughts and understanding. stripped-down parts. Opposite. when it looks tired and still feels wrong. time spent is not lost. or illustrate a dream. to express the beauty in a moment's play of light. It will be invested through your experience in the new drawing. Each fresh image reflects growing confidence and the experience of the preceding study. but it is important to be clear why we are making it. while below. Don't be disheartened. More was learned drawing the bird 18 times than would have been understood drawing it only once or twice. make a calculation. I drew to understand the apparatus of flight.
or ice—you must actually feel it beneath your fingers as you draw. If you can do this. These two brush drawings. water. and position in space. size. You must also think of its intrinsic nature: its purpose. This is the alchemy of drawing. W e float toward the quiet vista as it also moves toward us. Whatever the material— wood. and at speeds beyond conscious thought. and allowed to flow through the brush. ink. meaning. and we can just make out the distant stains of mountains. bone. or imagine—it is not enough to only render its shape. declare the idea. and sometimes beyond. metal. Imagine these qualities so strongly that you feel them in your mind and at your fingertips. depth. which can offer keys to other things. explain the composition. and spirit of each subject was held strongly but loosely between the fingertips. As your hand meets the paper to make a mark. and how it feels to the touch. balance. we are advised or even required to plan our pictures. As you draw any subject—something you see. your marks will become the subject on the paper. and paper.14 INTRODUCTION ALCHEMY At school. excessive planning can get in the way of the imagination. This suits many artists well and is perfectly valid. The physicality. it should be responding to the sensation and meaning of the subject it draws. Each image relied upon past experience to know the probable behavior of the brush. This is a detail of a brush-and-ink drawing by a Japanese Buddhist monk. mists. fire. and opacity of your subject. Know the texture. They each allowed the energy and focus of the moment to be expressed through controlled accident and a degree of the unknown Both drawings were made trusting the marks. and what you discover in the process of making. and practice each part before putting the final image together. created centuries and cultures apart. I made it almost unconsciously with a pen and a brush. BRUSHED LANDSCAPE FLOWING SKELETON T h e gliding poise of this walking anatomy comes as much from the feeling of movement as it does from the feeling of drawing. the unknown. are both made of ink laid onto wet paper with speed and agile certainty. Our position asvieweris unsteady. However. feel. silk. We are caught in a shifting focus that makes everything fluid. Landscape in Haboku Style 15TH CENTURY . and an island brushed with trees. temperature. trusting my intuition to find a visual equivalence for the sensation of weight within my body. It denies the importance of accident.
made by a young British artist who creates alphabets o f the absurd f r o m familiar childhood characters. acrylic. one of many luminous works in watercolor. c. gold leaf and spray paint. left. Focusing on the Negative 2004 22 x 30 in (56 x 76 cm) J O H N WALTER .16 INTRODUCTION PLACE A N D MOMENT The heat and teeming atmosphere o f this Parisian dressing room.1896 Woman at her Toilet 41 x 26 in (104 x 66 cm) TOULOUSE LAUTREC RIB-CAGE D R A M A Thus drama. stand table-sized with furniture legs attached t o b o t h sides of their jacket. lives on. W a l t e r also makes books: some. pastel. which evoke realities o f place and the p o w e r o f moment. He dazzles us with flashes o f light and dabbed marks o f shadow. Lautrec's flamboyant splashes o f petticoats and pantaloons are drawn with long sweeps of chalk and brushed oil paint. more than 100 years after its making. like folded insects. right is set inside a rib cage.
you will be surprised and encouraged to see how far you have come. Choose other materials and do the same. As you follow lessons in this book. One of the advantages of a drawing book is that you can shut it. you will naturally make progress on your own in response to concentration and the decision to look and draw. FREEINGTHEHAND . try not to grip your pen worrying about the technical terms you might have heard. Such books are personal: the territory of new exploration and experiment. potential ideas still forming. Ignore these at first and allow yourself the freedom to play. It is yours. Try to keep all of your first drawings.17 FREEING THE HAND If you are just beginning to learn how to draw. Drawing is exploratory. Pages do not have to lie open for other people to inspect and comment on. Much will be learned on these test sheets and in your first drawings. Put them away and look at them later. Enjoy discovering what your hand and the material can do. Start by choosing a material you like the look of and cover a piece of paper with different marks. take your time and don't worry if you need to make several attempts to grasp a concept. even those you dislike. With no help and advice at all. diary-like observations. and mistakes are a valuable process of learning. at a point when you feel you are not making progress. and miscellaneous items of inspiration. just through the act of making.
when they are more experienced. Note that the drawing classes are allocated to subjects. Picasso has just finished his drawing. Its sensuous and flowing line seems to drift like smoke. An artist's personal voice is something that also evolves through lessons learned. seek ideas in the life around you. I was particularly attracted to their gentle articulation and understated determination. threedimensionally. comes from within. it will be your creation as you discover your own personal vision. It rarely flourishes in isolation. The chapters of this book present 90 different artists' ways of seeing. staring straight through his image of a bull. but not confined to them. adapting its form and occupation. Imagination needs nourishment. ELECTRIC BULL With a penlight. we still only glimpse a corner of the magnitude of this subject and the infinity of what can be achieved. and became a great subject for me. which of course he cannot see. and many more reasons for drawing the world. This practical journey will take you through the door into the vivid heart of drawing. Look to your own experience and also learn from the work of others. Picasso is poised smiling. caught between action and repose. As you draw.Their elegant strength seems to summon a lifetime of drawing. the path is yours. which is held frozen in space by a camera lens.18 INTRODUCTION THE THINKING EYE Techniques and materials are the grammar and vocabulary of drawing and can be studied and shared. The real drawing book has yet to come. it is this voice that is the subtle part of their art and something that ultimately. Once there. To these I have added my own drawings to explain elementary materials and techniques and offer introductory approaches. and enfolding new media. Drawing is a living language that over millennia has grown and changed. A N ARTIST'S HANDS These are the hands of the artist Phyll Kiggell (see p. 150). In the total wealth of these pages. Picasso Painting with Light at the Madoura Pottery 1949 . However.
a n d r e f e r e n c e b o o k s f o u n d in s e c o n d . T h e hardb o a r d j a c k e t is s t r e t c h e d w i t h canvas beneath t h e p a p e r sleeve. drawing book. Alternatively. These are perfect f o r w o r k i n g in novels. C A N V A S . thickness. ties on either side to keep your papers in place. and collage their ideas. c o l o r If planning t o use pencils. a n d crayons. Sand the edges to avoid splinters. You simply need two strong boards hinged together well. It is also useful to own a portfolio. F o r traveling. y o u n e e d a lifetime.C O V E R E D H A R D B O U N D : Ideal f o r c a r r y i n g a r o u n d . Dissecting a d i s c a r d e d h a r d . and glued t o a s t r i p o f bias binding. c h o o s e larger f o r m a t s t o give y o u s c o p e f o r e x p e r i m e n t .b o u n d b o o k s t h a t fit in y o u r p o c k e t o r bag. it is better to have them made at a lumber yard or home improvement store.B O U N D PADS: T h e s e are t h e least expensive a n d useful f o r o p e n i n g flat. 6. texture. 2002 Tantalus o r The Future of Man 81/2 x61/4in (215 x 158 mm) ROSE MILLER . There are dozens to choose from. which are also sold in an enormous range. and handles to lift the weight of your artworks. c h o o s e s m a l l e r h a r d . R I N G . 4. Many artists invent ways o f binding their o w n books. cut. t h i s is h o w I l e a r n e d . H o w e v e r r i n g bindings o f t e n break. quality.q u a l i t y r i n g . cheap corrugated plastic ones fall apart in days. be sure they fit comfortably under your arm. and cost. b e a w a r e t h a t p a p e r t e x t u r e effects a n d changes t h e i r marks. catalogs. F O U N D B O O K S : O l d p r i n t e d 3 . Most contain thin p a p e r and are perfect f o r use w i t h disposable pens. stitched.b o u n d b o o k w i l l s o o n s h o w y o u h o w it is m a d e .b o u n d p a d if y o u w i s h t o keep your drawings together long-term. C O L O R E D PAPERS: Large a r t supply stores o f t e n sell t h i c k b o o k s full o f c o l o r e d p a p e r s . color. pastels. A high-quality one will last a DRAWING BOOKS Select d r a w i n g b o o k s t o suit y o u r aims. study the structure of a good portfolio and make your own. thick enough not to flex. binding. 2. 5. BLACK P O C K E T B O O K S : Hand-sized w i t h ready-made elastic binder and a marker ribbon. F o r e v e n i n g classes. N o t e t h e w i d e l y differing c h o i c e o f p a p e r s w i t h w h i c h t h e s e are m a d e . 1. t h e i r jackets w i l l a c t like d r a w i n g b o a r d s a n d p r o t e c t y o u r w o r k . H O M E M A D E : I m a d e this b o o k f r o m drawing paper that I folded.20 INTRODUCTION Drawing Books and Papers T o BEGIN YOUR EXPLORATION o f d r a w i n g . If you intend to carry your boards for a distance. They can be very expensive in art stores. Purchase a h i g h . Drawing boards are invaluable. Homemade books can be assembled easily from found materials or selections of loose sheet papers. a l e n g t h o f black elastic t i e d a r o u n d t h e m i d d l e will h o l d the contents together w h e n y o u f o l d in c o l l e c t e d items. Smooth plywood. is perfect. Art students often make use of printed books picked up from secondhand stores into which they draw. Gleaming store purchases vary greatly in format. Calculate a range of useful dimensions and have several cut at once.h a n d s t o r e s make unique subjects f o r e x p e r i m e n t s a n d collage.
T W O RIVERS Y E L L O W 410GMS: See Two Rivers Green 19. Use with a brush in clean water Water makes a dark mark like ink and becomes invisible again when dry. and other plant fibers. and translucent. blocks. 14. C A N S O N : Inexpensive lightweight pastel paper in many colors. mold-. 8. from pencil to paint 9. 100% cotton and sold in sheets. It is also excellent for drawing with marker pens on layered sheets. blocks. C A R B O N PAPER: Available in dark and light blue. 20.TISSUE PAPER: Place sheets between drawing book pages to keep images from printing on each other and use for delicate collage. or machine made in sheets. and cream sheets or rolls. It is available in white or cream. VELIN ARCHES 250GMS: Printmaking paper available in black white. turning brown and brittle. smooth. cold. JAPANESE PAPER: Strong. tough. used to imprint lines of these colors onto a surface. and cost. also good for drawing with colored pencils. AQUARELLE ARCHES 300GMS:The very top quality hot-pressed (smooth) watercolor paper. absorbency. 2 5 6 .Papers differ in thickness (weight). white textured paper that can take abrasive use of any medium. 22. 11. size. and hot pressed papers. 16. 13. Cheap wood-pulp papers are acidic. 15. texture. bamboo. Use cheap paper for rough ideas and quality paper for work to last See the glossary ( p p . METALLIC PAPER: Thin paper in different metallic colors. not. 21. fine. GLASSINE: Sold as protective wrapping. They are hand-. 17. yellow. and rolls. mulberry. printed on one side only. or rolls.5 9 ) for explanations of rough. Ph. resisting deterioration. 10. FABRIANO R O U G H 600GMS: Very heavy. T W O RIVERS GREEN 410G MS: Very heavy tinted textured cold-pressed watercolor paper See Two Rivers Yellow. For use with any media. 18. color. it is made from rice. pastel paper in flecked pastel colors with a distinctive ribbed marking. ITALIAN PARCHMENT: Imitation-animal-skin parchment that is translucent and slightly waxy. Cotton papers are high-quality and acid-free. 7. red. Use for brushwork drawings. and white. PAPERS . 12. FABRIANO ACADEMIA: Standard medium-range multipurpose paper Use with any media. MAGIC PAPER: A reusable sheet for testing ideas without creating waste. SAUNDERS WATERFORD N O T 300GMS: Mid-quality textured watercolor paper. FABRIANO INGRES: Thin.
but wherever possible. make sure you have enough room to back away and view your work. You do not have to dance to draw. body. This cramped grip tires your hand and makes small. you Drawing classes can be cramped places. a n d h a n d to the fingertips. It will also reflect discomfort if you are in any way cramped. In this book we will look at parallels between drawing and music. or with your drawing board angled between your lap and a chair. your drawing will reflect this. There should be an open. place it on your right. Turning your drawing sideways or upside-own will also help reveal what is wrong. place it on the correct side: if right-handed. How you hold your drawing materials is also important. a n d look to the left of it at your subject. If using an upright easel. and look to the right. If seated on a b e n c h easel (a donkey). If your body posture is well balanced and you can move freely. Accelerated perspective also occurs if you look down the surface steeply (see pp. strangledlooking drawings. SPACE TO WORK Cramped grip. There are also parallels to dance. but you need to understand that the expression of a line or mark originates in the body and flows t h r o u g h the shoulder. should be able to look comfortably straight ahead at your picture plane. Use the side of your little fingernail as a support on the page. your whole relaxed b o d y should be involved. don't sit too close to the paper. you can draw lines freely and achieve a significant arc of movement. if left-handed. 116-17). arm. Placing your easel o n the w r o n g side folds y o u r b o d y against your drawing arm. Relaxed fingers: Hold the pencil away from its tip and relax your fingers. Examples are shown here. b u t it should n o t be forgotten that many people make remarkable a n d striking works drawing with their feet or holding their brush or pencil in their mouths. Regularly step back 6-9 ft (2-3 m) to check your progress. place it on your left. . flowing space between your hand. With your hand in this position.22 INTRODUCTION Posture and Grip T o DRAW WELL. and subject. your lines will distort. Ideally. From a distance you will spot errors you cannot see close up. You cannot draw like this—your hand is locked and your fingers can barely move. If your hand twists to maneuver between the paper and your body. This photograph illustrates how some people hold a pen to write.
or it can spoil your work if not anticipated. . alternative way of holding the pencil.23 This loose "candle" grip is very useful when drawing with your arm extended. ALL MEDIA There are no rules as to how you should hold your drawing media. arm. As long as your fingers. If you turn a brush or dip pen up into the air to draw above your hand. not up to the paper Brushes can be used on upright paper but dip Anticipating effects: A fully loaded pens need a level surface. find an unfamiliar.232-33). This can give a new lease on life to your mark-making. and body are not restricted. It is most comfortable when reaching to draw above your head. This can be used to great effect. To stop this. But be careful not to tense your fingers. hold your material as you find most comfortable. Remember you can also draw just by dipping your fingers in pigment—this is how many women draw in rural India. brush pressed against an upright surface will cause a dribble of ink to run down your drawing. upright way of holding the brush near its base is similar to the Japanese way used in Zen calligraphy (see pp. GRAVITY Remember that gravity affects the flow of ink and paint. liquid will run down your hand. Large amounts of ink can be applied without fear of uncontrolled running if the paper is flat. roughly marking out a large-scale work. Brush calligraphy: This comfortable. depending upon what it is and how large you are working. or change to the wrong hand. Large scale: POSTURE AND GRIP U n f a m i l i a r i t y : T h e habitual movements of our handwriting style will sometimes infringe upon our drawing. Soft media: Short materials such as pastels and charcoal can be accommodated in the palm.
fish. Framed in the z o o or in domestic cohabitation. Here (left) we see J o h n White's exquisite record of a flying fish. werewolves. In medieval England. we turn and take the features of beasts. After the subject of ourselves. As children we delight in the humanized trials of Tom and Jerry and their c a r t o o n relations. and we still see escapees from its pages carved and grinning as the gargoyles of churches. m u s e u m . which very likely leaped o n t o the deck of Sir Walter Raleigh's ship Tiger as it sailed north from the Caribbean to Virginia in 1585. and to bring h o m e drawn documentaries of their finds. Europeans on board had never seen such a thing. In 19th-century Europe this became a "science. and pioneer born c. out are now oxidized and so appear black W h e n less preoccupied with understanding ourselves. 11 x91/4in (277 x 234 mm) .drawe to lief one of each kinde of thing that is strange to us in England. On the Roanoke voyages of Sir Walter Raleigh. O v e r the centuries. and dragons. W e have drawn them in m a n u s c r i p t s to explain our genesis and to c o u n t their species into Noah's ark. For the novice artist. White's commission was to ". floating turtles. Facial features were analyzed in terms of their animal likeness." He worked with the scientist Thomas Harriot. and silent. dogs. the Latin bestiary was one of the most popular picture books—an illustrated dictionary of one hundred parts. their different speeds and patterns of action. which are so unlike ours. W h e n lost to explain our own emotions. In this chapter we discover the use of pens and ink through the delineation of insects. cartographer. and this very drawing was to endure many copies and plagiarisms after its triumphant return to the English court of Queen Elizabeth I. JOHN WHITE British artist. they are perhaps our favorite pictorial preoccupation.. 1540. mermaids.. each dedicated to the moralized tale of an animal or monster The bestiary profoundly influenced the art of its period. sleeping dogs. we have employed artists on expeditions. 1590 J O H N WHITE capture form and movement from the m a n n e r i s m s of honking geese.Animals H UMANS HAVE DRAWN ANIMALS from the beginning of our time. to be there at the m o m e n t of discovery. " Animals perpetually feed our imaginations. and snakes have between them engendered harpies. or scampering through the initials and borders of pictures from that time. birds. bats. and learn how to Flying Fish c. from which personality and predicted behavior were " d e d u c e d . who described in words what White drew." Paranoid newcomers c r a m m e d into swelling industrial cities used handbooks of physiognomy to identify and judge their neighbors. This drawing is made in black lead (metal point) with watercolor Highlights of silver would have gleamed. and people. insects. Together they made maps and documented animals. offer challenges and delights to draw. plants. We have drawn them on the walls of caves to evoke their kinship and power. animals provide a perfect subject with which to begin.m o u n t e d skeletons of birds.
a drawing of it arrived in Nuremberg. printmaker. The first live rhinoceros to reach Europe came from India in May 1515. and wrote four books on proportion. years after its publication. He in turn sent the mysterious creature to the Pope via Marseilles at the request of the King of France. He studied the image and drew his own interpretation. filled journals with ideas and observations. when more accurate portrayals were made without armor and scales. the home of ALBRECHT DURER German Renaissance painter. Stubbs's Anatomy of the Horse achieved similar documentary status. it continued its journey to Rome. Converted into a print. but the drowned animal washed ashore. Meanwhile. the ship was lost. Unsurpassed. it is still consulted by veterinarians today. DURER'S RHINOCEROS AND STUBBS'S skeletal Durer.26 ANIMALS Documentaries horse are superb affirmations of the power of drawing as a recorder and communicator of knowledge. It was to become the animal's only accepted likeness for 250 years. Contemporary texts related accounts of the beast as the mortal enemy of the elephant and rare relative of the "more common" unicorn. and mathematician. Durer traveled widely to study at different European schools of art. draftsman. Carefully stuffed. Original Ink Drawing of a Rhinoceros 1515 ALBRECHT DURER 103/4 x 161/2 in ( 2 7 4 x 4 2 0 mm) . It is such a lifelike triumph of imagination and intelligence that for centuries zoologists never questioned its authority. Life-like This is Durer's original quill-and-ink drawing made after an anonymous Portuguese drawing. Sailing to Rome. a gift to the Portuguese King. they were rejected. Durer's image changed eager hands until it was known across Europe. naturalist. writer. inspiring countless works of art and so touching people's imaginations that later.
GEORGE STUBBS B r i t i s h e q u i n e a n d s o c i e t y p o r t r a i t painter. and therefore invented the lighting that Compare how Stubbs and Durer both invented lighting to portray the reality of their animals. His painted p o r t r a i t o f t h e b e a s t is in t h e R o y a l C o l l e g e o f S u r g e o n s o f England. Dissections were made over a total of 18 months. is no other work like it. Stubbs w a s o n e o f t h e first E u r o p e a n artists t o m a k e a n a c c u r a t e representation o f the rhinoceros. a n d s i d e . Stubbs's m o s t c e l e b r a t e d publication. He translated his own drawings into engravings for publication. He composed makes each horse appear so real and each plate from his three-dimensional. This is one of Stubbs' original finished pencil drawings. which has never diminished. The entire project was developed over ten years. dissecting and drawing until he understood the mechanisms of its power and grace. Lighting Stubbs's breathtaking international work won immediate There acclaim. composed from notes and observations. Table of the III of the Horse (rear Skeleton view) mm) 1756-58 1 4 x 7 in ( 3 5 4 x 1 8 0 GEORGE STUBBS . knowledge of parts. Anatomy of the Horse. in t h r e e v i e w s — r e a r f r o n t . L o n d o n . Dissections Stubbs took his knife and his pencil and physically climbed inside the horse. c o m p r i s e s 1 8 p l a t e s s h o w i n g d i s s e c t i o n s in l a y e r s f r o m b o n e t h r o u g h m u s c u l a t u r e t o skin. a n d anatomist. naturalist.
VICTOR HUGO Poet. H u g o mixed his media and drew from m e m o r y and imagination to create narrative atmosphere. Mixed media Here. Gericault's sheet a p p e a r s almost s c r a t c h e d b y the f e r o c i o u s play of his cat. snarl. coal dust. sepia. more or less what I have in view. A s if disturbed from its gritty b e d by our presence and curiosity.28 ANIMALS Presence and Mood THESE DRAWINGS HAVE BEEN CHOSEN to s h o w t w o v e r y different ways of picturing a wild animal. novelist.. and her distinctive temperament. saying ". and Pieuvre 1866-69 91/2 x81/8in (242 x 207 mm) VICTOR H U G O . His copious drawings are characterized by mixed media. The octopus is formed in layers applied and distressed with a brush. By contrast. soot. and turn. playwright. drawing her again and again to pin d o w n the texture of her loose skin. Surrounding sprays of graphite powder are stuck into washes of oil and ink to suggest glutinous depths. charcoal. and a love of accident. Hugo's novels Les Miserables and Dame have become classics of film and stage... linseed oil soaked into the paper has made shadows and repelled the ink to create translucent tentacles. The Hunchback of Notre Layers and shadows Throughout this drawing. her b o n y frame. and leader of the French Romantic movement. Apparently drawn in its o w n ink. her sharp teeth. Hugo used graphite powder.". Gericault took a sharp p e n c i l to m a k e repeated direct o b s e r v a t i o n s f r o m life. He has w a t c h e d her p o u n c e .. He wrote to poet and art critic Charles-Pierre Baudelaire about his experiments. ink and linseed oil on paper. I've ended up mixing in pencil. the ominous beast unwinds from the dark of the sea and of our nightmares. Hugo's page is f l o o d e d w i t h the fearful presence of a remembered octopus. and all sorts of bizarre concoctions which manage to convey above all in mind. drama. conjured b y the hand of a great author of French literary fiction. it silently rises to the light.
144.l i v e d French R o m a n t i c painter and lithographer Largely self-taught. undertraces unify and vitalize the composition. facing right.29 THEODORE GERICAULT C o n t r o v e r s i a l . standing sideways. Before paper became so cheap. since it can lead to a flattened form. and keep trying again. parallel. horses w e r e a favorite subject t o g e t h e r w i t h politics and history. H e is best k n o w n f o r his gigantic painting. and it can be applied to any subject (see pp. displayed in the Louvre. Repeated study This drawing demonstrates of feeling confident repeat different the importance subject Remaining enough to isolate parts of a views. diagonal strokes of his pencil. fiery. At the center of the page is crammed drawings the outline of a horse. Undertraces Beneath these graphite studies we see traces Tones On the top row we see clearly how Gericault laid broad areas of tone using fast. s h o r t . Tones that do not follow surface contour is very difficult to do well. The Raft of the Medusa. of previous Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 1817-18 121/2 x 151/2 in ( 3 1 9 x 3 9 8 mm) T H E O D O R E GERICAULT . Paris. Here. Beginners are advised to follow the natural contours of form as shown on pp. 124-25 and p. artists reused sheets and them full of studies. focused upon seeing will lead to a greater understanding of the subject Much is learned from repeated study.118-119). of drawings Gericault erased.
Both Picasso and Klee have enclosed their subjects to compress and amplify the speed of PABLO PICASSO A prolific Spanish painter sculptor. Picasso cofounded Cubism. or proud.30 ANIMALS Movement M O V E M E N T IS OFTEN THE CHARACTERISTIC b y w h i c h w e their lines and the power of their beasts. Faune. quivering horse. In these two drawings. we see semi-abstract. In Picasso's drawing. and brown. flapping bird. His powdery. flattened animals composed almost entirely of movement. the whinnying of a frantic horse. The ink is used to make sharply defined solid. Ink and gouache This drawing is made in black Chinese ink and gouache (opaque watercolor) applied with a brush. Cheval et Oiseau 1936 173/8 x 211/4 in ( 4 4 0 x 5 4 0 m m ) PABLO PICASSO . taking them to guide their hand in bringing form and essence together. overwhelmed by a screeching bird. gray. with George Braque (see p90). The fact that they never stand still influences the movement in his line. Klee's riders are constructed from all the gestures of greeting mules. These media complement and amplify each other with their brilliant contrast. printmaker ceramicist graphic and stage designer who lived in France. draftsman. and waves breaking distantly below. noise is everywhere. identify an animal: the fast cheetah. dissolving faun kneels stranded. slow tortoise. and scrolled lines. hooked. His hand must have shuddered and twitched just like the constant actions of this humorous meeting. Artists commonly focus on such actions. the first abstract movement of the 20th century. Gouache is brushed softly in translucent hazy layers of cool blue. made only a year apart.
well-worn copies o f w h i c h are found in m a n y art schools. The entire drawing suggests the endless small movements of horses standing still. They remain in contact with the surface of the page and scribble back and forth as they maneuver from one area to another. sculptor. top all happily of each other in the Endless lines Look closely at how Klee's lines rarely leave the paper and how they are free from the constraint of finite shape. N e u m a n n Family Collection. and t e a c h e r at t h e Bauhaus school. creatures. Chicago PAUL KLEE . turning our eye and around inside the and postures of the paper- thin on pictorial space." They chatter around bodies in groups. He is a u t h o r o f The Thinking Eye (1923). violinist. printmaker. W i t h his drawings Kleeb o u n d sophisticated theories to personal and often witty childlike imagery. Scene der Komischen of Comical Reiter Riders) (Scene 1935 161/2x111/2in ( 4 1 9 x 2 9 1 mm) M o r t o n G . Layers of marks In this pale Dentil drawing we see layers of' agitated marks that together present a kind of visual "itch. draftsman.PAUL KLEE Swiss painter.
In contrast to the practical clarity of Baker's thought. The fish It is likely that Baker drew with a quill dipped in irongall ink. and s e c t i o n s o f ships. balance. and from them learned that if he designed his ship with a "cod's head MATTHEW BAKER Master shipwright. fins. His birds stare. it would achieve greater speed. slim stern). seemingly looking for our attention. He studied the anatomy of fish. and steerage. and blackbirds fly in formation through a mosaic of text. Baker lived in an era when ships were built without drawn plans. It is simply how we read his perspective. adding washes of color with a fine brush. mathematician. B a k e r initiated t h e scientific p r a c t i c e o f naval a r c h i t e c t u r e and applied h y d r o d y n a m i c s . Baker did not intend this. and the carefully observed gills. Below we see his revolutionary design for an Elizabethan warship. and author o f Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (1586). t h e earliest geometrically defined elevations.32 ANIMALS Icon and Design IN THESE T W O MANUSCRIPTS we discover diagrammatic and mackerel's tail" (full bow. Exquisite details in this drawing include the lips of the fish. The ship The upper decks of the ship appear curved toward us at both ends. and to assess our next move. In just one drawing he has displayed more angles of his design than we would expect to see from a single viewpoint Fragments English 1586 101/2 x 153/8 in (270 x 390 mm) MATTHEW BAKER of Ancient Shipwrightry . b a s e d o n his studies o f fish. later called a galleon. and scales. This drawing illustrates Baker's theory. plans. Knopf's drawing opposite is the personal enigmatic expression of a mind gripped by illness. the expression of its eye. which in application gave strength and advantage to the English fighting the Spanish Armada. drawings of animals that are each held tightly in a surprising space: a giant fish wears a ship's hull.
w h i c h o f t e n f e a t u r e as s y m b o l i c creatures in his drawings. and filled evenly with tone. written last of all. JOHANN KNOPF . firmly outlined. T h e G e r m a n a r t historian Outline and tone The blackbirds illuminating this frantic manuscript are drawn in pencil.K n o p f b e l i e v e d h e c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h e language o f birds. circle and the birds. appears to be stirred like water by the presence of the The Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks UNDATED 133/8 x 115/8 in (340 x 2 9 6 mm) and psychiatrist Hans Prinzhom collected this image. The text. The main group is placed in a circle drawn with a compass. numbered.JOHANN KNOPF An " O u t s i d e r " a r t i s t w h o s u f f e r e d f r o m m e n t a l illness.
5 0 0 years ago. The best are goose or swan. PENS . A German recipe of 1531 gives a simple description: "Take a wax candle. The reservoir gives a constant flow of ink for very long unbroken lines and continuous bottle-free use. and hold it under a clean basin until the soot hangs to it. which range greatly in their handling and character of line. Responsive to slight changes in pressure. 4. which scratch rather than draw. producing a different line. 3. from the acacia tree. Avoid needle-sharp mapping pens. The paste from either recipe is pressed and dried into a bar for storage. F O U N T A I N PENS: These vary in quality and nib width. light it. then pour a little warm gum water into it and temper the two together. REED PENS: A broad nib can be cut from bamboo or another tubular grass. s t i c k s . spots. Early artists recommended raven and crow for especially fine work. Masters choose brands of long. METAL PENS: Inexpensive removable steel nibs are available in a range of widths. The Egyptians and Chinese are credited with the invention of carbon ink. The bar is then rubbed into water on a slate block to produce ink. Today. In the Far East. distinguished manufacture. a n d m e t a l p o i n t s . 2. expressive drawing techniques such as the ones we explore in this chapter 1. the recipes for which have been handed down over centuries. QUILLS: These are cut from the barrel of a flight or tail feather. Quills were later cut from feathers. ink is traditionally applied with a brush (see pp. Each pen has a unique character. and first used by the Egyptians. That is an ink. simultaneously 4 . and spatters can be made with an exotic choice of inks. Only fill with suitable inks. where reeds were gathered.34 ANIMALS Pen and Ink W I T H A HANDFUL OF FEATHERS. Dip pens began their history in the Nile River. they are associated with rapid. high-quality Chinese and Japanese inks are subtler and more complex than those produced in Europe. They fit into wooden holders. Intricate or dramatic lines. and it is still in use today. The Chinese used animal or fish glue." "Gum" refers to gum arabic extracted Dip pens are essential and inexpensive drawing tools.246-47). you can have great fun drawing the world around you. while metal nibs began as rare gifts in gold and silver before being perfected by the British steel industry.
reduced. . The complexities of traditional iron-gall ink are explained on p. they produce a golden dye for drawing. and can be mixed and diluted to create subtler colors and tones. dated. and most can be homemade. charred bone (Ivory Black). an often misused term. suspended in a binder and stored as a solid block Blocks are imported today 7. boiled. Non-waterproof Indian inks can be reworked with a wet brush after drying. from are not 6. Old stock turns solid and bottlesChina. is the ink of a cuttlefish or squid extracted post-mortem.36. SEPIA A N D BISTRE INKS: Sepia. 8. ACRYLIC / CALLIGRAPHY INKS: Available in black and a range of colors. waterproof or non-waterproof.35 PEN AND INK Four types of ink were common before the 20th century. Crushed. Waterproof types contain shellac. I R O N . and are still in use today: carbon (Chinese and Indian). or charcoal. Now we also have acrylic ranges in many colors. INKS 9. bistre. and sepia. 5. iron-gall.G A L L INK: Abnormal spherical growths caused by parasitic wasps can be collected from some oak trees in fall. They are the easiest inks to use. C A R B O N INK: Traditionally produced from oil or resin soot (Lamp Black). Excellent for drawing they are bright and non-clogging. Beechwood soot is best. It dries with a sheen and clogs uncleaned pens. and sieved. Inks can be lightfast or non-lightfast. Bistre is the more humane use of soot scraped from the fireplace and ground into wine. roastedwine sediment (Yeast Black). I N D I A N INK: Carbon ink sold today in liquid form.
2 4 4 is an e x q u i s i t e e x a m p l e . giving a s h o r t . Paler strokes were made where the mark has the legs and antennae the ink ran out. and boiled to make a golden ink. I u s e d t h e s e qualities t o d r a w t h e w o r m s above. red-brown. crushed. fleshy skins that surround ripe walnuts. Running fresh. Oak galls. The darkest of this grasshopper wings) were made (around the head first. drawn to glisten with a dryer nib. and turned brown with time. a n d M a t i s s e also e n j o y e d t h e m . always be cautious when experimenting with recipes. since t h e D u t c h w e r e t h e first t o realize t h a t they could be hardened and i m p r o v e d w i t h heat t r e a t m e n t in ash o r sand. It also oxidized and ate or burned paper. it was gray-purple. d r y mark. For centuries. galls were ground with iron sulfate to make an unstable solution. a n d d e v e l o p e d t h e quill instead. V a n G o g h . then cut a final nib (feathers. finding reed p e n s unwieldy. Reed marks The darker left wing of this beetle was drawn with the wet inky stroke wing. The lighter right Quill marks Quills carry more ink than strokes and for as reeds. for example. Practice to gain a feel for how materials behave. reduced. m o r e e x t e n d e d line than reed and a m o r e organic line t h a n m e t a l . Collect skins from the ground beneath trees once they are blackened.36 ANIMALS Drawing With Ink To MAKE A QUILL OR REED PEN. giving longer lines. Quills are also called D u t c h pens. Walnut ink is gloopy. U n d e r heavy pressure. QUILL PENS Q u i l l s a r e highly r e s p o n s i v e t o c h a n g e s in p r e s s u r e . keep all your fingers behind basis of iron-gall ink. forming the REED PENS R e e dpens dispense ink quickly. Although oak galls and walnut skins are harmless. sieved.) You can make ink easily from the boiled. Some of Michelangelo's drawings are now a little eaten by their own ink. Rembrandt. . the blade and cut away from you. r e s e r v e d t h e i r use f o r large c h o i r b o o k s . It dried black. of a loaded nib. can also be collected from affected trees. t h e y stick a n d j u d d e r f o r w a r d . are surprisingly tough. appears broken to show paper beneath. T h e y give a finer. Scribes o f t h e M i d d l e Ages. and delicious to draw with. M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s d r a g o n o n p .
Each layer of of the drying droplet dome the drawing was left to dry before adding more. breaking. o r being ruined as fountain pens would be under the same pressure. The of pigment to fall to the edges effect of the shape. White markings were drawn last Tones Here we see subtle tones of diluted ink beneath the undiluted black rim of a beetle's wing. DRAWING WITH INK Filled outlines Each segment of wing was outlined. tonal Ink layers The wings of this beetle were drawn in layers using black and white ink on pale gray paper. they splay to make thick o r double lines. it is important to feel for when the ink will run out and to know how much ink you pick up when dipping the nib. particles then filled with a droplet of ink. sharp. W h e n the nib is pressed upside down. clean strokes.37 METAL PENS Metal pens give long. withstanding great pressure without sticking. When using dip pens. marks become fine and needle-sharp. . giving a graded. Loaded with ink and pressed hard.
It happens that goose feathers also provide artists with the best type of quills. waddle. MATERIALS NEEDED Look for a bird expressing a simple posture. Try to hold the whole posture in your mind's eye. Dip your pen in ink. Pack plenty of tissue around a bottle of calligraphy or acrylic ink. touch the bottle's rim to drain the excess. test your limits. and bellyflop off the waterside. You cannot break the nib. there is no obligation to prepare a quill. make another one. Experiment. Take no more than ten seconds to draw each one and make lots of drawings. Take a cup and water for diluting a range of tones. Illustrating this exercise on Oxford Port Meadow. and there is no "wrong. and boldly plunge into your drawing.38 ANIMALS Capturing Character GEESE ARE EXCELLENT SUBJECTS to draw when practicing the first use of pen and ink. Quick drawing trains you to see what is most important about a subject and to mark only its most essential expression. Posture . That said. Cover a sheet. and a large drawing book or plenty of paper Use masking tape to secure pages against the wind. to absorb blots when drawing. not on your drawing. and be brave. draw what the bird is doing. and quickly draw around it using only three or four strokes. Watch their heavy feathered bodies flap. Study them before drawing. Focus on the geese. so pick a spot where other people can keep them entertained. It teaches confidence and focus through intensive repetition. steel nibs are fine. Geese are nosy birds. be bold and press firmly. Focus on it. Empathize. I covered eleven sheets in sixty quick drawings—in less than an hour." If you don't like a stroke. Attempt with a loose hand to capture their posture and outline. Cover your drawing book pages in speedy responses to the geese and try to capture each bird in as few lines as possible.
CAPTURING CHARACTER Texture Gradually allow yourself more lines to describe the texture of each bird as well as its posture and action. flapping. . Use more lines than before to express these. and don't worry about mechanical facts or accuracy. Again. draw the feeling of what you see. and diving. Avoid detail unless really tempted by a close-up visit Fluctuate the pressure of your pen in response to how you know the bird would feel if you touched it. running.39 Action With growing confidence. look among the birds for more complicated actions such as shaking off water.
" . your drawing book.34-37). a d o g w h o w a s a l w a y s town. The only time he remained still was when he was sleeping. For this class you will need one oblivious dog. These drawings are not an analysis of his anatomy or breed but the expression of his satisfied comfort in a deep sleep after a night out on the together with a glass of water for diluting tones on the nib. Dip the nib quickly again into water and again drain it. a dip pen and ink of your choice (see pp. and a tissue for blotting drawn lines that appear too dark. first dip your pen in ink. Ras Curled Up Asleep "Capturing the true character of a cherished companion is best achieved with objective determination rather than sentimental shyness. Then dip the nib quickly into a glass of water and drain the excess again. Sleeping animals present the artist with ideal opportunities to study their texture. This will give a medium-gray line. and even then he twitched and stretched in dreams. engaged in his and everyone else's business. Now it will make a pale line. Make a test sheet to discover your control of diluting on the nib. and personality. form. MAKING A PALE LINE To make a pale line. and drain the excess by touching the nib against the rim of the bottle.40 ANIMALS Sleeping Dogs R A S WAS A GREAT CHARACTER.
see how the animal's posture determines its whole shape. Here I marked the features of Ras's head. Character is better captured drawing quickly with confidence than w o r k i n g slowly. c o n c e r n e d a b o u t detail. Then I immediately rebalanced the drawing with lines around his hind quarters. ignoring all detail. to emphasize how he is curled up. . Layers o f thoughts can bring a drawing alive. To add texture. and the shadows in his coat. 2 Reload your pen with ink. Then. alter the pressure and moisture of your line in response to howyouknow your dog feels when you ruffle itscoat. tail. ears. Here. SLEEPING DOGS 1 Fix your eyes at the center of the dog.It is essential when drawing any subject (even something abstract) to know how it feels andtoemulate this with your line. in bold layers. I added ink to Ras's nose. Trust your intuition. 3 Gradually introduce darker tones. W i t h pale lies. quickly draw what you see.41 DRAWING YOUR DOG Be bold in this exercise. First lines are first thoughts. second thoughts may be different Changing your mind is a positive aspect o f seeing and thinking. Remain focused on the whole dog and. this time to create a line a little darker in tone. add more detail. D o not go back over lines you are pleased with—doing so dulls their lively freshness.
as if caught in a camera freeze-frame. THE ELONGATION AND BUOYANCY of a group of turtles is fascinating . offering plenty of time for the artist to draw the pose. swinging their limbs and shells with a slow circular movement. A perfect subject for the beginner.Turtles to observe. turtles often pause unexpectedly. Beyond the glass wall of the aquarium. they stretch and paddle.
weightlessness of the kiwi. balance. and water. I darkened lines as each drawing progressed. Beginning with very pale tones.Dry Birds THESE ARE THE ARTICULATED BONES o f a k i w i a n d a h o u s e - martin drawn in a museum using a steel pen. India ink. and sharp. I sought to capture the form. I made repeated studies of the housemartin to discover its mechanism of flight. . dry. With speed.
Later. nurture. Botanical illustration is a precisely defined and scientific art. In this chapter. Both embrace the anticipation of evolving shape. Rich owners of private gardens commissioned large-format florilegiums commissioned the volume to document his private garden to immortalize their personal taste and power of acquisition. manipulations of light and shade. and hybridize them for our sustenance and pleasure. B A S I L I U SBESLER when botanists founded new work upon the direct study of plants. Plants are the principal inspiration of the decorative arts—from Roman Corinthian columns crowned with carved leaves of the acanthus. We collect.000 species of plants are depicted life-size drawn. season. and the Acanthus spinosus constant but exhilarating struggle to make a living image feel right. we see very different cultural visions of plants and gardens and use pencils and plants to learn the pictorial values of space. and beauty.Morethan 1. and the drawn pages ofthesame name. form. Patrons funded the breeding of decorative. infinitely vivid. 1613 187/8x153/4in(480 x 400 mm) BASILIUS BESLER . the microscope was refined to unfold yet another world. to catalog our knowledge. color. and texture. Plants seventeenth century. The revolution came in the 1530s. Medieval knowledge was not gained by the first-hand observation of life but by reading. —-the largest and most influential botanical book of the early Natural scientists accompanied explorers to document unknown finds. Conrad von Gemmingen. and diverse kingdom of plants. Botanic gardens were established and expanded. an There are close parallels between the acts of gardening and drawing. He sent boxes of plants to Nuremburgburned with the urgency and excitement of explaining every plant's form. the punctuation of space with structure and mass. where a number of uncredited artistsd r e wthem for Besler. to the proliferation of floral designs with which we have dressed ourselves and furnished our homes for centuries. as opposed to only herbal. and to ornament our lives. Classifications were set in367copperengravings. Early European illustrators were trapped within dogma that was determined by ancient scholarship. robust. Chapters are arranged by out. It was published plain in 1611 and withhand-paintedplates in poured off ships returning from the New World and were eagerly collected and 1613. on which our lives depend. Fledgling years Botanist and apothecary who compiled the Hortus Eystettensis of scientific research bore manifold explosions of knowledge in a fever of discovery.Plants and Gardens W E SHARE THIS PLANET with the more ancient. shape. we now have laid before us fourto show how well their colours complement each other infinite wealth of material to explore. and focus. PriceBishopof Eichstatt specimens. After Here Aconthus spinosus is combined with forget-me-nots and-a-half centuries of intensive observation. From its history there is one overriding lesson to be learned: the importance of looking and seeing with our own eyes. We draw them to celebrate their beauty and range.
Light in this drawing is given by the paleness of the paper showing between washes of darker tones. He has made the spatial and physical relationships in this drawing all the more real by placing a single. They are counted among the most accomplished 18th-century botanical artists. and meticulous precision. delicate. T h e rest of u s are free to d r a w as w e w i s h . o p e n i n g a n d c l o s i n g i n the w a r m t h a n d light of the studio. and Franz Bauer and his brother Ferdinand were employed there to draw specimens. B e h i n d detailed. naturalist explorer and advisor to King George III invited Bauer to London in 1 7 9 0 . insect-ravaged. It is likely Bauer would have studied these under a microscope. petal tip over a lower leaf Protea nitida 201/4 x141/4in (513 x 362 mm) FRANZ BAUER 1796 . Outline Bauer prepared a pencil outline before laying in fleshy succulent hues and tones of watercolor." Her slipper orchid s h o w s that botanical drawing must often resolve the challenge of its subject's p r o d u c i n g parts in different seasons — r o o t s . Sir Joseph Banks. flowers. s u c h as w e see here in Bauer's Protea nitida. and seeds conventionally a p p e a r o n o n e plate. Botanical art c o n c e a l s the challenge of its m a k i n g . and wilted. or that were diseased. detail. Each plant must b e clearly distinguished from its closest relative. measured drawings. Here. Dissections Across the lower part of this drawing we can see dissections of seed pods and petals. subtle union of beauty. W i t h bright F R A N Z BAUER An Austrian artist who trained at the Schonbrunn Imperial Gardens in Vienna. o p t i m i s m . The King was then establishing the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. leaves. fruit. stems. M a c k i n t o s h e x p r e s s e s the f o l d e d petals of a broken rose b u d so delicately w e can sense the perfume. Stella Ross-Craig said of the need to d r a w from a dried herbarium plant "I could make it live again.48 PLANTS AND GARDENS THE SCIENTIFIC VALUE OF A BOTANICAL DRAWING lies i n its Botanical Studies were specimens that often refused to stay still.
imagination. found among Mackintosh's than reality. and perfect coordination of hand and eye. Pencil lines cling to. Ross-Craig said of her work "Plants that wither rapidly present a very difficult problem to which there is only one answer—speed. Closer to fiction can come together perfectly.000 Kew to archive accessible t o d a y v i a t h e I n t e r n e t of o n British flora. G u s t a v K l i m t In his r e t i r e m e n t Mackintosh m a d e n u m e r o u s inventive pencil a n d w a t e r c o l o r d r a w i n g s o f plants. a m o n g o t h e r s . Rose 1894 103/4 x 83/4 in ( 2 7 5 x 2 2 1 mm) CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH STELLA ROSS-CRAIG A j o i n e d t h e staff a t t h e R o y a l B o t a n i c G a r d e n s . a n d f o u n d e r o f t h e G l a s g o w S c h o o l o f A r t M a c k i n t o s h ' s flair h a d an e n o r m o u s i n f l u e n c e o n t h e a v a n t .. 1970 x 81/4 in ( 3 2 5 x 2 1 0 m m ) STELLA ROSS-CRAIG . p u b l i s h e d 1 9 4 8 . and follow shadow. and speed depends upon the immediate perception of the essential characteristics of the plant. and observation the nuance and contour of every in one image. is r e c o g n i z e d as tne m o s t c o m p l e t e a n d i m p o r t a n t work 3.49 C H A R L E S RENNIE MACKINTOSH Scottish a r c h i t e c t d e s i g n e r painter. A s m a n y of her drawings are kept G a r d e n s . K e w . Curtis's Botanical Magazine. BOTANICAL STUDIES Lines and shadows This lush. a n d he inspired. it is small and discreet. L o n d o n in 1 9 2 9 . Line Drawing of Cypripedium calceolus L c.286 studies for her book Drawings of British Plants. H e r Drawings of British Plants.. S h e also o f thousands o f contributed an drawings. as at trained botanical artist Ross-Craig Swift lines The drawing was planned in pencil and then overworked with a lithographic pen.g a r d e in G e r m a n y a n d A u s t r i a ." This line drawing is one of 1. and it shows how design. sensual pencil drawing is later works.7 3 in 3 1 p a r t s .
They used a fine brush to lay pigment over a line drawing. Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity c. Bishndas was probably responsible for the overall design. By Muslim tradition. and miraculous growth. uniform focus.50 PLANTS AND GARDENS Jeweled Gardens the Middle East we find exquisite stylization of form and upright formality in pictorial space. and Nanha. paper is brimming with the beauty and celebration of nature. the sumptuous petals permeated with prayer and wisdom. 1590 85/8 x55/8in (219 x 1 4 4 mm) BISHNDAS AND NANHA Bright pigment These pages were illuminated by Mughal artists in the late 16th century. anticipating their view. Below. in the early 16th century. The first Mughal Emperor Babur's Garden of Fidelity (Bagh-e Vaja). fluctuations in scale. The white of the page shines through the brilliant color. which he personally created near Kabul. . Envoys chatter outside the gate. Upright shallow perspectives. is remembered in the pages of his journal. and attention to detail are all shared with medieval European manuscript drawings. Opposite is the Rose of Mohammed. and calligraphy are brought together to hold the sacred names of prophets and the 99 beautiful names of God. in miniature. Every fiber of AMONG DRAWINGS FROM BISHNDAS A N D N A N H A Little is known of these Mughal painters who were related as uncle and nephew and commissioned to illustrate the pages of Babur's journal. a notable portrait painter drew the faces. roses took their form in a bead of perspiration on the brow of Mohammed as he passed through his heavenly journey. Babur directs his gardeners in the design and planting of this quartered chahar bagh. painting. Afghanistan. urgent attentive human activity. Drawing.
It is n o w k e p t in Border The elegant border of this drawing was mode with a pen and ruler It cleverly compresses and defines the composition. G e r m a n y . However. Stylized motif A fine brush has been used throughout this drawing to apply inks and watercolors. look closely and you will see words written in gold fluttering over the form of the flower. so that overlapping petals and stems give an impression of fulfillment and abundance. fragmenting its detail in a whisper of prayers. and how the shape has been repeated freehand.AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH This is a detail o f a page from a n 1 8 t h . t h e Staatsbibliothek zu Arabic. The Rose of Mohammed 1708 9 1 / 2 x 61/2 in ( 2 4 0 x 1 6 5 mm) FROM THE TURKISH M A N U S C R I P T AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH . Note how each bud is essentially the same shape. Sacred words The central rose is more solid than any other on the page. The physical anatomy of the rosebud has been studied and translated into a repeated stylized motif.c e n t u r y Turkish manuscnpt a book of religious e t h i c s w r i t t e n in the O r i e n t a l C o l l e c t i o n s of Berlin.
PLANTS AND GARDENS
IN CONTRAST TO THE QUIET, formal detail of other drawings in this chapter, these powerful fast trees enact the actions of plants. Each tree reaches out and holds its landscape with dynamism and pulse. In both drawings we find testament to the inexorable energy of growth. Rembrandt expresses a delicate quickness. Gentle lines draw a warm breeze through this remote wooded garden. Rustling in a loose foliage of soft marks, his pen evokes the weight of abundant activity on this late summer's day. Mondrian's arch of scratching branches is drawn with such force it will always be alive. We can still feel his hand storming across the paper. Set within a frame of smudged landscape, the tree possesses a musical agitation. This characteristic will increase in the artist's later abstract work. Here, we see a punctuated ordering of space. Sharp branches cut out negative shapes of winter sky.
R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter; etcher; and draftsman. Rembrandt's prolific output comprises oil paintings of historical and religious subjects together with group and self- portraits. His emotive etchings and pen and ink drawings (see also p. 174) are great resources for artists learning to understand the potential of these media.
Pen and ink lines describing foliage also tell
us the directions of sunlight and wind. An arc crossing the bottom of the drawing from one side to the other supports the scene and separates us from the landscape beyond. Compare Rembrandt's arc to that of Mondrian's. and note the similar treatment of low horizons in both works emphasizing the height and dominance of trees.
Cottage Among Trees 1648-50 63/4 x121/8in ( I 7 I x 308 mm) R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN
Atmosphere Here we see how shapes of negative space are as important as the physical subject they enclose (see pp.58-59). Mondrian has again lightly dragged his chalk on its side to evoke a wet depth of atmosphere. These passive gray marks contrast with the assertive tension of the tree.
Dutch Pure abstract painter preoccupied w i t h line and plane relationships. W i t h increasing austerity, Mondrian banished t h e subject from his drawings, in his later w o r k he also banished space, composing visual h a r m o n i e s using only straight lines a n d flat planes o f black, w h i t e , gray, o r p r i m a r y color.
Winter ground Short vertical marks along thebottomof this drawing reveal the length oftheblackchalk Mondrian used. Rubbed onitsside,itroughly blocks in the ground. Thecrudeeconomy of line is all we need tofeelthecold, wet, unwelcoming quality ofthiswinterearth.
Branches and trunk Lines shaping the branches of the tree are built up in layers. To make the trunk more dense, the artist has rubbed and smudged preliminary marks with his fingers before firmly overdrawing with new lines. Solid black lines are achieved by pressing the chalk hard. When used lightly, it shows the texture of the paper. Tree: Study for the Grey 1911 23 x 335/8 in ( 5 8 4 x 8 5 5 m m ) Tree
PLANTS AND GARDENS
Graphite and Erasers
GRAPHITE, FROM THE G R E E K word
This drawing illustrates a range of achieved with graphite pencils of different grades.
Modern pencils are graded from 9H (hard and pale) to 9B (black and soft). Graphiteclay sticks are also available, together with a powder form. All possess a natural sheen and are erasable to a varying degree. Graphite drawings smudge easily, so fixative, a form of varnish, can be used to hold a drawn surface in place. It is applied as a fine mist from an aerosol can, or from a bottle using a diffuser. For the beginner, ordinary hairspray is an effective and cheaper alternative.
(to write), is a soft and brittle carbon. It was first mined in Cumbria, England, in 1 5 6 4 , and was initially used in small, pure pieces bound in lengths of string. Pencils as we know them—with their slender wood casing and "lead" of graphite—were invented in France in 1794 by Nicolas-Jaques Conte. He discovered that milled graphite mixed with clay and water, press-molded, and baked to a high temperature produces a harder and paler medium than graphite alone.
3B pencil A range of mark and textures can be achieved with a 3B pencil when you vary its pressure, speed, and direction, as this detail shows.
Here is a selection of 14 items to illustrate a basic range of pencils, graphite sticks, sharpeners, erasers, and fixative.
1. AND 2. HB AND 3B PENCILS: It is unnecessary to possess every grade of pencil. HB, the central and most common grade, is perfect for making delicate lines. 3B gives a blacker tone. A great variety of effects can be achieved with just these two. 3. WATER-SOLUBLE PENCIL Effective for atmospheric drawing, but be aware of how watery tones can dull the impact of the line. 4. AND 5. MECHANICAL PENCIL Thick or fine leads are made in a range of grades. They are particularly useful because they do not require a sharpener 6. ROUND SOLID GRAPHITE PENCIL: Excellent for large-scale drawing, producing thick bold lines. A range of grades can be honed with a craft knife or sharpener 7. THICK GRAPHITE STICK: For large-scale drawing. Graded soft, medium, and hard. It crushes to produce graphite powder 8. SQUARE GRAPHITE STICK: Useful for making broad, sweeping marks in large-scale drawing. If worn and rounded, the stick can be snapped into pieces to regain the sharp, square end. 9. CRAFT KNIFE AND BLADES: Handles are sold in two sizes to fit large or small blades, and blades are sold in a range of shapes. Perfect for sharpening pencils to a long point, to cut lines in paper or to remove areas. 10. PENCIL SHARPENER: Makes a uniform point. Keep one in your pocket for drawing outside the studio, together with an envelope for shavings.
HB and 5B Layers of tone have been built up withHBand5Bpencils. Softer pencils require less pressure to make a mark, revealing the texture of the paper surface. It is important to keep the point of the pencil sharp with either a craft knife or a sharpener.
ERASING AND FIXING
Erasers can be used t o blend and s o f t e n lines, o r t o r e m o v e altogether. Fixative them prevents
GRAPHITE AND ERASERS
s m u d g i n g a n d s e c u r e s lines.
Using fixative You can use fixative while drawing to hold the definition of lines you wish to gently fade but not remove entirely, for which you would use an eraser.
11. P L A S T I C E R A S E R : Avoid cheap colored erasers that may stain drawings with grease and dye. White brands are available in soft and hard versions.
P U T T Y RUBBER:
W a r m it in your hand before use. It is excellent for removing powdery materials, and for making crisp sweeps of light across a delicate pencil drawing
13. D I F F U S E R : Helleborus corsicus (Corsican hellebore) fixative, or to spray mists of ink.
PLANTS AND GARDENS
Cropping and Composition
M A N Y STUDENTS WILL START a d r a w i n g i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e
that its skin nearly touches the boundary. The meaning of the same drawing changes simply by its relationship to the space it occupies. The size of any subject, its placement on the page, the size of the page, and its overall proportion are all discrete and essential aspects of successful picture-making. Before you begin to draw, think carefully about where to place your subject. Are you are happy with your paper? If not, change it; add more, take some away, or turn it around. Do not just accept what you are given, adapt it to what you need.
paper. Focused on the shape and detail of their subject, they remain happily unaware that there is, or should be, any relationship between what they are drawing and the surface they are drawing it on. The paper is only paper, and the troublesome subject floats somewhere in the expanse of it. However, a single fig drawn in the middle of a large, empty square of paper gives quite a different impression from the same fig drawn on such an intimately small square
CHOOSING A VIEW
A Single Fig
"The size, shape, and orientation of the paper are so integral to the composition that they determine the impact and meaning of the drawing."
as also shown here. Touching the edge When the subject o f a drawing touches one edge of the paper it attaches t o it visually. A card with a small rectangle cut out o f it makes a useful viewfinder C l o s e o n e e y e t o look through the hole. t h e n m o v e t h e c a r d t o e x p l o r e different views. Here the left fig is attached to. and therefore apparently suspended from. and lines describing shadows cast by the fruit . spaces between things are as important as the things themselves. its illumination. a device to help you decide what t o draw.57 THE VIEWFINDER T h e s e pencil drawings o f figs d e m o n s t r a t e different crops and compositions. U s e it as a starting point. they establish a tension and unity with the paper. bottom-left t o top-right. its stem and shadow framing a white center.O u r focus is on the white cloth supporting the figs. running corner t o corner. CROPPING AND COMPOSITION Off-center and diagonal Here I held my viewfinder so the fig appeared upper-left in the space. the uppermost edge of the drawing. When subjects touch two or more edges. This drawing hasbeencropped to emphasize space between thefruit. Space as the subject Inallpictures. The angle of the fruit together with dark shadow (top left) and bright light(bottom right) suggest a diagonal division across the whole drawing.
their subject and composition will become more real.The box opposite isolates an area. and a role to play. position. Looking at negative space overrides the problem of drawing what you know. rather than what you see in front of you. then added a second shape. and so on. WHERE TO START Arrange your plant and paper so you can look back and forth by barely moving your head. but if the artist does. remember to draw only space. Draw a complete shape Map outward from the center Erase and adjust lines until correct . Negative space is the simple key to getting positive shape right. and a fresh page in your drawing book. this ensures a consistent view.58 PLANTS AND GARDENS Negative Space UNCONSCIOUSLY WE ASSESS spatial relationships all the time to guide ourselves through the world. you will need a similar large-leaved plant. not leaves. an eraser. It is an astonishingly simple device that many artists use and I strongly recommend. In following this class. It helps to start at the center and map outward. The drawing opposite is of the uppermost leaves of a potted fig tree. a sharp H B pencil. Remember that plants do move! Therefore it is best to complete your drawing in one sitting if possible. and engaging. third. Viewers appreciating a finished image may not see shapes of space. Follow these from left to right and see how I began with one complete shape between two parts of a leaf. erasing and adjusting lines until itlooked right. do we see myriad distinct and unique shapes of daylight or do we just see branches? Why as artists should we look at the air? Every space in a picture has a shape. In your own version. fourth. dynamic. tone. a foundation stone in picture-making. unified. Unfamiliar shapes of negative space reveal the real shape of a positive subject. which is shown in the three steps below. shapes of air cut out and defined by the physicality of our environment? When we look into the branches of a tree. But how often do we look at the air between things.
Here I drew only spaces, adding one to another until the leaves were revealed. Besides looking at negative space, there are two other useful things to do when a drawing feels wrong but you cannot see why: look at it in a mirror or turn it upside down. errors and suggest changes.
Spaces between leaves
Either view will
WALKING IN THE ALPUJARRAS in A n d a l u c i a ,
Spain, I drew a bare fig tree clinging to the wall of an almond grove; a perfect subject for seeing negative space. I marked its essential frame of large branches first, frequently erasing lines and changing my mind until the balance felt right.
S a l v i a , RIBES, CLEMATIS, Allium, Passiflora, and Acanthus
drawn with an H pencil by observing the
negative spaces between the stems, petals, and leaves. I arranged the flowers on a sheet of paper in a cool r o o m and rapidly sketched a composition. Then I put them in water, taking the stems out one at a time to draw.
they emulate our experience of seeing. We never see everything at once. If an artist changes the pace of their line and focus of their attention. Compare changes of pace and focus here to the flatter finish of Summer Flowers (see pp. Excessive detail leaves no space for the eye to rest or imagination to wander. . interfolding points of detail with areas of loose suggestion. our eyes travel and adjust from one point of focus to another. gathering less distinct information on the way. 62-63).Acanthus Spinosus As we LOOK AROUND.
This harmony. each VICTOR BALTARD . It was the mathematicians. Computer programs allow the virtual drawing of ideas. and in the 19th century it was given the name the Golden Section. and architects of ancient Greece who first pursued the formula for "divine proportion. architects and designers can imaginatively "climb inside" three-dimensional space and. Yet the pursuit of divine proportion and harmony remains. invaluable to understand and apply when you choose. and sound. add and subtract ideas. made by the architect himself. Augustin. once there. European conventions of pictorial perspective have lost their monopoly on seeing. was preserved into the Renaissance where it became a foundation stone for thinking and creativity From 15thcentury Italy. Paris 1871-74 the child's view to the infinity of the vanishing point. which can be clearly seen in ancient Greek architecture. the formula for perfection spread through Europe.Architecture I N THE CONTEMPORARY PRACTICES of architecture. the device that has since governed most of our picture-making (sec pp.This is a pencil drawing. 74-75). fine artists. composers. Perhaps in the sheer planes of some of our greatest modern buildings it is finding its clearest expression. with gray and brown watercolor wash. of the west facade of St Augustin. and from West Facade of the Church of St Augustin. they have the Golden Section. they also have a diagrammatic language for communicating plans to builders. VICTOR BALTARD French architect employed by the city of Paris. and computer game imaging. Through the animation of the screen. we find the most recent steps in the evolution of graphic language. mass." reflecting the eye's love of unity in difference. which was the first church in the capital to be built entirely of metal and then clad in stone. It was also during the Renaissance that the architect Brunelleschi invented linear perspective. coupled with the importance of exercizing your imagination. Baltard designed the Church of St. Linear perspective is a marvelous device. filmmakers. Since the first flowering of Modernism in the early 20th century.The church is still in use today. Architects have been fine-tuning their specialized branch of drawing for centuries. designers. time. to help them create new form. philosophers. Besides sketches of first thoughts and polished drawings of the finished look for clients. film-set design. Among the drawings of this chapter we look from 17th-century ecclesiastical calm. architects. and writers have been breaking away from traditional forms of representation to seek new expressions of shape. balance. space. drawing plans around themselves within a program as opposed to on a flat sheet of paper. from political commentary to musical abstraction. Since Picasso and Braque's revolution of Cubism in around 1907. At the core of their practice. It is the focus of practical class in this chapter. to 20th-century film fantasy.
A student of Wren's. evoke presence. Gaudi's fluid architecture grew up through many kinds of drawing. describe a finished look to a client. and Castle Howard. embodying a massive investment of ideas. structure. Finished surface On the left the finished surface of the building is given depth and emphasis by immaculate vertical and horizontal brush strokes of shadow. Blenheim Palace. marks the end of a long journey from the first few marks the architect made on a sheet of paper. relative levels. We see the modeled detail of Corinthian columns. pilasters. testing gravity to calculate the inverted shapes of domes. and an inscribed entablature. and later an assistant to Vanbrugh. Three aspects This subtle and sophisticated drawing made in pen and wash displays three distinct aspects of Hawksmoor's baptistry. and labor. Below it. Oxford.68 ARCHITECTURE Master Builders EVERY NEW BUILDING. Pillars and floor At the base of the drawing a compass-drawn plan tilted downward through 90 degrees illustrates the arrangement of pillars around a central circular floor. Drawings underpin every great human-made structure like hidden linear ghosts at their core. calculate function. and balance. Architects draw for many reasons: to visualize ideas. and six London churches. Hawksmoor's drawing is both a plan and an evocation. and the shapes of interior domes and apses. Hampton Court Palace. Hawksmoor established his reputation with university and church architecture including All Souls College. Together they explain how interior structure and space define exterior form and shape. St Paul's Baptistry c. 1711-12 NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR . The photograph opposite shows his studio hung with metal pendulums. he also worked on St Paul's Cathedral. a three-dimensional drawing made with wires and weights. materials. Lines define structure while washes suggest light and atmosphere. and ultimately to show builders what to do. densely layered lines in mists of color weave the presence of the expected building into shape. Cut-away interior On the right a section cut through the center of the building reveals material thicknesses. NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR One of Britain's "three great" Baroque architects (along with Sir Christopher Wren and Sir John Vanbrugh).
Guell Crypt of its at the Time Construction c. unique organic manipulation of high shapes. light. and apartment homes are distinguished by their Their and Flowering curves of stone or concrete are often encrusted with Gaudi was inspired by medieval and oriental art. Gaudi's cathedral in Barcelona. Gaudi air than on paper. Wire and watercolor three-dimensional preferred to calculate Above is a drawing form in the made withlinkedwires and weights. To the right isawatercolordrawing thought to havebeenmade over a photograph ofthemodelabove. 1910 24x181/4( 6 1 0 x 4 7 5mm) A N T O N I O GAUDI .69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt c. churches. 1900 ANTONIO GAUDI ANTONIO GAUDI Visionary Catalan architect. embellishment. and his love of music. This sculptural drawingenvisionsthe finished crypt glowingandethereal as if caught in thelightof red morning sun. The Art Nouveau movement.
Libeskind studied music before transferring to architecture. p. theater sets. a refillable pen that feeds a constant supply of ink through a fine tubular nib. The architect and musician Daniel Libeskind has drawn a stampeding cacophany of airborne architectural detail. and the spaces between his windows and turrets are the visual equivalent of pauses in h i s m u s i c c o m p o s i t i o n s for p i a n o (see also Bussotti. before cascading into a riot of line and sound below. We can see. He also contributed to plans for the rebuilding of the World Trade Center site in New York.223). Libeskind's numerous commissions include concert halls and museums. flat boards. such a rapport in both of these drawings. and rooms. Visual rhythms In the lower half of this drawing architectural language has broken loose: escaped and transformed into an image of rebellious pleasure. and dotted lines. We can imagine how a musician might interpret this drawing by looking at the abstract visual rhythms of masses composed of long straight poles. He also produces urban and landscape designs.70 ARCHITECTURE The Order of Sound B O T H OF THESE VISIONARY DRAWINGS o c c u p y a s l e n d e r . Libeskind begins quietly in the upper space of his drawing. short curved poles. corridors. Across the top and center right of the image w e perceive an almost recognizable architectural plan. and exhibitions of his drawings. installations. There has always DANIEL LIBESKIND A Polish American architect of international acclaim. and arched dotted lines depict the radius of doors. Floor space appears divided by discernible walls. Arctic Flowers 1980 DANIEL LIBESKIND . Satie draws quietly throughout. and in a sense hear. been a natural affinity between the visual rhythms of pictures and the audible rhythms of music. Contemporary musicians commonly collaborate with artists by interpreting images as sound. Floor plan This drawing has been made with a rapidograph. while the composer Erik Satie has made an enclosure of quiet order and grace. upright pictorial space. Both men used rulers and pens to carefully and slowly construct their compositions.
o f which he was the sole m e m b e r Parcel paper Satie has drawn this fantasy hotel using a ruler. and ink on a fragment folded brown paper—a of everyday happened material of scrap that to be at hand. Hotel de la Suzonnieres c. Compare the even and and the shape wall to the elegantly stylized order of the many windows of arrangement of details and the shape of the wall in Babur's Garden of Fidelity on p.50. theater. andfouredges of the paper tothecompositionand impact animage. a n d ballet.56—57 we discussed important the shape. They definespaceand pictorial balance. 1 8 9 3 77/8 x 51/2 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 4 0 mm) ERIK SATIE .H i s witty. a conventional dip or fountain pen. dressed eccentrically.narrowshape of its paper.Edges are how are of orientation. H e p e r f o r m e d in cabarets. Satie collaborated w i t h hisfriends J e a n C o c t e a u a n d P i c a s s o . lived a l o n e . Eastern influence The upright image Eastern is reminiscent and medieval of Middle pictorial space and subject of this European drawing. Onpp. and founded his o w n church. effectively additional lines in a work. the perimeter Composition Look how well this drawingfitsand resonates with the upright.ERIK SATIE F r e n c h pianist and c o m p o s e r for t h e piano. minimalist s c o r e s scandalized a u d i e n c e s with o r c h e s t r a t i o n s f o r t h e foghorn and typewriter.
experiencing a fascinating conflict between curiosity and desolation. antlike mortals might have speculated upon the universe. Among preparations for Fritz Langs film Metropolis. Newton's Cenotaph 1784 153/4 x 25 in ( 4 0 2 x 635 m m ) ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE . This is the work of an architectural theoretician. Boullee's monolithic apparition was drawn as a monument to Sir Isaac Newton.72 ARCHITECTURE T H E S E T H R E E HIGHLY DETAILED DRAWINGS Future Fictions invite us to soaring above normal life. and draftsman. the ominous globe exists only as a series of drawings. ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE French architectural theorist. made in 1926. Art director Erich Kettlehut's vertiginous design for the city of a slavelike populace had a future influence on movies such as Blade Runner. cylinders. we find other Utopian visions Paul Nobles epic drawing summons an imperfect and disturbing township where ruin and activity are equal and strange. Boullee lived in Paris. We glide over exquisitely drawn wastelands of damage and abandonment. This shift makes the cenotaph appear three-dimensional.96. enter the long-shadowed architecture of imaginary worlds. spheres. Within it. painter. and dramatic lighting.The lower-left section of the building appears relatively pale against a darker sky. arched vaults. and the reverse is true on the right. His celebrated imaginary buildings are characterized by pyramids. Light illusions This pen-and-wash drawing shows a subtle application of the principles of illumination demonstrated with an egg on p. and taught at t h e A c a d e m i e d'Architecture.
architecture.a r t director O t t o Hunte.73 ERICH KETTLEHUT Influential film a r t director. FUTURE FICTIONS Brush and ink This is a dramatic drawing from a film that shaped the history of world cinema. used forced perspective camera t e c h n i q u e s t o amplify t h e m a g n i t u d e o f buildings in relation t o human characters. Working on toned paper such as this gives an artist greater scope for dramatic lighting effects than if they work on white paper. Kettlehut and his c o . intensely detailed graphite drawings explaining and questioning t h e geography. Fritz Lang's Metropolis c. Nobson political visions of humanity Newtown. and white ink on brown-gray paper. Nobson Central 9 ft 1 0 in x 1 3 f t 2 in (3 x 4 m ) PAUL N O B L E 1998-99 . together with c i n e m a t o g r a p h e r Karl Freund.Building shapes are works can be read as text. gray.m a k e r In t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f Metropolis. Its sheerscaleengulfs the viewer and demands based time and patience to on letters and in some beread. and morality o f an invented place called His satires exhibited w o r l d w i d e . 1926 ERICH KETTLEHUT PAUL N O B L E British c o n t e m p o r a r y artist who creates m o n u m e n t a l . mythology. and are Graphite shapes Nobson Central isoneof a series of very large graphite drawings of the spoil and detritus of Nobson Newtown. draftsman. and m o d e l . Kettlehut drew using a fine and relatively dry brush dipped in black.
this perspective is often an imagined bird's-eye view in which details are mapped according to logic and importance rather than how they might appear in real life. linear perspective is distinct from more ancient systems practiced in the East. Here Leonardo provides a superb example of a single vanishing point. LEONARDO DA VINCI One of the greatest artists. Study of Perspective Adoration of the for the Magi 1481 61/2 x111/2in (165 x 290 mm) LEONARDO DA VINCI . Note how architectural features conform to lines and how human figures diminish in size toward thevanishingpoint. We use it to structure illusions of depth. but is most easily seen and understood in pictures of buildings and interiors. inventors. found at the center of all converging lines.74 ARCHITECTURE Pathways of Sight LINEAR PERSPECTIVE (also called vanishing-point perspective) is a simple device for calculating the relative size of things in pictorial space. and those of Naive artists and children. 206-07). Invented by Italian artist and architect Brunelleschi in 1413 (late in the history of art). Press the pin into Leonardo's vanishing point. observations. and thinkers ever to have lived. I contribute the child's perspective. Single-point perspective Tie a thread to a pin. and inventions— essential reading for inquiring minds. In his notebooks. scientists. Leonardo recorded constant streams of ideas. It can be applied to any subject. Sometimes shared with Naive artists. Pull the thread taut and rotate it slowly above the drawing. and age eight. Piranesi an example of two. It is also distinguished from aerial perspective (see pp. All forms of perspective are of equal value. See how the thread corresponds to each converging line.
Two-point perspective Sunlight through this colonnade a great example of two-point perspective. which I saw from home every day. a points in logical narrative of memories. Mark these points with your pin and follow the converging lines of the drawing by rotating your thread. England 1980 9 x 16 in (228 x 405 mm) S A R A H SIMBLET GIOVANNI BATTISTA PIRANESI Italian artist. New Forest. . Children are uninhibited and problems with one element being obscured by another rarely arise. including all they recall about the subject. architect. 1740 5 1 / 2 x 83/8 in (141 x 212 mm) G I O V A N N I B A T T I S T A PIRANESI points are located on either side of the drawing.SARAH SIMBLET I made this drawing (at age 8) in response to a local bookstore's request for children to draw their village. Scale Our farmhouse my experience was in the woods. and designer Piranesi's prolific architectural drawings. visionary and practical understanding of ancient Rome. It shows how children usually map large scenes in flat layers one above the other. Lightly marked illuminates vanishing Two Courtyards c. Breamore Village. at the top of each lateral column base. This drawing Young children typically maps ignore on and understanding of the nearby village. Note the rather large rabbits and pheasants the hills. issues of scale when making room for important their story. and theoretical writing strongly influenced neoclassicism.
draw a horizon line across your paper Mark a spot on the horizon line. Study these pages first before embarking on this lesson. then follow the ten steps below. DRAWING BOXES 1 Using a ruler and a sharp HB pencil. Leonardo began with a grid of many lines within which he invented his scene. On the previous page we looked at its essential mechanism through drawings by Leonardo and Piranesi. discovering the image as it progressed.98 for an important note on oscillation. (See p. You have completed your first box. Piranesi planned his drawing with only the essential lines needed. In contrast. this is your vanishing point. Extend each dotted line to the edge of your drawing. Note that if you place large structures in the foreground and smaller ones closer to your vanishing point. corresponding to a single vanishing point. Erase the dotted construction lines. Each line should pass through one corner of the rectangle. 2 3 corners must each touch a dotted line. imagine. This lesson shows you how to make a simple illusion of space defined by two boxes and three flat boards. using a sharp HB pencil and ruler. Surround the vanishing point with a small rectangle.76 ARCHITECTURE Single-Point Perspective MASTERING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE i s e a s i e r t h a n y o u m a y First read through. you will amplify the illusion of distance. Draw each step over the preceding one to build up a single image. This is where we will begin.) . try composing your own space. Next. Draw four dotted lines radiating out from the vanishing point. This ensures that the second rectangle aligns with the shape and 4 Draw four short lines to connect the four corners of the two rectangles.
7 As in step 3. 8 Complete the second box with short lines as in step 4. draw a second. draw four dotted lines radiating from your vanishing point Pass these through each comer of the new rectangle. The board's sides should be parallel. bottom. you can place rectangles anywhere youwishin relation to a vanishing point. Note that this does not surround the vanishing point In the future. . The larger you make your second rectangle. Continue the dotted lines out toward the edge of your drawing. The four comers must each touch a dotted line to be sureitaligns with the first. andfarside of this first board. larger rectangle. Repeat this to add two more boards to the composition. Connect this to the vanishing point— again. with two dotted lines. 1 0 Erase all ofthedottedlinestoseeyourfinishedboxes Thickeningtheiredges. 9 Use dotted lines connecting the slanting linetothe vanishing point to locate the top. the closer it will appear to the viewer. and erase the dotted lines. N e x t draw a slanting line to mark the height of the first flat board.77 SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE 5 Draw a new rectangle.asIhavedonehere. when inventing your own compositions.willhelptomake them appear more solid. 6 As in step 2.
The m i s t a k e n belief that we s h o u l d k n o w exactly what o u r finished drawings will l o o k like before we m a k e t h e m prevents many people from ever starting. it will take you places you never dreamed of. then let the space suggest its c o n t e n t s and purpose.78 ARCHITECTURE Creating an Imaginary Space T H I S CLASS USES SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE t o c r e a t e a s i m p l e to you and if you listen to it. artist and film director. w h e t h e r it is a film or a painting. once said: "I never end up with what I set out to do. It highlights the importance of having faith in your imagination and trusting your ability to invent. As David Lynch. it is interaction that makes the work richer. let simple lines suggest a simple space. APPLYING PERSPECTIVE An Imagined Scaffold "Enjoy your illusion as you make it and it will become more real. p . A lot more happens when you open yourself up to the work and let yourself act and react to it. you will find white adhesive stationery labels are useful for covering errors or changing the direction of your idea. Every work talks In this class. Linear perspective will support y o u by providing a frame in which to b u i l d your picture as it did for Leonardo." . draw a b o x as shown opposite." imaginary room. Then follow the three given steps. If using a fibertip pen as I have done for this drawing. O n a fresh page in your d r a w i n g b o o k . 7 4 ) . I always start with a script but I don't follow it all the way through to the end.
. additional lines have established the different surfaces and how they relate to each other. and floors and ceilings also converge and rise o r lower toward the horizon. 2 first before adding furniture. and leaning surfaces. Here.drawthehorizonlineand vanishingpoint. This initial space will be transparent and open to change.79 DRAWING A SIMPLE ROOM Essentials t o remember: objects and people dimmish in size as they move farther away.There is great pleasure tobefoundin spending time inventing interiors. you will beableto draw more complex objects orpeoplewithin them. CREATING AN IMAGINARY SPACE 1First. horizontal. parallel planes such as walls converge toward the vanishing point. With some practice. 3 Remove the construction lines with an eraser and the room will becomeclearer.Addanarray of converging lines to provide a "scaffold" for vertical. The space has become more solid and real.
or low and we look u p . The boxes drawn here are seen partly or entirely disassociated from a horizon line drawn across the bottom of the image. located anywhere inside or outside the pictorial space. T h e y d o n o t have to relate to each other. I have elaborated on the simple boxes above. To draw such a view APPLICATION Copy these drawings to see and feel how they work before inventing your own versions. our eye level is very high and we look down. but they are not confined to this level. They could be drawn on any scale from miniature to monumental. showing y o u h o w to draw curved surfaces and a tiled floor. 76-79). a n d this is how we have drawn them so far (see pp. Only when y o u might employ t h r e e . These elaborations could continue indefinitely across a sheet of paper in pursuit of complex and intricate ideas. It is important to realize that you can have as many vanishing points as you wish. From our normal eye level. do verticals appear inclined. That is where we e to find them. Free vanishing points On paper we can enjoy the freedom of fantastic structural invention without limitations of solid materials or gravity. o r to the h o r i z o n . Potentially. T h i n k of standing at the top of a skyscraper and imagine h o w its parallel sides would appear to converge below you. they can be placed anywhere inspaceto describe the perspective of flyi c tilted objects. verticals appear p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the g r o u n d . Copying what you see in the work of others will help you to understand what they have done. Further aspects of three-point perspective are also illustrated opposite.80 ARCHITECTURE Further Aspects of Perspective W E ARE ACCUSTOMED TO SEEING our e n v i r o n m e n t from a relatively constant point of view. Vanishing points are commonly found on horizon—our eye level. T h i s is d e m o n s t r a t e d immediately below. Search for the application of these perspectives among works by other artists in this book and in galleries. Elaborations .p o i n t perspective ( s h o w n opposite top). Here.
useful for representing steep views looking up or down tall structures. I then drew three fanned groups of lines connecting each of the three points above to the seven points below. An array of curved lines (drawn freehand) link the two lateral points. Iusedthese lines as a guide t o draw the curvature of boxes and panels flying through space. (Turn the book around to see a view looking up. Three-point checkered floor This d bottom floor. Note that altering the distance between the three dots above will tilt the level of the floor . Giving curvature.75.Istarted with two parallel lines. tostraightlines can amplify drama in a picture. and therefore tension. PERSPECTIVE Three-point curves Here. by adding a third point you can achieve a sense of incline. Where thelinescross. three vanishing points are evenly spaced along a horizon line.Finally.81 FURTHER ASPECTS OF Three-point towers This drawing depicts three-point perspective. they mark the corners of the floor tiles.) By comparing this drawing t o Piranesi's example of two-point perspective on p. I marked the toplinewith three evenly spaced points and the line with seven. you will see how.I added horizontal lines t o define the tiles.
These walnut-skin ink pen and brush drawings show imagined views of theaters that do not exist but were inspired by places I studied. . I visited many anatomical theaters and museums. making drawings to resolve questions and express personal responses to the nature and history of anatomy.Theaters RESEARCHING FOR MY P H D .
. The vanishing of the drawing is directly opposite as we look across The constancy of the bridge and surrounding frames the movement in the life that flows past. the water.I N KDRAWING is one of a series I made while next to the Rialto Bridge in Venice.A N D .Venetian Life sitting point buildings ThisP E N .
we look at the importance are the only creatures on Earth w h o actually design and create great ranges of things. planned. that test our logic with a sense of mystery. and made. drawing c. sculpted. color. C o m m o n items. drawings were needed to instruct workers on the factory floor. Artists and actors use the meanings of things to communicate a speculative mechanic. In this chapter. and a wire violin. have often carried great weights of allegorical once. Artists also make images of objects that can never exist. or used on stage hood for a mold t o make theheado f a horse f oas a p r o p — i m b u e d with e n o u g h energy or character can "become" a man. drawn. H e has described a casting through metaphor. History will be learned from the artifacts w e leave behind. from s p o o n s and pens to chairs and bicycles. or drawing w e see Leonardo daVinci'sprecision as can be given meaning. for example—whether. craftsmen had held plans in their memory. design. H e has described contour and function at drawings. these. even more advanced drawings are made on computers. In past eras. texture. fictional realities caster of h o w t o make it andhowit will w o r k . T h e precision of engineering d r a w i n g s e v o l v e d alongside machine tools. but humans LEONARDO DA VINCI Inthisbeautiful red chalk Our items all have a purpose—practical or ornamental—and all have a meaning. of light in the creation of pictorial illusions. With the sudden onset of mass production. Birds follow instinct to make a nest. illuminating snail shells. It was in this era that the blueprint was born. and the behavior of light through making still-life paintings and together. Today. Previously. each demanding more of the other as they increased in sophistication.Objects and Instruments T HE THINGS WE INVENT describe our lives. too. making a clear instruction t o his bronzemeaning. hooked bars that can be pulled and tied closely form. passing them on to others through the act of making. for example. T h e Industrial Revolution c h a n g e d the traditional w a y s in w h i c h objects were designed. and the way in w h i c h the brain reacts Head and Neck Sections of Female Mold for the Sforza Horse to visual stimulus and optical illusions. 1493 117/8c81/4in (300 x 210 m m ) LEONARDO D A V I N Ccreating I . and some apes use simple tools. Engineers and designers of our objects and instruments make drawings for many reasons: to test an idea that is yet to be made. W e also explore v o l u m e and form in the classes by spinning lines to make vessels. or to explain and present a finished concept to a client. r an equestrian statue. A chair. to record an observed detail. Technical drawing was speedily developed as a meticulous international code of m e a s u r e m e n t and explanation. are all made bearing the signature of our time and place. It is shaped in sections w i t h Artists have for centuries studied and expressed composition.
texture. Braque established Cubism in partnership with Picasso just before World War I. Below. and a journal jacket with words makes this drawing chatter about the moment.73 x 1 m) GEORGES BRAQUE . wood-look wallpaper. There is a fragile eloquence to these objects as they drift in slow motion past our gaze. a colored canvas. Clashes The art historian Ernst Gombrich said of Cubism. perfect i n their newly made availability. One of the great joys of this movement in art is the musicality of its multipoint view.Braque marshals all the forces of perspective.. Braques "justly" arranged combination of cut black card.. steaming with music and conversation. not of place but of things. not to work in harmony. representing still life. charcoal. His work is characterized by calm and harmonious still-life compositions. but to clash in virtual deadlock. He takes us into the bustle of the Paris cafe. still feel this projected moment. Opposite. Statue D'Epouvante 1913 2 f t 5 in x 3 ft 5 in (0. Even today GEORGES BRAQUE French painter who as a young man was influenced by the work of the Fauves and of Cezanne. silverware. and shading. Braques image is a Cubist collage. and glass objects of exquisite elegance for only the gentlest of touch and appreciation. "I believe [it] is the most radicalattempttostampout ambiguity and to enforce one readingofthepicture—that of a manmade construction.90 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS Still Life THESE DRAWINGS REVEAL t w o o p p o s i t e m o t i v a t i o n s i n we can. T h i s is a designers drawing made to enthuse surface and style in its delicate brushing of china." La Cuitare. Mucha's drawing glistens with possession. .
and also stamps and bank notes. Study for Plate 59 from "Documents Decoratifs" 17x121/4(430 x 310 mm) ALPHONSE MUCHA 1902 . Art Nouveau curling motifs of birds.ALPHONSE MUCHA Czech graphic artist and painter who worked in Prague. Pans.flowers. Art Nouveau motifs This is a preliminary study for a subsequent print. For ten years Mucha designed theater posters exclusively for the actress Sarah Bernhardt. The three plates facing us were drawn with a compass. Black watercolor washes and lines of white gouache have been added with a fine brush. and fish have been outlined using a sharp pencil. and New York. He is best known for posters featuring ethereal women in typical Art Nouveau style. Chicago. Look at the two spoons at toprightand see how has suggested that they are so brilliantly shiny they reflect the background color. He designed the Austrian pavilion for the Paris World Fair in 1900.fruit. Background color Between the delicate shadows and highlights of these glazed and surfaces ofthebackground metal color of the Mucha we see a large amount paper.
It was then reflected up inside the tube and. and Fellow of the University o f C a m b r i d g e . via a second mirror. He counted 1 4 . and his hand moving across the light. each one skillfully rendered with the alarmingly matter-of-fact ease of explaining the commonplace. alchemist. Newton's 1672 ISAAC Telescope NEWTON . we see drawing Instruments of Vision found among his letters.92 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS by their very nature must gauge or chronicle precision. 0 0 0 perfect hemispheres. the law o f gravity. astronomer. offering a transparent view. drawing is there to pin the moment down. shape the very cause and effect of investigatory thought. Ink lines Several drawings appear among Newton's letters. From the concept of capturing the infinite to the mapping of microscopic sight. into the eyepiece. w h e r e he developed his three greatest theories: the law o f motion. and the nature o f light and color. In the graphic work of these two great men of science. mathematician. The power of this drawing reflects the pure passion of discovery. It is a diagrammatic explanation of how to catch and magnify a star in a mirrored tube. With dotted lines Newton has drawn his arrangement of elements inside the tube. a tree outside. Transparent view Newton's reflecting telescope focused light in a parabolic mirror. Newton used this instrument to calculate the speed required to escape earth's gravity. Their delicate construction is only as valuable as the measurements they make. A disembodied eye at the top of the drawing indicates where to look. Newton's drawing of his first reflecting telescope is ISAAC N E W T O N English scientist. Look how confidently he draws with ink the sphere of this wooden globe by which his telescope rotates. and philosopher Newton was President of the Royal Society. each reflecting a view of his own world—his window. Hooke's head of a drone fly seen through a microscope may represent the first time man and insect came face to face.
1665). and anchor escarpment.An experimental scientist who drew many of his discoveries. ROBERT H O O K E 93 Magnifications This acutely detailed engraved drawing is taken from Hooke's Micrographia (pub. universal joint a prototype respirator clock balance. The Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 1665 ROBERT HOOKE 111/2 x 105/8 in (294 x 270 mm) . and calculated the theory of combustion. Hooke invented the camera diaphragm. It is an exhilarating read. a breathtaking book containing many of his drawings showing some of the first microscopic and telescopic magnifications of our environment Hooke's text and illustrations carry us to the moment of discovery.
OBJECTS AND SARAH WOODFINE British contemporary artist graduate of the Royal Academy Schools. has published several catalogs of her work. craft.94 INSTRUMENTS W H E N WE DRAW A COMMON OBJECT like a chair. A renegade from the p a p e r dolls' h o u s e . Bench Marks W e are left a little c o n f u s e d as to what we s h o u l d do. From component parts we understand how to put it together and make it stand sensible in space. Its wobbly gait and squashed s y m m e t r y m u m b l e endless h o m e y tales about the life it has seen. this chair p r e s e n t s us with a clever visual contradiction: deeply drawn shadows tell us it must be solid. Woodfine exhibits internationally. Drawn in more-or-less c o n v e n t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . Two-dimensional was made This highly finished drawing ruler using a sharp pencil and on smooth white drawing paper glistening dark drawings are artificial representations of known Woodfine's two-dimensional things balanced in the world. Van Gogh's tipsy seat is a metaphor for an absent person. Sarah Woodfines flat cut-out m o d e l plan is a witty and surprising drawing. and place in the world are truly seen. and w h e r e the chair b e l o n g s . and winner of the 2004 Jerwood Drawing Prize. and has drawings in numerous public and private collections. it has so m u c h familiar personality that it seems to talk to us. each drawn with the s a m e unfaltering lines and tones that are between reality and impossibility. while the tabs make us see a flat paper cut-out. Chair Cut Out 2002 22'A x 23 in (565 x 585 mm) SARAH WOODFINE . its character. W i t h h o m e y c o n t r a s t .
not is made present in only strokes and is subdued to distract us from flat a meaningful chair. drawn opposite way of plan. Van Chair 1890 VINCENT VAN GOGH . The floor few as engagement with the chair. what direct in their he saw and describing his felt. His passionate brush and pencil strokes are honest and of also turmoil and growing alarm at the world around him.95 VINCENTVAN GOGH Dutch painter who produced over 800 paintings and 850 drawings in only the last ten year's of his life. inner recording while Fierce strokes This is a portrait of the mechanical drew immediately and almost harshly. Cornfield and Sunflowers. and Starry Cypress Night. Among van Gogh's best-known canvases are Trees.hehas marked the full emotion of the subject with a fierce grip of concentration.
Adjust the angleofthe protruding part and again stepback.This effect is caused by the contrast of their surroundings. Card experiment cho can gra on . cards the same size. The perceived tone of a black white. Here w e look briefly at our perception of light a n d darkness a n d our interpretation of diagrammatic illusions. two identical mid-gray squares are seen against black and paler gray squares. o u r b r a i n s search for n a m e a b l e things. Here. a n d our ability to see forms in c l o u d s or fire. Before starting a tonal drawing of any subject. The two tones meet without a division or outline between. think about its illumination. gray. To interpret visual s t i m u l u s . From across the room both will appear black card and fold and retapeitwith half sticking out. T h e slightest recognition is instantly matched to our wealth of experience a n d expectation. Are you happy LIGHT AND SHADOW with what you see? Does the light enhance the subject? Could you alter and improve it? On pp. Tape them to the glass. w e turn our head but n o one w a s there. a n d we can be fooled. a n d m o v e m e n t . S o m e o n e passes our o p e n door. transmitted to the brain as chains of electrical impulses. The egg's darkest region is seen against a lighter background. W e learn to read light and shadow in our environment as indicators of solidity and depth of space. hence our recognition of a cartoon face c o m p o s e d of three lines. Artists emulate and manipulate this effect in their pictures. U p s i d e . atmosphere. but do not appear so. Gray squares To further examine changes in tone. The small squares are identical in tone. are translated into a world of space.102-03 deep shadows cast across shells make their form easier to perceive. The egg's lightest region is seen against a darker background. perhaps. the adjustment of our eyes (in growing accustomed to a level of light).d o w n patterns of light on our retinas. a lit photograph of an egg shows essential points to observe in tonal drawing. form. less developed than the center. On acloudyday. We perceive one to be lighter than theother. or colored surface is never constant. Below the bottom "edge" of the egg there is a rim of light reflected onto the paper by the underside of the egg. try this experiment.96 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Light and Illusions SEEING IS MIRACULOUS. reads only m o v e m e n t a n d can often m a k e mistakes. one blackandone white.At one point you will catchenoughlight lighter than the white one. See how its "edge" smoothly changes from light against dark to dark against light. We will even see things that d o not exist because minimal information suggests they are likely to be there. We only need small prompts. and the proximity of contrasting tones. Below. Through these we can enjoy witnessing our o w n d e c e p t i o n a n d b a f f l e m e n t a n d u n d e r s t a n d certain factors that are very useful in picture-making. Run The bottom-left quarter of the egg lightens slightly toward its "edge" when seen against the darker shadow cast on the paper. a n d are q u i c k to p r o p o s e ideas. Three factors change it: the amount of light it receives. your eye around the circumference of the egg. The outermost edge of our vision. The rim of light on the egg is reflected light received from surrounding paper.
Y o u m a y e x p e r i e n c e s o m e t h i n g similar h a p p e n i n g w h e n y o u m a k e s i n g l e . In a t o n a l d r a w i n g . LIGHT AND ILLUSIONS Tonal width T h e s e black a n d w h i t e bands are o f equal thickness o n e i t h e r side o f t h e i r central division. O b s e r v e h o w each white b a n d appears t h i c k e r t h a n its black c o u n t e r p a r t . start o u t w i t h one. T h i s fundamental o p p o s i t e is a reason w h y l i n e a r a n d t o n a l d r a w i n g does not a l w a y s c o m b i n e w e l l in t h e s a m e i m a g e . T h e jug d r a w n w i t h a t h i n line appears f a r t h e r away t h a n t h e j u g d r a w n w i t h a t h i c k e r line.97 LINE VERSUS TONE In l i n e a r d r a w i n g s . t h i c k e r l i n e s a p p e a r t o stand forward. w h i l e t h i n n e r lines recede. b u t t h e u p r i g h t o n e l o o k s t a l l e r (B). A n u p r i g h t line stands in t h e c e n t e r o f a h o r i z o n t a l line. . S h o r t h o r i z o n t a l lines o f identical length are m a d e t o l o o k d i f f e r e n t by c o n v e r g i n g lines beside t h e m ( C ) . by d i r e c t e d a r r o w s ( A ) . O f t e ndoingso w i l l s p o i l y o u r w o r k . Apparent lengths T h e s e optical illusions s h o w h o w lines o f identical length can b e m a d e t o l o o k quite different f r o m each o t h e r by t h e addition o r association o f o t h e r lines. T h e r e is n o obligation t o a d d b l o c k s o f t o n e t o a l i n e a r d r a w i n g . l i g h t e r surfaces s t a n d f o r w a r d w h i l e d a r k e r s u r f a c e s recede. In this t o n a l image w e read w h i t e as f a t t e r t h a n black. Seven parallel lines are m a d e t o tilt t o w a r d and away f r o m each o t h e r by n u m e r o u s s h o r t strokes crossing t h e m diagonally ( A ) . T w o relatively t h i c k parallel lines are m a d e t o b e n d away f r o m each o t h e r as t h e y pass in f r o n t o f an a r r a y o f c o n v e r g i n g f i n e lines ( B ) .p o i n t p e r s p e c t i v e d r a w i n g s w i t h a large n u m b e r o f c o n v e r g i n g rays b e h i n d y o u r horizontals. In this linear drawing w e read t h i c k as closer a n d t h i n as f a r t h e r away. respectively. Bending straight lines Linear distance These t w o jugs have b e e n d r a w n w i t h lines o f d i f f e r i n g thicknesses. T w o horizontal lines o f equal length are m a d e t o l o o k longer and shorter. B o t h are identical in length. If y o u w i s h t o m a k e a t o n a l drawing.
perfected the acceleration of perspective (see pp. It is a curious fact that w e can never see both options at once. their picture could be ambiguous.98 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Further Illusions PSYCHOLOGISTS AND PHYSIOLOGISTS have studied optical illusions for decades in pursuit of what they tell us about the brain. w e will find that in terms of the direction it faces. It is possible t o r e a d i t t w o ways: as a t r u n c a t e d r e c t a n g u l a r p y r a m i d seen d i r e c t l y f r o m a b o v e . In the 1960's. and we learn to read the styles of diverse cultures and periods. among others. Op(tical) artists. it can oscillate b e t w e e n facing t o w a r d o r a w a y f r o m us.76. Yet many illusions. Artists make pictorial illusions when they paint or draw. made paintings that depended upon the physical sensation of our brain's reaction to known optical illusions. Some artists use known optical illusions to make art.116-17) to make painted figures look correct when viewed from below. Ancient Greek architects knew parallel upright lines appeared to bend toward each other in the middle. o r as a s l o p i n g . Artists can communicate much in few lines and the viewer will do the rest of the work. w e can only look f r o m one t o the o t h e r If an artist is not aware this can happen in their image. A few suggestive marks will tip the decision one way o r the o t h e r Closing the surface W h e n a t r a n s p a r e n t elliptical o b j e c t has b e e n d r a w n . others adjust works to avoid their effects. it oscillates between t w o possibilities. as s h o w n o n t h e right. Michelangelo." . and so calculated precisely how much to fatten columns to make them appear straight.s i d e d r e c t a n g u l a r t r a y ( b o t h are illustrated far r i g h t ) "The brain is so eager to name a fragment we see that we need only a suggestion to grasp the whole. are still not agreeably understood. such as Bridget Riley. Two ways of seeing T h i s is t h e b o x c r e a t e d in t h e f o u r t h step o n p. including some shown here. Today we are bombarded with images but rarely have difficulty reading them. such as t h e dish seen h e r e o n t h e left. C l o s i n g t h e surface o f t h e f o r m seals o u r d e c i s i o n as t o w h i c h w a y it faces. w h e n drawing the outline o f a three-dimensional form. SEEING TWO OPTIONS Sometimes.
P e r c e i v i n g a w h o l e i m a g e f r o m m i n i m a l lines T h i s is a w i d e l y r e p r o d u c e d visual j o k e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e C a r r a c c i b r o t h e r s . T h e a r t i s t M. M u c h can b e e x p r e s s e d in o n l y a f e w marks. N e i t h e r triangle exists. — a n d so t h e artist can create m u c h o u t o f an impression w i t h o u t overdescribing. His highly d i s p u t e d and i m p r e c i s e science involves s h o w i n g u n p r e p a r e d p a t i e n t s t e n p a r t i c u l a r ink b l o t s a n d asking t h e m t o i n t e r p r e t w h a t t h e y see. b u t w e believe w e see t h e m because e n o u g h f r a g m e n t a r y i n f o r m a t i o n is given f o r o u r brains t o c o n c l u d e t h e y are v e r y likely t h e r e . T h e patient's answers are t h e n diagnosed as a psychological profile. O n l y o n closer inspection we realize that t h e s e o b j e c t s are fooling us. Yet still w e try resolve t h e m . C o u p l e d w i t h t h e Rorschach b l o t above. S o m e artists use ink blots t o p r o m p t t h e beginning o f an image. F a m i l i a r i t y in r a n d o m s h a p e s T h e Rorschach test was established by t h e 1 9 t h . This simple five-line d r a w i n g is o f a C a p u c h i n priest asleep in his pulpit. clouds. e t c . C o u n t t h e n u m b e r o f d a r k spots y o u can see. . smoke. w e see t w o overlapping triangles: o n e outlined in black b e n e a t h a n o t h e r in solid w h i t e . Minimal-line j o k e s such as this rely u p o n t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y v i e w e r ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e shapes.c e n t u r y Italian painters. W e should r e m e m b e r t h a t o u r brains will always search f o r a p i c t u r e — i n ink blots.99 Impossible objects T h e s e clever configurations o f outlines and t o n a l surfaces convince us at a glance that we are seeing a solid three-dimensional triangle and a three-pronged fork. B e l o w is a b r i g h t n e s s c o n t r a s t illusion. T h e y a r e o f t e n c r e d i t e d w i t h t h e invention o f t h e c o m i c c a r t o o n . FURTHER ILLUSIONS Seeing things that are n o t t h e r e H e r e o n t h e left. C Escher u s e d this phenomenon t o great effect in his many p o p u l a r d r a w i n g s o f puzzles and impossible buildings.c e n t u r y Swiss psychologist H e r m a n n Rorschach. T h e s e e x a m p l e s illustrate h o w little is n e e d e d t o c o n v e y an image. T h e t e s t e x p l o r e s o u r n o r m a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o find things w e can n a m e a m o n g r a n d o m shapes. 1 6 t h . this is a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f t h e viewer's b r a i n b e i n g willing t o d o a large a m o u n t o f t h e w o r k in d e c i p h e r i n g a p i c t u r e . This effect can o c c u r naturally w h e n looking at a b r i g h t l y lit w h i t e g r i d such as a w i n d o w f r a m e against t h e night sky.
and these narrow or widen depending on the height of our view. The second common error is to tilt the upper and lower ellipses at different angles. Don't worry if it is uneven— just try again. for example. hesitant one that has edged its w a y nervously around the vessel's rim. To make a cylindrical object appear real in our pictorial space. spin your hand in a relaxed circle. keep it spinning. Watch the tip of your pen and see it draw an ellipse in the air Keep this movement going while gently lowering the pen onto the paper like the needle of a record player closing on the disc (only it is your lowering hand that spins. third common error is to draw upper and lover ellipses with different-sized apertures. Ellipse are best d r a w n quickly. I have exaggerated this error here. smoothly. since this is h o w w e experience them in e v e r y d a y use. How to Draw Ellipses of seeing. that this is o n l y o n e w a y view. not the paper!) As the pen touches down.100 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS W E VISUALIZE CYLINDRICAL VESSELS. circles change into ellipses. (see p. there are three common errors people stumble upon. Cubism. w e use ellipses to give a sense of perspective. such as bowls and cups. while its upper rim remains level. COMMON ERRORS W h e n drawing cylindrical objects in perspective. like a disposable plastic cup that has been crushed in your hand. . A wobbling but confident ellipse will still be more convincing than a slow. for example plates or bowls on a table. as if the table surface slopes upward beneath the vessel. a n d in o n e bold stroke. springlike forms like those I have drawn below. WHERE TO START In the air above a spacious sheet of scrap paper.90) takes a different as essentially circular. Cover a sheet of paper with spinning. Be aware. However. I have drawn these for you here. even if y o u r hand w o b b l e s a little at first. you will achieve steadiness with practice. describing many sides of an object simultaneously. w h e n seen at an angle. though. suggesting that the vessel is lopsided. giving the cylinder four corners. The first common error is to draw two pointed ellipses.
HOW TO DRAW E L L I P S E S A Single Vessel One Inside Another Grouped Together Finding Shape and Volume Draw an imagined vessel in one continuous spinning line. you can make it solid by building up highlights and tones on visible surfaces. you can start to control your spinning ellipse to make a vessel. working from top to bottom. Seeing Through Allow lines to travel around each vessel as if it were transparent. Draw quickly. enlarging and diminishing the ellipse to determine the overall shape and volume. .101 DRAWING VESSELS Once you have mastered drawing free-hand springs. thereby hiding lines that show the other sides. Create a Solid Surface Once you have drawn the shape and volume of each form. Altering the pressure—and therefore tone—of the line as it spins gives the impression of light shining on one side.
simply shapes and subtleties of light and dark meeting each other with no divisions in between. or you can begin with a mid-gray ground and model light out of darkness (see opposite bottom). and solid objects are all of equal importance. Gradually hone your drawing. In the finished drawing there should be few. making complicated or subtle surfaces easier to see and understand. You can begin with outlines and build slowly from light to dark (see opposite top). It maximizes the range of tones between black and white. Draw the largest and most distinct areas of light and darkness first. and strong contrasts are easier to draw. if any. if light shines in them. Illuminate them with a gooseneck lamp placed very close and directed away from your eyes.102 INSTRUMENTS Tonality W H E N MAKING A TONAL DRAWING. LIGHT TO DARK DARK TO LIGHT . Remember that shadows. Relaxing your eyes out of focus as you draw will help to dissolve the distraction of detail. beams of light. t h e r e a r e p r i n c i p a l l y Dramatic lighting emphasizes texture and contour.22-23). leaving detail until last. two opposite methods of achieving the same result. it will inhibit your perception of tone. OBJECTS AND Start by arranging a choice of shells on a sheet of paper to your left if you are right-handed (or vice versa). outlines. It is important to place them on the correct side so as to draw comfortably (see pp.
Treat positive form and negative space (see pp. Honetheshapesand angles of the shells. Fll in broad areas first and leave all detail until last. Continue working between light and dark to refine the drawing. loose. look at the main areas of darkness. Remember that its size. shape.103 LIGHT TO DARK (LINE TO TONE) TONALITY 1 Using a sharp HB pencil. . Relaxing your eyes out of focus will help to eliminate distracting details. Use your pencil to develop these in relation to the areas of light. draw a rectangle.56-57). Erase and make changes to roughly place the shells inside your with your composition. and edges definingthespacialrelationships between are important aspects of your composition them. DARK TO LIGHT (TONE TO TONE) 1 Using the flattened tip of an HB pencil. pale lines with equal importance. Avoid a rough significant areas of light in your gray rectangle with texture and do not press the graphite hardwhite plastic eraser Ignore all detail and draw a into thepaperor you will not be able to erase it. Use quick. Let your eyes go out of focus while looking gently layer marks to create an even tone at your subject and paper: Draw the most ofmid-graywithin a rectangle. with broad sweeps of the eraser. Draw in the details last of all. 2 3 Gentlydissolveoutlines so that areas oflightanddark meet without a line between them. until you are happy frame. boldly 2 3 Keeping your eyes out of focus.
Third. On p. This class uses thin-gauge wire to create a threedimensional violin. and on p. 19 Picasso draws with a pen-light for the camera. Place the instrument on a plain surface and illuminate it with a desk lamp to add the delicate dimension of shadows. you can create your own more ambitious works. There are essentially three lessons to be learned. When drawing anything viewed from one side on paper. 176 the British artists Noble and Webster draw with domestic refuse in a beam of light. They can also be made in space. try drawing it with a pen on paper Use bold. PEN LINES Once you have created your three-dimensional violin (opposite). and physical relationships between them. On p. our image is stronger if we understand and can visualize what is happening on the other side too. The first is that figurative and abstract drawings can be made in space.69 we see how the architect Antonio Gaudi drew proposed domes using suspended wires and weights. . continuous lines.220 Mamoru Abe draws with forged steel rods. Seeing through a wire drawing of a known object such as a violin gives us a visual and tactile understanding of all its sides and shapes at once. three-dimensional drawings teach us about the totality of forms in space. The second is that after achieving this simple example.104 OBJECTS AND I N S T R U M E N T S Drawing with Wire DRAWINGS DO NOT HAVE to be two-dimensional. and on p. smooth.
begin to shape the curvature of the fingerboard. 4 . Once you have completed the body. 1 Decide how big to draw your violin relative to the gauge of your wire. and thick wire a larger one. Cut a length. thin wire will make a smaller drawing. These will hold the sides apart and help to keep the form in shape. I started with the scroll at the top and fixed the four component wires with two drawings of tuning pegs. brace the two ends of the violin with a length of wire along the back. I used garden wire and cut it carefully with pruners. Join the two sides together with four short pieces of wire. Then begin to define its uppermost surface with Scurves and the bridge.105 SETTING UP DRAWING WITH WIRE Follow these steps to draw a three-dimensional violin Choose a gauge of wire sturdy enough to hold the shape ofyourfinished drawing. and pinch and bend it to shape the base of the instrument Repeat this process to make the identical upper side of the instrument. Here. 2 3 If needed. but thin enough to be easily manipulated inyourfingers Here.
Oxford. . some of which are shown here. I had the privilege of drawing their inventions. England. Using found materials.Artifacts and Fictions IN 1993 I WORKED with a group of schoolchildren who were responding to the astonishing objects in the collection of the Pitt Rivers Museum. they invented new anthropological finds—objects that reflected the distant past and their immediate future.
while Durer took his research further— A. in our privileged and comfortable society. sculptural description of her form. but the study of a controlled. and because the female was deemed inferior. This chapter addresses issues that are most commonly faced by beginners attending life-drawing classes. focus has turned to the vulnerability of flesh: how it can be damaged. W e understand every curve and balance of to the theory that the eves are the windows of the soul. is the most c o m m o n subject in art. It also looks at the representation of the b o d y b11y4o n d traditional life drawing. artists also tried to define ideal proportions in the body. herimpressive presence because we are given such Life drawing no longer dominates the art school curriculum. Look closely at Renaissance drawings of the female b o d y and you will see that m o s t are actually y o u n g m e n with minor adjustments. and surgically rebuilt. W e are the only creatures on Earth that can make our own image. This F finished image was produced as r a n c i s c o . portraiture. 3 x 7 in (300 x 180 . Michelangelo attended dissections to made this image by light sectioning: fine beams of light perfect his understanding of surface form. In this period. During this time. Strangely. Leonardo drew a man within a circle and square. history paintings and other stories. the junior workshop apprentices posed as part of their duties. myths and fables. giving physical foundation undulating land. the Bay Area Models' Guild h o l d s a quarterly life-drawing m a r a t h o n aprinton Kodak transfer paper with green-colored dye added celebrating the great diversity of human proportion. He even believed he had located the soul contours of her form like a cartographer's map of in the pituitary fossa beneath the brain and behind the eyes. WILLIAMS he sought perfection in the infinitesimal measurement of the body and produced four Contemporary photographer volumes of illustrated explanation. Artists are thought to have b e g u n drawing from the nude during the Italian Renaissance. and in San could easily be transferred into three dimensions. The body remains at the core of over the initially white lines. Artists now explore the interior of the body with new media and Lateral Contour Map of a Full-Term Primipara Produced by Light 1979 A. W I L L I A M S technology. Williams were decades ahead of their medical counterparts. diseased. while Leonardo opened the body to see and projected onto a woman's body draw the celebratory discover for himself our physical mechanisms. Drawings were usually made from the male nude to avoid offending the church. Renaissance artists studying anatomy from dissection clinically trained and specialized as a medical illustrator. explaining ranges e/ of materials and techniques and showing diversities of thought and purpose in making. a n d w e d r a w o u r s e l v e s to a s s e r t o u r e x i s t e n c e . and anatomical and erotic art. clothed or nude. She the body is still essential. R. These classes are popular around the world. The human body. It gives physical and emotive form to religious narratives.The Body O UR BODIES MAKE us TANGIBLE. R. much Western contemporary art. from video and X-ray to thermal imaging.
Three Guards 1500-20 91/4 x143/8in (234 x 365 mm) RAPHAEL . Muscular dramatic postures reflect the influence of Michelangelo and the Renaissance celebration of the idealized male body. But the meanings of each gesture and the materials and methods by which they Postures and Poses were m a d e contrast greatly. filling the page with her presence. so that we read this drawing like a sculptural frieze. while supporting the weight of their body with the other. Matisse's b l u e n u d e sings with life and c e l e b r a t i o n . T h e y b o t h raise one arm to cup their head in their hand. and human defeat. In a single drawing we see equally o b s e r v e d studies of f o r e s h o r t e n i n g (see pp. Principal figures m i r r o r e a c h other. Raphael's study of fallen m e n leaves no doubt that they are in anguish. Raphael drew delicate tones of black chalk on tinted paper.110 T H E BODY THESE DISTINCTIVE WORKS show two strikingly different ways of modeling the body on paper. Sculptural frieze This is a preparatory drawing for Raphael's painting of the Resurrection of Christ. altar pieces. we see the e s s e n c e of h e r b e a u t y w i t h o u t a single detail. RAFFAELLO SANZIO (RAPHAEL) Italian High Renaissance painter: Raphael is best known for his images of the Madonna and Child. He trained under Perugino. By way of contrast. anatomy. while Matisse used scissors and glue to cut out and paste a flat collage of brilliant color.116-17). Here three male nudes are compressed into very shallow pictorial space. and studied to learn from the works of Michelangelo and Leonardo besides whom he was soon ranked. and Vatican frescos. In this highly s o p h i s t i c a t e d a b s t r a c t i o n . She u n f o l d s and s t r e t c h e s shapely limbs.
fabric. and more energetic Color and form This collage is one of a series of Blue Nudes." of is an art of balance. serenity. printmaker..like an appeasing influence.sculptor..111 HENRY MATISSE French painter: draftsman.which might be. devoid of troubling Blue Nude 1 1952 413/4 HENRY MATISSE . Matisse Soothing influence This drawing expresses the achievement of Matisse's personal aim: "What I dream and depressing subject matter. foundamong many other groups of papercut these works as an elderly man confined to his bed or wheelchair.or like a good armchair in which to rest from physical fatigue. Matisse became an artist after studying law. freer. lifelong love of brilliant They celebrate the culmination of spectacular and sometimes drawings. teacher and principal exponent o f Fauvism—a movement established in 1905 in which bold color is the most essential element. a mental soother. His calligraphic natural abstractions of form grew brighter. and Islamic art... his pattern. as his w o r k matured.designer writer...
turned gray. In his f a m o u s paintings of social e n g a g e m e n t . and c o m p l e m e n t a r y hues. there are no outlines. and color His applied theories still influence painters in their manipulation and rendering of local. Here. scratched in seconds. velvet d a r k n e s s . in a perfect e x a m p l e . like small birds attendant on the meditation. stands in counterpoise holding a dark globe and his thoughts in m o m e n t a r y balance. form. and muddied the brilliance of the drawing. he used b l a c k c o n t e (see p. If Seurat had added white. T h e space around h i m chatters with symbols. Typically.112 T H E BODY Choreographs T I M E IS A SIGNIFICANT E L E M E N T i n t h e m a k i n g o f a l l d r a w i n g s . Beuys's magician. other tones. Light is given by the paper alone. 162) and an eraser to model teeming points of artificial light amid GEORGES SEURAT French painter classically educated in the Ingres school of thought. or abruptly meeting. His drawings are similarly u n i q u e . Opposite. Using the paper to create light is important for beginners to learn. Below. Seurat engaged in lifelong studies of line. Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 1883-84 91/2 x 121/4 in (241 x 312 m m GEORGES SEURAT . we c o m p a r e a skillful design that absorbed m u c h time in its making with the quickness of an idea marked instantly. w h o sits propped in the contradictory darkness of a hot summer's day. Tone and light In this black conte drawing. only tones blending into. reflected. it is as if the very atoms of air are made visible. it would have mixed with unseen black dust. agreeing to coalesce and show us the form of a waiting boy. Seurat evolved a distinctive t e c h n i q u e called p o i n t i l l i s m — i m a g e s literally made from myriad points of color.
Unbroken lines stream from his simultaneously movement. This figure is drawn intuitively.gold. Perfectly modeled rather conventional for Joseph Focus Beuys's hand moved quickly to draw dotted lines flowing downward on either side of the figure. taught workshops with a cult following. and blood. video art. transience. CHOREOGRAPHS the profound power materials with spiritual or of Free lines This pale pencil drawing is Beuys. His The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland UNDATED 113/4 J O S E P H BEUYS x81/4in (297 x 210 mm) . He was a shaman who believed in intuition and in the investment of healing force. Many of his other symbolic works on paper have been drawn with materials such as honey. and that These aspects of the work convey fractured visibility. in different positions. and drawings. and made installations. Our focus joins shoulders.113 JOSEPH BEUYS One of the most influential German artists of the 20th century. free from the constraint of immaculate form opposite) impetus is irrelevant to the and meaning of this work (as we see in Seurat's drawing representation. Beuys gave performances. iodine.
We are asked to gaze u p o n her flesh. We are involved not as a shabby voyeur but as a bystander engaged through our recognition of shared joy. the fierceness of the women's kiss is beautifully matched by the tenderness of his line. sweeping lines— of either purple silk fabric or cool studio air—that imprint and amplify their past and future movements. Paris. the women are framed and caressed by long. Inspired by Michelangelo." as seen here.000 drawings shown in rotation at the Musee Rodin. Opposite. In Rodins work. Delicate strokes This is one of about 7. and went on to inspire generations of artists. was perceived as scandalous. he typically drew them with a few delicate strokes of pencil and brushed watercolor. As here. Rodin produced portraits and statues of public and literary figures. its soft. and one of hundreds of rapid studies of nudes. In both drawings. But what is stranger to us now is that they were also outraged by his free use of line. 125/8x 9 in (320 x 229 mm) AUGUSTE RODIN Two Women 1911 Embracing . Anita Taylor has drawn her protective body hug out of the darkly glistening compression of willow charcoal and the dynamism of her shy but momentous femininity. Achieving international acclaim in mid-life. Our bodies radiate the passion of our thoughts and so become beacons of our frailty and power. THE AUGUSTE RODIN French Romantic sculptor and prolific draftsman employed as an ornamental mason until the age of 42. flushed skin made ruddy and black with crushed cinders. his w o r k is characterized by deliberate un-finish and powerfully modeled emotion.114 BODY Passion SUMMONING HUMANITY in a drawing of the nude is a subtle and emotional task. Rodin employed models to move freely or pose together in his studio. His exquisite flow of paint beyond "outlines. They whisper and writhe in a brushed and sultry embrace that devours our watching. Free lines Rodin's public audience was understandably shocked by the eroticism of his drawings.
draftsman.I 15 ANITA T A Y L O R Painter. leaving her lightest marks at the deepest level of the image and applying darker marks above. professor and Vice Principal of Wimbledon School of Art. Taylor has drawn. This order of light below and dark above gives glowing from within. A thinner sheet might have crumpled and torn under such vigorous force of making. and gaze. textured paper. scrutiny. The sturdy surface of the sheet has allowed her to press hard when needed. Taylor's immense self-portraits explore the relationship between the artist as maker and the artist as model. Charcoal Taylor has drawn freely with charcoal and an eraser on thick. exposure. Luminosity Layered marks flicker likefirelight as they sculpt the woman's body. intimately reflecting upon the emotions and meaning of nudity. erased and drawn again. and rework rich depths of light and tone. the impression of luminosity All and Nothing 1999 67 x447/8in (170 x 1 1 4 cm) ANITA TAYLOR . London.
and to draw what we see. unfathomable angles.limbs happily receding.116 T H E BODY Measurement and Foreshortening FORESHORTENING IS AN ASPECT of perspective. which is imperceptible from below. 2 Hold your pencil upright. We also look at another very interesting branch called accelerated (or anamorphic) perspective. Smaller. Imagine Michelangelo's murals in the Sistine Chapel. Spend time making comparisons before you draw. you will make inconsistent and unrelated comparisons. Align the top with a point on your subject. rather that what we believe we know from experience. just making them helps you see. Lock your shoulder. persistence. helping us to see more clearly. This is chiefly a correcting device by which figurative painters and sculptors have for centuries countered the effects of our viewing their work from far below or on the curvature of a vault. It can also be a little demon in the life room. plummeting. the skull in Holbein's The Ambassadors (The National Gallery. 3 Keep your pencil perpendicular Measure and compare at any angle. elbow. To avoid its effects ensure you always look flat onto the surface of your page. There is no need to mark them all down on paper. with dramatic illusions of figures painted in normal proportion. It is not so hard. If your arm is not straight. London). to be translated by mirrors or seen from only one point in the room. The length of exposed pencil is your measurement. In the life class it is the mechanism for ensuring that a drawn figure lies correctly in pictorial space . Up close on the scaffold we would witness Michelangelo's subtle application of accelerated perspective. and wrist joints. without taking off. we would arrive to find many of the same figures strangely distorted." . or coming forward. and a few measured comparisons are key. Move the tip of your thumb down to a second chosen point. for example. more extreme examples have been made for court entertainment. when beginners prop their board in their lap and look down at too steep an angle. Close one eye. MEASURING This is a simple method of making measured comparisons for relating the true size of one part to another This is a tool to assist observation and thinking. Rome. But if we could take a scaffold and climb up to the work. "Simple measured comparisons reveal surprising truths about proportion. It is not complicated. patience. How to make and apply these is explained below and opposite. Accelerated perspective plays a great role in much art. Return to this posture every time. or shrivelling at odd. 1 Hold your arm straight. and measurements do not have to be carried to the paper and slavishly drawn the same size they appear on your pencil. elongated as if stretched across the plaster.
t a p e s o m e p a p e r t o a board. . Lean t h e t o p e d g e t o w a r d y o u and find a p o s i t i o n w h e r e y o u can c o m f o r t a b l y l o o k d o w n t h e p a p e r at an angle o f a b o u t 4 0 degrees. L o o k at y o u r m o d e l as if he o r she is a flat series o f shapes o n e o n t o p o f a n o t h e r Measure t h e height and w i d t h o f each shape and c o m p a r e it t o its neighbor. pleasingly f o r e s h o r t e n e d . A t a c e r t a i n angle. See h o w d i f f e r e n t t h e relative heights o f t h e s e shapes are f r o m w h a t w e m i g h t e x p e c t in real life. which feels strange. looking d o w n t h e p a p e r at t h e a n g l e at w h i c h I d r e w . T h i s is t h e s a m e d r a w i n g p h o t o g r a p h e d f r o m above. h e r p r o p o r t i o n s will appear correct. Stand its b o t t o m edge o n y o u r lap. y o u r hand travels f a r t h e r than y o u expect. S o o n t h e b o d y will lie d o w n in space.117 ACCELERATED PERSPECTIVE To discover h o w this w o r k s . W o r k a r o u n d t h e figure. belly. adjusting a n o n y m o u s shapes. a n d thighs. y o u must let go o f w h a t y o u k n o w f r o m e x p e r i e n c e a b o u t t h e relative sizes o f b o d y parts and trust y o u r eyes. P r o p o r t i o n s will only l o o k c o r r e c t f r o m t h e angle at w h i c h y o u make t h e drawing. Keep t h e b o a r d steady and draw. FORESHORTENING To f o r e s h o r t e n a figure. To m a k e f o r m s l o o k c o r r e c t . MEASUREMENT AND FORESHORTENING Tilt t h e t o p edge o f this b o o k t o w a r d you and look d o w n o n this figure f r o m a b o v e . C o m p a r e t h e heights o f t h e nose and eye shapes t o t h o s e o f t h e f o r e a r m . W e appear t o be looking d o w n o n a w o m a n s t a n d i n g b e n e a t h us.
her center of balance is normally found in a vertical line beneath her head. To see this. and energy. feeling. Be bold and dive into your drawing with c o n f i d e n c e . work back and forth across the body. imagine holding up a plumb line. Height This pose leans away into space above our eye level. and work over t h e m with further o b s e r v a t i o n s . because it results in two unrelated sides drifting apart. working from her center to her feet and to her head. Start each new drawing by lightly marking the model's height with a loose line in ten seconds. height. balance. I used a sharp H B pencil and began each drawing by marking her outline. and slightly enlarge her legs and feet. To draw this effect. and stance before honing her balance and expression. Leave first thoughts in place. Outline To outline a figure. Avoid drawing up one side and down the other. Layered lines give d e p t h . propelling you to make immediate assessments and trust them. and height. THE SEQUENCE OF POSES H e r e the model was asked to move every t w o minutes. . T h i s q u i c k e x p l o r a t o r y line does not perfectly describe shape but expresses a decision about overall flow of form.118 BODY Quick Poses DRAWING QUICK POSES l o c k s y o u r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n t o what is most essential. Balance When a model stands upright on both feet. make the upper body smaller give your model a high waist.
. This drawing shows how different observations be overlaid to bring a drawing alive.119 The twist of a model is most easily and expressively captured if it is exaggerated. Most of us have a tendency to over-straighten the drawn figure. The tilt of the pelvis is then counter balanced by the model's shoulders tilting the other way (as seen here). the activity of circular lines and the repetition of limbs suggest movement. and this should be avoided Twist QUICK POSES A model standing on one leg usually drops the opposite hip. Tilt Movement Here.
and a gooseneck lamp casts shadows that clarify planes and depths GESTURES OF THE HAND Curled Fingers 1 Open Palm Start honing the shapes of the dominant planes. and they need not be daunting to draw. Do not separate them yet. swiftly marking its essential gesture. 3 . but regard these practice studies as ongoing processes of thought and observatio Add details such as nails last if you wish. and ignore all details. Begin by drawing lines to encompass the whole hand. It also helps the beginner to progress from drawing outlines to drawing confidently across the surface of the whole form. Practice by drawing your own hands and feet. starting with the largest. Group the fingers together as one mass. general to specific. Focus instead on how planes change direction across the knuckles from one side of the hand or foot to the other. Keep lines open to change and take measurements if they help. Draw large shapes and their orientation. or those of a friend.120 BODY Hands and Feet THERE ARE MANY different ways of approaching h a n d s and THE of form. especially the lengthwise divisions between them. 2 Build your drawing gradually from light to dark. it is important to leave aside all details of the fingers and toes. express structure and gesture far more successfully and easily than ten worried outlines wandering up and down between the fingers and toes. A mirror increases your range of views. drawn in relation to each other. Don't worry about achieving perfect solutions. Then subdivide each shape so that you w o r k from large to small. This exercise is useful when struggling with proportion. feet. W h e n starting. These planes.
. and rapid.as though out o f wood. Try t o express the whole foot and t o encapsulate its entire shape and direction in a few marks. these are what give a drawing its tangible structure. and don't worry about accuracy t o begin with. Nowimagineyou are carving the foot insidethepaper. flattened planes. Look for key angles without becoming distracted by detail. 2 3 Use an eraser t o refine decisions o r t o suggest areas o f light. depth. however. and spontaneity. as if with a chisel. t o remove t o o many early lines. loose. Hew it roughly in broad.121 HANDS AND FEET MOVEMENTS OF THE FOOT Flat Stance Raised Heel Instep 1 Let your first marks be light. Leave aside all detail. It can be a mistake.
The white lines demonstrate what is often called "bracelet shading. Opposite. Compare its nature in close-up to that of willow charcoal used on pp." .Charcoal Hands T H E S E DRAWINGS ARE MADE in compressed charcoal.204-05. I also used white ink with a steel dip pen.
Phrasing Contours . I make these lines in the first five to ten seconds of a drawing to locate the presence.HERE TRACES OF RAPID initial lines are still seen within and outside each body. 118-19). length. before honing his or her shape (see pp. and posture of the model.
characters.The Visual Detective DRAWING FROM MASTERWORKS was once a staple component of an artist's education. feeling them through the attentive movements of your own hand. perspectives. Forms. It is now viewed with some skepticism and often seen as academic. and narrative pulse become vivid when you realize them in the middle of your study. . Drawing work by another artist enables you to discover and understand the inventive hand in their composition. I draw in museums in support of written research and as an artist seeking answers to questions about the practicalities of image making.
3 x 3 m) made in response to La Specola. each modeled from dissection. Life-size women wearing wigs recline on beds of embroidered silk in cabinets of mahogany and Venetian glass This is a detail of a compressed charcoal drawing measuring 14 x 10 ft (4.La Specola At17V i a Romana. 126-27. there is a unique museum of 18th-century anatomical waxes. These almost life-size figures were composed from my imagination and achieved with the help af studies discussed on pp. Walls are lined with hundreds of faintly animated body parts. . Florence.
historical. look directly at us. Halls and palaces are filled with pictures of the mighty and significant. and lucrative genre for artists. his changes in pressure and Hitchcock length o f line. W h e n drawing a person. compliant subject to scrutinize. or whose eyes can seem to follow us around the room Portraiture is a constant. bells. This enlargement o f his miniature p o r t r a i treveals t h e s p e e d and agility o f his p e n and about himself. the meaning of their face. or a glimpse of him is caught in a photograph used as a prop. Man Ray's self-portrait of scored lines. and their posture can be changed with just one line. neck.139). Goya's w o r k s include many royal and society p o r t r a i t s . Movie director Alfred similarly signed his films by playing a fleeting role: he walks through an extra. buttons. To create a face is to see and interpret the essence of an identity. We can mold and animate qualities of expression out of objects and fragments of disassociated things—for example. you can capture the subtlety. abstract or figurative. and shoulders. The returning image was of crucial consideration in any proposal. and a handprint (see p. made as he passed through the ages of man. Self-portraiture gives every artist a constant. and social and political commentaries. and secular narratives. In this chapter. single or of groups. painters have dropped discreet records of themselves into commissioned narratives so that they can remain a face in the crowd. 1790-92 4 x 3 in ( 1 0 2 x 7 6 m m ) F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A and memorize the basic structure that we all share. and satirical or metaphorical. their stance. or past us. draftsman. Equally. Goya. Once you understand Self-Portrait in a Cocked Hat c. and expression of the individual. and p r i n t m a k e r . in a miniature self-portrait magnified opposite. Past rulers sent painters across continents to bring back a likeness in advance of a prospective royal marriage. character. gathered all that he knew FRANCISCO DE GOYA V i s i o n a r y Spanish painter. Portraits can be highly or loosely detailed. We are also reassured by keeping records of ourselves.Portraiture IN P O R T R A I T U R E W E MEET PEOPLE. usually strangers from past times. Rembrandt's famous multitude of self-portraits. who. Beginners often draw themselves as a way of establishing their practice. live. became more poignant as he progressed. we use the delicate medium of silver point to look at foundation structures of the head. The truth is that we all like looking at faces and observing the billions of variations that make us individuals. and it is very rewarding. . is here to both meet and look through us. throat. For centuries. It also reminds us o f b o t h t h e intimacy and a scene as scrutiny o f an honest portrait. religious. Our homes are filled with images of our loved ones and of those in our families who have gone before. having been documented and preserved. a single line can deliver an entire expression. and in a few scrolling rafts of pen lines and stubbled dots.
caught in her last moments of youth. There is a common misunderstanding that a drawing with only a few lines is both less finished and easier to make than a drawing with more. The Tightness of a line is felt in its speed. Picasso strikes and scrolls his pencil. adding smudges of tone for weight and solidity. It is the portrait of a countrywoman.30). breadth. For the beginner. length. teetering on the brink of older age. they serve as a great lesson that it is not always necessary to add tone to your drawing. Through exhibitions and copies in books. Here the grace and beauty of two young women are held forever. hand to capture something well in only Frangoise au Bandeau 1946 660 x 505 mm (26 x197/8in) PABLO PICASSO . How could the addition of shadows have enhanced this image? Few strokes The simplicity of Picasso's line is breathtaking. one eye already cast askew into the autumn of her life. Picasso has left to posterity many hundreds of magnificent line drawings. We can read so much about them by studying their gaze. Her face is drawn tenderly and with a luminous glow. He makes his flair and skill look easy. It takes a truly accomplished a few strokes. we can enjoy and learn from them. Without faltering.132 PORTRAITURE Poise THE BALANCE BETWEEN a mark and a blank space is often a tantalizing form of perfection. and pressure as it conducts our eye through the image. The aesthetic sense of a line being just right can make a drawing sing. We can actually count that he struck the paper 40 times. stealthily using his chalk to find contours and mass. whisking a timeless girl onto the page. Holbein maps the still landscape of Dorothea's body in questioning marks. The truth is often the opposite. While with longer consideration. PABLO PICASSO Spanish Cubist painter (see also p.
which. The peak of her cap clips the uppermost edge.133 HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER German p o r t r a i t painter draftsman. Cropping This regal composition fits its paper perfectly. In addition t o his numerous exquisite portraits in oil. Holbein was employed toward the end of his life by King Henry VIII of England. gently flushed. Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 1516 51/8 x121/4in (385 x 310 m m ) HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER . presses against the binding across her face. Holbein unified the woman with her background by gently blending colors from her clothes and face into the atmosphere around her. made a popular series o f w o o d c u t prints titled The Dance of Death. he designed c o u r t costumes. Blended colors In this portrait drawn with colored chalks on slightly textured paper. and designer f r o m Basel. Her folded forearms support and frame her weight above. Holbein has cropped and pinned his subject within the four outermost lines of the image—the edges of the page. and produced numerous society portraits such as this one here. and its downward slope crowns the diagonal of the composition. He outlined her nose but not her upper lip.
Newsome was awarded the Prix de Rome in 1960. London. and unpleasant to see. the contours of a grid. while white painted flecks and wisps suggest electrical illumination. blood vessels. dark tones of graphite blended into the paper. This is one of a number of similar disembodied female heads seen behind. Durelli has m a d e a few m i n o r mistakes. Highlights of white gouache were dry Profile Head late in the making.134 PORTRAITURE Anatomies These highly finished drawings express the emotional power and physicality of the head and neck. solid above and almost hollow below. using a fine and relatively 1982 13 x 181/8 in (328 x 460 mm) VICTOR NEWSOME brush. Delicate muscles are integrated with the skin and fat that is to be r e m o v e d . The real dissection w o u l d have been far more c o m p l e x . taught at numerous British art schools from 1962-77. The style of Durelli's d r a w i n g opposite sings with the confidence of truth and precision. the face is one of the hardest parts to dissect. . It floats in space. its highly clarified detail claiming to be d r a w n from observation. In fact. but they are irrelevant here. perhaps applied using a tortillon. confusing. and has works in major collections including the Tate Gallery. N e w s o m e ' s eerily shadowed form is smooth and bears a linear grain evocative of w o o d . Contrasts Sharp. Psychological drama is contained behind a grid. Nerves. and glands also complicate form. Anatomically. distorted. or defined by. VICTOR NEWSOME British sculptor painter and draftsman. continues to exhibit regularly. dark lines made with a pencil appear against smooth. This is a m a r v e l o u s interpretation of the truth.
Pencil numbers refer to the list of muscles written beneath. Durelli's experience as an engraver is reflected in his stylized drawing o f muscle fibers. It is hard to think of a more difficult medium with which to achieve such linear perfection.135 ANATOMIES ANTONIO DURELLI Linear perfection This is a red chalk drawing of extraordinary accomplishment. Red Chalk the Muscles 1837 173/8 x 145/8 in ( 4 4 0 x 3 7 2 m m ) ANTONIO DURELLI and Pencil Drawing and of Neck of the Head Little is k n o w n o f this M i l a n e s e p a i n t e r a n d engraver w h o c a m e from a family o f artists. Stylized parallel lines are reminiscent of engravings. and it is likely that this drawing was intended for reproduction as a print. which. pull their points o f attachment t o w a r d each other . w h e n contracted.
as if seen from a distance. Bellini gently conjures the features of his saint with soft marks that tease his presence out of shadows into the light.136 PORTRAITURE THESE ARE DRAWINGS of shoulders. and heads. Giacometti settled in Paris. Portrait de Marie-Laure de Noailles c. while his hand stabs and thrusts Revelations like a conductors baton. 1948 77/8 x 6 in (200 x 150 mm) ALBERTO GIACOMETTI . Then. Agitated marks make patches of tone that cut away the space around the character. cutting and carving the paper with matted and spiraling restless energy. We are brought intimately close to this man gazing up to heaven. There is a film of Giacometti drawing. which are characteristically elongated. They confuse our perception of scale by being intimately fragile and at the same time far removed. each portrait is inscribed onto the page. ALBERTO GIACOMETTI Swiss sculptor. painter draftsman. Opposite. and with staccato flinches his hyperactive eye moves from paper to model. The camera watches him at work. Speed Giacometti probably began with an oval shape placed in relation to the proportion of the page. close enough to touch his hair and feel his breath. Flesh is built and personality carved simultaneously. with speed and urgency. he drew over the whole image at once. He is best known for his bronze sculptures of human form. Without paint and with very little tone. each locked into a visionary gaze. Similar movements sculpted the head below into its page. Both works demonstrate how simple lines can be made complex by being intense. Energy This is a portrait of a woman drawn with black crayon on a plain page of a book Lines search for the essence of form. and poet After studying in Geneva and Italy. They show us clearly the bones of drawing. necks.
Transfer This delicate humorous chalk a drawing is a cartoon—not image but a type of template used to plan the composition of a larger work Look closely and you will see rows of tiny dots along every significant line in the picture.25 6 . H e p r e f e r r e d religious t o classical t h e m e s . Character This is one of many cartoons produced by Bellini the and his family. Sometimes different narrative same character was reused in compositions. a n d his w o r k is d i s t i n c t i v e l y calm. a n d b r o t h e r in-law. lyrical. Bellini s t u d i e d u n d e r his f a t h e r J a c o p o .G I O V A N N I BELLINI A prominent member of a large family o f V e n e t i a n painters. Mantegna. H e t a u g h t G i o r g i o n e Barbarelli and Titian. These are pinholes.5 9 ) . transferring which were made in the process of the saint to his final place in the composition of a painting (see Glossary pp. Head and Shoulders of a Man 73/8 x 21/4 in ( 1 8 6 x 5 8 UNDATED GIOVANNI BELLINI . a n d c o n t e m p l a t i v e .
Al Diaz. Later Basquiat sold drawings on T-shirts. their most immediate and best-known subject: themselves. and sheet metal before being snapped up by the New York contemporary art scene. signing their work SAMO. The figure's position is unequivocal and defiant while around him is in a state Without the essential of cultural and figure we would elegant belookingat a sophisticated painting of signs. The artist has finished his portrait with the signature of his hand smacked in the middle like a kiss: a declaration of existence as old as man's first drawing. Signs and symbols with symbols This painting shudders that ore written. a tribal. The incandescent New York painter Jean Michel Basquiat pictured himself here in naked silhouette. In 1986 he traveled to Africa and showed his work in Abidjan on the Ivory Coast He also exhibited in Germany and France. It is an image of confrontation—the ever-controversial young artist roars at us from his abstract city-scape. scratched lines. humor. bells. Self Portrait 1982 9 4 x 7 6 in (239 x 193 cm) JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT . and everything flux. It is an opportunity to look deep without the infringement of courtesies owed to a commissioning sitter. and indulgence.138 PORTRAITURE THE MIRROR OF SELF-PORTRAITURE offers artists infinite reflections of. Man Ray's playful silk-screen assembly of color blocks. and attitudes. postcards. scratched into its surface. marks. and buttons rings with surrealist wit and agile improvisation. similar to work by Cy Twombly (see p. Islands of graphic marks. It has proved to be a subject of piercing scrutiny. drawn. float and shimmer in the shallow pictorial space. made with great energy. and confrontations with. scrolls. JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT Short-lived American painter and graffiti artist who began his blazing nine-year career drawing on lower Manhattan subway trains with a friend. skull- Self-Portraits headed.221). political outcry. spear-brandishing warrior.
while a squeegee was used to drag thick lilac-brown ink across the silk pushing it though exposed areas onto the paper below. printmaker and cofounder of the New York Dada movement. The first part of the stenciled image was already marked on the silk The screen and paper were then held tightly together. Man Ray lived and worked in Paris. The handprint appears to be made directly. where he collaborated with the artist Laslo MoholyNagy. During the 1920's and 30s. Man Ray probably used his own hand. painter. caked in thick printing ink or paint. last of all. Frame White lines are seemingly (though not actually) scratched through ink to frame this face. Autoportrait 1916 195/8 MAN RAY .139 MAN RAY American surrealist photographer. They suggest speed and make the picture look immediate and spontaneous. Black ink was printed next and then white. They experimented with camera-free photography working directly onto photographic paper Silk and ink This is a silkscreen print made through the following process: the paper was laid on a flat surface and a frame stretched with fine silk was placed on top.
54) can also b e used.Tear o f f f o u r lengths o f b r o w n p a p e r g u m tape. To begin. Stretched paper remains taut as a d r u m . and make o r buy a holder. an exciting indication of how large-scale drawings could be made on a wall. b u t d o n ' t w o r r y . was familiar to or eggshells with animal glue. Opposite. SILVER W I R E : Purchase different gauge lengths f r o m a traditional a r t supplier o r jeweler. M E T A L OBJECTS: All metal objects m a r k a p r e p a r e d surface. 2 . W e t o n e length o f g u m . 156). Metal point does not work on ordinary paper. who used it to outline initials and border characters before painting. MATERIALS 1 Find a clean sponge and b o w l o r d e e p t r a y a n d fill it w i t h w a t e r W e t t h e p a p e r evenly in t h e t r a y o r o n t h e b o a r d .140 PORTRAITURE Silver P o i n t SILVER OR METAL POINT STRETCHING PAPER A sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has been made w e t with the strokes o f a paintbrush will buckle d u e t o its uneven expansion. M a k e s u r e i t is c o m p l e t e l y clean t o avoid u n w a n t e d streaks. p a r c h m e n t . I m a k e m y o w n f r o m o l d dip pens. artists mixed white lead. I combined silver point with painted white gouache on a pink ground. and is therefore useful w h e n using w a t e r c o l o r as well as silver point. Z I N C W H I T E G O U A C H E : Dilute with w a t e r A d d c o l o r i f r e q u i r e d (as opposite) 4 . Find a n i t e m t h a t y o u can h o l d a n d draw with comfortably. W e t a n d fix a s e c o n d strip t o t h e o p p o s i t e side. Be swift and firm. the surface must be primed with a ground such as gouache. s e e p . s o m e m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n o t h e r s . and gold have also been used." Lead. The most c o m m o n metal has always been silver—hence the term "silver point. w h i t e d r a w i n g paper) and cut it t o fit y o u r d r a w i n g b o a r d w i t h a generous b o r d e r a r o u n d its edges.54-55). you will need t o stretch paper and lay a wash (see right and opposite). key. c h o o s e a s o f t full b r u s h t h a t c a n c a r r y p l e n t y o f l i q u i d . SILVER P O I N T W I R E H O L D E R : T h e s e c a n b e p u r c h a s e d a n d t e n d t o b e heavy. b e f o r e priming stretched paper. copper. it leaves a deposit. 2. Pages 142 to 147 are illustrated in silver point and techniques are explained on pp. or wood. E m p t y mechanical pencils designed f o r t h i c k leads ( s e e p. Straighten the w o r s t buckles. Take a sheet o f any t y p e o f p a p e r (for e x a m p l e . laid on paper. 1. Drawn across a prepared surface. I t is a v a i l a b l e f r o m all a r t s h o p s . illuminators of medieval m a n u s c r i p t s . Historically. Lightly s p o n g e o f f t h e excess. This browns with age unless sealed by fixative (see pp. S i l v e r is b e s t . Numerous early European artists also enjoyed its fine qualities (see p. or ring. If w o r k i n g o n an emulsion-painted wall. which quickly oxidizes into a gray line.s t r i p a n d use i t t o fix o n e side o f t h e p a p e r t o t h e b o a r d . Lay a clean d r a w i n g b o a r d o n a flat surface. purchase silver wire. platinum. Gesso o r m a t t e m u l s i o n c a n a l s o b e u s e d . 144-45. S O F T F U L L B R U S H : W h e n laying a w a s h . For i m p o r t a n t a d v i c e o n p r e p a r a t i o n a n d use. Metal point is simply a strip of metal bound in a holder. 1 4 4 . Note h o w domestic paintwork marks with a coin. choose a silver object. bone. 3 . T h e p a p e r will l o o k b u c k l e d . and t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h strips a b o v e and b e l o w . and alloys work on matt emulsion. 5. o n e t o fit each side o f t h e b o a r d — t h e s e will make t h e glued f r a m e t h a t holds y o u r p a p e r in place. This is called a three-tone drawing.
Mix a very wet but not weak solution of gouache in a jar with a lid (add pigment at this stage for a three-tone drawing). Runs blend into each other evenly. overlapping lines until you reach the bottom. is necessary to lay a wash o Three-tone When coloring ground. LAYING A WASH It your stretched paper so as to prime it for silver point. The next step will make a small mess.t o n e silver point drawing of a skull .141 SILVER POINT 3 Leave the paper to dry flat. Leave the wash to dry thoroughly before you begin to draw. Reload the brush and add a second line overlapping it beneath. as the paper will be ruined by a raised ridge. Here. full brush into the gouache and start in the top left corner. Dry thoroughly before laying a wash. It will slowly straighten and become taut. so put newspaper under the lower edge. any extra will keep. leaving a smooth surface. T h r e e . Beware of the tape's coming loose at any point while drying. v e r y little at a time. I used a powder pigment called Caput Mortuum. Make enough to cover your paper. and let tests dry before deciding to change the mixture. Make an even line across to the right. stretched paper at a 45-degree angle. Keep adding smooth. slowly add powder pigment or gouache from a tube. Prop up your board of dry. Dip a soft. Keep testing on spare paper.
Head and Neck
THE HEAD AND NECK are best conceived as one unit arranged in four parts: cranium, face, neck, and throat. Each is of equal importance. The cranium is essentially egg-shaped and pivots on the first vertebra. The face is suspended beneath, like a softly curved triangle. The n e c k — a powerful, shapely column of layered muscles rigged to vertebrae—adjusts and holds the angle and expression of the head. The throat is delicate, hard, and lumpy to the touch, formed of cartilaginous rings, glands, thin muscles, and looser skin. Framing the throat, two columnar neck muscles (sternomastoids) project the head forward and also turn it to the opposite side.
This is a simple shorthand diagram representing the cranium, face, neck, and throat. It can be learned and visualized in different positions very easily, giving the novice a firm footing on which to stand and develop their drawings of the head and neck.
Cranium Begin with an egg shape. Tilt it on the paper to change the position of the head.
Face Draw a rounded triangular shape below the forward point of the egg to represent the face.
Neck This shape represents the trapezius; the largest surface muscle of the neck and shoulders.
Throat A triangular shape represents the throat. (The nose makes the diagram clearer)
After copying the diagram above, animate it. Practice drawing the cranium at different angles, add the face beneath, then the neck, shoulders, and throat. Shape your diagrams so they are more lifelike, but avoid adding detailed features too soon.
143 These three drawings demonstrate (from left to right) the following: why the cranium may be considered egg-shaped; now the face can be seen as a curved triangle suspended beneath and where the division lies between the two; and the form of sternomastoid muscles that frame thethroatsodistinctlywhen the head is turned and inclined forward.
The skull and the frame of the throat
HEAD AND NECK
Bones of the cranium are locked together by jagged joints. Sinuses in the frontal (forehead) bone between and beneath the eyebrows are larger in men, making their brows pronounced and often ridged compared to those of women.
Bones of the face house our sight, smell, taste, The skull pivots on the first vertebra or "atlas," and speech. Cartilage extending from nasal bones after the Greek god condemned to carry the shapesthenose.Pads of fat resting on the base of Earth. The jaw hinges in front of the ears. Behind, eacheyesocket support the eyeballs in position. If bony ridges give anchor to the sternomastoid thefatisreducedby old age, eyes look sunken. muscles rising from the breast- and collarbones.
Three useful generalizations
General rules about the relative positions of body parts can hinder artists as much as help them, since they are often based on classical ideals rather than thediversityoflife.However,some generalizations can help as a rough guide to start with, so long as good observation takes over as soon as possible.
In general, when the face is relaxed (not smiling or frowning), the corners of the mouth are found directly beneath the pupils of the eyes. Vertical lines can be drawn down from the pupils to meet the corners of the mouth.
The height of a young adult's ear is often the same as their nose and found on the same level. There is no general rule for growing children, and remember that ears grow again in old age, which is most obvious in men.
The height of the face is about the length of the handspan and the eye is normally halfway down the total height of the head. A common error is to draw the eyes too high up on the face.
T H E DELICACY OF SILVER POINT
(see pp. 140-41) is perfect for
such as a beach pebble. Here, I stretched drawing paper and laid a wash of white gouache (see pp.140-41). As you can see, the line and tone of silver point varies with pressure, but only slightly. Too much pressure cuts the ground. Silver point erases, but so does ground. Erased ground can be repaired gently with extra gouache. You can also use gouache to paint over mistakes and make corrections.
small, detailed drawings. The drawings below and opposite show useful observations of the head and neck, which are explained in the captions below. Each drawing was made with a silver wire held in a large-gauge mechanical pencil. Newly clipped wires are sharp and cut rather than draw. Before use, they need to be rubbed and smoothed on a stone
Here I imagined placing my silver point wire against the skin of each head and neck and, working in parallel bands from the crown downward, I traced the undulation of surfaces. Linear bands imagined around the head and neck can help you t o clearly see the tilt of the head and relative levels of the features. Ask a friend t o model for you and try this exercise life-size using a pencil and eraser
Seeing that the face is never flat
Drawings below left and center are summaries of the generalizations given on p.143. Far right is an image to remind us that the face is never flat. It slopes back to varying degrees among individuals, from the tip of the nose t o the ears. For example, note that the innermost corners of the eyes are farther forward in space than the outermost corners.
General measurements, side
General measurements, front
View from above
Male and female head and neck
Men's necks a r e g e n e r a l l y s h o r t e r a n d t h i c k e r t h a n w o m e n ' s b e c a u s e t h e angles a n d levels o f c e r t a i n b o n e s a r e d i f f e r e n t b e t w e e n t h e sexes ( i n d i c a t e d h e r e b y d o t t e d lines) a n d m e n are n o r m a l l y m o r e muscular. T h e male t h y r o i d cartilage ( A d a m ' s apple) is larger a n d m o r e visible than t h e f e m a l e . L a r g e r f e m a l e t h y r o i d glands also s o f t e n t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e t h r o a t .
The largest m u s c l e o f t h e s h o u l d e r s a n d n e c k is called the trapezius. A r r a n g e d on e i t h e r side o f t h e spine, it shapes t h e u p p e r back and neck above the s h o u l d e r blades. C o n t r a c t i n g in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h d e e p e r and surrounding muscles, it raises and l o w e r s t h e shoulders a n d d r a w s t h e h e a d backtoeitherside.
USING A SHARP 3 B PENCIL, I drew this head quickly from imagination, evolving its character and expression from the scheme of four parts: cranium, face, neck, a n d throat (see p. 142). Here, five steps show you how to practice doing the same. This approach can be used to draw from imagination or from life. Keep your wrist loose and hold your pencil away from its point (see pp.22-23). Build the layers of your drawing from pale to dark, a n d from general balance a n d form to specific detail. Remember that successful drawings are built on foundations of "seeing the whole," then dividing the whole into smaller parts, with details brought in last of all. Phrased tonal marks modeling this girls skin and hair follow the technique demonstrated by Goya in his self-portrait on p. 130. Turn to Goya's drawing and study how, in a circle beginning across his hat, moving down his hair, and around his coat, he flows lines over surfaces to describe their contour. As you build from steps 1 to 5, bring phrased groups of lines across the surfaces of your form, using their directions to capture the expression of the head and neck. If unsure, copy my steps until you gain the confidence to make your own decisions.
This drawing is the final stage of the four steps opposite. Here, I have enlarged the eye, and moved it back into the head by trimming the length of the upper lid and adding a more pronounced lower lid. It is important to set eyes far enough back from the relatively prominent nose; too close to it and the face flattens. Hair swept back and extended behind the cranium balances the regal pose. Lines shaping the hair echo those marking the cranium in step 1. Here, the lower part of step 1 comes through as wisps of hair across her face and ear
Portrait of a Young Girl
neck. over the cranium. The nose and ear begin to shape the head. 3 Place the eye beneath the cranium. avoid drawing too dark.147 Building up the portrait DRAWING PORTRAITS 1 Gently spin pale lines in a softly drawn shape representing the cranium. they are also still sweeping and confident.Theangle at which you draw this shape of the paper will determine the angle of the finished head. I used light to describe the upper lid first with a shadow beneath for the lower lid and open eye. First lines will remain visible in the final drawing. Keep your first lines light. so it is important to the life of the image that while controlled. Here. and throat. 4 . too soon. 2 Rapidly add shorthand shapes to represent the face. Moving from the back of the neck. The eye announces the nature and expression of the emerging person. I modeled the outline of the character I imagined light shining from above and in front and adjusted the pressure of lines to reflect this. down the face to the throat.
a n d t h o s e w h o a r e Generations asleep (see overleaf). the texture of hair. be aware of the subtle differences in skin surface. . empathize. muscular tension. and gravity.T o DRAW PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGES. Above all.
seeking the dominant contours of each individual expression. . Fast lines carve out the features of Goya's soup-slurping hag. I used the nib upside down to gain needle-sharp precision.Castings DRAWING IN THE PRADO MUSEUM. Van Dyke's noble cast of characters was modeled more finely. Madrid. with a steel dip pen and acrylic ink.
so that c h o i c e . a n d p r o f e s s i o n — b e g a n life as a d r a w i n g . W e dress ourselves and costume designer trained in in St. while court p a i n t e r s — M i c h e l a n g e l o and Holbein. c u l t u r e . and intent.This voluptuous above all a physical p u p p e t w i t h w h i c h to animate character and narrate personality. caricatured p l u m e s . it is the public sign by w h i c h w e are j u d g e d . dancer leaps through swaths of golden cloth. and be so expressive of temperament that it overtakes the need for an o c c u p y i n g h u m a n form. and even invisible by the w a y w e dress. e m u l a t e textures. shapes. toParis. cool. D e s i g n e r s create m a s t e r p i e c e s of haute couture LEON BAKST for H o l l y w o o d stars.Costume W E MAKE OURSELVES EXOTIC. or b u l g e s . known as Leon Bakst. or calm u s w i t h chic. of Scheherazade. a n d w e will c o l l e c t patterns.As artistic director of the It is s h o c k i n g to t h i n k h o w m a n y m i l l i o n s of d r a w i n g s m u s t be m a d e a n d d i s c a r d e d Ballet Russe. arichand unusual combination of pencil. and e x u b e r a n c e . Artists do this not so m u c h b y the style of a figure's garment. and s y m b o l s that lets m e n and w o m e n in all countries and areas have w o r k i n g access to the latest fashions. c o s t u m e o f f e r s a r i c h v o c a b u l a r y of t e x t u r e s a n d c o l o r . . was a Belarussian A r t Deco theater fantasies and desires to immediately possess a version of the same. w h i c h in turn feed c o n s u m e r Lev. Bakst's designs and costumes immediately To the fine artist. and everything w e h a v e c h o s e n for o u r w a r d r o b e s — r e f l e c t o r s of o u r taste. gesture. theb u t b y the w a y it s p e a k s w i t h its flying. fulfilling lavish and spectacular briefs. T h e rural masses w o r e h o m e s p u n simplicity. Cities c h a n g e d all. Practical classes Bacchante 1911 l o o k at r a n g e s of c o l o r e d m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d i n g p a s t e l s a n d felt-tip p e n s . b u t influenced Parisian fashion and interiordecor. c r u m p l e s . and i n d e e d image b e c a m e the property also of the industrial classes. T h e e n t o u r a g e of the theatrical stage o f t e n l e a d s the c a t w a l k . Petersburg and later exiled designers' ideas and are surprised and delighted b y their continual f l o w of inspiration. variety. Previously. a n d c o u r t i e r tailors f o l l o w e d suit. In this c h a p t e r w e see h o w c l o t h i n g c a n s e e m to p o s s e s s the w e i g h t and m o n u m e n t a l i t y of stone. outrageous. personality. Samoylovich Rosenberg. articulate a d a n g e r o u s satirical j o k e . Designers all over the w o r l d c o n t i n u a l l y p e n and b r u s h lines to lash us w i t h color. for e x a m p l e — d e s i g n e d the w a r d r o b e s of p o p e s a n d k i n g s . and gouache. and atmosphere. In psychology. w a r m t h . charcoal. woman was drawn by Bakst one year later for the ballet Narcisse. g l o s s y folds. o n l y the w e a l t h y c o u l d afford to h a v e c o s t u m e s specially m a d e . intriguing. he and cofounder Serge Diaghilev took Paris by eac storm in 1910 with their production h year in the industrial f r e n z y of creating o u r image and aspirations. Like it or not. S t r u c t u r e is t h o u g h the i n v e n t i o n of shoes. P o p u l a r f a s h i o n d e s i g n e x p l o d e d w i t h the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n . T h e p a p e r p a t t e r n is p e r h a p s the m o s t w i d e l y k n o w n of c o s t u m e d r a w i n g s : a formalized plan of lines. a n d s u b t l e t o n e s . st 111/4 x 81/2 in (285 x 220 mm) u d i e d L E O NB A K S T and explore the characterization of fabric t h r o u g h m o v e m e n t .
Sculpted one. swirling printed fabrics. and implied striation in the stone of the architecture.156 COSTUME Cloth and Drapery EACH OF THESE FIGURES is ninety percent cloth. Maelbeke I44I Madonna 11 x 7 in (278 x 180 m m ) JAN V A N EYCK . Delicate marks Silver (or metal) point is the most delicate of traditional drawing media (see pp. With a stylus such as Van Eyck used here.140-41). her marble garment holds u p the infant Christ in a fountain of compressed line. bands around the columns. dragons. folds and patterns of material speak more resolutely of their wearers than any small glimpses of body we can see. In Van Eyck's drawing below. best k n o w n f o r his G h e n t altarpiece ( 1 4 3 2 ) a n d m a r r i a g e p o r t r a i t o f Giovanni A r n o l f i n i and his w i f e (1434). He has layered these slowly and carefully so as not to cut through the ground and produce a white mark just where he intended a dark one. H e m e t i c u l o u s l y a r r a n g e d subjects t o c o n v e y d e e p e r meaning. Their uninterrupted emphasis is entirely vertical. The quiet stillness of this image is achieved by a masterly economy of stylized line. Keisai Eisen's intense. Opposite. and snakelike marks. the vaulted stone roof echoes and crowns the moment. Flaxmans sleeper—perhaps a pilgrim or a soldier resting between campaigns—has wedged himself into the cleft of some great building to grab a moment of peace. resonate with their wearers startled expression. delicate lines. Church and deities are drawn as JAN VAN EYCK Flemish oil p a i n t e r f r o m L i m b o u r g . Below this. Van Eyck's highly polished w o r k is c e l e b r a t e d f o r its disguised symbolism. Her gown is carved and polished as if made from marble. However. it is only possible to create very thin. the carefully composed outline of his cloak shows us how the artist would have also begun his immaculate rendering of the Virgin's clothes. and the kneeling abbot is a ghost by comparison. Above them. Vertical lines The highly controlled lines of this drawing cascade from top to bottom of the image. Marble gown We will never know if Van Eyck considered this drawing unfinished or intended the kneeling abbot to remain transient and ghostly. the Madonna and her architecture are both dressed in the same manner. with their jagged edges. Short and subtle horizontal punctuations are only given in the background by sections of floor.
the cloak sliding to the ground. draftsman. and Man Lying Down in a Cloak I 787-94 21/4 JOHN FLAXMAN x 41/8 in (57 x 105 mm) . Images are drawn onto smooth. which are sometimes also cut into pieces like a jigsaw puzzle. flat sheets of wood. Aeschylus earned Flaxman an international reputation. CLOTH AND DRAPERY Relief printing This is a woodblock print made by a relief process. one over the other. writer and printmaker Keisai Eisen took his name from the masters Kano Hakkeisai and Kikugawa Eizan. Parts of the image to be left unprinted are gouged out with a metal tool. This complex numerous blocks prepared image and may have been made with printed separately. stone wall of downward-stroked this sleeper's position is momentary.157 KEISAI EISEN Japanese draftsman. an 18th-19th century document on the lives of the ukiyo-e artists. the angle of the head. Koimurasaki of Tama-ya 1810-50 15 x101/4in (381 x 260 mm) KEISAI EISEN The Courtesan JOHN F L A X M A N English late 18th-century neoclassical sculptor. Dante. and teacher Distinctive linear illustrations for the works of Homer. he also co-edited and expanded the Ukiyo-e Ruiko (History of Prints of the Floating World). Position In this pen and ink drawing. Remaining raised areas of wood are rolled with colored inks. and the feet notched against the pillar tell us that A lines holds him into the cleft. Respected for his sumptuous images of geisha and editions of erotic prints. each delivering a different part and color of the design. The inked block is laid face-down on damp paper and pressed to make the print. designer.
Opposite is a dangerous drawing. It is presumed Her Royal Highness never saw it. cloth. A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE Flemish painter and draftsman. t h r o u g h n u m e r o u s p o r t r a i t and C h u r c h commissions. Leg sections in both support the figure without taking our attention away from the main garment above. where sometimes there just might not be anybody inside. He has been rendered on this olive<olored page with pen and gray wash worked over a red and black under-drawing. he c o o l e d and redefined his style. Details and voices are worn externally with great imagination. and even formal portraiture. lace. The metal. a n d w a s e m p l o y e d as c o u r t painter t o King Charles I. 160. Its color is also reflected in the metal. b e f o r e traveling t o Italy. The slight uncertainty of the pose and the limp cloak suggest a little more metal than man. and feather were all CHARACTER COSTUMES REPRESENT observed with closely crafted conviction. Its warm surface flows in contrast to the stiff metal armor. Fine examples can be plucked from fashion. Man in Armor UNDATED 1 6 x 9 1 / 2 in ( 4 0 5 x 2 4 0 m m ) A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE . w h e r e . a scurrilous cartoon by a courtier of Queen Elizabeth I. A s a y o u n g man. for she would not have been amused and William Wodall might have been stretching his luck. Leg section Compare mid-shin the section of white boots cropped to the section of similarly cropped trousers in drawings Gruau's drawing on p. Flowing scarf The knight's scarf of gilded blue is drawn in a pale wash over red ink lines. theater. Pen and wash In the graphic accuracy of this armored knight we see the idealized identity of a warrior from another time: a gleaming defender of the realm. cartoon. all ruffs and wrinkles. Van D y k e was chief assistant t o Rubens f o r t w o years. cinema.158 COSTUME Character Costumes an extreme form of the clothed figure. Anthony Van Dyke's Man in Armor is a masterpiece of drawn surface. The aged queen is compared to an overdressed bird. In 1 6 3 2 he m o v e d p e r m a n e n t l y t o L o n d o n . A flamboyant territory.
bitten nature. it was customary to Iron-gall ink Wodall's dangerous caricature steps daintily the written lines of her dedicated page. t h e B a b i n g t o n Plot. and saturations showing through from the other side. T h e poem recounts t h e six m a j o r crises o f Elizabeth's reign: t h e Spanish A r m a d a .1599 71/2 WILLIAM x 51/4 in ( 1 9 0 x 1 3 4 mm) WODALL . suggest the use of iron-gall ink (see p. she is shown as a grossly disproportioned bird.159 WILLIAM W O D A L L A u t h o r and illustrator o f The Aaes of Queene a Elizabeth poem Allegorized. t h e Jesuit Mission. Satire of the Queen's Dress c. while a raised foot pauses to assess the next displaying a fan of daggers. manuscript comprising six c a n t o s . t h e Rising. By her old upto three tiers supported on sticks. and her pride. the queen is masterfully rebalanced by words at her feet The whole drawing's blackened. t h e Ridolfi Plot. A Ruffs and feathers Starched white ruffs worn at court and by society grew steadily larger as Elizabeth's reign progressed. here dark tawny owl. Northern Satire This is a quill-and-ink satire of the elderly queen's pride-As head of state and fashion. Beneath the lethal fan is the body of a bird of trimmed feathers suggest age. Top-heavy.35). hooded with an overinflated fluffy ruff eye pins us.
ofcroppedtrousershere to the device of the w Illustration 1949 for Jacques Fath in L ' O f f i c i e l d e la C o u t u r e RENE GRUAU . The black red. possibly over a pencil outline. Gruau uses starkly cut negative space (see pp. studio-like rectangle of paper. India ink and gouache This swish of confidence and style our enters the page turning everyone's head. and both share the power of scarlet and black. muscular aggression. Spider-Girl leaps like an insect. Compare the compositio beneathVanDyke'sstudy of armor on p.and tilted to the same de a little deeper than sp kneestogivehergravity.c e n t u r y haute i n n u m e r o u s m a g a z i n e s i n c l u d i n g Elle. RENE GRUAU I t a l i a n . Vogue. Rene Gruau's bold gouache drawing of smoothly swaying sophistication captures a brilliantly cut garment and frames it with great dynamism in a white. Composition Look how well this image is frame knee is parallel to the bottom edge spacehorizontalline cropping the trousers be outermostuprightbordersof her cuffs are similar above her head thesidesoftheimage. demanding attention with gesture and flair.160 COSTUME Femmes Fatales THESE DEVASTATING femmes fatales force back the onlooker with their demure. 5 8 . diving to catch us in the grip of her machine-like limbs. She has been drawn with brushes dipped into India ink and gouache. G r u a u ' s highly distinctive d r a w i n g s have a p p e a r e d Couture. elegant chic and svelte. Fashion and fantasy drawings invent prototypes of ideals and perfection—be they for the catwalk or the fast-paced pages of comic books. 158. a n d L'Officiel de la couture. Gruau's model regally swans to the fore with cool pride. and gray pigments were applied separately.F r e n c h f a s h i o n i l l u s t r a t o r w h o in his l o n g and esteemed career w o r k e d with many of the g r e a t e s t d e s i g n e r s o f 2 0 t h . His model is outlined. Fine lines drawn against the building behind her echo the threads on which we have all seen arachnids drop and hang. as is Spider-Girl opposite. Harpers & Queen.5 9 ) and a three-spoke balance of cuffs and cropped trousers to create an almost flag-like emblem of power. Drying time in between applications ensured the colors did not run into each other. Airbrushed reflective surfaces further amplify our perception of speed.
He began work on Spider-Girl in 1998. sky. Buildings. The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones.RON F R E N Z Contemporary American graphic artist w h o designs and pencils the dynamic scenes of numerous superheroes featured in Marvel Comics. Single-point understand perspective To how Frenz created up therefore the effect of steeply between looking buildings—and howyou can do the same in your own work—take calculate where a ruler the and single vanishing point lies. and figure are all locked into equally shatp through the traditional process of a pencilled outline over-drawn ink. Align your ruler to the upright of each building. at Their extensions will meet the same single vanishing (see point pp. a great characteristic superhero comics. Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 2001-04 R O N FRENZ. beginning with Star Wars.74-77). Sharp focus black outlines in this drawing create a hyper-real dynamic. This s modeling applied over the top give the image a sleek and mechanical of gravity. Airbrushed color and with tonal focus. and has been the title's regular artist since 2003. and Amazing Spider-Man. moon. not far above the drawing. In your mind's eye extend the uprights out of the top of the picture. to the right of its center. It is outside the picture frame. Frenz has drawn for Marvel for about 20 years. MARVEL C O M I C S .
They vary hugely in cost. I suggest you do so. except the final layer. CHALK PASTELS: Blackboard chalk is sidewalk work. OIL PASTELS Oil-based. Sticks and conte crayons make thicker marks (as below). the finer and more subtle the texture and color should be. the diverse are made in brands of basic member of the family. 1. Store loose pastels in dry rice to keep them clean. Pastel pencils are slender and in w o o d casing. Dissolve in turpentine or mineral spirits to produce oil paint or or dark paper. crumbly. mixed on the paper and scratched into (as below). OIL PASTELS: Many colors. clay. 2. Degas built his pastels in layers. Try materials that are new and unfamiliar. soft. and can be a great rediscovery for bold drawings. Most stores leave small pads of paper on their counters for customers to test materials. or wax and a binder are shaped into fine strips and encased in w o o d like a graphite pencil. Often.162 COSTUME Colored Materials ART STORES BRIM OVER w i t h t h e m a n y wherever permitted. insects. Children's wax crayons are relatives. made in about 80 colors. quality. Beware—some are toxic. The worst are like revolting old lipsticks that get everywhere except where you intend. Be aware that fixative dulls pastel. Many artists apply fixative to the back of their work. these work best when slightly warm. and can be softened and manipulated with degrees of heat. fixing each layer on the front. Many products are sold individually and in boxed sets. plants. oily pigment. See h o w they work and return later for more of what proved best for you. great for tin . allowing it to fix slightly from behind. The higher the quality (and cost). C o n t e crayons are square-formed. purchase a small selection of different items you think you will like. and CHALK PASTELS Pastel pencils make fine lines (as above). are derived from many sources: rocks. and subtlety. and cost are laid out for our pleasure and perusal. COLORED PENCILS: Dry pigments ground together with chalk. hue. chalkbased but very subtle. They work well on PIGMENTS Pigments. 3. The nontoxic range below represents a suggested starting point for experiment. though lines can develop greasy stains around the edges if the paper is not first stretched and treated with a gelatin paste laid as a wash. including iridescents. Before making substantial investments. Pastels are finer. you may be pleasantly surprised to discover something you could not have imagined using. wash. unwrapped harder pastels. intensity. colored materials available. shape. paper-wrapped. and sold in many colors. Bright pastels are more brilliant on colored paper. which he left unfixed to retain its brightness. there are disparities between the apparent nature or color of what you hold in your hand and its performance on paper. quality and cost T h e best are paperwrapped sticks of sumptuous. Use them to draw lightly (as above left) or thickly. animals. slightly oily to the touch. size. minerals. Seemingly infinite choices of texture. 4. and synthetics. used to make colors. FELT-TIP PENS: Instant-drying alcoholor water-based inks stored in the barrels of the pens are delivered via smooth nylon o r felt tips of varying shapes and thicknesses.
Some give richer lines than others. Colors can be blended as shown right) and tones graded by altering pressure.163 COLORED PENCILS These are wax. Diverse brands are harder or soften greasier or chalkier in use. so it is best to test them before buying. FELT-TIP PENS Although not made with felt-tip pen. leaving the paper to shine through for highlights (as below). others dissolve in water or turpentine to make a wash. Some are nonsoluble. 111). . it is still a great champion and support for those beginners feeling shyly obligated to tone down their love of color to conform with what others say they should use. If you love smooth blocks and lines of colon felt-tip pens are perfect. Brands made for designers sold in enormous ranges of colors are far more subtle and sophisticated than those made for children. Think of Matisse's Blue Nude (see p. Fine lines can be achieved (as above).or clay-based thin crayons in wood casing.
e n j o y i n g t h e study a n d i n v e n t i o n o f shoes. D r a w each o n e first as a solid object. you will need several large sheets of drawing paper. style. Linear Outline Using fine pens. . As artifacts in museums. I m a d e n u m e r o u s s h e e t s o f d r a w i n g s . 104-07). and volume in space (see pp. REPEATED STUDY T o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s class.164 COSTUME Study and Design they reflect our age. values. S H O E S TELL LIFE STORIES. Turn t h e m in different d i r e c t i o n s and o b s e r v e t h e i r s t r u c t u r e and f o r m . imagining y o u can see t h r o u g h it. structure. personality. This class takes the shoe as its subject in building on earlier lessons concerned with seeing through objects to understand their function. To set up. 100-01 and pp. and how we stand and walk. a n d e x p e r i e n c e visible p r o g r e s s . and a selection of shoes. and they have been concealed in buildings to ward off misfortune. a range of colored felt-tip pens with both fine and broad tips. social and economic status. Here we go one step further. they record and reflect our common history. if y o u m a k e p l e n t y o f d r a w i n g s as o p p o s e d t o o n l y a f e w . while artists have painted their boots or those of others as personal portraits and memorials. You. c o v e r a large sheet o f p a p e r w i t h line drawings o f several shoes. the era in which we live. and after studying familiar shoes we use the information learned to invent new ones. t o o . t h e n again as if transparent. will discover m o r e . Superstitions and fetishes are attached to them: we are told never to put new shoes on a table.
STUDY AND DESIGN
study the surface contours using fineand broad-tipped felt-tip pens. For best results, it is important to be bold and brief. Draw firmly, fast, and with as few strokes as possible. Build up each shoe from light to dark andleavesome paper showing through to create highlights.
Design Your Own
Using what you have learned from the previous steps about the structures of your shoes, and about the use of pens, invent new designs from your imagination. Start with fine outlines and progress to colored and textured surfaces. Modify your ideas by rotating the views.
The Structure of Costume
MUSEUMS ARE AN INFINITELY
rich resource for the artist and
information given by a period style. Arrange to visit a costume museum or ask a friend to model clothes for you at home. Using fine felt-tip pens, begin with quick, pale impressions of each garment's shape before homing in on its borders and seams. Try to draw transparent views wherever possible to record the relationships between all component parts. Aim to draw enough information for it to be possible to make up a version of the garment using paper pinned to a tailor's dummy.
designer. They often give quite unexpected gems of ideas and information—whatever the subject. These drawings, made in a costume museum, demonstrate ways of recording structural information and detail for later use in the studio. They could form the basis of new designs for a fashion project or theater production, for example. Drawings of shoes on pp. 164-65 show how new designs can be evolved from the structural
It is usually best when collecting information for reference to apply the restraint of dispassionate observation. Set yourself the test of drawing facts with as little artistic license or embellishment as possible. Here I chose fine felt-tip pens because they are at their best when used swiftly, and therefore encourage bold, unhesitant decisions.
Swift lines record the hanging weight of this gentleman's coat, the relative proportions of its layers, and minimal details of the buttons and cuffs.
Thick velvet fabric is pulled tight beneath and across the bust by a single button. This transparent view shows how the fabric falls loosely in straight panels beneath the level of the sleeve.
W h e n visiting museums, be prepared f o r l o w lighting, which can make it hard t o see and draw. A book can help if attached t o your drawing board.
Adding stripes and dashes of color with a thicker pen brings out the glossy sheen and sculptural rigidity of this dress, which would have been worn over a whalebone corset. small reading light designed t o clip o n t o a
THE STRUCTURE OF COSTUME
In small drawings such as these, use thick pens to color entire sections with a few marks, as I did here down the side of the bodice.
The light, frilly bulk of this crinoline dress is propelled forward with lines. pinching its gathers and sways that are hiding a horsehair bustle. fleets of quick
THIS CLASS FOCUSES ON how to draw textures through the collection of fabric, pattern, and embroidery samples from a costume m u s e u m . This formal method, using ruled squares, can create an invaluable library of ideas a n d i n f o r m a t i o n for future r e f e r e n c e — w h e n painting a clothed figure, or preparing a textile project, for example. However, if making a book of samples for a project, remember that it is important to also include collages of f o u n d materials (see pp.230-31) To d r a w a fabric texture, b e g i n by concentrating o n h o w y o u i m a g i n e it w o u l d feel if you t o u c h e d it. Decide if it w o u l d be rough, s m o o t h , w a r m , cold, thick, thin, tough, or fragile, for example. As you draw, believe you can feel these qualities at your fingertips a n d that your pencil is responding to the sensation. Undulate the pressure of your lines and marks according to the feeling of the fabric rather than its appearance. Let your pencil enact the sensation of touching its surface.
and to experiment more loosely with mixed media.
This starchy, quilted, b o w e d creation started life as an imagined corset, I intended t o d r a w together in one sculptural f o r m a range o f t h e details opposite. T h e garment quickly got o u t o f hand. T h e r e is great e n j o y m e n t in letting y o u r imagination run wild w h e n inventing costumes. If you are unable t o visit a costume museum, many exciting fabric details and textures can be found in y o u r o w n closet o r home.
Colored pencils give precision and tonal range; they can be faded but not erased. Lightly use an HB graphite pencil if you wish to plan a design first. Pressed hard, colored pencils build up a waxy finish of brilliant color. Used lightly, they appear powdery and show the texture of the paper.
TEXTURES AND PATTERNS
Silk and braid
selected from different pages of my original book. shape. look at how Goya delineated volumes of thick fabric to express the posture. identity. I made a drawing book full of studies seeking to understand how he composed drama and pathos in his narratives (see also pp. and motivation of an individual. These characters. 172-73. . Madrid.126-27. and 252-53).Dressing Character I O N C E SPENT THREE MONTHS researching the work of Francisco de Goya at the Prado Museum.
170—71). . I carefully copied the direction of each of his lines. and tangible.T H E S E PENCIL STUDIES. as it rushes and carves fabric-wrapped forms like rivers and desert winds shaping the earth. are copies of works by Goya in which he makes air seem heavier than flesh. and visible. To understand how he did this. Posture Carving also taken from my Madrid drawing book (see pp.
Later in their lives. Blockbuster movies. paintings depicting scenes from history. we can learn most about handling pen and ink. we. while a quill contact with. He is also the artist from whom props to add layers of meaning and attitude. First. and its illumination. Drawings selected for this chapter explore these Saskia Lying in Bedand a Nurse ranges of proximity 1638 9 x61/2in (227 x 164 mm) and a travel journal. furniture. television documentaries. Rembrandt's bored and frustrated wife. the speed and printmaker and one of the greatest and most influential density of its lines. the viewer is not directly made the finer lines of Saskia. Washes of shadow behind engaged and as a natural voyeur can feel invisible while watching the scene. We can direct close. R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN in the delivery of narrative. This J u s t as there are three parts to a traditional landscape drawing—the foreground. even up her were laid with a brush. Saskia. vivid portrait of his wife captures our attention. Third.Gatherings A LL DRAWINGS TELL STORIES. are implicated in this marital exchange made over the head of the anonymous nurse. finding corners in crowded places to inscribe their action and energy onto the page. . daily newspapers. Saskia died after childbirth. we can R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter draftsman. the viewer. Second. this is not the portrait of an old woman. The spaces between people and the positions they occupy on a page are vital to our understanding of the psychology or emotion of an event. It middle. the direct exchange (as shown here) where one or more characters hold eye Aneedproduced the thicker lines of the nurse. soap operas. but drawings of gathered people tell them most directly. comics. heighten or subdue drama with subtleties of exaggeration or caricature. a crowd tells the story from a distance. and novels—our staple cultural diet—are driven by a fascination with shared experience and the detail of what happens in other people's lives. and instantly engage with the action of the scene. and other masters of Western Art. too. We read tensions and exchanges between people. presumably while he is making this drawing. Storytelling and people-watching are obsessive human activities. in spite of how it may seem. As artists. stares out from her gloomy sickbed. Her all-too-clear expression shows annoyance and irritation with her husband. He in turn scorches the paper with his view and a certain speed of seeing all. there are no longer individuals but one significant group or mass action. Seeing through Rembrandt's eyes. and so. We can also use clothes. With a pocket full of disposable pens we also go out and draw the expressions of gathered people. Here. and distance—so drawings of gathered people can be loosely arranged in three took only minutes to make and yet it lives for centuries. the viewer's attention in a scene by the format of its composition. types. and therefore seem to see.
. In one of R a c k h a m s great illustrations for Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland. via the animated clutter of o u r material lives. In both works. and on. t h e y select and arrange familiar items of street detritus into what appears to be an u n p l e a s a n t pile." (Tim Noble) Drawing with light it is important to think about what you is Here timelessly we see a in can draw with. the C o o k . N o b l e a n d W e b s t e r s w i t t y a n d o f t e n s u b v e r s i v e d r a w i n g s are also c o n t e m p o r a r y art installations. narrative is delivered through the air. Pencil on paper important but only the beginning of possibility the combination of three-dimensional space. plates shatter. refuse. Below.176 GATHERINGS SOME DRAWINGS ARE MADE e n t i r e l y o f i l l u m i n a t i o n that floods drama into the viewers gaze. and projector. Pans fly oft the stove. h a l o e d portrait of the artists seated b a c k to b a c k . for example. and smoke billows around the agitated jives of the Duchess. TIM N O B L E A N D SUE W E B S T E R British artists who collaborate using neon. c o m p o s e d garbage p r o d u c e s a c a l m . F o r e a c h w o r k . Here. Think about what else you could use: a laser smoke. and projectors to create their anarchic punk satires of modern life. and in. or even the office photocopier. the Cat. and Alice.kicks against the mundane things that close down your mind is a refreshing and good thing. T h e i m m a c u l a t e d r a w i n g is only r e v e a l e d w h e n t h e b e a m of a p r o j e c t o r c a s t s t h e s h a d o w Projections of the h e a p o n t o a wall. hearth i m p l e m e n t s crash at o u r feet.. a kitchen explodes in o u r faces. Real Life is Rubbish 2002 Dimensions variable TIM N O B L E A N D SUE WEBSTER . junk."Anything that. garbage and chaos are piled a n d e x p l o d e d in r o o m s full of event.
we find several devices already explored through our drawing classes. a n d an unmistakable graphic style. This makes the story appear to leap out at us. Depth Billows of smoke expand and are lighter as they come forward.76-77) above vanishing point (see that is about3/4in (2 cm) oak converge at this point. tabletop. by vivid children's Rakham's w o r k is characterized fantasy.177 ARTHUR RACKHAM British watercolorist and book illustrator. See how the In the Duchess's Kitchen 1907 77/8 x 6 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 5 0 m m ) ARTHUR RACKHAM . Find the singleperspective pp.Stowe's ofMysteryand Queer Little Folks. 100 to see for make elliptical objects and pans fly through the the foreground. are very large compared to on p. Refer back to the drawing class how pots In drawn objects and elements that those behind. The wood grain acts like marks of speed behind the scene. Rackham Vanishing point In this marvelous drama made with pen. beams. and Poe's Tales Imagination. amplifying movement outward from the vanishing point. H e is best k n o w n forillustratingIrving's Rip vanWinkle. and watercolor. and Alice's shoulder. humor. ink.
and we.The human form w a s the vehicle o f his expression and h e w a s t h e official W o r l d W a r II artist. and action of a buffalo hunt. In culture. Chalk and graphite This fog-bound but humorous gathering of souls is made in graphite and colored chalk with gray wash. as fellow watchers. This is an ironic drawing from Moore. Opposite. This is just one of many precious artifacts from a lost time. heat. M o o r e t o u r e d Italy as a young man. Magnetic Fields sculpture. audiences. and art in the landscape. HENRY MOORE Crowd 1942 Looking at Tied-up Object . which still narrates vivid days in the lives of an energetic nation. a sculptor. Moore's spectators appear to have walked a long way from nowhere to witness and wait beside this mysterious obelisque. as if Moore's wrapping has been literally outstretched.178 GATHERINGS we have seen in the pairs and trios of drawings by masters and makers. a great Shoshone drawing blazes with the color. join in the waiting. and composition they are polar opposites. expressing his dry humor about O F ALL THE CONTRASTS HENRY MOORE British s c u l p t o r w h o t r a i n e d a n d taught at t h e R C A . The mournful gray landscape of Henry Moore's northern British field has gathered by night an overcoated audience to stand and wait before a wrapped and roped monument. A glimmer of gold light appears from the left No explanation is given. London. a n d l o v e d t o d r a w in t h e BritishMuseum. perhaps these two are the most extreme. meaning. The image stands out among his more usual graphic works in which he hones and carves semi-abstract human forms.
Hunt CENTURY SHOSHONE SCHOOL . Stylized hunters. horses. Skills are taught not center chant or dance to the beat of a drum. MAGNETIC FIELDS Horses It is interesting to note how the outstretched limbs ofthesehorses echo European images of the runningBuffalo horse before the sequence-photographer Muybridge taught us to 19TH understand their movement differently.179 SHOSHONE SCHOOL Stylized characters This vital image of a buffalo hunt is made with pigment Members of the Shoshone community wishing painted within dark outlines on a stretched elk hide." Men at the instructed to sit and watch. tolearnhow to paint a scene on a hide are and buffalo circle and charge the perimeters of a skin "field. creating harmonious balance with words but through silent demonstration. and helping our eye to dart around. Each color is evenly distributed throughout the scene.
texture. w h e r e he w a t c h e s a t u r b u l e n t s p i r a l of p u n i s h m e n t f o r the d a m n e d . Brushed line and wash This is an ink-outlined drawing made with a fine brush on paper with added washes of watercolor The image was subsequently redrawn as a line engraving. a d e a t h c h a r g e of brutality. a pink-inked cinema wobbles along with string. a n d f o c u s . pale souls of the lustful are being s p u n into yet another realm of hell. color. Heath Robinson lived through the same war-torn. p o e t . Misted in translucent layers of paint. The muscularity of Blake's figures was inspired by Michelangelo's works.180 GATHERINGS The Human Condition IN THE SPECTRUM of these vastly d i f f e r e n t g a t h e r i n g s of p e o p l e . and sweetened the often bleak years with his impractical inventions. m a r k . B l a k e h a s i l l u m i n a t e d his s a d d e n e d Virgil on the s h o r e s of a d a r k w o r l d . era as Kollwitz. It illustrates a scene from Dante's Divine Comedy. Blake w a s d r i v e n b y a passion f o r j u s t i c e a n d a p r o f o u n d b e l i e f in his v i s i t a t i o n s f r o m angels.f o o t e d t r o g l o d y t e s w h o rage into w a r like a m u d s l i d e of revenge. w e f i n d a spiritual v i s i o n . t h e Bible. w h i c h b y their c h o i c e a n d h a n d l i n g a c t u a l l y b e c o m e the force a n d spirit of e a c h i m a g e . w r i t e r a r t i s t . The Circle of the (The Whirlwind 1824 of Lustful Lovers) mm) 143/4 x 207/8i n ( 3 7 4 x 5 3 0 WILLIAM BLAKE . a n d e n g r a v e r w h o p o w e r f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e d his o w n t e x t s in a d d i t i o n t o D a n t e ' s Divine Comedy. inextinguishable in its fortitude and h u m o r . Opposite. a n d the gentle h u m o r of sedate r i d i c u l e . K a t h e K o l l w i t z s c r a t c h e d a n d e n g r a v e d her a r m y of c l a y . W I L L I A M BLAKE British visionary. a n d o t h e r w o r k s . We also see qualities of line.
181 KATHE KOLLWITZ German printmaker. and clearly focused. sculptor and draftsman. The image was scratched directly onto a metal plate. He created sincere. and controlled smears on the metal surface printed as tones. Ink rolled over was selectively polished off using a rag. What remained in scratched grooves printed on damp paper as lines. With masterful gentility. Robinson and Kollwitz (above) share almost identical life dates and their work expresses a shared history from opposite sides oftheworld wars. who lived in a poor district of Berlin. stoical bemusement. poverty. and her powerful and sensitive drawings center on nurture. and the impact of death and war upon women. humor by making his characters earnest. children. however meager or ridiculous their activity. HEATH ROBINSON The Kinecar 1926 103/8 x 15 in (262 x 380 mm) . British Pen and wash This is a pen-andwatercolor drawing made for a color-platereproduction in an edition of T h e Bystander. Heath Robinson shows England in a past era. Losbruch (The Outbreak) 1955 20 x 233/8 in (507 x 592 mm) KATHE KOLLWITZ HEATH ROBINSON humorous illustrator and a regular contributor to magazines and journals such as The Sketch and The Bystander. THE HUMAN CONDITION Scratched lines This is a dry-point etching with monoprint. plodding along with hazy. Kollwitz survived the two World Wars. and the family home. White marks were made with a dusting of French chalk on the artist's finger to wipe away ink leaving clean metal.
. Ideal f o r precision w o r k (see p p . turn the page. T h e r e w e r e c seconds t o snatch this impression b e t w e e n their emergence from one bridge and disappearance b e n e a t h t h e next. R O L L E R B A L L : A c o n s t a n t i n k flow 3 . 192-93) w e r e b o t h m a d e w i t h a ballpoint. R e m e m b e r . a n d ranges o f colors. 4. For example. Insensitive t o p r e s s u r e : lines d o n o t v a r y in w i d t h o r t o n e ." 1. gel pens) are the most convenient of all materials with which to travel. including l u m i n o u s a n d m e t a l l i c . W h i t e gel p e n s a r e v e r y e f f e c t i v e o n d a r k papers. or put the paper in your pocket instantly without fear of smudging.r e s i s t a n t . jot notes. they each offer distinct and sometimes unexpected qualities. aiming for correct outlines would result in drawing too slowly to c a t c h the moment. G E L P E N : P r o d u c e d in b l a c k w h i t e . these pens enable you to sketch. a ballpoint will make faint lines. Lines t h i c k e n as t h e p e n w e a r s o u t G r a n d Canal (see pp. t h e y a r e lightfast. B A L L P O I N T : Black a n d b o l d c o l o r s o f f e r d i v e r s e qualities. Quick-drying. The f o u r i l l u s t r a t e d h e r e r e p r e s e n t a basic r a n g e . they can be obtained within minutes. I keep quantities at home. CHOICES AVAILABLE T h e r e a r e m a n y d i s p o s a b l e p e n s t o c h o o s e from. t w o tourists and their gondolier drifter past m e o n a canal. So many stores sell them. which can snap or pierce through your clothes. is d e l i v e r e d t h r o u g h a m e t a l t u b e o v e r a t i n y ball bearing. dark sheen.188-89) and Caravans (see pp. FIBER-TIP: M a n u f a c t u r e d f o r artists a n d d e s i g n e r s in a r a n g e o f w i d t h s . I swiftly focused on gesture. 2.7 7 and 214-15). Unlike pencils. w a t e r . and in most pockets so I can always record a thought DISPOSABLE PENS QUICK NOTES O n a c o l d day in Venice. 7 6 .182 GATHERINGS Disposable Pens (ballpoints. trusting shape and form to follow. c h o o s e p e n s l a b e l e d " p e r m a n e n t " o r "lightfast. or turn into washes and make monoprints if flooded with an alcohol-based substance such as hairspray. Available in blacks and ranges of colors. in the studio. rollerballs. fibertips. in the car. a disposable pen with its clip-on cap goes anywhere. build to a rich. fine fiber-tip Drawing with a fine fiber-tip pen. a n d pressure-sensitive. shut your book. if y o u w i s h y o u r d r a w i n g s t o last a n d n o t fade o r b l u r w i t h t i m e a n d e x p o s u r e t o light. indent paper. p e r m a n e n t . or idea. blob when old. dropped in your pocket and forgotten till needed. At a time like this.
Compare this Klee's mules on p. crowd of fellow travelers Fast lines These scribbled lines model the mass and shadows of heads belonging passengers packed into the boat. Fast lines focus on action.FROMMEMORY Here I used the same fiber-tip pen to compose a scene from memory. Earlier I had witnessed a crammed en masse in a fleet of hired gondolas complete with musicians and choir.31 . not form.
Each line acts its part in the narrative. when out drawing. Let the line of the flying coat fly and the hanging arm hang. You must learn to trust your memory and to draw what impressed you most. make them stouter. No camera can tie you to a time or people in the same way. You will make outlines. Every drawing writes an indelible memory of place. if animated. black. A curatorial assistant flies to do a chore (right). but they should not be what you dwell on. all action is in the line of his coat and directed by his nose.184 GATHERINGS The Travel Journal I CANNOT OVERSTATE THE JOY of making a travel journal. Circular lines buzz around a man puzzling at the end of a train platform (left). Each one was witnessed and drawn immediately from the afterimage of what I had just seen. Exaggeration helps. However. not its outline. I caught fleeting glimpses of gathered people and solitary souls going about their affairs. Push toward caricature and this will draw out of your memory what was most important. Above all. if a person was stout. FLEETING MOMENTS Walking through Venice with a small. pocket notebook and a fiber-tip pen. just draw the action. of course. and companionship. let it enter the stage and perform. focus on the action of the event. life will not slow and wait for you to catch it. activity. angles will happen as a matter of course. animate them more. Movement . Don't worry about measuring angles.
In turn. I am watched by the aggravated guard. Expression . I drew him three times on the same page to catch a range of his physical expressions.185 A large lady is photographed in front of a delicate work of art. The rush of his legs isamplifiedby their blurred lines. eager to herd us all from his house of responsibility. Observation THE TRAVEL JOURNAL The same willowy assistant dashes about his work.
and involvement in the story. or bulge. elevate them in the pictorial space. When your attention has been caught. . Here the custodian projects fastidious ownership of his desk and pamphlets by pushing from behind the center of the space and challenging our entry to his image. focus on action. Identify the principal character and draw him or her first. start by focusing on its action. and you decide to draw the moment. you might place them lower down. Here I have recreated my drawing in steps to show you how to set about capturing such a scene. ACTION AND DETAIL W h e n drawing people. furniture leans. if they are being haughty. For example. emotion. flap. pulls.186 GATHERINGS Catching the Moment On A BITTERLY COLD November day. or pushes. Place the person carefully. and clothing or bags hang. decide how faces and bodies contort. placement. rather than the works of art they guarded. not outline. if they are being devious. forcing me to remain at the back and look at them. and let every detail speak by its size. and there met this sullen custodian. and reason for happening. He and his simpering assistant would not allow me in. I took refuge in a church in Venice. For example. Be aware that their placement on the page is part of the narrative.
Decide where t o place them t o emphasize their role. a pillar locates t h e scene in a depth o f space. together with any immediate props they are using. . W i t h a few strokes. continue adding characters. Here. which is pushed toward us in a gesture of confrontation. D r a w their action. Draw their action and props. If drawing a more complex scene. such as the desk and pamphlets seen here. CATCHING THE MOMENT The assistant Identify t h e antagonist ( o r second character) in t h e scene. I added t h e assistant.187 The custodian Identify your principal character a n d their psychological role in the scene. Decide where you will place them o n the paper t o emphasize their action and intent. who is largely expressed through the shape and fall o f his raincoat and his way o f using a note pad. In the final step (left) I reinforced t h e custodian's desk.
Grand Canal T H E CANALS OF VENICE are bustling places full of occupation. where vertical mooring poles give space and pulse to the horizontal speed of water quickly. . and buildings. I developed detailofthis drawing from memory using a ballpoint pen. An imminent deluge of tourists urged me to work catching no more than the skeleton of the view.
To catch characters like this. Caricature each person slightly.Crossings DURING THIS RUSH HOUR. Characters in the foreground were drawn first. then the bridge beneath them. Venetians flow across a stepped bridge and cascade into the streets beyond. . followed by the streets. Each person was glimpsed in an instant. note only their most essential action and feature. and drawn immediately from memory.
and a great subject to draw. Caravans and other backstage activity convey expectations of energy and repose. quiet afternoon. I found this circus by chance in the Swiss mountains. I used a ballpoint pen to compose a series of scenes. Sitting at a distance on a hot. .Caravans T H E PARAPHERNALIA O F TRAVEL i s an intriguing part of circus life.
t h e first-ever accurate image o f t h e M o o n ' s surface. Look closely at works by many artists and you will see that they have not represented hills. William Turner is said to have had himself lashed to a ship's mast to comprehend the storm (see p. Take chances against the rain and work with the wind or fog. 199). but it can be seen as a lens to our observation of this planet. JOHN RUSSELL A p o r t r a i t pastelist t o King G e o r g e III o f England. marking the ground with lines of footprints or by turning stones. and take bold steps in emulating the swell of clouds and the forces of torrential water. when little stirs and empty blue skies offer even less to latch lines to. It now hangs on the staircase of the History of Science Museum. There is a sense of the heroic in drawing outside—we race to catch a form before the tide engulfs it. they are the animators of your subject. By drawing such momentous and everyday events. arranging them in perfect circles on the mountainside or in lines drifting out of sight beneath low clouds. and experiment. This is the world's first accurate image of the Moon. surrounded by the bright instruments of centuries of navigation. our companion. In this chapter Moon Pastel 1795 Drawing we experiment with charcoal. a contemporary environmental artist. and its draws the tides of the seas. 5 f t x 5 ft 6 in ( 1 5 2 x 1 6 8 c m ) J O H N RUSSELL . It is Earths satellite. makes his work by the act of walking. pages o f softly i l l u m i n a t e d craters and lunar "seas" c o v e r e d in m a t h e m a t i c a l and s h o r t h a n d calculations. England. speculation. and the sea. how the soil is scorched. Oxford. learning to draw light out of dark. H e a l s o p r o d u c e d an a l b u m o f 1 8 0 exquisite pencil drawings. rivers. are the real subjects in great landscape drawings. trees. Beginners will often choose calm. or has cracked and fallen under the weight of water. how the mountain cut by ice and rain is now fleetingly lit. a n d a m o o n globe called t h e Selenographia. Just as NASA photographs of Earth have had a profound effect on the way we view our fragile home. and meteor impacts have scarred. and even how the Sun illuminates. Richard Long. Russell d r e w this. the face of the Moon. The pastel drawing was constructed from myriad telescopic observations almost 200 years before the Apollo Moon landing.Earth and the Elements I T MAY SEEM PERVERSE to start a chapter titled "Earth and the Elements" with an image of the Moon. sunny days. The forces of nature. artists see for themselves that which is momentary and eternal. What they have drawn is the force of nature on these properties: how the wind heaves the night ocean. a n d a n astronomer w h o dedicated 20 years t o studying t h e M o o n . Weather is essential in all landscape drawing. These conditions are very difficult to express well. so J o h n Russell's tour de f o r c e drawing (opposite) was a masterpiece of observation in his time. or the wind carries it away. t w o e n g r a v e d m a p s k n o w n as The Lunar Planispheres. as opposed the physicality of Earth. the sun comes out to blind it. to be ready to draw the new light as it breaks across the land. It is better to get up before dawn.
Dots and dashes suggest receding trees out of focus. like an umbrella forced inside-out. a scratched ghost. Flapping kimonos and an onlooker turning his b a c k have the magic of a m o m e n t caught. Hokusais sedate wind presses reeds a n d the j o u r n e y s o f young ladies. H O N O R E DAUMIER French satirical cartoonist lithographer. fluttering heavily. T h e great master of English seascape is c o n d u c t i n g with his graphic energy. distance. and solidity. This wife. the government. has b e c o m e a hysterical kite. seeing how it shakes. speed. T h e ship. painter. A hard waxy was drawn across a heavy limestone Varying definitions crayon of lire and depths of tone conspire to give volume. lifts. Fluid strokes inflate the woman's dress and pin shadows to the ground. and pioneer ofexpressionism. is already lost. the bourgeoisie. and the legal profession. and gives motion to each image. Below. He knew how the world bends and stutters under such gusts. Terrifying waves of merciless nature roar across the paper. sculptor. we can soon learn to draw its force. undramatic b u t brimming with stylized realism. Daumier's c a r t o o n shines with the brilliance of his comic memory.Through political drawings he fired his sharp wit at the king. a sail b r o k e n loose in a stormy marriage. Crayon and limestone This is a lithograph. and by observing its tides and eddies in our o w n environment. By Turner carries us to the heart of the maelstrom. Hazy vertical marks reveal buildings into the mist. serving a prison sentence for his views. Danger of Wearing Balloon Petticoats UNDATED HONORE DAUMIER .198 EARTH AND THE E L E M E N T S Air in Motion THE GREAT INVISIBLE SUBJECT o f these d r a w i n g s is t h e w i n d .
M. Hokusai direction (from clothing from has chosen which it the right). and history painter w h o s e p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t a b o v e all w a s light. AIR IN MOTION Pencil and watercolor subdued brushed.b l o c kprintmaker. Wind direction wood-block This is a colored To represent the blows lifted flowed wind. W . into this very as pressed sheet The paper's through own coior is brought banks of mist and fog. seascape.M. Ship in a Storm c. leans the whole composition swells around its fateful center. T h e r e a r e m a n y stories o f his p a s s i o n a t e w o r k i n g methods. A outline scratched of a skeletal into penciled ship is while and the waves. a n d his b e s t . including being lashed t o a ship's m a s t in o r d e r to study a storm. absorbent watercolor and are Stains of splashed. 1826 91/2 x 113/4 in ( 2 4 1 x 3 0 0 m m ) J. Landscape a n d city life w e r e his principal subjects.W.l o v e dw o r k s i n c l u d e 1 0 0 v i e w s o f M o u n t Fuji and 1 2 v o l u m e s o f Manga.i n f l u e n c e d b y examples o f W e s t e r n art obtained through D u t c h t r a d i n g in Nagasaki. d e s i g n e r a n d b o o k i l l u s t r a t o r . T u r n e r w o r k e d in oils a n d w a t e r c o l o r s a n d s k e t c h e d c o p i o u s l y o n his travels. wind. H o k u s a i in t u r n has since significantly influenced European art. TURNER KATSUSHIKA HOKUSAI Prolific J a p a n e s e c o l o r w o o d . horizontally then and of the it into the stream Plants also bend and flow right to Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 1802 81/2 HOKUSAI KATSUSHIKA x 131/2 in ( 2 1 7 x 3 4 3 mm) . from left print.199 J. painter. T U R N E R British landscape.
He brings us to stare into a place that no sane human would enter. ink.198) admires the majesty of nature. fantasy palaces. as a gestural storm on the paper. In periods b e t w e e n writing. T h e very nature of b o t h is turmoil and an interweaving of elements. it is difficult to contemplate its brooding and night-soaked heart. as if drawn j u s t this year. An update on biblical showers of fish and frogs. grab their b r u s h . Leonardos Cloudburst of Material Possessions is o n e of his m o s t enigmatic and mysterious works. T h e m e n a c i n g darkness of Hugo's storm b e l o w is so convincing. water. His subjects include ruins. h a u n t e d shadows. lines of rain escorting them to b o u n c e and clatter.200 ELEMENTS Storms STORMS CAN BE SEEN and drawn in two ways: first. inks. or charcoal. Then. Le Bateau-Vision 1864 71/2 x 1 0 in ( 1 9 2 x 2 5 5 m m ) VICTOR H U G O . as a subject and second. and t h e sea s t u d i e d f r o m his h o m e in Guernsey in t h e Channel Islands. and tossed o b j e c t s — a perfect subject in which artists can forget themselves. It looks so contemporary. drawing was Hugo's principal means o f expression. Pen and brush Hugo drew first with pen and ink. Turner (see p. he blanketed the drawing in darkness. Opposite. this is a b o m b a r d m e n t from o u r h o m e s . and swim into the page. EARTH AND THE VICTOR HUGO French novelist and artist (see also p. By contrast. marks. active surfaces of water. D o m e s t i c o b j e c t s we can o w n and name fall from the clouds. with a brush. this is a writer's narrative of terror. leaving nothing but a glimpse of moonlight glistening on the froth below. composing banks of waves and dense.28).
and a wheel. Above and below are examples of his mirror handwriting. There is a little magic in recognizing many items from our homes something like a rake. Cloudburst of Material Possessions 1510-12 45/8 x 43/8 in ( 1 1 7 x 1 1 1 mm) L E O N A R D O DA VINCI . He was left-handed and wrote backwards in Italian from left to right.LEONARDO DA VINCI Leonardo devised many artifacts of our modern lives. Each item that has crashed from heaven is drawn in such a way that we can feel Leonardo's nib picking it up in the speed of a doodle. together with half the contents of our garage. He bequeathed his drawings to a friend. envisioning machines centuries before their making (helicopters and bicycles. It is interesting to speculate how engineering might have developed if his ideas had been shared with the world earlier Ink and chalk This is a pen and ink drawing with touches of black chalk. a hook. and they passed through private hands for 400 years before becoming widely known. a bell. for example).
his unsurpassed handling of light. atmosphere. Nature Profiles Opposite below. Over first lines. and etcher who lived most of his life in 17th-century Rome. and we can imagine standing over his shoulder.202 ELEMENTS THE PROFILE OF A HORIZON is a line we immediately recognize and respond to. which he used to unify his compositions. In a very different work (opposite above). Views from Velletri c. Claude has used a fine nib to delineate segments of land as they recede into space. it is the unique calligraphic signature of the place in which we stand. C L A U D E LORRAIN French classical landscape painter draftsman. transferred it to a scroll. sea-. She was inspired by her research of aerial plans of London and the story of an alien map butterfly (see caption). Clare Bryan took panoramic photographs of the English South Downs. rich. and after tracing her captured line. and famed for. Paler. cooler tones receding into the distance are applied with a brush. and dry marks in the foreground appear to be made with his finger. a horizon line can trigger our recognition. and across to the right. EARTH AND THE Bryan cut the profile of a city. Even distilled from all other detail. or cityscape. Claude Lorrain drew directly on location. Segments The top half of the drawing is a view as we enter the valley. In the lower half he has walked downhill a little. and mood simultaneously. she teased away fragments of paper to illuminate her view.1638 85/8 x 121/2 in (219 x 320 mm) CLAUDE LORRAIN . Whether land-. made inside a book. thick. watching his hand and eye at work together. rapidly layering contours to shape place. Claude is distinguished by. Drawing with a scalpel.
and digital print-based works reflect upon the histories and poetry of "left behind and in-between spaces. and visiting professor at numerous art schools." Cut line This is a small section of a preparatory 5-ft(1. Her recent paper photographic. The edges of each here) fade into the solid paper unpopulated with a scalpel landscape. printmaker graphic designer. On turning the pages of City.203 Scalpel-drawn This book-bound drawing was inspired by the story of a foreign butterfly wrongly to Great Britain in 1912.5-m)scroll. 2001 CLARE BRYAN C L A R E BRYAN 3ritish artist. specialty bookbinder. progressively settlement (cropped more and more paper is drawn away to show the expansion of human page of an around the river. source workisilluminatedby standing its lower edge on a CLARE BRYAN . drawings Ideas of introduction Clare Bryan to research introduced down and led NATURE PROFILES and removal historical plans and aerial growth of London showing its population since Roman times.The horizon was drawn with a City Landline 2003 271/2x 59 in (70 x 150 cm) scalpel. then hunted destroyed.
cylindrical. In use. the heel o f y o u r h a n d . Lines are achieved by d e p o s i t i n g particles in the grain o f paper. . maple. it is compressed and m o l d e d at high pressure. resulting in a pale line. and offers a rich. A great find when available. black finish. Charcoal lifts away from paper easily with the very light touch o f an eraser. 1. this does not exist. vine. so it chars b l a c k as o p p o s e d to igniting a n d turning to ash. leaving u n d e r t r a c e s of first thoughts. Not to be confused with square conte sticks (see p. THIN WILLOW CHARCOAL: I used a piece like this to make the drawing opposite. LIFTING OUT This technique is a very easy method of drawing a crisp. b l a c k e r . it looks gray and feels like chalk. SQUARE COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Not often sold. Hold it over your drawing RANGE AVAILABLE Charcoal (in its several forms shown here) is loved or loathed by the beginner to whom it is often recommended because it produces pleasing results quickly. b e e c h . It does n o t erase easily. MEDIUM W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 5. Artists have also used lime. 1 Suspend a length of masking tape. It allows you greater precision in your mark-making than if you rub away the charcoal with an eraser. Essentially. CHALK CHARCOAL: Technically. resulting in a stick that gives a blacker. Willow is the most c o m m o n wood. Use any fine-point pen or pencil (I used a ballpoint) to draw a firm line on the back of the Big pieces are perfect for very large-scale drawings—even larger than yourself. tape. 7. 162) or graphite (see p. COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Machine-made. you can p u r c h a s e m a c h i n e . C h a r c o a l naturally glistens. Then lift it away. It c a n be m a d e duller.204 E A R T H AND THE E L E M E N T S Charcoal CHARCOAL IS PRODUCED from wood baked slowly without exposure to air. 4. 6. Boxes often contain a range of thicknesses to choose for different needs. R o u g h paper c a n b e loaded. and heavier than willow. only a little thicker. between your middle finger and thumb. Alternatively. without touching the surface. white line into the blackor grayness of willow charcoal. but some specialists stock compressed charcoal in delicate square sticks. The tip snaps easily to renew a sharp edge if required. Slightly dull the tape's stickiness before use t o prevent it from lifting out more than you intend. Smooth paper accepts few particles. a rag. THICK W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 2 Keep the tape above your drawing. The same as above.54). It is also easily erased if the maker of the mark is not happy with the result. a n d p l u m . a n d m o r e i n d e l i b l e by soaking it in linseed oil. blacker. 2. B u n d l e s o f twigs were traditionally sealed into earthenware j a r s or wet clay and heated slowly and intensely in a fire or kiln. a piece of fresh bread. harder line. 3 A white line is lifted out by the tape.m a d e c o m p r e s s e d charcoal. or fingertip. feather. Beware of cheap brands selling dyed chalk as compressed charcoal. As its name implies. fine. CHARCOAL PENCIL: Types made by different manufacturers vary in quality and density of line. they are all intended for fine work. sticky side down. 3. Try itworking on big paper covering a wall.
Use high quality (very sticky) to fix paper to walls and boards. CHARCOAL Lifting out This detail shows an example of where I used the lifting-out technique demonstrated opposite to draw flashes of lightning against rain clouds. sold in several widths. Different tones seen throughout the main drawing on pp. MASKING TAPE: An invaluable resource. graphite. 8 .212-13 were made by altering the pressure applied to the charcoal. Layers can be peeled away to refresh its surface.205 ERASING Thickly applied charcoal quickly o v e r c o m e s a plastic eraser A w a r m (soft and tacky) putty eraser is more effective. Use cheaper (less sticky) for lifting out. Cotton swabs also work. PEN: Any fine pen or pencil can be used to draw on the back of masking tape when lifting out. . as is fresh (unbuttered!) bread. pastels. 9. Lift out broader marks with a larger implement. Here we used a ballpoint. 10. T O R T I L L O N : This is a tight roll of paper used to blend charcoal. Here. I used a plastic eraser effectively on thinly applied charcoal. or any other dry media.
especially when making first excursions into aerial perspective. but is often less evocative and engaging. MATERIALS In this first view there is only a foreground and middle distance. a less distinct middle ground composed of shapes and textures. The long view is hidden behind trees. They are also good markers of receding space.212-13). details blur and colors grow paler and bluer. the more you encourage the viewer's imagination to join in and see. begin by marking out several small squares on your paper.9 9 we noted that in response to visual stimulus. it results in flat planes of clutter. Successful drawings often only suggest the qualities of the scene without overdescribing them. a reel of masking tape. 9 8 . to contain each of your compositions. Pack several thick and thin sticks of willow charcoal. This term simply means that as land rolls away into the distance. hazy distance. Then I drew the shape of the tonal patches I perceived. pack your materials (as advised below) and set off for a local view or your nearest arboretum. It is the visible effect of the atmosphere between where you stand and what you see in the distance. our brains search for nameable things and will perceive complete pictures from very little information. an eraser your drawing book or a board and paper fixative (or hairspray). Landscape drawings are traditionally arranged in three parts: a detailed foreground. On p p . Seeing tones . Ironically. and an abstract.206 EARTH AND THE ELEMENTS Landscapes TREES ALONE OFFER MARVELOUS shapes to draw. To experiment with drawing landscapes and the use of charcoal. When you arrive. At its worst. Excessive detail can be admired for its skill and achievement. I relaxed my eyes out of focus to dissolve distracting detail into abstract patches of light and darkness. and a cushion in a plastic bag to sit on. Don't worry if it is cloudy: clouds add drama and perspective and make good subjects in themselves (see pp. the less you describe.
Remember. and broke a view through the hedge into the distance with a dark sky threatening rain. rounded. full of information you can use to create what you want! Inventing drama . This composition turned out a little flat because I have an almost even quantity of earth and sky. dark trees with bright. I have invented drama with diagonals set against each other I tilted the earth. horizontal regions of grass. your view is your inspiration. shadows. the trunk of a bare tree. Exploring the view Redrawing the scene above. It is better to give distinctly more pictorial space to one or the other (see below).207 LANDSCAPES In my second square I explored a simple view contrasting soft.
1 5 my first drawing of the whole view of the Tiber led me to see the real subject of the day." . For example. This first drawing serves as a process of arrival. Circling a subject and drawing it from several views imprints on your memory a better understanding of its three-dimensional form. Building on earlier studies of structure in space using shoes (pp. engine. settling my concentration. EARTH AND THE FINDING THE SUBJECT Finding a remarkable subject is even better when you can circumnavigate it in an arena of space. England has embedded within it the decaying skeleton of a burned fishing boat. and seeing what the real choice of subject is. your challenge now is to find a sculptural subject in the landscape. 2 1 4 .208 ELEMENTS Drawing in the Round WHEN DRAWING IN THE LANDSCAPE. on p p . The mud of the tidal shore in Rye. s e e k places in light After my first drawing. making the scene below led me to focus on the decaying boat opposite. so the paper is not made blinding and your hand cannot cast a shadow on your work. shade out of the glare of the sun. I am then able to home in on what interests me most for further study.164-65) and a wire violin (pp. I usually begin by making an image of the whole view. Similarly. and tiller still standing proud. bare ribs. taking with you your drawing book and pen.104-05). observing it from several views so as to better understand it as a whole. which was the flow of water over rocks. "Drawing in the round means to literally walk around your subject.
make a series o f drawings f r o m different positions. Overleaf: Decaying Boat 4 . character. and the order and shape of its component parts. marking straight. I spent equal time looking at the subject and the paper. I drew with quick. The outline ties a shape of darkness to the boat like a weight so that it becomes part of its form. DRAWING IN THE 1 Here. w h e n t h e sea recedes.209 SERIES OF STUDIES This stunning ghost o f a boat comes into v i e w t w i c e a day. 3 This impression notes the angle of the broken boat. and structure. looking more at the boat than at the paper From this low position I have emphasized how the boat is swallowed in mud by outlining its shadow on the ground. I looked more boldly at the planes and the dynamic of the sculptural craft My lines have become darker and more forceful as confidence in my understanding of the vessel grew. its overall balance. ROUND 2 In this tail-end view. W h e n you have found your subject. unfussy lines. Each n e w drawing gives a different insight. careful lines to establish the skeleton that gives this wreck its distinct form.
Cloudburst THIS STORM DRAWING. m a d e on s m o o t h . hot-pressed drawing p a p e r (see pp. was made with gentle but unhesitating s p e e d . I worked quickly to catch and weave the turbulent contrasts of rising wind and approaching water before the drawing could be washed away. L o o k i n g b a c k and forth from the heavens to firmly taped-down paper. .20-21) using a thin stick of willow charcoal.
focusing on the river's eddies. On the pages of a small. since ancient times. black. . I drew with a needle-fine fiber-tip pen. pocket-sized notebook.Notes of Force T H E GREAT FLOWING TIBER RIVER has cut through Rome. shaping the city. and rhythmic detail as it passed through the ancient gully of the city. pulse.
I used a dip pen and waterproof India ink with brushed watercolor to draw the view.Mountains SITTING IN THE SHADE of a tree on the Greek island of Antiparos. . The strong diagonal of the composition from bottom left to top right carries the eye through changes of height and focus from the foreground to the mountains beyond.
My own work is firmly centered in figuration. ADOLF WOLFLI One of the greatest masters of Art Brut. direction. and it has always been with us. strike the paper to find form. and young children show us that abstract. Indian mandalas. Afterward. From another viewpoint. opposite. The growing rise of Darwinian ideas coupled with Freudian and Marxist perspectives forced Western society to reconsider its origins and future. I begin every image by feeling its meaning. First marks. only rediscovered. and independent means of communication. It was not invented in the 20th century. precisely because it does not have to represent a physical object. . many nonWestern cultures have highly sophisticated abstractions at the core of their art. Museum of Fine Arts. Wolfli was a Swiss draftsman. sounds. His drawings are collected and exhibited internationally and held by the Adolf Wolfli Foundation. An abstract mark is often a better conductor of a thought or feeling. spontaneous image-making. The fate of Old World thinking was finally sealed with the brutality of World War I. However. writer and composer who suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and was resident in the Waldau Aslyum near Berne. and have been making abstract drawings for centuries—Japanese calligraphy.Abstract Lines T HE DEVELOPMENT OF W E S T E R N abstract art at the beginning of the 20th century significantly paralleled major changes in world thought. writhing torrents of color. As you approach the classes in this chapter. drawn sound. yet my kinship to abstraction is fundamental. Internal workings of the mind were suddenly free to find a new language of expression. abstraction is not so easy to define. People are often scared by abstraction and see it as the enemy of figurative art. From one point of view. Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape 1915 413/8 x 285/8 in (105 x 72.8 cm) A D O L F WOLFLI Abstraction is a direct. belief. don't be timid. such as Adolf Wolfli. Swirling. it is simply itself. and emotion. poet. Outsider artists. picturing a stabilized world was impossible and Modernism rode forth with vigor. Many concepts and feelings can only be expressed through marks. It is actually its foundation and its infrastructure. Perhaps in Western culture we bred this intuitive freedom out of ourselves in our insistence on complex figuration. or gestures. be brave and enjoy them. and history. and Aboriginal art. It also underpins and gives strength and unity to all figurative work. and poetic myth roar and cascade within his tightly framed pages. Artists were given a different tool—a line threaded directly from their subconscious to their hand—and with it they began to map a bold new landscape of marks and concepts that would dramatically and forever change the face of Western art. liberating. fictional language. He made thousands of drawings to chronicle his complex life. for example. expressive marks and shapes are at the core of natural. actions. Not everything we know has a physical form in the world. Berne. all pictorial representations are abstractions of reality. which are essentially abstract.
It can proclaim mood. texture. staining redbrown lines into the white surface. Iron rods in tone. and Assistant Professor of Fine A r t at Fukuoka University. A line can be finished in a second. as Twombly shows us opposite. tone. Abe's physical drawing is a sculptural installation. sit in silent harmony. forged steel. silence. and patient watching. Below. He travels widely to research ancient sacred sites. iron. and plaster in galleries and landscapes. Lines. Five forged steel shapes. salt. ice. This the paper rest within the amplifies framelike of the floor from the ceiling. Sometimes it smolders like a deep shadow. and wood are also part of the work. and texture their bracing separation reaching between from beneath Pillars of the gallery are made part of this drawing by their inclusion in the paper. MAMORU ABE Japanese sculptor and installation artist. Changes paper. akin to stones in a Zen garden. quoting ink marks on a page. scrolling across the canvas in an intimate crescendo. brass. or.220 A B S T R A C T LINES Process and Harmony SOMETIMES A DRAWN LINE sings on the surface of its support. Abe works with materials such as soil. water. Damp Japanese paper was laid over carefully arranged iron bars. The Physical Space 1990 3 0 x 30 ft ( 9 1 4 x 9 1 4 cm) MAMORU ABE . A Neolithic chalk tablet bears cut lines that were slowly carved. Mamoru Abe prepares an image that will appear through the chemistry of iron. Moisture produced rust. Twombly's mesmeric wax line worked over house paint is like a signature. it can keep reforming through the inherent repetition of a process. rhythmically engaged with itself. and sensitivity with its thickness and pressure of touch. and temperature rim of floor space.
This example is one of two chalk tablets found in a Late-Neolithic pit. burials.England.Thesite's purpose is unknown. At the 2001 Venice Biennale. and sensuous drawing from painting.000-2. that challenges the separation of word from image. and the worship of the sun and ancient gods. Twombly has language works CY TWOMBLY Contemporary American artist who emerged through the 1950s New York art scene in the heyday of Abstract Expressionism and Action Painting. CY TWOMBLY . evolved a raw.241). PROCESS AND HARMONY Cut lines Chalk carves easily. emotive. close to Stonehenge in Wiltshire. and American Indian petroglyphs (see p. The central pictorial space is also similarly cut and divided by the considered arrangement of straight lines.Twombly was presented with a Golden Lion award for lifetime achievement.400BCE 21/4 x 21/4 in (58 x 58 mm) ARTIST UNKNOWN Language Over the course of fifty years. Many of his graffiti-like combine abstract gestures with statements. theories suggest astrological observations.221 ANCIENT CARVINGS Many ancient cultures have made and left behind drawings and texts carved into stones or animal bone. Precise lines suggest the use of a sharp flint The framed rectangle of this image is echoed in that of Abe's installation. Neolithic Chalk Tablet 3. and Untitled 1970 Here we might seek to grasp letters in the turning of his line. energetic. such as the Rosetta stone. the Babylonian world map.
Bussotti. interpret. o r a pattern o f elements s o unified as a w h o l e t h e y c a n n o t b e e x p l a i n e d asa s u m o f parts. brushed night skies over them with ink then lifted the disks to reveal white moons. The scores are also exhibited in galleries as visual art. Two Impressions Paper 1853-55 VICTOR HUGO Disk from a Cut-Out . Both abstract drawing and composition involve the perfect sequencing of sounds and marks against space and silence. and lifted them away to leave impressions of watery planets and seas.28. Texture Compare this drawing to Hugo's octopus on p. broke new ground in the 1950s with graphic scores now considered among the most extreme. music manuscript requiring instrumentalists to improvise. "There is nothing like dream to create the future. opposite. and let the drying meniscus deposit granules in linear drifts such as we would see in the satellite photographic mapping of rivers. o f t e n e x p r e s s e d in v i s u a l t e r m s . said. pressed them face down. below. have striven to break down old pictorial and musical structures to explore new and unfettered modes of expression. and participate in the composition. His drawing writes the time of its own physical process by expressing the extreme concentration of the moment in which it was made. A graphic score is a V I C T O R H U G O Hugo's abstract French novelist w h o m a d e m a n y drawings in m i x e d m e d i a ( s e e also p. Gestalt o f an unnameable thing. abstract artists and composers unique. Here he appears t o have saturated the cut-out moon disks with gritty pigment." An innovator who never fails to surprise. and inventive of his time. beautiful. drawing here can b e described in t e r m s o f a G e r m a n philosophical idea a b o u t is t h e i n s t a n t r e c o g n i t i o n t h e p o w e r o f m o m e n t . abstract.222 ABSTRACT LINES Writing Time SINCE THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY. Ink impressions When drawing nightscapes Hugo often laid paper disks in place of the moon. Similarity in gritty texture suggests that here.28). Marks across the center appear to be made with his fingers. he mixed graphite into ink. here he anticipates abstract expressionism by 100 years. Gestalt. too. a configuration. Hugo.
Compare this work to that of Libeskind on p. 1958 SYLVANO BUSSOTTI . Following the notes. Bussotti's first mature work. Circular Score for "Due Voci" c.223 W R I T I N G TIME SYLVANO BUSSOTTI Italian avant-garde composer and principal 20thcentury exponent of the graphic score. This is a page from Due Voci. His later works become increasingly abstract. 70 in relation to Bussotti's clustered notes to the left of his rondo and open space to the right. Sound and rhythm This flickering rondo of sound written in pen on a hand-ruled stave can be heard in our imaginations as much as seen. we can feel their rhythm and easily attach sounds to them. a far cry from any recognized musical notation.
and sufferers of psychiatric illnesses—who have always existed. O p p o s i t e . making objects and images outside o f mainstream culture. Visually. In the late 1 9 t h century. This takes a form in most cultures. it is found in the regularity o f ordered lines or a pattern. d i p p i n g h e r fingers into a pot o f rice flour. Cloth is the simple instrument with which she has conducted and ordered her universe. cultures. Torn cloth This is one of two published photographs showing Marie Leib's torn cloth strips significantly placed on her cell floor. It will protect the place from evil and make a pleasing invitation to good spirits. an a n o n y m o u s w o m a n in the southeast Indian state o f Tamil Nadu m a k e s a ritual drawing o n the b r i c k courtyard o f h e r h o m e . social outcasts. T h e s e p h o t o g r a p h s d o c u m e n t the meditative drawings o f two w o m e n living worlds apart in different countries.228-29) has been adjusted with each movement of the rags to draw a cosmos of balance and perfection.224 A B S T R A C T LINES Chants and Prayers WHEN ABSTRACT LINES are organized in repetition. Lieb is one o f countless thousands of "Outsider" artists—diverse individuals including ordinary citizens. centuries. She tore c l o t h into strips a n d used these to draw patterns a n d symbols o n h e r cell floor. for e x a m p l e . In music it can be felt in the diversity of plainsong and African d r u m m i n g . they m a k e a visual a n d physical e c h o that t o u c h e s s o m e deep part of the human spirit. and c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Cell Floor With Torn Strips of Cloth 1894 MARIE LIEB . Marie Lieb w a s a psychiatric patient in the Heidelberg Asylum. MARIE LIEB Little is known of this w o m a n for w h o m the act of drawing was essential. Compositional rightness (see pp. Germany.
lecturer on the subjects of Indian art and Indian women's identity. and for over 30 years has traveled extensively through the Indian subcontinent creating an edited archive of 200.225 STEPHEN P. and in places of worship and celebration.Theseare widely published in journals and are the subjects of international exhibitions. at the University of London and Ohio State University. Motifs are geometrical or based on plants. Materials such as rice flour. lime. Skills are handed down through generations and from friend to friend.000 images. animals. cultural anthropologist. Huyler is the author of Painted Prayers. Designs and motifs Rangoii (or mandalas) are ritual drawings made by many millions of women across rural India. In daily practice. women pride themselves on never repeating a design.HUYLER Photographer art historian. and birds. chalk. or flowers are marked or arranged on the ground or on the walls of homes. Popular magazines feature new ideas each week and on special occasions there may be contests. among others. Painted Prayers UNDATED STEPHEN R HUYLER .
structure. BRIAN CATLING British sculptor poet. and Fellow of Linacre College. it is ruled and contained in one dimension by its interlocking ink-lined borders. Catling's torn paper shapes and shadows spill light out of their frame like a fractured mirror. Untitled 2001 2001 153/4x 215/8 in ( 4 0 0 x 550 mm) BRIAN C A T L I N G . but similarities in mood. free from the direct imaging of known physical things. Catling's works made for international galleries and museums involve drawing as a tool in their development and making. Oxford. rocks or heads in a subdued atmosphere of dream. figurative representation—that is. Ruskin School. They each find their pathways and equilibrium in atmosphere and suggestion. and choice of hues. and water-resistant layers of spray and enamel paint on thick paper. With no depth of field. Oval moons eclipse each other and oscillate between landforms and portraiture. Mixed media This is a collage of torn white and gray tissue paper previously stained with ink.226 ABSTRACT LINES Compositions ABSTRACT DRAWINGS ARE LARGELY or entirely free from using the viewer's eye to track and unfold layers of meaning. performance and installation artist. These two works present complex compositions with differing intensions and methods of making. Their energy can therefore be a purer expression of an idea or emotion. gold paint and iridescent gouache mixed with water. Klee's mathematical maze of thinly washed surface resonates with meticulous planning. Catling's abstract drawings are usually made in series and in parallel to written poetry and sculptural installations. filmmaker Professor of Fine Art.
and wrote copiously about the natures and relationships of color and form. We can see some diagrammatic examples of this among the optical illusions on pp. drew.31). He explained his polyphonic painting as "a harmony of several color voices" searching for a visual parallel to music. whereas tonal surfaces are perceived more immediately as a whole. and might be read as active or passive. Polyphon Gefasstes Weiss (White Framed Polyphonically) 1930 131/8x95/8 in (333 x 245 mm) Paul-Klee-Stiftung. Kunstmuseum Bern PAUL KLEE . and brush. Line and surface Klee observed the visual capacity of lines to push or pull within an image. ruler. philosophized. Geometric harmony This is a work on paper made with a sharp ink pen.97-99.227 PAUL K L E E Swiss painter and sculptor (see also p. Klee painted. It is a geometric harmony of straight lines and tonally graded flat colors that by their arrangement draw our eyes inward to their white center. watercolor. Klee also felt that a line represents the passing of time.
w i l l c h a n g e w i t h e v e r y r e a r r a n g e m e n t . regardless of style. but an easy o n e to u n d e r s t a n d . a b u n c h of keys. "Whenall pictorial elements come together in pleasing and perfect balance. In his b o o k The Education of a Gardener. the impression y o u receive from t h e m . Feel for it when youdraw. media. for instance. the late garden designer Russell Page explains." SETTING UP Justness can be harmonious or deliberately discordant. angles. Seek it when looking at other artists' work and in your everyday environment. Take. b u t e v e r y n o w a n d again you will hit on an arrangement w h i c h appears just. Set up a sheet of paper with a rectangle drawn on it. after being continuously adjusted. or degree of figuration. they are just.Thisexercise will help you start. This balance is what every artist and designer searches a n d feels for when making an image. As y o u m o v e them around. s o m e will be more or less h a r m o n i o u s ." . and elements settle in definitive balance. It is also found in nature. There is a single m o m e n t w h e n all proportions. their impact. "I have experimented endlessly with this idea.228 ABSTRACT LINES Being "Just" A SENSE OF "JUST" (or rightness) is a difficult concept to explain. and an apple. there is a clear feeling when. and ten straight sticks painted black. or on a page. and put them o n a tray. It is found in all great art and design. or home. they reach a perfect position. culture. W h e n m o v i n g objects around in your yard. M a n y of their inter-relationships will be meaningless. a glass.
A stick touching the rectangle links the composition to the frame. fix it with glue. Feel for the rightness of their grouping and their relationships to surrounding spaces. suggesting a horizon.56-57). In the final step (left) there is an even balance. Remember the drawn rectangle is a part of the composition (see pp. Move the sticks out into the rectangle." Move the sticks to find alignments and imagined perspectives. horizontals dominate the top. . which now becomes a tight frame. W h e n the composition falls into place. Within a rectangle on a flat sheet of paper set about making a composition using no other rule than a sense of "just. as shown here. Here. horizontals dominate the lower area. painted black. 2 3 In the step above.229 WHERE TO START Take ten sticks of equal length. making the composition seem to float beneath. Arrange them so they touch or cross in a series of intersecting balances. B E I N G "JUST" 1 Arrange your ten sticks in t w o groups of five.
a compass. correction fluid or white paint. scissors.69 and Abe's installation on p." overlapping placement of materials on a flat plane. and black ink. which is the shifting. they become a scaffold for the addition of further textures." (Russell Page) . or even strident. an infinite range of voices and meaning. "My understanding is that every object [or shape] emanates—sends out vibrations beyond its physical body which are specific to itself. Once the ten painted black sticks are set and glued in place. Collage offers the artist a liberating palette of SETTING UP This lesson in collage is a direct continuation of the compositional lines made in the previous class.230 ABSTRACT LINES Collage H E R E W E EXPERIMENT with collage. To prepare for this lesson.Youwill also need spare white paper.. Cut or torn layers and shapes. Images and fragments torn from day-to-day life can be brought together to make a chorus of ideas and emotions. glue. he went on to say ". found or made items. feels "just" (see pp. and tones. colors and textures can be manipulated until their pictorial harmony. or discordance.. you start composing by adding or subtracting shapes and textures and using colors and tones to achieve the impression you want to m a k e — w h e t h e r dramatic or s u b d u e d . ready-made depths and surfaces. This principal also applies to three-dimensional drawings such as Gaudi's work with wire and weights on p. colors. harmonious. Returning to Russell Page. hard or soft. stain and dry a sheet of tissue paper using blueink.220.228-29).
four circles of blue tissue paper. This can also give a sense of fragmentation or punctuation to the composition. then cut out. they deepen pictorial space. correction fluid and ink marks add further dimensions. draw. Obscuring the blue disks. COLLAGE 1 Regular-sized pieces of white paper are moved over the surface to disrupt the even lines. In the last step (left). Glue them in place once they feel "just" Translucent circular disks of tissue paper give color tone. 2 3 Torn white paper moved over the surface adds masks of rough-edged irregular volume. solidity. Cut six small rectangles the same proportion as your whole image.The single disk that is folded with its straight edge facing up appears heavier than those that are flat.231 WHAT TO DO Lay the final step of the previous lesson (p. and shadow to thepicture. .228) in front of you. and with a compass and scissors.
Hitsuzendo drawings aspire to "breathe with the energy and vitality of eternal life" achieved through "a state of no mind—beyond thought. emotion. A MODERN JAPANESE meditative art form inspired by the teachings of Yamaoka Tesshu (1836-1888). and expectation. . Zen Brushwork].Zen Calligraphy HITSUZENDO." [Tanchu Terayama. is the practice of Zen through the calligraphic marks of a brush dipped in carbon ink.
I flicked spatters of ink and rubbed the paper with a wet and a dry brush to achieve these effects. . These vibrate against washes of shadow and pitch-black mass.Nocturnes IN THIS QUARTET of semi-abstract drawings made with India ink. discord is balanced against rhythm to create mood. Lines made with a steel dip pen take on a scratchy nervousness.
which were widely distributed and influential in his time. Humans are equally troubled by the imperceptibly small and the enormous. paradise. feathers. movie studios now brim with as many monsters as the visual art of the Medieval and Renaissance Church. Be inspired by the irrational comedy of word association or puns. When creating monsters. Reading the place name I momentarily glimpsed an alternative meaning. . and the faces of God have for centuries given artists a feast for the extremes of their imagination. Throughout this book images are presented to excite and surprise and drawing classes created to increase your confidence. Lord of the Rings.247. Today. a collaboration between the two will ensure that your drawings glow with originality. and damnation are found in most world faiths. To learn to flex your imagination. impossible. Fantasy is most successful when founded on strong and familiar visual logic. We then add substances we dislike: unidentified fluids. sculptures. and the Alien trilogy. Perhaps the Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 1485 121/4 x 9 in (312 x 230 mm) MARTIN SCHONGAUER most important conclusion in this final chapter is to advise you to develop your skills in parallel with the joy of your unfolding imagination. We watch with captivated pleasure movies such as The Fly. In the Christian churches of Europe. angels. scales. Neither should be slave or master. thousands of paintings. wings. Star Wars. happen to us. England. or strange.Gods and Monsters OUR SACRED AND SECULAR need to visualize demons. and deep fur—and we alter their scale. beasts. For example. Images we are now surrounded by bear testimony to the power and resourcefulness of their collective imagination. The salvation of heaven and terrors of hell are represented equally—enough to make any sinner shudder. or in smoke. and stained-glass windows deliver powerful visual sermons to the once-illiterate populace. look for images in the folds of clothing. Depictions of God or of gods in the contexts of daily life. Feeding this demand. I was on a train passing through Nuneaton. Monsters take advantage of both. which is to have eaten a nun—it inspired the drawing on p. in the cracks of walls. a Catherine wheel of drawn sparks spiraling around the quietly resolute saint. all of which originated as hundreds of drawings. aliens. We love our fear of the hybrid—ideally. our eye circulates around a flutter of leather and scaly wings. our literate and more secular Western society still hungers for another world and to ravenously indulge its fascination for the marvelous. Here. for example. we select details of animals farthest from ourselves and that are widely thought disturbing—reptilian and insect features. Schongauer is best known for his prints. a human-animal mix that implies this could MARTIN SCHONGAUER German painter and engraver who settled to work in Colmar Alsace. serpentine tails.
Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 1799 81/2 x 6 in (218 x 154 mm) FRANCISCO DE GOYA . Opposite. vanity. Los Caprichos. This continuity enriches the making of art and our heritage. and follies of court through copious graphic works including his best-known prints. deranged masses. This act defines the vision and continues the line of spirit guides. portraits. rushing. In this ass. He would be graceless if he stood. it allows the mule to stand forward.30. The well-dressed mule is cumbersome. F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A Spanish court painter printmaker and draftsman. Other drawn versions of this image are more savage and frightening. The title "And So Was His Grandfather" adds that should we not already know. reading from a book of asses. a wave to join Achilles' chase of Hector. Aquatint Goya has drawn a learned man as an ass.240 GODS AND M O N S T E R S Marks of Influence marking the influence of one artist upon another. Paul Thomas's studies of Picasso and Twombly can be traced directly. They depict as if by lamplight the devil and witches. we see the international icon of stupidity.220. hags. Near the end of his life he made his "Black Paintings" on the walls of his home. to Picasso's similarly tight. whose impassioned work begins with light tapestry cartoons. his lover a dog. barren land rising like MYRIAD CHAINS RUN THROUGH ART HISTORY. Francisco de Goya was a master of borrowing. Saturn devouring his son. plain wall suggests a blinkered view of nothing. Opposite below. crammed tightly at his desk. Pictorially. The high. Goya's plainly textured gray background pushes back the space behind the illuminated simply subject. Violent white marks symbolizing Achilles' rage resonate with the energy of Twombly's script on p. a Shoshone seeking guidance and power meditates at the sacred site of a petroglyph. and church murals. Many students leave white backgrounds in their work. Visions experienced in front of the drawing sometimes instruct the making of a new one. below. which can swamp the subject Here. In this softer aquatint he poses for his portrait Textured background The aquatint process has been used to great effect in making a gritty toned background. such asinine behavior can be hereditary. and exposed the superstitions. Compare his dark. Goya later recorded the horrors of Napoleonic occupation. and men clubbing each other to death. quoting great paintings and popular culture to add cunning twists to his satires. noisy seascape on p.
or of the water Chipped image This is a sacred creature of the sky chipped onto rock at Dinwoody Lake. Simple wall stones cleverly state their cold solidity while also fading from our attention as the scene roars by. Graphite marks Here Achilles chases Hector around the walls of Troy before killing him.241 MARKS OF INFLUENCE PAUL T H O M A S British contemporary artist whose epic graphic work questions and reflects upon issues of European identity. perhaps a stone. ideals. White marks like flashes of light are cut though graphite with an eraser to reveal the paper beneath. meaning "place of power. by a supplicant in a trance of meditation. Achilles Chases Hector 1996 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) PAUL THOMAS SHOSHONE PETROGLYPH The Shoshone people of Wyoming name petroglyph sites Poha Kahni. It was made with a sharp implement. A vivid spectrum of energized graphite marks and a masterly composition give this drawing vitality and speed. Parallel lines within the body of the figure are likely to denote power." Each sacred image drawn into rock belongs to one of three realms in the Shoshone world: the realm of the sky. Wyoming. and personal and social struggles. Wind River Reservation. Thomas conducts his explorations in the mine of Greek and Roman mythology. values. of the earth. Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range UNDATED ARTIST UNKNOWN .
If it were to turn and stare this way.242 MONSTERS of the unknown is a classical and constant occupation for the artist. Here we see how he evolved their injuries into new limbs and warped proportions. The Eye Like a Strange Mounts Balloon 165/8 x131/8in (422 x 332 mm) ODILON REDON 1882 Toward Infinity .204-05 will enable you to produce a similar effect of white lines shining out of dark charcoal. They float toward us like a horrid visitation. Children are also delighted to invent a monster or ghoul. 115. as he did the grass. Redon's eyeball balloon rises up. Techniques demonstrated on pp. below left. and writer In contrast t o the light and visual accent of contemporary Impressionism. Compare worked textures throughout the whole of this image to those found throughout Anita Taylor's charcoal drawing on p. graphic artist. the shock would be extreme. crawl. which sometimes—half-dressed and carrying a familiar trophy— stride. the writers Joris-Karl Huysmans and Stephane Mallarme. ODILON REDON French painter draftsman. GODS AND Erasure In this charcoal drawing. We may feel safe so long as the eye looks heavenward. Lifting out Fine strings of the hot-air balloon appear dark against the sky and light against the balloon. Our subconscious can be drawn with pleasure and ease. T H E EXPLORATION AND DEPICTION Hauntings Grandville has drawn a scurrying zoo of half-known demons and animals that appear to have been stolen from the glass eye of the microscope. Redon lifted them out with some sort of eraser. and scuttle over all known reality. lifting its cranial passenger over a seascape of repose.and 16th-century Holland. H e was influenced by his friends. Redon explored the darker side of the human imagination through symbols and mysticism. to the right of the balloon. we see parallel slanting pale marks that might have been made with fresh bread—a very effective eraser used before the wide availability of rubber or plastic. The monsters of Bosch grew from his observations of beggars going about their trade in 15th.
HAUNTINGS Engraving This is an engraving made so that Grandville's original drawing could be reproduced. Last Judgment. Quill and ink This typical Bosch monster is a quill drawing in bistre ink The phrasing of light and contour here is masterly. Most of his work is in the Prado Museum. His other major works include Metamorphoses du Jour (1828). and Ship of Fools.243 J E A N I G N A C E ISIDORE GERARD ("GRANDVILLE") French graphic artist and political satirist. Comic little headbands of waving hair express more hysteria than fear. The quality of the line is therefore uniform throughout. A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects c. which is still available today. grimacing. sucker-faced creatures dash and trundle toward it They are drawn solidly to emphasize their earthbound weight. and he illustrated the Fables of La Fontaine and Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe. Smiling. This image is from one of Grandville's best-known publications. Light shines from the right. Garden of Earthly Delights. include The Haywain. 1840 61/8 x41/2in ( 1 5 5 x 1 1 5 mm) GRANDVILLE HIERONYMUS BOSCH Dutch painter Bosch's highly detailed iconographic religious panel paintings. teeming with the exhilaration of unrestrained fantasy. Two Monsters UNDATED 45/8 x61/2in (117 x 163 mm) HIERONYMUS BOSCH . Madrid. Les Animaux (1840).
below. and dying slaves. and marble sculptures including Pieto. and play with its perfection and meaning. They share between them the pleasures of inventing a hybrid beast. Chalk and ink A quill dipped in brown ink was worked over black chalk on this reused sheet. In her studio. gamboling copulations. as we might expect. snake. Grimes found the genesis of her beast not among animals. a stunning hybrid of a swan. Scaly. phrased over the contours of form and bridging darker areas of shadow. St Peter's square. she formed a series of ghostly pale. topple. hatched lines. His entire drawing wrestles and weaves the viewer's eye into its retracting folds. lion. the dome of the Vatican. and dog. wraps and coils its lithe body ready to strike or whimper at a touch.244 GODS AND MONSTERS Convolutions THESE CONVOLUTED DRAWINGS were made almost 5 0 0 years apart. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI Florentine painter sculptor. Michelangelo's dragon. Opposite. pinnacled. but in the seductive landscape of Leonardo da Vinci's oil painting Madonna of the Rocks. remembering the cavernous. muscular tension is carved out of the paper using layered. However. architect. Two previously drawn faces become humorous antagonists to the beast. David. and engineer Among Michelangelo's great works are the painted ceiling and altar wall of the Sistine Chapel. A snake eating its own tail is a universal image of the eternal and continuous. poet. sometimes artists purposefully tie a knot in the configuration to disturb. Dragon 1522 10 x 133/8 in ( 2 5 4 x 3 3 8 m m ) MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI . Grimes' delicately cavorting figures dive into and consume each other. and mist-swathed land.
It is one of a series of fragile earth figures inspired by rocks. Ink-wash delicately gouache (smooth) and gouache brushed drawing on This is a and was hot-pressed Shadows The dark shadow of the Other the ink-wash earth was made with a brushstroke of ink laid into wet paper. London. each one iridescent and crumbly like a weathered while oyster. her under heavy here.245 CONVOLUTIONS O O N A GRIMES British contemporary artist and professor of printmaking at the Ruskin School. The large space around figure has been cropped Grimes drawings to flatten presses them. boards finished paper. Grimes exhibits internationally and features in the collections of the New York Public Library and the Victoria and Albert Museum. details evolved slowly using a drier brush. The image formed directly without first making a pencil outline. Oxford. and the Camberwell and Slade Schools of Fine Art. London. How Clever of God #84 2002 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) O O N A GRIMES .
and wrist into a fluid and soft touch. ink-laden tip allow an expression that is beyond the linear. This design supplies the fine tip with a long continuity of ink 5. It is capable of very fine pointing. shape. ideally suited to drawing. thicknesses. fingers.246 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brushes T H E BRUSH IS A VOLUPTUOUS and delicate weights. which holds long sable hair This brush holds large amounts of ink for long lines and points well for detailed work. This brush has a broad wash capability and can achieve a very wide range of marks. L A R G E R S Y N T H E T I C . SABLE-HAIR RIGGER: Made with very long kolinsky sable hairs. SQUIRREL-HAIR S W O R D LINER:This brush has a maximum ink-holding capacity and an extremely fine and flexible point 8. 13. between them. Slightly less flexible than the squirrel-hair sword liner 9. this brush has a soft drawing tip and small ink-holding capacity. SMALL JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with sable hair. Some used by master calligraphers are 2-3 in (5-8 cm) in diameter 11. with a fine point for delicate work 4. POINTED SQUIRREL-HAIR MOP: With a synthetic quill ferrule and extra high inkholding capacity. Some are bold. and texture. It is still relatively small in the total range of Japanese brushes. 7. How you care for your brushes will determine how long they last. SYNTHETIC-HAIR BRUSH: Bound in a synthetic ferrule with good inkholding capacity and good spring and control. and writers. LARGER JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with natural hair held in a plastic ferrule on a bamboo handle. JAPANESE PAINTING BRUSH: Made with natural hair. Shorter brushes designed for other purposes run out of ink more quickly. SYNTHETIC-HAIR LINER: This brush gives a medium line and is firm with a spring to the touch. and very fine lines. The living marks of a wet. M T RA S AEIL . flowing. It has exceptional painting characteristics. the very opposite of pencil or silver point. drawing tool extending the arm.H A I R LINER: Very responsive oriental-style liner This to the touch." 6. The brushes shown here are a mixture of This is a selection of riggers. Always clean them thoroughly.H A I R RIGGER: Made with long synthetic hair for fine-point work It has a good ink-holding capacity and is slightly more resilient than sable hair with more "snap. and hold prodigious weights of ink or paint. Brushes vary in size. all perfect for drawing and. washes. P O I N T E D T R A D I T I O N A L WRITER: The ferrule is made from a small duck quill. others are as fine as a whisker with a gentle touch. 3. 10. needle-sharp center of kolinsky red sable hair. S Y N T H E T I C . it has good wash capabilities. materials. dense. and has a fine tip for detailed work. and effects. 2. and never leave them standing on their tip in a jar of water. it has good inkholding capacity and is very flexible. SABLE-HAIR LINER: Made with ordinary sable hair surrounding an extralong. making rt ideally suited to Japanese painting and small-scale calligraphy. giving a variety of lines. return them to their pointed shape. 1. liners. SYNTHETIC-HAIR S W O R D LINER: A lining brush with high ink-holding capacity and a fine point. Suitable for wash techniques but also capable of very fine detail.Theyhold plenty of ink and make continuous. Soaps purchased from good art supply stores will gently cleanse particles of pigment that become trapped in the hairs or ferrule. 12.
247 BRUSHES .
35) into two tablespoons of water in a shallow. I had left the end of the ink block in the water overnight to make it easier to dissolve.246-47).248 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brush Marks A S I N G L E BRUSH will m a k e an e n o r m o u s range of m a r k s depending u p o n the width. b l o w i n g h a r d o n t h e m several t i m e s t o disperse t h e ink ( c l o s e y o u r eyes if y o u t r y this. and type of its hairs. softness. the texture and a b s o r b e n c y of the paper ( w h i c h m a y be d a m p or dry).) I . and to make pools and stains o n the page. SETTING UP Blowing spots T h e s e t h r e e s p i d e r y c r e a t u r e s (above right and below) w e r e m a d e by d r o p p i n g s p o t s o f ink f r o m a b r u s h o n t o t h e p a g e and. the speed of the s t r o k e . w i t h m y face close. length. splashes. the degree of pressure applied. A single brush has almost balletic potential to draw fine or undulating lines and curves. Here I drew with a soft Japanese painting brush (see pp. unglazed earthenware dish. and spatters. I rubbed a block of Chinese ink (see p. and above all w h e t h e r the b r u s h is saturated with pigment or relatively dry. It also depends on the angle at w h i c h it is held.
a n d t h e w a y it d i s t r i b u t e s w h e n t h e b r u s h is d a b b e d o n its s i d e . t h e effects of the b r u s h r u n n i n g o u t o f ink.249 Gritty texture T h e details o f t h e largest creatures b e l o w and opposite s h o w the granular texture of Chinese b l o c k ink. b l e e d i n g f r o m strokes b e l o w left. . BRUSH MARKS Wet and dry strokes A m o n g these concentrated drawings ink made into with the same w a t e r y lines. w e see fine lines and s p o t s . a n d b r u s h .
Monsters THESE LITTLE CREATURES o f i n k and i n v e n t i o n were b o r n out of animal and bird studies. I borrowed small and fragile specimens from the University Museum of Natural History. and used their detail to draw new creatures that might at first seem familiar. until we look again. Oxford. .
two of my own drawings show you how Goya's devil (below) is based on the shape of Murillo's boy on a horse (top right). are two long. thin works titled The Witches' Sabbath and The Procession of St. Madrid. . Goya often invented his monsters out of characters seen in other painters' works. They are a pair and hang opposite each other. and narrative twists. showing us that gallery study is not just for the student and beginner. thin works made by Bartolome Murillo in Seville about 120 years earlier.Goya's Monsters W I T H CUNNING BRILLIANCE. Isidore. Through studying and drawing these great paintings I have discovered that they are based on a pair of similarly long. I found relationships between all four paintings in terms of shapes. Here. formal composition. Among his "Black Paintings" in the Prado Museum. Goya's witches have been literally drawn and evolved out of the shapes of Murillo's prophet and pilgrims. With further research.
Sometimes drawings come out of nowhere and surprise even the artist. . little comments on politeness and sexual politics.Consumed THIS IS A SERIES OF CARTOONS I m a d e s o m e years ago. drawn rapidly and with great joy.
r a t h e r t h a n r e c o r d e d o n a film o r plate." " N o t " p r e s s e d p a p e r is r o l l e d a s e c o n d t i m e w i t h o u t blankets t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders t o p r o d u c e a s m o o t h e r b u t still slightly t e x t u r e d s u r f a c e . tapestry. a n d given t h e n a m e Sho. written with a broad-nibbed pen o r brush. Binder A substance t h a t holds particles o f p i g m e n t t o g e t h e r in a paint f o r m u l a t i o n . F r o m t h e G r e e k kallos. A l s o c a l l e d t h e h o r i z o n line. o r o t h e r (usually large) w o r k — s e e Pouncing. Engraving 1. m e a n i n g "beauty". t h e l i g h t is b e h i n d h i m o r her. a r e r o l l e d t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders. a n d attaches t h e m t o t h e s u p p o r t — f o r example. Contre jour A F r e n c h t e r m m e a n i n g " a g a i n s t day. so t h a t ink r e m a i n s o n l y in t h e g r o o v e s o f s c r a t c h e d lines. T h e prints t a k e n from t h e s e plates o r blocks. F r o m t h e French v e r b coller. Deckle edge T h e i r r e g u l a r e d g e o f a s h e e t o f m o l d . Blending M e r g i n g t w o o r m o r e neighboring colors o r tones t o g e t h e r using a tortillon.256 GLOSSARY Glossary Accidental drawing Random. n e w s p a p e r cuttings. T h e b l a n k e t s g i v e t h e p a p e r its rough texture o r "tooth. pressurized t o o l used f o r spraying fine mists o f s m o o t h c o l o r P i g m e n t is d e l i v e r e d b y a j e t o f air n o t t h e bristles o f a brush.d i m e n s i o n a l i m a g e . o f t e n d i s t o r t e d forms and vivid colors. t o g e t h e r w i t h a t h i c k felt b l a n k e t T h e w h o l e s a n d w i c h o f l a y e r s is t h e n railed t h r o u g h t h e press t o m a k e a p r i n t D r y p o i n t is a very portable and immediate m e t h o d o f printmaking. Camera obscura A d a r k e n e d c h a m b e r i n t o w h i c h an i m a g e o f w h a t is o u t s i d e is received t h r o u g h a small o p e n i n g o r lens a n d f o c u s e d in natural c o l o r o n a facing surface. Calligraphy Beautiful h a n d w r i t i n g . w h e n a p e r s o n is p a i n t e d standing a g a i n s t a w i n d o w . Blotting T h e use o f a b s o r b e n t m a t e r i a l t o lift a w a y excess liquid. w h e n v i e w e d f r o m a specified point. A g e n e r a l t e r m t h a t describes t h e various processes o f c u t t i n g a design i n t o a plate o r b l o c k o f m e t a l o r w o o d . as o p p o s e d t o t h e s t r a i g h t e d g e o f a sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has b e e n machine-trimmed. In t h e Far East calligraphy is a highly r e s p e c t e d a r t f o r m . in w h i c h t h e subject's distinctive features o r peculiarities are deliberately exaggerated f o r c o m i c o r g r o t e s q u e effect.c e n t u r y painting m o v e m e n t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e use o f b o l d . for example. A h u m o r o u s d r a w i n g o r parody. chance mark-making. Anamorphic distortion Stretching an i m a g e across a p i c t u r e surface so t h a t it can o n l y b e u n d e r s t o o d . A l s o called r i n g l e t shading. A l s o called m u s e u m g r a d e . s u c h as a d r a w i n g o r painting. a n d g r a p h i t e . o r will o n l y a p p e a r n o r m a l . Bleed T h e e f f e c t o f t w o w e t colors running into one another o r o n e color applied t o a w e t surface a n d a l l o w e d t o d i s p e r s e . Air brush A mechanical. A f u l l . usually at a n a c u t e angle t o t h e s u r f a c e . Fauvism A n early 2 0 t h . Fixative Liquid acrylic resin a n d l a c q u e r t h i n n e r usually a p p l i e d as a n a e r o s o l s p r a y m i s t t o t h e surface o f a d r y . p r i n t i n g press face up. and readymade objects arranged and stuck o n t o a flat surface. 2. It is p u t o n a Body color See Gouache. Aerial perspective The effect of the a t m o s p h e r e o v e r distance as it lightens t o n e s a n d cools c o l o r s progressively t o w a r d t h e horizon. D a m p p a p e r is laid o n t o p .s i z e d r a w i n g m a d e for t h e purpose o f transferring a design t o a painting. linseed oil o r egg y o l k Caricature A representation Contour line A line t h a t f o l l o w s t h e s h a p e o f a surface." D e s c r i b e s a p a i n t i n g in w h i c h t h e light s o u r c e is b e h i n d t h e s u b j e c t F o r e x a m p l e . U s e d as a c o r r e c t i n g device o r pictorial game. Collage C o l l e c t e d materials such as c o l o r e d p a p e r s . Camera lucida A n optical device t h a t p r o j e c t s an image o f an o b j e c t o n t o a plain s u r f a c e so t h a t it can be traced. Eye level T h e i m a g i n a r y h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e a t t h e s a m e h e i g h t as t h e a v e r a g e p e r s o n ' s eyes. Also called accelerated perspective.c e n t u r y Italian t e r m m e a n i n g "clear-obscure. W o r d s o r symbols are Cold-pressed papers P a p e r manufactured with a "not" o r " r o u g h " surface. S o m e t i m e s f e r r u l e s a r e m a d e o f plastic o r o t h e r materials. Composition T h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e p a r t s o f an i m a g e t o m a k e u p the whole. Conservation grade D e s c r i b e s a range o f materials t h a t d o n o t d e c a y and cannot be broken d o w n by insects. R e m b r a n d t is a great master o f chiaroscuro. p r a c t i c e d meditatively w i t h a brush. R o u g h p a p e r is m a d e b e t w e e n t w o blankets t h a t . pastel. s u c h as a s c r e e n . Chiaroscuro A 1 7 t h . m e a n i n g " t o stick" Dry media M e d i a t h a t a r e n o t w e t o r o i l y — f o r e x a m p l e . L a t e r it c a m e t o m e a n h i g h l y c o n t r a s t e d light effects. Acid-free paper P a p e r w i t h a neutral p H t h a t will n o t darken o r d e t e r i o r a t e excessively w i t h age.m e d i a d r a w i n g . in w h i c h parts o f an image are depicted v e r y brightly and dramatically against d a r k n e s s . p h o t o g r a p h s . A p o t e n t i a l l y h a r s h m e t h o d o f p r o d u c i n g t o n e s in a d r a w i n g . It can also seal a silver p o i n t d r a w i n g t o p r e v e n t t h e oxidization (browning) o f t h e Drypoint A d r a w i n g is s c r a t c h e d directly o n t o a m e t a l plate w i t h a m e t a l t o o l h e l d like apen. 2. C o p p e r p l a t e engravings w e r e widely used t o r e p r o d u c e images b e f o r e p h o t o g r a p h y .m a d e paper. t h e field is t h e a p p a r e n t a n d b e l i e v a b l e space inside t h e p i c t u r e . Crosshatching Parallel lines d r a w n across o n e a n o t h e r at right angles. Field In a t w o . In t h e W e s t p e n calligraphy is u s e d t o c r e a t e f o r m a l a n d d e c o r a t i v e t e x t s . Cartoon 1. See also Hotpressed papers. A i r b r u s h e s are u s e d in t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c o m i c s . Ferrule T h e s h o r t m e t a l t u b e t h a t s u r r o u n d s a n d g n p s t h e hairs o f a p a i n t b r u s h a n d fixes t h e m t o t h e brush handle. T h e name " n o t " simply refers t o t h e fact t h a t t h e cylinders are n o t h o t in t e m p e r a t u r e . Erasure T h e a c t o f r e m o v i n g a n i m a g e f r o m a surface.The plate is t h e n r o l l e d w i t h ink a n d polished with a rag. Bracelet shading C u r v e d parallel lines t h a t f o l l o w t h e c o n t o u r s o f f o r m . charcoal. T h e m o v e m e n t was started by a g r o u p o f French artists including H e n r i Matisse. A " s h a l l o w d e p t h o f field" m e a n s t h e p i c t u r e appears t o have only a shallow s p a c e inside i t Diffuse T o s o f t e n o r m a k e less brilliant. Fixative lightly glues t h e d r a w i n g t o t h e surface o f t h e p a p e r t o p r e v e n t smudging." It w a s first given t o t o n a l paintings m a d e in o n e c o l o r — s e e Grisaille.
Picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. The surface can be reloaded or redrawn with more medium. so that (using vanishing point perspective) the object appears to change shape and become narrower or smaller as it recedes. A point of interest in a drawing. The ink attaches to the oil-based image and is repelled by the wet stone. format" (abbreviated to "portrait"). ink. Negative space The space between things. Hairspray is an effective and inexpensive alternative. . it is the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work Pigment Any substance used as a coloring agent—for example.The paper then bears a crayon impression or copy of the surface that was underneath it A number of Surrealists. and is also used as a size. Paper is then pressed against the stone to take a print. Lightfast A term confirming that pigment in the product will not fade with exposure to light. Impressing Stamping or printing. upright images are called "portrait which is used as a binding agent in many liquid media. oil-. Monoprinting A direct method of printing in which wet medium (water-. of the ingredients in inks and watercolors. It improves the bonding properties Frottage A French term meaning "rubbing. shape. Padua. and translucent paper—a delicate material used in collage. glossy. A small image might be described as small format Horizontal images are often said to be "landscape format" (abbreviated G u m arabic The natural to"landscape"). Pointillism A technique of using points or dots of pure color in such a way that when the picture is viewed from a distance they react Masking tape Invaluable. white.257 metal line. or can be otherwise used to create an image—for example. Rubens used grisaille to paint small images for engravers. and by artists representing stone sculptures in a painting. or even a beam of light. the finely ground particles of plant.while secretion of the acacia tree. Hot-pressed papers (HP) Paper made using hot cylinders. glass. and masking off areas of a drawing that the artist wishes to keep untouched by media applied above or beside the tape. graphite. Ground A wet solution usually of gouache or gesso (chalk and animal glue) brushed onto paper board. F o r m The outer surface of a three-dimensional object. or a family of colors. oil-based printing ink is rolled evenly onto a smooth metal. including Max Ernst used frottage in their work. Gamut A complete range or extent Glassine A type of thin. or plastic surface. or a drawing made in any single color GLOSSARY Linear perspective A form of perspective in which parallel lines are represented as converging. Papercut A type of collage in which flat sheets of paper are cut into an image. After several intervening processes. purpose. mineral. and that will "escape" or change over time. Paper is laid on top and a rapid drawing is made on the back of it The paper lifts away to reveal the image on its other side. or spirit-based) is applied to a surface that is then pressed onto paper and removed to leave a print. aiming to represent facts rather than an interpretation of the subject. work. Plumb line A line from which a weight is suspended in order to determine verticality or depth. which has a rough surface). 2. the surface of the stone is made wet before being rolled with a thin film of oilbased printing ink. materials that produce marks on a surface. or synthetic material that are suspended in a medium to constitute paint. Foreshortening A method of depicting an object at an angle to the surface of the picture. enabling them to stick to paper It also helps to maintain a stable dispersion of pigment particles in water as the film of a wash dries. to give the illusion of depth and distance. sticky paper tape. Alternatively. to describe a surface to which paint will adhere readily. Masking fluid Clear or opaque latex fluid developed for watercolor painting. but in picture-making it is as important as the objects/subjects themselves. cadmium yellow hue. It can be used with any wet media to isolate or protect parts of an image from further Optical blending See Pointillism. Artists can paint freely over dry masking fluid. or for wrapping and protecting a finished piece of work. This method incorporates the excitement of accidental and unpredicted marks. Grisaille is occasionally seen in church stained-glass windows.Theground provides a particular color or texture beneath the image. but each print will be unique. Medium A generic term for art Key A painting is said to be "high key" when the colors and tones are bright and "low key" when they are dark or somber The term is also used Gouache Opaque watercolor Also called body color. multiH u e A term for a color. Grisaille A painting in gray or a grayish color Often made by students as a tonal exercise. lifting out charcoal and other dry media. and orientation of the image.The degree to which detail is defined. rock. Also used by artists' materials manufacturers to indicate the use of a substitute pigment—for example. It is then peeled away. which give it a smooth surface (as opposed to cold-pressed paper. Hatching (cross-) See Crosshatching. This effect emulates what we see in real life. and it has a history in enamel work. Objective drawing Refers to the concept of objectivity. or canvas and allowed to dry before an image is drawn or painted. used for fixing paper to walls and boards. Fugitive A term given to a pigment that it is not stable. Dark tones are laid down first then an eraser or masking tape is used to lift away particles of the drawing media to reveal the lightness of the paper beneath. are painted in grisaille and appear to be made of stone. Focus 1 . It is a strong adhesive. with the area beneath remaining unaffected. Usually an academic drawing observed from life. Lifting out A method of creating highlights and mid-tones in a drymedia drawing (such as charcoal or graphite). Lithography A method of printmaking in which a drawing or painting is made directly onto a smooth slab of particular limestone or a metal plate using an oilbased crayon or ink. Also refers to an additive used to control the application properties of a color Golden Section A proportion in which a straight line or rectangle is divided into two unequal parts in such a way that the ratio of the smaller part to the greater part is the same as that of the greater part to the whole. Giotto's Virtues and Vices in the Arena Chapel. Monochrome Usually refers to a black." A piece of paper is placed on top of an object or rough surface. then rubbed over carefully but vigorously with a crayon. and gray drawing. pastel. F o r m a t T h e size. This may be disregarded in real life.
and flowers. sometimes drawn from a and leaving only the pricked sheet of shadow cast on a wall. orchids. and paperweights. Pounce (a fine for an unpopular 18th-century powder of charcoal or similar French politician. Alternatively. Pouncing If a large drawing or design (called a cartoon) is to be Shadow Darkness cast by the transferred to a surface such as a obscuring of light. Underdrawing A pale preliminary drawing made prior to adding layers of another medium such as oil paint or watercolor Value The extent to which a color reflects or transmits light This is the equivalent of tone in a black and white image. ink. Zen brushwork encompasses calligraphy and painting. Props An abbreviation of the word properties. Shade A that is color mixed (or toned) with black Shading A lay term for adding tone to a drawing. fine paper. Although drawings can be made with wash alone. whose pinpricks creates a "connect-thepersonal pastime was making dots" replica of the image on the cut-out portraits." Applied to the blurring or softening of sharp outlines by the subtle and gradual blending of one tone into another Sgraffito A technique of scratching or cutting through a surface of paint. Vanishing point In linear perspective. wall or tapestry.258 GLOSSARY together optically. plaster.Technicaldrawing has been example. Viewpoint The position from which something is observed or considered. Sfumato An Italian term meaning "smoky. or any physical object that can be stamped or pressed onto a surface to leave an impression. cut-out profile made along every outline of the usually made in black paper image. "Spirits" or "oil" of turpentine refer to the volatile portion used by artists to thin or dilute oil-based paint. Wash A technique using ink. Serigraphy Silk-screen printing. Support The structure on which an image is made—for example. Spattering A mottled texture produced by drawing your fingers across the bristles of a stiff brush loaded with pigment. Volume The amount of space occupied by an object or an area of space in itself. creating more vibrant effects than if the same colors were physically mixed together with a brush. pointed instrument used for marking or engraving. or the right-hand page in a book. or gouache. a point at which receding parallel lines meet Verso The back or underside of a piece of paper. paper or canvas. plum blossom.Thedrawing is removed. a tightly folded piece of cotton batting can be used for the same effect." Materials for Zen brushwork include round brushes of varied size. usually diluted with water and applied with a brush. Zen A school of Mahayana Buddhism that asserts that enlightenment can come through meditation and intuition rather than faith. and chrysanthemum—which in Chinese tradition are called "The Four Gentlemen. Artists' prints are normally made in multiple. Subjective drawing A drawing that expresses the personal view and interpretation of the artist An invented image. plaster or cloth surface beneath. or pen. in tone running from black to white or vice versa. an ink stone usually cut from slate. Etienne de material) dabbed through the Silhouette (1709-67). Still life A picture composed of inanimate objects such as bowls. or mark using an inked or pigment-covered surface. compound of water-soluble pigment. meaning objects used in setting up a life model or still life. Recto The front or top side of a piece of paper. Sketch A quick or rough drawing. carbon ink. Single-point perspective The most basic form of linear perspective in which there is only one vanishing point. acrylic. Turpentine A colorless solvent distilled from the resinous sap of pine trees. which are then called editions. . or watercolor paint. Tone A degree of lightness or darkness. Zen brushwork This is an oriental meditative art form originating in China and practised for many centuries in Japan. Strip Core of a pencil. Scale Describes the size of one element in relation to another Sepia A brown pigment taken from the sun-dried ink sacs of cuttlefish and used to make ink or watercolor The term is now often incorrectly used to refer to brown colors. W e t media Any liquid media— for example. watercolor. giving it a brilliance. Printmaking The act of making a picture. in order to flick the pigment onto the image surface. Stylus A sharp. or ceramic glazing to reveal a different color beneath. by imposing a grid that is then scaled up to a larger size. tight. evolved by engineers and architects for the purpose of conveying W a t e r c o l o r A painting accurate structural information. Zen paintings usually depict scenes of nature and plants such as bamboo. Tortillon A short. Named paper in place. pencil. Technical drawing A universal it is often used in conjunction language of lines and measurements with line drawings in pen and that is used to make diagrammatic ink—for images. The translucent Tint A color mixed with white. using a brush. design. The crude material is called oleoresin. commonly referred to as the lead. Stippling Applying color or tone in areas of fine dots or flecks. Squaring up A method of enlarging and transferring an image from one surface to another. to model areas of light and shade. nature of watercolor allows the white surface of the paper to Tonal scale A scale of gradations shine through. or the left-hand page in a book. Squeegee A rubber-trimmed scraper used in the screenprinting process for dragging ink across a surface. fruit. pointed roll of white paper that is used to blend dry media. glasses. or wood. a sheet of paper is placed beneath and pinpricks are Silhouette A flat. A term borrowed from the theater. or point on which parallel lines converge to give the impression of receding space. such as an inscribed sheet of metal. Size A weak glue used for filling the porous surface of wood or canvas in order to seal it.
206.51 All and Nothing (Taylor) 114. 116. 241 action. 193 in lifting out 204. 71 Blake. 198 cartoon (preparatory drawing) 137 (satirical) 159. 29 Hugo's octopus 28.13. 128. 165.184.226. 180 Circular Score for "Due Voce" (Bussotti) 223 circus scenes 192-195 City (Bryan) 202. 111. 134 costume(s) 155 character 158-159 structure of 166-167 Cottage Among Trees (Rembrandt) 52. 242 Brunelleschi.50. Franz 48 Protea nitida 48 Bellini. 9. 94 chalk(s) 53. 199 Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya (Eisen) 156. 160 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object (Moore) 178. Nicolas-Jacques 54 contours 146. Georges 67. (Ross-Craig) 49 to hold brush for 23 caricature 159. Victor: West Facade of the Church of St. 90. 90 colored materials 162-163 colored pencils 162. Jean Michel 138 Self-Portrait 138 Bateau-Vision. 161 Akhlaq-I Rasul Allah manuscript 51. 223 Circular Score for "Due Voce" 223 children's art 9. center of 118 ballpoint 182. 157 cropping 56-57. 206 checkered floor 80. 139 Nanha) 50. Le (Hugo) 200. to draw 100 Cypripedium calceolus L.89. Augustin 67 Basquiat. 203 Landline 202. 190 Caricature of a Woman (Daumier) 198. 28 Klee's horses 30.27 turtles 42-43 aquatint 240 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels (Leonardo) 12. 244 and graphite 178 . 203 Buffalo Hunt (Shoshone) 178. 98. 204. 95 Chair Cut Out (Woodfine) 94. 179 Bussotti.Index Page numbers in italics refer t o captions and illustrations Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity (Bishndas and 259 INDEX B bread (as eraser) 205. 158. 90. Etienne-Louis 72 Newton's Cenotaph 72. 163.169 colors: airbrushed 161 background 91 A Abe. 74. 90 La Guitare. 52 cotton swabs 205 Coup de Vent a Asajigabare (Hokusai) 198. Leon: Bacchante 155 balance. 50. 242 to blend 205 compressed 122. 71 Bacchante (Bakst) 155 background: color 91 textured 240 Baker Matthew: Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry 32 Bakst. to express 39. 74 brush (es) 246-247 Japanese 248 for laying a wash 140 marks 248-249 to hold 23 brush drawings 14-15 Bryan. Clare 203 City 202. 180 blending: color 133. William: The Circle of the Lustful 180. 250 Bishndas and Nanha: Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity 50.31 Picasso's horse and bird 30.100 curves. 205 Baltard. 230-231 Cubist 90. layers 53 chalk pastels 162.115 anatomical drawing 134-135 anatomical theaters 82-83 anatomical waxes 128 ancient carvings 221. 203 Claude Lorrain 202 Views from Velletri 202. 243 botanical drawing 48-49 Boullee. Joseph 113 The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland 112. 75 Circle of the Lustful (Blake) 180.44-45 bird studies 12.163 dry media 205 Blue Nude (Matisse) 110.212 to erase 205 to hold 23 pencils 204 willow 114. 200 Bauer.184. Sylvano 222. 38-39. 81 cut-out model plan 94. 186 charcoal 114. 162 character: to capture 38-39. to model 110-111 border 51 Bosch. 201 collage 111. 230 The Physical Space 220 abstract drawing 219. Statue d'Epouvante 90 calligraphy.163 body. to draw 80.117 Achilles Chases Hector (Thomas) 240. 178 Cubism 67. 244 head and neck 144 phrased 124-125 contrast: brightness 99 of media 30 tonal 96.186 see also movement Adoration of the Magi perspective study (Leonardo) 74. to draw 25. 41 principal 186. 75. cut Catling. 74. 137 Besler. 8 cave paintings 8. 13 architectural drawing 67-71 Arctic Flowers (Libeskind) 70. 189. 30 sleeping dog 38-39 Stubbs's horse skeleton 26. 222. 81 135. Giovanni 137 Head and Shoulders of a Man 136. 198.133. 40-41 Durer's rhinoceros 26. to depict 156-157 Cloudburst of Material Possessions (Leonardo) 200.163 graded 227 composition 56-57.44-45. 133. Brian 226 Untitled 2001 226 "Cave of the Hands" (Cueva de las Manas) 8.198. 220. 226-227 Acanthus spinosus 65 accelerated perspective 22. 13. 70 Art Nouveau motifs 91 Autoportrait (Ray) 138. Mamaru 104. 26 geese 38-39 Gericault's cats 28. 113 bird bones 12. Zen c 232-233 blended 133. Basilius 47 Beuys. 202 cloth. 71 conte 112. 204-205. 72 bracelet shading 122 Braque. Hieronymus 243 Two Monsters 242. 247-248 carving see lines. 94 cylindrical objects. 182. 78 aerial perspective 206 airbrushing 160.162 Conte. 9 Chair (Van Gogh) 94. Filippo 67. 221 animals.
202.244 drawing(s): abstract 219. 7 33 Hooke. Victor 200. 161 fashion 160.109 Rhinoceros 26. La (Braque) 90. 230 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction 68. 160 as ground for metal point 140.260 INDEX D Dada 139 Daumien Honore 198 Caricature of a Woman 198.91. 90 gouache 30.207. 216 foreshortening 110. drypoint 181 exaggeration 184 expressionism 198 E ye and Head of a Drone Fly (Hooke) 92. 157 . 135 Duren Albrecht 26. Ron 161 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 161 160. 125.166 170-173 Gestalt 222 Giacometti. 55. 240. 91 Dragon (Michelangelo) 36. Francisco de 131. disposable pens 182-183 dissections: botanical 48 of horse 27 distance: illusion of see perspective linear 97 tonal 97 Documents Decoratifs. 93 horizon 52. 41 in the round 208-209 with scalpel 202. 222 Le Bateau-Vision 200.Theodore 29 Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 28. Rene 160 Illustration for Jacques Fath E easel. 69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt 68. 241 to blend 205 and chalk 178 and ink 28. Antonio 135 Muscles of the Head and Neck 134. Oona 245 How Clever of God #84 244. 160 Faune. 131 Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 240. 113.John 157 Man Lying Down in a Cloak 156. 30 Fauves/fauvism 90. 52 foreground 208. Antonio 68. 77 How Clever of God #84 244. 112.216. to draw 134-137 Helleborus corsicus 55 highlights 91.160. 245 layers 30 Goya. Sir Ernst 12. Alberto 136 Portrait of Marie-Laure de Noailles 136. 90 G Gaudi.244. 93 eye level 80 Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity. 122. 203 Hotel de la Suzonnieres (Satie) 70. proportions of 143 fantasy drawings 72-73.146 from masterworks 126-127.189. to draw 120. to draw 78.102-103 drawing board 20 drawing books 20-21 drawing paper 144.230 three-tone 140. 252 depiction of fabric monsters 252-253 Self Portrait in a Cocked Hat 130. 222 Grimes. 200 F fabric. 243 graphic score 222. Robert 93 Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 92. M.121 felt-tip pens 162.160.115 exploratory 17 fantasy 72-73. 124. 222.252-253 from memory 183. position of 22 Eisen. 240 170-173 five Ships in a Port with Lighthouse (Wallis) 11. 69. 55. Statue d'Epouvante. 37 Grandville 243 A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the Near-Microscopic World of Scale Insects 242. 73.103 with eraser 103. 25 focus 65. 132 Frenz. 26 Flying Fish (White) 25. position of 143.157 ellipses 100.103.116.104. 203 semi-abstract 234-237 three-dimensional 68.184 165. 245 Hugo. 161 fashion drawings 160. 29 H hands. 190 Middle Eastern 50-51.112. 136 Golden Section 67 Gombrich. to suggest 177 see also perspective diagonals diffuser 55 dip pens 34.101 engraving 243 erasers/erasing 55. 137 heads. 223. 170-173.216 Durelli. 223 graphite 54.198 Degas. Nicholas 68 St Paul's Baptistry 68 head and neck to draw 142-145 Head and Shoulders of a Man (Bellini) 136. 134. 32 framing 139 Franfoise au Bandeau (Picasso) 132. 141 tonal 96. 120.141. C . Katsushika 199 Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 198. 205 drawing with 103. fiber-tip pen 182. Hans 133 The Ambassadors 116 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 132.144 and ink 30. 245 Gruau. 226-227 anatomical 134-135 architectural 67-71 botanical 48-49 brush 14-15 dark to light 102. 220 dry brush 234 234 57. 99 etching. to draw 168-169 in Goya's artworks face.37.97. 79. 69 Guitare. 161 changing 216 Focusing on the Negative (Walter) 16 foliage 52.111 feet. 765 hitsuzendo drawings 233 Hokusai. 144 Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (Baker) 32.117 fountain pens 34. 104-105. 160 hitsuzendo 233 light to dark 102. Edgar 162 depth. 71 minimal line 99 and music 70-71 quick 38-39. 69.69 Gerard. 163. Keisai 157 The Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya 156. 40. 134. 122 Hawksmoor. Study for Plate 59 (Mucha) 90. 240 Black Paintings 152. 799 Holbein.12 fixative 54. Cheval et Oiseau (Picasso) 30. The 242. 134. Jean Ignace Isidore see Grandville Gericault. 242 eyes. 160 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction (Gaudi) 68.141. 55. 115 Escher. 163. 162 Flaxman.
115 98. 244. 77 Miller. Oxford 106 Prado.141. Charles Rennie 48. 227 Newsome. 201 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels 12. 114 hatched 244 layered 118 pace of 65 pale 40 rapid 49. 219 Mondrian. 203.109. 99. David 78 M Mackintosh. Oxford 250 music 70-71 Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks (Knopf) 32. 103 Neolithic chalk tablet 220. 170-173. 72. drawing from 126-127. 184. 156 magnification 93 Man in Armor (Van Dyck) 158. 225 masking tape 204. 220. Henry 178 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object 178. 205. 37 lines 118 pastel 162 pencil 31.227 to "bend" straight 97 compositional 228-229 cut 202. Marie 244 cloth drawing 244.181 L Landline (Bryan) 202. 181 luminosity 115 Lynch. 74-77. Matisse. 60. 73 Michelangelo Buonarroti 48. 244 lithograph 198 Losbruch (Kollwitz) 180. 28 Two Impressions from a Cut-out Paper Disk 222 Huyler Stephen R 225 261 Kinecar. Johan 32. 110 Sistine Chapel ceiling 116 Middle Eastern drawing 50-51. 160 In the Duchess's Kitchen (Rackham) 176. 244 Dragon 36.Pieuvre (Octopus) 28. 73 Kigell.109. artistic 240-241.243 carbon 35 Chinese 30.91 Study for Plate 59 of INDEX illumination see lighting Illustration for Jacques Fath (Gruau) 160. 234 iron-gall 35.33 Mysterious Affairs of the lighting 2 7. I Murderous Attacks 33 Kollwitz.112. 221 endless 31 free 113.276. 76 Libeskind. 244 ink 36 252-253 Documents Decoratifs 90. 203 landscape 206-208 brushed 14 Landscape in Hoboku Style (Sesshu) 14 layers 146 chalk 53 gouache 30 ink 28.141 Metropolis (film) 72. 227 Scene of Comical Riders 30.167 line(s) 132.102. 97 Murillo. 58-59. Henri 111 Blue Nude 1110.134 K Kettlehut. 135 museums 44.96. 83 white 122 ink impressions 222 ink spatters 234 installations 176. 181 Klee. 13 Cloudburst of Material Possessions 200.120. 185 Mucha. apparent 97 Leonardo da Vinci 74. 201 head and neck sections of female mold for Sforza Horse 89 Madonna of the Rocks 244 perspective study for Adoration of the Magi 74. 158 Man Lying Down in a Cloak (Flaxman) 156. 49 Rose 49 Maelbeke Madonna (Van Eyck) 156. 31 Klimt. 176. 205 masterworks. 190 metal pens see dip pens metal point 25. 53 Tree II 52. 230 invented creatures 106-107 250-251 invented objects 89. Erich 73 design for Metropolis 72. 53 monoprint 787. Madrid 171 University Museum of Natural History. Victor 134 Profile Head 134.104. 36. 757 mandalas 219.166 La Specola. 756 priming for 140. 252 Muscles of the Head and Neck (Durelli) 134. Alphonse 90. 159 Japanese 35 to make 36 sepia 35 walnut 36. 33 J justness 228-229 N naive art 74 negative space 53. Florence 128 lighting in 167 Pitt Rivers. 220. 220. Daniel 70 Arctic Flowers 70 Lieb. 248. 111. 220. Paul 227 Polyphonic Setting for White 226. 177 influences. 242 light 96 to depict drawing with 1 76 painting with 176 . drawing from 183. Piet 52. 226 Modernism 67. Kathe 181 Losbrunch (The Outbreak) 180. Bartolome: Moses Striking the Rock ofHoreb 252. 34. 54 silver point 156 leg sections 158 length. 178 motifs: A r t Nouveau 9 7 stylized 51 mountains 216-217 movement: of animals 30-31 of humans 7 79. 183 vertical 156 linear distance 97 linear perspective 69.182 Moore. 35. Phyll: hands 18 lifting out 204. 252 ink 16. Gustav 49 Knopf. Rose: Tantalus or the Future of Man 20 minimal line drawing 99 mirror use of 120 mixed media 28. 63. 789. 166. 163 pens 36 measuring 116 memory. 249 and gouache 30 Indian 35.The (Robinson) 108. 78 Study ofThree Male Figures 110. 34-35 acrylic 35 bistre 35.124.
176 Real Life Is Rubbish 176. 239 Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 238. 732 influence of 240 painting with light 78. 9 0 .37. 78 single-point 74. and Webster. 40-41. 242 reed pens 34. 1 6 3 . 239 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat (Seurat) 112. 38. 243. 4 8 putty eraser 55. Paul 73 Nobson Central 72. 26 Riley. 734 Protea nitida (Bauer) 48. 36.71 Hotel de la Suzonnieres 70. 103. J 76 nudes 114-115 to make 36 metal see dip quill 34. 30 Fran<.139 Autoportrait 138. 165. 165 figure 118 filled 37 pencil 48. 7 72 Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland. 139 Real Life is Rubbish (Noble and Webster) 176. 7 70 Ray.262 INDEX Newton. 203 Scene of Comical Riders (Klee) 30. 159. 739 semi-abstract drawings Style 14 Seurat. 122.The (Beuys) 112. 7 73 self-portraits: Basquiat 138. Sue 104. Georges 112 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 112. 230 parallel planes 79 Parisian street 86-87 pastels 162 to blend 205 to hold 23 layers 162 pencils 162 pen(s): dip 34 . 224 0 layers 31. 37 38. 2 2 0 for oil pastels 162 stained 230 to stretch 140-141 tissue 21. 34-35. 205 pointillism 112 polyphonic painting 227 Polyphonic Setting for White (Klee) 226. 76 plastic eraser 55. 68 Satie. 28 pigment 162 bright 50 Caput Mortuum 7 4 7 for three-tone drawing 141.36.9 3 Schongauer.184 fountain 34. 219. 166 fiber-tip 782. 181 Rodin. 782 relief 757 silk-screen 739 woodblock 134. 76-79. 72 Noble. 57 Ross-Craig. Bridget 98 Robinson. Russell 228. 244 reed 34.oise au Bandeau 132. 181 pencil(s) 54 charcoal 204 colored 762. 1 1 6 accelerated 2 2 . 36. Auguste 114 Two Women 114.759. 52 pens 36 scalpel 54 drawing with 202.104 Pieuvre (Hugo) 28. 160.Tim. Odilon 242 The Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity 242. 75 Two Courtyards 75. 1 2 4 priming for metal point 140. 141 Piranesi. 216. 9 8 . Pablo 6 7 . Isaac 92 Telescope 92 Newton's Cenotaph (Boullee) 72. Faune. 74. 227 portfolios 20 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser de Noailles (Holbein) 132. 205 157. Peter Paul 126-127 Embracing pose(s): balanced 146 quick 118-119 positive form 103 posture: of artist 22 of subject 3 8 .141 prints/printing: aquatint 240 dry-point etching 181 engraving 243 monoprint 181. 163. 75 Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range 241 petroglyphs 221. 7 77 three-point 80. 243. 74-77.240. Arthur 177 In the Duchess's Kitchen 176. Cheval et Oiseau 30. 36. The (Abe) 220 Picasso. Stella 48 Cypripedium calceolus L 49 rotated view 7 65 Rubens.2 3 age and youth sleeping subjects 148-149 150-151 Renaissance 109 Rhinoceros (Durer) 26. 1 1 7 aerial 206 linear 69. 1 3 2 quill pens 34. 38. 161. 71 Satire of the Queen's Dress (Wodall) 158. 36. 36. Man 131.Toyo: Landscape in Hoboku .37 scientific instruments 9 2 .7 77 rapidograph 70 Raphael 110. 7 76 receding space 206 Redon. 162 O p A r t 98 optical illusions 96-99 outline 33. 244 Q s Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape (Wolfli) 2 79 St. 81 two-point 74.52 pen and wash 158. 1 1 6 . 772 234-237 Sesshu. Erik 70.Paul'sBaptistry (Hawksmoor) 68. 733 Portrait de Marie-Laure (Giacometti) 136. 36 relief printing 757 Rembrandt van Rijn 52.199 Profile Head (Newsome) oil pastels 162. 234 disposable 182-183 felt-tip 162. 4 9 Rose of Mohammed 50. 164. 759 P Page.131 Cottage Among Trees 52. 97. 212 Japanese 2 1 . 230 paper(s) 21 colored 162 drawing 144. 736 portraits. 36 pen and brush 8 3 pen and ink 70.37. to draw 146-147 R Rackham. 7 38 Ray 138. 241 Physical Space.226.54 pastel 162 perspective 1 0 0 . Martin 238.40. Heath 181 The Kinecar 180. 114 rollerball 182 Rorschach blot 99 Rose (Mackintosh) 48. 1 6 9 to hold 2 2 . 91 outsider artists 33. Giovanni Battista 74. 73 Noble.
97. 69. 74.Sforza Horse.13 M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s m a l e figures 110. 1 4 1 . 65 symbols 138. 2 2 0 influence o f 2 4 0 Untitled 220.158 158. 174 T w o m b l y . 1 6 6 t r a p e z i u s m u s c l e 142. 2 4 4 . 1 8 4 . Paul 2 4 1 Achilles Chases Hector 2 4 0 . 49. 79. 9 5 pens 36 v a n i s h i n g p o i n t 74. 1 4 4 .2 0 1 . 7 79 Shoshone petroglyph 240. William 159 Satire of the Queen's Dress INDEX 226.Yamaoka 233 t e x t u r e 2 2 2 . 249 t o describe 39.1 6 5 shorthand diagram 142 Shoshone buffalo hide painting 178.2 1 3 Stubbs. 7 77. 9 2 Tesshu. 206-207 202. 161.1 9 9 wire.1 8 5 Tree II ( M o n d r i a n ) 52.41. 7 1 4 . A n t h o n y 152.s c r e e n p r i n t i n g 139 silver p o i n t 1 4 0 . 2 2 6 . 2 3 0 tonal contrast 96 tonal distance 9 7 t o n a l d r a w i n g 9 6 . 7 75 Telescope ( N e w t o n ) 9 2 . 159 Wolfli. M . 115. Jan 1 5 6 Maelbeke Madonna 1 5 6 .125 W o o d f i n e . phrased 146 tonal modeling 161 tonal range 169 t o n a l surfaces 2 2 7 tonal width 97 t o n e ( s ) 33. b l o w n 248 steel p e n s see d i p p e n s still life 89.199 tissue p a p e r 21. 9 4 z Z e n calligraphy 232-233 contrast 96 t o grade 163 ink 37 pencil 5 4 t o r t i l l o n 205 T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c . 7 70 Tiber 214-215 Untitled ( T w o m b l y ) 2 2 0 . 1 3 . 75 Skeleton of the Horse ( S t u b b s ) 26. Vincent 95 Chair 94. 7 9 0 vessels. 199 shoes 1 6 4 .12 W a l t e r . Sue see N o b l e .243 Leonardo's machines 12. 1 4 0 . T i m W e s t Fagade of the Church of St. 164. 1 6 . 96. 156 Van Gogh. 9 0 . 240 Two Women Embracing ( R o d i n ) 114. John: Focusing on the Negative 14 w a s h . H e n r i de: Woman at Her Toilet 14 t r a n s p a r e n t v i e w 92.1 4 5 . 1 2 Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse 71. 1 4 5 travel journal 2 0 .5 3 in l a n d s c a p e 2 0 6 . 725 fabric 1 6 8 T h o m a s . 2 9 wind. 226 V Van Dyck. Sarah 9 4 Chair Cut Out 94. 141 Three Male Figures.1 4 1 . 76. 104-105.J. t o d r a w 1 0 1 viewfinder 57 Views from Velletri ( C l a u d e L o r r a i n ) 152. 2 1 2 . 2 0 0 Ship in a Storm 1 9 8 . 7 6 Two Impressions from a Cut-Out Paper Disk ( H u g o ) 2 2 2 Two Monsters 2 4 2 . t o d r a w 2 0 0 . 2 7 studies: b i r d s 7 2 . 202 violin. 158 V a n Eyck. t o d r a w 5 2 . 2 3 4 . 75. 245 sharpener 54 Ship in a Storm ( T u r n e r ) 1 9 8 . John 25 Flying Fish 25 Wild Striped Cat Sketches of ( G e r i c a u l t ) 28. Taylor A n i t a 115 All and Nothing 1 1 4 . Man in Armor 1 5 8 .d i m e n s i o n a l d r a w i n g 68. G e o r g e 2 7 Skeleton of the Horse 26. 170 shoes 1 6 4 stylized m o t i f 51 Summer Flowers 63. C y 138. t h r e e . 186. Adolf: Giant-Grape Saint-Mary-Castle 219 Woman at Her Toilet ( T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c ) 74 w o o d b l o c k print 157. v i e w s o f 85. Sarah: child's m a p 75. A l f r e d 1 1 .1 0 5 vision 9 6 Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects (Grandville) 242. 241. 2 4 2 w Wallis. t o lay 1 4 0 . 156 layers 7 5 6 priming for 140. 221 .d i m e n s i o n a l 1 0 4 . 53 trees. 182. 2 4 7 t h r e e . 230 t h r e e .t o n e d r a w i n g 140. 1 7 7 free 8 0 V e n i c e . 2 2 7 Untitled 2001 ( C a t l i n g ) u 263 W h i t e . 57.120. 69. drawing with 104-105 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt ( G a u d i ) 68. W . h e a d a n d n e c k sections o f female m o l d f o r (Leonardo) 89 shading 2 9 s h a d o w s 28.216 W e b s t e r .141 S i m b l e t . 1 4 1 w a t e r c o l o r 25. 1 8 4 . 243 (Bosch) T Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos ( G o y a ) 2 4 0 . t o draw 1 9 8 . 1 9 9 .27 skull 747.9 1 storms. 6 9 Wodall. 743 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City ( F r e n z ) 1 6 0 . Augustin ( B a l t a r d ) 6 7 w e t and dry brush-strokes 2 4 9 Turner.241 s i l k . 4 4 boat 209 botanical 4 9 G e r i c a u l t ' s cats 2 9 from Goya 170-173 125. 1 9 9 Two Courtyards (Piranesi) 75. 77. 7 6 1 spots. 102-103 tonal marks. 199. Study of (Michelangelo) 110.
Berlin (b). Maureen Paley Interim Art (b). c o . 9 0 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/© A D A G P . 49: Hunterian Museum (t). Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. A n d y C r a w f o r d for p h o t o g r a p h y a n d L . Paris/ © Succession Picasso / D A C S 2005. R o y a n d D i a n n e Simblet. Paris. Paul T h o m a s ( t ) . Paris. K e v i n a n d Rebecca Slingsby.bridgeman. 2 6 : Topfoto. 88: www. L o n d o n . Staatliche Museen z u Berlin. Havemeyer. Andy Crawford. 9 1 : www. 16: www. 2 8 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. J o n Roome. A . Jean Pierre Roy. c o . 2 4 5 : Oona Grimes. 132: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. Corporation of London. 158: Calouste Gulbenkian Museum. O. 1 9 8 : Dover Publications. G i n a R o w l a n d .co. and Tamsin Woodward Smith. 2 2 2 : Pierre Georgel/Private Collection. 137: © The British Museum. 2 0 2 : © T h e British Museum. D a w n Henderson. H a m b u r g . (r). G e r m a n y . Orientabteilung/Ruth Schacht. 51: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. b r i d g e m a n . Julie O u g h t o n . 1929 (29. 6 6 : w w w . 2 7 : Royal Academy of Arts. 2 4 2 : Photo Scala. c o . 9 5 : V a n Gogh M u s e u m .uk/Private Collection./Galerie Sylvie Nissen.co. b r i d g e m a n . Peter L u f f . 72: akg-images. Anders. U K . Dover Publications/ISBN: 0486229912 (t). 112: Yale University A r t Gallery/Everett V Meeks. 2 2 0 : Mamaru Abe. L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . 180: www. Angela Palmer.co. F r a n c e . 139: Galerie Marion Meyer/© Man Ray Trust / A D A G P . 1879. 1 5 : w w w . Paul T h o m a s .r. Graphische Sammlung. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. 174: Artothek/Munich. 179: www. Anders/ © D A C S 2 0 0 5 . Paris and D A C S . 221: Gagosian Gallery/Private Collection (b). K e w ft)). Copyright Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens.bridgeman. H a y w a r d Gallery. K u n s t m u s e u m Bern/© D A C S 2 0 0 5 .939). 2 4 4 : Ashmolean Museum. L e n . P h y l l Kiggell. Patty Stansfield. J o h n Walter.a. T h e R u s k i n School of D r a w i n g a n d Fine A r t . 69: Institut Amatller d'Art Hispanic (tl). 243: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. R o s e m a r y S c o u l a r . L o n d o n . 225: Stephen P Huyler. 9 2 : Science Photo L i b r a r y . Lisbon. Madrid. 2 0 1 : T h e Royal Collection © 2 0 0 2 H e r Majesty Queen Elizabeth I I . France. 29: Fogg A n Museum/Collections Baron de Vita: Grenville L.uk/Musee des Augustins. 1 . H e l e n S h u t t l e w o r t h . Paris. F i n n .uk/Private Collection. Amsterdam. a n d brushes o n pp. Publisher's Acknowledgments Dorling Kindersley w o u l d like to thank Caroline H u n t for editorial contribution.l. 11: www. Paris a n d D A C S . Basel. K u n s t m u s e u m . Wolfson College. Toulouse.uk/Guildhall Library. u k / O n Loan to the H a m b u r g Kunsthalle. 5 3 : Collection of the Gemeentemuseum D e n Haag/Mondrian Trust. Roddy Bell. Kirsten Norrie. Natalie G o d w i n . 1 3 6 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Centre Pompidou-MNAM-CCI. University of Cambridge. Sarah Woodfine. B e m d Kunzig. Sammy De Grave. B . London 2005. 1 5 9 : Bodleian Library. 17: J o h n Walter. 1 5 6 : Graphische S a m m l u n g Albertina. 7 0 : Studio Daniel L i b e s k i n d . L o n d o n . 5 2 : T h e Metropolitan Museum of Art/Bequest of Mrs. 3 1 : Tom Powel Imaging. 74: Corbis. 2 2 7 : Paul Klee Stiftung.uk/Private Collection. 2 4 0 : w w w . 2 1 8 : Adolf-Wdlfli-Stiftung. L o n d o n . L o n d o n . 176: Modem Art.uk /© Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery.Paris ( b ) . 4 6 : B r i t i s h Library.bridgeman. R u t h P a r k i n s o n .100. Florence/MoMA. Also./Private Collection/© D A C S 2005. . T o n y G r i s o n i . 2 0 3 : Clare Bryan (t). 115: Anita Taylor. 1 5 4 : akg-images/Musee National d'Art Moderne. 199: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee des arts asiatiquesGuimet. 9 4 : Sarah Woodfine. Jackie Douglas./© D A C S 2 0 0 5 ( t ) . Germany/Joerg P. 30: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. George M c G a v i n . Flossie. Productions Clovis Prevost (c).bridgeman. Diana Bell. 157: U C L Art Collections . Portugal. Picture Credits 8: Corbis/Hubert Stadler.co. . Oxford. 111: Fondation Beyeler/Riehen (Bale)/© Succession H Matisse/DACS 2005. Clare Bryan.bridgeman. R . 1 6 0 : Rene G R U A U s. K a t h r y n W i l k i n s o n . support. J o h n Roberts.co. 1 1 0 : www. 9 3 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library.bridgeman. 1 9 : Getty Images/© Succession Picasso / D A C S 2 0 0 5 . Japan. M a n d y Earey. 130: The Metropolitan M u s e u m of Art/Robert L e h m a n Collection. NY. 4 8 : T h e N a t u r a l H i s t o r y M u s e u m . 2 4 1 : Corbis/David M u e n c h ( b ) . Anita Taylor. London/Bequeathed by Charles Landseer. 3 2 : Pepys Library. 1 0 8 : Arts C o u n c i l Collection. 1 3 8 : © Christie's Images Ltd/© A D AGP. b r i d g e m a n .co. 181: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz.co. 2 4 : © T h e British Museum. papers. u k / L o u v r e . © Tate. Italy. 177: Mary Evans Picture Library. 1 7 8 : © T h e British M u s e u m / H e n r y Moore F o u n d a t i o n . L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . a n d encouragement i n m a k i n g this book: M a m o r u Abe. B e r l i n . 73: Berlin F i l m Museum (t). Salisbury & South W i l t s h i r e M u s e u m ( t ) . Sarah D u n c a n . Rocio Arnaez. Paula Regan. C o r n e l i s o n & Son. a n d D e p a r t m e n t s o f E n t o m o l o g y a n d Zoology at the University of Oxford. Psychiatric Institute of the University of Heidelberg. G e r m a n y . A . Sophie Laurimore. Agnieszka Mlicka. 2 2 3 : Lebrecht Music and Arts Photo Library/Ricordi. Germany.20-21 a n d 246-47.uk /Biblioteca Nacional.uk/Kettle's Yard. 1 3 3 : Artothek/Kupferstichkabinett. 1901. 1 3 5 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library.co. Magdalene College Cambridge. 1 3 4 : © T h e British Museum. 2 0 0 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. Kunstmuseum Bern. A n n a P l u c i n s k a . Paris. 226: Brian Catling. 2 2 4 : P r i n z h o m Collection. Pamela Ellis for compiling the index. Antonia Cunliffe Davis. Fund. 68: www. London/courtesy of Stuart Shave. 2 3 8 : akg-images. 7 1 : I M E C / A r c h i v e s E r i k Satie. Psychiatric Institute of the U n i v e r s i t y of Heidelberg. Paris a n d D A C S . H . S i m o n L e w i s . 1 6 1 : D C C o m i c s I n c .264 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Acknowledgments Author's Acknowledgments: T h e author wishes to thank the following people for their enormous help.co. Inc. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin/Jorg P. 114: Musee Rodin.bridgeman. J a c k a n d Brian Catling. 3 3 : Prinzhom Collection. 1975 ( 1 9 7 5 .uk/Mucha Trust. Sir Brinsley F o r d . Paris. Angela W i l k e s . Berlin/Staatsbibliothek zu A l l other images © Sarah Simblet . Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (t). 113: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. 75: © The British Museum (b). 1 9 6 : Museum of the History of Science. 13: www. Carole A s h . University of Oxford. Carlo O r t u for picture research s u p p o r t .bridgeman. B e r l i n . Christopher Davis. Winthrop. L o n d o n (t). for s u p p l y i n g the d r a w i n g books. u k / T o k y o National M u s e u m .Strang Print Room ( b ) . 5 0 : Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (1). U K . O o n a G r i m e s .bridgeman. H e a t h e r M c C a r r y . 9 7 6 ) .uk/British Museum. Illustrated London News Picture Library/The Bystander (b). Paris.co. B M G .
Creating a Sketchbook—Sarah Simblet's drawings inspire you to explore different subjects and fill your own sketchbooks. Learn from the Masters—a rich selection of drawings illustrates different approaches to a wide range of subjects.com Discover more at .FOR THE ARTIST T h e c o m p l e t e g u i d e to drawing—a unique blend of practical teaching and inspirational insights into classic and contemporary drawings.dk. shape. charcoal. discover new ideas. www. D r a w i n g C l a s s e s — d e t a i l e d step-by-step demonstrations show you how to develop your natural talents. and improve your drawing skills. and silverpoint—and apply the key elements of drawing including perspective. Materials and Techniques—how to use a variety of materials—from pencil and ink to pastel. and tone.