An innovative, practical approach to drawing the world around you

SARAH SIMBLET

BOOK
FOR T H E ARTIST

BOOK

FOR THE ARTIST

SARAH SIMBLET

DK PUBLISHING

CONTENTS
LONDON • NEW YORK MELBOURNE • MUNICH • DELHI Senior Editor Paula Regan Senior Art Editor Mandy Earey Art Editor Anna Plucinska Managing Editor Julie Oughton Managing Art Editor Heather McCarry Art Director Peter Luff Publishing Director Jackie Douglas Production Joanna Bull DTP Designer Adam Walker Picture Research Sarah Smithies US Editor Christine Heilman First American Edition, 2 0 0 5 First Paperback Edition, 2 0 0 9 Published in the United States by DK Publishing 3 7 5 Hudson Street New York, New York 1 0 0 1 4 10 11 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3

Architecture
6 8 20 22 Master Builders The Order of Sound Future Fictions Pathways of Sight Single-Point Perspective Creating an Imaginary Space Further Aspects of Perspective Theaters Venetian Life Parisian Street

66
68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86

Foreword Introduction Drawing Books and Papers Posture and Grip

Objects and Instruments

TD075-July 2009 Copyright © 2 0 0 5 Dorling Kindersley Limited Text and authors artworks © Sarah Simblet 2 0 0 4 Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited A Cataloging-in-Publication record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN 9 7 8 - 0 - 7 5 6 6 - 5 1 4 1 - 1 Color reproduction by GRB, Italy Printed and bound in China by Toppan

Still Life Instruments of Vision Bench Marks Light and Illusions Further Illusions How to Draw Ellipses Tonality Drawing with Wire Artifacts and Fictions

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90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106

Animals
Documentaries Presence and Mood Movement Icon and Design Pen and Ink Drawing with Ink Capturing Character Sleeping Dogs Turtles Dry Birds

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26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44

The Body
Postures and Poses Choreographs Passion Measurement and Foreshortening Quick Poses Hands and Feet Charcoal Hands Phrasing Contours The Visual Detective La Specola

108
110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128

Plants and Gardens
Botanical Studies Jeweled Gardens Fast Trees Graphite and Erasers Cropping and Composition Negative Space Fig Tree Summer Flowers Acanthus Spinosus

46
48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64

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Gatherings
Projections Magnetic Fields The Human Condition Disposable Pens The Travel Journal Catching the Moment Grand Canal Crossings Caravans The Big Top

174 Abstract Lines
176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 Process and Harmony Writing Time Chants and Prayers Compositions Being "Just" Collage Zen Calligraphy Nocturnes

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220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234

Portraiture
Poise Anatomies Revelations Self-Portraits Silver Point Head and Neck Essential Observations Drawing Portraits Generations Castings

130
132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 152

Earth and the Elements
Air in Motion Storms Nature Profiles Charcoal Landscapes Drawing in the Round Decaying Boat Cloudburst Notes of Force Mountains

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198 200 202 204 206 208 210 212 214 216

Gods and Monsters
Marks of Influence Hauntings Convolutions Brushes Brush Marks Monsters Goya's Monsters Consumed Glossary Index Acknowledgments

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240 242 244 246 248 250 252 254 256 259 264

Costume
Cloth and Drapery Character Costumes Femmes Fatales Colored Materials Study and Design The Structure of Costume Textures and Patterns Dressing Character Posture Carving

154
156 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172

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and makers of special effects. we learn to feel truly alive. undergraduates to fellow professors. remain unseen by most. still standing by the door. It is a tool for investigating ideas and recording knowledge. and a reflector of experience. that inspired the title and structure MEMORY T H E A T E R S This pen-and-ink drawing was made from imagination during research for my PhD. from schoolchildren to senior citizens. we learn to see it. Some are more traditionally framed and hung in galleries for solo or group exhibitions. and local c o m m u n i t y classes. I know that with their cooperation I can soon prove them wrong.Foreword B Y DRAWING THE WORLD AROUND US. as a visiting professor at universities. They occupy a shelf in my studio. a drawing book is the perfect portable private vehicle for your imminent exploration of drawing. a composer notating a musical score. drawing is the immediate expression of seeing. doctors. and their importance to so many artists. Others can be held in the h a n d or. not only to make art. These inspirations led me to invent museums. We can all learn how to draw. by invitation. I was also reading among The Confessions of St. where spaces are shaped by nothing more than the objects and activities contained within them. and I refer back to them for years after they are made. Drawing is a mirror through which I understand my place in the world. and through which I can see how I think. understood (and often misunderstood) our own bodies. we have looked at. aspirations. in which he describes himself flying and diving in his imagination through pictorial caverns of knowledge. and in a few sessions they will be flying. geologists. art schools. I was training in anatomy and studying how. I work with people of diverse ages. who tells me firmly upon approach that they cannot draw. especially as travel journals. night security staff. texture. Combine these things and the possibilities are endless. Chosen in any color. . and experience. thinking. and size. They enfold their viewer and are made on joined sheets of paper that I reach by climbing ladders. a cartographer charting the land. shape. For twelve years I have enjoyed the privilege of teaching drawing. The most rewarding challenge is always the newcomer. I will always draw. architect. or a quantum physicist trying to see for themselves the fluctuations of our universe. The very first step is to believe it. through history. be they a child discovering their vision and dexterity. and feeling. where I expect them to be discovered by some people. It is my love of these. perhaps hidden on a door hinge or a street bench rail. I also make drawing books. or engineer. a sculptor. Drawing occupies a unique place in every artist and creator's life. For me personally. Some of my drawings cover entire walls. and be slowly washed or worn away. but because it is how I engage with and anchor myself in life. By using our imaginations. It makes me feel excited to be alive. fashion designer. of Sketch Book for the Artist. are made outside as discreet installations. Augustine his notes on memory.

packaging. The sense of relief we may feel from the information overload of modern commercial life when visiting a country in which we can no longer read every written word. not just chosen pictures on our walls but everywhere—maps. and in meetings. They have a natural affinity to many modern graffiti signatures. and we spend our lives reading it. waving to us from many thousands of yearsago. is not afforded us by drawing. signs. graffiti. Most adults still feel that certain exquisite pleasure on arriving at a beach to find the tide out and the sand perfect. At home and at work we doodle. a great crowd is raising their hands in greeting. Children cannot be restrained from running across the pristine white lawn of newly fallen snow. We can always read each others drawings. but more often because drawing actually helps us to focus and take in what is said. "CAVE OF THE HANDS" In this drawing. Sometimes we draw because we are bored. irreverent to language barriers. in lectures. and patterns on our clothes. We are bombarded with linear and tonal pictorial information. Cueva de las Marios.Theseancient silhouettes were drawn with earth pigments rubbed onto rock. inscribing every fresh part of it with their eager scrapes and trails.8 INTRODUCTION Where We Begin There is a fundamental drive in our human nature to make a mark. scrawling shapes and cartoons when on the telephone. like a great canvas for them to mark. We are surrounded by drawings in our daily lives. logos. Drawing is international.000-9500 bce . Rio Pinturas 13.

reflecting my experience of looking closely at my father's face. MAKING OUR MARK It seems reasonable to assume that we have engaged in pictorial mark-making for as long as we have made conscious use of our hands." Until this day. and she kept it as my first step beyond the delighted realms of scrawl. at age two-anda-half. we see our oldest surviving images. but I had never yet attempted to figuratively picture my world. On a particular afternoon in September 1974.9 WHERE WE BEGIN FIRST PORTRAIT For sorre forgotten reason. I now think this is a picture of proximity. created by societies of hunter-gatherers. power. Cave art was not made for decoration but as a fundamental part of life. who in their day-to-day hardship made time to picture themselves and the animals on which they depended. . The image above is what I gave back to my mother. like all toddlers. Even though it is made by a toddler this image would be recognizable to anyone. enjoying the physical sensation of crayon on paper. and the appearance of my strikes of colors. I. and belonging to place. the hair of my first portrait was most important. an expression of existence. I was sitting with my mother. She gave me a notepad and a red crayon and asked me to draw her "a picture of Daddy. Eyelashes take up as much of my attention as the head itself. had happily scribbled. In cave paintings like the one opposite.

W e do n o t hesitate to draw a map.10 INTRODUCTION PEN-AND-INK BEE This tiny drawing has been enlarged to show its texture and composition. Inhibitions creep in and ideas of good a n d b a d terminate confidence. it is important to value your natural abilities a n d ways of seeing. to help a stranger see their way W h e n taking first steps in relearning h o w to draw. and from that first unit build and describe the shape of something or someone we know. and this activity plays a vital role in their d e v e l o p m e n t . Don't b e p e r s u a d e d to draw in a w a y s o m e o n e else . But as adolescents. Young children love to draw. most of us stop. As you progress. It was made with a few bold strokes of a steel pen dipped in ink to conjure the dried bee I was holding between my fingers on a pin. b e p r o u d o f what m a k e s y o u r w o r k individual to y o u . for example. h o w e v e r small a n d u n f o r m e d y o u believe they are. Hours are lost immersed in the glorious world of imagination. yet still turn to drawing w h e n their verbal language fails or is inadequate. At this point many will insist they cannot draw. then drag o u r line into a loop. PROGRESSION T h e r e is a point in all o u r lives w h e n w e first c o n t r o l o u r mark and m a k e it a line.

what they most want to achieve. harbor and sea is one of many that Alfred Wallis made from memory while sitting at home. Occasionally.11 PROGRESSION A UNIQUE SIGHT This innocent yet sophisticated drawing of boats. you must decide whether to keep or discard it. I ask them their reasons for drawing. Think how much would have been lost if anyone had interfered with Alfred Wallis' personal sense of proportion and perspective in the exquisite drawing above. The journey of every artist demands hard work and discipline. and which aspects of the vast wealth and diversity of graphic language would be most appropriate to their goals. After experimenting and trying each new idea. As you read this b o o k and perhaps attend art classes. 1925-42 53/8x87/8in (135 x 225 mm) ALFRED WALLIS prefers and tells you is better. I meet students struggling unhappily with a particular method of drawing. Enjoy the control of your own journey. Someone once told them they must draw in this way. . Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse c. He used leftover ship and yacht paint with crayons on cut-out pieces of cardboard boxes. and they have never questioned why. remember that all advice is only advice. He was a retired Cornish fisherman and junk dealer who began drawing at the age of 70 "for company" after his wife died. but it does help to set out facing in the right direction.

embedded in this book. right. but it should be the experienced world we draw. "There really is no such thing as Art. There should neve: be a slavish obligation to represent things exactly as we collectively agree we see them. Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels LEONARDO DA VINCI . and lose the very thing that attracted us to it. They are also always written backward.12 INTRODUCTION VISION All artists see the world differently. clear-minded understanding of the sea. it may not be accurate to our critical adult eye. 11). I hope. all raise water From the Archimedes' screw to Leonardo's own cupped wheel. the page bristles with the focus of ideas. wrote as the opening line of this great work. IDEAS A N D I N V E N T I O N S These active machines. The art historian Professor Sir Ernst Gombrich. author of The Story of Art." The clarity and empowerment of these words. boats. not for disguise but as a personal choice. and breathtaking wind of a choppy harbor. Below. There are only artists. We all see differently.and collarbones and shoulder blades of a different bird almost become new creatures in themselves. and inspire others. Our imaginations are the tools with which we can increase the essence of life. If as artists we nail a subject down too hard. When we look back at Wallis' seascape (see p. we can drive out its spirit. His notes visually balance his drawings. There are countless reasons for drawing. is. The observed world may be our subject. depending on the occasion and our purpose. be visionary. the breast. We also see differently ourselves. We BIRD STUDIES The flutter of faint scratches that dance across the pages on the right is an attempt to see the movement and bony weightlessness of a bird. perhaps for comfort or ease as a left-hander or a habitual enjoyment of the challenge. but the child in us knows that this is an all-embracing.

This also applies if struggling at length with a larger picture. My drawings of a housemartin (opposite top) illustrate the importance of repeated study. make a calculation. . Opposite. shout against a terrible injustice. drawing in pursuit of our own thoughts and understanding. while below. Our drawings are annotated investigations into the mechanisms of nature and of an idea. it may be best to start afresh. when it looks tired and still feels wrong. conduct an experiment.13 VISION should not try to know how every finished picture will look. Each fresh image reflects growing confidence and the experience of the preceding study. Leonardo drew to invent a machine. Don't be disheartened. More was learned drawing the bird 18 times than would have been understood drawing it only once or twice. or to discover the best use of a new material. It will be invested through your experience in the new drawing. to express the beauty in a moment's play of light. stripped-down parts. Decide before you start whether you are drawing to warm up. I drew to understand the apparatus of flight. but it is important to be clear why we are making it. or illustrate a dream. We have both covered our paper with focused. time spent is not lost.

Imagine these qualities so strongly that you feel them in your mind and at your fingertips. and opacity of your subject. It denies the importance of accident. created centuries and cultures apart. and sometimes beyond. We are caught in a shifting focus that makes everything fluid.14 INTRODUCTION ALCHEMY At school. Our position asvieweris unsteady. or ice—you must actually feel it beneath your fingers as you draw. water. silk. This is the alchemy of drawing. Whatever the material— wood. and practice each part before putting the final image together. However. BRUSHED LANDSCAPE FLOWING SKELETON T h e gliding poise of this walking anatomy comes as much from the feeling of movement as it does from the feeling of drawing. or imagine—it is not enough to only render its shape. You must also think of its intrinsic nature: its purpose. we are advised or even required to plan our pictures. This is a detail of a brush-and-ink drawing by a Japanese Buddhist monk. and paper. and allowed to flow through the brush. meaning. explain the composition. and an island brushed with trees. excessive planning can get in the way of the imagination. trusting my intuition to find a visual equivalence for the sensation of weight within my body. This suits many artists well and is perfectly valid. They each allowed the energy and focus of the moment to be expressed through controlled accident and a degree of the unknown Both drawings were made trusting the marks. The physicality. declare the idea. the unknown. mists. are both made of ink laid onto wet paper with speed and agile certainty. which can offer keys to other things. and how it feels to the touch. If you can do this. metal. your marks will become the subject on the paper. Landscape in Haboku Style 15TH CENTURY . and we can just make out the distant stains of mountains. depth. and position in space. temperature. As your hand meets the paper to make a mark. feel. bone. Know the texture. size. Each image relied upon past experience to know the probable behavior of the brush. balance. and spirit of each subject was held strongly but loosely between the fingertips. W e float toward the quiet vista as it also moves toward us. and at speeds beyond conscious thought. These two brush drawings. As you draw any subject—something you see. ink. and what you discover in the process of making. it should be responding to the sensation and meaning of the subject it draws. I made it almost unconsciously with a pen and a brush. fire.

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which evoke realities o f place and the p o w e r o f moment. gold leaf and spray paint.1896 Woman at her Toilet 41 x 26 in (104 x 66 cm) TOULOUSE LAUTREC RIB-CAGE D R A M A Thus drama. pastel. W a l t e r also makes books: some. like folded insects. Lautrec's flamboyant splashes o f petticoats and pantaloons are drawn with long sweeps of chalk and brushed oil paint. acrylic. He dazzles us with flashes o f light and dabbed marks o f shadow.16 INTRODUCTION PLACE A N D MOMENT The heat and teeming atmosphere o f this Parisian dressing room. c. stand table-sized with furniture legs attached t o b o t h sides of their jacket. right is set inside a rib cage. made by a young British artist who creates alphabets o f the absurd f r o m familiar childhood characters. lives on. more than 100 years after its making. Focusing on the Negative 2004 22 x 30 in (56 x 76 cm) J O H N WALTER . one of many luminous works in watercolor. left.

try not to grip your pen worrying about the technical terms you might have heard.17 FREEING THE HAND If you are just beginning to learn how to draw. Choose other materials and do the same. Much will be learned on these test sheets and in your first drawings. Drawing is exploratory. As you follow lessons in this book. at a point when you feel you are not making progress. you will be surprised and encouraged to see how far you have come. FREEINGTHEHAND . you will naturally make progress on your own in response to concentration and the decision to look and draw. just through the act of making. diary-like observations. potential ideas still forming. Ignore these at first and allow yourself the freedom to play. It is yours. Put them away and look at them later. Start by choosing a material you like the look of and cover a piece of paper with different marks. Such books are personal: the territory of new exploration and experiment. even those you dislike. and miscellaneous items of inspiration. With no help and advice at all. Pages do not have to lie open for other people to inspect and comment on. take your time and don't worry if you need to make several attempts to grasp a concept. and mistakes are a valuable process of learning. Enjoy discovering what your hand and the material can do. One of the advantages of a drawing book is that you can shut it. Try to keep all of your first drawings.

Drawing is a living language that over millennia has grown and changed. threedimensionally. Look to your own experience and also learn from the work of others. To these I have added my own drawings to explain elementary materials and techniques and offer introductory approaches. A N ARTIST'S HANDS These are the hands of the artist Phyll Kiggell (see p. and enfolding new media. we still only glimpse a corner of the magnitude of this subject and the infinity of what can be achieved. when they are more experienced.18 INTRODUCTION THE THINKING EYE Techniques and materials are the grammar and vocabulary of drawing and can be studied and shared. The real drawing book has yet to come. adapting its form and occupation. comes from within. caught between action and repose. staring straight through his image of a bull. it will be your creation as you discover your own personal vision. Note that the drawing classes are allocated to subjects. it is this voice that is the subtle part of their art and something that ultimately. 150). Picasso is poised smiling. Once there. This practical journey will take you through the door into the vivid heart of drawing. and many more reasons for drawing the world. In the total wealth of these pages. and became a great subject for me. Picasso Painting with Light at the Madoura Pottery 1949 . which of course he cannot see. but not confined to them. Imagination needs nourishment. the path is yours. seek ideas in the life around you. ELECTRIC BULL With a penlight. It rarely flourishes in isolation. The chapters of this book present 90 different artists' ways of seeing. Picasso has just finished his drawing. As you draw. which is held frozen in space by a camera lens. However. An artist's personal voice is something that also evolves through lessons learned.Their elegant strength seems to summon a lifetime of drawing. I was particularly attracted to their gentle articulation and understated determination. Its sensuous and flowing line seems to drift like smoke.

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and handles to lift the weight of your artworks. catalogs. cheap corrugated plastic ones fall apart in days. t h i s is h o w I l e a r n e d . a n d crayons. pastels. it is better to have them made at a lumber yard or home improvement store. b e a w a r e t h a t p a p e r t e x t u r e effects a n d changes t h e i r marks. R I N G . Sand the edges to avoid splinters. thickness. Calculate a range of useful dimensions and have several cut at once. 2. Many artists invent ways o f binding their o w n books. and collage their ideas. Smooth plywood. c h o o s e s m a l l e r h a r d . cut. is perfect. These are perfect f o r w o r k i n g in novels. texture. c h o o s e larger f o r m a t s t o give y o u s c o p e f o r e x p e r i m e n t . BLACK P O C K E T B O O K S : Hand-sized w i t h ready-made elastic binder and a marker ribbon. 2002 Tantalus o r The Future of Man 81/2 x61/4in (215 x 158 mm) ROSE MILLER . and glued t o a s t r i p o f bias binding. Homemade books can be assembled easily from found materials or selections of loose sheet papers. Most contain thin p a p e r and are perfect f o r use w i t h disposable pens. N o t e t h e w i d e l y differing c h o i c e o f p a p e r s w i t h w h i c h t h e s e are m a d e .C O V E R E D H A R D B O U N D : Ideal f o r c a r r y i n g a r o u n d . 6. H O M E M A D E : I m a d e this b o o k f r o m drawing paper that I folded. color.q u a l i t y r i n g . There are dozens to choose from. Alternatively. thick enough not to flex. stitched.20 INTRODUCTION Drawing Books and Papers T o BEGIN YOUR EXPLORATION o f d r a w i n g . 1. quality. which are also sold in an enormous range.B O U N D PADS: T h e s e are t h e least expensive a n d useful f o r o p e n i n g flat. You simply need two strong boards hinged together well. T h e hardb o a r d j a c k e t is s t r e t c h e d w i t h canvas beneath t h e p a p e r sleeve. 5. C O L O R E D PAPERS: Large a r t supply stores o f t e n sell t h i c k b o o k s full o f c o l o r e d p a p e r s . study the structure of a good portfolio and make your own. If you intend to carry your boards for a distance. F o r traveling. 4. a n d r e f e r e n c e b o o k s f o u n d in s e c o n d . They can be very expensive in art stores. a l e n g t h o f black elastic t i e d a r o u n d t h e m i d d l e will h o l d the contents together w h e n y o u f o l d in c o l l e c t e d items.h a n d s t o r e s make unique subjects f o r e x p e r i m e n t s a n d collage.b o u n d b o o k w i l l s o o n s h o w y o u h o w it is m a d e . C A N V A S . F O U N D B O O K S : O l d p r i n t e d 3 . F o r e v e n i n g classes. Dissecting a d i s c a r d e d h a r d . and cost. H o w e v e r r i n g bindings o f t e n break. t h e i r jackets w i l l a c t like d r a w i n g b o a r d s a n d p r o t e c t y o u r w o r k .b o u n d p a d if y o u w i s h t o keep your drawings together long-term. Art students often make use of printed books picked up from secondhand stores into which they draw.b o u n d b o o k s t h a t fit in y o u r p o c k e t o r bag. drawing book. Drawing boards are invaluable. binding. ties on either side to keep your papers in place. be sure they fit comfortably under your arm. y o u n e e d a lifetime. A high-quality one will last a DRAWING BOOKS Select d r a w i n g b o o k s t o suit y o u r aims. It is also useful to own a portfolio. Gleaming store purchases vary greatly in format. Purchase a h i g h . c o l o r If planning t o use pencils.

Use cheap paper for rough ideas and quality paper for work to last See the glossary ( p p . turning brown and brittle. size. T W O RIVERS GREEN 410G MS: Very heavy tinted textured cold-pressed watercolor paper See Two Rivers Yellow. C A R B O N PAPER: Available in dark and light blue. 2 5 6 . Ph. pastel paper in flecked pastel colors with a distinctive ribbed marking. SAUNDERS WATERFORD N O T 300GMS: Mid-quality textured watercolor paper. For use with any media. and hot pressed papers. bamboo. It is also excellent for drawing with marker pens on layered sheets. Use for brushwork drawings. 13. and cost. FABRIANO R O U G H 600GMS: Very heavy. color. 7. Cotton papers are high-quality and acid-free.5 9 ) for explanations of rough. VELIN ARCHES 250GMS: Printmaking paper available in black white. or machine made in sheets. mulberry. 18. 11. fine. 14. FABRIANO ACADEMIA: Standard medium-range multipurpose paper Use with any media. cold. 8. from pencil to paint 9. 10. 100% cotton and sold in sheets. it is made from rice. and other plant fibers. JAPANESE PAPER: Strong. or rolls. 20. 12. It is available in white or cream. texture. FABRIANO INGRES: Thin. tough. also good for drawing with colored pencils. 21.TISSUE PAPER: Place sheets between drawing book pages to keep images from printing on each other and use for delicate collage. blocks. 17. C A N S O N : Inexpensive lightweight pastel paper in many colors. blocks. T W O RIVERS Y E L L O W 410GMS: See Two Rivers Green 19. GLASSINE: Sold as protective wrapping. and white. Cheap wood-pulp papers are acidic. 22. They are hand-. printed on one side only. yellow. 16. 15. absorbency. used to imprint lines of these colors onto a surface. and rolls. METALLIC PAPER: Thin paper in different metallic colors. AQUARELLE ARCHES 300GMS:The very top quality hot-pressed (smooth) watercolor paper. MAGIC PAPER: A reusable sheet for testing ideas without creating waste. white textured paper that can take abrasive use of any medium. smooth.Papers differ in thickness (weight). ITALIAN PARCHMENT: Imitation-animal-skin parchment that is translucent and slightly waxy. red. PAPERS . not. resisting deterioration. mold-. Use with a brush in clean water Water makes a dark mark like ink and becomes invisible again when dry. and translucent. and cream sheets or rolls.

your lines will distort. flowing space between your hand. Regularly step back 6-9 ft (2-3 m) to check your progress. If using an upright easel. Use the side of your little fingernail as a support on the page. your drawing will reflect this. your whole relaxed b o d y should be involved. In this book we will look at parallels between drawing and music. This cramped grip tires your hand and makes small. arm. should be able to look comfortably straight ahead at your picture plane. you can draw lines freely and achieve a significant arc of movement. make sure you have enough room to back away and view your work. Turning your drawing sideways or upside-own will also help reveal what is wrong. How you hold your drawing materials is also important. If seated on a b e n c h easel (a donkey). b u t it should n o t be forgotten that many people make remarkable a n d striking works drawing with their feet or holding their brush or pencil in their mouths. strangledlooking drawings. This photograph illustrates how some people hold a pen to write. Examples are shown here. place it on your right. but wherever possible. There are also parallels to dance. if left-handed. Relaxed fingers: Hold the pencil away from its tip and relax your fingers.22 INTRODUCTION Posture and Grip T o DRAW WELL. Placing your easel o n the w r o n g side folds y o u r b o d y against your drawing arm. and look to the right. If your body posture is well balanced and you can move freely. With your hand in this position. don't sit too close to the paper. You do not have to dance to draw. Ideally. body. you Drawing classes can be cramped places. You cannot draw like this—your hand is locked and your fingers can barely move. place it on the correct side: if right-handed. If your hand twists to maneuver between the paper and your body. From a distance you will spot errors you cannot see close up. place it on your left. 116-17). . but you need to understand that the expression of a line or mark originates in the body and flows t h r o u g h the shoulder. a n d h a n d to the fingertips. a n d look to the left of it at your subject. SPACE TO WORK Cramped grip. or with your drawing board angled between your lap and a chair. Accelerated perspective also occurs if you look down the surface steeply (see pp. It will also reflect discomfort if you are in any way cramped. and subject. There should be an open.

brush pressed against an upright surface will cause a dribble of ink to run down your drawing. roughly marking out a large-scale work. It is most comfortable when reaching to draw above your head.232-33). If you turn a brush or dip pen up into the air to draw above your hand. not up to the paper Brushes can be used on upright paper but dip Anticipating effects: A fully loaded pens need a level surface. GRAVITY Remember that gravity affects the flow of ink and paint. or it can spoil your work if not anticipated. To stop this. This can be used to great effect. . This can give a new lease on life to your mark-making. liquid will run down your hand. depending upon what it is and how large you are working. or change to the wrong hand. find an unfamiliar. alternative way of holding the pencil. Brush calligraphy: This comfortable. But be careful not to tense your fingers. upright way of holding the brush near its base is similar to the Japanese way used in Zen calligraphy (see pp. arm. hold your material as you find most comfortable. Large scale: POSTURE AND GRIP U n f a m i l i a r i t y : T h e habitual movements of our handwriting style will sometimes infringe upon our drawing. Large amounts of ink can be applied without fear of uncontrolled running if the paper is flat. and body are not restricted. Remember you can also draw just by dipping your fingers in pigment—this is how many women draw in rural India. As long as your fingers. ALL MEDIA There are no rules as to how you should hold your drawing media. Soft media: Short materials such as pastels and charcoal can be accommodated in the palm.23 This loose "candle" grip is very useful when drawing with your arm extended.

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and this very drawing was to endure many copies and plagiarisms after its triumphant return to the English court of Queen Elizabeth I. animals provide a perfect subject with which to begin. each dedicated to the moralized tale of an animal or monster The bestiary profoundly influenced the art of its period.. floating turtles. For the novice artist. Europeans on board had never seen such a thing. JOHN WHITE British artist. and snakes have between them engendered harpies. to be there at the m o m e n t of discovery. who described in words what White drew. 1590 J O H N WHITE capture form and movement from the m a n n e r i s m s of honking geese. " Animals perpetually feed our imaginations. Here (left) we see J o h n White's exquisite record of a flying fish. As children we delight in the humanized trials of Tom and Jerry and their c a r t o o n relations. dogs. In 19th-century Europe this became a "science. which are so unlike ours." He worked with the scientist Thomas Harriot. which very likely leaped o n t o the deck of Sir Walter Raleigh's ship Tiger as it sailed north from the Caribbean to Virginia in 1585. 1540.m o u n t e d skeletons of birds. White's commission was to ". On the Roanoke voyages of Sir Walter Raleigh. offer challenges and delights to draw. and learn how to Flying Fish c. sleeping dogs. Framed in the z o o or in domestic cohabitation. Together they made maps and documented animals. 11 x91/4in (277 x 234 mm) . plants. and silent. from which personality and predicted behavior were " d e d u c e d . and to bring h o m e drawn documentaries of their finds. their different speeds and patterns of action. the Latin bestiary was one of the most popular picture books—an illustrated dictionary of one hundred parts. In this chapter we discover the use of pens and ink through the delineation of insects. W e have drawn them in m a n u s c r i p t s to explain our genesis and to c o u n t their species into Noah's ark." Paranoid newcomers c r a m m e d into swelling industrial cities used handbooks of physiognomy to identify and judge their neighbors. W h e n lost to explain our own emotions. insects. O v e r the centuries. bats. In medieval England. and we still see escapees from its pages carved and grinning as the gargoyles of churches. or scampering through the initials and borders of pictures from that time. we have employed artists on expeditions. mermaids. fish. and dragons. This drawing is made in black lead (metal point) with watercolor Highlights of silver would have gleamed. After the subject of ourselves. cartographer. they are perhaps our favorite pictorial preoccupation. We have drawn them on the walls of caves to evoke their kinship and power.. and people.drawe to lief one of each kinde of thing that is strange to us in England. werewolves. out are now oxidized and so appear black W h e n less preoccupied with understanding ourselves.Animals H UMANS HAVE DRAWN ANIMALS from the beginning of our time. and pioneer born c. m u s e u m . we turn and take the features of beasts. Facial features were analyzed in terms of their animal likeness. birds.

26 ANIMALS Documentaries horse are superb affirmations of the power of drawing as a recorder and communicator of knowledge. The first live rhinoceros to reach Europe came from India in May 1515. naturalist. a gift to the Portuguese King. printmaker. years after its publication. a drawing of it arrived in Nuremberg. Unsurpassed. they were rejected. it continued its journey to Rome. filled journals with ideas and observations. It is such a lifelike triumph of imagination and intelligence that for centuries zoologists never questioned its authority. Sailing to Rome. Life-like This is Durer's original quill-and-ink drawing made after an anonymous Portuguese drawing. inspiring countless works of art and so touching people's imaginations that later. DURER'S RHINOCEROS AND STUBBS'S skeletal Durer. It was to become the animal's only accepted likeness for 250 years. Contemporary texts related accounts of the beast as the mortal enemy of the elephant and rare relative of the "more common" unicorn. He in turn sent the mysterious creature to the Pope via Marseilles at the request of the King of France. Durer traveled widely to study at different European schools of art. when more accurate portrayals were made without armor and scales. but the drowned animal washed ashore. and mathematician. He studied the image and drew his own interpretation. Meanwhile. Carefully stuffed. it is still consulted by veterinarians today. Durer's image changed eager hands until it was known across Europe. writer. draftsman. Original Ink Drawing of a Rhinoceros 1515 ALBRECHT DURER 103/4 x 161/2 in ( 2 7 4 x 4 2 0 mm) . Converted into a print. the home of ALBRECHT DURER German Renaissance painter. Stubbs's Anatomy of the Horse achieved similar documentary status. and wrote four books on proportion. the ship was lost.

a n d s i d e . His painted p o r t r a i t o f t h e b e a s t is in t h e R o y a l C o l l e g e o f S u r g e o n s o f England. Dissections were made over a total of 18 months. This is one of Stubbs' original finished pencil drawings. naturalist. is no other work like it. Lighting Stubbs's breathtaking international work won immediate There acclaim. dissecting and drawing until he understood the mechanisms of its power and grace. The entire project was developed over ten years. He composed makes each horse appear so real and each plate from his three-dimensional. which has never diminished. in t h r e e v i e w s — r e a r f r o n t . Stubbs's m o s t c e l e b r a t e d publication.GEORGE STUBBS B r i t i s h e q u i n e a n d s o c i e t y p o r t r a i t painter. Anatomy of the Horse. He translated his own drawings into engravings for publication. knowledge of parts. Dissections Stubbs took his knife and his pencil and physically climbed inside the horse. and therefore invented the lighting that Compare how Stubbs and Durer both invented lighting to portray the reality of their animals. a n d anatomist. c o m p r i s e s 1 8 p l a t e s s h o w i n g d i s s e c t i o n s in l a y e r s f r o m b o n e t h r o u g h m u s c u l a t u r e t o skin. composed from notes and observations. L o n d o n . Stubbs w a s o n e o f t h e first E u r o p e a n artists t o m a k e a n a c c u r a t e representation o f the rhinoceros. Table of the III of the Horse (rear Skeleton view) mm) 1756-58 1 4 x 7 in ( 3 5 4 x 1 8 0 GEORGE STUBBS .

novelist. The octopus is formed in layers applied and distressed with a brush. He wrote to poet and art critic Charles-Pierre Baudelaire about his experiments. I've ended up mixing in pencil. and her distinctive temperament. her sharp teeth. The Hunchback of Notre Layers and shadows Throughout this drawing. His copious drawings are characterized by mixed media. it silently rises to the light. Gericault took a sharp p e n c i l to m a k e repeated direct o b s e r v a t i o n s f r o m life. Hugo's page is f l o o d e d w i t h the fearful presence of a remembered octopus.". more or less what I have in view. soot. Surrounding sprays of graphite powder are stuck into washes of oil and ink to suggest glutinous depths. Mixed media Here.. snarl. drawing her again and again to pin d o w n the texture of her loose skin. and all sorts of bizarre concoctions which manage to convey above all in mind. drama. and leader of the French Romantic movement. conjured b y the hand of a great author of French literary fiction. Gericault's sheet a p p e a r s almost s c r a t c h e d b y the f e r o c i o u s play of his cat. Hugo used graphite powder. and a love of accident. VICTOR HUGO Poet. the ominous beast unwinds from the dark of the sea and of our nightmares. Apparently drawn in its o w n ink. By contrast.. linseed oil soaked into the paper has made shadows and repelled the ink to create translucent tentacles. sepia. ink and linseed oil on paper. her b o n y frame. charcoal. coal dust. A s if disturbed from its gritty b e d by our presence and curiosity... playwright. and turn. and Pieuvre 1866-69 91/2 x81/8in (242 x 207 mm) VICTOR H U G O . Hugo's novels Les Miserables and Dame have become classics of film and stage.28 ANIMALS Presence and Mood THESE DRAWINGS HAVE BEEN CHOSEN to s h o w t w o v e r y different ways of picturing a wild animal. H u g o mixed his media and drew from m e m o r y and imagination to create narrative atmosphere. saying ". He has w a t c h e d her p o u n c e .

artists reused sheets and them full of studies. of drawings Gericault erased. Before paper became so cheap. and keep trying again. horses w e r e a favorite subject t o g e t h e r w i t h politics and history. facing right. fiery. s h o r t . displayed in the Louvre. 144. Here.118-119). At the center of the page is crammed drawings the outline of a horse. The Raft of the Medusa. undertraces unify and vitalize the composition. Undertraces Beneath these graphite studies we see traces Tones On the top row we see clearly how Gericault laid broad areas of tone using fast. standing sideways. of previous Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 1817-18 121/2 x 151/2 in ( 3 1 9 x 3 9 8 mm) T H E O D O R E GERICAULT .29 THEODORE GERICAULT C o n t r o v e r s i a l . and it can be applied to any subject (see pp. H e is best k n o w n f o r his gigantic painting.l i v e d French R o m a n t i c painter and lithographer Largely self-taught. Repeated study This drawing demonstrates of feeling confident repeat different the importance subject Remaining enough to isolate parts of a views. Paris. 124-25 and p. focused upon seeing will lead to a greater understanding of the subject Much is learned from repeated study. Tones that do not follow surface contour is very difficult to do well. diagonal strokes of his pencil. Beginners are advised to follow the natural contours of form as shown on pp. parallel. since it can lead to a flattened form.

quivering horse. Cheval et Oiseau 1936 173/8 x 211/4 in ( 4 4 0 x 5 4 0 m m ) PABLO PICASSO . Artists commonly focus on such actions. gray. In Picasso's drawing. and brown. overwhelmed by a screeching bird. and scrolled lines. slow tortoise. we see semi-abstract. draftsman. flapping bird. Klee's riders are constructed from all the gestures of greeting mules. printmaker ceramicist graphic and stage designer who lived in France. The ink is used to make sharply defined solid. identify an animal: the fast cheetah. noise is everywhere. Ink and gouache This drawing is made in black Chinese ink and gouache (opaque watercolor) applied with a brush. Both Picasso and Klee have enclosed their subjects to compress and amplify the speed of PABLO PICASSO A prolific Spanish painter sculptor. dissolving faun kneels stranded. taking them to guide their hand in bringing form and essence together. Picasso cofounded Cubism. and waves breaking distantly below. His hand must have shuddered and twitched just like the constant actions of this humorous meeting. or proud. the first abstract movement of the 20th century. These media complement and amplify each other with their brilliant contrast. Gouache is brushed softly in translucent hazy layers of cool blue. the whinnying of a frantic horse. hooked. His powdery. flattened animals composed almost entirely of movement. Faune. The fact that they never stand still influences the movement in his line. made only a year apart.30 ANIMALS Movement M O V E M E N T IS OFTEN THE CHARACTERISTIC b y w h i c h w e their lines and the power of their beasts. with George Braque (see p90). In these two drawings.

draftsman. well-worn copies o f w h i c h are found in m a n y art schools. turning our eye and around inside the and postures of the paper- thin on pictorial space. Chicago PAUL KLEE . printmaker. N e u m a n n Family Collection. The entire drawing suggests the endless small movements of horses standing still." They chatter around bodies in groups. sculptor. top all happily of each other in the Endless lines Look closely at how Klee's lines rarely leave the paper and how they are free from the constraint of finite shape. violinist. He is a u t h o r o f The Thinking Eye (1923). W i t h his drawings Kleeb o u n d sophisticated theories to personal and often witty childlike imagery. Layers of marks In this pale Dentil drawing we see layers of' agitated marks that together present a kind of visual "itch.PAUL KLEE Swiss painter. Scene der Komischen of Comical Reiter Riders) (Scene 1935 161/2x111/2in ( 4 1 9 x 2 9 1 mm) M o r t o n G . creatures. They remain in contact with the surface of the page and scribble back and forth as they maneuver from one area to another. and t e a c h e r at t h e Bauhaus school.

and s e c t i o n s o f ships. it would achieve greater speed. In just one drawing he has displayed more angles of his design than we would expect to see from a single viewpoint Fragments English 1586 101/2 x 153/8 in (270 x 390 mm) MATTHEW BAKER of Ancient Shipwrightry . b a s e d o n his studies o f fish. The fish It is likely that Baker drew with a quill dipped in irongall ink. B a k e r initiated t h e scientific p r a c t i c e o f naval a r c h i t e c t u r e and applied h y d r o d y n a m i c s . slim stern). and blackbirds fly in formation through a mosaic of text. The ship The upper decks of the ship appear curved toward us at both ends. and from them learned that if he designed his ship with a "cod's head MATTHEW BAKER Master shipwright. and the carefully observed gills. His birds stare. drawings of animals that are each held tightly in a surprising space: a giant fish wears a ship's hull. Knopf's drawing opposite is the personal enigmatic expression of a mind gripped by illness. Baker lived in an era when ships were built without drawn plans. seemingly looking for our attention. mathematician. In contrast to the practical clarity of Baker's thought. fins. Exquisite details in this drawing include the lips of the fish. He studied the anatomy of fish. later called a galleon. Below we see his revolutionary design for an Elizabethan warship.32 ANIMALS Icon and Design IN THESE T W O MANUSCRIPTS we discover diagrammatic and mackerel's tail" (full bow. balance. This drawing illustrates Baker's theory. It is simply how we read his perspective. the expression of its eye. and author o f Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (1586). t h e earliest geometrically defined elevations. adding washes of color with a fine brush. plans. and scales. which in application gave strength and advantage to the English fighting the Spanish Armada. Baker did not intend this. and steerage. and to assess our next move.

firmly outlined. circle and the birds. and filled evenly with tone.JOHANN KNOPF An " O u t s i d e r " a r t i s t w h o s u f f e r e d f r o m m e n t a l illness. appears to be stirred like water by the presence of the The Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks UNDATED 133/8 x 115/8 in (340 x 2 9 6 mm) and psychiatrist Hans Prinzhom collected this image.K n o p f b e l i e v e d h e c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h e language o f birds. JOHANN KNOPF . numbered. The text. written last of all. The main group is placed in a circle drawn with a compass. T h e G e r m a n a r t historian Outline and tone The blackbirds illuminating this frantic manuscript are drawn in pencil. w h i c h o f t e n f e a t u r e as s y m b o l i c creatures in his drawings.

METAL PENS: Inexpensive removable steel nibs are available in a range of widths. 2. while metal nibs began as rare gifts in gold and silver before being perfected by the British steel industry. where reeds were gathered. F O U N T A I N PENS: These vary in quality and nib width. Intricate or dramatic lines. Responsive to slight changes in pressure. QUILLS: These are cut from the barrel of a flight or tail feather. The Chinese used animal or fish glue. The reservoir gives a constant flow of ink for very long unbroken lines and continuous bottle-free use. Early artists recommended raven and crow for especially fine work. Each pen has a unique character. The bar is then rubbed into water on a slate block to produce ink. they are associated with rapid. which scratch rather than draw. and spatters can be made with an exotic choice of inks. The Egyptians and Chinese are credited with the invention of carbon ink. That is an ink. which range greatly in their handling and character of line. from the acacia tree. the recipes for which have been handed down over centuries. ink is traditionally applied with a brush (see pp. high-quality Chinese and Japanese inks are subtler and more complex than those produced in Europe. simultaneously 4 . Avoid needle-sharp mapping pens. In the Far East. and hold it under a clean basin until the soot hangs to it. 5 0 0 years ago. PENS . The paste from either recipe is pressed and dried into a bar for storage." "Gum" refers to gum arabic extracted Dip pens are essential and inexpensive drawing tools. light it. A German recipe of 1531 gives a simple description: "Take a wax candle. 4. expressive drawing techniques such as the ones we explore in this chapter 1. distinguished manufacture. Masters choose brands of long. Only fill with suitable inks. Dip pens began their history in the Nile River.246-47).34 ANIMALS Pen and Ink W I T H A HANDFUL OF FEATHERS. Today. 3. They fit into wooden holders. producing a different line. and first used by the Egyptians. Quills were later cut from feathers. and it is still in use today. you can have great fun drawing the world around you. then pour a little warm gum water into it and temper the two together. REED PENS: A broad nib can be cut from bamboo or another tubular grass. a n d m e t a l p o i n t s . spots. The best are goose or swan. s t i c k s .

SEPIA A N D BISTRE INKS: Sepia. The complexities of traditional iron-gall ink are explained on p. 5. waterproof or non-waterproof. and are still in use today: carbon (Chinese and Indian). Waterproof types contain shellac. is the ink of a cuttlefish or squid extracted post-mortem. INKS 9. Beechwood soot is best. boiled. and sepia. and most can be homemade. I N D I A N INK: Carbon ink sold today in liquid form. . They are the easiest inks to use. Excellent for drawing they are bright and non-clogging. roastedwine sediment (Yeast Black). C A R B O N INK: Traditionally produced from oil or resin soot (Lamp Black). It dries with a sheen and clogs uncleaned pens.36. or charcoal.35 PEN AND INK Four types of ink were common before the 20th century. suspended in a binder and stored as a solid block Blocks are imported today 7. charred bone (Ivory Black). Crushed. Inks can be lightfast or non-lightfast. Now we also have acrylic ranges in many colors. reduced. 8. and can be mixed and diluted to create subtler colors and tones. dated.G A L L INK: Abnormal spherical growths caused by parasitic wasps can be collected from some oak trees in fall. Old stock turns solid and bottlesChina. I R O N . an often misused term. bistre. ACRYLIC / CALLIGRAPHY INKS: Available in black and a range of colors. Bistre is the more humane use of soot scraped from the fireplace and ground into wine. from are not 6. and sieved. iron-gall. Non-waterproof Indian inks can be reworked with a wet brush after drying. they produce a golden dye for drawing.

For centuries. keep all your fingers behind basis of iron-gall ink. The lighter right Quill marks Quills carry more ink than strokes and for as reeds. appears broken to show paper beneath. Quills are also called D u t c h pens. T h e y give a finer. the blade and cut away from you. and delicious to draw with. Walnut ink is gloopy. 2 4 4 is an e x q u i s i t e e x a m p l e . V a n G o g h . and turned brown with time. fleshy skins that surround ripe walnuts. t h e y stick a n d j u d d e r f o r w a r d . . QUILL PENS Q u i l l s a r e highly r e s p o n s i v e t o c h a n g e s in p r e s s u r e . are surprisingly tough. red-brown. for example. drawn to glisten with a dryer nib. and boiled to make a golden ink. reduced. Although oak galls and walnut skins are harmless. Rembrandt. It also oxidized and ate or burned paper. crushed. r e s e r v e d t h e i r use f o r large c h o i r b o o k s . U n d e r heavy pressure. Practice to gain a feel for how materials behave. Reed marks The darker left wing of this beetle was drawn with the wet inky stroke wing. Collect skins from the ground beneath trees once they are blackened. giving a s h o r t . M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s d r a g o n o n p . sieved. forming the REED PENS R e e dpens dispense ink quickly. of a loaded nib. galls were ground with iron sulfate to make an unstable solution. it was gray-purple. Some of Michelangelo's drawings are now a little eaten by their own ink. Running fresh. I u s e d t h e s e qualities t o d r a w t h e w o r m s above. a n d d e v e l o p e d t h e quill instead. since t h e D u t c h w e r e t h e first t o realize t h a t they could be hardened and i m p r o v e d w i t h heat t r e a t m e n t in ash o r sand. giving longer lines. then cut a final nib (feathers. always be cautious when experimenting with recipes. Paler strokes were made where the mark has the legs and antennae the ink ran out. d r y mark. The darkest of this grasshopper wings) were made (around the head first. Oak galls. can also be collected from affected trees.) You can make ink easily from the boiled. Scribes o f t h e M i d d l e Ages. It dried black. a n d M a t i s s e also e n j o y e d t h e m .36 ANIMALS Drawing With Ink To MAKE A QUILL OR REED PEN. m o r e e x t e n d e d line than reed and a m o r e organic line t h a n m e t a l . finding reed p e n s unwieldy.

DRAWING WITH INK Filled outlines Each segment of wing was outlined. Loaded with ink and pressed hard. they splay to make thick o r double lines. giving a graded.37 METAL PENS Metal pens give long. it is important to feel for when the ink will run out and to know how much ink you pick up when dipping the nib. marks become fine and needle-sharp. withstanding great pressure without sticking. W h e n the nib is pressed upside down. clean strokes. sharp. The of pigment to fall to the edges effect of the shape. tonal Ink layers The wings of this beetle were drawn in layers using black and white ink on pale gray paper. o r being ruined as fountain pens would be under the same pressure. breaking. particles then filled with a droplet of ink. . When using dip pens. White markings were drawn last Tones Here we see subtle tones of diluted ink beneath the undiluted black rim of a beetle's wing. Each layer of of the drying droplet dome the drawing was left to dry before adding more.

Empathize. test your limits. not on your drawing. and bellyflop off the waterside. Attempt with a loose hand to capture their posture and outline. touch the bottle's rim to drain the excess. steel nibs are fine. Illustrating this exercise on Oxford Port Meadow. Focus on the geese. be bold and press firmly. and a large drawing book or plenty of paper Use masking tape to secure pages against the wind. draw what the bird is doing. there is no obligation to prepare a quill. and be brave. Geese are nosy birds. Study them before drawing. make another one." If you don't like a stroke. and there is no "wrong. Posture . Quick drawing trains you to see what is most important about a subject and to mark only its most essential expression. That said. so pick a spot where other people can keep them entertained. It happens that goose feathers also provide artists with the best type of quills. Cover your drawing book pages in speedy responses to the geese and try to capture each bird in as few lines as possible. You cannot break the nib. I covered eleven sheets in sixty quick drawings—in less than an hour. Watch their heavy feathered bodies flap. MATERIALS NEEDED Look for a bird expressing a simple posture. and quickly draw around it using only three or four strokes. Try to hold the whole posture in your mind's eye. It teaches confidence and focus through intensive repetition. and boldly plunge into your drawing. Cover a sheet. Dip your pen in ink. to absorb blots when drawing. Focus on it. waddle. Take a cup and water for diluting a range of tones. Pack plenty of tissue around a bottle of calligraphy or acrylic ink. Take no more than ten seconds to draw each one and make lots of drawings. Experiment.38 ANIMALS Capturing Character GEESE ARE EXCELLENT SUBJECTS to draw when practicing the first use of pen and ink.

look among the birds for more complicated actions such as shaking off water. Use more lines than before to express these. flapping. and diving. draw the feeling of what you see. and don't worry about mechanical facts or accuracy. . CAPTURING CHARACTER Texture Gradually allow yourself more lines to describe the texture of each bird as well as its posture and action.39 Action With growing confidence. running. Again. Avoid detail unless really tempted by a close-up visit Fluctuate the pressure of your pen in response to how you know the bird would feel if you touched it.

MAKING A PALE LINE To make a pale line. and drain the excess by touching the nib against the rim of the bottle. The only time he remained still was when he was sleeping.34-37). a d o g w h o w a s a l w a y s town." . engaged in his and everyone else's business. Dip the nib quickly again into water and again drain it. Then dip the nib quickly into a glass of water and drain the excess again. form. and personality. and even then he twitched and stretched in dreams. These drawings are not an analysis of his anatomy or breed but the expression of his satisfied comfort in a deep sleep after a night out on the together with a glass of water for diluting tones on the nib. Sleeping animals present the artist with ideal opportunities to study their texture. first dip your pen in ink. your drawing book. and a tissue for blotting drawn lines that appear too dark. a dip pen and ink of your choice (see pp. Ras Curled Up Asleep "Capturing the true character of a cherished companion is best achieved with objective determination rather than sentimental shyness. For this class you will need one oblivious dog. This will give a medium-gray line. Make a test sheet to discover your control of diluting on the nib.40 ANIMALS Sleeping Dogs R A S WAS A GREAT CHARACTER. Now it will make a pale line.

Here.41 DRAWING YOUR DOG Be bold in this exercise. Here I marked the features of Ras's head. Then. and the shadows in his coat. tail. in bold layers. First lines are first thoughts. ears. Then I immediately rebalanced the drawing with lines around his hind quarters. alter the pressure and moisture of your line in response to howyouknow your dog feels when you ruffle itscoat. Character is better captured drawing quickly with confidence than w o r k i n g slowly. ignoring all detail. W i t h pale lies. quickly draw what you see. c o n c e r n e d a b o u t detail. to emphasize how he is curled up. . Layers o f thoughts can bring a drawing alive. 3 Gradually introduce darker tones. 2 Reload your pen with ink. this time to create a line a little darker in tone. add more detail. see how the animal's posture determines its whole shape. To add texture. second thoughts may be different Changing your mind is a positive aspect o f seeing and thinking. Trust your intuition.It is essential when drawing any subject (even something abstract) to know how it feels andtoemulate this with your line. Remain focused on the whole dog and. I added ink to Ras's nose. SLEEPING DOGS 1 Fix your eyes at the center of the dog. D o not go back over lines you are pleased with—doing so dulls their lively freshness.

A perfect subject for the beginner. swinging their limbs and shells with a slow circular movement. THE ELONGATION AND BUOYANCY of a group of turtles is fascinating . offering plenty of time for the artist to draw the pose.Turtles to observe. they stretch and paddle. as if caught in a camera freeze-frame. Beyond the glass wall of the aquarium. turtles often pause unexpectedly.

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Beginning with very pale tones. I darkened lines as each drawing progressed. weightlessness of the kiwi. dry. . India ink. I made repeated studies of the housemartin to discover its mechanism of flight. I sought to capture the form. With speed. and sharp. and water. balance.Dry Birds THESE ARE THE ARTICULATED BONES o f a k i w i a n d a h o u s e - martin drawn in a museum using a steel pen.

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robust. Patrons funded the breeding of decorative. Early European illustrators were trapped within dogma that was determined by ancient scholarship. Plants are the principal inspiration of the decorative arts—from Roman Corinthian columns crowned with carved leaves of the acanthus. nurture. we now have laid before us fourto show how well their colours complement each other infinite wealth of material to explore. Rich owners of private gardens commissioned large-format florilegiums commissioned the volume to document his private garden to immortalize their personal taste and power of acquisition. Botanical illustration is a precisely defined and scientific art. as opposed to only herbal. to the proliferation of floral designs with which we have dressed ourselves and furnished our homes for centuries. we see very different cultural visions of plants and gardens and use pencils and plants to learn the pictorial values of space. manipulations of light and shade. —-the largest and most influential botanical book of the early Natural scientists accompanied explorers to document unknown finds. We collect. It was published plain in 1611 and withhand-paintedplates in poured off ships returning from the New World and were eagerly collected and 1613. Plants seventeenth century. and texture. form. Chapters are arranged by out. After Here Aconthus spinosus is combined with forget-me-nots and-a-half centuries of intensive observation. He sent boxes of plants to Nuremburgburned with the urgency and excitement of explaining every plant's form. Later. B A S I L I U SBESLER when botanists founded new work upon the direct study of plants. The revolution came in the 1530s. on which our lives depend. Medieval knowledge was not gained by the first-hand observation of life but by reading. Fledgling years Botanist and apothecary who compiled the Hortus Eystettensis of scientific research bore manifold explosions of knowledge in a fever of discovery. the punctuation of space with structure and mass. In this chapter. season. an There are close parallels between the acts of gardening and drawing. to catalog our knowledge. the microscope was refined to unfold yet another world. 1613 187/8x153/4in(480 x 400 mm) BASILIUS BESLER . shape. Both embrace the anticipation of evolving shape. where a number of uncredited artistsd r e wthem for Besler. and focus. color. We draw them to celebrate their beauty and range. and hybridize them for our sustenance and pleasure. infinitely vivid.Plants and Gardens W E SHARE THIS PLANET with the more ancient. and the Acanthus spinosus constant but exhilarating struggle to make a living image feel right. From its history there is one overriding lesson to be learned: the importance of looking and seeing with our own eyes.000 species of plants are depicted life-size drawn. and the drawn pages ofthesame name. Botanic gardens were established and expanded.Morethan 1. Classifications were set in367copperengravings. Conrad von Gemmingen. and beauty. PriceBishopof Eichstatt specimens. and to ornament our lives. and diverse kingdom of plants.

flowers. Here. and Franz Bauer and his brother Ferdinand were employed there to draw specimens. W i t h bright F R A N Z BAUER An Austrian artist who trained at the Schonbrunn Imperial Gardens in Vienna. The King was then establishing the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. Dissections Across the lower part of this drawing we can see dissections of seed pods and petals. Sir Joseph Banks. Botanical art c o n c e a l s the challenge of its m a k i n g . o p t i m i s m .48 PLANTS AND GARDENS THE SCIENTIFIC VALUE OF A BOTANICAL DRAWING lies i n its Botanical Studies were specimens that often refused to stay still. Each plant must b e clearly distinguished from its closest relative. measured drawings. naturalist explorer and advisor to King George III invited Bauer to London in 1 7 9 0 . B e h i n d detailed. and seeds conventionally a p p e a r o n o n e plate. Outline Bauer prepared a pencil outline before laying in fleshy succulent hues and tones of watercolor. Light in this drawing is given by the paleness of the paper showing between washes of darker tones. and meticulous precision. stems. petal tip over a lower leaf Protea nitida 201/4 x141/4in (513 x 362 mm) FRANZ BAUER 1796 . s u c h as w e see here in Bauer's Protea nitida. T h e rest of u s are free to d r a w as w e w i s h . o p e n i n g a n d c l o s i n g i n the w a r m t h a n d light of the studio. delicate. Stella Ross-Craig said of the need to d r a w from a dried herbarium plant "I could make it live again. and wilted." Her slipper orchid s h o w s that botanical drawing must often resolve the challenge of its subject's p r o d u c i n g parts in different seasons — r o o t s . M a c k i n t o s h e x p r e s s e s the f o l d e d petals of a broken rose b u d so delicately w e can sense the perfume. He has made the spatial and physical relationships in this drawing all the more real by placing a single. insect-ravaged. detail. It is likely Bauer would have studied these under a microscope. leaves. fruit. They are counted among the most accomplished 18th-century botanical artists. or that were diseased. subtle union of beauty.

286 studies for her book Drawings of British Plants. S h e also o f thousands o f contributed an drawings. Closer to fiction can come together perfectly..7 3 in 3 1 p a r t s . Pencil lines cling to. and it shows how design. imagination. Rose 1894 103/4 x 83/4 in ( 2 7 5 x 2 2 1 mm) CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH STELLA ROSS-CRAIG A j o i n e d t h e staff a t t h e R o y a l B o t a n i c G a r d e n s . a m o n g o t h e r s . K e w . H e r Drawings of British Plants. A s m a n y of her drawings are kept G a r d e n s .000 Kew to archive accessible t o d a y v i a t h e I n t e r n e t of o n British flora. G u s t a v K l i m t In his r e t i r e m e n t Mackintosh m a d e n u m e r o u s inventive pencil a n d w a t e r c o l o r d r a w i n g s o f plants. p u b l i s h e d 1 9 4 8 . BOTANICAL STUDIES Lines and shadows This lush. a n d f o u n d e r o f t h e G l a s g o w S c h o o l o f A r t M a c k i n t o s h ' s flair h a d an e n o r m o u s i n f l u e n c e o n t h e a v a n t . L o n d o n in 1 9 2 9 . and perfect coordination of hand and eye. and observation the nuance and contour of every in one image. Curtis's Botanical Magazine. it is small and discreet. is r e c o g n i z e d as tne m o s t c o m p l e t e a n d i m p o r t a n t work 3.49 C H A R L E S RENNIE MACKINTOSH Scottish a r c h i t e c t d e s i g n e r painter. Line Drawing of Cypripedium calceolus L c. as at trained botanical artist Ross-Craig Swift lines The drawing was planned in pencil and then overworked with a lithographic pen." This line drawing is one of 1. a n d he inspired. Ross-Craig said of her work "Plants that wither rapidly present a very difficult problem to which there is only one answer—speed.g a r d e in G e r m a n y a n d A u s t r i a . 1970 x 81/4 in ( 3 2 5 x 2 1 0 m m ) STELLA ROSS-CRAIG . found among Mackintosh's than reality. and follow shadow.. and speed depends upon the immediate perception of the essential characteristics of the plant. sensual pencil drawing is later works.

fluctuations in scale.50 PLANTS AND GARDENS Jeweled Gardens the Middle East we find exquisite stylization of form and upright formality in pictorial space. Drawing. uniform focus. Opposite is the Rose of Mohammed. and attention to detail are all shared with medieval European manuscript drawings. and Nanha. The first Mughal Emperor Babur's Garden of Fidelity (Bagh-e Vaja). painting. Every fiber of AMONG DRAWINGS FROM BISHNDAS A N D N A N H A Little is known of these Mughal painters who were related as uncle and nephew and commissioned to illustrate the pages of Babur's journal. By Muslim tradition. is remembered in the pages of his journal. Upright shallow perspectives. Babur directs his gardeners in the design and planting of this quartered chahar bagh. in the early 16th century. which he personally created near Kabul. . a notable portrait painter drew the faces. They used a fine brush to lay pigment over a line drawing. in miniature. anticipating their view. Below. the sumptuous petals permeated with prayer and wisdom. Envoys chatter outside the gate. Afghanistan. urgent attentive human activity. paper is brimming with the beauty and celebration of nature. and miraculous growth. Bishndas was probably responsible for the overall design. and calligraphy are brought together to hold the sacred names of prophets and the 99 beautiful names of God. Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity c. roses took their form in a bead of perspiration on the brow of Mohammed as he passed through his heavenly journey. The white of the page shines through the brilliant color. 1590 85/8 x55/8in (219 x 1 4 4 mm) BISHNDAS AND NANHA Bright pigment These pages were illuminated by Mughal artists in the late 16th century.

AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH This is a detail o f a page from a n 1 8 t h . Stylized motif A fine brush has been used throughout this drawing to apply inks and watercolors. Sacred words The central rose is more solid than any other on the page. Note how each bud is essentially the same shape. However. The physical anatomy of the rosebud has been studied and translated into a repeated stylized motif. It is n o w k e p t in Border The elegant border of this drawing was mode with a pen and ruler It cleverly compresses and defines the composition. The Rose of Mohammed 1708 9 1 / 2 x 61/2 in ( 2 4 0 x 1 6 5 mm) FROM THE TURKISH M A N U S C R I P T AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH . t h e Staatsbibliothek zu Arabic. G e r m a n y .c e n t u r y Turkish manuscnpt a book of religious e t h i c s w r i t t e n in the O r i e n t a l C o l l e c t i o n s of Berlin. so that overlapping petals and stems give an impression of fulfillment and abundance. and how the shape has been repeated freehand. fragmenting its detail in a whisper of prayers. look closely and you will see words written in gold fluttering over the form of the flower.

52

PLANTS AND GARDENS

Fast Trees
IN CONTRAST TO THE QUIET, formal detail of other drawings in this chapter, these powerful fast trees enact the actions of plants. Each tree reaches out and holds its landscape with dynamism and pulse. In both drawings we find testament to the inexorable energy of growth. Rembrandt expresses a delicate quickness. Gentle lines draw a warm breeze through this remote wooded garden. Rustling in a loose foliage of soft marks, his pen evokes the weight of abundant activity on this late summer's day. Mondrian's arch of scratching branches is drawn with such force it will always be alive. We can still feel his hand storming across the paper. Set within a frame of smudged landscape, the tree possesses a musical agitation. This characteristic will increase in the artist's later abstract work. Here, we see a punctuated ordering of space. Sharp branches cut out negative shapes of winter sky.

R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter; etcher; and draftsman. Rembrandt's prolific output comprises oil paintings of historical and religious subjects together with group and self- portraits. His emotive etchings and pen and ink drawings (see also p. 174) are great resources for artists learning to understand the potential of these media.

Horizon

Pen and ink lines describing foliage also tell

us the directions of sunlight and wind. An arc crossing the bottom of the drawing from one side to the other supports the scene and separates us from the landscape beyond. Compare Rembrandt's arc to that of Mondrian's. and note the similar treatment of low horizons in both works emphasizing the height and dominance of trees.

Cottage Among Trees 1648-50 63/4 x121/8in ( I 7 I x 308 mm) R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN

53

FAST TREES

PIET

MONDRIAN

Atmosphere Here we see how shapes of negative space are as important as the physical subject they enclose (see pp.58-59). Mondrian has again lightly dragged his chalk on its side to evoke a wet depth of atmosphere. These passive gray marks contrast with the assertive tension of the tree.

Dutch Pure abstract painter preoccupied w i t h line and plane relationships. W i t h increasing austerity, Mondrian banished t h e subject from his drawings, in his later w o r k he also banished space, composing visual h a r m o n i e s using only straight lines a n d flat planes o f black, w h i t e , gray, o r p r i m a r y color.

Winter ground Short vertical marks along thebottomof this drawing reveal the length oftheblackchalk Mondrian used. Rubbed onitsside,itroughly blocks in the ground. Thecrudeeconomy of line is all we need tofeelthecold, wet, unwelcoming quality ofthiswinterearth.

Branches and trunk Lines shaping the branches of the tree are built up in layers. To make the trunk more dense, the artist has rubbed and smudged preliminary marks with his fingers before firmly overdrawing with new lines. Solid black lines are achieved by pressing the chalk hard. When used lightly, it shows the texture of the paper. Tree: Study for the Grey 1911 23 x 335/8 in ( 5 8 4 x 8 5 5 m m ) Tree

PIET MONDRIAN

54

PLANTS AND GARDENS

Graphite and Erasers
GRAPHITE, FROM THE G R E E K word

USING GRAPHITE
This drawing illustrates a range of achieved with graphite pencils of different grades.

graphein

Modern pencils are graded from 9H (hard and pale) to 9B (black and soft). Graphiteclay sticks are also available, together with a powder form. All possess a natural sheen and are erasable to a varying degree. Graphite drawings smudge easily, so fixative, a form of varnish, can be used to hold a drawn surface in place. It is applied as a fine mist from an aerosol can, or from a bottle using a diffuser. For the beginner, ordinary hairspray is an effective and cheaper alternative.

(to write), is a soft and brittle carbon. It was first mined in Cumbria, England, in 1 5 6 4 , and was initially used in small, pure pieces bound in lengths of string. Pencils as we know them—with their slender wood casing and "lead" of graphite—were invented in France in 1794 by Nicolas-Jaques Conte. He discovered that milled graphite mixed with clay and water, press-molded, and baked to a high temperature produces a harder and paler medium than graphite alone.

3B pencil A range of mark and textures can be achieved with a 3B pencil when you vary its pressure, speed, and direction, as this detail shows.

MATERIALS
Here is a selection of 14 items to illustrate a basic range of pencils, graphite sticks, sharpeners, erasers, and fixative.
1. AND 2. HB AND 3B PENCILS: It is unnecessary to possess every grade of pencil. HB, the central and most common grade, is perfect for making delicate lines. 3B gives a blacker tone. A great variety of effects can be achieved with just these two. 3. WATER-SOLUBLE PENCIL Effective for atmospheric drawing, but be aware of how watery tones can dull the impact of the line. 4. AND 5. MECHANICAL PENCIL Thick or fine leads are made in a range of grades. They are particularly useful because they do not require a sharpener 6. ROUND SOLID GRAPHITE PENCIL: Excellent for large-scale drawing, producing thick bold lines. A range of grades can be honed with a craft knife or sharpener 7. THICK GRAPHITE STICK: For large-scale drawing. Graded soft, medium, and hard. It crushes to produce graphite powder 8. SQUARE GRAPHITE STICK: Useful for making broad, sweeping marks in large-scale drawing. If worn and rounded, the stick can be snapped into pieces to regain the sharp, square end. 9. CRAFT KNIFE AND BLADES: Handles are sold in two sizes to fit large or small blades, and blades are sold in a range of shapes. Perfect for sharpening pencils to a long point, to cut lines in paper or to remove areas. 10. PENCIL SHARPENER: Makes a uniform point. Keep one in your pocket for drawing outside the studio, together with an envelope for shavings.

HB and 5B Layers of tone have been built up withHBand5Bpencils. Softer pencils require less pressure to make a mark, revealing the texture of the paper surface. It is important to keep the point of the pencil sharp with either a craft knife or a sharpener.

55

ERASING AND FIXING
Erasers can be used t o blend and s o f t e n lines, o r t o r e m o v e altogether. Fixative them prevents

GRAPHITE AND ERASERS

s m u d g i n g a n d s e c u r e s lines.

Using fixative You can use fixative while drawing to hold the definition of lines you wish to gently fade but not remove entirely, for which you would use an eraser.

11. P L A S T I C E R A S E R : Avoid cheap colored erasers that may stain drawings with grease and dye. White brands are available in soft and hard versions.

12.

P U T T Y RUBBER:

W a r m it in your hand before use. It is excellent for removing powdery materials, and for making crisp sweeps of light across a delicate pencil drawing

13. D I F F U S E R : Helleborus corsicus (Corsican hellebore) fixative, or to spray mists of ink.

56

PLANTS AND GARDENS

Cropping and Composition
M A N Y STUDENTS WILL START a d r a w i n g i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e

that its skin nearly touches the boundary. The meaning of the same drawing changes simply by its relationship to the space it occupies. The size of any subject, its placement on the page, the size of the page, and its overall proportion are all discrete and essential aspects of successful picture-making. Before you begin to draw, think carefully about where to place your subject. Are you are happy with your paper? If not, change it; add more, take some away, or turn it around. Do not just accept what you are given, adapt it to what you need.

paper. Focused on the shape and detail of their subject, they remain happily unaware that there is, or should be, any relationship between what they are drawing and the surface they are drawing it on. The paper is only paper, and the troublesome subject floats somewhere in the expanse of it. However, a single fig drawn in the middle of a large, empty square of paper gives quite a different impression from the same fig drawn on such an intimately small square

CHOOSING A VIEW

A Single Fig

"The size, shape, and orientation of the paper are so integral to the composition that they determine the impact and meaning of the drawing."

its illumination. and lines describing shadows cast by the fruit . This drawing hasbeencropped to emphasize space between thefruit. and therefore apparently suspended from. Touching the edge When the subject o f a drawing touches one edge of the paper it attaches t o it visually. as also shown here.O u r focus is on the white cloth supporting the figs. The angle of the fruit together with dark shadow (top left) and bright light(bottom right) suggest a diagonal division across the whole drawing. running corner t o corner. t h e n m o v e t h e c a r d t o e x p l o r e different views. bottom-left t o top-right. the uppermost edge of the drawing. U s e it as a starting point. Space as the subject Inallpictures. When subjects touch two or more edges. they establish a tension and unity with the paper. Here the left fig is attached to. spaces between things are as important as the things themselves. its stem and shadow framing a white center. CROPPING AND COMPOSITION Off-center and diagonal Here I held my viewfinder so the fig appeared upper-left in the space. a device to help you decide what t o draw.57 THE VIEWFINDER T h e s e pencil drawings o f figs d e m o n s t r a t e different crops and compositions. A card with a small rectangle cut out o f it makes a useful viewfinder C l o s e o n e e y e t o look through the hole.

58 PLANTS AND GARDENS Negative Space UNCONSCIOUSLY WE ASSESS spatial relationships all the time to guide ourselves through the world. and engaging. But how often do we look at the air between things. a foundation stone in picture-making. tone. their subject and composition will become more real. and so on. you will need a similar large-leaved plant. erasing and adjusting lines until itlooked right. but if the artist does. Follow these from left to right and see how I began with one complete shape between two parts of a leaf. In your own version. which is shown in the three steps below. Draw a complete shape Map outward from the center Erase and adjust lines until correct . It is an astonishingly simple device that many artists use and I strongly recommend. Looking at negative space overrides the problem of drawing what you know. do we see myriad distinct and unique shapes of daylight or do we just see branches? Why as artists should we look at the air? Every space in a picture has a shape. WHERE TO START Arrange your plant and paper so you can look back and forth by barely moving your head. Unfamiliar shapes of negative space reveal the real shape of a positive subject.The box opposite isolates an area. this ensures a consistent view. a sharp H B pencil. shapes of air cut out and defined by the physicality of our environment? When we look into the branches of a tree. unified. Negative space is the simple key to getting positive shape right. and a fresh page in your drawing book. dynamic. position. Viewers appreciating a finished image may not see shapes of space. The drawing opposite is of the uppermost leaves of a potted fig tree. Remember that plants do move! Therefore it is best to complete your drawing in one sitting if possible. In following this class. third. fourth. and a role to play. then added a second shape. not leaves. remember to draw only space. an eraser. It helps to start at the center and map outward. rather than what you see in front of you.

59

Here I drew only spaces, adding one to another until the leaves were revealed. Besides looking at negative space, there are two other useful things to do when a drawing feels wrong but you cannot see why: look at it in a mirror or turn it upside down. errors and suggest changes.

Spaces between leaves

Either view will

NEGATIVE SPACE

Fig Tree
WALKING IN THE ALPUJARRAS in A n d a l u c i a ,

Spain, I drew a bare fig tree clinging to the wall of an almond grove; a perfect subject for seeing negative space. I marked its essential frame of large branches first, frequently erasing lines and changing my mind until the balance felt right.

S a l v i a , RIBES, CLEMATIS, Allium, Passiflora, and Acanthus

Summer Flowers

Alchemilla,

drawn with an H pencil by observing the

negative spaces between the stems, petals, and leaves. I arranged the flowers on a sheet of paper in a cool r o o m and rapidly sketched a composition. Then I put them in water, taking the stems out one at a time to draw.

.

our eyes travel and adjust from one point of focus to another.Acanthus Spinosus As we LOOK AROUND. Compare changes of pace and focus here to the flatter finish of Summer Flowers (see pp. . interfolding points of detail with areas of loose suggestion. Excessive detail leaves no space for the eye to rest or imagination to wander. We never see everything at once. If an artist changes the pace of their line and focus of their attention. 62-63). gathering less distinct information on the way. they emulate our experience of seeing.

.

Perhaps in the sheer planes of some of our greatest modern buildings it is finding its clearest expression. Besides sketches of first thoughts and polished drawings of the finished look for clients. mass. designers. space. Since the first flowering of Modernism in the early 20th century. Through the animation of the screen. with gray and brown watercolor wash. the formula for perfection spread through Europe. composers. fine artists. to 20th-century film fantasy. philosophers. invaluable to understand and apply when you choose.This is a pencil drawing. which can be clearly seen in ancient Greek architecture. made by the architect himself. of the west facade of St Augustin. the device that has since governed most of our picture-making (sec pp. and from West Facade of the Church of St Augustin. film-set design. VICTOR BALTARD French architect employed by the city of Paris. balance.Architecture I N THE CONTEMPORARY PRACTICES of architecture. was preserved into the Renaissance where it became a foundation stone for thinking and creativity From 15thcentury Italy. Paris 1871-74 the child's view to the infinity of the vanishing point. Augustin. It was also during the Renaissance that the architect Brunelleschi invented linear perspective. This harmony. drawing plans around themselves within a program as opposed to on a flat sheet of paper. and computer game imaging. time. and architects of ancient Greece who first pursued the formula for "divine proportion. coupled with the importance of exercizing your imagination. we find the most recent steps in the evolution of graphic language. and writers have been breaking away from traditional forms of representation to seek new expressions of shape. once there. architects and designers can imaginatively "climb inside" three-dimensional space and. It was the mathematicians. add and subtract ideas. and sound. Computer programs allow the virtual drawing of ideas. European conventions of pictorial perspective have lost their monopoly on seeing. which was the first church in the capital to be built entirely of metal and then clad in stone. Since Picasso and Braque's revolution of Cubism in around 1907. At the core of their practice." reflecting the eye's love of unity in difference.The church is still in use today. Yet the pursuit of divine proportion and harmony remains. It is the focus of practical class in this chapter. Among the drawings of this chapter we look from 17th-century ecclesiastical calm. filmmakers. Baltard designed the Church of St. Architects have been fine-tuning their specialized branch of drawing for centuries. from political commentary to musical abstraction. each VICTOR BALTARD . architects. 74-75). Linear perspective is a marvelous device. and in the 19th century it was given the name the Golden Section. they also have a diagrammatic language for communicating plans to builders. they have the Golden Section. to help them create new form.

calculate function. and ultimately to show builders what to do. and labor. structure. and later an assistant to Vanbrugh. 1711-12 NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR . marks the end of a long journey from the first few marks the architect made on a sheet of paper. A student of Wren's. Oxford. Drawings underpin every great human-made structure like hidden linear ghosts at their core. and the shapes of interior domes and apses. Three aspects This subtle and sophisticated drawing made in pen and wash displays three distinct aspects of Hawksmoor's baptistry. densely layered lines in mists of color weave the presence of the expected building into shape. and six London churches. describe a finished look to a client. and balance. Lines define structure while washes suggest light and atmosphere. Below it. Hawksmoor's drawing is both a plan and an evocation. The photograph opposite shows his studio hung with metal pendulums. Together they explain how interior structure and space define exterior form and shape. materials. St Paul's Baptistry c. Pillars and floor At the base of the drawing a compass-drawn plan tilted downward through 90 degrees illustrates the arrangement of pillars around a central circular floor.68 ARCHITECTURE Master Builders EVERY NEW BUILDING. evoke presence. Hawksmoor established his reputation with university and church architecture including All Souls College. Cut-away interior On the right a section cut through the center of the building reveals material thicknesses. pilasters. NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR One of Britain's "three great" Baroque architects (along with Sir Christopher Wren and Sir John Vanbrugh). and Castle Howard. relative levels. Blenheim Palace. a three-dimensional drawing made with wires and weights. he also worked on St Paul's Cathedral. testing gravity to calculate the inverted shapes of domes. We see the modeled detail of Corinthian columns. Hampton Court Palace. embodying a massive investment of ideas. Architects draw for many reasons: to visualize ideas. Finished surface On the left the finished surface of the building is given depth and emphasis by immaculate vertical and horizontal brush strokes of shadow. and an inscribed entablature. Gaudi's fluid architecture grew up through many kinds of drawing.

Wire and watercolor three-dimensional preferred to calculate Above is a drawing form in the made withlinkedwires and weights.69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt c. churches. 1900 ANTONIO GAUDI ANTONIO GAUDI Visionary Catalan architect. To the right isawatercolordrawing thought to havebeenmade over a photograph ofthemodelabove. Gaudi air than on paper. 1910 24x181/4( 6 1 0 x 4 7 5mm) A N T O N I O GAUDI . Gaudi's cathedral in Barcelona. and his love of music. embellishment. This sculptural drawingenvisionsthe finished crypt glowingandethereal as if caught in thelightof red morning sun. and apartment homes are distinguished by their Their and Flowering curves of stone or concrete are often encrusted with Gaudi was inspired by medieval and oriental art. unique organic manipulation of high shapes. light. The Art Nouveau movement. Guell Crypt of its at the Time Construction c.

and in a sense hear. Satie draws quietly throughout. Floor plan This drawing has been made with a rapidograph. while the composer Erik Satie has made an enclosure of quiet order and grace. and the spaces between his windows and turrets are the visual equivalent of pauses in h i s m u s i c c o m p o s i t i o n s for p i a n o (see also Bussotti. been a natural affinity between the visual rhythms of pictures and the audible rhythms of music.70 ARCHITECTURE The Order of Sound B O T H OF THESE VISIONARY DRAWINGS o c c u p y a s l e n d e r . Across the top and center right of the image w e perceive an almost recognizable architectural plan. Arctic Flowers 1980 DANIEL LIBESKIND . Both men used rulers and pens to carefully and slowly construct their compositions.223). and exhibitions of his drawings. Visual rhythms In the lower half of this drawing architectural language has broken loose: escaped and transformed into an image of rebellious pleasure. Floor space appears divided by discernible walls. theater sets. Libeskind's numerous commissions include concert halls and museums. We can see. Libeskind begins quietly in the upper space of his drawing. Contemporary musicians commonly collaborate with artists by interpreting images as sound. The architect and musician Daniel Libeskind has drawn a stampeding cacophany of airborne architectural detail. He also produces urban and landscape designs. a refillable pen that feeds a constant supply of ink through a fine tubular nib. flat boards. p. There has always DANIEL LIBESKIND A Polish American architect of international acclaim. corridors. and dotted lines. Libeskind studied music before transferring to architecture. short curved poles. before cascading into a riot of line and sound below. upright pictorial space. We can imagine how a musician might interpret this drawing by looking at the abstract visual rhythms of masses composed of long straight poles. such a rapport in both of these drawings. and arched dotted lines depict the radius of doors. and rooms. He also contributed to plans for the rebuilding of the World Trade Center site in New York. installations.

Onpp.H i s witty. the perimeter Composition Look how well this drawingfitsand resonates with the upright.Edges are how are of orientation. theater. They definespaceand pictorial balance. dressed eccentrically. effectively additional lines in a work. and ink on a fragment folded brown paper—a of everyday happened material of scrap that to be at hand.narrowshape of its paper. a n d ballet. lived a l o n e .ERIK SATIE F r e n c h pianist and c o m p o s e r for t h e piano. H e p e r f o r m e d in cabarets. minimalist s c o r e s scandalized a u d i e n c e s with o r c h e s t r a t i o n s f o r t h e foghorn and typewriter.50. Hotel de la Suzonnieres c.56—57 we discussed important the shape. and founded his o w n church. a conventional dip or fountain pen. andfouredges of the paper tothecompositionand impact animage. Eastern influence The upright image Eastern is reminiscent and medieval of Middle pictorial space and subject of this European drawing. o f which he was the sole m e m b e r Parcel paper Satie has drawn this fantasy hotel using a ruler. Satie collaborated w i t h hisfriends J e a n C o c t e a u a n d P i c a s s o . Compare the even and and the shape wall to the elegantly stylized order of the many windows of arrangement of details and the shape of the wall in Babur's Garden of Fidelity on p. 1 8 9 3 77/8 x 51/2 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 4 0 mm) ERIK SATIE .

antlike mortals might have speculated upon the universe. the ominous globe exists only as a series of drawings.72 ARCHITECTURE T H E S E T H R E E HIGHLY DETAILED DRAWINGS Future Fictions invite us to soaring above normal life. enter the long-shadowed architecture of imaginary worlds. Light illusions This pen-and-wash drawing shows a subtle application of the principles of illumination demonstrated with an egg on p. experiencing a fascinating conflict between curiosity and desolation. Among preparations for Fritz Langs film Metropolis. Art director Erich Kettlehut's vertiginous design for the city of a slavelike populace had a future influence on movies such as Blade Runner. Boullee's monolithic apparition was drawn as a monument to Sir Isaac Newton. and taught at t h e A c a d e m i e d'Architecture. This is the work of an architectural theoretician. and the reverse is true on the right.The lower-left section of the building appears relatively pale against a darker sky. made in 1926. ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE French architectural theorist. spheres.96. This shift makes the cenotaph appear three-dimensional. arched vaults. Within it. and draftsman. We glide over exquisitely drawn wastelands of damage and abandonment. Boullee lived in Paris. we find other Utopian visions Paul Nobles epic drawing summons an imperfect and disturbing township where ruin and activity are equal and strange. painter. cylinders. and dramatic lighting. His celebrated imaginary buildings are characterized by pyramids. Newton's Cenotaph 1784 153/4 x 25 in ( 4 0 2 x 635 m m ) ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE .

Working on toned paper such as this gives an artist greater scope for dramatic lighting effects than if they work on white paper. and white ink on brown-gray paper. 1926 ERICH KETTLEHUT PAUL N O B L E British c o n t e m p o r a r y artist who creates m o n u m e n t a l .73 ERICH KETTLEHUT Influential film a r t director. Its sheerscaleengulfs the viewer and demands based time and patience to on letters and in some beread. draftsman. and m o d e l . intensely detailed graphite drawings explaining and questioning t h e geography.Building shapes are works can be read as text. Nobson Central 9 ft 1 0 in x 1 3 f t 2 in (3 x 4 m ) PAUL N O B L E 1998-99 . gray.m a k e r In t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f Metropolis. Kettlehut drew using a fine and relatively dry brush dipped in black. Fritz Lang's Metropolis c. architecture. FUTURE FICTIONS Brush and ink This is a dramatic drawing from a film that shaped the history of world cinema. used forced perspective camera t e c h n i q u e s t o amplify t h e m a g n i t u d e o f buildings in relation t o human characters. and are Graphite shapes Nobson Central isoneof a series of very large graphite drawings of the spoil and detritus of Nobson Newtown. and morality o f an invented place called His satires exhibited w o r l d w i d e . mythology. together with c i n e m a t o g r a p h e r Karl Freund.a r t director O t t o Hunte. Nobson political visions of humanity Newtown. Kettlehut and his c o .

this perspective is often an imagined bird's-eye view in which details are mapped according to logic and importance rather than how they might appear in real life. Invented by Italian artist and architect Brunelleschi in 1413 (late in the history of art). and age eight. In his notebooks. We use it to structure illusions of depth. inventors. but is most easily seen and understood in pictures of buildings and interiors. and thinkers ever to have lived. Sometimes shared with Naive artists. and inventions— essential reading for inquiring minds. It is also distinguished from aerial perspective (see pp. LEONARDO DA VINCI One of the greatest artists. See how the thread corresponds to each converging line. Note how architectural features conform to lines and how human figures diminish in size toward thevanishingpoint. found at the center of all converging lines. Study of Perspective Adoration of the for the Magi 1481 61/2 x111/2in (165 x 290 mm) LEONARDO DA VINCI . Pull the thread taut and rotate it slowly above the drawing. All forms of perspective are of equal value. Press the pin into Leonardo's vanishing point. and those of Naive artists and children. observations. 206-07). Here Leonardo provides a superb example of a single vanishing point. scientists. Single-point perspective Tie a thread to a pin.74 ARCHITECTURE Pathways of Sight LINEAR PERSPECTIVE (also called vanishing-point perspective) is a simple device for calculating the relative size of things in pictorial space. linear perspective is distinct from more ancient systems practiced in the East. Piranesi an example of two. I contribute the child's perspective. It can be applied to any subject. Leonardo recorded constant streams of ideas.

Note the rather large rabbits and pheasants the hills. Breamore Village. 1740 5 1 / 2 x 83/8 in (141 x 212 mm) G I O V A N N I B A T T I S T A PIRANESI points are located on either side of the drawing. Scale Our farmhouse my experience was in the woods. visionary and practical understanding of ancient Rome.SARAH SIMBLET I made this drawing (at age 8) in response to a local bookstore's request for children to draw their village. and theoretical writing strongly influenced neoclassicism. England 1980 9 x 16 in (228 x 405 mm) S A R A H SIMBLET GIOVANNI BATTISTA PIRANESI Italian artist. issues of scale when making room for important their story. architect. including all they recall about the subject. a points in logical narrative of memories. It shows how children usually map large scenes in flat layers one above the other. Mark these points with your pin and follow the converging lines of the drawing by rotating your thread. at the top of each lateral column base. Two-point perspective Sunlight through this colonnade a great example of two-point perspective. and designer Piranesi's prolific architectural drawings. Children are uninhibited and problems with one element being obscured by another rarely arise. New Forest. which I saw from home every day. . This drawing Young children typically maps ignore on and understanding of the nearby village. Lightly marked illuminates vanishing Two Courtyards c.

draw a horizon line across your paper Mark a spot on the horizon line. Study these pages first before embarking on this lesson. This lesson shows you how to make a simple illusion of space defined by two boxes and three flat boards. (See p. Erase the dotted construction lines.76 ARCHITECTURE Single-Point Perspective MASTERING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE i s e a s i e r t h a n y o u m a y First read through. then follow the ten steps below. Leonardo began with a grid of many lines within which he invented his scene. Note that if you place large structures in the foreground and smaller ones closer to your vanishing point. This is where we will begin. Next. On the previous page we looked at its essential mechanism through drawings by Leonardo and Piranesi. DRAWING BOXES 1 Using a ruler and a sharp HB pencil. try composing your own space.98 for an important note on oscillation. You have completed your first box. 2 3 corners must each touch a dotted line. Extend each dotted line to the edge of your drawing. imagine. using a sharp HB pencil and ruler.) . Draw four dotted lines radiating out from the vanishing point. discovering the image as it progressed. Each line should pass through one corner of the rectangle. this is your vanishing point. Draw each step over the preceding one to build up a single image. This ensures that the second rectangle aligns with the shape and 4 Draw four short lines to connect the four corners of the two rectangles. you will amplify the illusion of distance. In contrast. Surround the vanishing point with a small rectangle. corresponding to a single vanishing point. Piranesi planned his drawing with only the essential lines needed.

larger rectangle. 8 Complete the second box with short lines as in step 4. N e x t draw a slanting line to mark the height of the first flat board. . andfarside of this first board.asIhavedonehere. Continue the dotted lines out toward the edge of your drawing. 6 As in step 2. Repeat this to add two more boards to the composition. 1 0 Erase all ofthedottedlinestoseeyourfinishedboxes Thickeningtheiredges. with two dotted lines. draw four dotted lines radiating from your vanishing point Pass these through each comer of the new rectangle. The four comers must each touch a dotted line to be sureitaligns with the first. draw a second.77 SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE 5 Draw a new rectangle. The board's sides should be parallel. the closer it will appear to the viewer.willhelptomake them appear more solid. The larger you make your second rectangle. and erase the dotted lines. Connect this to the vanishing point— again. you can place rectangles anywhere youwishin relation to a vanishing point. 9 Use dotted lines connecting the slanting linetothe vanishing point to locate the top. Note that this does not surround the vanishing point In the future. bottom. when inventing your own compositions. 7 As in step 3.

Then follow the three given steps. then let the space suggest its c o n t e n t s and purpose. it is interaction that makes the work richer. you will find white adhesive stationery labels are useful for covering errors or changing the direction of your idea. As David Lynch. I always start with a script but I don't follow it all the way through to the end. It highlights the importance of having faith in your imagination and trusting your ability to invent. A lot more happens when you open yourself up to the work and let yourself act and react to it. let simple lines suggest a simple space. 7 4 ) . If using a fibertip pen as I have done for this drawing. p . it will take you places you never dreamed of. O n a fresh page in your d r a w i n g b o o k . once said: "I never end up with what I set out to do. The m i s t a k e n belief that we s h o u l d k n o w exactly what o u r finished drawings will l o o k like before we m a k e t h e m prevents many people from ever starting. draw a b o x as shown opposite.78 ARCHITECTURE Creating an Imaginary Space T H I S CLASS USES SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE t o c r e a t e a s i m p l e to you and if you listen to it. w h e t h e r it is a film or a painting. Every work talks In this class. APPLYING PERSPECTIVE An Imagined Scaffold "Enjoy your illusion as you make it and it will become more real." . artist and film director." imaginary room. Linear perspective will support y o u by providing a frame in which to b u i l d your picture as it did for Leonardo.

2 first before adding furniture.Addanarray of converging lines to provide a "scaffold" for vertical. additional lines have established the different surfaces and how they relate to each other. The space has become more solid and real. .drawthehorizonlineand vanishingpoint. you will beableto draw more complex objects orpeoplewithin them. 3 Remove the construction lines with an eraser and the room will becomeclearer. horizontal.79 DRAWING A SIMPLE ROOM Essentials t o remember: objects and people dimmish in size as they move farther away. and floors and ceilings also converge and rise o r lower toward the horizon. and leaning surfaces. This initial space will be transparent and open to change.There is great pleasure tobefoundin spending time inventing interiors. CREATING AN IMAGINARY SPACE 1First. parallel planes such as walls converge toward the vanishing point. With some practice. Here.

To draw such a view APPLICATION Copy these drawings to see and feel how they work before inventing your own versions. From our normal eye level. It is important to realize that you can have as many vanishing points as you wish. That is where we e to find them. Here. a n d this is how we have drawn them so far (see pp. located anywhere inside or outside the pictorial space. Potentially. Vanishing points are commonly found on horizon—our eye level.p o i n t perspective ( s h o w n opposite top). These elaborations could continue indefinitely across a sheet of paper in pursuit of complex and intricate ideas. T h i s is d e m o n s t r a t e d immediately below. do verticals appear inclined. The boxes drawn here are seen partly or entirely disassociated from a horizon line drawn across the bottom of the image. Only when y o u might employ t h r e e . T h i n k of standing at the top of a skyscraper and imagine h o w its parallel sides would appear to converge below you. They could be drawn on any scale from miniature to monumental. verticals appear p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the g r o u n d . Further aspects of three-point perspective are also illustrated opposite. 76-79). but they are not confined to this level. Free vanishing points On paper we can enjoy the freedom of fantastic structural invention without limitations of solid materials or gravity. Elaborations . or low and we look u p . o r to the h o r i z o n . showing y o u h o w to draw curved surfaces and a tiled floor. Copying what you see in the work of others will help you to understand what they have done. T h e y d o n o t have to relate to each other. I have elaborated on the simple boxes above. our eye level is very high and we look down. Search for the application of these perspectives among works by other artists in this book and in galleries. they can be placed anywhere inspaceto describe the perspective of flyi c tilted objects.80 ARCHITECTURE Further Aspects of Perspective W E ARE ACCUSTOMED TO SEEING our e n v i r o n m e n t from a relatively constant point of view.

Three-point checkered floor This d bottom floor. Note that altering the distance between the three dots above will tilt the level of the floor . I then drew three fanned groups of lines connecting each of the three points above to the seven points below.) By comparing this drawing t o Piranesi's example of two-point perspective on p.81 FURTHER ASPECTS OF Three-point towers This drawing depicts three-point perspective.Istarted with two parallel lines. PERSPECTIVE Three-point curves Here.I added horizontal lines t o define the tiles.75. they mark the corners of the floor tiles. by adding a third point you can achieve a sense of incline.Finally. Giving curvature. Where thelinescross. three vanishing points are evenly spaced along a horizon line. tostraightlines can amplify drama in a picture. (Turn the book around to see a view looking up. and therefore tension. Iusedthese lines as a guide t o draw the curvature of boxes and panels flying through space. An array of curved lines (drawn freehand) link the two lateral points. you will see how. I marked the toplinewith three evenly spaced points and the line with seven. useful for representing steep views looking up or down tall structures.

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I visited many anatomical theaters and museums. These walnut-skin ink pen and brush drawings show imagined views of theaters that do not exist but were inspired by places I studied. making drawings to resolve questions and express personal responses to the nature and history of anatomy. .Theaters RESEARCHING FOR MY P H D .

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I N KDRAWING is one of a series I made while next to the Rialto Bridge in Venice. The vanishing of the drawing is directly opposite as we look across The constancy of the bridge and surrounding frames the movement in the life that flows past.Venetian Life sitting point buildings ThisP E N . .A N D . the water.

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we look at the importance are the only creatures on Earth w h o actually design and create great ranges of things. In this chapter. sculpted. 1493 117/8c81/4in (300 x 210 m m ) LEONARDO D A V I N Ccreating I . each demanding more of the other as they increased in sophistication. to record an observed detail. With the sudden onset of mass production. have often carried great weights of allegorical once. Technical drawing was speedily developed as a meticulous international code of m e a s u r e m e n t and explanation. fictional realities caster of h o w t o make it andhowit will w o r k . W e also explore v o l u m e and form in the classes by spinning lines to make vessels. and made. drawn. It is shaped in sections w i t h Artists have for centuries studied and expressed composition. and some apes use simple tools. too. Previously. Birds follow instinct to make a nest. texture. C o m m o n items. hooked bars that can be pulled and tied closely form. for example—whether. r an equestrian statue. making a clear instruction t o his bronzemeaning. design. these. T h e precision of engineering d r a w i n g s e v o l v e d alongside machine tools. Artists and actors use the meanings of things to communicate a speculative mechanic. History will be learned from the artifacts w e leave behind. A chair. or drawing w e see Leonardo daVinci'sprecision as can be given meaning. drawing c. are all made bearing the signature of our time and place. even more advanced drawings are made on computers. Engineers and designers of our objects and instruments make drawings for many reasons: to test an idea that is yet to be made. planned. or to explain and present a finished concept to a client. It was in this era that the blueprint was born. drawings were needed to instruct workers on the factory floor. illuminating snail shells. passing them on to others through the act of making. and a wire violin. color. H e has described contour and function at drawings. that test our logic with a sense of mystery. of light in the creation of pictorial illusions. In past eras. but humans LEONARDO DA VINCI Inthisbeautiful red chalk Our items all have a purpose—practical or ornamental—and all have a meaning. and the behavior of light through making still-life paintings and together. Artists also make images of objects that can never exist. T h e Industrial Revolution c h a n g e d the traditional w a y s in w h i c h objects were designed. craftsmen had held plans in their memory. or used on stage hood for a mold t o make theheado f a horse f oas a p r o p — i m b u e d with e n o u g h energy or character can "become" a man. for example. H e has described a casting through metaphor. Today. and the way in w h i c h the brain reacts Head and Neck Sections of Female Mold for the Sforza Horse to visual stimulus and optical illusions.Objects and Instruments T HE THINGS WE INVENT describe our lives. from s p o o n s and pens to chairs and bicycles.

" La Cuitare. a colored canvas. There is a fragile eloquence to these objects as they drift in slow motion past our gaze. Mucha's drawing glistens with possession. T h i s is a designers drawing made to enthuse surface and style in its delicate brushing of china. charcoal. and shading. silverware. not of place but of things. Clashes The art historian Ernst Gombrich said of Cubism. wood-look wallpaper. steaming with music and conversation. His work is characterized by calm and harmonious still-life compositions. texture. One of the great joys of this movement in art is the musicality of its multipoint view. Even today GEORGES BRAQUE French painter who as a young man was influenced by the work of the Fauves and of Cezanne.. perfect i n their newly made availability. .. still feel this projected moment. but to clash in virtual deadlock.Braque marshals all the forces of perspective. Statue D'Epouvante 1913 2 f t 5 in x 3 ft 5 in (0. Braques image is a Cubist collage. representing still life. Braques "justly" arranged combination of cut black card.90 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS Still Life THESE DRAWINGS REVEAL t w o o p p o s i t e m o t i v a t i o n s i n we can. "I believe [it] is the most radicalattempttostampout ambiguity and to enforce one readingofthepicture—that of a manmade construction. Below. and glass objects of exquisite elegance for only the gentlest of touch and appreciation. He takes us into the bustle of the Paris cafe.73 x 1 m) GEORGES BRAQUE . not to work in harmony. Braque established Cubism in partnership with Picasso just before World War I. Opposite. and a journal jacket with words makes this drawing chatter about the moment.

ALPHONSE MUCHA Czech graphic artist and painter who worked in Prague. Study for Plate 59 from "Documents Decoratifs" 17x121/4(430 x 310 mm) ALPHONSE MUCHA 1902 .flowers. and New York. Chicago. Look at the two spoons at toprightand see how has suggested that they are so brilliantly shiny they reflect the background color. Background color Between the delicate shadows and highlights of these glazed and surfaces ofthebackground metal color of the Mucha we see a large amount paper. The three plates facing us were drawn with a compass. Art Nouveau motifs This is a preliminary study for a subsequent print. and also stamps and bank notes. Art Nouveau curling motifs of birds. For ten years Mucha designed theater posters exclusively for the actress Sarah Bernhardt. He designed the Austrian pavilion for the Paris World Fair in 1900. and fish have been outlined using a sharp pencil.fruit. Black watercolor washes and lines of white gouache have been added with a fine brush. Pans. He is best known for posters featuring ethereal women in typical Art Nouveau style.

Hooke's head of a drone fly seen through a microscope may represent the first time man and insect came face to face. Newton used this instrument to calculate the speed required to escape earth's gravity. the law o f gravity. It was then reflected up inside the tube and. each one skillfully rendered with the alarmingly matter-of-fact ease of explaining the commonplace. and the nature o f light and color. each reflecting a view of his own world—his window. He counted 1 4 . The power of this drawing reflects the pure passion of discovery. Ink lines Several drawings appear among Newton's letters. we see drawing Instruments of Vision found among his letters. a tree outside.92 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS by their very nature must gauge or chronicle precision. alchemist. Newton's 1672 ISAAC Telescope NEWTON . 0 0 0 perfect hemispheres. Their delicate construction is only as valuable as the measurements they make. Look how confidently he draws with ink the sphere of this wooden globe by which his telescope rotates. offering a transparent view. With dotted lines Newton has drawn his arrangement of elements inside the tube. into the eyepiece. It is a diagrammatic explanation of how to catch and magnify a star in a mirrored tube. and Fellow of the University o f C a m b r i d g e . From the concept of capturing the infinite to the mapping of microscopic sight. astronomer. In the graphic work of these two great men of science. mathematician. and his hand moving across the light. Newton's drawing of his first reflecting telescope is ISAAC N E W T O N English scientist. w h e r e he developed his three greatest theories: the law o f motion. via a second mirror. A disembodied eye at the top of the drawing indicates where to look. Transparent view Newton's reflecting telescope focused light in a parabolic mirror. shape the very cause and effect of investigatory thought. drawing is there to pin the moment down. and philosopher Newton was President of the Royal Society.

and anchor escarpment. 1665). universal joint a prototype respirator clock balance. a breathtaking book containing many of his drawings showing some of the first microscopic and telescopic magnifications of our environment Hooke's text and illustrations carry us to the moment of discovery. ROBERT H O O K E 93 Magnifications This acutely detailed engraved drawing is taken from Hooke's Micrographia (pub.An experimental scientist who drew many of his discoveries. It is an exhilarating read. The Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 1665 ROBERT HOOKE 111/2 x 105/8 in (294 x 270 mm) . Hooke invented the camera diaphragm. and calculated the theory of combustion.

Its wobbly gait and squashed s y m m e t r y m u m b l e endless h o m e y tales about the life it has seen. and winner of the 2004 Jerwood Drawing Prize. Chair Cut Out 2002 22'A x 23 in (565 x 585 mm) SARAH WOODFINE . and has drawings in numerous public and private collections. this chair p r e s e n t s us with a clever visual contradiction: deeply drawn shadows tell us it must be solid. A renegade from the p a p e r dolls' h o u s e . its character. W i t h h o m e y c o n t r a s t . OBJECTS AND SARAH WOODFINE British contemporary artist graduate of the Royal Academy Schools. and w h e r e the chair b e l o n g s . while the tabs make us see a flat paper cut-out. Bench Marks W e are left a little c o n f u s e d as to what we s h o u l d do.94 INSTRUMENTS W H E N WE DRAW A COMMON OBJECT like a chair. Van Gogh's tipsy seat is a metaphor for an absent person. Sarah Woodfines flat cut-out m o d e l plan is a witty and surprising drawing. Two-dimensional was made This highly finished drawing ruler using a sharp pencil and on smooth white drawing paper glistening dark drawings are artificial representations of known Woodfine's two-dimensional things balanced in the world. craft. each drawn with the s a m e unfaltering lines and tones that are between reality and impossibility. Woodfine exhibits internationally. and place in the world are truly seen. it has so m u c h familiar personality that it seems to talk to us. From component parts we understand how to put it together and make it stand sensible in space. Drawn in more-or-less c o n v e n t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . has published several catalogs of her work.

inner recording while Fierce strokes This is a portrait of the mechanical drew immediately and almost harshly. Cornfield and Sunflowers. The floor few as engagement with the chair. drawn opposite way of plan. His passionate brush and pencil strokes are honest and of also turmoil and growing alarm at the world around him. what direct in their he saw and describing his felt.95 VINCENTVAN GOGH Dutch painter who produced over 800 paintings and 850 drawings in only the last ten year's of his life. not is made present in only strokes and is subdued to distract us from flat a meaningful chair. and Starry Cypress Night. Among van Gogh's best-known canvases are Trees. Van Chair 1890 VINCENT VAN GOGH .hehas marked the full emotion of the subject with a fierce grip of concentration.

two identical mid-gray squares are seen against black and paler gray squares. a n d our ability to see forms in c l o u d s or fire. but do not appear so. Through these we can enjoy witnessing our o w n d e c e p t i o n a n d b a f f l e m e n t a n d u n d e r s t a n d certain factors that are very useful in picture-making. a lit photograph of an egg shows essential points to observe in tonal drawing. T h e slightest recognition is instantly matched to our wealth of experience a n d expectation. w e turn our head but n o one w a s there. U p s i d e . We will even see things that d o not exist because minimal information suggests they are likely to be there. atmosphere. hence our recognition of a cartoon face c o m p o s e d of three lines. The egg's lightest region is seen against a darker background. try this experiment. less developed than the center. See how its "edge" smoothly changes from light against dark to dark against light. W e learn to read light and shadow in our environment as indicators of solidity and depth of space. the adjustment of our eyes (in growing accustomed to a level of light).At one point you will catchenoughlight lighter than the white one. The perceived tone of a black white. a n d we can be fooled. a n d are q u i c k to p r o p o s e ideas.96 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Light and Illusions SEEING IS MIRACULOUS. cards the same size. Adjust the angleofthe protruding part and again stepback. one blackandone white. The two tones meet without a division or outline between. transmitted to the brain as chains of electrical impulses. The rim of light on the egg is reflected light received from surrounding paper. and the proximity of contrasting tones. Here w e look briefly at our perception of light a n d darkness a n d our interpretation of diagrammatic illusions. o u r b r a i n s search for n a m e a b l e things.This effect is caused by the contrast of their surroundings. The small squares are identical in tone. are translated into a world of space. think about its illumination. To interpret visual s t i m u l u s . Here. your eye around the circumference of the egg. gray.102-03 deep shadows cast across shells make their form easier to perceive. The egg's darkest region is seen against a lighter background. Below. We perceive one to be lighter than theother. From across the room both will appear black card and fold and retapeitwith half sticking out. On acloudyday. Artists emulate and manipulate this effect in their pictures. form. Before starting a tonal drawing of any subject. reads only m o v e m e n t a n d can often m a k e mistakes. Below the bottom "edge" of the egg there is a rim of light reflected onto the paper by the underside of the egg.d o w n patterns of light on our retinas. Are you happy LIGHT AND SHADOW with what you see? Does the light enhance the subject? Could you alter and improve it? On pp. Tape them to the glass. We only need small prompts. Gray squares To further examine changes in tone. Three factors change it: the amount of light it receives. The outermost edge of our vision. or colored surface is never constant. a n d m o v e m e n t . perhaps. Card experiment cho can gra on . S o m e o n e passes our o p e n door. Run The bottom-left quarter of the egg lightens slightly toward its "edge" when seen against the darker shadow cast on the paper.

LIGHT AND ILLUSIONS Tonal width T h e s e black a n d w h i t e bands are o f equal thickness o n e i t h e r side o f t h e i r central division.p o i n t p e r s p e c t i v e d r a w i n g s w i t h a large n u m b e r o f c o n v e r g i n g rays b e h i n d y o u r horizontals. T w o horizontal lines o f equal length are m a d e t o l o o k longer and shorter. O f t e ndoingso w i l l s p o i l y o u r w o r k . by d i r e c t e d a r r o w s ( A ) . w h i l e t h i n n e r lines recede. In this t o n a l image w e read w h i t e as f a t t e r t h a n black. T w o relatively t h i c k parallel lines are m a d e t o b e n d away f r o m each o t h e r as t h e y pass in f r o n t o f an a r r a y o f c o n v e r g i n g f i n e lines ( B ) . l i g h t e r surfaces s t a n d f o r w a r d w h i l e d a r k e r s u r f a c e s recede. T h i s fundamental o p p o s i t e is a reason w h y l i n e a r a n d t o n a l d r a w i n g does not a l w a y s c o m b i n e w e l l in t h e s a m e i m a g e . Apparent lengths T h e s e optical illusions s h o w h o w lines o f identical length can b e m a d e t o l o o k quite different f r o m each o t h e r by t h e addition o r association o f o t h e r lines. B o t h are identical in length. Seven parallel lines are m a d e t o tilt t o w a r d and away f r o m each o t h e r by n u m e r o u s s h o r t strokes crossing t h e m diagonally ( A ) . T h e jug d r a w n w i t h a t h i n line appears f a r t h e r away t h a n t h e j u g d r a w n w i t h a t h i c k e r line. start o u t w i t h one. S h o r t h o r i z o n t a l lines o f identical length are m a d e t o l o o k d i f f e r e n t by c o n v e r g i n g lines beside t h e m ( C ) . In this linear drawing w e read t h i c k as closer a n d t h i n as f a r t h e r away. respectively. T h e r e is n o obligation t o a d d b l o c k s o f t o n e t o a l i n e a r d r a w i n g .97 LINE VERSUS TONE In l i n e a r d r a w i n g s . O b s e r v e h o w each white b a n d appears t h i c k e r t h a n its black c o u n t e r p a r t . b u t t h e u p r i g h t o n e l o o k s t a l l e r (B). A n u p r i g h t line stands in t h e c e n t e r o f a h o r i z o n t a l line. . In a t o n a l d r a w i n g . Y o u m a y e x p e r i e n c e s o m e t h i n g similar h a p p e n i n g w h e n y o u m a k e s i n g l e . Bending straight lines Linear distance These t w o jugs have b e e n d r a w n w i t h lines o f d i f f e r i n g thicknesses. t h i c k e r l i n e s a p p e a r t o stand forward. If y o u w i s h t o m a k e a t o n a l drawing.

" . It is possible t o r e a d i t t w o ways: as a t r u n c a t e d r e c t a n g u l a r p y r a m i d seen d i r e c t l y f r o m a b o v e .98 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Further Illusions PSYCHOLOGISTS AND PHYSIOLOGISTS have studied optical illusions for decades in pursuit of what they tell us about the brain. C l o s i n g t h e surface o f t h e f o r m seals o u r d e c i s i o n as t o w h i c h w a y it faces. Artists can communicate much in few lines and the viewer will do the rest of the work. their picture could be ambiguous. perfected the acceleration of perspective (see pp. Ancient Greek architects knew parallel upright lines appeared to bend toward each other in the middle. as s h o w n o n t h e right. Yet many illusions. Artists make pictorial illusions when they paint or draw.76. such as t h e dish seen h e r e o n t h e left. others adjust works to avoid their effects. Today we are bombarded with images but rarely have difficulty reading them.s i d e d r e c t a n g u l a r t r a y ( b o t h are illustrated far r i g h t ) "The brain is so eager to name a fragment we see that we need only a suggestion to grasp the whole. it can oscillate b e t w e e n facing t o w a r d o r a w a y f r o m us. o r as a s l o p i n g . such as Bridget Riley. A few suggestive marks will tip the decision one way o r the o t h e r Closing the surface W h e n a t r a n s p a r e n t elliptical o b j e c t has b e e n d r a w n . including some shown here. SEEING TWO OPTIONS Sometimes. Some artists use known optical illusions to make art. In the 1960's. made paintings that depended upon the physical sensation of our brain's reaction to known optical illusions. it oscillates between t w o possibilities. w e can only look f r o m one t o the o t h e r If an artist is not aware this can happen in their image. are still not agreeably understood. and we learn to read the styles of diverse cultures and periods. w e will find that in terms of the direction it faces. and so calculated precisely how much to fatten columns to make them appear straight. Op(tical) artists. It is a curious fact that w e can never see both options at once. among others. w h e n drawing the outline o f a three-dimensional form. Michelangelo. Two ways of seeing T h i s is t h e b o x c r e a t e d in t h e f o u r t h step o n p.116-17) to make painted figures look correct when viewed from below.

T h e patient's answers are t h e n diagnosed as a psychological profile. This simple five-line d r a w i n g is o f a C a p u c h i n priest asleep in his pulpit. smoke.99 Impossible objects T h e s e clever configurations o f outlines and t o n a l surfaces convince us at a glance that we are seeing a solid three-dimensional triangle and a three-pronged fork. FURTHER ILLUSIONS Seeing things that are n o t t h e r e H e r e o n t h e left. C Escher u s e d this phenomenon t o great effect in his many p o p u l a r d r a w i n g s o f puzzles and impossible buildings. T h e s e e x a m p l e s illustrate h o w little is n e e d e d t o c o n v e y an image. C o u p l e d w i t h t h e Rorschach b l o t above. — a n d so t h e artist can create m u c h o u t o f an impression w i t h o u t overdescribing. e t c . T h e a r t i s t M. Minimal-line j o k e s such as this rely u p o n t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y v i e w e r ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e shapes. w e see t w o overlapping triangles: o n e outlined in black b e n e a t h a n o t h e r in solid w h i t e . W e should r e m e m b e r t h a t o u r brains will always search f o r a p i c t u r e — i n ink blots. P e r c e i v i n g a w h o l e i m a g e f r o m m i n i m a l lines T h i s is a w i d e l y r e p r o d u c e d visual j o k e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e C a r r a c c i b r o t h e r s . T h e t e s t e x p l o r e s o u r n o r m a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o find things w e can n a m e a m o n g r a n d o m shapes. C o u n t t h e n u m b e r o f d a r k spots y o u can see. this is a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f t h e viewer's b r a i n b e i n g willing t o d o a large a m o u n t o f t h e w o r k in d e c i p h e r i n g a p i c t u r e .c e n t u r y Italian painters. b u t w e believe w e see t h e m because e n o u g h f r a g m e n t a r y i n f o r m a t i o n is given f o r o u r brains t o c o n c l u d e t h e y are v e r y likely t h e r e . His highly d i s p u t e d and i m p r e c i s e science involves s h o w i n g u n p r e p a r e d p a t i e n t s t e n p a r t i c u l a r ink b l o t s a n d asking t h e m t o i n t e r p r e t w h a t t h e y see. M u c h can b e e x p r e s s e d in o n l y a f e w marks. B e l o w is a b r i g h t n e s s c o n t r a s t illusion. Yet still w e try resolve t h e m . N e i t h e r triangle exists. T h e y a r e o f t e n c r e d i t e d w i t h t h e invention o f t h e c o m i c c a r t o o n . clouds. S o m e artists use ink blots t o p r o m p t t h e beginning o f an image. This effect can o c c u r naturally w h e n looking at a b r i g h t l y lit w h i t e g r i d such as a w i n d o w f r a m e against t h e night sky.c e n t u r y Swiss psychologist H e r m a n n Rorschach. F a m i l i a r i t y in r a n d o m s h a p e s T h e Rorschach test was established by t h e 1 9 t h . . O n l y o n closer inspection we realize that t h e s e o b j e c t s are fooling us. 1 6 t h .

suggesting that the vessel is lopsided. To make a cylindrical object appear real in our pictorial space. for example plates or bowls on a table. though. w h e n seen at an angle. I have drawn these for you here. while its upper rim remains level. a n d in o n e bold stroke. even if y o u r hand w o b b l e s a little at first. I have exaggerated this error here. as if the table surface slopes upward beneath the vessel. The first common error is to draw two pointed ellipses. A wobbling but confident ellipse will still be more convincing than a slow. w e use ellipses to give a sense of perspective. describing many sides of an object simultaneously. that this is o n l y o n e w a y view. keep it spinning. . such as bowls and cups. there are three common errors people stumble upon. How to Draw Ellipses of seeing. springlike forms like those I have drawn below. and these narrow or widen depending on the height of our view. Don't worry if it is uneven— just try again. spin your hand in a relaxed circle. for example. hesitant one that has edged its w a y nervously around the vessel's rim. However. Cover a sheet of paper with spinning.100 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS W E VISUALIZE CYLINDRICAL VESSELS. WHERE TO START In the air above a spacious sheet of scrap paper. The second common error is to tilt the upper and lower ellipses at different angles. (see p. giving the cylinder four corners. third common error is to draw upper and lover ellipses with different-sized apertures. you will achieve steadiness with practice. since this is h o w w e experience them in e v e r y d a y use. Cubism. smoothly. COMMON ERRORS W h e n drawing cylindrical objects in perspective. not the paper!) As the pen touches down. like a disposable plastic cup that has been crushed in your hand. Ellipse are best d r a w n quickly. Be aware.90) takes a different as essentially circular. Watch the tip of your pen and see it draw an ellipse in the air Keep this movement going while gently lowering the pen onto the paper like the needle of a record player closing on the disc (only it is your lowering hand that spins. circles change into ellipses.

101 DRAWING VESSELS Once you have mastered drawing free-hand springs. Draw quickly. you can make it solid by building up highlights and tones on visible surfaces. thereby hiding lines that show the other sides. Create a Solid Surface Once you have drawn the shape and volume of each form. HOW TO DRAW E L L I P S E S A Single Vessel One Inside Another Grouped Together Finding Shape and Volume Draw an imagined vessel in one continuous spinning line. enlarging and diminishing the ellipse to determine the overall shape and volume. Seeing Through Allow lines to travel around each vessel as if it were transparent. Altering the pressure—and therefore tone—of the line as it spins gives the impression of light shining on one side. you can start to control your spinning ellipse to make a vessel. . working from top to bottom.

or you can begin with a mid-gray ground and model light out of darkness (see opposite bottom). leaving detail until last. It is important to place them on the correct side so as to draw comfortably (see pp. Draw the largest and most distinct areas of light and darkness first. Remember that shadows. It maximizes the range of tones between black and white. and solid objects are all of equal importance. if any.22-23). Illuminate them with a gooseneck lamp placed very close and directed away from your eyes. making complicated or subtle surfaces easier to see and understand. two opposite methods of achieving the same result. beams of light. You can begin with outlines and build slowly from light to dark (see opposite top). outlines. Relaxing your eyes out of focus as you draw will help to dissolve the distraction of detail. t h e r e a r e p r i n c i p a l l y Dramatic lighting emphasizes texture and contour. and strong contrasts are easier to draw. it will inhibit your perception of tone. simply shapes and subtleties of light and dark meeting each other with no divisions in between. if light shines in them.102 INSTRUMENTS Tonality W H E N MAKING A TONAL DRAWING. Gradually hone your drawing. LIGHT TO DARK DARK TO LIGHT . In the finished drawing there should be few. OBJECTS AND Start by arranging a choice of shells on a sheet of paper to your left if you are right-handed (or vice versa).

Draw in the details last of all. look at the main areas of darkness. Remember that its size. 2 3 Gentlydissolveoutlines so that areas oflightanddark meet without a line between them. until you are happy frame. Relaxing your eyes out of focus will help to eliminate distracting details. Honetheshapesand angles of the shells. Continue working between light and dark to refine the drawing. pale lines with equal importance. Avoid a rough significant areas of light in your gray rectangle with texture and do not press the graphite hardwhite plastic eraser Ignore all detail and draw a into thepaperor you will not be able to erase it. draw a rectangle. Use quick. with broad sweeps of the eraser. and edges definingthespacialrelationships between are important aspects of your composition them. .56-57). Fll in broad areas first and leave all detail until last.103 LIGHT TO DARK (LINE TO TONE) TONALITY 1 Using a sharp HB pencil. boldly 2 3 Keeping your eyes out of focus. Treat positive form and negative space (see pp. shape. loose. Erase and make changes to roughly place the shells inside your with your composition. DARK TO LIGHT (TONE TO TONE) 1 Using the flattened tip of an HB pencil. Use your pencil to develop these in relation to the areas of light. Let your eyes go out of focus while looking gently layer marks to create an even tone at your subject and paper: Draw the most ofmid-graywithin a rectangle.

you can create your own more ambitious works. On p. Place the instrument on a plain surface and illuminate it with a desk lamp to add the delicate dimension of shadows.220 Mamoru Abe draws with forged steel rods. 176 the British artists Noble and Webster draw with domestic refuse in a beam of light. PEN LINES Once you have created your three-dimensional violin (opposite). This class uses thin-gauge wire to create a threedimensional violin. and on p.104 OBJECTS AND I N S T R U M E N T S Drawing with Wire DRAWINGS DO NOT HAVE to be two-dimensional. smooth. 19 Picasso draws with a pen-light for the camera. our image is stronger if we understand and can visualize what is happening on the other side too. Third. The second is that after achieving this simple example.69 we see how the architect Antonio Gaudi drew proposed domes using suspended wires and weights. and on p. On p. continuous lines. try drawing it with a pen on paper Use bold. There are essentially three lessons to be learned. three-dimensional drawings teach us about the totality of forms in space. . The first is that figurative and abstract drawings can be made in space. Seeing through a wire drawing of a known object such as a violin gives us a visual and tactile understanding of all its sides and shapes at once. When drawing anything viewed from one side on paper. and physical relationships between them. They can also be made in space.

Then begin to define its uppermost surface with Scurves and the bridge. and thick wire a larger one. 4 . Join the two sides together with four short pieces of wire. Once you have completed the body. begin to shape the curvature of the fingerboard. 1 Decide how big to draw your violin relative to the gauge of your wire. thin wire will make a smaller drawing. and pinch and bend it to shape the base of the instrument Repeat this process to make the identical upper side of the instrument. I started with the scroll at the top and fixed the four component wires with two drawings of tuning pegs.105 SETTING UP DRAWING WITH WIRE Follow these steps to draw a three-dimensional violin Choose a gauge of wire sturdy enough to hold the shape ofyourfinished drawing. Cut a length. brace the two ends of the violin with a length of wire along the back. 2 3 If needed. These will hold the sides apart and help to keep the form in shape. but thin enough to be easily manipulated inyourfingers Here. I used garden wire and cut it carefully with pruners. Here.

I had the privilege of drawing their inventions.Artifacts and Fictions IN 1993 I WORKED with a group of schoolchildren who were responding to the astonishing objects in the collection of the Pitt Rivers Museum. some of which are shown here. Oxford. they invented new anthropological finds—objects that reflected the distant past and their immediate future. Using found materials. England. .

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while Leonardo opened the body to see and projected onto a woman's body draw the celebratory discover for himself our physical mechanisms.The Body O UR BODIES MAKE us TANGIBLE. Artists are thought to have b e g u n drawing from the nude during the Italian Renaissance. Renaissance artists studying anatomy from dissection clinically trained and specialized as a medical illustrator. and anatomical and erotic art. while Durer took his research further— A. 3 x 7 in (300 x 180 . He even believed he had located the soul contours of her form like a cartographer's map of in the pituitary fossa beneath the brain and behind the eyes. a n d w e d r a w o u r s e l v e s to a s s e r t o u r e x i s t e n c e . the Bay Area Models' Guild h o l d s a quarterly life-drawing m a r a t h o n aprinton Kodak transfer paper with green-colored dye added celebrating the great diversity of human proportion. and because the female was deemed inferior. portraiture. diseased. explaining ranges e/ of materials and techniques and showing diversities of thought and purpose in making. Leonardo drew a man within a circle and square. These classes are popular around the world. WILLIAMS he sought perfection in the infinitesimal measurement of the body and produced four Contemporary photographer volumes of illustrated explanation. During this time. Drawings were usually made from the male nude to avoid offending the church. much Western contemporary art. giving physical foundation undulating land. She the body is still essential. in our privileged and comfortable society. Strangely. In this period. This chapter addresses issues that are most commonly faced by beginners attending life-drawing classes. W e understand every curve and balance of to the theory that the eves are the windows of the soul. myths and fables. It also looks at the representation of the b o d y b11y4o n d traditional life drawing. focus has turned to the vulnerability of flesh: how it can be damaged. herimpressive presence because we are given such Life drawing no longer dominates the art school curriculum. Williams were decades ahead of their medical counterparts. It gives physical and emotive form to religious narratives. R. R. sculptural description of her form. W I L L I A M S technology. is the most c o m m o n subject in art. W e are the only creatures on Earth that can make our own image. Michelangelo attended dissections to made this image by light sectioning: fine beams of light perfect his understanding of surface form. Look closely at Renaissance drawings of the female b o d y and you will see that m o s t are actually y o u n g m e n with minor adjustments. clothed or nude. history paintings and other stories. and surgically rebuilt. from video and X-ray to thermal imaging. but the study of a controlled. artists also tried to define ideal proportions in the body. the junior workshop apprentices posed as part of their duties. This F finished image was produced as r a n c i s c o . Artists now explore the interior of the body with new media and Lateral Contour Map of a Full-Term Primipara Produced by Light 1979 A. The body remains at the core of over the initially white lines. and in San could easily be transferred into three dimensions. The human body.

Matisse's b l u e n u d e sings with life and c e l e b r a t i o n . and human defeat. Principal figures m i r r o r e a c h other. Raphael drew delicate tones of black chalk on tinted paper. He trained under Perugino. T h e y b o t h raise one arm to cup their head in their hand. RAFFAELLO SANZIO (RAPHAEL) Italian High Renaissance painter: Raphael is best known for his images of the Madonna and Child. and Vatican frescos. But the meanings of each gesture and the materials and methods by which they Postures and Poses were m a d e contrast greatly.110 T H E BODY THESE DISTINCTIVE WORKS show two strikingly different ways of modeling the body on paper. In a single drawing we see equally o b s e r v e d studies of f o r e s h o r t e n i n g (see pp. we see the e s s e n c e of h e r b e a u t y w i t h o u t a single detail. while supporting the weight of their body with the other. Three Guards 1500-20 91/4 x143/8in (234 x 365 mm) RAPHAEL . and studied to learn from the works of Michelangelo and Leonardo besides whom he was soon ranked. By way of contrast. Muscular dramatic postures reflect the influence of Michelangelo and the Renaissance celebration of the idealized male body. Sculptural frieze This is a preparatory drawing for Raphael's painting of the Resurrection of Christ. while Matisse used scissors and glue to cut out and paste a flat collage of brilliant color. altar pieces. so that we read this drawing like a sculptural frieze. Raphael's study of fallen m e n leaves no doubt that they are in anguish. anatomy.116-17). filling the page with her presence. Here three male nudes are compressed into very shallow pictorial space. In this highly s o p h i s t i c a t e d a b s t r a c t i o n . She u n f o l d s and s t r e t c h e s shapely limbs.

or like a good armchair in which to rest from physical fatigue. foundamong many other groups of papercut these works as an elderly man confined to his bed or wheelchair.sculptor. as his w o r k matured.. and Islamic art. fabric. Matisse became an artist after studying law.which might be.. printmaker.. teacher and principal exponent o f Fauvism—a movement established in 1905 in which bold color is the most essential element.. lifelong love of brilliant They celebrate the culmination of spectacular and sometimes drawings." of is an art of balance.. His calligraphic natural abstractions of form grew brighter. serenity. his pattern. a mental soother.designer writer.like an appeasing influence. Matisse Soothing influence This drawing expresses the achievement of Matisse's personal aim: "What I dream and depressing subject matter..111 HENRY MATISSE French painter: draftsman. and more energetic Color and form This collage is one of a series of Blue Nudes. devoid of troubling Blue Nude 1 1952 413/4 HENRY MATISSE . freer.

other tones.112 T H E BODY Choreographs T I M E IS A SIGNIFICANT E L E M E N T i n t h e m a k i n g o f a l l d r a w i n g s . scratched in seconds. agreeing to coalesce and show us the form of a waiting boy. T h e space around h i m chatters with symbols. Below. it would have mixed with unseen black dust. Here. Seurat engaged in lifelong studies of line. turned gray. Using the paper to create light is important for beginners to learn. Typically. and color His applied theories still influence painters in their manipulation and rendering of local. we c o m p a r e a skillful design that absorbed m u c h time in its making with the quickness of an idea marked instantly. or abruptly meeting. in a perfect e x a m p l e . stands in counterpoise holding a dark globe and his thoughts in m o m e n t a r y balance. If Seurat had added white. Tone and light In this black conte drawing. he used b l a c k c o n t e (see p. Beuys's magician. 162) and an eraser to model teeming points of artificial light amid GEORGES SEURAT French painter classically educated in the Ingres school of thought. form. w h o sits propped in the contradictory darkness of a hot summer's day. there are no outlines. it is as if the very atoms of air are made visible. velvet d a r k n e s s . and muddied the brilliance of the drawing. only tones blending into. like small birds attendant on the meditation. His drawings are similarly u n i q u e . In his f a m o u s paintings of social e n g a g e m e n t . and c o m p l e m e n t a r y hues. Light is given by the paper alone. Opposite. reflected. Seurat evolved a distinctive t e c h n i q u e called p o i n t i l l i s m — i m a g e s literally made from myriad points of color. Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 1883-84 91/2 x 121/4 in (241 x 312 m m GEORGES SEURAT .

CHOREOGRAPHS the profound power materials with spiritual or of Free lines This pale pencil drawing is Beuys. video art. This figure is drawn intuitively. He was a shaman who believed in intuition and in the investment of healing force. transience. and drawings. His The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland UNDATED 113/4 J O S E P H BEUYS x81/4in (297 x 210 mm) . Unbroken lines stream from his simultaneously movement. and that These aspects of the work convey fractured visibility. in different positions. iodine. Perfectly modeled rather conventional for Joseph Focus Beuys's hand moved quickly to draw dotted lines flowing downward on either side of the figure.gold. free from the constraint of immaculate form opposite) impetus is irrelevant to the and meaning of this work (as we see in Seurat's drawing representation. Beuys gave performances. and blood. taught workshops with a cult following. Our focus joins shoulders. Many of his other symbolic works on paper have been drawn with materials such as honey. and made installations.113 JOSEPH BEUYS One of the most influential German artists of the 20th century.

the women are framed and caressed by long. THE AUGUSTE RODIN French Romantic sculptor and prolific draftsman employed as an ornamental mason until the age of 42. and went on to inspire generations of artists. and one of hundreds of rapid studies of nudes. Delicate strokes This is one of about 7. Anita Taylor has drawn her protective body hug out of the darkly glistening compression of willow charcoal and the dynamism of her shy but momentous femininity. They whisper and writhe in a brushed and sultry embrace that devours our watching. In Rodins work. was perceived as scandalous. Rodin employed models to move freely or pose together in his studio. its soft. Inspired by Michelangelo. We are involved not as a shabby voyeur but as a bystander engaged through our recognition of shared joy. flushed skin made ruddy and black with crushed cinders. Rodin produced portraits and statues of public and literary figures. Paris. But what is stranger to us now is that they were also outraged by his free use of line. As here." as seen here. Achieving international acclaim in mid-life. We are asked to gaze u p o n her flesh. 125/8x 9 in (320 x 229 mm) AUGUSTE RODIN Two Women 1911 Embracing . he typically drew them with a few delicate strokes of pencil and brushed watercolor. Free lines Rodin's public audience was understandably shocked by the eroticism of his drawings. the fierceness of the women's kiss is beautifully matched by the tenderness of his line. His exquisite flow of paint beyond "outlines.114 BODY Passion SUMMONING HUMANITY in a drawing of the nude is a subtle and emotional task. Our bodies radiate the passion of our thoughts and so become beacons of our frailty and power. In both drawings. his w o r k is characterized by deliberate un-finish and powerfully modeled emotion. Opposite.000 drawings shown in rotation at the Musee Rodin. sweeping lines— of either purple silk fabric or cool studio air—that imprint and amplify their past and future movements.

I 15 ANITA T A Y L O R Painter. The sturdy surface of the sheet has allowed her to press hard when needed. scrutiny. Luminosity Layered marks flicker likefirelight as they sculpt the woman's body. leaving her lightest marks at the deepest level of the image and applying darker marks above. and rework rich depths of light and tone. intimately reflecting upon the emotions and meaning of nudity. Taylor has drawn. and gaze. draftsman. This order of light below and dark above gives glowing from within. Charcoal Taylor has drawn freely with charcoal and an eraser on thick. London. textured paper. exposure. erased and drawn again. the impression of luminosity All and Nothing 1999 67 x447/8in (170 x 1 1 4 cm) ANITA TAYLOR . Taylor's immense self-portraits explore the relationship between the artist as maker and the artist as model. professor and Vice Principal of Wimbledon School of Art. A thinner sheet might have crumpled and torn under such vigorous force of making.

more extreme examples have been made for court entertainment. elbow. Close one eye. and wrist joints. Rome. when beginners prop their board in their lap and look down at too steep an angle. rather that what we believe we know from experience. Align the top with a point on your subject. How to make and apply these is explained below and opposite. The length of exposed pencil is your measurement. the skull in Holbein's The Ambassadors (The National Gallery. London).limbs happily receding. There is no need to mark them all down on paper. we would arrive to find many of the same figures strangely distorted. It is not so hard. without taking off. or shrivelling at odd." . 3 Keep your pencil perpendicular Measure and compare at any angle. you will make inconsistent and unrelated comparisons. or coming forward. with dramatic illusions of figures painted in normal proportion. Up close on the scaffold we would witness Michelangelo's subtle application of accelerated perspective. If your arm is not straight. This is chiefly a correcting device by which figurative painters and sculptors have for centuries countered the effects of our viewing their work from far below or on the curvature of a vault. Accelerated perspective plays a great role in much art. for example.116 T H E BODY Measurement and Foreshortening FORESHORTENING IS AN ASPECT of perspective. 2 Hold your pencil upright. Spend time making comparisons before you draw. patience. Imagine Michelangelo's murals in the Sistine Chapel. To avoid its effects ensure you always look flat onto the surface of your page. unfathomable angles. MEASURING This is a simple method of making measured comparisons for relating the true size of one part to another This is a tool to assist observation and thinking. and a few measured comparisons are key. to be translated by mirrors or seen from only one point in the room. Return to this posture every time. But if we could take a scaffold and climb up to the work. and to draw what we see. just making them helps you see. It can also be a little demon in the life room. "Simple measured comparisons reveal surprising truths about proportion. helping us to see more clearly. We also look at another very interesting branch called accelerated (or anamorphic) perspective. elongated as if stretched across the plaster. Lock your shoulder. In the life class it is the mechanism for ensuring that a drawn figure lies correctly in pictorial space . 1 Hold your arm straight. plummeting. Smaller. persistence. It is not complicated. which is imperceptible from below. and measurements do not have to be carried to the paper and slavishly drawn the same size they appear on your pencil. Move the tip of your thumb down to a second chosen point.

Lean t h e t o p e d g e t o w a r d y o u and find a p o s i t i o n w h e r e y o u can c o m f o r t a b l y l o o k d o w n t h e p a p e r at an angle o f a b o u t 4 0 degrees. FORESHORTENING To f o r e s h o r t e n a figure. A t a c e r t a i n angle. belly. MEASUREMENT AND FORESHORTENING Tilt t h e t o p edge o f this b o o k t o w a r d you and look d o w n o n this figure f r o m a b o v e . a n d thighs. y o u must let go o f w h a t y o u k n o w f r o m e x p e r i e n c e a b o u t t h e relative sizes o f b o d y parts and trust y o u r eyes. See h o w d i f f e r e n t t h e relative heights o f t h e s e shapes are f r o m w h a t w e m i g h t e x p e c t in real life. pleasingly f o r e s h o r t e n e d . L o o k at y o u r m o d e l as if he o r she is a flat series o f shapes o n e o n t o p o f a n o t h e r Measure t h e height and w i d t h o f each shape and c o m p a r e it t o its neighbor. To m a k e f o r m s l o o k c o r r e c t . Keep t h e b o a r d steady and draw. looking d o w n t h e p a p e r at t h e a n g l e at w h i c h I d r e w . which feels strange. W o r k a r o u n d t h e figure. S o o n t h e b o d y will lie d o w n in space. adjusting a n o n y m o u s shapes. C o m p a r e t h e heights o f t h e nose and eye shapes t o t h o s e o f t h e f o r e a r m . T h i s is t h e s a m e d r a w i n g p h o t o g r a p h e d f r o m above. P r o p o r t i o n s will only l o o k c o r r e c t f r o m t h e angle at w h i c h y o u make t h e drawing. Stand its b o t t o m edge o n y o u r lap. h e r p r o p o r t i o n s will appear correct. y o u r hand travels f a r t h e r than y o u expect. t a p e s o m e p a p e r t o a board. W e appear t o be looking d o w n o n a w o m a n s t a n d i n g b e n e a t h us. .117 ACCELERATED PERSPECTIVE To discover h o w this w o r k s .

Layered lines give d e p t h . . Avoid drawing up one side and down the other. Balance When a model stands upright on both feet. Height This pose leans away into space above our eye level. propelling you to make immediate assessments and trust them. THE SEQUENCE OF POSES H e r e the model was asked to move every t w o minutes. and stance before honing her balance and expression. Leave first thoughts in place. and slightly enlarge her legs and feet. To see this. T h i s q u i c k e x p l o r a t o r y line does not perfectly describe shape but expresses a decision about overall flow of form. and work over t h e m with further o b s e r v a t i o n s . balance. working from her center to her feet and to her head. height. imagine holding up a plumb line. To draw this effect. and height. I used a sharp H B pencil and began each drawing by marking her outline. feeling. work back and forth across the body. make the upper body smaller give your model a high waist. because it results in two unrelated sides drifting apart.118 BODY Quick Poses DRAWING QUICK POSES l o c k s y o u r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n t o what is most essential. and energy. Be bold and dive into your drawing with c o n f i d e n c e . her center of balance is normally found in a vertical line beneath her head. Outline To outline a figure. Start each new drawing by lightly marking the model's height with a loose line in ten seconds.

The tilt of the pelvis is then counter balanced by the model's shoulders tilting the other way (as seen here). Tilt Movement Here. and this should be avoided Twist QUICK POSES A model standing on one leg usually drops the opposite hip. This drawing shows how different observations be overlaid to bring a drawing alive. . Most of us have a tendency to over-straighten the drawn figure.119 The twist of a model is most easily and expressively captured if it is exaggerated. the activity of circular lines and the repetition of limbs suggest movement.

Do not separate them yet. Focus instead on how planes change direction across the knuckles from one side of the hand or foot to the other. W h e n starting.120 BODY Hands and Feet THERE ARE MANY different ways of approaching h a n d s and THE of form. These planes. This exercise is useful when struggling with proportion. A mirror increases your range of views. 2 Build your drawing gradually from light to dark. Keep lines open to change and take measurements if they help. it is important to leave aside all details of the fingers and toes. starting with the largest. or those of a friend. drawn in relation to each other. feet. and a gooseneck lamp casts shadows that clarify planes and depths GESTURES OF THE HAND Curled Fingers 1 Open Palm Start honing the shapes of the dominant planes. Practice by drawing your own hands and feet. 3 . Don't worry about achieving perfect solutions. Group the fingers together as one mass. Begin by drawing lines to encompass the whole hand. and ignore all details. Draw large shapes and their orientation. general to specific. but regard these practice studies as ongoing processes of thought and observatio Add details such as nails last if you wish. Then subdivide each shape so that you w o r k from large to small. and they need not be daunting to draw. swiftly marking its essential gesture. express structure and gesture far more successfully and easily than ten worried outlines wandering up and down between the fingers and toes. It also helps the beginner to progress from drawing outlines to drawing confidently across the surface of the whole form. especially the lengthwise divisions between them.

and spontaneity. Leave aside all detail. . however.as though out o f wood. Try t o express the whole foot and t o encapsulate its entire shape and direction in a few marks. flattened planes. and rapid. these are what give a drawing its tangible structure. Hew it roughly in broad. t o remove t o o many early lines. Nowimagineyou are carving the foot insidethepaper. as if with a chisel. loose. Look for key angles without becoming distracted by detail. It can be a mistake. 2 3 Use an eraser t o refine decisions o r t o suggest areas o f light.121 HANDS AND FEET MOVEMENTS OF THE FOOT Flat Stance Raised Heel Instep 1 Let your first marks be light. depth. and don't worry about accuracy t o begin with.

Charcoal Hands T H E S E DRAWINGS ARE MADE in compressed charcoal. The white lines demonstrate what is often called "bracelet shading. Opposite." .204-05. Compare its nature in close-up to that of willow charcoal used on pp. I also used white ink with a steel dip pen.

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I make these lines in the first five to ten seconds of a drawing to locate the presence. and posture of the model. length. Phrasing Contours . 118-19). before honing his or her shape (see pp.HERE TRACES OF RAPID initial lines are still seen within and outside each body.

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Forms. perspectives. I draw in museums in support of written research and as an artist seeking answers to questions about the practicalities of image making. . Drawing work by another artist enables you to discover and understand the inventive hand in their composition. and narrative pulse become vivid when you realize them in the middle of your study. feeling them through the attentive movements of your own hand. characters.The Visual Detective DRAWING FROM MASTERWORKS was once a staple component of an artist's education. It is now viewed with some skepticism and often seen as academic.

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These almost life-size figures were composed from my imagination and achieved with the help af studies discussed on pp. . Florence. each modeled from dissection.La Specola At17V i a Romana. Walls are lined with hundreds of faintly animated body parts. 126-27. Life-size women wearing wigs recline on beds of embroidered silk in cabinets of mahogany and Venetian glass This is a detail of a compressed charcoal drawing measuring 14 x 10 ft (4.3 x 3 m) made in response to La Specola. there is a unique museum of 18th-century anatomical waxes.

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and in a few scrolling rafts of pen lines and stubbled dots. painters have dropped discreet records of themselves into commissioned narratives so that they can remain a face in the crowd. For centuries. abstract or figurative. neck. and satirical or metaphorical. Self-portraiture gives every artist a constant. is here to both meet and look through us. or a glimpse of him is caught in a photograph used as a prop. and expression of the individual. Past rulers sent painters across continents to bring back a likeness in advance of a prospective royal marriage. and their posture can be changed with just one line. Goya's w o r k s include many royal and society p o r t r a i t s . Man Ray's self-portrait of scored lines. bells. the meaning of their face. made as he passed through the ages of man.Portraiture IN P O R T R A I T U R E W E MEET PEOPLE. in a miniature self-portrait magnified opposite. Rembrandt's famous multitude of self-portraits. compliant subject to scrutinize. Our homes are filled with images of our loved ones and of those in our families who have gone before. and social and political commentaries. usually strangers from past times. W h e n drawing a person. Movie director Alfred similarly signed his films by playing a fleeting role: he walks through an extra. character. became more poignant as he progressed. or past us. and lucrative genre for artists. buttons. We can mold and animate qualities of expression out of objects and fragments of disassociated things—for example. you can capture the subtlety. his changes in pressure and Hitchcock length o f line. live. Halls and palaces are filled with pictures of the mighty and significant. and shoulders. throat. To create a face is to see and interpret the essence of an identity. Beginners often draw themselves as a way of establishing their practice. and it is very rewarding. their stance. having been documented and preserved. who. and a handprint (see p. In this chapter. Equally. Portraits can be highly or loosely detailed. draftsman. gathered all that he knew FRANCISCO DE GOYA V i s i o n a r y Spanish painter. The returning image was of crucial consideration in any proposal. 1790-92 4 x 3 in ( 1 0 2 x 7 6 m m ) F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A and memorize the basic structure that we all share. This enlargement o f his miniature p o r t r a i treveals t h e s p e e d and agility o f his p e n and about himself. . and p r i n t m a k e r . The truth is that we all like looking at faces and observing the billions of variations that make us individuals. single or of groups.139). It also reminds us o f b o t h t h e intimacy and a scene as scrutiny o f an honest portrait. we use the delicate medium of silver point to look at foundation structures of the head. We are also reassured by keeping records of ourselves. or whose eyes can seem to follow us around the room Portraiture is a constant. and secular narratives. a single line can deliver an entire expression. historical. look directly at us. Once you understand Self-Portrait in a Cocked Hat c. Goya. religious.

30). hand to capture something well in only Frangoise au Bandeau 1946 660 x 505 mm (26 x197/8in) PABLO PICASSO . For the beginner. We can read so much about them by studying their gaze. How could the addition of shadows have enhanced this image? Few strokes The simplicity of Picasso's line is breathtaking. Her face is drawn tenderly and with a luminous glow. stealthily using his chalk to find contours and mass. PABLO PICASSO Spanish Cubist painter (see also p. It takes a truly accomplished a few strokes. He makes his flair and skill look easy. Through exhibitions and copies in books. It is the portrait of a countrywoman. Picasso strikes and scrolls his pencil. Without faltering. length. Picasso has left to posterity many hundreds of magnificent line drawings. While with longer consideration. caught in her last moments of youth. they serve as a great lesson that it is not always necessary to add tone to your drawing.132 PORTRAITURE Poise THE BALANCE BETWEEN a mark and a blank space is often a tantalizing form of perfection. and pressure as it conducts our eye through the image. whisking a timeless girl onto the page. one eye already cast askew into the autumn of her life. teetering on the brink of older age. We can actually count that he struck the paper 40 times. The Tightness of a line is felt in its speed. The aesthetic sense of a line being just right can make a drawing sing. There is a common misunderstanding that a drawing with only a few lines is both less finished and easier to make than a drawing with more. we can enjoy and learn from them. breadth. adding smudges of tone for weight and solidity. Here the grace and beauty of two young women are held forever. Holbein maps the still landscape of Dorothea's body in questioning marks. The truth is often the opposite.

which.133 HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER German p o r t r a i t painter draftsman. presses against the binding across her face. Holbein unified the woman with her background by gently blending colors from her clothes and face into the atmosphere around her. Holbein was employed toward the end of his life by King Henry VIII of England. The peak of her cap clips the uppermost edge. Her folded forearms support and frame her weight above. Blended colors In this portrait drawn with colored chalks on slightly textured paper. and its downward slope crowns the diagonal of the composition. Cropping This regal composition fits its paper perfectly. made a popular series o f w o o d c u t prints titled The Dance of Death. and designer f r o m Basel. Holbein has cropped and pinned his subject within the four outermost lines of the image—the edges of the page. In addition t o his numerous exquisite portraits in oil. and produced numerous society portraits such as this one here. He outlined her nose but not her upper lip. he designed c o u r t costumes. Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 1516 51/8 x121/4in (385 x 310 m m ) HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER . gently flushed.

continues to exhibit regularly.134 PORTRAITURE Anatomies These highly finished drawings express the emotional power and physicality of the head and neck. The style of Durelli's d r a w i n g opposite sings with the confidence of truth and precision. Durelli has m a d e a few m i n o r mistakes. using a fine and relatively 1982 13 x 181/8 in (328 x 460 mm) VICTOR NEWSOME brush. solid above and almost hollow below. confusing. distorted. and unpleasant to see. This is a m a r v e l o u s interpretation of the truth. . N e w s o m e ' s eerily shadowed form is smooth and bears a linear grain evocative of w o o d . blood vessels. but they are irrelevant here. its highly clarified detail claiming to be d r a w n from observation. VICTOR NEWSOME British sculptor painter and draftsman. taught at numerous British art schools from 1962-77. or defined by. the face is one of the hardest parts to dissect. Psychological drama is contained behind a grid. The real dissection w o u l d have been far more c o m p l e x . Contrasts Sharp. dark tones of graphite blended into the paper. Nerves. In fact. Anatomically. and has works in major collections including the Tate Gallery. dark lines made with a pencil appear against smooth. It floats in space. This is one of a number of similar disembodied female heads seen behind. London. the contours of a grid. perhaps applied using a tortillon. Highlights of white gouache were dry Profile Head late in the making. while white painted flecks and wisps suggest electrical illumination. Newsome was awarded the Prix de Rome in 1960. and glands also complicate form. Delicate muscles are integrated with the skin and fat that is to be r e m o v e d .

135 ANATOMIES ANTONIO DURELLI Linear perfection This is a red chalk drawing of extraordinary accomplishment. Stylized parallel lines are reminiscent of engravings. and it is likely that this drawing was intended for reproduction as a print. It is hard to think of a more difficult medium with which to achieve such linear perfection. Red Chalk the Muscles 1837 173/8 x 145/8 in ( 4 4 0 x 3 7 2 m m ) ANTONIO DURELLI and Pencil Drawing and of Neck of the Head Little is k n o w n o f this M i l a n e s e p a i n t e r a n d engraver w h o c a m e from a family o f artists. pull their points o f attachment t o w a r d each other . Pencil numbers refer to the list of muscles written beneath. Durelli's experience as an engraver is reflected in his stylized drawing o f muscle fibers. which. w h e n contracted.

They show us clearly the bones of drawing. with speed and urgency. necks. as if seen from a distance. Without paint and with very little tone. Giacometti settled in Paris. There is a film of Giacometti drawing. Energy This is a portrait of a woman drawn with black crayon on a plain page of a book Lines search for the essence of form. ALBERTO GIACOMETTI Swiss sculptor. Similar movements sculpted the head below into its page. and heads. 1948 77/8 x 6 in (200 x 150 mm) ALBERTO GIACOMETTI . Agitated marks make patches of tone that cut away the space around the character. each locked into a visionary gaze. Flesh is built and personality carved simultaneously. The camera watches him at work. Both works demonstrate how simple lines can be made complex by being intense. They confuse our perception of scale by being intimately fragile and at the same time far removed. cutting and carving the paper with matted and spiraling restless energy. We are brought intimately close to this man gazing up to heaven. Bellini gently conjures the features of his saint with soft marks that tease his presence out of shadows into the light. which are characteristically elongated. while his hand stabs and thrusts Revelations like a conductors baton. each portrait is inscribed onto the page. and poet After studying in Geneva and Italy. Then. he drew over the whole image at once. Speed Giacometti probably began with an oval shape placed in relation to the proportion of the page.136 PORTRAITURE THESE ARE DRAWINGS of shoulders. He is best known for his bronze sculptures of human form. Portrait de Marie-Laure de Noailles c. Opposite. close enough to touch his hair and feel his breath. and with staccato flinches his hyperactive eye moves from paper to model. painter draftsman.

H e t a u g h t G i o r g i o n e Barbarelli and Titian. H e p r e f e r r e d religious t o classical t h e m e s .5 9 ) .G I O V A N N I BELLINI A prominent member of a large family o f V e n e t i a n painters. a n d his w o r k is d i s t i n c t i v e l y calm. These are pinholes. transferring which were made in the process of the saint to his final place in the composition of a painting (see Glossary pp. Transfer This delicate humorous chalk a drawing is a cartoon—not image but a type of template used to plan the composition of a larger work Look closely and you will see rows of tiny dots along every significant line in the picture. Mantegna. Bellini s t u d i e d u n d e r his f a t h e r J a c o p o . Sometimes different narrative same character was reused in compositions.25 6 . a n d c o n t e m p l a t i v e . Head and Shoulders of a Man 73/8 x 21/4 in ( 1 8 6 x 5 8 UNDATED GIOVANNI BELLINI . lyrical. a n d b r o t h e r in-law. Character This is one of many cartoons produced by Bellini the and his family.

their most immediate and best-known subject: themselves. signing their work SAMO. bells. In 1986 he traveled to Africa and showed his work in Abidjan on the Ivory Coast He also exhibited in Germany and France. Al Diaz. and buttons rings with surrealist wit and agile improvisation. It is an image of confrontation—the ever-controversial young artist roars at us from his abstract city-scape. postcards. scrolls. made with great energy. Later Basquiat sold drawings on T-shirts. Self Portrait 1982 9 4 x 7 6 in (239 x 193 cm) JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT . and attitudes.138 PORTRAITURE THE MIRROR OF SELF-PORTRAITURE offers artists infinite reflections of. political outcry. similar to work by Cy Twombly (see p. skull- Self-Portraits headed. spear-brandishing warrior. The figure's position is unequivocal and defiant while around him is in a state Without the essential of cultural and figure we would elegant belookingat a sophisticated painting of signs. scratched lines. It has proved to be a subject of piercing scrutiny. marks. and confrontations with. JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT Short-lived American painter and graffiti artist who began his blazing nine-year career drawing on lower Manhattan subway trains with a friend. The artist has finished his portrait with the signature of his hand smacked in the middle like a kiss: a declaration of existence as old as man's first drawing. humor. It is an opportunity to look deep without the infringement of courtesies owed to a commissioning sitter. The incandescent New York painter Jean Michel Basquiat pictured himself here in naked silhouette. Man Ray's playful silk-screen assembly of color blocks. scratched into its surface. float and shimmer in the shallow pictorial space. and everything flux. Signs and symbols with symbols This painting shudders that ore written. a tribal. Islands of graphic marks.221). drawn. and sheet metal before being snapped up by the New York contemporary art scene. and indulgence.

The handprint appears to be made directly. Black ink was printed next and then white. painter.139 MAN RAY American surrealist photographer. while a squeegee was used to drag thick lilac-brown ink across the silk pushing it though exposed areas onto the paper below. Man Ray probably used his own hand. They experimented with camera-free photography working directly onto photographic paper Silk and ink This is a silkscreen print made through the following process: the paper was laid on a flat surface and a frame stretched with fine silk was placed on top. Frame White lines are seemingly (though not actually) scratched through ink to frame this face. printmaker and cofounder of the New York Dada movement. where he collaborated with the artist Laslo MoholyNagy. The first part of the stenciled image was already marked on the silk The screen and paper were then held tightly together. Autoportrait 1916 195/8 MAN RAY . last of all. During the 1920's and 30s. They suggest speed and make the picture look immediate and spontaneous. caked in thick printing ink or paint. Man Ray lived and worked in Paris.

2 . which quickly oxidizes into a gray line. Straighten the w o r s t buckles. o n e t o fit each side o f t h e b o a r d — t h e s e will make t h e glued f r a m e t h a t holds y o u r p a p e r in place. and gold have also been used. and alloys work on matt emulsion. S i l v e r is b e s t . For i m p o r t a n t a d v i c e o n p r e p a r a t i o n a n d use. illuminators of medieval m a n u s c r i p t s . laid on paper.54) can also b e used. SILVER P O I N T W I R E H O L D E R : T h e s e c a n b e p u r c h a s e d a n d t e n d t o b e heavy. M a k e s u r e i t is c o m p l e t e l y clean t o avoid u n w a n t e d streaks. 156). 144-45. copper. Pages 142 to 147 are illustrated in silver point and techniques are explained on pp. artists mixed white lead. s o m e m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n o t h e r s . Find a n i t e m t h a t y o u can h o l d a n d draw with comfortably. E m p t y mechanical pencils designed f o r t h i c k leads ( s e e p. s e e p . T h e p a p e r will l o o k b u c k l e d . S O F T F U L L B R U S H : W h e n laying a w a s h .140 PORTRAITURE Silver P o i n t SILVER OR METAL POINT STRETCHING PAPER A sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has been made w e t with the strokes o f a paintbrush will buckle d u e t o its uneven expansion. platinum. Numerous early European artists also enjoyed its fine qualities (see p. Lay a clean d r a w i n g b o a r d o n a flat surface. and t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h strips a b o v e and b e l o w . Historically. Lightly s p o n g e o f f t h e excess.Tear o f f f o u r lengths o f b r o w n p a p e r g u m tape. Stretched paper remains taut as a d r u m . purchase silver wire. who used it to outline initials and border characters before painting.54-55). SILVER W I R E : Purchase different gauge lengths f r o m a traditional a r t supplier o r jeweler. the surface must be primed with a ground such as gouache. and make o r buy a holder. The most c o m m o n metal has always been silver—hence the term "silver point. MATERIALS 1 Find a clean sponge and b o w l o r d e e p t r a y a n d fill it w i t h w a t e r W e t t h e p a p e r evenly in t h e t r a y o r o n t h e b o a r d . 5. 3 . key. Take a sheet o f any t y p e o f p a p e r (for e x a m p l e . Be swift and firm. To begin. This is called a three-tone drawing. choose a silver object. Metal point is simply a strip of metal bound in a holder. or wood. b e f o r e priming stretched paper. 1 4 4 . I combined silver point with painted white gouache on a pink ground. Gesso o r m a t t e m u l s i o n c a n a l s o b e u s e d . p a r c h m e n t . W e t o n e length o f g u m . Z I N C W H I T E G O U A C H E : Dilute with w a t e r A d d c o l o r i f r e q u i r e d (as opposite) 4 . b u t d o n ' t w o r r y . you will need t o stretch paper and lay a wash (see right and opposite). c h o o s e a s o f t full b r u s h t h a t c a n c a r r y p l e n t y o f l i q u i d ." Lead. W e t a n d fix a s e c o n d strip t o t h e o p p o s i t e side. 2. an exciting indication of how large-scale drawings could be made on a wall. Drawn across a prepared surface. Opposite. Metal point does not work on ordinary paper. and is therefore useful w h e n using w a t e r c o l o r as well as silver point. This browns with age unless sealed by fixative (see pp. M E T A L OBJECTS: All metal objects m a r k a p r e p a r e d surface. bone. was familiar to or eggshells with animal glue. or ring. If w o r k i n g o n an emulsion-painted wall. it leaves a deposit. 1. Note h o w domestic paintwork marks with a coin.s t r i p a n d use i t t o fix o n e side o f t h e p a p e r t o t h e b o a r d . I t is a v a i l a b l e f r o m all a r t s h o p s . w h i t e d r a w i n g paper) and cut it t o fit y o u r d r a w i n g b o a r d w i t h a generous b o r d e r a r o u n d its edges. I m a k e m y o w n f r o m o l d dip pens.

stretched paper at a 45-degree angle. T h r e e . so put newspaper under the lower edge. Keep adding smooth. Dry thoroughly before laying a wash. overlapping lines until you reach the bottom. Runs blend into each other evenly. Make an even line across to the right. Beware of the tape's coming loose at any point while drying. Dip a soft. as the paper will be ruined by a raised ridge. leaving a smooth surface. Here. full brush into the gouache and start in the top left corner.141 SILVER POINT 3 Leave the paper to dry flat. Keep testing on spare paper. any extra will keep. is necessary to lay a wash o Three-tone When coloring ground. Make enough to cover your paper. and let tests dry before deciding to change the mixture.t o n e silver point drawing of a skull . Prop up your board of dry. The next step will make a small mess. Mix a very wet but not weak solution of gouache in a jar with a lid (add pigment at this stage for a three-tone drawing). LAYING A WASH It your stretched paper so as to prime it for silver point. I used a powder pigment called Caput Mortuum. Reload the brush and add a second line overlapping it beneath. It will slowly straighten and become taut. Leave the wash to dry thoroughly before you begin to draw. v e r y little at a time. slowly add powder pigment or gouache from a tube.

142

PORTRAITURE

Head and Neck
THE HEAD AND NECK are best conceived as one unit arranged in four parts: cranium, face, neck, and throat. Each is of equal importance. The cranium is essentially egg-shaped and pivots on the first vertebra. The face is suspended beneath, like a softly curved triangle. The n e c k — a powerful, shapely column of layered muscles rigged to vertebrae—adjusts and holds the angle and expression of the head. The throat is delicate, hard, and lumpy to the touch, formed of cartilaginous rings, glands, thin muscles, and looser skin. Framing the throat, two columnar neck muscles (sternomastoids) project the head forward and also turn it to the opposite side.

This is a simple shorthand diagram representing the cranium, face, neck, and throat. It can be learned and visualized in different positions very easily, giving the novice a firm footing on which to stand and develop their drawings of the head and neck.

Shorthand diagram

Cranium Begin with an egg shape. Tilt it on the paper to change the position of the head.

Face Draw a rounded triangular shape below the forward point of the egg to represent the face.

Neck This shape represents the trapezius; the largest surface muscle of the neck and shoulders.

Throat A triangular shape represents the throat. (The nose makes the diagram clearer)

Applied shorthand

After copying the diagram above, animate it. Practice drawing the cranium at different angles, add the face beneath, then the neck, shoulders, and throat. Shape your diagrams so they are more lifelike, but avoid adding detailed features too soon.

143 These three drawings demonstrate (from left to right) the following: why the cranium may be considered egg-shaped; now the face can be seen as a curved triangle suspended beneath and where the division lies between the two; and the form of sternomastoid muscles that frame thethroatsodistinctlywhen the head is turned and inclined forward.

The skull and the frame of the throat

HEAD AND NECK

Bones of the cranium are locked together by jagged joints. Sinuses in the frontal (forehead) bone between and beneath the eyebrows are larger in men, making their brows pronounced and often ridged compared to those of women.

Bones of the face house our sight, smell, taste, The skull pivots on the first vertebra or "atlas," and speech. Cartilage extending from nasal bones after the Greek god condemned to carry the shapesthenose.Pads of fat resting on the base of Earth. The jaw hinges in front of the ears. Behind, eacheyesocket support the eyeballs in position. If bony ridges give anchor to the sternomastoid thefatisreducedby old age, eyes look sunken. muscles rising from the breast- and collarbones.

Three useful generalizations

General rules about the relative positions of body parts can hinder artists as much as help them, since they are often based on classical ideals rather than thediversityoflife.However,some generalizations can help as a rough guide to start with, so long as good observation takes over as soon as possible.

In general, when the face is relaxed (not smiling or frowning), the corners of the mouth are found directly beneath the pupils of the eyes. Vertical lines can be drawn down from the pupils to meet the corners of the mouth.

The height of a young adult's ear is often the same as their nose and found on the same level. There is no general rule for growing children, and remember that ears grow again in old age, which is most obvious in men.

The height of the face is about the length of the handspan and the eye is normally halfway down the total height of the head. A common error is to draw the eyes too high up on the face.

144

PORTRAITURE

Essential Observations
T H E DELICACY OF SILVER POINT

(see pp. 140-41) is perfect for

such as a beach pebble. Here, I stretched drawing paper and laid a wash of white gouache (see pp.140-41). As you can see, the line and tone of silver point varies with pressure, but only slightly. Too much pressure cuts the ground. Silver point erases, but so does ground. Erased ground can be repaired gently with extra gouache. You can also use gouache to paint over mistakes and make corrections.

small, detailed drawings. The drawings below and opposite show useful observations of the head and neck, which are explained in the captions below. Each drawing was made with a silver wire held in a large-gauge mechanical pencil. Newly clipped wires are sharp and cut rather than draw. Before use, they need to be rubbed and smoothed on a stone

Here I imagined placing my silver point wire against the skin of each head and neck and, working in parallel bands from the crown downward, I traced the undulation of surfaces. Linear bands imagined around the head and neck can help you t o clearly see the tilt of the head and relative levels of the features. Ask a friend t o model for you and try this exercise life-size using a pencil and eraser

Contours

Tilted forward

Tilted backward

Three-quarter view

Seeing that the face is never flat

Drawings below left and center are summaries of the generalizations given on p.143. Far right is an image to remind us that the face is never flat. It slopes back to varying degrees among individuals, from the tip of the nose t o the ears. For example, note that the innermost corners of the eyes are farther forward in space than the outermost corners.

General measurements, side

General measurements, front

View from above

145

Male and female head and neck
Men's necks a r e g e n e r a l l y s h o r t e r a n d t h i c k e r t h a n w o m e n ' s b e c a u s e t h e angles a n d levels o f c e r t a i n b o n e s a r e d i f f e r e n t b e t w e e n t h e sexes ( i n d i c a t e d h e r e b y d o t t e d lines) a n d m e n are n o r m a l l y m o r e muscular. T h e male t h y r o i d cartilage ( A d a m ' s apple) is larger a n d m o r e visible than t h e f e m a l e . L a r g e r f e m a l e t h y r o i d glands also s o f t e n t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e t h r o a t .

ESSENTIAL OBSERVATIONS
Female skull

Male

skeleton

Male

skull

Trapezius muscle
The largest m u s c l e o f t h e s h o u l d e r s a n d n e c k is called the trapezius. A r r a n g e d on e i t h e r side o f t h e spine, it shapes t h e u p p e r back and neck above the s h o u l d e r blades. C o n t r a c t i n g in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h d e e p e r and surrounding muscles, it raises and l o w e r s t h e shoulders a n d d r a w s t h e h e a d backtoeitherside.

The whole

muscle

Upper

half with

sternomastoids

Above

with head

straight

Above

with head

forward

Side with

sternomastoid

Front with

sternomastoid

146

PORTRAITURE

Drawing Portraits
USING A SHARP 3 B PENCIL, I drew this head quickly from imagination, evolving its character and expression from the scheme of four parts: cranium, face, neck, a n d throat (see p. 142). Here, five steps show you how to practice doing the same. This approach can be used to draw from imagination or from life. Keep your wrist loose and hold your pencil away from its point (see pp.22-23). Build the layers of your drawing from pale to dark, a n d from general balance a n d form to specific detail. Remember that successful drawings are built on foundations of "seeing the whole," then dividing the whole into smaller parts, with details brought in last of all. Phrased tonal marks modeling this girls skin and hair follow the technique demonstrated by Goya in his self-portrait on p. 130. Turn to Goya's drawing and study how, in a circle beginning across his hat, moving down his hair, and around his coat, he flows lines over surfaces to describe their contour. As you build from steps 1 to 5, bring phrased groups of lines across the surfaces of your form, using their directions to capture the expression of the head and neck. If unsure, copy my steps until you gain the confidence to make your own decisions.

This drawing is the final stage of the four steps opposite. Here, I have enlarged the eye, and moved it back into the head by trimming the length of the upper lid and adding a more pronounced lower lid. It is important to set eyes far enough back from the relatively prominent nose; too close to it and the face flattens. Hair swept back and extended behind the cranium balances the regal pose. Lines shaping the hair echo those marking the cranium in step 1. Here, the lower part of step 1 comes through as wisps of hair across her face and ear

BALANCED POSE

Portrait of a Young Girl

First lines will remain visible in the final drawing. The nose and ear begin to shape the head. they are also still sweeping and confident. too soon. neck. avoid drawing too dark. 3 Place the eye beneath the cranium. The eye announces the nature and expression of the emerging person. so it is important to the life of the image that while controlled. I used light to describe the upper lid first with a shadow beneath for the lower lid and open eye. 4 . down the face to the throat.Theangle at which you draw this shape of the paper will determine the angle of the finished head. I modeled the outline of the character I imagined light shining from above and in front and adjusted the pressure of lines to reflect this. Moving from the back of the neck. Here.147 Building up the portrait DRAWING PORTRAITS 1 Gently spin pale lines in a softly drawn shape representing the cranium. 2 Rapidly add shorthand shapes to represent the face. over the cranium. Keep your first lines light. and throat.

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and gravity. muscular tension. be aware of the subtle differences in skin surface. empathize. a n d t h o s e w h o a r e Generations asleep (see overleaf). Above all.T o DRAW PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGES. . the texture of hair.

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with a steel dip pen and acrylic ink. I used the nib upside down to gain needle-sharp precision. . Van Dyke's noble cast of characters was modeled more finely. Fast lines carve out the features of Goya's soup-slurping hag. Madrid.Castings DRAWING IN THE PRADO MUSEUM. seeking the dominant contours of each individual expression.

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g l o s s y folds. Previously. . arichand unusual combination of pencil. or calm u s w i t h chic. known as Leon Bakst. w a r m t h . woman was drawn by Bakst one year later for the ballet Narcisse. it is the public sign by w h i c h w e are j u d g e d . D e s i g n e r s create m a s t e r p i e c e s of haute couture LEON BAKST for H o l l y w o o d stars. Artists do this not so m u c h b y the style of a figure's garment. Petersburg and later exiled designers' ideas and are surprised and delighted b y their continual f l o w of inspiration. personality. a n d s u b t l e t o n e s . was a Belarussian A r t Deco theater fantasies and desires to immediately possess a version of the same. gesture. shapes. so that c h o i c e . W e dress ourselves and costume designer trained in in St. Cities c h a n g e d all. o n l y the w e a l t h y c o u l d afford to h a v e c o s t u m e s specially m a d e . charcoal. Designers all over the w o r l d c o n t i n u a l l y p e n and b r u s h lines to lash us w i t h color. T h e p a p e r p a t t e r n is p e r h a p s the m o s t w i d e l y k n o w n of c o s t u m e d r a w i n g s : a formalized plan of lines. c o s t u m e o f f e r s a r i c h v o c a b u l a r y of t e x t u r e s a n d c o l o r . a n d c o u r t i e r tailors f o l l o w e d suit. and s y m b o l s that lets m e n and w o m e n in all countries and areas have w o r k i n g access to the latest fashions. intriguing. T h e e n t o u r a g e of the theatrical stage o f t e n l e a d s the c a t w a l k . In psychology. Practical classes Bacchante 1911 l o o k at r a n g e s of c o l o r e d m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d i n g p a s t e l s a n d felt-tip p e n s . e m u l a t e textures. st 111/4 x 81/2 in (285 x 220 mm) u d i e d L E O NB A K S T and explore the characterization of fabric t h r o u g h m o v e m e n t . and i n d e e d image b e c a m e the property also of the industrial classes. and e x u b e r a n c e . In this c h a p t e r w e see h o w c l o t h i n g c a n s e e m to p o s s e s s the w e i g h t and m o n u m e n t a l i t y of stone. w h i c h in turn feed c o n s u m e r Lev. Like it or not. Samoylovich Rosenberg.This voluptuous above all a physical p u p p e t w i t h w h i c h to animate character and narrate personality. dancer leaps through swaths of golden cloth. T h e rural masses w o r e h o m e s p u n simplicity. and intent. c u l t u r e . outrageous. fulfilling lavish and spectacular briefs. or b u l g e s .Costume W E MAKE OURSELVES EXOTIC. and gouache. of Scheherazade. cool. S t r u c t u r e is t h o u g h the i n v e n t i o n of shoes. and even invisible by the w a y w e dress. a n d p r o f e s s i o n — b e g a n life as a d r a w i n g . while court p a i n t e r s — M i c h e l a n g e l o and Holbein. for e x a m p l e — d e s i g n e d the w a r d r o b e s of p o p e s a n d k i n g s . theb u t b y the w a y it s p e a k s w i t h its flying. and be so expressive of temperament that it overtakes the need for an o c c u p y i n g h u m a n form.As artistic director of the It is s h o c k i n g to t h i n k h o w m a n y m i l l i o n s of d r a w i n g s m u s t be m a d e a n d d i s c a r d e d Ballet Russe. caricatured p l u m e s . and everything w e h a v e c h o s e n for o u r w a r d r o b e s — r e f l e c t o r s of o u r taste. c r u m p l e s . articulate a d a n g e r o u s satirical j o k e . he and cofounder Serge Diaghilev took Paris by eac storm in 1910 with their production h year in the industrial f r e n z y of creating o u r image and aspirations. P o p u l a r f a s h i o n d e s i g n e x p l o d e d w i t h the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n . toParis. a n d w e will c o l l e c t patterns. and atmosphere. Bakst's designs and costumes immediately To the fine artist. variety. b u t influenced Parisian fashion and interiordecor.

dragons. her marble garment holds u p the infant Christ in a fountain of compressed line. Below this. H e m e t i c u l o u s l y a r r a n g e d subjects t o c o n v e y d e e p e r meaning.140-41). Her gown is carved and polished as if made from marble. the Madonna and her architecture are both dressed in the same manner. delicate lines. Delicate marks Silver (or metal) point is the most delicate of traditional drawing media (see pp. Van Eyck's highly polished w o r k is c e l e b r a t e d f o r its disguised symbolism. folds and patterns of material speak more resolutely of their wearers than any small glimpses of body we can see. best k n o w n f o r his G h e n t altarpiece ( 1 4 3 2 ) a n d m a r r i a g e p o r t r a i t o f Giovanni A r n o l f i n i and his w i f e (1434). swirling printed fabrics. Above them. Vertical lines The highly controlled lines of this drawing cascade from top to bottom of the image. With a stylus such as Van Eyck used here. resonate with their wearers startled expression. and the kneeling abbot is a ghost by comparison. The quiet stillness of this image is achieved by a masterly economy of stylized line. However.156 COSTUME Cloth and Drapery EACH OF THESE FIGURES is ninety percent cloth. Opposite. bands around the columns. Sculpted one. Maelbeke I44I Madonna 11 x 7 in (278 x 180 m m ) JAN V A N EYCK . Flaxmans sleeper—perhaps a pilgrim or a soldier resting between campaigns—has wedged himself into the cleft of some great building to grab a moment of peace. the carefully composed outline of his cloak shows us how the artist would have also begun his immaculate rendering of the Virgin's clothes. it is only possible to create very thin. with their jagged edges. Short and subtle horizontal punctuations are only given in the background by sections of floor. In Van Eyck's drawing below. the vaulted stone roof echoes and crowns the moment. He has layered these slowly and carefully so as not to cut through the ground and produce a white mark just where he intended a dark one. Church and deities are drawn as JAN VAN EYCK Flemish oil p a i n t e r f r o m L i m b o u r g . and snakelike marks. Their uninterrupted emphasis is entirely vertical. Keisai Eisen's intense. and implied striation in the stone of the architecture. Marble gown We will never know if Van Eyck considered this drawing unfinished or intended the kneeling abbot to remain transient and ghostly.

draftsman. CLOTH AND DRAPERY Relief printing This is a woodblock print made by a relief process. The inked block is laid face-down on damp paper and pressed to make the print. Position In this pen and ink drawing. which are sometimes also cut into pieces like a jigsaw puzzle. each delivering a different part and color of the design. stone wall of downward-stroked this sleeper's position is momentary. and teacher Distinctive linear illustrations for the works of Homer. an 18th-19th century document on the lives of the ukiyo-e artists. and the feet notched against the pillar tell us that A lines holds him into the cleft. flat sheets of wood. the angle of the head. Images are drawn onto smooth. designer. one over the other. he also co-edited and expanded the Ukiyo-e Ruiko (History of Prints of the Floating World). Dante. Respected for his sumptuous images of geisha and editions of erotic prints. Parts of the image to be left unprinted are gouged out with a metal tool. the cloak sliding to the ground. This complex numerous blocks prepared image and may have been made with printed separately. Remaining raised areas of wood are rolled with colored inks. writer and printmaker Keisai Eisen took his name from the masters Kano Hakkeisai and Kikugawa Eizan.157 KEISAI EISEN Japanese draftsman. and Man Lying Down in a Cloak I 787-94 21/4 JOHN FLAXMAN x 41/8 in (57 x 105 mm) . Koimurasaki of Tama-ya 1810-50 15 x101/4in (381 x 260 mm) KEISAI EISEN The Courtesan JOHN F L A X M A N English late 18th-century neoclassical sculptor. Aeschylus earned Flaxman an international reputation.

160. He has been rendered on this olive<olored page with pen and gray wash worked over a red and black under-drawing. cloth. Flowing scarf The knight's scarf of gilded blue is drawn in a pale wash over red ink lines. A flamboyant territory. where sometimes there just might not be anybody inside. for she would not have been amused and William Wodall might have been stretching his luck. Pen and wash In the graphic accuracy of this armored knight we see the idealized identity of a warrior from another time: a gleaming defender of the realm. Its color is also reflected in the metal. The metal. Van D y k e was chief assistant t o Rubens f o r t w o years. Man in Armor UNDATED 1 6 x 9 1 / 2 in ( 4 0 5 x 2 4 0 m m ) A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE . w h e r e . cinema. b e f o r e traveling t o Italy.158 COSTUME Character Costumes an extreme form of the clothed figure. all ruffs and wrinkles. Details and voices are worn externally with great imagination. A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE Flemish painter and draftsman. The slight uncertainty of the pose and the limp cloak suggest a little more metal than man. The aged queen is compared to an overdressed bird. It is presumed Her Royal Highness never saw it. lace. a scurrilous cartoon by a courtier of Queen Elizabeth I. Its warm surface flows in contrast to the stiff metal armor. he c o o l e d and redefined his style. t h r o u g h n u m e r o u s p o r t r a i t and C h u r c h commissions. A s a y o u n g man. In 1 6 3 2 he m o v e d p e r m a n e n t l y t o L o n d o n . cartoon. Leg sections in both support the figure without taking our attention away from the main garment above. and even formal portraiture. theater. Leg section Compare mid-shin the section of white boots cropped to the section of similarly cropped trousers in drawings Gruau's drawing on p. and feather were all CHARACTER COSTUMES REPRESENT observed with closely crafted conviction. a n d w a s e m p l o y e d as c o u r t painter t o King Charles I. Opposite is a dangerous drawing. Fine examples can be plucked from fashion. Anthony Van Dyke's Man in Armor is a masterpiece of drawn surface.

Top-heavy. bitten nature.1599 71/2 WILLIAM x 51/4 in ( 1 9 0 x 1 3 4 mm) WODALL .159 WILLIAM W O D A L L A u t h o r and illustrator o f The Aaes of Queene a Elizabeth poem Allegorized. here dark tawny owl. T h e poem recounts t h e six m a j o r crises o f Elizabeth's reign: t h e Spanish A r m a d a . manuscript comprising six c a n t o s . it was customary to Iron-gall ink Wodall's dangerous caricature steps daintily the written lines of her dedicated page. t h e Jesuit Mission. the queen is masterfully rebalanced by words at her feet The whole drawing's blackened. while a raised foot pauses to assess the next displaying a fan of daggers.35). Northern Satire This is a quill-and-ink satire of the elderly queen's pride-As head of state and fashion. By her old upto three tiers supported on sticks. hooded with an overinflated fluffy ruff eye pins us. Satire of the Queen's Dress c. suggest the use of iron-gall ink (see p. she is shown as a grossly disproportioned bird. and her pride. A Ruffs and feathers Starched white ruffs worn at court and by society grew steadily larger as Elizabeth's reign progressed. t h e B a b i n g t o n Plot. t h e Ridolfi Plot. and saturations showing through from the other side. t h e Rising. Beneath the lethal fan is the body of a bird of trimmed feathers suggest age.

Drying time in between applications ensured the colors did not run into each other. diving to catch us in the grip of her machine-like limbs. Fine lines drawn against the building behind her echo the threads on which we have all seen arachnids drop and hang. as is Spider-Girl opposite. Rene Gruau's bold gouache drawing of smoothly swaying sophistication captures a brilliantly cut garment and frames it with great dynamism in a white. She has been drawn with brushes dipped into India ink and gouache. 5 8 .F r e n c h f a s h i o n i l l u s t r a t o r w h o in his l o n g and esteemed career w o r k e d with many of the g r e a t e s t d e s i g n e r s o f 2 0 t h . Airbrushed reflective surfaces further amplify our perception of speed.and tilted to the same de a little deeper than sp kneestogivehergravity. muscular aggression. Compare the compositio beneathVanDyke'sstudy of armor on p. ofcroppedtrousershere to the device of the w Illustration 1949 for Jacques Fath in L ' O f f i c i e l d e la C o u t u r e RENE GRUAU . Spider-Girl leaps like an insect.5 9 ) and a three-spoke balance of cuffs and cropped trousers to create an almost flag-like emblem of power. Gruau uses starkly cut negative space (see pp. Composition Look how well this image is frame knee is parallel to the bottom edge spacehorizontalline cropping the trousers be outermostuprightbordersof her cuffs are similar above her head thesidesoftheimage. elegant chic and svelte. Gruau's model regally swans to the fore with cool pride. and gray pigments were applied separately. a n d L'Officiel de la couture. G r u a u ' s highly distinctive d r a w i n g s have a p p e a r e d Couture. The black red. India ink and gouache This swish of confidence and style our enters the page turning everyone's head. Harpers & Queen. RENE GRUAU I t a l i a n . possibly over a pencil outline. Vogue. His model is outlined. 158. Fashion and fantasy drawings invent prototypes of ideals and perfection—be they for the catwalk or the fast-paced pages of comic books. demanding attention with gesture and flair. and both share the power of scarlet and black. studio-like rectangle of paper.160 COSTUME Femmes Fatales THESE DEVASTATING femmes fatales force back the onlooker with their demure.c e n t u r y haute i n n u m e r o u s m a g a z i n e s i n c l u d i n g Elle.

Single-point understand perspective To how Frenz created up therefore the effect of steeply between looking buildings—and howyou can do the same in your own work—take calculate where a ruler the and single vanishing point lies. and figure are all locked into equally shatp through the traditional process of a pencilled outline over-drawn ink. Sharp focus black outlines in this drawing create a hyper-real dynamic. and Amazing Spider-Man. The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones. In your mind's eye extend the uprights out of the top of the picture. beginning with Star Wars. Frenz has drawn for Marvel for about 20 years. at Their extensions will meet the same single vanishing (see point pp. MARVEL C O M I C S . and has been the title's regular artist since 2003. sky. Buildings. It is outside the picture frame. Airbrushed color and with tonal focus.RON F R E N Z Contemporary American graphic artist w h o designs and pencils the dynamic scenes of numerous superheroes featured in Marvel Comics. Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 2001-04 R O N FRENZ.74-77). to the right of its center. not far above the drawing. a great characteristic superhero comics. Align your ruler to the upright of each building. This s modeling applied over the top give the image a sleek and mechanical of gravity. He began work on Spider-Girl in 1998. moon.

used to make colors. insects. the finer and more subtle the texture and color should be. and subtlety. 2. They vary hugely in cost. Use them to draw lightly (as above left) or thickly. crumbly. are derived from many sources: rocks. clay. fixing each layer on the front. Many artists apply fixative to the back of their work. C o n t e crayons are square-formed. wash. these work best when slightly warm. soft. See h o w they work and return later for more of what proved best for you. allowing it to fix slightly from behind. and cost are laid out for our pleasure and perusal. there are disparities between the apparent nature or color of what you hold in your hand and its performance on paper. made in about 80 colors. COLORED PENCILS: Dry pigments ground together with chalk. plants. Try materials that are new and unfamiliar. Pastels are finer. They work well on PIGMENTS Pigments. Most stores leave small pads of paper on their counters for customers to test materials. The worst are like revolting old lipsticks that get everywhere except where you intend. Sticks and conte crayons make thicker marks (as below). you may be pleasantly surprised to discover something you could not have imagined using. Pastel pencils are slender and in w o o d casing. quality and cost T h e best are paperwrapped sticks of sumptuous. and can be a great rediscovery for bold drawings. Before making substantial investments. Store loose pastels in dry rice to keep them clean. purchase a small selection of different items you think you will like. 3. great for tin . The higher the quality (and cost). CHALK PASTELS: Blackboard chalk is sidewalk work. hue. Beware—some are toxic. Children's wax crayons are relatives. 4. Bright pastels are more brilliant on colored paper. except the final layer.162 COSTUME Colored Materials ART STORES BRIM OVER w i t h t h e m a n y wherever permitted. including iridescents. and can be softened and manipulated with degrees of heat. or wax and a binder are shaped into fine strips and encased in w o o d like a graphite pencil. though lines can develop greasy stains around the edges if the paper is not first stretched and treated with a gelatin paste laid as a wash. mixed on the paper and scratched into (as below). Many products are sold individually and in boxed sets. quality. and synthetics. I suggest you do so. and CHALK PASTELS Pastel pencils make fine lines (as above). and sold in many colors. oily pigment. the diverse are made in brands of basic member of the family. slightly oily to the touch. colored materials available. unwrapped harder pastels. animals. OIL PASTELS: Many colors. paper-wrapped. size. chalkbased but very subtle. The nontoxic range below represents a suggested starting point for experiment. OIL PASTELS Oil-based. Often. 1. Degas built his pastels in layers. Be aware that fixative dulls pastel. shape. Dissolve in turpentine or mineral spirits to produce oil paint or or dark paper. FELT-TIP PENS: Instant-drying alcoholor water-based inks stored in the barrels of the pens are delivered via smooth nylon o r felt tips of varying shapes and thicknesses. minerals. intensity. which he left unfixed to retain its brightness. Seemingly infinite choices of texture.

If you love smooth blocks and lines of colon felt-tip pens are perfect. 111). FELT-TIP PENS Although not made with felt-tip pen. Some are nonsoluble. . Some give richer lines than others. Brands made for designers sold in enormous ranges of colors are far more subtle and sophisticated than those made for children.or clay-based thin crayons in wood casing. others dissolve in water or turpentine to make a wash. Diverse brands are harder or soften greasier or chalkier in use. so it is best to test them before buying. Think of Matisse's Blue Nude (see p. Colors can be blended as shown right) and tones graded by altering pressure. it is still a great champion and support for those beginners feeling shyly obligated to tone down their love of color to conform with what others say they should use. leaving the paper to shine through for highlights (as below). Fine lines can be achieved (as above).163 COLORED PENCILS These are wax.

As artifacts in museums. This class takes the shoe as its subject in building on earlier lessons concerned with seeing through objects to understand their function. . e n j o y i n g t h e study a n d i n v e n t i o n o f shoes. if y o u m a k e p l e n t y o f d r a w i n g s as o p p o s e d t o o n l y a f e w . while artists have painted their boots or those of others as personal portraits and memorials. they record and reflect our common history. Superstitions and fetishes are attached to them: we are told never to put new shoes on a table. 100-01 and pp. imagining y o u can see t h r o u g h it. Here we go one step further. and volume in space (see pp. the era in which we live. and after studying familiar shoes we use the information learned to invent new ones. personality. Turn t h e m in different d i r e c t i o n s and o b s e r v e t h e i r s t r u c t u r e and f o r m . social and economic status. t h e n again as if transparent. 104-07). and they have been concealed in buildings to ward off misfortune. a range of colored felt-tip pens with both fine and broad tips. You. style. you will need several large sheets of drawing paper. I m a d e n u m e r o u s s h e e t s o f d r a w i n g s . To set up. c o v e r a large sheet o f p a p e r w i t h line drawings o f several shoes. will discover m o r e . Linear Outline Using fine pens. and how we stand and walk. structure. REPEATED STUDY T o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s class. D r a w each o n e first as a solid object. S H O E S TELL LIFE STORIES. values. and a selection of shoes. a n d e x p e r i e n c e visible p r o g r e s s .164 COSTUME Study and Design they reflect our age. t o o .

165

The Surface
Next,

STUDY AND DESIGN

study the surface contours using fineand broad-tipped felt-tip pens. For best results, it is important to be bold and brief. Draw firmly, fast, and with as few strokes as possible. Build up each shoe from light to dark andleavesome paper showing through to create highlights.

Design Your Own

Using what you have learned from the previous steps about the structures of your shoes, and about the use of pens, invent new designs from your imagination. Start with fine outlines and progress to colored and textured surfaces. Modify your ideas by rotating the views.

166

COSTUME

The Structure of Costume
MUSEUMS ARE AN INFINITELY

rich resource for the artist and

information given by a period style. Arrange to visit a costume museum or ask a friend to model clothes for you at home. Using fine felt-tip pens, begin with quick, pale impressions of each garment's shape before homing in on its borders and seams. Try to draw transparent views wherever possible to record the relationships between all component parts. Aim to draw enough information for it to be possible to make up a version of the garment using paper pinned to a tailor's dummy.

designer. They often give quite unexpected gems of ideas and information—whatever the subject. These drawings, made in a costume museum, demonstrate ways of recording structural information and detail for later use in the studio. They could form the basis of new designs for a fashion project or theater production, for example. Drawings of shoes on pp. 164-65 show how new designs can be evolved from the structural

OBSERVATION
It is usually best when collecting information for reference to apply the restraint of dispassionate observation. Set yourself the test of drawing facts with as little artistic license or embellishment as possible. Here I chose fine felt-tip pens because they are at their best when used swiftly, and therefore encourage bold, unhesitant decisions.

Swift lines record the hanging weight of this gentleman's coat, the relative proportions of its layers, and minimal details of the buttons and cuffs.

Thick velvet fabric is pulled tight beneath and across the bust by a single button. This transparent view shows how the fabric falls loosely in straight panels beneath the level of the sleeve.

167

LIGHTING
W h e n visiting museums, be prepared f o r l o w lighting, which can make it hard t o see and draw. A book can help if attached t o your drawing board.

Adding stripes and dashes of color with a thicker pen brings out the glossy sheen and sculptural rigidity of this dress, which would have been worn over a whalebone corset. small reading light designed t o clip o n t o a

THE STRUCTURE OF COSTUME

In small drawings such as these, use thick pens to color entire sections with a few marks, as I did here down the side of the bodice.

The light, frilly bulk of this crinoline dress is propelled forward with lines. pinching its gathers and sways that are hiding a horsehair bustle. fleets of quick

168

COSTUME

Textures and.Patterns
THIS CLASS FOCUSES ON how to draw textures through the collection of fabric, pattern, and embroidery samples from a costume m u s e u m . This formal method, using ruled squares, can create an invaluable library of ideas a n d i n f o r m a t i o n for future r e f e r e n c e — w h e n painting a clothed figure, or preparing a textile project, for example. However, if making a book of samples for a project, remember that it is important to also include collages of f o u n d materials (see pp.230-31) To d r a w a fabric texture, b e g i n by concentrating o n h o w y o u i m a g i n e it w o u l d feel if you t o u c h e d it. Decide if it w o u l d be rough, s m o o t h , w a r m , cold, thick, thin, tough, or fragile, for example. As you draw, believe you can feel these qualities at your fingertips a n d that your pencil is responding to the sensation. Undulate the pressure of your lines and marks according to the feeling of the fabric rather than its appearance. Let your pencil enact the sensation of touching its surface.

and to experiment more loosely with mixed media.

INVENTING COSTUMES
This starchy, quilted, b o w e d creation started life as an imagined corset, I intended t o d r a w together in one sculptural f o r m a range o f t h e details opposite. T h e garment quickly got o u t o f hand. T h e r e is great e n j o y m e n t in letting y o u r imagination run wild w h e n inventing costumes. If you are unable t o visit a costume museum, many exciting fabric details and textures can be found in y o u r o w n closet o r home.

169

COLORED PENCILS
Colored pencils give precision and tonal range; they can be faded but not erased. Lightly use an HB graphite pencil if you wish to plan a design first. Pressed hard, colored pencils build up a waxy finish of brilliant color. Used lightly, they appear powdery and show the texture of the paper.

TEXTURES AND PATTERNS
Wool

Silk and braid

Ribbon

Embroidered leather

Feathers

Pearls

Knit

Tassels

Outline stitch

.

and motivation of an individual. . shape. These characters. and 252-53). I made a drawing book full of studies seeking to understand how he composed drama and pathos in his narratives (see also pp. Madrid.Dressing Character I O N C E SPENT THREE MONTHS researching the work of Francisco de Goya at the Prado Museum. 172-73. look at how Goya delineated volumes of thick fabric to express the posture. selected from different pages of my original book. identity.126-27.

I carefully copied the direction of each of his lines. To understand how he did this.170—71). .T H E S E PENCIL STUDIES. and visible. and tangible. Posture Carving also taken from my Madrid drawing book (see pp. are copies of works by Goya in which he makes air seem heavier than flesh. as it rushes and carves fabric-wrapped forms like rivers and desert winds shaping the earth.

.

.

too. Her all-too-clear expression shows annoyance and irritation with her husband. in spite of how it may seem.Gatherings A LL DRAWINGS TELL STORIES. types. Blockbuster movies. Seeing through Rembrandt's eyes. this is not the portrait of an old woman. the speed and printmaker and one of the greatest and most influential density of its lines. Storytelling and people-watching are obsessive human activities. paintings depicting scenes from history. Rembrandt's bored and frustrated wife. Saskia. We can direct close. the viewer's attention in a scene by the format of its composition. furniture. It middle. Saskia died after childbirth. television documentaries. . Second. the viewer. Drawings selected for this chapter explore these Saskia Lying in Bedand a Nurse ranges of proximity 1638 9 x61/2in (227 x 164 mm) and a travel journal. finding corners in crowded places to inscribe their action and energy onto the page. but drawings of gathered people tell them most directly. Here. stares out from her gloomy sickbed. the viewer is not directly made the finer lines of Saskia. First. As artists. and other masters of Western Art. daily newspapers. Later in their lives. there are no longer individuals but one significant group or mass action. and distance—so drawings of gathered people can be loosely arranged in three took only minutes to make and yet it lives for centuries. we. we can learn most about handling pen and ink. heighten or subdue drama with subtleties of exaggeration or caricature. and so. are implicated in this marital exchange made over the head of the anonymous nurse. Washes of shadow behind engaged and as a natural voyeur can feel invisible while watching the scene. With a pocket full of disposable pens we also go out and draw the expressions of gathered people. This J u s t as there are three parts to a traditional landscape drawing—the foreground. and novels—our staple cultural diet—are driven by a fascination with shared experience and the detail of what happens in other people's lives. Third. and its illumination. we can R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter draftsman. The spaces between people and the positions they occupy on a page are vital to our understanding of the psychology or emotion of an event. the direct exchange (as shown here) where one or more characters hold eye Aneedproduced the thicker lines of the nurse. presumably while he is making this drawing. We read tensions and exchanges between people. He in turn scorches the paper with his view and a certain speed of seeing all. He is also the artist from whom props to add layers of meaning and attitude. a crowd tells the story from a distance. and instantly engage with the action of the scene. and therefore seem to see. We can also use clothes. soap operas. comics. while a quill contact with. vivid portrait of his wife captures our attention. R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN in the delivery of narrative. even up her were laid with a brush.

h a l o e d portrait of the artists seated b a c k to b a c k . a kitchen explodes in o u r faces. junk.. Below.. c o m p o s e d garbage p r o d u c e s a c a l m . Pencil on paper important but only the beginning of possibility the combination of three-dimensional space. TIM N O B L E A N D SUE W E B S T E R British artists who collaborate using neon. via the animated clutter of o u r material lives. In one of R a c k h a m s great illustrations for Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland.176 GATHERINGS SOME DRAWINGS ARE MADE e n t i r e l y o f i l l u m i n a t i o n that floods drama into the viewers gaze. Think about what else you could use: a laser smoke. Real Life is Rubbish 2002 Dimensions variable TIM N O B L E A N D SUE WEBSTER . or even the office photocopier. In both works. and smoke billows around the agitated jives of the Duchess. refuse. narrative is delivered through the air."Anything that. for example. and on. and Alice. plates shatter. and projectors to create their anarchic punk satires of modern life. F o r e a c h w o r k . t h e y select and arrange familiar items of street detritus into what appears to be an u n p l e a s a n t pile. the Cat. and projector. garbage and chaos are piled a n d e x p l o d e d in r o o m s full of event.kicks against the mundane things that close down your mind is a refreshing and good thing. Here. N o b l e a n d W e b s t e r s w i t t y a n d o f t e n s u b v e r s i v e d r a w i n g s are also c o n t e m p o r a r y art installations." (Tim Noble) Drawing with light it is important to think about what you is Here timelessly we see a in can draw with. the C o o k . T h e i m m a c u l a t e d r a w i n g is only r e v e a l e d w h e n t h e b e a m of a p r o j e c t o r c a s t s t h e s h a d o w Projections of the h e a p o n t o a wall. Pans fly oft the stove. and in. hearth i m p l e m e n t s crash at o u r feet.

tabletop. This makes the story appear to leap out at us. Refer back to the drawing class how pots In drawn objects and elements that those behind. and Alice's shoulder. Find the singleperspective pp. and Poe's Tales Imagination.177 ARTHUR RACKHAM British watercolorist and book illustrator.76-77) above vanishing point (see that is about3/4in (2 cm) oak converge at this point. Rackham Vanishing point In this marvelous drama made with pen. 100 to see for make elliptical objects and pans fly through the the foreground. a n d an unmistakable graphic style. and watercolor. ink.Stowe's ofMysteryand Queer Little Folks. See how the In the Duchess's Kitchen 1907 77/8 x 6 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 5 0 m m ) ARTHUR RACKHAM . Depth Billows of smoke expand and are lighter as they come forward. H e is best k n o w n forillustratingIrving's Rip vanWinkle. amplifying movement outward from the vanishing point. humor. we find several devices already explored through our drawing classes. are very large compared to on p. by vivid children's Rakham's w o r k is characterized fantasy. beams. The wood grain acts like marks of speed behind the scene.

a great Shoshone drawing blazes with the color. which still narrates vivid days in the lives of an energetic nation. The mournful gray landscape of Henry Moore's northern British field has gathered by night an overcoated audience to stand and wait before a wrapped and roped monument. A glimmer of gold light appears from the left No explanation is given. and composition they are polar opposites. heat. a sculptor. and we. This is just one of many precious artifacts from a lost time. as fellow watchers. audiences. and art in the landscape. The image stands out among his more usual graphic works in which he hones and carves semi-abstract human forms. Moore's spectators appear to have walked a long way from nowhere to witness and wait beside this mysterious obelisque.178 GATHERINGS we have seen in the pairs and trios of drawings by masters and makers. This is an ironic drawing from Moore. Magnetic Fields sculpture. join in the waiting.The human form w a s the vehicle o f his expression and h e w a s t h e official W o r l d W a r II artist. M o o r e t o u r e d Italy as a young man. as if Moore's wrapping has been literally outstretched. expressing his dry humor about O F ALL THE CONTRASTS HENRY MOORE British s c u l p t o r w h o t r a i n e d a n d taught at t h e R C A . In culture. Chalk and graphite This fog-bound but humorous gathering of souls is made in graphite and colored chalk with gray wash. London. a n d l o v e d t o d r a w in t h e BritishMuseum. perhaps these two are the most extreme. HENRY MOORE Crowd 1942 Looking at Tied-up Object . Opposite. meaning. and action of a buffalo hunt.

creating harmonious balance with words but through silent demonstration. and helping our eye to dart around. horses. tolearnhow to paint a scene on a hide are and buffalo circle and charge the perimeters of a skin "field." Men at the instructed to sit and watch. Hunt CENTURY SHOSHONE SCHOOL . MAGNETIC FIELDS Horses It is interesting to note how the outstretched limbs ofthesehorses echo European images of the runningBuffalo horse before the sequence-photographer Muybridge taught us to 19TH understand their movement differently. Stylized hunters. Each color is evenly distributed throughout the scene. Skills are taught not center chant or dance to the beat of a drum.179 SHOSHONE SCHOOL Stylized characters This vital image of a buffalo hunt is made with pigment Members of the Shoshone community wishing painted within dark outlines on a stretched elk hide.

a n d o t h e r w o r k s . t h e Bible. It illustrates a scene from Dante's Divine Comedy. pale souls of the lustful are being s p u n into yet another realm of hell. w h i c h b y their c h o i c e a n d h a n d l i n g a c t u a l l y b e c o m e the force a n d spirit of e a c h i m a g e . w h e r e he w a t c h e s a t u r b u l e n t s p i r a l of p u n i s h m e n t f o r the d a m n e d . era as Kollwitz. a d e a t h c h a r g e of brutality. Blake w a s d r i v e n b y a passion f o r j u s t i c e a n d a p r o f o u n d b e l i e f in his v i s i t a t i o n s f r o m angels. The muscularity of Blake's figures was inspired by Michelangelo's works. texture. Opposite. w e f i n d a spiritual v i s i o n . a n d the gentle h u m o r of sedate r i d i c u l e . The Circle of the (The Whirlwind 1824 of Lustful Lovers) mm) 143/4 x 207/8i n ( 3 7 4 x 5 3 0 WILLIAM BLAKE . color. inextinguishable in its fortitude and h u m o r . B l a k e h a s i l l u m i n a t e d his s a d d e n e d Virgil on the s h o r e s of a d a r k w o r l d . p o e t .f o o t e d t r o g l o d y t e s w h o rage into w a r like a m u d s l i d e of revenge. a n d e n g r a v e r w h o p o w e r f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e d his o w n t e x t s in a d d i t i o n t o D a n t e ' s Divine Comedy. Heath Robinson lived through the same war-torn. a n d f o c u s . a pink-inked cinema wobbles along with string. m a r k . Brushed line and wash This is an ink-outlined drawing made with a fine brush on paper with added washes of watercolor The image was subsequently redrawn as a line engraving. We also see qualities of line.180 GATHERINGS The Human Condition IN THE SPECTRUM of these vastly d i f f e r e n t g a t h e r i n g s of p e o p l e . K a t h e K o l l w i t z s c r a t c h e d a n d e n g r a v e d her a r m y of c l a y . Misted in translucent layers of paint. w r i t e r a r t i s t . W I L L I A M BLAKE British visionary. and sweetened the often bleak years with his impractical inventions.

sculptor and draftsman. White marks were made with a dusting of French chalk on the artist's finger to wipe away ink leaving clean metal. humor by making his characters earnest. Kollwitz survived the two World Wars. and the family home. children. Ink rolled over was selectively polished off using a rag. The image was scratched directly onto a metal plate. plodding along with hazy. THE HUMAN CONDITION Scratched lines This is a dry-point etching with monoprint. What remained in scratched grooves printed on damp paper as lines. HEATH ROBINSON The Kinecar 1926 103/8 x 15 in (262 x 380 mm) . who lived in a poor district of Berlin. With masterful gentility. British Pen and wash This is a pen-andwatercolor drawing made for a color-platereproduction in an edition of T h e Bystander. and controlled smears on the metal surface printed as tones. Heath Robinson shows England in a past era. poverty.181 KATHE KOLLWITZ German printmaker. He created sincere. Robinson and Kollwitz (above) share almost identical life dates and their work expresses a shared history from opposite sides oftheworld wars. however meager or ridiculous their activity. and the impact of death and war upon women. and clearly focused. Losbruch (The Outbreak) 1955 20 x 233/8 in (507 x 592 mm) KATHE KOLLWITZ HEATH ROBINSON humorous illustrator and a regular contributor to magazines and journals such as The Sketch and The Bystander. stoical bemusement. and her powerful and sensitive drawings center on nurture.

t h e y a r e lightfast. At a time like this. 7 6 . a n d ranges o f colors. these pens enable you to sketch. T h e r e w e r e c seconds t o snatch this impression b e t w e e n their emergence from one bridge and disappearance b e n e a t h t h e next. a n d pressure-sensitive. R O L L E R B A L L : A c o n s t a n t i n k flow 3 . 4." 1. which can snap or pierce through your clothes. dropped in your pocket and forgotten till needed. a disposable pen with its clip-on cap goes anywhere. in the studio. jot notes. B A L L P O I N T : Black a n d b o l d c o l o r s o f f e r d i v e r s e qualities. For example. is d e l i v e r e d t h r o u g h a m e t a l t u b e o v e r a t i n y ball bearing. trusting shape and form to follow. t w o tourists and their gondolier drifter past m e o n a canal. dark sheen. Lines t h i c k e n as t h e p e n w e a r s o u t G r a n d Canal (see pp. R e m e m b e r . 192-93) w e r e b o t h m a d e w i t h a ballpoint. in the car. G E L P E N : P r o d u c e d in b l a c k w h i t e . aiming for correct outlines would result in drawing too slowly to c a t c h the moment.r e s i s t a n t . Insensitive t o p r e s s u r e : lines d o n o t v a r y in w i d t h o r t o n e . rollerballs.188-89) and Caravans (see pp. CHOICES AVAILABLE T h e r e a r e m a n y d i s p o s a b l e p e n s t o c h o o s e from. gel pens) are the most convenient of all materials with which to travel. I keep quantities at home. or idea. they each offer distinct and sometimes unexpected qualities. fine fiber-tip Drawing with a fine fiber-tip pen.7 7 and 214-15). turn the page. blob when old. Available in blacks and ranges of colors. Unlike pencils. or put the paper in your pocket instantly without fear of smudging. The f o u r i l l u s t r a t e d h e r e r e p r e s e n t a basic r a n g e . 2. I swiftly focused on gesture. c h o o s e p e n s l a b e l e d " p e r m a n e n t " o r "lightfast.182 GATHERINGS Disposable Pens (ballpoints. So many stores sell them. indent paper. FIBER-TIP: M a n u f a c t u r e d f o r artists a n d d e s i g n e r s in a r a n g e o f w i d t h s . fibertips. build to a rich. shut your book. w a t e r . Quick-drying. W h i t e gel p e n s a r e v e r y e f f e c t i v e o n d a r k papers. they can be obtained within minutes. if y o u w i s h y o u r d r a w i n g s t o last a n d n o t fade o r b l u r w i t h t i m e a n d e x p o s u r e t o light. p e r m a n e n t . including l u m i n o u s a n d m e t a l l i c . Ideal f o r precision w o r k (see p p . a ballpoint will make faint lines. . and in most pockets so I can always record a thought DISPOSABLE PENS QUICK NOTES O n a c o l d day in Venice. or turn into washes and make monoprints if flooded with an alcohol-based substance such as hairspray.

31 . crowd of fellow travelers Fast lines These scribbled lines model the mass and shadows of heads belonging passengers packed into the boat. not form. Earlier I had witnessed a crammed en masse in a fleet of hired gondolas complete with musicians and choir.FROMMEMORY Here I used the same fiber-tip pen to compose a scene from memory. Compare this Klee's mules on p. Fast lines focus on action.

I caught fleeting glimpses of gathered people and solitary souls going about their affairs. let it enter the stage and perform. of course. Exaggeration helps. angles will happen as a matter of course. Circular lines buzz around a man puzzling at the end of a train platform (left). when out drawing. However. just draw the action. Each line acts its part in the narrative. black. Let the line of the flying coat fly and the hanging arm hang. make them stouter. Movement . Don't worry about measuring angles. Every drawing writes an indelible memory of place. No camera can tie you to a time or people in the same way. activity. if animated. pocket notebook and a fiber-tip pen. if a person was stout. life will not slow and wait for you to catch it. You will make outlines. FLEETING MOMENTS Walking through Venice with a small. all action is in the line of his coat and directed by his nose. Above all. You must learn to trust your memory and to draw what impressed you most. not its outline.184 GATHERINGS The Travel Journal I CANNOT OVERSTATE THE JOY of making a travel journal. Each one was witnessed and drawn immediately from the afterimage of what I had just seen. A curatorial assistant flies to do a chore (right). and companionship. Push toward caricature and this will draw out of your memory what was most important. focus on the action of the event. but they should not be what you dwell on. animate them more.

I am watched by the aggravated guard. eager to herd us all from his house of responsibility. In turn. Expression . I drew him three times on the same page to catch a range of his physical expressions.185 A large lady is photographed in front of a delicate work of art. Observation THE TRAVEL JOURNAL The same willowy assistant dashes about his work. The rush of his legs isamplifiedby their blurred lines.

not outline. emotion. elevate them in the pictorial space. Be aware that their placement on the page is part of the narrative. or bulge. furniture leans. I took refuge in a church in Venice. you might place them lower down. . and reason for happening. focus on action. or pushes. ACTION AND DETAIL W h e n drawing people. For example. He and his simpering assistant would not allow me in. if they are being haughty. forcing me to remain at the back and look at them. Identify the principal character and draw him or her first. Place the person carefully. Here I have recreated my drawing in steps to show you how to set about capturing such a scene. start by focusing on its action. if they are being devious. rather than the works of art they guarded. and you decide to draw the moment. When your attention has been caught. For example. Here the custodian projects fastidious ownership of his desk and pamphlets by pushing from behind the center of the space and challenging our entry to his image. and there met this sullen custodian.186 GATHERINGS Catching the Moment On A BITTERLY COLD November day. and involvement in the story. and let every detail speak by its size. flap. and clothing or bags hang. pulls. placement. decide how faces and bodies contort.

Decide where t o place them t o emphasize their role. . CATCHING THE MOMENT The assistant Identify t h e antagonist ( o r second character) in t h e scene. Draw their action and props. which is pushed toward us in a gesture of confrontation. D r a w their action. who is largely expressed through the shape and fall o f his raincoat and his way o f using a note pad. Decide where you will place them o n the paper t o emphasize their action and intent. a pillar locates t h e scene in a depth o f space. W i t h a few strokes. I added t h e assistant. Here. continue adding characters. If drawing a more complex scene. together with any immediate props they are using. such as the desk and pamphlets seen here. In the final step (left) I reinforced t h e custodian's desk.187 The custodian Identify your principal character a n d their psychological role in the scene.

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and buildings. . An imminent deluge of tourists urged me to work catching no more than the skeleton of the view.Grand Canal T H E CANALS OF VENICE are bustling places full of occupation. where vertical mooring poles give space and pulse to the horizontal speed of water quickly. I developed detailofthis drawing from memory using a ballpoint pen.

To catch characters like this. Each person was glimpsed in an instant. Venetians flow across a stepped bridge and cascade into the streets beyond. then the bridge beneath them. followed by the streets.Crossings DURING THIS RUSH HOUR. . note only their most essential action and feature. and drawn immediately from memory. Caricature each person slightly. Characters in the foreground were drawn first.

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I found this circus by chance in the Swiss mountains. quiet afternoon. Caravans and other backstage activity convey expectations of energy and repose. and a great subject to draw. . I used a ballpoint pen to compose a series of scenes.Caravans T H E PARAPHERNALIA O F TRAVEL i s an intriguing part of circus life. Sitting at a distance on a hot.

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and meteor impacts have scarred. In this chapter Moon Pastel 1795 Drawing we experiment with charcoal. This is the world's first accurate image of the Moon. Richard Long. Take chances against the rain and work with the wind or fog. There is a sense of the heroic in drawing outside—we race to catch a form before the tide engulfs it. rivers. are the real subjects in great landscape drawings. surrounded by the bright instruments of centuries of navigation. It now hangs on the staircase of the History of Science Museum. England. JOHN RUSSELL A p o r t r a i t pastelist t o King G e o r g e III o f England. The forces of nature. the sun comes out to blind it. they are the animators of your subject. a n d a m o o n globe called t h e Selenographia. Look closely at works by many artists and you will see that they have not represented hills. our companion. It is better to get up before dawn. how the mountain cut by ice and rain is now fleetingly lit. Russell d r e w this. a contemporary environmental artist. Just as NASA photographs of Earth have had a profound effect on the way we view our fragile home. so J o h n Russell's tour de f o r c e drawing (opposite) was a masterpiece of observation in his time. It is Earths satellite. pages o f softly i l l u m i n a t e d craters and lunar "seas" c o v e r e d in m a t h e m a t i c a l and s h o r t h a n d calculations. By drawing such momentous and everyday events. H e a l s o p r o d u c e d an a l b u m o f 1 8 0 exquisite pencil drawings. to be ready to draw the new light as it breaks across the land. but it can be seen as a lens to our observation of this planet. and experiment. Beginners will often choose calm. artists see for themselves that which is momentary and eternal. t w o e n g r a v e d m a p s k n o w n as The Lunar Planispheres. and its draws the tides of the seas. 5 f t x 5 ft 6 in ( 1 5 2 x 1 6 8 c m ) J O H N RUSSELL . arranging them in perfect circles on the mountainside or in lines drifting out of sight beneath low clouds. What they have drawn is the force of nature on these properties: how the wind heaves the night ocean. marking the ground with lines of footprints or by turning stones. or the wind carries it away. trees. These conditions are very difficult to express well. when little stirs and empty blue skies offer even less to latch lines to.Earth and the Elements I T MAY SEEM PERVERSE to start a chapter titled "Earth and the Elements" with an image of the Moon. makes his work by the act of walking. speculation. as opposed the physicality of Earth. or has cracked and fallen under the weight of water. The pastel drawing was constructed from myriad telescopic observations almost 200 years before the Apollo Moon landing. a n d a n astronomer w h o dedicated 20 years t o studying t h e M o o n . Oxford. William Turner is said to have had himself lashed to a ship's mast to comprehend the storm (see p. how the soil is scorched. and take bold steps in emulating the swell of clouds and the forces of torrential water. Weather is essential in all landscape drawing. t h e first-ever accurate image o f t h e M o o n ' s surface. and even how the Sun illuminates. 199). sunny days. the face of the Moon. and the sea. learning to draw light out of dark.

fluttering heavily. we can soon learn to draw its force. Daumier's c a r t o o n shines with the brilliance of his comic memory. the government. Hazy vertical marks reveal buildings into the mist. and gives motion to each image. Dots and dashes suggest receding trees out of focus. lifts. distance. T h e great master of English seascape is c o n d u c t i n g with his graphic energy. is already lost. speed.Through political drawings he fired his sharp wit at the king. and pioneer ofexpressionism. Crayon and limestone This is a lithograph. By Turner carries us to the heart of the maelstrom. the bourgeoisie. and by observing its tides and eddies in our o w n environment. Fluid strokes inflate the woman's dress and pin shadows to the ground. He knew how the world bends and stutters under such gusts. Below. Danger of Wearing Balloon Petticoats UNDATED HONORE DAUMIER . and solidity. a sail b r o k e n loose in a stormy marriage. H O N O R E DAUMIER French satirical cartoonist lithographer. seeing how it shakes. This wife. like an umbrella forced inside-out. serving a prison sentence for his views. a scratched ghost. sculptor.198 EARTH AND THE E L E M E N T S Air in Motion THE GREAT INVISIBLE SUBJECT o f these d r a w i n g s is t h e w i n d . painter. A hard waxy was drawn across a heavy limestone Varying definitions crayon of lire and depths of tone conspire to give volume. T h e ship. and the legal profession. Terrifying waves of merciless nature roar across the paper. Hokusais sedate wind presses reeds a n d the j o u r n e y s o f young ladies. has b e c o m e a hysterical kite. Flapping kimonos and an onlooker turning his b a c k have the magic of a m o m e n t caught. undramatic b u t brimming with stylized realism.

b l o c kprintmaker. from left print. including being lashed t o a ship's m a s t in o r d e r to study a storm. wind. T u r n e r w o r k e d in oils a n d w a t e r c o l o r s a n d s k e t c h e d c o p i o u s l y o n his travels. d e s i g n e r a n d b o o k i l l u s t r a t o r . H o k u s a i in t u r n has since significantly influenced European art. W . TURNER KATSUSHIKA HOKUSAI Prolific J a p a n e s e c o l o r w o o d . T U R N E R British landscape. painter.W. absorbent watercolor and are Stains of splashed. into this very as pressed sheet The paper's through own coior is brought banks of mist and fog.M. a n d his b e s t .M.l o v e dw o r k s i n c l u d e 1 0 0 v i e w s o f M o u n t Fuji and 1 2 v o l u m e s o f Manga.i n f l u e n c e d b y examples o f W e s t e r n art obtained through D u t c h t r a d i n g in Nagasaki. A outline scratched of a skeletal into penciled ship is while and the waves. Hokusai direction (from clothing from has chosen which it the right). 1826 91/2 x 113/4 in ( 2 4 1 x 3 0 0 m m ) J. AIR IN MOTION Pencil and watercolor subdued brushed. Landscape a n d city life w e r e his principal subjects. Ship in a Storm c. and history painter w h o s e p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t a b o v e all w a s light.199 J. T h e r e a r e m a n y stories o f his p a s s i o n a t e w o r k i n g methods. Wind direction wood-block This is a colored To represent the blows lifted flowed wind. leans the whole composition swells around its fateful center. seascape. horizontally then and of the it into the stream Plants also bend and flow right to Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 1802 81/2 HOKUSAI KATSUSHIKA x 131/2 in ( 2 1 7 x 3 4 3 mm) .

28). ink. inks. By contrast. as a gestural storm on the paper. marks. and swim into the page. T h e m e n a c i n g darkness of Hugo's storm b e l o w is so convincing. T h e very nature of b o t h is turmoil and an interweaving of elements. lines of rain escorting them to b o u n c e and clatter. this is a b o m b a r d m e n t from o u r h o m e s . In periods b e t w e e n writing. water. it is difficult to contemplate its brooding and night-soaked heart. with a brush. as if drawn j u s t this year. Pen and brush Hugo drew first with pen and ink. active surfaces of water. drawing was Hugo's principal means o f expression.198) admires the majesty of nature.200 ELEMENTS Storms STORMS CAN BE SEEN and drawn in two ways: first. Leonardos Cloudburst of Material Possessions is o n e of his m o s t enigmatic and mysterious works. Opposite. His subjects include ruins. fantasy palaces. and t h e sea s t u d i e d f r o m his h o m e in Guernsey in t h e Channel Islands. as a subject and second. or charcoal. He brings us to stare into a place that no sane human would enter. this is a writer's narrative of terror. An update on biblical showers of fish and frogs. Le Bateau-Vision 1864 71/2 x 1 0 in ( 1 9 2 x 2 5 5 m m ) VICTOR H U G O . It looks so contemporary. h a u n t e d shadows. leaving nothing but a glimpse of moonlight glistening on the froth below. and tossed o b j e c t s — a perfect subject in which artists can forget themselves. composing banks of waves and dense. grab their b r u s h . Then. he blanketed the drawing in darkness. Turner (see p. EARTH AND THE VICTOR HUGO French novelist and artist (see also p. D o m e s t i c o b j e c t s we can o w n and name fall from the clouds.

a bell. for example). It is interesting to speculate how engineering might have developed if his ideas had been shared with the world earlier Ink and chalk This is a pen and ink drawing with touches of black chalk. a hook. and they passed through private hands for 400 years before becoming widely known. He was left-handed and wrote backwards in Italian from left to right. together with half the contents of our garage. He bequeathed his drawings to a friend. Each item that has crashed from heaven is drawn in such a way that we can feel Leonardo's nib picking it up in the speed of a doodle. Above and below are examples of his mirror handwriting. There is a little magic in recognizing many items from our homes something like a rake. Cloudburst of Material Possessions 1510-12 45/8 x 43/8 in ( 1 1 7 x 1 1 1 mm) L E O N A R D O DA VINCI .LEONARDO DA VINCI Leonardo devised many artifacts of our modern lives. envisioning machines centuries before their making (helicopters and bicycles. and a wheel.

Over first lines. she teased away fragments of paper to illuminate her view. In the lower half he has walked downhill a little.1638 85/8 x 121/2 in (219 x 320 mm) CLAUDE LORRAIN . cooler tones receding into the distance are applied with a brush. it is the unique calligraphic signature of the place in which we stand. and after tracing her captured line. Clare Bryan took panoramic photographs of the English South Downs. She was inspired by her research of aerial plans of London and the story of an alien map butterfly (see caption). In a very different work (opposite above). atmosphere. and across to the right. Claude has used a fine nib to delineate segments of land as they recede into space. Segments The top half of the drawing is a view as we enter the valley. rich. which he used to unify his compositions. Whether land-. and we can imagine standing over his shoulder. C L A U D E LORRAIN French classical landscape painter draftsman. his unsurpassed handling of light. or cityscape. Even distilled from all other detail.202 ELEMENTS THE PROFILE OF A HORIZON is a line we immediately recognize and respond to. Claude Lorrain drew directly on location. EARTH AND THE Bryan cut the profile of a city. and famed for. rapidly layering contours to shape place. Paler. watching his hand and eye at work together. made inside a book. and etcher who lived most of his life in 17th-century Rome. a horizon line can trigger our recognition. Views from Velletri c. thick. Claude is distinguished by. Drawing with a scalpel. transferred it to a scroll. Nature Profiles Opposite below. sea-. and dry marks in the foreground appear to be made with his finger. and mood simultaneously.

progressively settlement (cropped more and more paper is drawn away to show the expansion of human page of an around the river. The edges of each here) fade into the solid paper unpopulated with a scalpel landscape. drawings Ideas of introduction Clare Bryan to research introduced down and led NATURE PROFILES and removal historical plans and aerial growth of London showing its population since Roman times. 2001 CLARE BRYAN C L A R E BRYAN 3ritish artist.The horizon was drawn with a City Landline 2003 271/2x 59 in (70 x 150 cm) scalpel. and digital print-based works reflect upon the histories and poetry of "left behind and in-between spaces." Cut line This is a small section of a preparatory 5-ft(1. On turning the pages of City. Her recent paper photographic. printmaker graphic designer. source workisilluminatedby standing its lower edge on a CLARE BRYAN . then hunted destroyed.203 Scalpel-drawn This book-bound drawing was inspired by the story of a foreign butterfly wrongly to Great Britain in 1912.5-m)scroll. and visiting professor at numerous art schools. specialty bookbinder.

Beware of cheap brands selling dyed chalk as compressed charcoal. Charcoal lifts away from paper easily with the very light touch o f an eraser. the heel o f y o u r h a n d . 1 Suspend a length of masking tape. tape. and offers a rich. leaving u n d e r t r a c e s of first thoughts. Hold it over your drawing RANGE AVAILABLE Charcoal (in its several forms shown here) is loved or loathed by the beginner to whom it is often recommended because it produces pleasing results quickly. it is compressed and m o l d e d at high pressure. Boxes often contain a range of thicknesses to choose for different needs. Then lift it away. C h a r c o a l naturally glistens. b e e c h . black finish. so it chars b l a c k as o p p o s e d to igniting a n d turning to ash.m a d e c o m p r e s s e d charcoal. 7. 162) or graphite (see p.204 E A R T H AND THE E L E M E N T S Charcoal CHARCOAL IS PRODUCED from wood baked slowly without exposure to air. B u n d l e s o f twigs were traditionally sealed into earthenware j a r s or wet clay and heated slowly and intensely in a fire or kiln. CHARCOAL PENCIL: Types made by different manufacturers vary in quality and density of line. Willow is the most c o m m o n wood. you can p u r c h a s e m a c h i n e . a n d p l u m . resulting in a pale line. blacker. It does n o t erase easily. MEDIUM W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 5. and heavier than willow.54). As its name implies. A great find when available. Smooth paper accepts few particles. . between your middle finger and thumb. 2. Use any fine-point pen or pencil (I used a ballpoint) to draw a firm line on the back of the Big pieces are perfect for very large-scale drawings—even larger than yourself. fine. harder line. COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Machine-made. white line into the blackor grayness of willow charcoal. or fingertip. The same as above. without touching the surface. 1. vine. It is also easily erased if the maker of the mark is not happy with the result. they are all intended for fine work. a n d m o r e i n d e l i b l e by soaking it in linseed oil. Not to be confused with square conte sticks (see p. It allows you greater precision in your mark-making than if you rub away the charcoal with an eraser. 3. 6. a piece of fresh bread. a rag. it looks gray and feels like chalk. 4. but some specialists stock compressed charcoal in delicate square sticks. THIN WILLOW CHARCOAL: I used a piece like this to make the drawing opposite. cylindrical. Alternatively. this does not exist. resulting in a stick that gives a blacker. only a little thicker. sticky side down. Slightly dull the tape's stickiness before use t o prevent it from lifting out more than you intend. maple. SQUARE COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Not often sold. Lines are achieved by d e p o s i t i n g particles in the grain o f paper. b l a c k e r . THICK W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 2 Keep the tape above your drawing. It c a n be m a d e duller. LIFTING OUT This technique is a very easy method of drawing a crisp. Essentially. The tip snaps easily to renew a sharp edge if required. Try itworking on big paper covering a wall. In use. R o u g h paper c a n b e loaded. Artists have also used lime. 3 A white line is lifted out by the tape. feather. CHALK CHARCOAL: Technically.

Different tones seen throughout the main drawing on pp. I used a plastic eraser effectively on thinly applied charcoal. Here. . Use cheaper (less sticky) for lifting out. Use high quality (very sticky) to fix paper to walls and boards. T O R T I L L O N : This is a tight roll of paper used to blend charcoal. MASKING TAPE: An invaluable resource.212-13 were made by altering the pressure applied to the charcoal. Lift out broader marks with a larger implement. sold in several widths. Cotton swabs also work. as is fresh (unbuttered!) bread. or any other dry media. CHARCOAL Lifting out This detail shows an example of where I used the lifting-out technique demonstrated opposite to draw flashes of lightning against rain clouds. PEN: Any fine pen or pencil can be used to draw on the back of masking tape when lifting out. 10. Here we used a ballpoint. 8 . Layers can be peeled away to refresh its surface. pastels. graphite. 9.205 ERASING Thickly applied charcoal quickly o v e r c o m e s a plastic eraser A w a r m (soft and tacky) putty eraser is more effective.

but is often less evocative and engaging. and a cushion in a plastic bag to sit on. Don't worry if it is cloudy: clouds add drama and perspective and make good subjects in themselves (see pp. MATERIALS In this first view there is only a foreground and middle distance. 9 8 . Seeing tones . It is the visible effect of the atmosphere between where you stand and what you see in the distance. a less distinct middle ground composed of shapes and textures. To experiment with drawing landscapes and the use of charcoal.9 9 we noted that in response to visual stimulus. a reel of masking tape. it results in flat planes of clutter. pack your materials (as advised below) and set off for a local view or your nearest arboretum. Pack several thick and thin sticks of willow charcoal. hazy distance. especially when making first excursions into aerial perspective. the more you encourage the viewer's imagination to join in and see. Landscape drawings are traditionally arranged in three parts: a detailed foreground. They are also good markers of receding space. Then I drew the shape of the tonal patches I perceived. At its worst. This term simply means that as land rolls away into the distance. begin by marking out several small squares on your paper. an eraser your drawing book or a board and paper fixative (or hairspray).206 EARTH AND THE ELEMENTS Landscapes TREES ALONE OFFER MARVELOUS shapes to draw. the less you describe.212-13). I relaxed my eyes out of focus to dissolve distracting detail into abstract patches of light and darkness. our brains search for nameable things and will perceive complete pictures from very little information. Ironically. and an abstract. The long view is hidden behind trees. On p p . Successful drawings often only suggest the qualities of the scene without overdescribing them. Excessive detail can be admired for its skill and achievement. details blur and colors grow paler and bluer. When you arrive. to contain each of your compositions.

your view is your inspiration. shadows. full of information you can use to create what you want! Inventing drama . Remember. and broke a view through the hedge into the distance with a dark sky threatening rain. This composition turned out a little flat because I have an almost even quantity of earth and sky. Exploring the view Redrawing the scene above. the trunk of a bare tree.207 LANDSCAPES In my second square I explored a simple view contrasting soft. It is better to give distinctly more pictorial space to one or the other (see below). horizontal regions of grass. rounded. I have invented drama with diagonals set against each other I tilted the earth. dark trees with bright.

I am then able to home in on what interests me most for further study. 2 1 4 . your challenge now is to find a sculptural subject in the landscape. on p p .208 ELEMENTS Drawing in the Round WHEN DRAWING IN THE LANDSCAPE. This first drawing serves as a process of arrival. making the scene below led me to focus on the decaying boat opposite. taking with you your drawing book and pen.164-65) and a wire violin (pp. For example." . so the paper is not made blinding and your hand cannot cast a shadow on your work. and seeing what the real choice of subject is. Building on earlier studies of structure in space using shoes (pp.1 5 my first drawing of the whole view of the Tiber led me to see the real subject of the day. Similarly. "Drawing in the round means to literally walk around your subject. bare ribs. s e e k places in light After my first drawing. I usually begin by making an image of the whole view. which was the flow of water over rocks. observing it from several views so as to better understand it as a whole. and tiller still standing proud. EARTH AND THE FINDING THE SUBJECT Finding a remarkable subject is even better when you can circumnavigate it in an arena of space. Circling a subject and drawing it from several views imprints on your memory a better understanding of its three-dimensional form. engine. settling my concentration.104-05). England has embedded within it the decaying skeleton of a burned fishing boat. The mud of the tidal shore in Rye. shade out of the glare of the sun.

ROUND 2 In this tail-end view. I looked more boldly at the planes and the dynamic of the sculptural craft My lines have become darker and more forceful as confidence in my understanding of the vessel grew. w h e n t h e sea recedes. I spent equal time looking at the subject and the paper. marking straight. and the order and shape of its component parts. and structure. careful lines to establish the skeleton that gives this wreck its distinct form. unfussy lines. make a series o f drawings f r o m different positions. DRAWING IN THE 1 Here. Each n e w drawing gives a different insight. W h e n you have found your subject. I drew with quick. its overall balance. character.209 SERIES OF STUDIES This stunning ghost o f a boat comes into v i e w t w i c e a day. The outline ties a shape of darkness to the boat like a weight so that it becomes part of its form. looking more at the boat than at the paper From this low position I have emphasized how the boat is swallowed in mud by outlining its shadow on the ground. Overleaf: Decaying Boat 4 . 3 This impression notes the angle of the broken boat.

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Cloudburst THIS STORM DRAWING.20-21) using a thin stick of willow charcoal. hot-pressed drawing p a p e r (see pp. . was made with gentle but unhesitating s p e e d . I worked quickly to catch and weave the turbulent contrasts of rising wind and approaching water before the drawing could be washed away. L o o k i n g b a c k and forth from the heavens to firmly taped-down paper. m a d e on s m o o t h .

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focusing on the river's eddies. I drew with a needle-fine fiber-tip pen. and rhythmic detail as it passed through the ancient gully of the city. shaping the city. since ancient times. .Notes of Force T H E GREAT FLOWING TIBER RIVER has cut through Rome. pulse. On the pages of a small. pocket-sized notebook. black.

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I used a dip pen and waterproof India ink with brushed watercolor to draw the view. The strong diagonal of the composition from bottom left to top right carries the eye through changes of height and focus from the foreground to the mountains beyond.Mountains SITTING IN THE SHADE of a tree on the Greek island of Antiparos. .

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writer and composer who suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and was resident in the Waldau Aslyum near Berne. Outsider artists. It was not invented in the 20th century. yet my kinship to abstraction is fundamental. and independent means of communication. I begin every image by feeling its meaning. Artists were given a different tool—a line threaded directly from their subconscious to their hand—and with it they began to map a bold new landscape of marks and concepts that would dramatically and forever change the face of Western art. Indian mandalas. Internal workings of the mind were suddenly free to find a new language of expression. The fate of Old World thinking was finally sealed with the brutality of World War I. and history. Swirling. which are essentially abstract. The growing rise of Darwinian ideas coupled with Freudian and Marxist perspectives forced Western society to reconsider its origins and future. From another viewpoint. sounds. and poetic myth roar and cascade within his tightly framed pages. such as Adolf Wolfli.Abstract Lines T HE DEVELOPMENT OF W E S T E R N abstract art at the beginning of the 20th century significantly paralleled major changes in world thought. Wolfli was a Swiss draftsman. Many concepts and feelings can only be expressed through marks. picturing a stabilized world was impossible and Modernism rode forth with vigor. Not everything we know has a physical form in the world. and young children show us that abstract. Berne. and it has always been with us. As you approach the classes in this chapter. . belief. and Aboriginal art. It also underpins and gives strength and unity to all figurative work. or gestures. actions. From one point of view. However. poet. abstraction is not so easy to define. direction. His drawings are collected and exhibited internationally and held by the Adolf Wolfli Foundation. opposite. Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape 1915 413/8 x 285/8 in (105 x 72. writhing torrents of color. He made thousands of drawings to chronicle his complex life.8 cm) A D O L F WOLFLI Abstraction is a direct. Museum of Fine Arts. ADOLF WOLFLI One of the greatest masters of Art Brut. People are often scared by abstraction and see it as the enemy of figurative art. Afterward. It is actually its foundation and its infrastructure. spontaneous image-making. precisely because it does not have to represent a physical object. expressive marks and shapes are at the core of natural. Perhaps in Western culture we bred this intuitive freedom out of ourselves in our insistence on complex figuration. strike the paper to find form. First marks. fictional language. for example. and emotion. many nonWestern cultures have highly sophisticated abstractions at the core of their art. only rediscovered. don't be timid. it is simply itself. be brave and enjoy them. My own work is firmly centered in figuration. and have been making abstract drawings for centuries—Japanese calligraphy. liberating. drawn sound. An abstract mark is often a better conductor of a thought or feeling. all pictorial representations are abstractions of reality.

and Assistant Professor of Fine A r t at Fukuoka University. This the paper rest within the amplifies framelike of the floor from the ceiling. tone. staining redbrown lines into the white surface. forged steel. Damp Japanese paper was laid over carefully arranged iron bars. MAMORU ABE Japanese sculptor and installation artist. Lines. Mamoru Abe prepares an image that will appear through the chemistry of iron. Sometimes it smolders like a deep shadow. and temperature rim of floor space. quoting ink marks on a page. brass. as Twombly shows us opposite. It can proclaim mood. Abe works with materials such as soil. rhythmically engaged with itself. and texture their bracing separation reaching between from beneath Pillars of the gallery are made part of this drawing by their inclusion in the paper. The Physical Space 1990 3 0 x 30 ft ( 9 1 4 x 9 1 4 cm) MAMORU ABE . salt. He travels widely to research ancient sacred sites.220 A B S T R A C T LINES Process and Harmony SOMETIMES A DRAWN LINE sings on the surface of its support. Below. A line can be finished in a second. and plaster in galleries and landscapes. A Neolithic chalk tablet bears cut lines that were slowly carved. ice. Abe's physical drawing is a sculptural installation. silence. Changes paper. water. and patient watching. and sensitivity with its thickness and pressure of touch. sit in silent harmony. Iron rods in tone. iron. or. Five forged steel shapes. akin to stones in a Zen garden. texture. scrolling across the canvas in an intimate crescendo. Moisture produced rust. it can keep reforming through the inherent repetition of a process. Twombly's mesmeric wax line worked over house paint is like a signature. and wood are also part of the work.

Neolithic Chalk Tablet 3. that challenges the separation of word from image. and sensuous drawing from painting. The central pictorial space is also similarly cut and divided by the considered arrangement of straight lines. close to Stonehenge in Wiltshire. Twombly has language works CY TWOMBLY Contemporary American artist who emerged through the 1950s New York art scene in the heyday of Abstract Expressionism and Action Painting.000-2. theories suggest astrological observations. and Untitled 1970 Here we might seek to grasp letters in the turning of his line.241). and the worship of the sun and ancient gods. the Babylonian world map. such as the Rosetta stone.England. energetic.Twombly was presented with a Golden Lion award for lifetime achievement. burials. At the 2001 Venice Biennale. emotive.400BCE 21/4 x 21/4 in (58 x 58 mm) ARTIST UNKNOWN Language Over the course of fifty years. This example is one of two chalk tablets found in a Late-Neolithic pit.Thesite's purpose is unknown. and American Indian petroglyphs (see p.221 ANCIENT CARVINGS Many ancient cultures have made and left behind drawings and texts carved into stones or animal bone. PROCESS AND HARMONY Cut lines Chalk carves easily. CY TWOMBLY . Precise lines suggest the use of a sharp flint The framed rectangle of this image is echoed in that of Abe's installation. Many of his graffiti-like combine abstract gestures with statements. evolved a raw.

Ink impressions When drawing nightscapes Hugo often laid paper disks in place of the moon. too. Gestalt. interpret. broke new ground in the 1950s with graphic scores now considered among the most extreme. Gestalt o f an unnameable thing. pressed them face down. The scores are also exhibited in galleries as visual art. Two Impressions Paper 1853-55 VICTOR HUGO Disk from a Cut-Out .28). brushed night skies over them with ink then lifted the disks to reveal white moons. abstract. here he anticipates abstract expressionism by 100 years. A graphic score is a V I C T O R H U G O Hugo's abstract French novelist w h o m a d e m a n y drawings in m i x e d m e d i a ( s e e also p. Marks across the center appear to be made with his fingers.28. and participate in the composition. drawing here can b e described in t e r m s o f a G e r m a n philosophical idea a b o u t is t h e i n s t a n t r e c o g n i t i o n t h e p o w e r o f m o m e n t . music manuscript requiring instrumentalists to improvise. a configuration. Similarity in gritty texture suggests that here. he mixed graphite into ink. and let the drying meniscus deposit granules in linear drifts such as we would see in the satellite photographic mapping of rivers. have striven to break down old pictorial and musical structures to explore new and unfettered modes of expression. Here he appears t o have saturated the cut-out moon disks with gritty pigment.222 ABSTRACT LINES Writing Time SINCE THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY. beautiful. below. and inventive of his time. Texture Compare this drawing to Hugo's octopus on p." An innovator who never fails to surprise. His drawing writes the time of its own physical process by expressing the extreme concentration of the moment in which it was made. and lifted them away to leave impressions of watery planets and seas. o f t e n e x p r e s s e d in v i s u a l t e r m s . said. "There is nothing like dream to create the future. opposite. Both abstract drawing and composition involve the perfect sequencing of sounds and marks against space and silence. o r a pattern o f elements s o unified as a w h o l e t h e y c a n n o t b e e x p l a i n e d asa s u m o f parts. abstract artists and composers unique. Bussotti. Hugo.

Following the notes. His later works become increasingly abstract. we can feel their rhythm and easily attach sounds to them. 70 in relation to Bussotti's clustered notes to the left of his rondo and open space to the right. Circular Score for "Due Voci" c. Compare this work to that of Libeskind on p. Sound and rhythm This flickering rondo of sound written in pen on a hand-ruled stave can be heard in our imaginations as much as seen.223 W R I T I N G TIME SYLVANO BUSSOTTI Italian avant-garde composer and principal 20thcentury exponent of the graphic score. This is a page from Due Voci. a far cry from any recognized musical notation. 1958 SYLVANO BUSSOTTI . Bussotti's first mature work.

Visually. In the late 1 9 t h century. O p p o s i t e . Germany. T h e s e p h o t o g r a p h s d o c u m e n t the meditative drawings o f two w o m e n living worlds apart in different countries. and c i r c u m s t a n c e s . making objects and images outside o f mainstream culture. It will protect the place from evil and make a pleasing invitation to good spirits. In music it can be felt in the diversity of plainsong and African d r u m m i n g . d i p p i n g h e r fingers into a pot o f rice flour. centuries. Cell Floor With Torn Strips of Cloth 1894 MARIE LIEB . Torn cloth This is one of two published photographs showing Marie Leib's torn cloth strips significantly placed on her cell floor. it is found in the regularity o f ordered lines or a pattern. and sufferers of psychiatric illnesses—who have always existed. Cloth is the simple instrument with which she has conducted and ordered her universe. She tore c l o t h into strips a n d used these to draw patterns a n d symbols o n h e r cell floor.224 A B S T R A C T LINES Chants and Prayers WHEN ABSTRACT LINES are organized in repetition.228-29) has been adjusted with each movement of the rags to draw a cosmos of balance and perfection. This takes a form in most cultures. an a n o n y m o u s w o m a n in the southeast Indian state o f Tamil Nadu m a k e s a ritual drawing o n the b r i c k courtyard o f h e r h o m e . MARIE LIEB Little is known of this w o m a n for w h o m the act of drawing was essential. social outcasts. Marie Lieb w a s a psychiatric patient in the Heidelberg Asylum. cultures. for e x a m p l e . Lieb is one o f countless thousands of "Outsider" artists—diverse individuals including ordinary citizens. they m a k e a visual a n d physical e c h o that t o u c h e s s o m e deep part of the human spirit. Compositional rightness (see pp.

women pride themselves on never repeating a design. and for over 30 years has traveled extensively through the Indian subcontinent creating an edited archive of 200. Huyler is the author of Painted Prayers. among others.HUYLER Photographer art historian. Painted Prayers UNDATED STEPHEN R HUYLER . lime. Motifs are geometrical or based on plants. Materials such as rice flour. lecturer on the subjects of Indian art and Indian women's identity. In daily practice. cultural anthropologist. and birds.225 STEPHEN P. animals. chalk. Skills are handed down through generations and from friend to friend.Theseare widely published in journals and are the subjects of international exhibitions. Popular magazines feature new ideas each week and on special occasions there may be contests. Designs and motifs Rangoii (or mandalas) are ritual drawings made by many millions of women across rural India. at the University of London and Ohio State University. or flowers are marked or arranged on the ground or on the walls of homes.000 images. and in places of worship and celebration.

figurative representation—that is. Catling's torn paper shapes and shadows spill light out of their frame like a fractured mirror. filmmaker Professor of Fine Art. They each find their pathways and equilibrium in atmosphere and suggestion. it is ruled and contained in one dimension by its interlocking ink-lined borders. free from the direct imaging of known physical things. Catling's abstract drawings are usually made in series and in parallel to written poetry and sculptural installations.226 ABSTRACT LINES Compositions ABSTRACT DRAWINGS ARE LARGELY or entirely free from using the viewer's eye to track and unfold layers of meaning. rocks or heads in a subdued atmosphere of dream. gold paint and iridescent gouache mixed with water. performance and installation artist. BRIAN CATLING British sculptor poet. and choice of hues. Oval moons eclipse each other and oscillate between landforms and portraiture. and Fellow of Linacre College. These two works present complex compositions with differing intensions and methods of making. and water-resistant layers of spray and enamel paint on thick paper. Ruskin School. Mixed media This is a collage of torn white and gray tissue paper previously stained with ink. Their energy can therefore be a purer expression of an idea or emotion. structure. Untitled 2001 2001 153/4x 215/8 in ( 4 0 0 x 550 mm) BRIAN C A T L I N G . Oxford. but similarities in mood. Klee's mathematical maze of thinly washed surface resonates with meticulous planning. With no depth of field. Catling's works made for international galleries and museums involve drawing as a tool in their development and making.

Polyphon Gefasstes Weiss (White Framed Polyphonically) 1930 131/8x95/8 in (333 x 245 mm) Paul-Klee-Stiftung. and wrote copiously about the natures and relationships of color and form.31).227 PAUL K L E E Swiss painter and sculptor (see also p. Klee also felt that a line represents the passing of time. and brush. and might be read as active or passive. He explained his polyphonic painting as "a harmony of several color voices" searching for a visual parallel to music. watercolor. It is a geometric harmony of straight lines and tonally graded flat colors that by their arrangement draw our eyes inward to their white center. drew. philosophized. Klee painted. We can see some diagrammatic examples of this among the optical illusions on pp. Kunstmuseum Bern PAUL KLEE . Geometric harmony This is a work on paper made with a sharp ink pen.97-99. whereas tonal surfaces are perceived more immediately as a whole. ruler. Line and surface Klee observed the visual capacity of lines to push or pull within an image.

a b u n c h of keys. the late garden designer Russell Page explains. media." . Take. It is found in all great art and design. b u t e v e r y n o w a n d again you will hit on an arrangement w h i c h appears just." SETTING UP Justness can be harmonious or deliberately discordant. the impression y o u receive from t h e m . or on a page. their impact. there is a clear feeling when. but an easy o n e to u n d e r s t a n d .Thisexercise will help you start. they reach a perfect position. for instance. or degree of figuration. they are just. after being continuously adjusted. M a n y of their inter-relationships will be meaningless. Seek it when looking at other artists' work and in your everyday environment. s o m e will be more or less h a r m o n i o u s . angles. Set up a sheet of paper with a rectangle drawn on it. regardless of style. and ten straight sticks painted black. or home. and put them o n a tray. In his b o o k The Education of a Gardener. "Whenall pictorial elements come together in pleasing and perfect balance. As y o u m o v e them around. W h e n m o v i n g objects around in your yard. Feel for it when youdraw. culture. It is also found in nature. w i l l c h a n g e w i t h e v e r y r e a r r a n g e m e n t . and elements settle in definitive balance.228 ABSTRACT LINES Being "Just" A SENSE OF "JUST" (or rightness) is a difficult concept to explain. There is a single m o m e n t w h e n all proportions. a glass. and an apple. "I have experimented endlessly with this idea. This balance is what every artist and designer searches a n d feels for when making an image.

Move the sticks out into the rectangle. painted black. Here. W h e n the composition falls into place. Remember the drawn rectangle is a part of the composition (see pp. horizontals dominate the lower area. suggesting a horizon. horizontals dominate the top. Arrange them so they touch or cross in a series of intersecting balances. .229 WHERE TO START Take ten sticks of equal length.56-57). Feel for the rightness of their grouping and their relationships to surrounding spaces. as shown here. Within a rectangle on a flat sheet of paper set about making a composition using no other rule than a sense of "just. In the final step (left) there is an even balance. which now becomes a tight frame. 2 3 In the step above. A stick touching the rectangle links the composition to the frame. making the composition seem to float beneath. fix it with glue. B E I N G "JUST" 1 Arrange your ten sticks in t w o groups of five." Move the sticks to find alignments and imagined perspectives.

or discordance. To prepare for this lesson. Returning to Russell Page. correction fluid or white paint. This principal also applies to three-dimensional drawings such as Gaudi's work with wire and weights on p. "My understanding is that every object [or shape] emanates—sends out vibrations beyond its physical body which are specific to itself. scissors.230 ABSTRACT LINES Collage H E R E W E EXPERIMENT with collage.Youwill also need spare white paper. Images and fragments torn from day-to-day life can be brought together to make a chorus of ideas and emotions. found or made items.69 and Abe's installation on p. they become a scaffold for the addition of further textures. or even strident. a compass. colors. colors and textures can be manipulated until their pictorial harmony. Once the ten painted black sticks are set and glued in place. he went on to say ". which is the shifting. ready-made depths and surfaces.. hard or soft. harmonious. feels "just" (see pp." (Russell Page) . Cut or torn layers and shapes. you start composing by adding or subtracting shapes and textures and using colors and tones to achieve the impression you want to m a k e — w h e t h e r dramatic or s u b d u e d .. an infinite range of voices and meaning. stain and dry a sheet of tissue paper using blueink. glue. Collage offers the artist a liberating palette of SETTING UP This lesson in collage is a direct continuation of the compositional lines made in the previous class. and black ink.228-29)." overlapping placement of materials on a flat plane.220. and tones.

four circles of blue tissue paper.228) in front of you. then cut out. correction fluid and ink marks add further dimensions. Obscuring the blue disks. 2 3 Torn white paper moved over the surface adds masks of rough-edged irregular volume. Glue them in place once they feel "just" Translucent circular disks of tissue paper give color tone.231 WHAT TO DO Lay the final step of the previous lesson (p. and shadow to thepicture. they deepen pictorial space. In the last step (left). draw.The single disk that is folded with its straight edge facing up appears heavier than those that are flat. and with a compass and scissors. solidity. COLLAGE 1 Regular-sized pieces of white paper are moved over the surface to disrupt the even lines. . Cut six small rectangles the same proportion as your whole image. This can also give a sense of fragmentation or punctuation to the composition.

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Zen Brushwork]. . A MODERN JAPANESE meditative art form inspired by the teachings of Yamaoka Tesshu (1836-1888). and expectation. emotion. Hitsuzendo drawings aspire to "breathe with the energy and vitality of eternal life" achieved through "a state of no mind—beyond thought." [Tanchu Terayama.Zen Calligraphy HITSUZENDO. is the practice of Zen through the calligraphic marks of a brush dipped in carbon ink.

Lines made with a steel dip pen take on a scratchy nervousness. These vibrate against washes of shadow and pitch-black mass. I flicked spatters of ink and rubbed the paper with a wet and a dry brush to achieve these effects. .Nocturnes IN THIS QUARTET of semi-abstract drawings made with India ink. discord is balanced against rhythm to create mood.

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all of which originated as hundreds of drawings. in the cracks of walls. or in smoke. our literate and more secular Western society still hungers for another world and to ravenously indulge its fascination for the marvelous. we select details of animals farthest from ourselves and that are widely thought disturbing—reptilian and insect features. happen to us. which is to have eaten a nun—it inspired the drawing on p. a human-animal mix that implies this could MARTIN SCHONGAUER German painter and engraver who settled to work in Colmar Alsace. feathers. wings. movie studios now brim with as many monsters as the visual art of the Medieval and Renaissance Church. look for images in the folds of clothing.247. angels. which were widely distributed and influential in his time. We watch with captivated pleasure movies such as The Fly. sculptures. Be inspired by the irrational comedy of word association or puns. Throughout this book images are presented to excite and surprise and drawing classes created to increase your confidence. Today. Perhaps the Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 1485 121/4 x 9 in (312 x 230 mm) MARTIN SCHONGAUER most important conclusion in this final chapter is to advise you to develop your skills in parallel with the joy of your unfolding imagination. and the faces of God have for centuries given artists a feast for the extremes of their imagination. and stained-glass windows deliver powerful visual sermons to the once-illiterate populace. Star Wars. and damnation are found in most world faiths. When creating monsters. and deep fur—and we alter their scale. a Catherine wheel of drawn sparks spiraling around the quietly resolute saint. Monsters take advantage of both. thousands of paintings. To learn to flex your imagination. Depictions of God or of gods in the contexts of daily life. and the Alien trilogy. or strange. For example. aliens. Feeding this demand. beasts. Here. I was on a train passing through Nuneaton. a collaboration between the two will ensure that your drawings glow with originality. In the Christian churches of Europe. impossible. England. The salvation of heaven and terrors of hell are represented equally—enough to make any sinner shudder. Lord of the Rings. Fantasy is most successful when founded on strong and familiar visual logic. scales. Neither should be slave or master.Gods and Monsters OUR SACRED AND SECULAR need to visualize demons. for example. Humans are equally troubled by the imperceptibly small and the enormous. . Schongauer is best known for his prints. serpentine tails. We love our fear of the hybrid—ideally. paradise. Images we are now surrounded by bear testimony to the power and resourcefulness of their collective imagination. our eye circulates around a flutter of leather and scaly wings. Reading the place name I momentarily glimpsed an alternative meaning. We then add substances we dislike: unidentified fluids.

Goya's plainly textured gray background pushes back the space behind the illuminated simply subject. his lover a dog.30. Goya later recorded the horrors of Napoleonic occupation. This continuity enriches the making of art and our heritage. Visions experienced in front of the drawing sometimes instruct the making of a new one. and men clubbing each other to death. Opposite. crammed tightly at his desk. Francisco de Goya was a master of borrowing. barren land rising like MYRIAD CHAINS RUN THROUGH ART HISTORY. we see the international icon of stupidity. rushing. They depict as if by lamplight the devil and witches. Near the end of his life he made his "Black Paintings" on the walls of his home. reading from a book of asses. and exposed the superstitions.220. Los Caprichos. Pictorially. which can swamp the subject Here. such asinine behavior can be hereditary. Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 1799 81/2 x 6 in (218 x 154 mm) FRANCISCO DE GOYA . The title "And So Was His Grandfather" adds that should we not already know. quoting great paintings and popular culture to add cunning twists to his satires. Violent white marks symbolizing Achilles' rage resonate with the energy of Twombly's script on p. Other drawn versions of this image are more savage and frightening. Many students leave white backgrounds in their work.240 GODS AND M O N S T E R S Marks of Influence marking the influence of one artist upon another. Paul Thomas's studies of Picasso and Twombly can be traced directly. Compare his dark. Aquatint Goya has drawn a learned man as an ass. to Picasso's similarly tight. Opposite below. hags. portraits. In this softer aquatint he poses for his portrait Textured background The aquatint process has been used to great effect in making a gritty toned background. and church murals. He would be graceless if he stood. The high. plain wall suggests a blinkered view of nothing. a Shoshone seeking guidance and power meditates at the sacred site of a petroglyph. deranged masses. This act defines the vision and continues the line of spirit guides. The well-dressed mule is cumbersome. and follies of court through copious graphic works including his best-known prints. In this ass. whose impassioned work begins with light tapestry cartoons. below. it allows the mule to stand forward. F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A Spanish court painter printmaker and draftsman. noisy seascape on p. vanity. a wave to join Achilles' chase of Hector. Saturn devouring his son.

meaning "place of power. and personal and social struggles. It was made with a sharp implement. ideals.241 MARKS OF INFLUENCE PAUL T H O M A S British contemporary artist whose epic graphic work questions and reflects upon issues of European identity." Each sacred image drawn into rock belongs to one of three realms in the Shoshone world: the realm of the sky. Wyoming. White marks like flashes of light are cut though graphite with an eraser to reveal the paper beneath. Achilles Chases Hector 1996 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) PAUL THOMAS SHOSHONE PETROGLYPH The Shoshone people of Wyoming name petroglyph sites Poha Kahni. Graphite marks Here Achilles chases Hector around the walls of Troy before killing him. Thomas conducts his explorations in the mine of Greek and Roman mythology. values. A vivid spectrum of energized graphite marks and a masterly composition give this drawing vitality and speed. or of the water Chipped image This is a sacred creature of the sky chipped onto rock at Dinwoody Lake. Simple wall stones cleverly state their cold solidity while also fading from our attention as the scene roars by. by a supplicant in a trance of meditation. Wind River Reservation. of the earth. Parallel lines within the body of the figure are likely to denote power. perhaps a stone. Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range UNDATED ARTIST UNKNOWN .

If it were to turn and stare this way. They float toward us like a horrid visitation. T H E EXPLORATION AND DEPICTION Hauntings Grandville has drawn a scurrying zoo of half-known demons and animals that appear to have been stolen from the glass eye of the microscope. and writer In contrast t o the light and visual accent of contemporary Impressionism. ODILON REDON French painter draftsman. we see parallel slanting pale marks that might have been made with fresh bread—a very effective eraser used before the wide availability of rubber or plastic. below left.242 MONSTERS of the unknown is a classical and constant occupation for the artist.and 16th-century Holland. Techniques demonstrated on pp. Our subconscious can be drawn with pleasure and ease. crawl. Compare worked textures throughout the whole of this image to those found throughout Anita Taylor's charcoal drawing on p. The monsters of Bosch grew from his observations of beggars going about their trade in 15th. the shock would be extreme. 115. the writers Joris-Karl Huysmans and Stephane Mallarme.204-05 will enable you to produce a similar effect of white lines shining out of dark charcoal. The Eye Like a Strange Mounts Balloon 165/8 x131/8in (422 x 332 mm) ODILON REDON 1882 Toward Infinity . Children are also delighted to invent a monster or ghoul. lifting its cranial passenger over a seascape of repose. We may feel safe so long as the eye looks heavenward. graphic artist. as he did the grass. Redon explored the darker side of the human imagination through symbols and mysticism. which sometimes—half-dressed and carrying a familiar trophy— stride. Here we see how he evolved their injuries into new limbs and warped proportions. to the right of the balloon. Redon lifted them out with some sort of eraser. H e was influenced by his friends. Lifting out Fine strings of the hot-air balloon appear dark against the sky and light against the balloon. Redon's eyeball balloon rises up. and scuttle over all known reality. GODS AND Erasure In this charcoal drawing.

which is still available today. Comic little headbands of waving hair express more hysteria than fear. HAUNTINGS Engraving This is an engraving made so that Grandville's original drawing could be reproduced. include The Haywain. grimacing. Les Animaux (1840). Last Judgment. His other major works include Metamorphoses du Jour (1828). 1840 61/8 x41/2in ( 1 5 5 x 1 1 5 mm) GRANDVILLE HIERONYMUS BOSCH Dutch painter Bosch's highly detailed iconographic religious panel paintings. A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects c. and he illustrated the Fables of La Fontaine and Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe. Two Monsters UNDATED 45/8 x61/2in (117 x 163 mm) HIERONYMUS BOSCH . The quality of the line is therefore uniform throughout. and Ship of Fools. Light shines from the right.243 J E A N I G N A C E ISIDORE GERARD ("GRANDVILLE") French graphic artist and political satirist. Smiling. teeming with the exhilaration of unrestrained fantasy. Madrid. sucker-faced creatures dash and trundle toward it They are drawn solidly to emphasize their earthbound weight. Most of his work is in the Prado Museum. Quill and ink This typical Bosch monster is a quill drawing in bistre ink The phrasing of light and contour here is masterly. This image is from one of Grandville's best-known publications. Garden of Earthly Delights.

muscular tension is carved out of the paper using layered. poet. and play with its perfection and meaning. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI Florentine painter sculptor. Scaly. His entire drawing wrestles and weaves the viewer's eye into its retracting folds. Chalk and ink A quill dipped in brown ink was worked over black chalk on this reused sheet. and dying slaves. Opposite. below. a stunning hybrid of a swan. and mist-swathed land. David. architect. Grimes' delicately cavorting figures dive into and consume each other. sometimes artists purposefully tie a knot in the configuration to disturb. Grimes found the genesis of her beast not among animals. topple.244 GODS AND MONSTERS Convolutions THESE CONVOLUTED DRAWINGS were made almost 5 0 0 years apart. phrased over the contours of form and bridging darker areas of shadow. Michelangelo's dragon. and dog. In her studio. Dragon 1522 10 x 133/8 in ( 2 5 4 x 3 3 8 m m ) MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI . remembering the cavernous. as we might expect. snake. but in the seductive landscape of Leonardo da Vinci's oil painting Madonna of the Rocks. the dome of the Vatican. gamboling copulations. hatched lines. and engineer Among Michelangelo's great works are the painted ceiling and altar wall of the Sistine Chapel. A snake eating its own tail is a universal image of the eternal and continuous. lion. and marble sculptures including Pieto. St Peter's square. However. wraps and coils its lithe body ready to strike or whimper at a touch. Two previously drawn faces become humorous antagonists to the beast. pinnacled. They share between them the pleasures of inventing a hybrid beast. she formed a series of ghostly pale.

and the Camberwell and Slade Schools of Fine Art. details evolved slowly using a drier brush. London. Grimes exhibits internationally and features in the collections of the New York Public Library and the Victoria and Albert Museum.245 CONVOLUTIONS O O N A GRIMES British contemporary artist and professor of printmaking at the Ruskin School. How Clever of God #84 2002 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) O O N A GRIMES . her under heavy here. London. boards finished paper. The image formed directly without first making a pencil outline. Ink-wash delicately gouache (smooth) and gouache brushed drawing on This is a and was hot-pressed Shadows The dark shadow of the Other the ink-wash earth was made with a brushstroke of ink laid into wet paper. each one iridescent and crumbly like a weathered while oyster. It is one of a series of fragile earth figures inspired by rocks. The large space around figure has been cropped Grimes drawings to flatten presses them. Oxford.

Theyhold plenty of ink and make continuous. it has good wash capabilities. Shorter brushes designed for other purposes run out of ink more quickly. and hold prodigious weights of ink or paint. Suitable for wash techniques but also capable of very fine detail. Some used by master calligraphers are 2-3 in (5-8 cm) in diameter 11. making rt ideally suited to Japanese painting and small-scale calligraphy. and effects. SMALL JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with sable hair. dense. drawing tool extending the arm. 12. 1. and very fine lines. giving a variety of lines. This brush has a broad wash capability and can achieve a very wide range of marks. between them. SABLE-HAIR RIGGER: Made with very long kolinsky sable hairs. and has a fine tip for detailed work.H A I R RIGGER: Made with long synthetic hair for fine-point work It has a good ink-holding capacity and is slightly more resilient than sable hair with more "snap. M T RA S AEIL . SQUIRREL-HAIR S W O R D LINER:This brush has a maximum ink-holding capacity and an extremely fine and flexible point 8.H A I R LINER: Very responsive oriental-style liner This to the touch. and wrist into a fluid and soft touch. fingers. LARGER JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with natural hair held in a plastic ferrule on a bamboo handle. The brushes shown here are a mixture of This is a selection of riggers. ink-laden tip allow an expression that is beyond the linear. Always clean them thoroughly. the very opposite of pencil or silver point. Slightly less flexible than the squirrel-hair sword liner 9. JAPANESE PAINTING BRUSH: Made with natural hair. needle-sharp center of kolinsky red sable hair. It is still relatively small in the total range of Japanese brushes. Soaps purchased from good art supply stores will gently cleanse particles of pigment that become trapped in the hairs or ferrule. with a fine point for delicate work 4. The living marks of a wet. return them to their pointed shape. It has exceptional painting characteristics. shape. 13." 6. Some are bold. this brush has a soft drawing tip and small ink-holding capacity. and never leave them standing on their tip in a jar of water. materials. L A R G E R S Y N T H E T I C . thicknesses. S Y N T H E T I C . ideally suited to drawing. This design supplies the fine tip with a long continuity of ink 5. P O I N T E D T R A D I T I O N A L WRITER: The ferrule is made from a small duck quill. 2. 7. all perfect for drawing and. others are as fine as a whisker with a gentle touch.246 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brushes T H E BRUSH IS A VOLUPTUOUS and delicate weights. 10. It is capable of very fine pointing. Brushes vary in size. and texture. SYNTHETIC-HAIR LINER: This brush gives a medium line and is firm with a spring to the touch. How you care for your brushes will determine how long they last. SYNTHETIC-HAIR S W O R D LINER: A lining brush with high ink-holding capacity and a fine point. SYNTHETIC-HAIR BRUSH: Bound in a synthetic ferrule with good inkholding capacity and good spring and control. flowing. which holds long sable hair This brush holds large amounts of ink for long lines and points well for detailed work. POINTED SQUIRREL-HAIR MOP: With a synthetic quill ferrule and extra high inkholding capacity. and writers. liners. it has good inkholding capacity and is very flexible. 3. washes. SABLE-HAIR LINER: Made with ordinary sable hair surrounding an extralong.

247 BRUSHES .

and above all w h e t h e r the b r u s h is saturated with pigment or relatively dry. length. b l o w i n g h a r d o n t h e m several t i m e s t o disperse t h e ink ( c l o s e y o u r eyes if y o u t r y this. I had left the end of the ink block in the water overnight to make it easier to dissolve. and spatters. w i t h m y face close. A single brush has almost balletic potential to draw fine or undulating lines and curves.35) into two tablespoons of water in a shallow. and type of its hairs. Here I drew with a soft Japanese painting brush (see pp. It also depends on the angle at w h i c h it is held. and to make pools and stains o n the page. the speed of the s t r o k e .) I . the degree of pressure applied.246-47). splashes. I rubbed a block of Chinese ink (see p.248 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brush Marks A S I N G L E BRUSH will m a k e an e n o r m o u s range of m a r k s depending u p o n the width. softness. unglazed earthenware dish. the texture and a b s o r b e n c y of the paper ( w h i c h m a y be d a m p or dry). SETTING UP Blowing spots T h e s e t h r e e s p i d e r y c r e a t u r e s (above right and below) w e r e m a d e by d r o p p i n g s p o t s o f ink f r o m a b r u s h o n t o t h e p a g e and.

BRUSH MARKS Wet and dry strokes A m o n g these concentrated drawings ink made into with the same w a t e r y lines.249 Gritty texture T h e details o f t h e largest creatures b e l o w and opposite s h o w the granular texture of Chinese b l o c k ink. a n d b r u s h . t h e effects of the b r u s h r u n n i n g o u t o f ink. . a n d t h e w a y it d i s t r i b u t e s w h e n t h e b r u s h is d a b b e d o n its s i d e . w e see fine lines and s p o t s . b l e e d i n g f r o m strokes b e l o w left.

I borrowed small and fragile specimens from the University Museum of Natural History.Monsters THESE LITTLE CREATURES o f i n k and i n v e n t i o n were b o r n out of animal and bird studies. Oxford. . and used their detail to draw new creatures that might at first seem familiar. until we look again.

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formal composition. I found relationships between all four paintings in terms of shapes. Among his "Black Paintings" in the Prado Museum.Goya's Monsters W I T H CUNNING BRILLIANCE. thin works titled The Witches' Sabbath and The Procession of St. Here. two of my own drawings show you how Goya's devil (below) is based on the shape of Murillo's boy on a horse (top right). Isidore. Goya's witches have been literally drawn and evolved out of the shapes of Murillo's prophet and pilgrims. They are a pair and hang opposite each other. Through studying and drawing these great paintings I have discovered that they are based on a pair of similarly long. Goya often invented his monsters out of characters seen in other painters' works. thin works made by Bartolome Murillo in Seville about 120 years earlier. With further research. . Madrid. are two long. and narrative twists. showing us that gallery study is not just for the student and beginner.

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drawn rapidly and with great joy. . Sometimes drawings come out of nowhere and surprise even the artist.Consumed THIS IS A SERIES OF CARTOONS I m a d e s o m e years ago. little comments on politeness and sexual politics.

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a n d g r a p h i t e . Fauvism A n early 2 0 t h . Acid-free paper P a p e r w i t h a neutral p H t h a t will n o t darken o r d e t e r i o r a t e excessively w i t h age.The plate is t h e n r o l l e d w i t h ink a n d polished with a rag. w h e n v i e w e d f r o m a specified point. r a t h e r t h a n r e c o r d e d o n a film o r plate. so t h a t ink r e m a i n s o n l y in t h e g r o o v e s o f s c r a t c h e d lines." It w a s first given t o t o n a l paintings m a d e in o n e c o l o r — s e e Grisaille. A " s h a l l o w d e p t h o f field" m e a n s t h e p i c t u r e appears t o have only a shallow s p a c e inside i t Diffuse T o s o f t e n o r m a k e less brilliant. Field In a t w o . Also called accelerated perspective. p h o t o g r a p h s . Contre jour A F r e n c h t e r m m e a n i n g " a g a i n s t day. Camera lucida A n optical device t h a t p r o j e c t s an image o f an o b j e c t o n t o a plain s u r f a c e so t h a t it can be traced. L a t e r it c a m e t o m e a n h i g h l y c o n t r a s t e d light effects. See also Hotpressed papers. n e w s p a p e r cuttings. A g e n e r a l t e r m t h a t describes t h e various processes o f c u t t i n g a design i n t o a plate o r b l o c k o f m e t a l o r w o o d . Bleed T h e e f f e c t o f t w o w e t colors running into one another o r o n e color applied t o a w e t surface a n d a l l o w e d t o d i s p e r s e . W o r d s o r symbols are Cold-pressed papers P a p e r manufactured with a "not" o r " r o u g h " surface. linseed oil o r egg y o l k Caricature A representation Contour line A line t h a t f o l l o w s t h e s h a p e o f a surface. s u c h as a s c r e e n .c e n t u r y Italian t e r m m e a n i n g "clear-obscure. Aerial perspective The effect of the a t m o s p h e r e o v e r distance as it lightens t o n e s a n d cools c o l o r s progressively t o w a r d t h e horizon. m e a n i n g " t o stick" Dry media M e d i a t h a t a r e n o t w e t o r o i l y — f o r e x a m p l e . U s e d as a c o r r e c t i n g device o r pictorial game. chance mark-making. t h e l i g h t is b e h i n d h i m o r her.d i m e n s i o n a l i m a g e . Blending M e r g i n g t w o o r m o r e neighboring colors o r tones t o g e t h e r using a tortillon. A i r b r u s h e s are u s e d in t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c o m i c s . 2. A f u l l . tapestry. Chiaroscuro A 1 7 t h . A p o t e n t i a l l y h a r s h m e t h o d o f p r o d u c i n g t o n e s in a d r a w i n g . s u c h as a d r a w i n g o r painting. Blotting T h e use o f a b s o r b e n t m a t e r i a l t o lift a w a y excess liquid. written with a broad-nibbed pen o r brush. p r i n t i n g press face up. C o p p e r p l a t e engravings w e r e widely used t o r e p r o d u c e images b e f o r e p h o t o g r a p h y . T h e prints t a k e n from t h e s e plates o r blocks. pastel." " N o t " p r e s s e d p a p e r is r o l l e d a s e c o n d t i m e w i t h o u t blankets t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders t o p r o d u c e a s m o o t h e r b u t still slightly t e x t u r e d s u r f a c e . in w h i c h parts o f an image are depicted v e r y brightly and dramatically against d a r k n e s s . w h e n a p e r s o n is p a i n t e d standing a g a i n s t a w i n d o w . Deckle edge T h e i r r e g u l a r e d g e o f a s h e e t o f m o l d . Calligraphy Beautiful h a n d w r i t i n g . Binder A substance t h a t holds particles o f p i g m e n t t o g e t h e r in a paint f o r m u l a t i o n . charcoal. Collage C o l l e c t e d materials such as c o l o r e d p a p e r s . a n d attaches t h e m t o t h e s u p p o r t — f o r example. for example. a r e r o l l e d t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders. a n d given t h e n a m e Sho. Engraving 1. S o m e t i m e s f e r r u l e s a r e m a d e o f plastic o r o t h e r materials. 2. Air brush A mechanical. F r o m t h e French v e r b coller.s i z e d r a w i n g m a d e for t h e purpose o f transferring a design t o a painting. In t h e Far East calligraphy is a highly r e s p e c t e d a r t f o r m . t o g e t h e r w i t h a t h i c k felt b l a n k e t T h e w h o l e s a n d w i c h o f l a y e r s is t h e n railed t h r o u g h t h e press t o m a k e a p r i n t D r y p o i n t is a very portable and immediate m e t h o d o f printmaking. Eye level T h e i m a g i n a r y h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e a t t h e s a m e h e i g h t as t h e a v e r a g e p e r s o n ' s eyes. Bracelet shading C u r v e d parallel lines t h a t f o l l o w t h e c o n t o u r s o f f o r m . A l s o called m u s e u m g r a d e . Fixative Liquid acrylic resin a n d l a c q u e r t h i n n e r usually a p p l i e d as a n a e r o s o l s p r a y m i s t t o t h e surface o f a d r y . Camera obscura A d a r k e n e d c h a m b e r i n t o w h i c h an i m a g e o f w h a t is o u t s i d e is received t h r o u g h a small o p e n i n g o r lens a n d f o c u s e d in natural c o l o r o n a facing surface. o r will o n l y a p p e a r n o r m a l . T h e name " n o t " simply refers t o t h e fact t h a t t h e cylinders are n o t h o t in t e m p e r a t u r e . as o p p o s e d t o t h e s t r a i g h t e d g e o f a sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has b e e n machine-trimmed.m e d i a d r a w i n g . F r o m t h e G r e e k kallos. m e a n i n g "beauty". D a m p p a p e r is laid o n t o p . Composition T h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e p a r t s o f an i m a g e t o m a k e u p the whole. Ferrule T h e s h o r t m e t a l t u b e t h a t s u r r o u n d s a n d g n p s t h e hairs o f a p a i n t b r u s h a n d fixes t h e m t o t h e brush handle. Conservation grade D e s c r i b e s a range o f materials t h a t d o n o t d e c a y and cannot be broken d o w n by insects." D e s c r i b e s a p a i n t i n g in w h i c h t h e light s o u r c e is b e h i n d t h e s u b j e c t F o r e x a m p l e . p r a c t i c e d meditatively w i t h a brush. Anamorphic distortion Stretching an i m a g e across a p i c t u r e surface so t h a t it can o n l y b e u n d e r s t o o d . o r o t h e r (usually large) w o r k — s e e Pouncing. T h e m o v e m e n t was started by a g r o u p o f French artists including H e n r i Matisse. o f t e n d i s t o r t e d forms and vivid colors. Crosshatching Parallel lines d r a w n across o n e a n o t h e r at right angles. A h u m o r o u s d r a w i n g o r parody. It can also seal a silver p o i n t d r a w i n g t o p r e v e n t t h e oxidization (browning) o f t h e Drypoint A d r a w i n g is s c r a t c h e d directly o n t o a m e t a l plate w i t h a m e t a l t o o l h e l d like apen. pressurized t o o l used f o r spraying fine mists o f s m o o t h c o l o r P i g m e n t is d e l i v e r e d b y a j e t o f air n o t t h e bristles o f a brush.256 GLOSSARY Glossary Accidental drawing Random. t h e field is t h e a p p a r e n t a n d b e l i e v a b l e space inside t h e p i c t u r e . T h e b l a n k e t s g i v e t h e p a p e r its rough texture o r "tooth. and readymade objects arranged and stuck o n t o a flat surface.m a d e paper. Cartoon 1. in w h i c h t h e subject's distinctive features o r peculiarities are deliberately exaggerated f o r c o m i c o r g r o t e s q u e effect. In t h e W e s t p e n calligraphy is u s e d t o c r e a t e f o r m a l a n d d e c o r a t i v e t e x t s . usually at a n a c u t e angle t o t h e s u r f a c e . Fixative lightly glues t h e d r a w i n g t o t h e surface o f t h e p a p e r t o p r e v e n t smudging. Erasure T h e a c t o f r e m o v i n g a n i m a g e f r o m a surface. A l s o called r i n g l e t shading. R e m b r a n d t is a great master o f chiaroscuro. It is p u t o n a Body color See Gouache. R o u g h p a p e r is m a d e b e t w e e n t w o blankets t h a t .c e n t u r y painting m o v e m e n t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e use o f b o l d . A l s o c a l l e d t h e h o r i z o n line.

the finely ground particles of plant. oil-based printing ink is rolled evenly onto a smooth metal. Grisaille A painting in gray or a grayish color Often made by students as a tonal exercise. Paper is then pressed against the stone to take a print. Objective drawing Refers to the concept of objectivity. Fugitive A term given to a pigment that it is not stable. Also refers to an additive used to control the application properties of a color Golden Section A proportion in which a straight line or rectangle is divided into two unequal parts in such a way that the ratio of the smaller part to the greater part is the same as that of the greater part to the whole.The degree to which detail is defined. Hot-pressed papers (HP) Paper made using hot cylinders. pastel. Also used by artists' materials manufacturers to indicate the use of a substitute pigment—for example. glossy. so that (using vanishing point perspective) the object appears to change shape and become narrower or smaller as it recedes. Focus 1 . which give it a smooth surface (as opposed to cold-pressed paper. Gamut A complete range or extent Glassine A type of thin. rock. work. or canvas and allowed to dry before an image is drawn or painted. F o r m The outer surface of a three-dimensional object. This effect emulates what we see in real life. It improves the bonding properties Frottage A French term meaning "rubbing. enabling them to stick to paper It also helps to maintain a stable dispersion of pigment particles in water as the film of a wash dries. or a family of colors. . Hairspray is an effective and inexpensive alternative. sticky paper tape. and it has a history in enamel work. Monochrome Usually refers to a black. with the area beneath remaining unaffected. 2. oil-. or even a beam of light. The surface can be reloaded or redrawn with more medium. and is also used as a size. or spirit-based) is applied to a surface that is then pressed onto paper and removed to leave a print.The paper then bears a crayon impression or copy of the surface that was underneath it A number of Surrealists. then rubbed over carefully but vigorously with a crayon. used for fixing paper to walls and boards. Alternatively. Picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. Giotto's Virtues and Vices in the Arena Chapel. purpose. Masking fluid Clear or opaque latex fluid developed for watercolor painting. Grisaille is occasionally seen in church stained-glass windows. Hatching (cross-) See Crosshatching. Papercut A type of collage in which flat sheets of paper are cut into an image. graphite. white. Medium A generic term for art Key A painting is said to be "high key" when the colors and tones are bright and "low key" when they are dark or somber The term is also used Gouache Opaque watercolor Also called body color. This method incorporates the excitement of accidental and unpredicted marks.Theground provides a particular color or texture beneath the image. cadmium yellow hue. Artists can paint freely over dry masking fluid. Negative space The space between things. Lightfast A term confirming that pigment in the product will not fade with exposure to light. or synthetic material that are suspended in a medium to constitute paint. but in picture-making it is as important as the objects/subjects themselves. Paper is laid on top and a rapid drawing is made on the back of it The paper lifts away to reveal the image on its other side. Dark tones are laid down first then an eraser or masking tape is used to lift away particles of the drawing media to reveal the lightness of the paper beneath. Pointillism A technique of using points or dots of pure color in such a way that when the picture is viewed from a distance they react Masking tape Invaluable. Padua. multiH u e A term for a color. Impressing Stamping or printing. After several intervening processes. including Max Ernst used frottage in their work. Usually an academic drawing observed from life. aiming to represent facts rather than an interpretation of the subject. or a drawing made in any single color GLOSSARY Linear perspective A form of perspective in which parallel lines are represented as converging. Rubens used grisaille to paint small images for engravers. or can be otherwise used to create an image—for example. Foreshortening A method of depicting an object at an angle to the surface of the picture. and masking off areas of a drawing that the artist wishes to keep untouched by media applied above or beside the tape. or for wrapping and protecting a finished piece of work. which has a rough surface). upright images are called "portrait which is used as a binding agent in many liquid media. and by artists representing stone sculptures in a painting. A small image might be described as small format Horizontal images are often said to be "landscape format" (abbreviated G u m arabic The natural to"landscape"). and gray drawing. are painted in grisaille and appear to be made of stone. of the ingredients in inks and watercolors. materials that produce marks on a surface. Lithography A method of printmaking in which a drawing or painting is made directly onto a smooth slab of particular limestone or a metal plate using an oilbased crayon or ink. lifting out charcoal and other dry media.257 metal line. A point of interest in a drawing. and orientation of the image.while secretion of the acacia tree. glass. and that will "escape" or change over time." A piece of paper is placed on top of an object or rough surface. This may be disregarded in real life. but each print will be unique. or plastic surface. Ground A wet solution usually of gouache or gesso (chalk and animal glue) brushed onto paper board. and translucent paper—a delicate material used in collage. Monoprinting A direct method of printing in which wet medium (water-. mineral. the surface of the stone is made wet before being rolled with a thin film of oilbased printing ink. Lifting out A method of creating highlights and mid-tones in a drymedia drawing (such as charcoal or graphite). Plumb line A line from which a weight is suspended in order to determine verticality or depth. F o r m a t T h e size. shape. to give the illusion of depth and distance. ink. It is a strong adhesive. The ink attaches to the oil-based image and is repelled by the wet stone. it is the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work Pigment Any substance used as a coloring agent—for example. It can be used with any wet media to isolate or protect parts of an image from further Optical blending See Pointillism. It is then peeled away. format" (abbreviated to "portrait"). to describe a surface to which paint will adhere readily.

Zen brushwork This is an oriental meditative art form originating in China and practised for many centuries in Japan. W e t media Any liquid media— for example. The translucent Tint A color mixed with white. Stylus A sharp." Applied to the blurring or softening of sharp outlines by the subtle and gradual blending of one tone into another Sgraffito A technique of scratching or cutting through a surface of paint. Tone A degree of lightness or darkness. Single-point perspective The most basic form of linear perspective in which there is only one vanishing point. such as an inscribed sheet of metal. Squeegee A rubber-trimmed scraper used in the screenprinting process for dragging ink across a surface. Scale Describes the size of one element in relation to another Sepia A brown pigment taken from the sun-dried ink sacs of cuttlefish and used to make ink or watercolor The term is now often incorrectly used to refer to brown colors. meaning objects used in setting up a life model or still life. whose pinpricks creates a "connect-thepersonal pastime was making dots" replica of the image on the cut-out portraits. Strip Core of a pencil. a point at which receding parallel lines meet Verso The back or underside of a piece of paper. "Spirits" or "oil" of turpentine refer to the volatile portion used by artists to thin or dilute oil-based paint. Alternatively. Sfumato An Italian term meaning "smoky. Spattering A mottled texture produced by drawing your fingers across the bristles of a stiff brush loaded with pigment. a sheet of paper is placed beneath and pinpricks are Silhouette A flat. Vanishing point In linear perspective. Pouncing If a large drawing or design (called a cartoon) is to be Shadow Darkness cast by the transferred to a surface such as a obscuring of light. pencil. Shade A that is color mixed (or toned) with black Shading A lay term for adding tone to a drawing. Viewpoint The position from which something is observed or considered. using a brush. or pen. tight.Technicaldrawing has been example. giving it a brilliance. Etienne de material) dabbed through the Silhouette (1709-67). plum blossom. which are then called editions. Tortillon A short. and paperweights. or the left-hand page in a book. or mark using an inked or pigment-covered surface. Although drawings can be made with wash alone. wall or tapestry. or any physical object that can be stamped or pressed onto a surface to leave an impression. or the right-hand page in a book.Thedrawing is removed. Printmaking The act of making a picture. Size A weak glue used for filling the porous surface of wood or canvas in order to seal it. carbon ink. Underdrawing A pale preliminary drawing made prior to adding layers of another medium such as oil paint or watercolor Value The extent to which a color reflects or transmits light This is the equivalent of tone in a black and white image. A term borrowed from the theater. compound of water-soluble pigment. pointed roll of white paper that is used to blend dry media. Zen paintings usually depict scenes of nature and plants such as bamboo. usually diluted with water and applied with a brush. or wood. acrylic. Zen A school of Mahayana Buddhism that asserts that enlightenment can come through meditation and intuition rather than faith. . Recto The front or top side of a piece of paper. fine paper. fruit. cut-out profile made along every outline of the usually made in black paper image. Pounce (a fine for an unpopular 18th-century powder of charcoal or similar French politician. Volume The amount of space occupied by an object or an area of space in itself. ink." Materials for Zen brushwork include round brushes of varied size. sometimes drawn from a and leaving only the pricked sheet of shadow cast on a wall. evolved by engineers and architects for the purpose of conveying W a t e r c o l o r A painting accurate structural information. pointed instrument used for marking or engraving.258 GLOSSARY together optically. Still life A picture composed of inanimate objects such as bowls. glasses. Subjective drawing A drawing that expresses the personal view and interpretation of the artist An invented image. Technical drawing A universal it is often used in conjunction language of lines and measurements with line drawings in pen and that is used to make diagrammatic ink—for images. Zen brushwork encompasses calligraphy and painting. and flowers. in order to flick the pigment onto the image surface. Artists' prints are normally made in multiple. nature of watercolor allows the white surface of the paper to Tonal scale A scale of gradations shine through. Wash A technique using ink. orchids. Props An abbreviation of the word properties. The crude material is called oleoresin. Turpentine A colorless solvent distilled from the resinous sap of pine trees. watercolor. Sketch A quick or rough drawing. Serigraphy Silk-screen printing. to model areas of light and shade. by imposing a grid that is then scaled up to a larger size. or watercolor paint. plaster or cloth surface beneath. design. or point on which parallel lines converge to give the impression of receding space. paper or canvas. Squaring up A method of enlarging and transferring an image from one surface to another. plaster. or gouache. a tightly folded piece of cotton batting can be used for the same effect. and chrysanthemum—which in Chinese tradition are called "The Four Gentlemen. or ceramic glazing to reveal a different color beneath. in tone running from black to white or vice versa. Stippling Applying color or tone in areas of fine dots or flecks. an ink stone usually cut from slate. creating more vibrant effects than if the same colors were physically mixed together with a brush. Named paper in place. commonly referred to as the lead. Support The structure on which an image is made—for example.

200 Bauer. 50. 206 checkered floor 80. 230-231 Cubist 90. 220. 162 character: to capture 38-39. 90 colored materials 162-163 colored pencils 162. 128. 81 135. (Ross-Craig) 49 to hold brush for 23 caricature 159. 29 Hugo's octopus 28. 186 charcoal 114. 137 Besler. 71 Bacchante (Bakst) 155 background: color 91 textured 240 Baker Matthew: Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry 32 Bakst. 78 aerial perspective 206 airbrushing 160. 201 collage 111. 199 Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya (Eisen) 156. 98. 81 cut-out model plan 94. 26 geese 38-39 Gericault's cats 28. 157 cropping 56-57.163 body. Franz 48 Protea nitida 48 Bellini. to draw 100 Cypripedium calceolus L. 205 Baltard. 94 cylindrical objects.186 see also movement Adoration of the Magi perspective study (Leonardo) 74.13. 72 bracelet shading 122 Braque. cut Catling.163 graded 227 composition 56-57. Joseph 113 The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland 112. 9. Statue d'Epouvante 90 calligraphy.89. 202 cloth. 40-41 Durer's rhinoceros 26. Mamaru 104. 75.163 dry media 205 Blue Nude (Matisse) 110. Brian 226 Untitled 2001 226 "Cave of the Hands" (Cueva de las Manas) 8. to depict 156-157 Cloudburst of Material Possessions (Leonardo) 200. 190 Caricature of a Woman (Daumier) 198. 158. 160 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object (Moore) 178. Clare 203 City 202.Index Page numbers in italics refer t o captions and illustrations Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity (Bishndas and 259 INDEX B bread (as eraser) 205. 203 Landline 202.50. 116. 163. 8 cave paintings 8. Etienne-Louis 72 Newton's Cenotaph 72.226.44-45 bird studies 12. 90. 222. 139 Nanha) 50. 113 bird bones 12. Le (Hugo) 200. 198 cartoon (preparatory drawing) 137 (satirical) 159. 28 Klee's horses 30. to model 110-111 border 51 Bosch. 95 Chair Cut Out (Woodfine) 94. 230 The Physical Space 220 abstract drawing 219. Augustin 67 Basquiat. 75 Circle of the Lustful (Blake) 180. Zen c 232-233 blended 133. 178 Cubism 67. Hieronymus 243 Two Monsters 242. 179 Bussotti. 133. 165. 247-248 carving see lines. 94 chalk(s) 53.115 anatomical drawing 134-135 anatomical theaters 82-83 anatomical waxes 128 ancient carvings 221.169 colors: airbrushed 161 background 91 A Abe. 204. 242 Brunelleschi. 226-227 Acanthus spinosus 65 accelerated perspective 22. to draw 25. 161 Akhlaq-I Rasul Allah manuscript 51. 13 architectural drawing 67-71 Arctic Flowers (Libeskind) 70. 13. 30 sleeping dog 38-39 Stubbs's horse skeleton 26. 74 brush (es) 246-247 Japanese 248 for laying a wash 140 marks 248-249 to hold 23 brush drawings 14-15 Bryan. 38-39. 90. 242 to blend 205 compressed 122. Nicolas-Jacques 54 contours 146. 193 in lifting out 204.212 to erase 205 to hold 23 pencils 204 willow 114.184. Leon: Bacchante 155 balance. 180 blending: color 133. Giovanni 137 Head and Shoulders of a Man 136. 70 Art Nouveau motifs 91 Autoportrait (Ray) 138. 223 Circular Score for "Due Voce" 223 children's art 9. 41 principal 186. to express 39. 243 botanical drawing 48-49 Boullee. Georges 67. 206.133.100 curves. Basilius 47 Beuys. 241 action. 111. 189. 250 Bishndas and Nanha: Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity 50. Filippo 67.162 Conte.184.51 All and Nothing (Taylor) 114. 182. Jean Michel 138 Self-Portrait 138 Bateau-Vision. 9 Chair (Van Gogh) 94. 134 costume(s) 155 character 158-159 structure of 166-167 Cottage Among Trees (Rembrandt) 52. 221 animals.117 Achilles Chases Hector (Thomas) 240. William: The Circle of the Lustful 180. 74. layers 53 chalk pastels 162. 203 Claude Lorrain 202 Views from Velletri 202. 204-205.31 Picasso's horse and bird 30. 90 La Guitare. center of 118 ballpoint 182. 71 Blake. 203 Buffalo Hunt (Shoshone) 178.198. 198. 74. to draw 80. 52 cotton swabs 205 Coup de Vent a Asajigabare (Hokusai) 198. Victor: West Facade of the Church of St. 244 head and neck 144 phrased 124-125 contrast: brightness 99 of media 30 tonal 96. 244 and graphite 178 . Sylvano 222.27 turtles 42-43 aquatint 240 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels (Leonardo) 12. 71 conte 112. 180 Circular Score for "Due Voce" (Bussotti) 223 circus scenes 192-195 City (Bryan) 202.44-45.

M. Victor 200.141. 69. 30 Fauves/fauvism 90.115 exploratory 17 fantasy 72-73. 99 etching. 113. to draw 168-169 in Goya's artworks face. 7 33 Hooke.230 three-tone 140.104. Katsushika 199 Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 198. 55. 115 Escher.12 fixative 54.244.207. 203 semi-abstract 234-237 three-dimensional 68. 37 Grandville 243 A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the Near-Microscopic World of Scale Insects 242. 245 Hugo. fiber-tip pen 182. 134. to draw 120. 134. 131 Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 240. 161 fashion 160. 55. 90 G Gaudi. Robert 93 Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 92. 52 foreground 208.121 felt-tip pens 162. 799 Holbein.John 157 Man Lying Down in a Cloak 156.189. 122.111 feet.97. to suggest 177 see also perspective diagonals diffuser 55 dip pens 34. Nicholas 68 St Paul's Baptistry 68 head and neck to draw 142-145 Head and Shoulders of a Man (Bellini) 136.102-103 drawing board 20 drawing books 20-21 drawing paper 144. proportions of 143 fantasy drawings 72-73. Hans 133 The Ambassadors 116 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 132. 203 Hotel de la Suzonnieres (Satie) 70. 132 Frenz. 25 focus 65. Study for Plate 59 (Mucha) 90. 245 Gruau.157 ellipses 100. Edgar 162 depth.103 with eraser 103. 223.69 Gerard. 222 Le Bateau-Vision 200. 157 . 69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt 68. Sir Ernst 12. 162 Flaxman. 252 depiction of fabric monsters 252-253 Self Portrait in a Cocked Hat 130. Cheval et Oiseau (Picasso) 30. 93 horizon 52. 137 heads. 136 Golden Section 67 Gombrich.112.216 Durelli. 242 eyes. 69.244 drawing(s): abstract 219.198 Degas. 124. 240 Black Paintings 152. 163. 29 H hands. 202.116. 90 gouache 30. 69 Guitare. 122 Hawksmoor.144 and ink 30. to draw 78. 41 in the round 208-209 with scalpel 202.103. 160 Faune. position of 22 Eisen. Rene 160 Illustration for Jacques Fath E easel. 71 minimal line 99 and music 70-71 quick 38-39. 161 changing 216 Focusing on the Negative (Walter) 16 foliage 52. 141 tonal 96. Statue d'Epouvante.216. Ron 161 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 161 160. 91 Dragon (Michelangelo) 36. 79. The 242. 55. 144 Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (Baker) 32. 125. 230 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction 68. 161 fashion drawings 160. drypoint 181 exaggeration 184 expressionism 198 E ye and Head of a Drone Fly (Hooke) 92.252-253 from memory 183.Theodore 29 Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 28. disposable pens 182-183 dissections: botanical 48 of horse 27 distance: illusion of see perspective linear 97 tonal 97 Documents Decoratifs.109 Rhinoceros 26.91. 222.260 INDEX D Dada 139 Daumien Honore 198 Caricature of a Woman 198. 170-173. 243 graphic score 222. 240 170-173 five Ships in a Port with Lighthouse (Wallis) 11. 241 to blend 205 and chalk 178 and ink 28. 40. Alberto 136 Portrait of Marie-Laure de Noailles 136.160. 163. 160 as ground for metal point 140. 73. 112. 160 hitsuzendo 233 light to dark 102. Oona 245 How Clever of God #84 244.166 170-173 Gestalt 222 Giacometti.101 engraving 243 erasers/erasing 55. 226-227 anatomical 134-135 architectural 67-71 botanical 48-49 brush 14-15 dark to light 102. 205 drawing with 103. Jean Ignace Isidore see Grandville Gericault. C . Francisco de 131. 93 eye level 80 Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity. La (Braque) 90. 77 How Clever of God #84 244. 104-105. position of 143. 216 foreshortening 110. 245 layers 30 Goya. Antonio 135 Muscles of the Head and Neck 134. 200 F fabric. 135 Duren Albrecht 26. 765 hitsuzendo drawings 233 Hokusai.184 165. 190 Middle Eastern 50-51.160. to draw 134-137 Helleborus corsicus 55 highlights 91. 240. Antonio 68. 120. 160 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction (Gaudi) 68. 134.146 from masterworks 126-127. 220 dry brush 234 234 57. 223 graphite 54. 32 framing 139 Franfoise au Bandeau (Picasso) 132. Keisai 157 The Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya 156. 26 Flying Fish (White) 25.141.117 fountain pens 34.37. 222 Grimes.

Bartolome: Moses Striking the Rock ofHoreb 252.141 Metropolis (film) 72. 201 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels 12. 53 monoprint 787. Rose: Tantalus or the Future of Man 20 minimal line drawing 99 mirror use of 120 mixed media 28.115 98. 103 Neolithic chalk tablet 220. 181 Klee. 227 Scene of Comical Riders 30. Henri 111 Blue Nude 1110. 135 museums 44. 252 ink 16. 227 Newsome.124. 159 Japanese 35 to make 36 sepia 35 walnut 36.91 Study for Plate 59 of INDEX illumination see lighting Illustration for Jacques Fath (Gruau) 160. 244. Gustav 49 Knopf. 225 masking tape 204.227 to "bend" straight 97 compositional 228-229 cut 202. Victor 134 Profile Head 134. Johan 32. 166. Phyll: hands 18 lifting out 204. 220. 177 influences. 77 Miller.120. 244 lithograph 198 Losbruch (Kollwitz) 180. 83 white 122 ink impressions 222 ink spatters 234 installations 176. Marie 244 cloth drawing 244. 221 endless 31 free 113. 111. 244 Dragon 36. 219 Mondrian. 249 and gouache 30 Indian 35. 72. drawing from 183. 230 invented creatures 106-107 250-251 invented objects 89. 28 Two Impressions from a Cut-out Paper Disk 222 Huyler Stephen R 225 261 Kinecar.Pieuvre (Octopus) 28. 73 Michelangelo Buonarroti 48. 58-59. Alphonse 90. 78 Study ofThree Male Figures 110.182 Moore. 181 luminosity 115 Lynch. 97 Murillo. 160 In the Duchess's Kitchen (Rackham) 176.112. Paul 227 Polyphonic Setting for White 226. I Murderous Attacks 33 Kollwitz.166 La Specola. 76 Libeskind. 252 Muscles of the Head and Neck (Durelli) 134. 74-77.181 L Landline (Bryan) 202. Madrid 171 University Museum of Natural History. 37 lines 118 pastel 162 pencil 31. 54 silver point 156 leg sections 158 length. 244 ink 36 252-253 Documents Decoratifs 90. 220. 183 vertical 156 linear distance 97 linear perspective 69. Oxford 250 music 70-71 Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks (Knopf) 32. 190 metal pens see dip pens metal point 25.276. 60. 203 landscape 206-208 brushed 14 Landscape in Hoboku Style (Sesshu) 14 layers 146 chalk 53 gouache 30 ink 28. Henry 178 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object 178. 156 magnification 93 Man in Armor (Van Dyck) 158.167 line(s) 132. 220. 184. Erich 73 design for Metropolis 72. Florence 128 lighting in 167 Pitt Rivers.104. 205. 73 Kigell. 110 Sistine Chapel ceiling 116 Middle Eastern drawing 50-51. 205 masterworks.109. 49 Rose 49 Maelbeke Madonna (Van Eyck) 156. 242 light 96 to depict drawing with 1 76 painting with 176 . 34. 163 pens 36 measuring 116 memory. 33 J justness 228-229 N naive art 74 negative space 53. apparent 97 Leonardo da Vinci 74. 35. 203. 158 Man Lying Down in a Cloak (Flaxman) 156. 756 priming for 140. Piet 52.33 Mysterious Affairs of the lighting 2 7. 114 hatched 244 layered 118 pace of 65 pale 40 rapid 49. 36. 170-173. Oxford 106 Prado. 99.96. 34-35 acrylic 35 bistre 35.109. 234 iron-gall 35. 185 Mucha. 31 Klimt. 201 head and neck sections of female mold for Sforza Horse 89 Madonna of the Rocks 244 perspective study for Adoration of the Magi 74. 178 motifs: A r t Nouveau 9 7 stylized 51 mountains 216-217 movement: of animals 30-31 of humans 7 79.243 carbon 35 Chinese 30. 63. 13 Cloudburst of Material Possessions 200. 757 mandalas 219. 248. Charles Rennie 48.134 K Kettlehut. 789. 220. 226 Modernism 67.141. Daniel 70 Arctic Flowers 70 Lieb.102.The (Robinson) 108. artistic 240-241. drawing from 126-127. Kathe 181 Losbrunch (The Outbreak) 180. 53 Tree II 52. David 78 M Mackintosh. 176. Matisse.

736 portraits. 36.Paul'sBaptistry (Hawksmoor) 68.71 Hotel de la Suzonnieres 70. 165. 1 1 7 aerial 206 linear 69. J 76 nudes 114-115 to make 36 metal see dip quill 34. 91 outsider artists 33. Man 131. 57 Ross-Craig. 159.104 Pieuvre (Hugo) 28. 78 single-point 74. 224 0 layers 31. 28 pigment 162 bright 50 Caput Mortuum 7 4 7 for three-tone drawing 141. Cheval et Oiseau 30. 1 6 3 . 181 Rodin. 7 38 Ray 138.54 pastel 162 perspective 1 0 0 . Bridget 98 Robinson. 68 Satie. 165 figure 118 filled 37 pencil 48. 76-79. The (Abe) 220 Picasso. 114 rollerball 182 Rorschach blot 99 Rose (Mackintosh) 48. Russell 228.176 Real Life Is Rubbish 176. 219. 9 8 . 36.7 77 rapidograph 70 Raphael 110. 162 O p A r t 98 optical illusions 96-99 outline 33. 772 234-237 Sesshu. 160. 242 reed pens 34. 1 1 6 accelerated 2 2 . Sue 104.52 pen and wash 158. 733 Portrait de Marie-Laure (Giacometti) 136.139 Autoportrait 138. 103. 141 Piranesi. 181 pencil(s) 54 charcoal 204 colored 762. 234 disposable 182-183 felt-tip 162.2 3 age and youth sleeping subjects 148-149 150-151 Renaissance 109 Rhinoceros (Durer) 26. 1 1 6 .759. 239 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat (Seurat) 112. 241 Physical Space. Auguste 114 Two Women 114. 75 Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range 241 petroglyphs 221. 7 73 self-portraits: Basquiat 138. 1 6 9 to hold 2 2 .184 fountain 34. 36 relief printing 757 Rembrandt van Rijn 52. 81 two-point 74. 74-77. 122.262 INDEX Newton. 166 fiber-tip 782. 36 pen and brush 8 3 pen and ink 70. 26 Riley. 163. 243. 30 Fran<. 1 2 4 priming for metal point 140.37. 7 77 three-point 80. Martin 238.oise au Bandeau 132. 4 8 putty eraser 55. Georges 112 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 112. 7 72 Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland. 739 semi-abstract drawings Style 14 Seurat. 244 Q s Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape (Wolfli) 2 79 St.240. 216. Peter Paul 126-127 Embracing pose(s): balanced 146 quick 118-119 positive form 103 posture: of artist 22 of subject 3 8 . 243. 230 parallel planes 79 Parisian street 86-87 pastels 162 to blend 205 to hold 23 layers 162 pencils 162 pen(s): dip 34 . 759 P Page. 161. 203 Scene of Comical Riders (Klee) 30. Erik 70. Giovanni Battista 74. 164. 37 38. Faune. Isaac 92 Telescope 92 Newton's Cenotaph (Boullee) 72.37. 782 relief 757 silk-screen 739 woodblock 134.40. Paul 73 Nobson Central 72. to draw 146-147 R Rackham. Odilon 242 The Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity 242. 71 Satire of the Queen's Dress (Wodall) 158. 76 plastic eraser 55. 36. 34-35. 72 Noble. 38.131 Cottage Among Trees 52. 4 9 Rose of Mohammed 50. Pablo 6 7 . 205 157.199 Profile Head (Newsome) oil pastels 162.Tim.36.Toyo: Landscape in Hoboku . 227 portfolios 20 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser de Noailles (Holbein) 132. 139 Real Life is Rubbish (Noble and Webster) 176.The (Beuys) 112. 75 Two Courtyards 75.141 prints/printing: aquatint 240 dry-point etching 181 engraving 243 monoprint 181. 205 pointillism 112 polyphonic painting 227 Polyphonic Setting for White (Klee) 226. 36. 1 3 2 quill pens 34. and Webster. 38. 230 paper(s) 21 colored 162 drawing 144. 212 Japanese 2 1 . 244 reed 34. 9 0 . 2 2 0 for oil pastels 162 stained 230 to stretch 140-141 tissue 21. 40-41. 97. Arthur 177 In the Duchess's Kitchen 176. Heath 181 The Kinecar 180. 7 70 Ray. 73 Noble. 734 Protea nitida (Bauer) 48. 36. 239 Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 238.226.9 3 Schongauer. 7 76 receding space 206 Redon. 74. Stella 48 Cypripedium calceolus L 49 rotated view 7 65 Rubens. 732 influence of 240 painting with light 78. 52 pens 36 scalpel 54 drawing with 202.37 scientific instruments 9 2 .

240 Two Women Embracing ( R o d i n ) 114. T i m W e s t Fagade of the Church of St. 174 T w o m b l y . G e o r g e 2 7 Skeleton of the Horse 26.125 W o o d f i n e . 57. 97. 2 1 2 . Jan 1 5 6 Maelbeke Madonna 1 5 6 . t h r e e . 7 75 Telescope ( N e w t o n ) 9 2 . Paul 2 4 1 Achilles Chases Hector 2 4 0 . 156 layers 7 5 6 priming for 140. 74. 1 6 .2 1 3 Stubbs. 164. 230 t h r e e . 159 Wolfli.5 3 in l a n d s c a p e 2 0 6 . C y 138. 1 9 9 .2 0 1 . 49. 249 t o describe 39.s c r e e n p r i n t i n g 139 silver p o i n t 1 4 0 . t o draw 1 9 8 . Vincent 95 Chair 94. 241. W . 7 70 Tiber 214-215 Untitled ( T w o m b l y ) 2 2 0 . 9 2 Tesshu. 202 violin. 9 5 pens 36 v a n i s h i n g p o i n t 74. Adolf: Giant-Grape Saint-Mary-Castle 219 Woman at Her Toilet ( T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c ) 74 w o o d b l o c k print 157. 1 2 Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse 71. Sarah: child's m a p 75. drawing with 104-105 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt ( G a u d i ) 68. 206-207 202.41. 69. A n t h o n y 152. 170 shoes 1 6 4 stylized m o t i f 51 Summer Flowers 63. 2 4 4 .J.1 8 5 Tree II ( M o n d r i a n ) 52.158 158. 199 shoes 1 6 4 . 156 Van Gogh. 75 Skeleton of the Horse ( S t u b b s ) 26.199 tissue p a p e r 21. Sue see N o b l e . 243 (Bosch) T Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos ( G o y a ) 2 4 0 . 96. 2 9 wind. 2 4 2 w Wallis.12 W a l t e r .9 1 storms. 4 4 boat 209 botanical 4 9 G e r i c a u l t ' s cats 2 9 from Goya 170-173 125. 7 6 1 spots.1 9 9 wire. 1 4 1 . 53 trees. phrased 146 tonal modeling 161 tonal range 169 t o n a l surfaces 2 2 7 tonal width 97 t o n e ( s ) 33. v i e w s o f 85. 1 7 7 free 8 0 V e n i c e . 1 9 9 Two Courtyards (Piranesi) 75. 161. Taylor A n i t a 115 All and Nothing 1 1 4 . 7 9 0 vessels. 9 0 . 2 4 7 t h r e e .t o n e d r a w i n g 140. M . 2 0 0 Ship in a Storm 1 9 8 .Yamaoka 233 t e x t u r e 2 2 2 . 2 2 0 influence o f 2 4 0 Untitled 220.Sforza Horse. 79. t o d r a w 5 2 . 2 2 7 Untitled 2001 ( C a t l i n g ) u 263 W h i t e . Sarah 9 4 Chair Cut Out 94. 186.241 s i l k . 743 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City ( F r e n z ) 1 6 0 .13 M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s m a l e figures 110. 1 8 4 . 158 V a n Eyck. 182. 7 1 4 . Augustin ( B a l t a r d ) 6 7 w e t and dry brush-strokes 2 4 9 Turner. Man in Armor 1 5 8 . 6 9 Wodall.1 6 5 shorthand diagram 142 Shoshone buffalo hide painting 178. h e a d a n d n e c k sections o f female m o l d f o r (Leonardo) 89 shading 2 9 s h a d o w s 28. 226 V Van Dyck. John 25 Flying Fish 25 Wild Striped Cat Sketches of ( G e r i c a u l t ) 28. 7 77. 1 4 4 . b l o w n 248 steel p e n s see d i p p e n s still life 89. 1 6 6 t r a p e z i u s m u s c l e 142.216 W e b s t e r . 75. William 159 Satire of the Queen's Dress INDEX 226.1 4 5 . 199. 1 4 0 . t o lay 1 4 0 .243 Leonardo's machines 12. 115. 1 4 1 w a t e r c o l o r 25. Study of (Michelangelo) 110. t o d r a w 1 0 1 viewfinder 57 Views from Velletri ( C l a u d e L o r r a i n ) 152. 2 3 4 . 2 7 studies: b i r d s 7 2 .1 0 5 vision 9 6 Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects (Grandville) 242. 69. 102-103 tonal marks. 7 6 Two Impressions from a Cut-Out Paper Disk ( H u g o ) 2 2 2 Two Monsters 2 4 2 . 65 symbols 138.d i m e n s i o n a l d r a w i n g 68. John: Focusing on the Negative 14 w a s h . 9 4 z Z e n calligraphy 232-233 contrast 96 t o grade 163 ink 37 pencil 5 4 t o r t i l l o n 205 T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c .d i m e n s i o n a l 1 0 4 . H e n r i de: Woman at Her Toilet 14 t r a n s p a r e n t v i e w 92. t o d r a w 2 0 0 .1 4 1 .120. 7 79 Shoshone petroglyph 240. 2 2 6 . 1 4 5 travel journal 2 0 . 2 3 0 tonal contrast 96 tonal distance 9 7 t o n a l d r a w i n g 9 6 . 77.27 skull 747. 76.141 S i m b l e t . 1 8 4 . 221 . 725 fabric 1 6 8 T h o m a s . 245 sharpener 54 Ship in a Storm ( T u r n e r ) 1 9 8 . A l f r e d 1 1 . 1 3 . 141 Three Male Figures. 104-105.

B . R u t h P a r k i n s o n . Amsterdam. 13: www. Copyright Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens. b r i d g e m a n . b r i d g e m a n . Paris/ © Succession Picasso / D A C S 2005. K e w ft)). 11: www. L o n d o n . 137: © The British Museum.uk/Private Collection. 243: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. 1901. Diana Bell.uk/Musee des Augustins. London 2005. Madrid. Flossie. Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (t). 1 9 8 : Dover Publications. 199: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee des arts asiatiquesGuimet. Pamela Ellis for compiling the index. Dover Publications/ISBN: 0486229912 (t). u k / T o k y o National M u s e u m . Christopher Davis. Natalie G o d w i n . L o n d o n . 9 3 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. London/Bequeathed by Charles Landseer. 2 0 2 : © T h e British Museum. 2 6 : Topfoto. 29: Fogg A n Museum/Collections Baron de Vita: Grenville L. 1 9 6 : Museum of the History of Science. 1 5 4 : akg-images/Musee National d'Art Moderne. Carole A s h .a. 7 1 : I M E C / A r c h i v e s E r i k Satie. 1 5 : w w w . 225: Stephen P Huyler. 1 6 0 : Rene G R U A U s. Kunstmuseum Bern. Berlin/Staatsbibliothek zu A l l other images © Sarah Simblet . Winthrop. France. 9 7 6 ) . G e r m a n y . Fund. Toulouse. 1 3 4 : © T h e British Museum.bridgeman. a n d D e p a r t m e n t s o f E n t o m o l o g y a n d Zoology at the University of Oxford. H e a t h e r M c C a r r y . J o n Roome. Sarah D u n c a n .co. D a w n Henderson. Jean Pierre Roy. R . T h e R u s k i n School of D r a w i n g a n d Fine A r t . 49: Hunterian Museum (t). 9 4 : Sarah Woodfine. Paula Regan. 2 4 : © T h e British Museum. Florence/MoMA. 1 3 8 : © Christie's Images Ltd/© A D AGP. K u n s t m u s e u m Bern/© D A C S 2 0 0 5 .264 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Acknowledgments Author's Acknowledgments: T h e author wishes to thank the following people for their enormous help. Anita Taylor. 157: U C L Art Collections . Maureen Paley Interim Art (b).co. Sir Brinsley F o r d . 226: Brian Catling. 4 8 : T h e N a t u r a l H i s t o r y M u s e u m . 9 5 : V a n Gogh M u s e u m . Jackie Douglas./Galerie Sylvie Nissen. Paris. 2 2 2 : Pierre Georgel/Private Collection.co. 180: www. Oxford. Paris. 6 6 : w w w . Kirsten Norrie. 115: Anita Taylor. Paris. Also. Rocio Arnaez. Psychiatric Institute of the University of Heidelberg. 73: Berlin F i l m Museum (t). 2 0 1 : T h e Royal Collection © 2 0 0 2 H e r Majesty Queen Elizabeth I I . 88: www. Orientabteilung/Ruth Schacht.20-21 a n d 246-47. 5 0 : Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (1). B e r l i n . NY. Picture Credits 8: Corbis/Hubert Stadler. u k / O n Loan to the H a m b u r g Kunsthalle. Angela W i l k e s . Paul T h o m a s . J o h n Walter. Patty Stansfield. P h y l l Kiggell.100. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin. Salisbury & South W i l t s h i r e M u s e u m ( t ) . and Tamsin Woodward Smith. a n d brushes o n pp. U K . c o . Illustrated London News Picture Library/The Bystander (b). George M c G a v i n . A n d y C r a w f o r d for p h o t o g r a p h y a n d L . University of Cambridge. Paris and D A C S .Paris ( b ) . Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. B e m d Kunzig. 1 5 9 : Bodleian Library. 1 3 3 : Artothek/Kupferstichkabinett. A . Publisher's Acknowledgments Dorling Kindersley w o u l d like to thank Caroline H u n t for editorial contribution. 1 1 0 : www. R o y a n d D i a n n e Simblet. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin/Jorg P. 30: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. 72: akg-images. 1 0 8 : Arts C o u n c i l Collection. 179: www. Paris a n d D A C S . 114: Musee Rodin. 3 1 : Tom Powel Imaging. L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . 139: Galerie Marion Meyer/© Man Ray Trust / A D A G P . 3 3 : Prinzhom Collection. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. Portugal. Julie O u g h t o n .l. C o r n e l i s o n & Son. L o n d o n (t).uk/Private Collection.r. 1 7 8 : © T h e British M u s e u m / H e n r y Moore F o u n d a t i o n . 176: Modem Art. L e n . . support. London/courtesy of Stuart Shave. 9 2 : Science Photo L i b r a r y . papers. 7 0 : Studio Daniel L i b e s k i n d . 221: Gagosian Gallery/Private Collection (b). L o n d o n . a n d encouragement i n m a k i n g this book: M a m o r u Abe. c o ./Private Collection/© D A C S 2005. G e r m a n y . (r). J o h n Roberts. 130: The Metropolitan M u s e u m of Art/Robert L e h m a n Collection. 2 4 1 : Corbis/David M u e n c h ( b ) . A n n a P l u c i n s k a . Carlo O r t u for picture research s u p p o r t . Basel. Paul T h o m a s ( t ) . 2 3 8 : akg-images. G i n a R o w l a n d . A . Magdalene College Cambridge. Havemeyer. 17: J o h n Walter.bridgeman.co. 2 4 2 : Photo Scala. F r a n c e . T o n y G r i s o n i . 2 4 5 : Oona Grimes. K a t h r y n W i l k i n s o n . Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. 4 6 : B r i t i s h Library.uk /© Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery. 3 2 : Pepys Library. Antonia Cunliffe Davis. Agnieszka Mlicka. 5 2 : T h e Metropolitan Museum of Art/Bequest of Mrs.bridgeman. 1 3 5 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. F i n n .co. for s u p p l y i n g the d r a w i n g books. 2 7 : Royal Academy of Arts.co.uk /Biblioteca Nacional. 1975 ( 1 9 7 5 . 111: Fondation Beyeler/Riehen (Bale)/© Succession H Matisse/DACS 2005. Psychiatric Institute of the U n i v e r s i t y of Heidelberg.co.bridgeman. University of Oxford. S i m o n L e w i s . u k / L o u v r e . Inc. Productions Clovis Prevost (c). Paris. Germany/Joerg P.bridgeman.co.939). 69: Institut Amatller d'Art Hispanic (tl). 132: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. © Tate.bridgeman. Roddy Bell. Sarah Woodfine. 5 3 : Collection of the Gemeentemuseum D e n Haag/Mondrian Trust. 2 2 4 : P r i n z h o m Collection. 51: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. Lisbon. 1929 (29. 1 5 6 : Graphische S a m m l u n g Albertina. Anders/ © D A C S 2 0 0 5 . Andy Crawford. 2 2 3 : Lebrecht Music and Arts Photo Library/Ricordi. 113: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. B e r l i n . 9 1 : www. Angela Palmer. O.Strang Print Room ( b ) . 68: www. R o s e m a r y S c o u l a r . 112: Yale University A r t Gallery/Everett V Meeks. 174: Artothek/Munich. Peter L u f f .bridgeman. 2 0 0 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. 75: © The British Museum (b)./© D A C S 2 0 0 5 ( t ) . Paris. Japan. L o n d o n . Germany. U K . 2 0 3 : Clare Bryan (t). 1 9 : Getty Images/© Succession Picasso / D A C S 2 0 0 5 . 16: www. 2 2 7 : Paul Klee Stiftung.uk/Kettle's Yard. H . 2 1 8 : Adolf-Wdlfli-Stiftung. 1 . Paris. 9 0 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/© A D A G P . Italy. b r i d g e m a n . Graphische Sammlung. 2 4 0 : w w w . L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . L o n d o n . 1879. Sophie Laurimore. Wolfson College.bridgeman.uk/Guildhall Library. K e v i n a n d Rebecca Slingsby.uk/Private Collection. O o n a G r i m e s . 2 4 4 : Ashmolean Museum.uk/British Museum. K u n s t m u s e u m . Clare Bryan.co. 74: Corbis. c o . H a m b u r g . 1 6 1 : D C C o m i c s I n c . J a c k a n d Brian Catling. H a y w a r d Gallery. M a n d y Earey. 2 8 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. 1 3 6 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Centre Pompidou-MNAM-CCI. 2 2 0 : Mamaru Abe. 181: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. B M G . 177: Mary Evans Picture Library.bridgeman. 158: Calouste Gulbenkian Museum. Anders. Sammy De Grave. H e l e n S h u t t l e w o r t h . Paris a n d D A C S . Berlin (b). Corporation of London.uk/Mucha Trust. .co.

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