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FOR T H E ARTIST
FOR THE ARTIST
LONDON • NEW YORK MELBOURNE • MUNICH • DELHI Senior Editor Paula Regan Senior Art Editor Mandy Earey Art Editor Anna Plucinska Managing Editor Julie Oughton Managing Art Editor Heather McCarry Art Director Peter Luff Publishing Director Jackie Douglas Production Joanna Bull DTP Designer Adam Walker Picture Research Sarah Smithies US Editor Christine Heilman First American Edition, 2 0 0 5 First Paperback Edition, 2 0 0 9 Published in the United States by DK Publishing 3 7 5 Hudson Street New York, New York 1 0 0 1 4 10 11 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3
6 8 20 22 Master Builders The Order of Sound Future Fictions Pathways of Sight Single-Point Perspective Creating an Imaginary Space Further Aspects of Perspective Theaters Venetian Life Parisian Street
68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86
Foreword Introduction Drawing Books and Papers Posture and Grip
Objects and Instruments
TD075-July 2009 Copyright © 2 0 0 5 Dorling Kindersley Limited Text and authors artworks © Sarah Simblet 2 0 0 4 Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited A Cataloging-in-Publication record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN 9 7 8 - 0 - 7 5 6 6 - 5 1 4 1 - 1 Color reproduction by GRB, Italy Printed and bound in China by Toppan
Still Life Instruments of Vision Bench Marks Light and Illusions Further Illusions How to Draw Ellipses Tonality Drawing with Wire Artifacts and Fictions
90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106
Documentaries Presence and Mood Movement Icon and Design Pen and Ink Drawing with Ink Capturing Character Sleeping Dogs Turtles Dry Birds
26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44
Postures and Poses Choreographs Passion Measurement and Foreshortening Quick Poses Hands and Feet Charcoal Hands Phrasing Contours The Visual Detective La Specola
110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128
Plants and Gardens
Botanical Studies Jeweled Gardens Fast Trees Graphite and Erasers Cropping and Composition Negative Space Fig Tree Summer Flowers Acanthus Spinosus
48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64
Discover more at
Projections Magnetic Fields The Human Condition Disposable Pens The Travel Journal Catching the Moment Grand Canal Crossings Caravans The Big Top
174 Abstract Lines
176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 Process and Harmony Writing Time Chants and Prayers Compositions Being "Just" Collage Zen Calligraphy Nocturnes
220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234
Poise Anatomies Revelations Self-Portraits Silver Point Head and Neck Essential Observations Drawing Portraits Generations Castings
132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 152
Earth and the Elements
Air in Motion Storms Nature Profiles Charcoal Landscapes Drawing in the Round Decaying Boat Cloudburst Notes of Force Mountains
198 200 202 204 206 208 210 212 214 216
Gods and Monsters
Marks of Influence Hauntings Convolutions Brushes Brush Marks Monsters Goya's Monsters Consumed Glossary Index Acknowledgments
240 242 244 246 248 250 252 254 256 259 264
Cloth and Drapery Character Costumes Femmes Fatales Colored Materials Study and Design The Structure of Costume Textures and Patterns Dressing Character Posture Carving
156 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172
and through which I can see how I think. texture. or a quantum physicist trying to see for themselves the fluctuations of our universe. still standing by the door. and I refer back to them for years after they are made. a cartographer charting the land. but because it is how I engage with and anchor myself in life. from schoolchildren to senior citizens. For twelve years I have enjoyed the privilege of teaching drawing. remain unseen by most. I work with people of diverse ages. or engineer. Some are more traditionally framed and hung in galleries for solo or group exhibitions. and be slowly washed or worn away. Drawing occupies a unique place in every artist and creator's life. It is a tool for investigating ideas and recording knowledge. especially as travel journals. that inspired the title and structure MEMORY T H E A T E R S This pen-and-ink drawing was made from imagination during research for my PhD. perhaps hidden on a door hinge or a street bench rail. who tells me firmly upon approach that they cannot draw. thinking. fashion designer. where spaces are shaped by nothing more than the objects and activities contained within them. geologists. These inspirations led me to invent museums. through history. are made outside as discreet installations. not only to make art. Others can be held in the h a n d or. shape. understood (and often misunderstood) our own bodies. By using our imaginations. undergraduates to fellow professors. and a reflector of experience. It makes me feel excited to be alive. Combine these things and the possibilities are endless. Some of my drawings cover entire walls. where I expect them to be discovered by some people. and local c o m m u n i t y classes. and their importance to so many artists. a composer notating a musical score. art schools. by invitation. The most rewarding challenge is always the newcomer. I know that with their cooperation I can soon prove them wrong. in which he describes himself flying and diving in his imagination through pictorial caverns of knowledge. and in a few sessions they will be flying. Drawing is a mirror through which I understand my place in the world. as a visiting professor at universities. and experience. Chosen in any color. be they a child discovering their vision and dexterity. doctors. They occupy a shelf in my studio. drawing is the immediate expression of seeing. For me personally. It is my love of these. I also make drawing books. a sculptor. we learn to see it. We can all learn how to draw. architect. and feeling. we learn to feel truly alive. and size. Augustine his notes on memory. They enfold their viewer and are made on joined sheets of paper that I reach by climbing ladders. I was also reading among The Confessions of St. we have looked at. aspirations. and makers of special effects. of Sketch Book for the Artist. The very first step is to believe it. . I will always draw. I was training in anatomy and studying how. night security staff. a drawing book is the perfect portable private vehicle for your imminent exploration of drawing.Foreword B Y DRAWING THE WORLD AROUND US.
At home and at work we doodle. but more often because drawing actually helps us to focus and take in what is said. We are bombarded with linear and tonal pictorial information. Most adults still feel that certain exquisite pleasure on arriving at a beach to find the tide out and the sand perfect.000-9500 bce . and in meetings. graffiti.8 INTRODUCTION Where We Begin There is a fundamental drive in our human nature to make a mark. like a great canvas for them to mark. and patterns on our clothes. Rio Pinturas 13. and we spend our lives reading it. waving to us from many thousands of yearsago. We can always read each others drawings.Theseancient silhouettes were drawn with earth pigments rubbed onto rock. is not afforded us by drawing. "CAVE OF THE HANDS" In this drawing. Children cannot be restrained from running across the pristine white lawn of newly fallen snow. in lectures. logos. inscribing every fresh part of it with their eager scrapes and trails. a great crowd is raising their hands in greeting. Sometimes we draw because we are bored. signs. Cueva de las Marios. irreverent to language barriers. The sense of relief we may feel from the information overload of modern commercial life when visiting a country in which we can no longer read every written word. scrawling shapes and cartoons when on the telephone. not just chosen pictures on our walls but everywhere—maps. Drawing is international. We are surrounded by drawings in our daily lives. packaging. They have a natural affinity to many modern graffiti signatures.
She gave me a notepad and a red crayon and asked me to draw her "a picture of Daddy. I was sitting with my mother. but I had never yet attempted to figuratively picture my world. and belonging to place. had happily scribbled. Cave art was not made for decoration but as a fundamental part of life. and she kept it as my first step beyond the delighted realms of scrawl. who in their day-to-day hardship made time to picture themselves and the animals on which they depended. In cave paintings like the one opposite. On a particular afternoon in September 1974.9 WHERE WE BEGIN FIRST PORTRAIT For sorre forgotten reason. the hair of my first portrait was most important. I. . at age two-anda-half. MAKING OUR MARK It seems reasonable to assume that we have engaged in pictorial mark-making for as long as we have made conscious use of our hands. created by societies of hunter-gatherers. like all toddlers. reflecting my experience of looking closely at my father's face. Eyelashes take up as much of my attention as the head itself. Even though it is made by a toddler this image would be recognizable to anyone. enjoying the physical sensation of crayon on paper. an expression of existence. I now think this is a picture of proximity." Until this day. The image above is what I gave back to my mother. power. we see our oldest surviving images. and the appearance of my strikes of colors.
and from that first unit build and describe the shape of something or someone we know. W e do n o t hesitate to draw a map. b e p r o u d o f what m a k e s y o u r w o r k individual to y o u . Hours are lost immersed in the glorious world of imagination. h o w e v e r small a n d u n f o r m e d y o u believe they are. PROGRESSION T h e r e is a point in all o u r lives w h e n w e first c o n t r o l o u r mark and m a k e it a line. and this activity plays a vital role in their d e v e l o p m e n t . As you progress. yet still turn to drawing w h e n their verbal language fails or is inadequate. It was made with a few bold strokes of a steel pen dipped in ink to conjure the dried bee I was holding between my fingers on a pin. But as adolescents. Don't b e p e r s u a d e d to draw in a w a y s o m e o n e else . most of us stop. Young children love to draw. At this point many will insist they cannot draw.10 INTRODUCTION PEN-AND-INK BEE This tiny drawing has been enlarged to show its texture and composition. it is important to value your natural abilities a n d ways of seeing. then drag o u r line into a loop. Inhibitions creep in and ideas of good a n d b a d terminate confidence. to help a stranger see their way W h e n taking first steps in relearning h o w to draw. for example.
and they have never questioned why. He was a retired Cornish fisherman and junk dealer who began drawing at the age of 70 "for company" after his wife died. He used leftover ship and yacht paint with crayons on cut-out pieces of cardboard boxes. and which aspects of the vast wealth and diversity of graphic language would be most appropriate to their goals. you must decide whether to keep or discard it.11 PROGRESSION A UNIQUE SIGHT This innocent yet sophisticated drawing of boats. As you read this b o o k and perhaps attend art classes. what they most want to achieve. Think how much would have been lost if anyone had interfered with Alfred Wallis' personal sense of proportion and perspective in the exquisite drawing above. After experimenting and trying each new idea. . Enjoy the control of your own journey. Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse c. I ask them their reasons for drawing. remember that all advice is only advice. Occasionally. 1925-42 53/8x87/8in (135 x 225 mm) ALFRED WALLIS prefers and tells you is better. harbor and sea is one of many that Alfred Wallis made from memory while sitting at home. The journey of every artist demands hard work and discipline. Someone once told them they must draw in this way. I meet students struggling unhappily with a particular method of drawing. but it does help to set out facing in the right direction.
be visionary. If as artists we nail a subject down too hard. and lose the very thing that attracted us to it. but the child in us knows that this is an all-embracing.12 INTRODUCTION VISION All artists see the world differently. and inspire others. They are also always written backward. I hope. The observed world may be our subject." The clarity and empowerment of these words. we can drive out its spirit. but it should be the experienced world we draw. When we look back at Wallis' seascape (see p. the page bristles with the focus of ideas. not for disguise but as a personal choice. and breathtaking wind of a choppy harbor. is. "There really is no such thing as Art. Our imaginations are the tools with which we can increase the essence of life. boats. His notes visually balance his drawings. The art historian Professor Sir Ernst Gombrich. IDEAS A N D I N V E N T I O N S These active machines. Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels LEONARDO DA VINCI . embedded in this book. right. author of The Story of Art. 11). depending on the occasion and our purpose. We also see differently ourselves. There are only artists. wrote as the opening line of this great work. There should neve: be a slavish obligation to represent things exactly as we collectively agree we see them. Below. clear-minded understanding of the sea. the breast. all raise water From the Archimedes' screw to Leonardo's own cupped wheel. There are countless reasons for drawing. We BIRD STUDIES The flutter of faint scratches that dance across the pages on the right is an attempt to see the movement and bony weightlessness of a bird.and collarbones and shoulder blades of a different bird almost become new creatures in themselves. it may not be accurate to our critical adult eye. We all see differently. perhaps for comfort or ease as a left-hander or a habitual enjoyment of the challenge.
Leonardo drew to invent a machine. while below. It will be invested through your experience in the new drawing. when it looks tired and still feels wrong. make a calculation. or illustrate a dream. I drew to understand the apparatus of flight. Decide before you start whether you are drawing to warm up. We have both covered our paper with focused. to express the beauty in a moment's play of light. drawing in pursuit of our own thoughts and understanding. stripped-down parts. conduct an experiment. but it is important to be clear why we are making it. Each fresh image reflects growing confidence and the experience of the preceding study. it may be best to start afresh. Don't be disheartened. time spent is not lost. . shout against a terrible injustice. Opposite. My drawings of a housemartin (opposite top) illustrate the importance of repeated study. More was learned drawing the bird 18 times than would have been understood drawing it only once or twice. This also applies if struggling at length with a larger picture.13 VISION should not try to know how every finished picture will look. or to discover the best use of a new material. Our drawings are annotated investigations into the mechanisms of nature and of an idea.
I made it almost unconsciously with a pen and a brush. water. trusting my intuition to find a visual equivalence for the sensation of weight within my body. Whatever the material— wood. You must also think of its intrinsic nature: its purpose. and we can just make out the distant stains of mountains. which can offer keys to other things. This is the alchemy of drawing. or imagine—it is not enough to only render its shape. or ice—you must actually feel it beneath your fingers as you draw. As your hand meets the paper to make a mark. feel. ink. and at speeds beyond conscious thought. created centuries and cultures apart. The physicality. and sometimes beyond. temperature. and practice each part before putting the final image together. size. and position in space. It denies the importance of accident. If you can do this. We are caught in a shifting focus that makes everything fluid. balance. explain the composition. and allowed to flow through the brush. However. it should be responding to the sensation and meaning of the subject it draws. This suits many artists well and is perfectly valid. are both made of ink laid onto wet paper with speed and agile certainty. These two brush drawings. and what you discover in the process of making. fire. and opacity of your subject. As you draw any subject—something you see. we are advised or even required to plan our pictures. They each allowed the energy and focus of the moment to be expressed through controlled accident and a degree of the unknown Both drawings were made trusting the marks. your marks will become the subject on the paper.14 INTRODUCTION ALCHEMY At school. Each image relied upon past experience to know the probable behavior of the brush. declare the idea. and an island brushed with trees. silk. metal. the unknown. W e float toward the quiet vista as it also moves toward us. This is a detail of a brush-and-ink drawing by a Japanese Buddhist monk. and spirit of each subject was held strongly but loosely between the fingertips. and how it feels to the touch. Landscape in Haboku Style 15TH CENTURY . BRUSHED LANDSCAPE FLOWING SKELETON T h e gliding poise of this walking anatomy comes as much from the feeling of movement as it does from the feeling of drawing. depth. excessive planning can get in the way of the imagination. Imagine these qualities so strongly that you feel them in your mind and at your fingertips. bone. mists. Our position asvieweris unsteady. Know the texture. meaning. and paper.
c. like folded insects. one of many luminous works in watercolor.16 INTRODUCTION PLACE A N D MOMENT The heat and teeming atmosphere o f this Parisian dressing room. left. gold leaf and spray paint. more than 100 years after its making. right is set inside a rib cage. W a l t e r also makes books: some. He dazzles us with flashes o f light and dabbed marks o f shadow. made by a young British artist who creates alphabets o f the absurd f r o m familiar childhood characters. stand table-sized with furniture legs attached t o b o t h sides of their jacket. acrylic. lives on. which evoke realities o f place and the p o w e r o f moment. pastel.1896 Woman at her Toilet 41 x 26 in (104 x 66 cm) TOULOUSE LAUTREC RIB-CAGE D R A M A Thus drama. Lautrec's flamboyant splashes o f petticoats and pantaloons are drawn with long sweeps of chalk and brushed oil paint. Focusing on the Negative 2004 22 x 30 in (56 x 76 cm) J O H N WALTER .
Put them away and look at them later. Pages do not have to lie open for other people to inspect and comment on. Much will be learned on these test sheets and in your first drawings. One of the advantages of a drawing book is that you can shut it. Choose other materials and do the same. It is yours. and miscellaneous items of inspiration. As you follow lessons in this book. With no help and advice at all. Ignore these at first and allow yourself the freedom to play. Try to keep all of your first drawings. Drawing is exploratory. Start by choosing a material you like the look of and cover a piece of paper with different marks. potential ideas still forming. and mistakes are a valuable process of learning. take your time and don't worry if you need to make several attempts to grasp a concept. Such books are personal: the territory of new exploration and experiment. you will naturally make progress on your own in response to concentration and the decision to look and draw. diary-like observations. you will be surprised and encouraged to see how far you have come.17 FREEING THE HAND If you are just beginning to learn how to draw. at a point when you feel you are not making progress. even those you dislike. FREEINGTHEHAND . Enjoy discovering what your hand and the material can do. just through the act of making. try not to grip your pen worrying about the technical terms you might have heard.
Its sensuous and flowing line seems to drift like smoke. Imagination needs nourishment. Picasso is poised smiling. and enfolding new media. A N ARTIST'S HANDS These are the hands of the artist Phyll Kiggell (see p. To these I have added my own drawings to explain elementary materials and techniques and offer introductory approaches. In the total wealth of these pages. ELECTRIC BULL With a penlight. Picasso has just finished his drawing. threedimensionally. which is held frozen in space by a camera lens. Once there. I was particularly attracted to their gentle articulation and understated determination. when they are more experienced. However. Note that the drawing classes are allocated to subjects. and many more reasons for drawing the world. 150). caught between action and repose. Drawing is a living language that over millennia has grown and changed. comes from within. Picasso Painting with Light at the Madoura Pottery 1949 . Look to your own experience and also learn from the work of others. The chapters of this book present 90 different artists' ways of seeing. This practical journey will take you through the door into the vivid heart of drawing. it is this voice that is the subtle part of their art and something that ultimately. we still only glimpse a corner of the magnitude of this subject and the infinity of what can be achieved.Their elegant strength seems to summon a lifetime of drawing. but not confined to them.18 INTRODUCTION THE THINKING EYE Techniques and materials are the grammar and vocabulary of drawing and can be studied and shared. The real drawing book has yet to come. and became a great subject for me. It rarely flourishes in isolation. adapting its form and occupation. it will be your creation as you discover your own personal vision. seek ideas in the life around you. which of course he cannot see. As you draw. An artist's personal voice is something that also evolves through lessons learned. the path is yours. staring straight through his image of a bull.
t h e i r jackets w i l l a c t like d r a w i n g b o a r d s a n d p r o t e c t y o u r w o r k . c o l o r If planning t o use pencils. It is also useful to own a portfolio. t h i s is h o w I l e a r n e d . 1. texture. F o r e v e n i n g classes. 6. 2. They can be very expensive in art stores. F O U N D B O O K S : O l d p r i n t e d 3 . color. y o u n e e d a lifetime. C O L O R E D PAPERS: Large a r t supply stores o f t e n sell t h i c k b o o k s full o f c o l o r e d p a p e r s .h a n d s t o r e s make unique subjects f o r e x p e r i m e n t s a n d collage. Gleaming store purchases vary greatly in format. H O M E M A D E : I m a d e this b o o k f r o m drawing paper that I folded.b o u n d b o o k s t h a t fit in y o u r p o c k e t o r bag. pastels. be sure they fit comfortably under your arm. There are dozens to choose from. Most contain thin p a p e r and are perfect f o r use w i t h disposable pens.20 INTRODUCTION Drawing Books and Papers T o BEGIN YOUR EXPLORATION o f d r a w i n g .C O V E R E D H A R D B O U N D : Ideal f o r c a r r y i n g a r o u n d .b o u n d p a d if y o u w i s h t o keep your drawings together long-term. BLACK P O C K E T B O O K S : Hand-sized w i t h ready-made elastic binder and a marker ribbon. Homemade books can be assembled easily from found materials or selections of loose sheet papers. and glued t o a s t r i p o f bias binding. Alternatively. thick enough not to flex. Many artists invent ways o f binding their o w n books. Dissecting a d i s c a r d e d h a r d . C A N V A S . binding. Sand the edges to avoid splinters. drawing book. cut. catalogs. which are also sold in an enormous range. Purchase a h i g h . H o w e v e r r i n g bindings o f t e n break. R I N G . Drawing boards are invaluable. Smooth plywood. stitched.B O U N D PADS: T h e s e are t h e least expensive a n d useful f o r o p e n i n g flat. study the structure of a good portfolio and make your own. These are perfect f o r w o r k i n g in novels. quality.q u a l i t y r i n g . 5. You simply need two strong boards hinged together well. b e a w a r e t h a t p a p e r t e x t u r e effects a n d changes t h e i r marks. and handles to lift the weight of your artworks. and cost. a n d r e f e r e n c e b o o k s f o u n d in s e c o n d . Calculate a range of useful dimensions and have several cut at once. it is better to have them made at a lumber yard or home improvement store. A high-quality one will last a DRAWING BOOKS Select d r a w i n g b o o k s t o suit y o u r aims. F o r traveling. 4. cheap corrugated plastic ones fall apart in days. a n d crayons. If you intend to carry your boards for a distance. c h o o s e larger f o r m a t s t o give y o u s c o p e f o r e x p e r i m e n t . T h e hardb o a r d j a c k e t is s t r e t c h e d w i t h canvas beneath t h e p a p e r sleeve. 2002 Tantalus o r The Future of Man 81/2 x61/4in (215 x 158 mm) ROSE MILLER . is perfect.b o u n d b o o k w i l l s o o n s h o w y o u h o w it is m a d e . Art students often make use of printed books picked up from secondhand stores into which they draw. ties on either side to keep your papers in place. N o t e t h e w i d e l y differing c h o i c e o f p a p e r s w i t h w h i c h t h e s e are m a d e . and collage their ideas. thickness. a l e n g t h o f black elastic t i e d a r o u n d t h e m i d d l e will h o l d the contents together w h e n y o u f o l d in c o l l e c t e d items. c h o o s e s m a l l e r h a r d .
8. printed on one side only. 14.Papers differ in thickness (weight). and rolls. tough. absorbency. used to imprint lines of these colors onto a surface. For use with any media. and translucent. and other plant fibers. and cost. 2 5 6 . 10. pastel paper in flecked pastel colors with a distinctive ribbed marking. SAUNDERS WATERFORD N O T 300GMS: Mid-quality textured watercolor paper. T W O RIVERS GREEN 410G MS: Very heavy tinted textured cold-pressed watercolor paper See Two Rivers Yellow. blocks. and cream sheets or rolls. Ph. 100% cotton and sold in sheets. AQUARELLE ARCHES 300GMS:The very top quality hot-pressed (smooth) watercolor paper. They are hand-. FABRIANO R O U G H 600GMS: Very heavy. 22. 11. from pencil to paint 9. C A R B O N PAPER: Available in dark and light blue. yellow.5 9 ) for explanations of rough. color. 21. METALLIC PAPER: Thin paper in different metallic colors. 7. and white. mulberry. 17.TISSUE PAPER: Place sheets between drawing book pages to keep images from printing on each other and use for delicate collage. Use cheap paper for rough ideas and quality paper for work to last See the glossary ( p p . Use with a brush in clean water Water makes a dark mark like ink and becomes invisible again when dry. It is also excellent for drawing with marker pens on layered sheets. or machine made in sheets. blocks. 12. and hot pressed papers. PAPERS . ITALIAN PARCHMENT: Imitation-animal-skin parchment that is translucent and slightly waxy. resisting deterioration. texture. or rolls. JAPANESE PAPER: Strong. FABRIANO ACADEMIA: Standard medium-range multipurpose paper Use with any media. 20. Cotton papers are high-quality and acid-free. fine. Cheap wood-pulp papers are acidic. 16. mold-. T W O RIVERS Y E L L O W 410GMS: See Two Rivers Green 19. FABRIANO INGRES: Thin. red. 15. MAGIC PAPER: A reusable sheet for testing ideas without creating waste. C A N S O N : Inexpensive lightweight pastel paper in many colors. turning brown and brittle. GLASSINE: Sold as protective wrapping. size. white textured paper that can take abrasive use of any medium. cold. bamboo. smooth. also good for drawing with colored pencils. it is made from rice. VELIN ARCHES 250GMS: Printmaking paper available in black white. not. 18. Use for brushwork drawings. 13. It is available in white or cream.
should be able to look comfortably straight ahead at your picture plane. flowing space between your hand. Placing your easel o n the w r o n g side folds y o u r b o d y against your drawing arm. This cramped grip tires your hand and makes small. There are also parallels to dance. your whole relaxed b o d y should be involved. you Drawing classes can be cramped places. Relaxed fingers: Hold the pencil away from its tip and relax your fingers. body.22 INTRODUCTION Posture and Grip T o DRAW WELL. if left-handed. 116-17). but you need to understand that the expression of a line or mark originates in the body and flows t h r o u g h the shoulder. If your body posture is well balanced and you can move freely. You cannot draw like this—your hand is locked and your fingers can barely move. It will also reflect discomfort if you are in any way cramped. don't sit too close to the paper. your drawing will reflect this. arm. and look to the right. Examples are shown here. make sure you have enough room to back away and view your work. a n d look to the left of it at your subject. With your hand in this position. SPACE TO WORK Cramped grip. This photograph illustrates how some people hold a pen to write. Use the side of your little fingernail as a support on the page. you can draw lines freely and achieve a significant arc of movement. From a distance you will spot errors you cannot see close up. Accelerated perspective also occurs if you look down the surface steeply (see pp. a n d h a n d to the fingertips. If using an upright easel. b u t it should n o t be forgotten that many people make remarkable a n d striking works drawing with their feet or holding their brush or pencil in their mouths. Turning your drawing sideways or upside-own will also help reveal what is wrong. If seated on a b e n c h easel (a donkey). If your hand twists to maneuver between the paper and your body. place it on your right. strangledlooking drawings. How you hold your drawing materials is also important. . place it on your left. In this book we will look at parallels between drawing and music. There should be an open. but wherever possible. or with your drawing board angled between your lap and a chair. Regularly step back 6-9 ft (2-3 m) to check your progress. Ideally. You do not have to dance to draw. your lines will distort. place it on the correct side: if right-handed. and subject.
Remember you can also draw just by dipping your fingers in pigment—this is how many women draw in rural India. As long as your fingers. upright way of holding the brush near its base is similar to the Japanese way used in Zen calligraphy (see pp. ALL MEDIA There are no rules as to how you should hold your drawing media. depending upon what it is and how large you are working. Brush calligraphy: This comfortable. If you turn a brush or dip pen up into the air to draw above your hand. hold your material as you find most comfortable. or change to the wrong hand. not up to the paper Brushes can be used on upright paper but dip Anticipating effects: A fully loaded pens need a level surface. This can be used to great effect. But be careful not to tense your fingers. To stop this. Soft media: Short materials such as pastels and charcoal can be accommodated in the palm. . find an unfamiliar.23 This loose "candle" grip is very useful when drawing with your arm extended.232-33). alternative way of holding the pencil. This can give a new lease on life to your mark-making. roughly marking out a large-scale work. It is most comfortable when reaching to draw above your head. brush pressed against an upright surface will cause a dribble of ink to run down your drawing. Large scale: POSTURE AND GRIP U n f a m i l i a r i t y : T h e habitual movements of our handwriting style will sometimes infringe upon our drawing. and body are not restricted. arm. GRAVITY Remember that gravity affects the flow of ink and paint. Large amounts of ink can be applied without fear of uncontrolled running if the paper is flat. liquid will run down your hand. or it can spoil your work if not anticipated.
Animals H UMANS HAVE DRAWN ANIMALS from the beginning of our time.m o u n t e d skeletons of birds. and silent. and people. m u s e u m . floating turtles. As children we delight in the humanized trials of Tom and Jerry and their c a r t o o n relations. and pioneer born c. or scampering through the initials and borders of pictures from that time. and dragons. bats. Facial features were analyzed in terms of their animal likeness. 1540. White's commission was to ". This drawing is made in black lead (metal point) with watercolor Highlights of silver would have gleamed. which are so unlike ours. birds. We have drawn them on the walls of caves to evoke their kinship and power.. Together they made maps and documented animals. After the subject of ourselves. dogs. which very likely leaped o n t o the deck of Sir Walter Raleigh's ship Tiger as it sailed north from the Caribbean to Virginia in 1585.. 1590 J O H N WHITE capture form and movement from the m a n n e r i s m s of honking geese. W e have drawn them in m a n u s c r i p t s to explain our genesis and to c o u n t their species into Noah's ark. In this chapter we discover the use of pens and ink through the delineation of insects. sleeping dogs. For the novice artist. we turn and take the features of beasts. JOHN WHITE British artist. out are now oxidized and so appear black W h e n less preoccupied with understanding ourselves. mermaids. animals provide a perfect subject with which to begin. On the Roanoke voyages of Sir Walter Raleigh. plants. In 19th-century Europe this became a "science. 11 x91/4in (277 x 234 mm) . and we still see escapees from its pages carved and grinning as the gargoyles of churches.drawe to lief one of each kinde of thing that is strange to us in England. to be there at the m o m e n t of discovery. Here (left) we see J o h n White's exquisite record of a flying fish. In medieval England. each dedicated to the moralized tale of an animal or monster The bestiary profoundly influenced the art of its period. Framed in the z o o or in domestic cohabitation. offer challenges and delights to draw. from which personality and predicted behavior were " d e d u c e d . O v e r the centuries. Europeans on board had never seen such a thing. and this very drawing was to endure many copies and plagiarisms after its triumphant return to the English court of Queen Elizabeth I. fish. W h e n lost to explain our own emotions. werewolves." Paranoid newcomers c r a m m e d into swelling industrial cities used handbooks of physiognomy to identify and judge their neighbors. the Latin bestiary was one of the most popular picture books—an illustrated dictionary of one hundred parts. their different speeds and patterns of action. who described in words what White drew. " Animals perpetually feed our imaginations." He worked with the scientist Thomas Harriot. and to bring h o m e drawn documentaries of their finds. cartographer. and learn how to Flying Fish c. they are perhaps our favorite pictorial preoccupation. insects. and snakes have between them engendered harpies. we have employed artists on expeditions.
He in turn sent the mysterious creature to the Pope via Marseilles at the request of the King of France. when more accurate portrayals were made without armor and scales. it is still consulted by veterinarians today. Sailing to Rome. printmaker. It is such a lifelike triumph of imagination and intelligence that for centuries zoologists never questioned its authority. Carefully stuffed. it continued its journey to Rome. Original Ink Drawing of a Rhinoceros 1515 ALBRECHT DURER 103/4 x 161/2 in ( 2 7 4 x 4 2 0 mm) . and wrote four books on proportion. but the drowned animal washed ashore. they were rejected. filled journals with ideas and observations. the ship was lost. He studied the image and drew his own interpretation. and mathematician. Unsurpassed. DURER'S RHINOCEROS AND STUBBS'S skeletal Durer. Meanwhile. Converted into a print.26 ANIMALS Documentaries horse are superb affirmations of the power of drawing as a recorder and communicator of knowledge. years after its publication. The first live rhinoceros to reach Europe came from India in May 1515. the home of ALBRECHT DURER German Renaissance painter. a drawing of it arrived in Nuremberg. Life-like This is Durer's original quill-and-ink drawing made after an anonymous Portuguese drawing. writer. Durer traveled widely to study at different European schools of art. Stubbs's Anatomy of the Horse achieved similar documentary status. It was to become the animal's only accepted likeness for 250 years. Durer's image changed eager hands until it was known across Europe. draftsman. Contemporary texts related accounts of the beast as the mortal enemy of the elephant and rare relative of the "more common" unicorn. inspiring countless works of art and so touching people's imaginations that later. a gift to the Portuguese King. naturalist.
dissecting and drawing until he understood the mechanisms of its power and grace. Dissections Stubbs took his knife and his pencil and physically climbed inside the horse. Table of the III of the Horse (rear Skeleton view) mm) 1756-58 1 4 x 7 in ( 3 5 4 x 1 8 0 GEORGE STUBBS . Dissections were made over a total of 18 months. Lighting Stubbs's breathtaking international work won immediate There acclaim. a n d anatomist. Anatomy of the Horse. Stubbs w a s o n e o f t h e first E u r o p e a n artists t o m a k e a n a c c u r a t e representation o f the rhinoceros. naturalist. His painted p o r t r a i t o f t h e b e a s t is in t h e R o y a l C o l l e g e o f S u r g e o n s o f England. He translated his own drawings into engravings for publication.GEORGE STUBBS B r i t i s h e q u i n e a n d s o c i e t y p o r t r a i t painter. is no other work like it. a n d s i d e . which has never diminished. and therefore invented the lighting that Compare how Stubbs and Durer both invented lighting to portray the reality of their animals. c o m p r i s e s 1 8 p l a t e s s h o w i n g d i s s e c t i o n s in l a y e r s f r o m b o n e t h r o u g h m u s c u l a t u r e t o skin. This is one of Stubbs' original finished pencil drawings. L o n d o n . The entire project was developed over ten years. in t h r e e v i e w s — r e a r f r o n t . Stubbs's m o s t c e l e b r a t e d publication. composed from notes and observations. knowledge of parts. He composed makes each horse appear so real and each plate from his three-dimensional.
". He has w a t c h e d her p o u n c e . By contrast. and her distinctive temperament. Gericault's sheet a p p e a r s almost s c r a t c h e d b y the f e r o c i o u s play of his cat. linseed oil soaked into the paper has made shadows and repelled the ink to create translucent tentacles. Hugo used graphite powder. drawing her again and again to pin d o w n the texture of her loose skin. and leader of the French Romantic movement. A s if disturbed from its gritty b e d by our presence and curiosity. playwright. sepia. it silently rises to the light. charcoal.. Gericault took a sharp p e n c i l to m a k e repeated direct o b s e r v a t i o n s f r o m life. saying ". and turn. and Pieuvre 1866-69 91/2 x81/8in (242 x 207 mm) VICTOR H U G O . the ominous beast unwinds from the dark of the sea and of our nightmares.. coal dust. Surrounding sprays of graphite powder are stuck into washes of oil and ink to suggest glutinous depths.. snarl. Hugo's novels Les Miserables and Dame have become classics of film and stage. ink and linseed oil on paper. The Hunchback of Notre Layers and shadows Throughout this drawing. H u g o mixed his media and drew from m e m o r y and imagination to create narrative atmosphere. her sharp teeth.28 ANIMALS Presence and Mood THESE DRAWINGS HAVE BEEN CHOSEN to s h o w t w o v e r y different ways of picturing a wild animal. more or less what I have in view. soot. Hugo's page is f l o o d e d w i t h the fearful presence of a remembered octopus. The octopus is formed in layers applied and distressed with a brush. His copious drawings are characterized by mixed media.. and a love of accident. and all sorts of bizarre concoctions which manage to convey above all in mind. I've ended up mixing in pencil. conjured b y the hand of a great author of French literary fiction. Mixed media Here. novelist. drama. her b o n y frame. Apparently drawn in its o w n ink. VICTOR HUGO Poet. He wrote to poet and art critic Charles-Pierre Baudelaire about his experiments.
of drawings Gericault erased. facing right. displayed in the Louvre.118-119). Repeated study This drawing demonstrates of feeling confident repeat different the importance subject Remaining enough to isolate parts of a views. fiery. horses w e r e a favorite subject t o g e t h e r w i t h politics and history. focused upon seeing will lead to a greater understanding of the subject Much is learned from repeated study.29 THEODORE GERICAULT C o n t r o v e r s i a l . artists reused sheets and them full of studies. At the center of the page is crammed drawings the outline of a horse. The Raft of the Medusa. diagonal strokes of his pencil. undertraces unify and vitalize the composition. Before paper became so cheap. parallel. H e is best k n o w n f o r his gigantic painting. standing sideways. Tones that do not follow surface contour is very difficult to do well. 144. s h o r t . since it can lead to a flattened form. Paris. and it can be applied to any subject (see pp. Beginners are advised to follow the natural contours of form as shown on pp.l i v e d French R o m a n t i c painter and lithographer Largely self-taught. Undertraces Beneath these graphite studies we see traces Tones On the top row we see clearly how Gericault laid broad areas of tone using fast. Here. and keep trying again. 124-25 and p. of previous Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 1817-18 121/2 x 151/2 in ( 3 1 9 x 3 9 8 mm) T H E O D O R E GERICAULT .
In these two drawings. slow tortoise. flapping bird. noise is everywhere.30 ANIMALS Movement M O V E M E N T IS OFTEN THE CHARACTERISTIC b y w h i c h w e their lines and the power of their beasts. The ink is used to make sharply defined solid. Gouache is brushed softly in translucent hazy layers of cool blue. dissolving faun kneels stranded. gray. or proud. draftsman. Ink and gouache This drawing is made in black Chinese ink and gouache (opaque watercolor) applied with a brush. Picasso cofounded Cubism. and brown. His hand must have shuddered and twitched just like the constant actions of this humorous meeting. In Picasso's drawing. identify an animal: the fast cheetah. and scrolled lines. the whinnying of a frantic horse. These media complement and amplify each other with their brilliant contrast. we see semi-abstract. The fact that they never stand still influences the movement in his line. Both Picasso and Klee have enclosed their subjects to compress and amplify the speed of PABLO PICASSO A prolific Spanish painter sculptor. the first abstract movement of the 20th century. flattened animals composed almost entirely of movement. His powdery. taking them to guide their hand in bringing form and essence together. hooked. and waves breaking distantly below. Cheval et Oiseau 1936 173/8 x 211/4 in ( 4 4 0 x 5 4 0 m m ) PABLO PICASSO . Faune. quivering horse. overwhelmed by a screeching bird. Artists commonly focus on such actions. with George Braque (see p90). Klee's riders are constructed from all the gestures of greeting mules. made only a year apart. printmaker ceramicist graphic and stage designer who lived in France.
creatures. draftsman. Layers of marks In this pale Dentil drawing we see layers of' agitated marks that together present a kind of visual "itch. printmaker. top all happily of each other in the Endless lines Look closely at how Klee's lines rarely leave the paper and how they are free from the constraint of finite shape. The entire drawing suggests the endless small movements of horses standing still. He is a u t h o r o f The Thinking Eye (1923). Scene der Komischen of Comical Reiter Riders) (Scene 1935 161/2x111/2in ( 4 1 9 x 2 9 1 mm) M o r t o n G . N e u m a n n Family Collection." They chatter around bodies in groups. W i t h his drawings Kleeb o u n d sophisticated theories to personal and often witty childlike imagery.PAUL KLEE Swiss painter. turning our eye and around inside the and postures of the paper- thin on pictorial space. They remain in contact with the surface of the page and scribble back and forth as they maneuver from one area to another. sculptor. well-worn copies o f w h i c h are found in m a n y art schools. violinist. and t e a c h e r at t h e Bauhaus school. Chicago PAUL KLEE .
it would achieve greater speed. later called a galleon. and steerage.32 ANIMALS Icon and Design IN THESE T W O MANUSCRIPTS we discover diagrammatic and mackerel's tail" (full bow. Below we see his revolutionary design for an Elizabethan warship. fins. This drawing illustrates Baker's theory. In just one drawing he has displayed more angles of his design than we would expect to see from a single viewpoint Fragments English 1586 101/2 x 153/8 in (270 x 390 mm) MATTHEW BAKER of Ancient Shipwrightry . t h e earliest geometrically defined elevations. plans. and author o f Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (1586). The fish It is likely that Baker drew with a quill dipped in irongall ink. b a s e d o n his studies o f fish. slim stern). In contrast to the practical clarity of Baker's thought. His birds stare. mathematician. Knopf's drawing opposite is the personal enigmatic expression of a mind gripped by illness. The ship The upper decks of the ship appear curved toward us at both ends. which in application gave strength and advantage to the English fighting the Spanish Armada. Exquisite details in this drawing include the lips of the fish. B a k e r initiated t h e scientific p r a c t i c e o f naval a r c h i t e c t u r e and applied h y d r o d y n a m i c s . seemingly looking for our attention. and scales. and to assess our next move. It is simply how we read his perspective. the expression of its eye. Baker did not intend this. Baker lived in an era when ships were built without drawn plans. adding washes of color with a fine brush. and s e c t i o n s o f ships. and blackbirds fly in formation through a mosaic of text. drawings of animals that are each held tightly in a surprising space: a giant fish wears a ship's hull. He studied the anatomy of fish. balance. and from them learned that if he designed his ship with a "cod's head MATTHEW BAKER Master shipwright. and the carefully observed gills.
T h e G e r m a n a r t historian Outline and tone The blackbirds illuminating this frantic manuscript are drawn in pencil. appears to be stirred like water by the presence of the The Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks UNDATED 133/8 x 115/8 in (340 x 2 9 6 mm) and psychiatrist Hans Prinzhom collected this image. The main group is placed in a circle drawn with a compass. numbered. firmly outlined. written last of all. circle and the birds. JOHANN KNOPF . and filled evenly with tone.JOHANN KNOPF An " O u t s i d e r " a r t i s t w h o s u f f e r e d f r o m m e n t a l illness. The text. w h i c h o f t e n f e a t u r e as s y m b o l i c creatures in his drawings.K n o p f b e l i e v e d h e c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h e language o f birds.
you can have great fun drawing the world around you. ink is traditionally applied with a brush (see pp. the recipes for which have been handed down over centuries. The paste from either recipe is pressed and dried into a bar for storage. from the acacia tree. simultaneously 4 . Masters choose brands of long. while metal nibs began as rare gifts in gold and silver before being perfected by the British steel industry. Avoid needle-sharp mapping pens. and first used by the Egyptians. which range greatly in their handling and character of line. The bar is then rubbed into water on a slate block to produce ink. The Chinese used animal or fish glue. they are associated with rapid. where reeds were gathered. which scratch rather than draw. Dip pens began their history in the Nile River. Early artists recommended raven and crow for especially fine work. Responsive to slight changes in pressure. 4. In the Far East.34 ANIMALS Pen and Ink W I T H A HANDFUL OF FEATHERS. then pour a little warm gum water into it and temper the two together. METAL PENS: Inexpensive removable steel nibs are available in a range of widths. PENS . s t i c k s . and spatters can be made with an exotic choice of inks. and hold it under a clean basin until the soot hangs to it. Only fill with suitable inks. and it is still in use today. spots. Intricate or dramatic lines. F O U N T A I N PENS: These vary in quality and nib width. Each pen has a unique character. QUILLS: These are cut from the barrel of a flight or tail feather. light it. 3. A German recipe of 1531 gives a simple description: "Take a wax candle. 5 0 0 years ago. distinguished manufacture. The reservoir gives a constant flow of ink for very long unbroken lines and continuous bottle-free use. 2. REED PENS: A broad nib can be cut from bamboo or another tubular grass. expressive drawing techniques such as the ones we explore in this chapter 1. The Egyptians and Chinese are credited with the invention of carbon ink. They fit into wooden holders. high-quality Chinese and Japanese inks are subtler and more complex than those produced in Europe. producing a different line. That is an ink.246-47). a n d m e t a l p o i n t s . Today. The best are goose or swan." "Gum" refers to gum arabic extracted Dip pens are essential and inexpensive drawing tools. Quills were later cut from feathers.
is the ink of a cuttlefish or squid extracted post-mortem. It dries with a sheen and clogs uncleaned pens. Inks can be lightfast or non-lightfast. roastedwine sediment (Yeast Black). Now we also have acrylic ranges in many colors. reduced. they produce a golden dye for drawing. and sieved. INKS 9. waterproof or non-waterproof. Beechwood soot is best. an often misused term. suspended in a binder and stored as a solid block Blocks are imported today 7. They are the easiest inks to use. boiled. charred bone (Ivory Black). Crushed. bistre. . I N D I A N INK: Carbon ink sold today in liquid form. and are still in use today: carbon (Chinese and Indian). 5. and most can be homemade. Waterproof types contain shellac. Bistre is the more humane use of soot scraped from the fireplace and ground into wine. from are not 6. 8. SEPIA A N D BISTRE INKS: Sepia. and sepia.G A L L INK: Abnormal spherical growths caused by parasitic wasps can be collected from some oak trees in fall. Non-waterproof Indian inks can be reworked with a wet brush after drying. C A R B O N INK: Traditionally produced from oil or resin soot (Lamp Black). iron-gall. or charcoal. I R O N . ACRYLIC / CALLIGRAPHY INKS: Available in black and a range of colors. and can be mixed and diluted to create subtler colors and tones. The complexities of traditional iron-gall ink are explained on p.36.35 PEN AND INK Four types of ink were common before the 20th century. Excellent for drawing they are bright and non-clogging. dated. Old stock turns solid and bottlesChina.
Rembrandt. giving longer lines. the blade and cut away from you. always be cautious when experimenting with recipes. m o r e e x t e n d e d line than reed and a m o r e organic line t h a n m e t a l . t h e y stick a n d j u d d e r f o r w a r d . . Although oak galls and walnut skins are harmless. appears broken to show paper beneath. a n d d e v e l o p e d t h e quill instead. Oak galls. galls were ground with iron sulfate to make an unstable solution. then cut a final nib (feathers. sieved. and boiled to make a golden ink. for example. Practice to gain a feel for how materials behave. The lighter right Quill marks Quills carry more ink than strokes and for as reeds. QUILL PENS Q u i l l s a r e highly r e s p o n s i v e t o c h a n g e s in p r e s s u r e . crushed. since t h e D u t c h w e r e t h e first t o realize t h a t they could be hardened and i m p r o v e d w i t h heat t r e a t m e n t in ash o r sand. It dried black. Some of Michelangelo's drawings are now a little eaten by their own ink. T h e y give a finer. a n d M a t i s s e also e n j o y e d t h e m . Reed marks The darker left wing of this beetle was drawn with the wet inky stroke wing. r e s e r v e d t h e i r use f o r large c h o i r b o o k s . and turned brown with time. keep all your fingers behind basis of iron-gall ink. reduced. are surprisingly tough. Walnut ink is gloopy. The darkest of this grasshopper wings) were made (around the head first. Paler strokes were made where the mark has the legs and antennae the ink ran out. U n d e r heavy pressure. finding reed p e n s unwieldy. Scribes o f t h e M i d d l e Ages. can also be collected from affected trees. of a loaded nib.36 ANIMALS Drawing With Ink To MAKE A QUILL OR REED PEN. 2 4 4 is an e x q u i s i t e e x a m p l e .) You can make ink easily from the boiled. It also oxidized and ate or burned paper. For centuries. V a n G o g h . forming the REED PENS R e e dpens dispense ink quickly. Running fresh. M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s d r a g o n o n p . red-brown. drawn to glisten with a dryer nib. d r y mark. Collect skins from the ground beneath trees once they are blackened. giving a s h o r t . I u s e d t h e s e qualities t o d r a w t h e w o r m s above. Quills are also called D u t c h pens. fleshy skins that surround ripe walnuts. and delicious to draw with. it was gray-purple.
When using dip pens. it is important to feel for when the ink will run out and to know how much ink you pick up when dipping the nib. Each layer of of the drying droplet dome the drawing was left to dry before adding more. breaking. clean strokes. marks become fine and needle-sharp. withstanding great pressure without sticking. . The of pigment to fall to the edges effect of the shape. tonal Ink layers The wings of this beetle were drawn in layers using black and white ink on pale gray paper. o r being ruined as fountain pens would be under the same pressure. giving a graded. DRAWING WITH INK Filled outlines Each segment of wing was outlined. they splay to make thick o r double lines. particles then filled with a droplet of ink. sharp. White markings were drawn last Tones Here we see subtle tones of diluted ink beneath the undiluted black rim of a beetle's wing. Loaded with ink and pressed hard. W h e n the nib is pressed upside down.37 METAL PENS Metal pens give long.
steel nibs are fine. Try to hold the whole posture in your mind's eye. draw what the bird is doing. I covered eleven sheets in sixty quick drawings—in less than an hour. Attempt with a loose hand to capture their posture and outline. Cover your drawing book pages in speedy responses to the geese and try to capture each bird in as few lines as possible. Experiment. and boldly plunge into your drawing. Study them before drawing. test your limits. Empathize." If you don't like a stroke. not on your drawing. Take no more than ten seconds to draw each one and make lots of drawings. Focus on it. be bold and press firmly. Quick drawing trains you to see what is most important about a subject and to mark only its most essential expression. Dip your pen in ink. so pick a spot where other people can keep them entertained. Cover a sheet. make another one. Watch their heavy feathered bodies flap. That said. and be brave. Pack plenty of tissue around a bottle of calligraphy or acrylic ink. waddle. MATERIALS NEEDED Look for a bird expressing a simple posture. there is no obligation to prepare a quill. You cannot break the nib. It teaches confidence and focus through intensive repetition. Take a cup and water for diluting a range of tones. It happens that goose feathers also provide artists with the best type of quills. and quickly draw around it using only three or four strokes. Illustrating this exercise on Oxford Port Meadow. and there is no "wrong.38 ANIMALS Capturing Character GEESE ARE EXCELLENT SUBJECTS to draw when practicing the first use of pen and ink. Geese are nosy birds. and bellyflop off the waterside. touch the bottle's rim to drain the excess. to absorb blots when drawing. and a large drawing book or plenty of paper Use masking tape to secure pages against the wind. Posture . Focus on the geese.
and diving.39 Action With growing confidence. Use more lines than before to express these. . running. look among the birds for more complicated actions such as shaking off water. Avoid detail unless really tempted by a close-up visit Fluctuate the pressure of your pen in response to how you know the bird would feel if you touched it. Again. draw the feeling of what you see. flapping. and don't worry about mechanical facts or accuracy. CAPTURING CHARACTER Texture Gradually allow yourself more lines to describe the texture of each bird as well as its posture and action.
For this class you will need one oblivious dog. The only time he remained still was when he was sleeping. Dip the nib quickly again into water and again drain it.40 ANIMALS Sleeping Dogs R A S WAS A GREAT CHARACTER." . Now it will make a pale line. Make a test sheet to discover your control of diluting on the nib. engaged in his and everyone else's business. and even then he twitched and stretched in dreams. Sleeping animals present the artist with ideal opportunities to study their texture. These drawings are not an analysis of his anatomy or breed but the expression of his satisfied comfort in a deep sleep after a night out on the together with a glass of water for diluting tones on the nib. a d o g w h o w a s a l w a y s town. your drawing book.34-37). form. This will give a medium-gray line. and drain the excess by touching the nib against the rim of the bottle. and a tissue for blotting drawn lines that appear too dark. MAKING A PALE LINE To make a pale line. first dip your pen in ink. Then dip the nib quickly into a glass of water and drain the excess again. Ras Curled Up Asleep "Capturing the true character of a cherished companion is best achieved with objective determination rather than sentimental shyness. a dip pen and ink of your choice (see pp. and personality.
second thoughts may be different Changing your mind is a positive aspect o f seeing and thinking. Then. alter the pressure and moisture of your line in response to howyouknow your dog feels when you ruffle itscoat. D o not go back over lines you are pleased with—doing so dulls their lively freshness. see how the animal's posture determines its whole shape. Here I marked the features of Ras's head. and the shadows in his coat. SLEEPING DOGS 1 Fix your eyes at the center of the dog. 2 Reload your pen with ink. To add texture. Remain focused on the whole dog and. Trust your intuition. ignoring all detail. ears. W i t h pale lies. Character is better captured drawing quickly with confidence than w o r k i n g slowly. . I added ink to Ras's nose.41 DRAWING YOUR DOG Be bold in this exercise. c o n c e r n e d a b o u t detail.It is essential when drawing any subject (even something abstract) to know how it feels andtoemulate this with your line. First lines are first thoughts. in bold layers. Here. Layers o f thoughts can bring a drawing alive. this time to create a line a little darker in tone. to emphasize how he is curled up. tail. 3 Gradually introduce darker tones. Then I immediately rebalanced the drawing with lines around his hind quarters. quickly draw what you see. add more detail.
as if caught in a camera freeze-frame. THE ELONGATION AND BUOYANCY of a group of turtles is fascinating . turtles often pause unexpectedly.Turtles to observe. Beyond the glass wall of the aquarium. they stretch and paddle. offering plenty of time for the artist to draw the pose. A perfect subject for the beginner. swinging their limbs and shells with a slow circular movement.
Dry Birds THESE ARE THE ARTICULATED BONES o f a k i w i a n d a h o u s e - martin drawn in a museum using a steel pen. and water. balance. dry. I made repeated studies of the housemartin to discover its mechanism of flight. weightlessness of the kiwi. I sought to capture the form. India ink. With speed. . Beginning with very pale tones. I darkened lines as each drawing progressed. and sharp.
and beauty. an There are close parallels between the acts of gardening and drawing. infinitely vivid. we now have laid before us fourto show how well their colours complement each other infinite wealth of material to explore.Plants and Gardens W E SHARE THIS PLANET with the more ancient.Morethan 1. nurture. and diverse kingdom of plants. The revolution came in the 1530s. Patrons funded the breeding of decorative. Early European illustrators were trapped within dogma that was determined by ancient scholarship. shape. and hybridize them for our sustenance and pleasure. —-the largest and most influential botanical book of the early Natural scientists accompanied explorers to document unknown finds. color. and the Acanthus spinosus constant but exhilarating struggle to make a living image feel right. and focus. manipulations of light and shade. Fledgling years Botanist and apothecary who compiled the Hortus Eystettensis of scientific research bore manifold explosions of knowledge in a fever of discovery. Rich owners of private gardens commissioned large-format florilegiums commissioned the volume to document his private garden to immortalize their personal taste and power of acquisition.000 species of plants are depicted life-size drawn. Botanic gardens were established and expanded. From its history there is one overriding lesson to be learned: the importance of looking and seeing with our own eyes. and texture. Chapters are arranged by out. Botanical illustration is a precisely defined and scientific art. season. B A S I L I U SBESLER when botanists founded new work upon the direct study of plants. as opposed to only herbal. He sent boxes of plants to Nuremburgburned with the urgency and excitement of explaining every plant's form. PriceBishopof Eichstatt specimens. In this chapter. Medieval knowledge was not gained by the first-hand observation of life but by reading. We collect. and the drawn pages ofthesame name. and to ornament our lives. Both embrace the anticipation of evolving shape. We draw them to celebrate their beauty and range. form. Plants are the principal inspiration of the decorative arts—from Roman Corinthian columns crowned with carved leaves of the acanthus. where a number of uncredited artistsd r e wthem for Besler. 1613 187/8x153/4in(480 x 400 mm) BASILIUS BESLER . Conrad von Gemmingen. to catalog our knowledge. Plants seventeenth century. Classifications were set in367copperengravings. robust. It was published plain in 1611 and withhand-paintedplates in poured off ships returning from the New World and were eagerly collected and 1613. on which our lives depend. After Here Aconthus spinosus is combined with forget-me-nots and-a-half centuries of intensive observation. the microscope was refined to unfold yet another world. the punctuation of space with structure and mass. to the proliferation of floral designs with which we have dressed ourselves and furnished our homes for centuries. we see very different cultural visions of plants and gardens and use pencils and plants to learn the pictorial values of space. Later.
He has made the spatial and physical relationships in this drawing all the more real by placing a single. or that were diseased. M a c k i n t o s h e x p r e s s e s the f o l d e d petals of a broken rose b u d so delicately w e can sense the perfume. o p e n i n g a n d c l o s i n g i n the w a r m t h a n d light of the studio. They are counted among the most accomplished 18th-century botanical artists. naturalist explorer and advisor to King George III invited Bauer to London in 1 7 9 0 . o p t i m i s m . and seeds conventionally a p p e a r o n o n e plate. Botanical art c o n c e a l s the challenge of its m a k i n g . and Franz Bauer and his brother Ferdinand were employed there to draw specimens. insect-ravaged. It is likely Bauer would have studied these under a microscope. T h e rest of u s are free to d r a w as w e w i s h . delicate. Light in this drawing is given by the paleness of the paper showing between washes of darker tones. W i t h bright F R A N Z BAUER An Austrian artist who trained at the Schonbrunn Imperial Gardens in Vienna. and meticulous precision. detail. measured drawings. Dissections Across the lower part of this drawing we can see dissections of seed pods and petals. s u c h as w e see here in Bauer's Protea nitida. leaves. Stella Ross-Craig said of the need to d r a w from a dried herbarium plant "I could make it live again." Her slipper orchid s h o w s that botanical drawing must often resolve the challenge of its subject's p r o d u c i n g parts in different seasons — r o o t s . flowers. Outline Bauer prepared a pencil outline before laying in fleshy succulent hues and tones of watercolor. and wilted. Sir Joseph Banks.48 PLANTS AND GARDENS THE SCIENTIFIC VALUE OF A BOTANICAL DRAWING lies i n its Botanical Studies were specimens that often refused to stay still. B e h i n d detailed. fruit. Here. Each plant must b e clearly distinguished from its closest relative. petal tip over a lower leaf Protea nitida 201/4 x141/4in (513 x 362 mm) FRANZ BAUER 1796 . subtle union of beauty. The King was then establishing the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. stems.
found among Mackintosh's than reality. H e r Drawings of British Plants. a n d he inspired. and observation the nuance and contour of every in one image. it is small and discreet. K e w . and it shows how design.g a r d e in G e r m a n y a n d A u s t r i a . Closer to fiction can come together perfectly. BOTANICAL STUDIES Lines and shadows This lush. as at trained botanical artist Ross-Craig Swift lines The drawing was planned in pencil and then overworked with a lithographic pen. imagination.49 C H A R L E S RENNIE MACKINTOSH Scottish a r c h i t e c t d e s i g n e r painter. sensual pencil drawing is later works. Line Drawing of Cypripedium calceolus L c. G u s t a v K l i m t In his r e t i r e m e n t Mackintosh m a d e n u m e r o u s inventive pencil a n d w a t e r c o l o r d r a w i n g s o f plants.. p u b l i s h e d 1 9 4 8 . a m o n g o t h e r s .286 studies for her book Drawings of British Plants. A s m a n y of her drawings are kept G a r d e n s . Curtis's Botanical Magazine. L o n d o n in 1 9 2 9 . and follow shadow. S h e also o f thousands o f contributed an drawings." This line drawing is one of 1. 1970 x 81/4 in ( 3 2 5 x 2 1 0 m m ) STELLA ROSS-CRAIG ..000 Kew to archive accessible t o d a y v i a t h e I n t e r n e t of o n British flora. Pencil lines cling to. and perfect coordination of hand and eye. Ross-Craig said of her work "Plants that wither rapidly present a very difficult problem to which there is only one answer—speed. Rose 1894 103/4 x 83/4 in ( 2 7 5 x 2 2 1 mm) CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH STELLA ROSS-CRAIG A j o i n e d t h e staff a t t h e R o y a l B o t a n i c G a r d e n s . is r e c o g n i z e d as tne m o s t c o m p l e t e a n d i m p o r t a n t work 3.7 3 in 3 1 p a r t s . a n d f o u n d e r o f t h e G l a s g o w S c h o o l o f A r t M a c k i n t o s h ' s flair h a d an e n o r m o u s i n f l u e n c e o n t h e a v a n t . and speed depends upon the immediate perception of the essential characteristics of the plant.
paper is brimming with the beauty and celebration of nature. The white of the page shines through the brilliant color.50 PLANTS AND GARDENS Jeweled Gardens the Middle East we find exquisite stylization of form and upright formality in pictorial space. Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity c. painting. Bishndas was probably responsible for the overall design. They used a fine brush to lay pigment over a line drawing. Drawing. the sumptuous petals permeated with prayer and wisdom. is remembered in the pages of his journal. and attention to detail are all shared with medieval European manuscript drawings. and Nanha. Afghanistan. uniform focus. and calligraphy are brought together to hold the sacred names of prophets and the 99 beautiful names of God. Every fiber of AMONG DRAWINGS FROM BISHNDAS A N D N A N H A Little is known of these Mughal painters who were related as uncle and nephew and commissioned to illustrate the pages of Babur's journal. a notable portrait painter drew the faces. The first Mughal Emperor Babur's Garden of Fidelity (Bagh-e Vaja). Upright shallow perspectives. Below. and miraculous growth. 1590 85/8 x55/8in (219 x 1 4 4 mm) BISHNDAS AND NANHA Bright pigment These pages were illuminated by Mughal artists in the late 16th century. anticipating their view. in the early 16th century. which he personally created near Kabul. . fluctuations in scale. in miniature. Opposite is the Rose of Mohammed. urgent attentive human activity. By Muslim tradition. roses took their form in a bead of perspiration on the brow of Mohammed as he passed through his heavenly journey. Envoys chatter outside the gate. Babur directs his gardeners in the design and planting of this quartered chahar bagh.
However. Note how each bud is essentially the same shape. look closely and you will see words written in gold fluttering over the form of the flower.AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH This is a detail o f a page from a n 1 8 t h . and how the shape has been repeated freehand. Sacred words The central rose is more solid than any other on the page. It is n o w k e p t in Border The elegant border of this drawing was mode with a pen and ruler It cleverly compresses and defines the composition.c e n t u r y Turkish manuscnpt a book of religious e t h i c s w r i t t e n in the O r i e n t a l C o l l e c t i o n s of Berlin. The Rose of Mohammed 1708 9 1 / 2 x 61/2 in ( 2 4 0 x 1 6 5 mm) FROM THE TURKISH M A N U S C R I P T AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH . Stylized motif A fine brush has been used throughout this drawing to apply inks and watercolors. The physical anatomy of the rosebud has been studied and translated into a repeated stylized motif. t h e Staatsbibliothek zu Arabic. fragmenting its detail in a whisper of prayers. G e r m a n y . so that overlapping petals and stems give an impression of fulfillment and abundance.
PLANTS AND GARDENS
IN CONTRAST TO THE QUIET, formal detail of other drawings in this chapter, these powerful fast trees enact the actions of plants. Each tree reaches out and holds its landscape with dynamism and pulse. In both drawings we find testament to the inexorable energy of growth. Rembrandt expresses a delicate quickness. Gentle lines draw a warm breeze through this remote wooded garden. Rustling in a loose foliage of soft marks, his pen evokes the weight of abundant activity on this late summer's day. Mondrian's arch of scratching branches is drawn with such force it will always be alive. We can still feel his hand storming across the paper. Set within a frame of smudged landscape, the tree possesses a musical agitation. This characteristic will increase in the artist's later abstract work. Here, we see a punctuated ordering of space. Sharp branches cut out negative shapes of winter sky.
R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter; etcher; and draftsman. Rembrandt's prolific output comprises oil paintings of historical and religious subjects together with group and self- portraits. His emotive etchings and pen and ink drawings (see also p. 174) are great resources for artists learning to understand the potential of these media.
Pen and ink lines describing foliage also tell
us the directions of sunlight and wind. An arc crossing the bottom of the drawing from one side to the other supports the scene and separates us from the landscape beyond. Compare Rembrandt's arc to that of Mondrian's. and note the similar treatment of low horizons in both works emphasizing the height and dominance of trees.
Cottage Among Trees 1648-50 63/4 x121/8in ( I 7 I x 308 mm) R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN
Atmosphere Here we see how shapes of negative space are as important as the physical subject they enclose (see pp.58-59). Mondrian has again lightly dragged his chalk on its side to evoke a wet depth of atmosphere. These passive gray marks contrast with the assertive tension of the tree.
Dutch Pure abstract painter preoccupied w i t h line and plane relationships. W i t h increasing austerity, Mondrian banished t h e subject from his drawings, in his later w o r k he also banished space, composing visual h a r m o n i e s using only straight lines a n d flat planes o f black, w h i t e , gray, o r p r i m a r y color.
Winter ground Short vertical marks along thebottomof this drawing reveal the length oftheblackchalk Mondrian used. Rubbed onitsside,itroughly blocks in the ground. Thecrudeeconomy of line is all we need tofeelthecold, wet, unwelcoming quality ofthiswinterearth.
Branches and trunk Lines shaping the branches of the tree are built up in layers. To make the trunk more dense, the artist has rubbed and smudged preliminary marks with his fingers before firmly overdrawing with new lines. Solid black lines are achieved by pressing the chalk hard. When used lightly, it shows the texture of the paper. Tree: Study for the Grey 1911 23 x 335/8 in ( 5 8 4 x 8 5 5 m m ) Tree
PLANTS AND GARDENS
Graphite and Erasers
GRAPHITE, FROM THE G R E E K word
This drawing illustrates a range of achieved with graphite pencils of different grades.
Modern pencils are graded from 9H (hard and pale) to 9B (black and soft). Graphiteclay sticks are also available, together with a powder form. All possess a natural sheen and are erasable to a varying degree. Graphite drawings smudge easily, so fixative, a form of varnish, can be used to hold a drawn surface in place. It is applied as a fine mist from an aerosol can, or from a bottle using a diffuser. For the beginner, ordinary hairspray is an effective and cheaper alternative.
(to write), is a soft and brittle carbon. It was first mined in Cumbria, England, in 1 5 6 4 , and was initially used in small, pure pieces bound in lengths of string. Pencils as we know them—with their slender wood casing and "lead" of graphite—were invented in France in 1794 by Nicolas-Jaques Conte. He discovered that milled graphite mixed with clay and water, press-molded, and baked to a high temperature produces a harder and paler medium than graphite alone.
3B pencil A range of mark and textures can be achieved with a 3B pencil when you vary its pressure, speed, and direction, as this detail shows.
Here is a selection of 14 items to illustrate a basic range of pencils, graphite sticks, sharpeners, erasers, and fixative.
1. AND 2. HB AND 3B PENCILS: It is unnecessary to possess every grade of pencil. HB, the central and most common grade, is perfect for making delicate lines. 3B gives a blacker tone. A great variety of effects can be achieved with just these two. 3. WATER-SOLUBLE PENCIL Effective for atmospheric drawing, but be aware of how watery tones can dull the impact of the line. 4. AND 5. MECHANICAL PENCIL Thick or fine leads are made in a range of grades. They are particularly useful because they do not require a sharpener 6. ROUND SOLID GRAPHITE PENCIL: Excellent for large-scale drawing, producing thick bold lines. A range of grades can be honed with a craft knife or sharpener 7. THICK GRAPHITE STICK: For large-scale drawing. Graded soft, medium, and hard. It crushes to produce graphite powder 8. SQUARE GRAPHITE STICK: Useful for making broad, sweeping marks in large-scale drawing. If worn and rounded, the stick can be snapped into pieces to regain the sharp, square end. 9. CRAFT KNIFE AND BLADES: Handles are sold in two sizes to fit large or small blades, and blades are sold in a range of shapes. Perfect for sharpening pencils to a long point, to cut lines in paper or to remove areas. 10. PENCIL SHARPENER: Makes a uniform point. Keep one in your pocket for drawing outside the studio, together with an envelope for shavings.
HB and 5B Layers of tone have been built up withHBand5Bpencils. Softer pencils require less pressure to make a mark, revealing the texture of the paper surface. It is important to keep the point of the pencil sharp with either a craft knife or a sharpener.
ERASING AND FIXING
Erasers can be used t o blend and s o f t e n lines, o r t o r e m o v e altogether. Fixative them prevents
GRAPHITE AND ERASERS
s m u d g i n g a n d s e c u r e s lines.
Using fixative You can use fixative while drawing to hold the definition of lines you wish to gently fade but not remove entirely, for which you would use an eraser.
11. P L A S T I C E R A S E R : Avoid cheap colored erasers that may stain drawings with grease and dye. White brands are available in soft and hard versions.
P U T T Y RUBBER:
W a r m it in your hand before use. It is excellent for removing powdery materials, and for making crisp sweeps of light across a delicate pencil drawing
13. D I F F U S E R : Helleborus corsicus (Corsican hellebore) fixative, or to spray mists of ink.
PLANTS AND GARDENS
Cropping and Composition
M A N Y STUDENTS WILL START a d r a w i n g i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e
that its skin nearly touches the boundary. The meaning of the same drawing changes simply by its relationship to the space it occupies. The size of any subject, its placement on the page, the size of the page, and its overall proportion are all discrete and essential aspects of successful picture-making. Before you begin to draw, think carefully about where to place your subject. Are you are happy with your paper? If not, change it; add more, take some away, or turn it around. Do not just accept what you are given, adapt it to what you need.
paper. Focused on the shape and detail of their subject, they remain happily unaware that there is, or should be, any relationship between what they are drawing and the surface they are drawing it on. The paper is only paper, and the troublesome subject floats somewhere in the expanse of it. However, a single fig drawn in the middle of a large, empty square of paper gives quite a different impression from the same fig drawn on such an intimately small square
CHOOSING A VIEW
A Single Fig
"The size, shape, and orientation of the paper are so integral to the composition that they determine the impact and meaning of the drawing."
its stem and shadow framing a white center. A card with a small rectangle cut out o f it makes a useful viewfinder C l o s e o n e e y e t o look through the hole. bottom-left t o top-right. The angle of the fruit together with dark shadow (top left) and bright light(bottom right) suggest a diagonal division across the whole drawing. its illumination. a device to help you decide what t o draw. When subjects touch two or more edges. CROPPING AND COMPOSITION Off-center and diagonal Here I held my viewfinder so the fig appeared upper-left in the space. Space as the subject Inallpictures. they establish a tension and unity with the paper. the uppermost edge of the drawing. and therefore apparently suspended from. U s e it as a starting point. Touching the edge When the subject o f a drawing touches one edge of the paper it attaches t o it visually. This drawing hasbeencropped to emphasize space between thefruit. spaces between things are as important as the things themselves. Here the left fig is attached to. as also shown here. running corner t o corner. and lines describing shadows cast by the fruit .57 THE VIEWFINDER T h e s e pencil drawings o f figs d e m o n s t r a t e different crops and compositions. t h e n m o v e t h e c a r d t o e x p l o r e different views.O u r focus is on the white cloth supporting the figs.
It is an astonishingly simple device that many artists use and I strongly recommend. Remember that plants do move! Therefore it is best to complete your drawing in one sitting if possible. their subject and composition will become more real. fourth. Draw a complete shape Map outward from the center Erase and adjust lines until correct . you will need a similar large-leaved plant. shapes of air cut out and defined by the physicality of our environment? When we look into the branches of a tree. unified. Viewers appreciating a finished image may not see shapes of space. position. but if the artist does. third. dynamic. a sharp H B pencil. rather than what you see in front of you. an eraser. Negative space is the simple key to getting positive shape right. which is shown in the three steps below. It helps to start at the center and map outward. tone. The drawing opposite is of the uppermost leaves of a potted fig tree. and engaging. In following this class. do we see myriad distinct and unique shapes of daylight or do we just see branches? Why as artists should we look at the air? Every space in a picture has a shape. In your own version. remember to draw only space. Looking at negative space overrides the problem of drawing what you know. and a fresh page in your drawing book.58 PLANTS AND GARDENS Negative Space UNCONSCIOUSLY WE ASSESS spatial relationships all the time to guide ourselves through the world. and so on. Follow these from left to right and see how I began with one complete shape between two parts of a leaf. then added a second shape. not leaves. a foundation stone in picture-making. WHERE TO START Arrange your plant and paper so you can look back and forth by barely moving your head. erasing and adjusting lines until itlooked right. Unfamiliar shapes of negative space reveal the real shape of a positive subject. But how often do we look at the air between things.The box opposite isolates an area. this ensures a consistent view. and a role to play.
Here I drew only spaces, adding one to another until the leaves were revealed. Besides looking at negative space, there are two other useful things to do when a drawing feels wrong but you cannot see why: look at it in a mirror or turn it upside down. errors and suggest changes.
Spaces between leaves
Either view will
WALKING IN THE ALPUJARRAS in A n d a l u c i a ,
Spain, I drew a bare fig tree clinging to the wall of an almond grove; a perfect subject for seeing negative space. I marked its essential frame of large branches first, frequently erasing lines and changing my mind until the balance felt right.
S a l v i a , RIBES, CLEMATIS, Allium, Passiflora, and Acanthus
drawn with an H pencil by observing the
negative spaces between the stems, petals, and leaves. I arranged the flowers on a sheet of paper in a cool r o o m and rapidly sketched a composition. Then I put them in water, taking the stems out one at a time to draw.
Acanthus Spinosus As we LOOK AROUND. gathering less distinct information on the way. We never see everything at once. Excessive detail leaves no space for the eye to rest or imagination to wander. our eyes travel and adjust from one point of focus to another. Compare changes of pace and focus here to the flatter finish of Summer Flowers (see pp. If an artist changes the pace of their line and focus of their attention. interfolding points of detail with areas of loose suggestion. they emulate our experience of seeing. 62-63). .
composers." reflecting the eye's love of unity in difference. filmmakers. Baltard designed the Church of St. the device that has since governed most of our picture-making (sec pp. It was also during the Renaissance that the architect Brunelleschi invented linear perspective. they also have a diagrammatic language for communicating plans to builders. and from West Facade of the Church of St Augustin. Paris 1871-74 the child's view to the infinity of the vanishing point. Architects have been fine-tuning their specialized branch of drawing for centuries. architects. to 20th-century film fantasy. time. invaluable to understand and apply when you choose. European conventions of pictorial perspective have lost their monopoly on seeing. made by the architect himself. from political commentary to musical abstraction. It was the mathematicians. fine artists. space. Augustin. which was the first church in the capital to be built entirely of metal and then clad in stone. This harmony. Perhaps in the sheer planes of some of our greatest modern buildings it is finding its clearest expression. and in the 19th century it was given the name the Golden Section. once there.Architecture I N THE CONTEMPORARY PRACTICES of architecture. 74-75). with gray and brown watercolor wash. Since Picasso and Braque's revolution of Cubism in around 1907. coupled with the importance of exercizing your imagination. designers. the formula for perfection spread through Europe. drawing plans around themselves within a program as opposed to on a flat sheet of paper. mass. Linear perspective is a marvelous device. of the west facade of St Augustin. It is the focus of practical class in this chapter. add and subtract ideas. Among the drawings of this chapter we look from 17th-century ecclesiastical calm. they have the Golden Section. film-set design. Through the animation of the screen. each VICTOR BALTARD . philosophers. which can be clearly seen in ancient Greek architecture. Besides sketches of first thoughts and polished drawings of the finished look for clients. and architects of ancient Greece who first pursued the formula for "divine proportion. and computer game imaging. Computer programs allow the virtual drawing of ideas. was preserved into the Renaissance where it became a foundation stone for thinking and creativity From 15thcentury Italy. Since the first flowering of Modernism in the early 20th century. and sound. VICTOR BALTARD French architect employed by the city of Paris.The church is still in use today. balance. architects and designers can imaginatively "climb inside" three-dimensional space and. to help them create new form. and writers have been breaking away from traditional forms of representation to seek new expressions of shape. we find the most recent steps in the evolution of graphic language. Yet the pursuit of divine proportion and harmony remains. At the core of their practice.This is a pencil drawing.
and the shapes of interior domes and apses. Architects draw for many reasons: to visualize ideas. and six London churches. St Paul's Baptistry c. describe a finished look to a client. structure. Lines define structure while washes suggest light and atmosphere. relative levels. Three aspects This subtle and sophisticated drawing made in pen and wash displays three distinct aspects of Hawksmoor's baptistry. Hawksmoor established his reputation with university and church architecture including All Souls College. Hampton Court Palace. Oxford. A student of Wren's. calculate function. Blenheim Palace. and balance. Drawings underpin every great human-made structure like hidden linear ghosts at their core. The photograph opposite shows his studio hung with metal pendulums. Hawksmoor's drawing is both a plan and an evocation. Cut-away interior On the right a section cut through the center of the building reveals material thicknesses. densely layered lines in mists of color weave the presence of the expected building into shape. Below it. Together they explain how interior structure and space define exterior form and shape. and Castle Howard. Pillars and floor At the base of the drawing a compass-drawn plan tilted downward through 90 degrees illustrates the arrangement of pillars around a central circular floor. 1711-12 NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR . NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR One of Britain's "three great" Baroque architects (along with Sir Christopher Wren and Sir John Vanbrugh). testing gravity to calculate the inverted shapes of domes.68 ARCHITECTURE Master Builders EVERY NEW BUILDING. a three-dimensional drawing made with wires and weights. and labor. marks the end of a long journey from the first few marks the architect made on a sheet of paper. Gaudi's fluid architecture grew up through many kinds of drawing. embodying a massive investment of ideas. materials. pilasters. and ultimately to show builders what to do. and an inscribed entablature. We see the modeled detail of Corinthian columns. Finished surface On the left the finished surface of the building is given depth and emphasis by immaculate vertical and horizontal brush strokes of shadow. evoke presence. and later an assistant to Vanbrugh. he also worked on St Paul's Cathedral.
Guell Crypt of its at the Time Construction c. Wire and watercolor three-dimensional preferred to calculate Above is a drawing form in the made withlinkedwires and weights. Gaudi air than on paper. 1900 ANTONIO GAUDI ANTONIO GAUDI Visionary Catalan architect. The Art Nouveau movement. To the right isawatercolordrawing thought to havebeenmade over a photograph ofthemodelabove. and apartment homes are distinguished by their Their and Flowering curves of stone or concrete are often encrusted with Gaudi was inspired by medieval and oriental art. Gaudi's cathedral in Barcelona. light. and his love of music. This sculptural drawingenvisionsthe finished crypt glowingandethereal as if caught in thelightof red morning sun. unique organic manipulation of high shapes.69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt c. 1910 24x181/4( 6 1 0 x 4 7 5mm) A N T O N I O GAUDI . embellishment. churches.
Floor plan This drawing has been made with a rapidograph. Both men used rulers and pens to carefully and slowly construct their compositions. Across the top and center right of the image w e perceive an almost recognizable architectural plan. Contemporary musicians commonly collaborate with artists by interpreting images as sound. Floor space appears divided by discernible walls. short curved poles. Libeskind's numerous commissions include concert halls and museums. The architect and musician Daniel Libeskind has drawn a stampeding cacophany of airborne architectural detail. such a rapport in both of these drawings. Arctic Flowers 1980 DANIEL LIBESKIND . and dotted lines.223). Libeskind begins quietly in the upper space of his drawing. We can see. while the composer Erik Satie has made an enclosure of quiet order and grace. Satie draws quietly throughout. and exhibitions of his drawings. There has always DANIEL LIBESKIND A Polish American architect of international acclaim. flat boards. He also produces urban and landscape designs. and rooms. installations. We can imagine how a musician might interpret this drawing by looking at the abstract visual rhythms of masses composed of long straight poles. He also contributed to plans for the rebuilding of the World Trade Center site in New York. and the spaces between his windows and turrets are the visual equivalent of pauses in h i s m u s i c c o m p o s i t i o n s for p i a n o (see also Bussotti. corridors. and in a sense hear. theater sets. been a natural affinity between the visual rhythms of pictures and the audible rhythms of music. before cascading into a riot of line and sound below. Libeskind studied music before transferring to architecture. upright pictorial space.70 ARCHITECTURE The Order of Sound B O T H OF THESE VISIONARY DRAWINGS o c c u p y a s l e n d e r . and arched dotted lines depict the radius of doors. p. Visual rhythms In the lower half of this drawing architectural language has broken loose: escaped and transformed into an image of rebellious pleasure. a refillable pen that feeds a constant supply of ink through a fine tubular nib.
narrowshape of its paper. dressed eccentrically.Edges are how are of orientation.H i s witty. a conventional dip or fountain pen.50. and ink on a fragment folded brown paper—a of everyday happened material of scrap that to be at hand. andfouredges of the paper tothecompositionand impact animage. 1 8 9 3 77/8 x 51/2 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 4 0 mm) ERIK SATIE . minimalist s c o r e s scandalized a u d i e n c e s with o r c h e s t r a t i o n s f o r t h e foghorn and typewriter. H e p e r f o r m e d in cabarets. the perimeter Composition Look how well this drawingfitsand resonates with the upright. They definespaceand pictorial balance. and founded his o w n church. lived a l o n e . Compare the even and and the shape wall to the elegantly stylized order of the many windows of arrangement of details and the shape of the wall in Babur's Garden of Fidelity on p. effectively additional lines in a work. Hotel de la Suzonnieres c.ERIK SATIE F r e n c h pianist and c o m p o s e r for t h e piano. a n d ballet. Onpp. Eastern influence The upright image Eastern is reminiscent and medieval of Middle pictorial space and subject of this European drawing.56—57 we discussed important the shape. Satie collaborated w i t h hisfriends J e a n C o c t e a u a n d P i c a s s o . o f which he was the sole m e m b e r Parcel paper Satie has drawn this fantasy hotel using a ruler. theater.
Boullee's monolithic apparition was drawn as a monument to Sir Isaac Newton.72 ARCHITECTURE T H E S E T H R E E HIGHLY DETAILED DRAWINGS Future Fictions invite us to soaring above normal life. enter the long-shadowed architecture of imaginary worlds. antlike mortals might have speculated upon the universe. We glide over exquisitely drawn wastelands of damage and abandonment. the ominous globe exists only as a series of drawings. we find other Utopian visions Paul Nobles epic drawing summons an imperfect and disturbing township where ruin and activity are equal and strange. experiencing a fascinating conflict between curiosity and desolation. Within it. His celebrated imaginary buildings are characterized by pyramids. and dramatic lighting. and draftsman. Light illusions This pen-and-wash drawing shows a subtle application of the principles of illumination demonstrated with an egg on p. made in 1926. Newton's Cenotaph 1784 153/4 x 25 in ( 4 0 2 x 635 m m ) ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE . and the reverse is true on the right. ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE French architectural theorist.96. arched vaults. Art director Erich Kettlehut's vertiginous design for the city of a slavelike populace had a future influence on movies such as Blade Runner.The lower-left section of the building appears relatively pale against a darker sky. Among preparations for Fritz Langs film Metropolis. This shift makes the cenotaph appear three-dimensional. spheres. and taught at t h e A c a d e m i e d'Architecture. cylinders. painter. Boullee lived in Paris. This is the work of an architectural theoretician.
Its sheerscaleengulfs the viewer and demands based time and patience to on letters and in some beread. gray. Nobson Central 9 ft 1 0 in x 1 3 f t 2 in (3 x 4 m ) PAUL N O B L E 1998-99 . and are Graphite shapes Nobson Central isoneof a series of very large graphite drawings of the spoil and detritus of Nobson Newtown. together with c i n e m a t o g r a p h e r Karl Freund. 1926 ERICH KETTLEHUT PAUL N O B L E British c o n t e m p o r a r y artist who creates m o n u m e n t a l . intensely detailed graphite drawings explaining and questioning t h e geography. Fritz Lang's Metropolis c. Kettlehut drew using a fine and relatively dry brush dipped in black.Building shapes are works can be read as text. Nobson political visions of humanity Newtown.73 ERICH KETTLEHUT Influential film a r t director. draftsman. architecture. Kettlehut and his c o .m a k e r In t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f Metropolis. mythology. and morality o f an invented place called His satires exhibited w o r l d w i d e . used forced perspective camera t e c h n i q u e s t o amplify t h e m a g n i t u d e o f buildings in relation t o human characters. FUTURE FICTIONS Brush and ink This is a dramatic drawing from a film that shaped the history of world cinema.a r t director O t t o Hunte. and white ink on brown-gray paper. and m o d e l . Working on toned paper such as this gives an artist greater scope for dramatic lighting effects than if they work on white paper.
Sometimes shared with Naive artists. this perspective is often an imagined bird's-eye view in which details are mapped according to logic and importance rather than how they might appear in real life. and thinkers ever to have lived. and inventions— essential reading for inquiring minds. inventors. We use it to structure illusions of depth. I contribute the child's perspective. 206-07). Note how architectural features conform to lines and how human figures diminish in size toward thevanishingpoint. observations. See how the thread corresponds to each converging line. It is also distinguished from aerial perspective (see pp. Invented by Italian artist and architect Brunelleschi in 1413 (late in the history of art). found at the center of all converging lines. Press the pin into Leonardo's vanishing point. LEONARDO DA VINCI One of the greatest artists.74 ARCHITECTURE Pathways of Sight LINEAR PERSPECTIVE (also called vanishing-point perspective) is a simple device for calculating the relative size of things in pictorial space. It can be applied to any subject. In his notebooks. Piranesi an example of two. Pull the thread taut and rotate it slowly above the drawing. Single-point perspective Tie a thread to a pin. linear perspective is distinct from more ancient systems practiced in the East. scientists. and those of Naive artists and children. Here Leonardo provides a superb example of a single vanishing point. and age eight. All forms of perspective are of equal value. but is most easily seen and understood in pictures of buildings and interiors. Study of Perspective Adoration of the for the Magi 1481 61/2 x111/2in (165 x 290 mm) LEONARDO DA VINCI . Leonardo recorded constant streams of ideas.
visionary and practical understanding of ancient Rome. architect. Lightly marked illuminates vanishing Two Courtyards c. England 1980 9 x 16 in (228 x 405 mm) S A R A H SIMBLET GIOVANNI BATTISTA PIRANESI Italian artist. including all they recall about the subject. and designer Piranesi's prolific architectural drawings. It shows how children usually map large scenes in flat layers one above the other. Note the rather large rabbits and pheasants the hills. 1740 5 1 / 2 x 83/8 in (141 x 212 mm) G I O V A N N I B A T T I S T A PIRANESI points are located on either side of the drawing. Scale Our farmhouse my experience was in the woods. a points in logical narrative of memories. This drawing Young children typically maps ignore on and understanding of the nearby village.SARAH SIMBLET I made this drawing (at age 8) in response to a local bookstore's request for children to draw their village. . New Forest. Mark these points with your pin and follow the converging lines of the drawing by rotating your thread. Two-point perspective Sunlight through this colonnade a great example of two-point perspective. which I saw from home every day. Breamore Village. issues of scale when making room for important their story. and theoretical writing strongly influenced neoclassicism. at the top of each lateral column base. Children are uninhibited and problems with one element being obscured by another rarely arise.
discovering the image as it progressed. This ensures that the second rectangle aligns with the shape and 4 Draw four short lines to connect the four corners of the two rectangles. corresponding to a single vanishing point. On the previous page we looked at its essential mechanism through drawings by Leonardo and Piranesi. draw a horizon line across your paper Mark a spot on the horizon line. Piranesi planned his drawing with only the essential lines needed. this is your vanishing point. Next. imagine. 2 3 corners must each touch a dotted line. This is where we will begin.) . using a sharp HB pencil and ruler. Study these pages first before embarking on this lesson. Note that if you place large structures in the foreground and smaller ones closer to your vanishing point. In contrast. try composing your own space. then follow the ten steps below. Surround the vanishing point with a small rectangle. Draw each step over the preceding one to build up a single image. Erase the dotted construction lines. DRAWING BOXES 1 Using a ruler and a sharp HB pencil. Each line should pass through one corner of the rectangle.98 for an important note on oscillation. Extend each dotted line to the edge of your drawing. Draw four dotted lines radiating out from the vanishing point. You have completed your first box. Leonardo began with a grid of many lines within which he invented his scene. you will amplify the illusion of distance. (See p. This lesson shows you how to make a simple illusion of space defined by two boxes and three flat boards.76 ARCHITECTURE Single-Point Perspective MASTERING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE i s e a s i e r t h a n y o u m a y First read through.
with two dotted lines.77 SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE 5 Draw a new rectangle. The four comers must each touch a dotted line to be sureitaligns with the first. draw a second. . you can place rectangles anywhere youwishin relation to a vanishing point. 7 As in step 3. Continue the dotted lines out toward the edge of your drawing. larger rectangle. when inventing your own compositions. Repeat this to add two more boards to the composition. 8 Complete the second box with short lines as in step 4. The larger you make your second rectangle. bottom. draw four dotted lines radiating from your vanishing point Pass these through each comer of the new rectangle. 9 Use dotted lines connecting the slanting linetothe vanishing point to locate the top. 1 0 Erase all ofthedottedlinestoseeyourfinishedboxes Thickeningtheiredges.willhelptomake them appear more solid. N e x t draw a slanting line to mark the height of the first flat board. Note that this does not surround the vanishing point In the future. Connect this to the vanishing point— again. and erase the dotted lines. 6 As in step 2.asIhavedonehere. the closer it will appear to the viewer. andfarside of this first board. The board's sides should be parallel.
Then follow the three given steps. once said: "I never end up with what I set out to do. A lot more happens when you open yourself up to the work and let yourself act and react to it. I always start with a script but I don't follow it all the way through to the end. 7 4 ) . APPLYING PERSPECTIVE An Imagined Scaffold "Enjoy your illusion as you make it and it will become more real. let simple lines suggest a simple space. you will find white adhesive stationery labels are useful for covering errors or changing the direction of your idea. O n a fresh page in your d r a w i n g b o o k ." . It highlights the importance of having faith in your imagination and trusting your ability to invent. draw a b o x as shown opposite. w h e t h e r it is a film or a painting. it is interaction that makes the work richer. As David Lynch. Linear perspective will support y o u by providing a frame in which to b u i l d your picture as it did for Leonardo. artist and film director. Every work talks In this class. then let the space suggest its c o n t e n t s and purpose. If using a fibertip pen as I have done for this drawing. p . The m i s t a k e n belief that we s h o u l d k n o w exactly what o u r finished drawings will l o o k like before we m a k e t h e m prevents many people from ever starting. it will take you places you never dreamed of.78 ARCHITECTURE Creating an Imaginary Space T H I S CLASS USES SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE t o c r e a t e a s i m p l e to you and if you listen to it." imaginary room.
additional lines have established the different surfaces and how they relate to each other. 3 Remove the construction lines with an eraser and the room will becomeclearer. 2 first before adding furniture. The space has become more solid and real. you will beableto draw more complex objects orpeoplewithin them. CREATING AN IMAGINARY SPACE 1First. .79 DRAWING A SIMPLE ROOM Essentials t o remember: objects and people dimmish in size as they move farther away. and floors and ceilings also converge and rise o r lower toward the horizon.Addanarray of converging lines to provide a "scaffold" for vertical.drawthehorizonlineand vanishingpoint. Here. With some practice.There is great pleasure tobefoundin spending time inventing interiors. and leaning surfaces. horizontal. This initial space will be transparent and open to change. parallel planes such as walls converge toward the vanishing point.
Search for the application of these perspectives among works by other artists in this book and in galleries. It is important to realize that you can have as many vanishing points as you wish. T h i n k of standing at the top of a skyscraper and imagine h o w its parallel sides would appear to converge below you. Only when y o u might employ t h r e e . Here. they can be placed anywhere inspaceto describe the perspective of flyi c tilted objects. T h e y d o n o t have to relate to each other. T h i s is d e m o n s t r a t e d immediately below. but they are not confined to this level. That is where we e to find them. o r to the h o r i z o n . do verticals appear inclined. our eye level is very high and we look down. or low and we look u p . They could be drawn on any scale from miniature to monumental. Copying what you see in the work of others will help you to understand what they have done. Further aspects of three-point perspective are also illustrated opposite. showing y o u h o w to draw curved surfaces and a tiled floor.80 ARCHITECTURE Further Aspects of Perspective W E ARE ACCUSTOMED TO SEEING our e n v i r o n m e n t from a relatively constant point of view. Elaborations . To draw such a view APPLICATION Copy these drawings to see and feel how they work before inventing your own versions. verticals appear p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the g r o u n d . Vanishing points are commonly found on horizon—our eye level. a n d this is how we have drawn them so far (see pp. Free vanishing points On paper we can enjoy the freedom of fantastic structural invention without limitations of solid materials or gravity. These elaborations could continue indefinitely across a sheet of paper in pursuit of complex and intricate ideas. I have elaborated on the simple boxes above. Potentially. located anywhere inside or outside the pictorial space. From our normal eye level.p o i n t perspective ( s h o w n opposite top). 76-79). The boxes drawn here are seen partly or entirely disassociated from a horizon line drawn across the bottom of the image.
Giving curvature. I then drew three fanned groups of lines connecting each of the three points above to the seven points below.) By comparing this drawing t o Piranesi's example of two-point perspective on p. three vanishing points are evenly spaced along a horizon line.I added horizontal lines t o define the tiles. Where thelinescross. I marked the toplinewith three evenly spaced points and the line with seven. you will see how. tostraightlines can amplify drama in a picture. they mark the corners of the floor tiles. Iusedthese lines as a guide t o draw the curvature of boxes and panels flying through space. and therefore tension. by adding a third point you can achieve a sense of incline. PERSPECTIVE Three-point curves Here.Finally. An array of curved lines (drawn freehand) link the two lateral points. Three-point checkered floor This d bottom floor.81 FURTHER ASPECTS OF Three-point towers This drawing depicts three-point perspective. Note that altering the distance between the three dots above will tilt the level of the floor .75.Istarted with two parallel lines. (Turn the book around to see a view looking up. useful for representing steep views looking up or down tall structures.
Theaters RESEARCHING FOR MY P H D . making drawings to resolve questions and express personal responses to the nature and history of anatomy. These walnut-skin ink pen and brush drawings show imagined views of theaters that do not exist but were inspired by places I studied. . I visited many anatomical theaters and museums.
the water.A N D . The vanishing of the drawing is directly opposite as we look across The constancy of the bridge and surrounding frames the movement in the life that flows past. .I N KDRAWING is one of a series I made while next to the Rialto Bridge in Venice.Venetian Life sitting point buildings ThisP E N .
With the sudden onset of mass production. and a wire violin. Engineers and designers of our objects and instruments make drawings for many reasons: to test an idea that is yet to be made. even more advanced drawings are made on computers. for example—whether. 1493 117/8c81/4in (300 x 210 m m ) LEONARDO D A V I N Ccreating I .Objects and Instruments T HE THINGS WE INVENT describe our lives. C o m m o n items. but humans LEONARDO DA VINCI Inthisbeautiful red chalk Our items all have a purpose—practical or ornamental—and all have a meaning. W e also explore v o l u m e and form in the classes by spinning lines to make vessels. It is shaped in sections w i t h Artists have for centuries studied and expressed composition. we look at the importance are the only creatures on Earth w h o actually design and create great ranges of things. r an equestrian statue. each demanding more of the other as they increased in sophistication. too. have often carried great weights of allegorical once. or to explain and present a finished concept to a client. In this chapter. and the behavior of light through making still-life paintings and together. craftsmen had held plans in their memory. fictional realities caster of h o w t o make it andhowit will w o r k . making a clear instruction t o his bronzemeaning. In past eras. H e has described contour and function at drawings. Artists and actors use the meanings of things to communicate a speculative mechanic. Today. History will be learned from the artifacts w e leave behind. for example. Previously. H e has described a casting through metaphor. and some apes use simple tools. and the way in w h i c h the brain reacts Head and Neck Sections of Female Mold for the Sforza Horse to visual stimulus and optical illusions. sculpted. A chair. planned. are all made bearing the signature of our time and place. color. to record an observed detail. It was in this era that the blueprint was born. that test our logic with a sense of mystery. drawn. Technical drawing was speedily developed as a meticulous international code of m e a s u r e m e n t and explanation. passing them on to others through the act of making. these. drawing c. of light in the creation of pictorial illusions. from s p o o n s and pens to chairs and bicycles. illuminating snail shells. or used on stage hood for a mold t o make theheado f a horse f oas a p r o p — i m b u e d with e n o u g h energy or character can "become" a man. Birds follow instinct to make a nest. T h e Industrial Revolution c h a n g e d the traditional w a y s in w h i c h objects were designed. design. and made. hooked bars that can be pulled and tied closely form. T h e precision of engineering d r a w i n g s e v o l v e d alongside machine tools. or drawing w e see Leonardo daVinci'sprecision as can be given meaning. drawings were needed to instruct workers on the factory floor. Artists also make images of objects that can never exist. texture.
T h i s is a designers drawing made to enthuse surface and style in its delicate brushing of china. There is a fragile eloquence to these objects as they drift in slow motion past our gaze. Braques image is a Cubist collage." La Cuitare. Mucha's drawing glistens with possession. Below. "I believe [it] is the most radicalattempttostampout ambiguity and to enforce one readingofthepicture—that of a manmade construction. wood-look wallpaper. Statue D'Epouvante 1913 2 f t 5 in x 3 ft 5 in (0. Braque established Cubism in partnership with Picasso just before World War I. silverware. not of place but of things. charcoal. and a journal jacket with words makes this drawing chatter about the moment. not to work in harmony. One of the great joys of this movement in art is the musicality of its multipoint view. representing still life..90 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS Still Life THESE DRAWINGS REVEAL t w o o p p o s i t e m o t i v a t i o n s i n we can. .73 x 1 m) GEORGES BRAQUE . steaming with music and conversation. Even today GEORGES BRAQUE French painter who as a young man was influenced by the work of the Fauves and of Cezanne. a colored canvas.. and shading.Braque marshals all the forces of perspective. still feel this projected moment. but to clash in virtual deadlock. Braques "justly" arranged combination of cut black card. His work is characterized by calm and harmonious still-life compositions. and glass objects of exquisite elegance for only the gentlest of touch and appreciation. He takes us into the bustle of the Paris cafe. Clashes The art historian Ernst Gombrich said of Cubism. texture. Opposite. perfect i n their newly made availability.
The three plates facing us were drawn with a compass. Chicago. He is best known for posters featuring ethereal women in typical Art Nouveau style.flowers. He designed the Austrian pavilion for the Paris World Fair in 1900. and fish have been outlined using a sharp pencil. For ten years Mucha designed theater posters exclusively for the actress Sarah Bernhardt. and New York. Study for Plate 59 from "Documents Decoratifs" 17x121/4(430 x 310 mm) ALPHONSE MUCHA 1902 .ALPHONSE MUCHA Czech graphic artist and painter who worked in Prague. Art Nouveau curling motifs of birds.fruit. Look at the two spoons at toprightand see how has suggested that they are so brilliantly shiny they reflect the background color. Art Nouveau motifs This is a preliminary study for a subsequent print. Pans. Background color Between the delicate shadows and highlights of these glazed and surfaces ofthebackground metal color of the Mucha we see a large amount paper. and also stamps and bank notes. Black watercolor washes and lines of white gouache have been added with a fine brush.
shape the very cause and effect of investigatory thought. It was then reflected up inside the tube and. offering a transparent view. we see drawing Instruments of Vision found among his letters. From the concept of capturing the infinite to the mapping of microscopic sight. With dotted lines Newton has drawn his arrangement of elements inside the tube. It is a diagrammatic explanation of how to catch and magnify a star in a mirrored tube. and Fellow of the University o f C a m b r i d g e . mathematician. and the nature o f light and color. Newton's drawing of his first reflecting telescope is ISAAC N E W T O N English scientist. He counted 1 4 . each reflecting a view of his own world—his window.92 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS by their very nature must gauge or chronicle precision. Their delicate construction is only as valuable as the measurements they make. the law o f gravity. Ink lines Several drawings appear among Newton's letters. Transparent view Newton's reflecting telescope focused light in a parabolic mirror. and philosopher Newton was President of the Royal Society. Look how confidently he draws with ink the sphere of this wooden globe by which his telescope rotates. w h e r e he developed his three greatest theories: the law o f motion. alchemist. astronomer. via a second mirror. each one skillfully rendered with the alarmingly matter-of-fact ease of explaining the commonplace. A disembodied eye at the top of the drawing indicates where to look. 0 0 0 perfect hemispheres. In the graphic work of these two great men of science. drawing is there to pin the moment down. Hooke's head of a drone fly seen through a microscope may represent the first time man and insect came face to face. Newton used this instrument to calculate the speed required to escape earth's gravity. and his hand moving across the light. Newton's 1672 ISAAC Telescope NEWTON . The power of this drawing reflects the pure passion of discovery. a tree outside. into the eyepiece.
universal joint a prototype respirator clock balance. and anchor escarpment. Hooke invented the camera diaphragm. The Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 1665 ROBERT HOOKE 111/2 x 105/8 in (294 x 270 mm) . and calculated the theory of combustion. 1665).An experimental scientist who drew many of his discoveries. a breathtaking book containing many of his drawings showing some of the first microscopic and telescopic magnifications of our environment Hooke's text and illustrations carry us to the moment of discovery. ROBERT H O O K E 93 Magnifications This acutely detailed engraved drawing is taken from Hooke's Micrographia (pub. It is an exhilarating read.
it has so m u c h familiar personality that it seems to talk to us. while the tabs make us see a flat paper cut-out. W i t h h o m e y c o n t r a s t . From component parts we understand how to put it together and make it stand sensible in space. Two-dimensional was made This highly finished drawing ruler using a sharp pencil and on smooth white drawing paper glistening dark drawings are artificial representations of known Woodfine's two-dimensional things balanced in the world. Drawn in more-or-less c o n v e n t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . Its wobbly gait and squashed s y m m e t r y m u m b l e endless h o m e y tales about the life it has seen. Bench Marks W e are left a little c o n f u s e d as to what we s h o u l d do.94 INSTRUMENTS W H E N WE DRAW A COMMON OBJECT like a chair. and has drawings in numerous public and private collections. A renegade from the p a p e r dolls' h o u s e . and winner of the 2004 Jerwood Drawing Prize. this chair p r e s e n t s us with a clever visual contradiction: deeply drawn shadows tell us it must be solid. its character. Chair Cut Out 2002 22'A x 23 in (565 x 585 mm) SARAH WOODFINE . Van Gogh's tipsy seat is a metaphor for an absent person. Woodfine exhibits internationally. has published several catalogs of her work. each drawn with the s a m e unfaltering lines and tones that are between reality and impossibility. Sarah Woodfines flat cut-out m o d e l plan is a witty and surprising drawing. and place in the world are truly seen. craft. and w h e r e the chair b e l o n g s . OBJECTS AND SARAH WOODFINE British contemporary artist graduate of the Royal Academy Schools.
inner recording while Fierce strokes This is a portrait of the mechanical drew immediately and almost harshly. Among van Gogh's best-known canvases are Trees. what direct in their he saw and describing his felt.95 VINCENTVAN GOGH Dutch painter who produced over 800 paintings and 850 drawings in only the last ten year's of his life. Cornfield and Sunflowers. and Starry Cypress Night.hehas marked the full emotion of the subject with a fierce grip of concentration. drawn opposite way of plan. Van Chair 1890 VINCENT VAN GOGH . His passionate brush and pencil strokes are honest and of also turmoil and growing alarm at the world around him. The floor few as engagement with the chair. not is made present in only strokes and is subdued to distract us from flat a meaningful chair.
cards the same size. The outermost edge of our vision. To interpret visual s t i m u l u s . The perceived tone of a black white. The egg's darkest region is seen against a lighter background. U p s i d e . hence our recognition of a cartoon face c o m p o s e d of three lines. The small squares are identical in tone. a n d m o v e m e n t . Below. one blackandone white. less developed than the center. Card experiment cho can gra on . a lit photograph of an egg shows essential points to observe in tonal drawing. try this experiment. The rim of light on the egg is reflected light received from surrounding paper. We will even see things that d o not exist because minimal information suggests they are likely to be there. Are you happy LIGHT AND SHADOW with what you see? Does the light enhance the subject? Could you alter and improve it? On pp. T h e slightest recognition is instantly matched to our wealth of experience a n d expectation. your eye around the circumference of the egg. are translated into a world of space. Gray squares To further examine changes in tone. and the proximity of contrasting tones. two identical mid-gray squares are seen against black and paler gray squares. o u r b r a i n s search for n a m e a b l e things. Run The bottom-left quarter of the egg lightens slightly toward its "edge" when seen against the darker shadow cast on the paper. a n d we can be fooled. form. From across the room both will appear black card and fold and retapeitwith half sticking out. a n d our ability to see forms in c l o u d s or fire. We perceive one to be lighter than theother. S o m e o n e passes our o p e n door. think about its illumination. w e turn our head but n o one w a s there.96 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Light and Illusions SEEING IS MIRACULOUS. W e learn to read light and shadow in our environment as indicators of solidity and depth of space. We only need small prompts. gray. atmosphere. Three factors change it: the amount of light it receives. Artists emulate and manipulate this effect in their pictures. Here w e look briefly at our perception of light a n d darkness a n d our interpretation of diagrammatic illusions.d o w n patterns of light on our retinas. but do not appear so. See how its "edge" smoothly changes from light against dark to dark against light. the adjustment of our eyes (in growing accustomed to a level of light).This effect is caused by the contrast of their surroundings. perhaps.102-03 deep shadows cast across shells make their form easier to perceive. Below the bottom "edge" of the egg there is a rim of light reflected onto the paper by the underside of the egg. Tape them to the glass. Through these we can enjoy witnessing our o w n d e c e p t i o n a n d b a f f l e m e n t a n d u n d e r s t a n d certain factors that are very useful in picture-making. a n d are q u i c k to p r o p o s e ideas. The two tones meet without a division or outline between.At one point you will catchenoughlight lighter than the white one. Before starting a tonal drawing of any subject. reads only m o v e m e n t a n d can often m a k e mistakes. On acloudyday. or colored surface is never constant. Adjust the angleofthe protruding part and again stepback. The egg's lightest region is seen against a darker background. transmitted to the brain as chains of electrical impulses. Here.
w h i l e t h i n n e r lines recede. O b s e r v e h o w each white b a n d appears t h i c k e r t h a n its black c o u n t e r p a r t . LIGHT AND ILLUSIONS Tonal width T h e s e black a n d w h i t e bands are o f equal thickness o n e i t h e r side o f t h e i r central division. T h e r e is n o obligation t o a d d b l o c k s o f t o n e t o a l i n e a r d r a w i n g . T h e jug d r a w n w i t h a t h i n line appears f a r t h e r away t h a n t h e j u g d r a w n w i t h a t h i c k e r line. In this t o n a l image w e read w h i t e as f a t t e r t h a n black. T h i s fundamental o p p o s i t e is a reason w h y l i n e a r a n d t o n a l d r a w i n g does not a l w a y s c o m b i n e w e l l in t h e s a m e i m a g e . If y o u w i s h t o m a k e a t o n a l drawing. In this linear drawing w e read t h i c k as closer a n d t h i n as f a r t h e r away. b u t t h e u p r i g h t o n e l o o k s t a l l e r (B). respectively. In a t o n a l d r a w i n g . O f t e ndoingso w i l l s p o i l y o u r w o r k . Bending straight lines Linear distance These t w o jugs have b e e n d r a w n w i t h lines o f d i f f e r i n g thicknesses. start o u t w i t h one. S h o r t h o r i z o n t a l lines o f identical length are m a d e t o l o o k d i f f e r e n t by c o n v e r g i n g lines beside t h e m ( C ) . . l i g h t e r surfaces s t a n d f o r w a r d w h i l e d a r k e r s u r f a c e s recede.p o i n t p e r s p e c t i v e d r a w i n g s w i t h a large n u m b e r o f c o n v e r g i n g rays b e h i n d y o u r horizontals. T w o relatively t h i c k parallel lines are m a d e t o b e n d away f r o m each o t h e r as t h e y pass in f r o n t o f an a r r a y o f c o n v e r g i n g f i n e lines ( B ) . t h i c k e r l i n e s a p p e a r t o stand forward. Apparent lengths T h e s e optical illusions s h o w h o w lines o f identical length can b e m a d e t o l o o k quite different f r o m each o t h e r by t h e addition o r association o f o t h e r lines. Seven parallel lines are m a d e t o tilt t o w a r d and away f r o m each o t h e r by n u m e r o u s s h o r t strokes crossing t h e m diagonally ( A ) . Y o u m a y e x p e r i e n c e s o m e t h i n g similar h a p p e n i n g w h e n y o u m a k e s i n g l e . A n u p r i g h t line stands in t h e c e n t e r o f a h o r i z o n t a l line. T w o horizontal lines o f equal length are m a d e t o l o o k longer and shorter. B o t h are identical in length. by d i r e c t e d a r r o w s ( A ) .97 LINE VERSUS TONE In l i n e a r d r a w i n g s .
Artists can communicate much in few lines and the viewer will do the rest of the work. Two ways of seeing T h i s is t h e b o x c r e a t e d in t h e f o u r t h step o n p. w e can only look f r o m one t o the o t h e r If an artist is not aware this can happen in their image. In the 1960's.76. and so calculated precisely how much to fatten columns to make them appear straight. as s h o w n o n t h e right. among others. C l o s i n g t h e surface o f t h e f o r m seals o u r d e c i s i o n as t o w h i c h w a y it faces. and we learn to read the styles of diverse cultures and periods. Some artists use known optical illusions to make art. o r as a s l o p i n g . are still not agreeably understood. A few suggestive marks will tip the decision one way o r the o t h e r Closing the surface W h e n a t r a n s p a r e n t elliptical o b j e c t has b e e n d r a w n . made paintings that depended upon the physical sensation of our brain's reaction to known optical illusions.s i d e d r e c t a n g u l a r t r a y ( b o t h are illustrated far r i g h t ) "The brain is so eager to name a fragment we see that we need only a suggestion to grasp the whole. perfected the acceleration of perspective (see pp. it oscillates between t w o possibilities. Artists make pictorial illusions when they paint or draw. Today we are bombarded with images but rarely have difficulty reading them. Michelangelo. Yet many illusions. w h e n drawing the outline o f a three-dimensional form.116-17) to make painted figures look correct when viewed from below. Ancient Greek architects knew parallel upright lines appeared to bend toward each other in the middle. It is a curious fact that w e can never see both options at once. Op(tical) artists. It is possible t o r e a d i t t w o ways: as a t r u n c a t e d r e c t a n g u l a r p y r a m i d seen d i r e c t l y f r o m a b o v e . w e will find that in terms of the direction it faces. SEEING TWO OPTIONS Sometimes. others adjust works to avoid their effects. their picture could be ambiguous." . including some shown here. it can oscillate b e t w e e n facing t o w a r d o r a w a y f r o m us.98 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Further Illusions PSYCHOLOGISTS AND PHYSIOLOGISTS have studied optical illusions for decades in pursuit of what they tell us about the brain. such as Bridget Riley. such as t h e dish seen h e r e o n t h e left.
99 Impossible objects T h e s e clever configurations o f outlines and t o n a l surfaces convince us at a glance that we are seeing a solid three-dimensional triangle and a three-pronged fork. — a n d so t h e artist can create m u c h o u t o f an impression w i t h o u t overdescribing. clouds. this is a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f t h e viewer's b r a i n b e i n g willing t o d o a large a m o u n t o f t h e w o r k in d e c i p h e r i n g a p i c t u r e . C Escher u s e d this phenomenon t o great effect in his many p o p u l a r d r a w i n g s o f puzzles and impossible buildings. F a m i l i a r i t y in r a n d o m s h a p e s T h e Rorschach test was established by t h e 1 9 t h . C o u n t t h e n u m b e r o f d a r k spots y o u can see. T h e a r t i s t M. Minimal-line j o k e s such as this rely u p o n t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y v i e w e r ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e shapes. This simple five-line d r a w i n g is o f a C a p u c h i n priest asleep in his pulpit. T h e s e e x a m p l e s illustrate h o w little is n e e d e d t o c o n v e y an image. This effect can o c c u r naturally w h e n looking at a b r i g h t l y lit w h i t e g r i d such as a w i n d o w f r a m e against t h e night sky. His highly d i s p u t e d and i m p r e c i s e science involves s h o w i n g u n p r e p a r e d p a t i e n t s t e n p a r t i c u l a r ink b l o t s a n d asking t h e m t o i n t e r p r e t w h a t t h e y see. . T h e t e s t e x p l o r e s o u r n o r m a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o find things w e can n a m e a m o n g r a n d o m shapes. B e l o w is a b r i g h t n e s s c o n t r a s t illusion. e t c . O n l y o n closer inspection we realize that t h e s e o b j e c t s are fooling us. 1 6 t h . N e i t h e r triangle exists. w e see t w o overlapping triangles: o n e outlined in black b e n e a t h a n o t h e r in solid w h i t e . S o m e artists use ink blots t o p r o m p t t h e beginning o f an image. Yet still w e try resolve t h e m . C o u p l e d w i t h t h e Rorschach b l o t above. W e should r e m e m b e r t h a t o u r brains will always search f o r a p i c t u r e — i n ink blots.c e n t u r y Italian painters. b u t w e believe w e see t h e m because e n o u g h f r a g m e n t a r y i n f o r m a t i o n is given f o r o u r brains t o c o n c l u d e t h e y are v e r y likely t h e r e . T h e patient's answers are t h e n diagnosed as a psychological profile. FURTHER ILLUSIONS Seeing things that are n o t t h e r e H e r e o n t h e left. smoke. T h e y a r e o f t e n c r e d i t e d w i t h t h e invention o f t h e c o m i c c a r t o o n . M u c h can b e e x p r e s s e d in o n l y a f e w marks. P e r c e i v i n g a w h o l e i m a g e f r o m m i n i m a l lines T h i s is a w i d e l y r e p r o d u c e d visual j o k e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e C a r r a c c i b r o t h e r s .c e n t u r y Swiss psychologist H e r m a n n Rorschach.
. like a disposable plastic cup that has been crushed in your hand. Ellipse are best d r a w n quickly. a n d in o n e bold stroke. while its upper rim remains level. and these narrow or widen depending on the height of our view. smoothly. The second common error is to tilt the upper and lower ellipses at different angles. springlike forms like those I have drawn below. giving the cylinder four corners. hesitant one that has edged its w a y nervously around the vessel's rim. Cover a sheet of paper with spinning. that this is o n l y o n e w a y view. To make a cylindrical object appear real in our pictorial space. However.100 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS W E VISUALIZE CYLINDRICAL VESSELS. since this is h o w w e experience them in e v e r y d a y use. COMMON ERRORS W h e n drawing cylindrical objects in perspective. third common error is to draw upper and lover ellipses with different-sized apertures. such as bowls and cups. describing many sides of an object simultaneously. Cubism. The first common error is to draw two pointed ellipses. A wobbling but confident ellipse will still be more convincing than a slow. circles change into ellipses. for example. WHERE TO START In the air above a spacious sheet of scrap paper. (see p. Watch the tip of your pen and see it draw an ellipse in the air Keep this movement going while gently lowering the pen onto the paper like the needle of a record player closing on the disc (only it is your lowering hand that spins. I have exaggerated this error here. not the paper!) As the pen touches down. spin your hand in a relaxed circle. Be aware. you will achieve steadiness with practice. Don't worry if it is uneven— just try again. I have drawn these for you here. keep it spinning. though. w h e n seen at an angle.90) takes a different as essentially circular. even if y o u r hand w o b b l e s a little at first. suggesting that the vessel is lopsided. as if the table surface slopes upward beneath the vessel. How to Draw Ellipses of seeing. there are three common errors people stumble upon. for example plates or bowls on a table. w e use ellipses to give a sense of perspective.
Altering the pressure—and therefore tone—of the line as it spins gives the impression of light shining on one side. enlarging and diminishing the ellipse to determine the overall shape and volume. working from top to bottom.101 DRAWING VESSELS Once you have mastered drawing free-hand springs. you can start to control your spinning ellipse to make a vessel. thereby hiding lines that show the other sides. . you can make it solid by building up highlights and tones on visible surfaces. Draw quickly. HOW TO DRAW E L L I P S E S A Single Vessel One Inside Another Grouped Together Finding Shape and Volume Draw an imagined vessel in one continuous spinning line. Seeing Through Allow lines to travel around each vessel as if it were transparent. Create a Solid Surface Once you have drawn the shape and volume of each form.
Gradually hone your drawing. Illuminate them with a gooseneck lamp placed very close and directed away from your eyes. and solid objects are all of equal importance. LIGHT TO DARK DARK TO LIGHT . In the finished drawing there should be few. t h e r e a r e p r i n c i p a l l y Dramatic lighting emphasizes texture and contour.22-23). and strong contrasts are easier to draw. You can begin with outlines and build slowly from light to dark (see opposite top). simply shapes and subtleties of light and dark meeting each other with no divisions in between. It is important to place them on the correct side so as to draw comfortably (see pp. outlines. OBJECTS AND Start by arranging a choice of shells on a sheet of paper to your left if you are right-handed (or vice versa). it will inhibit your perception of tone. It maximizes the range of tones between black and white. if any. two opposite methods of achieving the same result. or you can begin with a mid-gray ground and model light out of darkness (see opposite bottom). beams of light. making complicated or subtle surfaces easier to see and understand. leaving detail until last. Remember that shadows. Relaxing your eyes out of focus as you draw will help to dissolve the distraction of detail. if light shines in them.102 INSTRUMENTS Tonality W H E N MAKING A TONAL DRAWING. Draw the largest and most distinct areas of light and darkness first.
and edges definingthespacialrelationships between are important aspects of your composition them. Relaxing your eyes out of focus will help to eliminate distracting details. shape. DARK TO LIGHT (TONE TO TONE) 1 Using the flattened tip of an HB pencil.56-57). Use quick. 2 3 Gentlydissolveoutlines so that areas oflightanddark meet without a line between them. boldly 2 3 Keeping your eyes out of focus. Erase and make changes to roughly place the shells inside your with your composition. Use your pencil to develop these in relation to the areas of light. . with broad sweeps of the eraser.103 LIGHT TO DARK (LINE TO TONE) TONALITY 1 Using a sharp HB pencil. loose. Remember that its size. Continue working between light and dark to refine the drawing. Fll in broad areas first and leave all detail until last. Let your eyes go out of focus while looking gently layer marks to create an even tone at your subject and paper: Draw the most ofmid-graywithin a rectangle. Honetheshapesand angles of the shells. look at the main areas of darkness. until you are happy frame. pale lines with equal importance. Draw in the details last of all. draw a rectangle. Avoid a rough significant areas of light in your gray rectangle with texture and do not press the graphite hardwhite plastic eraser Ignore all detail and draw a into thepaperor you will not be able to erase it. Treat positive form and negative space (see pp.
When drawing anything viewed from one side on paper. Seeing through a wire drawing of a known object such as a violin gives us a visual and tactile understanding of all its sides and shapes at once. 19 Picasso draws with a pen-light for the camera. try drawing it with a pen on paper Use bold. On p.104 OBJECTS AND I N S T R U M E N T S Drawing with Wire DRAWINGS DO NOT HAVE to be two-dimensional. They can also be made in space. smooth. . our image is stronger if we understand and can visualize what is happening on the other side too. The second is that after achieving this simple example.69 we see how the architect Antonio Gaudi drew proposed domes using suspended wires and weights. On p. Place the instrument on a plain surface and illuminate it with a desk lamp to add the delicate dimension of shadows. and on p. continuous lines. you can create your own more ambitious works. and physical relationships between them. There are essentially three lessons to be learned. and on p. The first is that figurative and abstract drawings can be made in space.220 Mamoru Abe draws with forged steel rods. Third. three-dimensional drawings teach us about the totality of forms in space. PEN LINES Once you have created your three-dimensional violin (opposite). 176 the British artists Noble and Webster draw with domestic refuse in a beam of light. This class uses thin-gauge wire to create a threedimensional violin.
and pinch and bend it to shape the base of the instrument Repeat this process to make the identical upper side of the instrument. 2 3 If needed.105 SETTING UP DRAWING WITH WIRE Follow these steps to draw a three-dimensional violin Choose a gauge of wire sturdy enough to hold the shape ofyourfinished drawing. begin to shape the curvature of the fingerboard. I started with the scroll at the top and fixed the four component wires with two drawings of tuning pegs. These will hold the sides apart and help to keep the form in shape. I used garden wire and cut it carefully with pruners. Once you have completed the body. 1 Decide how big to draw your violin relative to the gauge of your wire. but thin enough to be easily manipulated inyourfingers Here. brace the two ends of the violin with a length of wire along the back. Join the two sides together with four short pieces of wire. Cut a length. and thick wire a larger one. thin wire will make a smaller drawing. 4 . Then begin to define its uppermost surface with Scurves and the bridge. Here.
. England. some of which are shown here. they invented new anthropological finds—objects that reflected the distant past and their immediate future. I had the privilege of drawing their inventions. Oxford. Using found materials.Artifacts and Fictions IN 1993 I WORKED with a group of schoolchildren who were responding to the astonishing objects in the collection of the Pitt Rivers Museum.
This chapter addresses issues that are most commonly faced by beginners attending life-drawing classes. the Bay Area Models' Guild h o l d s a quarterly life-drawing m a r a t h o n aprinton Kodak transfer paper with green-colored dye added celebrating the great diversity of human proportion. sculptural description of her form. the junior workshop apprentices posed as part of their duties. portraiture. R. W e are the only creatures on Earth that can make our own image. During this time. while Durer took his research further— A. Artists are thought to have b e g u n drawing from the nude during the Italian Renaissance. Drawings were usually made from the male nude to avoid offending the church. In this period. and because the female was deemed inferior. and anatomical and erotic art. These classes are popular around the world. Leonardo drew a man within a circle and square. WILLIAMS he sought perfection in the infinitesimal measurement of the body and produced four Contemporary photographer volumes of illustrated explanation. W e understand every curve and balance of to the theory that the eves are the windows of the soul.The Body O UR BODIES MAKE us TANGIBLE. This F finished image was produced as r a n c i s c o . Strangely. myths and fables. The body remains at the core of over the initially white lines. It also looks at the representation of the b o d y b11y4o n d traditional life drawing. from video and X-ray to thermal imaging. clothed or nude. much Western contemporary art. Renaissance artists studying anatomy from dissection clinically trained and specialized as a medical illustrator. Williams were decades ahead of their medical counterparts. R. The human body. It gives physical and emotive form to religious narratives. Michelangelo attended dissections to made this image by light sectioning: fine beams of light perfect his understanding of surface form. She the body is still essential. Artists now explore the interior of the body with new media and Lateral Contour Map of a Full-Term Primipara Produced by Light 1979 A. history paintings and other stories. artists also tried to define ideal proportions in the body. in our privileged and comfortable society. focus has turned to the vulnerability of flesh: how it can be damaged. He even believed he had located the soul contours of her form like a cartographer's map of in the pituitary fossa beneath the brain and behind the eyes. giving physical foundation undulating land. W I L L I A M S technology. Look closely at Renaissance drawings of the female b o d y and you will see that m o s t are actually y o u n g m e n with minor adjustments. while Leonardo opened the body to see and projected onto a woman's body draw the celebratory discover for himself our physical mechanisms. herimpressive presence because we are given such Life drawing no longer dominates the art school curriculum. a n d w e d r a w o u r s e l v e s to a s s e r t o u r e x i s t e n c e . diseased. and surgically rebuilt. 3 x 7 in (300 x 180 . but the study of a controlled. and in San could easily be transferred into three dimensions. is the most c o m m o n subject in art. explaining ranges e/ of materials and techniques and showing diversities of thought and purpose in making.
we see the e s s e n c e of h e r b e a u t y w i t h o u t a single detail. filling the page with her presence. She u n f o l d s and s t r e t c h e s shapely limbs. altar pieces. Here three male nudes are compressed into very shallow pictorial space. RAFFAELLO SANZIO (RAPHAEL) Italian High Renaissance painter: Raphael is best known for his images of the Madonna and Child. and Vatican frescos. Sculptural frieze This is a preparatory drawing for Raphael's painting of the Resurrection of Christ. He trained under Perugino.116-17). while Matisse used scissors and glue to cut out and paste a flat collage of brilliant color. Three Guards 1500-20 91/4 x143/8in (234 x 365 mm) RAPHAEL . Principal figures m i r r o r e a c h other. In this highly s o p h i s t i c a t e d a b s t r a c t i o n . Matisse's b l u e n u d e sings with life and c e l e b r a t i o n . and studied to learn from the works of Michelangelo and Leonardo besides whom he was soon ranked. Muscular dramatic postures reflect the influence of Michelangelo and the Renaissance celebration of the idealized male body.110 T H E BODY THESE DISTINCTIVE WORKS show two strikingly different ways of modeling the body on paper. Raphael's study of fallen m e n leaves no doubt that they are in anguish. By way of contrast. while supporting the weight of their body with the other. so that we read this drawing like a sculptural frieze. Raphael drew delicate tones of black chalk on tinted paper. In a single drawing we see equally o b s e r v e d studies of f o r e s h o r t e n i n g (see pp. T h e y b o t h raise one arm to cup their head in their hand. anatomy. But the meanings of each gesture and the materials and methods by which they Postures and Poses were m a d e contrast greatly. and human defeat.
his pattern. as his w o r k matured.sculptor.. teacher and principal exponent o f Fauvism—a movement established in 1905 in which bold color is the most essential element. and more energetic Color and form This collage is one of a series of Blue Nudes. devoid of troubling Blue Nude 1 1952 413/4 HENRY MATISSE . serenity.... His calligraphic natural abstractions of form grew brighter. printmaker. freer.which might be.or like a good armchair in which to rest from physical fatigue. Matisse Soothing influence This drawing expresses the achievement of Matisse's personal aim: "What I dream and depressing subject matter.. foundamong many other groups of papercut these works as an elderly man confined to his bed or wheelchair.designer writer.like an appeasing influence." of is an art of balance. lifelong love of brilliant They celebrate the culmination of spectacular and sometimes drawings. fabric. and Islamic art. Matisse became an artist after studying law. a mental soother..111 HENRY MATISSE French painter: draftsman.
like small birds attendant on the meditation. only tones blending into. Using the paper to create light is important for beginners to learn. 162) and an eraser to model teeming points of artificial light amid GEORGES SEURAT French painter classically educated in the Ingres school of thought. and color His applied theories still influence painters in their manipulation and rendering of local. T h e space around h i m chatters with symbols. form. In his f a m o u s paintings of social e n g a g e m e n t . in a perfect e x a m p l e . If Seurat had added white. velvet d a r k n e s s . turned gray. reflected. agreeing to coalesce and show us the form of a waiting boy. His drawings are similarly u n i q u e . Seurat evolved a distinctive t e c h n i q u e called p o i n t i l l i s m — i m a g e s literally made from myriad points of color. it is as if the very atoms of air are made visible. and c o m p l e m e n t a r y hues. Light is given by the paper alone. there are no outlines. Below.112 T H E BODY Choreographs T I M E IS A SIGNIFICANT E L E M E N T i n t h e m a k i n g o f a l l d r a w i n g s . stands in counterpoise holding a dark globe and his thoughts in m o m e n t a r y balance. or abruptly meeting. Opposite. we c o m p a r e a skillful design that absorbed m u c h time in its making with the quickness of an idea marked instantly. Tone and light In this black conte drawing. and muddied the brilliance of the drawing. other tones. scratched in seconds. Beuys's magician. Typically. it would have mixed with unseen black dust. w h o sits propped in the contradictory darkness of a hot summer's day. Seurat engaged in lifelong studies of line. he used b l a c k c o n t e (see p. Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 1883-84 91/2 x 121/4 in (241 x 312 m m GEORGES SEURAT . Here.
CHOREOGRAPHS the profound power materials with spiritual or of Free lines This pale pencil drawing is Beuys. Many of his other symbolic works on paper have been drawn with materials such as honey. in different positions. Beuys gave performances.113 JOSEPH BEUYS One of the most influential German artists of the 20th century.gold. transience. His The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland UNDATED 113/4 J O S E P H BEUYS x81/4in (297 x 210 mm) . Perfectly modeled rather conventional for Joseph Focus Beuys's hand moved quickly to draw dotted lines flowing downward on either side of the figure. free from the constraint of immaculate form opposite) impetus is irrelevant to the and meaning of this work (as we see in Seurat's drawing representation. Unbroken lines stream from his simultaneously movement. and made installations. and blood. and that These aspects of the work convey fractured visibility. video art. He was a shaman who believed in intuition and in the investment of healing force. This figure is drawn intuitively. taught workshops with a cult following. and drawings. Our focus joins shoulders. iodine.
Rodin produced portraits and statues of public and literary figures. Opposite. and went on to inspire generations of artists. We are asked to gaze u p o n her flesh. As here. the women are framed and caressed by long. sweeping lines— of either purple silk fabric or cool studio air—that imprint and amplify their past and future movements. its soft. Anita Taylor has drawn her protective body hug out of the darkly glistening compression of willow charcoal and the dynamism of her shy but momentous femininity. he typically drew them with a few delicate strokes of pencil and brushed watercolor. They whisper and writhe in a brushed and sultry embrace that devours our watching. Paris. 125/8x 9 in (320 x 229 mm) AUGUSTE RODIN Two Women 1911 Embracing . But what is stranger to us now is that they were also outraged by his free use of line." as seen here. and one of hundreds of rapid studies of nudes. Achieving international acclaim in mid-life. was perceived as scandalous.000 drawings shown in rotation at the Musee Rodin. Our bodies radiate the passion of our thoughts and so become beacons of our frailty and power. flushed skin made ruddy and black with crushed cinders. We are involved not as a shabby voyeur but as a bystander engaged through our recognition of shared joy. his w o r k is characterized by deliberate un-finish and powerfully modeled emotion.114 BODY Passion SUMMONING HUMANITY in a drawing of the nude is a subtle and emotional task. THE AUGUSTE RODIN French Romantic sculptor and prolific draftsman employed as an ornamental mason until the age of 42. Rodin employed models to move freely or pose together in his studio. Free lines Rodin's public audience was understandably shocked by the eroticism of his drawings. In both drawings. Inspired by Michelangelo. the fierceness of the women's kiss is beautifully matched by the tenderness of his line. In Rodins work. Delicate strokes This is one of about 7. His exquisite flow of paint beyond "outlines.
The sturdy surface of the sheet has allowed her to press hard when needed. Luminosity Layered marks flicker likefirelight as they sculpt the woman's body. textured paper. scrutiny. Charcoal Taylor has drawn freely with charcoal and an eraser on thick. intimately reflecting upon the emotions and meaning of nudity. Taylor has drawn. draftsman. Taylor's immense self-portraits explore the relationship between the artist as maker and the artist as model. leaving her lightest marks at the deepest level of the image and applying darker marks above. exposure.I 15 ANITA T A Y L O R Painter. This order of light below and dark above gives glowing from within. and rework rich depths of light and tone. professor and Vice Principal of Wimbledon School of Art. the impression of luminosity All and Nothing 1999 67 x447/8in (170 x 1 1 4 cm) ANITA TAYLOR . A thinner sheet might have crumpled and torn under such vigorous force of making. London. and gaze. erased and drawn again.
Align the top with a point on your subject. In the life class it is the mechanism for ensuring that a drawn figure lies correctly in pictorial space . Imagine Michelangelo's murals in the Sistine Chapel. to be translated by mirrors or seen from only one point in the room. Spend time making comparisons before you draw. rather that what we believe we know from experience. when beginners prop their board in their lap and look down at too steep an angle. the skull in Holbein's The Ambassadors (The National Gallery. It is not so hard. This is chiefly a correcting device by which figurative painters and sculptors have for centuries countered the effects of our viewing their work from far below or on the curvature of a vault. MEASURING This is a simple method of making measured comparisons for relating the true size of one part to another This is a tool to assist observation and thinking. elongated as if stretched across the plaster. 1 Hold your arm straight.116 T H E BODY Measurement and Foreshortening FORESHORTENING IS AN ASPECT of perspective. London). To avoid its effects ensure you always look flat onto the surface of your page. plummeting. But if we could take a scaffold and climb up to the work. How to make and apply these is explained below and opposite. or shrivelling at odd. more extreme examples have been made for court entertainment. We also look at another very interesting branch called accelerated (or anamorphic) perspective. patience. The length of exposed pencil is your measurement. without taking off. There is no need to mark them all down on paper.limbs happily receding. Rome. Move the tip of your thumb down to a second chosen point. which is imperceptible from below. and measurements do not have to be carried to the paper and slavishly drawn the same size they appear on your pencil. persistence. unfathomable angles. Up close on the scaffold we would witness Michelangelo's subtle application of accelerated perspective. Return to this posture every time. helping us to see more clearly." . It can also be a little demon in the life room. Lock your shoulder. and wrist joints. 3 Keep your pencil perpendicular Measure and compare at any angle. for example. Smaller. If your arm is not straight. you will make inconsistent and unrelated comparisons. or coming forward. with dramatic illusions of figures painted in normal proportion. Close one eye. we would arrive to find many of the same figures strangely distorted. elbow. 2 Hold your pencil upright. "Simple measured comparisons reveal surprising truths about proportion. and to draw what we see. and a few measured comparisons are key. just making them helps you see. Accelerated perspective plays a great role in much art. It is not complicated.
MEASUREMENT AND FORESHORTENING Tilt t h e t o p edge o f this b o o k t o w a r d you and look d o w n o n this figure f r o m a b o v e . h e r p r o p o r t i o n s will appear correct. . looking d o w n t h e p a p e r at t h e a n g l e at w h i c h I d r e w . See h o w d i f f e r e n t t h e relative heights o f t h e s e shapes are f r o m w h a t w e m i g h t e x p e c t in real life. pleasingly f o r e s h o r t e n e d . a n d thighs. y o u r hand travels f a r t h e r than y o u expect. A t a c e r t a i n angle. adjusting a n o n y m o u s shapes. Lean t h e t o p e d g e t o w a r d y o u and find a p o s i t i o n w h e r e y o u can c o m f o r t a b l y l o o k d o w n t h e p a p e r at an angle o f a b o u t 4 0 degrees. W o r k a r o u n d t h e figure. Keep t h e b o a r d steady and draw. L o o k at y o u r m o d e l as if he o r she is a flat series o f shapes o n e o n t o p o f a n o t h e r Measure t h e height and w i d t h o f each shape and c o m p a r e it t o its neighbor. FORESHORTENING To f o r e s h o r t e n a figure. t a p e s o m e p a p e r t o a board. To m a k e f o r m s l o o k c o r r e c t . y o u must let go o f w h a t y o u k n o w f r o m e x p e r i e n c e a b o u t t h e relative sizes o f b o d y parts and trust y o u r eyes. P r o p o r t i o n s will only l o o k c o r r e c t f r o m t h e angle at w h i c h y o u make t h e drawing. C o m p a r e t h e heights o f t h e nose and eye shapes t o t h o s e o f t h e f o r e a r m . W e appear t o be looking d o w n o n a w o m a n s t a n d i n g b e n e a t h us. which feels strange. S o o n t h e b o d y will lie d o w n in space. T h i s is t h e s a m e d r a w i n g p h o t o g r a p h e d f r o m above. Stand its b o t t o m edge o n y o u r lap.117 ACCELERATED PERSPECTIVE To discover h o w this w o r k s . belly.
imagine holding up a plumb line. her center of balance is normally found in a vertical line beneath her head. and height. propelling you to make immediate assessments and trust them. To see this. and slightly enlarge her legs and feet. and work over t h e m with further o b s e r v a t i o n s . Be bold and dive into your drawing with c o n f i d e n c e . height. and energy. To draw this effect. because it results in two unrelated sides drifting apart. Avoid drawing up one side and down the other. T h i s q u i c k e x p l o r a t o r y line does not perfectly describe shape but expresses a decision about overall flow of form. . Leave first thoughts in place. feeling. make the upper body smaller give your model a high waist. Layered lines give d e p t h . working from her center to her feet and to her head. Balance When a model stands upright on both feet. work back and forth across the body. Outline To outline a figure. Height This pose leans away into space above our eye level. Start each new drawing by lightly marking the model's height with a loose line in ten seconds. I used a sharp H B pencil and began each drawing by marking her outline.118 BODY Quick Poses DRAWING QUICK POSES l o c k s y o u r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n t o what is most essential. THE SEQUENCE OF POSES H e r e the model was asked to move every t w o minutes. and stance before honing her balance and expression. balance.
.119 The twist of a model is most easily and expressively captured if it is exaggerated. Most of us have a tendency to over-straighten the drawn figure. and this should be avoided Twist QUICK POSES A model standing on one leg usually drops the opposite hip. the activity of circular lines and the repetition of limbs suggest movement. This drawing shows how different observations be overlaid to bring a drawing alive. The tilt of the pelvis is then counter balanced by the model's shoulders tilting the other way (as seen here). Tilt Movement Here.
2 Build your drawing gradually from light to dark. Keep lines open to change and take measurements if they help. It also helps the beginner to progress from drawing outlines to drawing confidently across the surface of the whole form. Then subdivide each shape so that you w o r k from large to small. and ignore all details. but regard these practice studies as ongoing processes of thought and observatio Add details such as nails last if you wish.120 BODY Hands and Feet THERE ARE MANY different ways of approaching h a n d s and THE of form. feet. This exercise is useful when struggling with proportion. Group the fingers together as one mass. Begin by drawing lines to encompass the whole hand. express structure and gesture far more successfully and easily than ten worried outlines wandering up and down between the fingers and toes. Do not separate them yet. These planes. starting with the largest. general to specific. Draw large shapes and their orientation. swiftly marking its essential gesture. it is important to leave aside all details of the fingers and toes. or those of a friend. and a gooseneck lamp casts shadows that clarify planes and depths GESTURES OF THE HAND Curled Fingers 1 Open Palm Start honing the shapes of the dominant planes. Practice by drawing your own hands and feet. A mirror increases your range of views. drawn in relation to each other. Focus instead on how planes change direction across the knuckles from one side of the hand or foot to the other. Don't worry about achieving perfect solutions. especially the lengthwise divisions between them. and they need not be daunting to draw. W h e n starting. 3 .
loose. and don't worry about accuracy t o begin with. and spontaneity.121 HANDS AND FEET MOVEMENTS OF THE FOOT Flat Stance Raised Heel Instep 1 Let your first marks be light. Leave aside all detail. Try t o express the whole foot and t o encapsulate its entire shape and direction in a few marks. depth. Nowimagineyou are carving the foot insidethepaper. as if with a chisel. 2 3 Use an eraser t o refine decisions o r t o suggest areas o f light. Look for key angles without becoming distracted by detail. t o remove t o o many early lines. and rapid. however. . Hew it roughly in broad. these are what give a drawing its tangible structure.as though out o f wood. flattened planes. It can be a mistake.
Charcoal Hands T H E S E DRAWINGS ARE MADE in compressed charcoal. I also used white ink with a steel dip pen." . Compare its nature in close-up to that of willow charcoal used on pp. The white lines demonstrate what is often called "bracelet shading. Opposite.204-05.
length. I make these lines in the first five to ten seconds of a drawing to locate the presence. before honing his or her shape (see pp.HERE TRACES OF RAPID initial lines are still seen within and outside each body. 118-19). and posture of the model. Phrasing Contours .
The Visual Detective DRAWING FROM MASTERWORKS was once a staple component of an artist's education. It is now viewed with some skepticism and often seen as academic. feeling them through the attentive movements of your own hand. I draw in museums in support of written research and as an artist seeking answers to questions about the practicalities of image making. characters. Forms. Drawing work by another artist enables you to discover and understand the inventive hand in their composition. . and narrative pulse become vivid when you realize them in the middle of your study. perspectives.
Walls are lined with hundreds of faintly animated body parts. Life-size women wearing wigs recline on beds of embroidered silk in cabinets of mahogany and Venetian glass This is a detail of a compressed charcoal drawing measuring 14 x 10 ft (4. These almost life-size figures were composed from my imagination and achieved with the help af studies discussed on pp.3 x 3 m) made in response to La Specola. Florence. each modeled from dissection. . 126-27. there is a unique museum of 18th-century anatomical waxes.La Specola At17V i a Romana.
you can capture the subtlety. live. religious. single or of groups. Our homes are filled with images of our loved ones and of those in our families who have gone before. became more poignant as he progressed. and lucrative genre for artists. abstract or figurative. Beginners often draw themselves as a way of establishing their practice. and shoulders. Portraits can be highly or loosely detailed. painters have dropped discreet records of themselves into commissioned narratives so that they can remain a face in the crowd. W h e n drawing a person. We are also reassured by keeping records of ourselves. Halls and palaces are filled with pictures of the mighty and significant. character.139). Man Ray's self-portrait of scored lines. Past rulers sent painters across continents to bring back a likeness in advance of a prospective royal marriage. Goya. and their posture can be changed with just one line. throat. This enlargement o f his miniature p o r t r a i treveals t h e s p e e d and agility o f his p e n and about himself. usually strangers from past times. The returning image was of crucial consideration in any proposal. historical. gathered all that he knew FRANCISCO DE GOYA V i s i o n a r y Spanish painter. neck. For centuries. and in a few scrolling rafts of pen lines and stubbled dots. . 1790-92 4 x 3 in ( 1 0 2 x 7 6 m m ) F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A and memorize the basic structure that we all share. Once you understand Self-Portrait in a Cocked Hat c. buttons. and expression of the individual.Portraiture IN P O R T R A I T U R E W E MEET PEOPLE. draftsman. is here to both meet and look through us. and it is very rewarding. bells. We can mold and animate qualities of expression out of objects and fragments of disassociated things—for example. we use the delicate medium of silver point to look at foundation structures of the head. compliant subject to scrutinize. and a handprint (see p. made as he passed through the ages of man. Movie director Alfred similarly signed his films by playing a fleeting role: he walks through an extra. and social and political commentaries. his changes in pressure and Hitchcock length o f line. their stance. or whose eyes can seem to follow us around the room Portraiture is a constant. In this chapter. Rembrandt's famous multitude of self-portraits. The truth is that we all like looking at faces and observing the billions of variations that make us individuals. having been documented and preserved. Goya's w o r k s include many royal and society p o r t r a i t s . who. or a glimpse of him is caught in a photograph used as a prop. a single line can deliver an entire expression. Equally. and satirical or metaphorical. in a miniature self-portrait magnified opposite. To create a face is to see and interpret the essence of an identity. Self-portraiture gives every artist a constant. and secular narratives. the meaning of their face. It also reminds us o f b o t h t h e intimacy and a scene as scrutiny o f an honest portrait. and p r i n t m a k e r . or past us. look directly at us.
He makes his flair and skill look easy. one eye already cast askew into the autumn of her life. adding smudges of tone for weight and solidity. whisking a timeless girl onto the page. It is the portrait of a countrywoman. length. stealthily using his chalk to find contours and mass. Picasso has left to posterity many hundreds of magnificent line drawings. breadth. Here the grace and beauty of two young women are held forever. There is a common misunderstanding that a drawing with only a few lines is both less finished and easier to make than a drawing with more. The truth is often the opposite.132 PORTRAITURE Poise THE BALANCE BETWEEN a mark and a blank space is often a tantalizing form of perfection. they serve as a great lesson that it is not always necessary to add tone to your drawing. teetering on the brink of older age. PABLO PICASSO Spanish Cubist painter (see also p. It takes a truly accomplished a few strokes. The Tightness of a line is felt in its speed. we can enjoy and learn from them. hand to capture something well in only Frangoise au Bandeau 1946 660 x 505 mm (26 x197/8in) PABLO PICASSO . We can read so much about them by studying their gaze. The aesthetic sense of a line being just right can make a drawing sing. We can actually count that he struck the paper 40 times.30). How could the addition of shadows have enhanced this image? Few strokes The simplicity of Picasso's line is breathtaking. While with longer consideration. Her face is drawn tenderly and with a luminous glow. caught in her last moments of youth. Without faltering. For the beginner. and pressure as it conducts our eye through the image. Through exhibitions and copies in books. Picasso strikes and scrolls his pencil. Holbein maps the still landscape of Dorothea's body in questioning marks.
he designed c o u r t costumes. gently flushed. The peak of her cap clips the uppermost edge. Cropping This regal composition fits its paper perfectly. which. In addition t o his numerous exquisite portraits in oil. He outlined her nose but not her upper lip. Holbein unified the woman with her background by gently blending colors from her clothes and face into the atmosphere around her. Holbein was employed toward the end of his life by King Henry VIII of England. Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 1516 51/8 x121/4in (385 x 310 m m ) HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER . made a popular series o f w o o d c u t prints titled The Dance of Death.133 HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER German p o r t r a i t painter draftsman. presses against the binding across her face. Blended colors In this portrait drawn with colored chalks on slightly textured paper. and produced numerous society portraits such as this one here. and its downward slope crowns the diagonal of the composition. and designer f r o m Basel. Holbein has cropped and pinned his subject within the four outermost lines of the image—the edges of the page. Her folded forearms support and frame her weight above.
and unpleasant to see. Newsome was awarded the Prix de Rome in 1960. using a fine and relatively 1982 13 x 181/8 in (328 x 460 mm) VICTOR NEWSOME brush. . It floats in space. Durelli has m a d e a few m i n o r mistakes. VICTOR NEWSOME British sculptor painter and draftsman. continues to exhibit regularly. Contrasts Sharp. its highly clarified detail claiming to be d r a w n from observation. confusing. dark tones of graphite blended into the paper. and has works in major collections including the Tate Gallery. In fact. distorted. dark lines made with a pencil appear against smooth. The style of Durelli's d r a w i n g opposite sings with the confidence of truth and precision. London. Nerves. perhaps applied using a tortillon. taught at numerous British art schools from 1962-77. Delicate muscles are integrated with the skin and fat that is to be r e m o v e d .134 PORTRAITURE Anatomies These highly finished drawings express the emotional power and physicality of the head and neck. the contours of a grid. but they are irrelevant here. This is a m a r v e l o u s interpretation of the truth. N e w s o m e ' s eerily shadowed form is smooth and bears a linear grain evocative of w o o d . The real dissection w o u l d have been far more c o m p l e x . solid above and almost hollow below. blood vessels. Anatomically. This is one of a number of similar disembodied female heads seen behind. the face is one of the hardest parts to dissect. while white painted flecks and wisps suggest electrical illumination. Highlights of white gouache were dry Profile Head late in the making. Psychological drama is contained behind a grid. or defined by. and glands also complicate form.
w h e n contracted. and it is likely that this drawing was intended for reproduction as a print.135 ANATOMIES ANTONIO DURELLI Linear perfection This is a red chalk drawing of extraordinary accomplishment. pull their points o f attachment t o w a r d each other . Red Chalk the Muscles 1837 173/8 x 145/8 in ( 4 4 0 x 3 7 2 m m ) ANTONIO DURELLI and Pencil Drawing and of Neck of the Head Little is k n o w n o f this M i l a n e s e p a i n t e r a n d engraver w h o c a m e from a family o f artists. Stylized parallel lines are reminiscent of engravings. Pencil numbers refer to the list of muscles written beneath. which. It is hard to think of a more difficult medium with which to achieve such linear perfection. Durelli's experience as an engraver is reflected in his stylized drawing o f muscle fibers.
We are brought intimately close to this man gazing up to heaven. Opposite. Energy This is a portrait of a woman drawn with black crayon on a plain page of a book Lines search for the essence of form. and with staccato flinches his hyperactive eye moves from paper to model. Flesh is built and personality carved simultaneously. Speed Giacometti probably began with an oval shape placed in relation to the proportion of the page. and poet After studying in Geneva and Italy. painter draftsman. each portrait is inscribed onto the page. There is a film of Giacometti drawing. each locked into a visionary gaze. Agitated marks make patches of tone that cut away the space around the character.136 PORTRAITURE THESE ARE DRAWINGS of shoulders. Similar movements sculpted the head below into its page. Then. Without paint and with very little tone. Both works demonstrate how simple lines can be made complex by being intense. They confuse our perception of scale by being intimately fragile and at the same time far removed. with speed and urgency. Bellini gently conjures the features of his saint with soft marks that tease his presence out of shadows into the light. while his hand stabs and thrusts Revelations like a conductors baton. necks. Giacometti settled in Paris. as if seen from a distance. 1948 77/8 x 6 in (200 x 150 mm) ALBERTO GIACOMETTI . ALBERTO GIACOMETTI Swiss sculptor. he drew over the whole image at once. close enough to touch his hair and feel his breath. The camera watches him at work. cutting and carving the paper with matted and spiraling restless energy. and heads. He is best known for his bronze sculptures of human form. which are characteristically elongated. Portrait de Marie-Laure de Noailles c. They show us clearly the bones of drawing.
Bellini s t u d i e d u n d e r his f a t h e r J a c o p o . Sometimes different narrative same character was reused in compositions. a n d his w o r k is d i s t i n c t i v e l y calm.G I O V A N N I BELLINI A prominent member of a large family o f V e n e t i a n painters. Mantegna. a n d c o n t e m p l a t i v e . a n d b r o t h e r in-law. H e t a u g h t G i o r g i o n e Barbarelli and Titian. These are pinholes. Head and Shoulders of a Man 73/8 x 21/4 in ( 1 8 6 x 5 8 UNDATED GIOVANNI BELLINI . transferring which were made in the process of the saint to his final place in the composition of a painting (see Glossary pp.5 9 ) . lyrical. Character This is one of many cartoons produced by Bellini the and his family. H e p r e f e r r e d religious t o classical t h e m e s .25 6 . Transfer This delicate humorous chalk a drawing is a cartoon—not image but a type of template used to plan the composition of a larger work Look closely and you will see rows of tiny dots along every significant line in the picture.
Later Basquiat sold drawings on T-shirts. float and shimmer in the shallow pictorial space. and everything flux. It is an image of confrontation—the ever-controversial young artist roars at us from his abstract city-scape. marks. It has proved to be a subject of piercing scrutiny. similar to work by Cy Twombly (see p. drawn. and buttons rings with surrealist wit and agile improvisation. skull- Self-Portraits headed. spear-brandishing warrior. and indulgence. postcards. JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT Short-lived American painter and graffiti artist who began his blazing nine-year career drawing on lower Manhattan subway trains with a friend. and sheet metal before being snapped up by the New York contemporary art scene. and attitudes. humor. scrolls. made with great energy. Al Diaz. political outcry. and confrontations with. scratched lines. Self Portrait 1982 9 4 x 7 6 in (239 x 193 cm) JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT . It is an opportunity to look deep without the infringement of courtesies owed to a commissioning sitter.138 PORTRAITURE THE MIRROR OF SELF-PORTRAITURE offers artists infinite reflections of. In 1986 he traveled to Africa and showed his work in Abidjan on the Ivory Coast He also exhibited in Germany and France. their most immediate and best-known subject: themselves. Islands of graphic marks. scratched into its surface. Signs and symbols with symbols This painting shudders that ore written. The incandescent New York painter Jean Michel Basquiat pictured himself here in naked silhouette. The artist has finished his portrait with the signature of his hand smacked in the middle like a kiss: a declaration of existence as old as man's first drawing. a tribal. The figure's position is unequivocal and defiant while around him is in a state Without the essential of cultural and figure we would elegant belookingat a sophisticated painting of signs. Man Ray's playful silk-screen assembly of color blocks.221). bells. signing their work SAMO.
Black ink was printed next and then white. They suggest speed and make the picture look immediate and spontaneous. Man Ray lived and worked in Paris. They experimented with camera-free photography working directly onto photographic paper Silk and ink This is a silkscreen print made through the following process: the paper was laid on a flat surface and a frame stretched with fine silk was placed on top. Frame White lines are seemingly (though not actually) scratched through ink to frame this face. printmaker and cofounder of the New York Dada movement. where he collaborated with the artist Laslo MoholyNagy. painter. During the 1920's and 30s. Man Ray probably used his own hand. last of all. while a squeegee was used to drag thick lilac-brown ink across the silk pushing it though exposed areas onto the paper below. The first part of the stenciled image was already marked on the silk The screen and paper were then held tightly together. The handprint appears to be made directly. Autoportrait 1916 195/8 MAN RAY . caked in thick printing ink or paint.139 MAN RAY American surrealist photographer.
an exciting indication of how large-scale drawings could be made on a wall. Take a sheet o f any t y p e o f p a p e r (for e x a m p l e . who used it to outline initials and border characters before painting. W e t o n e length o f g u m . SILVER W I R E : Purchase different gauge lengths f r o m a traditional a r t supplier o r jeweler. 2. purchase silver wire. M a k e s u r e i t is c o m p l e t e l y clean t o avoid u n w a n t e d streaks. b e f o r e priming stretched paper. I t is a v a i l a b l e f r o m all a r t s h o p s . To begin. artists mixed white lead. Metal point does not work on ordinary paper.54-55). and gold have also been used. E m p t y mechanical pencils designed f o r t h i c k leads ( s e e p. platinum." Lead.140 PORTRAITURE Silver P o i n t SILVER OR METAL POINT STRETCHING PAPER A sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has been made w e t with the strokes o f a paintbrush will buckle d u e t o its uneven expansion. I combined silver point with painted white gouache on a pink ground. it leaves a deposit. you will need t o stretch paper and lay a wash (see right and opposite). Drawn across a prepared surface. laid on paper. which quickly oxidizes into a gray line. was familiar to or eggshells with animal glue. Find a n i t e m t h a t y o u can h o l d a n d draw with comfortably. and is therefore useful w h e n using w a t e r c o l o r as well as silver point. the surface must be primed with a ground such as gouache. p a r c h m e n t . Straighten the w o r s t buckles.s t r i p a n d use i t t o fix o n e side o f t h e p a p e r t o t h e b o a r d . o n e t o fit each side o f t h e b o a r d — t h e s e will make t h e glued f r a m e t h a t holds y o u r p a p e r in place. Pages 142 to 147 are illustrated in silver point and techniques are explained on pp. The most c o m m o n metal has always been silver—hence the term "silver point. Opposite. I m a k e m y o w n f r o m o l d dip pens. Gesso o r m a t t e m u l s i o n c a n a l s o b e u s e d . For i m p o r t a n t a d v i c e o n p r e p a r a t i o n a n d use. Numerous early European artists also enjoyed its fine qualities (see p. S O F T F U L L B R U S H : W h e n laying a w a s h . If w o r k i n g o n an emulsion-painted wall. b u t d o n ' t w o r r y .Tear o f f f o u r lengths o f b r o w n p a p e r g u m tape. Lightly s p o n g e o f f t h e excess. Metal point is simply a strip of metal bound in a holder. SILVER P O I N T W I R E H O L D E R : T h e s e c a n b e p u r c h a s e d a n d t e n d t o b e heavy. w h i t e d r a w i n g paper) and cut it t o fit y o u r d r a w i n g b o a r d w i t h a generous b o r d e r a r o u n d its edges. This is called a three-tone drawing. c h o o s e a s o f t full b r u s h t h a t c a n c a r r y p l e n t y o f l i q u i d . or ring. illuminators of medieval m a n u s c r i p t s . S i l v e r is b e s t . Historically. 2 . 3 . or wood. Note h o w domestic paintwork marks with a coin. Be swift and firm. 1. 5. 144-45. copper. Lay a clean d r a w i n g b o a r d o n a flat surface.54) can also b e used. Z I N C W H I T E G O U A C H E : Dilute with w a t e r A d d c o l o r i f r e q u i r e d (as opposite) 4 . and make o r buy a holder. bone. key. 1 4 4 . and t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h strips a b o v e and b e l o w . W e t a n d fix a s e c o n d strip t o t h e o p p o s i t e side. T h e p a p e r will l o o k b u c k l e d . s e e p . s o m e m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n o t h e r s . choose a silver object. MATERIALS 1 Find a clean sponge and b o w l o r d e e p t r a y a n d fill it w i t h w a t e r W e t t h e p a p e r evenly in t h e t r a y o r o n t h e b o a r d . Stretched paper remains taut as a d r u m . M E T A L OBJECTS: All metal objects m a r k a p r e p a r e d surface. This browns with age unless sealed by fixative (see pp. and alloys work on matt emulsion. 156).
Leave the wash to dry thoroughly before you begin to draw. full brush into the gouache and start in the top left corner. Make an even line across to the right. Make enough to cover your paper. Beware of the tape's coming loose at any point while drying. T h r e e . Reload the brush and add a second line overlapping it beneath. Mix a very wet but not weak solution of gouache in a jar with a lid (add pigment at this stage for a three-tone drawing). It will slowly straighten and become taut. any extra will keep. Keep adding smooth. overlapping lines until you reach the bottom. as the paper will be ruined by a raised ridge. and let tests dry before deciding to change the mixture. Here. so put newspaper under the lower edge. Dry thoroughly before laying a wash. Runs blend into each other evenly. v e r y little at a time.141 SILVER POINT 3 Leave the paper to dry flat.t o n e silver point drawing of a skull . Prop up your board of dry. Dip a soft. The next step will make a small mess. is necessary to lay a wash o Three-tone When coloring ground. Keep testing on spare paper. leaving a smooth surface. slowly add powder pigment or gouache from a tube. LAYING A WASH It your stretched paper so as to prime it for silver point. stretched paper at a 45-degree angle. I used a powder pigment called Caput Mortuum.
Head and Neck
THE HEAD AND NECK are best conceived as one unit arranged in four parts: cranium, face, neck, and throat. Each is of equal importance. The cranium is essentially egg-shaped and pivots on the first vertebra. The face is suspended beneath, like a softly curved triangle. The n e c k — a powerful, shapely column of layered muscles rigged to vertebrae—adjusts and holds the angle and expression of the head. The throat is delicate, hard, and lumpy to the touch, formed of cartilaginous rings, glands, thin muscles, and looser skin. Framing the throat, two columnar neck muscles (sternomastoids) project the head forward and also turn it to the opposite side.
This is a simple shorthand diagram representing the cranium, face, neck, and throat. It can be learned and visualized in different positions very easily, giving the novice a firm footing on which to stand and develop their drawings of the head and neck.
Cranium Begin with an egg shape. Tilt it on the paper to change the position of the head.
Face Draw a rounded triangular shape below the forward point of the egg to represent the face.
Neck This shape represents the trapezius; the largest surface muscle of the neck and shoulders.
Throat A triangular shape represents the throat. (The nose makes the diagram clearer)
After copying the diagram above, animate it. Practice drawing the cranium at different angles, add the face beneath, then the neck, shoulders, and throat. Shape your diagrams so they are more lifelike, but avoid adding detailed features too soon.
143 These three drawings demonstrate (from left to right) the following: why the cranium may be considered egg-shaped; now the face can be seen as a curved triangle suspended beneath and where the division lies between the two; and the form of sternomastoid muscles that frame thethroatsodistinctlywhen the head is turned and inclined forward.
The skull and the frame of the throat
HEAD AND NECK
Bones of the cranium are locked together by jagged joints. Sinuses in the frontal (forehead) bone between and beneath the eyebrows are larger in men, making their brows pronounced and often ridged compared to those of women.
Bones of the face house our sight, smell, taste, The skull pivots on the first vertebra or "atlas," and speech. Cartilage extending from nasal bones after the Greek god condemned to carry the shapesthenose.Pads of fat resting on the base of Earth. The jaw hinges in front of the ears. Behind, eacheyesocket support the eyeballs in position. If bony ridges give anchor to the sternomastoid thefatisreducedby old age, eyes look sunken. muscles rising from the breast- and collarbones.
Three useful generalizations
General rules about the relative positions of body parts can hinder artists as much as help them, since they are often based on classical ideals rather than thediversityoflife.However,some generalizations can help as a rough guide to start with, so long as good observation takes over as soon as possible.
In general, when the face is relaxed (not smiling or frowning), the corners of the mouth are found directly beneath the pupils of the eyes. Vertical lines can be drawn down from the pupils to meet the corners of the mouth.
The height of a young adult's ear is often the same as their nose and found on the same level. There is no general rule for growing children, and remember that ears grow again in old age, which is most obvious in men.
The height of the face is about the length of the handspan and the eye is normally halfway down the total height of the head. A common error is to draw the eyes too high up on the face.
T H E DELICACY OF SILVER POINT
(see pp. 140-41) is perfect for
such as a beach pebble. Here, I stretched drawing paper and laid a wash of white gouache (see pp.140-41). As you can see, the line and tone of silver point varies with pressure, but only slightly. Too much pressure cuts the ground. Silver point erases, but so does ground. Erased ground can be repaired gently with extra gouache. You can also use gouache to paint over mistakes and make corrections.
small, detailed drawings. The drawings below and opposite show useful observations of the head and neck, which are explained in the captions below. Each drawing was made with a silver wire held in a large-gauge mechanical pencil. Newly clipped wires are sharp and cut rather than draw. Before use, they need to be rubbed and smoothed on a stone
Here I imagined placing my silver point wire against the skin of each head and neck and, working in parallel bands from the crown downward, I traced the undulation of surfaces. Linear bands imagined around the head and neck can help you t o clearly see the tilt of the head and relative levels of the features. Ask a friend t o model for you and try this exercise life-size using a pencil and eraser
Seeing that the face is never flat
Drawings below left and center are summaries of the generalizations given on p.143. Far right is an image to remind us that the face is never flat. It slopes back to varying degrees among individuals, from the tip of the nose t o the ears. For example, note that the innermost corners of the eyes are farther forward in space than the outermost corners.
General measurements, side
General measurements, front
View from above
Male and female head and neck
Men's necks a r e g e n e r a l l y s h o r t e r a n d t h i c k e r t h a n w o m e n ' s b e c a u s e t h e angles a n d levels o f c e r t a i n b o n e s a r e d i f f e r e n t b e t w e e n t h e sexes ( i n d i c a t e d h e r e b y d o t t e d lines) a n d m e n are n o r m a l l y m o r e muscular. T h e male t h y r o i d cartilage ( A d a m ' s apple) is larger a n d m o r e visible than t h e f e m a l e . L a r g e r f e m a l e t h y r o i d glands also s o f t e n t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e t h r o a t .
The largest m u s c l e o f t h e s h o u l d e r s a n d n e c k is called the trapezius. A r r a n g e d on e i t h e r side o f t h e spine, it shapes t h e u p p e r back and neck above the s h o u l d e r blades. C o n t r a c t i n g in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h d e e p e r and surrounding muscles, it raises and l o w e r s t h e shoulders a n d d r a w s t h e h e a d backtoeitherside.
USING A SHARP 3 B PENCIL, I drew this head quickly from imagination, evolving its character and expression from the scheme of four parts: cranium, face, neck, a n d throat (see p. 142). Here, five steps show you how to practice doing the same. This approach can be used to draw from imagination or from life. Keep your wrist loose and hold your pencil away from its point (see pp.22-23). Build the layers of your drawing from pale to dark, a n d from general balance a n d form to specific detail. Remember that successful drawings are built on foundations of "seeing the whole," then dividing the whole into smaller parts, with details brought in last of all. Phrased tonal marks modeling this girls skin and hair follow the technique demonstrated by Goya in his self-portrait on p. 130. Turn to Goya's drawing and study how, in a circle beginning across his hat, moving down his hair, and around his coat, he flows lines over surfaces to describe their contour. As you build from steps 1 to 5, bring phrased groups of lines across the surfaces of your form, using their directions to capture the expression of the head and neck. If unsure, copy my steps until you gain the confidence to make your own decisions.
This drawing is the final stage of the four steps opposite. Here, I have enlarged the eye, and moved it back into the head by trimming the length of the upper lid and adding a more pronounced lower lid. It is important to set eyes far enough back from the relatively prominent nose; too close to it and the face flattens. Hair swept back and extended behind the cranium balances the regal pose. Lines shaping the hair echo those marking the cranium in step 1. Here, the lower part of step 1 comes through as wisps of hair across her face and ear
Portrait of a Young Girl
over the cranium. avoid drawing too dark.147 Building up the portrait DRAWING PORTRAITS 1 Gently spin pale lines in a softly drawn shape representing the cranium. Moving from the back of the neck. 2 Rapidly add shorthand shapes to represent the face. so it is important to the life of the image that while controlled. they are also still sweeping and confident. I used light to describe the upper lid first with a shadow beneath for the lower lid and open eye. First lines will remain visible in the final drawing. Here.Theangle at which you draw this shape of the paper will determine the angle of the finished head. Keep your first lines light. down the face to the throat. and throat. The eye announces the nature and expression of the emerging person. I modeled the outline of the character I imagined light shining from above and in front and adjusted the pressure of lines to reflect this. too soon. 4 . The nose and ear begin to shape the head. neck. 3 Place the eye beneath the cranium.
muscular tension. Above all. a n d t h o s e w h o a r e Generations asleep (see overleaf).T o DRAW PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGES. . be aware of the subtle differences in skin surface. the texture of hair. and gravity. empathize.
Van Dyke's noble cast of characters was modeled more finely. Madrid. with a steel dip pen and acrylic ink. .Castings DRAWING IN THE PRADO MUSEUM. I used the nib upside down to gain needle-sharp precision. seeking the dominant contours of each individual expression. Fast lines carve out the features of Goya's soup-slurping hag.
arichand unusual combination of pencil. o n l y the w e a l t h y c o u l d afford to h a v e c o s t u m e s specially m a d e .This voluptuous above all a physical p u p p e t w i t h w h i c h to animate character and narrate personality. or b u l g e s . articulate a d a n g e r o u s satirical j o k e . and e x u b e r a n c e . T h e p a p e r p a t t e r n is p e r h a p s the m o s t w i d e l y k n o w n of c o s t u m e d r a w i n g s : a formalized plan of lines. a n d c o u r t i e r tailors f o l l o w e d suit. st 111/4 x 81/2 in (285 x 220 mm) u d i e d L E O NB A K S T and explore the characterization of fabric t h r o u g h m o v e m e n t . charcoal. and everything w e h a v e c h o s e n for o u r w a r d r o b e s — r e f l e c t o r s of o u r taste. intriguing. toParis. Petersburg and later exiled designers' ideas and are surprised and delighted b y their continual f l o w of inspiration. D e s i g n e r s create m a s t e r p i e c e s of haute couture LEON BAKST for H o l l y w o o d stars. Artists do this not so m u c h b y the style of a figure's garment. P o p u l a r f a s h i o n d e s i g n e x p l o d e d w i t h the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n . e m u l a t e textures. and be so expressive of temperament that it overtakes the need for an o c c u p y i n g h u m a n form.As artistic director of the It is s h o c k i n g to t h i n k h o w m a n y m i l l i o n s of d r a w i n g s m u s t be m a d e a n d d i s c a r d e d Ballet Russe. Designers all over the w o r l d c o n t i n u a l l y p e n and b r u s h lines to lash us w i t h color. personality. T h e e n t o u r a g e of the theatrical stage o f t e n l e a d s the c a t w a l k . fulfilling lavish and spectacular briefs. g l o s s y folds. In this c h a p t e r w e see h o w c l o t h i n g c a n s e e m to p o s s e s s the w e i g h t and m o n u m e n t a l i t y of stone. c r u m p l e s . a n d s u b t l e t o n e s . In psychology. and even invisible by the w a y w e dress. he and cofounder Serge Diaghilev took Paris by eac storm in 1910 with their production h year in the industrial f r e n z y of creating o u r image and aspirations. known as Leon Bakst. so that c h o i c e .Costume W E MAKE OURSELVES EXOTIC. or calm u s w i t h chic. and i n d e e d image b e c a m e the property also of the industrial classes. variety. b u t influenced Parisian fashion and interiordecor. c o s t u m e o f f e r s a r i c h v o c a b u l a r y of t e x t u r e s a n d c o l o r . caricatured p l u m e s . Like it or not. T h e rural masses w o r e h o m e s p u n simplicity. outrageous. and gouache. it is the public sign by w h i c h w e are j u d g e d . c u l t u r e . and atmosphere. and s y m b o l s that lets m e n and w o m e n in all countries and areas have w o r k i n g access to the latest fashions. . S t r u c t u r e is t h o u g h the i n v e n t i o n of shoes. while court p a i n t e r s — M i c h e l a n g e l o and Holbein. theb u t b y the w a y it s p e a k s w i t h its flying. for e x a m p l e — d e s i g n e d the w a r d r o b e s of p o p e s a n d k i n g s . Cities c h a n g e d all. shapes. and intent. gesture. Bakst's designs and costumes immediately To the fine artist. cool. w h i c h in turn feed c o n s u m e r Lev. a n d p r o f e s s i o n — b e g a n life as a d r a w i n g . w a r m t h . was a Belarussian A r t Deco theater fantasies and desires to immediately possess a version of the same. woman was drawn by Bakst one year later for the ballet Narcisse. a n d w e will c o l l e c t patterns. Samoylovich Rosenberg. W e dress ourselves and costume designer trained in in St. of Scheherazade. dancer leaps through swaths of golden cloth. Previously. Practical classes Bacchante 1911 l o o k at r a n g e s of c o l o r e d m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d i n g p a s t e l s a n d felt-tip p e n s .
it is only possible to create very thin. Marble gown We will never know if Van Eyck considered this drawing unfinished or intended the kneeling abbot to remain transient and ghostly. the vaulted stone roof echoes and crowns the moment. Maelbeke I44I Madonna 11 x 7 in (278 x 180 m m ) JAN V A N EYCK . her marble garment holds u p the infant Christ in a fountain of compressed line. With a stylus such as Van Eyck used here. and the kneeling abbot is a ghost by comparison. folds and patterns of material speak more resolutely of their wearers than any small glimpses of body we can see. with their jagged edges. and snakelike marks. He has layered these slowly and carefully so as not to cut through the ground and produce a white mark just where he intended a dark one. Short and subtle horizontal punctuations are only given in the background by sections of floor. Opposite. H e m e t i c u l o u s l y a r r a n g e d subjects t o c o n v e y d e e p e r meaning. Their uninterrupted emphasis is entirely vertical. delicate lines. Her gown is carved and polished as if made from marble. best k n o w n f o r his G h e n t altarpiece ( 1 4 3 2 ) a n d m a r r i a g e p o r t r a i t o f Giovanni A r n o l f i n i and his w i f e (1434). However. Delicate marks Silver (or metal) point is the most delicate of traditional drawing media (see pp. Vertical lines The highly controlled lines of this drawing cascade from top to bottom of the image. Church and deities are drawn as JAN VAN EYCK Flemish oil p a i n t e r f r o m L i m b o u r g .140-41). resonate with their wearers startled expression. Above them. Van Eyck's highly polished w o r k is c e l e b r a t e d f o r its disguised symbolism. the carefully composed outline of his cloak shows us how the artist would have also begun his immaculate rendering of the Virgin's clothes. and implied striation in the stone of the architecture. The quiet stillness of this image is achieved by a masterly economy of stylized line.156 COSTUME Cloth and Drapery EACH OF THESE FIGURES is ninety percent cloth. bands around the columns. Below this. Sculpted one. swirling printed fabrics. dragons. the Madonna and her architecture are both dressed in the same manner. Flaxmans sleeper—perhaps a pilgrim or a soldier resting between campaigns—has wedged himself into the cleft of some great building to grab a moment of peace. Keisai Eisen's intense. In Van Eyck's drawing below.
an 18th-19th century document on the lives of the ukiyo-e artists. the angle of the head. Parts of the image to be left unprinted are gouged out with a metal tool. Images are drawn onto smooth. the cloak sliding to the ground. and the feet notched against the pillar tell us that A lines holds him into the cleft. Aeschylus earned Flaxman an international reputation. Koimurasaki of Tama-ya 1810-50 15 x101/4in (381 x 260 mm) KEISAI EISEN The Courtesan JOHN F L A X M A N English late 18th-century neoclassical sculptor.157 KEISAI EISEN Japanese draftsman. Position In this pen and ink drawing. each delivering a different part and color of the design. Dante. designer. and teacher Distinctive linear illustrations for the works of Homer. one over the other. and Man Lying Down in a Cloak I 787-94 21/4 JOHN FLAXMAN x 41/8 in (57 x 105 mm) . Remaining raised areas of wood are rolled with colored inks. The inked block is laid face-down on damp paper and pressed to make the print. Respected for his sumptuous images of geisha and editions of erotic prints. flat sheets of wood. which are sometimes also cut into pieces like a jigsaw puzzle. This complex numerous blocks prepared image and may have been made with printed separately. he also co-edited and expanded the Ukiyo-e Ruiko (History of Prints of the Floating World). stone wall of downward-stroked this sleeper's position is momentary. draftsman. writer and printmaker Keisai Eisen took his name from the masters Kano Hakkeisai and Kikugawa Eizan. CLOTH AND DRAPERY Relief printing This is a woodblock print made by a relief process.
Leg sections in both support the figure without taking our attention away from the main garment above. A flamboyant territory. A s a y o u n g man. cloth. Van D y k e was chief assistant t o Rubens f o r t w o years. cinema. cartoon. Flowing scarf The knight's scarf of gilded blue is drawn in a pale wash over red ink lines. theater. where sometimes there just might not be anybody inside. In 1 6 3 2 he m o v e d p e r m a n e n t l y t o L o n d o n . Man in Armor UNDATED 1 6 x 9 1 / 2 in ( 4 0 5 x 2 4 0 m m ) A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE . Opposite is a dangerous drawing.158 COSTUME Character Costumes an extreme form of the clothed figure. all ruffs and wrinkles. Leg section Compare mid-shin the section of white boots cropped to the section of similarly cropped trousers in drawings Gruau's drawing on p. he c o o l e d and redefined his style. He has been rendered on this olive<olored page with pen and gray wash worked over a red and black under-drawing. The metal. A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE Flemish painter and draftsman. a n d w a s e m p l o y e d as c o u r t painter t o King Charles I. Its color is also reflected in the metal. Pen and wash In the graphic accuracy of this armored knight we see the idealized identity of a warrior from another time: a gleaming defender of the realm. w h e r e . and feather were all CHARACTER COSTUMES REPRESENT observed with closely crafted conviction. Its warm surface flows in contrast to the stiff metal armor. t h r o u g h n u m e r o u s p o r t r a i t and C h u r c h commissions. The aged queen is compared to an overdressed bird. Details and voices are worn externally with great imagination. It is presumed Her Royal Highness never saw it. Fine examples can be plucked from fashion. b e f o r e traveling t o Italy. and even formal portraiture. 160. Anthony Van Dyke's Man in Armor is a masterpiece of drawn surface. The slight uncertainty of the pose and the limp cloak suggest a little more metal than man. lace. a scurrilous cartoon by a courtier of Queen Elizabeth I. for she would not have been amused and William Wodall might have been stretching his luck.
suggest the use of iron-gall ink (see p. Satire of the Queen's Dress c. t h e Rising. t h e B a b i n g t o n Plot.159 WILLIAM W O D A L L A u t h o r and illustrator o f The Aaes of Queene a Elizabeth poem Allegorized. Beneath the lethal fan is the body of a bird of trimmed feathers suggest age. t h e Jesuit Mission.1599 71/2 WILLIAM x 51/4 in ( 1 9 0 x 1 3 4 mm) WODALL . t h e Ridolfi Plot. here dark tawny owl. bitten nature. Northern Satire This is a quill-and-ink satire of the elderly queen's pride-As head of state and fashion. By her old upto three tiers supported on sticks. and saturations showing through from the other side. it was customary to Iron-gall ink Wodall's dangerous caricature steps daintily the written lines of her dedicated page. and her pride. the queen is masterfully rebalanced by words at her feet The whole drawing's blackened. manuscript comprising six c a n t o s . A Ruffs and feathers Starched white ruffs worn at court and by society grew steadily larger as Elizabeth's reign progressed. she is shown as a grossly disproportioned bird.35). while a raised foot pauses to assess the next displaying a fan of daggers. Top-heavy. T h e poem recounts t h e six m a j o r crises o f Elizabeth's reign: t h e Spanish A r m a d a . hooded with an overinflated fluffy ruff eye pins us.
c e n t u r y haute i n n u m e r o u s m a g a z i n e s i n c l u d i n g Elle.and tilted to the same de a little deeper than sp kneestogivehergravity. elegant chic and svelte. a n d L'Officiel de la couture. muscular aggression. Airbrushed reflective surfaces further amplify our perception of speed. Gruau uses starkly cut negative space (see pp. studio-like rectangle of paper. Vogue. Spider-Girl leaps like an insect. diving to catch us in the grip of her machine-like limbs. Gruau's model regally swans to the fore with cool pride. She has been drawn with brushes dipped into India ink and gouache. His model is outlined. as is Spider-Girl opposite.160 COSTUME Femmes Fatales THESE DEVASTATING femmes fatales force back the onlooker with their demure. Fine lines drawn against the building behind her echo the threads on which we have all seen arachnids drop and hang. Compare the compositio beneathVanDyke'sstudy of armor on p.F r e n c h f a s h i o n i l l u s t r a t o r w h o in his l o n g and esteemed career w o r k e d with many of the g r e a t e s t d e s i g n e r s o f 2 0 t h . 5 8 . RENE GRUAU I t a l i a n . demanding attention with gesture and flair. ofcroppedtrousershere to the device of the w Illustration 1949 for Jacques Fath in L ' O f f i c i e l d e la C o u t u r e RENE GRUAU . Rene Gruau's bold gouache drawing of smoothly swaying sophistication captures a brilliantly cut garment and frames it with great dynamism in a white. India ink and gouache This swish of confidence and style our enters the page turning everyone's head. Drying time in between applications ensured the colors did not run into each other. Composition Look how well this image is frame knee is parallel to the bottom edge spacehorizontalline cropping the trousers be outermostuprightbordersof her cuffs are similar above her head thesidesoftheimage. Harpers & Queen. possibly over a pencil outline. The black red. and gray pigments were applied separately. 158. G r u a u ' s highly distinctive d r a w i n g s have a p p e a r e d Couture. Fashion and fantasy drawings invent prototypes of ideals and perfection—be they for the catwalk or the fast-paced pages of comic books.5 9 ) and a three-spoke balance of cuffs and cropped trousers to create an almost flag-like emblem of power. and both share the power of scarlet and black.
sky. and has been the title's regular artist since 2003. In your mind's eye extend the uprights out of the top of the picture. not far above the drawing. Frenz has drawn for Marvel for about 20 years. moon. at Their extensions will meet the same single vanishing (see point pp. The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones.RON F R E N Z Contemporary American graphic artist w h o designs and pencils the dynamic scenes of numerous superheroes featured in Marvel Comics. This s modeling applied over the top give the image a sleek and mechanical of gravity. MARVEL C O M I C S . It is outside the picture frame. Buildings. Align your ruler to the upright of each building. Sharp focus black outlines in this drawing create a hyper-real dynamic. He began work on Spider-Girl in 1998. Single-point understand perspective To how Frenz created up therefore the effect of steeply between looking buildings—and howyou can do the same in your own work—take calculate where a ruler the and single vanishing point lies. and Amazing Spider-Man. beginning with Star Wars. Airbrushed color and with tonal focus. to the right of its center. and figure are all locked into equally shatp through the traditional process of a pencilled outline over-drawn ink. a great characteristic superhero comics.74-77). Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 2001-04 R O N FRENZ.
quality. hue. 3. CHALK PASTELS: Blackboard chalk is sidewalk work. The nontoxic range below represents a suggested starting point for experiment. and cost are laid out for our pleasure and perusal. except the final layer. Seemingly infinite choices of texture. which he left unfixed to retain its brightness. Beware—some are toxic. or wax and a binder are shaped into fine strips and encased in w o o d like a graphite pencil. plants. and can be a great rediscovery for bold drawings. and CHALK PASTELS Pastel pencils make fine lines (as above). minerals. the finer and more subtle the texture and color should be. 1. FELT-TIP PENS: Instant-drying alcoholor water-based inks stored in the barrels of the pens are delivered via smooth nylon o r felt tips of varying shapes and thicknesses. purchase a small selection of different items you think you will like. fixing each layer on the front. and synthetics. the diverse are made in brands of basic member of the family. Before making substantial investments. Try materials that are new and unfamiliar. OIL PASTELS Oil-based. slightly oily to the touch. allowing it to fix slightly from behind. colored materials available. great for tin . Many products are sold individually and in boxed sets. I suggest you do so. shape. The worst are like revolting old lipsticks that get everywhere except where you intend. Dissolve in turpentine or mineral spirits to produce oil paint or or dark paper. The higher the quality (and cost).162 COSTUME Colored Materials ART STORES BRIM OVER w i t h t h e m a n y wherever permitted. mixed on the paper and scratched into (as below). crumbly. They vary hugely in cost. clay. Pastel pencils are slender and in w o o d casing. size. intensity. and subtlety. used to make colors. paper-wrapped. these work best when slightly warm. including iridescents. OIL PASTELS: Many colors. Children's wax crayons are relatives. Pastels are finer. Be aware that fixative dulls pastel. chalkbased but very subtle. C o n t e crayons are square-formed. Use them to draw lightly (as above left) or thickly. there are disparities between the apparent nature or color of what you hold in your hand and its performance on paper. Bright pastels are more brilliant on colored paper. you may be pleasantly surprised to discover something you could not have imagined using. quality and cost T h e best are paperwrapped sticks of sumptuous. made in about 80 colors. wash. and sold in many colors. and can be softened and manipulated with degrees of heat. though lines can develop greasy stains around the edges if the paper is not first stretched and treated with a gelatin paste laid as a wash. COLORED PENCILS: Dry pigments ground together with chalk. Sticks and conte crayons make thicker marks (as below). unwrapped harder pastels. 4. Degas built his pastels in layers. Most stores leave small pads of paper on their counters for customers to test materials. Store loose pastels in dry rice to keep them clean. Often. They work well on PIGMENTS Pigments. animals. oily pigment. are derived from many sources: rocks. soft. Many artists apply fixative to the back of their work. insects. See h o w they work and return later for more of what proved best for you. 2.
If you love smooth blocks and lines of colon felt-tip pens are perfect.or clay-based thin crayons in wood casing.163 COLORED PENCILS These are wax. . FELT-TIP PENS Although not made with felt-tip pen. so it is best to test them before buying. Diverse brands are harder or soften greasier or chalkier in use. Think of Matisse's Blue Nude (see p. Fine lines can be achieved (as above). Brands made for designers sold in enormous ranges of colors are far more subtle and sophisticated than those made for children. Some are nonsoluble. Some give richer lines than others. others dissolve in water or turpentine to make a wash. it is still a great champion and support for those beginners feeling shyly obligated to tone down their love of color to conform with what others say they should use. 111). leaving the paper to shine through for highlights (as below). Colors can be blended as shown right) and tones graded by altering pressure.
and volume in space (see pp. t o o . Turn t h e m in different d i r e c t i o n s and o b s e r v e t h e i r s t r u c t u r e and f o r m . I m a d e n u m e r o u s s h e e t s o f d r a w i n g s . the era in which we live. . 104-07). you will need several large sheets of drawing paper. D r a w each o n e first as a solid object. Superstitions and fetishes are attached to them: we are told never to put new shoes on a table. You. To set up. Here we go one step further. they record and reflect our common history. S H O E S TELL LIFE STORIES. and after studying familiar shoes we use the information learned to invent new ones. This class takes the shoe as its subject in building on earlier lessons concerned with seeing through objects to understand their function. 100-01 and pp. a range of colored felt-tip pens with both fine and broad tips. structure. if y o u m a k e p l e n t y o f d r a w i n g s as o p p o s e d t o o n l y a f e w . and how we stand and walk. social and economic status. Linear Outline Using fine pens. REPEATED STUDY T o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s class. e n j o y i n g t h e study a n d i n v e n t i o n o f shoes.164 COSTUME Study and Design they reflect our age. imagining y o u can see t h r o u g h it. personality. As artifacts in museums. and they have been concealed in buildings to ward off misfortune. style. a n d e x p e r i e n c e visible p r o g r e s s . values. c o v e r a large sheet o f p a p e r w i t h line drawings o f several shoes. while artists have painted their boots or those of others as personal portraits and memorials. and a selection of shoes. t h e n again as if transparent. will discover m o r e .
STUDY AND DESIGN
study the surface contours using fineand broad-tipped felt-tip pens. For best results, it is important to be bold and brief. Draw firmly, fast, and with as few strokes as possible. Build up each shoe from light to dark andleavesome paper showing through to create highlights.
Design Your Own
Using what you have learned from the previous steps about the structures of your shoes, and about the use of pens, invent new designs from your imagination. Start with fine outlines and progress to colored and textured surfaces. Modify your ideas by rotating the views.
The Structure of Costume
MUSEUMS ARE AN INFINITELY
rich resource for the artist and
information given by a period style. Arrange to visit a costume museum or ask a friend to model clothes for you at home. Using fine felt-tip pens, begin with quick, pale impressions of each garment's shape before homing in on its borders and seams. Try to draw transparent views wherever possible to record the relationships between all component parts. Aim to draw enough information for it to be possible to make up a version of the garment using paper pinned to a tailor's dummy.
designer. They often give quite unexpected gems of ideas and information—whatever the subject. These drawings, made in a costume museum, demonstrate ways of recording structural information and detail for later use in the studio. They could form the basis of new designs for a fashion project or theater production, for example. Drawings of shoes on pp. 164-65 show how new designs can be evolved from the structural
It is usually best when collecting information for reference to apply the restraint of dispassionate observation. Set yourself the test of drawing facts with as little artistic license or embellishment as possible. Here I chose fine felt-tip pens because they are at their best when used swiftly, and therefore encourage bold, unhesitant decisions.
Swift lines record the hanging weight of this gentleman's coat, the relative proportions of its layers, and minimal details of the buttons and cuffs.
Thick velvet fabric is pulled tight beneath and across the bust by a single button. This transparent view shows how the fabric falls loosely in straight panels beneath the level of the sleeve.
W h e n visiting museums, be prepared f o r l o w lighting, which can make it hard t o see and draw. A book can help if attached t o your drawing board.
Adding stripes and dashes of color with a thicker pen brings out the glossy sheen and sculptural rigidity of this dress, which would have been worn over a whalebone corset. small reading light designed t o clip o n t o a
THE STRUCTURE OF COSTUME
In small drawings such as these, use thick pens to color entire sections with a few marks, as I did here down the side of the bodice.
The light, frilly bulk of this crinoline dress is propelled forward with lines. pinching its gathers and sways that are hiding a horsehair bustle. fleets of quick
THIS CLASS FOCUSES ON how to draw textures through the collection of fabric, pattern, and embroidery samples from a costume m u s e u m . This formal method, using ruled squares, can create an invaluable library of ideas a n d i n f o r m a t i o n for future r e f e r e n c e — w h e n painting a clothed figure, or preparing a textile project, for example. However, if making a book of samples for a project, remember that it is important to also include collages of f o u n d materials (see pp.230-31) To d r a w a fabric texture, b e g i n by concentrating o n h o w y o u i m a g i n e it w o u l d feel if you t o u c h e d it. Decide if it w o u l d be rough, s m o o t h , w a r m , cold, thick, thin, tough, or fragile, for example. As you draw, believe you can feel these qualities at your fingertips a n d that your pencil is responding to the sensation. Undulate the pressure of your lines and marks according to the feeling of the fabric rather than its appearance. Let your pencil enact the sensation of touching its surface.
and to experiment more loosely with mixed media.
This starchy, quilted, b o w e d creation started life as an imagined corset, I intended t o d r a w together in one sculptural f o r m a range o f t h e details opposite. T h e garment quickly got o u t o f hand. T h e r e is great e n j o y m e n t in letting y o u r imagination run wild w h e n inventing costumes. If you are unable t o visit a costume museum, many exciting fabric details and textures can be found in y o u r o w n closet o r home.
Colored pencils give precision and tonal range; they can be faded but not erased. Lightly use an HB graphite pencil if you wish to plan a design first. Pressed hard, colored pencils build up a waxy finish of brilliant color. Used lightly, they appear powdery and show the texture of the paper.
TEXTURES AND PATTERNS
Silk and braid
172-73. These characters. and motivation of an individual. shape.126-27. identity. selected from different pages of my original book. and 252-53). I made a drawing book full of studies seeking to understand how he composed drama and pathos in his narratives (see also pp. Madrid. .Dressing Character I O N C E SPENT THREE MONTHS researching the work of Francisco de Goya at the Prado Museum. look at how Goya delineated volumes of thick fabric to express the posture.
. and tangible.170—71). I carefully copied the direction of each of his lines. and visible. Posture Carving also taken from my Madrid drawing book (see pp. To understand how he did this. as it rushes and carves fabric-wrapped forms like rivers and desert winds shaping the earth. are copies of works by Goya in which he makes air seem heavier than flesh.T H E S E PENCIL STUDIES.
Saskia. It middle. This J u s t as there are three parts to a traditional landscape drawing—the foreground. and other masters of Western Art. He in turn scorches the paper with his view and a certain speed of seeing all. and distance—so drawings of gathered people can be loosely arranged in three took only minutes to make and yet it lives for centuries. . and its illumination. We read tensions and exchanges between people. Drawings selected for this chapter explore these Saskia Lying in Bedand a Nurse ranges of proximity 1638 9 x61/2in (227 x 164 mm) and a travel journal. furniture. the direct exchange (as shown here) where one or more characters hold eye Aneedproduced the thicker lines of the nurse. Saskia died after childbirth. We can direct close. vivid portrait of his wife captures our attention. and novels—our staple cultural diet—are driven by a fascination with shared experience and the detail of what happens in other people's lives. Seeing through Rembrandt's eyes. Here. but drawings of gathered people tell them most directly. heighten or subdue drama with subtleties of exaggeration or caricature. the viewer. we can learn most about handling pen and ink. even up her were laid with a brush. and instantly engage with the action of the scene. the speed and printmaker and one of the greatest and most influential density of its lines. Her all-too-clear expression shows annoyance and irritation with her husband. R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN in the delivery of narrative. With a pocket full of disposable pens we also go out and draw the expressions of gathered people. in spite of how it may seem. soap operas. As artists. Third. Rembrandt's bored and frustrated wife. Washes of shadow behind engaged and as a natural voyeur can feel invisible while watching the scene. we can R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter draftsman. He is also the artist from whom props to add layers of meaning and attitude. stares out from her gloomy sickbed. while a quill contact with. too. the viewer is not directly made the finer lines of Saskia. the viewer's attention in a scene by the format of its composition. Blockbuster movies. and so. television documentaries. are implicated in this marital exchange made over the head of the anonymous nurse. there are no longer individuals but one significant group or mass action. paintings depicting scenes from history. types. comics. Second. Storytelling and people-watching are obsessive human activities. Later in their lives. daily newspapers. The spaces between people and the positions they occupy on a page are vital to our understanding of the psychology or emotion of an event. a crowd tells the story from a distance. this is not the portrait of an old woman. finding corners in crowded places to inscribe their action and energy onto the page. presumably while he is making this drawing.Gatherings A LL DRAWINGS TELL STORIES. We can also use clothes. we. First. and therefore seem to see.
176 GATHERINGS SOME DRAWINGS ARE MADE e n t i r e l y o f i l l u m i n a t i o n that floods drama into the viewers gaze. a kitchen explodes in o u r faces. the C o o k . Think about what else you could use: a laser smoke. and in. Below. and projectors to create their anarchic punk satires of modern life. and smoke billows around the agitated jives of the Duchess.kicks against the mundane things that close down your mind is a refreshing and good thing.. Real Life is Rubbish 2002 Dimensions variable TIM N O B L E A N D SUE WEBSTER . Pencil on paper important but only the beginning of possibility the combination of three-dimensional space. the Cat. T h e i m m a c u l a t e d r a w i n g is only r e v e a l e d w h e n t h e b e a m of a p r o j e c t o r c a s t s t h e s h a d o w Projections of the h e a p o n t o a wall." (Tim Noble) Drawing with light it is important to think about what you is Here timelessly we see a in can draw with. plates shatter. TIM N O B L E A N D SUE W E B S T E R British artists who collaborate using neon. via the animated clutter of o u r material lives. c o m p o s e d garbage p r o d u c e s a c a l m . junk. and Alice. N o b l e a n d W e b s t e r s w i t t y a n d o f t e n s u b v e r s i v e d r a w i n g s are also c o n t e m p o r a r y art installations. and projector. F o r e a c h w o r k . In one of R a c k h a m s great illustrations for Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland. narrative is delivered through the air. or even the office photocopier. for example. Pans fly oft the stove.. t h e y select and arrange familiar items of street detritus into what appears to be an u n p l e a s a n t pile. garbage and chaos are piled a n d e x p l o d e d in r o o m s full of event. In both works. hearth i m p l e m e n t s crash at o u r feet. h a l o e d portrait of the artists seated b a c k to b a c k ."Anything that. and on. Here. refuse.
and watercolor. See how the In the Duchess's Kitchen 1907 77/8 x 6 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 5 0 m m ) ARTHUR RACKHAM . are very large compared to on p. beams. Refer back to the drawing class how pots In drawn objects and elements that those behind.76-77) above vanishing point (see that is about3/4in (2 cm) oak converge at this point.177 ARTHUR RACKHAM British watercolorist and book illustrator. humor. 100 to see for make elliptical objects and pans fly through the the foreground. we find several devices already explored through our drawing classes. tabletop. This makes the story appear to leap out at us. by vivid children's Rakham's w o r k is characterized fantasy. ink. Find the singleperspective pp. a n d an unmistakable graphic style. amplifying movement outward from the vanishing point. Rackham Vanishing point In this marvelous drama made with pen.Stowe's ofMysteryand Queer Little Folks. H e is best k n o w n forillustratingIrving's Rip vanWinkle. and Alice's shoulder. and Poe's Tales Imagination. The wood grain acts like marks of speed behind the scene. Depth Billows of smoke expand and are lighter as they come forward.
In culture. perhaps these two are the most extreme. audiences. The image stands out among his more usual graphic works in which he hones and carves semi-abstract human forms. and composition they are polar opposites. Opposite. heat. as if Moore's wrapping has been literally outstretched. M o o r e t o u r e d Italy as a young man. and action of a buffalo hunt. Chalk and graphite This fog-bound but humorous gathering of souls is made in graphite and colored chalk with gray wash. a sculptor.The human form w a s the vehicle o f his expression and h e w a s t h e official W o r l d W a r II artist. London. and art in the landscape. which still narrates vivid days in the lives of an energetic nation.178 GATHERINGS we have seen in the pairs and trios of drawings by masters and makers. This is an ironic drawing from Moore. a n d l o v e d t o d r a w in t h e BritishMuseum. as fellow watchers. Moore's spectators appear to have walked a long way from nowhere to witness and wait beside this mysterious obelisque. meaning. A glimmer of gold light appears from the left No explanation is given. The mournful gray landscape of Henry Moore's northern British field has gathered by night an overcoated audience to stand and wait before a wrapped and roped monument. and we. HENRY MOORE Crowd 1942 Looking at Tied-up Object . a great Shoshone drawing blazes with the color. join in the waiting. This is just one of many precious artifacts from a lost time. Magnetic Fields sculpture. expressing his dry humor about O F ALL THE CONTRASTS HENRY MOORE British s c u l p t o r w h o t r a i n e d a n d taught at t h e R C A .
Each color is evenly distributed throughout the scene. and helping our eye to dart around. Stylized hunters. horses. Hunt CENTURY SHOSHONE SCHOOL . tolearnhow to paint a scene on a hide are and buffalo circle and charge the perimeters of a skin "field.179 SHOSHONE SCHOOL Stylized characters This vital image of a buffalo hunt is made with pigment Members of the Shoshone community wishing painted within dark outlines on a stretched elk hide. MAGNETIC FIELDS Horses It is interesting to note how the outstretched limbs ofthesehorses echo European images of the runningBuffalo horse before the sequence-photographer Muybridge taught us to 19TH understand their movement differently. Skills are taught not center chant or dance to the beat of a drum." Men at the instructed to sit and watch. creating harmonious balance with words but through silent demonstration.
Opposite.f o o t e d t r o g l o d y t e s w h o rage into w a r like a m u d s l i d e of revenge. a pink-inked cinema wobbles along with string.180 GATHERINGS The Human Condition IN THE SPECTRUM of these vastly d i f f e r e n t g a t h e r i n g s of p e o p l e . w r i t e r a r t i s t . a n d o t h e r w o r k s . w h e r e he w a t c h e s a t u r b u l e n t s p i r a l of p u n i s h m e n t f o r the d a m n e d . t h e Bible. The Circle of the (The Whirlwind 1824 of Lustful Lovers) mm) 143/4 x 207/8i n ( 3 7 4 x 5 3 0 WILLIAM BLAKE . K a t h e K o l l w i t z s c r a t c h e d a n d e n g r a v e d her a r m y of c l a y . a n d the gentle h u m o r of sedate r i d i c u l e . We also see qualities of line. p o e t . color. era as Kollwitz. texture. It illustrates a scene from Dante's Divine Comedy. W I L L I A M BLAKE British visionary. m a r k . B l a k e h a s i l l u m i n a t e d his s a d d e n e d Virgil on the s h o r e s of a d a r k w o r l d . w h i c h b y their c h o i c e a n d h a n d l i n g a c t u a l l y b e c o m e the force a n d spirit of e a c h i m a g e . and sweetened the often bleak years with his impractical inventions. The muscularity of Blake's figures was inspired by Michelangelo's works. a d e a t h c h a r g e of brutality. w e f i n d a spiritual v i s i o n . Brushed line and wash This is an ink-outlined drawing made with a fine brush on paper with added washes of watercolor The image was subsequently redrawn as a line engraving. Heath Robinson lived through the same war-torn. pale souls of the lustful are being s p u n into yet another realm of hell. inextinguishable in its fortitude and h u m o r . a n d f o c u s . Blake w a s d r i v e n b y a passion f o r j u s t i c e a n d a p r o f o u n d b e l i e f in his v i s i t a t i o n s f r o m angels. a n d e n g r a v e r w h o p o w e r f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e d his o w n t e x t s in a d d i t i o n t o D a n t e ' s Divine Comedy. Misted in translucent layers of paint.
humor by making his characters earnest. and the impact of death and war upon women. HEATH ROBINSON The Kinecar 1926 103/8 x 15 in (262 x 380 mm) . and the family home. and controlled smears on the metal surface printed as tones. plodding along with hazy. and clearly focused. sculptor and draftsman. With masterful gentility. Losbruch (The Outbreak) 1955 20 x 233/8 in (507 x 592 mm) KATHE KOLLWITZ HEATH ROBINSON humorous illustrator and a regular contributor to magazines and journals such as The Sketch and The Bystander.181 KATHE KOLLWITZ German printmaker. He created sincere. Robinson and Kollwitz (above) share almost identical life dates and their work expresses a shared history from opposite sides oftheworld wars. stoical bemusement. poverty. British Pen and wash This is a pen-andwatercolor drawing made for a color-platereproduction in an edition of T h e Bystander. however meager or ridiculous their activity. who lived in a poor district of Berlin. Ink rolled over was selectively polished off using a rag. THE HUMAN CONDITION Scratched lines This is a dry-point etching with monoprint. The image was scratched directly onto a metal plate. children. What remained in scratched grooves printed on damp paper as lines. and her powerful and sensitive drawings center on nurture. White marks were made with a dusting of French chalk on the artist's finger to wipe away ink leaving clean metal. Kollwitz survived the two World Wars. Heath Robinson shows England in a past era.
188-89) and Caravans (see pp. fine fiber-tip Drawing with a fine fiber-tip pen. they can be obtained within minutes. shut your book. or idea. jot notes. dropped in your pocket and forgotten till needed. T h e r e w e r e c seconds t o snatch this impression b e t w e e n their emergence from one bridge and disappearance b e n e a t h t h e next. indent paper. R e m e m b e r . 4. G E L P E N : P r o d u c e d in b l a c k w h i t e . Unlike pencils. blob when old. Available in blacks and ranges of colors. in the car. I swiftly focused on gesture. t h e y a r e lightfast. a n d pressure-sensitive.7 7 and 214-15).182 GATHERINGS Disposable Pens (ballpoints. a n d ranges o f colors. turn the page. 192-93) w e r e b o t h m a d e w i t h a ballpoint. and in most pockets so I can always record a thought DISPOSABLE PENS QUICK NOTES O n a c o l d day in Venice. if y o u w i s h y o u r d r a w i n g s t o last a n d n o t fade o r b l u r w i t h t i m e a n d e x p o s u r e t o light. At a time like this. Quick-drying. or put the paper in your pocket instantly without fear of smudging. w a t e r . a disposable pen with its clip-on cap goes anywhere. For example. R O L L E R B A L L : A c o n s t a n t i n k flow 3 . . t w o tourists and their gondolier drifter past m e o n a canal. Insensitive t o p r e s s u r e : lines d o n o t v a r y in w i d t h o r t o n e . including l u m i n o u s a n d m e t a l l i c . gel pens) are the most convenient of all materials with which to travel. fibertips." 1. CHOICES AVAILABLE T h e r e a r e m a n y d i s p o s a b l e p e n s t o c h o o s e from. aiming for correct outlines would result in drawing too slowly to c a t c h the moment.r e s i s t a n t . they each offer distinct and sometimes unexpected qualities. build to a rich. Ideal f o r precision w o r k (see p p . in the studio. B A L L P O I N T : Black a n d b o l d c o l o r s o f f e r d i v e r s e qualities. trusting shape and form to follow. or turn into washes and make monoprints if flooded with an alcohol-based substance such as hairspray. I keep quantities at home. So many stores sell them. FIBER-TIP: M a n u f a c t u r e d f o r artists a n d d e s i g n e r s in a r a n g e o f w i d t h s . c h o o s e p e n s l a b e l e d " p e r m a n e n t " o r "lightfast. is d e l i v e r e d t h r o u g h a m e t a l t u b e o v e r a t i n y ball bearing. The f o u r i l l u s t r a t e d h e r e r e p r e s e n t a basic r a n g e . W h i t e gel p e n s a r e v e r y e f f e c t i v e o n d a r k papers. dark sheen. 7 6 . p e r m a n e n t . which can snap or pierce through your clothes. these pens enable you to sketch. Lines t h i c k e n as t h e p e n w e a r s o u t G r a n d Canal (see pp. a ballpoint will make faint lines. rollerballs. 2.
Compare this Klee's mules on p. crowd of fellow travelers Fast lines These scribbled lines model the mass and shadows of heads belonging passengers packed into the boat. Earlier I had witnessed a crammed en masse in a fleet of hired gondolas complete with musicians and choir. Fast lines focus on action.31 .FROMMEMORY Here I used the same fiber-tip pen to compose a scene from memory. not form.
Push toward caricature and this will draw out of your memory what was most important. You must learn to trust your memory and to draw what impressed you most. I caught fleeting glimpses of gathered people and solitary souls going about their affairs. if animated. all action is in the line of his coat and directed by his nose. pocket notebook and a fiber-tip pen. A curatorial assistant flies to do a chore (right). life will not slow and wait for you to catch it. focus on the action of the event. Let the line of the flying coat fly and the hanging arm hang. Circular lines buzz around a man puzzling at the end of a train platform (left). No camera can tie you to a time or people in the same way. animate them more. but they should not be what you dwell on. angles will happen as a matter of course. let it enter the stage and perform. black. Each one was witnessed and drawn immediately from the afterimage of what I had just seen.184 GATHERINGS The Travel Journal I CANNOT OVERSTATE THE JOY of making a travel journal. Above all. activity. You will make outlines. if a person was stout. Each line acts its part in the narrative. and companionship. Exaggeration helps. just draw the action. Movement . not its outline. of course. when out drawing. However. Don't worry about measuring angles. make them stouter. Every drawing writes an indelible memory of place. FLEETING MOMENTS Walking through Venice with a small.
In turn. The rush of his legs isamplifiedby their blurred lines. I am watched by the aggravated guard. Expression . Observation THE TRAVEL JOURNAL The same willowy assistant dashes about his work. I drew him three times on the same page to catch a range of his physical expressions.185 A large lady is photographed in front of a delicate work of art. eager to herd us all from his house of responsibility.
if they are being devious. and there met this sullen custodian.186 GATHERINGS Catching the Moment On A BITTERLY COLD November day. I took refuge in a church in Venice. and you decide to draw the moment. When your attention has been caught. For example. if they are being haughty. flap. forcing me to remain at the back and look at them. Identify the principal character and draw him or her first. elevate them in the pictorial space. He and his simpering assistant would not allow me in. Here the custodian projects fastidious ownership of his desk and pamphlets by pushing from behind the center of the space and challenging our entry to his image. and let every detail speak by its size. Here I have recreated my drawing in steps to show you how to set about capturing such a scene. ACTION AND DETAIL W h e n drawing people. placement. and reason for happening. or pushes. focus on action. or bulge. and involvement in the story. pulls. rather than the works of art they guarded. furniture leans. emotion. start by focusing on its action. decide how faces and bodies contort. not outline. and clothing or bags hang. . Place the person carefully. Be aware that their placement on the page is part of the narrative. For example. you might place them lower down.
Decide where t o place them t o emphasize their role. I added t h e assistant. continue adding characters. which is pushed toward us in a gesture of confrontation. CATCHING THE MOMENT The assistant Identify t h e antagonist ( o r second character) in t h e scene. D r a w their action. If drawing a more complex scene. a pillar locates t h e scene in a depth o f space. Here. who is largely expressed through the shape and fall o f his raincoat and his way o f using a note pad. W i t h a few strokes. together with any immediate props they are using. Draw their action and props. . In the final step (left) I reinforced t h e custodian's desk. such as the desk and pamphlets seen here.187 The custodian Identify your principal character a n d their psychological role in the scene. Decide where you will place them o n the paper t o emphasize their action and intent.
I developed detailofthis drawing from memory using a ballpoint pen. . and buildings. An imminent deluge of tourists urged me to work catching no more than the skeleton of the view. where vertical mooring poles give space and pulse to the horizontal speed of water quickly.Grand Canal T H E CANALS OF VENICE are bustling places full of occupation.
note only their most essential action and feature. Venetians flow across a stepped bridge and cascade into the streets beyond. .Crossings DURING THIS RUSH HOUR. followed by the streets. Characters in the foreground were drawn first. then the bridge beneath them. and drawn immediately from memory. Caricature each person slightly. Each person was glimpsed in an instant. To catch characters like this.
Caravans and other backstage activity convey expectations of energy and repose. quiet afternoon.Caravans T H E PARAPHERNALIA O F TRAVEL i s an intriguing part of circus life. Sitting at a distance on a hot. and a great subject to draw. I found this circus by chance in the Swiss mountains. I used a ballpoint pen to compose a series of scenes. .
England. It is better to get up before dawn. Look closely at works by many artists and you will see that they have not represented hills. so J o h n Russell's tour de f o r c e drawing (opposite) was a masterpiece of observation in his time. These conditions are very difficult to express well. Oxford. marking the ground with lines of footprints or by turning stones. William Turner is said to have had himself lashed to a ship's mast to comprehend the storm (see p. as opposed the physicality of Earth. our companion. It is Earths satellite. they are the animators of your subject. Russell d r e w this. What they have drawn is the force of nature on these properties: how the wind heaves the night ocean. pages o f softly i l l u m i n a t e d craters and lunar "seas" c o v e r e d in m a t h e m a t i c a l and s h o r t h a n d calculations. H e a l s o p r o d u c e d an a l b u m o f 1 8 0 exquisite pencil drawings. learning to draw light out of dark. t w o e n g r a v e d m a p s k n o w n as The Lunar Planispheres. By drawing such momentous and everyday events. when little stirs and empty blue skies offer even less to latch lines to. sunny days. surrounded by the bright instruments of centuries of navigation. and its draws the tides of the seas. trees. Richard Long. the face of the Moon. Just as NASA photographs of Earth have had a profound effect on the way we view our fragile home. artists see for themselves that which is momentary and eternal. Beginners will often choose calm. how the mountain cut by ice and rain is now fleetingly lit. arranging them in perfect circles on the mountainside or in lines drifting out of sight beneath low clouds. Weather is essential in all landscape drawing. the sun comes out to blind it. and experiment. makes his work by the act of walking. In this chapter Moon Pastel 1795 Drawing we experiment with charcoal. It now hangs on the staircase of the History of Science Museum. a n d a n astronomer w h o dedicated 20 years t o studying t h e M o o n . The pastel drawing was constructed from myriad telescopic observations almost 200 years before the Apollo Moon landing. The forces of nature. and the sea. This is the world's first accurate image of the Moon. but it can be seen as a lens to our observation of this planet. speculation. a n d a m o o n globe called t h e Selenographia. how the soil is scorched. a contemporary environmental artist.Earth and the Elements I T MAY SEEM PERVERSE to start a chapter titled "Earth and the Elements" with an image of the Moon. or has cracked and fallen under the weight of water. and even how the Sun illuminates. or the wind carries it away. are the real subjects in great landscape drawings. There is a sense of the heroic in drawing outside—we race to catch a form before the tide engulfs it. and take bold steps in emulating the swell of clouds and the forces of torrential water. to be ready to draw the new light as it breaks across the land. JOHN RUSSELL A p o r t r a i t pastelist t o King G e o r g e III o f England. t h e first-ever accurate image o f t h e M o o n ' s surface. 199). Take chances against the rain and work with the wind or fog. 5 f t x 5 ft 6 in ( 1 5 2 x 1 6 8 c m ) J O H N RUSSELL . rivers. and meteor impacts have scarred.
Flapping kimonos and an onlooker turning his b a c k have the magic of a m o m e n t caught. has b e c o m e a hysterical kite. and solidity. H O N O R E DAUMIER French satirical cartoonist lithographer. He knew how the world bends and stutters under such gusts. a sail b r o k e n loose in a stormy marriage. distance. is already lost. the bourgeoisie. Below. By Turner carries us to the heart of the maelstrom. Daumier's c a r t o o n shines with the brilliance of his comic memory. and gives motion to each image. A hard waxy was drawn across a heavy limestone Varying definitions crayon of lire and depths of tone conspire to give volume. fluttering heavily. and pioneer ofexpressionism. sculptor.Through political drawings he fired his sharp wit at the king. and by observing its tides and eddies in our o w n environment. and the legal profession. Danger of Wearing Balloon Petticoats UNDATED HONORE DAUMIER . a scratched ghost. Hazy vertical marks reveal buildings into the mist. lifts. This wife. undramatic b u t brimming with stylized realism. the government. Terrifying waves of merciless nature roar across the paper. speed.198 EARTH AND THE E L E M E N T S Air in Motion THE GREAT INVISIBLE SUBJECT o f these d r a w i n g s is t h e w i n d . Fluid strokes inflate the woman's dress and pin shadows to the ground. like an umbrella forced inside-out. seeing how it shakes. we can soon learn to draw its force. serving a prison sentence for his views. T h e great master of English seascape is c o n d u c t i n g with his graphic energy. painter. Hokusais sedate wind presses reeds a n d the j o u r n e y s o f young ladies. Dots and dashes suggest receding trees out of focus. T h e ship. Crayon and limestone This is a lithograph.
M. Wind direction wood-block This is a colored To represent the blows lifted flowed wind. TURNER KATSUSHIKA HOKUSAI Prolific J a p a n e s e c o l o r w o o d . leans the whole composition swells around its fateful center. AIR IN MOTION Pencil and watercolor subdued brushed. T h e r e a r e m a n y stories o f his p a s s i o n a t e w o r k i n g methods. d e s i g n e r a n d b o o k i l l u s t r a t o r .b l o c kprintmaker. including being lashed t o a ship's m a s t in o r d e r to study a storm. Landscape a n d city life w e r e his principal subjects. from left print. Hokusai direction (from clothing from has chosen which it the right). wind. W . A outline scratched of a skeletal into penciled ship is while and the waves. seascape. painter.W. H o k u s a i in t u r n has since significantly influenced European art.M.l o v e dw o r k s i n c l u d e 1 0 0 v i e w s o f M o u n t Fuji and 1 2 v o l u m e s o f Manga.199 J. T U R N E R British landscape. 1826 91/2 x 113/4 in ( 2 4 1 x 3 0 0 m m ) J. Ship in a Storm c. into this very as pressed sheet The paper's through own coior is brought banks of mist and fog. a n d his b e s t .i n f l u e n c e d b y examples o f W e s t e r n art obtained through D u t c h t r a d i n g in Nagasaki. horizontally then and of the it into the stream Plants also bend and flow right to Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 1802 81/2 HOKUSAI KATSUSHIKA x 131/2 in ( 2 1 7 x 3 4 3 mm) . and history painter w h o s e p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t a b o v e all w a s light. absorbent watercolor and are Stains of splashed. T u r n e r w o r k e d in oils a n d w a t e r c o l o r s a n d s k e t c h e d c o p i o u s l y o n his travels.
His subjects include ruins. inks. Turner (see p. By contrast. An update on biblical showers of fish and frogs. ink. He brings us to stare into a place that no sane human would enter. It looks so contemporary. this is a writer's narrative of terror. leaving nothing but a glimpse of moonlight glistening on the froth below.28). Opposite. T h e very nature of b o t h is turmoil and an interweaving of elements. he blanketed the drawing in darkness. as a gestural storm on the paper. water. it is difficult to contemplate its brooding and night-soaked heart. h a u n t e d shadows. fantasy palaces. as a subject and second. or charcoal. marks.198) admires the majesty of nature. and tossed o b j e c t s — a perfect subject in which artists can forget themselves. drawing was Hugo's principal means o f expression. grab their b r u s h . Then. this is a b o m b a r d m e n t from o u r h o m e s . T h e m e n a c i n g darkness of Hugo's storm b e l o w is so convincing. active surfaces of water. EARTH AND THE VICTOR HUGO French novelist and artist (see also p. Le Bateau-Vision 1864 71/2 x 1 0 in ( 1 9 2 x 2 5 5 m m ) VICTOR H U G O . and t h e sea s t u d i e d f r o m his h o m e in Guernsey in t h e Channel Islands. composing banks of waves and dense. lines of rain escorting them to b o u n c e and clatter. as if drawn j u s t this year. Leonardos Cloudburst of Material Possessions is o n e of his m o s t enigmatic and mysterious works. D o m e s t i c o b j e c t s we can o w n and name fall from the clouds. Pen and brush Hugo drew first with pen and ink. and swim into the page. In periods b e t w e e n writing. with a brush.200 ELEMENTS Storms STORMS CAN BE SEEN and drawn in two ways: first.
Each item that has crashed from heaven is drawn in such a way that we can feel Leonardo's nib picking it up in the speed of a doodle. Above and below are examples of his mirror handwriting. and a wheel.LEONARDO DA VINCI Leonardo devised many artifacts of our modern lives. a bell. There is a little magic in recognizing many items from our homes something like a rake. together with half the contents of our garage. and they passed through private hands for 400 years before becoming widely known. It is interesting to speculate how engineering might have developed if his ideas had been shared with the world earlier Ink and chalk This is a pen and ink drawing with touches of black chalk. He bequeathed his drawings to a friend. envisioning machines centuries before their making (helicopters and bicycles. He was left-handed and wrote backwards in Italian from left to right. Cloudburst of Material Possessions 1510-12 45/8 x 43/8 in ( 1 1 7 x 1 1 1 mm) L E O N A R D O DA VINCI . a hook. for example).
his unsurpassed handling of light.202 ELEMENTS THE PROFILE OF A HORIZON is a line we immediately recognize and respond to. C L A U D E LORRAIN French classical landscape painter draftsman. and dry marks in the foreground appear to be made with his finger. thick. cooler tones receding into the distance are applied with a brush. Clare Bryan took panoramic photographs of the English South Downs. and famed for. and etcher who lived most of his life in 17th-century Rome.1638 85/8 x 121/2 in (219 x 320 mm) CLAUDE LORRAIN . In a very different work (opposite above). which he used to unify his compositions. rapidly layering contours to shape place. Paler. and after tracing her captured line. made inside a book. Whether land-. transferred it to a scroll. atmosphere. In the lower half he has walked downhill a little. she teased away fragments of paper to illuminate her view. Segments The top half of the drawing is a view as we enter the valley. Drawing with a scalpel. it is the unique calligraphic signature of the place in which we stand. rich. sea-. and we can imagine standing over his shoulder. a horizon line can trigger our recognition. Views from Velletri c. and across to the right. Even distilled from all other detail. Claude is distinguished by. watching his hand and eye at work together. She was inspired by her research of aerial plans of London and the story of an alien map butterfly (see caption). or cityscape. EARTH AND THE Bryan cut the profile of a city. and mood simultaneously. Nature Profiles Opposite below. Claude Lorrain drew directly on location. Over first lines. Claude has used a fine nib to delineate segments of land as they recede into space.
On turning the pages of City. 2001 CLARE BRYAN C L A R E BRYAN 3ritish artist.5-m)scroll. and digital print-based works reflect upon the histories and poetry of "left behind and in-between spaces. progressively settlement (cropped more and more paper is drawn away to show the expansion of human page of an around the river. printmaker graphic designer.The horizon was drawn with a City Landline 2003 271/2x 59 in (70 x 150 cm) scalpel. specialty bookbinder. drawings Ideas of introduction Clare Bryan to research introduced down and led NATURE PROFILES and removal historical plans and aerial growth of London showing its population since Roman times. source workisilluminatedby standing its lower edge on a CLARE BRYAN . Her recent paper photographic. then hunted destroyed.203 Scalpel-drawn This book-bound drawing was inspired by the story of a foreign butterfly wrongly to Great Britain in 1912. and visiting professor at numerous art schools. The edges of each here) fade into the solid paper unpopulated with a scalpel landscape." Cut line This is a small section of a preparatory 5-ft(1.
resulting in a pale line. Slightly dull the tape's stickiness before use t o prevent it from lifting out more than you intend. Try itworking on big paper covering a wall. CHALK CHARCOAL: Technically. SQUARE COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Not often sold. vine. cylindrical. B u n d l e s o f twigs were traditionally sealed into earthenware j a r s or wet clay and heated slowly and intensely in a fire or kiln. and offers a rich. without touching the surface. THICK W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 2 Keep the tape above your drawing. the heel o f y o u r h a n d . or fingertip. It c a n be m a d e duller. R o u g h paper c a n b e loaded. only a little thicker. Artists have also used lime. In use.54). leaving u n d e r t r a c e s of first thoughts. 6. so it chars b l a c k as o p p o s e d to igniting a n d turning to ash. Alternatively. and heavier than willow. 162) or graphite (see p. they are all intended for fine work. It allows you greater precision in your mark-making than if you rub away the charcoal with an eraser. fine. Willow is the most c o m m o n wood. Hold it over your drawing RANGE AVAILABLE Charcoal (in its several forms shown here) is loved or loathed by the beginner to whom it is often recommended because it produces pleasing results quickly. Beware of cheap brands selling dyed chalk as compressed charcoal. feather. Charcoal lifts away from paper easily with the very light touch o f an eraser. 4. THIN WILLOW CHARCOAL: I used a piece like this to make the drawing opposite. 3 A white line is lifted out by the tape. It is also easily erased if the maker of the mark is not happy with the result. The same as above. a n d p l u m . tape. a n d m o r e i n d e l i b l e by soaking it in linseed oil. Not to be confused with square conte sticks (see p. it is compressed and m o l d e d at high pressure. b l a c k e r . A great find when available. COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Machine-made.204 E A R T H AND THE E L E M E N T S Charcoal CHARCOAL IS PRODUCED from wood baked slowly without exposure to air. 1. It does n o t erase easily. b e e c h . white line into the blackor grayness of willow charcoal. between your middle finger and thumb. Smooth paper accepts few particles. sticky side down. LIFTING OUT This technique is a very easy method of drawing a crisp. resulting in a stick that gives a blacker. 2. blacker. a rag. but some specialists stock compressed charcoal in delicate square sticks. MEDIUM W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 5. As its name implies. CHARCOAL PENCIL: Types made by different manufacturers vary in quality and density of line. Lines are achieved by d e p o s i t i n g particles in the grain o f paper.m a d e c o m p r e s s e d charcoal. black finish. C h a r c o a l naturally glistens. . 3. Then lift it away. harder line. 1 Suspend a length of masking tape. this does not exist. Essentially. you can p u r c h a s e m a c h i n e . it looks gray and feels like chalk. The tip snaps easily to renew a sharp edge if required. Boxes often contain a range of thicknesses to choose for different needs. Use any fine-point pen or pencil (I used a ballpoint) to draw a firm line on the back of the Big pieces are perfect for very large-scale drawings—even larger than yourself. maple. 7. a piece of fresh bread.
Here. Different tones seen throughout the main drawing on pp. graphite. Layers can be peeled away to refresh its surface. T O R T I L L O N : This is a tight roll of paper used to blend charcoal.212-13 were made by altering the pressure applied to the charcoal. Use high quality (very sticky) to fix paper to walls and boards. as is fresh (unbuttered!) bread. MASKING TAPE: An invaluable resource. Here we used a ballpoint. I used a plastic eraser effectively on thinly applied charcoal. or any other dry media. Use cheaper (less sticky) for lifting out. sold in several widths. pastels. Cotton swabs also work. PEN: Any fine pen or pencil can be used to draw on the back of masking tape when lifting out. 10. 9.205 ERASING Thickly applied charcoal quickly o v e r c o m e s a plastic eraser A w a r m (soft and tacky) putty eraser is more effective. CHARCOAL Lifting out This detail shows an example of where I used the lifting-out technique demonstrated opposite to draw flashes of lightning against rain clouds. Lift out broader marks with a larger implement. . 8 .
the less you describe. to contain each of your compositions. hazy distance. I relaxed my eyes out of focus to dissolve distracting detail into abstract patches of light and darkness. Successful drawings often only suggest the qualities of the scene without overdescribing them. It is the visible effect of the atmosphere between where you stand and what you see in the distance. Don't worry if it is cloudy: clouds add drama and perspective and make good subjects in themselves (see pp. Seeing tones . On p p . Pack several thick and thin sticks of willow charcoal. To experiment with drawing landscapes and the use of charcoal. Ironically. When you arrive. This term simply means that as land rolls away into the distance. but is often less evocative and engaging. especially when making first excursions into aerial perspective. a less distinct middle ground composed of shapes and textures. it results in flat planes of clutter. an eraser your drawing book or a board and paper fixative (or hairspray). and a cushion in a plastic bag to sit on. the more you encourage the viewer's imagination to join in and see. begin by marking out several small squares on your paper. The long view is hidden behind trees.9 9 we noted that in response to visual stimulus. and an abstract. Landscape drawings are traditionally arranged in three parts: a detailed foreground.212-13). MATERIALS In this first view there is only a foreground and middle distance. details blur and colors grow paler and bluer. Then I drew the shape of the tonal patches I perceived. 9 8 . They are also good markers of receding space.206 EARTH AND THE ELEMENTS Landscapes TREES ALONE OFFER MARVELOUS shapes to draw. pack your materials (as advised below) and set off for a local view or your nearest arboretum. Excessive detail can be admired for its skill and achievement. a reel of masking tape. At its worst. our brains search for nameable things and will perceive complete pictures from very little information.
horizontal regions of grass.207 LANDSCAPES In my second square I explored a simple view contrasting soft. dark trees with bright. the trunk of a bare tree. full of information you can use to create what you want! Inventing drama . and broke a view through the hedge into the distance with a dark sky threatening rain. Exploring the view Redrawing the scene above. Remember. your view is your inspiration. rounded. It is better to give distinctly more pictorial space to one or the other (see below). This composition turned out a little flat because I have an almost even quantity of earth and sky. shadows. I have invented drama with diagonals set against each other I tilted the earth.
104-05). "Drawing in the round means to literally walk around your subject.1 5 my first drawing of the whole view of the Tiber led me to see the real subject of the day. Building on earlier studies of structure in space using shoes (pp. s e e k places in light After my first drawing. This first drawing serves as a process of arrival. settling my concentration. and seeing what the real choice of subject is. For example. and tiller still standing proud. 2 1 4 . your challenge now is to find a sculptural subject in the landscape. bare ribs. shade out of the glare of the sun. I am then able to home in on what interests me most for further study. EARTH AND THE FINDING THE SUBJECT Finding a remarkable subject is even better when you can circumnavigate it in an arena of space. engine. The mud of the tidal shore in Rye. observing it from several views so as to better understand it as a whole. making the scene below led me to focus on the decaying boat opposite. Similarly. on p p . England has embedded within it the decaying skeleton of a burned fishing boat.164-65) and a wire violin (pp.208 ELEMENTS Drawing in the Round WHEN DRAWING IN THE LANDSCAPE. which was the flow of water over rocks. I usually begin by making an image of the whole view." . taking with you your drawing book and pen. Circling a subject and drawing it from several views imprints on your memory a better understanding of its three-dimensional form. so the paper is not made blinding and your hand cannot cast a shadow on your work.
careful lines to establish the skeleton that gives this wreck its distinct form.209 SERIES OF STUDIES This stunning ghost o f a boat comes into v i e w t w i c e a day. I looked more boldly at the planes and the dynamic of the sculptural craft My lines have become darker and more forceful as confidence in my understanding of the vessel grew. its overall balance. w h e n t h e sea recedes. unfussy lines. and structure. looking more at the boat than at the paper From this low position I have emphasized how the boat is swallowed in mud by outlining its shadow on the ground. Each n e w drawing gives a different insight. 3 This impression notes the angle of the broken boat. character. ROUND 2 In this tail-end view. marking straight. make a series o f drawings f r o m different positions. DRAWING IN THE 1 Here. Overleaf: Decaying Boat 4 . I spent equal time looking at the subject and the paper. and the order and shape of its component parts. The outline ties a shape of darkness to the boat like a weight so that it becomes part of its form. W h e n you have found your subject. I drew with quick.
m a d e on s m o o t h . L o o k i n g b a c k and forth from the heavens to firmly taped-down paper. hot-pressed drawing p a p e r (see pp.20-21) using a thin stick of willow charcoal. . I worked quickly to catch and weave the turbulent contrasts of rising wind and approaching water before the drawing could be washed away.Cloudburst THIS STORM DRAWING. was made with gentle but unhesitating s p e e d .
On the pages of a small. and rhythmic detail as it passed through the ancient gully of the city. pulse. shaping the city. black. I drew with a needle-fine fiber-tip pen. since ancient times. focusing on the river's eddies. pocket-sized notebook.Notes of Force T H E GREAT FLOWING TIBER RIVER has cut through Rome. .
. I used a dip pen and waterproof India ink with brushed watercolor to draw the view. The strong diagonal of the composition from bottom left to top right carries the eye through changes of height and focus from the foreground to the mountains beyond.Mountains SITTING IN THE SHADE of a tree on the Greek island of Antiparos.
and emotion. sounds. Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape 1915 413/8 x 285/8 in (105 x 72. ADOLF WOLFLI One of the greatest masters of Art Brut. . From another viewpoint. picturing a stabilized world was impossible and Modernism rode forth with vigor. and poetic myth roar and cascade within his tightly framed pages. abstraction is not so easy to define. It is actually its foundation and its infrastructure. Museum of Fine Arts. and Aboriginal art. and it has always been with us. It was not invented in the 20th century. liberating. Swirling. writer and composer who suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and was resident in the Waldau Aslyum near Berne. poet. many nonWestern cultures have highly sophisticated abstractions at the core of their art. It also underpins and gives strength and unity to all figurative work. From one point of view. such as Adolf Wolfli. actions. I begin every image by feeling its meaning.8 cm) A D O L F WOLFLI Abstraction is a direct. it is simply itself. Perhaps in Western culture we bred this intuitive freedom out of ourselves in our insistence on complex figuration. He made thousands of drawings to chronicle his complex life. don't be timid. be brave and enjoy them. fictional language. yet my kinship to abstraction is fundamental. My own work is firmly centered in figuration. Indian mandalas. The growing rise of Darwinian ideas coupled with Freudian and Marxist perspectives forced Western society to reconsider its origins and future.Abstract Lines T HE DEVELOPMENT OF W E S T E R N abstract art at the beginning of the 20th century significantly paralleled major changes in world thought. Outsider artists. As you approach the classes in this chapter. and have been making abstract drawings for centuries—Japanese calligraphy. and history. Afterward. direction. Not everything we know has a physical form in the world. Many concepts and feelings can only be expressed through marks. An abstract mark is often a better conductor of a thought or feeling. all pictorial representations are abstractions of reality. only rediscovered. opposite. writhing torrents of color. and independent means of communication. strike the paper to find form. Wolfli was a Swiss draftsman. precisely because it does not have to represent a physical object. Artists were given a different tool—a line threaded directly from their subconscious to their hand—and with it they began to map a bold new landscape of marks and concepts that would dramatically and forever change the face of Western art. drawn sound. First marks. His drawings are collected and exhibited internationally and held by the Adolf Wolfli Foundation. expressive marks and shapes are at the core of natural. and young children show us that abstract. People are often scared by abstraction and see it as the enemy of figurative art. spontaneous image-making. which are essentially abstract. belief. However. for example. Berne. or gestures. Internal workings of the mind were suddenly free to find a new language of expression. The fate of Old World thinking was finally sealed with the brutality of World War I.
iron. quoting ink marks on a page.220 A B S T R A C T LINES Process and Harmony SOMETIMES A DRAWN LINE sings on the surface of its support. and wood are also part of the work. brass. and plaster in galleries and landscapes. This the paper rest within the amplifies framelike of the floor from the ceiling. A Neolithic chalk tablet bears cut lines that were slowly carved. akin to stones in a Zen garden. and sensitivity with its thickness and pressure of touch. as Twombly shows us opposite. and Assistant Professor of Fine A r t at Fukuoka University. and temperature rim of floor space. Below. or. A line can be finished in a second. silence. sit in silent harmony. Moisture produced rust. forged steel. scrolling across the canvas in an intimate crescendo. and patient watching. He travels widely to research ancient sacred sites. Abe works with materials such as soil. tone. staining redbrown lines into the white surface. ice. Iron rods in tone. Mamoru Abe prepares an image that will appear through the chemistry of iron. rhythmically engaged with itself. It can proclaim mood. The Physical Space 1990 3 0 x 30 ft ( 9 1 4 x 9 1 4 cm) MAMORU ABE . MAMORU ABE Japanese sculptor and installation artist. and texture their bracing separation reaching between from beneath Pillars of the gallery are made part of this drawing by their inclusion in the paper. texture. Sometimes it smolders like a deep shadow. it can keep reforming through the inherent repetition of a process. Abe's physical drawing is a sculptural installation. salt. water. Changes paper. Damp Japanese paper was laid over carefully arranged iron bars. Five forged steel shapes. Lines. Twombly's mesmeric wax line worked over house paint is like a signature.
This example is one of two chalk tablets found in a Late-Neolithic pit. and sensuous drawing from painting. evolved a raw.221 ANCIENT CARVINGS Many ancient cultures have made and left behind drawings and texts carved into stones or animal bone. Precise lines suggest the use of a sharp flint The framed rectangle of this image is echoed in that of Abe's installation.Thesite's purpose is unknown. that challenges the separation of word from image. theories suggest astrological observations. Many of his graffiti-like combine abstract gestures with statements.400BCE 21/4 x 21/4 in (58 x 58 mm) ARTIST UNKNOWN Language Over the course of fifty years. Twombly has language works CY TWOMBLY Contemporary American artist who emerged through the 1950s New York art scene in the heyday of Abstract Expressionism and Action Painting.000-2. such as the Rosetta stone. At the 2001 Venice Biennale. and American Indian petroglyphs (see p.Twombly was presented with a Golden Lion award for lifetime achievement. PROCESS AND HARMONY Cut lines Chalk carves easily. and Untitled 1970 Here we might seek to grasp letters in the turning of his line. and the worship of the sun and ancient gods. the Babylonian world map. emotive.241).England. Neolithic Chalk Tablet 3. CY TWOMBLY . close to Stonehenge in Wiltshire. energetic. burials. The central pictorial space is also similarly cut and divided by the considered arrangement of straight lines.
Texture Compare this drawing to Hugo's octopus on p. His drawing writes the time of its own physical process by expressing the extreme concentration of the moment in which it was made. interpret. have striven to break down old pictorial and musical structures to explore new and unfettered modes of expression. drawing here can b e described in t e r m s o f a G e r m a n philosophical idea a b o u t is t h e i n s t a n t r e c o g n i t i o n t h e p o w e r o f m o m e n t . "There is nothing like dream to create the future.28. broke new ground in the 1950s with graphic scores now considered among the most extreme. abstract. Bussotti. and let the drying meniscus deposit granules in linear drifts such as we would see in the satellite photographic mapping of rivers. Hugo. and inventive of his time." An innovator who never fails to surprise. and lifted them away to leave impressions of watery planets and seas. opposite. Gestalt. Marks across the center appear to be made with his fingers. A graphic score is a V I C T O R H U G O Hugo's abstract French novelist w h o m a d e m a n y drawings in m i x e d m e d i a ( s e e also p. he mixed graphite into ink. a configuration. Both abstract drawing and composition involve the perfect sequencing of sounds and marks against space and silence. and participate in the composition. Gestalt o f an unnameable thing. o f t e n e x p r e s s e d in v i s u a l t e r m s . Here he appears t o have saturated the cut-out moon disks with gritty pigment. Two Impressions Paper 1853-55 VICTOR HUGO Disk from a Cut-Out . below. o r a pattern o f elements s o unified as a w h o l e t h e y c a n n o t b e e x p l a i n e d asa s u m o f parts. said. here he anticipates abstract expressionism by 100 years. music manuscript requiring instrumentalists to improvise. brushed night skies over them with ink then lifted the disks to reveal white moons. beautiful. abstract artists and composers unique.28). The scores are also exhibited in galleries as visual art. Ink impressions When drawing nightscapes Hugo often laid paper disks in place of the moon. pressed them face down. Similarity in gritty texture suggests that here. too.222 ABSTRACT LINES Writing Time SINCE THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY.
a far cry from any recognized musical notation. Sound and rhythm This flickering rondo of sound written in pen on a hand-ruled stave can be heard in our imaginations as much as seen. 70 in relation to Bussotti's clustered notes to the left of his rondo and open space to the right.223 W R I T I N G TIME SYLVANO BUSSOTTI Italian avant-garde composer and principal 20thcentury exponent of the graphic score. This is a page from Due Voci. 1958 SYLVANO BUSSOTTI . Compare this work to that of Libeskind on p. His later works become increasingly abstract. Circular Score for "Due Voci" c. we can feel their rhythm and easily attach sounds to them. Bussotti's first mature work. Following the notes.
O p p o s i t e . they m a k e a visual a n d physical e c h o that t o u c h e s s o m e deep part of the human spirit. Torn cloth This is one of two published photographs showing Marie Leib's torn cloth strips significantly placed on her cell floor.228-29) has been adjusted with each movement of the rags to draw a cosmos of balance and perfection. Visually. centuries. T h e s e p h o t o g r a p h s d o c u m e n t the meditative drawings o f two w o m e n living worlds apart in different countries. In the late 1 9 t h century. it is found in the regularity o f ordered lines or a pattern. Compositional rightness (see pp.224 A B S T R A C T LINES Chants and Prayers WHEN ABSTRACT LINES are organized in repetition. cultures. Germany. an a n o n y m o u s w o m a n in the southeast Indian state o f Tamil Nadu m a k e s a ritual drawing o n the b r i c k courtyard o f h e r h o m e . and sufferers of psychiatric illnesses—who have always existed. This takes a form in most cultures. Cell Floor With Torn Strips of Cloth 1894 MARIE LIEB . social outcasts. Marie Lieb w a s a psychiatric patient in the Heidelberg Asylum. Cloth is the simple instrument with which she has conducted and ordered her universe. making objects and images outside o f mainstream culture. She tore c l o t h into strips a n d used these to draw patterns a n d symbols o n h e r cell floor. Lieb is one o f countless thousands of "Outsider" artists—diverse individuals including ordinary citizens. MARIE LIEB Little is known of this w o m a n for w h o m the act of drawing was essential. and c i r c u m s t a n c e s . for e x a m p l e . d i p p i n g h e r fingers into a pot o f rice flour. It will protect the place from evil and make a pleasing invitation to good spirits. In music it can be felt in the diversity of plainsong and African d r u m m i n g .
In daily practice.000 images. and birds.Theseare widely published in journals and are the subjects of international exhibitions. animals. Huyler is the author of Painted Prayers. Painted Prayers UNDATED STEPHEN R HUYLER . Skills are handed down through generations and from friend to friend. and in places of worship and celebration. Designs and motifs Rangoii (or mandalas) are ritual drawings made by many millions of women across rural India. among others. chalk. lime. cultural anthropologist. Materials such as rice flour. Motifs are geometrical or based on plants.225 STEPHEN P. women pride themselves on never repeating a design.HUYLER Photographer art historian. lecturer on the subjects of Indian art and Indian women's identity. Popular magazines feature new ideas each week and on special occasions there may be contests. at the University of London and Ohio State University. or flowers are marked or arranged on the ground or on the walls of homes. and for over 30 years has traveled extensively through the Indian subcontinent creating an edited archive of 200.
Catling's works made for international galleries and museums involve drawing as a tool in their development and making. Catling's abstract drawings are usually made in series and in parallel to written poetry and sculptural installations. structure. BRIAN CATLING British sculptor poet. Catling's torn paper shapes and shadows spill light out of their frame like a fractured mirror. Mixed media This is a collage of torn white and gray tissue paper previously stained with ink. free from the direct imaging of known physical things. and choice of hues. Untitled 2001 2001 153/4x 215/8 in ( 4 0 0 x 550 mm) BRIAN C A T L I N G . but similarities in mood. Oval moons eclipse each other and oscillate between landforms and portraiture. Oxford. These two works present complex compositions with differing intensions and methods of making. and Fellow of Linacre College. filmmaker Professor of Fine Art. Their energy can therefore be a purer expression of an idea or emotion. performance and installation artist. rocks or heads in a subdued atmosphere of dream. Ruskin School. it is ruled and contained in one dimension by its interlocking ink-lined borders. With no depth of field. Klee's mathematical maze of thinly washed surface resonates with meticulous planning. figurative representation—that is. and water-resistant layers of spray and enamel paint on thick paper. gold paint and iridescent gouache mixed with water. They each find their pathways and equilibrium in atmosphere and suggestion.226 ABSTRACT LINES Compositions ABSTRACT DRAWINGS ARE LARGELY or entirely free from using the viewer's eye to track and unfold layers of meaning.
Geometric harmony This is a work on paper made with a sharp ink pen. and wrote copiously about the natures and relationships of color and form. ruler. philosophized.97-99. He explained his polyphonic painting as "a harmony of several color voices" searching for a visual parallel to music. Klee painted. It is a geometric harmony of straight lines and tonally graded flat colors that by their arrangement draw our eyes inward to their white center. drew. Kunstmuseum Bern PAUL KLEE . Line and surface Klee observed the visual capacity of lines to push or pull within an image.227 PAUL K L E E Swiss painter and sculptor (see also p.31). and might be read as active or passive. We can see some diagrammatic examples of this among the optical illusions on pp. watercolor. Klee also felt that a line represents the passing of time. Polyphon Gefasstes Weiss (White Framed Polyphonically) 1930 131/8x95/8 in (333 x 245 mm) Paul-Klee-Stiftung. and brush. whereas tonal surfaces are perceived more immediately as a whole.
and an apple. w i l l c h a n g e w i t h e v e r y r e a r r a n g e m e n t . a glass. a b u n c h of keys. there is a clear feeling when. their impact. It is found in all great art and design." SETTING UP Justness can be harmonious or deliberately discordant. M a n y of their inter-relationships will be meaningless. Take. and elements settle in definitive balance.Thisexercise will help you start.228 ABSTRACT LINES Being "Just" A SENSE OF "JUST" (or rightness) is a difficult concept to explain. for instance. or degree of figuration. they reach a perfect position. "Whenall pictorial elements come together in pleasing and perfect balance. There is a single m o m e n t w h e n all proportions. and ten straight sticks painted black. and put them o n a tray. media. culture. Feel for it when youdraw." . In his b o o k The Education of a Gardener. W h e n m o v i n g objects around in your yard. Seek it when looking at other artists' work and in your everyday environment. or on a page. or home. It is also found in nature. the late garden designer Russell Page explains. they are just. after being continuously adjusted. Set up a sheet of paper with a rectangle drawn on it. the impression y o u receive from t h e m . but an easy o n e to u n d e r s t a n d . "I have experimented endlessly with this idea. angles. As y o u m o v e them around. b u t e v e r y n o w a n d again you will hit on an arrangement w h i c h appears just. This balance is what every artist and designer searches a n d feels for when making an image. regardless of style. s o m e will be more or less h a r m o n i o u s .
W h e n the composition falls into place. which now becomes a tight frame. horizontals dominate the top. Move the sticks out into the rectangle.229 WHERE TO START Take ten sticks of equal length. A stick touching the rectangle links the composition to the frame." Move the sticks to find alignments and imagined perspectives. making the composition seem to float beneath. B E I N G "JUST" 1 Arrange your ten sticks in t w o groups of five. suggesting a horizon. Remember the drawn rectangle is a part of the composition (see pp. horizontals dominate the lower area. Here. as shown here. Arrange them so they touch or cross in a series of intersecting balances. Within a rectangle on a flat sheet of paper set about making a composition using no other rule than a sense of "just. . 2 3 In the step above. Feel for the rightness of their grouping and their relationships to surrounding spaces. In the final step (left) there is an even balance. painted black.56-57). fix it with glue.
scissors. colors.. hard or soft. or even strident. a compass.228-29).220.Youwill also need spare white paper. feels "just" (see pp." (Russell Page) . they become a scaffold for the addition of further textures." overlapping placement of materials on a flat plane. To prepare for this lesson. Once the ten painted black sticks are set and glued in place. colors and textures can be manipulated until their pictorial harmony. Collage offers the artist a liberating palette of SETTING UP This lesson in collage is a direct continuation of the compositional lines made in the previous class. you start composing by adding or subtracting shapes and textures and using colors and tones to achieve the impression you want to m a k e — w h e t h e r dramatic or s u b d u e d . Returning to Russell Page.230 ABSTRACT LINES Collage H E R E W E EXPERIMENT with collage. an infinite range of voices and meaning. or discordance. and tones.69 and Abe's installation on p. Cut or torn layers and shapes. stain and dry a sheet of tissue paper using blueink. found or made items.. Images and fragments torn from day-to-day life can be brought together to make a chorus of ideas and emotions. "My understanding is that every object [or shape] emanates—sends out vibrations beyond its physical body which are specific to itself. This principal also applies to three-dimensional drawings such as Gaudi's work with wire and weights on p. ready-made depths and surfaces. and black ink. which is the shifting. harmonious. glue. correction fluid or white paint. he went on to say ".
and with a compass and scissors. Glue them in place once they feel "just" Translucent circular disks of tissue paper give color tone. draw. COLLAGE 1 Regular-sized pieces of white paper are moved over the surface to disrupt the even lines. Obscuring the blue disks. This can also give a sense of fragmentation or punctuation to the composition.228) in front of you. four circles of blue tissue paper. In the last step (left). they deepen pictorial space.231 WHAT TO DO Lay the final step of the previous lesson (p. then cut out. . correction fluid and ink marks add further dimensions.The single disk that is folded with its straight edge facing up appears heavier than those that are flat. 2 3 Torn white paper moved over the surface adds masks of rough-edged irregular volume. solidity. and shadow to thepicture. Cut six small rectangles the same proportion as your whole image.
.Zen Calligraphy HITSUZENDO. A MODERN JAPANESE meditative art form inspired by the teachings of Yamaoka Tesshu (1836-1888). Hitsuzendo drawings aspire to "breathe with the energy and vitality of eternal life" achieved through "a state of no mind—beyond thought. and expectation. is the practice of Zen through the calligraphic marks of a brush dipped in carbon ink. Zen Brushwork]. emotion." [Tanchu Terayama.
These vibrate against washes of shadow and pitch-black mass. discord is balanced against rhythm to create mood. Lines made with a steel dip pen take on a scratchy nervousness.Nocturnes IN THIS QUARTET of semi-abstract drawings made with India ink. I flicked spatters of ink and rubbed the paper with a wet and a dry brush to achieve these effects. .
Feeding this demand. Humans are equally troubled by the imperceptibly small and the enormous. The salvation of heaven and terrors of hell are represented equally—enough to make any sinner shudder. For example.Gods and Monsters OUR SACRED AND SECULAR need to visualize demons. movie studios now brim with as many monsters as the visual art of the Medieval and Renaissance Church. look for images in the folds of clothing. or strange. wings. Today. all of which originated as hundreds of drawings. Lord of the Rings. a human-animal mix that implies this could MARTIN SCHONGAUER German painter and engraver who settled to work in Colmar Alsace. Images we are now surrounded by bear testimony to the power and resourcefulness of their collective imagination. a Catherine wheel of drawn sparks spiraling around the quietly resolute saint. and stained-glass windows deliver powerful visual sermons to the once-illiterate populace. Depictions of God or of gods in the contexts of daily life. scales. our literate and more secular Western society still hungers for another world and to ravenously indulge its fascination for the marvelous. England. a collaboration between the two will ensure that your drawings glow with originality. aliens. serpentine tails. which were widely distributed and influential in his time. We love our fear of the hybrid—ideally. impossible. which is to have eaten a nun—it inspired the drawing on p. and deep fur—and we alter their scale. happen to us. Reading the place name I momentarily glimpsed an alternative meaning. Neither should be slave or master. or in smoke. angels. and the faces of God have for centuries given artists a feast for the extremes of their imagination. Schongauer is best known for his prints. Here. for example. To learn to flex your imagination.247. . We then add substances we dislike: unidentified fluids. sculptures. feathers. In the Christian churches of Europe. Be inspired by the irrational comedy of word association or puns. Star Wars. When creating monsters. and damnation are found in most world faiths. Throughout this book images are presented to excite and surprise and drawing classes created to increase your confidence. Perhaps the Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 1485 121/4 x 9 in (312 x 230 mm) MARTIN SCHONGAUER most important conclusion in this final chapter is to advise you to develop your skills in parallel with the joy of your unfolding imagination. in the cracks of walls. Fantasy is most successful when founded on strong and familiar visual logic. our eye circulates around a flutter of leather and scaly wings. and the Alien trilogy. we select details of animals farthest from ourselves and that are widely thought disturbing—reptilian and insect features. I was on a train passing through Nuneaton. We watch with captivated pleasure movies such as The Fly. beasts. paradise. thousands of paintings. Monsters take advantage of both.
and church murals. The well-dressed mule is cumbersome. rushing. below. Francisco de Goya was a master of borrowing.30. The title "And So Was His Grandfather" adds that should we not already know. to Picasso's similarly tight. This continuity enriches the making of art and our heritage. his lover a dog. Violent white marks symbolizing Achilles' rage resonate with the energy of Twombly's script on p. F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A Spanish court painter printmaker and draftsman. Opposite. reading from a book of asses. barren land rising like MYRIAD CHAINS RUN THROUGH ART HISTORY. such asinine behavior can be hereditary.240 GODS AND M O N S T E R S Marks of Influence marking the influence of one artist upon another. They depict as if by lamplight the devil and witches. and exposed the superstitions. This act defines the vision and continues the line of spirit guides. Visions experienced in front of the drawing sometimes instruct the making of a new one.220. Aquatint Goya has drawn a learned man as an ass. portraits. Goya's plainly textured gray background pushes back the space behind the illuminated simply subject. In this ass. quoting great paintings and popular culture to add cunning twists to his satires. Pictorially. a wave to join Achilles' chase of Hector. hags. vanity. Other drawn versions of this image are more savage and frightening. The high. crammed tightly at his desk. Goya later recorded the horrors of Napoleonic occupation. whose impassioned work begins with light tapestry cartoons. noisy seascape on p. plain wall suggests a blinkered view of nothing. Paul Thomas's studies of Picasso and Twombly can be traced directly. Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 1799 81/2 x 6 in (218 x 154 mm) FRANCISCO DE GOYA . Saturn devouring his son. and men clubbing each other to death. it allows the mule to stand forward. In this softer aquatint he poses for his portrait Textured background The aquatint process has been used to great effect in making a gritty toned background. a Shoshone seeking guidance and power meditates at the sacred site of a petroglyph. Compare his dark. which can swamp the subject Here. deranged masses. and follies of court through copious graphic works including his best-known prints. Los Caprichos. Many students leave white backgrounds in their work. He would be graceless if he stood. we see the international icon of stupidity. Opposite below. Near the end of his life he made his "Black Paintings" on the walls of his home.
A vivid spectrum of energized graphite marks and a masterly composition give this drawing vitality and speed. White marks like flashes of light are cut though graphite with an eraser to reveal the paper beneath. Simple wall stones cleverly state their cold solidity while also fading from our attention as the scene roars by.241 MARKS OF INFLUENCE PAUL T H O M A S British contemporary artist whose epic graphic work questions and reflects upon issues of European identity. Parallel lines within the body of the figure are likely to denote power. Achilles Chases Hector 1996 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) PAUL THOMAS SHOSHONE PETROGLYPH The Shoshone people of Wyoming name petroglyph sites Poha Kahni. Thomas conducts his explorations in the mine of Greek and Roman mythology. and personal and social struggles. ideals. Wyoming. It was made with a sharp implement. Wind River Reservation. or of the water Chipped image This is a sacred creature of the sky chipped onto rock at Dinwoody Lake. of the earth. meaning "place of power. values. by a supplicant in a trance of meditation. Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range UNDATED ARTIST UNKNOWN . Graphite marks Here Achilles chases Hector around the walls of Troy before killing him." Each sacred image drawn into rock belongs to one of three realms in the Shoshone world: the realm of the sky. perhaps a stone.
242 MONSTERS of the unknown is a classical and constant occupation for the artist. the shock would be extreme. Lifting out Fine strings of the hot-air balloon appear dark against the sky and light against the balloon. H e was influenced by his friends. to the right of the balloon. Redon lifted them out with some sort of eraser. Children are also delighted to invent a monster or ghoul. we see parallel slanting pale marks that might have been made with fresh bread—a very effective eraser used before the wide availability of rubber or plastic. If it were to turn and stare this way. They float toward us like a horrid visitation. We may feel safe so long as the eye looks heavenward. Redon explored the darker side of the human imagination through symbols and mysticism. crawl. graphic artist.and 16th-century Holland. which sometimes—half-dressed and carrying a familiar trophy— stride. 115. below left. Our subconscious can be drawn with pleasure and ease. ODILON REDON French painter draftsman. Techniques demonstrated on pp.204-05 will enable you to produce a similar effect of white lines shining out of dark charcoal. Here we see how he evolved their injuries into new limbs and warped proportions. Redon's eyeball balloon rises up. the writers Joris-Karl Huysmans and Stephane Mallarme. Compare worked textures throughout the whole of this image to those found throughout Anita Taylor's charcoal drawing on p. lifting its cranial passenger over a seascape of repose. and scuttle over all known reality. as he did the grass. and writer In contrast t o the light and visual accent of contemporary Impressionism. GODS AND Erasure In this charcoal drawing. T H E EXPLORATION AND DEPICTION Hauntings Grandville has drawn a scurrying zoo of half-known demons and animals that appear to have been stolen from the glass eye of the microscope. The Eye Like a Strange Mounts Balloon 165/8 x131/8in (422 x 332 mm) ODILON REDON 1882 Toward Infinity . The monsters of Bosch grew from his observations of beggars going about their trade in 15th.
HAUNTINGS Engraving This is an engraving made so that Grandville's original drawing could be reproduced. Smiling. teeming with the exhilaration of unrestrained fantasy. and he illustrated the Fables of La Fontaine and Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe. His other major works include Metamorphoses du Jour (1828).243 J E A N I G N A C E ISIDORE GERARD ("GRANDVILLE") French graphic artist and political satirist. Last Judgment. Comic little headbands of waving hair express more hysteria than fear. Most of his work is in the Prado Museum. This image is from one of Grandville's best-known publications. Quill and ink This typical Bosch monster is a quill drawing in bistre ink The phrasing of light and contour here is masterly. sucker-faced creatures dash and trundle toward it They are drawn solidly to emphasize their earthbound weight. Les Animaux (1840). A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects c. Two Monsters UNDATED 45/8 x61/2in (117 x 163 mm) HIERONYMUS BOSCH . Light shines from the right. and Ship of Fools. Garden of Earthly Delights. 1840 61/8 x41/2in ( 1 5 5 x 1 1 5 mm) GRANDVILLE HIERONYMUS BOSCH Dutch painter Bosch's highly detailed iconographic religious panel paintings. The quality of the line is therefore uniform throughout. which is still available today. include The Haywain. grimacing. Madrid.
Grimes' delicately cavorting figures dive into and consume each other. pinnacled. St Peter's square. hatched lines. remembering the cavernous. Scaly. she formed a series of ghostly pale. muscular tension is carved out of the paper using layered. His entire drawing wrestles and weaves the viewer's eye into its retracting folds. David. below. and play with its perfection and meaning. and marble sculptures including Pieto. a stunning hybrid of a swan. Dragon 1522 10 x 133/8 in ( 2 5 4 x 3 3 8 m m ) MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI . Opposite. Two previously drawn faces become humorous antagonists to the beast. snake. gamboling copulations. phrased over the contours of form and bridging darker areas of shadow. and dying slaves. and dog. and mist-swathed land. lion. A snake eating its own tail is a universal image of the eternal and continuous. the dome of the Vatican. Grimes found the genesis of her beast not among animals. topple. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI Florentine painter sculptor. as we might expect. but in the seductive landscape of Leonardo da Vinci's oil painting Madonna of the Rocks. They share between them the pleasures of inventing a hybrid beast. Michelangelo's dragon. architect. Chalk and ink A quill dipped in brown ink was worked over black chalk on this reused sheet. However. poet. In her studio. wraps and coils its lithe body ready to strike or whimper at a touch. and engineer Among Michelangelo's great works are the painted ceiling and altar wall of the Sistine Chapel.244 GODS AND MONSTERS Convolutions THESE CONVOLUTED DRAWINGS were made almost 5 0 0 years apart. sometimes artists purposefully tie a knot in the configuration to disturb.
Oxford. her under heavy here. Grimes exhibits internationally and features in the collections of the New York Public Library and the Victoria and Albert Museum. London. each one iridescent and crumbly like a weathered while oyster. boards finished paper. It is one of a series of fragile earth figures inspired by rocks. Ink-wash delicately gouache (smooth) and gouache brushed drawing on This is a and was hot-pressed Shadows The dark shadow of the Other the ink-wash earth was made with a brushstroke of ink laid into wet paper. and the Camberwell and Slade Schools of Fine Art. The image formed directly without first making a pencil outline.245 CONVOLUTIONS O O N A GRIMES British contemporary artist and professor of printmaking at the Ruskin School. How Clever of God #84 2002 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) O O N A GRIMES . details evolved slowly using a drier brush. The large space around figure has been cropped Grimes drawings to flatten presses them. London.
LARGER JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with natural hair held in a plastic ferrule on a bamboo handle. ideally suited to drawing. 12. and has a fine tip for detailed work. 10. giving a variety of lines. all perfect for drawing and.246 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brushes T H E BRUSH IS A VOLUPTUOUS and delicate weights. it has good inkholding capacity and is very flexible. with a fine point for delicate work 4. It is capable of very fine pointing. flowing. drawing tool extending the arm. 2. This brush has a broad wash capability and can achieve a very wide range of marks. JAPANESE PAINTING BRUSH: Made with natural hair. SYNTHETIC-HAIR LINER: This brush gives a medium line and is firm with a spring to the touch. POINTED SQUIRREL-HAIR MOP: With a synthetic quill ferrule and extra high inkholding capacity. it has good wash capabilities. and texture. SABLE-HAIR LINER: Made with ordinary sable hair surrounding an extralong. dense. It has exceptional painting characteristics. and very fine lines. fingers. and never leave them standing on their tip in a jar of water. The living marks of a wet. P O I N T E D T R A D I T I O N A L WRITER: The ferrule is made from a small duck quill. and wrist into a fluid and soft touch. others are as fine as a whisker with a gentle touch. needle-sharp center of kolinsky red sable hair. SABLE-HAIR RIGGER: Made with very long kolinsky sable hairs. Brushes vary in size. and hold prodigious weights of ink or paint. which holds long sable hair This brush holds large amounts of ink for long lines and points well for detailed work. Suitable for wash techniques but also capable of very fine detail. and effects. Shorter brushes designed for other purposes run out of ink more quickly. Soaps purchased from good art supply stores will gently cleanse particles of pigment that become trapped in the hairs or ferrule. this brush has a soft drawing tip and small ink-holding capacity. L A R G E R S Y N T H E T I C . Some are bold. between them. This design supplies the fine tip with a long continuity of ink 5. Slightly less flexible than the squirrel-hair sword liner 9. Always clean them thoroughly. The brushes shown here are a mixture of This is a selection of riggers. SYNTHETIC-HAIR BRUSH: Bound in a synthetic ferrule with good inkholding capacity and good spring and control. 3. washes. 13. 7. materials. It is still relatively small in the total range of Japanese brushes. M T RA S AEIL . ink-laden tip allow an expression that is beyond the linear. thicknesses.H A I R RIGGER: Made with long synthetic hair for fine-point work It has a good ink-holding capacity and is slightly more resilient than sable hair with more "snap. the very opposite of pencil or silver point. making rt ideally suited to Japanese painting and small-scale calligraphy. Some used by master calligraphers are 2-3 in (5-8 cm) in diameter 11.Theyhold plenty of ink and make continuous. S Y N T H E T I C . shape. and writers. liners. SQUIRREL-HAIR S W O R D LINER:This brush has a maximum ink-holding capacity and an extremely fine and flexible point 8. SYNTHETIC-HAIR S W O R D LINER: A lining brush with high ink-holding capacity and a fine point. How you care for your brushes will determine how long they last. 1.H A I R LINER: Very responsive oriental-style liner This to the touch. return them to their pointed shape. SMALL JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with sable hair." 6.
247 BRUSHES .
and spatters. SETTING UP Blowing spots T h e s e t h r e e s p i d e r y c r e a t u r e s (above right and below) w e r e m a d e by d r o p p i n g s p o t s o f ink f r o m a b r u s h o n t o t h e p a g e and. b l o w i n g h a r d o n t h e m several t i m e s t o disperse t h e ink ( c l o s e y o u r eyes if y o u t r y this. the degree of pressure applied. Here I drew with a soft Japanese painting brush (see pp. A single brush has almost balletic potential to draw fine or undulating lines and curves. length.248 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brush Marks A S I N G L E BRUSH will m a k e an e n o r m o u s range of m a r k s depending u p o n the width. and to make pools and stains o n the page. w i t h m y face close. unglazed earthenware dish. and type of its hairs. It also depends on the angle at w h i c h it is held.35) into two tablespoons of water in a shallow. I rubbed a block of Chinese ink (see p. the texture and a b s o r b e n c y of the paper ( w h i c h m a y be d a m p or dry). softness. splashes.) I .246-47). I had left the end of the ink block in the water overnight to make it easier to dissolve. the speed of the s t r o k e . and above all w h e t h e r the b r u s h is saturated with pigment or relatively dry.
. t h e effects of the b r u s h r u n n i n g o u t o f ink. BRUSH MARKS Wet and dry strokes A m o n g these concentrated drawings ink made into with the same w a t e r y lines. w e see fine lines and s p o t s .249 Gritty texture T h e details o f t h e largest creatures b e l o w and opposite s h o w the granular texture of Chinese b l o c k ink. a n d t h e w a y it d i s t r i b u t e s w h e n t h e b r u s h is d a b b e d o n its s i d e . a n d b r u s h . b l e e d i n g f r o m strokes b e l o w left.
Oxford. and used their detail to draw new creatures that might at first seem familiar.Monsters THESE LITTLE CREATURES o f i n k and i n v e n t i o n were b o r n out of animal and bird studies. until we look again. I borrowed small and fragile specimens from the University Museum of Natural History. .
Goya's witches have been literally drawn and evolved out of the shapes of Murillo's prophet and pilgrims. showing us that gallery study is not just for the student and beginner. Isidore. are two long. Here. Among his "Black Paintings" in the Prado Museum. and narrative twists.Goya's Monsters W I T H CUNNING BRILLIANCE. They are a pair and hang opposite each other. With further research. two of my own drawings show you how Goya's devil (below) is based on the shape of Murillo's boy on a horse (top right). Goya often invented his monsters out of characters seen in other painters' works. . Through studying and drawing these great paintings I have discovered that they are based on a pair of similarly long. formal composition. thin works titled The Witches' Sabbath and The Procession of St. I found relationships between all four paintings in terms of shapes. thin works made by Bartolome Murillo in Seville about 120 years earlier. Madrid.
drawn rapidly and with great joy. Sometimes drawings come out of nowhere and surprise even the artist.Consumed THIS IS A SERIES OF CARTOONS I m a d e s o m e years ago. . little comments on politeness and sexual politics.
pastel.m e d i a d r a w i n g . It can also seal a silver p o i n t d r a w i n g t o p r e v e n t t h e oxidization (browning) o f t h e Drypoint A d r a w i n g is s c r a t c h e d directly o n t o a m e t a l plate w i t h a m e t a l t o o l h e l d like apen. Ferrule T h e s h o r t m e t a l t u b e t h a t s u r r o u n d s a n d g n p s t h e hairs o f a p a i n t b r u s h a n d fixes t h e m t o t h e brush handle. A l s o c a l l e d t h e h o r i z o n line. F r o m t h e French v e r b coller. a n d given t h e n a m e Sho. a n d attaches t h e m t o t h e s u p p o r t — f o r example. Camera lucida A n optical device t h a t p r o j e c t s an image o f an o b j e c t o n t o a plain s u r f a c e so t h a t it can be traced. Crosshatching Parallel lines d r a w n across o n e a n o t h e r at right angles. T h e m o v e m e n t was started by a g r o u p o f French artists including H e n r i Matisse." It w a s first given t o t o n a l paintings m a d e in o n e c o l o r — s e e Grisaille. a r e r o l l e d t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders. Conservation grade D e s c r i b e s a range o f materials t h a t d o n o t d e c a y and cannot be broken d o w n by insects. chance mark-making. w h e n a p e r s o n is p a i n t e d standing a g a i n s t a w i n d o w . It is p u t o n a Body color See Gouache. L a t e r it c a m e t o m e a n h i g h l y c o n t r a s t e d light effects. and readymade objects arranged and stuck o n t o a flat surface. usually at a n a c u t e angle t o t h e s u r f a c e . Composition T h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e p a r t s o f an i m a g e t o m a k e u p the whole. t o g e t h e r w i t h a t h i c k felt b l a n k e t T h e w h o l e s a n d w i c h o f l a y e r s is t h e n railed t h r o u g h t h e press t o m a k e a p r i n t D r y p o i n t is a very portable and immediate m e t h o d o f printmaking. p h o t o g r a p h s . o f t e n d i s t o r t e d forms and vivid colors. Erasure T h e a c t o f r e m o v i n g a n i m a g e f r o m a surface. T h e name " n o t " simply refers t o t h e fact t h a t t h e cylinders are n o t h o t in t e m p e r a t u r e . p r a c t i c e d meditatively w i t h a brush. Collage C o l l e c t e d materials such as c o l o r e d p a p e r s . In t h e Far East calligraphy is a highly r e s p e c t e d a r t f o r m . Eye level T h e i m a g i n a r y h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e a t t h e s a m e h e i g h t as t h e a v e r a g e p e r s o n ' s eyes. p r i n t i n g press face up.m a d e paper. Acid-free paper P a p e r w i t h a neutral p H t h a t will n o t darken o r d e t e r i o r a t e excessively w i t h age. T h e b l a n k e t s g i v e t h e p a p e r its rough texture o r "tooth. as o p p o s e d t o t h e s t r a i g h t e d g e o f a sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has b e e n machine-trimmed. 2. written with a broad-nibbed pen o r brush. A p o t e n t i a l l y h a r s h m e t h o d o f p r o d u c i n g t o n e s in a d r a w i n g .256 GLOSSARY Glossary Accidental drawing Random.d i m e n s i o n a l i m a g e . in w h i c h parts o f an image are depicted v e r y brightly and dramatically against d a r k n e s s . Fixative Liquid acrylic resin a n d l a c q u e r t h i n n e r usually a p p l i e d as a n a e r o s o l s p r a y m i s t t o t h e surface o f a d r y . Calligraphy Beautiful h a n d w r i t i n g ." " N o t " p r e s s e d p a p e r is r o l l e d a s e c o n d t i m e w i t h o u t blankets t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders t o p r o d u c e a s m o o t h e r b u t still slightly t e x t u r e d s u r f a c e . in w h i c h t h e subject's distinctive features o r peculiarities are deliberately exaggerated f o r c o m i c o r g r o t e s q u e effect. o r will o n l y a p p e a r n o r m a l . t h e l i g h t is b e h i n d h i m o r her. Blending M e r g i n g t w o o r m o r e neighboring colors o r tones t o g e t h e r using a tortillon. for example. w h e n v i e w e d f r o m a specified point. s u c h as a d r a w i n g o r painting. pressurized t o o l used f o r spraying fine mists o f s m o o t h c o l o r P i g m e n t is d e l i v e r e d b y a j e t o f air n o t t h e bristles o f a brush. so t h a t ink r e m a i n s o n l y in t h e g r o o v e s o f s c r a t c h e d lines. Cartoon 1. Blotting T h e use o f a b s o r b e n t m a t e r i a l t o lift a w a y excess liquid. o r o t h e r (usually large) w o r k — s e e Pouncing.The plate is t h e n r o l l e d w i t h ink a n d polished with a rag. Field In a t w o . charcoal. Bleed T h e e f f e c t o f t w o w e t colors running into one another o r o n e color applied t o a w e t surface a n d a l l o w e d t o d i s p e r s e . R e m b r a n d t is a great master o f chiaroscuro. Deckle edge T h e i r r e g u l a r e d g e o f a s h e e t o f m o l d . n e w s p a p e r cuttings. A g e n e r a l t e r m t h a t describes t h e various processes o f c u t t i n g a design i n t o a plate o r b l o c k o f m e t a l o r w o o d . W o r d s o r symbols are Cold-pressed papers P a p e r manufactured with a "not" o r " r o u g h " surface. R o u g h p a p e r is m a d e b e t w e e n t w o blankets t h a t ." D e s c r i b e s a p a i n t i n g in w h i c h t h e light s o u r c e is b e h i n d t h e s u b j e c t F o r e x a m p l e . A f u l l . See also Hotpressed papers. F r o m t h e G r e e k kallos. Also called accelerated perspective. t h e field is t h e a p p a r e n t a n d b e l i e v a b l e space inside t h e p i c t u r e . Aerial perspective The effect of the a t m o s p h e r e o v e r distance as it lightens t o n e s a n d cools c o l o r s progressively t o w a r d t h e horizon.c e n t u r y Italian t e r m m e a n i n g "clear-obscure. In t h e W e s t p e n calligraphy is u s e d t o c r e a t e f o r m a l a n d d e c o r a t i v e t e x t s . Bracelet shading C u r v e d parallel lines t h a t f o l l o w t h e c o n t o u r s o f f o r m . Fixative lightly glues t h e d r a w i n g t o t h e surface o f t h e p a p e r t o p r e v e n t smudging. Camera obscura A d a r k e n e d c h a m b e r i n t o w h i c h an i m a g e o f w h a t is o u t s i d e is received t h r o u g h a small o p e n i n g o r lens a n d f o c u s e d in natural c o l o r o n a facing surface. Binder A substance t h a t holds particles o f p i g m e n t t o g e t h e r in a paint f o r m u l a t i o n . A i r b r u s h e s are u s e d in t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c o m i c s . Anamorphic distortion Stretching an i m a g e across a p i c t u r e surface so t h a t it can o n l y b e u n d e r s t o o d . a n d g r a p h i t e . A l s o called m u s e u m g r a d e . D a m p p a p e r is laid o n t o p .c e n t u r y painting m o v e m e n t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e use o f b o l d .s i z e d r a w i n g m a d e for t h e purpose o f transferring a design t o a painting. Engraving 1. T h e prints t a k e n from t h e s e plates o r blocks. S o m e t i m e s f e r r u l e s a r e m a d e o f plastic o r o t h e r materials. r a t h e r t h a n r e c o r d e d o n a film o r plate. A h u m o r o u s d r a w i n g o r parody. Contre jour A F r e n c h t e r m m e a n i n g " a g a i n s t day. Fauvism A n early 2 0 t h . C o p p e r p l a t e engravings w e r e widely used t o r e p r o d u c e images b e f o r e p h o t o g r a p h y . m e a n i n g " t o stick" Dry media M e d i a t h a t a r e n o t w e t o r o i l y — f o r e x a m p l e . Air brush A mechanical. A l s o called r i n g l e t shading. A " s h a l l o w d e p t h o f field" m e a n s t h e p i c t u r e appears t o have only a shallow s p a c e inside i t Diffuse T o s o f t e n o r m a k e less brilliant. s u c h as a s c r e e n . 2. U s e d as a c o r r e c t i n g device o r pictorial game. tapestry. linseed oil o r egg y o l k Caricature A representation Contour line A line t h a t f o l l o w s t h e s h a p e o f a surface. m e a n i n g "beauty". Chiaroscuro A 1 7 t h .
. Ground A wet solution usually of gouache or gesso (chalk and animal glue) brushed onto paper board. upright images are called "portrait which is used as a binding agent in many liquid media. to describe a surface to which paint will adhere readily. F o r m a t T h e size. Focus 1 . Fugitive A term given to a pigment that it is not stable. This effect emulates what we see in real life. sticky paper tape. which give it a smooth surface (as opposed to cold-pressed paper. Hatching (cross-) See Crosshatching. lifting out charcoal and other dry media.The paper then bears a crayon impression or copy of the surface that was underneath it A number of Surrealists. Also refers to an additive used to control the application properties of a color Golden Section A proportion in which a straight line or rectangle is divided into two unequal parts in such a way that the ratio of the smaller part to the greater part is the same as that of the greater part to the whole. and translucent paper—a delicate material used in collage. and it has a history in enamel work. Giotto's Virtues and Vices in the Arena Chapel. or canvas and allowed to dry before an image is drawn or painted. Lithography A method of printmaking in which a drawing or painting is made directly onto a smooth slab of particular limestone or a metal plate using an oilbased crayon or ink. and that will "escape" or change over time. are painted in grisaille and appear to be made of stone. glossy. The ink attaches to the oil-based image and is repelled by the wet stone. rock. Lifting out A method of creating highlights and mid-tones in a drymedia drawing (such as charcoal or graphite). or plastic surface. glass." A piece of paper is placed on top of an object or rough surface. or spirit-based) is applied to a surface that is then pressed onto paper and removed to leave a print. the finely ground particles of plant.Theground provides a particular color or texture beneath the image. enabling them to stick to paper It also helps to maintain a stable dispersion of pigment particles in water as the film of a wash dries. mineral.while secretion of the acacia tree. materials that produce marks on a surface. then rubbed over carefully but vigorously with a crayon. 2. Rubens used grisaille to paint small images for engravers. Objective drawing Refers to the concept of objectivity. but each print will be unique. so that (using vanishing point perspective) the object appears to change shape and become narrower or smaller as it recedes. Padua. including Max Ernst used frottage in their work. which has a rough surface). Medium A generic term for art Key A painting is said to be "high key" when the colors and tones are bright and "low key" when they are dark or somber The term is also used Gouache Opaque watercolor Also called body color. or synthetic material that are suspended in a medium to constitute paint. Paper is then pressed against the stone to take a print. Monoprinting A direct method of printing in which wet medium (water-. Also used by artists' materials manufacturers to indicate the use of a substitute pigment—for example. Papercut A type of collage in which flat sheets of paper are cut into an image. the surface of the stone is made wet before being rolled with a thin film of oilbased printing ink. A small image might be described as small format Horizontal images are often said to be "landscape format" (abbreviated G u m arabic The natural to"landscape"). The surface can be reloaded or redrawn with more medium. Lightfast A term confirming that pigment in the product will not fade with exposure to light.The degree to which detail is defined. It is a strong adhesive. to give the illusion of depth and distance. cadmium yellow hue. Impressing Stamping or printing. graphite. F o r m The outer surface of a three-dimensional object. Foreshortening A method of depicting an object at an angle to the surface of the picture. Masking fluid Clear or opaque latex fluid developed for watercolor painting. format" (abbreviated to "portrait"). It is then peeled away. and is also used as a size. Hot-pressed papers (HP) Paper made using hot cylinders. or even a beam of light. and masking off areas of a drawing that the artist wishes to keep untouched by media applied above or beside the tape. Picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. and gray drawing. aiming to represent facts rather than an interpretation of the subject. It improves the bonding properties Frottage A French term meaning "rubbing. and orientation of the image. used for fixing paper to walls and boards. white. This method incorporates the excitement of accidental and unpredicted marks. but in picture-making it is as important as the objects/subjects themselves. Negative space The space between things. A point of interest in a drawing. oil-based printing ink is rolled evenly onto a smooth metal. Plumb line A line from which a weight is suspended in order to determine verticality or depth. Gamut A complete range or extent Glassine A type of thin. of the ingredients in inks and watercolors. work. ink. This may be disregarded in real life. or can be otherwise used to create an image—for example. Pointillism A technique of using points or dots of pure color in such a way that when the picture is viewed from a distance they react Masking tape Invaluable. Dark tones are laid down first then an eraser or masking tape is used to lift away particles of the drawing media to reveal the lightness of the paper beneath.257 metal line. Monochrome Usually refers to a black. or a family of colors. Alternatively. or for wrapping and protecting a finished piece of work. multiH u e A term for a color. Usually an academic drawing observed from life. oil-. or a drawing made in any single color GLOSSARY Linear perspective A form of perspective in which parallel lines are represented as converging. Hairspray is an effective and inexpensive alternative. Paper is laid on top and a rapid drawing is made on the back of it The paper lifts away to reveal the image on its other side. pastel. Grisaille is occasionally seen in church stained-glass windows. Artists can paint freely over dry masking fluid. After several intervening processes. Grisaille A painting in gray or a grayish color Often made by students as a tonal exercise. with the area beneath remaining unaffected. purpose. It can be used with any wet media to isolate or protect parts of an image from further Optical blending See Pointillism. and by artists representing stone sculptures in a painting. it is the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work Pigment Any substance used as a coloring agent—for example. shape.
Zen brushwork encompasses calligraphy and painting. Subjective drawing A drawing that expresses the personal view and interpretation of the artist An invented image. pencil. Recto The front or top side of a piece of paper. Squaring up A method of enlarging and transferring an image from one surface to another. or watercolor paint. Vanishing point In linear perspective. . watercolor. Still life A picture composed of inanimate objects such as bowls. Viewpoint The position from which something is observed or considered. A term borrowed from the theater. Sketch A quick or rough drawing. Artists' prints are normally made in multiple. cut-out profile made along every outline of the usually made in black paper image. fine paper. plaster or cloth surface beneath. which are then called editions. Props An abbreviation of the word properties. or point on which parallel lines converge to give the impression of receding space. Zen brushwork This is an oriental meditative art form originating in China and practised for many centuries in Japan. paper or canvas." Materials for Zen brushwork include round brushes of varied size. or gouache. a point at which receding parallel lines meet Verso The back or underside of a piece of paper. or pen. sometimes drawn from a and leaving only the pricked sheet of shadow cast on a wall. pointed roll of white paper that is used to blend dry media. and paperweights. Tone A degree of lightness or darkness. compound of water-soluble pigment. Underdrawing A pale preliminary drawing made prior to adding layers of another medium such as oil paint or watercolor Value The extent to which a color reflects or transmits light This is the equivalent of tone in a black and white image. Serigraphy Silk-screen printing. whose pinpricks creates a "connect-thepersonal pastime was making dots" replica of the image on the cut-out portraits. creating more vibrant effects than if the same colors were physically mixed together with a brush. design. Turpentine A colorless solvent distilled from the resinous sap of pine trees. Etienne de material) dabbed through the Silhouette (1709-67). "Spirits" or "oil" of turpentine refer to the volatile portion used by artists to thin or dilute oil-based paint. or mark using an inked or pigment-covered surface. a tightly folded piece of cotton batting can be used for the same effect. or the right-hand page in a book. Strip Core of a pencil. or the left-hand page in a book. Shade A that is color mixed (or toned) with black Shading A lay term for adding tone to a drawing. The translucent Tint A color mixed with white. in tone running from black to white or vice versa. commonly referred to as the lead. in order to flick the pigment onto the image surface.258 GLOSSARY together optically. by imposing a grid that is then scaled up to a larger size. plaster. W e t media Any liquid media— for example. carbon ink. orchids. Pounce (a fine for an unpopular 18th-century powder of charcoal or similar French politician. evolved by engineers and architects for the purpose of conveying W a t e r c o l o r A painting accurate structural information. Printmaking The act of making a picture. Spattering A mottled texture produced by drawing your fingers across the bristles of a stiff brush loaded with pigment. pointed instrument used for marking or engraving. glasses. Stippling Applying color or tone in areas of fine dots or flecks. Zen paintings usually depict scenes of nature and plants such as bamboo. giving it a brilliance. and flowers. nature of watercolor allows the white surface of the paper to Tonal scale A scale of gradations shine through. plum blossom." Applied to the blurring or softening of sharp outlines by the subtle and gradual blending of one tone into another Sgraffito A technique of scratching or cutting through a surface of paint. acrylic. Squeegee A rubber-trimmed scraper used in the screenprinting process for dragging ink across a surface. Named paper in place. Volume The amount of space occupied by an object or an area of space in itself. an ink stone usually cut from slate. and chrysanthemum—which in Chinese tradition are called "The Four Gentlemen.Thedrawing is removed. or wood. usually diluted with water and applied with a brush. a sheet of paper is placed beneath and pinpricks are Silhouette A flat. Single-point perspective The most basic form of linear perspective in which there is only one vanishing point. The crude material is called oleoresin. Stylus A sharp. Although drawings can be made with wash alone. wall or tapestry. or ceramic glazing to reveal a different color beneath. Zen A school of Mahayana Buddhism that asserts that enlightenment can come through meditation and intuition rather than faith. Tortillon A short. Size A weak glue used for filling the porous surface of wood or canvas in order to seal it. using a brush. or any physical object that can be stamped or pressed onto a surface to leave an impression. Technical drawing A universal it is often used in conjunction language of lines and measurements with line drawings in pen and that is used to make diagrammatic ink—for images. meaning objects used in setting up a life model or still life. Alternatively. Support The structure on which an image is made—for example. tight. Scale Describes the size of one element in relation to another Sepia A brown pigment taken from the sun-dried ink sacs of cuttlefish and used to make ink or watercolor The term is now often incorrectly used to refer to brown colors. to model areas of light and shade. such as an inscribed sheet of metal. fruit. Pouncing If a large drawing or design (called a cartoon) is to be Shadow Darkness cast by the transferred to a surface such as a obscuring of light. Sfumato An Italian term meaning "smoky.Technicaldrawing has been example. ink. Wash A technique using ink.
193 in lifting out 204. Leon: Bacchante 155 balance. 75 Circle of the Lustful (Blake) 180. Zen c 232-233 blended 133. Filippo 67. Giovanni 137 Head and Shoulders of a Man 136. 242 Brunelleschi. 165. 247-248 carving see lines. 230-231 Cubist 90. 128. cut Catling.133. 90. 161 Akhlaq-I Rasul Allah manuscript 51.163 body. 241 action. to draw 80. center of 118 ballpoint 182. 203 Claude Lorrain 202 Views from Velletri 202. 72 bracelet shading 122 Braque.89. 137 Besler. Franz 48 Protea nitida 48 Bellini. 52 cotton swabs 205 Coup de Vent a Asajigabare (Hokusai) 198. 162 character: to capture 38-39. 13 architectural drawing 67-71 Arctic Flowers (Libeskind) 70. Brian 226 Untitled 2001 226 "Cave of the Hands" (Cueva de las Manas) 8. Mamaru 104. 95 Chair Cut Out (Woodfine) 94. 94 cylindrical objects. to draw 100 Cypripedium calceolus L. Etienne-Louis 72 Newton's Cenotaph 72. 203 Buffalo Hunt (Shoshone) 178. Victor: West Facade of the Church of St. 81 135. 201 collage 111. 226-227 Acanthus spinosus 65 accelerated perspective 22. Augustin 67 Basquiat. Jean Michel 138 Self-Portrait 138 Bateau-Vision. 71 Bacchante (Bakst) 155 background: color 91 textured 240 Baker Matthew: Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry 32 Bakst.184. 243 botanical drawing 48-49 Boullee. Basilius 47 Beuys. 204. 74.226. 205 Baltard. 160 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object (Moore) 178. 13. 40-41 Durer's rhinoceros 26. 9 Chair (Van Gogh) 94. 116. 157 cropping 56-57. 178 Cubism 67. 94 chalk(s) 53. 198. Sylvano 222. 111.51 All and Nothing (Taylor) 114.186 see also movement Adoration of the Magi perspective study (Leonardo) 74. layers 53 chalk pastels 162. 71 Blake. 163. 222.163 dry media 205 Blue Nude (Matisse) 110. 50.27 turtles 42-43 aquatint 240 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels (Leonardo) 12. 70 Art Nouveau motifs 91 Autoportrait (Ray) 138. 81 cut-out model plan 94.184.Index Page numbers in italics refer t o captions and illustrations Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity (Bishndas and 259 INDEX B bread (as eraser) 205.162 Conte.100 curves. 133. 38-39. 26 geese 38-39 Gericault's cats 28. Hieronymus 243 Two Monsters 242. Statue d'Epouvante 90 calligraphy. 29 Hugo's octopus 28. to model 110-111 border 51 Bosch. 186 charcoal 114. 30 sleeping dog 38-39 Stubbs's horse skeleton 26. 180 Circular Score for "Due Voce" (Bussotti) 223 circus scenes 192-195 City (Bryan) 202.44-45. 134 costume(s) 155 character 158-159 structure of 166-167 Cottage Among Trees (Rembrandt) 52. 71 conte 112. 206. 221 animals. 180 blending: color 133. 113 bird bones 12. 244 head and neck 144 phrased 124-125 contrast: brightness 99 of media 30 tonal 96. 220. 90 colored materials 162-163 colored pencils 162. 182. 244 and graphite 178 . 90 La Guitare. William: The Circle of the Lustful 180.13. Joseph 113 The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland 112. 223 Circular Score for "Due Voce" 223 children's art 9. 198 cartoon (preparatory drawing) 137 (satirical) 159. 158. 200 Bauer. Georges 67.50. 189. 75. Le (Hugo) 200. 74 brush (es) 246-247 Japanese 248 for laying a wash 140 marks 248-249 to hold 23 brush drawings 14-15 Bryan.212 to erase 205 to hold 23 pencils 204 willow 114. Clare 203 City 202.169 colors: airbrushed 161 background 91 A Abe. 78 aerial perspective 206 airbrushing 160.115 anatomical drawing 134-135 anatomical theaters 82-83 anatomical waxes 128 ancient carvings 221. 74. Nicolas-Jacques 54 contours 146. 28 Klee's horses 30. 8 cave paintings 8. to express 39.31 Picasso's horse and bird 30. 179 Bussotti. 206 checkered floor 80. 190 Caricature of a Woman (Daumier) 198. 202 cloth. 250 Bishndas and Nanha: Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity 50. to draw 25. 41 principal 186. 242 to blend 205 compressed 122. 203 Landline 202. 98. 230 The Physical Space 220 abstract drawing 219. 139 Nanha) 50. (Ross-Craig) 49 to hold brush for 23 caricature 159. 199 Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya (Eisen) 156.117 Achilles Chases Hector (Thomas) 240.44-45 bird studies 12. 90. to depict 156-157 Cloudburst of Material Possessions (Leonardo) 200. 9.163 graded 227 composition 56-57. 204-205.198.
240. 161 fashion drawings 160. 245 layers 30 Goya.104. 134.260 INDEX D Dada 139 Daumien Honore 198 Caricature of a Woman 198. 91 Dragon (Michelangelo) 36. 120. 69 Guitare. 90 gouache 30. 161 fashion 160. 131 Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 240.Theodore 29 Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 28. 216 foreshortening 110. 799 Holbein. 90 G Gaudi. 115 Escher. Alberto 136 Portrait of Marie-Laure de Noailles 136. La (Braque) 90. 245 Gruau. 226-227 anatomical 134-135 architectural 67-71 botanical 48-49 brush 14-15 dark to light 102. 765 hitsuzendo drawings 233 Hokusai. Statue d'Epouvante. 69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt 68.John 157 Man Lying Down in a Cloak 156. 157 . Antonio 135 Muscles of the Head and Neck 134. 205 drawing with 103.111 feet. 252 depiction of fabric monsters 252-253 Self Portrait in a Cocked Hat 130. 99 etching. 160 Faune. 29 H hands.12 fixative 54. 161 changing 216 Focusing on the Negative (Walter) 16 foliage 52.216.97. 240 Black Paintings 152. 160 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction (Gaudi) 68. 93 eye level 80 Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity. 137 heads.91. 125.141.157 ellipses 100. 190 Middle Eastern 50-51.102-103 drawing board 20 drawing books 20-21 drawing paper 144.141. fiber-tip pen 182. 134. 240 170-173 five Ships in a Port with Lighthouse (Wallis) 11. Sir Ernst 12. 40.116. The 242. position of 22 Eisen. 242 eyes. 55. 223.198 Degas. 222 Grimes. 202.146 from masterworks 126-127. 122. to draw 120. 55. proportions of 143 fantasy drawings 72-73. Nicholas 68 St Paul's Baptistry 68 head and neck to draw 142-145 Head and Shoulders of a Man (Bellini) 136. 135 Duren Albrecht 26. 160 as ground for metal point 140.216 Durelli.189. 170-173.244. M. 223 graphite 54.166 170-173 Gestalt 222 Giacometti.230 three-tone 140.184 165. 163. 122 Hawksmoor.109 Rhinoceros 26. to draw 134-137 Helleborus corsicus 55 highlights 91. 77 How Clever of God #84 244.207. 32 framing 139 Franfoise au Bandeau (Picasso) 132. 73.160. 69.37. Antonio 68. Rene 160 Illustration for Jacques Fath E easel. Edgar 162 depth. 124.112.69 Gerard.160. 230 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction 68. position of 143. to draw 78. to draw 168-169 in Goya's artworks face. to suggest 177 see also perspective diagonals diffuser 55 dip pens 34. 55. Robert 93 Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 92. 132 Frenz. 222. 222 Le Bateau-Vision 200. 93 horizon 52. 104-105. Jean Ignace Isidore see Grandville Gericault.144 and ink 30. disposable pens 182-183 dissections: botanical 48 of horse 27 distance: illusion of see perspective linear 97 tonal 97 Documents Decoratifs. 134. 112. 41 in the round 208-209 with scalpel 202. 241 to blend 205 and chalk 178 and ink 28. 7 33 Hooke. Study for Plate 59 (Mucha) 90.121 felt-tip pens 162. 162 Flaxman. 71 minimal line 99 and music 70-71 quick 38-39.103 with eraser 103. Victor 200. 243 graphic score 222. Katsushika 199 Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 198. 141 tonal 96. 203 semi-abstract 234-237 three-dimensional 68. Ron 161 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 161 160. 113.252-253 from memory 183. 200 F fabric. Francisco de 131.115 exploratory 17 fantasy 72-73. 160 hitsuzendo 233 light to dark 102. 52 foreground 208. Hans 133 The Ambassadors 116 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 132. 220 dry brush 234 234 57. 203 Hotel de la Suzonnieres (Satie) 70. Keisai 157 The Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya 156. 144 Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (Baker) 32. drypoint 181 exaggeration 184 expressionism 198 E ye and Head of a Drone Fly (Hooke) 92. 69.103. 136 Golden Section 67 Gombrich. 79. 245 Hugo.117 fountain pens 34. C . 25 focus 65.244 drawing(s): abstract 219. 37 Grandville 243 A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the Near-Microscopic World of Scale Insects 242. 26 Flying Fish (White) 25. Cheval et Oiseau (Picasso) 30.101 engraving 243 erasers/erasing 55. 163. Oona 245 How Clever of God #84 244. 30 Fauves/fauvism 90.
Phyll: hands 18 lifting out 204. 201 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels 12.181 L Landline (Bryan) 202. 205. Florence 128 lighting in 167 Pitt Rivers.96. 184. 244 Dragon 36. 244 ink 36 252-253 Documents Decoratifs 90. 103 Neolithic chalk tablet 220. 166. 234 iron-gall 35. 242 light 96 to depict drawing with 1 76 painting with 176 . Rose: Tantalus or the Future of Man 20 minimal line drawing 99 mirror use of 120 mixed media 28. 190 metal pens see dip pens metal point 25. 181 luminosity 115 Lynch. 135 museums 184.108.40.206 La Specola. 178 motifs: A r t Nouveau 9 7 stylized 51 mountains 216-217 movement: of animals 30-31 of humans 7 79. artistic 240-241. Henry 178 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object 178. Erich 73 design for Metropolis 72. drawing from 183. 176. 789. Matisse.227 to "bend" straight 97 compositional 228-229 cut 202. Charles Rennie 48.Pieuvre (Octopus) 28. Alphonse 90.182 Moore.243 carbon 35 Chinese 30. 252 ink 16. drawing from 126-127. 34. 156 magnification 93 Man in Armor (Van Dyck) 158.120. 63. 230 invented creatures 106-107 250-251 invented objects 89. Madrid 171 University Museum of Natural History.134 K Kettlehut. 36. 53 Tree II 52. 77 Miller. 181 Klee. 220. Marie 244 cloth drawing 244. 110 Sistine Chapel ceiling 116 Middle Eastern drawing 50-51. apparent 97 Leonardo da Vinci 74. 170-173. David 78 M Mackintosh. Kathe 181 Losbrunch (The Outbreak) 180. Paul 227 Polyphonic Setting for White 226. Daniel 70 Arctic Flowers 70 Lieb. 160 In the Duchess's Kitchen (Rackham) 176. 49 Rose 49 Maelbeke Madonna (Van Eyck) 156. 757 mandalas 219. 114 hatched 244 layered 118 pace of 65 pale 40 rapid 49. 205 masterworks. 53 monoprint 787. 244.109.91 Study for Plate 59 of INDEX illumination see lighting Illustration for Jacques Fath (Gruau) 160. 72. 226 Modernism 67. 203. Henri 111 Blue Nude 1110. 249 and gouache 30 Indian 35. 248. 185 Mucha. Victor 134 Profile Head 134.141.The (Robinson) 108.167 line(s) 132. 220. 244 lithograph 198 Losbruch (Kollwitz) 180. 219 Mondrian. 97 Murillo. 13 Cloudburst of Material Possessions 200. 31 Klimt. 227 Newsome. Johan 32. 183 vertical 156 linear distance 97 linear perspective 69. 28 Two Impressions from a Cut-out Paper Disk 222 Huyler Stephen R 225 261 Kinecar. Oxford 250 music 70-71 Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks (Knopf) 32. 225 masking tape 204. 35. 60. 73 Michelangelo Buonarroti 48.109. 73 Kigell. 158 Man Lying Down in a Cloak (Flaxman) 156. 252 Muscles of the Head and Neck (Durelli) 134. 74-77. 37 lines 118 pastel 162 pencil 31. 34-35 acrylic 35 bistre 35. Piet 52. 33 J justness 228-229 N naive art 74 negative space 53. 756 priming for 140.112. 99. 177 influences. 201 head and neck sections of female mold for Sforza Horse 89 Madonna of the Rocks 244 perspective study for Adoration of the Magi 74.141 Metropolis (film) 72. I Murderous Attacks 33 Kollwitz.276. 83 white 122 ink impressions 222 ink spatters 234 installations 176. Bartolome: Moses Striking the Rock ofHoreb 252. 58-59. 111. Oxford 106 Prado. 163 pens 36 measuring 116 memory. 54 silver point 156 leg sections 158 length. 220. 159 Japanese 35 to make 36 sepia 35 walnut 36. 221 endless 31 free 113.102. 220.115 98. 227 Scene of Comical Riders 30. Gustav 49 Knopf. 203 landscape 206-208 brushed 14 Landscape in Hoboku Style (Sesshu) 14 layers 146 chalk 53 gouache 30 ink 28.33 Mysterious Affairs of the lighting 2 7. 78 Study ofThree Male Figures 110. 76 Libeskind.
1 2 4 priming for metal point 140. 224 0 layers 31. 71 Satire of the Queen's Dress (Wodall) 158.54 pastel 162 perspective 1 0 0 . 1 6 3 .2 3 age and youth sleeping subjects 148-149 150-151 Renaissance 109 Rhinoceros (Durer) 26. 1 1 7 aerial 206 linear 69. Odilon 242 The Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity 242. The (Abe) 220 Picasso. 212 Japanese 2 1 .262 INDEX Newton. 9 0 . Arthur 177 In the Duchess's Kitchen 176. 243. Heath 181 The Kinecar 180. 7 77 three-point 80. 4 8 putty eraser 55. 1 1 6 . Martin 238. 38. 26 Riley.oise au Bandeau 132. 162 O p A r t 98 optical illusions 96-99 outline 33. 239 Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 238. 52 pens 36 scalpel 54 drawing with 202.131 Cottage Among Trees 52. 91 outsider artists 33. 782 relief 757 silk-screen 739 woodblock 134. 205 157. 7 38 Ray 138. 230 paper(s) 21 colored 162 drawing 144.Paul'sBaptistry (Hawksmoor) 68. 36. 163. 733 Portrait de Marie-Laure (Giacometti) 136. 7 73 self-portraits: Basquiat 138. 4 9 Rose of Mohammed 50. 76 plastic eraser 55.The (Beuys) 112. 68 Satie.9 3 Schongauer. 241 Physical Space. Faune. 78 single-point 74.139 Autoportrait 138. 75 Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range 241 petroglyphs 221.176 Real Life Is Rubbish 176. 122.71 Hotel de la Suzonnieres 70. Isaac 92 Telescope 92 Newton's Cenotaph (Boullee) 72. 36. 772 234-237 Sesshu. Sue 104. 203 Scene of Comical Riders (Klee) 30. 181 pencil(s) 54 charcoal 204 colored 762. 141 Piranesi. 165 figure 118 filled 37 pencil 48. 74-77. Georges 112 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 112. 2 2 0 for oil pastels 162 stained 230 to stretch 140-141 tissue 21. 243. 219. Erik 70. to draw 146-147 R Rackham. 230 parallel planes 79 Parisian street 86-87 pastels 162 to blend 205 to hold 23 layers 162 pencils 162 pen(s): dip 34 .37 scientific instruments 9 2 . Peter Paul 126-127 Embracing pose(s): balanced 146 quick 118-119 positive form 103 posture: of artist 22 of subject 3 8 . 30 Fran<.52 pen and wash 158. 227 portfolios 20 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser de Noailles (Holbein) 132. 57 Ross-Craig. 28 pigment 162 bright 50 Caput Mortuum 7 4 7 for three-tone drawing 141. 1 3 2 quill pens 220.127.116.11. 139 Real Life is Rubbish (Noble and Webster) 176. 1 6 9 to hold 2 2 . 36. 734 Protea nitida (Bauer) 48. 216. 239 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat (Seurat) 112. 103. Pablo 6 7 . 165. 75 Two Courtyards 75. 164.184 fountain 34. 759 P Page. 7 72 Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland. J 76 nudes 114-115 to make 36 metal see dip quill 34. 72 Noble. 36. 73 Noble.759. 166 fiber-tip 782.104 Pieuvre (Hugo) 28. 234 disposable 182-183 felt-tip 162.Tim. 40-41. 159. 244 Q s Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape (Wolfli) 2 79 St. 160. Paul 73 Nobson Central 72. Man 131.7 77 rapidograph 70 Raphael 110. 38. Bridget 98 Robinson. 36 pen and brush 8 3 pen and ink 70. 76-79.240. 114 rollerball 182 Rorschach blot 99 Rose (Mackintosh) 48. 739 semi-abstract drawings Style 14 Seurat. 81 two-point 74. 205 pointillism 112 polyphonic painting 227 Polyphonic Setting for White (Klee) 226. 37 38. Russell 228.Toyo: Landscape in Hoboku .199 Profile Head (Newsome) oil pastels 162. 1 1 6 accelerated 2 2 . Stella 48 Cypripedium calceolus L 49 rotated view 7 65 Rubens.37. 97. 7 76 receding space 206 Redon. 244 reed 34. 736 portraits. 242 reed pens 34. 732 influence of 240 painting with light 78. 34-35. 7 70 Ray. 74.37. 36. Giovanni Battista 74. and Webster. 36 relief printing 757 Rembrandt van Rijn 52. Auguste 114 Two Women 114. 161. Cheval et Oiseau 30. 9 8 . 181 Rodin.141 prints/printing: aquatint 240 dry-point etching 181 engraving 243 monoprint 181.
Sarah 9 4 Chair Cut Out 94. H e n r i de: Woman at Her Toilet 14 t r a n s p a r e n t v i e w 92. 182. 159 Wolfli.2 1 3 Stubbs.Sforza Horse. 725 fabric 1 6 8 T h o m a s . 102-103 tonal marks. 2 2 6 . v i e w s o f 85. 7 6 Two Impressions from a Cut-Out Paper Disk ( H u g o ) 2 2 2 Two Monsters 2 4 2 . 75. phrased 146 tonal modeling 161 tonal range 169 t o n a l surfaces 2 2 7 tonal width 97 t o n e ( s ) 33. 199 shoes 1 6 4 . 1 3 .1 9 9 wire. 75 Skeleton of the Horse ( S t u b b s ) 26. John: Focusing on the Negative 14 w a s h . 1 6 .241 s i l k . b l o w n 248 steel p e n s see d i p p e n s still life 89. 7 1 4 . 226 V Van Dyck.141 S i m b l e t . William 159 Satire of the Queen's Dress INDEX 226.125 W o o d f i n e . 7 77. 7 79 Shoshone petroglyph 240.41. 2 2 0 influence o f 2 4 0 Untitled 220.2 0 1 . 164. 57. 76. 1 4 0 . 69. 2 4 7 t h r e e . 9 2 Tesshu. Sue see N o b l e .t o n e d r a w i n g 140. 49. 245 sharpener 54 Ship in a Storm ( T u r n e r ) 1 9 8 . 2 4 2 w Wallis. 77. 2 3 4 . 7 70 Tiber 214-215 Untitled ( T w o m b l y ) 2 2 0 . 174 T w o m b l y . Taylor A n i t a 115 All and Nothing 1 1 4 . 221 .9 1 storms.5 3 in l a n d s c a p e 2 0 6 .243 Leonardo's machines 12. 158 V a n Eyck. t h r e e . 1 6 6 t r a p e z i u s m u s c l e 142. 170 shoes 1 6 4 stylized m o t i f 51 Summer Flowers 63. 1 4 4 .13 M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s m a l e figures 110. 7 6 1 spots. 199.1 0 5 vision 9 6 Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects (Grandville) 242. 2 4 4 . 2 2 7 Untitled 2001 ( C a t l i n g ) u 263 W h i t e . 1 8 4 . 79. 7 9 0 vessels. 141 Three Male Figures. C y 138. 97. 2 7 studies: b i r d s 7 2 . 249 t o describe 39. 96. t o d r a w 2 0 0 .1 8 5 Tree II ( M o n d r i a n ) 52. Sarah: child's m a p 75. 1 9 9 . 9 0 .1 6 5 shorthand diagram 142 Shoshone buffalo hide painting 178. t o lay 1 4 0 . 2 3 0 tonal contrast 96 tonal distance 9 7 t o n a l d r a w i n g 9 6 .J. 104-105. 2 9 wind.120. h e a d a n d n e c k sections o f female m o l d f o r (Leonardo) 89 shading 2 9 s h a d o w s 28. t o draw 1 9 8 . t o d r a w 1 0 1 viewfinder 57 Views from Velletri ( C l a u d e L o r r a i n ) 152.199 tissue p a p e r 21. 69.Yamaoka 233 t e x t u r e 2 2 2 .s c r e e n p r i n t i n g 139 silver p o i n t 1 4 0 . 9 4 z Z e n calligraphy 232-233 contrast 96 t o grade 163 ink 37 pencil 5 4 t o r t i l l o n 205 T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c . 1 7 7 free 8 0 V e n i c e . Augustin ( B a l t a r d ) 6 7 w e t and dry brush-strokes 2 4 9 Turner. A n t h o n y 152. Vincent 95 Chair 94. 243 (Bosch) T Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos ( G o y a ) 2 4 0 .12 W a l t e r . John 25 Flying Fish 25 Wild Striped Cat Sketches of ( G e r i c a u l t ) 28. 1 4 1 .d i m e n s i o n a l d r a w i n g 68. 2 0 0 Ship in a Storm 1 9 8 . 202 violin.158 158. Adolf: Giant-Grape Saint-Mary-Castle 219 Woman at Her Toilet ( T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c ) 74 w o o d b l o c k print 157. 1 9 9 Two Courtyards (Piranesi) 75. 230 t h r e e . 743 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City ( F r e n z ) 1 6 0 . 65 symbols 138. 53 trees.1 4 1 . 2 1 2 . Study of (Michelangelo) 110. 186. 1 4 5 travel journal 2 0 .27 skull 747. 156 Van Gogh. Jan 1 5 6 Maelbeke Madonna 1 5 6 . drawing with 104-105 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt ( G a u d i ) 68. 1 2 Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse 71. 115. 240 Two Women Embracing ( R o d i n ) 114. 241. 1 8 4 . 7 75 Telescope ( N e w t o n ) 9 2 . 206-207 202. 9 5 pens 36 v a n i s h i n g p o i n t 74. Paul 2 4 1 Achilles Chases Hector 2 4 0 . M . Man in Armor 1 5 8 . G e o r g e 2 7 Skeleton of the Horse 26. T i m W e s t Fagade of the Church of St. t o d r a w 5 2 . 6 9 Wodall. 74. 1 4 1 w a t e r c o l o r 25.216 W e b s t e r . 4 4 boat 209 botanical 4 9 G e r i c a u l t ' s cats 2 9 from Goya 170-173 125. 156 layers 7 5 6 priming for 140. W . A l f r e d 1 1 .d i m e n s i o n a l 1 0 4 . 161.1 4 5 .
4 6 : B r i t i s h Library. 9 3 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. Paul T h o m a s ( t ) . 115: Anita Taylor. Paris/ © Succession Picasso / D A C S 2005. Fund. 9 5 : V a n Gogh M u s e u m . Jackie Douglas. 132: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. C o r n e l i s o n & Son. 139: Galerie Marion Meyer/© Man Ray Trust / A D A G P . H a m b u r g . Clare Bryan. 17: J o h n Walter. Wolfson College. 2 4 : © T h e British Museum. B e r l i n . Germany/Joerg P. 5 0 : Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (1). Berlin/Staatsbibliothek zu A l l other images © Sarah Simblet . Paula Regan. 7 0 : Studio Daniel L i b e s k i n d . 1879. Japan. K u n s t m u s e u m Bern/© D A C S 2 0 0 5 . Anita Taylor.bridgeman. Italy. Florence/MoMA. 2 3 8 : akg-images. 174: Artothek/Munich. L o n d o n . K e w ft)). Angela W i l k e s . 1 5 6 : Graphische S a m m l u n g Albertina. support. Paris. Kirsten Norrie. Lisbon.co.uk/British Museum.100. George M c G a v i n . Publisher's Acknowledgments Dorling Kindersley w o u l d like to thank Caroline H u n t for editorial contribution.bridgeman. B e m d Kunzig. Basel. 73: Berlin F i l m Museum (t). 1 5 4 : akg-images/Musee National d'Art Moderne. K a t h r y n W i l k i n s o n . 6 6 : w w w . Psychiatric Institute of the U n i v e r s i t y of Heidelberg. u k / O n Loan to the H a m b u r g Kunsthalle. Sophie Laurimore.uk /© Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery. u k / T o k y o National M u s e u m . 1 9 6 : Museum of the History of Science. 1 6 0 : Rene G R U A U s. 74: Corbis. 2 0 0 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. and Tamsin Woodward Smith. 137: © The British Museum. Anders/ © D A C S 2 0 0 5 . 158: Calouste Gulbenkian Museum.uk /Biblioteca Nacional. 1 3 4 : © T h e British Museum. Madrid.co. R . Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett.uk/Private Collection.bridgeman. G e r m a n y . University of Cambridge. 9 2 : Science Photo L i b r a r y .bridgeman. 2 2 2 : Pierre Georgel/Private Collection. for s u p p l y i n g the d r a w i n g books. 2 0 1 : T h e Royal Collection © 2 0 0 2 H e r Majesty Queen Elizabeth I I . a n d encouragement i n m a k i n g this book: M a m o r u Abe. London/courtesy of Stuart Shave. 2 1 8 : Adolf-Wdlfli-Stiftung.a. London/Bequeathed by Charles Landseer. 2 2 3 : Lebrecht Music and Arts Photo Library/Ricordi. Inc. R o y a n d D i a n n e Simblet. 75: © The British Museum (b). Diana Bell. 1 9 : Getty Images/© Succession Picasso / D A C S 2 0 0 5 .co. 2 0 2 : © T h e British Museum. Kunstmuseum Bern. NY. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin/Jorg P.uk/Private Collection. 2 6 : Topfoto. Paul T h o m a s .co. L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . K u n s t m u s e u m . Paris. 2 2 0 : Mamaru Abe. U K . 1 6 1 : D C C o m i c s I n c . Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. Psychiatric Institute of the University of Heidelberg. Amsterdam. P h y l l Kiggell. B . 1975 ( 1 9 7 5 .l. c o . L o n d o n . Salisbury & South W i l t s h i r e M u s e u m ( t ) . 68: www. 2 4 4 : Ashmolean Museum.bridgeman. L o n d o n . 30: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. 16: www. L o n d o n (t). 1 0 8 : Arts C o u n c i l Collection. 1 3 6 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Centre Pompidou-MNAM-CCI. 1929 (29. 180: www. 2 0 3 : Clare Bryan (t). 1 9 8 : Dover Publications. J o h n Roberts. Sarah D u n c a n . Anders. J o h n Walter. 3 3 : Prinzhom Collection. 88: www. . 2 4 2 : Photo Scala. 49: Hunterian Museum (t). 1 3 5 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. c o . 69: Institut Amatller d'Art Hispanic (tl). Paris. 2 4 1 : Corbis/David M u e n c h ( b ) . Maureen Paley Interim Art (b). A . Paris a n d D A C S . 5 3 : Collection of the Gemeentemuseum D e n Haag/Mondrian Trust. B e r l i n . 2 8 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. 199: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee des arts asiatiquesGuimet. Copyright Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens. Paris and D A C S . u k / L o u v r e . R o s e m a r y S c o u l a r . Pamela Ellis for compiling the index. Angela Palmer.uk/Guildhall Library. 176: Modem Art.bridgeman. Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (t). 1901.co. L e n .Strang Print Room ( b ) ./© D A C S 2 0 0 5 ( t ) . Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. 112: Yale University A r t Gallery/Everett V Meeks. 113: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. c o . University of Oxford. Oxford. a n d D e p a r t m e n t s o f E n t o m o l o g y a n d Zoology at the University of Oxford. A n n a P l u c i n s k a . Orientabteilung/Ruth Schacht. Patty Stansfield. D a w n Henderson. 9 1 : www. T h e R u s k i n School of D r a w i n g a n d Fine A r t . Berlin (b). Also. A . Carole A s h .co. 2 4 0 : w w w . 29: Fogg A n Museum/Collections Baron de Vita: Grenville L. Antonia Cunliffe Davis. A n d y C r a w f o r d for p h o t o g r a p h y a n d L .bridgeman. 1 5 9 : Bodleian Library. 179: www. 2 2 7 : Paul Klee Stiftung. Corporation of London. 114: Musee Rodin. H e l e n S h u t t l e w o r t h . Carlo O r t u for picture research s u p p o r t . papers. U K . France./Galerie Sylvie Nissen. 221: Gagosian Gallery/Private Collection (b).uk/Private Collection.bridgeman. 1 5 : w w w . 51: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. Agnieszka Mlicka. H e a t h e r M c C a r r y . 13: www. 9 0 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/© A D A G P .Paris ( b ) . Graphische Sammlung. 1 1 0 : www.co. Winthrop. 5 2 : T h e Metropolitan Museum of Art/Bequest of Mrs. 1 3 3 : Artothek/Kupferstichkabinett. H a y w a r d Gallery. 1 7 8 : © T h e British M u s e u m / H e n r y Moore F o u n d a t i o n . Rocio Arnaez. 7 1 : I M E C / A r c h i v e s E r i k Satie. 2 2 4 : P r i n z h o m Collection. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin. 9 4 : Sarah Woodfine. J o n Roome.co. Paris a n d D A C S . 225: Stephen P Huyler. K e v i n a n d Rebecca Slingsby. R u t h P a r k i n s o n . Productions Clovis Prevost (c). H . Paris./Private Collection/© D A C S 2005. 177: Mary Evans Picture Library. Sarah Woodfine. G e r m a n y .bridgeman.20-21 a n d 246-47. F i n n . Germany. 130: The Metropolitan M u s e u m of Art/Robert L e h m a n Collection. Andy Crawford. 157: U C L Art Collections . 9 7 6 ) . 111: Fondation Beyeler/Riehen (Bale)/© Succession H Matisse/DACS 2005. Christopher Davis. Illustrated London News Picture Library/The Bystander (b).264 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Acknowledgments Author's Acknowledgments: T h e author wishes to thank the following people for their enormous help. O.uk/Mucha Trust. © Tate. 1 . B M G .co. L o n d o n . 72: akg-images. Sir Brinsley F o r d . Paris. 1 3 8 : © Christie's Images Ltd/© A D AGP. 181: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. 226: Brian Catling. 11: www. F r a n c e . M a n d y Earey. 4 8 : T h e N a t u r a l H i s t o r y M u s e u m . Paris. G i n a R o w l a n d . a n d brushes o n pp. Roddy Bell. London 2005.939).r. L o n d o n . Natalie G o d w i n . L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . Jean Pierre Roy. 2 4 5 : Oona Grimes. Flossie. . Sammy De Grave. Dover Publications/ISBN: 0486229912 (t).uk/Musee des Augustins. b r i d g e m a n . Picture Credits 8: Corbis/Hubert Stadler. Julie O u g h t o n . b r i d g e m a n . 2 7 : Royal Academy of Arts. J a c k a n d Brian Catling. Peter L u f f . 3 1 : Tom Powel Imaging. 3 2 : Pepys Library. S i m o n L e w i s . Havemeyer. 243: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz.co. Portugal. O o n a G r i m e s . b r i d g e m a n . Toulouse. (r). Magdalene College Cambridge.uk/Kettle's Yard. T o n y G r i s o n i .
FOR THE ARTIST T h e c o m p l e t e g u i d e to drawing—a unique blend of practical teaching and inspirational insights into classic and contemporary drawings. Creating a Sketchbook—Sarah Simblet's drawings inspire you to explore different subjects and fill your own sketchbooks. discover new ideas. and tone. and improve your drawing skills. charcoal. and silverpoint—and apply the key elements of drawing including perspective. Learn from the Masters—a rich selection of drawings illustrates different approaches to a wide range of subjects. Materials and Techniques—how to use a variety of materials—from pencil and ink to pastel. D r a w i n g C l a s s e s — d e t a i l e d step-by-step demonstrations show you how to develop your natural talents.dk.com Discover more at . www. shape.
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