An innovative, practical approach to drawing the world around you

SARAH SIMBLET

BOOK
FOR T H E ARTIST

BOOK

FOR THE ARTIST

SARAH SIMBLET

DK PUBLISHING

CONTENTS
LONDON • NEW YORK MELBOURNE • MUNICH • DELHI Senior Editor Paula Regan Senior Art Editor Mandy Earey Art Editor Anna Plucinska Managing Editor Julie Oughton Managing Art Editor Heather McCarry Art Director Peter Luff Publishing Director Jackie Douglas Production Joanna Bull DTP Designer Adam Walker Picture Research Sarah Smithies US Editor Christine Heilman First American Edition, 2 0 0 5 First Paperback Edition, 2 0 0 9 Published in the United States by DK Publishing 3 7 5 Hudson Street New York, New York 1 0 0 1 4 10 11 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3

Architecture
6 8 20 22 Master Builders The Order of Sound Future Fictions Pathways of Sight Single-Point Perspective Creating an Imaginary Space Further Aspects of Perspective Theaters Venetian Life Parisian Street

66
68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86

Foreword Introduction Drawing Books and Papers Posture and Grip

Objects and Instruments

TD075-July 2009 Copyright © 2 0 0 5 Dorling Kindersley Limited Text and authors artworks © Sarah Simblet 2 0 0 4 Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited A Cataloging-in-Publication record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN 9 7 8 - 0 - 7 5 6 6 - 5 1 4 1 - 1 Color reproduction by GRB, Italy Printed and bound in China by Toppan

Still Life Instruments of Vision Bench Marks Light and Illusions Further Illusions How to Draw Ellipses Tonality Drawing with Wire Artifacts and Fictions

88

90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106

Animals
Documentaries Presence and Mood Movement Icon and Design Pen and Ink Drawing with Ink Capturing Character Sleeping Dogs Turtles Dry Birds

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26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44

The Body
Postures and Poses Choreographs Passion Measurement and Foreshortening Quick Poses Hands and Feet Charcoal Hands Phrasing Contours The Visual Detective La Specola

108
110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128

Plants and Gardens
Botanical Studies Jeweled Gardens Fast Trees Graphite and Erasers Cropping and Composition Negative Space Fig Tree Summer Flowers Acanthus Spinosus

46
48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64

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Gatherings
Projections Magnetic Fields The Human Condition Disposable Pens The Travel Journal Catching the Moment Grand Canal Crossings Caravans The Big Top

174 Abstract Lines
176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 Process and Harmony Writing Time Chants and Prayers Compositions Being "Just" Collage Zen Calligraphy Nocturnes

218
220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234

Portraiture
Poise Anatomies Revelations Self-Portraits Silver Point Head and Neck Essential Observations Drawing Portraits Generations Castings

130
132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 152

Earth and the Elements
Air in Motion Storms Nature Profiles Charcoal Landscapes Drawing in the Round Decaying Boat Cloudburst Notes of Force Mountains

196
198 200 202 204 206 208 210 212 214 216

Gods and Monsters
Marks of Influence Hauntings Convolutions Brushes Brush Marks Monsters Goya's Monsters Consumed Glossary Index Acknowledgments

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240 242 244 246 248 250 252 254 256 259 264

Costume
Cloth and Drapery Character Costumes Femmes Fatales Colored Materials Study and Design The Structure of Costume Textures and Patterns Dressing Character Posture Carving

154
156 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172

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Foreword B Y DRAWING THE WORLD AROUND US. we have looked at. It is a tool for investigating ideas and recording knowledge. By using our imaginations. Drawing is a mirror through which I understand my place in the world. I will always draw. remain unseen by most. and experience. Some are more traditionally framed and hung in galleries for solo or group exhibitions. thinking. night security staff. and makers of special effects. I was also reading among The Confessions of St. Drawing occupies a unique place in every artist and creator's life. who tells me firmly upon approach that they cannot draw. where I expect them to be discovered by some people. and their importance to so many artists. and I refer back to them for years after they are made. and size. Chosen in any color. in which he describes himself flying and diving in his imagination through pictorial caverns of knowledge. . where spaces are shaped by nothing more than the objects and activities contained within them. as a visiting professor at universities. understood (and often misunderstood) our own bodies. We can all learn how to draw. Some of my drawings cover entire walls. are made outside as discreet installations. that inspired the title and structure MEMORY T H E A T E R S This pen-and-ink drawing was made from imagination during research for my PhD. we learn to feel truly alive. a composer notating a musical score. not only to make art. geologists. It makes me feel excited to be alive. doctors. of Sketch Book for the Artist. or a quantum physicist trying to see for themselves the fluctuations of our universe. I also make drawing books. texture. fashion designer. a cartographer charting the land. Others can be held in the h a n d or. Combine these things and the possibilities are endless. perhaps hidden on a door hinge or a street bench rail. They enfold their viewer and are made on joined sheets of paper that I reach by climbing ladders. by invitation. and local c o m m u n i t y classes. but because it is how I engage with and anchor myself in life. I work with people of diverse ages. we learn to see it. For twelve years I have enjoyed the privilege of teaching drawing. It is my love of these. I was training in anatomy and studying how. They occupy a shelf in my studio. I know that with their cooperation I can soon prove them wrong. and be slowly washed or worn away. and feeling. through history. drawing is the immediate expression of seeing. be they a child discovering their vision and dexterity. and in a few sessions they will be flying. a sculptor. especially as travel journals. These inspirations led me to invent museums. The most rewarding challenge is always the newcomer. architect. from schoolchildren to senior citizens. aspirations. art schools. and through which I can see how I think. and a reflector of experience. For me personally. The very first step is to believe it. or engineer. Augustine his notes on memory. shape. still standing by the door. a drawing book is the perfect portable private vehicle for your imminent exploration of drawing. undergraduates to fellow professors.

graffiti. Drawing is international. not just chosen pictures on our walls but everywhere—maps. and we spend our lives reading it. We can always read each others drawings. Cueva de las Marios. Rio Pinturas 13. a great crowd is raising their hands in greeting. We are surrounded by drawings in our daily lives. Sometimes we draw because we are bored. Children cannot be restrained from running across the pristine white lawn of newly fallen snow. We are bombarded with linear and tonal pictorial information. scrawling shapes and cartoons when on the telephone.Theseancient silhouettes were drawn with earth pigments rubbed onto rock.8 INTRODUCTION Where We Begin There is a fundamental drive in our human nature to make a mark. and patterns on our clothes. waving to us from many thousands of yearsago. like a great canvas for them to mark. but more often because drawing actually helps us to focus and take in what is said. inscribing every fresh part of it with their eager scrapes and trails. irreverent to language barriers. Most adults still feel that certain exquisite pleasure on arriving at a beach to find the tide out and the sand perfect.000-9500 bce . The sense of relief we may feel from the information overload of modern commercial life when visiting a country in which we can no longer read every written word. logos. They have a natural affinity to many modern graffiti signatures. signs. is not afforded us by drawing. and in meetings. packaging. At home and at work we doodle. "CAVE OF THE HANDS" In this drawing. in lectures.

. Cave art was not made for decoration but as a fundamental part of life. and she kept it as my first step beyond the delighted realms of scrawl. had happily scribbled. I now think this is a picture of proximity. I was sitting with my mother. reflecting my experience of looking closely at my father's face.9 WHERE WE BEGIN FIRST PORTRAIT For sorre forgotten reason. The image above is what I gave back to my mother. power. enjoying the physical sensation of crayon on paper. an expression of existence. Even though it is made by a toddler this image would be recognizable to anyone. the hair of my first portrait was most important. and the appearance of my strikes of colors. but I had never yet attempted to figuratively picture my world. and belonging to place. In cave paintings like the one opposite. created by societies of hunter-gatherers. who in their day-to-day hardship made time to picture themselves and the animals on which they depended. we see our oldest surviving images. like all toddlers. On a particular afternoon in September 1974. She gave me a notepad and a red crayon and asked me to draw her "a picture of Daddy." Until this day. at age two-anda-half. Eyelashes take up as much of my attention as the head itself. I. MAKING OUR MARK It seems reasonable to assume that we have engaged in pictorial mark-making for as long as we have made conscious use of our hands.

At this point many will insist they cannot draw. and from that first unit build and describe the shape of something or someone we know. Young children love to draw. Inhibitions creep in and ideas of good a n d b a d terminate confidence. it is important to value your natural abilities a n d ways of seeing. h o w e v e r small a n d u n f o r m e d y o u believe they are. It was made with a few bold strokes of a steel pen dipped in ink to conjure the dried bee I was holding between my fingers on a pin. As you progress. then drag o u r line into a loop.10 INTRODUCTION PEN-AND-INK BEE This tiny drawing has been enlarged to show its texture and composition. PROGRESSION T h e r e is a point in all o u r lives w h e n w e first c o n t r o l o u r mark and m a k e it a line. yet still turn to drawing w h e n their verbal language fails or is inadequate. Don't b e p e r s u a d e d to draw in a w a y s o m e o n e else . to help a stranger see their way W h e n taking first steps in relearning h o w to draw. for example. b e p r o u d o f what m a k e s y o u r w o r k individual to y o u . Hours are lost immersed in the glorious world of imagination. and this activity plays a vital role in their d e v e l o p m e n t . most of us stop. W e do n o t hesitate to draw a map. But as adolescents.

Enjoy the control of your own journey. . 1925-42 53/8x87/8in (135 x 225 mm) ALFRED WALLIS prefers and tells you is better. but it does help to set out facing in the right direction. He used leftover ship and yacht paint with crayons on cut-out pieces of cardboard boxes.11 PROGRESSION A UNIQUE SIGHT This innocent yet sophisticated drawing of boats. I ask them their reasons for drawing. Someone once told them they must draw in this way. He was a retired Cornish fisherman and junk dealer who began drawing at the age of 70 "for company" after his wife died. Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse c. I meet students struggling unhappily with a particular method of drawing. After experimenting and trying each new idea. you must decide whether to keep or discard it. Think how much would have been lost if anyone had interfered with Alfred Wallis' personal sense of proportion and perspective in the exquisite drawing above. and they have never questioned why. what they most want to achieve. and which aspects of the vast wealth and diversity of graphic language would be most appropriate to their goals. The journey of every artist demands hard work and discipline. harbor and sea is one of many that Alfred Wallis made from memory while sitting at home. remember that all advice is only advice. As you read this b o o k and perhaps attend art classes. Occasionally.

If as artists we nail a subject down too hard. and inspire others. depending on the occasion and our purpose. and lose the very thing that attracted us to it. "There really is no such thing as Art.12 INTRODUCTION VISION All artists see the world differently. boats. perhaps for comfort or ease as a left-hander or a habitual enjoyment of the challenge. The observed world may be our subject. right. They are also always written backward. we can drive out its spirit. it may not be accurate to our critical adult eye. is. embedded in this book. not for disguise but as a personal choice. When we look back at Wallis' seascape (see p. Our imaginations are the tools with which we can increase the essence of life. Below." The clarity and empowerment of these words. be visionary. There are countless reasons for drawing. I hope. 11). IDEAS A N D I N V E N T I O N S These active machines. author of The Story of Art. wrote as the opening line of this great work. We BIRD STUDIES The flutter of faint scratches that dance across the pages on the right is an attempt to see the movement and bony weightlessness of a bird. We all see differently. but it should be the experienced world we draw.and collarbones and shoulder blades of a different bird almost become new creatures in themselves. the breast. His notes visually balance his drawings. clear-minded understanding of the sea. The art historian Professor Sir Ernst Gombrich. all raise water From the Archimedes' screw to Leonardo's own cupped wheel. There are only artists. and breathtaking wind of a choppy harbor. but the child in us knows that this is an all-embracing. We also see differently ourselves. Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels LEONARDO DA VINCI . the page bristles with the focus of ideas. There should neve: be a slavish obligation to represent things exactly as we collectively agree we see them.

It will be invested through your experience in the new drawing. Don't be disheartened. or to discover the best use of a new material. shout against a terrible injustice. it may be best to start afresh. drawing in pursuit of our own thoughts and understanding. This also applies if struggling at length with a larger picture. . when it looks tired and still feels wrong. My drawings of a housemartin (opposite top) illustrate the importance of repeated study. We have both covered our paper with focused. make a calculation. Opposite.13 VISION should not try to know how every finished picture will look. Each fresh image reflects growing confidence and the experience of the preceding study. or illustrate a dream. while below. time spent is not lost. but it is important to be clear why we are making it. conduct an experiment. I drew to understand the apparatus of flight. More was learned drawing the bird 18 times than would have been understood drawing it only once or twice. to express the beauty in a moment's play of light. Our drawings are annotated investigations into the mechanisms of nature and of an idea. Decide before you start whether you are drawing to warm up. stripped-down parts. Leonardo drew to invent a machine.

excessive planning can get in the way of the imagination. and what you discover in the process of making. However. and allowed to flow through the brush. As your hand meets the paper to make a mark. meaning. If you can do this. or ice—you must actually feel it beneath your fingers as you draw. Know the texture. and how it feels to the touch. size. I made it almost unconsciously with a pen and a brush. Imagine these qualities so strongly that you feel them in your mind and at your fingertips. Each image relied upon past experience to know the probable behavior of the brush. mists. We are caught in a shifting focus that makes everything fluid. W e float toward the quiet vista as it also moves toward us. silk. and paper. and position in space. It denies the importance of accident. This is the alchemy of drawing. depth. Landscape in Haboku Style 15TH CENTURY . balance. the unknown. BRUSHED LANDSCAPE FLOWING SKELETON T h e gliding poise of this walking anatomy comes as much from the feeling of movement as it does from the feeling of drawing. fire. This suits many artists well and is perfectly valid. and sometimes beyond. and opacity of your subject. it should be responding to the sensation and meaning of the subject it draws. Whatever the material— wood. declare the idea. and practice each part before putting the final image together. or imagine—it is not enough to only render its shape. and we can just make out the distant stains of mountains. metal. bone. created centuries and cultures apart. This is a detail of a brush-and-ink drawing by a Japanese Buddhist monk. which can offer keys to other things. temperature. ink.14 INTRODUCTION ALCHEMY At school. are both made of ink laid onto wet paper with speed and agile certainty. feel. and spirit of each subject was held strongly but loosely between the fingertips. Our position asvieweris unsteady. As you draw any subject—something you see. explain the composition. You must also think of its intrinsic nature: its purpose. They each allowed the energy and focus of the moment to be expressed through controlled accident and a degree of the unknown Both drawings were made trusting the marks. water. we are advised or even required to plan our pictures. and at speeds beyond conscious thought. trusting my intuition to find a visual equivalence for the sensation of weight within my body. your marks will become the subject on the paper. and an island brushed with trees. These two brush drawings. The physicality.

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c. like folded insects. W a l t e r also makes books: some. acrylic. lives on. stand table-sized with furniture legs attached t o b o t h sides of their jacket. made by a young British artist who creates alphabets o f the absurd f r o m familiar childhood characters. Lautrec's flamboyant splashes o f petticoats and pantaloons are drawn with long sweeps of chalk and brushed oil paint. which evoke realities o f place and the p o w e r o f moment. right is set inside a rib cage. left. more than 100 years after its making. He dazzles us with flashes o f light and dabbed marks o f shadow. pastel. gold leaf and spray paint. Focusing on the Negative 2004 22 x 30 in (56 x 76 cm) J O H N WALTER .1896 Woman at her Toilet 41 x 26 in (104 x 66 cm) TOULOUSE LAUTREC RIB-CAGE D R A M A Thus drama. one of many luminous works in watercolor.16 INTRODUCTION PLACE A N D MOMENT The heat and teeming atmosphere o f this Parisian dressing room.

Start by choosing a material you like the look of and cover a piece of paper with different marks. at a point when you feel you are not making progress. you will naturally make progress on your own in response to concentration and the decision to look and draw. It is yours. potential ideas still forming. Enjoy discovering what your hand and the material can do. Pages do not have to lie open for other people to inspect and comment on. and miscellaneous items of inspiration. and mistakes are a valuable process of learning. just through the act of making. diary-like observations. Ignore these at first and allow yourself the freedom to play. Such books are personal: the territory of new exploration and experiment. FREEINGTHEHAND . With no help and advice at all. Drawing is exploratory. Choose other materials and do the same. even those you dislike. One of the advantages of a drawing book is that you can shut it. take your time and don't worry if you need to make several attempts to grasp a concept. try not to grip your pen worrying about the technical terms you might have heard. Much will be learned on these test sheets and in your first drawings. Try to keep all of your first drawings.17 FREEING THE HAND If you are just beginning to learn how to draw. you will be surprised and encouraged to see how far you have come. Put them away and look at them later. As you follow lessons in this book.

Once there. In the total wealth of these pages. However. Look to your own experience and also learn from the work of others. staring straight through his image of a bull. Note that the drawing classes are allocated to subjects. threedimensionally. we still only glimpse a corner of the magnitude of this subject and the infinity of what can be achieved. Imagination needs nourishment. The real drawing book has yet to come. Its sensuous and flowing line seems to drift like smoke. I was particularly attracted to their gentle articulation and understated determination. adapting its form and occupation. but not confined to them. An artist's personal voice is something that also evolves through lessons learned. Picasso is poised smiling. and many more reasons for drawing the world. 150). The chapters of this book present 90 different artists' ways of seeing. which is held frozen in space by a camera lens. This practical journey will take you through the door into the vivid heart of drawing. seek ideas in the life around you. which of course he cannot see. Picasso Painting with Light at the Madoura Pottery 1949 . To these I have added my own drawings to explain elementary materials and techniques and offer introductory approaches. it is this voice that is the subtle part of their art and something that ultimately. and enfolding new media. Drawing is a living language that over millennia has grown and changed. it will be your creation as you discover your own personal vision. Picasso has just finished his drawing. caught between action and repose. A N ARTIST'S HANDS These are the hands of the artist Phyll Kiggell (see p. ELECTRIC BULL With a penlight.Their elegant strength seems to summon a lifetime of drawing. comes from within. and became a great subject for me.18 INTRODUCTION THE THINKING EYE Techniques and materials are the grammar and vocabulary of drawing and can be studied and shared. As you draw. the path is yours. It rarely flourishes in isolation. when they are more experienced.

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If you intend to carry your boards for a distance. N o t e t h e w i d e l y differing c h o i c e o f p a p e r s w i t h w h i c h t h e s e are m a d e . You simply need two strong boards hinged together well. Calculate a range of useful dimensions and have several cut at once. thickness. drawing book. c h o o s e s m a l l e r h a r d . Art students often make use of printed books picked up from secondhand stores into which they draw. cut. 1. C O L O R E D PAPERS: Large a r t supply stores o f t e n sell t h i c k b o o k s full o f c o l o r e d p a p e r s . t h i s is h o w I l e a r n e d .B O U N D PADS: T h e s e are t h e least expensive a n d useful f o r o p e n i n g flat. 2002 Tantalus o r The Future of Man 81/2 x61/4in (215 x 158 mm) ROSE MILLER . F O U N D B O O K S : O l d p r i n t e d 3 . F o r e v e n i n g classes. 4. a l e n g t h o f black elastic t i e d a r o u n d t h e m i d d l e will h o l d the contents together w h e n y o u f o l d in c o l l e c t e d items. R I N G . Many artists invent ways o f binding their o w n books. color. and cost.q u a l i t y r i n g . There are dozens to choose from. y o u n e e d a lifetime. H O M E M A D E : I m a d e this b o o k f r o m drawing paper that I folded. binding. It is also useful to own a portfolio. stitched.b o u n d p a d if y o u w i s h t o keep your drawings together long-term. be sure they fit comfortably under your arm. Purchase a h i g h . Dissecting a d i s c a r d e d h a r d . c o l o r If planning t o use pencils. Gleaming store purchases vary greatly in format. 6. b e a w a r e t h a t p a p e r t e x t u r e effects a n d changes t h e i r marks. These are perfect f o r w o r k i n g in novels. H o w e v e r r i n g bindings o f t e n break. a n d r e f e r e n c e b o o k s f o u n d in s e c o n d . Alternatively. BLACK P O C K E T B O O K S : Hand-sized w i t h ready-made elastic binder and a marker ribbon. cheap corrugated plastic ones fall apart in days. ties on either side to keep your papers in place. c h o o s e larger f o r m a t s t o give y o u s c o p e f o r e x p e r i m e n t . texture.b o u n d b o o k w i l l s o o n s h o w y o u h o w it is m a d e . C A N V A S . quality.C O V E R E D H A R D B O U N D : Ideal f o r c a r r y i n g a r o u n d . t h e i r jackets w i l l a c t like d r a w i n g b o a r d s a n d p r o t e c t y o u r w o r k . and collage their ideas. is perfect. T h e hardb o a r d j a c k e t is s t r e t c h e d w i t h canvas beneath t h e p a p e r sleeve. study the structure of a good portfolio and make your own. it is better to have them made at a lumber yard or home improvement store. and glued t o a s t r i p o f bias binding. Drawing boards are invaluable.20 INTRODUCTION Drawing Books and Papers T o BEGIN YOUR EXPLORATION o f d r a w i n g . a n d crayons.b o u n d b o o k s t h a t fit in y o u r p o c k e t o r bag. Sand the edges to avoid splinters. pastels. Most contain thin p a p e r and are perfect f o r use w i t h disposable pens. catalogs. thick enough not to flex. 5. F o r traveling. which are also sold in an enormous range. A high-quality one will last a DRAWING BOOKS Select d r a w i n g b o o k s t o suit y o u r aims. They can be very expensive in art stores.h a n d s t o r e s make unique subjects f o r e x p e r i m e n t s a n d collage. Homemade books can be assembled easily from found materials or selections of loose sheet papers. Smooth plywood. and handles to lift the weight of your artworks. 2.

16. cold. yellow. or machine made in sheets. 10. size.Papers differ in thickness (weight). FABRIANO ACADEMIA: Standard medium-range multipurpose paper Use with any media. FABRIANO INGRES: Thin. and other plant fibers. also good for drawing with colored pencils. Cotton papers are high-quality and acid-free. 13. 21. JAPANESE PAPER: Strong. used to imprint lines of these colors onto a surface. texture. ITALIAN PARCHMENT: Imitation-animal-skin parchment that is translucent and slightly waxy. C A N S O N : Inexpensive lightweight pastel paper in many colors. AQUARELLE ARCHES 300GMS:The very top quality hot-pressed (smooth) watercolor paper. and hot pressed papers. 22. smooth. red. absorbency. Cheap wood-pulp papers are acidic. PAPERS . turning brown and brittle. and white. For use with any media. Use with a brush in clean water Water makes a dark mark like ink and becomes invisible again when dry. METALLIC PAPER: Thin paper in different metallic colors. and translucent. SAUNDERS WATERFORD N O T 300GMS: Mid-quality textured watercolor paper. 14. It is available in white or cream. pastel paper in flecked pastel colors with a distinctive ribbed marking. from pencil to paint 9. it is made from rice. T W O RIVERS Y E L L O W 410GMS: See Two Rivers Green 19. and rolls. Use for brushwork drawings. VELIN ARCHES 250GMS: Printmaking paper available in black white. and cream sheets or rolls. bamboo. 17. 11. mulberry. MAGIC PAPER: A reusable sheet for testing ideas without creating waste. 15. 8. It is also excellent for drawing with marker pens on layered sheets. GLASSINE: Sold as protective wrapping. tough. blocks. fine. T W O RIVERS GREEN 410G MS: Very heavy tinted textured cold-pressed watercolor paper See Two Rivers Yellow. and cost. 100% cotton and sold in sheets. Use cheap paper for rough ideas and quality paper for work to last See the glossary ( p p . color. not. resisting deterioration. printed on one side only. blocks. 2 5 6 . They are hand-. 18. FABRIANO R O U G H 600GMS: Very heavy. or rolls. white textured paper that can take abrasive use of any medium. 12. 20. Ph.5 9 ) for explanations of rough. mold-. C A R B O N PAPER: Available in dark and light blue. 7.TISSUE PAPER: Place sheets between drawing book pages to keep images from printing on each other and use for delicate collage.

if left-handed. and subject. . your whole relaxed b o d y should be involved. Regularly step back 6-9 ft (2-3 m) to check your progress. a n d look to the left of it at your subject. place it on your left. This cramped grip tires your hand and makes small. You do not have to dance to draw. In this book we will look at parallels between drawing and music. flowing space between your hand. but wherever possible. and look to the right. There should be an open.22 INTRODUCTION Posture and Grip T o DRAW WELL. you can draw lines freely and achieve a significant arc of movement. It will also reflect discomfort if you are in any way cramped. don't sit too close to the paper. or with your drawing board angled between your lap and a chair. place it on the correct side: if right-handed. If your body posture is well balanced and you can move freely. make sure you have enough room to back away and view your work. body. If your hand twists to maneuver between the paper and your body. your lines will distort. you Drawing classes can be cramped places. should be able to look comfortably straight ahead at your picture plane. Placing your easel o n the w r o n g side folds y o u r b o d y against your drawing arm. This photograph illustrates how some people hold a pen to write. You cannot draw like this—your hand is locked and your fingers can barely move. b u t it should n o t be forgotten that many people make remarkable a n d striking works drawing with their feet or holding their brush or pencil in their mouths. If seated on a b e n c h easel (a donkey). arm. but you need to understand that the expression of a line or mark originates in the body and flows t h r o u g h the shoulder. How you hold your drawing materials is also important. Turning your drawing sideways or upside-own will also help reveal what is wrong. SPACE TO WORK Cramped grip. There are also parallels to dance. place it on your right. a n d h a n d to the fingertips. Accelerated perspective also occurs if you look down the surface steeply (see pp. 116-17). Relaxed fingers: Hold the pencil away from its tip and relax your fingers. your drawing will reflect this. Use the side of your little fingernail as a support on the page. strangledlooking drawings. With your hand in this position. Examples are shown here. From a distance you will spot errors you cannot see close up. If using an upright easel. Ideally.

alternative way of holding the pencil.23 This loose "candle" grip is very useful when drawing with your arm extended. or it can spoil your work if not anticipated. But be careful not to tense your fingers. ALL MEDIA There are no rules as to how you should hold your drawing media. and body are not restricted. Remember you can also draw just by dipping your fingers in pigment—this is how many women draw in rural India. It is most comfortable when reaching to draw above your head. not up to the paper Brushes can be used on upright paper but dip Anticipating effects: A fully loaded pens need a level surface. arm. As long as your fingers.232-33). This can be used to great effect. . depending upon what it is and how large you are working. Large amounts of ink can be applied without fear of uncontrolled running if the paper is flat. To stop this. Brush calligraphy: This comfortable. or change to the wrong hand. liquid will run down your hand. brush pressed against an upright surface will cause a dribble of ink to run down your drawing. hold your material as you find most comfortable. GRAVITY Remember that gravity affects the flow of ink and paint. roughly marking out a large-scale work. upright way of holding the brush near its base is similar to the Japanese way used in Zen calligraphy (see pp. Large scale: POSTURE AND GRIP U n f a m i l i a r i t y : T h e habitual movements of our handwriting style will sometimes infringe upon our drawing. find an unfamiliar. This can give a new lease on life to your mark-making. If you turn a brush or dip pen up into the air to draw above your hand. Soft media: Short materials such as pastels and charcoal can be accommodated in the palm.

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Europeans on board had never seen such a thing. On the Roanoke voyages of Sir Walter Raleigh. each dedicated to the moralized tale of an animal or monster The bestiary profoundly influenced the art of its period. Together they made maps and documented animals. their different speeds and patterns of action. In medieval England. White's commission was to ". We have drawn them on the walls of caves to evoke their kinship and power. cartographer. we have employed artists on expeditions. 1590 J O H N WHITE capture form and movement from the m a n n e r i s m s of honking geese. and learn how to Flying Fish c. JOHN WHITE British artist. m u s e u m . which very likely leaped o n t o the deck of Sir Walter Raleigh's ship Tiger as it sailed north from the Caribbean to Virginia in 1585. and snakes have between them engendered harpies. plants. 1540. In 19th-century Europe this became a "science." He worked with the scientist Thomas Harriot. This drawing is made in black lead (metal point) with watercolor Highlights of silver would have gleamed. Framed in the z o o or in domestic cohabitation. the Latin bestiary was one of the most popular picture books—an illustrated dictionary of one hundred parts. to be there at the m o m e n t of discovery.Animals H UMANS HAVE DRAWN ANIMALS from the beginning of our time." Paranoid newcomers c r a m m e d into swelling industrial cities used handbooks of physiognomy to identify and judge their neighbors. O v e r the centuries. W h e n lost to explain our own emotions. For the novice artist. and dragons. and this very drawing was to endure many copies and plagiarisms after its triumphant return to the English court of Queen Elizabeth I. Facial features were analyzed in terms of their animal likeness. and we still see escapees from its pages carved and grinning as the gargoyles of churches. bats. which are so unlike ours. fish. 11 x91/4in (277 x 234 mm) . insects. and people. In this chapter we discover the use of pens and ink through the delineation of insects. mermaids. After the subject of ourselves.m o u n t e d skeletons of birds. they are perhaps our favorite pictorial preoccupation.drawe to lief one of each kinde of thing that is strange to us in England. As children we delight in the humanized trials of Tom and Jerry and their c a r t o o n relations. " Animals perpetually feed our imaginations. W e have drawn them in m a n u s c r i p t s to explain our genesis and to c o u n t their species into Noah's ark. birds. we turn and take the features of beasts.. Here (left) we see J o h n White's exquisite record of a flying fish. dogs. werewolves. sleeping dogs. and silent. and to bring h o m e drawn documentaries of their finds. animals provide a perfect subject with which to begin. out are now oxidized and so appear black W h e n less preoccupied with understanding ourselves. or scampering through the initials and borders of pictures from that time. and pioneer born c. offer challenges and delights to draw. from which personality and predicted behavior were " d e d u c e d . floating turtles. who described in words what White drew..

years after its publication. they were rejected. and wrote four books on proportion. DURER'S RHINOCEROS AND STUBBS'S skeletal Durer. writer. Durer traveled widely to study at different European schools of art. when more accurate portrayals were made without armor and scales. Converted into a print. He studied the image and drew his own interpretation. Contemporary texts related accounts of the beast as the mortal enemy of the elephant and rare relative of the "more common" unicorn. Durer's image changed eager hands until it was known across Europe. He in turn sent the mysterious creature to the Pope via Marseilles at the request of the King of France. and mathematician. It was to become the animal's only accepted likeness for 250 years. naturalist. filled journals with ideas and observations. a gift to the Portuguese King. it continued its journey to Rome. a drawing of it arrived in Nuremberg. Carefully stuffed. Unsurpassed. but the drowned animal washed ashore. Sailing to Rome. the home of ALBRECHT DURER German Renaissance painter.26 ANIMALS Documentaries horse are superb affirmations of the power of drawing as a recorder and communicator of knowledge. Stubbs's Anatomy of the Horse achieved similar documentary status. inspiring countless works of art and so touching people's imaginations that later. It is such a lifelike triumph of imagination and intelligence that for centuries zoologists never questioned its authority. Original Ink Drawing of a Rhinoceros 1515 ALBRECHT DURER 103/4 x 161/2 in ( 2 7 4 x 4 2 0 mm) . Life-like This is Durer's original quill-and-ink drawing made after an anonymous Portuguese drawing. the ship was lost. The first live rhinoceros to reach Europe came from India in May 1515. printmaker. Meanwhile. draftsman. it is still consulted by veterinarians today.

L o n d o n .GEORGE STUBBS B r i t i s h e q u i n e a n d s o c i e t y p o r t r a i t painter. a n d anatomist. This is one of Stubbs' original finished pencil drawings. Stubbs's m o s t c e l e b r a t e d publication. Lighting Stubbs's breathtaking international work won immediate There acclaim. He translated his own drawings into engravings for publication. Table of the III of the Horse (rear Skeleton view) mm) 1756-58 1 4 x 7 in ( 3 5 4 x 1 8 0 GEORGE STUBBS . knowledge of parts. and therefore invented the lighting that Compare how Stubbs and Durer both invented lighting to portray the reality of their animals. naturalist. a n d s i d e . dissecting and drawing until he understood the mechanisms of its power and grace. The entire project was developed over ten years. He composed makes each horse appear so real and each plate from his three-dimensional. Stubbs w a s o n e o f t h e first E u r o p e a n artists t o m a k e a n a c c u r a t e representation o f the rhinoceros. composed from notes and observations. is no other work like it. which has never diminished. c o m p r i s e s 1 8 p l a t e s s h o w i n g d i s s e c t i o n s in l a y e r s f r o m b o n e t h r o u g h m u s c u l a t u r e t o skin. His painted p o r t r a i t o f t h e b e a s t is in t h e R o y a l C o l l e g e o f S u r g e o n s o f England. Dissections Stubbs took his knife and his pencil and physically climbed inside the horse. Dissections were made over a total of 18 months. Anatomy of the Horse. in t h r e e v i e w s — r e a r f r o n t .

28 ANIMALS Presence and Mood THESE DRAWINGS HAVE BEEN CHOSEN to s h o w t w o v e r y different ways of picturing a wild animal. Hugo's page is f l o o d e d w i t h the fearful presence of a remembered octopus. the ominous beast unwinds from the dark of the sea and of our nightmares. novelist. By contrast. more or less what I have in view. soot. ink and linseed oil on paper. Gericault took a sharp p e n c i l to m a k e repeated direct o b s e r v a t i o n s f r o m life. her b o n y frame. Apparently drawn in its o w n ink. Surrounding sprays of graphite powder are stuck into washes of oil and ink to suggest glutinous depths. A s if disturbed from its gritty b e d by our presence and curiosity. sepia. The Hunchback of Notre Layers and shadows Throughout this drawing. her sharp teeth. I've ended up mixing in pencil. and all sorts of bizarre concoctions which manage to convey above all in mind.". charcoal. snarl. Gericault's sheet a p p e a r s almost s c r a t c h e d b y the f e r o c i o u s play of his cat. His copious drawings are characterized by mixed media. The octopus is formed in layers applied and distressed with a brush. and turn. it silently rises to the light.. H u g o mixed his media and drew from m e m o r y and imagination to create narrative atmosphere. He has w a t c h e d her p o u n c e . Hugo's novels Les Miserables and Dame have become classics of film and stage. and leader of the French Romantic movement. conjured b y the hand of a great author of French literary fiction. playwright. coal dust. drawing her again and again to pin d o w n the texture of her loose skin.. linseed oil soaked into the paper has made shadows and repelled the ink to create translucent tentacles. VICTOR HUGO Poet.. saying ". and Pieuvre 1866-69 91/2 x81/8in (242 x 207 mm) VICTOR H U G O . Hugo used graphite powder. and a love of accident. Mixed media Here. and her distinctive temperament. drama.. He wrote to poet and art critic Charles-Pierre Baudelaire about his experiments.

Before paper became so cheap. Tones that do not follow surface contour is very difficult to do well. Repeated study This drawing demonstrates of feeling confident repeat different the importance subject Remaining enough to isolate parts of a views. facing right. artists reused sheets and them full of studies. of drawings Gericault erased. Beginners are advised to follow the natural contours of form as shown on pp. Paris. and it can be applied to any subject (see pp. horses w e r e a favorite subject t o g e t h e r w i t h politics and history.118-119). of previous Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 1817-18 121/2 x 151/2 in ( 3 1 9 x 3 9 8 mm) T H E O D O R E GERICAULT . s h o r t . since it can lead to a flattened form. 144. and keep trying again.l i v e d French R o m a n t i c painter and lithographer Largely self-taught. focused upon seeing will lead to a greater understanding of the subject Much is learned from repeated study. At the center of the page is crammed drawings the outline of a horse. Undertraces Beneath these graphite studies we see traces Tones On the top row we see clearly how Gericault laid broad areas of tone using fast.29 THEODORE GERICAULT C o n t r o v e r s i a l . diagonal strokes of his pencil. standing sideways. H e is best k n o w n f o r his gigantic painting. Here. undertraces unify and vitalize the composition. displayed in the Louvre. 124-25 and p. parallel. The Raft of the Medusa. fiery.

Klee's riders are constructed from all the gestures of greeting mules. with George Braque (see p90). hooked. and waves breaking distantly below. His powdery. overwhelmed by a screeching bird. Both Picasso and Klee have enclosed their subjects to compress and amplify the speed of PABLO PICASSO A prolific Spanish painter sculptor. taking them to guide their hand in bringing form and essence together. made only a year apart. Picasso cofounded Cubism. we see semi-abstract. These media complement and amplify each other with their brilliant contrast. His hand must have shuddered and twitched just like the constant actions of this humorous meeting. the whinnying of a frantic horse. printmaker ceramicist graphic and stage designer who lived in France. identify an animal: the fast cheetah. flapping bird. Faune. the first abstract movement of the 20th century. gray. and scrolled lines. noise is everywhere. Gouache is brushed softly in translucent hazy layers of cool blue. quivering horse. Ink and gouache This drawing is made in black Chinese ink and gouache (opaque watercolor) applied with a brush. or proud. The ink is used to make sharply defined solid. flattened animals composed almost entirely of movement.30 ANIMALS Movement M O V E M E N T IS OFTEN THE CHARACTERISTIC b y w h i c h w e their lines and the power of their beasts. dissolving faun kneels stranded. The fact that they never stand still influences the movement in his line. In Picasso's drawing. draftsman. In these two drawings. Artists commonly focus on such actions. Cheval et Oiseau 1936 173/8 x 211/4 in ( 4 4 0 x 5 4 0 m m ) PABLO PICASSO . and brown. slow tortoise.

sculptor." They chatter around bodies in groups. They remain in contact with the surface of the page and scribble back and forth as they maneuver from one area to another. well-worn copies o f w h i c h are found in m a n y art schools. violinist. W i t h his drawings Kleeb o u n d sophisticated theories to personal and often witty childlike imagery. turning our eye and around inside the and postures of the paper- thin on pictorial space. and t e a c h e r at t h e Bauhaus school. Layers of marks In this pale Dentil drawing we see layers of' agitated marks that together present a kind of visual "itch. printmaker. N e u m a n n Family Collection. The entire drawing suggests the endless small movements of horses standing still. He is a u t h o r o f The Thinking Eye (1923). creatures.PAUL KLEE Swiss painter. Scene der Komischen of Comical Reiter Riders) (Scene 1935 161/2x111/2in ( 4 1 9 x 2 9 1 mm) M o r t o n G . Chicago PAUL KLEE . draftsman. top all happily of each other in the Endless lines Look closely at how Klee's lines rarely leave the paper and how they are free from the constraint of finite shape.

and blackbirds fly in formation through a mosaic of text. Knopf's drawing opposite is the personal enigmatic expression of a mind gripped by illness. drawings of animals that are each held tightly in a surprising space: a giant fish wears a ship's hull. This drawing illustrates Baker's theory. and s e c t i o n s o f ships. b a s e d o n his studies o f fish. later called a galleon. Exquisite details in this drawing include the lips of the fish. In contrast to the practical clarity of Baker's thought. it would achieve greater speed. seemingly looking for our attention. B a k e r initiated t h e scientific p r a c t i c e o f naval a r c h i t e c t u r e and applied h y d r o d y n a m i c s . mathematician. It is simply how we read his perspective. and steerage. Baker did not intend this. slim stern). and author o f Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (1586). The ship The upper decks of the ship appear curved toward us at both ends.32 ANIMALS Icon and Design IN THESE T W O MANUSCRIPTS we discover diagrammatic and mackerel's tail" (full bow. and scales. adding washes of color with a fine brush. t h e earliest geometrically defined elevations. His birds stare. fins. In just one drawing he has displayed more angles of his design than we would expect to see from a single viewpoint Fragments English 1586 101/2 x 153/8 in (270 x 390 mm) MATTHEW BAKER of Ancient Shipwrightry . and the carefully observed gills. He studied the anatomy of fish. the expression of its eye. balance. Below we see his revolutionary design for an Elizabethan warship. and to assess our next move. which in application gave strength and advantage to the English fighting the Spanish Armada. and from them learned that if he designed his ship with a "cod's head MATTHEW BAKER Master shipwright. The fish It is likely that Baker drew with a quill dipped in irongall ink. plans. Baker lived in an era when ships were built without drawn plans.

T h e G e r m a n a r t historian Outline and tone The blackbirds illuminating this frantic manuscript are drawn in pencil. firmly outlined. written last of all.K n o p f b e l i e v e d h e c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h e language o f birds. JOHANN KNOPF . w h i c h o f t e n f e a t u r e as s y m b o l i c creatures in his drawings. The text. numbered. circle and the birds. and filled evenly with tone. appears to be stirred like water by the presence of the The Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks UNDATED 133/8 x 115/8 in (340 x 2 9 6 mm) and psychiatrist Hans Prinzhom collected this image. The main group is placed in a circle drawn with a compass.JOHANN KNOPF An " O u t s i d e r " a r t i s t w h o s u f f e r e d f r o m m e n t a l illness.

Quills were later cut from feathers. They fit into wooden holders. A German recipe of 1531 gives a simple description: "Take a wax candle. Early artists recommended raven and crow for especially fine work. Only fill with suitable inks. Responsive to slight changes in pressure. Masters choose brands of long. QUILLS: These are cut from the barrel of a flight or tail feather. The paste from either recipe is pressed and dried into a bar for storage. METAL PENS: Inexpensive removable steel nibs are available in a range of widths. s t i c k s .34 ANIMALS Pen and Ink W I T H A HANDFUL OF FEATHERS. light it. That is an ink. and spatters can be made with an exotic choice of inks. distinguished manufacture. expressive drawing techniques such as the ones we explore in this chapter 1. The reservoir gives a constant flow of ink for very long unbroken lines and continuous bottle-free use. F O U N T A I N PENS: These vary in quality and nib width. PENS . while metal nibs began as rare gifts in gold and silver before being perfected by the British steel industry. the recipes for which have been handed down over centuries. ink is traditionally applied with a brush (see pp. spots. which scratch rather than draw. In the Far East. The Egyptians and Chinese are credited with the invention of carbon ink. The Chinese used animal or fish glue. Intricate or dramatic lines. high-quality Chinese and Japanese inks are subtler and more complex than those produced in Europe. The best are goose or swan. and hold it under a clean basin until the soot hangs to it. they are associated with rapid. 5 0 0 years ago. producing a different line. 4. where reeds were gathered. 2. which range greatly in their handling and character of line. and first used by the Egyptians. and it is still in use today. REED PENS: A broad nib can be cut from bamboo or another tubular grass. Today. you can have great fun drawing the world around you. Each pen has a unique character. a n d m e t a l p o i n t s . simultaneously 4 . Avoid needle-sharp mapping pens. 3." "Gum" refers to gum arabic extracted Dip pens are essential and inexpensive drawing tools. The bar is then rubbed into water on a slate block to produce ink. then pour a little warm gum water into it and temper the two together. Dip pens began their history in the Nile River. from the acacia tree.246-47).

roastedwine sediment (Yeast Black). Bistre is the more humane use of soot scraped from the fireplace and ground into wine. ACRYLIC / CALLIGRAPHY INKS: Available in black and a range of colors. an often misused term. I R O N . waterproof or non-waterproof. suspended in a binder and stored as a solid block Blocks are imported today 7. Now we also have acrylic ranges in many colors. and sepia. Excellent for drawing they are bright and non-clogging. SEPIA A N D BISTRE INKS: Sepia. dated. and sieved. Inks can be lightfast or non-lightfast. from are not 6. bistre. iron-gall. Waterproof types contain shellac. and are still in use today: carbon (Chinese and Indian).G A L L INK: Abnormal spherical growths caused by parasitic wasps can be collected from some oak trees in fall. is the ink of a cuttlefish or squid extracted post-mortem. and can be mixed and diluted to create subtler colors and tones. Old stock turns solid and bottlesChina. they produce a golden dye for drawing. Beechwood soot is best. or charcoal. and most can be homemade. It dries with a sheen and clogs uncleaned pens. The complexities of traditional iron-gall ink are explained on p. They are the easiest inks to use.36. I N D I A N INK: Carbon ink sold today in liquid form. C A R B O N INK: Traditionally produced from oil or resin soot (Lamp Black). charred bone (Ivory Black). reduced. 5. Non-waterproof Indian inks can be reworked with a wet brush after drying. . INKS 9. boiled. Crushed.35 PEN AND INK Four types of ink were common before the 20th century. 8.

sieved. 2 4 4 is an e x q u i s i t e e x a m p l e . a n d d e v e l o p e d t h e quill instead. Reed marks The darker left wing of this beetle was drawn with the wet inky stroke wing. crushed. Practice to gain a feel for how materials behave. Collect skins from the ground beneath trees once they are blackened. T h e y give a finer.36 ANIMALS Drawing With Ink To MAKE A QUILL OR REED PEN. Although oak galls and walnut skins are harmless. r e s e r v e d t h e i r use f o r large c h o i r b o o k s . fleshy skins that surround ripe walnuts. and delicious to draw with. the blade and cut away from you. m o r e e x t e n d e d line than reed and a m o r e organic line t h a n m e t a l . it was gray-purple. can also be collected from affected trees. and turned brown with time. are surprisingly tough. Walnut ink is gloopy. The lighter right Quill marks Quills carry more ink than strokes and for as reeds. forming the REED PENS R e e dpens dispense ink quickly. Scribes o f t h e M i d d l e Ages. always be cautious when experimenting with recipes. QUILL PENS Q u i l l s a r e highly r e s p o n s i v e t o c h a n g e s in p r e s s u r e . red-brown. of a loaded nib. d r y mark. Rembrandt. galls were ground with iron sulfate to make an unstable solution. reduced. Paler strokes were made where the mark has the legs and antennae the ink ran out. The darkest of this grasshopper wings) were made (around the head first.) You can make ink easily from the boiled. Some of Michelangelo's drawings are now a little eaten by their own ink. . and boiled to make a golden ink. I u s e d t h e s e qualities t o d r a w t h e w o r m s above. Running fresh. Quills are also called D u t c h pens. giving a s h o r t . Oak galls. finding reed p e n s unwieldy. V a n G o g h . It also oxidized and ate or burned paper. giving longer lines. drawn to glisten with a dryer nib. t h e y stick a n d j u d d e r f o r w a r d . For centuries. M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s d r a g o n o n p . a n d M a t i s s e also e n j o y e d t h e m . U n d e r heavy pressure. appears broken to show paper beneath. It dried black. for example. keep all your fingers behind basis of iron-gall ink. since t h e D u t c h w e r e t h e first t o realize t h a t they could be hardened and i m p r o v e d w i t h heat t r e a t m e n t in ash o r sand. then cut a final nib (feathers.

White markings were drawn last Tones Here we see subtle tones of diluted ink beneath the undiluted black rim of a beetle's wing. . they splay to make thick o r double lines. The of pigment to fall to the edges effect of the shape. sharp. giving a graded. particles then filled with a droplet of ink. clean strokes. Loaded with ink and pressed hard. o r being ruined as fountain pens would be under the same pressure. When using dip pens. breaking. withstanding great pressure without sticking. W h e n the nib is pressed upside down. tonal Ink layers The wings of this beetle were drawn in layers using black and white ink on pale gray paper. marks become fine and needle-sharp. it is important to feel for when the ink will run out and to know how much ink you pick up when dipping the nib.37 METAL PENS Metal pens give long. DRAWING WITH INK Filled outlines Each segment of wing was outlined. Each layer of of the drying droplet dome the drawing was left to dry before adding more.

Try to hold the whole posture in your mind's eye. so pick a spot where other people can keep them entertained. Focus on the geese.38 ANIMALS Capturing Character GEESE ARE EXCELLENT SUBJECTS to draw when practicing the first use of pen and ink. touch the bottle's rim to drain the excess. and there is no "wrong. That said. Empathize. and boldly plunge into your drawing. You cannot break the nib. and quickly draw around it using only three or four strokes. steel nibs are fine. Dip your pen in ink. MATERIALS NEEDED Look for a bird expressing a simple posture. Illustrating this exercise on Oxford Port Meadow. to absorb blots when drawing. It happens that goose feathers also provide artists with the best type of quills. Cover a sheet. there is no obligation to prepare a quill. be bold and press firmly." If you don't like a stroke. Attempt with a loose hand to capture their posture and outline. and be brave. Quick drawing trains you to see what is most important about a subject and to mark only its most essential expression. Cover your drawing book pages in speedy responses to the geese and try to capture each bird in as few lines as possible. Pack plenty of tissue around a bottle of calligraphy or acrylic ink. and a large drawing book or plenty of paper Use masking tape to secure pages against the wind. Take no more than ten seconds to draw each one and make lots of drawings. Watch their heavy feathered bodies flap. Take a cup and water for diluting a range of tones. Focus on it. draw what the bird is doing. It teaches confidence and focus through intensive repetition. Experiment. test your limits. make another one. Geese are nosy birds. Posture . Study them before drawing. waddle. not on your drawing. and bellyflop off the waterside. I covered eleven sheets in sixty quick drawings—in less than an hour.

Use more lines than before to express these. look among the birds for more complicated actions such as shaking off water. and don't worry about mechanical facts or accuracy. and diving. CAPTURING CHARACTER Texture Gradually allow yourself more lines to describe the texture of each bird as well as its posture and action. draw the feeling of what you see. Avoid detail unless really tempted by a close-up visit Fluctuate the pressure of your pen in response to how you know the bird would feel if you touched it. . flapping. Again. running.39 Action With growing confidence.

34-37). Sleeping animals present the artist with ideal opportunities to study their texture. Now it will make a pale line. Then dip the nib quickly into a glass of water and drain the excess again. These drawings are not an analysis of his anatomy or breed but the expression of his satisfied comfort in a deep sleep after a night out on the together with a glass of water for diluting tones on the nib. MAKING A PALE LINE To make a pale line. and even then he twitched and stretched in dreams. and a tissue for blotting drawn lines that appear too dark. your drawing book. Make a test sheet to discover your control of diluting on the nib. form. a dip pen and ink of your choice (see pp. a d o g w h o w a s a l w a y s town. and personality." . engaged in his and everyone else's business. and drain the excess by touching the nib against the rim of the bottle.40 ANIMALS Sleeping Dogs R A S WAS A GREAT CHARACTER. The only time he remained still was when he was sleeping. This will give a medium-gray line. For this class you will need one oblivious dog. first dip your pen in ink. Ras Curled Up Asleep "Capturing the true character of a cherished companion is best achieved with objective determination rather than sentimental shyness. Dip the nib quickly again into water and again drain it.

To add texture.It is essential when drawing any subject (even something abstract) to know how it feels andtoemulate this with your line. to emphasize how he is curled up. 3 Gradually introduce darker tones. D o not go back over lines you are pleased with—doing so dulls their lively freshness. Here. second thoughts may be different Changing your mind is a positive aspect o f seeing and thinking. 2 Reload your pen with ink. I added ink to Ras's nose. Here I marked the features of Ras's head. Character is better captured drawing quickly with confidence than w o r k i n g slowly. c o n c e r n e d a b o u t detail. this time to create a line a little darker in tone. W i t h pale lies. ignoring all detail. Then I immediately rebalanced the drawing with lines around his hind quarters. add more detail. tail. alter the pressure and moisture of your line in response to howyouknow your dog feels when you ruffle itscoat. Trust your intuition. . ears. and the shadows in his coat. Remain focused on the whole dog and. in bold layers.41 DRAWING YOUR DOG Be bold in this exercise. Layers o f thoughts can bring a drawing alive. First lines are first thoughts. quickly draw what you see. SLEEPING DOGS 1 Fix your eyes at the center of the dog. Then. see how the animal's posture determines its whole shape.

A perfect subject for the beginner. swinging their limbs and shells with a slow circular movement. Beyond the glass wall of the aquarium. turtles often pause unexpectedly. they stretch and paddle. THE ELONGATION AND BUOYANCY of a group of turtles is fascinating . as if caught in a camera freeze-frame. offering plenty of time for the artist to draw the pose.Turtles to observe.

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weightlessness of the kiwi. With speed. I made repeated studies of the housemartin to discover its mechanism of flight. and sharp. India ink. and water. dry. . balance. Beginning with very pale tones. I darkened lines as each drawing progressed.Dry Birds THESE ARE THE ARTICULATED BONES o f a k i w i a n d a h o u s e - martin drawn in a museum using a steel pen. I sought to capture the form.

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Plants and Gardens W E SHARE THIS PLANET with the more ancient. Medieval knowledge was not gained by the first-hand observation of life but by reading. We collect. on which our lives depend. Chapters are arranged by out. Botanical illustration is a precisely defined and scientific art. Both embrace the anticipation of evolving shape.000 species of plants are depicted life-size drawn. After Here Aconthus spinosus is combined with forget-me-nots and-a-half centuries of intensive observation. Rich owners of private gardens commissioned large-format florilegiums commissioned the volume to document his private garden to immortalize their personal taste and power of acquisition. to the proliferation of floral designs with which we have dressed ourselves and furnished our homes for centuries. Botanic gardens were established and expanded. season. to catalog our knowledge. Early European illustrators were trapped within dogma that was determined by ancient scholarship. From its history there is one overriding lesson to be learned: the importance of looking and seeing with our own eyes. form. the microscope was refined to unfold yet another world. nurture. color. shape. and the drawn pages ofthesame name. an There are close parallels between the acts of gardening and drawing. and focus. where a number of uncredited artistsd r e wthem for Besler. He sent boxes of plants to Nuremburgburned with the urgency and excitement of explaining every plant's form. B A S I L I U SBESLER when botanists founded new work upon the direct study of plants. the punctuation of space with structure and mass. 1613 187/8x153/4in(480 x 400 mm) BASILIUS BESLER . as opposed to only herbal. Conrad von Gemmingen. we now have laid before us fourto show how well their colours complement each other infinite wealth of material to explore. Fledgling years Botanist and apothecary who compiled the Hortus Eystettensis of scientific research bore manifold explosions of knowledge in a fever of discovery. —-the largest and most influential botanical book of the early Natural scientists accompanied explorers to document unknown finds. robust. In this chapter. It was published plain in 1611 and withhand-paintedplates in poured off ships returning from the New World and were eagerly collected and 1613. and the Acanthus spinosus constant but exhilarating struggle to make a living image feel right. The revolution came in the 1530s. We draw them to celebrate their beauty and range.Morethan 1. PriceBishopof Eichstatt specimens. and beauty. Patrons funded the breeding of decorative. Plants are the principal inspiration of the decorative arts—from Roman Corinthian columns crowned with carved leaves of the acanthus. Classifications were set in367copperengravings. and diverse kingdom of plants. and texture. Later. and hybridize them for our sustenance and pleasure. manipulations of light and shade. Plants seventeenth century. we see very different cultural visions of plants and gardens and use pencils and plants to learn the pictorial values of space. infinitely vivid. and to ornament our lives.

" Her slipper orchid s h o w s that botanical drawing must often resolve the challenge of its subject's p r o d u c i n g parts in different seasons — r o o t s .48 PLANTS AND GARDENS THE SCIENTIFIC VALUE OF A BOTANICAL DRAWING lies i n its Botanical Studies were specimens that often refused to stay still. fruit. The King was then establishing the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. leaves. and seeds conventionally a p p e a r o n o n e plate. insect-ravaged. Light in this drawing is given by the paleness of the paper showing between washes of darker tones. o p t i m i s m . B e h i n d detailed. stems. subtle union of beauty. o p e n i n g a n d c l o s i n g i n the w a r m t h a n d light of the studio. Dissections Across the lower part of this drawing we can see dissections of seed pods and petals. Each plant must b e clearly distinguished from its closest relative. T h e rest of u s are free to d r a w as w e w i s h . Sir Joseph Banks. They are counted among the most accomplished 18th-century botanical artists. He has made the spatial and physical relationships in this drawing all the more real by placing a single. petal tip over a lower leaf Protea nitida 201/4 x141/4in (513 x 362 mm) FRANZ BAUER 1796 . W i t h bright F R A N Z BAUER An Austrian artist who trained at the Schonbrunn Imperial Gardens in Vienna. or that were diseased. and meticulous precision. detail. Here. delicate. Stella Ross-Craig said of the need to d r a w from a dried herbarium plant "I could make it live again. measured drawings. naturalist explorer and advisor to King George III invited Bauer to London in 1 7 9 0 . It is likely Bauer would have studied these under a microscope. M a c k i n t o s h e x p r e s s e s the f o l d e d petals of a broken rose b u d so delicately w e can sense the perfume. s u c h as w e see here in Bauer's Protea nitida. Outline Bauer prepared a pencil outline before laying in fleshy succulent hues and tones of watercolor. and Franz Bauer and his brother Ferdinand were employed there to draw specimens. flowers. and wilted. Botanical art c o n c e a l s the challenge of its m a k i n g .

found among Mackintosh's than reality. a n d he inspired..g a r d e in G e r m a n y a n d A u s t r i a . is r e c o g n i z e d as tne m o s t c o m p l e t e a n d i m p o r t a n t work 3. Pencil lines cling to. A s m a n y of her drawings are kept G a r d e n s ." This line drawing is one of 1. and it shows how design. Closer to fiction can come together perfectly. H e r Drawings of British Plants. Rose 1894 103/4 x 83/4 in ( 2 7 5 x 2 2 1 mm) CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH STELLA ROSS-CRAIG A j o i n e d t h e staff a t t h e R o y a l B o t a n i c G a r d e n s .49 C H A R L E S RENNIE MACKINTOSH Scottish a r c h i t e c t d e s i g n e r painter.7 3 in 3 1 p a r t s . as at trained botanical artist Ross-Craig Swift lines The drawing was planned in pencil and then overworked with a lithographic pen. BOTANICAL STUDIES Lines and shadows This lush. a m o n g o t h e r s . sensual pencil drawing is later works. imagination. and perfect coordination of hand and eye. Line Drawing of Cypripedium calceolus L c. it is small and discreet. 1970 x 81/4 in ( 3 2 5 x 2 1 0 m m ) STELLA ROSS-CRAIG . and speed depends upon the immediate perception of the essential characteristics of the plant. L o n d o n in 1 9 2 9 . a n d f o u n d e r o f t h e G l a s g o w S c h o o l o f A r t M a c k i n t o s h ' s flair h a d an e n o r m o u s i n f l u e n c e o n t h e a v a n t . Ross-Craig said of her work "Plants that wither rapidly present a very difficult problem to which there is only one answer—speed.000 Kew to archive accessible t o d a y v i a t h e I n t e r n e t of o n British flora. and observation the nuance and contour of every in one image. K e w .286 studies for her book Drawings of British Plants. S h e also o f thousands o f contributed an drawings. G u s t a v K l i m t In his r e t i r e m e n t Mackintosh m a d e n u m e r o u s inventive pencil a n d w a t e r c o l o r d r a w i n g s o f plants. p u b l i s h e d 1 9 4 8 . and follow shadow.. Curtis's Botanical Magazine.

urgent attentive human activity. . in the early 16th century. By Muslim tradition. Below. Drawing. 1590 85/8 x55/8in (219 x 1 4 4 mm) BISHNDAS AND NANHA Bright pigment These pages were illuminated by Mughal artists in the late 16th century. Every fiber of AMONG DRAWINGS FROM BISHNDAS A N D N A N H A Little is known of these Mughal painters who were related as uncle and nephew and commissioned to illustrate the pages of Babur's journal. Upright shallow perspectives. Envoys chatter outside the gate. and attention to detail are all shared with medieval European manuscript drawings. They used a fine brush to lay pigment over a line drawing. anticipating their view. is remembered in the pages of his journal. The first Mughal Emperor Babur's Garden of Fidelity (Bagh-e Vaja). Afghanistan.50 PLANTS AND GARDENS Jeweled Gardens the Middle East we find exquisite stylization of form and upright formality in pictorial space. Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity c. Babur directs his gardeners in the design and planting of this quartered chahar bagh. in miniature. painting. and miraculous growth. the sumptuous petals permeated with prayer and wisdom. Bishndas was probably responsible for the overall design. paper is brimming with the beauty and celebration of nature. and calligraphy are brought together to hold the sacred names of prophets and the 99 beautiful names of God. which he personally created near Kabul. Opposite is the Rose of Mohammed. uniform focus. roses took their form in a bead of perspiration on the brow of Mohammed as he passed through his heavenly journey. The white of the page shines through the brilliant color. fluctuations in scale. a notable portrait painter drew the faces. and Nanha.

look closely and you will see words written in gold fluttering over the form of the flower. Note how each bud is essentially the same shape.c e n t u r y Turkish manuscnpt a book of religious e t h i c s w r i t t e n in the O r i e n t a l C o l l e c t i o n s of Berlin. However. and how the shape has been repeated freehand. fragmenting its detail in a whisper of prayers.AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH This is a detail o f a page from a n 1 8 t h . Stylized motif A fine brush has been used throughout this drawing to apply inks and watercolors. t h e Staatsbibliothek zu Arabic. so that overlapping petals and stems give an impression of fulfillment and abundance. The physical anatomy of the rosebud has been studied and translated into a repeated stylized motif. The Rose of Mohammed 1708 9 1 / 2 x 61/2 in ( 2 4 0 x 1 6 5 mm) FROM THE TURKISH M A N U S C R I P T AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH . It is n o w k e p t in Border The elegant border of this drawing was mode with a pen and ruler It cleverly compresses and defines the composition. G e r m a n y . Sacred words The central rose is more solid than any other on the page.

52

PLANTS AND GARDENS

Fast Trees
IN CONTRAST TO THE QUIET, formal detail of other drawings in this chapter, these powerful fast trees enact the actions of plants. Each tree reaches out and holds its landscape with dynamism and pulse. In both drawings we find testament to the inexorable energy of growth. Rembrandt expresses a delicate quickness. Gentle lines draw a warm breeze through this remote wooded garden. Rustling in a loose foliage of soft marks, his pen evokes the weight of abundant activity on this late summer's day. Mondrian's arch of scratching branches is drawn with such force it will always be alive. We can still feel his hand storming across the paper. Set within a frame of smudged landscape, the tree possesses a musical agitation. This characteristic will increase in the artist's later abstract work. Here, we see a punctuated ordering of space. Sharp branches cut out negative shapes of winter sky.

R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter; etcher; and draftsman. Rembrandt's prolific output comprises oil paintings of historical and religious subjects together with group and self- portraits. His emotive etchings and pen and ink drawings (see also p. 174) are great resources for artists learning to understand the potential of these media.

Horizon

Pen and ink lines describing foliage also tell

us the directions of sunlight and wind. An arc crossing the bottom of the drawing from one side to the other supports the scene and separates us from the landscape beyond. Compare Rembrandt's arc to that of Mondrian's. and note the similar treatment of low horizons in both works emphasizing the height and dominance of trees.

Cottage Among Trees 1648-50 63/4 x121/8in ( I 7 I x 308 mm) R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN

53

FAST TREES

PIET

MONDRIAN

Atmosphere Here we see how shapes of negative space are as important as the physical subject they enclose (see pp.58-59). Mondrian has again lightly dragged his chalk on its side to evoke a wet depth of atmosphere. These passive gray marks contrast with the assertive tension of the tree.

Dutch Pure abstract painter preoccupied w i t h line and plane relationships. W i t h increasing austerity, Mondrian banished t h e subject from his drawings, in his later w o r k he also banished space, composing visual h a r m o n i e s using only straight lines a n d flat planes o f black, w h i t e , gray, o r p r i m a r y color.

Winter ground Short vertical marks along thebottomof this drawing reveal the length oftheblackchalk Mondrian used. Rubbed onitsside,itroughly blocks in the ground. Thecrudeeconomy of line is all we need tofeelthecold, wet, unwelcoming quality ofthiswinterearth.

Branches and trunk Lines shaping the branches of the tree are built up in layers. To make the trunk more dense, the artist has rubbed and smudged preliminary marks with his fingers before firmly overdrawing with new lines. Solid black lines are achieved by pressing the chalk hard. When used lightly, it shows the texture of the paper. Tree: Study for the Grey 1911 23 x 335/8 in ( 5 8 4 x 8 5 5 m m ) Tree

PIET MONDRIAN

54

PLANTS AND GARDENS

Graphite and Erasers
GRAPHITE, FROM THE G R E E K word

USING GRAPHITE
This drawing illustrates a range of achieved with graphite pencils of different grades.

graphein

Modern pencils are graded from 9H (hard and pale) to 9B (black and soft). Graphiteclay sticks are also available, together with a powder form. All possess a natural sheen and are erasable to a varying degree. Graphite drawings smudge easily, so fixative, a form of varnish, can be used to hold a drawn surface in place. It is applied as a fine mist from an aerosol can, or from a bottle using a diffuser. For the beginner, ordinary hairspray is an effective and cheaper alternative.

(to write), is a soft and brittle carbon. It was first mined in Cumbria, England, in 1 5 6 4 , and was initially used in small, pure pieces bound in lengths of string. Pencils as we know them—with their slender wood casing and "lead" of graphite—were invented in France in 1794 by Nicolas-Jaques Conte. He discovered that milled graphite mixed with clay and water, press-molded, and baked to a high temperature produces a harder and paler medium than graphite alone.

3B pencil A range of mark and textures can be achieved with a 3B pencil when you vary its pressure, speed, and direction, as this detail shows.

MATERIALS
Here is a selection of 14 items to illustrate a basic range of pencils, graphite sticks, sharpeners, erasers, and fixative.
1. AND 2. HB AND 3B PENCILS: It is unnecessary to possess every grade of pencil. HB, the central and most common grade, is perfect for making delicate lines. 3B gives a blacker tone. A great variety of effects can be achieved with just these two. 3. WATER-SOLUBLE PENCIL Effective for atmospheric drawing, but be aware of how watery tones can dull the impact of the line. 4. AND 5. MECHANICAL PENCIL Thick or fine leads are made in a range of grades. They are particularly useful because they do not require a sharpener 6. ROUND SOLID GRAPHITE PENCIL: Excellent for large-scale drawing, producing thick bold lines. A range of grades can be honed with a craft knife or sharpener 7. THICK GRAPHITE STICK: For large-scale drawing. Graded soft, medium, and hard. It crushes to produce graphite powder 8. SQUARE GRAPHITE STICK: Useful for making broad, sweeping marks in large-scale drawing. If worn and rounded, the stick can be snapped into pieces to regain the sharp, square end. 9. CRAFT KNIFE AND BLADES: Handles are sold in two sizes to fit large or small blades, and blades are sold in a range of shapes. Perfect for sharpening pencils to a long point, to cut lines in paper or to remove areas. 10. PENCIL SHARPENER: Makes a uniform point. Keep one in your pocket for drawing outside the studio, together with an envelope for shavings.

HB and 5B Layers of tone have been built up withHBand5Bpencils. Softer pencils require less pressure to make a mark, revealing the texture of the paper surface. It is important to keep the point of the pencil sharp with either a craft knife or a sharpener.

55

ERASING AND FIXING
Erasers can be used t o blend and s o f t e n lines, o r t o r e m o v e altogether. Fixative them prevents

GRAPHITE AND ERASERS

s m u d g i n g a n d s e c u r e s lines.

Using fixative You can use fixative while drawing to hold the definition of lines you wish to gently fade but not remove entirely, for which you would use an eraser.

11. P L A S T I C E R A S E R : Avoid cheap colored erasers that may stain drawings with grease and dye. White brands are available in soft and hard versions.

12.

P U T T Y RUBBER:

W a r m it in your hand before use. It is excellent for removing powdery materials, and for making crisp sweeps of light across a delicate pencil drawing

13. D I F F U S E R : Helleborus corsicus (Corsican hellebore) fixative, or to spray mists of ink.

56

PLANTS AND GARDENS

Cropping and Composition
M A N Y STUDENTS WILL START a d r a w i n g i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e

that its skin nearly touches the boundary. The meaning of the same drawing changes simply by its relationship to the space it occupies. The size of any subject, its placement on the page, the size of the page, and its overall proportion are all discrete and essential aspects of successful picture-making. Before you begin to draw, think carefully about where to place your subject. Are you are happy with your paper? If not, change it; add more, take some away, or turn it around. Do not just accept what you are given, adapt it to what you need.

paper. Focused on the shape and detail of their subject, they remain happily unaware that there is, or should be, any relationship between what they are drawing and the surface they are drawing it on. The paper is only paper, and the troublesome subject floats somewhere in the expanse of it. However, a single fig drawn in the middle of a large, empty square of paper gives quite a different impression from the same fig drawn on such an intimately small square

CHOOSING A VIEW

A Single Fig

"The size, shape, and orientation of the paper are so integral to the composition that they determine the impact and meaning of the drawing."

and therefore apparently suspended from. the uppermost edge of the drawing. CROPPING AND COMPOSITION Off-center and diagonal Here I held my viewfinder so the fig appeared upper-left in the space. When subjects touch two or more edges. Space as the subject Inallpictures. bottom-left t o top-right.57 THE VIEWFINDER T h e s e pencil drawings o f figs d e m o n s t r a t e different crops and compositions. its illumination. U s e it as a starting point. t h e n m o v e t h e c a r d t o e x p l o r e different views. its stem and shadow framing a white center. they establish a tension and unity with the paper. Here the left fig is attached to. This drawing hasbeencropped to emphasize space between thefruit. Touching the edge When the subject o f a drawing touches one edge of the paper it attaches t o it visually. spaces between things are as important as the things themselves. and lines describing shadows cast by the fruit .O u r focus is on the white cloth supporting the figs. a device to help you decide what t o draw. The angle of the fruit together with dark shadow (top left) and bright light(bottom right) suggest a diagonal division across the whole drawing. A card with a small rectangle cut out o f it makes a useful viewfinder C l o s e o n e e y e t o look through the hole. as also shown here. running corner t o corner.

and a fresh page in your drawing book. a foundation stone in picture-making. In following this class. The drawing opposite is of the uppermost leaves of a potted fig tree. do we see myriad distinct and unique shapes of daylight or do we just see branches? Why as artists should we look at the air? Every space in a picture has a shape. and engaging. then added a second shape. But how often do we look at the air between things. unified.58 PLANTS AND GARDENS Negative Space UNCONSCIOUSLY WE ASSESS spatial relationships all the time to guide ourselves through the world. Viewers appreciating a finished image may not see shapes of space. Negative space is the simple key to getting positive shape right. this ensures a consistent view. remember to draw only space. erasing and adjusting lines until itlooked right. but if the artist does. It is an astonishingly simple device that many artists use and I strongly recommend. shapes of air cut out and defined by the physicality of our environment? When we look into the branches of a tree. tone. and so on. Unfamiliar shapes of negative space reveal the real shape of a positive subject. their subject and composition will become more real. Remember that plants do move! Therefore it is best to complete your drawing in one sitting if possible.The box opposite isolates an area. an eraser. Looking at negative space overrides the problem of drawing what you know. It helps to start at the center and map outward. which is shown in the three steps below. and a role to play. Follow these from left to right and see how I began with one complete shape between two parts of a leaf. WHERE TO START Arrange your plant and paper so you can look back and forth by barely moving your head. In your own version. rather than what you see in front of you. dynamic. Draw a complete shape Map outward from the center Erase and adjust lines until correct . a sharp H B pencil. position. fourth. not leaves. third. you will need a similar large-leaved plant.

59

Here I drew only spaces, adding one to another until the leaves were revealed. Besides looking at negative space, there are two other useful things to do when a drawing feels wrong but you cannot see why: look at it in a mirror or turn it upside down. errors and suggest changes.

Spaces between leaves

Either view will

NEGATIVE SPACE

Fig Tree
WALKING IN THE ALPUJARRAS in A n d a l u c i a ,

Spain, I drew a bare fig tree clinging to the wall of an almond grove; a perfect subject for seeing negative space. I marked its essential frame of large branches first, frequently erasing lines and changing my mind until the balance felt right.

S a l v i a , RIBES, CLEMATIS, Allium, Passiflora, and Acanthus

Summer Flowers

Alchemilla,

drawn with an H pencil by observing the

negative spaces between the stems, petals, and leaves. I arranged the flowers on a sheet of paper in a cool r o o m and rapidly sketched a composition. Then I put them in water, taking the stems out one at a time to draw.

.

We never see everything at once. gathering less distinct information on the way. Compare changes of pace and focus here to the flatter finish of Summer Flowers (see pp. interfolding points of detail with areas of loose suggestion. If an artist changes the pace of their line and focus of their attention. . they emulate our experience of seeing. 62-63).Acanthus Spinosus As we LOOK AROUND. Excessive detail leaves no space for the eye to rest or imagination to wander. our eyes travel and adjust from one point of focus to another.

.

and writers have been breaking away from traditional forms of representation to seek new expressions of shape. Besides sketches of first thoughts and polished drawings of the finished look for clients. coupled with the importance of exercizing your imagination. time. with gray and brown watercolor wash. from political commentary to musical abstraction. Linear perspective is a marvelous device. the device that has since governed most of our picture-making (sec pp. space. VICTOR BALTARD French architect employed by the city of Paris. Among the drawings of this chapter we look from 17th-century ecclesiastical calm. drawing plans around themselves within a program as opposed to on a flat sheet of paper. It was also during the Renaissance that the architect Brunelleschi invented linear perspective. Computer programs allow the virtual drawing of ideas. balance. which can be clearly seen in ancient Greek architecture. to help them create new form. Through the animation of the screen. they also have a diagrammatic language for communicating plans to builders. It is the focus of practical class in this chapter. and architects of ancient Greece who first pursued the formula for "divine proportion. designers. It was the mathematicians. Perhaps in the sheer planes of some of our greatest modern buildings it is finding its clearest expression. film-set design. mass. Augustin. 74-75). philosophers. European conventions of pictorial perspective have lost their monopoly on seeing. Since the first flowering of Modernism in the early 20th century. and in the 19th century it was given the name the Golden Section. Since Picasso and Braque's revolution of Cubism in around 1907. which was the first church in the capital to be built entirely of metal and then clad in stone. add and subtract ideas.This is a pencil drawing. filmmakers. of the west facade of St Augustin.Architecture I N THE CONTEMPORARY PRACTICES of architecture. invaluable to understand and apply when you choose. was preserved into the Renaissance where it became a foundation stone for thinking and creativity From 15thcentury Italy. made by the architect himself. and from West Facade of the Church of St Augustin.The church is still in use today. At the core of their practice. and computer game imaging. fine artists. Baltard designed the Church of St. This harmony. Architects have been fine-tuning their specialized branch of drawing for centuries. each VICTOR BALTARD . Yet the pursuit of divine proportion and harmony remains. to 20th-century film fantasy. composers. once there. we find the most recent steps in the evolution of graphic language. the formula for perfection spread through Europe. architects and designers can imaginatively "climb inside" three-dimensional space and. and sound." reflecting the eye's love of unity in difference. they have the Golden Section. Paris 1871-74 the child's view to the infinity of the vanishing point. architects.

pilasters. St Paul's Baptistry c. materials. and six London churches. Pillars and floor At the base of the drawing a compass-drawn plan tilted downward through 90 degrees illustrates the arrangement of pillars around a central circular floor. evoke presence. Drawings underpin every great human-made structure like hidden linear ghosts at their core. Oxford. and balance. and Castle Howard. densely layered lines in mists of color weave the presence of the expected building into shape. and an inscribed entablature. and later an assistant to Vanbrugh. NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR One of Britain's "three great" Baroque architects (along with Sir Christopher Wren and Sir John Vanbrugh). calculate function. embodying a massive investment of ideas. Lines define structure while washes suggest light and atmosphere. Together they explain how interior structure and space define exterior form and shape. and the shapes of interior domes and apses. Hawksmoor established his reputation with university and church architecture including All Souls College. structure. The photograph opposite shows his studio hung with metal pendulums. testing gravity to calculate the inverted shapes of domes. marks the end of a long journey from the first few marks the architect made on a sheet of paper. Hawksmoor's drawing is both a plan and an evocation. We see the modeled detail of Corinthian columns. describe a finished look to a client. Three aspects This subtle and sophisticated drawing made in pen and wash displays three distinct aspects of Hawksmoor's baptistry. Finished surface On the left the finished surface of the building is given depth and emphasis by immaculate vertical and horizontal brush strokes of shadow. he also worked on St Paul's Cathedral. Architects draw for many reasons: to visualize ideas. Hampton Court Palace.68 ARCHITECTURE Master Builders EVERY NEW BUILDING. and labor. Below it. Blenheim Palace. Gaudi's fluid architecture grew up through many kinds of drawing. A student of Wren's. Cut-away interior On the right a section cut through the center of the building reveals material thicknesses. and ultimately to show builders what to do. 1711-12 NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR . a three-dimensional drawing made with wires and weights. relative levels.

69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt c. light. unique organic manipulation of high shapes. churches. This sculptural drawingenvisionsthe finished crypt glowingandethereal as if caught in thelightof red morning sun. embellishment. 1900 ANTONIO GAUDI ANTONIO GAUDI Visionary Catalan architect. 1910 24x181/4( 6 1 0 x 4 7 5mm) A N T O N I O GAUDI . Wire and watercolor three-dimensional preferred to calculate Above is a drawing form in the made withlinkedwires and weights. To the right isawatercolordrawing thought to havebeenmade over a photograph ofthemodelabove. Gaudi air than on paper. The Art Nouveau movement. and apartment homes are distinguished by their Their and Flowering curves of stone or concrete are often encrusted with Gaudi was inspired by medieval and oriental art. Gaudi's cathedral in Barcelona. Guell Crypt of its at the Time Construction c. and his love of music.

while the composer Erik Satie has made an enclosure of quiet order and grace. He also produces urban and landscape designs. and arched dotted lines depict the radius of doors.70 ARCHITECTURE The Order of Sound B O T H OF THESE VISIONARY DRAWINGS o c c u p y a s l e n d e r . Arctic Flowers 1980 DANIEL LIBESKIND . and dotted lines. and the spaces between his windows and turrets are the visual equivalent of pauses in h i s m u s i c c o m p o s i t i o n s for p i a n o (see also Bussotti. a refillable pen that feeds a constant supply of ink through a fine tubular nib.223). p. Visual rhythms In the lower half of this drawing architectural language has broken loose: escaped and transformed into an image of rebellious pleasure. such a rapport in both of these drawings. Across the top and center right of the image w e perceive an almost recognizable architectural plan. and in a sense hear. We can see. installations. upright pictorial space. corridors. Both men used rulers and pens to carefully and slowly construct their compositions. Libeskind's numerous commissions include concert halls and museums. Floor plan This drawing has been made with a rapidograph. There has always DANIEL LIBESKIND A Polish American architect of international acclaim. Libeskind begins quietly in the upper space of his drawing. Floor space appears divided by discernible walls. He also contributed to plans for the rebuilding of the World Trade Center site in New York. flat boards. Satie draws quietly throughout. Libeskind studied music before transferring to architecture. before cascading into a riot of line and sound below. and exhibitions of his drawings. Contemporary musicians commonly collaborate with artists by interpreting images as sound. The architect and musician Daniel Libeskind has drawn a stampeding cacophany of airborne architectural detail. been a natural affinity between the visual rhythms of pictures and the audible rhythms of music. and rooms. theater sets. short curved poles. We can imagine how a musician might interpret this drawing by looking at the abstract visual rhythms of masses composed of long straight poles.

o f which he was the sole m e m b e r Parcel paper Satie has drawn this fantasy hotel using a ruler. minimalist s c o r e s scandalized a u d i e n c e s with o r c h e s t r a t i o n s f o r t h e foghorn and typewriter.56—57 we discussed important the shape. dressed eccentrically. 1 8 9 3 77/8 x 51/2 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 4 0 mm) ERIK SATIE .ERIK SATIE F r e n c h pianist and c o m p o s e r for t h e piano. H e p e r f o r m e d in cabarets. and founded his o w n church. They definespaceand pictorial balance.narrowshape of its paper. Onpp.H i s witty. Compare the even and and the shape wall to the elegantly stylized order of the many windows of arrangement of details and the shape of the wall in Babur's Garden of Fidelity on p. a n d ballet. a conventional dip or fountain pen. theater. and ink on a fragment folded brown paper—a of everyday happened material of scrap that to be at hand. effectively additional lines in a work. Satie collaborated w i t h hisfriends J e a n C o c t e a u a n d P i c a s s o . lived a l o n e .50. Eastern influence The upright image Eastern is reminiscent and medieval of Middle pictorial space and subject of this European drawing. andfouredges of the paper tothecompositionand impact animage. the perimeter Composition Look how well this drawingfitsand resonates with the upright.Edges are how are of orientation. Hotel de la Suzonnieres c.

made in 1926. and dramatic lighting. arched vaults. Among preparations for Fritz Langs film Metropolis.96.The lower-left section of the building appears relatively pale against a darker sky. ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE French architectural theorist. spheres. Art director Erich Kettlehut's vertiginous design for the city of a slavelike populace had a future influence on movies such as Blade Runner. experiencing a fascinating conflict between curiosity and desolation. Within it.72 ARCHITECTURE T H E S E T H R E E HIGHLY DETAILED DRAWINGS Future Fictions invite us to soaring above normal life. Boullee lived in Paris. the ominous globe exists only as a series of drawings. Light illusions This pen-and-wash drawing shows a subtle application of the principles of illumination demonstrated with an egg on p. We glide over exquisitely drawn wastelands of damage and abandonment. and the reverse is true on the right. This shift makes the cenotaph appear three-dimensional. This is the work of an architectural theoretician. antlike mortals might have speculated upon the universe. we find other Utopian visions Paul Nobles epic drawing summons an imperfect and disturbing township where ruin and activity are equal and strange. and taught at t h e A c a d e m i e d'Architecture. Boullee's monolithic apparition was drawn as a monument to Sir Isaac Newton. enter the long-shadowed architecture of imaginary worlds. His celebrated imaginary buildings are characterized by pyramids. and draftsman. cylinders. Newton's Cenotaph 1784 153/4 x 25 in ( 4 0 2 x 635 m m ) ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE . painter.

and are Graphite shapes Nobson Central isoneof a series of very large graphite drawings of the spoil and detritus of Nobson Newtown. Kettlehut drew using a fine and relatively dry brush dipped in black. Nobson political visions of humanity Newtown. and m o d e l .Building shapes are works can be read as text. together with c i n e m a t o g r a p h e r Karl Freund. Its sheerscaleengulfs the viewer and demands based time and patience to on letters and in some beread. mythology.a r t director O t t o Hunte. draftsman. and white ink on brown-gray paper. 1926 ERICH KETTLEHUT PAUL N O B L E British c o n t e m p o r a r y artist who creates m o n u m e n t a l . FUTURE FICTIONS Brush and ink This is a dramatic drawing from a film that shaped the history of world cinema. gray. intensely detailed graphite drawings explaining and questioning t h e geography. architecture. Fritz Lang's Metropolis c. Nobson Central 9 ft 1 0 in x 1 3 f t 2 in (3 x 4 m ) PAUL N O B L E 1998-99 . and morality o f an invented place called His satires exhibited w o r l d w i d e .m a k e r In t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f Metropolis.73 ERICH KETTLEHUT Influential film a r t director. Working on toned paper such as this gives an artist greater scope for dramatic lighting effects than if they work on white paper. Kettlehut and his c o . used forced perspective camera t e c h n i q u e s t o amplify t h e m a g n i t u d e o f buildings in relation t o human characters.

inventors. but is most easily seen and understood in pictures of buildings and interiors. Single-point perspective Tie a thread to a pin. Piranesi an example of two. See how the thread corresponds to each converging line. Here Leonardo provides a superb example of a single vanishing point. Note how architectural features conform to lines and how human figures diminish in size toward thevanishingpoint. Press the pin into Leonardo's vanishing point. It can be applied to any subject. We use it to structure illusions of depth. Study of Perspective Adoration of the for the Magi 1481 61/2 x111/2in (165 x 290 mm) LEONARDO DA VINCI . and those of Naive artists and children. Invented by Italian artist and architect Brunelleschi in 1413 (late in the history of art). linear perspective is distinct from more ancient systems practiced in the East. Pull the thread taut and rotate it slowly above the drawing. this perspective is often an imagined bird's-eye view in which details are mapped according to logic and importance rather than how they might appear in real life. and age eight. In his notebooks. LEONARDO DA VINCI One of the greatest artists. Leonardo recorded constant streams of ideas. 206-07).74 ARCHITECTURE Pathways of Sight LINEAR PERSPECTIVE (also called vanishing-point perspective) is a simple device for calculating the relative size of things in pictorial space. All forms of perspective are of equal value. scientists. and thinkers ever to have lived. observations. found at the center of all converging lines. It is also distinguished from aerial perspective (see pp. I contribute the child's perspective. Sometimes shared with Naive artists. and inventions— essential reading for inquiring minds.

Lightly marked illuminates vanishing Two Courtyards c. Two-point perspective Sunlight through this colonnade a great example of two-point perspective. Breamore Village. 1740 5 1 / 2 x 83/8 in (141 x 212 mm) G I O V A N N I B A T T I S T A PIRANESI points are located on either side of the drawing. Children are uninhibited and problems with one element being obscured by another rarely arise. New Forest. at the top of each lateral column base. which I saw from home every day. a points in logical narrative of memories. visionary and practical understanding of ancient Rome. Scale Our farmhouse my experience was in the woods. England 1980 9 x 16 in (228 x 405 mm) S A R A H SIMBLET GIOVANNI BATTISTA PIRANESI Italian artist. and theoretical writing strongly influenced neoclassicism. and designer Piranesi's prolific architectural drawings. issues of scale when making room for important their story. Note the rather large rabbits and pheasants the hills.SARAH SIMBLET I made this drawing (at age 8) in response to a local bookstore's request for children to draw their village. . This drawing Young children typically maps ignore on and understanding of the nearby village. architect. Mark these points with your pin and follow the converging lines of the drawing by rotating your thread. It shows how children usually map large scenes in flat layers one above the other. including all they recall about the subject.

discovering the image as it progressed. This ensures that the second rectangle aligns with the shape and 4 Draw four short lines to connect the four corners of the two rectangles. 2 3 corners must each touch a dotted line. (See p.98 for an important note on oscillation. Note that if you place large structures in the foreground and smaller ones closer to your vanishing point. then follow the ten steps below. Piranesi planned his drawing with only the essential lines needed. this is your vanishing point. you will amplify the illusion of distance. Surround the vanishing point with a small rectangle. DRAWING BOXES 1 Using a ruler and a sharp HB pencil.) . This lesson shows you how to make a simple illusion of space defined by two boxes and three flat boards. Erase the dotted construction lines. draw a horizon line across your paper Mark a spot on the horizon line.76 ARCHITECTURE Single-Point Perspective MASTERING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE i s e a s i e r t h a n y o u m a y First read through. You have completed your first box. Study these pages first before embarking on this lesson. Each line should pass through one corner of the rectangle. imagine. corresponding to a single vanishing point. Leonardo began with a grid of many lines within which he invented his scene. On the previous page we looked at its essential mechanism through drawings by Leonardo and Piranesi. This is where we will begin. In contrast. Extend each dotted line to the edge of your drawing. Draw each step over the preceding one to build up a single image. try composing your own space. Next. using a sharp HB pencil and ruler. Draw four dotted lines radiating out from the vanishing point.

you can place rectangles anywhere youwishin relation to a vanishing point. with two dotted lines. bottom. 6 As in step 2. Connect this to the vanishing point— again. draw four dotted lines radiating from your vanishing point Pass these through each comer of the new rectangle. Repeat this to add two more boards to the composition. the closer it will appear to the viewer. . N e x t draw a slanting line to mark the height of the first flat board. 8 Complete the second box with short lines as in step 4. 1 0 Erase all ofthedottedlinestoseeyourfinishedboxes Thickeningtheiredges. when inventing your own compositions. Note that this does not surround the vanishing point In the future.willhelptomake them appear more solid. The board's sides should be parallel. andfarside of this first board. and erase the dotted lines. The four comers must each touch a dotted line to be sureitaligns with the first. draw a second.77 SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE 5 Draw a new rectangle. 7 As in step 3. larger rectangle. 9 Use dotted lines connecting the slanting linetothe vanishing point to locate the top.asIhavedonehere. Continue the dotted lines out toward the edge of your drawing. The larger you make your second rectangle.

APPLYING PERSPECTIVE An Imagined Scaffold "Enjoy your illusion as you make it and it will become more real. As David Lynch. If using a fibertip pen as I have done for this drawing. Linear perspective will support y o u by providing a frame in which to b u i l d your picture as it did for Leonardo. O n a fresh page in your d r a w i n g b o o k ." ." imaginary room. p . let simple lines suggest a simple space. A lot more happens when you open yourself up to the work and let yourself act and react to it. once said: "I never end up with what I set out to do. Then follow the three given steps. I always start with a script but I don't follow it all the way through to the end. it will take you places you never dreamed of. w h e t h e r it is a film or a painting. artist and film director. you will find white adhesive stationery labels are useful for covering errors or changing the direction of your idea. draw a b o x as shown opposite. then let the space suggest its c o n t e n t s and purpose. It highlights the importance of having faith in your imagination and trusting your ability to invent. Every work talks In this class. The m i s t a k e n belief that we s h o u l d k n o w exactly what o u r finished drawings will l o o k like before we m a k e t h e m prevents many people from ever starting. it is interaction that makes the work richer.78 ARCHITECTURE Creating an Imaginary Space T H I S CLASS USES SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE t o c r e a t e a s i m p l e to you and if you listen to it. 7 4 ) .

you will beableto draw more complex objects orpeoplewithin them. With some practice. 2 first before adding furniture.drawthehorizonlineand vanishingpoint.79 DRAWING A SIMPLE ROOM Essentials t o remember: objects and people dimmish in size as they move farther away. and leaning surfaces. Here. . CREATING AN IMAGINARY SPACE 1First. 3 Remove the construction lines with an eraser and the room will becomeclearer. parallel planes such as walls converge toward the vanishing point. The space has become more solid and real.There is great pleasure tobefoundin spending time inventing interiors. and floors and ceilings also converge and rise o r lower toward the horizon. additional lines have established the different surfaces and how they relate to each other.Addanarray of converging lines to provide a "scaffold" for vertical. horizontal. This initial space will be transparent and open to change.

Potentially.p o i n t perspective ( s h o w n opposite top). That is where we e to find them. I have elaborated on the simple boxes above. our eye level is very high and we look down. 76-79). From our normal eye level. o r to the h o r i z o n . To draw such a view APPLICATION Copy these drawings to see and feel how they work before inventing your own versions. The boxes drawn here are seen partly or entirely disassociated from a horizon line drawn across the bottom of the image. It is important to realize that you can have as many vanishing points as you wish. Only when y o u might employ t h r e e . showing y o u h o w to draw curved surfaces and a tiled floor. Free vanishing points On paper we can enjoy the freedom of fantastic structural invention without limitations of solid materials or gravity. but they are not confined to this level. T h i s is d e m o n s t r a t e d immediately below. Here. They could be drawn on any scale from miniature to monumental. T h e y d o n o t have to relate to each other. Vanishing points are commonly found on horizon—our eye level. a n d this is how we have drawn them so far (see pp. Search for the application of these perspectives among works by other artists in this book and in galleries. verticals appear p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the g r o u n d . Copying what you see in the work of others will help you to understand what they have done. located anywhere inside or outside the pictorial space. Elaborations . or low and we look u p . Further aspects of three-point perspective are also illustrated opposite.80 ARCHITECTURE Further Aspects of Perspective W E ARE ACCUSTOMED TO SEEING our e n v i r o n m e n t from a relatively constant point of view. T h i n k of standing at the top of a skyscraper and imagine h o w its parallel sides would appear to converge below you. they can be placed anywhere inspaceto describe the perspective of flyi c tilted objects. do verticals appear inclined. These elaborations could continue indefinitely across a sheet of paper in pursuit of complex and intricate ideas.

Note that altering the distance between the three dots above will tilt the level of the floor .75. An array of curved lines (drawn freehand) link the two lateral points. Iusedthese lines as a guide t o draw the curvature of boxes and panels flying through space. tostraightlines can amplify drama in a picture.Finally. (Turn the book around to see a view looking up. and therefore tension. Three-point checkered floor This d bottom floor. Giving curvature. Where thelinescross.I added horizontal lines t o define the tiles. three vanishing points are evenly spaced along a horizon line.) By comparing this drawing t o Piranesi's example of two-point perspective on p. useful for representing steep views looking up or down tall structures.Istarted with two parallel lines. they mark the corners of the floor tiles.81 FURTHER ASPECTS OF Three-point towers This drawing depicts three-point perspective. you will see how. I then drew three fanned groups of lines connecting each of the three points above to the seven points below. by adding a third point you can achieve a sense of incline. PERSPECTIVE Three-point curves Here. I marked the toplinewith three evenly spaced points and the line with seven.

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. I visited many anatomical theaters and museums. These walnut-skin ink pen and brush drawings show imagined views of theaters that do not exist but were inspired by places I studied.Theaters RESEARCHING FOR MY P H D . making drawings to resolve questions and express personal responses to the nature and history of anatomy.

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I N KDRAWING is one of a series I made while next to the Rialto Bridge in Venice. The vanishing of the drawing is directly opposite as we look across The constancy of the bridge and surrounding frames the movement in the life that flows past. . the water.A N D .Venetian Life sitting point buildings ThisP E N .

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color. A chair. C o m m o n items. drawings were needed to instruct workers on the factory floor. that test our logic with a sense of mystery. and made. drawing c. History will be learned from the artifacts w e leave behind. Technical drawing was speedily developed as a meticulous international code of m e a s u r e m e n t and explanation. It is shaped in sections w i t h Artists have for centuries studied and expressed composition. Engineers and designers of our objects and instruments make drawings for many reasons: to test an idea that is yet to be made. or used on stage hood for a mold t o make theheado f a horse f oas a p r o p — i m b u e d with e n o u g h energy or character can "become" a man. hooked bars that can be pulled and tied closely form. but humans LEONARDO DA VINCI Inthisbeautiful red chalk Our items all have a purpose—practical or ornamental—and all have a meaning. we look at the importance are the only creatures on Earth w h o actually design and create great ranges of things. In past eras. fictional realities caster of h o w t o make it andhowit will w o r k . even more advanced drawings are made on computers. and the way in w h i c h the brain reacts Head and Neck Sections of Female Mold for the Sforza Horse to visual stimulus and optical illusions. and some apes use simple tools. making a clear instruction t o his bronzemeaning. sculpted. craftsmen had held plans in their memory. or to explain and present a finished concept to a client. are all made bearing the signature of our time and place. for example. have often carried great weights of allegorical once. illuminating snail shells. With the sudden onset of mass production. H e has described contour and function at drawings. too. T h e precision of engineering d r a w i n g s e v o l v e d alongside machine tools. 1493 117/8c81/4in (300 x 210 m m ) LEONARDO D A V I N Ccreating I . In this chapter. each demanding more of the other as they increased in sophistication. T h e Industrial Revolution c h a n g e d the traditional w a y s in w h i c h objects were designed. texture. design. Previously.Objects and Instruments T HE THINGS WE INVENT describe our lives. and the behavior of light through making still-life paintings and together. to record an observed detail. these. passing them on to others through the act of making. from s p o o n s and pens to chairs and bicycles. r an equestrian statue. It was in this era that the blueprint was born. for example—whether. and a wire violin. Artists also make images of objects that can never exist. Birds follow instinct to make a nest. planned. or drawing w e see Leonardo daVinci'sprecision as can be given meaning. Artists and actors use the meanings of things to communicate a speculative mechanic. of light in the creation of pictorial illusions. drawn. W e also explore v o l u m e and form in the classes by spinning lines to make vessels. Today. H e has described a casting through metaphor.

. His work is characterized by calm and harmonious still-life compositions. a colored canvas. steaming with music and conversation. still feel this projected moment. Braques image is a Cubist collage. Below. silverware.90 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS Still Life THESE DRAWINGS REVEAL t w o o p p o s i t e m o t i v a t i o n s i n we can. Clashes The art historian Ernst Gombrich said of Cubism. Statue D'Epouvante 1913 2 f t 5 in x 3 ft 5 in (0. but to clash in virtual deadlock. not to work in harmony. and glass objects of exquisite elegance for only the gentlest of touch and appreciation. not of place but of things.73 x 1 m) GEORGES BRAQUE . Opposite. perfect i n their newly made availability.." La Cuitare. Braque established Cubism in partnership with Picasso just before World War I..Braque marshals all the forces of perspective. Braques "justly" arranged combination of cut black card. Even today GEORGES BRAQUE French painter who as a young man was influenced by the work of the Fauves and of Cezanne. charcoal. He takes us into the bustle of the Paris cafe. wood-look wallpaper. Mucha's drawing glistens with possession. and shading. One of the great joys of this movement in art is the musicality of its multipoint view. "I believe [it] is the most radicalattempttostampout ambiguity and to enforce one readingofthepicture—that of a manmade construction. T h i s is a designers drawing made to enthuse surface and style in its delicate brushing of china. There is a fragile eloquence to these objects as they drift in slow motion past our gaze. and a journal jacket with words makes this drawing chatter about the moment. texture. representing still life.

fruit. Chicago. He is best known for posters featuring ethereal women in typical Art Nouveau style.flowers. Art Nouveau motifs This is a preliminary study for a subsequent print. For ten years Mucha designed theater posters exclusively for the actress Sarah Bernhardt. Art Nouveau curling motifs of birds. Pans. The three plates facing us were drawn with a compass. Background color Between the delicate shadows and highlights of these glazed and surfaces ofthebackground metal color of the Mucha we see a large amount paper. and fish have been outlined using a sharp pencil. and also stamps and bank notes. Look at the two spoons at toprightand see how has suggested that they are so brilliantly shiny they reflect the background color.ALPHONSE MUCHA Czech graphic artist and painter who worked in Prague. Black watercolor washes and lines of white gouache have been added with a fine brush. and New York. He designed the Austrian pavilion for the Paris World Fair in 1900. Study for Plate 59 from "Documents Decoratifs" 17x121/4(430 x 310 mm) ALPHONSE MUCHA 1902 .

Look how confidently he draws with ink the sphere of this wooden globe by which his telescope rotates. Transparent view Newton's reflecting telescope focused light in a parabolic mirror. He counted 1 4 . drawing is there to pin the moment down. w h e r e he developed his three greatest theories: the law o f motion. astronomer. into the eyepiece. Hooke's head of a drone fly seen through a microscope may represent the first time man and insect came face to face. 0 0 0 perfect hemispheres. and Fellow of the University o f C a m b r i d g e . each one skillfully rendered with the alarmingly matter-of-fact ease of explaining the commonplace. Newton's 1672 ISAAC Telescope NEWTON . It is a diagrammatic explanation of how to catch and magnify a star in a mirrored tube. and philosopher Newton was President of the Royal Society. Newton used this instrument to calculate the speed required to escape earth's gravity.92 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS by their very nature must gauge or chronicle precision. shape the very cause and effect of investigatory thought. and the nature o f light and color. Newton's drawing of his first reflecting telescope is ISAAC N E W T O N English scientist. From the concept of capturing the infinite to the mapping of microscopic sight. mathematician. In the graphic work of these two great men of science. It was then reflected up inside the tube and. A disembodied eye at the top of the drawing indicates where to look. Their delicate construction is only as valuable as the measurements they make. we see drawing Instruments of Vision found among his letters. Ink lines Several drawings appear among Newton's letters. a tree outside. offering a transparent view. each reflecting a view of his own world—his window. With dotted lines Newton has drawn his arrangement of elements inside the tube. the law o f gravity. The power of this drawing reflects the pure passion of discovery. alchemist. and his hand moving across the light. via a second mirror.

1665).An experimental scientist who drew many of his discoveries. universal joint a prototype respirator clock balance. and anchor escarpment. Hooke invented the camera diaphragm. The Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 1665 ROBERT HOOKE 111/2 x 105/8 in (294 x 270 mm) . and calculated the theory of combustion. It is an exhilarating read. ROBERT H O O K E 93 Magnifications This acutely detailed engraved drawing is taken from Hooke's Micrographia (pub. a breathtaking book containing many of his drawings showing some of the first microscopic and telescopic magnifications of our environment Hooke's text and illustrations carry us to the moment of discovery.

A renegade from the p a p e r dolls' h o u s e . Drawn in more-or-less c o n v e n t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . Bench Marks W e are left a little c o n f u s e d as to what we s h o u l d do. and w h e r e the chair b e l o n g s . it has so m u c h familiar personality that it seems to talk to us. and winner of the 2004 Jerwood Drawing Prize. and has drawings in numerous public and private collections. Chair Cut Out 2002 22'A x 23 in (565 x 585 mm) SARAH WOODFINE . its character. W i t h h o m e y c o n t r a s t . Sarah Woodfines flat cut-out m o d e l plan is a witty and surprising drawing.94 INSTRUMENTS W H E N WE DRAW A COMMON OBJECT like a chair. while the tabs make us see a flat paper cut-out. OBJECTS AND SARAH WOODFINE British contemporary artist graduate of the Royal Academy Schools. this chair p r e s e n t s us with a clever visual contradiction: deeply drawn shadows tell us it must be solid. Two-dimensional was made This highly finished drawing ruler using a sharp pencil and on smooth white drawing paper glistening dark drawings are artificial representations of known Woodfine's two-dimensional things balanced in the world. Van Gogh's tipsy seat is a metaphor for an absent person. has published several catalogs of her work. Woodfine exhibits internationally. craft. each drawn with the s a m e unfaltering lines and tones that are between reality and impossibility. Its wobbly gait and squashed s y m m e t r y m u m b l e endless h o m e y tales about the life it has seen. From component parts we understand how to put it together and make it stand sensible in space. and place in the world are truly seen.

Van Chair 1890 VINCENT VAN GOGH . what direct in their he saw and describing his felt.hehas marked the full emotion of the subject with a fierce grip of concentration. The floor few as engagement with the chair. Cornfield and Sunflowers. His passionate brush and pencil strokes are honest and of also turmoil and growing alarm at the world around him. and Starry Cypress Night.95 VINCENTVAN GOGH Dutch painter who produced over 800 paintings and 850 drawings in only the last ten year's of his life. drawn opposite way of plan. inner recording while Fierce strokes This is a portrait of the mechanical drew immediately and almost harshly. not is made present in only strokes and is subdued to distract us from flat a meaningful chair. Among van Gogh's best-known canvases are Trees.

102-03 deep shadows cast across shells make their form easier to perceive. Tape them to the glass. The small squares are identical in tone. Below. See how its "edge" smoothly changes from light against dark to dark against light. The two tones meet without a division or outline between. hence our recognition of a cartoon face c o m p o s e d of three lines.This effect is caused by the contrast of their surroundings. Gray squares To further examine changes in tone. one blackandone white. a n d m o v e m e n t . Are you happy LIGHT AND SHADOW with what you see? Does the light enhance the subject? Could you alter and improve it? On pp. We will even see things that d o not exist because minimal information suggests they are likely to be there. The outermost edge of our vision. The rim of light on the egg is reflected light received from surrounding paper. your eye around the circumference of the egg. less developed than the center. To interpret visual s t i m u l u s . The egg's lightest region is seen against a darker background. Adjust the angleofthe protruding part and again stepback.At one point you will catchenoughlight lighter than the white one. gray. a n d are q u i c k to p r o p o s e ideas. S o m e o n e passes our o p e n door. are translated into a world of space. Run The bottom-left quarter of the egg lightens slightly toward its "edge" when seen against the darker shadow cast on the paper. two identical mid-gray squares are seen against black and paler gray squares. the adjustment of our eyes (in growing accustomed to a level of light).96 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Light and Illusions SEEING IS MIRACULOUS. Here w e look briefly at our perception of light a n d darkness a n d our interpretation of diagrammatic illusions. w e turn our head but n o one w a s there. try this experiment. Three factors change it: the amount of light it receives. think about its illumination. U p s i d e . Through these we can enjoy witnessing our o w n d e c e p t i o n a n d b a f f l e m e n t a n d u n d e r s t a n d certain factors that are very useful in picture-making. The perceived tone of a black white. Here. a n d our ability to see forms in c l o u d s or fire. The egg's darkest region is seen against a lighter background. a lit photograph of an egg shows essential points to observe in tonal drawing. atmosphere. Artists emulate and manipulate this effect in their pictures. or colored surface is never constant. From across the room both will appear black card and fold and retapeitwith half sticking out.d o w n patterns of light on our retinas. a n d we can be fooled. Before starting a tonal drawing of any subject. but do not appear so. Below the bottom "edge" of the egg there is a rim of light reflected onto the paper by the underside of the egg. We perceive one to be lighter than theother. cards the same size. We only need small prompts. On acloudyday. form. W e learn to read light and shadow in our environment as indicators of solidity and depth of space. transmitted to the brain as chains of electrical impulses. reads only m o v e m e n t a n d can often m a k e mistakes. T h e slightest recognition is instantly matched to our wealth of experience a n d expectation. Card experiment cho can gra on . o u r b r a i n s search for n a m e a b l e things. and the proximity of contrasting tones. perhaps.

respectively. b u t t h e u p r i g h t o n e l o o k s t a l l e r (B). In this linear drawing w e read t h i c k as closer a n d t h i n as f a r t h e r away.p o i n t p e r s p e c t i v e d r a w i n g s w i t h a large n u m b e r o f c o n v e r g i n g rays b e h i n d y o u r horizontals. T w o relatively t h i c k parallel lines are m a d e t o b e n d away f r o m each o t h e r as t h e y pass in f r o n t o f an a r r a y o f c o n v e r g i n g f i n e lines ( B ) . S h o r t h o r i z o n t a l lines o f identical length are m a d e t o l o o k d i f f e r e n t by c o n v e r g i n g lines beside t h e m ( C ) . t h i c k e r l i n e s a p p e a r t o stand forward. Seven parallel lines are m a d e t o tilt t o w a r d and away f r o m each o t h e r by n u m e r o u s s h o r t strokes crossing t h e m diagonally ( A ) . w h i l e t h i n n e r lines recede. start o u t w i t h one. O b s e r v e h o w each white b a n d appears t h i c k e r t h a n its black c o u n t e r p a r t . In this t o n a l image w e read w h i t e as f a t t e r t h a n black.97 LINE VERSUS TONE In l i n e a r d r a w i n g s . T h e r e is n o obligation t o a d d b l o c k s o f t o n e t o a l i n e a r d r a w i n g . Bending straight lines Linear distance These t w o jugs have b e e n d r a w n w i t h lines o f d i f f e r i n g thicknesses. Apparent lengths T h e s e optical illusions s h o w h o w lines o f identical length can b e m a d e t o l o o k quite different f r o m each o t h e r by t h e addition o r association o f o t h e r lines. A n u p r i g h t line stands in t h e c e n t e r o f a h o r i z o n t a l line. O f t e ndoingso w i l l s p o i l y o u r w o r k . Y o u m a y e x p e r i e n c e s o m e t h i n g similar h a p p e n i n g w h e n y o u m a k e s i n g l e . B o t h are identical in length. . by d i r e c t e d a r r o w s ( A ) . l i g h t e r surfaces s t a n d f o r w a r d w h i l e d a r k e r s u r f a c e s recede. T h e jug d r a w n w i t h a t h i n line appears f a r t h e r away t h a n t h e j u g d r a w n w i t h a t h i c k e r line. In a t o n a l d r a w i n g . T w o horizontal lines o f equal length are m a d e t o l o o k longer and shorter. T h i s fundamental o p p o s i t e is a reason w h y l i n e a r a n d t o n a l d r a w i n g does not a l w a y s c o m b i n e w e l l in t h e s a m e i m a g e . If y o u w i s h t o m a k e a t o n a l drawing. LIGHT AND ILLUSIONS Tonal width T h e s e black a n d w h i t e bands are o f equal thickness o n e i t h e r side o f t h e i r central division.

others adjust works to avoid their effects. C l o s i n g t h e surface o f t h e f o r m seals o u r d e c i s i o n as t o w h i c h w a y it faces. Artists can communicate much in few lines and the viewer will do the rest of the work. w e can only look f r o m one t o the o t h e r If an artist is not aware this can happen in their image. A few suggestive marks will tip the decision one way o r the o t h e r Closing the surface W h e n a t r a n s p a r e n t elliptical o b j e c t has b e e n d r a w n . In the 1960's.98 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Further Illusions PSYCHOLOGISTS AND PHYSIOLOGISTS have studied optical illusions for decades in pursuit of what they tell us about the brain. among others. Op(tical) artists. perfected the acceleration of perspective (see pp. It is possible t o r e a d i t t w o ways: as a t r u n c a t e d r e c t a n g u l a r p y r a m i d seen d i r e c t l y f r o m a b o v e . It is a curious fact that w e can never see both options at once. w h e n drawing the outline o f a three-dimensional form. such as t h e dish seen h e r e o n t h e left. Some artists use known optical illusions to make art. their picture could be ambiguous. it oscillates between t w o possibilities. are still not agreeably understood. and so calculated precisely how much to fatten columns to make them appear straight. Ancient Greek architects knew parallel upright lines appeared to bend toward each other in the middle. Today we are bombarded with images but rarely have difficulty reading them.76. w e will find that in terms of the direction it faces. Two ways of seeing T h i s is t h e b o x c r e a t e d in t h e f o u r t h step o n p. it can oscillate b e t w e e n facing t o w a r d o r a w a y f r o m us.116-17) to make painted figures look correct when viewed from below. and we learn to read the styles of diverse cultures and periods. Michelangelo." . such as Bridget Riley. as s h o w n o n t h e right. including some shown here.s i d e d r e c t a n g u l a r t r a y ( b o t h are illustrated far r i g h t ) "The brain is so eager to name a fragment we see that we need only a suggestion to grasp the whole. made paintings that depended upon the physical sensation of our brain's reaction to known optical illusions. SEEING TWO OPTIONS Sometimes. o r as a s l o p i n g . Yet many illusions. Artists make pictorial illusions when they paint or draw.

. S o m e artists use ink blots t o p r o m p t t h e beginning o f an image. O n l y o n closer inspection we realize that t h e s e o b j e c t s are fooling us. 1 6 t h . Yet still w e try resolve t h e m . smoke. FURTHER ILLUSIONS Seeing things that are n o t t h e r e H e r e o n t h e left. Minimal-line j o k e s such as this rely u p o n t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y v i e w e r ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e shapes.c e n t u r y Italian painters. this is a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f t h e viewer's b r a i n b e i n g willing t o d o a large a m o u n t o f t h e w o r k in d e c i p h e r i n g a p i c t u r e . This effect can o c c u r naturally w h e n looking at a b r i g h t l y lit w h i t e g r i d such as a w i n d o w f r a m e against t h e night sky. W e should r e m e m b e r t h a t o u r brains will always search f o r a p i c t u r e — i n ink blots. T h e patient's answers are t h e n diagnosed as a psychological profile. N e i t h e r triangle exists. e t c . C o u p l e d w i t h t h e Rorschach b l o t above. His highly d i s p u t e d and i m p r e c i s e science involves s h o w i n g u n p r e p a r e d p a t i e n t s t e n p a r t i c u l a r ink b l o t s a n d asking t h e m t o i n t e r p r e t w h a t t h e y see. F a m i l i a r i t y in r a n d o m s h a p e s T h e Rorschach test was established by t h e 1 9 t h . b u t w e believe w e see t h e m because e n o u g h f r a g m e n t a r y i n f o r m a t i o n is given f o r o u r brains t o c o n c l u d e t h e y are v e r y likely t h e r e .c e n t u r y Swiss psychologist H e r m a n n Rorschach. T h e t e s t e x p l o r e s o u r n o r m a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o find things w e can n a m e a m o n g r a n d o m shapes. T h e y a r e o f t e n c r e d i t e d w i t h t h e invention o f t h e c o m i c c a r t o o n . C Escher u s e d this phenomenon t o great effect in his many p o p u l a r d r a w i n g s o f puzzles and impossible buildings.99 Impossible objects T h e s e clever configurations o f outlines and t o n a l surfaces convince us at a glance that we are seeing a solid three-dimensional triangle and a three-pronged fork. clouds. B e l o w is a b r i g h t n e s s c o n t r a s t illusion. C o u n t t h e n u m b e r o f d a r k spots y o u can see. T h e s e e x a m p l e s illustrate h o w little is n e e d e d t o c o n v e y an image. — a n d so t h e artist can create m u c h o u t o f an impression w i t h o u t overdescribing. M u c h can b e e x p r e s s e d in o n l y a f e w marks. w e see t w o overlapping triangles: o n e outlined in black b e n e a t h a n o t h e r in solid w h i t e . T h e a r t i s t M. P e r c e i v i n g a w h o l e i m a g e f r o m m i n i m a l lines T h i s is a w i d e l y r e p r o d u c e d visual j o k e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e C a r r a c c i b r o t h e r s . This simple five-line d r a w i n g is o f a C a p u c h i n priest asleep in his pulpit.

suggesting that the vessel is lopsided.100 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS W E VISUALIZE CYLINDRICAL VESSELS. I have drawn these for you here. describing many sides of an object simultaneously. as if the table surface slopes upward beneath the vessel. WHERE TO START In the air above a spacious sheet of scrap paper. spin your hand in a relaxed circle. giving the cylinder four corners. such as bowls and cups. How to Draw Ellipses of seeing. since this is h o w w e experience them in e v e r y d a y use. hesitant one that has edged its w a y nervously around the vessel's rim. while its upper rim remains level. like a disposable plastic cup that has been crushed in your hand. you will achieve steadiness with practice. w h e n seen at an angle. (see p. keep it spinning. third common error is to draw upper and lover ellipses with different-sized apertures. circles change into ellipses. even if y o u r hand w o b b l e s a little at first. there are three common errors people stumble upon. Ellipse are best d r a w n quickly. that this is o n l y o n e w a y view. Watch the tip of your pen and see it draw an ellipse in the air Keep this movement going while gently lowering the pen onto the paper like the needle of a record player closing on the disc (only it is your lowering hand that spins. A wobbling but confident ellipse will still be more convincing than a slow. though. smoothly. not the paper!) As the pen touches down. COMMON ERRORS W h e n drawing cylindrical objects in perspective. Cover a sheet of paper with spinning. Cubism. and these narrow or widen depending on the height of our view. To make a cylindrical object appear real in our pictorial space. for example. The second common error is to tilt the upper and lower ellipses at different angles. I have exaggerated this error here. for example plates or bowls on a table. Be aware. Don't worry if it is uneven— just try again.90) takes a different as essentially circular. a n d in o n e bold stroke. springlike forms like those I have drawn below. The first common error is to draw two pointed ellipses. However. w e use ellipses to give a sense of perspective. .

Seeing Through Allow lines to travel around each vessel as if it were transparent. Create a Solid Surface Once you have drawn the shape and volume of each form. enlarging and diminishing the ellipse to determine the overall shape and volume. Altering the pressure—and therefore tone—of the line as it spins gives the impression of light shining on one side. thereby hiding lines that show the other sides. working from top to bottom. . Draw quickly. HOW TO DRAW E L L I P S E S A Single Vessel One Inside Another Grouped Together Finding Shape and Volume Draw an imagined vessel in one continuous spinning line. you can start to control your spinning ellipse to make a vessel. you can make it solid by building up highlights and tones on visible surfaces.101 DRAWING VESSELS Once you have mastered drawing free-hand springs.

and solid objects are all of equal importance. Remember that shadows. It maximizes the range of tones between black and white. You can begin with outlines and build slowly from light to dark (see opposite top). if any. or you can begin with a mid-gray ground and model light out of darkness (see opposite bottom). leaving detail until last. simply shapes and subtleties of light and dark meeting each other with no divisions in between. and strong contrasts are easier to draw. it will inhibit your perception of tone. Draw the largest and most distinct areas of light and darkness first. beams of light. two opposite methods of achieving the same result.22-23). t h e r e a r e p r i n c i p a l l y Dramatic lighting emphasizes texture and contour. if light shines in them. outlines. OBJECTS AND Start by arranging a choice of shells on a sheet of paper to your left if you are right-handed (or vice versa). It is important to place them on the correct side so as to draw comfortably (see pp.102 INSTRUMENTS Tonality W H E N MAKING A TONAL DRAWING. Relaxing your eyes out of focus as you draw will help to dissolve the distraction of detail. Gradually hone your drawing. making complicated or subtle surfaces easier to see and understand. LIGHT TO DARK DARK TO LIGHT . In the finished drawing there should be few. Illuminate them with a gooseneck lamp placed very close and directed away from your eyes.

with broad sweeps of the eraser. Relaxing your eyes out of focus will help to eliminate distracting details. until you are happy frame. pale lines with equal importance. Draw in the details last of all. loose.103 LIGHT TO DARK (LINE TO TONE) TONALITY 1 Using a sharp HB pencil. .56-57). Erase and make changes to roughly place the shells inside your with your composition. look at the main areas of darkness. Use quick. Remember that its size. 2 3 Gentlydissolveoutlines so that areas oflightanddark meet without a line between them. Honetheshapesand angles of the shells. Use your pencil to develop these in relation to the areas of light. Fll in broad areas first and leave all detail until last. and edges definingthespacialrelationships between are important aspects of your composition them. DARK TO LIGHT (TONE TO TONE) 1 Using the flattened tip of an HB pencil. Avoid a rough significant areas of light in your gray rectangle with texture and do not press the graphite hardwhite plastic eraser Ignore all detail and draw a into thepaperor you will not be able to erase it. Continue working between light and dark to refine the drawing. shape. draw a rectangle. boldly 2 3 Keeping your eyes out of focus. Treat positive form and negative space (see pp. Let your eyes go out of focus while looking gently layer marks to create an even tone at your subject and paper: Draw the most ofmid-graywithin a rectangle.

On p. try drawing it with a pen on paper Use bold. and physical relationships between them.220 Mamoru Abe draws with forged steel rods. our image is stronger if we understand and can visualize what is happening on the other side too. They can also be made in space. three-dimensional drawings teach us about the totality of forms in space. and on p. The first is that figurative and abstract drawings can be made in space. you can create your own more ambitious works.69 we see how the architect Antonio Gaudi drew proposed domes using suspended wires and weights. 19 Picasso draws with a pen-light for the camera.104 OBJECTS AND I N S T R U M E N T S Drawing with Wire DRAWINGS DO NOT HAVE to be two-dimensional. There are essentially three lessons to be learned. This class uses thin-gauge wire to create a threedimensional violin. 176 the British artists Noble and Webster draw with domestic refuse in a beam of light. . The second is that after achieving this simple example. Third. PEN LINES Once you have created your three-dimensional violin (opposite). continuous lines. On p. When drawing anything viewed from one side on paper. Place the instrument on a plain surface and illuminate it with a desk lamp to add the delicate dimension of shadows. and on p. smooth. Seeing through a wire drawing of a known object such as a violin gives us a visual and tactile understanding of all its sides and shapes at once.

Here. Then begin to define its uppermost surface with Scurves and the bridge. 2 3 If needed. I started with the scroll at the top and fixed the four component wires with two drawings of tuning pegs. Join the two sides together with four short pieces of wire. and pinch and bend it to shape the base of the instrument Repeat this process to make the identical upper side of the instrument. thin wire will make a smaller drawing. brace the two ends of the violin with a length of wire along the back. but thin enough to be easily manipulated inyourfingers Here.105 SETTING UP DRAWING WITH WIRE Follow these steps to draw a three-dimensional violin Choose a gauge of wire sturdy enough to hold the shape ofyourfinished drawing. Cut a length. and thick wire a larger one. 4 . 1 Decide how big to draw your violin relative to the gauge of your wire. I used garden wire and cut it carefully with pruners. Once you have completed the body. begin to shape the curvature of the fingerboard. These will hold the sides apart and help to keep the form in shape.

Oxford. they invented new anthropological finds—objects that reflected the distant past and their immediate future. England. some of which are shown here. I had the privilege of drawing their inventions.Artifacts and Fictions IN 1993 I WORKED with a group of schoolchildren who were responding to the astonishing objects in the collection of the Pitt Rivers Museum. . Using found materials.

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WILLIAMS he sought perfection in the infinitesimal measurement of the body and produced four Contemporary photographer volumes of illustrated explanation. giving physical foundation undulating land. Strangely. and in San could easily be transferred into three dimensions. herimpressive presence because we are given such Life drawing no longer dominates the art school curriculum. sculptural description of her form. W e understand every curve and balance of to the theory that the eves are the windows of the soul. myths and fables. Artists are thought to have b e g u n drawing from the nude during the Italian Renaissance. W e are the only creatures on Earth that can make our own image. the junior workshop apprentices posed as part of their duties. focus has turned to the vulnerability of flesh: how it can be damaged. R. from video and X-ray to thermal imaging. Leonardo drew a man within a circle and square. W I L L I A M S technology. He even believed he had located the soul contours of her form like a cartographer's map of in the pituitary fossa beneath the brain and behind the eyes. During this time. and because the female was deemed inferior. She the body is still essential. Artists now explore the interior of the body with new media and Lateral Contour Map of a Full-Term Primipara Produced by Light 1979 A. portraiture. Drawings were usually made from the male nude to avoid offending the church. the Bay Area Models' Guild h o l d s a quarterly life-drawing m a r a t h o n aprinton Kodak transfer paper with green-colored dye added celebrating the great diversity of human proportion. Renaissance artists studying anatomy from dissection clinically trained and specialized as a medical illustrator. artists also tried to define ideal proportions in the body.The Body O UR BODIES MAKE us TANGIBLE. while Durer took his research further— A. clothed or nude. explaining ranges e/ of materials and techniques and showing diversities of thought and purpose in making. Look closely at Renaissance drawings of the female b o d y and you will see that m o s t are actually y o u n g m e n with minor adjustments. but the study of a controlled. Michelangelo attended dissections to made this image by light sectioning: fine beams of light perfect his understanding of surface form. It also looks at the representation of the b o d y b11y4o n d traditional life drawing. diseased. This F finished image was produced as r a n c i s c o . R. in our privileged and comfortable society. and anatomical and erotic art. The human body. These classes are popular around the world. while Leonardo opened the body to see and projected onto a woman's body draw the celebratory discover for himself our physical mechanisms. much Western contemporary art. The body remains at the core of over the initially white lines. 3 x 7 in (300 x 180 . It gives physical and emotive form to religious narratives. Williams were decades ahead of their medical counterparts. This chapter addresses issues that are most commonly faced by beginners attending life-drawing classes. history paintings and other stories. In this period. a n d w e d r a w o u r s e l v e s to a s s e r t o u r e x i s t e n c e . is the most c o m m o n subject in art. and surgically rebuilt.

and human defeat. He trained under Perugino. while Matisse used scissors and glue to cut out and paste a flat collage of brilliant color. In this highly s o p h i s t i c a t e d a b s t r a c t i o n . and studied to learn from the works of Michelangelo and Leonardo besides whom he was soon ranked. Matisse's b l u e n u d e sings with life and c e l e b r a t i o n . Muscular dramatic postures reflect the influence of Michelangelo and the Renaissance celebration of the idealized male body. altar pieces. She u n f o l d s and s t r e t c h e s shapely limbs. anatomy. In a single drawing we see equally o b s e r v e d studies of f o r e s h o r t e n i n g (see pp.116-17). Three Guards 1500-20 91/4 x143/8in (234 x 365 mm) RAPHAEL . By way of contrast. and Vatican frescos. But the meanings of each gesture and the materials and methods by which they Postures and Poses were m a d e contrast greatly.110 T H E BODY THESE DISTINCTIVE WORKS show two strikingly different ways of modeling the body on paper. Principal figures m i r r o r e a c h other. filling the page with her presence. Here three male nudes are compressed into very shallow pictorial space. we see the e s s e n c e of h e r b e a u t y w i t h o u t a single detail. while supporting the weight of their body with the other. Sculptural frieze This is a preparatory drawing for Raphael's painting of the Resurrection of Christ. Raphael's study of fallen m e n leaves no doubt that they are in anguish. T h e y b o t h raise one arm to cup their head in their hand. RAFFAELLO SANZIO (RAPHAEL) Italian High Renaissance painter: Raphael is best known for his images of the Madonna and Child. so that we read this drawing like a sculptural frieze. Raphael drew delicate tones of black chalk on tinted paper.

like an appeasing influence. Matisse became an artist after studying law. printmaker. His calligraphic natural abstractions of form grew brighter. lifelong love of brilliant They celebrate the culmination of spectacular and sometimes drawings.111 HENRY MATISSE French painter: draftsman. a mental soother. and Islamic art.which might be.or like a good armchair in which to rest from physical fatigue. and more energetic Color and form This collage is one of a series of Blue Nudes... his pattern. foundamong many other groups of papercut these works as an elderly man confined to his bed or wheelchair.. devoid of troubling Blue Nude 1 1952 413/4 HENRY MATISSE . fabric." of is an art of balance. as his w o r k matured.sculptor. serenity. Matisse Soothing influence This drawing expresses the achievement of Matisse's personal aim: "What I dream and depressing subject matter.. teacher and principal exponent o f Fauvism—a movement established in 1905 in which bold color is the most essential element. freer...designer writer.

Seurat evolved a distinctive t e c h n i q u e called p o i n t i l l i s m — i m a g e s literally made from myriad points of color. scratched in seconds. Seurat engaged in lifelong studies of line.112 T H E BODY Choreographs T I M E IS A SIGNIFICANT E L E M E N T i n t h e m a k i n g o f a l l d r a w i n g s . it would have mixed with unseen black dust. only tones blending into. and muddied the brilliance of the drawing. T h e space around h i m chatters with symbols. he used b l a c k c o n t e (see p. In his f a m o u s paintings of social e n g a g e m e n t . Typically. we c o m p a r e a skillful design that absorbed m u c h time in its making with the quickness of an idea marked instantly. Light is given by the paper alone. agreeing to coalesce and show us the form of a waiting boy. 162) and an eraser to model teeming points of artificial light amid GEORGES SEURAT French painter classically educated in the Ingres school of thought. Here. Below. other tones. Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 1883-84 91/2 x 121/4 in (241 x 312 m m GEORGES SEURAT . velvet d a r k n e s s . like small birds attendant on the meditation. there are no outlines. and c o m p l e m e n t a r y hues. form. reflected. it is as if the very atoms of air are made visible. Using the paper to create light is important for beginners to learn. w h o sits propped in the contradictory darkness of a hot summer's day. His drawings are similarly u n i q u e . and color His applied theories still influence painters in their manipulation and rendering of local. Opposite. in a perfect e x a m p l e . stands in counterpoise holding a dark globe and his thoughts in m o m e n t a r y balance. or abruptly meeting. If Seurat had added white. Tone and light In this black conte drawing. turned gray. Beuys's magician.

taught workshops with a cult following. and that These aspects of the work convey fractured visibility. He was a shaman who believed in intuition and in the investment of healing force. video art. CHOREOGRAPHS the profound power materials with spiritual or of Free lines This pale pencil drawing is Beuys. and made installations. This figure is drawn intuitively. transience.113 JOSEPH BEUYS One of the most influential German artists of the 20th century. in different positions. and blood. iodine. Perfectly modeled rather conventional for Joseph Focus Beuys's hand moved quickly to draw dotted lines flowing downward on either side of the figure. free from the constraint of immaculate form opposite) impetus is irrelevant to the and meaning of this work (as we see in Seurat's drawing representation. Unbroken lines stream from his simultaneously movement. His The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland UNDATED 113/4 J O S E P H BEUYS x81/4in (297 x 210 mm) . Beuys gave performances. Many of his other symbolic works on paper have been drawn with materials such as honey. and drawings. Our focus joins shoulders.gold.

His exquisite flow of paint beyond "outlines." as seen here. Rodin employed models to move freely or pose together in his studio. Delicate strokes This is one of about 7.114 BODY Passion SUMMONING HUMANITY in a drawing of the nude is a subtle and emotional task. In Rodins work. was perceived as scandalous. But what is stranger to us now is that they were also outraged by his free use of line.000 drawings shown in rotation at the Musee Rodin. its soft. and went on to inspire generations of artists. As here. 125/8x 9 in (320 x 229 mm) AUGUSTE RODIN Two Women 1911 Embracing . his w o r k is characterized by deliberate un-finish and powerfully modeled emotion. THE AUGUSTE RODIN French Romantic sculptor and prolific draftsman employed as an ornamental mason until the age of 42. Free lines Rodin's public audience was understandably shocked by the eroticism of his drawings. In both drawings. Inspired by Michelangelo. sweeping lines— of either purple silk fabric or cool studio air—that imprint and amplify their past and future movements. They whisper and writhe in a brushed and sultry embrace that devours our watching. Our bodies radiate the passion of our thoughts and so become beacons of our frailty and power. the fierceness of the women's kiss is beautifully matched by the tenderness of his line. We are involved not as a shabby voyeur but as a bystander engaged through our recognition of shared joy. Rodin produced portraits and statues of public and literary figures. Opposite. he typically drew them with a few delicate strokes of pencil and brushed watercolor. Paris. Achieving international acclaim in mid-life. flushed skin made ruddy and black with crushed cinders. and one of hundreds of rapid studies of nudes. the women are framed and caressed by long. Anita Taylor has drawn her protective body hug out of the darkly glistening compression of willow charcoal and the dynamism of her shy but momentous femininity. We are asked to gaze u p o n her flesh.

professor and Vice Principal of Wimbledon School of Art. Luminosity Layered marks flicker likefirelight as they sculpt the woman's body. and gaze. leaving her lightest marks at the deepest level of the image and applying darker marks above. A thinner sheet might have crumpled and torn under such vigorous force of making. intimately reflecting upon the emotions and meaning of nudity. the impression of luminosity All and Nothing 1999 67 x447/8in (170 x 1 1 4 cm) ANITA TAYLOR .I 15 ANITA T A Y L O R Painter. This order of light below and dark above gives glowing from within. The sturdy surface of the sheet has allowed her to press hard when needed. exposure. Taylor has drawn. draftsman. Taylor's immense self-portraits explore the relationship between the artist as maker and the artist as model. London. scrutiny. and rework rich depths of light and tone. erased and drawn again. Charcoal Taylor has drawn freely with charcoal and an eraser on thick. textured paper.

and measurements do not have to be carried to the paper and slavishly drawn the same size they appear on your pencil. Imagine Michelangelo's murals in the Sistine Chapel. Smaller. without taking off. 3 Keep your pencil perpendicular Measure and compare at any angle.limbs happily receding. elbow. you will make inconsistent and unrelated comparisons. and to draw what we see. and a few measured comparisons are key. Up close on the scaffold we would witness Michelangelo's subtle application of accelerated perspective. more extreme examples have been made for court entertainment. persistence." . Spend time making comparisons before you draw. patience. MEASURING This is a simple method of making measured comparisons for relating the true size of one part to another This is a tool to assist observation and thinking. plummeting. Lock your shoulder. unfathomable angles. with dramatic illusions of figures painted in normal proportion. 2 Hold your pencil upright. How to make and apply these is explained below and opposite. Rome. It is not complicated. The length of exposed pencil is your measurement. To avoid its effects ensure you always look flat onto the surface of your page. which is imperceptible from below. for example. In the life class it is the mechanism for ensuring that a drawn figure lies correctly in pictorial space . It is not so hard. "Simple measured comparisons reveal surprising truths about proportion.116 T H E BODY Measurement and Foreshortening FORESHORTENING IS AN ASPECT of perspective. Align the top with a point on your subject. rather that what we believe we know from experience. Close one eye. and wrist joints. 1 Hold your arm straight. This is chiefly a correcting device by which figurative painters and sculptors have for centuries countered the effects of our viewing their work from far below or on the curvature of a vault. when beginners prop their board in their lap and look down at too steep an angle. we would arrive to find many of the same figures strangely distorted. We also look at another very interesting branch called accelerated (or anamorphic) perspective. or coming forward. or shrivelling at odd. the skull in Holbein's The Ambassadors (The National Gallery. There is no need to mark them all down on paper. London). Accelerated perspective plays a great role in much art. It can also be a little demon in the life room. to be translated by mirrors or seen from only one point in the room. just making them helps you see. If your arm is not straight. helping us to see more clearly. Move the tip of your thumb down to a second chosen point. But if we could take a scaffold and climb up to the work. elongated as if stretched across the plaster. Return to this posture every time.

C o m p a r e t h e heights o f t h e nose and eye shapes t o t h o s e o f t h e f o r e a r m . Stand its b o t t o m edge o n y o u r lap. See h o w d i f f e r e n t t h e relative heights o f t h e s e shapes are f r o m w h a t w e m i g h t e x p e c t in real life. pleasingly f o r e s h o r t e n e d . adjusting a n o n y m o u s shapes. looking d o w n t h e p a p e r at t h e a n g l e at w h i c h I d r e w . L o o k at y o u r m o d e l as if he o r she is a flat series o f shapes o n e o n t o p o f a n o t h e r Measure t h e height and w i d t h o f each shape and c o m p a r e it t o its neighbor. W o r k a r o u n d t h e figure. a n d thighs. A t a c e r t a i n angle. belly. T h i s is t h e s a m e d r a w i n g p h o t o g r a p h e d f r o m above. . To m a k e f o r m s l o o k c o r r e c t . y o u must let go o f w h a t y o u k n o w f r o m e x p e r i e n c e a b o u t t h e relative sizes o f b o d y parts and trust y o u r eyes. W e appear t o be looking d o w n o n a w o m a n s t a n d i n g b e n e a t h us. Keep t h e b o a r d steady and draw. t a p e s o m e p a p e r t o a board. y o u r hand travels f a r t h e r than y o u expect.117 ACCELERATED PERSPECTIVE To discover h o w this w o r k s . S o o n t h e b o d y will lie d o w n in space. h e r p r o p o r t i o n s will appear correct. MEASUREMENT AND FORESHORTENING Tilt t h e t o p edge o f this b o o k t o w a r d you and look d o w n o n this figure f r o m a b o v e . Lean t h e t o p e d g e t o w a r d y o u and find a p o s i t i o n w h e r e y o u can c o m f o r t a b l y l o o k d o w n t h e p a p e r at an angle o f a b o u t 4 0 degrees. which feels strange. P r o p o r t i o n s will only l o o k c o r r e c t f r o m t h e angle at w h i c h y o u make t h e drawing. FORESHORTENING To f o r e s h o r t e n a figure.

Leave first thoughts in place. and energy. Layered lines give d e p t h . and height. propelling you to make immediate assessments and trust them. and slightly enlarge her legs and feet. balance. make the upper body smaller give your model a high waist. and stance before honing her balance and expression. Be bold and dive into your drawing with c o n f i d e n c e . Balance When a model stands upright on both feet. and work over t h e m with further o b s e r v a t i o n s .118 BODY Quick Poses DRAWING QUICK POSES l o c k s y o u r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n t o what is most essential. Avoid drawing up one side and down the other. Height This pose leans away into space above our eye level. To see this. T h i s q u i c k e x p l o r a t o r y line does not perfectly describe shape but expresses a decision about overall flow of form. To draw this effect. her center of balance is normally found in a vertical line beneath her head. I used a sharp H B pencil and began each drawing by marking her outline. feeling. Start each new drawing by lightly marking the model's height with a loose line in ten seconds. working from her center to her feet and to her head. Outline To outline a figure. THE SEQUENCE OF POSES H e r e the model was asked to move every t w o minutes. height. because it results in two unrelated sides drifting apart. . imagine holding up a plumb line. work back and forth across the body.

Tilt Movement Here. and this should be avoided Twist QUICK POSES A model standing on one leg usually drops the opposite hip. This drawing shows how different observations be overlaid to bring a drawing alive.119 The twist of a model is most easily and expressively captured if it is exaggerated. The tilt of the pelvis is then counter balanced by the model's shoulders tilting the other way (as seen here). Most of us have a tendency to over-straighten the drawn figure. . the activity of circular lines and the repetition of limbs suggest movement.

starting with the largest. and ignore all details. drawn in relation to each other. This exercise is useful when struggling with proportion. and a gooseneck lamp casts shadows that clarify planes and depths GESTURES OF THE HAND Curled Fingers 1 Open Palm Start honing the shapes of the dominant planes. or those of a friend. swiftly marking its essential gesture. it is important to leave aside all details of the fingers and toes. Keep lines open to change and take measurements if they help. especially the lengthwise divisions between them. Practice by drawing your own hands and feet. and they need not be daunting to draw. A mirror increases your range of views. general to specific. W h e n starting. Group the fingers together as one mass.120 BODY Hands and Feet THERE ARE MANY different ways of approaching h a n d s and THE of form. It also helps the beginner to progress from drawing outlines to drawing confidently across the surface of the whole form. Do not separate them yet. express structure and gesture far more successfully and easily than ten worried outlines wandering up and down between the fingers and toes. Then subdivide each shape so that you w o r k from large to small. Don't worry about achieving perfect solutions. These planes. but regard these practice studies as ongoing processes of thought and observatio Add details such as nails last if you wish. Begin by drawing lines to encompass the whole hand. 3 . Focus instead on how planes change direction across the knuckles from one side of the hand or foot to the other. 2 Build your drawing gradually from light to dark. Draw large shapes and their orientation. feet.

Nowimagineyou are carving the foot insidethepaper. t o remove t o o many early lines. It can be a mistake.as though out o f wood. . however. these are what give a drawing its tangible structure. and rapid. depth. Leave aside all detail.121 HANDS AND FEET MOVEMENTS OF THE FOOT Flat Stance Raised Heel Instep 1 Let your first marks be light. flattened planes. as if with a chisel. and don't worry about accuracy t o begin with. Hew it roughly in broad. loose. Look for key angles without becoming distracted by detail. 2 3 Use an eraser t o refine decisions o r t o suggest areas o f light. Try t o express the whole foot and t o encapsulate its entire shape and direction in a few marks. and spontaneity.

204-05. I also used white ink with a steel dip pen.Charcoal Hands T H E S E DRAWINGS ARE MADE in compressed charcoal. Compare its nature in close-up to that of willow charcoal used on pp." . The white lines demonstrate what is often called "bracelet shading. Opposite.

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I make these lines in the first five to ten seconds of a drawing to locate the presence. length.HERE TRACES OF RAPID initial lines are still seen within and outside each body. 118-19). and posture of the model. Phrasing Contours . before honing his or her shape (see pp.

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It is now viewed with some skepticism and often seen as academic. and narrative pulse become vivid when you realize them in the middle of your study.The Visual Detective DRAWING FROM MASTERWORKS was once a staple component of an artist's education. characters. . Forms. I draw in museums in support of written research and as an artist seeking answers to questions about the practicalities of image making. perspectives. feeling them through the attentive movements of your own hand. Drawing work by another artist enables you to discover and understand the inventive hand in their composition.

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These almost life-size figures were composed from my imagination and achieved with the help af studies discussed on pp. .La Specola At17V i a Romana. Walls are lined with hundreds of faintly animated body parts. there is a unique museum of 18th-century anatomical waxes. Florence. 126-27. Life-size women wearing wigs recline on beds of embroidered silk in cabinets of mahogany and Venetian glass This is a detail of a compressed charcoal drawing measuring 14 x 10 ft (4. each modeled from dissection.3 x 3 m) made in response to La Specola.

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character. The returning image was of crucial consideration in any proposal. Movie director Alfred similarly signed his films by playing a fleeting role: he walks through an extra. It also reminds us o f b o t h t h e intimacy and a scene as scrutiny o f an honest portrait. and p r i n t m a k e r . Beginners often draw themselves as a way of establishing their practice. Self-portraiture gives every artist a constant. . Once you understand Self-Portrait in a Cocked Hat c. the meaning of their face. draftsman. or a glimpse of him is caught in a photograph used as a prop. The truth is that we all like looking at faces and observing the billions of variations that make us individuals. Goya's w o r k s include many royal and society p o r t r a i t s . and a handprint (see p. Past rulers sent painters across continents to bring back a likeness in advance of a prospective royal marriage. who. having been documented and preserved. and their posture can be changed with just one line. Halls and palaces are filled with pictures of the mighty and significant. live.139). single or of groups. and secular narratives. is here to both meet and look through us. a single line can deliver an entire expression. and social and political commentaries. and it is very rewarding. W h e n drawing a person. Our homes are filled with images of our loved ones and of those in our families who have gone before. we use the delicate medium of silver point to look at foundation structures of the head. and expression of the individual. or past us. bells. abstract or figurative. We can mold and animate qualities of expression out of objects and fragments of disassociated things—for example. gathered all that he knew FRANCISCO DE GOYA V i s i o n a r y Spanish painter. We are also reassured by keeping records of ourselves. and lucrative genre for artists. and shoulders. his changes in pressure and Hitchcock length o f line. Equally. you can capture the subtlety. made as he passed through the ages of man. neck. 1790-92 4 x 3 in ( 1 0 2 x 7 6 m m ) F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A and memorize the basic structure that we all share. To create a face is to see and interpret the essence of an identity. usually strangers from past times. and satirical or metaphorical. and in a few scrolling rafts of pen lines and stubbled dots.Portraiture IN P O R T R A I T U R E W E MEET PEOPLE. This enlargement o f his miniature p o r t r a i treveals t h e s p e e d and agility o f his p e n and about himself. Man Ray's self-portrait of scored lines. For centuries. buttons. Goya. throat. became more poignant as he progressed. compliant subject to scrutinize. In this chapter. or whose eyes can seem to follow us around the room Portraiture is a constant. historical. their stance. painters have dropped discreet records of themselves into commissioned narratives so that they can remain a face in the crowd. look directly at us. in a miniature self-portrait magnified opposite. Portraits can be highly or loosely detailed. religious. Rembrandt's famous multitude of self-portraits.

30). The aesthetic sense of a line being just right can make a drawing sing. they serve as a great lesson that it is not always necessary to add tone to your drawing. The Tightness of a line is felt in its speed. adding smudges of tone for weight and solidity. Without faltering. There is a common misunderstanding that a drawing with only a few lines is both less finished and easier to make than a drawing with more. whisking a timeless girl onto the page. We can actually count that he struck the paper 40 times. It takes a truly accomplished a few strokes. Picasso strikes and scrolls his pencil. length. caught in her last moments of youth. Her face is drawn tenderly and with a luminous glow. hand to capture something well in only Frangoise au Bandeau 1946 660 x 505 mm (26 x197/8in) PABLO PICASSO . He makes his flair and skill look easy. Holbein maps the still landscape of Dorothea's body in questioning marks. one eye already cast askew into the autumn of her life. Picasso has left to posterity many hundreds of magnificent line drawings.132 PORTRAITURE Poise THE BALANCE BETWEEN a mark and a blank space is often a tantalizing form of perfection. we can enjoy and learn from them. The truth is often the opposite. Through exhibitions and copies in books. For the beginner. While with longer consideration. breadth. We can read so much about them by studying their gaze. It is the portrait of a countrywoman. and pressure as it conducts our eye through the image. PABLO PICASSO Spanish Cubist painter (see also p. Here the grace and beauty of two young women are held forever. stealthily using his chalk to find contours and mass. teetering on the brink of older age. How could the addition of shadows have enhanced this image? Few strokes The simplicity of Picasso's line is breathtaking.

Blended colors In this portrait drawn with colored chalks on slightly textured paper. made a popular series o f w o o d c u t prints titled The Dance of Death. and designer f r o m Basel. Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 1516 51/8 x121/4in (385 x 310 m m ) HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER . and produced numerous society portraits such as this one here. he designed c o u r t costumes. Cropping This regal composition fits its paper perfectly. and its downward slope crowns the diagonal of the composition. Holbein was employed toward the end of his life by King Henry VIII of England. He outlined her nose but not her upper lip. which. gently flushed. Holbein has cropped and pinned his subject within the four outermost lines of the image—the edges of the page.133 HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER German p o r t r a i t painter draftsman. Holbein unified the woman with her background by gently blending colors from her clothes and face into the atmosphere around her. In addition t o his numerous exquisite portraits in oil. presses against the binding across her face. The peak of her cap clips the uppermost edge. Her folded forearms support and frame her weight above.

dark tones of graphite blended into the paper. Psychological drama is contained behind a grid.134 PORTRAITURE Anatomies These highly finished drawings express the emotional power and physicality of the head and neck. Nerves. and unpleasant to see. its highly clarified detail claiming to be d r a w n from observation. London. It floats in space. perhaps applied using a tortillon. the face is one of the hardest parts to dissect. continues to exhibit regularly. Delicate muscles are integrated with the skin and fat that is to be r e m o v e d . or defined by. confusing. The real dissection w o u l d have been far more c o m p l e x . dark lines made with a pencil appear against smooth. using a fine and relatively 1982 13 x 181/8 in (328 x 460 mm) VICTOR NEWSOME brush. This is one of a number of similar disembodied female heads seen behind. VICTOR NEWSOME British sculptor painter and draftsman. the contours of a grid. N e w s o m e ' s eerily shadowed form is smooth and bears a linear grain evocative of w o o d . Anatomically. Highlights of white gouache were dry Profile Head late in the making. taught at numerous British art schools from 1962-77. but they are irrelevant here. blood vessels. distorted. In fact. and has works in major collections including the Tate Gallery. Newsome was awarded the Prix de Rome in 1960. while white painted flecks and wisps suggest electrical illumination. Durelli has m a d e a few m i n o r mistakes. The style of Durelli's d r a w i n g opposite sings with the confidence of truth and precision. . This is a m a r v e l o u s interpretation of the truth. solid above and almost hollow below. and glands also complicate form. Contrasts Sharp.

135 ANATOMIES ANTONIO DURELLI Linear perfection This is a red chalk drawing of extraordinary accomplishment. Durelli's experience as an engraver is reflected in his stylized drawing o f muscle fibers. which. w h e n contracted. pull their points o f attachment t o w a r d each other . Red Chalk the Muscles 1837 173/8 x 145/8 in ( 4 4 0 x 3 7 2 m m ) ANTONIO DURELLI and Pencil Drawing and of Neck of the Head Little is k n o w n o f this M i l a n e s e p a i n t e r a n d engraver w h o c a m e from a family o f artists. Pencil numbers refer to the list of muscles written beneath. Stylized parallel lines are reminiscent of engravings. and it is likely that this drawing was intended for reproduction as a print. It is hard to think of a more difficult medium with which to achieve such linear perfection.

Without paint and with very little tone. There is a film of Giacometti drawing. Speed Giacometti probably began with an oval shape placed in relation to the proportion of the page. They confuse our perception of scale by being intimately fragile and at the same time far removed. cutting and carving the paper with matted and spiraling restless energy. he drew over the whole image at once. ALBERTO GIACOMETTI Swiss sculptor. necks. We are brought intimately close to this man gazing up to heaven. The camera watches him at work. Energy This is a portrait of a woman drawn with black crayon on a plain page of a book Lines search for the essence of form. 1948 77/8 x 6 in (200 x 150 mm) ALBERTO GIACOMETTI . Flesh is built and personality carved simultaneously. Both works demonstrate how simple lines can be made complex by being intense. Opposite.136 PORTRAITURE THESE ARE DRAWINGS of shoulders. close enough to touch his hair and feel his breath. He is best known for his bronze sculptures of human form. which are characteristically elongated. Portrait de Marie-Laure de Noailles c. Giacometti settled in Paris. each locked into a visionary gaze. each portrait is inscribed onto the page. while his hand stabs and thrusts Revelations like a conductors baton. and poet After studying in Geneva and Italy. Agitated marks make patches of tone that cut away the space around the character. with speed and urgency. and with staccato flinches his hyperactive eye moves from paper to model. painter draftsman. as if seen from a distance. Then. They show us clearly the bones of drawing. and heads. Similar movements sculpted the head below into its page. Bellini gently conjures the features of his saint with soft marks that tease his presence out of shadows into the light.

25 6 . These are pinholes. Transfer This delicate humorous chalk a drawing is a cartoon—not image but a type of template used to plan the composition of a larger work Look closely and you will see rows of tiny dots along every significant line in the picture. H e t a u g h t G i o r g i o n e Barbarelli and Titian. transferring which were made in the process of the saint to his final place in the composition of a painting (see Glossary pp. a n d c o n t e m p l a t i v e . Character This is one of many cartoons produced by Bellini the and his family. lyrical. Mantegna. Sometimes different narrative same character was reused in compositions. Head and Shoulders of a Man 73/8 x 21/4 in ( 1 8 6 x 5 8 UNDATED GIOVANNI BELLINI .5 9 ) .G I O V A N N I BELLINI A prominent member of a large family o f V e n e t i a n painters. a n d his w o r k is d i s t i n c t i v e l y calm. a n d b r o t h e r in-law. H e p r e f e r r e d religious t o classical t h e m e s . Bellini s t u d i e d u n d e r his f a t h e r J a c o p o .

postcards. and confrontations with. It is an opportunity to look deep without the infringement of courtesies owed to a commissioning sitter. drawn. The figure's position is unequivocal and defiant while around him is in a state Without the essential of cultural and figure we would elegant belookingat a sophisticated painting of signs. their most immediate and best-known subject: themselves. Signs and symbols with symbols This painting shudders that ore written. Self Portrait 1982 9 4 x 7 6 in (239 x 193 cm) JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT . It is an image of confrontation—the ever-controversial young artist roars at us from his abstract city-scape. Man Ray's playful silk-screen assembly of color blocks. and everything flux.138 PORTRAITURE THE MIRROR OF SELF-PORTRAITURE offers artists infinite reflections of. made with great energy. spear-brandishing warrior.221). and sheet metal before being snapped up by the New York contemporary art scene. Islands of graphic marks. marks. Later Basquiat sold drawings on T-shirts. similar to work by Cy Twombly (see p. In 1986 he traveled to Africa and showed his work in Abidjan on the Ivory Coast He also exhibited in Germany and France. and buttons rings with surrealist wit and agile improvisation. The incandescent New York painter Jean Michel Basquiat pictured himself here in naked silhouette. It has proved to be a subject of piercing scrutiny. political outcry. The artist has finished his portrait with the signature of his hand smacked in the middle like a kiss: a declaration of existence as old as man's first drawing. bells. Al Diaz. and attitudes. humor. float and shimmer in the shallow pictorial space. scrolls. signing their work SAMO. scratched lines. a tribal. scratched into its surface. JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT Short-lived American painter and graffiti artist who began his blazing nine-year career drawing on lower Manhattan subway trains with a friend. skull- Self-Portraits headed. and indulgence.

where he collaborated with the artist Laslo MoholyNagy. caked in thick printing ink or paint.139 MAN RAY American surrealist photographer. During the 1920's and 30s. printmaker and cofounder of the New York Dada movement. Man Ray probably used his own hand. The handprint appears to be made directly. last of all. They suggest speed and make the picture look immediate and spontaneous. Man Ray lived and worked in Paris. while a squeegee was used to drag thick lilac-brown ink across the silk pushing it though exposed areas onto the paper below. The first part of the stenciled image was already marked on the silk The screen and paper were then held tightly together. Autoportrait 1916 195/8 MAN RAY . Black ink was printed next and then white. They experimented with camera-free photography working directly onto photographic paper Silk and ink This is a silkscreen print made through the following process: the paper was laid on a flat surface and a frame stretched with fine silk was placed on top. painter. Frame White lines are seemingly (though not actually) scratched through ink to frame this face.

Take a sheet o f any t y p e o f p a p e r (for e x a m p l e . To begin. choose a silver object.54-55). T h e p a p e r will l o o k b u c k l e d . and make o r buy a holder. o n e t o fit each side o f t h e b o a r d — t h e s e will make t h e glued f r a m e t h a t holds y o u r p a p e r in place. M a k e s u r e i t is c o m p l e t e l y clean t o avoid u n w a n t e d streaks. Be swift and firm. s e e p . s o m e m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n o t h e r s . Straighten the w o r s t buckles. which quickly oxidizes into a gray line. W e t o n e length o f g u m . 156). I combined silver point with painted white gouache on a pink ground. This is called a three-tone drawing. Drawn across a prepared surface. 5. Z I N C W H I T E G O U A C H E : Dilute with w a t e r A d d c o l o r i f r e q u i r e d (as opposite) 4 . S O F T F U L L B R U S H : W h e n laying a w a s h . b u t d o n ' t w o r r y . 3 . b e f o r e priming stretched paper. and is therefore useful w h e n using w a t e r c o l o r as well as silver point. and t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h strips a b o v e and b e l o w . Note h o w domestic paintwork marks with a coin. 2 .140 PORTRAITURE Silver P o i n t SILVER OR METAL POINT STRETCHING PAPER A sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has been made w e t with the strokes o f a paintbrush will buckle d u e t o its uneven expansion. was familiar to or eggshells with animal glue. p a r c h m e n t .s t r i p a n d use i t t o fix o n e side o f t h e p a p e r t o t h e b o a r d . and gold have also been used. platinum. The most c o m m o n metal has always been silver—hence the term "silver point. you will need t o stretch paper and lay a wash (see right and opposite). S i l v e r is b e s t . c h o o s e a s o f t full b r u s h t h a t c a n c a r r y p l e n t y o f l i q u i d . Opposite. Historically. Stretched paper remains taut as a d r u m . Numerous early European artists also enjoyed its fine qualities (see p. I m a k e m y o w n f r o m o l d dip pens. 1 4 4 . or wood. For i m p o r t a n t a d v i c e o n p r e p a r a t i o n a n d use. or ring. E m p t y mechanical pencils designed f o r t h i c k leads ( s e e p. purchase silver wire. illuminators of medieval m a n u s c r i p t s . 1. Metal point is simply a strip of metal bound in a holder. I t is a v a i l a b l e f r o m all a r t s h o p s . copper. Find a n i t e m t h a t y o u can h o l d a n d draw with comfortably. an exciting indication of how large-scale drawings could be made on a wall. bone. MATERIALS 1 Find a clean sponge and b o w l o r d e e p t r a y a n d fill it w i t h w a t e r W e t t h e p a p e r evenly in t h e t r a y o r o n t h e b o a r d . M E T A L OBJECTS: All metal objects m a r k a p r e p a r e d surface. 2. Lightly s p o n g e o f f t h e excess. and alloys work on matt emulsion.54) can also b e used. W e t a n d fix a s e c o n d strip t o t h e o p p o s i t e side." Lead. Lay a clean d r a w i n g b o a r d o n a flat surface. w h i t e d r a w i n g paper) and cut it t o fit y o u r d r a w i n g b o a r d w i t h a generous b o r d e r a r o u n d its edges. artists mixed white lead. Gesso o r m a t t e m u l s i o n c a n a l s o b e u s e d . laid on paper. key. SILVER W I R E : Purchase different gauge lengths f r o m a traditional a r t supplier o r jeweler. SILVER P O I N T W I R E H O L D E R : T h e s e c a n b e p u r c h a s e d a n d t e n d t o b e heavy. Pages 142 to 147 are illustrated in silver point and techniques are explained on pp.Tear o f f f o u r lengths o f b r o w n p a p e r g u m tape. 144-45. who used it to outline initials and border characters before painting. it leaves a deposit. This browns with age unless sealed by fixative (see pp. Metal point does not work on ordinary paper. the surface must be primed with a ground such as gouache. If w o r k i n g o n an emulsion-painted wall.

Make enough to cover your paper. as the paper will be ruined by a raised ridge. Keep testing on spare paper. slowly add powder pigment or gouache from a tube.141 SILVER POINT 3 Leave the paper to dry flat. Prop up your board of dry. so put newspaper under the lower edge. stretched paper at a 45-degree angle. is necessary to lay a wash o Three-tone When coloring ground. LAYING A WASH It your stretched paper so as to prime it for silver point. Beware of the tape's coming loose at any point while drying. T h r e e .t o n e silver point drawing of a skull . Dry thoroughly before laying a wash. full brush into the gouache and start in the top left corner. and let tests dry before deciding to change the mixture. Reload the brush and add a second line overlapping it beneath. Dip a soft. Make an even line across to the right. The next step will make a small mess. v e r y little at a time. any extra will keep. Leave the wash to dry thoroughly before you begin to draw. Mix a very wet but not weak solution of gouache in a jar with a lid (add pigment at this stage for a three-tone drawing). leaving a smooth surface. It will slowly straighten and become taut. Keep adding smooth. I used a powder pigment called Caput Mortuum. overlapping lines until you reach the bottom. Runs blend into each other evenly. Here.

142

PORTRAITURE

Head and Neck
THE HEAD AND NECK are best conceived as one unit arranged in four parts: cranium, face, neck, and throat. Each is of equal importance. The cranium is essentially egg-shaped and pivots on the first vertebra. The face is suspended beneath, like a softly curved triangle. The n e c k — a powerful, shapely column of layered muscles rigged to vertebrae—adjusts and holds the angle and expression of the head. The throat is delicate, hard, and lumpy to the touch, formed of cartilaginous rings, glands, thin muscles, and looser skin. Framing the throat, two columnar neck muscles (sternomastoids) project the head forward and also turn it to the opposite side.

This is a simple shorthand diagram representing the cranium, face, neck, and throat. It can be learned and visualized in different positions very easily, giving the novice a firm footing on which to stand and develop their drawings of the head and neck.

Shorthand diagram

Cranium Begin with an egg shape. Tilt it on the paper to change the position of the head.

Face Draw a rounded triangular shape below the forward point of the egg to represent the face.

Neck This shape represents the trapezius; the largest surface muscle of the neck and shoulders.

Throat A triangular shape represents the throat. (The nose makes the diagram clearer)

Applied shorthand

After copying the diagram above, animate it. Practice drawing the cranium at different angles, add the face beneath, then the neck, shoulders, and throat. Shape your diagrams so they are more lifelike, but avoid adding detailed features too soon.

143 These three drawings demonstrate (from left to right) the following: why the cranium may be considered egg-shaped; now the face can be seen as a curved triangle suspended beneath and where the division lies between the two; and the form of sternomastoid muscles that frame thethroatsodistinctlywhen the head is turned and inclined forward.

The skull and the frame of the throat

HEAD AND NECK

Bones of the cranium are locked together by jagged joints. Sinuses in the frontal (forehead) bone between and beneath the eyebrows are larger in men, making their brows pronounced and often ridged compared to those of women.

Bones of the face house our sight, smell, taste, The skull pivots on the first vertebra or "atlas," and speech. Cartilage extending from nasal bones after the Greek god condemned to carry the shapesthenose.Pads of fat resting on the base of Earth. The jaw hinges in front of the ears. Behind, eacheyesocket support the eyeballs in position. If bony ridges give anchor to the sternomastoid thefatisreducedby old age, eyes look sunken. muscles rising from the breast- and collarbones.

Three useful generalizations

General rules about the relative positions of body parts can hinder artists as much as help them, since they are often based on classical ideals rather than thediversityoflife.However,some generalizations can help as a rough guide to start with, so long as good observation takes over as soon as possible.

In general, when the face is relaxed (not smiling or frowning), the corners of the mouth are found directly beneath the pupils of the eyes. Vertical lines can be drawn down from the pupils to meet the corners of the mouth.

The height of a young adult's ear is often the same as their nose and found on the same level. There is no general rule for growing children, and remember that ears grow again in old age, which is most obvious in men.

The height of the face is about the length of the handspan and the eye is normally halfway down the total height of the head. A common error is to draw the eyes too high up on the face.

144

PORTRAITURE

Essential Observations
T H E DELICACY OF SILVER POINT

(see pp. 140-41) is perfect for

such as a beach pebble. Here, I stretched drawing paper and laid a wash of white gouache (see pp.140-41). As you can see, the line and tone of silver point varies with pressure, but only slightly. Too much pressure cuts the ground. Silver point erases, but so does ground. Erased ground can be repaired gently with extra gouache. You can also use gouache to paint over mistakes and make corrections.

small, detailed drawings. The drawings below and opposite show useful observations of the head and neck, which are explained in the captions below. Each drawing was made with a silver wire held in a large-gauge mechanical pencil. Newly clipped wires are sharp and cut rather than draw. Before use, they need to be rubbed and smoothed on a stone

Here I imagined placing my silver point wire against the skin of each head and neck and, working in parallel bands from the crown downward, I traced the undulation of surfaces. Linear bands imagined around the head and neck can help you t o clearly see the tilt of the head and relative levels of the features. Ask a friend t o model for you and try this exercise life-size using a pencil and eraser

Contours

Tilted forward

Tilted backward

Three-quarter view

Seeing that the face is never flat

Drawings below left and center are summaries of the generalizations given on p.143. Far right is an image to remind us that the face is never flat. It slopes back to varying degrees among individuals, from the tip of the nose t o the ears. For example, note that the innermost corners of the eyes are farther forward in space than the outermost corners.

General measurements, side

General measurements, front

View from above

145

Male and female head and neck
Men's necks a r e g e n e r a l l y s h o r t e r a n d t h i c k e r t h a n w o m e n ' s b e c a u s e t h e angles a n d levels o f c e r t a i n b o n e s a r e d i f f e r e n t b e t w e e n t h e sexes ( i n d i c a t e d h e r e b y d o t t e d lines) a n d m e n are n o r m a l l y m o r e muscular. T h e male t h y r o i d cartilage ( A d a m ' s apple) is larger a n d m o r e visible than t h e f e m a l e . L a r g e r f e m a l e t h y r o i d glands also s o f t e n t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e t h r o a t .

ESSENTIAL OBSERVATIONS
Female skull

Male

skeleton

Male

skull

Trapezius muscle
The largest m u s c l e o f t h e s h o u l d e r s a n d n e c k is called the trapezius. A r r a n g e d on e i t h e r side o f t h e spine, it shapes t h e u p p e r back and neck above the s h o u l d e r blades. C o n t r a c t i n g in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h d e e p e r and surrounding muscles, it raises and l o w e r s t h e shoulders a n d d r a w s t h e h e a d backtoeitherside.

The whole

muscle

Upper

half with

sternomastoids

Above

with head

straight

Above

with head

forward

Side with

sternomastoid

Front with

sternomastoid

146

PORTRAITURE

Drawing Portraits
USING A SHARP 3 B PENCIL, I drew this head quickly from imagination, evolving its character and expression from the scheme of four parts: cranium, face, neck, a n d throat (see p. 142). Here, five steps show you how to practice doing the same. This approach can be used to draw from imagination or from life. Keep your wrist loose and hold your pencil away from its point (see pp.22-23). Build the layers of your drawing from pale to dark, a n d from general balance a n d form to specific detail. Remember that successful drawings are built on foundations of "seeing the whole," then dividing the whole into smaller parts, with details brought in last of all. Phrased tonal marks modeling this girls skin and hair follow the technique demonstrated by Goya in his self-portrait on p. 130. Turn to Goya's drawing and study how, in a circle beginning across his hat, moving down his hair, and around his coat, he flows lines over surfaces to describe their contour. As you build from steps 1 to 5, bring phrased groups of lines across the surfaces of your form, using their directions to capture the expression of the head and neck. If unsure, copy my steps until you gain the confidence to make your own decisions.

This drawing is the final stage of the four steps opposite. Here, I have enlarged the eye, and moved it back into the head by trimming the length of the upper lid and adding a more pronounced lower lid. It is important to set eyes far enough back from the relatively prominent nose; too close to it and the face flattens. Hair swept back and extended behind the cranium balances the regal pose. Lines shaping the hair echo those marking the cranium in step 1. Here, the lower part of step 1 comes through as wisps of hair across her face and ear

BALANCED POSE

Portrait of a Young Girl

I modeled the outline of the character I imagined light shining from above and in front and adjusted the pressure of lines to reflect this. so it is important to the life of the image that while controlled. 2 Rapidly add shorthand shapes to represent the face. 3 Place the eye beneath the cranium. over the cranium.Theangle at which you draw this shape of the paper will determine the angle of the finished head. they are also still sweeping and confident. I used light to describe the upper lid first with a shadow beneath for the lower lid and open eye. and throat.147 Building up the portrait DRAWING PORTRAITS 1 Gently spin pale lines in a softly drawn shape representing the cranium. Keep your first lines light. too soon. down the face to the throat. 4 . The nose and ear begin to shape the head. Moving from the back of the neck. The eye announces the nature and expression of the emerging person. avoid drawing too dark. neck. First lines will remain visible in the final drawing. Here.

.

. empathize. be aware of the subtle differences in skin surface. a n d t h o s e w h o a r e Generations asleep (see overleaf).T o DRAW PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGES. and gravity. the texture of hair. muscular tension. Above all.

.

.

Van Dyke's noble cast of characters was modeled more finely.Castings DRAWING IN THE PRADO MUSEUM. Madrid. seeking the dominant contours of each individual expression. I used the nib upside down to gain needle-sharp precision. Fast lines carve out the features of Goya's soup-slurping hag. with a steel dip pen and acrylic ink. .

.

.

known as Leon Bakst. W e dress ourselves and costume designer trained in in St. and i n d e e d image b e c a m e the property also of the industrial classes. w h i c h in turn feed c o n s u m e r Lev. toParis. so that c h o i c e . a n d c o u r t i e r tailors f o l l o w e d suit.As artistic director of the It is s h o c k i n g to t h i n k h o w m a n y m i l l i o n s of d r a w i n g s m u s t be m a d e a n d d i s c a r d e d Ballet Russe. and everything w e h a v e c h o s e n for o u r w a r d r o b e s — r e f l e c t o r s of o u r taste. personality. In psychology. variety. Samoylovich Rosenberg. c o s t u m e o f f e r s a r i c h v o c a b u l a r y of t e x t u r e s a n d c o l o r . gesture. Bakst's designs and costumes immediately To the fine artist. w a r m t h . Previously. Practical classes Bacchante 1911 l o o k at r a n g e s of c o l o r e d m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d i n g p a s t e l s a n d felt-tip p e n s . fulfilling lavish and spectacular briefs. charcoal. st 111/4 x 81/2 in (285 x 220 mm) u d i e d L E O NB A K S T and explore the characterization of fabric t h r o u g h m o v e m e n t . outrageous. S t r u c t u r e is t h o u g h the i n v e n t i o n of shoes. intriguing. Artists do this not so m u c h b y the style of a figure's garment. a n d s u b t l e t o n e s . and gouache. a n d p r o f e s s i o n — b e g a n life as a d r a w i n g . T h e e n t o u r a g e of the theatrical stage o f t e n l e a d s the c a t w a l k . and e x u b e r a n c e . c u l t u r e .Costume W E MAKE OURSELVES EXOTIC. it is the public sign by w h i c h w e are j u d g e d . or b u l g e s . . and s y m b o l s that lets m e n and w o m e n in all countries and areas have w o r k i n g access to the latest fashions. c r u m p l e s . and atmosphere. Like it or not. articulate a d a n g e r o u s satirical j o k e . T h e p a p e r p a t t e r n is p e r h a p s the m o s t w i d e l y k n o w n of c o s t u m e d r a w i n g s : a formalized plan of lines. he and cofounder Serge Diaghilev took Paris by eac storm in 1910 with their production h year in the industrial f r e n z y of creating o u r image and aspirations. of Scheherazade. b u t influenced Parisian fashion and interiordecor. for e x a m p l e — d e s i g n e d the w a r d r o b e s of p o p e s a n d k i n g s . and intent. theb u t b y the w a y it s p e a k s w i t h its flying. T h e rural masses w o r e h o m e s p u n simplicity. dancer leaps through swaths of golden cloth. caricatured p l u m e s . P o p u l a r f a s h i o n d e s i g n e x p l o d e d w i t h the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n . Petersburg and later exiled designers' ideas and are surprised and delighted b y their continual f l o w of inspiration. cool. arichand unusual combination of pencil. Designers all over the w o r l d c o n t i n u a l l y p e n and b r u s h lines to lash us w i t h color. shapes. and be so expressive of temperament that it overtakes the need for an o c c u p y i n g h u m a n form. and even invisible by the w a y w e dress. while court p a i n t e r s — M i c h e l a n g e l o and Holbein.This voluptuous above all a physical p u p p e t w i t h w h i c h to animate character and narrate personality. D e s i g n e r s create m a s t e r p i e c e s of haute couture LEON BAKST for H o l l y w o o d stars. Cities c h a n g e d all. In this c h a p t e r w e see h o w c l o t h i n g c a n s e e m to p o s s e s s the w e i g h t and m o n u m e n t a l i t y of stone. e m u l a t e textures. g l o s s y folds. woman was drawn by Bakst one year later for the ballet Narcisse. a n d w e will c o l l e c t patterns. o n l y the w e a l t h y c o u l d afford to h a v e c o s t u m e s specially m a d e . or calm u s w i t h chic. was a Belarussian A r t Deco theater fantasies and desires to immediately possess a version of the same.

the vaulted stone roof echoes and crowns the moment. Keisai Eisen's intense. it is only possible to create very thin. Church and deities are drawn as JAN VAN EYCK Flemish oil p a i n t e r f r o m L i m b o u r g . with their jagged edges. He has layered these slowly and carefully so as not to cut through the ground and produce a white mark just where he intended a dark one. With a stylus such as Van Eyck used here. Flaxmans sleeper—perhaps a pilgrim or a soldier resting between campaigns—has wedged himself into the cleft of some great building to grab a moment of peace. bands around the columns. Below this. best k n o w n f o r his G h e n t altarpiece ( 1 4 3 2 ) a n d m a r r i a g e p o r t r a i t o f Giovanni A r n o l f i n i and his w i f e (1434). Opposite. Their uninterrupted emphasis is entirely vertical. the Madonna and her architecture are both dressed in the same manner. dragons. Marble gown We will never know if Van Eyck considered this drawing unfinished or intended the kneeling abbot to remain transient and ghostly. and implied striation in the stone of the architecture. delicate lines. Sculpted one. However. swirling printed fabrics. resonate with their wearers startled expression. Above them. her marble garment holds u p the infant Christ in a fountain of compressed line. folds and patterns of material speak more resolutely of their wearers than any small glimpses of body we can see. In Van Eyck's drawing below. the carefully composed outline of his cloak shows us how the artist would have also begun his immaculate rendering of the Virgin's clothes.156 COSTUME Cloth and Drapery EACH OF THESE FIGURES is ninety percent cloth.140-41). Delicate marks Silver (or metal) point is the most delicate of traditional drawing media (see pp. Short and subtle horizontal punctuations are only given in the background by sections of floor. The quiet stillness of this image is achieved by a masterly economy of stylized line. and the kneeling abbot is a ghost by comparison. Her gown is carved and polished as if made from marble. Vertical lines The highly controlled lines of this drawing cascade from top to bottom of the image. Maelbeke I44I Madonna 11 x 7 in (278 x 180 m m ) JAN V A N EYCK . Van Eyck's highly polished w o r k is c e l e b r a t e d f o r its disguised symbolism. and snakelike marks. H e m e t i c u l o u s l y a r r a n g e d subjects t o c o n v e y d e e p e r meaning.

Remaining raised areas of wood are rolled with colored inks. one over the other. which are sometimes also cut into pieces like a jigsaw puzzle. Respected for his sumptuous images of geisha and editions of erotic prints. the angle of the head. he also co-edited and expanded the Ukiyo-e Ruiko (History of Prints of the Floating World). Aeschylus earned Flaxman an international reputation. CLOTH AND DRAPERY Relief printing This is a woodblock print made by a relief process. and teacher Distinctive linear illustrations for the works of Homer. Koimurasaki of Tama-ya 1810-50 15 x101/4in (381 x 260 mm) KEISAI EISEN The Courtesan JOHN F L A X M A N English late 18th-century neoclassical sculptor.157 KEISAI EISEN Japanese draftsman. writer and printmaker Keisai Eisen took his name from the masters Kano Hakkeisai and Kikugawa Eizan. designer. and Man Lying Down in a Cloak I 787-94 21/4 JOHN FLAXMAN x 41/8 in (57 x 105 mm) . flat sheets of wood. an 18th-19th century document on the lives of the ukiyo-e artists. Parts of the image to be left unprinted are gouged out with a metal tool. Dante. This complex numerous blocks prepared image and may have been made with printed separately. stone wall of downward-stroked this sleeper's position is momentary. each delivering a different part and color of the design. and the feet notched against the pillar tell us that A lines holds him into the cleft. The inked block is laid face-down on damp paper and pressed to make the print. Images are drawn onto smooth. the cloak sliding to the ground. Position In this pen and ink drawing. draftsman.

The metal. all ruffs and wrinkles. a n d w a s e m p l o y e d as c o u r t painter t o King Charles I. In 1 6 3 2 he m o v e d p e r m a n e n t l y t o L o n d o n . t h r o u g h n u m e r o u s p o r t r a i t and C h u r c h commissions. Pen and wash In the graphic accuracy of this armored knight we see the idealized identity of a warrior from another time: a gleaming defender of the realm. and even formal portraiture. Leg section Compare mid-shin the section of white boots cropped to the section of similarly cropped trousers in drawings Gruau's drawing on p. It is presumed Her Royal Highness never saw it. A flamboyant territory. Opposite is a dangerous drawing. cloth. Anthony Van Dyke's Man in Armor is a masterpiece of drawn surface. Details and voices are worn externally with great imagination. w h e r e .158 COSTUME Character Costumes an extreme form of the clothed figure. The aged queen is compared to an overdressed bird. Man in Armor UNDATED 1 6 x 9 1 / 2 in ( 4 0 5 x 2 4 0 m m ) A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE . and feather were all CHARACTER COSTUMES REPRESENT observed with closely crafted conviction. he c o o l e d and redefined his style. Leg sections in both support the figure without taking our attention away from the main garment above. Fine examples can be plucked from fashion. The slight uncertainty of the pose and the limp cloak suggest a little more metal than man. cartoon. A s a y o u n g man. Its color is also reflected in the metal. cinema. Flowing scarf The knight's scarf of gilded blue is drawn in a pale wash over red ink lines. for she would not have been amused and William Wodall might have been stretching his luck. Van D y k e was chief assistant t o Rubens f o r t w o years. He has been rendered on this olive<olored page with pen and gray wash worked over a red and black under-drawing. a scurrilous cartoon by a courtier of Queen Elizabeth I. theater. 160. A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE Flemish painter and draftsman. lace. Its warm surface flows in contrast to the stiff metal armor. b e f o r e traveling t o Italy. where sometimes there just might not be anybody inside.

Top-heavy. t h e Jesuit Mission. By her old upto three tiers supported on sticks. hooded with an overinflated fluffy ruff eye pins us. and saturations showing through from the other side. t h e B a b i n g t o n Plot. it was customary to Iron-gall ink Wodall's dangerous caricature steps daintily the written lines of her dedicated page.159 WILLIAM W O D A L L A u t h o r and illustrator o f The Aaes of Queene a Elizabeth poem Allegorized. and her pride. here dark tawny owl.1599 71/2 WILLIAM x 51/4 in ( 1 9 0 x 1 3 4 mm) WODALL . t h e Ridolfi Plot. manuscript comprising six c a n t o s . Satire of the Queen's Dress c. Northern Satire This is a quill-and-ink satire of the elderly queen's pride-As head of state and fashion. A Ruffs and feathers Starched white ruffs worn at court and by society grew steadily larger as Elizabeth's reign progressed. Beneath the lethal fan is the body of a bird of trimmed feathers suggest age. suggest the use of iron-gall ink (see p. bitten nature. the queen is masterfully rebalanced by words at her feet The whole drawing's blackened. she is shown as a grossly disproportioned bird. while a raised foot pauses to assess the next displaying a fan of daggers. t h e Rising.35). T h e poem recounts t h e six m a j o r crises o f Elizabeth's reign: t h e Spanish A r m a d a .

G r u a u ' s highly distinctive d r a w i n g s have a p p e a r e d Couture. elegant chic and svelte. Rene Gruau's bold gouache drawing of smoothly swaying sophistication captures a brilliantly cut garment and frames it with great dynamism in a white. and both share the power of scarlet and black. Gruau's model regally swans to the fore with cool pride. Fine lines drawn against the building behind her echo the threads on which we have all seen arachnids drop and hang. diving to catch us in the grip of her machine-like limbs.160 COSTUME Femmes Fatales THESE DEVASTATING femmes fatales force back the onlooker with their demure. India ink and gouache This swish of confidence and style our enters the page turning everyone's head. RENE GRUAU I t a l i a n . 158. Drying time in between applications ensured the colors did not run into each other.F r e n c h f a s h i o n i l l u s t r a t o r w h o in his l o n g and esteemed career w o r k e d with many of the g r e a t e s t d e s i g n e r s o f 2 0 t h .c e n t u r y haute i n n u m e r o u s m a g a z i n e s i n c l u d i n g Elle. 5 8 . Gruau uses starkly cut negative space (see pp. She has been drawn with brushes dipped into India ink and gouache. Harpers & Queen. ofcroppedtrousershere to the device of the w Illustration 1949 for Jacques Fath in L ' O f f i c i e l d e la C o u t u r e RENE GRUAU . Vogue. Composition Look how well this image is frame knee is parallel to the bottom edge spacehorizontalline cropping the trousers be outermostuprightbordersof her cuffs are similar above her head thesidesoftheimage. possibly over a pencil outline. Fashion and fantasy drawings invent prototypes of ideals and perfection—be they for the catwalk or the fast-paced pages of comic books. demanding attention with gesture and flair. and gray pigments were applied separately. His model is outlined. as is Spider-Girl opposite.5 9 ) and a three-spoke balance of cuffs and cropped trousers to create an almost flag-like emblem of power. Compare the compositio beneathVanDyke'sstudy of armor on p. The black red. Spider-Girl leaps like an insect. muscular aggression. studio-like rectangle of paper.and tilted to the same de a little deeper than sp kneestogivehergravity. Airbrushed reflective surfaces further amplify our perception of speed. a n d L'Officiel de la couture.

He began work on Spider-Girl in 1998. The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones. In your mind's eye extend the uprights out of the top of the picture. and has been the title's regular artist since 2003. not far above the drawing. MARVEL C O M I C S . Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 2001-04 R O N FRENZ. Buildings. Frenz has drawn for Marvel for about 20 years.74-77). and figure are all locked into equally shatp through the traditional process of a pencilled outline over-drawn ink. This s modeling applied over the top give the image a sleek and mechanical of gravity. Align your ruler to the upright of each building.RON F R E N Z Contemporary American graphic artist w h o designs and pencils the dynamic scenes of numerous superheroes featured in Marvel Comics. to the right of its center. It is outside the picture frame. Sharp focus black outlines in this drawing create a hyper-real dynamic. and Amazing Spider-Man. sky. a great characteristic superhero comics. at Their extensions will meet the same single vanishing (see point pp. Single-point understand perspective To how Frenz created up therefore the effect of steeply between looking buildings—and howyou can do the same in your own work—take calculate where a ruler the and single vanishing point lies. beginning with Star Wars. moon. Airbrushed color and with tonal focus.

Before making substantial investments. though lines can develop greasy stains around the edges if the paper is not first stretched and treated with a gelatin paste laid as a wash. which he left unfixed to retain its brightness. colored materials available. minerals. Use them to draw lightly (as above left) or thickly. The worst are like revolting old lipsticks that get everywhere except where you intend. C o n t e crayons are square-formed. including iridescents. the finer and more subtle the texture and color should be. great for tin . purchase a small selection of different items you think you will like. 4. OIL PASTELS Oil-based. quality. and CHALK PASTELS Pastel pencils make fine lines (as above). Many products are sold individually and in boxed sets. Many artists apply fixative to the back of their work. hue. The nontoxic range below represents a suggested starting point for experiment. Children's wax crayons are relatives. and can be softened and manipulated with degrees of heat. They vary hugely in cost. Dissolve in turpentine or mineral spirits to produce oil paint or or dark paper. except the final layer. shape. soft. I suggest you do so. The higher the quality (and cost). Be aware that fixative dulls pastel. Try materials that are new and unfamiliar. Seemingly infinite choices of texture. CHALK PASTELS: Blackboard chalk is sidewalk work. and cost are laid out for our pleasure and perusal. See h o w they work and return later for more of what proved best for you. Most stores leave small pads of paper on their counters for customers to test materials. paper-wrapped. size. are derived from many sources: rocks. Store loose pastels in dry rice to keep them clean. Degas built his pastels in layers. quality and cost T h e best are paperwrapped sticks of sumptuous. there are disparities between the apparent nature or color of what you hold in your hand and its performance on paper. COLORED PENCILS: Dry pigments ground together with chalk. the diverse are made in brands of basic member of the family. and subtlety. and synthetics. intensity. 3. 2. slightly oily to the touch. fixing each layer on the front. allowing it to fix slightly from behind. chalkbased but very subtle. Pastel pencils are slender and in w o o d casing. 1. Bright pastels are more brilliant on colored paper. OIL PASTELS: Many colors. unwrapped harder pastels.162 COSTUME Colored Materials ART STORES BRIM OVER w i t h t h e m a n y wherever permitted. Beware—some are toxic. clay. crumbly. you may be pleasantly surprised to discover something you could not have imagined using. or wax and a binder are shaped into fine strips and encased in w o o d like a graphite pencil. used to make colors. and can be a great rediscovery for bold drawings. plants. Often. They work well on PIGMENTS Pigments. insects. these work best when slightly warm. animals. and sold in many colors. FELT-TIP PENS: Instant-drying alcoholor water-based inks stored in the barrels of the pens are delivered via smooth nylon o r felt tips of varying shapes and thicknesses. wash. mixed on the paper and scratched into (as below). made in about 80 colors. oily pigment. Pastels are finer. Sticks and conte crayons make thicker marks (as below).

leaving the paper to shine through for highlights (as below). it is still a great champion and support for those beginners feeling shyly obligated to tone down their love of color to conform with what others say they should use. Colors can be blended as shown right) and tones graded by altering pressure. Some give richer lines than others.163 COLORED PENCILS These are wax. Think of Matisse's Blue Nude (see p. Fine lines can be achieved (as above). FELT-TIP PENS Although not made with felt-tip pen. Diverse brands are harder or soften greasier or chalkier in use.or clay-based thin crayons in wood casing. so it is best to test them before buying. Some are nonsoluble. If you love smooth blocks and lines of colon felt-tip pens are perfect. 111). Brands made for designers sold in enormous ranges of colors are far more subtle and sophisticated than those made for children. others dissolve in water or turpentine to make a wash. .

To set up. 104-07). a n d e x p e r i e n c e visible p r o g r e s s . I m a d e n u m e r o u s s h e e t s o f d r a w i n g s . if y o u m a k e p l e n t y o f d r a w i n g s as o p p o s e d t o o n l y a f e w . imagining y o u can see t h r o u g h it. and how we stand and walk. values. D r a w each o n e first as a solid object. . and volume in space (see pp. they record and reflect our common history. You. This class takes the shoe as its subject in building on earlier lessons concerned with seeing through objects to understand their function. social and economic status. structure. Turn t h e m in different d i r e c t i o n s and o b s e r v e t h e i r s t r u c t u r e and f o r m . and after studying familiar shoes we use the information learned to invent new ones. 100-01 and pp. while artists have painted their boots or those of others as personal portraits and memorials. c o v e r a large sheet o f p a p e r w i t h line drawings o f several shoes. personality. Here we go one step further. t h e n again as if transparent. Linear Outline Using fine pens. and they have been concealed in buildings to ward off misfortune. a range of colored felt-tip pens with both fine and broad tips. and a selection of shoes. t o o . style. As artifacts in museums. S H O E S TELL LIFE STORIES. e n j o y i n g t h e study a n d i n v e n t i o n o f shoes. the era in which we live. Superstitions and fetishes are attached to them: we are told never to put new shoes on a table. you will need several large sheets of drawing paper.164 COSTUME Study and Design they reflect our age. will discover m o r e . REPEATED STUDY T o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s class.

165

The Surface
Next,

STUDY AND DESIGN

study the surface contours using fineand broad-tipped felt-tip pens. For best results, it is important to be bold and brief. Draw firmly, fast, and with as few strokes as possible. Build up each shoe from light to dark andleavesome paper showing through to create highlights.

Design Your Own

Using what you have learned from the previous steps about the structures of your shoes, and about the use of pens, invent new designs from your imagination. Start with fine outlines and progress to colored and textured surfaces. Modify your ideas by rotating the views.

166

COSTUME

The Structure of Costume
MUSEUMS ARE AN INFINITELY

rich resource for the artist and

information given by a period style. Arrange to visit a costume museum or ask a friend to model clothes for you at home. Using fine felt-tip pens, begin with quick, pale impressions of each garment's shape before homing in on its borders and seams. Try to draw transparent views wherever possible to record the relationships between all component parts. Aim to draw enough information for it to be possible to make up a version of the garment using paper pinned to a tailor's dummy.

designer. They often give quite unexpected gems of ideas and information—whatever the subject. These drawings, made in a costume museum, demonstrate ways of recording structural information and detail for later use in the studio. They could form the basis of new designs for a fashion project or theater production, for example. Drawings of shoes on pp. 164-65 show how new designs can be evolved from the structural

OBSERVATION
It is usually best when collecting information for reference to apply the restraint of dispassionate observation. Set yourself the test of drawing facts with as little artistic license or embellishment as possible. Here I chose fine felt-tip pens because they are at their best when used swiftly, and therefore encourage bold, unhesitant decisions.

Swift lines record the hanging weight of this gentleman's coat, the relative proportions of its layers, and minimal details of the buttons and cuffs.

Thick velvet fabric is pulled tight beneath and across the bust by a single button. This transparent view shows how the fabric falls loosely in straight panels beneath the level of the sleeve.

167

LIGHTING
W h e n visiting museums, be prepared f o r l o w lighting, which can make it hard t o see and draw. A book can help if attached t o your drawing board.

Adding stripes and dashes of color with a thicker pen brings out the glossy sheen and sculptural rigidity of this dress, which would have been worn over a whalebone corset. small reading light designed t o clip o n t o a

THE STRUCTURE OF COSTUME

In small drawings such as these, use thick pens to color entire sections with a few marks, as I did here down the side of the bodice.

The light, frilly bulk of this crinoline dress is propelled forward with lines. pinching its gathers and sways that are hiding a horsehair bustle. fleets of quick

168

COSTUME

Textures and.Patterns
THIS CLASS FOCUSES ON how to draw textures through the collection of fabric, pattern, and embroidery samples from a costume m u s e u m . This formal method, using ruled squares, can create an invaluable library of ideas a n d i n f o r m a t i o n for future r e f e r e n c e — w h e n painting a clothed figure, or preparing a textile project, for example. However, if making a book of samples for a project, remember that it is important to also include collages of f o u n d materials (see pp.230-31) To d r a w a fabric texture, b e g i n by concentrating o n h o w y o u i m a g i n e it w o u l d feel if you t o u c h e d it. Decide if it w o u l d be rough, s m o o t h , w a r m , cold, thick, thin, tough, or fragile, for example. As you draw, believe you can feel these qualities at your fingertips a n d that your pencil is responding to the sensation. Undulate the pressure of your lines and marks according to the feeling of the fabric rather than its appearance. Let your pencil enact the sensation of touching its surface.

and to experiment more loosely with mixed media.

INVENTING COSTUMES
This starchy, quilted, b o w e d creation started life as an imagined corset, I intended t o d r a w together in one sculptural f o r m a range o f t h e details opposite. T h e garment quickly got o u t o f hand. T h e r e is great e n j o y m e n t in letting y o u r imagination run wild w h e n inventing costumes. If you are unable t o visit a costume museum, many exciting fabric details and textures can be found in y o u r o w n closet o r home.

169

COLORED PENCILS
Colored pencils give precision and tonal range; they can be faded but not erased. Lightly use an HB graphite pencil if you wish to plan a design first. Pressed hard, colored pencils build up a waxy finish of brilliant color. Used lightly, they appear powdery and show the texture of the paper.

TEXTURES AND PATTERNS
Wool

Silk and braid

Ribbon

Embroidered leather

Feathers

Pearls

Knit

Tassels

Outline stitch

.

Madrid. These characters. identity. 172-73. I made a drawing book full of studies seeking to understand how he composed drama and pathos in his narratives (see also pp. .Dressing Character I O N C E SPENT THREE MONTHS researching the work of Francisco de Goya at the Prado Museum.126-27. look at how Goya delineated volumes of thick fabric to express the posture. shape. selected from different pages of my original book. and motivation of an individual. and 252-53).

170—71). Posture Carving also taken from my Madrid drawing book (see pp. I carefully copied the direction of each of his lines. and tangible. .T H E S E PENCIL STUDIES. as it rushes and carves fabric-wrapped forms like rivers and desert winds shaping the earth. are copies of works by Goya in which he makes air seem heavier than flesh. and visible. To understand how he did this.

.

.

The spaces between people and the positions they occupy on a page are vital to our understanding of the psychology or emotion of an event. Rembrandt's bored and frustrated wife. finding corners in crowded places to inscribe their action and energy onto the page. a crowd tells the story from a distance. the viewer. the viewer is not directly made the finer lines of Saskia. soap operas. This J u s t as there are three parts to a traditional landscape drawing—the foreground. furniture. We read tensions and exchanges between people. too. comics. . and other masters of Western Art. the viewer's attention in a scene by the format of its composition. Blockbuster movies. Storytelling and people-watching are obsessive human activities. in spite of how it may seem. even up her were laid with a brush. He in turn scorches the paper with his view and a certain speed of seeing all. Her all-too-clear expression shows annoyance and irritation with her husband. We can direct close.Gatherings A LL DRAWINGS TELL STORIES. types. First. we. are implicated in this marital exchange made over the head of the anonymous nurse. and instantly engage with the action of the scene. daily newspapers. We can also use clothes. He is also the artist from whom props to add layers of meaning and attitude. television documentaries. R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN in the delivery of narrative. and so. Washes of shadow behind engaged and as a natural voyeur can feel invisible while watching the scene. while a quill contact with. we can learn most about handling pen and ink. paintings depicting scenes from history. the direct exchange (as shown here) where one or more characters hold eye Aneedproduced the thicker lines of the nurse. As artists. Later in their lives. this is not the portrait of an old woman. Second. vivid portrait of his wife captures our attention. we can R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter draftsman. and therefore seem to see. there are no longer individuals but one significant group or mass action. presumably while he is making this drawing. With a pocket full of disposable pens we also go out and draw the expressions of gathered people. and its illumination. Third. Saskia died after childbirth. and novels—our staple cultural diet—are driven by a fascination with shared experience and the detail of what happens in other people's lives. Here. and distance—so drawings of gathered people can be loosely arranged in three took only minutes to make and yet it lives for centuries. Seeing through Rembrandt's eyes. Saskia. the speed and printmaker and one of the greatest and most influential density of its lines. It middle. Drawings selected for this chapter explore these Saskia Lying in Bedand a Nurse ranges of proximity 1638 9 x61/2in (227 x 164 mm) and a travel journal. but drawings of gathered people tell them most directly. heighten or subdue drama with subtleties of exaggeration or caricature. stares out from her gloomy sickbed.

and in. narrative is delivered through the air. t h e y select and arrange familiar items of street detritus into what appears to be an u n p l e a s a n t pile. garbage and chaos are piled a n d e x p l o d e d in r o o m s full of event. or even the office photocopier. and Alice.. Think about what else you could use: a laser smoke.kicks against the mundane things that close down your mind is a refreshing and good thing. the C o o k . junk. Pencil on paper important but only the beginning of possibility the combination of three-dimensional space.. h a l o e d portrait of the artists seated b a c k to b a c k . refuse. a kitchen explodes in o u r faces. for example. plates shatter. c o m p o s e d garbage p r o d u c e s a c a l m . and smoke billows around the agitated jives of the Duchess. via the animated clutter of o u r material lives. the Cat."Anything that." (Tim Noble) Drawing with light it is important to think about what you is Here timelessly we see a in can draw with. T h e i m m a c u l a t e d r a w i n g is only r e v e a l e d w h e n t h e b e a m of a p r o j e c t o r c a s t s t h e s h a d o w Projections of the h e a p o n t o a wall. In one of R a c k h a m s great illustrations for Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland. and projectors to create their anarchic punk satires of modern life. N o b l e a n d W e b s t e r s w i t t y a n d o f t e n s u b v e r s i v e d r a w i n g s are also c o n t e m p o r a r y art installations. Pans fly oft the stove. Real Life is Rubbish 2002 Dimensions variable TIM N O B L E A N D SUE WEBSTER . In both works. Below.176 GATHERINGS SOME DRAWINGS ARE MADE e n t i r e l y o f i l l u m i n a t i o n that floods drama into the viewers gaze. F o r e a c h w o r k . and projector. Here. TIM N O B L E A N D SUE W E B S T E R British artists who collaborate using neon. hearth i m p l e m e n t s crash at o u r feet. and on.

ink. by vivid children's Rakham's w o r k is characterized fantasy. humor. H e is best k n o w n forillustratingIrving's Rip vanWinkle. See how the In the Duchess's Kitchen 1907 77/8 x 6 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 5 0 m m ) ARTHUR RACKHAM . and Poe's Tales Imagination. and Alice's shoulder. Refer back to the drawing class how pots In drawn objects and elements that those behind. a n d an unmistakable graphic style. This makes the story appear to leap out at us. we find several devices already explored through our drawing classes. tabletop. are very large compared to on p.Stowe's ofMysteryand Queer Little Folks. Find the singleperspective pp. 100 to see for make elliptical objects and pans fly through the the foreground. Rackham Vanishing point In this marvelous drama made with pen.177 ARTHUR RACKHAM British watercolorist and book illustrator. The wood grain acts like marks of speed behind the scene.76-77) above vanishing point (see that is about3/4in (2 cm) oak converge at this point. and watercolor. Depth Billows of smoke expand and are lighter as they come forward. amplifying movement outward from the vanishing point. beams.

and composition they are polar opposites.178 GATHERINGS we have seen in the pairs and trios of drawings by masters and makers. The mournful gray landscape of Henry Moore's northern British field has gathered by night an overcoated audience to stand and wait before a wrapped and roped monument. HENRY MOORE Crowd 1942 Looking at Tied-up Object . and art in the landscape. M o o r e t o u r e d Italy as a young man. This is just one of many precious artifacts from a lost time. and we. and action of a buffalo hunt. join in the waiting. In culture. Moore's spectators appear to have walked a long way from nowhere to witness and wait beside this mysterious obelisque. which still narrates vivid days in the lives of an energetic nation. perhaps these two are the most extreme. as if Moore's wrapping has been literally outstretched. This is an ironic drawing from Moore. a n d l o v e d t o d r a w in t h e BritishMuseum.The human form w a s the vehicle o f his expression and h e w a s t h e official W o r l d W a r II artist. London. Magnetic Fields sculpture. meaning. heat. Chalk and graphite This fog-bound but humorous gathering of souls is made in graphite and colored chalk with gray wash. audiences. Opposite. a great Shoshone drawing blazes with the color. The image stands out among his more usual graphic works in which he hones and carves semi-abstract human forms. A glimmer of gold light appears from the left No explanation is given. expressing his dry humor about O F ALL THE CONTRASTS HENRY MOORE British s c u l p t o r w h o t r a i n e d a n d taught at t h e R C A . as fellow watchers. a sculptor.

creating harmonious balance with words but through silent demonstration. Hunt CENTURY SHOSHONE SCHOOL . Stylized hunters." Men at the instructed to sit and watch. MAGNETIC FIELDS Horses It is interesting to note how the outstretched limbs ofthesehorses echo European images of the runningBuffalo horse before the sequence-photographer Muybridge taught us to 19TH understand their movement differently. horses. and helping our eye to dart around.179 SHOSHONE SCHOOL Stylized characters This vital image of a buffalo hunt is made with pigment Members of the Shoshone community wishing painted within dark outlines on a stretched elk hide. Each color is evenly distributed throughout the scene. Skills are taught not center chant or dance to the beat of a drum. tolearnhow to paint a scene on a hide are and buffalo circle and charge the perimeters of a skin "field.

180 GATHERINGS The Human Condition IN THE SPECTRUM of these vastly d i f f e r e n t g a t h e r i n g s of p e o p l e . Heath Robinson lived through the same war-torn. era as Kollwitz. Blake w a s d r i v e n b y a passion f o r j u s t i c e a n d a p r o f o u n d b e l i e f in his v i s i t a t i o n s f r o m angels. texture. Opposite. pale souls of the lustful are being s p u n into yet another realm of hell. It illustrates a scene from Dante's Divine Comedy. and sweetened the often bleak years with his impractical inventions. a n d o t h e r w o r k s . t h e Bible. w e f i n d a spiritual v i s i o n . We also see qualities of line. a d e a t h c h a r g e of brutality. w r i t e r a r t i s t . W I L L I A M BLAKE British visionary. a n d f o c u s . w h i c h b y their c h o i c e a n d h a n d l i n g a c t u a l l y b e c o m e the force a n d spirit of e a c h i m a g e .f o o t e d t r o g l o d y t e s w h o rage into w a r like a m u d s l i d e of revenge. K a t h e K o l l w i t z s c r a t c h e d a n d e n g r a v e d her a r m y of c l a y . Misted in translucent layers of paint. a pink-inked cinema wobbles along with string. a n d the gentle h u m o r of sedate r i d i c u l e . w h e r e he w a t c h e s a t u r b u l e n t s p i r a l of p u n i s h m e n t f o r the d a m n e d . p o e t . color. The muscularity of Blake's figures was inspired by Michelangelo's works. Brushed line and wash This is an ink-outlined drawing made with a fine brush on paper with added washes of watercolor The image was subsequently redrawn as a line engraving. The Circle of the (The Whirlwind 1824 of Lustful Lovers) mm) 143/4 x 207/8i n ( 3 7 4 x 5 3 0 WILLIAM BLAKE . a n d e n g r a v e r w h o p o w e r f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e d his o w n t e x t s in a d d i t i o n t o D a n t e ' s Divine Comedy. m a r k . B l a k e h a s i l l u m i n a t e d his s a d d e n e d Virgil on the s h o r e s of a d a r k w o r l d . inextinguishable in its fortitude and h u m o r .

poverty. and clearly focused. British Pen and wash This is a pen-andwatercolor drawing made for a color-platereproduction in an edition of T h e Bystander. With masterful gentility. Ink rolled over was selectively polished off using a rag. THE HUMAN CONDITION Scratched lines This is a dry-point etching with monoprint. children. and her powerful and sensitive drawings center on nurture. and the impact of death and war upon women. and controlled smears on the metal surface printed as tones. humor by making his characters earnest. and the family home. Losbruch (The Outbreak) 1955 20 x 233/8 in (507 x 592 mm) KATHE KOLLWITZ HEATH ROBINSON humorous illustrator and a regular contributor to magazines and journals such as The Sketch and The Bystander. HEATH ROBINSON The Kinecar 1926 103/8 x 15 in (262 x 380 mm) . stoical bemusement. What remained in scratched grooves printed on damp paper as lines. He created sincere. White marks were made with a dusting of French chalk on the artist's finger to wipe away ink leaving clean metal. Kollwitz survived the two World Wars. Heath Robinson shows England in a past era. who lived in a poor district of Berlin.181 KATHE KOLLWITZ German printmaker. however meager or ridiculous their activity. plodding along with hazy. Robinson and Kollwitz (above) share almost identical life dates and their work expresses a shared history from opposite sides oftheworld wars. sculptor and draftsman. The image was scratched directly onto a metal plate.

is d e l i v e r e d t h r o u g h a m e t a l t u b e o v e r a t i n y ball bearing. build to a rich." 1. 4. R O L L E R B A L L : A c o n s t a n t i n k flow 3 . For example. a n d pressure-sensitive. including l u m i n o u s a n d m e t a l l i c . At a time like this. t h e y a r e lightfast. jot notes.7 7 and 214-15). p e r m a n e n t . rollerballs. Lines t h i c k e n as t h e p e n w e a r s o u t G r a n d Canal (see pp. 7 6 . these pens enable you to sketch. which can snap or pierce through your clothes. Insensitive t o p r e s s u r e : lines d o n o t v a r y in w i d t h o r t o n e . Ideal f o r precision w o r k (see p p . CHOICES AVAILABLE T h e r e a r e m a n y d i s p o s a b l e p e n s t o c h o o s e from. and in most pockets so I can always record a thought DISPOSABLE PENS QUICK NOTES O n a c o l d day in Venice. W h i t e gel p e n s a r e v e r y e f f e c t i v e o n d a r k papers. I swiftly focused on gesture. or idea. fine fiber-tip Drawing with a fine fiber-tip pen. T h e r e w e r e c seconds t o snatch this impression b e t w e e n their emergence from one bridge and disappearance b e n e a t h t h e next. blob when old. FIBER-TIP: M a n u f a c t u r e d f o r artists a n d d e s i g n e r s in a r a n g e o f w i d t h s . B A L L P O I N T : Black a n d b o l d c o l o r s o f f e r d i v e r s e qualities. G E L P E N : P r o d u c e d in b l a c k w h i t e . turn the page. a disposable pen with its clip-on cap goes anywhere. t w o tourists and their gondolier drifter past m e o n a canal. 2. shut your book. So many stores sell them. a n d ranges o f colors. trusting shape and form to follow. gel pens) are the most convenient of all materials with which to travel. dropped in your pocket and forgotten till needed. a ballpoint will make faint lines. I keep quantities at home. aiming for correct outlines would result in drawing too slowly to c a t c h the moment.182 GATHERINGS Disposable Pens (ballpoints.r e s i s t a n t . fibertips. Available in blacks and ranges of colors. they each offer distinct and sometimes unexpected qualities. dark sheen. c h o o s e p e n s l a b e l e d " p e r m a n e n t " o r "lightfast. w a t e r . they can be obtained within minutes. The f o u r i l l u s t r a t e d h e r e r e p r e s e n t a basic r a n g e . indent paper. R e m e m b e r . Quick-drying.188-89) and Caravans (see pp. . or put the paper in your pocket instantly without fear of smudging. in the studio. Unlike pencils. 192-93) w e r e b o t h m a d e w i t h a ballpoint. or turn into washes and make monoprints if flooded with an alcohol-based substance such as hairspray. in the car. if y o u w i s h y o u r d r a w i n g s t o last a n d n o t fade o r b l u r w i t h t i m e a n d e x p o s u r e t o light.

crowd of fellow travelers Fast lines These scribbled lines model the mass and shadows of heads belonging passengers packed into the boat. Compare this Klee's mules on p.31 . not form.FROMMEMORY Here I used the same fiber-tip pen to compose a scene from memory. Earlier I had witnessed a crammed en masse in a fleet of hired gondolas complete with musicians and choir. Fast lines focus on action.

of course. You will make outlines. Each one was witnessed and drawn immediately from the afterimage of what I had just seen. You must learn to trust your memory and to draw what impressed you most. Movement . angles will happen as a matter of course. just draw the action. No camera can tie you to a time or people in the same way. Above all. let it enter the stage and perform. when out drawing. life will not slow and wait for you to catch it. Don't worry about measuring angles. Every drawing writes an indelible memory of place. Exaggeration helps. and companionship. if a person was stout. pocket notebook and a fiber-tip pen. FLEETING MOMENTS Walking through Venice with a small. all action is in the line of his coat and directed by his nose. focus on the action of the event. Push toward caricature and this will draw out of your memory what was most important. However. A curatorial assistant flies to do a chore (right). animate them more. not its outline. black. Each line acts its part in the narrative. Let the line of the flying coat fly and the hanging arm hang.184 GATHERINGS The Travel Journal I CANNOT OVERSTATE THE JOY of making a travel journal. Circular lines buzz around a man puzzling at the end of a train platform (left). make them stouter. but they should not be what you dwell on. I caught fleeting glimpses of gathered people and solitary souls going about their affairs. if animated. activity.

I drew him three times on the same page to catch a range of his physical expressions. Observation THE TRAVEL JOURNAL The same willowy assistant dashes about his work. eager to herd us all from his house of responsibility. Expression . The rush of his legs isamplifiedby their blurred lines.185 A large lady is photographed in front of a delicate work of art. In turn. I am watched by the aggravated guard.

flap. Here the custodian projects fastidious ownership of his desk and pamphlets by pushing from behind the center of the space and challenging our entry to his image. or pushes. I took refuge in a church in Venice. forcing me to remain at the back and look at them. or bulge. He and his simpering assistant would not allow me in. not outline. and there met this sullen custodian. placement. decide how faces and bodies contort. you might place them lower down. elevate them in the pictorial space. When your attention has been caught. and reason for happening. furniture leans. if they are being devious. For example. and let every detail speak by its size. . Be aware that their placement on the page is part of the narrative. if they are being haughty. ACTION AND DETAIL W h e n drawing people. rather than the works of art they guarded. and you decide to draw the moment. focus on action. Place the person carefully. emotion. For example. start by focusing on its action. pulls.186 GATHERINGS Catching the Moment On A BITTERLY COLD November day. Identify the principal character and draw him or her first. and clothing or bags hang. Here I have recreated my drawing in steps to show you how to set about capturing such a scene. and involvement in the story.

. which is pushed toward us in a gesture of confrontation.187 The custodian Identify your principal character a n d their psychological role in the scene. such as the desk and pamphlets seen here. In the final step (left) I reinforced t h e custodian's desk. Draw their action and props. Decide where t o place them t o emphasize their role. a pillar locates t h e scene in a depth o f space. continue adding characters. I added t h e assistant. W i t h a few strokes. Here. together with any immediate props they are using. D r a w their action. CATCHING THE MOMENT The assistant Identify t h e antagonist ( o r second character) in t h e scene. who is largely expressed through the shape and fall o f his raincoat and his way o f using a note pad. Decide where you will place them o n the paper t o emphasize their action and intent. If drawing a more complex scene.

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An imminent deluge of tourists urged me to work catching no more than the skeleton of the view. where vertical mooring poles give space and pulse to the horizontal speed of water quickly. and buildings. . I developed detailofthis drawing from memory using a ballpoint pen.Grand Canal T H E CANALS OF VENICE are bustling places full of occupation.

then the bridge beneath them. Characters in the foreground were drawn first. note only their most essential action and feature. followed by the streets. Each person was glimpsed in an instant. Venetians flow across a stepped bridge and cascade into the streets beyond.Crossings DURING THIS RUSH HOUR. To catch characters like this. . and drawn immediately from memory. Caricature each person slightly.

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and a great subject to draw. quiet afternoon.Caravans T H E PARAPHERNALIA O F TRAVEL i s an intriguing part of circus life. . Caravans and other backstage activity convey expectations of energy and repose. Sitting at a distance on a hot. I found this circus by chance in the Swiss mountains. I used a ballpoint pen to compose a series of scenes.

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and its draws the tides of the seas. surrounded by the bright instruments of centuries of navigation. What they have drawn is the force of nature on these properties: how the wind heaves the night ocean. trees. artists see for themselves that which is momentary and eternal. By drawing such momentous and everyday events. Oxford. the face of the Moon. learning to draw light out of dark. H e a l s o p r o d u c e d an a l b u m o f 1 8 0 exquisite pencil drawings. our companion. 199). Beginners will often choose calm. It is Earths satellite. These conditions are very difficult to express well. pages o f softly i l l u m i n a t e d craters and lunar "seas" c o v e r e d in m a t h e m a t i c a l and s h o r t h a n d calculations. and meteor impacts have scarred. and take bold steps in emulating the swell of clouds and the forces of torrential water. rivers. Just as NASA photographs of Earth have had a profound effect on the way we view our fragile home. arranging them in perfect circles on the mountainside or in lines drifting out of sight beneath low clouds. marking the ground with lines of footprints or by turning stones. In this chapter Moon Pastel 1795 Drawing we experiment with charcoal. Look closely at works by many artists and you will see that they have not represented hills. JOHN RUSSELL A p o r t r a i t pastelist t o King G e o r g e III o f England. the sun comes out to blind it. Weather is essential in all landscape drawing. and the sea. when little stirs and empty blue skies offer even less to latch lines to. and even how the Sun illuminates. but it can be seen as a lens to our observation of this planet. how the mountain cut by ice and rain is now fleetingly lit. a n d a n astronomer w h o dedicated 20 years t o studying t h e M o o n . There is a sense of the heroic in drawing outside—we race to catch a form before the tide engulfs it. William Turner is said to have had himself lashed to a ship's mast to comprehend the storm (see p. It is better to get up before dawn. makes his work by the act of walking. and experiment. to be ready to draw the new light as it breaks across the land. This is the world's first accurate image of the Moon. The pastel drawing was constructed from myriad telescopic observations almost 200 years before the Apollo Moon landing.Earth and the Elements I T MAY SEEM PERVERSE to start a chapter titled "Earth and the Elements" with an image of the Moon. or the wind carries it away. sunny days. a n d a m o o n globe called t h e Selenographia. as opposed the physicality of Earth. It now hangs on the staircase of the History of Science Museum. how the soil is scorched. t w o e n g r a v e d m a p s k n o w n as The Lunar Planispheres. a contemporary environmental artist. so J o h n Russell's tour de f o r c e drawing (opposite) was a masterpiece of observation in his time. Take chances against the rain and work with the wind or fog. 5 f t x 5 ft 6 in ( 1 5 2 x 1 6 8 c m ) J O H N RUSSELL . t h e first-ever accurate image o f t h e M o o n ' s surface. they are the animators of your subject. Russell d r e w this. are the real subjects in great landscape drawings. The forces of nature. or has cracked and fallen under the weight of water. speculation. England. Richard Long.

Fluid strokes inflate the woman's dress and pin shadows to the ground. fluttering heavily. T h e great master of English seascape is c o n d u c t i n g with his graphic energy. He knew how the world bends and stutters under such gusts. is already lost. Dots and dashes suggest receding trees out of focus. has b e c o m e a hysterical kite. and by observing its tides and eddies in our o w n environment. and gives motion to each image. distance. Daumier's c a r t o o n shines with the brilliance of his comic memory. like an umbrella forced inside-out. This wife. Danger of Wearing Balloon Petticoats UNDATED HONORE DAUMIER . H O N O R E DAUMIER French satirical cartoonist lithographer. the bourgeoisie. Terrifying waves of merciless nature roar across the paper. T h e ship. lifts. a scratched ghost. sculptor. undramatic b u t brimming with stylized realism. and the legal profession. we can soon learn to draw its force. serving a prison sentence for his views. and pioneer ofexpressionism. speed. Hazy vertical marks reveal buildings into the mist. the government. and solidity. Hokusais sedate wind presses reeds a n d the j o u r n e y s o f young ladies. Below. A hard waxy was drawn across a heavy limestone Varying definitions crayon of lire and depths of tone conspire to give volume. By Turner carries us to the heart of the maelstrom. seeing how it shakes. painter. Flapping kimonos and an onlooker turning his b a c k have the magic of a m o m e n t caught. a sail b r o k e n loose in a stormy marriage. Crayon and limestone This is a lithograph.Through political drawings he fired his sharp wit at the king.198 EARTH AND THE E L E M E N T S Air in Motion THE GREAT INVISIBLE SUBJECT o f these d r a w i n g s is t h e w i n d .

b l o c kprintmaker. painter.M. TURNER KATSUSHIKA HOKUSAI Prolific J a p a n e s e c o l o r w o o d . AIR IN MOTION Pencil and watercolor subdued brushed. including being lashed t o a ship's m a s t in o r d e r to study a storm. absorbent watercolor and are Stains of splashed. and history painter w h o s e p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t a b o v e all w a s light. H o k u s a i in t u r n has since significantly influenced European art. leans the whole composition swells around its fateful center. Landscape a n d city life w e r e his principal subjects.M. a n d his b e s t . T u r n e r w o r k e d in oils a n d w a t e r c o l o r s a n d s k e t c h e d c o p i o u s l y o n his travels. A outline scratched of a skeletal into penciled ship is while and the waves. 1826 91/2 x 113/4 in ( 2 4 1 x 3 0 0 m m ) J. T U R N E R British landscape. wind.i n f l u e n c e d b y examples o f W e s t e r n art obtained through D u t c h t r a d i n g in Nagasaki. Hokusai direction (from clothing from has chosen which it the right). horizontally then and of the it into the stream Plants also bend and flow right to Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 1802 81/2 HOKUSAI KATSUSHIKA x 131/2 in ( 2 1 7 x 3 4 3 mm) . from left print.l o v e dw o r k s i n c l u d e 1 0 0 v i e w s o f M o u n t Fuji and 1 2 v o l u m e s o f Manga. into this very as pressed sheet The paper's through own coior is brought banks of mist and fog. W . seascape. T h e r e a r e m a n y stories o f his p a s s i o n a t e w o r k i n g methods.W. d e s i g n e r a n d b o o k i l l u s t r a t o r . Ship in a Storm c.199 J. Wind direction wood-block This is a colored To represent the blows lifted flowed wind.

with a brush.28). D o m e s t i c o b j e c t s we can o w n and name fall from the clouds. h a u n t e d shadows. he blanketed the drawing in darkness. this is a writer's narrative of terror. as if drawn j u s t this year. It looks so contemporary. Leonardos Cloudburst of Material Possessions is o n e of his m o s t enigmatic and mysterious works. By contrast. An update on biblical showers of fish and frogs. inks. marks. lines of rain escorting them to b o u n c e and clatter. T h e very nature of b o t h is turmoil and an interweaving of elements. EARTH AND THE VICTOR HUGO French novelist and artist (see also p. drawing was Hugo's principal means o f expression. He brings us to stare into a place that no sane human would enter. grab their b r u s h . Pen and brush Hugo drew first with pen and ink. leaving nothing but a glimpse of moonlight glistening on the froth below. and tossed o b j e c t s — a perfect subject in which artists can forget themselves. His subjects include ruins. this is a b o m b a r d m e n t from o u r h o m e s . or charcoal. and t h e sea s t u d i e d f r o m his h o m e in Guernsey in t h e Channel Islands.198) admires the majesty of nature.200 ELEMENTS Storms STORMS CAN BE SEEN and drawn in two ways: first. fantasy palaces. as a subject and second. as a gestural storm on the paper. and swim into the page. Opposite. Turner (see p. In periods b e t w e e n writing. T h e m e n a c i n g darkness of Hugo's storm b e l o w is so convincing. it is difficult to contemplate its brooding and night-soaked heart. ink. water. Then. composing banks of waves and dense. active surfaces of water. Le Bateau-Vision 1864 71/2 x 1 0 in ( 1 9 2 x 2 5 5 m m ) VICTOR H U G O .

a bell. and a wheel. and they passed through private hands for 400 years before becoming widely known. a hook. envisioning machines centuries before their making (helicopters and bicycles. Above and below are examples of his mirror handwriting. There is a little magic in recognizing many items from our homes something like a rake. together with half the contents of our garage. for example). He bequeathed his drawings to a friend. He was left-handed and wrote backwards in Italian from left to right. Cloudburst of Material Possessions 1510-12 45/8 x 43/8 in ( 1 1 7 x 1 1 1 mm) L E O N A R D O DA VINCI . Each item that has crashed from heaven is drawn in such a way that we can feel Leonardo's nib picking it up in the speed of a doodle. It is interesting to speculate how engineering might have developed if his ideas had been shared with the world earlier Ink and chalk This is a pen and ink drawing with touches of black chalk.LEONARDO DA VINCI Leonardo devised many artifacts of our modern lives.

rapidly layering contours to shape place. cooler tones receding into the distance are applied with a brush.1638 85/8 x 121/2 in (219 x 320 mm) CLAUDE LORRAIN . C L A U D E LORRAIN French classical landscape painter draftsman. and we can imagine standing over his shoulder. made inside a book. Claude has used a fine nib to delineate segments of land as they recede into space. and across to the right. Clare Bryan took panoramic photographs of the English South Downs. Claude is distinguished by. Segments The top half of the drawing is a view as we enter the valley. Nature Profiles Opposite below. Paler. and mood simultaneously. thick. and dry marks in the foreground appear to be made with his finger. which he used to unify his compositions. In a very different work (opposite above). EARTH AND THE Bryan cut the profile of a city. transferred it to a scroll. Even distilled from all other detail. rich. watching his hand and eye at work together. sea-. Over first lines. and etcher who lived most of his life in 17th-century Rome. Views from Velletri c. a horizon line can trigger our recognition. She was inspired by her research of aerial plans of London and the story of an alien map butterfly (see caption).202 ELEMENTS THE PROFILE OF A HORIZON is a line we immediately recognize and respond to. she teased away fragments of paper to illuminate her view. it is the unique calligraphic signature of the place in which we stand. and famed for. Drawing with a scalpel. his unsurpassed handling of light. and after tracing her captured line. atmosphere. In the lower half he has walked downhill a little. Claude Lorrain drew directly on location. or cityscape. Whether land-.

" Cut line This is a small section of a preparatory 5-ft(1.The horizon was drawn with a City Landline 2003 271/2x 59 in (70 x 150 cm) scalpel.203 Scalpel-drawn This book-bound drawing was inspired by the story of a foreign butterfly wrongly to Great Britain in 1912. then hunted destroyed. drawings Ideas of introduction Clare Bryan to research introduced down and led NATURE PROFILES and removal historical plans and aerial growth of London showing its population since Roman times. On turning the pages of City. 2001 CLARE BRYAN C L A R E BRYAN 3ritish artist. and visiting professor at numerous art schools. source workisilluminatedby standing its lower edge on a CLARE BRYAN . progressively settlement (cropped more and more paper is drawn away to show the expansion of human page of an around the river.5-m)scroll. The edges of each here) fade into the solid paper unpopulated with a scalpel landscape. Her recent paper photographic. and digital print-based works reflect upon the histories and poetry of "left behind and in-between spaces. specialty bookbinder. printmaker graphic designer.

2. THIN WILLOW CHARCOAL: I used a piece like this to make the drawing opposite. blacker. 3. a rag. THICK W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 2 Keep the tape above your drawing. R o u g h paper c a n b e loaded. Try itworking on big paper covering a wall. tape. Willow is the most c o m m o n wood. It c a n be m a d e duller. Use any fine-point pen or pencil (I used a ballpoint) to draw a firm line on the back of the Big pieces are perfect for very large-scale drawings—even larger than yourself. Smooth paper accepts few particles. harder line. a n d p l u m . 6. Boxes often contain a range of thicknesses to choose for different needs. only a little thicker. The tip snaps easily to renew a sharp edge if required. but some specialists stock compressed charcoal in delicate square sticks. or fingertip. resulting in a stick that gives a blacker. 3 A white line is lifted out by the tape. Then lift it away.54). this does not exist. CHALK CHARCOAL: Technically. SQUARE COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Not often sold. The same as above. Alternatively. white line into the blackor grayness of willow charcoal. It is also easily erased if the maker of the mark is not happy with the result. MEDIUM W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 5. a n d m o r e i n d e l i b l e by soaking it in linseed oil. without touching the surface. . the heel o f y o u r h a n d . cylindrical. leaving u n d e r t r a c e s of first thoughts. Charcoal lifts away from paper easily with the very light touch o f an eraser. feather. fine. resulting in a pale line.204 E A R T H AND THE E L E M E N T S Charcoal CHARCOAL IS PRODUCED from wood baked slowly without exposure to air. black finish.m a d e c o m p r e s s e d charcoal. LIFTING OUT This technique is a very easy method of drawing a crisp. you can p u r c h a s e m a c h i n e . In use. between your middle finger and thumb. It allows you greater precision in your mark-making than if you rub away the charcoal with an eraser. Lines are achieved by d e p o s i t i n g particles in the grain o f paper. so it chars b l a c k as o p p o s e d to igniting a n d turning to ash. Not to be confused with square conte sticks (see p. sticky side down. Beware of cheap brands selling dyed chalk as compressed charcoal. C h a r c o a l naturally glistens. 1 Suspend a length of masking tape. It does n o t erase easily. 162) or graphite (see p. a piece of fresh bread. B u n d l e s o f twigs were traditionally sealed into earthenware j a r s or wet clay and heated slowly and intensely in a fire or kiln. b l a c k e r . and offers a rich. they are all intended for fine work. COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Machine-made. Slightly dull the tape's stickiness before use t o prevent it from lifting out more than you intend. 7. it is compressed and m o l d e d at high pressure. and heavier than willow. Artists have also used lime. Essentially. 4. As its name implies. maple. A great find when available. Hold it over your drawing RANGE AVAILABLE Charcoal (in its several forms shown here) is loved or loathed by the beginner to whom it is often recommended because it produces pleasing results quickly. CHARCOAL PENCIL: Types made by different manufacturers vary in quality and density of line. vine. 1. it looks gray and feels like chalk. b e e c h .

10. . 8 . CHARCOAL Lifting out This detail shows an example of where I used the lifting-out technique demonstrated opposite to draw flashes of lightning against rain clouds. PEN: Any fine pen or pencil can be used to draw on the back of masking tape when lifting out. graphite.205 ERASING Thickly applied charcoal quickly o v e r c o m e s a plastic eraser A w a r m (soft and tacky) putty eraser is more effective. Layers can be peeled away to refresh its surface. pastels. Here we used a ballpoint. MASKING TAPE: An invaluable resource. Cotton swabs also work. Use high quality (very sticky) to fix paper to walls and boards. 9. Lift out broader marks with a larger implement. sold in several widths.212-13 were made by altering the pressure applied to the charcoal. Use cheaper (less sticky) for lifting out. T O R T I L L O N : This is a tight roll of paper used to blend charcoal. Here. I used a plastic eraser effectively on thinly applied charcoal. as is fresh (unbuttered!) bread. or any other dry media. Different tones seen throughout the main drawing on pp.

Landscape drawings are traditionally arranged in three parts: a detailed foreground. especially when making first excursions into aerial perspective. Don't worry if it is cloudy: clouds add drama and perspective and make good subjects in themselves (see pp. Successful drawings often only suggest the qualities of the scene without overdescribing them. our brains search for nameable things and will perceive complete pictures from very little information. and an abstract. The long view is hidden behind trees. Ironically. a less distinct middle ground composed of shapes and textures. This term simply means that as land rolls away into the distance. the more you encourage the viewer's imagination to join in and see.9 9 we noted that in response to visual stimulus. to contain each of your compositions. but is often less evocative and engaging. Pack several thick and thin sticks of willow charcoal. At its worst.206 EARTH AND THE ELEMENTS Landscapes TREES ALONE OFFER MARVELOUS shapes to draw. pack your materials (as advised below) and set off for a local view or your nearest arboretum. begin by marking out several small squares on your paper. it results in flat planes of clutter. They are also good markers of receding space. It is the visible effect of the atmosphere between where you stand and what you see in the distance. To experiment with drawing landscapes and the use of charcoal. 9 8 .212-13). an eraser your drawing book or a board and paper fixative (or hairspray). MATERIALS In this first view there is only a foreground and middle distance. details blur and colors grow paler and bluer. When you arrive. a reel of masking tape. On p p . hazy distance. and a cushion in a plastic bag to sit on. I relaxed my eyes out of focus to dissolve distracting detail into abstract patches of light and darkness. the less you describe. Seeing tones . Excessive detail can be admired for its skill and achievement. Then I drew the shape of the tonal patches I perceived.

horizontal regions of grass. rounded. your view is your inspiration. and broke a view through the hedge into the distance with a dark sky threatening rain. full of information you can use to create what you want! Inventing drama . I have invented drama with diagonals set against each other I tilted the earth. shadows. dark trees with bright. It is better to give distinctly more pictorial space to one or the other (see below). This composition turned out a little flat because I have an almost even quantity of earth and sky. Exploring the view Redrawing the scene above. Remember.207 LANDSCAPES In my second square I explored a simple view contrasting soft. the trunk of a bare tree.

For example. EARTH AND THE FINDING THE SUBJECT Finding a remarkable subject is even better when you can circumnavigate it in an arena of space.208 ELEMENTS Drawing in the Round WHEN DRAWING IN THE LANDSCAPE. your challenge now is to find a sculptural subject in the landscape. This first drawing serves as a process of arrival. England has embedded within it the decaying skeleton of a burned fishing boat. and seeing what the real choice of subject is." . which was the flow of water over rocks. engine. "Drawing in the round means to literally walk around your subject. and tiller still standing proud. s e e k places in light After my first drawing. Building on earlier studies of structure in space using shoes (pp. I usually begin by making an image of the whole view. on p p . settling my concentration. shade out of the glare of the sun. bare ribs. taking with you your drawing book and pen. so the paper is not made blinding and your hand cannot cast a shadow on your work. I am then able to home in on what interests me most for further study.104-05). observing it from several views so as to better understand it as a whole. 2 1 4 . making the scene below led me to focus on the decaying boat opposite.164-65) and a wire violin (pp.1 5 my first drawing of the whole view of the Tiber led me to see the real subject of the day. The mud of the tidal shore in Rye. Similarly. Circling a subject and drawing it from several views imprints on your memory a better understanding of its three-dimensional form.

marking straight. DRAWING IN THE 1 Here. I looked more boldly at the planes and the dynamic of the sculptural craft My lines have become darker and more forceful as confidence in my understanding of the vessel grew. its overall balance. Overleaf: Decaying Boat 4 . I spent equal time looking at the subject and the paper. character. make a series o f drawings f r o m different positions. looking more at the boat than at the paper From this low position I have emphasized how the boat is swallowed in mud by outlining its shadow on the ground. The outline ties a shape of darkness to the boat like a weight so that it becomes part of its form. and structure. 3 This impression notes the angle of the broken boat. ROUND 2 In this tail-end view. and the order and shape of its component parts. careful lines to establish the skeleton that gives this wreck its distinct form. W h e n you have found your subject. unfussy lines.209 SERIES OF STUDIES This stunning ghost o f a boat comes into v i e w t w i c e a day. I drew with quick. w h e n t h e sea recedes. Each n e w drawing gives a different insight.

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L o o k i n g b a c k and forth from the heavens to firmly taped-down paper. I worked quickly to catch and weave the turbulent contrasts of rising wind and approaching water before the drawing could be washed away. m a d e on s m o o t h .20-21) using a thin stick of willow charcoal. was made with gentle but unhesitating s p e e d .Cloudburst THIS STORM DRAWING. . hot-pressed drawing p a p e r (see pp.

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pulse. focusing on the river's eddies. I drew with a needle-fine fiber-tip pen. and rhythmic detail as it passed through the ancient gully of the city.Notes of Force T H E GREAT FLOWING TIBER RIVER has cut through Rome. shaping the city. since ancient times. On the pages of a small. black. . pocket-sized notebook.

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The strong diagonal of the composition from bottom left to top right carries the eye through changes of height and focus from the foreground to the mountains beyond. . I used a dip pen and waterproof India ink with brushed watercolor to draw the view.Mountains SITTING IN THE SHADE of a tree on the Greek island of Antiparos.

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8 cm) A D O L F WOLFLI Abstraction is a direct. strike the paper to find form. and it has always been with us. writer and composer who suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and was resident in the Waldau Aslyum near Berne. . fictional language. and independent means of communication. An abstract mark is often a better conductor of a thought or feeling.Abstract Lines T HE DEVELOPMENT OF W E S T E R N abstract art at the beginning of the 20th century significantly paralleled major changes in world thought. belief. expressive marks and shapes are at the core of natural. or gestures. don't be timid. Wolfli was a Swiss draftsman. precisely because it does not have to represent a physical object. Museum of Fine Arts. sounds. many nonWestern cultures have highly sophisticated abstractions at the core of their art. As you approach the classes in this chapter. He made thousands of drawings to chronicle his complex life. writhing torrents of color. and emotion. actions. be brave and enjoy them. direction. opposite. The growing rise of Darwinian ideas coupled with Freudian and Marxist perspectives forced Western society to reconsider its origins and future. and have been making abstract drawings for centuries—Japanese calligraphy. abstraction is not so easy to define. spontaneous image-making. Outsider artists. and young children show us that abstract. Berne. such as Adolf Wolfli. drawn sound. First marks. From another viewpoint. for example. liberating. However. Indian mandalas. which are essentially abstract. Swirling. Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape 1915 413/8 x 285/8 in (105 x 72. The fate of Old World thinking was finally sealed with the brutality of World War I. yet my kinship to abstraction is fundamental. picturing a stabilized world was impossible and Modernism rode forth with vigor. Not everything we know has a physical form in the world. it is simply itself. Afterward. Internal workings of the mind were suddenly free to find a new language of expression. and Aboriginal art. People are often scared by abstraction and see it as the enemy of figurative art. It was not invented in the 20th century. all pictorial representations are abstractions of reality. It also underpins and gives strength and unity to all figurative work. poet. Artists were given a different tool—a line threaded directly from their subconscious to their hand—and with it they began to map a bold new landscape of marks and concepts that would dramatically and forever change the face of Western art. Many concepts and feelings can only be expressed through marks. From one point of view. only rediscovered. His drawings are collected and exhibited internationally and held by the Adolf Wolfli Foundation. Perhaps in Western culture we bred this intuitive freedom out of ourselves in our insistence on complex figuration. ADOLF WOLFLI One of the greatest masters of Art Brut. I begin every image by feeling its meaning. and poetic myth roar and cascade within his tightly framed pages. and history. It is actually its foundation and its infrastructure. My own work is firmly centered in figuration.

quoting ink marks on a page. it can keep reforming through the inherent repetition of a process. Mamoru Abe prepares an image that will appear through the chemistry of iron. forged steel. scrolling across the canvas in an intimate crescendo. and plaster in galleries and landscapes. Moisture produced rust. Five forged steel shapes. Abe works with materials such as soil. A line can be finished in a second. and sensitivity with its thickness and pressure of touch. Changes paper. texture. This the paper rest within the amplifies framelike of the floor from the ceiling. and wood are also part of the work. A Neolithic chalk tablet bears cut lines that were slowly carved. silence. He travels widely to research ancient sacred sites. and patient watching. and texture their bracing separation reaching between from beneath Pillars of the gallery are made part of this drawing by their inclusion in the paper.220 A B S T R A C T LINES Process and Harmony SOMETIMES A DRAWN LINE sings on the surface of its support. It can proclaim mood. as Twombly shows us opposite. water. sit in silent harmony. Damp Japanese paper was laid over carefully arranged iron bars. and Assistant Professor of Fine A r t at Fukuoka University. brass. Twombly's mesmeric wax line worked over house paint is like a signature. MAMORU ABE Japanese sculptor and installation artist. Iron rods in tone. The Physical Space 1990 3 0 x 30 ft ( 9 1 4 x 9 1 4 cm) MAMORU ABE . tone. akin to stones in a Zen garden. iron. Below. salt. and temperature rim of floor space. or. staining redbrown lines into the white surface. Lines. rhythmically engaged with itself. ice. Abe's physical drawing is a sculptural installation. Sometimes it smolders like a deep shadow.

close to Stonehenge in Wiltshire. the Babylonian world map.241). The central pictorial space is also similarly cut and divided by the considered arrangement of straight lines. burials. theories suggest astrological observations. PROCESS AND HARMONY Cut lines Chalk carves easily. This example is one of two chalk tablets found in a Late-Neolithic pit.000-2. Many of his graffiti-like combine abstract gestures with statements. such as the Rosetta stone.Twombly was presented with a Golden Lion award for lifetime achievement. and the worship of the sun and ancient gods.221 ANCIENT CARVINGS Many ancient cultures have made and left behind drawings and texts carved into stones or animal bone.400BCE 21/4 x 21/4 in (58 x 58 mm) ARTIST UNKNOWN Language Over the course of fifty years. that challenges the separation of word from image.England. and sensuous drawing from painting. emotive. energetic. CY TWOMBLY . and American Indian petroglyphs (see p. Precise lines suggest the use of a sharp flint The framed rectangle of this image is echoed in that of Abe's installation. and Untitled 1970 Here we might seek to grasp letters in the turning of his line. At the 2001 Venice Biennale. Twombly has language works CY TWOMBLY Contemporary American artist who emerged through the 1950s New York art scene in the heyday of Abstract Expressionism and Action Painting.Thesite's purpose is unknown. evolved a raw. Neolithic Chalk Tablet 3.

o r a pattern o f elements s o unified as a w h o l e t h e y c a n n o t b e e x p l a i n e d asa s u m o f parts. and inventive of his time. below. and let the drying meniscus deposit granules in linear drifts such as we would see in the satellite photographic mapping of rivers. The scores are also exhibited in galleries as visual art. beautiful. Here he appears t o have saturated the cut-out moon disks with gritty pigment. Marks across the center appear to be made with his fingers. said. Ink impressions When drawing nightscapes Hugo often laid paper disks in place of the moon. here he anticipates abstract expressionism by 100 years.222 ABSTRACT LINES Writing Time SINCE THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY. he mixed graphite into ink. abstract artists and composers unique. have striven to break down old pictorial and musical structures to explore new and unfettered modes of expression. interpret. and participate in the composition. A graphic score is a V I C T O R H U G O Hugo's abstract French novelist w h o m a d e m a n y drawings in m i x e d m e d i a ( s e e also p. Texture Compare this drawing to Hugo's octopus on p. Two Impressions Paper 1853-55 VICTOR HUGO Disk from a Cut-Out . Both abstract drawing and composition involve the perfect sequencing of sounds and marks against space and silence. "There is nothing like dream to create the future. music manuscript requiring instrumentalists to improvise. His drawing writes the time of its own physical process by expressing the extreme concentration of the moment in which it was made. Similarity in gritty texture suggests that here. abstract." An innovator who never fails to surprise. too. Gestalt. opposite. Gestalt o f an unnameable thing. o f t e n e x p r e s s e d in v i s u a l t e r m s .28.28). a configuration. Bussotti. brushed night skies over them with ink then lifted the disks to reveal white moons. broke new ground in the 1950s with graphic scores now considered among the most extreme. Hugo. and lifted them away to leave impressions of watery planets and seas. pressed them face down. drawing here can b e described in t e r m s o f a G e r m a n philosophical idea a b o u t is t h e i n s t a n t r e c o g n i t i o n t h e p o w e r o f m o m e n t .

His later works become increasingly abstract. Compare this work to that of Libeskind on p. Following the notes. Sound and rhythm This flickering rondo of sound written in pen on a hand-ruled stave can be heard in our imaginations as much as seen. This is a page from Due Voci.223 W R I T I N G TIME SYLVANO BUSSOTTI Italian avant-garde composer and principal 20thcentury exponent of the graphic score. Circular Score for "Due Voci" c. 70 in relation to Bussotti's clustered notes to the left of his rondo and open space to the right. a far cry from any recognized musical notation. we can feel their rhythm and easily attach sounds to them. 1958 SYLVANO BUSSOTTI . Bussotti's first mature work.

Cell Floor With Torn Strips of Cloth 1894 MARIE LIEB . Lieb is one o f countless thousands of "Outsider" artists—diverse individuals including ordinary citizens. it is found in the regularity o f ordered lines or a pattern. Torn cloth This is one of two published photographs showing Marie Leib's torn cloth strips significantly placed on her cell floor. In the late 1 9 t h century. Visually. making objects and images outside o f mainstream culture. Marie Lieb w a s a psychiatric patient in the Heidelberg Asylum. and c i r c u m s t a n c e s . for e x a m p l e . Germany. they m a k e a visual a n d physical e c h o that t o u c h e s s o m e deep part of the human spirit. d i p p i n g h e r fingers into a pot o f rice flour. centuries. She tore c l o t h into strips a n d used these to draw patterns a n d symbols o n h e r cell floor. Cloth is the simple instrument with which she has conducted and ordered her universe. Compositional rightness (see pp.228-29) has been adjusted with each movement of the rags to draw a cosmos of balance and perfection. O p p o s i t e . It will protect the place from evil and make a pleasing invitation to good spirits. social outcasts. and sufferers of psychiatric illnesses—who have always existed. This takes a form in most cultures. cultures. an a n o n y m o u s w o m a n in the southeast Indian state o f Tamil Nadu m a k e s a ritual drawing o n the b r i c k courtyard o f h e r h o m e .224 A B S T R A C T LINES Chants and Prayers WHEN ABSTRACT LINES are organized in repetition. In music it can be felt in the diversity of plainsong and African d r u m m i n g . T h e s e p h o t o g r a p h s d o c u m e n t the meditative drawings o f two w o m e n living worlds apart in different countries. MARIE LIEB Little is known of this w o m a n for w h o m the act of drawing was essential.

In daily practice.HUYLER Photographer art historian. women pride themselves on never repeating a design.Theseare widely published in journals and are the subjects of international exhibitions. lecturer on the subjects of Indian art and Indian women's identity. Huyler is the author of Painted Prayers. lime. and birds. Skills are handed down through generations and from friend to friend. among others. chalk.225 STEPHEN P. and in places of worship and celebration. Designs and motifs Rangoii (or mandalas) are ritual drawings made by many millions of women across rural India. cultural anthropologist. Motifs are geometrical or based on plants.000 images. Painted Prayers UNDATED STEPHEN R HUYLER . at the University of London and Ohio State University. Materials such as rice flour. or flowers are marked or arranged on the ground or on the walls of homes. Popular magazines feature new ideas each week and on special occasions there may be contests. animals. and for over 30 years has traveled extensively through the Indian subcontinent creating an edited archive of 200.

Oxford. Mixed media This is a collage of torn white and gray tissue paper previously stained with ink. and choice of hues. but similarities in mood. Catling's torn paper shapes and shadows spill light out of their frame like a fractured mirror. Ruskin School. filmmaker Professor of Fine Art. Oval moons eclipse each other and oscillate between landforms and portraiture. BRIAN CATLING British sculptor poet. rocks or heads in a subdued atmosphere of dream. Klee's mathematical maze of thinly washed surface resonates with meticulous planning. free from the direct imaging of known physical things. They each find their pathways and equilibrium in atmosphere and suggestion. gold paint and iridescent gouache mixed with water. These two works present complex compositions with differing intensions and methods of making. Catling's abstract drawings are usually made in series and in parallel to written poetry and sculptural installations. Catling's works made for international galleries and museums involve drawing as a tool in their development and making. With no depth of field.226 ABSTRACT LINES Compositions ABSTRACT DRAWINGS ARE LARGELY or entirely free from using the viewer's eye to track and unfold layers of meaning. and water-resistant layers of spray and enamel paint on thick paper. Untitled 2001 2001 153/4x 215/8 in ( 4 0 0 x 550 mm) BRIAN C A T L I N G . performance and installation artist. figurative representation—that is. and Fellow of Linacre College. structure. it is ruled and contained in one dimension by its interlocking ink-lined borders. Their energy can therefore be a purer expression of an idea or emotion.

philosophized. watercolor.227 PAUL K L E E Swiss painter and sculptor (see also p.97-99.31). and brush. Klee also felt that a line represents the passing of time. Kunstmuseum Bern PAUL KLEE . We can see some diagrammatic examples of this among the optical illusions on pp. and might be read as active or passive. Line and surface Klee observed the visual capacity of lines to push or pull within an image. and wrote copiously about the natures and relationships of color and form. whereas tonal surfaces are perceived more immediately as a whole. Klee painted. ruler. drew. It is a geometric harmony of straight lines and tonally graded flat colors that by their arrangement draw our eyes inward to their white center. Geometric harmony This is a work on paper made with a sharp ink pen. He explained his polyphonic painting as "a harmony of several color voices" searching for a visual parallel to music. Polyphon Gefasstes Weiss (White Framed Polyphonically) 1930 131/8x95/8 in (333 x 245 mm) Paul-Klee-Stiftung.

W h e n m o v i n g objects around in your yard. It is found in all great art and design. culture. Set up a sheet of paper with a rectangle drawn on it.Thisexercise will help you start." SETTING UP Justness can be harmonious or deliberately discordant. or degree of figuration. s o m e will be more or less h a r m o n i o u s . there is a clear feeling when. the late garden designer Russell Page explains. w i l l c h a n g e w i t h e v e r y r e a r r a n g e m e n t . they reach a perfect position. they are just. or home. There is a single m o m e n t w h e n all proportions. M a n y of their inter-relationships will be meaningless." . for instance. "I have experimented endlessly with this idea. It is also found in nature. Seek it when looking at other artists' work and in your everyday environment. after being continuously adjusted. b u t e v e r y n o w a n d again you will hit on an arrangement w h i c h appears just. "Whenall pictorial elements come together in pleasing and perfect balance. regardless of style. the impression y o u receive from t h e m . As y o u m o v e them around. their impact. or on a page. Take. and ten straight sticks painted black. but an easy o n e to u n d e r s t a n d . a glass. This balance is what every artist and designer searches a n d feels for when making an image. and elements settle in definitive balance. and put them o n a tray. angles. a b u n c h of keys. Feel for it when youdraw. In his b o o k The Education of a Gardener. and an apple. media.228 ABSTRACT LINES Being "Just" A SENSE OF "JUST" (or rightness) is a difficult concept to explain.

painted black.56-57). Arrange them so they touch or cross in a series of intersecting balances. Remember the drawn rectangle is a part of the composition (see pp. Feel for the rightness of their grouping and their relationships to surrounding spaces. Move the sticks out into the rectangle. . horizontals dominate the top. B E I N G "JUST" 1 Arrange your ten sticks in t w o groups of five.229 WHERE TO START Take ten sticks of equal length. 2 3 In the step above. A stick touching the rectangle links the composition to the frame. suggesting a horizon. W h e n the composition falls into place. Here." Move the sticks to find alignments and imagined perspectives. horizontals dominate the lower area. In the final step (left) there is an even balance. making the composition seem to float beneath. which now becomes a tight frame. as shown here. fix it with glue. Within a rectangle on a flat sheet of paper set about making a composition using no other rule than a sense of "just.

. stain and dry a sheet of tissue paper using blueink.69 and Abe's installation on p. colors.220. or even strident.Youwill also need spare white paper. This principal also applies to three-dimensional drawings such as Gaudi's work with wire and weights on p. or discordance.. To prepare for this lesson.230 ABSTRACT LINES Collage H E R E W E EXPERIMENT with collage." (Russell Page) .228-29). colors and textures can be manipulated until their pictorial harmony." overlapping placement of materials on a flat plane. and tones. correction fluid or white paint. Once the ten painted black sticks are set and glued in place. you start composing by adding or subtracting shapes and textures and using colors and tones to achieve the impression you want to m a k e — w h e t h e r dramatic or s u b d u e d . harmonious. a compass. an infinite range of voices and meaning. Returning to Russell Page. found or made items. "My understanding is that every object [or shape] emanates—sends out vibrations beyond its physical body which are specific to itself. and black ink. Collage offers the artist a liberating palette of SETTING UP This lesson in collage is a direct continuation of the compositional lines made in the previous class. Cut or torn layers and shapes. ready-made depths and surfaces. scissors. Images and fragments torn from day-to-day life can be brought together to make a chorus of ideas and emotions. hard or soft. glue. feels "just" (see pp. he went on to say ". which is the shifting. they become a scaffold for the addition of further textures.

Glue them in place once they feel "just" Translucent circular disks of tissue paper give color tone.231 WHAT TO DO Lay the final step of the previous lesson (p. correction fluid and ink marks add further dimensions. In the last step (left). solidity.228) in front of you. then cut out. . draw. they deepen pictorial space.The single disk that is folded with its straight edge facing up appears heavier than those that are flat. four circles of blue tissue paper. COLLAGE 1 Regular-sized pieces of white paper are moved over the surface to disrupt the even lines. 2 3 Torn white paper moved over the surface adds masks of rough-edged irregular volume. Cut six small rectangles the same proportion as your whole image. Obscuring the blue disks. This can also give a sense of fragmentation or punctuation to the composition. and with a compass and scissors. and shadow to thepicture.

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Hitsuzendo drawings aspire to "breathe with the energy and vitality of eternal life" achieved through "a state of no mind—beyond thought. A MODERN JAPANESE meditative art form inspired by the teachings of Yamaoka Tesshu (1836-1888).Zen Calligraphy HITSUZENDO. ." [Tanchu Terayama. is the practice of Zen through the calligraphic marks of a brush dipped in carbon ink. emotion. Zen Brushwork]. and expectation.

discord is balanced against rhythm to create mood. These vibrate against washes of shadow and pitch-black mass. .Nocturnes IN THIS QUARTET of semi-abstract drawings made with India ink. Lines made with a steel dip pen take on a scratchy nervousness. I flicked spatters of ink and rubbed the paper with a wet and a dry brush to achieve these effects.

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look for images in the folds of clothing. and the faces of God have for centuries given artists a feast for the extremes of their imagination. aliens. a collaboration between the two will ensure that your drawings glow with originality. and the Alien trilogy. Throughout this book images are presented to excite and surprise and drawing classes created to increase your confidence. Be inspired by the irrational comedy of word association or puns. our eye circulates around a flutter of leather and scaly wings. or strange. a Catherine wheel of drawn sparks spiraling around the quietly resolute saint. and damnation are found in most world faiths.Gods and Monsters OUR SACRED AND SECULAR need to visualize demons. Images we are now surrounded by bear testimony to the power and resourcefulness of their collective imagination. scales. in the cracks of walls. beasts. for example. Today. In the Christian churches of Europe. which were widely distributed and influential in his time. The salvation of heaven and terrors of hell are represented equally—enough to make any sinner shudder. Fantasy is most successful when founded on strong and familiar visual logic. We love our fear of the hybrid—ideally. .247. When creating monsters. Perhaps the Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 1485 121/4 x 9 in (312 x 230 mm) MARTIN SCHONGAUER most important conclusion in this final chapter is to advise you to develop your skills in parallel with the joy of your unfolding imagination. happen to us. thousands of paintings. Depictions of God or of gods in the contexts of daily life. feathers. I was on a train passing through Nuneaton. England. wings. Feeding this demand. movie studios now brim with as many monsters as the visual art of the Medieval and Renaissance Church. our literate and more secular Western society still hungers for another world and to ravenously indulge its fascination for the marvelous. To learn to flex your imagination. angels. and stained-glass windows deliver powerful visual sermons to the once-illiterate populace. we select details of animals farthest from ourselves and that are widely thought disturbing—reptilian and insect features. Schongauer is best known for his prints. For example. Star Wars. Humans are equally troubled by the imperceptibly small and the enormous. which is to have eaten a nun—it inspired the drawing on p. Here. Reading the place name I momentarily glimpsed an alternative meaning. We then add substances we dislike: unidentified fluids. impossible. We watch with captivated pleasure movies such as The Fly. paradise. or in smoke. a human-animal mix that implies this could MARTIN SCHONGAUER German painter and engraver who settled to work in Colmar Alsace. Lord of the Rings. and deep fur—and we alter their scale. sculptures. Neither should be slave or master. Monsters take advantage of both. all of which originated as hundreds of drawings. serpentine tails.

Many students leave white backgrounds in their work.240 GODS AND M O N S T E R S Marks of Influence marking the influence of one artist upon another. reading from a book of asses. and church murals. Compare his dark. hags. This continuity enriches the making of art and our heritage. below. plain wall suggests a blinkered view of nothing. to Picasso's similarly tight. quoting great paintings and popular culture to add cunning twists to his satires. whose impassioned work begins with light tapestry cartoons.30. rushing. The well-dressed mule is cumbersome. Violent white marks symbolizing Achilles' rage resonate with the energy of Twombly's script on p. portraits. noisy seascape on p. Opposite. his lover a dog. Goya's plainly textured gray background pushes back the space behind the illuminated simply subject. They depict as if by lamplight the devil and witches. we see the international icon of stupidity. The high. Francisco de Goya was a master of borrowing. Pictorially. it allows the mule to stand forward. He would be graceless if he stood. This act defines the vision and continues the line of spirit guides. crammed tightly at his desk. Near the end of his life he made his "Black Paintings" on the walls of his home. Aquatint Goya has drawn a learned man as an ass. Opposite below. Paul Thomas's studies of Picasso and Twombly can be traced directly. and follies of court through copious graphic works including his best-known prints. Other drawn versions of this image are more savage and frightening. barren land rising like MYRIAD CHAINS RUN THROUGH ART HISTORY. Los Caprichos. In this ass. which can swamp the subject Here. In this softer aquatint he poses for his portrait Textured background The aquatint process has been used to great effect in making a gritty toned background. and men clubbing each other to death. The title "And So Was His Grandfather" adds that should we not already know. and exposed the superstitions. F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A Spanish court painter printmaker and draftsman. deranged masses. Visions experienced in front of the drawing sometimes instruct the making of a new one. Saturn devouring his son. such asinine behavior can be hereditary. Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 1799 81/2 x 6 in (218 x 154 mm) FRANCISCO DE GOYA .220. Goya later recorded the horrors of Napoleonic occupation. a wave to join Achilles' chase of Hector. vanity. a Shoshone seeking guidance and power meditates at the sacred site of a petroglyph.

Parallel lines within the body of the figure are likely to denote power. and personal and social struggles. ideals. Simple wall stones cleverly state their cold solidity while also fading from our attention as the scene roars by. or of the water Chipped image This is a sacred creature of the sky chipped onto rock at Dinwoody Lake. Graphite marks Here Achilles chases Hector around the walls of Troy before killing him. meaning "place of power. Achilles Chases Hector 1996 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) PAUL THOMAS SHOSHONE PETROGLYPH The Shoshone people of Wyoming name petroglyph sites Poha Kahni.241 MARKS OF INFLUENCE PAUL T H O M A S British contemporary artist whose epic graphic work questions and reflects upon issues of European identity. A vivid spectrum of energized graphite marks and a masterly composition give this drawing vitality and speed. of the earth. perhaps a stone. by a supplicant in a trance of meditation. Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range UNDATED ARTIST UNKNOWN . Wyoming. Thomas conducts his explorations in the mine of Greek and Roman mythology. It was made with a sharp implement. Wind River Reservation. values." Each sacred image drawn into rock belongs to one of three realms in the Shoshone world: the realm of the sky. White marks like flashes of light are cut though graphite with an eraser to reveal the paper beneath.

The Eye Like a Strange Mounts Balloon 165/8 x131/8in (422 x 332 mm) ODILON REDON 1882 Toward Infinity . crawl. Children are also delighted to invent a monster or ghoul. as he did the grass. below left. GODS AND Erasure In this charcoal drawing. 115. and scuttle over all known reality. Techniques demonstrated on pp. the shock would be extreme. We may feel safe so long as the eye looks heavenward. which sometimes—half-dressed and carrying a familiar trophy— stride. H e was influenced by his friends. Lifting out Fine strings of the hot-air balloon appear dark against the sky and light against the balloon. the writers Joris-Karl Huysmans and Stephane Mallarme. ODILON REDON French painter draftsman. Here we see how he evolved their injuries into new limbs and warped proportions. If it were to turn and stare this way. and writer In contrast t o the light and visual accent of contemporary Impressionism.204-05 will enable you to produce a similar effect of white lines shining out of dark charcoal. T H E EXPLORATION AND DEPICTION Hauntings Grandville has drawn a scurrying zoo of half-known demons and animals that appear to have been stolen from the glass eye of the microscope. Redon lifted them out with some sort of eraser. Compare worked textures throughout the whole of this image to those found throughout Anita Taylor's charcoal drawing on p.242 MONSTERS of the unknown is a classical and constant occupation for the artist. we see parallel slanting pale marks that might have been made with fresh bread—a very effective eraser used before the wide availability of rubber or plastic. Our subconscious can be drawn with pleasure and ease. Redon's eyeball balloon rises up.and 16th-century Holland. lifting its cranial passenger over a seascape of repose. The monsters of Bosch grew from his observations of beggars going about their trade in 15th. to the right of the balloon. Redon explored the darker side of the human imagination through symbols and mysticism. graphic artist. They float toward us like a horrid visitation.

and he illustrated the Fables of La Fontaine and Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe. 1840 61/8 x41/2in ( 1 5 5 x 1 1 5 mm) GRANDVILLE HIERONYMUS BOSCH Dutch painter Bosch's highly detailed iconographic religious panel paintings. Quill and ink This typical Bosch monster is a quill drawing in bistre ink The phrasing of light and contour here is masterly. Madrid. include The Haywain. Last Judgment. Les Animaux (1840). sucker-faced creatures dash and trundle toward it They are drawn solidly to emphasize their earthbound weight. Light shines from the right. Most of his work is in the Prado Museum. and Ship of Fools. teeming with the exhilaration of unrestrained fantasy. His other major works include Metamorphoses du Jour (1828). which is still available today.243 J E A N I G N A C E ISIDORE GERARD ("GRANDVILLE") French graphic artist and political satirist. grimacing. Garden of Earthly Delights. Comic little headbands of waving hair express more hysteria than fear. The quality of the line is therefore uniform throughout. HAUNTINGS Engraving This is an engraving made so that Grandville's original drawing could be reproduced. This image is from one of Grandville's best-known publications. Smiling. Two Monsters UNDATED 45/8 x61/2in (117 x 163 mm) HIERONYMUS BOSCH . A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects c.

a stunning hybrid of a swan. muscular tension is carved out of the paper using layered. They share between them the pleasures of inventing a hybrid beast. snake. Two previously drawn faces become humorous antagonists to the beast. and dog. the dome of the Vatican. gamboling copulations. and mist-swathed land. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI Florentine painter sculptor. but in the seductive landscape of Leonardo da Vinci's oil painting Madonna of the Rocks. and engineer Among Michelangelo's great works are the painted ceiling and altar wall of the Sistine Chapel. A snake eating its own tail is a universal image of the eternal and continuous. His entire drawing wrestles and weaves the viewer's eye into its retracting folds.244 GODS AND MONSTERS Convolutions THESE CONVOLUTED DRAWINGS were made almost 5 0 0 years apart. Scaly. wraps and coils its lithe body ready to strike or whimper at a touch. sometimes artists purposefully tie a knot in the configuration to disturb. Chalk and ink A quill dipped in brown ink was worked over black chalk on this reused sheet. hatched lines. and dying slaves. Grimes found the genesis of her beast not among animals. In her studio. David. Opposite. Michelangelo's dragon. she formed a series of ghostly pale. St Peter's square. phrased over the contours of form and bridging darker areas of shadow. below. Grimes' delicately cavorting figures dive into and consume each other. as we might expect. and marble sculptures including Pieto. poet. However. remembering the cavernous. Dragon 1522 10 x 133/8 in ( 2 5 4 x 3 3 8 m m ) MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI . topple. and play with its perfection and meaning. pinnacled. architect. lion.

boards finished paper. London. each one iridescent and crumbly like a weathered while oyster. her under heavy here. The large space around figure has been cropped Grimes drawings to flatten presses them. details evolved slowly using a drier brush. Grimes exhibits internationally and features in the collections of the New York Public Library and the Victoria and Albert Museum.245 CONVOLUTIONS O O N A GRIMES British contemporary artist and professor of printmaking at the Ruskin School. The image formed directly without first making a pencil outline. How Clever of God #84 2002 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) O O N A GRIMES . It is one of a series of fragile earth figures inspired by rocks. Oxford. Ink-wash delicately gouache (smooth) and gouache brushed drawing on This is a and was hot-pressed Shadows The dark shadow of the Other the ink-wash earth was made with a brushstroke of ink laid into wet paper. and the Camberwell and Slade Schools of Fine Art. London.

LARGER JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with natural hair held in a plastic ferrule on a bamboo handle. which holds long sable hair This brush holds large amounts of ink for long lines and points well for detailed work. the very opposite of pencil or silver point. This design supplies the fine tip with a long continuity of ink 5. and has a fine tip for detailed work. Soaps purchased from good art supply stores will gently cleanse particles of pigment that become trapped in the hairs or ferrule. 12. making rt ideally suited to Japanese painting and small-scale calligraphy. 13. SABLE-HAIR LINER: Made with ordinary sable hair surrounding an extralong. needle-sharp center of kolinsky red sable hair. and never leave them standing on their tip in a jar of water. M T RA S AEIL . SQUIRREL-HAIR S W O R D LINER:This brush has a maximum ink-holding capacity and an extremely fine and flexible point 8. 1. 2. The living marks of a wet. dense. materials. washes. SYNTHETIC-HAIR S W O R D LINER: A lining brush with high ink-holding capacity and a fine point. The brushes shown here are a mixture of This is a selection of riggers. JAPANESE PAINTING BRUSH: Made with natural hair. It is still relatively small in the total range of Japanese brushes. Suitable for wash techniques but also capable of very fine detail. SYNTHETIC-HAIR LINER: This brush gives a medium line and is firm with a spring to the touch. and writers. Slightly less flexible than the squirrel-hair sword liner 9. thicknesses. SYNTHETIC-HAIR BRUSH: Bound in a synthetic ferrule with good inkholding capacity and good spring and control. shape. it has good wash capabilities. 7." 6. between them. Some are bold. How you care for your brushes will determine how long they last. liners.H A I R RIGGER: Made with long synthetic hair for fine-point work It has a good ink-holding capacity and is slightly more resilient than sable hair with more "snap. SMALL JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with sable hair. 3. It is capable of very fine pointing. P O I N T E D T R A D I T I O N A L WRITER: The ferrule is made from a small duck quill. S Y N T H E T I C . SABLE-HAIR RIGGER: Made with very long kolinsky sable hairs. drawing tool extending the arm. it has good inkholding capacity and is very flexible.H A I R LINER: Very responsive oriental-style liner This to the touch.Theyhold plenty of ink and make continuous. ideally suited to drawing. all perfect for drawing and. Some used by master calligraphers are 2-3 in (5-8 cm) in diameter 11. ink-laden tip allow an expression that is beyond the linear. and wrist into a fluid and soft touch. Brushes vary in size. Always clean them thoroughly. others are as fine as a whisker with a gentle touch. and hold prodigious weights of ink or paint. and texture.246 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brushes T H E BRUSH IS A VOLUPTUOUS and delicate weights. POINTED SQUIRREL-HAIR MOP: With a synthetic quill ferrule and extra high inkholding capacity. and effects. giving a variety of lines. Shorter brushes designed for other purposes run out of ink more quickly. 10. L A R G E R S Y N T H E T I C . return them to their pointed shape. fingers. It has exceptional painting characteristics. This brush has a broad wash capability and can achieve a very wide range of marks. with a fine point for delicate work 4. this brush has a soft drawing tip and small ink-holding capacity. and very fine lines. flowing.

247 BRUSHES .

SETTING UP Blowing spots T h e s e t h r e e s p i d e r y c r e a t u r e s (above right and below) w e r e m a d e by d r o p p i n g s p o t s o f ink f r o m a b r u s h o n t o t h e p a g e and. I had left the end of the ink block in the water overnight to make it easier to dissolve. Here I drew with a soft Japanese painting brush (see pp. w i t h m y face close. b l o w i n g h a r d o n t h e m several t i m e s t o disperse t h e ink ( c l o s e y o u r eyes if y o u t r y this. and to make pools and stains o n the page. length. the texture and a b s o r b e n c y of the paper ( w h i c h m a y be d a m p or dry). and type of its hairs. the speed of the s t r o k e . the degree of pressure applied.35) into two tablespoons of water in a shallow. unglazed earthenware dish. and above all w h e t h e r the b r u s h is saturated with pigment or relatively dry. I rubbed a block of Chinese ink (see p. It also depends on the angle at w h i c h it is held.248 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brush Marks A S I N G L E BRUSH will m a k e an e n o r m o u s range of m a r k s depending u p o n the width. A single brush has almost balletic potential to draw fine or undulating lines and curves. softness. splashes.246-47).) I . and spatters.

a n d t h e w a y it d i s t r i b u t e s w h e n t h e b r u s h is d a b b e d o n its s i d e . BRUSH MARKS Wet and dry strokes A m o n g these concentrated drawings ink made into with the same w a t e r y lines. . b l e e d i n g f r o m strokes b e l o w left. a n d b r u s h . w e see fine lines and s p o t s .249 Gritty texture T h e details o f t h e largest creatures b e l o w and opposite s h o w the granular texture of Chinese b l o c k ink. t h e effects of the b r u s h r u n n i n g o u t o f ink.

I borrowed small and fragile specimens from the University Museum of Natural History. Oxford. until we look again.Monsters THESE LITTLE CREATURES o f i n k and i n v e n t i o n were b o r n out of animal and bird studies. . and used their detail to draw new creatures that might at first seem familiar.

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Goya's Monsters W I T H CUNNING BRILLIANCE. With further research. I found relationships between all four paintings in terms of shapes. thin works made by Bartolome Murillo in Seville about 120 years earlier. They are a pair and hang opposite each other. Through studying and drawing these great paintings I have discovered that they are based on a pair of similarly long. Among his "Black Paintings" in the Prado Museum. formal composition. two of my own drawings show you how Goya's devil (below) is based on the shape of Murillo's boy on a horse (top right). thin works titled The Witches' Sabbath and The Procession of St. showing us that gallery study is not just for the student and beginner. Madrid. Goya often invented his monsters out of characters seen in other painters' works. and narrative twists. Isidore. Goya's witches have been literally drawn and evolved out of the shapes of Murillo's prophet and pilgrims. Here. . are two long.

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Sometimes drawings come out of nowhere and surprise even the artist. little comments on politeness and sexual politics. drawn rapidly and with great joy.Consumed THIS IS A SERIES OF CARTOONS I m a d e s o m e years ago. .

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Camera lucida A n optical device t h a t p r o j e c t s an image o f an o b j e c t o n t o a plain s u r f a c e so t h a t it can be traced. n e w s p a p e r cuttings. m e a n i n g "beauty". A " s h a l l o w d e p t h o f field" m e a n s t h e p i c t u r e appears t o have only a shallow s p a c e inside i t Diffuse T o s o f t e n o r m a k e less brilliant. charcoal. Aerial perspective The effect of the a t m o s p h e r e o v e r distance as it lightens t o n e s a n d cools c o l o r s progressively t o w a r d t h e horizon. p r a c t i c e d meditatively w i t h a brush." It w a s first given t o t o n a l paintings m a d e in o n e c o l o r — s e e Grisaille. A f u l l . U s e d as a c o r r e c t i n g device o r pictorial game. in w h i c h parts o f an image are depicted v e r y brightly and dramatically against d a r k n e s s . 2.m e d i a d r a w i n g . Fixative lightly glues t h e d r a w i n g t o t h e surface o f t h e p a p e r t o p r e v e n t smudging. t h e l i g h t is b e h i n d h i m o r her. Also called accelerated perspective. o r o t h e r (usually large) w o r k — s e e Pouncing. Binder A substance t h a t holds particles o f p i g m e n t t o g e t h e r in a paint f o r m u l a t i o n . Air brush A mechanical. Fauvism A n early 2 0 t h . a n d attaches t h e m t o t h e s u p p o r t — f o r example. Acid-free paper P a p e r w i t h a neutral p H t h a t will n o t darken o r d e t e r i o r a t e excessively w i t h age.The plate is t h e n r o l l e d w i t h ink a n d polished with a rag. A h u m o r o u s d r a w i n g o r parody. as o p p o s e d t o t h e s t r a i g h t e d g e o f a sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has b e e n machine-trimmed. p r i n t i n g press face up. Conservation grade D e s c r i b e s a range o f materials t h a t d o n o t d e c a y and cannot be broken d o w n by insects. chance mark-making. pressurized t o o l used f o r spraying fine mists o f s m o o t h c o l o r P i g m e n t is d e l i v e r e d b y a j e t o f air n o t t h e bristles o f a brush. 2. in w h i c h t h e subject's distinctive features o r peculiarities are deliberately exaggerated f o r c o m i c o r g r o t e s q u e effect. S o m e t i m e s f e r r u l e s a r e m a d e o f plastic o r o t h e r materials. s u c h as a d r a w i n g o r painting. Chiaroscuro A 1 7 t h . pastel. p h o t o g r a p h s . Composition T h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e p a r t s o f an i m a g e t o m a k e u p the whole. A i r b r u s h e s are u s e d in t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c o m i c s . w h e n a p e r s o n is p a i n t e d standing a g a i n s t a w i n d o w . s u c h as a s c r e e n . a n d g r a p h i t e . r a t h e r t h a n r e c o r d e d o n a film o r plate.m a d e paper. Erasure T h e a c t o f r e m o v i n g a n i m a g e f r o m a surface. L a t e r it c a m e t o m e a n h i g h l y c o n t r a s t e d light effects. so t h a t ink r e m a i n s o n l y in t h e g r o o v e s o f s c r a t c h e d lines.d i m e n s i o n a l i m a g e . Bleed T h e e f f e c t o f t w o w e t colors running into one another o r o n e color applied t o a w e t surface a n d a l l o w e d t o d i s p e r s e . o f t e n d i s t o r t e d forms and vivid colors. R e m b r a n d t is a great master o f chiaroscuro.s i z e d r a w i n g m a d e for t h e purpose o f transferring a design t o a painting. Deckle edge T h e i r r e g u l a r e d g e o f a s h e e t o f m o l d . t o g e t h e r w i t h a t h i c k felt b l a n k e t T h e w h o l e s a n d w i c h o f l a y e r s is t h e n railed t h r o u g h t h e press t o m a k e a p r i n t D r y p o i n t is a very portable and immediate m e t h o d o f printmaking. Calligraphy Beautiful h a n d w r i t i n g . In t h e Far East calligraphy is a highly r e s p e c t e d a r t f o r m . Contre jour A F r e n c h t e r m m e a n i n g " a g a i n s t day. T h e b l a n k e t s g i v e t h e p a p e r its rough texture o r "tooth. A l s o c a l l e d t h e h o r i z o n line.c e n t u r y Italian t e r m m e a n i n g "clear-obscure." " N o t " p r e s s e d p a p e r is r o l l e d a s e c o n d t i m e w i t h o u t blankets t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders t o p r o d u c e a s m o o t h e r b u t still slightly t e x t u r e d s u r f a c e . A l s o called m u s e u m g r a d e . See also Hotpressed papers. Field In a t w o . Cartoon 1. Engraving 1. R o u g h p a p e r is m a d e b e t w e e n t w o blankets t h a t . A p o t e n t i a l l y h a r s h m e t h o d o f p r o d u c i n g t o n e s in a d r a w i n g . usually at a n a c u t e angle t o t h e s u r f a c e . a n d given t h e n a m e Sho.c e n t u r y painting m o v e m e n t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e use o f b o l d . Ferrule T h e s h o r t m e t a l t u b e t h a t s u r r o u n d s a n d g n p s t h e hairs o f a p a i n t b r u s h a n d fixes t h e m t o t h e brush handle." D e s c r i b e s a p a i n t i n g in w h i c h t h e light s o u r c e is b e h i n d t h e s u b j e c t F o r e x a m p l e . Anamorphic distortion Stretching an i m a g e across a p i c t u r e surface so t h a t it can o n l y b e u n d e r s t o o d . C o p p e r p l a t e engravings w e r e widely used t o r e p r o d u c e images b e f o r e p h o t o g r a p h y . Blotting T h e use o f a b s o r b e n t m a t e r i a l t o lift a w a y excess liquid. T h e prints t a k e n from t h e s e plates o r blocks. Collage C o l l e c t e d materials such as c o l o r e d p a p e r s . A g e n e r a l t e r m t h a t describes t h e various processes o f c u t t i n g a design i n t o a plate o r b l o c k o f m e t a l o r w o o d . It is p u t o n a Body color See Gouache. A l s o called r i n g l e t shading. F r o m t h e G r e e k kallos. tapestry. w h e n v i e w e d f r o m a specified point. T h e m o v e m e n t was started by a g r o u p o f French artists including H e n r i Matisse. D a m p p a p e r is laid o n t o p . In t h e W e s t p e n calligraphy is u s e d t o c r e a t e f o r m a l a n d d e c o r a t i v e t e x t s . for example. It can also seal a silver p o i n t d r a w i n g t o p r e v e n t t h e oxidization (browning) o f t h e Drypoint A d r a w i n g is s c r a t c h e d directly o n t o a m e t a l plate w i t h a m e t a l t o o l h e l d like apen. a r e r o l l e d t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders. Crosshatching Parallel lines d r a w n across o n e a n o t h e r at right angles. o r will o n l y a p p e a r n o r m a l . and readymade objects arranged and stuck o n t o a flat surface. Fixative Liquid acrylic resin a n d l a c q u e r t h i n n e r usually a p p l i e d as a n a e r o s o l s p r a y m i s t t o t h e surface o f a d r y . linseed oil o r egg y o l k Caricature A representation Contour line A line t h a t f o l l o w s t h e s h a p e o f a surface. Eye level T h e i m a g i n a r y h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e a t t h e s a m e h e i g h t as t h e a v e r a g e p e r s o n ' s eyes.256 GLOSSARY Glossary Accidental drawing Random. t h e field is t h e a p p a r e n t a n d b e l i e v a b l e space inside t h e p i c t u r e . W o r d s o r symbols are Cold-pressed papers P a p e r manufactured with a "not" o r " r o u g h " surface. m e a n i n g " t o stick" Dry media M e d i a t h a t a r e n o t w e t o r o i l y — f o r e x a m p l e . Bracelet shading C u r v e d parallel lines t h a t f o l l o w t h e c o n t o u r s o f f o r m . T h e name " n o t " simply refers t o t h e fact t h a t t h e cylinders are n o t h o t in t e m p e r a t u r e . written with a broad-nibbed pen o r brush. Blending M e r g i n g t w o o r m o r e neighboring colors o r tones t o g e t h e r using a tortillon. F r o m t h e French v e r b coller. Camera obscura A d a r k e n e d c h a m b e r i n t o w h i c h an i m a g e o f w h a t is o u t s i d e is received t h r o u g h a small o p e n i n g o r lens a n d f o c u s e d in natural c o l o r o n a facing surface.

It is a strong adhesive. After several intervening processes. Picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. Paper is laid on top and a rapid drawing is made on the back of it The paper lifts away to reveal the image on its other side. to give the illusion of depth and distance. or a family of colors. Pointillism A technique of using points or dots of pure color in such a way that when the picture is viewed from a distance they react Masking tape Invaluable. or for wrapping and protecting a finished piece of work. This method incorporates the excitement of accidental and unpredicted marks. Also used by artists' materials manufacturers to indicate the use of a substitute pigment—for example. or plastic surface. but each print will be unique. to describe a surface to which paint will adhere readily. Monochrome Usually refers to a black. aiming to represent facts rather than an interpretation of the subject. Foreshortening A method of depicting an object at an angle to the surface of the picture. Gamut A complete range or extent Glassine A type of thin. and that will "escape" or change over time. The ink attaches to the oil-based image and is repelled by the wet stone. but in picture-making it is as important as the objects/subjects themselves. . This may be disregarded in real life. the surface of the stone is made wet before being rolled with a thin film of oilbased printing ink. or a drawing made in any single color GLOSSARY Linear perspective A form of perspective in which parallel lines are represented as converging. and by artists representing stone sculptures in a painting. Paper is then pressed against the stone to take a print. Lightfast A term confirming that pigment in the product will not fade with exposure to light. Fugitive A term given to a pigment that it is not stable. Artists can paint freely over dry masking fluid. Padua. Hot-pressed papers (HP) Paper made using hot cylinders. Lifting out A method of creating highlights and mid-tones in a drymedia drawing (such as charcoal or graphite). and gray drawing. Papercut A type of collage in which flat sheets of paper are cut into an image. and it has a history in enamel work. Also refers to an additive used to control the application properties of a color Golden Section A proportion in which a straight line or rectangle is divided into two unequal parts in such a way that the ratio of the smaller part to the greater part is the same as that of the greater part to the whole. cadmium yellow hue. and orientation of the image. Plumb line A line from which a weight is suspended in order to determine verticality or depth. Dark tones are laid down first then an eraser or masking tape is used to lift away particles of the drawing media to reveal the lightness of the paper beneath. Grisaille A painting in gray or a grayish color Often made by students as a tonal exercise. shape. Masking fluid Clear or opaque latex fluid developed for watercolor painting. Hairspray is an effective and inexpensive alternative. Ground A wet solution usually of gouache or gesso (chalk and animal glue) brushed onto paper board. rock. Usually an academic drawing observed from life. the finely ground particles of plant.Theground provides a particular color or texture beneath the image. lifting out charcoal and other dry media. and translucent paper—a delicate material used in collage. multiH u e A term for a color.257 metal line. so that (using vanishing point perspective) the object appears to change shape and become narrower or smaller as it recedes. The surface can be reloaded or redrawn with more medium. Giotto's Virtues and Vices in the Arena Chapel. it is the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work Pigment Any substance used as a coloring agent—for example. or can be otherwise used to create an image—for example. Lithography A method of printmaking in which a drawing or painting is made directly onto a smooth slab of particular limestone or a metal plate using an oilbased crayon or ink. sticky paper tape. glass. upright images are called "portrait which is used as a binding agent in many liquid media. It is then peeled away. oil-based printing ink is rolled evenly onto a smooth metal. Alternatively." A piece of paper is placed on top of an object or rough surface. graphite. A small image might be described as small format Horizontal images are often said to be "landscape format" (abbreviated G u m arabic The natural to"landscape"). and masking off areas of a drawing that the artist wishes to keep untouched by media applied above or beside the tape. materials that produce marks on a surface. which has a rough surface). including Max Ernst used frottage in their work. Hatching (cross-) See Crosshatching. This effect emulates what we see in real life. of the ingredients in inks and watercolors.while secretion of the acacia tree.The paper then bears a crayon impression or copy of the surface that was underneath it A number of Surrealists. Monoprinting A direct method of printing in which wet medium (water-. then rubbed over carefully but vigorously with a crayon. Medium A generic term for art Key A painting is said to be "high key" when the colors and tones are bright and "low key" when they are dark or somber The term is also used Gouache Opaque watercolor Also called body color. are painted in grisaille and appear to be made of stone. white. or spirit-based) is applied to a surface that is then pressed onto paper and removed to leave a print. 2. mineral. or even a beam of light. format" (abbreviated to "portrait"). or canvas and allowed to dry before an image is drawn or painted. purpose. and is also used as a size. F o r m The outer surface of a three-dimensional object. work. Negative space The space between things. Rubens used grisaille to paint small images for engravers. oil-. enabling them to stick to paper It also helps to maintain a stable dispersion of pigment particles in water as the film of a wash dries. It improves the bonding properties Frottage A French term meaning "rubbing. which give it a smooth surface (as opposed to cold-pressed paper. Impressing Stamping or printing. with the area beneath remaining unaffected. Objective drawing Refers to the concept of objectivity. pastel. It can be used with any wet media to isolate or protect parts of an image from further Optical blending See Pointillism. Grisaille is occasionally seen in church stained-glass windows. or synthetic material that are suspended in a medium to constitute paint. used for fixing paper to walls and boards.The degree to which detail is defined. glossy. F o r m a t T h e size. ink. Focus 1 . A point of interest in a drawing.

Zen A school of Mahayana Buddhism that asserts that enlightenment can come through meditation and intuition rather than faith. creating more vibrant effects than if the same colors were physically mixed together with a brush. or the right-hand page in a book. Shade A that is color mixed (or toned) with black Shading A lay term for adding tone to a drawing. wall or tapestry. plaster or cloth surface beneath. Props An abbreviation of the word properties. or point on which parallel lines converge to give the impression of receding space. a point at which receding parallel lines meet Verso The back or underside of a piece of paper. Size A weak glue used for filling the porous surface of wood or canvas in order to seal it. which are then called editions. using a brush. and flowers. sometimes drawn from a and leaving only the pricked sheet of shadow cast on a wall. in tone running from black to white or vice versa. Tortillon A short. "Spirits" or "oil" of turpentine refer to the volatile portion used by artists to thin or dilute oil-based paint. The crude material is called oleoresin. meaning objects used in setting up a life model or still life. Zen brushwork This is an oriental meditative art form originating in China and practised for many centuries in Japan. plaster. Pounce (a fine for an unpopular 18th-century powder of charcoal or similar French politician. carbon ink. Alternatively.Technicaldrawing has been example. tight. Technical drawing A universal it is often used in conjunction language of lines and measurements with line drawings in pen and that is used to make diagrammatic ink—for images. giving it a brilliance. such as an inscribed sheet of metal. Squaring up A method of enlarging and transferring an image from one surface to another. Support The structure on which an image is made—for example. or ceramic glazing to reveal a different color beneath. W e t media Any liquid media— for example. pointed roll of white paper that is used to blend dry media. Stylus A sharp. The translucent Tint A color mixed with white. Serigraphy Silk-screen printing. Volume The amount of space occupied by an object or an area of space in itself. Still life A picture composed of inanimate objects such as bowls. or watercolor paint. Underdrawing A pale preliminary drawing made prior to adding layers of another medium such as oil paint or watercolor Value The extent to which a color reflects or transmits light This is the equivalent of tone in a black and white image. Strip Core of a pencil. or pen. plum blossom. paper or canvas. Scale Describes the size of one element in relation to another Sepia A brown pigment taken from the sun-dried ink sacs of cuttlefish and used to make ink or watercolor The term is now often incorrectly used to refer to brown colors. Zen brushwork encompasses calligraphy and painting. Printmaking The act of making a picture. whose pinpricks creates a "connect-thepersonal pastime was making dots" replica of the image on the cut-out portraits. evolved by engineers and architects for the purpose of conveying W a t e r c o l o r A painting accurate structural information.258 GLOSSARY together optically." Applied to the blurring or softening of sharp outlines by the subtle and gradual blending of one tone into another Sgraffito A technique of scratching or cutting through a surface of paint. Single-point perspective The most basic form of linear perspective in which there is only one vanishing point. Zen paintings usually depict scenes of nature and plants such as bamboo. or gouache. Tone A degree of lightness or darkness. Stippling Applying color or tone in areas of fine dots or flecks. glasses. ink. Although drawings can be made with wash alone. fruit. . acrylic. Wash A technique using ink. or the left-hand page in a book. by imposing a grid that is then scaled up to a larger size. or wood. Etienne de material) dabbed through the Silhouette (1709-67). pencil. Viewpoint The position from which something is observed or considered. a tightly folded piece of cotton batting can be used for the same effect. and chrysanthemum—which in Chinese tradition are called "The Four Gentlemen. watercolor. Sketch A quick or rough drawing. commonly referred to as the lead. to model areas of light and shade. A term borrowed from the theater. Subjective drawing A drawing that expresses the personal view and interpretation of the artist An invented image. Named paper in place. compound of water-soluble pigment. Turpentine A colorless solvent distilled from the resinous sap of pine trees. an ink stone usually cut from slate. and paperweights. fine paper. nature of watercolor allows the white surface of the paper to Tonal scale A scale of gradations shine through. orchids. Squeegee A rubber-trimmed scraper used in the screenprinting process for dragging ink across a surface.Thedrawing is removed. or mark using an inked or pigment-covered surface. Pouncing If a large drawing or design (called a cartoon) is to be Shadow Darkness cast by the transferred to a surface such as a obscuring of light. a sheet of paper is placed beneath and pinpricks are Silhouette A flat. design. Artists' prints are normally made in multiple. Vanishing point In linear perspective." Materials for Zen brushwork include round brushes of varied size. pointed instrument used for marking or engraving. Recto The front or top side of a piece of paper. usually diluted with water and applied with a brush. in order to flick the pigment onto the image surface. cut-out profile made along every outline of the usually made in black paper image. or any physical object that can be stamped or pressed onto a surface to leave an impression. Sfumato An Italian term meaning "smoky. Spattering A mottled texture produced by drawing your fingers across the bristles of a stiff brush loaded with pigment.

161 Akhlaq-I Rasul Allah manuscript 51. 220. 81 135. Statue d'Epouvante 90 calligraphy.169 colors: airbrushed 161 background 91 A Abe. 190 Caricature of a Woman (Daumier) 198. 98.163 dry media 205 Blue Nude (Matisse) 110. 13 architectural drawing 67-71 Arctic Flowers (Libeskind) 70. 28 Klee's horses 30. 179 Bussotti. 203 Buffalo Hunt (Shoshone) 178. 180 blending: color 133. to depict 156-157 Cloudburst of Material Possessions (Leonardo) 200. 221 animals. Clare 203 City 202. 94 cylindrical objects. 250 Bishndas and Nanha: Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity 50.226. 8 cave paintings 8. 180 Circular Score for "Due Voce" (Bussotti) 223 circus scenes 192-195 City (Bryan) 202. 226-227 Acanthus spinosus 65 accelerated perspective 22. 199 Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya (Eisen) 156.184.133. Leon: Bacchante 155 balance.Index Page numbers in italics refer t o captions and illustrations Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity (Bishndas and 259 INDEX B bread (as eraser) 205. 160 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object (Moore) 178. 186 charcoal 114.31 Picasso's horse and bird 30. 244 head and neck 144 phrased 124-125 contrast: brightness 99 of media 30 tonal 96. 198 cartoon (preparatory drawing) 137 (satirical) 159. Basilius 47 Beuys. 201 collage 111. 200 Bauer. 9 Chair (Van Gogh) 94. 162 character: to capture 38-39. 71 conte 112. Georges 67. Franz 48 Protea nitida 48 Bellini. Hieronymus 243 Two Monsters 242. 158.198. 139 Nanha) 50. 38-39.50. 182. 202 cloth. 50. 13. 75. Etienne-Louis 72 Newton's Cenotaph 72.117 Achilles Chases Hector (Thomas) 240. to draw 80. 241 action. 189.27 turtles 42-43 aquatint 240 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels (Leonardo) 12. 206. Mamaru 104.44-45 bird studies 12. 41 principal 186. 193 in lifting out 204. 81 cut-out model plan 94. William: The Circle of the Lustful 180. 30 sleeping dog 38-39 Stubbs's horse skeleton 26. 52 cotton swabs 205 Coup de Vent a Asajigabare (Hokusai) 198. 40-41 Durer's rhinoceros 26. 90 colored materials 162-163 colored pencils 162. 204. 134 costume(s) 155 character 158-159 structure of 166-167 Cottage Among Trees (Rembrandt) 52. 74.212 to erase 205 to hold 23 pencils 204 willow 114. Filippo 67. cut Catling. 70 Art Nouveau motifs 91 Autoportrait (Ray) 138. (Ross-Craig) 49 to hold brush for 23 caricature 159.163 body.163 graded 227 composition 56-57.100 curves. 137 Besler.13. 242 to blend 205 compressed 122. 71 Blake. 247-248 carving see lines. Giovanni 137 Head and Shoulders of a Man 136. Nicolas-Jacques 54 contours 146. 230-231 Cubist 90. 198.184. Le (Hugo) 200. 128. Brian 226 Untitled 2001 226 "Cave of the Hands" (Cueva de las Manas) 8. Zen c 232-233 blended 133. 74 brush (es) 246-247 Japanese 248 for laying a wash 140 marks 248-249 to hold 23 brush drawings 14-15 Bryan. Jean Michel 138 Self-Portrait 138 Bateau-Vision.51 All and Nothing (Taylor) 114. 222. 78 aerial perspective 206 airbrushing 160. 29 Hugo's octopus 28.115 anatomical drawing 134-135 anatomical theaters 82-83 anatomical waxes 128 ancient carvings 221. 95 Chair Cut Out (Woodfine) 94. layers 53 chalk pastels 162. center of 118 ballpoint 182. 242 Brunelleschi. 111. Augustin 67 Basquiat. 157 cropping 56-57. 94 chalk(s) 53. 178 Cubism 67.44-45. 244 and graphite 178 . 203 Landline 202. 230 The Physical Space 220 abstract drawing 219. Victor: West Facade of the Church of St. to draw 100 Cypripedium calceolus L. 74. 133. to draw 25.186 see also movement Adoration of the Magi perspective study (Leonardo) 74. 206 checkered floor 80. 26 geese 38-39 Gericault's cats 28. 243 botanical drawing 48-49 Boullee. 9. 204-205. 163. 75 Circle of the Lustful (Blake) 180.89.162 Conte. 90 La Guitare. 72 bracelet shading 122 Braque. 203 Claude Lorrain 202 Views from Velletri 202. 116. Joseph 113 The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland 112. 113 bird bones 12. 165. 223 Circular Score for "Due Voce" 223 children's art 9. 90. to model 110-111 border 51 Bosch. 205 Baltard. 90. Sylvano 222. to express 39. 71 Bacchante (Bakst) 155 background: color 91 textured 240 Baker Matthew: Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry 32 Bakst.

160 Faune. 252 depiction of fabric monsters 252-253 Self Portrait in a Cocked Hat 130. to draw 120. 93 horizon 52.69 Gerard. 161 fashion 160. 220 dry brush 234 234 57.184 165. Victor 200.97.102-103 drawing board 20 drawing books 20-21 drawing paper 144. 71 minimal line 99 and music 70-71 quick 38-39.216 Durelli. 203 semi-abstract 234-237 three-dimensional 68.111 feet. 37 Grandville 243 A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the Near-Microscopic World of Scale Insects 242. 222 Grimes.244 drawing(s): abstract 219. 241 to blend 205 and chalk 178 and ink 28. 112.Theodore 29 Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 28. 132 Frenz. 141 tonal 96. 41 in the round 208-209 with scalpel 202. 131 Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 240. 69 Guitare. 40. 29 H hands.John 157 Man Lying Down in a Cloak 156. 765 hitsuzendo drawings 233 Hokusai. Antonio 68. 32 framing 139 Franfoise au Bandeau (Picasso) 132. 230 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction 68. 122. La (Braque) 90. Oona 245 How Clever of God #84 244.103. 162 Flaxman. 163. 77 How Clever of God #84 244. to suggest 177 see also perspective diagonals diffuser 55 dip pens 34. 115 Escher. Statue d'Epouvante. 160 hitsuzendo 233 light to dark 102. proportions of 143 fantasy drawings 72-73. 55. 200 F fabric.12 fixative 54.104. drypoint 181 exaggeration 184 expressionism 198 E ye and Head of a Drone Fly (Hooke) 92. Study for Plate 59 (Mucha) 90.166 170-173 Gestalt 222 Giacometti. Nicholas 68 St Paul's Baptistry 68 head and neck to draw 142-145 Head and Shoulders of a Man (Bellini) 136. 223 graphite 54. 205 drawing with 103.230 three-tone 140.141. 69. Antonio 135 Muscles of the Head and Neck 134.198 Degas. 161 fashion drawings 160. Robert 93 Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 92. Alberto 136 Portrait of Marie-Laure de Noailles 136. 170-173. position of 22 Eisen. 222. Francisco de 131. Hans 133 The Ambassadors 116 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 132.141. 69. Sir Ernst 12. 160 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction (Gaudi) 68.91.144 and ink 30.160. 245 Gruau.112.37. C . 137 heads. 242 eyes. Jean Ignace Isidore see Grandville Gericault. 799 Holbein.252-253 from memory 183. 161 changing 216 Focusing on the Negative (Walter) 16 foliage 52. 135 Duren Albrecht 26.216.146 from masterworks 126-127. 52 foreground 208. 91 Dragon (Michelangelo) 36. disposable pens 182-183 dissections: botanical 48 of horse 27 distance: illusion of see perspective linear 97 tonal 97 Documents Decoratifs. 245 layers 30 Goya. 190 Middle Eastern 50-51. to draw 134-137 Helleborus corsicus 55 highlights 91. 134. 104-105. 30 Fauves/fauvism 90. 99 etching. 243 graphic score 222. Rene 160 Illustration for Jacques Fath E easel.115 exploratory 17 fantasy 72-73. 240 Black Paintings 152.101 engraving 243 erasers/erasing 55. 163. 157 .117 fountain pens 34. 93 eye level 80 Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity. 202. 120. 134.244. to draw 78.189. 69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt 68. Keisai 157 The Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya 156. 25 focus 65. 7 33 Hooke. 222 Le Bateau-Vision 200. 122 Hawksmoor. 125. 124.121 felt-tip pens 162. 55. The 242. 226-227 anatomical 134-135 architectural 67-71 botanical 48-49 brush 14-15 dark to light 102. position of 143. 245 Hugo. 79. 160 as ground for metal point 140. 136 Golden Section 67 Gombrich. 90 gouache 30. 216 foreshortening 110. fiber-tip pen 182. 113. 240 170-173 five Ships in a Port with Lighthouse (Wallis) 11.157 ellipses 100.207.260 INDEX D Dada 139 Daumien Honore 198 Caricature of a Woman 198.160. 73. 55. 223. 240. 134. 90 G Gaudi. to draw 168-169 in Goya's artworks face. Ron 161 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 161 160.116. Cheval et Oiseau (Picasso) 30. 144 Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (Baker) 32.103 with eraser 103. Edgar 162 depth. M. 203 Hotel de la Suzonnieres (Satie) 70. 26 Flying Fish (White) 25. Katsushika 199 Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 198.109 Rhinoceros 26.

220. 99.96.141 Metropolis (film) 72. Kathe 181 Losbrunch (The Outbreak) 180. 49 Rose 49 Maelbeke Madonna (Van Eyck) 156. Florence 128 lighting in 167 Pitt Rivers. 53 Tree II 52. Oxford 250 music 70-71 Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks (Knopf) 32. 176.182 Moore.276. 158 Man Lying Down in a Cloak (Flaxman) 156. 110 Sistine Chapel ceiling 116 Middle Eastern drawing 50-51. 63. Henri 111 Blue Nude 1110. 244 Dragon 36.The (Robinson) 108. 76 Libeskind. 230 invented creatures 106-107 250-251 invented objects 89. Gustav 49 Knopf.124. Paul 227 Polyphonic Setting for White 226.Pieuvre (Octopus) 28. 220. 74-77. David 78 M Mackintosh. 227 Newsome. 220. Victor 134 Profile Head 134. Henry 178 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object 178. 244 ink 36 252-253 Documents Decoratifs 90. Alphonse 90.102. Rose: Tantalus or the Future of Man 20 minimal line drawing 99 mirror use of 120 mixed media 28. 97 Murillo. 242 light 96 to depict drawing with 1 76 painting with 176 . 185 Mucha. 244. 73 Kigell. Erich 73 design for Metropolis 72. 37 lines 118 pastel 162 pencil 31. 54 silver point 156 leg sections 158 length. 181 luminosity 115 Lynch. drawing from 183. 35. 156 magnification 93 Man in Armor (Van Dyck) 158.115 98. 252 Muscles of the Head and Neck (Durelli) 134. 252 ink 16.112. 184.120. 226 Modernism 67. 219 Mondrian.33 Mysterious Affairs of the lighting 2 7. 53 monoprint 787. 159 Japanese 35 to make 36 sepia 35 walnut 36.91 Study for Plate 59 of INDEX illumination see lighting Illustration for Jacques Fath (Gruau) 160. 60. 203. 13 Cloudburst of Material Possessions 200. Matisse. 114 hatched 244 layered 118 pace of 65 pale 40 rapid 49.109. 103 Neolithic chalk tablet 220. Marie 244 cloth drawing 244. 72. 220. 221 endless 31 free 113. Johan 32. 28 Two Impressions from a Cut-out Paper Disk 222 Huyler Stephen R 225 261 Kinecar. 178 motifs: A r t Nouveau 9 7 stylized 51 mountains 216-217 movement: of animals 30-31 of humans 7 79. 757 mandalas 219. 201 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels 12. Phyll: hands 18 lifting out 204. 31 Klimt. 83 white 122 ink impressions 222 ink spatters 234 installations 176. 177 influences.109.104. 234 iron-gall 35. 205. 203 landscape 206-208 brushed 14 Landscape in Hoboku Style (Sesshu) 14 layers 146 chalk 53 gouache 30 ink 28. 163 pens 36 measuring 116 memory. 205 masterworks. 244 lithograph 198 Losbruch (Kollwitz) 180. 248. 225 masking tape 204.181 L Landline (Bryan) 202. Madrid 171 University Museum of Natural History. 78 Study ofThree Male Figures 110. Oxford 106 Prado. 34. Bartolome: Moses Striking the Rock ofHoreb 252. drawing from 126-127.227 to "bend" straight 97 compositional 228-229 cut 202. Piet 52. 166. Daniel 70 Arctic Flowers 70 Lieb. 181 Klee.167 line(s) 132. 36. 135 museums 44. 77 Miller. 183 vertical 156 linear distance 97 linear perspective 69. 111. 249 and gouache 30 Indian 35. 789. 73 Michelangelo Buonarroti 48. 756 priming for 140. 227 Scene of Comical Riders 30. I Murderous Attacks 33 Kollwitz. 58-59. Charles Rennie 48. artistic 240-241.134 K Kettlehut. 170-173. apparent 97 Leonardo da Vinci 74. 34-35 acrylic 35 bistre 35.166 La Specola. 201 head and neck sections of female mold for Sforza Horse 89 Madonna of the Rocks 244 perspective study for Adoration of the Magi 74. 160 In the Duchess's Kitchen (Rackham) 176. 190 metal pens see dip pens metal point 25.141. 33 J justness 228-229 N naive art 74 negative space 53.243 carbon 35 Chinese 30.

239 Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 238. 7 38 Ray 138. 205 pointillism 112 polyphonic painting 227 Polyphonic Setting for White (Klee) 226. to draw 146-147 R Rackham. 219. 166 fiber-tip 782. 242 reed pens 34. 76-79. 1 6 3 . 224 0 layers 31. 243. 36. 243. J 76 nudes 114-115 to make 36 metal see dip quill 34.176 Real Life Is Rubbish 176. 1 1 6 accelerated 2 2 .71 Hotel de la Suzonnieres 70. Sue 104.2 3 age and youth sleeping subjects 148-149 150-151 Renaissance 109 Rhinoceros (Durer) 26. 733 Portrait de Marie-Laure (Giacometti) 136. Paul 73 Nobson Central 72. Pablo 6 7 . 57 Ross-Craig. Heath 181 The Kinecar 180. 216.The (Beuys) 112. 205 157. Giovanni Battista 74. Arthur 177 In the Duchess's Kitchen 176. 36. 165 figure 118 filled 37 pencil 48.131 Cottage Among Trees 52. 1 2 4 priming for metal point 140. 1 3 2 quill pens 34. 76 plastic eraser 55. 782 relief 757 silk-screen 739 woodblock 134. Cheval et Oiseau 30. 241 Physical Space.104 Pieuvre (Hugo) 28.54 pastel 162 perspective 1 0 0 .184 fountain 34. 203 Scene of Comical Riders (Klee) 30. Martin 238. 73 Noble. Odilon 242 The Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity 242. Russell 228. 739 semi-abstract drawings Style 14 Seurat. and Webster. Stella 48 Cypripedium calceolus L 49 rotated view 7 65 Rubens. 91 outsider artists 33. 181 Rodin.Tim. 234 disposable 182-183 felt-tip 162. 212 Japanese 2 1 . 1 1 6 . Isaac 92 Telescope 92 Newton's Cenotaph (Boullee) 72. 161. 114 rollerball 182 Rorschach blot 99 Rose (Mackintosh) 48. 74. 4 8 putty eraser 55. Georges 112 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 112.9 3 Schongauer. 4 9 Rose of Mohammed 50. 181 pencil(s) 54 charcoal 204 colored 762. 71 Satire of the Queen's Dress (Wodall) 158.199 Profile Head (Newsome) oil pastels 162.52 pen and wash 158. 759 P Page.139 Autoportrait 138. 36. 732 influence of 240 painting with light 78.40. 1 1 7 aerial 206 linear 69. The (Abe) 220 Picasso. 736 portraits. 75 Two Courtyards 75. 37 38. 9 8 . 141 Piranesi. 162 O p A r t 98 optical illusions 96-99 outline 33. 7 73 self-portraits: Basquiat 138. 1 6 9 to hold 2 2 . 734 Protea nitida (Bauer) 48.759. 9 0 .141 prints/printing: aquatint 240 dry-point etching 181 engraving 243 monoprint 181.Paul'sBaptistry (Hawksmoor) 68. 36. Erik 70. 7 76 receding space 206 Redon. 239 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat (Seurat) 112.Toyo: Landscape in Hoboku . 36 pen and brush 8 3 pen and ink 70. 230 paper(s) 21 colored 162 drawing 144. 28 pigment 162 bright 50 Caput Mortuum 7 4 7 for three-tone drawing 141. Faune. 78 single-point 74. 81 two-point 74. 7 72 Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland. Man 131.240. 227 portfolios 20 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser de Noailles (Holbein) 132.226. 139 Real Life is Rubbish (Noble and Webster) 176. Peter Paul 126-127 Embracing pose(s): balanced 146 quick 118-119 positive form 103 posture: of artist 22 of subject 3 8 .262 INDEX Newton. 165. 26 Riley. 244 Q s Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape (Wolfli) 2 79 St. 38.37. 159. Bridget 98 Robinson. 160. 163. 52 pens 36 scalpel 54 drawing with 202. 122. 72 Noble. 230 parallel planes 79 Parisian street 86-87 pastels 162 to blend 205 to hold 23 layers 162 pencils 162 pen(s): dip 34 . 34-35.oise au Bandeau 132. 97. 2 2 0 for oil pastels 162 stained 230 to stretch 140-141 tissue 21.7 77 rapidograph 70 Raphael 110.37. 30 Fran<. 36. 74-77. 244 reed 34. 7 77 three-point 80.36. 75 Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range 241 petroglyphs 221. 68 Satie.37 scientific instruments 9 2 . 164. 103. Auguste 114 Two Women 114. 772 234-237 Sesshu. 36 relief printing 757 Rembrandt van Rijn 52. 7 70 Ray. 38. 40-41.

206-207 202. 199.41.Sforza Horse. 1 6 . v i e w s o f 85. 7 9 0 vessels.241 s i l k .2 0 1 . 156 Van Gogh. 6 9 Wodall.1 9 9 wire. 202 violin.158 158. 2 7 studies: b i r d s 7 2 . Sue see N o b l e . t o d r a w 5 2 . 76. M . William 159 Satire of the Queen's Dress INDEX 226. b l o w n 248 steel p e n s see d i p p e n s still life 89.J. 743 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City ( F r e n z ) 1 6 0 . 115.1 6 5 shorthand diagram 142 Shoshone buffalo hide painting 178. 75.120. 199 shoes 1 6 4 . 2 2 6 . 2 2 0 influence o f 2 4 0 Untitled 220. h e a d a n d n e c k sections o f female m o l d f o r (Leonardo) 89 shading 2 9 s h a d o w s 28. 1 8 4 . 2 4 4 . 9 2 Tesshu. 249 t o describe 39.216 W e b s t e r . W . 1 4 0 . 7 1 4 . 1 4 4 .12 W a l t e r .d i m e n s i o n a l 1 0 4 . 2 4 2 w Wallis.199 tissue p a p e r 21. 104-105. 141 Three Male Figures. t o d r a w 1 0 1 viewfinder 57 Views from Velletri ( C l a u d e L o r r a i n ) 152. 182. Vincent 95 Chair 94. 9 5 pens 36 v a n i s h i n g p o i n t 74. 97.5 3 in l a n d s c a p e 2 0 6 . 57. t o lay 1 4 0 . C y 138. 170 shoes 1 6 4 stylized m o t i f 51 Summer Flowers 63.d i m e n s i o n a l d r a w i n g 68. 1 4 1 w a t e r c o l o r 25. 2 3 0 tonal contrast 96 tonal distance 9 7 t o n a l d r a w i n g 9 6 . 2 4 7 t h r e e . Adolf: Giant-Grape Saint-Mary-Castle 219 Woman at Her Toilet ( T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c ) 74 w o o d b l o c k print 157. John: Focusing on the Negative 14 w a s h . Man in Armor 1 5 8 . 2 1 2 . 1 9 9 Two Courtyards (Piranesi) 75. H e n r i de: Woman at Her Toilet 14 t r a n s p a r e n t v i e w 92. Augustin ( B a l t a r d ) 6 7 w e t and dry brush-strokes 2 4 9 Turner. 53 trees. 725 fabric 1 6 8 T h o m a s . 241. 240 Two Women Embracing ( R o d i n ) 114. 174 T w o m b l y .Yamaoka 233 t e x t u r e 2 2 2 . 69. 2 9 wind.t o n e d r a w i n g 140.27 skull 747.1 0 5 vision 9 6 Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects (Grandville) 242. Paul 2 4 1 Achilles Chases Hector 2 4 0 . 96.141 S i m b l e t . T i m W e s t Fagade of the Church of St. 1 7 7 free 8 0 V e n i c e . 74.1 4 5 . 7 79 Shoshone petroglyph 240. Sarah 9 4 Chair Cut Out 94. 2 2 7 Untitled 2001 ( C a t l i n g ) u 263 W h i t e . G e o r g e 2 7 Skeleton of the Horse 26. t o d r a w 2 0 0 . 75 Skeleton of the Horse ( S t u b b s ) 26. 221 . 226 V Van Dyck. John 25 Flying Fish 25 Wild Striped Cat Sketches of ( G e r i c a u l t ) 28. 65 symbols 138. 159 Wolfli. 2 3 4 . 186. 164.1 4 1 . 158 V a n Eyck.243 Leonardo's machines 12. 161. 69. 4 4 boat 209 botanical 4 9 G e r i c a u l t ' s cats 2 9 from Goya 170-173 125.13 M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s m a l e figures 110. Sarah: child's m a p 75. 1 6 6 t r a p e z i u s m u s c l e 142. 7 75 Telescope ( N e w t o n ) 9 2 . 1 4 5 travel journal 2 0 . 1 9 9 . 1 4 1 .s c r e e n p r i n t i n g 139 silver p o i n t 1 4 0 . 7 6 Two Impressions from a Cut-Out Paper Disk ( H u g o ) 2 2 2 Two Monsters 2 4 2 . 7 6 1 spots. 230 t h r e e . 1 3 . 1 2 Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse 71. A n t h o n y 152. 243 (Bosch) T Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos ( G o y a ) 2 4 0 . 49. drawing with 104-105 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt ( G a u d i ) 68. 9 0 . phrased 146 tonal modeling 161 tonal range 169 t o n a l surfaces 2 2 7 tonal width 97 t o n e ( s ) 33. 79. 1 8 4 . 7 77. t o draw 1 9 8 . Study of (Michelangelo) 110.1 8 5 Tree II ( M o n d r i a n ) 52.125 W o o d f i n e . 156 layers 7 5 6 priming for 140.9 1 storms. Jan 1 5 6 Maelbeke Madonna 1 5 6 .2 1 3 Stubbs. A l f r e d 1 1 . 77. 7 70 Tiber 214-215 Untitled ( T w o m b l y ) 2 2 0 . 9 4 z Z e n calligraphy 232-233 contrast 96 t o grade 163 ink 37 pencil 5 4 t o r t i l l o n 205 T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c . t h r e e . Taylor A n i t a 115 All and Nothing 1 1 4 . 102-103 tonal marks. 245 sharpener 54 Ship in a Storm ( T u r n e r ) 1 9 8 . 2 0 0 Ship in a Storm 1 9 8 .

1 5 9 : Bodleian Library. 9 2 : Science Photo L i b r a r y . Flossie. 9 3 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. Italy.bridgeman. b r i d g e m a n .co. O o n a G r i m e s .bridgeman. 1 0 8 : Arts C o u n c i l Collection. L o n d o n . France. Florence/MoMA. 181: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. University of Cambridge. 114: Musee Rodin. 88: www. P h y l l Kiggell. Jackie Douglas.bridgeman. 1975 ( 1 9 7 5 . R o y a n d D i a n n e Simblet. 2 4 2 : Photo Scala./Private Collection/© D A C S 2005. Psychiatric Institute of the University of Heidelberg. 2 8 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. B e m d Kunzig. D a w n Henderson. Sophie Laurimore. Berlin/Staatsbibliothek zu A l l other images © Sarah Simblet . J a c k a n d Brian Catling. London 2005. 2 1 8 : Adolf-Wdlfli-Stiftung. K u n s t m u s e u m Bern/© D A C S 2 0 0 5 . 51: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. 1901. Paul T h o m a s . 7 0 : Studio Daniel L i b e s k i n d . 2 2 7 : Paul Klee Stiftung. A . Patty Stansfield. H e l e n S h u t t l e w o r t h . for s u p p l y i n g the d r a w i n g books. 243: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. K a t h r y n W i l k i n s o n . 2 2 0 : Mamaru Abe.uk/British Museum. L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 .264 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Acknowledgments Author's Acknowledgments: T h e author wishes to thank the following people for their enormous help. L o n d o n . Illustrated London News Picture Library/The Bystander (b). Publisher's Acknowledgments Dorling Kindersley w o u l d like to thank Caroline H u n t for editorial contribution. H a m b u r g . R o s e m a r y S c o u l a r . K e w ft)). 2 4 : © T h e British Museum. 9 0 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/© A D A G P . 199: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee des arts asiatiquesGuimet. u k / O n Loan to the H a m b u r g Kunsthalle.r. B M G . 2 0 1 : T h e Royal Collection © 2 0 0 2 H e r Majesty Queen Elizabeth I I .uk/Guildhall Library. c o . 2 0 0 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France.20-21 a n d 246-47. b r i d g e m a n . Diana Bell. 180: www. Wolfson College. R . Carlo O r t u for picture research s u p p o r t . Inc. Toulouse. 5 3 : Collection of the Gemeentemuseum D e n Haag/Mondrian Trust. 1 3 4 : © T h e British Museum.co./Galerie Sylvie Nissen.bridgeman.uk/Private Collection. Paris. 4 6 : B r i t i s h Library. U K . Angela Palmer. 130: The Metropolitan M u s e u m of Art/Robert L e h m a n Collection. 1 5 : w w w . Psychiatric Institute of the U n i v e r s i t y of Heidelberg. u k / L o u v r e . Sammy De Grave. L o n d o n . R u t h P a r k i n s o n .Paris ( b ) . a n d D e p a r t m e n t s o f E n t o m o l o g y a n d Zoology at the University of Oxford. and Tamsin Woodward Smith. F r a n c e .co. Dover Publications/ISBN: 0486229912 (t). K e v i n a n d Rebecca Slingsby. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. Havemeyer. Kirsten Norrie. 4 8 : T h e N a t u r a l H i s t o r y M u s e u m . Productions Clovis Prevost (c). 2 0 2 : © T h e British Museum. Germany. 5 2 : T h e Metropolitan Museum of Art/Bequest of Mrs. 3 2 : Pepys Library. 72: akg-images. University of Oxford.bridgeman. L e n . (r). 2 3 8 : akg-images. 1 3 5 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. © Tate. 1929 (29. Paris a n d D A C S . 5 0 : Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (1).bridgeman. 176: Modem Art. L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . 1 6 0 : Rene G R U A U s. 3 1 : Tom Powel Imaging. 225: Stephen P Huyler. Oxford. c o . Rocio Arnaez.co.co. J o h n Roberts.uk /Biblioteca Nacional. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. Lisbon. Paris/ © Succession Picasso / D A C S 2005. B e r l i n . J o h n Walter. Paris and D A C S . C o r n e l i s o n & Son. 3 3 : Prinzhom Collection. Winthrop.uk/Private Collection. B . Christopher Davis.a. Paris. Also.bridgeman. 9 4 : Sarah Woodfine. Japan. 7 1 : I M E C / A r c h i v e s E r i k Satie. 1 9 8 : Dover Publications. Clare Bryan. London/courtesy of Stuart Shave. L o n d o n (t). Copyright Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens. Jean Pierre Roy. Paris. 74: Corbis.bridgeman.co. a n d encouragement i n m a k i n g this book: M a m o r u Abe. 69: Institut Amatller d'Art Hispanic (tl).Strang Print Room ( b ) . Graphische Sammlung.uk/Private Collection. 30: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. Paris a n d D A C S . 2 4 4 : Ashmolean Museum. K u n s t m u s e u m . Sarah Woodfine. Paris. Anders/ © D A C S 2 0 0 5 . Orientabteilung/Ruth Schacht. Paris. Kunstmuseum Bern. O. 16: www. 9 7 6 ) . 49: Hunterian Museum (t). 9 5 : V a n Gogh M u s e u m . Paris. Sarah D u n c a n . 2 2 3 : Lebrecht Music and Arts Photo Library/Ricordi. 13: www. G i n a R o w l a n d . Staatliche Museen z u Berlin/Jorg P. Julie O u g h t o n . 132: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso.uk/Mucha Trust. 2 4 5 : Oona Grimes. B e r l i n . G e r m a n y . T o n y G r i s o n i .co. 6 6 : w w w . 2 0 3 : Clare Bryan (t).bridgeman.uk/Kettle's Yard. H . Angela W i l k e s . 157: U C L Art Collections . 115: Anita Taylor. 2 4 0 : w w w . 2 7 : Royal Academy of Arts. 2 2 2 : Pierre Georgel/Private Collection. 9 1 : www. Amsterdam. Salisbury & South W i l t s h i r e M u s e u m ( t ) . 1 3 3 : Artothek/Kupferstichkabinett. ./© D A C S 2 0 0 5 ( t ) . 11: www. George M c G a v i n . 2 6 : Topfoto. H e a t h e r M c C a r r y . Paula Regan. 68: www. c o . 1 3 8 : © Christie's Images Ltd/© A D AGP. S i m o n L e w i s . L o n d o n . 1 9 : Getty Images/© Succession Picasso / D A C S 2 0 0 5 . Staatliche Museen z u Berlin. 75: © The British Museum (b). Maureen Paley Interim Art (b). 226: Brian Catling. 1 1 0 : www. 111: Fondation Beyeler/Riehen (Bale)/© Succession H Matisse/DACS 2005. Magdalene College Cambridge. 139: Galerie Marion Meyer/© Man Ray Trust / A D A G P . 17: J o h n Walter. papers. 73: Berlin F i l m Museum (t). Anita Taylor.co. 174: Artothek/Munich. 1 6 1 : D C C o m i c s I n c . 1 7 8 : © T h e British M u s e u m / H e n r y Moore F o u n d a t i o n . M a n d y Earey.l. . Carole A s h . 179: www. Andy Crawford. Antonia Cunliffe Davis. Natalie G o d w i n . 1 . Peter L u f f . 1 5 6 : Graphische S a m m l u n g Albertina. A n n a P l u c i n s k a . G e r m a n y . 112: Yale University A r t Gallery/Everett V Meeks. A . 221: Gagosian Gallery/Private Collection (b). 137: © The British Museum.100. 1879. A n d y C r a w f o r d for p h o t o g r a p h y a n d L . Roddy Bell. Paul T h o m a s ( t ) . Germany/Joerg P. F i n n . 1 5 4 : akg-images/Musee National d'Art Moderne. Anders. London/Bequeathed by Charles Landseer. T h e R u s k i n School of D r a w i n g a n d Fine A r t . a n d brushes o n pp. b r i d g e m a n . Corporation of London. Basel.939). 1 9 6 : Museum of the History of Science. Fund.uk /© Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery. 29: Fogg A n Museum/Collections Baron de Vita: Grenville L. support. 1 3 6 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Centre Pompidou-MNAM-CCI.co. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. J o n Roome. U K . Agnieszka Mlicka. Pamela Ellis for compiling the index. H a y w a r d Gallery. 177: Mary Evans Picture Library. 158: Calouste Gulbenkian Museum. 2 2 4 : P r i n z h o m Collection. 2 4 1 : Corbis/David M u e n c h ( b ) . Picture Credits 8: Corbis/Hubert Stadler.uk/Musee des Augustins. NY. u k / T o k y o National M u s e u m . Berlin (b). Madrid. Sir Brinsley F o r d . L o n d o n . Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (t).co. 113: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. Portugal.

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