An innovative, practical approach to drawing the world around you

SARAH SIMBLET

BOOK
FOR T H E ARTIST

BOOK

FOR THE ARTIST

SARAH SIMBLET

DK PUBLISHING

CONTENTS
LONDON • NEW YORK MELBOURNE • MUNICH • DELHI Senior Editor Paula Regan Senior Art Editor Mandy Earey Art Editor Anna Plucinska Managing Editor Julie Oughton Managing Art Editor Heather McCarry Art Director Peter Luff Publishing Director Jackie Douglas Production Joanna Bull DTP Designer Adam Walker Picture Research Sarah Smithies US Editor Christine Heilman First American Edition, 2 0 0 5 First Paperback Edition, 2 0 0 9 Published in the United States by DK Publishing 3 7 5 Hudson Street New York, New York 1 0 0 1 4 10 11 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3

Architecture
6 8 20 22 Master Builders The Order of Sound Future Fictions Pathways of Sight Single-Point Perspective Creating an Imaginary Space Further Aspects of Perspective Theaters Venetian Life Parisian Street

66
68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86

Foreword Introduction Drawing Books and Papers Posture and Grip

Objects and Instruments

TD075-July 2009 Copyright © 2 0 0 5 Dorling Kindersley Limited Text and authors artworks © Sarah Simblet 2 0 0 4 Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited A Cataloging-in-Publication record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN 9 7 8 - 0 - 7 5 6 6 - 5 1 4 1 - 1 Color reproduction by GRB, Italy Printed and bound in China by Toppan

Still Life Instruments of Vision Bench Marks Light and Illusions Further Illusions How to Draw Ellipses Tonality Drawing with Wire Artifacts and Fictions

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90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106

Animals
Documentaries Presence and Mood Movement Icon and Design Pen and Ink Drawing with Ink Capturing Character Sleeping Dogs Turtles Dry Birds

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26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44

The Body
Postures and Poses Choreographs Passion Measurement and Foreshortening Quick Poses Hands and Feet Charcoal Hands Phrasing Contours The Visual Detective La Specola

108
110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128

Plants and Gardens
Botanical Studies Jeweled Gardens Fast Trees Graphite and Erasers Cropping and Composition Negative Space Fig Tree Summer Flowers Acanthus Spinosus

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48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64

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Gatherings
Projections Magnetic Fields The Human Condition Disposable Pens The Travel Journal Catching the Moment Grand Canal Crossings Caravans The Big Top

174 Abstract Lines
176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 Process and Harmony Writing Time Chants and Prayers Compositions Being "Just" Collage Zen Calligraphy Nocturnes

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220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234

Portraiture
Poise Anatomies Revelations Self-Portraits Silver Point Head and Neck Essential Observations Drawing Portraits Generations Castings

130
132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 152

Earth and the Elements
Air in Motion Storms Nature Profiles Charcoal Landscapes Drawing in the Round Decaying Boat Cloudburst Notes of Force Mountains

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198 200 202 204 206 208 210 212 214 216

Gods and Monsters
Marks of Influence Hauntings Convolutions Brushes Brush Marks Monsters Goya's Monsters Consumed Glossary Index Acknowledgments

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240 242 244 246 248 250 252 254 256 259 264

Costume
Cloth and Drapery Character Costumes Femmes Fatales Colored Materials Study and Design The Structure of Costume Textures and Patterns Dressing Character Posture Carving

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156 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172

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perhaps hidden on a door hinge or a street bench rail. a cartographer charting the land. or engineer. we learn to see it. and in a few sessions they will be flying. understood (and often misunderstood) our own bodies. architect. Drawing occupies a unique place in every artist and creator's life. Augustine his notes on memory. doctors. be they a child discovering their vision and dexterity. Some are more traditionally framed and hung in galleries for solo or group exhibitions. we have looked at. and I refer back to them for years after they are made. as a visiting professor at universities. The very first step is to believe it. a composer notating a musical score. The most rewarding challenge is always the newcomer. of Sketch Book for the Artist. Some of my drawings cover entire walls. fashion designer. remain unseen by most. aspirations. texture. through history. art schools. still standing by the door. By using our imaginations. we learn to feel truly alive. and feeling. .Foreword B Y DRAWING THE WORLD AROUND US. It is my love of these. and a reflector of experience. a drawing book is the perfect portable private vehicle for your imminent exploration of drawing. undergraduates to fellow professors. where spaces are shaped by nothing more than the objects and activities contained within them. and through which I can see how I think. and be slowly washed or worn away. shape. night security staff. Drawing is a mirror through which I understand my place in the world. that inspired the title and structure MEMORY T H E A T E R S This pen-and-ink drawing was made from imagination during research for my PhD. especially as travel journals. It is a tool for investigating ideas and recording knowledge. where I expect them to be discovered by some people. They enfold their viewer and are made on joined sheets of paper that I reach by climbing ladders. thinking. but because it is how I engage with and anchor myself in life. are made outside as discreet installations. and size. I was training in anatomy and studying how. in which he describes himself flying and diving in his imagination through pictorial caverns of knowledge. We can all learn how to draw. and their importance to so many artists. a sculptor. It makes me feel excited to be alive. who tells me firmly upon approach that they cannot draw. geologists. from schoolchildren to senior citizens. Others can be held in the h a n d or. I know that with their cooperation I can soon prove them wrong. I was also reading among The Confessions of St. For me personally. For twelve years I have enjoyed the privilege of teaching drawing. or a quantum physicist trying to see for themselves the fluctuations of our universe. Combine these things and the possibilities are endless. not only to make art. drawing is the immediate expression of seeing. Chosen in any color. I work with people of diverse ages. by invitation. and local c o m m u n i t y classes. I also make drawing books. and makers of special effects. and experience. They occupy a shelf in my studio. I will always draw. These inspirations led me to invent museums.

logos.8 INTRODUCTION Where We Begin There is a fundamental drive in our human nature to make a mark. Children cannot be restrained from running across the pristine white lawn of newly fallen snow. The sense of relief we may feel from the information overload of modern commercial life when visiting a country in which we can no longer read every written word. scrawling shapes and cartoons when on the telephone. They have a natural affinity to many modern graffiti signatures. "CAVE OF THE HANDS" In this drawing.000-9500 bce . is not afforded us by drawing. and we spend our lives reading it. Most adults still feel that certain exquisite pleasure on arriving at a beach to find the tide out and the sand perfect. Cueva de las Marios. We are surrounded by drawings in our daily lives. Rio Pinturas 13. and patterns on our clothes. waving to us from many thousands of yearsago. We are bombarded with linear and tonal pictorial information. irreverent to language barriers. inscribing every fresh part of it with their eager scrapes and trails. We can always read each others drawings.Theseancient silhouettes were drawn with earth pigments rubbed onto rock. graffiti. At home and at work we doodle. a great crowd is raising their hands in greeting. and in meetings. Sometimes we draw because we are bored. signs. not just chosen pictures on our walls but everywhere—maps. packaging. in lectures. but more often because drawing actually helps us to focus and take in what is said. like a great canvas for them to mark. Drawing is international.

The image above is what I gave back to my mother. created by societies of hunter-gatherers. She gave me a notepad and a red crayon and asked me to draw her "a picture of Daddy. like all toddlers. Even though it is made by a toddler this image would be recognizable to anyone. but I had never yet attempted to figuratively picture my world. enjoying the physical sensation of crayon on paper. and the appearance of my strikes of colors. and belonging to place. at age two-anda-half. I now think this is a picture of proximity. who in their day-to-day hardship made time to picture themselves and the animals on which they depended. In cave paintings like the one opposite. On a particular afternoon in September 1974. reflecting my experience of looking closely at my father's face. Eyelashes take up as much of my attention as the head itself. I. I was sitting with my mother. we see our oldest surviving images. the hair of my first portrait was most important. and she kept it as my first step beyond the delighted realms of scrawl.9 WHERE WE BEGIN FIRST PORTRAIT For sorre forgotten reason. MAKING OUR MARK It seems reasonable to assume that we have engaged in pictorial mark-making for as long as we have made conscious use of our hands. power. an expression of existence. . Cave art was not made for decoration but as a fundamental part of life. had happily scribbled." Until this day.

W e do n o t hesitate to draw a map. and this activity plays a vital role in their d e v e l o p m e n t . b e p r o u d o f what m a k e s y o u r w o r k individual to y o u . it is important to value your natural abilities a n d ways of seeing. h o w e v e r small a n d u n f o r m e d y o u believe they are. and from that first unit build and describe the shape of something or someone we know. It was made with a few bold strokes of a steel pen dipped in ink to conjure the dried bee I was holding between my fingers on a pin. to help a stranger see their way W h e n taking first steps in relearning h o w to draw. PROGRESSION T h e r e is a point in all o u r lives w h e n w e first c o n t r o l o u r mark and m a k e it a line. then drag o u r line into a loop.10 INTRODUCTION PEN-AND-INK BEE This tiny drawing has been enlarged to show its texture and composition. Inhibitions creep in and ideas of good a n d b a d terminate confidence. But as adolescents. yet still turn to drawing w h e n their verbal language fails or is inadequate. Don't b e p e r s u a d e d to draw in a w a y s o m e o n e else . At this point many will insist they cannot draw. most of us stop. Young children love to draw. As you progress. Hours are lost immersed in the glorious world of imagination. for example.

harbor and sea is one of many that Alfred Wallis made from memory while sitting at home. and which aspects of the vast wealth and diversity of graphic language would be most appropriate to their goals. . Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse c. but it does help to set out facing in the right direction. He was a retired Cornish fisherman and junk dealer who began drawing at the age of 70 "for company" after his wife died. and they have never questioned why. Enjoy the control of your own journey. remember that all advice is only advice. As you read this b o o k and perhaps attend art classes. I meet students struggling unhappily with a particular method of drawing. Occasionally. The journey of every artist demands hard work and discipline. After experimenting and trying each new idea. Think how much would have been lost if anyone had interfered with Alfred Wallis' personal sense of proportion and perspective in the exquisite drawing above. what they most want to achieve.11 PROGRESSION A UNIQUE SIGHT This innocent yet sophisticated drawing of boats. I ask them their reasons for drawing. you must decide whether to keep or discard it. Someone once told them they must draw in this way. He used leftover ship and yacht paint with crayons on cut-out pieces of cardboard boxes. 1925-42 53/8x87/8in (135 x 225 mm) ALFRED WALLIS prefers and tells you is better.

11).12 INTRODUCTION VISION All artists see the world differently. depending on the occasion and our purpose. We also see differently ourselves. embedded in this book. They are also always written backward. the page bristles with the focus of ideas. but the child in us knows that this is an all-embracing. IDEAS A N D I N V E N T I O N S These active machines. Below. and lose the very thing that attracted us to it. perhaps for comfort or ease as a left-hander or a habitual enjoyment of the challenge. There should neve: be a slavish obligation to represent things exactly as we collectively agree we see them. author of The Story of Art. not for disguise but as a personal choice. it may not be accurate to our critical adult eye. His notes visually balance his drawings. wrote as the opening line of this great work. is. boats. but it should be the experienced world we draw. When we look back at Wallis' seascape (see p. and inspire others. the breast. We all see differently. Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels LEONARDO DA VINCI . There are countless reasons for drawing." The clarity and empowerment of these words. all raise water From the Archimedes' screw to Leonardo's own cupped wheel. right. If as artists we nail a subject down too hard. "There really is no such thing as Art. be visionary. Our imaginations are the tools with which we can increase the essence of life. we can drive out its spirit. The observed world may be our subject. There are only artists. clear-minded understanding of the sea. The art historian Professor Sir Ernst Gombrich. and breathtaking wind of a choppy harbor. I hope.and collarbones and shoulder blades of a different bird almost become new creatures in themselves. We BIRD STUDIES The flutter of faint scratches that dance across the pages on the right is an attempt to see the movement and bony weightlessness of a bird.

More was learned drawing the bird 18 times than would have been understood drawing it only once or twice. when it looks tired and still feels wrong. We have both covered our paper with focused. it may be best to start afresh. to express the beauty in a moment's play of light. or to discover the best use of a new material. Leonardo drew to invent a machine. stripped-down parts. or illustrate a dream. drawing in pursuit of our own thoughts and understanding. while below. time spent is not lost. Each fresh image reflects growing confidence and the experience of the preceding study. I drew to understand the apparatus of flight. shout against a terrible injustice. . Our drawings are annotated investigations into the mechanisms of nature and of an idea. My drawings of a housemartin (opposite top) illustrate the importance of repeated study. This also applies if struggling at length with a larger picture. Opposite. Decide before you start whether you are drawing to warm up. but it is important to be clear why we are making it. Don't be disheartened. conduct an experiment.13 VISION should not try to know how every finished picture will look. It will be invested through your experience in the new drawing. make a calculation.

14 INTRODUCTION ALCHEMY At school. explain the composition. are both made of ink laid onto wet paper with speed and agile certainty. meaning. and what you discover in the process of making. depth. As your hand meets the paper to make a mark. BRUSHED LANDSCAPE FLOWING SKELETON T h e gliding poise of this walking anatomy comes as much from the feeling of movement as it does from the feeling of drawing. created centuries and cultures apart. We are caught in a shifting focus that makes everything fluid. trusting my intuition to find a visual equivalence for the sensation of weight within my body. it should be responding to the sensation and meaning of the subject it draws. and position in space. and opacity of your subject. and practice each part before putting the final image together. It denies the importance of accident. As you draw any subject—something you see. or ice—you must actually feel it beneath your fingers as you draw. and an island brushed with trees. You must also think of its intrinsic nature: its purpose. metal. Imagine these qualities so strongly that you feel them in your mind and at your fingertips. The physicality. your marks will become the subject on the paper. declare the idea. water. feel. and how it feels to the touch. silk. temperature. bone. However. If you can do this. They each allowed the energy and focus of the moment to be expressed through controlled accident and a degree of the unknown Both drawings were made trusting the marks. This is the alchemy of drawing. I made it almost unconsciously with a pen and a brush. These two brush drawings. or imagine—it is not enough to only render its shape. ink. and allowed to flow through the brush. This is a detail of a brush-and-ink drawing by a Japanese Buddhist monk. and sometimes beyond. Landscape in Haboku Style 15TH CENTURY . the unknown. and spirit of each subject was held strongly but loosely between the fingertips. and we can just make out the distant stains of mountains. and paper. Each image relied upon past experience to know the probable behavior of the brush. This suits many artists well and is perfectly valid. W e float toward the quiet vista as it also moves toward us. mists. Know the texture. size. we are advised or even required to plan our pictures. Whatever the material— wood. and at speeds beyond conscious thought. excessive planning can get in the way of the imagination. Our position asvieweris unsteady. balance. which can offer keys to other things. fire.

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Lautrec's flamboyant splashes o f petticoats and pantaloons are drawn with long sweeps of chalk and brushed oil paint. which evoke realities o f place and the p o w e r o f moment. more than 100 years after its making. pastel. W a l t e r also makes books: some. c.16 INTRODUCTION PLACE A N D MOMENT The heat and teeming atmosphere o f this Parisian dressing room. left. one of many luminous works in watercolor.1896 Woman at her Toilet 41 x 26 in (104 x 66 cm) TOULOUSE LAUTREC RIB-CAGE D R A M A Thus drama. made by a young British artist who creates alphabets o f the absurd f r o m familiar childhood characters. stand table-sized with furniture legs attached t o b o t h sides of their jacket. right is set inside a rib cage. gold leaf and spray paint. acrylic. like folded insects. Focusing on the Negative 2004 22 x 30 in (56 x 76 cm) J O H N WALTER . He dazzles us with flashes o f light and dabbed marks o f shadow. lives on.

potential ideas still forming. Start by choosing a material you like the look of and cover a piece of paper with different marks. Pages do not have to lie open for other people to inspect and comment on. Try to keep all of your first drawings. you will be surprised and encouraged to see how far you have come. Drawing is exploratory. diary-like observations. even those you dislike. Choose other materials and do the same. you will naturally make progress on your own in response to concentration and the decision to look and draw. Put them away and look at them later. just through the act of making.17 FREEING THE HAND If you are just beginning to learn how to draw. It is yours. take your time and don't worry if you need to make several attempts to grasp a concept. One of the advantages of a drawing book is that you can shut it. and miscellaneous items of inspiration. and mistakes are a valuable process of learning. Much will be learned on these test sheets and in your first drawings. Enjoy discovering what your hand and the material can do. As you follow lessons in this book. With no help and advice at all. try not to grip your pen worrying about the technical terms you might have heard. Such books are personal: the territory of new exploration and experiment. FREEINGTHEHAND . Ignore these at first and allow yourself the freedom to play. at a point when you feel you are not making progress.

I was particularly attracted to their gentle articulation and understated determination. In the total wealth of these pages. 150). To these I have added my own drawings to explain elementary materials and techniques and offer introductory approaches. staring straight through his image of a bull. caught between action and repose.Their elegant strength seems to summon a lifetime of drawing. Drawing is a living language that over millennia has grown and changed. we still only glimpse a corner of the magnitude of this subject and the infinity of what can be achieved. ELECTRIC BULL With a penlight. and enfolding new media. but not confined to them. and many more reasons for drawing the world. which is held frozen in space by a camera lens. A N ARTIST'S HANDS These are the hands of the artist Phyll Kiggell (see p. Picasso Painting with Light at the Madoura Pottery 1949 . Picasso is poised smiling. It rarely flourishes in isolation. when they are more experienced. Picasso has just finished his drawing. threedimensionally.18 INTRODUCTION THE THINKING EYE Techniques and materials are the grammar and vocabulary of drawing and can be studied and shared. The chapters of this book present 90 different artists' ways of seeing. An artist's personal voice is something that also evolves through lessons learned. seek ideas in the life around you. the path is yours. Imagination needs nourishment. The real drawing book has yet to come. Look to your own experience and also learn from the work of others. it will be your creation as you discover your own personal vision. This practical journey will take you through the door into the vivid heart of drawing. which of course he cannot see. it is this voice that is the subtle part of their art and something that ultimately. Note that the drawing classes are allocated to subjects. adapting its form and occupation. However. As you draw. Its sensuous and flowing line seems to drift like smoke. comes from within. and became a great subject for me. Once there.

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b o u n d b o o k w i l l s o o n s h o w y o u h o w it is m a d e . is perfect. y o u n e e d a lifetime. Dissecting a d i s c a r d e d h a r d . t h i s is h o w I l e a r n e d . a l e n g t h o f black elastic t i e d a r o u n d t h e m i d d l e will h o l d the contents together w h e n y o u f o l d in c o l l e c t e d items. thickness.B O U N D PADS: T h e s e are t h e least expensive a n d useful f o r o p e n i n g flat.b o u n d p a d if y o u w i s h t o keep your drawings together long-term. F o r e v e n i n g classes. binding. drawing book. H O M E M A D E : I m a d e this b o o k f r o m drawing paper that I folded. C O L O R E D PAPERS: Large a r t supply stores o f t e n sell t h i c k b o o k s full o f c o l o r e d p a p e r s . and handles to lift the weight of your artworks. c h o o s e larger f o r m a t s t o give y o u s c o p e f o r e x p e r i m e n t . These are perfect f o r w o r k i n g in novels.h a n d s t o r e s make unique subjects f o r e x p e r i m e n t s a n d collage. F O U N D B O O K S : O l d p r i n t e d 3 . t h e i r jackets w i l l a c t like d r a w i n g b o a r d s a n d p r o t e c t y o u r w o r k . Many artists invent ways o f binding their o w n books. Drawing boards are invaluable.C O V E R E D H A R D B O U N D : Ideal f o r c a r r y i n g a r o u n d . Purchase a h i g h . Smooth plywood. a n d r e f e r e n c e b o o k s f o u n d in s e c o n d . They can be very expensive in art stores. Alternatively. which are also sold in an enormous range. It is also useful to own a portfolio. and collage their ideas. quality.q u a l i t y r i n g . T h e hardb o a r d j a c k e t is s t r e t c h e d w i t h canvas beneath t h e p a p e r sleeve. stitched. a n d crayons. If you intend to carry your boards for a distance. thick enough not to flex. cheap corrugated plastic ones fall apart in days. be sure they fit comfortably under your arm.20 INTRODUCTION Drawing Books and Papers T o BEGIN YOUR EXPLORATION o f d r a w i n g . pastels. and glued t o a s t r i p o f bias binding. R I N G . H o w e v e r r i n g bindings o f t e n break. N o t e t h e w i d e l y differing c h o i c e o f p a p e r s w i t h w h i c h t h e s e are m a d e . catalogs. texture. A high-quality one will last a DRAWING BOOKS Select d r a w i n g b o o k s t o suit y o u r aims. C A N V A S . Most contain thin p a p e r and are perfect f o r use w i t h disposable pens. Gleaming store purchases vary greatly in format. You simply need two strong boards hinged together well. c o l o r If planning t o use pencils. 5. cut. 2002 Tantalus o r The Future of Man 81/2 x61/4in (215 x 158 mm) ROSE MILLER . 2. it is better to have them made at a lumber yard or home improvement store. and cost. 6. There are dozens to choose from. ties on either side to keep your papers in place. BLACK P O C K E T B O O K S : Hand-sized w i t h ready-made elastic binder and a marker ribbon. Homemade books can be assembled easily from found materials or selections of loose sheet papers. Art students often make use of printed books picked up from secondhand stores into which they draw. 4. Sand the edges to avoid splinters. F o r traveling. c h o o s e s m a l l e r h a r d . 1. study the structure of a good portfolio and make your own.b o u n d b o o k s t h a t fit in y o u r p o c k e t o r bag. Calculate a range of useful dimensions and have several cut at once. b e a w a r e t h a t p a p e r t e x t u r e effects a n d changes t h e i r marks. color.

FABRIANO R O U G H 600GMS: Very heavy. or rolls. red. also good for drawing with colored pencils. Ph. and cost. 100% cotton and sold in sheets. and hot pressed papers. color. C A N S O N : Inexpensive lightweight pastel paper in many colors. Use cheap paper for rough ideas and quality paper for work to last See the glossary ( p p . and white. it is made from rice. blocks. It is also excellent for drawing with marker pens on layered sheets. SAUNDERS WATERFORD N O T 300GMS: Mid-quality textured watercolor paper. fine. They are hand-. Cotton papers are high-quality and acid-free. PAPERS . texture. and rolls. 8. smooth. yellow. pastel paper in flecked pastel colors with a distinctive ribbed marking. 18. 20. printed on one side only. or machine made in sheets. turning brown and brittle. 22. Use with a brush in clean water Water makes a dark mark like ink and becomes invisible again when dry. JAPANESE PAPER: Strong. 2 5 6 . AQUARELLE ARCHES 300GMS:The very top quality hot-pressed (smooth) watercolor paper. FABRIANO INGRES: Thin.5 9 ) for explanations of rough. 13. tough.Papers differ in thickness (weight). 16. MAGIC PAPER: A reusable sheet for testing ideas without creating waste. mold-. Use for brushwork drawings. size. bamboo. 10. 12. FABRIANO ACADEMIA: Standard medium-range multipurpose paper Use with any media. white textured paper that can take abrasive use of any medium. and cream sheets or rolls. 17. resisting deterioration. from pencil to paint 9. not. 21.TISSUE PAPER: Place sheets between drawing book pages to keep images from printing on each other and use for delicate collage. ITALIAN PARCHMENT: Imitation-animal-skin parchment that is translucent and slightly waxy. T W O RIVERS GREEN 410G MS: Very heavy tinted textured cold-pressed watercolor paper See Two Rivers Yellow. absorbency. For use with any media. VELIN ARCHES 250GMS: Printmaking paper available in black white. METALLIC PAPER: Thin paper in different metallic colors. and other plant fibers. T W O RIVERS Y E L L O W 410GMS: See Two Rivers Green 19. 11. 15. GLASSINE: Sold as protective wrapping. used to imprint lines of these colors onto a surface. 7. blocks. Cheap wood-pulp papers are acidic. 14. mulberry. It is available in white or cream. C A R B O N PAPER: Available in dark and light blue. cold. and translucent.

but wherever possible. b u t it should n o t be forgotten that many people make remarkable a n d striking works drawing with their feet or holding their brush or pencil in their mouths. place it on your left. Examples are shown here. flowing space between your hand. With your hand in this position. This photograph illustrates how some people hold a pen to write. and subject. In this book we will look at parallels between drawing and music. Turning your drawing sideways or upside-own will also help reveal what is wrong. You cannot draw like this—your hand is locked and your fingers can barely move. make sure you have enough room to back away and view your work. your drawing will reflect this. you can draw lines freely and achieve a significant arc of movement. SPACE TO WORK Cramped grip. your lines will distort. strangledlooking drawings. From a distance you will spot errors you cannot see close up. your whole relaxed b o d y should be involved. place it on the correct side: if right-handed. Placing your easel o n the w r o n g side folds y o u r b o d y against your drawing arm. but you need to understand that the expression of a line or mark originates in the body and flows t h r o u g h the shoulder. It will also reflect discomfort if you are in any way cramped. don't sit too close to the paper. place it on your right. If your body posture is well balanced and you can move freely. Accelerated perspective also occurs if you look down the surface steeply (see pp. If seated on a b e n c h easel (a donkey). Use the side of your little fingernail as a support on the page. arm. You do not have to dance to draw. Regularly step back 6-9 ft (2-3 m) to check your progress. or with your drawing board angled between your lap and a chair. you Drawing classes can be cramped places. There should be an open. 116-17). If your hand twists to maneuver between the paper and your body. Relaxed fingers: Hold the pencil away from its tip and relax your fingers. should be able to look comfortably straight ahead at your picture plane. a n d h a n d to the fingertips. if left-handed. Ideally. . a n d look to the left of it at your subject.22 INTRODUCTION Posture and Grip T o DRAW WELL. and look to the right. This cramped grip tires your hand and makes small. If using an upright easel. How you hold your drawing materials is also important. There are also parallels to dance. body.

alternative way of holding the pencil. Large amounts of ink can be applied without fear of uncontrolled running if the paper is flat. ALL MEDIA There are no rules as to how you should hold your drawing media. and body are not restricted. This can give a new lease on life to your mark-making. liquid will run down your hand.232-33). . roughly marking out a large-scale work. arm. Soft media: Short materials such as pastels and charcoal can be accommodated in the palm.23 This loose "candle" grip is very useful when drawing with your arm extended. find an unfamiliar. brush pressed against an upright surface will cause a dribble of ink to run down your drawing. If you turn a brush or dip pen up into the air to draw above your hand. It is most comfortable when reaching to draw above your head. Remember you can also draw just by dipping your fingers in pigment—this is how many women draw in rural India. upright way of holding the brush near its base is similar to the Japanese way used in Zen calligraphy (see pp. But be careful not to tense your fingers. not up to the paper Brushes can be used on upright paper but dip Anticipating effects: A fully loaded pens need a level surface. hold your material as you find most comfortable. Brush calligraphy: This comfortable. depending upon what it is and how large you are working. GRAVITY Remember that gravity affects the flow of ink and paint. or change to the wrong hand. This can be used to great effect. To stop this. As long as your fingers. or it can spoil your work if not anticipated. Large scale: POSTURE AND GRIP U n f a m i l i a r i t y : T h e habitual movements of our handwriting style will sometimes infringe upon our drawing.

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11 x91/4in (277 x 234 mm) . In 19th-century Europe this became a "science. plants. the Latin bestiary was one of the most popular picture books—an illustrated dictionary of one hundred parts.. to be there at the m o m e n t of discovery.drawe to lief one of each kinde of thing that is strange to us in England. " Animals perpetually feed our imaginations. animals provide a perfect subject with which to begin. Framed in the z o o or in domestic cohabitation. 1590 J O H N WHITE capture form and movement from the m a n n e r i s m s of honking geese. and snakes have between them engendered harpies. dogs. 1540. and learn how to Flying Fish c. We have drawn them on the walls of caves to evoke their kinship and power. After the subject of ourselves. from which personality and predicted behavior were " d e d u c e d . Here (left) we see J o h n White's exquisite record of a flying fish. floating turtles. In this chapter we discover the use of pens and ink through the delineation of insects. cartographer. and silent. offer challenges and delights to draw. Together they made maps and documented animals." He worked with the scientist Thomas Harriot. insects. O v e r the centuries. W e have drawn them in m a n u s c r i p t s to explain our genesis and to c o u n t their species into Noah's ark. This drawing is made in black lead (metal point) with watercolor Highlights of silver would have gleamed. werewolves.m o u n t e d skeletons of birds. and pioneer born c. Facial features were analyzed in terms of their animal likeness. we have employed artists on expeditions. and people. In medieval England.. sleeping dogs. fish. birds. For the novice artist. and dragons. their different speeds and patterns of action. and we still see escapees from its pages carved and grinning as the gargoyles of churches. White's commission was to ". W h e n lost to explain our own emotions. who described in words what White drew. JOHN WHITE British artist. they are perhaps our favorite pictorial preoccupation. or scampering through the initials and borders of pictures from that time. bats. which are so unlike ours. out are now oxidized and so appear black W h e n less preoccupied with understanding ourselves. On the Roanoke voyages of Sir Walter Raleigh. As children we delight in the humanized trials of Tom and Jerry and their c a r t o o n relations. we turn and take the features of beasts. Europeans on board had never seen such a thing. which very likely leaped o n t o the deck of Sir Walter Raleigh's ship Tiger as it sailed north from the Caribbean to Virginia in 1585. and this very drawing was to endure many copies and plagiarisms after its triumphant return to the English court of Queen Elizabeth I. and to bring h o m e drawn documentaries of their finds. each dedicated to the moralized tale of an animal or monster The bestiary profoundly influenced the art of its period." Paranoid newcomers c r a m m e d into swelling industrial cities used handbooks of physiognomy to identify and judge their neighbors. mermaids.Animals H UMANS HAVE DRAWN ANIMALS from the beginning of our time. m u s e u m .

He studied the image and drew his own interpretation. inspiring countless works of art and so touching people's imaginations that later. naturalist. Unsurpassed. Original Ink Drawing of a Rhinoceros 1515 ALBRECHT DURER 103/4 x 161/2 in ( 2 7 4 x 4 2 0 mm) . a drawing of it arrived in Nuremberg. printmaker. Converted into a print. draftsman. years after its publication.26 ANIMALS Documentaries horse are superb affirmations of the power of drawing as a recorder and communicator of knowledge. Durer's image changed eager hands until it was known across Europe. It was to become the animal's only accepted likeness for 250 years. He in turn sent the mysterious creature to the Pope via Marseilles at the request of the King of France. Stubbs's Anatomy of the Horse achieved similar documentary status. DURER'S RHINOCEROS AND STUBBS'S skeletal Durer. the ship was lost. and mathematician. Life-like This is Durer's original quill-and-ink drawing made after an anonymous Portuguese drawing. they were rejected. writer. Meanwhile. it continued its journey to Rome. Contemporary texts related accounts of the beast as the mortal enemy of the elephant and rare relative of the "more common" unicorn. Durer traveled widely to study at different European schools of art. The first live rhinoceros to reach Europe came from India in May 1515. Carefully stuffed. when more accurate portrayals were made without armor and scales. a gift to the Portuguese King. Sailing to Rome. the home of ALBRECHT DURER German Renaissance painter. and wrote four books on proportion. It is such a lifelike triumph of imagination and intelligence that for centuries zoologists never questioned its authority. filled journals with ideas and observations. but the drowned animal washed ashore. it is still consulted by veterinarians today.

naturalist. dissecting and drawing until he understood the mechanisms of its power and grace. Stubbs w a s o n e o f t h e first E u r o p e a n artists t o m a k e a n a c c u r a t e representation o f the rhinoceros. Table of the III of the Horse (rear Skeleton view) mm) 1756-58 1 4 x 7 in ( 3 5 4 x 1 8 0 GEORGE STUBBS . Lighting Stubbs's breathtaking international work won immediate There acclaim. knowledge of parts. is no other work like it. in t h r e e v i e w s — r e a r f r o n t . composed from notes and observations. which has never diminished. L o n d o n . His painted p o r t r a i t o f t h e b e a s t is in t h e R o y a l C o l l e g e o f S u r g e o n s o f England. Dissections Stubbs took his knife and his pencil and physically climbed inside the horse. Dissections were made over a total of 18 months. Stubbs's m o s t c e l e b r a t e d publication. The entire project was developed over ten years. Anatomy of the Horse. This is one of Stubbs' original finished pencil drawings.GEORGE STUBBS B r i t i s h e q u i n e a n d s o c i e t y p o r t r a i t painter. a n d anatomist. He translated his own drawings into engravings for publication. He composed makes each horse appear so real and each plate from his three-dimensional. and therefore invented the lighting that Compare how Stubbs and Durer both invented lighting to portray the reality of their animals. c o m p r i s e s 1 8 p l a t e s s h o w i n g d i s s e c t i o n s in l a y e r s f r o m b o n e t h r o u g h m u s c u l a t u r e t o skin. a n d s i d e .

playwright.. The octopus is formed in layers applied and distressed with a brush. saying ". Hugo's novels Les Miserables and Dame have become classics of film and stage. the ominous beast unwinds from the dark of the sea and of our nightmares. snarl. sepia. and leader of the French Romantic movement. Surrounding sprays of graphite powder are stuck into washes of oil and ink to suggest glutinous depths..". and Pieuvre 1866-69 91/2 x81/8in (242 x 207 mm) VICTOR H U G O . ink and linseed oil on paper. By contrast. I've ended up mixing in pencil. H u g o mixed his media and drew from m e m o r y and imagination to create narrative atmosphere. linseed oil soaked into the paper has made shadows and repelled the ink to create translucent tentacles. He has w a t c h e d her p o u n c e . Hugo's page is f l o o d e d w i t h the fearful presence of a remembered octopus. soot. charcoal. drawing her again and again to pin d o w n the texture of her loose skin. novelist. drama. His copious drawings are characterized by mixed media.. more or less what I have in view. and a love of accident. A s if disturbed from its gritty b e d by our presence and curiosity.. Gericault's sheet a p p e a r s almost s c r a t c h e d b y the f e r o c i o u s play of his cat. and turn. Hugo used graphite powder. and all sorts of bizarre concoctions which manage to convey above all in mind. VICTOR HUGO Poet. He wrote to poet and art critic Charles-Pierre Baudelaire about his experiments. her b o n y frame.28 ANIMALS Presence and Mood THESE DRAWINGS HAVE BEEN CHOSEN to s h o w t w o v e r y different ways of picturing a wild animal. it silently rises to the light. and her distinctive temperament. Gericault took a sharp p e n c i l to m a k e repeated direct o b s e r v a t i o n s f r o m life. Mixed media Here. conjured b y the hand of a great author of French literary fiction. Apparently drawn in its o w n ink. The Hunchback of Notre Layers and shadows Throughout this drawing. coal dust. her sharp teeth.

Here. undertraces unify and vitalize the composition. Tones that do not follow surface contour is very difficult to do well. since it can lead to a flattened form. and it can be applied to any subject (see pp. fiery. and keep trying again. of drawings Gericault erased. Undertraces Beneath these graphite studies we see traces Tones On the top row we see clearly how Gericault laid broad areas of tone using fast. 124-25 and p. standing sideways. Beginners are advised to follow the natural contours of form as shown on pp. diagonal strokes of his pencil. facing right. of previous Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 1817-18 121/2 x 151/2 in ( 3 1 9 x 3 9 8 mm) T H E O D O R E GERICAULT .118-119). displayed in the Louvre. s h o r t .29 THEODORE GERICAULT C o n t r o v e r s i a l . Repeated study This drawing demonstrates of feeling confident repeat different the importance subject Remaining enough to isolate parts of a views. Paris. Before paper became so cheap. H e is best k n o w n f o r his gigantic painting. At the center of the page is crammed drawings the outline of a horse. parallel. 144.l i v e d French R o m a n t i c painter and lithographer Largely self-taught. focused upon seeing will lead to a greater understanding of the subject Much is learned from repeated study. horses w e r e a favorite subject t o g e t h e r w i t h politics and history. The Raft of the Medusa. artists reused sheets and them full of studies.

printmaker ceramicist graphic and stage designer who lived in France. hooked. or proud. Both Picasso and Klee have enclosed their subjects to compress and amplify the speed of PABLO PICASSO A prolific Spanish painter sculptor. draftsman. overwhelmed by a screeching bird. Cheval et Oiseau 1936 173/8 x 211/4 in ( 4 4 0 x 5 4 0 m m ) PABLO PICASSO . The fact that they never stand still influences the movement in his line. identify an animal: the fast cheetah. noise is everywhere. made only a year apart. slow tortoise. and brown. quivering horse. The ink is used to make sharply defined solid. Artists commonly focus on such actions. and scrolled lines. flapping bird. In Picasso's drawing. the whinnying of a frantic horse. His powdery. Klee's riders are constructed from all the gestures of greeting mules. we see semi-abstract. Gouache is brushed softly in translucent hazy layers of cool blue. flattened animals composed almost entirely of movement. with George Braque (see p90). the first abstract movement of the 20th century.30 ANIMALS Movement M O V E M E N T IS OFTEN THE CHARACTERISTIC b y w h i c h w e their lines and the power of their beasts. taking them to guide their hand in bringing form and essence together. and waves breaking distantly below. Faune. gray. dissolving faun kneels stranded. These media complement and amplify each other with their brilliant contrast. Ink and gouache This drawing is made in black Chinese ink and gouache (opaque watercolor) applied with a brush. His hand must have shuddered and twitched just like the constant actions of this humorous meeting. In these two drawings. Picasso cofounded Cubism.

violinist. printmaker. W i t h his drawings Kleeb o u n d sophisticated theories to personal and often witty childlike imagery. draftsman. Chicago PAUL KLEE .PAUL KLEE Swiss painter. Scene der Komischen of Comical Reiter Riders) (Scene 1935 161/2x111/2in ( 4 1 9 x 2 9 1 mm) M o r t o n G . and t e a c h e r at t h e Bauhaus school. N e u m a n n Family Collection." They chatter around bodies in groups. turning our eye and around inside the and postures of the paper- thin on pictorial space. Layers of marks In this pale Dentil drawing we see layers of' agitated marks that together present a kind of visual "itch. The entire drawing suggests the endless small movements of horses standing still. He is a u t h o r o f The Thinking Eye (1923). sculptor. well-worn copies o f w h i c h are found in m a n y art schools. They remain in contact with the surface of the page and scribble back and forth as they maneuver from one area to another. creatures. top all happily of each other in the Endless lines Look closely at how Klee's lines rarely leave the paper and how they are free from the constraint of finite shape.

later called a galleon. and from them learned that if he designed his ship with a "cod's head MATTHEW BAKER Master shipwright. He studied the anatomy of fish. Exquisite details in this drawing include the lips of the fish. plans. In just one drawing he has displayed more angles of his design than we would expect to see from a single viewpoint Fragments English 1586 101/2 x 153/8 in (270 x 390 mm) MATTHEW BAKER of Ancient Shipwrightry . and scales. seemingly looking for our attention.32 ANIMALS Icon and Design IN THESE T W O MANUSCRIPTS we discover diagrammatic and mackerel's tail" (full bow. and s e c t i o n s o f ships. adding washes of color with a fine brush. b a s e d o n his studies o f fish. and author o f Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (1586). Below we see his revolutionary design for an Elizabethan warship. balance. the expression of its eye. slim stern). which in application gave strength and advantage to the English fighting the Spanish Armada. mathematician. Baker lived in an era when ships were built without drawn plans. The fish It is likely that Baker drew with a quill dipped in irongall ink. t h e earliest geometrically defined elevations. It is simply how we read his perspective. Knopf's drawing opposite is the personal enigmatic expression of a mind gripped by illness. This drawing illustrates Baker's theory. drawings of animals that are each held tightly in a surprising space: a giant fish wears a ship's hull. and the carefully observed gills. His birds stare. and steerage. and to assess our next move. and blackbirds fly in formation through a mosaic of text. B a k e r initiated t h e scientific p r a c t i c e o f naval a r c h i t e c t u r e and applied h y d r o d y n a m i c s . it would achieve greater speed. Baker did not intend this. The ship The upper decks of the ship appear curved toward us at both ends. fins. In contrast to the practical clarity of Baker's thought.

written last of all. and filled evenly with tone.K n o p f b e l i e v e d h e c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h e language o f birds. T h e G e r m a n a r t historian Outline and tone The blackbirds illuminating this frantic manuscript are drawn in pencil. appears to be stirred like water by the presence of the The Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks UNDATED 133/8 x 115/8 in (340 x 2 9 6 mm) and psychiatrist Hans Prinzhom collected this image. firmly outlined. The text.JOHANN KNOPF An " O u t s i d e r " a r t i s t w h o s u f f e r e d f r o m m e n t a l illness. The main group is placed in a circle drawn with a compass. w h i c h o f t e n f e a t u r e as s y m b o l i c creatures in his drawings. JOHANN KNOPF . numbered. circle and the birds.

PENS . and first used by the Egyptians. The bar is then rubbed into water on a slate block to produce ink. simultaneously 4 . from the acacia tree. 5 0 0 years ago. and spatters can be made with an exotic choice of inks. Avoid needle-sharp mapping pens. and hold it under a clean basin until the soot hangs to it. while metal nibs began as rare gifts in gold and silver before being perfected by the British steel industry. the recipes for which have been handed down over centuries. high-quality Chinese and Japanese inks are subtler and more complex than those produced in Europe. light it. Responsive to slight changes in pressure. Each pen has a unique character. ink is traditionally applied with a brush (see pp.246-47). 2. Dip pens began their history in the Nile River. distinguished manufacture. s t i c k s . 4. Quills were later cut from feathers. In the Far East. That is an ink. F O U N T A I N PENS: These vary in quality and nib width. The Chinese used animal or fish glue.34 ANIMALS Pen and Ink W I T H A HANDFUL OF FEATHERS. METAL PENS: Inexpensive removable steel nibs are available in a range of widths. which scratch rather than draw. then pour a little warm gum water into it and temper the two together. The Egyptians and Chinese are credited with the invention of carbon ink. which range greatly in their handling and character of line. The paste from either recipe is pressed and dried into a bar for storage. you can have great fun drawing the world around you. 3. The reservoir gives a constant flow of ink for very long unbroken lines and continuous bottle-free use. QUILLS: These are cut from the barrel of a flight or tail feather. Masters choose brands of long. and it is still in use today. a n d m e t a l p o i n t s . Early artists recommended raven and crow for especially fine work. Intricate or dramatic lines. where reeds were gathered. The best are goose or swan. spots. REED PENS: A broad nib can be cut from bamboo or another tubular grass. they are associated with rapid. Only fill with suitable inks. They fit into wooden holders. producing a different line. Today. expressive drawing techniques such as the ones we explore in this chapter 1." "Gum" refers to gum arabic extracted Dip pens are essential and inexpensive drawing tools. A German recipe of 1531 gives a simple description: "Take a wax candle.

or charcoal. . Non-waterproof Indian inks can be reworked with a wet brush after drying. suspended in a binder and stored as a solid block Blocks are imported today 7. Crushed. Excellent for drawing they are bright and non-clogging. bistre.G A L L INK: Abnormal spherical growths caused by parasitic wasps can be collected from some oak trees in fall. is the ink of a cuttlefish or squid extracted post-mortem. and sieved. Waterproof types contain shellac. an often misused term. I R O N . boiled. Now we also have acrylic ranges in many colors. iron-gall. reduced. and most can be homemade. 8. and can be mixed and diluted to create subtler colors and tones. INKS 9. roastedwine sediment (Yeast Black). SEPIA A N D BISTRE INKS: Sepia. 5. C A R B O N INK: Traditionally produced from oil or resin soot (Lamp Black). Old stock turns solid and bottlesChina. and are still in use today: carbon (Chinese and Indian). from are not 6. they produce a golden dye for drawing.36. Beechwood soot is best. Bistre is the more humane use of soot scraped from the fireplace and ground into wine. waterproof or non-waterproof. Inks can be lightfast or non-lightfast. ACRYLIC / CALLIGRAPHY INKS: Available in black and a range of colors.35 PEN AND INK Four types of ink were common before the 20th century. charred bone (Ivory Black). I N D I A N INK: Carbon ink sold today in liquid form. It dries with a sheen and clogs uncleaned pens. and sepia. dated. The complexities of traditional iron-gall ink are explained on p. They are the easiest inks to use.

The lighter right Quill marks Quills carry more ink than strokes and for as reeds. it was gray-purple. T h e y give a finer. forming the REED PENS R e e dpens dispense ink quickly. fleshy skins that surround ripe walnuts. Practice to gain a feel for how materials behave. sieved. giving a s h o r t . V a n G o g h . giving longer lines. M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s d r a g o n o n p . Oak galls. Paler strokes were made where the mark has the legs and antennae the ink ran out. the blade and cut away from you. t h e y stick a n d j u d d e r f o r w a r d . then cut a final nib (feathers. 2 4 4 is an e x q u i s i t e e x a m p l e . of a loaded nib. crushed. and turned brown with time. a n d d e v e l o p e d t h e quill instead.36 ANIMALS Drawing With Ink To MAKE A QUILL OR REED PEN. red-brown. I u s e d t h e s e qualities t o d r a w t h e w o r m s above. d r y mark. U n d e r heavy pressure. are surprisingly tough. Reed marks The darker left wing of this beetle was drawn with the wet inky stroke wing. finding reed p e n s unwieldy. For centuries.) You can make ink easily from the boiled. Quills are also called D u t c h pens. Scribes o f t h e M i d d l e Ages. Rembrandt. Although oak galls and walnut skins are harmless. drawn to glisten with a dryer nib. for example. and boiled to make a golden ink. . m o r e e x t e n d e d line than reed and a m o r e organic line t h a n m e t a l . Running fresh. a n d M a t i s s e also e n j o y e d t h e m . since t h e D u t c h w e r e t h e first t o realize t h a t they could be hardened and i m p r o v e d w i t h heat t r e a t m e n t in ash o r sand. always be cautious when experimenting with recipes. Walnut ink is gloopy. Collect skins from the ground beneath trees once they are blackened. The darkest of this grasshopper wings) were made (around the head first. reduced. can also be collected from affected trees. It dried black. Some of Michelangelo's drawings are now a little eaten by their own ink. appears broken to show paper beneath. keep all your fingers behind basis of iron-gall ink. r e s e r v e d t h e i r use f o r large c h o i r b o o k s . QUILL PENS Q u i l l s a r e highly r e s p o n s i v e t o c h a n g e s in p r e s s u r e . It also oxidized and ate or burned paper. galls were ground with iron sulfate to make an unstable solution. and delicious to draw with.

White markings were drawn last Tones Here we see subtle tones of diluted ink beneath the undiluted black rim of a beetle's wing. breaking. o r being ruined as fountain pens would be under the same pressure. Loaded with ink and pressed hard. clean strokes. they splay to make thick o r double lines. particles then filled with a droplet of ink. giving a graded. W h e n the nib is pressed upside down. withstanding great pressure without sticking.37 METAL PENS Metal pens give long. The of pigment to fall to the edges effect of the shape. DRAWING WITH INK Filled outlines Each segment of wing was outlined. When using dip pens. tonal Ink layers The wings of this beetle were drawn in layers using black and white ink on pale gray paper. . marks become fine and needle-sharp. Each layer of of the drying droplet dome the drawing was left to dry before adding more. it is important to feel for when the ink will run out and to know how much ink you pick up when dipping the nib. sharp.

Cover your drawing book pages in speedy responses to the geese and try to capture each bird in as few lines as possible. there is no obligation to prepare a quill.38 ANIMALS Capturing Character GEESE ARE EXCELLENT SUBJECTS to draw when practicing the first use of pen and ink. Quick drawing trains you to see what is most important about a subject and to mark only its most essential expression. be bold and press firmly. Posture . touch the bottle's rim to drain the excess. Focus on the geese. MATERIALS NEEDED Look for a bird expressing a simple posture. make another one. and boldly plunge into your drawing. and bellyflop off the waterside. Study them before drawing. not on your drawing. Pack plenty of tissue around a bottle of calligraphy or acrylic ink. Focus on it. waddle. Take no more than ten seconds to draw each one and make lots of drawings. I covered eleven sheets in sixty quick drawings—in less than an hour. Experiment. and quickly draw around it using only three or four strokes. Illustrating this exercise on Oxford Port Meadow. It happens that goose feathers also provide artists with the best type of quills. so pick a spot where other people can keep them entertained. Geese are nosy birds. Empathize." If you don't like a stroke. to absorb blots when drawing. Try to hold the whole posture in your mind's eye. Attempt with a loose hand to capture their posture and outline. It teaches confidence and focus through intensive repetition. You cannot break the nib. and be brave. Dip your pen in ink. draw what the bird is doing. and there is no "wrong. and a large drawing book or plenty of paper Use masking tape to secure pages against the wind. Take a cup and water for diluting a range of tones. Cover a sheet. That said. steel nibs are fine. test your limits. Watch their heavy feathered bodies flap.

and diving. running. Again. and don't worry about mechanical facts or accuracy. .39 Action With growing confidence. draw the feeling of what you see. CAPTURING CHARACTER Texture Gradually allow yourself more lines to describe the texture of each bird as well as its posture and action. flapping. Avoid detail unless really tempted by a close-up visit Fluctuate the pressure of your pen in response to how you know the bird would feel if you touched it. look among the birds for more complicated actions such as shaking off water. Use more lines than before to express these.

40 ANIMALS Sleeping Dogs R A S WAS A GREAT CHARACTER. and personality. a dip pen and ink of your choice (see pp. a d o g w h o w a s a l w a y s town. your drawing book. Dip the nib quickly again into water and again drain it. Sleeping animals present the artist with ideal opportunities to study their texture. This will give a medium-gray line." . Now it will make a pale line. Make a test sheet to discover your control of diluting on the nib. and a tissue for blotting drawn lines that appear too dark. form. Then dip the nib quickly into a glass of water and drain the excess again. The only time he remained still was when he was sleeping. engaged in his and everyone else's business. MAKING A PALE LINE To make a pale line. first dip your pen in ink. and even then he twitched and stretched in dreams. For this class you will need one oblivious dog. These drawings are not an analysis of his anatomy or breed but the expression of his satisfied comfort in a deep sleep after a night out on the together with a glass of water for diluting tones on the nib. and drain the excess by touching the nib against the rim of the bottle. Ras Curled Up Asleep "Capturing the true character of a cherished companion is best achieved with objective determination rather than sentimental shyness.34-37).

41 DRAWING YOUR DOG Be bold in this exercise. To add texture.It is essential when drawing any subject (even something abstract) to know how it feels andtoemulate this with your line. First lines are first thoughts. tail. 3 Gradually introduce darker tones. SLEEPING DOGS 1 Fix your eyes at the center of the dog. see how the animal's posture determines its whole shape. I added ink to Ras's nose. Layers o f thoughts can bring a drawing alive. ears. to emphasize how he is curled up. Remain focused on the whole dog and. D o not go back over lines you are pleased with—doing so dulls their lively freshness. add more detail. this time to create a line a little darker in tone. Here. Character is better captured drawing quickly with confidence than w o r k i n g slowly. second thoughts may be different Changing your mind is a positive aspect o f seeing and thinking. ignoring all detail. c o n c e r n e d a b o u t detail. Here I marked the features of Ras's head. . Then. in bold layers. 2 Reload your pen with ink. alter the pressure and moisture of your line in response to howyouknow your dog feels when you ruffle itscoat. quickly draw what you see. and the shadows in his coat. Trust your intuition. W i t h pale lies. Then I immediately rebalanced the drawing with lines around his hind quarters.

Turtles to observe. THE ELONGATION AND BUOYANCY of a group of turtles is fascinating . A perfect subject for the beginner. turtles often pause unexpectedly. offering plenty of time for the artist to draw the pose. swinging their limbs and shells with a slow circular movement. they stretch and paddle. Beyond the glass wall of the aquarium. as if caught in a camera freeze-frame.

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I made repeated studies of the housemartin to discover its mechanism of flight. and sharp. I sought to capture the form. dry. I darkened lines as each drawing progressed. balance. . Beginning with very pale tones. With speed.Dry Birds THESE ARE THE ARTICULATED BONES o f a k i w i a n d a h o u s e - martin drawn in a museum using a steel pen. and water. weightlessness of the kiwi. India ink.

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nurture. Classifications were set in367copperengravings. Medieval knowledge was not gained by the first-hand observation of life but by reading. Fledgling years Botanist and apothecary who compiled the Hortus Eystettensis of scientific research bore manifold explosions of knowledge in a fever of discovery. the punctuation of space with structure and mass. B A S I L I U SBESLER when botanists founded new work upon the direct study of plants. infinitely vivid. It was published plain in 1611 and withhand-paintedplates in poured off ships returning from the New World and were eagerly collected and 1613. After Here Aconthus spinosus is combined with forget-me-nots and-a-half centuries of intensive observation. the microscope was refined to unfold yet another world.Morethan 1. Both embrace the anticipation of evolving shape. Chapters are arranged by out. The revolution came in the 1530s. color. Botanical illustration is a precisely defined and scientific art. we see very different cultural visions of plants and gardens and use pencils and plants to learn the pictorial values of space. an There are close parallels between the acts of gardening and drawing. and texture.000 species of plants are depicted life-size drawn. on which our lives depend. PriceBishopof Eichstatt specimens. and the Acanthus spinosus constant but exhilarating struggle to make a living image feel right. In this chapter. to catalog our knowledge. Rich owners of private gardens commissioned large-format florilegiums commissioned the volume to document his private garden to immortalize their personal taste and power of acquisition. He sent boxes of plants to Nuremburgburned with the urgency and excitement of explaining every plant's form. Botanic gardens were established and expanded. and focus. and the drawn pages ofthesame name. Later. —-the largest and most influential botanical book of the early Natural scientists accompanied explorers to document unknown finds. to the proliferation of floral designs with which we have dressed ourselves and furnished our homes for centuries. We collect. From its history there is one overriding lesson to be learned: the importance of looking and seeing with our own eyes. robust. and hybridize them for our sustenance and pleasure. as opposed to only herbal. Early European illustrators were trapped within dogma that was determined by ancient scholarship. we now have laid before us fourto show how well their colours complement each other infinite wealth of material to explore. and to ornament our lives. Plants are the principal inspiration of the decorative arts—from Roman Corinthian columns crowned with carved leaves of the acanthus. form. shape. where a number of uncredited artistsd r e wthem for Besler. Conrad von Gemmingen. manipulations of light and shade. and beauty.Plants and Gardens W E SHARE THIS PLANET with the more ancient. Patrons funded the breeding of decorative. and diverse kingdom of plants. season. Plants seventeenth century. 1613 187/8x153/4in(480 x 400 mm) BASILIUS BESLER . We draw them to celebrate their beauty and range.

and seeds conventionally a p p e a r o n o n e plate. W i t h bright F R A N Z BAUER An Austrian artist who trained at the Schonbrunn Imperial Gardens in Vienna. delicate. T h e rest of u s are free to d r a w as w e w i s h . B e h i n d detailed. stems." Her slipper orchid s h o w s that botanical drawing must often resolve the challenge of its subject's p r o d u c i n g parts in different seasons — r o o t s . fruit. Light in this drawing is given by the paleness of the paper showing between washes of darker tones. naturalist explorer and advisor to King George III invited Bauer to London in 1 7 9 0 . detail. Outline Bauer prepared a pencil outline before laying in fleshy succulent hues and tones of watercolor. and meticulous precision. leaves. Sir Joseph Banks. M a c k i n t o s h e x p r e s s e s the f o l d e d petals of a broken rose b u d so delicately w e can sense the perfume. subtle union of beauty. Each plant must b e clearly distinguished from its closest relative. o p t i m i s m . and Franz Bauer and his brother Ferdinand were employed there to draw specimens. petal tip over a lower leaf Protea nitida 201/4 x141/4in (513 x 362 mm) FRANZ BAUER 1796 . o p e n i n g a n d c l o s i n g i n the w a r m t h a n d light of the studio.48 PLANTS AND GARDENS THE SCIENTIFIC VALUE OF A BOTANICAL DRAWING lies i n its Botanical Studies were specimens that often refused to stay still. Dissections Across the lower part of this drawing we can see dissections of seed pods and petals. and wilted. The King was then establishing the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. He has made the spatial and physical relationships in this drawing all the more real by placing a single. s u c h as w e see here in Bauer's Protea nitida. Stella Ross-Craig said of the need to d r a w from a dried herbarium plant "I could make it live again. Botanical art c o n c e a l s the challenge of its m a k i n g . insect-ravaged. measured drawings. flowers. They are counted among the most accomplished 18th-century botanical artists. It is likely Bauer would have studied these under a microscope. or that were diseased. Here.

. Curtis's Botanical Magazine. and it shows how design. sensual pencil drawing is later works. imagination. it is small and discreet.000 Kew to archive accessible t o d a y v i a t h e I n t e r n e t of o n British flora. a n d he inspired. and speed depends upon the immediate perception of the essential characteristics of the plant. G u s t a v K l i m t In his r e t i r e m e n t Mackintosh m a d e n u m e r o u s inventive pencil a n d w a t e r c o l o r d r a w i n g s o f plants.286 studies for her book Drawings of British Plants. BOTANICAL STUDIES Lines and shadows This lush.g a r d e in G e r m a n y a n d A u s t r i a . a m o n g o t h e r s . L o n d o n in 1 9 2 9 . found among Mackintosh's than reality. H e r Drawings of British Plants. Pencil lines cling to. and observation the nuance and contour of every in one image. is r e c o g n i z e d as tne m o s t c o m p l e t e a n d i m p o r t a n t work 3. K e w .49 C H A R L E S RENNIE MACKINTOSH Scottish a r c h i t e c t d e s i g n e r painter. 1970 x 81/4 in ( 3 2 5 x 2 1 0 m m ) STELLA ROSS-CRAIG .." This line drawing is one of 1. Rose 1894 103/4 x 83/4 in ( 2 7 5 x 2 2 1 mm) CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH STELLA ROSS-CRAIG A j o i n e d t h e staff a t t h e R o y a l B o t a n i c G a r d e n s . and follow shadow. Ross-Craig said of her work "Plants that wither rapidly present a very difficult problem to which there is only one answer—speed. A s m a n y of her drawings are kept G a r d e n s . p u b l i s h e d 1 9 4 8 . S h e also o f thousands o f contributed an drawings. and perfect coordination of hand and eye. Closer to fiction can come together perfectly.7 3 in 3 1 p a r t s . as at trained botanical artist Ross-Craig Swift lines The drawing was planned in pencil and then overworked with a lithographic pen. Line Drawing of Cypripedium calceolus L c. a n d f o u n d e r o f t h e G l a s g o w S c h o o l o f A r t M a c k i n t o s h ' s flair h a d an e n o r m o u s i n f l u e n c e o n t h e a v a n t .

in the early 16th century. Opposite is the Rose of Mohammed. Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity c. The first Mughal Emperor Babur's Garden of Fidelity (Bagh-e Vaja).50 PLANTS AND GARDENS Jeweled Gardens the Middle East we find exquisite stylization of form and upright formality in pictorial space. Bishndas was probably responsible for the overall design. painting. fluctuations in scale. urgent attentive human activity. Every fiber of AMONG DRAWINGS FROM BISHNDAS A N D N A N H A Little is known of these Mughal painters who were related as uncle and nephew and commissioned to illustrate the pages of Babur's journal. and Nanha. and attention to detail are all shared with medieval European manuscript drawings. Afghanistan. paper is brimming with the beauty and celebration of nature. roses took their form in a bead of perspiration on the brow of Mohammed as he passed through his heavenly journey. uniform focus. a notable portrait painter drew the faces. Below. which he personally created near Kabul. The white of the page shines through the brilliant color. Babur directs his gardeners in the design and planting of this quartered chahar bagh. and miraculous growth. the sumptuous petals permeated with prayer and wisdom. Upright shallow perspectives. in miniature. By Muslim tradition. Drawing. and calligraphy are brought together to hold the sacred names of prophets and the 99 beautiful names of God. 1590 85/8 x55/8in (219 x 1 4 4 mm) BISHNDAS AND NANHA Bright pigment These pages were illuminated by Mughal artists in the late 16th century. They used a fine brush to lay pigment over a line drawing. . is remembered in the pages of his journal. Envoys chatter outside the gate. anticipating their view.

AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH This is a detail o f a page from a n 1 8 t h . Sacred words The central rose is more solid than any other on the page.c e n t u r y Turkish manuscnpt a book of religious e t h i c s w r i t t e n in the O r i e n t a l C o l l e c t i o n s of Berlin. look closely and you will see words written in gold fluttering over the form of the flower. G e r m a n y . It is n o w k e p t in Border The elegant border of this drawing was mode with a pen and ruler It cleverly compresses and defines the composition. The Rose of Mohammed 1708 9 1 / 2 x 61/2 in ( 2 4 0 x 1 6 5 mm) FROM THE TURKISH M A N U S C R I P T AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH . and how the shape has been repeated freehand. Stylized motif A fine brush has been used throughout this drawing to apply inks and watercolors. However. The physical anatomy of the rosebud has been studied and translated into a repeated stylized motif. so that overlapping petals and stems give an impression of fulfillment and abundance. t h e Staatsbibliothek zu Arabic. Note how each bud is essentially the same shape. fragmenting its detail in a whisper of prayers.

52

PLANTS AND GARDENS

Fast Trees
IN CONTRAST TO THE QUIET, formal detail of other drawings in this chapter, these powerful fast trees enact the actions of plants. Each tree reaches out and holds its landscape with dynamism and pulse. In both drawings we find testament to the inexorable energy of growth. Rembrandt expresses a delicate quickness. Gentle lines draw a warm breeze through this remote wooded garden. Rustling in a loose foliage of soft marks, his pen evokes the weight of abundant activity on this late summer's day. Mondrian's arch of scratching branches is drawn with such force it will always be alive. We can still feel his hand storming across the paper. Set within a frame of smudged landscape, the tree possesses a musical agitation. This characteristic will increase in the artist's later abstract work. Here, we see a punctuated ordering of space. Sharp branches cut out negative shapes of winter sky.

R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter; etcher; and draftsman. Rembrandt's prolific output comprises oil paintings of historical and religious subjects together with group and self- portraits. His emotive etchings and pen and ink drawings (see also p. 174) are great resources for artists learning to understand the potential of these media.

Horizon

Pen and ink lines describing foliage also tell

us the directions of sunlight and wind. An arc crossing the bottom of the drawing from one side to the other supports the scene and separates us from the landscape beyond. Compare Rembrandt's arc to that of Mondrian's. and note the similar treatment of low horizons in both works emphasizing the height and dominance of trees.

Cottage Among Trees 1648-50 63/4 x121/8in ( I 7 I x 308 mm) R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN

53

FAST TREES

PIET

MONDRIAN

Atmosphere Here we see how shapes of negative space are as important as the physical subject they enclose (see pp.58-59). Mondrian has again lightly dragged his chalk on its side to evoke a wet depth of atmosphere. These passive gray marks contrast with the assertive tension of the tree.

Dutch Pure abstract painter preoccupied w i t h line and plane relationships. W i t h increasing austerity, Mondrian banished t h e subject from his drawings, in his later w o r k he also banished space, composing visual h a r m o n i e s using only straight lines a n d flat planes o f black, w h i t e , gray, o r p r i m a r y color.

Winter ground Short vertical marks along thebottomof this drawing reveal the length oftheblackchalk Mondrian used. Rubbed onitsside,itroughly blocks in the ground. Thecrudeeconomy of line is all we need tofeelthecold, wet, unwelcoming quality ofthiswinterearth.

Branches and trunk Lines shaping the branches of the tree are built up in layers. To make the trunk more dense, the artist has rubbed and smudged preliminary marks with his fingers before firmly overdrawing with new lines. Solid black lines are achieved by pressing the chalk hard. When used lightly, it shows the texture of the paper. Tree: Study for the Grey 1911 23 x 335/8 in ( 5 8 4 x 8 5 5 m m ) Tree

PIET MONDRIAN

54

PLANTS AND GARDENS

Graphite and Erasers
GRAPHITE, FROM THE G R E E K word

USING GRAPHITE
This drawing illustrates a range of achieved with graphite pencils of different grades.

graphein

Modern pencils are graded from 9H (hard and pale) to 9B (black and soft). Graphiteclay sticks are also available, together with a powder form. All possess a natural sheen and are erasable to a varying degree. Graphite drawings smudge easily, so fixative, a form of varnish, can be used to hold a drawn surface in place. It is applied as a fine mist from an aerosol can, or from a bottle using a diffuser. For the beginner, ordinary hairspray is an effective and cheaper alternative.

(to write), is a soft and brittle carbon. It was first mined in Cumbria, England, in 1 5 6 4 , and was initially used in small, pure pieces bound in lengths of string. Pencils as we know them—with their slender wood casing and "lead" of graphite—were invented in France in 1794 by Nicolas-Jaques Conte. He discovered that milled graphite mixed with clay and water, press-molded, and baked to a high temperature produces a harder and paler medium than graphite alone.

3B pencil A range of mark and textures can be achieved with a 3B pencil when you vary its pressure, speed, and direction, as this detail shows.

MATERIALS
Here is a selection of 14 items to illustrate a basic range of pencils, graphite sticks, sharpeners, erasers, and fixative.
1. AND 2. HB AND 3B PENCILS: It is unnecessary to possess every grade of pencil. HB, the central and most common grade, is perfect for making delicate lines. 3B gives a blacker tone. A great variety of effects can be achieved with just these two. 3. WATER-SOLUBLE PENCIL Effective for atmospheric drawing, but be aware of how watery tones can dull the impact of the line. 4. AND 5. MECHANICAL PENCIL Thick or fine leads are made in a range of grades. They are particularly useful because they do not require a sharpener 6. ROUND SOLID GRAPHITE PENCIL: Excellent for large-scale drawing, producing thick bold lines. A range of grades can be honed with a craft knife or sharpener 7. THICK GRAPHITE STICK: For large-scale drawing. Graded soft, medium, and hard. It crushes to produce graphite powder 8. SQUARE GRAPHITE STICK: Useful for making broad, sweeping marks in large-scale drawing. If worn and rounded, the stick can be snapped into pieces to regain the sharp, square end. 9. CRAFT KNIFE AND BLADES: Handles are sold in two sizes to fit large or small blades, and blades are sold in a range of shapes. Perfect for sharpening pencils to a long point, to cut lines in paper or to remove areas. 10. PENCIL SHARPENER: Makes a uniform point. Keep one in your pocket for drawing outside the studio, together with an envelope for shavings.

HB and 5B Layers of tone have been built up withHBand5Bpencils. Softer pencils require less pressure to make a mark, revealing the texture of the paper surface. It is important to keep the point of the pencil sharp with either a craft knife or a sharpener.

55

ERASING AND FIXING
Erasers can be used t o blend and s o f t e n lines, o r t o r e m o v e altogether. Fixative them prevents

GRAPHITE AND ERASERS

s m u d g i n g a n d s e c u r e s lines.

Using fixative You can use fixative while drawing to hold the definition of lines you wish to gently fade but not remove entirely, for which you would use an eraser.

11. P L A S T I C E R A S E R : Avoid cheap colored erasers that may stain drawings with grease and dye. White brands are available in soft and hard versions.

12.

P U T T Y RUBBER:

W a r m it in your hand before use. It is excellent for removing powdery materials, and for making crisp sweeps of light across a delicate pencil drawing

13. D I F F U S E R : Helleborus corsicus (Corsican hellebore) fixative, or to spray mists of ink.

56

PLANTS AND GARDENS

Cropping and Composition
M A N Y STUDENTS WILL START a d r a w i n g i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e

that its skin nearly touches the boundary. The meaning of the same drawing changes simply by its relationship to the space it occupies. The size of any subject, its placement on the page, the size of the page, and its overall proportion are all discrete and essential aspects of successful picture-making. Before you begin to draw, think carefully about where to place your subject. Are you are happy with your paper? If not, change it; add more, take some away, or turn it around. Do not just accept what you are given, adapt it to what you need.

paper. Focused on the shape and detail of their subject, they remain happily unaware that there is, or should be, any relationship between what they are drawing and the surface they are drawing it on. The paper is only paper, and the troublesome subject floats somewhere in the expanse of it. However, a single fig drawn in the middle of a large, empty square of paper gives quite a different impression from the same fig drawn on such an intimately small square

CHOOSING A VIEW

A Single Fig

"The size, shape, and orientation of the paper are so integral to the composition that they determine the impact and meaning of the drawing."

t h e n m o v e t h e c a r d t o e x p l o r e different views. and lines describing shadows cast by the fruit . This drawing hasbeencropped to emphasize space between thefruit. spaces between things are as important as the things themselves.O u r focus is on the white cloth supporting the figs. the uppermost edge of the drawing. as also shown here. running corner t o corner. bottom-left t o top-right. When subjects touch two or more edges. and therefore apparently suspended from. The angle of the fruit together with dark shadow (top left) and bright light(bottom right) suggest a diagonal division across the whole drawing. its illumination. a device to help you decide what t o draw. Touching the edge When the subject o f a drawing touches one edge of the paper it attaches t o it visually. U s e it as a starting point. its stem and shadow framing a white center. Space as the subject Inallpictures. Here the left fig is attached to.57 THE VIEWFINDER T h e s e pencil drawings o f figs d e m o n s t r a t e different crops and compositions. they establish a tension and unity with the paper. CROPPING AND COMPOSITION Off-center and diagonal Here I held my viewfinder so the fig appeared upper-left in the space. A card with a small rectangle cut out o f it makes a useful viewfinder C l o s e o n e e y e t o look through the hole.

you will need a similar large-leaved plant. Draw a complete shape Map outward from the center Erase and adjust lines until correct . shapes of air cut out and defined by the physicality of our environment? When we look into the branches of a tree. In your own version. an eraser. Negative space is the simple key to getting positive shape right. not leaves. dynamic. Viewers appreciating a finished image may not see shapes of space. tone. but if the artist does. It helps to start at the center and map outward. rather than what you see in front of you. Looking at negative space overrides the problem of drawing what you know. then added a second shape. fourth. But how often do we look at the air between things. unified. this ensures a consistent view. and a role to play. their subject and composition will become more real. which is shown in the three steps below. position. a foundation stone in picture-making. WHERE TO START Arrange your plant and paper so you can look back and forth by barely moving your head. remember to draw only space.The box opposite isolates an area. and a fresh page in your drawing book. Follow these from left to right and see how I began with one complete shape between two parts of a leaf. Unfamiliar shapes of negative space reveal the real shape of a positive subject. and engaging. do we see myriad distinct and unique shapes of daylight or do we just see branches? Why as artists should we look at the air? Every space in a picture has a shape. It is an astonishingly simple device that many artists use and I strongly recommend. In following this class.58 PLANTS AND GARDENS Negative Space UNCONSCIOUSLY WE ASSESS spatial relationships all the time to guide ourselves through the world. erasing and adjusting lines until itlooked right. and so on. The drawing opposite is of the uppermost leaves of a potted fig tree. a sharp H B pencil. third. Remember that plants do move! Therefore it is best to complete your drawing in one sitting if possible.

59

Here I drew only spaces, adding one to another until the leaves were revealed. Besides looking at negative space, there are two other useful things to do when a drawing feels wrong but you cannot see why: look at it in a mirror or turn it upside down. errors and suggest changes.

Spaces between leaves

Either view will

NEGATIVE SPACE

Fig Tree
WALKING IN THE ALPUJARRAS in A n d a l u c i a ,

Spain, I drew a bare fig tree clinging to the wall of an almond grove; a perfect subject for seeing negative space. I marked its essential frame of large branches first, frequently erasing lines and changing my mind until the balance felt right.

S a l v i a , RIBES, CLEMATIS, Allium, Passiflora, and Acanthus

Summer Flowers

Alchemilla,

drawn with an H pencil by observing the

negative spaces between the stems, petals, and leaves. I arranged the flowers on a sheet of paper in a cool r o o m and rapidly sketched a composition. Then I put them in water, taking the stems out one at a time to draw.

.

62-63). gathering less distinct information on the way. our eyes travel and adjust from one point of focus to another. We never see everything at once. . Excessive detail leaves no space for the eye to rest or imagination to wander. interfolding points of detail with areas of loose suggestion. If an artist changes the pace of their line and focus of their attention. Compare changes of pace and focus here to the flatter finish of Summer Flowers (see pp.Acanthus Spinosus As we LOOK AROUND. they emulate our experience of seeing.

.

Among the drawings of this chapter we look from 17th-century ecclesiastical calm. we find the most recent steps in the evolution of graphic language. Architects have been fine-tuning their specialized branch of drawing for centuries." reflecting the eye's love of unity in difference. of the west facade of St Augustin. Yet the pursuit of divine proportion and harmony remains. 74-75). space. which can be clearly seen in ancient Greek architecture. At the core of their practice. European conventions of pictorial perspective have lost their monopoly on seeing. mass. balance. and writers have been breaking away from traditional forms of representation to seek new expressions of shape. to 20th-century film fantasy. philosophers. once there. with gray and brown watercolor wash. VICTOR BALTARD French architect employed by the city of Paris. designers. Augustin. Linear perspective is a marvelous device. coupled with the importance of exercizing your imagination. and in the 19th century it was given the name the Golden Section. the device that has since governed most of our picture-making (sec pp. made by the architect himself. Baltard designed the Church of St. the formula for perfection spread through Europe. It is the focus of practical class in this chapter. was preserved into the Renaissance where it became a foundation stone for thinking and creativity From 15thcentury Italy.Architecture I N THE CONTEMPORARY PRACTICES of architecture. It was also during the Renaissance that the architect Brunelleschi invented linear perspective. film-set design. Besides sketches of first thoughts and polished drawings of the finished look for clients.This is a pencil drawing. Since Picasso and Braque's revolution of Cubism in around 1907. Computer programs allow the virtual drawing of ideas. composers. and from West Facade of the Church of St Augustin. to help them create new form. add and subtract ideas. and sound. they also have a diagrammatic language for communicating plans to builders.The church is still in use today. each VICTOR BALTARD . This harmony. and computer game imaging. filmmakers. Since the first flowering of Modernism in the early 20th century. Perhaps in the sheer planes of some of our greatest modern buildings it is finding its clearest expression. Through the animation of the screen. and architects of ancient Greece who first pursued the formula for "divine proportion. which was the first church in the capital to be built entirely of metal and then clad in stone. from political commentary to musical abstraction. drawing plans around themselves within a program as opposed to on a flat sheet of paper. architects. It was the mathematicians. time. Paris 1871-74 the child's view to the infinity of the vanishing point. fine artists. they have the Golden Section. architects and designers can imaginatively "climb inside" three-dimensional space and. invaluable to understand and apply when you choose.

The photograph opposite shows his studio hung with metal pendulums. he also worked on St Paul's Cathedral. and later an assistant to Vanbrugh. testing gravity to calculate the inverted shapes of domes. Cut-away interior On the right a section cut through the center of the building reveals material thicknesses. materials. Gaudi's fluid architecture grew up through many kinds of drawing. structure. Architects draw for many reasons: to visualize ideas. 1711-12 NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR . and Castle Howard. marks the end of a long journey from the first few marks the architect made on a sheet of paper. NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR One of Britain's "three great" Baroque architects (along with Sir Christopher Wren and Sir John Vanbrugh). Hawksmoor's drawing is both a plan and an evocation. and six London churches. Oxford. Lines define structure while washes suggest light and atmosphere. calculate function. and ultimately to show builders what to do. St Paul's Baptistry c. Below it. Drawings underpin every great human-made structure like hidden linear ghosts at their core. Blenheim Palace. Hawksmoor established his reputation with university and church architecture including All Souls College. Three aspects This subtle and sophisticated drawing made in pen and wash displays three distinct aspects of Hawksmoor's baptistry. relative levels. Finished surface On the left the finished surface of the building is given depth and emphasis by immaculate vertical and horizontal brush strokes of shadow. Pillars and floor At the base of the drawing a compass-drawn plan tilted downward through 90 degrees illustrates the arrangement of pillars around a central circular floor. densely layered lines in mists of color weave the presence of the expected building into shape. a three-dimensional drawing made with wires and weights.68 ARCHITECTURE Master Builders EVERY NEW BUILDING. pilasters. describe a finished look to a client. Hampton Court Palace. embodying a massive investment of ideas. and labor. A student of Wren's. Together they explain how interior structure and space define exterior form and shape. and balance. We see the modeled detail of Corinthian columns. and an inscribed entablature. and the shapes of interior domes and apses. evoke presence.

Gaudi's cathedral in Barcelona. 1900 ANTONIO GAUDI ANTONIO GAUDI Visionary Catalan architect. To the right isawatercolordrawing thought to havebeenmade over a photograph ofthemodelabove. Gaudi air than on paper.69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt c. This sculptural drawingenvisionsthe finished crypt glowingandethereal as if caught in thelightof red morning sun. Guell Crypt of its at the Time Construction c. churches. Wire and watercolor three-dimensional preferred to calculate Above is a drawing form in the made withlinkedwires and weights. and his love of music. embellishment. and apartment homes are distinguished by their Their and Flowering curves of stone or concrete are often encrusted with Gaudi was inspired by medieval and oriental art. 1910 24x181/4( 6 1 0 x 4 7 5mm) A N T O N I O GAUDI . The Art Nouveau movement. light. unique organic manipulation of high shapes.

and dotted lines. He also produces urban and landscape designs. Both men used rulers and pens to carefully and slowly construct their compositions. while the composer Erik Satie has made an enclosure of quiet order and grace. and rooms. Contemporary musicians commonly collaborate with artists by interpreting images as sound. He also contributed to plans for the rebuilding of the World Trade Center site in New York. The architect and musician Daniel Libeskind has drawn a stampeding cacophany of airborne architectural detail. We can imagine how a musician might interpret this drawing by looking at the abstract visual rhythms of masses composed of long straight poles. Libeskind studied music before transferring to architecture. Satie draws quietly throughout.223). and in a sense hear. theater sets. Arctic Flowers 1980 DANIEL LIBESKIND . been a natural affinity between the visual rhythms of pictures and the audible rhythms of music. a refillable pen that feeds a constant supply of ink through a fine tubular nib. Libeskind's numerous commissions include concert halls and museums. There has always DANIEL LIBESKIND A Polish American architect of international acclaim. corridors. installations. p. Floor space appears divided by discernible walls. We can see. such a rapport in both of these drawings.70 ARCHITECTURE The Order of Sound B O T H OF THESE VISIONARY DRAWINGS o c c u p y a s l e n d e r . before cascading into a riot of line and sound below. Floor plan This drawing has been made with a rapidograph. Across the top and center right of the image w e perceive an almost recognizable architectural plan. and the spaces between his windows and turrets are the visual equivalent of pauses in h i s m u s i c c o m p o s i t i o n s for p i a n o (see also Bussotti. and exhibitions of his drawings. upright pictorial space. Visual rhythms In the lower half of this drawing architectural language has broken loose: escaped and transformed into an image of rebellious pleasure. Libeskind begins quietly in the upper space of his drawing. flat boards. and arched dotted lines depict the radius of doors. short curved poles.

andfouredges of the paper tothecompositionand impact animage. Satie collaborated w i t h hisfriends J e a n C o c t e a u a n d P i c a s s o .H i s witty. effectively additional lines in a work. Compare the even and and the shape wall to the elegantly stylized order of the many windows of arrangement of details and the shape of the wall in Babur's Garden of Fidelity on p.narrowshape of its paper. theater.ERIK SATIE F r e n c h pianist and c o m p o s e r for t h e piano. 1 8 9 3 77/8 x 51/2 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 4 0 mm) ERIK SATIE . and founded his o w n church. Hotel de la Suzonnieres c. Eastern influence The upright image Eastern is reminiscent and medieval of Middle pictorial space and subject of this European drawing.56—57 we discussed important the shape. minimalist s c o r e s scandalized a u d i e n c e s with o r c h e s t r a t i o n s f o r t h e foghorn and typewriter. lived a l o n e . the perimeter Composition Look how well this drawingfitsand resonates with the upright. H e p e r f o r m e d in cabarets. o f which he was the sole m e m b e r Parcel paper Satie has drawn this fantasy hotel using a ruler. dressed eccentrically. a conventional dip or fountain pen. a n d ballet.Edges are how are of orientation. They definespaceand pictorial balance. Onpp.50. and ink on a fragment folded brown paper—a of everyday happened material of scrap that to be at hand.

We glide over exquisitely drawn wastelands of damage and abandonment. arched vaults. and dramatic lighting. enter the long-shadowed architecture of imaginary worlds. spheres.The lower-left section of the building appears relatively pale against a darker sky. This shift makes the cenotaph appear three-dimensional. Within it. This is the work of an architectural theoretician. we find other Utopian visions Paul Nobles epic drawing summons an imperfect and disturbing township where ruin and activity are equal and strange. made in 1926. Among preparations for Fritz Langs film Metropolis. His celebrated imaginary buildings are characterized by pyramids. the ominous globe exists only as a series of drawings. and the reverse is true on the right. Light illusions This pen-and-wash drawing shows a subtle application of the principles of illumination demonstrated with an egg on p. cylinders.72 ARCHITECTURE T H E S E T H R E E HIGHLY DETAILED DRAWINGS Future Fictions invite us to soaring above normal life. ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE French architectural theorist. experiencing a fascinating conflict between curiosity and desolation. and taught at t h e A c a d e m i e d'Architecture. antlike mortals might have speculated upon the universe. painter.96. Boullee's monolithic apparition was drawn as a monument to Sir Isaac Newton. and draftsman. Boullee lived in Paris. Art director Erich Kettlehut's vertiginous design for the city of a slavelike populace had a future influence on movies such as Blade Runner. Newton's Cenotaph 1784 153/4 x 25 in ( 4 0 2 x 635 m m ) ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE .

73 ERICH KETTLEHUT Influential film a r t director. Kettlehut and his c o . Fritz Lang's Metropolis c. Nobson political visions of humanity Newtown. and morality o f an invented place called His satires exhibited w o r l d w i d e . gray. mythology. used forced perspective camera t e c h n i q u e s t o amplify t h e m a g n i t u d e o f buildings in relation t o human characters. draftsman. and white ink on brown-gray paper. Kettlehut drew using a fine and relatively dry brush dipped in black.m a k e r In t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f Metropolis. together with c i n e m a t o g r a p h e r Karl Freund. architecture. Nobson Central 9 ft 1 0 in x 1 3 f t 2 in (3 x 4 m ) PAUL N O B L E 1998-99 .a r t director O t t o Hunte. FUTURE FICTIONS Brush and ink This is a dramatic drawing from a film that shaped the history of world cinema. 1926 ERICH KETTLEHUT PAUL N O B L E British c o n t e m p o r a r y artist who creates m o n u m e n t a l . and m o d e l . Working on toned paper such as this gives an artist greater scope for dramatic lighting effects than if they work on white paper.Building shapes are works can be read as text. intensely detailed graphite drawings explaining and questioning t h e geography. Its sheerscaleengulfs the viewer and demands based time and patience to on letters and in some beread. and are Graphite shapes Nobson Central isoneof a series of very large graphite drawings of the spoil and detritus of Nobson Newtown.

observations. and those of Naive artists and children. this perspective is often an imagined bird's-eye view in which details are mapped according to logic and importance rather than how they might appear in real life. and age eight. linear perspective is distinct from more ancient systems practiced in the East. Study of Perspective Adoration of the for the Magi 1481 61/2 x111/2in (165 x 290 mm) LEONARDO DA VINCI . All forms of perspective are of equal value. and thinkers ever to have lived. but is most easily seen and understood in pictures of buildings and interiors. Leonardo recorded constant streams of ideas. I contribute the child's perspective. We use it to structure illusions of depth. inventors. 206-07). LEONARDO DA VINCI One of the greatest artists. Sometimes shared with Naive artists. Single-point perspective Tie a thread to a pin.74 ARCHITECTURE Pathways of Sight LINEAR PERSPECTIVE (also called vanishing-point perspective) is a simple device for calculating the relative size of things in pictorial space. Press the pin into Leonardo's vanishing point. Here Leonardo provides a superb example of a single vanishing point. It is also distinguished from aerial perspective (see pp. In his notebooks. Note how architectural features conform to lines and how human figures diminish in size toward thevanishingpoint. It can be applied to any subject. Pull the thread taut and rotate it slowly above the drawing. Piranesi an example of two. See how the thread corresponds to each converging line. found at the center of all converging lines. scientists. and inventions— essential reading for inquiring minds. Invented by Italian artist and architect Brunelleschi in 1413 (late in the history of art).

and theoretical writing strongly influenced neoclassicism. Breamore Village. Lightly marked illuminates vanishing Two Courtyards c. issues of scale when making room for important their story. Two-point perspective Sunlight through this colonnade a great example of two-point perspective. Scale Our farmhouse my experience was in the woods. It shows how children usually map large scenes in flat layers one above the other. New Forest. This drawing Young children typically maps ignore on and understanding of the nearby village. Children are uninhibited and problems with one element being obscured by another rarely arise. architect. and designer Piranesi's prolific architectural drawings. England 1980 9 x 16 in (228 x 405 mm) S A R A H SIMBLET GIOVANNI BATTISTA PIRANESI Italian artist. Note the rather large rabbits and pheasants the hills. including all they recall about the subject. which I saw from home every day. at the top of each lateral column base. 1740 5 1 / 2 x 83/8 in (141 x 212 mm) G I O V A N N I B A T T I S T A PIRANESI points are located on either side of the drawing. visionary and practical understanding of ancient Rome. a points in logical narrative of memories. Mark these points with your pin and follow the converging lines of the drawing by rotating your thread. .SARAH SIMBLET I made this drawing (at age 8) in response to a local bookstore's request for children to draw their village.

(See p.) . Draw four dotted lines radiating out from the vanishing point. Study these pages first before embarking on this lesson. draw a horizon line across your paper Mark a spot on the horizon line. This is where we will begin. Leonardo began with a grid of many lines within which he invented his scene. Piranesi planned his drawing with only the essential lines needed. Note that if you place large structures in the foreground and smaller ones closer to your vanishing point. discovering the image as it progressed. Extend each dotted line to the edge of your drawing. This lesson shows you how to make a simple illusion of space defined by two boxes and three flat boards. This ensures that the second rectangle aligns with the shape and 4 Draw four short lines to connect the four corners of the two rectangles. try composing your own space. In contrast. 2 3 corners must each touch a dotted line. You have completed your first box. Next. this is your vanishing point. corresponding to a single vanishing point. Surround the vanishing point with a small rectangle.76 ARCHITECTURE Single-Point Perspective MASTERING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE i s e a s i e r t h a n y o u m a y First read through. DRAWING BOXES 1 Using a ruler and a sharp HB pencil. imagine. Erase the dotted construction lines. using a sharp HB pencil and ruler. Each line should pass through one corner of the rectangle. then follow the ten steps below.98 for an important note on oscillation. Draw each step over the preceding one to build up a single image. you will amplify the illusion of distance. On the previous page we looked at its essential mechanism through drawings by Leonardo and Piranesi.

draw a second. the closer it will appear to the viewer. and erase the dotted lines. 8 Complete the second box with short lines as in step 4.asIhavedonehere. N e x t draw a slanting line to mark the height of the first flat board. The board's sides should be parallel. 9 Use dotted lines connecting the slanting linetothe vanishing point to locate the top. you can place rectangles anywhere youwishin relation to a vanishing point. The four comers must each touch a dotted line to be sureitaligns with the first.77 SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE 5 Draw a new rectangle. . Connect this to the vanishing point— again. draw four dotted lines radiating from your vanishing point Pass these through each comer of the new rectangle. 1 0 Erase all ofthedottedlinestoseeyourfinishedboxes Thickeningtheiredges. andfarside of this first board. Repeat this to add two more boards to the composition. 6 As in step 2. Continue the dotted lines out toward the edge of your drawing.willhelptomake them appear more solid. Note that this does not surround the vanishing point In the future. bottom. 7 As in step 3. The larger you make your second rectangle. with two dotted lines. larger rectangle. when inventing your own compositions.

It highlights the importance of having faith in your imagination and trusting your ability to invent. As David Lynch. p ." imaginary room. w h e t h e r it is a film or a painting. I always start with a script but I don't follow it all the way through to the end." . artist and film director. draw a b o x as shown opposite. O n a fresh page in your d r a w i n g b o o k . it is interaction that makes the work richer. If using a fibertip pen as I have done for this drawing. once said: "I never end up with what I set out to do. Linear perspective will support y o u by providing a frame in which to b u i l d your picture as it did for Leonardo. Then follow the three given steps. it will take you places you never dreamed of. APPLYING PERSPECTIVE An Imagined Scaffold "Enjoy your illusion as you make it and it will become more real. then let the space suggest its c o n t e n t s and purpose. 7 4 ) .78 ARCHITECTURE Creating an Imaginary Space T H I S CLASS USES SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE t o c r e a t e a s i m p l e to you and if you listen to it. you will find white adhesive stationery labels are useful for covering errors or changing the direction of your idea. Every work talks In this class. A lot more happens when you open yourself up to the work and let yourself act and react to it. let simple lines suggest a simple space. The m i s t a k e n belief that we s h o u l d k n o w exactly what o u r finished drawings will l o o k like before we m a k e t h e m prevents many people from ever starting.

.There is great pleasure tobefoundin spending time inventing interiors. 3 Remove the construction lines with an eraser and the room will becomeclearer. and leaning surfaces. horizontal. The space has become more solid and real. This initial space will be transparent and open to change.79 DRAWING A SIMPLE ROOM Essentials t o remember: objects and people dimmish in size as they move farther away.drawthehorizonlineand vanishingpoint. 2 first before adding furniture. parallel planes such as walls converge toward the vanishing point. CREATING AN IMAGINARY SPACE 1First.Addanarray of converging lines to provide a "scaffold" for vertical. you will beableto draw more complex objects orpeoplewithin them. additional lines have established the different surfaces and how they relate to each other. and floors and ceilings also converge and rise o r lower toward the horizon. Here. With some practice.

From our normal eye level. a n d this is how we have drawn them so far (see pp. T h e y d o n o t have to relate to each other. Vanishing points are commonly found on horizon—our eye level. they can be placed anywhere inspaceto describe the perspective of flyi c tilted objects. It is important to realize that you can have as many vanishing points as you wish. Potentially.p o i n t perspective ( s h o w n opposite top). Free vanishing points On paper we can enjoy the freedom of fantastic structural invention without limitations of solid materials or gravity. Further aspects of three-point perspective are also illustrated opposite. Only when y o u might employ t h r e e . They could be drawn on any scale from miniature to monumental. verticals appear p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the g r o u n d . showing y o u h o w to draw curved surfaces and a tiled floor. That is where we e to find them. Here. T h i s is d e m o n s t r a t e d immediately below. The boxes drawn here are seen partly or entirely disassociated from a horizon line drawn across the bottom of the image. 76-79). Copying what you see in the work of others will help you to understand what they have done. or low and we look u p . I have elaborated on the simple boxes above. Search for the application of these perspectives among works by other artists in this book and in galleries. These elaborations could continue indefinitely across a sheet of paper in pursuit of complex and intricate ideas.80 ARCHITECTURE Further Aspects of Perspective W E ARE ACCUSTOMED TO SEEING our e n v i r o n m e n t from a relatively constant point of view. our eye level is very high and we look down. but they are not confined to this level. o r to the h o r i z o n . located anywhere inside or outside the pictorial space. Elaborations . To draw such a view APPLICATION Copy these drawings to see and feel how they work before inventing your own versions. do verticals appear inclined. T h i n k of standing at the top of a skyscraper and imagine h o w its parallel sides would appear to converge below you.

Istarted with two parallel lines.75. (Turn the book around to see a view looking up. Note that altering the distance between the three dots above will tilt the level of the floor . Giving curvature.81 FURTHER ASPECTS OF Three-point towers This drawing depicts three-point perspective. and therefore tension. three vanishing points are evenly spaced along a horizon line. An array of curved lines (drawn freehand) link the two lateral points. by adding a third point you can achieve a sense of incline. tostraightlines can amplify drama in a picture. Iusedthese lines as a guide t o draw the curvature of boxes and panels flying through space. PERSPECTIVE Three-point curves Here. I marked the toplinewith three evenly spaced points and the line with seven. they mark the corners of the floor tiles. Three-point checkered floor This d bottom floor.) By comparing this drawing t o Piranesi's example of two-point perspective on p. useful for representing steep views looking up or down tall structures.Finally. you will see how. I then drew three fanned groups of lines connecting each of the three points above to the seven points below.I added horizontal lines t o define the tiles. Where thelinescross.

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These walnut-skin ink pen and brush drawings show imagined views of theaters that do not exist but were inspired by places I studied. making drawings to resolve questions and express personal responses to the nature and history of anatomy.Theaters RESEARCHING FOR MY P H D . I visited many anatomical theaters and museums. .

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I N KDRAWING is one of a series I made while next to the Rialto Bridge in Venice.A N D . The vanishing of the drawing is directly opposite as we look across The constancy of the bridge and surrounding frames the movement in the life that flows past. the water.Venetian Life sitting point buildings ThisP E N . .

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these. History will be learned from the artifacts w e leave behind. are all made bearing the signature of our time and place. H e has described a casting through metaphor. drawn. for example—whether. A chair. W e also explore v o l u m e and form in the classes by spinning lines to make vessels. Artists and actors use the meanings of things to communicate a speculative mechanic. or to explain and present a finished concept to a client. In this chapter. and a wire violin. fictional realities caster of h o w t o make it andhowit will w o r k . Today. have often carried great weights of allegorical once. passing them on to others through the act of making. In past eras. for example. to record an observed detail. craftsmen had held plans in their memory. hooked bars that can be pulled and tied closely form. color. drawing c. we look at the importance are the only creatures on Earth w h o actually design and create great ranges of things. Technical drawing was speedily developed as a meticulous international code of m e a s u r e m e n t and explanation. or used on stage hood for a mold t o make theheado f a horse f oas a p r o p — i m b u e d with e n o u g h energy or character can "become" a man. sculpted. and some apes use simple tools. T h e Industrial Revolution c h a n g e d the traditional w a y s in w h i c h objects were designed. H e has described contour and function at drawings. T h e precision of engineering d r a w i n g s e v o l v e d alongside machine tools. Previously. It was in this era that the blueprint was born. of light in the creation of pictorial illusions. even more advanced drawings are made on computers. With the sudden onset of mass production. and made. texture. but humans LEONARDO DA VINCI Inthisbeautiful red chalk Our items all have a purpose—practical or ornamental—and all have a meaning. r an equestrian statue. planned. Birds follow instinct to make a nest. each demanding more of the other as they increased in sophistication. Engineers and designers of our objects and instruments make drawings for many reasons: to test an idea that is yet to be made. too. making a clear instruction t o his bronzemeaning. It is shaped in sections w i t h Artists have for centuries studied and expressed composition. and the way in w h i c h the brain reacts Head and Neck Sections of Female Mold for the Sforza Horse to visual stimulus and optical illusions. C o m m o n items. Artists also make images of objects that can never exist.Objects and Instruments T HE THINGS WE INVENT describe our lives. and the behavior of light through making still-life paintings and together. design. 1493 117/8c81/4in (300 x 210 m m ) LEONARDO D A V I N Ccreating I . drawings were needed to instruct workers on the factory floor. or drawing w e see Leonardo daVinci'sprecision as can be given meaning. from s p o o n s and pens to chairs and bicycles. that test our logic with a sense of mystery. illuminating snail shells.

and glass objects of exquisite elegance for only the gentlest of touch and appreciation.90 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS Still Life THESE DRAWINGS REVEAL t w o o p p o s i t e m o t i v a t i o n s i n we can. still feel this projected moment. Even today GEORGES BRAQUE French painter who as a young man was influenced by the work of the Fauves and of Cezanne. and shading. perfect i n their newly made availability. wood-look wallpaper. His work is characterized by calm and harmonious still-life compositions. silverware. representing still life. Braques image is a Cubist collage. Braque established Cubism in partnership with Picasso just before World War I. charcoal. and a journal jacket with words makes this drawing chatter about the moment. not to work in harmony. not of place but of things. but to clash in virtual deadlock." La Cuitare... Opposite. He takes us into the bustle of the Paris cafe. There is a fragile eloquence to these objects as they drift in slow motion past our gaze. Clashes The art historian Ernst Gombrich said of Cubism.73 x 1 m) GEORGES BRAQUE . a colored canvas. texture. Statue D'Epouvante 1913 2 f t 5 in x 3 ft 5 in (0. steaming with music and conversation. "I believe [it] is the most radicalattempttostampout ambiguity and to enforce one readingofthepicture—that of a manmade construction. . One of the great joys of this movement in art is the musicality of its multipoint view. T h i s is a designers drawing made to enthuse surface and style in its delicate brushing of china. Mucha's drawing glistens with possession.Braque marshals all the forces of perspective. Below. Braques "justly" arranged combination of cut black card.

and fish have been outlined using a sharp pencil. Art Nouveau curling motifs of birds. The three plates facing us were drawn with a compass. Black watercolor washes and lines of white gouache have been added with a fine brush. Art Nouveau motifs This is a preliminary study for a subsequent print. Look at the two spoons at toprightand see how has suggested that they are so brilliantly shiny they reflect the background color.ALPHONSE MUCHA Czech graphic artist and painter who worked in Prague.flowers. For ten years Mucha designed theater posters exclusively for the actress Sarah Bernhardt. and New York. Background color Between the delicate shadows and highlights of these glazed and surfaces ofthebackground metal color of the Mucha we see a large amount paper.fruit. Pans. He designed the Austrian pavilion for the Paris World Fair in 1900. and also stamps and bank notes. Study for Plate 59 from "Documents Decoratifs" 17x121/4(430 x 310 mm) ALPHONSE MUCHA 1902 . Chicago. He is best known for posters featuring ethereal women in typical Art Nouveau style.

astronomer. drawing is there to pin the moment down. each one skillfully rendered with the alarmingly matter-of-fact ease of explaining the commonplace. With dotted lines Newton has drawn his arrangement of elements inside the tube. It was then reflected up inside the tube and. Newton's 1672 ISAAC Telescope NEWTON . each reflecting a view of his own world—his window. Ink lines Several drawings appear among Newton's letters. we see drawing Instruments of Vision found among his letters. via a second mirror.92 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS by their very nature must gauge or chronicle precision. Hooke's head of a drone fly seen through a microscope may represent the first time man and insect came face to face. The power of this drawing reflects the pure passion of discovery. and Fellow of the University o f C a m b r i d g e . and his hand moving across the light. w h e r e he developed his three greatest theories: the law o f motion. Newton used this instrument to calculate the speed required to escape earth's gravity. Look how confidently he draws with ink the sphere of this wooden globe by which his telescope rotates. Transparent view Newton's reflecting telescope focused light in a parabolic mirror. a tree outside. alchemist. From the concept of capturing the infinite to the mapping of microscopic sight. 0 0 0 perfect hemispheres. A disembodied eye at the top of the drawing indicates where to look. offering a transparent view. and philosopher Newton was President of the Royal Society. the law o f gravity. shape the very cause and effect of investigatory thought. into the eyepiece. In the graphic work of these two great men of science. mathematician. and the nature o f light and color. Newton's drawing of his first reflecting telescope is ISAAC N E W T O N English scientist. It is a diagrammatic explanation of how to catch and magnify a star in a mirrored tube. He counted 1 4 . Their delicate construction is only as valuable as the measurements they make.

universal joint a prototype respirator clock balance. The Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 1665 ROBERT HOOKE 111/2 x 105/8 in (294 x 270 mm) . a breathtaking book containing many of his drawings showing some of the first microscopic and telescopic magnifications of our environment Hooke's text and illustrations carry us to the moment of discovery. Hooke invented the camera diaphragm. and anchor escarpment. It is an exhilarating read.An experimental scientist who drew many of his discoveries. 1665). and calculated the theory of combustion. ROBERT H O O K E 93 Magnifications This acutely detailed engraved drawing is taken from Hooke's Micrographia (pub.

A renegade from the p a p e r dolls' h o u s e . Sarah Woodfines flat cut-out m o d e l plan is a witty and surprising drawing. W i t h h o m e y c o n t r a s t . craft. Woodfine exhibits internationally. and has drawings in numerous public and private collections. Its wobbly gait and squashed s y m m e t r y m u m b l e endless h o m e y tales about the life it has seen. has published several catalogs of her work. From component parts we understand how to put it together and make it stand sensible in space. Bench Marks W e are left a little c o n f u s e d as to what we s h o u l d do. it has so m u c h familiar personality that it seems to talk to us.94 INSTRUMENTS W H E N WE DRAW A COMMON OBJECT like a chair. and place in the world are truly seen. OBJECTS AND SARAH WOODFINE British contemporary artist graduate of the Royal Academy Schools. its character. Chair Cut Out 2002 22'A x 23 in (565 x 585 mm) SARAH WOODFINE . and w h e r e the chair b e l o n g s . while the tabs make us see a flat paper cut-out. Two-dimensional was made This highly finished drawing ruler using a sharp pencil and on smooth white drawing paper glistening dark drawings are artificial representations of known Woodfine's two-dimensional things balanced in the world. this chair p r e s e n t s us with a clever visual contradiction: deeply drawn shadows tell us it must be solid. each drawn with the s a m e unfaltering lines and tones that are between reality and impossibility. and winner of the 2004 Jerwood Drawing Prize. Drawn in more-or-less c o n v e n t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . Van Gogh's tipsy seat is a metaphor for an absent person.

not is made present in only strokes and is subdued to distract us from flat a meaningful chair.hehas marked the full emotion of the subject with a fierce grip of concentration. Van Chair 1890 VINCENT VAN GOGH . and Starry Cypress Night. The floor few as engagement with the chair. Cornfield and Sunflowers. His passionate brush and pencil strokes are honest and of also turmoil and growing alarm at the world around him.95 VINCENTVAN GOGH Dutch painter who produced over 800 paintings and 850 drawings in only the last ten year's of his life. inner recording while Fierce strokes This is a portrait of the mechanical drew immediately and almost harshly. drawn opposite way of plan. Among van Gogh's best-known canvases are Trees. what direct in their he saw and describing his felt.

Below. gray. a n d are q u i c k to p r o p o s e ideas. a n d m o v e m e n t . a n d we can be fooled. form. your eye around the circumference of the egg. The two tones meet without a division or outline between. U p s i d e . Are you happy LIGHT AND SHADOW with what you see? Does the light enhance the subject? Could you alter and improve it? On pp. The small squares are identical in tone. From across the room both will appear black card and fold and retapeitwith half sticking out. Three factors change it: the amount of light it receives. On acloudyday. W e learn to read light and shadow in our environment as indicators of solidity and depth of space. Gray squares To further examine changes in tone. the adjustment of our eyes (in growing accustomed to a level of light). atmosphere. are translated into a world of space. less developed than the center. We only need small prompts. or colored surface is never constant. The outermost edge of our vision. T h e slightest recognition is instantly matched to our wealth of experience a n d expectation. The perceived tone of a black white. w e turn our head but n o one w a s there. Here.This effect is caused by the contrast of their surroundings. The egg's lightest region is seen against a darker background. Adjust the angleofthe protruding part and again stepback. Here w e look briefly at our perception of light a n d darkness a n d our interpretation of diagrammatic illusions. Tape them to the glass. o u r b r a i n s search for n a m e a b l e things. See how its "edge" smoothly changes from light against dark to dark against light. think about its illumination. Run The bottom-left quarter of the egg lightens slightly toward its "edge" when seen against the darker shadow cast on the paper. reads only m o v e m e n t a n d can often m a k e mistakes. a n d our ability to see forms in c l o u d s or fire. try this experiment. We will even see things that d o not exist because minimal information suggests they are likely to be there. The egg's darkest region is seen against a lighter background. and the proximity of contrasting tones. but do not appear so. Artists emulate and manipulate this effect in their pictures. Below the bottom "edge" of the egg there is a rim of light reflected onto the paper by the underside of the egg. two identical mid-gray squares are seen against black and paler gray squares. Before starting a tonal drawing of any subject. We perceive one to be lighter than theother. hence our recognition of a cartoon face c o m p o s e d of three lines.d o w n patterns of light on our retinas.At one point you will catchenoughlight lighter than the white one. S o m e o n e passes our o p e n door.96 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Light and Illusions SEEING IS MIRACULOUS. cards the same size. a lit photograph of an egg shows essential points to observe in tonal drawing. To interpret visual s t i m u l u s .102-03 deep shadows cast across shells make their form easier to perceive. transmitted to the brain as chains of electrical impulses. Card experiment cho can gra on . Through these we can enjoy witnessing our o w n d e c e p t i o n a n d b a f f l e m e n t a n d u n d e r s t a n d certain factors that are very useful in picture-making. one blackandone white. perhaps. The rim of light on the egg is reflected light received from surrounding paper.

If y o u w i s h t o m a k e a t o n a l drawing. start o u t w i t h one. T h i s fundamental o p p o s i t e is a reason w h y l i n e a r a n d t o n a l d r a w i n g does not a l w a y s c o m b i n e w e l l in t h e s a m e i m a g e . t h i c k e r l i n e s a p p e a r t o stand forward.97 LINE VERSUS TONE In l i n e a r d r a w i n g s . respectively. Bending straight lines Linear distance These t w o jugs have b e e n d r a w n w i t h lines o f d i f f e r i n g thicknesses. S h o r t h o r i z o n t a l lines o f identical length are m a d e t o l o o k d i f f e r e n t by c o n v e r g i n g lines beside t h e m ( C ) . l i g h t e r surfaces s t a n d f o r w a r d w h i l e d a r k e r s u r f a c e s recede. b u t t h e u p r i g h t o n e l o o k s t a l l e r (B). O f t e ndoingso w i l l s p o i l y o u r w o r k . T w o relatively t h i c k parallel lines are m a d e t o b e n d away f r o m each o t h e r as t h e y pass in f r o n t o f an a r r a y o f c o n v e r g i n g f i n e lines ( B ) .p o i n t p e r s p e c t i v e d r a w i n g s w i t h a large n u m b e r o f c o n v e r g i n g rays b e h i n d y o u r horizontals. B o t h are identical in length. Seven parallel lines are m a d e t o tilt t o w a r d and away f r o m each o t h e r by n u m e r o u s s h o r t strokes crossing t h e m diagonally ( A ) . In this t o n a l image w e read w h i t e as f a t t e r t h a n black. In this linear drawing w e read t h i c k as closer a n d t h i n as f a r t h e r away. T h e r e is n o obligation t o a d d b l o c k s o f t o n e t o a l i n e a r d r a w i n g . O b s e r v e h o w each white b a n d appears t h i c k e r t h a n its black c o u n t e r p a r t . Y o u m a y e x p e r i e n c e s o m e t h i n g similar h a p p e n i n g w h e n y o u m a k e s i n g l e . T h e jug d r a w n w i t h a t h i n line appears f a r t h e r away t h a n t h e j u g d r a w n w i t h a t h i c k e r line. T w o horizontal lines o f equal length are m a d e t o l o o k longer and shorter. Apparent lengths T h e s e optical illusions s h o w h o w lines o f identical length can b e m a d e t o l o o k quite different f r o m each o t h e r by t h e addition o r association o f o t h e r lines. . In a t o n a l d r a w i n g . A n u p r i g h t line stands in t h e c e n t e r o f a h o r i z o n t a l line. w h i l e t h i n n e r lines recede. LIGHT AND ILLUSIONS Tonal width T h e s e black a n d w h i t e bands are o f equal thickness o n e i t h e r side o f t h e i r central division. by d i r e c t e d a r r o w s ( A ) .

others adjust works to avoid their effects." . o r as a s l o p i n g . and so calculated precisely how much to fatten columns to make them appear straight. Yet many illusions. Two ways of seeing T h i s is t h e b o x c r e a t e d in t h e f o u r t h step o n p. perfected the acceleration of perspective (see pp. Some artists use known optical illusions to make art. their picture could be ambiguous.76.116-17) to make painted figures look correct when viewed from below. w h e n drawing the outline o f a three-dimensional form. SEEING TWO OPTIONS Sometimes. Artists make pictorial illusions when they paint or draw. are still not agreeably understood. C l o s i n g t h e surface o f t h e f o r m seals o u r d e c i s i o n as t o w h i c h w a y it faces. w e will find that in terms of the direction it faces. Michelangelo. it oscillates between t w o possibilities. and we learn to read the styles of diverse cultures and periods. as s h o w n o n t h e right. It is a curious fact that w e can never see both options at once. it can oscillate b e t w e e n facing t o w a r d o r a w a y f r o m us. Ancient Greek architects knew parallel upright lines appeared to bend toward each other in the middle. In the 1960's. Today we are bombarded with images but rarely have difficulty reading them. A few suggestive marks will tip the decision one way o r the o t h e r Closing the surface W h e n a t r a n s p a r e n t elliptical o b j e c t has b e e n d r a w n . such as t h e dish seen h e r e o n t h e left. Artists can communicate much in few lines and the viewer will do the rest of the work. It is possible t o r e a d i t t w o ways: as a t r u n c a t e d r e c t a n g u l a r p y r a m i d seen d i r e c t l y f r o m a b o v e . among others.98 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Further Illusions PSYCHOLOGISTS AND PHYSIOLOGISTS have studied optical illusions for decades in pursuit of what they tell us about the brain. including some shown here. Op(tical) artists. made paintings that depended upon the physical sensation of our brain's reaction to known optical illusions. w e can only look f r o m one t o the o t h e r If an artist is not aware this can happen in their image.s i d e d r e c t a n g u l a r t r a y ( b o t h are illustrated far r i g h t ) "The brain is so eager to name a fragment we see that we need only a suggestion to grasp the whole. such as Bridget Riley.

FURTHER ILLUSIONS Seeing things that are n o t t h e r e H e r e o n t h e left. F a m i l i a r i t y in r a n d o m s h a p e s T h e Rorschach test was established by t h e 1 9 t h .c e n t u r y Swiss psychologist H e r m a n n Rorschach. C o u n t t h e n u m b e r o f d a r k spots y o u can see. This effect can o c c u r naturally w h e n looking at a b r i g h t l y lit w h i t e g r i d such as a w i n d o w f r a m e against t h e night sky. M u c h can b e e x p r e s s e d in o n l y a f e w marks. b u t w e believe w e see t h e m because e n o u g h f r a g m e n t a r y i n f o r m a t i o n is given f o r o u r brains t o c o n c l u d e t h e y are v e r y likely t h e r e . C Escher u s e d this phenomenon t o great effect in his many p o p u l a r d r a w i n g s o f puzzles and impossible buildings. Yet still w e try resolve t h e m . this is a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f t h e viewer's b r a i n b e i n g willing t o d o a large a m o u n t o f t h e w o r k in d e c i p h e r i n g a p i c t u r e . T h e s e e x a m p l e s illustrate h o w little is n e e d e d t o c o n v e y an image. S o m e artists use ink blots t o p r o m p t t h e beginning o f an image. clouds. T h e y a r e o f t e n c r e d i t e d w i t h t h e invention o f t h e c o m i c c a r t o o n . C o u p l e d w i t h t h e Rorschach b l o t above. e t c . W e should r e m e m b e r t h a t o u r brains will always search f o r a p i c t u r e — i n ink blots. His highly d i s p u t e d and i m p r e c i s e science involves s h o w i n g u n p r e p a r e d p a t i e n t s t e n p a r t i c u l a r ink b l o t s a n d asking t h e m t o i n t e r p r e t w h a t t h e y see. smoke. B e l o w is a b r i g h t n e s s c o n t r a s t illusion.99 Impossible objects T h e s e clever configurations o f outlines and t o n a l surfaces convince us at a glance that we are seeing a solid three-dimensional triangle and a three-pronged fork. T h e a r t i s t M.c e n t u r y Italian painters. Minimal-line j o k e s such as this rely u p o n t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y v i e w e r ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e shapes. N e i t h e r triangle exists. This simple five-line d r a w i n g is o f a C a p u c h i n priest asleep in his pulpit. T h e t e s t e x p l o r e s o u r n o r m a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o find things w e can n a m e a m o n g r a n d o m shapes. — a n d so t h e artist can create m u c h o u t o f an impression w i t h o u t overdescribing. . 1 6 t h . w e see t w o overlapping triangles: o n e outlined in black b e n e a t h a n o t h e r in solid w h i t e . O n l y o n closer inspection we realize that t h e s e o b j e c t s are fooling us. P e r c e i v i n g a w h o l e i m a g e f r o m m i n i m a l lines T h i s is a w i d e l y r e p r o d u c e d visual j o k e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e C a r r a c c i b r o t h e r s . T h e patient's answers are t h e n diagnosed as a psychological profile.

w h e n seen at an angle. suggesting that the vessel is lopsided. smoothly. a n d in o n e bold stroke. COMMON ERRORS W h e n drawing cylindrical objects in perspective. for example plates or bowls on a table. not the paper!) As the pen touches down. Be aware. even if y o u r hand w o b b l e s a little at first. WHERE TO START In the air above a spacious sheet of scrap paper. spin your hand in a relaxed circle. I have drawn these for you here. giving the cylinder four corners.90) takes a different as essentially circular. you will achieve steadiness with practice. hesitant one that has edged its w a y nervously around the vessel's rim. that this is o n l y o n e w a y view. as if the table surface slopes upward beneath the vessel. springlike forms like those I have drawn below. such as bowls and cups. like a disposable plastic cup that has been crushed in your hand. Cubism. circles change into ellipses. describing many sides of an object simultaneously. The first common error is to draw two pointed ellipses. . while its upper rim remains level. A wobbling but confident ellipse will still be more convincing than a slow. w e use ellipses to give a sense of perspective. and these narrow or widen depending on the height of our view. Don't worry if it is uneven— just try again. To make a cylindrical object appear real in our pictorial space. I have exaggerated this error here. Ellipse are best d r a w n quickly.100 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS W E VISUALIZE CYLINDRICAL VESSELS. How to Draw Ellipses of seeing. for example. keep it spinning. However. The second common error is to tilt the upper and lower ellipses at different angles. (see p. there are three common errors people stumble upon. since this is h o w w e experience them in e v e r y d a y use. Cover a sheet of paper with spinning. third common error is to draw upper and lover ellipses with different-sized apertures. though. Watch the tip of your pen and see it draw an ellipse in the air Keep this movement going while gently lowering the pen onto the paper like the needle of a record player closing on the disc (only it is your lowering hand that spins.

. Create a Solid Surface Once you have drawn the shape and volume of each form. you can start to control your spinning ellipse to make a vessel. working from top to bottom. Altering the pressure—and therefore tone—of the line as it spins gives the impression of light shining on one side. you can make it solid by building up highlights and tones on visible surfaces. enlarging and diminishing the ellipse to determine the overall shape and volume. Seeing Through Allow lines to travel around each vessel as if it were transparent. HOW TO DRAW E L L I P S E S A Single Vessel One Inside Another Grouped Together Finding Shape and Volume Draw an imagined vessel in one continuous spinning line. thereby hiding lines that show the other sides. Draw quickly.101 DRAWING VESSELS Once you have mastered drawing free-hand springs.

making complicated or subtle surfaces easier to see and understand. and strong contrasts are easier to draw. Relaxing your eyes out of focus as you draw will help to dissolve the distraction of detail. Gradually hone your drawing. It maximizes the range of tones between black and white. You can begin with outlines and build slowly from light to dark (see opposite top). leaving detail until last. It is important to place them on the correct side so as to draw comfortably (see pp. Draw the largest and most distinct areas of light and darkness first. Illuminate them with a gooseneck lamp placed very close and directed away from your eyes. simply shapes and subtleties of light and dark meeting each other with no divisions in between. outlines. OBJECTS AND Start by arranging a choice of shells on a sheet of paper to your left if you are right-handed (or vice versa). or you can begin with a mid-gray ground and model light out of darkness (see opposite bottom).22-23). In the finished drawing there should be few. two opposite methods of achieving the same result. beams of light. if any. if light shines in them. LIGHT TO DARK DARK TO LIGHT . t h e r e a r e p r i n c i p a l l y Dramatic lighting emphasizes texture and contour. Remember that shadows. it will inhibit your perception of tone. and solid objects are all of equal importance.102 INSTRUMENTS Tonality W H E N MAKING A TONAL DRAWING.

Remember that its size. Draw in the details last of all.103 LIGHT TO DARK (LINE TO TONE) TONALITY 1 Using a sharp HB pencil. Use quick. Let your eyes go out of focus while looking gently layer marks to create an even tone at your subject and paper: Draw the most ofmid-graywithin a rectangle. with broad sweeps of the eraser. look at the main areas of darkness. and edges definingthespacialrelationships between are important aspects of your composition them.56-57). Honetheshapesand angles of the shells. boldly 2 3 Keeping your eyes out of focus. Treat positive form and negative space (see pp. Erase and make changes to roughly place the shells inside your with your composition. Use your pencil to develop these in relation to the areas of light. draw a rectangle. Fll in broad areas first and leave all detail until last. loose. Avoid a rough significant areas of light in your gray rectangle with texture and do not press the graphite hardwhite plastic eraser Ignore all detail and draw a into thepaperor you will not be able to erase it. pale lines with equal importance. Relaxing your eyes out of focus will help to eliminate distracting details. DARK TO LIGHT (TONE TO TONE) 1 Using the flattened tip of an HB pencil. until you are happy frame. Continue working between light and dark to refine the drawing. . 2 3 Gentlydissolveoutlines so that areas oflightanddark meet without a line between them. shape.

176 the British artists Noble and Webster draw with domestic refuse in a beam of light. and on p. The first is that figurative and abstract drawings can be made in space. Seeing through a wire drawing of a known object such as a violin gives us a visual and tactile understanding of all its sides and shapes at once. When drawing anything viewed from one side on paper. There are essentially three lessons to be learned. This class uses thin-gauge wire to create a threedimensional violin. and physical relationships between them. you can create your own more ambitious works. The second is that after achieving this simple example. and on p. On p. PEN LINES Once you have created your three-dimensional violin (opposite). They can also be made in space.220 Mamoru Abe draws with forged steel rods. . smooth. three-dimensional drawings teach us about the totality of forms in space. our image is stronger if we understand and can visualize what is happening on the other side too.104 OBJECTS AND I N S T R U M E N T S Drawing with Wire DRAWINGS DO NOT HAVE to be two-dimensional. continuous lines. 19 Picasso draws with a pen-light for the camera.69 we see how the architect Antonio Gaudi drew proposed domes using suspended wires and weights. Third. On p. try drawing it with a pen on paper Use bold. Place the instrument on a plain surface and illuminate it with a desk lamp to add the delicate dimension of shadows.

1 Decide how big to draw your violin relative to the gauge of your wire.105 SETTING UP DRAWING WITH WIRE Follow these steps to draw a three-dimensional violin Choose a gauge of wire sturdy enough to hold the shape ofyourfinished drawing. Join the two sides together with four short pieces of wire. Once you have completed the body. 2 3 If needed. brace the two ends of the violin with a length of wire along the back. and pinch and bend it to shape the base of the instrument Repeat this process to make the identical upper side of the instrument. I started with the scroll at the top and fixed the four component wires with two drawings of tuning pegs. but thin enough to be easily manipulated inyourfingers Here. begin to shape the curvature of the fingerboard. Cut a length. Then begin to define its uppermost surface with Scurves and the bridge. and thick wire a larger one. 4 . I used garden wire and cut it carefully with pruners. These will hold the sides apart and help to keep the form in shape. thin wire will make a smaller drawing. Here.

I had the privilege of drawing their inventions. Using found materials.Artifacts and Fictions IN 1993 I WORKED with a group of schoolchildren who were responding to the astonishing objects in the collection of the Pitt Rivers Museum. some of which are shown here. . England. Oxford. they invented new anthropological finds—objects that reflected the distant past and their immediate future.

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The body remains at the core of over the initially white lines. artists also tried to define ideal proportions in the body. herimpressive presence because we are given such Life drawing no longer dominates the art school curriculum. W I L L I A M S technology. This F finished image was produced as r a n c i s c o . giving physical foundation undulating land. Artists now explore the interior of the body with new media and Lateral Contour Map of a Full-Term Primipara Produced by Light 1979 A. but the study of a controlled. It also looks at the representation of the b o d y b11y4o n d traditional life drawing. Renaissance artists studying anatomy from dissection clinically trained and specialized as a medical illustrator. Strangely. R. the junior workshop apprentices posed as part of their duties. He even believed he had located the soul contours of her form like a cartographer's map of in the pituitary fossa beneath the brain and behind the eyes. During this time. Drawings were usually made from the male nude to avoid offending the church. The human body. portraiture. It gives physical and emotive form to religious narratives. clothed or nude. the Bay Area Models' Guild h o l d s a quarterly life-drawing m a r a t h o n aprinton Kodak transfer paper with green-colored dye added celebrating the great diversity of human proportion. while Durer took his research further— A. and because the female was deemed inferior. sculptural description of her form. explaining ranges e/ of materials and techniques and showing diversities of thought and purpose in making. focus has turned to the vulnerability of flesh: how it can be damaged. from video and X-ray to thermal imaging. diseased. and in San could easily be transferred into three dimensions. WILLIAMS he sought perfection in the infinitesimal measurement of the body and produced four Contemporary photographer volumes of illustrated explanation.The Body O UR BODIES MAKE us TANGIBLE. These classes are popular around the world. W e are the only creatures on Earth that can make our own image. and surgically rebuilt. much Western contemporary art. Michelangelo attended dissections to made this image by light sectioning: fine beams of light perfect his understanding of surface form. is the most c o m m o n subject in art. Williams were decades ahead of their medical counterparts. W e understand every curve and balance of to the theory that the eves are the windows of the soul. This chapter addresses issues that are most commonly faced by beginners attending life-drawing classes. 3 x 7 in (300 x 180 . In this period. history paintings and other stories. a n d w e d r a w o u r s e l v e s to a s s e r t o u r e x i s t e n c e . and anatomical and erotic art. Artists are thought to have b e g u n drawing from the nude during the Italian Renaissance. She the body is still essential. Leonardo drew a man within a circle and square. R. Look closely at Renaissance drawings of the female b o d y and you will see that m o s t are actually y o u n g m e n with minor adjustments. while Leonardo opened the body to see and projected onto a woman's body draw the celebratory discover for himself our physical mechanisms. myths and fables. in our privileged and comfortable society.

Principal figures m i r r o r e a c h other. Three Guards 1500-20 91/4 x143/8in (234 x 365 mm) RAPHAEL . Raphael's study of fallen m e n leaves no doubt that they are in anguish. while Matisse used scissors and glue to cut out and paste a flat collage of brilliant color. Muscular dramatic postures reflect the influence of Michelangelo and the Renaissance celebration of the idealized male body. while supporting the weight of their body with the other. anatomy. In this highly s o p h i s t i c a t e d a b s t r a c t i o n . and studied to learn from the works of Michelangelo and Leonardo besides whom he was soon ranked. T h e y b o t h raise one arm to cup their head in their hand. so that we read this drawing like a sculptural frieze. In a single drawing we see equally o b s e r v e d studies of f o r e s h o r t e n i n g (see pp. altar pieces. filling the page with her presence. She u n f o l d s and s t r e t c h e s shapely limbs.110 T H E BODY THESE DISTINCTIVE WORKS show two strikingly different ways of modeling the body on paper. But the meanings of each gesture and the materials and methods by which they Postures and Poses were m a d e contrast greatly. and Vatican frescos. RAFFAELLO SANZIO (RAPHAEL) Italian High Renaissance painter: Raphael is best known for his images of the Madonna and Child. Matisse's b l u e n u d e sings with life and c e l e b r a t i o n . Here three male nudes are compressed into very shallow pictorial space. we see the e s s e n c e of h e r b e a u t y w i t h o u t a single detail. By way of contrast. Raphael drew delicate tones of black chalk on tinted paper. He trained under Perugino.116-17). and human defeat. Sculptural frieze This is a preparatory drawing for Raphael's painting of the Resurrection of Christ.

. Matisse became an artist after studying law. lifelong love of brilliant They celebrate the culmination of spectacular and sometimes drawings. and Islamic art. devoid of troubling Blue Nude 1 1952 413/4 HENRY MATISSE ." of is an art of balance.which might be. His calligraphic natural abstractions of form grew brighter..sculptor..111 HENRY MATISSE French painter: draftsman.or like a good armchair in which to rest from physical fatigue. teacher and principal exponent o f Fauvism—a movement established in 1905 in which bold color is the most essential element. foundamong many other groups of papercut these works as an elderly man confined to his bed or wheelchair.. freer.designer writer.like an appeasing influence. as his w o r k matured. his pattern. a mental soother.. fabric.. serenity. printmaker. Matisse Soothing influence This drawing expresses the achievement of Matisse's personal aim: "What I dream and depressing subject matter. and more energetic Color and form This collage is one of a series of Blue Nudes.

like small birds attendant on the meditation. Using the paper to create light is important for beginners to learn. Typically. His drawings are similarly u n i q u e . Opposite. only tones blending into. it would have mixed with unseen black dust. other tones. turned gray. Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 1883-84 91/2 x 121/4 in (241 x 312 m m GEORGES SEURAT . or abruptly meeting. Light is given by the paper alone. reflected. we c o m p a r e a skillful design that absorbed m u c h time in its making with the quickness of an idea marked instantly. Here. Seurat evolved a distinctive t e c h n i q u e called p o i n t i l l i s m — i m a g e s literally made from myriad points of color. agreeing to coalesce and show us the form of a waiting boy. and muddied the brilliance of the drawing. he used b l a c k c o n t e (see p. Seurat engaged in lifelong studies of line. Below. Beuys's magician. If Seurat had added white. velvet d a r k n e s s . In his f a m o u s paintings of social e n g a g e m e n t . there are no outlines. it is as if the very atoms of air are made visible. T h e space around h i m chatters with symbols. 162) and an eraser to model teeming points of artificial light amid GEORGES SEURAT French painter classically educated in the Ingres school of thought. in a perfect e x a m p l e . and c o m p l e m e n t a r y hues. and color His applied theories still influence painters in their manipulation and rendering of local. w h o sits propped in the contradictory darkness of a hot summer's day. stands in counterpoise holding a dark globe and his thoughts in m o m e n t a r y balance. scratched in seconds. Tone and light In this black conte drawing.112 T H E BODY Choreographs T I M E IS A SIGNIFICANT E L E M E N T i n t h e m a k i n g o f a l l d r a w i n g s . form.

taught workshops with a cult following. Perfectly modeled rather conventional for Joseph Focus Beuys's hand moved quickly to draw dotted lines flowing downward on either side of the figure. and blood. free from the constraint of immaculate form opposite) impetus is irrelevant to the and meaning of this work (as we see in Seurat's drawing representation. His The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland UNDATED 113/4 J O S E P H BEUYS x81/4in (297 x 210 mm) . This figure is drawn intuitively.gold. and drawings. Unbroken lines stream from his simultaneously movement. He was a shaman who believed in intuition and in the investment of healing force. and that These aspects of the work convey fractured visibility. CHOREOGRAPHS the profound power materials with spiritual or of Free lines This pale pencil drawing is Beuys.113 JOSEPH BEUYS One of the most influential German artists of the 20th century. iodine. transience. in different positions. video art. Many of his other symbolic works on paper have been drawn with materials such as honey. Our focus joins shoulders. and made installations. Beuys gave performances.

Inspired by Michelangelo. We are involved not as a shabby voyeur but as a bystander engaged through our recognition of shared joy. They whisper and writhe in a brushed and sultry embrace that devours our watching." as seen here. sweeping lines— of either purple silk fabric or cool studio air—that imprint and amplify their past and future movements. the fierceness of the women's kiss is beautifully matched by the tenderness of his line. its soft. Opposite. Rodin employed models to move freely or pose together in his studio. and went on to inspire generations of artists. Paris. and one of hundreds of rapid studies of nudes. 125/8x 9 in (320 x 229 mm) AUGUSTE RODIN Two Women 1911 Embracing . he typically drew them with a few delicate strokes of pencil and brushed watercolor. the women are framed and caressed by long. His exquisite flow of paint beyond "outlines. was perceived as scandalous.114 BODY Passion SUMMONING HUMANITY in a drawing of the nude is a subtle and emotional task. Free lines Rodin's public audience was understandably shocked by the eroticism of his drawings. As here. Our bodies radiate the passion of our thoughts and so become beacons of our frailty and power. Delicate strokes This is one of about 7. We are asked to gaze u p o n her flesh. his w o r k is characterized by deliberate un-finish and powerfully modeled emotion. In Rodins work.000 drawings shown in rotation at the Musee Rodin. But what is stranger to us now is that they were also outraged by his free use of line. In both drawings. THE AUGUSTE RODIN French Romantic sculptor and prolific draftsman employed as an ornamental mason until the age of 42. Anita Taylor has drawn her protective body hug out of the darkly glistening compression of willow charcoal and the dynamism of her shy but momentous femininity. Rodin produced portraits and statues of public and literary figures. flushed skin made ruddy and black with crushed cinders. Achieving international acclaim in mid-life.

This order of light below and dark above gives glowing from within. The sturdy surface of the sheet has allowed her to press hard when needed. erased and drawn again.I 15 ANITA T A Y L O R Painter. the impression of luminosity All and Nothing 1999 67 x447/8in (170 x 1 1 4 cm) ANITA TAYLOR . Taylor has drawn. intimately reflecting upon the emotions and meaning of nudity. Charcoal Taylor has drawn freely with charcoal and an eraser on thick. draftsman. and gaze. leaving her lightest marks at the deepest level of the image and applying darker marks above. textured paper. professor and Vice Principal of Wimbledon School of Art. scrutiny. London. Taylor's immense self-portraits explore the relationship between the artist as maker and the artist as model. and rework rich depths of light and tone. A thinner sheet might have crumpled and torn under such vigorous force of making. Luminosity Layered marks flicker likefirelight as they sculpt the woman's body. exposure.

persistence. Smaller.limbs happily receding. 1 Hold your arm straight. It is not so hard. and wrist joints. you will make inconsistent and unrelated comparisons." . which is imperceptible from below. Up close on the scaffold we would witness Michelangelo's subtle application of accelerated perspective. Close one eye. without taking off. MEASURING This is a simple method of making measured comparisons for relating the true size of one part to another This is a tool to assist observation and thinking. or shrivelling at odd. helping us to see more clearly. with dramatic illusions of figures painted in normal proportion. unfathomable angles. London). To avoid its effects ensure you always look flat onto the surface of your page. and measurements do not have to be carried to the paper and slavishly drawn the same size they appear on your pencil. Accelerated perspective plays a great role in much art. Lock your shoulder. patience. Spend time making comparisons before you draw. Imagine Michelangelo's murals in the Sistine Chapel. The length of exposed pencil is your measurement. elongated as if stretched across the plaster. In the life class it is the mechanism for ensuring that a drawn figure lies correctly in pictorial space . Move the tip of your thumb down to a second chosen point.116 T H E BODY Measurement and Foreshortening FORESHORTENING IS AN ASPECT of perspective. rather that what we believe we know from experience. This is chiefly a correcting device by which figurative painters and sculptors have for centuries countered the effects of our viewing their work from far below or on the curvature of a vault. plummeting. more extreme examples have been made for court entertainment. or coming forward. How to make and apply these is explained below and opposite. It is not complicated. and to draw what we see. we would arrive to find many of the same figures strangely distorted. It can also be a little demon in the life room. and a few measured comparisons are key. the skull in Holbein's The Ambassadors (The National Gallery. If your arm is not straight. Align the top with a point on your subject. But if we could take a scaffold and climb up to the work. just making them helps you see. to be translated by mirrors or seen from only one point in the room. 3 Keep your pencil perpendicular Measure and compare at any angle. when beginners prop their board in their lap and look down at too steep an angle. Rome. for example. "Simple measured comparisons reveal surprising truths about proportion. Return to this posture every time. We also look at another very interesting branch called accelerated (or anamorphic) perspective. 2 Hold your pencil upright. There is no need to mark them all down on paper. elbow.

A t a c e r t a i n angle. Keep t h e b o a r d steady and draw. To m a k e f o r m s l o o k c o r r e c t .117 ACCELERATED PERSPECTIVE To discover h o w this w o r k s . adjusting a n o n y m o u s shapes. looking d o w n t h e p a p e r at t h e a n g l e at w h i c h I d r e w . S o o n t h e b o d y will lie d o w n in space. W e appear t o be looking d o w n o n a w o m a n s t a n d i n g b e n e a t h us. y o u must let go o f w h a t y o u k n o w f r o m e x p e r i e n c e a b o u t t h e relative sizes o f b o d y parts and trust y o u r eyes. See h o w d i f f e r e n t t h e relative heights o f t h e s e shapes are f r o m w h a t w e m i g h t e x p e c t in real life. T h i s is t h e s a m e d r a w i n g p h o t o g r a p h e d f r o m above. C o m p a r e t h e heights o f t h e nose and eye shapes t o t h o s e o f t h e f o r e a r m . belly. P r o p o r t i o n s will only l o o k c o r r e c t f r o m t h e angle at w h i c h y o u make t h e drawing. which feels strange. Lean t h e t o p e d g e t o w a r d y o u and find a p o s i t i o n w h e r e y o u can c o m f o r t a b l y l o o k d o w n t h e p a p e r at an angle o f a b o u t 4 0 degrees. a n d thighs. pleasingly f o r e s h o r t e n e d . L o o k at y o u r m o d e l as if he o r she is a flat series o f shapes o n e o n t o p o f a n o t h e r Measure t h e height and w i d t h o f each shape and c o m p a r e it t o its neighbor. FORESHORTENING To f o r e s h o r t e n a figure. MEASUREMENT AND FORESHORTENING Tilt t h e t o p edge o f this b o o k t o w a r d you and look d o w n o n this figure f r o m a b o v e . h e r p r o p o r t i o n s will appear correct. t a p e s o m e p a p e r t o a board. Stand its b o t t o m edge o n y o u r lap. W o r k a r o u n d t h e figure. y o u r hand travels f a r t h e r than y o u expect. .

her center of balance is normally found in a vertical line beneath her head. and height. Be bold and dive into your drawing with c o n f i d e n c e . make the upper body smaller give your model a high waist. THE SEQUENCE OF POSES H e r e the model was asked to move every t w o minutes. Avoid drawing up one side and down the other. and stance before honing her balance and expression. To see this. Outline To outline a figure. Leave first thoughts in place. imagine holding up a plumb line. feeling. Layered lines give d e p t h . and energy. Height This pose leans away into space above our eye level. . Balance When a model stands upright on both feet. Start each new drawing by lightly marking the model's height with a loose line in ten seconds. To draw this effect. and slightly enlarge her legs and feet. T h i s q u i c k e x p l o r a t o r y line does not perfectly describe shape but expresses a decision about overall flow of form. and work over t h e m with further o b s e r v a t i o n s . I used a sharp H B pencil and began each drawing by marking her outline.118 BODY Quick Poses DRAWING QUICK POSES l o c k s y o u r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n t o what is most essential. working from her center to her feet and to her head. propelling you to make immediate assessments and trust them. height. because it results in two unrelated sides drifting apart. balance. work back and forth across the body.

the activity of circular lines and the repetition of limbs suggest movement. . Most of us have a tendency to over-straighten the drawn figure. and this should be avoided Twist QUICK POSES A model standing on one leg usually drops the opposite hip. This drawing shows how different observations be overlaid to bring a drawing alive. The tilt of the pelvis is then counter balanced by the model's shoulders tilting the other way (as seen here). Tilt Movement Here.119 The twist of a model is most easily and expressively captured if it is exaggerated.

and ignore all details. general to specific. express structure and gesture far more successfully and easily than ten worried outlines wandering up and down between the fingers and toes. feet. Practice by drawing your own hands and feet. or those of a friend. drawn in relation to each other. Begin by drawing lines to encompass the whole hand. swiftly marking its essential gesture. A mirror increases your range of views. 3 . W h e n starting. but regard these practice studies as ongoing processes of thought and observatio Add details such as nails last if you wish. starting with the largest. Don't worry about achieving perfect solutions. This exercise is useful when struggling with proportion. Draw large shapes and their orientation. and a gooseneck lamp casts shadows that clarify planes and depths GESTURES OF THE HAND Curled Fingers 1 Open Palm Start honing the shapes of the dominant planes. Keep lines open to change and take measurements if they help. Focus instead on how planes change direction across the knuckles from one side of the hand or foot to the other. Do not separate them yet. and they need not be daunting to draw. It also helps the beginner to progress from drawing outlines to drawing confidently across the surface of the whole form. Then subdivide each shape so that you w o r k from large to small.120 BODY Hands and Feet THERE ARE MANY different ways of approaching h a n d s and THE of form. Group the fingers together as one mass. 2 Build your drawing gradually from light to dark. especially the lengthwise divisions between them. These planes. it is important to leave aside all details of the fingers and toes.

depth. loose. It can be a mistake. and don't worry about accuracy t o begin with. Hew it roughly in broad. and spontaneity. Nowimagineyou are carving the foot insidethepaper. Try t o express the whole foot and t o encapsulate its entire shape and direction in a few marks. t o remove t o o many early lines. Leave aside all detail. flattened planes. . these are what give a drawing its tangible structure. as if with a chisel.as though out o f wood. however.121 HANDS AND FEET MOVEMENTS OF THE FOOT Flat Stance Raised Heel Instep 1 Let your first marks be light. 2 3 Use an eraser t o refine decisions o r t o suggest areas o f light. and rapid. Look for key angles without becoming distracted by detail.

I also used white ink with a steel dip pen. Compare its nature in close-up to that of willow charcoal used on pp. The white lines demonstrate what is often called "bracelet shading.Charcoal Hands T H E S E DRAWINGS ARE MADE in compressed charcoal.204-05. Opposite." .

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Phrasing Contours .HERE TRACES OF RAPID initial lines are still seen within and outside each body. length. 118-19). and posture of the model. before honing his or her shape (see pp. I make these lines in the first five to ten seconds of a drawing to locate the presence.

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The Visual Detective DRAWING FROM MASTERWORKS was once a staple component of an artist's education. I draw in museums in support of written research and as an artist seeking answers to questions about the practicalities of image making. perspectives. It is now viewed with some skepticism and often seen as academic. . Drawing work by another artist enables you to discover and understand the inventive hand in their composition. Forms. and narrative pulse become vivid when you realize them in the middle of your study. characters. feeling them through the attentive movements of your own hand.

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.La Specola At17V i a Romana. each modeled from dissection. Florence. there is a unique museum of 18th-century anatomical waxes. Walls are lined with hundreds of faintly animated body parts. Life-size women wearing wigs recline on beds of embroidered silk in cabinets of mahogany and Venetian glass This is a detail of a compressed charcoal drawing measuring 14 x 10 ft (4. 126-27. These almost life-size figures were composed from my imagination and achieved with the help af studies discussed on pp.3 x 3 m) made in response to La Specola.

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or past us. Rembrandt's famous multitude of self-portraits. The returning image was of crucial consideration in any proposal. we use the delicate medium of silver point to look at foundation structures of the head. neck. or whose eyes can seem to follow us around the room Portraiture is a constant. We are also reassured by keeping records of ourselves. became more poignant as he progressed. who. throat. Portraits can be highly or loosely detailed. Man Ray's self-portrait of scored lines. painters have dropped discreet records of themselves into commissioned narratives so that they can remain a face in the crowd. Self-portraiture gives every artist a constant. bells. is here to both meet and look through us. and satirical or metaphorical. usually strangers from past times. Goya. live. compliant subject to scrutinize. Beginners often draw themselves as a way of establishing their practice. gathered all that he knew FRANCISCO DE GOYA V i s i o n a r y Spanish painter. a single line can deliver an entire expression. It also reminds us o f b o t h t h e intimacy and a scene as scrutiny o f an honest portrait. W h e n drawing a person. made as he passed through the ages of man. or a glimpse of him is caught in a photograph used as a prop. look directly at us. and in a few scrolling rafts of pen lines and stubbled dots. Goya's w o r k s include many royal and society p o r t r a i t s . historical. and secular narratives. his changes in pressure and Hitchcock length o f line. and a handprint (see p. and lucrative genre for artists. character. having been documented and preserved. their stance. and their posture can be changed with just one line. buttons. . and it is very rewarding. you can capture the subtlety. and expression of the individual.Portraiture IN P O R T R A I T U R E W E MEET PEOPLE. and social and political commentaries. Once you understand Self-Portrait in a Cocked Hat c. single or of groups. Halls and palaces are filled with pictures of the mighty and significant. For centuries. the meaning of their face. draftsman. In this chapter. 1790-92 4 x 3 in ( 1 0 2 x 7 6 m m ) F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A and memorize the basic structure that we all share. To create a face is to see and interpret the essence of an identity. Past rulers sent painters across continents to bring back a likeness in advance of a prospective royal marriage. We can mold and animate qualities of expression out of objects and fragments of disassociated things—for example. Movie director Alfred similarly signed his films by playing a fleeting role: he walks through an extra.139). Equally. The truth is that we all like looking at faces and observing the billions of variations that make us individuals. This enlargement o f his miniature p o r t r a i treveals t h e s p e e d and agility o f his p e n and about himself. in a miniature self-portrait magnified opposite. Our homes are filled with images of our loved ones and of those in our families who have gone before. abstract or figurative. and shoulders. religious. and p r i n t m a k e r .

The aesthetic sense of a line being just right can make a drawing sing. teetering on the brink of older age. one eye already cast askew into the autumn of her life. How could the addition of shadows have enhanced this image? Few strokes The simplicity of Picasso's line is breathtaking. hand to capture something well in only Frangoise au Bandeau 1946 660 x 505 mm (26 x197/8in) PABLO PICASSO . The Tightness of a line is felt in its speed. There is a common misunderstanding that a drawing with only a few lines is both less finished and easier to make than a drawing with more. Holbein maps the still landscape of Dorothea's body in questioning marks.30). whisking a timeless girl onto the page. Her face is drawn tenderly and with a luminous glow. While with longer consideration. stealthily using his chalk to find contours and mass. Through exhibitions and copies in books. Without faltering. breadth. He makes his flair and skill look easy. Picasso strikes and scrolls his pencil. The truth is often the opposite. adding smudges of tone for weight and solidity. It is the portrait of a countrywoman. caught in her last moments of youth. For the beginner. We can actually count that he struck the paper 40 times. they serve as a great lesson that it is not always necessary to add tone to your drawing. Picasso has left to posterity many hundreds of magnificent line drawings. length.132 PORTRAITURE Poise THE BALANCE BETWEEN a mark and a blank space is often a tantalizing form of perfection. we can enjoy and learn from them. It takes a truly accomplished a few strokes. We can read so much about them by studying their gaze. Here the grace and beauty of two young women are held forever. and pressure as it conducts our eye through the image. PABLO PICASSO Spanish Cubist painter (see also p.

Holbein was employed toward the end of his life by King Henry VIII of England. He outlined her nose but not her upper lip. Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 1516 51/8 x121/4in (385 x 310 m m ) HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER . Holbein has cropped and pinned his subject within the four outermost lines of the image—the edges of the page. Cropping This regal composition fits its paper perfectly. made a popular series o f w o o d c u t prints titled The Dance of Death. In addition t o his numerous exquisite portraits in oil. Her folded forearms support and frame her weight above. and designer f r o m Basel. he designed c o u r t costumes. Holbein unified the woman with her background by gently blending colors from her clothes and face into the atmosphere around her. Blended colors In this portrait drawn with colored chalks on slightly textured paper. presses against the binding across her face.133 HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER German p o r t r a i t painter draftsman. and its downward slope crowns the diagonal of the composition. which. The peak of her cap clips the uppermost edge. and produced numerous society portraits such as this one here. gently flushed.

distorted. blood vessels. and unpleasant to see. or defined by. This is one of a number of similar disembodied female heads seen behind. Newsome was awarded the Prix de Rome in 1960. It floats in space. confusing. perhaps applied using a tortillon. N e w s o m e ' s eerily shadowed form is smooth and bears a linear grain evocative of w o o d . using a fine and relatively 1982 13 x 181/8 in (328 x 460 mm) VICTOR NEWSOME brush. VICTOR NEWSOME British sculptor painter and draftsman. while white painted flecks and wisps suggest electrical illumination. This is a m a r v e l o u s interpretation of the truth. Highlights of white gouache were dry Profile Head late in the making. The real dissection w o u l d have been far more c o m p l e x . continues to exhibit regularly. taught at numerous British art schools from 1962-77.134 PORTRAITURE Anatomies These highly finished drawings express the emotional power and physicality of the head and neck. dark lines made with a pencil appear against smooth. its highly clarified detail claiming to be d r a w n from observation. Psychological drama is contained behind a grid. the contours of a grid. Delicate muscles are integrated with the skin and fat that is to be r e m o v e d . dark tones of graphite blended into the paper. In fact. Durelli has m a d e a few m i n o r mistakes. Contrasts Sharp. and glands also complicate form. The style of Durelli's d r a w i n g opposite sings with the confidence of truth and precision. and has works in major collections including the Tate Gallery. Nerves. London. Anatomically. . solid above and almost hollow below. but they are irrelevant here. the face is one of the hardest parts to dissect.

pull their points o f attachment t o w a r d each other .135 ANATOMIES ANTONIO DURELLI Linear perfection This is a red chalk drawing of extraordinary accomplishment. Durelli's experience as an engraver is reflected in his stylized drawing o f muscle fibers. and it is likely that this drawing was intended for reproduction as a print. Red Chalk the Muscles 1837 173/8 x 145/8 in ( 4 4 0 x 3 7 2 m m ) ANTONIO DURELLI and Pencil Drawing and of Neck of the Head Little is k n o w n o f this M i l a n e s e p a i n t e r a n d engraver w h o c a m e from a family o f artists. It is hard to think of a more difficult medium with which to achieve such linear perfection. which. Stylized parallel lines are reminiscent of engravings. Pencil numbers refer to the list of muscles written beneath. w h e n contracted.

each locked into a visionary gaze. Speed Giacometti probably began with an oval shape placed in relation to the proportion of the page. Giacometti settled in Paris. Opposite. Flesh is built and personality carved simultaneously. They show us clearly the bones of drawing. Then.136 PORTRAITURE THESE ARE DRAWINGS of shoulders. he drew over the whole image at once. He is best known for his bronze sculptures of human form. Without paint and with very little tone. 1948 77/8 x 6 in (200 x 150 mm) ALBERTO GIACOMETTI . They confuse our perception of scale by being intimately fragile and at the same time far removed. painter draftsman. Bellini gently conjures the features of his saint with soft marks that tease his presence out of shadows into the light. close enough to touch his hair and feel his breath. ALBERTO GIACOMETTI Swiss sculptor. Both works demonstrate how simple lines can be made complex by being intense. necks. while his hand stabs and thrusts Revelations like a conductors baton. Portrait de Marie-Laure de Noailles c. which are characteristically elongated. There is a film of Giacometti drawing. each portrait is inscribed onto the page. with speed and urgency. We are brought intimately close to this man gazing up to heaven. Agitated marks make patches of tone that cut away the space around the character. Similar movements sculpted the head below into its page. and with staccato flinches his hyperactive eye moves from paper to model. and heads. Energy This is a portrait of a woman drawn with black crayon on a plain page of a book Lines search for the essence of form. and poet After studying in Geneva and Italy. cutting and carving the paper with matted and spiraling restless energy. The camera watches him at work. as if seen from a distance.

Sometimes different narrative same character was reused in compositions. a n d c o n t e m p l a t i v e . H e t a u g h t G i o r g i o n e Barbarelli and Titian.25 6 .5 9 ) . a n d b r o t h e r in-law. H e p r e f e r r e d religious t o classical t h e m e s . a n d his w o r k is d i s t i n c t i v e l y calm. These are pinholes. Head and Shoulders of a Man 73/8 x 21/4 in ( 1 8 6 x 5 8 UNDATED GIOVANNI BELLINI . Character This is one of many cartoons produced by Bellini the and his family. Transfer This delicate humorous chalk a drawing is a cartoon—not image but a type of template used to plan the composition of a larger work Look closely and you will see rows of tiny dots along every significant line in the picture.G I O V A N N I BELLINI A prominent member of a large family o f V e n e t i a n painters. Mantegna. lyrical. transferring which were made in the process of the saint to his final place in the composition of a painting (see Glossary pp. Bellini s t u d i e d u n d e r his f a t h e r J a c o p o .

postcards. political outcry. drawn. marks. and everything flux.221). float and shimmer in the shallow pictorial space. bells. The figure's position is unequivocal and defiant while around him is in a state Without the essential of cultural and figure we would elegant belookingat a sophisticated painting of signs. and buttons rings with surrealist wit and agile improvisation. and indulgence. JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT Short-lived American painter and graffiti artist who began his blazing nine-year career drawing on lower Manhattan subway trains with a friend. spear-brandishing warrior. scratched into its surface. Later Basquiat sold drawings on T-shirts. humor. Self Portrait 1982 9 4 x 7 6 in (239 x 193 cm) JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT . a tribal. made with great energy. It is an opportunity to look deep without the infringement of courtesies owed to a commissioning sitter. their most immediate and best-known subject: themselves. It has proved to be a subject of piercing scrutiny. similar to work by Cy Twombly (see p. scrolls. The artist has finished his portrait with the signature of his hand smacked in the middle like a kiss: a declaration of existence as old as man's first drawing. The incandescent New York painter Jean Michel Basquiat pictured himself here in naked silhouette. Signs and symbols with symbols This painting shudders that ore written. skull- Self-Portraits headed. In 1986 he traveled to Africa and showed his work in Abidjan on the Ivory Coast He also exhibited in Germany and France. signing their work SAMO. scratched lines. Man Ray's playful silk-screen assembly of color blocks. and attitudes. Al Diaz. and confrontations with.138 PORTRAITURE THE MIRROR OF SELF-PORTRAITURE offers artists infinite reflections of. It is an image of confrontation—the ever-controversial young artist roars at us from his abstract city-scape. Islands of graphic marks. and sheet metal before being snapped up by the New York contemporary art scene.

printmaker and cofounder of the New York Dada movement. Man Ray lived and worked in Paris. where he collaborated with the artist Laslo MoholyNagy. Black ink was printed next and then white. The handprint appears to be made directly. while a squeegee was used to drag thick lilac-brown ink across the silk pushing it though exposed areas onto the paper below. They suggest speed and make the picture look immediate and spontaneous. During the 1920's and 30s. They experimented with camera-free photography working directly onto photographic paper Silk and ink This is a silkscreen print made through the following process: the paper was laid on a flat surface and a frame stretched with fine silk was placed on top. last of all. Frame White lines are seemingly (though not actually) scratched through ink to frame this face. Autoportrait 1916 195/8 MAN RAY . painter. caked in thick printing ink or paint. The first part of the stenciled image was already marked on the silk The screen and paper were then held tightly together.139 MAN RAY American surrealist photographer. Man Ray probably used his own hand.

M a k e s u r e i t is c o m p l e t e l y clean t o avoid u n w a n t e d streaks. it leaves a deposit. W e t a n d fix a s e c o n d strip t o t h e o p p o s i t e side. SILVER W I R E : Purchase different gauge lengths f r o m a traditional a r t supplier o r jeweler. or wood. s o m e m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n o t h e r s . and is therefore useful w h e n using w a t e r c o l o r as well as silver point. T h e p a p e r will l o o k b u c k l e d . Z I N C W H I T E G O U A C H E : Dilute with w a t e r A d d c o l o r i f r e q u i r e d (as opposite) 4 . 2 . platinum. M E T A L OBJECTS: All metal objects m a r k a p r e p a r e d surface. the surface must be primed with a ground such as gouache. Take a sheet o f any t y p e o f p a p e r (for e x a m p l e . Drawn across a prepared surface. 1 4 4 . Straighten the w o r s t buckles. b u t d o n ' t w o r r y . you will need t o stretch paper and lay a wash (see right and opposite). was familiar to or eggshells with animal glue. I combined silver point with painted white gouache on a pink ground. an exciting indication of how large-scale drawings could be made on a wall. s e e p . Find a n i t e m t h a t y o u can h o l d a n d draw with comfortably. who used it to outline initials and border characters before painting. Historically. I t is a v a i l a b l e f r o m all a r t s h o p s . Lightly s p o n g e o f f t h e excess. S O F T F U L L B R U S H : W h e n laying a w a s h ." Lead. choose a silver object. key. If w o r k i n g o n an emulsion-painted wall. I m a k e m y o w n f r o m o l d dip pens.140 PORTRAITURE Silver P o i n t SILVER OR METAL POINT STRETCHING PAPER A sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has been made w e t with the strokes o f a paintbrush will buckle d u e t o its uneven expansion. laid on paper. purchase silver wire. 1. 144-45. or ring. Be swift and firm. S i l v e r is b e s t . Pages 142 to 147 are illustrated in silver point and techniques are explained on pp. c h o o s e a s o f t full b r u s h t h a t c a n c a r r y p l e n t y o f l i q u i d .54) can also b e used. Metal point does not work on ordinary paper. which quickly oxidizes into a gray line. Metal point is simply a strip of metal bound in a holder. To begin.54-55). copper. 5. o n e t o fit each side o f t h e b o a r d — t h e s e will make t h e glued f r a m e t h a t holds y o u r p a p e r in place. MATERIALS 1 Find a clean sponge and b o w l o r d e e p t r a y a n d fill it w i t h w a t e r W e t t h e p a p e r evenly in t h e t r a y o r o n t h e b o a r d . illuminators of medieval m a n u s c r i p t s . Lay a clean d r a w i n g b o a r d o n a flat surface. 2. This browns with age unless sealed by fixative (see pp. 156). For i m p o r t a n t a d v i c e o n p r e p a r a t i o n a n d use. Note h o w domestic paintwork marks with a coin. Opposite. This is called a three-tone drawing. and make o r buy a holder. and t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h strips a b o v e and b e l o w . p a r c h m e n t .Tear o f f f o u r lengths o f b r o w n p a p e r g u m tape. Stretched paper remains taut as a d r u m . Gesso o r m a t t e m u l s i o n c a n a l s o b e u s e d . W e t o n e length o f g u m . E m p t y mechanical pencils designed f o r t h i c k leads ( s e e p. w h i t e d r a w i n g paper) and cut it t o fit y o u r d r a w i n g b o a r d w i t h a generous b o r d e r a r o u n d its edges. and alloys work on matt emulsion. bone.s t r i p a n d use i t t o fix o n e side o f t h e p a p e r t o t h e b o a r d . Numerous early European artists also enjoyed its fine qualities (see p. and gold have also been used. SILVER P O I N T W I R E H O L D E R : T h e s e c a n b e p u r c h a s e d a n d t e n d t o b e heavy. artists mixed white lead. b e f o r e priming stretched paper. The most c o m m o n metal has always been silver—hence the term "silver point. 3 .

Beware of the tape's coming loose at any point while drying. Reload the brush and add a second line overlapping it beneath. Runs blend into each other evenly. as the paper will be ruined by a raised ridge. leaving a smooth surface. LAYING A WASH It your stretched paper so as to prime it for silver point. slowly add powder pigment or gouache from a tube. stretched paper at a 45-degree angle.t o n e silver point drawing of a skull . Make an even line across to the right. Leave the wash to dry thoroughly before you begin to draw. Keep adding smooth. I used a powder pigment called Caput Mortuum. so put newspaper under the lower edge. It will slowly straighten and become taut. Dry thoroughly before laying a wash. any extra will keep. Here. v e r y little at a time. The next step will make a small mess. Keep testing on spare paper. Prop up your board of dry. Mix a very wet but not weak solution of gouache in a jar with a lid (add pigment at this stage for a three-tone drawing). is necessary to lay a wash o Three-tone When coloring ground. Make enough to cover your paper.141 SILVER POINT 3 Leave the paper to dry flat. T h r e e . full brush into the gouache and start in the top left corner. and let tests dry before deciding to change the mixture. overlapping lines until you reach the bottom. Dip a soft.

142

PORTRAITURE

Head and Neck
THE HEAD AND NECK are best conceived as one unit arranged in four parts: cranium, face, neck, and throat. Each is of equal importance. The cranium is essentially egg-shaped and pivots on the first vertebra. The face is suspended beneath, like a softly curved triangle. The n e c k — a powerful, shapely column of layered muscles rigged to vertebrae—adjusts and holds the angle and expression of the head. The throat is delicate, hard, and lumpy to the touch, formed of cartilaginous rings, glands, thin muscles, and looser skin. Framing the throat, two columnar neck muscles (sternomastoids) project the head forward and also turn it to the opposite side.

This is a simple shorthand diagram representing the cranium, face, neck, and throat. It can be learned and visualized in different positions very easily, giving the novice a firm footing on which to stand and develop their drawings of the head and neck.

Shorthand diagram

Cranium Begin with an egg shape. Tilt it on the paper to change the position of the head.

Face Draw a rounded triangular shape below the forward point of the egg to represent the face.

Neck This shape represents the trapezius; the largest surface muscle of the neck and shoulders.

Throat A triangular shape represents the throat. (The nose makes the diagram clearer)

Applied shorthand

After copying the diagram above, animate it. Practice drawing the cranium at different angles, add the face beneath, then the neck, shoulders, and throat. Shape your diagrams so they are more lifelike, but avoid adding detailed features too soon.

143 These three drawings demonstrate (from left to right) the following: why the cranium may be considered egg-shaped; now the face can be seen as a curved triangle suspended beneath and where the division lies between the two; and the form of sternomastoid muscles that frame thethroatsodistinctlywhen the head is turned and inclined forward.

The skull and the frame of the throat

HEAD AND NECK

Bones of the cranium are locked together by jagged joints. Sinuses in the frontal (forehead) bone between and beneath the eyebrows are larger in men, making their brows pronounced and often ridged compared to those of women.

Bones of the face house our sight, smell, taste, The skull pivots on the first vertebra or "atlas," and speech. Cartilage extending from nasal bones after the Greek god condemned to carry the shapesthenose.Pads of fat resting on the base of Earth. The jaw hinges in front of the ears. Behind, eacheyesocket support the eyeballs in position. If bony ridges give anchor to the sternomastoid thefatisreducedby old age, eyes look sunken. muscles rising from the breast- and collarbones.

Three useful generalizations

General rules about the relative positions of body parts can hinder artists as much as help them, since they are often based on classical ideals rather than thediversityoflife.However,some generalizations can help as a rough guide to start with, so long as good observation takes over as soon as possible.

In general, when the face is relaxed (not smiling or frowning), the corners of the mouth are found directly beneath the pupils of the eyes. Vertical lines can be drawn down from the pupils to meet the corners of the mouth.

The height of a young adult's ear is often the same as their nose and found on the same level. There is no general rule for growing children, and remember that ears grow again in old age, which is most obvious in men.

The height of the face is about the length of the handspan and the eye is normally halfway down the total height of the head. A common error is to draw the eyes too high up on the face.

144

PORTRAITURE

Essential Observations
T H E DELICACY OF SILVER POINT

(see pp. 140-41) is perfect for

such as a beach pebble. Here, I stretched drawing paper and laid a wash of white gouache (see pp.140-41). As you can see, the line and tone of silver point varies with pressure, but only slightly. Too much pressure cuts the ground. Silver point erases, but so does ground. Erased ground can be repaired gently with extra gouache. You can also use gouache to paint over mistakes and make corrections.

small, detailed drawings. The drawings below and opposite show useful observations of the head and neck, which are explained in the captions below. Each drawing was made with a silver wire held in a large-gauge mechanical pencil. Newly clipped wires are sharp and cut rather than draw. Before use, they need to be rubbed and smoothed on a stone

Here I imagined placing my silver point wire against the skin of each head and neck and, working in parallel bands from the crown downward, I traced the undulation of surfaces. Linear bands imagined around the head and neck can help you t o clearly see the tilt of the head and relative levels of the features. Ask a friend t o model for you and try this exercise life-size using a pencil and eraser

Contours

Tilted forward

Tilted backward

Three-quarter view

Seeing that the face is never flat

Drawings below left and center are summaries of the generalizations given on p.143. Far right is an image to remind us that the face is never flat. It slopes back to varying degrees among individuals, from the tip of the nose t o the ears. For example, note that the innermost corners of the eyes are farther forward in space than the outermost corners.

General measurements, side

General measurements, front

View from above

145

Male and female head and neck
Men's necks a r e g e n e r a l l y s h o r t e r a n d t h i c k e r t h a n w o m e n ' s b e c a u s e t h e angles a n d levels o f c e r t a i n b o n e s a r e d i f f e r e n t b e t w e e n t h e sexes ( i n d i c a t e d h e r e b y d o t t e d lines) a n d m e n are n o r m a l l y m o r e muscular. T h e male t h y r o i d cartilage ( A d a m ' s apple) is larger a n d m o r e visible than t h e f e m a l e . L a r g e r f e m a l e t h y r o i d glands also s o f t e n t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e t h r o a t .

ESSENTIAL OBSERVATIONS
Female skull

Male

skeleton

Male

skull

Trapezius muscle
The largest m u s c l e o f t h e s h o u l d e r s a n d n e c k is called the trapezius. A r r a n g e d on e i t h e r side o f t h e spine, it shapes t h e u p p e r back and neck above the s h o u l d e r blades. C o n t r a c t i n g in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h d e e p e r and surrounding muscles, it raises and l o w e r s t h e shoulders a n d d r a w s t h e h e a d backtoeitherside.

The whole

muscle

Upper

half with

sternomastoids

Above

with head

straight

Above

with head

forward

Side with

sternomastoid

Front with

sternomastoid

146

PORTRAITURE

Drawing Portraits
USING A SHARP 3 B PENCIL, I drew this head quickly from imagination, evolving its character and expression from the scheme of four parts: cranium, face, neck, a n d throat (see p. 142). Here, five steps show you how to practice doing the same. This approach can be used to draw from imagination or from life. Keep your wrist loose and hold your pencil away from its point (see pp.22-23). Build the layers of your drawing from pale to dark, a n d from general balance a n d form to specific detail. Remember that successful drawings are built on foundations of "seeing the whole," then dividing the whole into smaller parts, with details brought in last of all. Phrased tonal marks modeling this girls skin and hair follow the technique demonstrated by Goya in his self-portrait on p. 130. Turn to Goya's drawing and study how, in a circle beginning across his hat, moving down his hair, and around his coat, he flows lines over surfaces to describe their contour. As you build from steps 1 to 5, bring phrased groups of lines across the surfaces of your form, using their directions to capture the expression of the head and neck. If unsure, copy my steps until you gain the confidence to make your own decisions.

This drawing is the final stage of the four steps opposite. Here, I have enlarged the eye, and moved it back into the head by trimming the length of the upper lid and adding a more pronounced lower lid. It is important to set eyes far enough back from the relatively prominent nose; too close to it and the face flattens. Hair swept back and extended behind the cranium balances the regal pose. Lines shaping the hair echo those marking the cranium in step 1. Here, the lower part of step 1 comes through as wisps of hair across her face and ear

BALANCED POSE

Portrait of a Young Girl

2 Rapidly add shorthand shapes to represent the face. over the cranium. Moving from the back of the neck. The eye announces the nature and expression of the emerging person. and throat. neck.Theangle at which you draw this shape of the paper will determine the angle of the finished head. so it is important to the life of the image that while controlled. down the face to the throat. First lines will remain visible in the final drawing. Keep your first lines light. too soon. 3 Place the eye beneath the cranium. The nose and ear begin to shape the head. 4 . I used light to describe the upper lid first with a shadow beneath for the lower lid and open eye.147 Building up the portrait DRAWING PORTRAITS 1 Gently spin pale lines in a softly drawn shape representing the cranium. I modeled the outline of the character I imagined light shining from above and in front and adjusted the pressure of lines to reflect this. they are also still sweeping and confident. Here. avoid drawing too dark.

.

T o DRAW PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGES. Above all. . muscular tension. the texture of hair. a n d t h o s e w h o a r e Generations asleep (see overleaf). and gravity. be aware of the subtle differences in skin surface. empathize.

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seeking the dominant contours of each individual expression. Fast lines carve out the features of Goya's soup-slurping hag.Castings DRAWING IN THE PRADO MUSEUM. . Van Dyke's noble cast of characters was modeled more finely. with a steel dip pen and acrylic ink. Madrid. I used the nib upside down to gain needle-sharp precision.

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personality. st 111/4 x 81/2 in (285 x 220 mm) u d i e d L E O NB A K S T and explore the characterization of fabric t h r o u g h m o v e m e n t . or calm u s w i t h chic. it is the public sign by w h i c h w e are j u d g e d . w h i c h in turn feed c o n s u m e r Lev. Practical classes Bacchante 1911 l o o k at r a n g e s of c o l o r e d m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d i n g p a s t e l s a n d felt-tip p e n s . woman was drawn by Bakst one year later for the ballet Narcisse. S t r u c t u r e is t h o u g h the i n v e n t i o n of shoes. arichand unusual combination of pencil. and everything w e h a v e c h o s e n for o u r w a r d r o b e s — r e f l e c t o r s of o u r taste. w a r m t h . so that c h o i c e . charcoal. while court p a i n t e r s — M i c h e l a n g e l o and Holbein. dancer leaps through swaths of golden cloth. of Scheherazade. and i n d e e d image b e c a m e the property also of the industrial classes. Artists do this not so m u c h b y the style of a figure's garment. for e x a m p l e — d e s i g n e d the w a r d r o b e s of p o p e s a n d k i n g s . W e dress ourselves and costume designer trained in in St. or b u l g e s . D e s i g n e r s create m a s t e r p i e c e s of haute couture LEON BAKST for H o l l y w o o d stars. cool. and e x u b e r a n c e . a n d w e will c o l l e c t patterns. T h e p a p e r p a t t e r n is p e r h a p s the m o s t w i d e l y k n o w n of c o s t u m e d r a w i n g s : a formalized plan of lines. variety. gesture. and be so expressive of temperament that it overtakes the need for an o c c u p y i n g h u m a n form. c r u m p l e s . a n d p r o f e s s i o n — b e g a n life as a d r a w i n g . known as Leon Bakst.As artistic director of the It is s h o c k i n g to t h i n k h o w m a n y m i l l i o n s of d r a w i n g s m u s t be m a d e a n d d i s c a r d e d Ballet Russe. T h e rural masses w o r e h o m e s p u n simplicity. and atmosphere. toParis. P o p u l a r f a s h i o n d e s i g n e x p l o d e d w i t h the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n . o n l y the w e a l t h y c o u l d afford to h a v e c o s t u m e s specially m a d e . and even invisible by the w a y w e dress. was a Belarussian A r t Deco theater fantasies and desires to immediately possess a version of the same. caricatured p l u m e s . and s y m b o l s that lets m e n and w o m e n in all countries and areas have w o r k i n g access to the latest fashions. Cities c h a n g e d all. Like it or not. fulfilling lavish and spectacular briefs. a n d c o u r t i e r tailors f o l l o w e d suit. theb u t b y the w a y it s p e a k s w i t h its flying. and gouache. shapes.This voluptuous above all a physical p u p p e t w i t h w h i c h to animate character and narrate personality. c u l t u r e . outrageous. c o s t u m e o f f e r s a r i c h v o c a b u l a r y of t e x t u r e s a n d c o l o r . In psychology. Previously. g l o s s y folds. a n d s u b t l e t o n e s . b u t influenced Parisian fashion and interiordecor.Costume W E MAKE OURSELVES EXOTIC. Samoylovich Rosenberg. intriguing. and intent. articulate a d a n g e r o u s satirical j o k e . e m u l a t e textures. he and cofounder Serge Diaghilev took Paris by eac storm in 1910 with their production h year in the industrial f r e n z y of creating o u r image and aspirations. . Designers all over the w o r l d c o n t i n u a l l y p e n and b r u s h lines to lash us w i t h color. Petersburg and later exiled designers' ideas and are surprised and delighted b y their continual f l o w of inspiration. T h e e n t o u r a g e of the theatrical stage o f t e n l e a d s the c a t w a l k . In this c h a p t e r w e see h o w c l o t h i n g c a n s e e m to p o s s e s s the w e i g h t and m o n u m e n t a l i t y of stone. Bakst's designs and costumes immediately To the fine artist.

Keisai Eisen's intense. Delicate marks Silver (or metal) point is the most delicate of traditional drawing media (see pp. H e m e t i c u l o u s l y a r r a n g e d subjects t o c o n v e y d e e p e r meaning. Short and subtle horizontal punctuations are only given in the background by sections of floor. her marble garment holds u p the infant Christ in a fountain of compressed line.140-41). Maelbeke I44I Madonna 11 x 7 in (278 x 180 m m ) JAN V A N EYCK . dragons. Van Eyck's highly polished w o r k is c e l e b r a t e d f o r its disguised symbolism. Below this. it is only possible to create very thin.156 COSTUME Cloth and Drapery EACH OF THESE FIGURES is ninety percent cloth. delicate lines. With a stylus such as Van Eyck used here. best k n o w n f o r his G h e n t altarpiece ( 1 4 3 2 ) a n d m a r r i a g e p o r t r a i t o f Giovanni A r n o l f i n i and his w i f e (1434). The quiet stillness of this image is achieved by a masterly economy of stylized line. the Madonna and her architecture are both dressed in the same manner. and the kneeling abbot is a ghost by comparison. Sculpted one. Their uninterrupted emphasis is entirely vertical. Opposite. Flaxmans sleeper—perhaps a pilgrim or a soldier resting between campaigns—has wedged himself into the cleft of some great building to grab a moment of peace. swirling printed fabrics. the vaulted stone roof echoes and crowns the moment. In Van Eyck's drawing below. Church and deities are drawn as JAN VAN EYCK Flemish oil p a i n t e r f r o m L i m b o u r g . He has layered these slowly and carefully so as not to cut through the ground and produce a white mark just where he intended a dark one. with their jagged edges. resonate with their wearers startled expression. However. bands around the columns. folds and patterns of material speak more resolutely of their wearers than any small glimpses of body we can see. Her gown is carved and polished as if made from marble. Marble gown We will never know if Van Eyck considered this drawing unfinished or intended the kneeling abbot to remain transient and ghostly. Above them. and implied striation in the stone of the architecture. Vertical lines The highly controlled lines of this drawing cascade from top to bottom of the image. and snakelike marks. the carefully composed outline of his cloak shows us how the artist would have also begun his immaculate rendering of the Virgin's clothes.

Parts of the image to be left unprinted are gouged out with a metal tool. Koimurasaki of Tama-ya 1810-50 15 x101/4in (381 x 260 mm) KEISAI EISEN The Courtesan JOHN F L A X M A N English late 18th-century neoclassical sculptor.157 KEISAI EISEN Japanese draftsman. which are sometimes also cut into pieces like a jigsaw puzzle. the cloak sliding to the ground. stone wall of downward-stroked this sleeper's position is momentary. draftsman. designer. each delivering a different part and color of the design. the angle of the head. and Man Lying Down in a Cloak I 787-94 21/4 JOHN FLAXMAN x 41/8 in (57 x 105 mm) . Respected for his sumptuous images of geisha and editions of erotic prints. writer and printmaker Keisai Eisen took his name from the masters Kano Hakkeisai and Kikugawa Eizan. an 18th-19th century document on the lives of the ukiyo-e artists. Remaining raised areas of wood are rolled with colored inks. flat sheets of wood. one over the other. Dante. he also co-edited and expanded the Ukiyo-e Ruiko (History of Prints of the Floating World). The inked block is laid face-down on damp paper and pressed to make the print. and teacher Distinctive linear illustrations for the works of Homer. CLOTH AND DRAPERY Relief printing This is a woodblock print made by a relief process. and the feet notched against the pillar tell us that A lines holds him into the cleft. Position In this pen and ink drawing. This complex numerous blocks prepared image and may have been made with printed separately. Aeschylus earned Flaxman an international reputation. Images are drawn onto smooth.

Leg section Compare mid-shin the section of white boots cropped to the section of similarly cropped trousers in drawings Gruau's drawing on p. cloth. The metal. t h r o u g h n u m e r o u s p o r t r a i t and C h u r c h commissions. a n d w a s e m p l o y e d as c o u r t painter t o King Charles I. Flowing scarf The knight's scarf of gilded blue is drawn in a pale wash over red ink lines. A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE Flemish painter and draftsman. Man in Armor UNDATED 1 6 x 9 1 / 2 in ( 4 0 5 x 2 4 0 m m ) A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE . where sometimes there just might not be anybody inside. Anthony Van Dyke's Man in Armor is a masterpiece of drawn surface. It is presumed Her Royal Highness never saw it. In 1 6 3 2 he m o v e d p e r m a n e n t l y t o L o n d o n . The aged queen is compared to an overdressed bird. he c o o l e d and redefined his style. cinema. Its color is also reflected in the metal. and even formal portraiture. and feather were all CHARACTER COSTUMES REPRESENT observed with closely crafted conviction. cartoon. w h e r e . Pen and wash In the graphic accuracy of this armored knight we see the idealized identity of a warrior from another time: a gleaming defender of the realm. for she would not have been amused and William Wodall might have been stretching his luck. theater. Opposite is a dangerous drawing. Its warm surface flows in contrast to the stiff metal armor. b e f o r e traveling t o Italy. Leg sections in both support the figure without taking our attention away from the main garment above. lace. a scurrilous cartoon by a courtier of Queen Elizabeth I. all ruffs and wrinkles. Details and voices are worn externally with great imagination. A flamboyant territory.158 COSTUME Character Costumes an extreme form of the clothed figure. Van D y k e was chief assistant t o Rubens f o r t w o years. Fine examples can be plucked from fashion. A s a y o u n g man. 160. The slight uncertainty of the pose and the limp cloak suggest a little more metal than man. He has been rendered on this olive<olored page with pen and gray wash worked over a red and black under-drawing.

Beneath the lethal fan is the body of a bird of trimmed feathers suggest age. manuscript comprising six c a n t o s . Satire of the Queen's Dress c. Northern Satire This is a quill-and-ink satire of the elderly queen's pride-As head of state and fashion.1599 71/2 WILLIAM x 51/4 in ( 1 9 0 x 1 3 4 mm) WODALL . t h e Jesuit Mission. t h e Rising.35). T h e poem recounts t h e six m a j o r crises o f Elizabeth's reign: t h e Spanish A r m a d a . the queen is masterfully rebalanced by words at her feet The whole drawing's blackened.159 WILLIAM W O D A L L A u t h o r and illustrator o f The Aaes of Queene a Elizabeth poem Allegorized. and saturations showing through from the other side. t h e B a b i n g t o n Plot. By her old upto three tiers supported on sticks. she is shown as a grossly disproportioned bird. bitten nature. here dark tawny owl. A Ruffs and feathers Starched white ruffs worn at court and by society grew steadily larger as Elizabeth's reign progressed. while a raised foot pauses to assess the next displaying a fan of daggers. suggest the use of iron-gall ink (see p. and her pride. hooded with an overinflated fluffy ruff eye pins us. it was customary to Iron-gall ink Wodall's dangerous caricature steps daintily the written lines of her dedicated page. Top-heavy. t h e Ridolfi Plot.

G r u a u ' s highly distinctive d r a w i n g s have a p p e a r e d Couture.and tilted to the same de a little deeper than sp kneestogivehergravity. India ink and gouache This swish of confidence and style our enters the page turning everyone's head. Vogue. Composition Look how well this image is frame knee is parallel to the bottom edge spacehorizontalline cropping the trousers be outermostuprightbordersof her cuffs are similar above her head thesidesoftheimage. and both share the power of scarlet and black. possibly over a pencil outline. Gruau uses starkly cut negative space (see pp. 158. studio-like rectangle of paper. and gray pigments were applied separately. Rene Gruau's bold gouache drawing of smoothly swaying sophistication captures a brilliantly cut garment and frames it with great dynamism in a white. diving to catch us in the grip of her machine-like limbs. as is Spider-Girl opposite.c e n t u r y haute i n n u m e r o u s m a g a z i n e s i n c l u d i n g Elle. RENE GRUAU I t a l i a n . His model is outlined. Spider-Girl leaps like an insect. ofcroppedtrousershere to the device of the w Illustration 1949 for Jacques Fath in L ' O f f i c i e l d e la C o u t u r e RENE GRUAU . muscular aggression. Compare the compositio beneathVanDyke'sstudy of armor on p.5 9 ) and a three-spoke balance of cuffs and cropped trousers to create an almost flag-like emblem of power. She has been drawn with brushes dipped into India ink and gouache. elegant chic and svelte. Drying time in between applications ensured the colors did not run into each other. Fine lines drawn against the building behind her echo the threads on which we have all seen arachnids drop and hang. 5 8 . demanding attention with gesture and flair. The black red.F r e n c h f a s h i o n i l l u s t r a t o r w h o in his l o n g and esteemed career w o r k e d with many of the g r e a t e s t d e s i g n e r s o f 2 0 t h . Airbrushed reflective surfaces further amplify our perception of speed. Gruau's model regally swans to the fore with cool pride.160 COSTUME Femmes Fatales THESE DEVASTATING femmes fatales force back the onlooker with their demure. Harpers & Queen. Fashion and fantasy drawings invent prototypes of ideals and perfection—be they for the catwalk or the fast-paced pages of comic books. a n d L'Officiel de la couture.

RON F R E N Z Contemporary American graphic artist w h o designs and pencils the dynamic scenes of numerous superheroes featured in Marvel Comics. and has been the title's regular artist since 2003. moon. not far above the drawing. Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 2001-04 R O N FRENZ. to the right of its center. This s modeling applied over the top give the image a sleek and mechanical of gravity. Frenz has drawn for Marvel for about 20 years. Sharp focus black outlines in this drawing create a hyper-real dynamic.74-77). He began work on Spider-Girl in 1998. In your mind's eye extend the uprights out of the top of the picture. a great characteristic superhero comics. and figure are all locked into equally shatp through the traditional process of a pencilled outline over-drawn ink. at Their extensions will meet the same single vanishing (see point pp. MARVEL C O M I C S . sky. Align your ruler to the upright of each building. Airbrushed color and with tonal focus. Buildings. and Amazing Spider-Man. The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones. beginning with Star Wars. It is outside the picture frame. Single-point understand perspective To how Frenz created up therefore the effect of steeply between looking buildings—and howyou can do the same in your own work—take calculate where a ruler the and single vanishing point lies.

They work well on PIGMENTS Pigments. soft. slightly oily to the touch. and can be softened and manipulated with degrees of heat. used to make colors. made in about 80 colors. 4. Pastel pencils are slender and in w o o d casing. colored materials available. FELT-TIP PENS: Instant-drying alcoholor water-based inks stored in the barrels of the pens are delivered via smooth nylon o r felt tips of varying shapes and thicknesses. The nontoxic range below represents a suggested starting point for experiment. quality and cost T h e best are paperwrapped sticks of sumptuous. minerals. animals. great for tin . wash. oily pigment. OIL PASTELS Oil-based. Bright pastels are more brilliant on colored paper. Many products are sold individually and in boxed sets. 1. Be aware that fixative dulls pastel. except the final layer. Before making substantial investments. I suggest you do so. 2. unwrapped harder pastels. COLORED PENCILS: Dry pigments ground together with chalk. Sticks and conte crayons make thicker marks (as below). and cost are laid out for our pleasure and perusal. fixing each layer on the front. Store loose pastels in dry rice to keep them clean. Pastels are finer. The worst are like revolting old lipsticks that get everywhere except where you intend. clay. and CHALK PASTELS Pastel pencils make fine lines (as above). are derived from many sources: rocks. OIL PASTELS: Many colors. Beware—some are toxic.162 COSTUME Colored Materials ART STORES BRIM OVER w i t h t h e m a n y wherever permitted. and can be a great rediscovery for bold drawings. crumbly. mixed on the paper and scratched into (as below). the diverse are made in brands of basic member of the family. Children's wax crayons are relatives. CHALK PASTELS: Blackboard chalk is sidewalk work. purchase a small selection of different items you think you will like. plants. Many artists apply fixative to the back of their work. The higher the quality (and cost). Dissolve in turpentine or mineral spirits to produce oil paint or or dark paper. intensity. They vary hugely in cost. and synthetics. quality. though lines can develop greasy stains around the edges if the paper is not first stretched and treated with a gelatin paste laid as a wash. the finer and more subtle the texture and color should be. which he left unfixed to retain its brightness. Use them to draw lightly (as above left) or thickly. size. and subtlety. you may be pleasantly surprised to discover something you could not have imagined using. chalkbased but very subtle. Degas built his pastels in layers. there are disparities between the apparent nature or color of what you hold in your hand and its performance on paper. shape. Seemingly infinite choices of texture. hue. and sold in many colors. insects. Often. these work best when slightly warm. paper-wrapped. C o n t e crayons are square-formed. 3. See h o w they work and return later for more of what proved best for you. or wax and a binder are shaped into fine strips and encased in w o o d like a graphite pencil. allowing it to fix slightly from behind. Try materials that are new and unfamiliar. Most stores leave small pads of paper on their counters for customers to test materials. including iridescents.

Diverse brands are harder or soften greasier or chalkier in use. FELT-TIP PENS Although not made with felt-tip pen. Brands made for designers sold in enormous ranges of colors are far more subtle and sophisticated than those made for children.163 COLORED PENCILS These are wax. Some give richer lines than others. Colors can be blended as shown right) and tones graded by altering pressure. others dissolve in water or turpentine to make a wash. . leaving the paper to shine through for highlights (as below). Some are nonsoluble. 111). it is still a great champion and support for those beginners feeling shyly obligated to tone down their love of color to conform with what others say they should use.or clay-based thin crayons in wood casing. Fine lines can be achieved (as above). so it is best to test them before buying. Think of Matisse's Blue Nude (see p. If you love smooth blocks and lines of colon felt-tip pens are perfect.

To set up. I m a d e n u m e r o u s s h e e t s o f d r a w i n g s . structure. REPEATED STUDY T o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s class. c o v e r a large sheet o f p a p e r w i t h line drawings o f several shoes. Superstitions and fetishes are attached to them: we are told never to put new shoes on a table. social and economic status. and they have been concealed in buildings to ward off misfortune. while artists have painted their boots or those of others as personal portraits and memorials. values. style. D r a w each o n e first as a solid object. As artifacts in museums. . Linear Outline Using fine pens. a range of colored felt-tip pens with both fine and broad tips. and after studying familiar shoes we use the information learned to invent new ones. if y o u m a k e p l e n t y o f d r a w i n g s as o p p o s e d t o o n l y a f e w .164 COSTUME Study and Design they reflect our age. imagining y o u can see t h r o u g h it. t o o . 100-01 and pp. This class takes the shoe as its subject in building on earlier lessons concerned with seeing through objects to understand their function. t h e n again as if transparent. S H O E S TELL LIFE STORIES. and a selection of shoes. personality. Turn t h e m in different d i r e c t i o n s and o b s e r v e t h e i r s t r u c t u r e and f o r m . a n d e x p e r i e n c e visible p r o g r e s s . You. e n j o y i n g t h e study a n d i n v e n t i o n o f shoes. the era in which we live. you will need several large sheets of drawing paper. they record and reflect our common history. Here we go one step further. 104-07). and how we stand and walk. and volume in space (see pp. will discover m o r e .

165

The Surface
Next,

STUDY AND DESIGN

study the surface contours using fineand broad-tipped felt-tip pens. For best results, it is important to be bold and brief. Draw firmly, fast, and with as few strokes as possible. Build up each shoe from light to dark andleavesome paper showing through to create highlights.

Design Your Own

Using what you have learned from the previous steps about the structures of your shoes, and about the use of pens, invent new designs from your imagination. Start with fine outlines and progress to colored and textured surfaces. Modify your ideas by rotating the views.

166

COSTUME

The Structure of Costume
MUSEUMS ARE AN INFINITELY

rich resource for the artist and

information given by a period style. Arrange to visit a costume museum or ask a friend to model clothes for you at home. Using fine felt-tip pens, begin with quick, pale impressions of each garment's shape before homing in on its borders and seams. Try to draw transparent views wherever possible to record the relationships between all component parts. Aim to draw enough information for it to be possible to make up a version of the garment using paper pinned to a tailor's dummy.

designer. They often give quite unexpected gems of ideas and information—whatever the subject. These drawings, made in a costume museum, demonstrate ways of recording structural information and detail for later use in the studio. They could form the basis of new designs for a fashion project or theater production, for example. Drawings of shoes on pp. 164-65 show how new designs can be evolved from the structural

OBSERVATION
It is usually best when collecting information for reference to apply the restraint of dispassionate observation. Set yourself the test of drawing facts with as little artistic license or embellishment as possible. Here I chose fine felt-tip pens because they are at their best when used swiftly, and therefore encourage bold, unhesitant decisions.

Swift lines record the hanging weight of this gentleman's coat, the relative proportions of its layers, and minimal details of the buttons and cuffs.

Thick velvet fabric is pulled tight beneath and across the bust by a single button. This transparent view shows how the fabric falls loosely in straight panels beneath the level of the sleeve.

167

LIGHTING
W h e n visiting museums, be prepared f o r l o w lighting, which can make it hard t o see and draw. A book can help if attached t o your drawing board.

Adding stripes and dashes of color with a thicker pen brings out the glossy sheen and sculptural rigidity of this dress, which would have been worn over a whalebone corset. small reading light designed t o clip o n t o a

THE STRUCTURE OF COSTUME

In small drawings such as these, use thick pens to color entire sections with a few marks, as I did here down the side of the bodice.

The light, frilly bulk of this crinoline dress is propelled forward with lines. pinching its gathers and sways that are hiding a horsehair bustle. fleets of quick

168

COSTUME

Textures and.Patterns
THIS CLASS FOCUSES ON how to draw textures through the collection of fabric, pattern, and embroidery samples from a costume m u s e u m . This formal method, using ruled squares, can create an invaluable library of ideas a n d i n f o r m a t i o n for future r e f e r e n c e — w h e n painting a clothed figure, or preparing a textile project, for example. However, if making a book of samples for a project, remember that it is important to also include collages of f o u n d materials (see pp.230-31) To d r a w a fabric texture, b e g i n by concentrating o n h o w y o u i m a g i n e it w o u l d feel if you t o u c h e d it. Decide if it w o u l d be rough, s m o o t h , w a r m , cold, thick, thin, tough, or fragile, for example. As you draw, believe you can feel these qualities at your fingertips a n d that your pencil is responding to the sensation. Undulate the pressure of your lines and marks according to the feeling of the fabric rather than its appearance. Let your pencil enact the sensation of touching its surface.

and to experiment more loosely with mixed media.

INVENTING COSTUMES
This starchy, quilted, b o w e d creation started life as an imagined corset, I intended t o d r a w together in one sculptural f o r m a range o f t h e details opposite. T h e garment quickly got o u t o f hand. T h e r e is great e n j o y m e n t in letting y o u r imagination run wild w h e n inventing costumes. If you are unable t o visit a costume museum, many exciting fabric details and textures can be found in y o u r o w n closet o r home.

169

COLORED PENCILS
Colored pencils give precision and tonal range; they can be faded but not erased. Lightly use an HB graphite pencil if you wish to plan a design first. Pressed hard, colored pencils build up a waxy finish of brilliant color. Used lightly, they appear powdery and show the texture of the paper.

TEXTURES AND PATTERNS
Wool

Silk and braid

Ribbon

Embroidered leather

Feathers

Pearls

Knit

Tassels

Outline stitch

.

and 252-53).126-27.Dressing Character I O N C E SPENT THREE MONTHS researching the work of Francisco de Goya at the Prado Museum. identity. Madrid. look at how Goya delineated volumes of thick fabric to express the posture. These characters. 172-73. shape. selected from different pages of my original book. and motivation of an individual. . I made a drawing book full of studies seeking to understand how he composed drama and pathos in his narratives (see also pp.

and visible. are copies of works by Goya in which he makes air seem heavier than flesh.T H E S E PENCIL STUDIES. I carefully copied the direction of each of his lines. . and tangible.170—71). To understand how he did this. Posture Carving also taken from my Madrid drawing book (see pp. as it rushes and carves fabric-wrapped forms like rivers and desert winds shaping the earth.

.

.

comics. while a quill contact with. heighten or subdue drama with subtleties of exaggeration or caricature. in spite of how it may seem. vivid portrait of his wife captures our attention. It middle. Here. Saskia died after childbirth. Third. furniture. and its illumination. He is also the artist from whom props to add layers of meaning and attitude. soap operas. paintings depicting scenes from history. the viewer's attention in a scene by the format of its composition. a crowd tells the story from a distance. We read tensions and exchanges between people. As artists. First. R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN in the delivery of narrative.Gatherings A LL DRAWINGS TELL STORIES. even up her were laid with a brush. daily newspapers. and novels—our staple cultural diet—are driven by a fascination with shared experience and the detail of what happens in other people's lives. stares out from her gloomy sickbed. types. This J u s t as there are three parts to a traditional landscape drawing—the foreground. Storytelling and people-watching are obsessive human activities. Later in their lives. we can learn most about handling pen and ink. Her all-too-clear expression shows annoyance and irritation with her husband. the viewer is not directly made the finer lines of Saskia. and other masters of Western Art. Saskia. the speed and printmaker and one of the greatest and most influential density of its lines. Second. Seeing through Rembrandt's eyes. With a pocket full of disposable pens we also go out and draw the expressions of gathered people. Washes of shadow behind engaged and as a natural voyeur can feel invisible while watching the scene. presumably while he is making this drawing. are implicated in this marital exchange made over the head of the anonymous nurse. but drawings of gathered people tell them most directly. we. The spaces between people and the positions they occupy on a page are vital to our understanding of the psychology or emotion of an event. finding corners in crowded places to inscribe their action and energy onto the page. and therefore seem to see. We can also use clothes. this is not the portrait of an old woman. the direct exchange (as shown here) where one or more characters hold eye Aneedproduced the thicker lines of the nurse. television documentaries. and instantly engage with the action of the scene. we can R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter draftsman. . and so. the viewer. He in turn scorches the paper with his view and a certain speed of seeing all. and distance—so drawings of gathered people can be loosely arranged in three took only minutes to make and yet it lives for centuries. too. Blockbuster movies. Rembrandt's bored and frustrated wife. there are no longer individuals but one significant group or mass action. Drawings selected for this chapter explore these Saskia Lying in Bedand a Nurse ranges of proximity 1638 9 x61/2in (227 x 164 mm) and a travel journal. We can direct close.

or even the office photocopier. Pans fly oft the stove. and smoke billows around the agitated jives of the Duchess. and in." (Tim Noble) Drawing with light it is important to think about what you is Here timelessly we see a in can draw with. Below.176 GATHERINGS SOME DRAWINGS ARE MADE e n t i r e l y o f i l l u m i n a t i o n that floods drama into the viewers gaze. F o r e a c h w o r k . plates shatter. and Alice.. for example. the Cat. a kitchen explodes in o u r faces. In both works. narrative is delivered through the air. and on. t h e y select and arrange familiar items of street detritus into what appears to be an u n p l e a s a n t pile. hearth i m p l e m e n t s crash at o u r feet. N o b l e a n d W e b s t e r s w i t t y a n d o f t e n s u b v e r s i v e d r a w i n g s are also c o n t e m p o r a r y art installations. the C o o k . and projector. refuse. garbage and chaos are piled a n d e x p l o d e d in r o o m s full of event. Think about what else you could use: a laser smoke. Pencil on paper important but only the beginning of possibility the combination of three-dimensional space. TIM N O B L E A N D SUE W E B S T E R British artists who collaborate using neon.kicks against the mundane things that close down your mind is a refreshing and good thing. and projectors to create their anarchic punk satires of modern life. junk. Real Life is Rubbish 2002 Dimensions variable TIM N O B L E A N D SUE WEBSTER . In one of R a c k h a m s great illustrations for Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland.. T h e i m m a c u l a t e d r a w i n g is only r e v e a l e d w h e n t h e b e a m of a p r o j e c t o r c a s t s t h e s h a d o w Projections of the h e a p o n t o a wall. h a l o e d portrait of the artists seated b a c k to b a c k . c o m p o s e d garbage p r o d u c e s a c a l m ."Anything that. Here. via the animated clutter of o u r material lives.

100 to see for make elliptical objects and pans fly through the the foreground. Rackham Vanishing point In this marvelous drama made with pen. and watercolor. ink. See how the In the Duchess's Kitchen 1907 77/8 x 6 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 5 0 m m ) ARTHUR RACKHAM . amplifying movement outward from the vanishing point.Stowe's ofMysteryand Queer Little Folks. are very large compared to on p. This makes the story appear to leap out at us. H e is best k n o w n forillustratingIrving's Rip vanWinkle. tabletop. and Poe's Tales Imagination. we find several devices already explored through our drawing classes.76-77) above vanishing point (see that is about3/4in (2 cm) oak converge at this point. Find the singleperspective pp. and Alice's shoulder. humor. Refer back to the drawing class how pots In drawn objects and elements that those behind. a n d an unmistakable graphic style. beams. The wood grain acts like marks of speed behind the scene. by vivid children's Rakham's w o r k is characterized fantasy. Depth Billows of smoke expand and are lighter as they come forward.177 ARTHUR RACKHAM British watercolorist and book illustrator.

expressing his dry humor about O F ALL THE CONTRASTS HENRY MOORE British s c u l p t o r w h o t r a i n e d a n d taught at t h e R C A . as fellow watchers. London. Opposite. and art in the landscape. a n d l o v e d t o d r a w in t h e BritishMuseum. and we. Magnetic Fields sculpture. This is an ironic drawing from Moore. join in the waiting. Chalk and graphite This fog-bound but humorous gathering of souls is made in graphite and colored chalk with gray wash. Moore's spectators appear to have walked a long way from nowhere to witness and wait beside this mysterious obelisque. M o o r e t o u r e d Italy as a young man. which still narrates vivid days in the lives of an energetic nation. meaning. and composition they are polar opposites. The mournful gray landscape of Henry Moore's northern British field has gathered by night an overcoated audience to stand and wait before a wrapped and roped monument. as if Moore's wrapping has been literally outstretched.178 GATHERINGS we have seen in the pairs and trios of drawings by masters and makers. perhaps these two are the most extreme. A glimmer of gold light appears from the left No explanation is given. a sculptor. HENRY MOORE Crowd 1942 Looking at Tied-up Object . and action of a buffalo hunt. a great Shoshone drawing blazes with the color. The image stands out among his more usual graphic works in which he hones and carves semi-abstract human forms. This is just one of many precious artifacts from a lost time.The human form w a s the vehicle o f his expression and h e w a s t h e official W o r l d W a r II artist. heat. In culture. audiences.

horses. Stylized hunters. Skills are taught not center chant or dance to the beat of a drum." Men at the instructed to sit and watch. Each color is evenly distributed throughout the scene. tolearnhow to paint a scene on a hide are and buffalo circle and charge the perimeters of a skin "field. Hunt CENTURY SHOSHONE SCHOOL .179 SHOSHONE SCHOOL Stylized characters This vital image of a buffalo hunt is made with pigment Members of the Shoshone community wishing painted within dark outlines on a stretched elk hide. MAGNETIC FIELDS Horses It is interesting to note how the outstretched limbs ofthesehorses echo European images of the runningBuffalo horse before the sequence-photographer Muybridge taught us to 19TH understand their movement differently. and helping our eye to dart around. creating harmonious balance with words but through silent demonstration.

era as Kollwitz. Opposite. We also see qualities of line.f o o t e d t r o g l o d y t e s w h o rage into w a r like a m u d s l i d e of revenge. The muscularity of Blake's figures was inspired by Michelangelo's works. color.180 GATHERINGS The Human Condition IN THE SPECTRUM of these vastly d i f f e r e n t g a t h e r i n g s of p e o p l e . a n d f o c u s . w h e r e he w a t c h e s a t u r b u l e n t s p i r a l of p u n i s h m e n t f o r the d a m n e d . W I L L I A M BLAKE British visionary. pale souls of the lustful are being s p u n into yet another realm of hell. inextinguishable in its fortitude and h u m o r . Misted in translucent layers of paint. Heath Robinson lived through the same war-torn. K a t h e K o l l w i t z s c r a t c h e d a n d e n g r a v e d her a r m y of c l a y . w r i t e r a r t i s t . a pink-inked cinema wobbles along with string. t h e Bible. B l a k e h a s i l l u m i n a t e d his s a d d e n e d Virgil on the s h o r e s of a d a r k w o r l d . texture. Blake w a s d r i v e n b y a passion f o r j u s t i c e a n d a p r o f o u n d b e l i e f in his v i s i t a t i o n s f r o m angels. The Circle of the (The Whirlwind 1824 of Lustful Lovers) mm) 143/4 x 207/8i n ( 3 7 4 x 5 3 0 WILLIAM BLAKE . m a r k . a d e a t h c h a r g e of brutality. a n d the gentle h u m o r of sedate r i d i c u l e . and sweetened the often bleak years with his impractical inventions. It illustrates a scene from Dante's Divine Comedy. p o e t . a n d e n g r a v e r w h o p o w e r f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e d his o w n t e x t s in a d d i t i o n t o D a n t e ' s Divine Comedy. w e f i n d a spiritual v i s i o n . a n d o t h e r w o r k s . w h i c h b y their c h o i c e a n d h a n d l i n g a c t u a l l y b e c o m e the force a n d spirit of e a c h i m a g e . Brushed line and wash This is an ink-outlined drawing made with a fine brush on paper with added washes of watercolor The image was subsequently redrawn as a line engraving.

Kollwitz survived the two World Wars. humor by making his characters earnest. With masterful gentility. poverty.181 KATHE KOLLWITZ German printmaker. He created sincere. and the family home. and her powerful and sensitive drawings center on nurture. White marks were made with a dusting of French chalk on the artist's finger to wipe away ink leaving clean metal. however meager or ridiculous their activity. THE HUMAN CONDITION Scratched lines This is a dry-point etching with monoprint. Ink rolled over was selectively polished off using a rag. HEATH ROBINSON The Kinecar 1926 103/8 x 15 in (262 x 380 mm) . and controlled smears on the metal surface printed as tones. and the impact of death and war upon women. What remained in scratched grooves printed on damp paper as lines. plodding along with hazy. sculptor and draftsman. Heath Robinson shows England in a past era. The image was scratched directly onto a metal plate. Robinson and Kollwitz (above) share almost identical life dates and their work expresses a shared history from opposite sides oftheworld wars. British Pen and wash This is a pen-andwatercolor drawing made for a color-platereproduction in an edition of T h e Bystander. and clearly focused. Losbruch (The Outbreak) 1955 20 x 233/8 in (507 x 592 mm) KATHE KOLLWITZ HEATH ROBINSON humorous illustrator and a regular contributor to magazines and journals such as The Sketch and The Bystander. stoical bemusement. children. who lived in a poor district of Berlin.

" 1. or turn into washes and make monoprints if flooded with an alcohol-based substance such as hairspray. turn the page. 4. Available in blacks and ranges of colors.188-89) and Caravans (see pp. shut your book. 192-93) w e r e b o t h m a d e w i t h a ballpoint. a n d pressure-sensitive. they each offer distinct and sometimes unexpected qualities. blob when old. Insensitive t o p r e s s u r e : lines d o n o t v a r y in w i d t h o r t o n e . they can be obtained within minutes. a disposable pen with its clip-on cap goes anywhere. a ballpoint will make faint lines. these pens enable you to sketch. p e r m a n e n t . in the car. a n d ranges o f colors. in the studio. if y o u w i s h y o u r d r a w i n g s t o last a n d n o t fade o r b l u r w i t h t i m e a n d e x p o s u r e t o light. including l u m i n o u s a n d m e t a l l i c . FIBER-TIP: M a n u f a c t u r e d f o r artists a n d d e s i g n e r s in a r a n g e o f w i d t h s . CHOICES AVAILABLE T h e r e a r e m a n y d i s p o s a b l e p e n s t o c h o o s e from. fine fiber-tip Drawing with a fine fiber-tip pen. build to a rich. Ideal f o r precision w o r k (see p p . or idea. B A L L P O I N T : Black a n d b o l d c o l o r s o f f e r d i v e r s e qualities. . fibertips. So many stores sell them. I swiftly focused on gesture. G E L P E N : P r o d u c e d in b l a c k w h i t e . R O L L E R B A L L : A c o n s t a n t i n k flow 3 . W h i t e gel p e n s a r e v e r y e f f e c t i v e o n d a r k papers. The f o u r i l l u s t r a t e d h e r e r e p r e s e n t a basic r a n g e . Unlike pencils.182 GATHERINGS Disposable Pens (ballpoints. which can snap or pierce through your clothes. or put the paper in your pocket instantly without fear of smudging. T h e r e w e r e c seconds t o snatch this impression b e t w e e n their emergence from one bridge and disappearance b e n e a t h t h e next. aiming for correct outlines would result in drawing too slowly to c a t c h the moment. I keep quantities at home. gel pens) are the most convenient of all materials with which to travel. Lines t h i c k e n as t h e p e n w e a r s o u t G r a n d Canal (see pp. w a t e r . dark sheen. 7 6 . t w o tourists and their gondolier drifter past m e o n a canal.r e s i s t a n t . R e m e m b e r . indent paper.7 7 and 214-15). dropped in your pocket and forgotten till needed. and in most pockets so I can always record a thought DISPOSABLE PENS QUICK NOTES O n a c o l d day in Venice. For example. t h e y a r e lightfast. At a time like this. trusting shape and form to follow. jot notes. c h o o s e p e n s l a b e l e d " p e r m a n e n t " o r "lightfast. Quick-drying. rollerballs. is d e l i v e r e d t h r o u g h a m e t a l t u b e o v e r a t i n y ball bearing. 2.

FROMMEMORY Here I used the same fiber-tip pen to compose a scene from memory. Earlier I had witnessed a crammed en masse in a fleet of hired gondolas complete with musicians and choir. Fast lines focus on action. crowd of fellow travelers Fast lines These scribbled lines model the mass and shadows of heads belonging passengers packed into the boat.31 . Compare this Klee's mules on p. not form.

of course. life will not slow and wait for you to catch it.184 GATHERINGS The Travel Journal I CANNOT OVERSTATE THE JOY of making a travel journal. You will make outlines. However. You must learn to trust your memory and to draw what impressed you most. pocket notebook and a fiber-tip pen. FLEETING MOMENTS Walking through Venice with a small. and companionship. all action is in the line of his coat and directed by his nose. when out drawing. Let the line of the flying coat fly and the hanging arm hang. but they should not be what you dwell on. focus on the action of the event. Push toward caricature and this will draw out of your memory what was most important. angles will happen as a matter of course. I caught fleeting glimpses of gathered people and solitary souls going about their affairs. animate them more. not its outline. Don't worry about measuring angles. A curatorial assistant flies to do a chore (right). let it enter the stage and perform. just draw the action. Every drawing writes an indelible memory of place. black. Movement . make them stouter. if a person was stout. Circular lines buzz around a man puzzling at the end of a train platform (left). Exaggeration helps. Each line acts its part in the narrative. if animated. activity. No camera can tie you to a time or people in the same way. Above all. Each one was witnessed and drawn immediately from the afterimage of what I had just seen.

Expression . In turn. eager to herd us all from his house of responsibility. The rush of his legs isamplifiedby their blurred lines.185 A large lady is photographed in front of a delicate work of art. I drew him three times on the same page to catch a range of his physical expressions. I am watched by the aggravated guard. Observation THE TRAVEL JOURNAL The same willowy assistant dashes about his work.

and reason for happening. and let every detail speak by its size. and there met this sullen custodian. . He and his simpering assistant would not allow me in. Here I have recreated my drawing in steps to show you how to set about capturing such a scene. flap. I took refuge in a church in Venice. Identify the principal character and draw him or her first. placement. not outline. or bulge. For example. elevate them in the pictorial space. if they are being haughty. start by focusing on its action. and clothing or bags hang. and you decide to draw the moment. if they are being devious. and involvement in the story. or pushes. rather than the works of art they guarded. forcing me to remain at the back and look at them. furniture leans. ACTION AND DETAIL W h e n drawing people. When your attention has been caught. decide how faces and bodies contort. For example. focus on action. Place the person carefully. pulls. Be aware that their placement on the page is part of the narrative.186 GATHERINGS Catching the Moment On A BITTERLY COLD November day. Here the custodian projects fastidious ownership of his desk and pamphlets by pushing from behind the center of the space and challenging our entry to his image. you might place them lower down. emotion.

Decide where t o place them t o emphasize their role. Decide where you will place them o n the paper t o emphasize their action and intent. such as the desk and pamphlets seen here. which is pushed toward us in a gesture of confrontation. In the final step (left) I reinforced t h e custodian's desk. who is largely expressed through the shape and fall o f his raincoat and his way o f using a note pad. I added t h e assistant. Draw their action and props. If drawing a more complex scene.187 The custodian Identify your principal character a n d their psychological role in the scene. . Here. W i t h a few strokes. together with any immediate props they are using. a pillar locates t h e scene in a depth o f space. continue adding characters. D r a w their action. CATCHING THE MOMENT The assistant Identify t h e antagonist ( o r second character) in t h e scene.

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. I developed detailofthis drawing from memory using a ballpoint pen. An imminent deluge of tourists urged me to work catching no more than the skeleton of the view. where vertical mooring poles give space and pulse to the horizontal speed of water quickly.Grand Canal T H E CANALS OF VENICE are bustling places full of occupation. and buildings.

Each person was glimpsed in an instant. . followed by the streets. Caricature each person slightly. and drawn immediately from memory. Characters in the foreground were drawn first. note only their most essential action and feature. To catch characters like this. Venetians flow across a stepped bridge and cascade into the streets beyond. then the bridge beneath them.Crossings DURING THIS RUSH HOUR.

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. I used a ballpoint pen to compose a series of scenes. Sitting at a distance on a hot. quiet afternoon. and a great subject to draw. I found this circus by chance in the Swiss mountains. Caravans and other backstage activity convey expectations of energy and repose.Caravans T H E PARAPHERNALIA O F TRAVEL i s an intriguing part of circus life.

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These conditions are very difficult to express well. surrounded by the bright instruments of centuries of navigation. marking the ground with lines of footprints or by turning stones. sunny days. but it can be seen as a lens to our observation of this planet. What they have drawn is the force of nature on these properties: how the wind heaves the night ocean. This is the world's first accurate image of the Moon. a contemporary environmental artist. to be ready to draw the new light as it breaks across the land. trees. Look closely at works by many artists and you will see that they have not represented hills. the face of the Moon. t w o e n g r a v e d m a p s k n o w n as The Lunar Planispheres. By drawing such momentous and everyday events. Just as NASA photographs of Earth have had a profound effect on the way we view our fragile home. how the mountain cut by ice and rain is now fleetingly lit. learning to draw light out of dark.Earth and the Elements I T MAY SEEM PERVERSE to start a chapter titled "Earth and the Elements" with an image of the Moon. Richard Long. and even how the Sun illuminates. a n d a m o o n globe called t h e Selenographia. speculation. JOHN RUSSELL A p o r t r a i t pastelist t o King G e o r g e III o f England. Russell d r e w this. so J o h n Russell's tour de f o r c e drawing (opposite) was a masterpiece of observation in his time. a n d a n astronomer w h o dedicated 20 years t o studying t h e M o o n . our companion. Take chances against the rain and work with the wind or fog. Oxford. or the wind carries it away. how the soil is scorched. The pastel drawing was constructed from myriad telescopic observations almost 200 years before the Apollo Moon landing. arranging them in perfect circles on the mountainside or in lines drifting out of sight beneath low clouds. England. In this chapter Moon Pastel 1795 Drawing we experiment with charcoal. The forces of nature. Weather is essential in all landscape drawing. rivers. 199). makes his work by the act of walking. they are the animators of your subject. when little stirs and empty blue skies offer even less to latch lines to. There is a sense of the heroic in drawing outside—we race to catch a form before the tide engulfs it. It is Earths satellite. Beginners will often choose calm. and take bold steps in emulating the swell of clouds and the forces of torrential water. artists see for themselves that which is momentary and eternal. It is better to get up before dawn. William Turner is said to have had himself lashed to a ship's mast to comprehend the storm (see p. as opposed the physicality of Earth. H e a l s o p r o d u c e d an a l b u m o f 1 8 0 exquisite pencil drawings. and the sea. It now hangs on the staircase of the History of Science Museum. the sun comes out to blind it. and its draws the tides of the seas. are the real subjects in great landscape drawings. and experiment. pages o f softly i l l u m i n a t e d craters and lunar "seas" c o v e r e d in m a t h e m a t i c a l and s h o r t h a n d calculations. 5 f t x 5 ft 6 in ( 1 5 2 x 1 6 8 c m ) J O H N RUSSELL . and meteor impacts have scarred. or has cracked and fallen under the weight of water. t h e first-ever accurate image o f t h e M o o n ' s surface.

a scratched ghost. lifts. undramatic b u t brimming with stylized realism. and gives motion to each image. This wife. serving a prison sentence for his views. and the legal profession. A hard waxy was drawn across a heavy limestone Varying definitions crayon of lire and depths of tone conspire to give volume. Crayon and limestone This is a lithograph. sculptor. Dots and dashes suggest receding trees out of focus. seeing how it shakes. we can soon learn to draw its force. Hazy vertical marks reveal buildings into the mist. and pioneer ofexpressionism. Danger of Wearing Balloon Petticoats UNDATED HONORE DAUMIER . Flapping kimonos and an onlooker turning his b a c k have the magic of a m o m e n t caught. Hokusais sedate wind presses reeds a n d the j o u r n e y s o f young ladies. and solidity. and by observing its tides and eddies in our o w n environment. like an umbrella forced inside-out. is already lost. Below. Fluid strokes inflate the woman's dress and pin shadows to the ground. has b e c o m e a hysterical kite. the government. T h e ship. T h e great master of English seascape is c o n d u c t i n g with his graphic energy. Terrifying waves of merciless nature roar across the paper.198 EARTH AND THE E L E M E N T S Air in Motion THE GREAT INVISIBLE SUBJECT o f these d r a w i n g s is t h e w i n d . a sail b r o k e n loose in a stormy marriage. the bourgeoisie. speed. By Turner carries us to the heart of the maelstrom.Through political drawings he fired his sharp wit at the king. fluttering heavily. distance. painter. He knew how the world bends and stutters under such gusts. Daumier's c a r t o o n shines with the brilliance of his comic memory. H O N O R E DAUMIER French satirical cartoonist lithographer.

AIR IN MOTION Pencil and watercolor subdued brushed. 1826 91/2 x 113/4 in ( 2 4 1 x 3 0 0 m m ) J. absorbent watercolor and are Stains of splashed. painter. H o k u s a i in t u r n has since significantly influenced European art. d e s i g n e r a n d b o o k i l l u s t r a t o r .M. A outline scratched of a skeletal into penciled ship is while and the waves. and history painter w h o s e p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t a b o v e all w a s light. Ship in a Storm c. horizontally then and of the it into the stream Plants also bend and flow right to Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 1802 81/2 HOKUSAI KATSUSHIKA x 131/2 in ( 2 1 7 x 3 4 3 mm) . seascape. T u r n e r w o r k e d in oils a n d w a t e r c o l o r s a n d s k e t c h e d c o p i o u s l y o n his travels.l o v e dw o r k s i n c l u d e 1 0 0 v i e w s o f M o u n t Fuji and 1 2 v o l u m e s o f Manga. a n d his b e s t . into this very as pressed sheet The paper's through own coior is brought banks of mist and fog. including being lashed t o a ship's m a s t in o r d e r to study a storm. leans the whole composition swells around its fateful center.199 J. wind. W . Landscape a n d city life w e r e his principal subjects.b l o c kprintmaker.W. Wind direction wood-block This is a colored To represent the blows lifted flowed wind. T U R N E R British landscape.M. from left print. T h e r e a r e m a n y stories o f his p a s s i o n a t e w o r k i n g methods. Hokusai direction (from clothing from has chosen which it the right).i n f l u e n c e d b y examples o f W e s t e r n art obtained through D u t c h t r a d i n g in Nagasaki. TURNER KATSUSHIKA HOKUSAI Prolific J a p a n e s e c o l o r w o o d .

Turner (see p. fantasy palaces.28). marks. T h e m e n a c i n g darkness of Hugo's storm b e l o w is so convincing. By contrast. inks. It looks so contemporary. active surfaces of water. and tossed o b j e c t s — a perfect subject in which artists can forget themselves. composing banks of waves and dense. or charcoal.200 ELEMENTS Storms STORMS CAN BE SEEN and drawn in two ways: first. T h e very nature of b o t h is turmoil and an interweaving of elements. it is difficult to contemplate its brooding and night-soaked heart.198) admires the majesty of nature. He brings us to stare into a place that no sane human would enter. he blanketed the drawing in darkness. this is a b o m b a r d m e n t from o u r h o m e s . leaving nothing but a glimpse of moonlight glistening on the froth below. An update on biblical showers of fish and frogs. His subjects include ruins. Le Bateau-Vision 1864 71/2 x 1 0 in ( 1 9 2 x 2 5 5 m m ) VICTOR H U G O . Pen and brush Hugo drew first with pen and ink. as a gestural storm on the paper. as if drawn j u s t this year. ink. In periods b e t w e e n writing. Leonardos Cloudburst of Material Possessions is o n e of his m o s t enigmatic and mysterious works. and swim into the page. with a brush. water. Then. D o m e s t i c o b j e c t s we can o w n and name fall from the clouds. lines of rain escorting them to b o u n c e and clatter. h a u n t e d shadows. and t h e sea s t u d i e d f r o m his h o m e in Guernsey in t h e Channel Islands. EARTH AND THE VICTOR HUGO French novelist and artist (see also p. drawing was Hugo's principal means o f expression. grab their b r u s h . as a subject and second. this is a writer's narrative of terror. Opposite.

and they passed through private hands for 400 years before becoming widely known. Above and below are examples of his mirror handwriting. together with half the contents of our garage. He was left-handed and wrote backwards in Italian from left to right. for example). Cloudburst of Material Possessions 1510-12 45/8 x 43/8 in ( 1 1 7 x 1 1 1 mm) L E O N A R D O DA VINCI . a hook. envisioning machines centuries before their making (helicopters and bicycles. There is a little magic in recognizing many items from our homes something like a rake. a bell. and a wheel. He bequeathed his drawings to a friend. Each item that has crashed from heaven is drawn in such a way that we can feel Leonardo's nib picking it up in the speed of a doodle. It is interesting to speculate how engineering might have developed if his ideas had been shared with the world earlier Ink and chalk This is a pen and ink drawing with touches of black chalk.LEONARDO DA VINCI Leonardo devised many artifacts of our modern lives.

and we can imagine standing over his shoulder. atmosphere. Claude has used a fine nib to delineate segments of land as they recede into space. Views from Velletri c.1638 85/8 x 121/2 in (219 x 320 mm) CLAUDE LORRAIN . and dry marks in the foreground appear to be made with his finger. In a very different work (opposite above). In the lower half he has walked downhill a little. Paler. sea-. Whether land-. Nature Profiles Opposite below. his unsurpassed handling of light. and etcher who lived most of his life in 17th-century Rome. EARTH AND THE Bryan cut the profile of a city. Segments The top half of the drawing is a view as we enter the valley. Over first lines. Claude is distinguished by. Clare Bryan took panoramic photographs of the English South Downs. which he used to unify his compositions. and mood simultaneously. cooler tones receding into the distance are applied with a brush. watching his hand and eye at work together. and after tracing her captured line. transferred it to a scroll. and across to the right. thick. a horizon line can trigger our recognition. made inside a book. it is the unique calligraphic signature of the place in which we stand. Drawing with a scalpel. C L A U D E LORRAIN French classical landscape painter draftsman. or cityscape. rapidly layering contours to shape place. Claude Lorrain drew directly on location. she teased away fragments of paper to illuminate her view.202 ELEMENTS THE PROFILE OF A HORIZON is a line we immediately recognize and respond to. Even distilled from all other detail. and famed for. She was inspired by her research of aerial plans of London and the story of an alien map butterfly (see caption). rich.

Her recent paper photographic. source workisilluminatedby standing its lower edge on a CLARE BRYAN . The edges of each here) fade into the solid paper unpopulated with a scalpel landscape. then hunted destroyed.203 Scalpel-drawn This book-bound drawing was inspired by the story of a foreign butterfly wrongly to Great Britain in 1912.The horizon was drawn with a City Landline 2003 271/2x 59 in (70 x 150 cm) scalpel. On turning the pages of City. drawings Ideas of introduction Clare Bryan to research introduced down and led NATURE PROFILES and removal historical plans and aerial growth of London showing its population since Roman times." Cut line This is a small section of a preparatory 5-ft(1. 2001 CLARE BRYAN C L A R E BRYAN 3ritish artist. and visiting professor at numerous art schools. printmaker graphic designer. and digital print-based works reflect upon the histories and poetry of "left behind and in-between spaces. progressively settlement (cropped more and more paper is drawn away to show the expansion of human page of an around the river.5-m)scroll. specialty bookbinder.

3 A white line is lifted out by the tape. Slightly dull the tape's stickiness before use t o prevent it from lifting out more than you intend. cylindrical. A great find when available. and heavier than willow. It c a n be m a d e duller. Willow is the most c o m m o n wood. or fingertip. a n d p l u m . B u n d l e s o f twigs were traditionally sealed into earthenware j a r s or wet clay and heated slowly and intensely in a fire or kiln. THICK W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 2 Keep the tape above your drawing. Boxes often contain a range of thicknesses to choose for different needs. a piece of fresh bread. tape. It does n o t erase easily.m a d e c o m p r e s s e d charcoal. THIN WILLOW CHARCOAL: I used a piece like this to make the drawing opposite. feather. resulting in a pale line. a rag. Essentially. it looks gray and feels like chalk. leaving u n d e r t r a c e s of first thoughts. Not to be confused with square conte sticks (see p. the heel o f y o u r h a n d . white line into the blackor grayness of willow charcoal. but some specialists stock compressed charcoal in delicate square sticks. 1 Suspend a length of masking tape. Use any fine-point pen or pencil (I used a ballpoint) to draw a firm line on the back of the Big pieces are perfect for very large-scale drawings—even larger than yourself. b e e c h . 162) or graphite (see p. MEDIUM W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 5. Artists have also used lime. Then lift it away. this does not exist. Alternatively. they are all intended for fine work. and offers a rich. As its name implies. b l a c k e r . R o u g h paper c a n b e loaded. . between your middle finger and thumb.54). fine. SQUARE COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Not often sold. black finish. Try itworking on big paper covering a wall. resulting in a stick that gives a blacker. 6. LIFTING OUT This technique is a very easy method of drawing a crisp. 4. It is also easily erased if the maker of the mark is not happy with the result. blacker. without touching the surface. The tip snaps easily to renew a sharp edge if required. only a little thicker. so it chars b l a c k as o p p o s e d to igniting a n d turning to ash. Charcoal lifts away from paper easily with the very light touch o f an eraser. 2. Lines are achieved by d e p o s i t i n g particles in the grain o f paper. Beware of cheap brands selling dyed chalk as compressed charcoal. you can p u r c h a s e m a c h i n e . sticky side down. In use. It allows you greater precision in your mark-making than if you rub away the charcoal with an eraser.204 E A R T H AND THE E L E M E N T S Charcoal CHARCOAL IS PRODUCED from wood baked slowly without exposure to air. vine. a n d m o r e i n d e l i b l e by soaking it in linseed oil. C h a r c o a l naturally glistens. 1. COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Machine-made. 7. maple. 3. Smooth paper accepts few particles. CHARCOAL PENCIL: Types made by different manufacturers vary in quality and density of line. harder line. it is compressed and m o l d e d at high pressure. Hold it over your drawing RANGE AVAILABLE Charcoal (in its several forms shown here) is loved or loathed by the beginner to whom it is often recommended because it produces pleasing results quickly. CHALK CHARCOAL: Technically. The same as above.

pastels. Here. PEN: Any fine pen or pencil can be used to draw on the back of masking tape when lifting out. Lift out broader marks with a larger implement. . Use cheaper (less sticky) for lifting out. 8 . 10. MASKING TAPE: An invaluable resource. Different tones seen throughout the main drawing on pp. or any other dry media. sold in several widths. Cotton swabs also work. as is fresh (unbuttered!) bread. I used a plastic eraser effectively on thinly applied charcoal.205 ERASING Thickly applied charcoal quickly o v e r c o m e s a plastic eraser A w a r m (soft and tacky) putty eraser is more effective. Here we used a ballpoint. CHARCOAL Lifting out This detail shows an example of where I used the lifting-out technique demonstrated opposite to draw flashes of lightning against rain clouds. 9.212-13 were made by altering the pressure applied to the charcoal. Use high quality (very sticky) to fix paper to walls and boards. Layers can be peeled away to refresh its surface. T O R T I L L O N : This is a tight roll of paper used to blend charcoal. graphite.

Seeing tones . it results in flat planes of clutter. the more you encourage the viewer's imagination to join in and see.212-13). At its worst. and an abstract. Ironically.206 EARTH AND THE ELEMENTS Landscapes TREES ALONE OFFER MARVELOUS shapes to draw. Don't worry if it is cloudy: clouds add drama and perspective and make good subjects in themselves (see pp. When you arrive. 9 8 . On p p . details blur and colors grow paler and bluer. a reel of masking tape. I relaxed my eyes out of focus to dissolve distracting detail into abstract patches of light and darkness. begin by marking out several small squares on your paper. and a cushion in a plastic bag to sit on.9 9 we noted that in response to visual stimulus. Excessive detail can be admired for its skill and achievement. our brains search for nameable things and will perceive complete pictures from very little information. It is the visible effect of the atmosphere between where you stand and what you see in the distance. Pack several thick and thin sticks of willow charcoal. to contain each of your compositions. an eraser your drawing book or a board and paper fixative (or hairspray). MATERIALS In this first view there is only a foreground and middle distance. a less distinct middle ground composed of shapes and textures. They are also good markers of receding space. This term simply means that as land rolls away into the distance. Landscape drawings are traditionally arranged in three parts: a detailed foreground. but is often less evocative and engaging. The long view is hidden behind trees. Then I drew the shape of the tonal patches I perceived. the less you describe. pack your materials (as advised below) and set off for a local view or your nearest arboretum. especially when making first excursions into aerial perspective. hazy distance. Successful drawings often only suggest the qualities of the scene without overdescribing them. To experiment with drawing landscapes and the use of charcoal.

Remember. This composition turned out a little flat because I have an almost even quantity of earth and sky. It is better to give distinctly more pictorial space to one or the other (see below). your view is your inspiration. dark trees with bright. full of information you can use to create what you want! Inventing drama . rounded. shadows. Exploring the view Redrawing the scene above. I have invented drama with diagonals set against each other I tilted the earth.207 LANDSCAPES In my second square I explored a simple view contrasting soft. and broke a view through the hedge into the distance with a dark sky threatening rain. the trunk of a bare tree. horizontal regions of grass.

This first drawing serves as a process of arrival. Similarly.104-05). Circling a subject and drawing it from several views imprints on your memory a better understanding of its three-dimensional form.1 5 my first drawing of the whole view of the Tiber led me to see the real subject of the day. I am then able to home in on what interests me most for further study. so the paper is not made blinding and your hand cannot cast a shadow on your work. Building on earlier studies of structure in space using shoes (pp. settling my concentration.208 ELEMENTS Drawing in the Round WHEN DRAWING IN THE LANDSCAPE. s e e k places in light After my first drawing. "Drawing in the round means to literally walk around your subject. engine. 2 1 4 ." . which was the flow of water over rocks. your challenge now is to find a sculptural subject in the landscape. For example. making the scene below led me to focus on the decaying boat opposite. I usually begin by making an image of the whole view. and seeing what the real choice of subject is. The mud of the tidal shore in Rye.164-65) and a wire violin (pp. taking with you your drawing book and pen. observing it from several views so as to better understand it as a whole. and tiller still standing proud. shade out of the glare of the sun. EARTH AND THE FINDING THE SUBJECT Finding a remarkable subject is even better when you can circumnavigate it in an arena of space. bare ribs. on p p . England has embedded within it the decaying skeleton of a burned fishing boat.

W h e n you have found your subject. I spent equal time looking at the subject and the paper. Each n e w drawing gives a different insight. make a series o f drawings f r o m different positions. and structure. I drew with quick. unfussy lines. careful lines to establish the skeleton that gives this wreck its distinct form. 3 This impression notes the angle of the broken boat. marking straight. ROUND 2 In this tail-end view.209 SERIES OF STUDIES This stunning ghost o f a boat comes into v i e w t w i c e a day. looking more at the boat than at the paper From this low position I have emphasized how the boat is swallowed in mud by outlining its shadow on the ground. its overall balance. DRAWING IN THE 1 Here. Overleaf: Decaying Boat 4 . and the order and shape of its component parts. The outline ties a shape of darkness to the boat like a weight so that it becomes part of its form. character. I looked more boldly at the planes and the dynamic of the sculptural craft My lines have become darker and more forceful as confidence in my understanding of the vessel grew. w h e n t h e sea recedes.

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L o o k i n g b a c k and forth from the heavens to firmly taped-down paper.20-21) using a thin stick of willow charcoal.Cloudburst THIS STORM DRAWING. hot-pressed drawing p a p e r (see pp. . m a d e on s m o o t h . I worked quickly to catch and weave the turbulent contrasts of rising wind and approaching water before the drawing could be washed away. was made with gentle but unhesitating s p e e d .

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I drew with a needle-fine fiber-tip pen. focusing on the river's eddies. and rhythmic detail as it passed through the ancient gully of the city. black. since ancient times.Notes of Force T H E GREAT FLOWING TIBER RIVER has cut through Rome. shaping the city. . pulse. pocket-sized notebook. On the pages of a small.

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Mountains SITTING IN THE SHADE of a tree on the Greek island of Antiparos. . The strong diagonal of the composition from bottom left to top right carries the eye through changes of height and focus from the foreground to the mountains beyond. I used a dip pen and waterproof India ink with brushed watercolor to draw the view.

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Perhaps in Western culture we bred this intuitive freedom out of ourselves in our insistence on complex figuration. and independent means of communication. I begin every image by feeling its meaning. belief. liberating. . all pictorial representations are abstractions of reality. Not everything we know has a physical form in the world. expressive marks and shapes are at the core of natural. It also underpins and gives strength and unity to all figurative work. Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape 1915 413/8 x 285/8 in (105 x 72. From another viewpoint. First marks. for example. strike the paper to find form. drawn sound. poet. Wolfli was a Swiss draftsman. Outsider artists. spontaneous image-making. it is simply itself. The growing rise of Darwinian ideas coupled with Freudian and Marxist perspectives forced Western society to reconsider its origins and future. abstraction is not so easy to define. such as Adolf Wolfli. only rediscovered. which are essentially abstract. Internal workings of the mind were suddenly free to find a new language of expression. People are often scared by abstraction and see it as the enemy of figurative art. writhing torrents of color. and young children show us that abstract. Many concepts and feelings can only be expressed through marks. and have been making abstract drawings for centuries—Japanese calligraphy. An abstract mark is often a better conductor of a thought or feeling. writer and composer who suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and was resident in the Waldau Aslyum near Berne. Afterward. ADOLF WOLFLI One of the greatest masters of Art Brut. and history. sounds. don't be timid. and it has always been with us. Artists were given a different tool—a line threaded directly from their subconscious to their hand—and with it they began to map a bold new landscape of marks and concepts that would dramatically and forever change the face of Western art. Museum of Fine Arts.8 cm) A D O L F WOLFLI Abstraction is a direct. yet my kinship to abstraction is fundamental. opposite. be brave and enjoy them. and Aboriginal art. many nonWestern cultures have highly sophisticated abstractions at the core of their art. From one point of view. His drawings are collected and exhibited internationally and held by the Adolf Wolfli Foundation. He made thousands of drawings to chronicle his complex life.Abstract Lines T HE DEVELOPMENT OF W E S T E R N abstract art at the beginning of the 20th century significantly paralleled major changes in world thought. and emotion. or gestures. Indian mandalas. fictional language. Berne. My own work is firmly centered in figuration. picturing a stabilized world was impossible and Modernism rode forth with vigor. direction. However. It is actually its foundation and its infrastructure. actions. The fate of Old World thinking was finally sealed with the brutality of World War I. precisely because it does not have to represent a physical object. It was not invented in the 20th century. As you approach the classes in this chapter. and poetic myth roar and cascade within his tightly framed pages. Swirling.

He travels widely to research ancient sacred sites. staining redbrown lines into the white surface. rhythmically engaged with itself. ice. The Physical Space 1990 3 0 x 30 ft ( 9 1 4 x 9 1 4 cm) MAMORU ABE . silence. Mamoru Abe prepares an image that will appear through the chemistry of iron. brass. and plaster in galleries and landscapes. texture. iron. it can keep reforming through the inherent repetition of a process. Changes paper. sit in silent harmony. and temperature rim of floor space. Damp Japanese paper was laid over carefully arranged iron bars. Five forged steel shapes. and Assistant Professor of Fine A r t at Fukuoka University. salt. quoting ink marks on a page. Below. and sensitivity with its thickness and pressure of touch. and patient watching. or. and wood are also part of the work. tone. akin to stones in a Zen garden. as Twombly shows us opposite. Iron rods in tone. This the paper rest within the amplifies framelike of the floor from the ceiling. MAMORU ABE Japanese sculptor and installation artist. It can proclaim mood.220 A B S T R A C T LINES Process and Harmony SOMETIMES A DRAWN LINE sings on the surface of its support. Sometimes it smolders like a deep shadow. Twombly's mesmeric wax line worked over house paint is like a signature. Abe works with materials such as soil. water. scrolling across the canvas in an intimate crescendo. Lines. Moisture produced rust. Abe's physical drawing is a sculptural installation. and texture their bracing separation reaching between from beneath Pillars of the gallery are made part of this drawing by their inclusion in the paper. A line can be finished in a second. forged steel. A Neolithic chalk tablet bears cut lines that were slowly carved.

This example is one of two chalk tablets found in a Late-Neolithic pit. Precise lines suggest the use of a sharp flint The framed rectangle of this image is echoed in that of Abe's installation.Thesite's purpose is unknown. close to Stonehenge in Wiltshire. CY TWOMBLY . Many of his graffiti-like combine abstract gestures with statements. Neolithic Chalk Tablet 3.England. At the 2001 Venice Biennale. PROCESS AND HARMONY Cut lines Chalk carves easily. the Babylonian world map. and the worship of the sun and ancient gods. Twombly has language works CY TWOMBLY Contemporary American artist who emerged through the 1950s New York art scene in the heyday of Abstract Expressionism and Action Painting.000-2. such as the Rosetta stone. and sensuous drawing from painting. emotive.241).221 ANCIENT CARVINGS Many ancient cultures have made and left behind drawings and texts carved into stones or animal bone. burials. and Untitled 1970 Here we might seek to grasp letters in the turning of his line. energetic. theories suggest astrological observations.400BCE 21/4 x 21/4 in (58 x 58 mm) ARTIST UNKNOWN Language Over the course of fifty years. and American Indian petroglyphs (see p.Twombly was presented with a Golden Lion award for lifetime achievement. The central pictorial space is also similarly cut and divided by the considered arrangement of straight lines. evolved a raw. that challenges the separation of word from image.

he mixed graphite into ink. Hugo. Gestalt. "There is nothing like dream to create the future. and lifted them away to leave impressions of watery planets and seas. Marks across the center appear to be made with his fingers. His drawing writes the time of its own physical process by expressing the extreme concentration of the moment in which it was made. drawing here can b e described in t e r m s o f a G e r m a n philosophical idea a b o u t is t h e i n s t a n t r e c o g n i t i o n t h e p o w e r o f m o m e n t . Gestalt o f an unnameable thing. o f t e n e x p r e s s e d in v i s u a l t e r m s . The scores are also exhibited in galleries as visual art. Bussotti. pressed them face down. interpret. abstract artists and composers unique.28). a configuration. beautiful. below. o r a pattern o f elements s o unified as a w h o l e t h e y c a n n o t b e e x p l a i n e d asa s u m o f parts. and participate in the composition. Texture Compare this drawing to Hugo's octopus on p. A graphic score is a V I C T O R H U G O Hugo's abstract French novelist w h o m a d e m a n y drawings in m i x e d m e d i a ( s e e also p. brushed night skies over them with ink then lifted the disks to reveal white moons. music manuscript requiring instrumentalists to improvise. abstract. Both abstract drawing and composition involve the perfect sequencing of sounds and marks against space and silence.28. opposite. Two Impressions Paper 1853-55 VICTOR HUGO Disk from a Cut-Out . Here he appears t o have saturated the cut-out moon disks with gritty pigment. here he anticipates abstract expressionism by 100 years. Similarity in gritty texture suggests that here. broke new ground in the 1950s with graphic scores now considered among the most extreme. Ink impressions When drawing nightscapes Hugo often laid paper disks in place of the moon. too. said." An innovator who never fails to surprise. have striven to break down old pictorial and musical structures to explore new and unfettered modes of expression. and inventive of his time.222 ABSTRACT LINES Writing Time SINCE THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY. and let the drying meniscus deposit granules in linear drifts such as we would see in the satellite photographic mapping of rivers.

This is a page from Due Voci. His later works become increasingly abstract. Circular Score for "Due Voci" c. 70 in relation to Bussotti's clustered notes to the left of his rondo and open space to the right. Following the notes. we can feel their rhythm and easily attach sounds to them. a far cry from any recognized musical notation. Compare this work to that of Libeskind on p. 1958 SYLVANO BUSSOTTI . Sound and rhythm This flickering rondo of sound written in pen on a hand-ruled stave can be heard in our imaginations as much as seen.223 W R I T I N G TIME SYLVANO BUSSOTTI Italian avant-garde composer and principal 20thcentury exponent of the graphic score. Bussotti's first mature work.

and sufferers of psychiatric illnesses—who have always existed. and c i r c u m s t a n c e s . it is found in the regularity o f ordered lines or a pattern. This takes a form in most cultures. Cloth is the simple instrument with which she has conducted and ordered her universe. Marie Lieb w a s a psychiatric patient in the Heidelberg Asylum. Lieb is one o f countless thousands of "Outsider" artists—diverse individuals including ordinary citizens. T h e s e p h o t o g r a p h s d o c u m e n t the meditative drawings o f two w o m e n living worlds apart in different countries. they m a k e a visual a n d physical e c h o that t o u c h e s s o m e deep part of the human spirit. She tore c l o t h into strips a n d used these to draw patterns a n d symbols o n h e r cell floor. Compositional rightness (see pp. centuries. social outcasts. d i p p i n g h e r fingers into a pot o f rice flour. MARIE LIEB Little is known of this w o m a n for w h o m the act of drawing was essential.228-29) has been adjusted with each movement of the rags to draw a cosmos of balance and perfection. cultures. Visually. O p p o s i t e . for e x a m p l e . Cell Floor With Torn Strips of Cloth 1894 MARIE LIEB . making objects and images outside o f mainstream culture. Germany. Torn cloth This is one of two published photographs showing Marie Leib's torn cloth strips significantly placed on her cell floor. an a n o n y m o u s w o m a n in the southeast Indian state o f Tamil Nadu m a k e s a ritual drawing o n the b r i c k courtyard o f h e r h o m e . In music it can be felt in the diversity of plainsong and African d r u m m i n g .224 A B S T R A C T LINES Chants and Prayers WHEN ABSTRACT LINES are organized in repetition. In the late 1 9 t h century. It will protect the place from evil and make a pleasing invitation to good spirits.

and for over 30 years has traveled extensively through the Indian subcontinent creating an edited archive of 200. Skills are handed down through generations and from friend to friend. cultural anthropologist. In daily practice. Motifs are geometrical or based on plants. Designs and motifs Rangoii (or mandalas) are ritual drawings made by many millions of women across rural India.225 STEPHEN P. Popular magazines feature new ideas each week and on special occasions there may be contests.Theseare widely published in journals and are the subjects of international exhibitions. and birds. Materials such as rice flour. Huyler is the author of Painted Prayers. and in places of worship and celebration. lime.HUYLER Photographer art historian. animals. at the University of London and Ohio State University. or flowers are marked or arranged on the ground or on the walls of homes. among others. women pride themselves on never repeating a design. lecturer on the subjects of Indian art and Indian women's identity. Painted Prayers UNDATED STEPHEN R HUYLER . chalk.000 images.

filmmaker Professor of Fine Art. and choice of hues. With no depth of field. Oxford. BRIAN CATLING British sculptor poet. but similarities in mood. and water-resistant layers of spray and enamel paint on thick paper. gold paint and iridescent gouache mixed with water. These two works present complex compositions with differing intensions and methods of making. figurative representation—that is. Untitled 2001 2001 153/4x 215/8 in ( 4 0 0 x 550 mm) BRIAN C A T L I N G . rocks or heads in a subdued atmosphere of dream. Klee's mathematical maze of thinly washed surface resonates with meticulous planning. it is ruled and contained in one dimension by its interlocking ink-lined borders. Catling's works made for international galleries and museums involve drawing as a tool in their development and making. and Fellow of Linacre College. Their energy can therefore be a purer expression of an idea or emotion.226 ABSTRACT LINES Compositions ABSTRACT DRAWINGS ARE LARGELY or entirely free from using the viewer's eye to track and unfold layers of meaning. Catling's torn paper shapes and shadows spill light out of their frame like a fractured mirror. structure. Catling's abstract drawings are usually made in series and in parallel to written poetry and sculptural installations. free from the direct imaging of known physical things. performance and installation artist. Oval moons eclipse each other and oscillate between landforms and portraiture. Ruskin School. They each find their pathways and equilibrium in atmosphere and suggestion. Mixed media This is a collage of torn white and gray tissue paper previously stained with ink.

and wrote copiously about the natures and relationships of color and form. watercolor. whereas tonal surfaces are perceived more immediately as a whole. Klee painted. Line and surface Klee observed the visual capacity of lines to push or pull within an image. Kunstmuseum Bern PAUL KLEE . ruler. It is a geometric harmony of straight lines and tonally graded flat colors that by their arrangement draw our eyes inward to their white center. Klee also felt that a line represents the passing of time. philosophized.97-99. He explained his polyphonic painting as "a harmony of several color voices" searching for a visual parallel to music. Geometric harmony This is a work on paper made with a sharp ink pen. and might be read as active or passive. drew. Polyphon Gefasstes Weiss (White Framed Polyphonically) 1930 131/8x95/8 in (333 x 245 mm) Paul-Klee-Stiftung. and brush. We can see some diagrammatic examples of this among the optical illusions on pp.31).227 PAUL K L E E Swiss painter and sculptor (see also p.

As y o u m o v e them around. angles. their impact. and ten straight sticks painted black. b u t e v e r y n o w a n d again you will hit on an arrangement w h i c h appears just. This balance is what every artist and designer searches a n d feels for when making an image. there is a clear feeling when. regardless of style. and put them o n a tray. Set up a sheet of paper with a rectangle drawn on it. and elements settle in definitive balance. Feel for it when youdraw.Thisexercise will help you start. In his b o o k The Education of a Gardener. they are just. the late garden designer Russell Page explains. It is found in all great art and design. media. after being continuously adjusted. Seek it when looking at other artists' work and in your everyday environment. for instance. Take. s o m e will be more or less h a r m o n i o u s . or degree of figuration." SETTING UP Justness can be harmonious or deliberately discordant. the impression y o u receive from t h e m . and an apple. w i l l c h a n g e w i t h e v e r y r e a r r a n g e m e n t . M a n y of their inter-relationships will be meaningless. W h e n m o v i n g objects around in your yard. It is also found in nature. a glass.228 ABSTRACT LINES Being "Just" A SENSE OF "JUST" (or rightness) is a difficult concept to explain. "Whenall pictorial elements come together in pleasing and perfect balance. There is a single m o m e n t w h e n all proportions. "I have experimented endlessly with this idea. or home. but an easy o n e to u n d e r s t a n d ." . or on a page. they reach a perfect position. culture. a b u n c h of keys.

making the composition seem to float beneath." Move the sticks to find alignments and imagined perspectives. In the final step (left) there is an even balance. Here. suggesting a horizon. which now becomes a tight frame. painted black. . horizontals dominate the lower area. Remember the drawn rectangle is a part of the composition (see pp. B E I N G "JUST" 1 Arrange your ten sticks in t w o groups of five. fix it with glue. A stick touching the rectangle links the composition to the frame. Arrange them so they touch or cross in a series of intersecting balances. 2 3 In the step above. as shown here.56-57). W h e n the composition falls into place. Feel for the rightness of their grouping and their relationships to surrounding spaces.229 WHERE TO START Take ten sticks of equal length. horizontals dominate the top. Within a rectangle on a flat sheet of paper set about making a composition using no other rule than a sense of "just. Move the sticks out into the rectangle.

which is the shifting.Youwill also need spare white paper. harmonious.69 and Abe's installation on p.228-29). colors and textures can be manipulated until their pictorial harmony. he went on to say ". found or made items. you start composing by adding or subtracting shapes and textures and using colors and tones to achieve the impression you want to m a k e — w h e t h e r dramatic or s u b d u e d . This principal also applies to three-dimensional drawings such as Gaudi's work with wire and weights on p." (Russell Page) . an infinite range of voices and meaning. and black ink. stain and dry a sheet of tissue paper using blueink. hard or soft. Returning to Russell Page. To prepare for this lesson. feels "just" (see pp. or even strident. glue. Once the ten painted black sticks are set and glued in place. correction fluid or white paint. scissors. ready-made depths and surfaces. a compass. Images and fragments torn from day-to-day life can be brought together to make a chorus of ideas and emotions. "My understanding is that every object [or shape] emanates—sends out vibrations beyond its physical body which are specific to itself. Cut or torn layers and shapes. they become a scaffold for the addition of further textures. colors.220. Collage offers the artist a liberating palette of SETTING UP This lesson in collage is a direct continuation of the compositional lines made in the previous class.. or discordance." overlapping placement of materials on a flat plane. and tones.230 ABSTRACT LINES Collage H E R E W E EXPERIMENT with collage..

then cut out. correction fluid and ink marks add further dimensions. Obscuring the blue disks. . Glue them in place once they feel "just" Translucent circular disks of tissue paper give color tone. and with a compass and scissors. solidity.The single disk that is folded with its straight edge facing up appears heavier than those that are flat. In the last step (left). Cut six small rectangles the same proportion as your whole image.228) in front of you.231 WHAT TO DO Lay the final step of the previous lesson (p. draw. four circles of blue tissue paper. COLLAGE 1 Regular-sized pieces of white paper are moved over the surface to disrupt the even lines. This can also give a sense of fragmentation or punctuation to the composition. they deepen pictorial space. 2 3 Torn white paper moved over the surface adds masks of rough-edged irregular volume. and shadow to thepicture.

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Zen Brushwork]. emotion. and expectation. A MODERN JAPANESE meditative art form inspired by the teachings of Yamaoka Tesshu (1836-1888)." [Tanchu Terayama. is the practice of Zen through the calligraphic marks of a brush dipped in carbon ink. Hitsuzendo drawings aspire to "breathe with the energy and vitality of eternal life" achieved through "a state of no mind—beyond thought.Zen Calligraphy HITSUZENDO. .

These vibrate against washes of shadow and pitch-black mass. I flicked spatters of ink and rubbed the paper with a wet and a dry brush to achieve these effects. .Nocturnes IN THIS QUARTET of semi-abstract drawings made with India ink. discord is balanced against rhythm to create mood. Lines made with a steel dip pen take on a scratchy nervousness.

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and damnation are found in most world faiths. We then add substances we dislike: unidentified fluids. and deep fur—and we alter their scale. We love our fear of the hybrid—ideally. for example. paradise.247. Reading the place name I momentarily glimpsed an alternative meaning.Gods and Monsters OUR SACRED AND SECULAR need to visualize demons. which is to have eaten a nun—it inspired the drawing on p. look for images in the folds of clothing. Today. beasts. sculptures. aliens. a collaboration between the two will ensure that your drawings glow with originality. thousands of paintings. Feeding this demand. feathers. angels. all of which originated as hundreds of drawings. movie studios now brim with as many monsters as the visual art of the Medieval and Renaissance Church. I was on a train passing through Nuneaton. happen to us. and the Alien trilogy. our literate and more secular Western society still hungers for another world and to ravenously indulge its fascination for the marvelous. a human-animal mix that implies this could MARTIN SCHONGAUER German painter and engraver who settled to work in Colmar Alsace. England. Throughout this book images are presented to excite and surprise and drawing classes created to increase your confidence. and stained-glass windows deliver powerful visual sermons to the once-illiterate populace. and the faces of God have for centuries given artists a feast for the extremes of their imagination. Humans are equally troubled by the imperceptibly small and the enormous. Be inspired by the irrational comedy of word association or puns. Neither should be slave or master. which were widely distributed and influential in his time. When creating monsters. scales. a Catherine wheel of drawn sparks spiraling around the quietly resolute saint. Here. Perhaps the Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 1485 121/4 x 9 in (312 x 230 mm) MARTIN SCHONGAUER most important conclusion in this final chapter is to advise you to develop your skills in parallel with the joy of your unfolding imagination. wings. Star Wars. Depictions of God or of gods in the contexts of daily life. or strange. Lord of the Rings. we select details of animals farthest from ourselves and that are widely thought disturbing—reptilian and insect features. Images we are now surrounded by bear testimony to the power and resourcefulness of their collective imagination. Fantasy is most successful when founded on strong and familiar visual logic. or in smoke. For example. . our eye circulates around a flutter of leather and scaly wings. To learn to flex your imagination. in the cracks of walls. In the Christian churches of Europe. Schongauer is best known for his prints. impossible. serpentine tails. The salvation of heaven and terrors of hell are represented equally—enough to make any sinner shudder. Monsters take advantage of both. We watch with captivated pleasure movies such as The Fly.

such asinine behavior can be hereditary. Saturn devouring his son. They depict as if by lamplight the devil and witches. Violent white marks symbolizing Achilles' rage resonate with the energy of Twombly's script on p. This continuity enriches the making of art and our heritage. Compare his dark. crammed tightly at his desk.220. In this softer aquatint he poses for his portrait Textured background The aquatint process has been used to great effect in making a gritty toned background. and church murals. barren land rising like MYRIAD CHAINS RUN THROUGH ART HISTORY. Francisco de Goya was a master of borrowing. F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A Spanish court painter printmaker and draftsman. He would be graceless if he stood. Aquatint Goya has drawn a learned man as an ass. Pictorially. This act defines the vision and continues the line of spirit guides. noisy seascape on p. Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 1799 81/2 x 6 in (218 x 154 mm) FRANCISCO DE GOYA .240 GODS AND M O N S T E R S Marks of Influence marking the influence of one artist upon another. and exposed the superstitions. deranged masses. to Picasso's similarly tight. a wave to join Achilles' chase of Hector. hags. Paul Thomas's studies of Picasso and Twombly can be traced directly. we see the international icon of stupidity. vanity. a Shoshone seeking guidance and power meditates at the sacred site of a petroglyph. it allows the mule to stand forward. The high. Opposite below. In this ass. Los Caprichos. and follies of court through copious graphic works including his best-known prints. Many students leave white backgrounds in their work. The title "And So Was His Grandfather" adds that should we not already know. which can swamp the subject Here. Goya's plainly textured gray background pushes back the space behind the illuminated simply subject. Near the end of his life he made his "Black Paintings" on the walls of his home. quoting great paintings and popular culture to add cunning twists to his satires. Other drawn versions of this image are more savage and frightening. whose impassioned work begins with light tapestry cartoons. portraits.30. Goya later recorded the horrors of Napoleonic occupation. his lover a dog. rushing. plain wall suggests a blinkered view of nothing. and men clubbing each other to death. below. Opposite. The well-dressed mule is cumbersome. reading from a book of asses. Visions experienced in front of the drawing sometimes instruct the making of a new one.

Wind River Reservation. meaning "place of power. Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range UNDATED ARTIST UNKNOWN . of the earth. Achilles Chases Hector 1996 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) PAUL THOMAS SHOSHONE PETROGLYPH The Shoshone people of Wyoming name petroglyph sites Poha Kahni.241 MARKS OF INFLUENCE PAUL T H O M A S British contemporary artist whose epic graphic work questions and reflects upon issues of European identity. ideals. or of the water Chipped image This is a sacred creature of the sky chipped onto rock at Dinwoody Lake. values. A vivid spectrum of energized graphite marks and a masterly composition give this drawing vitality and speed. Graphite marks Here Achilles chases Hector around the walls of Troy before killing him. and personal and social struggles. by a supplicant in a trance of meditation. White marks like flashes of light are cut though graphite with an eraser to reveal the paper beneath. It was made with a sharp implement. Thomas conducts his explorations in the mine of Greek and Roman mythology." Each sacred image drawn into rock belongs to one of three realms in the Shoshone world: the realm of the sky. Wyoming. Parallel lines within the body of the figure are likely to denote power. perhaps a stone. Simple wall stones cleverly state their cold solidity while also fading from our attention as the scene roars by.

Here we see how he evolved their injuries into new limbs and warped proportions. ODILON REDON French painter draftsman.242 MONSTERS of the unknown is a classical and constant occupation for the artist. crawl. Children are also delighted to invent a monster or ghoul. to the right of the balloon. Redon explored the darker side of the human imagination through symbols and mysticism. 115. Our subconscious can be drawn with pleasure and ease. The Eye Like a Strange Mounts Balloon 165/8 x131/8in (422 x 332 mm) ODILON REDON 1882 Toward Infinity . Techniques demonstrated on pp. T H E EXPLORATION AND DEPICTION Hauntings Grandville has drawn a scurrying zoo of half-known demons and animals that appear to have been stolen from the glass eye of the microscope. Redon's eyeball balloon rises up. Lifting out Fine strings of the hot-air balloon appear dark against the sky and light against the balloon. below left. The monsters of Bosch grew from his observations of beggars going about their trade in 15th. GODS AND Erasure In this charcoal drawing. Redon lifted them out with some sort of eraser. H e was influenced by his friends. Compare worked textures throughout the whole of this image to those found throughout Anita Taylor's charcoal drawing on p. graphic artist. the writers Joris-Karl Huysmans and Stephane Mallarme. the shock would be extreme. we see parallel slanting pale marks that might have been made with fresh bread—a very effective eraser used before the wide availability of rubber or plastic. which sometimes—half-dressed and carrying a familiar trophy— stride. They float toward us like a horrid visitation. If it were to turn and stare this way. and writer In contrast t o the light and visual accent of contemporary Impressionism. as he did the grass. and scuttle over all known reality.and 16th-century Holland.204-05 will enable you to produce a similar effect of white lines shining out of dark charcoal. lifting its cranial passenger over a seascape of repose. We may feel safe so long as the eye looks heavenward.

Comic little headbands of waving hair express more hysteria than fear. and he illustrated the Fables of La Fontaine and Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe. Most of his work is in the Prado Museum. Last Judgment. Smiling. Quill and ink This typical Bosch monster is a quill drawing in bistre ink The phrasing of light and contour here is masterly. Garden of Earthly Delights.243 J E A N I G N A C E ISIDORE GERARD ("GRANDVILLE") French graphic artist and political satirist. Les Animaux (1840). A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects c. which is still available today. Light shines from the right. teeming with the exhilaration of unrestrained fantasy. This image is from one of Grandville's best-known publications. grimacing. His other major works include Metamorphoses du Jour (1828). HAUNTINGS Engraving This is an engraving made so that Grandville's original drawing could be reproduced. include The Haywain. 1840 61/8 x41/2in ( 1 5 5 x 1 1 5 mm) GRANDVILLE HIERONYMUS BOSCH Dutch painter Bosch's highly detailed iconographic religious panel paintings. Madrid. Two Monsters UNDATED 45/8 x61/2in (117 x 163 mm) HIERONYMUS BOSCH . The quality of the line is therefore uniform throughout. sucker-faced creatures dash and trundle toward it They are drawn solidly to emphasize their earthbound weight. and Ship of Fools.

His entire drawing wrestles and weaves the viewer's eye into its retracting folds. the dome of the Vatican. gamboling copulations. she formed a series of ghostly pale. topple. architect. and mist-swathed land. A snake eating its own tail is a universal image of the eternal and continuous. and marble sculptures including Pieto. They share between them the pleasures of inventing a hybrid beast. sometimes artists purposefully tie a knot in the configuration to disturb. Michelangelo's dragon. poet. hatched lines. Grimes found the genesis of her beast not among animals. and engineer Among Michelangelo's great works are the painted ceiling and altar wall of the Sistine Chapel. Chalk and ink A quill dipped in brown ink was worked over black chalk on this reused sheet. and dog. a stunning hybrid of a swan. lion. remembering the cavernous. St Peter's square. In her studio. Two previously drawn faces become humorous antagonists to the beast. Opposite. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI Florentine painter sculptor. snake. below. wraps and coils its lithe body ready to strike or whimper at a touch. phrased over the contours of form and bridging darker areas of shadow. and play with its perfection and meaning.244 GODS AND MONSTERS Convolutions THESE CONVOLUTED DRAWINGS were made almost 5 0 0 years apart. as we might expect. muscular tension is carved out of the paper using layered. David. pinnacled. Dragon 1522 10 x 133/8 in ( 2 5 4 x 3 3 8 m m ) MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI . Grimes' delicately cavorting figures dive into and consume each other. Scaly. but in the seductive landscape of Leonardo da Vinci's oil painting Madonna of the Rocks. and dying slaves. However.

245 CONVOLUTIONS O O N A GRIMES British contemporary artist and professor of printmaking at the Ruskin School. Oxford. and the Camberwell and Slade Schools of Fine Art. London. London. her under heavy here. The image formed directly without first making a pencil outline. Grimes exhibits internationally and features in the collections of the New York Public Library and the Victoria and Albert Museum. The large space around figure has been cropped Grimes drawings to flatten presses them. It is one of a series of fragile earth figures inspired by rocks. details evolved slowly using a drier brush. How Clever of God #84 2002 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) O O N A GRIMES . boards finished paper. each one iridescent and crumbly like a weathered while oyster. Ink-wash delicately gouache (smooth) and gouache brushed drawing on This is a and was hot-pressed Shadows The dark shadow of the Other the ink-wash earth was made with a brushstroke of ink laid into wet paper.

giving a variety of lines. 1. and wrist into a fluid and soft touch. and very fine lines. this brush has a soft drawing tip and small ink-holding capacity. 13. Brushes vary in size. shape. SYNTHETIC-HAIR LINER: This brush gives a medium line and is firm with a spring to the touch. 7. It is capable of very fine pointing. it has good wash capabilities. M T RA S AEIL . materials. L A R G E R S Y N T H E T I C ." 6. Always clean them thoroughly. and texture. SMALL JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with sable hair. Slightly less flexible than the squirrel-hair sword liner 9. 10. washes. POINTED SQUIRREL-HAIR MOP: With a synthetic quill ferrule and extra high inkholding capacity. S Y N T H E T I C . Soaps purchased from good art supply stores will gently cleanse particles of pigment that become trapped in the hairs or ferrule. thicknesses. liners. ideally suited to drawing. making rt ideally suited to Japanese painting and small-scale calligraphy.Theyhold plenty of ink and make continuous. dense. and effects. and has a fine tip for detailed work. SYNTHETIC-HAIR BRUSH: Bound in a synthetic ferrule with good inkholding capacity and good spring and control.H A I R LINER: Very responsive oriental-style liner This to the touch. This brush has a broad wash capability and can achieve a very wide range of marks. P O I N T E D T R A D I T I O N A L WRITER: The ferrule is made from a small duck quill. This design supplies the fine tip with a long continuity of ink 5. others are as fine as a whisker with a gentle touch. and hold prodigious weights of ink or paint. ink-laden tip allow an expression that is beyond the linear. fingers. Some are bold. It is still relatively small in the total range of Japanese brushes. Some used by master calligraphers are 2-3 in (5-8 cm) in diameter 11. SABLE-HAIR LINER: Made with ordinary sable hair surrounding an extralong. Suitable for wash techniques but also capable of very fine detail. between them. The living marks of a wet. SABLE-HAIR RIGGER: Made with very long kolinsky sable hairs. Shorter brushes designed for other purposes run out of ink more quickly. drawing tool extending the arm. with a fine point for delicate work 4. the very opposite of pencil or silver point. 3. flowing. 12. LARGER JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with natural hair held in a plastic ferrule on a bamboo handle. How you care for your brushes will determine how long they last. The brushes shown here are a mixture of This is a selection of riggers. SYNTHETIC-HAIR S W O R D LINER: A lining brush with high ink-holding capacity and a fine point. and writers. JAPANESE PAINTING BRUSH: Made with natural hair.H A I R RIGGER: Made with long synthetic hair for fine-point work It has a good ink-holding capacity and is slightly more resilient than sable hair with more "snap. SQUIRREL-HAIR S W O R D LINER:This brush has a maximum ink-holding capacity and an extremely fine and flexible point 8. all perfect for drawing and. 2. which holds long sable hair This brush holds large amounts of ink for long lines and points well for detailed work. needle-sharp center of kolinsky red sable hair. return them to their pointed shape. it has good inkholding capacity and is very flexible.246 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brushes T H E BRUSH IS A VOLUPTUOUS and delicate weights. and never leave them standing on their tip in a jar of water. It has exceptional painting characteristics.

247 BRUSHES .

the speed of the s t r o k e .248 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brush Marks A S I N G L E BRUSH will m a k e an e n o r m o u s range of m a r k s depending u p o n the width. b l o w i n g h a r d o n t h e m several t i m e s t o disperse t h e ink ( c l o s e y o u r eyes if y o u t r y this.35) into two tablespoons of water in a shallow. softness. splashes.) I . length. and spatters. the degree of pressure applied. SETTING UP Blowing spots T h e s e t h r e e s p i d e r y c r e a t u r e s (above right and below) w e r e m a d e by d r o p p i n g s p o t s o f ink f r o m a b r u s h o n t o t h e p a g e and. and type of its hairs. Here I drew with a soft Japanese painting brush (see pp. A single brush has almost balletic potential to draw fine or undulating lines and curves. I rubbed a block of Chinese ink (see p. w i t h m y face close. and above all w h e t h e r the b r u s h is saturated with pigment or relatively dry. I had left the end of the ink block in the water overnight to make it easier to dissolve.246-47). unglazed earthenware dish. and to make pools and stains o n the page. It also depends on the angle at w h i c h it is held. the texture and a b s o r b e n c y of the paper ( w h i c h m a y be d a m p or dry).

. a n d t h e w a y it d i s t r i b u t e s w h e n t h e b r u s h is d a b b e d o n its s i d e . w e see fine lines and s p o t s . BRUSH MARKS Wet and dry strokes A m o n g these concentrated drawings ink made into with the same w a t e r y lines. t h e effects of the b r u s h r u n n i n g o u t o f ink.249 Gritty texture T h e details o f t h e largest creatures b e l o w and opposite s h o w the granular texture of Chinese b l o c k ink. b l e e d i n g f r o m strokes b e l o w left. a n d b r u s h .

. Oxford. and used their detail to draw new creatures that might at first seem familiar. until we look again. I borrowed small and fragile specimens from the University Museum of Natural History.Monsters THESE LITTLE CREATURES o f i n k and i n v e n t i o n were b o r n out of animal and bird studies.

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showing us that gallery study is not just for the student and beginner. They are a pair and hang opposite each other. I found relationships between all four paintings in terms of shapes. . Here. formal composition. Among his "Black Paintings" in the Prado Museum. two of my own drawings show you how Goya's devil (below) is based on the shape of Murillo's boy on a horse (top right). Goya often invented his monsters out of characters seen in other painters' works. Madrid. and narrative twists. thin works titled The Witches' Sabbath and The Procession of St. Goya's witches have been literally drawn and evolved out of the shapes of Murillo's prophet and pilgrims. With further research.Goya's Monsters W I T H CUNNING BRILLIANCE. Isidore. are two long. thin works made by Bartolome Murillo in Seville about 120 years earlier. Through studying and drawing these great paintings I have discovered that they are based on a pair of similarly long.

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Consumed THIS IS A SERIES OF CARTOONS I m a d e s o m e years ago. drawn rapidly and with great joy. . little comments on politeness and sexual politics. Sometimes drawings come out of nowhere and surprise even the artist.

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W o r d s o r symbols are Cold-pressed papers P a p e r manufactured with a "not" o r " r o u g h " surface. in w h i c h parts o f an image are depicted v e r y brightly and dramatically against d a r k n e s s . s u c h as a s c r e e n . 2. C o p p e r p l a t e engravings w e r e widely used t o r e p r o d u c e images b e f o r e p h o t o g r a p h y . Calligraphy Beautiful h a n d w r i t i n g . p r i n t i n g press face up. In t h e Far East calligraphy is a highly r e s p e c t e d a r t f o r m . F r o m t h e G r e e k kallos. T h e name " n o t " simply refers t o t h e fact t h a t t h e cylinders are n o t h o t in t e m p e r a t u r e . A g e n e r a l t e r m t h a t describes t h e various processes o f c u t t i n g a design i n t o a plate o r b l o c k o f m e t a l o r w o o d . pastel. a n d g r a p h i t e .s i z e d r a w i n g m a d e for t h e purpose o f transferring a design t o a painting. usually at a n a c u t e angle t o t h e s u r f a c e . p r a c t i c e d meditatively w i t h a brush. w h e n a p e r s o n is p a i n t e d standing a g a i n s t a w i n d o w . T h e prints t a k e n from t h e s e plates o r blocks.c e n t u r y painting m o v e m e n t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e use o f b o l d . Collage C o l l e c t e d materials such as c o l o r e d p a p e r s . Aerial perspective The effect of the a t m o s p h e r e o v e r distance as it lightens t o n e s a n d cools c o l o r s progressively t o w a r d t h e horizon. r a t h e r t h a n r e c o r d e d o n a film o r plate. Fixative lightly glues t h e d r a w i n g t o t h e surface o f t h e p a p e r t o p r e v e n t smudging. 2. A " s h a l l o w d e p t h o f field" m e a n s t h e p i c t u r e appears t o have only a shallow s p a c e inside i t Diffuse T o s o f t e n o r m a k e less brilliant." " N o t " p r e s s e d p a p e r is r o l l e d a s e c o n d t i m e w i t h o u t blankets t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders t o p r o d u c e a s m o o t h e r b u t still slightly t e x t u r e d s u r f a c e ." D e s c r i b e s a p a i n t i n g in w h i c h t h e light s o u r c e is b e h i n d t h e s u b j e c t F o r e x a m p l e . m e a n i n g "beauty".256 GLOSSARY Glossary Accidental drawing Random. charcoal. m e a n i n g " t o stick" Dry media M e d i a t h a t a r e n o t w e t o r o i l y — f o r e x a m p l e . D a m p p a p e r is laid o n t o p . Erasure T h e a c t o f r e m o v i n g a n i m a g e f r o m a surface. Contre jour A F r e n c h t e r m m e a n i n g " a g a i n s t day. Composition T h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e p a r t s o f an i m a g e t o m a k e u p the whole. t h e field is t h e a p p a r e n t a n d b e l i e v a b l e space inside t h e p i c t u r e . Fixative Liquid acrylic resin a n d l a c q u e r t h i n n e r usually a p p l i e d as a n a e r o s o l s p r a y m i s t t o t h e surface o f a d r y . Anamorphic distortion Stretching an i m a g e across a p i c t u r e surface so t h a t it can o n l y b e u n d e r s t o o d . s u c h as a d r a w i n g o r painting. T h e m o v e m e n t was started by a g r o u p o f French artists including H e n r i Matisse. n e w s p a p e r cuttings. pressurized t o o l used f o r spraying fine mists o f s m o o t h c o l o r P i g m e n t is d e l i v e r e d b y a j e t o f air n o t t h e bristles o f a brush. R o u g h p a p e r is m a d e b e t w e e n t w o blankets t h a t . Bracelet shading C u r v e d parallel lines t h a t f o l l o w t h e c o n t o u r s o f f o r m . A f u l l . a n d attaches t h e m t o t h e s u p p o r t — f o r example. Camera lucida A n optical device t h a t p r o j e c t s an image o f an o b j e c t o n t o a plain s u r f a c e so t h a t it can be traced. Blotting T h e use o f a b s o r b e n t m a t e r i a l t o lift a w a y excess liquid.m e d i a d r a w i n g . linseed oil o r egg y o l k Caricature A representation Contour line A line t h a t f o l l o w s t h e s h a p e o f a surface. a n d given t h e n a m e Sho. R e m b r a n d t is a great master o f chiaroscuro. It is p u t o n a Body color See Gouache. Bleed T h e e f f e c t o f t w o w e t colors running into one another o r o n e color applied t o a w e t surface a n d a l l o w e d t o d i s p e r s e . written with a broad-nibbed pen o r brush. Deckle edge T h e i r r e g u l a r e d g e o f a s h e e t o f m o l d . w h e n v i e w e d f r o m a specified point." It w a s first given t o t o n a l paintings m a d e in o n e c o l o r — s e e Grisaille. A p o t e n t i a l l y h a r s h m e t h o d o f p r o d u c i n g t o n e s in a d r a w i n g . Acid-free paper P a p e r w i t h a neutral p H t h a t will n o t darken o r d e t e r i o r a t e excessively w i t h age. chance mark-making. o r will o n l y a p p e a r n o r m a l . Cartoon 1. F r o m t h e French v e r b coller. U s e d as a c o r r e c t i n g device o r pictorial game. o r o t h e r (usually large) w o r k — s e e Pouncing.d i m e n s i o n a l i m a g e . A h u m o r o u s d r a w i n g o r parody. so t h a t ink r e m a i n s o n l y in t h e g r o o v e s o f s c r a t c h e d lines. L a t e r it c a m e t o m e a n h i g h l y c o n t r a s t e d light effects. a r e r o l l e d t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders. o f t e n d i s t o r t e d forms and vivid colors. A i r b r u s h e s are u s e d in t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c o m i c s .m a d e paper. Fauvism A n early 2 0 t h . Binder A substance t h a t holds particles o f p i g m e n t t o g e t h e r in a paint f o r m u l a t i o n . Field In a t w o . and readymade objects arranged and stuck o n t o a flat surface. Ferrule T h e s h o r t m e t a l t u b e t h a t s u r r o u n d s a n d g n p s t h e hairs o f a p a i n t b r u s h a n d fixes t h e m t o t h e brush handle. as o p p o s e d t o t h e s t r a i g h t e d g e o f a sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has b e e n machine-trimmed. Blending M e r g i n g t w o o r m o r e neighboring colors o r tones t o g e t h e r using a tortillon. tapestry. Chiaroscuro A 1 7 t h . In t h e W e s t p e n calligraphy is u s e d t o c r e a t e f o r m a l a n d d e c o r a t i v e t e x t s . T h e b l a n k e t s g i v e t h e p a p e r its rough texture o r "tooth. A l s o c a l l e d t h e h o r i z o n line. Also called accelerated perspective. Eye level T h e i m a g i n a r y h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e a t t h e s a m e h e i g h t as t h e a v e r a g e p e r s o n ' s eyes. It can also seal a silver p o i n t d r a w i n g t o p r e v e n t t h e oxidization (browning) o f t h e Drypoint A d r a w i n g is s c r a t c h e d directly o n t o a m e t a l plate w i t h a m e t a l t o o l h e l d like apen. A l s o called m u s e u m g r a d e . Air brush A mechanical. Conservation grade D e s c r i b e s a range o f materials t h a t d o n o t d e c a y and cannot be broken d o w n by insects. in w h i c h t h e subject's distinctive features o r peculiarities are deliberately exaggerated f o r c o m i c o r g r o t e s q u e effect. Camera obscura A d a r k e n e d c h a m b e r i n t o w h i c h an i m a g e o f w h a t is o u t s i d e is received t h r o u g h a small o p e n i n g o r lens a n d f o c u s e d in natural c o l o r o n a facing surface. for example.The plate is t h e n r o l l e d w i t h ink a n d polished with a rag. Engraving 1. Crosshatching Parallel lines d r a w n across o n e a n o t h e r at right angles. t h e l i g h t is b e h i n d h i m o r her.c e n t u r y Italian t e r m m e a n i n g "clear-obscure. See also Hotpressed papers. t o g e t h e r w i t h a t h i c k felt b l a n k e t T h e w h o l e s a n d w i c h o f l a y e r s is t h e n railed t h r o u g h t h e press t o m a k e a p r i n t D r y p o i n t is a very portable and immediate m e t h o d o f printmaking. p h o t o g r a p h s . A l s o called r i n g l e t shading. S o m e t i m e s f e r r u l e s a r e m a d e o f plastic o r o t h e r materials.

or a drawing made in any single color GLOSSARY Linear perspective A form of perspective in which parallel lines are represented as converging.while secretion of the acacia tree. Medium A generic term for art Key A painting is said to be "high key" when the colors and tones are bright and "low key" when they are dark or somber The term is also used Gouache Opaque watercolor Also called body color. Rubens used grisaille to paint small images for engravers. Lifting out A method of creating highlights and mid-tones in a drymedia drawing (such as charcoal or graphite).The degree to which detail is defined.The paper then bears a crayon impression or copy of the surface that was underneath it A number of Surrealists. or even a beam of light. F o r m a t T h e size. F o r m The outer surface of a three-dimensional object. A small image might be described as small format Horizontal images are often said to be "landscape format" (abbreviated G u m arabic The natural to"landscape"). A point of interest in a drawing. or for wrapping and protecting a finished piece of work. the surface of the stone is made wet before being rolled with a thin film of oilbased printing ink. upright images are called "portrait which is used as a binding agent in many liquid media. Picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. Hatching (cross-) See Crosshatching. lifting out charcoal and other dry media. are painted in grisaille and appear to be made of stone. This may be disregarded in real life. to give the illusion of depth and distance. or a family of colors. 2. Pointillism A technique of using points or dots of pure color in such a way that when the picture is viewed from a distance they react Masking tape Invaluable. so that (using vanishing point perspective) the object appears to change shape and become narrower or smaller as it recedes. aiming to represent facts rather than an interpretation of the subject. but in picture-making it is as important as the objects/subjects themselves. Paper is then pressed against the stone to take a print. shape. Lightfast A term confirming that pigment in the product will not fade with exposure to light. to describe a surface to which paint will adhere readily. graphite. It can be used with any wet media to isolate or protect parts of an image from further Optical blending See Pointillism. and it has a history in enamel work. Papercut A type of collage in which flat sheets of paper are cut into an image. which has a rough surface). Hairspray is an effective and inexpensive alternative." A piece of paper is placed on top of an object or rough surface. white. Ground A wet solution usually of gouache or gesso (chalk and animal glue) brushed onto paper board. This method incorporates the excitement of accidental and unpredicted marks. it is the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work Pigment Any substance used as a coloring agent—for example. Alternatively.Theground provides a particular color or texture beneath the image. Gamut A complete range or extent Glassine A type of thin. Monoprinting A direct method of printing in which wet medium (water-. but each print will be unique. Grisaille is occasionally seen in church stained-glass windows. Foreshortening A method of depicting an object at an angle to the surface of the picture. Grisaille A painting in gray or a grayish color Often made by students as a tonal exercise. Fugitive A term given to a pigment that it is not stable. multiH u e A term for a color. Also refers to an additive used to control the application properties of a color Golden Section A proportion in which a straight line or rectangle is divided into two unequal parts in such a way that the ratio of the smaller part to the greater part is the same as that of the greater part to the whole. or synthetic material that are suspended in a medium to constitute paint.257 metal line. including Max Ernst used frottage in their work. of the ingredients in inks and watercolors. Objective drawing Refers to the concept of objectivity. and is also used as a size. mineral. materials that produce marks on a surface. cadmium yellow hue. then rubbed over carefully but vigorously with a crayon. with the area beneath remaining unaffected. Plumb line A line from which a weight is suspended in order to determine verticality or depth. and masking off areas of a drawing that the artist wishes to keep untouched by media applied above or beside the tape. Monochrome Usually refers to a black. which give it a smooth surface (as opposed to cold-pressed paper. Focus 1 . Also used by artists' materials manufacturers to indicate the use of a substitute pigment—for example. and by artists representing stone sculptures in a painting. oil-based printing ink is rolled evenly onto a smooth metal. pastel. . and that will "escape" or change over time. It is a strong adhesive. used for fixing paper to walls and boards. After several intervening processes. and translucent paper—a delicate material used in collage. Negative space The space between things. Lithography A method of printmaking in which a drawing or painting is made directly onto a smooth slab of particular limestone or a metal plate using an oilbased crayon or ink. Hot-pressed papers (HP) Paper made using hot cylinders. This effect emulates what we see in real life. Paper is laid on top and a rapid drawing is made on the back of it The paper lifts away to reveal the image on its other side. or can be otherwise used to create an image—for example. Dark tones are laid down first then an eraser or masking tape is used to lift away particles of the drawing media to reveal the lightness of the paper beneath. Masking fluid Clear or opaque latex fluid developed for watercolor painting. oil-. sticky paper tape. glossy. ink. or plastic surface. and gray drawing. enabling them to stick to paper It also helps to maintain a stable dispersion of pigment particles in water as the film of a wash dries. The ink attaches to the oil-based image and is repelled by the wet stone. glass. Usually an academic drawing observed from life. Impressing Stamping or printing. Giotto's Virtues and Vices in the Arena Chapel. rock. format" (abbreviated to "portrait"). The surface can be reloaded or redrawn with more medium. work. the finely ground particles of plant. Padua. purpose. or canvas and allowed to dry before an image is drawn or painted. It is then peeled away. or spirit-based) is applied to a surface that is then pressed onto paper and removed to leave a print. Artists can paint freely over dry masking fluid. and orientation of the image. It improves the bonding properties Frottage A French term meaning "rubbing.

Tone A degree of lightness or darkness. plum blossom. wall or tapestry. in order to flick the pigment onto the image surface.Technicaldrawing has been example. fruit. or point on which parallel lines converge to give the impression of receding space. Zen brushwork encompasses calligraphy and painting. Spattering A mottled texture produced by drawing your fingers across the bristles of a stiff brush loaded with pigment. Printmaking The act of making a picture. Props An abbreviation of the word properties. Size A weak glue used for filling the porous surface of wood or canvas in order to seal it. watercolor. A term borrowed from the theater. Serigraphy Silk-screen printing. or the right-hand page in a book. Named paper in place. or pen. a point at which receding parallel lines meet Verso The back or underside of a piece of paper. evolved by engineers and architects for the purpose of conveying W a t e r c o l o r A painting accurate structural information. a sheet of paper is placed beneath and pinpricks are Silhouette A flat. by imposing a grid that is then scaled up to a larger size. W e t media Any liquid media— for example. Viewpoint The position from which something is observed or considered. Shade A that is color mixed (or toned) with black Shading A lay term for adding tone to a drawing. or watercolor paint." Materials for Zen brushwork include round brushes of varied size. carbon ink. Stippling Applying color or tone in areas of fine dots or flecks. nature of watercolor allows the white surface of the paper to Tonal scale A scale of gradations shine through. or the left-hand page in a book. The crude material is called oleoresin. Underdrawing A pale preliminary drawing made prior to adding layers of another medium such as oil paint or watercolor Value The extent to which a color reflects or transmits light This is the equivalent of tone in a black and white image. orchids. Technical drawing A universal it is often used in conjunction language of lines and measurements with line drawings in pen and that is used to make diagrammatic ink—for images. ink. Stylus A sharp. Zen A school of Mahayana Buddhism that asserts that enlightenment can come through meditation and intuition rather than faith. Squeegee A rubber-trimmed scraper used in the screenprinting process for dragging ink across a surface. design. acrylic. Etienne de material) dabbed through the Silhouette (1709-67). . Wash A technique using ink. glasses. Sketch A quick or rough drawing. Artists' prints are normally made in multiple." Applied to the blurring or softening of sharp outlines by the subtle and gradual blending of one tone into another Sgraffito A technique of scratching or cutting through a surface of paint. Single-point perspective The most basic form of linear perspective in which there is only one vanishing point. such as an inscribed sheet of metal. and chrysanthemum—which in Chinese tradition are called "The Four Gentlemen. and flowers. sometimes drawn from a and leaving only the pricked sheet of shadow cast on a wall. usually diluted with water and applied with a brush.258 GLOSSARY together optically. fine paper. and paperweights. plaster or cloth surface beneath. pencil. cut-out profile made along every outline of the usually made in black paper image. or any physical object that can be stamped or pressed onto a surface to leave an impression. giving it a brilliance. "Spirits" or "oil" of turpentine refer to the volatile portion used by artists to thin or dilute oil-based paint. paper or canvas. or gouache. pointed instrument used for marking or engraving. or wood. The translucent Tint A color mixed with white. using a brush. Alternatively. which are then called editions. Squaring up A method of enlarging and transferring an image from one surface to another. Turpentine A colorless solvent distilled from the resinous sap of pine trees. Strip Core of a pencil. Sfumato An Italian term meaning "smoky. Pouncing If a large drawing or design (called a cartoon) is to be Shadow Darkness cast by the transferred to a surface such as a obscuring of light. in tone running from black to white or vice versa. Still life A picture composed of inanimate objects such as bowls. Support The structure on which an image is made—for example. an ink stone usually cut from slate. creating more vibrant effects than if the same colors were physically mixed together with a brush. Scale Describes the size of one element in relation to another Sepia A brown pigment taken from the sun-dried ink sacs of cuttlefish and used to make ink or watercolor The term is now often incorrectly used to refer to brown colors. Although drawings can be made with wash alone. Zen paintings usually depict scenes of nature and plants such as bamboo. Zen brushwork This is an oriental meditative art form originating in China and practised for many centuries in Japan. or mark using an inked or pigment-covered surface. compound of water-soluble pigment. Pounce (a fine for an unpopular 18th-century powder of charcoal or similar French politician. commonly referred to as the lead. tight. to model areas of light and shade. a tightly folded piece of cotton batting can be used for the same effect. whose pinpricks creates a "connect-thepersonal pastime was making dots" replica of the image on the cut-out portraits. pointed roll of white paper that is used to blend dry media. Recto The front or top side of a piece of paper. Tortillon A short.Thedrawing is removed. Vanishing point In linear perspective. or ceramic glazing to reveal a different color beneath. Volume The amount of space occupied by an object or an area of space in itself. plaster. meaning objects used in setting up a life model or still life. Subjective drawing A drawing that expresses the personal view and interpretation of the artist An invented image.

78 aerial perspective 206 airbrushing 160. 113 bird bones 12. 75. Filippo 67. 205 Baltard. Statue d'Epouvante 90 calligraphy. 242 Brunelleschi. 90 colored materials 162-163 colored pencils 162. 230 The Physical Space 220 abstract drawing 219. Joseph 113 The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland 112. 98. 204. 40-41 Durer's rhinoceros 26. 186 charcoal 114. 190 Caricature of a Woman (Daumier) 198. 180 blending: color 133. to draw 25. 94 cylindrical objects. to draw 100 Cypripedium calceolus L. 182. 28 Klee's horses 30. to model 110-111 border 51 Bosch. 137 Besler. Victor: West Facade of the Church of St.31 Picasso's horse and bird 30. Etienne-Louis 72 Newton's Cenotaph 72. 50. 221 animals. 198. 180 Circular Score for "Due Voce" (Bussotti) 223 circus scenes 192-195 City (Bryan) 202. Zen c 232-233 blended 133. 29 Hugo's octopus 28. 247-248 carving see lines. 26 geese 38-39 Gericault's cats 28. 200 Bauer. 179 Bussotti.184. Brian 226 Untitled 2001 226 "Cave of the Hands" (Cueva de las Manas) 8. 38-39. 13 architectural drawing 67-71 Arctic Flowers (Libeskind) 70. 13. William: The Circle of the Lustful 180.163 graded 227 composition 56-57. 178 Cubism 67. 74 brush (es) 246-247 Japanese 248 for laying a wash 140 marks 248-249 to hold 23 brush drawings 14-15 Bryan. 75 Circle of the Lustful (Blake) 180. 70 Art Nouveau motifs 91 Autoportrait (Ray) 138. 111. 90. 198 cartoon (preparatory drawing) 137 (satirical) 159. 139 Nanha) 50. Clare 203 City 202.169 colors: airbrushed 161 background 91 A Abe. Giovanni 137 Head and Shoulders of a Man 136. 244 head and neck 144 phrased 124-125 contrast: brightness 99 of media 30 tonal 96. cut Catling. 220.100 curves.51 All and Nothing (Taylor) 114. 9 Chair (Van Gogh) 94. 199 Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya (Eisen) 156. 133.44-45. Georges 67. 241 action. 201 collage 111. 206 checkered floor 80. 222. 189. Augustin 67 Basquiat. (Ross-Craig) 49 to hold brush for 23 caricature 159. Jean Michel 138 Self-Portrait 138 Bateau-Vision.162 Conte.Index Page numbers in italics refer t o captions and illustrations Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity (Bishndas and 259 INDEX B bread (as eraser) 205. Hieronymus 243 Two Monsters 242. center of 118 ballpoint 182. 244 and graphite 178 . to depict 156-157 Cloudburst of Material Possessions (Leonardo) 200. 230-231 Cubist 90.198.184. layers 53 chalk pastels 162. 134 costume(s) 155 character 158-159 structure of 166-167 Cottage Among Trees (Rembrandt) 52.89. 71 conte 112. 9. Le (Hugo) 200. 203 Landline 202. 8 cave paintings 8. 74. 81 135.50.44-45 bird studies 12.186 see also movement Adoration of the Magi perspective study (Leonardo) 74.13. 90. Basilius 47 Beuys.117 Achilles Chases Hector (Thomas) 240. 95 Chair Cut Out (Woodfine) 94. 162 character: to capture 38-39. 41 principal 186. 30 sleeping dog 38-39 Stubbs's horse skeleton 26. Sylvano 222. 243 botanical drawing 48-49 Boullee. 52 cotton swabs 205 Coup de Vent a Asajigabare (Hokusai) 198.163 body. 71 Blake. 163. 128. 223 Circular Score for "Due Voce" 223 children's art 9. 203 Buffalo Hunt (Shoshone) 178. 206.163 dry media 205 Blue Nude (Matisse) 110. 90 La Guitare.115 anatomical drawing 134-135 anatomical theaters 82-83 anatomical waxes 128 ancient carvings 221.27 turtles 42-43 aquatint 240 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels (Leonardo) 12. Franz 48 Protea nitida 48 Bellini.212 to erase 205 to hold 23 pencils 204 willow 114. 160 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object (Moore) 178.133. 226-227 Acanthus spinosus 65 accelerated perspective 22. 81 cut-out model plan 94. 250 Bishndas and Nanha: Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity 50. Nicolas-Jacques 54 contours 146. to draw 80. 94 chalk(s) 53. 71 Bacchante (Bakst) 155 background: color 91 textured 240 Baker Matthew: Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry 32 Bakst. 204-205. to express 39.226. 116. 74. 202 cloth. 161 Akhlaq-I Rasul Allah manuscript 51. 157 cropping 56-57. Mamaru 104. 72 bracelet shading 122 Braque. 158. 242 to blend 205 compressed 122. Leon: Bacchante 155 balance. 165. 203 Claude Lorrain 202 Views from Velletri 202. 193 in lifting out 204.

91 Dragon (Michelangelo) 36. 226-227 anatomical 134-135 architectural 67-71 botanical 48-49 brush 14-15 dark to light 102. 104-105.101 engraving 243 erasers/erasing 55.104.207. 120.216 Durelli. 240.144 and ink 30. 241 to blend 205 and chalk 178 and ink 28. 160 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction (Gaudi) 68. 222. 55. Keisai 157 The Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya 156.160. 29 H hands. 69. 144 Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (Baker) 32.Theodore 29 Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 28. Ron 161 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 161 160. 245 layers 30 Goya. 222 Le Bateau-Vision 200. 202. 55. 205 drawing with 103. M. position of 22 Eisen. Cheval et Oiseau (Picasso) 30. 200 F fabric. 222 Grimes. 220 dry brush 234 234 57. 115 Escher. Sir Ernst 12. 134. Rene 160 Illustration for Jacques Fath E easel.141. 137 heads. 765 hitsuzendo drawings 233 Hokusai. Francisco de 131. 69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt 68. Antonio 135 Muscles of the Head and Neck 134. 93 eye level 80 Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity. Robert 93 Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 92. 170-173. 99 etching. 40.189. La (Braque) 90. 203 Hotel de la Suzonnieres (Satie) 70. fiber-tip pen 182. 245 Hugo. 26 Flying Fish (White) 25. position of 143. 161 changing 216 Focusing on the Negative (Walter) 16 foliage 52. 161 fashion drawings 160. 190 Middle Eastern 50-51. 242 eyes. Nicholas 68 St Paul's Baptistry 68 head and neck to draw 142-145 Head and Shoulders of a Man (Bellini) 136.117 fountain pens 34. 30 Fauves/fauvism 90.216. 112.260 INDEX D Dada 139 Daumien Honore 198 Caricature of a Woman 198. to suggest 177 see also perspective diagonals diffuser 55 dip pens 34. Edgar 162 depth. 79. 7 33 Hooke. to draw 78.198 Degas. 73. 25 focus 65. 252 depiction of fabric monsters 252-253 Self Portrait in a Cocked Hat 130. 71 minimal line 99 and music 70-71 quick 38-39. 160 Faune.166 170-173 Gestalt 222 Giacometti. to draw 134-137 Helleborus corsicus 55 highlights 91. Alberto 136 Portrait of Marie-Laure de Noailles 136.103. 243 graphic score 222. 223 graphite 54. Statue d'Epouvante. Study for Plate 59 (Mucha) 90. 69 Guitare. 216 foreshortening 110.109 Rhinoceros 26.160.157 ellipses 100. 131 Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 240. 52 foreground 208. 113. 134.91. 163.116. 32 framing 139 Franfoise au Bandeau (Picasso) 132. 90 gouache 30. drypoint 181 exaggeration 184 expressionism 198 E ye and Head of a Drone Fly (Hooke) 92. 134.12 fixative 54.146 from masterworks 126-127. 203 semi-abstract 234-237 three-dimensional 68. The 242. disposable pens 182-183 dissections: botanical 48 of horse 27 distance: illusion of see perspective linear 97 tonal 97 Documents Decoratifs. 163. 240 170-173 five Ships in a Port with Lighthouse (Wallis) 11. to draw 168-169 in Goya's artworks face.121 felt-tip pens 162. Jean Ignace Isidore see Grandville Gericault. 125. Oona 245 How Clever of God #84 244. Hans 133 The Ambassadors 116 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 132.John 157 Man Lying Down in a Cloak 156.252-253 from memory 183.115 exploratory 17 fantasy 72-73.37. 122. 160 as ground for metal point 140. 93 horizon 52.184 165. 240 Black Paintings 152.244 drawing(s): abstract 219. 162 Flaxman.244.111 feet. Victor 200. 136 Golden Section 67 Gombrich. 37 Grandville 243 A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the Near-Microscopic World of Scale Insects 242. 230 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction 68. 77 How Clever of God #84 244.103 with eraser 103. proportions of 143 fantasy drawings 72-73. to draw 120.141.69 Gerard.112. 90 G Gaudi. 41 in the round 208-209 with scalpel 202. 157 . 122 Hawksmoor. 141 tonal 96. 245 Gruau. 161 fashion 160.102-103 drawing board 20 drawing books 20-21 drawing paper 144.230 three-tone 140. 124. Katsushika 199 Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 198. Antonio 68. 132 Frenz. 55. 69.97. 223. 160 hitsuzendo 233 light to dark 102. 135 Duren Albrecht 26. C . 799 Holbein.

37 lines 118 pastel 162 pencil 31. 184. Marie 244 cloth drawing 244. 53 Tree II 52. 97 Murillo. 244 ink 36 252-253 Documents Decoratifs 90. 205 masterworks. 34-35 acrylic 35 bistre 35. 203 landscape 206-208 brushed 14 Landscape in Hoboku Style (Sesshu) 14 layers 146 chalk 53 gouache 30 ink 28.141. 252 ink 16. 183 vertical 156 linear distance 97 linear perspective 69. 158 Man Lying Down in a Cloak (Flaxman) 156. 220. 242 light 96 to depict drawing with 1 76 painting with 176 .33 Mysterious Affairs of the lighting 2 7. 77 Miller.120. 756 priming for 140.115 98. Madrid 171 University Museum of Natural History. Victor 134 Profile Head 134. artistic 240-241. 244. apparent 97 Leonardo da Vinci 74. 249 and gouache 30 Indian 35. 103 Neolithic chalk tablet 220. 219 Mondrian. 181 Klee. 76 Libeskind. 190 metal pens see dip pens metal point 25. 31 Klimt. 220. 220. 244 Dragon 36. 176. 34. 111. Paul 227 Polyphonic Setting for White 226. Alphonse 90. 28 Two Impressions from a Cut-out Paper Disk 222 Huyler Stephen R 225 261 Kinecar. Florence 128 lighting in 167 Pitt Rivers. 185 Mucha. 99. 170-173. drawing from 126-127. 221 endless 31 free 113.104. 54 silver point 156 leg sections 158 length. I Murderous Attacks 33 Kollwitz. Rose: Tantalus or the Future of Man 20 minimal line drawing 99 mirror use of 120 mixed media 28. 230 invented creatures 106-107 250-251 invented objects 89. Kathe 181 Losbrunch (The Outbreak) 180.124. 114 hatched 244 layered 118 pace of 65 pale 40 rapid 49. 53 monoprint 787. 181 luminosity 115 Lynch. 248. 234 iron-gall 35. 757 mandalas 219. Piet 52. 36. 205.141 Metropolis (film) 72. Erich 73 design for Metropolis 72.109. 60.112. drawing from 183. 227 Newsome. 163 pens 36 measuring 116 memory. Oxford 250 music 70-71 Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks (Knopf) 32. 49 Rose 49 Maelbeke Madonna (Van Eyck) 156.227 to "bend" straight 97 compositional 228-229 cut 202. Matisse. 160 In the Duchess's Kitchen (Rackham) 176. 220. 13 Cloudburst of Material Possessions 200. Bartolome: Moses Striking the Rock ofHoreb 252. Daniel 70 Arctic Flowers 70 Lieb. 156 magnification 93 Man in Armor (Van Dyck) 158. 73 Michelangelo Buonarroti 48. 226 Modernism 67. 72. Henry 178 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object 178. David 78 M Mackintosh. 166. 178 motifs: A r t Nouveau 9 7 stylized 51 mountains 216-217 movement: of animals 30-31 of humans 7 79. 63. Oxford 106 Prado. Gustav 49 Knopf. 177 influences. 201 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels 12. Charles Rennie 48. 244 lithograph 198 Losbruch (Kollwitz) 180.167 line(s) 132. 58-59. 110 Sistine Chapel ceiling 116 Middle Eastern drawing 50-51.243 carbon 35 Chinese 30. Phyll: hands 18 lifting out 204.134 K Kettlehut. 252 Muscles of the Head and Neck (Durelli) 134. 789. 201 head and neck sections of female mold for Sforza Horse 89 Madonna of the Rocks 244 perspective study for Adoration of the Magi 74. 33 J justness 228-229 N naive art 74 negative space 53.91 Study for Plate 59 of INDEX illumination see lighting Illustration for Jacques Fath (Gruau) 160. 159 Japanese 35 to make 36 sepia 35 walnut 36.182 Moore.181 L Landline (Bryan) 202. 135 museums 44.Pieuvre (Octopus) 28.The (Robinson) 108. Johan 32.166 La Specola. 78 Study ofThree Male Figures 110. Henri 111 Blue Nude 1110. 225 masking tape 204. 83 white 122 ink impressions 222 ink spatters 234 installations 176.109. 35.102.276. 203. 74-77. 73 Kigell. 227 Scene of Comical Riders 30.96.

57 Ross-Craig.176 Real Life Is Rubbish 176. Erik 70. 159.226. 165. 244 reed 34. 36.36. 216.139 Autoportrait 138. 141 Piranesi. Bridget 98 Robinson. Heath 181 The Kinecar 180. 40-41. 736 portraits. Arthur 177 In the Duchess's Kitchen 176. 7 77 three-point 80. Sue 104.oise au Bandeau 132. 230 parallel planes 79 Parisian street 86-87 pastels 162 to blend 205 to hold 23 layers 162 pencils 162 pen(s): dip 34 . Stella 48 Cypripedium calceolus L 49 rotated view 7 65 Rubens. 243. 26 Riley. 139 Real Life is Rubbish (Noble and Webster) 176.Paul'sBaptistry (Hawksmoor) 68.759. 219. 230 paper(s) 21 colored 162 drawing 144. 30 Fran<. Martin 238. 244 Q s Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape (Wolfli) 2 79 St. 36 relief printing 757 Rembrandt van Rijn 52. 160. 782 relief 757 silk-screen 739 woodblock 134. Odilon 242 The Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity 242. 81 two-point 74. 164. 103. Giovanni Battista 74. Pablo 6 7 . 181 Rodin. 733 Portrait de Marie-Laure (Giacometti) 136. 242 reed pens 34. 4 9 Rose of Mohammed 50.Toyo: Landscape in Hoboku . 234 disposable 182-183 felt-tip 162.40. 732 influence of 240 painting with light 78. 52 pens 36 scalpel 54 drawing with 202. 7 73 self-portraits: Basquiat 138.9 3 Schongauer. 9 0 . Cheval et Oiseau 30. 181 pencil(s) 54 charcoal 204 colored 762. 36. Paul 73 Nobson Central 72. 73 Noble. 7 70 Ray. 38. 162 O p A r t 98 optical illusions 96-99 outline 33. 1 1 6 . 1 3 2 quill pens 34. 205 pointillism 112 polyphonic painting 227 Polyphonic Setting for White (Klee) 226.141 prints/printing: aquatint 240 dry-point etching 181 engraving 243 monoprint 181. 68 Satie. 734 Protea nitida (Bauer) 48. 97. 161.37.37 scientific instruments 9 2 .184 fountain 34. 36 pen and brush 8 3 pen and ink 70. Man 131. 9 8 . 772 234-237 Sesshu.71 Hotel de la Suzonnieres 70. Georges 112 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 112. 1 6 9 to hold 2 2 . 205 157. 163. 239 Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 238. 91 outsider artists 33. 224 0 layers 31. 7 38 Ray 138. 1 2 4 priming for metal point 140. 4 8 putty eraser 55. 7 76 receding space 206 Redon. 166 fiber-tip 782. 1 6 3 .7 77 rapidograph 70 Raphael 110. 212 Japanese 2 1 .52 pen and wash 158.2 3 age and youth sleeping subjects 148-149 150-151 Renaissance 109 Rhinoceros (Durer) 26. 28 pigment 162 bright 50 Caput Mortuum 7 4 7 for three-tone drawing 141. The (Abe) 220 Picasso. 241 Physical Space. to draw 146-147 R Rackham. 71 Satire of the Queen's Dress (Wodall) 158. 74. 122. 243. Auguste 114 Two Women 114. 76-79. 165 figure 118 filled 37 pencil 48. 36. 1 1 7 aerial 206 linear 69. 38. 72 Noble. Russell 228. 78 single-point 74. 739 semi-abstract drawings Style 14 Seurat.104 Pieuvre (Hugo) 28. 7 72 Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland. Isaac 92 Telescope 92 Newton's Cenotaph (Boullee) 72. 227 portfolios 20 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser de Noailles (Holbein) 132.199 Profile Head (Newsome) oil pastels 162. J 76 nudes 114-115 to make 36 metal see dip quill 34. 75 Two Courtyards 75.240.Tim.54 pastel 162 perspective 1 0 0 . 2 2 0 for oil pastels 162 stained 230 to stretch 140-141 tissue 21. 1 1 6 accelerated 2 2 . 76 plastic eraser 55. 203 Scene of Comical Riders (Klee) 30. 36.37.131 Cottage Among Trees 52. Faune. 114 rollerball 182 Rorschach blot 99 Rose (Mackintosh) 48. 37 38. 759 P Page. 75 Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range 241 petroglyphs 221. Peter Paul 126-127 Embracing pose(s): balanced 146 quick 118-119 positive form 103 posture: of artist 22 of subject 3 8 . 74-77.262 INDEX Newton.The (Beuys) 112. 36. 34-35. 239 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat (Seurat) 112. and Webster.

57.158 158. 221 . 2 0 0 Ship in a Storm 1 9 8 . 2 7 studies: b i r d s 7 2 . Vincent 95 Chair 94.120. 2 2 6 .5 3 in l a n d s c a p e 2 0 6 . John 25 Flying Fish 25 Wild Striped Cat Sketches of ( G e r i c a u l t ) 28.1 4 1 . 65 symbols 138. 1 4 1 w a t e r c o l o r 25. 226 V Van Dyck. 1 4 4 .t o n e d r a w i n g 140. 186.d i m e n s i o n a l d r a w i n g 68. C y 138. 7 75 Telescope ( N e w t o n ) 9 2 . 97. 199 shoes 1 6 4 . 7 79 Shoshone petroglyph 240.2 0 1 . 7 77. T i m W e s t Fagade of the Church of St. 1 4 5 travel journal 2 0 . A l f r e d 1 1 .125 W o o d f i n e . 2 4 2 w Wallis. t h r e e . 2 2 0 influence o f 2 4 0 Untitled 220. 159 Wolfli. 2 1 2 . 161. W .216 W e b s t e r . 1 8 4 . 69. 74. 245 sharpener 54 Ship in a Storm ( T u r n e r ) 1 9 8 . 79. 7 6 1 spots.199 tissue p a p e r 21. 1 2 Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse 71. 75. 241. 53 trees. 230 t h r e e . v i e w s o f 85. 243 (Bosch) T Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos ( G o y a ) 2 4 0 . 7 70 Tiber 214-215 Untitled ( T w o m b l y ) 2 2 0 .243 Leonardo's machines 12.1 4 5 .J. Taylor A n i t a 115 All and Nothing 1 1 4 .12 W a l t e r . t o d r a w 2 0 0 . Sue see N o b l e .Sforza Horse. 76. 115. 1 9 9 . 158 V a n Eyck. 170 shoes 1 6 4 stylized m o t i f 51 Summer Flowers 63. 75 Skeleton of the Horse ( S t u b b s ) 26. t o d r a w 5 2 . 164. 141 Three Male Figures. 202 violin. t o draw 1 9 8 . 2 9 wind. 174 T w o m b l y . Man in Armor 1 5 8 . 199. phrased 146 tonal modeling 161 tonal range 169 t o n a l surfaces 2 2 7 tonal width 97 t o n e ( s ) 33. 9 4 z Z e n calligraphy 232-233 contrast 96 t o grade 163 ink 37 pencil 5 4 t o r t i l l o n 205 T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c . 156 Van Gogh. Paul 2 4 1 Achilles Chases Hector 2 4 0 . b l o w n 248 steel p e n s see d i p p e n s still life 89.41.141 S i m b l e t . 2 2 7 Untitled 2001 ( C a t l i n g ) u 263 W h i t e . 156 layers 7 5 6 priming for 140.s c r e e n p r i n t i n g 139 silver p o i n t 1 4 0 . 743 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City ( F r e n z ) 1 6 0 . 69. 182. A n t h o n y 152.241 s i l k . 1 3 . 104-105. 9 0 . 1 6 6 t r a p e z i u s m u s c l e 142. 7 6 Two Impressions from a Cut-Out Paper Disk ( H u g o ) 2 2 2 Two Monsters 2 4 2 . John: Focusing on the Negative 14 w a s h . M . Adolf: Giant-Grape Saint-Mary-Castle 219 Woman at Her Toilet ( T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c ) 74 w o o d b l o c k print 157.1 9 9 wire.2 1 3 Stubbs. 6 9 Wodall. 206-207 202. 2 3 4 . Sarah 9 4 Chair Cut Out 94. t o d r a w 1 0 1 viewfinder 57 Views from Velletri ( C l a u d e L o r r a i n ) 152. 2 3 0 tonal contrast 96 tonal distance 9 7 t o n a l d r a w i n g 9 6 . 9 2 Tesshu. t o lay 1 4 0 . 2 4 7 t h r e e . 725 fabric 1 6 8 T h o m a s . Study of (Michelangelo) 110. drawing with 104-105 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt ( G a u d i ) 68.1 6 5 shorthand diagram 142 Shoshone buffalo hide painting 178. 240 Two Women Embracing ( R o d i n ) 114. Jan 1 5 6 Maelbeke Madonna 1 5 6 . H e n r i de: Woman at Her Toilet 14 t r a n s p a r e n t v i e w 92. 1 6 .d i m e n s i o n a l 1 0 4 . 102-103 tonal marks.Yamaoka 233 t e x t u r e 2 2 2 . 77. G e o r g e 2 7 Skeleton of the Horse 26.1 8 5 Tree II ( M o n d r i a n ) 52. Augustin ( B a l t a r d ) 6 7 w e t and dry brush-strokes 2 4 9 Turner. 96. 1 8 4 . 9 5 pens 36 v a n i s h i n g p o i n t 74.9 1 storms.13 M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s m a l e figures 110.27 skull 747. 4 4 boat 209 botanical 4 9 G e r i c a u l t ' s cats 2 9 from Goya 170-173 125. Sarah: child's m a p 75. 1 4 1 . 49. 2 4 4 .1 0 5 vision 9 6 Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects (Grandville) 242. 1 4 0 . 1 9 9 Two Courtyards (Piranesi) 75. 249 t o describe 39. 7 1 4 . William 159 Satire of the Queen's Dress INDEX 226. h e a d a n d n e c k sections o f female m o l d f o r (Leonardo) 89 shading 2 9 s h a d o w s 28. 7 9 0 vessels. 1 7 7 free 8 0 V e n i c e .

b r i d g e m a n . a n d encouragement i n m a k i n g this book: M a m o r u Abe. Picture Credits 8: Corbis/Hubert Stadler. 199: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee des arts asiatiquesGuimet. Paris. 2 4 1 : Corbis/David M u e n c h ( b ) . 4 6 : B r i t i s h Library. Berlin (b). Diana Bell. B e r l i n .bridgeman. H a m b u r g .bridgeman. 225: Stephen P Huyler. Madrid. L e n . 221: Gagosian Gallery/Private Collection (b). 1 6 1 : D C C o m i c s I n c .co. 49: Hunterian Museum (t). 69: Institut Amatller d'Art Hispanic (tl). 1 . 6 6 : w w w .co.939). Kunstmuseum Bern. 2 4 5 : Oona Grimes. 2 2 0 : Mamaru Abe./Private Collection/© D A C S 2005. A . 2 2 3 : Lebrecht Music and Arts Photo Library/Ricordi. 11: www. Winthrop. A n d y C r a w f o r d for p h o t o g r a p h y a n d L . 176: Modem Art. 74: Corbis. 114: Musee Rodin.bridgeman. 9 1 : www.uk/Private Collection. R o s e m a r y S c o u l a r . 16: www. L o n d o n . u k / L o u v r e . George M c G a v i n . London/Bequeathed by Charles Landseer. Paris. 3 2 : Pepys Library. Paris a n d D A C S . 174: Artothek/Munich.uk /© Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery. 5 2 : T h e Metropolitan Museum of Art/Bequest of Mrs. Patty Stansfield. 30: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso.uk/British Museum. Carole A s h . Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (t). T o n y G r i s o n i . 181: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. 5 3 : Collection of the Gemeentemuseum D e n Haag/Mondrian Trust. B M G . Magdalene College Cambridge. U K .co.uk /Biblioteca Nacional.uk/Private Collection. L o n d o n . K a t h r y n W i l k i n s o n . a n d brushes o n pp. 1 5 4 : akg-images/Musee National d'Art Moderne. 1 5 6 : Graphische S a m m l u n g Albertina. Agnieszka Mlicka. Maureen Paley Interim Art (b). Italy. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. Fund. A . Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett.bridgeman. K u n s t m u s e u m . Rocio Arnaez./© D A C S 2 0 0 5 ( t ) . J o h n Walter. for s u p p l y i n g the d r a w i n g books. Paris a n d D A C S . 29: Fogg A n Museum/Collections Baron de Vita: Grenville L. F r a n c e .bridgeman. 113: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. 1901. C o r n e l i s o n & Son.co. 73: Berlin F i l m Museum (t). 115: Anita Taylor. Andy Crawford. 9 7 6 ) . Clare Bryan. Sarah D u n c a n . 2 1 8 : Adolf-Wdlfli-Stiftung. 7 0 : Studio Daniel L i b e s k i n d . Copyright Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens. u k / T o k y o National M u s e u m . © Tate. B e r l i n . Dover Publications/ISBN: 0486229912 (t). 243: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. Graphische Sammlung. Paula Regan. 88: www. Publisher's Acknowledgments Dorling Kindersley w o u l d like to thank Caroline H u n t for editorial contribution. Paris. L o n d o n . University of Oxford. b r i d g e m a n . Jackie Douglas. Wolfson College. b r i d g e m a n . 1 3 3 : Artothek/Kupferstichkabinett. Psychiatric Institute of the U n i v e r s i t y of Heidelberg. H e l e n S h u t t l e w o r t h . 1929 (29. Also. France. Paris. Jean Pierre Roy.uk/Guildhall Library. Paris and D A C S . 1 9 : Getty Images/© Succession Picasso / D A C S 2 0 0 5 .co.co. Carlo O r t u for picture research s u p p o r t . . Roddy Bell. 2 4 2 : Photo Scala. 9 2 : Science Photo L i b r a r y . u k / O n Loan to the H a m b u r g Kunsthalle.uk/Mucha Trust. 1 6 0 : Rene G R U A U s. M a n d y Earey. Sarah Woodfine. Kirsten Norrie. L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 .a. 1 3 4 : © T h e British Museum.l. 2 0 2 : © T h e British Museum. Japan. L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . 177: Mary Evans Picture Library. J o h n Roberts. 226: Brian Catling. R . Amsterdam. 1 5 : w w w . J a c k a n d Brian Catling. Sophie Laurimore. G e r m a n y . 2 2 2 : Pierre Georgel/Private Collection. Productions Clovis Prevost (c). c o . Natalie G o d w i n . 7 1 : I M E C / A r c h i v e s E r i k Satie. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin/Jorg P. 9 0 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/© A D A G P . Psychiatric Institute of the University of Heidelberg. 2 3 8 : akg-images. Berlin/Staatsbibliothek zu A l l other images © Sarah Simblet . (r). 1 3 6 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Centre Pompidou-MNAM-CCI. Sir Brinsley F o r d . 2 7 : Royal Academy of Arts. 1 9 8 : Dover Publications. A n n a P l u c i n s k a . Angela Palmer. papers. 1975 ( 1 9 7 5 . Basel. O. 1 3 5 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. L o n d o n . 1 3 8 : © Christie's Images Ltd/© A D AGP. 112: Yale University A r t Gallery/Everett V Meeks. support. K e w ft)).20-21 a n d 246-47. U K . Illustrated London News Picture Library/The Bystander (b). 1 9 6 : Museum of the History of Science. Lisbon. Anita Taylor. London/courtesy of Stuart Shave. 2 2 4 : P r i n z h o m Collection. 1 1 0 : www. and Tamsin Woodward Smith. University of Cambridge. P h y l l Kiggell. 13: www. 17: J o h n Walter. F i n n . 4 8 : T h e N a t u r a l H i s t o r y M u s e u m . 75: © The British Museum (b). Pamela Ellis for compiling the index. c o . 5 0 : Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (1). 130: The Metropolitan M u s e u m of Art/Robert L e h m a n Collection./Galerie Sylvie Nissen. R o y a n d D i a n n e Simblet. . S i m o n L e w i s .co. B e m d Kunzig. O o n a G r i m e s . Angela W i l k e s . Salisbury & South W i l t s h i r e M u s e u m ( t ) . K u n s t m u s e u m Bern/© D A C S 2 0 0 5 . c o . Anders. 2 4 4 : Ashmolean Museum.100. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett.uk/Musee des Augustins. 1 0 8 : Arts C o u n c i l Collection. Paul T h o m a s ( t ) .bridgeman. 1879.bridgeman. Orientabteilung/Ruth Schacht. a n d D e p a r t m e n t s o f E n t o m o l o g y a n d Zoology at the University of Oxford. 2 4 0 : w w w . 3 3 : Prinzhom Collection. 1 7 8 : © T h e British M u s e u m / H e n r y Moore F o u n d a t i o n . 3 1 : Tom Powel Imaging. 157: U C L Art Collections . H e a t h e r M c C a r r y . Toulouse. 158: Calouste Gulbenkian Museum.Strang Print Room ( b ) . Staatliche Museen z u Berlin. H . 180: www. Antonia Cunliffe Davis. G e r m a n y . H a y w a r d Gallery. 2 4 : © T h e British Museum. Inc. K e v i n a n d Rebecca Slingsby. Germany. G i n a R o w l a n d . 1 5 9 : Bodleian Library. Paul T h o m a s . Sammy De Grave. 72: akg-images. Portugal. 2 0 0 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France.bridgeman. Paris/ © Succession Picasso / D A C S 2005. Florence/MoMA. Oxford. Flossie.Paris ( b ) . NY. Anders/ © D A C S 2 0 0 5 . R u t h P a r k i n s o n .r. 139: Galerie Marion Meyer/© Man Ray Trust / A D A G P . 68: www.uk/Private Collection. 137: © The British Museum. D a w n Henderson.uk/Kettle's Yard. 9 3 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. Corporation of London.co. 2 8 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. L o n d o n (t). 179: www. 51: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. Paris. 9 5 : V a n Gogh M u s e u m . 2 0 1 : T h e Royal Collection © 2 0 0 2 H e r Majesty Queen Elizabeth I I . Julie O u g h t o n . J o n Roome. Christopher Davis. Paris. B . 111: Fondation Beyeler/Riehen (Bale)/© Succession H Matisse/DACS 2005. 132: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso.264 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Acknowledgments Author's Acknowledgments: T h e author wishes to thank the following people for their enormous help. L o n d o n . 9 4 : Sarah Woodfine. Peter L u f f . T h e R u s k i n School of D r a w i n g a n d Fine A r t . 2 2 7 : Paul Klee Stiftung. 2 0 3 : Clare Bryan (t).bridgeman. London 2005. 2 6 : Topfoto. Germany/Joerg P.co. Havemeyer.co.

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