An innovative, practical approach to drawing the world around you
FOR T H E ARTIST
FOR THE ARTIST
LONDON • NEW YORK MELBOURNE • MUNICH • DELHI Senior Editor Paula Regan Senior Art Editor Mandy Earey Art Editor Anna Plucinska Managing Editor Julie Oughton Managing Art Editor Heather McCarry Art Director Peter Luff Publishing Director Jackie Douglas Production Joanna Bull DTP Designer Adam Walker Picture Research Sarah Smithies US Editor Christine Heilman First American Edition, 2 0 0 5 First Paperback Edition, 2 0 0 9 Published in the United States by DK Publishing 3 7 5 Hudson Street New York, New York 1 0 0 1 4 10 11 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3
6 8 20 22 Master Builders The Order of Sound Future Fictions Pathways of Sight Single-Point Perspective Creating an Imaginary Space Further Aspects of Perspective Theaters Venetian Life Parisian Street
68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86
Foreword Introduction Drawing Books and Papers Posture and Grip
Objects and Instruments
TD075-July 2009 Copyright © 2 0 0 5 Dorling Kindersley Limited Text and authors artworks © Sarah Simblet 2 0 0 4 Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited A Cataloging-in-Publication record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN 9 7 8 - 0 - 7 5 6 6 - 5 1 4 1 - 1 Color reproduction by GRB, Italy Printed and bound in China by Toppan
Still Life Instruments of Vision Bench Marks Light and Illusions Further Illusions How to Draw Ellipses Tonality Drawing with Wire Artifacts and Fictions
90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106
Documentaries Presence and Mood Movement Icon and Design Pen and Ink Drawing with Ink Capturing Character Sleeping Dogs Turtles Dry Birds
26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44
Postures and Poses Choreographs Passion Measurement and Foreshortening Quick Poses Hands and Feet Charcoal Hands Phrasing Contours The Visual Detective La Specola
110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128
Plants and Gardens
Botanical Studies Jeweled Gardens Fast Trees Graphite and Erasers Cropping and Composition Negative Space Fig Tree Summer Flowers Acanthus Spinosus
48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64
Discover more at
Projections Magnetic Fields The Human Condition Disposable Pens The Travel Journal Catching the Moment Grand Canal Crossings Caravans The Big Top
174 Abstract Lines
176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 Process and Harmony Writing Time Chants and Prayers Compositions Being "Just" Collage Zen Calligraphy Nocturnes
220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234
Poise Anatomies Revelations Self-Portraits Silver Point Head and Neck Essential Observations Drawing Portraits Generations Castings
132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 152
Earth and the Elements
Air in Motion Storms Nature Profiles Charcoal Landscapes Drawing in the Round Decaying Boat Cloudburst Notes of Force Mountains
198 200 202 204 206 208 210 212 214 216
Gods and Monsters
Marks of Influence Hauntings Convolutions Brushes Brush Marks Monsters Goya's Monsters Consumed Glossary Index Acknowledgments
240 242 244 246 248 250 252 254 256 259 264
Cloth and Drapery Character Costumes Femmes Fatales Colored Materials Study and Design The Structure of Costume Textures and Patterns Dressing Character Posture Carving
156 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172
from schoolchildren to senior citizens. and makers of special effects. I will always draw. fashion designer. Combine these things and the possibilities are endless. and their importance to so many artists. or a quantum physicist trying to see for themselves the fluctuations of our universe. shape. and size. in which he describes himself flying and diving in his imagination through pictorial caverns of knowledge. and experience. a sculptor. remain unseen by most. We can all learn how to draw.
. Chosen in any color. who tells me firmly upon approach that they cannot draw. where I expect them to be discovered by some people. and local c o m m u n i t y classes. and feeling. art schools. It is my love of these. but because it is how I engage with and anchor myself in life. we learn
to feel truly alive. a drawing book is the perfect portable private vehicle for your imminent exploration of drawing. a cartographer charting the land. I also make drawing books. doctors. aspirations. we have looked at. or engineer. understood (and often misunderstood) our own bodies. by invitation. Augustine his notes on memory. For twelve years I have enjoyed the privilege of teaching drawing. not only to make art. where spaces are shaped by nothing more than the objects and activities contained within them. For me personally. They occupy a shelf in my studio. and through which I can see how I think. By using our imaginations. a composer notating a musical score. night security staff. be they a child discovering their vision and dexterity. Drawing occupies a unique place in every artist and creator's life. I work with people of diverse ages. texture. Drawing is a mirror through which I understand my place in the world. These inspirations led me to invent museums. we learn to see it. drawing is the immediate expression of seeing. It is a tool for investigating ideas and recording knowledge. Some are more traditionally framed and hung in galleries for solo or group exhibitions. still standing by the door. architect.Foreword
Y DRAWING THE WORLD AROUND
US. Others can be held in the h a n d or. and I refer back to them for years after they are made. and a reflector of experience. thinking. I was also reading among The Confessions of St. geologists. as a visiting professor at universities. that inspired the title and structure
MEMORY T H E A T E R S
This pen-and-ink drawing was made from imagination during research for my PhD.
of Sketch Book for the Artist. I know that with their cooperation I can soon prove them wrong. The very first step is to believe it. are made outside as discreet installations. and in a few sessions they will be flying. Some of my drawings cover entire walls. The most rewarding challenge is always the newcomer. especially as travel journals. perhaps hidden on a door hinge or a street bench rail. It makes me feel excited to be alive. through history. undergraduates to fellow professors. They enfold their viewer and are made on joined sheets of paper that I reach by climbing ladders. I was training in anatomy and studying how. and be slowly washed or worn away.
logos. signs. not just chosen pictures on our walls but everywhere—maps. like a great canvas for them to mark.000-9500 bce
. At home and at work we doodle.Theseancient silhouettes were drawn with earth pigments rubbed onto rock. The sense of relief we may feel from the information overload of modern commercial life when visiting a country in which we can no longer read every written word. We can always read each others drawings. waving to us from many thousands of yearsago. a great crowd is raising their hands in greeting. Children cannot be restrained from running across the pristine white lawn of newly fallen snow. scrawling shapes and cartoons when on the telephone. Rio Pinturas
13. They have a natural affinity to many modern graffiti signatures. We are bombarded with linear and tonal pictorial information. and we spend our lives reading it. Cueva de las Marios. graffiti. and patterns on our clothes. but more often because drawing actually helps us to focus and take in what is said. packaging. in lectures.
"CAVE OF THE HANDS"
In this drawing. irreverent to language barriers. We are surrounded by drawings in our daily lives. and in meetings. inscribing every fresh part of it with their eager scrapes and trails.8
Where We Begin
There is a fundamental drive in our human nature to make a mark. Drawing is international. Sometimes we draw because we are bored. is not afforded us by drawing. Most adults still feel that certain exquisite pleasure on arriving at a beach to find the tide out and the sand perfect.
MAKING OUR MARK
It seems reasonable to assume that we have engaged in pictorial mark-making for as long as we have made conscious use of our hands. like all toddlers. Eyelashes take up as much of my attention as the head itself. enjoying the physical sensation of crayon on paper. The image above is what I gave back to my mother. I was sitting with my mother. On a particular afternoon in September 1974." Until this day. and she kept it as my first step beyond the delighted realms of scrawl. Even though it is made by a toddler this image would be recognizable to anyone. and belonging to place. Cave art was not made for decoration but as a fundamental part of life. created by societies of hunter-gatherers. In cave paintings like the one opposite. and the appearance of my strikes of colors. we see our oldest surviving images. the hair of my first portrait was most important. I. reflecting my experience of looking closely at my father's face.
. I now think this is a picture of proximity. power. but I had never yet attempted to figuratively picture my world. at age two-anda-half. had happily scribbled.9
WHERE WE BEGIN
FIRST PORTRAIT For sorre forgotten reason. She gave me a notepad and a red crayon and asked me to draw her "a picture of Daddy. who in their day-to-day hardship made time to picture themselves and the animals on which they depended. an expression of existence.
PEN-AND-INK BEE This tiny drawing has been enlarged to show its texture and composition. Hours are lost immersed in the glorious world of imagination. to help a stranger see their way W h e n taking first steps in relearning h o w to draw. then drag o u r line into a loop. for example. At this point many will insist they cannot draw. Young children love to draw.
T h e r e is a point in all o u r lives w h e n w e first c o n t r o l o u r mark and m a k e it a line. and this activity plays a vital role in their d e v e l o p m e n t . yet still turn to drawing w h e n their verbal language fails or is inadequate. Don't b e p e r s u a d e d to draw in a w a y s o m e o n e else
. and from that first unit build and describe the shape of something or someone we know. But as adolescents. most of us stop. It was made with a few bold strokes of a steel pen dipped in ink to conjure the dried bee I was holding between my fingers on a pin. As you progress. it is important to value your natural abilities a n d ways of seeing. h o w e v e r small a n d u n f o r m e d y o u believe they are. b e p r o u d o f what m a k e s y o u r w o r k individual to y o u . W e do n o t hesitate to draw a map. Inhibitions creep in and ideas of good a n d b a d terminate confidence.
you must decide whether to keep or discard it. Think how much would have been lost if anyone had interfered with Alfred Wallis' personal sense of proportion and perspective in the exquisite drawing above.11
A UNIQUE SIGHT
This innocent yet sophisticated drawing of boats. Enjoy the control of your own journey. and which aspects of the vast wealth and diversity of graphic language would be most appropriate to their goals. As you read this b o o k and perhaps attend art classes.
Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse
c. After experimenting and trying each new idea. I ask them their reasons for drawing. The journey of every artist demands hard work and discipline.
. He used leftover ship and yacht paint with crayons on cut-out pieces of cardboard boxes. He was a retired Cornish fisherman and junk dealer who began drawing at the age of 70 "for company" after his wife died. I meet students struggling unhappily with a particular method of drawing. but it does help to set out facing in the right direction. remember that all advice is only advice. Someone once told them they must draw in this way. 1925-42 53/8x87/8in (135 x 225 mm) ALFRED WALLIS
prefers and tells you is better. and they have never questioned why.
Occasionally. what they most want to achieve. harbor and sea is one of many that Alfred Wallis made from memory while sitting at home.
embedded in this book. There are only artists. Below. We also see differently ourselves. The art historian Professor Sir Ernst Gombrich.and collarbones and shoulder blades of a different bird almost become new creatures in themselves. right.
IDEAS A N D I N V E N T I O N S
These active machines. depending on the occasion and our purpose." The clarity and empowerment of these words. perhaps for comfort or ease as a left-hander or a habitual enjoyment of the challenge. clear-minded understanding of the sea. be visionary. author of The Story of Art. but it should be the experienced world we draw. boats.
Screws and Water
LEONARDO DA VINCI
The flutter of faint scratches that dance across the pages on the right is an attempt to see the movement and bony weightlessness of a bird. The observed world may be our subject. we can drive out its spirit. it may not be accurate to our critical adult eye. I hope. There should neve: be a slavish obligation to represent things exactly as we collectively agree we see them. is. "There really is no such thing as Art. 11). all raise water From the Archimedes' screw to Leonardo's own cupped wheel. wrote as the opening line of this great work. but the child in us knows that this is an all-embracing. the breast. We all see differently. Our imaginations are the tools with which we can increase the essence of life. the page bristles with the focus of ideas.12
All artists see the world differently. If as artists we nail a subject down too hard. When we look back at Wallis' seascape (see p. and breathtaking wind of a choppy harbor. not for disguise but as a personal choice. They are also always written backward. and lose the very thing that attracted us to it. and inspire others. There are countless reasons for drawing. His notes visually balance his drawings.
My drawings of a housemartin (opposite top) illustrate the importance of repeated study.
. it may be best to start afresh. Opposite. It will be invested through your experience in the new drawing. Don't be disheartened.
stripped-down parts. to express the beauty in a moment's play of light.13
should not try to know how every finished picture will look. but it is important to be clear why we are making it. while below. I drew to understand the apparatus of flight. Leonardo drew to invent a machine. or illustrate a dream. More was learned drawing the bird 18 times than would have been understood drawing it only once or twice. conduct an experiment. Each fresh image reflects growing confidence and the experience of the preceding study. Our drawings are annotated investigations into the mechanisms of nature and of an idea. This also applies if struggling at length with a larger picture. Decide before you start whether you are drawing to warm up. or to discover the best use of a new material. drawing in pursuit of our own thoughts and understanding. We have both covered our paper with focused. time spent is not lost. when it looks tired and still feels wrong. make a calculation. shout against a terrible injustice.
Landscape in Haboku Style 15TH CENTURY
. and spirit of each subject was held strongly but loosely between the fingertips. it should be responding to the sensation and meaning of the subject it draws. metal. I made it almost unconsciously with a pen and a brush. It denies the importance of accident. Know the texture.
T h e gliding poise of this walking anatomy comes as much from the feeling of movement as it does from the feeling of drawing. ink. bone. trusting my intuition to find a visual equivalence for the sensation of weight within my body. The physicality. balance. declare the idea. These two brush drawings. If you can do this. This is the alchemy of drawing. and what you discover in the process of making. and at speeds beyond conscious thought. and we can just make out the distant stains of mountains. and paper. This suits many artists well and is perfectly valid. silk. the unknown. are both made of ink laid onto wet paper with speed and agile certainty. or ice—you must actually feel it beneath your fingers as you draw. However. depth. Imagine these qualities so strongly that you feel them in your mind and at your fingertips. They each allowed the energy and focus of the moment to be expressed through controlled accident and a degree of the unknown Both drawings were made trusting the marks. meaning. Whatever the material— wood.14
At school. excessive planning can get in the way of the imagination. As your hand meets the paper to make a mark. As you draw any subject—something you see. and practice each part before putting the final image together. or imagine—it is not enough to only render its shape. temperature. fire. and how it feels to the touch. mists. Our position asvieweris unsteady. explain the composition. and sometimes beyond. created centuries and cultures apart. size. and allowed to flow through the brush. We are caught in a shifting focus that makes everything fluid. and an island brushed with trees.
This is a detail of a brush-and-ink drawing by a Japanese Buddhist monk. W e float toward the quiet vista as it also moves toward us. You must also think of its intrinsic nature: its purpose. Each image relied upon past experience to know the probable behavior of the brush. water. and opacity of your subject. your marks will become the subject on the paper. and position in space. which can offer keys to other things. feel. we are advised or even required to plan our pictures.
one of many luminous works in watercolor. made by a young British artist who creates alphabets o f the absurd f r o m familiar childhood characters.
Focusing on the Negative 2004
22 x 30 in (56 x 76 cm)
J O H N WALTER
PLACE A N D MOMENT
The heat and teeming atmosphere o f this Parisian dressing room. He dazzles us with flashes o f light and dabbed marks o f shadow. left. Lautrec's flamboyant splashes o f petticoats and pantaloons are drawn with long sweeps of chalk and brushed oil paint.1896
Woman at her Toilet
41 x 26 in (104 x 66 cm)
RIB-CAGE D R A M A
Thus drama. stand table-sized with furniture legs attached t o b o t h sides of their jacket. W a l t e r also makes books: some. more than 100 years after its making. right is set inside a rib cage. like folded insects. acrylic. lives on. gold leaf and spray paint. which evoke realities o f place and the p o w e r o f moment. pastel.
Start by choosing a material you like the look of and cover a piece of paper with different marks. With no help and advice at all. Drawing is exploratory. take your time and don't worry if you need to make several attempts to grasp a concept. try not to grip your pen worrying about the technical terms you might have heard. and mistakes are a valuable process of learning. Put them away and look at them later. you will naturally make progress on your own in response to concentration and the decision to look and draw. Much will be learned on these test sheets and in your first drawings.17
FREEING THE HAND
If you are just beginning to learn how to draw. Choose other materials and do the same. It is yours. Enjoy discovering what your hand and the material can do. One of the advantages of a drawing book is that you can shut it. Pages do not have to lie open for other people to inspect and comment on. at a point when you feel you are not making progress. Try to keep all of your first drawings. potential ideas still forming. you will be surprised and encouraged to see how far you have come.
. diary-like observations. Such books are personal: the territory of new exploration and experiment. just through the act of making. As you follow lessons in this book. even those you dislike. Ignore these at first and allow yourself the freedom to play. and miscellaneous items of inspiration.
staring straight through his image of a bull. Look to your own experience and also learn from the work of others.Their elegant strength seems to summon a lifetime of drawing. it is this voice that is the subtle part of their art and something that ultimately.18
THE THINKING EYE
Techniques and materials are the grammar and vocabulary of drawing and can be studied and shared. but not confined to them. Imagination needs nourishment. The real drawing book has yet to come. However. the path is yours. Once there. and many more reasons for drawing the world. which is held frozen in space by a camera lens. Its sensuous and flowing line seems to drift like smoke. comes from within. adapting its form and occupation. It rarely flourishes in isolation. In the total wealth of these pages. and enfolding new media. Note that the drawing classes are allocated to subjects. I was particularly attracted to their gentle articulation and understated determination. Picasso is poised smiling. The chapters of this book present 90 different artists' ways of seeing. This practical journey will take you through the door into the vivid heart of drawing. threedimensionally. An artist's personal voice is something that also evolves through lessons learned. Drawing is a living language that over millennia has grown and changed. it will be your creation as you discover your own personal vision.
Picasso Painting with Light at the Madoura Pottery
. when they are more experienced.
With a penlight.
A N ARTIST'S HANDS
These are the hands of the artist Phyll Kiggell (see p. To these I have added my own drawings to explain elementary materials and techniques and offer introductory approaches. and became a great subject for me. Picasso has just finished his drawing. which of course he cannot see. caught between action and repose. seek ideas in the life around you. As you draw. 150). we still only glimpse a corner of the magnitude of this subject and the infinity of what can be achieved.
b o u n d p a d if y o u w i s h t o keep your drawings together long-term. 5. It is also useful to own a portfolio. 6. Dissecting a d i s c a r d e d h a r d . color.B O U N D PADS: T h e s e are t h e least expensive a n d useful f o r o p e n i n g flat. thickness. F o r traveling. cheap corrugated plastic ones fall apart in days.20
Drawing Books and Papers
T o BEGIN YOUR EXPLORATION o f d r a w i n g . and cost. stitched. be sure they fit comfortably under your arm.C O V E R E D H A R D B O U N D : Ideal f o r c a r r y i n g a r o u n d . binding. These are perfect f o r w o r k i n g in novels. y o u n e e d a
lifetime. H o w e v e r r i n g bindings o f t e n break. and glued t o a s t r i p o f bias binding. it is better to have them made at a lumber yard or home improvement store. cut. ties on either side to keep your papers in place.
drawing book. Calculate a range of useful dimensions and have several cut at once. a n d crayons. and collage their ideas. b e a w a r e t h a t p a p e r t e x t u r e effects a n d changes t h e i r marks. catalogs. a l e n g t h o f black elastic t i e d a r o u n d t h e m i d d l e will h o l d the contents together w h e n y o u f o l d in c o l l e c t e d items. t h e i r jackets w i l l a c t like d r a w i n g b o a r d s a n d p r o t e c t y o u r w o r k . and handles to lift the weight of your artworks. Alternatively. F o r e v e n i n g classes. They can be very expensive in art stores.q u a l i t y r i n g . thick enough not to flex. texture. quality. A high-quality one will last a
Select d r a w i n g b o o k s t o suit y o u r aims. C O L O R E D PAPERS: Large a r t supply stores o f t e n sell t h i c k b o o k s full o f c o l o r e d p a p e r s . 4. BLACK P O C K E T B O O K S : Hand-sized w i t h ready-made elastic binder and a marker ribbon. Sand the edges to avoid splinters. 2. T h e hardb o a r d j a c k e t is s t r e t c h e d w i t h canvas beneath t h e p a p e r sleeve. F O U N D B O O K S : O l d p r i n t e d 3 . a n d r e f e r e n c e b o o k s f o u n d in s e c o n d .b o u n d b o o k w i l l s o o n s h o w y o u h o w it is m a d e . You simply need two strong boards hinged together well. Drawing boards are invaluable. Art students often make use of printed books picked up from secondhand stores into which they draw.
Tantalus o r The Future of Man
81/2 x61/4in (215 x 158 mm) ROSE MILLER
. Smooth plywood. c h o o s e larger f o r m a t s t o give y o u s c o p e f o r e x p e r i m e n t .h a n d s t o r e s make unique subjects f o r e x p e r i m e n t s a n d collage. Gleaming store purchases vary greatly in format. Most contain thin p a p e r and are perfect f o r use w i t h disposable pens.
1. H O M E M A D E : I m a d e this b o o k f r o m drawing paper that I folded. Homemade books can be assembled easily from found materials or selections of loose sheet papers. If you intend to carry your boards for a distance. t h i s is h o w I l e a r n e d . C A N V A S . which are also sold in an enormous range. c o l o r If planning t o use pencils. is perfect. Purchase a h i g h . N o t e t h e w i d e l y differing c h o i c e o f p a p e r s w i t h w h i c h t h e s e are m a d e . There are dozens to choose from. R I N G . study the structure of a good portfolio and make your own. Many artists invent ways o f binding their o w n books. c h o o s e s m a l l e r h a r d . pastels.b o u n d b o o k s t h a t fit in y o u r p o c k e t o r bag.
C A N S O N : Inexpensive lightweight pastel paper in many colors. Use cheap paper for rough ideas and quality paper for work to last See the glossary ( p p . Use with a brush in clean water Water makes a dark mark like ink and becomes invisible again when dry. and white. white textured paper that can take abrasive use of any medium.Papers differ in thickness (weight). and hot pressed papers. SAUNDERS WATERFORD N O T 300GMS: Mid-quality textured watercolor paper. 13. resisting deterioration. 21. also good for drawing with colored pencils. 12. 10. 100% cotton and sold in sheets. Ph. 20. red. 18. absorbency. used to imprint lines of these colors onto a surface. It is also excellent for drawing with marker pens on layered sheets.
. blocks. tough. GLASSINE: Sold as protective wrapping. FABRIANO INGRES: Thin. from pencil to paint 9. C A R B O N PAPER: Available in dark and light blue. fine. AQUARELLE ARCHES 300GMS:The very top quality hot-pressed (smooth) watercolor paper. bamboo. T W O RIVERS GREEN 410G MS: Very heavy tinted textured cold-pressed watercolor paper See Two Rivers Yellow. Cotton papers are high-quality and acid-free. mold-. They are hand-. pastel paper in flecked pastel colors with a distinctive ribbed marking. and cream sheets or rolls. FABRIANO ACADEMIA: Standard medium-range multipurpose paper Use with any media. 2 5 6 . not. yellow. smooth. METALLIC PAPER: Thin paper in different metallic colors. For use with any media. it is made from rice. 8. ITALIAN PARCHMENT: Imitation-animal-skin parchment that is translucent and slightly waxy. turning brown and brittle. JAPANESE PAPER: Strong. 14. 11. 17. and cost. It is available in white or cream. Cheap wood-pulp papers are acidic. printed on one side only. mulberry. VELIN ARCHES 250GMS: Printmaking paper available in black white. 16. texture. or rolls. and translucent. and rolls. T W O RIVERS Y E L L O W 410GMS: See Two Rivers Green 19. 22. or machine made in sheets. cold.5 9 ) for explanations of rough. color.TISSUE PAPER: Place sheets between drawing book pages to keep images from printing on each other and use for delicate collage.
7. MAGIC PAPER: A reusable sheet for testing ideas without creating waste. size. and other plant fibers. 15. FABRIANO R O U G H 600GMS: Very heavy. Use for brushwork drawings. blocks.
116-17). From a distance you will spot errors you cannot see close up. a n d h a n d to the fingertips. a n d look to the left of it at your subject.
SPACE TO WORK
Cramped grip. your drawing will reflect this. strangledlooking drawings. Placing your easel o n the w r o n g side folds y o u r b o d y against your drawing arm. place it on the correct side: if right-handed. You cannot draw like this—your hand is locked and your fingers can barely move. Turning your drawing sideways or upside-own will also help reveal what is wrong. but wherever possible. Accelerated perspective also occurs if you look down the surface steeply (see pp. make sure you have enough room to back away and view your work. place it on your left. but you need to understand that the expression of a line or mark originates in the body and flows t h r o u g h the shoulder. and subject. You do not have to dance to draw. With your hand in this position. flowing space between your hand.
Relaxed fingers: Hold the pencil away from its tip and relax your fingers. don't sit too close to the paper. How you hold your drawing materials is also important. If using an upright easel. you
Drawing classes can be cramped places. There should be an open. This cramped grip tires your hand and makes small. arm. If your body posture is well balanced and you can move freely. Use the side of your little fingernail as a support on the page.
. This photograph illustrates how some people hold a pen to write. your whole relaxed b o d y should be involved. or with your drawing board angled between your lap and a chair. In this book we will look at parallels between drawing and music. If seated on a b e n c h easel (a donkey). place it on your right. and look to the right. should be able to look comfortably straight ahead at your picture plane. b u t it should n o t be forgotten that many people make remarkable a n d striking works drawing with their feet or holding their brush or pencil in their mouths. Ideally. you can draw lines freely and achieve a significant arc of movement. Regularly step back 6-9 ft (2-3 m) to check your progress. your lines will distort. Examples are shown here. It will also reflect discomfort if you are in any way cramped. There are also parallels to dance. body. if left-handed.22
Posture and Grip
T o DRAW WELL. If your hand twists to maneuver between the paper and your body.
not up to the paper Brushes can be used on upright paper but dip Anticipating effects: A fully loaded pens need a level surface.
. This can be used to great effect. or change to the wrong hand. and body are not restricted. or it can spoil your work if not anticipated. To stop this. Large amounts of ink can be applied without fear of uncontrolled running if the paper is flat. upright way of holding the brush near its base is similar to the Japanese way used in Zen calligraphy (see pp.
Remember that gravity affects the flow of ink and paint.232-33). depending upon what it is and how large you are working. arm. roughly marking out a large-scale work. If you turn a brush or dip pen up into the air to draw above your hand.
There are no rules as to how you should hold your drawing media.
POSTURE AND GRIP
U n f a m i l i a r i t y : T h e habitual
movements of our handwriting style will sometimes infringe upon our drawing. It is most comfortable when reaching to draw above your head. liquid will run down your hand. brush pressed against an upright surface will cause a dribble of ink to run down your drawing.
Brush calligraphy: This comfortable.
Short materials such as pastels and charcoal can be accommodated in the palm. hold your material as you find most comfortable. Remember you can also draw just by dipping your fingers in pigment—this is how many women draw in rural India. alternative way of holding the pencil.23
This loose "candle" grip is very useful when drawing with your arm extended. find an unfamiliar. This can give a new lease on life to your mark-making. But be careful not to tense your fingers. As long as your fingers.
Facial features were analyzed in terms of their animal likeness. 1590
J O H N WHITE
capture form and movement from the m a n n e r i s m s of honking geese. which are so unlike ours. we turn and take the features of beasts.m o u n t e d skeletons of birds. to be there at the m o m e n t of discovery. As children we delight in the humanized trials of Tom and Jerry and their c a r t o o n relations. they are perhaps our favorite pictorial preoccupation..
JOHN WHITE British artist.Animals
UMANS HAVE DRAWN ANIMALS
from the beginning of our time. each dedicated to the moralized tale of an animal or monster The bestiary profoundly influenced the art of its period. 1540. birds. out are now oxidized and so appear black
W h e n less preoccupied with understanding ourselves. Europeans on board had never seen such a thing. and people. and pioneer born c. In 19th-century Europe this became a "science. sleeping dogs. Together they made maps and documented animals. werewolves. m u s e u m . Framed in the z o o or in domestic cohabitation. We have drawn
them on the walls of caves to evoke their kinship and power. This drawing is made in black lead (metal point) with watercolor Highlights of silver would have gleamed. bats. mermaids. and learn how to
c. Here (left) we see J o h n White's exquisite record of a flying fish. White's commission was to ". plants. we have employed artists on expeditions. insects. W e have drawn them in m a n u s c r i p t s to explain our genesis and to c o u n t their species into Noah's ark. their different speeds and patterns of action. After the subject of
ourselves. On the Roanoke voyages of Sir Walter Raleigh. from which personality and predicted behavior were " d e d u c e d . O v e r the centuries. dogs. and dragons. the Latin bestiary was one of the most popular picture books—an illustrated dictionary of one hundred parts. and we still see escapees from its pages carved and grinning as the gargoyles of churches. animals provide a perfect subject with which to begin. and this very drawing was to endure many copies and plagiarisms after its triumphant return to the English court of Queen Elizabeth I.drawe to lief one of each kinde of thing that is strange to us in England. " Animals perpetually feed our imaginations. In this chapter we discover the use of pens and ink through the delineation of insects. offer challenges and delights to draw. who described in words what White drew.
11 x91/4in (277 x 234 mm)
. and to bring h o m e drawn documentaries of their finds. and silent. In medieval England. and snakes have between them engendered harpies. For the novice artist. or scampering through the initials and borders of pictures from that time. which very likely leaped o n t o the deck of Sir Walter Raleigh's ship Tiger as it sailed north from the Caribbean to Virginia in 1585.. floating turtles. cartographer." Paranoid newcomers c r a m m e d into swelling industrial cities used handbooks of physiognomy to identify and judge their neighbors." He worked with the scientist Thomas Harriot. W h e n lost to explain our own emotions. fish.
It was to become the animal's only accepted likeness for 250 years. The first live rhinoceros to reach Europe came from India in May 1515. printmaker. Carefully stuffed. and wrote four books on proportion. writer. Stubbs's Anatomy of the Horse achieved similar documentary status.26
horse are superb affirmations of the power of drawing as a recorder and communicator of knowledge.
DURER'S RHINOCEROS AND STUBBS'S skeletal
Durer. it continued its journey to Rome. a gift to the Portuguese King. the ship was lost. Sailing to Rome. naturalist. a drawing of it arrived in Nuremberg. Converted into a print. Durer traveled widely to study at different European schools of art. the home of
ALBRECHT DURER German Renaissance painter. Meanwhile. inspiring countless works of art and so touching people's imaginations that later.
Life-like This is Durer's original quill-and-ink drawing made after an anonymous Portuguese drawing. when more accurate portrayals were made without armor and scales. years after its publication. filled journals with ideas and observations. He studied the image and drew his own interpretation. Unsurpassed. Durer's image changed eager hands until it was known across Europe. Contemporary texts related accounts of the beast as the mortal enemy of the elephant and rare relative of the "more common" unicorn. they were rejected.
Original Ink Drawing of a Rhinoceros
103/4 x 161/2 in ( 2 7 4 x 4 2 0 mm)
. draftsman. It is such a lifelike triumph of imagination and intelligence that for centuries zoologists never questioned its authority. but the drowned animal washed ashore. and mathematician. He in turn sent the mysterious creature to the Pope via Marseilles at the request of the King of France. it is still consulted by veterinarians today.
a n d anatomist. Anatomy of the Horse. Dissections were made over a total of 18 months. L o n d o n .
knowledge of parts. naturalist.
Lighting Stubbs's breathtaking international
is no other work like it. Stubbs w a s o n e o f t h e first E u r o p e a n artists t o m a k e a n a c c u r a t e representation o f the rhinoceros. He translated his own drawings into engravings for publication. His painted p o r t r a i t o f t h e b e a s t is in t h e R o y a l C o l l e g e o f S u r g e o n s o f England. c o m p r i s e s 1 8 p l a t e s s h o w i n g d i s s e c t i o n s in l a y e r s f r o m b o n e t h r o u g h m u s c u l a t u r e t o skin. He composed makes each horse appear so real and
each plate from his three-dimensional. The entire project was developed over ten years.
Table of the
III of the Horse (rear
Skeleton view) mm)
1 4 x 7 in ( 3 5 4 x 1 8 0 GEORGE STUBBS
. Stubbs's m o s t c e l e b r a t e d publication. composed from notes and observations.
Dissections Stubbs took his knife and his pencil and physically climbed inside the horse. and therefore invented the lighting that Compare how Stubbs and Durer both invented lighting to portray the reality of their animals. a n d s i d e . which has never diminished. dissecting and drawing until he understood the mechanisms of its power and grace. This is one of Stubbs' original finished pencil drawings. in t h r e e v i e w s — r e a r f r o n t .GEORGE STUBBS
B r i t i s h e q u i n e a n d s o c i e t y p o r t r a i t painter.
His copious drawings are characterized by mixed media. novelist. linseed oil soaked into the paper has made shadows and repelled the ink to create translucent tentacles. sepia. saying ". and all sorts of bizarre concoctions which manage to convey above all in mind. By contrast. drawing her again and again to pin d o w n the texture of her loose skin. Hugo's novels Les Miserables and Dame have become classics of film and stage. and
1866-69 91/2 x81/8in (242 x 207 mm) VICTOR H U G O
.". Apparently drawn in its o w n ink. H u g o mixed his media and drew from m e m o r y and imagination to create narrative atmosphere. it silently rises to the light. He wrote to poet and art critic Charles-Pierre Baudelaire about his experiments. He has w a t c h e d her p o u n c e . Gericault's sheet a p p e a r s almost s c r a t c h e d b y the f e r o c i o u s play of his cat.. ink and linseed oil on paper. and leader of the French Romantic movement..28
Presence and Mood
THESE DRAWINGS HAVE BEEN CHOSEN to s h o w t w o v e r y different ways of picturing a wild animal. her b o n y frame. Hugo's page is f l o o d e d w i t h the fearful presence of a remembered octopus.
VICTOR HUGO Poet.
The Hunchback of Notre
Layers and shadows Throughout this drawing. and her distinctive temperament. I've ended up mixing in pencil. playwright. Gericault took a sharp p e n c i l to m a k e repeated direct o b s e r v a t i o n s f r o m life. her sharp teeth. The octopus is formed in layers applied and distressed with a brush. more or less what I have in view. Hugo used graphite powder. drama. A s if disturbed from its gritty b e d by our presence and curiosity. snarl.. coal dust. charcoal.. soot. conjured b y the hand of a great author of French literary fiction. the ominous beast unwinds from the dark of the sea and of our nightmares. Surrounding sprays of graphite powder are stuck into washes of oil and ink to suggest glutinous depths.
Mixed media Here. and a love of accident. and turn.
horses w e r e a favorite subject t o g e t h e r w i t h politics and history. and keep trying again. standing sideways.
Repeated study This drawing demonstrates of feeling confident repeat different
the importance subject Remaining
enough to isolate parts of a
views. Before paper became so cheap. artists reused sheets and them full of studies. displayed in the Louvre. Tones that do not follow surface contour is very difficult to do well.118-119).
focused upon seeing will lead to a greater understanding of the subject Much is learned from repeated study. s h o r t . fiery.l i v e d French R o m a n t i c painter and lithographer Largely self-taught. since it can lead to a flattened form.
Beneath these graphite studies we see
Tones On the top row we see clearly how Gericault laid broad areas of tone using fast. of previous
Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat
121/2 x 151/2 in ( 3 1 9 x 3 9 8 mm) T H E O D O R E GERICAULT
C o n t r o v e r s i a l . 144. facing right. At the center of the page is crammed drawings
the outline of a horse. The Raft of the Medusa. 124-25 and p. parallel. H e is best k n o w n f o r his gigantic painting. Here. Paris. undertraces unify and vitalize the composition. Beginners are advised to follow the natural contours of form as shown on pp. and it can be applied
any subject (see
pp. diagonal strokes of his pencil.
of drawings Gericault
In these two drawings. The ink is used to make sharply defined solid. His powdery. the first abstract movement of the 20th century. flattened animals composed almost entirely of movement.30
M O V E M E N T IS OFTEN THE CHARACTERISTIC b y w h i c h w e
their lines and the power of their beasts. His hand must have shuddered and twitched just like the constant actions of this humorous meeting. the whinnying of a frantic horse. draftsman. made only a year apart. overwhelmed by a screeching bird. taking them to guide their hand in bringing form and essence together. These media complement and amplify each other with their brilliant contrast. gray. and waves breaking distantly below. noise is everywhere. or proud. we see semi-abstract. Klee's riders are constructed from all the gestures of greeting mules. In Picasso's drawing. quivering horse. slow tortoise. hooked. Both Picasso and Klee have enclosed their subjects to compress and amplify the speed of
A prolific Spanish painter sculptor. Cheval et Oiseau
1936 173/8 x 211/4 in ( 4 4 0 x 5 4 0 m m )
. flapping bird. The fact that they never stand still influences the movement in his line. and scrolled lines. with George Braque (see p90).
Ink and gouache This drawing is made in black Chinese ink and gouache (opaque watercolor) applied with a brush.
identify an animal: the fast cheetah. Artists commonly focus on such actions. dissolving faun kneels stranded. Picasso cofounded Cubism. and brown. printmaker ceramicist graphic and stage designer who lived in France. Gouache is brushed softly in translucent hazy layers of cool blue.
Chicago PAUL KLEE
. He is a u t h o r o f The Thinking Eye (1923). turning our eye and around inside the and postures of the paper-
on pictorial space.
creatures. and t e a c h e r at t h e Bauhaus school.
all happily of each other in the
Endless lines Look closely at how Klee's lines rarely leave the paper and how they are free from the constraint of finite shape." They chatter around bodies in groups.
der Komischen of Comical
161/2x111/2in ( 4 1 9 x 2 9 1 mm) M o r t o n G .PAUL
Swiss painter. violinist. printmaker. well-worn copies o f w h i c h are found in m a n y art schools. W i t h his drawings Kleeb o u n d sophisticated theories to personal and often witty childlike imagery. sculptor.
Layers of marks
In this pale
Dentil drawing we see layers of' agitated marks that together present a kind of visual "itch. draftsman. The entire drawing suggests the endless small movements of horses standing still. They remain in contact with the surface of the page and scribble back and forth as they maneuver from one area to another. N e u m a n n Family Collection.
and to assess our next move. it would achieve greater speed. balance.
drawings of animals that are each held tightly in a surprising space: a giant fish wears a ship's hull. fins. seemingly looking for our attention. B a k e r initiated t h e scientific p r a c t i c e o f naval a r c h i t e c t u r e and applied h y d r o d y n a m i c s . His birds stare.
The ship The upper decks of the ship appear curved toward us at both ends. In just one drawing he has displayed more angles of his design than we would expect to see from a single viewpoint Fragments English 1586 101/2 x 153/8 in (270 x 390 mm) MATTHEW BAKER of Ancient Shipwrightry
. mathematician. and the carefully observed gills. t h e earliest geometrically defined elevations. and author o f Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (1586). Below we see his revolutionary design for an Elizabethan warship. and scales. b a s e d o n his studies o f fish. which in application gave strength and advantage to the English fighting the Spanish Armada.
The fish It is likely that Baker drew with a quill dipped in irongall ink.32
Icon and Design
THESE T W O MANUSCRIPTS
we discover diagrammatic
and mackerel's tail" (full bow. and from them learned that if he designed his ship with a "cod's head
Master shipwright. later called a galleon. Exquisite details in this drawing include the lips of the fish. and blackbirds fly in formation through a mosaic of text. plans. It is simply how we read his perspective. In contrast to the practical clarity of Baker's thought. He studied the anatomy of fish. Baker lived in an era when ships were built without drawn plans. and s e c t i o n s o f ships. Baker did not intend this. adding washes of color with a fine brush. slim stern). Knopf's drawing opposite is the personal enigmatic expression of a mind gripped by illness. and steerage. This drawing illustrates Baker's theory. the expression of its eye.
T h e G e r m a n a r t historian
Outline and tone The blackbirds illuminating this frantic manuscript are drawn in pencil. w h i c h o f t e n f e a t u r e as s y m b o l i c creatures in his drawings. and filled evenly with tone. The text. firmly outlined.
circle and the birds. The main group is placed in a circle drawn with a compass. written last of all.K n o p f b e l i e v e d h e c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h e language o f birds.JOHANN KNOPF
An " O u t s i d e r " a r t i s t w h o s u f f e r e d f r o m m e n t a l illness. appears to be stirred like water by the presence of the
The Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks
UNDATED 133/8 x 115/8 in (340 x 2 9 6 mm)
and psychiatrist Hans Prinzhom collected this image.
Masters choose brands of long.
from the acacia tree. spots. That is an ink. Only fill with suitable inks. The Egyptians and Chinese are credited with the invention of carbon ink. In the Far East. producing a different line. The best are goose or swan. then pour a little warm gum water into it and temper the two together. and it is still in use today. A German recipe of 1531 gives a simple description: "Take a wax candle. The bar is then rubbed into water on a slate block to produce ink. high-quality Chinese and Japanese inks are subtler and more complex than those produced in Europe. which scratch rather than draw. distinguished manufacture. QUILLS: These are cut from the barrel of a flight or tail feather. Avoid needle-sharp mapping pens. Each pen has a unique character. The paste from either recipe is pressed and dried into a bar for storage. 2. and hold it under a clean basin until the soot hangs to it. expressive drawing techniques such as the ones we explore in this chapter
1. Responsive to slight changes in pressure. they are associated with rapid. the recipes for which have been handed down over centuries.246-47). where reeds were gathered. METAL PENS: Inexpensive removable steel nibs are available in a range of widths. light it. a n d m e t a l p o i n t s . REED PENS: A broad nib can be cut from bamboo or another tubular grass.34
Pen and Ink
W I T H A HANDFUL OF FEATHERS. 4. which range greatly in their handling and character of line. Early artists recommended raven and crow for especially fine work. simultaneously 4 .
you can have great fun drawing the world around you. Today. Dip pens began their history in the Nile River. and first used by the Egyptians. 3. while metal nibs began as rare gifts in gold and silver before being perfected by the British steel industry. Quills were later cut from feathers. The Chinese used animal or fish glue. F O U N T A I N PENS: These vary in quality and nib width." "Gum" refers to gum arabic extracted
Dip pens are essential and inexpensive drawing tools. and spatters can be made with an exotic choice of inks. 5 0 0 years ago.
. They fit into wooden holders. The reservoir gives a constant flow of ink for very long unbroken lines and continuous bottle-free use. Intricate or dramatic lines. ink is traditionally applied with a brush (see pp. s t i c k s .
9. I N D I A N INK: Carbon ink sold today in liquid form. The complexities of traditional iron-gall ink are explained on p. and most can be homemade. Bistre is the more humane use of soot scraped from the fireplace and ground into wine. Inks can be lightfast or non-lightfast. ACRYLIC / CALLIGRAPHY INKS:
Available in black and a range of colors. waterproof or non-waterproof. Crushed.G A L L INK: Abnormal spherical growths caused by parasitic wasps can be collected from some oak trees in fall. an often misused term.35
PEN AND INK
Four types of ink were common before the 20th century. bistre. from are not 6. Now we also have acrylic ranges in many colors. iron-gall. I R O N . charred bone (Ivory Black). It dries with a sheen and clogs uncleaned pens. roastedwine sediment (Yeast Black). reduced.36. Old stock turns solid and bottlesChina. dated. and are still in use today: carbon (Chinese and Indian). and sepia. is the ink of a cuttlefish or squid extracted post-mortem. 8. Beechwood soot is best. They are the easiest inks to use. boiled. Excellent for drawing they are bright and non-clogging. and sieved. C A R B O N INK: Traditionally produced from oil or resin soot (Lamp Black). and can be mixed and diluted to create subtler colors and tones.
5. Waterproof types contain shellac. SEPIA A N D BISTRE INKS: Sepia. suspended in a binder and stored as a solid block Blocks are imported today 7. they produce a golden dye for drawing. Non-waterproof Indian inks can be reworked with a wet brush after drying. or charcoal.
U n d e r heavy pressure. M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s d r a g o n o n p . a n d d e v e l o p e d t h e quill instead. finding reed p e n s unwieldy. red-brown. fleshy skins that surround ripe walnuts. reduced. then cut a final nib (feathers. 2 4 4 is an e x q u i s i t e e x a m p l e . Although oak galls and walnut skins are harmless. m o r e e x t e n d e d line than reed and a m o r e organic line t h a n m e t a l . since t h e D u t c h w e r e t h e first t o realize t h a t they could be hardened and i m p r o v e d w i t h heat t r e a t m e n t in ash o r sand. Running fresh. crushed. The darkest of this grasshopper wings) were made (around the head
first. sieved. for example. appears broken to show paper beneath. d r y mark. and turned brown with time. and delicious to draw with.
keep all your fingers behind
basis of iron-gall ink. t h e y stick a n d j u d d e r f o r w a r d . giving longer lines. Oak galls. are surprisingly tough. Practice to gain a feel for how materials behave.) You can make ink easily from the boiled. I u s e d t h e s e qualities t o d r a w t h e w o r m s above. forming the
R e e dpens dispense ink quickly. of a loaded nib. r e s e r v e d t h e i r use f o r large c h o i r b o o k s .
. It dried black. and boiled to make a golden ink.
Reed marks The darker left wing of this beetle was drawn with the wet inky stroke wing. Rembrandt. T h e y give a finer. Collect skins from the ground beneath trees once they are blackened. For centuries.
Q u i l l s a r e highly r e s p o n s i v e t o c h a n g e s in p r e s s u r e . V a n G o g h . Walnut ink is gloopy. a n d M a t i s s e also e n j o y e d t h e m . galls were ground with iron sulfate to make an unstable solution. always be cautious when experimenting with recipes.
the blade and cut away from you. It also oxidized and ate or burned paper. drawn to glisten with a dryer nib.36
Drawing With Ink
MAKE A QUILL OR REED PEN. giving a s h o r t . can also be collected from affected trees. The lighter right
than strokes and for as
reeds. Some of Michelangelo's drawings are now a little eaten by their own ink. it was gray-purple. Paler strokes were made
where the mark has
the legs and antennae the ink ran out. Quills are also called D u t c h pens. Scribes o f t h e M i d d l e Ages.
When using dip pens.37
Metal pens give long. Each layer of of the drying droplet dome the drawing was left to dry before adding more.
DRAWING WITH INK
Filled outlines Each segment of wing was outlined. breaking. it is important to feel for when the ink will run out and to know how much ink you pick up when dipping the nib.
. giving a graded. withstanding great pressure without sticking. o r being ruined as fountain pens would be under the same pressure. The of pigment to fall to the edges effect of the shape. White markings were drawn last
Tones Here we see subtle tones of diluted ink beneath the undiluted black rim of a beetle's wing. clean strokes. they splay to make thick o r double lines. sharp. marks become fine and needle-sharp. particles then filled with a droplet of ink. tonal
Ink layers The wings of this beetle
drawn in layers using black and white ink on pale gray paper. W h e n the nib is pressed upside down. Loaded with ink and pressed hard.
GEESE ARE EXCELLENT SUBJECTS to draw when practicing the first use of pen and ink. Cover your drawing book pages in speedy responses to the geese and try to capture each bird in as few lines as possible. It happens that goose feathers also provide artists with the best type of quills. That said. so pick a spot where other people can keep them entertained. Watch their heavy feathered bodies flap. Illustrating this exercise on Oxford Port Meadow. Try to hold the whole posture in your mind's eye. Experiment. be bold and press firmly. Study them before drawing. I covered eleven sheets in sixty quick drawings—in less than an hour. Focus on the geese. steel nibs are fine. It teaches confidence and focus through intensive repetition. Dip your pen in ink. Quick drawing trains you to see what is most important about a subject and to mark only its most essential expression. Take a cup and water for diluting a range of tones.
. and boldly plunge into your drawing. test your limits. Empathize. and a large drawing book or plenty of paper Use masking tape to secure pages against the wind. touch the bottle's rim to drain the excess. You cannot break the nib. Geese are nosy birds. Focus on it. not on your drawing. Take no more than ten seconds to draw each one and make lots of drawings. draw what the bird is doing. waddle. to absorb blots when drawing. and there is no "wrong." If you don't like a stroke.
Pack plenty of tissue around a bottle of calligraphy or acrylic ink. and be brave. and bellyflop off the waterside. make another one.
Look for a bird expressing a simple posture. Cover a sheet. there is no obligation to prepare a quill. Attempt with a loose hand to capture their posture and outline. and quickly draw around it using only three or four strokes.
draw the feeling of what you see. and diving.
With growing confidence. and don't worry about mechanical facts or accuracy. Avoid detail unless really tempted by a close-up visit Fluctuate the pressure of your pen in response to how you know the bird would feel if you touched it. Use more lines than before to express these. flapping. Again.
Gradually allow yourself more lines to describe the texture of each bird as well as its posture and action. running. look among the birds for more complicated actions such as shaking off water.
R A S WAS A GREAT CHARACTER. a d o g w h o w a s a l w a y s
town. These drawings are not an analysis of his anatomy or breed but the expression of his satisfied comfort in a deep sleep after a night out on the
together with a glass of water for diluting tones on the nib. and even then he twitched and stretched in dreams. and a tissue for blotting drawn lines that appear too dark. The only time he remained still was when he was sleeping. and personality.
Ras Curled Up Asleep
"Capturing the true character of a cherished companion is best achieved with objective determination rather than sentimental shyness."
. Then dip the nib quickly into a glass of water and drain the excess again. a dip pen and ink of your choice (see pp. Dip the nib quickly again into water and again drain it. This will give a medium-gray line. Sleeping animals present the artist with ideal opportunities to study their texture. For this class you will need one oblivious dog. first dip your pen in ink.34-37). form.
MAKING A PALE LINE
To make a pale line. Make a test sheet to discover your control of diluting on the nib. and drain the excess by touching the nib against the rim of the bottle. your drawing book. Now it will make a pale line.
engaged in his and everyone else's business.
second thoughts may be different Changing your mind is a positive aspect o f seeing and thinking. in bold layers. To add texture.
Reload your pen with ink. Trust your intuition.
Fix your eyes at the center of the dog. add more detail.41
DRAWING YOUR DOG
Be bold in this exercise.
Gradually introduce darker tones. I added ink to Ras's nose.It is essential when drawing any subject (even something abstract) to know how it feels andtoemulate this with your line. Here I marked the features of Ras's head. Character is better captured drawing quickly with confidence than w o r k i n g slowly. Here. ignoring all detail. Layers o f thoughts can bring a drawing alive. c o n c e r n e d a b o u t detail. see how the animal's posture determines its whole shape. tail.
. alter the pressure and moisture of your line in response to howyouknow your dog feels when you ruffle itscoat. Remain focused on the whole dog and. Then I immediately rebalanced the drawing with lines around his hind quarters. this time to create a line a little darker in tone. D o not go back over lines you are pleased with—doing so dulls their lively freshness. ears. First lines are first thoughts. W i t h pale lies.
Then. to emphasize how he is curled up. and the shadows in his coat. quickly draw what you see.
Beyond the glass wall of the aquarium. as if caught in a camera freeze-frame.
THE ELONGATION AND BUOYANCY of a group of turtles is fascinating
. offering plenty of time for the artist to draw the pose. turtles often pause unexpectedly. swinging their limbs and shells with a slow circular movement. A perfect subject for the beginner. they stretch and paddle.Turtles
I made repeated studies of the housemartin to discover its mechanism of flight.Dry Birds
THESE ARE THE ARTICULATED BONES o f a k i w i a n d a h o u s e -
martin drawn in a museum using a steel pen.
. Beginning with very pale tones. India ink. With speed. I darkened lines as each drawing progressed. balance. and sharp. dry. weightlessness of the kiwi. and water. I sought to capture the form.
From its history there is one overriding lesson to be learned: the importance of looking and seeing with our own eyes. and texture. and focus. we now have laid before us fourto show how well their colours complement each other infinite wealth of material to explore. Chapters are arranged by out. He sent boxes of plants to Nuremburgburned with the urgency and excitement of explaining every plant's form. and diverse
kingdom of plants. as opposed to only herbal. Plants seventeenth century. shape. Botanical illustration is a precisely defined and scientific art. and to ornament our lives. We draw them to celebrate their beauty and range. Early European illustrators were trapped within dogma that was determined by ancient scholarship. Classifications were set in367copperengravings. and the drawn pages ofthesame name. robust.Morethan 1. The revolution came in the 1530s. season. an
There are close parallels between the acts of gardening and drawing.
187/8x153/4in(480 x 400 mm) BASILIUS BESLER
. Conrad von Gemmingen. to catalog our knowledge. the punctuation of space with structure and mass.Plants and Gardens
E SHARE THIS PLANET
with the more ancient. nurture. Botanic gardens were established and expanded. form. PriceBishopof Eichstatt specimens. Rich owners of private gardens commissioned large-format florilegiums commissioned the volume to document his private garden to immortalize their personal taste and power of acquisition. Later.
B A S I L I U SBESLER when botanists founded new work upon the direct study of plants. Plants are the principal inspiration of the decorative arts—from Roman Corinthian columns crowned with carved leaves of the acanthus. color. Fledgling years Botanist and apothecary who compiled the Hortus Eystettensis of scientific research bore manifold explosions of knowledge in a fever of discovery. and beauty. In this chapter. the microscope was refined to unfold yet another world. where a number of uncredited artistsd r e wthem for Besler. We collect.000 species of plants are depicted life-size drawn. and
hybridize them for our sustenance and pleasure. After Here Aconthus spinosus is combined with forget-me-nots and-a-half centuries of intensive observation. It was published plain in 1611 and withhand-paintedplates in poured off ships returning from the New World and were eagerly collected and 1613. Medieval knowledge was not gained by the first-hand observation of life but by reading. infinitely vivid. to the proliferation of floral designs with which we have dressed ourselves and furnished our homes for centuries. and the
constant but exhilarating struggle to make a living image feel right. Both embrace the anticipation of evolving shape. Patrons funded the breeding of decorative. manipulations of light and shade. on which our lives depend. —-the largest and most influential botanical book of the early Natural scientists accompanied explorers to document unknown finds. we see very different cultural visions of plants and gardens and use pencils and plants to learn the pictorial values of space.
M a c k i n t o s h e x p r e s s e s the f o l d e d petals of a broken rose b u d so delicately w e can sense the perfume. Sir Joseph Banks. and seeds conventionally a p p e a r o n o n e plate. Stella Ross-Craig said of the need to d r a w from a dried herbarium plant "I could make it live again. detail. The King was then establishing the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. s u c h as w e see here in Bauer's Protea nitida.
o p e n i n g a n d c l o s i n g i n the w a r m t h a n d light of the studio. He has made the spatial and physical relationships in this drawing all the more real by placing a single. and meticulous precision. fruit.
Dissections Across the lower part of this drawing we can see dissections of seed pods and petals. petal tip over a lower leaf
Protea nitida 201/4 x141/4in (513 x 362 mm) FRANZ BAUER
. insect-ravaged. Here.
o p t i m i s m . W i t h bright
F R A N Z BAUER An Austrian artist who trained at the Schonbrunn Imperial Gardens in Vienna. flowers. measured drawings. and Franz Bauer and his brother Ferdinand were employed there to draw specimens. or that were diseased. It is likely Bauer would have studied these under a microscope. Each plant must b e clearly distinguished from its closest relative. B e h i n d detailed. They are counted among the most accomplished 18th-century botanical artists. Botanical art c o n c e a l s the challenge of its m a k i n g . and wilted. leaves. delicate. Light in this drawing is given by the paleness of the paper showing between washes of darker tones. stems. naturalist explorer and advisor to King George III invited Bauer to London in 1 7 9 0 . T h e rest of u s are free to d r a w as w e w i s h .
Outline Bauer prepared a pencil outline before laying in fleshy succulent hues and tones of watercolor.
subtle union of beauty.48
PLANTS AND GARDENS
THE SCIENTIFIC VALUE OF A BOTANICAL DRAWING lies i n its
were specimens that often refused to stay still." Her slipper orchid s h o w s that botanical drawing must often resolve the challenge of its subject's p r o d u c i n g parts in different seasons — r o o t s .
a n d he inspired. as at trained botanical artist Ross-Craig
Swift lines The drawing was planned in pencil and then overworked with a lithographic pen. and speed depends upon the immediate perception of the essential characteristics of the plant. Ross-Craig said of her work "Plants that wither rapidly present a very difficult problem to which there is only one answer—speed.286 studies for her book Drawings of British Plants. and perfect coordination of hand and eye.g a r d e in G e r m a n y a n d A u s t r i a . H e r Drawings of British Plants.
found among Mackintosh's
than reality. it is small and discreet. imagination. A s m a n y of her drawings are kept G a r d e n s . Closer to fiction can come together perfectly. Curtis's Botanical Magazine.. and observation the nuance and contour of every in one image. a m o n g o t h e r s . is r e c o g n i z e d as tne m o s t c o m p l e t e a n d i m p o r t a n t work 3.49 C H A R L E S RENNIE MACKINTOSH
Scottish a r c h i t e c t d e s i g n e r painter.. sensual pencil drawing is later works. S h e also o f thousands o f contributed an drawings." This line drawing is one of 1.
Rose 1894 103/4 x 83/4 in ( 2 7 5 x 2 2 1 mm) CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH
A j o i n e d t h e staff a t t h e R o y a l B o t a n i c G a r d e n s . and it shows how design. L o n d o n in 1 9 2 9 . Pencil lines cling to. K e w . and follow shadow. a n d f o u n d e r o f t h e G l a s g o w S c h o o l o f A r t M a c k i n t o s h ' s flair h a d an e n o r m o u s i n f l u e n c e o n t h e a v a n t .
Lines and shadows
This lush. G u s t a v K l i m t In his r e t i r e m e n t Mackintosh m a d e n u m e r o u s inventive pencil a n d w a t e r c o l o r d r a w i n g s o f plants.000 Kew to archive accessible t o d a y v i a t h e I n t e r n e t of o n British flora. p u b l i s h e d 1 9 4 8 .
Line Drawing of Cypripedium calceolus L c.7 3 in 3 1 p a r t s . 1970 x 81/4 in ( 3 2 5 x 2 1 0 m m ) STELLA ROSS-CRAIG
and miraculous growth.
paper is brimming with the beauty and celebration of nature. anticipating their view. They used a fine brush to lay pigment over a line drawing. a notable portrait painter drew the faces. the sumptuous petals permeated with prayer and wisdom. Drawing. urgent attentive human activity.
Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity c. Opposite is the Rose of Mohammed. in the early 16th century. and Nanha. and attention to detail are all shared with medieval European manuscript drawings. painting. Envoys chatter outside the gate.50
PLANTS AND GARDENS
the Middle East we find exquisite stylization of form and upright formality in pictorial space. 1590 85/8 x55/8in (219 x 1 4 4 mm) BISHNDAS AND NANHA
Bright pigment These pages were illuminated by Mughal artists in the late 16th century. roses took their form in a bead of perspiration on the brow of Mohammed as he passed through his heavenly journey. Below. and calligraphy are brought together to hold the sacred names of prophets and the 99 beautiful names of God. Upright shallow perspectives. The first Mughal Emperor Babur's Garden of Fidelity (Bagh-e Vaja). is remembered in the pages of his journal. which he personally created near Kabul. in miniature. Babur directs his gardeners in the design and planting of this quartered chahar bagh. uniform focus. The white of the page shines through the brilliant color. Afghanistan.
. By Muslim tradition. fluctuations in scale. Every fiber of
AMONG DRAWINGS FROM
BISHNDAS A N D N A N H A Little is known of these Mughal painters who were related as uncle and nephew and commissioned to illustrate the pages of Babur's journal. Bishndas was probably responsible for the overall design.
The physical anatomy of the rosebud has been studied and translated into a repeated stylized motif. t h e Staatsbibliothek zu Arabic. It is n o w k e p t in
Border The elegant border of this drawing was mode with a pen and ruler It cleverly compresses and defines the composition. and how the shape has been repeated freehand. Note how each bud is essentially the same shape.
Stylized motif A fine brush has been used throughout this drawing to apply inks and watercolors.
The Rose of
9 1 / 2 x 61/2 in ( 2 4 0 x 1 6 5 mm) FROM THE TURKISH M A N U S C R I P T AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH
.c e n t u r y Turkish manuscnpt a book of religious e t h i c s w r i t t e n in the O r i e n t a l C o l l e c t i o n s of Berlin. look closely and you will see words written in gold fluttering over the form of the flower. fragmenting its detail in a whisper of prayers. so that overlapping petals and stems give an impression of fulfillment and abundance. However. G e r m a n y .
Sacred words The central rose is more solid than any other on the page.AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH
This is a detail o f a page from a n 1 8 t h .
PLANTS AND GARDENS
IN CONTRAST TO THE QUIET, formal detail of other drawings in this chapter, these powerful fast trees enact the actions of plants. Each tree reaches out and holds its landscape with dynamism and pulse. In both drawings we find testament to the inexorable energy of growth. Rembrandt expresses a delicate quickness. Gentle lines draw a warm breeze through this remote wooded garden. Rustling in a loose foliage of soft marks, his pen evokes the weight of abundant activity on this late summer's day. Mondrian's arch of scratching branches is drawn with such force it will always be alive. We can still feel his hand storming across the paper. Set within a frame of smudged landscape, the tree possesses a musical agitation. This characteristic will increase in the artist's later abstract work. Here, we see a punctuated ordering of space. Sharp branches cut out negative shapes of winter sky.
R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter; etcher; and draftsman. Rembrandt's prolific output comprises oil paintings of historical and religious subjects together with group and self- portraits. His emotive etchings and pen and ink drawings (see also p. 174) are great resources for artists learning to understand the potential of these media.
Pen and ink lines describing foliage also tell
us the directions of sunlight and wind. An arc crossing the bottom of the drawing from one side to the other supports the scene and separates us from the landscape beyond. Compare Rembrandt's arc to that of Mondrian's. and note the similar treatment of low horizons in both works emphasizing the height and dominance of trees.
Cottage Among Trees 1648-50 63/4 x121/8in ( I 7 I x 308 mm) R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN
Atmosphere Here we see how shapes of negative space are as important as the physical subject they enclose (see pp.58-59). Mondrian has again lightly dragged his chalk on its side to evoke a wet depth of atmosphere. These passive gray marks contrast with the assertive tension of the tree.
Dutch Pure abstract painter preoccupied w i t h line and plane relationships. W i t h increasing austerity, Mondrian banished t h e subject from his drawings, in his later w o r k he also banished space, composing visual h a r m o n i e s using only straight lines a n d flat planes o f black, w h i t e , gray, o r p r i m a r y color.
Winter ground Short vertical marks along thebottomof this drawing reveal the length oftheblackchalk Mondrian used. Rubbed onitsside,itroughly blocks in the ground. Thecrudeeconomy of line is all we need tofeelthecold, wet, unwelcoming quality ofthiswinterearth.
Branches and trunk Lines shaping the branches of the tree are built up in layers. To make the trunk more dense, the artist has rubbed and smudged preliminary marks with his fingers before firmly overdrawing with new lines. Solid black lines are achieved by pressing the chalk hard. When used lightly, it shows the texture of the paper. Tree: Study for the Grey 1911 23 x 335/8 in ( 5 8 4 x 8 5 5 m m ) Tree
PLANTS AND GARDENS
Graphite and Erasers
GRAPHITE, FROM THE G R E E K word
This drawing illustrates a range of achieved with graphite pencils of different grades.
Modern pencils are graded from 9H (hard and pale) to 9B (black and soft). Graphiteclay sticks are also available, together with a powder form. All possess a natural sheen and are erasable to a varying degree. Graphite drawings smudge easily, so fixative, a form of varnish, can be used to hold a drawn surface in place. It is applied as a fine mist from an aerosol can, or from a bottle using a diffuser. For the beginner, ordinary hairspray is an effective and cheaper alternative.
(to write), is a soft and brittle carbon. It was first mined in Cumbria, England, in 1 5 6 4 , and was initially used in small, pure pieces bound in lengths of string. Pencils as we know them—with their slender wood casing and "lead" of graphite—were invented in France in 1794 by Nicolas-Jaques Conte. He discovered that milled graphite mixed with clay and water, press-molded, and baked to a high temperature produces a harder and paler medium than graphite alone.
3B pencil A range of mark and textures can be achieved with a 3B pencil when you vary its pressure, speed, and direction, as this detail shows.
Here is a selection of 14 items to illustrate a basic range of pencils, graphite sticks, sharpeners, erasers, and fixative.
1. AND 2. HB AND 3B PENCILS: It is unnecessary to possess every grade of pencil. HB, the central and most common grade, is perfect for making delicate lines. 3B gives a blacker tone. A great variety of effects can be achieved with just these two. 3. WATER-SOLUBLE PENCIL Effective for atmospheric drawing, but be aware of how watery tones can dull the impact of the line. 4. AND 5. MECHANICAL PENCIL Thick or fine leads are made in a range of grades. They are particularly useful because they do not require a sharpener 6. ROUND SOLID GRAPHITE PENCIL: Excellent for large-scale drawing, producing thick bold lines. A range of grades can be honed with a craft knife or sharpener 7. THICK GRAPHITE STICK: For large-scale drawing. Graded soft, medium, and hard. It crushes to produce graphite powder 8. SQUARE GRAPHITE STICK: Useful for making broad, sweeping marks in large-scale drawing. If worn and rounded, the stick can be snapped into pieces to regain the sharp, square end. 9. CRAFT KNIFE AND BLADES: Handles are sold in two sizes to fit large or small blades, and blades are sold in a range of shapes. Perfect for sharpening pencils to a long point, to cut lines in paper or to remove areas. 10. PENCIL SHARPENER: Makes a uniform point. Keep one in your pocket for drawing outside the studio, together with an envelope for shavings.
HB and 5B Layers of tone have been built up withHBand5Bpencils. Softer pencils require less pressure to make a mark, revealing the texture of the paper surface. It is important to keep the point of the pencil sharp with either a craft knife or a sharpener.
ERASING AND FIXING
Erasers can be used t o blend and s o f t e n lines, o r t o r e m o v e altogether. Fixative them prevents
GRAPHITE AND ERASERS
s m u d g i n g a n d s e c u r e s lines.
Using fixative You can use fixative while drawing to hold the definition of lines you wish to gently fade but not remove entirely, for which you would use an eraser.
11. P L A S T I C E R A S E R : Avoid cheap colored erasers that may stain drawings with grease and dye. White brands are available in soft and hard versions.
P U T T Y RUBBER:
W a r m it in your hand before use. It is excellent for removing powdery materials, and for making crisp sweeps of light across a delicate pencil drawing
13. D I F F U S E R : Helleborus corsicus (Corsican hellebore) fixative, or to spray mists of ink.
PLANTS AND GARDENS
Cropping and Composition
M A N Y STUDENTS WILL START a d r a w i n g i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e
that its skin nearly touches the boundary. The meaning of the same drawing changes simply by its relationship to the space it occupies. The size of any subject, its placement on the page, the size of the page, and its overall proportion are all discrete and essential aspects of successful picture-making. Before you begin to draw, think carefully about where to place your subject. Are you are happy with your paper? If not, change it; add more, take some away, or turn it around. Do not just accept what you are given, adapt it to what you need.
paper. Focused on the shape and detail of their subject, they remain happily unaware that there is, or should be, any relationship between what they are drawing and the surface they are drawing it on. The paper is only paper, and the troublesome subject floats somewhere in the expanse of it. However, a single fig drawn in the middle of a large, empty square of paper gives quite a different impression from the same fig drawn on such an intimately small square
CHOOSING A VIEW
A Single Fig
"The size, shape, and orientation of the paper are so integral to the composition that they determine the impact and meaning of the drawing."
bottom-left t o top-right.57
T h e s e pencil drawings o f figs d e m o n s t r a t e different crops and compositions. A card with a small rectangle cut out o f it makes a useful viewfinder C l o s e o n e e y e t o look through the hole. U s e it as a starting point. Here the left fig is attached to. This drawing hasbeencropped to emphasize space between thefruit.O u r focus is on the white cloth supporting the figs. spaces between things are as important as the things themselves. as also shown here.
Space as the subject
Inallpictures. When subjects touch two or more edges. they establish a tension and unity with the paper. The angle of the fruit together with dark shadow (top left) and bright light(bottom right) suggest a diagonal division across the whole drawing. t h e n m o v e t h e c a r d t o e x p l o r e different views. its stem and shadow framing a white center.
Touching the edge
the subject o f a drawing touches one edge of the paper it attaches t o it visually. its illumination. the uppermost edge of the drawing. and lines describing shadows cast by the fruit
. a device to help you decide what t o draw. and therefore apparently suspended from. running corner t o corner.
CROPPING AND COMPOSITION
Off-center and diagonal
Here I held my viewfinder so the fig appeared upper-left in the space.
erasing and adjusting lines until itlooked right. a foundation stone in picture-making. and so on. Unfamiliar shapes of negative space reveal the real shape of a positive subject.The box opposite isolates an area.
Draw a complete shape
Map outward from the center
Erase and adjust lines until correct
. and a fresh page in your drawing book. shapes of air cut out and defined by the physicality of our environment? When we look into the branches of a tree. unified. Remember that plants do move! Therefore it is best to complete your drawing in one sitting if possible. third. a sharp H B pencil. Follow these from left to right and see how I began with one complete shape between two parts of a leaf. and a role to play. this ensures a consistent view. Viewers appreciating a finished image may not see shapes of space. not leaves. but if the artist does. It helps to start at the center and map outward. rather than what you see in front of you. which is shown in the three steps below. It is an astonishingly simple device that many artists use and I strongly recommend. you will need a similar large-leaved plant.58
PLANTS AND GARDENS
UNCONSCIOUSLY WE ASSESS spatial relationships all the time to guide ourselves through the world. fourth. an eraser. In following this class. Negative space is the simple key to getting positive shape right. Looking at negative space overrides the problem of drawing what you know. then added a second shape. their subject and composition will become more real. dynamic. In your own version. The drawing opposite is of the uppermost leaves of a potted fig tree. remember to draw only space. tone. and engaging. position. But how often do we look at the air between things.
WHERE TO START
Arrange your plant and paper so you can look back and forth by barely moving your head. do we see myriad distinct and unique shapes of daylight or do we just see branches? Why as artists should we look at the air? Every space in a picture has a shape.
Here I drew only spaces, adding one to another until the leaves were revealed. Besides looking at negative space, there are two other useful things to do when a drawing feels wrong but you cannot see why: look at it in a mirror or turn it upside down. errors and suggest changes.
Spaces between leaves
Either view will
WALKING IN THE ALPUJARRAS in A n d a l u c i a ,
Spain, I drew a bare fig tree clinging to the wall of an almond grove; a perfect subject for seeing negative space. I marked its essential frame of large branches first, frequently erasing lines and changing my mind until the balance felt right.
S a l v i a , RIBES, CLEMATIS, Allium, Passiflora, and Acanthus
drawn with an H pencil by observing the
negative spaces between the stems, petals, and leaves. I arranged the flowers on a sheet of paper in a cool r o o m and rapidly sketched a composition. Then I put them in water, taking the stems out one at a time to draw.
62-63). Excessive detail leaves no space for the eye to rest or imagination to wander. interfolding points of detail with areas of loose suggestion. Compare changes of pace and focus here to the flatter finish of Summer Flowers (see pp.Acanthus Spinosus
As we LOOK AROUND. gathering less distinct information on the way. they emulate our experience of seeing. our eyes travel and adjust from one point of focus to another.
. If an artist changes the pace of their line and focus of their attention. We never see everything at once.
fine artists. This harmony. mass. It was also during the Renaissance that the architect Brunelleschi invented linear perspective. coupled with the importance of exercizing your imagination. Since the first flowering of Modernism in the early 20th century. Besides sketches of first thoughts and polished drawings of the finished look for clients. each
of architecture. which was the first church in the capital to be built entirely of metal and then clad in stone. they have the Golden Section. drawing plans around themselves within a program as opposed to on a flat sheet of paper. with gray and brown watercolor wash. Through the animation of the screen. to help them create new form. made by the architect himself. Yet the pursuit of divine proportion and harmony remains. philosophers. architects. Baltard designed the Church of St. to 20th-century film fantasy. and computer game
imaging. It was the mathematicians. space. Perhaps in the sheer planes of some of our greatest modern buildings it is finding its clearest expression. the device that has since governed most of our picture-making (sec pp. Since Picasso and Braque's revolution of Cubism in around 1907. Architects have been fine-tuning their specialized branch of drawing for centuries. It is the focus of practical class in this chapter. Augustin.
VICTOR BALTARD French architect employed by the city of Paris. invaluable to understand and apply when you choose. Linear perspective is a marvelous device. Among the drawings of this chapter we look from 17th-century ecclesiastical calm. balance. and writers have been breaking away from traditional forms of representation to seek new expressions of shape. which can be clearly seen in ancient Greek architecture. and in the 19th century it was given the name the Golden Section. 74-75). and architects of ancient Greece who first pursued the formula for "divine proportion. designers. and sound.The church is still in use today. Computer
programs allow the virtual drawing of ideas. once there. add and subtract ideas. Paris
the child's view to the infinity of the vanishing point. time. we find the most recent steps in the evolution of graphic language. of the west facade of St Augustin. from political commentary to musical abstraction. At the core of their practice. European conventions of pictorial perspective have lost their monopoly on seeing. and from
West Facade of the Church of St Augustin. the formula for perfection spread through Europe." reflecting the eye's love of unity in difference. filmmakers. architects and designers can imaginatively "climb inside" three-dimensional space and.This is a pencil drawing. they also have a diagrammatic language for communicating plans to builders. film-set design.
composers. was preserved into the Renaissance where it became a foundation stone for thinking and creativity From 15thcentury Italy.
Together they explain how interior structure and space define exterior form and shape. and an inscribed entablature. We see the modeled detail of Corinthian columns. 1711-12 NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR
. embodying a massive investment of ideas. A student of Wren's. structure. Hawksmoor's drawing is both a plan and an evocation. marks the end of a long journey from the first few marks the architect made on a sheet of paper. calculate function. Blenheim Palace. Below it. describe a finished look to a client.
On the left the finished
surface of the building is given depth and emphasis by immaculate vertical and horizontal brush strokes of shadow.
Pillars and floor At the base of the drawing a compass-drawn plan tilted downward through 90 degrees illustrates the arrangement of pillars around a central circular floor. and balance. The photograph opposite shows his studio hung with metal pendulums. and six London churches. Oxford. pilasters. materials.
On the right a section
cut through the center of the building reveals material thicknesses. Gaudi's fluid architecture grew up through many kinds of drawing. Hampton Court Palace. and labor. Lines define structure while washes suggest light and atmosphere. evoke presence.
St Paul's Baptistry c. Hawksmoor established his reputation with university and church architecture including All Souls College. testing gravity to calculate the inverted shapes of domes. and Castle Howard. Architects draw for many reasons: to visualize ideas. Drawings underpin every great human-made structure like hidden linear ghosts at their core. and later an assistant to Vanbrugh. he also worked on St Paul's Cathedral. a three-dimensional drawing made with wires and weights. NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR
One of Britain's "three great" Baroque architects (along with Sir Christopher Wren and Sir John Vanbrugh).68
EVERY NEW BUILDING. and ultimately to show builders what to do. relative levels. densely layered lines in mists of color weave the presence of the expected building into shape. and the shapes of interior domes and apses.
Three aspects This subtle and sophisticated drawing made in pen and wash displays three distinct aspects of Hawksmoor's baptistry.
Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt
ANTONIO GAUDI Visionary Catalan architect.
Crypt of its
c. and apartment homes are distinguished by their Their and Flowering curves of stone or concrete are often encrusted with Gaudi was inspired by medieval and oriental art. churches. This sculptural drawingenvisionsthe finished crypt glowingandethereal as if caught in thelightof red morning sun. and his love of music. To the right isawatercolordrawing thought to havebeenmade over a photograph ofthemodelabove. The Art Nouveau movement.
Wire and watercolor three-dimensional preferred to calculate
Above is a drawing form in the made
withlinkedwires and weights. 1910 24x181/4( 6 1 0 x 4 7 5mm) A N T O N I O GAUDI
. Gaudi's cathedral in Barcelona. unique organic manipulation of high shapes. embellishment. Gaudi air than on paper.
upright pictorial space.
Visual rhythms In the lower half of this drawing architectural language has broken loose: escaped and transformed into an image of rebellious pleasure. and the spaces between his windows and turrets are the visual equivalent of pauses in
h i s m u s i c c o m p o s i t i o n s for p i a n o (see also Bussotti. and in a sense hear. and exhibitions of his drawings.
This drawing has
been made with a rapidograph. Both men used rulers and pens to carefully and slowly construct their compositions. Across the top and center right of the image w e perceive an almost recognizable architectural plan. He also produces urban and landscape designs. Libeskind studied music before transferring to architecture. before cascading into a riot of line and sound below. Contemporary musicians commonly collaborate with artists by interpreting images as sound.
Arctic Flowers 1980 DANIEL LIBESKIND
. There has always
DANIEL LIBESKIND A Polish American architect of international acclaim. We can imagine how a musician might interpret this drawing by looking at the abstract visual rhythms of masses composed of long straight poles. installations. p. and arched dotted lines depict the radius of doors. a refillable pen that feeds a constant supply of ink through a fine tubular nib. corridors. Floor space appears divided by discernible walls.223). We can see. Satie draws quietly throughout.70 ARCHITECTURE
The Order of Sound
B O T H OF THESE VISIONARY DRAWINGS o c c u p y a s l e n d e r . The architect and musician Daniel Libeskind has drawn a stampeding cacophany of airborne architectural detail.
been a natural affinity between the visual rhythms of pictures and the audible rhythms of music. while the composer Erik Satie has made an enclosure of quiet order and grace. and dotted lines. such a rapport in both of these drawings. flat boards. Libeskind begins quietly in the upper space of his drawing. theater sets. and rooms. short curved poles. Libeskind's numerous commissions include concert halls and museums. He also contributed to plans for the rebuilding of the World Trade Center site in New York.
Composition Look how well this drawingfitsand resonates with the upright. a n d ballet. and ink on a fragment folded brown paper—a of everyday happened material of scrap that
to be at hand.56—57 we discussed important the shape. and founded his o w n church. a conventional dip or fountain pen. andfouredges of the paper tothecompositionand impact animage.50.Edges are how are of orientation. H e p e r f o r m e d in cabarets.H i s witty. lived a l o n e . Satie collaborated w i t h hisfriends J e a n C o c t e a u a n d P i c a s s o .
Suzonnieres c.ERIK SATIE
F r e n c h pianist and c o m p o s e r for t h e piano. theater. Onpp. o f which he was the sole m e m b e r
Satie has drawn
this fantasy hotel using a ruler.narrowshape of its paper. They definespaceand pictorial balance.
additional lines in a work. minimalist s c o r e s scandalized a u d i e n c e s with o r c h e s t r a t i o n s f o r t h e foghorn and typewriter. 1 8 9 3 77/8 x 51/2 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 4 0 mm) ERIK SATIE
upright image Eastern is reminiscent and medieval of Middle
pictorial space and subject of this European
drawing. dressed eccentrically.
the even and and the shape wall to the
elegantly stylized order of the many windows of arrangement of details and the shape of the wall in Babur's Garden of Fidelity on p.
we find other Utopian visions
Paul Nobles epic drawing summons an imperfect and disturbing township where ruin and activity are equal and strange.
enter the long-shadowed architecture of imaginary worlds. and taught at t h e A c a d e m i e d'Architecture. We glide over exquisitely drawn wastelands of damage and abandonment. arched vaults.72 ARCHITECTURE
T H E S E T H R E E HIGHLY DETAILED DRAWINGS
invite us to
soaring above normal life.96.
French architectural theorist. Art director Erich Kettlehut's vertiginous design for the city of a slavelike populace had a future influence on movies such as Blade Runner. made in 1926. experiencing a fascinating conflict between curiosity and desolation. His celebrated imaginary buildings are characterized by pyramids. cylinders. antlike mortals might have speculated upon the universe. and the reverse is true on the right. spheres. This is the work of an architectural theoretician. This shift makes the cenotaph appear three-dimensional.
Light illusions This pen-and-wash drawing shows a subtle application of the principles of illumination demonstrated with an egg on p.The lower-left section of the building appears relatively pale against a darker sky. Within it. Among preparations for Fritz Langs film Metropolis. painter. Boullee lived in Paris.
153/4 x 25 in ( 4 0 2 x 635 m m ) ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE
. and dramatic lighting. the ominous globe exists only as a series of drawings. Boullee's monolithic apparition was drawn as a monument to Sir Isaac Newton. and draftsman.
intensely detailed graphite drawings explaining and questioning t h e geography. draftsman. architecture. mythology. used forced perspective camera t e c h n i q u e s t o amplify t h e m a g n i t u d e o f buildings in relation t o human characters.a r t director O t t o Hunte. Working on toned paper such as this gives an artist greater scope for dramatic lighting effects than if they work on white paper. Kettlehut and his c o . Kettlehut drew using a fine and relatively dry brush dipped in black. and m o d e l . gray.
ft 1 0 in x 1 3 f t 2 in (3 x 4 m ) PAUL N O B L E
ERICH KETTLEHUT Influential film a r t director. and are
Graphite shapes Nobson Central isoneof a series of very large graphite drawings of the spoil and detritus of Nobson Newtown.Building shapes are works can be read as text. and white ink on brown-gray paper. Nobson political visions of humanity Newtown.
Fritz Lang's Metropolis c. 1926
PAUL N O B L E British c o n t e m p o r a r y artist who creates m o n u m e n t a l .m a k e r In t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f Metropolis. Its sheerscaleengulfs the viewer and demands based time and patience to on letters and in some beread. together with c i n e m a t o g r a p h e r Karl Freund. and morality o f an invented place called His satires exhibited w o r l d w i d e .
Brush and ink This is a dramatic drawing from a film that shaped the history of world cinema.
LEONARDO DA VINCI One of the greatest artists. and age eight. It is also distinguished from aerial perspective (see pp. See how the thread corresponds to each converging line. but is most easily seen and understood in pictures of buildings and interiors. 206-07). Here Leonardo provides a superb example of a single vanishing point. All forms of perspective are of equal value.
Study of Perspective Adoration of the
1481 61/2 x111/2in (165 x 290 mm)
LEONARDO DA VINCI
. linear perspective is distinct from more ancient systems practiced in the East. Pull the thread taut and rotate it slowly above the drawing. inventors. Piranesi an example of two. We use it to structure illusions of depth. I contribute the child's perspective. Leonardo recorded constant streams of ideas. observations. and inventions— essential reading for inquiring minds. this perspective is often an imagined bird's-eye view in which details are mapped according to logic and importance rather than how they might appear in real life. Sometimes shared with Naive artists.
Single-point perspective Tie a thread to a pin. Note how architectural features conform to lines and how human figures diminish in size toward thevanishingpoint. and those of Naive artists and children. found at the center of all converging lines. In his notebooks.74
Pathways of Sight
LINEAR PERSPECTIVE (also called vanishing-point perspective) is a simple device for calculating the relative size of things in pictorial space. and thinkers ever to have lived. Press the pin into Leonardo's vanishing point. It can be applied to any subject. Invented by Italian artist and architect Brunelleschi in 1413 (late in the history of art). scientists.
issues of scale when making room for important
their story. at the top of each lateral column base. New Forest. visionary and practical understanding of ancient Rome. This drawing Young children typically
maps ignore on
of the nearby village. Mark these points with your pin and follow the converging lines of the drawing by rotating your thread. including all they recall about the subject.
. which I saw from home every day.SARAH SIMBLET
I made this drawing (at age 8) in response to a local bookstore's request for children to draw their village. and designer Piranesi's prolific architectural drawings.
Two-point perspective Sunlight through this colonnade a great example of two-point perspective. architect. a points in
logical narrative of memories. England 1980 9 x 16 in (228 x 405 mm) S A R A H SIMBLET
GIOVANNI BATTISTA PIRANESI
Breamore Village. and theoretical writing strongly influenced neoclassicism.
Scale Our farmhouse my experience
was in the woods. 1740 5 1 / 2 x 83/8 in (141 x 212 mm) G I O V A N N I B A T T I S T A PIRANESI
points are located on either side of the drawing. Children are uninhibited and problems with one element being obscured by another rarely arise. It shows how children usually map large scenes in flat layers one above the other. Lightly marked
Two Courtyards c. Note the rather large rabbits and pheasants
Piranesi planned his drawing with only the essential lines needed.
imagine. discovering the image as it progressed. corresponding to a single vanishing point. (See p. Draw each step over the preceding one to build up a single image. This lesson shows you how to make a simple illusion of space defined by two boxes and three flat boards. Extend each dotted line to the edge of your drawing. You have completed your first box.)
.98 for an important note on oscillation.76
MASTERING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE i s e a s i e r t h a n y o u m a y
First read through. try composing your own space. draw a horizon line across your paper Mark a spot on the horizon line. Next. This ensures that the second rectangle aligns with the shape and
Draw four short lines to connect the four corners of the two rectangles. Leonardo began with a grid of many lines within which he invented his scene. In contrast. then follow the ten steps below. this is your vanishing point. using a sharp HB pencil and ruler. Surround the vanishing point with a small rectangle. you will amplify the illusion of distance. Note that if you place large structures in the foreground and smaller ones closer to your vanishing point. Erase the dotted construction lines.
corners must each touch a dotted line.
Using a ruler and a sharp HB pencil.
Draw four dotted lines radiating out from the vanishing point. On the previous page we looked at its essential mechanism through drawings by Leonardo and Piranesi. This is where we will begin. Each line should pass through one corner of the rectangle. Study these pages first before embarking on this lesson.
and erase the dotted lines. andfarside of this first board. Connect this to the vanishing point— again. draw four dotted lines radiating from your vanishing point Pass these through each comer of the new rectangle.
As in step 3. the closer it will appear to the viewer.
As in step 2.
Use dotted lines connecting the slanting linetothe vanishing point to locate the top.asIhavedonehere. The board's sides should be parallel.
0 Erase all ofthedottedlinestoseeyourfinishedboxes
Thickeningtheiredges.willhelptomake them appear more solid. with two dotted lines. when inventing your own compositions. draw a second. larger rectangle. The four comers must each touch a dotted line to be sureitaligns with the first. The larger you make your second rectangle. Repeat this to add two more boards to the composition. Note that this does not surround the vanishing point In the future.
Complete the second box with short lines as in step 4. you can place rectangles anywhere youwishin relation to a vanishing point.77
Draw a new rectangle. Continue the dotted lines out toward the edge of your drawing. bottom. N e x t draw a slanting line to mark the height of the first flat board.
Linear perspective will support y o u by providing a frame in which to b u i l d your picture as it did for Leonardo."
imaginary room. The m i s t a k e n belief that we s h o u l d k n o w exactly what o u r finished drawings will l o o k like before we m a k e t h e m prevents many people from ever starting. artist and film director. once said: "I never end up with what I set out to do. p . it is interaction that makes the work richer. then let the space suggest its c o n t e n t s and purpose. Then follow the three given steps. it will take you places you never dreamed of. Every work talks
In this class. draw a b o x as shown opposite.
An Imagined Scaffold
"Enjoy your illusion as you make it and it will become more real. If using a fibertip pen as I have done for this drawing. As David Lynch. It highlights the importance of having faith in your imagination and trusting your ability to invent. I always start with a script but I don't follow it all the way through to the end. you will find white adhesive stationery labels are useful for covering errors or changing the direction of your idea. let simple lines suggest a simple space.78
Creating an Imaginary Space
T H I S CLASS USES SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE t o c r e a t e a s i m p l e
to you and if you listen to it. A lot more happens when you open yourself up to the work and let yourself act and react to it. O n
a fresh page in your d r a w i n g b o o k . w h e t h e r it is a film or a painting. 7 4 ) .
This initial space will be transparent and open to change.Addanarray of converging lines to provide a "scaffold" for vertical.
.There is great pleasure tobefoundin spending time inventing interiors. With some practice.drawthehorizonlineand vanishingpoint. parallel planes such as walls converge toward the vanishing point.
2 first before adding furniture. and leaning surfaces.
CREATING AN IMAGINARY SPACE
1First. additional lines have established the different surfaces and how they relate to each other. Here. and floors and ceilings also converge and rise o r lower toward the horizon.
Remove the construction lines with an eraser and the room will becomeclearer. horizontal.79
DRAWING A SIMPLE ROOM
Essentials t o remember: objects and people dimmish in size as they move farther away. The space has become more solid and real. you will beableto draw more complex objects orpeoplewithin them.
Search for the application of these perspectives among works by other artists in this book and in galleries. Only when y o u might employ t h r e e . they can be placed anywhere inspaceto describe the perspective of flyi c tilted objects.
. From our normal eye level. showing y o u h o w to draw curved surfaces and a tiled floor. Further aspects of three-point perspective are also illustrated opposite. T h i s is d e m o n s t r a t e d immediately below.80 ARCHITECTURE
Further Aspects of Perspective
W E ARE ACCUSTOMED TO SEEING our e n v i r o n m e n t from a relatively constant point of view.p o i n t perspective ( s h o w n opposite top). Copying what you see in the work of others will help you to understand what they have done. They could be drawn on any scale from miniature to monumental. T h e y d o n o t have to relate to each other. Here. or low and we look u p . The boxes drawn here are seen partly or entirely disassociated from a horizon line drawn across the bottom of the image.
Free vanishing points
On paper we can enjoy the freedom of fantastic structural invention without limitations of solid materials or gravity. o r to the h o r i z o n . To draw such a view
Copy these drawings to see and feel how they work before inventing your own versions. do verticals appear inclined. 76-79).
Vanishing points are commonly found on horizon—our eye level. Potentially. located anywhere inside or outside the pictorial space. but they are not confined to this level. It is important to realize that you can have as many vanishing points as you wish. That is where we e to find them. These elaborations could continue indefinitely across a sheet of paper in pursuit of complex and intricate ideas. I have elaborated on the simple boxes above. T h i n k of standing at the top of a skyscraper and imagine h o w its parallel sides would appear to converge below you. verticals appear p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the g r o u n d . a n d this is how we have drawn them so far (see pp. our eye level is very high and we look down.
Here.75. they mark the corners of the floor tiles. Iusedthese lines as a guide t o draw the curvature of boxes and panels flying through space. I then drew three fanned groups of lines connecting each of the three points above to the seven points below. tostraightlines can amplify drama in a picture. useful for representing steep views looking up or down tall structures. Where thelinescross. (Turn the book around to see a view looking up.I added horizontal lines t o define the tiles. three vanishing points are evenly spaced along a horizon line. by adding a third point you can achieve a sense of incline.Istarted with two parallel lines.81 FURTHER ASPECTS OF
This drawing depicts three-point perspective. I marked the toplinewith three evenly spaced points and the line with seven.
floor.Finally. Giving curvature. Note that altering the distance between the three dots above will tilt the level of the floor
.) By comparing this drawing t o Piranesi's example of two-point perspective on p. An array of curved lines (drawn freehand) link the two lateral points. and therefore tension. you will see how.
visited many anatomical
theaters and museums.
RESEARCHING FOR MY P H D . These walnut-skin ink pen and brush drawings show imagined views of theaters that do not exist but were inspired by places I studied. making drawings to resolve questions and express personal responses to the nature and history of anatomy.
A N D . The vanishing of the drawing is directly opposite as we look across The constancy of the bridge and surrounding frames the movement in the life that flows past.
the water.I N KDRAWING is one of a series I made while next to the Rialto Bridge in Venice.Venetian Life
sitting point buildings
ThisP E N .
and made. With the sudden onset of mass production. drawn. Previously. too. these. illuminating snail shells. passing them on to others through the act of making. even more advanced drawings are made on computers. W e also explore v o l u m e and form in the classes by spinning lines to make vessels. 1493 117/8c81/4in (300 x 210 m m ) LEONARDO D A V I N Ccreating I
. T h e Industrial Revolution c h a n g e d the traditional w a y s in w h i c h objects were designed. and the way in w h i c h the brain reacts
Head and Neck Sections of Female Mold for the Sforza Horse
to visual stimulus and optical illusions. H e has described a casting through metaphor. Birds follow instinct to make a nest. color. to record an observed detail.Objects and Instruments
HE THINGS WE INVENT describe our lives. and the behavior of light through making still-life paintings and together. It was in this era that the blueprint was born. H e has described contour and function at drawings. T h e precision of engineering d r a w i n g s e v o l v e d alongside machine tools. but humans
LEONARDO DA VINCI Inthisbeautiful red chalk Our items all have a purpose—practical or ornamental—and all have a meaning. hooked bars that can be pulled and tied closely form. sculpted. texture. r an equestrian statue. A chair. or drawing w e see Leonardo daVinci'sprecision as can be given meaning.
drawing c. or to explain and present a finished concept to a client. In past eras. Today. History will be learned from the artifacts w e leave behind. In this chapter. C o m m o n items. making a clear instruction t o his bronzemeaning. drawings were needed to instruct workers on the factory floor. or used on stage hood for a mold t o make theheado f a horse f oas a p r o p — i m b u e d with e n o u g h energy or character can "become" a man. Technical drawing was speedily developed as a meticulous international code of m e a s u r e m e n t and explanation. for example—whether. we look at the importance
are the only creatures on Earth w h o actually design and create great ranges of things.
of light in the creation of pictorial illusions. are all made bearing the signature of our time and place. Engineers and designers of our objects and instruments make drawings for many reasons: to test an idea that is yet to be made. Artists also make images of objects that can never exist. design. each demanding more of the other as they increased in sophistication. have often carried great weights of allegorical once. for example. It is shaped in sections w i t h Artists have for centuries studied and expressed composition. that test our logic with a sense of mystery. Artists and actors use the meanings of things to communicate a speculative mechanic. fictional realities caster of h o w t o make it andhowit will w o r k . craftsmen had held plans in their memory. and a wire violin. and some apes use simple tools. from s p o o n s and pens to chairs and bicycles. planned.
texture. perfect i n their newly made availability. One of the great joys of this movement in art is the musicality of its multipoint view. Braques "justly" arranged combination of cut black card.
representing still life. but to clash in virtual deadlock.Braque marshals all the forces of perspective. He takes us into the bustle of the Paris cafe. and shading. "I believe [it] is the most radicalattempttostampout ambiguity and to enforce one readingofthepicture—that of a manmade construction.
Clashes The art historian Ernst Gombrich said of Cubism. and glass objects of exquisite elegance for only the gentlest of touch and appreciation. Braques image is a Cubist collage. T h i s is a designers drawing made to enthuse surface and style in its delicate brushing of china. Braque established Cubism in partnership with Picasso just before World War I. wood-look wallpaper. still feel this projected moment. Below. Even today
GEORGES BRAQUE French painter who as a young man was influenced by the work of the Fauves and of Cezanne. not of place but of things. Mucha's drawing glistens with possession. There is a fragile eloquence to these objects as they drift in slow motion past our gaze. charcoal. steaming with music and conversation. silverware. .. and a journal jacket with words makes this drawing chatter about the moment. Statue D'Epouvante
1913 2 f t 5 in x 3 ft 5 in (0.90
OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS
THESE DRAWINGS REVEAL t w o o p p o s i t e m o t i v a t i o n s i n
we can. His work is characterized by calm and harmonious still-life compositions. a colored canvas. not to work in harmony." La Cuitare.73 x 1 m)
Black watercolor washes and lines of white gouache have been added with a fine brush. and also stamps and bank notes.
Background color Between the delicate shadows and highlights of these glazed and surfaces ofthebackground metal color of the Mucha we see a large amount
paper. and New York. He is best known for posters featuring ethereal women in typical Art Nouveau style. Art Nouveau curling motifs of birds. Chicago.flowers. For ten years Mucha designed theater posters exclusively for the actress Sarah Bernhardt.
Art Nouveau motifs This is a preliminary study for a subsequent print.ALPHONSE MUCHA Czech graphic artist and painter who worked in Prague. He designed the Austrian pavilion for the Paris World Fair in 1900. The three plates facing us were drawn with a compass.
Study for Plate 59 from "Documents Decoratifs" 17x121/4(430 x 310 mm) ALPHONSE MUCHA
. Pans. and fish have been outlined using a sharp pencil. Look at the two spoons at toprightand see how has suggested that they are so brilliantly shiny they reflect the background color.fruit.
The power of this drawing reflects the pure passion of discovery. each one skillfully rendered with the alarmingly matter-of-fact ease of explaining the commonplace. we see drawing
Instruments of Vision
found among his letters.
shape the very cause and effect of investigatory thought. astronomer. drawing is there to pin the moment down. a tree outside.
Ink lines Several drawings appear among Newton's letters. and philosopher Newton was President of the Royal Society. Newton used this instrument to calculate the speed required to escape earth's gravity. 0 0 0 perfect hemispheres. Look how confidently he draws with ink the sphere of this wooden globe by which his telescope rotates. and Fellow of the University o f C a m b r i d g e . It is a diagrammatic explanation of how to catch and magnify a star in a mirrored tube. alchemist. into the eyepiece. each reflecting a view of his own world—his window.92
OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS
SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS by their very nature must gauge or chronicle precision. the law o f gravity. Their delicate construction is only as valuable as the measurements they make.
Transparent view Newton's reflecting telescope focused light in a parabolic mirror. and the nature o f light and color.
Newton's 1672 ISAAC
. He counted 1 4 . With dotted lines Newton has drawn his arrangement of elements inside the tube. via a second mirror. From the concept of capturing the infinite to the mapping of microscopic sight. Newton's drawing of his first reflecting telescope is
ISAAC N E W T O N
English scientist. It was then reflected up inside the tube and. w h e r e he developed his three greatest theories: the law o f motion. In the graphic work of these two great men of science. Hooke's head of a drone fly seen through a microscope may represent the first time man and insect came face to face. and his hand moving across the light. A disembodied eye at the top of the drawing indicates where to look. mathematician. offering a transparent view.
It is an exhilarating read. and calculated the theory of combustion. 1665). a breathtaking book containing many of his drawings showing some of the first microscopic and telescopic magnifications of our environment Hooke's text and illustrations carry us to the moment of discovery. Hooke invented the camera diaphragm. and anchor escarpment.
The Eye and Head of a Drone Fly
111/2 x 105/8 in (294 x 270 mm)
.An experimental scientist who drew many of his discoveries. universal joint a prototype respirator clock balance.
ROBERT H O O K E
Magnifications This acutely detailed engraved drawing
is taken from Hooke's Micrographia (pub.
each drawn with the s a m e unfaltering lines and tones that are between reality and impossibility.
SARAH WOODFINE British contemporary artist graduate of the Royal Academy Schools. and winner of the 2004 Jerwood Drawing Prize. while the tabs make us see a flat paper cut-out. its character. Drawn in more-or-less c o n v e n t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . W i t h h o m e y c o n t r a s t . has published several catalogs of her work. From component parts we understand how to put it together and make it stand sensible in space.94
W H E N WE DRAW A COMMON OBJECT like a chair. and place in the world are truly seen.
Chair Cut Out 2002 22'A x 23 in (565 x 585 mm) SARAH WOODFINE
. A renegade from the p a p e r dolls' h o u s e . this chair p r e s e n t s us with a clever visual contradiction: deeply drawn shadows tell us it must be solid. craft. and w h e r e the chair b e l o n g s . Van Gogh's tipsy seat is a metaphor for an absent person. and has drawings in numerous public and private collections.
W e are left a little c o n f u s e d as to what we s h o u l d do. Sarah Woodfines flat cut-out m o d e l plan is a witty and surprising drawing. it has so m u c h familiar personality that it seems to talk to us. Woodfine exhibits internationally. Its wobbly gait and squashed s y m m e t r y m u m b l e endless h o m e y tales about the life it has seen.
Two-dimensional was made
This highly finished
using a sharp pencil and
on smooth white drawing paper glistening dark drawings are artificial representations of known
Woodfine's two-dimensional things balanced
in the world.
Fierce strokes This is a portrait of the mechanical drew immediately and almost harshly. Among van Gogh's best-known canvases
Dutch painter who produced over 800 paintings and 850 drawings in only the last ten year's of his life. Cornfield and Sunflowers. Van
VINCENT VAN GOGH
. His passionate brush and pencil strokes are honest
and of also turmoil and growing alarm at the world around him. and Starry Cypress
Night.hehas marked the full emotion of the subject with a fierce grip of concentration. not is made present in only strokes and is subdued to distract us from flat a meaningful chair. drawn opposite way of plan.
direct in their he saw and describing his
felt. The floor few as engagement with the chair.
Artists emulate and manipulate this effect in their pictures. U p s i d e . or colored surface is never constant. The rim of light on the egg is reflected light received from surrounding paper. w e turn our head but n o one w a s there. a n d are q u i c k to p r o p o s e ideas.
W e learn to read light and shadow in our environment as indicators of solidity and depth of space. The two tones meet without a division or outline between. T h e slightest recognition is instantly matched to our wealth of experience a n d expectation. hence our recognition of a cartoon face c o m p o s e d of three lines.
To further examine changes in tone. a n d m o v e m e n t . Below.This effect is caused by the contrast of their surroundings. a n d we can be fooled. Here w e look briefly at our perception of light a n d darkness a n d our interpretation of diagrammatic illusions. Three factors change it: the amount of light it receives. S o m e o n e passes our o p e n door. See how its "edge" smoothly changes from light against dark to dark against light. perhaps. Here. a n d our ability to see forms in c l o u d s or fire. think about its illumination. Run The bottom-left quarter of the egg lightens slightly toward its "edge" when seen against the darker shadow cast on the paper. Are you happy
LIGHT AND SHADOW
with what you see? Does the light enhance the subject? Could you alter and improve it? On pp. The outermost edge of our vision. The small squares are identical in tone. We will even see things that d o not exist because minimal information suggests they are likely to be there. a lit photograph of an egg shows essential points to observe in tonal drawing. The egg's lightest region is seen against a darker background. less developed than the center. To interpret visual s t i m u l u s . are translated into a world of space.At one point you will catchenoughlight lighter than the white one. Through these we can enjoy witnessing our o w n d e c e p t i o n a n d b a f f l e m e n t a n d u n d e r s t a n d certain factors that are very useful in picture-making. the adjustment of our eyes (in growing accustomed to a level of light). We only need small prompts.96
O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S
Light and Illusions
SEEING IS MIRACULOUS. transmitted to the brain as chains of electrical impulses.102-03 deep shadows cast across shells make their form easier to perceive. your eye around the circumference of the egg. o u r b r a i n s search for n a m e a b l e things. and the proximity of contrasting tones. Tape them to the glass. but do not appear so. atmosphere.
The perceived tone of a black white. try this experiment. On acloudyday. Below the bottom "edge" of the egg there is a rim of light reflected onto the paper by the underside of the egg. two identical mid-gray squares are seen against black and paler gray squares.
The egg's darkest region is seen against a lighter background. gray. Before starting a tonal drawing of any subject. From across the room both will appear black card and fold and retapeitwith half sticking out. cards the same size.
. We perceive one to be lighter than theother. Adjust the angleofthe protruding part and again stepback. one blackandone white.d o w n patterns of light on our retinas. reads only m o v e m e n t a n d can often m a k e mistakes. form.
In this linear drawing w e read t h i c k as closer a n d t h i n as f a r t h e r away.
Bending straight lines Linear distance
These t w o jugs have b e e n d r a w n w i t h lines o f d i f f e r i n g thicknesses. w h i l e t h i n n e r lines recede.
. Y o u m a y e x p e r i e n c e s o m e t h i n g similar h a p p e n i n g w h e n y o u m a k e s i n g l e . S h o r t h o r i z o n t a l lines o f identical length are m a d e t o l o o k d i f f e r e n t by c o n v e r g i n g lines beside t h e m ( C ) . by d i r e c t e d a r r o w s ( A ) . In this t o n a l image w e read w h i t e as f a t t e r t h a n black. T w o horizontal lines o f equal length are m a d e t o l o o k longer and shorter. T h e r e is n o obligation t o a d d b l o c k s o f t o n e t o a l i n e a r d r a w i n g .
T h e s e optical illusions s h o w h o w lines o f identical length can b e m a d e t o l o o k quite different f r o m each o t h e r by t h e addition o r association o f o t h e r lines. O b s e r v e h o w each white b a n d appears t h i c k e r t h a n its black c o u n t e r p a r t . T w o relatively t h i c k parallel lines are m a d e t o b e n d away f r o m each o t h e r as t h e y pass in f r o n t o f an a r r a y o f c o n v e r g i n g f i n e lines ( B ) .97
LINE VERSUS TONE
In l i n e a r d r a w i n g s . Seven parallel lines are m a d e t o tilt t o w a r d and away f r o m each o t h e r by n u m e r o u s s h o r t strokes crossing t h e m diagonally ( A ) . l i g h t e r surfaces s t a n d f o r w a r d w h i l e d a r k e r s u r f a c e s recede. start o u t w i t h one. T h i s fundamental o p p o s i t e is a reason w h y l i n e a r a n d t o n a l d r a w i n g does not a l w a y s c o m b i n e w e l l in t h e s a m e i m a g e . O f t e ndoingso w i l l s p o i l y o u r w o r k . A n u p r i g h t line stands in t h e c e n t e r o f a h o r i z o n t a l line. b u t t h e u p r i g h t o n e l o o k s t a l l e r (B). If y o u w i s h t o m a k e a t o n a l drawing.p o i n t p e r s p e c t i v e d r a w i n g s w i t h a large n u m b e r o f c o n v e r g i n g rays b e h i n d y o u r horizontals. In a t o n a l d r a w i n g . respectively. T h e jug d r a w n w i t h a t h i n line appears f a r t h e r away t h a n t h e j u g d r a w n w i t h a t h i c k e r line.
LIGHT AND ILLUSIONS
T h e s e black a n d w h i t e bands are o f equal thickness o n e i t h e r side o f t h e i r central division. B o t h are identical in length. t h i c k e r l i n e s a p p e a r t o stand forward.
116-17) to make
painted figures look correct when viewed from below. Ancient Greek architects knew parallel upright lines appeared to bend toward each other in the middle. and we learn to read the styles of diverse cultures and periods. their picture could be ambiguous. C l o s i n g t h e surface o f t h e f o r m seals o u r d e c i s i o n as t o w h i c h w a y it faces. including some shown here. A few suggestive marks will tip the decision one way o r the o t h e r
Closing the surface
W h e n a t r a n s p a r e n t elliptical o b j e c t has b e e n d r a w n . w h e n drawing the outline o f a three-dimensional form. Yet many illusions. it oscillates between t w o possibilities. Michelangelo. Today we are bombarded with images but rarely have difficulty reading them. o r as a s l o p i n g . and so calculated precisely how much to fatten columns to make them appear straight. w e can only look f r o m one t o the o t h e r If an artist is not aware this can happen in their image. such as t h e dish seen h e r e o n t h e left.s i d e d r e c t a n g u l a r t r a y ( b o t h are illustrated far r i g h t )
"The brain is so eager to name a fragment we see that we need only a suggestion to grasp the whole.76. are still not agreeably understood.
SEEING TWO OPTIONS
Two ways of seeing
T h i s is t h e b o x c r e a t e d in t h e f o u r t h step o n p. perfected the acceleration of perspective (see pp. Some artists use known optical illusions to make art. In the 1960's. It is possible t o r e a d i t t w o ways: as a t r u n c a t e d r e c t a n g u l a r p y r a m i d seen d i r e c t l y f r o m a b o v e . It is a curious fact that w e can never see both options at once. as s h o w n o n t h e right. Artists make pictorial illusions when they paint or draw. Op(tical) artists. w e will find that in terms of the direction it faces. Artists can communicate much in few lines and the viewer will do the rest of the work."
. such as Bridget Riley. made paintings that depended upon the physical sensation of our brain's reaction to known optical illusions. others adjust works to avoid their effects.98
O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S
PSYCHOLOGISTS AND PHYSIOLOGISTS have studied optical illusions for decades in pursuit of what they tell us about the brain. among others. it can oscillate b e t w e e n facing t o w a r d o r a w a y f r o m us.
B e l o w is a b r i g h t n e s s c o n t r a s t illusion. T h e a r t i s t M. C o u n t t h e n u m b e r o f d a r k spots y o u can see. W e should r e m e m b e r t h a t o u r brains will always search f o r a p i c t u r e — i n ink blots.
Seeing things that are n o t t h e r e
H e r e o n t h e left. Yet still w e try resolve t h e m . O n l y o n closer inspection we realize that t h e s e o b j e c t s are fooling us.
P e r c e i v i n g a w h o l e i m a g e f r o m m i n i m a l lines
T h i s is a w i d e l y r e p r o d u c e d visual j o k e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e C a r r a c c i b r o t h e r s . His highly d i s p u t e d and i m p r e c i s e science involves s h o w i n g u n p r e p a r e d p a t i e n t s t e n p a r t i c u l a r ink b l o t s a n d asking t h e m t o i n t e r p r e t w h a t t h e y see.
. This effect can o c c u r naturally w h e n looking at a b r i g h t l y lit w h i t e g r i d such as a w i n d o w f r a m e against t h e night sky. C o u p l e d w i t h t h e Rorschach b l o t above. Minimal-line j o k e s such as this rely u p o n t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y v i e w e r ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e shapes. clouds. T h e t e s t e x p l o r e s o u r n o r m a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o find things w e can n a m e a m o n g r a n d o m shapes. smoke. e t c . N e i t h e r triangle exists. T h e patient's answers are t h e n diagnosed as a psychological profile. S o m e artists use ink blots t o p r o m p t t h e beginning o f an image.99
T h e s e clever configurations o f outlines and t o n a l surfaces convince us at a glance that we are seeing a solid three-dimensional triangle and a three-pronged fork. T h e s e e x a m p l e s illustrate h o w little is n e e d e d t o c o n v e y an image. C Escher u s e d this phenomenon t o great effect in his many p o p u l a r d r a w i n g s o f puzzles and impossible buildings.
F a m i l i a r i t y in r a n d o m s h a p e s
T h e Rorschach test was established by t h e 1 9 t h . T h e y a r e o f t e n c r e d i t e d w i t h t h e invention o f t h e c o m i c c a r t o o n . w e see t w o overlapping triangles: o n e outlined in black b e n e a t h a n o t h e r in solid w h i t e .c e n t u r y Swiss psychologist H e r m a n n Rorschach. M u c h can b e e x p r e s s e d in o n l y a f e w marks. — a n d so t h e artist can create m u c h o u t o f an impression w i t h o u t overdescribing. b u t w e believe w e see t h e m because e n o u g h f r a g m e n t a r y i n f o r m a t i o n is given f o r o u r brains t o c o n c l u d e t h e y are v e r y likely t h e r e . 1 6 t h . this is a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f t h e viewer's b r a i n b e i n g willing t o d o a large a m o u n t o f t h e w o r k in d e c i p h e r i n g a p i c t u r e . This simple five-line d r a w i n g is o f a C a p u c h i n priest asleep in his pulpit.c e n t u r y Italian painters.
since this is h o w w e experience them in e v e r y d a y use. like a disposable plastic cup that has been crushed in your hand. giving the cylinder four corners. Don't worry if it is uneven— just try again.
third common error is to draw upper and lover ellipses with different-sized apertures. I have drawn these for you here. suggesting that the vessel is lopsided. for example plates or bowls on a table. w e use ellipses to give a sense of perspective.
WHERE TO START
In the air above a spacious sheet of scrap paper.
. Be aware. hesitant one that has edged its w a y nervously around the vessel's rim.
Cubism. even if y o u r hand w o b b l e s a little at first. However. such as bowls and cups. I have exaggerated this error here. there are three common errors people stumble upon. circles change into ellipses. smoothly. To make a cylindrical object appear real in our pictorial space. w h e n seen at an angle. not the paper!) As the pen touches down.100
OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS
W E VISUALIZE CYLINDRICAL VESSELS. Ellipse are best d r a w n quickly. and these narrow or widen depending on the height of our view. while its upper rim remains level. keep it spinning.90) takes a different
as essentially circular. as if the table surface slopes upward beneath the vessel.
W h e n drawing cylindrical objects in perspective. Cover a sheet of paper with spinning. a n d in o n e bold stroke.
How to Draw Ellipses
of seeing. (see p. spin your hand in a relaxed circle. though.
The first common error is to draw two pointed ellipses. springlike forms like those I have drawn below. describing many sides of an object simultaneously. A wobbling but confident ellipse will still be more convincing than a slow. that this is o n l y o n e w a y
view. Watch the tip of your pen and see it draw an ellipse in the air Keep this movement going while gently lowering the pen onto the paper like the needle of a record player closing on the disc (only it is your lowering hand that spins.
The second common error is to tilt the upper and lower ellipses at different angles. you will achieve steadiness with practice.
Once you have mastered drawing free-hand springs.
HOW TO DRAW E L L I P S E S
A Single Vessel One Inside Another Grouped Together
Finding Shape and Volume Draw an imagined vessel in one continuous spinning line.
Create a Solid Surface Once you have drawn the shape and volume of each form. working from top to bottom. enlarging and diminishing the ellipse to determine the overall shape and volume. you can start to control your spinning ellipse to make a vessel.
Seeing Through Allow lines to travel around each vessel as if it were transparent. you can make it solid by building up highlights and tones on visible surfaces. Altering the pressure—and therefore tone—of the line as it spins gives the impression of light shining on one side. Draw quickly. thereby hiding lines that show the other sides.
t h e r e a r e p r i n c i p a l l y
Dramatic lighting emphasizes texture and contour. if light shines in them. Illuminate them with a gooseneck lamp
placed very close and directed away from your eyes. It is important to place them on the correct side so as to draw comfortably (see pp.
two opposite methods of achieving the same result.
Start by arranging a choice of shells on a sheet of paper to your left if you are right-handed (or vice versa).22-23). Gradually hone your drawing. You can begin with outlines and build slowly from light to dark (see opposite top). making complicated or subtle surfaces easier to see and understand. Remember that shadows. simply shapes and subtleties of light and dark meeting each other with no divisions in between. leaving detail until last. if any. It maximizes the range of tones between black and white. it will inhibit your perception of tone. beams of light. Draw the largest and most distinct areas of light and darkness first. and strong contrasts are easier to draw.102
W H E N MAKING A TONAL DRAWING. Relaxing your eyes out of focus as you draw will help to dissolve the distraction of detail. and solid objects are all of equal importance.
LIGHT TO DARK
DARK TO LIGHT
. outlines. or you can begin with a mid-gray ground and model light out of darkness (see opposite bottom). In the finished drawing there should be few.
Draw in the details last of all.56-57). Use quick. Continue working between light and dark to refine the drawing.
Gentlydissolveoutlines so that areas oflightanddark meet without a line between them.
DARK TO LIGHT (TONE TO TONE)
Using the flattened tip of an HB pencil. and edges definingthespacialrelationships between are important aspects of your composition them. loose.
. look at the main areas of darkness. Treat positive form and negative space (see pp. Honetheshapesand angles of the shells. shape. until you are happy frame. Relaxing your eyes out of focus will help to eliminate distracting details. with broad sweeps of the eraser. Erase and make changes to roughly place the shells inside your with your composition. Fll in broad areas first and leave all detail until last. Use your pencil to develop these in relation to the areas of light.103
LIGHT TO DARK (LINE TO TONE)
Using a sharp HB pencil. Avoid a rough significant areas of light in your gray rectangle with texture and do not press the graphite hardwhite plastic eraser Ignore all detail and draw a into thepaperor you will not be able to erase it. boldly
Keeping your eyes out of focus. pale lines with equal importance. draw a rectangle. Let your eyes go out of focus while looking gently layer marks to create an even tone at your subject and paper: Draw the most ofmid-graywithin a rectangle. Remember that its size.
continuous lines. smooth. 176 the British artists Noble and Webster draw with domestic refuse in a beam of light. Seeing through a wire drawing of a known object such as a violin gives us a visual and tactile understanding of all its sides and shapes at once. and physical relationships between them. our image is stronger if we understand and can visualize what is happening on the other side too. They can also be made in space. There are essentially three lessons to be learned. 19 Picasso draws with a pen-light for the camera. On p. When drawing anything viewed from one side on paper. try drawing it with a pen on paper Use bold. The first is that figurative and abstract drawings can be made in space.
Once you have created your three-dimensional violin (opposite). Place the instrument on a plain surface and illuminate it with a desk lamp to add the delicate dimension of shadows.104
OBJECTS AND I N S T R U M E N T S
Drawing with Wire
DRAWINGS DO NOT HAVE to be two-dimensional. three-dimensional drawings teach us about the totality of forms in space.220 Mamoru Abe draws with forged steel rods. and on p. This class uses thin-gauge wire to create a threedimensional violin. and on p. you can create your own more ambitious works. On p. The second is that after achieving this simple example.69 we see how the architect Antonio Gaudi drew proposed domes using suspended wires and weights.
brace the two ends of the violin with a length of wire along the back. I used garden wire and cut it carefully with pruners.
. Then begin to define its uppermost surface with Scurves and the bridge. I started with the scroll at the top and fixed the four component wires with two drawings of tuning pegs.
Once you have completed the body. but thin enough to be easily manipulated inyourfingers Here. begin to shape the curvature of the fingerboard.
If needed. and thick wire a larger one.
Decide how big to draw your violin relative to the gauge of your wire. thin wire will make a smaller drawing. Here. and pinch and bend it to shape the base of the instrument
Repeat this process to make the identical upper side of the instrument. Cut a length. These will hold the sides apart and help to keep the form in shape. Join the two sides together with four short pieces of wire.105
DRAWING WITH WIRE
Follow these steps to draw a three-dimensional violin Choose a gauge of wire sturdy enough to hold the shape ofyourfinished drawing.
. some of which are shown here. they invented new anthropological finds—objects that reflected the distant past and their immediate future. England. Oxford. Using found materials. I had the privilege of drawing their inventions.Artifacts and Fictions
with a group of schoolchildren who were responding
to the astonishing objects in the collection of the Pitt Rivers Museum.
x 7 in (300 x 180
. W e
are the only creatures on Earth that can make our own image. W I L L I A M S
much Western contemporary art. WILLIAMS
he sought perfection in the infinitesimal measurement of the body and produced four
Contemporary photographer volumes of illustrated explanation. sculptural description of her form. giving physical foundation undulating land.The Body
UR BODIES MAKE us TANGIBLE. focus has turned to the vulnerability of flesh: how it can be damaged. Michelangelo attended dissections to made this image by light sectioning: fine beams of light perfect his understanding of surface form. In this period. Renaissance artists studying anatomy from dissection clinically trained and specialized as a medical illustrator. Williams were decades ahead of their medical counterparts. history paintings and other stories. Look closely at Renaissance drawings of the female b o d y and you will see that m o s t are actually y o u n g m e n with minor adjustments. but the study of a controlled. herimpressive presence because we are given such Life drawing no longer dominates the art school curriculum. is the most c o m m o n subject in art. and because the female was deemed inferior. while Durer took his research further—
A. while Leonardo opened the body to see and projected onto a woman's body draw the celebratory discover for himself our physical mechanisms. Artists are thought to have b e g u n drawing from the nude during the Italian Renaissance. explaining ranges e/ of materials and techniques and showing diversities of thought and purpose in making. This chapter addresses issues that are most commonly faced by beginners attending life-drawing classes. from video and X-ray to thermal imaging. It also looks at the representation of the b o d y b11y4o n d traditional life drawing. R. Drawings were usually made from the male nude to avoid offending the church. The human body. He even believed he had located the soul contours of her form like a cartographer's map of in the pituitary fossa beneath the brain and behind the eyes. She the body is still essential. in our privileged and comfortable society. artists also tried to define ideal proportions in the body. portraiture. It gives physical and emotive form to religious narratives. This F finished image was produced as r a n c i s c o . W e understand every curve and balance of to the theory that the eves are the windows of the soul.
clothed or nude. the junior workshop apprentices posed as part of their duties. Strangely. and in San could easily be transferred into three dimensions. a n d w e d r a w o u r s e l v e s to a s s e r t o u r e x i s t e n c e . and surgically rebuilt. During this time. These classes are popular around the world. the Bay Area Models' Guild h o l d s a quarterly life-drawing m a r a t h o n aprinton Kodak transfer paper with green-colored dye added celebrating the great diversity of human proportion. and anatomical and erotic art. myths and fables. Artists now explore the interior of the body with new media and
Lateral Contour Map of a Full-Term Primipara Produced by Light 1979 A. The body remains at the core of over the initially white lines. R. Leonardo drew a man within a circle and square. diseased.
In a single drawing we see equally o b s e r v e d studies of f o r e s h o r t e n i n g (see
RAFFAELLO SANZIO (RAPHAEL)
Italian High Renaissance painter: Raphael is best known for his images of the Madonna and Child. while Matisse used scissors and glue to cut out and paste a flat collage of brilliant color.
Sculptural frieze This is a preparatory drawing for Raphael's painting of the Resurrection of Christ. and Vatican frescos. altar pieces.110
T H E BODY
THESE DISTINCTIVE WORKS show two strikingly different ways of modeling the body on paper. and studied to learn from the works of Michelangelo and Leonardo besides whom he was soon ranked. In this highly s o p h i s t i c a t e d a b s t r a c t i o n . She u n f o l d s and s t r e t c h e s shapely limbs. He trained under Perugino. Muscular dramatic postures reflect the influence of Michelangelo and the Renaissance celebration of the idealized male body. so that we read this drawing like a sculptural frieze. while supporting the weight of their body with the other. But the meanings of each gesture and the materials and methods by which they
Postures and Poses
were m a d e contrast greatly.
Three Guards 1500-20 91/4 x143/8in (234 x 365 mm) RAPHAEL
Matisse's b l u e n u d e sings with life and c e l e b r a t i o n . Raphael's study of fallen m e n leaves no doubt that they are in anguish. Principal figures m i r r o r e a c h other.116-17). we see the e s s e n c e of h e r b e a u t y w i t h o u t a single detail. Raphael drew delicate tones of black chalk on tinted paper. T h e y b o t h raise one arm to cup their head in their hand. and human defeat. Here three male nudes are compressed into very shallow pictorial space. filling the page with her presence. By way of contrast.
freer.designer writer. as his w o r k matured. lifelong love of brilliant They celebrate the culmination of spectacular and sometimes drawings. His calligraphic natural abstractions of form grew brighter.which might be. devoid of troubling
Blue Nude 1 1952 413/4 HENRY MATISSE
Soothing influence This drawing expresses the achievement of Matisse's personal aim: "What I dream and depressing subject matter. his pattern. and Islamic art.. foundamong many other groups of papercut these works as an elderly man confined to his bed or wheelchair.. teacher and principal exponent o f Fauvism—a movement established in 1905 in which bold color is the most essential element. a mental soother. fabric.sculptor. printmaker..111
French painter: draftsman.or like a good armchair in which to rest from physical fatigue..like an appeasing influence. Matisse became an artist after studying law." of is an art of balance. and more energetic
Color and form This collage is one of a series of Blue Nudes..
Seurat evolved a distinctive t e c h n i q u e called p o i n t i l l i s m — i m a g e s literally made from myriad points of color. or abruptly meeting. and muddied the brilliance of the drawing.
Here. he used b l a c k c o n t e (see p. Typically. there are no outlines. it is as if the very atoms of air are made visible. turned gray. only tones blending into. In his f a m o u s paintings of social e n g a g e m e n t .
Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 1883-84
91/2 x 121/4 in (241 x 312 m m GEORGES SEURAT
. T h e space around h i m chatters with symbols. stands in counterpoise holding a dark globe and his thoughts in m o m e n t a r y balance. other tones. agreeing to coalesce and show us the form of a waiting boy. we c o m p a r e a skillful design that absorbed m u c h time in its making with the quickness of an idea marked instantly. and c o m p l e m e n t a r y hues. scratched in seconds. Light is given by the paper alone. it would have mixed with unseen black dust. Opposite. w h o sits propped in the contradictory darkness of a hot summer's day. and color His applied theories still influence painters in their manipulation and rendering of local. 162) and an eraser to model teeming points of artificial light amid
GEORGES SEURAT French painter classically educated in the Ingres school of thought. If Seurat had added white.112
T H E BODY
T I M E IS A SIGNIFICANT E L E M E N T i n t h e m a k i n g o f a l l d r a w i n g s . Using the paper to create light is important for beginners to learn. Seurat engaged in lifelong studies of line. like small birds attendant on the meditation.
velvet d a r k n e s s . Below. in a perfect e x a m p l e . His drawings are similarly u n i q u e . form. reflected.
Tone and light In this black conte drawing. Beuys's magician.
The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland UNDATED 113/4 J O S E P H BEUYS x81/4in (297 x 210 mm)
. This figure is drawn intuitively. and made installations. Our focus joins
shoulders. free from the constraint of immaculate form opposite) impetus is irrelevant to the and meaning of this work (as we see in Seurat's drawing representation. taught workshops with a cult following. He was a shaman who believed in intuition and in the investment of healing force.
the profound power materials with spiritual or
Free lines This pale pencil drawing is Beuys. and that These aspects of the work convey fractured visibility. Perfectly modeled rather conventional for Joseph
Focus Beuys's hand
quickly to draw dotted lines flowing downward on either side of the figure. in different positions. and blood. video art.113
JOSEPH BEUYS One of the most influential German artists of the 20th century. Beuys gave performances. and drawings. Unbroken lines stream from his simultaneously movement. Many of his other symbolic works on paper have been drawn with materials such as honey. transience.gold. iodine.
he typically drew them with a few delicate strokes of pencil and brushed watercolor. They whisper and writhe in a brushed and sultry embrace that devours our watching.
Rodin's public audience
understandably shocked by the eroticism of his drawings." as seen here. But what is stranger to us now is that they were also outraged by his free use of line. In both drawings.114
SUMMONING HUMANITY in a drawing of the nude is a subtle and emotional task. His exquisite flow of paint beyond "outlines. was perceived as scandalous. In Rodins work. Rodin employed models to move freely or pose together in his studio. the women are framed and caressed by long. We are asked to gaze u p o n her flesh. As here. its soft. Our bodies radiate the passion of our thoughts and so become beacons of our frailty and power.000 drawings shown in rotation at the Musee Rodin. Rodin produced portraits and statues of public and literary figures. his w o r k is characterized by deliberate un-finish and powerfully modeled emotion. and one of hundreds of rapid studies of nudes. Opposite.
This is one of about
7. We are involved not as a shabby voyeur but as a bystander engaged through our recognition of shared joy. Paris. Anita Taylor has drawn her protective body hug out of the darkly glistening compression of willow charcoal and the dynamism of her shy but momentous femininity.
AUGUSTE RODIN French Romantic sculptor and prolific draftsman employed as an ornamental mason until the age of 42. the fierceness of the women's kiss is beautifully matched by the tenderness of his line. sweeping lines— of either purple silk fabric or cool studio air—that imprint and amplify their past and future movements. and went on to inspire generations of artists. Achieving international acclaim in mid-life. flushed skin made ruddy and black with crushed cinders.
125/8x 9 in (320 x 229 mm) AUGUSTE RODIN
Two Women 1911
. Inspired by Michelangelo.
ANITA T A Y L O R Painter. A thinner sheet might have crumpled and torn under such vigorous force of making. scrutiny.
Charcoal Taylor has drawn freely with charcoal and an eraser on thick. The sturdy surface of the sheet has allowed her to press hard when needed. the impression of luminosity
All and Nothing 1999 67 x447/8in (170 x 1 1 4 cm) ANITA TAYLOR
. and gaze. exposure. London. This order of light below and dark above gives glowing from within. erased and drawn again. leaving her lightest marks at the deepest level of the image and applying darker marks above. Taylor's immense self-portraits explore the relationship between the artist as maker and the artist as model. professor and Vice Principal of Wimbledon School of Art.
Luminosity Layered marks flicker likefirelight as they sculpt the woman's body. Taylor has drawn. intimately reflecting upon the emotions and meaning of nudity. and rework rich depths of light and tone. textured paper.
This is chiefly a correcting device by which figurative painters and sculptors have for centuries countered the effects of our viewing their work from far below or on the curvature of a vault. We also look at another very interesting branch called accelerated (or anamorphic) perspective. to be translated by mirrors or seen from only one point in the room. rather that what we believe we know from experience.
Keep your pencil perpendicular Measure and compare at any angle. To avoid its effects ensure you always look flat onto the surface of your page. It can also be a little demon in the life room. you will make inconsistent and unrelated comparisons.
This is a simple method of making measured comparisons for relating the true size of one part to another This is a tool to assist observation and thinking. But if we could take a scaffold and climb up to the work. or coming forward.
Hold your pencil upright. unfathomable angles. and measurements do not have to be carried to the paper and slavishly drawn the same size they appear on your pencil. The length of exposed pencil is your measurement. and to draw what we see. and wrist joints. persistence.
Hold your arm straight. London). patience. the skull in Holbein's The Ambassadors (The National Gallery."
"Simple measured comparisons reveal surprising truths about proportion. without taking off.
Accelerated perspective plays a great role in much art. elbow. more extreme examples have been made for court entertainment. Move the tip of your thumb down to a second chosen point. How to make and apply these is explained below and opposite. It is not so hard. Imagine Michelangelo's murals in the Sistine Chapel.116
T H E BODY
Measurement and Foreshortening
FORESHORTENING IS AN ASPECT of perspective. and a few measured comparisons are key. Return to this posture every time. Up close on the scaffold we would witness Michelangelo's subtle application of accelerated perspective.limbs happily receding. helping us to see more clearly. Lock your shoulder. we would arrive to find many of the same figures strangely distorted. Rome. Close one eye. It is not complicated. which is imperceptible from below. Spend time making comparisons before you draw. when beginners prop their board in their lap and look down at too steep an angle. If your arm is not straight. plummeting. elongated as if stretched across the plaster. or shrivelling at odd. just making them helps you see. with dramatic illusions of figures painted in normal proportion. There is no need to mark them all down on paper. Align the top with a point on your subject. for example. In the life class it is the mechanism for ensuring that a drawn figure lies correctly in pictorial space .
W o r k a r o u n d t h e figure. See h o w d i f f e r e n t t h e relative heights o f t h e s e shapes are f r o m w h a t w e m i g h t e x p e c t in real life. To m a k e f o r m s l o o k c o r r e c t . Keep t h e b o a r d steady and draw. P r o p o r t i o n s will only l o o k c o r r e c t f r o m t h e angle at w h i c h y o u make t h e drawing. A t a c e r t a i n angle. Stand its b o t t o m edge o n y o u r lap. y o u must let go o f w h a t y o u k n o w f r o m e x p e r i e n c e a b o u t t h e relative sizes o f b o d y parts and trust y o u r eyes. y o u r hand travels f a r t h e r than y o u expect. h e r p r o p o r t i o n s will appear correct. which feels strange. t a p e s o m e p a p e r t o a board.117
To discover h o w this w o r k s . pleasingly f o r e s h o r t e n e d . L o o k at y o u r m o d e l as if he o r she is a flat series o f shapes o n e o n t o p o f a n o t h e r Measure t h e height and w i d t h o f each shape and c o m p a r e it t o its neighbor.
C o m p a r e t h e heights o f t h e nose and eye shapes t o t h o s e o f t h e f o r e a r m . looking d o w n t h e p a p e r at t h e a n g l e at w h i c h I d r e w . adjusting a n o n y m o u s shapes. belly.
T h i s is t h e s a m e d r a w i n g p h o t o g r a p h e d f r o m above.
. Lean t h e t o p e d g e t o w a r d y o u and find a p o s i t i o n w h e r e y o u can c o m f o r t a b l y l o o k d o w n t h e p a p e r at an angle o f a b o u t 4 0 degrees.
To f o r e s h o r t e n a figure. W e appear t o be looking d o w n o n a w o m a n s t a n d i n g b e n e a t h us. S o o n t h e b o d y will lie d o w n in space. a n d thighs.
MEASUREMENT AND FORESHORTENING
Tilt t h e t o p edge o f this b o o k t o w a r d you and look d o w n o n this figure f r o m a b o v e .
and work over t h e m with further o b s e r v a t i o n s .
. Avoid drawing up one side and down the other. imagine holding up a plumb line.
SEQUENCE OF POSES
H e r e the model was asked to move every t w o minutes. Leave first thoughts in place.
This pose leans away into space above our eye level. make the upper body smaller give your model a high waist. feeling.118
DRAWING QUICK POSES l o c k s y o u r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n t o what is most essential. work back and forth across the body. I used a sharp H B pencil and began each drawing by marking her outline. and energy. height. T h i s q u i c k e x p l o r a t o r y line does not perfectly describe shape but expresses a decision about overall flow of form. propelling you to make immediate assessments and trust them. working from her center to her feet and to her head. Be bold and dive into your drawing with c o n f i d e n c e . To draw this effect. her center of balance is normally found in a vertical line beneath her head. because it results in two unrelated sides drifting apart. Layered lines give d e p t h .
To outline a figure. and height. To see this. and slightly enlarge her legs and feet. and stance before honing her balance and expression. Start each new drawing by lightly marking the model's height with a loose line in ten seconds. balance.
When a model stands upright on both feet.
This drawing shows how different observations be overlaid to bring a drawing alive.
. The tilt of the pelvis is then counter balanced by the model's shoulders tilting the other way (as seen here). and this should be avoided
A model standing on one leg usually drops the opposite hip.119
The twist of a model is most easily and expressively captured if it is exaggerated.
Here. the activity of circular lines and the repetition of limbs suggest movement. Most of us have a tendency to over-straighten the drawn figure.
Begin by drawing lines to encompass the whole hand. swiftly marking its essential gesture. This exercise is useful when struggling with proportion. W h e n starting. A mirror increases your range of views. general to specific. Do not separate them yet. and they need not be daunting to draw. and ignore all details.
. Draw large shapes and their orientation. it is important to leave aside all details of the fingers and toes.120
Hands and Feet
THERE ARE MANY different ways of approaching h a n d s and
of form. Don't worry about achieving perfect solutions. starting with the largest. It also helps the beginner to progress from drawing outlines to drawing confidently across the surface of the whole form. Practice by drawing your own hands and feet.
Build your drawing gradually from light to dark. Group the fingers together as one mass. express structure and gesture far more successfully and easily than ten worried outlines wandering up and down between the fingers and toes. but regard these practice studies as ongoing processes of thought and observatio Add details such as nails last if you wish. drawn in relation to each other. These planes.
feet. especially the lengthwise divisions between them. Keep lines open to change and take measurements if they help. Focus instead on how planes change direction across the knuckles from one side of the hand or foot to the other. Then subdivide each shape so that you w o r k from large to small. and a gooseneck lamp casts shadows that clarify planes and depths
GESTURES OF THE HAND
Open Palm Start honing the shapes of the dominant planes. or those of a friend.
Try t o express the whole foot and t o encapsulate its entire shape and direction in a few marks. and don't worry about accuracy t o begin with. as if with a chisel. t o remove t o o many early lines.121
HANDS AND FEET
MOVEMENTS OF THE FOOT
Let your first marks be light. flattened planes. these are what give a drawing its tangible structure. and rapid.
Nowimagineyou are carving the foot insidethepaper. Look for key angles without becoming distracted by detail.
Use an eraser t o refine decisions o r t o suggest areas o f light. It can be a mistake. Leave aside all detail.as though out o f wood. and spontaneity. Hew it roughly in broad.
. depth. however. loose.
T H E S E DRAWINGS ARE MADE
in compressed charcoal."
. Opposite. Compare
its nature in close-up to that of willow charcoal used on pp. I also used white ink with a steel dip pen. The white lines demonstrate what is often called "bracelet shading.
before honing his or her shape (see pp. length. 118-19).HERE TRACES OF RAPID initial lines are still seen within and outside each body. and posture of the model. I make these lines in the first five to ten seconds of a drawing to locate the presence.
. feeling them through the attentive movements of your own hand.The Visual Detective
DRAWING FROM MASTERWORKS
was once a staple component of an artist's education. I draw in museums in support of written research and as an artist seeking answers to questions about the practicalities of image making. characters. Drawing work by another artist enables you to discover and understand the inventive hand in their composition.
It is now viewed with some skepticism and often seen as academic. perspectives. and narrative pulse become vivid when you realize them in the middle of your study.
At17V i a Romana. each modeled from dissection. These almost life-size figures were composed from my imagination and achieved with the help af studies discussed on pp. there is a unique museum of 18th-century anatomical waxes. Walls are lined with hundreds of faintly animated body parts. Life-size women wearing wigs recline on beds of embroidered silk in cabinets of mahogany and Venetian glass This is a detail of a compressed charcoal drawing measuring 14 x 10 ft (4.3 x 3 m) made in response to La Specola. 126-27. Florence.
In this chapter. gathered all that he knew
FRANCISCO DE GOYA V i s i o n a r y Spanish painter. throat. their stance. draftsman. This enlargement o f his miniature p o r t r a i treveals t h e s p e e d and agility o f his p e n and
about himself. painters have dropped discreet records of themselves into commissioned narratives so that they can remain a face in the crowd. The truth is that we all like looking at faces and observing the billions of variations that make us individuals. and secular narratives.Portraiture
IN P O R T R A I T U R E W E
PEOPLE. or a glimpse of him is caught in a photograph used as a prop.
his changes in pressure and Hitchcock length o f line. the meaning of their face. we use the delicate medium of silver point to look at foundation structures of the head. and a handprint (see
p. live. Once you understand
Self-Portrait in a Cocked Hat c. 1790-92 4 x 3 in ( 1 0 2 x 7 6 m m ) F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A
and memorize the basic structure that we all share. made as he passed through the ages of man. abstract or figurative. W h e n drawing a person. bells. and lucrative genre for artists. look directly at us.
a face is to see and interpret the essence of an identity. For centuries. Rembrandt's famous multitude of self-portraits. or past us. single or of groups. We can mold and animate qualities of expression out of objects and fragments of disassociated things—for example. and it is very rewarding. a single line can deliver an entire expression. and shoulders. Goya. Our homes are filled with images of our loved ones and of those in our families who have gone before.
usually strangers from past times. It also reminds us o f b o t h t h e intimacy and a scene as scrutiny o f an honest portrait. and expression of the individual. character. religious. and their posture can be changed with just one line. Self-portraiture gives every artist a constant. or whose eyes can seem to follow us around the room Portraiture is a constant. Portraits can be highly or loosely detailed. Goya's w o r k s include many royal and society p o r t r a i t s . Equally. Halls and palaces are filled with pictures of the mighty and significant. you can capture the subtlety. and satirical or metaphorical. and p r i n t m a k e r . We are also reassured by keeping records of ourselves. neck. is here to both meet and look through us. and in a few scrolling rafts of pen lines and stubbled dots. Past rulers sent painters across continents to bring back a likeness in advance of a prospective royal marriage. buttons. in a miniature self-portrait magnified opposite. Man Ray's self-portrait of scored lines.
Beginners often draw themselves as a way of establishing their practice. became more poignant as he progressed. Movie director Alfred similarly signed his films by playing a fleeting role: he walks through an extra. who. historical. having been
documented and preserved. The returning image was of crucial consideration in any proposal.
. and social and political commentaries. compliant subject to scrutinize.139).
The aesthetic sense of a line being just right can make a drawing sing. We can read so much about them by studying their gaze. whisking a timeless girl onto the page. There is a common misunderstanding that a drawing with only a few lines is both less finished and easier to make than a drawing with more. The truth is often the opposite. they serve as a great lesson that it is not always necessary to add tone to your drawing. It is the portrait of a countrywoman. stealthily using his chalk to find contours and mass. caught in her last moments of youth. He makes his flair and skill look easy. It takes a truly accomplished a few strokes.
PABLO PICASSO Spanish Cubist painter (see also p. hand to capture something well in only
Frangoise au Bandeau 1946 660 x 505 mm (26 x197/8in) PABLO PICASSO
. we can enjoy and learn from them. breadth. Without faltering. While with longer consideration. teetering on the brink of older age. For the beginner. length. one eye already cast askew into the autumn of her life. Picasso strikes and scrolls his pencil. Here the grace and beauty of two young women are held forever. Through exhibitions and copies in books. Her face is drawn tenderly and with a luminous glow. and pressure as it conducts our eye through the image.30). Holbein maps the still landscape of Dorothea's body in questioning marks. adding smudges of tone for weight and solidity.132
THE BALANCE BETWEEN a mark and a blank space is often a tantalizing form of perfection. Picasso has left to posterity many hundreds of magnificent line drawings. The Tightness of a line is felt in its speed. How could the addition of shadows have enhanced this image?
The simplicity of
Picasso's line is breathtaking. We can actually count that he struck the paper 40 times.
and designer f r o m Basel. and produced numerous society portraits such as this one here.
Blended colors In this portrait drawn with colored chalks on slightly textured paper. which. Her folded forearms support and frame her weight above. In addition t o his numerous exquisite portraits in oil.
Cropping This regal composition fits its paper perfectly. gently flushed. He outlined her nose but not her upper lip. The peak of her cap clips the uppermost edge. he designed c o u r t costumes. and its downward slope crowns the diagonal of the composition.
Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser
1516 51/8 x121/4in (385 x 310 m m ) HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER
. presses against the binding across her face. Holbein has cropped and pinned his subject within the four outermost lines of the image—the edges of the page. made a popular series o f w o o d c u t prints titled The Dance of Death.133
HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER
German p o r t r a i t painter draftsman. Holbein unified the woman with her background by gently blending colors from her clothes and face into the atmosphere around her. Holbein was employed toward the end of his life by King Henry VIII of England.
Anatomically. using a fine and relatively
13 x 181/8 in (328 x 460 mm) VICTOR NEWSOME
brush. and has works in major collections including the Tate Gallery. Psychological drama is contained behind a grid. London. Nerves. confusing. or defined by. Newsome was awarded the Prix de Rome in 1960. and glands also complicate form. It floats in space. perhaps applied using a tortillon. Delicate muscles are integrated with the skin and fat that is to be r e m o v e d . the face is one of the hardest parts to dissect. Durelli has m a d e a few m i n o r mistakes.
Sharp. solid above and almost hollow below. dark lines made with a pencil
against smooth. its highly clarified detail claiming to be d r a w n from observation. This is one of a number of similar disembodied female heads seen behind. but they are irrelevant here. Highlights of white gouache were dry
late in the making. N e w s o m e ' s eerily shadowed form is smooth and bears a linear grain evocative of w o o d . distorted. continues to exhibit regularly. taught at numerous British art schools from 1962-77. while white painted flecks and wisps suggest electrical illumination. In fact.
British sculptor painter and draftsman. the contours of a grid. This is a m a r v e l o u s interpretation of the truth. The style of Durelli's d r a w i n g opposite sings with the confidence of truth and precision. blood vessels. The real dissection w o u l d have been far more c o m p l e x . and unpleasant to see. dark tones of graphite blended into the paper.134
These highly finished drawings express the emotional power and physicality of the head and neck.
Red Chalk the Muscles 1837 173/8 x 145/8 in ( 4 4 0 x 3 7 2 m m ) ANTONIO DURELLI and Pencil Drawing and of Neck of the Head
Little is k n o w n o f this M i l a n e s e p a i n t e r a n d engraver w h o c a m e from a family o f artists. Pencil numbers refer to the list of muscles written beneath. pull their points o f attachment t o w a r d each other
. Durelli's experience as an engraver is reflected in his stylized drawing o f muscle fibers. which. It is hard to think of a more difficult medium with which to achieve such linear perfection. Stylized parallel lines are reminiscent of engravings. w h e n contracted.135
Linear perfection This is a red chalk drawing of extraordinary accomplishment. and it is likely that this drawing was intended for reproduction as a print.
and with staccato flinches his hyperactive eye moves from paper to model. The camera watches him at work. Bellini gently conjures the features of his saint with soft marks that tease his presence out of shadows into the light.136
THESE ARE DRAWINGS
of shoulders. close enough to touch his hair and feel his breath.
ALBERTO GIACOMETTI Swiss sculptor. he drew over the whole image at once. Then. Similar movements sculpted the head below into its page. They confuse our perception of scale by being intimately fragile and at the same time far removed. Both works demonstrate how simple lines can be made complex by being intense. painter draftsman. necks. There is a film of Giacometti drawing. Opposite. and heads. They show us clearly the bones of drawing. Agitated marks make patches of tone that cut away the space around the character. each locked into a visionary gaze. He is best known for his bronze sculptures of human form.
Energy This is a portrait of a woman drawn with black crayon on a plain page of a book Lines search for the essence of form. Giacometti settled in Paris.
Portrait de Marie-Laure de Noailles c. while his hand stabs and thrusts
like a conductors baton. each portrait is inscribed onto the page. We are brought intimately close to this man gazing up to heaven. with speed and urgency. Flesh is built and personality carved simultaneously. as if seen from a distance. 1948 77/8 x 6 in (200 x 150 mm) ALBERTO GIACOMETTI
began with an oval shape placed in relation to the proportion of the page. which are characteristically elongated. Without paint and with very little tone. and poet After studying in Geneva and Italy. cutting and carving the paper with matted and spiraling restless energy.
a n d b r o t h e r in-law.
Shoulders of a Man 73/8 x 21/4 in ( 1 8 6 x 5 8 UNDATED
. H e p r e f e r r e d religious t o classical t h e m e s .
Transfer This delicate humorous
drawing is a cartoon—not
image but a type
of template used to plan the composition of a larger work Look closely and you will see rows of tiny dots along every significant line in the picture. Sometimes different narrative
same character was reused in compositions.5 9 ) . a n d his w o r k is d i s t i n c t i v e l y calm.
Character This is one of many cartoons produced by Bellini the and his family. These are pinholes. a n d c o n t e m p l a t i v e . Bellini s t u d i e d u n d e r his f a t h e r J a c o p o .25 6 .G I O V A N N I BELLINI
A prominent member of a large family o f V e n e t i a n painters. H e t a u g h t G i o r g i o n e Barbarelli and Titian. lyrical. Mantegna. transferring which
were made in the process of the saint to his final place in the composition of a painting (see Glossary pp.
humor. and confrontations with. bells.221).
Signs and symbols with symbols
that ore written. spear-brandishing warrior.
Self Portrait 1982 9 4 x 7 6 in (239 x 193 cm) JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT
. and everything flux. and buttons rings with surrealist wit and agile improvisation. scratched lines. The artist has finished his portrait with the signature of his hand smacked in the middle like a kiss: a declaration of existence as old as man's first drawing. their most immediate and best-known subject: themselves. and sheet metal before being snapped up by the New York contemporary art scene. signing their work SAMO. made with great energy. scrolls. Al Diaz. and attitudes. Man Ray's playful silk-screen assembly of color blocks. postcards. drawn. political outcry. float and shimmer in the shallow pictorial space. The incandescent New York painter Jean Michel Basquiat pictured himself here in naked silhouette.138
THE MIRROR OF SELF-PORTRAITURE offers artists infinite reflections of.
JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT
Short-lived American painter and graffiti artist who began his blazing nine-year career drawing on lower Manhattan subway trains with a friend. skull-
headed. Islands of graphic marks. The figure's position is unequivocal and defiant while around him is in a state Without the essential of cultural and
figure we would elegant
belookingat a sophisticated
painting of signs. and indulgence. marks. It is an opportunity to look deep without the infringement of courtesies owed to a commissioning sitter.
scratched into its surface. a tribal. similar to work by Cy Twombly (see p. It has proved to be a subject of piercing scrutiny. In 1986 he traveled to Africa and showed his work in Abidjan on the Ivory Coast He also exhibited in Germany and France. It is an image of confrontation—the ever-controversial young artist roars at us from his abstract city-scape. Later Basquiat sold drawings on T-shirts.
while a squeegee was used to drag thick lilac-brown ink across the silk pushing it though exposed areas onto the paper below. They experimented with camera-free photography working directly onto photographic paper
Silk and ink This is a silkscreen print made through the following process: the paper was laid on a flat surface and a frame stretched with fine silk was placed on top. The handprint appears to be made directly. last of all. The first part of the stenciled image was already marked on the silk The screen and paper were then held tightly together. caked in thick printing ink or paint.
Autoportrait 1916 195/8 MAN RAY
. During the 1920's and 30s. printmaker and cofounder of the New York Dada movement. Man Ray probably used his own hand. where he collaborated with the artist Laslo MoholyNagy. painter.
Frame White lines are seemingly (though not actually) scratched through ink to frame this face. They suggest speed and make the picture look immediate and spontaneous.139
American surrealist photographer. Black ink was printed next and then white. Man Ray lived and worked in Paris.
I combined silver point with painted white gouache on a pink ground.s t r i p a n d use i t t o fix o n e side o f t h e p a p e r t o t h e b o a r d . choose a silver object.
. s o m e m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n o t h e r s . Take a sheet o f any t y p e o f p a p e r (for e x a m p l e .
was familiar to
or eggshells with animal glue. s e e p . p a r c h m e n t . who used it to outline initials and border characters before painting.
1. For i m p o r t a n t a d v i c e o n p r e p a r a t i o n a n d use. and t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h strips a b o v e and b e l o w . 2. Find a n i t e m t h a t y o u can h o l d a n d draw with comfortably. key. artists mixed white lead. 5.Tear o f f f o u r lengths o f b r o w n p a p e r g u m tape. W e t o n e length o f g u m . Be swift and firm.
illuminators of medieval m a n u s c r i p t s .140
Silver P o i n t
SILVER OR METAL POINT
A sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has been made w e t with the strokes o f a paintbrush will buckle d u e t o its uneven expansion. This is called a three-tone drawing. the surface must be primed with a ground such as gouache. The most c o m m o n metal has always been silver—hence the term "silver point. This browns with age unless sealed by fixative (see pp. Opposite. Metal point is simply a strip of metal bound in a holder. Numerous early European artists also enjoyed its fine qualities (see p. E m p t y mechanical pencils designed f o r t h i c k leads ( s e e p. which quickly oxidizes into a gray line. W e t a n d fix a s e c o n d strip t o t h e o p p o s i t e side. Z I N C W H I T E G O U A C H E : Dilute with w a t e r A d d c o l o r i f r e q u i r e d (as opposite) 4 . M a k e s u r e i t is c o m p l e t e l y clean t o avoid u n w a n t e d streaks. Lay a clean d r a w i n g b o a r d o n a flat surface. I m a k e m y o w n f r o m o l d dip pens. or wood. and gold have also been used. Pages 142 to 147 are illustrated in silver point and techniques are explained on pp. Stretched paper remains taut as a d r u m . o n e t o fit each side o f t h e b o a r d — t h e s e will make t h e glued f r a m e t h a t holds y o u r p a p e r in place.
Find a clean sponge and b o w l o r d e e p t r a y a n d fill it w i t h w a t e r W e t t h e p a p e r evenly in t h e t r a y o r o n t h e b o a r d . Gesso o r m a t t e m u l s i o n c a n a l s o b e u s e d . 144-45. 1 4 4 . 3 . I t is a v a i l a b l e f r o m all a r t s h o p s . purchase silver wire.54) can also b e used. M E T A L OBJECTS: All metal objects m a r k a p r e p a r e d surface. laid on paper. bone. Note h o w domestic paintwork marks with a coin. S i l v e r is b e s t . T h e p a p e r will l o o k b u c k l e d . and is therefore useful w h e n using w a t e r c o l o r as well as silver point. and alloys work on matt emulsion. If w o r k i n g o n an emulsion-painted wall. Lightly s p o n g e o f f t h e excess." Lead.
To begin. you will need t o stretch paper and lay a wash (see right and opposite). an exciting indication of how large-scale drawings could be made on a wall. c h o o s e a s o f t full b r u s h t h a t c a n c a r r y p l e n t y o f l i q u i d . and make o r buy a holder. 156). SILVER P O I N T W I R E H O L D E R : T h e s e c a n b e p u r c h a s e d a n d t e n d t o b e heavy. b u t d o n ' t w o r r y . SILVER W I R E : Purchase different gauge lengths f r o m a traditional a r t supplier o r jeweler.
Straighten the w o r s t buckles. Drawn across a prepared surface. b e f o r e priming stretched paper. Metal point does not work on ordinary paper. S O F T F U L L B R U S H : W h e n laying a w a s h . copper. platinum. or ring.54-55). it leaves a deposit. Historically. w h i t e d r a w i n g paper) and cut it t o fit y o u r d r a w i n g b o a r d w i t h a generous b o r d e r a r o u n d its edges.
Prop up your board of dry. Beware of the tape's coming loose at any point while drying. stretched paper at a 45-degree angle. leaving a smooth surface. The next step will make a small mess. I used a powder pigment called Caput Mortuum. overlapping lines until you reach the bottom. Make enough to cover your paper. Dry thoroughly before laying a wash. is necessary to lay a wash
Three-tone When coloring ground. T h r e e . Runs blend into each other evenly. full brush into the gouache and start in the top left corner. Keep testing on spare paper. Here. Leave the wash to dry thoroughly before you begin to draw.t o n e silver point drawing of a skull
. as the paper will be ruined by a raised ridge. Make an even line across to the right. Dip a soft.
LAYING A WASH
It your stretched paper so as to prime it for silver point.141
Leave the paper to dry flat. Mix a very wet but not weak solution of gouache in a jar with a lid (add pigment at this stage for a three-tone drawing). v e r y little at a time. and let tests dry before deciding to change the mixture. Reload the brush and add a second line overlapping it beneath. slowly add powder pigment or gouache from a tube. any extra will keep. so put newspaper under the lower edge. Keep adding smooth.
It will slowly straighten and become taut.
Head and Neck
THE HEAD AND NECK are best conceived as one unit arranged in four parts: cranium, face, neck, and throat. Each is of equal importance. The cranium is essentially egg-shaped and pivots on the first vertebra. The face is suspended beneath, like a softly curved triangle. The n e c k — a powerful, shapely column of layered muscles rigged to vertebrae—adjusts and holds the angle and expression of the head. The throat is delicate, hard, and lumpy to the touch, formed of cartilaginous rings, glands, thin muscles, and looser skin. Framing the throat, two columnar neck muscles (sternomastoids) project the head forward and also turn it to the opposite side.
This is a simple shorthand diagram representing the cranium, face, neck, and throat. It can be learned and visualized in different positions very easily, giving the novice a firm footing on which to stand and develop their drawings of the head and neck.
Cranium Begin with an egg shape. Tilt it on the paper to change the position of the head.
Face Draw a rounded triangular shape below the forward point of the egg to represent the face.
Neck This shape represents the trapezius; the largest surface muscle of the neck and shoulders.
Throat A triangular shape represents the throat. (The nose makes the diagram clearer)
After copying the diagram above, animate it. Practice drawing the cranium at different angles, add the face beneath, then the neck, shoulders, and throat. Shape your diagrams so they are more lifelike, but avoid adding detailed features too soon.
143 These three drawings demonstrate (from left to right) the following: why the cranium may be considered egg-shaped; now the face can be seen as a curved triangle suspended beneath and where the division lies between the two; and the form of sternomastoid muscles that frame thethroatsodistinctlywhen the head is turned and inclined forward.
The skull and the frame of the throat
HEAD AND NECK
Bones of the cranium are locked together by jagged joints. Sinuses in the frontal (forehead) bone between and beneath the eyebrows are larger in men, making their brows pronounced and often ridged compared to those of women.
Bones of the face house our sight, smell, taste, The skull pivots on the first vertebra or "atlas," and speech. Cartilage extending from nasal bones after the Greek god condemned to carry the shapesthenose.Pads of fat resting on the base of Earth. The jaw hinges in front of the ears. Behind, eacheyesocket support the eyeballs in position. If bony ridges give anchor to the sternomastoid thefatisreducedby old age, eyes look sunken. muscles rising from the breast- and collarbones.
Three useful generalizations
General rules about the relative positions of body parts can hinder artists as much as help them, since they are often based on classical ideals rather than thediversityoflife.However,some generalizations can help as a rough guide to start with, so long as good observation takes over as soon as possible.
In general, when the face is relaxed (not smiling or frowning), the corners of the mouth are found directly beneath the pupils of the eyes. Vertical lines can be drawn down from the pupils to meet the corners of the mouth.
The height of a young adult's ear is often the same as their nose and found on the same level. There is no general rule for growing children, and remember that ears grow again in old age, which is most obvious in men.
The height of the face is about the length of the handspan and the eye is normally halfway down the total height of the head. A common error is to draw the eyes too high up on the face.
T H E DELICACY OF SILVER POINT
(see pp. 140-41) is perfect for
such as a beach pebble. Here, I stretched drawing paper and laid a wash of white gouache (see pp.140-41). As you can see, the line and tone of silver point varies with pressure, but only slightly. Too much pressure cuts the ground. Silver point erases, but so does ground. Erased ground can be repaired gently with extra gouache. You can also use gouache to paint over mistakes and make corrections.
small, detailed drawings. The drawings below and opposite show useful observations of the head and neck, which are explained in the captions below. Each drawing was made with a silver wire held in a large-gauge mechanical pencil. Newly clipped wires are sharp and cut rather than draw. Before use, they need to be rubbed and smoothed on a stone
Here I imagined placing my silver point wire against the skin of each head and neck and, working in parallel bands from the crown downward, I traced the undulation of surfaces. Linear bands imagined around the head and neck can help you t o clearly see the tilt of the head and relative levels of the features. Ask a friend t o model for you and try this exercise life-size using a pencil and eraser
Seeing that the face is never flat
Drawings below left and center are summaries of the generalizations given on p.143. Far right is an image to remind us that the face is never flat. It slopes back to varying degrees among individuals, from the tip of the nose t o the ears. For example, note that the innermost corners of the eyes are farther forward in space than the outermost corners.
General measurements, side
General measurements, front
View from above
Male and female head and neck
Men's necks a r e g e n e r a l l y s h o r t e r a n d t h i c k e r t h a n w o m e n ' s b e c a u s e t h e angles a n d levels o f c e r t a i n b o n e s a r e d i f f e r e n t b e t w e e n t h e sexes ( i n d i c a t e d h e r e b y d o t t e d lines) a n d m e n are n o r m a l l y m o r e muscular. T h e male t h y r o i d cartilage ( A d a m ' s apple) is larger a n d m o r e visible than t h e f e m a l e . L a r g e r f e m a l e t h y r o i d glands also s o f t e n t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e t h r o a t .
The largest m u s c l e o f t h e s h o u l d e r s a n d n e c k is called the trapezius. A r r a n g e d on e i t h e r side o f t h e spine, it shapes t h e u p p e r back and neck above the s h o u l d e r blades. C o n t r a c t i n g in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h d e e p e r and surrounding muscles, it raises and l o w e r s t h e shoulders a n d d r a w s t h e h e a d backtoeitherside.
USING A SHARP 3 B PENCIL, I drew this head quickly from imagination, evolving its character and expression from the scheme of four parts: cranium, face, neck, a n d throat (see p. 142). Here, five steps show you how to practice doing the same. This approach can be used to draw from imagination or from life. Keep your wrist loose and hold your pencil away from its point (see pp.22-23). Build the layers of your drawing from pale to dark, a n d from general balance a n d form to specific detail. Remember that successful drawings are built on foundations of "seeing the whole," then dividing the whole into smaller parts, with details brought in last of all. Phrased tonal marks modeling this girls skin and hair follow the technique demonstrated by Goya in his self-portrait on p. 130. Turn to Goya's drawing and study how, in a circle beginning across his hat, moving down his hair, and around his coat, he flows lines over surfaces to describe their contour. As you build from steps 1 to 5, bring phrased groups of lines across the surfaces of your form, using their directions to capture the expression of the head and neck. If unsure, copy my steps until you gain the confidence to make your own decisions.
This drawing is the final stage of the four steps opposite. Here, I have enlarged the eye, and moved it back into the head by trimming the length of the upper lid and adding a more pronounced lower lid. It is important to set eyes far enough back from the relatively prominent nose; too close to it and the face flattens. Hair swept back and extended behind the cranium balances the regal pose. Lines shaping the hair echo those marking the cranium in step 1. Here, the lower part of step 1 comes through as wisps of hair across her face and ear
Portrait of a Young Girl
Rapidly add shorthand shapes to represent the face. I used light to describe the upper lid first with a shadow beneath for the lower lid and open eye.
. so it is important to the life of the image that while controlled. they are also still sweeping and confident. I modeled the outline of the character I imagined light shining from above and in front and adjusted the pressure of lines to reflect this. down the face to the throat. over the cranium. Here. The eye announces the nature and expression of the emerging person. Keep your first lines light. neck.
Place the eye beneath the cranium.147
Building up the portrait
Gently spin pale lines in a softly drawn shape representing the cranium. avoid drawing too dark. and throat.Theangle at which you draw this shape of the paper will determine the angle of the finished head. too soon. First lines will remain visible in the final drawing.
Moving from the back of the neck. The nose and ear begin to shape the head.
T o DRAW PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGES. the texture of hair. and gravity. be aware of the subtle differences in skin surface.
. muscular tension. Above all. empathize. a n d t h o s e w h o a r e
asleep (see overleaf).
DRAWING IN THE PRADO MUSEUM. Fast lines carve out the features of Goya's soup-slurping hag. with a steel dip pen
and acrylic ink. Van Dyke's noble cast of characters was modeled more finely.
. seeking the dominant contours of each individual expression. I used the nib upside down to gain needle-sharp precision.
of Scheherazade. In this c h a p t e r w e see h o w c l o t h i n g c a n s e e m to p o s s e s s the w e i g h t and m o n u m e n t a l i t y of stone. he and cofounder Serge Diaghilev took Paris by eac storm in 1910 with their production h year in the industrial f r e n z y of creating o u r image and aspirations. Like it or not. In psychology. c u l t u r e . so that c h o i c e . T h e p a p e r p a t t e r n is p e r h a p s the m o s t w i d e l y k n o w n of c o s t u m e d r a w i n g s : a formalized plan of lines. was a Belarussian A r t Deco theater fantasies and desires to immediately possess a version of the same. w h i c h in turn feed c o n s u m e r Lev. a n d w e will c o l l e c t patterns. and i n d e e d image b e c a m e the property also of the industrial classes. charcoal. or calm u s w i t h chic. theb u t b y the w a y it s p e a k s w i t h its flying. and be so expressive of temperament that it overtakes the need for an o c c u p y i n g h u m a n form. and intent. arichand unusual combination of pencil. and even invisible by the w a y w e dress. cool. Bakst's designs and costumes immediately To the fine artist. caricatured p l u m e s . and atmosphere. Artists do this not so m u c h b y the style of a figure's garment. a n d c o u r t i e r tailors f o l l o w e d suit. and e x u b e r a n c e .
. Cities c h a n g e d all. b u t influenced Parisian fashion and interiordecor. Samoylovich Rosenberg. and everything w e h a v e c h o s e n for o u r w a r d r o b e s — r e f l e c t o r s of o u r taste. e m u l a t e textures. c r u m p l e s . c o s t u m e o f f e r s a r i c h v o c a b u l a r y of t e x t u r e s a n d c o l o r . S t r u c t u r e is t h o u g h the i n v e n t i o n of shoes. P o p u l a r f a s h i o n d e s i g n e x p l o d e d w i t h the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n . D e s i g n e r s create m a s t e r p i e c e s of haute couture
H o l l y w o o d stars. gesture. for e x a m p l e — d e s i g n e d the w a r d r o b e s of p o p e s a n d k i n g s . dancer leaps through swaths of golden cloth. intriguing. known as Leon Bakst. a n d p r o f e s s i o n — b e g a n life as a d r a w i n g . or b u l g e s . and gouache. woman was drawn by Bakst one year later for the ballet Narcisse. outrageous. g l o s s y folds. w a r m t h . Designers all over the w o r l d c o n t i n u a l l y p e n and b r u s h lines to lash us w i t h color.Costume
E MAKE OURSELVES EXOTIC. articulate a d a n g e r o u s satirical j o k e . and s y m b o l s that lets m e n and w o m e n in all countries and areas have w o r k i n g access to the latest fashions. Practical classes
l o o k at r a n g e s of c o l o r e d m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d i n g p a s t e l s a n d felt-tip p e n s . variety.As artistic director of the It is s h o c k i n g to t h i n k h o w m a n y m i l l i o n s of d r a w i n g s m u s t be m a d e a n d d i s c a r d e d Ballet Russe. Previously. T h e e n t o u r a g e of the theatrical stage o f t e n l e a d s the c a t w a l k . personality. o n l y the w e a l t h y c o u l d afford to h a v e c o s t u m e s specially m a d e . a n d s u b t l e t o n e s . W e dress ourselves and costume designer trained in in St. it is the public sign by w h i c h w e are j u d g e d . toParis. T h e rural masses w o r e h o m e s p u n simplicity. fulfilling lavish and spectacular briefs. Petersburg and later exiled designers' ideas and are surprised and delighted b y their continual f l o w of inspiration. while court p a i n t e r s — M i c h e l a n g e l o and Holbein.
st 111/4 x 81/2 in (285 x 220 mm) u d i e d L E O NB A K S T
and explore the characterization of fabric t h r o u g h m o v e m e n t .This voluptuous above all a physical p u p p e t w i t h w h i c h to animate character and narrate personality. shapes.
it is only possible to create very thin.156
Cloth and Drapery
EACH OF THESE FIGURES
is ninety percent cloth. Keisai Eisen's intense. Below this. Short and subtle horizontal punctuations are only given in the background by sections of floor. The quiet stillness of this image is achieved by a masterly economy of stylized line. Above them. best k n o w n f o r his G h e n t altarpiece ( 1 4 3 2 ) a n d m a r r i a g e p o r t r a i t o f Giovanni A r n o l f i n i and his w i f e (1434). bands around the columns. the vaulted stone roof echoes and crowns the moment. However.
Vertical lines The highly controlled lines of this drawing cascade from top to bottom of the image. the carefully composed outline of his cloak shows us how the artist would have also begun his immaculate rendering of the Virgin's clothes. With a stylus such as Van Eyck used here. Church and deities are drawn as
Flemish oil p a i n t e r f r o m L i m b o u r g . Van Eyck's highly polished w o r k is c e l e b r a t e d f o r its disguised symbolism. delicate lines. Her gown is carved and polished as if made from marble. Flaxmans sleeper—perhaps a pilgrim or a soldier resting between campaigns—has wedged himself into the cleft of some great building to grab a moment of peace. and snakelike marks. with their jagged edges. H e m e t i c u l o u s l y a r r a n g e d subjects t o c o n v e y d e e p e r meaning. and the kneeling abbot is a ghost by comparison. Sculpted
one. In Van Eyck's drawing below. resonate with their wearers startled expression. her marble garment holds u p the infant Christ in a fountain of compressed line. the Madonna and her architecture are both dressed in the same manner. He has layered these slowly and carefully so as not to cut through the ground and produce a white mark just where he intended a dark one. Their uninterrupted emphasis is entirely vertical.
Silver (or metal) point is the most delicate
of traditional drawing media (see pp.
Marble gown We will never know if Van Eyck considered this drawing unfinished or intended the kneeling abbot to remain transient and ghostly.
11 x 7 in (278 x 180 m m ) JAN V A N EYCK
.140-41). swirling printed fabrics.
folds and patterns of material speak more resolutely of their wearers than any small glimpses of body we can see. Opposite. dragons. and implied striation in the stone of the architecture.
Aeschylus earned Flaxman an international reputation. one over the other. each delivering a different part and color of the design. the angle of the head. an 18th-19th century document on the lives of the ukiyo-e artists.
CLOTH AND DRAPERY
Relief printing This is a woodblock print made by a relief process. the cloak sliding to the ground. draftsman. Parts of the image to be left unprinted are gouged out with a metal tool. flat sheets of wood.
Koimurasaki of Tama-ya 1810-50 15 x101/4in (381 x 260 mm) KEISAI EISEN
JOHN F L A X M A N
English late 18th-century neoclassical sculptor. Respected for his sumptuous images of geisha and editions of erotic prints. and teacher Distinctive linear illustrations for the works of Homer. Images are drawn onto smooth. designer. Remaining raised areas of wood are rolled with colored inks. This complex numerous blocks prepared image and may have been made with printed separately. writer and printmaker Keisai Eisen took his name from the masters Kano Hakkeisai and Kikugawa Eizan. and the feet notched against the pillar tell us that A lines holds him into the cleft.
Position In this pen and ink drawing. stone wall of downward-stroked this sleeper's position is momentary. he also co-edited and expanded the Ukiyo-e Ruiko (History of Prints of the Floating World). The inked block is laid face-down on damp paper and pressed to make the print. which are sometimes also cut into pieces like a jigsaw puzzle. Dante.
Man Lying Down in a Cloak I 787-94 21/4 JOHN FLAXMAN x 41/8 in (57 x 105 mm)
Pen and wash
In the graphic accuracy of this armored
knight we see the idealized identity of a warrior from another time: a gleaming defender of the realm. all ruffs and wrinkles. lace. cinema. The aged queen is compared to an overdressed bird.158
an extreme form of the clothed figure.
Flowing scarf The knight's scarf of gilded blue is drawn in a pale wash over red ink lines. Anthony Van Dyke's Man in Armor is a masterpiece of drawn surface.
1 6 x 9 1 / 2 in ( 4 0 5 x 2 4 0 m m ) A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE
. theater. A flamboyant territory. In 1 6 3 2 he m o v e d p e r m a n e n t l y t o L o n d o n . Its color is also reflected in the metal. a n d w a s e m p l o y e d as c o u r t painter t o King Charles I. 160. It is presumed Her Royal Highness never saw it. b e f o r e traveling t o Italy. The metal. He has been rendered on this olive<olored page with pen and gray wash worked over a red and black under-drawing. and even formal portraiture.
A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE
Flemish painter and draftsman. where sometimes there just might not be anybody inside. Leg sections in both
support the figure without taking our attention away from the main garment above. Its warm surface flows in contrast to the stiff metal armor. a scurrilous cartoon by a courtier of Queen Elizabeth I. Opposite is a dangerous drawing. t h r o u g h n u m e r o u s p o r t r a i t and C h u r c h commissions. Fine examples can be plucked from fashion. Details and voices are worn externally with great imagination.
Leg section Compare mid-shin
the section of white boots
to the section of similarly cropped
trousers in drawings
Gruau's drawing on p. he c o o l e d and redefined his style. for she would not have been amused and William Wodall might have been stretching his luck. w h e r e . cartoon. The slight uncertainty of the pose and the limp cloak suggest a little more metal than man. cloth. and feather were all
CHARACTER COSTUMES REPRESENT
observed with closely crafted conviction. Van D y k e was chief assistant t o Rubens f o r t w o years. A s a y o u n g man.
the queen is masterfully rebalanced by words at her feet The whole drawing's blackened.35). t h e B a b i n g t o n Plot. t h e Jesuit Mission. manuscript
six c a n t o s . Beneath the lethal fan is the body of a bird of trimmed feathers suggest age. Top-heavy. she is shown as a grossly disproportioned bird. while a raised foot pauses to assess the next displaying a fan of daggers. Northern
Satire This is a quill-and-ink satire of the elderly queen's pride-As head of state and fashion. t h e Rising. A
Ruffs and feathers
Starched white ruffs worn at court and by
society grew steadily larger as Elizabeth's reign progressed. here dark tawny owl. and her pride.1599
51/4 in ( 1 9 0 x 1 3 4
. and saturations showing through from the other side. By her old upto three tiers supported on sticks. suggest the use of iron-gall ink (see p. t h e Ridolfi Plot. it was customary to
Iron-gall ink Wodall's
dangerous caricature steps daintily
the written lines of her dedicated page.159
WILLIAM W O D A L L
A u t h o r and illustrator o f The Aaes of Queene a Elizabeth poem Allegorized. bitten nature.
Dress c. T h e
poem recounts t h e six m a j o r crises o f Elizabeth's reign: t h e Spanish A r m a d a . hooded with an overinflated fluffy ruff eye pins us.
and both share the power of scarlet and black. elegant chic and svelte. Drying time in between applications ensured the colors did not run into each other. muscular aggression. Fine lines drawn against the building behind her echo the threads on which we have all seen arachnids drop and hang. a n d L'Officiel de la couture. Gruau uses starkly cut negative space (see pp. Gruau's model regally swans to the fore with cool pride. Airbrushed reflective surfaces further amplify our perception of speed. studio-like rectangle of paper.5 9 ) and a three-spoke balance of cuffs and cropped trousers to create an almost flag-like emblem of power. His model is outlined. demanding attention with gesture and flair. 5 8 . G r u a u ' s highly distinctive d r a w i n g s have a p p e a r e d Couture. diving to catch us in the grip of her machine-like limbs.160
THESE DEVASTATING femmes fatales force back the onlooker with their demure. Harpers & Queen.
I t a l i a n .
ofcroppedtrousershere to the device of the w
L ' O f f i c i e l d e la C o u t u r e RENE GRUAU
. Vogue.c e n t u r y haute i n n u m e r o u s m a g a z i n e s i n c l u d i n g Elle. Spider-Girl leaps like an insect. The black red. 158.
Composition Look how well this image is frame knee is parallel to the bottom edge
spacehorizontalline cropping the trousers be
outermostuprightbordersof her cuffs are similar above her head
thesidesoftheimage. as is Spider-Girl opposite. Compare the compositio beneathVanDyke'sstudy of armor on p.and tilted to the same de
a little deeper than sp
kneestogivehergravity. Fashion and fantasy drawings invent prototypes of ideals and perfection—be they for the catwalk or the fast-paced pages of comic books.
India ink and gouache
This swish of confidence and style our
enters the page turning everyone's head.F r e n c h f a s h i o n i l l u s t r a t o r w h o in his l o n g and esteemed career w o r k e d with many of the g r e a t e s t d e s i g n e r s o f 2 0 t h . She has been drawn with brushes dipped into India ink and gouache. Rene Gruau's bold gouache drawing of smoothly swaying sophistication captures a brilliantly cut garment and frames it with great dynamism in a white. possibly over a pencil outline. and gray pigments were applied separately.
Their extensions will meet the same single vanishing (see
created up therefore
the effect of steeply between
howyou can do the same in your own work—take calculate where a ruler the and single
vanishing point lies. Buildings.
Free-Falling Through City
R O N FRENZ. beginning with Star Wars. not far above the drawing. MARVEL C O M I C S
. He began work on Spider-Girl in 1998. The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones.RON F R E N Z Contemporary American graphic artist w h o designs and pencils the dynamic scenes of numerous superheroes featured in Marvel Comics. Align your ruler to the upright of each building. moon. This s
modeling applied over the top give the image a sleek and mechanical of
gravity. and figure are all locked into equally shatp through the traditional process of a pencilled outline over-drawn ink.
this drawing create a
dynamic. a great characteristic superhero comics. Frenz has drawn for Marvel for about 20 years. to the right of its center. In your mind's eye extend the uprights out of the top of the picture. Airbrushed color and with tonal
focus. and Amazing Spider-Man. sky. and has been the title's regular artist since 2003. It is outside the picture frame.
Most stores leave small pads of paper on their counters for customers to test materials. plants. The nontoxic range below represents a suggested starting point for experiment. there are disparities between the apparent nature or color of what you hold in your hand and its performance on paper. The worst are like revolting old lipsticks that get everywhere except where you intend. Children's wax crayons are relatives. Be aware that fixative dulls pastel. and
Pastel pencils make fine lines (as above). shape. and can be softened and manipulated with degrees of heat. and can be a great rediscovery for bold drawings. mixed on the paper and scratched into (as below). you may be pleasantly surprised to discover something you could not have imagined using. and subtlety. clay.
colored materials available. soft. 3. 2. wash. unwrapped harder pastels. fixing each layer on the front. the finer and more subtle the texture and color should be. OIL PASTELS: Many colors. Degas built his pastels in layers. slightly oily to the touch. Many products are sold individually and in boxed sets. except the final layer. quality and cost T h e best are paperwrapped sticks of sumptuous. Dissolve in turpentine or mineral spirits to produce oil paint or or dark paper. purchase a small selection of different items you think you will like. Use them to draw lightly (as above left) or thickly. allowing it to fix slightly from behind. They vary hugely in cost. FELT-TIP PENS: Instant-drying alcoholor water-based inks stored in the barrels of the pens are delivered via smooth nylon o r felt tips of varying shapes and thicknesses. Sticks and conte crayons make thicker marks (as below). size. Seemingly infinite choices of texture. COLORED PENCILS: Dry pigments ground together with chalk. used to make colors. great for
. and synthetics.162
ART STORES BRIM OVER w i t h t h e m a n y
wherever permitted. oily pigment. The higher the quality (and cost). crumbly. made in about 80 colors. Pastel pencils are slender and in w o o d casing. are derived from many sources: rocks. insects. animals. Before making substantial investments. and cost are laid out for our pleasure and perusal.
Oil-based. chalkbased but very subtle. including iridescents. CHALK PASTELS: Blackboard chalk is sidewalk work. Try materials that are new and unfamiliar. quality. They work well on
Pigments. though lines can develop greasy stains around the edges if the paper is not first stretched and treated with a gelatin paste laid as a wash. C o n t e crayons are square-formed. intensity. minerals. I suggest you do so. Many artists apply fixative to the back of their work.
the diverse are made in brands of basic member of the family. or wax and a binder are shaped into fine strips and encased in w o o d like a graphite pencil. paper-wrapped. these work best when slightly warm. Store loose pastels in dry rice to keep them clean. Beware—some are toxic. Often. which he left unfixed to retain its brightness. See h o w they work and return later for more of what proved best for you. Bright pastels are more brilliant on colored paper. and sold in many colors. Pastels are finer.
1. 4. hue.
Some are nonsoluble.or clay-based thin crayons in wood casing.163
These are wax. it is still a great champion and support for those beginners feeling shyly obligated to tone down their love of color to conform with what others say they should use. Think of
Matisse's Blue Nude (see p. so it is best to test them before buying. leaving the paper to shine through for highlights (as below). others dissolve in water or turpentine to make a wash.
Brands made for designers sold in enormous ranges of colors are far more subtle and sophisticated than those made for children. Diverse brands are harder or soften greasier or chalkier in use. 111).
Although not made with felt-tip pen. Some give richer lines than others. Fine lines can be achieved (as above). If you love smooth blocks and lines of colon felt-tip pens are perfect. Colors can be blended as shown right) and tones graded by altering pressure.
you will need several large sheets of drawing paper. style. As artifacts in museums. personality.
S H O E S TELL LIFE STORIES. a range of colored felt-tip pens with both fine and broad tips.
T o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s class.
. and how we stand and walk. they record and reflect our common history. social and economic status. if y o u m a k e p l e n t y o f d r a w i n g s as o p p o s e d t o o n l y a f e w . imagining y o u can see t h r o u g h it. t h e n again as if transparent. Turn t h e m in different d i r e c t i o n s and o b s e r v e t h e i r s t r u c t u r e and f o r m .
Using fine pens.
This class takes the shoe as its subject in building on earlier lessons concerned with seeing through objects to understand their function. while artists have painted their boots or those of others as personal portraits and memorials. t o o . the era in which we live. 104-07). I m a d e n u m e r o u s s h e e t s o f d r a w i n g s . Superstitions and fetishes are attached to them: we are told never to put new shoes on a table. a n d e x p e r i e n c e visible p r o g r e s s . To set up. You. Here we go one step further. will discover m o r e . and volume in space (see pp. and a selection of shoes. values. 100-01 and pp. c o v e r a large sheet o f p a p e r w i t h line drawings o f several shoes. e n j o y i n g t h e study a n d i n v e n t i o n o f shoes.164
Study and Design
they reflect our age. structure. and they have been concealed in buildings to ward off misfortune. D r a w each o n e first as a solid object. and after studying familiar shoes we use the information learned to invent new ones.
STUDY AND DESIGN
study the surface contours using fineand broad-tipped felt-tip pens. For best results, it is important to be bold and brief. Draw firmly, fast, and with as few strokes as possible. Build up each shoe from light to dark andleavesome paper showing through to create highlights.
Design Your Own
Using what you have learned from the previous steps about the structures of your shoes, and about the use of pens, invent new designs from your imagination. Start with fine outlines and progress to colored and textured surfaces. Modify your ideas by rotating the views.
The Structure of Costume
MUSEUMS ARE AN INFINITELY
rich resource for the artist and
information given by a period style. Arrange to visit a costume museum or ask a friend to model clothes for you at home. Using fine felt-tip pens, begin with quick, pale impressions of each garment's shape before homing in on its borders and seams. Try to draw transparent views wherever possible to record the relationships between all component parts. Aim to draw enough information for it to be possible to make up a version of the garment using paper pinned to a tailor's dummy.
designer. They often give quite unexpected gems of ideas and information—whatever the subject. These drawings, made in a costume museum, demonstrate ways of recording structural information and detail for later use in the studio. They could form the basis of new designs for a fashion project or theater production, for example. Drawings of shoes on pp. 164-65 show how new designs can be evolved from the structural
It is usually best when collecting information for reference to apply the restraint of dispassionate observation. Set yourself the test of drawing facts with as little artistic license or embellishment as possible. Here I chose fine felt-tip pens because they are at their best when used swiftly, and therefore encourage bold, unhesitant decisions.
Swift lines record the hanging weight of this gentleman's coat, the relative proportions of its layers, and minimal details of the buttons and cuffs.
Thick velvet fabric is pulled tight beneath and across the bust by a single button. This transparent view shows how the fabric falls loosely in straight panels beneath the level of the sleeve.
W h e n visiting museums, be prepared f o r l o w lighting, which can make it hard t o see and draw. A book can help if attached t o your drawing board.
Adding stripes and dashes of color with a thicker pen brings out the glossy sheen and sculptural rigidity of this dress, which would have been worn over a whalebone corset. small reading light designed t o clip o n t o a
THE STRUCTURE OF COSTUME
In small drawings such as these, use thick pens to color entire sections with a few marks, as I did here down the side of the bodice.
The light, frilly bulk of this crinoline dress is propelled forward with lines. pinching its gathers and sways that are hiding a horsehair bustle. fleets of quick
THIS CLASS FOCUSES ON how to draw textures through the collection of fabric, pattern, and embroidery samples from a costume m u s e u m . This formal method, using ruled squares, can create an invaluable library of ideas a n d i n f o r m a t i o n for future r e f e r e n c e — w h e n painting a clothed figure, or preparing a textile project, for example. However, if making a book of samples for a project, remember that it is important to also include collages of f o u n d materials (see pp.230-31) To d r a w a fabric texture, b e g i n by concentrating o n h o w y o u i m a g i n e it w o u l d feel if you t o u c h e d it. Decide if it w o u l d be rough, s m o o t h , w a r m , cold, thick, thin, tough, or fragile, for example. As you draw, believe you can feel these qualities at your fingertips a n d that your pencil is responding to the sensation. Undulate the pressure of your lines and marks according to the feeling of the fabric rather than its appearance. Let your pencil enact the sensation of touching its surface.
and to experiment more loosely with mixed media.
This starchy, quilted, b o w e d creation started life as an imagined corset, I intended t o d r a w together in one sculptural f o r m a range o f t h e details opposite. T h e garment quickly got o u t o f hand. T h e r e is great e n j o y m e n t in letting y o u r imagination run wild w h e n inventing costumes. If you are unable t o visit a costume museum, many exciting fabric details and textures can be found in y o u r o w n closet o r home.
Colored pencils give precision and tonal range; they can be faded but not erased. Lightly use an HB graphite pencil if you wish to plan a design first. Pressed hard, colored pencils build up a waxy finish of brilliant color. Used lightly, they appear powdery and show the texture of the paper.
TEXTURES AND PATTERNS
Silk and braid
identity. Madrid. selected from different pages of my original book. shape. 172-73. look at how Goya delineated volumes of thick fabric to express the posture. These
characters.126-27. and motivation of an individual. I made a drawing book full of studies seeking to understand how he composed drama and pathos in his narratives (see also pp.Dressing Character
O N C E SPENT THREE MONTHS
researching the work of Francisco de
Goya at the Prado Museum.
. and 252-53).
.T H E S E PENCIL STUDIES.170—71). as it rushes and carves fabric-wrapped forms like rivers and desert winds shaping the earth.
also taken from my Madrid drawing book (see
pp. and tangible. and visible. To understand how he did this.
of works by Goya in which he makes air seem heavier than flesh. I carefully copied the direction of each of his lines.
we. Saskia died after childbirth.Gatherings
LL DRAWINGS TELL STORIES. Rembrandt's bored and frustrated wife. types. and instantly engage with the
action of the scene. This J u s t as there are three parts to a traditional landscape drawing—the foreground. and novels—our staple cultural diet—are driven by a fascination with shared experience and the detail of what happens in other people's lives. the direct exchange (as shown here) where one or more characters hold eye Aneedproduced the thicker lines of the nurse.
heighten or subdue drama with subtleties of exaggeration or caricature. It middle. We can direct
close. the viewer. As artists. furniture. Second. Washes of shadow behind engaged and as a natural voyeur can feel invisible while watching the scene. R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN
in the delivery of narrative. stares out from her gloomy sickbed. a crowd tells the story from a distance. paintings depicting scenes from history. the viewer is not directly made the finer lines of Saskia. the speed and printmaker and one of the greatest and most influential density of its lines. Later in their lives. soap operas. Seeing through Rembrandt's eyes.
. and its illumination. We can also use clothes. Here. finding
corners in crowded places to inscribe their action and energy onto the page. there are no longer individuals but one significant group or mass action.
but drawings of gathered people tell them most directly. comics. Blockbuster movies. this is not the portrait of an old woman. Storytelling and people-watching are obsessive human activities. in spite of how it may seem. and therefore seem to see. daily newspapers. the viewer's attention in a scene by the format of its composition. we can
R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter draftsman. too. With a pocket full of disposable pens we also go out and draw the expressions of gathered people. and so. are implicated in this marital exchange made over the head of the anonymous nurse.
We read tensions and exchanges between people. and distance—so drawings of gathered people can be loosely arranged in three took only minutes to make and yet it lives for centuries. Drawings selected for this chapter explore these
Saskia Lying in Bedand a Nurse ranges of proximity 1638 9 x61/2in (227 x 164 mm) and a travel journal. First. vivid portrait of his wife captures our attention. presumably while he is making this drawing. The spaces between people and the positions they occupy on a page are vital to our understanding of the psychology or emotion of an event. even up her were laid with a brush. He is also the artist from whom props to add layers of meaning and attitude. we can learn most about handling pen and ink. and other masters of Western Art. Third. Her all-too-clear expression shows annoyance and irritation with her husband. Saskia. television documentaries. He in turn scorches the paper with his view and a certain speed of seeing all. while a quill contact with.
Below. h a l o e d portrait of the artists seated b a c k to b a c k . a kitchen explodes in o u r faces. Here. refuse. the C o o k . and projectors to create their anarchic punk satires of modern life. and on.. junk." (Tim Noble)
with light it is important
to think about what you is Here timelessly we see a in
can draw with. and Alice. T h e i m m a c u l a t e d r a w i n g is only r e v e a l e d w h e n t h e b e a m of a p r o j e c t o r c a s t s t h e s h a d o w
of the h e a p o n t o a wall. Pans fly oft
the stove. narrative is delivered through the air.kicks against the mundane things that close down your mind is a refreshing and good thing. Think about what else you could use: a laser smoke. and in. via the animated clutter of o u r material lives. In one of R a c k h a m s great illustrations for Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland. t h e y select and arrange familiar items of street detritus into what appears to be an u n p l e a s a n t pile. plates shatter.
Real Life is Rubbish 2002 Dimensions variable
TIM N O B L E A N D SUE WEBSTER
. and smoke billows around the agitated jives of the Duchess. for example. garbage and chaos are piled a n d e x p l o d e d in r o o m s full of event. or even the office photocopier.176
SOME DRAWINGS ARE MADE e n t i r e l y o f i l l u m i n a t i o n that floods drama into the viewers gaze.. F o r e a c h w o r k . In both works. Pencil on paper important but only the beginning of possibility
space. the Cat.
TIM N O B L E A N D SUE W E B S T E R
British artists who collaborate using neon."Anything that. c o m p o s e d garbage p r o d u c e s a c a l m . N o b l e a n d W e b s t e r s w i t t y a n d o f t e n s u b v e r s i v e d r a w i n g s are also c o n t e m p o r a r y art installations. and
projector. hearth i m p l e m e n t s crash at o u r feet.
by vivid children's
Rakham's w o r k is characterized fantasy. tabletop.177
British watercolorist and book illustrator.Stowe's ofMysteryand Queer Little Folks. ink. are very large compared to on p. a n d
an unmistakable graphic style. 100 to see for make elliptical objects and pans fly through the the foreground. amplifying movement outward from the vanishing point.
Depth Billows of smoke expand and are lighter as they come forward. H e is best k n o w n forillustratingIrving's Rip vanWinkle. The wood grain acts like marks of speed behind the scene. humor. Rackham
Vanishing point In this marvelous drama made with pen. and Poe's Tales Imagination. and
Alice's shoulder. Refer back to the drawing class how pots In drawn objects and elements that those behind.76-77) above vanishing point (see that is about3/4in (2 cm) oak converge at this point. and watercolor. we find several devices already explored through our drawing classes. This makes the story appear to leap out at us. See how the
In the Duchess's
77/8 x 6 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 5 0 m m ) ARTHUR RACKHAM
. Find the singleperspective pp. beams.
we have seen in the pairs and trios of drawings by masters and makers. a n d l o v e d t o d r a w in t h e BritishMuseum. and we. M o o r e t o u r e d Italy as a young man. In culture. The mournful gray landscape of Henry Moore's northern British field has gathered by night an overcoated audience to stand and wait before a wrapped and roped monument.The human form w a s the vehicle o f his expression and h e w a s t h e official W o r l d W a r II artist. HENRY MOORE Crowd 1942 Looking at Tied-up Object
. A glimmer of gold light appears from the left No explanation is given.
Chalk and graphite This fog-bound but humorous gathering of souls is made in graphite and colored chalk with gray wash. Moore's spectators appear to have walked a long way from nowhere to witness and wait beside this mysterious obelisque.
sculpture. perhaps these two are the most extreme. a sculptor. audiences. London. a great Shoshone drawing blazes with the color. heat. as fellow watchers. The image stands out among his more usual graphic works in which he hones and carves semi-abstract human forms. meaning. This is just one of many precious artifacts from a lost time. join in the waiting. This is an ironic drawing from Moore. and action of a buffalo hunt. and composition they are polar opposites. expressing his dry humor about
O F ALL THE CONTRASTS
HENRY MOORE British s c u l p t o r w h o t r a i n e d a n d taught at t h e R C A . and art in the landscape. which still narrates vivid days in the lives of an energetic nation. Opposite. as if Moore's wrapping has been literally outstretched.
creating harmonious balance with words but through silent demonstration. Each color is evenly distributed throughout the scene." Men at the instructed to sit and watch.
Horses It is interesting to note how the outstretched
ofthesehorses echo European images of the runningBuffalo horse before the sequence-photographer Muybridge taught us to 19TH understand their movement differently.179
SHOSHONE SCHOOL Stylized characters This vital image of a buffalo hunt is made with pigment Members of the Shoshone community wishing painted within dark outlines on a stretched elk hide. tolearnhow to paint a scene on a hide are and buffalo circle and charge the perimeters of a skin "field. Stylized hunters. horses.
and helping our eye to dart around. Skills are taught not center chant or dance to the beat of a drum.
Hunt CENTURY SHOSHONE SCHOOL
Opposite. a n d o t h e r w o r k s . K a t h e K o l l w i t z s c r a t c h e d a n d e n g r a v e d her a r m y of c l a y . a d e a t h c h a r g e of brutality. We also see qualities of line. Heath Robinson lived through the same war-torn. color.f o o t e d t r o g l o d y t e s w h o rage into w a r like a m u d s l i d e of revenge.
Brushed line and wash This is an ink-outlined drawing made with a fine brush on paper with added washes of watercolor The image was subsequently redrawn as a line engraving. B l a k e h a s i l l u m i n a t e d his s a d d e n e d Virgil on the s h o r e s of a d a r k w o r l d . w r i t e r a r t i s t . It illustrates a scene from Dante's Divine Comedy.180
The Human Condition
IN THE SPECTRUM of these vastly d i f f e r e n t g a t h e r i n g s of p e o p l e . w e f i n d a spiritual v i s i o n . inextinguishable in its fortitude and h u m o r . and sweetened the often bleak years with his impractical inventions. w h e r e he w a t c h e s a t u r b u l e n t s p i r a l of p u n i s h m e n t f o r the d a m n e d . pale souls of the lustful are being s p u n into yet another realm of hell. a n d e n g r a v e r w h o p o w e r f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e d his o w n t e x t s in a d d i t i o n t o D a n t e ' s Divine Comedy. t h e Bible. texture. The muscularity of Blake's figures was inspired by Michelangelo's works. a n d the gentle h u m o r of sedate r i d i c u l e . p o e t .
The Circle of the (The Whirlwind 1824 of
Lustful Lovers) mm)
143/4 x 207/8i n ( 3 7 4 x 5 3 0 WILLIAM BLAKE
. w h i c h b y their c h o i c e a n d h a n d l i n g a c t u a l l y b e c o m e the force a n d spirit of e a c h i m a g e .
W I L L I A M BLAKE
British visionary. era as Kollwitz. m a r k . Misted in translucent layers of paint. a n d f o c u s . a pink-inked cinema wobbles along with string. Blake w a s d r i v e n b y a passion f o r j u s t i c e a n d a p r o f o u n d b e l i e f in his v i s i t a t i o n s f r o m angels.
Pen and wash This is a pen-andwatercolor drawing made for a color-platereproduction in an edition of T h e Bystander. however meager or ridiculous their activity. Robinson and Kollwitz (above) share almost identical life dates and their work expresses a shared history from opposite sides oftheworld wars. children. and clearly focused. and the impact of death and war upon women. who lived in a poor district of Berlin. With masterful gentility. and her powerful and sensitive drawings center on nurture. Ink rolled over was selectively polished off using a rag. humor by making his characters earnest. The image was scratched directly onto a metal plate. and controlled smears on the metal surface printed as tones. and the family home. sculptor and draftsman. Kollwitz survived the two World Wars. Heath Robinson shows England in a past era. plodding along with hazy.181
Losbruch (The Outbreak) 1955 20 x 233/8 in (507 x 592 mm)
humorous illustrator and a regular contributor to magazines and journals such as The Sketch and The Bystander. He created sincere.
THE HUMAN CONDITION
Scratched lines This is a dry-point etching with monoprint. What remained in scratched grooves printed on damp paper as lines. stoical bemusement. poverty.
The Kinecar 1926 103/8 x 15 in (262 x 380 mm)
. White marks were made with a dusting of French chalk on the artist's finger to wipe away ink leaving clean metal.
a n d ranges o f colors.7 7 and 214-15). aiming for correct outlines would result in drawing too slowly to c a t c h the moment. Quick-drying.
is d e l i v e r e d t h r o u g h a m e t a l t u b e o v e r a t i n y ball bearing. Lines t h i c k e n as t h e p e n w e a r s o u t G r a n d Canal (see pp.
. B A L L P O I N T : Black a n d b o l d c o l o r s o f f e r d i v e r s e qualities. c h o o s e p e n s l a b e l e d " p e r m a n e n t " o r "lightfast. 2. The f o u r i l l u s t r a t e d h e r e r e p r e s e n t a basic r a n g e .
or idea. 192-93) w e r e b o t h m a d e w i t h a ballpoint. T h e r e w e r e c seconds t o snatch this impression b e t w e e n their emergence from one bridge and disappearance b e n e a t h t h e next. Unlike pencils. if y o u w i s h y o u r d r a w i n g s t o last a n d n o t fade o r b l u r w i t h t i m e a n d e x p o s u r e t o light.182
(ballpoints. these pens enable you to sketch. G E L P E N : P r o d u c e d in b l a c k w h i t e . gel pens) are the most convenient of all materials with which to travel. or put the paper in your pocket instantly without fear of smudging. blob when old. a disposable pen with its clip-on cap goes anywhere. they can be obtained within minutes. W h i t e gel p e n s a r e v e r y e f f e c t i v e o n d a r k papers. they each offer distinct and sometimes unexpected qualities. including l u m i n o u s a n d m e t a l l i c .
Drawing with a fine fiber-tip
pen. a n d pressure-sensitive. or turn into washes and make monoprints if flooded with an alcohol-based substance such as hairspray. t h e y a r e lightfast. Insensitive t o p r e s s u r e : lines d o n o t v a r y in w i d t h o r t o n e . So many stores sell them. turn the page. jot notes. FIBER-TIP: M a n u f a c t u r e d f o r artists a n d d e s i g n e r s in a r a n g e o f w i d t h s . which can snap or pierce through your clothes. fibertips. a ballpoint will make faint lines. and in most pockets so I can always record a thought
O n a c o l d day in Venice. shut your book. dropped in your pocket and forgotten till needed. Ideal f o r precision w o r k (see p p ."
1. R O L L E R B A L L : A c o n s t a n t i n k flow 3 . rollerballs. I swiftly focused on gesture. build to a rich. t w o tourists and their gondolier drifter past m e o n a canal.
4.188-89) and Caravans (see pp. w a t e r . R e m e m b e r . dark sheen. in the studio. 7 6 .
T h e r e a r e m a n y d i s p o s a b l e p e n s t o c h o o s e from. p e r m a n e n t . trusting shape and form to follow. indent paper. I keep quantities at home. At a time like this.r e s i s t a n t . Available in blacks and ranges of colors. in the car. For example.
Here I used the same fiber-tip pen to compose a scene from memory. Compare this
. not form.
crowd of fellow
Fast lines These
the mass and shadows of heads belonging
into the boat. Earlier I had witnessed a crammed en masse in a fleet of hired gondolas complete with musicians and choir. Fast
lines focus on action.
Let the line of the flying coat fly and the hanging arm hang.
Circular lines buzz around a man puzzling at the end of a train platform (left). when out drawing. but they should not be what you dwell on. No camera can tie you to a time or people in the same way. Every drawing writes an indelible memory of place. if a person was stout.
. activity. if animated. just draw the action. However. life will not slow and wait for you to catch it. Exaggeration helps. black. A curatorial assistant flies to do a chore (right). focus on the action of the event. not its outline. angles will happen as a matter of course. You will make outlines. Don't worry about measuring angles. make them stouter. and companionship. animate them more. Push toward caricature and this will draw out of your memory what was most important. You must learn to trust your memory and to draw what impressed you most. let it enter the stage and perform. Each one was witnessed and drawn immediately from the afterimage of what I had just seen. of course. I caught fleeting glimpses of gathered people and solitary souls going about their affairs. Each line acts its part in the narrative. all action is in the line of his coat and directed by his nose. pocket notebook and a fiber-tip pen.
Walking through Venice with a small. Above all.184
The Travel Journal
I CANNOT OVERSTATE THE JOY of making a travel journal.
THE TRAVEL JOURNAL
The same willowy assistant dashes about his work. The rush of his legs isamplifiedby their blurred lines. I am watched by the aggravated guard. eager to herd us all from his house of responsibility.185
A large lady is photographed in front of a delicate work of art. I drew him three times on the same page to catch a range of his physical expressions. In turn.
flap. decide how faces and bodies contort.186
Catching the Moment
On A BITTERLY COLD November day. emotion. forcing me to remain at the back and look at them. start by focusing on its action. and you decide to draw the moment. I took refuge in a church in Venice. and clothing or bags hang. Identify the principal character and draw him or her first. and reason for happening. if they are being haughty. pulls. Place the person carefully. Be aware that their placement on the page is part of the narrative. For example. focus on action. He and his simpering assistant would not allow me in. not outline. When your attention has been caught. elevate them in the pictorial space. or bulge.
ACTION AND DETAIL
W h e n drawing people. and involvement in the story. or pushes. if they are being devious. For example.
. you might place them lower down. furniture leans. Here I have recreated my drawing in steps to show you how to set about capturing such a scene. and let every detail speak by its size. placement. Here the custodian projects fastidious ownership of his desk and pamphlets by pushing from behind the center of the space and challenging our entry to his image. rather than the works of art they guarded. and there met this sullen custodian.
W i t h a few strokes. Here. If drawing a more complex scene. such as the desk and pamphlets seen here. which is pushed toward us in a gesture of confrontation.
CATCHING THE MOMENT
Identify t h e antagonist ( o r second character) in t h e scene. I added t h e assistant.
. D r a w their action. together with any immediate props they are using. a pillar locates t h e scene in a depth o f space. In the final step (left) I reinforced t h e custodian's desk.187
Identify your principal character a n d their psychological role in the scene. who is largely expressed through the shape and fall o f his raincoat and his way o f using a note pad. Decide where you will place them o n the paper t o emphasize their action and intent. Decide where t o place them t o emphasize their role. continue adding characters. Draw their action and props.
and buildings. I developed
detailofthis drawing from memory using a ballpoint pen. An imminent deluge of tourists urged me to work catching no more than the skeleton of the view.Grand Canal
T H E CANALS OF VENICE
are bustling places full of occupation.
vertical mooring poles give space and pulse to the horizontal speed of water quickly.
note only their most essential action and feature. Caricature each person slightly. Characters in the foreground were drawn first. Each person was glimpsed in an instant. and drawn immediately from memory.
Venetians flow across a stepped
bridge and cascade into the streets beyond. To catch characters like this. followed by the streets.Crossings
DURING THIS RUSH HOUR. then the bridge beneath them.
quiet afternoon. Caravans and other backstage activity convey expectations of energy and repose. I used a ballpoint pen to compose a series of scenes.
. Sitting at a distance on a hot.Caravans
T H E PARAPHERNALIA O F TRAVEL i s
part of circus life. I found this circus by chance in the Swiss mountains. and a great subject to draw.
t h e first-ever accurate image o f t h e M o o n ' s surface. What they have drawn is the force of nature on these properties: how the wind heaves the night ocean. are the real subjects in great landscape drawings. These conditions are very difficult to express well. makes his work by the act of walking. a n d a n astronomer w h o dedicated 20 years t o studying t h e M o o n . Take chances against the rain and work with the wind or fog. or has cracked and fallen under the weight of water. rivers. In this chapter
Moon Pastel 1795
we experiment with charcoal. Beginners will often choose calm. trees. Oxford. marking the ground with lines of footprints or by turning stones. arranging them in perfect circles on the mountainside or in lines drifting out of sight beneath low clouds. they are the animators of your subject. how the soil is scorched.
William Turner is said to have had himself lashed to a ship's mast to comprehend the storm (see p. Just as NASA photographs of Earth have had a profound effect on the way we view our fragile home. the sun comes out to blind it. It is better to get up before dawn. Russell d r e w this. and its draws the tides of the seas. and experiment. and even how the Sun illuminates. There is a sense of the heroic in drawing outside—we race to catch a form before the tide engulfs it. It now hangs on the staircase of the History of Science Museum. artists see for themselves that which is momentary and eternal. surrounded by the bright instruments of centuries of navigation. Richard Long. so J o h n Russell's tour de f o r c e drawing (opposite) was a masterpiece of observation in his time. pages o f softly i l l u m i n a t e d craters and lunar "seas" c o v e r e d in m a t h e m a t i c a l and s h o r t h a n d calculations. a contemporary environmental artist.Earth and the Elements
T MAY SEEM PERVERSE
to start a chapter titled "Earth and the Elements" with an image
of the Moon. Look closely at works by many artists and you will see that they have not represented hills. and take bold steps in emulating the swell of clouds and the forces of torrential water. sunny days. England. to be ready to draw the new light as it breaks across the land. how the mountain cut by ice and rain is now fleetingly lit. a n d a m o o n globe called t h e Selenographia. This is the world's first accurate image of the Moon. as opposed the physicality of Earth. our companion. the face of the Moon. H e a l s o p r o d u c e d an a l b u m o f 1 8 0 exquisite pencil drawings. or the wind carries it away. and meteor impacts have scarred. The pastel drawing was constructed from myriad telescopic observations almost 200 years before the Apollo Moon landing. but it can be seen as a lens to our observation of this planet. By drawing such momentous and everyday events.
5 f t x 5 ft 6 in ( 1 5 2 x 1 6 8 c m ) J O H N RUSSELL
. It is Earths
satellite. Weather is essential in all landscape drawing. when little stirs and empty blue skies offer even less to latch lines to. learning to draw light out of dark. The forces of nature. t w o e n g r a v e d m a p s k n o w n as The Lunar Planispheres.
A p o r t r a i t pastelist t o King G e o r g e III o f England. speculation. and the sea. 199).
Hokusais sedate wind presses reeds a n d the j o u r n e y s o f young ladies. Terrifying waves of merciless nature roar across the paper.
Crayon and limestone This is a lithograph.
H O N O R E DAUMIER
French satirical cartoonist lithographer. has b e c o m e a hysterical kite. we can soon learn to draw its force. T h e great master of English seascape is c o n d u c t i n g with his graphic energy. Hazy vertical marks reveal buildings into the mist. T h e ship. and by observing its tides and eddies in our o w n environment. Dots and dashes suggest receding trees out of focus. like an umbrella forced inside-out.Through political drawings he fired his sharp wit at the king. a scratched ghost.
Danger of Wearing Balloon Petticoats UNDATED
. distance. speed. serving a prison sentence for his views. painter. lifts. This wife. is already lost. the government. Below. and solidity. By
Turner carries us to the heart of the maelstrom.198
EARTH AND THE E L E M E N T S
Air in Motion
THE GREAT INVISIBLE SUBJECT o f these d r a w i n g s is t h e w i n d . A hard waxy was drawn across a heavy limestone Varying definitions
crayon of lire
and depths of tone conspire to give volume. and pioneer ofexpressionism. a sail b r o k e n loose in a stormy marriage. Daumier's c a r t o o n shines with the brilliance of his comic memory. and gives motion to each image. undramatic b u t brimming with stylized realism. and the legal profession. fluttering heavily. the bourgeoisie. Fluid strokes inflate the woman's dress and pin shadows to the ground. Flapping kimonos and an onlooker turning his b a c k have the magic of a m o m e n t caught. He knew how the world bends and stutters under such gusts. sculptor.
seeing how it shakes.
including being lashed t o a ship's m a s t in o r d e r to study a storm. T U R N E R British landscape.199
J. seascape. T u r n e r w o r k e d in oils a n d w a t e r c o l o r s a n d s k e t c h e d c o p i o u s l y o n his travels. Landscape a n d city life w e r e his principal subjects. A outline scratched of a skeletal into
ship is while and
the waves.i n f l u e n c e d b y examples o f W e s t e r n art obtained through D u t c h t r a d i n g in Nagasaki. 1826 91/2 x 113/4 in ( 2 4 1 x 3 0 0 m m ) J. leans
the whole composition swells around its fateful
center. a n d his b e s t .
AIR IN MOTION
Pencil and watercolor subdued brushed. into this very as
sheet The paper's through
own coior is brought
banks of mist and fog. Hokusai direction (from clothing from
has chosen which it
the right). H o k u s a i in t u r n has since significantly influenced European art. and history painter w h o s e p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t a b o v e all w a s light.
Ship in a Storm c. painter.
wind. from left
print.W. T h e r e a r e m a n y stories o f his p a s s i o n a t e w o r k i n g methods.M.
Wind direction wood-block
This is a colored To represent the blows lifted flowed wind. horizontally
then and of the
it into the stream
Plants also bend and flow right to
Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 1802 81/2 HOKUSAI KATSUSHIKA x 131/2 in ( 2 1 7 x 3 4 3 mm)
. d e s i g n e r a n d b o o k i l l u s t r a t o r . TURNER
KATSUSHIKA HOKUSAI Prolific J a p a n e s e c o l o r w o o d . absorbent watercolor and are
splashed.l o v e dw o r k s i n c l u d e 1 0 0 v i e w s o f M o u n t Fuji and 1 2 v o l u m e s o f Manga.b l o c kprintmaker. W .M.
inks. as a subject and second. By contrast. drawing was Hugo's principal means o f expression. fantasy palaces. grab their b r u s h . lines of rain escorting them to b o u n c e and clatter. His subjects include ruins.
Le Bateau-Vision 1864 71/2 x 1 0 in ( 1 9 2 x 2 5 5 m m ) VICTOR H U G O
STORMS CAN BE SEEN and drawn in two ways: first.
Pen and brush Hugo drew first with pen and ink. Turner (see p. with a brush.198) admires the majesty of nature. this is a writer's narrative of terror. it is difficult to contemplate its brooding and night-soaked heart.
EARTH AND THE
French novelist and artist (see also p. h a u n t e d shadows. as a gestural storm on the paper. D o m e s t i c o b j e c t s we can o w n and name fall from the clouds. composing banks of waves and dense. T h e m e n a c i n g darkness of Hugo's storm b e l o w is so convincing.28). or charcoal. T h e very nature of b o t h is turmoil and an interweaving of elements. ink. Opposite. and tossed o b j e c t s — a perfect subject in which artists can forget themselves. active surfaces of water. leaving nothing but a glimpse of moonlight glistening on the froth below. He brings us to stare into a place that no sane human would enter. he blanketed the drawing in darkness. this is a b o m b a r d m e n t from o u r h o m e s . Leonardos Cloudburst of Material Possessions is o n e of his m o s t enigmatic and mysterious works. In periods b e t w e e n writing. and t h e sea s t u d i e d f r o m his h o m e in Guernsey in t h e Channel Islands. as if drawn j u s t this year. and swim into the page. An update on biblical showers of fish and frogs. Then. It looks so contemporary. water.
together with half the contents of our garage. Above and below are examples of his mirror handwriting. It is interesting to speculate how engineering might have developed if his ideas had been shared with the world earlier
Ink and chalk This is a pen and ink drawing with touches of black chalk. for example). a hook.LEONARDO DA VINCI Leonardo devised many artifacts of our modern lives. He bequeathed his drawings to a friend. Each item that has crashed from heaven is drawn in such a way that we can feel Leonardo's nib picking it up in the speed of a doodle. a bell. He was left-handed
and wrote backwards in Italian from left to right. There is a little magic in recognizing many items from our homes something like a rake. and a wheel. envisioning machines centuries before their making (helicopters and bicycles. and they passed through private hands for 400 years before becoming widely known.
Cloudburst of Material Possessions 1510-12 45/8 x 43/8 in ( 1 1 7 x 1 1 1 mm) L E O N A R D O DA VINCI
transferred it to a scroll. and dry marks in the foreground appear to be made with his finger. In a very different work (opposite above). Claude is distinguished by.1638
85/8 x 121/2 in (219 x 320 mm) CLAUDE LORRAIN
Opposite below. or cityscape.202
THE PROFILE OF A HORIZON is a line we immediately recognize and respond to. sea-. cooler tones receding into the distance are applied with a brush. his unsurpassed handling of light. and we can imagine standing over his shoulder.
The top half of the drawing is a view as we enter the
valley. and after tracing her captured line. which he used to unify his compositions. watching his hand and eye at work together. rapidly layering contours to shape place. Paler. atmosphere. Even distilled from all other detail. made inside a book. Over first lines. and across to the right. Claude Lorrain drew directly on location. and famed for. and etcher who lived most of his life in 17th-century Rome.
Views from Velletri
EARTH AND THE
Bryan cut the profile of a city. Claude has used a fine nib to delineate segments of land as they recede into space. In the lower half he has walked downhill a little. Clare Bryan took panoramic photographs of the English South Downs. a horizon line can trigger our recognition. and mood simultaneously. she teased away fragments of paper to illuminate her view. Drawing with a scalpel. She was inspired by her research of aerial plans of London and the story of an alien map butterfly (see caption).
C L A U D E LORRAIN
French classical landscape painter draftsman. it is the unique calligraphic signature of the place in which we stand. rich. Whether land-. thick.
5-m)scroll. and digital print-based works reflect upon the histories and poetry of "left behind and in-between spaces.
CLARE BRYAN C L A R E BRYAN
3ritish artist. source
workisilluminatedby standing its lower edge on a
. drawings Ideas of introduction Clare Bryan to research introduced down and led
historical plans and aerial growth
of London showing its population
since Roman times. On turning the pages of City. printmaker graphic designer. Her recent paper photographic. The edges of each here) fade into the solid paper unpopulated with a scalpel
landscape.The horizon was drawn with a
Landline 2003 271/2x 59 in (70 x 150 cm)
scalpel. specialty bookbinder. then hunted destroyed. and visiting professor at numerous art schools."
Cut line This is a small section of a preparatory 5-ft(1.203
Scalpel-drawn This book-bound drawing was inspired by the story of a foreign butterfly wrongly to Great Britain in 1912. progressively settlement (cropped more and more paper is drawn away to show the expansion of human page of an around the river.
The same as above. It c a n be m a d e duller. 7. Hold it over your drawing
Charcoal (in its several forms shown here) is loved or loathed by the beginner to whom it is often recommended because it produces pleasing results quickly. cylindrical. 162) or graphite (see p.
tape. a n d p l u m . MEDIUM W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 5. and heavier than willow. but some specialists stock compressed charcoal in delicate square sticks.
1. Not to be confused with square conte sticks (see p. Boxes often contain a range of thicknesses to choose for different needs. you can p u r c h a s e m a c h i n e . Smooth paper accepts few particles. It does n o t erase easily. The tip snaps easily to renew a sharp edge if required. leaving u n d e r t r a c e s of first thoughts. R o u g h paper c a n b e loaded. a piece of fresh bread. It allows you greater precision in your mark-making than if you rub away the charcoal with an eraser. and offers a rich. Artists have also used lime. only a little thicker. 3. white line into the blackor grayness of willow charcoal. 2. CHARCOAL PENCIL: Types made by different manufacturers vary in quality and density of line. A great find when available.
A white line is lifted out by the tape. Charcoal lifts away from paper easily with the very light touch o f an eraser.
. they are all intended for fine work. the heel o f y o u r h a n d . b l a c k e r . Lines are achieved by d e p o s i t i n g particles in the grain o f paper. blacker. maple. fine.
This technique is a very easy method of drawing a crisp. it is compressed and m o l d e d at high pressure. a rag.54). As its name implies. a n d m o r e i n d e l i b l e by soaking it in linseed oil. COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Machine-made. Alternatively.204
E A R T H AND THE E L E M E N T S
CHARCOAL IS PRODUCED from wood baked slowly without exposure to air. 4.m a d e c o m p r e s s e d charcoal.
without touching the surface. Use any fine-point
pen or pencil (I used a ballpoint) to draw a firm line on the back of the
Big pieces are perfect for very large-scale drawings—even larger than yourself. Willow is the most c o m m o n wood. sticky side down. resulting in a stick that gives a blacker. THIN WILLOW CHARCOAL: I used a piece like this to make the drawing opposite. C h a r c o a l naturally glistens. vine. Slightly dull the
tape's stickiness before use t o prevent it from lifting out more than you intend. Essentially. It is also easily erased if the maker of the mark is not happy with the result. Try itworking on big paper covering a wall. harder line. resulting in a pale line.
Suspend a length of masking
tape. B u n d l e s o f twigs were traditionally sealed into earthenware j a r s or wet clay and heated slowly and intensely in a fire or kiln. black finish. so it chars b l a c k as o p p o s e d to igniting a n d turning to ash. In use. or fingertip. 6. b e e c h . SQUARE COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Not often sold. it looks gray and feels like chalk. Beware of cheap brands selling dyed chalk as compressed charcoal. Then lift it away. this does not exist.
between your middle finger and
thumb. THICK W I L L O W CHARCOAL:
Keep the tape above your drawing. feather. CHALK CHARCOAL: Technically.
10. Here we used a ballpoint. MASKING TAPE: An invaluable resource. Layers can be peeled away to refresh its surface. Use cheaper (less sticky) for lifting out.
8 . T O R T I L L O N : This is a tight roll of paper used to blend charcoal.205
Thickly applied charcoal quickly o v e r c o m e s a plastic eraser A w a r m (soft and tacky) putty eraser is more effective.212-13 were made by altering the pressure applied to the charcoal. Here. Use high quality (very sticky) to fix paper to walls and boards. Different tones seen throughout the main drawing on pp. I used a plastic eraser effectively on thinly applied charcoal. PEN: Any fine pen or pencil can be used to draw on the back of masking tape when lifting out. or any other dry media. Lift out broader marks with a larger implement. graphite. 9. Cotton swabs also work.
. as is fresh (unbuttered!) bread.
Lifting out This detail shows an example of where I used the lifting-out technique demonstrated opposite to draw flashes of lightning against rain clouds. pastels. sold in several widths.
9 9 we noted that in response to visual stimulus. Excessive detail can be admired for its skill and achievement. and an abstract.212-13). especially when making first excursions into aerial perspective. Landscape drawings are traditionally arranged in three parts: a detailed foreground. the more you encourage the viewer's imagination to join in and see. At its worst. I relaxed my eyes out of focus to dissolve distracting detail into abstract patches of light and darkness. pack your materials (as advised below) and set off for a local view or your nearest arboretum. details blur and colors grow paler and bluer. It is the visible effect of the atmosphere between where you stand and what you see in the distance. and a cushion in a plastic bag to sit on. When you arrive. a reel of masking tape. Don't worry if it is cloudy: clouds add drama and perspective and make good subjects in themselves (see pp. The long view is hidden behind trees.
Pack several thick and thin sticks of willow charcoal. This term simply means that as land rolls away into the distance. Ironically.
In this first view there is only a foreground and middle distance. Successful drawings often only suggest the qualities of the scene without overdescribing them.
. the less you describe. 9 8 . a less distinct middle ground composed of shapes and textures. to contain each of your compositions. Then I drew the shape of the tonal patches I perceived. hazy distance.206
EARTH AND THE ELEMENTS
TREES ALONE OFFER MARVELOUS shapes to draw. To experiment with drawing landscapes and the use of charcoal. begin by marking out several small squares on your paper. They are also good markers of receding space. but is often less evocative and engaging. On p p . our brains search for nameable things and will perceive complete pictures from very little information. it results in flat planes of clutter. an eraser your drawing book or a board and paper fixative (or hairspray).
This composition turned out a little flat because I have an almost even quantity of earth and sky. and broke a view through the hedge into the distance with a dark sky threatening rain. your view is your inspiration.207 LANDSCAPES
In my second square I explored a simple view contrasting soft. Remember. I have invented drama with diagonals set against each other I tilted the earth.
Exploring the view
Redrawing the scene above. the trunk of a bare tree. dark trees with bright. full of information you can use to create what you want!
. It is better to give distinctly more pictorial space to one or the other (see below). horizontal regions of grass. shadows. rounded.
your challenge now is to find a sculptural subject in the landscape. on p p . which was the flow of water over rocks. engine.
"Drawing in the round means to literally walk around your subject. The mud of the tidal shore in Rye. I usually begin by making an image of the whole view. observing it from several views so as to better understand it as a whole.104-05). Similarly. For example. bare ribs. Building on earlier studies of structure in space using shoes (pp. I am then able to home in on what interests me most for further study."
. so the paper is not made blinding and your hand cannot cast a shadow on your work. and seeing what the real choice of subject is. taking with you your drawing book and pen. and tiller still standing proud.
EARTH AND THE
FINDING THE SUBJECT
Finding a remarkable subject is even better when you can circumnavigate it in an arena of space. England has embedded within it the decaying skeleton of a burned fishing boat. 2 1 4 . settling my concentration. making the scene below led me to focus on the decaying boat opposite.164-65) and a wire violin (pp.1 5 my first drawing of the whole view of the Tiber led me to see the real subject of the day. s e e k places in light
After my first drawing. Circling a subject and drawing it from several views imprints on your memory a better understanding of its three-dimensional form. This first drawing serves as a process of arrival.208
Drawing in the Round
WHEN DRAWING IN THE LANDSCAPE.
shade out of the glare of the sun.
I spent equal time looking at the subject and the paper. its overall balance.209
SERIES OF STUDIES
This stunning ghost o f a boat comes into v i e w t w i c e a day.
In this tail-end view. careful lines to establish the skeleton that gives this wreck its distinct form. W h e n you have found your subject.
This impression notes the angle of the broken boat. and structure. w h e n t h e sea recedes. marking straight. I drew with quick. looking more at the boat than at the paper
From this low position I have emphasized how the boat is swallowed in mud by outlining its shadow on the ground. make a series o f drawings f r o m different positions. character. I looked more boldly at the planes and the dynamic of the sculptural craft My lines have become darker and more forceful as confidence in my understanding of the vessel grew. and the order and shape of its component parts. Each n e w drawing gives a different insight. unfussy lines. The outline ties a shape of darkness to the boat like a weight so that it becomes part of its form. Overleaf: Decaying Boat
DRAWING IN THE
was made with gentle but unhesitating s p e e d . m a d e on s m o o t h .Cloudburst
THIS STORM DRAWING.
.20-21) using a thin stick of willow charcoal. I worked quickly to catch and weave the turbulent contrasts of rising wind and approaching water before the drawing could be washed away. L o o k i n g b a c k and forth from the heavens to firmly taped-down paper. hot-pressed drawing p a p e r (see pp.
and rhythmic detail as it passed through the ancient gully of the city. pulse.Notes of Force
T H E GREAT FLOWING TIBER RIVER
has cut through Rome. since
ancient times. pocket-sized notebook. focusing on the river's eddies.
. black. I drew with a needle-fine fiber-tip pen. shaping the city. On the pages of a small.
I used a dip pen and waterproof India ink with brushed watercolor to draw the view. The strong diagonal of the composition from bottom left to top right carries the eye through changes of height and focus from the foreground to the mountains beyond.Mountains
SITTING IN THE SHADE
of a tree on the Greek island of Antiparos.
An abstract mark is often a better conductor of a thought or feeling. strike the paper to find form. Perhaps in Western culture we bred this intuitive freedom out of ourselves in our insistence on complex figuration. and young children show us that abstract. It also underpins and gives strength and unity to all figurative work. Many concepts and feelings can only be expressed through marks. First marks. As you approach the classes in this chapter. Internal workings of the mind were suddenly free to find a new language of expression. direction.
Indian mandalas.Abstract Lines
HE DEVELOPMENT OF W E S T E R N
abstract art at the beginning of the 20th century
significantly paralleled major changes in world thought. precisely because it does not have to represent a physical object. The
growing rise of Darwinian ideas coupled with Freudian and Marxist perspectives forced Western society to reconsider its origins and future. Berne. Museum of Fine Arts. However. It was not invented in the 20th century. His drawings are collected and exhibited internationally and held by the Adolf Wolfli Foundation. and poetic myth roar and cascade within his tightly framed pages. don't be timid. which are essentially abstract. From one point of view. Wolfli was a Swiss draftsman. From another viewpoint. He made thousands of drawings to chronicle his complex life. The fate of Old World thinking was finally sealed with the brutality of World War I. It is actually its foundation and its infrastructure. picturing a stabilized world was impossible and Modernism rode forth with vigor. yet my kinship to abstraction is fundamental. expressive marks and shapes are at the core of natural. I begin every image by feeling its meaning. all pictorial representations are abstractions of reality. only rediscovered. and it has always been with us. and Aboriginal art. opposite.
One of the greatest masters of Art Brut. Afterward. My own work is firmly centered in figuration. fictional language.
1915 413/8 x 285/8 in (105 x 72. sounds. or gestures. writhing torrents of color. actions.
. and have been making abstract drawings for centuries—Japanese calligraphy. abstraction is not so easy to define. drawn sound. writer and composer who suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and was resident in the Waldau Aslyum near Berne. for example. People are often scared by abstraction and see it as the enemy of figurative art. poet. Outsider artists. and emotion. be brave and enjoy them. belief. liberating. Swirling. such as Adolf Wolfli. spontaneous image-making. Not everything we know has a physical form in the world. and history. it is simply itself. Artists were given a different tool—a line threaded directly from their subconscious to their hand—and with it they began to map a bold new landscape of marks and concepts that would dramatically and forever change the face of Western art. many nonWestern cultures have highly sophisticated abstractions at the core of their art.8 cm) A D O L F WOLFLI
Abstraction is a direct. and independent means of communication.
MAMORU ABE Japanese sculptor and installation artist.
Sometimes it smolders like a deep shadow. Iron rods in tone. iron. and temperature
rim of floor space.
and patient watching. salt. A Neolithic chalk tablet bears cut lines that were slowly carved. staining redbrown lines into the white surface. Below. brass. This the paper rest within the
of the floor from the ceiling. it can keep reforming through the inherent repetition of a process. and sensitivity with its thickness and pressure of touch. or. A line can be finished in a second. scrolling across the canvas in an intimate crescendo. and wood are also part of the work.
The Physical Space 1990 3 0 x 30 ft ( 9 1 4 x 9 1 4 cm) MAMORU ABE
. It can proclaim mood. akin to stones in a Zen garden. He travels widely to research ancient sacred sites. Five forged steel shapes. forged steel. ice. Twombly's mesmeric wax line worked over house paint is like a signature.220
A B S T R A C T LINES
Process and Harmony
SOMETIMES A DRAWN LINE
sings on the surface of its support. rhythmically engaged with itself. Abe works with materials such as soil. water. as Twombly shows us opposite. silence. Changes
Lines. tone. texture. and Assistant Professor of Fine A r t at Fukuoka University. quoting ink marks on a page. Abe's physical drawing is a sculptural installation. Moisture produced rust. Damp Japanese paper was laid over carefully arranged iron bars. and plaster in galleries and landscapes. sit in silent harmony. Mamoru Abe prepares an image that will appear through the chemistry of iron. and texture their bracing separation reaching between from beneath
Pillars of the gallery are made
of this drawing by their inclusion in the paper.
. Twombly has language works
CY TWOMBLY Contemporary American artist who emerged through the 1950s New York art scene in the heyday of Abstract Expressionism and Action Painting.221
ANCIENT CARVINGS Many ancient cultures have made and left behind drawings and texts carved into stones or animal bone. theories suggest astrological observations. At the 2001 Venice Biennale. Precise lines suggest the use of a sharp flint The framed rectangle of this image is echoed in that of Abe's installation.Thesite's purpose is unknown. such as the Rosetta stone.
PROCESS AND HARMONY
Cut lines Chalk carves easily. and sensuous drawing from painting.
that challenges the separation of word from image.England.Twombly was presented with a Golden Lion award for lifetime achievement. and the worship of the sun and ancient gods. emotive.
Neolithic Chalk Tablet
x 21/4 in (58 x 58 mm) ARTIST UNKNOWN
Language Over the course of fifty years.241). burials. and
might seek to grasp letters in the turning of his line. The central pictorial space is also similarly cut and divided by the considered arrangement of straight lines. energetic. close to Stonehenge in Wiltshire. the Babylonian world map.
evolved a raw. and American Indian petroglyphs (see p. Many of his graffiti-like combine abstract gestures with statements. This example is one of two chalk tablets found in a Late-Neolithic pit.
The scores are also exhibited in galleries as visual art.
have striven to break down old pictorial and musical structures to explore new and unfettered modes of expression. below.
Texture Compare this drawing to Hugo's octopus on p. Here he appears t o have saturated the cut-out moon disks with gritty pigment. Gestalt o f an unnameable thing.28. said. Hugo. and participate in the composition. Bussotti." An innovator who never fails to surprise. music manuscript requiring instrumentalists to improvise.
Ink impressions When drawing nightscapes Hugo often laid paper disks in place of the moon. o f t e n e x p r e s s e d in v i s u a l t e r m s . Similarity in gritty texture suggests that here. broke new ground in the 1950s with graphic scores now considered among the most extreme. pressed them face down. and let the drying meniscus deposit granules in linear drifts such as we would see in the satellite photographic mapping of rivers. and lifted them away to leave impressions of watery planets and seas. Marks across the center appear to be made with his fingers. opposite. Both abstract drawing and composition involve the perfect sequencing of sounds and marks against space and silence. too. a configuration. abstract artists and composers
unique. "There is nothing like dream to create the future. he mixed graphite into ink. o r a pattern o f elements s o unified as a w h o l e t h e y c a n n o t b e e x p l a i n e d asa s u m o f parts. beautiful. Gestalt. interpret. His drawing writes the time of its own physical process by expressing the extreme concentration of the moment in which it was made. brushed night skies over them with ink then lifted the disks to reveal white moons. A graphic score is a
V I C T O R
H U G O Hugo's abstract
French novelist w h o m a d e m a n y drawings in m i x e d m e d i a ( s e e also p. here he anticipates abstract expressionism by 100 years.28). and inventive of his time. drawing here can b e described in t e r m s o f a G e r m a n philosophical idea a b o u t is t h e i n s t a n t r e c o g n i t i o n t h e p o w e r o f m o m e n t . abstract.222
SINCE THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY.
Two Impressions Paper 1853-55 VICTOR HUGO Disk
70 in relation to Bussotti's clustered notes to the left of his rondo and open space to the right. This is a page from Due Voci. we can feel their rhythm and easily attach sounds to them. His later works become increasingly abstract. Compare this work to that of Libeskind on p.
Circular Score for "Due Voci" c. Bussotti's first mature work. 1958 SYLVANO BUSSOTTI
W R I T I N G TIME
SYLVANO BUSSOTTI Italian avant-garde composer and principal 20thcentury exponent of the graphic score.
Sound and rhythm This flickering rondo of sound written in pen on a hand-ruled stave can be heard in our imaginations as much as seen. Following the notes. a far cry from any recognized musical notation.
an a n o n y m o u s w o m a n in the southeast Indian state o f Tamil Nadu m a k e s a ritual drawing o n the b r i c k courtyard o f h e r h o m e . and c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Torn cloth This is one of two published photographs showing Marie Leib's torn cloth strips significantly placed on her cell floor. She tore c l o t h into strips a n d used these to draw patterns a n d symbols o n h e r cell floor.224
A B S T R A C T LINES
Chants and Prayers
WHEN ABSTRACT LINES are organized in repetition. Compositional rightness (see pp. making objects and images outside o f mainstream culture. they m a k e a visual a n d physical e c h o that t o u c h e s s o m e deep part of the human spirit. social outcasts. for e x a m p l e . centuries. it is found in the regularity o f ordered lines or a pattern. Lieb is one o f countless thousands of "Outsider" artists—diverse individuals including ordinary citizens. Germany. In music it can be felt in the diversity of plainsong and African d r u m m i n g .
Cell Floor With Torn Strips of Cloth
1894 MARIE LIEB
. O p p o s i t e .
Little is known of this w o m a n for w h o m the act of drawing was essential. Marie Lieb w a s a psychiatric patient in the Heidelberg Asylum. Cloth is the simple instrument with which she has conducted and ordered her universe. T h e s e p h o t o g r a p h s d o c u m e n t the meditative drawings o f two w o m e n living worlds apart in different countries.228-29) has been adjusted with each movement of the rags to draw a cosmos of balance and perfection. Visually. This takes a form in most cultures. It will protect the place from evil and make a pleasing invitation to good spirits. cultures. d i p p i n g h e r fingers into a pot o f rice flour. and sufferers of psychiatric illnesses—who have always existed. In the late 1 9 t h century.
000 images. Materials such as rice flour. and in places of worship and celebration. or flowers are marked or arranged on the ground or on the walls of homes. among others.225
STEPHEN P. chalk. women pride themselves on never repeating a design. lecturer on the subjects of Indian art and Indian women's identity.Theseare widely published in journals and are the subjects of international exhibitions.HUYLER Photographer art historian.
Painted Prayers UNDATED STEPHEN R HUYLER
. Skills are handed down through generations and from friend to friend. cultural anthropologist. lime. at the University of London and Ohio State University. and birds. and for over 30 years has traveled extensively through the Indian subcontinent creating an edited archive of 200. Huyler is the author of Painted Prayers. Popular magazines feature new ideas each week and on special occasions there may be contests. In daily practice.
Designs and motifs
Rangoii (or mandalas) are ritual
drawings made by many millions of women across rural India. animals. Motifs are geometrical or based on plants.
gold paint and iridescent gouache mixed with water.
BRIAN CATLING British sculptor poet. and Fellow of Linacre College. and water-resistant layers of spray and enamel paint on thick paper.
153/4x 215/8 in ( 4 0 0 x 550 mm) BRIAN C A T L I N G
. Oxford. rocks or heads in a subdued atmosphere of dream. free from the direct imaging of known physical things. Their energy can therefore be a purer expression of an idea or emotion. and choice of hues. Catling's torn paper shapes and shadows spill light out of their frame like a fractured mirror. it is ruled and contained in one dimension by its interlocking ink-lined borders. With no depth of field. Catling's works made for international galleries and museums involve drawing as a tool in their development and making. Oval moons eclipse each other and oscillate between landforms and portraiture.
Mixed media This is a collage of torn white and gray tissue paper previously stained with ink. These two works present complex compositions with differing intensions and methods of making. performance and installation artist. structure. Klee's mathematical maze of thinly washed surface resonates with meticulous planning. but similarities in mood. Ruskin School.226
ABSTRACT DRAWINGS ARE LARGELY
or entirely free from
using the viewer's eye to track and unfold layers of meaning. They each find their pathways and equilibrium in atmosphere and suggestion. Catling's abstract drawings are usually made in series and in parallel to written poetry and sculptural installations. filmmaker Professor of Fine Art.
figurative representation—that is.
He explained his polyphonic painting as "a harmony of several color voices" searching for a visual parallel to music.
Geometric harmony This is a work on paper made with a sharp ink pen. It is a geometric harmony of straight lines and tonally graded flat colors that by their arrangement draw our eyes inward to their white center.
Line and surface
the visual capacity of lines to push or pull within an image. and might be read as active or passive. Klee also felt that a line represents the passing of time. whereas tonal surfaces are perceived more immediately as a whole. drew. ruler.31). philosophized. and brush. Klee painted. We can see some diagrammatic examples of this among the optical illusions on pp. and wrote copiously about the natures and relationships of color and form. watercolor. Kunstmuseum Bern PAUL KLEE
PAUL K L E E Swiss painter and sculptor (see also p.
Polyphon Gefasstes Weiss (White Framed Polyphonically) 1930 131/8x95/8 in (333 x 245 mm) Paul-Klee-Stiftung.97-99.
angles. "I have experimented endlessly with this idea. their impact. W h e n m o v i n g objects around in your yard. regardless of style. culture. but an easy o n e to u n d e r s t a n d . There is a single m o m e n t w h e n all proportions. and put them o n a tray. s o m e will be more or less h a r m o n i o u s . and ten straight sticks painted black. and elements settle in definitive balance. Set up a sheet of paper with a rectangle drawn on it. or home. This balance is what every artist and designer searches a n d feels for when making an image. Seek it when looking at other artists' work and in your everyday environment. w i l l c h a n g e w i t h e v e r y r e a r r a n g e m e n t . a glass.
"Whenall pictorial elements come together in pleasing and perfect balance. media.228
A SENSE OF "JUST" (or rightness) is a difficult concept to explain. a b u n c h of keys. they are just. after being continuously adjusted. the impression y o u receive from t h e m . or degree of figuration. Take. As y o u m o v e them around. b u t e v e r y n o w a n d again you will hit on an arrangement w h i c h appears just. In his b o o k The Education of a Gardener. they reach a perfect position. or on a page. for instance. there is a clear feeling when."
Justness can be harmonious or deliberately discordant."
. M a n y of their inter-relationships will be meaningless. and an apple. Feel for it when youdraw.Thisexercise will help you start. the late garden designer Russell Page explains. It is also found in nature. It is found in all great art and design.
Move the sticks out into the rectangle. W h e n the composition falls into place. as shown here. Within a rectangle on a flat sheet of paper set about making a composition using no other rule than a sense of "just. In the final step (left) there is an even balance. fix it with glue. A stick touching the rectangle links the composition to the frame. making the composition seem to float beneath.229
WHERE TO START
Take ten sticks of equal length. painted black. Here. horizontals dominate the lower area. Arrange them so they touch or cross in a series of intersecting balances. Remember the drawn rectangle is a part of the composition (see pp. suggesting a horizon." Move the sticks to find alignments and imagined perspectives.
. Feel for the rightness of their grouping and their relationships to surrounding spaces.
In the step above. which now becomes a tight frame.
B E I N G "JUST"
Arrange your ten sticks in t w o groups of five. horizontals dominate the top.56-57).
also applies to three-dimensional drawings such as Gaudi's work with wire and weights on p. To prepare for this lesson. scissors.
"My understanding is that every object [or shape] emanates—sends out vibrations beyond its physical body which are specific to itself. feels "just" (see pp."
overlapping placement of materials on a flat plane. harmonious.220.Youwill also need spare white paper. Returning to Russell Page. Once the ten painted black sticks are set and glued in place.
ready-made depths and surfaces. colors and textures can be manipulated until their pictorial harmony. colors. hard or soft. correction fluid or white paint. they become a scaffold for the addition of further textures. glue. he went on to say ". Images and fragments torn from day-to-day life can be brought together to make a chorus of ideas and emotions. Collage offers the artist a liberating palette of
This lesson in collage is a direct continuation of the compositional lines made in the previous class.230
H E R E W E EXPERIMENT
with collage. you start composing by adding or subtracting shapes and textures and using colors and tones to achieve the impression you want to m a k e — w h e t h e r dramatic or s u b d u e d . stain and dry a sheet of tissue paper using blueink. an infinite range of voices and meaning.228-29). found or made items. and tones. and black ink. which is the shifting. or discordance.. Cut or torn layers and shapes.. a compass. or even strident.69 and Abe's installation on p."
four circles of blue tissue paper.231
WHAT TO DO
Lay the final step of the previous lesson (p.
Regular-sized pieces of white paper are moved over the surface to disrupt the even lines. solidity.
Torn white paper moved over the surface adds masks of rough-edged irregular volume. and shadow to thepicture. In the last step (left).
.The single disk that is folded with its straight edge facing up appears heavier than those that are flat.228) in front of you. Glue them in place once they feel "just"
Translucent circular disks of tissue paper give color tone. then cut out. they deepen pictorial space. Cut six small rectangles the same proportion as your whole image. This can also give a sense of fragmentation or punctuation to the composition. Obscuring the blue disks. draw. and with a compass and scissors. correction fluid and ink marks add further dimensions.
" [Tanchu Terayama. emotion.Zen Calligraphy
HITSUZENDO. and expectation.
Zen Brushwork]. A MODERN JAPANESE
meditative art form inspired by the teachings
of Yamaoka Tesshu (1836-1888). Hitsuzendo drawings aspire to "breathe with the energy and vitality of eternal life" achieved through "a state of no mind—beyond thought. is the practice of Zen through the calligraphic marks of a brush dipped in carbon ink.
IN THIS QUARTET
of semi-abstract drawings made with
India ink. Lines made with a steel dip pen take on a scratchy nervousness.
. discord is balanced against rhythm to create mood. These vibrate against washes of shadow and pitch-black mass. I flicked spatters of ink and rubbed the paper with a wet and a dry brush to achieve these effects.
Be inspired by the irrational comedy of word association or puns.247. We then add substances we dislike: unidentified fluids. Humans are equally troubled by the imperceptibly small and the enormous. We watch with captivated pleasure movies such as The Fly. we select details of animals farthest from ourselves and that are widely thought disturbing—reptilian and insect features. scales. angels. In the Christian churches of Europe. England. thousands of paintings. a human-animal mix that implies this could
MARTIN SCHONGAUER German painter and engraver who settled to work in Colmar Alsace. movie studios now brim with as many monsters as the visual art of the Medieval and Renaissance Church. sculptures. a Catherine wheel of drawn sparks spiraling around the quietly resolute saint. and stained-glass windows deliver powerful visual sermons to the once-illiterate populace. paradise. Feeding this demand. feathers. I was on a train passing through Nuneaton. Monsters take advantage of both.
. Depictions of God or of gods in the contexts of daily life. and the
faces of God have for centuries given artists a feast for the extremes of their imagination. Images we are now surrounded by bear testimony to the power and resourcefulness of their collective imagination. look for images in the folds of clothing. in the cracks of walls. For example. or strange. serpentine tails. Schongauer is best known for his prints. which is to have eaten a nun—it inspired the drawing on p. our literate and more secular Western society still hungers for another world and to ravenously indulge its fascination for the marvelous. and damnation are found in most world faiths. Perhaps the
Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 1485 121/4 x 9 in (312 x 230 mm) MARTIN SCHONGAUER
most important conclusion in this final chapter is to advise you to develop your skills in parallel with the joy of your unfolding imagination. impossible. Here. The salvation of heaven and terrors of hell are represented equally—enough to make any sinner shudder. a collaboration between the two will ensure that your drawings glow with originality. Fantasy is most successful when founded on strong and familiar visual logic. Reading the place name I momentarily glimpsed an alternative meaning. our eye circulates around a flutter of leather and scaly wings. Lord of the Rings. Today. which were widely distributed and influential in his time. and deep fur—and we alter their scale. wings. Star Wars. Throughout this book images are presented to excite and surprise and drawing classes created to increase your confidence. aliens. all of which originated as hundreds of drawings. Neither should be slave or master. We love our fear of the hybrid—ideally. and the Alien trilogy. beasts. or in smoke. To learn to flex your imagination. When creating monsters. for example.Gods and Monsters
OUR SACRED AND SECULAR
need to visualize demons.
happen to us.
The high. we see the international icon of stupidity. Compare his dark. rushing.220. which can swamp the subject Here. Opposite below. plain wall suggests a blinkered view of nothing. Francisco de Goya was a master of borrowing. below. Saturn devouring his son. Los Caprichos. deranged masses. Violent white marks symbolizing Achilles' rage resonate with the energy of Twombly's script on p. Other drawn versions of this image are more savage and frightening. and follies of court through copious graphic works including his best-known prints.240
GODS AND M O N S T E R S
Marks of Influence
marking the influence of one artist upon another. They depict as if by lamplight the devil and witches. Pictorially. Near the end of his life he made his "Black Paintings" on the walls of his home. whose impassioned work begins with light tapestry cartoons. quoting great paintings and popular culture to add cunning twists to his satires. The well-dressed mule is cumbersome. hags.30. crammed tightly at his desk. The title "And So Was His Grandfather" adds that should we not already know.
a wave to join Achilles' chase of Hector. his lover a dog. reading from a book of asses. Visions experienced in front of the drawing sometimes instruct the making of a new one. a Shoshone seeking guidance and power meditates at the sacred site of a petroglyph. Goya later recorded the horrors of Napoleonic occupation.
Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 1799 81/2 x 6 in (218 x 154 mm) FRANCISCO DE GOYA
Aquatint Goya has drawn a learned man as an ass. such asinine behavior can be hereditary. This act defines the vision and continues the line of spirit guides. Opposite. noisy seascape on p. In this softer aquatint he poses for his portrait
The aquatint process has been used
to great effect in making a gritty toned background. Goya's plainly textured gray background pushes back the space behind the illuminated simply subject.
F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A
Spanish court painter printmaker and draftsman. barren land rising like
MYRIAD CHAINS RUN THROUGH ART HISTORY. portraits. Many students leave white backgrounds in their work. In this ass. it allows the mule to stand forward. Paul Thomas's studies of Picasso and Twombly can be traced directly. He would be graceless if he stood. to Picasso's similarly tight. and church murals. and exposed the superstitions. vanity. This continuity enriches the making of art and our heritage. and men clubbing each other to death.
MARKS OF INFLUENCE
PAUL T H O M A S British contemporary artist whose epic graphic work questions and reflects upon issues of European identity.
Achilles Chases Hector 1996 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) PAUL THOMAS
SHOSHONE PETROGLYPH The Shoshone people of Wyoming name petroglyph sites Poha Kahni. Thomas conducts his explorations in the mine of Greek and Roman mythology. Parallel lines within the body of the figure are likely to denote power. ideals. by a supplicant in a trance of meditation. It was made with a sharp implement. Simple wall stones cleverly state their cold solidity while also fading from our attention as the scene roars by. White marks like flashes of light are cut though graphite with an eraser to reveal the paper beneath. Wind River Reservation. meaning "place of power. or of the water
Chipped image This is a sacred creature of the sky chipped onto rock at Dinwoody Lake." Each sacred image drawn into rock belongs to one of three realms in the Shoshone world: the realm of the sky.
Here Achilles chases Hector around the
walls of Troy before killing him. A vivid spectrum of energized graphite marks and a masterly composition give this drawing vitality and speed. and personal and social struggles. values. Wyoming.
Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range UNDATED ARTIST UNKNOWN
. perhaps a stone. of the earth.
the shock would be extreme. to the
right of the balloon. as he did the grass.
The Eye Like a Strange Mounts
165/8 x131/8in (422 x 332 mm) ODILON REDON
. Compare worked textures throughout the whole of this image to those found throughout Anita Taylor's charcoal drawing on p. Techniques demonstrated on pp. graphic artist.
ODILON REDON French painter draftsman. Redon explored the darker side of the human imagination through symbols and mysticism. lifting its cranial passenger over a seascape of repose. we see parallel slanting pale marks that might have been made with fresh bread—a very effective eraser used before the wide availability of rubber or plastic. Redon's eyeball balloon rises up. The monsters of Bosch grew from his observations of beggars going about their trade in 15th.204-05 will enable you to produce a similar effect of white lines shining out of dark charcoal. Children are also delighted to invent a monster or ghoul. Redon lifted them out with some sort of eraser. which sometimes—half-dressed and carrying a familiar trophy— stride.
T H E EXPLORATION AND DEPICTION
Grandville has drawn a scurrying zoo of half-known demons and animals that appear to have been stolen from the glass eye of the microscope. crawl.and 16th-century Holland.242
of the unknown is a classical and constant occupation for the artist. and scuttle over all known reality. below left. H e was influenced by his friends. If it were to turn and stare this way. Here we see how he evolved their injuries into new limbs and warped proportions. 115.
In this charcoal drawing. the writers Joris-Karl Huysmans and Stephane Mallarme.
Lifting out Fine strings of the hot-air balloon appear dark against the sky and light against the balloon. We may feel safe so long as the eye looks heavenward. and writer In contrast t o the light and visual accent of contemporary Impressionism. Our subconscious can be drawn with pleasure and ease. They float toward us like a horrid visitation.
Light shines from the right. Garden of Earthly Delights. include The Haywain. This image is from one of Grandville's best-known publications. teeming with the exhilaration of unrestrained fantasy. and Ship of Fools. Smiling. Most of his work is in the Prado Museum.
This is an engraving made so
that Grandville's original drawing could be reproduced. Last Judgment.
Quill and ink This typical Bosch monster is a quill drawing in bistre ink The phrasing of light and contour here is masterly. Les Animaux (1840). His other major works include Metamorphoses du Jour (1828). Comic little headbands of waving hair express more hysteria than fear. grimacing. 1840 61/8 x41/2in ( 1 5 5 x 1 1 5 mm) GRANDVILLE
HIERONYMUS BOSCH Dutch painter Bosch's highly detailed iconographic religious panel paintings. The quality of the line is therefore uniform throughout.
Two Monsters UNDATED 45/8 x61/2in (117 x 163 mm) HIERONYMUS BOSCH
. Madrid. sucker-faced creatures dash and trundle toward it They are drawn solidly to emphasize their earthbound weight. which is still available today.243
J E A N I G N A C E ISIDORE GERARD ("GRANDVILLE") French graphic artist and political satirist.
A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects c. and he illustrated the Fables of La Fontaine and Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe.
and mist-swathed land. and play with its perfection and meaning. St Peter's square. Dragon
10 x 133/8 in ( 2 5 4 x 3 3 8 m m ) MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI
. and engineer Among Michelangelo's great works are the painted ceiling and altar wall of the Sistine Chapel. They share between them the pleasures of inventing a hybrid beast. topple. A snake eating its own tail is a universal image of the eternal and continuous. a stunning hybrid of a swan. snake. sometimes artists purposefully tie a knot in the configuration to disturb. Opposite. pinnacled.
Chalk and ink A quill dipped in brown ink was worked over black chalk on this reused sheet.
Florentine painter sculptor. Grimes found the genesis of her beast not among animals. remembering the cavernous. wraps and coils its lithe body ready to strike or whimper at a touch. and dog. Two previously drawn faces become humorous antagonists to the beast. Scaly. as we might expect. phrased over the contours of form and bridging darker areas of shadow. architect. His entire drawing wrestles and weaves the viewer's eye into its retracting folds. muscular tension is carved out of the paper using layered. the dome of the Vatican. In her studio. lion. and marble sculptures including Pieto. gamboling copulations.244
GODS AND MONSTERS
THESE CONVOLUTED DRAWINGS were made almost 5 0 0 years apart. David. However. she formed a series of ghostly pale. poet. Michelangelo's dragon. hatched lines. and dying slaves. Grimes' delicately cavorting figures dive into and consume each other. below. but in the seductive landscape of Leonardo da Vinci's oil painting Madonna of the Rocks.
Grimes exhibits internationally and features in the collections of the New York Public Library and the Victoria and Albert Museum. It is one of a series of fragile earth figures inspired by rocks. Oxford. each one iridescent and crumbly like a weathered while oyster. London. The image
formed directly without first making a pencil outline. details evolved slowly using a drier brush. her under heavy here. boards finished
How Clever of God #84 2002 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) O O N A GRIMES
. The large space around figure has been cropped Grimes drawings to flatten presses them.245 CONVOLUTIONS
O O N A GRIMES British contemporary artist and professor of printmaking at the Ruskin School. London. and the Camberwell and Slade Schools of Fine Art.
Ink-wash delicately gouache (smooth)
and gouache brushed drawing on
This is a and was hot-pressed
The dark shadow of the Other the
earth was made with a brushstroke of ink laid into wet paper.
dense. It has exceptional painting characteristics. this brush has a soft drawing tip and small ink-holding capacity. Suitable for wash techniques but also capable of very fine detail. making rt ideally suited to Japanese painting and small-scale calligraphy. and very fine lines. materials. with a fine point for delicate work 4.
M T RA S AEIL
. POINTED SQUIRREL-HAIR MOP: With a synthetic quill ferrule and extra high inkholding capacity. return them to their pointed shape. others are as fine as a whisker with a gentle touch. This design supplies the fine tip with a long continuity of ink 5.246
GODS A N D M O N S T E R S
T H E BRUSH IS A VOLUPTUOUS
drawing tool extending the arm. SMALL JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with sable hair. giving a variety of lines. needle-sharp center of kolinsky red sable hair. and has a fine tip for detailed work. LARGER JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with natural hair held in a plastic ferrule on a bamboo handle. P O I N T E D T R A D I T I O N A L WRITER: The ferrule is made from a small duck quill. and writers. Shorter brushes designed for other purposes run out of ink more quickly. The living marks of a wet. ideally suited to drawing. Soaps purchased from good art supply stores will gently cleanse particles of pigment that become trapped in the hairs or ferrule. It is still relatively small in the total range of Japanese brushes. SYNTHETIC-HAIR S W O R D LINER: A lining brush with high ink-holding capacity and a fine point. SYNTHETIC-HAIR BRUSH: Bound in a synthetic ferrule with good inkholding capacity and good spring and control. it has good inkholding capacity and is very flexible. SYNTHETIC-HAIR LINER: This brush gives a medium line and is firm with a spring to the touch. and texture. L A R G E R S Y N T H E T I C . S Y N T H E T I C . and hold prodigious weights of ink or paint.Theyhold plenty of ink and make continuous. 10. thicknesses. fingers. washes. liners. and never leave them standing on their tip in a jar of water.H A I R RIGGER: Made with long synthetic hair for fine-point work It has a good ink-holding capacity and is slightly more resilient than sable hair with more "snap. the very opposite of pencil or silver point. This brush has a broad wash capability and can achieve a very wide range of marks. and effects. 13. shape. Brushes vary in size. ink-laden tip allow an expression that is beyond the linear. between them. which holds long sable hair This brush holds large amounts of ink for long lines and points well for detailed work. Always clean them thoroughly. JAPANESE PAINTING BRUSH: Made with natural hair. SQUIRREL-HAIR S W O R D LINER:This brush has a maximum ink-holding capacity and an extremely fine and flexible point 8. 7. SABLE-HAIR RIGGER: Made with very long kolinsky sable hairs. Some are bold.H A I R LINER: Very responsive oriental-style liner This to the touch. 3. Slightly less flexible than the squirrel-hair sword liner 9.
1. Some used by master calligraphers are 2-3 in (5-8 cm) in diameter 11." 6. The brushes shown here are a mixture of
This is a selection of riggers. and wrist into a fluid and soft touch. 2. all perfect for drawing and. SABLE-HAIR LINER: Made with ordinary sable hair surrounding an extralong. It is capable of very fine pointing. it has good wash capabilities. 12. How you care for your brushes will determine how long they last. flowing.
Here I drew with a soft Japanese painting brush (see pp. w i t h m y face close. I rubbed a block of Chinese ink (see p. and to make pools and stains o n the page. and above all w h e t h e r the b r u s h is saturated with pigment or relatively dry.248
GODS A N D M O N S T E R S
A S I N G L E BRUSH will m a k e an e n o r m o u s range of m a r k s depending u p o n the width. b l o w i n g h a r d o n t h e m several t i m e s t o disperse t h e ink ( c l o s e y o u r eyes if y o u t r y this. I had left the end of the ink block in the water overnight to make it easier to dissolve. the degree of pressure applied. A single brush has almost balletic potential to draw fine or undulating lines and curves. the speed of the s t r o k e . unglazed earthenware dish. splashes. softness.)
. It also depends on the angle at w h i c h it is held.
T h e s e t h r e e s p i d e r y c r e a t u r e s (above right and below) w e r e m a d e by d r o p p i n g s p o t s o f ink f r o m a b r u s h o n t o t h e p a g e and. length. the texture and a b s o r b e n c y of the paper ( w h i c h m a y be d a m p or dry). and type of its hairs.35) into two tablespoons of water in a shallow.
w e see fine lines and s p o t s . a n d b r u s h . a n d t h e w a y it d i s t r i b u t e s w h e n t h e b r u s h is d a b b e d o n its s i d e .249
T h e details o f t h e largest creatures b e l o w and opposite s h o w the granular texture of Chinese b l o c k ink. t h e effects of the b r u s h r u n n i n g o u t o f ink. b l e e d i n g f r o m strokes b e l o w left.
Wet and dry strokes
A m o n g these concentrated drawings ink made into with the same w a t e r y lines.
and used their detail to draw new creatures that might at first seem familiar.
. until we look again. Oxford.Monsters
THESE LITTLE CREATURES o f i n k and i n v e n t i o n were b o r n
out of animal and bird studies. I borrowed small and fragile specimens from the University Museum of Natural History.
formal composition. Here.Goya's Monsters
W I T H CUNNING BRILLIANCE. and narrative twists. Goya's witches have been literally drawn and evolved out of the shapes of Murillo's prophet and pilgrims. showing us that gallery study is not just for the student and beginner. Isidore.
. Through studying and drawing these great paintings I have discovered that they are based on a pair of similarly long.
Goya often invented his monsters out of characters seen in other
painters' works. They are a pair and hang opposite each other. thin works titled The Witches' Sabbath and The Procession of St. With further research. I found relationships between all four paintings in terms of shapes. Among his "Black Paintings" in the Prado Museum. Madrid. thin works made by Bartolome Murillo in Seville about 120 years earlier. two of my own drawings show you how Goya's devil (below) is based on the shape of Murillo's boy on a horse (top right). are two long.
Sometimes drawings come out of nowhere and surprise even the artist.
THIS IS A SERIES OF CARTOONS I m a d e s o m e years ago.
little comments on politeness and sexual politics. drawn rapidly and with great joy.
Eye level T h e i m a g i n a r y h o r i z o n t a l
p l a n e a t t h e s a m e h e i g h t as t h e a v e r a g e p e r s o n ' s eyes.
Anamorphic distortion Stretching
an i m a g e across a p i c t u r e surface so t h a t it can o n l y b e u n d e r s t o o d . A p o t e n t i a l l y h a r s h m e t h o d o f p r o d u c i n g t o n e s in a d r a w i n g . D a m p p a p e r is laid o n t o p .
Fauvism A n early 2 0 t h . Binder A substance t h a t holds particles o f p i g m e n t t o g e t h e r in a paint f o r m u l a t i o n . 2. w h e n v i e w e d f r o m a specified point. a n d given t h e n a m e Sho.
Camera lucida A n optical device
t h a t p r o j e c t s an image o f an o b j e c t o n t o a plain s u r f a c e so t h a t it can be traced. A l s o c a l l e d t h e h o r i z o n line.
Collage C o l l e c t e d materials such
as c o l o r e d p a p e r s . S o m e t i m e s f e r r u l e s a r e m a d e o f plastic o r o t h e r materials. charcoal. See also Hotpressed papers. as o p p o s e d t o t h e s t r a i g h t e d g e o f a sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has b e e n machine-trimmed. and readymade objects arranged and stuck o n t o a flat surface. In t h e Far East calligraphy is a highly r e s p e c t e d a r t f o r m . w h e n a p e r s o n is p a i n t e d standing a g a i n s t a w i n d o w .
Fixative Liquid acrylic resin a n d
l a c q u e r t h i n n e r usually a p p l i e d as a n a e r o s o l s p r a y m i s t t o t h e surface o f a d r y . A g e n e r a l t e r m t h a t describes t h e various processes o f c u t t i n g a design i n t o a plate o r b l o c k o f m e t a l o r w o o d .c e n t u r y
painting m o v e m e n t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e use o f b o l d .
Acid-free paper P a p e r w i t h a
neutral p H t h a t will n o t darken o r d e t e r i o r a t e excessively w i t h age. T h e prints t a k e n from t h e s e plates o r blocks. A l s o called m u s e u m g r a d e . T h e m o v e m e n t was started by a g r o u p o f French artists including H e n r i Matisse. T h e b l a n k e t s g i v e t h e p a p e r its rough texture o r "tooth. written with a broad-nibbed pen o r brush. t h e field is t h e a p p a r e n t a n d b e l i e v a b l e space inside t h e p i c t u r e . W o r d s o r symbols are
Cold-pressed papers P a p e r
manufactured with a "not" o r " r o u g h " surface.
Blotting T h e use o f a b s o r b e n t
m a t e r i a l t o lift a w a y excess liquid. F r o m t h e French v e r b coller. m e a n i n g " t o stick"
Dry media M e d i a t h a t a r e n o t
w e t o r o i l y — f o r e x a m p l e . a n d g r a p h i t e .
chance mark-making. a r e r o l l e d t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders.m e d i a d r a w i n g . t o g e t h e r w i t h a t h i c k felt b l a n k e t T h e w h o l e s a n d w i c h o f l a y e r s is t h e n railed t h r o u g h t h e press t o m a k e a p r i n t D r y p o i n t is a very portable and immediate m e t h o d o f printmaking." " N o t " p r e s s e d p a p e r is r o l l e d a s e c o n d t i m e w i t h o u t blankets t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders t o p r o d u c e a s m o o t h e r b u t still slightly t e x t u r e d s u r f a c e . 2. a n d attaches t h e m t o t h e s u p p o r t — f o r example. Calligraphy Beautiful h a n d w r i t i n g .
Aerial perspective The effect of the
a t m o s p h e r e o v e r distance as it lightens t o n e s a n d cools c o l o r s progressively t o w a r d t h e horizon.
Composition T h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f
t h e p a r t s o f an i m a g e t o m a k e u p the whole. R e m b r a n d t is a great master o f chiaroscuro.c e n t u r y
Italian t e r m m e a n i n g "clear-obscure. o f t e n d i s t o r t e d forms and vivid colors. A i r b r u s h e s are u s e d in t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c o m i c s .
Camera obscura A d a r k e n e d
c h a m b e r i n t o w h i c h an i m a g e o f w h a t is o u t s i d e is received t h r o u g h a small o p e n i n g o r lens a n d f o c u s e d in natural c o l o r o n a facing surface." D e s c r i b e s a p a i n t i n g in w h i c h t h e light s o u r c e is b e h i n d t h e s u b j e c t F o r e x a m p l e . usually at a n a c u t e angle t o t h e s u r f a c e .
Field In a t w o .
Bleed T h e e f f e c t o f t w o w e t
colors running into one another o r o n e color applied t o a w e t surface a n d a l l o w e d t o d i s p e r s e .
Ferrule T h e s h o r t m e t a l t u b e
t h a t s u r r o u n d s a n d g n p s t h e hairs o f a p a i n t b r u s h a n d fixes t h e m t o t h e brush handle. T h e name " n o t " simply refers t o t h e fact t h a t t h e cylinders are n o t h o t in t e m p e r a t u r e .
s u c h as a d r a w i n g o r painting.
Contre jour A F r e n c h t e r m
m e a n i n g " a g a i n s t day.
Air brush A mechanical. A l s o called r i n g l e t shading. p r a c t i c e d meditatively w i t h a brush. pastel. t h e l i g h t is b e h i n d h i m o r her. Fixative lightly glues t h e d r a w i n g t o t h e surface o f t h e p a p e r t o p r e v e n t smudging.
F r o m t h e G r e e k kallos. A h u m o r o u s d r a w i n g o r parody. s u c h as a s c r e e n . linseed oil o r egg y o l k
Contour line A line t h a t f o l l o w s
t h e s h a p e o f a surface. so t h a t ink r e m a i n s o n l y in t h e g r o o v e s o f s c r a t c h e d lines. R o u g h p a p e r is m a d e b e t w e e n t w o blankets t h a t
Erasure T h e a c t o f r e m o v i n g
a n i m a g e f r o m a surface. A " s h a l l o w d e p t h o f field" m e a n s t h e p i c t u r e appears t o have only a shallow s p a c e inside i t
Diffuse T o s o f t e n o r m a k e less
brilliant. m e a n i n g "beauty". p h o t o g r a p h s . for example. Also called accelerated perspective. p r i n t i n g press face up. L a t e r it c a m e t o m e a n h i g h l y c o n t r a s t e d light effects. n e w s p a p e r cuttings. It can also seal a silver p o i n t d r a w i n g t o p r e v e n t t h e oxidization (browning) o f t h e
Drypoint A d r a w i n g is s c r a t c h e d
directly o n t o a m e t a l plate w i t h a m e t a l t o o l h e l d like apen.
Chiaroscuro A 1 7 t h . A f u l l .
in w h i c h t h e subject's distinctive features o r peculiarities are deliberately exaggerated f o r c o m i c o r g r o t e s q u e effect.
Conservation grade D e s c r i b e s a
range o f materials t h a t d o n o t d e c a y and cannot be broken d o w n by insects." It w a s first given t o t o n a l paintings m a d e in o n e c o l o r — s e e Grisaille.
Bracelet shading C u r v e d parallel
lines t h a t f o l l o w t h e c o n t o u r s o f f o r m .
Crosshatching Parallel lines
d r a w n across o n e a n o t h e r at right angles. In t h e W e s t p e n calligraphy is u s e d t o c r e a t e f o r m a l a n d d e c o r a t i v e t e x t s .m a d e paper.
Cartoon 1. tapestry. pressurized
t o o l used f o r spraying fine mists o f s m o o t h c o l o r P i g m e n t is d e l i v e r e d b y a j e t o f air n o t t h e bristles o f a brush.The plate is t h e n r o l l e d w i t h ink a n d polished with a rag.256
Accidental drawing Random. r a t h e r t h a n r e c o r d e d o n a film o r plate. o r o t h e r (usually large) w o r k — s e e Pouncing. o r will o n l y a p p e a r n o r m a l .s i z e d r a w i n g
m a d e for t h e purpose o f transferring a design t o a painting. It is p u t o n a
Body color See Gouache.
Deckle edge T h e i r r e g u l a r e d g e
o f a s h e e t o f m o l d .
Blending M e r g i n g t w o o r m o r e
neighboring colors o r tones t o g e t h e r using a tortillon.d i m e n s i o n a l i m a g e . C o p p e r p l a t e engravings w e r e widely used t o r e p r o d u c e images b e f o r e p h o t o g r a p h y . in w h i c h parts o f an image are depicted v e r y brightly and dramatically against d a r k n e s s . U s e d as a c o r r e c t i n g device o r pictorial game.
The paper then bears a crayon impression or copy of the surface that was underneath it A number of Surrealists. It improves the bonding properties Frottage A French term meaning "rubbing. This method incorporates the excitement of accidental and unpredicted marks. Pointillism A technique of using points or dots of pure color in such a way that when the picture is viewed from a distance they react
Masking tape Invaluable. so that (using vanishing point perspective) the object appears to change shape and become narrower or smaller as it recedes.257
metal line. Lightfast A term confirming that pigment in the product will not fade with exposure to light. the surface of the stone is made wet before being rolled with a thin film of oilbased printing ink. and by artists representing stone sculptures in a painting. upright images are called "portrait which is used as a binding agent in many liquid media. used for fixing paper to walls and boards. are painted in grisaille and appear to be made of stone. Also used by artists' materials manufacturers to indicate the use of a substitute pigment—for example. ink. and masking off areas of a drawing that the artist wishes to keep untouched by media applied above or beside the tape. Medium A generic term for art Key A painting is said to be "high key" when the colors and tones are bright and "low key" when they are dark or somber The term is also used Gouache Opaque watercolor Also called body color. or a drawing made in any single color
Linear perspective A form of
perspective in which parallel lines are represented as converging. Usually an academic drawing observed from life. then rubbed over carefully but vigorously with a crayon. cadmium yellow hue. enabling them to stick to paper It also helps to maintain a stable dispersion of pigment particles in water as the film of a wash dries. mineral. lifting out charcoal and other dry media. It can be used with any wet media to isolate or protect parts of an image from further
Optical blending See Pointillism. Ground A wet solution usually of gouache or gesso (chalk and animal glue) brushed onto paper board. Dark tones are laid down first then an eraser or masking tape is used to lift away particles of the drawing media to reveal the lightness of the paper beneath. Also refers to an additive used to control the application properties of a color
Golden Section A proportion in
which a straight line or rectangle is divided into two unequal parts in such a way that the ratio of the smaller part to the greater part is the same as that of the greater part to the whole. Monoprinting A direct method of printing in which wet medium (water-. or a family of colors. or even a beam of light. sticky paper tape. Padua.
Hot-pressed papers (HP)
Paper made using hot cylinders.
work. Artists can paint freely over dry masking fluid. including Max Ernst used frottage in their work. Alternatively. and that will "escape" or change over time. or synthetic material that are suspended in a medium to constitute paint. oil-based printing ink is rolled evenly onto a smooth metal. of the ingredients in inks and watercolors. or plastic surface. This effect emulates what we see in real life." A piece of paper is placed on top of an object or rough surface. Hairspray is an effective and inexpensive alternative.
format" (abbreviated to "portrait").Theground provides a particular color or texture beneath the image. and orientation of the image. The surface can be reloaded or redrawn with more medium. Foreshortening A method of depicting an object at an angle to the surface of the picture. shape. Paper is then pressed against the stone to take a print. A small image might be described as small format Horizontal images are often said to be "landscape format" (abbreviated G u m arabic The natural to"landscape"). aiming to represent facts rather than an interpretation of the subject.
Papercut A type of collage in which flat sheets of paper are cut into an image. F o r m a t T h e size. multiH u e A term for a color. glass. A point of interest in a drawing. with the area beneath remaining unaffected. and translucent paper—a delicate material used in collage. glossy. Fugitive A term given to a pigment that it is not stable. Rubens used grisaille to paint small images for engravers. or for wrapping and protecting a finished piece of work. F o r m The outer surface of a three-dimensional object. purpose.
Masking fluid Clear or opaque
latex fluid developed for watercolor painting. and gray drawing. Lithography A method of printmaking in which a drawing or painting is made directly onto a smooth slab of particular limestone or a metal plate using an oilbased crayon or ink. This may be disregarded in real life. Paper is laid on top and a rapid drawing is made on the back of it The paper lifts away to reveal the image on its other side. and it has a history in enamel work. Grisaille A painting in gray or a grayish color Often made by students as a tonal exercise. or canvas and allowed to dry before an image is drawn or painted. and is also used as a size. materials that produce marks on a surface. The ink attaches to the oil-based image and is repelled by the wet stone. but in picture-making it is as important as the objects/subjects themselves. It is a strong adhesive. which has a rough surface).
Picture plane In the imaginary space
of a picture. Plumb line A line from which a weight is suspended in order to determine verticality or depth. Lifting out A method of creating highlights and mid-tones in a drymedia drawing (such as charcoal or graphite). graphite. Gamut A complete range or extent Glassine A type of thin.
Objective drawing Refers to
the concept of objectivity. Grisaille is occasionally seen in church stained-glass windows. After several intervening processes.while secretion of the acacia tree. to give the illusion of depth and distance. 2. It is then peeled away. rock. Monochrome Usually refers to a black. it is the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work Pigment Any substance used as a coloring agent—for example. Giotto's Virtues and Vices in the Arena Chapel. pastel.
Negative space The space
between things. Impressing Stamping or printing. Focus 1 . or spirit-based) is applied to a surface that is then pressed onto paper and removed to leave a print. the finely ground particles of plant. but each print will be unique. to describe a surface to which paint will adhere readily. white.The degree to which detail is defined.
. which give it a smooth surface (as opposed to cold-pressed paper. oil-. Hatching (cross-) See Crosshatching. or can be otherwise used to create an image—for example.
The crude material is called oleoresin.
Pouncing If a large drawing or design (called a cartoon) is to be Shadow Darkness cast by the transferred to a surface such as a obscuring of light. Strip Core of a pencil. A term borrowed from the theater. "Spirits" or "oil" of turpentine refer to the volatile portion used by artists to thin or dilute oil-based paint. a point at which receding parallel lines meet Verso The back or underside of a piece of paper. pointed roll of white paper that is used to blend dry media. Vanishing point In linear perspective. glasses. which are then called editions. Volume The amount of space occupied by an object or an area of space in itself. and flowers." Applied to the blurring or softening of sharp outlines by the subtle and gradual blending of one tone into another Sgraffito A technique of scratching or cutting through a surface of paint. whose pinpricks creates a "connect-thepersonal pastime was making dots" replica of the image on the cut-out portraits. Sketch A quick or rough drawing.
. Zen paintings usually depict scenes of nature and plants such as bamboo. W e t media Any liquid media— for example. meaning objects used in setting up a life model or still life. Zen A school of Mahayana Buddhism that asserts that enlightenment can come through meditation and intuition rather than faith. Zen brushwork This is an oriental meditative art form originating in China and practised for many centuries in Japan. or any physical object that can be stamped or pressed onto a surface to leave an impression. compound of water-soluble pigment. using a brush. a sheet of paper is placed beneath and pinpricks are Silhouette A flat. or gouache. cut-out profile made along every outline of the usually made in black paper image. Stippling Applying color or tone in areas of fine dots or flecks.
Wash A technique using ink. nature of watercolor allows the white surface of the paper to Tonal scale A scale of gradations shine through. tight. or watercolor paint.
Stylus A sharp. Underdrawing A pale preliminary drawing made prior to adding layers of another medium such as oil paint or watercolor Value The extent to which a color reflects or transmits light This is the equivalent of tone in a black and white image. evolved by engineers and architects for the purpose of conveying W a t e r c o l o r A painting accurate structural information. pointed instrument used for marking or engraving. watercolor. Pounce (a fine for an unpopular 18th-century powder of charcoal or similar French politician.
Viewpoint The position from which something is observed or considered. fine paper. Alternatively." Materials for Zen brushwork include round brushes of varied size. Size A weak glue used for filling the porous surface of wood or canvas in order to seal it. Scale Describes the size of one element in relation to another Sepia A brown pigment taken from the sun-dried ink sacs of cuttlefish and used to make ink or watercolor The term is now often incorrectly used to refer to brown colors. Tortillon A short.Technicaldrawing has been example. ink. or point on which parallel lines converge to give the impression of receding space. plum blossom. an ink stone usually cut from slate. Etienne de material) dabbed through the Silhouette (1709-67). Technical drawing A universal it is often used in conjunction language of lines and measurements with line drawings in pen and that is used to make diagrammatic ink—for images. pencil. orchids. commonly referred to as the lead. creating more vibrant effects than if the same colors were physically mixed together with a brush. Printmaking The act of making a picture. Spattering A mottled texture produced by drawing your fingers across the bristles of a stiff brush loaded with pigment. and chrysanthemum—which in Chinese tradition are called "The Four Gentlemen. such as an inscribed sheet of metal. or the left-hand page in a book. acrylic. a tightly folded piece of cotton batting can be used for the same effect. Still life A picture composed of inanimate objects such as bowls. or ceramic glazing to reveal a different color beneath. or pen. wall or tapestry. giving it a brilliance. or wood. and paperweights. or the right-hand page in a book. Named paper in place. Support The structure on which an image is made—for example. in order to flick the pigment onto the image surface. Single-point perspective The most basic form of linear perspective in which there is only one vanishing point. plaster.
Shade A that is color mixed (or toned) with black Shading A lay term for adding tone to a drawing. Recto The front or top side of a piece of paper. plaster or cloth surface beneath. The translucent Tint A color mixed with white. Serigraphy Silk-screen printing. Although drawings can be made with wash alone. Squeegee A rubber-trimmed scraper used in the screenprinting process for dragging ink across a surface.258
together optically. sometimes drawn from a and leaving only the pricked sheet of shadow cast on a wall. design. paper or canvas. Tone A degree of lightness or darkness. usually diluted with water and applied with a brush. fruit. carbon ink. Sfumato An Italian term meaning "smoky. Squaring up A method of enlarging and transferring an image from one surface to another. Props An abbreviation of the word properties. or mark using an inked or pigment-covered surface. to model areas of light and shade. by imposing a grid that is then scaled up to a larger size. in tone running from black to white or vice versa. Artists' prints are normally made in multiple. Turpentine A colorless solvent distilled from the resinous sap of pine trees. Zen brushwork encompasses calligraphy and painting.Thedrawing is removed. Subjective drawing A drawing that expresses the personal view and interpretation of the artist An invented image.
205 Baltard. 90. 28 Klee's horses 30. to draw 25. 71 conte 112. 160 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object (Moore) 178. Georges 67. 90 La Guitare. Augustin 67 Basquiat. 94 cylindrical objects.186 see also movement Adoration of the Magi perspective study (Leonardo) 74. 71 Bacchante (Bakst) 155 background: color 91 textured 240 Baker Matthew: Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry 32 Bakst.198.133. 247-248 carving see lines. 75. 75 Circle of the Lustful (Blake) 180. Leon: Bacchante 155 balance. 221 animals. William: The Circle of the Lustful 180. Le (Hugo) 200. 242 Brunelleschi.44-45 bird studies 12.117 Achilles Chases Hector (Thomas) 240. 94 chalk(s) 53. 30 sleeping dog 38-39 Stubbs's horse skeleton 26.226. center of 118 ballpoint 182. 230-231 Cubist 90. 186 charcoal 114. 180 blending: color 133. 244 head and neck 144 phrased 124-125 contrast: brightness 99 of media 30 tonal 96. 50. 204-205. 13. 113 bird bones 12. 226-227 Acanthus spinosus 65 accelerated perspective 22.44-45. 90 colored materials 162-163 colored pencils 162. Sylvano 222. 71 Blake.184.51 All and Nothing (Taylor) 114. 9. 98. Jean Michel 138 Self-Portrait 138 Bateau-Vision. 52 cotton swabs 205 Coup de Vent a Asajigabare (Hokusai) 198. Nicolas-Jacques 54 contours 146. 74. 242 to blend 205 compressed 122.27 turtles 42-43 aquatint 240 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels (Leonardo) 12. 204. 163. 29 Hugo's octopus 28. 8 cave paintings 8.89. Hieronymus 243 Two Monsters 242. 203 Buffalo Hunt (Shoshone) 178. 203 Claude Lorrain 202 Views from Velletri 202. 158. layers 53 chalk pastels 162. 220.13. 72 bracelet shading 122 Braque. Statue d'Epouvante 90
calligraphy. 13 architectural drawing 67-71 Arctic Flowers (Libeskind) 70. to depict 156-157 Cloudburst of Material Possessions (Leonardo) 200. 70 Art Nouveau motifs 91 Autoportrait (Ray) 138.163 dry media 205 Blue Nude (Matisse) 110. 201 collage 111. to model 110-111 border 51 Bosch.100 curves. 38-39. 134 costume(s) 155 character 158-159 structure of 166-167 Cottage Among Trees (Rembrandt) 52. Clare 203 City 202. 243 botanical drawing 48-49 Boullee. to express 39.184. 81 135. 116. 26 geese 38-39 Gericault's cats 28. 222. Mamaru 104. 180 Circular Score for "Due Voce" (Bussotti) 223 circus scenes 192-195 City (Bryan) 202. 190 Caricature of a Woman (Daumier) 198. to draw 100 Cypripedium calceolus L. 157 cropping 56-57. 178 Cubism 67.115 anatomical drawing 134-135 anatomical theaters 82-83 anatomical waxes 128 ancient carvings 221. 74. 133. 81 cut-out model plan 94. 41 principal 186. 161 Akhlaq-I Rasul Allah manuscript 51. Franz 48 Protea nitida 48 Bellini. 189. 202 cloth. 230 The Physical Space 220 abstract drawing 219.50. 78 aerial perspective 206 airbrushing 160.Index
Page numbers in italics refer t o captions and illustrations Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity (Bishndas and
bread (as eraser) 205.212 to erase 205 to hold 23 pencils 204 willow 114. 128. 9 Chair (Van Gogh) 94.163 graded 227 composition 56-57. 90. 206 checkered floor 80. 40-41 Durer's rhinoceros 26. 74 brush (es) 246-247 Japanese 248 for laying a wash 140 marks 248-249 to hold 23 brush drawings 14-15 Bryan. Giovanni 137 Head and Shoulders of a Man 136. Filippo 67. (Ross-Craig) 49
to hold brush for 23 caricature 159. 200 Bauer. to draw 80. 182. 139
Nanha) 50. 223 Circular Score for "Due Voce" 223
children's art 9. 162 character: to capture 38-39.163 body. 250 Bishndas and Nanha: Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity 50. cut Catling. Basilius 47 Beuys. Joseph 113 The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland 112.31 Picasso's horse and bird 30. Victor: West Facade of the Church of St. 206. 244 and graphite 178
. 193 in lifting out 204. 137 Besler. 199 Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya (Eisen) 156.162 Conte. 95 Chair Cut Out (Woodfine) 94. 165. Zen
blended 133. 241 action. 203 Landline 202. 179 Bussotti. 198 cartoon (preparatory drawing) 137 (satirical) 159.169 colors: airbrushed 161 background 91
Abe. 198. Etienne-Louis 72 Newton's Cenotaph 72. 111. Brian 226 Untitled 2001 226 "Cave of the Hands" (Cueva de las Manas) 8.
Gestalt 222 Giacometti. 69. proportions of 143 fantasy drawings 72-73. Robert 93 Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 92. 26
Flying Fish (White) 25.252-253 from memory 183. 93 horizon 52. to draw 78. 241 to blend 205 and chalk 178 and ink 28.189.102-103 drawing board 20 drawing books 20-21 drawing paper 144. 223 graphite 54. 124. 91 Dragon (Michelangelo) 36. 55. 40. 243 graphic score 222. 7 33 Hooke. position of 22 Eisen. to suggest 177 see also perspective diagonals diffuser 55 dip pens 34. 160 as ground for metal point 140.244. Statue d'Epouvante.117 fountain pens 34. 122. 112. La (Braque) 90.207. 222 Le Bateau-Vision 200. 99 etching. 90
Gaudi. 161 fashion drawings 160. Ron 161 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 161
160. 162 Flaxman.John 157 Man Lying Down in a Cloak 156. Nicholas 68 St Paul's Baptistry 68 head and neck to draw 142-145 Head and Shoulders of a Man (Bellini) 136. 93 eye level 80 Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity. 223.244 drawing(s): abstract 219. 203 semi-abstract 234-237 three-dimensional 68.104. Cheval et Oiseau (Picasso) 30.37.12 fixative 54.144 and ink 30. The 242. 120. 69. 41 in the round 208-209 with scalpel 202. 144
Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (Baker) 32. 161 changing 216 Focusing on the Negative (Walter) 16 foliage 52. 137 heads. 161 fashion 160. 136 Golden Section 67 Gombrich. 216 foreshortening 110. 131 Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 240. 132 Frenz.115 exploratory 17 fantasy 72-73. 240 170-173
five Ships in a Port with Lighthouse (Wallis) 11.216. Francisco de 131. 113. 160 Faune. 799 Holbein. 203 Hotel de la Suzonnieres (Satie) 70. Sir Ernst 12. 69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt 68. 163.160. 205 drawing with 103. Edgar 162 depth. Keisai 157 The Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya 156.97. 170-173. 55. 71 minimal line 99 and music 70-71 quick 38-39. 242 eyes. 157
.112. 222 Grimes. 202. 765 hitsuzendo drawings 233 Hokusai.146 from masterworks 126-127.111 feet. 222. 134. fiber-tip pen 182.260
Dada 139 Daumien Honore 198 Caricature of a Woman 198. 73.141. 163. M. 160
Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction (Gaudi) 68. 190 Middle Eastern 50-51. Victor 200. Jean Ignace Isidore see Grandville Gericault. disposable pens 182-183 dissections: botanical 48 of horse 27 distance: illusion of see perspective linear 97 tonal 97 Documents Decoratifs. 115 Escher. to draw 168-169 in Goya's artworks face. 79. 160 hitsuzendo 233 light to dark 102.103 with eraser 103.101 engraving 243 erasers/erasing 55. drypoint 181 exaggeration 184 expressionism 198 E ye and Head of a Drone Fly (Hooke) 92.69 Gerard. 135 Duren Albrecht 26. Hans 133 The Ambassadors 116 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 132. Study for Plate 59 (Mucha) 90. 52 foreground 208.109 Rhinoceros 26.Theodore 29 Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 28. 245 layers 30 Goya. 141 tonal 96. Antonio 135 Muscles of the Head and Neck 134. 122 Hawksmoor. 69 Guitare. Antonio 68. Katsushika 199 Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 198. 125.103. 230 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction 68. C . Oona 245 How Clever of God #84 244. 104-105. 77 How Clever of God #84 244. to draw 120.198 Degas. 29
hands. 252 depiction of fabric monsters 252-253 Self Portrait in a Cocked Hat 130. to draw 134-137 Helleborus corsicus 55 highlights 91. 30 Fauves/fauvism 90. 90 gouache 30. 200
fabric. 220 dry brush 234 234 57.141. 226-227 anatomical 134-135 architectural 67-71 botanical 48-49 brush 14-15 dark to light 102. 37
Grandville 243 A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the Near-Microscopic World of Scale Insects 242. 240. Rene 160 Illustration for Jacques Fath
easel.121 felt-tip pens 162. 134. 240 Black Paintings 152. 245 Gruau.160. position of 143.230 three-tone 140. 25 focus 65. Alberto 136 Portrait of Marie-Laure de Noailles 136. 245 Hugo.184 165. 32 framing 139 Franfoise au Bandeau (Picasso) 132.116. 134. 55.91.157 ellipses 100.
124. 252 Muscles of the Head and Neck (Durelli) 134. 203. 33
naive art 74 negative space 53. 54 silver point 156 leg sections 158 length. 226 Modernism 67. Phyll: hands 18
lifting out 204. 37 lines 118 pastel 162 pencil 31. 35.181
Landline (Bryan) 202.104. 63. Madrid 171 University Museum of Natural History. Bartolome: Moses Striking the Rock ofHoreb 252. 111. Piet 52. 176. 78 Study ofThree Male Figures 110. 244
lithograph 198 Losbruch (Kollwitz) 180.141. 60.166 La Specola. 53 monoprint 787. 185 Mucha. 220. 789. Daniel 70 Arctic Flowers 70 Lieb. 103 Neolithic chalk tablet 220.276.
Murderous Attacks 33 Kollwitz. 83 white 122 ink impressions 222 ink spatters 234 installations 176.120. 28 Two Impressions from a Cut-out Paper Disk 222 Huyler Stephen R 225
Kinecar.115 98.109.33 Mysterious Affairs of the lighting 2 7. Johan 32. 181 Klee. 49 Rose 49 Maelbeke Madonna (Van Eyck) 156. 249 and gouache 30 Indian 35. 34. 234 iron-gall 35. David 78
Mackintosh. Oxford 250 music 70-71 Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks (Knopf) 32. 219 Mondrian. 220. 156 magnification 93 Man in Armor (Van Dyck) 158.Pieuvre (Octopus) 28.91 Study for Plate 59 of
illumination see lighting Illustration for Jacques Fath (Gruau) 160. 221 endless 31 free 113. 13 Cloudburst of Material Possessions 200. 227 Scene of Comical Riders 30. 36. 163 pens 36 measuring 116 memory. 158 Man Lying Down in a Cloak (Flaxman) 156. Oxford 106 Prado. 203 landscape 206-208 brushed 14 Landscape in Hoboku Style (Sesshu) 14 layers 146 chalk 53 gouache 30 ink 28. drawing from 183. 34-35 acrylic 35 bistre 35. 178 motifs: A r t Nouveau 9 7 stylized 51 mountains 216-217 movement: of animals 30-31 of humans 7 79. 177 influences. 53 Tree II 52. Matisse. 73 Michelangelo Buonarroti 48. 244. Paul 227 Polyphonic Setting for White 226. 73 Kigell. Henry 178 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object 178. 252 ink 16. 181 luminosity 115 Lynch. drawing from 126-127. Victor 134 Profile Head 134. 201 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels 12. 242 light 96 to depict drawing with 1 76 painting with 176
.96. 166. 159 Japanese 35 to make 36 sepia 35 walnut 36. apparent 97 Leonardo da Vinci 74.141 Metropolis (film) 72. Marie 244 cloth drawing 244. 74-77.182 Moore. 244 Dragon 36. 170-173.102. 58-59. 99. Rose: Tantalus or the Future of Man 20 minimal line drawing 99 mirror use of 120 mixed media 28. 248. 220. 756 priming for 140. 76 Libeskind.109. 190 metal pens see dip pens metal point 25. Charles Rennie 48.243 carbon 35 Chinese 30. Florence 128 lighting in 167 Pitt Rivers. 227 Newsome. 230 invented creatures 106-107 250-251 invented objects 89. 72.112. Henri 111 Blue Nude 1110.227 to "bend" straight 97 compositional 228-229 cut 202. 31 Klimt. Erich 73 design for Metropolis 72. 201 head and neck sections of female mold for Sforza Horse 89 Madonna of the Rocks 244 perspective study for Adoration of the Magi 74.The (Robinson) 108. 184. 160 In the Duchess's Kitchen (Rackham) 176. 244 ink 36 252-253
Documents Decoratifs 90. 757 mandalas 219. 183 vertical 156 linear distance 97 linear perspective 69. Gustav 49 Knopf. 205. 110 Sistine Chapel ceiling 116 Middle Eastern drawing 50-51. 220. artistic 240-241. Kathe 181 Losbrunch (The Outbreak) 180.134
Kettlehut.167 line(s) 132. 135 museums 44. 77 Miller. 225 masking tape 204. 205 masterworks. 114 hatched 244 layered 118 pace of 65 pale 40 rapid 49. Alphonse 90. 97 Murillo.
Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape (Wolfli) 2 79 St. 26 Riley. Russell 228. 91 outsider artists 33. 1 6 3 . 1 1 7 aerial 206 linear 69. Giovanni Battista 74. 9 8 . Arthur 177 In the Duchess's Kitchen 176. 165. 243. 36.71 Hotel de la Suzonnieres 70. 36 relief printing 757 Rembrandt van Rijn 52. Georges 112 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 112. 97. 38.226. 74-77.104 Pieuvre (Hugo) 28. 205 157. 1 3 2
quill pens 34. Paul 73 Nobson Central 72. 242 reed pens 34. 68 Satie. 7 76 receding space 206 Redon. 7 38 Ray 138.Paul'sBaptistry (Hawksmoor) 68.184 fountain 34. 163. 57 Ross-Craig. 227 portfolios 20 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser de Noailles (Holbein) 132.240. 76 plastic eraser 55.37.37
instruments 9 2 . Isaac 92 Telescope 92 Newton's Cenotaph (Boullee) 72. 759
Page.199 Profile Head (Newsome)
oil pastels 162. 1 1 6 .262
Newton. 34-35.oise au Bandeau 132. Peter Paul 126-127 Embracing
pose(s): balanced 146 quick 118-119 positive form 103 posture: of artist 22 of subject 3 8 . 243. 30 Fran<. 736 portraits. Auguste 114 Two Women 114. 160.131 Cottage Among Trees 52. 164. 205 pointillism 112 polyphonic painting 227 Polyphonic Setting for White (Klee) 226. 7 72 Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland. 52 pens 36
drawing with 202. 7 70 Ray. 81 two-point 74. 159. 219. 78 single-point 74. Sue 104. 165 figure 118 filled 37 pencil 48. 241 Physical Space. 75 Two Courtyards 75. 203 Scene of Comical Riders (Klee) 30. 36. 162 O p A r t 98 optical illusions 96-99 outline 33. Stella 48 Cypripedium calceolus L 49 rotated view 7 65 Rubens. 224
31. 244 reed 34. 161. 2 2 0 for oil pastels 162 stained 230 to stretch 140-141 tissue 21. 28 pigment 162 bright 50 Caput Mortuum 7 4 7 for three-tone drawing 141.The (Beuys) 112. 36. 38. 733 Portrait de Marie-Laure (Giacometti) 136. 734 Protea nitida (Bauer) 48. 1 1 6 accelerated 2 2 . 36. 103. 74. 166 fiber-tip 782.2 3
age and youth sleeping subjects
Renaissance 109 Rhinoceros (Durer) 26. 239 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat (Seurat) 112. 4 8 putty eraser 55. Erik 70.Tim. 230 paper(s) 21 colored 162 drawing 144. Odilon 242 The Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity 242. 71 Satire of the Queen's Dress (Wodall) 158. 9 0 . 36 pen and brush 8 3 pen and ink 70. 7 77 three-point 80. J 76 nudes 114-115
to make 36 metal see dip quill 34.9 3
Schongauer.759.37. 216. 37 38.139 Autoportrait 138. Heath 181 The Kinecar 180. 73 Noble. 122. Pablo 6 7 . 139 Real Life is Rubbish (Noble and Webster) 176. 1 2 4 priming for metal point 140. 732 influence of 240 painting with light 78. 4 9 Rose of Mohammed 50. 76-79. 230 parallel planes 79 Parisian street 86-87 pastels 162 to blend 205 to hold 23 layers 162 pencils 162 pen(s): dip 34 .7 77 rapidograph 70 Raphael 110. 739 semi-abstract drawings Style 14 Seurat. 234 disposable 182-183 felt-tip 162. 239 Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 238. and Webster.40. 181 pencil(s) 54 charcoal 204 colored 762. 212 Japanese 2 1 . 72 Noble. Man 131.176 Real Life Is Rubbish 176. Martin 238. Cheval et Oiseau 30.141 prints/printing: aquatint 240 dry-point etching 181 engraving 243 monoprint 181.52 pen and wash 158.Toyo: Landscape in Hoboku
. 782 relief 757 silk-screen 739 woodblock 134.
Faune. 114 rollerball 182 Rorschach blot 99 Rose (Mackintosh) 48. 772 234-237 Sesshu. 75 Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range 241 petroglyphs 221. to draw 146-147
pastel 162 perspective 1 0 0 . 141 Piranesi. 181 Rodin. 40-41. 36. 7 73 self-portraits: Basquiat 138. Bridget 98 Robinson.36. 1 6 9 to hold 2 2 . The (Abe) 220 Picasso.
7 77. 1 8 4 . 77. 4 4 boat 209 botanical 4 9 G e r i c a u l t ' s cats 2 9 from Goya 170-173 125. Jan 1 5 6 Maelbeke Madonna 1 5 6 . 240
Two Women Embracing ( R o d i n ) 114. 199 shoes 1 6 4 . 158 V a n Eyck. A n t h o n y 152. 7 6 Two Impressions from a Cut-Out Paper Disk ( H u g o ) 2 2 2 Two Monsters 2 4 2 . 1 9 9 . 49.216 W e b s t e r .141 S i m b l e t . John: Focusing on the Negative 14 w a s h . phrased 146 tonal modeling 161 tonal range 169 t o n a l surfaces 2 2 7 tonal width 97 t o n e ( s ) 33. 249 t o describe 39. 79.1 8 5 Tree II ( M o n d r i a n ) 52. 2 3 4 . 241. 7 1 4 . 1 7 7 free 8 0 V e n i c e . Study of (Michelangelo) 110. 161. Man in Armor 1 5 8 .1 4 5 . 7 6 1 spots.t o n e d r a w i n g 140.5 3 in l a n d s c a p e 2 0 6 . 2 1 2 . 2 3 0 tonal contrast 96 tonal distance 9 7 t o n a l d r a w i n g 9 6 . 69. 230 t h r e e . 141 Three Male Figures. W . 2 4 2
W o o d f i n e . 9 5 pens 36 v a n i s h i n g p o i n t 74. 1 4 5 travel journal 2 0 . 243 (Bosch)
Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos ( G o y a ) 2 4 0 . 1 6 . 2 0 0 Ship in a Storm 1 9 8 . 2 2 6 . 1 4 4 . 7 79 Shoshone petroglyph 240. 76. t o d r a w 5 2 . Adolf: Giant-Grape Saint-Mary-Castle 219
Woman at Her Toilet ( T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c ) 74 w o o d b l o c k print 157. 9 4
Z e n calligraphy
contrast 96 t o grade 163 ink 37 pencil 5 4 t o r t i l l o n 205 T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c .199
tissue p a p e r 21. 1 6 6 t r a p e z i u s m u s c l e 142. 2 2 7 Untitled 2001 ( C a t l i n g )
W h i t e . 202
violin. C y 138. 164.
Taylor A n i t a 115 All and Nothing 1 1 4 . h e a d a n d n e c k sections o f female m o l d f o r (Leonardo) 89 shading 2 9 s h a d o w s 28. Sarah 9 4 Chair Cut Out 94. t h r e e .41. 743 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City ( F r e n z ) 1 6 0 . 182.1 4 1 . 2 2 0 influence o f 2 4 0 Untitled 220. 69. 6 9 Wodall.27 skull 747. 2 7 studies: b i r d s 7 2 . 2 4 7 t h r e e . 1 4 1 w a t e r c o l o r 25. t o lay 1 4 0 .Yamaoka 233 t e x t u r e 2 2 2 . 9 0 . t o d r a w 1 0 1 viewfinder 57 Views from Velletri ( C l a u d e L o r r a i n ) 152. 156 Van Gogh. 97. b l o w n 248 steel p e n s see d i p p e n s still life 89.2 0 1 . drawing with 104-105 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt ( G a u d i ) 68. 9 2 Tesshu.2 1 3 Stubbs. 170 shoes 1 6 4 stylized m o t i f 51 Summer Flowers 63. 186. 7 9 0 vessels. 245 sharpener 54 Ship in a Storm ( T u r n e r ) 1 9 8 . t o draw 1 9 8 . Vincent 95 Chair 94. 1 8 4 . John 25 Flying Fish 25 Wild Striped Cat Sketches of ( G e r i c a u l t ) 28. 57. 104-105. Sarah: child's m a p 75. H e n r i de: Woman at Her Toilet 14 t r a n s p a r e n t v i e w 92.13 M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s m a l e figures 110. 725 fabric 1 6 8 T h o m a s . Paul 2 4 1 Achilles Chases Hector 2 4 0 . 65 symbols 138.1 0 5 vision 9 6 Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects (Grandville) 242. 75. 75 Skeleton of the Horse ( S t u b b s ) 26. 2 9 wind.Sforza Horse. 115.d i m e n s i o n a l 1 0 4 . G e o r g e 2 7 Skeleton of the Horse 26.J. 206-207
202. 7 75 Telescope ( N e w t o n ) 9 2 .9 1 storms. t o d r a w 2 0 0 . 156 layers 7 5 6 priming for 140. 1 9 9 Two Courtyards (Piranesi) 75. 159 Wolfli.1 9 9 wire.12 W a l t e r .s c r e e n p r i n t i n g 139 silver p o i n t 1 4 0 . 2 4 4 . 74. 174 T w o m b l y . T i m W e s t Fagade of the Church of St.241 s i l k . v i e w s o f 85.243
Leonardo's machines 12. 1 2 Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse 71. M . 7 70 Tiber 214-215
Untitled ( T w o m b l y ) 2 2 0 . 1 4 0 . 1 3 . 53 trees. William 159 Satire of the Queen's Dress
226.120.1 6 5 shorthand diagram 142 Shoshone buffalo hide painting 178. 226
Van Dyck. 199.d i m e n s i o n a l d r a w i n g 68.158
158. A l f r e d 1 1 . 102-103 tonal marks. Augustin ( B a l t a r d ) 6 7 w e t and dry brush-strokes 2 4 9
. 96. 1 4 1 . Sue see N o b l e .
Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. F r a n c e . S i m o n L e w i s .100. G e r m a n y . 1 6 0 : Rene G R U A U s. L o n d o n . 9 0 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/© A D A G P . c o . 1 5 4 : akg-images/Musee National d'Art Moderne. 1 3 3 : Artothek/Kupferstichkabinett. a n d D e p a r t m e n t s o f E n t o m o l o g y a n d Zoology at the University of Oxford. L o n d o n . Patty Stansfield.uk/British Museum. 1 5 6 : Graphische S a m m l u n g Albertina. Anita Taylor. Anders/ © D A C S 2 0 0 5 . Psychiatric Institute of the University of Heidelberg. 1 5 9 : Bodleian Library. 226: Brian Catling. Japan. 72: akg-images.uk/Private Collection. Graphische Sammlung. Diana Bell. O. and Tamsin Woodward Smith. 177: Mary Evans Picture Library. Angela W i l k e s . J o h n Roberts. 1 3 5 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library.r. 5 0 : Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (1). Kunstmuseum Bern. Madrid. Sophie Laurimore. Berlin (b). Italy. France. 5 3 : Collection of the Gemeentemuseum D e n Haag/Mondrian Trust. London/Bequeathed by Charles Landseer. c o . c o . © Tate.a. 137: © The British Museum. Pamela Ellis for compiling the index. 2 6 : Topfoto. 2 2 2 : Pierre Georgel/Private Collection. 158: Calouste Gulbenkian Museum. 139: Galerie Marion Meyer/© Man Ray Trust / A D A G P .co. R u t h P a r k i n s o n . 1 3 8 : © Christie's Images Ltd/© A D AGP. 4 8 : T h e N a t u r a l H i s t o r y M u s e u m . 3 1 : Tom Powel Imaging. H a m b u r g . a n d brushes o n pp. 16: www. London/courtesy of Stuart Shave. 176: Modem Art. 243: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. L o n d o n . 1 . 75: © The British Museum (b). 2 4 0 : w w w .co. A n d y C r a w f o r d for p h o t o g r a p h y a n d L . 2 4 5 : Oona Grimes. Copyright Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens. Jackie Douglas. 225: Stephen P Huyler. 2 0 1 : T h e Royal Collection © 2 0 0 2 H e r Majesty Queen Elizabeth I I . 9 4 : Sarah Woodfine. 1 7 8 : © T h e British M u s e u m / H e n r y Moore F o u n d a t i o n . 2 4 : © T h e British Museum. 114: Musee Rodin./© D A C S 2 0 0 5 ( t ) . Paris/ © Succession Picasso / D A C S 2005.bridgeman. Paula Regan. Magdalene College Cambridge. H a y w a r d Gallery.bridgeman. B .bridgeman. 180: www.uk /Biblioteca Nacional. Salisbury & South W i l t s h i r e M u s e u m ( t ) . Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. Paris.uk/Private Collection. Clare Bryan. Productions Clovis Prevost (c). K u n s t m u s e u m . 88: www. Kirsten Norrie. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin/Jorg P. 9 5 : V a n Gogh M u s e u m . M a n d y Earey. Paris. H e a t h e r M c C a r r y . Andy Crawford. NY. Rocio Arnaez. 69: Institut Amatller d'Art Hispanic (tl). u k / O n Loan to the H a m b u r g Kunsthalle. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. L o n d o n .uk/Mucha Trust. Paris. Paris. 1901. R o y a n d D i a n n e Simblet. Anders. 5 2 : T h e Metropolitan Museum of Art/Bequest of Mrs. Toulouse.co. 2 2 0 : Mamaru Abe. H e l e n S h u t t l e w o r t h . 157: U C L Art Collections . 1 1 0 : www.bridgeman. Lisbon. K e v i n a n d Rebecca Slingsby. 51: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. 73: Berlin F i l m Museum (t). Sarah Woodfine. 2 2 3 : Lebrecht Music and Arts Photo Library/Ricordi. Paris. 9 7 6 ) . 199: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee des arts asiatiquesGuimet. 6 6 : w w w . C o r n e l i s o n & Son. u k / T o k y o National M u s e u m . Roddy Bell. 49: Hunterian Museum (t). K a t h r y n W i l k i n s o n . K u n s t m u s e u m Bern/© D A C S 2 0 0 5 . 1 3 6 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Centre Pompidou-MNAM-CCI. Portugal. 132: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. Maureen Paley Interim Art (b). Germany/Joerg P. 9 3 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library.bridgeman. A n n a P l u c i n s k a . Dover Publications/ISBN: 0486229912 (t). Staatliche Museen z u Berlin. 29: Fogg A n Museum/Collections Baron de Vita: Grenville L. 2 1 8 : Adolf-Wdlfli-Stiftung. 1 6 1 : D C C o m i c s I n c . 3 3 : Prinzhom Collection. T h e R u s k i n School of D r a w i n g a n d Fine A r t . Orientabteilung/Ruth Schacht. Carlo O r t u for picture research s u p p o r t . 11: www. 4 6 : B r i t i s h Library. G i n a R o w l a n d . 1 9 6 : Museum of the History of Science. Winthrop. 179: www. 111: Fondation Beyeler/Riehen (Bale)/© Succession H Matisse/DACS 2005. 74: Corbis. Paul T h o m a s .264
T h e author wishes to thank the following people for their enormous help. F i n n . . B e r l i n .bridgeman. Basel. L o n d o n .
Also.bridgeman. 1 0 8 : Arts C o u n c i l Collection. Florence/MoMA.co. H . Germany.uk/Musee des Augustins.co. 1 9 : Getty Images/© Succession Picasso / D A C S 2 0 0 5 .
8: Corbis/Hubert Stadler. b r i d g e m a n . 2 0 3 : Clare Bryan (t). Agnieszka Mlicka. L o n d o n (t). A . 2 7 : Royal Academy of Arts. 2 4 4 : Ashmolean Museum. papers. for s u p p l y i n g the d r a w i n g books.Paris ( b ) . 2 2 7 : Paul Klee Stiftung. Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (t). 112: Yale University A r t Gallery/Everett V Meeks. Havemeyer. Amsterdam. 68: www. J o h n Walter. U K . Wolfson College. O o n a G r i m e s . 1 9 8 : Dover Publications. Jean Pierre Roy. 2 0 0 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. Sammy De Grave. 2 3 8 : akg-images. Psychiatric Institute of the U n i v e r s i t y of Heidelberg. 2 0 2 : © T h e British Museum. Peter L u f f . a n d encouragement i n m a k i n g this book: M a m o r u Abe. Paris a n d D A C S . b r i d g e m a n . J o n Roome. 115: Anita Taylor. Illustrated London News Picture Library/The Bystander (b). Christopher Davis. T o n y G r i s o n i . George M c G a v i n . 1975 ( 1 9 7 5 . Sir Brinsley F o r d .co.bridgeman. 9 1 : www. 1929 (29.uk/Guildhall Library.Strang Print Room ( b ) . L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . 3 2 : Pepys Library.uk/Kettle's Yard. 2 4 2 : Photo Scala. K e w ft)).uk /© Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery. Corporation of London. Fund.co. University of Cambridge. . b r i d g e m a n ./Galerie Sylvie Nissen. B M G . L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . Antonia Cunliffe Davis. 1879. J a c k a n d Brian Catling.l.uk/Private Collection. 9 2 : Science Photo L i b r a r y . Paris a n d D A C S . 2 2 4 : P r i n z h o m Collection. Paris. 17: J o h n Walter. 1 3 4 : © T h e British Museum. (r). Angela Palmer. Oxford./Private Collection/© D A C S 2005. Carole A s h . G e r m a n y . Paris and D A C S .co. 130: The Metropolitan M u s e u m of Art/Robert L e h m a n Collection. R o s e m a r y S c o u l a r . Paul T h o m a s ( t ) . 7 1 : I M E C / A r c h i v e s E r i k Satie. B e m d Kunzig. B e r l i n . 1 5 : w w w . Flossie. Natalie G o d w i n . 174: Artothek/Munich. 30: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso.co. 2 4 1 : Corbis/David M u e n c h ( b ) . 221: Gagosian Gallery/Private Collection (b).bridgeman.co. U K .939). Inc. Sarah D u n c a n . support. R . 113: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. 13: www.20-21 a n d 246-47. Berlin/Staatsbibliothek zu
A l l other images © Sarah Simblet
. D a w n Henderson. 2 8 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. 181: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. London 2005. Julie O u g h t o n .
Dorling Kindersley w o u l d like to thank Caroline H u n t for editorial contribution. P h y l l Kiggell. u k / L o u v r e . L e n . University of Oxford. 7 0 : Studio Daniel L i b e s k i n d . A .
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