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FOR T H E ARTIST
FOR THE ARTIST
LONDON • NEW YORK MELBOURNE • MUNICH • DELHI Senior Editor Paula Regan Senior Art Editor Mandy Earey Art Editor Anna Plucinska Managing Editor Julie Oughton Managing Art Editor Heather McCarry Art Director Peter Luff Publishing Director Jackie Douglas Production Joanna Bull DTP Designer Adam Walker Picture Research Sarah Smithies US Editor Christine Heilman First American Edition, 2 0 0 5 First Paperback Edition, 2 0 0 9 Published in the United States by DK Publishing 3 7 5 Hudson Street New York, New York 1 0 0 1 4 10 11 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3
6 8 20 22 Master Builders The Order of Sound Future Fictions Pathways of Sight Single-Point Perspective Creating an Imaginary Space Further Aspects of Perspective Theaters Venetian Life Parisian Street
68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86
Foreword Introduction Drawing Books and Papers Posture and Grip
Objects and Instruments
TD075-July 2009 Copyright © 2 0 0 5 Dorling Kindersley Limited Text and authors artworks © Sarah Simblet 2 0 0 4 Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited A Cataloging-in-Publication record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN 9 7 8 - 0 - 7 5 6 6 - 5 1 4 1 - 1 Color reproduction by GRB, Italy Printed and bound in China by Toppan
Still Life Instruments of Vision Bench Marks Light and Illusions Further Illusions How to Draw Ellipses Tonality Drawing with Wire Artifacts and Fictions
90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106
Documentaries Presence and Mood Movement Icon and Design Pen and Ink Drawing with Ink Capturing Character Sleeping Dogs Turtles Dry Birds
26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44
Postures and Poses Choreographs Passion Measurement and Foreshortening Quick Poses Hands and Feet Charcoal Hands Phrasing Contours The Visual Detective La Specola
110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128
Plants and Gardens
Botanical Studies Jeweled Gardens Fast Trees Graphite and Erasers Cropping and Composition Negative Space Fig Tree Summer Flowers Acanthus Spinosus
48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64
Discover more at
Projections Magnetic Fields The Human Condition Disposable Pens The Travel Journal Catching the Moment Grand Canal Crossings Caravans The Big Top
174 Abstract Lines
176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 Process and Harmony Writing Time Chants and Prayers Compositions Being "Just" Collage Zen Calligraphy Nocturnes
220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234
Poise Anatomies Revelations Self-Portraits Silver Point Head and Neck Essential Observations Drawing Portraits Generations Castings
132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 152
Earth and the Elements
Air in Motion Storms Nature Profiles Charcoal Landscapes Drawing in the Round Decaying Boat Cloudburst Notes of Force Mountains
198 200 202 204 206 208 210 212 214 216
Gods and Monsters
Marks of Influence Hauntings Convolutions Brushes Brush Marks Monsters Goya's Monsters Consumed Glossary Index Acknowledgments
240 242 244 246 248 250 252 254 256 259 264
Cloth and Drapery Character Costumes Femmes Fatales Colored Materials Study and Design The Structure of Costume Textures and Patterns Dressing Character Posture Carving
156 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172
or engineer. but because it is how I engage with and anchor myself in life.Foreword B Y DRAWING THE WORLD AROUND US. a drawing book is the perfect portable private vehicle for your imminent exploration of drawing. of Sketch Book for the Artist. and I refer back to them for years after they are made. we have looked at. not only to make art. shape. Some of my drawings cover entire walls. a cartographer charting the land. who tells me firmly upon approach that they cannot draw. Drawing is a mirror through which I understand my place in the world. art schools. I work with people of diverse ages. texture. aspirations. I was also reading among The Confessions of St. The very first step is to believe it. still standing by the door. These inspirations led me to invent museums. and size. Others can be held in the h a n d or. and a reflector of experience. It makes me feel excited to be alive. by invitation. fashion designer. as a visiting professor at universities. especially as travel journals. and through which I can see how I think. we learn to feel truly alive. where spaces are shaped by nothing more than the objects and activities contained within them. are made outside as discreet installations. and feeling. For twelve years I have enjoyed the privilege of teaching drawing. be they a child discovering their vision and dexterity. . and makers of special effects. a composer notating a musical score. Drawing occupies a unique place in every artist and creator's life. doctors. and in a few sessions they will be flying. I also make drawing books. geologists. from schoolchildren to senior citizens. remain unseen by most. and local c o m m u n i t y classes. that inspired the title and structure MEMORY T H E A T E R S This pen-and-ink drawing was made from imagination during research for my PhD. architect. understood (and often misunderstood) our own bodies. Some are more traditionally framed and hung in galleries for solo or group exhibitions. and be slowly washed or worn away. Combine these things and the possibilities are endless. drawing is the immediate expression of seeing. undergraduates to fellow professors. we learn to see it. and experience. in which he describes himself flying and diving in his imagination through pictorial caverns of knowledge. They enfold their viewer and are made on joined sheets of paper that I reach by climbing ladders. The most rewarding challenge is always the newcomer. where I expect them to be discovered by some people. It is a tool for investigating ideas and recording knowledge. I will always draw. I was training in anatomy and studying how. Chosen in any color. We can all learn how to draw. For me personally. They occupy a shelf in my studio. or a quantum physicist trying to see for themselves the fluctuations of our universe. It is my love of these. thinking. Augustine his notes on memory. By using our imaginations. a sculptor. through history. I know that with their cooperation I can soon prove them wrong. perhaps hidden on a door hinge or a street bench rail. night security staff. and their importance to so many artists.
At home and at work we doodle. a great crowd is raising their hands in greeting. Most adults still feel that certain exquisite pleasure on arriving at a beach to find the tide out and the sand perfect. not just chosen pictures on our walls but everywhere—maps. like a great canvas for them to mark. Cueva de las Marios. We are bombarded with linear and tonal pictorial information. and in meetings. The sense of relief we may feel from the information overload of modern commercial life when visiting a country in which we can no longer read every written word. Drawing is international. and patterns on our clothes. is not afforded us by drawing. packaging. Children cannot be restrained from running across the pristine white lawn of newly fallen snow. graffiti. inscribing every fresh part of it with their eager scrapes and trails. Rio Pinturas 13. scrawling shapes and cartoons when on the telephone. They have a natural affinity to many modern graffiti signatures. Sometimes we draw because we are bored. logos. "CAVE OF THE HANDS" In this drawing. signs.000-9500 bce . We can always read each others drawings. waving to us from many thousands of yearsago. irreverent to language barriers.Theseancient silhouettes were drawn with earth pigments rubbed onto rock. and we spend our lives reading it. We are surrounded by drawings in our daily lives. but more often because drawing actually helps us to focus and take in what is said.8 INTRODUCTION Where We Begin There is a fundamental drive in our human nature to make a mark. in lectures.
created by societies of hunter-gatherers. we see our oldest surviving images. and the appearance of my strikes of colors. I was sitting with my mother. who in their day-to-day hardship made time to picture themselves and the animals on which they depended. On a particular afternoon in September 1974. and she kept it as my first step beyond the delighted realms of scrawl. an expression of existence. In cave paintings like the one opposite. power. MAKING OUR MARK It seems reasonable to assume that we have engaged in pictorial mark-making for as long as we have made conscious use of our hands. had happily scribbled.9 WHERE WE BEGIN FIRST PORTRAIT For sorre forgotten reason. I. She gave me a notepad and a red crayon and asked me to draw her "a picture of Daddy." Until this day. reflecting my experience of looking closely at my father's face. Cave art was not made for decoration but as a fundamental part of life. . like all toddlers. but I had never yet attempted to figuratively picture my world. and belonging to place. the hair of my first portrait was most important. Even though it is made by a toddler this image would be recognizable to anyone. The image above is what I gave back to my mother. Eyelashes take up as much of my attention as the head itself. enjoying the physical sensation of crayon on paper. at age two-anda-half. I now think this is a picture of proximity.
10 INTRODUCTION PEN-AND-INK BEE This tiny drawing has been enlarged to show its texture and composition. PROGRESSION T h e r e is a point in all o u r lives w h e n w e first c o n t r o l o u r mark and m a k e it a line. It was made with a few bold strokes of a steel pen dipped in ink to conjure the dried bee I was holding between my fingers on a pin. But as adolescents. then drag o u r line into a loop. for example. and this activity plays a vital role in their d e v e l o p m e n t . At this point many will insist they cannot draw. Young children love to draw. it is important to value your natural abilities a n d ways of seeing. As you progress. W e do n o t hesitate to draw a map. yet still turn to drawing w h e n their verbal language fails or is inadequate. h o w e v e r small a n d u n f o r m e d y o u believe they are. Hours are lost immersed in the glorious world of imagination. Don't b e p e r s u a d e d to draw in a w a y s o m e o n e else . b e p r o u d o f what m a k e s y o u r w o r k individual to y o u . most of us stop. Inhibitions creep in and ideas of good a n d b a d terminate confidence. and from that first unit build and describe the shape of something or someone we know. to help a stranger see their way W h e n taking first steps in relearning h o w to draw.
Someone once told them they must draw in this way. 1925-42 53/8x87/8in (135 x 225 mm) ALFRED WALLIS prefers and tells you is better. you must decide whether to keep or discard it. . The journey of every artist demands hard work and discipline. harbor and sea is one of many that Alfred Wallis made from memory while sitting at home. and which aspects of the vast wealth and diversity of graphic language would be most appropriate to their goals. but it does help to set out facing in the right direction. Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse c. He used leftover ship and yacht paint with crayons on cut-out pieces of cardboard boxes. Enjoy the control of your own journey. I meet students struggling unhappily with a particular method of drawing. Occasionally. After experimenting and trying each new idea.11 PROGRESSION A UNIQUE SIGHT This innocent yet sophisticated drawing of boats. He was a retired Cornish fisherman and junk dealer who began drawing at the age of 70 "for company" after his wife died. remember that all advice is only advice. what they most want to achieve. As you read this b o o k and perhaps attend art classes. Think how much would have been lost if anyone had interfered with Alfred Wallis' personal sense of proportion and perspective in the exquisite drawing above. I ask them their reasons for drawing. and they have never questioned why.
perhaps for comfort or ease as a left-hander or a habitual enjoyment of the challenge. We BIRD STUDIES The flutter of faint scratches that dance across the pages on the right is an attempt to see the movement and bony weightlessness of a bird. not for disguise but as a personal choice. 11). be visionary.12 INTRODUCTION VISION All artists see the world differently. author of The Story of Art. but it should be the experienced world we draw. There are countless reasons for drawing. is. His notes visually balance his drawings. There should neve: be a slavish obligation to represent things exactly as we collectively agree we see them. The art historian Professor Sir Ernst Gombrich. They are also always written backward. and breathtaking wind of a choppy harbor. clear-minded understanding of the sea. When we look back at Wallis' seascape (see p. Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels LEONARDO DA VINCI . We also see differently ourselves." The clarity and empowerment of these words. but the child in us knows that this is an all-embracing. Our imaginations are the tools with which we can increase the essence of life. embedded in this book. all raise water From the Archimedes' screw to Leonardo's own cupped wheel. and inspire others. There are only artists. right. depending on the occasion and our purpose. boats. I hope. wrote as the opening line of this great work. The observed world may be our subject. the breast. If as artists we nail a subject down too hard. the page bristles with the focus of ideas. "There really is no such thing as Art. We all see differently. IDEAS A N D I N V E N T I O N S These active machines. we can drive out its spirit. Below.and collarbones and shoulder blades of a different bird almost become new creatures in themselves. it may not be accurate to our critical adult eye. and lose the very thing that attracted us to it.
It will be invested through your experience in the new drawing. Decide before you start whether you are drawing to warm up. drawing in pursuit of our own thoughts and understanding. Our drawings are annotated investigations into the mechanisms of nature and of an idea. make a calculation. stripped-down parts. but it is important to be clear why we are making it. conduct an experiment. or illustrate a dream. shout against a terrible injustice. time spent is not lost. it may be best to start afresh. or to discover the best use of a new material. We have both covered our paper with focused. . while below. I drew to understand the apparatus of flight. This also applies if struggling at length with a larger picture. Leonardo drew to invent a machine.13 VISION should not try to know how every finished picture will look. Each fresh image reflects growing confidence and the experience of the preceding study. when it looks tired and still feels wrong. Don't be disheartened. Opposite. More was learned drawing the bird 18 times than would have been understood drawing it only once or twice. My drawings of a housemartin (opposite top) illustrate the importance of repeated study. to express the beauty in a moment's play of light.
are both made of ink laid onto wet paper with speed and agile certainty. We are caught in a shifting focus that makes everything fluid. it should be responding to the sensation and meaning of the subject it draws. temperature. The physicality. explain the composition. and spirit of each subject was held strongly but loosely between the fingertips. Know the texture. fire. excessive planning can get in the way of the imagination. Imagine these qualities so strongly that you feel them in your mind and at your fingertips. and position in space.14 INTRODUCTION ALCHEMY At school. your marks will become the subject on the paper. depth. ink. Each image relied upon past experience to know the probable behavior of the brush. and practice each part before putting the final image together. and allowed to flow through the brush. and what you discover in the process of making. mists. silk. and at speeds beyond conscious thought. or ice—you must actually feel it beneath your fingers as you draw. balance. As your hand meets the paper to make a mark. trusting my intuition to find a visual equivalence for the sensation of weight within my body. W e float toward the quiet vista as it also moves toward us. bone. declare the idea. Whatever the material— wood. the unknown. I made it almost unconsciously with a pen and a brush. These two brush drawings. If you can do this. feel. Landscape in Haboku Style 15TH CENTURY . or imagine—it is not enough to only render its shape. You must also think of its intrinsic nature: its purpose. Our position asvieweris unsteady. meaning. They each allowed the energy and focus of the moment to be expressed through controlled accident and a degree of the unknown Both drawings were made trusting the marks. and how it feels to the touch. which can offer keys to other things. BRUSHED LANDSCAPE FLOWING SKELETON T h e gliding poise of this walking anatomy comes as much from the feeling of movement as it does from the feeling of drawing. However. and opacity of your subject. and paper. size. It denies the importance of accident. water. This is a detail of a brush-and-ink drawing by a Japanese Buddhist monk. metal. and sometimes beyond. created centuries and cultures apart. This is the alchemy of drawing. and we can just make out the distant stains of mountains. This suits many artists well and is perfectly valid. As you draw any subject—something you see. we are advised or even required to plan our pictures. and an island brushed with trees.
made by a young British artist who creates alphabets o f the absurd f r o m familiar childhood characters. W a l t e r also makes books: some. one of many luminous works in watercolor. more than 100 years after its making. gold leaf and spray paint. c. lives on. right is set inside a rib cage. left.1896 Woman at her Toilet 41 x 26 in (104 x 66 cm) TOULOUSE LAUTREC RIB-CAGE D R A M A Thus drama. which evoke realities o f place and the p o w e r o f moment. stand table-sized with furniture legs attached t o b o t h sides of their jacket. like folded insects. pastel.16 INTRODUCTION PLACE A N D MOMENT The heat and teeming atmosphere o f this Parisian dressing room. Lautrec's flamboyant splashes o f petticoats and pantaloons are drawn with long sweeps of chalk and brushed oil paint. He dazzles us with flashes o f light and dabbed marks o f shadow. Focusing on the Negative 2004 22 x 30 in (56 x 76 cm) J O H N WALTER . acrylic.
With no help and advice at all. potential ideas still forming. Pages do not have to lie open for other people to inspect and comment on. Put them away and look at them later. and mistakes are a valuable process of learning. Ignore these at first and allow yourself the freedom to play. you will naturally make progress on your own in response to concentration and the decision to look and draw. take your time and don't worry if you need to make several attempts to grasp a concept. even those you dislike. FREEINGTHEHAND . you will be surprised and encouraged to see how far you have come. and miscellaneous items of inspiration. Much will be learned on these test sheets and in your first drawings. Try to keep all of your first drawings. at a point when you feel you are not making progress. Choose other materials and do the same. Start by choosing a material you like the look of and cover a piece of paper with different marks. try not to grip your pen worrying about the technical terms you might have heard. diary-like observations. Enjoy discovering what your hand and the material can do. As you follow lessons in this book. Drawing is exploratory. One of the advantages of a drawing book is that you can shut it.17 FREEING THE HAND If you are just beginning to learn how to draw. just through the act of making. It is yours. Such books are personal: the territory of new exploration and experiment.
we still only glimpse a corner of the magnitude of this subject and the infinity of what can be achieved. An artist's personal voice is something that also evolves through lessons learned. Picasso is poised smiling. staring straight through his image of a bull. it is this voice that is the subtle part of their art and something that ultimately. and many more reasons for drawing the world. but not confined to them. Once there. seek ideas in the life around you. As you draw. The real drawing book has yet to come. caught between action and repose. Note that the drawing classes are allocated to subjects. Picasso has just finished his drawing. It rarely flourishes in isolation. Drawing is a living language that over millennia has grown and changed.Their elegant strength seems to summon a lifetime of drawing. the path is yours. Its sensuous and flowing line seems to drift like smoke. it will be your creation as you discover your own personal vision. ELECTRIC BULL With a penlight. and enfolding new media. In the total wealth of these pages. which of course he cannot see. adapting its form and occupation. This practical journey will take you through the door into the vivid heart of drawing. Picasso Painting with Light at the Madoura Pottery 1949 . The chapters of this book present 90 different artists' ways of seeing. threedimensionally. 150).18 INTRODUCTION THE THINKING EYE Techniques and materials are the grammar and vocabulary of drawing and can be studied and shared. comes from within. I was particularly attracted to their gentle articulation and understated determination. Imagination needs nourishment. Look to your own experience and also learn from the work of others. and became a great subject for me. To these I have added my own drawings to explain elementary materials and techniques and offer introductory approaches. when they are more experienced. A N ARTIST'S HANDS These are the hands of the artist Phyll Kiggell (see p. However. which is held frozen in space by a camera lens.
20 INTRODUCTION Drawing Books and Papers T o BEGIN YOUR EXPLORATION o f d r a w i n g . c o l o r If planning t o use pencils. a n d crayons. Dissecting a d i s c a r d e d h a r d . catalogs. T h e hardb o a r d j a c k e t is s t r e t c h e d w i t h canvas beneath t h e p a p e r sleeve.B O U N D PADS: T h e s e are t h e least expensive a n d useful f o r o p e n i n g flat. b e a w a r e t h a t p a p e r t e x t u r e effects a n d changes t h e i r marks. F o r e v e n i n g classes. be sure they fit comfortably under your arm.q u a l i t y r i n g . There are dozens to choose from. drawing book. and collage their ideas.b o u n d p a d if y o u w i s h t o keep your drawings together long-term. c h o o s e larger f o r m a t s t o give y o u s c o p e f o r e x p e r i m e n t . is perfect. Sand the edges to avoid splinters.b o u n d b o o k s t h a t fit in y o u r p o c k e t o r bag.C O V E R E D H A R D B O U N D : Ideal f o r c a r r y i n g a r o u n d . 2. F o r traveling. pastels.b o u n d b o o k w i l l s o o n s h o w y o u h o w it is m a d e . it is better to have them made at a lumber yard or home improvement store. y o u n e e d a lifetime. binding. study the structure of a good portfolio and make your own. thick enough not to flex. Purchase a h i g h . C A N V A S . 2002 Tantalus o r The Future of Man 81/2 x61/4in (215 x 158 mm) ROSE MILLER . Drawing boards are invaluable. Alternatively. If you intend to carry your boards for a distance. H O M E M A D E : I m a d e this b o o k f r o m drawing paper that I folded. t h e i r jackets w i l l a c t like d r a w i n g b o a r d s a n d p r o t e c t y o u r w o r k . It is also useful to own a portfolio. t h i s is h o w I l e a r n e d . 6. F O U N D B O O K S : O l d p r i n t e d 3 . 4. Homemade books can be assembled easily from found materials or selections of loose sheet papers. Art students often make use of printed books picked up from secondhand stores into which they draw. A high-quality one will last a DRAWING BOOKS Select d r a w i n g b o o k s t o suit y o u r aims. BLACK P O C K E T B O O K S : Hand-sized w i t h ready-made elastic binder and a marker ribbon. N o t e t h e w i d e l y differing c h o i c e o f p a p e r s w i t h w h i c h t h e s e are m a d e . Many artists invent ways o f binding their o w n books. C O L O R E D PAPERS: Large a r t supply stores o f t e n sell t h i c k b o o k s full o f c o l o r e d p a p e r s . quality. thickness. a n d r e f e r e n c e b o o k s f o u n d in s e c o n d . R I N G . texture. cut. These are perfect f o r w o r k i n g in novels. Gleaming store purchases vary greatly in format. They can be very expensive in art stores. H o w e v e r r i n g bindings o f t e n break. which are also sold in an enormous range. 5. and handles to lift the weight of your artworks. 1. color.h a n d s t o r e s make unique subjects f o r e x p e r i m e n t s a n d collage. and cost. Smooth plywood. You simply need two strong boards hinged together well. cheap corrugated plastic ones fall apart in days. and glued t o a s t r i p o f bias binding. c h o o s e s m a l l e r h a r d . stitched. Most contain thin p a p e r and are perfect f o r use w i t h disposable pens. ties on either side to keep your papers in place. Calculate a range of useful dimensions and have several cut at once. a l e n g t h o f black elastic t i e d a r o u n d t h e m i d d l e will h o l d the contents together w h e n y o u f o l d in c o l l e c t e d items.
Use with a brush in clean water Water makes a dark mark like ink and becomes invisible again when dry. 8. and hot pressed papers. fine. absorbency. printed on one side only. pastel paper in flecked pastel colors with a distinctive ribbed marking. They are hand-. mold-. ITALIAN PARCHMENT: Imitation-animal-skin parchment that is translucent and slightly waxy. 10. mulberry. tough. and cream sheets or rolls. JAPANESE PAPER: Strong. FABRIANO R O U G H 600GMS: Very heavy. and cost. C A R B O N PAPER: Available in dark and light blue. 16. Use cheap paper for rough ideas and quality paper for work to last See the glossary ( p p . from pencil to paint 9. AQUARELLE ARCHES 300GMS:The very top quality hot-pressed (smooth) watercolor paper. For use with any media. 12. 17. SAUNDERS WATERFORD N O T 300GMS: Mid-quality textured watercolor paper. 2 5 6 . and white. or rolls. 11. not. 100% cotton and sold in sheets. 21. texture. FABRIANO ACADEMIA: Standard medium-range multipurpose paper Use with any media. smooth. VELIN ARCHES 250GMS: Printmaking paper available in black white.5 9 ) for explanations of rough. and rolls. bamboo. Ph. Cotton papers are high-quality and acid-free. also good for drawing with colored pencils. 13. or machine made in sheets. cold. METALLIC PAPER: Thin paper in different metallic colors. blocks. turning brown and brittle. C A N S O N : Inexpensive lightweight pastel paper in many colors. T W O RIVERS Y E L L O W 410GMS: See Two Rivers Green 19. Cheap wood-pulp papers are acidic. T W O RIVERS GREEN 410G MS: Very heavy tinted textured cold-pressed watercolor paper See Two Rivers Yellow. 20. 14. It is also excellent for drawing with marker pens on layered sheets. 18. resisting deterioration. it is made from rice. red. FABRIANO INGRES: Thin. size. GLASSINE: Sold as protective wrapping. color. Use for brushwork drawings. 7. white textured paper that can take abrasive use of any medium. and translucent. 15. blocks. 22. yellow. PAPERS . and other plant fibers. MAGIC PAPER: A reusable sheet for testing ideas without creating waste.Papers differ in thickness (weight). used to imprint lines of these colors onto a surface.TISSUE PAPER: Place sheets between drawing book pages to keep images from printing on each other and use for delicate collage. It is available in white or cream.
It will also reflect discomfort if you are in any way cramped. From a distance you will spot errors you cannot see close up. Regularly step back 6-9 ft (2-3 m) to check your progress. How you hold your drawing materials is also important. place it on your left. don't sit too close to the paper. and subject. your drawing will reflect this. place it on your right. b u t it should n o t be forgotten that many people make remarkable a n d striking works drawing with their feet or holding their brush or pencil in their mouths. if left-handed. If seated on a b e n c h easel (a donkey). your lines will distort. Ideally. Turning your drawing sideways or upside-own will also help reveal what is wrong. strangledlooking drawings. You do not have to dance to draw. place it on the correct side: if right-handed. arm. should be able to look comfortably straight ahead at your picture plane. With your hand in this position. Examples are shown here. and look to the right. . but you need to understand that the expression of a line or mark originates in the body and flows t h r o u g h the shoulder. This cramped grip tires your hand and makes small. a n d look to the left of it at your subject. SPACE TO WORK Cramped grip. a n d h a n d to the fingertips. 116-17). There should be an open. you can draw lines freely and achieve a significant arc of movement. you Drawing classes can be cramped places. If your body posture is well balanced and you can move freely. make sure you have enough room to back away and view your work. body. but wherever possible. If your hand twists to maneuver between the paper and your body. There are also parallels to dance. In this book we will look at parallels between drawing and music. Relaxed fingers: Hold the pencil away from its tip and relax your fingers. your whole relaxed b o d y should be involved. If using an upright easel. Accelerated perspective also occurs if you look down the surface steeply (see pp. This photograph illustrates how some people hold a pen to write. Use the side of your little fingernail as a support on the page. Placing your easel o n the w r o n g side folds y o u r b o d y against your drawing arm. You cannot draw like this—your hand is locked and your fingers can barely move. or with your drawing board angled between your lap and a chair. flowing space between your hand.22 INTRODUCTION Posture and Grip T o DRAW WELL.
or change to the wrong hand. alternative way of holding the pencil.23 This loose "candle" grip is very useful when drawing with your arm extended. As long as your fingers. depending upon what it is and how large you are working. This can give a new lease on life to your mark-making. find an unfamiliar. Soft media: Short materials such as pastels and charcoal can be accommodated in the palm. hold your material as you find most comfortable. But be careful not to tense your fingers. This can be used to great effect. and body are not restricted. GRAVITY Remember that gravity affects the flow of ink and paint. brush pressed against an upright surface will cause a dribble of ink to run down your drawing. To stop this.232-33). Brush calligraphy: This comfortable. liquid will run down your hand. Large amounts of ink can be applied without fear of uncontrolled running if the paper is flat. It is most comfortable when reaching to draw above your head. roughly marking out a large-scale work. not up to the paper Brushes can be used on upright paper but dip Anticipating effects: A fully loaded pens need a level surface. Large scale: POSTURE AND GRIP U n f a m i l i a r i t y : T h e habitual movements of our handwriting style will sometimes infringe upon our drawing. upright way of holding the brush near its base is similar to the Japanese way used in Zen calligraphy (see pp. or it can spoil your work if not anticipated. Remember you can also draw just by dipping your fingers in pigment—this is how many women draw in rural India. If you turn a brush or dip pen up into the air to draw above your hand. ALL MEDIA There are no rules as to how you should hold your drawing media. . arm.
and pioneer born c. m u s e u m . and to bring h o m e drawn documentaries of their finds. and silent. This drawing is made in black lead (metal point) with watercolor Highlights of silver would have gleamed.drawe to lief one of each kinde of thing that is strange to us in England. Framed in the z o o or in domestic cohabitation.. werewolves. For the novice artist. and this very drawing was to endure many copies and plagiarisms after its triumphant return to the English court of Queen Elizabeth I. and snakes have between them engendered harpies. the Latin bestiary was one of the most popular picture books—an illustrated dictionary of one hundred parts." Paranoid newcomers c r a m m e d into swelling industrial cities used handbooks of physiognomy to identify and judge their neighbors. floating turtles. 1590 J O H N WHITE capture form and movement from the m a n n e r i s m s of honking geese. bats. O v e r the centuries. plants. from which personality and predicted behavior were " d e d u c e d . or scampering through the initials and borders of pictures from that time. who described in words what White drew. they are perhaps our favorite pictorial preoccupation. their different speeds and patterns of action. As children we delight in the humanized trials of Tom and Jerry and their c a r t o o n relations.Animals H UMANS HAVE DRAWN ANIMALS from the beginning of our time. In medieval England. " Animals perpetually feed our imaginations. we turn and take the features of beasts. Here (left) we see J o h n White's exquisite record of a flying fish. sleeping dogs. animals provide a perfect subject with which to begin. cartographer. After the subject of ourselves. Facial features were analyzed in terms of their animal likeness. On the Roanoke voyages of Sir Walter Raleigh. which very likely leaped o n t o the deck of Sir Walter Raleigh's ship Tiger as it sailed north from the Caribbean to Virginia in 1585.m o u n t e d skeletons of birds. In 19th-century Europe this became a "science. Europeans on board had never seen such a thing. birds. insects. we have employed artists on expeditions. offer challenges and delights to draw. and people. In this chapter we discover the use of pens and ink through the delineation of insects. Together they made maps and documented animals. fish. 11 x91/4in (277 x 234 mm) . and we still see escapees from its pages carved and grinning as the gargoyles of churches. White's commission was to ".. W e have drawn them in m a n u s c r i p t s to explain our genesis and to c o u n t their species into Noah's ark. dogs. out are now oxidized and so appear black W h e n less preoccupied with understanding ourselves. each dedicated to the moralized tale of an animal or monster The bestiary profoundly influenced the art of its period. We have drawn them on the walls of caves to evoke their kinship and power. to be there at the m o m e n t of discovery." He worked with the scientist Thomas Harriot. 1540. W h e n lost to explain our own emotions. mermaids. and dragons. and learn how to Flying Fish c. JOHN WHITE British artist. which are so unlike ours.
draftsman. filled journals with ideas and observations. Meanwhile. Original Ink Drawing of a Rhinoceros 1515 ALBRECHT DURER 103/4 x 161/2 in ( 2 7 4 x 4 2 0 mm) . the home of ALBRECHT DURER German Renaissance painter. it continued its journey to Rome. DURER'S RHINOCEROS AND STUBBS'S skeletal Durer. naturalist. writer. He in turn sent the mysterious creature to the Pope via Marseilles at the request of the King of France. and wrote four books on proportion. Life-like This is Durer's original quill-and-ink drawing made after an anonymous Portuguese drawing.26 ANIMALS Documentaries horse are superb affirmations of the power of drawing as a recorder and communicator of knowledge. It was to become the animal's only accepted likeness for 250 years. Unsurpassed. inspiring countless works of art and so touching people's imaginations that later. a drawing of it arrived in Nuremberg. The first live rhinoceros to reach Europe came from India in May 1515. printmaker. Carefully stuffed. and mathematician. they were rejected. when more accurate portrayals were made without armor and scales. He studied the image and drew his own interpretation. years after its publication. a gift to the Portuguese King. It is such a lifelike triumph of imagination and intelligence that for centuries zoologists never questioned its authority. Contemporary texts related accounts of the beast as the mortal enemy of the elephant and rare relative of the "more common" unicorn. it is still consulted by veterinarians today. Converted into a print. Sailing to Rome. but the drowned animal washed ashore. the ship was lost. Stubbs's Anatomy of the Horse achieved similar documentary status. Durer's image changed eager hands until it was known across Europe. Durer traveled widely to study at different European schools of art.
in t h r e e v i e w s — r e a r f r o n t . Stubbs w a s o n e o f t h e first E u r o p e a n artists t o m a k e a n a c c u r a t e representation o f the rhinoceros. Dissections were made over a total of 18 months. naturalist. dissecting and drawing until he understood the mechanisms of its power and grace. composed from notes and observations. knowledge of parts. He translated his own drawings into engravings for publication. and therefore invented the lighting that Compare how Stubbs and Durer both invented lighting to portray the reality of their animals.GEORGE STUBBS B r i t i s h e q u i n e a n d s o c i e t y p o r t r a i t painter. which has never diminished. His painted p o r t r a i t o f t h e b e a s t is in t h e R o y a l C o l l e g e o f S u r g e o n s o f England. This is one of Stubbs' original finished pencil drawings. a n d anatomist. Stubbs's m o s t c e l e b r a t e d publication. Anatomy of the Horse. Dissections Stubbs took his knife and his pencil and physically climbed inside the horse. L o n d o n . a n d s i d e . The entire project was developed over ten years. Lighting Stubbs's breathtaking international work won immediate There acclaim. is no other work like it. Table of the III of the Horse (rear Skeleton view) mm) 1756-58 1 4 x 7 in ( 3 5 4 x 1 8 0 GEORGE STUBBS . He composed makes each horse appear so real and each plate from his three-dimensional. c o m p r i s e s 1 8 p l a t e s s h o w i n g d i s s e c t i o n s in l a y e r s f r o m b o n e t h r o u g h m u s c u l a t u r e t o skin.
and leader of the French Romantic movement. and all sorts of bizarre concoctions which manage to convey above all in mind.. The Hunchback of Notre Layers and shadows Throughout this drawing. conjured b y the hand of a great author of French literary fiction. H u g o mixed his media and drew from m e m o r y and imagination to create narrative atmosphere. Hugo's page is f l o o d e d w i t h the fearful presence of a remembered octopus.. soot. He has w a t c h e d her p o u n c e . linseed oil soaked into the paper has made shadows and repelled the ink to create translucent tentacles. Gericault took a sharp p e n c i l to m a k e repeated direct o b s e r v a t i o n s f r o m life. He wrote to poet and art critic Charles-Pierre Baudelaire about his experiments. coal dust. The octopus is formed in layers applied and distressed with a brush. the ominous beast unwinds from the dark of the sea and of our nightmares. and turn. Apparently drawn in its o w n ink. By contrast. His copious drawings are characterized by mixed media. Hugo used graphite powder. sepia. and Pieuvre 1866-69 91/2 x81/8in (242 x 207 mm) VICTOR H U G O . drama. her b o n y frame.. her sharp teeth.. drawing her again and again to pin d o w n the texture of her loose skin. Hugo's novels Les Miserables and Dame have become classics of film and stage. playwright.28 ANIMALS Presence and Mood THESE DRAWINGS HAVE BEEN CHOSEN to s h o w t w o v e r y different ways of picturing a wild animal. snarl. charcoal. I've ended up mixing in pencil. ink and linseed oil on paper. A s if disturbed from its gritty b e d by our presence and curiosity. and a love of accident. Mixed media Here. Surrounding sprays of graphite powder are stuck into washes of oil and ink to suggest glutinous depths.". saying ". novelist. and her distinctive temperament. it silently rises to the light. Gericault's sheet a p p e a r s almost s c r a t c h e d b y the f e r o c i o u s play of his cat. more or less what I have in view. VICTOR HUGO Poet.
Beginners are advised to follow the natural contours of form as shown on pp.29 THEODORE GERICAULT C o n t r o v e r s i a l . H e is best k n o w n f o r his gigantic painting. standing sideways. Undertraces Beneath these graphite studies we see traces Tones On the top row we see clearly how Gericault laid broad areas of tone using fast. artists reused sheets and them full of studies. parallel. Tones that do not follow surface contour is very difficult to do well. fiery. and it can be applied to any subject (see pp.118-119). Here. s h o r t . displayed in the Louvre. undertraces unify and vitalize the composition. diagonal strokes of his pencil. horses w e r e a favorite subject t o g e t h e r w i t h politics and history. focused upon seeing will lead to a greater understanding of the subject Much is learned from repeated study. and keep trying again. At the center of the page is crammed drawings the outline of a horse. Before paper became so cheap. Repeated study This drawing demonstrates of feeling confident repeat different the importance subject Remaining enough to isolate parts of a views. The Raft of the Medusa. facing right. of drawings Gericault erased. of previous Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 1817-18 121/2 x 151/2 in ( 3 1 9 x 3 9 8 mm) T H E O D O R E GERICAULT . Paris.l i v e d French R o m a n t i c painter and lithographer Largely self-taught. 124-25 and p. 144. since it can lead to a flattened form.
His powdery. Cheval et Oiseau 1936 173/8 x 211/4 in ( 4 4 0 x 5 4 0 m m ) PABLO PICASSO . identify an animal: the fast cheetah. flapping bird. taking them to guide their hand in bringing form and essence together. These media complement and amplify each other with their brilliant contrast. noise is everywhere. Both Picasso and Klee have enclosed their subjects to compress and amplify the speed of PABLO PICASSO A prolific Spanish painter sculptor. Artists commonly focus on such actions. with George Braque (see p90). gray. In these two drawings. dissolving faun kneels stranded. Ink and gouache This drawing is made in black Chinese ink and gouache (opaque watercolor) applied with a brush. draftsman. In Picasso's drawing. Faune. overwhelmed by a screeching bird. Klee's riders are constructed from all the gestures of greeting mules. we see semi-abstract. Gouache is brushed softly in translucent hazy layers of cool blue. flattened animals composed almost entirely of movement. Picasso cofounded Cubism. His hand must have shuddered and twitched just like the constant actions of this humorous meeting. and waves breaking distantly below. hooked. slow tortoise. and scrolled lines. The fact that they never stand still influences the movement in his line. The ink is used to make sharply defined solid. printmaker ceramicist graphic and stage designer who lived in France. quivering horse.30 ANIMALS Movement M O V E M E N T IS OFTEN THE CHARACTERISTIC b y w h i c h w e their lines and the power of their beasts. the whinnying of a frantic horse. and brown. the first abstract movement of the 20th century. or proud. made only a year apart.
Scene der Komischen of Comical Reiter Riders) (Scene 1935 161/2x111/2in ( 4 1 9 x 2 9 1 mm) M o r t o n G .PAUL KLEE Swiss painter. printmaker. He is a u t h o r o f The Thinking Eye (1923). They remain in contact with the surface of the page and scribble back and forth as they maneuver from one area to another. turning our eye and around inside the and postures of the paper- thin on pictorial space. violinist. The entire drawing suggests the endless small movements of horses standing still. Chicago PAUL KLEE . draftsman. well-worn copies o f w h i c h are found in m a n y art schools. sculptor. top all happily of each other in the Endless lines Look closely at how Klee's lines rarely leave the paper and how they are free from the constraint of finite shape. W i t h his drawings Kleeb o u n d sophisticated theories to personal and often witty childlike imagery." They chatter around bodies in groups. Layers of marks In this pale Dentil drawing we see layers of' agitated marks that together present a kind of visual "itch. N e u m a n n Family Collection. creatures. and t e a c h e r at t h e Bauhaus school.
and steerage. and to assess our next move. His birds stare. Below we see his revolutionary design for an Elizabethan warship. which in application gave strength and advantage to the English fighting the Spanish Armada. the expression of its eye. and from them learned that if he designed his ship with a "cod's head MATTHEW BAKER Master shipwright. Baker did not intend this. plans. fins. b a s e d o n his studies o f fish. it would achieve greater speed. The ship The upper decks of the ship appear curved toward us at both ends. seemingly looking for our attention. and scales. drawings of animals that are each held tightly in a surprising space: a giant fish wears a ship's hull. He studied the anatomy of fish. and blackbirds fly in formation through a mosaic of text. In contrast to the practical clarity of Baker's thought. Baker lived in an era when ships were built without drawn plans. slim stern). Knopf's drawing opposite is the personal enigmatic expression of a mind gripped by illness. This drawing illustrates Baker's theory. t h e earliest geometrically defined elevations. Exquisite details in this drawing include the lips of the fish. mathematician.32 ANIMALS Icon and Design IN THESE T W O MANUSCRIPTS we discover diagrammatic and mackerel's tail" (full bow. It is simply how we read his perspective. and the carefully observed gills. and author o f Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (1586). In just one drawing he has displayed more angles of his design than we would expect to see from a single viewpoint Fragments English 1586 101/2 x 153/8 in (270 x 390 mm) MATTHEW BAKER of Ancient Shipwrightry . The fish It is likely that Baker drew with a quill dipped in irongall ink. adding washes of color with a fine brush. and s e c t i o n s o f ships. later called a galleon. B a k e r initiated t h e scientific p r a c t i c e o f naval a r c h i t e c t u r e and applied h y d r o d y n a m i c s . balance.
and filled evenly with tone. The text. JOHANN KNOPF . numbered. circle and the birds. The main group is placed in a circle drawn with a compass. w h i c h o f t e n f e a t u r e as s y m b o l i c creatures in his drawings.K n o p f b e l i e v e d h e c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h e language o f birds. written last of all. appears to be stirred like water by the presence of the The Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks UNDATED 133/8 x 115/8 in (340 x 2 9 6 mm) and psychiatrist Hans Prinzhom collected this image.JOHANN KNOPF An " O u t s i d e r " a r t i s t w h o s u f f e r e d f r o m m e n t a l illness. T h e G e r m a n a r t historian Outline and tone The blackbirds illuminating this frantic manuscript are drawn in pencil. firmly outlined.
They fit into wooden holders. where reeds were gathered. That is an ink. Quills were later cut from feathers. REED PENS: A broad nib can be cut from bamboo or another tubular grass. The Egyptians and Chinese are credited with the invention of carbon ink. spots. while metal nibs began as rare gifts in gold and silver before being perfected by the British steel industry. ink is traditionally applied with a brush (see pp. 5 0 0 years ago. Each pen has a unique character. The best are goose or swan. The reservoir gives a constant flow of ink for very long unbroken lines and continuous bottle-free use. Dip pens began their history in the Nile River. Early artists recommended raven and crow for especially fine work. producing a different line. then pour a little warm gum water into it and temper the two together. Avoid needle-sharp mapping pens. PENS . which scratch rather than draw. expressive drawing techniques such as the ones we explore in this chapter 1. they are associated with rapid. METAL PENS: Inexpensive removable steel nibs are available in a range of widths. and hold it under a clean basin until the soot hangs to it. from the acacia tree. The Chinese used animal or fish glue. 3.34 ANIMALS Pen and Ink W I T H A HANDFUL OF FEATHERS. you can have great fun drawing the world around you.246-47). distinguished manufacture. 2. 4." "Gum" refers to gum arabic extracted Dip pens are essential and inexpensive drawing tools. light it. which range greatly in their handling and character of line. In the Far East. and first used by the Egyptians. The bar is then rubbed into water on a slate block to produce ink. F O U N T A I N PENS: These vary in quality and nib width. Responsive to slight changes in pressure. the recipes for which have been handed down over centuries. Only fill with suitable inks. Intricate or dramatic lines. high-quality Chinese and Japanese inks are subtler and more complex than those produced in Europe. and it is still in use today. a n d m e t a l p o i n t s . A German recipe of 1531 gives a simple description: "Take a wax candle. The paste from either recipe is pressed and dried into a bar for storage. QUILLS: These are cut from the barrel of a flight or tail feather. Today. s t i c k s . simultaneously 4 . and spatters can be made with an exotic choice of inks. Masters choose brands of long.
They are the easiest inks to use. or charcoal. INKS 9. they produce a golden dye for drawing.G A L L INK: Abnormal spherical growths caused by parasitic wasps can be collected from some oak trees in fall. Bistre is the more humane use of soot scraped from the fireplace and ground into wine. charred bone (Ivory Black). It dries with a sheen and clogs uncleaned pens. is the ink of a cuttlefish or squid extracted post-mortem. Now we also have acrylic ranges in many colors. 8. Non-waterproof Indian inks can be reworked with a wet brush after drying. Inks can be lightfast or non-lightfast. roastedwine sediment (Yeast Black). C A R B O N INK: Traditionally produced from oil or resin soot (Lamp Black). ACRYLIC / CALLIGRAPHY INKS: Available in black and a range of colors. from are not 6. SEPIA A N D BISTRE INKS: Sepia. suspended in a binder and stored as a solid block Blocks are imported today 7. I N D I A N INK: Carbon ink sold today in liquid form. boiled. and can be mixed and diluted to create subtler colors and tones. iron-gall. and are still in use today: carbon (Chinese and Indian). and sepia. Beechwood soot is best. I R O N . Old stock turns solid and bottlesChina. Waterproof types contain shellac. an often misused term. and sieved. Excellent for drawing they are bright and non-clogging. The complexities of traditional iron-gall ink are explained on p. reduced. 5. Crushed.36. . waterproof or non-waterproof. dated.35 PEN AND INK Four types of ink were common before the 20th century. and most can be homemade. bistre.
Some of Michelangelo's drawings are now a little eaten by their own ink. appears broken to show paper beneath. it was gray-purple.) You can make ink easily from the boiled. V a n G o g h . and boiled to make a golden ink. t h e y stick a n d j u d d e r f o r w a r d . forming the REED PENS R e e dpens dispense ink quickly. giving a s h o r t . Collect skins from the ground beneath trees once they are blackened. Although oak galls and walnut skins are harmless. d r y mark. Quills are also called D u t c h pens. It also oxidized and ate or burned paper. the blade and cut away from you. . fleshy skins that surround ripe walnuts. Paler strokes were made where the mark has the legs and antennae the ink ran out. T h e y give a finer. can also be collected from affected trees. Scribes o f t h e M i d d l e Ages. It dried black. Rembrandt. QUILL PENS Q u i l l s a r e highly r e s p o n s i v e t o c h a n g e s in p r e s s u r e . since t h e D u t c h w e r e t h e first t o realize t h a t they could be hardened and i m p r o v e d w i t h heat t r e a t m e n t in ash o r sand. Running fresh. U n d e r heavy pressure. galls were ground with iron sulfate to make an unstable solution. For centuries. of a loaded nib. reduced. crushed. red-brown. drawn to glisten with a dryer nib. Practice to gain a feel for how materials behave. Walnut ink is gloopy. M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s d r a g o n o n p . giving longer lines. I u s e d t h e s e qualities t o d r a w t h e w o r m s above. for example. and delicious to draw with. m o r e e x t e n d e d line than reed and a m o r e organic line t h a n m e t a l . sieved. a n d d e v e l o p e d t h e quill instead. keep all your fingers behind basis of iron-gall ink.36 ANIMALS Drawing With Ink To MAKE A QUILL OR REED PEN. are surprisingly tough. always be cautious when experimenting with recipes. then cut a final nib (feathers. The darkest of this grasshopper wings) were made (around the head first. Reed marks The darker left wing of this beetle was drawn with the wet inky stroke wing. and turned brown with time. a n d M a t i s s e also e n j o y e d t h e m . finding reed p e n s unwieldy. The lighter right Quill marks Quills carry more ink than strokes and for as reeds. 2 4 4 is an e x q u i s i t e e x a m p l e . r e s e r v e d t h e i r use f o r large c h o i r b o o k s . Oak galls.
they splay to make thick o r double lines. clean strokes. When using dip pens. sharp.37 METAL PENS Metal pens give long. Loaded with ink and pressed hard. W h e n the nib is pressed upside down. breaking. particles then filled with a droplet of ink. o r being ruined as fountain pens would be under the same pressure. withstanding great pressure without sticking. giving a graded. White markings were drawn last Tones Here we see subtle tones of diluted ink beneath the undiluted black rim of a beetle's wing. The of pigment to fall to the edges effect of the shape. DRAWING WITH INK Filled outlines Each segment of wing was outlined. marks become fine and needle-sharp. Each layer of of the drying droplet dome the drawing was left to dry before adding more. tonal Ink layers The wings of this beetle were drawn in layers using black and white ink on pale gray paper. it is important to feel for when the ink will run out and to know how much ink you pick up when dipping the nib. .
and bellyflop off the waterside.38 ANIMALS Capturing Character GEESE ARE EXCELLENT SUBJECTS to draw when practicing the first use of pen and ink. Dip your pen in ink. and a large drawing book or plenty of paper Use masking tape to secure pages against the wind. It teaches confidence and focus through intensive repetition. Take no more than ten seconds to draw each one and make lots of drawings. steel nibs are fine. and be brave. I covered eleven sheets in sixty quick drawings—in less than an hour. Study them before drawing. Focus on it. Focus on the geese. Cover your drawing book pages in speedy responses to the geese and try to capture each bird in as few lines as possible. waddle. Quick drawing trains you to see what is most important about a subject and to mark only its most essential expression. Try to hold the whole posture in your mind's eye. It happens that goose feathers also provide artists with the best type of quills. Take a cup and water for diluting a range of tones. You cannot break the nib. Empathize. Illustrating this exercise on Oxford Port Meadow. Geese are nosy birds. touch the bottle's rim to drain the excess. Watch their heavy feathered bodies flap. make another one. Posture . MATERIALS NEEDED Look for a bird expressing a simple posture. there is no obligation to prepare a quill. to absorb blots when drawing. so pick a spot where other people can keep them entertained. draw what the bird is doing. Attempt with a loose hand to capture their posture and outline. Cover a sheet. be bold and press firmly. Pack plenty of tissue around a bottle of calligraphy or acrylic ink. and there is no "wrong. test your limits. That said. and boldly plunge into your drawing. and quickly draw around it using only three or four strokes." If you don't like a stroke. Experiment. not on your drawing.
Again. . draw the feeling of what you see. running. CAPTURING CHARACTER Texture Gradually allow yourself more lines to describe the texture of each bird as well as its posture and action. look among the birds for more complicated actions such as shaking off water. and diving. and don't worry about mechanical facts or accuracy.39 Action With growing confidence. flapping. Use more lines than before to express these. Avoid detail unless really tempted by a close-up visit Fluctuate the pressure of your pen in response to how you know the bird would feel if you touched it.
and a tissue for blotting drawn lines that appear too dark. a dip pen and ink of your choice (see pp. Then dip the nib quickly into a glass of water and drain the excess again. form. and drain the excess by touching the nib against the rim of the bottle. and even then he twitched and stretched in dreams.40 ANIMALS Sleeping Dogs R A S WAS A GREAT CHARACTER. Dip the nib quickly again into water and again drain it. Now it will make a pale line. engaged in his and everyone else's business. MAKING A PALE LINE To make a pale line. Sleeping animals present the artist with ideal opportunities to study their texture. your drawing book. The only time he remained still was when he was sleeping. These drawings are not an analysis of his anatomy or breed but the expression of his satisfied comfort in a deep sleep after a night out on the together with a glass of water for diluting tones on the nib. Ras Curled Up Asleep "Capturing the true character of a cherished companion is best achieved with objective determination rather than sentimental shyness. This will give a medium-gray line.34-37). Make a test sheet to discover your control of diluting on the nib. For this class you will need one oblivious dog. and personality." . a d o g w h o w a s a l w a y s town. first dip your pen in ink.
. 3 Gradually introduce darker tones. ignoring all detail. quickly draw what you see. to emphasize how he is curled up.41 DRAWING YOUR DOG Be bold in this exercise. Then. see how the animal's posture determines its whole shape. SLEEPING DOGS 1 Fix your eyes at the center of the dog. 2 Reload your pen with ink. alter the pressure and moisture of your line in response to howyouknow your dog feels when you ruffle itscoat. W i t h pale lies. c o n c e r n e d a b o u t detail. Here. Layers o f thoughts can bring a drawing alive. Then I immediately rebalanced the drawing with lines around his hind quarters. Character is better captured drawing quickly with confidence than w o r k i n g slowly. D o not go back over lines you are pleased with—doing so dulls their lively freshness. ears. I added ink to Ras's nose. First lines are first thoughts. and the shadows in his coat. To add texture. in bold layers.It is essential when drawing any subject (even something abstract) to know how it feels andtoemulate this with your line. second thoughts may be different Changing your mind is a positive aspect o f seeing and thinking. tail. this time to create a line a little darker in tone. add more detail. Remain focused on the whole dog and. Here I marked the features of Ras's head. Trust your intuition.
they stretch and paddle. as if caught in a camera freeze-frame. swinging their limbs and shells with a slow circular movement. A perfect subject for the beginner. offering plenty of time for the artist to draw the pose. turtles often pause unexpectedly. Beyond the glass wall of the aquarium.Turtles to observe. THE ELONGATION AND BUOYANCY of a group of turtles is fascinating .
Beginning with very pale tones. India ink. weightlessness of the kiwi. I sought to capture the form. I darkened lines as each drawing progressed. With speed. and sharp. and water.Dry Birds THESE ARE THE ARTICULATED BONES o f a k i w i a n d a h o u s e - martin drawn in a museum using a steel pen. I made repeated studies of the housemartin to discover its mechanism of flight. dry. . balance.
the microscope was refined to unfold yet another world. we see very different cultural visions of plants and gardens and use pencils and plants to learn the pictorial values of space. Later. and to ornament our lives. color. season. Conrad von Gemmingen. The revolution came in the 1530s. nurture. and hybridize them for our sustenance and pleasure. Medieval knowledge was not gained by the first-hand observation of life but by reading.Morethan 1. Fledgling years Botanist and apothecary who compiled the Hortus Eystettensis of scientific research bore manifold explosions of knowledge in a fever of discovery. 1613 187/8x153/4in(480 x 400 mm) BASILIUS BESLER . an There are close parallels between the acts of gardening and drawing.000 species of plants are depicted life-size drawn. Botanic gardens were established and expanded. to catalog our knowledge. the punctuation of space with structure and mass. Rich owners of private gardens commissioned large-format florilegiums commissioned the volume to document his private garden to immortalize their personal taste and power of acquisition. robust.Plants and Gardens W E SHARE THIS PLANET with the more ancient. We draw them to celebrate their beauty and range. shape. and beauty. From its history there is one overriding lesson to be learned: the importance of looking and seeing with our own eyes. B A S I L I U SBESLER when botanists founded new work upon the direct study of plants. where a number of uncredited artistsd r e wthem for Besler. and the drawn pages ofthesame name. on which our lives depend. He sent boxes of plants to Nuremburgburned with the urgency and excitement of explaining every plant's form. we now have laid before us fourto show how well their colours complement each other infinite wealth of material to explore. It was published plain in 1611 and withhand-paintedplates in poured off ships returning from the New World and were eagerly collected and 1613. In this chapter. as opposed to only herbal. Botanical illustration is a precisely defined and scientific art. and texture. PriceBishopof Eichstatt specimens. form. to the proliferation of floral designs with which we have dressed ourselves and furnished our homes for centuries. After Here Aconthus spinosus is combined with forget-me-nots and-a-half centuries of intensive observation. Plants are the principal inspiration of the decorative arts—from Roman Corinthian columns crowned with carved leaves of the acanthus. and the Acanthus spinosus constant but exhilarating struggle to make a living image feel right. Early European illustrators were trapped within dogma that was determined by ancient scholarship. We collect. and diverse kingdom of plants. Plants seventeenth century. Chapters are arranged by out. Classifications were set in367copperengravings. Both embrace the anticipation of evolving shape. —-the largest and most influential botanical book of the early Natural scientists accompanied explorers to document unknown finds. infinitely vivid. Patrons funded the breeding of decorative. and focus. manipulations of light and shade.
Stella Ross-Craig said of the need to d r a w from a dried herbarium plant "I could make it live again. fruit. s u c h as w e see here in Bauer's Protea nitida. Light in this drawing is given by the paleness of the paper showing between washes of darker tones. detail. B e h i n d detailed. The King was then establishing the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. naturalist explorer and advisor to King George III invited Bauer to London in 1 7 9 0 . He has made the spatial and physical relationships in this drawing all the more real by placing a single. insect-ravaged. subtle union of beauty. Sir Joseph Banks. It is likely Bauer would have studied these under a microscope. and seeds conventionally a p p e a r o n o n e plate. T h e rest of u s are free to d r a w as w e w i s h . Outline Bauer prepared a pencil outline before laying in fleshy succulent hues and tones of watercolor. petal tip over a lower leaf Protea nitida 201/4 x141/4in (513 x 362 mm) FRANZ BAUER 1796 . M a c k i n t o s h e x p r e s s e s the f o l d e d petals of a broken rose b u d so delicately w e can sense the perfume. flowers. and meticulous precision. Dissections Across the lower part of this drawing we can see dissections of seed pods and petals. or that were diseased. and wilted. and Franz Bauer and his brother Ferdinand were employed there to draw specimens. o p e n i n g a n d c l o s i n g i n the w a r m t h a n d light of the studio.48 PLANTS AND GARDENS THE SCIENTIFIC VALUE OF A BOTANICAL DRAWING lies i n its Botanical Studies were specimens that often refused to stay still. stems. Botanical art c o n c e a l s the challenge of its m a k i n g ." Her slipper orchid s h o w s that botanical drawing must often resolve the challenge of its subject's p r o d u c i n g parts in different seasons — r o o t s . o p t i m i s m . delicate. They are counted among the most accomplished 18th-century botanical artists. Each plant must b e clearly distinguished from its closest relative. Here. W i t h bright F R A N Z BAUER An Austrian artist who trained at the Schonbrunn Imperial Gardens in Vienna. measured drawings. leaves.
a m o n g o t h e r s . and follow shadow. is r e c o g n i z e d as tne m o s t c o m p l e t e a n d i m p o r t a n t work 3.g a r d e in G e r m a n y a n d A u s t r i a . BOTANICAL STUDIES Lines and shadows This lush. and perfect coordination of hand and eye. L o n d o n in 1 9 2 9 . found among Mackintosh's than reality.49 C H A R L E S RENNIE MACKINTOSH Scottish a r c h i t e c t d e s i g n e r painter. Ross-Craig said of her work "Plants that wither rapidly present a very difficult problem to which there is only one answer—speed.7 3 in 3 1 p a r t s . Rose 1894 103/4 x 83/4 in ( 2 7 5 x 2 2 1 mm) CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH STELLA ROSS-CRAIG A j o i n e d t h e staff a t t h e R o y a l B o t a n i c G a r d e n s .. as at trained botanical artist Ross-Craig Swift lines The drawing was planned in pencil and then overworked with a lithographic pen. imagination. it is small and discreet. sensual pencil drawing is later works. K e w . A s m a n y of her drawings are kept G a r d e n s . S h e also o f thousands o f contributed an drawings. a n d f o u n d e r o f t h e G l a s g o w S c h o o l o f A r t M a c k i n t o s h ' s flair h a d an e n o r m o u s i n f l u e n c e o n t h e a v a n t . Curtis's Botanical Magazine.000 Kew to archive accessible t o d a y v i a t h e I n t e r n e t of o n British flora. H e r Drawings of British Plants.286 studies for her book Drawings of British Plants. Pencil lines cling to. G u s t a v K l i m t In his r e t i r e m e n t Mackintosh m a d e n u m e r o u s inventive pencil a n d w a t e r c o l o r d r a w i n g s o f plants.. and speed depends upon the immediate perception of the essential characteristics of the plant. p u b l i s h e d 1 9 4 8 . a n d he inspired. 1970 x 81/4 in ( 3 2 5 x 2 1 0 m m ) STELLA ROSS-CRAIG . and it shows how design. Closer to fiction can come together perfectly. and observation the nuance and contour of every in one image." This line drawing is one of 1. Line Drawing of Cypripedium calceolus L c.
50 PLANTS AND GARDENS Jeweled Gardens the Middle East we find exquisite stylization of form and upright formality in pictorial space. and miraculous growth. They used a fine brush to lay pigment over a line drawing. roses took their form in a bead of perspiration on the brow of Mohammed as he passed through his heavenly journey. a notable portrait painter drew the faces. Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity c. anticipating their view. Drawing. Below. Afghanistan. which he personally created near Kabul. and Nanha. and attention to detail are all shared with medieval European manuscript drawings. is remembered in the pages of his journal. urgent attentive human activity. Babur directs his gardeners in the design and planting of this quartered chahar bagh. painting. in miniature. fluctuations in scale. Upright shallow perspectives. 1590 85/8 x55/8in (219 x 1 4 4 mm) BISHNDAS AND NANHA Bright pigment These pages were illuminated by Mughal artists in the late 16th century. paper is brimming with the beauty and celebration of nature. and calligraphy are brought together to hold the sacred names of prophets and the 99 beautiful names of God. . the sumptuous petals permeated with prayer and wisdom. Bishndas was probably responsible for the overall design. Every fiber of AMONG DRAWINGS FROM BISHNDAS A N D N A N H A Little is known of these Mughal painters who were related as uncle and nephew and commissioned to illustrate the pages of Babur's journal. in the early 16th century. The white of the page shines through the brilliant color. By Muslim tradition. Envoys chatter outside the gate. Opposite is the Rose of Mohammed. uniform focus. The first Mughal Emperor Babur's Garden of Fidelity (Bagh-e Vaja).
The Rose of Mohammed 1708 9 1 / 2 x 61/2 in ( 2 4 0 x 1 6 5 mm) FROM THE TURKISH M A N U S C R I P T AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH . Stylized motif A fine brush has been used throughout this drawing to apply inks and watercolors.c e n t u r y Turkish manuscnpt a book of religious e t h i c s w r i t t e n in the O r i e n t a l C o l l e c t i o n s of Berlin. Sacred words The central rose is more solid than any other on the page. However. look closely and you will see words written in gold fluttering over the form of the flower.AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH This is a detail o f a page from a n 1 8 t h . Note how each bud is essentially the same shape. fragmenting its detail in a whisper of prayers. It is n o w k e p t in Border The elegant border of this drawing was mode with a pen and ruler It cleverly compresses and defines the composition. G e r m a n y . and how the shape has been repeated freehand. The physical anatomy of the rosebud has been studied and translated into a repeated stylized motif. so that overlapping petals and stems give an impression of fulfillment and abundance. t h e Staatsbibliothek zu Arabic.
PLANTS AND GARDENS
IN CONTRAST TO THE QUIET, formal detail of other drawings in this chapter, these powerful fast trees enact the actions of plants. Each tree reaches out and holds its landscape with dynamism and pulse. In both drawings we find testament to the inexorable energy of growth. Rembrandt expresses a delicate quickness. Gentle lines draw a warm breeze through this remote wooded garden. Rustling in a loose foliage of soft marks, his pen evokes the weight of abundant activity on this late summer's day. Mondrian's arch of scratching branches is drawn with such force it will always be alive. We can still feel his hand storming across the paper. Set within a frame of smudged landscape, the tree possesses a musical agitation. This characteristic will increase in the artist's later abstract work. Here, we see a punctuated ordering of space. Sharp branches cut out negative shapes of winter sky.
R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter; etcher; and draftsman. Rembrandt's prolific output comprises oil paintings of historical and religious subjects together with group and self- portraits. His emotive etchings and pen and ink drawings (see also p. 174) are great resources for artists learning to understand the potential of these media.
Pen and ink lines describing foliage also tell
us the directions of sunlight and wind. An arc crossing the bottom of the drawing from one side to the other supports the scene and separates us from the landscape beyond. Compare Rembrandt's arc to that of Mondrian's. and note the similar treatment of low horizons in both works emphasizing the height and dominance of trees.
Cottage Among Trees 1648-50 63/4 x121/8in ( I 7 I x 308 mm) R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN
Atmosphere Here we see how shapes of negative space are as important as the physical subject they enclose (see pp.58-59). Mondrian has again lightly dragged his chalk on its side to evoke a wet depth of atmosphere. These passive gray marks contrast with the assertive tension of the tree.
Dutch Pure abstract painter preoccupied w i t h line and plane relationships. W i t h increasing austerity, Mondrian banished t h e subject from his drawings, in his later w o r k he also banished space, composing visual h a r m o n i e s using only straight lines a n d flat planes o f black, w h i t e , gray, o r p r i m a r y color.
Winter ground Short vertical marks along thebottomof this drawing reveal the length oftheblackchalk Mondrian used. Rubbed onitsside,itroughly blocks in the ground. Thecrudeeconomy of line is all we need tofeelthecold, wet, unwelcoming quality ofthiswinterearth.
Branches and trunk Lines shaping the branches of the tree are built up in layers. To make the trunk more dense, the artist has rubbed and smudged preliminary marks with his fingers before firmly overdrawing with new lines. Solid black lines are achieved by pressing the chalk hard. When used lightly, it shows the texture of the paper. Tree: Study for the Grey 1911 23 x 335/8 in ( 5 8 4 x 8 5 5 m m ) Tree
PLANTS AND GARDENS
Graphite and Erasers
GRAPHITE, FROM THE G R E E K word
This drawing illustrates a range of achieved with graphite pencils of different grades.
Modern pencils are graded from 9H (hard and pale) to 9B (black and soft). Graphiteclay sticks are also available, together with a powder form. All possess a natural sheen and are erasable to a varying degree. Graphite drawings smudge easily, so fixative, a form of varnish, can be used to hold a drawn surface in place. It is applied as a fine mist from an aerosol can, or from a bottle using a diffuser. For the beginner, ordinary hairspray is an effective and cheaper alternative.
(to write), is a soft and brittle carbon. It was first mined in Cumbria, England, in 1 5 6 4 , and was initially used in small, pure pieces bound in lengths of string. Pencils as we know them—with their slender wood casing and "lead" of graphite—were invented in France in 1794 by Nicolas-Jaques Conte. He discovered that milled graphite mixed with clay and water, press-molded, and baked to a high temperature produces a harder and paler medium than graphite alone.
3B pencil A range of mark and textures can be achieved with a 3B pencil when you vary its pressure, speed, and direction, as this detail shows.
Here is a selection of 14 items to illustrate a basic range of pencils, graphite sticks, sharpeners, erasers, and fixative.
1. AND 2. HB AND 3B PENCILS: It is unnecessary to possess every grade of pencil. HB, the central and most common grade, is perfect for making delicate lines. 3B gives a blacker tone. A great variety of effects can be achieved with just these two. 3. WATER-SOLUBLE PENCIL Effective for atmospheric drawing, but be aware of how watery tones can dull the impact of the line. 4. AND 5. MECHANICAL PENCIL Thick or fine leads are made in a range of grades. They are particularly useful because they do not require a sharpener 6. ROUND SOLID GRAPHITE PENCIL: Excellent for large-scale drawing, producing thick bold lines. A range of grades can be honed with a craft knife or sharpener 7. THICK GRAPHITE STICK: For large-scale drawing. Graded soft, medium, and hard. It crushes to produce graphite powder 8. SQUARE GRAPHITE STICK: Useful for making broad, sweeping marks in large-scale drawing. If worn and rounded, the stick can be snapped into pieces to regain the sharp, square end. 9. CRAFT KNIFE AND BLADES: Handles are sold in two sizes to fit large or small blades, and blades are sold in a range of shapes. Perfect for sharpening pencils to a long point, to cut lines in paper or to remove areas. 10. PENCIL SHARPENER: Makes a uniform point. Keep one in your pocket for drawing outside the studio, together with an envelope for shavings.
HB and 5B Layers of tone have been built up withHBand5Bpencils. Softer pencils require less pressure to make a mark, revealing the texture of the paper surface. It is important to keep the point of the pencil sharp with either a craft knife or a sharpener.
ERASING AND FIXING
Erasers can be used t o blend and s o f t e n lines, o r t o r e m o v e altogether. Fixative them prevents
GRAPHITE AND ERASERS
s m u d g i n g a n d s e c u r e s lines.
Using fixative You can use fixative while drawing to hold the definition of lines you wish to gently fade but not remove entirely, for which you would use an eraser.
11. P L A S T I C E R A S E R : Avoid cheap colored erasers that may stain drawings with grease and dye. White brands are available in soft and hard versions.
P U T T Y RUBBER:
W a r m it in your hand before use. It is excellent for removing powdery materials, and for making crisp sweeps of light across a delicate pencil drawing
13. D I F F U S E R : Helleborus corsicus (Corsican hellebore) fixative, or to spray mists of ink.
PLANTS AND GARDENS
Cropping and Composition
M A N Y STUDENTS WILL START a d r a w i n g i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e
that its skin nearly touches the boundary. The meaning of the same drawing changes simply by its relationship to the space it occupies. The size of any subject, its placement on the page, the size of the page, and its overall proportion are all discrete and essential aspects of successful picture-making. Before you begin to draw, think carefully about where to place your subject. Are you are happy with your paper? If not, change it; add more, take some away, or turn it around. Do not just accept what you are given, adapt it to what you need.
paper. Focused on the shape and detail of their subject, they remain happily unaware that there is, or should be, any relationship between what they are drawing and the surface they are drawing it on. The paper is only paper, and the troublesome subject floats somewhere in the expanse of it. However, a single fig drawn in the middle of a large, empty square of paper gives quite a different impression from the same fig drawn on such an intimately small square
CHOOSING A VIEW
A Single Fig
"The size, shape, and orientation of the paper are so integral to the composition that they determine the impact and meaning of the drawing."
Touching the edge When the subject o f a drawing touches one edge of the paper it attaches t o it visually. running corner t o corner. t h e n m o v e t h e c a r d t o e x p l o r e different views. Here the left fig is attached to. and therefore apparently suspended from. U s e it as a starting point. bottom-left t o top-right. spaces between things are as important as the things themselves. Space as the subject Inallpictures.O u r focus is on the white cloth supporting the figs. This drawing hasbeencropped to emphasize space between thefruit. CROPPING AND COMPOSITION Off-center and diagonal Here I held my viewfinder so the fig appeared upper-left in the space. and lines describing shadows cast by the fruit . When subjects touch two or more edges. A card with a small rectangle cut out o f it makes a useful viewfinder C l o s e o n e e y e t o look through the hole. the uppermost edge of the drawing. a device to help you decide what t o draw.57 THE VIEWFINDER T h e s e pencil drawings o f figs d e m o n s t r a t e different crops and compositions. they establish a tension and unity with the paper. its stem and shadow framing a white center. its illumination. The angle of the fruit together with dark shadow (top left) and bright light(bottom right) suggest a diagonal division across the whole drawing. as also shown here.
which is shown in the three steps below. dynamic. In your own version.58 PLANTS AND GARDENS Negative Space UNCONSCIOUSLY WE ASSESS spatial relationships all the time to guide ourselves through the world. then added a second shape. a foundation stone in picture-making. tone. position. you will need a similar large-leaved plant.The box opposite isolates an area. a sharp H B pencil. Viewers appreciating a finished image may not see shapes of space. Draw a complete shape Map outward from the center Erase and adjust lines until correct . Unfamiliar shapes of negative space reveal the real shape of a positive subject. It helps to start at the center and map outward. Remember that plants do move! Therefore it is best to complete your drawing in one sitting if possible. In following this class. and engaging. remember to draw only space. fourth. do we see myriad distinct and unique shapes of daylight or do we just see branches? Why as artists should we look at the air? Every space in a picture has a shape. an eraser. third. But how often do we look at the air between things. their subject and composition will become more real. Negative space is the simple key to getting positive shape right. and a fresh page in your drawing book. WHERE TO START Arrange your plant and paper so you can look back and forth by barely moving your head. It is an astonishingly simple device that many artists use and I strongly recommend. and a role to play. Looking at negative space overrides the problem of drawing what you know. unified. and so on. The drawing opposite is of the uppermost leaves of a potted fig tree. shapes of air cut out and defined by the physicality of our environment? When we look into the branches of a tree. erasing and adjusting lines until itlooked right. rather than what you see in front of you. this ensures a consistent view. Follow these from left to right and see how I began with one complete shape between two parts of a leaf. not leaves. but if the artist does.
Here I drew only spaces, adding one to another until the leaves were revealed. Besides looking at negative space, there are two other useful things to do when a drawing feels wrong but you cannot see why: look at it in a mirror or turn it upside down. errors and suggest changes.
Spaces between leaves
Either view will
WALKING IN THE ALPUJARRAS in A n d a l u c i a ,
Spain, I drew a bare fig tree clinging to the wall of an almond grove; a perfect subject for seeing negative space. I marked its essential frame of large branches first, frequently erasing lines and changing my mind until the balance felt right.
S a l v i a , RIBES, CLEMATIS, Allium, Passiflora, and Acanthus
drawn with an H pencil by observing the
negative spaces between the stems, petals, and leaves. I arranged the flowers on a sheet of paper in a cool r o o m and rapidly sketched a composition. Then I put them in water, taking the stems out one at a time to draw.
they emulate our experience of seeing. If an artist changes the pace of their line and focus of their attention. our eyes travel and adjust from one point of focus to another. Compare changes of pace and focus here to the flatter finish of Summer Flowers (see pp. 62-63). . interfolding points of detail with areas of loose suggestion. gathering less distinct information on the way. We never see everything at once.Acanthus Spinosus As we LOOK AROUND. Excessive detail leaves no space for the eye to rest or imagination to wander.
This harmony. VICTOR BALTARD French architect employed by the city of Paris. 74-75). architects and designers can imaginatively "climb inside" three-dimensional space and. Paris 1871-74 the child's view to the infinity of the vanishing point. It is the focus of practical class in this chapter. and computer game imaging. was preserved into the Renaissance where it became a foundation stone for thinking and creativity From 15thcentury Italy. composers. to help them create new form.Architecture I N THE CONTEMPORARY PRACTICES of architecture. Architects have been fine-tuning their specialized branch of drawing for centuries. space. the device that has since governed most of our picture-making (sec pp. with gray and brown watercolor wash. and in the 19th century it was given the name the Golden Section. Since the first flowering of Modernism in the early 20th century. Yet the pursuit of divine proportion and harmony remains. drawing plans around themselves within a program as opposed to on a flat sheet of paper. architects. filmmakers. they have the Golden Section. invaluable to understand and apply when you choose. they also have a diagrammatic language for communicating plans to builders. made by the architect himself. Augustin. Since Picasso and Braque's revolution of Cubism in around 1907. mass. time. designers.This is a pencil drawing. and architects of ancient Greece who first pursued the formula for "divine proportion. and from West Facade of the Church of St Augustin. Linear perspective is a marvelous device. which was the first church in the capital to be built entirely of metal and then clad in stone. of the west facade of St Augustin. Baltard designed the Church of St. once there. Among the drawings of this chapter we look from 17th-century ecclesiastical calm. film-set design. balance. fine artists. Through the animation of the screen. and sound. and writers have been breaking away from traditional forms of representation to seek new expressions of shape." reflecting the eye's love of unity in difference.The church is still in use today. add and subtract ideas. It was the mathematicians. the formula for perfection spread through Europe. Perhaps in the sheer planes of some of our greatest modern buildings it is finding its clearest expression. Computer programs allow the virtual drawing of ideas. from political commentary to musical abstraction. philosophers. which can be clearly seen in ancient Greek architecture. coupled with the importance of exercizing your imagination. each VICTOR BALTARD . It was also during the Renaissance that the architect Brunelleschi invented linear perspective. to 20th-century film fantasy. European conventions of pictorial perspective have lost their monopoly on seeing. we find the most recent steps in the evolution of graphic language. At the core of their practice. Besides sketches of first thoughts and polished drawings of the finished look for clients.
Hawksmoor's drawing is both a plan and an evocation. structure. A student of Wren's. marks the end of a long journey from the first few marks the architect made on a sheet of paper. 1711-12 NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR . and an inscribed entablature. and later an assistant to Vanbrugh. he also worked on St Paul's Cathedral. NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR One of Britain's "three great" Baroque architects (along with Sir Christopher Wren and Sir John Vanbrugh). a three-dimensional drawing made with wires and weights. and six London churches. The photograph opposite shows his studio hung with metal pendulums. Oxford. Drawings underpin every great human-made structure like hidden linear ghosts at their core. Blenheim Palace. describe a finished look to a client. Gaudi's fluid architecture grew up through many kinds of drawing. Pillars and floor At the base of the drawing a compass-drawn plan tilted downward through 90 degrees illustrates the arrangement of pillars around a central circular floor. Finished surface On the left the finished surface of the building is given depth and emphasis by immaculate vertical and horizontal brush strokes of shadow. and labor.68 ARCHITECTURE Master Builders EVERY NEW BUILDING. evoke presence. Below it. embodying a massive investment of ideas. and balance. Together they explain how interior structure and space define exterior form and shape. We see the modeled detail of Corinthian columns. and ultimately to show builders what to do. testing gravity to calculate the inverted shapes of domes. calculate function. Architects draw for many reasons: to visualize ideas. Hampton Court Palace. relative levels. Lines define structure while washes suggest light and atmosphere. materials. Hawksmoor established his reputation with university and church architecture including All Souls College. and the shapes of interior domes and apses. densely layered lines in mists of color weave the presence of the expected building into shape. and Castle Howard. Three aspects This subtle and sophisticated drawing made in pen and wash displays three distinct aspects of Hawksmoor's baptistry. pilasters. Cut-away interior On the right a section cut through the center of the building reveals material thicknesses. St Paul's Baptistry c.
embellishment. 1910 24x181/4( 6 1 0 x 4 7 5mm) A N T O N I O GAUDI .69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt c. The Art Nouveau movement. Wire and watercolor three-dimensional preferred to calculate Above is a drawing form in the made withlinkedwires and weights. 1900 ANTONIO GAUDI ANTONIO GAUDI Visionary Catalan architect. To the right isawatercolordrawing thought to havebeenmade over a photograph ofthemodelabove. and his love of music. light. Guell Crypt of its at the Time Construction c. and apartment homes are distinguished by their Their and Flowering curves of stone or concrete are often encrusted with Gaudi was inspired by medieval and oriental art. Gaudi's cathedral in Barcelona. churches. unique organic manipulation of high shapes. This sculptural drawingenvisionsthe finished crypt glowingandethereal as if caught in thelightof red morning sun. Gaudi air than on paper.
corridors.70 ARCHITECTURE The Order of Sound B O T H OF THESE VISIONARY DRAWINGS o c c u p y a s l e n d e r . and exhibitions of his drawings. and the spaces between his windows and turrets are the visual equivalent of pauses in h i s m u s i c c o m p o s i t i o n s for p i a n o (see also Bussotti. Satie draws quietly throughout. We can imagine how a musician might interpret this drawing by looking at the abstract visual rhythms of masses composed of long straight poles. p. Libeskind's numerous commissions include concert halls and museums. Libeskind begins quietly in the upper space of his drawing.223). such a rapport in both of these drawings. been a natural affinity between the visual rhythms of pictures and the audible rhythms of music. and arched dotted lines depict the radius of doors. and dotted lines. Floor plan This drawing has been made with a rapidograph. There has always DANIEL LIBESKIND A Polish American architect of international acclaim. and in a sense hear. while the composer Erik Satie has made an enclosure of quiet order and grace. Both men used rulers and pens to carefully and slowly construct their compositions. Floor space appears divided by discernible walls. We can see. The architect and musician Daniel Libeskind has drawn a stampeding cacophany of airborne architectural detail. He also contributed to plans for the rebuilding of the World Trade Center site in New York. He also produces urban and landscape designs. theater sets. Contemporary musicians commonly collaborate with artists by interpreting images as sound. Visual rhythms In the lower half of this drawing architectural language has broken loose: escaped and transformed into an image of rebellious pleasure. Across the top and center right of the image w e perceive an almost recognizable architectural plan. flat boards. short curved poles. installations. upright pictorial space. before cascading into a riot of line and sound below. a refillable pen that feeds a constant supply of ink through a fine tubular nib. and rooms. Arctic Flowers 1980 DANIEL LIBESKIND . Libeskind studied music before transferring to architecture.
Compare the even and and the shape wall to the elegantly stylized order of the many windows of arrangement of details and the shape of the wall in Babur's Garden of Fidelity on p. Hotel de la Suzonnieres c. andfouredges of the paper tothecompositionand impact animage.H i s witty. the perimeter Composition Look how well this drawingfitsand resonates with the upright. and ink on a fragment folded brown paper—a of everyday happened material of scrap that to be at hand. dressed eccentrically.ERIK SATIE F r e n c h pianist and c o m p o s e r for t h e piano. 1 8 9 3 77/8 x 51/2 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 4 0 mm) ERIK SATIE .50.Edges are how are of orientation. Onpp. Satie collaborated w i t h hisfriends J e a n C o c t e a u a n d P i c a s s o . H e p e r f o r m e d in cabarets. theater. Eastern influence The upright image Eastern is reminiscent and medieval of Middle pictorial space and subject of this European drawing. a n d ballet. o f which he was the sole m e m b e r Parcel paper Satie has drawn this fantasy hotel using a ruler.narrowshape of its paper.56—57 we discussed important the shape. and founded his o w n church. minimalist s c o r e s scandalized a u d i e n c e s with o r c h e s t r a t i o n s f o r t h e foghorn and typewriter. lived a l o n e . They definespaceand pictorial balance. effectively additional lines in a work. a conventional dip or fountain pen.
His celebrated imaginary buildings are characterized by pyramids. Boullee's monolithic apparition was drawn as a monument to Sir Isaac Newton. This is the work of an architectural theoretician. made in 1926. Art director Erich Kettlehut's vertiginous design for the city of a slavelike populace had a future influence on movies such as Blade Runner. Among preparations for Fritz Langs film Metropolis. We glide over exquisitely drawn wastelands of damage and abandonment. Light illusions This pen-and-wash drawing shows a subtle application of the principles of illumination demonstrated with an egg on p. Newton's Cenotaph 1784 153/4 x 25 in ( 4 0 2 x 635 m m ) ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE . cylinders.72 ARCHITECTURE T H E S E T H R E E HIGHLY DETAILED DRAWINGS Future Fictions invite us to soaring above normal life. we find other Utopian visions Paul Nobles epic drawing summons an imperfect and disturbing township where ruin and activity are equal and strange. painter. enter the long-shadowed architecture of imaginary worlds. and taught at t h e A c a d e m i e d'Architecture.The lower-left section of the building appears relatively pale against a darker sky. arched vaults. ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE French architectural theorist. antlike mortals might have speculated upon the universe. the ominous globe exists only as a series of drawings. and draftsman. Boullee lived in Paris. and the reverse is true on the right. This shift makes the cenotaph appear three-dimensional. experiencing a fascinating conflict between curiosity and desolation. and dramatic lighting.96. spheres. Within it.
mythology.73 ERICH KETTLEHUT Influential film a r t director.a r t director O t t o Hunte. 1926 ERICH KETTLEHUT PAUL N O B L E British c o n t e m p o r a r y artist who creates m o n u m e n t a l . Nobson political visions of humanity Newtown. and m o d e l . architecture. Its sheerscaleengulfs the viewer and demands based time and patience to on letters and in some beread. and white ink on brown-gray paper. Nobson Central 9 ft 1 0 in x 1 3 f t 2 in (3 x 4 m ) PAUL N O B L E 1998-99 . used forced perspective camera t e c h n i q u e s t o amplify t h e m a g n i t u d e o f buildings in relation t o human characters.m a k e r In t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f Metropolis. and are Graphite shapes Nobson Central isoneof a series of very large graphite drawings of the spoil and detritus of Nobson Newtown. Fritz Lang's Metropolis c. draftsman. Kettlehut drew using a fine and relatively dry brush dipped in black.Building shapes are works can be read as text. FUTURE FICTIONS Brush and ink This is a dramatic drawing from a film that shaped the history of world cinema. Kettlehut and his c o . together with c i n e m a t o g r a p h e r Karl Freund. gray. and morality o f an invented place called His satires exhibited w o r l d w i d e . intensely detailed graphite drawings explaining and questioning t h e geography. Working on toned paper such as this gives an artist greater scope for dramatic lighting effects than if they work on white paper.
All forms of perspective are of equal value. Here Leonardo provides a superb example of a single vanishing point. I contribute the child's perspective. and thinkers ever to have lived. Pull the thread taut and rotate it slowly above the drawing. We use it to structure illusions of depth. Sometimes shared with Naive artists. LEONARDO DA VINCI One of the greatest artists. Note how architectural features conform to lines and how human figures diminish in size toward thevanishingpoint. and inventions— essential reading for inquiring minds.74 ARCHITECTURE Pathways of Sight LINEAR PERSPECTIVE (also called vanishing-point perspective) is a simple device for calculating the relative size of things in pictorial space. Leonardo recorded constant streams of ideas. See how the thread corresponds to each converging line. observations. Piranesi an example of two. Press the pin into Leonardo's vanishing point. found at the center of all converging lines. and those of Naive artists and children. Study of Perspective Adoration of the for the Magi 1481 61/2 x111/2in (165 x 290 mm) LEONARDO DA VINCI . and age eight. linear perspective is distinct from more ancient systems practiced in the East. but is most easily seen and understood in pictures of buildings and interiors. In his notebooks. inventors. this perspective is often an imagined bird's-eye view in which details are mapped according to logic and importance rather than how they might appear in real life. scientists. Invented by Italian artist and architect Brunelleschi in 1413 (late in the history of art). It is also distinguished from aerial perspective (see pp. It can be applied to any subject. Single-point perspective Tie a thread to a pin. 206-07).
England 1980 9 x 16 in (228 x 405 mm) S A R A H SIMBLET GIOVANNI BATTISTA PIRANESI Italian artist. Note the rather large rabbits and pheasants the hills. which I saw from home every day. issues of scale when making room for important their story. Lightly marked illuminates vanishing Two Courtyards c. It shows how children usually map large scenes in flat layers one above the other. Scale Our farmhouse my experience was in the woods. and theoretical writing strongly influenced neoclassicism. a points in logical narrative of memories. Two-point perspective Sunlight through this colonnade a great example of two-point perspective. including all they recall about the subject. visionary and practical understanding of ancient Rome. This drawing Young children typically maps ignore on and understanding of the nearby village. Mark these points with your pin and follow the converging lines of the drawing by rotating your thread. and designer Piranesi's prolific architectural drawings. architect. Breamore Village. at the top of each lateral column base. New Forest.SARAH SIMBLET I made this drawing (at age 8) in response to a local bookstore's request for children to draw their village. 1740 5 1 / 2 x 83/8 in (141 x 212 mm) G I O V A N N I B A T T I S T A PIRANESI points are located on either side of the drawing. . Children are uninhibited and problems with one element being obscured by another rarely arise.
Draw each step over the preceding one to build up a single image. This lesson shows you how to make a simple illusion of space defined by two boxes and three flat boards. imagine. Piranesi planned his drawing with only the essential lines needed. On the previous page we looked at its essential mechanism through drawings by Leonardo and Piranesi. Next. You have completed your first box. Leonardo began with a grid of many lines within which he invented his scene. Surround the vanishing point with a small rectangle. In contrast.98 for an important note on oscillation. corresponding to a single vanishing point. This is where we will begin. Extend each dotted line to the edge of your drawing.) . 2 3 corners must each touch a dotted line. This ensures that the second rectangle aligns with the shape and 4 Draw four short lines to connect the four corners of the two rectangles. discovering the image as it progressed. this is your vanishing point. (See p. using a sharp HB pencil and ruler. DRAWING BOXES 1 Using a ruler and a sharp HB pencil. Each line should pass through one corner of the rectangle. draw a horizon line across your paper Mark a spot on the horizon line. then follow the ten steps below.76 ARCHITECTURE Single-Point Perspective MASTERING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE i s e a s i e r t h a n y o u m a y First read through. you will amplify the illusion of distance. Study these pages first before embarking on this lesson. Draw four dotted lines radiating out from the vanishing point. try composing your own space. Erase the dotted construction lines. Note that if you place large structures in the foreground and smaller ones closer to your vanishing point.
. Note that this does not surround the vanishing point In the future. larger rectangle.willhelptomake them appear more solid. draw a second. with two dotted lines. bottom. 9 Use dotted lines connecting the slanting linetothe vanishing point to locate the top. 8 Complete the second box with short lines as in step 4. and erase the dotted lines. Repeat this to add two more boards to the composition. The four comers must each touch a dotted line to be sureitaligns with the first. you can place rectangles anywhere youwishin relation to a vanishing point. Connect this to the vanishing point— again. 6 As in step 2.asIhavedonehere. when inventing your own compositions. 7 As in step 3. 1 0 Erase all ofthedottedlinestoseeyourfinishedboxes Thickeningtheiredges. The board's sides should be parallel. The larger you make your second rectangle. Continue the dotted lines out toward the edge of your drawing. draw four dotted lines radiating from your vanishing point Pass these through each comer of the new rectangle. the closer it will appear to the viewer.77 SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE 5 Draw a new rectangle. andfarside of this first board. N e x t draw a slanting line to mark the height of the first flat board.
once said: "I never end up with what I set out to do. p . it is interaction that makes the work richer. Every work talks In this class." imaginary room. Linear perspective will support y o u by providing a frame in which to b u i l d your picture as it did for Leonardo. As David Lynch. let simple lines suggest a simple space. you will find white adhesive stationery labels are useful for covering errors or changing the direction of your idea. I always start with a script but I don't follow it all the way through to the end. 7 4 ) . Then follow the three given steps.78 ARCHITECTURE Creating an Imaginary Space T H I S CLASS USES SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE t o c r e a t e a s i m p l e to you and if you listen to it. APPLYING PERSPECTIVE An Imagined Scaffold "Enjoy your illusion as you make it and it will become more real. If using a fibertip pen as I have done for this drawing. then let the space suggest its c o n t e n t s and purpose. It highlights the importance of having faith in your imagination and trusting your ability to invent. A lot more happens when you open yourself up to the work and let yourself act and react to it. w h e t h e r it is a film or a painting." . it will take you places you never dreamed of. The m i s t a k e n belief that we s h o u l d k n o w exactly what o u r finished drawings will l o o k like before we m a k e t h e m prevents many people from ever starting. O n a fresh page in your d r a w i n g b o o k . draw a b o x as shown opposite. artist and film director.
3 Remove the construction lines with an eraser and the room will becomeclearer. . horizontal.There is great pleasure tobefoundin spending time inventing interiors. Here.drawthehorizonlineand vanishingpoint. With some practice.79 DRAWING A SIMPLE ROOM Essentials t o remember: objects and people dimmish in size as they move farther away. and floors and ceilings also converge and rise o r lower toward the horizon. you will beableto draw more complex objects orpeoplewithin them. parallel planes such as walls converge toward the vanishing point.Addanarray of converging lines to provide a "scaffold" for vertical. The space has become more solid and real. CREATING AN IMAGINARY SPACE 1First. additional lines have established the different surfaces and how they relate to each other. 2 first before adding furniture. This initial space will be transparent and open to change. and leaning surfaces.
Further aspects of three-point perspective are also illustrated opposite. The boxes drawn here are seen partly or entirely disassociated from a horizon line drawn across the bottom of the image. From our normal eye level. but they are not confined to this level. Only when y o u might employ t h r e e . Copying what you see in the work of others will help you to understand what they have done. To draw such a view APPLICATION Copy these drawings to see and feel how they work before inventing your own versions. do verticals appear inclined. It is important to realize that you can have as many vanishing points as you wish. Free vanishing points On paper we can enjoy the freedom of fantastic structural invention without limitations of solid materials or gravity. located anywhere inside or outside the pictorial space. showing y o u h o w to draw curved surfaces and a tiled floor. Elaborations . Search for the application of these perspectives among works by other artists in this book and in galleries. T h e y d o n o t have to relate to each other. our eye level is very high and we look down. 76-79). o r to the h o r i z o n . Here. verticals appear p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the g r o u n d . T h i n k of standing at the top of a skyscraper and imagine h o w its parallel sides would appear to converge below you. Potentially. I have elaborated on the simple boxes above. Vanishing points are commonly found on horizon—our eye level. they can be placed anywhere inspaceto describe the perspective of flyi c tilted objects. or low and we look u p . a n d this is how we have drawn them so far (see pp. They could be drawn on any scale from miniature to monumental. That is where we e to find them.p o i n t perspective ( s h o w n opposite top).80 ARCHITECTURE Further Aspects of Perspective W E ARE ACCUSTOMED TO SEEING our e n v i r o n m e n t from a relatively constant point of view. These elaborations could continue indefinitely across a sheet of paper in pursuit of complex and intricate ideas. T h i s is d e m o n s t r a t e d immediately below.
Istarted with two parallel lines. (Turn the book around to see a view looking up.I added horizontal lines t o define the tiles. PERSPECTIVE Three-point curves Here. Giving curvature.81 FURTHER ASPECTS OF Three-point towers This drawing depicts three-point perspective. by adding a third point you can achieve a sense of incline. I then drew three fanned groups of lines connecting each of the three points above to the seven points below.75. and therefore tension. Iusedthese lines as a guide t o draw the curvature of boxes and panels flying through space.) By comparing this drawing t o Piranesi's example of two-point perspective on p. three vanishing points are evenly spaced along a horizon line. Three-point checkered floor This d bottom floor. useful for representing steep views looking up or down tall structures. Note that altering the distance between the three dots above will tilt the level of the floor . I marked the toplinewith three evenly spaced points and the line with seven. An array of curved lines (drawn freehand) link the two lateral points. Where thelinescross.Finally. tostraightlines can amplify drama in a picture. they mark the corners of the floor tiles. you will see how.
making drawings to resolve questions and express personal responses to the nature and history of anatomy. These walnut-skin ink pen and brush drawings show imagined views of theaters that do not exist but were inspired by places I studied. .Theaters RESEARCHING FOR MY P H D . I visited many anatomical theaters and museums.
. The vanishing of the drawing is directly opposite as we look across The constancy of the bridge and surrounding frames the movement in the life that flows past.I N KDRAWING is one of a series I made while next to the Rialto Bridge in Venice. the water.A N D .Venetian Life sitting point buildings ThisP E N .
W e also explore v o l u m e and form in the classes by spinning lines to make vessels. passing them on to others through the act of making. planned. each demanding more of the other as they increased in sophistication. T h e Industrial Revolution c h a n g e d the traditional w a y s in w h i c h objects were designed. for example. making a clear instruction t o his bronzemeaning. A chair. these. H e has described a casting through metaphor. drawings were needed to instruct workers on the factory floor. or to explain and present a finished concept to a client. Technical drawing was speedily developed as a meticulous international code of m e a s u r e m e n t and explanation. sculpted. drawing c. H e has described contour and function at drawings. design. With the sudden onset of mass production. History will be learned from the artifacts w e leave behind. 1493 117/8c81/4in (300 x 210 m m ) LEONARDO D A V I N Ccreating I . It is shaped in sections w i t h Artists have for centuries studied and expressed composition. too. even more advanced drawings are made on computers. Engineers and designers of our objects and instruments make drawings for many reasons: to test an idea that is yet to be made. illuminating snail shells. Birds follow instinct to make a nest. In past eras. and the way in w h i c h the brain reacts Head and Neck Sections of Female Mold for the Sforza Horse to visual stimulus and optical illusions. Today. drawn. have often carried great weights of allegorical once. and some apes use simple tools. are all made bearing the signature of our time and place. It was in this era that the blueprint was born. fictional realities caster of h o w t o make it andhowit will w o r k . to record an observed detail. C o m m o n items. craftsmen had held plans in their memory. and made. we look at the importance are the only creatures on Earth w h o actually design and create great ranges of things. color. or drawing w e see Leonardo daVinci'sprecision as can be given meaning. or used on stage hood for a mold t o make theheado f a horse f oas a p r o p — i m b u e d with e n o u g h energy or character can "become" a man. Artists also make images of objects that can never exist. hooked bars that can be pulled and tied closely form.Objects and Instruments T HE THINGS WE INVENT describe our lives. Previously. from s p o o n s and pens to chairs and bicycles. r an equestrian statue. and the behavior of light through making still-life paintings and together. that test our logic with a sense of mystery. and a wire violin. texture. In this chapter. T h e precision of engineering d r a w i n g s e v o l v e d alongside machine tools. for example—whether. of light in the creation of pictorial illusions. Artists and actors use the meanings of things to communicate a speculative mechanic. but humans LEONARDO DA VINCI Inthisbeautiful red chalk Our items all have a purpose—practical or ornamental—and all have a meaning.
. T h i s is a designers drawing made to enthuse surface and style in its delicate brushing of china. steaming with music and conversation.. Braques image is a Cubist collage. There is a fragile eloquence to these objects as they drift in slow motion past our gaze. He takes us into the bustle of the Paris cafe. Statue D'Epouvante 1913 2 f t 5 in x 3 ft 5 in (0. charcoal. perfect i n their newly made availability. Opposite.Braque marshals all the forces of perspective. representing still life. and shading. a colored canvas. Mucha's drawing glistens with possession. not of place but of things. Braque established Cubism in partnership with Picasso just before World War I. Even today GEORGES BRAQUE French painter who as a young man was influenced by the work of the Fauves and of Cezanne. texture. silverware. Clashes The art historian Ernst Gombrich said of Cubism. "I believe [it] is the most radicalattempttostampout ambiguity and to enforce one readingofthepicture—that of a manmade construction. and glass objects of exquisite elegance for only the gentlest of touch and appreciation. His work is characterized by calm and harmonious still-life compositions." La Cuitare. still feel this projected moment.73 x 1 m) GEORGES BRAQUE . not to work in harmony. One of the great joys of this movement in art is the musicality of its multipoint view. wood-look wallpaper. Below.90 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS Still Life THESE DRAWINGS REVEAL t w o o p p o s i t e m o t i v a t i o n s i n we can. . Braques "justly" arranged combination of cut black card. and a journal jacket with words makes this drawing chatter about the moment. but to clash in virtual deadlock.
and New York.fruit.ALPHONSE MUCHA Czech graphic artist and painter who worked in Prague. Background color Between the delicate shadows and highlights of these glazed and surfaces ofthebackground metal color of the Mucha we see a large amount paper. Art Nouveau curling motifs of birds. and fish have been outlined using a sharp pencil. He is best known for posters featuring ethereal women in typical Art Nouveau style. For ten years Mucha designed theater posters exclusively for the actress Sarah Bernhardt. Study for Plate 59 from "Documents Decoratifs" 17x121/4(430 x 310 mm) ALPHONSE MUCHA 1902 . and also stamps and bank notes. Art Nouveau motifs This is a preliminary study for a subsequent print. Black watercolor washes and lines of white gouache have been added with a fine brush. Look at the two spoons at toprightand see how has suggested that they are so brilliantly shiny they reflect the background color. Pans. The three plates facing us were drawn with a compass.flowers. Chicago. He designed the Austrian pavilion for the Paris World Fair in 1900.
drawing is there to pin the moment down. With dotted lines Newton has drawn his arrangement of elements inside the tube.92 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS by their very nature must gauge or chronicle precision. we see drawing Instruments of Vision found among his letters. It was then reflected up inside the tube and. He counted 1 4 . w h e r e he developed his three greatest theories: the law o f motion. and Fellow of the University o f C a m b r i d g e . Newton's drawing of his first reflecting telescope is ISAAC N E W T O N English scientist. A disembodied eye at the top of the drawing indicates where to look. Hooke's head of a drone fly seen through a microscope may represent the first time man and insect came face to face. and philosopher Newton was President of the Royal Society. and the nature o f light and color. Look how confidently he draws with ink the sphere of this wooden globe by which his telescope rotates. The power of this drawing reflects the pure passion of discovery. From the concept of capturing the infinite to the mapping of microscopic sight. 0 0 0 perfect hemispheres. In the graphic work of these two great men of science. Newton used this instrument to calculate the speed required to escape earth's gravity. shape the very cause and effect of investigatory thought. and his hand moving across the light. offering a transparent view. astronomer. Their delicate construction is only as valuable as the measurements they make. via a second mirror. a tree outside. Ink lines Several drawings appear among Newton's letters. Newton's 1672 ISAAC Telescope NEWTON . alchemist. mathematician. Transparent view Newton's reflecting telescope focused light in a parabolic mirror. each reflecting a view of his own world—his window. the law o f gravity. into the eyepiece. It is a diagrammatic explanation of how to catch and magnify a star in a mirrored tube. each one skillfully rendered with the alarmingly matter-of-fact ease of explaining the commonplace.
The Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 1665 ROBERT HOOKE 111/2 x 105/8 in (294 x 270 mm) . a breathtaking book containing many of his drawings showing some of the first microscopic and telescopic magnifications of our environment Hooke's text and illustrations carry us to the moment of discovery. universal joint a prototype respirator clock balance. ROBERT H O O K E 93 Magnifications This acutely detailed engraved drawing is taken from Hooke's Micrographia (pub. It is an exhilarating read.An experimental scientist who drew many of his discoveries. Hooke invented the camera diaphragm. 1665). and calculated the theory of combustion. and anchor escarpment.
W i t h h o m e y c o n t r a s t . Woodfine exhibits internationally. and place in the world are truly seen. Sarah Woodfines flat cut-out m o d e l plan is a witty and surprising drawing. Its wobbly gait and squashed s y m m e t r y m u m b l e endless h o m e y tales about the life it has seen. Chair Cut Out 2002 22'A x 23 in (565 x 585 mm) SARAH WOODFINE . A renegade from the p a p e r dolls' h o u s e . has published several catalogs of her work. this chair p r e s e n t s us with a clever visual contradiction: deeply drawn shadows tell us it must be solid. craft. its character. each drawn with the s a m e unfaltering lines and tones that are between reality and impossibility. Bench Marks W e are left a little c o n f u s e d as to what we s h o u l d do.94 INSTRUMENTS W H E N WE DRAW A COMMON OBJECT like a chair. and has drawings in numerous public and private collections. Two-dimensional was made This highly finished drawing ruler using a sharp pencil and on smooth white drawing paper glistening dark drawings are artificial representations of known Woodfine's two-dimensional things balanced in the world. Drawn in more-or-less c o n v e n t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . Van Gogh's tipsy seat is a metaphor for an absent person. OBJECTS AND SARAH WOODFINE British contemporary artist graduate of the Royal Academy Schools. it has so m u c h familiar personality that it seems to talk to us. From component parts we understand how to put it together and make it stand sensible in space. and winner of the 2004 Jerwood Drawing Prize. and w h e r e the chair b e l o n g s . while the tabs make us see a flat paper cut-out.
drawn opposite way of plan.95 VINCENTVAN GOGH Dutch painter who produced over 800 paintings and 850 drawings in only the last ten year's of his life. inner recording while Fierce strokes This is a portrait of the mechanical drew immediately and almost harshly. Van Chair 1890 VINCENT VAN GOGH . Among van Gogh's best-known canvases are Trees. The floor few as engagement with the chair. Cornfield and Sunflowers. what direct in their he saw and describing his felt.hehas marked the full emotion of the subject with a fierce grip of concentration. and Starry Cypress Night. His passionate brush and pencil strokes are honest and of also turmoil and growing alarm at the world around him. not is made present in only strokes and is subdued to distract us from flat a meaningful chair.
Here.At one point you will catchenoughlight lighter than the white one. gray. a n d are q u i c k to p r o p o s e ideas. perhaps. Tape them to the glass. one blackandone white. Adjust the angleofthe protruding part and again stepback. w e turn our head but n o one w a s there. cards the same size. The small squares are identical in tone. less developed than the center. atmosphere. T h e slightest recognition is instantly matched to our wealth of experience a n d expectation. form. a n d our ability to see forms in c l o u d s or fire. Here w e look briefly at our perception of light a n d darkness a n d our interpretation of diagrammatic illusions. but do not appear so. The two tones meet without a division or outline between. Artists emulate and manipulate this effect in their pictures. The egg's lightest region is seen against a darker background. or colored surface is never constant. S o m e o n e passes our o p e n door. the adjustment of our eyes (in growing accustomed to a level of light). The rim of light on the egg is reflected light received from surrounding paper. your eye around the circumference of the egg. We only need small prompts. From across the room both will appear black card and fold and retapeitwith half sticking out. Run The bottom-left quarter of the egg lightens slightly toward its "edge" when seen against the darker shadow cast on the paper. are translated into a world of space. Below the bottom "edge" of the egg there is a rim of light reflected onto the paper by the underside of the egg. The perceived tone of a black white. Before starting a tonal drawing of any subject. Below.102-03 deep shadows cast across shells make their form easier to perceive. Gray squares To further examine changes in tone. The outermost edge of our vision. See how its "edge" smoothly changes from light against dark to dark against light. try this experiment. a lit photograph of an egg shows essential points to observe in tonal drawing. W e learn to read light and shadow in our environment as indicators of solidity and depth of space. and the proximity of contrasting tones. transmitted to the brain as chains of electrical impulses. On acloudyday. We will even see things that d o not exist because minimal information suggests they are likely to be there. Are you happy LIGHT AND SHADOW with what you see? Does the light enhance the subject? Could you alter and improve it? On pp. two identical mid-gray squares are seen against black and paler gray squares. o u r b r a i n s search for n a m e a b l e things. reads only m o v e m e n t a n d can often m a k e mistakes. a n d we can be fooled. We perceive one to be lighter than theother. Card experiment cho can gra on . U p s i d e . think about its illumination. To interpret visual s t i m u l u s .This effect is caused by the contrast of their surroundings. The egg's darkest region is seen against a lighter background. hence our recognition of a cartoon face c o m p o s e d of three lines.96 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Light and Illusions SEEING IS MIRACULOUS. Through these we can enjoy witnessing our o w n d e c e p t i o n a n d b a f f l e m e n t a n d u n d e r s t a n d certain factors that are very useful in picture-making. Three factors change it: the amount of light it receives.d o w n patterns of light on our retinas. a n d m o v e m e n t .
In this t o n a l image w e read w h i t e as f a t t e r t h a n black. LIGHT AND ILLUSIONS Tonal width T h e s e black a n d w h i t e bands are o f equal thickness o n e i t h e r side o f t h e i r central division. T w o relatively t h i c k parallel lines are m a d e t o b e n d away f r o m each o t h e r as t h e y pass in f r o n t o f an a r r a y o f c o n v e r g i n g f i n e lines ( B ) . respectively. In this linear drawing w e read t h i c k as closer a n d t h i n as f a r t h e r away. l i g h t e r surfaces s t a n d f o r w a r d w h i l e d a r k e r s u r f a c e s recede. T w o horizontal lines o f equal length are m a d e t o l o o k longer and shorter. b u t t h e u p r i g h t o n e l o o k s t a l l e r (B). Y o u m a y e x p e r i e n c e s o m e t h i n g similar h a p p e n i n g w h e n y o u m a k e s i n g l e . A n u p r i g h t line stands in t h e c e n t e r o f a h o r i z o n t a l line. S h o r t h o r i z o n t a l lines o f identical length are m a d e t o l o o k d i f f e r e n t by c o n v e r g i n g lines beside t h e m ( C ) . T h e r e is n o obligation t o a d d b l o c k s o f t o n e t o a l i n e a r d r a w i n g . B o t h are identical in length. In a t o n a l d r a w i n g . O f t e ndoingso w i l l s p o i l y o u r w o r k . O b s e r v e h o w each white b a n d appears t h i c k e r t h a n its black c o u n t e r p a r t . w h i l e t h i n n e r lines recede. start o u t w i t h one. If y o u w i s h t o m a k e a t o n a l drawing. T h e jug d r a w n w i t h a t h i n line appears f a r t h e r away t h a n t h e j u g d r a w n w i t h a t h i c k e r line. Seven parallel lines are m a d e t o tilt t o w a r d and away f r o m each o t h e r by n u m e r o u s s h o r t strokes crossing t h e m diagonally ( A ) . t h i c k e r l i n e s a p p e a r t o stand forward. . Bending straight lines Linear distance These t w o jugs have b e e n d r a w n w i t h lines o f d i f f e r i n g thicknesses.p o i n t p e r s p e c t i v e d r a w i n g s w i t h a large n u m b e r o f c o n v e r g i n g rays b e h i n d y o u r horizontals. by d i r e c t e d a r r o w s ( A ) . Apparent lengths T h e s e optical illusions s h o w h o w lines o f identical length can b e m a d e t o l o o k quite different f r o m each o t h e r by t h e addition o r association o f o t h e r lines. T h i s fundamental o p p o s i t e is a reason w h y l i n e a r a n d t o n a l d r a w i n g does not a l w a y s c o m b i n e w e l l in t h e s a m e i m a g e .97 LINE VERSUS TONE In l i n e a r d r a w i n g s .
and so calculated precisely how much to fatten columns to make them appear straight. Artists make pictorial illusions when they paint or draw. Artists can communicate much in few lines and the viewer will do the rest of the work. it oscillates between t w o possibilities. In the 1960's. as s h o w n o n t h e right. made paintings that depended upon the physical sensation of our brain's reaction to known optical illusions. It is a curious fact that w e can never see both options at once. their picture could be ambiguous. Yet many illusions. among others. o r as a s l o p i n g .98 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Further Illusions PSYCHOLOGISTS AND PHYSIOLOGISTS have studied optical illusions for decades in pursuit of what they tell us about the brain. It is possible t o r e a d i t t w o ways: as a t r u n c a t e d r e c t a n g u l a r p y r a m i d seen d i r e c t l y f r o m a b o v e . Two ways of seeing T h i s is t h e b o x c r e a t e d in t h e f o u r t h step o n p.76. it can oscillate b e t w e e n facing t o w a r d o r a w a y f r o m us. Op(tical) artists. C l o s i n g t h e surface o f t h e f o r m seals o u r d e c i s i o n as t o w h i c h w a y it faces. including some shown here. and we learn to read the styles of diverse cultures and periods. w h e n drawing the outline o f a three-dimensional form. SEEING TWO OPTIONS Sometimes. Today we are bombarded with images but rarely have difficulty reading them. such as t h e dish seen h e r e o n t h e left.116-17) to make painted figures look correct when viewed from below. Some artists use known optical illusions to make art. others adjust works to avoid their effects. Ancient Greek architects knew parallel upright lines appeared to bend toward each other in the middle. perfected the acceleration of perspective (see pp. w e will find that in terms of the direction it faces. Michelangelo. w e can only look f r o m one t o the o t h e r If an artist is not aware this can happen in their image.s i d e d r e c t a n g u l a r t r a y ( b o t h are illustrated far r i g h t ) "The brain is so eager to name a fragment we see that we need only a suggestion to grasp the whole." . are still not agreeably understood. such as Bridget Riley. A few suggestive marks will tip the decision one way o r the o t h e r Closing the surface W h e n a t r a n s p a r e n t elliptical o b j e c t has b e e n d r a w n .
C o u n t t h e n u m b e r o f d a r k spots y o u can see. B e l o w is a b r i g h t n e s s c o n t r a s t illusion. T h e a r t i s t M. S o m e artists use ink blots t o p r o m p t t h e beginning o f an image. T h e t e s t e x p l o r e s o u r n o r m a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o find things w e can n a m e a m o n g r a n d o m shapes. C Escher u s e d this phenomenon t o great effect in his many p o p u l a r d r a w i n g s o f puzzles and impossible buildings. M u c h can b e e x p r e s s e d in o n l y a f e w marks. FURTHER ILLUSIONS Seeing things that are n o t t h e r e H e r e o n t h e left. w e see t w o overlapping triangles: o n e outlined in black b e n e a t h a n o t h e r in solid w h i t e .99 Impossible objects T h e s e clever configurations o f outlines and t o n a l surfaces convince us at a glance that we are seeing a solid three-dimensional triangle and a three-pronged fork. P e r c e i v i n g a w h o l e i m a g e f r o m m i n i m a l lines T h i s is a w i d e l y r e p r o d u c e d visual j o k e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e C a r r a c c i b r o t h e r s . This effect can o c c u r naturally w h e n looking at a b r i g h t l y lit w h i t e g r i d such as a w i n d o w f r a m e against t h e night sky. T h e patient's answers are t h e n diagnosed as a psychological profile. F a m i l i a r i t y in r a n d o m s h a p e s T h e Rorschach test was established by t h e 1 9 t h . His highly d i s p u t e d and i m p r e c i s e science involves s h o w i n g u n p r e p a r e d p a t i e n t s t e n p a r t i c u l a r ink b l o t s a n d asking t h e m t o i n t e r p r e t w h a t t h e y see. T h e y a r e o f t e n c r e d i t e d w i t h t h e invention o f t h e c o m i c c a r t o o n . C o u p l e d w i t h t h e Rorschach b l o t above. O n l y o n closer inspection we realize that t h e s e o b j e c t s are fooling us. b u t w e believe w e see t h e m because e n o u g h f r a g m e n t a r y i n f o r m a t i o n is given f o r o u r brains t o c o n c l u d e t h e y are v e r y likely t h e r e . Minimal-line j o k e s such as this rely u p o n t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y v i e w e r ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e shapes. clouds. Yet still w e try resolve t h e m . — a n d so t h e artist can create m u c h o u t o f an impression w i t h o u t overdescribing. . this is a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f t h e viewer's b r a i n b e i n g willing t o d o a large a m o u n t o f t h e w o r k in d e c i p h e r i n g a p i c t u r e . N e i t h e r triangle exists. 1 6 t h .c e n t u r y Swiss psychologist H e r m a n n Rorschach. W e should r e m e m b e r t h a t o u r brains will always search f o r a p i c t u r e — i n ink blots.c e n t u r y Italian painters. smoke. This simple five-line d r a w i n g is o f a C a p u c h i n priest asleep in his pulpit. e t c . T h e s e e x a m p l e s illustrate h o w little is n e e d e d t o c o n v e y an image.
How to Draw Ellipses of seeing. you will achieve steadiness with practice. A wobbling but confident ellipse will still be more convincing than a slow. The second common error is to tilt the upper and lower ellipses at different angles. WHERE TO START In the air above a spacious sheet of scrap paper. keep it spinning. giving the cylinder four corners. Cover a sheet of paper with spinning. there are three common errors people stumble upon. (see p. w h e n seen at an angle. while its upper rim remains level.90) takes a different as essentially circular. Cubism. that this is o n l y o n e w a y view. like a disposable plastic cup that has been crushed in your hand. Be aware. COMMON ERRORS W h e n drawing cylindrical objects in perspective. as if the table surface slopes upward beneath the vessel. though. To make a cylindrical object appear real in our pictorial space. even if y o u r hand w o b b l e s a little at first. w e use ellipses to give a sense of perspective. I have drawn these for you here. circles change into ellipses. I have exaggerated this error here. Don't worry if it is uneven— just try again. Ellipse are best d r a w n quickly. third common error is to draw upper and lover ellipses with different-sized apertures. and these narrow or widen depending on the height of our view. The first common error is to draw two pointed ellipses. not the paper!) As the pen touches down. . However. suggesting that the vessel is lopsided. for example plates or bowls on a table.100 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS W E VISUALIZE CYLINDRICAL VESSELS. springlike forms like those I have drawn below. for example. describing many sides of an object simultaneously. smoothly. since this is h o w w e experience them in e v e r y d a y use. a n d in o n e bold stroke. such as bowls and cups. spin your hand in a relaxed circle. hesitant one that has edged its w a y nervously around the vessel's rim. Watch the tip of your pen and see it draw an ellipse in the air Keep this movement going while gently lowering the pen onto the paper like the needle of a record player closing on the disc (only it is your lowering hand that spins.
Create a Solid Surface Once you have drawn the shape and volume of each form. you can start to control your spinning ellipse to make a vessel. you can make it solid by building up highlights and tones on visible surfaces. enlarging and diminishing the ellipse to determine the overall shape and volume. . working from top to bottom. HOW TO DRAW E L L I P S E S A Single Vessel One Inside Another Grouped Together Finding Shape and Volume Draw an imagined vessel in one continuous spinning line. thereby hiding lines that show the other sides. Draw quickly.101 DRAWING VESSELS Once you have mastered drawing free-hand springs. Seeing Through Allow lines to travel around each vessel as if it were transparent. Altering the pressure—and therefore tone—of the line as it spins gives the impression of light shining on one side.
and strong contrasts are easier to draw. two opposite methods of achieving the same result. You can begin with outlines and build slowly from light to dark (see opposite top). LIGHT TO DARK DARK TO LIGHT . Draw the largest and most distinct areas of light and darkness first. making complicated or subtle surfaces easier to see and understand.102 INSTRUMENTS Tonality W H E N MAKING A TONAL DRAWING. Relaxing your eyes out of focus as you draw will help to dissolve the distraction of detail. simply shapes and subtleties of light and dark meeting each other with no divisions in between. beams of light. if any. It maximizes the range of tones between black and white. or you can begin with a mid-gray ground and model light out of darkness (see opposite bottom). OBJECTS AND Start by arranging a choice of shells on a sheet of paper to your left if you are right-handed (or vice versa). leaving detail until last. outlines.22-23). it will inhibit your perception of tone. t h e r e a r e p r i n c i p a l l y Dramatic lighting emphasizes texture and contour. It is important to place them on the correct side so as to draw comfortably (see pp. if light shines in them. Remember that shadows. Illuminate them with a gooseneck lamp placed very close and directed away from your eyes. Gradually hone your drawing. In the finished drawing there should be few. and solid objects are all of equal importance.
Avoid a rough significant areas of light in your gray rectangle with texture and do not press the graphite hardwhite plastic eraser Ignore all detail and draw a into thepaperor you will not be able to erase it.103 LIGHT TO DARK (LINE TO TONE) TONALITY 1 Using a sharp HB pencil. loose. Treat positive form and negative space (see pp. boldly 2 3 Keeping your eyes out of focus. DARK TO LIGHT (TONE TO TONE) 1 Using the flattened tip of an HB pencil. Honetheshapesand angles of the shells. and edges definingthespacialrelationships between are important aspects of your composition them. draw a rectangle. Remember that its size. pale lines with equal importance.56-57). Erase and make changes to roughly place the shells inside your with your composition. Fll in broad areas first and leave all detail until last. until you are happy frame. 2 3 Gentlydissolveoutlines so that areas oflightanddark meet without a line between them. Let your eyes go out of focus while looking gently layer marks to create an even tone at your subject and paper: Draw the most ofmid-graywithin a rectangle. Continue working between light and dark to refine the drawing. with broad sweeps of the eraser. . shape. Relaxing your eyes out of focus will help to eliminate distracting details. look at the main areas of darkness. Draw in the details last of all. Use your pencil to develop these in relation to the areas of light. Use quick.
. This class uses thin-gauge wire to create a threedimensional violin. continuous lines. The first is that figurative and abstract drawings can be made in space.104 OBJECTS AND I N S T R U M E N T S Drawing with Wire DRAWINGS DO NOT HAVE to be two-dimensional.69 we see how the architect Antonio Gaudi drew proposed domes using suspended wires and weights. and on p. three-dimensional drawings teach us about the totality of forms in space. try drawing it with a pen on paper Use bold. There are essentially three lessons to be learned. On p. our image is stronger if we understand and can visualize what is happening on the other side too. When drawing anything viewed from one side on paper. 19 Picasso draws with a pen-light for the camera. Seeing through a wire drawing of a known object such as a violin gives us a visual and tactile understanding of all its sides and shapes at once.220 Mamoru Abe draws with forged steel rods. Place the instrument on a plain surface and illuminate it with a desk lamp to add the delicate dimension of shadows. On p. The second is that after achieving this simple example. Third. 176 the British artists Noble and Webster draw with domestic refuse in a beam of light. They can also be made in space. you can create your own more ambitious works. and on p. PEN LINES Once you have created your three-dimensional violin (opposite). and physical relationships between them. smooth.
These will hold the sides apart and help to keep the form in shape. but thin enough to be easily manipulated inyourfingers Here. Cut a length. 2 3 If needed. and thick wire a larger one. 1 Decide how big to draw your violin relative to the gauge of your wire. Then begin to define its uppermost surface with Scurves and the bridge. Once you have completed the body.105 SETTING UP DRAWING WITH WIRE Follow these steps to draw a three-dimensional violin Choose a gauge of wire sturdy enough to hold the shape ofyourfinished drawing. Join the two sides together with four short pieces of wire. brace the two ends of the violin with a length of wire along the back. I used garden wire and cut it carefully with pruners. thin wire will make a smaller drawing. 4 . Here. begin to shape the curvature of the fingerboard. and pinch and bend it to shape the base of the instrument Repeat this process to make the identical upper side of the instrument. I started with the scroll at the top and fixed the four component wires with two drawings of tuning pegs.
Using found materials. they invented new anthropological finds—objects that reflected the distant past and their immediate future. some of which are shown here. Oxford. I had the privilege of drawing their inventions. England. .Artifacts and Fictions IN 1993 I WORKED with a group of schoolchildren who were responding to the astonishing objects in the collection of the Pitt Rivers Museum.
W I L L I A M S technology. Renaissance artists studying anatomy from dissection clinically trained and specialized as a medical illustrator. These classes are popular around the world. myths and fables. R. explaining ranges e/ of materials and techniques and showing diversities of thought and purpose in making. In this period. herimpressive presence because we are given such Life drawing no longer dominates the art school curriculum. During this time. Artists are thought to have b e g u n drawing from the nude during the Italian Renaissance. the junior workshop apprentices posed as part of their duties. Strangely. focus has turned to the vulnerability of flesh: how it can be damaged. It also looks at the representation of the b o d y b11y4o n d traditional life drawing. Look closely at Renaissance drawings of the female b o d y and you will see that m o s t are actually y o u n g m e n with minor adjustments. while Durer took his research further— A. portraiture. while Leonardo opened the body to see and projected onto a woman's body draw the celebratory discover for himself our physical mechanisms. Leonardo drew a man within a circle and square. WILLIAMS he sought perfection in the infinitesimal measurement of the body and produced four Contemporary photographer volumes of illustrated explanation. This F finished image was produced as r a n c i s c o . She the body is still essential. and surgically rebuilt. and anatomical and erotic art. 3 x 7 in (300 x 180 . The human body. Artists now explore the interior of the body with new media and Lateral Contour Map of a Full-Term Primipara Produced by Light 1979 A.The Body O UR BODIES MAKE us TANGIBLE. clothed or nude. Michelangelo attended dissections to made this image by light sectioning: fine beams of light perfect his understanding of surface form. much Western contemporary art. artists also tried to define ideal proportions in the body. history paintings and other stories. giving physical foundation undulating land. but the study of a controlled. sculptural description of her form. This chapter addresses issues that are most commonly faced by beginners attending life-drawing classes. and in San could easily be transferred into three dimensions. Williams were decades ahead of their medical counterparts. The body remains at the core of over the initially white lines. W e understand every curve and balance of to the theory that the eves are the windows of the soul. in our privileged and comfortable society. a n d w e d r a w o u r s e l v e s to a s s e r t o u r e x i s t e n c e . W e are the only creatures on Earth that can make our own image. diseased. R. is the most c o m m o n subject in art. Drawings were usually made from the male nude to avoid offending the church. the Bay Area Models' Guild h o l d s a quarterly life-drawing m a r a t h o n aprinton Kodak transfer paper with green-colored dye added celebrating the great diversity of human proportion. It gives physical and emotive form to religious narratives. He even believed he had located the soul contours of her form like a cartographer's map of in the pituitary fossa beneath the brain and behind the eyes. from video and X-ray to thermal imaging. and because the female was deemed inferior.
In this highly s o p h i s t i c a t e d a b s t r a c t i o n . anatomy. RAFFAELLO SANZIO (RAPHAEL) Italian High Renaissance painter: Raphael is best known for his images of the Madonna and Child. By way of contrast. filling the page with her presence.110 T H E BODY THESE DISTINCTIVE WORKS show two strikingly different ways of modeling the body on paper. altar pieces. She u n f o l d s and s t r e t c h e s shapely limbs. T h e y b o t h raise one arm to cup their head in their hand. and Vatican frescos. Three Guards 1500-20 91/4 x143/8in (234 x 365 mm) RAPHAEL . Muscular dramatic postures reflect the influence of Michelangelo and the Renaissance celebration of the idealized male body. Raphael drew delicate tones of black chalk on tinted paper. Principal figures m i r r o r e a c h other. Sculptural frieze This is a preparatory drawing for Raphael's painting of the Resurrection of Christ. and studied to learn from the works of Michelangelo and Leonardo besides whom he was soon ranked. He trained under Perugino. and human defeat. so that we read this drawing like a sculptural frieze. Raphael's study of fallen m e n leaves no doubt that they are in anguish. Matisse's b l u e n u d e sings with life and c e l e b r a t i o n . while Matisse used scissors and glue to cut out and paste a flat collage of brilliant color. In a single drawing we see equally o b s e r v e d studies of f o r e s h o r t e n i n g (see pp. Here three male nudes are compressed into very shallow pictorial space. while supporting the weight of their body with the other.116-17). But the meanings of each gesture and the materials and methods by which they Postures and Poses were m a d e contrast greatly. we see the e s s e n c e of h e r b e a u t y w i t h o u t a single detail.
.which might be. lifelong love of brilliant They celebrate the culmination of spectacular and sometimes drawings. His calligraphic natural abstractions of form grew brighter.designer writer. freer. and more energetic Color and form This collage is one of a series of Blue Nudes. Matisse became an artist after studying law. serenity. foundamong many other groups of papercut these works as an elderly man confined to his bed or wheelchair. devoid of troubling Blue Nude 1 1952 413/4 HENRY MATISSE .111 HENRY MATISSE French painter: draftsman.like an appeasing influence.. his pattern. a mental soother.sculptor.... fabric.. printmaker. as his w o r k matured. Matisse Soothing influence This drawing expresses the achievement of Matisse's personal aim: "What I dream and depressing subject matter." of is an art of balance. and Islamic art. teacher and principal exponent o f Fauvism—a movement established in 1905 in which bold color is the most essential element.or like a good armchair in which to rest from physical fatigue.
form. agreeing to coalesce and show us the form of a waiting boy. and muddied the brilliance of the drawing. and c o m p l e m e n t a r y hues. it would have mixed with unseen black dust. Typically. w h o sits propped in the contradictory darkness of a hot summer's day. other tones. turned gray. he used b l a c k c o n t e (see p. 162) and an eraser to model teeming points of artificial light amid GEORGES SEURAT French painter classically educated in the Ingres school of thought. Here. Seurat evolved a distinctive t e c h n i q u e called p o i n t i l l i s m — i m a g e s literally made from myriad points of color. there are no outlines. Below. If Seurat had added white. it is as if the very atoms of air are made visible. stands in counterpoise holding a dark globe and his thoughts in m o m e n t a r y balance. reflected. T h e space around h i m chatters with symbols. like small birds attendant on the meditation. Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 1883-84 91/2 x 121/4 in (241 x 312 m m GEORGES SEURAT . only tones blending into. Seurat engaged in lifelong studies of line. Using the paper to create light is important for beginners to learn. velvet d a r k n e s s . and color His applied theories still influence painters in their manipulation and rendering of local. scratched in seconds. In his f a m o u s paintings of social e n g a g e m e n t . Beuys's magician. we c o m p a r e a skillful design that absorbed m u c h time in its making with the quickness of an idea marked instantly. or abruptly meeting. His drawings are similarly u n i q u e . Opposite.112 T H E BODY Choreographs T I M E IS A SIGNIFICANT E L E M E N T i n t h e m a k i n g o f a l l d r a w i n g s . Tone and light In this black conte drawing. Light is given by the paper alone. in a perfect e x a m p l e .
Many of his other symbolic works on paper have been drawn with materials such as honey. and blood. This figure is drawn intuitively. He was a shaman who believed in intuition and in the investment of healing force. iodine. Perfectly modeled rather conventional for Joseph Focus Beuys's hand moved quickly to draw dotted lines flowing downward on either side of the figure. and that These aspects of the work convey fractured visibility. taught workshops with a cult following. CHOREOGRAPHS the profound power materials with spiritual or of Free lines This pale pencil drawing is Beuys. transience. free from the constraint of immaculate form opposite) impetus is irrelevant to the and meaning of this work (as we see in Seurat's drawing representation. Unbroken lines stream from his simultaneously movement.gold. Beuys gave performances. His The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland UNDATED 113/4 J O S E P H BEUYS x81/4in (297 x 210 mm) . video art.113 JOSEPH BEUYS One of the most influential German artists of the 20th century. and made installations. and drawings. Our focus joins shoulders. in different positions.
he typically drew them with a few delicate strokes of pencil and brushed watercolor. In Rodins work. the fierceness of the women's kiss is beautifully matched by the tenderness of his line. As here. and went on to inspire generations of artists. its soft." as seen here.114 BODY Passion SUMMONING HUMANITY in a drawing of the nude is a subtle and emotional task. THE AUGUSTE RODIN French Romantic sculptor and prolific draftsman employed as an ornamental mason until the age of 42. In both drawings. sweeping lines— of either purple silk fabric or cool studio air—that imprint and amplify their past and future movements. his w o r k is characterized by deliberate un-finish and powerfully modeled emotion. Delicate strokes This is one of about 7. Inspired by Michelangelo. flushed skin made ruddy and black with crushed cinders. His exquisite flow of paint beyond "outlines. Achieving international acclaim in mid-life. and one of hundreds of rapid studies of nudes. But what is stranger to us now is that they were also outraged by his free use of line. Free lines Rodin's public audience was understandably shocked by the eroticism of his drawings. Rodin employed models to move freely or pose together in his studio. We are involved not as a shabby voyeur but as a bystander engaged through our recognition of shared joy. We are asked to gaze u p o n her flesh. 125/8x 9 in (320 x 229 mm) AUGUSTE RODIN Two Women 1911 Embracing . Rodin produced portraits and statues of public and literary figures. was perceived as scandalous.000 drawings shown in rotation at the Musee Rodin. Paris. Opposite. They whisper and writhe in a brushed and sultry embrace that devours our watching. the women are framed and caressed by long. Anita Taylor has drawn her protective body hug out of the darkly glistening compression of willow charcoal and the dynamism of her shy but momentous femininity. Our bodies radiate the passion of our thoughts and so become beacons of our frailty and power.
A thinner sheet might have crumpled and torn under such vigorous force of making. draftsman. scrutiny. professor and Vice Principal of Wimbledon School of Art. Taylor has drawn. intimately reflecting upon the emotions and meaning of nudity. Taylor's immense self-portraits explore the relationship between the artist as maker and the artist as model. exposure. London. Luminosity Layered marks flicker likefirelight as they sculpt the woman's body. Charcoal Taylor has drawn freely with charcoal and an eraser on thick. the impression of luminosity All and Nothing 1999 67 x447/8in (170 x 1 1 4 cm) ANITA TAYLOR . This order of light below and dark above gives glowing from within. The sturdy surface of the sheet has allowed her to press hard when needed. leaving her lightest marks at the deepest level of the image and applying darker marks above. and gaze. erased and drawn again.I 15 ANITA T A Y L O R Painter. and rework rich depths of light and tone. textured paper.
helping us to see more clearly. without taking off. If your arm is not straight. This is chiefly a correcting device by which figurative painters and sculptors have for centuries countered the effects of our viewing their work from far below or on the curvature of a vault. It is not so hard. which is imperceptible from below. Spend time making comparisons before you draw. we would arrive to find many of the same figures strangely distorted. when beginners prop their board in their lap and look down at too steep an angle. rather that what we believe we know from experience. It can also be a little demon in the life room. with dramatic illusions of figures painted in normal proportion. "Simple measured comparisons reveal surprising truths about proportion. to be translated by mirrors or seen from only one point in the room. We also look at another very interesting branch called accelerated (or anamorphic) perspective. 2 Hold your pencil upright. Align the top with a point on your subject. To avoid its effects ensure you always look flat onto the surface of your page. patience. unfathomable angles. the skull in Holbein's The Ambassadors (The National Gallery. But if we could take a scaffold and climb up to the work. In the life class it is the mechanism for ensuring that a drawn figure lies correctly in pictorial space . and to draw what we see. Move the tip of your thumb down to a second chosen point. Accelerated perspective plays a great role in much art. and wrist joints. Imagine Michelangelo's murals in the Sistine Chapel. elongated as if stretched across the plaster. There is no need to mark them all down on paper. and measurements do not have to be carried to the paper and slavishly drawn the same size they appear on your pencil. 3 Keep your pencil perpendicular Measure and compare at any angle. It is not complicated. The length of exposed pencil is your measurement.limbs happily receding. Up close on the scaffold we would witness Michelangelo's subtle application of accelerated perspective. London). and a few measured comparisons are key. How to make and apply these is explained below and opposite. Close one eye. Rome. elbow. persistence. MEASURING This is a simple method of making measured comparisons for relating the true size of one part to another This is a tool to assist observation and thinking. more extreme examples have been made for court entertainment. Lock your shoulder. or coming forward." . plummeting. 1 Hold your arm straight. Smaller. Return to this posture every time. just making them helps you see. you will make inconsistent and unrelated comparisons. for example. or shrivelling at odd.116 T H E BODY Measurement and Foreshortening FORESHORTENING IS AN ASPECT of perspective.
Keep t h e b o a r d steady and draw. L o o k at y o u r m o d e l as if he o r she is a flat series o f shapes o n e o n t o p o f a n o t h e r Measure t h e height and w i d t h o f each shape and c o m p a r e it t o its neighbor. a n d thighs. S o o n t h e b o d y will lie d o w n in space. To m a k e f o r m s l o o k c o r r e c t . belly. W o r k a r o u n d t h e figure. C o m p a r e t h e heights o f t h e nose and eye shapes t o t h o s e o f t h e f o r e a r m . pleasingly f o r e s h o r t e n e d . Stand its b o t t o m edge o n y o u r lap. FORESHORTENING To f o r e s h o r t e n a figure. . W e appear t o be looking d o w n o n a w o m a n s t a n d i n g b e n e a t h us. P r o p o r t i o n s will only l o o k c o r r e c t f r o m t h e angle at w h i c h y o u make t h e drawing.117 ACCELERATED PERSPECTIVE To discover h o w this w o r k s . which feels strange. MEASUREMENT AND FORESHORTENING Tilt t h e t o p edge o f this b o o k t o w a r d you and look d o w n o n this figure f r o m a b o v e . T h i s is t h e s a m e d r a w i n g p h o t o g r a p h e d f r o m above. h e r p r o p o r t i o n s will appear correct. A t a c e r t a i n angle. t a p e s o m e p a p e r t o a board. adjusting a n o n y m o u s shapes. y o u r hand travels f a r t h e r than y o u expect. y o u must let go o f w h a t y o u k n o w f r o m e x p e r i e n c e a b o u t t h e relative sizes o f b o d y parts and trust y o u r eyes. See h o w d i f f e r e n t t h e relative heights o f t h e s e shapes are f r o m w h a t w e m i g h t e x p e c t in real life. looking d o w n t h e p a p e r at t h e a n g l e at w h i c h I d r e w . Lean t h e t o p e d g e t o w a r d y o u and find a p o s i t i o n w h e r e y o u can c o m f o r t a b l y l o o k d o w n t h e p a p e r at an angle o f a b o u t 4 0 degrees.
imagine holding up a plumb line. To draw this effect. Be bold and dive into your drawing with c o n f i d e n c e . and stance before honing her balance and expression. Balance When a model stands upright on both feet. I used a sharp H B pencil and began each drawing by marking her outline. Layered lines give d e p t h . Avoid drawing up one side and down the other. working from her center to her feet and to her head. Start each new drawing by lightly marking the model's height with a loose line in ten seconds. To see this.118 BODY Quick Poses DRAWING QUICK POSES l o c k s y o u r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n t o what is most essential. and slightly enlarge her legs and feet. height. and work over t h e m with further o b s e r v a t i o n s . and height. T h i s q u i c k e x p l o r a t o r y line does not perfectly describe shape but expresses a decision about overall flow of form. make the upper body smaller give your model a high waist. because it results in two unrelated sides drifting apart. Leave first thoughts in place. Outline To outline a figure. THE SEQUENCE OF POSES H e r e the model was asked to move every t w o minutes. balance. her center of balance is normally found in a vertical line beneath her head. Height This pose leans away into space above our eye level. work back and forth across the body. and energy. . propelling you to make immediate assessments and trust them. feeling.
Tilt Movement Here.119 The twist of a model is most easily and expressively captured if it is exaggerated. This drawing shows how different observations be overlaid to bring a drawing alive. Most of us have a tendency to over-straighten the drawn figure. . The tilt of the pelvis is then counter balanced by the model's shoulders tilting the other way (as seen here). the activity of circular lines and the repetition of limbs suggest movement. and this should be avoided Twist QUICK POSES A model standing on one leg usually drops the opposite hip.
2 Build your drawing gradually from light to dark. drawn in relation to each other. W h e n starting. Then subdivide each shape so that you w o r k from large to small. and a gooseneck lamp casts shadows that clarify planes and depths GESTURES OF THE HAND Curled Fingers 1 Open Palm Start honing the shapes of the dominant planes. and ignore all details. Focus instead on how planes change direction across the knuckles from one side of the hand or foot to the other. 3 . Draw large shapes and their orientation. but regard these practice studies as ongoing processes of thought and observatio Add details such as nails last if you wish. especially the lengthwise divisions between them. feet. express structure and gesture far more successfully and easily than ten worried outlines wandering up and down between the fingers and toes. It also helps the beginner to progress from drawing outlines to drawing confidently across the surface of the whole form. Don't worry about achieving perfect solutions. Keep lines open to change and take measurements if they help. starting with the largest. A mirror increases your range of views. This exercise is useful when struggling with proportion. swiftly marking its essential gesture. Practice by drawing your own hands and feet. or those of a friend. These planes.120 BODY Hands and Feet THERE ARE MANY different ways of approaching h a n d s and THE of form. Do not separate them yet. Begin by drawing lines to encompass the whole hand. and they need not be daunting to draw. general to specific. Group the fingers together as one mass. it is important to leave aside all details of the fingers and toes.
Nowimagineyou are carving the foot insidethepaper.121 HANDS AND FEET MOVEMENTS OF THE FOOT Flat Stance Raised Heel Instep 1 Let your first marks be light. . t o remove t o o many early lines. and don't worry about accuracy t o begin with. and rapid. these are what give a drawing its tangible structure. It can be a mistake. and spontaneity. as if with a chisel. Look for key angles without becoming distracted by detail. flattened planes. Hew it roughly in broad.as though out o f wood. 2 3 Use an eraser t o refine decisions o r t o suggest areas o f light. Leave aside all detail. however. Try t o express the whole foot and t o encapsulate its entire shape and direction in a few marks. loose. depth.
Opposite." . I also used white ink with a steel dip pen. Compare its nature in close-up to that of willow charcoal used on pp. The white lines demonstrate what is often called "bracelet shading.204-05.Charcoal Hands T H E S E DRAWINGS ARE MADE in compressed charcoal.
Phrasing Contours .HERE TRACES OF RAPID initial lines are still seen within and outside each body. 118-19). before honing his or her shape (see pp. length. I make these lines in the first five to ten seconds of a drawing to locate the presence. and posture of the model.
perspectives.The Visual Detective DRAWING FROM MASTERWORKS was once a staple component of an artist's education. . Forms. feeling them through the attentive movements of your own hand. and narrative pulse become vivid when you realize them in the middle of your study. I draw in museums in support of written research and as an artist seeking answers to questions about the practicalities of image making. characters. It is now viewed with some skepticism and often seen as academic. Drawing work by another artist enables you to discover and understand the inventive hand in their composition.
Walls are lined with hundreds of faintly animated body parts. Life-size women wearing wigs recline on beds of embroidered silk in cabinets of mahogany and Venetian glass This is a detail of a compressed charcoal drawing measuring 14 x 10 ft (4. Florence. These almost life-size figures were composed from my imagination and achieved with the help af studies discussed on pp. there is a unique museum of 18th-century anatomical waxes.3 x 3 m) made in response to La Specola.La Specola At17V i a Romana. . 126-27. each modeled from dissection.
Movie director Alfred similarly signed his films by playing a fleeting role: he walks through an extra. throat. a single line can deliver an entire expression. and shoulders. Goya's w o r k s include many royal and society p o r t r a i t s . W h e n drawing a person. abstract or figurative. To create a face is to see and interpret the essence of an identity.Portraiture IN P O R T R A I T U R E W E MEET PEOPLE. bells. the meaning of their face. or a glimpse of him is caught in a photograph used as a prop. and lucrative genre for artists. Our homes are filled with images of our loved ones and of those in our families who have gone before. look directly at us. and it is very rewarding. It also reminds us o f b o t h t h e intimacy and a scene as scrutiny o f an honest portrait. In this chapter. or whose eyes can seem to follow us around the room Portraiture is a constant. 1790-92 4 x 3 in ( 1 0 2 x 7 6 m m ) F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A and memorize the basic structure that we all share. live. their stance. having been documented and preserved. Portraits can be highly or loosely detailed. Rembrandt's famous multitude of self-portraits. made as he passed through the ages of man. character. usually strangers from past times. and p r i n t m a k e r . and secular narratives. Once you understand Self-Portrait in a Cocked Hat c. in a miniature self-portrait magnified opposite. his changes in pressure and Hitchcock length o f line. This enlargement o f his miniature p o r t r a i treveals t h e s p e e d and agility o f his p e n and about himself. and social and political commentaries. you can capture the subtlety. or past us. single or of groups. who. painters have dropped discreet records of themselves into commissioned narratives so that they can remain a face in the crowd. and a handprint (see p. Beginners often draw themselves as a way of establishing their practice. The returning image was of crucial consideration in any proposal. and their posture can be changed with just one line. is here to both meet and look through us. we use the delicate medium of silver point to look at foundation structures of the head. Past rulers sent painters across continents to bring back a likeness in advance of a prospective royal marriage. and expression of the individual. Self-portraiture gives every artist a constant. Goya. Halls and palaces are filled with pictures of the mighty and significant. Man Ray's self-portrait of scored lines. and in a few scrolling rafts of pen lines and stubbled dots. buttons.139). gathered all that he knew FRANCISCO DE GOYA V i s i o n a r y Spanish painter. became more poignant as he progressed. religious. draftsman. historical. For centuries. . The truth is that we all like looking at faces and observing the billions of variations that make us individuals. compliant subject to scrutinize. Equally. We are also reassured by keeping records of ourselves. neck. and satirical or metaphorical. We can mold and animate qualities of expression out of objects and fragments of disassociated things—for example.
adding smudges of tone for weight and solidity. For the beginner. It takes a truly accomplished a few strokes. We can read so much about them by studying their gaze. one eye already cast askew into the autumn of her life. It is the portrait of a countrywoman. We can actually count that he struck the paper 40 times. Through exhibitions and copies in books. teetering on the brink of older age. PABLO PICASSO Spanish Cubist painter (see also p. The truth is often the opposite. and pressure as it conducts our eye through the image. they serve as a great lesson that it is not always necessary to add tone to your drawing. Her face is drawn tenderly and with a luminous glow. Here the grace and beauty of two young women are held forever.30). There is a common misunderstanding that a drawing with only a few lines is both less finished and easier to make than a drawing with more. caught in her last moments of youth. How could the addition of shadows have enhanced this image? Few strokes The simplicity of Picasso's line is breathtaking. The aesthetic sense of a line being just right can make a drawing sing. whisking a timeless girl onto the page. we can enjoy and learn from them. The Tightness of a line is felt in its speed. Holbein maps the still landscape of Dorothea's body in questioning marks. Without faltering. Picasso has left to posterity many hundreds of magnificent line drawings. hand to capture something well in only Frangoise au Bandeau 1946 660 x 505 mm (26 x197/8in) PABLO PICASSO . Picasso strikes and scrolls his pencil.132 PORTRAITURE Poise THE BALANCE BETWEEN a mark and a blank space is often a tantalizing form of perfection. breadth. While with longer consideration. stealthily using his chalk to find contours and mass. length. He makes his flair and skill look easy.
In addition t o his numerous exquisite portraits in oil. He outlined her nose but not her upper lip. Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 1516 51/8 x121/4in (385 x 310 m m ) HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER . The peak of her cap clips the uppermost edge. he designed c o u r t costumes. made a popular series o f w o o d c u t prints titled The Dance of Death. Holbein unified the woman with her background by gently blending colors from her clothes and face into the atmosphere around her. Blended colors In this portrait drawn with colored chalks on slightly textured paper. which. and its downward slope crowns the diagonal of the composition. and designer f r o m Basel. Her folded forearms support and frame her weight above. presses against the binding across her face. and produced numerous society portraits such as this one here. Holbein was employed toward the end of his life by King Henry VIII of England. gently flushed. Holbein has cropped and pinned his subject within the four outermost lines of the image—the edges of the page. Cropping This regal composition fits its paper perfectly.133 HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER German p o r t r a i t painter draftsman.
and has works in major collections including the Tate Gallery. Durelli has m a d e a few m i n o r mistakes. Anatomically. blood vessels. Contrasts Sharp. This is a m a r v e l o u s interpretation of the truth. or defined by. Delicate muscles are integrated with the skin and fat that is to be r e m o v e d . its highly clarified detail claiming to be d r a w n from observation.134 PORTRAITURE Anatomies These highly finished drawings express the emotional power and physicality of the head and neck. taught at numerous British art schools from 1962-77. N e w s o m e ' s eerily shadowed form is smooth and bears a linear grain evocative of w o o d . The style of Durelli's d r a w i n g opposite sings with the confidence of truth and precision. distorted. In fact. VICTOR NEWSOME British sculptor painter and draftsman. using a fine and relatively 1982 13 x 181/8 in (328 x 460 mm) VICTOR NEWSOME brush. while white painted flecks and wisps suggest electrical illumination. Highlights of white gouache were dry Profile Head late in the making. and glands also complicate form. The real dissection w o u l d have been far more c o m p l e x . continues to exhibit regularly. the contours of a grid. London. Newsome was awarded the Prix de Rome in 1960. Psychological drama is contained behind a grid. perhaps applied using a tortillon. the face is one of the hardest parts to dissect. confusing. This is one of a number of similar disembodied female heads seen behind. dark lines made with a pencil appear against smooth. and unpleasant to see. . Nerves. solid above and almost hollow below. dark tones of graphite blended into the paper. It floats in space. but they are irrelevant here.
and it is likely that this drawing was intended for reproduction as a print. w h e n contracted. Red Chalk the Muscles 1837 173/8 x 145/8 in ( 4 4 0 x 3 7 2 m m ) ANTONIO DURELLI and Pencil Drawing and of Neck of the Head Little is k n o w n o f this M i l a n e s e p a i n t e r a n d engraver w h o c a m e from a family o f artists.135 ANATOMIES ANTONIO DURELLI Linear perfection This is a red chalk drawing of extraordinary accomplishment. It is hard to think of a more difficult medium with which to achieve such linear perfection. which. Pencil numbers refer to the list of muscles written beneath. Stylized parallel lines are reminiscent of engravings. Durelli's experience as an engraver is reflected in his stylized drawing o f muscle fibers. pull their points o f attachment t o w a r d each other .
painter draftsman. while his hand stabs and thrusts Revelations like a conductors baton. as if seen from a distance. ALBERTO GIACOMETTI Swiss sculptor. close enough to touch his hair and feel his breath. The camera watches him at work. Giacometti settled in Paris. and poet After studying in Geneva and Italy. Without paint and with very little tone. with speed and urgency. Both works demonstrate how simple lines can be made complex by being intense. They show us clearly the bones of drawing. They confuse our perception of scale by being intimately fragile and at the same time far removed. We are brought intimately close to this man gazing up to heaven. and heads. necks. Speed Giacometti probably began with an oval shape placed in relation to the proportion of the page.136 PORTRAITURE THESE ARE DRAWINGS of shoulders. Bellini gently conjures the features of his saint with soft marks that tease his presence out of shadows into the light. Opposite. which are characteristically elongated. Agitated marks make patches of tone that cut away the space around the character. Then. each portrait is inscribed onto the page. Flesh is built and personality carved simultaneously. and with staccato flinches his hyperactive eye moves from paper to model. Energy This is a portrait of a woman drawn with black crayon on a plain page of a book Lines search for the essence of form. cutting and carving the paper with matted and spiraling restless energy. He is best known for his bronze sculptures of human form. he drew over the whole image at once. Portrait de Marie-Laure de Noailles c. 1948 77/8 x 6 in (200 x 150 mm) ALBERTO GIACOMETTI . each locked into a visionary gaze. There is a film of Giacometti drawing. Similar movements sculpted the head below into its page.
Head and Shoulders of a Man 73/8 x 21/4 in ( 1 8 6 x 5 8 UNDATED GIOVANNI BELLINI . Character This is one of many cartoons produced by Bellini the and his family. Bellini s t u d i e d u n d e r his f a t h e r J a c o p o .25 6 . Sometimes different narrative same character was reused in compositions. H e t a u g h t G i o r g i o n e Barbarelli and Titian.G I O V A N N I BELLINI A prominent member of a large family o f V e n e t i a n painters.5 9 ) . a n d his w o r k is d i s t i n c t i v e l y calm. lyrical. a n d b r o t h e r in-law. transferring which were made in the process of the saint to his final place in the composition of a painting (see Glossary pp. a n d c o n t e m p l a t i v e . Mantegna. These are pinholes. H e p r e f e r r e d religious t o classical t h e m e s . Transfer This delicate humorous chalk a drawing is a cartoon—not image but a type of template used to plan the composition of a larger work Look closely and you will see rows of tiny dots along every significant line in the picture.
The artist has finished his portrait with the signature of his hand smacked in the middle like a kiss: a declaration of existence as old as man's first drawing. spear-brandishing warrior. and everything flux. drawn. and confrontations with. It is an image of confrontation—the ever-controversial young artist roars at us from his abstract city-scape. and attitudes. their most immediate and best-known subject: themselves. Man Ray's playful silk-screen assembly of color blocks. It has proved to be a subject of piercing scrutiny. Islands of graphic marks. In 1986 he traveled to Africa and showed his work in Abidjan on the Ivory Coast He also exhibited in Germany and France. and sheet metal before being snapped up by the New York contemporary art scene. made with great energy. The figure's position is unequivocal and defiant while around him is in a state Without the essential of cultural and figure we would elegant belookingat a sophisticated painting of signs. postcards. Al Diaz. bells. signing their work SAMO.138 PORTRAITURE THE MIRROR OF SELF-PORTRAITURE offers artists infinite reflections of. scratched lines. a tribal. It is an opportunity to look deep without the infringement of courtesies owed to a commissioning sitter. similar to work by Cy Twombly (see p. scratched into its surface.221). political outcry. Signs and symbols with symbols This painting shudders that ore written. JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT Short-lived American painter and graffiti artist who began his blazing nine-year career drawing on lower Manhattan subway trains with a friend. The incandescent New York painter Jean Michel Basquiat pictured himself here in naked silhouette. skull- Self-Portraits headed. and indulgence. and buttons rings with surrealist wit and agile improvisation. Later Basquiat sold drawings on T-shirts. Self Portrait 1982 9 4 x 7 6 in (239 x 193 cm) JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT . marks. float and shimmer in the shallow pictorial space. scrolls. humor.
The first part of the stenciled image was already marked on the silk The screen and paper were then held tightly together. Man Ray probably used his own hand. while a squeegee was used to drag thick lilac-brown ink across the silk pushing it though exposed areas onto the paper below. Black ink was printed next and then white. During the 1920's and 30s. Man Ray lived and worked in Paris. where he collaborated with the artist Laslo MoholyNagy. printmaker and cofounder of the New York Dada movement. Frame White lines are seemingly (though not actually) scratched through ink to frame this face. They suggest speed and make the picture look immediate and spontaneous.139 MAN RAY American surrealist photographer. last of all. painter. They experimented with camera-free photography working directly onto photographic paper Silk and ink This is a silkscreen print made through the following process: the paper was laid on a flat surface and a frame stretched with fine silk was placed on top. The handprint appears to be made directly. Autoportrait 1916 195/8 MAN RAY . caked in thick printing ink or paint.
b e f o r e priming stretched paper. Lay a clean d r a w i n g b o a r d o n a flat surface. 2 . choose a silver object. MATERIALS 1 Find a clean sponge and b o w l o r d e e p t r a y a n d fill it w i t h w a t e r W e t t h e p a p e r evenly in t h e t r a y o r o n t h e b o a r d . which quickly oxidizes into a gray line. Historically. The most c o m m o n metal has always been silver—hence the term "silver point.140 PORTRAITURE Silver P o i n t SILVER OR METAL POINT STRETCHING PAPER A sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has been made w e t with the strokes o f a paintbrush will buckle d u e t o its uneven expansion. Numerous early European artists also enjoyed its fine qualities (see p. who used it to outline initials and border characters before painting. I m a k e m y o w n f r o m o l d dip pens. Z I N C W H I T E G O U A C H E : Dilute with w a t e r A d d c o l o r i f r e q u i r e d (as opposite) 4 . and is therefore useful w h e n using w a t e r c o l o r as well as silver point. 1 4 4 . S O F T F U L L B R U S H : W h e n laying a w a s h . and alloys work on matt emulsion." Lead. W e t a n d fix a s e c o n d strip t o t h e o p p o s i t e side. 5. s e e p . artists mixed white lead. SILVER W I R E : Purchase different gauge lengths f r o m a traditional a r t supplier o r jeweler. Be swift and firm. 2. w h i t e d r a w i n g paper) and cut it t o fit y o u r d r a w i n g b o a r d w i t h a generous b o r d e r a r o u n d its edges. 3 . M a k e s u r e i t is c o m p l e t e l y clean t o avoid u n w a n t e d streaks. M E T A L OBJECTS: All metal objects m a r k a p r e p a r e d surface. purchase silver wire. an exciting indication of how large-scale drawings could be made on a wall. This browns with age unless sealed by fixative (see pp. laid on paper. 144-45. and gold have also been used. illuminators of medieval m a n u s c r i p t s . p a r c h m e n t . b u t d o n ' t w o r r y . 1. Stretched paper remains taut as a d r u m . was familiar to or eggshells with animal glue. c h o o s e a s o f t full b r u s h t h a t c a n c a r r y p l e n t y o f l i q u i d . Find a n i t e m t h a t y o u can h o l d a n d draw with comfortably. the surface must be primed with a ground such as gouache. W e t o n e length o f g u m . I combined silver point with painted white gouache on a pink ground. it leaves a deposit. Lightly s p o n g e o f f t h e excess. T h e p a p e r will l o o k b u c k l e d . This is called a three-tone drawing. key. I t is a v a i l a b l e f r o m all a r t s h o p s . Pages 142 to 147 are illustrated in silver point and techniques are explained on pp. and make o r buy a holder. you will need t o stretch paper and lay a wash (see right and opposite). Straighten the w o r s t buckles. o n e t o fit each side o f t h e b o a r d — t h e s e will make t h e glued f r a m e t h a t holds y o u r p a p e r in place. or ring. If w o r k i n g o n an emulsion-painted wall. 156). Gesso o r m a t t e m u l s i o n c a n a l s o b e u s e d . Note h o w domestic paintwork marks with a coin. Take a sheet o f any t y p e o f p a p e r (for e x a m p l e .Tear o f f f o u r lengths o f b r o w n p a p e r g u m tape.s t r i p a n d use i t t o fix o n e side o f t h e p a p e r t o t h e b o a r d . E m p t y mechanical pencils designed f o r t h i c k leads ( s e e p. platinum. For i m p o r t a n t a d v i c e o n p r e p a r a t i o n a n d use. copper. Drawn across a prepared surface. or wood. bone. Opposite. To begin.54) can also b e used. SILVER P O I N T W I R E H O L D E R : T h e s e c a n b e p u r c h a s e d a n d t e n d t o b e heavy. s o m e m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n o t h e r s . Metal point is simply a strip of metal bound in a holder.54-55). Metal point does not work on ordinary paper. S i l v e r is b e s t . and t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h strips a b o v e and b e l o w .
Mix a very wet but not weak solution of gouache in a jar with a lid (add pigment at this stage for a three-tone drawing). The next step will make a small mess. leaving a smooth surface. Reload the brush and add a second line overlapping it beneath. Keep adding smooth. slowly add powder pigment or gouache from a tube. LAYING A WASH It your stretched paper so as to prime it for silver point.t o n e silver point drawing of a skull . Dip a soft. Dry thoroughly before laying a wash. any extra will keep. Leave the wash to dry thoroughly before you begin to draw. Make an even line across to the right. T h r e e . as the paper will be ruined by a raised ridge. I used a powder pigment called Caput Mortuum. Keep testing on spare paper. v e r y little at a time. It will slowly straighten and become taut. overlapping lines until you reach the bottom. Make enough to cover your paper. Prop up your board of dry. so put newspaper under the lower edge. Runs blend into each other evenly. Here. stretched paper at a 45-degree angle. is necessary to lay a wash o Three-tone When coloring ground. and let tests dry before deciding to change the mixture.141 SILVER POINT 3 Leave the paper to dry flat. full brush into the gouache and start in the top left corner. Beware of the tape's coming loose at any point while drying.
Head and Neck
THE HEAD AND NECK are best conceived as one unit arranged in four parts: cranium, face, neck, and throat. Each is of equal importance. The cranium is essentially egg-shaped and pivots on the first vertebra. The face is suspended beneath, like a softly curved triangle. The n e c k — a powerful, shapely column of layered muscles rigged to vertebrae—adjusts and holds the angle and expression of the head. The throat is delicate, hard, and lumpy to the touch, formed of cartilaginous rings, glands, thin muscles, and looser skin. Framing the throat, two columnar neck muscles (sternomastoids) project the head forward and also turn it to the opposite side.
This is a simple shorthand diagram representing the cranium, face, neck, and throat. It can be learned and visualized in different positions very easily, giving the novice a firm footing on which to stand and develop their drawings of the head and neck.
Cranium Begin with an egg shape. Tilt it on the paper to change the position of the head.
Face Draw a rounded triangular shape below the forward point of the egg to represent the face.
Neck This shape represents the trapezius; the largest surface muscle of the neck and shoulders.
Throat A triangular shape represents the throat. (The nose makes the diagram clearer)
After copying the diagram above, animate it. Practice drawing the cranium at different angles, add the face beneath, then the neck, shoulders, and throat. Shape your diagrams so they are more lifelike, but avoid adding detailed features too soon.
143 These three drawings demonstrate (from left to right) the following: why the cranium may be considered egg-shaped; now the face can be seen as a curved triangle suspended beneath and where the division lies between the two; and the form of sternomastoid muscles that frame thethroatsodistinctlywhen the head is turned and inclined forward.
The skull and the frame of the throat
HEAD AND NECK
Bones of the cranium are locked together by jagged joints. Sinuses in the frontal (forehead) bone between and beneath the eyebrows are larger in men, making their brows pronounced and often ridged compared to those of women.
Bones of the face house our sight, smell, taste, The skull pivots on the first vertebra or "atlas," and speech. Cartilage extending from nasal bones after the Greek god condemned to carry the shapesthenose.Pads of fat resting on the base of Earth. The jaw hinges in front of the ears. Behind, eacheyesocket support the eyeballs in position. If bony ridges give anchor to the sternomastoid thefatisreducedby old age, eyes look sunken. muscles rising from the breast- and collarbones.
Three useful generalizations
General rules about the relative positions of body parts can hinder artists as much as help them, since they are often based on classical ideals rather than thediversityoflife.However,some generalizations can help as a rough guide to start with, so long as good observation takes over as soon as possible.
In general, when the face is relaxed (not smiling or frowning), the corners of the mouth are found directly beneath the pupils of the eyes. Vertical lines can be drawn down from the pupils to meet the corners of the mouth.
The height of a young adult's ear is often the same as their nose and found on the same level. There is no general rule for growing children, and remember that ears grow again in old age, which is most obvious in men.
The height of the face is about the length of the handspan and the eye is normally halfway down the total height of the head. A common error is to draw the eyes too high up on the face.
T H E DELICACY OF SILVER POINT
(see pp. 140-41) is perfect for
such as a beach pebble. Here, I stretched drawing paper and laid a wash of white gouache (see pp.140-41). As you can see, the line and tone of silver point varies with pressure, but only slightly. Too much pressure cuts the ground. Silver point erases, but so does ground. Erased ground can be repaired gently with extra gouache. You can also use gouache to paint over mistakes and make corrections.
small, detailed drawings. The drawings below and opposite show useful observations of the head and neck, which are explained in the captions below. Each drawing was made with a silver wire held in a large-gauge mechanical pencil. Newly clipped wires are sharp and cut rather than draw. Before use, they need to be rubbed and smoothed on a stone
Here I imagined placing my silver point wire against the skin of each head and neck and, working in parallel bands from the crown downward, I traced the undulation of surfaces. Linear bands imagined around the head and neck can help you t o clearly see the tilt of the head and relative levels of the features. Ask a friend t o model for you and try this exercise life-size using a pencil and eraser
Seeing that the face is never flat
Drawings below left and center are summaries of the generalizations given on p.143. Far right is an image to remind us that the face is never flat. It slopes back to varying degrees among individuals, from the tip of the nose t o the ears. For example, note that the innermost corners of the eyes are farther forward in space than the outermost corners.
General measurements, side
General measurements, front
View from above
Male and female head and neck
Men's necks a r e g e n e r a l l y s h o r t e r a n d t h i c k e r t h a n w o m e n ' s b e c a u s e t h e angles a n d levels o f c e r t a i n b o n e s a r e d i f f e r e n t b e t w e e n t h e sexes ( i n d i c a t e d h e r e b y d o t t e d lines) a n d m e n are n o r m a l l y m o r e muscular. T h e male t h y r o i d cartilage ( A d a m ' s apple) is larger a n d m o r e visible than t h e f e m a l e . L a r g e r f e m a l e t h y r o i d glands also s o f t e n t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e t h r o a t .
The largest m u s c l e o f t h e s h o u l d e r s a n d n e c k is called the trapezius. A r r a n g e d on e i t h e r side o f t h e spine, it shapes t h e u p p e r back and neck above the s h o u l d e r blades. C o n t r a c t i n g in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h d e e p e r and surrounding muscles, it raises and l o w e r s t h e shoulders a n d d r a w s t h e h e a d backtoeitherside.
USING A SHARP 3 B PENCIL, I drew this head quickly from imagination, evolving its character and expression from the scheme of four parts: cranium, face, neck, a n d throat (see p. 142). Here, five steps show you how to practice doing the same. This approach can be used to draw from imagination or from life. Keep your wrist loose and hold your pencil away from its point (see pp.22-23). Build the layers of your drawing from pale to dark, a n d from general balance a n d form to specific detail. Remember that successful drawings are built on foundations of "seeing the whole," then dividing the whole into smaller parts, with details brought in last of all. Phrased tonal marks modeling this girls skin and hair follow the technique demonstrated by Goya in his self-portrait on p. 130. Turn to Goya's drawing and study how, in a circle beginning across his hat, moving down his hair, and around his coat, he flows lines over surfaces to describe their contour. As you build from steps 1 to 5, bring phrased groups of lines across the surfaces of your form, using their directions to capture the expression of the head and neck. If unsure, copy my steps until you gain the confidence to make your own decisions.
This drawing is the final stage of the four steps opposite. Here, I have enlarged the eye, and moved it back into the head by trimming the length of the upper lid and adding a more pronounced lower lid. It is important to set eyes far enough back from the relatively prominent nose; too close to it and the face flattens. Hair swept back and extended behind the cranium balances the regal pose. Lines shaping the hair echo those marking the cranium in step 1. Here, the lower part of step 1 comes through as wisps of hair across her face and ear
Portrait of a Young Girl
147 Building up the portrait DRAWING PORTRAITS 1 Gently spin pale lines in a softly drawn shape representing the cranium. neck. and throat. Moving from the back of the neck. 3 Place the eye beneath the cranium. Keep your first lines light.Theangle at which you draw this shape of the paper will determine the angle of the finished head. they are also still sweeping and confident. too soon. I modeled the outline of the character I imagined light shining from above and in front and adjusted the pressure of lines to reflect this. First lines will remain visible in the final drawing. 4 . The eye announces the nature and expression of the emerging person. Here. so it is important to the life of the image that while controlled. I used light to describe the upper lid first with a shadow beneath for the lower lid and open eye. over the cranium. avoid drawing too dark. down the face to the throat. The nose and ear begin to shape the head. 2 Rapidly add shorthand shapes to represent the face.
Above all.T o DRAW PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGES. . muscular tension. a n d t h o s e w h o a r e Generations asleep (see overleaf). empathize. the texture of hair. be aware of the subtle differences in skin surface. and gravity.
Fast lines carve out the features of Goya's soup-slurping hag. I used the nib upside down to gain needle-sharp precision. Van Dyke's noble cast of characters was modeled more finely. seeking the dominant contours of each individual expression.Castings DRAWING IN THE PRADO MUSEUM. Madrid. . with a steel dip pen and acrylic ink.
intriguing. personality. Designers all over the w o r l d c o n t i n u a l l y p e n and b r u s h lines to lash us w i t h color. g l o s s y folds. variety. and e x u b e r a n c e . was a Belarussian A r t Deco theater fantasies and desires to immediately possess a version of the same. c u l t u r e .As artistic director of the It is s h o c k i n g to t h i n k h o w m a n y m i l l i o n s of d r a w i n g s m u s t be m a d e a n d d i s c a r d e d Ballet Russe. c o s t u m e o f f e r s a r i c h v o c a b u l a r y of t e x t u r e s a n d c o l o r . cool. or b u l g e s .This voluptuous above all a physical p u p p e t w i t h w h i c h to animate character and narrate personality. of Scheherazade. articulate a d a n g e r o u s satirical j o k e . T h e e n t o u r a g e of the theatrical stage o f t e n l e a d s the c a t w a l k . a n d p r o f e s s i o n — b e g a n life as a d r a w i n g .Costume W E MAKE OURSELVES EXOTIC. Previously. and gouache. In this c h a p t e r w e see h o w c l o t h i n g c a n s e e m to p o s s e s s the w e i g h t and m o n u m e n t a l i t y of stone. Like it or not. theb u t b y the w a y it s p e a k s w i t h its flying. toParis. fulfilling lavish and spectacular briefs. a n d s u b t l e t o n e s . woman was drawn by Bakst one year later for the ballet Narcisse. S t r u c t u r e is t h o u g h the i n v e n t i o n of shoes. a n d c o u r t i e r tailors f o l l o w e d suit. known as Leon Bakst. it is the public sign by w h i c h w e are j u d g e d . o n l y the w e a l t h y c o u l d afford to h a v e c o s t u m e s specially m a d e . P o p u l a r f a s h i o n d e s i g n e x p l o d e d w i t h the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n . charcoal. T h e p a p e r p a t t e r n is p e r h a p s the m o s t w i d e l y k n o w n of c o s t u m e d r a w i n g s : a formalized plan of lines. gesture. dancer leaps through swaths of golden cloth. b u t influenced Parisian fashion and interiordecor. he and cofounder Serge Diaghilev took Paris by eac storm in 1910 with their production h year in the industrial f r e n z y of creating o u r image and aspirations. and intent. D e s i g n e r s create m a s t e r p i e c e s of haute couture LEON BAKST for H o l l y w o o d stars. for e x a m p l e — d e s i g n e d the w a r d r o b e s of p o p e s a n d k i n g s . In psychology. a n d w e will c o l l e c t patterns. c r u m p l e s . caricatured p l u m e s . w a r m t h . . shapes. Petersburg and later exiled designers' ideas and are surprised and delighted b y their continual f l o w of inspiration. W e dress ourselves and costume designer trained in in St. outrageous. and atmosphere. and even invisible by the w a y w e dress. so that c h o i c e . arichand unusual combination of pencil. and i n d e e d image b e c a m e the property also of the industrial classes. or calm u s w i t h chic. Practical classes Bacchante 1911 l o o k at r a n g e s of c o l o r e d m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d i n g p a s t e l s a n d felt-tip p e n s . Cities c h a n g e d all. w h i c h in turn feed c o n s u m e r Lev. e m u l a t e textures. Artists do this not so m u c h b y the style of a figure's garment. and be so expressive of temperament that it overtakes the need for an o c c u p y i n g h u m a n form. and everything w e h a v e c h o s e n for o u r w a r d r o b e s — r e f l e c t o r s of o u r taste. T h e rural masses w o r e h o m e s p u n simplicity. Samoylovich Rosenberg. Bakst's designs and costumes immediately To the fine artist. and s y m b o l s that lets m e n and w o m e n in all countries and areas have w o r k i n g access to the latest fashions. st 111/4 x 81/2 in (285 x 220 mm) u d i e d L E O NB A K S T and explore the characterization of fabric t h r o u g h m o v e m e n t . while court p a i n t e r s — M i c h e l a n g e l o and Holbein.
the Madonna and her architecture are both dressed in the same manner. Delicate marks Silver (or metal) point is the most delicate of traditional drawing media (see pp. Above them. delicate lines. Marble gown We will never know if Van Eyck considered this drawing unfinished or intended the kneeling abbot to remain transient and ghostly.140-41). Church and deities are drawn as JAN VAN EYCK Flemish oil p a i n t e r f r o m L i m b o u r g . Short and subtle horizontal punctuations are only given in the background by sections of floor. swirling printed fabrics. However. Their uninterrupted emphasis is entirely vertical. The quiet stillness of this image is achieved by a masterly economy of stylized line. the vaulted stone roof echoes and crowns the moment. H e m e t i c u l o u s l y a r r a n g e d subjects t o c o n v e y d e e p e r meaning. bands around the columns. and snakelike marks. her marble garment holds u p the infant Christ in a fountain of compressed line. Vertical lines The highly controlled lines of this drawing cascade from top to bottom of the image. folds and patterns of material speak more resolutely of their wearers than any small glimpses of body we can see. it is only possible to create very thin. He has layered these slowly and carefully so as not to cut through the ground and produce a white mark just where he intended a dark one. Opposite. best k n o w n f o r his G h e n t altarpiece ( 1 4 3 2 ) a n d m a r r i a g e p o r t r a i t o f Giovanni A r n o l f i n i and his w i f e (1434). Van Eyck's highly polished w o r k is c e l e b r a t e d f o r its disguised symbolism. Sculpted one. Her gown is carved and polished as if made from marble. resonate with their wearers startled expression.156 COSTUME Cloth and Drapery EACH OF THESE FIGURES is ninety percent cloth. With a stylus such as Van Eyck used here. Flaxmans sleeper—perhaps a pilgrim or a soldier resting between campaigns—has wedged himself into the cleft of some great building to grab a moment of peace. In Van Eyck's drawing below. the carefully composed outline of his cloak shows us how the artist would have also begun his immaculate rendering of the Virgin's clothes. Below this. Keisai Eisen's intense. dragons. and implied striation in the stone of the architecture. Maelbeke I44I Madonna 11 x 7 in (278 x 180 m m ) JAN V A N EYCK . and the kneeling abbot is a ghost by comparison. with their jagged edges.
the angle of the head. designer. Images are drawn onto smooth. Aeschylus earned Flaxman an international reputation. This complex numerous blocks prepared image and may have been made with printed separately. which are sometimes also cut into pieces like a jigsaw puzzle.157 KEISAI EISEN Japanese draftsman. The inked block is laid face-down on damp paper and pressed to make the print. Respected for his sumptuous images of geisha and editions of erotic prints. and the feet notched against the pillar tell us that A lines holds him into the cleft. writer and printmaker Keisai Eisen took his name from the masters Kano Hakkeisai and Kikugawa Eizan. flat sheets of wood. Remaining raised areas of wood are rolled with colored inks. Parts of the image to be left unprinted are gouged out with a metal tool. CLOTH AND DRAPERY Relief printing This is a woodblock print made by a relief process. Dante. each delivering a different part and color of the design. and teacher Distinctive linear illustrations for the works of Homer. an 18th-19th century document on the lives of the ukiyo-e artists. the cloak sliding to the ground. he also co-edited and expanded the Ukiyo-e Ruiko (History of Prints of the Floating World). stone wall of downward-stroked this sleeper's position is momentary. Position In this pen and ink drawing. one over the other. Koimurasaki of Tama-ya 1810-50 15 x101/4in (381 x 260 mm) KEISAI EISEN The Courtesan JOHN F L A X M A N English late 18th-century neoclassical sculptor. draftsman. and Man Lying Down in a Cloak I 787-94 21/4 JOHN FLAXMAN x 41/8 in (57 x 105 mm) .
Pen and wash In the graphic accuracy of this armored knight we see the idealized identity of a warrior from another time: a gleaming defender of the realm. Leg section Compare mid-shin the section of white boots cropped to the section of similarly cropped trousers in drawings Gruau's drawing on p. The aged queen is compared to an overdressed bird.158 COSTUME Character Costumes an extreme form of the clothed figure. In 1 6 3 2 he m o v e d p e r m a n e n t l y t o L o n d o n . b e f o r e traveling t o Italy. He has been rendered on this olive<olored page with pen and gray wash worked over a red and black under-drawing. A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE Flemish painter and draftsman. t h r o u g h n u m e r o u s p o r t r a i t and C h u r c h commissions. A s a y o u n g man. a n d w a s e m p l o y e d as c o u r t painter t o King Charles I. Flowing scarf The knight's scarf of gilded blue is drawn in a pale wash over red ink lines. theater. for she would not have been amused and William Wodall might have been stretching his luck. lace. where sometimes there just might not be anybody inside. w h e r e . Van D y k e was chief assistant t o Rubens f o r t w o years. Anthony Van Dyke's Man in Armor is a masterpiece of drawn surface. A flamboyant territory. The slight uncertainty of the pose and the limp cloak suggest a little more metal than man. It is presumed Her Royal Highness never saw it. Man in Armor UNDATED 1 6 x 9 1 / 2 in ( 4 0 5 x 2 4 0 m m ) A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE . Fine examples can be plucked from fashion. Its color is also reflected in the metal. Details and voices are worn externally with great imagination. 160. Its warm surface flows in contrast to the stiff metal armor. cinema. he c o o l e d and redefined his style. cartoon. The metal. cloth. Opposite is a dangerous drawing. a scurrilous cartoon by a courtier of Queen Elizabeth I. all ruffs and wrinkles. Leg sections in both support the figure without taking our attention away from the main garment above. and even formal portraiture. and feather were all CHARACTER COSTUMES REPRESENT observed with closely crafted conviction.
Satire of the Queen's Dress c. hooded with an overinflated fluffy ruff eye pins us. t h e Rising. t h e Jesuit Mission. t h e B a b i n g t o n Plot. bitten nature. suggest the use of iron-gall ink (see p. and her pride.35). here dark tawny owl. Beneath the lethal fan is the body of a bird of trimmed feathers suggest age. while a raised foot pauses to assess the next displaying a fan of daggers. By her old upto three tiers supported on sticks. t h e Ridolfi Plot. Northern Satire This is a quill-and-ink satire of the elderly queen's pride-As head of state and fashion.159 WILLIAM W O D A L L A u t h o r and illustrator o f The Aaes of Queene a Elizabeth poem Allegorized. the queen is masterfully rebalanced by words at her feet The whole drawing's blackened. she is shown as a grossly disproportioned bird. it was customary to Iron-gall ink Wodall's dangerous caricature steps daintily the written lines of her dedicated page. T h e poem recounts t h e six m a j o r crises o f Elizabeth's reign: t h e Spanish A r m a d a . manuscript comprising six c a n t o s .1599 71/2 WILLIAM x 51/4 in ( 1 9 0 x 1 3 4 mm) WODALL . and saturations showing through from the other side. A Ruffs and feathers Starched white ruffs worn at court and by society grew steadily larger as Elizabeth's reign progressed. Top-heavy.
Spider-Girl leaps like an insect. ofcroppedtrousershere to the device of the w Illustration 1949 for Jacques Fath in L ' O f f i c i e l d e la C o u t u r e RENE GRUAU . possibly over a pencil outline. Harpers & Queen. His model is outlined. muscular aggression.F r e n c h f a s h i o n i l l u s t r a t o r w h o in his l o n g and esteemed career w o r k e d with many of the g r e a t e s t d e s i g n e r s o f 2 0 t h .and tilted to the same de a little deeper than sp kneestogivehergravity.c e n t u r y haute i n n u m e r o u s m a g a z i n e s i n c l u d i n g Elle. She has been drawn with brushes dipped into India ink and gouache. studio-like rectangle of paper. G r u a u ' s highly distinctive d r a w i n g s have a p p e a r e d Couture. Fashion and fantasy drawings invent prototypes of ideals and perfection—be they for the catwalk or the fast-paced pages of comic books. Composition Look how well this image is frame knee is parallel to the bottom edge spacehorizontalline cropping the trousers be outermostuprightbordersof her cuffs are similar above her head thesidesoftheimage. and both share the power of scarlet and black. Gruau's model regally swans to the fore with cool pride. India ink and gouache This swish of confidence and style our enters the page turning everyone's head. a n d L'Officiel de la couture. Vogue.160 COSTUME Femmes Fatales THESE DEVASTATING femmes fatales force back the onlooker with their demure. Gruau uses starkly cut negative space (see pp. diving to catch us in the grip of her machine-like limbs. 5 8 . elegant chic and svelte. RENE GRUAU I t a l i a n . Rene Gruau's bold gouache drawing of smoothly swaying sophistication captures a brilliantly cut garment and frames it with great dynamism in a white. Airbrushed reflective surfaces further amplify our perception of speed. 158. Compare the compositio beneathVanDyke'sstudy of armor on p. Drying time in between applications ensured the colors did not run into each other. Fine lines drawn against the building behind her echo the threads on which we have all seen arachnids drop and hang. as is Spider-Girl opposite. and gray pigments were applied separately. demanding attention with gesture and flair. The black red.5 9 ) and a three-spoke balance of cuffs and cropped trousers to create an almost flag-like emblem of power.
This s modeling applied over the top give the image a sleek and mechanical of gravity.74-77).RON F R E N Z Contemporary American graphic artist w h o designs and pencils the dynamic scenes of numerous superheroes featured in Marvel Comics. MARVEL C O M I C S . Sharp focus black outlines in this drawing create a hyper-real dynamic. and figure are all locked into equally shatp through the traditional process of a pencilled outline over-drawn ink. and has been the title's regular artist since 2003. moon. Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 2001-04 R O N FRENZ. Single-point understand perspective To how Frenz created up therefore the effect of steeply between looking buildings—and howyou can do the same in your own work—take calculate where a ruler the and single vanishing point lies. Frenz has drawn for Marvel for about 20 years. beginning with Star Wars. at Their extensions will meet the same single vanishing (see point pp. not far above the drawing. to the right of its center. sky. Align your ruler to the upright of each building. The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones. In your mind's eye extend the uprights out of the top of the picture. He began work on Spider-Girl in 1998. Airbrushed color and with tonal focus. and Amazing Spider-Man. a great characteristic superhero comics. Buildings. It is outside the picture frame.
quality and cost T h e best are paperwrapped sticks of sumptuous. Be aware that fixative dulls pastel. though lines can develop greasy stains around the edges if the paper is not first stretched and treated with a gelatin paste laid as a wash. The higher the quality (and cost). except the final layer. C o n t e crayons are square-formed. and CHALK PASTELS Pastel pencils make fine lines (as above). including iridescents. 4. Sticks and conte crayons make thicker marks (as below). oily pigment. are derived from many sources: rocks. which he left unfixed to retain its brightness. the finer and more subtle the texture and color should be. They vary hugely in cost. 2. Dissolve in turpentine or mineral spirits to produce oil paint or or dark paper. crumbly. Children's wax crayons are relatives. Degas built his pastels in layers.162 COSTUME Colored Materials ART STORES BRIM OVER w i t h t h e m a n y wherever permitted. there are disparities between the apparent nature or color of what you hold in your hand and its performance on paper. and sold in many colors. See h o w they work and return later for more of what proved best for you. slightly oily to the touch. or wax and a binder are shaped into fine strips and encased in w o o d like a graphite pencil. fixing each layer on the front. Many artists apply fixative to the back of their work. FELT-TIP PENS: Instant-drying alcoholor water-based inks stored in the barrels of the pens are delivered via smooth nylon o r felt tips of varying shapes and thicknesses. paper-wrapped. 3. Seemingly infinite choices of texture. They work well on PIGMENTS Pigments. and cost are laid out for our pleasure and perusal. these work best when slightly warm. quality. Beware—some are toxic. mixed on the paper and scratched into (as below). Store loose pastels in dry rice to keep them clean. colored materials available. Many products are sold individually and in boxed sets. clay. and synthetics. I suggest you do so. made in about 80 colors. OIL PASTELS Oil-based. 1. and can be a great rediscovery for bold drawings. great for tin . Often. chalkbased but very subtle. unwrapped harder pastels. Pastel pencils are slender and in w o o d casing. purchase a small selection of different items you think you will like. intensity. Bright pastels are more brilliant on colored paper. The worst are like revolting old lipsticks that get everywhere except where you intend. COLORED PENCILS: Dry pigments ground together with chalk. allowing it to fix slightly from behind. you may be pleasantly surprised to discover something you could not have imagined using. soft. Use them to draw lightly (as above left) or thickly. and can be softened and manipulated with degrees of heat. CHALK PASTELS: Blackboard chalk is sidewalk work. Most stores leave small pads of paper on their counters for customers to test materials. and subtlety. shape. size. wash. hue. used to make colors. animals. Try materials that are new and unfamiliar. Before making substantial investments. Pastels are finer. insects. OIL PASTELS: Many colors. plants. minerals. The nontoxic range below represents a suggested starting point for experiment. the diverse are made in brands of basic member of the family.
Diverse brands are harder or soften greasier or chalkier in use.or clay-based thin crayons in wood casing. Think of Matisse's Blue Nude (see p. leaving the paper to shine through for highlights (as below). . Fine lines can be achieved (as above). it is still a great champion and support for those beginners feeling shyly obligated to tone down their love of color to conform with what others say they should use. so it is best to test them before buying. If you love smooth blocks and lines of colon felt-tip pens are perfect. Some are nonsoluble. 111). Some give richer lines than others. Colors can be blended as shown right) and tones graded by altering pressure. Brands made for designers sold in enormous ranges of colors are far more subtle and sophisticated than those made for children.163 COLORED PENCILS These are wax. FELT-TIP PENS Although not made with felt-tip pen. others dissolve in water or turpentine to make a wash.
personality. e n j o y i n g t h e study a n d i n v e n t i o n o f shoes. Linear Outline Using fine pens. while artists have painted their boots or those of others as personal portraits and memorials. t o o . REPEATED STUDY T o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s class. D r a w each o n e first as a solid object. social and economic status. the era in which we live. a range of colored felt-tip pens with both fine and broad tips. a n d e x p e r i e n c e visible p r o g r e s s . This class takes the shoe as its subject in building on earlier lessons concerned with seeing through objects to understand their function. imagining y o u can see t h r o u g h it. structure. they record and reflect our common history. . and after studying familiar shoes we use the information learned to invent new ones. 104-07). you will need several large sheets of drawing paper. I m a d e n u m e r o u s s h e e t s o f d r a w i n g s . t h e n again as if transparent. and a selection of shoes. Superstitions and fetishes are attached to them: we are told never to put new shoes on a table. values. if y o u m a k e p l e n t y o f d r a w i n g s as o p p o s e d t o o n l y a f e w . and volume in space (see pp. will discover m o r e . c o v e r a large sheet o f p a p e r w i t h line drawings o f several shoes. and how we stand and walk. S H O E S TELL LIFE STORIES. 100-01 and pp. Turn t h e m in different d i r e c t i o n s and o b s e r v e t h e i r s t r u c t u r e and f o r m . Here we go one step further. To set up. and they have been concealed in buildings to ward off misfortune. You.164 COSTUME Study and Design they reflect our age. As artifacts in museums. style.
STUDY AND DESIGN
study the surface contours using fineand broad-tipped felt-tip pens. For best results, it is important to be bold and brief. Draw firmly, fast, and with as few strokes as possible. Build up each shoe from light to dark andleavesome paper showing through to create highlights.
Design Your Own
Using what you have learned from the previous steps about the structures of your shoes, and about the use of pens, invent new designs from your imagination. Start with fine outlines and progress to colored and textured surfaces. Modify your ideas by rotating the views.
The Structure of Costume
MUSEUMS ARE AN INFINITELY
rich resource for the artist and
information given by a period style. Arrange to visit a costume museum or ask a friend to model clothes for you at home. Using fine felt-tip pens, begin with quick, pale impressions of each garment's shape before homing in on its borders and seams. Try to draw transparent views wherever possible to record the relationships between all component parts. Aim to draw enough information for it to be possible to make up a version of the garment using paper pinned to a tailor's dummy.
designer. They often give quite unexpected gems of ideas and information—whatever the subject. These drawings, made in a costume museum, demonstrate ways of recording structural information and detail for later use in the studio. They could form the basis of new designs for a fashion project or theater production, for example. Drawings of shoes on pp. 164-65 show how new designs can be evolved from the structural
It is usually best when collecting information for reference to apply the restraint of dispassionate observation. Set yourself the test of drawing facts with as little artistic license or embellishment as possible. Here I chose fine felt-tip pens because they are at their best when used swiftly, and therefore encourage bold, unhesitant decisions.
Swift lines record the hanging weight of this gentleman's coat, the relative proportions of its layers, and minimal details of the buttons and cuffs.
Thick velvet fabric is pulled tight beneath and across the bust by a single button. This transparent view shows how the fabric falls loosely in straight panels beneath the level of the sleeve.
W h e n visiting museums, be prepared f o r l o w lighting, which can make it hard t o see and draw. A book can help if attached t o your drawing board.
Adding stripes and dashes of color with a thicker pen brings out the glossy sheen and sculptural rigidity of this dress, which would have been worn over a whalebone corset. small reading light designed t o clip o n t o a
THE STRUCTURE OF COSTUME
In small drawings such as these, use thick pens to color entire sections with a few marks, as I did here down the side of the bodice.
The light, frilly bulk of this crinoline dress is propelled forward with lines. pinching its gathers and sways that are hiding a horsehair bustle. fleets of quick
THIS CLASS FOCUSES ON how to draw textures through the collection of fabric, pattern, and embroidery samples from a costume m u s e u m . This formal method, using ruled squares, can create an invaluable library of ideas a n d i n f o r m a t i o n for future r e f e r e n c e — w h e n painting a clothed figure, or preparing a textile project, for example. However, if making a book of samples for a project, remember that it is important to also include collages of f o u n d materials (see pp.230-31) To d r a w a fabric texture, b e g i n by concentrating o n h o w y o u i m a g i n e it w o u l d feel if you t o u c h e d it. Decide if it w o u l d be rough, s m o o t h , w a r m , cold, thick, thin, tough, or fragile, for example. As you draw, believe you can feel these qualities at your fingertips a n d that your pencil is responding to the sensation. Undulate the pressure of your lines and marks according to the feeling of the fabric rather than its appearance. Let your pencil enact the sensation of touching its surface.
and to experiment more loosely with mixed media.
This starchy, quilted, b o w e d creation started life as an imagined corset, I intended t o d r a w together in one sculptural f o r m a range o f t h e details opposite. T h e garment quickly got o u t o f hand. T h e r e is great e n j o y m e n t in letting y o u r imagination run wild w h e n inventing costumes. If you are unable t o visit a costume museum, many exciting fabric details and textures can be found in y o u r o w n closet o r home.
Colored pencils give precision and tonal range; they can be faded but not erased. Lightly use an HB graphite pencil if you wish to plan a design first. Pressed hard, colored pencils build up a waxy finish of brilliant color. Used lightly, they appear powdery and show the texture of the paper.
TEXTURES AND PATTERNS
Silk and braid
These characters.126-27. I made a drawing book full of studies seeking to understand how he composed drama and pathos in his narratives (see also pp. identity. selected from different pages of my original book. shape. . 172-73. and motivation of an individual. Madrid. and 252-53). look at how Goya delineated volumes of thick fabric to express the posture.Dressing Character I O N C E SPENT THREE MONTHS researching the work of Francisco de Goya at the Prado Museum.
. and visible. as it rushes and carves fabric-wrapped forms like rivers and desert winds shaping the earth. I carefully copied the direction of each of his lines.T H E S E PENCIL STUDIES. are copies of works by Goya in which he makes air seem heavier than flesh. and tangible. To understand how he did this.170—71). Posture Carving also taken from my Madrid drawing book (see pp.
soap operas. Second. and instantly engage with the action of the scene. presumably while he is making this drawing. First. in spite of how it may seem. and its illumination. He is also the artist from whom props to add layers of meaning and attitude. This J u s t as there are three parts to a traditional landscape drawing—the foreground. Saskia. heighten or subdue drama with subtleties of exaggeration or caricature. stares out from her gloomy sickbed. types. and other masters of Western Art. R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN in the delivery of narrative. and distance—so drawings of gathered people can be loosely arranged in three took only minutes to make and yet it lives for centuries. television documentaries. and novels—our staple cultural diet—are driven by a fascination with shared experience and the detail of what happens in other people's lives. . but drawings of gathered people tell them most directly. Storytelling and people-watching are obsessive human activities. He in turn scorches the paper with his view and a certain speed of seeing all. We read tensions and exchanges between people. Drawings selected for this chapter explore these Saskia Lying in Bedand a Nurse ranges of proximity 1638 9 x61/2in (227 x 164 mm) and a travel journal. and therefore seem to see. Saskia died after childbirth. Third. furniture. It middle. the viewer's attention in a scene by the format of its composition. Later in their lives. Washes of shadow behind engaged and as a natural voyeur can feel invisible while watching the scene. we can R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter draftsman. Her all-too-clear expression shows annoyance and irritation with her husband. We can direct close. We can also use clothes. a crowd tells the story from a distance. while a quill contact with. Rembrandt's bored and frustrated wife. we can learn most about handling pen and ink. too. the viewer is not directly made the finer lines of Saskia. With a pocket full of disposable pens we also go out and draw the expressions of gathered people. there are no longer individuals but one significant group or mass action. even up her were laid with a brush. and so. the speed and printmaker and one of the greatest and most influential density of its lines. finding corners in crowded places to inscribe their action and energy onto the page. Seeing through Rembrandt's eyes. this is not the portrait of an old woman. are implicated in this marital exchange made over the head of the anonymous nurse. vivid portrait of his wife captures our attention. comics. the direct exchange (as shown here) where one or more characters hold eye Aneedproduced the thicker lines of the nurse. the viewer. Here.Gatherings A LL DRAWINGS TELL STORIES. Blockbuster movies. we. As artists. daily newspapers. paintings depicting scenes from history. The spaces between people and the positions they occupy on a page are vital to our understanding of the psychology or emotion of an event.
or even the office photocopier. and on. T h e i m m a c u l a t e d r a w i n g is only r e v e a l e d w h e n t h e b e a m of a p r o j e c t o r c a s t s t h e s h a d o w Projections of the h e a p o n t o a wall.kicks against the mundane things that close down your mind is a refreshing and good thing. and smoke billows around the agitated jives of the Duchess.. Real Life is Rubbish 2002 Dimensions variable TIM N O B L E A N D SUE WEBSTER ."Anything that." (Tim Noble) Drawing with light it is important to think about what you is Here timelessly we see a in can draw with. TIM N O B L E A N D SUE W E B S T E R British artists who collaborate using neon. hearth i m p l e m e n t s crash at o u r feet. In both works. and projector. t h e y select and arrange familiar items of street detritus into what appears to be an u n p l e a s a n t pile. garbage and chaos are piled a n d e x p l o d e d in r o o m s full of event. for example. a kitchen explodes in o u r faces. and Alice. junk. Below. Pencil on paper important but only the beginning of possibility the combination of three-dimensional space. and projectors to create their anarchic punk satires of modern life. and in. via the animated clutter of o u r material lives. Think about what else you could use: a laser smoke. narrative is delivered through the air. plates shatter. Pans fly oft the stove. the Cat. h a l o e d portrait of the artists seated b a c k to b a c k . refuse. In one of R a c k h a m s great illustrations for Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland. the C o o k .176 GATHERINGS SOME DRAWINGS ARE MADE e n t i r e l y o f i l l u m i n a t i o n that floods drama into the viewers gaze.. Here. N o b l e a n d W e b s t e r s w i t t y a n d o f t e n s u b v e r s i v e d r a w i n g s are also c o n t e m p o r a r y art installations. c o m p o s e d garbage p r o d u c e s a c a l m . F o r e a c h w o r k .
ink. and watercolor. See how the In the Duchess's Kitchen 1907 77/8 x 6 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 5 0 m m ) ARTHUR RACKHAM . Depth Billows of smoke expand and are lighter as they come forward. Rackham Vanishing point In this marvelous drama made with pen.177 ARTHUR RACKHAM British watercolorist and book illustrator. Refer back to the drawing class how pots In drawn objects and elements that those behind. a n d an unmistakable graphic style. beams.Stowe's ofMysteryand Queer Little Folks. are very large compared to on p. 100 to see for make elliptical objects and pans fly through the the foreground. humor. H e is best k n o w n forillustratingIrving's Rip vanWinkle. by vivid children's Rakham's w o r k is characterized fantasy. The wood grain acts like marks of speed behind the scene. and Alice's shoulder. amplifying movement outward from the vanishing point. we find several devices already explored through our drawing classes.76-77) above vanishing point (see that is about3/4in (2 cm) oak converge at this point. This makes the story appear to leap out at us. tabletop. and Poe's Tales Imagination. Find the singleperspective pp.
and we. as fellow watchers. a sculptor. A glimmer of gold light appears from the left No explanation is given. as if Moore's wrapping has been literally outstretched. The image stands out among his more usual graphic works in which he hones and carves semi-abstract human forms. M o o r e t o u r e d Italy as a young man. HENRY MOORE Crowd 1942 Looking at Tied-up Object .The human form w a s the vehicle o f his expression and h e w a s t h e official W o r l d W a r II artist. join in the waiting. The mournful gray landscape of Henry Moore's northern British field has gathered by night an overcoated audience to stand and wait before a wrapped and roped monument. audiences. expressing his dry humor about O F ALL THE CONTRASTS HENRY MOORE British s c u l p t o r w h o t r a i n e d a n d taught at t h e R C A .178 GATHERINGS we have seen in the pairs and trios of drawings by masters and makers. and art in the landscape. and composition they are polar opposites. Moore's spectators appear to have walked a long way from nowhere to witness and wait beside this mysterious obelisque. Magnetic Fields sculpture. perhaps these two are the most extreme. a n d l o v e d t o d r a w in t h e BritishMuseum. meaning. This is just one of many precious artifacts from a lost time. Opposite. which still narrates vivid days in the lives of an energetic nation. and action of a buffalo hunt. This is an ironic drawing from Moore. London. a great Shoshone drawing blazes with the color. Chalk and graphite This fog-bound but humorous gathering of souls is made in graphite and colored chalk with gray wash. In culture. heat.
Stylized hunters. and helping our eye to dart around. creating harmonious balance with words but through silent demonstration. MAGNETIC FIELDS Horses It is interesting to note how the outstretched limbs ofthesehorses echo European images of the runningBuffalo horse before the sequence-photographer Muybridge taught us to 19TH understand their movement differently. Skills are taught not center chant or dance to the beat of a drum.179 SHOSHONE SCHOOL Stylized characters This vital image of a buffalo hunt is made with pigment Members of the Shoshone community wishing painted within dark outlines on a stretched elk hide. Hunt CENTURY SHOSHONE SCHOOL . Each color is evenly distributed throughout the scene. tolearnhow to paint a scene on a hide are and buffalo circle and charge the perimeters of a skin "field. horses." Men at the instructed to sit and watch.
and sweetened the often bleak years with his impractical inventions. a pink-inked cinema wobbles along with string. w h e r e he w a t c h e s a t u r b u l e n t s p i r a l of p u n i s h m e n t f o r the d a m n e d . W I L L I A M BLAKE British visionary. color. a d e a t h c h a r g e of brutality. We also see qualities of line. a n d e n g r a v e r w h o p o w e r f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e d his o w n t e x t s in a d d i t i o n t o D a n t e ' s Divine Comedy. Misted in translucent layers of paint. The Circle of the (The Whirlwind 1824 of Lustful Lovers) mm) 143/4 x 207/8i n ( 3 7 4 x 5 3 0 WILLIAM BLAKE . a n d f o c u s . a n d o t h e r w o r k s . Brushed line and wash This is an ink-outlined drawing made with a fine brush on paper with added washes of watercolor The image was subsequently redrawn as a line engraving. w e f i n d a spiritual v i s i o n . Opposite. a n d the gentle h u m o r of sedate r i d i c u l e . B l a k e h a s i l l u m i n a t e d his s a d d e n e d Virgil on the s h o r e s of a d a r k w o r l d . m a r k . The muscularity of Blake's figures was inspired by Michelangelo's works. inextinguishable in its fortitude and h u m o r . Heath Robinson lived through the same war-torn. Blake w a s d r i v e n b y a passion f o r j u s t i c e a n d a p r o f o u n d b e l i e f in his v i s i t a t i o n s f r o m angels. It illustrates a scene from Dante's Divine Comedy. w h i c h b y their c h o i c e a n d h a n d l i n g a c t u a l l y b e c o m e the force a n d spirit of e a c h i m a g e . t h e Bible. texture. pale souls of the lustful are being s p u n into yet another realm of hell. p o e t .180 GATHERINGS The Human Condition IN THE SPECTRUM of these vastly d i f f e r e n t g a t h e r i n g s of p e o p l e . era as Kollwitz.f o o t e d t r o g l o d y t e s w h o rage into w a r like a m u d s l i d e of revenge. w r i t e r a r t i s t . K a t h e K o l l w i t z s c r a t c h e d a n d e n g r a v e d her a r m y of c l a y .
White marks were made with a dusting of French chalk on the artist's finger to wipe away ink leaving clean metal. and controlled smears on the metal surface printed as tones. stoical bemusement. children. British Pen and wash This is a pen-andwatercolor drawing made for a color-platereproduction in an edition of T h e Bystander. HEATH ROBINSON The Kinecar 1926 103/8 x 15 in (262 x 380 mm) . humor by making his characters earnest. who lived in a poor district of Berlin. Robinson and Kollwitz (above) share almost identical life dates and their work expresses a shared history from opposite sides oftheworld wars. sculptor and draftsman. however meager or ridiculous their activity.181 KATHE KOLLWITZ German printmaker. and the family home. and clearly focused. Losbruch (The Outbreak) 1955 20 x 233/8 in (507 x 592 mm) KATHE KOLLWITZ HEATH ROBINSON humorous illustrator and a regular contributor to magazines and journals such as The Sketch and The Bystander. What remained in scratched grooves printed on damp paper as lines. poverty. THE HUMAN CONDITION Scratched lines This is a dry-point etching with monoprint. and the impact of death and war upon women. and her powerful and sensitive drawings center on nurture. plodding along with hazy. With masterful gentility. Kollwitz survived the two World Wars. He created sincere. Ink rolled over was selectively polished off using a rag. Heath Robinson shows England in a past era. The image was scratched directly onto a metal plate.
T h e r e w e r e c seconds t o snatch this impression b e t w e e n their emergence from one bridge and disappearance b e n e a t h t h e next. W h i t e gel p e n s a r e v e r y e f f e c t i v e o n d a r k papers. p e r m a n e n t . in the car. or put the paper in your pocket instantly without fear of smudging. gel pens) are the most convenient of all materials with which to travel. indent paper. w a t e r . is d e l i v e r e d t h r o u g h a m e t a l t u b e o v e r a t i n y ball bearing. CHOICES AVAILABLE T h e r e a r e m a n y d i s p o s a b l e p e n s t o c h o o s e from. So many stores sell them. R e m e m b e r . if y o u w i s h y o u r d r a w i n g s t o last a n d n o t fade o r b l u r w i t h t i m e a n d e x p o s u r e t o light. dark sheen." 1. FIBER-TIP: M a n u f a c t u r e d f o r artists a n d d e s i g n e r s in a r a n g e o f w i d t h s . rollerballs. B A L L P O I N T : Black a n d b o l d c o l o r s o f f e r d i v e r s e qualities. At a time like this. dropped in your pocket and forgotten till needed. blob when old. t h e y a r e lightfast. fine fiber-tip Drawing with a fine fiber-tip pen. these pens enable you to sketch. I keep quantities at home. fibertips.r e s i s t a n t . c h o o s e p e n s l a b e l e d " p e r m a n e n t " o r "lightfast.188-89) and Caravans (see pp.7 7 and 214-15). Unlike pencils. aiming for correct outlines would result in drawing too slowly to c a t c h the moment. t w o tourists and their gondolier drifter past m e o n a canal. For example. R O L L E R B A L L : A c o n s t a n t i n k flow 3 . Ideal f o r precision w o r k (see p p . Lines t h i c k e n as t h e p e n w e a r s o u t G r a n d Canal (see pp. Quick-drying. turn the page. G E L P E N : P r o d u c e d in b l a c k w h i t e . . I swiftly focused on gesture. 192-93) w e r e b o t h m a d e w i t h a ballpoint. in the studio. or idea. they can be obtained within minutes. Available in blacks and ranges of colors. or turn into washes and make monoprints if flooded with an alcohol-based substance such as hairspray. jot notes. they each offer distinct and sometimes unexpected qualities. The f o u r i l l u s t r a t e d h e r e r e p r e s e n t a basic r a n g e . a ballpoint will make faint lines. a disposable pen with its clip-on cap goes anywhere.182 GATHERINGS Disposable Pens (ballpoints. 4. 2. build to a rich. including l u m i n o u s a n d m e t a l l i c . and in most pockets so I can always record a thought DISPOSABLE PENS QUICK NOTES O n a c o l d day in Venice. a n d ranges o f colors. which can snap or pierce through your clothes. shut your book. a n d pressure-sensitive. Insensitive t o p r e s s u r e : lines d o n o t v a r y in w i d t h o r t o n e . 7 6 . trusting shape and form to follow.
crowd of fellow travelers Fast lines These scribbled lines model the mass and shadows of heads belonging passengers packed into the boat.31 . not form.FROMMEMORY Here I used the same fiber-tip pen to compose a scene from memory. Earlier I had witnessed a crammed en masse in a fleet of hired gondolas complete with musicians and choir. Fast lines focus on action. Compare this Klee's mules on p.
when out drawing. You will make outlines. let it enter the stage and perform. and companionship. focus on the action of the event. life will not slow and wait for you to catch it. Let the line of the flying coat fly and the hanging arm hang. if a person was stout. Movement . Push toward caricature and this will draw out of your memory what was most important. Every drawing writes an indelible memory of place. Exaggeration helps. A curatorial assistant flies to do a chore (right). Circular lines buzz around a man puzzling at the end of a train platform (left). Each line acts its part in the narrative. make them stouter. but they should not be what you dwell on. activity. black. all action is in the line of his coat and directed by his nose. animate them more. Each one was witnessed and drawn immediately from the afterimage of what I had just seen. I caught fleeting glimpses of gathered people and solitary souls going about their affairs. However. FLEETING MOMENTS Walking through Venice with a small. pocket notebook and a fiber-tip pen. Don't worry about measuring angles. Above all. No camera can tie you to a time or people in the same way. You must learn to trust your memory and to draw what impressed you most. angles will happen as a matter of course. if animated. just draw the action. not its outline. of course.184 GATHERINGS The Travel Journal I CANNOT OVERSTATE THE JOY of making a travel journal.
eager to herd us all from his house of responsibility.185 A large lady is photographed in front of a delicate work of art. Expression . I am watched by the aggravated guard. Observation THE TRAVEL JOURNAL The same willowy assistant dashes about his work. I drew him three times on the same page to catch a range of his physical expressions. In turn. The rush of his legs isamplifiedby their blurred lines.
Be aware that their placement on the page is part of the narrative. furniture leans. decide how faces and bodies contort. or bulge. Here the custodian projects fastidious ownership of his desk and pamphlets by pushing from behind the center of the space and challenging our entry to his image. ACTION AND DETAIL W h e n drawing people. focus on action. you might place them lower down. not outline.186 GATHERINGS Catching the Moment On A BITTERLY COLD November day. and there met this sullen custodian. if they are being haughty. . Place the person carefully. Here I have recreated my drawing in steps to show you how to set about capturing such a scene. if they are being devious. He and his simpering assistant would not allow me in. When your attention has been caught. pulls. forcing me to remain at the back and look at them. and let every detail speak by its size. and clothing or bags hang. For example. rather than the works of art they guarded. emotion. placement. start by focusing on its action. I took refuge in a church in Venice. For example. and involvement in the story. and reason for happening. or pushes. flap. Identify the principal character and draw him or her first. and you decide to draw the moment. elevate them in the pictorial space.
. Here. which is pushed toward us in a gesture of confrontation. together with any immediate props they are using. such as the desk and pamphlets seen here. In the final step (left) I reinforced t h e custodian's desk. Decide where t o place them t o emphasize their role. a pillar locates t h e scene in a depth o f space. I added t h e assistant. CATCHING THE MOMENT The assistant Identify t h e antagonist ( o r second character) in t h e scene. Draw their action and props. continue adding characters. Decide where you will place them o n the paper t o emphasize their action and intent. If drawing a more complex scene. who is largely expressed through the shape and fall o f his raincoat and his way o f using a note pad. D r a w their action.187 The custodian Identify your principal character a n d their psychological role in the scene. W i t h a few strokes.
An imminent deluge of tourists urged me to work catching no more than the skeleton of the view. I developed detailofthis drawing from memory using a ballpoint pen. . where vertical mooring poles give space and pulse to the horizontal speed of water quickly.Grand Canal T H E CANALS OF VENICE are bustling places full of occupation. and buildings.
Caricature each person slightly. To catch characters like this. Each person was glimpsed in an instant. followed by the streets. and drawn immediately from memory. then the bridge beneath them.Crossings DURING THIS RUSH HOUR. Characters in the foreground were drawn first. . note only their most essential action and feature. Venetians flow across a stepped bridge and cascade into the streets beyond.
and a great subject to draw.Caravans T H E PARAPHERNALIA O F TRAVEL i s an intriguing part of circus life. I found this circus by chance in the Swiss mountains. Caravans and other backstage activity convey expectations of energy and repose. Sitting at a distance on a hot. I used a ballpoint pen to compose a series of scenes. quiet afternoon. .
speculation. artists see for themselves that which is momentary and eternal. marking the ground with lines of footprints or by turning stones. makes his work by the act of walking. There is a sense of the heroic in drawing outside—we race to catch a form before the tide engulfs it. arranging them in perfect circles on the mountainside or in lines drifting out of sight beneath low clouds. JOHN RUSSELL A p o r t r a i t pastelist t o King G e o r g e III o f England. Take chances against the rain and work with the wind or fog. Russell d r e w this. Just as NASA photographs of Earth have had a profound effect on the way we view our fragile home. Oxford. 199). how the mountain cut by ice and rain is now fleetingly lit. and experiment. how the soil is scorched.Earth and the Elements I T MAY SEEM PERVERSE to start a chapter titled "Earth and the Elements" with an image of the Moon. Look closely at works by many artists and you will see that they have not represented hills. t h e first-ever accurate image o f t h e M o o n ' s surface. and meteor impacts have scarred. t w o e n g r a v e d m a p s k n o w n as The Lunar Planispheres. the sun comes out to blind it. and the sea. learning to draw light out of dark. The forces of nature. Richard Long. to be ready to draw the new light as it breaks across the land. when little stirs and empty blue skies offer even less to latch lines to. It is better to get up before dawn. or has cracked and fallen under the weight of water. England. It now hangs on the staircase of the History of Science Museum. a n d a m o o n globe called t h e Selenographia. This is the world's first accurate image of the Moon. The pastel drawing was constructed from myriad telescopic observations almost 200 years before the Apollo Moon landing. These conditions are very difficult to express well. By drawing such momentous and everyday events. a contemporary environmental artist. a n d a n astronomer w h o dedicated 20 years t o studying t h e M o o n . pages o f softly i l l u m i n a t e d craters and lunar "seas" c o v e r e d in m a t h e m a t i c a l and s h o r t h a n d calculations. so J o h n Russell's tour de f o r c e drawing (opposite) was a masterpiece of observation in his time. our companion. Beginners will often choose calm. trees. the face of the Moon. or the wind carries it away. and take bold steps in emulating the swell of clouds and the forces of torrential water. are the real subjects in great landscape drawings. but it can be seen as a lens to our observation of this planet. Weather is essential in all landscape drawing. sunny days. In this chapter Moon Pastel 1795 Drawing we experiment with charcoal. surrounded by the bright instruments of centuries of navigation. and its draws the tides of the seas. William Turner is said to have had himself lashed to a ship's mast to comprehend the storm (see p. rivers. as opposed the physicality of Earth. they are the animators of your subject. It is Earths satellite. H e a l s o p r o d u c e d an a l b u m o f 1 8 0 exquisite pencil drawings. 5 f t x 5 ft 6 in ( 1 5 2 x 1 6 8 c m ) J O H N RUSSELL . and even how the Sun illuminates. What they have drawn is the force of nature on these properties: how the wind heaves the night ocean.
painter. and solidity. seeing how it shakes. distance. and gives motion to each image. serving a prison sentence for his views. Hokusais sedate wind presses reeds a n d the j o u r n e y s o f young ladies. Danger of Wearing Balloon Petticoats UNDATED HONORE DAUMIER . A hard waxy was drawn across a heavy limestone Varying definitions crayon of lire and depths of tone conspire to give volume. sculptor. like an umbrella forced inside-out. Fluid strokes inflate the woman's dress and pin shadows to the ground. speed. a sail b r o k e n loose in a stormy marriage. By Turner carries us to the heart of the maelstrom. Terrifying waves of merciless nature roar across the paper. Daumier's c a r t o o n shines with the brilliance of his comic memory. Crayon and limestone This is a lithograph. fluttering heavily. Below. Dots and dashes suggest receding trees out of focus. the government. Flapping kimonos and an onlooker turning his b a c k have the magic of a m o m e n t caught. T h e ship. T h e great master of English seascape is c o n d u c t i n g with his graphic energy. and by observing its tides and eddies in our o w n environment. a scratched ghost. is already lost. Hazy vertical marks reveal buildings into the mist. has b e c o m e a hysterical kite.198 EARTH AND THE E L E M E N T S Air in Motion THE GREAT INVISIBLE SUBJECT o f these d r a w i n g s is t h e w i n d .Through political drawings he fired his sharp wit at the king. undramatic b u t brimming with stylized realism. H O N O R E DAUMIER French satirical cartoonist lithographer. lifts. the bourgeoisie. He knew how the world bends and stutters under such gusts. and pioneer ofexpressionism. and the legal profession. This wife. we can soon learn to draw its force.
M. from left print. T u r n e r w o r k e d in oils a n d w a t e r c o l o r s a n d s k e t c h e d c o p i o u s l y o n his travels. TURNER KATSUSHIKA HOKUSAI Prolific J a p a n e s e c o l o r w o o d . seascape. A outline scratched of a skeletal into penciled ship is while and the waves. wind.W. Wind direction wood-block This is a colored To represent the blows lifted flowed wind.l o v e dw o r k s i n c l u d e 1 0 0 v i e w s o f M o u n t Fuji and 1 2 v o l u m e s o f Manga. T h e r e a r e m a n y stories o f his p a s s i o n a t e w o r k i n g methods. into this very as pressed sheet The paper's through own coior is brought banks of mist and fog. H o k u s a i in t u r n has since significantly influenced European art.b l o c kprintmaker. absorbent watercolor and are Stains of splashed. a n d his b e s t . and history painter w h o s e p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t a b o v e all w a s light. d e s i g n e r a n d b o o k i l l u s t r a t o r . Ship in a Storm c. painter. 1826 91/2 x 113/4 in ( 2 4 1 x 3 0 0 m m ) J. Landscape a n d city life w e r e his principal subjects. W .i n f l u e n c e d b y examples o f W e s t e r n art obtained through D u t c h t r a d i n g in Nagasaki. Hokusai direction (from clothing from has chosen which it the right). including being lashed t o a ship's m a s t in o r d e r to study a storm. T U R N E R British landscape. horizontally then and of the it into the stream Plants also bend and flow right to Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 1802 81/2 HOKUSAI KATSUSHIKA x 131/2 in ( 2 1 7 x 3 4 3 mm) .M.199 J. leans the whole composition swells around its fateful center. AIR IN MOTION Pencil and watercolor subdued brushed.
it is difficult to contemplate its brooding and night-soaked heart. and swim into the page. drawing was Hugo's principal means o f expression.200 ELEMENTS Storms STORMS CAN BE SEEN and drawn in two ways: first. An update on biblical showers of fish and frogs. or charcoal. Opposite. as a gestural storm on the paper. composing banks of waves and dense. T h e very nature of b o t h is turmoil and an interweaving of elements. and t h e sea s t u d i e d f r o m his h o m e in Guernsey in t h e Channel Islands. ink. he blanketed the drawing in darkness. Pen and brush Hugo drew first with pen and ink. marks. h a u n t e d shadows. Then. His subjects include ruins. By contrast. Le Bateau-Vision 1864 71/2 x 1 0 in ( 1 9 2 x 2 5 5 m m ) VICTOR H U G O . Turner (see p. lines of rain escorting them to b o u n c e and clatter. Leonardos Cloudburst of Material Possessions is o n e of his m o s t enigmatic and mysterious works. this is a b o m b a r d m e n t from o u r h o m e s . EARTH AND THE VICTOR HUGO French novelist and artist (see also p. T h e m e n a c i n g darkness of Hugo's storm b e l o w is so convincing. It looks so contemporary. active surfaces of water. and tossed o b j e c t s — a perfect subject in which artists can forget themselves. He brings us to stare into a place that no sane human would enter.28). In periods b e t w e e n writing. leaving nothing but a glimpse of moonlight glistening on the froth below. fantasy palaces. water. grab their b r u s h . as if drawn j u s t this year. D o m e s t i c o b j e c t s we can o w n and name fall from the clouds. with a brush. this is a writer's narrative of terror. as a subject and second.198) admires the majesty of nature. inks.
together with half the contents of our garage. He bequeathed his drawings to a friend. a hook. and a wheel. Cloudburst of Material Possessions 1510-12 45/8 x 43/8 in ( 1 1 7 x 1 1 1 mm) L E O N A R D O DA VINCI . Each item that has crashed from heaven is drawn in such a way that we can feel Leonardo's nib picking it up in the speed of a doodle. envisioning machines centuries before their making (helicopters and bicycles. He was left-handed and wrote backwards in Italian from left to right. for example). Above and below are examples of his mirror handwriting. a bell. There is a little magic in recognizing many items from our homes something like a rake. and they passed through private hands for 400 years before becoming widely known.LEONARDO DA VINCI Leonardo devised many artifacts of our modern lives. It is interesting to speculate how engineering might have developed if his ideas had been shared with the world earlier Ink and chalk This is a pen and ink drawing with touches of black chalk.
atmosphere. watching his hand and eye at work together. and after tracing her captured line. In a very different work (opposite above). rapidly layering contours to shape place. and across to the right. In the lower half he has walked downhill a little. which he used to unify his compositions. Views from Velletri c. thick. and we can imagine standing over his shoulder. or cityscape. and famed for. rich. Claude has used a fine nib to delineate segments of land as they recede into space. and dry marks in the foreground appear to be made with his finger. Nature Profiles Opposite below. and mood simultaneously. she teased away fragments of paper to illuminate her view. Claude Lorrain drew directly on location.1638 85/8 x 121/2 in (219 x 320 mm) CLAUDE LORRAIN . EARTH AND THE Bryan cut the profile of a city. a horizon line can trigger our recognition. Claude is distinguished by. his unsurpassed handling of light. Paler. Even distilled from all other detail. sea-. it is the unique calligraphic signature of the place in which we stand. and etcher who lived most of his life in 17th-century Rome. C L A U D E LORRAIN French classical landscape painter draftsman. Over first lines. Segments The top half of the drawing is a view as we enter the valley. Whether land-. She was inspired by her research of aerial plans of London and the story of an alien map butterfly (see caption). transferred it to a scroll. made inside a book. cooler tones receding into the distance are applied with a brush.202 ELEMENTS THE PROFILE OF A HORIZON is a line we immediately recognize and respond to. Clare Bryan took panoramic photographs of the English South Downs. Drawing with a scalpel.
5-m)scroll. The edges of each here) fade into the solid paper unpopulated with a scalpel landscape. source workisilluminatedby standing its lower edge on a CLARE BRYAN . progressively settlement (cropped more and more paper is drawn away to show the expansion of human page of an around the river.203 Scalpel-drawn This book-bound drawing was inspired by the story of a foreign butterfly wrongly to Great Britain in 1912." Cut line This is a small section of a preparatory 5-ft(1. specialty bookbinder. then hunted destroyed. drawings Ideas of introduction Clare Bryan to research introduced down and led NATURE PROFILES and removal historical plans and aerial growth of London showing its population since Roman times. 2001 CLARE BRYAN C L A R E BRYAN 3ritish artist. Her recent paper photographic. and digital print-based works reflect upon the histories and poetry of "left behind and in-between spaces.The horizon was drawn with a City Landline 2003 271/2x 59 in (70 x 150 cm) scalpel. and visiting professor at numerous art schools. On turning the pages of City. printmaker graphic designer.
Essentially. resulting in a pale line. or fingertip. this does not exist. only a little thicker. CHARCOAL PENCIL: Types made by different manufacturers vary in quality and density of line. It c a n be m a d e duller. a n d m o r e i n d e l i b l e by soaking it in linseed oil. black finish. b l a c k e r . the heel o f y o u r h a n d . vine. Boxes often contain a range of thicknesses to choose for different needs. B u n d l e s o f twigs were traditionally sealed into earthenware j a r s or wet clay and heated slowly and intensely in a fire or kiln. . 3. Artists have also used lime. white line into the blackor grayness of willow charcoal. sticky side down. you can p u r c h a s e m a c h i n e . they are all intended for fine work. 162) or graphite (see p. 2. Hold it over your drawing RANGE AVAILABLE Charcoal (in its several forms shown here) is loved or loathed by the beginner to whom it is often recommended because it produces pleasing results quickly. R o u g h paper c a n b e loaded. THICK W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 2 Keep the tape above your drawing. maple. and heavier than willow. but some specialists stock compressed charcoal in delicate square sticks. harder line. In use. feather. cylindrical.54). 3 A white line is lifted out by the tape. 1. Use any fine-point pen or pencil (I used a ballpoint) to draw a firm line on the back of the Big pieces are perfect for very large-scale drawings—even larger than yourself. A great find when available. b e e c h . tape. Slightly dull the tape's stickiness before use t o prevent it from lifting out more than you intend. Smooth paper accepts few particles. THIN WILLOW CHARCOAL: I used a piece like this to make the drawing opposite. Willow is the most c o m m o n wood. between your middle finger and thumb. C h a r c o a l naturally glistens. Charcoal lifts away from paper easily with the very light touch o f an eraser. MEDIUM W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 5. blacker. a piece of fresh bread. It is also easily erased if the maker of the mark is not happy with the result. and offers a rich. The tip snaps easily to renew a sharp edge if required. fine. It does n o t erase easily. Lines are achieved by d e p o s i t i n g particles in the grain o f paper. it is compressed and m o l d e d at high pressure. Try itworking on big paper covering a wall. COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Machine-made. Beware of cheap brands selling dyed chalk as compressed charcoal. LIFTING OUT This technique is a very easy method of drawing a crisp. so it chars b l a c k as o p p o s e d to igniting a n d turning to ash. 7. a rag. Not to be confused with square conte sticks (see p. it looks gray and feels like chalk.m a d e c o m p r e s s e d charcoal. 1 Suspend a length of masking tape. The same as above. 6. a n d p l u m . leaving u n d e r t r a c e s of first thoughts.204 E A R T H AND THE E L E M E N T S Charcoal CHARCOAL IS PRODUCED from wood baked slowly without exposure to air. It allows you greater precision in your mark-making than if you rub away the charcoal with an eraser. CHALK CHARCOAL: Technically. Then lift it away. Alternatively. resulting in a stick that gives a blacker. 4. SQUARE COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Not often sold. without touching the surface. As its name implies.
Layers can be peeled away to refresh its surface. or any other dry media. Use high quality (very sticky) to fix paper to walls and boards. as is fresh (unbuttered!) bread. pastels. 8 . graphite. . 10. 9. Here. Here we used a ballpoint. PEN: Any fine pen or pencil can be used to draw on the back of masking tape when lifting out. Use cheaper (less sticky) for lifting out. T O R T I L L O N : This is a tight roll of paper used to blend charcoal. CHARCOAL Lifting out This detail shows an example of where I used the lifting-out technique demonstrated opposite to draw flashes of lightning against rain clouds. I used a plastic eraser effectively on thinly applied charcoal. MASKING TAPE: An invaluable resource.212-13 were made by altering the pressure applied to the charcoal.205 ERASING Thickly applied charcoal quickly o v e r c o m e s a plastic eraser A w a r m (soft and tacky) putty eraser is more effective. Different tones seen throughout the main drawing on pp. sold in several widths. Lift out broader marks with a larger implement. Cotton swabs also work.
To experiment with drawing landscapes and the use of charcoal. an eraser your drawing book or a board and paper fixative (or hairspray). a less distinct middle ground composed of shapes and textures. MATERIALS In this first view there is only a foreground and middle distance. our brains search for nameable things and will perceive complete pictures from very little information. and a cushion in a plastic bag to sit on. especially when making first excursions into aerial perspective. At its worst. When you arrive. I relaxed my eyes out of focus to dissolve distracting detail into abstract patches of light and darkness. 9 8 . but is often less evocative and engaging. pack your materials (as advised below) and set off for a local view or your nearest arboretum. They are also good markers of receding space. This term simply means that as land rolls away into the distance. a reel of masking tape. begin by marking out several small squares on your paper. Landscape drawings are traditionally arranged in three parts: a detailed foreground. Don't worry if it is cloudy: clouds add drama and perspective and make good subjects in themselves (see pp. details blur and colors grow paler and bluer. It is the visible effect of the atmosphere between where you stand and what you see in the distance. to contain each of your compositions. Ironically.212-13). and an abstract.206 EARTH AND THE ELEMENTS Landscapes TREES ALONE OFFER MARVELOUS shapes to draw. hazy distance. it results in flat planes of clutter. The long view is hidden behind trees. Pack several thick and thin sticks of willow charcoal. Excessive detail can be admired for its skill and achievement. Then I drew the shape of the tonal patches I perceived. the less you describe. Successful drawings often only suggest the qualities of the scene without overdescribing them. Seeing tones .9 9 we noted that in response to visual stimulus. the more you encourage the viewer's imagination to join in and see. On p p .
rounded. Remember.207 LANDSCAPES In my second square I explored a simple view contrasting soft. dark trees with bright. It is better to give distinctly more pictorial space to one or the other (see below). I have invented drama with diagonals set against each other I tilted the earth. full of information you can use to create what you want! Inventing drama . horizontal regions of grass. This composition turned out a little flat because I have an almost even quantity of earth and sky. Exploring the view Redrawing the scene above. your view is your inspiration. the trunk of a bare tree. shadows. and broke a view through the hedge into the distance with a dark sky threatening rain.
" . your challenge now is to find a sculptural subject in the landscape. I usually begin by making an image of the whole view. s e e k places in light After my first drawing. settling my concentration. shade out of the glare of the sun.164-65) and a wire violin (pp. on p p . and seeing what the real choice of subject is. I am then able to home in on what interests me most for further study. engine. making the scene below led me to focus on the decaying boat opposite. bare ribs. This first drawing serves as a process of arrival. Similarly. For example. The mud of the tidal shore in Rye.1 5 my first drawing of the whole view of the Tiber led me to see the real subject of the day.208 ELEMENTS Drawing in the Round WHEN DRAWING IN THE LANDSCAPE. EARTH AND THE FINDING THE SUBJECT Finding a remarkable subject is even better when you can circumnavigate it in an arena of space. Building on earlier studies of structure in space using shoes (pp. which was the flow of water over rocks. "Drawing in the round means to literally walk around your subject. England has embedded within it the decaying skeleton of a burned fishing boat. so the paper is not made blinding and your hand cannot cast a shadow on your work. taking with you your drawing book and pen. observing it from several views so as to better understand it as a whole. Circling a subject and drawing it from several views imprints on your memory a better understanding of its three-dimensional form. and tiller still standing proud.104-05). 2 1 4 .
and the order and shape of its component parts. careful lines to establish the skeleton that gives this wreck its distinct form. make a series o f drawings f r o m different positions. I drew with quick. I looked more boldly at the planes and the dynamic of the sculptural craft My lines have become darker and more forceful as confidence in my understanding of the vessel grew. looking more at the boat than at the paper From this low position I have emphasized how the boat is swallowed in mud by outlining its shadow on the ground. w h e n t h e sea recedes. Each n e w drawing gives a different insight. marking straight. W h e n you have found your subject. 3 This impression notes the angle of the broken boat. I spent equal time looking at the subject and the paper. character. Overleaf: Decaying Boat 4 . ROUND 2 In this tail-end view. and structure. The outline ties a shape of darkness to the boat like a weight so that it becomes part of its form.209 SERIES OF STUDIES This stunning ghost o f a boat comes into v i e w t w i c e a day. DRAWING IN THE 1 Here. its overall balance. unfussy lines.
hot-pressed drawing p a p e r (see pp. I worked quickly to catch and weave the turbulent contrasts of rising wind and approaching water before the drawing could be washed away. .Cloudburst THIS STORM DRAWING. was made with gentle but unhesitating s p e e d . m a d e on s m o o t h . L o o k i n g b a c k and forth from the heavens to firmly taped-down paper.20-21) using a thin stick of willow charcoal.
I drew with a needle-fine fiber-tip pen. since ancient times. focusing on the river's eddies. pocket-sized notebook. On the pages of a small.Notes of Force T H E GREAT FLOWING TIBER RIVER has cut through Rome. pulse. and rhythmic detail as it passed through the ancient gully of the city. . shaping the city. black.
I used a dip pen and waterproof India ink with brushed watercolor to draw the view.Mountains SITTING IN THE SHADE of a tree on the Greek island of Antiparos. The strong diagonal of the composition from bottom left to top right carries the eye through changes of height and focus from the foreground to the mountains beyond. .
It is actually its foundation and its infrastructure. writhing torrents of color. Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape 1915 413/8 x 285/8 in (105 x 72. My own work is firmly centered in figuration. only rediscovered. it is simply itself. or gestures. Not everything we know has a physical form in the world. From another viewpoint. all pictorial representations are abstractions of reality. Outsider artists. writer and composer who suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and was resident in the Waldau Aslyum near Berne. Artists were given a different tool—a line threaded directly from their subconscious to their hand—and with it they began to map a bold new landscape of marks and concepts that would dramatically and forever change the face of Western art. poet. belief. many nonWestern cultures have highly sophisticated abstractions at the core of their art.Abstract Lines T HE DEVELOPMENT OF W E S T E R N abstract art at the beginning of the 20th century significantly paralleled major changes in world thought. Many concepts and feelings can only be expressed through marks. and have been making abstract drawings for centuries—Japanese calligraphy. His drawings are collected and exhibited internationally and held by the Adolf Wolfli Foundation. yet my kinship to abstraction is fundamental. don't be timid. Wolfli was a Swiss draftsman. picturing a stabilized world was impossible and Modernism rode forth with vigor. Afterward. and history. sounds. ADOLF WOLFLI One of the greatest masters of Art Brut.8 cm) A D O L F WOLFLI Abstraction is a direct. Berne. opposite. and independent means of communication. An abstract mark is often a better conductor of a thought or feeling. precisely because it does not have to represent a physical object. actions. Indian mandalas. and Aboriginal art. He made thousands of drawings to chronicle his complex life. From one point of view. expressive marks and shapes are at the core of natural. Swirling. and poetic myth roar and cascade within his tightly framed pages. which are essentially abstract. fictional language. spontaneous image-making. I begin every image by feeling its meaning. drawn sound. abstraction is not so easy to define. Museum of Fine Arts. It was not invented in the 20th century. such as Adolf Wolfli. and emotion. for example. strike the paper to find form. be brave and enjoy them. direction. and it has always been with us. However. The growing rise of Darwinian ideas coupled with Freudian and Marxist perspectives forced Western society to reconsider its origins and future. It also underpins and gives strength and unity to all figurative work. Perhaps in Western culture we bred this intuitive freedom out of ourselves in our insistence on complex figuration. . liberating. and young children show us that abstract. First marks. People are often scared by abstraction and see it as the enemy of figurative art. Internal workings of the mind were suddenly free to find a new language of expression. As you approach the classes in this chapter. The fate of Old World thinking was finally sealed with the brutality of World War I.
Sometimes it smolders like a deep shadow. Abe's physical drawing is a sculptural installation. water. Abe works with materials such as soil. brass. as Twombly shows us opposite. forged steel. Below. The Physical Space 1990 3 0 x 30 ft ( 9 1 4 x 9 1 4 cm) MAMORU ABE . iron. salt. Iron rods in tone. A line can be finished in a second. rhythmically engaged with itself. texture. scrolling across the canvas in an intimate crescendo. ice. tone. Twombly's mesmeric wax line worked over house paint is like a signature. akin to stones in a Zen garden. He travels widely to research ancient sacred sites. and Assistant Professor of Fine A r t at Fukuoka University. and temperature rim of floor space.220 A B S T R A C T LINES Process and Harmony SOMETIMES A DRAWN LINE sings on the surface of its support. Changes paper. sit in silent harmony. staining redbrown lines into the white surface. or. it can keep reforming through the inherent repetition of a process. and plaster in galleries and landscapes. Moisture produced rust. Lines. Mamoru Abe prepares an image that will appear through the chemistry of iron. A Neolithic chalk tablet bears cut lines that were slowly carved. quoting ink marks on a page. Damp Japanese paper was laid over carefully arranged iron bars. and texture their bracing separation reaching between from beneath Pillars of the gallery are made part of this drawing by their inclusion in the paper. silence. This the paper rest within the amplifies framelike of the floor from the ceiling. MAMORU ABE Japanese sculptor and installation artist. Five forged steel shapes. and patient watching. and wood are also part of the work. It can proclaim mood. and sensitivity with its thickness and pressure of touch.
and American Indian petroglyphs (see p. theories suggest astrological observations. burials. Precise lines suggest the use of a sharp flint The framed rectangle of this image is echoed in that of Abe's installation. emotive. Many of his graffiti-like combine abstract gestures with statements. evolved a raw. close to Stonehenge in Wiltshire. that challenges the separation of word from image. and sensuous drawing from painting.400BCE 21/4 x 21/4 in (58 x 58 mm) ARTIST UNKNOWN Language Over the course of fifty years.Thesite's purpose is unknown. such as the Rosetta stone.England. CY TWOMBLY .Twombly was presented with a Golden Lion award for lifetime achievement. Twombly has language works CY TWOMBLY Contemporary American artist who emerged through the 1950s New York art scene in the heyday of Abstract Expressionism and Action Painting. and Untitled 1970 Here we might seek to grasp letters in the turning of his line. This example is one of two chalk tablets found in a Late-Neolithic pit. PROCESS AND HARMONY Cut lines Chalk carves easily.000-2. At the 2001 Venice Biennale. energetic. Neolithic Chalk Tablet 3.241).221 ANCIENT CARVINGS Many ancient cultures have made and left behind drawings and texts carved into stones or animal bone. The central pictorial space is also similarly cut and divided by the considered arrangement of straight lines. the Babylonian world map. and the worship of the sun and ancient gods.
too.28. opposite. Two Impressions Paper 1853-55 VICTOR HUGO Disk from a Cut-Out . here he anticipates abstract expressionism by 100 years.28). said. and inventive of his time. Ink impressions When drawing nightscapes Hugo often laid paper disks in place of the moon. below. Marks across the center appear to be made with his fingers. The scores are also exhibited in galleries as visual art. A graphic score is a V I C T O R H U G O Hugo's abstract French novelist w h o m a d e m a n y drawings in m i x e d m e d i a ( s e e also p. abstract artists and composers unique. Gestalt. Hugo. drawing here can b e described in t e r m s o f a G e r m a n philosophical idea a b o u t is t h e i n s t a n t r e c o g n i t i o n t h e p o w e r o f m o m e n t . have striven to break down old pictorial and musical structures to explore new and unfettered modes of expression. "There is nothing like dream to create the future. Here he appears t o have saturated the cut-out moon disks with gritty pigment. broke new ground in the 1950s with graphic scores now considered among the most extreme. he mixed graphite into ink. Similarity in gritty texture suggests that here. and participate in the composition. music manuscript requiring instrumentalists to improvise." An innovator who never fails to surprise. o r a pattern o f elements s o unified as a w h o l e t h e y c a n n o t b e e x p l a i n e d asa s u m o f parts. His drawing writes the time of its own physical process by expressing the extreme concentration of the moment in which it was made. and lifted them away to leave impressions of watery planets and seas. and let the drying meniscus deposit granules in linear drifts such as we would see in the satellite photographic mapping of rivers.222 ABSTRACT LINES Writing Time SINCE THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY. Both abstract drawing and composition involve the perfect sequencing of sounds and marks against space and silence. o f t e n e x p r e s s e d in v i s u a l t e r m s . brushed night skies over them with ink then lifted the disks to reveal white moons. interpret. abstract. beautiful. Gestalt o f an unnameable thing. Texture Compare this drawing to Hugo's octopus on p. pressed them face down. Bussotti. a configuration.
223 W R I T I N G TIME SYLVANO BUSSOTTI Italian avant-garde composer and principal 20thcentury exponent of the graphic score. Circular Score for "Due Voci" c. 1958 SYLVANO BUSSOTTI . Compare this work to that of Libeskind on p. This is a page from Due Voci. Bussotti's first mature work. 70 in relation to Bussotti's clustered notes to the left of his rondo and open space to the right. Sound and rhythm This flickering rondo of sound written in pen on a hand-ruled stave can be heard in our imaginations as much as seen. we can feel their rhythm and easily attach sounds to them. Following the notes. a far cry from any recognized musical notation. His later works become increasingly abstract.
She tore c l o t h into strips a n d used these to draw patterns a n d symbols o n h e r cell floor. MARIE LIEB Little is known of this w o m a n for w h o m the act of drawing was essential. Marie Lieb w a s a psychiatric patient in the Heidelberg Asylum. centuries. Visually. In the late 1 9 t h century. social outcasts. This takes a form in most cultures. Cloth is the simple instrument with which she has conducted and ordered her universe. In music it can be felt in the diversity of plainsong and African d r u m m i n g . and c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Torn cloth This is one of two published photographs showing Marie Leib's torn cloth strips significantly placed on her cell floor. it is found in the regularity o f ordered lines or a pattern. they m a k e a visual a n d physical e c h o that t o u c h e s s o m e deep part of the human spirit. Germany. O p p o s i t e . and sufferers of psychiatric illnesses—who have always existed. It will protect the place from evil and make a pleasing invitation to good spirits. d i p p i n g h e r fingers into a pot o f rice flour. T h e s e p h o t o g r a p h s d o c u m e n t the meditative drawings o f two w o m e n living worlds apart in different countries. making objects and images outside o f mainstream culture. Compositional rightness (see pp. cultures. an a n o n y m o u s w o m a n in the southeast Indian state o f Tamil Nadu m a k e s a ritual drawing o n the b r i c k courtyard o f h e r h o m e . Lieb is one o f countless thousands of "Outsider" artists—diverse individuals including ordinary citizens. for e x a m p l e .228-29) has been adjusted with each movement of the rags to draw a cosmos of balance and perfection. Cell Floor With Torn Strips of Cloth 1894 MARIE LIEB .224 A B S T R A C T LINES Chants and Prayers WHEN ABSTRACT LINES are organized in repetition.
women pride themselves on never repeating a design.225 STEPHEN P. Painted Prayers UNDATED STEPHEN R HUYLER . or flowers are marked or arranged on the ground or on the walls of homes. animals. Materials such as rice flour.Theseare widely published in journals and are the subjects of international exhibitions.HUYLER Photographer art historian.000 images. Popular magazines feature new ideas each week and on special occasions there may be contests. among others. Huyler is the author of Painted Prayers. Motifs are geometrical or based on plants. chalk. and for over 30 years has traveled extensively through the Indian subcontinent creating an edited archive of 200. and birds. and in places of worship and celebration. Designs and motifs Rangoii (or mandalas) are ritual drawings made by many millions of women across rural India. at the University of London and Ohio State University. cultural anthropologist. In daily practice. lecturer on the subjects of Indian art and Indian women's identity. Skills are handed down through generations and from friend to friend. lime.
rocks or heads in a subdued atmosphere of dream. BRIAN CATLING British sculptor poet. Catling's torn paper shapes and shadows spill light out of their frame like a fractured mirror. performance and installation artist. but similarities in mood. it is ruled and contained in one dimension by its interlocking ink-lined borders. These two works present complex compositions with differing intensions and methods of making. free from the direct imaging of known physical things. and Fellow of Linacre College. structure. Untitled 2001 2001 153/4x 215/8 in ( 4 0 0 x 550 mm) BRIAN C A T L I N G . They each find their pathways and equilibrium in atmosphere and suggestion. Oval moons eclipse each other and oscillate between landforms and portraiture. Oxford. Mixed media This is a collage of torn white and gray tissue paper previously stained with ink. figurative representation—that is. With no depth of field. gold paint and iridescent gouache mixed with water. filmmaker Professor of Fine Art. Catling's works made for international galleries and museums involve drawing as a tool in their development and making. Their energy can therefore be a purer expression of an idea or emotion. Catling's abstract drawings are usually made in series and in parallel to written poetry and sculptural installations. Ruskin School.226 ABSTRACT LINES Compositions ABSTRACT DRAWINGS ARE LARGELY or entirely free from using the viewer's eye to track and unfold layers of meaning. and water-resistant layers of spray and enamel paint on thick paper. and choice of hues. Klee's mathematical maze of thinly washed surface resonates with meticulous planning.
and might be read as active or passive. drew. Klee also felt that a line represents the passing of time. and wrote copiously about the natures and relationships of color and form. Geometric harmony This is a work on paper made with a sharp ink pen. Klee painted. ruler.227 PAUL K L E E Swiss painter and sculptor (see also p.97-99. philosophized. It is a geometric harmony of straight lines and tonally graded flat colors that by their arrangement draw our eyes inward to their white center. whereas tonal surfaces are perceived more immediately as a whole. We can see some diagrammatic examples of this among the optical illusions on pp. Line and surface Klee observed the visual capacity of lines to push or pull within an image. Kunstmuseum Bern PAUL KLEE . Polyphon Gefasstes Weiss (White Framed Polyphonically) 1930 131/8x95/8 in (333 x 245 mm) Paul-Klee-Stiftung.31). watercolor. He explained his polyphonic painting as "a harmony of several color voices" searching for a visual parallel to music. and brush.
regardless of style. culture. but an easy o n e to u n d e r s t a n d . As y o u m o v e them around. or degree of figuration.Thisexercise will help you start. angles. or on a page. Set up a sheet of paper with a rectangle drawn on it. they reach a perfect position. In his b o o k The Education of a Gardener. they are just. after being continuously adjusted. and ten straight sticks painted black. It is found in all great art and design. the impression y o u receive from t h e m . Feel for it when youdraw. b u t e v e r y n o w a n d again you will hit on an arrangement w h i c h appears just. their impact. Seek it when looking at other artists' work and in your everyday environment. there is a clear feeling when. It is also found in nature. There is a single m o m e n t w h e n all proportions. "I have experimented endlessly with this idea. and elements settle in definitive balance. W h e n m o v i n g objects around in your yard. Take. s o m e will be more or less h a r m o n i o u s ." SETTING UP Justness can be harmonious or deliberately discordant. for instance. the late garden designer Russell Page explains. w i l l c h a n g e w i t h e v e r y r e a r r a n g e m e n t . This balance is what every artist and designer searches a n d feels for when making an image. "Whenall pictorial elements come together in pleasing and perfect balance. and put them o n a tray.228 ABSTRACT LINES Being "Just" A SENSE OF "JUST" (or rightness) is a difficult concept to explain." . M a n y of their inter-relationships will be meaningless. media. or home. and an apple. a glass. a b u n c h of keys.
horizontals dominate the top. In the final step (left) there is an even balance. A stick touching the rectangle links the composition to the frame." Move the sticks to find alignments and imagined perspectives.56-57). W h e n the composition falls into place. Feel for the rightness of their grouping and their relationships to surrounding spaces. painted black. which now becomes a tight frame. Within a rectangle on a flat sheet of paper set about making a composition using no other rule than a sense of "just. 2 3 In the step above. . fix it with glue. Arrange them so they touch or cross in a series of intersecting balances.229 WHERE TO START Take ten sticks of equal length. suggesting a horizon. as shown here. making the composition seem to float beneath. Remember the drawn rectangle is a part of the composition (see pp. Move the sticks out into the rectangle. horizontals dominate the lower area. Here. B E I N G "JUST" 1 Arrange your ten sticks in t w o groups of five.
Collage offers the artist a liberating palette of SETTING UP This lesson in collage is a direct continuation of the compositional lines made in the previous class.220." (Russell Page) ." overlapping placement of materials on a flat plane. colors and textures can be manipulated until their pictorial harmony. stain and dry a sheet of tissue paper using blueink. an infinite range of voices and meaning.. Cut or torn layers and shapes. hard or soft. ready-made depths and surfaces. glue.Youwill also need spare white paper. Images and fragments torn from day-to-day life can be brought together to make a chorus of ideas and emotions. This principal also applies to three-dimensional drawings such as Gaudi's work with wire and weights on p. Returning to Russell Page. To prepare for this lesson. scissors. which is the shifting. he went on to say ". correction fluid or white paint. feels "just" (see pp. "My understanding is that every object [or shape] emanates—sends out vibrations beyond its physical body which are specific to itself. and black ink. found or made items. Once the ten painted black sticks are set and glued in place. harmonious.69 and Abe's installation on p.228-29).230 ABSTRACT LINES Collage H E R E W E EXPERIMENT with collage.. and tones. you start composing by adding or subtracting shapes and textures and using colors and tones to achieve the impression you want to m a k e — w h e t h e r dramatic or s u b d u e d . or even strident. colors. a compass. they become a scaffold for the addition of further textures. or discordance.
and with a compass and scissors. Cut six small rectangles the same proportion as your whole image. and shadow to thepicture. Obscuring the blue disks. Glue them in place once they feel "just" Translucent circular disks of tissue paper give color tone. correction fluid and ink marks add further dimensions. This can also give a sense of fragmentation or punctuation to the composition.228) in front of you. .The single disk that is folded with its straight edge facing up appears heavier than those that are flat. draw. they deepen pictorial space. COLLAGE 1 Regular-sized pieces of white paper are moved over the surface to disrupt the even lines.231 WHAT TO DO Lay the final step of the previous lesson (p. In the last step (left). then cut out. four circles of blue tissue paper. 2 3 Torn white paper moved over the surface adds masks of rough-edged irregular volume. solidity.
is the practice of Zen through the calligraphic marks of a brush dipped in carbon ink. A MODERN JAPANESE meditative art form inspired by the teachings of Yamaoka Tesshu (1836-1888). . emotion. Zen Brushwork]. Hitsuzendo drawings aspire to "breathe with the energy and vitality of eternal life" achieved through "a state of no mind—beyond thought.Zen Calligraphy HITSUZENDO. and expectation." [Tanchu Terayama.
Lines made with a steel dip pen take on a scratchy nervousness. I flicked spatters of ink and rubbed the paper with a wet and a dry brush to achieve these effects.Nocturnes IN THIS QUARTET of semi-abstract drawings made with India ink. discord is balanced against rhythm to create mood. . These vibrate against washes of shadow and pitch-black mass.
or strange. . Feeding this demand. For example. all of which originated as hundreds of drawings. Humans are equally troubled by the imperceptibly small and the enormous. Star Wars. We watch with captivated pleasure movies such as The Fly. and damnation are found in most world faiths. wings. a Catherine wheel of drawn sparks spiraling around the quietly resolute saint. The salvation of heaven and terrors of hell are represented equally—enough to make any sinner shudder. movie studios now brim with as many monsters as the visual art of the Medieval and Renaissance Church. and stained-glass windows deliver powerful visual sermons to the once-illiterate populace. Reading the place name I momentarily glimpsed an alternative meaning. and the faces of God have for centuries given artists a feast for the extremes of their imagination. which were widely distributed and influential in his time. Monsters take advantage of both. When creating monsters. To learn to flex your imagination. and deep fur—and we alter their scale. paradise. Perhaps the Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 1485 121/4 x 9 in (312 x 230 mm) MARTIN SCHONGAUER most important conclusion in this final chapter is to advise you to develop your skills in parallel with the joy of your unfolding imagination. happen to us. beasts. a collaboration between the two will ensure that your drawings glow with originality. in the cracks of walls. We love our fear of the hybrid—ideally. aliens.Gods and Monsters OUR SACRED AND SECULAR need to visualize demons. we select details of animals farthest from ourselves and that are widely thought disturbing—reptilian and insect features. which is to have eaten a nun—it inspired the drawing on p. impossible. Depictions of God or of gods in the contexts of daily life. our literate and more secular Western society still hungers for another world and to ravenously indulge its fascination for the marvelous. look for images in the folds of clothing. sculptures. Schongauer is best known for his prints. Lord of the Rings. Images we are now surrounded by bear testimony to the power and resourcefulness of their collective imagination. In the Christian churches of Europe. or in smoke. thousands of paintings. angels. and the Alien trilogy. Here. feathers. Fantasy is most successful when founded on strong and familiar visual logic. Today. We then add substances we dislike: unidentified fluids. scales. a human-animal mix that implies this could MARTIN SCHONGAUER German painter and engraver who settled to work in Colmar Alsace. for example.247. Throughout this book images are presented to excite and surprise and drawing classes created to increase your confidence. our eye circulates around a flutter of leather and scaly wings. serpentine tails. Be inspired by the irrational comedy of word association or puns. England. I was on a train passing through Nuneaton. Neither should be slave or master.
his lover a dog. Goya's plainly textured gray background pushes back the space behind the illuminated simply subject. portraits.30. Opposite below. In this softer aquatint he poses for his portrait Textured background The aquatint process has been used to great effect in making a gritty toned background. reading from a book of asses. Los Caprichos. Visions experienced in front of the drawing sometimes instruct the making of a new one. F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A Spanish court painter printmaker and draftsman. to Picasso's similarly tight. noisy seascape on p. He would be graceless if he stood. and men clubbing each other to death. below. we see the international icon of stupidity. plain wall suggests a blinkered view of nothing. and follies of court through copious graphic works including his best-known prints. Paul Thomas's studies of Picasso and Twombly can be traced directly. hags. Pictorially. Francisco de Goya was a master of borrowing. They depict as if by lamplight the devil and witches. Goya later recorded the horrors of Napoleonic occupation. such asinine behavior can be hereditary. This continuity enriches the making of art and our heritage. Aquatint Goya has drawn a learned man as an ass. which can swamp the subject Here.240 GODS AND M O N S T E R S Marks of Influence marking the influence of one artist upon another. whose impassioned work begins with light tapestry cartoons. crammed tightly at his desk. Violent white marks symbolizing Achilles' rage resonate with the energy of Twombly's script on p. rushing. Other drawn versions of this image are more savage and frightening. Saturn devouring his son. deranged masses. The high. and church murals. The well-dressed mule is cumbersome. and exposed the superstitions. it allows the mule to stand forward. a Shoshone seeking guidance and power meditates at the sacred site of a petroglyph. The title "And So Was His Grandfather" adds that should we not already know.220. In this ass. Compare his dark. This act defines the vision and continues the line of spirit guides. Opposite. a wave to join Achilles' chase of Hector. Many students leave white backgrounds in their work. Near the end of his life he made his "Black Paintings" on the walls of his home. Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 1799 81/2 x 6 in (218 x 154 mm) FRANCISCO DE GOYA . vanity. barren land rising like MYRIAD CHAINS RUN THROUGH ART HISTORY. quoting great paintings and popular culture to add cunning twists to his satires.
Wyoming. meaning "place of power. or of the water Chipped image This is a sacred creature of the sky chipped onto rock at Dinwoody Lake. A vivid spectrum of energized graphite marks and a masterly composition give this drawing vitality and speed. White marks like flashes of light are cut though graphite with an eraser to reveal the paper beneath. Achilles Chases Hector 1996 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) PAUL THOMAS SHOSHONE PETROGLYPH The Shoshone people of Wyoming name petroglyph sites Poha Kahni. by a supplicant in a trance of meditation. Graphite marks Here Achilles chases Hector around the walls of Troy before killing him.241 MARKS OF INFLUENCE PAUL T H O M A S British contemporary artist whose epic graphic work questions and reflects upon issues of European identity." Each sacred image drawn into rock belongs to one of three realms in the Shoshone world: the realm of the sky. Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range UNDATED ARTIST UNKNOWN . It was made with a sharp implement. Thomas conducts his explorations in the mine of Greek and Roman mythology. and personal and social struggles. of the earth. ideals. Parallel lines within the body of the figure are likely to denote power. Wind River Reservation. perhaps a stone. Simple wall stones cleverly state their cold solidity while also fading from our attention as the scene roars by. values.
115. If it were to turn and stare this way. Redon's eyeball balloon rises up. The monsters of Bosch grew from his observations of beggars going about their trade in 15th. and writer In contrast t o the light and visual accent of contemporary Impressionism. as he did the grass. Techniques demonstrated on pp. to the right of the balloon. Lifting out Fine strings of the hot-air balloon appear dark against the sky and light against the balloon. Redon explored the darker side of the human imagination through symbols and mysticism. GODS AND Erasure In this charcoal drawing. graphic artist. ODILON REDON French painter draftsman. below left. Our subconscious can be drawn with pleasure and ease. Here we see how he evolved their injuries into new limbs and warped proportions. the shock would be extreme. We may feel safe so long as the eye looks heavenward. H e was influenced by his friends. They float toward us like a horrid visitation. we see parallel slanting pale marks that might have been made with fresh bread—a very effective eraser used before the wide availability of rubber or plastic. lifting its cranial passenger over a seascape of repose. T H E EXPLORATION AND DEPICTION Hauntings Grandville has drawn a scurrying zoo of half-known demons and animals that appear to have been stolen from the glass eye of the microscope.204-05 will enable you to produce a similar effect of white lines shining out of dark charcoal.242 MONSTERS of the unknown is a classical and constant occupation for the artist. crawl. Redon lifted them out with some sort of eraser. Compare worked textures throughout the whole of this image to those found throughout Anita Taylor's charcoal drawing on p.and 16th-century Holland. the writers Joris-Karl Huysmans and Stephane Mallarme. and scuttle over all known reality. which sometimes—half-dressed and carrying a familiar trophy— stride. Children are also delighted to invent a monster or ghoul. The Eye Like a Strange Mounts Balloon 165/8 x131/8in (422 x 332 mm) ODILON REDON 1882 Toward Infinity .
include The Haywain. HAUNTINGS Engraving This is an engraving made so that Grandville's original drawing could be reproduced. His other major works include Metamorphoses du Jour (1828).243 J E A N I G N A C E ISIDORE GERARD ("GRANDVILLE") French graphic artist and political satirist. sucker-faced creatures dash and trundle toward it They are drawn solidly to emphasize their earthbound weight. The quality of the line is therefore uniform throughout. A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects c. Most of his work is in the Prado Museum. which is still available today. Quill and ink This typical Bosch monster is a quill drawing in bistre ink The phrasing of light and contour here is masterly. Light shines from the right. and Ship of Fools. teeming with the exhilaration of unrestrained fantasy. Comic little headbands of waving hair express more hysteria than fear. Les Animaux (1840). Two Monsters UNDATED 45/8 x61/2in (117 x 163 mm) HIERONYMUS BOSCH . Smiling. Garden of Earthly Delights. Last Judgment. Madrid. and he illustrated the Fables of La Fontaine and Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe. 1840 61/8 x41/2in ( 1 5 5 x 1 1 5 mm) GRANDVILLE HIERONYMUS BOSCH Dutch painter Bosch's highly detailed iconographic religious panel paintings. This image is from one of Grandville's best-known publications. grimacing.
His entire drawing wrestles and weaves the viewer's eye into its retracting folds. and dying slaves. muscular tension is carved out of the paper using layered. and marble sculptures including Pieto. Michelangelo's dragon. phrased over the contours of form and bridging darker areas of shadow.244 GODS AND MONSTERS Convolutions THESE CONVOLUTED DRAWINGS were made almost 5 0 0 years apart. They share between them the pleasures of inventing a hybrid beast. David. and dog. Grimes' delicately cavorting figures dive into and consume each other. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI Florentine painter sculptor. the dome of the Vatican. architect. sometimes artists purposefully tie a knot in the configuration to disturb. St Peter's square. Chalk and ink A quill dipped in brown ink was worked over black chalk on this reused sheet. remembering the cavernous. Dragon 1522 10 x 133/8 in ( 2 5 4 x 3 3 8 m m ) MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI . Scaly. but in the seductive landscape of Leonardo da Vinci's oil painting Madonna of the Rocks. and play with its perfection and meaning. gamboling copulations. wraps and coils its lithe body ready to strike or whimper at a touch. poet. A snake eating its own tail is a universal image of the eternal and continuous. below. she formed a series of ghostly pale. Grimes found the genesis of her beast not among animals. topple. pinnacled. as we might expect. However. snake. Two previously drawn faces become humorous antagonists to the beast. In her studio. lion. and engineer Among Michelangelo's great works are the painted ceiling and altar wall of the Sistine Chapel. Opposite. and mist-swathed land. a stunning hybrid of a swan. hatched lines.
The image formed directly without first making a pencil outline. her under heavy here. boards finished paper. Grimes exhibits internationally and features in the collections of the New York Public Library and the Victoria and Albert Museum. London. The large space around figure has been cropped Grimes drawings to flatten presses them. It is one of a series of fragile earth figures inspired by rocks. Ink-wash delicately gouache (smooth) and gouache brushed drawing on This is a and was hot-pressed Shadows The dark shadow of the Other the ink-wash earth was made with a brushstroke of ink laid into wet paper. Oxford. details evolved slowly using a drier brush. How Clever of God #84 2002 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) O O N A GRIMES . and the Camberwell and Slade Schools of Fine Art. London.245 CONVOLUTIONS O O N A GRIMES British contemporary artist and professor of printmaking at the Ruskin School. each one iridescent and crumbly like a weathered while oyster.
246 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brushes T H E BRUSH IS A VOLUPTUOUS and delicate weights. 12. and hold prodigious weights of ink or paint. with a fine point for delicate work 4. all perfect for drawing and. SABLE-HAIR LINER: Made with ordinary sable hair surrounding an extralong. and has a fine tip for detailed work. 2. materials. the very opposite of pencil or silver point. 1. It is still relatively small in the total range of Japanese brushes. 7. How you care for your brushes will determine how long they last. washes. Suitable for wash techniques but also capable of very fine detail.Theyhold plenty of ink and make continuous. SYNTHETIC-HAIR BRUSH: Bound in a synthetic ferrule with good inkholding capacity and good spring and control. and never leave them standing on their tip in a jar of water. 13. this brush has a soft drawing tip and small ink-holding capacity. giving a variety of lines. L A R G E R S Y N T H E T I C . ideally suited to drawing. SQUIRREL-HAIR S W O R D LINER:This brush has a maximum ink-holding capacity and an extremely fine and flexible point 8." 6. drawing tool extending the arm. This design supplies the fine tip with a long continuity of ink 5. and effects. and wrist into a fluid and soft touch. dense. flowing. ink-laden tip allow an expression that is beyond the linear. S Y N T H E T I C . which holds long sable hair This brush holds large amounts of ink for long lines and points well for detailed work. Always clean them thoroughly. SMALL JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with sable hair. others are as fine as a whisker with a gentle touch. it has good wash capabilities. P O I N T E D T R A D I T I O N A L WRITER: The ferrule is made from a small duck quill. The living marks of a wet. liners. M T RA S AEIL . SYNTHETIC-HAIR S W O R D LINER: A lining brush with high ink-holding capacity and a fine point. The brushes shown here are a mixture of This is a selection of riggers. Shorter brushes designed for other purposes run out of ink more quickly.H A I R RIGGER: Made with long synthetic hair for fine-point work It has a good ink-holding capacity and is slightly more resilient than sable hair with more "snap. This brush has a broad wash capability and can achieve a very wide range of marks. Some are bold. it has good inkholding capacity and is very flexible. and writers. fingers. LARGER JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with natural hair held in a plastic ferrule on a bamboo handle. Some used by master calligraphers are 2-3 in (5-8 cm) in diameter 11. SYNTHETIC-HAIR LINER: This brush gives a medium line and is firm with a spring to the touch. 10. needle-sharp center of kolinsky red sable hair. between them. JAPANESE PAINTING BRUSH: Made with natural hair. 3.H A I R LINER: Very responsive oriental-style liner This to the touch. and texture. Brushes vary in size. return them to their pointed shape. SABLE-HAIR RIGGER: Made with very long kolinsky sable hairs. and very fine lines. POINTED SQUIRREL-HAIR MOP: With a synthetic quill ferrule and extra high inkholding capacity. It is capable of very fine pointing. It has exceptional painting characteristics. making rt ideally suited to Japanese painting and small-scale calligraphy. shape. thicknesses. Soaps purchased from good art supply stores will gently cleanse particles of pigment that become trapped in the hairs or ferrule. Slightly less flexible than the squirrel-hair sword liner 9.
247 BRUSHES .
b l o w i n g h a r d o n t h e m several t i m e s t o disperse t h e ink ( c l o s e y o u r eyes if y o u t r y this. softness. unglazed earthenware dish. the degree of pressure applied. A single brush has almost balletic potential to draw fine or undulating lines and curves. the speed of the s t r o k e .248 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brush Marks A S I N G L E BRUSH will m a k e an e n o r m o u s range of m a r k s depending u p o n the width. and spatters. I rubbed a block of Chinese ink (see p.) I . length.246-47). Here I drew with a soft Japanese painting brush (see pp. and above all w h e t h e r the b r u s h is saturated with pigment or relatively dry. SETTING UP Blowing spots T h e s e t h r e e s p i d e r y c r e a t u r e s (above right and below) w e r e m a d e by d r o p p i n g s p o t s o f ink f r o m a b r u s h o n t o t h e p a g e and. I had left the end of the ink block in the water overnight to make it easier to dissolve. the texture and a b s o r b e n c y of the paper ( w h i c h m a y be d a m p or dry). w i t h m y face close.35) into two tablespoons of water in a shallow. It also depends on the angle at w h i c h it is held. splashes. and type of its hairs. and to make pools and stains o n the page.
b l e e d i n g f r o m strokes b e l o w left. . a n d b r u s h .249 Gritty texture T h e details o f t h e largest creatures b e l o w and opposite s h o w the granular texture of Chinese b l o c k ink. BRUSH MARKS Wet and dry strokes A m o n g these concentrated drawings ink made into with the same w a t e r y lines. a n d t h e w a y it d i s t r i b u t e s w h e n t h e b r u s h is d a b b e d o n its s i d e . w e see fine lines and s p o t s . t h e effects of the b r u s h r u n n i n g o u t o f ink.
and used their detail to draw new creatures that might at first seem familiar. .Monsters THESE LITTLE CREATURES o f i n k and i n v e n t i o n were b o r n out of animal and bird studies. I borrowed small and fragile specimens from the University Museum of Natural History. Oxford. until we look again.
Isidore. They are a pair and hang opposite each other. I found relationships between all four paintings in terms of shapes. are two long. Through studying and drawing these great paintings I have discovered that they are based on a pair of similarly long. thin works titled The Witches' Sabbath and The Procession of St. . With further research. showing us that gallery study is not just for the student and beginner. two of my own drawings show you how Goya's devil (below) is based on the shape of Murillo's boy on a horse (top right). Among his "Black Paintings" in the Prado Museum. thin works made by Bartolome Murillo in Seville about 120 years earlier. and narrative twists.Goya's Monsters W I T H CUNNING BRILLIANCE. Here. Goya often invented his monsters out of characters seen in other painters' works. Madrid. Goya's witches have been literally drawn and evolved out of the shapes of Murillo's prophet and pilgrims. formal composition.
Consumed THIS IS A SERIES OF CARTOONS I m a d e s o m e years ago. little comments on politeness and sexual politics. Sometimes drawings come out of nowhere and surprise even the artist. . drawn rapidly and with great joy.
as o p p o s e d t o t h e s t r a i g h t e d g e o f a sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has b e e n machine-trimmed.256 GLOSSARY Glossary Accidental drawing Random. t o g e t h e r w i t h a t h i c k felt b l a n k e t T h e w h o l e s a n d w i c h o f l a y e r s is t h e n railed t h r o u g h t h e press t o m a k e a p r i n t D r y p o i n t is a very portable and immediate m e t h o d o f printmaking. usually at a n a c u t e angle t o t h e s u r f a c e . F r o m t h e G r e e k kallos. S o m e t i m e s f e r r u l e s a r e m a d e o f plastic o r o t h e r materials.m e d i a d r a w i n g . A l s o called m u s e u m g r a d e . T h e m o v e m e n t was started by a g r o u p o f French artists including H e n r i Matisse. s u c h as a s c r e e n . Deckle edge T h e i r r e g u l a r e d g e o f a s h e e t o f m o l d . T h e prints t a k e n from t h e s e plates o r blocks. F r o m t h e French v e r b coller. so t h a t ink r e m a i n s o n l y in t h e g r o o v e s o f s c r a t c h e d lines. o f t e n d i s t o r t e d forms and vivid colors. Cartoon 1. A l s o c a l l e d t h e h o r i z o n line. U s e d as a c o r r e c t i n g device o r pictorial game. p r i n t i n g press face up." " N o t " p r e s s e d p a p e r is r o l l e d a s e c o n d t i m e w i t h o u t blankets t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders t o p r o d u c e a s m o o t h e r b u t still slightly t e x t u r e d s u r f a c e . Binder A substance t h a t holds particles o f p i g m e n t t o g e t h e r in a paint f o r m u l a t i o n . t h e l i g h t is b e h i n d h i m o r her. s u c h as a d r a w i n g o r painting. Conservation grade D e s c r i b e s a range o f materials t h a t d o n o t d e c a y and cannot be broken d o w n by insects. Ferrule T h e s h o r t m e t a l t u b e t h a t s u r r o u n d s a n d g n p s t h e hairs o f a p a i n t b r u s h a n d fixes t h e m t o t h e brush handle. w h e n a p e r s o n is p a i n t e d standing a g a i n s t a w i n d o w . Contre jour A F r e n c h t e r m m e a n i n g " a g a i n s t day. t h e field is t h e a p p a r e n t a n d b e l i e v a b l e space inside t h e p i c t u r e . and readymade objects arranged and stuck o n t o a flat surface. in w h i c h t h e subject's distinctive features o r peculiarities are deliberately exaggerated f o r c o m i c o r g r o t e s q u e effect.c e n t u r y painting m o v e m e n t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e use o f b o l d . a n d g r a p h i t e . A p o t e n t i a l l y h a r s h m e t h o d o f p r o d u c i n g t o n e s in a d r a w i n g . D a m p p a p e r is laid o n t o p . In t h e Far East calligraphy is a highly r e s p e c t e d a r t f o r m . Anamorphic distortion Stretching an i m a g e across a p i c t u r e surface so t h a t it can o n l y b e u n d e r s t o o d . A g e n e r a l t e r m t h a t describes t h e various processes o f c u t t i n g a design i n t o a plate o r b l o c k o f m e t a l o r w o o d . Air brush A mechanical. Blending M e r g i n g t w o o r m o r e neighboring colors o r tones t o g e t h e r using a tortillon. Collage C o l l e c t e d materials such as c o l o r e d p a p e r s . in w h i c h parts o f an image are depicted v e r y brightly and dramatically against d a r k n e s s . Composition T h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e p a r t s o f an i m a g e t o m a k e u p the whole. 2. A f u l l . for example. Aerial perspective The effect of the a t m o s p h e r e o v e r distance as it lightens t o n e s a n d cools c o l o r s progressively t o w a r d t h e horizon. Chiaroscuro A 1 7 t h . Fixative Liquid acrylic resin a n d l a c q u e r t h i n n e r usually a p p l i e d as a n a e r o s o l s p r a y m i s t t o t h e surface o f a d r y . C o p p e r p l a t e engravings w e r e widely used t o r e p r o d u c e images b e f o r e p h o t o g r a p h y . r a t h e r t h a n r e c o r d e d o n a film o r plate.m a d e paper. pressurized t o o l used f o r spraying fine mists o f s m o o t h c o l o r P i g m e n t is d e l i v e r e d b y a j e t o f air n o t t h e bristles o f a brush. In t h e W e s t p e n calligraphy is u s e d t o c r e a t e f o r m a l a n d d e c o r a t i v e t e x t s . Fixative lightly glues t h e d r a w i n g t o t h e surface o f t h e p a p e r t o p r e v e n t smudging. Acid-free paper P a p e r w i t h a neutral p H t h a t will n o t darken o r d e t e r i o r a t e excessively w i t h age. A l s o called r i n g l e t shading." It w a s first given t o t o n a l paintings m a d e in o n e c o l o r — s e e Grisaille. Erasure T h e a c t o f r e m o v i n g a n i m a g e f r o m a surface. Eye level T h e i m a g i n a r y h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e a t t h e s a m e h e i g h t as t h e a v e r a g e p e r s o n ' s eyes.d i m e n s i o n a l i m a g e .s i z e d r a w i n g m a d e for t h e purpose o f transferring a design t o a painting. o r o t h e r (usually large) w o r k — s e e Pouncing. 2. It is p u t o n a Body color See Gouache. m e a n i n g " t o stick" Dry media M e d i a t h a t a r e n o t w e t o r o i l y — f o r e x a m p l e . A h u m o r o u s d r a w i n g o r parody. Calligraphy Beautiful h a n d w r i t i n g . T h e name " n o t " simply refers t o t h e fact t h a t t h e cylinders are n o t h o t in t e m p e r a t u r e . w h e n v i e w e d f r o m a specified point. a r e r o l l e d t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders. Bracelet shading C u r v e d parallel lines t h a t f o l l o w t h e c o n t o u r s o f f o r m . T h e b l a n k e t s g i v e t h e p a p e r its rough texture o r "tooth. written with a broad-nibbed pen o r brush. Bleed T h e e f f e c t o f t w o w e t colors running into one another o r o n e color applied t o a w e t surface a n d a l l o w e d t o d i s p e r s e . chance mark-making. Camera obscura A d a r k e n e d c h a m b e r i n t o w h i c h an i m a g e o f w h a t is o u t s i d e is received t h r o u g h a small o p e n i n g o r lens a n d f o c u s e d in natural c o l o r o n a facing surface. A i r b r u s h e s are u s e d in t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c o m i c s . Camera lucida A n optical device t h a t p r o j e c t s an image o f an o b j e c t o n t o a plain s u r f a c e so t h a t it can be traced. Crosshatching Parallel lines d r a w n across o n e a n o t h e r at right angles. pastel. o r will o n l y a p p e a r n o r m a l . Field In a t w o . Blotting T h e use o f a b s o r b e n t m a t e r i a l t o lift a w a y excess liquid. Engraving 1. R e m b r a n d t is a great master o f chiaroscuro. p h o t o g r a p h s . Fauvism A n early 2 0 t h . It can also seal a silver p o i n t d r a w i n g t o p r e v e n t t h e oxidization (browning) o f t h e Drypoint A d r a w i n g is s c r a t c h e d directly o n t o a m e t a l plate w i t h a m e t a l t o o l h e l d like apen. tapestry." D e s c r i b e s a p a i n t i n g in w h i c h t h e light s o u r c e is b e h i n d t h e s u b j e c t F o r e x a m p l e . charcoal. Also called accelerated perspective. m e a n i n g "beauty". See also Hotpressed papers. n e w s p a p e r cuttings. p r a c t i c e d meditatively w i t h a brush. a n d given t h e n a m e Sho. L a t e r it c a m e t o m e a n h i g h l y c o n t r a s t e d light effects. W o r d s o r symbols are Cold-pressed papers P a p e r manufactured with a "not" o r " r o u g h " surface. linseed oil o r egg y o l k Caricature A representation Contour line A line t h a t f o l l o w s t h e s h a p e o f a surface. R o u g h p a p e r is m a d e b e t w e e n t w o blankets t h a t . a n d attaches t h e m t o t h e s u p p o r t — f o r example.c e n t u r y Italian t e r m m e a n i n g "clear-obscure.The plate is t h e n r o l l e d w i t h ink a n d polished with a rag. A " s h a l l o w d e p t h o f field" m e a n s t h e p i c t u r e appears t o have only a shallow s p a c e inside i t Diffuse T o s o f t e n o r m a k e less brilliant.
mineral. it is the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work Pigment Any substance used as a coloring agent—for example. Negative space The space between things. and orientation of the image. This effect emulates what we see in real life. glass. materials that produce marks on a surface. Fugitive A term given to a pigment that it is not stable. but in picture-making it is as important as the objects/subjects themselves. Grisaille is occasionally seen in church stained-glass windows. so that (using vanishing point perspective) the object appears to change shape and become narrower or smaller as it recedes. but each print will be unique. It improves the bonding properties Frottage A French term meaning "rubbing. or spirit-based) is applied to a surface that is then pressed onto paper and removed to leave a print. to give the illusion of depth and distance. then rubbed over carefully but vigorously with a crayon. and translucent paper—a delicate material used in collage. Impressing Stamping or printing. and it has a history in enamel work. It can be used with any wet media to isolate or protect parts of an image from further Optical blending See Pointillism. aiming to represent facts rather than an interpretation of the subject. white. Usually an academic drawing observed from life. rock. It is a strong adhesive. Also used by artists' materials manufacturers to indicate the use of a substitute pigment—for example. Also refers to an additive used to control the application properties of a color Golden Section A proportion in which a straight line or rectangle is divided into two unequal parts in such a way that the ratio of the smaller part to the greater part is the same as that of the greater part to the whole. The surface can be reloaded or redrawn with more medium. Hairspray is an effective and inexpensive alternative. Hatching (cross-) See Crosshatching. F o r m The outer surface of a three-dimensional object. Plumb line A line from which a weight is suspended in order to determine verticality or depth.257 metal line. Alternatively. Artists can paint freely over dry masking fluid. Pointillism A technique of using points or dots of pure color in such a way that when the picture is viewed from a distance they react Masking tape Invaluable. multiH u e A term for a color. with the area beneath remaining unaffected. to describe a surface to which paint will adhere readily. Objective drawing Refers to the concept of objectivity. Monoprinting A direct method of printing in which wet medium (water-. Lifting out A method of creating highlights and mid-tones in a drymedia drawing (such as charcoal or graphite). Lightfast A term confirming that pigment in the product will not fade with exposure to light. This may be disregarded in real life. used for fixing paper to walls and boards. Medium A generic term for art Key A painting is said to be "high key" when the colors and tones are bright and "low key" when they are dark or somber The term is also used Gouache Opaque watercolor Also called body color.while secretion of the acacia tree. shape. graphite. purpose. Rubens used grisaille to paint small images for engravers. which give it a smooth surface (as opposed to cold-pressed paper. Gamut A complete range or extent Glassine A type of thin. Foreshortening A method of depicting an object at an angle to the surface of the picture. F o r m a t T h e size. This method incorporates the excitement of accidental and unpredicted marks. or a drawing made in any single color GLOSSARY Linear perspective A form of perspective in which parallel lines are represented as converging. Paper is then pressed against the stone to take a print. of the ingredients in inks and watercolors. Masking fluid Clear or opaque latex fluid developed for watercolor painting. including Max Ernst used frottage in their work." A piece of paper is placed on top of an object or rough surface. Giotto's Virtues and Vices in the Arena Chapel. Lithography A method of printmaking in which a drawing or painting is made directly onto a smooth slab of particular limestone or a metal plate using an oilbased crayon or ink. the surface of the stone is made wet before being rolled with a thin film of oilbased printing ink. or can be otherwise used to create an image—for example. enabling them to stick to paper It also helps to maintain a stable dispersion of pigment particles in water as the film of a wash dries. Grisaille A painting in gray or a grayish color Often made by students as a tonal exercise. or synthetic material that are suspended in a medium to constitute paint. 2. ink. the finely ground particles of plant. or canvas and allowed to dry before an image is drawn or painted. Dark tones are laid down first then an eraser or masking tape is used to lift away particles of the drawing media to reveal the lightness of the paper beneath. cadmium yellow hue. are painted in grisaille and appear to be made of stone.The degree to which detail is defined. Monochrome Usually refers to a black. . or plastic surface. lifting out charcoal and other dry media. format" (abbreviated to "portrait").Theground provides a particular color or texture beneath the image. which has a rough surface). oil-based printing ink is rolled evenly onto a smooth metal. and by artists representing stone sculptures in a painting. oil-. pastel. and masking off areas of a drawing that the artist wishes to keep untouched by media applied above or beside the tape. Paper is laid on top and a rapid drawing is made on the back of it The paper lifts away to reveal the image on its other side. Hot-pressed papers (HP) Paper made using hot cylinders. Focus 1 . upright images are called "portrait which is used as a binding agent in many liquid media. sticky paper tape. Ground A wet solution usually of gouache or gesso (chalk and animal glue) brushed onto paper board.The paper then bears a crayon impression or copy of the surface that was underneath it A number of Surrealists. or even a beam of light. and gray drawing. glossy. and is also used as a size. Papercut A type of collage in which flat sheets of paper are cut into an image. work. or a family of colors. Picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. It is then peeled away. A point of interest in a drawing. Padua. A small image might be described as small format Horizontal images are often said to be "landscape format" (abbreviated G u m arabic The natural to"landscape"). The ink attaches to the oil-based image and is repelled by the wet stone. After several intervening processes. and that will "escape" or change over time. or for wrapping and protecting a finished piece of work.
acrylic. The translucent Tint A color mixed with white. by imposing a grid that is then scaled up to a larger size. Props An abbreviation of the word properties. in tone running from black to white or vice versa. or ceramic glazing to reveal a different color beneath. sometimes drawn from a and leaving only the pricked sheet of shadow cast on a wall. or gouache. Tortillon A short. watercolor. Size A weak glue used for filling the porous surface of wood or canvas in order to seal it. The crude material is called oleoresin. Sketch A quick or rough drawing. . paper or canvas. Spattering A mottled texture produced by drawing your fingers across the bristles of a stiff brush loaded with pigment. plaster or cloth surface beneath. in order to flick the pigment onto the image surface. fine paper. whose pinpricks creates a "connect-thepersonal pastime was making dots" replica of the image on the cut-out portraits. evolved by engineers and architects for the purpose of conveying W a t e r c o l o r A painting accurate structural information. using a brush. Zen brushwork This is an oriental meditative art form originating in China and practised for many centuries in Japan. pointed roll of white paper that is used to blend dry media. Zen paintings usually depict scenes of nature and plants such as bamboo. Tone A degree of lightness or darkness. wall or tapestry. plaster. Strip Core of a pencil. and paperweights. Sfumato An Italian term meaning "smoky. Squeegee A rubber-trimmed scraper used in the screenprinting process for dragging ink across a surface. glasses. a sheet of paper is placed beneath and pinpricks are Silhouette A flat. or the left-hand page in a book. usually diluted with water and applied with a brush. Technical drawing A universal it is often used in conjunction language of lines and measurements with line drawings in pen and that is used to make diagrammatic ink—for images. fruit. Viewpoint The position from which something is observed or considered. Zen brushwork encompasses calligraphy and painting. Volume The amount of space occupied by an object or an area of space in itself. Shade A that is color mixed (or toned) with black Shading A lay term for adding tone to a drawing. orchids. meaning objects used in setting up a life model or still life. or point on which parallel lines converge to give the impression of receding space." Materials for Zen brushwork include round brushes of varied size. Wash A technique using ink.Thedrawing is removed. Pounce (a fine for an unpopular 18th-century powder of charcoal or similar French politician. or pen. cut-out profile made along every outline of the usually made in black paper image. Zen A school of Mahayana Buddhism that asserts that enlightenment can come through meditation and intuition rather than faith. to model areas of light and shade. Named paper in place. nature of watercolor allows the white surface of the paper to Tonal scale A scale of gradations shine through. Support The structure on which an image is made—for example. a point at which receding parallel lines meet Verso The back or underside of a piece of paper. creating more vibrant effects than if the same colors were physically mixed together with a brush. plum blossom. compound of water-soluble pigment. commonly referred to as the lead. Artists' prints are normally made in multiple. or watercolor paint. Stippling Applying color or tone in areas of fine dots or flecks. pointed instrument used for marking or engraving. tight. Subjective drawing A drawing that expresses the personal view and interpretation of the artist An invented image. Alternatively. Turpentine A colorless solvent distilled from the resinous sap of pine trees. such as an inscribed sheet of metal. or wood. Recto The front or top side of a piece of paper. a tightly folded piece of cotton batting can be used for the same effect. or any physical object that can be stamped or pressed onto a surface to leave an impression.258 GLOSSARY together optically. A term borrowed from the theater. Scale Describes the size of one element in relation to another Sepia A brown pigment taken from the sun-dried ink sacs of cuttlefish and used to make ink or watercolor The term is now often incorrectly used to refer to brown colors. and flowers. an ink stone usually cut from slate. Stylus A sharp. ink. pencil. Pouncing If a large drawing or design (called a cartoon) is to be Shadow Darkness cast by the transferred to a surface such as a obscuring of light. Still life A picture composed of inanimate objects such as bowls. W e t media Any liquid media— for example. "Spirits" or "oil" of turpentine refer to the volatile portion used by artists to thin or dilute oil-based paint. Printmaking The act of making a picture. giving it a brilliance. or mark using an inked or pigment-covered surface." Applied to the blurring or softening of sharp outlines by the subtle and gradual blending of one tone into another Sgraffito A technique of scratching or cutting through a surface of paint. Squaring up A method of enlarging and transferring an image from one surface to another. Although drawings can be made with wash alone. Serigraphy Silk-screen printing. Single-point perspective The most basic form of linear perspective in which there is only one vanishing point. or the right-hand page in a book. design. carbon ink. Etienne de material) dabbed through the Silhouette (1709-67). and chrysanthemum—which in Chinese tradition are called "The Four Gentlemen. Underdrawing A pale preliminary drawing made prior to adding layers of another medium such as oil paint or watercolor Value The extent to which a color reflects or transmits light This is the equivalent of tone in a black and white image.Technicaldrawing has been example. Vanishing point In linear perspective. which are then called editions.
74. 244 and graphite 178 . 98. Jean Michel 138 Self-Portrait 138 Bateau-Vision.31 Picasso's horse and bird 30. 81 135. 94 chalk(s) 53. 9. cut Catling. to depict 156-157 Cloudburst of Material Possessions (Leonardo) 200. 222. 203 Landline 202. 165.27 turtles 42-43 aquatint 240 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels (Leonardo) 12. 74 brush (es) 246-247 Japanese 248 for laying a wash 140 marks 248-249 to hold 23 brush drawings 14-15 Bryan. 198. 180 blending: color 133.163 dry media 205 Blue Nude (Matisse) 110. 158.184. 241 action. Etienne-Louis 72 Newton's Cenotaph 72. Georges 67. 50. 71 Bacchante (Bakst) 155 background: color 91 textured 240 Baker Matthew: Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry 32 Bakst. 204-205. 157 cropping 56-57. 94 cylindrical objects. 180 Circular Score for "Due Voce" (Bussotti) 223 circus scenes 192-195 City (Bryan) 202. 74. 190 Caricature of a Woman (Daumier) 198. 242 Brunelleschi. Augustin 67 Basquiat. to draw 100 Cypripedium calceolus L.89. 200 Bauer. 75 Circle of the Lustful (Blake) 180. Giovanni 137 Head and Shoulders of a Man 136.44-45.169 colors: airbrushed 161 background 91 A Abe.163 body. 90 La Guitare. Nicolas-Jacques 54 contours 146. 230-231 Cubist 90.184. 13. 28 Klee's horses 30. to express 39. 204. 243 botanical drawing 48-49 Boullee.44-45 bird studies 12. 116.13. 13 architectural drawing 67-71 Arctic Flowers (Libeskind) 70. 202 cloth. 70 Art Nouveau motifs 91 Autoportrait (Ray) 138. 30 sleeping dog 38-39 Stubbs's horse skeleton 26. 206. 203 Claude Lorrain 202 Views from Velletri 202. 52 cotton swabs 205 Coup de Vent a Asajigabare (Hokusai) 198. 242 to blend 205 compressed 122.163 graded 227 composition 56-57.186 see also movement Adoration of the Magi perspective study (Leonardo) 74. 182. 113 bird bones 12. 38-39. 221 animals. Clare 203 City 202. 220. 111. Mamaru 104. 133. Le (Hugo) 200. 244 head and neck 144 phrased 124-125 contrast: brightness 99 of media 30 tonal 96. layers 53 chalk pastels 162. 193 in lifting out 204. 78 aerial perspective 206 airbrushing 160. 72 bracelet shading 122 Braque. 163.162 Conte. 29 Hugo's octopus 28. Brian 226 Untitled 2001 226 "Cave of the Hands" (Cueva de las Manas) 8. 203 Buffalo Hunt (Shoshone) 178. 179 Bussotti.50. Joseph 113 The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland 112. 160 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object (Moore) 178. 226-227 Acanthus spinosus 65 accelerated perspective 22. 40-41 Durer's rhinoceros 26.Index Page numbers in italics refer t o captions and illustrations Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity (Bishndas and 259 INDEX B bread (as eraser) 205. Leon: Bacchante 155 balance. Basilius 47 Beuys. 230 The Physical Space 220 abstract drawing 219. Filippo 67.100 curves. Victor: West Facade of the Church of St. 75.51 All and Nothing (Taylor) 114. 81 cut-out model plan 94. Zen c 232-233 blended 133. (Ross-Craig) 49 to hold brush for 23 caricature 159. 139 Nanha) 50.115 anatomical drawing 134-135 anatomical theaters 82-83 anatomical waxes 128 ancient carvings 221. 198 cartoon (preparatory drawing) 137 (satirical) 159. 205 Baltard. 95 Chair Cut Out (Woodfine) 94. 247-248 carving see lines. 161 Akhlaq-I Rasul Allah manuscript 51. 26 geese 38-39 Gericault's cats 28. 223 Circular Score for "Due Voce" 223 children's art 9. 9 Chair (Van Gogh) 94. Sylvano 222. 134 costume(s) 155 character 158-159 structure of 166-167 Cottage Among Trees (Rembrandt) 52. 199 Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya (Eisen) 156. William: The Circle of the Lustful 180. to draw 80. 90 colored materials 162-163 colored pencils 162. Statue d'Epouvante 90 calligraphy. 186 charcoal 114.133. to draw 25. 41 principal 186. 137 Besler. 90. center of 118 ballpoint 182.226.198. 250 Bishndas and Nanha: Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity 50. 201 collage 111. 206 checkered floor 80. 90. 128. 71 Blake.212 to erase 205 to hold 23 pencils 204 willow 114. Hieronymus 243 Two Monsters 242. 162 character: to capture 38-39. 8 cave paintings 8. 189. Franz 48 Protea nitida 48 Bellini. 71 conte 112. 178 Cubism 67.117 Achilles Chases Hector (Thomas) 240. to model 110-111 border 51 Bosch.
77 How Clever of God #84 244. 144 Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (Baker) 32. Robert 93 Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 92. 131 Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 240. 230 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction 68. 240 Black Paintings 152. 112. 161 changing 216 Focusing on the Negative (Walter) 16 foliage 52. to draw 120.216 Durelli.104. 37 Grandville 243 A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the Near-Microscopic World of Scale Insects 242.184 165.216. position of 143. Nicholas 68 St Paul's Baptistry 68 head and neck to draw 142-145 Head and Shoulders of a Man (Bellini) 136. 71 minimal line 99 and music 70-71 quick 38-39. 226-227 anatomical 134-135 architectural 67-71 botanical 48-49 brush 14-15 dark to light 102.97. 32 framing 139 Franfoise au Bandeau (Picasso) 132. 241 to blend 205 and chalk 178 and ink 28.111 feet. 29 H hands. 55. 222.115 exploratory 17 fantasy 72-73. 160 as ground for metal point 140.John 157 Man Lying Down in a Cloak 156. 7 33 Hooke. 216 foreshortening 110.260 INDEX D Dada 139 Daumien Honore 198 Caricature of a Woman 198. 69. 162 Flaxman.166 170-173 Gestalt 222 Giacometti. 122 Hawksmoor.244. 122. to draw 134-137 Helleborus corsicus 55 highlights 91. to suggest 177 see also perspective diagonals diffuser 55 dip pens 34. Alberto 136 Portrait of Marie-Laure de Noailles 136. Keisai 157 The Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya 156.160. 26 Flying Fish (White) 25. 41 in the round 208-209 with scalpel 202. M.109 Rhinoceros 26. 93 eye level 80 Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity. 245 layers 30 Goya.141. 223 graphite 54.69 Gerard. 99 etching. 25 focus 65.146 from masterworks 126-127. drypoint 181 exaggeration 184 expressionism 198 E ye and Head of a Drone Fly (Hooke) 92.102-103 drawing board 20 drawing books 20-21 drawing paper 144.189. 765 hitsuzendo drawings 233 Hokusai. 30 Fauves/fauvism 90. 135 Duren Albrecht 26. Antonio 68. 222 Le Bateau-Vision 200. 141 tonal 96. 170-173.198 Degas. 113. 55. Oona 245 How Clever of God #84 244. 240. Victor 200. 52 foreground 208.157 ellipses 100. 115 Escher. Edgar 162 depth. 134. Statue d'Epouvante. 124. 252 depiction of fabric monsters 252-253 Self Portrait in a Cocked Hat 130. 136 Golden Section 67 Gombrich. disposable pens 182-183 dissections: botanical 48 of horse 27 distance: illusion of see perspective linear 97 tonal 97 Documents Decoratifs. proportions of 143 fantasy drawings 72-73.117 fountain pens 34.37. Rene 160 Illustration for Jacques Fath E easel. 202. Sir Ernst 12. 157 . 163. to draw 168-169 in Goya's artworks face.112. C . The 242.252-253 from memory 183. 190 Middle Eastern 50-51. 69. 161 fashion 160. La (Braque) 90. 104-105.116.Theodore 29 Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 28. 73. 55. 163.144 and ink 30. 223. 242 eyes. 40. Francisco de 131.103.101 engraving 243 erasers/erasing 55.244 drawing(s): abstract 219. 205 drawing with 103. 160 Faune.141. 222 Grimes. 799 Holbein. 203 Hotel de la Suzonnieres (Satie) 70. 91 Dragon (Michelangelo) 36.230 three-tone 140. 200 F fabric. 161 fashion drawings 160.121 felt-tip pens 162. fiber-tip pen 182. 69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt 68. 203 semi-abstract 234-237 three-dimensional 68.207. 160 hitsuzendo 233 light to dark 102. Cheval et Oiseau (Picasso) 30. Hans 133 The Ambassadors 116 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 132. 90 gouache 30. 160 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction (Gaudi) 68. 125.91. 132 Frenz. Ron 161 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 161 160. 120. 245 Gruau. 134. Jean Ignace Isidore see Grandville Gericault. to draw 78. 245 Hugo. 243 graphic score 222. Study for Plate 59 (Mucha) 90. 79. Katsushika 199 Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 198. Antonio 135 Muscles of the Head and Neck 134. position of 22 Eisen.160. 90 G Gaudi. 69 Guitare.103 with eraser 103. 220 dry brush 234 234 57. 134. 240 170-173 five Ships in a Port with Lighthouse (Wallis) 11. 93 horizon 52. 137 heads.12 fixative 54.
177 influences.227 to "bend" straight 97 compositional 228-229 cut 202. 756 priming for 140. apparent 97 Leonardo da Vinci 74.166 La Specola. 789.276. 78 Study ofThree Male Figures 110.The (Robinson) 108. Florence 128 lighting in 167 Pitt Rivers. Oxford 250 music 70-71 Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks (Knopf) 32. 203. Gustav 49 Knopf. 33 J justness 228-229 N naive art 74 negative space 53. Kathe 181 Losbrunch (The Outbreak) 180.141 Metropolis (film) 72. 72. Madrid 171 University Museum of Natural History. 226 Modernism 67. 220. Victor 134 Profile Head 134. 183 vertical 156 linear distance 97 linear perspective 69. I Murderous Attacks 33 Kollwitz. 244 Dragon 36. artistic 240-241. 77 Miller. 181 luminosity 115 Lynch. 220. 99. 221 endless 31 free 113. 159 Japanese 35 to make 36 sepia 35 walnut 36. 53 Tree II 52.167 line(s) 132. 178 motifs: A r t Nouveau 9 7 stylized 51 mountains 216-217 movement: of animals 30-31 of humans 7 79. Marie 244 cloth drawing 244. 97 Murillo. 160 In the Duchess's Kitchen (Rackham) 176. 219 Mondrian. 103 Neolithic chalk tablet 220.243 carbon 35 Chinese 30. 13 Cloudburst of Material Possessions 200. Phyll: hands 18 lifting out 204. 58-59. 205 masterworks.96. 63. 220. Daniel 70 Arctic Flowers 70 Lieb. 110 Sistine Chapel ceiling 116 Middle Eastern drawing 50-51. Bartolome: Moses Striking the Rock ofHoreb 252. 220. 34-35 acrylic 35 bistre 35. 225 masking tape 204. 185 Mucha. 248. 181 Klee. 205. 31 Klimt. 163 pens 36 measuring 116 memory.182 Moore. Matisse. 76 Libeskind. Erich 73 design for Metropolis 72. 230 invented creatures 106-107 250-251 invented objects 89.141.Pieuvre (Octopus) 28. 190 metal pens see dip pens metal point 25. Piet 52. 203 landscape 206-208 brushed 14 Landscape in Hoboku Style (Sesshu) 14 layers 146 chalk 53 gouache 30 ink 28. 35. 242 light 96 to depict drawing with 1 76 painting with 176 . 156 magnification 93 Man in Armor (Van Dyck) 158. Johan 32. 135 museums 44. 36. 176. 201 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels 12. 201 head and neck sections of female mold for Sforza Horse 89 Madonna of the Rocks 244 perspective study for Adoration of the Magi 74. 111. 244 lithograph 198 Losbruch (Kollwitz) 180. Rose: Tantalus or the Future of Man 20 minimal line drawing 99 mirror use of 120 mixed media 28.112. David 78 M Mackintosh.109. drawing from 183. 166. drawing from 126-127.109. 252 ink 16. 252 Muscles of the Head and Neck (Durelli) 134. Henri 111 Blue Nude 1110. 28 Two Impressions from a Cut-out Paper Disk 222 Huyler Stephen R 225 261 Kinecar. 83 white 122 ink impressions 222 ink spatters 234 installations 176.181 L Landline (Bryan) 202. 184.33 Mysterious Affairs of the lighting 2 7. 74-77. Oxford 106 Prado. 49 Rose 49 Maelbeke Madonna (Van Eyck) 156. 234 iron-gall 35. 37 lines 118 pastel 162 pencil 31. 244. 227 Scene of Comical Riders 30. 757 mandalas 219. 158 Man Lying Down in a Cloak (Flaxman) 156. Paul 227 Polyphonic Setting for White 226. Charles Rennie 48. 249 and gouache 30 Indian 35.91 Study for Plate 59 of INDEX illumination see lighting Illustration for Jacques Fath (Gruau) 160. 34.104. 53 monoprint 787.134 K Kettlehut. 73 Michelangelo Buonarroti 48.115 98. 114 hatched 244 layered 118 pace of 65 pale 40 rapid 49. Henry 178 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object 178.124. 170-173. Alphonse 90. 244 ink 36 252-253 Documents Decoratifs 90. 73 Kigell. 60.120. 54 silver point 156 leg sections 158 length. 227 Newsome.102.
30 Fran<. 1 1 6 . 732 influence of 240 painting with light 78.36. 244 reed 34. 78 single-point 74. Man 131. 239 Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 238. 7 72 Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland. 36.7 77 rapidograph 70 Raphael 110. 4 9 Rose of Mohammed 50. 1 3 2 quill pens 34. Giovanni Battista 74. 7 70 Ray. Stella 48 Cypripedium calceolus L 49 rotated view 7 65 Rubens.141 prints/printing: aquatint 240 dry-point etching 181 engraving 243 monoprint 181. Georges 112 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 112. 242 reed pens 34. 212 Japanese 2 1 . Auguste 114 Two Women 114. 38. Arthur 177 In the Duchess's Kitchen 176. 733 Portrait de Marie-Laure (Giacometti) 136. 162 O p A r t 98 optical illusions 96-99 outline 33. 166 fiber-tip 782. 139 Real Life is Rubbish (Noble and Webster) 176. Odilon 242 The Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity 242. Peter Paul 126-127 Embracing pose(s): balanced 146 quick 118-119 positive form 103 posture: of artist 22 of subject 3 8 . 52 pens 36 scalpel 54 drawing with 202.oise au Bandeau 132. 234 disposable 182-183 felt-tip 162. 26 Riley. 165 figure 118 filled 37 pencil 48. 114 rollerball 182 Rorschach blot 99 Rose (Mackintosh) 48.54 pastel 162 perspective 1 0 0 . 165.262 INDEX Newton. 7 73 self-portraits: Basquiat 138. 76-79. 37 38.176 Real Life Is Rubbish 176. Erik 70. 74-77. 36. 40-41. Russell 228. 122. 203 Scene of Comical Riders (Klee) 30. 36. 81 two-point 74. 36 pen and brush 8 3 pen and ink 70. Cheval et Oiseau 30. Pablo 6 7 . 36. 36. 76 plastic eraser 55. 9 0 . 241 Physical Space.Toyo: Landscape in Hoboku . 216. 227 portfolios 20 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser de Noailles (Holbein) 132. 239 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat (Seurat) 112.184 fountain 34. 7 38 Ray 138. 230 parallel planes 79 Parisian street 86-87 pastels 162 to blend 205 to hold 23 layers 162 pencils 162 pen(s): dip 34 . 72 Noble. 36 relief printing 757 Rembrandt van Rijn 52. and Webster.Tim. 230 paper(s) 21 colored 162 drawing 144. 34-35.40. Isaac 92 Telescope 92 Newton's Cenotaph (Boullee) 72. 68 Satie. 57 Ross-Craig. J 76 nudes 114-115 to make 36 metal see dip quill 34. 205 157. 75 Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range 241 petroglyphs 221. 243. 163. 160. 739 semi-abstract drawings Style 14 Seurat. 736 portraits.104 Pieuvre (Hugo) 28. Sue 104. The (Abe) 220 Picasso. 159. 759 P Page. 1 6 3 .37. Heath 181 The Kinecar 180. 1 6 9 to hold 2 2 .Paul'sBaptistry (Hawksmoor) 68. Martin 238. 164. 74. to draw 146-147 R Rackham. 4 8 putty eraser 55. 2 2 0 for oil pastels 162 stained 230 to stretch 140-141 tissue 21.199 Profile Head (Newsome) oil pastels 162.9 3 Schongauer. 734 Protea nitida (Bauer) 48. 205 pointillism 112 polyphonic painting 227 Polyphonic Setting for White (Klee) 226. 7 77 three-point 80. 224 0 layers 31.240. 1 1 7 aerial 206 linear 69. 103.2 3 age and youth sleeping subjects 148-149 150-151 Renaissance 109 Rhinoceros (Durer) 26. 7 76 receding space 206 Redon. 181 pencil(s) 54 charcoal 204 colored 762.71 Hotel de la Suzonnieres 70.139 Autoportrait 138. 1 2 4 priming for metal point 140. 1 1 6 accelerated 2 2 . 141 Piranesi. 772 234-237 Sesshu.131 Cottage Among Trees 52.52 pen and wash 158. Paul 73 Nobson Central 72.759. 244 Q s Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape (Wolfli) 2 79 St. 161. 38. 28 pigment 162 bright 50 Caput Mortuum 7 4 7 for three-tone drawing 141. 75 Two Courtyards 75. 219. Faune.226.37 scientific instruments 9 2 . 71 Satire of the Queen's Dress (Wodall) 158. 181 Rodin. 9 8 .37. 97. 782 relief 757 silk-screen 739 woodblock 134. Bridget 98 Robinson. 73 Noble.The (Beuys) 112. 243. 91 outsider artists 33.
69.Yamaoka 233 t e x t u r e 2 2 2 . 57. t o d r a w 5 2 .216 W e b s t e r . 4 4 boat 209 botanical 4 9 G e r i c a u l t ' s cats 2 9 from Goya 170-173 125.2 1 3 Stubbs. John: Focusing on the Negative 14 w a s h . 243 (Bosch) T Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos ( G o y a ) 2 4 0 . C y 138. 2 4 2 w Wallis. 79. 226 V Van Dyck. 156 Van Gogh. 199. M . H e n r i de: Woman at Her Toilet 14 t r a n s p a r e n t v i e w 92. W . t o d r a w 1 0 1 viewfinder 57 Views from Velletri ( C l a u d e L o r r a i n ) 152. 186. 7 70 Tiber 214-215 Untitled ( T w o m b l y ) 2 2 0 . h e a d a n d n e c k sections o f female m o l d f o r (Leonardo) 89 shading 2 9 s h a d o w s 28.158 158. 53 trees. 65 symbols 138.199 tissue p a p e r 21. t h r e e . 202 violin. 2 7 studies: b i r d s 7 2 . 2 2 7 Untitled 2001 ( C a t l i n g ) u 263 W h i t e . 2 2 6 . 97. 1 4 5 travel journal 2 0 . 74. A l f r e d 1 1 . 240 Two Women Embracing ( R o d i n ) 114. 245 sharpener 54 Ship in a Storm ( T u r n e r ) 1 9 8 . 743 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City ( F r e n z ) 1 6 0 . 2 1 2 .120. John 25 Flying Fish 25 Wild Striped Cat Sketches of ( G e r i c a u l t ) 28. 102-103 tonal marks.d i m e n s i o n a l d r a w i n g 68.243 Leonardo's machines 12. 9 4 z Z e n calligraphy 232-233 contrast 96 t o grade 163 ink 37 pencil 5 4 t o r t i l l o n 205 T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c . 2 4 7 t h r e e . 182. 1 3 .13 M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s m a l e figures 110. 1 8 4 . 2 3 4 .125 W o o d f i n e . Man in Armor 1 5 8 . Taylor A n i t a 115 All and Nothing 1 1 4 .27 skull 747. 1 9 9 Two Courtyards (Piranesi) 75. William 159 Satire of the Queen's Dress INDEX 226. 9 5 pens 36 v a n i s h i n g p o i n t 74. 1 4 1 w a t e r c o l o r 25. Adolf: Giant-Grape Saint-Mary-Castle 219 Woman at Her Toilet ( T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c ) 74 w o o d b l o c k print 157. Jan 1 5 6 Maelbeke Madonna 1 5 6 . 1 4 4 . 1 2 Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse 71. 199 shoes 1 6 4 .t o n e d r a w i n g 140. Vincent 95 Chair 94. T i m W e s t Fagade of the Church of St. 1 6 . 221 . 230 t h r e e . 164. 2 4 4 .1 8 5 Tree II ( M o n d r i a n ) 52. 141 Three Male Figures.5 3 in l a n d s c a p e 2 0 6 . t o d r a w 2 0 0 . 7 77. drawing with 104-105 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt ( G a u d i ) 68. Sarah: child's m a p 75.1 4 5 . 7 75 Telescope ( N e w t o n ) 9 2 . Sue see N o b l e . b l o w n 248 steel p e n s see d i p p e n s still life 89. 170 shoes 1 6 4 stylized m o t i f 51 Summer Flowers 63. 75 Skeleton of the Horse ( S t u b b s ) 26. Paul 2 4 1 Achilles Chases Hector 2 4 0 .1 6 5 shorthand diagram 142 Shoshone buffalo hide painting 178. 1 7 7 free 8 0 V e n i c e . 156 layers 7 5 6 priming for 140. 76. 725 fabric 1 6 8 T h o m a s . 115. 174 T w o m b l y . A n t h o n y 152.241 s i l k . 206-207 202.Sforza Horse.41.1 0 5 vision 9 6 Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects (Grandville) 242. 9 0 . 2 0 0 Ship in a Storm 1 9 8 . 7 79 Shoshone petroglyph 240. 161. 77. 49.12 W a l t e r . 104-105. 2 9 wind. 6 9 Wodall. 1 4 0 .9 1 storms.1 4 1 . 241. G e o r g e 2 7 Skeleton of the Horse 26. v i e w s o f 85. 9 2 Tesshu. 2 3 0 tonal contrast 96 tonal distance 9 7 t o n a l d r a w i n g 9 6 . phrased 146 tonal modeling 161 tonal range 169 t o n a l surfaces 2 2 7 tonal width 97 t o n e ( s ) 33.2 0 1 . 1 4 1 . 249 t o describe 39. 7 1 4 . 7 6 1 spots. t o lay 1 4 0 . Sarah 9 4 Chair Cut Out 94. 158 V a n Eyck.d i m e n s i o n a l 1 0 4 . 96. 1 9 9 .1 9 9 wire.J.s c r e e n p r i n t i n g 139 silver p o i n t 1 4 0 . t o draw 1 9 8 . Augustin ( B a l t a r d ) 6 7 w e t and dry brush-strokes 2 4 9 Turner. 7 6 Two Impressions from a Cut-Out Paper Disk ( H u g o ) 2 2 2 Two Monsters 2 4 2 .141 S i m b l e t . 7 9 0 vessels. 1 6 6 t r a p e z i u s m u s c l e 142. 1 8 4 . 69. Study of (Michelangelo) 110. 159 Wolfli. 75. 2 2 0 influence o f 2 4 0 Untitled 220.
bridgeman. 1929 (29. H e l e n S h u t t l e w o r t h . L o n d o n . 72: akg-images.uk/Guildhall Library. Pamela Ellis for compiling the index. Agnieszka Mlicka.Strang Print Room ( b ) . P h y l l Kiggell.uk /© Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery. 2 1 8 : Adolf-Wdlfli-Stiftung. 2 4 : © T h e British Museum. J o h n Roberts. Inc. 1 5 9 : Bodleian Library. 1901.uk /Biblioteca Nacional. C o r n e l i s o n & Son. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin. Diana Bell. A n d y C r a w f o r d for p h o t o g r a p h y a n d L . Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. u k / T o k y o National M u s e u m . Graphische Sammlung. Portugal. Italy. 137: © The British Museum. Paris and D A C S .bridgeman. 158: Calouste Gulbenkian Museum. c o . 1 3 4 : © T h e British Museum. b r i d g e m a n .co.bridgeman.uk/Musee des Augustins. 5 2 : T h e Metropolitan Museum of Art/Bequest of Mrs.bridgeman.100. 221: Gagosian Gallery/Private Collection (b). J a c k a n d Brian Catling. Sir Brinsley F o r d . L o n d o n (t). K e w ft)). 1 3 6 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Centre Pompidou-MNAM-CCI. 9 5 : V a n Gogh M u s e u m . Christopher Davis. 3 3 : Prinzhom Collection. Sammy De Grave. A . 69: Institut Amatller d'Art Hispanic (tl). and Tamsin Woodward Smith. H . L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 .uk/British Museum. R o y a n d D i a n n e Simblet. Anders. S i m o n L e w i s .l. Illustrated London News Picture Library/The Bystander (b).co. 1 . J o n Roome. 2 0 2 : © T h e British Museum. London/courtesy of Stuart Shave. L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . Publisher's Acknowledgments Dorling Kindersley w o u l d like to thank Caroline H u n t for editorial contribution. 199: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee des arts asiatiquesGuimet. 3 2 : Pepys Library. 130: The Metropolitan M u s e u m of Art/Robert L e h m a n Collection. Kunstmuseum Bern.bridgeman. Paris. 176: Modem Art. 2 2 0 : Mamaru Abe. 16: www. 6 6 : w w w . Anita Taylor. 115: Anita Taylor. L o n d o n . . Clare Bryan. T o n y G r i s o n i . Carlo O r t u for picture research s u p p o r t . D a w n Henderson. NY. 2 2 4 : P r i n z h o m Collection. B e r l i n . Japan. 9 1 : www. 2 7 : Royal Academy of Arts.uk/Private Collection. 1 6 1 : D C C o m i c s I n c . Psychiatric Institute of the U n i v e r s i t y of Heidelberg.co. 7 1 : I M E C / A r c h i v e s E r i k Satie. London 2005. 113: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. B . 3 1 : Tom Powel Imaging. Angela Palmer. papers. George M c G a v i n . University of Cambridge. France. 181: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. L o n d o n . 2 0 0 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. Oxford. 1 5 : w w w . Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. Paris a n d D A C S . 75: © The British Museum (b). University of Oxford. 5 3 : Collection of the Gemeentemuseum D e n Haag/Mondrian Trust. Sarah D u n c a n . a n d brushes o n pp./© D A C S 2 0 0 5 ( t ) . Angela W i l k e s .co. Paula Regan. 1975 ( 1 9 7 5 . 2 0 1 : T h e Royal Collection © 2 0 0 2 H e r Majesty Queen Elizabeth I I .bridgeman. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin/Jorg P. Anders/ © D A C S 2 0 0 5 . Paris. 2 2 7 : Paul Klee Stiftung. G e r m a n y ./Galerie Sylvie Nissen. 17: J o h n Walter. Rocio Arnaez. 30: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. Maureen Paley Interim Art (b). Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (t). a n d encouragement i n m a k i n g this book: M a m o r u Abe. Paul T h o m a s . 1879. Germany/Joerg P. 1 6 0 : Rene G R U A U s.bridgeman. 9 3 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library.bridgeman. Havemeyer. B e m d Kunzig. 88: www. support. Paris. Corporation of London. Sarah Woodfine. J o h n Walter. R u t h P a r k i n s o n . 2 4 0 : w w w . 114: Musee Rodin. Paris a n d D A C S .co. K u n s t m u s e u m .264 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Acknowledgments Author's Acknowledgments: T h e author wishes to thank the following people for their enormous help. Paris. 51: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. T h e R u s k i n School of D r a w i n g a n d Fine A r t . b r i d g e m a n . Sophie Laurimore. Jean Pierre Roy. Amsterdam. London/Bequeathed by Charles Landseer. 1 7 8 : © T h e British M u s e u m / H e n r y Moore F o u n d a t i o n . 1 9 : Getty Images/© Succession Picasso / D A C S 2 0 0 5 . Copyright Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens. Winthrop. 2 3 8 : akg-images. a n d D e p a r t m e n t s o f E n t o m o l o g y a n d Zoology at the University of Oxford. 174: Artothek/Munich. 139: Galerie Marion Meyer/© Man Ray Trust / A D A G P . 9 2 : Science Photo L i b r a r y .r. Flossie.co. c o .co. Salisbury & South W i l t s h i r e M u s e u m ( t ) . 2 6 : Topfoto. Lisbon. F i n n . 2 4 2 : Photo Scala. A . Magdalene College Cambridge. G i n a R o w l a n d . Jackie Douglas. R o s e m a r y S c o u l a r . 1 3 5 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. 2 2 3 : Lebrecht Music and Arts Photo Library/Ricordi. 177: Mary Evans Picture Library. B M G . Psychiatric Institute of the University of Heidelberg. (r). L o n d o n . for s u p p l y i n g the d r a w i n g books. 74: Corbis. F r a n c e .co. Paris. Fund. Berlin/Staatsbibliothek zu A l l other images © Sarah Simblet . M a n d y Earey. 111: Fondation Beyeler/Riehen (Bale)/© Succession H Matisse/DACS 2005. Also. 1 9 6 : Museum of the History of Science.a. 73: Berlin F i l m Museum (t). Germany. G e r m a n y . K a t h r y n W i l k i n s o n . 4 8 : T h e N a t u r a l H i s t o r y M u s e u m . Patty Stansfield. Antonia Cunliffe Davis. 68: www. 225: Stephen P Huyler. L e n .uk/Kettle's Yard. Paul T h o m a s ( t ) . O o n a G r i m e s . 179: www. 2 4 4 : Ashmolean Museum. R . Picture Credits 8: Corbis/Hubert Stadler.co. Carole A s h . Roddy Bell. Dover Publications/ISBN: 0486229912 (t).20-21 a n d 246-47. 2 8 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. 4 6 : B r i t i s h Library. 11: www. 49: Hunterian Museum (t). B e r l i n . H a m b u r g . 7 0 : Studio Daniel L i b e s k i n d . Florence/MoMA.uk/Mucha Trust. Madrid.939). 1 5 4 : akg-images/Musee National d'Art Moderne. 29: Fogg A n Museum/Collections Baron de Vita: Grenville L. 1 5 6 : Graphische S a m m l u n g Albertina. H a y w a r d Gallery. 1 9 8 : Dover Publications. 1 3 8 : © Christie's Images Ltd/© A D AGP. 180: www. Basel./Private Collection/© D A C S 2005. Julie O u g h t o n . Kirsten Norrie. 157: U C L Art Collections . A n n a P l u c i n s k a . . 2 0 3 : Clare Bryan (t). O. 9 4 : Sarah Woodfine. Toulouse. Productions Clovis Prevost (c). Andy Crawford. 2 4 5 : Oona Grimes.co. Orientabteilung/Ruth Schacht.uk/Private Collection. Wolfson College. Natalie G o d w i n . 1 1 0 : www. b r i d g e m a n . 1 3 3 : Artothek/Kupferstichkabinett. Peter L u f f .uk/Private Collection. c o . 132: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. 1 0 8 : Arts C o u n c i l Collection. Paris.Paris ( b ) .bridgeman. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. U K . H e a t h e r M c C a r r y . Berlin (b). 243: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. 13: www. 2 4 1 : Corbis/David M u e n c h ( b ) . 9 0 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/© A D A G P . 5 0 : Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (1). 9 7 6 ) . K u n s t m u s e u m Bern/© D A C S 2 0 0 5 . L o n d o n . Paris/ © Succession Picasso / D A C S 2005. U K . 112: Yale University A r t Gallery/Everett V Meeks. 2 2 2 : Pierre Georgel/Private Collection. K e v i n a n d Rebecca Slingsby. u k / L o u v r e . u k / O n Loan to the H a m b u r g Kunsthalle. 226: Brian Catling. © Tate.
and silverpoint—and apply the key elements of drawing including perspective. Materials and Techniques—how to use a variety of materials—from pencil and ink to pastel.com Discover more at . Learn from the Masters—a rich selection of drawings illustrates different approaches to a wide range of subjects.dk. D r a w i n g C l a s s e s — d e t a i l e d step-by-step demonstrations show you how to develop your natural talents. and improve your drawing skills. and tone. discover new ideas. Creating a Sketchbook—Sarah Simblet's drawings inspire you to explore different subjects and fill your own sketchbooks. charcoal. www.FOR THE ARTIST T h e c o m p l e t e g u i d e to drawing—a unique blend of practical teaching and inspirational insights into classic and contemporary drawings. shape.
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