An innovative, practical approach to drawing the world around you







LONDON • NEW YORK MELBOURNE • MUNICH • DELHI Senior Editor Paula Regan Senior Art Editor Mandy Earey Art Editor Anna Plucinska Managing Editor Julie Oughton Managing Art Editor Heather McCarry Art Director Peter Luff Publishing Director Jackie Douglas Production Joanna Bull DTP Designer Adam Walker Picture Research Sarah Smithies US Editor Christine Heilman First American Edition, 2 0 0 5 First Paperback Edition, 2 0 0 9 Published in the United States by DK Publishing 3 7 5 Hudson Street New York, New York 1 0 0 1 4 10 11 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3

6 8 20 22 Master Builders The Order of Sound Future Fictions Pathways of Sight Single-Point Perspective Creating an Imaginary Space Further Aspects of Perspective Theaters Venetian Life Parisian Street

68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86

Foreword Introduction Drawing Books and Papers Posture and Grip

Objects and Instruments

TD075-July 2009 Copyright © 2 0 0 5 Dorling Kindersley Limited Text and authors artworks © Sarah Simblet 2 0 0 4 Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited A Cataloging-in-Publication record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN 9 7 8 - 0 - 7 5 6 6 - 5 1 4 1 - 1 Color reproduction by GRB, Italy Printed and bound in China by Toppan

Still Life Instruments of Vision Bench Marks Light and Illusions Further Illusions How to Draw Ellipses Tonality Drawing with Wire Artifacts and Fictions


90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106

Documentaries Presence and Mood Movement Icon and Design Pen and Ink Drawing with Ink Capturing Character Sleeping Dogs Turtles Dry Birds

26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44

The Body
Postures and Poses Choreographs Passion Measurement and Foreshortening Quick Poses Hands and Feet Charcoal Hands Phrasing Contours The Visual Detective La Specola

110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128

Plants and Gardens
Botanical Studies Jeweled Gardens Fast Trees Graphite and Erasers Cropping and Composition Negative Space Fig Tree Summer Flowers Acanthus Spinosus

48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64

Discover more at

Projections Magnetic Fields The Human Condition Disposable Pens The Travel Journal Catching the Moment Grand Canal Crossings Caravans The Big Top

174 Abstract Lines
176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 Process and Harmony Writing Time Chants and Prayers Compositions Being "Just" Collage Zen Calligraphy Nocturnes

220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234

Poise Anatomies Revelations Self-Portraits Silver Point Head and Neck Essential Observations Drawing Portraits Generations Castings

132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 152

Earth and the Elements
Air in Motion Storms Nature Profiles Charcoal Landscapes Drawing in the Round Decaying Boat Cloudburst Notes of Force Mountains

198 200 202 204 206 208 210 212 214 216

Gods and Monsters
Marks of Influence Hauntings Convolutions Brushes Brush Marks Monsters Goya's Monsters Consumed Glossary Index Acknowledgments

240 242 244 246 248 250 252 254 256 259 264

Cloth and Drapery Character Costumes Femmes Fatales Colored Materials Study and Design The Structure of Costume Textures and Patterns Dressing Character Posture Carving

156 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172


and through which I can see how I think. art schools. I know that with their cooperation I can soon prove them wrong. texture. I will always draw. we have looked at. fashion designer. doctors. are made outside as discreet installations.Foreword B Y DRAWING THE WORLD AROUND US. who tells me firmly upon approach that they cannot draw. Others can be held in the h a n d or. shape. and in a few sessions they will be flying. For twelve years I have enjoyed the privilege of teaching drawing. and I refer back to them for years after they are made. still standing by the door. It is a tool for investigating ideas and recording knowledge. we learn to feel truly alive. I also make drawing books. or a quantum physicist trying to see for themselves the fluctuations of our universe. a drawing book is the perfect portable private vehicle for your imminent exploration of drawing. where spaces are shaped by nothing more than the objects and activities contained within them. These inspirations led me to invent museums. that inspired the title and structure MEMORY T H E A T E R S This pen-and-ink drawing was made from imagination during research for my PhD. as a visiting professor at universities. undergraduates to fellow professors. from schoolchildren to senior citizens. I work with people of diverse ages. a composer notating a musical score. in which he describes himself flying and diving in his imagination through pictorial caverns of knowledge. understood (and often misunderstood) our own bodies. remain unseen by most. a sculptor. through history. The very first step is to believe it. Drawing occupies a unique place in every artist and creator's life. thinking. but because it is how I engage with and anchor myself in life. drawing is the immediate expression of seeing. by invitation. Chosen in any color. we learn to see it. perhaps hidden on a door hinge or a street bench rail. The most rewarding challenge is always the newcomer. Some of my drawings cover entire walls. It is my love of these. where I expect them to be discovered by some people. Some are more traditionally framed and hung in galleries for solo or group exhibitions. of Sketch Book for the Artist. not only to make art. and makers of special effects. geologists. Drawing is a mirror through which I understand my place in the world. I was training in anatomy and studying how. It makes me feel excited to be alive. and experience. aspirations. architect. and their importance to so many artists. especially as travel journals. By using our imaginations. night security staff. be they a child discovering their vision and dexterity. . and local c o m m u n i t y classes. and feeling. For me personally. Combine these things and the possibilities are endless. and size. a cartographer charting the land. They occupy a shelf in my studio. They enfold their viewer and are made on joined sheets of paper that I reach by climbing ladders. I was also reading among The Confessions of St. Augustine his notes on memory. and be slowly washed or worn away. and a reflector of experience. We can all learn how to draw. or engineer.

We can always read each others drawings. is not afforded us by drawing. but more often because drawing actually helps us to focus and take in what is said. They have a natural affinity to many modern graffiti signatures. like a great canvas for them to mark. in lectures. We are surrounded by drawings in our daily lives. "CAVE OF THE HANDS" In this drawing. and in meetings. and patterns on our clothes. graffiti. inscribing every fresh part of it with their eager scrapes and trails. Most adults still feel that certain exquisite pleasure on arriving at a beach to find the tide out and the sand perfect.8 INTRODUCTION Where We Begin There is a fundamental drive in our human nature to make a mark. not just chosen pictures on our walls but everywhere—maps. At home and at work we doodle. Sometimes we draw because we are bored. Rio Pinturas 13. We are bombarded with linear and tonal pictorial information. logos. Cueva de las Marios. scrawling shapes and cartoons when on the telephone.Theseancient silhouettes were drawn with earth pigments rubbed onto rock. and we spend our lives reading it. packaging.000-9500 bce . waving to us from many thousands of yearsago. The sense of relief we may feel from the information overload of modern commercial life when visiting a country in which we can no longer read every written word. Drawing is international. signs. a great crowd is raising their hands in greeting. irreverent to language barriers. Children cannot be restrained from running across the pristine white lawn of newly fallen snow.

and she kept it as my first step beyond the delighted realms of scrawl. like all toddlers. and belonging to place. . at age two-anda-half. who in their day-to-day hardship made time to picture themselves and the animals on which they depended. I was sitting with my mother. She gave me a notepad and a red crayon and asked me to draw her "a picture of Daddy. we see our oldest surviving images. had happily scribbled. I now think this is a picture of proximity. The image above is what I gave back to my mother. an expression of existence. but I had never yet attempted to figuratively picture my world. created by societies of hunter-gatherers. power." Until this day. I. the hair of my first portrait was most important.9 WHERE WE BEGIN FIRST PORTRAIT For sorre forgotten reason. Even though it is made by a toddler this image would be recognizable to anyone. reflecting my experience of looking closely at my father's face. In cave paintings like the one opposite. enjoying the physical sensation of crayon on paper. Eyelashes take up as much of my attention as the head itself. and the appearance of my strikes of colors. Cave art was not made for decoration but as a fundamental part of life. MAKING OUR MARK It seems reasonable to assume that we have engaged in pictorial mark-making for as long as we have made conscious use of our hands. On a particular afternoon in September 1974.

it is important to value your natural abilities a n d ways of seeing. then drag o u r line into a loop. Young children love to draw. Hours are lost immersed in the glorious world of imagination. b e p r o u d o f what m a k e s y o u r w o r k individual to y o u . and from that first unit build and describe the shape of something or someone we know. Inhibitions creep in and ideas of good a n d b a d terminate confidence. But as adolescents. most of us stop. Don't b e p e r s u a d e d to draw in a w a y s o m e o n e else . PROGRESSION T h e r e is a point in all o u r lives w h e n w e first c o n t r o l o u r mark and m a k e it a line. to help a stranger see their way W h e n taking first steps in relearning h o w to draw. h o w e v e r small a n d u n f o r m e d y o u believe they are. At this point many will insist they cannot draw. It was made with a few bold strokes of a steel pen dipped in ink to conjure the dried bee I was holding between my fingers on a pin. and this activity plays a vital role in their d e v e l o p m e n t . yet still turn to drawing w h e n their verbal language fails or is inadequate.10 INTRODUCTION PEN-AND-INK BEE This tiny drawing has been enlarged to show its texture and composition. As you progress. W e do n o t hesitate to draw a map. for example.

He was a retired Cornish fisherman and junk dealer who began drawing at the age of 70 "for company" after his wife died. and which aspects of the vast wealth and diversity of graphic language would be most appropriate to their goals. remember that all advice is only advice. He used leftover ship and yacht paint with crayons on cut-out pieces of cardboard boxes. As you read this b o o k and perhaps attend art classes. . Enjoy the control of your own journey. and they have never questioned why. 1925-42 53/8x87/8in (135 x 225 mm) ALFRED WALLIS prefers and tells you is better. harbor and sea is one of many that Alfred Wallis made from memory while sitting at home. Occasionally. I meet students struggling unhappily with a particular method of drawing. After experimenting and trying each new idea. I ask them their reasons for drawing. Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse c. what they most want to achieve. but it does help to set out facing in the right direction. The journey of every artist demands hard work and discipline. Think how much would have been lost if anyone had interfered with Alfred Wallis' personal sense of proportion and perspective in the exquisite drawing above. Someone once told them they must draw in this way.11 PROGRESSION A UNIQUE SIGHT This innocent yet sophisticated drawing of boats. you must decide whether to keep or discard it.

" The clarity and empowerment of these words. His notes visually balance his drawings. and lose the very thing that attracted us to it. wrote as the opening line of this great work. we can drive out its spirit. The observed world may be our subject. right. When we look back at Wallis' seascape (see p. I hope. but it should be the experienced world we draw. be visionary. Our imaginations are the tools with which we can increase the essence of life. The art historian Professor Sir Ernst Gombrich. We BIRD STUDIES The flutter of faint scratches that dance across the pages on the right is an attempt to see the movement and bony weightlessness of a bird. not for disguise but as a personal choice. the page bristles with the focus of ideas. Below. There are countless reasons for drawing. clear-minded understanding of the sea. IDEAS A N D I N V E N T I O N S These active machines. and breathtaking wind of a choppy harbor. If as artists we nail a subject down too hard.and collarbones and shoulder blades of a different bird almost become new creatures in themselves. perhaps for comfort or ease as a left-hander or a habitual enjoyment of the challenge. We also see differently ourselves. embedded in this book. the breast. and inspire others. 11). boats. Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels LEONARDO DA VINCI . but the child in us knows that this is an all-embracing. There should neve: be a slavish obligation to represent things exactly as we collectively agree we see them. it may not be accurate to our critical adult eye. We all see differently. is. They are also always written backward. depending on the occasion and our purpose. There are only artists. "There really is no such thing as Art. all raise water From the Archimedes' screw to Leonardo's own cupped wheel. author of The Story of Art.12 INTRODUCTION VISION All artists see the world differently.

. but it is important to be clear why we are making it. drawing in pursuit of our own thoughts and understanding. while below.13 VISION should not try to know how every finished picture will look. make a calculation. shout against a terrible injustice. Decide before you start whether you are drawing to warm up. conduct an experiment. when it looks tired and still feels wrong. time spent is not lost. Opposite. It will be invested through your experience in the new drawing. stripped-down parts. Don't be disheartened. Each fresh image reflects growing confidence and the experience of the preceding study. or illustrate a dream. I drew to understand the apparatus of flight. This also applies if struggling at length with a larger picture. My drawings of a housemartin (opposite top) illustrate the importance of repeated study. Our drawings are annotated investigations into the mechanisms of nature and of an idea. or to discover the best use of a new material. More was learned drawing the bird 18 times than would have been understood drawing it only once or twice. to express the beauty in a moment's play of light. We have both covered our paper with focused. it may be best to start afresh. Leonardo drew to invent a machine.

or ice—you must actually feel it beneath your fingers as you draw. bone. and sometimes beyond. explain the composition. This is the alchemy of drawing. Each image relied upon past experience to know the probable behavior of the brush. and an island brushed with trees. and we can just make out the distant stains of mountains. Imagine these qualities so strongly that you feel them in your mind and at your fingertips. feel. balance. and spirit of each subject was held strongly but loosely between the fingertips. BRUSHED LANDSCAPE FLOWING SKELETON T h e gliding poise of this walking anatomy comes as much from the feeling of movement as it does from the feeling of drawing. ink. As your hand meets the paper to make a mark. or imagine—it is not enough to only render its shape. and opacity of your subject. and paper. I made it almost unconsciously with a pen and a brush. If you can do this. metal. Our position asvieweris unsteady. W e float toward the quiet vista as it also moves toward us. and practice each part before putting the final image together. the unknown. size. it should be responding to the sensation and meaning of the subject it draws. They each allowed the energy and focus of the moment to be expressed through controlled accident and a degree of the unknown Both drawings were made trusting the marks. meaning. created centuries and cultures apart. It denies the importance of accident. trusting my intuition to find a visual equivalence for the sensation of weight within my body. water. The physicality. and allowed to flow through the brush. your marks will become the subject on the paper. declare the idea. This is a detail of a brush-and-ink drawing by a Japanese Buddhist monk. we are advised or even required to plan our pictures. and position in space. silk. Know the texture. mists. fire. Landscape in Haboku Style 15TH CENTURY . temperature. This suits many artists well and is perfectly valid. Whatever the material— wood. and at speeds beyond conscious thought. These two brush drawings. You must also think of its intrinsic nature: its purpose. and how it feels to the touch. and what you discover in the process of making. excessive planning can get in the way of the imagination. As you draw any subject—something you see. which can offer keys to other things.14 INTRODUCTION ALCHEMY At school. We are caught in a shifting focus that makes everything fluid. are both made of ink laid onto wet paper with speed and agile certainty. depth. However.


like folded insects. Focusing on the Negative 2004 22 x 30 in (56 x 76 cm) J O H N WALTER . W a l t e r also makes books: some. more than 100 years after its making. one of many luminous works in watercolor.1896 Woman at her Toilet 41 x 26 in (104 x 66 cm) TOULOUSE LAUTREC RIB-CAGE D R A M A Thus drama. c. left. made by a young British artist who creates alphabets o f the absurd f r o m familiar childhood characters. acrylic. stand table-sized with furniture legs attached t o b o t h sides of their jacket. pastel. He dazzles us with flashes o f light and dabbed marks o f shadow.16 INTRODUCTION PLACE A N D MOMENT The heat and teeming atmosphere o f this Parisian dressing room. Lautrec's flamboyant splashes o f petticoats and pantaloons are drawn with long sweeps of chalk and brushed oil paint. lives on. which evoke realities o f place and the p o w e r o f moment. right is set inside a rib cage. gold leaf and spray paint.

It is yours. Enjoy discovering what your hand and the material can do. As you follow lessons in this book. potential ideas still forming. Choose other materials and do the same. even those you dislike. Try to keep all of your first drawings. you will be surprised and encouraged to see how far you have come. Put them away and look at them later. Pages do not have to lie open for other people to inspect and comment on. and miscellaneous items of inspiration. you will naturally make progress on your own in response to concentration and the decision to look and draw. With no help and advice at all. Such books are personal: the territory of new exploration and experiment. Much will be learned on these test sheets and in your first drawings. Ignore these at first and allow yourself the freedom to play. Drawing is exploratory. just through the act of making. try not to grip your pen worrying about the technical terms you might have heard. at a point when you feel you are not making progress. One of the advantages of a drawing book is that you can shut it. diary-like observations. and mistakes are a valuable process of learning. take your time and don't worry if you need to make several attempts to grasp a concept.17 FREEING THE HAND If you are just beginning to learn how to draw. FREEINGTHEHAND . Start by choosing a material you like the look of and cover a piece of paper with different marks.

seek ideas in the life around you. A N ARTIST'S HANDS These are the hands of the artist Phyll Kiggell (see p. 150). it will be your creation as you discover your own personal vision. staring straight through his image of a bull. and many more reasons for drawing the world. which of course he cannot see. and became a great subject for me. I was particularly attracted to their gentle articulation and understated determination. Drawing is a living language that over millennia has grown and changed. when they are more experienced. Its sensuous and flowing line seems to drift like smoke. Look to your own experience and also learn from the work of others. It rarely flourishes in isolation. and enfolding new media.Their elegant strength seems to summon a lifetime of drawing. we still only glimpse a corner of the magnitude of this subject and the infinity of what can be achieved. it is this voice that is the subtle part of their art and something that ultimately. which is held frozen in space by a camera lens.18 INTRODUCTION THE THINKING EYE Techniques and materials are the grammar and vocabulary of drawing and can be studied and shared. comes from within. Picasso has just finished his drawing. but not confined to them. threedimensionally. Note that the drawing classes are allocated to subjects. This practical journey will take you through the door into the vivid heart of drawing. caught between action and repose. Picasso is poised smiling. To these I have added my own drawings to explain elementary materials and techniques and offer introductory approaches. However. Picasso Painting with Light at the Madoura Pottery 1949 . adapting its form and occupation. The chapters of this book present 90 different artists' ways of seeing. the path is yours. An artist's personal voice is something that also evolves through lessons learned. ELECTRIC BULL With a penlight. In the total wealth of these pages. The real drawing book has yet to come. As you draw. Imagination needs nourishment. Once there.


Most contain thin p a p e r and are perfect f o r use w i t h disposable pens. If you intend to carry your boards for a distance. pastels. drawing book. thick enough not to flex. study the structure of a good portfolio and make your own. t h e i r jackets w i l l a c t like d r a w i n g b o a r d s a n d p r o t e c t y o u r w o r k . They can be very expensive in art stores. and cost. it is better to have them made at a lumber yard or home improvement store. H O M E M A D E : I m a d e this b o o k f r o m drawing paper that I folded. 4. cut. F o r traveling. c h o o s e s m a l l e r h a r d . y o u n e e d a lifetime. N o t e t h e w i d e l y differing c h o i c e o f p a p e r s w i t h w h i c h t h e s e are m a d e .B O U N D PADS: T h e s e are t h e least expensive a n d useful f o r o p e n i n g flat. A high-quality one will last a DRAWING BOOKS Select d r a w i n g b o o k s t o suit y o u r aims. be sure they fit comfortably under your arm.h a n d s t o r e s make unique subjects f o r e x p e r i m e n t s a n d collage. catalogs. c o l o r If planning t o use pencils. Sand the edges to avoid splinters. R I N G . quality.C O V E R E D H A R D B O U N D : Ideal f o r c a r r y i n g a r o u n d . C O L O R E D PAPERS: Large a r t supply stores o f t e n sell t h i c k b o o k s full o f c o l o r e d p a p e r s . is perfect. 2. Calculate a range of useful dimensions and have several cut at once. F o r e v e n i n g classes. and handles to lift the weight of your artworks. Art students often make use of printed books picked up from secondhand stores into which they draw. stitched. Many artists invent ways o f binding their o w n books. a n d crayons. and glued t o a s t r i p o f bias binding. F O U N D B O O K S : O l d p r i n t e d 3 . H o w e v e r r i n g bindings o f t e n break. and collage their ideas. thickness.b o u n d p a d if y o u w i s h t o keep your drawings together long-term. There are dozens to choose from.b o u n d b o o k w i l l s o o n s h o w y o u h o w it is m a d e .b o u n d b o o k s t h a t fit in y o u r p o c k e t o r bag. binding. Drawing boards are invaluable. 5. 1. Homemade books can be assembled easily from found materials or selections of loose sheet papers. BLACK P O C K E T B O O K S : Hand-sized w i t h ready-made elastic binder and a marker ribbon. Alternatively. which are also sold in an enormous range. b e a w a r e t h a t p a p e r t e x t u r e effects a n d changes t h e i r marks. cheap corrugated plastic ones fall apart in days. t h i s is h o w I l e a r n e d .q u a l i t y r i n g . c h o o s e larger f o r m a t s t o give y o u s c o p e f o r e x p e r i m e n t . a n d r e f e r e n c e b o o k s f o u n d in s e c o n d . You simply need two strong boards hinged together well. T h e hardb o a r d j a c k e t is s t r e t c h e d w i t h canvas beneath t h e p a p e r sleeve. C A N V A S . ties on either side to keep your papers in place. Purchase a h i g h . texture. Gleaming store purchases vary greatly in format. 2002 Tantalus o r The Future of Man 81/2 x61/4in (215 x 158 mm) ROSE MILLER . It is also useful to own a portfolio.20 INTRODUCTION Drawing Books and Papers T o BEGIN YOUR EXPLORATION o f d r a w i n g . Dissecting a d i s c a r d e d h a r d . 6. a l e n g t h o f black elastic t i e d a r o u n d t h e m i d d l e will h o l d the contents together w h e n y o u f o l d in c o l l e c t e d items. Smooth plywood. These are perfect f o r w o r k i n g in novels. color.

turning brown and brittle. 14. or rolls. 20. JAPANESE PAPER: Strong. and cost. or machine made in sheets. PAPERS . 7. MAGIC PAPER: A reusable sheet for testing ideas without creating waste. tough. Use cheap paper for rough ideas and quality paper for work to last See the glossary ( p p . smooth. cold. T W O RIVERS GREEN 410G MS: Very heavy tinted textured cold-pressed watercolor paper See Two Rivers Yellow. absorbency. yellow. 22. 16.Papers differ in thickness (weight). and white.5 9 ) for explanations of rough. not. C A N S O N : Inexpensive lightweight pastel paper in many colors. They are hand-. and cream sheets or rolls. blocks. pastel paper in flecked pastel colors with a distinctive ribbed marking. used to imprint lines of these colors onto a surface. Ph. It is available in white or cream. 100% cotton and sold in sheets. METALLIC PAPER: Thin paper in different metallic colors. and other plant fibers. FABRIANO INGRES: Thin. fine. VELIN ARCHES 250GMS: Printmaking paper available in black white. color. Cheap wood-pulp papers are acidic. FABRIANO R O U G H 600GMS: Very heavy. AQUARELLE ARCHES 300GMS:The very top quality hot-pressed (smooth) watercolor paper. resisting deterioration. texture. 10. bamboo. red. blocks.TISSUE PAPER: Place sheets between drawing book pages to keep images from printing on each other and use for delicate collage. mulberry. it is made from rice. Use for brushwork drawings. FABRIANO ACADEMIA: Standard medium-range multipurpose paper Use with any media. C A R B O N PAPER: Available in dark and light blue. 11. 2 5 6 . SAUNDERS WATERFORD N O T 300GMS: Mid-quality textured watercolor paper. and rolls. For use with any media. It is also excellent for drawing with marker pens on layered sheets. 18. size. 15. 8. and hot pressed papers. T W O RIVERS Y E L L O W 410GMS: See Two Rivers Green 19. Cotton papers are high-quality and acid-free. 13. GLASSINE: Sold as protective wrapping. also good for drawing with colored pencils. ITALIAN PARCHMENT: Imitation-animal-skin parchment that is translucent and slightly waxy. printed on one side only. and translucent. white textured paper that can take abrasive use of any medium. from pencil to paint 9. Use with a brush in clean water Water makes a dark mark like ink and becomes invisible again when dry. 12. 21. 17. mold-.

but you need to understand that the expression of a line or mark originates in the body and flows t h r o u g h the shoulder. If seated on a b e n c h easel (a donkey). place it on the correct side: if right-handed. If your hand twists to maneuver between the paper and your body. From a distance you will spot errors you cannot see close up. if left-handed. Use the side of your little fingernail as a support on the page. Accelerated perspective also occurs if you look down the surface steeply (see pp. . don't sit too close to the paper. your lines will distort. or with your drawing board angled between your lap and a chair. and subject. SPACE TO WORK Cramped grip. Relaxed fingers: Hold the pencil away from its tip and relax your fingers. a n d h a n d to the fingertips. 116-17).22 INTRODUCTION Posture and Grip T o DRAW WELL. With your hand in this position. Turning your drawing sideways or upside-own will also help reveal what is wrong. How you hold your drawing materials is also important. There should be an open. make sure you have enough room to back away and view your work. and look to the right. b u t it should n o t be forgotten that many people make remarkable a n d striking works drawing with their feet or holding their brush or pencil in their mouths. If using an upright easel. you can draw lines freely and achieve a significant arc of movement. You cannot draw like this—your hand is locked and your fingers can barely move. This cramped grip tires your hand and makes small. your drawing will reflect this. arm. Ideally. In this book we will look at parallels between drawing and music. body. Examples are shown here. you Drawing classes can be cramped places. Placing your easel o n the w r o n g side folds y o u r b o d y against your drawing arm. flowing space between your hand. strangledlooking drawings. You do not have to dance to draw. but wherever possible. place it on your left. a n d look to the left of it at your subject. place it on your right. If your body posture is well balanced and you can move freely. Regularly step back 6-9 ft (2-3 m) to check your progress. This photograph illustrates how some people hold a pen to write. There are also parallels to dance. should be able to look comfortably straight ahead at your picture plane. It will also reflect discomfort if you are in any way cramped. your whole relaxed b o d y should be involved.

This can give a new lease on life to your mark-making. It is most comfortable when reaching to draw above your head. Large amounts of ink can be applied without fear of uncontrolled running if the paper is flat. or it can spoil your work if not anticipated. hold your material as you find most comfortable. arm. alternative way of holding the pencil. Brush calligraphy: This comfortable. To stop this. . As long as your fingers. upright way of holding the brush near its base is similar to the Japanese way used in Zen calligraphy (see pp. roughly marking out a large-scale work. But be careful not to tense your fingers. find an unfamiliar. and body are not restricted. Large scale: POSTURE AND GRIP U n f a m i l i a r i t y : T h e habitual movements of our handwriting style will sometimes infringe upon our drawing. not up to the paper Brushes can be used on upright paper but dip Anticipating effects: A fully loaded pens need a level surface. GRAVITY Remember that gravity affects the flow of ink and paint. brush pressed against an upright surface will cause a dribble of ink to run down your drawing. This can be used to great effect. Soft media: Short materials such as pastels and charcoal can be accommodated in the palm. depending upon what it is and how large you are working. or change to the wrong hand. ALL MEDIA There are no rules as to how you should hold your drawing media. liquid will run down your hand. Remember you can also draw just by dipping your fingers in pigment—this is how many women draw in rural India. If you turn a brush or dip pen up into the air to draw above your hand.23 This loose "candle" grip is very useful when drawing with your arm extended.232-33).


cartographer. and we still see escapees from its pages carved and grinning as the gargoyles of churches. m u s e u m . and snakes have between them engendered harpies. to be there at the m o m e n t of discovery." Paranoid newcomers c r a m m e d into swelling industrial cities used handbooks of physiognomy to identify and judge their neighbors. and silent. 1590 J O H N WHITE capture form and movement from the m a n n e r i s m s of honking geese. In 19th-century Europe this became a "science. and pioneer born c. insects. they are perhaps our favorite pictorial preoccupation. Europeans on board had never seen such a thing. bats. birds.drawe to lief one of each kinde of thing that is strange to us in England. and people. White's commission was to ". W h e n lost to explain our own emotions. On the Roanoke voyages of Sir Walter Raleigh. In this chapter we discover the use of pens and ink through the delineation of insects. floating turtles. JOHN WHITE British artist. plants. which very likely leaped o n t o the deck of Sir Walter Raleigh's ship Tiger as it sailed north from the Caribbean to Virginia in 1585. dogs. animals provide a perfect subject with which to begin.Animals H UMANS HAVE DRAWN ANIMALS from the beginning of our time. " Animals perpetually feed our imaginations. the Latin bestiary was one of the most popular picture books—an illustrated dictionary of one hundred parts. werewolves. out are now oxidized and so appear black W h e n less preoccupied with understanding ourselves. which are so unlike ours. Together they made maps and documented animals.. and learn how to Flying Fish c.. sleeping dogs. We have drawn them on the walls of caves to evoke their kinship and power. we have employed artists on expeditions. Facial features were analyzed in terms of their animal likeness. O v e r the centuries. For the novice artist. After the subject of ourselves. In medieval England. or scampering through the initials and borders of pictures from that time.m o u n t e d skeletons of birds. and this very drawing was to endure many copies and plagiarisms after its triumphant return to the English court of Queen Elizabeth I. As children we delight in the humanized trials of Tom and Jerry and their c a r t o o n relations. Framed in the z o o or in domestic cohabitation. each dedicated to the moralized tale of an animal or monster The bestiary profoundly influenced the art of its period. we turn and take the features of beasts. Here (left) we see J o h n White's exquisite record of a flying fish. This drawing is made in black lead (metal point) with watercolor Highlights of silver would have gleamed. mermaids. and to bring h o m e drawn documentaries of their finds." He worked with the scientist Thomas Harriot. their different speeds and patterns of action. who described in words what White drew. offer challenges and delights to draw. 11 x91/4in (277 x 234 mm) . 1540. W e have drawn them in m a n u s c r i p t s to explain our genesis and to c o u n t their species into Noah's ark. fish. from which personality and predicted behavior were " d e d u c e d . and dragons.

inspiring countless works of art and so touching people's imaginations that later. the ship was lost. naturalist. the home of ALBRECHT DURER German Renaissance painter. He studied the image and drew his own interpretation. printmaker.26 ANIMALS Documentaries horse are superb affirmations of the power of drawing as a recorder and communicator of knowledge. and mathematician. Life-like This is Durer's original quill-and-ink drawing made after an anonymous Portuguese drawing. Unsurpassed. Contemporary texts related accounts of the beast as the mortal enemy of the elephant and rare relative of the "more common" unicorn. when more accurate portrayals were made without armor and scales. It was to become the animal's only accepted likeness for 250 years. The first live rhinoceros to reach Europe came from India in May 1515. but the drowned animal washed ashore. a gift to the Portuguese King. Converted into a print. Meanwhile. Original Ink Drawing of a Rhinoceros 1515 ALBRECHT DURER 103/4 x 161/2 in ( 2 7 4 x 4 2 0 mm) . It is such a lifelike triumph of imagination and intelligence that for centuries zoologists never questioned its authority. it is still consulted by veterinarians today. filled journals with ideas and observations. and wrote four books on proportion. Durer traveled widely to study at different European schools of art. they were rejected. a drawing of it arrived in Nuremberg. draftsman. Sailing to Rome. DURER'S RHINOCEROS AND STUBBS'S skeletal Durer. it continued its journey to Rome. Carefully stuffed. He in turn sent the mysterious creature to the Pope via Marseilles at the request of the King of France. years after its publication. Durer's image changed eager hands until it was known across Europe. writer. Stubbs's Anatomy of the Horse achieved similar documentary status.

GEORGE STUBBS B r i t i s h e q u i n e a n d s o c i e t y p o r t r a i t painter. This is one of Stubbs' original finished pencil drawings. naturalist. Table of the III of the Horse (rear Skeleton view) mm) 1756-58 1 4 x 7 in ( 3 5 4 x 1 8 0 GEORGE STUBBS . L o n d o n . Stubbs's m o s t c e l e b r a t e d publication. Lighting Stubbs's breathtaking international work won immediate There acclaim. He composed makes each horse appear so real and each plate from his three-dimensional. in t h r e e v i e w s — r e a r f r o n t . knowledge of parts. composed from notes and observations. and therefore invented the lighting that Compare how Stubbs and Durer both invented lighting to portray the reality of their animals. is no other work like it. Anatomy of the Horse. The entire project was developed over ten years. a n d anatomist. a n d s i d e . Dissections were made over a total of 18 months. Dissections Stubbs took his knife and his pencil and physically climbed inside the horse. He translated his own drawings into engravings for publication. His painted p o r t r a i t o f t h e b e a s t is in t h e R o y a l C o l l e g e o f S u r g e o n s o f England. dissecting and drawing until he understood the mechanisms of its power and grace. c o m p r i s e s 1 8 p l a t e s s h o w i n g d i s s e c t i o n s in l a y e r s f r o m b o n e t h r o u g h m u s c u l a t u r e t o skin. which has never diminished. Stubbs w a s o n e o f t h e first E u r o p e a n artists t o m a k e a n a c c u r a t e representation o f the rhinoceros.

Surrounding sprays of graphite powder are stuck into washes of oil and ink to suggest glutinous depths.. Gericault's sheet a p p e a r s almost s c r a t c h e d b y the f e r o c i o u s play of his cat. and leader of the French Romantic movement. her b o n y frame. Mixed media Here. more or less what I have in view.". drama. charcoal. By contrast. and all sorts of bizarre concoctions which manage to convey above all in mind. He has w a t c h e d her p o u n c e . playwright.28 ANIMALS Presence and Mood THESE DRAWINGS HAVE BEEN CHOSEN to s h o w t w o v e r y different ways of picturing a wild animal. A s if disturbed from its gritty b e d by our presence and curiosity. Apparently drawn in its o w n ink. He wrote to poet and art critic Charles-Pierre Baudelaire about his experiments.. ink and linseed oil on paper. Gericault took a sharp p e n c i l to m a k e repeated direct o b s e r v a t i o n s f r o m life. saying ". sepia. the ominous beast unwinds from the dark of the sea and of our nightmares.. and turn. His copious drawings are characterized by mixed media. her sharp teeth. it silently rises to the light. H u g o mixed his media and drew from m e m o r y and imagination to create narrative atmosphere. I've ended up mixing in pencil. The octopus is formed in layers applied and distressed with a brush. and a love of accident. novelist. soot. linseed oil soaked into the paper has made shadows and repelled the ink to create translucent tentacles. snarl. Hugo's novels Les Miserables and Dame have become classics of film and stage. Hugo's page is f l o o d e d w i t h the fearful presence of a remembered octopus. Hugo used graphite powder. drawing her again and again to pin d o w n the texture of her loose skin. conjured b y the hand of a great author of French literary fiction. VICTOR HUGO Poet. coal dust. and her distinctive temperament. The Hunchback of Notre Layers and shadows Throughout this drawing. and Pieuvre 1866-69 91/2 x81/8in (242 x 207 mm) VICTOR H U G O ..

undertraces unify and vitalize the composition. focused upon seeing will lead to a greater understanding of the subject Much is learned from repeated study. facing right. Undertraces Beneath these graphite studies we see traces Tones On the top row we see clearly how Gericault laid broad areas of tone using fast. Paris. of previous Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 1817-18 121/2 x 151/2 in ( 3 1 9 x 3 9 8 mm) T H E O D O R E GERICAULT . displayed in the Louvre. parallel. artists reused sheets and them full of studies. s h o r t . Before paper became so cheap.l i v e d French R o m a n t i c painter and lithographer Largely self-taught. Repeated study This drawing demonstrates of feeling confident repeat different the importance subject Remaining enough to isolate parts of a views. 144. H e is best k n o w n f o r his gigantic painting. 124-25 and p. The Raft of the Medusa.29 THEODORE GERICAULT C o n t r o v e r s i a l . standing sideways.118-119). and it can be applied to any subject (see pp. and keep trying again. of drawings Gericault erased. Here. Tones that do not follow surface contour is very difficult to do well. diagonal strokes of his pencil. At the center of the page is crammed drawings the outline of a horse. since it can lead to a flattened form. horses w e r e a favorite subject t o g e t h e r w i t h politics and history. Beginners are advised to follow the natural contours of form as shown on pp. fiery.

the whinnying of a frantic horse. draftsman. Faune. the first abstract movement of the 20th century. His powdery. Cheval et Oiseau 1936 173/8 x 211/4 in ( 4 4 0 x 5 4 0 m m ) PABLO PICASSO . and scrolled lines. dissolving faun kneels stranded. quivering horse. The fact that they never stand still influences the movement in his line. His hand must have shuddered and twitched just like the constant actions of this humorous meeting. Artists commonly focus on such actions. noise is everywhere. Ink and gouache This drawing is made in black Chinese ink and gouache (opaque watercolor) applied with a brush. identify an animal: the fast cheetah. In Picasso's drawing. Picasso cofounded Cubism. The ink is used to make sharply defined solid. made only a year apart. slow tortoise. These media complement and amplify each other with their brilliant contrast. hooked.30 ANIMALS Movement M O V E M E N T IS OFTEN THE CHARACTERISTIC b y w h i c h w e their lines and the power of their beasts. flapping bird. Klee's riders are constructed from all the gestures of greeting mules. overwhelmed by a screeching bird. and brown. taking them to guide their hand in bringing form and essence together. Both Picasso and Klee have enclosed their subjects to compress and amplify the speed of PABLO PICASSO A prolific Spanish painter sculptor. and waves breaking distantly below. or proud. Gouache is brushed softly in translucent hazy layers of cool blue. flattened animals composed almost entirely of movement. we see semi-abstract. with George Braque (see p90). printmaker ceramicist graphic and stage designer who lived in France. In these two drawings. gray.

top all happily of each other in the Endless lines Look closely at how Klee's lines rarely leave the paper and how they are free from the constraint of finite shape. Scene der Komischen of Comical Reiter Riders) (Scene 1935 161/2x111/2in ( 4 1 9 x 2 9 1 mm) M o r t o n G . They remain in contact with the surface of the page and scribble back and forth as they maneuver from one area to another. N e u m a n n Family Collection. draftsman." They chatter around bodies in groups. turning our eye and around inside the and postures of the paper- thin on pictorial space. well-worn copies o f w h i c h are found in m a n y art schools. printmaker. violinist. Layers of marks In this pale Dentil drawing we see layers of' agitated marks that together present a kind of visual "itch. creatures. W i t h his drawings Kleeb o u n d sophisticated theories to personal and often witty childlike imagery. Chicago PAUL KLEE . The entire drawing suggests the endless small movements of horses standing still. He is a u t h o r o f The Thinking Eye (1923).PAUL KLEE Swiss painter. and t e a c h e r at t h e Bauhaus school. sculptor.

Baker lived in an era when ships were built without drawn plans. slim stern). b a s e d o n his studies o f fish. It is simply how we read his perspective. adding washes of color with a fine brush. The fish It is likely that Baker drew with a quill dipped in irongall ink. drawings of animals that are each held tightly in a surprising space: a giant fish wears a ship's hull. He studied the anatomy of fish. In just one drawing he has displayed more angles of his design than we would expect to see from a single viewpoint Fragments English 1586 101/2 x 153/8 in (270 x 390 mm) MATTHEW BAKER of Ancient Shipwrightry . plans. and steerage. seemingly looking for our attention. This drawing illustrates Baker's theory. and author o f Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (1586). the expression of its eye. and to assess our next move. Below we see his revolutionary design for an Elizabethan warship. later called a galleon. and s e c t i o n s o f ships. and the carefully observed gills. Knopf's drawing opposite is the personal enigmatic expression of a mind gripped by illness. fins. Baker did not intend this. In contrast to the practical clarity of Baker's thought. mathematician. Exquisite details in this drawing include the lips of the fish. which in application gave strength and advantage to the English fighting the Spanish Armada. The ship The upper decks of the ship appear curved toward us at both ends. B a k e r initiated t h e scientific p r a c t i c e o f naval a r c h i t e c t u r e and applied h y d r o d y n a m i c s .32 ANIMALS Icon and Design IN THESE T W O MANUSCRIPTS we discover diagrammatic and mackerel's tail" (full bow. balance. His birds stare. and from them learned that if he designed his ship with a "cod's head MATTHEW BAKER Master shipwright. t h e earliest geometrically defined elevations. and scales. and blackbirds fly in formation through a mosaic of text. it would achieve greater speed.

K n o p f b e l i e v e d h e c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h e language o f birds. The main group is placed in a circle drawn with a compass.JOHANN KNOPF An " O u t s i d e r " a r t i s t w h o s u f f e r e d f r o m m e n t a l illness. firmly outlined. numbered. JOHANN KNOPF . appears to be stirred like water by the presence of the The Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks UNDATED 133/8 x 115/8 in (340 x 2 9 6 mm) and psychiatrist Hans Prinzhom collected this image. T h e G e r m a n a r t historian Outline and tone The blackbirds illuminating this frantic manuscript are drawn in pencil. and filled evenly with tone. The text. circle and the birds. written last of all. w h i c h o f t e n f e a t u r e as s y m b o l i c creatures in his drawings.

The Egyptians and Chinese are credited with the invention of carbon ink. they are associated with rapid. which range greatly in their handling and character of line. Responsive to slight changes in pressure. Each pen has a unique character. which scratch rather than draw. 3. then pour a little warm gum water into it and temper the two together. In the Far East. 5 0 0 years ago. and it is still in use today. REED PENS: A broad nib can be cut from bamboo or another tubular grass. from the acacia tree. ink is traditionally applied with a brush (see pp." "Gum" refers to gum arabic extracted Dip pens are essential and inexpensive drawing tools. Intricate or dramatic lines. PENS . F O U N T A I N PENS: These vary in quality and nib width. The bar is then rubbed into water on a slate block to produce ink. spots. high-quality Chinese and Japanese inks are subtler and more complex than those produced in Europe. 4.34 ANIMALS Pen and Ink W I T H A HANDFUL OF FEATHERS. The Chinese used animal or fish glue. Masters choose brands of long. where reeds were gathered. Avoid needle-sharp mapping pens. light it. Early artists recommended raven and crow for especially fine work. the recipes for which have been handed down over centuries. simultaneously 4 . Today. 2. The reservoir gives a constant flow of ink for very long unbroken lines and continuous bottle-free use. expressive drawing techniques such as the ones we explore in this chapter 1. and spatters can be made with an exotic choice of inks. The paste from either recipe is pressed and dried into a bar for storage. and hold it under a clean basin until the soot hangs to it. That is an ink. s t i c k s . distinguished manufacture.246-47). Dip pens began their history in the Nile River. and first used by the Egyptians. producing a different line. while metal nibs began as rare gifts in gold and silver before being perfected by the British steel industry. They fit into wooden holders. Quills were later cut from feathers. a n d m e t a l p o i n t s . Only fill with suitable inks. METAL PENS: Inexpensive removable steel nibs are available in a range of widths. A German recipe of 1531 gives a simple description: "Take a wax candle. you can have great fun drawing the world around you. QUILLS: These are cut from the barrel of a flight or tail feather. The best are goose or swan.

roastedwine sediment (Yeast Black). Beechwood soot is best. I N D I A N INK: Carbon ink sold today in liquid form. waterproof or non-waterproof. Old stock turns solid and bottlesChina. I R O N . . ACRYLIC / CALLIGRAPHY INKS: Available in black and a range of colors. Inks can be lightfast or non-lightfast. 8.G A L L INK: Abnormal spherical growths caused by parasitic wasps can be collected from some oak trees in fall. It dries with a sheen and clogs uncleaned pens. Excellent for drawing they are bright and non-clogging. and sepia. they produce a golden dye for drawing. Now we also have acrylic ranges in many colors. from are not 6. reduced. The complexities of traditional iron-gall ink are explained on p. iron-gall. and most can be homemade. They are the easiest inks to use. and can be mixed and diluted to create subtler colors and tones. or charcoal.36. 5. SEPIA A N D BISTRE INKS: Sepia. and sieved. INKS 9. Bistre is the more humane use of soot scraped from the fireplace and ground into wine. Waterproof types contain shellac. dated. C A R B O N INK: Traditionally produced from oil or resin soot (Lamp Black). Non-waterproof Indian inks can be reworked with a wet brush after drying. and are still in use today: carbon (Chinese and Indian). is the ink of a cuttlefish or squid extracted post-mortem. Crushed. suspended in a binder and stored as a solid block Blocks are imported today 7. charred bone (Ivory Black).35 PEN AND INK Four types of ink were common before the 20th century. bistre. an often misused term. boiled.

. Running fresh. finding reed p e n s unwieldy. T h e y give a finer. and delicious to draw with. always be cautious when experimenting with recipes. since t h e D u t c h w e r e t h e first t o realize t h a t they could be hardened and i m p r o v e d w i t h heat t r e a t m e n t in ash o r sand. galls were ground with iron sulfate to make an unstable solution. t h e y stick a n d j u d d e r f o r w a r d . 2 4 4 is an e x q u i s i t e e x a m p l e . then cut a final nib (feathers. It dried black. of a loaded nib. crushed. Walnut ink is gloopy. can also be collected from affected trees. V a n G o g h . Some of Michelangelo's drawings are now a little eaten by their own ink.) You can make ink easily from the boiled. reduced. Practice to gain a feel for how materials behave. U n d e r heavy pressure. fleshy skins that surround ripe walnuts. drawn to glisten with a dryer nib. a n d M a t i s s e also e n j o y e d t h e m . It also oxidized and ate or burned paper. For centuries. forming the REED PENS R e e dpens dispense ink quickly. Paler strokes were made where the mark has the legs and antennae the ink ran out. Reed marks The darker left wing of this beetle was drawn with the wet inky stroke wing. Collect skins from the ground beneath trees once they are blackened. and boiled to make a golden ink. The darkest of this grasshopper wings) were made (around the head first. QUILL PENS Q u i l l s a r e highly r e s p o n s i v e t o c h a n g e s in p r e s s u r e . m o r e e x t e n d e d line than reed and a m o r e organic line t h a n m e t a l . red-brown. it was gray-purple. sieved. the blade and cut away from you.36 ANIMALS Drawing With Ink To MAKE A QUILL OR REED PEN. Quills are also called D u t c h pens. for example. Scribes o f t h e M i d d l e Ages. The lighter right Quill marks Quills carry more ink than strokes and for as reeds. r e s e r v e d t h e i r use f o r large c h o i r b o o k s . M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s d r a g o n o n p . I u s e d t h e s e qualities t o d r a w t h e w o r m s above. appears broken to show paper beneath. a n d d e v e l o p e d t h e quill instead. d r y mark. and turned brown with time. giving longer lines. keep all your fingers behind basis of iron-gall ink. are surprisingly tough. giving a s h o r t . Although oak galls and walnut skins are harmless. Oak galls. Rembrandt.

tonal Ink layers The wings of this beetle were drawn in layers using black and white ink on pale gray paper. Each layer of of the drying droplet dome the drawing was left to dry before adding more. Loaded with ink and pressed hard. it is important to feel for when the ink will run out and to know how much ink you pick up when dipping the nib. they splay to make thick o r double lines. W h e n the nib is pressed upside down. . breaking. clean strokes. When using dip pens.37 METAL PENS Metal pens give long. withstanding great pressure without sticking. o r being ruined as fountain pens would be under the same pressure. particles then filled with a droplet of ink. The of pigment to fall to the edges effect of the shape. DRAWING WITH INK Filled outlines Each segment of wing was outlined. marks become fine and needle-sharp. White markings were drawn last Tones Here we see subtle tones of diluted ink beneath the undiluted black rim of a beetle's wing. giving a graded. sharp.

Empathize. I covered eleven sheets in sixty quick drawings—in less than an hour. not on your drawing. Illustrating this exercise on Oxford Port Meadow. Posture . to absorb blots when drawing. Try to hold the whole posture in your mind's eye. Dip your pen in ink. waddle. be bold and press firmly. Cover a sheet." If you don't like a stroke. Attempt with a loose hand to capture their posture and outline. and quickly draw around it using only three or four strokes. and a large drawing book or plenty of paper Use masking tape to secure pages against the wind. test your limits. Watch their heavy feathered bodies flap. draw what the bird is doing. Take no more than ten seconds to draw each one and make lots of drawings. so pick a spot where other people can keep them entertained. and boldly plunge into your drawing. Quick drawing trains you to see what is most important about a subject and to mark only its most essential expression. make another one. Take a cup and water for diluting a range of tones.38 ANIMALS Capturing Character GEESE ARE EXCELLENT SUBJECTS to draw when practicing the first use of pen and ink. Focus on the geese. and be brave. Study them before drawing. there is no obligation to prepare a quill. It teaches confidence and focus through intensive repetition. Experiment. That said. You cannot break the nib. Pack plenty of tissue around a bottle of calligraphy or acrylic ink. and there is no "wrong. Cover your drawing book pages in speedy responses to the geese and try to capture each bird in as few lines as possible. and bellyflop off the waterside. Geese are nosy birds. MATERIALS NEEDED Look for a bird expressing a simple posture. steel nibs are fine. touch the bottle's rim to drain the excess. Focus on it. It happens that goose feathers also provide artists with the best type of quills.

CAPTURING CHARACTER Texture Gradually allow yourself more lines to describe the texture of each bird as well as its posture and action. flapping. and diving. Again. draw the feeling of what you see. look among the birds for more complicated actions such as shaking off water. . and don't worry about mechanical facts or accuracy. Use more lines than before to express these.39 Action With growing confidence. Avoid detail unless really tempted by a close-up visit Fluctuate the pressure of your pen in response to how you know the bird would feel if you touched it. running.

your drawing book. and drain the excess by touching the nib against the rim of the bottle. engaged in his and everyone else's business. form. This will give a medium-gray line. Sleeping animals present the artist with ideal opportunities to study their texture. and a tissue for blotting drawn lines that appear too dark. a dip pen and ink of your choice (see pp. and personality." . a d o g w h o w a s a l w a y s town. Ras Curled Up Asleep "Capturing the true character of a cherished companion is best achieved with objective determination rather than sentimental shyness. Now it will make a pale line.40 ANIMALS Sleeping Dogs R A S WAS A GREAT CHARACTER. Make a test sheet to discover your control of diluting on the nib. MAKING A PALE LINE To make a pale line. and even then he twitched and stretched in dreams. Then dip the nib quickly into a glass of water and drain the excess again. Dip the nib quickly again into water and again drain it. first dip your pen in ink. These drawings are not an analysis of his anatomy or breed but the expression of his satisfied comfort in a deep sleep after a night out on the together with a glass of water for diluting tones on the nib. The only time he remained still was when he was sleeping.34-37). For this class you will need one oblivious dog.

2 Reload your pen with ink. Then. in bold layers. I added ink to Ras's nose. Layers o f thoughts can bring a drawing alive. Then I immediately rebalanced the drawing with lines around his hind quarters. alter the pressure and moisture of your line in response to howyouknow your dog feels when you ruffle itscoat. Here. . and the shadows in his coat. ears. to emphasize how he is curled up.41 DRAWING YOUR DOG Be bold in this exercise. Remain focused on the whole dog and. Trust your intuition. quickly draw what you see. SLEEPING DOGS 1 Fix your eyes at the center of the dog. see how the animal's posture determines its whole shape. D o not go back over lines you are pleased with—doing so dulls their lively freshness. ignoring all detail. this time to create a line a little darker in tone. W i t h pale lies. add more detail. First lines are first thoughts. second thoughts may be different Changing your mind is a positive aspect o f seeing and thinking. tail.It is essential when drawing any subject (even something abstract) to know how it feels andtoemulate this with your line. To add texture. Character is better captured drawing quickly with confidence than w o r k i n g slowly. Here I marked the features of Ras's head. c o n c e r n e d a b o u t detail. 3 Gradually introduce darker tones.

A perfect subject for the beginner. offering plenty of time for the artist to draw the pose. swinging their limbs and shells with a slow circular movement. they stretch and paddle. turtles often pause unexpectedly. Beyond the glass wall of the aquarium. as if caught in a camera freeze-frame.Turtles to observe. THE ELONGATION AND BUOYANCY of a group of turtles is fascinating .


Beginning with very pale tones. I darkened lines as each drawing progressed. dry. . India ink. weightlessness of the kiwi. and sharp. and water. With speed. I sought to capture the form. I made repeated studies of the housemartin to discover its mechanism of flight. balance.Dry Birds THESE ARE THE ARTICULATED BONES o f a k i w i a n d a h o u s e - martin drawn in a museum using a steel pen.



where a number of uncredited artistsd r e wthem for Besler.000 species of plants are depicted life-size drawn. and hybridize them for our sustenance and pleasure. the punctuation of space with structure and mass. Rich owners of private gardens commissioned large-format florilegiums commissioned the volume to document his private garden to immortalize their personal taste and power of acquisition. form. and focus. Conrad von Gemmingen. and to ornament our lives. manipulations of light and shade. and diverse kingdom of plants. and beauty. —-the largest and most influential botanical book of the early Natural scientists accompanied explorers to document unknown finds. After Here Aconthus spinosus is combined with forget-me-nots and-a-half centuries of intensive observation. robust. We draw them to celebrate their beauty and range. infinitely vivid. shape. We collect. season. Chapters are arranged by out. Early European illustrators were trapped within dogma that was determined by ancient scholarship. Later. Medieval knowledge was not gained by the first-hand observation of life but by reading. we now have laid before us fourto show how well their colours complement each other infinite wealth of material to explore. Plants are the principal inspiration of the decorative arts—from Roman Corinthian columns crowned with carved leaves of the acanthus. and texture. In this chapter. we see very different cultural visions of plants and gardens and use pencils and plants to learn the pictorial values of space. It was published plain in 1611 and withhand-paintedplates in poured off ships returning from the New World and were eagerly collected and 1613. to catalog our knowledge. He sent boxes of plants to Nuremburgburned with the urgency and excitement of explaining every plant's form. PriceBishopof Eichstatt specimens. Patrons funded the breeding of decorative. The revolution came in the 1530s.Morethan 1. nurture. From its history there is one overriding lesson to be learned: the importance of looking and seeing with our own eyes. Both embrace the anticipation of evolving shape. an There are close parallels between the acts of gardening and drawing. as opposed to only herbal. Classifications were set in367copperengravings. Botanical illustration is a precisely defined and scientific art. on which our lives depend. color. Plants seventeenth century. and the drawn pages ofthesame name. 1613 187/8x153/4in(480 x 400 mm) BASILIUS BESLER . to the proliferation of floral designs with which we have dressed ourselves and furnished our homes for centuries. and the Acanthus spinosus constant but exhilarating struggle to make a living image feel right.Plants and Gardens W E SHARE THIS PLANET with the more ancient. B A S I L I U SBESLER when botanists founded new work upon the direct study of plants. Botanic gardens were established and expanded. Fledgling years Botanist and apothecary who compiled the Hortus Eystettensis of scientific research bore manifold explosions of knowledge in a fever of discovery. the microscope was refined to unfold yet another world.

48 PLANTS AND GARDENS THE SCIENTIFIC VALUE OF A BOTANICAL DRAWING lies i n its Botanical Studies were specimens that often refused to stay still. flowers. or that were diseased. Dissections Across the lower part of this drawing we can see dissections of seed pods and petals. naturalist explorer and advisor to King George III invited Bauer to London in 1 7 9 0 . and Franz Bauer and his brother Ferdinand were employed there to draw specimens. leaves. They are counted among the most accomplished 18th-century botanical artists. petal tip over a lower leaf Protea nitida 201/4 x141/4in (513 x 362 mm) FRANZ BAUER 1796 . It is likely Bauer would have studied these under a microscope. and wilted. B e h i n d detailed. M a c k i n t o s h e x p r e s s e s the f o l d e d petals of a broken rose b u d so delicately w e can sense the perfume. and seeds conventionally a p p e a r o n o n e plate. stems. He has made the spatial and physical relationships in this drawing all the more real by placing a single. o p t i m i s m ." Her slipper orchid s h o w s that botanical drawing must often resolve the challenge of its subject's p r o d u c i n g parts in different seasons — r o o t s . Sir Joseph Banks. The King was then establishing the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. Here. and meticulous precision. T h e rest of u s are free to d r a w as w e w i s h . Outline Bauer prepared a pencil outline before laying in fleshy succulent hues and tones of watercolor. Botanical art c o n c e a l s the challenge of its m a k i n g . detail. Light in this drawing is given by the paleness of the paper showing between washes of darker tones. s u c h as w e see here in Bauer's Protea nitida. W i t h bright F R A N Z BAUER An Austrian artist who trained at the Schonbrunn Imperial Gardens in Vienna. Stella Ross-Craig said of the need to d r a w from a dried herbarium plant "I could make it live again. o p e n i n g a n d c l o s i n g i n the w a r m t h a n d light of the studio. subtle union of beauty. measured drawings. Each plant must b e clearly distinguished from its closest relative. fruit. insect-ravaged. delicate.

S h e also o f thousands o f contributed an drawings. imagination. Curtis's Botanical Magazine. is r e c o g n i z e d as tne m o s t c o m p l e t e a n d i m p o r t a n t work 3.. and observation the nuance and contour of every in one image. A s m a n y of her drawings are kept G a r d e n s . and follow shadow.7 3 in 3 1 p a r t s . a n d he inspired.286 studies for her book Drawings of British Plants. L o n d o n in 1 9 2 9 . sensual pencil drawing is later works. and speed depends upon the immediate perception of the essential characteristics of the plant. Rose 1894 103/4 x 83/4 in ( 2 7 5 x 2 2 1 mm) CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH STELLA ROSS-CRAIG A j o i n e d t h e staff a t t h e R o y a l B o t a n i c G a r d e n s . 1970 x 81/4 in ( 3 2 5 x 2 1 0 m m ) STELLA ROSS-CRAIG . Ross-Craig said of her work "Plants that wither rapidly present a very difficult problem to which there is only one answer—speed. Pencil lines cling to. a m o n g o t h e r s .. Closer to fiction can come together perfectly. found among Mackintosh's than reality. it is small and discreet. and perfect coordination of hand and eye. and it shows how design. H e r Drawings of British Plants. as at trained botanical artist Ross-Craig Swift lines The drawing was planned in pencil and then overworked with a lithographic pen. K e w . a n d f o u n d e r o f t h e G l a s g o w S c h o o l o f A r t M a c k i n t o s h ' s flair h a d an e n o r m o u s i n f l u e n c e o n t h e a v a n t ." This line drawing is one of 1. G u s t a v K l i m t In his r e t i r e m e n t Mackintosh m a d e n u m e r o u s inventive pencil a n d w a t e r c o l o r d r a w i n g s o f plants. Line Drawing of Cypripedium calceolus L c. p u b l i s h e d 1 9 4 8 .g a r d e in G e r m a n y a n d A u s t r i a .49 C H A R L E S RENNIE MACKINTOSH Scottish a r c h i t e c t d e s i g n e r painter.000 Kew to archive accessible t o d a y v i a t h e I n t e r n e t of o n British flora. BOTANICAL STUDIES Lines and shadows This lush.

Drawing. Bishndas was probably responsible for the overall design. and attention to detail are all shared with medieval European manuscript drawings. Babur directs his gardeners in the design and planting of this quartered chahar bagh. 1590 85/8 x55/8in (219 x 1 4 4 mm) BISHNDAS AND NANHA Bright pigment These pages were illuminated by Mughal artists in the late 16th century.50 PLANTS AND GARDENS Jeweled Gardens the Middle East we find exquisite stylization of form and upright formality in pictorial space. urgent attentive human activity. Below. anticipating their view. a notable portrait painter drew the faces. in the early 16th century. Envoys chatter outside the gate. Opposite is the Rose of Mohammed. The white of the page shines through the brilliant color. and miraculous growth. and calligraphy are brought together to hold the sacred names of prophets and the 99 beautiful names of God. painting. Every fiber of AMONG DRAWINGS FROM BISHNDAS A N D N A N H A Little is known of these Mughal painters who were related as uncle and nephew and commissioned to illustrate the pages of Babur's journal. Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity c. By Muslim tradition. Afghanistan. paper is brimming with the beauty and celebration of nature. . and Nanha. the sumptuous petals permeated with prayer and wisdom. roses took their form in a bead of perspiration on the brow of Mohammed as he passed through his heavenly journey. which he personally created near Kabul. uniform focus. They used a fine brush to lay pigment over a line drawing. is remembered in the pages of his journal. in miniature. Upright shallow perspectives. fluctuations in scale. The first Mughal Emperor Babur's Garden of Fidelity (Bagh-e Vaja).

The Rose of Mohammed 1708 9 1 / 2 x 61/2 in ( 2 4 0 x 1 6 5 mm) FROM THE TURKISH M A N U S C R I P T AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH . It is n o w k e p t in Border The elegant border of this drawing was mode with a pen and ruler It cleverly compresses and defines the composition. Stylized motif A fine brush has been used throughout this drawing to apply inks and watercolors.AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH This is a detail o f a page from a n 1 8 t h . G e r m a n y . so that overlapping petals and stems give an impression of fulfillment and abundance. look closely and you will see words written in gold fluttering over the form of the flower. Note how each bud is essentially the same shape. The physical anatomy of the rosebud has been studied and translated into a repeated stylized motif. and how the shape has been repeated freehand. Sacred words The central rose is more solid than any other on the page. t h e Staatsbibliothek zu Arabic. fragmenting its detail in a whisper of prayers. However.c e n t u r y Turkish manuscnpt a book of religious e t h i c s w r i t t e n in the O r i e n t a l C o l l e c t i o n s of Berlin.



Fast Trees
IN CONTRAST TO THE QUIET, formal detail of other drawings in this chapter, these powerful fast trees enact the actions of plants. Each tree reaches out and holds its landscape with dynamism and pulse. In both drawings we find testament to the inexorable energy of growth. Rembrandt expresses a delicate quickness. Gentle lines draw a warm breeze through this remote wooded garden. Rustling in a loose foliage of soft marks, his pen evokes the weight of abundant activity on this late summer's day. Mondrian's arch of scratching branches is drawn with such force it will always be alive. We can still feel his hand storming across the paper. Set within a frame of smudged landscape, the tree possesses a musical agitation. This characteristic will increase in the artist's later abstract work. Here, we see a punctuated ordering of space. Sharp branches cut out negative shapes of winter sky.

R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter; etcher; and draftsman. Rembrandt's prolific output comprises oil paintings of historical and religious subjects together with group and self- portraits. His emotive etchings and pen and ink drawings (see also p. 174) are great resources for artists learning to understand the potential of these media.


Pen and ink lines describing foliage also tell

us the directions of sunlight and wind. An arc crossing the bottom of the drawing from one side to the other supports the scene and separates us from the landscape beyond. Compare Rembrandt's arc to that of Mondrian's. and note the similar treatment of low horizons in both works emphasizing the height and dominance of trees.

Cottage Among Trees 1648-50 63/4 x121/8in ( I 7 I x 308 mm) R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN





Atmosphere Here we see how shapes of negative space are as important as the physical subject they enclose (see pp.58-59). Mondrian has again lightly dragged his chalk on its side to evoke a wet depth of atmosphere. These passive gray marks contrast with the assertive tension of the tree.

Dutch Pure abstract painter preoccupied w i t h line and plane relationships. W i t h increasing austerity, Mondrian banished t h e subject from his drawings, in his later w o r k he also banished space, composing visual h a r m o n i e s using only straight lines a n d flat planes o f black, w h i t e , gray, o r p r i m a r y color.

Winter ground Short vertical marks along thebottomof this drawing reveal the length oftheblackchalk Mondrian used. Rubbed onitsside,itroughly blocks in the ground. Thecrudeeconomy of line is all we need tofeelthecold, wet, unwelcoming quality ofthiswinterearth.

Branches and trunk Lines shaping the branches of the tree are built up in layers. To make the trunk more dense, the artist has rubbed and smudged preliminary marks with his fingers before firmly overdrawing with new lines. Solid black lines are achieved by pressing the chalk hard. When used lightly, it shows the texture of the paper. Tree: Study for the Grey 1911 23 x 335/8 in ( 5 8 4 x 8 5 5 m m ) Tree




Graphite and Erasers

This drawing illustrates a range of achieved with graphite pencils of different grades.


Modern pencils are graded from 9H (hard and pale) to 9B (black and soft). Graphiteclay sticks are also available, together with a powder form. All possess a natural sheen and are erasable to a varying degree. Graphite drawings smudge easily, so fixative, a form of varnish, can be used to hold a drawn surface in place. It is applied as a fine mist from an aerosol can, or from a bottle using a diffuser. For the beginner, ordinary hairspray is an effective and cheaper alternative.

(to write), is a soft and brittle carbon. It was first mined in Cumbria, England, in 1 5 6 4 , and was initially used in small, pure pieces bound in lengths of string. Pencils as we know them—with their slender wood casing and "lead" of graphite—were invented in France in 1794 by Nicolas-Jaques Conte. He discovered that milled graphite mixed with clay and water, press-molded, and baked to a high temperature produces a harder and paler medium than graphite alone.

3B pencil A range of mark and textures can be achieved with a 3B pencil when you vary its pressure, speed, and direction, as this detail shows.

Here is a selection of 14 items to illustrate a basic range of pencils, graphite sticks, sharpeners, erasers, and fixative.
1. AND 2. HB AND 3B PENCILS: It is unnecessary to possess every grade of pencil. HB, the central and most common grade, is perfect for making delicate lines. 3B gives a blacker tone. A great variety of effects can be achieved with just these two. 3. WATER-SOLUBLE PENCIL Effective for atmospheric drawing, but be aware of how watery tones can dull the impact of the line. 4. AND 5. MECHANICAL PENCIL Thick or fine leads are made in a range of grades. They are particularly useful because they do not require a sharpener 6. ROUND SOLID GRAPHITE PENCIL: Excellent for large-scale drawing, producing thick bold lines. A range of grades can be honed with a craft knife or sharpener 7. THICK GRAPHITE STICK: For large-scale drawing. Graded soft, medium, and hard. It crushes to produce graphite powder 8. SQUARE GRAPHITE STICK: Useful for making broad, sweeping marks in large-scale drawing. If worn and rounded, the stick can be snapped into pieces to regain the sharp, square end. 9. CRAFT KNIFE AND BLADES: Handles are sold in two sizes to fit large or small blades, and blades are sold in a range of shapes. Perfect for sharpening pencils to a long point, to cut lines in paper or to remove areas. 10. PENCIL SHARPENER: Makes a uniform point. Keep one in your pocket for drawing outside the studio, together with an envelope for shavings.

HB and 5B Layers of tone have been built up withHBand5Bpencils. Softer pencils require less pressure to make a mark, revealing the texture of the paper surface. It is important to keep the point of the pencil sharp with either a craft knife or a sharpener.


Erasers can be used t o blend and s o f t e n lines, o r t o r e m o v e altogether. Fixative them prevents


s m u d g i n g a n d s e c u r e s lines.

Using fixative You can use fixative while drawing to hold the definition of lines you wish to gently fade but not remove entirely, for which you would use an eraser.

11. P L A S T I C E R A S E R : Avoid cheap colored erasers that may stain drawings with grease and dye. White brands are available in soft and hard versions.



W a r m it in your hand before use. It is excellent for removing powdery materials, and for making crisp sweeps of light across a delicate pencil drawing

13. D I F F U S E R : Helleborus corsicus (Corsican hellebore) fixative, or to spray mists of ink.



Cropping and Composition
M A N Y STUDENTS WILL START a d r a w i n g i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e

that its skin nearly touches the boundary. The meaning of the same drawing changes simply by its relationship to the space it occupies. The size of any subject, its placement on the page, the size of the page, and its overall proportion are all discrete and essential aspects of successful picture-making. Before you begin to draw, think carefully about where to place your subject. Are you are happy with your paper? If not, change it; add more, take some away, or turn it around. Do not just accept what you are given, adapt it to what you need.

paper. Focused on the shape and detail of their subject, they remain happily unaware that there is, or should be, any relationship between what they are drawing and the surface they are drawing it on. The paper is only paper, and the troublesome subject floats somewhere in the expanse of it. However, a single fig drawn in the middle of a large, empty square of paper gives quite a different impression from the same fig drawn on such an intimately small square


A Single Fig

"The size, shape, and orientation of the paper are so integral to the composition that they determine the impact and meaning of the drawing."

a device to help you decide what t o draw. The angle of the fruit together with dark shadow (top left) and bright light(bottom right) suggest a diagonal division across the whole drawing. and lines describing shadows cast by the fruit . Space as the subject Inallpictures.O u r focus is on the white cloth supporting the figs. as also shown here. A card with a small rectangle cut out o f it makes a useful viewfinder C l o s e o n e e y e t o look through the hole. they establish a tension and unity with the paper. its stem and shadow framing a white center. t h e n m o v e t h e c a r d t o e x p l o r e different views.57 THE VIEWFINDER T h e s e pencil drawings o f figs d e m o n s t r a t e different crops and compositions. This drawing hasbeencropped to emphasize space between thefruit. Here the left fig is attached to. When subjects touch two or more edges. and therefore apparently suspended from. Touching the edge When the subject o f a drawing touches one edge of the paper it attaches t o it visually. the uppermost edge of the drawing. its illumination. spaces between things are as important as the things themselves. bottom-left t o top-right. U s e it as a starting point. CROPPING AND COMPOSITION Off-center and diagonal Here I held my viewfinder so the fig appeared upper-left in the space. running corner t o corner.

The drawing opposite is of the uppermost leaves of a potted fig tree. and engaging. and a fresh page in your drawing book. then added a second shape. dynamic. In following this class. do we see myriad distinct and unique shapes of daylight or do we just see branches? Why as artists should we look at the air? Every space in a picture has a shape. rather than what you see in front of you. you will need a similar large-leaved plant. position. shapes of air cut out and defined by the physicality of our environment? When we look into the branches of a tree. their subject and composition will become more real.58 PLANTS AND GARDENS Negative Space UNCONSCIOUSLY WE ASSESS spatial relationships all the time to guide ourselves through the world. It helps to start at the center and map outward. Looking at negative space overrides the problem of drawing what you know. unified. fourth. and so on. not leaves. Remember that plants do move! Therefore it is best to complete your drawing in one sitting if possible. an eraser.The box opposite isolates an area. Negative space is the simple key to getting positive shape right. and a role to play. remember to draw only space. But how often do we look at the air between things. Draw a complete shape Map outward from the center Erase and adjust lines until correct . tone. Follow these from left to right and see how I began with one complete shape between two parts of a leaf. Unfamiliar shapes of negative space reveal the real shape of a positive subject. WHERE TO START Arrange your plant and paper so you can look back and forth by barely moving your head. this ensures a consistent view. It is an astonishingly simple device that many artists use and I strongly recommend. erasing and adjusting lines until itlooked right. third. Viewers appreciating a finished image may not see shapes of space. a sharp H B pencil. a foundation stone in picture-making. which is shown in the three steps below. but if the artist does. In your own version.


Here I drew only spaces, adding one to another until the leaves were revealed. Besides looking at negative space, there are two other useful things to do when a drawing feels wrong but you cannot see why: look at it in a mirror or turn it upside down. errors and suggest changes.

Spaces between leaves

Either view will


Fig Tree
WALKING IN THE ALPUJARRAS in A n d a l u c i a ,

Spain, I drew a bare fig tree clinging to the wall of an almond grove; a perfect subject for seeing negative space. I marked its essential frame of large branches first, frequently erasing lines and changing my mind until the balance felt right.

S a l v i a , RIBES, CLEMATIS, Allium, Passiflora, and Acanthus

Summer Flowers


drawn with an H pencil by observing the

negative spaces between the stems, petals, and leaves. I arranged the flowers on a sheet of paper in a cool r o o m and rapidly sketched a composition. Then I put them in water, taking the stems out one at a time to draw.


If an artist changes the pace of their line and focus of their attention. they emulate our experience of seeing. interfolding points of detail with areas of loose suggestion. Compare changes of pace and focus here to the flatter finish of Summer Flowers (see pp. gathering less distinct information on the way. our eyes travel and adjust from one point of focus to another. . 62-63). We never see everything at once.Acanthus Spinosus As we LOOK AROUND. Excessive detail leaves no space for the eye to rest or imagination to wander.


and from West Facade of the Church of St Augustin. we find the most recent steps in the evolution of graphic language. mass. made by the architect himself. Architects have been fine-tuning their specialized branch of drawing for centuries. once there. Perhaps in the sheer planes of some of our greatest modern buildings it is finding its clearest expression. which was the first church in the capital to be built entirely of metal and then clad in stone. the device that has since governed most of our picture-making (sec pp. Since Picasso and Braque's revolution of Cubism in around 1907. each VICTOR BALTARD . and sound. from political commentary to musical abstraction. fine artists.The church is still in use today. philosophers. architects and designers can imaginatively "climb inside" three-dimensional space and." reflecting the eye's love of unity in difference. filmmakers.Architecture I N THE CONTEMPORARY PRACTICES of architecture. Besides sketches of first thoughts and polished drawings of the finished look for clients. they also have a diagrammatic language for communicating plans to builders. coupled with the importance of exercizing your imagination. balance. designers. At the core of their practice. time. of the west facade of St Augustin. Augustin. Computer programs allow the virtual drawing of ideas. and writers have been breaking away from traditional forms of representation to seek new expressions of shape. drawing plans around themselves within a program as opposed to on a flat sheet of paper. Yet the pursuit of divine proportion and harmony remains. and in the 19th century it was given the name the Golden Section. to help them create new form. they have the Golden Section. was preserved into the Renaissance where it became a foundation stone for thinking and creativity From 15thcentury Italy. and computer game imaging. Baltard designed the Church of St. the formula for perfection spread through Europe. to 20th-century film fantasy. Through the animation of the screen. add and subtract ideas. Since the first flowering of Modernism in the early 20th century. It was also during the Renaissance that the architect Brunelleschi invented linear perspective. It was the mathematicians. and architects of ancient Greece who first pursued the formula for "divine proportion. European conventions of pictorial perspective have lost their monopoly on seeing. This harmony. with gray and brown watercolor wash. film-set design. which can be clearly seen in ancient Greek architecture. 74-75). It is the focus of practical class in this chapter.This is a pencil drawing. VICTOR BALTARD French architect employed by the city of Paris. Linear perspective is a marvelous device. architects. space. composers. invaluable to understand and apply when you choose. Paris 1871-74 the child's view to the infinity of the vanishing point. Among the drawings of this chapter we look from 17th-century ecclesiastical calm.

and labor. marks the end of a long journey from the first few marks the architect made on a sheet of paper. Blenheim Palace. Oxford. We see the modeled detail of Corinthian columns. embodying a massive investment of ideas. and the shapes of interior domes and apses. 1711-12 NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR . and an inscribed entablature. pilasters. evoke presence. materials. and Castle Howard. Architects draw for many reasons: to visualize ideas. and six London churches. Hawksmoor's drawing is both a plan and an evocation. and later an assistant to Vanbrugh. NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR One of Britain's "three great" Baroque architects (along with Sir Christopher Wren and Sir John Vanbrugh). Hawksmoor established his reputation with university and church architecture including All Souls College. A student of Wren's. Pillars and floor At the base of the drawing a compass-drawn plan tilted downward through 90 degrees illustrates the arrangement of pillars around a central circular floor. Together they explain how interior structure and space define exterior form and shape. and balance. The photograph opposite shows his studio hung with metal pendulums. testing gravity to calculate the inverted shapes of domes. Finished surface On the left the finished surface of the building is given depth and emphasis by immaculate vertical and horizontal brush strokes of shadow. calculate function. relative levels. densely layered lines in mists of color weave the presence of the expected building into shape. Below it. Hampton Court Palace. and ultimately to show builders what to do. a three-dimensional drawing made with wires and weights. Lines define structure while washes suggest light and atmosphere. he also worked on St Paul's Cathedral. Cut-away interior On the right a section cut through the center of the building reveals material thicknesses. Three aspects This subtle and sophisticated drawing made in pen and wash displays three distinct aspects of Hawksmoor's baptistry. Gaudi's fluid architecture grew up through many kinds of drawing. describe a finished look to a client. Drawings underpin every great human-made structure like hidden linear ghosts at their core. structure.68 ARCHITECTURE Master Builders EVERY NEW BUILDING. St Paul's Baptistry c.

and apartment homes are distinguished by their Their and Flowering curves of stone or concrete are often encrusted with Gaudi was inspired by medieval and oriental art. Guell Crypt of its at the Time Construction c. light. 1910 24x181/4( 6 1 0 x 4 7 5mm) A N T O N I O GAUDI . churches. 1900 ANTONIO GAUDI ANTONIO GAUDI Visionary Catalan architect. Gaudi air than on paper. To the right isawatercolordrawing thought to havebeenmade over a photograph ofthemodelabove. This sculptural drawingenvisionsthe finished crypt glowingandethereal as if caught in thelightof red morning sun. and his love of music. The Art Nouveau movement. Wire and watercolor three-dimensional preferred to calculate Above is a drawing form in the made withlinkedwires and weights. unique organic manipulation of high shapes.69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt c. embellishment. Gaudi's cathedral in Barcelona.

p. been a natural affinity between the visual rhythms of pictures and the audible rhythms of music. Libeskind begins quietly in the upper space of his drawing. before cascading into a riot of line and sound below. installations. short curved poles. and arched dotted lines depict the radius of doors. The architect and musician Daniel Libeskind has drawn a stampeding cacophany of airborne architectural detail. He also produces urban and landscape designs. Arctic Flowers 1980 DANIEL LIBESKIND . We can imagine how a musician might interpret this drawing by looking at the abstract visual rhythms of masses composed of long straight poles. and exhibitions of his drawings. corridors. such a rapport in both of these drawings. and dotted lines. while the composer Erik Satie has made an enclosure of quiet order and grace. Floor space appears divided by discernible walls. upright pictorial space. Floor plan This drawing has been made with a rapidograph. He also contributed to plans for the rebuilding of the World Trade Center site in New York. and the spaces between his windows and turrets are the visual equivalent of pauses in h i s m u s i c c o m p o s i t i o n s for p i a n o (see also Bussotti. Across the top and center right of the image w e perceive an almost recognizable architectural plan. Libeskind studied music before transferring to architecture. flat boards. theater sets. There has always DANIEL LIBESKIND A Polish American architect of international acclaim.223). Both men used rulers and pens to carefully and slowly construct their compositions. Visual rhythms In the lower half of this drawing architectural language has broken loose: escaped and transformed into an image of rebellious pleasure. Libeskind's numerous commissions include concert halls and museums.70 ARCHITECTURE The Order of Sound B O T H OF THESE VISIONARY DRAWINGS o c c u p y a s l e n d e r . We can see. and rooms. a refillable pen that feeds a constant supply of ink through a fine tubular nib. Contemporary musicians commonly collaborate with artists by interpreting images as sound. and in a sense hear. Satie draws quietly throughout.

andfouredges of the paper tothecompositionand impact animage. dressed eccentrically. and founded his o w n church. a conventional dip or fountain pen. effectively additional lines in a work. Eastern influence The upright image Eastern is reminiscent and medieval of Middle pictorial space and subject of this European drawing.H i s witty. lived a l o n e .Edges are how are of orientation.56—57 we discussed important the shape. o f which he was the sole m e m b e r Parcel paper Satie has drawn this fantasy hotel using a ruler. They definespaceand pictorial balance. Hotel de la Suzonnieres c. Satie collaborated w i t h hisfriends J e a n C o c t e a u a n d P i c a s s o . Onpp. a n d ballet. and ink on a fragment folded brown paper—a of everyday happened material of scrap that to be at hand. 1 8 9 3 77/8 x 51/2 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 4 0 mm) ERIK SATIE . theater. the perimeter Composition Look how well this drawingfitsand resonates with the upright. minimalist s c o r e s scandalized a u d i e n c e s with o r c h e s t r a t i o n s f o r t h e foghorn and typewriter. Compare the even and and the shape wall to the elegantly stylized order of the many windows of arrangement of details and the shape of the wall in Babur's Garden of Fidelity on p.50.ERIK SATIE F r e n c h pianist and c o m p o s e r for t h e piano.narrowshape of its paper. H e p e r f o r m e d in cabarets.

Within it. enter the long-shadowed architecture of imaginary worlds. Art director Erich Kettlehut's vertiginous design for the city of a slavelike populace had a future influence on movies such as Blade Runner. His celebrated imaginary buildings are characterized by pyramids. This shift makes the cenotaph appear three-dimensional. This is the work of an architectural theoretician. painter.The lower-left section of the building appears relatively pale against a darker sky. Among preparations for Fritz Langs film Metropolis.72 ARCHITECTURE T H E S E T H R E E HIGHLY DETAILED DRAWINGS Future Fictions invite us to soaring above normal life. antlike mortals might have speculated upon the universe. Light illusions This pen-and-wash drawing shows a subtle application of the principles of illumination demonstrated with an egg on p. and taught at t h e A c a d e m i e d'Architecture. ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE French architectural theorist. arched vaults. cylinders. and the reverse is true on the right.96. made in 1926. we find other Utopian visions Paul Nobles epic drawing summons an imperfect and disturbing township where ruin and activity are equal and strange. Boullee lived in Paris. and draftsman. Boullee's monolithic apparition was drawn as a monument to Sir Isaac Newton. the ominous globe exists only as a series of drawings. and dramatic lighting. We glide over exquisitely drawn wastelands of damage and abandonment. experiencing a fascinating conflict between curiosity and desolation. Newton's Cenotaph 1784 153/4 x 25 in ( 4 0 2 x 635 m m ) ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE . spheres.

m a k e r In t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f Metropolis. FUTURE FICTIONS Brush and ink This is a dramatic drawing from a film that shaped the history of world cinema. together with c i n e m a t o g r a p h e r Karl Freund. Fritz Lang's Metropolis c. intensely detailed graphite drawings explaining and questioning t h e geography. used forced perspective camera t e c h n i q u e s t o amplify t h e m a g n i t u d e o f buildings in relation t o human characters.Building shapes are works can be read as text. Working on toned paper such as this gives an artist greater scope for dramatic lighting effects than if they work on white paper. and morality o f an invented place called His satires exhibited w o r l d w i d e . gray.a r t director O t t o Hunte. and m o d e l . Nobson political visions of humanity Newtown. Kettlehut and his c o . draftsman. Nobson Central 9 ft 1 0 in x 1 3 f t 2 in (3 x 4 m ) PAUL N O B L E 1998-99 . 1926 ERICH KETTLEHUT PAUL N O B L E British c o n t e m p o r a r y artist who creates m o n u m e n t a l . mythology. and white ink on brown-gray paper. Its sheerscaleengulfs the viewer and demands based time and patience to on letters and in some beread.73 ERICH KETTLEHUT Influential film a r t director. and are Graphite shapes Nobson Central isoneof a series of very large graphite drawings of the spoil and detritus of Nobson Newtown. architecture. Kettlehut drew using a fine and relatively dry brush dipped in black.

Note how architectural features conform to lines and how human figures diminish in size toward thevanishingpoint. Sometimes shared with Naive artists. and inventions— essential reading for inquiring minds. and thinkers ever to have lived. linear perspective is distinct from more ancient systems practiced in the East. It can be applied to any subject. See how the thread corresponds to each converging line. Invented by Italian artist and architect Brunelleschi in 1413 (late in the history of art). I contribute the child's perspective. 206-07). In his notebooks.74 ARCHITECTURE Pathways of Sight LINEAR PERSPECTIVE (also called vanishing-point perspective) is a simple device for calculating the relative size of things in pictorial space. observations. this perspective is often an imagined bird's-eye view in which details are mapped according to logic and importance rather than how they might appear in real life. Here Leonardo provides a superb example of a single vanishing point. Leonardo recorded constant streams of ideas. It is also distinguished from aerial perspective (see pp. Study of Perspective Adoration of the for the Magi 1481 61/2 x111/2in (165 x 290 mm) LEONARDO DA VINCI . Press the pin into Leonardo's vanishing point. but is most easily seen and understood in pictures of buildings and interiors. LEONARDO DA VINCI One of the greatest artists. scientists. Pull the thread taut and rotate it slowly above the drawing. Single-point perspective Tie a thread to a pin. We use it to structure illusions of depth. found at the center of all converging lines. All forms of perspective are of equal value. inventors. and those of Naive artists and children. and age eight. Piranesi an example of two.

and theoretical writing strongly influenced neoclassicism. It shows how children usually map large scenes in flat layers one above the other. Note the rather large rabbits and pheasants the hills. Children are uninhibited and problems with one element being obscured by another rarely arise. Lightly marked illuminates vanishing Two Courtyards c. Two-point perspective Sunlight through this colonnade a great example of two-point perspective. a points in logical narrative of memories. . New Forest.SARAH SIMBLET I made this drawing (at age 8) in response to a local bookstore's request for children to draw their village. Mark these points with your pin and follow the converging lines of the drawing by rotating your thread. visionary and practical understanding of ancient Rome. This drawing Young children typically maps ignore on and understanding of the nearby village. and designer Piranesi's prolific architectural drawings. which I saw from home every day. at the top of each lateral column base. 1740 5 1 / 2 x 83/8 in (141 x 212 mm) G I O V A N N I B A T T I S T A PIRANESI points are located on either side of the drawing. including all they recall about the subject. Scale Our farmhouse my experience was in the woods. architect. England 1980 9 x 16 in (228 x 405 mm) S A R A H SIMBLET GIOVANNI BATTISTA PIRANESI Italian artist. Breamore Village. issues of scale when making room for important their story.

In contrast. Study these pages first before embarking on this lesson. Draw four dotted lines radiating out from the vanishing point. Draw each step over the preceding one to build up a single image.) . (See p. then follow the ten steps below. This ensures that the second rectangle aligns with the shape and 4 Draw four short lines to connect the four corners of the two rectangles. Next. Each line should pass through one corner of the rectangle. You have completed your first box. DRAWING BOXES 1 Using a ruler and a sharp HB pencil. you will amplify the illusion of distance. discovering the image as it progressed. draw a horizon line across your paper Mark a spot on the horizon line. Note that if you place large structures in the foreground and smaller ones closer to your vanishing point. Piranesi planned his drawing with only the essential lines needed. Surround the vanishing point with a small rectangle. imagine. Erase the dotted construction lines.76 ARCHITECTURE Single-Point Perspective MASTERING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE i s e a s i e r t h a n y o u m a y First read through. corresponding to a single vanishing point. This lesson shows you how to make a simple illusion of space defined by two boxes and three flat boards. Extend each dotted line to the edge of your drawing. Leonardo began with a grid of many lines within which he invented his scene. using a sharp HB pencil and ruler. This is where we will begin. try composing your own space. On the previous page we looked at its essential mechanism through drawings by Leonardo and Piranesi. this is your vanishing point.98 for an important note on oscillation. 2 3 corners must each touch a dotted line.

1 0 Erase all ofthedottedlinestoseeyourfinishedboxes Thickeningtheiredges. 7 As in step 3. 8 Complete the second box with short lines as in step 4. andfarside of this first board.asIhavedonehere.77 SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE 5 Draw a new rectangle. . Note that this does not surround the vanishing point In the future. The larger you make your second rectangle. The four comers must each touch a dotted line to be sureitaligns with the first. Connect this to the vanishing point— again. the closer it will appear to the viewer. The board's sides should be parallel. Repeat this to add two more boards to the composition. draw a second. 6 As in step 2. N e x t draw a slanting line to mark the height of the first flat board. Continue the dotted lines out toward the edge of your drawing. and erase the dotted lines. with two dotted lines. larger rectangle. when inventing your own compositions. 9 Use dotted lines connecting the slanting linetothe vanishing point to locate the top. draw four dotted lines radiating from your vanishing point Pass these through each comer of the new rectangle. you can place rectangles anywhere youwishin relation to a vanishing point.willhelptomake them appear more solid. bottom.

7 4 ) .78 ARCHITECTURE Creating an Imaginary Space T H I S CLASS USES SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE t o c r e a t e a s i m p l e to you and if you listen to it. Every work talks In this class. Linear perspective will support y o u by providing a frame in which to b u i l d your picture as it did for Leonardo. The m i s t a k e n belief that we s h o u l d k n o w exactly what o u r finished drawings will l o o k like before we m a k e t h e m prevents many people from ever starting. let simple lines suggest a simple space. artist and film director. I always start with a script but I don't follow it all the way through to the end." . It highlights the importance of having faith in your imagination and trusting your ability to invent. A lot more happens when you open yourself up to the work and let yourself act and react to it. you will find white adhesive stationery labels are useful for covering errors or changing the direction of your idea. it will take you places you never dreamed of. Then follow the three given steps. As David Lynch. then let the space suggest its c o n t e n t s and purpose. p . If using a fibertip pen as I have done for this drawing. once said: "I never end up with what I set out to do. O n a fresh page in your d r a w i n g b o o k . draw a b o x as shown opposite." imaginary room. APPLYING PERSPECTIVE An Imagined Scaffold "Enjoy your illusion as you make it and it will become more real. w h e t h e r it is a film or a painting. it is interaction that makes the work richer.

This initial space will be transparent and open to change. parallel planes such as walls converge toward the vanishing point. additional lines have established the different surfaces and how they relate to each other. horizontal. you will beableto draw more complex objects orpeoplewithin them.drawthehorizonlineand vanishingpoint.There is great pleasure tobefoundin spending time inventing interiors. and leaning surfaces. 3 Remove the construction lines with an eraser and the room will becomeclearer. CREATING AN IMAGINARY SPACE 1First.79 DRAWING A SIMPLE ROOM Essentials t o remember: objects and people dimmish in size as they move farther away. Here.Addanarray of converging lines to provide a "scaffold" for vertical. 2 first before adding furniture. The space has become more solid and real. With some practice. . and floors and ceilings also converge and rise o r lower toward the horizon.

located anywhere inside or outside the pictorial space. They could be drawn on any scale from miniature to monumental.p o i n t perspective ( s h o w n opposite top). From our normal eye level. Here. or low and we look u p . our eye level is very high and we look down. verticals appear p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the g r o u n d . Copying what you see in the work of others will help you to understand what they have done. Only when y o u might employ t h r e e . T h i s is d e m o n s t r a t e d immediately below. but they are not confined to this level. they can be placed anywhere inspaceto describe the perspective of flyi c tilted objects. It is important to realize that you can have as many vanishing points as you wish. T h i n k of standing at the top of a skyscraper and imagine h o w its parallel sides would appear to converge below you.80 ARCHITECTURE Further Aspects of Perspective W E ARE ACCUSTOMED TO SEEING our e n v i r o n m e n t from a relatively constant point of view. Vanishing points are commonly found on horizon—our eye level. That is where we e to find them. showing y o u h o w to draw curved surfaces and a tiled floor. T h e y d o n o t have to relate to each other. Elaborations . 76-79). These elaborations could continue indefinitely across a sheet of paper in pursuit of complex and intricate ideas. I have elaborated on the simple boxes above. Further aspects of three-point perspective are also illustrated opposite. a n d this is how we have drawn them so far (see pp. The boxes drawn here are seen partly or entirely disassociated from a horizon line drawn across the bottom of the image. do verticals appear inclined. Free vanishing points On paper we can enjoy the freedom of fantastic structural invention without limitations of solid materials or gravity. To draw such a view APPLICATION Copy these drawings to see and feel how they work before inventing your own versions. Search for the application of these perspectives among works by other artists in this book and in galleries. o r to the h o r i z o n . Potentially.

useful for representing steep views looking up or down tall structures. An array of curved lines (drawn freehand) link the two lateral points.) By comparing this drawing t o Piranesi's example of two-point perspective on p. PERSPECTIVE Three-point curves Here. I then drew three fanned groups of lines connecting each of the three points above to the seven points below. Three-point checkered floor This d bottom floor. Iusedthese lines as a guide t o draw the curvature of boxes and panels flying through space. you will see how. they mark the corners of the floor tiles. Note that altering the distance between the three dots above will tilt the level of the floor . three vanishing points are evenly spaced along a horizon line.Finally. Where thelinescross.Istarted with two parallel lines.I added horizontal lines t o define the tiles. tostraightlines can amplify drama in a picture. (Turn the book around to see a view looking up.81 FURTHER ASPECTS OF Three-point towers This drawing depicts three-point perspective. Giving curvature.75. and therefore tension. I marked the toplinewith three evenly spaced points and the line with seven. by adding a third point you can achieve a sense of incline.


Theaters RESEARCHING FOR MY P H D . making drawings to resolve questions and express personal responses to the nature and history of anatomy. I visited many anatomical theaters and museums. . These walnut-skin ink pen and brush drawings show imagined views of theaters that do not exist but were inspired by places I studied.


the water.A N D . .I N KDRAWING is one of a series I made while next to the Rialto Bridge in Venice.Venetian Life sitting point buildings ThisP E N . The vanishing of the drawing is directly opposite as we look across The constancy of the bridge and surrounding frames the movement in the life that flows past.




are all made bearing the signature of our time and place. craftsmen had held plans in their memory. to record an observed detail. and the way in w h i c h the brain reacts Head and Neck Sections of Female Mold for the Sforza Horse to visual stimulus and optical illusions. for example—whether. H e has described a casting through metaphor. or to explain and present a finished concept to a client. or drawing w e see Leonardo daVinci'sprecision as can be given meaning. passing them on to others through the act of making. texture. T h e precision of engineering d r a w i n g s e v o l v e d alongside machine tools. W e also explore v o l u m e and form in the classes by spinning lines to make vessels. In past eras. With the sudden onset of mass production. r an equestrian statue. illuminating snail shells. planned. design. even more advanced drawings are made on computers. Today. Previously. have often carried great weights of allegorical once. drawings were needed to instruct workers on the factory floor. 1493 117/8c81/4in (300 x 210 m m ) LEONARDO D A V I N Ccreating I . drawing c. and some apes use simple tools. making a clear instruction t o his bronzemeaning. too. It is shaped in sections w i t h Artists have for centuries studied and expressed composition. that test our logic with a sense of mystery. for example. or used on stage hood for a mold t o make theheado f a horse f oas a p r o p — i m b u e d with e n o u g h energy or character can "become" a man. H e has described contour and function at drawings. drawn. each demanding more of the other as they increased in sophistication. History will be learned from the artifacts w e leave behind. In this chapter. of light in the creation of pictorial illusions. fictional realities caster of h o w t o make it andhowit will w o r k . Artists also make images of objects that can never exist. A chair. and a wire violin. color. Technical drawing was speedily developed as a meticulous international code of m e a s u r e m e n t and explanation.Objects and Instruments T HE THINGS WE INVENT describe our lives. we look at the importance are the only creatures on Earth w h o actually design and create great ranges of things. and made. Birds follow instinct to make a nest. these. hooked bars that can be pulled and tied closely form. It was in this era that the blueprint was born. from s p o o n s and pens to chairs and bicycles. Artists and actors use the meanings of things to communicate a speculative mechanic. and the behavior of light through making still-life paintings and together. C o m m o n items. but humans LEONARDO DA VINCI Inthisbeautiful red chalk Our items all have a purpose—practical or ornamental—and all have a meaning. sculpted. T h e Industrial Revolution c h a n g e d the traditional w a y s in w h i c h objects were designed. Engineers and designers of our objects and instruments make drawings for many reasons: to test an idea that is yet to be made.

90 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS Still Life THESE DRAWINGS REVEAL t w o o p p o s i t e m o t i v a t i o n s i n we can. Braque established Cubism in partnership with Picasso just before World War I. Statue D'Epouvante 1913 2 f t 5 in x 3 ft 5 in (0. One of the great joys of this movement in art is the musicality of its multipoint view. Opposite..Braque marshals all the forces of perspective. texture.. Braques image is a Cubist collage. Mucha's drawing glistens with possession." La Cuitare. perfect i n their newly made availability. a colored canvas. and a journal jacket with words makes this drawing chatter about the moment. Braques "justly" arranged combination of cut black card. and shading. Below. still feel this projected moment. "I believe [it] is the most radicalattempttostampout ambiguity and to enforce one readingofthepicture—that of a manmade construction. representing still life. not to work in harmony. Clashes The art historian Ernst Gombrich said of Cubism.73 x 1 m) GEORGES BRAQUE . steaming with music and conversation. and glass objects of exquisite elegance for only the gentlest of touch and appreciation. There is a fragile eloquence to these objects as they drift in slow motion past our gaze. charcoal. . T h i s is a designers drawing made to enthuse surface and style in its delicate brushing of china. Even today GEORGES BRAQUE French painter who as a young man was influenced by the work of the Fauves and of Cezanne. not of place but of things. He takes us into the bustle of the Paris cafe. silverware. but to clash in virtual deadlock. wood-look wallpaper. His work is characterized by calm and harmonious still-life compositions.

For ten years Mucha designed theater posters exclusively for the actress Sarah Bernhardt.ALPHONSE MUCHA Czech graphic artist and painter who worked in Prague. Art Nouveau motifs This is a preliminary study for a subsequent print. He is best known for posters featuring ethereal women in typical Art Nouveau style. and also stamps and bank notes. Pans. Look at the two spoons at toprightand see how has suggested that they are so brilliantly shiny they reflect the background color. He designed the Austrian pavilion for the Paris World Fair in 1900. Black watercolor washes and lines of white gouache have been added with a fine brush. Study for Plate 59 from "Documents Decoratifs" 17x121/4(430 x 310 mm) ALPHONSE MUCHA 1902 . and New York. Art Nouveau curling motifs of Chicago. Background color Between the delicate shadows and highlights of these glazed and surfaces ofthebackground metal color of the Mucha we see a large amount paper. The three plates facing us were drawn with a compass. and fish have been outlined using a sharp pencil.

In the graphic work of these two great men of science. w h e r e he developed his three greatest theories: the law o f motion. alchemist. From the concept of capturing the infinite to the mapping of microscopic sight. and Fellow of the University o f C a m b r i d g e . Look how confidently he draws with ink the sphere of this wooden globe by which his telescope rotates. offering a transparent view. and philosopher Newton was President of the Royal Society. shape the very cause and effect of investigatory thought. Newton's 1672 ISAAC Telescope NEWTON . mathematician. each one skillfully rendered with the alarmingly matter-of-fact ease of explaining the commonplace.92 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS by their very nature must gauge or chronicle precision. A disembodied eye at the top of the drawing indicates where to look. a tree outside. Ink lines Several drawings appear among Newton's letters. and his hand moving across the light. It was then reflected up inside the tube and. we see drawing Instruments of Vision found among his letters. drawing is there to pin the moment down. and the nature o f light and color. via a second mirror. astronomer. Newton used this instrument to calculate the speed required to escape earth's gravity. It is a diagrammatic explanation of how to catch and magnify a star in a mirrored tube. Hooke's head of a drone fly seen through a microscope may represent the first time man and insect came face to face. into the eyepiece. Their delicate construction is only as valuable as the measurements they make. The power of this drawing reflects the pure passion of discovery. Newton's drawing of his first reflecting telescope is ISAAC N E W T O N English scientist. 0 0 0 perfect hemispheres. He counted 1 4 . Transparent view Newton's reflecting telescope focused light in a parabolic mirror. the law o f gravity. With dotted lines Newton has drawn his arrangement of elements inside the tube. each reflecting a view of his own world—his window.

1665). universal joint a prototype respirator clock balance. and anchor escarpment.An experimental scientist who drew many of his discoveries. It is an exhilarating read. Hooke invented the camera diaphragm. ROBERT H O O K E 93 Magnifications This acutely detailed engraved drawing is taken from Hooke's Micrographia (pub. and calculated the theory of combustion. a breathtaking book containing many of his drawings showing some of the first microscopic and telescopic magnifications of our environment Hooke's text and illustrations carry us to the moment of discovery. The Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 1665 ROBERT HOOKE 111/2 x 105/8 in (294 x 270 mm) .

and place in the world are truly seen. and w h e r e the chair b e l o n g s . A renegade from the p a p e r dolls' h o u s e . Woodfine exhibits internationally. craft. and has drawings in numerous public and private collections. Sarah Woodfines flat cut-out m o d e l plan is a witty and surprising drawing. W i t h h o m e y c o n t r a s t . each drawn with the s a m e unfaltering lines and tones that are between reality and impossibility. Two-dimensional was made This highly finished drawing ruler using a sharp pencil and on smooth white drawing paper glistening dark drawings are artificial representations of known Woodfine's two-dimensional things balanced in the world. OBJECTS AND SARAH WOODFINE British contemporary artist graduate of the Royal Academy Schools. its character. it has so m u c h familiar personality that it seems to talk to us. Its wobbly gait and squashed s y m m e t r y m u m b l e endless h o m e y tales about the life it has seen. while the tabs make us see a flat paper cut-out. From component parts we understand how to put it together and make it stand sensible in space. Bench Marks W e are left a little c o n f u s e d as to what we s h o u l d do. this chair p r e s e n t s us with a clever visual contradiction: deeply drawn shadows tell us it must be solid. Van Gogh's tipsy seat is a metaphor for an absent person.94 INSTRUMENTS W H E N WE DRAW A COMMON OBJECT like a chair. Drawn in more-or-less c o n v e n t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . Chair Cut Out 2002 22'A x 23 in (565 x 585 mm) SARAH WOODFINE . has published several catalogs of her work. and winner of the 2004 Jerwood Drawing Prize.

Cornfield and Sunflowers. and Starry Cypress Night.hehas marked the full emotion of the subject with a fierce grip of concentration. His passionate brush and pencil strokes are honest and of also turmoil and growing alarm at the world around him. what direct in their he saw and describing his felt. inner recording while Fierce strokes This is a portrait of the mechanical drew immediately and almost harshly. not is made present in only strokes and is subdued to distract us from flat a meaningful chair. Among van Gogh's best-known canvases are Trees. Van Chair 1890 VINCENT VAN GOGH .95 VINCENTVAN GOGH Dutch painter who produced over 800 paintings and 850 drawings in only the last ten year's of his life. The floor few as engagement with the chair. drawn opposite way of plan.

a lit photograph of an egg shows essential points to observe in tonal drawing.This effect is caused by the contrast of their surroundings. Gray squares To further examine changes in tone. your eye around the circumference of the egg. try this experiment. two identical mid-gray squares are seen against black and paler gray squares. The egg's darkest region is seen against a lighter background. w e turn our head but n o one w a s there. think about its illumination. one blackandone white. S o m e o n e passes our o p e n door. form. The egg's lightest region is seen against a darker background. Through these we can enjoy witnessing our o w n d e c e p t i o n a n d b a f f l e m e n t a n d u n d e r s t a n d certain factors that are very useful in picture-making. a n d m o v e m e n t . gray. The small squares are identical in tone. To interpret visual s t i m u l u s . a n d are q u i c k to p r o p o s e ideas. but do not appear so.d o w n patterns of light on our retinas. Run The bottom-left quarter of the egg lightens slightly toward its "edge" when seen against the darker shadow cast on the paper. o u r b r a i n s search for n a m e a b l e things. Tape them to the glass.At one point you will catchenoughlight lighter than the white one. and the proximity of contrasting tones. hence our recognition of a cartoon face c o m p o s e d of three lines. U p s i d e . W e learn to read light and shadow in our environment as indicators of solidity and depth of space. atmosphere. Are you happy LIGHT AND SHADOW with what you see? Does the light enhance the subject? Could you alter and improve it? On pp. The two tones meet without a division or outline between. We only need small prompts. perhaps. Here. reads only m o v e m e n t a n d can often m a k e mistakes. Below. or colored surface is never constant. Artists emulate and manipulate this effect in their pictures. We perceive one to be lighter than theother. Before starting a tonal drawing of any subject. Card experiment cho can gra on . a n d we can be fooled. On acloudyday. The outermost edge of our vision. the adjustment of our eyes (in growing accustomed to a level of light). From across the room both will appear black card and fold and retapeitwith half sticking out.102-03 deep shadows cast across shells make their form easier to perceive. Here w e look briefly at our perception of light a n d darkness a n d our interpretation of diagrammatic illusions. We will even see things that d o not exist because minimal information suggests they are likely to be there. See how its "edge" smoothly changes from light against dark to dark against light. transmitted to the brain as chains of electrical impulses. Three factors change it: the amount of light it receives. The perceived tone of a black white. Below the bottom "edge" of the egg there is a rim of light reflected onto the paper by the underside of the egg. T h e slightest recognition is instantly matched to our wealth of experience a n d expectation. are translated into a world of space. cards the same size.96 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Light and Illusions SEEING IS MIRACULOUS. The rim of light on the egg is reflected light received from surrounding paper. Adjust the angleofthe protruding part and again stepback. a n d our ability to see forms in c l o u d s or fire. less developed than the center.

T h e jug d r a w n w i t h a t h i n line appears f a r t h e r away t h a n t h e j u g d r a w n w i t h a t h i c k e r line. Bending straight lines Linear distance These t w o jugs have b e e n d r a w n w i t h lines o f d i f f e r i n g thicknesses. O f t e ndoingso w i l l s p o i l y o u r w o r k . S h o r t h o r i z o n t a l lines o f identical length are m a d e t o l o o k d i f f e r e n t by c o n v e r g i n g lines beside t h e m ( C ) . If y o u w i s h t o m a k e a t o n a l drawing. In this linear drawing w e read t h i c k as closer a n d t h i n as f a r t h e r away. w h i l e t h i n n e r lines recede. by d i r e c t e d a r r o w s ( A ) . T w o horizontal lines o f equal length are m a d e t o l o o k longer and shorter. LIGHT AND ILLUSIONS Tonal width T h e s e black a n d w h i t e bands are o f equal thickness o n e i t h e r side o f t h e i r central division. .97 LINE VERSUS TONE In l i n e a r d r a w i n g s .p o i n t p e r s p e c t i v e d r a w i n g s w i t h a large n u m b e r o f c o n v e r g i n g rays b e h i n d y o u r horizontals. Seven parallel lines are m a d e t o tilt t o w a r d and away f r o m each o t h e r by n u m e r o u s s h o r t strokes crossing t h e m diagonally ( A ) . A n u p r i g h t line stands in t h e c e n t e r o f a h o r i z o n t a l line. T h i s fundamental o p p o s i t e is a reason w h y l i n e a r a n d t o n a l d r a w i n g does not a l w a y s c o m b i n e w e l l in t h e s a m e i m a g e . In this t o n a l image w e read w h i t e as f a t t e r t h a n black. l i g h t e r surfaces s t a n d f o r w a r d w h i l e d a r k e r s u r f a c e s recede. B o t h are identical in length. Apparent lengths T h e s e optical illusions s h o w h o w lines o f identical length can b e m a d e t o l o o k quite different f r o m each o t h e r by t h e addition o r association o f o t h e r lines. In a t o n a l d r a w i n g . start o u t w i t h one. b u t t h e u p r i g h t o n e l o o k s t a l l e r (B). T h e r e is n o obligation t o a d d b l o c k s o f t o n e t o a l i n e a r d r a w i n g . respectively. O b s e r v e h o w each white b a n d appears t h i c k e r t h a n its black c o u n t e r p a r t . Y o u m a y e x p e r i e n c e s o m e t h i n g similar h a p p e n i n g w h e n y o u m a k e s i n g l e . T w o relatively t h i c k parallel lines are m a d e t o b e n d away f r o m each o t h e r as t h e y pass in f r o n t o f an a r r a y o f c o n v e r g i n g f i n e lines ( B ) . t h i c k e r l i n e s a p p e a r t o stand forward.

In the 1960's. SEEING TWO OPTIONS Sometimes. Two ways of seeing T h i s is t h e b o x c r e a t e d in t h e f o u r t h step o n p. Yet many illusions. It is a curious fact that w e can never see both options at once. Some artists use known optical illusions to make art. as s h o w n o n t h e right. are still not agreeably understood. w e will find that in terms of the direction it faces. such as t h e dish seen h e r e o n t h e left. Artists can communicate much in few lines and the viewer will do the rest of the work. perfected the acceleration of perspective (see pp.98 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Further Illusions PSYCHOLOGISTS AND PHYSIOLOGISTS have studied optical illusions for decades in pursuit of what they tell us about the brain. Op(tical) artists. made paintings that depended upon the physical sensation of our brain's reaction to known optical illusions. such as Bridget Riley.76.s i d e d r e c t a n g u l a r t r a y ( b o t h are illustrated far r i g h t ) "The brain is so eager to name a fragment we see that we need only a suggestion to grasp the whole. among others. w e can only look f r o m one t o the o t h e r If an artist is not aware this can happen in their image. Today we are bombarded with images but rarely have difficulty reading them. including some shown here. It is possible t o r e a d i t t w o ways: as a t r u n c a t e d r e c t a n g u l a r p y r a m i d seen d i r e c t l y f r o m a b o v e . w h e n drawing the outline o f a three-dimensional form.116-17) to make painted figures look correct when viewed from below. A few suggestive marks will tip the decision one way o r the o t h e r Closing the surface W h e n a t r a n s p a r e n t elliptical o b j e c t has b e e n d r a w n ." . o r as a s l o p i n g . C l o s i n g t h e surface o f t h e f o r m seals o u r d e c i s i o n as t o w h i c h w a y it faces. and so calculated precisely how much to fatten columns to make them appear straight. their picture could be ambiguous. it oscillates between t w o possibilities. Ancient Greek architects knew parallel upright lines appeared to bend toward each other in the middle. Michelangelo. it can oscillate b e t w e e n facing t o w a r d o r a w a y f r o m us. others adjust works to avoid their effects. and we learn to read the styles of diverse cultures and periods. Artists make pictorial illusions when they paint or draw.

. C o u n t t h e n u m b e r o f d a r k spots y o u can see. T h e patient's answers are t h e n diagnosed as a psychological profile. — a n d so t h e artist can create m u c h o u t o f an impression w i t h o u t overdescribing. T h e s e e x a m p l e s illustrate h o w little is n e e d e d t o c o n v e y an image. His highly d i s p u t e d and i m p r e c i s e science involves s h o w i n g u n p r e p a r e d p a t i e n t s t e n p a r t i c u l a r ink b l o t s a n d asking t h e m t o i n t e r p r e t w h a t t h e y see. w e see t w o overlapping triangles: o n e outlined in black b e n e a t h a n o t h e r in solid w h i t e . this is a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f t h e viewer's b r a i n b e i n g willing t o d o a large a m o u n t o f t h e w o r k in d e c i p h e r i n g a p i c t u r e . C Escher u s e d this phenomenon t o great effect in his many p o p u l a r d r a w i n g s o f puzzles and impossible buildings. b u t w e believe w e see t h e m because e n o u g h f r a g m e n t a r y i n f o r m a t i o n is given f o r o u r brains t o c o n c l u d e t h e y are v e r y likely t h e r e .c e n t u r y Swiss psychologist H e r m a n n Rorschach. T h e a r t i s t M. O n l y o n closer inspection we realize that t h e s e o b j e c t s are fooling us. 1 6 t h . This simple five-line d r a w i n g is o f a C a p u c h i n priest asleep in his pulpit. B e l o w is a b r i g h t n e s s c o n t r a s t illusion. T h e t e s t e x p l o r e s o u r n o r m a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o find things w e can n a m e a m o n g r a n d o m shapes. M u c h can b e e x p r e s s e d in o n l y a f e w marks. W e should r e m e m b e r t h a t o u r brains will always search f o r a p i c t u r e — i n ink blots. T h e y a r e o f t e n c r e d i t e d w i t h t h e invention o f t h e c o m i c c a r t o o n . Yet still w e try resolve t h e m . FURTHER ILLUSIONS Seeing things that are n o t t h e r e H e r e o n t h e left. C o u p l e d w i t h t h e Rorschach b l o t above. P e r c e i v i n g a w h o l e i m a g e f r o m m i n i m a l lines T h i s is a w i d e l y r e p r o d u c e d visual j o k e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e C a r r a c c i b r o t h e r s .c e n t u r y Italian painters. S o m e artists use ink blots t o p r o m p t t h e beginning o f an image. This effect can o c c u r naturally w h e n looking at a b r i g h t l y lit w h i t e g r i d such as a w i n d o w f r a m e against t h e night sky. smoke. e t c . F a m i l i a r i t y in r a n d o m s h a p e s T h e Rorschach test was established by t h e 1 9 t h . N e i t h e r triangle exists.99 Impossible objects T h e s e clever configurations o f outlines and t o n a l surfaces convince us at a glance that we are seeing a solid three-dimensional triangle and a three-pronged fork. clouds. Minimal-line j o k e s such as this rely u p o n t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y v i e w e r ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e shapes.

Watch the tip of your pen and see it draw an ellipse in the air Keep this movement going while gently lowering the pen onto the paper like the needle of a record player closing on the disc (only it is your lowering hand that spins. I have exaggerated this error here. third common error is to draw upper and lover ellipses with different-sized apertures. The first common error is to draw two pointed ellipses. you will achieve steadiness with practice. hesitant one that has edged its w a y nervously around the vessel's rim. . A wobbling but confident ellipse will still be more convincing than a slow. a n d in o n e bold stroke. COMMON ERRORS W h e n drawing cylindrical objects in perspective. However. and these narrow or widen depending on the height of our view. Cubism. even if y o u r hand w o b b l e s a little at first. though. w e use ellipses to give a sense of perspective. The second common error is to tilt the upper and lower ellipses at different angles. suggesting that the vessel is lopsided. (see p. as if the table surface slopes upward beneath the vessel. springlike forms like those I have drawn below.90) takes a different as essentially circular. not the paper!) As the pen touches down. WHERE TO START In the air above a spacious sheet of scrap paper. spin your hand in a relaxed circle. To make a cylindrical object appear real in our pictorial space. How to Draw Ellipses of seeing. there are three common errors people stumble upon. such as bowls and cups. keep it spinning. that this is o n l y o n e w a y view. since this is h o w w e experience them in e v e r y d a y use. for example plates or bowls on a table. I have drawn these for you here. while its upper rim remains level. Don't worry if it is uneven— just try again. smoothly. Cover a sheet of paper with spinning. for example. giving the cylinder four corners. Ellipse are best d r a w n quickly. w h e n seen at an angle.100 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS W E VISUALIZE CYLINDRICAL VESSELS. describing many sides of an object simultaneously. like a disposable plastic cup that has been crushed in your hand. Be aware. circles change into ellipses.

enlarging and diminishing the ellipse to determine the overall shape and volume. HOW TO DRAW E L L I P S E S A Single Vessel One Inside Another Grouped Together Finding Shape and Volume Draw an imagined vessel in one continuous spinning line. you can make it solid by building up highlights and tones on visible surfaces. Altering the pressure—and therefore tone—of the line as it spins gives the impression of light shining on one side.101 DRAWING VESSELS Once you have mastered drawing free-hand springs. Seeing Through Allow lines to travel around each vessel as if it were transparent. you can start to control your spinning ellipse to make a vessel. working from top to bottom. . Create a Solid Surface Once you have drawn the shape and volume of each form. thereby hiding lines that show the other sides. Draw quickly.

it will inhibit your perception of tone. making complicated or subtle surfaces easier to see and understand.102 INSTRUMENTS Tonality W H E N MAKING A TONAL DRAWING. Gradually hone your drawing. OBJECTS AND Start by arranging a choice of shells on a sheet of paper to your left if you are right-handed (or vice versa). Remember that shadows. Draw the largest and most distinct areas of light and darkness first. LIGHT TO DARK DARK TO LIGHT . and solid objects are all of equal importance. t h e r e a r e p r i n c i p a l l y Dramatic lighting emphasizes texture and contour. In the finished drawing there should be few. You can begin with outlines and build slowly from light to dark (see opposite top). Relaxing your eyes out of focus as you draw will help to dissolve the distraction of detail. if any. Illuminate them with a gooseneck lamp placed very close and directed away from your eyes. leaving detail until last. and strong contrasts are easier to draw. if light shines in them. simply shapes and subtleties of light and dark meeting each other with no divisions in between. outlines. It maximizes the range of tones between black and white. beams of light. or you can begin with a mid-gray ground and model light out of darkness (see opposite bottom). It is important to place them on the correct side so as to draw comfortably (see pp.22-23). two opposite methods of achieving the same result.

Use your pencil to develop these in relation to the areas of light. Erase and make changes to roughly place the shells inside your with your composition. boldly 2 3 Keeping your eyes out of focus. . Remember that its size. and edges definingthespacialrelationships between are important aspects of your composition them. Relaxing your eyes out of focus will help to eliminate distracting details. look at the main areas of darkness.103 LIGHT TO DARK (LINE TO TONE) TONALITY 1 Using a sharp HB pencil. 2 3 Gentlydissolveoutlines so that areas oflightanddark meet without a line between them.56-57). Treat positive form and negative space (see pp. shape. until you are happy frame. with broad sweeps of the eraser. Fll in broad areas first and leave all detail until last. Avoid a rough significant areas of light in your gray rectangle with texture and do not press the graphite hardwhite plastic eraser Ignore all detail and draw a into thepaperor you will not be able to erase it. pale lines with equal importance. Honetheshapesand angles of the shells. Draw in the details last of all. draw a rectangle. Use quick. Let your eyes go out of focus while looking gently layer marks to create an even tone at your subject and paper: Draw the most ofmid-graywithin a rectangle. DARK TO LIGHT (TONE TO TONE) 1 Using the flattened tip of an HB pencil. loose. Continue working between light and dark to refine the drawing.

On p. .69 we see how the architect Antonio Gaudi drew proposed domes using suspended wires and weights. They can also be made in space. Place the instrument on a plain surface and illuminate it with a desk lamp to add the delicate dimension of shadows.220 Mamoru Abe draws with forged steel rods. 19 Picasso draws with a pen-light for the camera. There are essentially three lessons to be learned. Seeing through a wire drawing of a known object such as a violin gives us a visual and tactile understanding of all its sides and shapes at once. three-dimensional drawings teach us about the totality of forms in space. our image is stronger if we understand and can visualize what is happening on the other side too. 176 the British artists Noble and Webster draw with domestic refuse in a beam of light. you can create your own more ambitious works. PEN LINES Once you have created your three-dimensional violin (opposite). The second is that after achieving this simple example. The first is that figurative and abstract drawings can be made in space. continuous lines. and physical relationships between them. and on p. When drawing anything viewed from one side on paper. Third. try drawing it with a pen on paper Use bold. On p. This class uses thin-gauge wire to create a threedimensional violin.104 OBJECTS AND I N S T R U M E N T S Drawing with Wire DRAWINGS DO NOT HAVE to be two-dimensional. and on p. smooth.

brace the two ends of the violin with a length of wire along the back. and thick wire a larger one. 4 . I used garden wire and cut it carefully with pruners. thin wire will make a smaller drawing. 2 3 If needed. 1 Decide how big to draw your violin relative to the gauge of your wire. begin to shape the curvature of the fingerboard. Then begin to define its uppermost surface with Scurves and the bridge. Join the two sides together with four short pieces of wire.105 SETTING UP DRAWING WITH WIRE Follow these steps to draw a three-dimensional violin Choose a gauge of wire sturdy enough to hold the shape ofyourfinished drawing. Here. Once you have completed the body. These will hold the sides apart and help to keep the form in shape. and pinch and bend it to shape the base of the instrument Repeat this process to make the identical upper side of the instrument. Cut a length. but thin enough to be easily manipulated inyourfingers Here. I started with the scroll at the top and fixed the four component wires with two drawings of tuning pegs.

Oxford. some of which are shown here. England. Using found materials.Artifacts and Fictions IN 1993 I WORKED with a group of schoolchildren who were responding to the astonishing objects in the collection of the Pitt Rivers Museum. I had the privilege of drawing their inventions. . they invented new anthropological finds—objects that reflected the distant past and their immediate future.



He even believed he had located the soul contours of her form like a cartographer's map of in the pituitary fossa beneath the brain and behind the eyes. but the study of a controlled. Williams were decades ahead of their medical counterparts. In this period. These classes are popular around the world. The human body. Artists are thought to have b e g u n drawing from the nude during the Italian Renaissance. Leonardo drew a man within a circle and square. Look closely at Renaissance drawings of the female b o d y and you will see that m o s t are actually y o u n g m e n with minor adjustments. diseased. She the body is still essential. W e are the only creatures on Earth that can make our own image. history paintings and other stories. from video and X-ray to thermal imaging. Michelangelo attended dissections to made this image by light sectioning: fine beams of light perfect his understanding of surface form. portraiture. clothed or nude. It gives physical and emotive form to religious narratives. Artists now explore the interior of the body with new media and Lateral Contour Map of a Full-Term Primipara Produced by Light 1979 A. and because the female was deemed inferior. R. a n d w e d r a w o u r s e l v e s to a s s e r t o u r e x i s t e n c e . myths and fables. W I L L I A M S technology. the Bay Area Models' Guild h o l d s a quarterly life-drawing m a r a t h o n aprinton Kodak transfer paper with green-colored dye added celebrating the great diversity of human proportion. W e understand every curve and balance of to the theory that the eves are the windows of the soul. and in San could easily be transferred into three dimensions. and anatomical and erotic art. R. artists also tried to define ideal proportions in the body. focus has turned to the vulnerability of flesh: how it can be damaged. Renaissance artists studying anatomy from dissection clinically trained and specialized as a medical illustrator. while Leonardo opened the body to see and projected onto a woman's body draw the celebratory discover for himself our physical mechanisms. This F finished image was produced as r a n c i s c o . It also looks at the representation of the b o d y b11y4o n d traditional life drawing. Strangely. while Durer took his research further— A. and surgically rebuilt. giving physical foundation undulating land. 3 x 7 in (300 x 180 . During this time. The body remains at the core of over the initially white lines. much Western contemporary art. This chapter addresses issues that are most commonly faced by beginners attending life-drawing classes. sculptural description of her form. Drawings were usually made from the male nude to avoid offending the church. is the most c o m m o n subject in art. WILLIAMS he sought perfection in the infinitesimal measurement of the body and produced four Contemporary photographer volumes of illustrated explanation. the junior workshop apprentices posed as part of their duties. explaining ranges e/ of materials and techniques and showing diversities of thought and purpose in making. herimpressive presence because we are given such Life drawing no longer dominates the art school curriculum. in our privileged and comfortable society.The Body O UR BODIES MAKE us TANGIBLE.

and human defeat. Matisse's b l u e n u d e sings with life and c e l e b r a t i o n . He trained under Perugino. altar pieces. so that we read this drawing like a sculptural frieze. But the meanings of each gesture and the materials and methods by which they Postures and Poses were m a d e contrast greatly. By way of contrast. filling the page with her presence. She u n f o l d s and s t r e t c h e s shapely limbs. In this highly s o p h i s t i c a t e d a b s t r a c t i o n . Raphael's study of fallen m e n leaves no doubt that they are in anguish. and studied to learn from the works of Michelangelo and Leonardo besides whom he was soon ranked. Principal figures m i r r o r e a c h other. Raphael drew delicate tones of black chalk on tinted paper.116-17). Here three male nudes are compressed into very shallow pictorial space. Muscular dramatic postures reflect the influence of Michelangelo and the Renaissance celebration of the idealized male body. anatomy. In a single drawing we see equally o b s e r v e d studies of f o r e s h o r t e n i n g (see pp. we see the e s s e n c e of h e r b e a u t y w i t h o u t a single detail. while supporting the weight of their body with the other. RAFFAELLO SANZIO (RAPHAEL) Italian High Renaissance painter: Raphael is best known for his images of the Madonna and Child. Three Guards 1500-20 91/4 x143/8in (234 x 365 mm) RAPHAEL . T h e y b o t h raise one arm to cup their head in their hand. and Vatican frescos.110 T H E BODY THESE DISTINCTIVE WORKS show two strikingly different ways of modeling the body on paper. Sculptural frieze This is a preparatory drawing for Raphael's painting of the Resurrection of Christ. while Matisse used scissors and glue to cut out and paste a flat collage of brilliant color.

and Islamic an appeasing influence. teacher and principal exponent o f Fauvism—a movement established in 1905 in which bold color is the most essential element. devoid of troubling Blue Nude 1 1952 413/4 HENRY MATISSE . freer. printmaker.designer writer. lifelong love of brilliant They celebrate the culmination of spectacular and sometimes drawings. foundamong many other groups of papercut these works as an elderly man confined to his bed or wheelchair. a mental soother. Matisse became an artist after studying law.or like a good armchair in which to rest from physical fatigue..111 HENRY MATISSE French painter: draftsman. and more energetic Color and form This collage is one of a series of Blue Nudes. His calligraphic natural abstractions of form grew brighter. as his w o r k matured.which might be.sculptor.... fabric. his pattern." of is an art of balance.. Matisse Soothing influence This drawing expresses the achievement of Matisse's personal aim: "What I dream and depressing subject matter.. serenity.

In his f a m o u s paintings of social e n g a g e m e n t . Seurat evolved a distinctive t e c h n i q u e called p o i n t i l l i s m — i m a g e s literally made from myriad points of color. and c o m p l e m e n t a r y hues. like small birds attendant on the meditation. w h o sits propped in the contradictory darkness of a hot summer's day. Seurat engaged in lifelong studies of line.112 T H E BODY Choreographs T I M E IS A SIGNIFICANT E L E M E N T i n t h e m a k i n g o f a l l d r a w i n g s . we c o m p a r e a skillful design that absorbed m u c h time in its making with the quickness of an idea marked instantly. and muddied the brilliance of the drawing. Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 1883-84 91/2 x 121/4 in (241 x 312 m m GEORGES SEURAT . and color His applied theories still influence painters in their manipulation and rendering of local. Using the paper to create light is important for beginners to learn. 162) and an eraser to model teeming points of artificial light amid GEORGES SEURAT French painter classically educated in the Ingres school of thought. Here. Opposite. If Seurat had added white. stands in counterpoise holding a dark globe and his thoughts in m o m e n t a r y balance. form. he used b l a c k c o n t e (see p. scratched in seconds. turned gray. it would have mixed with unseen black dust. His drawings are similarly u n i q u e . velvet d a r k n e s s . or abruptly meeting. agreeing to coalesce and show us the form of a waiting boy. reflected. Tone and light In this black conte drawing. other tones. there are no outlines. Typically. in a perfect e x a m p l e . it is as if the very atoms of air are made visible. only tones blending into. Below. Beuys's magician. T h e space around h i m chatters with symbols. Light is given by the paper alone.

Many of his other symbolic works on paper have been drawn with materials such as honey. and drawings. Perfectly modeled rather conventional for Joseph Focus Beuys's hand moved quickly to draw dotted lines flowing downward on either side of the figure.113 JOSEPH BEUYS One of the most influential German artists of the 20th century. This figure is drawn intuitively. video art. iodine. and that These aspects of the work convey fractured visibility. He was a shaman who believed in intuition and in the investment of healing force. free from the constraint of immaculate form opposite) impetus is irrelevant to the and meaning of this work (as we see in Seurat's drawing Our focus joins shoulders. His The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland UNDATED 113/4 J O S E P H BEUYS x81/4in (297 x 210 mm) . Unbroken lines stream from his simultaneously movement. transience. and blood. CHOREOGRAPHS the profound power materials with spiritual or of Free lines This pale pencil drawing is Beuys. taught workshops with a cult following. Beuys gave performances. and made installations. in different positions.

Free lines Rodin's public audience was understandably shocked by the eroticism of his drawings. THE AUGUSTE RODIN French Romantic sculptor and prolific draftsman employed as an ornamental mason until the age of 42. Rodin produced portraits and statues of public and literary figures. its soft. Anita Taylor has drawn her protective body hug out of the darkly glistening compression of willow charcoal and the dynamism of her shy but momentous femininity. 125/8x 9 in (320 x 229 mm) AUGUSTE RODIN Two Women 1911 Embracing .114 BODY Passion SUMMONING HUMANITY in a drawing of the nude is a subtle and emotional task. and went on to inspire generations of artists. Opposite. his w o r k is characterized by deliberate un-finish and powerfully modeled emotion. In both drawings. Achieving international acclaim in mid-life." as seen here. was perceived as scandalous. But what is stranger to us now is that they were also outraged by his free use of line. They whisper and writhe in a brushed and sultry embrace that devours our watching. Rodin employed models to move freely or pose together in his studio. Inspired by Michelangelo. His exquisite flow of paint beyond "outlines.000 drawings shown in rotation at the Musee Rodin. sweeping lines— of either purple silk fabric or cool studio air—that imprint and amplify their past and future movements. We are involved not as a shabby voyeur but as a bystander engaged through our recognition of shared joy. flushed skin made ruddy and black with crushed cinders. and one of hundreds of rapid studies of nudes. Delicate strokes This is one of about 7. We are asked to gaze u p o n her flesh. Paris. the fierceness of the women's kiss is beautifully matched by the tenderness of his line. he typically drew them with a few delicate strokes of pencil and brushed watercolor. Our bodies radiate the passion of our thoughts and so become beacons of our frailty and power. the women are framed and caressed by long. As here. In Rodins work.

I 15 ANITA T A Y L O R Painter. intimately reflecting upon the emotions and meaning of nudity. scrutiny. erased and drawn again. the impression of luminosity All and Nothing 1999 67 x447/8in (170 x 1 1 4 cm) ANITA TAYLOR . professor and Vice Principal of Wimbledon School of Art. exposure. textured paper. Taylor has drawn. draftsman. A thinner sheet might have crumpled and torn under such vigorous force of making. Taylor's immense self-portraits explore the relationship between the artist as maker and the artist as model. and rework rich depths of light and tone. London. Luminosity Layered marks flicker likefirelight as they sculpt the woman's body. The sturdy surface of the sheet has allowed her to press hard when needed. This order of light below and dark above gives glowing from within. and gaze. leaving her lightest marks at the deepest level of the image and applying darker marks above. Charcoal Taylor has drawn freely with charcoal and an eraser on thick.

unfathomable angles. There is no need to mark them all down on paper. If your arm is not straight. Imagine Michelangelo's murals in the Sistine Chapel. and measurements do not have to be carried to the paper and slavishly drawn the same size they appear on your pencil. But if we could take a scaffold and climb up to the work. for example. Lock your shoulder. elongated as if stretched across the plaster. with dramatic illusions of figures painted in normal proportion. Smaller. and a few measured comparisons are key. Accelerated perspective plays a great role in much art. or shrivelling at odd.116 T H E BODY Measurement and Foreshortening FORESHORTENING IS AN ASPECT of perspective. to be translated by mirrors or seen from only one point in the room. patience. the skull in Holbein's The Ambassadors (The National Gallery. elbow. Close one eye. To avoid its effects ensure you always look flat onto the surface of your page. MEASURING This is a simple method of making measured comparisons for relating the true size of one part to another This is a tool to assist observation and thinking. without taking off. In the life class it is the mechanism for ensuring that a drawn figure lies correctly in pictorial space . This is chiefly a correcting device by which figurative painters and sculptors have for centuries countered the effects of our viewing their work from far below or on the curvature of a vault. or coming forward." . Align the top with a point on your subject. when beginners prop their board in their lap and look down at too steep an angle. just making them helps you see. Spend time making comparisons before you draw. you will make inconsistent and unrelated comparisons. How to make and apply these is explained below and opposite. persistence. London). rather that what we believe we know from experience. It can also be a little demon in the life room. 3 Keep your pencil perpendicular Measure and compare at any angle. Rome. which is imperceptible from below. we would arrive to find many of the same figures strangely distorted. The length of exposed pencil is your measurement. and to draw what we see. more extreme examples have been made for court entertainment. It is not complicated. 1 Hold your arm straight. plummeting. It is not so hard. We also look at another very interesting branch called accelerated (or anamorphic) perspective. 2 Hold your pencil upright. "Simple measured comparisons reveal surprising truths about proportion. Up close on the scaffold we would witness Michelangelo's subtle application of accelerated perspective. and wrist joints. Move the tip of your thumb down to a second chosen point. Return to this posture every time. helping us to see more clearly.limbs happily receding.

S o o n t h e b o d y will lie d o w n in space. . W o r k a r o u n d t h e figure. looking d o w n t h e p a p e r at t h e a n g l e at w h i c h I d r e w . FORESHORTENING To f o r e s h o r t e n a figure. To m a k e f o r m s l o o k c o r r e c t . h e r p r o p o r t i o n s will appear correct. a n d thighs. y o u r hand travels f a r t h e r than y o u expect. T h i s is t h e s a m e d r a w i n g p h o t o g r a p h e d f r o m above. Lean t h e t o p e d g e t o w a r d y o u and find a p o s i t i o n w h e r e y o u can c o m f o r t a b l y l o o k d o w n t h e p a p e r at an angle o f a b o u t 4 0 degrees. which feels strange. L o o k at y o u r m o d e l as if he o r she is a flat series o f shapes o n e o n t o p o f a n o t h e r Measure t h e height and w i d t h o f each shape and c o m p a r e it t o its neighbor. MEASUREMENT AND FORESHORTENING Tilt t h e t o p edge o f this b o o k t o w a r d you and look d o w n o n this figure f r o m a b o v e . C o m p a r e t h e heights o f t h e nose and eye shapes t o t h o s e o f t h e f o r e a r m . y o u must let go o f w h a t y o u k n o w f r o m e x p e r i e n c e a b o u t t h e relative sizes o f b o d y parts and trust y o u r eyes. A t a c e r t a i n angle. t a p e s o m e p a p e r t o a board. Keep t h e b o a r d steady and draw. P r o p o r t i o n s will only l o o k c o r r e c t f r o m t h e angle at w h i c h y o u make t h e drawing. Stand its b o t t o m edge o n y o u r lap.117 ACCELERATED PERSPECTIVE To discover h o w this w o r k s . See h o w d i f f e r e n t t h e relative heights o f t h e s e shapes are f r o m w h a t w e m i g h t e x p e c t in real life. W e appear t o be looking d o w n o n a w o m a n s t a n d i n g b e n e a t h us. belly. adjusting a n o n y m o u s shapes. pleasingly f o r e s h o r t e n e d .

Leave first thoughts in place. make the upper body smaller give your model a high waist. T h i s q u i c k e x p l o r a t o r y line does not perfectly describe shape but expresses a decision about overall flow of form. Start each new drawing by lightly marking the model's height with a loose line in ten seconds. balance. because it results in two unrelated sides drifting apart. and energy. and height. THE SEQUENCE OF POSES H e r e the model was asked to move every t w o minutes. . I used a sharp H B pencil and began each drawing by marking her outline. Outline To outline a figure. To draw this effect. her center of balance is normally found in a vertical line beneath her head. and work over t h e m with further o b s e r v a t i o n s . To see this. propelling you to make immediate assessments and trust them. Balance When a model stands upright on both feet. and stance before honing her balance and expression.118 BODY Quick Poses DRAWING QUICK POSES l o c k s y o u r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n t o what is most essential. feeling. working from her center to her feet and to her head. Height This pose leans away into space above our eye level. Be bold and dive into your drawing with c o n f i d e n c e . height. work back and forth across the body. imagine holding up a plumb line. Layered lines give d e p t h . Avoid drawing up one side and down the other. and slightly enlarge her legs and feet.

The tilt of the pelvis is then counter balanced by the model's shoulders tilting the other way (as seen here). and this should be avoided Twist QUICK POSES A model standing on one leg usually drops the opposite hip. Tilt Movement Here. . This drawing shows how different observations be overlaid to bring a drawing alive.119 The twist of a model is most easily and expressively captured if it is exaggerated. Most of us have a tendency to over-straighten the drawn figure. the activity of circular lines and the repetition of limbs suggest movement.

Practice by drawing your own hands and feet. W h e n starting. general to specific.120 BODY Hands and Feet THERE ARE MANY different ways of approaching h a n d s and THE of form. and a gooseneck lamp casts shadows that clarify planes and depths GESTURES OF THE HAND Curled Fingers 1 Open Palm Start honing the shapes of the dominant planes. and they need not be daunting to draw. it is important to leave aside all details of the fingers and toes. drawn in relation to each other. Don't worry about achieving perfect solutions. swiftly marking its essential gesture. and ignore all details. but regard these practice studies as ongoing processes of thought and observatio Add details such as nails last if you wish. Draw large shapes and their orientation. Do not separate them yet. Group the fingers together as one mass. 2 Build your drawing gradually from light to dark. Then subdivide each shape so that you w o r k from large to small. starting with the largest. Focus instead on how planes change direction across the knuckles from one side of the hand or foot to the other. feet. This exercise is useful when struggling with proportion. Begin by drawing lines to encompass the whole hand. 3 . express structure and gesture far more successfully and easily than ten worried outlines wandering up and down between the fingers and toes. or those of a friend. It also helps the beginner to progress from drawing outlines to drawing confidently across the surface of the whole form. Keep lines open to change and take measurements if they help. A mirror increases your range of views. These planes. especially the lengthwise divisions between them.

Nowimagineyou are carving the foot insidethepaper. flattened though out o f wood. loose. these are what give a drawing its tangible structure. and spontaneity. It can be a mistake. Look for key angles without becoming distracted by detail. and don't worry about accuracy t o begin with. Leave aside all detail. depth. . and rapid. however. as if with a chisel.121 HANDS AND FEET MOVEMENTS OF THE FOOT Flat Stance Raised Heel Instep 1 Let your first marks be light. 2 3 Use an eraser t o refine decisions o r t o suggest areas o f light. t o remove t o o many early lines. Hew it roughly in broad. Try t o express the whole foot and t o encapsulate its entire shape and direction in a few marks.

204-05. Compare its nature in close-up to that of willow charcoal used on pp. Opposite." .Charcoal Hands T H E S E DRAWINGS ARE MADE in compressed charcoal. The white lines demonstrate what is often called "bracelet shading. I also used white ink with a steel dip pen.


HERE TRACES OF RAPID initial lines are still seen within and outside each body. I make these lines in the first five to ten seconds of a drawing to locate the presence. 118-19). before honing his or her shape (see pp. length. and posture of the model. Phrasing Contours .


Drawing work by another artist enables you to discover and understand the inventive hand in their composition. perspectives. I draw in museums in support of written research and as an artist seeking answers to questions about the practicalities of image making. It is now viewed with some skepticism and often seen as academic.The Visual Detective DRAWING FROM MASTERWORKS was once a staple component of an artist's education. feeling them through the attentive movements of your own hand. Forms. characters. and narrative pulse become vivid when you realize them in the middle of your study. .


These almost life-size figures were composed from my imagination and achieved with the help af studies discussed on pp. Florence. Life-size women wearing wigs recline on beds of embroidered silk in cabinets of mahogany and Venetian glass This is a detail of a compressed charcoal drawing measuring 14 x 10 ft (4.La Specola At17V i a Romana. there is a unique museum of 18th-century anatomical waxes. 126-27. . Walls are lined with hundreds of faintly animated body parts.3 x 3 m) made in response to La Specola. each modeled from dissection.



historical. draftsman. and lucrative genre for artists.139). Goya's w o r k s include many royal and society p o r t r a i t s . who. Equally. throat.Portraiture IN P O R T R A I T U R E W E MEET PEOPLE. bells. or whose eyes can seem to follow us around the room Portraiture is a constant. and secular narratives. and expression of the individual. became more poignant as he progressed. Self-portraiture gives every artist a constant. and p r i n t m a k e r . compliant subject to scrutinize. painters have dropped discreet records of themselves into commissioned narratives so that they can remain a face in the crowd. Man Ray's self-portrait of scored lines. abstract or figurative. live. Past rulers sent painters across continents to bring back a likeness in advance of a prospective royal marriage. we use the delicate medium of silver point to look at foundation structures of the head. their stance. The truth is that we all like looking at faces and observing the billions of variations that make us individuals. look directly at us. Our homes are filled with images of our loved ones and of those in our families who have gone before. you can capture the subtlety. having been documented and preserved. W h e n drawing a person. neck. Once you understand Self-Portrait in a Cocked Hat c. buttons. in a miniature self-portrait magnified opposite. character. 1790-92 4 x 3 in ( 1 0 2 x 7 6 m m ) F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A and memorize the basic structure that we all share. Portraits can be highly or loosely detailed. The returning image was of crucial consideration in any proposal. and their posture can be changed with just one line. Movie director Alfred similarly signed his films by playing a fleeting role: he walks through an extra. This enlargement o f his miniature p o r t r a i treveals t h e s p e e d and agility o f his p e n and about himself. For centuries. his changes in pressure and Hitchcock length o f line. Halls and palaces are filled with pictures of the mighty and significant. the meaning of their face. We are also reassured by keeping records of ourselves. and shoulders. Goya. or past us. a single line can deliver an entire expression. It also reminds us o f b o t h t h e intimacy and a scene as scrutiny o f an honest portrait. and in a few scrolling rafts of pen lines and stubbled dots. Rembrandt's famous multitude of self-portraits. is here to both meet and look through us. and social and political commentaries. single or of groups. gathered all that he knew FRANCISCO DE GOYA V i s i o n a r y Spanish painter. To create a face is to see and interpret the essence of an identity. Beginners often draw themselves as a way of establishing their practice. and a handprint (see p. religious. and satirical or metaphorical. We can mold and animate qualities of expression out of objects and fragments of disassociated things—for example. or a glimpse of him is caught in a photograph used as a prop. made as he passed through the ages of man. and it is very rewarding. usually strangers from past times. In this chapter. .

whisking a timeless girl onto the page. Through exhibitions and copies in books. The aesthetic sense of a line being just right can make a drawing sing. How could the addition of shadows have enhanced this image? Few strokes The simplicity of Picasso's line is breathtaking. It is the portrait of a countrywoman. He makes his flair and skill look easy. PABLO PICASSO Spanish Cubist painter (see also p. Picasso strikes and scrolls his pencil. While with longer consideration. and pressure as it conducts our eye through the image. teetering on the brink of older age. caught in her last moments of youth. The truth is often the opposite. For the beginner. breadth. It takes a truly accomplished a few strokes. Here the grace and beauty of two young women are held forever. Without faltering. hand to capture something well in only Frangoise au Bandeau 1946 660 x 505 mm (26 x197/8in) PABLO PICASSO .30). We can actually count that he struck the paper 40 times. stealthily using his chalk to find contours and mass. We can read so much about them by studying their gaze. There is a common misunderstanding that a drawing with only a few lines is both less finished and easier to make than a drawing with more. one eye already cast askew into the autumn of her life. we can enjoy and learn from them. they serve as a great lesson that it is not always necessary to add tone to your drawing. Her face is drawn tenderly and with a luminous glow. length. adding smudges of tone for weight and solidity. Picasso has left to posterity many hundreds of magnificent line drawings.132 PORTRAITURE Poise THE BALANCE BETWEEN a mark and a blank space is often a tantalizing form of perfection. The Tightness of a line is felt in its speed. Holbein maps the still landscape of Dorothea's body in questioning marks.

gently flushed. Holbein has cropped and pinned his subject within the four outermost lines of the image—the edges of the page. He outlined her nose but not her upper lip. and its downward slope crowns the diagonal of the composition. In addition t o his numerous exquisite portraits in oil. Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 1516 51/8 x121/4in (385 x 310 m m ) HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER . Holbein was employed toward the end of his life by King Henry VIII of England. Blended colors In this portrait drawn with colored chalks on slightly textured paper. Her folded forearms support and frame her weight above. presses against the binding across her face.133 HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER German p o r t r a i t painter draftsman. made a popular series o f w o o d c u t prints titled The Dance of Death. The peak of her cap clips the uppermost edge. and produced numerous society portraits such as this one here. and designer f r o m Basel. he designed c o u r t costumes. which. Cropping This regal composition fits its paper perfectly. Holbein unified the woman with her background by gently blending colors from her clothes and face into the atmosphere around her.

Highlights of white gouache were dry Profile Head late in the making. but they are irrelevant here. Anatomically. blood vessels. continues to exhibit regularly. N e w s o m e ' s eerily shadowed form is smooth and bears a linear grain evocative of w o o d . the contours of a grid. It floats in space. Nerves. London. solid above and almost hollow below. using a fine and relatively 1982 13 x 181/8 in (328 x 460 mm) VICTOR NEWSOME brush. The style of Durelli's d r a w i n g opposite sings with the confidence of truth and precision. VICTOR NEWSOME British sculptor painter and draftsman. This is one of a number of similar disembodied female heads seen behind. taught at numerous British art schools from 1962-77. or defined by. The real dissection w o u l d have been far more c o m p l e x . and glands also complicate form. Delicate muscles are integrated with the skin and fat that is to be r e m o v e d . Durelli has m a d e a few m i n o r mistakes. perhaps applied using a tortillon. distorted. .134 PORTRAITURE Anatomies These highly finished drawings express the emotional power and physicality of the head and neck. Psychological drama is contained behind a grid. confusing. the face is one of the hardest parts to dissect. This is a m a r v e l o u s interpretation of the truth. dark tones of graphite blended into the paper. while white painted flecks and wisps suggest electrical illumination. In fact. dark lines made with a pencil appear against smooth. Newsome was awarded the Prix de Rome in 1960. and unpleasant to see. Contrasts Sharp. its highly clarified detail claiming to be d r a w n from observation. and has works in major collections including the Tate Gallery.

w h e n contracted. Stylized parallel lines are reminiscent of engravings. It is hard to think of a more difficult medium with which to achieve such linear perfection. and it is likely that this drawing was intended for reproduction as a print. Red Chalk the Muscles 1837 173/8 x 145/8 in ( 4 4 0 x 3 7 2 m m ) ANTONIO DURELLI and Pencil Drawing and of Neck of the Head Little is k n o w n o f this M i l a n e s e p a i n t e r a n d engraver w h o c a m e from a family o f artists. Pencil numbers refer to the list of muscles written beneath.135 ANATOMIES ANTONIO DURELLI Linear perfection This is a red chalk drawing of extraordinary accomplishment. which. pull their points o f attachment t o w a r d each other . Durelli's experience as an engraver is reflected in his stylized drawing o f muscle fibers.

They show us clearly the bones of drawing. 1948 77/8 x 6 in (200 x 150 mm) ALBERTO GIACOMETTI . cutting and carving the paper with matted and spiraling restless energy. There is a film of Giacometti drawing. Then. Flesh is built and personality carved simultaneously. ALBERTO GIACOMETTI Swiss sculptor. he drew over the whole image at once. which are characteristically elongated. necks. We are brought intimately close to this man gazing up to heaven. He is best known for his bronze sculptures of human form. while his hand stabs and thrusts Revelations like a conductors baton. Bellini gently conjures the features of his saint with soft marks that tease his presence out of shadows into the light.136 PORTRAITURE THESE ARE DRAWINGS of shoulders. Both works demonstrate how simple lines can be made complex by being intense. Giacometti settled in Paris. Agitated marks make patches of tone that cut away the space around the character. Opposite. as if seen from a distance. close enough to touch his hair and feel his breath. and with staccato flinches his hyperactive eye moves from paper to model. They confuse our perception of scale by being intimately fragile and at the same time far removed. Speed Giacometti probably began with an oval shape placed in relation to the proportion of the page. Portrait de Marie-Laure de Noailles c. and poet After studying in Geneva and Italy. each portrait is inscribed onto the page. each locked into a visionary gaze. Energy This is a portrait of a woman drawn with black crayon on a plain page of a book Lines search for the essence of form. and heads. painter draftsman. The camera watches him at work. Similar movements sculpted the head below into its page. with speed and urgency. Without paint and with very little tone.

H e p r e f e r r e d religious t o classical t h e m e s . Mantegna. a n d his w o r k is d i s t i n c t i v e l y calm.G I O V A N N I BELLINI A prominent member of a large family o f V e n e t i a n painters. a n d b r o t h e r in-law. These are pinholes. lyrical.25 6 . Head and Shoulders of a Man 73/8 x 21/4 in ( 1 8 6 x 5 8 UNDATED GIOVANNI BELLINI . Character This is one of many cartoons produced by Bellini the and his family.5 9 ) . Sometimes different narrative same character was reused in compositions. transferring which were made in the process of the saint to his final place in the composition of a painting (see Glossary pp. Bellini s t u d i e d u n d e r his f a t h e r J a c o p o . Transfer This delicate humorous chalk a drawing is a cartoon—not image but a type of template used to plan the composition of a larger work Look closely and you will see rows of tiny dots along every significant line in the picture. H e t a u g h t G i o r g i o n e Barbarelli and Titian. a n d c o n t e m p l a t i v e .

The incandescent New York painter Jean Michel Basquiat pictured himself here in naked silhouette. drawn.138 PORTRAITURE THE MIRROR OF SELF-PORTRAITURE offers artists infinite reflections of. their most immediate and best-known subject: themselves. scratched lines. and attitudes. and confrontations with. postcards. made with great energy. and indulgence. JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT Short-lived American painter and graffiti artist who began his blazing nine-year career drawing on lower Manhattan subway trains with a friend. Islands of graphic marks. float and shimmer in the shallow pictorial space. and everything flux. spear-brandishing warrior. political outcry. Later Basquiat sold drawings on T-shirts. Al Diaz. The figure's position is unequivocal and defiant while around him is in a state Without the essential of cultural and figure we would elegant belookingat a sophisticated painting of signs. skull- Self-Portraits headed. similar to work by Cy Twombly (see p. It has proved to be a subject of piercing scrutiny. and sheet metal before being snapped up by the New York contemporary art scene. The artist has finished his portrait with the signature of his hand smacked in the middle like a kiss: a declaration of existence as old as man's first drawing. It is an image of confrontation—the ever-controversial young artist roars at us from his abstract city-scape. scrolls. marks. It is an opportunity to look deep without the infringement of courtesies owed to a commissioning sitter. signing their work SAMO. Man Ray's playful silk-screen assembly of color blocks.221). a tribal. bells. and buttons rings with surrealist wit and agile improvisation. scratched into its surface. Self Portrait 1982 9 4 x 7 6 in (239 x 193 cm) JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT . humor. Signs and symbols with symbols This painting shudders that ore written. In 1986 he traveled to Africa and showed his work in Abidjan on the Ivory Coast He also exhibited in Germany and France.

caked in thick printing ink or paint. The handprint appears to be made directly. Black ink was printed next and then white. where he collaborated with the artist Laslo MoholyNagy. During the 1920's and 30s. printmaker and cofounder of the New York Dada movement. while a squeegee was used to drag thick lilac-brown ink across the silk pushing it though exposed areas onto the paper below. painter. They suggest speed and make the picture look immediate and spontaneous. They experimented with camera-free photography working directly onto photographic paper Silk and ink This is a silkscreen print made through the following process: the paper was laid on a flat surface and a frame stretched with fine silk was placed on top. last of all. Autoportrait 1916 195/8 MAN RAY .139 MAN RAY American surrealist photographer. Man Ray lived and worked in Paris. Frame White lines are seemingly (though not actually) scratched through ink to frame this face. Man Ray probably used his own hand. The first part of the stenciled image was already marked on the silk The screen and paper were then held tightly together.

1 4 4 . an exciting indication of how large-scale drawings could be made on a wall. 5.54-55). b e f o r e priming stretched paper. Note h o w domestic paintwork marks with a coin.Tear o f f f o u r lengths o f b r o w n p a p e r g u m tape. artists mixed white lead. If w o r k i n g o n an emulsion-painted wall. o n e t o fit each side o f t h e b o a r d — t h e s e will make t h e glued f r a m e t h a t holds y o u r p a p e r in place. Historically. was familiar to or eggshells with animal glue. Lightly s p o n g e o f f t h e excess. purchase silver wire. s e e p . and alloys work on matt emulsion." Lead. you will need t o stretch paper and lay a wash (see right and opposite). Straighten the w o r s t buckles. W e t a n d fix a s e c o n d strip t o t h e o p p o s i t e side. 2. s o m e m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n o t h e r s . 1. I m a k e m y o w n f r o m o l d dip pens. w h i t e d r a w i n g paper) and cut it t o fit y o u r d r a w i n g b o a r d w i t h a generous b o r d e r a r o u n d its edges. S O F T F U L L B R U S H : W h e n laying a w a s h . or ring. Z I N C W H I T E G O U A C H E : Dilute with w a t e r A d d c o l o r i f r e q u i r e d (as opposite) 4 . Take a sheet o f any t y p e o f p a p e r (for e x a m p l e . Lay a clean d r a w i n g b o a r d o n a flat surface. E m p t y mechanical pencils designed f o r t h i c k leads ( s e e p. and make o r buy a holder. Metal point is simply a strip of metal bound in a holder. Gesso o r m a t t e m u l s i o n c a n a l s o b e u s e d . laid on paper. it leaves a deposit. SILVER P O I N T W I R E H O L D E R : T h e s e c a n b e p u r c h a s e d a n d t e n d t o b e heavy. Pages 142 to 147 are illustrated in silver point and techniques are explained on pp. Numerous early European artists also enjoyed its fine qualities (see p. Drawn across a prepared surface. illuminators of medieval m a n u s c r i p t s . Be swift and firm. Metal point does not work on ordinary paper. key.54) can also b e used. M E T A L OBJECTS: All metal objects m a r k a p r e p a r e d surface. T h e p a p e r will l o o k b u c k l e d . copper. 3 . Stretched paper remains taut as a d r u m .140 PORTRAITURE Silver P o i n t SILVER OR METAL POINT STRETCHING PAPER A sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has been made w e t with the strokes o f a paintbrush will buckle d u e t o its uneven expansion. who used it to outline initials and border characters before painting. W e t o n e length o f g u m . This is called a three-tone drawing. and is therefore useful w h e n using w a t e r c o l o r as well as silver point. and t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h strips a b o v e and b e l o w . which quickly oxidizes into a gray line. MATERIALS 1 Find a clean sponge and b o w l o r d e e p t r a y a n d fill it w i t h w a t e r W e t t h e p a p e r evenly in t h e t r a y o r o n t h e b o a r d . c h o o s e a s o f t full b r u s h t h a t c a n c a r r y p l e n t y o f l i q u i d . choose a silver object. the surface must be primed with a ground such as gouache. platinum. bone.s t r i p a n d use i t t o fix o n e side o f t h e p a p e r t o t h e b o a r d . SILVER W I R E : Purchase different gauge lengths f r o m a traditional a r t supplier o r jeweler. Opposite. 156). I t is a v a i l a b l e f r o m all a r t s h o p s . This browns with age unless sealed by fixative (see pp. or wood. To begin. S i l v e r is b e s t . M a k e s u r e i t is c o m p l e t e l y clean t o avoid u n w a n t e d streaks. The most c o m m o n metal has always been silver—hence the term "silver point. I combined silver point with painted white gouache on a pink ground. 2 . p a r c h m e n t . and gold have also been used. Find a n i t e m t h a t y o u can h o l d a n d draw with comfortably. For i m p o r t a n t a d v i c e o n p r e p a r a t i o n a n d use. b u t d o n ' t w o r r y . 144-45.

Leave the wash to dry thoroughly before you begin to draw. Make an even line across to the right. leaving a smooth surface. full brush into the gouache and start in the top left corner. It will slowly straighten and become taut. Prop up your board of dry. so put newspaper under the lower edge. T h r e e . as the paper will be ruined by a raised ridge. I used a powder pigment called Caput Mortuum. The next step will make a small mess. Runs blend into each other evenly. Reload the brush and add a second line overlapping it beneath. Here. Beware of the tape's coming loose at any point while drying. stretched paper at a 45-degree angle. overlapping lines until you reach the bottom.t o n e silver point drawing of a skull . slowly add powder pigment or gouache from a tube. Keep testing on spare paper. Dry thoroughly before laying a wash. Make enough to cover your paper. any extra will keep. Dip a soft. is necessary to lay a wash o Three-tone When coloring ground.141 SILVER POINT 3 Leave the paper to dry flat. Mix a very wet but not weak solution of gouache in a jar with a lid (add pigment at this stage for a three-tone drawing). Keep adding smooth. LAYING A WASH It your stretched paper so as to prime it for silver point. and let tests dry before deciding to change the mixture. v e r y little at a time.



Head and Neck
THE HEAD AND NECK are best conceived as one unit arranged in four parts: cranium, face, neck, and throat. Each is of equal importance. The cranium is essentially egg-shaped and pivots on the first vertebra. The face is suspended beneath, like a softly curved triangle. The n e c k — a powerful, shapely column of layered muscles rigged to vertebrae—adjusts and holds the angle and expression of the head. The throat is delicate, hard, and lumpy to the touch, formed of cartilaginous rings, glands, thin muscles, and looser skin. Framing the throat, two columnar neck muscles (sternomastoids) project the head forward and also turn it to the opposite side.

This is a simple shorthand diagram representing the cranium, face, neck, and throat. It can be learned and visualized in different positions very easily, giving the novice a firm footing on which to stand and develop their drawings of the head and neck.

Shorthand diagram

Cranium Begin with an egg shape. Tilt it on the paper to change the position of the head.

Face Draw a rounded triangular shape below the forward point of the egg to represent the face.

Neck This shape represents the trapezius; the largest surface muscle of the neck and shoulders.

Throat A triangular shape represents the throat. (The nose makes the diagram clearer)

Applied shorthand

After copying the diagram above, animate it. Practice drawing the cranium at different angles, add the face beneath, then the neck, shoulders, and throat. Shape your diagrams so they are more lifelike, but avoid adding detailed features too soon.

143 These three drawings demonstrate (from left to right) the following: why the cranium may be considered egg-shaped; now the face can be seen as a curved triangle suspended beneath and where the division lies between the two; and the form of sternomastoid muscles that frame thethroatsodistinctlywhen the head is turned and inclined forward.

The skull and the frame of the throat


Bones of the cranium are locked together by jagged joints. Sinuses in the frontal (forehead) bone between and beneath the eyebrows are larger in men, making their brows pronounced and often ridged compared to those of women.

Bones of the face house our sight, smell, taste, The skull pivots on the first vertebra or "atlas," and speech. Cartilage extending from nasal bones after the Greek god condemned to carry the shapesthenose.Pads of fat resting on the base of Earth. The jaw hinges in front of the ears. Behind, eacheyesocket support the eyeballs in position. If bony ridges give anchor to the sternomastoid thefatisreducedby old age, eyes look sunken. muscles rising from the breast- and collarbones.

Three useful generalizations

General rules about the relative positions of body parts can hinder artists as much as help them, since they are often based on classical ideals rather than thediversityoflife.However,some generalizations can help as a rough guide to start with, so long as good observation takes over as soon as possible.

In general, when the face is relaxed (not smiling or frowning), the corners of the mouth are found directly beneath the pupils of the eyes. Vertical lines can be drawn down from the pupils to meet the corners of the mouth.

The height of a young adult's ear is often the same as their nose and found on the same level. There is no general rule for growing children, and remember that ears grow again in old age, which is most obvious in men.

The height of the face is about the length of the handspan and the eye is normally halfway down the total height of the head. A common error is to draw the eyes too high up on the face.



Essential Observations

(see pp. 140-41) is perfect for

such as a beach pebble. Here, I stretched drawing paper and laid a wash of white gouache (see pp.140-41). As you can see, the line and tone of silver point varies with pressure, but only slightly. Too much pressure cuts the ground. Silver point erases, but so does ground. Erased ground can be repaired gently with extra gouache. You can also use gouache to paint over mistakes and make corrections.

small, detailed drawings. The drawings below and opposite show useful observations of the head and neck, which are explained in the captions below. Each drawing was made with a silver wire held in a large-gauge mechanical pencil. Newly clipped wires are sharp and cut rather than draw. Before use, they need to be rubbed and smoothed on a stone

Here I imagined placing my silver point wire against the skin of each head and neck and, working in parallel bands from the crown downward, I traced the undulation of surfaces. Linear bands imagined around the head and neck can help you t o clearly see the tilt of the head and relative levels of the features. Ask a friend t o model for you and try this exercise life-size using a pencil and eraser


Tilted forward

Tilted backward

Three-quarter view

Seeing that the face is never flat

Drawings below left and center are summaries of the generalizations given on p.143. Far right is an image to remind us that the face is never flat. It slopes back to varying degrees among individuals, from the tip of the nose t o the ears. For example, note that the innermost corners of the eyes are farther forward in space than the outermost corners.

General measurements, side

General measurements, front

View from above


Male and female head and neck
Men's necks a r e g e n e r a l l y s h o r t e r a n d t h i c k e r t h a n w o m e n ' s b e c a u s e t h e angles a n d levels o f c e r t a i n b o n e s a r e d i f f e r e n t b e t w e e n t h e sexes ( i n d i c a t e d h e r e b y d o t t e d lines) a n d m e n are n o r m a l l y m o r e muscular. T h e male t h y r o i d cartilage ( A d a m ' s apple) is larger a n d m o r e visible than t h e f e m a l e . L a r g e r f e m a l e t h y r o i d glands also s o f t e n t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e t h r o a t .

Female skull





Trapezius muscle
The largest m u s c l e o f t h e s h o u l d e r s a n d n e c k is called the trapezius. A r r a n g e d on e i t h e r side o f t h e spine, it shapes t h e u p p e r back and neck above the s h o u l d e r blades. C o n t r a c t i n g in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h d e e p e r and surrounding muscles, it raises and l o w e r s t h e shoulders a n d d r a w s t h e h e a d backtoeitherside.

The whole



half with



with head



with head


Side with


Front with




Drawing Portraits
USING A SHARP 3 B PENCIL, I drew this head quickly from imagination, evolving its character and expression from the scheme of four parts: cranium, face, neck, a n d throat (see p. 142). Here, five steps show you how to practice doing the same. This approach can be used to draw from imagination or from life. Keep your wrist loose and hold your pencil away from its point (see pp.22-23). Build the layers of your drawing from pale to dark, a n d from general balance a n d form to specific detail. Remember that successful drawings are built on foundations of "seeing the whole," then dividing the whole into smaller parts, with details brought in last of all. Phrased tonal marks modeling this girls skin and hair follow the technique demonstrated by Goya in his self-portrait on p. 130. Turn to Goya's drawing and study how, in a circle beginning across his hat, moving down his hair, and around his coat, he flows lines over surfaces to describe their contour. As you build from steps 1 to 5, bring phrased groups of lines across the surfaces of your form, using their directions to capture the expression of the head and neck. If unsure, copy my steps until you gain the confidence to make your own decisions.

This drawing is the final stage of the four steps opposite. Here, I have enlarged the eye, and moved it back into the head by trimming the length of the upper lid and adding a more pronounced lower lid. It is important to set eyes far enough back from the relatively prominent nose; too close to it and the face flattens. Hair swept back and extended behind the cranium balances the regal pose. Lines shaping the hair echo those marking the cranium in step 1. Here, the lower part of step 1 comes through as wisps of hair across her face and ear


Portrait of a Young Girl

147 Building up the portrait DRAWING PORTRAITS 1 Gently spin pale lines in a softly drawn shape representing the cranium. Moving from the back of the neck. neck. over the cranium. The eye announces the nature and expression of the emerging person. avoid drawing too dark. down the face to the throat. too soon. 2 Rapidly add shorthand shapes to represent the face. Here. and throat. Keep your first lines light. The nose and ear begin to shape the head. I modeled the outline of the character I imagined light shining from above and in front and adjusted the pressure of lines to reflect this. they are also still sweeping and confident. 3 Place the eye beneath the cranium.Theangle at which you draw this shape of the paper will determine the angle of the finished head. 4 . First lines will remain visible in the final drawing. I used light to describe the upper lid first with a shadow beneath for the lower lid and open eye. so it is important to the life of the image that while controlled.


. Above all. empathize. and gravity. a n d t h o s e w h o a r e Generations asleep (see overleaf). muscular tension.T o DRAW PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGES. be aware of the subtle differences in skin surface. the texture of hair.



seeking the dominant contours of each individual expression. Madrid. Van Dyke's noble cast of characters was modeled more finely. with a steel dip pen and acrylic ink.Castings DRAWING IN THE PRADO MUSEUM. I used the nib upside down to gain needle-sharp precision. . Fast lines carve out the features of Goya's soup-slurping hag.



and intent. and atmosphere. w a r m t h . g l o s s y folds. while court p a i n t e r s — M i c h e l a n g e l o and Holbein. W e dress ourselves and costume designer trained in in St. b u t influenced Parisian fashion and interiordecor. P o p u l a r f a s h i o n d e s i g n e x p l o d e d w i t h the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n . so that c h o i c e . dancer leaps through swaths of golden cloth. a n d w e will c o l l e c t patterns. D e s i g n e r s create m a s t e r p i e c e s of haute couture LEON BAKST for H o l l y w o o d stars. toParis. was a Belarussian A r t Deco theater fantasies and desires to immediately possess a version of the same. caricatured p l u m e s . c u l t u r e . outrageous. or b u l g e s . a n d c o u r t i e r tailors f o l l o w e d suit. cool. Samoylovich Rosenberg. Practical classes Bacchante 1911 l o o k at r a n g e s of c o l o r e d m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d i n g p a s t e l s a n d felt-tip p e n s . T h e e n t o u r a g e of the theatrical stage o f t e n l e a d s the c a t w a l k . Previously. for e x a m p l e — d e s i g n e d the w a r d r o b e s of p o p e s a n d k i n g s . a n d p r o f e s s i o n — b e g a n life as a d r a w i n g . gesture. . theb u t b y the w a y it s p e a k s w i t h its flying.This voluptuous above all a physical p u p p e t w i t h w h i c h to animate character and narrate personality. S t r u c t u r e is t h o u g h the i n v e n t i o n of shoes. and gouache. variety. T h e p a p e r p a t t e r n is p e r h a p s the m o s t w i d e l y k n o w n of c o s t u m e d r a w i n g s : a formalized plan of lines. and everything w e h a v e c h o s e n for o u r w a r d r o b e s — r e f l e c t o r s of o u r taste. arichand unusual combination of pencil. c o s t u m e o f f e r s a r i c h v o c a b u l a r y of t e x t u r e s a n d c o l o r . he and cofounder Serge Diaghilev took Paris by eac storm in 1910 with their production h year in the industrial f r e n z y of creating o u r image and aspirations. Petersburg and later exiled designers' ideas and are surprised and delighted b y their continual f l o w of inspiration. and i n d e e d image b e c a m e the property also of the industrial classes. T h e rural masses w o r e h o m e s p u n simplicity. woman was drawn by Bakst one year later for the ballet Narcisse. charcoal. Artists do this not so m u c h b y the style of a figure's garment. Cities c h a n g e d all. shapes. In this c h a p t e r w e see h o w c l o t h i n g c a n s e e m to p o s s e s s the w e i g h t and m o n u m e n t a l i t y of stone. and be so expressive of temperament that it overtakes the need for an o c c u p y i n g h u m a n form. c r u m p l e s . and s y m b o l s that lets m e n and w o m e n in all countries and areas have w o r k i n g access to the latest fashions. In psychology. known as Leon Bakst. articulate a d a n g e r o u s satirical j o k e . Designers all over the w o r l d c o n t i n u a l l y p e n and b r u s h lines to lash us w i t h color. st 111/4 x 81/2 in (285 x 220 mm) u d i e d L E O NB A K S T and explore the characterization of fabric t h r o u g h m o v e m e n t . and even invisible by the w a y w e dress. intriguing. e m u l a t e textures. it is the public sign by w h i c h w e are j u d g e d . Bakst's designs and costumes immediately To the fine artist. o n l y the w e a l t h y c o u l d afford to h a v e c o s t u m e s specially m a d e . fulfilling lavish and spectacular briefs. or calm u s w i t h chic.Costume W E MAKE OURSELVES EXOTIC. Like it or not. personality. of Scheherazade. a n d s u b t l e t o n e s . and e x u b e r a n c e .As artistic director of the It is s h o c k i n g to t h i n k h o w m a n y m i l l i o n s of d r a w i n g s m u s t be m a d e a n d d i s c a r d e d Ballet Russe. w h i c h in turn feed c o n s u m e r Lev.

However. the carefully composed outline of his cloak shows us how the artist would have also begun his immaculate rendering of the Virgin's clothes. H e m e t i c u l o u s l y a r r a n g e d subjects t o c o n v e y d e e p e r meaning. swirling printed fabrics. with their jagged edges. and implied striation in the stone of the architecture. her marble garment holds u p the infant Christ in a fountain of compressed line. Above them. and snakelike marks. Vertical lines The highly controlled lines of this drawing cascade from top to bottom of the image. He has layered these slowly and carefully so as not to cut through the ground and produce a white mark just where he intended a dark one. delicate lines. best k n o w n f o r his G h e n t altarpiece ( 1 4 3 2 ) a n d m a r r i a g e p o r t r a i t o f Giovanni A r n o l f i n i and his w i f e (1434). Van Eyck's highly polished w o r k is c e l e b r a t e d f o r its disguised symbolism. The quiet stillness of this image is achieved by a masterly economy of stylized line. With a stylus such as Van Eyck used here. it is only possible to create very thin. Sculpted one. Delicate marks Silver (or metal) point is the most delicate of traditional drawing media (see pp. folds and patterns of material speak more resolutely of their wearers than any small glimpses of body we can see. Keisai Eisen's intense.140-41). Short and subtle horizontal punctuations are only given in the background by sections of floor. the Madonna and her architecture are both dressed in the same manner. and the kneeling abbot is a ghost by comparison. Opposite. Maelbeke I44I Madonna 11 x 7 in (278 x 180 m m ) JAN V A N EYCK . In Van Eyck's drawing below. bands around the columns. the vaulted stone roof echoes and crowns the moment. Church and deities are drawn as JAN VAN EYCK Flemish oil p a i n t e r f r o m L i m b o u r g . Her gown is carved and polished as if made from marble. Their uninterrupted emphasis is entirely vertical.156 COSTUME Cloth and Drapery EACH OF THESE FIGURES is ninety percent cloth. dragons. Flaxmans sleeper—perhaps a pilgrim or a soldier resting between campaigns—has wedged himself into the cleft of some great building to grab a moment of peace. Marble gown We will never know if Van Eyck considered this drawing unfinished or intended the kneeling abbot to remain transient and ghostly. resonate with their wearers startled expression. Below this.

the cloak sliding to the ground. The inked block is laid face-down on damp paper and pressed to make the print. and the feet notched against the pillar tell us that A lines holds him into the cleft. one over the other. Parts of the image to be left unprinted are gouged out with a metal tool. designer. Respected for his sumptuous images of geisha and editions of erotic prints. Remaining raised areas of wood are rolled with colored inks. Koimurasaki of Tama-ya 1810-50 15 x101/4in (381 x 260 mm) KEISAI EISEN The Courtesan JOHN F L A X M A N English late 18th-century neoclassical sculptor. Aeschylus earned Flaxman an international reputation. an 18th-19th century document on the lives of the ukiyo-e artists.157 KEISAI EISEN Japanese draftsman. which are sometimes also cut into pieces like a jigsaw puzzle. flat sheets of wood. Images are drawn onto smooth. and teacher Distinctive linear illustrations for the works of Homer. Position In this pen and ink drawing. This complex numerous blocks prepared image and may have been made with printed separately. he also co-edited and expanded the Ukiyo-e Ruiko (History of Prints of the Floating World). and Man Lying Down in a Cloak I 787-94 21/4 JOHN FLAXMAN x 41/8 in (57 x 105 mm) . stone wall of downward-stroked this sleeper's position is momentary. CLOTH AND DRAPERY Relief printing This is a woodblock print made by a relief process. each delivering a different part and color of the design. writer and printmaker Keisai Eisen took his name from the masters Kano Hakkeisai and Kikugawa Eizan. Dante. draftsman. the angle of the head.

Pen and wash In the graphic accuracy of this armored knight we see the idealized identity of a warrior from another time: a gleaming defender of the realm. a n d w a s e m p l o y e d as c o u r t painter t o King Charles I. w h e r e . and feather were all CHARACTER COSTUMES REPRESENT observed with closely crafted conviction. b e f o r e traveling t o Italy. The slight uncertainty of the pose and the limp cloak suggest a little more metal than man. Opposite is a dangerous drawing. lace. all ruffs and wrinkles. In 1 6 3 2 he m o v e d p e r m a n e n t l y t o L o n d o n . Leg sections in both support the figure without taking our attention away from the main garment above. where sometimes there just might not be anybody inside. cloth. a scurrilous cartoon by a courtier of Queen Elizabeth I. t h r o u g h n u m e r o u s p o r t r a i t and C h u r c h commissions. Leg section Compare mid-shin the section of white boots cropped to the section of similarly cropped trousers in drawings Gruau's drawing on p. and even formal portraiture. for she would not have been amused and William Wodall might have been stretching his luck. Van D y k e was chief assistant t o Rubens f o r t w o years. A s a y o u n g man. He has been rendered on this olive<olored page with pen and gray wash worked over a red and black under-drawing. Flowing scarf The knight's scarf of gilded blue is drawn in a pale wash over red ink lines. he c o o l e d and redefined his style. It is presumed Her Royal Highness never saw it. Its warm surface flows in contrast to the stiff metal armor. The aged queen is compared to an overdressed bird. cartoon. Details and voices are worn externally with great imagination. theater. 160. A flamboyant territory. A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE Flemish painter and draftsman. Fine examples can be plucked from fashion. cinema.158 COSTUME Character Costumes an extreme form of the clothed figure. The metal. Its color is also reflected in the metal. Anthony Van Dyke's Man in Armor is a masterpiece of drawn surface. Man in Armor UNDATED 1 6 x 9 1 / 2 in ( 4 0 5 x 2 4 0 m m ) A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE .

the queen is masterfully rebalanced by words at her feet The whole drawing's blackened. t h e B a b i n g t o n Plot.159 WILLIAM W O D A L L A u t h o r and illustrator o f The Aaes of Queene a Elizabeth poem Allegorized. and her pride.35). here dark tawny owl. bitten nature. Top-heavy. hooded with an overinflated fluffy ruff eye pins us. t h e Ridolfi Plot. By her old upto three tiers supported on sticks. t h e Jesuit Mission. manuscript comprising six c a n t o s . Satire of the Queen's Dress c. and saturations showing through from the other side. t h e Rising.1599 71/2 WILLIAM x 51/4 in ( 1 9 0 x 1 3 4 mm) WODALL . T h e poem recounts t h e six m a j o r crises o f Elizabeth's reign: t h e Spanish A r m a d a . while a raised foot pauses to assess the next displaying a fan of daggers. Northern Satire This is a quill-and-ink satire of the elderly queen's pride-As head of state and fashion. A Ruffs and feathers Starched white ruffs worn at court and by society grew steadily larger as Elizabeth's reign progressed. Beneath the lethal fan is the body of a bird of trimmed feathers suggest age. suggest the use of iron-gall ink (see p. it was customary to Iron-gall ink Wodall's dangerous caricature steps daintily the written lines of her dedicated page. she is shown as a grossly disproportioned bird.

160 COSTUME Femmes Fatales THESE DEVASTATING femmes fatales force back the onlooker with their demure. Harpers & Queen. and both share the power of scarlet and black. Gruau's model regally swans to the fore with cool pride. 158.F r e n c h f a s h i o n i l l u s t r a t o r w h o in his l o n g and esteemed career w o r k e d with many of the g r e a t e s t d e s i g n e r s o f 2 0 t h .c e n t u r y haute i n n u m e r o u s m a g a z i n e s i n c l u d i n g Elle. Gruau uses starkly cut negative space (see pp. Composition Look how well this image is frame knee is parallel to the bottom edge spacehorizontalline cropping the trousers be outermostuprightbordersof her cuffs are similar above her head thesidesoftheimage. elegant chic and svelte. and gray pigments were applied separately.5 9 ) and a three-spoke balance of cuffs and cropped trousers to create an almost flag-like emblem of power. Spider-Girl leaps like an insect. as is Spider-Girl opposite. Fashion and fantasy drawings invent prototypes of ideals and perfection—be they for the catwalk or the fast-paced pages of comic books. Vogue. Fine lines drawn against the building behind her echo the threads on which we have all seen arachnids drop and hang. Rene Gruau's bold gouache drawing of smoothly swaying sophistication captures a brilliantly cut garment and frames it with great dynamism in a white. diving to catch us in the grip of her machine-like limbs. possibly over a pencil outline. She has been drawn with brushes dipped into India ink and gouache. Compare the compositio beneathVanDyke'sstudy of armor on p. muscular aggression. RENE GRUAU I t a l i a n . demanding attention with gesture and flair. a n d L'Officiel de la couture. Airbrushed reflective surfaces further amplify our perception of speed. Drying time in between applications ensured the colors did not run into each other.and tilted to the same de a little deeper than sp kneestogivehergravity. The black red. India ink and gouache This swish of confidence and style our enters the page turning everyone's head. His model is outlined. 5 8 . studio-like rectangle of paper. G r u a u ' s highly distinctive d r a w i n g s have a p p e a r e d Couture. ofcroppedtrousershere to the device of the w Illustration 1949 for Jacques Fath in L ' O f f i c i e l d e la C o u t u r e RENE GRUAU .

Buildings. and figure are all locked into equally shatp through the traditional process of a pencilled outline over-drawn ink. Airbrushed color and with tonal focus. In your mind's eye extend the uprights out of the top of the picture. and has been the title's regular artist since 2003. and Amazing Spider-Man.74-77). moon. sky. to the right of its center. beginning with Star Wars. Align your ruler to the upright of each building. Frenz has drawn for Marvel for about 20 years. not far above the drawing. a great characteristic superhero comics. It is outside the picture frame. Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 2001-04 R O N FRENZ. This s modeling applied over the top give the image a sleek and mechanical of gravity. He began work on Spider-Girl in 1998.RON F R E N Z Contemporary American graphic artist w h o designs and pencils the dynamic scenes of numerous superheroes featured in Marvel Comics. at Their extensions will meet the same single vanishing (see point pp. The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones. Sharp focus black outlines in this drawing create a hyper-real dynamic. Single-point understand perspective To how Frenz created up therefore the effect of steeply between looking buildings—and howyou can do the same in your own work—take calculate where a ruler the and single vanishing point lies. MARVEL C O M I C S .

the diverse are made in brands of basic member of the family. or wax and a binder are shaped into fine strips and encased in w o o d like a graphite pencil. The nontoxic range below represents a suggested starting point for experiment. See h o w they work and return later for more of what proved best for you. and cost are laid out for our pleasure and perusal. shape. Seemingly infinite choices of texture. Beware—some are toxic. paper-wrapped. The worst are like revolting old lipsticks that get everywhere except where you intend. Many products are sold individually and in boxed sets. Try materials that are new and unfamiliar. Be aware that fixative dulls pastel. and synthetics. CHALK PASTELS: Blackboard chalk is sidewalk work. I suggest you do so. including iridescents. crumbly. clay. allowing it to fix slightly from behind. the finer and more subtle the texture and color should be. minerals. mixed on the paper and scratched into (as below). 3. 4. unwrapped harder pastels. are derived from many sources: rocks. OIL PASTELS: Many colors. and can be a great rediscovery for bold drawings. Many artists apply fixative to the back of their work. though lines can develop greasy stains around the edges if the paper is not first stretched and treated with a gelatin paste laid as a wash. OIL PASTELS Oil-based. C o n t e crayons are square-formed. hue. great for tin . Children's wax crayons are relatives. slightly oily to the touch. you may be pleasantly surprised to discover something you could not have imagined using. Pastels are finer. insects. purchase a small selection of different items you think you will like. intensity. COLORED PENCILS: Dry pigments ground together with chalk. animals. size. and CHALK PASTELS Pastel pencils make fine lines (as above). used to make colors. except the final layer. Dissolve in turpentine or mineral spirits to produce oil paint or or dark paper. Pastel pencils are slender and in w o o d casing. chalkbased but very subtle. Bright pastels are more brilliant on colored paper. there are disparities between the apparent nature or color of what you hold in your hand and its performance on paper. made in about 80 colors. quality and cost T h e best are paperwrapped sticks of sumptuous. which he left unfixed to retain its brightness. colored materials available. Before making substantial investments. Use them to draw lightly (as above left) or thickly. wash. The higher the quality (and cost). fixing each layer on the front. these work best when slightly warm. quality. oily pigment. Store loose pastels in dry rice to keep them clean. They work well on PIGMENTS Pigments. and can be softened and manipulated with degrees of heat. 1. soft. 2. Often. They vary hugely in cost. Degas built his pastels in layers.162 COSTUME Colored Materials ART STORES BRIM OVER w i t h t h e m a n y wherever permitted. FELT-TIP PENS: Instant-drying alcoholor water-based inks stored in the barrels of the pens are delivered via smooth nylon o r felt tips of varying shapes and thicknesses. Sticks and conte crayons make thicker marks (as below). Most stores leave small pads of paper on their counters for customers to test materials. plants. and subtlety. and sold in many colors.

so it is best to test them before buying. Fine lines can be achieved (as above). leaving the paper to shine through for highlights (as below). .163 COLORED PENCILS These are wax. FELT-TIP PENS Although not made with felt-tip pen. Diverse brands are harder or soften greasier or chalkier in use. Brands made for designers sold in enormous ranges of colors are far more subtle and sophisticated than those made for children. Think of Matisse's Blue Nude (see p. Some are nonsoluble. If you love smooth blocks and lines of colon felt-tip pens are perfect.or clay-based thin crayons in wood casing. 111). Some give richer lines than others. it is still a great champion and support for those beginners feeling shyly obligated to tone down their love of color to conform with what others say they should use. others dissolve in water or turpentine to make a wash. Colors can be blended as shown right) and tones graded by altering pressure.

100-01 and pp. This class takes the shoe as its subject in building on earlier lessons concerned with seeing through objects to understand their function. social and economic status. Here we go one step further. a n d e x p e r i e n c e visible p r o g r e s s . while artists have painted their boots or those of others as personal portraits and memorials. 104-07). t h e n again as if transparent. and after studying familiar shoes we use the information learned to invent new ones. You. and a selection of shoes. c o v e r a large sheet o f p a p e r w i t h line drawings o f several shoes. a range of colored felt-tip pens with both fine and broad tips. Turn t h e m in different d i r e c t i o n s and o b s e r v e t h e i r s t r u c t u r e and f o r m . Linear Outline Using fine pens. values. t o o . structure. As artifacts in museums. and how we stand and walk. and they have been concealed in buildings to ward off misfortune. and volume in space (see pp. I m a d e n u m e r o u s s h e e t s o f d r a w i n g s . e n j o y i n g t h e study a n d i n v e n t i o n o f shoes. S H O E S TELL LIFE STORIES.164 COSTUME Study and Design they reflect our age. if y o u m a k e p l e n t y o f d r a w i n g s as o p p o s e d t o o n l y a f e w . To set up. you will need several large sheets of drawing paper. D r a w each o n e first as a solid object. style. Superstitions and fetishes are attached to them: we are told never to put new shoes on a table. will discover m o r e . . REPEATED STUDY T o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s class. they record and reflect our common history. the era in which we live. imagining y o u can see t h r o u g h it. personality.


The Surface


study the surface contours using fineand broad-tipped felt-tip pens. For best results, it is important to be bold and brief. Draw firmly, fast, and with as few strokes as possible. Build up each shoe from light to dark andleavesome paper showing through to create highlights.

Design Your Own

Using what you have learned from the previous steps about the structures of your shoes, and about the use of pens, invent new designs from your imagination. Start with fine outlines and progress to colored and textured surfaces. Modify your ideas by rotating the views.



The Structure of Costume

rich resource for the artist and

information given by a period style. Arrange to visit a costume museum or ask a friend to model clothes for you at home. Using fine felt-tip pens, begin with quick, pale impressions of each garment's shape before homing in on its borders and seams. Try to draw transparent views wherever possible to record the relationships between all component parts. Aim to draw enough information for it to be possible to make up a version of the garment using paper pinned to a tailor's dummy.

designer. They often give quite unexpected gems of ideas and information—whatever the subject. These drawings, made in a costume museum, demonstrate ways of recording structural information and detail for later use in the studio. They could form the basis of new designs for a fashion project or theater production, for example. Drawings of shoes on pp. 164-65 show how new designs can be evolved from the structural

It is usually best when collecting information for reference to apply the restraint of dispassionate observation. Set yourself the test of drawing facts with as little artistic license or embellishment as possible. Here I chose fine felt-tip pens because they are at their best when used swiftly, and therefore encourage bold, unhesitant decisions.

Swift lines record the hanging weight of this gentleman's coat, the relative proportions of its layers, and minimal details of the buttons and cuffs.

Thick velvet fabric is pulled tight beneath and across the bust by a single button. This transparent view shows how the fabric falls loosely in straight panels beneath the level of the sleeve.


W h e n visiting museums, be prepared f o r l o w lighting, which can make it hard t o see and draw. A book can help if attached t o your drawing board.

Adding stripes and dashes of color with a thicker pen brings out the glossy sheen and sculptural rigidity of this dress, which would have been worn over a whalebone corset. small reading light designed t o clip o n t o a


In small drawings such as these, use thick pens to color entire sections with a few marks, as I did here down the side of the bodice.

The light, frilly bulk of this crinoline dress is propelled forward with lines. pinching its gathers and sways that are hiding a horsehair bustle. fleets of quick



Textures and.Patterns
THIS CLASS FOCUSES ON how to draw textures through the collection of fabric, pattern, and embroidery samples from a costume m u s e u m . This formal method, using ruled squares, can create an invaluable library of ideas a n d i n f o r m a t i o n for future r e f e r e n c e — w h e n painting a clothed figure, or preparing a textile project, for example. However, if making a book of samples for a project, remember that it is important to also include collages of f o u n d materials (see pp.230-31) To d r a w a fabric texture, b e g i n by concentrating o n h o w y o u i m a g i n e it w o u l d feel if you t o u c h e d it. Decide if it w o u l d be rough, s m o o t h , w a r m , cold, thick, thin, tough, or fragile, for example. As you draw, believe you can feel these qualities at your fingertips a n d that your pencil is responding to the sensation. Undulate the pressure of your lines and marks according to the feeling of the fabric rather than its appearance. Let your pencil enact the sensation of touching its surface.

and to experiment more loosely with mixed media.

This starchy, quilted, b o w e d creation started life as an imagined corset, I intended t o d r a w together in one sculptural f o r m a range o f t h e details opposite. T h e garment quickly got o u t o f hand. T h e r e is great e n j o y m e n t in letting y o u r imagination run wild w h e n inventing costumes. If you are unable t o visit a costume museum, many exciting fabric details and textures can be found in y o u r o w n closet o r home.


Colored pencils give precision and tonal range; they can be faded but not erased. Lightly use an HB graphite pencil if you wish to plan a design first. Pressed hard, colored pencils build up a waxy finish of brilliant color. Used lightly, they appear powdery and show the texture of the paper.


Silk and braid


Embroidered leather





Outline stitch


selected from different pages of my original book. and motivation of an individual. shape. and 252-53). Madrid. identity. . look at how Goya delineated volumes of thick fabric to express the posture.126-27. These characters.Dressing Character I O N C E SPENT THREE MONTHS researching the work of Francisco de Goya at the Prado Museum. I made a drawing book full of studies seeking to understand how he composed drama and pathos in his narratives (see also pp. 172-73.

To understand how he did this. are copies of works by Goya in which he makes air seem heavier than flesh. Posture Carving also taken from my Madrid drawing book (see pp. as it rushes and carves fabric-wrapped forms like rivers and desert winds shaping the earth. I carefully copied the direction of each of his lines. .170—71). and tangible. and visible.T H E S E PENCIL STUDIES.



too. heighten or subdue drama with subtleties of exaggeration or caricature. are implicated in this marital exchange made over the head of the anonymous nurse. types. Drawings selected for this chapter explore these Saskia Lying in Bedand a Nurse ranges of proximity 1638 9 x61/2in (227 x 164 mm) and a travel journal. He is also the artist from whom props to add layers of meaning and attitude. but drawings of gathered people tell them most directly. and instantly engage with the action of the scene. there are no longer individuals but one significant group or mass action. a crowd tells the story from a distance. even up her were laid with a brush. the viewer. Seeing through Rembrandt's eyes. vivid portrait of his wife captures our attention. the speed and printmaker and one of the greatest and most influential density of its lines. Second. Storytelling and people-watching are obsessive human activities. R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN in the delivery of narrative. We can direct close. Here. Saskia died after childbirth. and distance—so drawings of gathered people can be loosely arranged in three took only minutes to make and yet it lives for centuries. Her all-too-clear expression shows annoyance and irritation with her husband. Later in their lives. television documentaries. First. and so. and other masters of Western Art. Third. finding corners in crowded places to inscribe their action and energy onto the page. this is not the portrait of an old woman. while a quill contact with. and therefore seem to see. Saskia. presumably while he is making this drawing. Blockbuster movies. comics. We read tensions and exchanges between people. and its illumination. We can also use clothes. furniture. As artists. we. The spaces between people and the positions they occupy on a page are vital to our understanding of the psychology or emotion of an event. the direct exchange (as shown here) where one or more characters hold eye Aneedproduced the thicker lines of the nurse. It middle.Gatherings A LL DRAWINGS TELL STORIES. we can learn most about handling pen and ink. soap operas. With a pocket full of disposable pens we also go out and draw the expressions of gathered people. we can R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter draftsman. Rembrandt's bored and frustrated wife. paintings depicting scenes from history. daily newspapers. Washes of shadow behind engaged and as a natural voyeur can feel invisible while watching the scene. and novels—our staple cultural diet—are driven by a fascination with shared experience and the detail of what happens in other people's lives. in spite of how it may seem. He in turn scorches the paper with his view and a certain speed of seeing all. This J u s t as there are three parts to a traditional landscape drawing—the foreground. the viewer's attention in a scene by the format of its composition. the viewer is not directly made the finer lines of Saskia. stares out from her gloomy sickbed. .

plates shatter... Real Life is Rubbish 2002 Dimensions variable TIM N O B L E A N D SUE WEBSTER . narrative is delivered through the air. c o m p o s e d garbage p r o d u c e s a c a l m . and projector.176 GATHERINGS SOME DRAWINGS ARE MADE e n t i r e l y o f i l l u m i n a t i o n that floods drama into the viewers gaze. In both works. F o r e a c h w o r k ." (Tim Noble) Drawing with light it is important to think about what you is Here timelessly we see a in can draw with. Pans fly oft the stove. for example. junk. the C o o k . Pencil on paper important but only the beginning of possibility the combination of three-dimensional space. or even the office photocopier. garbage and chaos are piled a n d e x p l o d e d in r o o m s full of event. t h e y select and arrange familiar items of street detritus into what appears to be an u n p l e a s a n t pile."Anything that. Here. TIM N O B L E A N D SUE W E B S T E R British artists who collaborate using neon. Below.kicks against the mundane things that close down your mind is a refreshing and good thing. and projectors to create their anarchic punk satires of modern life. Think about what else you could use: a laser smoke. and Alice. the Cat. and in. In one of R a c k h a m s great illustrations for Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland. and smoke billows around the agitated jives of the Duchess. and on. hearth i m p l e m e n t s crash at o u r feet. a kitchen explodes in o u r faces. N o b l e a n d W e b s t e r s w i t t y a n d o f t e n s u b v e r s i v e d r a w i n g s are also c o n t e m p o r a r y art installations. T h e i m m a c u l a t e d r a w i n g is only r e v e a l e d w h e n t h e b e a m of a p r o j e c t o r c a s t s t h e s h a d o w Projections of the h e a p o n t o a wall. h a l o e d portrait of the artists seated b a c k to b a c k . refuse. via the animated clutter of o u r material lives.

Find the singleperspective pp. ink. we find several devices already explored through our drawing classes. humor. beams. and Alice's shoulder. a n d an unmistakable graphic style. and watercolor. This makes the story appear to leap out at us. Depth Billows of smoke expand and are lighter as they come forward.177 ARTHUR RACKHAM British watercolorist and book illustrator. Refer back to the drawing class how pots In drawn objects and elements that those behind.76-77) above vanishing point (see that is about3/4in (2 cm) oak converge at this point. The wood grain acts like marks of speed behind the scene. tabletop. 100 to see for make elliptical objects and pans fly through the the foreground.Stowe's ofMysteryand Queer Little Folks. are very large compared to on p. by vivid children's Rakham's w o r k is characterized fantasy. See how the In the Duchess's Kitchen 1907 77/8 x 6 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 5 0 m m ) ARTHUR RACKHAM . amplifying movement outward from the vanishing point. and Poe's Tales Imagination. H e is best k n o w n forillustratingIrving's Rip vanWinkle. Rackham Vanishing point In this marvelous drama made with pen.

join in the waiting. This is an ironic drawing from Moore. and we. as if Moore's wrapping has been literally outstretched. Moore's spectators appear to have walked a long way from nowhere to witness and wait beside this mysterious obelisque. Opposite. A glimmer of gold light appears from the left No explanation is given. London. perhaps these two are the most extreme. The mournful gray landscape of Henry Moore's northern British field has gathered by night an overcoated audience to stand and wait before a wrapped and roped monument.The human form w a s the vehicle o f his expression and h e w a s t h e official W o r l d W a r II artist. a great Shoshone drawing blazes with the color. and action of a buffalo hunt. M o o r e t o u r e d Italy as a young man. Magnetic Fields sculpture.178 GATHERINGS we have seen in the pairs and trios of drawings by masters and makers. The image stands out among his more usual graphic works in which he hones and carves semi-abstract human forms. which still narrates vivid days in the lives of an energetic nation. and composition they are polar opposites. This is just one of many precious artifacts from a lost time. HENRY MOORE Crowd 1942 Looking at Tied-up Object . meaning. heat. In culture. Chalk and graphite This fog-bound but humorous gathering of souls is made in graphite and colored chalk with gray wash. audiences. a sculptor. as fellow watchers. and art in the landscape. a n d l o v e d t o d r a w in t h e BritishMuseum. expressing his dry humor about O F ALL THE CONTRASTS HENRY MOORE British s c u l p t o r w h o t r a i n e d a n d taught at t h e R C A .

Stylized hunters. Hunt CENTURY SHOSHONE SCHOOL . MAGNETIC FIELDS Horses It is interesting to note how the outstretched limbs ofthesehorses echo European images of the runningBuffalo horse before the sequence-photographer Muybridge taught us to 19TH understand their movement differently. Each color is evenly distributed throughout the scene. horses. tolearnhow to paint a scene on a hide are and buffalo circle and charge the perimeters of a skin "field." Men at the instructed to sit and watch. and helping our eye to dart around.179 SHOSHONE SCHOOL Stylized characters This vital image of a buffalo hunt is made with pigment Members of the Shoshone community wishing painted within dark outlines on a stretched elk hide. creating harmonious balance with words but through silent demonstration. Skills are taught not center chant or dance to the beat of a drum.

It illustrates a scene from Dante's Divine Comedy. The muscularity of Blake's figures was inspired by Michelangelo's works. a n d o t h e r w o r k s . a n d the gentle h u m o r of sedate r i d i c u l e . Blake w a s d r i v e n b y a passion f o r j u s t i c e a n d a p r o f o u n d b e l i e f in his v i s i t a t i o n s f r o m angels. Heath Robinson lived through the same war-torn. W I L L I A M BLAKE British visionary. a n d f o c u s . pale souls of the lustful are being s p u n into yet another realm of hell. era as Kollwitz.180 GATHERINGS The Human Condition IN THE SPECTRUM of these vastly d i f f e r e n t g a t h e r i n g s of p e o p l e . w r i t e r a r t i s t . a d e a t h c h a r g e of brutality. t h e Bible. K a t h e K o l l w i t z s c r a t c h e d a n d e n g r a v e d her a r m y of c l a y . w h e r e he w a t c h e s a t u r b u l e n t s p i r a l of p u n i s h m e n t f o r the d a m n e d . We also see qualities of line. p o e t .f o o t e d t r o g l o d y t e s w h o rage into w a r like a m u d s l i d e of revenge. inextinguishable in its fortitude and h u m o r . a n d e n g r a v e r w h o p o w e r f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e d his o w n t e x t s in a d d i t i o n t o D a n t e ' s Divine Comedy. and sweetened the often bleak years with his impractical inventions. B l a k e h a s i l l u m i n a t e d his s a d d e n e d Virgil on the s h o r e s of a d a r k w o r l d . The Circle of the (The Whirlwind 1824 of Lustful Lovers) mm) 143/4 x 207/8i n ( 3 7 4 x 5 3 0 WILLIAM BLAKE . texture. color. Brushed line and wash This is an ink-outlined drawing made with a fine brush on paper with added washes of watercolor The image was subsequently redrawn as a line engraving. w h i c h b y their c h o i c e a n d h a n d l i n g a c t u a l l y b e c o m e the force a n d spirit of e a c h i m a g e . w e f i n d a spiritual v i s i o n . Opposite. a pink-inked cinema wobbles along with string. Misted in translucent layers of paint. m a r k .

Kollwitz survived the two World Wars. and the impact of death and war upon women. British Pen and wash This is a pen-andwatercolor drawing made for a color-platereproduction in an edition of T h e Bystander. who lived in a poor district of Berlin. THE HUMAN CONDITION Scratched lines This is a dry-point etching with monoprint. and the family home.181 KATHE KOLLWITZ German printmaker. Robinson and Kollwitz (above) share almost identical life dates and their work expresses a shared history from opposite sides oftheworld wars. poverty. White marks were made with a dusting of French chalk on the artist's finger to wipe away ink leaving clean metal. Ink rolled over was selectively polished off using a rag. He created sincere. HEATH ROBINSON The Kinecar 1926 103/8 x 15 in (262 x 380 mm) . stoical bemusement. sculptor and draftsman. Heath Robinson shows England in a past era. plodding along with hazy. children. however meager or ridiculous their activity. What remained in scratched grooves printed on damp paper as lines. With masterful gentility. The image was scratched directly onto a metal plate. humor by making his characters earnest. and clearly focused. and controlled smears on the metal surface printed as tones. and her powerful and sensitive drawings center on nurture. Losbruch (The Outbreak) 1955 20 x 233/8 in (507 x 592 mm) KATHE KOLLWITZ HEATH ROBINSON humorous illustrator and a regular contributor to magazines and journals such as The Sketch and The Bystander.

gel pens) are the most convenient of all materials with which to travel. . fibertips. t w o tourists and their gondolier drifter past m e o n a canal. or put the paper in your pocket instantly without fear of smudging. which can snap or pierce through your clothes. jot notes. 192-93) w e r e b o t h m a d e w i t h a ballpoint. FIBER-TIP: M a n u f a c t u r e d f o r artists a n d d e s i g n e r s in a r a n g e o f w i d t h s . is d e l i v e r e d t h r o u g h a m e t a l t u b e o v e r a t i n y ball bearing. Insensitive t o p r e s s u r e : lines d o n o t v a r y in w i d t h o r t o n e . G E L P E N : P r o d u c e d in b l a c k w h i t e . R O L L E R B A L L : A c o n s t a n t i n k flow 3 . in the studio. aiming for correct outlines would result in drawing too slowly to c a t c h the moment. and in most pockets so I can always record a thought DISPOSABLE PENS QUICK NOTES O n a c o l d day in Venice. or turn into washes and make monoprints if flooded with an alcohol-based substance such as hairspray. T h e r e w e r e c seconds t o snatch this impression b e t w e e n their emergence from one bridge and disappearance b e n e a t h t h e next. The f o u r i l l u s t r a t e d h e r e r e p r e s e n t a basic r a n g e . Lines t h i c k e n as t h e p e n w e a r s o u t G r a n d Canal (see pp.182 GATHERINGS Disposable Pens (ballpoints. W h i t e gel p e n s a r e v e r y e f f e c t i v e o n d a r k papers. a ballpoint will make faint lines. in the car. 7 6 . blob when old. Unlike pencils. shut your book. including l u m i n o u s a n d m e t a l l i c . fine fiber-tip Drawing with a fine fiber-tip pen. So many stores sell them. CHOICES AVAILABLE T h e r e a r e m a n y d i s p o s a b l e p e n s t o c h o o s e from. R e m e m b e r . a n d pressure-sensitive. indent paper. turn the page. they each offer distinct and sometimes unexpected qualities. trusting shape and form to follow. Quick-drying. dark sheen. dropped in your pocket and forgotten till needed. At a time like this. a disposable pen with its clip-on cap goes anywhere. t h e y a r e lightfast. I swiftly focused on gesture. For example. rollerballs. or idea. I keep quantities at home." 1. p e r m a n e n t . build to a rich. c h o o s e p e n s l a b e l e d " p e r m a n e n t " o r "lightfast. these pens enable you to sketch. 4. they can be obtained within minutes. w a t e r . Available in blacks and ranges of colors. B A L L P O I N T : Black a n d b o l d c o l o r s o f f e r d i v e r s e qualities.188-89) and Caravans (see pp. a n d ranges o f colors. Ideal f o r precision w o r k (see p p . if y o u w i s h y o u r d r a w i n g s t o last a n d n o t fade o r b l u r w i t h t i m e a n d e x p o s u r e t o light.r e s i s t a n t .7 7 and 214-15). 2.

crowd of fellow travelers Fast lines These scribbled lines model the mass and shadows of heads belonging passengers packed into the boat.31 . Earlier I had witnessed a crammed en masse in a fleet of hired gondolas complete with musicians and choir.FROMMEMORY Here I used the same fiber-tip pen to compose a scene from memory. not form. Compare this Klee's mules on p. Fast lines focus on action.

184 GATHERINGS The Travel Journal I CANNOT OVERSTATE THE JOY of making a travel journal. pocket notebook and a fiber-tip pen. angles will happen as a matter of course. You will make outlines. all action is in the line of his coat and directed by his nose. Every drawing writes an indelible memory of place. I caught fleeting glimpses of gathered people and solitary souls going about their affairs. Each one was witnessed and drawn immediately from the afterimage of what I had just seen. just draw the action. animate them more. when out drawing. activity. Let the line of the flying coat fly and the hanging arm hang. black. Don't worry about measuring angles. Above all. of course. but they should not be what you dwell on. Movement . Each line acts its part in the narrative. FLEETING MOMENTS Walking through Venice with a small. Push toward caricature and this will draw out of your memory what was most important. focus on the action of the event. However. life will not slow and wait for you to catch it. A curatorial assistant flies to do a chore (right). Exaggeration helps. if a person was stout. No camera can tie you to a time or people in the same way. not its outline. if animated. let it enter the stage and perform. Circular lines buzz around a man puzzling at the end of a train platform (left). You must learn to trust your memory and to draw what impressed you most. make them stouter. and companionship.

The rush of his legs isamplifiedby their blurred lines. eager to herd us all from his house of responsibility. Observation THE TRAVEL JOURNAL The same willowy assistant dashes about his work.185 A large lady is photographed in front of a delicate work of art. I am watched by the aggravated guard. I drew him three times on the same page to catch a range of his physical expressions. In turn. Expression .

Identify the principal character and draw him or her first. I took refuge in a church in Venice. placement. not outline. or bulge. or pushes.186 GATHERINGS Catching the Moment On A BITTERLY COLD November day. Place the person carefully. emotion. He and his simpering assistant would not allow me in. if they are being haughty. focus on action. For example. When your attention has been caught. Here the custodian projects fastidious ownership of his desk and pamphlets by pushing from behind the center of the space and challenging our entry to his image. rather than the works of art they guarded. if they are being devious. pulls. decide how faces and bodies contort. and let every detail speak by its size. and reason for happening. and involvement in the story. flap. and you decide to draw the moment. For example. and there met this sullen custodian. forcing me to remain at the back and look at them. you might place them lower down. Be aware that their placement on the page is part of the narrative. and clothing or bags hang. ACTION AND DETAIL W h e n drawing people. furniture leans. . start by focusing on its action. Here I have recreated my drawing in steps to show you how to set about capturing such a scene. elevate them in the pictorial space.

which is pushed toward us in a gesture of confrontation.187 The custodian Identify your principal character a n d their psychological role in the scene. Here. If drawing a more complex scene. together with any immediate props they are using. D r a w their action. who is largely expressed through the shape and fall o f his raincoat and his way o f using a note pad. continue adding characters. In the final step (left) I reinforced t h e custodian's desk. . I added t h e assistant. a pillar locates t h e scene in a depth o f space. such as the desk and pamphlets seen here. Decide where you will place them o n the paper t o emphasize their action and intent. Decide where t o place them t o emphasize their role. W i t h a few strokes. Draw their action and props. CATCHING THE MOMENT The assistant Identify t h e antagonist ( o r second character) in t h e scene.


where vertical mooring poles give space and pulse to the horizontal speed of water quickly. An imminent deluge of tourists urged me to work catching no more than the skeleton of the view. .Grand Canal T H E CANALS OF VENICE are bustling places full of occupation. and buildings. I developed detailofthis drawing from memory using a ballpoint pen.

Characters in the foreground were drawn first.Crossings DURING THIS RUSH HOUR. Each person was glimpsed in an instant. . then the bridge beneath them. Venetians flow across a stepped bridge and cascade into the streets beyond. To catch characters like this. note only their most essential action and feature. Caricature each person slightly. and drawn immediately from memory. followed by the streets.



quiet afternoon. I used a ballpoint pen to compose a series of scenes.Caravans T H E PARAPHERNALIA O F TRAVEL i s an intriguing part of circus life. . Caravans and other backstage activity convey expectations of energy and repose. and a great subject to draw. I found this circus by chance in the Swiss mountains. Sitting at a distance on a hot.




how the soil is scorched. our companion. learning to draw light out of dark. Look closely at works by many artists and you will see that they have not represented hills. a contemporary environmental artist. JOHN RUSSELL A p o r t r a i t pastelist t o King G e o r g e III o f England. 5 f t x 5 ft 6 in ( 1 5 2 x 1 6 8 c m ) J O H N RUSSELL . t h e first-ever accurate image o f t h e M o o n ' s surface. Richard Long. rivers. when little stirs and empty blue skies offer even less to latch lines to. artists see for themselves that which is momentary and eternal. are the real subjects in great landscape drawings. By drawing such momentous and everyday events. arranging them in perfect circles on the mountainside or in lines drifting out of sight beneath low clouds. and even how the Sun illuminates. or has cracked and fallen under the weight of water. they are the animators of your subject. makes his work by the act of walking. The pastel drawing was constructed from myriad telescopic observations almost 200 years before the Apollo Moon landing. Take chances against the rain and work with the wind or fog. and take bold steps in emulating the swell of clouds and the forces of torrential water. and experiment. It is better to get up before dawn. a n d a n astronomer w h o dedicated 20 years t o studying t h e M o o n . but it can be seen as a lens to our observation of this planet. The forces of nature. Just as NASA photographs of Earth have had a profound effect on the way we view our fragile home.Earth and the Elements I T MAY SEEM PERVERSE to start a chapter titled "Earth and the Elements" with an image of the Moon. speculation. This is the world's first accurate image of the Moon. the face of the Moon. surrounded by the bright instruments of centuries of navigation. Oxford. sunny days. and meteor impacts have scarred. and the sea. In this chapter Moon Pastel 1795 Drawing we experiment with charcoal. t w o e n g r a v e d m a p s k n o w n as The Lunar Planispheres. William Turner is said to have had himself lashed to a ship's mast to comprehend the storm (see p. so J o h n Russell's tour de f o r c e drawing (opposite) was a masterpiece of observation in his time. or the wind carries it away. as opposed the physicality of Earth. England. What they have drawn is the force of nature on these properties: how the wind heaves the night ocean. These conditions are very difficult to express well. Beginners will often choose calm. to be ready to draw the new light as it breaks across the land. 199). It now hangs on the staircase of the History of Science Museum. pages o f softly i l l u m i n a t e d craters and lunar "seas" c o v e r e d in m a t h e m a t i c a l and s h o r t h a n d calculations. H e a l s o p r o d u c e d an a l b u m o f 1 8 0 exquisite pencil drawings. Russell d r e w this. and its draws the tides of the seas. trees. how the mountain cut by ice and rain is now fleetingly lit. a n d a m o o n globe called t h e Selenographia. the sun comes out to blind it. There is a sense of the heroic in drawing outside—we race to catch a form before the tide engulfs it. Weather is essential in all landscape drawing. marking the ground with lines of footprints or by turning stones. It is Earths satellite.

and pioneer ofexpressionism. A hard waxy was drawn across a heavy limestone Varying definitions crayon of lire and depths of tone conspire to give volume. sculptor. Fluid strokes inflate the woman's dress and pin shadows to the ground. the government. Crayon and limestone This is a lithograph. Terrifying waves of merciless nature roar across the paper. T h e ship. serving a prison sentence for his views.198 EARTH AND THE E L E M E N T S Air in Motion THE GREAT INVISIBLE SUBJECT o f these d r a w i n g s is t h e w i n d . seeing how it shakes. distance. painter. and solidity. This wife. Dots and dashes suggest receding trees out of focus. a scratched ghost. Hokusais sedate wind presses reeds a n d the j o u r n e y s o f young ladies. T h e great master of English seascape is c o n d u c t i n g with his graphic energy. is already lost.Through political drawings he fired his sharp wit at the king. and by observing its tides and eddies in our o w n environment. like an umbrella forced inside-out. Below. the bourgeoisie. and the legal profession. speed. Daumier's c a r t o o n shines with the brilliance of his comic memory. and gives motion to each image. undramatic b u t brimming with stylized realism. a sail b r o k e n loose in a stormy marriage. Danger of Wearing Balloon Petticoats UNDATED HONORE DAUMIER . By Turner carries us to the heart of the maelstrom. H O N O R E DAUMIER French satirical cartoonist lithographer. He knew how the world bends and stutters under such gusts. has b e c o m e a hysterical kite. lifts. fluttering heavily. Flapping kimonos and an onlooker turning his b a c k have the magic of a m o m e n t caught. Hazy vertical marks reveal buildings into the mist. we can soon learn to draw its force.

Wind direction wood-block This is a colored To represent the blows lifted flowed wind. wind. into this very as pressed sheet The paper's through own coior is brought banks of mist and fog. painter. T U R N E R British landscape. a n d his b e s t . Ship in a Storm c. H o k u s a i in t u r n has since significantly influenced European art. d e s i g n e r a n d b o o k i l l u s t r a t o r . Hokusai direction (from clothing from has chosen which it the right). 1826 91/2 x 113/4 in ( 2 4 1 x 3 0 0 m m ) J. W . horizontally then and of the it into the stream Plants also bend and flow right to Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 1802 81/2 HOKUSAI KATSUSHIKA x 131/2 in ( 2 1 7 x 3 4 3 mm) . A outline scratched of a skeletal into penciled ship is while and the waves. from left print. leans the whole composition swells around its fateful center.M.W. including being lashed t o a ship's m a s t in o r d e r to study a storm. seascape. TURNER KATSUSHIKA HOKUSAI Prolific J a p a n e s e c o l o r w o o d .b l o c kprintmaker.l o v e dw o r k s i n c l u d e 1 0 0 v i e w s o f M o u n t Fuji and 1 2 v o l u m e s o f Manga. absorbent watercolor and are Stains of splashed. T u r n e r w o r k e d in oils a n d w a t e r c o l o r s a n d s k e t c h e d c o p i o u s l y o n his travels.199 J.i n f l u e n c e d b y examples o f W e s t e r n art obtained through D u t c h t r a d i n g in Nagasaki. Landscape a n d city life w e r e his principal subjects. AIR IN MOTION Pencil and watercolor subdued brushed.M. and history painter w h o s e p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t a b o v e all w a s light. T h e r e a r e m a n y stories o f his p a s s i o n a t e w o r k i n g methods.

T h e very nature of b o t h is turmoil and an interweaving of elements. leaving nothing but a glimpse of moonlight glistening on the froth below. as a subject and second. By contrast. and tossed o b j e c t s — a perfect subject in which artists can forget themselves. Leonardos Cloudburst of Material Possessions is o n e of his m o s t enigmatic and mysterious works. It looks so contemporary. fantasy palaces. composing banks of waves and dense. Then. His subjects include ruins. ink.200 ELEMENTS Storms STORMS CAN BE SEEN and drawn in two ways: first. Opposite. he blanketed the drawing in darkness. An update on biblical showers of fish and frogs. active surfaces of water. marks. He brings us to stare into a place that no sane human would enter. grab their b r u s h .28). lines of rain escorting them to b o u n c e and clatter. drawing was Hugo's principal means o f expression. as a gestural storm on the paper. or charcoal. this is a b o m b a r d m e n t from o u r h o m e s .198) admires the majesty of nature. T h e m e n a c i n g darkness of Hugo's storm b e l o w is so convincing. as if drawn j u s t this year. it is difficult to contemplate its brooding and night-soaked heart. and t h e sea s t u d i e d f r o m his h o m e in Guernsey in t h e Channel Islands. and swim into the page. this is a writer's narrative of terror. EARTH AND THE VICTOR HUGO French novelist and artist (see also p. inks. with a brush. water. D o m e s t i c o b j e c t s we can o w n and name fall from the clouds. h a u n t e d shadows. Le Bateau-Vision 1864 71/2 x 1 0 in ( 1 9 2 x 2 5 5 m m ) VICTOR H U G O . Pen and brush Hugo drew first with pen and ink. In periods b e t w e e n writing. Turner (see p.

a bell. Each item that has crashed from heaven is drawn in such a way that we can feel Leonardo's nib picking it up in the speed of a doodle. Above and below are examples of his mirror handwriting. He was left-handed and wrote backwards in Italian from left to right. a hook. and they passed through private hands for 400 years before becoming widely known. envisioning machines centuries before their making (helicopters and bicycles. for example). together with half the contents of our garage. There is a little magic in recognizing many items from our homes something like a rake. and a wheel. He bequeathed his drawings to a friend. Cloudburst of Material Possessions 1510-12 45/8 x 43/8 in ( 1 1 7 x 1 1 1 mm) L E O N A R D O DA VINCI .LEONARDO DA VINCI Leonardo devised many artifacts of our modern lives. It is interesting to speculate how engineering might have developed if his ideas had been shared with the world earlier Ink and chalk This is a pen and ink drawing with touches of black chalk.

or cityscape. sea-. atmosphere.1638 85/8 x 121/2 in (219 x 320 mm) CLAUDE LORRAIN . She was inspired by her research of aerial plans of London and the story of an alien map butterfly (see caption). watching his hand and eye at work together. and famed for. which he used to unify his compositions. transferred it to a scroll. Claude Lorrain drew directly on location. thick. and mood simultaneously. Drawing with a scalpel. she teased away fragments of paper to illuminate her view. and etcher who lived most of his life in 17th-century Rome. Paler. In a very different work (opposite above). it is the unique calligraphic signature of the place in which we stand. and after tracing her captured line. Even distilled from all other detail. EARTH AND THE Bryan cut the profile of a city. Claude has used a fine nib to delineate segments of land as they recede into space. C L A U D E LORRAIN French classical landscape painter draftsman. a horizon line can trigger our recognition. and across to the right. Over first lines. Clare Bryan took panoramic photographs of the English South Downs. In the lower half he has walked downhill a little. Nature Profiles Opposite below. cooler tones receding into the distance are applied with a brush. and dry marks in the foreground appear to be made with his finger. Whether land-. his unsurpassed handling of light. and we can imagine standing over his shoulder. Views from Velletri c.202 ELEMENTS THE PROFILE OF A HORIZON is a line we immediately recognize and respond to. Claude is distinguished by. rich. made inside a book. rapidly layering contours to shape place. Segments The top half of the drawing is a view as we enter the valley.

source workisilluminatedby standing its lower edge on a CLARE BRYAN . The edges of each here) fade into the solid paper unpopulated with a scalpel landscape. printmaker graphic designer. drawings Ideas of introduction Clare Bryan to research introduced down and led NATURE PROFILES and removal historical plans and aerial growth of London showing its population since Roman times. Her recent paper photographic. 2001 CLARE BRYAN C L A R E BRYAN 3ritish artist. and digital print-based works reflect upon the histories and poetry of "left behind and in-between spaces. and visiting professor at numerous art schools. then hunted destroyed." Cut line This is a small section of a preparatory 5-ft(1.The horizon was drawn with a City Landline 2003 271/2x 59 in (70 x 150 cm) scalpel.203 Scalpel-drawn This book-bound drawing was inspired by the story of a foreign butterfly wrongly to Great Britain in 1912. specialty bookbinder.5-m)scroll. On turning the pages of City. progressively settlement (cropped more and more paper is drawn away to show the expansion of human page of an around the river.

The tip snaps easily to renew a sharp edge if required. The same as above. THICK W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 2 Keep the tape above your drawing. Not to be confused with square conte sticks (see p. Beware of cheap brands selling dyed chalk as compressed charcoal. a rag. THIN WILLOW CHARCOAL: I used a piece like this to make the drawing opposite. a n d p l u m . Essentially. CHALK CHARCOAL: Technically. . maple. MEDIUM W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 5. B u n d l e s o f twigs were traditionally sealed into earthenware j a r s or wet clay and heated slowly and intensely in a fire or kiln. tape. black finish. 162) or graphite (see p. resulting in a pale line. this does not exist.54). Then lift it away. a n d m o r e i n d e l i b l e by soaking it in linseed oil. leaving u n d e r t r a c e s of first thoughts. Charcoal lifts away from paper easily with the very light touch o f an eraser. It does n o t erase easily. 2. It c a n be m a d e duller. b e e c h . Lines are achieved by d e p o s i t i n g particles in the grain o f paper. Artists have also used lime. Try itworking on big paper covering a wall. Smooth paper accepts few particles. the heel o f y o u r h a n d . 7. cylindrical. fine.m a d e c o m p r e s s e d charcoal. between your middle finger and thumb. Boxes often contain a range of thicknesses to choose for different needs.204 E A R T H AND THE E L E M E N T S Charcoal CHARCOAL IS PRODUCED from wood baked slowly without exposure to air. 1. It allows you greater precision in your mark-making than if you rub away the charcoal with an eraser. R o u g h paper c a n b e loaded. Use any fine-point pen or pencil (I used a ballpoint) to draw a firm line on the back of the Big pieces are perfect for very large-scale drawings—even larger than yourself. As its name implies. they are all intended for fine work. 6. It is also easily erased if the maker of the mark is not happy with the result. only a little thicker. you can p u r c h a s e m a c h i n e . sticky side down. a piece of fresh bread. A great find when available. 4. SQUARE COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Not often sold. and heavier than willow. COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Machine-made. harder line. Willow is the most c o m m o n wood. without touching the surface. it looks gray and feels like chalk. or fingertip. In use. so it chars b l a c k as o p p o s e d to igniting a n d turning to ash. 3 A white line is lifted out by the tape. C h a r c o a l naturally glistens. it is compressed and m o l d e d at high pressure. white line into the blackor grayness of willow charcoal. Slightly dull the tape's stickiness before use t o prevent it from lifting out more than you intend. 3. b l a c k e r . but some specialists stock compressed charcoal in delicate square sticks. vine. blacker. resulting in a stick that gives a blacker. and offers a rich. Hold it over your drawing RANGE AVAILABLE Charcoal (in its several forms shown here) is loved or loathed by the beginner to whom it is often recommended because it produces pleasing results quickly. LIFTING OUT This technique is a very easy method of drawing a crisp. feather. 1 Suspend a length of masking tape. Alternatively. CHARCOAL PENCIL: Types made by different manufacturers vary in quality and density of line.

Use cheaper (less sticky) for lifting out. Layers can be peeled away to refresh its surface. 8 . graphite. sold in several widths. CHARCOAL Lifting out This detail shows an example of where I used the lifting-out technique demonstrated opposite to draw flashes of lightning against rain clouds.205 ERASING Thickly applied charcoal quickly o v e r c o m e s a plastic eraser A w a r m (soft and tacky) putty eraser is more effective. Lift out broader marks with a larger implement. or any other dry media. Here. Use high quality (very sticky) to fix paper to walls and boards. T O R T I L L O N : This is a tight roll of paper used to blend charcoal. MASKING TAPE: An invaluable resource. as is fresh (unbuttered!) bread. Cotton swabs also work. Different tones seen throughout the main drawing on pp. 10. 9. Here we used a ballpoint. PEN: Any fine pen or pencil can be used to draw on the back of masking tape when lifting out. .212-13 were made by altering the pressure applied to the charcoal. I used a plastic eraser effectively on thinly applied charcoal. pastels.

On p p . hazy distance. Don't worry if it is cloudy: clouds add drama and perspective and make good subjects in themselves (see pp. I relaxed my eyes out of focus to dissolve distracting detail into abstract patches of light and darkness. Successful drawings often only suggest the qualities of the scene without overdescribing them.212-13). Then I drew the shape of the tonal patches I perceived. and a cushion in a plastic bag to sit on. This term simply means that as land rolls away into the distance. When you arrive. especially when making first excursions into aerial perspective. our brains search for nameable things and will perceive complete pictures from very little information. it results in flat planes of clutter. Landscape drawings are traditionally arranged in three parts: a detailed foreground. pack your materials (as advised below) and set off for a local view or your nearest arboretum.9 9 we noted that in response to visual stimulus. To experiment with drawing landscapes and the use of charcoal. 9 8 .206 EARTH AND THE ELEMENTS Landscapes TREES ALONE OFFER MARVELOUS shapes to draw. but is often less evocative and engaging. It is the visible effect of the atmosphere between where you stand and what you see in the distance. The long view is hidden behind trees. Ironically. the less you describe. and an abstract. a less distinct middle ground composed of shapes and textures. begin by marking out several small squares on your paper. MATERIALS In this first view there is only a foreground and middle distance. to contain each of your compositions. a reel of masking tape. They are also good markers of receding space. At its worst. Excessive detail can be admired for its skill and achievement. Seeing tones . an eraser your drawing book or a board and paper fixative (or hairspray). the more you encourage the viewer's imagination to join in and see. details blur and colors grow paler and bluer. Pack several thick and thin sticks of willow charcoal.

the trunk of a bare tree. your view is your inspiration. shadows. It is better to give distinctly more pictorial space to one or the other (see below). horizontal regions of grass.207 LANDSCAPES In my second square I explored a simple view contrasting soft. dark trees with bright. and broke a view through the hedge into the distance with a dark sky threatening rain. Remember. This composition turned out a little flat because I have an almost even quantity of earth and sky. Exploring the view Redrawing the scene above. rounded. I have invented drama with diagonals set against each other I tilted the earth. full of information you can use to create what you want! Inventing drama .

s e e k places in light After my first drawing. "Drawing in the round means to literally walk around your subject. so the paper is not made blinding and your hand cannot cast a shadow on your work. This first drawing serves as a process of arrival. I usually begin by making an image of the whole view. taking with you your drawing book and pen. shade out of the glare of the sun. your challenge now is to find a sculptural subject in the landscape.1 5 my first drawing of the whole view of the Tiber led me to see the real subject of the day.104-05). and seeing what the real choice of subject is. and tiller still standing proud. observing it from several views so as to better understand it as a whole. bare ribs. The mud of the tidal shore in Rye. For example.208 ELEMENTS Drawing in the Round WHEN DRAWING IN THE LANDSCAPE." . making the scene below led me to focus on the decaying boat opposite. Circling a subject and drawing it from several views imprints on your memory a better understanding of its three-dimensional form. settling my concentration. Similarly. EARTH AND THE FINDING THE SUBJECT Finding a remarkable subject is even better when you can circumnavigate it in an arena of space. which was the flow of water over rocks. 2 1 4 . on p p . England has embedded within it the decaying skeleton of a burned fishing boat.164-65) and a wire violin (pp. Building on earlier studies of structure in space using shoes (pp. engine. I am then able to home in on what interests me most for further study.

its overall balance. I spent equal time looking at the subject and the paper. careful lines to establish the skeleton that gives this wreck its distinct form. w h e n t h e sea recedes. I looked more boldly at the planes and the dynamic of the sculptural craft My lines have become darker and more forceful as confidence in my understanding of the vessel grew. The outline ties a shape of darkness to the boat like a weight so that it becomes part of its form. Each n e w drawing gives a different insight. I drew with quick. marking straight. looking more at the boat than at the paper From this low position I have emphasized how the boat is swallowed in mud by outlining its shadow on the ground. DRAWING IN THE 1 Here. character. make a series o f drawings f r o m different positions. Overleaf: Decaying Boat 4 . unfussy lines. and structure. W h e n you have found your subject. and the order and shape of its component parts. ROUND 2 In this tail-end view.209 SERIES OF STUDIES This stunning ghost o f a boat comes into v i e w t w i c e a day. 3 This impression notes the angle of the broken boat.



. hot-pressed drawing p a p e r (see pp. m a d e on s m o o t h .Cloudburst THIS STORM DRAWING. L o o k i n g b a c k and forth from the heavens to firmly taped-down paper. was made with gentle but unhesitating s p e e d . I worked quickly to catch and weave the turbulent contrasts of rising wind and approaching water before the drawing could be washed away.20-21) using a thin stick of willow charcoal.


focusing on the river's eddies. shaping the city. . pocket-sized notebook. pulse. and rhythmic detail as it passed through the ancient gully of the city. since ancient times. I drew with a needle-fine fiber-tip pen. black. On the pages of a small.Notes of Force T H E GREAT FLOWING TIBER RIVER has cut through Rome.


The strong diagonal of the composition from bottom left to top right carries the eye through changes of height and focus from the foreground to the mountains beyond.Mountains SITTING IN THE SHADE of a tree on the Greek island of Antiparos. . I used a dip pen and waterproof India ink with brushed watercolor to draw the view.



He made thousands of drawings to chronicle his complex life. which are essentially abstract. Swirling. Afterward. and Aboriginal art. writhing torrents of color. . fictional language. liberating. Artists were given a different tool—a line threaded directly from their subconscious to their hand—and with it they began to map a bold new landscape of marks and concepts that would dramatically and forever change the face of Western art. First marks. sounds. writer and composer who suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and was resident in the Waldau Aslyum near Berne. opposite. Museum of Fine Arts. People are often scared by abstraction and see it as the enemy of figurative art. and emotion. and history. Wolfli was a Swiss draftsman. and it has always been with us. Not everything we know has a physical form in the world. It is actually its foundation and its infrastructure. ADOLF WOLFLI One of the greatest masters of Art Brut. poet. Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape 1915 413/8 x 285/8 in (105 x 72. for example. many nonWestern cultures have highly sophisticated abstractions at the core of their art.8 cm) A D O L F WOLFLI Abstraction is a direct. As you approach the classes in this chapter. The fate of Old World thinking was finally sealed with the brutality of World War I. be brave and enjoy them. abstraction is not so easy to define. don't be timid. it is simply itself. actions. yet my kinship to abstraction is fundamental. His drawings are collected and exhibited internationally and held by the Adolf Wolfli Foundation. My own work is firmly centered in figuration. Internal workings of the mind were suddenly free to find a new language of expression. only rediscovered. The growing rise of Darwinian ideas coupled with Freudian and Marxist perspectives forced Western society to reconsider its origins and future. picturing a stabilized world was impossible and Modernism rode forth with vigor. or gestures. and young children show us that abstract. Indian mandalas. From another viewpoint. spontaneous image-making. belief. and independent means of communication. Outsider artists. Perhaps in Western culture we bred this intuitive freedom out of ourselves in our insistence on complex figuration. It also underpins and gives strength and unity to all figurative work. drawn sound.Abstract Lines T HE DEVELOPMENT OF W E S T E R N abstract art at the beginning of the 20th century significantly paralleled major changes in world thought. Many concepts and feelings can only be expressed through marks. An abstract mark is often a better conductor of a thought or feeling. strike the paper to find form. precisely because it does not have to represent a physical object. I begin every image by feeling its meaning. and poetic myth roar and cascade within his tightly framed pages. expressive marks and shapes are at the core of natural. It was not invented in the 20th century. However. all pictorial representations are abstractions of reality. such as Adolf Wolfli. and have been making abstract drawings for centuries—Japanese calligraphy. From one point of view. direction. Berne.

or. A line can be finished in a second. A Neolithic chalk tablet bears cut lines that were slowly carved. MAMORU ABE Japanese sculptor and installation artist. and plaster in galleries and landscapes. silence. texture. scrolling across the canvas in an intimate crescendo. quoting ink marks on a page. water. brass. sit in silent harmony. Abe's physical drawing is a sculptural installation. iron. Five forged steel shapes. Below. and wood are also part of the work. ice. tone. He travels widely to research ancient sacred sites. Mamoru Abe prepares an image that will appear through the chemistry of iron.220 A B S T R A C T LINES Process and Harmony SOMETIMES A DRAWN LINE sings on the surface of its support. Iron rods in tone. Twombly's mesmeric wax line worked over house paint is like a signature. The Physical Space 1990 3 0 x 30 ft ( 9 1 4 x 9 1 4 cm) MAMORU ABE . It can proclaim mood. and temperature rim of floor space. forged steel. Changes paper. and Assistant Professor of Fine A r t at Fukuoka University. staining redbrown lines into the white surface. Lines. akin to stones in a Zen garden. Damp Japanese paper was laid over carefully arranged iron bars. and sensitivity with its thickness and pressure of touch. as Twombly shows us opposite. Moisture produced rust. This the paper rest within the amplifies framelike of the floor from the ceiling. Abe works with materials such as soil. and patient watching. salt. rhythmically engaged with itself. it can keep reforming through the inherent repetition of a process. and texture their bracing separation reaching between from beneath Pillars of the gallery are made part of this drawing by their inclusion in the paper. Sometimes it smolders like a deep shadow.

and Untitled 1970 Here we might seek to grasp letters in the turning of his line. emotive. evolved a raw. Twombly has language works CY TWOMBLY Contemporary American artist who emerged through the 1950s New York art scene in the heyday of Abstract Expressionism and Action Painting. and American Indian petroglyphs (see p.000-2.Twombly was presented with a Golden Lion award for lifetime achievement.Thesite's purpose is unknown.400BCE 21/4 x 21/4 in (58 x 58 mm) ARTIST UNKNOWN Language Over the course of fifty years. Neolithic Chalk Tablet 3. that challenges the separation of word from image. Many of his graffiti-like combine abstract gestures with statements. close to Stonehenge in Wiltshire. the Babylonian world map. and sensuous drawing from painting. theories suggest astrological observations. burials. This example is one of two chalk tablets found in a Late-Neolithic pit. The central pictorial space is also similarly cut and divided by the considered arrangement of straight lines. and the worship of the sun and ancient gods.241). PROCESS AND HARMONY Cut lines Chalk carves easily. Precise lines suggest the use of a sharp flint The framed rectangle of this image is echoed in that of Abe's installation.England. At the 2001 Venice Biennale.221 ANCIENT CARVINGS Many ancient cultures have made and left behind drawings and texts carved into stones or animal bone. energetic. such as the Rosetta stone. CY TWOMBLY .

and inventive of his time. too.222 ABSTRACT LINES Writing Time SINCE THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY. o f t e n e x p r e s s e d in v i s u a l t e r m s . interpret. beautiful. Hugo. Two Impressions Paper 1853-55 VICTOR HUGO Disk from a Cut-Out . said. Similarity in gritty texture suggests that here. and participate in the composition. The scores are also exhibited in galleries as visual art. Both abstract drawing and composition involve the perfect sequencing of sounds and marks against space and silence.28. opposite. drawing here can b e described in t e r m s o f a G e r m a n philosophical idea a b o u t is t h e i n s t a n t r e c o g n i t i o n t h e p o w e r o f m o m e n t . abstract artists and composers unique. below. Marks across the center appear to be made with his fingers. o r a pattern o f elements s o unified as a w h o l e t h e y c a n n o t b e e x p l a i n e d asa s u m o f parts." An innovator who never fails to surprise. Bussotti. and lifted them away to leave impressions of watery planets and seas. Gestalt. Here he appears t o have saturated the cut-out moon disks with gritty pigment. and let the drying meniscus deposit granules in linear drifts such as we would see in the satellite photographic mapping of rivers. His drawing writes the time of its own physical process by expressing the extreme concentration of the moment in which it was made. broke new ground in the 1950s with graphic scores now considered among the most extreme.28). Gestalt o f an unnameable thing. have striven to break down old pictorial and musical structures to explore new and unfettered modes of expression. A graphic score is a V I C T O R H U G O Hugo's abstract French novelist w h o m a d e m a n y drawings in m i x e d m e d i a ( s e e also p. a configuration. abstract. pressed them face down. "There is nothing like dream to create the future. here he anticipates abstract expressionism by 100 years. music manuscript requiring instrumentalists to improvise. brushed night skies over them with ink then lifted the disks to reveal white moons. he mixed graphite into ink. Ink impressions When drawing nightscapes Hugo often laid paper disks in place of the moon. Texture Compare this drawing to Hugo's octopus on p.

223 W R I T I N G TIME SYLVANO BUSSOTTI Italian avant-garde composer and principal 20thcentury exponent of the graphic score. Following the notes. Bussotti's first mature work. Sound and rhythm This flickering rondo of sound written in pen on a hand-ruled stave can be heard in our imaginations as much as seen. we can feel their rhythm and easily attach sounds to them. a far cry from any recognized musical notation. 1958 SYLVANO BUSSOTTI . This is a page from Due Voci. 70 in relation to Bussotti's clustered notes to the left of his rondo and open space to the right. Compare this work to that of Libeskind on p. His later works become increasingly abstract. Circular Score for "Due Voci" c.

Compositional rightness (see pp. T h e s e p h o t o g r a p h s d o c u m e n t the meditative drawings o f two w o m e n living worlds apart in different countries. Cell Floor With Torn Strips of Cloth 1894 MARIE LIEB . She tore c l o t h into strips a n d used these to draw patterns a n d symbols o n h e r cell floor. and c i r c u m s t a n c e s .224 A B S T R A C T LINES Chants and Prayers WHEN ABSTRACT LINES are organized in repetition. social outcasts. In music it can be felt in the diversity of plainsong and African d r u m m i n g . and sufferers of psychiatric illnesses—who have always existed. Marie Lieb w a s a psychiatric patient in the Heidelberg Asylum. Lieb is one o f countless thousands of "Outsider" artists—diverse individuals including ordinary citizens. for e x a m p l e . they m a k e a visual a n d physical e c h o that t o u c h e s s o m e deep part of the human spirit. It will protect the place from evil and make a pleasing invitation to good spirits. making objects and images outside o f mainstream culture. This takes a form in most cultures. MARIE LIEB Little is known of this w o m a n for w h o m the act of drawing was essential.228-29) has been adjusted with each movement of the rags to draw a cosmos of balance and perfection. d i p p i n g h e r fingers into a pot o f rice flour. Visually. an a n o n y m o u s w o m a n in the southeast Indian state o f Tamil Nadu m a k e s a ritual drawing o n the b r i c k courtyard o f h e r h o m e . In the late 1 9 t h century. Germany. centuries. Torn cloth This is one of two published photographs showing Marie Leib's torn cloth strips significantly placed on her cell floor. it is found in the regularity o f ordered lines or a pattern. O p p o s i t e . cultures. Cloth is the simple instrument with which she has conducted and ordered her universe.

or flowers are marked or arranged on the ground or on the walls of homes. Popular magazines feature new ideas each week and on special occasions there may be contests. lime. lecturer on the subjects of Indian art and Indian women's identity. animals. In daily practice. and in places of worship and celebration.000 images. among others. Motifs are geometrical or based on plants.HUYLER Photographer art historian. women pride themselves on never repeating a design. and birds. and for over 30 years has traveled extensively through the Indian subcontinent creating an edited archive of 200.225 STEPHEN P. Designs and motifs Rangoii (or mandalas) are ritual drawings made by many millions of women across rural India. Materials such as rice flour. cultural anthropologist. Skills are handed down through generations and from friend to friend. Painted Prayers UNDATED STEPHEN R HUYLER .Theseare widely published in journals and are the subjects of international exhibitions. at the University of London and Ohio State University. chalk. Huyler is the author of Painted Prayers.

These two works present complex compositions with differing intensions and methods of making. They each find their pathways and equilibrium in atmosphere and suggestion. Klee's mathematical maze of thinly washed surface resonates with meticulous planning. Catling's works made for international galleries and museums involve drawing as a tool in their development and making. filmmaker Professor of Fine Art. Untitled 2001 2001 153/4x 215/8 in ( 4 0 0 x 550 mm) BRIAN C A T L I N G . and water-resistant layers of spray and enamel paint on thick paper. it is ruled and contained in one dimension by its interlocking ink-lined borders. but similarities in mood. figurative representation—that is. free from the direct imaging of known physical things. Catling's abstract drawings are usually made in series and in parallel to written poetry and sculptural installations. Mixed media This is a collage of torn white and gray tissue paper previously stained with ink. Catling's torn paper shapes and shadows spill light out of their frame like a fractured mirror. Their energy can therefore be a purer expression of an idea or emotion. gold paint and iridescent gouache mixed with water. and choice of hues. With no depth of field. Ruskin School. performance and installation artist. rocks or heads in a subdued atmosphere of dream. Oxford. structure. Oval moons eclipse each other and oscillate between landforms and portraiture. BRIAN CATLING British sculptor poet. and Fellow of Linacre College.226 ABSTRACT LINES Compositions ABSTRACT DRAWINGS ARE LARGELY or entirely free from using the viewer's eye to track and unfold layers of meaning.

We can see some diagrammatic examples of this among the optical illusions on pp. whereas tonal surfaces are perceived more immediately as a whole. drew. watercolor. ruler. Geometric harmony This is a work on paper made with a sharp ink pen. He explained his polyphonic painting as "a harmony of several color voices" searching for a visual parallel to music. Klee painted.31). Kunstmuseum Bern PAUL KLEE . and brush. and wrote copiously about the natures and relationships of color and form. Polyphon Gefasstes Weiss (White Framed Polyphonically) 1930 131/8x95/8 in (333 x 245 mm) Paul-Klee-Stiftung. and might be read as active or passive. It is a geometric harmony of straight lines and tonally graded flat colors that by their arrangement draw our eyes inward to their white center.97-99. Klee also felt that a line represents the passing of time. Line and surface Klee observed the visual capacity of lines to push or pull within an image. philosophized.227 PAUL K L E E Swiss painter and sculptor (see also p.

media. for instance. culture. there is a clear feeling when. b u t e v e r y n o w a n d again you will hit on an arrangement w h i c h appears just. after being continuously adjusted. and put them o n a tray. Seek it when looking at other artists' work and in your everyday environment. but an easy o n e to u n d e r s t a n d . Take. and elements settle in definitive balance. "Whenall pictorial elements come together in pleasing and perfect balance. This balance is what every artist and designer searches a n d feels for when making an image. Feel for it when youdraw. their impact. the late garden designer Russell Page explains. the impression y o u receive from t h e m . There is a single m o m e n t w h e n all proportions. and an apple. M a n y of their inter-relationships will be meaningless. Set up a sheet of paper with a rectangle drawn on it. As y o u m o v e them around. In his b o o k The Education of a Gardener. "I have experimented endlessly with this idea.Thisexercise will help you start. or on a page. a glass. It is found in all great art and design. w i l l c h a n g e w i t h e v e r y r e a r r a n g e m e n t . they are just." ." SETTING UP Justness can be harmonious or deliberately discordant. regardless of style. they reach a perfect position. angles. It is also found in nature. or degree of figuration. a b u n c h of keys. W h e n m o v i n g objects around in your yard. or home.228 ABSTRACT LINES Being "Just" A SENSE OF "JUST" (or rightness) is a difficult concept to explain. s o m e will be more or less h a r m o n i o u s . and ten straight sticks painted black.

56-57). as shown here. horizontals dominate the lower area. painted black. Feel for the rightness of their grouping and their relationships to surrounding spaces. A stick touching the rectangle links the composition to the frame. making the composition seem to float beneath. In the final step (left) there is an even balance. Move the sticks out into the rectangle. fix it with glue. which now becomes a tight frame. Arrange them so they touch or cross in a series of intersecting balances. W h e n the composition falls into place. suggesting a horizon." Move the sticks to find alignments and imagined perspectives. Remember the drawn rectangle is a part of the composition (see pp. . B E I N G "JUST" 1 Arrange your ten sticks in t w o groups of five. 2 3 In the step above.229 WHERE TO START Take ten sticks of equal length. Within a rectangle on a flat sheet of paper set about making a composition using no other rule than a sense of "just. Here. horizontals dominate the top.

Youwill also need spare white paper. hard or soft. which is the shifting. an infinite range of voices and meaning. colors. glue. Cut or torn layers and shapes.. Images and fragments torn from day-to-day life can be brought together to make a chorus of ideas and emotions. Once the ten painted black sticks are set and glued in place.228-29). This principal also applies to three-dimensional drawings such as Gaudi's work with wire and weights on p. colors and textures can be manipulated until their pictorial harmony. and tones. stain and dry a sheet of tissue paper using blueink.230 ABSTRACT LINES Collage H E R E W E EXPERIMENT with collage. or discordance. Returning to Russell Page. he went on to say ". correction fluid or white paint. or even strident.. ready-made depths and surfaces. they become a scaffold for the addition of further textures." overlapping placement of materials on a flat plane. and black ink. found or made items. a compass. harmonious. To prepare for this lesson.69 and Abe's installation on p." (Russell Page) .220. you start composing by adding or subtracting shapes and textures and using colors and tones to achieve the impression you want to m a k e — w h e t h e r dramatic or s u b d u e d . "My understanding is that every object [or shape] emanates—sends out vibrations beyond its physical body which are specific to itself. feels "just" (see pp. Collage offers the artist a liberating palette of SETTING UP This lesson in collage is a direct continuation of the compositional lines made in the previous class. scissors.

Glue them in place once they feel "just" Translucent circular disks of tissue paper give color tone. Obscuring the blue disks.The single disk that is folded with its straight edge facing up appears heavier than those that are flat. In the last step (left). they deepen pictorial space. four circles of blue tissue paper. draw. and with a compass and scissors. COLLAGE 1 Regular-sized pieces of white paper are moved over the surface to disrupt the even lines. Cut six small rectangles the same proportion as your whole image.228) in front of you. This can also give a sense of fragmentation or punctuation to the composition.231 WHAT TO DO Lay the final step of the previous lesson (p. and shadow to thepicture. correction fluid and ink marks add further dimensions. then cut out. solidity. . 2 3 Torn white paper moved over the surface adds masks of rough-edged irregular volume.


emotion. . A MODERN JAPANESE meditative art form inspired by the teachings of Yamaoka Tesshu (1836-1888).Zen Calligraphy HITSUZENDO." [Tanchu Terayama. is the practice of Zen through the calligraphic marks of a brush dipped in carbon ink. and expectation. Hitsuzendo drawings aspire to "breathe with the energy and vitality of eternal life" achieved through "a state of no mind—beyond thought. Zen Brushwork].

Nocturnes IN THIS QUARTET of semi-abstract drawings made with India ink. I flicked spatters of ink and rubbed the paper with a wet and a dry brush to achieve these effects. . Lines made with a steel dip pen take on a scratchy nervousness. These vibrate against washes of shadow and pitch-black mass. discord is balanced against rhythm to create mood.





Star Wars. a Catherine wheel of drawn sparks spiraling around the quietly resolute saint. all of which originated as hundreds of drawings. Lord of the Rings. . Depictions of God or of gods in the contexts of daily life. and damnation are found in most world faiths. or strange. Reading the place name I momentarily glimpsed an alternative meaning. Perhaps the Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 1485 121/4 x 9 in (312 x 230 mm) MARTIN SCHONGAUER most important conclusion in this final chapter is to advise you to develop your skills in parallel with the joy of your unfolding imagination. a human-animal mix that implies this could MARTIN SCHONGAUER German painter and engraver who settled to work in Colmar Alsace. and the faces of God have for centuries given artists a feast for the extremes of their imagination. We watch with captivated pleasure movies such as The Fly. I was on a train passing through Nuneaton. Fantasy is most successful when founded on strong and familiar visual logic. Humans are equally troubled by the imperceptibly small and the enormous. England.247. Schongauer is best known for his prints. In the Christian churches of Europe. wings. we select details of animals farthest from ourselves and that are widely thought disturbing—reptilian and insect features. and the Alien trilogy. in the cracks of walls. angels. We love our fear of the hybrid—ideally. We then add substances we dislike: unidentified fluids. for example. thousands of paintings. look for images in the folds of clothing. Monsters take advantage of both. Throughout this book images are presented to excite and surprise and drawing classes created to increase your confidence. Here. scales. The salvation of heaven and terrors of hell are represented equally—enough to make any sinner shudder. Feeding this demand. and deep fur—and we alter their scale. beasts. a collaboration between the two will ensure that your drawings glow with originality. movie studios now brim with as many monsters as the visual art of the Medieval and Renaissance Church. paradise. and stained-glass windows deliver powerful visual sermons to the once-illiterate populace. Be inspired by the irrational comedy of word association or puns. aliens. To learn to flex your imagination. For example. which were widely distributed and influential in his time. or in smoke. Neither should be slave or master. serpentine tails. our literate and more secular Western society still hungers for another world and to ravenously indulge its fascination for the marvelous. Images we are now surrounded by bear testimony to the power and resourcefulness of their collective imagination. our eye circulates around a flutter of leather and scaly wings. Today. When creating monsters.Gods and Monsters OUR SACRED AND SECULAR need to visualize demons. sculptures. happen to us. feathers. which is to have eaten a nun—it inspired the drawing on p. impossible.

Other drawn versions of this image are more savage and frightening. barren land rising like MYRIAD CHAINS RUN THROUGH ART HISTORY. Aquatint Goya has drawn a learned man as an ass.240 GODS AND M O N S T E R S Marks of Influence marking the influence of one artist upon another. below. rushing.30. Paul Thomas's studies of Picasso and Twombly can be traced directly. Compare his dark. Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 1799 81/2 x 6 in (218 x 154 mm) FRANCISCO DE GOYA . Opposite. F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A Spanish court painter printmaker and draftsman. Francisco de Goya was a master of borrowing. such asinine behavior can be hereditary. vanity. to Picasso's similarly tight. The high. Opposite below. portraits. and church murals. This act defines the vision and continues the line of spirit guides. The title "And So Was His Grandfather" adds that should we not already know. Visions experienced in front of the drawing sometimes instruct the making of a new one. He would be graceless if he stood. In this ass. This continuity enriches the making of art and our heritage. Los Caprichos. In this softer aquatint he poses for his portrait Textured background The aquatint process has been used to great effect in making a gritty toned background. a wave to join Achilles' chase of Hector. Goya's plainly textured gray background pushes back the space behind the illuminated simply subject. Pictorially. Goya later recorded the horrors of Napoleonic occupation. his lover a dog. which can swamp the subject Here. crammed tightly at his desk. a Shoshone seeking guidance and power meditates at the sacred site of a petroglyph. They depict as if by lamplight the devil and witches. Saturn devouring his son. hags. we see the international icon of stupidity.220. and follies of court through copious graphic works including his best-known prints. Near the end of his life he made his "Black Paintings" on the walls of his home. Violent white marks symbolizing Achilles' rage resonate with the energy of Twombly's script on p. quoting great paintings and popular culture to add cunning twists to his satires. Many students leave white backgrounds in their work. plain wall suggests a blinkered view of nothing. deranged masses. reading from a book of asses. and exposed the superstitions. The well-dressed mule is cumbersome. and men clubbing each other to death. noisy seascape on p. it allows the mule to stand forward. whose impassioned work begins with light tapestry cartoons.

or of the water Chipped image This is a sacred creature of the sky chipped onto rock at Dinwoody Lake. Wyoming." Each sacred image drawn into rock belongs to one of three realms in the Shoshone world: the realm of the sky. meaning "place of power. values. by a supplicant in a trance of meditation. A vivid spectrum of energized graphite marks and a masterly composition give this drawing vitality and speed. It was made with a sharp implement.241 MARKS OF INFLUENCE PAUL T H O M A S British contemporary artist whose epic graphic work questions and reflects upon issues of European identity. Graphite marks Here Achilles chases Hector around the walls of Troy before killing him. Wind River Reservation. ideals. and personal and social struggles. Thomas conducts his explorations in the mine of Greek and Roman mythology. Simple wall stones cleverly state their cold solidity while also fading from our attention as the scene roars by. of the earth. Parallel lines within the body of the figure are likely to denote power. perhaps a stone. Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range UNDATED ARTIST UNKNOWN . Achilles Chases Hector 1996 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) PAUL THOMAS SHOSHONE PETROGLYPH The Shoshone people of Wyoming name petroglyph sites Poha Kahni. White marks like flashes of light are cut though graphite with an eraser to reveal the paper beneath.

and 16th-century Holland. The Eye Like a Strange Mounts Balloon 165/8 x131/8in (422 x 332 mm) ODILON REDON 1882 Toward Infinity . Techniques demonstrated on pp. If it were to turn and stare this way. and scuttle over all known reality. Redon explored the darker side of the human imagination through symbols and mysticism. crawl. They float toward us like a horrid visitation. graphic artist. Compare worked textures throughout the whole of this image to those found throughout Anita Taylor's charcoal drawing on p. the writers Joris-Karl Huysmans and Stephane Mallarme. We may feel safe so long as the eye looks heavenward. below left. Lifting out Fine strings of the hot-air balloon appear dark against the sky and light against the balloon. and writer In contrast t o the light and visual accent of contemporary Impressionism. as he did the grass. Children are also delighted to invent a monster or ghoul. Our subconscious can be drawn with pleasure and ease.242 MONSTERS of the unknown is a classical and constant occupation for the artist. ODILON REDON French painter draftsman. which sometimes—half-dressed and carrying a familiar trophy— stride. we see parallel slanting pale marks that might have been made with fresh bread—a very effective eraser used before the wide availability of rubber or plastic. The monsters of Bosch grew from his observations of beggars going about their trade in 15th.204-05 will enable you to produce a similar effect of white lines shining out of dark charcoal. H e was influenced by his friends. Redon's eyeball balloon rises up. 115. Here we see how he evolved their injuries into new limbs and warped proportions. the shock would be extreme. T H E EXPLORATION AND DEPICTION Hauntings Grandville has drawn a scurrying zoo of half-known demons and animals that appear to have been stolen from the glass eye of the microscope. to the right of the balloon. GODS AND Erasure In this charcoal drawing. Redon lifted them out with some sort of eraser. lifting its cranial passenger over a seascape of repose.

Smiling. Two Monsters UNDATED 45/8 x61/2in (117 x 163 mm) HIERONYMUS BOSCH . and he illustrated the Fables of La Fontaine and Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe. 1840 61/8 x41/2in ( 1 5 5 x 1 1 5 mm) GRANDVILLE HIERONYMUS BOSCH Dutch painter Bosch's highly detailed iconographic religious panel paintings. This image is from one of Grandville's best-known publications. grimacing. sucker-faced creatures dash and trundle toward it They are drawn solidly to emphasize their earthbound weight. Quill and ink This typical Bosch monster is a quill drawing in bistre ink The phrasing of light and contour here is masterly. Last Judgment. Garden of Earthly Delights. The quality of the line is therefore uniform throughout. include The Haywain. teeming with the exhilaration of unrestrained fantasy. Les Animaux (1840). Comic little headbands of waving hair express more hysteria than fear. which is still available today. Light shines from the right. Most of his work is in the Prado Museum. and Ship of Fools. Madrid. His other major works include Metamorphoses du Jour (1828). HAUNTINGS Engraving This is an engraving made so that Grandville's original drawing could be reproduced.243 J E A N I G N A C E ISIDORE GERARD ("GRANDVILLE") French graphic artist and political satirist. A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects c.

the dome of the Vatican. Grimes' delicately cavorting figures dive into and consume each other. wraps and coils its lithe body ready to strike or whimper at a touch. and mist-swathed land. pinnacled. remembering the cavernous. but in the seductive landscape of Leonardo da Vinci's oil painting Madonna of the Rocks. Opposite. Two previously drawn faces become humorous antagonists to the beast. as we might expect. St Peter's square. topple. and dog. Michelangelo's dragon. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI Florentine painter sculptor. she formed a series of ghostly pale. In her studio. Chalk and ink A quill dipped in brown ink was worked over black chalk on this reused sheet. and dying slaves. snake. phrased over the contours of form and bridging darker areas of shadow. and engineer Among Michelangelo's great works are the painted ceiling and altar wall of the Sistine Chapel. muscular tension is carved out of the paper using layered. David. and marble sculptures including Pieto.244 GODS AND MONSTERS Convolutions THESE CONVOLUTED DRAWINGS were made almost 5 0 0 years apart. Dragon 1522 10 x 133/8 in ( 2 5 4 x 3 3 8 m m ) MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI . A snake eating its own tail is a universal image of the eternal and continuous. architect. gamboling copulations. poet. lion. and play with its perfection and meaning. Scaly. However. They share between them the pleasures of inventing a hybrid beast. Grimes found the genesis of her beast not among animals. His entire drawing wrestles and weaves the viewer's eye into its retracting folds. hatched lines. a stunning hybrid of a swan. below. sometimes artists purposefully tie a knot in the configuration to disturb.

each one iridescent and crumbly like a weathered while oyster. details evolved slowly using a drier brush. The image formed directly without first making a pencil outline. London. The large space around figure has been cropped Grimes drawings to flatten presses them.245 CONVOLUTIONS O O N A GRIMES British contemporary artist and professor of printmaking at the Ruskin School. It is one of a series of fragile earth figures inspired by rocks. Ink-wash delicately gouache (smooth) and gouache brushed drawing on This is a and was hot-pressed Shadows The dark shadow of the Other the ink-wash earth was made with a brushstroke of ink laid into wet paper. London. Grimes exhibits internationally and features in the collections of the New York Public Library and the Victoria and Albert Museum. and the Camberwell and Slade Schools of Fine Art. Oxford. her under heavy here. How Clever of God #84 2002 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) O O N A GRIMES . boards finished paper.

return them to their pointed shape. Brushes vary in size. liners. Always clean them thoroughly. It has exceptional painting characteristics. S Y N T H E T I C . ideally suited to drawing. 10. 3. Shorter brushes designed for other purposes run out of ink more quickly. drawing tool extending the arm. and wrist into a fluid and soft touch. SYNTHETIC-HAIR LINER: This brush gives a medium line and is firm with a spring to the touch. 7. needle-sharp center of kolinsky red sable hair. This design supplies the fine tip with a long continuity of ink 5. which holds long sable hair This brush holds large amounts of ink for long lines and points well for detailed work. it has good wash capabilities. JAPANESE PAINTING BRUSH: Made with natural hair. washes.246 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brushes T H E BRUSH IS A VOLUPTUOUS and delicate weights. giving a variety of lines.H A I R RIGGER: Made with long synthetic hair for fine-point work It has a good ink-holding capacity and is slightly more resilient than sable hair with more "snap. It is capable of very fine pointing. thicknesses. It is still relatively small in the total range of Japanese brushes. and texture. LARGER JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with natural hair held in a plastic ferrule on a bamboo handle. SMALL JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with sable hair. SABLE-HAIR RIGGER: Made with very long kolinsky sable hairs. ink-laden tip allow an expression that is beyond the linear. The living marks of a wet. SYNTHETIC-HAIR S W O R D LINER: A lining brush with high ink-holding capacity and a fine point.H A I R LINER: Very responsive oriental-style liner This to the touch. it has good inkholding capacity and is very flexible. Some are bold. 1. and never leave them standing on their tip in a jar of water. This brush has a broad wash capability and can achieve a very wide range of marks. 2. SQUIRREL-HAIR S W O R D LINER:This brush has a maximum ink-holding capacity and an extremely fine and flexible point 8. this brush has a soft drawing tip and small ink-holding capacity. Suitable for wash techniques but also capable of very fine detail. all perfect for drawing and." 6. others are as fine as a whisker with a gentle touch. SABLE-HAIR LINER: Made with ordinary sable hair surrounding an extralong. SYNTHETIC-HAIR BRUSH: Bound in a synthetic ferrule with good inkholding capacity and good spring and control. flowing. POINTED SQUIRREL-HAIR MOP: With a synthetic quill ferrule and extra high inkholding capacity. materials. with a fine point for delicate work 4. and hold prodigious weights of ink or paint. shape.Theyhold plenty of ink and make continuous. Some used by master calligraphers are 2-3 in (5-8 cm) in diameter 11. and very fine lines. and effects. 12. dense. The brushes shown here are a mixture of This is a selection of riggers. and has a fine tip for detailed work. making rt ideally suited to Japanese painting and small-scale calligraphy. How you care for your brushes will determine how long they last. Soaps purchased from good art supply stores will gently cleanse particles of pigment that become trapped in the hairs or ferrule. between them. and writers. 13. Slightly less flexible than the squirrel-hair sword liner 9. M T RA S AEIL . P O I N T E D T R A D I T I O N A L WRITER: The ferrule is made from a small duck quill. L A R G E R S Y N T H E T I C . fingers. the very opposite of pencil or silver point.


and to make pools and stains o n the page.248 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brush Marks A S I N G L E BRUSH will m a k e an e n o r m o u s range of m a r k s depending u p o n the width. It also depends on the angle at w h i c h it is held. w i t h m y face close. softness. and above all w h e t h e r the b r u s h is saturated with pigment or relatively dry. splashes. A single brush has almost balletic potential to draw fine or undulating lines and curves. SETTING UP Blowing spots T h e s e t h r e e s p i d e r y c r e a t u r e s (above right and below) w e r e m a d e by d r o p p i n g s p o t s o f ink f r o m a b r u s h o n t o t h e p a g e and.) I . b l o w i n g h a r d o n t h e m several t i m e s t o disperse t h e ink ( c l o s e y o u r eyes if y o u t r y this.35) into two tablespoons of water in a shallow. the speed of the s t r o k e . I rubbed a block of Chinese ink (see p. Here I drew with a soft Japanese painting brush (see pp. unglazed earthenware dish. and spatters. length. the degree of pressure applied. and type of its hairs. the texture and a b s o r b e n c y of the paper ( w h i c h m a y be d a m p or dry). I had left the end of the ink block in the water overnight to make it easier to dissolve.246-47).

t h e effects of the b r u s h r u n n i n g o u t o f ink. w e see fine lines and s p o t s . b l e e d i n g f r o m strokes b e l o w left. a n d b r u s h . BRUSH MARKS Wet and dry strokes A m o n g these concentrated drawings ink made into with the same w a t e r y lines. a n d t h e w a y it d i s t r i b u t e s w h e n t h e b r u s h is d a b b e d o n its s i d e .249 Gritty texture T h e details o f t h e largest creatures b e l o w and opposite s h o w the granular texture of Chinese b l o c k ink. .

I borrowed small and fragile specimens from the University Museum of Natural History.Monsters THESE LITTLE CREATURES o f i n k and i n v e n t i o n were b o r n out of animal and bird studies. Oxford. . until we look again. and used their detail to draw new creatures that might at first seem familiar.


Here. . formal composition. I found relationships between all four paintings in terms of shapes. Isidore. and narrative twists.Goya's Monsters W I T H CUNNING BRILLIANCE. Among his "Black Paintings" in the Prado Museum. showing us that gallery study is not just for the student and beginner. Goya's witches have been literally drawn and evolved out of the shapes of Murillo's prophet and pilgrims. They are a pair and hang opposite each other. Through studying and drawing these great paintings I have discovered that they are based on a pair of similarly long. thin works made by Bartolome Murillo in Seville about 120 years earlier. are two long. thin works titled The Witches' Sabbath and The Procession of St. Madrid. With further research. two of my own drawings show you how Goya's devil (below) is based on the shape of Murillo's boy on a horse (top right). Goya often invented his monsters out of characters seen in other painters' works.


Sometimes drawings come out of nowhere and surprise even the artist.Consumed THIS IS A SERIES OF CARTOONS I m a d e s o m e years ago. drawn rapidly and with great joy. . little comments on politeness and sexual politics.


A f u l l . F r o m t h e G r e e k kallos. so t h a t ink r e m a i n s o n l y in t h e g r o o v e s o f s c r a t c h e d lines. Conservation grade D e s c r i b e s a range o f materials t h a t d o n o t d e c a y and cannot be broken d o w n by insects. 2. t h e l i g h t is b e h i n d h i m o r her. t h e field is t h e a p p a r e n t a n d b e l i e v a b l e space inside t h e p i c t u r e . m e a n i n g "beauty".The plate is t h e n r o l l e d w i t h ink a n d polished with a rag. W o r d s o r symbols are Cold-pressed papers P a p e r manufactured with a "not" o r " r o u g h " surface. Acid-free paper P a p e r w i t h a neutral p H t h a t will n o t darken o r d e t e r i o r a t e excessively w i t h age. Engraving 1. Bracelet shading C u r v e d parallel lines t h a t f o l l o w t h e c o n t o u r s o f f o r m . Bleed T h e e f f e c t o f t w o w e t colors running into one another o r o n e color applied t o a w e t surface a n d a l l o w e d t o d i s p e r s e . Composition T h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e p a r t s o f an i m a g e t o m a k e u p the whole. a n d attaches t h e m t o t h e s u p p o r t — f o r example. pastel. for example. A l s o called m u s e u m g r a d e . Erasure T h e a c t o f r e m o v i n g a n i m a g e f r o m a surface. F r o m t h e French v e r b coller. Fixative lightly glues t h e d r a w i n g t o t h e surface o f t h e p a p e r t o p r e v e n t smudging. r a t h e r t h a n r e c o r d e d o n a film o r plate. Camera obscura A d a r k e n e d c h a m b e r i n t o w h i c h an i m a g e o f w h a t is o u t s i d e is received t h r o u g h a small o p e n i n g o r lens a n d f o c u s e d in natural c o l o r o n a facing surface. linseed oil o r egg y o l k Caricature A representation Contour line A line t h a t f o l l o w s t h e s h a p e o f a surface. It can also seal a silver p o i n t d r a w i n g t o p r e v e n t t h e oxidization (browning) o f t h e Drypoint A d r a w i n g is s c r a t c h e d directly o n t o a m e t a l plate w i t h a m e t a l t o o l h e l d like apen. L a t e r it c a m e t o m e a n h i g h l y c o n t r a s t e d light effects. Air brush A mechanical. in w h i c h parts o f an image are depicted v e r y brightly and dramatically against d a r k n e s s . s u c h as a d r a w i n g o r painting. a n d g r a p h i t e . as o p p o s e d t o t h e s t r a i g h t e d g e o f a sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has b e e n machine-trimmed. Blotting T h e use o f a b s o r b e n t m a t e r i a l t o lift a w a y excess liquid. n e w s p a p e r cuttings. T h e m o v e m e n t was started by a g r o u p o f French artists including H e n r i Matisse. Contre jour A F r e n c h t e r m m e a n i n g " a g a i n s t day. Aerial perspective The effect of the a t m o s p h e r e o v e r distance as it lightens t o n e s a n d cools c o l o r s progressively t o w a r d t h e horizon. tapestry. in w h i c h t h e subject's distinctive features o r peculiarities are deliberately exaggerated f o r c o m i c o r g r o t e s q u e effect. Ferrule T h e s h o r t m e t a l t u b e t h a t s u r r o u n d s a n d g n p s t h e hairs o f a p a i n t b r u s h a n d fixes t h e m t o t h e brush handle.c e n t u r y painting m o v e m e n t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e use o f b o l d ." " N o t " p r e s s e d p a p e r is r o l l e d a s e c o n d t i m e w i t h o u t blankets t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders t o p r o d u c e a s m o o t h e r b u t still slightly t e x t u r e d s u r f a c e . See also Hotpressed papers. written with a broad-nibbed pen o r brush." D e s c r i b e s a p a i n t i n g in w h i c h t h e light s o u r c e is b e h i n d t h e s u b j e c t F o r e x a m p l e . S o m e t i m e s f e r r u l e s a r e m a d e o f plastic o r o t h e r materials. A l s o called r i n g l e t shading. Field In a t w o ." It w a s first given t o t o n a l paintings m a d e in o n e c o l o r — s e e Grisaille. T h e b l a n k e t s g i v e t h e p a p e r its rough texture o r "tooth. s u c h as a s c r e e n . A p o t e n t i a l l y h a r s h m e t h o d o f p r o d u c i n g t o n e s in a d r a w i n g . In t h e W e s t p e n calligraphy is u s e d t o c r e a t e f o r m a l a n d d e c o r a t i v e t e x t s . a n d given t h e n a m e Sho. t o g e t h e r w i t h a t h i c k felt b l a n k e t T h e w h o l e s a n d w i c h o f l a y e r s is t h e n railed t h r o u g h t h e press t o m a k e a p r i n t D r y p o i n t is a very portable and immediate m e t h o d o f printmaking. usually at a n a c u t e angle t o t h e s u r f a c e . 2. w h e n v i e w e d f r o m a specified point. p r a c t i c e d meditatively w i t h a brush. Eye level T h e i m a g i n a r y h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e a t t h e s a m e h e i g h t as t h e a v e r a g e p e r s o n ' s eyes. A " s h a l l o w d e p t h o f field" m e a n s t h e p i c t u r e appears t o have only a shallow s p a c e inside i t Diffuse T o s o f t e n o r m a k e less brilliant. Blending M e r g i n g t w o o r m o r e neighboring colors o r tones t o g e t h e r using a tortillon. Deckle edge T h e i r r e g u l a r e d g e o f a s h e e t o f m o l d . a r e r o l l e d t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders.m a d e paper. Binder A substance t h a t holds particles o f p i g m e n t t o g e t h e r in a paint f o r m u l a t i o n .d i m e n s i o n a l i m a g e . T h e name " n o t " simply refers t o t h e fact t h a t t h e cylinders are n o t h o t in t e m p e r a t u r e . chance mark-making. Cartoon 1. Anamorphic distortion Stretching an i m a g e across a p i c t u r e surface so t h a t it can o n l y b e u n d e r s t o o d . Crosshatching Parallel lines d r a w n across o n e a n o t h e r at right angles. R e m b r a n d t is a great master o f chiaroscuro.m e d i a d r a w i n g . C o p p e r p l a t e engravings w e r e widely used t o r e p r o d u c e images b e f o r e p h o t o g r a p h y . o r o t h e r (usually large) w o r k — s e e Pouncing. Fixative Liquid acrylic resin a n d l a c q u e r t h i n n e r usually a p p l i e d as a n a e r o s o l s p r a y m i s t t o t h e surface o f a d r y . w h e n a p e r s o n is p a i n t e d standing a g a i n s t a w i n d o w . charcoal. In t h e Far East calligraphy is a highly r e s p e c t e d a r t f o r m . T h e prints t a k e n from t h e s e plates o r blocks. p h o t o g r a p h s . pressurized t o o l used f o r spraying fine mists o f s m o o t h c o l o r P i g m e n t is d e l i v e r e d b y a j e t o f air n o t t h e bristles o f a brush.256 GLOSSARY Glossary Accidental drawing Random. A g e n e r a l t e r m t h a t describes t h e various processes o f c u t t i n g a design i n t o a plate o r b l o c k o f m e t a l o r w o o d . o f t e n d i s t o r t e d forms and vivid colors. It is p u t o n a Body color See Gouache. U s e d as a c o r r e c t i n g device o r pictorial game. o r will o n l y a p p e a r n o r m a l . Collage C o l l e c t e d materials such as c o l o r e d p a p e r s . D a m p p a p e r is laid o n t o p . R o u g h p a p e r is m a d e b e t w e e n t w o blankets t h a t . Calligraphy Beautiful h a n d w r i t i n g . Fauvism A n early 2 0 t h . Also called accelerated perspective. m e a n i n g " t o stick" Dry media M e d i a t h a t a r e n o t w e t o r o i l y — f o r e x a m p l e . and readymade objects arranged and stuck o n t o a flat surface. A i r b r u s h e s are u s e d in t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c o m i c s . A l s o c a l l e d t h e h o r i z o n line. Chiaroscuro A 1 7 t h . p r i n t i n g press face up.s i z e d r a w i n g m a d e for t h e purpose o f transferring a design t o a painting. Camera lucida A n optical device t h a t p r o j e c t s an image o f an o b j e c t o n t o a plain s u r f a c e so t h a t it can be traced.c e n t u r y Italian t e r m m e a n i n g "clear-obscure. A h u m o r o u s d r a w i n g o r parody.

The surface can be reloaded or redrawn with more medium. Picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. but each print will be unique. or plastic surface. and masking off areas of a drawing that the artist wishes to keep untouched by media applied above or beside the tape. and orientation of the image. are painted in grisaille and appear to be made of stone. or even a beam of light. glossy. including Max Ernst used frottage in their work. and that will "escape" or change over time. oil-. Alternatively. glass.The degree to which detail is defined. the surface of the stone is made wet before being rolled with a thin film of oilbased printing ink. or canvas and allowed to dry before an image is drawn or painted. purpose. ink. mineral. format" (abbreviated to "portrait"). and is also used as a size. Fugitive A term given to a pigment that it is not stable. Giotto's Virtues and Vices in the Arena Chapel. Objective drawing Refers to the concept of objectivity. Paper is laid on top and a rapid drawing is made on the back of it The paper lifts away to reveal the image on its other side. aiming to represent facts rather than an interpretation of the subject. which has a rough surface). It is a strong adhesive. the finely ground particles of plant. materials that produce marks on a surface. Grisaille is occasionally seen in church stained-glass windows. and translucent paper—a delicate material used in collage. Ground A wet solution usually of gouache or gesso (chalk and animal glue) brushed onto paper board. Plumb line A line from which a weight is suspended in order to determine verticality or depth. It can be used with any wet media to isolate or protect parts of an image from further Optical blending See Pointillism. which give it a smooth surface (as opposed to cold-pressed paper. oil-based printing ink is rolled evenly onto a smooth metal. F o r m a t T h e size. sticky paper tape. graphite. with the area beneath remaining unaffected. This effect emulates what we see in real life. or synthetic material that are suspended in a medium to constitute paint. multiH u e A term for a color. Masking fluid Clear or opaque latex fluid developed for watercolor painting." A piece of paper is placed on top of an object or rough surface. Dark tones are laid down first then an eraser or masking tape is used to lift away particles of the drawing media to reveal the lightness of the paper beneath. Lightfast A term confirming that pigment in the product will not fade with exposure to light. Usually an academic drawing observed from life. or for wrapping and protecting a finished piece of work. white. rock. Rubens used grisaille to paint small images for engravers. work. Monochrome Usually refers to a black. upright images are called "portrait which is used as a binding agent in many liquid media. Lifting out A method of creating highlights and mid-tones in a drymedia drawing (such as charcoal or graphite). A small image might be described as small format Horizontal images are often said to be "landscape format" (abbreviated G u m arabic The natural to"landscape"). Impressing Stamping or printing. . It is then peeled away. but in picture-making it is as important as the objects/subjects themselves. Grisaille A painting in gray or a grayish color Often made by students as a tonal exercise.The paper then bears a crayon impression or copy of the surface that was underneath it A number of Surrealists. 2. Hairspray is an effective and inexpensive alternative. of the ingredients in inks and watercolors. to give the illusion of depth and distance. Paper is then pressed against the stone to take a print. F o r m The outer surface of a three-dimensional object. A point of interest in a drawing. and it has a history in enamel work. then rubbed over carefully but vigorously with a crayon. Artists can paint freely over dry masking fluid. pastel. and gray drawing. The ink attaches to the oil-based image and is repelled by the wet stone. This method incorporates the excitement of accidental and unpredicted marks. it is the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work Pigment Any substance used as a coloring agent—for example. Focus 1 . enabling them to stick to paper It also helps to maintain a stable dispersion of pigment particles in water as the film of a wash dries. or can be otherwise used to create an image—for example. Foreshortening A method of depicting an object at an angle to the surface of the picture. shape. lifting out charcoal and other dry media. This may be disregarded in real life. used for fixing paper to walls and boards. and by artists representing stone sculptures in a painting. Pointillism A technique of using points or dots of pure color in such a way that when the picture is viewed from a distance they react Masking tape Invaluable. Also refers to an additive used to control the application properties of a color Golden Section A proportion in which a straight line or rectangle is divided into two unequal parts in such a way that the ratio of the smaller part to the greater part is the same as that of the greater part to the whole. Padua.while secretion of the acacia tree. It improves the bonding properties Frottage A French term meaning "rubbing. Gamut A complete range or extent Glassine A type of thin. or a family of colors. Lithography A method of printmaking in which a drawing or painting is made directly onto a smooth slab of particular limestone or a metal plate using an oilbased crayon or ink. Medium A generic term for art Key A painting is said to be "high key" when the colors and tones are bright and "low key" when they are dark or somber The term is also used Gouache Opaque watercolor Also called body color. After several intervening processes. Hatching (cross-) See Crosshatching. so that (using vanishing point perspective) the object appears to change shape and become narrower or smaller as it recedes. to describe a surface to which paint will adhere readily.Theground provides a particular color or texture beneath the image. cadmium yellow hue. or a drawing made in any single color GLOSSARY Linear perspective A form of perspective in which parallel lines are represented as converging.257 metal line. Hot-pressed papers (HP) Paper made using hot cylinders. Monoprinting A direct method of printing in which wet medium (water-. Papercut A type of collage in which flat sheets of paper are cut into an image. or spirit-based) is applied to a surface that is then pressed onto paper and removed to leave a print. Negative space The space between things. Also used by artists' materials manufacturers to indicate the use of a substitute pigment—for example.

and chrysanthemum—which in Chinese tradition are called "The Four Gentlemen. compound of water-soluble pigment. and flowers. creating more vibrant effects than if the same colors were physically mixed together with a brush.Thedrawing is removed. Sfumato An Italian term meaning "smoky. Printmaking The act of making a picture. "Spirits" or "oil" of turpentine refer to the volatile portion used by artists to thin or dilute oil-based paint. Still life A picture composed of inanimate objects such as bowls. Strip Core of a pencil. Zen A school of Mahayana Buddhism that asserts that enlightenment can come through meditation and intuition rather than faith. or the right-hand page in a book. cut-out profile made along every outline of the usually made in black paper image. Support The structure on which an image is made—for example. pencil. plaster or cloth surface beneath. a sheet of paper is placed beneath and pinpricks are Silhouette A flat.258 GLOSSARY together optically. by imposing a grid that is then scaled up to a larger size. or watercolor paint. A term borrowed from the theater. Zen paintings usually depict scenes of nature and plants such as bamboo. Pouncing If a large drawing or design (called a cartoon) is to be Shadow Darkness cast by the transferred to a surface such as a obscuring of light. Serigraphy Silk-screen printing. usually diluted with water and applied with a brush. Viewpoint The position from which something is observed or considered. Spattering A mottled texture produced by drawing your fingers across the bristles of a stiff brush loaded with pigment. paper or canvas. watercolor. giving it a brilliance. plum blossom. or any physical object that can be stamped or pressed onto a surface to leave an impression. Sketch A quick or rough drawing.Technicaldrawing has been example. or wood. orchids. commonly referred to as the lead. tight. Subjective drawing A drawing that expresses the personal view and interpretation of the artist An invented image. in order to flick the pigment onto the image surface. Tone A degree of lightness or darkness. The translucent Tint A color mixed with white. Stippling Applying color or tone in areas of fine dots or flecks. plaster. fruit. wall or tapestry. Scale Describes the size of one element in relation to another Sepia A brown pigment taken from the sun-dried ink sacs of cuttlefish and used to make ink or watercolor The term is now often incorrectly used to refer to brown colors." Applied to the blurring or softening of sharp outlines by the subtle and gradual blending of one tone into another Sgraffito A technique of scratching or cutting through a surface of paint. ." Materials for Zen brushwork include round brushes of varied size. or mark using an inked or pigment-covered surface. meaning objects used in setting up a life model or still life. Alternatively. Squeegee A rubber-trimmed scraper used in the screenprinting process for dragging ink across a surface. Squaring up A method of enlarging and transferring an image from one surface to another. Named paper in place. Pounce (a fine for an unpopular 18th-century powder of charcoal or similar French politician. W e t media Any liquid media— for example. Zen brushwork encompasses calligraphy and painting. Tortillon A short. Vanishing point In linear perspective. Etienne de material) dabbed through the Silhouette (1709-67). glasses. or point on which parallel lines converge to give the impression of receding space. Size A weak glue used for filling the porous surface of wood or canvas in order to seal it. Recto The front or top side of a piece of paper. or the left-hand page in a book. acrylic. Wash A technique using ink. Volume The amount of space occupied by an object or an area of space in itself. pointed roll of white paper that is used to blend dry media. Technical drawing A universal it is often used in conjunction language of lines and measurements with line drawings in pen and that is used to make diagrammatic ink—for images. or pen. Props An abbreviation of the word properties. Zen brushwork This is an oriental meditative art form originating in China and practised for many centuries in Japan. Shade A that is color mixed (or toned) with black Shading A lay term for adding tone to a drawing. in tone running from black to white or vice versa. The crude material is called oleoresin. nature of watercolor allows the white surface of the paper to Tonal scale A scale of gradations shine through. and paperweights. Artists' prints are normally made in multiple. a tightly folded piece of cotton batting can be used for the same effect. pointed instrument used for marking or engraving. ink. whose pinpricks creates a "connect-thepersonal pastime was making dots" replica of the image on the cut-out portraits. evolved by engineers and architects for the purpose of conveying W a t e r c o l o r A painting accurate structural information. such as an inscribed sheet of metal. Although drawings can be made with wash alone. Turpentine A colorless solvent distilled from the resinous sap of pine trees. which are then called editions. fine paper. Single-point perspective The most basic form of linear perspective in which there is only one vanishing point. an ink stone usually cut from slate. using a brush. carbon ink. sometimes drawn from a and leaving only the pricked sheet of shadow cast on a wall. to model areas of light and shade. design. or gouache. Underdrawing A pale preliminary drawing made prior to adding layers of another medium such as oil paint or watercolor Value The extent to which a color reflects or transmits light This is the equivalent of tone in a black and white image. or ceramic glazing to reveal a different color beneath. a point at which receding parallel lines meet Verso The back or underside of a piece of paper. Stylus A sharp.

115 anatomical drawing 134-135 anatomical theaters 82-83 anatomical waxes 128 ancient carvings 221. 13. Georges 67. 90 La Guitare. center of 118 ballpoint 182. 72 bracelet shading 122 Braque. 161 Akhlaq-I Rasul Allah manuscript 51. Jean Michel 138 Self-Portrait 138 Bateau-Vision. 90. Joseph 113 The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland 112. 163. 70 Art Nouveau motifs 91 Autoportrait (Ray) 138. 190 Caricature of a Woman (Daumier) 198. 198 cartoon (preparatory drawing) 137 (satirical) 159. 75 Circle of the Lustful (Blake) 180. 81 135.133. 223 Circular Score for "Due Voce" 223 children's art 9. 95 Chair Cut Out (Woodfine) 94.184.27 turtles 42-43 aquatint 240 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels (Leonardo) 12. 206 checkered floor 80. William: The Circle of the Lustful 180. Leon: Bacchante 155 balance. 74 brush (es) 246-247 Japanese 248 for laying a wash 140 marks 248-249 to hold 23 brush drawings 14-15 Bryan.44-45.Index Page numbers in italics refer t o captions and illustrations Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity (Bishndas and 259 INDEX B bread (as eraser) 205. 204.163 body.13. 90.226. Clare 203 City 202. Hieronymus 243 Two Monsters 242. 244 head and neck 144 phrased 124-125 contrast: brightness 99 of media 30 tonal 96. Sylvano 222. 116. 220. 98. 203 Buffalo Hunt (Shoshone) 178. 139 Nanha) 50. 206. 179 Bussotti.198.212 to erase 205 to hold 23 pencils 204 willow 114. 94 cylindrical objects.163 graded 227 composition 56-57. 180 Circular Score for "Due Voce" (Bussotti) 223 circus scenes 192-195 City (Bryan) 202. 111. to draw 80. 204-205. Victor: West Facade of the Church of St. 41 principal 186. 242 to blend 205 compressed 122. 198.117 Achilles Chases Hector (Thomas) 240. 158. 13 architectural drawing 67-71 Arctic Flowers (Libeskind) 70. Franz 48 Protea nitida 48 Bellini. 9 Chair (Van Gogh) 94. Mamaru 104. 165. 203 Landline 202. 71 conte 112. Statue d'Epouvante 90 calligraphy.44-45 bird studies 12. 201 collage 111. 30 sleeping dog 38-39 Stubbs's horse skeleton 26. 90 colored materials 162-163 colored pencils 162. 71 Blake.184. 28 Klee's horses 30. Zen c 232-233 blended 133.31 Picasso's horse and bird 30. Brian 226 Untitled 2001 226 "Cave of the Hands" (Cueva de las Manas) 8. 182. 199 Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya (Eisen) 156. 162 character: to capture 38-39. 180 blending: color 133. 81 cut-out model plan 94. 137 Besler. Filippo 67. 9. 75. to depict 156-157 Cloudburst of Material Possessions (Leonardo) 200. to express 39. 186 charcoal 114. 178 Cubism 67. 134 costume(s) 155 character 158-159 structure of 166-167 Cottage Among Trees (Rembrandt) 52. 38-39. 94 chalk(s) 53. 244 and graphite 178 . 205 Baltard. 189. 52 cotton swabs 205 Coup de Vent a Asajigabare (Hokusai) 198.89. to draw 100 Cypripedium calceolus L. 133. 50. cut Catling.100 curves.50.51 All and Nothing (Taylor) 114. Etienne-Louis 72 Newton's Cenotaph 72. 113 bird bones 12. 243 botanical drawing 48-49 Boullee. 26 geese 38-39 Gericault's cats 28. Nicolas-Jacques 54 contours 146.186 see also movement Adoration of the Magi perspective study (Leonardo) 74. Giovanni 137 Head and Shoulders of a Man 136. 74. 221 animals. 203 Claude Lorrain 202 Views from Velletri 202. Basilius 47 Beuys. 200 Bauer. 128. 40-41 Durer's rhinoceros 26. 247-248 carving see lines. 202 cloth. 226-227 Acanthus spinosus 65 accelerated perspective 22. Augustin 67 Basquiat. 230-231 Cubist 90. 222. 8 cave paintings 8. 250 Bishndas and Nanha: Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity 50. 78 aerial perspective 206 airbrushing 160. 193 in lifting out 204. 160 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object (Moore) 178. 74.163 dry media 205 Blue Nude (Matisse) 110. (Ross-Craig) 49 to hold brush for 23 caricature 159. 242 Brunelleschi.169 colors: airbrushed 161 background 91 A Abe. 241 action. 71 Bacchante (Bakst) 155 background: color 91 textured 240 Baker Matthew: Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry 32 Bakst. to draw 25. 157 cropping 56-57. to model 110-111 border 51 Bosch. 230 The Physical Space 220 abstract drawing 219. Le (Hugo) 200. layers 53 chalk pastels 162.162 Conte. 29 Hugo's octopus 28.

160 as ground for metal point 140. 131 Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 240.146 from masterworks 126-127. 122.244 drawing(s): abstract 219. 52 foreground 208.91.111 feet. 243 graphic score 222.252-253 from memory 183. to suggest 177 see also perspective diagonals diffuser 55 dip pens 34. disposable pens 182-183 dissections: botanical 48 of horse 27 distance: illusion of see perspective linear 97 tonal 97 Documents Decoratifs.John 157 Man Lying Down in a Cloak 156. 79. Sir Ernst 12. 200 F fabric. 41 in the round 208-209 with scalpel 202. 141 tonal 96.207. 37 Grandville 243 A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the Near-Microscopic World of Scale Insects 242. Nicholas 68 St Paul's Baptistry 68 head and neck to draw 142-145 Head and Shoulders of a Man (Bellini) 136.121 felt-tip pens 162. 245 Gruau. 223 graphite 54.230 three-tone 140. 241 to blend 205 and chalk 178 and ink 28. 134. 55.260 INDEX D Dada 139 Daumien Honore 198 Caricature of a Woman 198. 170-173.109 Rhinoceros 26. Rene 160 Illustration for Jacques Fath E easel. 135 Duren Albrecht 26.216 Durelli.198 Degas.97. 160 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction (Gaudi) 68. to draw 120. 73. 203 semi-abstract 234-237 three-dimensional 68.Theodore 29 Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 28. 125. 230 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction 68. Alberto 136 Portrait of Marie-Laure de Noailles 136.37. 122 Hawksmoor. Antonio 135 Muscles of the Head and Neck 134. fiber-tip pen 182. 220 dry brush 234 234 57. 202. La (Braque) 90. 26 Flying Fish (White) 25. position of 143. 93 horizon 52. 799 Holbein.102-103 drawing board 20 drawing books 20-21 drawing paper 144. Victor 200. Jean Ignace Isidore see Grandville Gericault.69 Gerard. proportions of 143 fantasy drawings 72-73. 245 layers 30 Goya. 161 fashion 160. 226-227 anatomical 134-135 architectural 67-71 botanical 48-49 brush 14-15 dark to light 102.116. 242 eyes. 162 Flaxman. to draw 168-169 in Goya's artworks face. 222.244. 134.104. 32 framing 139 Franfoise au Bandeau (Picasso) 132. 245 Hugo. 136 Golden Section 67 Gombrich. 216 foreshortening 110. 93 eye level 80 Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity.112. 99 etching.103. Cheval et Oiseau (Picasso) 30. Katsushika 199 Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 198. Francisco de 131.144 and ink 30. 112.166 170-173 Gestalt 222 Giacometti. Study for Plate 59 (Mucha) 90. 113. 90 G Gaudi. Ron 161 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 161 160. 132 Frenz. Antonio 68. 69. 144 Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (Baker) 32. C . 160 hitsuzendo 233 light to dark 102. 160 Faune. Robert 93 Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 92. 161 fashion drawings 160.160. The 242. 190 Middle Eastern 50-51. 40. 252 depiction of fabric monsters 252-253 Self Portrait in a Cocked Hat 130. 71 minimal line 99 and music 70-71 quick 38-39.141. 157 . 77 How Clever of God #84 244. 104-105.216. M. 55.157 ellipses 100. 137 heads. 134. position of 22 Eisen. 240 170-173 five Ships in a Port with Lighthouse (Wallis) 11. 240.101 engraving 243 erasers/erasing 55.117 fountain pens 34. 222 Le Bateau-Vision 200. drypoint 181 exaggeration 184 expressionism 198 E ye and Head of a Drone Fly (Hooke) 92.115 exploratory 17 fantasy 72-73. 120. Oona 245 How Clever of God #84 244. to draw 78. 25 focus 65. 222 Grimes. 69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt 68. 30 Fauves/fauvism 90. 29 H hands. 7 33 Hooke. Statue d'Epouvante.189. 205 drawing with 103. Edgar 162 depth. 69 Guitare. 55.184 165. 69.160. 223. 203 Hotel de la Suzonnieres (Satie) 70. 163. Hans 133 The Ambassadors 116 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 132. 161 changing 216 Focusing on the Negative (Walter) 16 foliage 52. 124. 163. to draw 134-137 Helleborus corsicus 55 highlights 91.141.103 with eraser 103.12 fixative 54. 115 Escher. Keisai 157 The Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya 156. 90 gouache 30. 765 hitsuzendo drawings 233 Hokusai. 240 Black Paintings 152. 91 Dragon (Michelangelo) 36.

Daniel 70 Arctic Flowers 70 Lieb.104. 53 Tree II 52. 242 light 96 to depict drawing with 1 76 painting with 176 . Madrid 171 University Museum of Natural History.The (Robinson) 108. 201 head and neck sections of female mold for Sforza Horse 89 Madonna of the Rocks 244 perspective study for Adoration of the Magi 74. 220. 135 museums 44. Oxford 250 music 70-71 Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks (Knopf) 32. Henry 178 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object 178.167 line(s) 132. 159 Japanese 35 to make 36 sepia 35 walnut 36. 252 Muscles of the Head and Neck (Durelli) 134. 76 Libeskind. 244 ink 36 252-253 Documents Decoratifs 90.227 to "bend" straight 97 compositional 228-229 cut 202. Piet 52.141. 205 masterworks.112. drawing from 126-127. 114 hatched 244 layered 118 pace of 65 pale 40 rapid 49. 31 Klimt. 158 Man Lying Down in a Cloak (Flaxman) 156. 757 mandalas 219. 230 invented creatures 106-107 250-251 invented objects 89. Oxford 106 Prado. 34. 74-77. 219 Mondrian. 72. 183 vertical 156 linear distance 97 linear perspective 69. drawing from 183. 58-59. 789. 156 magnification 93 Man in Armor (Van Dyck) 158. 36. 248.109. Charles Rennie 48. Bartolome: Moses Striking the Rock ofHoreb 252. 170-173. I Murderous Attacks 33 Kollwitz.243 carbon 35 Chinese 30. 166.166 La Specola. 244 lithograph 198 Losbruch (Kollwitz) 180. 178 motifs: A r t Nouveau 9 7 stylized 51 mountains 216-217 movement: of animals 30-31 of humans 7 79. 73 Kigell.124. Kathe 181 Losbrunch (The Outbreak) 180. 249 and gouache 30 Indian 35. 13 Cloudburst of Material Possessions 200.96. 203 landscape 206-208 brushed 14 Landscape in Hoboku Style (Sesshu) 14 layers 146 chalk 53 gouache 30 ink 28. 103 Neolithic chalk tablet 220.120. 227 Scene of Comical Riders 30. 244 Dragon 36. Gustav 49 Knopf. 63. 110 Sistine Chapel ceiling 116 Middle Eastern drawing 50-51. Florence 128 lighting in 167 Pitt Rivers. Matisse. 190 metal pens see dip pens metal point 25. 220. 77 Miller. 181 Klee. 201 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels 12. 226 Modernism 67. Henri 111 Blue Nude 1110. 184. 220.134 K Kettlehut. artistic 240-241. 163 pens 36 measuring 116 memory.115 98. 54 silver point 156 leg sections 158 length.181 L Landline (Bryan) 202. 181 luminosity 115 Lynch. Alphonse 90.276. 53 monoprint 787. 37 lines 118 pastel 162 pencil 31.182 Moore. 111. 176. 34-35 acrylic 35 bistre 35. Johan 32. 83 white 122 ink impressions 222 ink spatters 234 installations 176. 28 Two Impressions from a Cut-out Paper Disk 222 Huyler Stephen R 225 261 Kinecar. 97 Murillo. 244. 60. 221 endless 31 free 113. apparent 97 Leonardo da Vinci 74.109.Pieuvre (Octopus) 28. 99.33 Mysterious Affairs of the lighting 2 7. 203. 225 masking tape 204. 185 Mucha. 73 Michelangelo Buonarroti 48. 177 influences. 205. 756 priming for 140. Phyll: hands 18 lifting out 204. David 78 M Mackintosh. 78 Study ofThree Male Figures 110. 160 In the Duchess's Kitchen (Rackham) 176. 220. 252 ink 16.102. 234 iron-gall 35. Marie 244 cloth drawing 244.91 Study for Plate 59 of INDEX illumination see lighting Illustration for Jacques Fath (Gruau) 160. Paul 227 Polyphonic Setting for White 226. 33 J justness 228-229 N naive art 74 negative space 53. Erich 73 design for Metropolis 72. Victor 134 Profile Head 134. 35. Rose: Tantalus or the Future of Man 20 minimal line drawing 99 mirror use of 120 mixed media 28. 227 Newsome. 49 Rose 49 Maelbeke Madonna (Van Eyck) 156.141 Metropolis (film) 72.

1 6 9 to hold 2 2 . 736 portraits. 162 O p A r t 98 optical illusions 96-99 outline 33. 36. 122.40. 74-77. 30 Fran<. 7 76 receding space 206 Redon. 7 77 three-point 80. Peter Paul 126-127 Embracing pose(s): balanced 146 quick 118-119 positive form 103 posture: of artist 22 of subject 3 8 . 36 relief printing 757 Rembrandt van Rijn 52.176 Real Life Is Rubbish 176. 28 pigment 162 bright 50 Caput Mortuum 7 4 7 for three-tone drawing 141. Isaac 92 Telescope 92 Newton's Cenotaph (Boullee) 72. 782 relief 757 silk-screen 739 woodblock 134. 772 234-237 Sesshu.184 fountain 34. J 76 nudes 114-115 to make 36 metal see dip quill 34. 52 pens 36 scalpel 54 drawing with 202. 160.131 Cottage Among Trees 52. 76-79. 2 2 0 for oil pastels 162 stained 230 to stretch 140-141 tissue 21. 7 73 self-portraits: Basquiat 138. 38. 91 outsider artists 33. 230 paper(s) 21 colored 162 drawing 144. Martin 238. Russell 228. Arthur 177 In the Duchess's Kitchen 176. 165. Faune. 68 Satie. 181 pencil(s) 54 charcoal 204 colored 762. 732 influence of 240 painting with light 78. 739 semi-abstract drawings Style 14 Seurat. 733 Portrait de Marie-Laure (Giacometti) 136. 4 8 putty eraser 55. 163. 36. 37 38. 1 1 6 .36. 212 Japanese 2 1 . 161. 139 Real Life is Rubbish (Noble and Webster) 176. 239 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat (Seurat) 112. 74. Stella 48 Cypripedium calceolus L 49 rotated view 7 65 Rubens. Heath 181 The Kinecar 180.oise au Bandeau 132.262 INDEX Newton.759. 36 pen and brush 8 3 pen and ink 70. 244 reed 34.Toyo: Landscape in Hoboku .52 pen and wash 158. 1 1 7 aerial 206 linear 69. Bridget 98 Robinson. 9 0 .Tim.The (Beuys) 112. 9 8 . to draw 146-147 R Rackham. 36.139 Autoportrait 138. 224 0 layers 31. Odilon 242 The Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity 242. 75 Two Courtyards 75. 1 1 6 accelerated 2 2 .37 scientific instruments 9 2 . 241 Physical Space.199 Profile Head (Newsome) oil pastels 162. 234 disposable 182-183 felt-tip 162. Erik 70. 1 3 2 quill pens 34.Paul'sBaptistry (Hawksmoor) 68. 243. 759 P Page. 216.2 3 age and youth sleeping subjects 148-149 150-151 Renaissance 109 Rhinoceros (Durer) 26. 1 6 3 . 114 rollerball 182 Rorschach blot 99 Rose (Mackintosh) 48. 7 72 Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland. 219. Man 131. and Webster. Pablo 6 7 . 239 Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 238.240. 7 38 Ray 138.141 prints/printing: aquatint 240 dry-point etching 181 engraving 243 monoprint 181. 73 Noble. 181 Rodin. Cheval et Oiseau 30. 75 Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range 241 petroglyphs 221.54 pastel 162 perspective 1 0 0 . Paul 73 Nobson Central 72. 103. 57 Ross-Craig. 243.7 77 rapidograph 70 Raphael 110. 7 70 Ray. 40-41. 81 two-point 74.226. 203 Scene of Comical Riders (Klee) 30. 71 Satire of the Queen's Dress (Wodall) 158. 36. 97. Sue 104. Giovanni Battista 74.37. 1 2 4 priming for metal point 140. 205 pointillism 112 polyphonic painting 227 Polyphonic Setting for White (Klee) 226. 159. 72 Noble. 205 157. 165 figure 118 filled 37 pencil 48. 4 9 Rose of Mohammed 50. Georges 112 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 112. The (Abe) 220 Picasso. 164. 76 plastic eraser 55. 34-35. 78 single-point 74. Auguste 114 Two Women 114. 166 fiber-tip 782. 26 Riley.104 Pieuvre (Hugo) 28. 141 Piranesi.37. 38.71 Hotel de la Suzonnieres 70.9 3 Schongauer. 230 parallel planes 79 Parisian street 86-87 pastels 162 to blend 205 to hold 23 layers 162 pencils 162 pen(s): dip 34 . 242 reed pens 34. 227 portfolios 20 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser de Noailles (Holbein) 132. 244 Q s Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape (Wolfli) 2 79 St. 36. 734 Protea nitida (Bauer) 48.

2 2 7 Untitled 2001 ( C a t l i n g ) u 263 W h i t e . 202 violin.s c r e e n p r i n t i n g 139 silver p o i n t 1 4 0 . 156 Van Gogh. t o lay 1 4 0 .d i m e n s i o n a l d r a w i n g 68. 1 4 5 travel journal 2 0 . t o draw 1 9 8 .41. 1 4 4 . 9 0 . 7 79 Shoshone petroglyph 240. 102-103 tonal marks. 1 4 1 . Augustin ( B a l t a r d ) 6 7 w e t and dry brush-strokes 2 4 9 Turner.d i m e n s i o n a l 1 0 4 . 74.1 8 5 Tree II ( M o n d r i a n ) 52. Sue see N o b l e . 164. 2 0 0 Ship in a Storm 1 9 8 . t o d r a w 1 0 1 viewfinder 57 Views from Velletri ( C l a u d e L o r r a i n ) 152.27 skull 747. 9 4 z Z e n calligraphy 232-233 contrast 96 t o grade 163 ink 37 pencil 5 4 t o r t i l l o n 205 T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c . v i e w s o f 85.2 1 3 Stubbs. 170 shoes 1 6 4 stylized m o t i f 51 Summer Flowers 63. 65 symbols 138.13 M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s m a l e figures 110. 2 3 4 .12 W a l t e r .t o n e d r a w i n g 140. 174 T w o m b l y . 2 2 6 . 97. 743 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City ( F r e n z ) 1 6 0 .1 4 5 .241 s i l k . 725 fabric 1 6 8 T h o m a s . 2 4 2 w Wallis. William 159 Satire of the Queen's Dress INDEX 226. Sarah: child's m a p 75. phrased 146 tonal modeling 161 tonal range 169 t o n a l surfaces 2 2 7 tonal width 97 t o n e ( s ) 33. h e a d a n d n e c k sections o f female m o l d f o r (Leonardo) 89 shading 2 9 s h a d o w s 28. 2 9 wind. 221 . 69. Jan 1 5 6 Maelbeke Madonna 1 5 6 . M . John: Focusing on the Negative 14 w a s h . 7 75 Telescope ( N e w t o n ) 9 2 .J.Yamaoka 233 t e x t u r e 2 2 2 . Paul 2 4 1 Achilles Chases Hector 2 4 0 . 199 shoes 1 6 4 . 76.9 1 storms. 241.120. 7 9 0 vessels. 1 8 4 . 230 t h r e e . 1 4 1 w a t e r c o l o r 25. 6 9 Wodall. Man in Armor 1 5 8 . 206-207 202.Sforza Horse. Adolf: Giant-Grape Saint-Mary-Castle 219 Woman at Her Toilet ( T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c ) 74 w o o d b l o c k print 157. Study of (Michelangelo) 110. 2 4 7 t h r e e .2 0 1 . Taylor A n i t a 115 All and Nothing 1 1 4 . 249 t o describe 39.158 158.199 tissue p a p e r 21. 7 77. 158 V a n Eyck. 9 5 pens 36 v a n i s h i n g p o i n t 74. 1 9 9 . 4 4 boat 209 botanical 4 9 G e r i c a u l t ' s cats 2 9 from Goya 170-173 125.1 6 5 shorthand diagram 142 Shoshone buffalo hide painting 178. 115. 49. 199. 7 1 4 . A l f r e d 1 1 . 182. 96. 1 3 .1 9 9 wire. G e o r g e 2 7 Skeleton of the Horse 26.141 S i m b l e t . t h r e e . T i m W e s t Fagade of the Church of St.1 0 5 vision 9 6 Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects (Grandville) 242. H e n r i de: Woman at Her Toilet 14 t r a n s p a r e n t v i e w 92. 2 1 2 . 2 4 4 .5 3 in l a n d s c a p e 2 0 6 . 141 Three Male Figures.243 Leonardo's machines 12. 75. 159 Wolfli. 69. 1 9 9 Two Courtyards (Piranesi) 75. C y 138. drawing with 104-105 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt ( G a u d i ) 68. 1 7 7 free 8 0 V e n i c e . 1 4 0 . t o d r a w 2 0 0 .125 W o o d f i n e . t o d r a w 5 2 . A n t h o n y 152.1 4 1 . 7 6 1 spots. 240 Two Women Embracing ( R o d i n ) 114. 7 70 Tiber 214-215 Untitled ( T w o m b l y ) 2 2 0 . 226 V Van Dyck. 57. 2 3 0 tonal contrast 96 tonal distance 9 7 t o n a l d r a w i n g 9 6 . Vincent 95 Chair 94. 186. 1 6 6 t r a p e z i u s m u s c l e 142. 2 7 studies: b i r d s 7 2 . 1 6 . 156 layers 7 5 6 priming for 140. Sarah 9 4 Chair Cut Out 94. W . b l o w n 248 steel p e n s see d i p p e n s still life 89. 77. 79. 7 6 Two Impressions from a Cut-Out Paper Disk ( H u g o ) 2 2 2 Two Monsters 2 4 2 . John 25 Flying Fish 25 Wild Striped Cat Sketches of ( G e r i c a u l t ) 28. 1 8 4 . 245 sharpener 54 Ship in a Storm ( T u r n e r ) 1 9 8 . 2 2 0 influence o f 2 4 0 Untitled 220. 243 (Bosch) T Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos ( G o y a ) 2 4 0 . 53 trees. 75 Skeleton of the Horse ( S t u b b s ) 26. 161. 1 2 Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse 71.216 W e b s t e r . 104-105. 9 2 Tesshu.

Jackie Douglas.r. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. T o n y G r i s o n i . 2 2 7 : Paul Klee Stiftung. 2 6 : Topfoto. 1 . 221: Gagosian Gallery/Private Collection (b). O. H . Picture Credits 8: Corbis/Hubert Stadler. 1 3 8 : © Christie's Images Ltd/© A D AGP. G e r m a n y . B e m d Kunzig. Paris. Toulouse. London/Bequeathed by Charles Landseer. L o n d o n . Germany. G e r m a n y .uk/Kettle's Yard. 2 0 1 : T h e Royal Collection © 2 0 0 2 H e r Majesty Queen Elizabeth I I . and Tamsin Woodward Smith. L o n d o n . London 2005. J o h n Walter. 5 0 : Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (1). L e n . c o . 5 3 : Collection of the Gemeentemuseum D e n Haag/Mondrian Trust. 49: Hunterian Museum (t). 115: Anita Taylor. 13: www. Lisbon. 112: Yale University A r t Gallery/Everett V Meeks. Diana Bell. Productions Clovis Prevost (c). University of Cambridge. Publisher's Acknowledgments Dorling Kindersley w o u l d like to thank Caroline H u n t for editorial contribution. 226: Brian Catling. 73: Berlin F i l m Museum (t).Paris ( b ) . Dover Publications/ISBN: 0486229912 (t).co. Germany/Joerg P. Anders/ © D A C S 2 0 0 5 . 9 4 : Sarah Woodfine. M a n d y Earey. support. L o n d o n .co. 139: Galerie Marion Meyer/© Man Ray Trust / A D A G P . Illustrated London News Picture Library/The Bystander (b). 1 5 4 : akg-images/Musee National d'Art Moderne. Flossie. Winthrop.bridgeman. R . Sarah Woodfine. L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . H a m b u r g . 199: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee des arts asiatiquesGuimet. 2 8 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. Roddy Bell. 2 7 : Royal Academy of Arts. 9 1 : www. 9 0 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/© A D A G P .co. 5 2 : T h e Metropolitan Museum of Art/Bequest of Mrs. Inc.264 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Acknowledgments Author's Acknowledgments: T h e author wishes to thank the following people for their enormous help. u k / O n Loan to the H a m b u r g Kunsthalle. 2 4 2 : Photo Scala. 174: Artothek/ /Biblioteca Nacional. 1 7 8 : © T h e British M u s e u m / H e n r y Moore F o u n d a t i o n .bridgeman. 2 4 1 : Corbis/David M u e n c h ( b ) . 2 3 8 : akg-images. Paris. Carole A s h . 3 1 : Tom Powel Imaging. H a y w a r d Gallery. G i n a R o w l a n d .bridgeman. Paul T h o m a s ( t ) . D a w n Henderson. Havemeyer. Anita Taylor. 2 0 3 : Clare Bryan (t). 17: J o h n Walter. a n d D e p a r t m e n t s o f E n t o m o l o g y a n d Zoology at the University of Oxford. London/courtesy of Stuart Shave.a. 1 0 8 : Arts C o u n c i l Collection. 1 9 6 : Museum of the History of Science. Paris and D A C S . 111: Fondation Beyeler/Riehen (Bale)/© Succession H Matisse/DACS 2005. U K . Paris/ © Succession Picasso / D A C S 2005. 3 3 : Prinzhom Collection. Psychiatric Institute of the University of Heidelberg. Agnieszka Mlicka./Galerie Sylvie Nissen. papers. F i n n . 137: © The British Museum. c o .uk/Private Collection. 113: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. Paris. Also.bridgeman. b r i d g e m a n . 11: www. Angela Palmer. L o n d o n . U K . 4 8 : T h e N a t u r a l H i s t o r y M u s e u m . Rocio Arnaez. © Tate. Angela W i l k e s . Madrid. 68: www. B e r l i n . 243: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. 72: akg-images. Natalie G o d w i n . Fund. R o y a n d D i a n n e Simblet. Maureen Paley Interim Art (b). 179: www. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. 2 0 0 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France./Private Collection/© D A C S 2005. B . Portugal. Antonia Cunliffe Davis. Kunstmuseum Bern. 180: www. Basel. 157: U C L Art Collections . K u n s t m u s e u m Bern/© D A C S 2 0 0 5 . 2 2 2 : Pierre Georgel/Private Collection. Clare Bryan. Paula Regan. 181: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. b r i d g e m a n .bridgeman. 69: Institut Amatller d'Art Hispanic (tl).bridgeman. Paris. Paul T h o m a s . 1 9 : Getty Images/© Succession Picasso / D A C S 2 0 0 5 . Peter L u f f . 1879. 1929 (29. 30: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso.939). A . 9 2 : Science Photo L i b r a r y . L o n d o n . Sophie Museum. 1 3 5 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. Paris. B e r l i n . 9 7 6 ) . 6 6 : w w w . b r i d g e m a n . O o n a G r i m e s . 2 2 0 : Mamaru Abe. J o h n Roberts. 1 5 6 : Graphische S a m m l u n g Albertina. Patty Stansfield. for s u p p l y i n g the d r a w i n g books. 88: www. L o n d o n (t). A n d y C r a w f o r d for p h o t o g r a p h y a n d L .uk/Musee des /© Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery. K a t h r y n W i l k i n s o n . 2 1 8 : Adolf-Wdlfli-Stiftung. Paris. H e a t h e r M c C a r r y . 1 9 8 : Dover Publications. 1975 ( 1 9 7 5 . George M c G a v i n . S i m o n L e w i s . Copyright Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens. Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (t). Italy. T h e R u s k i n School of D r a w i n g a n d Fine A r t .co.100.bridgeman. 2 4 4 : Ashmolean Museum. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin. 29: Fogg A n Museum/Collections Baron de Vita: Grenville L. Julie O u g h t o n . 158: Calouste Gulbenkian Museum. u k / L o u v r e . Anders. 176: Modem Art. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. 3 2 : Pepys Library. Orientabteilung/Ruth Schacht. J a c k a n d Brian Kirsten Norrie. Berlin (b).co. Magdalene College Cambridge. 9 3 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. Christopher Davis. NY.Strang Print Room ( b ) . Paris a n d D A C S . A n n a P l u c i n s k a . C o r n e l i s o n & Son. Sammy De Grave. 2 4 : © T h e British Museum. 132: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. Paris a n d D A C S . B M G . France. 1 3 3 : Artothek/Kupferstichkabinett. a n d encouragement i n m a k i n g this book: M a m o r u Abe. 1 6 1 : D C C o m i c s I n c . Pamela Ellis for compiling the index. 177: Mary Evans Picture Library. u k / T o k y o National M u s e u m . c o . K u n s t m u s e u m . R o s e m a r y S c o u l a r . 51: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. a n d brushes o n pp. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin/Jorg P. Andy Crawford. H e l e n S h u t t l e w o r t h . P h y l l Kiggell. 1 3 6 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Centre Collection.bridgeman. Japan. Sir Brinsley F o r d .bridgeman. 130: The Metropolitan M u s e u m of Art/Robert L e h m a n Collection.l. 1 5 : w w w .uk/Guildhall Library. (r). 7 1 : I M E C / A r c h i v e s E r i k Satie. . A . L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . Berlin/Staatsbibliothek zu A l l other images © Sarah Simblet . 2 0 2 : © T h e British Museum. Corporation of London. Amsterdam. 225: Stephen P 2 2 3 : Lebrecht Music and Arts Photo Library/Ricordi. Florence/MoMA. Oxford. 16: www. Carlo O r t u for picture research s u p p o r t . Psychiatric Institute of the U n i v e r s i t y of Heidelberg. 75: © The British Museum (b). Jean Pierre Roy. 9 5 : V a n Gogh M u s e u m . 74: Corbis. 1 1 0 : www. K e v i n a n d Rebecca Collection. Graphische Sammlung. F r a n c e . 4 6 : B r i t i s h Library. 7 0 : Studio Daniel L i b e s k i n d . . 114: Musee Rodin. University of Trust.20-21 a n d 246-47. Wolfson College. 2 4 5 : Oona Grimes. 1 6 0 : Rene G R U A U s. 1 5 9 : Bodleian Library. 2 4 0 : w w w . Salisbury & South W i l t s h i r e M u s e u m ( t ) ./© D A C S 2 0 0 5 ( t ) . 2 2 4 : P r i n z h o m Collection. 1 3 4 : © T h e British Museum. 1901. J o n Roome. R u t h P a r k i n s o n . K e w ft)) Sarah D u n c a n .

D r a w i n g C l a s s e s — d e t a i l e d step-by-step demonstrations show you how to develop your natural talents. www. Materials and Techniques—how to use a variety of materials—from pencil and ink to pastel. charcoal. and improve your drawing skills. discover new Discover more at . and tone. Learn from the Masters—a rich selection of drawings illustrates different approaches to a wide range of subjects. shape.FOR THE ARTIST T h e c o m p l e t e g u i d e to drawing—a unique blend of practical teaching and inspirational insights into classic and contemporary drawings. Creating a Sketchbook—Sarah Simblet's drawings inspire you to explore different subjects and fill your own sketchbooks. and silverpoint—and apply the key elements of drawing including perspective.

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