An innovative, practical approach to drawing the world around you

SARAH SIMBLET

BOOK
FOR T H E ARTIST

BOOK

FOR THE ARTIST

SARAH SIMBLET

DK PUBLISHING

CONTENTS
LONDON • NEW YORK MELBOURNE • MUNICH • DELHI Senior Editor Paula Regan Senior Art Editor Mandy Earey Art Editor Anna Plucinska Managing Editor Julie Oughton Managing Art Editor Heather McCarry Art Director Peter Luff Publishing Director Jackie Douglas Production Joanna Bull DTP Designer Adam Walker Picture Research Sarah Smithies US Editor Christine Heilman First American Edition, 2 0 0 5 First Paperback Edition, 2 0 0 9 Published in the United States by DK Publishing 3 7 5 Hudson Street New York, New York 1 0 0 1 4 10 11 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3

Architecture
6 8 20 22 Master Builders The Order of Sound Future Fictions Pathways of Sight Single-Point Perspective Creating an Imaginary Space Further Aspects of Perspective Theaters Venetian Life Parisian Street

66
68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86

Foreword Introduction Drawing Books and Papers Posture and Grip

Objects and Instruments

TD075-July 2009 Copyright © 2 0 0 5 Dorling Kindersley Limited Text and authors artworks © Sarah Simblet 2 0 0 4 Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited A Cataloging-in-Publication record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN 9 7 8 - 0 - 7 5 6 6 - 5 1 4 1 - 1 Color reproduction by GRB, Italy Printed and bound in China by Toppan

Still Life Instruments of Vision Bench Marks Light and Illusions Further Illusions How to Draw Ellipses Tonality Drawing with Wire Artifacts and Fictions

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90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106

Animals
Documentaries Presence and Mood Movement Icon and Design Pen and Ink Drawing with Ink Capturing Character Sleeping Dogs Turtles Dry Birds

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26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44

The Body
Postures and Poses Choreographs Passion Measurement and Foreshortening Quick Poses Hands and Feet Charcoal Hands Phrasing Contours The Visual Detective La Specola

108
110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128

Plants and Gardens
Botanical Studies Jeweled Gardens Fast Trees Graphite and Erasers Cropping and Composition Negative Space Fig Tree Summer Flowers Acanthus Spinosus

46
48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64

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Gatherings
Projections Magnetic Fields The Human Condition Disposable Pens The Travel Journal Catching the Moment Grand Canal Crossings Caravans The Big Top

174 Abstract Lines
176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 Process and Harmony Writing Time Chants and Prayers Compositions Being "Just" Collage Zen Calligraphy Nocturnes

218
220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234

Portraiture
Poise Anatomies Revelations Self-Portraits Silver Point Head and Neck Essential Observations Drawing Portraits Generations Castings

130
132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 152

Earth and the Elements
Air in Motion Storms Nature Profiles Charcoal Landscapes Drawing in the Round Decaying Boat Cloudburst Notes of Force Mountains

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198 200 202 204 206 208 210 212 214 216

Gods and Monsters
Marks of Influence Hauntings Convolutions Brushes Brush Marks Monsters Goya's Monsters Consumed Glossary Index Acknowledgments

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240 242 244 246 248 250 252 254 256 259 264

Costume
Cloth and Drapery Character Costumes Femmes Fatales Colored Materials Study and Design The Structure of Costume Textures and Patterns Dressing Character Posture Carving

154
156 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172

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and local c o m m u n i t y classes. It makes me feel excited to be alive. remain unseen by most. They enfold their viewer and are made on joined sheets of paper that I reach by climbing ladders. For me personally. we learn to see it. art schools. and feeling. or engineer. and a reflector of experience. who tells me firmly upon approach that they cannot draw. Drawing occupies a unique place in every artist and creator's life. be they a child discovering their vision and dexterity. They occupy a shelf in my studio.Foreword B Y DRAWING THE WORLD AROUND US. night security staff. but because it is how I engage with and anchor myself in life. a sculptor. By using our imaginations. . a cartographer charting the land. The most rewarding challenge is always the newcomer. I will always draw. from schoolchildren to senior citizens. and their importance to so many artists. These inspirations led me to invent museums. Others can be held in the h a n d or. not only to make art. I know that with their cooperation I can soon prove them wrong. geologists. I was also reading among The Confessions of St. I was training in anatomy and studying how. Drawing is a mirror through which I understand my place in the world. as a visiting professor at universities. perhaps hidden on a door hinge or a street bench rail. a composer notating a musical score. and makers of special effects. undergraduates to fellow professors. that inspired the title and structure MEMORY T H E A T E R S This pen-and-ink drawing was made from imagination during research for my PhD. Some are more traditionally framed and hung in galleries for solo or group exhibitions. where I expect them to be discovered by some people. fashion designer. understood (and often misunderstood) our own bodies. we learn to feel truly alive. I work with people of diverse ages. doctors. architect. We can all learn how to draw. I also make drawing books. Combine these things and the possibilities are endless. The very first step is to believe it. aspirations. For twelve years I have enjoyed the privilege of teaching drawing. and be slowly washed or worn away. Augustine his notes on memory. and through which I can see how I think. texture. and I refer back to them for years after they are made. It is my love of these. by invitation. still standing by the door. of Sketch Book for the Artist. and experience. are made outside as discreet installations. and size. Chosen in any color. where spaces are shaped by nothing more than the objects and activities contained within them. a drawing book is the perfect portable private vehicle for your imminent exploration of drawing. or a quantum physicist trying to see for themselves the fluctuations of our universe. thinking. shape. Some of my drawings cover entire walls. It is a tool for investigating ideas and recording knowledge. and in a few sessions they will be flying. through history. in which he describes himself flying and diving in his imagination through pictorial caverns of knowledge. drawing is the immediate expression of seeing. we have looked at. especially as travel journals.

signs. We are surrounded by drawings in our daily lives. not just chosen pictures on our walls but everywhere—maps. We can always read each others drawings. Rio Pinturas 13. a great crowd is raising their hands in greeting. Most adults still feel that certain exquisite pleasure on arriving at a beach to find the tide out and the sand perfect. graffiti. They have a natural affinity to many modern graffiti signatures. scrawling shapes and cartoons when on the telephone. Children cannot be restrained from running across the pristine white lawn of newly fallen snow. and patterns on our clothes. logos. and we spend our lives reading it. "CAVE OF THE HANDS" In this drawing. inscribing every fresh part of it with their eager scrapes and trails. At home and at work we doodle. irreverent to language barriers. Cueva de las Marios. is not afforded us by drawing. Sometimes we draw because we are bored. in lectures. Drawing is international. like a great canvas for them to mark. waving to us from many thousands of yearsago. packaging.8 INTRODUCTION Where We Begin There is a fundamental drive in our human nature to make a mark.Theseancient silhouettes were drawn with earth pigments rubbed onto rock. The sense of relief we may feel from the information overload of modern commercial life when visiting a country in which we can no longer read every written word. but more often because drawing actually helps us to focus and take in what is said. We are bombarded with linear and tonal pictorial information.000-9500 bce . and in meetings.

had happily scribbled. we see our oldest surviving images. an expression of existence." Until this day. In cave paintings like the one opposite. MAKING OUR MARK It seems reasonable to assume that we have engaged in pictorial mark-making for as long as we have made conscious use of our hands. who in their day-to-day hardship made time to picture themselves and the animals on which they depended. I. On a particular afternoon in September 1974. and belonging to place. the hair of my first portrait was most important. power. at age two-anda-half. Cave art was not made for decoration but as a fundamental part of life. The image above is what I gave back to my mother. and she kept it as my first step beyond the delighted realms of scrawl. Eyelashes take up as much of my attention as the head itself. Even though it is made by a toddler this image would be recognizable to anyone. like all toddlers. I now think this is a picture of proximity. and the appearance of my strikes of colors. but I had never yet attempted to figuratively picture my world.9 WHERE WE BEGIN FIRST PORTRAIT For sorre forgotten reason. . She gave me a notepad and a red crayon and asked me to draw her "a picture of Daddy. I was sitting with my mother. reflecting my experience of looking closely at my father's face. created by societies of hunter-gatherers. enjoying the physical sensation of crayon on paper.

Young children love to draw. Hours are lost immersed in the glorious world of imagination. then drag o u r line into a loop. PROGRESSION T h e r e is a point in all o u r lives w h e n w e first c o n t r o l o u r mark and m a k e it a line. and from that first unit build and describe the shape of something or someone we know. As you progress. W e do n o t hesitate to draw a map. Inhibitions creep in and ideas of good a n d b a d terminate confidence. But as adolescents. it is important to value your natural abilities a n d ways of seeing. and this activity plays a vital role in their d e v e l o p m e n t .10 INTRODUCTION PEN-AND-INK BEE This tiny drawing has been enlarged to show its texture and composition. Don't b e p e r s u a d e d to draw in a w a y s o m e o n e else . h o w e v e r small a n d u n f o r m e d y o u believe they are. b e p r o u d o f what m a k e s y o u r w o r k individual to y o u . most of us stop. At this point many will insist they cannot draw. to help a stranger see their way W h e n taking first steps in relearning h o w to draw. yet still turn to drawing w h e n their verbal language fails or is inadequate. It was made with a few bold strokes of a steel pen dipped in ink to conjure the dried bee I was holding between my fingers on a pin. for example.

As you read this b o o k and perhaps attend art classes. you must decide whether to keep or discard it. Occasionally. I ask them their reasons for drawing. and they have never questioned why. I meet students struggling unhappily with a particular method of drawing. and which aspects of the vast wealth and diversity of graphic language would be most appropriate to their goals. . harbor and sea is one of many that Alfred Wallis made from memory while sitting at home. He was a retired Cornish fisherman and junk dealer who began drawing at the age of 70 "for company" after his wife died. but it does help to set out facing in the right direction. Enjoy the control of your own journey. 1925-42 53/8x87/8in (135 x 225 mm) ALFRED WALLIS prefers and tells you is better. Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse c. Someone once told them they must draw in this way. Think how much would have been lost if anyone had interfered with Alfred Wallis' personal sense of proportion and perspective in the exquisite drawing above. The journey of every artist demands hard work and discipline. remember that all advice is only advice. After experimenting and trying each new idea. He used leftover ship and yacht paint with crayons on cut-out pieces of cardboard boxes.11 PROGRESSION A UNIQUE SIGHT This innocent yet sophisticated drawing of boats. what they most want to achieve.

We BIRD STUDIES The flutter of faint scratches that dance across the pages on the right is an attempt to see the movement and bony weightlessness of a bird. author of The Story of Art. We all see differently. right. embedded in this book. There should neve: be a slavish obligation to represent things exactly as we collectively agree we see them. not for disguise but as a personal choice. the breast. They are also always written backward. There are countless reasons for drawing. we can drive out its spirit. boats." The clarity and empowerment of these words. all raise water From the Archimedes' screw to Leonardo's own cupped wheel. IDEAS A N D I N V E N T I O N S These active machines. wrote as the opening line of this great work. We also see differently ourselves. The observed world may be our subject. depending on the occasion and our purpose. There are only artists. When we look back at Wallis' seascape (see p. The art historian Professor Sir Ernst Gombrich. and lose the very thing that attracted us to it. and inspire others. If as artists we nail a subject down too hard. clear-minded understanding of the sea. the page bristles with the focus of ideas. but it should be the experienced world we draw. is. 11). be visionary. and breathtaking wind of a choppy harbor. but the child in us knows that this is an all-embracing. I hope. it may not be accurate to our critical adult eye. Our imaginations are the tools with which we can increase the essence of life. perhaps for comfort or ease as a left-hander or a habitual enjoyment of the challenge. "There really is no such thing as Art.and collarbones and shoulder blades of a different bird almost become new creatures in themselves. Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels LEONARDO DA VINCI . Below. His notes visually balance his drawings.12 INTRODUCTION VISION All artists see the world differently.

13 VISION should not try to know how every finished picture will look. . it may be best to start afresh. or to discover the best use of a new material. or illustrate a dream. We have both covered our paper with focused. Decide before you start whether you are drawing to warm up. Each fresh image reflects growing confidence and the experience of the preceding study. make a calculation. It will be invested through your experience in the new drawing. to express the beauty in a moment's play of light. My drawings of a housemartin (opposite top) illustrate the importance of repeated study. This also applies if struggling at length with a larger picture. shout against a terrible injustice. when it looks tired and still feels wrong. I drew to understand the apparatus of flight. Leonardo drew to invent a machine. Don't be disheartened. More was learned drawing the bird 18 times than would have been understood drawing it only once or twice. conduct an experiment. stripped-down parts. Our drawings are annotated investigations into the mechanisms of nature and of an idea. while below. Opposite. but it is important to be clear why we are making it. time spent is not lost. drawing in pursuit of our own thoughts and understanding.

This suits many artists well and is perfectly valid. However. it should be responding to the sensation and meaning of the subject it draws. You must also think of its intrinsic nature: its purpose. and opacity of your subject. and position in space. As you draw any subject—something you see. your marks will become the subject on the paper. metal. These two brush drawings. size. we are advised or even required to plan our pictures. and an island brushed with trees. ink. and paper. depth. bone. We are caught in a shifting focus that makes everything fluid. They each allowed the energy and focus of the moment to be expressed through controlled accident and a degree of the unknown Both drawings were made trusting the marks. water. Imagine these qualities so strongly that you feel them in your mind and at your fingertips. and spirit of each subject was held strongly but loosely between the fingertips. It denies the importance of accident. or ice—you must actually feel it beneath your fingers as you draw. Our position asvieweris unsteady. Know the texture. temperature. excessive planning can get in the way of the imagination. balance. silk. the unknown. Landscape in Haboku Style 15TH CENTURY . and at speeds beyond conscious thought. created centuries and cultures apart. If you can do this. and practice each part before putting the final image together. mists. declare the idea. and we can just make out the distant stains of mountains. which can offer keys to other things. meaning. Whatever the material— wood. This is the alchemy of drawing. and what you discover in the process of making. trusting my intuition to find a visual equivalence for the sensation of weight within my body. are both made of ink laid onto wet paper with speed and agile certainty. and allowed to flow through the brush. W e float toward the quiet vista as it also moves toward us. fire. BRUSHED LANDSCAPE FLOWING SKELETON T h e gliding poise of this walking anatomy comes as much from the feeling of movement as it does from the feeling of drawing. feel.14 INTRODUCTION ALCHEMY At school. The physicality. or imagine—it is not enough to only render its shape. As your hand meets the paper to make a mark. Each image relied upon past experience to know the probable behavior of the brush. This is a detail of a brush-and-ink drawing by a Japanese Buddhist monk. and sometimes beyond. explain the composition. I made it almost unconsciously with a pen and a brush. and how it feels to the touch.

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left. Lautrec's flamboyant splashes o f petticoats and pantaloons are drawn with long sweeps of chalk and brushed oil paint. right is set inside a rib cage. acrylic. stand table-sized with furniture legs attached t o b o t h sides of their jacket. W a l t e r also makes books: some. He dazzles us with flashes o f light and dabbed marks o f shadow. gold leaf and spray paint. which evoke realities o f place and the p o w e r o f moment. one of many luminous works in watercolor. made by a young British artist who creates alphabets o f the absurd f r o m familiar childhood characters.1896 Woman at her Toilet 41 x 26 in (104 x 66 cm) TOULOUSE LAUTREC RIB-CAGE D R A M A Thus drama. like folded insects.16 INTRODUCTION PLACE A N D MOMENT The heat and teeming atmosphere o f this Parisian dressing room. pastel. lives on. Focusing on the Negative 2004 22 x 30 in (56 x 76 cm) J O H N WALTER . c. more than 100 years after its making.

With no help and advice at all. Drawing is exploratory.17 FREEING THE HAND If you are just beginning to learn how to draw. Such books are personal: the territory of new exploration and experiment. and miscellaneous items of inspiration. Enjoy discovering what your hand and the material can do. at a point when you feel you are not making progress. just through the act of making. It is yours. you will be surprised and encouraged to see how far you have come. One of the advantages of a drawing book is that you can shut it. potential ideas still forming. FREEINGTHEHAND . Put them away and look at them later. diary-like observations. even those you dislike. and mistakes are a valuable process of learning. you will naturally make progress on your own in response to concentration and the decision to look and draw. Start by choosing a material you like the look of and cover a piece of paper with different marks. try not to grip your pen worrying about the technical terms you might have heard. Choose other materials and do the same. Much will be learned on these test sheets and in your first drawings. Ignore these at first and allow yourself the freedom to play. Pages do not have to lie open for other people to inspect and comment on. take your time and don't worry if you need to make several attempts to grasp a concept. Try to keep all of your first drawings. As you follow lessons in this book.

Picasso is poised smiling. In the total wealth of these pages. caught between action and repose. which of course he cannot see. 150). Note that the drawing classes are allocated to subjects. it will be your creation as you discover your own personal vision. ELECTRIC BULL With a penlight. I was particularly attracted to their gentle articulation and understated determination. and enfolding new media. which is held frozen in space by a camera lens. but not confined to them. Imagination needs nourishment. An artist's personal voice is something that also evolves through lessons learned. seek ideas in the life around you. The chapters of this book present 90 different artists' ways of seeing. The real drawing book has yet to come. threedimensionally. As you draw. To these I have added my own drawings to explain elementary materials and techniques and offer introductory approaches. adapting its form and occupation. A N ARTIST'S HANDS These are the hands of the artist Phyll Kiggell (see p. Once there. Its sensuous and flowing line seems to drift like smoke. However. staring straight through his image of a bull. Picasso Painting with Light at the Madoura Pottery 1949 . the path is yours. and many more reasons for drawing the world. when they are more experienced. This practical journey will take you through the door into the vivid heart of drawing. It rarely flourishes in isolation. Look to your own experience and also learn from the work of others. comes from within. and became a great subject for me. Drawing is a living language that over millennia has grown and changed.18 INTRODUCTION THE THINKING EYE Techniques and materials are the grammar and vocabulary of drawing and can be studied and shared. Picasso has just finished his drawing. it is this voice that is the subtle part of their art and something that ultimately.Their elegant strength seems to summon a lifetime of drawing. we still only glimpse a corner of the magnitude of this subject and the infinity of what can be achieved.

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q u a l i t y r i n g . Alternatively. Drawing boards are invaluable. Calculate a range of useful dimensions and have several cut at once. Smooth plywood.b o u n d p a d if y o u w i s h t o keep your drawings together long-term.C O V E R E D H A R D B O U N D : Ideal f o r c a r r y i n g a r o u n d . quality. color. C A N V A S . There are dozens to choose from. H o w e v e r r i n g bindings o f t e n break. a n d r e f e r e n c e b o o k s f o u n d in s e c o n d . c h o o s e larger f o r m a t s t o give y o u s c o p e f o r e x p e r i m e n t . H O M E M A D E : I m a d e this b o o k f r o m drawing paper that I folded. c h o o s e s m a l l e r h a r d . and cost. b e a w a r e t h a t p a p e r t e x t u r e effects a n d changes t h e i r marks. t h e i r jackets w i l l a c t like d r a w i n g b o a r d s a n d p r o t e c t y o u r w o r k . 2002 Tantalus o r The Future of Man 81/2 x61/4in (215 x 158 mm) ROSE MILLER . These are perfect f o r w o r k i n g in novels.b o u n d b o o k w i l l s o o n s h o w y o u h o w it is m a d e . and handles to lift the weight of your artworks. If you intend to carry your boards for a distance. Purchase a h i g h . a n d crayons. Homemade books can be assembled easily from found materials or selections of loose sheet papers. C O L O R E D PAPERS: Large a r t supply stores o f t e n sell t h i c k b o o k s full o f c o l o r e d p a p e r s . cut. thickness. thick enough not to flex. 6.b o u n d b o o k s t h a t fit in y o u r p o c k e t o r bag. It is also useful to own a portfolio. Dissecting a d i s c a r d e d h a r d . A high-quality one will last a DRAWING BOOKS Select d r a w i n g b o o k s t o suit y o u r aims. 1. y o u n e e d a lifetime. binding.20 INTRODUCTION Drawing Books and Papers T o BEGIN YOUR EXPLORATION o f d r a w i n g . is perfect. catalogs. Sand the edges to avoid splinters. They can be very expensive in art stores. You simply need two strong boards hinged together well. Art students often make use of printed books picked up from secondhand stores into which they draw. F O U N D B O O K S : O l d p r i n t e d 3 . F o r traveling.h a n d s t o r e s make unique subjects f o r e x p e r i m e n t s a n d collage. cheap corrugated plastic ones fall apart in days. BLACK P O C K E T B O O K S : Hand-sized w i t h ready-made elastic binder and a marker ribbon. and collage their ideas. study the structure of a good portfolio and make your own. R I N G .B O U N D PADS: T h e s e are t h e least expensive a n d useful f o r o p e n i n g flat. c o l o r If planning t o use pencils. which are also sold in an enormous range. and glued t o a s t r i p o f bias binding. 2. 5. t h i s is h o w I l e a r n e d . drawing book. stitched. Many artists invent ways o f binding their o w n books. a l e n g t h o f black elastic t i e d a r o u n d t h e m i d d l e will h o l d the contents together w h e n y o u f o l d in c o l l e c t e d items. Gleaming store purchases vary greatly in format. N o t e t h e w i d e l y differing c h o i c e o f p a p e r s w i t h w h i c h t h e s e are m a d e . F o r e v e n i n g classes. texture. T h e hardb o a r d j a c k e t is s t r e t c h e d w i t h canvas beneath t h e p a p e r sleeve. pastels. ties on either side to keep your papers in place. it is better to have them made at a lumber yard or home improvement store. 4. Most contain thin p a p e r and are perfect f o r use w i t h disposable pens. be sure they fit comfortably under your arm.

red. AQUARELLE ARCHES 300GMS:The very top quality hot-pressed (smooth) watercolor paper. blocks. turning brown and brittle. METALLIC PAPER: Thin paper in different metallic colors. mold-. ITALIAN PARCHMENT: Imitation-animal-skin parchment that is translucent and slightly waxy. Cheap wood-pulp papers are acidic. resisting deterioration. 17. and cost. 22. 12. 13. VELIN ARCHES 250GMS: Printmaking paper available in black white. or rolls. from pencil to paint 9. 18. C A R B O N PAPER: Available in dark and light blue. Use with a brush in clean water Water makes a dark mark like ink and becomes invisible again when dry.5 9 ) for explanations of rough. texture. For use with any media. and white. 21. it is made from rice. used to imprint lines of these colors onto a surface. MAGIC PAPER: A reusable sheet for testing ideas without creating waste. JAPANESE PAPER: Strong. PAPERS . 10. Ph. FABRIANO ACADEMIA: Standard medium-range multipurpose paper Use with any media. FABRIANO INGRES: Thin. also good for drawing with colored pencils. bamboo. pastel paper in flecked pastel colors with a distinctive ribbed marking. not. 8. cold. It is also excellent for drawing with marker pens on layered sheets. 15. yellow. Use for brushwork drawings.Papers differ in thickness (weight). 20. smooth. 11. FABRIANO R O U G H 600GMS: Very heavy. absorbency. and translucent. Use cheap paper for rough ideas and quality paper for work to last See the glossary ( p p . fine. printed on one side only. 100% cotton and sold in sheets. It is available in white or cream. 14. blocks. GLASSINE: Sold as protective wrapping. T W O RIVERS Y E L L O W 410GMS: See Two Rivers Green 19. C A N S O N : Inexpensive lightweight pastel paper in many colors. 16. and other plant fibers. or machine made in sheets. 7. T W O RIVERS GREEN 410G MS: Very heavy tinted textured cold-pressed watercolor paper See Two Rivers Yellow. and hot pressed papers. tough. mulberry. color. and rolls.TISSUE PAPER: Place sheets between drawing book pages to keep images from printing on each other and use for delicate collage. Cotton papers are high-quality and acid-free. They are hand-. and cream sheets or rolls. white textured paper that can take abrasive use of any medium. 2 5 6 . size. SAUNDERS WATERFORD N O T 300GMS: Mid-quality textured watercolor paper.

place it on the correct side: if right-handed. How you hold your drawing materials is also important. body. Use the side of your little fingernail as a support on the page. don't sit too close to the paper. make sure you have enough room to back away and view your work. From a distance you will spot errors you cannot see close up. a n d h a n d to the fingertips. a n d look to the left of it at your subject. b u t it should n o t be forgotten that many people make remarkable a n d striking works drawing with their feet or holding their brush or pencil in their mouths. or with your drawing board angled between your lap and a chair. arm. place it on your left. There are also parallels to dance. This cramped grip tires your hand and makes small. Placing your easel o n the w r o n g side folds y o u r b o d y against your drawing arm. Ideally. There should be an open. but you need to understand that the expression of a line or mark originates in the body and flows t h r o u g h the shoulder. but wherever possible. and look to the right. If using an upright easel. You do not have to dance to draw. SPACE TO WORK Cramped grip. 116-17). . your drawing will reflect this. If seated on a b e n c h easel (a donkey). and subject. place it on your right. you can draw lines freely and achieve a significant arc of movement. flowing space between your hand. your lines will distort. Examples are shown here. Accelerated perspective also occurs if you look down the surface steeply (see pp. should be able to look comfortably straight ahead at your picture plane. With your hand in this position.22 INTRODUCTION Posture and Grip T o DRAW WELL. In this book we will look at parallels between drawing and music. You cannot draw like this—your hand is locked and your fingers can barely move. your whole relaxed b o d y should be involved. if left-handed. you Drawing classes can be cramped places. Relaxed fingers: Hold the pencil away from its tip and relax your fingers. Turning your drawing sideways or upside-own will also help reveal what is wrong. If your hand twists to maneuver between the paper and your body. It will also reflect discomfort if you are in any way cramped. strangledlooking drawings. Regularly step back 6-9 ft (2-3 m) to check your progress. If your body posture is well balanced and you can move freely. This photograph illustrates how some people hold a pen to write.

and body are not restricted. not up to the paper Brushes can be used on upright paper but dip Anticipating effects: A fully loaded pens need a level surface. find an unfamiliar. roughly marking out a large-scale work. This can give a new lease on life to your mark-making. liquid will run down your hand. Large scale: POSTURE AND GRIP U n f a m i l i a r i t y : T h e habitual movements of our handwriting style will sometimes infringe upon our drawing. or it can spoil your work if not anticipated. GRAVITY Remember that gravity affects the flow of ink and paint. To stop this. This can be used to great effect. Large amounts of ink can be applied without fear of uncontrolled running if the paper is flat. But be careful not to tense your fingers. If you turn a brush or dip pen up into the air to draw above your hand.23 This loose "candle" grip is very useful when drawing with your arm extended. upright way of holding the brush near its base is similar to the Japanese way used in Zen calligraphy (see pp.232-33). Soft media: Short materials such as pastels and charcoal can be accommodated in the palm. alternative way of holding the pencil. brush pressed against an upright surface will cause a dribble of ink to run down your drawing. Remember you can also draw just by dipping your fingers in pigment—this is how many women draw in rural India. hold your material as you find most comfortable. It is most comfortable when reaching to draw above your head. . or change to the wrong hand. arm. depending upon what it is and how large you are working. Brush calligraphy: This comfortable. As long as your fingers. ALL MEDIA There are no rules as to how you should hold your drawing media.

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animals provide a perfect subject with which to begin. mermaids." He worked with the scientist Thomas Harriot. each dedicated to the moralized tale of an animal or monster The bestiary profoundly influenced the art of its period. m u s e u m . their different speeds and patterns of action. and pioneer born c. 1540. We have drawn them on the walls of caves to evoke their kinship and power. cartographer. O v e r the centuries. who described in words what White drew.m o u n t e d skeletons of birds. dogs. and this very drawing was to endure many copies and plagiarisms after its triumphant return to the English court of Queen Elizabeth I. Together they made maps and documented animals. fish. JOHN WHITE British artist. offer challenges and delights to draw. As children we delight in the humanized trials of Tom and Jerry and their c a r t o o n relations. birds. and silent. plants. and learn how to Flying Fish c. bats. floating turtles. or scampering through the initials and borders of pictures from that time. from which personality and predicted behavior were " d e d u c e d . out are now oxidized and so appear black W h e n less preoccupied with understanding ourselves. In this chapter we discover the use of pens and ink through the delineation of insects. and we still see escapees from its pages carved and grinning as the gargoyles of churches. In medieval England. W e have drawn them in m a n u s c r i p t s to explain our genesis and to c o u n t their species into Noah's ark. 1590 J O H N WHITE capture form and movement from the m a n n e r i s m s of honking geese. In 19th-century Europe this became a "science. Facial features were analyzed in terms of their animal likeness. to be there at the m o m e n t of discovery. Here (left) we see J o h n White's exquisite record of a flying fish. W h e n lost to explain our own emotions. and dragons. 11 x91/4in (277 x 234 mm) .Animals H UMANS HAVE DRAWN ANIMALS from the beginning of our time. sleeping dogs. For the novice artist. the Latin bestiary was one of the most popular picture books—an illustrated dictionary of one hundred parts." Paranoid newcomers c r a m m e d into swelling industrial cities used handbooks of physiognomy to identify and judge their neighbors. Framed in the z o o or in domestic cohabitation. White's commission was to ".. After the subject of ourselves.. This drawing is made in black lead (metal point) with watercolor Highlights of silver would have gleamed. " Animals perpetually feed our imaginations. we turn and take the features of beasts. werewolves. On the Roanoke voyages of Sir Walter Raleigh. we have employed artists on expeditions. and people. and snakes have between them engendered harpies.drawe to lief one of each kinde of thing that is strange to us in England. which very likely leaped o n t o the deck of Sir Walter Raleigh's ship Tiger as it sailed north from the Caribbean to Virginia in 1585. which are so unlike ours. and to bring h o m e drawn documentaries of their finds. they are perhaps our favorite pictorial preoccupation. insects. Europeans on board had never seen such a thing.

it continued its journey to Rome. It is such a lifelike triumph of imagination and intelligence that for centuries zoologists never questioned its authority. Unsurpassed. Original Ink Drawing of a Rhinoceros 1515 ALBRECHT DURER 103/4 x 161/2 in ( 2 7 4 x 4 2 0 mm) . Converted into a print. Meanwhile. Stubbs's Anatomy of the Horse achieved similar documentary status. naturalist. filled journals with ideas and observations. Durer's image changed eager hands until it was known across Europe. draftsman. they were rejected. when more accurate portrayals were made without armor and scales. Durer traveled widely to study at different European schools of art. Sailing to Rome. but the drowned animal washed ashore. printmaker. It was to become the animal's only accepted likeness for 250 years. He in turn sent the mysterious creature to the Pope via Marseilles at the request of the King of France. and wrote four books on proportion. a drawing of it arrived in Nuremberg. DURER'S RHINOCEROS AND STUBBS'S skeletal Durer. Carefully stuffed. writer. it is still consulted by veterinarians today. a gift to the Portuguese King. years after its publication. the ship was lost. The first live rhinoceros to reach Europe came from India in May 1515. Contemporary texts related accounts of the beast as the mortal enemy of the elephant and rare relative of the "more common" unicorn. the home of ALBRECHT DURER German Renaissance painter.26 ANIMALS Documentaries horse are superb affirmations of the power of drawing as a recorder and communicator of knowledge. He studied the image and drew his own interpretation. inspiring countless works of art and so touching people's imaginations that later. Life-like This is Durer's original quill-and-ink drawing made after an anonymous Portuguese drawing. and mathematician.

He translated his own drawings into engravings for publication. naturalist. Stubbs's m o s t c e l e b r a t e d publication. Anatomy of the Horse. Stubbs w a s o n e o f t h e first E u r o p e a n artists t o m a k e a n a c c u r a t e representation o f the rhinoceros. Dissections Stubbs took his knife and his pencil and physically climbed inside the horse. and therefore invented the lighting that Compare how Stubbs and Durer both invented lighting to portray the reality of their animals. Lighting Stubbs's breathtaking international work won immediate There acclaim. in t h r e e v i e w s — r e a r f r o n t . knowledge of parts. He composed makes each horse appear so real and each plate from his three-dimensional. His painted p o r t r a i t o f t h e b e a s t is in t h e R o y a l C o l l e g e o f S u r g e o n s o f England. Dissections were made over a total of 18 months. c o m p r i s e s 1 8 p l a t e s s h o w i n g d i s s e c t i o n s in l a y e r s f r o m b o n e t h r o u g h m u s c u l a t u r e t o skin. a n d anatomist.GEORGE STUBBS B r i t i s h e q u i n e a n d s o c i e t y p o r t r a i t painter. composed from notes and observations. a n d s i d e . Table of the III of the Horse (rear Skeleton view) mm) 1756-58 1 4 x 7 in ( 3 5 4 x 1 8 0 GEORGE STUBBS . is no other work like it. This is one of Stubbs' original finished pencil drawings. which has never diminished. L o n d o n . The entire project was developed over ten years. dissecting and drawing until he understood the mechanisms of its power and grace.

sepia. playwright. and Pieuvre 1866-69 91/2 x81/8in (242 x 207 mm) VICTOR H U G O . Mixed media Here. H u g o mixed his media and drew from m e m o r y and imagination to create narrative atmosphere. VICTOR HUGO Poet.. her sharp teeth. the ominous beast unwinds from the dark of the sea and of our nightmares. linseed oil soaked into the paper has made shadows and repelled the ink to create translucent tentacles.". soot. novelist. Hugo's novels Les Miserables and Dame have become classics of film and stage.28 ANIMALS Presence and Mood THESE DRAWINGS HAVE BEEN CHOSEN to s h o w t w o v e r y different ways of picturing a wild animal. charcoal. and all sorts of bizarre concoctions which manage to convey above all in mind. Surrounding sprays of graphite powder are stuck into washes of oil and ink to suggest glutinous depths. By contrast. her b o n y frame. He has w a t c h e d her p o u n c e . saying ".. He wrote to poet and art critic Charles-Pierre Baudelaire about his experiments. more or less what I have in view. The octopus is formed in layers applied and distressed with a brush. and turn. Hugo's page is f l o o d e d w i t h the fearful presence of a remembered octopus. I've ended up mixing in pencil. and leader of the French Romantic movement. conjured b y the hand of a great author of French literary fiction. it silently rises to the light. Apparently drawn in its o w n ink.. ink and linseed oil on paper.. snarl. coal dust. Hugo used graphite powder. The Hunchback of Notre Layers and shadows Throughout this drawing. and a love of accident. A s if disturbed from its gritty b e d by our presence and curiosity. His copious drawings are characterized by mixed media. drama. and her distinctive temperament. Gericault's sheet a p p e a r s almost s c r a t c h e d b y the f e r o c i o u s play of his cat. Gericault took a sharp p e n c i l to m a k e repeated direct o b s e r v a t i o n s f r o m life. drawing her again and again to pin d o w n the texture of her loose skin.

of drawings Gericault erased. parallel. H e is best k n o w n f o r his gigantic painting. Beginners are advised to follow the natural contours of form as shown on pp. 124-25 and p. displayed in the Louvre. s h o r t . At the center of the page is crammed drawings the outline of a horse. Before paper became so cheap. Undertraces Beneath these graphite studies we see traces Tones On the top row we see clearly how Gericault laid broad areas of tone using fast. fiery. Tones that do not follow surface contour is very difficult to do well. of previous Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 1817-18 121/2 x 151/2 in ( 3 1 9 x 3 9 8 mm) T H E O D O R E GERICAULT . horses w e r e a favorite subject t o g e t h e r w i t h politics and history. artists reused sheets and them full of studies.l i v e d French R o m a n t i c painter and lithographer Largely self-taught.29 THEODORE GERICAULT C o n t r o v e r s i a l . and it can be applied to any subject (see pp. Repeated study This drawing demonstrates of feeling confident repeat different the importance subject Remaining enough to isolate parts of a views. diagonal strokes of his pencil. and keep trying again. Here. focused upon seeing will lead to a greater understanding of the subject Much is learned from repeated study. The Raft of the Medusa. facing right. 144. Paris.118-119). since it can lead to a flattened form. undertraces unify and vitalize the composition. standing sideways.

draftsman. noise is everywhere. These media complement and amplify each other with their brilliant contrast. quivering horse. flattened animals composed almost entirely of movement. identify an animal: the fast cheetah. Both Picasso and Klee have enclosed their subjects to compress and amplify the speed of PABLO PICASSO A prolific Spanish painter sculptor. and scrolled lines. The fact that they never stand still influences the movement in his line. or proud. the first abstract movement of the 20th century. with George Braque (see p90). the whinnying of a frantic horse. we see semi-abstract. In these two drawings. Gouache is brushed softly in translucent hazy layers of cool blue. Picasso cofounded Cubism. hooked.30 ANIMALS Movement M O V E M E N T IS OFTEN THE CHARACTERISTIC b y w h i c h w e their lines and the power of their beasts. Artists commonly focus on such actions. Cheval et Oiseau 1936 173/8 x 211/4 in ( 4 4 0 x 5 4 0 m m ) PABLO PICASSO . In Picasso's drawing. and brown. gray. flapping bird. His powdery. taking them to guide their hand in bringing form and essence together. Ink and gouache This drawing is made in black Chinese ink and gouache (opaque watercolor) applied with a brush. printmaker ceramicist graphic and stage designer who lived in France. The ink is used to make sharply defined solid. and waves breaking distantly below. slow tortoise. His hand must have shuddered and twitched just like the constant actions of this humorous meeting. Klee's riders are constructed from all the gestures of greeting mules. overwhelmed by a screeching bird. Faune. dissolving faun kneels stranded. made only a year apart.

Layers of marks In this pale Dentil drawing we see layers of' agitated marks that together present a kind of visual "itch. top all happily of each other in the Endless lines Look closely at how Klee's lines rarely leave the paper and how they are free from the constraint of finite shape. and t e a c h e r at t h e Bauhaus school. N e u m a n n Family Collection. turning our eye and around inside the and postures of the paper- thin on pictorial space.PAUL KLEE Swiss painter. W i t h his drawings Kleeb o u n d sophisticated theories to personal and often witty childlike imagery. violinist. creatures. well-worn copies o f w h i c h are found in m a n y art schools. Scene der Komischen of Comical Reiter Riders) (Scene 1935 161/2x111/2in ( 4 1 9 x 2 9 1 mm) M o r t o n G . Chicago PAUL KLEE . They remain in contact with the surface of the page and scribble back and forth as they maneuver from one area to another. The entire drawing suggests the endless small movements of horses standing still." They chatter around bodies in groups. sculptor. printmaker. He is a u t h o r o f The Thinking Eye (1923). draftsman.

and steerage. His birds stare. and author o f Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (1586). the expression of its eye. Below we see his revolutionary design for an Elizabethan warship. The fish It is likely that Baker drew with a quill dipped in irongall ink. Knopf's drawing opposite is the personal enigmatic expression of a mind gripped by illness. t h e earliest geometrically defined elevations. and scales. Baker lived in an era when ships were built without drawn plans. It is simply how we read his perspective. and the carefully observed gills. fins. seemingly looking for our attention. In contrast to the practical clarity of Baker's thought.32 ANIMALS Icon and Design IN THESE T W O MANUSCRIPTS we discover diagrammatic and mackerel's tail" (full bow. and to assess our next move. adding washes of color with a fine brush. He studied the anatomy of fish. drawings of animals that are each held tightly in a surprising space: a giant fish wears a ship's hull. In just one drawing he has displayed more angles of his design than we would expect to see from a single viewpoint Fragments English 1586 101/2 x 153/8 in (270 x 390 mm) MATTHEW BAKER of Ancient Shipwrightry . and from them learned that if he designed his ship with a "cod's head MATTHEW BAKER Master shipwright. slim stern). plans. Exquisite details in this drawing include the lips of the fish. later called a galleon. balance. it would achieve greater speed. Baker did not intend this. The ship The upper decks of the ship appear curved toward us at both ends. and blackbirds fly in formation through a mosaic of text. and s e c t i o n s o f ships. mathematician. which in application gave strength and advantage to the English fighting the Spanish Armada. This drawing illustrates Baker's theory. B a k e r initiated t h e scientific p r a c t i c e o f naval a r c h i t e c t u r e and applied h y d r o d y n a m i c s . b a s e d o n his studies o f fish.

firmly outlined. circle and the birds.K n o p f b e l i e v e d h e c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h e language o f birds. written last of all. The main group is placed in a circle drawn with a compass. appears to be stirred like water by the presence of the The Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks UNDATED 133/8 x 115/8 in (340 x 2 9 6 mm) and psychiatrist Hans Prinzhom collected this image. T h e G e r m a n a r t historian Outline and tone The blackbirds illuminating this frantic manuscript are drawn in pencil. JOHANN KNOPF . w h i c h o f t e n f e a t u r e as s y m b o l i c creatures in his drawings. The text.JOHANN KNOPF An " O u t s i d e r " a r t i s t w h o s u f f e r e d f r o m m e n t a l illness. and filled evenly with tone. numbered.

Each pen has a unique character. they are associated with rapid. The best are goose or swan. producing a different line. Today. high-quality Chinese and Japanese inks are subtler and more complex than those produced in Europe. Quills were later cut from feathers. distinguished manufacture. and it is still in use today. and hold it under a clean basin until the soot hangs to it. F O U N T A I N PENS: These vary in quality and nib width. Avoid needle-sharp mapping pens.246-47). PENS . The reservoir gives a constant flow of ink for very long unbroken lines and continuous bottle-free use. while metal nibs began as rare gifts in gold and silver before being perfected by the British steel industry. The Egyptians and Chinese are credited with the invention of carbon ink. and spatters can be made with an exotic choice of inks. Intricate or dramatic lines. a n d m e t a l p o i n t s ." "Gum" refers to gum arabic extracted Dip pens are essential and inexpensive drawing tools. The paste from either recipe is pressed and dried into a bar for storage. 5 0 0 years ago. expressive drawing techniques such as the ones we explore in this chapter 1. then pour a little warm gum water into it and temper the two together. In the Far East. QUILLS: These are cut from the barrel of a flight or tail feather. Masters choose brands of long. Only fill with suitable inks. light it. Early artists recommended raven and crow for especially fine work. 3. METAL PENS: Inexpensive removable steel nibs are available in a range of widths. where reeds were gathered.34 ANIMALS Pen and Ink W I T H A HANDFUL OF FEATHERS. simultaneously 4 . and first used by the Egyptians. 4. The Chinese used animal or fish glue. REED PENS: A broad nib can be cut from bamboo or another tubular grass. which scratch rather than draw. That is an ink. Dip pens began their history in the Nile River. The bar is then rubbed into water on a slate block to produce ink. the recipes for which have been handed down over centuries. s t i c k s . you can have great fun drawing the world around you. 2. ink is traditionally applied with a brush (see pp. spots. which range greatly in their handling and character of line. from the acacia tree. They fit into wooden holders. Responsive to slight changes in pressure. A German recipe of 1531 gives a simple description: "Take a wax candle.

Beechwood soot is best. Crushed. Excellent for drawing they are bright and non-clogging. 8. They are the easiest inks to use. I N D I A N INK: Carbon ink sold today in liquid form. or charcoal. suspended in a binder and stored as a solid block Blocks are imported today 7. Bistre is the more humane use of soot scraped from the fireplace and ground into wine. waterproof or non-waterproof. Now we also have acrylic ranges in many colors. Inks can be lightfast or non-lightfast.36. and sepia. bistre. and most can be homemade. boiled. they produce a golden dye for drawing. from are not 6. Waterproof types contain shellac. charred bone (Ivory Black).35 PEN AND INK Four types of ink were common before the 20th century. dated. INKS 9. and are still in use today: carbon (Chinese and Indian). reduced. ACRYLIC / CALLIGRAPHY INKS: Available in black and a range of colors. is the ink of a cuttlefish or squid extracted post-mortem. Old stock turns solid and bottlesChina.G A L L INK: Abnormal spherical growths caused by parasitic wasps can be collected from some oak trees in fall. I R O N . an often misused term. iron-gall. and can be mixed and diluted to create subtler colors and tones. It dries with a sheen and clogs uncleaned pens. SEPIA A N D BISTRE INKS: Sepia. and sieved. . C A R B O N INK: Traditionally produced from oil or resin soot (Lamp Black). 5. roastedwine sediment (Yeast Black). The complexities of traditional iron-gall ink are explained on p. Non-waterproof Indian inks can be reworked with a wet brush after drying.

Practice to gain a feel for how materials behave. finding reed p e n s unwieldy.36 ANIMALS Drawing With Ink To MAKE A QUILL OR REED PEN. a n d d e v e l o p e d t h e quill instead. . then cut a final nib (feathers. Walnut ink is gloopy. appears broken to show paper beneath. For centuries. sieved. since t h e D u t c h w e r e t h e first t o realize t h a t they could be hardened and i m p r o v e d w i t h heat t r e a t m e n t in ash o r sand. Quills are also called D u t c h pens. and boiled to make a golden ink. Rembrandt. for example. red-brown. always be cautious when experimenting with recipes. The lighter right Quill marks Quills carry more ink than strokes and for as reeds. galls were ground with iron sulfate to make an unstable solution. The darkest of this grasshopper wings) were made (around the head first. giving a s h o r t . crushed. U n d e r heavy pressure. QUILL PENS Q u i l l s a r e highly r e s p o n s i v e t o c h a n g e s in p r e s s u r e . It dried black. giving longer lines. 2 4 4 is an e x q u i s i t e e x a m p l e . M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s d r a g o n o n p . it was gray-purple. Some of Michelangelo's drawings are now a little eaten by their own ink. fleshy skins that surround ripe walnuts. Collect skins from the ground beneath trees once they are blackened. V a n G o g h . reduced. Scribes o f t h e M i d d l e Ages. drawn to glisten with a dryer nib. Oak galls. Paler strokes were made where the mark has the legs and antennae the ink ran out. m o r e e x t e n d e d line than reed and a m o r e organic line t h a n m e t a l . Running fresh. and turned brown with time. r e s e r v e d t h e i r use f o r large c h o i r b o o k s . keep all your fingers behind basis of iron-gall ink. are surprisingly tough. It also oxidized and ate or burned paper. the blade and cut away from you. can also be collected from affected trees. I u s e d t h e s e qualities t o d r a w t h e w o r m s above. forming the REED PENS R e e dpens dispense ink quickly.) You can make ink easily from the boiled. of a loaded nib. Reed marks The darker left wing of this beetle was drawn with the wet inky stroke wing. Although oak galls and walnut skins are harmless. T h e y give a finer. d r y mark. t h e y stick a n d j u d d e r f o r w a r d . a n d M a t i s s e also e n j o y e d t h e m . and delicious to draw with.

. withstanding great pressure without sticking. it is important to feel for when the ink will run out and to know how much ink you pick up when dipping the nib. they splay to make thick o r double lines. sharp. o r being ruined as fountain pens would be under the same pressure. particles then filled with a droplet of ink. Each layer of of the drying droplet dome the drawing was left to dry before adding more. marks become fine and needle-sharp. giving a graded. When using dip pens. W h e n the nib is pressed upside down. DRAWING WITH INK Filled outlines Each segment of wing was outlined. White markings were drawn last Tones Here we see subtle tones of diluted ink beneath the undiluted black rim of a beetle's wing. breaking. clean strokes. The of pigment to fall to the edges effect of the shape. tonal Ink layers The wings of this beetle were drawn in layers using black and white ink on pale gray paper. Loaded with ink and pressed hard.37 METAL PENS Metal pens give long.

and quickly draw around it using only three or four strokes. and boldly plunge into your drawing." If you don't like a stroke. That said. It teaches confidence and focus through intensive repetition. Posture . there is no obligation to prepare a quill. and there is no "wrong. to absorb blots when drawing.38 ANIMALS Capturing Character GEESE ARE EXCELLENT SUBJECTS to draw when practicing the first use of pen and ink. draw what the bird is doing. and a large drawing book or plenty of paper Use masking tape to secure pages against the wind. not on your drawing. Geese are nosy birds. Pack plenty of tissue around a bottle of calligraphy or acrylic ink. steel nibs are fine. Study them before drawing. Quick drawing trains you to see what is most important about a subject and to mark only its most essential expression. Watch their heavy feathered bodies flap. and be brave. Dip your pen in ink. make another one. Try to hold the whole posture in your mind's eye. and bellyflop off the waterside. Take a cup and water for diluting a range of tones. touch the bottle's rim to drain the excess. I covered eleven sheets in sixty quick drawings—in less than an hour. Empathize. Take no more than ten seconds to draw each one and make lots of drawings. Attempt with a loose hand to capture their posture and outline. MATERIALS NEEDED Look for a bird expressing a simple posture. Cover your drawing book pages in speedy responses to the geese and try to capture each bird in as few lines as possible. Cover a sheet. waddle. Illustrating this exercise on Oxford Port Meadow. test your limits. Experiment. be bold and press firmly. Focus on it. so pick a spot where other people can keep them entertained. It happens that goose feathers also provide artists with the best type of quills. Focus on the geese. You cannot break the nib.

Again. running. look among the birds for more complicated actions such as shaking off water. flapping. Avoid detail unless really tempted by a close-up visit Fluctuate the pressure of your pen in response to how you know the bird would feel if you touched it. draw the feeling of what you see. Use more lines than before to express these. and diving. and don't worry about mechanical facts or accuracy. CAPTURING CHARACTER Texture Gradually allow yourself more lines to describe the texture of each bird as well as its posture and action. .39 Action With growing confidence.

Make a test sheet to discover your control of diluting on the nib. These drawings are not an analysis of his anatomy or breed but the expression of his satisfied comfort in a deep sleep after a night out on the together with a glass of water for diluting tones on the nib.40 ANIMALS Sleeping Dogs R A S WAS A GREAT CHARACTER. and personality. For this class you will need one oblivious dog. Sleeping animals present the artist with ideal opportunities to study their texture. a d o g w h o w a s a l w a y s town.34-37). engaged in his and everyone else's business. The only time he remained still was when he was sleeping. Ras Curled Up Asleep "Capturing the true character of a cherished companion is best achieved with objective determination rather than sentimental shyness. MAKING A PALE LINE To make a pale line. and even then he twitched and stretched in dreams. first dip your pen in ink. Dip the nib quickly again into water and again drain it. Now it will make a pale line. Then dip the nib quickly into a glass of water and drain the excess again. and drain the excess by touching the nib against the rim of the bottle. This will give a medium-gray line. form." . and a tissue for blotting drawn lines that appear too dark. your drawing book. a dip pen and ink of your choice (see pp.

alter the pressure and moisture of your line in response to howyouknow your dog feels when you ruffle itscoat. second thoughts may be different Changing your mind is a positive aspect o f seeing and thinking. To add texture. W i t h pale lies. to emphasize how he is curled up. c o n c e r n e d a b o u t detail. Character is better captured drawing quickly with confidence than w o r k i n g slowly. Then. and the shadows in his coat. ignoring all detail. 3 Gradually introduce darker tones. see how the animal's posture determines its whole shape. Remain focused on the whole dog and. Trust your intuition. ears. First lines are first thoughts. Here I marked the features of Ras's head. add more detail. tail.It is essential when drawing any subject (even something abstract) to know how it feels andtoemulate this with your line. D o not go back over lines you are pleased with—doing so dulls their lively freshness. quickly draw what you see. . this time to create a line a little darker in tone. SLEEPING DOGS 1 Fix your eyes at the center of the dog. I added ink to Ras's nose.41 DRAWING YOUR DOG Be bold in this exercise. in bold layers. Here. Layers o f thoughts can bring a drawing alive. 2 Reload your pen with ink. Then I immediately rebalanced the drawing with lines around his hind quarters.

turtles often pause unexpectedly. Beyond the glass wall of the aquarium. THE ELONGATION AND BUOYANCY of a group of turtles is fascinating . swinging their limbs and shells with a slow circular movement. offering plenty of time for the artist to draw the pose.Turtles to observe. they stretch and paddle. as if caught in a camera freeze-frame. A perfect subject for the beginner.

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With speed. and sharp. India ink.Dry Birds THESE ARE THE ARTICULATED BONES o f a k i w i a n d a h o u s e - martin drawn in a museum using a steel pen. Beginning with very pale tones. and water. balance. I sought to capture the form. dry. . weightlessness of the kiwi. I darkened lines as each drawing progressed. I made repeated studies of the housemartin to discover its mechanism of flight.

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as opposed to only herbal. Botanic gardens were established and expanded. Medieval knowledge was not gained by the first-hand observation of life but by reading. Botanical illustration is a precisely defined and scientific art. infinitely vivid. where a number of uncredited artistsd r e wthem for Besler. Chapters are arranged by out. Plants seventeenth century. Plants are the principal inspiration of the decorative arts—from Roman Corinthian columns crowned with carved leaves of the acanthus. From its history there is one overriding lesson to be learned: the importance of looking and seeing with our own eyes. Rich owners of private gardens commissioned large-format florilegiums commissioned the volume to document his private garden to immortalize their personal taste and power of acquisition. season. Classifications were set in367copperengravings. to catalog our knowledge. and to ornament our lives. manipulations of light and shade. We draw them to celebrate their beauty and range. form. He sent boxes of plants to Nuremburgburned with the urgency and excitement of explaining every plant's form. the punctuation of space with structure and mass. and diverse kingdom of plants. and the drawn pages ofthesame name. PriceBishopof Eichstatt specimens. to the proliferation of floral designs with which we have dressed ourselves and furnished our homes for centuries. and focus. nurture. Patrons funded the breeding of decorative. on which our lives depend. Later. and the Acanthus spinosus constant but exhilarating struggle to make a living image feel right. In this chapter. Both embrace the anticipation of evolving shape. the microscope was refined to unfold yet another world. and beauty. It was published plain in 1611 and withhand-paintedplates in poured off ships returning from the New World and were eagerly collected and 1613. Conrad von Gemmingen. —-the largest and most influential botanical book of the early Natural scientists accompanied explorers to document unknown finds.Plants and Gardens W E SHARE THIS PLANET with the more ancient. 1613 187/8x153/4in(480 x 400 mm) BASILIUS BESLER . an There are close parallels between the acts of gardening and drawing. and hybridize them for our sustenance and pleasure.000 species of plants are depicted life-size drawn. color. The revolution came in the 1530s. and texture. Early European illustrators were trapped within dogma that was determined by ancient scholarship. we now have laid before us fourto show how well their colours complement each other infinite wealth of material to explore. robust. After Here Aconthus spinosus is combined with forget-me-nots and-a-half centuries of intensive observation. We collect.Morethan 1. shape. Fledgling years Botanist and apothecary who compiled the Hortus Eystettensis of scientific research bore manifold explosions of knowledge in a fever of discovery. we see very different cultural visions of plants and gardens and use pencils and plants to learn the pictorial values of space. B A S I L I U SBESLER when botanists founded new work upon the direct study of plants.

or that were diseased. leaves. delicate. It is likely Bauer would have studied these under a microscope. Outline Bauer prepared a pencil outline before laying in fleshy succulent hues and tones of watercolor. flowers. o p t i m i s m . subtle union of beauty. They are counted among the most accomplished 18th-century botanical artists.48 PLANTS AND GARDENS THE SCIENTIFIC VALUE OF A BOTANICAL DRAWING lies i n its Botanical Studies were specimens that often refused to stay still. fruit. B e h i n d detailed. insect-ravaged. Dissections Across the lower part of this drawing we can see dissections of seed pods and petals. Each plant must b e clearly distinguished from its closest relative. petal tip over a lower leaf Protea nitida 201/4 x141/4in (513 x 362 mm) FRANZ BAUER 1796 . T h e rest of u s are free to d r a w as w e w i s h . and Franz Bauer and his brother Ferdinand were employed there to draw specimens. and meticulous precision. Stella Ross-Craig said of the need to d r a w from a dried herbarium plant "I could make it live again. measured drawings. Here. Sir Joseph Banks. Botanical art c o n c e a l s the challenge of its m a k i n g . The King was then establishing the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. W i t h bright F R A N Z BAUER An Austrian artist who trained at the Schonbrunn Imperial Gardens in Vienna. o p e n i n g a n d c l o s i n g i n the w a r m t h a n d light of the studio. stems. naturalist explorer and advisor to King George III invited Bauer to London in 1 7 9 0 . M a c k i n t o s h e x p r e s s e s the f o l d e d petals of a broken rose b u d so delicately w e can sense the perfume." Her slipper orchid s h o w s that botanical drawing must often resolve the challenge of its subject's p r o d u c i n g parts in different seasons — r o o t s . and wilted. and seeds conventionally a p p e a r o n o n e plate. Light in this drawing is given by the paleness of the paper showing between washes of darker tones. detail. He has made the spatial and physical relationships in this drawing all the more real by placing a single. s u c h as w e see here in Bauer's Protea nitida.

p u b l i s h e d 1 9 4 8 . sensual pencil drawing is later works. Rose 1894 103/4 x 83/4 in ( 2 7 5 x 2 2 1 mm) CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH STELLA ROSS-CRAIG A j o i n e d t h e staff a t t h e R o y a l B o t a n i c G a r d e n s .000 Kew to archive accessible t o d a y v i a t h e I n t e r n e t of o n British flora. H e r Drawings of British Plants. A s m a n y of her drawings are kept G a r d e n s . Ross-Craig said of her work "Plants that wither rapidly present a very difficult problem to which there is only one answer—speed. and speed depends upon the immediate perception of the essential characteristics of the plant. as at trained botanical artist Ross-Craig Swift lines The drawing was planned in pencil and then overworked with a lithographic pen.g a r d e in G e r m a n y a n d A u s t r i a . a n d he inspired. Line Drawing of Cypripedium calceolus L c.7 3 in 3 1 p a r t s . L o n d o n in 1 9 2 9 . Closer to fiction can come together perfectly.286 studies for her book Drawings of British Plants. and perfect coordination of hand and eye. Curtis's Botanical Magazine. a m o n g o t h e r s . Pencil lines cling to. imagination. and it shows how design. BOTANICAL STUDIES Lines and shadows This lush. found among Mackintosh's than reality. 1970 x 81/4 in ( 3 2 5 x 2 1 0 m m ) STELLA ROSS-CRAIG . K e w . and follow shadow.. it is small and discreet. S h e also o f thousands o f contributed an drawings.. and observation the nuance and contour of every in one image. G u s t a v K l i m t In his r e t i r e m e n t Mackintosh m a d e n u m e r o u s inventive pencil a n d w a t e r c o l o r d r a w i n g s o f plants." This line drawing is one of 1. is r e c o g n i z e d as tne m o s t c o m p l e t e a n d i m p o r t a n t work 3.49 C H A R L E S RENNIE MACKINTOSH Scottish a r c h i t e c t d e s i g n e r painter. a n d f o u n d e r o f t h e G l a s g o w S c h o o l o f A r t M a c k i n t o s h ' s flair h a d an e n o r m o u s i n f l u e n c e o n t h e a v a n t .

The white of the page shines through the brilliant color. Drawing. is remembered in the pages of his journal. uniform focus.50 PLANTS AND GARDENS Jeweled Gardens the Middle East we find exquisite stylization of form and upright formality in pictorial space. roses took their form in a bead of perspiration on the brow of Mohammed as he passed through his heavenly journey. The first Mughal Emperor Babur's Garden of Fidelity (Bagh-e Vaja). in the early 16th century. Upright shallow perspectives. Afghanistan. in miniature. Bishndas was probably responsible for the overall design. fluctuations in scale. and attention to detail are all shared with medieval European manuscript drawings. paper is brimming with the beauty and celebration of nature. They used a fine brush to lay pigment over a line drawing. and calligraphy are brought together to hold the sacred names of prophets and the 99 beautiful names of God. 1590 85/8 x55/8in (219 x 1 4 4 mm) BISHNDAS AND NANHA Bright pigment These pages were illuminated by Mughal artists in the late 16th century. Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity c. By Muslim tradition. . urgent attentive human activity. painting. and miraculous growth. Envoys chatter outside the gate. Babur directs his gardeners in the design and planting of this quartered chahar bagh. a notable portrait painter drew the faces. which he personally created near Kabul. Below. anticipating their view. the sumptuous petals permeated with prayer and wisdom. and Nanha. Every fiber of AMONG DRAWINGS FROM BISHNDAS A N D N A N H A Little is known of these Mughal painters who were related as uncle and nephew and commissioned to illustrate the pages of Babur's journal. Opposite is the Rose of Mohammed.

look closely and you will see words written in gold fluttering over the form of the flower. Stylized motif A fine brush has been used throughout this drawing to apply inks and watercolors. so that overlapping petals and stems give an impression of fulfillment and abundance.AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH This is a detail o f a page from a n 1 8 t h .c e n t u r y Turkish manuscnpt a book of religious e t h i c s w r i t t e n in the O r i e n t a l C o l l e c t i o n s of Berlin. Sacred words The central rose is more solid than any other on the page. t h e Staatsbibliothek zu Arabic. and how the shape has been repeated freehand. However. The physical anatomy of the rosebud has been studied and translated into a repeated stylized motif. Note how each bud is essentially the same shape. The Rose of Mohammed 1708 9 1 / 2 x 61/2 in ( 2 4 0 x 1 6 5 mm) FROM THE TURKISH M A N U S C R I P T AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH . fragmenting its detail in a whisper of prayers. It is n o w k e p t in Border The elegant border of this drawing was mode with a pen and ruler It cleverly compresses and defines the composition. G e r m a n y .

52

PLANTS AND GARDENS

Fast Trees
IN CONTRAST TO THE QUIET, formal detail of other drawings in this chapter, these powerful fast trees enact the actions of plants. Each tree reaches out and holds its landscape with dynamism and pulse. In both drawings we find testament to the inexorable energy of growth. Rembrandt expresses a delicate quickness. Gentle lines draw a warm breeze through this remote wooded garden. Rustling in a loose foliage of soft marks, his pen evokes the weight of abundant activity on this late summer's day. Mondrian's arch of scratching branches is drawn with such force it will always be alive. We can still feel his hand storming across the paper. Set within a frame of smudged landscape, the tree possesses a musical agitation. This characteristic will increase in the artist's later abstract work. Here, we see a punctuated ordering of space. Sharp branches cut out negative shapes of winter sky.

R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter; etcher; and draftsman. Rembrandt's prolific output comprises oil paintings of historical and religious subjects together with group and self- portraits. His emotive etchings and pen and ink drawings (see also p. 174) are great resources for artists learning to understand the potential of these media.

Horizon

Pen and ink lines describing foliage also tell

us the directions of sunlight and wind. An arc crossing the bottom of the drawing from one side to the other supports the scene and separates us from the landscape beyond. Compare Rembrandt's arc to that of Mondrian's. and note the similar treatment of low horizons in both works emphasizing the height and dominance of trees.

Cottage Among Trees 1648-50 63/4 x121/8in ( I 7 I x 308 mm) R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN

53

FAST TREES

PIET

MONDRIAN

Atmosphere Here we see how shapes of negative space are as important as the physical subject they enclose (see pp.58-59). Mondrian has again lightly dragged his chalk on its side to evoke a wet depth of atmosphere. These passive gray marks contrast with the assertive tension of the tree.

Dutch Pure abstract painter preoccupied w i t h line and plane relationships. W i t h increasing austerity, Mondrian banished t h e subject from his drawings, in his later w o r k he also banished space, composing visual h a r m o n i e s using only straight lines a n d flat planes o f black, w h i t e , gray, o r p r i m a r y color.

Winter ground Short vertical marks along thebottomof this drawing reveal the length oftheblackchalk Mondrian used. Rubbed onitsside,itroughly blocks in the ground. Thecrudeeconomy of line is all we need tofeelthecold, wet, unwelcoming quality ofthiswinterearth.

Branches and trunk Lines shaping the branches of the tree are built up in layers. To make the trunk more dense, the artist has rubbed and smudged preliminary marks with his fingers before firmly overdrawing with new lines. Solid black lines are achieved by pressing the chalk hard. When used lightly, it shows the texture of the paper. Tree: Study for the Grey 1911 23 x 335/8 in ( 5 8 4 x 8 5 5 m m ) Tree

PIET MONDRIAN

54

PLANTS AND GARDENS

Graphite and Erasers
GRAPHITE, FROM THE G R E E K word

USING GRAPHITE
This drawing illustrates a range of achieved with graphite pencils of different grades.

graphein

Modern pencils are graded from 9H (hard and pale) to 9B (black and soft). Graphiteclay sticks are also available, together with a powder form. All possess a natural sheen and are erasable to a varying degree. Graphite drawings smudge easily, so fixative, a form of varnish, can be used to hold a drawn surface in place. It is applied as a fine mist from an aerosol can, or from a bottle using a diffuser. For the beginner, ordinary hairspray is an effective and cheaper alternative.

(to write), is a soft and brittle carbon. It was first mined in Cumbria, England, in 1 5 6 4 , and was initially used in small, pure pieces bound in lengths of string. Pencils as we know them—with their slender wood casing and "lead" of graphite—were invented in France in 1794 by Nicolas-Jaques Conte. He discovered that milled graphite mixed with clay and water, press-molded, and baked to a high temperature produces a harder and paler medium than graphite alone.

3B pencil A range of mark and textures can be achieved with a 3B pencil when you vary its pressure, speed, and direction, as this detail shows.

MATERIALS
Here is a selection of 14 items to illustrate a basic range of pencils, graphite sticks, sharpeners, erasers, and fixative.
1. AND 2. HB AND 3B PENCILS: It is unnecessary to possess every grade of pencil. HB, the central and most common grade, is perfect for making delicate lines. 3B gives a blacker tone. A great variety of effects can be achieved with just these two. 3. WATER-SOLUBLE PENCIL Effective for atmospheric drawing, but be aware of how watery tones can dull the impact of the line. 4. AND 5. MECHANICAL PENCIL Thick or fine leads are made in a range of grades. They are particularly useful because they do not require a sharpener 6. ROUND SOLID GRAPHITE PENCIL: Excellent for large-scale drawing, producing thick bold lines. A range of grades can be honed with a craft knife or sharpener 7. THICK GRAPHITE STICK: For large-scale drawing. Graded soft, medium, and hard. It crushes to produce graphite powder 8. SQUARE GRAPHITE STICK: Useful for making broad, sweeping marks in large-scale drawing. If worn and rounded, the stick can be snapped into pieces to regain the sharp, square end. 9. CRAFT KNIFE AND BLADES: Handles are sold in two sizes to fit large or small blades, and blades are sold in a range of shapes. Perfect for sharpening pencils to a long point, to cut lines in paper or to remove areas. 10. PENCIL SHARPENER: Makes a uniform point. Keep one in your pocket for drawing outside the studio, together with an envelope for shavings.

HB and 5B Layers of tone have been built up withHBand5Bpencils. Softer pencils require less pressure to make a mark, revealing the texture of the paper surface. It is important to keep the point of the pencil sharp with either a craft knife or a sharpener.

55

ERASING AND FIXING
Erasers can be used t o blend and s o f t e n lines, o r t o r e m o v e altogether. Fixative them prevents

GRAPHITE AND ERASERS

s m u d g i n g a n d s e c u r e s lines.

Using fixative You can use fixative while drawing to hold the definition of lines you wish to gently fade but not remove entirely, for which you would use an eraser.

11. P L A S T I C E R A S E R : Avoid cheap colored erasers that may stain drawings with grease and dye. White brands are available in soft and hard versions.

12.

P U T T Y RUBBER:

W a r m it in your hand before use. It is excellent for removing powdery materials, and for making crisp sweeps of light across a delicate pencil drawing

13. D I F F U S E R : Helleborus corsicus (Corsican hellebore) fixative, or to spray mists of ink.

56

PLANTS AND GARDENS

Cropping and Composition
M A N Y STUDENTS WILL START a d r a w i n g i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e

that its skin nearly touches the boundary. The meaning of the same drawing changes simply by its relationship to the space it occupies. The size of any subject, its placement on the page, the size of the page, and its overall proportion are all discrete and essential aspects of successful picture-making. Before you begin to draw, think carefully about where to place your subject. Are you are happy with your paper? If not, change it; add more, take some away, or turn it around. Do not just accept what you are given, adapt it to what you need.

paper. Focused on the shape and detail of their subject, they remain happily unaware that there is, or should be, any relationship between what they are drawing and the surface they are drawing it on. The paper is only paper, and the troublesome subject floats somewhere in the expanse of it. However, a single fig drawn in the middle of a large, empty square of paper gives quite a different impression from the same fig drawn on such an intimately small square

CHOOSING A VIEW

A Single Fig

"The size, shape, and orientation of the paper are so integral to the composition that they determine the impact and meaning of the drawing."

When subjects touch two or more edges. and therefore apparently suspended from. A card with a small rectangle cut out o f it makes a useful viewfinder C l o s e o n e e y e t o look through the hole. Space as the subject Inallpictures. they establish a tension and unity with the paper. spaces between things are as important as the things themselves. Touching the edge When the subject o f a drawing touches one edge of the paper it attaches t o it visually. as also shown here. CROPPING AND COMPOSITION Off-center and diagonal Here I held my viewfinder so the fig appeared upper-left in the space. running corner t o corner.57 THE VIEWFINDER T h e s e pencil drawings o f figs d e m o n s t r a t e different crops and compositions. bottom-left t o top-right. the uppermost edge of the drawing. its illumination. U s e it as a starting point.O u r focus is on the white cloth supporting the figs. a device to help you decide what t o draw. and lines describing shadows cast by the fruit . its stem and shadow framing a white center. This drawing hasbeencropped to emphasize space between thefruit. Here the left fig is attached to. The angle of the fruit together with dark shadow (top left) and bright light(bottom right) suggest a diagonal division across the whole drawing. t h e n m o v e t h e c a r d t o e x p l o r e different views.

third. dynamic. Unfamiliar shapes of negative space reveal the real shape of a positive subject. shapes of air cut out and defined by the physicality of our environment? When we look into the branches of a tree. Looking at negative space overrides the problem of drawing what you know. and so on. you will need a similar large-leaved plant. rather than what you see in front of you. It helps to start at the center and map outward. erasing and adjusting lines until itlooked right.The box opposite isolates an area. Draw a complete shape Map outward from the center Erase and adjust lines until correct . an eraser. Viewers appreciating a finished image may not see shapes of space. WHERE TO START Arrange your plant and paper so you can look back and forth by barely moving your head. which is shown in the three steps below. In following this class. But how often do we look at the air between things. and engaging. a sharp H B pencil. tone.58 PLANTS AND GARDENS Negative Space UNCONSCIOUSLY WE ASSESS spatial relationships all the time to guide ourselves through the world. and a fresh page in your drawing book. The drawing opposite is of the uppermost leaves of a potted fig tree. Remember that plants do move! Therefore it is best to complete your drawing in one sitting if possible. and a role to play. their subject and composition will become more real. not leaves. Negative space is the simple key to getting positive shape right. a foundation stone in picture-making. but if the artist does. this ensures a consistent view. do we see myriad distinct and unique shapes of daylight or do we just see branches? Why as artists should we look at the air? Every space in a picture has a shape. In your own version. fourth. then added a second shape. It is an astonishingly simple device that many artists use and I strongly recommend. remember to draw only space. unified. Follow these from left to right and see how I began with one complete shape between two parts of a leaf. position.

59

Here I drew only spaces, adding one to another until the leaves were revealed. Besides looking at negative space, there are two other useful things to do when a drawing feels wrong but you cannot see why: look at it in a mirror or turn it upside down. errors and suggest changes.

Spaces between leaves

Either view will

NEGATIVE SPACE

Fig Tree
WALKING IN THE ALPUJARRAS in A n d a l u c i a ,

Spain, I drew a bare fig tree clinging to the wall of an almond grove; a perfect subject for seeing negative space. I marked its essential frame of large branches first, frequently erasing lines and changing my mind until the balance felt right.

S a l v i a , RIBES, CLEMATIS, Allium, Passiflora, and Acanthus

Summer Flowers

Alchemilla,

drawn with an H pencil by observing the

negative spaces between the stems, petals, and leaves. I arranged the flowers on a sheet of paper in a cool r o o m and rapidly sketched a composition. Then I put them in water, taking the stems out one at a time to draw.

.

Excessive detail leaves no space for the eye to rest or imagination to wander. our eyes travel and adjust from one point of focus to another. . We never see everything at once. interfolding points of detail with areas of loose suggestion. Compare changes of pace and focus here to the flatter finish of Summer Flowers (see pp. If an artist changes the pace of their line and focus of their attention. they emulate our experience of seeing.Acanthus Spinosus As we LOOK AROUND. gathering less distinct information on the way. 62-63).

.

they have the Golden Section. was preserved into the Renaissance where it became a foundation stone for thinking and creativity From 15thcentury Italy. Besides sketches of first thoughts and polished drawings of the finished look for clients. each VICTOR BALTARD . and computer game imaging. 74-75). designers. with gray and brown watercolor wash. It was the mathematicians. Paris 1871-74 the child's view to the infinity of the vanishing point. and writers have been breaking away from traditional forms of representation to seek new expressions of shape. filmmakers. It was also during the Renaissance that the architect Brunelleschi invented linear perspective. Among the drawings of this chapter we look from 17th-century ecclesiastical calm. Perhaps in the sheer planes of some of our greatest modern buildings it is finding its clearest expression.This is a pencil drawing. Since Picasso and Braque's revolution of Cubism in around 1907. At the core of their practice. add and subtract ideas. and from West Facade of the Church of St Augustin. and sound. It is the focus of practical class in this chapter. the formula for perfection spread through Europe. European conventions of pictorial perspective have lost their monopoly on seeing. Augustin. we find the most recent steps in the evolution of graphic language. and in the 19th century it was given the name the Golden Section. Computer programs allow the virtual drawing of ideas. which can be clearly seen in ancient Greek architecture.The church is still in use today. Yet the pursuit of divine proportion and harmony remains. fine artists. Linear perspective is a marvelous device. Baltard designed the Church of St. This harmony. made by the architect himself. time.Architecture I N THE CONTEMPORARY PRACTICES of architecture. Architects have been fine-tuning their specialized branch of drawing for centuries. composers. they also have a diagrammatic language for communicating plans to builders. of the west facade of St Augustin. and architects of ancient Greece who first pursued the formula for "divine proportion. architects. which was the first church in the capital to be built entirely of metal and then clad in stone. Through the animation of the screen. balance. to help them create new form. architects and designers can imaginatively "climb inside" three-dimensional space and. VICTOR BALTARD French architect employed by the city of Paris." reflecting the eye's love of unity in difference. coupled with the importance of exercizing your imagination. philosophers. to 20th-century film fantasy. once there. mass. from political commentary to musical abstraction. space. Since the first flowering of Modernism in the early 20th century. invaluable to understand and apply when you choose. drawing plans around themselves within a program as opposed to on a flat sheet of paper. film-set design. the device that has since governed most of our picture-making (sec pp.

Together they explain how interior structure and space define exterior form and shape. and the shapes of interior domes and apses. 1711-12 NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR . We see the modeled detail of Corinthian columns. Hawksmoor established his reputation with university and church architecture including All Souls College. Drawings underpin every great human-made structure like hidden linear ghosts at their core. calculate function. and later an assistant to Vanbrugh. embodying a massive investment of ideas. NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR One of Britain's "three great" Baroque architects (along with Sir Christopher Wren and Sir John Vanbrugh). St Paul's Baptistry c. Blenheim Palace. Finished surface On the left the finished surface of the building is given depth and emphasis by immaculate vertical and horizontal brush strokes of shadow. a three-dimensional drawing made with wires and weights. The photograph opposite shows his studio hung with metal pendulums. Hampton Court Palace. he also worked on St Paul's Cathedral. Below it. Architects draw for many reasons: to visualize ideas. describe a finished look to a client. structure. and ultimately to show builders what to do. and an inscribed entablature. Lines define structure while washes suggest light and atmosphere. Three aspects This subtle and sophisticated drawing made in pen and wash displays three distinct aspects of Hawksmoor's baptistry. evoke presence. Gaudi's fluid architecture grew up through many kinds of drawing. and labor. relative levels. A student of Wren's. Hawksmoor's drawing is both a plan and an evocation. Cut-away interior On the right a section cut through the center of the building reveals material thicknesses. materials. and six London churches.68 ARCHITECTURE Master Builders EVERY NEW BUILDING. and Castle Howard. Pillars and floor At the base of the drawing a compass-drawn plan tilted downward through 90 degrees illustrates the arrangement of pillars around a central circular floor. testing gravity to calculate the inverted shapes of domes. densely layered lines in mists of color weave the presence of the expected building into shape. marks the end of a long journey from the first few marks the architect made on a sheet of paper. pilasters. and balance. Oxford.

embellishment. 1910 24x181/4( 6 1 0 x 4 7 5mm) A N T O N I O GAUDI . churches. The Art Nouveau movement. and his love of music. To the right isawatercolordrawing thought to havebeenmade over a photograph ofthemodelabove. unique organic manipulation of high shapes. Gaudi air than on paper. Guell Crypt of its at the Time Construction c. This sculptural drawingenvisionsthe finished crypt glowingandethereal as if caught in thelightof red morning sun.69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt c. Gaudi's cathedral in Barcelona. 1900 ANTONIO GAUDI ANTONIO GAUDI Visionary Catalan architect. light. Wire and watercolor three-dimensional preferred to calculate Above is a drawing form in the made withlinkedwires and weights. and apartment homes are distinguished by their Their and Flowering curves of stone or concrete are often encrusted with Gaudi was inspired by medieval and oriental art.

Floor plan This drawing has been made with a rapidograph. He also contributed to plans for the rebuilding of the World Trade Center site in New York. p. We can see. Libeskind's numerous commissions include concert halls and museums.223). corridors. Floor space appears divided by discernible walls. theater sets. and the spaces between his windows and turrets are the visual equivalent of pauses in h i s m u s i c c o m p o s i t i o n s for p i a n o (see also Bussotti. been a natural affinity between the visual rhythms of pictures and the audible rhythms of music. short curved poles. and rooms. We can imagine how a musician might interpret this drawing by looking at the abstract visual rhythms of masses composed of long straight poles.70 ARCHITECTURE The Order of Sound B O T H OF THESE VISIONARY DRAWINGS o c c u p y a s l e n d e r . and dotted lines. The architect and musician Daniel Libeskind has drawn a stampeding cacophany of airborne architectural detail. before cascading into a riot of line and sound below. a refillable pen that feeds a constant supply of ink through a fine tubular nib. and arched dotted lines depict the radius of doors. Both men used rulers and pens to carefully and slowly construct their compositions. and exhibitions of his drawings. upright pictorial space. He also produces urban and landscape designs. flat boards. There has always DANIEL LIBESKIND A Polish American architect of international acclaim. Libeskind studied music before transferring to architecture. such a rapport in both of these drawings. Across the top and center right of the image w e perceive an almost recognizable architectural plan. Arctic Flowers 1980 DANIEL LIBESKIND . Satie draws quietly throughout. Libeskind begins quietly in the upper space of his drawing. while the composer Erik Satie has made an enclosure of quiet order and grace. installations. Contemporary musicians commonly collaborate with artists by interpreting images as sound. Visual rhythms In the lower half of this drawing architectural language has broken loose: escaped and transformed into an image of rebellious pleasure. and in a sense hear.

effectively additional lines in a work. and ink on a fragment folded brown paper—a of everyday happened material of scrap that to be at hand.ERIK SATIE F r e n c h pianist and c o m p o s e r for t h e piano. lived a l o n e . a n d ballet. Onpp. Eastern influence The upright image Eastern is reminiscent and medieval of Middle pictorial space and subject of this European drawing. minimalist s c o r e s scandalized a u d i e n c e s with o r c h e s t r a t i o n s f o r t h e foghorn and typewriter. Satie collaborated w i t h hisfriends J e a n C o c t e a u a n d P i c a s s o . o f which he was the sole m e m b e r Parcel paper Satie has drawn this fantasy hotel using a ruler. H e p e r f o r m e d in cabarets. the perimeter Composition Look how well this drawingfitsand resonates with the upright.Edges are how are of orientation.narrowshape of its paper. They definespaceand pictorial balance. dressed eccentrically. andfouredges of the paper tothecompositionand impact animage.H i s witty. a conventional dip or fountain pen. theater. Hotel de la Suzonnieres c.50. and founded his o w n church.56—57 we discussed important the shape. 1 8 9 3 77/8 x 51/2 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 4 0 mm) ERIK SATIE . Compare the even and and the shape wall to the elegantly stylized order of the many windows of arrangement of details and the shape of the wall in Babur's Garden of Fidelity on p.

This shift makes the cenotaph appear three-dimensional. Within it.72 ARCHITECTURE T H E S E T H R E E HIGHLY DETAILED DRAWINGS Future Fictions invite us to soaring above normal life.The lower-left section of the building appears relatively pale against a darker sky. spheres. experiencing a fascinating conflict between curiosity and desolation. This is the work of an architectural theoretician. arched vaults. antlike mortals might have speculated upon the universe. painter. Newton's Cenotaph 1784 153/4 x 25 in ( 4 0 2 x 635 m m ) ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE . cylinders. Boullee lived in Paris. and taught at t h e A c a d e m i e d'Architecture. and the reverse is true on the right. and draftsman.96. We glide over exquisitely drawn wastelands of damage and abandonment. and dramatic lighting. ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE French architectural theorist. the ominous globe exists only as a series of drawings. Boullee's monolithic apparition was drawn as a monument to Sir Isaac Newton. Light illusions This pen-and-wash drawing shows a subtle application of the principles of illumination demonstrated with an egg on p. enter the long-shadowed architecture of imaginary worlds. Among preparations for Fritz Langs film Metropolis. Art director Erich Kettlehut's vertiginous design for the city of a slavelike populace had a future influence on movies such as Blade Runner. made in 1926. we find other Utopian visions Paul Nobles epic drawing summons an imperfect and disturbing township where ruin and activity are equal and strange. His celebrated imaginary buildings are characterized by pyramids.

1926 ERICH KETTLEHUT PAUL N O B L E British c o n t e m p o r a r y artist who creates m o n u m e n t a l . together with c i n e m a t o g r a p h e r Karl Freund. gray.a r t director O t t o Hunte. Kettlehut and his c o .m a k e r In t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f Metropolis. Kettlehut drew using a fine and relatively dry brush dipped in black. and m o d e l . used forced perspective camera t e c h n i q u e s t o amplify t h e m a g n i t u d e o f buildings in relation t o human characters. Working on toned paper such as this gives an artist greater scope for dramatic lighting effects than if they work on white paper. Fritz Lang's Metropolis c.Building shapes are works can be read as text. and morality o f an invented place called His satires exhibited w o r l d w i d e . and white ink on brown-gray paper. Its sheerscaleengulfs the viewer and demands based time and patience to on letters and in some beread. intensely detailed graphite drawings explaining and questioning t h e geography. mythology. architecture.73 ERICH KETTLEHUT Influential film a r t director. and are Graphite shapes Nobson Central isoneof a series of very large graphite drawings of the spoil and detritus of Nobson Newtown. draftsman. Nobson Central 9 ft 1 0 in x 1 3 f t 2 in (3 x 4 m ) PAUL N O B L E 1998-99 . FUTURE FICTIONS Brush and ink This is a dramatic drawing from a film that shaped the history of world cinema. Nobson political visions of humanity Newtown.

74 ARCHITECTURE Pathways of Sight LINEAR PERSPECTIVE (also called vanishing-point perspective) is a simple device for calculating the relative size of things in pictorial space. All forms of perspective are of equal value. Piranesi an example of two. Sometimes shared with Naive artists. I contribute the child's perspective. 206-07). Here Leonardo provides a superb example of a single vanishing point. but is most easily seen and understood in pictures of buildings and interiors. Pull the thread taut and rotate it slowly above the drawing. Invented by Italian artist and architect Brunelleschi in 1413 (late in the history of art). and those of Naive artists and children. LEONARDO DA VINCI One of the greatest artists. found at the center of all converging lines. observations. this perspective is often an imagined bird's-eye view in which details are mapped according to logic and importance rather than how they might appear in real life. Leonardo recorded constant streams of ideas. and age eight. It can be applied to any subject. Single-point perspective Tie a thread to a pin. See how the thread corresponds to each converging line. In his notebooks. and thinkers ever to have lived. We use it to structure illusions of depth. linear perspective is distinct from more ancient systems practiced in the East. Note how architectural features conform to lines and how human figures diminish in size toward thevanishingpoint. Press the pin into Leonardo's vanishing point. and inventions— essential reading for inquiring minds. Study of Perspective Adoration of the for the Magi 1481 61/2 x111/2in (165 x 290 mm) LEONARDO DA VINCI . inventors. It is also distinguished from aerial perspective (see pp. scientists.

1740 5 1 / 2 x 83/8 in (141 x 212 mm) G I O V A N N I B A T T I S T A PIRANESI points are located on either side of the drawing. Note the rather large rabbits and pheasants the hills. Mark these points with your pin and follow the converging lines of the drawing by rotating your thread. issues of scale when making room for important their story. It shows how children usually map large scenes in flat layers one above the other. which I saw from home every day. Scale Our farmhouse my experience was in the woods. a points in logical narrative of memories. England 1980 9 x 16 in (228 x 405 mm) S A R A H SIMBLET GIOVANNI BATTISTA PIRANESI Italian artist. at the top of each lateral column base. Two-point perspective Sunlight through this colonnade a great example of two-point perspective. architect. Lightly marked illuminates vanishing Two Courtyards c. visionary and practical understanding of ancient Rome. including all they recall about the subject.SARAH SIMBLET I made this drawing (at age 8) in response to a local bookstore's request for children to draw their village. and designer Piranesi's prolific architectural drawings. Breamore Village. New Forest. This drawing Young children typically maps ignore on and understanding of the nearby village. and theoretical writing strongly influenced neoclassicism. . Children are uninhibited and problems with one element being obscured by another rarely arise.

Draw four dotted lines radiating out from the vanishing point. Each line should pass through one corner of the rectangle. This is where we will begin. (See p. imagine. draw a horizon line across your paper Mark a spot on the horizon line. Piranesi planned his drawing with only the essential lines needed.76 ARCHITECTURE Single-Point Perspective MASTERING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE i s e a s i e r t h a n y o u m a y First read through. 2 3 corners must each touch a dotted line. Draw each step over the preceding one to build up a single image. Note that if you place large structures in the foreground and smaller ones closer to your vanishing point. Erase the dotted construction lines. On the previous page we looked at its essential mechanism through drawings by Leonardo and Piranesi. In contrast. discovering the image as it progressed. You have completed your first box. try composing your own space. Study these pages first before embarking on this lesson. corresponding to a single vanishing point. Surround the vanishing point with a small rectangle. This lesson shows you how to make a simple illusion of space defined by two boxes and three flat boards. Next.) . Leonardo began with a grid of many lines within which he invented his scene. using a sharp HB pencil and ruler. then follow the ten steps below. DRAWING BOXES 1 Using a ruler and a sharp HB pencil. Extend each dotted line to the edge of your drawing. you will amplify the illusion of distance. This ensures that the second rectangle aligns with the shape and 4 Draw four short lines to connect the four corners of the two rectangles.98 for an important note on oscillation. this is your vanishing point.

with two dotted lines.77 SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE 5 Draw a new rectangle. bottom. andfarside of this first board. the closer it will appear to the viewer. Continue the dotted lines out toward the edge of your drawing. when inventing your own compositions.asIhavedonehere. The board's sides should be parallel. The larger you make your second rectangle. and erase the dotted lines. 1 0 Erase all ofthedottedlinestoseeyourfinishedboxes Thickeningtheiredges. 6 As in step 2. draw a second. Connect this to the vanishing point— again. 9 Use dotted lines connecting the slanting linetothe vanishing point to locate the top.willhelptomake them appear more solid. draw four dotted lines radiating from your vanishing point Pass these through each comer of the new rectangle. The four comers must each touch a dotted line to be sureitaligns with the first. 7 As in step 3. N e x t draw a slanting line to mark the height of the first flat board. 8 Complete the second box with short lines as in step 4. larger rectangle. . Repeat this to add two more boards to the composition. Note that this does not surround the vanishing point In the future. you can place rectangles anywhere youwishin relation to a vanishing point.

Then follow the three given steps. Linear perspective will support y o u by providing a frame in which to b u i l d your picture as it did for Leonardo. APPLYING PERSPECTIVE An Imagined Scaffold "Enjoy your illusion as you make it and it will become more real. Every work talks In this class. draw a b o x as shown opposite. p . A lot more happens when you open yourself up to the work and let yourself act and react to it. w h e t h e r it is a film or a painting. once said: "I never end up with what I set out to do. you will find white adhesive stationery labels are useful for covering errors or changing the direction of your idea. If using a fibertip pen as I have done for this drawing. it is interaction that makes the work richer. As David Lynch. I always start with a script but I don't follow it all the way through to the end. let simple lines suggest a simple space. O n a fresh page in your d r a w i n g b o o k . it will take you places you never dreamed of.78 ARCHITECTURE Creating an Imaginary Space T H I S CLASS USES SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE t o c r e a t e a s i m p l e to you and if you listen to it. The m i s t a k e n belief that we s h o u l d k n o w exactly what o u r finished drawings will l o o k like before we m a k e t h e m prevents many people from ever starting." imaginary room. It highlights the importance of having faith in your imagination and trusting your ability to invent. artist and film director." . 7 4 ) . then let the space suggest its c o n t e n t s and purpose.

and leaning surfaces.drawthehorizonlineand vanishingpoint. This initial space will be transparent and open to change. 2 first before adding furniture. parallel planes such as walls converge toward the vanishing point. Here. CREATING AN IMAGINARY SPACE 1First. you will beableto draw more complex objects orpeoplewithin them. .There is great pleasure tobefoundin spending time inventing interiors. additional lines have established the different surfaces and how they relate to each other. and floors and ceilings also converge and rise o r lower toward the horizon. With some practice. The space has become more solid and real.79 DRAWING A SIMPLE ROOM Essentials t o remember: objects and people dimmish in size as they move farther away. 3 Remove the construction lines with an eraser and the room will becomeclearer.Addanarray of converging lines to provide a "scaffold" for vertical. horizontal.

showing y o u h o w to draw curved surfaces and a tiled floor. Elaborations . o r to the h o r i z o n . a n d this is how we have drawn them so far (see pp. That is where we e to find them. our eye level is very high and we look down. T h e y d o n o t have to relate to each other. They could be drawn on any scale from miniature to monumental. Here. Vanishing points are commonly found on horizon—our eye level. Only when y o u might employ t h r e e . Free vanishing points On paper we can enjoy the freedom of fantastic structural invention without limitations of solid materials or gravity. I have elaborated on the simple boxes above. Potentially. The boxes drawn here are seen partly or entirely disassociated from a horizon line drawn across the bottom of the image. 76-79). T h i s is d e m o n s t r a t e d immediately below. Copying what you see in the work of others will help you to understand what they have done. but they are not confined to this level. verticals appear p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the g r o u n d . Further aspects of three-point perspective are also illustrated opposite. T h i n k of standing at the top of a skyscraper and imagine h o w its parallel sides would appear to converge below you. located anywhere inside or outside the pictorial space. or low and we look u p . These elaborations could continue indefinitely across a sheet of paper in pursuit of complex and intricate ideas.80 ARCHITECTURE Further Aspects of Perspective W E ARE ACCUSTOMED TO SEEING our e n v i r o n m e n t from a relatively constant point of view. do verticals appear inclined. they can be placed anywhere inspaceto describe the perspective of flyi c tilted objects. To draw such a view APPLICATION Copy these drawings to see and feel how they work before inventing your own versions.p o i n t perspective ( s h o w n opposite top). From our normal eye level. Search for the application of these perspectives among works by other artists in this book and in galleries. It is important to realize that you can have as many vanishing points as you wish.

I then drew three fanned groups of lines connecting each of the three points above to the seven points below. PERSPECTIVE Three-point curves Here. An array of curved lines (drawn freehand) link the two lateral points. tostraightlines can amplify drama in a picture. useful for representing steep views looking up or down tall structures.81 FURTHER ASPECTS OF Three-point towers This drawing depicts three-point perspective. three vanishing points are evenly spaced along a horizon line. by adding a third point you can achieve a sense of incline.) By comparing this drawing t o Piranesi's example of two-point perspective on p. and therefore tension.I added horizontal lines t o define the tiles. (Turn the book around to see a view looking up.Finally. I marked the toplinewith three evenly spaced points and the line with seven. Iusedthese lines as a guide t o draw the curvature of boxes and panels flying through space. Note that altering the distance between the three dots above will tilt the level of the floor . Three-point checkered floor This d bottom floor. Giving curvature. they mark the corners of the floor tiles. Where thelinescross. you will see how.Istarted with two parallel lines.75.

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These walnut-skin ink pen and brush drawings show imagined views of theaters that do not exist but were inspired by places I studied.Theaters RESEARCHING FOR MY P H D . I visited many anatomical theaters and museums. . making drawings to resolve questions and express personal responses to the nature and history of anatomy.

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Venetian Life sitting point buildings ThisP E N .A N D . . the water. The vanishing of the drawing is directly opposite as we look across The constancy of the bridge and surrounding frames the movement in the life that flows past.I N KDRAWING is one of a series I made while next to the Rialto Bridge in Venice.

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T h e Industrial Revolution c h a n g e d the traditional w a y s in w h i c h objects were designed. A chair. H e has described a casting through metaphor. 1493 117/8c81/4in (300 x 210 m m ) LEONARDO D A V I N Ccreating I . Technical drawing was speedily developed as a meticulous international code of m e a s u r e m e n t and explanation. Today. even more advanced drawings are made on computers. to record an observed detail. for example—whether. fictional realities caster of h o w t o make it andhowit will w o r k .Objects and Instruments T HE THINGS WE INVENT describe our lives. craftsmen had held plans in their memory. texture. Artists also make images of objects that can never exist. In past eras. planned. too. History will be learned from the artifacts w e leave behind. Previously. In this chapter. drawings were needed to instruct workers on the factory floor. are all made bearing the signature of our time and place. each demanding more of the other as they increased in sophistication. these. W e also explore v o l u m e and form in the classes by spinning lines to make vessels. and some apes use simple tools. H e has described contour and function at drawings. and the behavior of light through making still-life paintings and together. and a wire violin. we look at the importance are the only creatures on Earth w h o actually design and create great ranges of things. sculpted. hooked bars that can be pulled and tied closely form. C o m m o n items. and the way in w h i c h the brain reacts Head and Neck Sections of Female Mold for the Sforza Horse to visual stimulus and optical illusions. drawing c. from s p o o n s and pens to chairs and bicycles. Engineers and designers of our objects and instruments make drawings for many reasons: to test an idea that is yet to be made. With the sudden onset of mass production. r an equestrian statue. design. or used on stage hood for a mold t o make theheado f a horse f oas a p r o p — i m b u e d with e n o u g h energy or character can "become" a man. Birds follow instinct to make a nest. for example. passing them on to others through the act of making. and made. or drawing w e see Leonardo daVinci'sprecision as can be given meaning. color. have often carried great weights of allegorical once. drawn. of light in the creation of pictorial illusions. It was in this era that the blueprint was born. T h e precision of engineering d r a w i n g s e v o l v e d alongside machine tools. It is shaped in sections w i t h Artists have for centuries studied and expressed composition. illuminating snail shells. Artists and actors use the meanings of things to communicate a speculative mechanic. but humans LEONARDO DA VINCI Inthisbeautiful red chalk Our items all have a purpose—practical or ornamental—and all have a meaning. making a clear instruction t o his bronzemeaning. or to explain and present a finished concept to a client. that test our logic with a sense of mystery.

His work is characterized by calm and harmonious still-life compositions.73 x 1 m) GEORGES BRAQUE . still feel this projected moment. T h i s is a designers drawing made to enthuse surface and style in its delicate brushing of china. silverware.. He takes us into the bustle of the Paris cafe. and glass objects of exquisite elegance for only the gentlest of touch and appreciation. Clashes The art historian Ernst Gombrich said of Cubism. . charcoal. Below. not of place but of things. texture.." La Cuitare.Braque marshals all the forces of perspective. a colored canvas. Braques "justly" arranged combination of cut black card. not to work in harmony. Braque established Cubism in partnership with Picasso just before World War I. wood-look wallpaper.90 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS Still Life THESE DRAWINGS REVEAL t w o o p p o s i t e m o t i v a t i o n s i n we can. One of the great joys of this movement in art is the musicality of its multipoint view. "I believe [it] is the most radicalattempttostampout ambiguity and to enforce one readingofthepicture—that of a manmade construction. but to clash in virtual deadlock. perfect i n their newly made availability. Opposite. steaming with music and conversation. Braques image is a Cubist collage. Mucha's drawing glistens with possession. Even today GEORGES BRAQUE French painter who as a young man was influenced by the work of the Fauves and of Cezanne. Statue D'Epouvante 1913 2 f t 5 in x 3 ft 5 in (0. There is a fragile eloquence to these objects as they drift in slow motion past our gaze. and shading. representing still life. and a journal jacket with words makes this drawing chatter about the moment.

He designed the Austrian pavilion for the Paris World Fair in 1900. Pans. Study for Plate 59 from "Documents Decoratifs" 17x121/4(430 x 310 mm) ALPHONSE MUCHA 1902 . He is best known for posters featuring ethereal women in typical Art Nouveau style. and also stamps and bank notes.fruit.flowers. Look at the two spoons at toprightand see how has suggested that they are so brilliantly shiny they reflect the background color. Background color Between the delicate shadows and highlights of these glazed and surfaces ofthebackground metal color of the Mucha we see a large amount paper. Black watercolor washes and lines of white gouache have been added with a fine brush.ALPHONSE MUCHA Czech graphic artist and painter who worked in Prague. and New York. Chicago. The three plates facing us were drawn with a compass. and fish have been outlined using a sharp pencil. Art Nouveau motifs This is a preliminary study for a subsequent print. Art Nouveau curling motifs of birds. For ten years Mucha designed theater posters exclusively for the actress Sarah Bernhardt.

From the concept of capturing the infinite to the mapping of microscopic sight. A disembodied eye at the top of the drawing indicates where to look. each one skillfully rendered with the alarmingly matter-of-fact ease of explaining the commonplace. 0 0 0 perfect hemispheres. Newton used this instrument to calculate the speed required to escape earth's gravity. and philosopher Newton was President of the Royal Society. and the nature o f light and color. It is a diagrammatic explanation of how to catch and magnify a star in a mirrored tube. shape the very cause and effect of investigatory thought. drawing is there to pin the moment down. The power of this drawing reflects the pure passion of discovery. Ink lines Several drawings appear among Newton's letters. It was then reflected up inside the tube and. via a second mirror. mathematician. w h e r e he developed his three greatest theories: the law o f motion. and Fellow of the University o f C a m b r i d g e . Newton's 1672 ISAAC Telescope NEWTON . the law o f gravity. With dotted lines Newton has drawn his arrangement of elements inside the tube. a tree outside. astronomer. Newton's drawing of his first reflecting telescope is ISAAC N E W T O N English scientist. we see drawing Instruments of Vision found among his letters. each reflecting a view of his own world—his window. offering a transparent view. Look how confidently he draws with ink the sphere of this wooden globe by which his telescope rotates.92 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS by their very nature must gauge or chronicle precision. alchemist. into the eyepiece. Their delicate construction is only as valuable as the measurements they make. Hooke's head of a drone fly seen through a microscope may represent the first time man and insect came face to face. and his hand moving across the light. He counted 1 4 . Transparent view Newton's reflecting telescope focused light in a parabolic mirror. In the graphic work of these two great men of science.

An experimental scientist who drew many of his discoveries. and calculated the theory of combustion. a breathtaking book containing many of his drawings showing some of the first microscopic and telescopic magnifications of our environment Hooke's text and illustrations carry us to the moment of discovery. and anchor escarpment. universal joint a prototype respirator clock balance. It is an exhilarating read. The Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 1665 ROBERT HOOKE 111/2 x 105/8 in (294 x 270 mm) . Hooke invented the camera diaphragm. ROBERT H O O K E 93 Magnifications This acutely detailed engraved drawing is taken from Hooke's Micrographia (pub. 1665).

Van Gogh's tipsy seat is a metaphor for an absent person. W i t h h o m e y c o n t r a s t . it has so m u c h familiar personality that it seems to talk to us. A renegade from the p a p e r dolls' h o u s e . its character. Bench Marks W e are left a little c o n f u s e d as to what we s h o u l d do. this chair p r e s e n t s us with a clever visual contradiction: deeply drawn shadows tell us it must be solid. Chair Cut Out 2002 22'A x 23 in (565 x 585 mm) SARAH WOODFINE . Woodfine exhibits internationally. OBJECTS AND SARAH WOODFINE British contemporary artist graduate of the Royal Academy Schools. Two-dimensional was made This highly finished drawing ruler using a sharp pencil and on smooth white drawing paper glistening dark drawings are artificial representations of known Woodfine's two-dimensional things balanced in the world. craft. has published several catalogs of her work. each drawn with the s a m e unfaltering lines and tones that are between reality and impossibility. Its wobbly gait and squashed s y m m e t r y m u m b l e endless h o m e y tales about the life it has seen. and winner of the 2004 Jerwood Drawing Prize. and place in the world are truly seen. Drawn in more-or-less c o n v e n t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . and has drawings in numerous public and private collections. while the tabs make us see a flat paper cut-out. and w h e r e the chair b e l o n g s .94 INSTRUMENTS W H E N WE DRAW A COMMON OBJECT like a chair. Sarah Woodfines flat cut-out m o d e l plan is a witty and surprising drawing. From component parts we understand how to put it together and make it stand sensible in space.

95 VINCENTVAN GOGH Dutch painter who produced over 800 paintings and 850 drawings in only the last ten year's of his life. drawn opposite way of plan. and Starry Cypress Night. His passionate brush and pencil strokes are honest and of also turmoil and growing alarm at the world around him. what direct in their he saw and describing his felt. Among van Gogh's best-known canvases are Trees. not is made present in only strokes and is subdued to distract us from flat a meaningful chair. inner recording while Fierce strokes This is a portrait of the mechanical drew immediately and almost harshly. The floor few as engagement with the chair.hehas marked the full emotion of the subject with a fierce grip of concentration. Van Chair 1890 VINCENT VAN GOGH . Cornfield and Sunflowers.

a n d we can be fooled. Below the bottom "edge" of the egg there is a rim of light reflected onto the paper by the underside of the egg. atmosphere. Adjust the angleofthe protruding part and again stepback. W e learn to read light and shadow in our environment as indicators of solidity and depth of space. but do not appear so.96 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Light and Illusions SEEING IS MIRACULOUS. Before starting a tonal drawing of any subject. We perceive one to be lighter than theother. The perceived tone of a black white. or colored surface is never constant. Are you happy LIGHT AND SHADOW with what you see? Does the light enhance the subject? Could you alter and improve it? On pp. are translated into a world of space. S o m e o n e passes our o p e n door. transmitted to the brain as chains of electrical impulses. U p s i d e . Three factors change it: the amount of light it receives. Gray squares To further examine changes in tone. Through these we can enjoy witnessing our o w n d e c e p t i o n a n d b a f f l e m e n t a n d u n d e r s t a n d certain factors that are very useful in picture-making. From across the room both will appear black card and fold and retapeitwith half sticking out. reads only m o v e m e n t a n d can often m a k e mistakes. Below. The outermost edge of our vision. try this experiment. Card experiment cho can gra on . To interpret visual s t i m u l u s . less developed than the center.102-03 deep shadows cast across shells make their form easier to perceive. a lit photograph of an egg shows essential points to observe in tonal drawing. hence our recognition of a cartoon face c o m p o s e d of three lines. one blackandone white. We will even see things that d o not exist because minimal information suggests they are likely to be there. a n d our ability to see forms in c l o u d s or fire. and the proximity of contrasting tones. We only need small prompts. Here w e look briefly at our perception of light a n d darkness a n d our interpretation of diagrammatic illusions. The egg's darkest region is seen against a lighter background. Artists emulate and manipulate this effect in their pictures. The egg's lightest region is seen against a darker background. T h e slightest recognition is instantly matched to our wealth of experience a n d expectation. perhaps. Run The bottom-left quarter of the egg lightens slightly toward its "edge" when seen against the darker shadow cast on the paper. a n d are q u i c k to p r o p o s e ideas. On acloudyday. form. two identical mid-gray squares are seen against black and paler gray squares.d o w n patterns of light on our retinas. a n d m o v e m e n t . your eye around the circumference of the egg. The small squares are identical in tone.At one point you will catchenoughlight lighter than the white one. gray. w e turn our head but n o one w a s there. o u r b r a i n s search for n a m e a b l e things. cards the same size. The rim of light on the egg is reflected light received from surrounding paper. the adjustment of our eyes (in growing accustomed to a level of light). Tape them to the glass. See how its "edge" smoothly changes from light against dark to dark against light. The two tones meet without a division or outline between. Here.This effect is caused by the contrast of their surroundings. think about its illumination.

b u t t h e u p r i g h t o n e l o o k s t a l l e r (B). In this t o n a l image w e read w h i t e as f a t t e r t h a n black. O b s e r v e h o w each white b a n d appears t h i c k e r t h a n its black c o u n t e r p a r t .97 LINE VERSUS TONE In l i n e a r d r a w i n g s . Seven parallel lines are m a d e t o tilt t o w a r d and away f r o m each o t h e r by n u m e r o u s s h o r t strokes crossing t h e m diagonally ( A ) . LIGHT AND ILLUSIONS Tonal width T h e s e black a n d w h i t e bands are o f equal thickness o n e i t h e r side o f t h e i r central division.p o i n t p e r s p e c t i v e d r a w i n g s w i t h a large n u m b e r o f c o n v e r g i n g rays b e h i n d y o u r horizontals. t h i c k e r l i n e s a p p e a r t o stand forward. Apparent lengths T h e s e optical illusions s h o w h o w lines o f identical length can b e m a d e t o l o o k quite different f r o m each o t h e r by t h e addition o r association o f o t h e r lines. . start o u t w i t h one. In a t o n a l d r a w i n g . B o t h are identical in length. Bending straight lines Linear distance These t w o jugs have b e e n d r a w n w i t h lines o f d i f f e r i n g thicknesses. by d i r e c t e d a r r o w s ( A ) . In this linear drawing w e read t h i c k as closer a n d t h i n as f a r t h e r away. O f t e ndoingso w i l l s p o i l y o u r w o r k . T h e r e is n o obligation t o a d d b l o c k s o f t o n e t o a l i n e a r d r a w i n g . A n u p r i g h t line stands in t h e c e n t e r o f a h o r i z o n t a l line. T w o relatively t h i c k parallel lines are m a d e t o b e n d away f r o m each o t h e r as t h e y pass in f r o n t o f an a r r a y o f c o n v e r g i n g f i n e lines ( B ) . Y o u m a y e x p e r i e n c e s o m e t h i n g similar h a p p e n i n g w h e n y o u m a k e s i n g l e . S h o r t h o r i z o n t a l lines o f identical length are m a d e t o l o o k d i f f e r e n t by c o n v e r g i n g lines beside t h e m ( C ) . T w o horizontal lines o f equal length are m a d e t o l o o k longer and shorter. T h e jug d r a w n w i t h a t h i n line appears f a r t h e r away t h a n t h e j u g d r a w n w i t h a t h i c k e r line. respectively. l i g h t e r surfaces s t a n d f o r w a r d w h i l e d a r k e r s u r f a c e s recede. w h i l e t h i n n e r lines recede. T h i s fundamental o p p o s i t e is a reason w h y l i n e a r a n d t o n a l d r a w i n g does not a l w a y s c o m b i n e w e l l in t h e s a m e i m a g e . If y o u w i s h t o m a k e a t o n a l drawing.

C l o s i n g t h e surface o f t h e f o r m seals o u r d e c i s i o n as t o w h i c h w a y it faces. others adjust works to avoid their effects. Artists make pictorial illusions when they paint or draw. It is possible t o r e a d i t t w o ways: as a t r u n c a t e d r e c t a n g u l a r p y r a m i d seen d i r e c t l y f r o m a b o v e . Op(tical) artists. Artists can communicate much in few lines and the viewer will do the rest of the work. Michelangelo. Yet many illusions. made paintings that depended upon the physical sensation of our brain's reaction to known optical illusions. including some shown here." . their picture could be ambiguous. such as Bridget Riley. o r as a s l o p i n g . it can oscillate b e t w e e n facing t o w a r d o r a w a y f r o m us. In the 1960's. w e will find that in terms of the direction it faces. A few suggestive marks will tip the decision one way o r the o t h e r Closing the surface W h e n a t r a n s p a r e n t elliptical o b j e c t has b e e n d r a w n . it oscillates between t w o possibilities. Ancient Greek architects knew parallel upright lines appeared to bend toward each other in the middle. Two ways of seeing T h i s is t h e b o x c r e a t e d in t h e f o u r t h step o n p.116-17) to make painted figures look correct when viewed from below. w h e n drawing the outline o f a three-dimensional form.s i d e d r e c t a n g u l a r t r a y ( b o t h are illustrated far r i g h t ) "The brain is so eager to name a fragment we see that we need only a suggestion to grasp the whole. such as t h e dish seen h e r e o n t h e left.98 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Further Illusions PSYCHOLOGISTS AND PHYSIOLOGISTS have studied optical illusions for decades in pursuit of what they tell us about the brain. as s h o w n o n t h e right. Today we are bombarded with images but rarely have difficulty reading them. perfected the acceleration of perspective (see pp. SEEING TWO OPTIONS Sometimes. w e can only look f r o m one t o the o t h e r If an artist is not aware this can happen in their image. are still not agreeably understood. and we learn to read the styles of diverse cultures and periods.76. Some artists use known optical illusions to make art. and so calculated precisely how much to fatten columns to make them appear straight. It is a curious fact that w e can never see both options at once. among others.

This simple five-line d r a w i n g is o f a C a p u c h i n priest asleep in his pulpit. His highly d i s p u t e d and i m p r e c i s e science involves s h o w i n g u n p r e p a r e d p a t i e n t s t e n p a r t i c u l a r ink b l o t s a n d asking t h e m t o i n t e r p r e t w h a t t h e y see. N e i t h e r triangle exists. — a n d so t h e artist can create m u c h o u t o f an impression w i t h o u t overdescribing. W e should r e m e m b e r t h a t o u r brains will always search f o r a p i c t u r e — i n ink blots. clouds. Yet still w e try resolve t h e m . Minimal-line j o k e s such as this rely u p o n t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y v i e w e r ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e shapes. 1 6 t h . S o m e artists use ink blots t o p r o m p t t h e beginning o f an image. e t c .c e n t u r y Swiss psychologist H e r m a n n Rorschach. C o u p l e d w i t h t h e Rorschach b l o t above. P e r c e i v i n g a w h o l e i m a g e f r o m m i n i m a l lines T h i s is a w i d e l y r e p r o d u c e d visual j o k e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e C a r r a c c i b r o t h e r s . this is a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f t h e viewer's b r a i n b e i n g willing t o d o a large a m o u n t o f t h e w o r k in d e c i p h e r i n g a p i c t u r e . O n l y o n closer inspection we realize that t h e s e o b j e c t s are fooling us. M u c h can b e e x p r e s s e d in o n l y a f e w marks. FURTHER ILLUSIONS Seeing things that are n o t t h e r e H e r e o n t h e left. T h e y a r e o f t e n c r e d i t e d w i t h t h e invention o f t h e c o m i c c a r t o o n . C o u n t t h e n u m b e r o f d a r k spots y o u can see. T h e t e s t e x p l o r e s o u r n o r m a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o find things w e can n a m e a m o n g r a n d o m shapes. w e see t w o overlapping triangles: o n e outlined in black b e n e a t h a n o t h e r in solid w h i t e . T h e patient's answers are t h e n diagnosed as a psychological profile. T h e a r t i s t M. b u t w e believe w e see t h e m because e n o u g h f r a g m e n t a r y i n f o r m a t i o n is given f o r o u r brains t o c o n c l u d e t h e y are v e r y likely t h e r e . F a m i l i a r i t y in r a n d o m s h a p e s T h e Rorschach test was established by t h e 1 9 t h . T h e s e e x a m p l e s illustrate h o w little is n e e d e d t o c o n v e y an image. B e l o w is a b r i g h t n e s s c o n t r a s t illusion. C Escher u s e d this phenomenon t o great effect in his many p o p u l a r d r a w i n g s o f puzzles and impossible buildings.99 Impossible objects T h e s e clever configurations o f outlines and t o n a l surfaces convince us at a glance that we are seeing a solid three-dimensional triangle and a three-pronged fork. smoke.c e n t u r y Italian painters. This effect can o c c u r naturally w h e n looking at a b r i g h t l y lit w h i t e g r i d such as a w i n d o w f r a m e against t h e night sky. .

not the paper!) As the pen touches down. Watch the tip of your pen and see it draw an ellipse in the air Keep this movement going while gently lowering the pen onto the paper like the needle of a record player closing on the disc (only it is your lowering hand that spins. How to Draw Ellipses of seeing. even if y o u r hand w o b b l e s a little at first. for example. However. I have drawn these for you here. you will achieve steadiness with practice. WHERE TO START In the air above a spacious sheet of scrap paper. I have exaggerated this error here. like a disposable plastic cup that has been crushed in your hand. such as bowls and cups. spin your hand in a relaxed circle. Be aware. since this is h o w w e experience them in e v e r y d a y use. while its upper rim remains level. COMMON ERRORS W h e n drawing cylindrical objects in perspective. To make a cylindrical object appear real in our pictorial space. giving the cylinder four corners. though.100 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS W E VISUALIZE CYLINDRICAL VESSELS. that this is o n l y o n e w a y view. describing many sides of an object simultaneously. The first common error is to draw two pointed ellipses. a n d in o n e bold stroke. for example plates or bowls on a table. keep it spinning. springlike forms like those I have drawn below. there are three common errors people stumble upon. suggesting that the vessel is lopsided. Ellipse are best d r a w n quickly.90) takes a different as essentially circular. A wobbling but confident ellipse will still be more convincing than a slow. circles change into ellipses. and these narrow or widen depending on the height of our view. w h e n seen at an angle. third common error is to draw upper and lover ellipses with different-sized apertures. (see p. hesitant one that has edged its w a y nervously around the vessel's rim. . smoothly. The second common error is to tilt the upper and lower ellipses at different angles. as if the table surface slopes upward beneath the vessel. Cover a sheet of paper with spinning. Don't worry if it is uneven— just try again. w e use ellipses to give a sense of perspective. Cubism.

Draw quickly. you can make it solid by building up highlights and tones on visible surfaces. Seeing Through Allow lines to travel around each vessel as if it were transparent. enlarging and diminishing the ellipse to determine the overall shape and volume. HOW TO DRAW E L L I P S E S A Single Vessel One Inside Another Grouped Together Finding Shape and Volume Draw an imagined vessel in one continuous spinning line. Create a Solid Surface Once you have drawn the shape and volume of each form.101 DRAWING VESSELS Once you have mastered drawing free-hand springs. thereby hiding lines that show the other sides. working from top to bottom. . you can start to control your spinning ellipse to make a vessel. Altering the pressure—and therefore tone—of the line as it spins gives the impression of light shining on one side.

two opposite methods of achieving the same result. and solid objects are all of equal importance. LIGHT TO DARK DARK TO LIGHT . t h e r e a r e p r i n c i p a l l y Dramatic lighting emphasizes texture and contour. Remember that shadows. it will inhibit your perception of tone. if any. outlines. Draw the largest and most distinct areas of light and darkness first. making complicated or subtle surfaces easier to see and understand. simply shapes and subtleties of light and dark meeting each other with no divisions in between. In the finished drawing there should be few. beams of light. Illuminate them with a gooseneck lamp placed very close and directed away from your eyes. Gradually hone your drawing. or you can begin with a mid-gray ground and model light out of darkness (see opposite bottom). Relaxing your eyes out of focus as you draw will help to dissolve the distraction of detail.102 INSTRUMENTS Tonality W H E N MAKING A TONAL DRAWING.22-23). and strong contrasts are easier to draw. It is important to place them on the correct side so as to draw comfortably (see pp. leaving detail until last. OBJECTS AND Start by arranging a choice of shells on a sheet of paper to your left if you are right-handed (or vice versa). You can begin with outlines and build slowly from light to dark (see opposite top). It maximizes the range of tones between black and white. if light shines in them.

with broad sweeps of the eraser. look at the main areas of darkness. Erase and make changes to roughly place the shells inside your with your composition. Fll in broad areas first and leave all detail until last. Draw in the details last of all. pale lines with equal importance. Let your eyes go out of focus while looking gently layer marks to create an even tone at your subject and paper: Draw the most ofmid-graywithin a rectangle. until you are happy frame. 2 3 Gentlydissolveoutlines so that areas oflightanddark meet without a line between them. Avoid a rough significant areas of light in your gray rectangle with texture and do not press the graphite hardwhite plastic eraser Ignore all detail and draw a into thepaperor you will not be able to erase it. Honetheshapesand angles of the shells.56-57). Remember that its size. draw a rectangle. boldly 2 3 Keeping your eyes out of focus. Use quick. Use your pencil to develop these in relation to the areas of light. shape. Relaxing your eyes out of focus will help to eliminate distracting details. Treat positive form and negative space (see pp. . loose. Continue working between light and dark to refine the drawing. and edges definingthespacialrelationships between are important aspects of your composition them.103 LIGHT TO DARK (LINE TO TONE) TONALITY 1 Using a sharp HB pencil. DARK TO LIGHT (TONE TO TONE) 1 Using the flattened tip of an HB pencil.

On p. There are essentially three lessons to be learned. The second is that after achieving this simple example. Place the instrument on a plain surface and illuminate it with a desk lamp to add the delicate dimension of shadows. 19 Picasso draws with a pen-light for the camera. you can create your own more ambitious works. 176 the British artists Noble and Webster draw with domestic refuse in a beam of light. . and physical relationships between them.69 we see how the architect Antonio Gaudi drew proposed domes using suspended wires and weights. smooth. and on p. PEN LINES Once you have created your three-dimensional violin (opposite).104 OBJECTS AND I N S T R U M E N T S Drawing with Wire DRAWINGS DO NOT HAVE to be two-dimensional. our image is stronger if we understand and can visualize what is happening on the other side too. Seeing through a wire drawing of a known object such as a violin gives us a visual and tactile understanding of all its sides and shapes at once. three-dimensional drawings teach us about the totality of forms in space. try drawing it with a pen on paper Use bold. This class uses thin-gauge wire to create a threedimensional violin.220 Mamoru Abe draws with forged steel rods. Third. The first is that figurative and abstract drawings can be made in space. continuous lines. They can also be made in space. On p. and on p. When drawing anything viewed from one side on paper.

begin to shape the curvature of the fingerboard. and pinch and bend it to shape the base of the instrument Repeat this process to make the identical upper side of the instrument. Join the two sides together with four short pieces of wire. 2 3 If needed. and thick wire a larger one.105 SETTING UP DRAWING WITH WIRE Follow these steps to draw a three-dimensional violin Choose a gauge of wire sturdy enough to hold the shape ofyourfinished drawing. Cut a length. thin wire will make a smaller drawing. Once you have completed the body. 4 . Then begin to define its uppermost surface with Scurves and the bridge. but thin enough to be easily manipulated inyourfingers Here. I used garden wire and cut it carefully with pruners. These will hold the sides apart and help to keep the form in shape. Here. I started with the scroll at the top and fixed the four component wires with two drawings of tuning pegs. 1 Decide how big to draw your violin relative to the gauge of your wire. brace the two ends of the violin with a length of wire along the back.

Oxford. they invented new anthropological finds—objects that reflected the distant past and their immediate future. I had the privilege of drawing their inventions. Using found materials. . England. some of which are shown here.Artifacts and Fictions IN 1993 I WORKED with a group of schoolchildren who were responding to the astonishing objects in the collection of the Pitt Rivers Museum.

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Michelangelo attended dissections to made this image by light sectioning: fine beams of light perfect his understanding of surface form. much Western contemporary art. Strangely. It also looks at the representation of the b o d y b11y4o n d traditional life drawing. W e understand every curve and balance of to the theory that the eves are the windows of the soul. and in San could easily be transferred into three dimensions. a n d w e d r a w o u r s e l v e s to a s s e r t o u r e x i s t e n c e . He even believed he had located the soul contours of her form like a cartographer's map of in the pituitary fossa beneath the brain and behind the eyes. Williams were decades ahead of their medical counterparts. history paintings and other stories. while Leonardo opened the body to see and projected onto a woman's body draw the celebratory discover for himself our physical mechanisms. the junior workshop apprentices posed as part of their duties. Look closely at Renaissance drawings of the female b o d y and you will see that m o s t are actually y o u n g m e n with minor adjustments. This F finished image was produced as r a n c i s c o . Drawings were usually made from the male nude to avoid offending the church. Artists are thought to have b e g u n drawing from the nude during the Italian Renaissance. myths and fables. This chapter addresses issues that are most commonly faced by beginners attending life-drawing classes. sculptural description of her form. portraiture. She the body is still essential. herimpressive presence because we are given such Life drawing no longer dominates the art school curriculum. It gives physical and emotive form to religious narratives. clothed or nude. focus has turned to the vulnerability of flesh: how it can be damaged. and because the female was deemed inferior. The human body.The Body O UR BODIES MAKE us TANGIBLE. Artists now explore the interior of the body with new media and Lateral Contour Map of a Full-Term Primipara Produced by Light 1979 A. R. explaining ranges e/ of materials and techniques and showing diversities of thought and purpose in making. while Durer took his research further— A. the Bay Area Models' Guild h o l d s a quarterly life-drawing m a r a t h o n aprinton Kodak transfer paper with green-colored dye added celebrating the great diversity of human proportion. and surgically rebuilt. and anatomical and erotic art. from video and X-ray to thermal imaging. 3 x 7 in (300 x 180 . diseased. is the most c o m m o n subject in art. In this period. giving physical foundation undulating land. W e are the only creatures on Earth that can make our own image. During this time. The body remains at the core of over the initially white lines. artists also tried to define ideal proportions in the body. Renaissance artists studying anatomy from dissection clinically trained and specialized as a medical illustrator. R. Leonardo drew a man within a circle and square. These classes are popular around the world. W I L L I A M S technology. but the study of a controlled. in our privileged and comfortable society. WILLIAMS he sought perfection in the infinitesimal measurement of the body and produced four Contemporary photographer volumes of illustrated explanation.

anatomy. while supporting the weight of their body with the other. Here three male nudes are compressed into very shallow pictorial space. He trained under Perugino. In a single drawing we see equally o b s e r v e d studies of f o r e s h o r t e n i n g (see pp. while Matisse used scissors and glue to cut out and paste a flat collage of brilliant color. Three Guards 1500-20 91/4 x143/8in (234 x 365 mm) RAPHAEL . altar pieces. Sculptural frieze This is a preparatory drawing for Raphael's painting of the Resurrection of Christ. Raphael's study of fallen m e n leaves no doubt that they are in anguish. filling the page with her presence. Principal figures m i r r o r e a c h other.116-17). RAFFAELLO SANZIO (RAPHAEL) Italian High Renaissance painter: Raphael is best known for his images of the Madonna and Child. and Vatican frescos. T h e y b o t h raise one arm to cup their head in their hand. Muscular dramatic postures reflect the influence of Michelangelo and the Renaissance celebration of the idealized male body. Raphael drew delicate tones of black chalk on tinted paper. She u n f o l d s and s t r e t c h e s shapely limbs. By way of contrast. so that we read this drawing like a sculptural frieze. we see the e s s e n c e of h e r b e a u t y w i t h o u t a single detail.110 T H E BODY THESE DISTINCTIVE WORKS show two strikingly different ways of modeling the body on paper. In this highly s o p h i s t i c a t e d a b s t r a c t i o n . Matisse's b l u e n u d e sings with life and c e l e b r a t i o n . and human defeat. and studied to learn from the works of Michelangelo and Leonardo besides whom he was soon ranked. But the meanings of each gesture and the materials and methods by which they Postures and Poses were m a d e contrast greatly.

. Matisse became an artist after studying law. foundamong many other groups of papercut these works as an elderly man confined to his bed or wheelchair. lifelong love of brilliant They celebrate the culmination of spectacular and sometimes drawings.like an appeasing influence.or like a good armchair in which to rest from physical fatigue.. and more energetic Color and form This collage is one of a series of Blue Nudes. a mental soother.111 HENRY MATISSE French painter: draftsman..designer writer.which might be. devoid of troubling Blue Nude 1 1952 413/4 HENRY MATISSE . freer.. as his w o r k matured. serenity. and Islamic art." of is an art of balance... his pattern. Matisse Soothing influence This drawing expresses the achievement of Matisse's personal aim: "What I dream and depressing subject matter. His calligraphic natural abstractions of form grew brighter.sculptor. fabric. printmaker. teacher and principal exponent o f Fauvism—a movement established in 1905 in which bold color is the most essential element.

reflected. agreeing to coalesce and show us the form of a waiting boy. Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 1883-84 91/2 x 121/4 in (241 x 312 m m GEORGES SEURAT . Tone and light In this black conte drawing. w h o sits propped in the contradictory darkness of a hot summer's day. there are no outlines. If Seurat had added white. turned gray. in a perfect e x a m p l e . Below. Seurat engaged in lifelong studies of line. and color His applied theories still influence painters in their manipulation and rendering of local.112 T H E BODY Choreographs T I M E IS A SIGNIFICANT E L E M E N T i n t h e m a k i n g o f a l l d r a w i n g s . it would have mixed with unseen black dust. and c o m p l e m e n t a r y hues. In his f a m o u s paintings of social e n g a g e m e n t . 162) and an eraser to model teeming points of artificial light amid GEORGES SEURAT French painter classically educated in the Ingres school of thought. other tones. form. and muddied the brilliance of the drawing. it is as if the very atoms of air are made visible. like small birds attendant on the meditation. or abruptly meeting. Light is given by the paper alone. T h e space around h i m chatters with symbols. scratched in seconds. Opposite. Beuys's magician. His drawings are similarly u n i q u e . stands in counterpoise holding a dark globe and his thoughts in m o m e n t a r y balance. Here. he used b l a c k c o n t e (see p. only tones blending into. velvet d a r k n e s s . Seurat evolved a distinctive t e c h n i q u e called p o i n t i l l i s m — i m a g e s literally made from myriad points of color. we c o m p a r e a skillful design that absorbed m u c h time in its making with the quickness of an idea marked instantly. Using the paper to create light is important for beginners to learn. Typically.

free from the constraint of immaculate form opposite) impetus is irrelevant to the and meaning of this work (as we see in Seurat's drawing representation. and drawings. CHOREOGRAPHS the profound power materials with spiritual or of Free lines This pale pencil drawing is Beuys. Unbroken lines stream from his simultaneously movement. and that These aspects of the work convey fractured visibility. His The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland UNDATED 113/4 J O S E P H BEUYS x81/4in (297 x 210 mm) . in different positions.gold. Our focus joins shoulders. He was a shaman who believed in intuition and in the investment of healing force. transience. Beuys gave performances. Many of his other symbolic works on paper have been drawn with materials such as honey.113 JOSEPH BEUYS One of the most influential German artists of the 20th century. and blood. This figure is drawn intuitively. Perfectly modeled rather conventional for Joseph Focus Beuys's hand moved quickly to draw dotted lines flowing downward on either side of the figure. taught workshops with a cult following. and made installations. video art. iodine.

Delicate strokes This is one of about 7. and went on to inspire generations of artists. and one of hundreds of rapid studies of nudes. In both drawings. the fierceness of the women's kiss is beautifully matched by the tenderness of his line. Paris. Rodin employed models to move freely or pose together in his studio. We are asked to gaze u p o n her flesh.000 drawings shown in rotation at the Musee Rodin.114 BODY Passion SUMMONING HUMANITY in a drawing of the nude is a subtle and emotional task. he typically drew them with a few delicate strokes of pencil and brushed watercolor. Opposite. 125/8x 9 in (320 x 229 mm) AUGUSTE RODIN Two Women 1911 Embracing . sweeping lines— of either purple silk fabric or cool studio air—that imprint and amplify their past and future movements. They whisper and writhe in a brushed and sultry embrace that devours our watching. In Rodins work. As here. Achieving international acclaim in mid-life. Our bodies radiate the passion of our thoughts and so become beacons of our frailty and power. Anita Taylor has drawn her protective body hug out of the darkly glistening compression of willow charcoal and the dynamism of her shy but momentous femininity. But what is stranger to us now is that they were also outraged by his free use of line. THE AUGUSTE RODIN French Romantic sculptor and prolific draftsman employed as an ornamental mason until the age of 42." as seen here. flushed skin made ruddy and black with crushed cinders. its soft. We are involved not as a shabby voyeur but as a bystander engaged through our recognition of shared joy. the women are framed and caressed by long. Inspired by Michelangelo. was perceived as scandalous. His exquisite flow of paint beyond "outlines. Free lines Rodin's public audience was understandably shocked by the eroticism of his drawings. Rodin produced portraits and statues of public and literary figures. his w o r k is characterized by deliberate un-finish and powerfully modeled emotion.

A thinner sheet might have crumpled and torn under such vigorous force of making. leaving her lightest marks at the deepest level of the image and applying darker marks above. exposure. The sturdy surface of the sheet has allowed her to press hard when needed. Taylor's immense self-portraits explore the relationship between the artist as maker and the artist as model. scrutiny. the impression of luminosity All and Nothing 1999 67 x447/8in (170 x 1 1 4 cm) ANITA TAYLOR . Charcoal Taylor has drawn freely with charcoal and an eraser on thick. professor and Vice Principal of Wimbledon School of Art. Luminosity Layered marks flicker likefirelight as they sculpt the woman's body. Taylor has drawn. London. intimately reflecting upon the emotions and meaning of nudity. and rework rich depths of light and tone.I 15 ANITA T A Y L O R Painter. textured paper. and gaze. draftsman. This order of light below and dark above gives glowing from within. erased and drawn again.

" . for example. when beginners prop their board in their lap and look down at too steep an angle. It is not so hard. which is imperceptible from below. How to make and apply these is explained below and opposite. "Simple measured comparisons reveal surprising truths about proportion. Lock your shoulder. If your arm is not straight. 1 Hold your arm straight. just making them helps you see. Move the tip of your thumb down to a second chosen point. Accelerated perspective plays a great role in much art. patience. or coming forward. plummeting. Return to this posture every time. There is no need to mark them all down on paper. we would arrive to find many of the same figures strangely distorted. London). In the life class it is the mechanism for ensuring that a drawn figure lies correctly in pictorial space . and to draw what we see. elongated as if stretched across the plaster. more extreme examples have been made for court entertainment. 2 Hold your pencil upright. Spend time making comparisons before you draw. to be translated by mirrors or seen from only one point in the room. The length of exposed pencil is your measurement. Up close on the scaffold we would witness Michelangelo's subtle application of accelerated perspective. and measurements do not have to be carried to the paper and slavishly drawn the same size they appear on your pencil. Imagine Michelangelo's murals in the Sistine Chapel. 3 Keep your pencil perpendicular Measure and compare at any angle. We also look at another very interesting branch called accelerated (or anamorphic) perspective. Close one eye. unfathomable angles. To avoid its effects ensure you always look flat onto the surface of your page. This is chiefly a correcting device by which figurative painters and sculptors have for centuries countered the effects of our viewing their work from far below or on the curvature of a vault. helping us to see more clearly.limbs happily receding. you will make inconsistent and unrelated comparisons. or shrivelling at odd. elbow. and a few measured comparisons are key. Rome. with dramatic illusions of figures painted in normal proportion. Align the top with a point on your subject. Smaller. But if we could take a scaffold and climb up to the work. MEASURING This is a simple method of making measured comparisons for relating the true size of one part to another This is a tool to assist observation and thinking.116 T H E BODY Measurement and Foreshortening FORESHORTENING IS AN ASPECT of perspective. persistence. and wrist joints. It is not complicated. It can also be a little demon in the life room. without taking off. the skull in Holbein's The Ambassadors (The National Gallery. rather that what we believe we know from experience.

Stand its b o t t o m edge o n y o u r lap. looking d o w n t h e p a p e r at t h e a n g l e at w h i c h I d r e w . C o m p a r e t h e heights o f t h e nose and eye shapes t o t h o s e o f t h e f o r e a r m . . FORESHORTENING To f o r e s h o r t e n a figure. See h o w d i f f e r e n t t h e relative heights o f t h e s e shapes are f r o m w h a t w e m i g h t e x p e c t in real life. a n d thighs. W e appear t o be looking d o w n o n a w o m a n s t a n d i n g b e n e a t h us. P r o p o r t i o n s will only l o o k c o r r e c t f r o m t h e angle at w h i c h y o u make t h e drawing. t a p e s o m e p a p e r t o a board. MEASUREMENT AND FORESHORTENING Tilt t h e t o p edge o f this b o o k t o w a r d you and look d o w n o n this figure f r o m a b o v e . Keep t h e b o a r d steady and draw. belly.117 ACCELERATED PERSPECTIVE To discover h o w this w o r k s . A t a c e r t a i n angle. pleasingly f o r e s h o r t e n e d . which feels strange. T h i s is t h e s a m e d r a w i n g p h o t o g r a p h e d f r o m above. adjusting a n o n y m o u s shapes. To m a k e f o r m s l o o k c o r r e c t . y o u r hand travels f a r t h e r than y o u expect. S o o n t h e b o d y will lie d o w n in space. h e r p r o p o r t i o n s will appear correct. W o r k a r o u n d t h e figure. Lean t h e t o p e d g e t o w a r d y o u and find a p o s i t i o n w h e r e y o u can c o m f o r t a b l y l o o k d o w n t h e p a p e r at an angle o f a b o u t 4 0 degrees. y o u must let go o f w h a t y o u k n o w f r o m e x p e r i e n c e a b o u t t h e relative sizes o f b o d y parts and trust y o u r eyes. L o o k at y o u r m o d e l as if he o r she is a flat series o f shapes o n e o n t o p o f a n o t h e r Measure t h e height and w i d t h o f each shape and c o m p a r e it t o its neighbor.

and energy. her center of balance is normally found in a vertical line beneath her head. To draw this effect. because it results in two unrelated sides drifting apart. and stance before honing her balance and expression. Avoid drawing up one side and down the other. balance. propelling you to make immediate assessments and trust them. imagine holding up a plumb line. I used a sharp H B pencil and began each drawing by marking her outline. make the upper body smaller give your model a high waist. Balance When a model stands upright on both feet. working from her center to her feet and to her head. height. THE SEQUENCE OF POSES H e r e the model was asked to move every t w o minutes. Be bold and dive into your drawing with c o n f i d e n c e . and height. Height This pose leans away into space above our eye level.118 BODY Quick Poses DRAWING QUICK POSES l o c k s y o u r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n t o what is most essential. and slightly enlarge her legs and feet. Leave first thoughts in place. Layered lines give d e p t h . feeling. Start each new drawing by lightly marking the model's height with a loose line in ten seconds. and work over t h e m with further o b s e r v a t i o n s . Outline To outline a figure. T h i s q u i c k e x p l o r a t o r y line does not perfectly describe shape but expresses a decision about overall flow of form. work back and forth across the body. To see this. .

. This drawing shows how different observations be overlaid to bring a drawing alive. and this should be avoided Twist QUICK POSES A model standing on one leg usually drops the opposite hip.119 The twist of a model is most easily and expressively captured if it is exaggerated. Tilt Movement Here. The tilt of the pelvis is then counter balanced by the model's shoulders tilting the other way (as seen here). the activity of circular lines and the repetition of limbs suggest movement. Most of us have a tendency to over-straighten the drawn figure.

3 . general to specific. it is important to leave aside all details of the fingers and toes. feet. Practice by drawing your own hands and feet. especially the lengthwise divisions between them. Focus instead on how planes change direction across the knuckles from one side of the hand or foot to the other. and they need not be daunting to draw. Draw large shapes and their orientation. These planes. but regard these practice studies as ongoing processes of thought and observatio Add details such as nails last if you wish. 2 Build your drawing gradually from light to dark. Then subdivide each shape so that you w o r k from large to small. express structure and gesture far more successfully and easily than ten worried outlines wandering up and down between the fingers and toes. Do not separate them yet. swiftly marking its essential gesture. This exercise is useful when struggling with proportion. drawn in relation to each other. It also helps the beginner to progress from drawing outlines to drawing confidently across the surface of the whole form.120 BODY Hands and Feet THERE ARE MANY different ways of approaching h a n d s and THE of form. or those of a friend. and ignore all details. Keep lines open to change and take measurements if they help. Group the fingers together as one mass. and a gooseneck lamp casts shadows that clarify planes and depths GESTURES OF THE HAND Curled Fingers 1 Open Palm Start honing the shapes of the dominant planes. W h e n starting. starting with the largest. A mirror increases your range of views. Don't worry about achieving perfect solutions. Begin by drawing lines to encompass the whole hand.

t o remove t o o many early lines. and spontaneity. It can be a mistake. these are what give a drawing its tangible structure. Try t o express the whole foot and t o encapsulate its entire shape and direction in a few marks.as though out o f wood. flattened planes. and don't worry about accuracy t o begin with. Hew it roughly in broad. however. . Leave aside all detail. and rapid.121 HANDS AND FEET MOVEMENTS OF THE FOOT Flat Stance Raised Heel Instep 1 Let your first marks be light. depth. as if with a chisel. 2 3 Use an eraser t o refine decisions o r t o suggest areas o f light. Look for key angles without becoming distracted by detail. Nowimagineyou are carving the foot insidethepaper. loose.

" . Compare its nature in close-up to that of willow charcoal used on pp.204-05. I also used white ink with a steel dip pen. The white lines demonstrate what is often called "bracelet shading. Opposite.Charcoal Hands T H E S E DRAWINGS ARE MADE in compressed charcoal.

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HERE TRACES OF RAPID initial lines are still seen within and outside each body. and posture of the model. length. before honing his or her shape (see pp. Phrasing Contours . I make these lines in the first five to ten seconds of a drawing to locate the presence. 118-19).

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characters. feeling them through the attentive movements of your own hand. . Forms.The Visual Detective DRAWING FROM MASTERWORKS was once a staple component of an artist's education. perspectives. and narrative pulse become vivid when you realize them in the middle of your study. Drawing work by another artist enables you to discover and understand the inventive hand in their composition. I draw in museums in support of written research and as an artist seeking answers to questions about the practicalities of image making. It is now viewed with some skepticism and often seen as academic.

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. 126-27. These almost life-size figures were composed from my imagination and achieved with the help af studies discussed on pp.3 x 3 m) made in response to La Specola. Walls are lined with hundreds of faintly animated body parts.La Specola At17V i a Romana. each modeled from dissection. Florence. there is a unique museum of 18th-century anatomical waxes. Life-size women wearing wigs recline on beds of embroidered silk in cabinets of mahogany and Venetian glass This is a detail of a compressed charcoal drawing measuring 14 x 10 ft (4.

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Once you understand Self-Portrait in a Cocked Hat c. and their posture can be changed with just one line. W h e n drawing a person. or whose eyes can seem to follow us around the room Portraiture is a constant. the meaning of their face.139). abstract or figurative. and it is very rewarding. you can capture the subtlety. For centuries. bells. Past rulers sent painters across continents to bring back a likeness in advance of a prospective royal marriage. We are also reassured by keeping records of ourselves. in a miniature self-portrait magnified opposite. or past us. and expression of the individual. It also reminds us o f b o t h t h e intimacy and a scene as scrutiny o f an honest portrait. and a handprint (see p. look directly at us. and shoulders. made as he passed through the ages of man. we use the delicate medium of silver point to look at foundation structures of the head. is here to both meet and look through us. and lucrative genre for artists. who. and secular narratives. usually strangers from past times. painters have dropped discreet records of themselves into commissioned narratives so that they can remain a face in the crowd. Man Ray's self-portrait of scored lines. . having been documented and preserved. Our homes are filled with images of our loved ones and of those in our families who have gone before. In this chapter. Equally. live. gathered all that he knew FRANCISCO DE GOYA V i s i o n a r y Spanish painter. draftsman. We can mold and animate qualities of expression out of objects and fragments of disassociated things—for example. To create a face is to see and interpret the essence of an identity. historical. or a glimpse of him is caught in a photograph used as a prop. Portraits can be highly or loosely detailed. Beginners often draw themselves as a way of establishing their practice. and social and political commentaries. throat. and in a few scrolling rafts of pen lines and stubbled dots. neck. a single line can deliver an entire expression. The returning image was of crucial consideration in any proposal. their stance. his changes in pressure and Hitchcock length o f line. compliant subject to scrutinize. The truth is that we all like looking at faces and observing the billions of variations that make us individuals. religious. character. buttons. and satirical or metaphorical. Halls and palaces are filled with pictures of the mighty and significant. single or of groups.Portraiture IN P O R T R A I T U R E W E MEET PEOPLE. became more poignant as he progressed. This enlargement o f his miniature p o r t r a i treveals t h e s p e e d and agility o f his p e n and about himself. Rembrandt's famous multitude of self-portraits. Goya's w o r k s include many royal and society p o r t r a i t s . Goya. Self-portraiture gives every artist a constant. and p r i n t m a k e r . Movie director Alfred similarly signed his films by playing a fleeting role: he walks through an extra. 1790-92 4 x 3 in ( 1 0 2 x 7 6 m m ) F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A and memorize the basic structure that we all share.

one eye already cast askew into the autumn of her life. adding smudges of tone for weight and solidity. Picasso has left to posterity many hundreds of magnificent line drawings. While with longer consideration. The Tightness of a line is felt in its speed. caught in her last moments of youth. breadth. teetering on the brink of older age. Without faltering. It is the portrait of a countrywoman. they serve as a great lesson that it is not always necessary to add tone to your drawing. For the beginner. We can actually count that he struck the paper 40 times. We can read so much about them by studying their gaze. The truth is often the opposite. He makes his flair and skill look easy. Picasso strikes and scrolls his pencil. length.132 PORTRAITURE Poise THE BALANCE BETWEEN a mark and a blank space is often a tantalizing form of perfection. There is a common misunderstanding that a drawing with only a few lines is both less finished and easier to make than a drawing with more. The aesthetic sense of a line being just right can make a drawing sing. It takes a truly accomplished a few strokes.30). stealthily using his chalk to find contours and mass. we can enjoy and learn from them. PABLO PICASSO Spanish Cubist painter (see also p. Her face is drawn tenderly and with a luminous glow. Holbein maps the still landscape of Dorothea's body in questioning marks. Through exhibitions and copies in books. Here the grace and beauty of two young women are held forever. whisking a timeless girl onto the page. How could the addition of shadows have enhanced this image? Few strokes The simplicity of Picasso's line is breathtaking. hand to capture something well in only Frangoise au Bandeau 1946 660 x 505 mm (26 x197/8in) PABLO PICASSO . and pressure as it conducts our eye through the image.

In addition t o his numerous exquisite portraits in oil. Blended colors In this portrait drawn with colored chalks on slightly textured paper. he designed c o u r t costumes. and produced numerous society portraits such as this one here. Cropping This regal composition fits its paper perfectly. made a popular series o f w o o d c u t prints titled The Dance of Death. gently flushed. which. presses against the binding across her face. and designer f r o m Basel. The peak of her cap clips the uppermost edge. Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 1516 51/8 x121/4in (385 x 310 m m ) HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER . Her folded forearms support and frame her weight above. Holbein was employed toward the end of his life by King Henry VIII of England. and its downward slope crowns the diagonal of the composition. Holbein unified the woman with her background by gently blending colors from her clothes and face into the atmosphere around her.133 HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER German p o r t r a i t painter draftsman. He outlined her nose but not her upper lip. Holbein has cropped and pinned his subject within the four outermost lines of the image—the edges of the page.

Psychological drama is contained behind a grid. dark tones of graphite blended into the paper. This is one of a number of similar disembodied female heads seen behind. In fact. Highlights of white gouache were dry Profile Head late in the making. London. Delicate muscles are integrated with the skin and fat that is to be r e m o v e d . The real dissection w o u l d have been far more c o m p l e x . N e w s o m e ' s eerily shadowed form is smooth and bears a linear grain evocative of w o o d . the contours of a grid. continues to exhibit regularly.134 PORTRAITURE Anatomies These highly finished drawings express the emotional power and physicality of the head and neck. Contrasts Sharp. perhaps applied using a tortillon. the face is one of the hardest parts to dissect. It floats in space. Newsome was awarded the Prix de Rome in 1960. distorted. Nerves. Anatomically. its highly clarified detail claiming to be d r a w n from observation. using a fine and relatively 1982 13 x 181/8 in (328 x 460 mm) VICTOR NEWSOME brush. taught at numerous British art schools from 1962-77. solid above and almost hollow below. and glands also complicate form. . and unpleasant to see. or defined by. blood vessels. but they are irrelevant here. confusing. The style of Durelli's d r a w i n g opposite sings with the confidence of truth and precision. This is a m a r v e l o u s interpretation of the truth. dark lines made with a pencil appear against smooth. VICTOR NEWSOME British sculptor painter and draftsman. while white painted flecks and wisps suggest electrical illumination. and has works in major collections including the Tate Gallery. Durelli has m a d e a few m i n o r mistakes.

pull their points o f attachment t o w a r d each other . w h e n contracted. which. Pencil numbers refer to the list of muscles written beneath. Red Chalk the Muscles 1837 173/8 x 145/8 in ( 4 4 0 x 3 7 2 m m ) ANTONIO DURELLI and Pencil Drawing and of Neck of the Head Little is k n o w n o f this M i l a n e s e p a i n t e r a n d engraver w h o c a m e from a family o f artists. It is hard to think of a more difficult medium with which to achieve such linear perfection. Stylized parallel lines are reminiscent of engravings. and it is likely that this drawing was intended for reproduction as a print.135 ANATOMIES ANTONIO DURELLI Linear perfection This is a red chalk drawing of extraordinary accomplishment. Durelli's experience as an engraver is reflected in his stylized drawing o f muscle fibers.

each locked into a visionary gaze. Opposite. Bellini gently conjures the features of his saint with soft marks that tease his presence out of shadows into the light. Energy This is a portrait of a woman drawn with black crayon on a plain page of a book Lines search for the essence of form. ALBERTO GIACOMETTI Swiss sculptor. Then. Giacometti settled in Paris. with speed and urgency. cutting and carving the paper with matted and spiraling restless energy. The camera watches him at work. Without paint and with very little tone. Similar movements sculpted the head below into its page. Speed Giacometti probably began with an oval shape placed in relation to the proportion of the page. and poet After studying in Geneva and Italy. 1948 77/8 x 6 in (200 x 150 mm) ALBERTO GIACOMETTI . necks. Flesh is built and personality carved simultaneously.136 PORTRAITURE THESE ARE DRAWINGS of shoulders. Agitated marks make patches of tone that cut away the space around the character. They confuse our perception of scale by being intimately fragile and at the same time far removed. There is a film of Giacometti drawing. while his hand stabs and thrusts Revelations like a conductors baton. close enough to touch his hair and feel his breath. We are brought intimately close to this man gazing up to heaven. as if seen from a distance. which are characteristically elongated. painter draftsman. Both works demonstrate how simple lines can be made complex by being intense. each portrait is inscribed onto the page. and heads. They show us clearly the bones of drawing. Portrait de Marie-Laure de Noailles c. He is best known for his bronze sculptures of human form. he drew over the whole image at once. and with staccato flinches his hyperactive eye moves from paper to model.

transferring which were made in the process of the saint to his final place in the composition of a painting (see Glossary pp. Transfer This delicate humorous chalk a drawing is a cartoon—not image but a type of template used to plan the composition of a larger work Look closely and you will see rows of tiny dots along every significant line in the picture.5 9 ) . a n d b r o t h e r in-law.25 6 . a n d his w o r k is d i s t i n c t i v e l y calm. These are pinholes. Character This is one of many cartoons produced by Bellini the and his family. Sometimes different narrative same character was reused in compositions. a n d c o n t e m p l a t i v e . H e t a u g h t G i o r g i o n e Barbarelli and Titian.G I O V A N N I BELLINI A prominent member of a large family o f V e n e t i a n painters. Mantegna. Bellini s t u d i e d u n d e r his f a t h e r J a c o p o . H e p r e f e r r e d religious t o classical t h e m e s . Head and Shoulders of a Man 73/8 x 21/4 in ( 1 8 6 x 5 8 UNDATED GIOVANNI BELLINI . lyrical.

similar to work by Cy Twombly (see p. Al Diaz. The artist has finished his portrait with the signature of his hand smacked in the middle like a kiss: a declaration of existence as old as man's first drawing.221). scrolls. bells. marks. and buttons rings with surrealist wit and agile improvisation. and everything flux. a tribal. Man Ray's playful silk-screen assembly of color blocks. scratched lines. JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT Short-lived American painter and graffiti artist who began his blazing nine-year career drawing on lower Manhattan subway trains with a friend. Later Basquiat sold drawings on T-shirts. scratched into its surface. signing their work SAMO. political outcry. spear-brandishing warrior. It is an image of confrontation—the ever-controversial young artist roars at us from his abstract city-scape. It has proved to be a subject of piercing scrutiny. and indulgence. skull- Self-Portraits headed. and attitudes. humor. drawn. The figure's position is unequivocal and defiant while around him is in a state Without the essential of cultural and figure we would elegant belookingat a sophisticated painting of signs. their most immediate and best-known subject: themselves. made with great energy. postcards.138 PORTRAITURE THE MIRROR OF SELF-PORTRAITURE offers artists infinite reflections of. The incandescent New York painter Jean Michel Basquiat pictured himself here in naked silhouette. float and shimmer in the shallow pictorial space. Islands of graphic marks. Signs and symbols with symbols This painting shudders that ore written. and sheet metal before being snapped up by the New York contemporary art scene. In 1986 he traveled to Africa and showed his work in Abidjan on the Ivory Coast He also exhibited in Germany and France. Self Portrait 1982 9 4 x 7 6 in (239 x 193 cm) JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT . and confrontations with. It is an opportunity to look deep without the infringement of courtesies owed to a commissioning sitter.

painter. The handprint appears to be made directly. During the 1920's and 30s. Man Ray lived and worked in Paris. caked in thick printing ink or paint. last of all. where he collaborated with the artist Laslo MoholyNagy. Black ink was printed next and then white. The first part of the stenciled image was already marked on the silk The screen and paper were then held tightly together. Man Ray probably used his own hand. while a squeegee was used to drag thick lilac-brown ink across the silk pushing it though exposed areas onto the paper below. They suggest speed and make the picture look immediate and spontaneous. They experimented with camera-free photography working directly onto photographic paper Silk and ink This is a silkscreen print made through the following process: the paper was laid on a flat surface and a frame stretched with fine silk was placed on top.139 MAN RAY American surrealist photographer. Autoportrait 1916 195/8 MAN RAY . Frame White lines are seemingly (though not actually) scratched through ink to frame this face. printmaker and cofounder of the New York Dada movement.

Pages 142 to 147 are illustrated in silver point and techniques are explained on pp. Straighten the w o r s t buckles. 1. and gold have also been used. was familiar to or eggshells with animal glue. Be swift and firm. 5. it leaves a deposit. artists mixed white lead. M a k e s u r e i t is c o m p l e t e l y clean t o avoid u n w a n t e d streaks. or wood. 144-45. If w o r k i n g o n an emulsion-painted wall. the surface must be primed with a ground such as gouache. 1 4 4 . 2 . This is called a three-tone drawing.Tear o f f f o u r lengths o f b r o w n p a p e r g u m tape. and make o r buy a holder. or ring. I m a k e m y o w n f r o m o l d dip pens.54-55). SILVER P O I N T W I R E H O L D E R : T h e s e c a n b e p u r c h a s e d a n d t e n d t o b e heavy. 3 . E m p t y mechanical pencils designed f o r t h i c k leads ( s e e p. For i m p o r t a n t a d v i c e o n p r e p a r a t i o n a n d use. s e e p . bone. and alloys work on matt emulsion. you will need t o stretch paper and lay a wash (see right and opposite). S i l v e r is b e s t . I combined silver point with painted white gouache on a pink ground. and is therefore useful w h e n using w a t e r c o l o r as well as silver point. T h e p a p e r will l o o k b u c k l e d . SILVER W I R E : Purchase different gauge lengths f r o m a traditional a r t supplier o r jeweler. illuminators of medieval m a n u s c r i p t s . purchase silver wire. s o m e m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n o t h e r s . Gesso o r m a t t e m u l s i o n c a n a l s o b e u s e d . key. p a r c h m e n t . Lay a clean d r a w i n g b o a r d o n a flat surface.54) can also b e used. platinum. Z I N C W H I T E G O U A C H E : Dilute with w a t e r A d d c o l o r i f r e q u i r e d (as opposite) 4 . Stretched paper remains taut as a d r u m . 156). an exciting indication of how large-scale drawings could be made on a wall. Note h o w domestic paintwork marks with a coin. which quickly oxidizes into a gray line. To begin. who used it to outline initials and border characters before painting. MATERIALS 1 Find a clean sponge and b o w l o r d e e p t r a y a n d fill it w i t h w a t e r W e t t h e p a p e r evenly in t h e t r a y o r o n t h e b o a r d . Lightly s p o n g e o f f t h e excess. Find a n i t e m t h a t y o u can h o l d a n d draw with comfortably. 2. Metal point is simply a strip of metal bound in a holder. Opposite. Drawn across a prepared surface. Metal point does not work on ordinary paper. choose a silver object. w h i t e d r a w i n g paper) and cut it t o fit y o u r d r a w i n g b o a r d w i t h a generous b o r d e r a r o u n d its edges. c h o o s e a s o f t full b r u s h t h a t c a n c a r r y p l e n t y o f l i q u i d . W e t o n e length o f g u m . copper. b u t d o n ' t w o r r y . Numerous early European artists also enjoyed its fine qualities (see p. o n e t o fit each side o f t h e b o a r d — t h e s e will make t h e glued f r a m e t h a t holds y o u r p a p e r in place. S O F T F U L L B R U S H : W h e n laying a w a s h . Take a sheet o f any t y p e o f p a p e r (for e x a m p l e .140 PORTRAITURE Silver P o i n t SILVER OR METAL POINT STRETCHING PAPER A sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has been made w e t with the strokes o f a paintbrush will buckle d u e t o its uneven expansion. I t is a v a i l a b l e f r o m all a r t s h o p s .s t r i p a n d use i t t o fix o n e side o f t h e p a p e r t o t h e b o a r d . W e t a n d fix a s e c o n d strip t o t h e o p p o s i t e side. This browns with age unless sealed by fixative (see pp. Historically. M E T A L OBJECTS: All metal objects m a r k a p r e p a r e d surface. b e f o r e priming stretched paper. The most c o m m o n metal has always been silver—hence the term "silver point. and t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h strips a b o v e and b e l o w . laid on paper." Lead.

Mix a very wet but not weak solution of gouache in a jar with a lid (add pigment at this stage for a three-tone drawing). Make enough to cover your paper. Beware of the tape's coming loose at any point while drying. Dip a soft. Runs blend into each other evenly.t o n e silver point drawing of a skull . Prop up your board of dry. Keep adding smooth. Make an even line across to the right. leaving a smooth surface. as the paper will be ruined by a raised ridge. slowly add powder pigment or gouache from a tube. Keep testing on spare paper. v e r y little at a time. overlapping lines until you reach the bottom. I used a powder pigment called Caput Mortuum. T h r e e . Reload the brush and add a second line overlapping it beneath.141 SILVER POINT 3 Leave the paper to dry flat. stretched paper at a 45-degree angle. Dry thoroughly before laying a wash. full brush into the gouache and start in the top left corner. any extra will keep. The next step will make a small mess. is necessary to lay a wash o Three-tone When coloring ground. It will slowly straighten and become taut. so put newspaper under the lower edge. and let tests dry before deciding to change the mixture. Leave the wash to dry thoroughly before you begin to draw. LAYING A WASH It your stretched paper so as to prime it for silver point. Here.

142

PORTRAITURE

Head and Neck
THE HEAD AND NECK are best conceived as one unit arranged in four parts: cranium, face, neck, and throat. Each is of equal importance. The cranium is essentially egg-shaped and pivots on the first vertebra. The face is suspended beneath, like a softly curved triangle. The n e c k — a powerful, shapely column of layered muscles rigged to vertebrae—adjusts and holds the angle and expression of the head. The throat is delicate, hard, and lumpy to the touch, formed of cartilaginous rings, glands, thin muscles, and looser skin. Framing the throat, two columnar neck muscles (sternomastoids) project the head forward and also turn it to the opposite side.

This is a simple shorthand diagram representing the cranium, face, neck, and throat. It can be learned and visualized in different positions very easily, giving the novice a firm footing on which to stand and develop their drawings of the head and neck.

Shorthand diagram

Cranium Begin with an egg shape. Tilt it on the paper to change the position of the head.

Face Draw a rounded triangular shape below the forward point of the egg to represent the face.

Neck This shape represents the trapezius; the largest surface muscle of the neck and shoulders.

Throat A triangular shape represents the throat. (The nose makes the diagram clearer)

Applied shorthand

After copying the diagram above, animate it. Practice drawing the cranium at different angles, add the face beneath, then the neck, shoulders, and throat. Shape your diagrams so they are more lifelike, but avoid adding detailed features too soon.

143 These three drawings demonstrate (from left to right) the following: why the cranium may be considered egg-shaped; now the face can be seen as a curved triangle suspended beneath and where the division lies between the two; and the form of sternomastoid muscles that frame thethroatsodistinctlywhen the head is turned and inclined forward.

The skull and the frame of the throat

HEAD AND NECK

Bones of the cranium are locked together by jagged joints. Sinuses in the frontal (forehead) bone between and beneath the eyebrows are larger in men, making their brows pronounced and often ridged compared to those of women.

Bones of the face house our sight, smell, taste, The skull pivots on the first vertebra or "atlas," and speech. Cartilage extending from nasal bones after the Greek god condemned to carry the shapesthenose.Pads of fat resting on the base of Earth. The jaw hinges in front of the ears. Behind, eacheyesocket support the eyeballs in position. If bony ridges give anchor to the sternomastoid thefatisreducedby old age, eyes look sunken. muscles rising from the breast- and collarbones.

Three useful generalizations

General rules about the relative positions of body parts can hinder artists as much as help them, since they are often based on classical ideals rather than thediversityoflife.However,some generalizations can help as a rough guide to start with, so long as good observation takes over as soon as possible.

In general, when the face is relaxed (not smiling or frowning), the corners of the mouth are found directly beneath the pupils of the eyes. Vertical lines can be drawn down from the pupils to meet the corners of the mouth.

The height of a young adult's ear is often the same as their nose and found on the same level. There is no general rule for growing children, and remember that ears grow again in old age, which is most obvious in men.

The height of the face is about the length of the handspan and the eye is normally halfway down the total height of the head. A common error is to draw the eyes too high up on the face.

144

PORTRAITURE

Essential Observations
T H E DELICACY OF SILVER POINT

(see pp. 140-41) is perfect for

such as a beach pebble. Here, I stretched drawing paper and laid a wash of white gouache (see pp.140-41). As you can see, the line and tone of silver point varies with pressure, but only slightly. Too much pressure cuts the ground. Silver point erases, but so does ground. Erased ground can be repaired gently with extra gouache. You can also use gouache to paint over mistakes and make corrections.

small, detailed drawings. The drawings below and opposite show useful observations of the head and neck, which are explained in the captions below. Each drawing was made with a silver wire held in a large-gauge mechanical pencil. Newly clipped wires are sharp and cut rather than draw. Before use, they need to be rubbed and smoothed on a stone

Here I imagined placing my silver point wire against the skin of each head and neck and, working in parallel bands from the crown downward, I traced the undulation of surfaces. Linear bands imagined around the head and neck can help you t o clearly see the tilt of the head and relative levels of the features. Ask a friend t o model for you and try this exercise life-size using a pencil and eraser

Contours

Tilted forward

Tilted backward

Three-quarter view

Seeing that the face is never flat

Drawings below left and center are summaries of the generalizations given on p.143. Far right is an image to remind us that the face is never flat. It slopes back to varying degrees among individuals, from the tip of the nose t o the ears. For example, note that the innermost corners of the eyes are farther forward in space than the outermost corners.

General measurements, side

General measurements, front

View from above

145

Male and female head and neck
Men's necks a r e g e n e r a l l y s h o r t e r a n d t h i c k e r t h a n w o m e n ' s b e c a u s e t h e angles a n d levels o f c e r t a i n b o n e s a r e d i f f e r e n t b e t w e e n t h e sexes ( i n d i c a t e d h e r e b y d o t t e d lines) a n d m e n are n o r m a l l y m o r e muscular. T h e male t h y r o i d cartilage ( A d a m ' s apple) is larger a n d m o r e visible than t h e f e m a l e . L a r g e r f e m a l e t h y r o i d glands also s o f t e n t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e t h r o a t .

ESSENTIAL OBSERVATIONS
Female skull

Male

skeleton

Male

skull

Trapezius muscle
The largest m u s c l e o f t h e s h o u l d e r s a n d n e c k is called the trapezius. A r r a n g e d on e i t h e r side o f t h e spine, it shapes t h e u p p e r back and neck above the s h o u l d e r blades. C o n t r a c t i n g in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h d e e p e r and surrounding muscles, it raises and l o w e r s t h e shoulders a n d d r a w s t h e h e a d backtoeitherside.

The whole

muscle

Upper

half with

sternomastoids

Above

with head

straight

Above

with head

forward

Side with

sternomastoid

Front with

sternomastoid

146

PORTRAITURE

Drawing Portraits
USING A SHARP 3 B PENCIL, I drew this head quickly from imagination, evolving its character and expression from the scheme of four parts: cranium, face, neck, a n d throat (see p. 142). Here, five steps show you how to practice doing the same. This approach can be used to draw from imagination or from life. Keep your wrist loose and hold your pencil away from its point (see pp.22-23). Build the layers of your drawing from pale to dark, a n d from general balance a n d form to specific detail. Remember that successful drawings are built on foundations of "seeing the whole," then dividing the whole into smaller parts, with details brought in last of all. Phrased tonal marks modeling this girls skin and hair follow the technique demonstrated by Goya in his self-portrait on p. 130. Turn to Goya's drawing and study how, in a circle beginning across his hat, moving down his hair, and around his coat, he flows lines over surfaces to describe their contour. As you build from steps 1 to 5, bring phrased groups of lines across the surfaces of your form, using their directions to capture the expression of the head and neck. If unsure, copy my steps until you gain the confidence to make your own decisions.

This drawing is the final stage of the four steps opposite. Here, I have enlarged the eye, and moved it back into the head by trimming the length of the upper lid and adding a more pronounced lower lid. It is important to set eyes far enough back from the relatively prominent nose; too close to it and the face flattens. Hair swept back and extended behind the cranium balances the regal pose. Lines shaping the hair echo those marking the cranium in step 1. Here, the lower part of step 1 comes through as wisps of hair across her face and ear

BALANCED POSE

Portrait of a Young Girl

First lines will remain visible in the final drawing. 4 . I used light to describe the upper lid first with a shadow beneath for the lower lid and open eye. Moving from the back of the neck. down the face to the throat. too soon. avoid drawing too dark. neck. and throat.147 Building up the portrait DRAWING PORTRAITS 1 Gently spin pale lines in a softly drawn shape representing the cranium. The nose and ear begin to shape the head. 2 Rapidly add shorthand shapes to represent the face. so it is important to the life of the image that while controlled. Keep your first lines light. Here. The eye announces the nature and expression of the emerging person. over the cranium. 3 Place the eye beneath the cranium.Theangle at which you draw this shape of the paper will determine the angle of the finished head. they are also still sweeping and confident. I modeled the outline of the character I imagined light shining from above and in front and adjusted the pressure of lines to reflect this.

.

Above all. muscular tension.T o DRAW PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGES. and gravity. a n d t h o s e w h o a r e Generations asleep (see overleaf). empathize. . be aware of the subtle differences in skin surface. the texture of hair.

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I used the nib upside down to gain needle-sharp precision. Van Dyke's noble cast of characters was modeled more finely.Castings DRAWING IN THE PRADO MUSEUM. with a steel dip pen and acrylic ink. Madrid. . Fast lines carve out the features of Goya's soup-slurping hag. seeking the dominant contours of each individual expression.

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outrageous. S t r u c t u r e is t h o u g h the i n v e n t i o n of shoes. was a Belarussian A r t Deco theater fantasies and desires to immediately possess a version of the same. a n d p r o f e s s i o n — b e g a n life as a d r a w i n g . c r u m p l e s . W e dress ourselves and costume designer trained in in St. dancer leaps through swaths of golden cloth. T h e rural masses w o r e h o m e s p u n simplicity. fulfilling lavish and spectacular briefs. . st 111/4 x 81/2 in (285 x 220 mm) u d i e d L E O NB A K S T and explore the characterization of fabric t h r o u g h m o v e m e n t . b u t influenced Parisian fashion and interiordecor. a n d w e will c o l l e c t patterns. intriguing. g l o s s y folds. for e x a m p l e — d e s i g n e d the w a r d r o b e s of p o p e s a n d k i n g s . gesture. of Scheherazade. so that c h o i c e . and everything w e h a v e c h o s e n for o u r w a r d r o b e s — r e f l e c t o r s of o u r taste. he and cofounder Serge Diaghilev took Paris by eac storm in 1910 with their production h year in the industrial f r e n z y of creating o u r image and aspirations.Costume W E MAKE OURSELVES EXOTIC. arichand unusual combination of pencil. w a r m t h . Practical classes Bacchante 1911 l o o k at r a n g e s of c o l o r e d m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d i n g p a s t e l s a n d felt-tip p e n s . P o p u l a r f a s h i o n d e s i g n e x p l o d e d w i t h the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n . and intent. it is the public sign by w h i c h w e are j u d g e d . and even invisible by the w a y w e dress. or calm u s w i t h chic. Previously. T h e p a p e r p a t t e r n is p e r h a p s the m o s t w i d e l y k n o w n of c o s t u m e d r a w i n g s : a formalized plan of lines. Like it or not. a n d c o u r t i e r tailors f o l l o w e d suit. theb u t b y the w a y it s p e a k s w i t h its flying. c u l t u r e . and atmosphere. Samoylovich Rosenberg. Petersburg and later exiled designers' ideas and are surprised and delighted b y their continual f l o w of inspiration. and gouache. Cities c h a n g e d all.As artistic director of the It is s h o c k i n g to t h i n k h o w m a n y m i l l i o n s of d r a w i n g s m u s t be m a d e a n d d i s c a r d e d Ballet Russe. In psychology. shapes. and be so expressive of temperament that it overtakes the need for an o c c u p y i n g h u m a n form. caricatured p l u m e s . cool. variety. and e x u b e r a n c e .This voluptuous above all a physical p u p p e t w i t h w h i c h to animate character and narrate personality. a n d s u b t l e t o n e s . and s y m b o l s that lets m e n and w o m e n in all countries and areas have w o r k i n g access to the latest fashions. personality. Bakst's designs and costumes immediately To the fine artist. charcoal. T h e e n t o u r a g e of the theatrical stage o f t e n l e a d s the c a t w a l k . and i n d e e d image b e c a m e the property also of the industrial classes. toParis. In this c h a p t e r w e see h o w c l o t h i n g c a n s e e m to p o s s e s s the w e i g h t and m o n u m e n t a l i t y of stone. c o s t u m e o f f e r s a r i c h v o c a b u l a r y of t e x t u r e s a n d c o l o r . o n l y the w e a l t h y c o u l d afford to h a v e c o s t u m e s specially m a d e . known as Leon Bakst. D e s i g n e r s create m a s t e r p i e c e s of haute couture LEON BAKST for H o l l y w o o d stars. woman was drawn by Bakst one year later for the ballet Narcisse. Designers all over the w o r l d c o n t i n u a l l y p e n and b r u s h lines to lash us w i t h color. or b u l g e s . w h i c h in turn feed c o n s u m e r Lev. e m u l a t e textures. while court p a i n t e r s — M i c h e l a n g e l o and Holbein. articulate a d a n g e r o u s satirical j o k e . Artists do this not so m u c h b y the style of a figure's garment.

Flaxmans sleeper—perhaps a pilgrim or a soldier resting between campaigns—has wedged himself into the cleft of some great building to grab a moment of peace. swirling printed fabrics. Short and subtle horizontal punctuations are only given in the background by sections of floor. folds and patterns of material speak more resolutely of their wearers than any small glimpses of body we can see. Sculpted one. and implied striation in the stone of the architecture. the Madonna and her architecture are both dressed in the same manner. However. resonate with their wearers startled expression. her marble garment holds u p the infant Christ in a fountain of compressed line. bands around the columns. In Van Eyck's drawing below. it is only possible to create very thin. best k n o w n f o r his G h e n t altarpiece ( 1 4 3 2 ) a n d m a r r i a g e p o r t r a i t o f Giovanni A r n o l f i n i and his w i f e (1434). Their uninterrupted emphasis is entirely vertical. Her gown is carved and polished as if made from marble. delicate lines.156 COSTUME Cloth and Drapery EACH OF THESE FIGURES is ninety percent cloth. the vaulted stone roof echoes and crowns the moment. Maelbeke I44I Madonna 11 x 7 in (278 x 180 m m ) JAN V A N EYCK . With a stylus such as Van Eyck used here. and the kneeling abbot is a ghost by comparison. Vertical lines The highly controlled lines of this drawing cascade from top to bottom of the image. He has layered these slowly and carefully so as not to cut through the ground and produce a white mark just where he intended a dark one. Marble gown We will never know if Van Eyck considered this drawing unfinished or intended the kneeling abbot to remain transient and ghostly. the carefully composed outline of his cloak shows us how the artist would have also begun his immaculate rendering of the Virgin's clothes. Above them. The quiet stillness of this image is achieved by a masterly economy of stylized line. and snakelike marks.140-41). with their jagged edges. Keisai Eisen's intense. Van Eyck's highly polished w o r k is c e l e b r a t e d f o r its disguised symbolism. Opposite. Below this. dragons. Delicate marks Silver (or metal) point is the most delicate of traditional drawing media (see pp. H e m e t i c u l o u s l y a r r a n g e d subjects t o c o n v e y d e e p e r meaning. Church and deities are drawn as JAN VAN EYCK Flemish oil p a i n t e r f r o m L i m b o u r g .

and the feet notched against the pillar tell us that A lines holds him into the cleft. Koimurasaki of Tama-ya 1810-50 15 x101/4in (381 x 260 mm) KEISAI EISEN The Courtesan JOHN F L A X M A N English late 18th-century neoclassical sculptor. Images are drawn onto smooth.157 KEISAI EISEN Japanese draftsman. Respected for his sumptuous images of geisha and editions of erotic prints. Parts of the image to be left unprinted are gouged out with a metal tool. This complex numerous blocks prepared image and may have been made with printed separately. an 18th-19th century document on the lives of the ukiyo-e artists. each delivering a different part and color of the design. CLOTH AND DRAPERY Relief printing This is a woodblock print made by a relief process. The inked block is laid face-down on damp paper and pressed to make the print. draftsman. Remaining raised areas of wood are rolled with colored inks. Dante. Position In this pen and ink drawing. the cloak sliding to the ground. one over the other. flat sheets of wood. and teacher Distinctive linear illustrations for the works of Homer. designer. Aeschylus earned Flaxman an international reputation. the angle of the head. and Man Lying Down in a Cloak I 787-94 21/4 JOHN FLAXMAN x 41/8 in (57 x 105 mm) . which are sometimes also cut into pieces like a jigsaw puzzle. he also co-edited and expanded the Ukiyo-e Ruiko (History of Prints of the Floating World). stone wall of downward-stroked this sleeper's position is momentary. writer and printmaker Keisai Eisen took his name from the masters Kano Hakkeisai and Kikugawa Eizan.

Flowing scarf The knight's scarf of gilded blue is drawn in a pale wash over red ink lines. w h e r e . and even formal portraiture. t h r o u g h n u m e r o u s p o r t r a i t and C h u r c h commissions. Fine examples can be plucked from fashion. Pen and wash In the graphic accuracy of this armored knight we see the idealized identity of a warrior from another time: a gleaming defender of the realm. Leg section Compare mid-shin the section of white boots cropped to the section of similarly cropped trousers in drawings Gruau's drawing on p. theater. Its warm surface flows in contrast to the stiff metal armor. The metal. he c o o l e d and redefined his style. It is presumed Her Royal Highness never saw it. Leg sections in both support the figure without taking our attention away from the main garment above. A s a y o u n g man. cartoon. In 1 6 3 2 he m o v e d p e r m a n e n t l y t o L o n d o n . a scurrilous cartoon by a courtier of Queen Elizabeth I. and feather were all CHARACTER COSTUMES REPRESENT observed with closely crafted conviction. a n d w a s e m p l o y e d as c o u r t painter t o King Charles I. Its color is also reflected in the metal. for she would not have been amused and William Wodall might have been stretching his luck. where sometimes there just might not be anybody inside. all ruffs and wrinkles. 160. A flamboyant territory. cloth. Anthony Van Dyke's Man in Armor is a masterpiece of drawn surface. The aged queen is compared to an overdressed bird. Opposite is a dangerous drawing. The slight uncertainty of the pose and the limp cloak suggest a little more metal than man. b e f o r e traveling t o Italy. cinema. lace. A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE Flemish painter and draftsman. Van D y k e was chief assistant t o Rubens f o r t w o years. Details and voices are worn externally with great imagination.158 COSTUME Character Costumes an extreme form of the clothed figure. Man in Armor UNDATED 1 6 x 9 1 / 2 in ( 4 0 5 x 2 4 0 m m ) A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE . He has been rendered on this olive<olored page with pen and gray wash worked over a red and black under-drawing.

manuscript comprising six c a n t o s .1599 71/2 WILLIAM x 51/4 in ( 1 9 0 x 1 3 4 mm) WODALL . suggest the use of iron-gall ink (see p. she is shown as a grossly disproportioned bird. Beneath the lethal fan is the body of a bird of trimmed feathers suggest age.159 WILLIAM W O D A L L A u t h o r and illustrator o f The Aaes of Queene a Elizabeth poem Allegorized. t h e Jesuit Mission. A Ruffs and feathers Starched white ruffs worn at court and by society grew steadily larger as Elizabeth's reign progressed.35). Satire of the Queen's Dress c. t h e B a b i n g t o n Plot. the queen is masterfully rebalanced by words at her feet The whole drawing's blackened. By her old upto three tiers supported on sticks. t h e Ridolfi Plot. t h e Rising. Northern Satire This is a quill-and-ink satire of the elderly queen's pride-As head of state and fashion. it was customary to Iron-gall ink Wodall's dangerous caricature steps daintily the written lines of her dedicated page. while a raised foot pauses to assess the next displaying a fan of daggers. Top-heavy. bitten nature. and saturations showing through from the other side. and her pride. T h e poem recounts t h e six m a j o r crises o f Elizabeth's reign: t h e Spanish A r m a d a . hooded with an overinflated fluffy ruff eye pins us. here dark tawny owl.

158. His model is outlined. as is Spider-Girl opposite. The black red. 5 8 . ofcroppedtrousershere to the device of the w Illustration 1949 for Jacques Fath in L ' O f f i c i e l d e la C o u t u r e RENE GRUAU .and tilted to the same de a little deeper than sp kneestogivehergravity. Vogue. and gray pigments were applied separately.F r e n c h f a s h i o n i l l u s t r a t o r w h o in his l o n g and esteemed career w o r k e d with many of the g r e a t e s t d e s i g n e r s o f 2 0 t h . Fine lines drawn against the building behind her echo the threads on which we have all seen arachnids drop and hang. Gruau's model regally swans to the fore with cool pride. and both share the power of scarlet and black. a n d L'Officiel de la couture.5 9 ) and a three-spoke balance of cuffs and cropped trousers to create an almost flag-like emblem of power. India ink and gouache This swish of confidence and style our enters the page turning everyone's head. Fashion and fantasy drawings invent prototypes of ideals and perfection—be they for the catwalk or the fast-paced pages of comic books. Spider-Girl leaps like an insect. Gruau uses starkly cut negative space (see pp. Compare the compositio beneathVanDyke'sstudy of armor on p. muscular aggression. studio-like rectangle of paper. possibly over a pencil outline.c e n t u r y haute i n n u m e r o u s m a g a z i n e s i n c l u d i n g Elle. G r u a u ' s highly distinctive d r a w i n g s have a p p e a r e d Couture. diving to catch us in the grip of her machine-like limbs. Rene Gruau's bold gouache drawing of smoothly swaying sophistication captures a brilliantly cut garment and frames it with great dynamism in a white. RENE GRUAU I t a l i a n . She has been drawn with brushes dipped into India ink and gouache. demanding attention with gesture and flair. Drying time in between applications ensured the colors did not run into each other. Composition Look how well this image is frame knee is parallel to the bottom edge spacehorizontalline cropping the trousers be outermostuprightbordersof her cuffs are similar above her head thesidesoftheimage. elegant chic and svelte. Airbrushed reflective surfaces further amplify our perception of speed. Harpers & Queen.160 COSTUME Femmes Fatales THESE DEVASTATING femmes fatales force back the onlooker with their demure.

Frenz has drawn for Marvel for about 20 years. Align your ruler to the upright of each building. sky. and figure are all locked into equally shatp through the traditional process of a pencilled outline over-drawn ink. moon. to the right of its center. and has been the title's regular artist since 2003.74-77). Sharp focus black outlines in this drawing create a hyper-real dynamic.RON F R E N Z Contemporary American graphic artist w h o designs and pencils the dynamic scenes of numerous superheroes featured in Marvel Comics. and Amazing Spider-Man. This s modeling applied over the top give the image a sleek and mechanical of gravity. beginning with Star Wars. In your mind's eye extend the uprights out of the top of the picture. not far above the drawing. at Their extensions will meet the same single vanishing (see point pp. He began work on Spider-Girl in 1998. Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 2001-04 R O N FRENZ. a great characteristic superhero comics. The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones. Airbrushed color and with tonal focus. Single-point understand perspective To how Frenz created up therefore the effect of steeply between looking buildings—and howyou can do the same in your own work—take calculate where a ruler the and single vanishing point lies. Buildings. MARVEL C O M I C S . It is outside the picture frame.

and can be a great rediscovery for bold drawings. Often. plants. unwrapped harder pastels. oily pigment. wash. quality and cost T h e best are paperwrapped sticks of sumptuous. and cost are laid out for our pleasure and perusal. you may be pleasantly surprised to discover something you could not have imagined using. OIL PASTELS: Many colors. clay. Many products are sold individually and in boxed sets. C o n t e crayons are square-formed. and CHALK PASTELS Pastel pencils make fine lines (as above). shape. COLORED PENCILS: Dry pigments ground together with chalk. FELT-TIP PENS: Instant-drying alcoholor water-based inks stored in the barrels of the pens are delivered via smooth nylon o r felt tips of varying shapes and thicknesses. Seemingly infinite choices of texture. CHALK PASTELS: Blackboard chalk is sidewalk work. including iridescents. the finer and more subtle the texture and color should be. I suggest you do so. Most stores leave small pads of paper on their counters for customers to test materials. 1. intensity. Sticks and conte crayons make thicker marks (as below). Try materials that are new and unfamiliar. Use them to draw lightly (as above left) or thickly. insects. though lines can develop greasy stains around the edges if the paper is not first stretched and treated with a gelatin paste laid as a wash. are derived from many sources: rocks. Beware—some are toxic. Be aware that fixative dulls pastel. The nontoxic range below represents a suggested starting point for experiment. The higher the quality (and cost). colored materials available. and can be softened and manipulated with degrees of heat. except the final layer. mixed on the paper and scratched into (as below). See h o w they work and return later for more of what proved best for you. made in about 80 colors. 2. these work best when slightly warm. fixing each layer on the front. Degas built his pastels in layers. Pastels are finer. minerals. and sold in many colors. which he left unfixed to retain its brightness. 3. Bright pastels are more brilliant on colored paper. Dissolve in turpentine or mineral spirits to produce oil paint or or dark paper. used to make colors. Before making substantial investments. OIL PASTELS Oil-based. chalkbased but very subtle. crumbly. and subtlety. there are disparities between the apparent nature or color of what you hold in your hand and its performance on paper. allowing it to fix slightly from behind. They work well on PIGMENTS Pigments. animals. Many artists apply fixative to the back of their work. hue.162 COSTUME Colored Materials ART STORES BRIM OVER w i t h t h e m a n y wherever permitted. slightly oily to the touch. great for tin . and synthetics. or wax and a binder are shaped into fine strips and encased in w o o d like a graphite pencil. purchase a small selection of different items you think you will like. quality. paper-wrapped. Store loose pastels in dry rice to keep them clean. the diverse are made in brands of basic member of the family. size. Pastel pencils are slender and in w o o d casing. The worst are like revolting old lipsticks that get everywhere except where you intend. Children's wax crayons are relatives. They vary hugely in cost. 4. soft.

Fine lines can be achieved (as above). Think of Matisse's Blue Nude (see p. others dissolve in water or turpentine to make a wash. If you love smooth blocks and lines of colon felt-tip pens are perfect.or clay-based thin crayons in wood casing. Brands made for designers sold in enormous ranges of colors are far more subtle and sophisticated than those made for children. FELT-TIP PENS Although not made with felt-tip pen. . leaving the paper to shine through for highlights (as below). Some give richer lines than others. 111). Diverse brands are harder or soften greasier or chalkier in use. it is still a great champion and support for those beginners feeling shyly obligated to tone down their love of color to conform with what others say they should use. Colors can be blended as shown right) and tones graded by altering pressure. Some are nonsoluble.163 COLORED PENCILS These are wax. so it is best to test them before buying.

a range of colored felt-tip pens with both fine and broad tips. You. I m a d e n u m e r o u s s h e e t s o f d r a w i n g s . and how we stand and walk. Linear Outline Using fine pens. Turn t h e m in different d i r e c t i o n s and o b s e r v e t h e i r s t r u c t u r e and f o r m . and they have been concealed in buildings to ward off misfortune. and after studying familiar shoes we use the information learned to invent new ones. you will need several large sheets of drawing paper. 104-07). and volume in space (see pp. personality. Superstitions and fetishes are attached to them: we are told never to put new shoes on a table. REPEATED STUDY T o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s class. structure. if y o u m a k e p l e n t y o f d r a w i n g s as o p p o s e d t o o n l y a f e w . This class takes the shoe as its subject in building on earlier lessons concerned with seeing through objects to understand their function. S H O E S TELL LIFE STORIES. t o o . 100-01 and pp. c o v e r a large sheet o f p a p e r w i t h line drawings o f several shoes.164 COSTUME Study and Design they reflect our age. t h e n again as if transparent. e n j o y i n g t h e study a n d i n v e n t i o n o f shoes. a n d e x p e r i e n c e visible p r o g r e s s . the era in which we live. style. values. D r a w each o n e first as a solid object. social and economic status. will discover m o r e . Here we go one step further. imagining y o u can see t h r o u g h it. . To set up. and a selection of shoes. while artists have painted their boots or those of others as personal portraits and memorials. As artifacts in museums. they record and reflect our common history.

165

The Surface
Next,

STUDY AND DESIGN

study the surface contours using fineand broad-tipped felt-tip pens. For best results, it is important to be bold and brief. Draw firmly, fast, and with as few strokes as possible. Build up each shoe from light to dark andleavesome paper showing through to create highlights.

Design Your Own

Using what you have learned from the previous steps about the structures of your shoes, and about the use of pens, invent new designs from your imagination. Start with fine outlines and progress to colored and textured surfaces. Modify your ideas by rotating the views.

166

COSTUME

The Structure of Costume
MUSEUMS ARE AN INFINITELY

rich resource for the artist and

information given by a period style. Arrange to visit a costume museum or ask a friend to model clothes for you at home. Using fine felt-tip pens, begin with quick, pale impressions of each garment's shape before homing in on its borders and seams. Try to draw transparent views wherever possible to record the relationships between all component parts. Aim to draw enough information for it to be possible to make up a version of the garment using paper pinned to a tailor's dummy.

designer. They often give quite unexpected gems of ideas and information—whatever the subject. These drawings, made in a costume museum, demonstrate ways of recording structural information and detail for later use in the studio. They could form the basis of new designs for a fashion project or theater production, for example. Drawings of shoes on pp. 164-65 show how new designs can be evolved from the structural

OBSERVATION
It is usually best when collecting information for reference to apply the restraint of dispassionate observation. Set yourself the test of drawing facts with as little artistic license or embellishment as possible. Here I chose fine felt-tip pens because they are at their best when used swiftly, and therefore encourage bold, unhesitant decisions.

Swift lines record the hanging weight of this gentleman's coat, the relative proportions of its layers, and minimal details of the buttons and cuffs.

Thick velvet fabric is pulled tight beneath and across the bust by a single button. This transparent view shows how the fabric falls loosely in straight panels beneath the level of the sleeve.

167

LIGHTING
W h e n visiting museums, be prepared f o r l o w lighting, which can make it hard t o see and draw. A book can help if attached t o your drawing board.

Adding stripes and dashes of color with a thicker pen brings out the glossy sheen and sculptural rigidity of this dress, which would have been worn over a whalebone corset. small reading light designed t o clip o n t o a

THE STRUCTURE OF COSTUME

In small drawings such as these, use thick pens to color entire sections with a few marks, as I did here down the side of the bodice.

The light, frilly bulk of this crinoline dress is propelled forward with lines. pinching its gathers and sways that are hiding a horsehair bustle. fleets of quick

168

COSTUME

Textures and.Patterns
THIS CLASS FOCUSES ON how to draw textures through the collection of fabric, pattern, and embroidery samples from a costume m u s e u m . This formal method, using ruled squares, can create an invaluable library of ideas a n d i n f o r m a t i o n for future r e f e r e n c e — w h e n painting a clothed figure, or preparing a textile project, for example. However, if making a book of samples for a project, remember that it is important to also include collages of f o u n d materials (see pp.230-31) To d r a w a fabric texture, b e g i n by concentrating o n h o w y o u i m a g i n e it w o u l d feel if you t o u c h e d it. Decide if it w o u l d be rough, s m o o t h , w a r m , cold, thick, thin, tough, or fragile, for example. As you draw, believe you can feel these qualities at your fingertips a n d that your pencil is responding to the sensation. Undulate the pressure of your lines and marks according to the feeling of the fabric rather than its appearance. Let your pencil enact the sensation of touching its surface.

and to experiment more loosely with mixed media.

INVENTING COSTUMES
This starchy, quilted, b o w e d creation started life as an imagined corset, I intended t o d r a w together in one sculptural f o r m a range o f t h e details opposite. T h e garment quickly got o u t o f hand. T h e r e is great e n j o y m e n t in letting y o u r imagination run wild w h e n inventing costumes. If you are unable t o visit a costume museum, many exciting fabric details and textures can be found in y o u r o w n closet o r home.

169

COLORED PENCILS
Colored pencils give precision and tonal range; they can be faded but not erased. Lightly use an HB graphite pencil if you wish to plan a design first. Pressed hard, colored pencils build up a waxy finish of brilliant color. Used lightly, they appear powdery and show the texture of the paper.

TEXTURES AND PATTERNS
Wool

Silk and braid

Ribbon

Embroidered leather

Feathers

Pearls

Knit

Tassels

Outline stitch

.

I made a drawing book full of studies seeking to understand how he composed drama and pathos in his narratives (see also pp. shape.Dressing Character I O N C E SPENT THREE MONTHS researching the work of Francisco de Goya at the Prado Museum. identity. These characters. 172-73.126-27. look at how Goya delineated volumes of thick fabric to express the posture. . and motivation of an individual. Madrid. selected from different pages of my original book. and 252-53).

are copies of works by Goya in which he makes air seem heavier than flesh. and tangible.170—71). . I carefully copied the direction of each of his lines. and visible. Posture Carving also taken from my Madrid drawing book (see pp.T H E S E PENCIL STUDIES. To understand how he did this. as it rushes and carves fabric-wrapped forms like rivers and desert winds shaping the earth.

.

.

soap operas. Her all-too-clear expression shows annoyance and irritation with her husband. and novels—our staple cultural diet—are driven by a fascination with shared experience and the detail of what happens in other people's lives. . the viewer. Rembrandt's bored and frustrated wife. in spite of how it may seem. comics. Third. It middle. are implicated in this marital exchange made over the head of the anonymous nurse. Drawings selected for this chapter explore these Saskia Lying in Bedand a Nurse ranges of proximity 1638 9 x61/2in (227 x 164 mm) and a travel journal. presumably while he is making this drawing. paintings depicting scenes from history. we can learn most about handling pen and ink. Here. too. He is also the artist from whom props to add layers of meaning and attitude. Seeing through Rembrandt's eyes. furniture. This J u s t as there are three parts to a traditional landscape drawing—the foreground. types. Washes of shadow behind engaged and as a natural voyeur can feel invisible while watching the scene. but drawings of gathered people tell them most directly. the viewer's attention in a scene by the format of its composition. the speed and printmaker and one of the greatest and most influential density of its lines. and its illumination. heighten or subdue drama with subtleties of exaggeration or caricature. we can R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter draftsman. a crowd tells the story from a distance. finding corners in crowded places to inscribe their action and energy onto the page. The spaces between people and the positions they occupy on a page are vital to our understanding of the psychology or emotion of an event. Blockbuster movies. television documentaries. this is not the portrait of an old woman. Saskia died after childbirth. With a pocket full of disposable pens we also go out and draw the expressions of gathered people. the viewer is not directly made the finer lines of Saskia. We can also use clothes. Second. R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN in the delivery of narrative. vivid portrait of his wife captures our attention. and therefore seem to see. even up her were laid with a brush. we. while a quill contact with. and other masters of Western Art. and distance—so drawings of gathered people can be loosely arranged in three took only minutes to make and yet it lives for centuries. Storytelling and people-watching are obsessive human activities. Saskia. Later in their lives. He in turn scorches the paper with his view and a certain speed of seeing all. We read tensions and exchanges between people.Gatherings A LL DRAWINGS TELL STORIES. the direct exchange (as shown here) where one or more characters hold eye Aneedproduced the thicker lines of the nurse. We can direct close. As artists. daily newspapers. stares out from her gloomy sickbed. and instantly engage with the action of the scene. there are no longer individuals but one significant group or mass action. and so. First.

h a l o e d portrait of the artists seated b a c k to b a c k .. In both works. plates shatter. TIM N O B L E A N D SUE W E B S T E R British artists who collaborate using neon. and on. junk. and projectors to create their anarchic punk satires of modern life." (Tim Noble) Drawing with light it is important to think about what you is Here timelessly we see a in can draw with. Here. t h e y select and arrange familiar items of street detritus into what appears to be an u n p l e a s a n t pile. Below. and Alice. Think about what else you could use: a laser smoke. garbage and chaos are piled a n d e x p l o d e d in r o o m s full of event. In one of R a c k h a m s great illustrations for Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland."Anything that. and smoke billows around the agitated jives of the Duchess. N o b l e a n d W e b s t e r s w i t t y a n d o f t e n s u b v e r s i v e d r a w i n g s are also c o n t e m p o r a r y art installations. Pencil on paper important but only the beginning of possibility the combination of three-dimensional space. or even the office photocopier.. T h e i m m a c u l a t e d r a w i n g is only r e v e a l e d w h e n t h e b e a m of a p r o j e c t o r c a s t s t h e s h a d o w Projections of the h e a p o n t o a wall.kicks against the mundane things that close down your mind is a refreshing and good thing. the Cat. and projector. Real Life is Rubbish 2002 Dimensions variable TIM N O B L E A N D SUE WEBSTER . c o m p o s e d garbage p r o d u c e s a c a l m .176 GATHERINGS SOME DRAWINGS ARE MADE e n t i r e l y o f i l l u m i n a t i o n that floods drama into the viewers gaze. Pans fly oft the stove. narrative is delivered through the air. hearth i m p l e m e n t s crash at o u r feet. F o r e a c h w o r k . refuse. the C o o k . for example. and in. a kitchen explodes in o u r faces. via the animated clutter of o u r material lives.

by vivid children's Rakham's w o r k is characterized fantasy. amplifying movement outward from the vanishing point. The wood grain acts like marks of speed behind the scene. and Alice's shoulder. Rackham Vanishing point In this marvelous drama made with pen. a n d an unmistakable graphic style. are very large compared to on p.Stowe's ofMysteryand Queer Little Folks. tabletop. This makes the story appear to leap out at us. 100 to see for make elliptical objects and pans fly through the the foreground. H e is best k n o w n forillustratingIrving's Rip vanWinkle. ink. beams. Find the singleperspective pp. we find several devices already explored through our drawing classes. and watercolor.177 ARTHUR RACKHAM British watercolorist and book illustrator. See how the In the Duchess's Kitchen 1907 77/8 x 6 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 5 0 m m ) ARTHUR RACKHAM .76-77) above vanishing point (see that is about3/4in (2 cm) oak converge at this point. and Poe's Tales Imagination. Depth Billows of smoke expand and are lighter as they come forward. humor. Refer back to the drawing class how pots In drawn objects and elements that those behind.

expressing his dry humor about O F ALL THE CONTRASTS HENRY MOORE British s c u l p t o r w h o t r a i n e d a n d taught at t h e R C A . The mournful gray landscape of Henry Moore's northern British field has gathered by night an overcoated audience to stand and wait before a wrapped and roped monument. and composition they are polar opposites. This is an ironic drawing from Moore. which still narrates vivid days in the lives of an energetic nation. A glimmer of gold light appears from the left No explanation is given. heat. Chalk and graphite This fog-bound but humorous gathering of souls is made in graphite and colored chalk with gray wash. HENRY MOORE Crowd 1942 Looking at Tied-up Object . perhaps these two are the most extreme. meaning. Magnetic Fields sculpture. join in the waiting. This is just one of many precious artifacts from a lost time. a n d l o v e d t o d r a w in t h e BritishMuseum. The image stands out among his more usual graphic works in which he hones and carves semi-abstract human forms. as if Moore's wrapping has been literally outstretched. audiences.The human form w a s the vehicle o f his expression and h e w a s t h e official W o r l d W a r II artist.178 GATHERINGS we have seen in the pairs and trios of drawings by masters and makers. as fellow watchers. and action of a buffalo hunt. London. and we. Moore's spectators appear to have walked a long way from nowhere to witness and wait beside this mysterious obelisque. and art in the landscape. a great Shoshone drawing blazes with the color. a sculptor. Opposite. In culture. M o o r e t o u r e d Italy as a young man.

tolearnhow to paint a scene on a hide are and buffalo circle and charge the perimeters of a skin "field.179 SHOSHONE SCHOOL Stylized characters This vital image of a buffalo hunt is made with pigment Members of the Shoshone community wishing painted within dark outlines on a stretched elk hide. Hunt CENTURY SHOSHONE SCHOOL . and helping our eye to dart around. Each color is evenly distributed throughout the scene. horses. Stylized hunters. creating harmonious balance with words but through silent demonstration." Men at the instructed to sit and watch. MAGNETIC FIELDS Horses It is interesting to note how the outstretched limbs ofthesehorses echo European images of the runningBuffalo horse before the sequence-photographer Muybridge taught us to 19TH understand their movement differently. Skills are taught not center chant or dance to the beat of a drum.

Misted in translucent layers of paint. B l a k e h a s i l l u m i n a t e d his s a d d e n e d Virgil on the s h o r e s of a d a r k w o r l d . a d e a t h c h a r g e of brutality. We also see qualities of line. Blake w a s d r i v e n b y a passion f o r j u s t i c e a n d a p r o f o u n d b e l i e f in his v i s i t a t i o n s f r o m angels. The Circle of the (The Whirlwind 1824 of Lustful Lovers) mm) 143/4 x 207/8i n ( 3 7 4 x 5 3 0 WILLIAM BLAKE . texture. It illustrates a scene from Dante's Divine Comedy.f o o t e d t r o g l o d y t e s w h o rage into w a r like a m u d s l i d e of revenge. inextinguishable in its fortitude and h u m o r . era as Kollwitz. w e f i n d a spiritual v i s i o n . a n d o t h e r w o r k s . pale souls of the lustful are being s p u n into yet another realm of hell. and sweetened the often bleak years with his impractical inventions. a n d the gentle h u m o r of sedate r i d i c u l e . Brushed line and wash This is an ink-outlined drawing made with a fine brush on paper with added washes of watercolor The image was subsequently redrawn as a line engraving. a n d f o c u s . Heath Robinson lived through the same war-torn. K a t h e K o l l w i t z s c r a t c h e d a n d e n g r a v e d her a r m y of c l a y . m a r k . w h i c h b y their c h o i c e a n d h a n d l i n g a c t u a l l y b e c o m e the force a n d spirit of e a c h i m a g e . W I L L I A M BLAKE British visionary. w h e r e he w a t c h e s a t u r b u l e n t s p i r a l of p u n i s h m e n t f o r the d a m n e d .180 GATHERINGS The Human Condition IN THE SPECTRUM of these vastly d i f f e r e n t g a t h e r i n g s of p e o p l e . color. Opposite. a pink-inked cinema wobbles along with string. t h e Bible. p o e t . a n d e n g r a v e r w h o p o w e r f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e d his o w n t e x t s in a d d i t i o n t o D a n t e ' s Divine Comedy. w r i t e r a r t i s t . The muscularity of Blake's figures was inspired by Michelangelo's works.

stoical bemusement. Losbruch (The Outbreak) 1955 20 x 233/8 in (507 x 592 mm) KATHE KOLLWITZ HEATH ROBINSON humorous illustrator and a regular contributor to magazines and journals such as The Sketch and The Bystander.181 KATHE KOLLWITZ German printmaker. Robinson and Kollwitz (above) share almost identical life dates and their work expresses a shared history from opposite sides oftheworld wars. however meager or ridiculous their activity. The image was scratched directly onto a metal plate. children. and controlled smears on the metal surface printed as tones. Kollwitz survived the two World Wars. who lived in a poor district of Berlin. British Pen and wash This is a pen-andwatercolor drawing made for a color-platereproduction in an edition of T h e Bystander. and her powerful and sensitive drawings center on nurture. THE HUMAN CONDITION Scratched lines This is a dry-point etching with monoprint. sculptor and draftsman. What remained in scratched grooves printed on damp paper as lines. and the family home. and clearly focused. plodding along with hazy. and the impact of death and war upon women. Heath Robinson shows England in a past era. He created sincere. With masterful gentility. humor by making his characters earnest. White marks were made with a dusting of French chalk on the artist's finger to wipe away ink leaving clean metal. HEATH ROBINSON The Kinecar 1926 103/8 x 15 in (262 x 380 mm) . Ink rolled over was selectively polished off using a rag. poverty.

is d e l i v e r e d t h r o u g h a m e t a l t u b e o v e r a t i n y ball bearing. jot notes. Insensitive t o p r e s s u r e : lines d o n o t v a r y in w i d t h o r t o n e . w a t e r .r e s i s t a n t . a n d pressure-sensitive. they each offer distinct and sometimes unexpected qualities. For example. c h o o s e p e n s l a b e l e d " p e r m a n e n t " o r "lightfast. R e m e m b e r . blob when old. trusting shape and form to follow.188-89) and Caravans (see pp. or idea. W h i t e gel p e n s a r e v e r y e f f e c t i v e o n d a r k papers. At a time like this.182 GATHERINGS Disposable Pens (ballpoints. and in most pockets so I can always record a thought DISPOSABLE PENS QUICK NOTES O n a c o l d day in Venice. turn the page. build to a rich. The f o u r i l l u s t r a t e d h e r e r e p r e s e n t a basic r a n g e .7 7 and 214-15). they can be obtained within minutes. which can snap or pierce through your clothes. 7 6 . gel pens) are the most convenient of all materials with which to travel. a n d ranges o f colors. indent paper. fine fiber-tip Drawing with a fine fiber-tip pen. a disposable pen with its clip-on cap goes anywhere. 192-93) w e r e b o t h m a d e w i t h a ballpoint." 1. Ideal f o r precision w o r k (see p p . shut your book. . or put the paper in your pocket instantly without fear of smudging. t h e y a r e lightfast. B A L L P O I N T : Black a n d b o l d c o l o r s o f f e r d i v e r s e qualities. dropped in your pocket and forgotten till needed. Available in blacks and ranges of colors. Unlike pencils. these pens enable you to sketch. Lines t h i c k e n as t h e p e n w e a r s o u t G r a n d Canal (see pp. aiming for correct outlines would result in drawing too slowly to c a t c h the moment. t w o tourists and their gondolier drifter past m e o n a canal. FIBER-TIP: M a n u f a c t u r e d f o r artists a n d d e s i g n e r s in a r a n g e o f w i d t h s . So many stores sell them. CHOICES AVAILABLE T h e r e a r e m a n y d i s p o s a b l e p e n s t o c h o o s e from. a ballpoint will make faint lines. T h e r e w e r e c seconds t o snatch this impression b e t w e e n their emergence from one bridge and disappearance b e n e a t h t h e next. rollerballs. I swiftly focused on gesture. 4. fibertips. I keep quantities at home. including l u m i n o u s a n d m e t a l l i c . 2. dark sheen. in the studio. or turn into washes and make monoprints if flooded with an alcohol-based substance such as hairspray. Quick-drying. p e r m a n e n t . G E L P E N : P r o d u c e d in b l a c k w h i t e . in the car. R O L L E R B A L L : A c o n s t a n t i n k flow 3 . if y o u w i s h y o u r d r a w i n g s t o last a n d n o t fade o r b l u r w i t h t i m e a n d e x p o s u r e t o light.

crowd of fellow travelers Fast lines These scribbled lines model the mass and shadows of heads belonging passengers packed into the boat. Earlier I had witnessed a crammed en masse in a fleet of hired gondolas complete with musicians and choir. Compare this Klee's mules on p.FROMMEMORY Here I used the same fiber-tip pen to compose a scene from memory. Fast lines focus on action. not form.31 .

Each one was witnessed and drawn immediately from the afterimage of what I had just seen. and companionship. However. Exaggeration helps. make them stouter. black. Each line acts its part in the narrative. all action is in the line of his coat and directed by his nose. animate them more. I caught fleeting glimpses of gathered people and solitary souls going about their affairs. let it enter the stage and perform. A curatorial assistant flies to do a chore (right). angles will happen as a matter of course. activity. FLEETING MOMENTS Walking through Venice with a small. You must learn to trust your memory and to draw what impressed you most. Circular lines buzz around a man puzzling at the end of a train platform (left). Every drawing writes an indelible memory of place. if a person was stout. if animated. You will make outlines. focus on the action of the event. Let the line of the flying coat fly and the hanging arm hang. but they should not be what you dwell on. of course. No camera can tie you to a time or people in the same way. Don't worry about measuring angles. pocket notebook and a fiber-tip pen. Push toward caricature and this will draw out of your memory what was most important. when out drawing. Movement . not its outline. just draw the action.184 GATHERINGS The Travel Journal I CANNOT OVERSTATE THE JOY of making a travel journal. Above all. life will not slow and wait for you to catch it.

Expression . In turn.185 A large lady is photographed in front of a delicate work of art. The rush of his legs isamplifiedby their blurred lines. eager to herd us all from his house of responsibility. Observation THE TRAVEL JOURNAL The same willowy assistant dashes about his work. I am watched by the aggravated guard. I drew him three times on the same page to catch a range of his physical expressions.

if they are being devious. and you decide to draw the moment. ACTION AND DETAIL W h e n drawing people. and reason for happening. not outline. Place the person carefully. I took refuge in a church in Venice. . Here the custodian projects fastidious ownership of his desk and pamphlets by pushing from behind the center of the space and challenging our entry to his image. placement. forcing me to remain at the back and look at them. and involvement in the story. and let every detail speak by its size. and clothing or bags hang. flap. pulls. furniture leans. decide how faces and bodies contort. or bulge. focus on action. Here I have recreated my drawing in steps to show you how to set about capturing such a scene. When your attention has been caught. He and his simpering assistant would not allow me in. and there met this sullen custodian. you might place them lower down. if they are being haughty. emotion. start by focusing on its action. elevate them in the pictorial space.186 GATHERINGS Catching the Moment On A BITTERLY COLD November day. or pushes. Identify the principal character and draw him or her first. rather than the works of art they guarded. For example. Be aware that their placement on the page is part of the narrative. For example.

. CATCHING THE MOMENT The assistant Identify t h e antagonist ( o r second character) in t h e scene. a pillar locates t h e scene in a depth o f space. Decide where you will place them o n the paper t o emphasize their action and intent. which is pushed toward us in a gesture of confrontation. D r a w their action. If drawing a more complex scene.187 The custodian Identify your principal character a n d their psychological role in the scene. Here. such as the desk and pamphlets seen here. In the final step (left) I reinforced t h e custodian's desk. continue adding characters. I added t h e assistant. together with any immediate props they are using. Decide where t o place them t o emphasize their role. who is largely expressed through the shape and fall o f his raincoat and his way o f using a note pad. W i t h a few strokes. Draw their action and props.

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An imminent deluge of tourists urged me to work catching no more than the skeleton of the view. I developed detailofthis drawing from memory using a ballpoint pen.Grand Canal T H E CANALS OF VENICE are bustling places full of occupation. where vertical mooring poles give space and pulse to the horizontal speed of water quickly. and buildings. .

Venetians flow across a stepped bridge and cascade into the streets beyond. and drawn immediately from memory. note only their most essential action and feature. Characters in the foreground were drawn first. Caricature each person slightly. Each person was glimpsed in an instant.Crossings DURING THIS RUSH HOUR. To catch characters like this. . then the bridge beneath them. followed by the streets.

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I used a ballpoint pen to compose a series of scenes. Caravans and other backstage activity convey expectations of energy and repose. Sitting at a distance on a hot. . and a great subject to draw.Caravans T H E PARAPHERNALIA O F TRAVEL i s an intriguing part of circus life. I found this circus by chance in the Swiss mountains. quiet afternoon.

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the sun comes out to blind it. Take chances against the rain and work with the wind or fog. they are the animators of your subject. to be ready to draw the new light as it breaks across the land. learning to draw light out of dark. when little stirs and empty blue skies offer even less to latch lines to. and the sea. 199). pages o f softly i l l u m i n a t e d craters and lunar "seas" c o v e r e d in m a t h e m a t i c a l and s h o r t h a n d calculations. a contemporary environmental artist. rivers. and even how the Sun illuminates. arranging them in perfect circles on the mountainside or in lines drifting out of sight beneath low clouds. It now hangs on the staircase of the History of Science Museum. What they have drawn is the force of nature on these properties: how the wind heaves the night ocean. marking the ground with lines of footprints or by turning stones. a n d a m o o n globe called t h e Selenographia. surrounded by the bright instruments of centuries of navigation. t h e first-ever accurate image o f t h e M o o n ' s surface. and meteor impacts have scarred. These conditions are very difficult to express well. It is better to get up before dawn. and experiment. but it can be seen as a lens to our observation of this planet. are the real subjects in great landscape drawings. Oxford. There is a sense of the heroic in drawing outside—we race to catch a form before the tide engulfs it. By drawing such momentous and everyday events. The pastel drawing was constructed from myriad telescopic observations almost 200 years before the Apollo Moon landing. England. and its draws the tides of the seas. as opposed the physicality of Earth. speculation. a n d a n astronomer w h o dedicated 20 years t o studying t h e M o o n . H e a l s o p r o d u c e d an a l b u m o f 1 8 0 exquisite pencil drawings. or the wind carries it away. It is Earths satellite. artists see for themselves that which is momentary and eternal. Russell d r e w this. Just as NASA photographs of Earth have had a profound effect on the way we view our fragile home. Weather is essential in all landscape drawing. and take bold steps in emulating the swell of clouds and the forces of torrential water. trees. Richard Long. so J o h n Russell's tour de f o r c e drawing (opposite) was a masterpiece of observation in his time. how the mountain cut by ice and rain is now fleetingly lit. The forces of nature. 5 f t x 5 ft 6 in ( 1 5 2 x 1 6 8 c m ) J O H N RUSSELL . the face of the Moon. our companion.Earth and the Elements I T MAY SEEM PERVERSE to start a chapter titled "Earth and the Elements" with an image of the Moon. sunny days. Look closely at works by many artists and you will see that they have not represented hills. t w o e n g r a v e d m a p s k n o w n as The Lunar Planispheres. This is the world's first accurate image of the Moon. or has cracked and fallen under the weight of water. In this chapter Moon Pastel 1795 Drawing we experiment with charcoal. Beginners will often choose calm. JOHN RUSSELL A p o r t r a i t pastelist t o King G e o r g e III o f England. how the soil is scorched. makes his work by the act of walking. William Turner is said to have had himself lashed to a ship's mast to comprehend the storm (see p.

undramatic b u t brimming with stylized realism. and pioneer ofexpressionism.198 EARTH AND THE E L E M E N T S Air in Motion THE GREAT INVISIBLE SUBJECT o f these d r a w i n g s is t h e w i n d .Through political drawings he fired his sharp wit at the king. painter. Daumier's c a r t o o n shines with the brilliance of his comic memory. we can soon learn to draw its force. serving a prison sentence for his views. the bourgeoisie. Fluid strokes inflate the woman's dress and pin shadows to the ground. lifts. fluttering heavily. Dots and dashes suggest receding trees out of focus. and by observing its tides and eddies in our o w n environment. Flapping kimonos and an onlooker turning his b a c k have the magic of a m o m e n t caught. Danger of Wearing Balloon Petticoats UNDATED HONORE DAUMIER . distance. A hard waxy was drawn across a heavy limestone Varying definitions crayon of lire and depths of tone conspire to give volume. has b e c o m e a hysterical kite. By Turner carries us to the heart of the maelstrom. and solidity. speed. T h e ship. a sail b r o k e n loose in a stormy marriage. Terrifying waves of merciless nature roar across the paper. Crayon and limestone This is a lithograph. Hokusais sedate wind presses reeds a n d the j o u r n e y s o f young ladies. seeing how it shakes. like an umbrella forced inside-out. Hazy vertical marks reveal buildings into the mist. He knew how the world bends and stutters under such gusts. T h e great master of English seascape is c o n d u c t i n g with his graphic energy. is already lost. This wife. a scratched ghost. the government. Below. and gives motion to each image. H O N O R E DAUMIER French satirical cartoonist lithographer. sculptor. and the legal profession.

and history painter w h o s e p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t a b o v e all w a s light.M. Wind direction wood-block This is a colored To represent the blows lifted flowed wind. from left print.l o v e dw o r k s i n c l u d e 1 0 0 v i e w s o f M o u n t Fuji and 1 2 v o l u m e s o f Manga. T U R N E R British landscape. Hokusai direction (from clothing from has chosen which it the right). T h e r e a r e m a n y stories o f his p a s s i o n a t e w o r k i n g methods.199 J. wind. painter. Landscape a n d city life w e r e his principal subjects.M. T u r n e r w o r k e d in oils a n d w a t e r c o l o r s a n d s k e t c h e d c o p i o u s l y o n his travels. into this very as pressed sheet The paper's through own coior is brought banks of mist and fog.W. H o k u s a i in t u r n has since significantly influenced European art. a n d his b e s t . horizontally then and of the it into the stream Plants also bend and flow right to Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 1802 81/2 HOKUSAI KATSUSHIKA x 131/2 in ( 2 1 7 x 3 4 3 mm) . leans the whole composition swells around its fateful center. including being lashed t o a ship's m a s t in o r d e r to study a storm.b l o c kprintmaker. seascape. A outline scratched of a skeletal into penciled ship is while and the waves. TURNER KATSUSHIKA HOKUSAI Prolific J a p a n e s e c o l o r w o o d . Ship in a Storm c. W .i n f l u e n c e d b y examples o f W e s t e r n art obtained through D u t c h t r a d i n g in Nagasaki. absorbent watercolor and are Stains of splashed. 1826 91/2 x 113/4 in ( 2 4 1 x 3 0 0 m m ) J. AIR IN MOTION Pencil and watercolor subdued brushed. d e s i g n e r a n d b o o k i l l u s t r a t o r .

and swim into the page. An update on biblical showers of fish and frogs. In periods b e t w e e n writing. He brings us to stare into a place that no sane human would enter. as if drawn j u s t this year. T h e m e n a c i n g darkness of Hugo's storm b e l o w is so convincing. His subjects include ruins.198) admires the majesty of nature. or charcoal. this is a writer's narrative of terror. Opposite. By contrast.200 ELEMENTS Storms STORMS CAN BE SEEN and drawn in two ways: first. Pen and brush Hugo drew first with pen and ink. this is a b o m b a r d m e n t from o u r h o m e s . h a u n t e d shadows. It looks so contemporary. and tossed o b j e c t s — a perfect subject in which artists can forget themselves. it is difficult to contemplate its brooding and night-soaked heart. leaving nothing but a glimpse of moonlight glistening on the froth below. lines of rain escorting them to b o u n c e and clatter. water.28). Le Bateau-Vision 1864 71/2 x 1 0 in ( 1 9 2 x 2 5 5 m m ) VICTOR H U G O . he blanketed the drawing in darkness. Turner (see p. active surfaces of water. as a gestural storm on the paper. and t h e sea s t u d i e d f r o m his h o m e in Guernsey in t h e Channel Islands. Then. EARTH AND THE VICTOR HUGO French novelist and artist (see also p. as a subject and second. inks. drawing was Hugo's principal means o f expression. Leonardos Cloudburst of Material Possessions is o n e of his m o s t enigmatic and mysterious works. ink. grab their b r u s h . composing banks of waves and dense. fantasy palaces. marks. D o m e s t i c o b j e c t s we can o w n and name fall from the clouds. T h e very nature of b o t h is turmoil and an interweaving of elements. with a brush.

He bequeathed his drawings to a friend.LEONARDO DA VINCI Leonardo devised many artifacts of our modern lives. He was left-handed and wrote backwards in Italian from left to right. a bell. together with half the contents of our garage. envisioning machines centuries before their making (helicopters and bicycles. Above and below are examples of his mirror handwriting. There is a little magic in recognizing many items from our homes something like a rake. a hook. and a wheel. Cloudburst of Material Possessions 1510-12 45/8 x 43/8 in ( 1 1 7 x 1 1 1 mm) L E O N A R D O DA VINCI . for example). and they passed through private hands for 400 years before becoming widely known. It is interesting to speculate how engineering might have developed if his ideas had been shared with the world earlier Ink and chalk This is a pen and ink drawing with touches of black chalk. Each item that has crashed from heaven is drawn in such a way that we can feel Leonardo's nib picking it up in the speed of a doodle.

Over first lines. Drawing with a scalpel. atmosphere. rich.202 ELEMENTS THE PROFILE OF A HORIZON is a line we immediately recognize and respond to. Claude is distinguished by. In a very different work (opposite above). Segments The top half of the drawing is a view as we enter the valley. transferred it to a scroll. In the lower half he has walked downhill a little. it is the unique calligraphic signature of the place in which we stand. sea-. and across to the right. which he used to unify his compositions. EARTH AND THE Bryan cut the profile of a city. watching his hand and eye at work together. Clare Bryan took panoramic photographs of the English South Downs. Nature Profiles Opposite below. Views from Velletri c. and mood simultaneously. Even distilled from all other detail. thick. and famed for. Paler. cooler tones receding into the distance are applied with a brush. and dry marks in the foreground appear to be made with his finger. or cityscape.1638 85/8 x 121/2 in (219 x 320 mm) CLAUDE LORRAIN . and after tracing her captured line. his unsurpassed handling of light. C L A U D E LORRAIN French classical landscape painter draftsman. She was inspired by her research of aerial plans of London and the story of an alien map butterfly (see caption). and we can imagine standing over his shoulder. rapidly layering contours to shape place. Claude has used a fine nib to delineate segments of land as they recede into space. made inside a book. she teased away fragments of paper to illuminate her view. a horizon line can trigger our recognition. Whether land-. and etcher who lived most of his life in 17th-century Rome. Claude Lorrain drew directly on location.

then hunted destroyed. source workisilluminatedby standing its lower edge on a CLARE BRYAN . drawings Ideas of introduction Clare Bryan to research introduced down and led NATURE PROFILES and removal historical plans and aerial growth of London showing its population since Roman times. progressively settlement (cropped more and more paper is drawn away to show the expansion of human page of an around the river. specialty bookbinder. printmaker graphic designer. The edges of each here) fade into the solid paper unpopulated with a scalpel landscape.5-m)scroll. 2001 CLARE BRYAN C L A R E BRYAN 3ritish artist. and visiting professor at numerous art schools. and digital print-based works reflect upon the histories and poetry of "left behind and in-between spaces.The horizon was drawn with a City Landline 2003 271/2x 59 in (70 x 150 cm) scalpel. Her recent paper photographic. On turning the pages of City." Cut line This is a small section of a preparatory 5-ft(1.203 Scalpel-drawn This book-bound drawing was inspired by the story of a foreign butterfly wrongly to Great Britain in 1912.

blacker. R o u g h paper c a n b e loaded. Essentially. it is compressed and m o l d e d at high pressure. or fingertip. C h a r c o a l naturally glistens. In use. It is also easily erased if the maker of the mark is not happy with the result. 1 Suspend a length of masking tape. they are all intended for fine work. Lines are achieved by d e p o s i t i n g particles in the grain o f paper. without touching the surface. and heavier than willow. THIN WILLOW CHARCOAL: I used a piece like this to make the drawing opposite. but some specialists stock compressed charcoal in delicate square sticks. CHALK CHARCOAL: Technically. b e e c h . CHARCOAL PENCIL: Types made by different manufacturers vary in quality and density of line. Not to be confused with square conte sticks (see p.m a d e c o m p r e s s e d charcoal. b l a c k e r . . 1. Slightly dull the tape's stickiness before use t o prevent it from lifting out more than you intend. and offers a rich. 3. Alternatively. SQUARE COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Not often sold. feather. a piece of fresh bread.204 E A R T H AND THE E L E M E N T S Charcoal CHARCOAL IS PRODUCED from wood baked slowly without exposure to air. THICK W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 2 Keep the tape above your drawing. MEDIUM W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 5. between your middle finger and thumb. Use any fine-point pen or pencil (I used a ballpoint) to draw a firm line on the back of the Big pieces are perfect for very large-scale drawings—even larger than yourself. vine. black finish. harder line. maple. B u n d l e s o f twigs were traditionally sealed into earthenware j a r s or wet clay and heated slowly and intensely in a fire or kiln. Artists have also used lime. the heel o f y o u r h a n d . 4. resulting in a pale line. you can p u r c h a s e m a c h i n e .54). The tip snaps easily to renew a sharp edge if required. It c a n be m a d e duller. a rag. white line into the blackor grayness of willow charcoal. leaving u n d e r t r a c e s of first thoughts. Beware of cheap brands selling dyed chalk as compressed charcoal. sticky side down. Hold it over your drawing RANGE AVAILABLE Charcoal (in its several forms shown here) is loved or loathed by the beginner to whom it is often recommended because it produces pleasing results quickly. Smooth paper accepts few particles. 3 A white line is lifted out by the tape. so it chars b l a c k as o p p o s e d to igniting a n d turning to ash. COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Machine-made. this does not exist. Willow is the most c o m m o n wood. Boxes often contain a range of thicknesses to choose for different needs. 162) or graphite (see p. It allows you greater precision in your mark-making than if you rub away the charcoal with an eraser. only a little thicker. LIFTING OUT This technique is a very easy method of drawing a crisp. a n d p l u m . As its name implies. A great find when available. fine. tape. cylindrical. resulting in a stick that gives a blacker. The same as above. a n d m o r e i n d e l i b l e by soaking it in linseed oil. it looks gray and feels like chalk. 6. Then lift it away. 2. 7. It does n o t erase easily. Charcoal lifts away from paper easily with the very light touch o f an eraser. Try itworking on big paper covering a wall.

212-13 were made by altering the pressure applied to the charcoal. T O R T I L L O N : This is a tight roll of paper used to blend charcoal. Cotton swabs also work. Lift out broader marks with a larger implement. graphite. 9. as is fresh (unbuttered!) bread. CHARCOAL Lifting out This detail shows an example of where I used the lifting-out technique demonstrated opposite to draw flashes of lightning against rain clouds. 8 . Use high quality (very sticky) to fix paper to walls and boards. Here.205 ERASING Thickly applied charcoal quickly o v e r c o m e s a plastic eraser A w a r m (soft and tacky) putty eraser is more effective. Different tones seen throughout the main drawing on pp. pastels. 10. PEN: Any fine pen or pencil can be used to draw on the back of masking tape when lifting out. I used a plastic eraser effectively on thinly applied charcoal. Use cheaper (less sticky) for lifting out. Here we used a ballpoint. or any other dry media. sold in several widths. MASKING TAPE: An invaluable resource. . Layers can be peeled away to refresh its surface.

an eraser your drawing book or a board and paper fixative (or hairspray). and a cushion in a plastic bag to sit on. it results in flat planes of clutter. a less distinct middle ground composed of shapes and textures. a reel of masking tape. Ironically. They are also good markers of receding space. When you arrive. It is the visible effect of the atmosphere between where you stand and what you see in the distance. Then I drew the shape of the tonal patches I perceived. and an abstract. pack your materials (as advised below) and set off for a local view or your nearest arboretum. to contain each of your compositions. Pack several thick and thin sticks of willow charcoal. hazy distance. I relaxed my eyes out of focus to dissolve distracting detail into abstract patches of light and darkness. Excessive detail can be admired for its skill and achievement.206 EARTH AND THE ELEMENTS Landscapes TREES ALONE OFFER MARVELOUS shapes to draw. but is often less evocative and engaging. especially when making first excursions into aerial perspective. Seeing tones . Successful drawings often only suggest the qualities of the scene without overdescribing them. Landscape drawings are traditionally arranged in three parts: a detailed foreground. MATERIALS In this first view there is only a foreground and middle distance. At its worst. details blur and colors grow paler and bluer. 9 8 . This term simply means that as land rolls away into the distance. begin by marking out several small squares on your paper. The long view is hidden behind trees.9 9 we noted that in response to visual stimulus. the more you encourage the viewer's imagination to join in and see.212-13). the less you describe. On p p . To experiment with drawing landscapes and the use of charcoal. our brains search for nameable things and will perceive complete pictures from very little information. Don't worry if it is cloudy: clouds add drama and perspective and make good subjects in themselves (see pp.

I have invented drama with diagonals set against each other I tilted the earth. horizontal regions of grass. and broke a view through the hedge into the distance with a dark sky threatening rain. your view is your inspiration. Exploring the view Redrawing the scene above. This composition turned out a little flat because I have an almost even quantity of earth and sky. Remember. shadows. It is better to give distinctly more pictorial space to one or the other (see below).207 LANDSCAPES In my second square I explored a simple view contrasting soft. dark trees with bright. full of information you can use to create what you want! Inventing drama . the trunk of a bare tree. rounded.

shade out of the glare of the sun. 2 1 4 . s e e k places in light After my first drawing. England has embedded within it the decaying skeleton of a burned fishing boat. observing it from several views so as to better understand it as a whole. on p p . engine. your challenge now is to find a sculptural subject in the landscape. taking with you your drawing book and pen. I usually begin by making an image of the whole view. and tiller still standing proud. and seeing what the real choice of subject is.208 ELEMENTS Drawing in the Round WHEN DRAWING IN THE LANDSCAPE. settling my concentration. The mud of the tidal shore in Rye.164-65) and a wire violin (pp. making the scene below led me to focus on the decaying boat opposite.1 5 my first drawing of the whole view of the Tiber led me to see the real subject of the day. Circling a subject and drawing it from several views imprints on your memory a better understanding of its three-dimensional form. For example." . so the paper is not made blinding and your hand cannot cast a shadow on your work. which was the flow of water over rocks. Building on earlier studies of structure in space using shoes (pp.104-05). bare ribs. I am then able to home in on what interests me most for further study. EARTH AND THE FINDING THE SUBJECT Finding a remarkable subject is even better when you can circumnavigate it in an arena of space. "Drawing in the round means to literally walk around your subject. This first drawing serves as a process of arrival. Similarly.

DRAWING IN THE 1 Here. make a series o f drawings f r o m different positions. unfussy lines. marking straight. character. and structure. 3 This impression notes the angle of the broken boat. Overleaf: Decaying Boat 4 . and the order and shape of its component parts. The outline ties a shape of darkness to the boat like a weight so that it becomes part of its form. I looked more boldly at the planes and the dynamic of the sculptural craft My lines have become darker and more forceful as confidence in my understanding of the vessel grew. careful lines to establish the skeleton that gives this wreck its distinct form. I drew with quick. W h e n you have found your subject. ROUND 2 In this tail-end view. Each n e w drawing gives a different insight. w h e n t h e sea recedes. I spent equal time looking at the subject and the paper. looking more at the boat than at the paper From this low position I have emphasized how the boat is swallowed in mud by outlining its shadow on the ground.209 SERIES OF STUDIES This stunning ghost o f a boat comes into v i e w t w i c e a day. its overall balance.

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was made with gentle but unhesitating s p e e d . I worked quickly to catch and weave the turbulent contrasts of rising wind and approaching water before the drawing could be washed away. . L o o k i n g b a c k and forth from the heavens to firmly taped-down paper.Cloudburst THIS STORM DRAWING.20-21) using a thin stick of willow charcoal. m a d e on s m o o t h . hot-pressed drawing p a p e r (see pp.

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On the pages of a small. black. pulse. . I drew with a needle-fine fiber-tip pen. and rhythmic detail as it passed through the ancient gully of the city.Notes of Force T H E GREAT FLOWING TIBER RIVER has cut through Rome. since ancient times. pocket-sized notebook. focusing on the river's eddies. shaping the city.

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.Mountains SITTING IN THE SHADE of a tree on the Greek island of Antiparos. I used a dip pen and waterproof India ink with brushed watercolor to draw the view. The strong diagonal of the composition from bottom left to top right carries the eye through changes of height and focus from the foreground to the mountains beyond.

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Artists were given a different tool—a line threaded directly from their subconscious to their hand—and with it they began to map a bold new landscape of marks and concepts that would dramatically and forever change the face of Western art. don't be timid. direction. liberating. Many concepts and feelings can only be expressed through marks. many nonWestern cultures have highly sophisticated abstractions at the core of their art. It also underpins and gives strength and unity to all figurative work. and history. spontaneous image-making. and independent means of communication. and it has always been with us. and poetic myth roar and cascade within his tightly framed pages. strike the paper to find form. Wolfli was a Swiss draftsman. An abstract mark is often a better conductor of a thought or feeling. Swirling. expressive marks and shapes are at the core of natural. writhing torrents of color.Abstract Lines T HE DEVELOPMENT OF W E S T E R N abstract art at the beginning of the 20th century significantly paralleled major changes in world thought. It is actually its foundation and its infrastructure. belief. and Aboriginal art. Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape 1915 413/8 x 285/8 in (105 x 72. poet. such as Adolf Wolfli. It was not invented in the 20th century. From another viewpoint. Berne. From one point of view. all pictorial representations are abstractions of reality. My own work is firmly centered in figuration. ADOLF WOLFLI One of the greatest masters of Art Brut. only rediscovered. Not everything we know has a physical form in the world. The growing rise of Darwinian ideas coupled with Freudian and Marxist perspectives forced Western society to reconsider its origins and future. precisely because it does not have to represent a physical object. actions. abstraction is not so easy to define. opposite. drawn sound. . writer and composer who suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and was resident in the Waldau Aslyum near Berne. which are essentially abstract. and emotion. fictional language. The fate of Old World thinking was finally sealed with the brutality of World War I. Perhaps in Western culture we bred this intuitive freedom out of ourselves in our insistence on complex figuration. be brave and enjoy them. sounds. for example. or gestures. Outsider artists. it is simply itself. People are often scared by abstraction and see it as the enemy of figurative art.8 cm) A D O L F WOLFLI Abstraction is a direct. Afterward. Internal workings of the mind were suddenly free to find a new language of expression. First marks. However. Museum of Fine Arts. yet my kinship to abstraction is fundamental. picturing a stabilized world was impossible and Modernism rode forth with vigor. and young children show us that abstract. He made thousands of drawings to chronicle his complex life. His drawings are collected and exhibited internationally and held by the Adolf Wolfli Foundation. As you approach the classes in this chapter. I begin every image by feeling its meaning. Indian mandalas. and have been making abstract drawings for centuries—Japanese calligraphy.

staining redbrown lines into the white surface. He travels widely to research ancient sacred sites. ice. Twombly's mesmeric wax line worked over house paint is like a signature. Moisture produced rust. salt. brass. sit in silent harmony. quoting ink marks on a page. Abe works with materials such as soil. water. A Neolithic chalk tablet bears cut lines that were slowly carved. Five forged steel shapes. It can proclaim mood. Lines. scrolling across the canvas in an intimate crescendo. and sensitivity with its thickness and pressure of touch. This the paper rest within the amplifies framelike of the floor from the ceiling.220 A B S T R A C T LINES Process and Harmony SOMETIMES A DRAWN LINE sings on the surface of its support. and Assistant Professor of Fine A r t at Fukuoka University. or. A line can be finished in a second. it can keep reforming through the inherent repetition of a process. Changes paper. and texture their bracing separation reaching between from beneath Pillars of the gallery are made part of this drawing by their inclusion in the paper. The Physical Space 1990 3 0 x 30 ft ( 9 1 4 x 9 1 4 cm) MAMORU ABE . MAMORU ABE Japanese sculptor and installation artist. Sometimes it smolders like a deep shadow. as Twombly shows us opposite. and plaster in galleries and landscapes. and temperature rim of floor space. tone. Below. Damp Japanese paper was laid over carefully arranged iron bars. Abe's physical drawing is a sculptural installation. silence. texture. akin to stones in a Zen garden. forged steel. rhythmically engaged with itself. and patient watching. Mamoru Abe prepares an image that will appear through the chemistry of iron. iron. Iron rods in tone. and wood are also part of the work.

CY TWOMBLY . and Untitled 1970 Here we might seek to grasp letters in the turning of his line. At the 2001 Venice Biennale. burials. Precise lines suggest the use of a sharp flint The framed rectangle of this image is echoed in that of Abe's installation. and sensuous drawing from painting. Twombly has language works CY TWOMBLY Contemporary American artist who emerged through the 1950s New York art scene in the heyday of Abstract Expressionism and Action Painting.Twombly was presented with a Golden Lion award for lifetime achievement.241). evolved a raw. that challenges the separation of word from image. close to Stonehenge in Wiltshire. the Babylonian world map.England.000-2. and American Indian petroglyphs (see p. This example is one of two chalk tablets found in a Late-Neolithic pit. PROCESS AND HARMONY Cut lines Chalk carves easily.400BCE 21/4 x 21/4 in (58 x 58 mm) ARTIST UNKNOWN Language Over the course of fifty years. energetic. Many of his graffiti-like combine abstract gestures with statements.221 ANCIENT CARVINGS Many ancient cultures have made and left behind drawings and texts carved into stones or animal bone. such as the Rosetta stone. Neolithic Chalk Tablet 3. and the worship of the sun and ancient gods. The central pictorial space is also similarly cut and divided by the considered arrangement of straight lines. emotive. theories suggest astrological observations.Thesite's purpose is unknown.

o r a pattern o f elements s o unified as a w h o l e t h e y c a n n o t b e e x p l a i n e d asa s u m o f parts. below. Bussotti.28.28). and let the drying meniscus deposit granules in linear drifts such as we would see in the satellite photographic mapping of rivers. opposite. o f t e n e x p r e s s e d in v i s u a l t e r m s . abstract artists and composers unique. Here he appears t o have saturated the cut-out moon disks with gritty pigment. A graphic score is a V I C T O R H U G O Hugo's abstract French novelist w h o m a d e m a n y drawings in m i x e d m e d i a ( s e e also p. His drawing writes the time of its own physical process by expressing the extreme concentration of the moment in which it was made. interpret. Gestalt o f an unnameable thing.222 ABSTRACT LINES Writing Time SINCE THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY. beautiful. Both abstract drawing and composition involve the perfect sequencing of sounds and marks against space and silence. and inventive of his time. Similarity in gritty texture suggests that here. too. he mixed graphite into ink. here he anticipates abstract expressionism by 100 years. broke new ground in the 1950s with graphic scores now considered among the most extreme. and lifted them away to leave impressions of watery planets and seas. "There is nothing like dream to create the future. Marks across the center appear to be made with his fingers. The scores are also exhibited in galleries as visual art. Two Impressions Paper 1853-55 VICTOR HUGO Disk from a Cut-Out . Ink impressions When drawing nightscapes Hugo often laid paper disks in place of the moon." An innovator who never fails to surprise. drawing here can b e described in t e r m s o f a G e r m a n philosophical idea a b o u t is t h e i n s t a n t r e c o g n i t i o n t h e p o w e r o f m o m e n t . Hugo. Texture Compare this drawing to Hugo's octopus on p. a configuration. brushed night skies over them with ink then lifted the disks to reveal white moons. said. music manuscript requiring instrumentalists to improvise. have striven to break down old pictorial and musical structures to explore new and unfettered modes of expression. abstract. Gestalt. and participate in the composition. pressed them face down.

1958 SYLVANO BUSSOTTI . Bussotti's first mature work. 70 in relation to Bussotti's clustered notes to the left of his rondo and open space to the right. Sound and rhythm This flickering rondo of sound written in pen on a hand-ruled stave can be heard in our imaginations as much as seen. a far cry from any recognized musical notation. Compare this work to that of Libeskind on p. His later works become increasingly abstract. we can feel their rhythm and easily attach sounds to them. Circular Score for "Due Voci" c.223 W R I T I N G TIME SYLVANO BUSSOTTI Italian avant-garde composer and principal 20thcentury exponent of the graphic score. Following the notes. This is a page from Due Voci.

and sufferers of psychiatric illnesses—who have always existed. In the late 1 9 t h century. Torn cloth This is one of two published photographs showing Marie Leib's torn cloth strips significantly placed on her cell floor. making objects and images outside o f mainstream culture.224 A B S T R A C T LINES Chants and Prayers WHEN ABSTRACT LINES are organized in repetition. She tore c l o t h into strips a n d used these to draw patterns a n d symbols o n h e r cell floor. T h e s e p h o t o g r a p h s d o c u m e n t the meditative drawings o f two w o m e n living worlds apart in different countries. social outcasts. Visually. d i p p i n g h e r fingers into a pot o f rice flour. cultures. It will protect the place from evil and make a pleasing invitation to good spirits. for e x a m p l e . an a n o n y m o u s w o m a n in the southeast Indian state o f Tamil Nadu m a k e s a ritual drawing o n the b r i c k courtyard o f h e r h o m e . O p p o s i t e . Germany. This takes a form in most cultures. MARIE LIEB Little is known of this w o m a n for w h o m the act of drawing was essential. and c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Marie Lieb w a s a psychiatric patient in the Heidelberg Asylum. it is found in the regularity o f ordered lines or a pattern.228-29) has been adjusted with each movement of the rags to draw a cosmos of balance and perfection. Cell Floor With Torn Strips of Cloth 1894 MARIE LIEB . In music it can be felt in the diversity of plainsong and African d r u m m i n g . centuries. Compositional rightness (see pp. they m a k e a visual a n d physical e c h o that t o u c h e s s o m e deep part of the human spirit. Lieb is one o f countless thousands of "Outsider" artists—diverse individuals including ordinary citizens. Cloth is the simple instrument with which she has conducted and ordered her universe.

cultural anthropologist. at the University of London and Ohio State University. animals. chalk.Theseare widely published in journals and are the subjects of international exhibitions.HUYLER Photographer art historian. lime.225 STEPHEN P. women pride themselves on never repeating a design. Materials such as rice flour. and birds. and in places of worship and celebration. or flowers are marked or arranged on the ground or on the walls of homes. lecturer on the subjects of Indian art and Indian women's identity.000 images. In daily practice. Huyler is the author of Painted Prayers. Motifs are geometrical or based on plants. Skills are handed down through generations and from friend to friend. Popular magazines feature new ideas each week and on special occasions there may be contests. among others. and for over 30 years has traveled extensively through the Indian subcontinent creating an edited archive of 200. Designs and motifs Rangoii (or mandalas) are ritual drawings made by many millions of women across rural India. Painted Prayers UNDATED STEPHEN R HUYLER .

These two works present complex compositions with differing intensions and methods of making. Untitled 2001 2001 153/4x 215/8 in ( 4 0 0 x 550 mm) BRIAN C A T L I N G . structure. They each find their pathways and equilibrium in atmosphere and suggestion. rocks or heads in a subdued atmosphere of dream. gold paint and iridescent gouache mixed with water. Mixed media This is a collage of torn white and gray tissue paper previously stained with ink. free from the direct imaging of known physical things. Catling's abstract drawings are usually made in series and in parallel to written poetry and sculptural installations. Oval moons eclipse each other and oscillate between landforms and portraiture. With no depth of field. and water-resistant layers of spray and enamel paint on thick paper. Their energy can therefore be a purer expression of an idea or emotion. Catling's torn paper shapes and shadows spill light out of their frame like a fractured mirror. and choice of hues. filmmaker Professor of Fine Art. but similarities in mood. performance and installation artist. figurative representation—that is. Klee's mathematical maze of thinly washed surface resonates with meticulous planning. Oxford. Catling's works made for international galleries and museums involve drawing as a tool in their development and making. BRIAN CATLING British sculptor poet. Ruskin School. and Fellow of Linacre College. it is ruled and contained in one dimension by its interlocking ink-lined borders.226 ABSTRACT LINES Compositions ABSTRACT DRAWINGS ARE LARGELY or entirely free from using the viewer's eye to track and unfold layers of meaning.

31). Polyphon Gefasstes Weiss (White Framed Polyphonically) 1930 131/8x95/8 in (333 x 245 mm) Paul-Klee-Stiftung. Klee painted. He explained his polyphonic painting as "a harmony of several color voices" searching for a visual parallel to music.97-99. It is a geometric harmony of straight lines and tonally graded flat colors that by their arrangement draw our eyes inward to their white center. ruler.227 PAUL K L E E Swiss painter and sculptor (see also p. philosophized. and wrote copiously about the natures and relationships of color and form. and brush. Klee also felt that a line represents the passing of time. Line and surface Klee observed the visual capacity of lines to push or pull within an image. watercolor. and might be read as active or passive. We can see some diagrammatic examples of this among the optical illusions on pp. Kunstmuseum Bern PAUL KLEE . whereas tonal surfaces are perceived more immediately as a whole. drew. Geometric harmony This is a work on paper made with a sharp ink pen.

This balance is what every artist and designer searches a n d feels for when making an image. the late garden designer Russell Page explains. or home.228 ABSTRACT LINES Being "Just" A SENSE OF "JUST" (or rightness) is a difficult concept to explain. and elements settle in definitive balance. but an easy o n e to u n d e r s t a n d . M a n y of their inter-relationships will be meaningless. a b u n c h of keys. In his b o o k The Education of a Gardener. they reach a perfect position. b u t e v e r y n o w a n d again you will hit on an arrangement w h i c h appears just. and put them o n a tray. culture. There is a single m o m e n t w h e n all proportions. after being continuously adjusted. Feel for it when youdraw. As y o u m o v e them around. Set up a sheet of paper with a rectangle drawn on it. s o m e will be more or less h a r m o n i o u s . "Whenall pictorial elements come together in pleasing and perfect balance. angles. regardless of style." SETTING UP Justness can be harmonious or deliberately discordant. w i l l c h a n g e w i t h e v e r y r e a r r a n g e m e n t . It is also found in nature. media. and an apple. or on a page. Take. a glass.Thisexercise will help you start. Seek it when looking at other artists' work and in your everyday environment. the impression y o u receive from t h e m . there is a clear feeling when. It is found in all great art and design. or degree of figuration. their impact. W h e n m o v i n g objects around in your yard." . and ten straight sticks painted black. they are just. for instance. "I have experimented endlessly with this idea.

painted black. . 2 3 In the step above. Move the sticks out into the rectangle. In the final step (left) there is an even balance. fix it with glue.229 WHERE TO START Take ten sticks of equal length. Within a rectangle on a flat sheet of paper set about making a composition using no other rule than a sense of "just. Feel for the rightness of their grouping and their relationships to surrounding spaces. making the composition seem to float beneath. suggesting a horizon. which now becomes a tight frame.56-57)." Move the sticks to find alignments and imagined perspectives. B E I N G "JUST" 1 Arrange your ten sticks in t w o groups of five. horizontals dominate the lower area. Arrange them so they touch or cross in a series of intersecting balances. as shown here. Here. horizontals dominate the top. Remember the drawn rectangle is a part of the composition (see pp. A stick touching the rectangle links the composition to the frame. W h e n the composition falls into place.

feels "just" (see pp.. which is the shifting.69 and Abe's installation on p. Returning to Russell Page.230 ABSTRACT LINES Collage H E R E W E EXPERIMENT with collage. and tones. you start composing by adding or subtracting shapes and textures and using colors and tones to achieve the impression you want to m a k e — w h e t h e r dramatic or s u b d u e d . hard or soft. colors and textures can be manipulated until their pictorial harmony. harmonious. an infinite range of voices and meaning.. Images and fragments torn from day-to-day life can be brought together to make a chorus of ideas and emotions. "My understanding is that every object [or shape] emanates—sends out vibrations beyond its physical body which are specific to itself. Collage offers the artist a liberating palette of SETTING UP This lesson in collage is a direct continuation of the compositional lines made in the previous class. scissors. ready-made depths and surfaces. stain and dry a sheet of tissue paper using blueink. Once the ten painted black sticks are set and glued in place. glue. they become a scaffold for the addition of further textures.220. This principal also applies to three-dimensional drawings such as Gaudi's work with wire and weights on p. To prepare for this lesson. colors. a compass. correction fluid or white paint. and black ink. Cut or torn layers and shapes.Youwill also need spare white paper. he went on to say ". found or made items. or even strident." overlapping placement of materials on a flat plane.228-29)." (Russell Page) . or discordance.

draw. In the last step (left). correction fluid and ink marks add further dimensions.228) in front of you. 2 3 Torn white paper moved over the surface adds masks of rough-edged irregular volume.231 WHAT TO DO Lay the final step of the previous lesson (p. Obscuring the blue disks. four circles of blue tissue paper. Glue them in place once they feel "just" Translucent circular disks of tissue paper give color tone. and shadow to thepicture. they deepen pictorial space. solidity. COLLAGE 1 Regular-sized pieces of white paper are moved over the surface to disrupt the even lines. .The single disk that is folded with its straight edge facing up appears heavier than those that are flat. Cut six small rectangles the same proportion as your whole image. This can also give a sense of fragmentation or punctuation to the composition. then cut out. and with a compass and scissors.

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Zen Brushwork]." [Tanchu Terayama. . is the practice of Zen through the calligraphic marks of a brush dipped in carbon ink. and expectation. A MODERN JAPANESE meditative art form inspired by the teachings of Yamaoka Tesshu (1836-1888).Zen Calligraphy HITSUZENDO. emotion. Hitsuzendo drawings aspire to "breathe with the energy and vitality of eternal life" achieved through "a state of no mind—beyond thought.

Nocturnes IN THIS QUARTET of semi-abstract drawings made with India ink. These vibrate against washes of shadow and pitch-black mass. I flicked spatters of ink and rubbed the paper with a wet and a dry brush to achieve these effects. Lines made with a steel dip pen take on a scratchy nervousness. . discord is balanced against rhythm to create mood.

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Feeding this demand. which were widely distributed and influential in his time. we select details of animals farthest from ourselves and that are widely thought disturbing—reptilian and insect features. a Catherine wheel of drawn sparks spiraling around the quietly resolute saint. Be inspired by the irrational comedy of word association or puns. Neither should be slave or master. and deep fur—and we alter their scale. Humans are equally troubled by the imperceptibly small and the enormous. sculptures. aliens. thousands of paintings. movie studios now brim with as many monsters as the visual art of the Medieval and Renaissance Church.Gods and Monsters OUR SACRED AND SECULAR need to visualize demons. beasts. Star Wars. a human-animal mix that implies this could MARTIN SCHONGAUER German painter and engraver who settled to work in Colmar Alsace. Perhaps the Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 1485 121/4 x 9 in (312 x 230 mm) MARTIN SCHONGAUER most important conclusion in this final chapter is to advise you to develop your skills in parallel with the joy of your unfolding imagination. or strange. Today. a collaboration between the two will ensure that your drawings glow with originality. or in smoke. Fantasy is most successful when founded on strong and familiar visual logic. I was on a train passing through Nuneaton. England. We love our fear of the hybrid—ideally. in the cracks of walls. which is to have eaten a nun—it inspired the drawing on p. Images we are now surrounded by bear testimony to the power and resourcefulness of their collective imagination. For example. for example. our eye circulates around a flutter of leather and scaly wings. serpentine tails. We watch with captivated pleasure movies such as The Fly. Depictions of God or of gods in the contexts of daily life. Lord of the Rings. When creating monsters. paradise. and damnation are found in most world faiths. The salvation of heaven and terrors of hell are represented equally—enough to make any sinner shudder. look for images in the folds of clothing. impossible. Schongauer is best known for his prints. all of which originated as hundreds of drawings. and the faces of God have for centuries given artists a feast for the extremes of their imagination. Here. our literate and more secular Western society still hungers for another world and to ravenously indulge its fascination for the marvelous. Reading the place name I momentarily glimpsed an alternative meaning. Throughout this book images are presented to excite and surprise and drawing classes created to increase your confidence. In the Christian churches of Europe. . scales. We then add substances we dislike: unidentified fluids. happen to us. angels. and the Alien trilogy.247. Monsters take advantage of both. To learn to flex your imagination. feathers. and stained-glass windows deliver powerful visual sermons to the once-illiterate populace. wings.

Opposite below. The title "And So Was His Grandfather" adds that should we not already know. This act defines the vision and continues the line of spirit guides. and exposed the superstitions. Paul Thomas's studies of Picasso and Twombly can be traced directly. to Picasso's similarly tight. crammed tightly at his desk. we see the international icon of stupidity. reading from a book of asses. This continuity enriches the making of art and our heritage. Compare his dark. it allows the mule to stand forward. his lover a dog. rushing. Opposite. Violent white marks symbolizing Achilles' rage resonate with the energy of Twombly's script on p. and follies of court through copious graphic works including his best-known prints. Visions experienced in front of the drawing sometimes instruct the making of a new one. a Shoshone seeking guidance and power meditates at the sacred site of a petroglyph. Goya's plainly textured gray background pushes back the space behind the illuminated simply subject. In this softer aquatint he poses for his portrait Textured background The aquatint process has been used to great effect in making a gritty toned background. Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 1799 81/2 x 6 in (218 x 154 mm) FRANCISCO DE GOYA . hags. Pictorially.240 GODS AND M O N S T E R S Marks of Influence marking the influence of one artist upon another. Near the end of his life he made his "Black Paintings" on the walls of his home. deranged masses. F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A Spanish court painter printmaker and draftsman. barren land rising like MYRIAD CHAINS RUN THROUGH ART HISTORY.220. vanity. portraits. and men clubbing each other to death. Many students leave white backgrounds in their work. and church murals. Goya later recorded the horrors of Napoleonic occupation. quoting great paintings and popular culture to add cunning twists to his satires. Francisco de Goya was a master of borrowing. whose impassioned work begins with light tapestry cartoons.30. plain wall suggests a blinkered view of nothing. In this ass. Saturn devouring his son. below. a wave to join Achilles' chase of Hector. They depict as if by lamplight the devil and witches. The well-dressed mule is cumbersome. He would be graceless if he stood. noisy seascape on p. such asinine behavior can be hereditary. Los Caprichos. Aquatint Goya has drawn a learned man as an ass. which can swamp the subject Here. The high. Other drawn versions of this image are more savage and frightening.

Wind River Reservation. Wyoming. values. or of the water Chipped image This is a sacred creature of the sky chipped onto rock at Dinwoody Lake. Simple wall stones cleverly state their cold solidity while also fading from our attention as the scene roars by." Each sacred image drawn into rock belongs to one of three realms in the Shoshone world: the realm of the sky. Graphite marks Here Achilles chases Hector around the walls of Troy before killing him. Parallel lines within the body of the figure are likely to denote power. perhaps a stone.241 MARKS OF INFLUENCE PAUL T H O M A S British contemporary artist whose epic graphic work questions and reflects upon issues of European identity. A vivid spectrum of energized graphite marks and a masterly composition give this drawing vitality and speed. of the earth. meaning "place of power. Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range UNDATED ARTIST UNKNOWN . Achilles Chases Hector 1996 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) PAUL THOMAS SHOSHONE PETROGLYPH The Shoshone people of Wyoming name petroglyph sites Poha Kahni. and personal and social struggles. ideals. White marks like flashes of light are cut though graphite with an eraser to reveal the paper beneath. by a supplicant in a trance of meditation. It was made with a sharp implement. Thomas conducts his explorations in the mine of Greek and Roman mythology.

as he did the grass. Our subconscious can be drawn with pleasure and ease. ODILON REDON French painter draftsman. Lifting out Fine strings of the hot-air balloon appear dark against the sky and light against the balloon. Redon explored the darker side of the human imagination through symbols and mysticism. graphic artist. and writer In contrast t o the light and visual accent of contemporary Impressionism. crawl.242 MONSTERS of the unknown is a classical and constant occupation for the artist. which sometimes—half-dressed and carrying a familiar trophy— stride. to the right of the balloon. we see parallel slanting pale marks that might have been made with fresh bread—a very effective eraser used before the wide availability of rubber or plastic. The Eye Like a Strange Mounts Balloon 165/8 x131/8in (422 x 332 mm) ODILON REDON 1882 Toward Infinity . lifting its cranial passenger over a seascape of repose. Compare worked textures throughout the whole of this image to those found throughout Anita Taylor's charcoal drawing on p. and scuttle over all known reality. Techniques demonstrated on pp. the shock would be extreme. T H E EXPLORATION AND DEPICTION Hauntings Grandville has drawn a scurrying zoo of half-known demons and animals that appear to have been stolen from the glass eye of the microscope. GODS AND Erasure In this charcoal drawing. They float toward us like a horrid visitation. The monsters of Bosch grew from his observations of beggars going about their trade in 15th.and 16th-century Holland. We may feel safe so long as the eye looks heavenward. Children are also delighted to invent a monster or ghoul. H e was influenced by his friends.204-05 will enable you to produce a similar effect of white lines shining out of dark charcoal. 115. Redon lifted them out with some sort of eraser. If it were to turn and stare this way. Here we see how he evolved their injuries into new limbs and warped proportions. Redon's eyeball balloon rises up. the writers Joris-Karl Huysmans and Stephane Mallarme. below left.

Les Animaux (1840). His other major works include Metamorphoses du Jour (1828). Last Judgment. Comic little headbands of waving hair express more hysteria than fear. include The Haywain.243 J E A N I G N A C E ISIDORE GERARD ("GRANDVILLE") French graphic artist and political satirist. and Ship of Fools. which is still available today. Madrid. Most of his work is in the Prado Museum. 1840 61/8 x41/2in ( 1 5 5 x 1 1 5 mm) GRANDVILLE HIERONYMUS BOSCH Dutch painter Bosch's highly detailed iconographic religious panel paintings. The quality of the line is therefore uniform throughout. Light shines from the right. teeming with the exhilaration of unrestrained fantasy. grimacing. sucker-faced creatures dash and trundle toward it They are drawn solidly to emphasize their earthbound weight. This image is from one of Grandville's best-known publications. HAUNTINGS Engraving This is an engraving made so that Grandville's original drawing could be reproduced. A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects c. Garden of Earthly Delights. Quill and ink This typical Bosch monster is a quill drawing in bistre ink The phrasing of light and contour here is masterly. Two Monsters UNDATED 45/8 x61/2in (117 x 163 mm) HIERONYMUS BOSCH . and he illustrated the Fables of La Fontaine and Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe. Smiling.

and dying slaves. Grimes' delicately cavorting figures dive into and consume each other. His entire drawing wrestles and weaves the viewer's eye into its retracting folds. poet. Michelangelo's dragon. Dragon 1522 10 x 133/8 in ( 2 5 4 x 3 3 8 m m ) MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI . They share between them the pleasures of inventing a hybrid beast. snake. gamboling copulations. Scaly.244 GODS AND MONSTERS Convolutions THESE CONVOLUTED DRAWINGS were made almost 5 0 0 years apart. Two previously drawn faces become humorous antagonists to the beast. and dog. topple. architect. Chalk and ink A quill dipped in brown ink was worked over black chalk on this reused sheet. David. sometimes artists purposefully tie a knot in the configuration to disturb. Grimes found the genesis of her beast not among animals. lion. and play with its perfection and meaning. Opposite. remembering the cavernous. However. St Peter's square. the dome of the Vatican. below. as we might expect. pinnacled. In her studio. but in the seductive landscape of Leonardo da Vinci's oil painting Madonna of the Rocks. a stunning hybrid of a swan. wraps and coils its lithe body ready to strike or whimper at a touch. she formed a series of ghostly pale. A snake eating its own tail is a universal image of the eternal and continuous. and mist-swathed land. phrased over the contours of form and bridging darker areas of shadow. and engineer Among Michelangelo's great works are the painted ceiling and altar wall of the Sistine Chapel. and marble sculptures including Pieto. hatched lines. muscular tension is carved out of the paper using layered. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI Florentine painter sculptor.

Grimes exhibits internationally and features in the collections of the New York Public Library and the Victoria and Albert Museum. The large space around figure has been cropped Grimes drawings to flatten presses them. each one iridescent and crumbly like a weathered while oyster. Ink-wash delicately gouache (smooth) and gouache brushed drawing on This is a and was hot-pressed Shadows The dark shadow of the Other the ink-wash earth was made with a brushstroke of ink laid into wet paper.245 CONVOLUTIONS O O N A GRIMES British contemporary artist and professor of printmaking at the Ruskin School. Oxford. The image formed directly without first making a pencil outline. London. details evolved slowly using a drier brush. and the Camberwell and Slade Schools of Fine Art. her under heavy here. It is one of a series of fragile earth figures inspired by rocks. London. How Clever of God #84 2002 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) O O N A GRIMES . boards finished paper.

and very fine lines. How you care for your brushes will determine how long they last.H A I R RIGGER: Made with long synthetic hair for fine-point work It has a good ink-holding capacity and is slightly more resilient than sable hair with more "snap. all perfect for drawing and." 6. thicknesses. materials. 13. with a fine point for delicate work 4. Soaps purchased from good art supply stores will gently cleanse particles of pigment that become trapped in the hairs or ferrule. The living marks of a wet. return them to their pointed shape. dense. shape. JAPANESE PAINTING BRUSH: Made with natural hair. ink-laden tip allow an expression that is beyond the linear. 7. SQUIRREL-HAIR S W O R D LINER:This brush has a maximum ink-holding capacity and an extremely fine and flexible point 8. others are as fine as a whisker with a gentle touch. Slightly less flexible than the squirrel-hair sword liner 9. needle-sharp center of kolinsky red sable hair. and hold prodigious weights of ink or paint. drawing tool extending the arm. Some used by master calligraphers are 2-3 in (5-8 cm) in diameter 11. LARGER JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with natural hair held in a plastic ferrule on a bamboo handle. 3. between them. Always clean them thoroughly. SYNTHETIC-HAIR S W O R D LINER: A lining brush with high ink-holding capacity and a fine point. and effects. SABLE-HAIR RIGGER: Made with very long kolinsky sable hairs. giving a variety of lines. SYNTHETIC-HAIR LINER: This brush gives a medium line and is firm with a spring to the touch. It is still relatively small in the total range of Japanese brushes. 1. SYNTHETIC-HAIR BRUSH: Bound in a synthetic ferrule with good inkholding capacity and good spring and control. POINTED SQUIRREL-HAIR MOP: With a synthetic quill ferrule and extra high inkholding capacity. Suitable for wash techniques but also capable of very fine detail. P O I N T E D T R A D I T I O N A L WRITER: The ferrule is made from a small duck quill. this brush has a soft drawing tip and small ink-holding capacity. M T RA S AEIL . This brush has a broad wash capability and can achieve a very wide range of marks. Brushes vary in size. making rt ideally suited to Japanese painting and small-scale calligraphy. and writers. SABLE-HAIR LINER: Made with ordinary sable hair surrounding an extralong. the very opposite of pencil or silver point. flowing. washes. Some are bold. and never leave them standing on their tip in a jar of water. Shorter brushes designed for other purposes run out of ink more quickly. SMALL JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with sable hair. This design supplies the fine tip with a long continuity of ink 5. It has exceptional painting characteristics. it has good inkholding capacity and is very flexible.246 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brushes T H E BRUSH IS A VOLUPTUOUS and delicate weights. It is capable of very fine pointing.Theyhold plenty of ink and make continuous. and has a fine tip for detailed work. The brushes shown here are a mixture of This is a selection of riggers. ideally suited to drawing.H A I R LINER: Very responsive oriental-style liner This to the touch. 10. which holds long sable hair This brush holds large amounts of ink for long lines and points well for detailed work. it has good wash capabilities. fingers. liners. L A R G E R S Y N T H E T I C . and wrist into a fluid and soft touch. and texture. S Y N T H E T I C . 2. 12.

247 BRUSHES .

w i t h m y face close. splashes. softness.35) into two tablespoons of water in a shallow. the speed of the s t r o k e . length. the degree of pressure applied. A single brush has almost balletic potential to draw fine or undulating lines and curves.) I . I rubbed a block of Chinese ink (see p. and spatters.246-47). the texture and a b s o r b e n c y of the paper ( w h i c h m a y be d a m p or dry). and to make pools and stains o n the page.248 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brush Marks A S I N G L E BRUSH will m a k e an e n o r m o u s range of m a r k s depending u p o n the width. I had left the end of the ink block in the water overnight to make it easier to dissolve. SETTING UP Blowing spots T h e s e t h r e e s p i d e r y c r e a t u r e s (above right and below) w e r e m a d e by d r o p p i n g s p o t s o f ink f r o m a b r u s h o n t o t h e p a g e and. Here I drew with a soft Japanese painting brush (see pp. and above all w h e t h e r the b r u s h is saturated with pigment or relatively dry. and type of its hairs. It also depends on the angle at w h i c h it is held. unglazed earthenware dish. b l o w i n g h a r d o n t h e m several t i m e s t o disperse t h e ink ( c l o s e y o u r eyes if y o u t r y this.

BRUSH MARKS Wet and dry strokes A m o n g these concentrated drawings ink made into with the same w a t e r y lines. a n d b r u s h .249 Gritty texture T h e details o f t h e largest creatures b e l o w and opposite s h o w the granular texture of Chinese b l o c k ink. a n d t h e w a y it d i s t r i b u t e s w h e n t h e b r u s h is d a b b e d o n its s i d e . w e see fine lines and s p o t s . . t h e effects of the b r u s h r u n n i n g o u t o f ink. b l e e d i n g f r o m strokes b e l o w left.

Monsters THESE LITTLE CREATURES o f i n k and i n v e n t i o n were b o r n out of animal and bird studies. until we look again. I borrowed small and fragile specimens from the University Museum of Natural History. and used their detail to draw new creatures that might at first seem familiar. . Oxford.

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Goya's witches have been literally drawn and evolved out of the shapes of Murillo's prophet and pilgrims. I found relationships between all four paintings in terms of shapes. They are a pair and hang opposite each other. and narrative twists.Goya's Monsters W I T H CUNNING BRILLIANCE. Through studying and drawing these great paintings I have discovered that they are based on a pair of similarly long. are two long. thin works titled The Witches' Sabbath and The Procession of St. Isidore. formal composition. . two of my own drawings show you how Goya's devil (below) is based on the shape of Murillo's boy on a horse (top right). showing us that gallery study is not just for the student and beginner. Madrid. With further research. Goya often invented his monsters out of characters seen in other painters' works. Among his "Black Paintings" in the Prado Museum. Here. thin works made by Bartolome Murillo in Seville about 120 years earlier.

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.Consumed THIS IS A SERIES OF CARTOONS I m a d e s o m e years ago. little comments on politeness and sexual politics. Sometimes drawings come out of nowhere and surprise even the artist. drawn rapidly and with great joy.

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p r i n t i n g press face up. Eye level T h e i m a g i n a r y h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e a t t h e s a m e h e i g h t as t h e a v e r a g e p e r s o n ' s eyes. tapestry. Erasure T h e a c t o f r e m o v i n g a n i m a g e f r o m a surface. Fixative lightly glues t h e d r a w i n g t o t h e surface o f t h e p a p e r t o p r e v e n t smudging. A " s h a l l o w d e p t h o f field" m e a n s t h e p i c t u r e appears t o have only a shallow s p a c e inside i t Diffuse T o s o f t e n o r m a k e less brilliant. F r o m t h e G r e e k kallos. linseed oil o r egg y o l k Caricature A representation Contour line A line t h a t f o l l o w s t h e s h a p e o f a surface.The plate is t h e n r o l l e d w i t h ink a n d polished with a rag. W o r d s o r symbols are Cold-pressed papers P a p e r manufactured with a "not" o r " r o u g h " surface. a n d attaches t h e m t o t h e s u p p o r t — f o r example." It w a s first given t o t o n a l paintings m a d e in o n e c o l o r — s e e Grisaille. for example. in w h i c h t h e subject's distinctive features o r peculiarities are deliberately exaggerated f o r c o m i c o r g r o t e s q u e effect. A g e n e r a l t e r m t h a t describes t h e various processes o f c u t t i n g a design i n t o a plate o r b l o c k o f m e t a l o r w o o d . In t h e Far East calligraphy is a highly r e s p e c t e d a r t f o r m . Blending M e r g i n g t w o o r m o r e neighboring colors o r tones t o g e t h e r using a tortillon. Camera lucida A n optical device t h a t p r o j e c t s an image o f an o b j e c t o n t o a plain s u r f a c e so t h a t it can be traced. T h e prints t a k e n from t h e s e plates o r blocks. Chiaroscuro A 1 7 t h . o r o t h e r (usually large) w o r k — s e e Pouncing. R o u g h p a p e r is m a d e b e t w e e n t w o blankets t h a t . A h u m o r o u s d r a w i n g o r parody. Aerial perspective The effect of the a t m o s p h e r e o v e r distance as it lightens t o n e s a n d cools c o l o r s progressively t o w a r d t h e horizon. r a t h e r t h a n r e c o r d e d o n a film o r plate. Bracelet shading C u r v e d parallel lines t h a t f o l l o w t h e c o n t o u r s o f f o r m . Conservation grade D e s c r i b e s a range o f materials t h a t d o n o t d e c a y and cannot be broken d o w n by insects." D e s c r i b e s a p a i n t i n g in w h i c h t h e light s o u r c e is b e h i n d t h e s u b j e c t F o r e x a m p l e . in w h i c h parts o f an image are depicted v e r y brightly and dramatically against d a r k n e s s . w h e n a p e r s o n is p a i n t e d standing a g a i n s t a w i n d o w .c e n t u r y painting m o v e m e n t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e use o f b o l d . chance mark-making. Composition T h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e p a r t s o f an i m a g e t o m a k e u p the whole. Crosshatching Parallel lines d r a w n across o n e a n o t h e r at right angles. Deckle edge T h e i r r e g u l a r e d g e o f a s h e e t o f m o l d . p r a c t i c e d meditatively w i t h a brush. charcoal. Camera obscura A d a r k e n e d c h a m b e r i n t o w h i c h an i m a g e o f w h a t is o u t s i d e is received t h r o u g h a small o p e n i n g o r lens a n d f o c u s e d in natural c o l o r o n a facing surface. Collage C o l l e c t e d materials such as c o l o r e d p a p e r s . so t h a t ink r e m a i n s o n l y in t h e g r o o v e s o f s c r a t c h e d lines. as o p p o s e d t o t h e s t r a i g h t e d g e o f a sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has b e e n machine-trimmed. T h e m o v e m e n t was started by a g r o u p o f French artists including H e n r i Matisse. A l s o called r i n g l e t shading. usually at a n a c u t e angle t o t h e s u r f a c e . pressurized t o o l used f o r spraying fine mists o f s m o o t h c o l o r P i g m e n t is d e l i v e r e d b y a j e t o f air n o t t h e bristles o f a brush. F r o m t h e French v e r b coller.d i m e n s i o n a l i m a g e . Engraving 1. A l s o called m u s e u m g r a d e . and readymade objects arranged and stuck o n t o a flat surface.m a d e paper." " N o t " p r e s s e d p a p e r is r o l l e d a s e c o n d t i m e w i t h o u t blankets t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders t o p r o d u c e a s m o o t h e r b u t still slightly t e x t u r e d s u r f a c e . Field In a t w o . Fixative Liquid acrylic resin a n d l a c q u e r t h i n n e r usually a p p l i e d as a n a e r o s o l s p r a y m i s t t o t h e surface o f a d r y . m e a n i n g " t o stick" Dry media M e d i a t h a t a r e n o t w e t o r o i l y — f o r e x a m p l e . m e a n i n g "beauty". A f u l l . a n d g r a p h i t e . A p o t e n t i a l l y h a r s h m e t h o d o f p r o d u c i n g t o n e s in a d r a w i n g . o f t e n d i s t o r t e d forms and vivid colors. Cartoon 1. R e m b r a n d t is a great master o f chiaroscuro. Ferrule T h e s h o r t m e t a l t u b e t h a t s u r r o u n d s a n d g n p s t h e hairs o f a p a i n t b r u s h a n d fixes t h e m t o t h e brush handle. It is p u t o n a Body color See Gouache. o r will o n l y a p p e a r n o r m a l . Blotting T h e use o f a b s o r b e n t m a t e r i a l t o lift a w a y excess liquid. s u c h as a d r a w i n g o r painting.c e n t u r y Italian t e r m m e a n i n g "clear-obscure. p h o t o g r a p h s . S o m e t i m e s f e r r u l e s a r e m a d e o f plastic o r o t h e r materials. a r e r o l l e d t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders. Fauvism A n early 2 0 t h . 2. D a m p p a p e r is laid o n t o p . Also called accelerated perspective. s u c h as a s c r e e n . 2. t h e field is t h e a p p a r e n t a n d b e l i e v a b l e space inside t h e p i c t u r e . Anamorphic distortion Stretching an i m a g e across a p i c t u r e surface so t h a t it can o n l y b e u n d e r s t o o d . C o p p e r p l a t e engravings w e r e widely used t o r e p r o d u c e images b e f o r e p h o t o g r a p h y . A l s o c a l l e d t h e h o r i z o n line. w h e n v i e w e d f r o m a specified point. t h e l i g h t is b e h i n d h i m o r her.s i z e d r a w i n g m a d e for t h e purpose o f transferring a design t o a painting. U s e d as a c o r r e c t i n g device o r pictorial game. A i r b r u s h e s are u s e d in t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c o m i c s . written with a broad-nibbed pen o r brush.256 GLOSSARY Glossary Accidental drawing Random. It can also seal a silver p o i n t d r a w i n g t o p r e v e n t t h e oxidization (browning) o f t h e Drypoint A d r a w i n g is s c r a t c h e d directly o n t o a m e t a l plate w i t h a m e t a l t o o l h e l d like apen. a n d given t h e n a m e Sho. T h e name " n o t " simply refers t o t h e fact t h a t t h e cylinders are n o t h o t in t e m p e r a t u r e . Calligraphy Beautiful h a n d w r i t i n g . Air brush A mechanical. t o g e t h e r w i t h a t h i c k felt b l a n k e t T h e w h o l e s a n d w i c h o f l a y e r s is t h e n railed t h r o u g h t h e press t o m a k e a p r i n t D r y p o i n t is a very portable and immediate m e t h o d o f printmaking. L a t e r it c a m e t o m e a n h i g h l y c o n t r a s t e d light effects. pastel. Bleed T h e e f f e c t o f t w o w e t colors running into one another o r o n e color applied t o a w e t surface a n d a l l o w e d t o d i s p e r s e . T h e b l a n k e t s g i v e t h e p a p e r its rough texture o r "tooth. In t h e W e s t p e n calligraphy is u s e d t o c r e a t e f o r m a l a n d d e c o r a t i v e t e x t s . Contre jour A F r e n c h t e r m m e a n i n g " a g a i n s t day.m e d i a d r a w i n g . n e w s p a p e r cuttings. Binder A substance t h a t holds particles o f p i g m e n t t o g e t h e r in a paint f o r m u l a t i o n . Acid-free paper P a p e r w i t h a neutral p H t h a t will n o t darken o r d e t e r i o r a t e excessively w i t h age. See also Hotpressed papers.

Alternatively. Lithography A method of printmaking in which a drawing or painting is made directly onto a smooth slab of particular limestone or a metal plate using an oilbased crayon or ink. it is the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work Pigment Any substance used as a coloring agent—for example.while secretion of the acacia tree. including Max Ernst used frottage in their work. mineral. Grisaille is occasionally seen in church stained-glass windows. oil-based printing ink is rolled evenly onto a smooth metal. then rubbed over carefully but vigorously with a crayon. which give it a smooth surface (as opposed to cold-pressed paper. pastel. Paper is laid on top and a rapid drawing is made on the back of it The paper lifts away to reveal the image on its other side. glossy. Rubens used grisaille to paint small images for engravers. and by artists representing stone sculptures in a painting. and masking off areas of a drawing that the artist wishes to keep untouched by media applied above or beside the tape. or even a beam of light. Artists can paint freely over dry masking fluid. This may be disregarded in real life. F o r m a t T h e size. Picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. Fugitive A term given to a pigment that it is not stable. Hatching (cross-) See Crosshatching. or plastic surface. and translucent paper—a delicate material used in collage. shape. Padua. aiming to represent facts rather than an interpretation of the subject. the finely ground particles of plant. Plumb line A line from which a weight is suspended in order to determine verticality or depth. Masking fluid Clear or opaque latex fluid developed for watercolor painting. to give the illusion of depth and distance.The degree to which detail is defined. Grisaille A painting in gray or a grayish color Often made by students as a tonal exercise. 2.257 metal line. and is also used as a size. and gray drawing. rock. Paper is then pressed against the stone to take a print. the surface of the stone is made wet before being rolled with a thin film of oilbased printing ink. Hairspray is an effective and inexpensive alternative. Medium A generic term for art Key A painting is said to be "high key" when the colors and tones are bright and "low key" when they are dark or somber The term is also used Gouache Opaque watercolor Also called body color.The paper then bears a crayon impression or copy of the surface that was underneath it A number of Surrealists. Hot-pressed papers (HP) Paper made using hot cylinders. or a drawing made in any single color GLOSSARY Linear perspective A form of perspective in which parallel lines are represented as converging. Pointillism A technique of using points or dots of pure color in such a way that when the picture is viewed from a distance they react Masking tape Invaluable. A point of interest in a drawing. are painted in grisaille and appear to be made of stone. or can be otherwise used to create an image—for example. Ground A wet solution usually of gouache or gesso (chalk and animal glue) brushed onto paper board. format" (abbreviated to "portrait"). This method incorporates the excitement of accidental and unpredicted marks. but each print will be unique. Gamut A complete range or extent Glassine A type of thin. This effect emulates what we see in real life. sticky paper tape. with the area beneath remaining unaffected. materials that produce marks on a surface. or a family of colors. graphite. Lightfast A term confirming that pigment in the product will not fade with exposure to light. multiH u e A term for a color. Negative space The space between things. Papercut A type of collage in which flat sheets of paper are cut into an image. It improves the bonding properties Frottage A French term meaning "rubbing. It is a strong adhesive. white. to describe a surface to which paint will adhere readily. but in picture-making it is as important as the objects/subjects themselves. or spirit-based) is applied to a surface that is then pressed onto paper and removed to leave a print.Theground provides a particular color or texture beneath the image. Usually an academic drawing observed from life. and that will "escape" or change over time. or synthetic material that are suspended in a medium to constitute paint. used for fixing paper to walls and boards. purpose. so that (using vanishing point perspective) the object appears to change shape and become narrower or smaller as it recedes. Focus 1 . lifting out charcoal and other dry media. which has a rough surface). Foreshortening A method of depicting an object at an angle to the surface of the picture. Giotto's Virtues and Vices in the Arena Chapel. cadmium yellow hue. The ink attaches to the oil-based image and is repelled by the wet stone. It can be used with any wet media to isolate or protect parts of an image from further Optical blending See Pointillism. enabling them to stick to paper It also helps to maintain a stable dispersion of pigment particles in water as the film of a wash dries. Objective drawing Refers to the concept of objectivity. Impressing Stamping or printing. ink. F o r m The outer surface of a three-dimensional object. It is then peeled away. Also refers to an additive used to control the application properties of a color Golden Section A proportion in which a straight line or rectangle is divided into two unequal parts in such a way that the ratio of the smaller part to the greater part is the same as that of the greater part to the whole. or for wrapping and protecting a finished piece of work. Lifting out A method of creating highlights and mid-tones in a drymedia drawing (such as charcoal or graphite). After several intervening processes. or canvas and allowed to dry before an image is drawn or painted." A piece of paper is placed on top of an object or rough surface. Monochrome Usually refers to a black. and orientation of the image. oil-. work. Also used by artists' materials manufacturers to indicate the use of a substitute pigment—for example. . of the ingredients in inks and watercolors. A small image might be described as small format Horizontal images are often said to be "landscape format" (abbreviated G u m arabic The natural to"landscape"). glass. Dark tones are laid down first then an eraser or masking tape is used to lift away particles of the drawing media to reveal the lightness of the paper beneath. Monoprinting A direct method of printing in which wet medium (water-. upright images are called "portrait which is used as a binding agent in many liquid media. and it has a history in enamel work. The surface can be reloaded or redrawn with more medium.

Technicaldrawing has been example. Squeegee A rubber-trimmed scraper used in the screenprinting process for dragging ink across a surface. creating more vibrant effects than if the same colors were physically mixed together with a brush. sometimes drawn from a and leaving only the pricked sheet of shadow cast on a wall. which are then called editions. Etienne de material) dabbed through the Silhouette (1709-67). Wash A technique using ink. Tortillon A short. or watercolor paint. "Spirits" or "oil" of turpentine refer to the volatile portion used by artists to thin or dilute oil-based paint. or wood. Vanishing point In linear perspective. fruit. evolved by engineers and architects for the purpose of conveying W a t e r c o l o r A painting accurate structural information. paper or canvas. Turpentine A colorless solvent distilled from the resinous sap of pine trees. Still life A picture composed of inanimate objects such as bowls. Pouncing If a large drawing or design (called a cartoon) is to be Shadow Darkness cast by the transferred to a surface such as a obscuring of light. cut-out profile made along every outline of the usually made in black paper image. to model areas of light and shade.258 GLOSSARY together optically. plaster. Support The structure on which an image is made—for example." Materials for Zen brushwork include round brushes of varied size. meaning objects used in setting up a life model or still life. giving it a brilliance. Recto The front or top side of a piece of paper. Pounce (a fine for an unpopular 18th-century powder of charcoal or similar French politician. Printmaking The act of making a picture. whose pinpricks creates a "connect-thepersonal pastime was making dots" replica of the image on the cut-out portraits. or the right-hand page in a book. or the left-hand page in a book. A term borrowed from the theater. Strip Core of a pencil. carbon ink. Viewpoint The position from which something is observed or considered. Single-point perspective The most basic form of linear perspective in which there is only one vanishing point. The crude material is called oleoresin. Sketch A quick or rough drawing. Tone A degree of lightness or darkness. in order to flick the pigment onto the image surface. watercolor. Props An abbreviation of the word properties. Sfumato An Italian term meaning "smoky. and chrysanthemum—which in Chinese tradition are called "The Four Gentlemen." Applied to the blurring or softening of sharp outlines by the subtle and gradual blending of one tone into another Sgraffito A technique of scratching or cutting through a surface of paint. pointed instrument used for marking or engraving. a sheet of paper is placed beneath and pinpricks are Silhouette A flat. and paperweights. in tone running from black to white or vice versa. usually diluted with water and applied with a brush.Thedrawing is removed. or pen. such as an inscribed sheet of metal. an ink stone usually cut from slate. plaster or cloth surface beneath. Technical drawing A universal it is often used in conjunction language of lines and measurements with line drawings in pen and that is used to make diagrammatic ink—for images. Shade A that is color mixed (or toned) with black Shading A lay term for adding tone to a drawing. a point at which receding parallel lines meet Verso The back or underside of a piece of paper. nature of watercolor allows the white surface of the paper to Tonal scale A scale of gradations shine through. Subjective drawing A drawing that expresses the personal view and interpretation of the artist An invented image. by imposing a grid that is then scaled up to a larger size. . or ceramic glazing to reveal a different color beneath. Squaring up A method of enlarging and transferring an image from one surface to another. Named paper in place. Artists' prints are normally made in multiple. Zen brushwork encompasses calligraphy and painting. or mark using an inked or pigment-covered surface. Although drawings can be made with wash alone. Zen brushwork This is an oriental meditative art form originating in China and practised for many centuries in Japan. Underdrawing A pale preliminary drawing made prior to adding layers of another medium such as oil paint or watercolor Value The extent to which a color reflects or transmits light This is the equivalent of tone in a black and white image. or any physical object that can be stamped or pressed onto a surface to leave an impression. a tightly folded piece of cotton batting can be used for the same effect. Scale Describes the size of one element in relation to another Sepia A brown pigment taken from the sun-dried ink sacs of cuttlefish and used to make ink or watercolor The term is now often incorrectly used to refer to brown colors. plum blossom. and flowers. acrylic. pencil. Zen A school of Mahayana Buddhism that asserts that enlightenment can come through meditation and intuition rather than faith. commonly referred to as the lead. using a brush. tight. or gouache. Stippling Applying color or tone in areas of fine dots or flecks. pointed roll of white paper that is used to blend dry media. Zen paintings usually depict scenes of nature and plants such as bamboo. orchids. Stylus A sharp. Serigraphy Silk-screen printing. ink. Size A weak glue used for filling the porous surface of wood or canvas in order to seal it. fine paper. compound of water-soluble pigment. The translucent Tint A color mixed with white. Spattering A mottled texture produced by drawing your fingers across the bristles of a stiff brush loaded with pigment. wall or tapestry. Volume The amount of space occupied by an object or an area of space in itself. glasses. design. or point on which parallel lines converge to give the impression of receding space. Alternatively. W e t media Any liquid media— for example.

to depict 156-157 Cloudburst of Material Possessions (Leonardo) 200. Filippo 67. 182. Le (Hugo) 200. 205 Baltard. 8 cave paintings 8. cut Catling. 128. 94 chalk(s) 53. 241 action. 13 architectural drawing 67-71 Arctic Flowers (Libeskind) 70.162 Conte. 134 costume(s) 155 character 158-159 structure of 166-167 Cottage Among Trees (Rembrandt) 52. Hieronymus 243 Two Monsters 242. Statue d'Epouvante 90 calligraphy.184. 189.184. 75 Circle of the Lustful (Blake) 180. Augustin 67 Basquiat.186 see also movement Adoration of the Magi perspective study (Leonardo) 74. Jean Michel 138 Self-Portrait 138 Bateau-Vision. 9. 226-227 Acanthus spinosus 65 accelerated perspective 22. Mamaru 104. 160 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object (Moore) 178. 244 and graphite 178 .115 anatomical drawing 134-135 anatomical theaters 82-83 anatomical waxes 128 ancient carvings 221. 95 Chair Cut Out (Woodfine) 94. Joseph 113 The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland 112.31 Picasso's horse and bird 30. to draw 100 Cypripedium calceolus L.27 turtles 42-43 aquatint 240 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels (Leonardo) 12. 74. 74 brush (es) 246-247 Japanese 248 for laying a wash 140 marks 248-249 to hold 23 brush drawings 14-15 Bryan. to draw 25.226. center of 118 ballpoint 182. 220. 157 cropping 56-57. 139 Nanha) 50. Franz 48 Protea nitida 48 Bellini. 50. 74. 193 in lifting out 204. 179 Bussotti. 244 head and neck 144 phrased 124-125 contrast: brightness 99 of media 30 tonal 96. (Ross-Craig) 49 to hold brush for 23 caricature 159.212 to erase 205 to hold 23 pencils 204 willow 114. 13. to express 39. 40-41 Durer's rhinoceros 26. 75. 26 geese 38-39 Gericault's cats 28. 222. 28 Klee's horses 30. 81 135. 202 cloth. Etienne-Louis 72 Newton's Cenotaph 72. 71 conte 112.163 graded 227 composition 56-57. Zen c 232-233 blended 133. 163. 41 principal 186. 90. Nicolas-Jacques 54 contours 146. 203 Landline 202.51 All and Nothing (Taylor) 114. 165. 111.50.44-45 bird studies 12. 223 Circular Score for "Due Voce" 223 children's art 9. 158.13. 113 bird bones 12. Leon: Bacchante 155 balance.133. 178 Cubism 67. 9 Chair (Van Gogh) 94.100 curves. 52 cotton swabs 205 Coup de Vent a Asajigabare (Hokusai) 198. 206. 71 Bacchante (Bakst) 155 background: color 91 textured 240 Baker Matthew: Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry 32 Bakst. Clare 203 City 202. 250 Bishndas and Nanha: Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity 50. Brian 226 Untitled 2001 226 "Cave of the Hands" (Cueva de las Manas) 8. 90.198. 94 cylindrical objects.169 colors: airbrushed 161 background 91 A Abe. 180 blending: color 133. 201 collage 111. to draw 80. 180 Circular Score for "Due Voce" (Bussotti) 223 circus scenes 192-195 City (Bryan) 202. Victor: West Facade of the Church of St.163 body.89. 204. Georges 67. 199 Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya (Eisen) 156. 198 cartoon (preparatory drawing) 137 (satirical) 159. 70 Art Nouveau motifs 91 Autoportrait (Ray) 138.Index Page numbers in italics refer t o captions and illustrations Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity (Bishndas and 259 INDEX B bread (as eraser) 205. William: The Circle of the Lustful 180. 71 Blake. 78 aerial perspective 206 airbrushing 160. 137 Besler. 29 Hugo's octopus 28. 90 La Guitare. layers 53 chalk pastels 162. 243 botanical drawing 48-49 Boullee. 90 colored materials 162-163 colored pencils 162. 133.163 dry media 205 Blue Nude (Matisse) 110.117 Achilles Chases Hector (Thomas) 240. 206 checkered floor 80. 162 character: to capture 38-39. 203 Claude Lorrain 202 Views from Velletri 202. 200 Bauer. 190 Caricature of a Woman (Daumier) 198. Basilius 47 Beuys. 230 The Physical Space 220 abstract drawing 219. 38-39.44-45. 242 Brunelleschi. 247-248 carving see lines. 221 animals. 186 charcoal 114. 198. 30 sleeping dog 38-39 Stubbs's horse skeleton 26. 203 Buffalo Hunt (Shoshone) 178. 242 to blend 205 compressed 122. 161 Akhlaq-I Rasul Allah manuscript 51. to model 110-111 border 51 Bosch. 116. 81 cut-out model plan 94. 72 bracelet shading 122 Braque. Giovanni 137 Head and Shoulders of a Man 136. 230-231 Cubist 90. Sylvano 222. 204-205. 98.

Ron 161 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 161 160. 190 Middle Eastern 50-51. 69.184 165. 222 Le Bateau-Vision 200. 71 minimal line 99 and music 70-71 quick 38-39. 160 hitsuzendo 233 light to dark 102. 99 etching. 223. 205 drawing with 103. 137 heads. 240 Black Paintings 152.189. 163. 203 Hotel de la Suzonnieres (Satie) 70. 32 framing 139 Franfoise au Bandeau (Picasso) 132. Jean Ignace Isidore see Grandville Gericault. 134. 135 Duren Albrecht 26. Antonio 135 Muscles of the Head and Neck 134. to draw 134-137 Helleborus corsicus 55 highlights 91. disposable pens 182-183 dissections: botanical 48 of horse 27 distance: illusion of see perspective linear 97 tonal 97 Documents Decoratifs. Robert 93 Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 92. 203 semi-abstract 234-237 three-dimensional 68. 26 Flying Fish (White) 25. 131 Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 240. Antonio 68. 220 dry brush 234 234 57.252-253 from memory 183. 52 foreground 208. 245 Hugo.160. Victor 200. proportions of 143 fantasy drawings 72-73.Theodore 29 Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 28. 77 How Clever of God #84 244. to draw 120. 7 33 Hooke. Nicholas 68 St Paul's Baptistry 68 head and neck to draw 142-145 Head and Shoulders of a Man (Bellini) 136. Edgar 162 depth. 120. to suggest 177 see also perspective diagonals diffuser 55 dip pens 34.103 with eraser 103. Sir Ernst 12.101 engraving 243 erasers/erasing 55. to draw 168-169 in Goya's artworks face. 202.37.207. Katsushika 199 Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 198. Alberto 136 Portrait of Marie-Laure de Noailles 136. 73. 69 Guitare.244 drawing(s): abstract 219. 113. 160 as ground for metal point 140. 29 H hands.91. 200 F fabric. 222. 163.102-103 drawing board 20 drawing books 20-21 drawing paper 144. 160 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction (Gaudi) 68.166 170-173 Gestalt 222 Giacometti. position of 143. 161 fashion 160. 115 Escher.121 felt-tip pens 162. 93 horizon 52.104. position of 22 Eisen. 799 Holbein.144 and ink 30. 112. 132 Frenz. 90 G Gaudi. 37 Grandville 243 A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the Near-Microscopic World of Scale Insects 242. Oona 245 How Clever of God #84 244. 134. 252 depiction of fabric monsters 252-253 Self Portrait in a Cocked Hat 130.103. 69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt 68.160. La (Braque) 90.260 INDEX D Dada 139 Daumien Honore 198 Caricature of a Woman 198. 104-105.244. 55. 55. 134. Statue d'Epouvante.146 from masterworks 126-127. Study for Plate 59 (Mucha) 90. 162 Flaxman. 41 in the round 208-209 with scalpel 202. 161 fashion drawings 160. to draw 78.John 157 Man Lying Down in a Cloak 156. 222 Grimes. C .117 fountain pens 34.116. 245 Gruau.198 Degas. Francisco de 131.69 Gerard.141.97. Rene 160 Illustration for Jacques Fath E easel. 157 . 69.157 ellipses 100. 40. 91 Dragon (Michelangelo) 36. drypoint 181 exaggeration 184 expressionism 198 E ye and Head of a Drone Fly (Hooke) 92. M.115 exploratory 17 fantasy 72-73. 240. 161 changing 216 Focusing on the Negative (Walter) 16 foliage 52. 245 layers 30 Goya. 144 Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (Baker) 32. 226-227 anatomical 134-135 architectural 67-71 botanical 48-49 brush 14-15 dark to light 102. 79. fiber-tip pen 182. 93 eye level 80 Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity. 241 to blend 205 and chalk 178 and ink 28. 240 170-173 five Ships in a Port with Lighthouse (Wallis) 11. 170-173. 122 Hawksmoor.216. 141 tonal 96. 230 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction 68.12 fixative 54. 765 hitsuzendo drawings 233 Hokusai. 243 graphic score 222. 125. 160 Faune. 124.216 Durelli. 242 eyes.109 Rhinoceros 26. 30 Fauves/fauvism 90.112.230 three-tone 140. 136 Golden Section 67 Gombrich. Keisai 157 The Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya 156. Cheval et Oiseau (Picasso) 30. 25 focus 65. The 242. Hans 133 The Ambassadors 116 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 132.111 feet. 122.141. 216 foreshortening 110. 223 graphite 54. 55. 90 gouache 30.

110 Sistine Chapel ceiling 116 Middle Eastern drawing 50-51. drawing from 183. 159 Japanese 35 to make 36 sepia 35 walnut 36. 201 head and neck sections of female mold for Sforza Horse 89 Madonna of the Rocks 244 perspective study for Adoration of the Magi 74. 184. 203 landscape 206-208 brushed 14 Landscape in Hoboku Style (Sesshu) 14 layers 146 chalk 53 gouache 30 ink 28. 220. 225 masking tape 204. Matisse.109.Pieuvre (Octopus) 28.96. 205 masterworks. 54 silver point 156 leg sections 158 length. I Murderous Attacks 33 Kollwitz. 53 monoprint 787. 244 Dragon 36. apparent 97 Leonardo da Vinci 74. 158 Man Lying Down in a Cloak (Flaxman) 156. 135 museums 44. 230 invented creatures 106-107 250-251 invented objects 89.134 K Kettlehut. 234 iron-gall 35. 249 and gouache 30 Indian 35. 227 Scene of Comical Riders 30. Oxford 250 music 70-71 Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks (Knopf) 32. 160 In the Duchess's Kitchen (Rackham) 176. 252 Muscles of the Head and Neck (Durelli) 134. 34. Daniel 70 Arctic Flowers 70 Lieb. 97 Murillo. 163 pens 36 measuring 116 memory. drawing from 126-127. Florence 128 lighting in 167 Pitt Rivers. Paul 227 Polyphonic Setting for White 226. 170-173. 114 hatched 244 layered 118 pace of 65 pale 40 rapid 49.33 Mysterious Affairs of the lighting 2 7. 201 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels 12. Erich 73 design for Metropolis 72. 789. David 78 M Mackintosh.276. 756 priming for 140. 242 light 96 to depict drawing with 1 76 painting with 176 .112. 37 lines 118 pastel 162 pencil 31. 77 Miller. 244 lithograph 198 Losbruch (Kollwitz) 180. 31 Klimt. 166. 205. Charles Rennie 48. 33 J justness 228-229 N naive art 74 negative space 53. 181 luminosity 115 Lynch. Henry 178 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object 178. Victor 134 Profile Head 134.181 L Landline (Bryan) 202. Johan 32.141 Metropolis (film) 72. Rose: Tantalus or the Future of Man 20 minimal line drawing 99 mirror use of 120 mixed media 28. 34-35 acrylic 35 bistre 35. 220.102. 58-59. 74-77.141.115 98. 111.243 carbon 35 Chinese 30. Alphonse 90.227 to "bend" straight 97 compositional 228-229 cut 202. 72. 219 Mondrian. Madrid 171 University Museum of Natural History. 73 Kigell. 73 Michelangelo Buonarroti 48. Bartolome: Moses Striking the Rock ofHoreb 252. 178 motifs: A r t Nouveau 9 7 stylized 51 mountains 216-217 movement: of animals 30-31 of humans 7 79. 83 white 122 ink impressions 222 ink spatters 234 installations 176. 203.124. Kathe 181 Losbrunch (The Outbreak) 180. 53 Tree II 52.104. 244 ink 36 252-253 Documents Decoratifs 90.167 line(s) 132. 185 Mucha. 220.166 La Specola. artistic 240-241. 227 Newsome. Phyll: hands 18 lifting out 204. Gustav 49 Knopf.91 Study for Plate 59 of INDEX illumination see lighting Illustration for Jacques Fath (Gruau) 160. 244. 99. 76 Libeskind. 177 influences. Henri 111 Blue Nude 1110.120.182 Moore. 63. 252 ink 16. 36. 156 magnification 93 Man in Armor (Van Dyck) 158. 757 mandalas 219. 49 Rose 49 Maelbeke Madonna (Van Eyck) 156. 60. Piet 52. Marie 244 cloth drawing 244. 103 Neolithic chalk tablet 220. Oxford 106 Prado. 13 Cloudburst of Material Possessions 200. 190 metal pens see dip pens metal point 25. 181 Klee. 78 Study ofThree Male Figures 110.The (Robinson) 108. 220. 176. 28 Two Impressions from a Cut-out Paper Disk 222 Huyler Stephen R 225 261 Kinecar. 35. 183 vertical 156 linear distance 97 linear perspective 69. 221 endless 31 free 113. 226 Modernism 67.109. 248.

139 Autoportrait 138.184 fountain 34. Isaac 92 Telescope 92 Newton's Cenotaph (Boullee) 72.240. 36. 227 portfolios 20 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser de Noailles (Holbein) 132. 239 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat (Seurat) 112. 205 pointillism 112 polyphonic painting 227 Polyphonic Setting for White (Klee) 226. 244 Q s Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape (Wolfli) 2 79 St.2 3 age and youth sleeping subjects 148-149 150-151 Renaissance 109 Rhinoceros (Durer) 26. 97. 1 1 7 aerial 206 linear 69.52 pen and wash 158. 36 relief printing 757 Rembrandt van Rijn 52. Russell 228. Man 131. 739 semi-abstract drawings Style 14 Seurat. 162 O p A r t 98 optical illusions 96-99 outline 33. 161. 732 influence of 240 painting with light 78. 734 Protea nitida (Bauer) 48. 4 9 Rose of Mohammed 50. 36. 37 38. 230 parallel planes 79 Parisian street 86-87 pastels 162 to blend 205 to hold 23 layers 162 pencils 162 pen(s): dip 34 . 219. Faune. Erik 70. Stella 48 Cypripedium calceolus L 49 rotated view 7 65 Rubens. 78 single-point 74. 74. 7 73 self-portraits: Basquiat 138. 38. 9 8 . 1 6 9 to hold 2 2 . 203 Scene of Comical Riders (Klee) 30.131 Cottage Among Trees 52. 212 Japanese 2 1 . 772 234-237 Sesshu. 166 fiber-tip 782. 103. 28 pigment 162 bright 50 Caput Mortuum 7 4 7 for three-tone drawing 141. 36 pen and brush 8 3 pen and ink 70. Sue 104. 7 72 Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland. Arthur 177 In the Duchess's Kitchen 176.54 pastel 162 perspective 1 0 0 . 7 70 Ray. 244 reed 34. 57 Ross-Craig. 1 2 4 priming for metal point 140. 34-35. Martin 238. 1 1 6 .oise au Bandeau 132. 160.Paul'sBaptistry (Hawksmoor) 68. The (Abe) 220 Picasso. 52 pens 36 scalpel 54 drawing with 202. 234 disposable 182-183 felt-tip 162.199 Profile Head (Newsome) oil pastels 162. Peter Paul 126-127 Embracing pose(s): balanced 146 quick 118-119 positive form 103 posture: of artist 22 of subject 3 8 . 782 relief 757 silk-screen 739 woodblock 134.37. 91 outsider artists 33. and Webster. 164. 224 0 layers 31. Giovanni Battista 74. 243. 1 6 3 . 2 2 0 for oil pastels 162 stained 230 to stretch 140-141 tissue 21. 72 Noble.262 INDEX Newton. 7 77 three-point 80.71 Hotel de la Suzonnieres 70. 36. 141 Piranesi. Bridget 98 Robinson. 26 Riley.9 3 Schongauer. 36. Heath 181 The Kinecar 180.Toyo: Landscape in Hoboku . 36.7 77 rapidograph 70 Raphael 110. 73 Noble. 74-77.176 Real Life Is Rubbish 176. 7 76 receding space 206 Redon. 239 Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 238.141 prints/printing: aquatint 240 dry-point etching 181 engraving 243 monoprint 181. 205 157. 76 plastic eraser 55. to draw 146-147 R Rackham. 76-79. 165 figure 118 filled 37 pencil 48.Tim. 242 reed pens 34. 9 0 . 81 two-point 74. 736 portraits. 216. 230 paper(s) 21 colored 162 drawing 144. J 76 nudes 114-115 to make 36 metal see dip quill 34. Paul 73 Nobson Central 72. 165.36. Georges 112 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 112. 759 P Page. 75 Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range 241 petroglyphs 221.The (Beuys) 112. 181 pencil(s) 54 charcoal 204 colored 762.37.40.226. 733 Portrait de Marie-Laure (Giacometti) 136. 163. Pablo 6 7 . 1 1 6 accelerated 2 2 . 38.104 Pieuvre (Hugo) 28. 75 Two Courtyards 75. 181 Rodin. 241 Physical Space. 68 Satie. 40-41. 139 Real Life is Rubbish (Noble and Webster) 176. Odilon 242 The Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity 242. 30 Fran<. 4 8 putty eraser 55. 159. 7 38 Ray 138. 71 Satire of the Queen's Dress (Wodall) 158.759.37 scientific instruments 9 2 . Auguste 114 Two Women 114. 122. Cheval et Oiseau 30. 114 rollerball 182 Rorschach blot 99 Rose (Mackintosh) 48. 1 3 2 quill pens 34. 243.

743 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City ( F r e n z ) 1 6 0 . t o draw 1 9 8 . Augustin ( B a l t a r d ) 6 7 w e t and dry brush-strokes 2 4 9 Turner. 230 t h r e e . 202 violin. 7 77. 9 4 z Z e n calligraphy 232-233 contrast 96 t o grade 163 ink 37 pencil 5 4 t o r t i l l o n 205 T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c . 102-103 tonal marks.41. A l f r e d 1 1 .243 Leonardo's machines 12. 1 6 .13 M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s m a l e figures 110.1 9 9 wire. t o lay 1 4 0 . 7 79 Shoshone petroglyph 240.120. t h r e e . 243 (Bosch) T Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos ( G o y a ) 2 4 0 .141 S i m b l e t . 240 Two Women Embracing ( R o d i n ) 114. 1 4 4 . 7 70 Tiber 214-215 Untitled ( T w o m b l y ) 2 2 0 .1 6 5 shorthand diagram 142 Shoshone buffalo hide painting 178. 65 symbols 138. drawing with 104-105 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt ( G a u d i ) 68.158 158.s c r e e n p r i n t i n g 139 silver p o i n t 1 4 0 .1 0 5 vision 9 6 Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects (Grandville) 242.J. 75. 2 9 wind. W .t o n e d r a w i n g 140. 2 3 0 tonal contrast 96 tonal distance 9 7 t o n a l d r a w i n g 9 6 . 104-105. Sarah 9 4 Chair Cut Out 94.1 4 5 . 7 9 0 vessels. Sue see N o b l e . 2 1 2 . 115. v i e w s o f 85.1 8 5 Tree II ( M o n d r i a n ) 52. Paul 2 4 1 Achilles Chases Hector 2 4 0 . Man in Armor 1 5 8 . Taylor A n i t a 115 All and Nothing 1 1 4 . 182.12 W a l t e r . 2 0 0 Ship in a Storm 1 9 8 .d i m e n s i o n a l d r a w i n g 68.Sforza Horse. 2 3 4 . 164. John 25 Flying Fish 25 Wild Striped Cat Sketches of ( G e r i c a u l t ) 28. Adolf: Giant-Grape Saint-Mary-Castle 219 Woman at Her Toilet ( T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c ) 74 w o o d b l o c k print 157. b l o w n 248 steel p e n s see d i p p e n s still life 89. 1 8 4 . 9 0 . 156 layers 7 5 6 priming for 140. 186. 1 6 6 t r a p e z i u s m u s c l e 142. 75 Skeleton of the Horse ( S t u b b s ) 26. 2 7 studies: b i r d s 7 2 . 7 6 Two Impressions from a Cut-Out Paper Disk ( H u g o ) 2 2 2 Two Monsters 2 4 2 . John: Focusing on the Negative 14 w a s h . 53 trees. 7 75 Telescope ( N e w t o n ) 9 2 . 141 Three Male Figures.1 4 1 . 1 7 7 free 8 0 V e n i c e . 206-207 202. 245 sharpener 54 Ship in a Storm ( T u r n e r ) 1 9 8 . t o d r a w 5 2 . 96. 1 4 0 . 2 2 6 . M . 199 shoes 1 6 4 . 1 8 4 . C y 138. 7 1 4 . 1 9 9 Two Courtyards (Piranesi) 75. 74. 199. 161. 2 4 7 t h r e e . 1 4 1 w a t e r c o l o r 25.216 W e b s t e r . 9 5 pens 36 v a n i s h i n g p o i n t 74. 97. 49.2 1 3 Stubbs. 2 2 7 Untitled 2001 ( C a t l i n g ) u 263 W h i t e . 158 V a n Eyck. 2 4 4 . 2 4 2 w Wallis. Sarah: child's m a p 75. 77. 69. h e a d a n d n e c k sections o f female m o l d f o r (Leonardo) 89 shading 2 9 s h a d o w s 28. phrased 146 tonal modeling 161 tonal range 169 t o n a l surfaces 2 2 7 tonal width 97 t o n e ( s ) 33. 159 Wolfli. Vincent 95 Chair 94. 9 2 Tesshu. 156 Van Gogh. 1 9 9 . 6 9 Wodall. William 159 Satire of the Queen's Dress INDEX 226. Study of (Michelangelo) 110. 2 2 0 influence o f 2 4 0 Untitled 220. 221 . 725 fabric 1 6 8 T h o m a s . 76. 7 6 1 spots.9 1 storms. T i m W e s t Fagade of the Church of St. t o d r a w 1 0 1 viewfinder 57 Views from Velletri ( C l a u d e L o r r a i n ) 152.Yamaoka 233 t e x t u r e 2 2 2 .199 tissue p a p e r 21. 1 4 1 .5 3 in l a n d s c a p e 2 0 6 . 4 4 boat 209 botanical 4 9 G e r i c a u l t ' s cats 2 9 from Goya 170-173 125. 170 shoes 1 6 4 stylized m o t i f 51 Summer Flowers 63. A n t h o n y 152. H e n r i de: Woman at Her Toilet 14 t r a n s p a r e n t v i e w 92. 1 3 . 1 4 5 travel journal 2 0 . Jan 1 5 6 Maelbeke Madonna 1 5 6 . 1 2 Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse 71. 249 t o describe 39.241 s i l k . 69. 226 V Van Dyck.2 0 1 .d i m e n s i o n a l 1 0 4 . G e o r g e 2 7 Skeleton of the Horse 26. 57.125 W o o d f i n e . t o d r a w 2 0 0 . 241. 174 T w o m b l y . 79.27 skull 747.

2 4 0 : w w w . Kirsten Norrie. Angela W i l k e s . Psychiatric Institute of the University of Heidelberg. u k / O n Loan to the H a m b u r g Kunsthalle.bridgeman. London 2005. 9 5 : V a n Gogh M u s e u m . 9 7 6 ) . Paul T h o m a s . 132: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. Andy Crawford. 1 5 4 : akg-images/Musee National d'Art Moderne. 1 3 8 : © Christie's Images Ltd/© A D AGP. Natalie G o d w i n . Flossie. Christopher Davis. J o n Roome. c o . Sammy De Grave. 29: Fogg A n Museum/Collections Baron de Vita: Grenville L. Toulouse. Agnieszka Mlicka. 9 0 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/© A D A G P . 181: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. L o n d o n . © Tate. K u n s t m u s e u m .uk /Biblioteca Nacional. Antonia Cunliffe Davis. 1 9 : Getty Images/© Succession Picasso / D A C S 2 0 0 5 . 226: Brian Catling. L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . Wolfson College. J a c k a n d Brian Catling. L o n d o n (t). L o n d o n . 1 3 6 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Centre Pompidou-MNAM-CCI. 2 0 1 : T h e Royal Collection © 2 0 0 2 H e r Majesty Queen Elizabeth I I . 13: www.co. K e w ft)).r. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin/Jorg P. 1901. Portugal. 2 6 : Topfoto. 157: U C L Art Collections . Jean Pierre Roy. U K . 49: Hunterian Museum (t).co. Florence/MoMA. 2 4 1 : Corbis/David M u e n c h ( b ) . 2 8 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. 1 6 1 : D C C o m i c s I n c .bridgeman. 2 1 8 : Adolf-Wdlfli-Stiftung. and Tamsin Woodward Smith.bridgeman. 1 5 6 : Graphische S a m m l u n g Albertina. H a m b u r g . 5 3 : Collection of the Gemeentemuseum D e n Haag/Mondrian Trust. Berlin (b). G e r m a n y . London/Bequeathed by Charles Landseer. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. Picture Credits 8: Corbis/Hubert Stadler.100. H e a t h e r M c C a r r y . 5 0 : Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (1).939). G e r m a n y . London/courtesy of Stuart Shave. S i m o n L e w i s .Paris ( b ) . Rocio Arnaez.co. B M G . 221: Gagosian Gallery/Private Collection (b)./Private Collection/© D A C S 2005. 115: Anita Taylor. 2 4 5 : Oona Grimes. J o h n Roberts. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin. NY. 2 0 0 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. 6 6 : w w w . Corporation of London.uk/Mucha Trust. B e m d Kunzig. Pamela Ellis for compiling the index. .co. P h y l l Kiggell. Paula Regan. U K . M a n d y Earey. Germany/Joerg P. Oxford. 4 8 : T h e N a t u r a l H i s t o r y M u s e u m .uk/British Museum. 176: Modem Art.20-21 a n d 246-47. 2 2 3 : Lebrecht Music and Arts Photo Library/Ricordi. a n d encouragement i n m a k i n g this book: M a m o r u Abe. 2 4 2 : Photo Scala. Sarah D u n c a n . 7 0 : Studio Daniel L i b e s k i n d . Paris. 1 9 6 : Museum of the History of Science. 68: www. George M c G a v i n . R o s e m a r y S c o u l a r . 2 3 8 : akg-images. Clare Bryan. R . 1 0 8 : Arts C o u n c i l Collection. 2 2 0 : Mamaru Abe. support. Sophie Laurimore. A . 16: www.bridgeman.a. F r a n c e . 1 . Carlo O r t u for picture research s u p p o r t . L o n d o n . Roddy Bell. B . T h e R u s k i n School of D r a w i n g a n d Fine A r t . 139: Galerie Marion Meyer/© Man Ray Trust / A D A G P . 2 2 2 : Pierre Georgel/Private Collection.co. 174: Artothek/Munich.uk/Private Collection. O. Berlin/Staatsbibliothek zu A l l other images © Sarah Simblet . A . 17: J o h n Walter. 9 4 : Sarah Woodfine. Basel. H a y w a r d Gallery. Diana Bell. Fund. A n d y C r a w f o r d for p h o t o g r a p h y a n d L . Paul T h o m a s ( t ) . Inc. Julie O u g h t o n .co. 114: Musee Rodin. 1 9 8 : Dover Publications. Illustrated London News Picture Library/The Bystander (b). 180: www.Strang Print Room ( b ) . 11: www. 2 2 4 : P r i n z h o m Collection. (r). Patty Stansfield. c o .uk/Kettle's Yard. France. for s u p p l y i n g the d r a w i n g books. Copyright Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens.uk /© Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery. Paris. 1929 (29. R o y a n d D i a n n e Simblet. H e l e n S h u t t l e w o r t h . 130: The Metropolitan M u s e u m of Art/Robert L e h m a n Collection. 72: akg-images. Sir Brinsley F o r d . Winthrop. papers./© D A C S 2 0 0 5 ( t ) . 3 1 : Tom Powel Imaging.uk/Private Collection. Psychiatric Institute of the U n i v e r s i t y of Heidelberg. G i n a R o w l a n d . Productions Clovis Prevost (c). 111: Fondation Beyeler/Riehen (Bale)/© Succession H Matisse/DACS 2005. H . 225: Stephen P Huyler. K u n s t m u s e u m Bern/© D A C S 2 0 0 5 . R u t h P a r k i n s o n . Germany. A n n a P l u c i n s k a . 1 5 9 : Bodleian Library.bridgeman.co. Italy. Paris/ © Succession Picasso / D A C S 2005. Publisher's Acknowledgments Dorling Kindersley w o u l d like to thank Caroline H u n t for editorial contribution. b r i d g e m a n . Orientabteilung/Ruth Schacht.bridgeman. 3 2 : Pepys Library. 51: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz.co. 2 4 : © T h e British Museum. L o n d o n . Paris. 199: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee des arts asiatiquesGuimet.uk/Guildhall Library. B e r l i n . Dover Publications/ISBN: 0486229912 (t).co. 9 3 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. Paris. K e v i n a n d Rebecca Slingsby. 2 7 : Royal Academy of Arts. 30: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. 137: © The British Museum. . Also. Amsterdam. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. 1 5 : w w w . b r i d g e m a n . 2 0 2 : © T h e British Museum. 73: Berlin F i l m Museum (t). F i n n . 2 4 4 : Ashmolean Museum. 2 2 7 : Paul Klee Stiftung. b r i d g e m a n . Havemeyer. Anders/ © D A C S 2 0 0 5 .uk/Private Collection. 177: Mary Evans Picture Library. B e r l i n . 9 1 : www. Carole A s h . 69: Institut Amatller d'Art Hispanic (tl). Japan. 179: www. 158: Calouste Gulbenkian Museum. Salisbury & South W i l t s h i r e M u s e u m ( t ) . Paris. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. 3 3 : Prinzhom Collection.uk/Musee des Augustins. 4 6 : B r i t i s h Library.bridgeman. Magdalene College Cambridge. Paris a n d D A C S .l. 1 1 0 : www. O o n a G r i m e s . 243: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. University of Cambridge. Angela Palmer. 9 2 : Science Photo L i b r a r y . L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 .bridgeman./Galerie Sylvie Nissen. University of Oxford. Lisbon. 2 0 3 : Clare Bryan (t). 1975 ( 1 9 7 5 . Paris. Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (t). D a w n Henderson. 5 2 : T h e Metropolitan Museum of Art/Bequest of Mrs. u k / L o u v r e . Maureen Paley Interim Art (b). T o n y G r i s o n i . L e n . 1 3 5 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. 113: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. 88: www. c o .co. 1879. Anita Taylor. 75: © The British Museum (b). 74: Corbis. 112: Yale University A r t Gallery/Everett V Meeks. Kunstmuseum Bern. L o n d o n . 1 3 3 : Artothek/Kupferstichkabinett. 1 6 0 : Rene G R U A U s. C o r n e l i s o n & Son. Sarah Woodfine. Peter L u f f . J o h n Walter.bridgeman. K a t h r y n W i l k i n s o n . Graphische Sammlung. a n d D e p a r t m e n t s o f E n t o m o l o g y a n d Zoology at the University of Oxford. 1 3 4 : © T h e British Museum. 1 7 8 : © T h e British M u s e u m / H e n r y Moore F o u n d a t i o n . Madrid. Anders. Paris and D A C S . u k / T o k y o National M u s e u m .264 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Acknowledgments Author's Acknowledgments: T h e author wishes to thank the following people for their enormous help. 7 1 : I M E C / A r c h i v e s E r i k Satie. a n d brushes o n pp. Paris a n d D A C S . Jackie Douglas.

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