An innovative, practical approach to drawing the world around you







LONDON • NEW YORK MELBOURNE • MUNICH • DELHI Senior Editor Paula Regan Senior Art Editor Mandy Earey Art Editor Anna Plucinska Managing Editor Julie Oughton Managing Art Editor Heather McCarry Art Director Peter Luff Publishing Director Jackie Douglas Production Joanna Bull DTP Designer Adam Walker Picture Research Sarah Smithies US Editor Christine Heilman First American Edition, 2 0 0 5 First Paperback Edition, 2 0 0 9 Published in the United States by DK Publishing 3 7 5 Hudson Street New York, New York 1 0 0 1 4 10 11 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3

6 8 20 22 Master Builders The Order of Sound Future Fictions Pathways of Sight Single-Point Perspective Creating an Imaginary Space Further Aspects of Perspective Theaters Venetian Life Parisian Street

68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86

Foreword Introduction Drawing Books and Papers Posture and Grip

Objects and Instruments

TD075-July 2009 Copyright © 2 0 0 5 Dorling Kindersley Limited Text and authors artworks © Sarah Simblet 2 0 0 4 Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited A Cataloging-in-Publication record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN 9 7 8 - 0 - 7 5 6 6 - 5 1 4 1 - 1 Color reproduction by GRB, Italy Printed and bound in China by Toppan

Still Life Instruments of Vision Bench Marks Light and Illusions Further Illusions How to Draw Ellipses Tonality Drawing with Wire Artifacts and Fictions


90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106

Documentaries Presence and Mood Movement Icon and Design Pen and Ink Drawing with Ink Capturing Character Sleeping Dogs Turtles Dry Birds

26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44

The Body
Postures and Poses Choreographs Passion Measurement and Foreshortening Quick Poses Hands and Feet Charcoal Hands Phrasing Contours The Visual Detective La Specola

110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128

Plants and Gardens
Botanical Studies Jeweled Gardens Fast Trees Graphite and Erasers Cropping and Composition Negative Space Fig Tree Summer Flowers Acanthus Spinosus

48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64

Discover more at

Projections Magnetic Fields The Human Condition Disposable Pens The Travel Journal Catching the Moment Grand Canal Crossings Caravans The Big Top

174 Abstract Lines
176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 Process and Harmony Writing Time Chants and Prayers Compositions Being "Just" Collage Zen Calligraphy Nocturnes

220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234

Poise Anatomies Revelations Self-Portraits Silver Point Head and Neck Essential Observations Drawing Portraits Generations Castings

132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 152

Earth and the Elements
Air in Motion Storms Nature Profiles Charcoal Landscapes Drawing in the Round Decaying Boat Cloudburst Notes of Force Mountains

198 200 202 204 206 208 210 212 214 216

Gods and Monsters
Marks of Influence Hauntings Convolutions Brushes Brush Marks Monsters Goya's Monsters Consumed Glossary Index Acknowledgments

240 242 244 246 248 250 252 254 256 259 264

Cloth and Drapery Character Costumes Femmes Fatales Colored Materials Study and Design The Structure of Costume Textures and Patterns Dressing Character Posture Carving

156 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172


I know that with their cooperation I can soon prove them wrong. It makes me feel excited to be alive. Others can be held in the h a n d or. remain unseen by most. understood (and often misunderstood) our own bodies. We can all learn how to draw. still standing by the door. and size. . thinking. shape. architect. we have looked at. Some are more traditionally framed and hung in galleries for solo or group exhibitions. They enfold their viewer and are made on joined sheets of paper that I reach by climbing ladders. and feeling. and in a few sessions they will be flying. be they a child discovering their vision and dexterity. and experience. undergraduates to fellow professors. For twelve years I have enjoyed the privilege of teaching drawing. and local c o m m u n i t y classes. but because it is how I engage with and anchor myself in life. through history. as a visiting professor at universities. art schools. Drawing occupies a unique place in every artist and creator's life. not only to make art. and their importance to so many artists. and through which I can see how I think. and makers of special effects. I work with people of diverse ages. fashion designer. of Sketch Book for the Artist. and a reflector of experience. I was also reading among The Confessions of St. texture. aspirations. Drawing is a mirror through which I understand my place in the world. in which he describes himself flying and diving in his imagination through pictorial caverns of knowledge. geologists. where spaces are shaped by nothing more than the objects and activities contained within them. who tells me firmly upon approach that they cannot draw. I will always draw. a sculptor. They occupy a shelf in my studio. The very first step is to believe it. Combine these things and the possibilities are endless. Augustine his notes on memory. that inspired the title and structure MEMORY T H E A T E R S This pen-and-ink drawing was made from imagination during research for my PhD. from schoolchildren to senior citizens. night security staff. by invitation. and be slowly washed or worn away. a drawing book is the perfect portable private vehicle for your imminent exploration of drawing.Foreword B Y DRAWING THE WORLD AROUND US. a cartographer charting the land. Some of my drawings cover entire walls. especially as travel journals. It is a tool for investigating ideas and recording knowledge. perhaps hidden on a door hinge or a street bench rail. Chosen in any color. or engineer. doctors. or a quantum physicist trying to see for themselves the fluctuations of our universe. we learn to feel truly alive. These inspirations led me to invent museums. I was training in anatomy and studying how. It is my love of these. The most rewarding challenge is always the newcomer. For me personally. By using our imaginations. where I expect them to be discovered by some people. are made outside as discreet installations. drawing is the immediate expression of seeing. we learn to see it. and I refer back to them for years after they are made. I also make drawing books. a composer notating a musical score.

"CAVE OF THE HANDS" In this drawing. but more often because drawing actually helps us to focus and take in what is said. We are bombarded with linear and tonal pictorial information. Sometimes we draw because we are bored. Drawing is international. We can always read each others drawings. packaging. The sense of relief we may feel from the information overload of modern commercial life when visiting a country in which we can no longer read every written word. and in meetings.000-9500 bce . They have a natural affinity to many modern graffiti signatures. Children cannot be restrained from running across the pristine white lawn of newly fallen snow. Cueva de las Marios. a great crowd is raising their hands in greeting. not just chosen pictures on our walls but everywhere—maps. We are surrounded by drawings in our daily lives. Rio Pinturas 13. waving to us from many thousands of yearsago. irreverent to language barriers. is not afforded us by drawing. like a great canvas for them to mark. scrawling shapes and cartoons when on the telephone. and patterns on our clothes. in lectures. and we spend our lives reading it. Most adults still feel that certain exquisite pleasure on arriving at a beach to find the tide out and the sand perfect.8 INTRODUCTION Where We Begin There is a fundamental drive in our human nature to make a mark.Theseancient silhouettes were drawn with earth pigments rubbed onto rock. graffiti. signs. logos. At home and at work we doodle. inscribing every fresh part of it with their eager scrapes and trails.

but I had never yet attempted to figuratively picture my world." Until this day. I. On a particular afternoon in September 1974. She gave me a notepad and a red crayon and asked me to draw her "a picture of Daddy. enjoying the physical sensation of crayon on paper.9 WHERE WE BEGIN FIRST PORTRAIT For sorre forgotten reason. . I was sitting with my mother. created by societies of hunter-gatherers. In cave paintings like the one opposite. Eyelashes take up as much of my attention as the head itself. we see our oldest surviving images. MAKING OUR MARK It seems reasonable to assume that we have engaged in pictorial mark-making for as long as we have made conscious use of our hands. and belonging to place. at age two-anda-half. Even though it is made by a toddler this image would be recognizable to anyone. reflecting my experience of looking closely at my father's face. an expression of existence. Cave art was not made for decoration but as a fundamental part of life. and she kept it as my first step beyond the delighted realms of scrawl. The image above is what I gave back to my mother. like all toddlers. who in their day-to-day hardship made time to picture themselves and the animals on which they depended. I now think this is a picture of proximity. power. the hair of my first portrait was most important. and the appearance of my strikes of colors. had happily scribbled.

for example. Hours are lost immersed in the glorious world of imagination. it is important to value your natural abilities a n d ways of seeing. Young children love to draw. then drag o u r line into a loop. As you progress. most of us stop. and from that first unit build and describe the shape of something or someone we know. b e p r o u d o f what m a k e s y o u r w o r k individual to y o u . Inhibitions creep in and ideas of good a n d b a d terminate confidence. W e do n o t hesitate to draw a map. to help a stranger see their way W h e n taking first steps in relearning h o w to draw. At this point many will insist they cannot draw.10 INTRODUCTION PEN-AND-INK BEE This tiny drawing has been enlarged to show its texture and composition. It was made with a few bold strokes of a steel pen dipped in ink to conjure the dried bee I was holding between my fingers on a pin. h o w e v e r small a n d u n f o r m e d y o u believe they are. Don't b e p e r s u a d e d to draw in a w a y s o m e o n e else . yet still turn to drawing w h e n their verbal language fails or is inadequate. and this activity plays a vital role in their d e v e l o p m e n t . But as adolescents. PROGRESSION T h e r e is a point in all o u r lives w h e n w e first c o n t r o l o u r mark and m a k e it a line.

and they have never questioned why. Occasionally. He was a retired Cornish fisherman and junk dealer who began drawing at the age of 70 "for company" after his wife died. you must decide whether to keep or discard it. After experimenting and trying each new idea. but it does help to set out facing in the right direction. Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse c. remember that all advice is only advice. As you read this b o o k and perhaps attend art classes. harbor and sea is one of many that Alfred Wallis made from memory while sitting at home. 1925-42 53/8x87/8in (135 x 225 mm) ALFRED WALLIS prefers and tells you is better. . He used leftover ship and yacht paint with crayons on cut-out pieces of cardboard boxes. Think how much would have been lost if anyone had interfered with Alfred Wallis' personal sense of proportion and perspective in the exquisite drawing above. what they most want to achieve. Enjoy the control of your own journey. Someone once told them they must draw in this way. The journey of every artist demands hard work and discipline. I meet students struggling unhappily with a particular method of drawing. I ask them their reasons for drawing.11 PROGRESSION A UNIQUE SIGHT This innocent yet sophisticated drawing of boats. and which aspects of the vast wealth and diversity of graphic language would be most appropriate to their goals.

clear-minded understanding of the sea. His notes visually balance his drawings. We all see differently. but the child in us knows that this is an all-embracing. and inspire others. Below. Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels LEONARDO DA VINCI . There should neve: be a slavish obligation to represent things exactly as we collectively agree we see them. the page bristles with the focus of ideas. Our imaginations are the tools with which we can increase the essence of life. embedded in this book. but it should be the experienced world we draw. They are also always written backward. all raise water From the Archimedes' screw to Leonardo's own cupped wheel. The art historian Professor Sir Ernst Gombrich. boats. right. and breathtaking wind of a choppy harbor. the breast. When we look back at Wallis' seascape (see p. I hope. we can drive out its spirit. it may not be accurate to our critical adult eye. We also see differently ourselves.12 INTRODUCTION VISION All artists see the world differently. author of The Story of Art. wrote as the opening line of this great work. 11). depending on the occasion and our purpose. There are only artists. is. and lose the very thing that attracted us to it." The clarity and empowerment of these words. The observed world may be our subject. If as artists we nail a subject down too hard. be visionary. not for disguise but as a personal choice. IDEAS A N D I N V E N T I O N S These active machines. perhaps for comfort or ease as a left-hander or a habitual enjoyment of the challenge. "There really is no such thing as Art. There are countless reasons for drawing. We BIRD STUDIES The flutter of faint scratches that dance across the pages on the right is an attempt to see the movement and bony weightlessness of a bird.and collarbones and shoulder blades of a different bird almost become new creatures in themselves.

Leonardo drew to invent a machine. I drew to understand the apparatus of flight. but it is important to be clear why we are making it.13 VISION should not try to know how every finished picture will look. . This also applies if struggling at length with a larger picture. or to discover the best use of a new material. conduct an experiment. when it looks tired and still feels wrong. Our drawings are annotated investigations into the mechanisms of nature and of an idea. stripped-down parts. make a calculation. Each fresh image reflects growing confidence and the experience of the preceding study. drawing in pursuit of our own thoughts and understanding. while below. shout against a terrible injustice. it may be best to start afresh. We have both covered our paper with focused. time spent is not lost. More was learned drawing the bird 18 times than would have been understood drawing it only once or twice. to express the beauty in a moment's play of light. Decide before you start whether you are drawing to warm up. Opposite. My drawings of a housemartin (opposite top) illustrate the importance of repeated study. It will be invested through your experience in the new drawing. Don't be disheartened. or illustrate a dream.

BRUSHED LANDSCAPE FLOWING SKELETON T h e gliding poise of this walking anatomy comes as much from the feeling of movement as it does from the feeling of drawing. We are caught in a shifting focus that makes everything fluid. we are advised or even required to plan our pictures. This is a detail of a brush-and-ink drawing by a Japanese Buddhist monk. It denies the importance of accident. As you draw any subject—something you see. These two brush drawings. fire. Each image relied upon past experience to know the probable behavior of the brush. This is the alchemy of drawing. and opacity of your subject. water. mists. and sometimes beyond. and position in space. metal. W e float toward the quiet vista as it also moves toward us. which can offer keys to other things. size. balance. the unknown. meaning. trusting my intuition to find a visual equivalence for the sensation of weight within my body. However. temperature. Landscape in Haboku Style 15TH CENTURY . As your hand meets the paper to make a mark. You must also think of its intrinsic nature: its purpose. and spirit of each subject was held strongly but loosely between the fingertips.14 INTRODUCTION ALCHEMY At school. explain the composition. and we can just make out the distant stains of mountains. silk. depth. I made it almost unconsciously with a pen and a brush. Our position asvieweris unsteady. declare the idea. it should be responding to the sensation and meaning of the subject it draws. and practice each part before putting the final image together. and an island brushed with trees. feel. bone. and how it feels to the touch. and what you discover in the process of making. ink. If you can do this. are both made of ink laid onto wet paper with speed and agile certainty. Whatever the material— wood. and allowed to flow through the brush. or ice—you must actually feel it beneath your fingers as you draw. or imagine—it is not enough to only render its shape. The physicality. This suits many artists well and is perfectly valid. and at speeds beyond conscious thought. Imagine these qualities so strongly that you feel them in your mind and at your fingertips. your marks will become the subject on the paper. Know the texture. They each allowed the energy and focus of the moment to be expressed through controlled accident and a degree of the unknown Both drawings were made trusting the marks. excessive planning can get in the way of the imagination. and paper. created centuries and cultures apart.


gold leaf and spray paint. W a l t e r also makes books: some. one of many luminous works in watercolor. pastel. left. which evoke realities o f place and the p o w e r o f moment. stand table-sized with furniture legs attached t o b o t h sides of their jacket. like folded insects. right is set inside a rib cage.1896 Woman at her Toilet 41 x 26 in (104 x 66 cm) TOULOUSE LAUTREC RIB-CAGE D R A M A Thus drama. Focusing on the Negative 2004 22 x 30 in (56 x 76 cm) J O H N WALTER .16 INTRODUCTION PLACE A N D MOMENT The heat and teeming atmosphere o f this Parisian dressing room. lives on. acrylic. made by a young British artist who creates alphabets o f the absurd f r o m familiar childhood characters. c. Lautrec's flamboyant splashes o f petticoats and pantaloons are drawn with long sweeps of chalk and brushed oil paint. more than 100 years after its making. He dazzles us with flashes o f light and dabbed marks o f shadow.

Try to keep all of your first drawings. One of the advantages of a drawing book is that you can shut it. just through the act of making. Enjoy discovering what your hand and the material can do. you will be surprised and encouraged to see how far you have come. Choose other materials and do the same. As you follow lessons in this book. It is yours. potential ideas still forming. and mistakes are a valuable process of learning.17 FREEING THE HAND If you are just beginning to learn how to draw. Start by choosing a material you like the look of and cover a piece of paper with different marks. Ignore these at first and allow yourself the freedom to play. at a point when you feel you are not making progress. Put them away and look at them later. FREEINGTHEHAND . With no help and advice at all. you will naturally make progress on your own in response to concentration and the decision to look and draw. Drawing is exploratory. try not to grip your pen worrying about the technical terms you might have heard. Pages do not have to lie open for other people to inspect and comment on. even those you dislike. and miscellaneous items of inspiration. diary-like observations. take your time and don't worry if you need to make several attempts to grasp a concept. Such books are personal: the territory of new exploration and experiment. Much will be learned on these test sheets and in your first drawings.

Once there. it will be your creation as you discover your own personal vision. we still only glimpse a corner of the magnitude of this subject and the infinity of what can be achieved. Imagination needs nourishment. caught between action and repose. The chapters of this book present 90 different artists' ways of seeing. However. Note that the drawing classes are allocated to subjects.18 INTRODUCTION THE THINKING EYE Techniques and materials are the grammar and vocabulary of drawing and can be studied and shared. adapting its form and occupation. Look to your own experience and also learn from the work of others. which of course he cannot see. Picasso is poised smiling. I was particularly attracted to their gentle articulation and understated determination. As you draw. ELECTRIC BULL With a penlight. In the total wealth of these pages. when they are more experienced. and became a great subject for me.Their elegant strength seems to summon a lifetime of drawing. 150). threedimensionally. which is held frozen in space by a camera lens. and enfolding new media. staring straight through his image of a bull. The real drawing book has yet to come. Picasso has just finished his drawing. it is this voice that is the subtle part of their art and something that ultimately. seek ideas in the life around you. Picasso Painting with Light at the Madoura Pottery 1949 . To these I have added my own drawings to explain elementary materials and techniques and offer introductory approaches. An artist's personal voice is something that also evolves through lessons learned. but not confined to them. A N ARTIST'S HANDS These are the hands of the artist Phyll Kiggell (see p. and many more reasons for drawing the world. the path is yours. Drawing is a living language that over millennia has grown and changed. Its sensuous and flowing line seems to drift like smoke. This practical journey will take you through the door into the vivid heart of drawing. It rarely flourishes in isolation. comes from within.


Many artists invent ways o f binding their o w n books.b o u n d p a d if y o u w i s h t o keep your drawings together long-term. F o r traveling. Homemade books can be assembled easily from found materials or selections of loose sheet papers.h a n d s t o r e s make unique subjects f o r e x p e r i m e n t s a n d collage.b o u n d b o o k s t h a t fit in y o u r p o c k e t o r bag. Alternatively. F o r e v e n i n g classes. Smooth plywood. cheap corrugated plastic ones fall apart in days. is perfect. b e a w a r e t h a t p a p e r t e x t u r e effects a n d changes t h e i r marks. Calculate a range of useful dimensions and have several cut at once. a l e n g t h o f black elastic t i e d a r o u n d t h e m i d d l e will h o l d the contents together w h e n y o u f o l d in c o l l e c t e d items. Gleaming store purchases vary greatly in format. 2. study the structure of a good portfolio and make your own. T h e hardb o a r d j a c k e t is s t r e t c h e d w i t h canvas beneath t h e p a p e r sleeve. R I N G . cut. 4. Art students often make use of printed books picked up from secondhand stores into which they draw. If you intend to carry your boards for a distance. Purchase a h i g h . C O L O R E D PAPERS: Large a r t supply stores o f t e n sell t h i c k b o o k s full o f c o l o r e d p a p e r s . A high-quality one will last a DRAWING BOOKS Select d r a w i n g b o o k s t o suit y o u r aims. Most contain thin p a p e r and are perfect f o r use w i t h disposable pens. quality. it is better to have them made at a lumber yard or home improvement store. be sure they fit comfortably under your arm. C A N V A S . 6.20 INTRODUCTION Drawing Books and Papers T o BEGIN YOUR EXPLORATION o f d r a w i n g . color. c h o o s e larger f o r m a t s t o give y o u s c o p e f o r e x p e r i m e n t . You simply need two strong boards hinged together well. 2002 Tantalus o r The Future of Man 81/2 x61/4in (215 x 158 mm) ROSE MILLER . and handles to lift the weight of your artworks. which are also sold in an enormous range. Sand the edges to avoid splinters. ties on either side to keep your papers in place. c h o o s e s m a l l e r h a r d . Drawing boards are invaluable.q u a l i t y r i n g .C O V E R E D H A R D B O U N D : Ideal f o r c a r r y i n g a r o u n d . texture. 1. thick enough not to flex. F O U N D B O O K S : O l d p r i n t e d 3 . t h i s is h o w I l e a r n e d . It is also useful to own a portfolio. thickness. There are dozens to choose from. and collage their ideas. H O M E M A D E : I m a d e this b o o k f r o m drawing paper that I folded. N o t e t h e w i d e l y differing c h o i c e o f p a p e r s w i t h w h i c h t h e s e are m a d e . t h e i r jackets w i l l a c t like d r a w i n g b o a r d s a n d p r o t e c t y o u r w o r k . BLACK P O C K E T B O O K S : Hand-sized w i t h ready-made elastic binder and a marker ribbon.b o u n d b o o k w i l l s o o n s h o w y o u h o w it is m a d e . Dissecting a d i s c a r d e d h a r d . They can be very expensive in art stores. c o l o r If planning t o use pencils. and glued t o a s t r i p o f bias binding. a n d r e f e r e n c e b o o k s f o u n d in s e c o n d . a n d crayons.B O U N D PADS: T h e s e are t h e least expensive a n d useful f o r o p e n i n g flat. 5. stitched. and cost. pastels. binding. These are perfect f o r w o r k i n g in novels. y o u n e e d a lifetime. drawing book. catalogs. H o w e v e r r i n g bindings o f t e n break.

TISSUE PAPER: Place sheets between drawing book pages to keep images from printing on each other and use for delicate collage. and white. 18. GLASSINE: Sold as protective wrapping. red. smooth. 12. Use cheap paper for rough ideas and quality paper for work to last See the glossary ( p p . For use with any media. pastel paper in flecked pastel colors with a distinctive ribbed marking. 8. 2 5 6 . 21. or rolls. It is also excellent for drawing with marker pens on layered sheets. METALLIC PAPER: Thin paper in different metallic colors. tough. Use for brushwork drawings. 7. resisting deterioration. bamboo. 100% cotton and sold in sheets.5 9 ) for explanations of rough. They are hand-. 16. 11. yellow. also good for drawing with colored pencils. texture. white textured paper that can take abrasive use of any medium. not. and hot pressed papers. or machine made in sheets. C A R B O N PAPER: Available in dark and light blue. FABRIANO INGRES: Thin. JAPANESE PAPER: Strong. size. 22. and cream sheets or rolls. 20. It is available in white or cream. Cotton papers are high-quality and acid-free. SAUNDERS WATERFORD N O T 300GMS: Mid-quality textured watercolor paper. and cost. Cheap wood-pulp papers are acidic. used to imprint lines of these colors onto a surface. 10. C A N S O N : Inexpensive lightweight pastel paper in many colors. cold. and other plant fibers. blocks. ITALIAN PARCHMENT: Imitation-animal-skin parchment that is translucent and slightly waxy. PAPERS . mold-. printed on one side only. fine. and translucent. FABRIANO ACADEMIA: Standard medium-range multipurpose paper Use with any media. color. T W O RIVERS GREEN 410G MS: Very heavy tinted textured cold-pressed watercolor paper See Two Rivers Yellow. 17. and rolls. absorbency. 13. from pencil to paint 9. AQUARELLE ARCHES 300GMS:The very top quality hot-pressed (smooth) watercolor paper. 15. Use with a brush in clean water Water makes a dark mark like ink and becomes invisible again when dry. MAGIC PAPER: A reusable sheet for testing ideas without creating waste. mulberry. 14. T W O RIVERS Y E L L O W 410GMS: See Two Rivers Green 19. Ph. turning brown and brittle. it is made from rice. FABRIANO R O U G H 600GMS: Very heavy.Papers differ in thickness (weight). blocks. VELIN ARCHES 250GMS: Printmaking paper available in black white.

It will also reflect discomfort if you are in any way cramped. should be able to look comfortably straight ahead at your picture plane. don't sit too close to the paper. arm. body. This photograph illustrates how some people hold a pen to write. strangledlooking drawings. This cramped grip tires your hand and makes small. You do not have to dance to draw. There should be an open. your lines will distort. SPACE TO WORK Cramped grip.22 INTRODUCTION Posture and Grip T o DRAW WELL. Ideally. If your body posture is well balanced and you can move freely. With your hand in this position. Regularly step back 6-9 ft (2-3 m) to check your progress. but wherever possible. your whole relaxed b o d y should be involved. place it on your left. 116-17). you can draw lines freely and achieve a significant arc of movement. Examples are shown here. but you need to understand that the expression of a line or mark originates in the body and flows t h r o u g h the shoulder. Use the side of your little fingernail as a support on the page. your drawing will reflect this. place it on your right. . b u t it should n o t be forgotten that many people make remarkable a n d striking works drawing with their feet or holding their brush or pencil in their mouths. Accelerated perspective also occurs if you look down the surface steeply (see pp. If using an upright easel. Placing your easel o n the w r o n g side folds y o u r b o d y against your drawing arm. place it on the correct side: if right-handed. In this book we will look at parallels between drawing and music. flowing space between your hand. Turning your drawing sideways or upside-own will also help reveal what is wrong. If your hand twists to maneuver between the paper and your body. a n d h a n d to the fingertips. if left-handed. and subject. There are also parallels to dance. make sure you have enough room to back away and view your work. Relaxed fingers: Hold the pencil away from its tip and relax your fingers. a n d look to the left of it at your subject. If seated on a b e n c h easel (a donkey). or with your drawing board angled between your lap and a chair. and look to the right. From a distance you will spot errors you cannot see close up. You cannot draw like this—your hand is locked and your fingers can barely move. you Drawing classes can be cramped places. How you hold your drawing materials is also important.

But be careful not to tense your fingers. roughly marking out a large-scale work. hold your material as you find most comfortable. Large amounts of ink can be applied without fear of uncontrolled running if the paper is flat. Soft media: Short materials such as pastels and charcoal can be accommodated in the palm. alternative way of holding the pencil. or it can spoil your work if not anticipated. arm. upright way of holding the brush near its base is similar to the Japanese way used in Zen calligraphy (see pp. . As long as your fingers. ALL MEDIA There are no rules as to how you should hold your drawing media. Brush calligraphy: This comfortable.232-33). and body are not restricted. GRAVITY Remember that gravity affects the flow of ink and paint. liquid will run down your hand. This can give a new lease on life to your mark-making. Large scale: POSTURE AND GRIP U n f a m i l i a r i t y : T h e habitual movements of our handwriting style will sometimes infringe upon our drawing. depending upon what it is and how large you are working. To stop this. or change to the wrong hand. This can be used to great effect. find an unfamiliar. If you turn a brush or dip pen up into the air to draw above your hand. not up to the paper Brushes can be used on upright paper but dip Anticipating effects: A fully loaded pens need a level surface. Remember you can also draw just by dipping your fingers in pigment—this is how many women draw in rural India.23 This loose "candle" grip is very useful when drawing with your arm extended. brush pressed against an upright surface will cause a dribble of ink to run down your drawing. It is most comfortable when reaching to draw above your head.


and dragons. which are so unlike ours. out are now oxidized and so appear black W h e n less preoccupied with understanding ourselves. mermaids. and learn how to Flying Fish c. 1590 J O H N WHITE capture form and movement from the m a n n e r i s m s of honking geese. the Latin bestiary was one of the most popular picture books—an illustrated dictionary of one hundred parts. For the novice artist. This drawing is made in black lead (metal point) with watercolor Highlights of silver would have gleamed. each dedicated to the moralized tale of an animal or monster The bestiary profoundly influenced the art of its period. JOHN WHITE British artist. offer challenges and delights to draw. After the subject of ourselves.drawe to lief one of each kinde of thing that is strange to us in England. and silent. bats. sleeping dogs. and snakes have between them engendered harpies. W e have drawn them in m a n u s c r i p t s to explain our genesis and to c o u n t their species into Noah's ark." Paranoid newcomers c r a m m e d into swelling industrial cities used handbooks of physiognomy to identify and judge their neighbors. Here (left) we see J o h n White's exquisite record of a flying fish.. dogs.Animals H UMANS HAVE DRAWN ANIMALS from the beginning of our time. and people. Facial features were analyzed in terms of their animal likeness. their different speeds and patterns of action. insects. Together they made maps and documented animals. On the Roanoke voyages of Sir Walter Raleigh. floating turtles. we have employed artists on expeditions. which very likely leaped o n t o the deck of Sir Walter Raleigh's ship Tiger as it sailed north from the Caribbean to Virginia in 1585. animals provide a perfect subject with which to begin. and to bring h o m e drawn documentaries of their finds. we turn and take the features of beasts. and pioneer born c. In 19th-century Europe this became a "science. We have drawn them on the walls of caves to evoke their kinship and power. " Animals perpetually feed our imaginations. to be there at the m o m e n t of discovery. As children we delight in the humanized trials of Tom and Jerry and their c a r t o o n relations. Framed in the z o o or in domestic cohabitation. and we still see escapees from its pages carved and grinning as the gargoyles of churches. birds. m u s e u m .. 1540. In medieval England. cartographer." He worked with the scientist Thomas Harriot. and this very drawing was to endure many copies and plagiarisms after its triumphant return to the English court of Queen Elizabeth I.m o u n t e d skeletons of birds. 11 x91/4in (277 x 234 mm) . werewolves. they are perhaps our favorite pictorial preoccupation. plants. from which personality and predicted behavior were " d e d u c e d . W h e n lost to explain our own emotions. In this chapter we discover the use of pens and ink through the delineation of insects. fish. White's commission was to ". Europeans on board had never seen such a thing. or scampering through the initials and borders of pictures from that time. who described in words what White drew. O v e r the centuries.

it is still consulted by veterinarians today. It was to become the animal's only accepted likeness for 250 years. Contemporary texts related accounts of the beast as the mortal enemy of the elephant and rare relative of the "more common" unicorn. draftsman. a drawing of it arrived in Nuremberg. it continued its journey to Rome. and mathematician. Unsurpassed. they were rejected. DURER'S RHINOCEROS AND STUBBS'S skeletal Durer. Original Ink Drawing of a Rhinoceros 1515 ALBRECHT DURER 103/4 x 161/2 in ( 2 7 4 x 4 2 0 mm) .26 ANIMALS Documentaries horse are superb affirmations of the power of drawing as a recorder and communicator of knowledge. the home of ALBRECHT DURER German Renaissance painter. He studied the image and drew his own interpretation. inspiring countless works of art and so touching people's imaginations that later. filled journals with ideas and observations. He in turn sent the mysterious creature to the Pope via Marseilles at the request of the King of France. Sailing to Rome. Durer's image changed eager hands until it was known across Europe. Stubbs's Anatomy of the Horse achieved similar documentary status. It is such a lifelike triumph of imagination and intelligence that for centuries zoologists never questioned its authority. Carefully stuffed. the ship was lost. Durer traveled widely to study at different European schools of art. Meanwhile. Converted into a print. naturalist. The first live rhinoceros to reach Europe came from India in May 1515. writer. a gift to the Portuguese King. when more accurate portrayals were made without armor and scales. Life-like This is Durer's original quill-and-ink drawing made after an anonymous Portuguese drawing. but the drowned animal washed ashore. printmaker. and wrote four books on proportion. years after its publication.

naturalist.GEORGE STUBBS B r i t i s h e q u i n e a n d s o c i e t y p o r t r a i t painter. L o n d o n . in t h r e e v i e w s — r e a r f r o n t . a n d anatomist. Stubbs w a s o n e o f t h e first E u r o p e a n artists t o m a k e a n a c c u r a t e representation o f the rhinoceros. and therefore invented the lighting that Compare how Stubbs and Durer both invented lighting to portray the reality of their animals. He composed makes each horse appear so real and each plate from his three-dimensional. Dissections were made over a total of 18 months. which has never diminished. c o m p r i s e s 1 8 p l a t e s s h o w i n g d i s s e c t i o n s in l a y e r s f r o m b o n e t h r o u g h m u s c u l a t u r e t o skin. The entire project was developed over ten years. He translated his own drawings into engravings for publication. Dissections Stubbs took his knife and his pencil and physically climbed inside the horse. Anatomy of the Horse. This is one of Stubbs' original finished pencil drawings. knowledge of parts. Stubbs's m o s t c e l e b r a t e d publication. composed from notes and observations. Table of the III of the Horse (rear Skeleton view) mm) 1756-58 1 4 x 7 in ( 3 5 4 x 1 8 0 GEORGE STUBBS . a n d s i d e . dissecting and drawing until he understood the mechanisms of its power and grace. Lighting Stubbs's breathtaking international work won immediate There acclaim. is no other work like it. His painted p o r t r a i t o f t h e b e a s t is in t h e R o y a l C o l l e g e o f S u r g e o n s o f England.

I've ended up mixing in pencil. Apparently drawn in its o w n ink. the ominous beast unwinds from the dark of the sea and of our nightmares. The octopus is formed in layers applied and distressed with a brush. Gericault's sheet a p p e a r s almost s c r a t c h e d b y the f e r o c i o u s play of his cat. drama. snarl. Hugo used graphite powder. and turn. Hugo's page is f l o o d e d w i t h the fearful presence of a remembered octopus. H u g o mixed his media and drew from m e m o r y and imagination to create narrative atmosphere. charcoal. coal dust.28 ANIMALS Presence and Mood THESE DRAWINGS HAVE BEEN CHOSEN to s h o w t w o v e r y different ways of picturing a wild animal. ink and linseed oil on paper.. novelist. His copious drawings are characterized by mixed media. saying ".. Gericault took a sharp p e n c i l to m a k e repeated direct o b s e r v a t i o n s f r o m life. and Pieuvre 1866-69 91/2 x81/8in (242 x 207 mm) VICTOR H U G O .. playwright. linseed oil soaked into the paper has made shadows and repelled the ink to create translucent tentacles. more or less what I have in view. He has w a t c h e d her p o u n c e .. and all sorts of bizarre concoctions which manage to convey above all in mind. drawing her again and again to pin d o w n the texture of her loose skin. and her distinctive temperament. The Hunchback of Notre Layers and shadows Throughout this drawing. sepia. her b o n y frame. Hugo's novels Les Miserables and Dame have become classics of film and stage. soot. By contrast. Surrounding sprays of graphite powder are stuck into washes of oil and ink to suggest glutinous depths. conjured b y the hand of a great author of French literary fiction. her sharp teeth. He wrote to poet and art critic Charles-Pierre Baudelaire about his experiments. A s if disturbed from its gritty b e d by our presence and curiosity. it silently rises to the light. and leader of the French Romantic movement. and a love of accident.". Mixed media Here. VICTOR HUGO Poet.

l i v e d French R o m a n t i c painter and lithographer Largely self-taught. displayed in the Louvre. horses w e r e a favorite subject t o g e t h e r w i t h politics and history. artists reused sheets and them full of studies. undertraces unify and vitalize the composition. of drawings Gericault erased. and it can be applied to any subject (see pp. The Raft of the Medusa.118-119). Tones that do not follow surface contour is very difficult to do well. standing sideways. 124-25 and p. diagonal strokes of his pencil. facing right.29 THEODORE GERICAULT C o n t r o v e r s i a l . fiery. and keep trying again. Beginners are advised to follow the natural contours of form as shown on pp. H e is best k n o w n f o r his gigantic painting. Paris. Before paper became so cheap. s h o r t . Here. Undertraces Beneath these graphite studies we see traces Tones On the top row we see clearly how Gericault laid broad areas of tone using fast. At the center of the page is crammed drawings the outline of a horse. Repeated study This drawing demonstrates of feeling confident repeat different the importance subject Remaining enough to isolate parts of a views. since it can lead to a flattened form. 144. of previous Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 1817-18 121/2 x 151/2 in ( 3 1 9 x 3 9 8 mm) T H E O D O R E GERICAULT . parallel. focused upon seeing will lead to a greater understanding of the subject Much is learned from repeated study.

quivering horse. taking them to guide their hand in bringing form and essence together. noise is everywhere. or proud. the first abstract movement of the 20th century. The ink is used to make sharply defined solid. Faune. His hand must have shuddered and twitched just like the constant actions of this humorous meeting. flapping bird. overwhelmed by a screeching bird. In Picasso's drawing. made only a year apart. Klee's riders are constructed from all the gestures of greeting mules. In these two drawings. we see semi-abstract. flattened animals composed almost entirely of movement. and scrolled lines. the whinnying of a frantic horse. Cheval et Oiseau 1936 173/8 x 211/4 in ( 4 4 0 x 5 4 0 m m ) PABLO PICASSO . His powdery. printmaker ceramicist graphic and stage designer who lived in France. dissolving faun kneels stranded. Picasso cofounded Cubism. hooked. draftsman. These media complement and amplify each other with their brilliant contrast. identify an animal: the fast cheetah. gray. with George Braque (see p90).30 ANIMALS Movement M O V E M E N T IS OFTEN THE CHARACTERISTIC b y w h i c h w e their lines and the power of their beasts. Ink and gouache This drawing is made in black Chinese ink and gouache (opaque watercolor) applied with a brush. slow tortoise. The fact that they never stand still influences the movement in his line. Gouache is brushed softly in translucent hazy layers of cool blue. and waves breaking distantly below. and brown. Artists commonly focus on such actions. Both Picasso and Klee have enclosed their subjects to compress and amplify the speed of PABLO PICASSO A prolific Spanish painter sculptor.

Scene der Komischen of Comical Reiter Riders) (Scene 1935 161/2x111/2in ( 4 1 9 x 2 9 1 mm) M o r t o n G . violinist. He is a u t h o r o f The Thinking Eye (1923)." They chatter around bodies in groups. Layers of marks In this pale Dentil drawing we see layers of' agitated marks that together present a kind of visual "itch. W i t h his drawings Kleeb o u n d sophisticated theories to personal and often witty childlike imagery. Chicago PAUL KLEE . They remain in contact with the surface of the page and scribble back and forth as they maneuver from one area to another. N e u m a n n Family Collection. well-worn copies o f w h i c h are found in m a n y art schools. turning our eye and around inside the and postures of the paper- thin on pictorial space. The entire drawing suggests the endless small movements of horses standing still.PAUL KLEE Swiss painter. and t e a c h e r at t h e Bauhaus school. printmaker. creatures. top all happily of each other in the Endless lines Look closely at how Klee's lines rarely leave the paper and how they are free from the constraint of finite shape. sculptor. draftsman.

fins. and s e c t i o n s o f ships. drawings of animals that are each held tightly in a surprising space: a giant fish wears a ship's hull. seemingly looking for our attention. and from them learned that if he designed his ship with a "cod's head MATTHEW BAKER Master shipwright. and author o f Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (1586). He studied the anatomy of fish. and the carefully observed gills. In contrast to the practical clarity of Baker's thought. and blackbirds fly in formation through a mosaic of text. and scales. mathematician. Below we see his revolutionary design for an Elizabethan warship. The fish It is likely that Baker drew with a quill dipped in irongall ink. Knopf's drawing opposite is the personal enigmatic expression of a mind gripped by illness. The ship The upper decks of the ship appear curved toward us at both ends. In just one drawing he has displayed more angles of his design than we would expect to see from a single viewpoint Fragments English 1586 101/2 x 153/8 in (270 x 390 mm) MATTHEW BAKER of Ancient Shipwrightry . His birds stare. t h e earliest geometrically defined elevations. and steerage. and to assess our next move. later called a galleon. plans. B a k e r initiated t h e scientific p r a c t i c e o f naval a r c h i t e c t u r e and applied h y d r o d y n a m i c s . Baker lived in an era when ships were built without drawn plans. slim stern). the expression of its eye. b a s e d o n his studies o f fish. it would achieve greater speed. Baker did not intend this. It is simply how we read his perspective. balance.32 ANIMALS Icon and Design IN THESE T W O MANUSCRIPTS we discover diagrammatic and mackerel's tail" (full bow. Exquisite details in this drawing include the lips of the fish. which in application gave strength and advantage to the English fighting the Spanish Armada. This drawing illustrates Baker's theory. adding washes of color with a fine brush.

numbered. w h i c h o f t e n f e a t u r e as s y m b o l i c creatures in his drawings. firmly outlined.JOHANN KNOPF An " O u t s i d e r " a r t i s t w h o s u f f e r e d f r o m m e n t a l illness.K n o p f b e l i e v e d h e c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h e language o f birds. written last of all. JOHANN KNOPF . and filled evenly with tone. appears to be stirred like water by the presence of the The Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks UNDATED 133/8 x 115/8 in (340 x 2 9 6 mm) and psychiatrist Hans Prinzhom collected this image. The text. T h e G e r m a n a r t historian Outline and tone The blackbirds illuminating this frantic manuscript are drawn in pencil. circle and the birds. The main group is placed in a circle drawn with a compass.

and hold it under a clean basin until the soot hangs to it. distinguished manufacture. Masters choose brands of long. while metal nibs began as rare gifts in gold and silver before being perfected by the British steel industry. The best are goose or swan. and spatters can be made with an exotic choice of inks. where reeds were gathered. 5 0 0 years ago. QUILLS: These are cut from the barrel of a flight or tail feather. a n d m e t a l p o i n t s . METAL PENS: Inexpensive removable steel nibs are available in a range of widths. In the Far East. That is an ink. from the acacia tree. the recipes for which have been handed down over centuries. F O U N T A I N PENS: These vary in quality and nib width. Dip pens began their history in the Nile River. simultaneously 4 . The bar is then rubbed into water on a slate block to produce ink. which scratch rather than draw. Avoid needle-sharp mapping pens. which range greatly in their handling and character of line. The Egyptians and Chinese are credited with the invention of carbon ink. and first used by the Egyptians. you can have great fun drawing the world around you. 2. Intricate or dramatic lines. light it. PENS . Quills were later cut from feathers.246-47). producing a different line. Only fill with suitable inks. The Chinese used animal or fish glue. and it is still in use today. The paste from either recipe is pressed and dried into a bar for storage. expressive drawing techniques such as the ones we explore in this chapter 1. REED PENS: A broad nib can be cut from bamboo or another tubular grass. A German recipe of 1531 gives a simple description: "Take a wax candle." "Gum" refers to gum arabic extracted Dip pens are essential and inexpensive drawing tools. then pour a little warm gum water into it and temper the two together. ink is traditionally applied with a brush (see pp. s t i c k s . spots. they are associated with rapid. Responsive to slight changes in pressure. 3. Today. 4. The reservoir gives a constant flow of ink for very long unbroken lines and continuous bottle-free use. Each pen has a unique character. They fit into wooden holders. high-quality Chinese and Japanese inks are subtler and more complex than those produced in Europe. Early artists recommended raven and crow for especially fine work.34 ANIMALS Pen and Ink W I T H A HANDFUL OF FEATHERS.

an often misused term. or charcoal. bistre. 8. Non-waterproof Indian inks can be reworked with a wet brush after drying. waterproof or non-waterproof. ACRYLIC / CALLIGRAPHY INKS: Available in black and a range of colors. Excellent for drawing they are bright and non-clogging. they produce a golden dye for drawing. iron-gall. and sepia. Bistre is the more humane use of soot scraped from the fireplace and ground into wine. . It dries with a sheen and clogs uncleaned pens. Inks can be lightfast or non-lightfast. SEPIA A N D BISTRE INKS: Sepia. is the ink of a cuttlefish or squid extracted post-mortem. Now we also have acrylic ranges in many colors. I R O N . Beechwood soot is best. and most can be homemade. boiled. The complexities of traditional iron-gall ink are explained on p. Waterproof types contain shellac. Crushed. C A R B O N INK: Traditionally produced from oil or resin soot (Lamp Black). and are still in use today: carbon (Chinese and Indian). from are not 6. 5. I N D I A N INK: Carbon ink sold today in liquid form. dated. and can be mixed and diluted to create subtler colors and tones.G A L L INK: Abnormal spherical growths caused by parasitic wasps can be collected from some oak trees in fall. charred bone (Ivory Black).35 PEN AND INK Four types of ink were common before the 20th century. suspended in a binder and stored as a solid block Blocks are imported today 7. Old stock turns solid and bottlesChina. reduced. and sieved. They are the easiest inks to use.36. INKS 9. roastedwine sediment (Yeast Black).

keep all your fingers behind basis of iron-gall ink. appears broken to show paper beneath. m o r e e x t e n d e d line than reed and a m o r e organic line t h a n m e t a l . finding reed p e n s unwieldy. giving longer lines. Practice to gain a feel for how materials behave. Although oak galls and walnut skins are harmless. sieved. galls were ground with iron sulfate to make an unstable solution. fleshy skins that surround ripe walnuts. crushed. Running fresh. giving a s h o r t . forming the REED PENS R e e dpens dispense ink quickly. U n d e r heavy pressure. then cut a final nib (feathers. drawn to glisten with a dryer nib. and turned brown with time. d r y mark. of a loaded nib. red-brown. t h e y stick a n d j u d d e r f o r w a r d . r e s e r v e d t h e i r use f o r large c h o i r b o o k s . it was gray-purple. . since t h e D u t c h w e r e t h e first t o realize t h a t they could be hardened and i m p r o v e d w i t h heat t r e a t m e n t in ash o r sand. Oak galls. V a n G o g h . a n d d e v e l o p e d t h e quill instead. Quills are also called D u t c h pens. QUILL PENS Q u i l l s a r e highly r e s p o n s i v e t o c h a n g e s in p r e s s u r e . can also be collected from affected trees. the blade and cut away from you. M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s d r a g o n o n p . The lighter right Quill marks Quills carry more ink than strokes and for as reeds. for example.36 ANIMALS Drawing With Ink To MAKE A QUILL OR REED PEN. Reed marks The darker left wing of this beetle was drawn with the wet inky stroke wing. Some of Michelangelo's drawings are now a little eaten by their own ink. T h e y give a finer. 2 4 4 is an e x q u i s i t e e x a m p l e . Rembrandt. reduced. I u s e d t h e s e qualities t o d r a w t h e w o r m s above. It dried black. are surprisingly tough. a n d M a t i s s e also e n j o y e d t h e m . Walnut ink is gloopy.) You can make ink easily from the boiled. and delicious to draw with. For centuries. Collect skins from the ground beneath trees once they are blackened. and boiled to make a golden ink. Scribes o f t h e M i d d l e Ages. The darkest of this grasshopper wings) were made (around the head first. always be cautious when experimenting with recipes. Paler strokes were made where the mark has the legs and antennae the ink ran out. It also oxidized and ate or burned paper.

they splay to make thick o r double lines. giving a graded. o r being ruined as fountain pens would be under the same pressure.37 METAL PENS Metal pens give long. particles then filled with a droplet of ink. W h e n the nib is pressed upside down. The of pigment to fall to the edges effect of the shape. tonal Ink layers The wings of this beetle were drawn in layers using black and white ink on pale gray paper. Loaded with ink and pressed hard. withstanding great pressure without sticking. sharp. When using dip pens. breaking. marks become fine and needle-sharp. White markings were drawn last Tones Here we see subtle tones of diluted ink beneath the undiluted black rim of a beetle's wing. DRAWING WITH INK Filled outlines Each segment of wing was outlined. . it is important to feel for when the ink will run out and to know how much ink you pick up when dipping the nib. Each layer of of the drying droplet dome the drawing was left to dry before adding more. clean strokes.

test your limits. and boldly plunge into your drawing. Focus on it. draw what the bird is doing. Geese are nosy birds. steel nibs are fine. Try to hold the whole posture in your mind's eye. MATERIALS NEEDED Look for a bird expressing a simple posture. Empathize. not on your drawing. Quick drawing trains you to see what is most important about a subject and to mark only its most essential expression. I covered eleven sheets in sixty quick drawings—in less than an hour." If you don't like a stroke. and a large drawing book or plenty of paper Use masking tape to secure pages against the wind. Take a cup and water for diluting a range of tones. and be brave. make another one. Posture . so pick a spot where other people can keep them entertained. waddle. be bold and press firmly. touch the bottle's rim to drain the excess. Focus on the geese. there is no obligation to prepare a quill. Take no more than ten seconds to draw each one and make lots of drawings. Experiment. Attempt with a loose hand to capture their posture and outline. You cannot break the nib. and quickly draw around it using only three or four strokes. and there is no "wrong. to absorb blots when drawing. Dip your pen in ink. Cover a sheet. That said. Illustrating this exercise on Oxford Port Meadow. Study them before drawing. It teaches confidence and focus through intensive repetition. It happens that goose feathers also provide artists with the best type of quills. Watch their heavy feathered bodies flap. Pack plenty of tissue around a bottle of calligraphy or acrylic ink.38 ANIMALS Capturing Character GEESE ARE EXCELLENT SUBJECTS to draw when practicing the first use of pen and ink. and bellyflop off the waterside. Cover your drawing book pages in speedy responses to the geese and try to capture each bird in as few lines as possible.

Use more lines than before to express these. . CAPTURING CHARACTER Texture Gradually allow yourself more lines to describe the texture of each bird as well as its posture and action. running. draw the feeling of what you see. Again. flapping. and diving. and don't worry about mechanical facts or accuracy. look among the birds for more complicated actions such as shaking off water. Avoid detail unless really tempted by a close-up visit Fluctuate the pressure of your pen in response to how you know the bird would feel if you touched it.39 Action With growing confidence.

34-37). and a tissue for blotting drawn lines that appear too dark. For this class you will need one oblivious dog. and personality. a dip pen and ink of your choice (see pp." . Then dip the nib quickly into a glass of water and drain the excess again. a d o g w h o w a s a l w a y s town. Now it will make a pale line. first dip your pen in ink.40 ANIMALS Sleeping Dogs R A S WAS A GREAT CHARACTER. This will give a medium-gray line. Make a test sheet to discover your control of diluting on the nib. form. and even then he twitched and stretched in dreams. These drawings are not an analysis of his anatomy or breed but the expression of his satisfied comfort in a deep sleep after a night out on the together with a glass of water for diluting tones on the nib. Dip the nib quickly again into water and again drain it. MAKING A PALE LINE To make a pale line. and drain the excess by touching the nib against the rim of the bottle. Sleeping animals present the artist with ideal opportunities to study their texture. engaged in his and everyone else's business. your drawing book. The only time he remained still was when he was sleeping. Ras Curled Up Asleep "Capturing the true character of a cherished companion is best achieved with objective determination rather than sentimental shyness.

First lines are first thoughts. add more detail. I added ink to Ras's nose. Here I marked the features of Ras's head. see how the animal's posture determines its whole shape. Then. and the shadows in his coat. Character is better captured drawing quickly with confidence than w o r k i n g slowly. 2 Reload your pen with ink. alter the pressure and moisture of your line in response to howyouknow your dog feels when you ruffle itscoat.41 DRAWING YOUR DOG Be bold in this exercise. quickly draw what you see. D o not go back over lines you are pleased with—doing so dulls their lively freshness. W i t h pale lies. SLEEPING DOGS 1 Fix your eyes at the center of the dog. ignoring all detail. this time to create a line a little darker in tone. to emphasize how he is curled up. Layers o f thoughts can bring a drawing alive. 3 Gradually introduce darker tones. To add texture. tail. second thoughts may be different Changing your mind is a positive aspect o f seeing and thinking. Here. Remain focused on the whole dog and. Then I immediately rebalanced the drawing with lines around his hind quarters.It is essential when drawing any subject (even something abstract) to know how it feels andtoemulate this with your line. c o n c e r n e d a b o u t detail. . Trust your intuition. in bold layers. ears.

A perfect subject for the beginner. Beyond the glass wall of the aquarium. as if caught in a camera freeze-frame. they stretch and paddle. swinging their limbs and shells with a slow circular movement. turtles often pause unexpectedly. THE ELONGATION AND BUOYANCY of a group of turtles is fascinating .Turtles to observe. offering plenty of time for the artist to draw the pose.


and water. India ink. I darkened lines as each drawing progressed. dry. and sharp. . balance. Beginning with very pale tones. I made repeated studies of the housemartin to discover its mechanism of flight. I sought to capture the form.Dry Birds THESE ARE THE ARTICULATED BONES o f a k i w i a n d a h o u s e - martin drawn in a museum using a steel pen. weightlessness of the kiwi. With speed.



Rich owners of private gardens commissioned large-format florilegiums commissioned the volume to document his private garden to immortalize their personal taste and power of acquisition. Plants seventeenth century. Chapters are arranged by out. robust. shape. to the proliferation of floral designs with which we have dressed ourselves and furnished our homes for centuries. Early European illustrators were trapped within dogma that was determined by ancient scholarship. season. and beauty. and to ornament our lives. In this chapter. form. The revolution came in the 1530s. Later. Botanical illustration is a precisely defined and scientific art. and the drawn pages ofthesame name. nurture. Patrons funded the breeding of decorative. and hybridize them for our sustenance and pleasure. PriceBishopof Eichstatt specimens. Botanic gardens were established and expanded. where a number of uncredited artistsd r e wthem for Besler. on which our lives depend. and the Acanthus spinosus constant but exhilarating struggle to make a living image feel right. infinitely vivid. We draw them to celebrate their beauty and range. we now have laid before us fourto show how well their colours complement each other infinite wealth of material to explore.Plants and Gardens W E SHARE THIS PLANET with the more ancient.Morethan 1. Conrad von Gemmingen. to catalog our knowledge. B A S I L I U SBESLER when botanists founded new work upon the direct study of plants. Fledgling years Botanist and apothecary who compiled the Hortus Eystettensis of scientific research bore manifold explosions of knowledge in a fever of discovery. as opposed to only herbal.000 species of plants are depicted life-size drawn. color. Classifications were set in367copperengravings. He sent boxes of plants to Nuremburgburned with the urgency and excitement of explaining every plant's form. It was published plain in 1611 and withhand-paintedplates in poured off ships returning from the New World and were eagerly collected and 1613. and focus. 1613 187/8x153/4in(480 x 400 mm) BASILIUS BESLER . Both embrace the anticipation of evolving shape. After Here Aconthus spinosus is combined with forget-me-nots and-a-half centuries of intensive observation. Medieval knowledge was not gained by the first-hand observation of life but by reading. the microscope was refined to unfold yet another world. an There are close parallels between the acts of gardening and drawing. and diverse kingdom of plants. manipulations of light and shade. We collect. From its history there is one overriding lesson to be learned: the importance of looking and seeing with our own eyes. Plants are the principal inspiration of the decorative arts—from Roman Corinthian columns crowned with carved leaves of the acanthus. and texture. the punctuation of space with structure and mass. we see very different cultural visions of plants and gardens and use pencils and plants to learn the pictorial values of space. —-the largest and most influential botanical book of the early Natural scientists accompanied explorers to document unknown finds.

Each plant must b e clearly distinguished from its closest relative. leaves. s u c h as w e see here in Bauer's Protea nitida. o p t i m i s m . and seeds conventionally a p p e a r o n o n e plate. The King was then establishing the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. fruit. T h e rest of u s are free to d r a w as w e w i s h . He has made the spatial and physical relationships in this drawing all the more real by placing a single. stems. flowers. measured drawings. B e h i n d detailed. naturalist explorer and advisor to King George III invited Bauer to London in 1 7 9 0 . Here. delicate. o p e n i n g a n d c l o s i n g i n the w a r m t h a n d light of the studio. They are counted among the most accomplished 18th-century botanical artists. subtle union of beauty.48 PLANTS AND GARDENS THE SCIENTIFIC VALUE OF A BOTANICAL DRAWING lies i n its Botanical Studies were specimens that often refused to stay still. Stella Ross-Craig said of the need to d r a w from a dried herbarium plant "I could make it live again. insect-ravaged. Botanical art c o n c e a l s the challenge of its m a k i n g . and Franz Bauer and his brother Ferdinand were employed there to draw specimens. M a c k i n t o s h e x p r e s s e s the f o l d e d petals of a broken rose b u d so delicately w e can sense the perfume. It is likely Bauer would have studied these under a microscope." Her slipper orchid s h o w s that botanical drawing must often resolve the challenge of its subject's p r o d u c i n g parts in different seasons — r o o t s . Outline Bauer prepared a pencil outline before laying in fleshy succulent hues and tones of watercolor. detail. Light in this drawing is given by the paleness of the paper showing between washes of darker tones. Sir Joseph Banks. and meticulous precision. W i t h bright F R A N Z BAUER An Austrian artist who trained at the Schonbrunn Imperial Gardens in Vienna. and wilted. Dissections Across the lower part of this drawing we can see dissections of seed pods and petals. petal tip over a lower leaf Protea nitida 201/4 x141/4in (513 x 362 mm) FRANZ BAUER 1796 . or that were diseased.

S h e also o f thousands o f contributed an drawings. K e w .g a r d e in G e r m a n y a n d A u s t r i a . p u b l i s h e d 1 9 4 8 . A s m a n y of her drawings are kept G a r d e n s . and follow shadow. as at trained botanical artist Ross-Craig Swift lines The drawing was planned in pencil and then overworked with a lithographic pen. imagination. 1970 x 81/4 in ( 3 2 5 x 2 1 0 m m ) STELLA ROSS-CRAIG . Closer to fiction can come together perfectly.000 Kew to archive accessible t o d a y v i a t h e I n t e r n e t of o n British flora. Pencil lines cling to. and speed depends upon the immediate perception of the essential characteristics of the plant. is r e c o g n i z e d as tne m o s t c o m p l e t e a n d i m p o r t a n t work 3. and perfect coordination of hand and eye. a m o n g o t h e r s . H e r Drawings of British Plants. Curtis's Botanical Magazine.." This line drawing is one of 1. Ross-Craig said of her work "Plants that wither rapidly present a very difficult problem to which there is only one answer—speed.49 C H A R L E S RENNIE MACKINTOSH Scottish a r c h i t e c t d e s i g n e r painter. and observation the nuance and contour of every in one image. found among Mackintosh's than reality. and it shows how design. sensual pencil drawing is later works. a n d he inspired.7 3 in 3 1 p a r t s . L o n d o n in 1 9 2 9 . G u s t a v K l i m t In his r e t i r e m e n t Mackintosh m a d e n u m e r o u s inventive pencil a n d w a t e r c o l o r d r a w i n g s o f plants. a n d f o u n d e r o f t h e G l a s g o w S c h o o l o f A r t M a c k i n t o s h ' s flair h a d an e n o r m o u s i n f l u e n c e o n t h e a v a n t . Rose 1894 103/4 x 83/4 in ( 2 7 5 x 2 2 1 mm) CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH STELLA ROSS-CRAIG A j o i n e d t h e staff a t t h e R o y a l B o t a n i c G a r d e n s . it is small and discreet. Line Drawing of Cypripedium calceolus L c.286 studies for her book Drawings of British Plants.. BOTANICAL STUDIES Lines and shadows This lush.

which he personally created near Kabul. Bishndas was probably responsible for the overall design. anticipating their view. Babur directs his gardeners in the design and planting of this quartered chahar bagh. Every fiber of AMONG DRAWINGS FROM BISHNDAS A N D N A N H A Little is known of these Mughal painters who were related as uncle and nephew and commissioned to illustrate the pages of Babur's journal. painting. uniform focus. urgent attentive human activity. and attention to detail are all shared with medieval European manuscript drawings. and calligraphy are brought together to hold the sacred names of prophets and the 99 beautiful names of God.50 PLANTS AND GARDENS Jeweled Gardens the Middle East we find exquisite stylization of form and upright formality in pictorial space. is remembered in the pages of his journal. They used a fine brush to lay pigment over a line drawing. a notable portrait painter drew the faces. The white of the page shines through the brilliant color. in miniature. Afghanistan. Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity c. Below. paper is brimming with the beauty and celebration of nature. roses took their form in a bead of perspiration on the brow of Mohammed as he passed through his heavenly journey. and Nanha. Drawing. Opposite is the Rose of Mohammed. 1590 85/8 x55/8in (219 x 1 4 4 mm) BISHNDAS AND NANHA Bright pigment These pages were illuminated by Mughal artists in the late 16th century. Envoys chatter outside the gate. Upright shallow perspectives. the sumptuous petals permeated with prayer and wisdom. and miraculous growth. fluctuations in scale. in the early 16th century. . The first Mughal Emperor Babur's Garden of Fidelity (Bagh-e Vaja). By Muslim tradition.

fragmenting its detail in a whisper of prayers.c e n t u r y Turkish manuscnpt a book of religious e t h i c s w r i t t e n in the O r i e n t a l C o l l e c t i o n s of Berlin. The physical anatomy of the rosebud has been studied and translated into a repeated stylized motif. The Rose of Mohammed 1708 9 1 / 2 x 61/2 in ( 2 4 0 x 1 6 5 mm) FROM THE TURKISH M A N U S C R I P T AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH . Sacred words The central rose is more solid than any other on the page.AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH This is a detail o f a page from a n 1 8 t h . Stylized motif A fine brush has been used throughout this drawing to apply inks and watercolors. However. G e r m a n y . It is n o w k e p t in Border The elegant border of this drawing was mode with a pen and ruler It cleverly compresses and defines the composition. so that overlapping petals and stems give an impression of fulfillment and abundance. t h e Staatsbibliothek zu Arabic. and how the shape has been repeated freehand. Note how each bud is essentially the same shape. look closely and you will see words written in gold fluttering over the form of the flower.



Fast Trees
IN CONTRAST TO THE QUIET, formal detail of other drawings in this chapter, these powerful fast trees enact the actions of plants. Each tree reaches out and holds its landscape with dynamism and pulse. In both drawings we find testament to the inexorable energy of growth. Rembrandt expresses a delicate quickness. Gentle lines draw a warm breeze through this remote wooded garden. Rustling in a loose foliage of soft marks, his pen evokes the weight of abundant activity on this late summer's day. Mondrian's arch of scratching branches is drawn with such force it will always be alive. We can still feel his hand storming across the paper. Set within a frame of smudged landscape, the tree possesses a musical agitation. This characteristic will increase in the artist's later abstract work. Here, we see a punctuated ordering of space. Sharp branches cut out negative shapes of winter sky.

R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter; etcher; and draftsman. Rembrandt's prolific output comprises oil paintings of historical and religious subjects together with group and self- portraits. His emotive etchings and pen and ink drawings (see also p. 174) are great resources for artists learning to understand the potential of these media.


Pen and ink lines describing foliage also tell

us the directions of sunlight and wind. An arc crossing the bottom of the drawing from one side to the other supports the scene and separates us from the landscape beyond. Compare Rembrandt's arc to that of Mondrian's. and note the similar treatment of low horizons in both works emphasizing the height and dominance of trees.

Cottage Among Trees 1648-50 63/4 x121/8in ( I 7 I x 308 mm) R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN





Atmosphere Here we see how shapes of negative space are as important as the physical subject they enclose (see pp.58-59). Mondrian has again lightly dragged his chalk on its side to evoke a wet depth of atmosphere. These passive gray marks contrast with the assertive tension of the tree.

Dutch Pure abstract painter preoccupied w i t h line and plane relationships. W i t h increasing austerity, Mondrian banished t h e subject from his drawings, in his later w o r k he also banished space, composing visual h a r m o n i e s using only straight lines a n d flat planes o f black, w h i t e , gray, o r p r i m a r y color.

Winter ground Short vertical marks along thebottomof this drawing reveal the length oftheblackchalk Mondrian used. Rubbed onitsside,itroughly blocks in the ground. Thecrudeeconomy of line is all we need tofeelthecold, wet, unwelcoming quality ofthiswinterearth.

Branches and trunk Lines shaping the branches of the tree are built up in layers. To make the trunk more dense, the artist has rubbed and smudged preliminary marks with his fingers before firmly overdrawing with new lines. Solid black lines are achieved by pressing the chalk hard. When used lightly, it shows the texture of the paper. Tree: Study for the Grey 1911 23 x 335/8 in ( 5 8 4 x 8 5 5 m m ) Tree




Graphite and Erasers

This drawing illustrates a range of achieved with graphite pencils of different grades.


Modern pencils are graded from 9H (hard and pale) to 9B (black and soft). Graphiteclay sticks are also available, together with a powder form. All possess a natural sheen and are erasable to a varying degree. Graphite drawings smudge easily, so fixative, a form of varnish, can be used to hold a drawn surface in place. It is applied as a fine mist from an aerosol can, or from a bottle using a diffuser. For the beginner, ordinary hairspray is an effective and cheaper alternative.

(to write), is a soft and brittle carbon. It was first mined in Cumbria, England, in 1 5 6 4 , and was initially used in small, pure pieces bound in lengths of string. Pencils as we know them—with their slender wood casing and "lead" of graphite—were invented in France in 1794 by Nicolas-Jaques Conte. He discovered that milled graphite mixed with clay and water, press-molded, and baked to a high temperature produces a harder and paler medium than graphite alone.

3B pencil A range of mark and textures can be achieved with a 3B pencil when you vary its pressure, speed, and direction, as this detail shows.

Here is a selection of 14 items to illustrate a basic range of pencils, graphite sticks, sharpeners, erasers, and fixative.
1. AND 2. HB AND 3B PENCILS: It is unnecessary to possess every grade of pencil. HB, the central and most common grade, is perfect for making delicate lines. 3B gives a blacker tone. A great variety of effects can be achieved with just these two. 3. WATER-SOLUBLE PENCIL Effective for atmospheric drawing, but be aware of how watery tones can dull the impact of the line. 4. AND 5. MECHANICAL PENCIL Thick or fine leads are made in a range of grades. They are particularly useful because they do not require a sharpener 6. ROUND SOLID GRAPHITE PENCIL: Excellent for large-scale drawing, producing thick bold lines. A range of grades can be honed with a craft knife or sharpener 7. THICK GRAPHITE STICK: For large-scale drawing. Graded soft, medium, and hard. It crushes to produce graphite powder 8. SQUARE GRAPHITE STICK: Useful for making broad, sweeping marks in large-scale drawing. If worn and rounded, the stick can be snapped into pieces to regain the sharp, square end. 9. CRAFT KNIFE AND BLADES: Handles are sold in two sizes to fit large or small blades, and blades are sold in a range of shapes. Perfect for sharpening pencils to a long point, to cut lines in paper or to remove areas. 10. PENCIL SHARPENER: Makes a uniform point. Keep one in your pocket for drawing outside the studio, together with an envelope for shavings.

HB and 5B Layers of tone have been built up withHBand5Bpencils. Softer pencils require less pressure to make a mark, revealing the texture of the paper surface. It is important to keep the point of the pencil sharp with either a craft knife or a sharpener.


Erasers can be used t o blend and s o f t e n lines, o r t o r e m o v e altogether. Fixative them prevents


s m u d g i n g a n d s e c u r e s lines.

Using fixative You can use fixative while drawing to hold the definition of lines you wish to gently fade but not remove entirely, for which you would use an eraser.

11. P L A S T I C E R A S E R : Avoid cheap colored erasers that may stain drawings with grease and dye. White brands are available in soft and hard versions.



W a r m it in your hand before use. It is excellent for removing powdery materials, and for making crisp sweeps of light across a delicate pencil drawing

13. D I F F U S E R : Helleborus corsicus (Corsican hellebore) fixative, or to spray mists of ink.



Cropping and Composition
M A N Y STUDENTS WILL START a d r a w i n g i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e

that its skin nearly touches the boundary. The meaning of the same drawing changes simply by its relationship to the space it occupies. The size of any subject, its placement on the page, the size of the page, and its overall proportion are all discrete and essential aspects of successful picture-making. Before you begin to draw, think carefully about where to place your subject. Are you are happy with your paper? If not, change it; add more, take some away, or turn it around. Do not just accept what you are given, adapt it to what you need.

paper. Focused on the shape and detail of their subject, they remain happily unaware that there is, or should be, any relationship between what they are drawing and the surface they are drawing it on. The paper is only paper, and the troublesome subject floats somewhere in the expanse of it. However, a single fig drawn in the middle of a large, empty square of paper gives quite a different impression from the same fig drawn on such an intimately small square


A Single Fig

"The size, shape, and orientation of the paper are so integral to the composition that they determine the impact and meaning of the drawing."

as also shown here. its illumination. and therefore apparently suspended from. When subjects touch two or more edges. Here the left fig is attached to. t h e n m o v e t h e c a r d t o e x p l o r e different views. spaces between things are as important as the things themselves. Space as the subject Inallpictures. they establish a tension and unity with the paper. running corner t o corner. bottom-left t o top-right. The angle of the fruit together with dark shadow (top left) and bright light(bottom right) suggest a diagonal division across the whole drawing. its stem and shadow framing a white center. Touching the edge When the subject o f a drawing touches one edge of the paper it attaches t o it visually. and lines describing shadows cast by the fruit .57 THE VIEWFINDER T h e s e pencil drawings o f figs d e m o n s t r a t e different crops and compositions. A card with a small rectangle cut out o f it makes a useful viewfinder C l o s e o n e e y e t o look through the hole. U s e it as a starting point. This drawing hasbeencropped to emphasize space between thefruit. a device to help you decide what t o draw. CROPPING AND COMPOSITION Off-center and diagonal Here I held my viewfinder so the fig appeared upper-left in the space.O u r focus is on the white cloth supporting the figs. the uppermost edge of the drawing.

and a fresh page in your drawing book. an eraser. unified. a sharp H B pencil. Remember that plants do move! Therefore it is best to complete your drawing in one sitting if possible. you will need a similar large-leaved plant. dynamic. erasing and adjusting lines until itlooked right. WHERE TO START Arrange your plant and paper so you can look back and forth by barely moving your head. Follow these from left to right and see how I began with one complete shape between two parts of a leaf. and engaging. position. shapes of air cut out and defined by the physicality of our environment? When we look into the branches of a tree. this ensures a consistent view. fourth.58 PLANTS AND GARDENS Negative Space UNCONSCIOUSLY WE ASSESS spatial relationships all the time to guide ourselves through the world. but if the artist does. Looking at negative space overrides the problem of drawing what you know. It is an astonishingly simple device that many artists use and I strongly recommend. which is shown in the three steps below. do we see myriad distinct and unique shapes of daylight or do we just see branches? Why as artists should we look at the air? Every space in a picture has a shape. It helps to start at the center and map outward. In your own version. and so on. The drawing opposite is of the uppermost leaves of a potted fig tree. then added a second shape. Viewers appreciating a finished image may not see shapes of space. Draw a complete shape Map outward from the center Erase and adjust lines until correct . In following this class. Unfamiliar shapes of negative space reveal the real shape of a positive subject. rather than what you see in front of you. and a role to play. their subject and composition will become more real.The box opposite isolates an area. not leaves. remember to draw only space. third. But how often do we look at the air between things. tone. a foundation stone in picture-making. Negative space is the simple key to getting positive shape right.


Here I drew only spaces, adding one to another until the leaves were revealed. Besides looking at negative space, there are two other useful things to do when a drawing feels wrong but you cannot see why: look at it in a mirror or turn it upside down. errors and suggest changes.

Spaces between leaves

Either view will


Fig Tree
WALKING IN THE ALPUJARRAS in A n d a l u c i a ,

Spain, I drew a bare fig tree clinging to the wall of an almond grove; a perfect subject for seeing negative space. I marked its essential frame of large branches first, frequently erasing lines and changing my mind until the balance felt right.

S a l v i a , RIBES, CLEMATIS, Allium, Passiflora, and Acanthus

Summer Flowers


drawn with an H pencil by observing the

negative spaces between the stems, petals, and leaves. I arranged the flowers on a sheet of paper in a cool r o o m and rapidly sketched a composition. Then I put them in water, taking the stems out one at a time to draw.


they emulate our experience of seeing. We never see everything at once. 62-63). gathering less distinct information on the way. our eyes travel and adjust from one point of focus to another. interfolding points of detail with areas of loose suggestion. Excessive detail leaves no space for the eye to rest or imagination to wander. Compare changes of pace and focus here to the flatter finish of Summer Flowers (see pp. .Acanthus Spinosus As we LOOK AROUND. If an artist changes the pace of their line and focus of their attention.


architects. which can be clearly seen in ancient Greek architecture. Since the first flowering of Modernism in the early 20th century. they have the Golden Section. architects and designers can imaginatively "climb inside" three-dimensional space and. Baltard designed the Church of St. Linear perspective is a marvelous device. Paris 1871-74 the child's view to the infinity of the vanishing point. and sound. Computer programs allow the virtual drawing of ideas. and in the 19th century it was given the name the Golden Section. time. to help them create new form. film-set design. coupled with the importance of exercizing your imagination. and computer game imaging. was preserved into the Renaissance where it became a foundation stone for thinking and creativity From 15thcentury Italy. the formula for perfection spread through Europe. the device that has since governed most of our picture-making (sec pp. and from West Facade of the Church of St Augustin. philosophers. fine artists. Architects have been fine-tuning their specialized branch of drawing for centuries. invaluable to understand and apply when you choose. and architects of ancient Greece who first pursued the formula for "divine proportion. VICTOR BALTARD French architect employed by the city of Paris. which was the first church in the capital to be built entirely of metal and then clad in stone. At the core of their practice. they also have a diagrammatic language for communicating plans to builders." reflecting the eye's love of unity in difference. It was the mathematicians. filmmakers. Besides sketches of first thoughts and polished drawings of the finished look for clients. Since Picasso and Braque's revolution of Cubism in around 1907. balance. add and subtract ideas. Perhaps in the sheer planes of some of our greatest modern buildings it is finding its clearest expression. drawing plans around themselves within a program as opposed to on a flat sheet of paper. mass. Augustin. from political commentary to musical abstraction. to 20th-century film fantasy. once there. composers. It is the focus of practical class in this chapter. This harmony. of the west facade of St Augustin.This is a pencil drawing. 74-75). Yet the pursuit of divine proportion and harmony remains. Among the drawings of this chapter we look from 17th-century ecclesiastical calm. space. each VICTOR BALTARD . made by the architect himself. we find the most recent steps in the evolution of graphic language.The church is still in use today. designers. It was also during the Renaissance that the architect Brunelleschi invented linear perspective. European conventions of pictorial perspective have lost their monopoly on seeing.Architecture I N THE CONTEMPORARY PRACTICES of architecture. with gray and brown watercolor wash. Through the animation of the screen. and writers have been breaking away from traditional forms of representation to seek new expressions of shape.

Below it. and the shapes of interior domes and apses. materials. Three aspects This subtle and sophisticated drawing made in pen and wash displays three distinct aspects of Hawksmoor's baptistry. describe a finished look to a client. pilasters. Cut-away interior On the right a section cut through the center of the building reveals material thicknesses. Together they explain how interior structure and space define exterior form and shape. and Castle Howard. he also worked on St Paul's Cathedral. 1711-12 NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR . densely layered lines in mists of color weave the presence of the expected building into shape. evoke presence. a three-dimensional drawing made with wires and weights. Lines define structure while washes suggest light and atmosphere. Drawings underpin every great human-made structure like hidden linear ghosts at their core. testing gravity to calculate the inverted shapes of domes. marks the end of a long journey from the first few marks the architect made on a sheet of paper. and six London churches. and an inscribed entablature. embodying a massive investment of ideas. and labor. Architects draw for many reasons: to visualize ideas. and ultimately to show builders what to do. Hawksmoor's drawing is both a plan and an evocation. calculate function. Gaudi's fluid architecture grew up through many kinds of drawing. and later an assistant to Vanbrugh. Finished surface On the left the finished surface of the building is given depth and emphasis by immaculate vertical and horizontal brush strokes of shadow. Hampton Court Palace. structure.68 ARCHITECTURE Master Builders EVERY NEW BUILDING. NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR One of Britain's "three great" Baroque architects (along with Sir Christopher Wren and Sir John Vanbrugh). The photograph opposite shows his studio hung with metal pendulums. Blenheim Palace. Oxford. St Paul's Baptistry c. We see the modeled detail of Corinthian columns. Hawksmoor established his reputation with university and church architecture including All Souls College. relative levels. and balance. Pillars and floor At the base of the drawing a compass-drawn plan tilted downward through 90 degrees illustrates the arrangement of pillars around a central circular floor. A student of Wren's.

Wire and watercolor three-dimensional preferred to calculate Above is a drawing form in the made withlinkedwires and weights. 1900 ANTONIO GAUDI ANTONIO GAUDI Visionary Catalan architect. Gaudi air than on paper. and his love of music. This sculptural drawingenvisionsthe finished crypt glowingandethereal as if caught in thelightof red morning sun. The Art Nouveau movement. unique organic manipulation of high shapes. and apartment homes are distinguished by their Their and Flowering curves of stone or concrete are often encrusted with Gaudi was inspired by medieval and oriental art. embellishment. Guell Crypt of its at the Time Construction c. light. Gaudi's cathedral in Barcelona.69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt c. 1910 24x181/4( 6 1 0 x 4 7 5mm) A N T O N I O GAUDI . To the right isawatercolordrawing thought to havebeenmade over a photograph ofthemodelabove. churches.

corridors. upright pictorial space. such a rapport in both of these drawings. Libeskind begins quietly in the upper space of his drawing. Libeskind studied music before transferring to architecture. theater sets. Visual rhythms In the lower half of this drawing architectural language has broken loose: escaped and transformed into an image of rebellious pleasure. The architect and musician Daniel Libeskind has drawn a stampeding cacophany of airborne architectural detail.70 ARCHITECTURE The Order of Sound B O T H OF THESE VISIONARY DRAWINGS o c c u p y a s l e n d e r . while the composer Erik Satie has made an enclosure of quiet order and grace. and arched dotted lines depict the radius of doors. Contemporary musicians commonly collaborate with artists by interpreting images as sound. There has always DANIEL LIBESKIND A Polish American architect of international acclaim. flat boards. Floor space appears divided by discernible walls. before cascading into a riot of line and sound below. We can see. We can imagine how a musician might interpret this drawing by looking at the abstract visual rhythms of masses composed of long straight poles. and the spaces between his windows and turrets are the visual equivalent of pauses in h i s m u s i c c o m p o s i t i o n s for p i a n o (see also Bussotti.223). Libeskind's numerous commissions include concert halls and museums. He also contributed to plans for the rebuilding of the World Trade Center site in New York. short curved poles. Satie draws quietly throughout. He also produces urban and landscape designs. Across the top and center right of the image w e perceive an almost recognizable architectural plan. and rooms. installations. been a natural affinity between the visual rhythms of pictures and the audible rhythms of music. Arctic Flowers 1980 DANIEL LIBESKIND . p. and exhibitions of his drawings. a refillable pen that feeds a constant supply of ink through a fine tubular nib. Floor plan This drawing has been made with a rapidograph. and in a sense hear. and dotted lines. Both men used rulers and pens to carefully and slowly construct their compositions.

H e p e r f o r m e d in cabarets. theater. They definespaceand pictorial balance. Satie collaborated w i t h hisfriends J e a n C o c t e a u a n d P i c a s s o . o f which he was the sole m e m b e r Parcel paper Satie has drawn this fantasy hotel using a ruler. Compare the even and and the shape wall to the elegantly stylized order of the many windows of arrangement of details and the shape of the wall in Babur's Garden of Fidelity on p. dressed eccentrically.56—57 we discussed important the shape.ERIK SATIE F r e n c h pianist and c o m p o s e r for t h e piano. a n d ballet.50. effectively additional lines in a work. a conventional dip or fountain pen.Edges are how are of orientation.H i s witty. Onpp. andfouredges of the paper tothecompositionand impact animage. Hotel de la Suzonnieres c.narrowshape of its paper. the perimeter Composition Look how well this drawingfitsand resonates with the upright. minimalist s c o r e s scandalized a u d i e n c e s with o r c h e s t r a t i o n s f o r t h e foghorn and typewriter. 1 8 9 3 77/8 x 51/2 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 4 0 mm) ERIK SATIE . and ink on a fragment folded brown paper—a of everyday happened material of scrap that to be at hand. and founded his o w n church. lived a l o n e . Eastern influence The upright image Eastern is reminiscent and medieval of Middle pictorial space and subject of this European drawing.

and the reverse is true on the right. and taught at t h e A c a d e m i e d'Architecture. enter the long-shadowed architecture of imaginary worlds. Within it. Among preparations for Fritz Langs film Metropolis. This shift makes the cenotaph appear three-dimensional. the ominous globe exists only as a series of drawings. Boullee's monolithic apparition was drawn as a monument to Sir Isaac Newton. Art director Erich Kettlehut's vertiginous design for the city of a slavelike populace had a future influence on movies such as Blade Runner. painter. cylinders. Newton's Cenotaph 1784 153/4 x 25 in ( 4 0 2 x 635 m m ) ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE . This is the work of an architectural theoretician. We glide over exquisitely drawn wastelands of damage and abandonment. ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE French architectural theorist. experiencing a fascinating conflict between curiosity and desolation.72 ARCHITECTURE T H E S E T H R E E HIGHLY DETAILED DRAWINGS Future Fictions invite us to soaring above normal life.The lower-left section of the building appears relatively pale against a darker sky. antlike mortals might have speculated upon the universe.96. made in 1926. Light illusions This pen-and-wash drawing shows a subtle application of the principles of illumination demonstrated with an egg on p. arched vaults. and dramatic lighting. and draftsman. spheres. His celebrated imaginary buildings are characterized by pyramids. Boullee lived in Paris. we find other Utopian visions Paul Nobles epic drawing summons an imperfect and disturbing township where ruin and activity are equal and strange.

and morality o f an invented place called His satires exhibited w o r l d w i d e . architecture. and white ink on brown-gray paper. Nobson Central 9 ft 1 0 in x 1 3 f t 2 in (3 x 4 m ) PAUL N O B L E 1998-99 .73 ERICH KETTLEHUT Influential film a r t director. Working on toned paper such as this gives an artist greater scope for dramatic lighting effects than if they work on white paper. together with c i n e m a t o g r a p h e r Karl Freund. and m o d e l . mythology. FUTURE FICTIONS Brush and ink This is a dramatic drawing from a film that shaped the history of world cinema.m a k e r In t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f Metropolis. Its sheerscaleengulfs the viewer and demands based time and patience to on letters and in some beread. Nobson political visions of humanity Newtown. gray. and are Graphite shapes Nobson Central isoneof a series of very large graphite drawings of the spoil and detritus of Nobson Newtown. Kettlehut and his c o . Kettlehut drew using a fine and relatively dry brush dipped in black. used forced perspective camera t e c h n i q u e s t o amplify t h e m a g n i t u d e o f buildings in relation t o human characters.Building shapes are works can be read as text. draftsman. intensely detailed graphite drawings explaining and questioning t h e geography. Fritz Lang's Metropolis c.a r t director O t t o Hunte. 1926 ERICH KETTLEHUT PAUL N O B L E British c o n t e m p o r a r y artist who creates m o n u m e n t a l .

but is most easily seen and understood in pictures of buildings and interiors. Pull the thread taut and rotate it slowly above the drawing. and age eight. and inventions— essential reading for inquiring minds. Invented by Italian artist and architect Brunelleschi in 1413 (late in the history of art). Sometimes shared with Naive artists. observations. In his notebooks. We use it to structure illusions of depth. Leonardo recorded constant streams of ideas. this perspective is often an imagined bird's-eye view in which details are mapped according to logic and importance rather than how they might appear in real life. Note how architectural features conform to lines and how human figures diminish in size toward thevanishingpoint. It is also distinguished from aerial perspective (see pp. See how the thread corresponds to each converging line. I contribute the child's perspective. Study of Perspective Adoration of the for the Magi 1481 61/2 x111/2in (165 x 290 mm) LEONARDO DA VINCI . inventors. Here Leonardo provides a superb example of a single vanishing point. Single-point perspective Tie a thread to a pin. and those of Naive artists and children. 206-07). LEONARDO DA VINCI One of the greatest artists. scientists. Press the pin into Leonardo's vanishing point. linear perspective is distinct from more ancient systems practiced in the East. All forms of perspective are of equal value. found at the center of all converging lines. Piranesi an example of two.74 ARCHITECTURE Pathways of Sight LINEAR PERSPECTIVE (also called vanishing-point perspective) is a simple device for calculating the relative size of things in pictorial space. and thinkers ever to have lived. It can be applied to any subject.

This drawing Young children typically maps ignore on and understanding of the nearby village. . New Forest. visionary and practical understanding of ancient Rome. Two-point perspective Sunlight through this colonnade a great example of two-point perspective. and theoretical writing strongly influenced neoclassicism. a points in logical narrative of memories. and designer Piranesi's prolific architectural drawings. England 1980 9 x 16 in (228 x 405 mm) S A R A H SIMBLET GIOVANNI BATTISTA PIRANESI Italian artist. 1740 5 1 / 2 x 83/8 in (141 x 212 mm) G I O V A N N I B A T T I S T A PIRANESI points are located on either side of the drawing. Children are uninhibited and problems with one element being obscured by another rarely arise. at the top of each lateral column base. Mark these points with your pin and follow the converging lines of the drawing by rotating your thread. Scale Our farmhouse my experience was in the woods. issues of scale when making room for important their story. including all they recall about the subject. which I saw from home every day. architect. Note the rather large rabbits and pheasants the hills. Breamore Village.SARAH SIMBLET I made this drawing (at age 8) in response to a local bookstore's request for children to draw their village. Lightly marked illuminates vanishing Two Courtyards c. It shows how children usually map large scenes in flat layers one above the other.

In contrast. using a sharp HB pencil and ruler. imagine. Surround the vanishing point with a small rectangle. (See p. Study these pages first before embarking on this lesson. Next.98 for an important note on oscillation. Leonardo began with a grid of many lines within which he invented his scene. try composing your own space. This is where we will begin.76 ARCHITECTURE Single-Point Perspective MASTERING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE i s e a s i e r t h a n y o u m a y First read through. Extend each dotted line to the edge of your drawing. then follow the ten steps below. Note that if you place large structures in the foreground and smaller ones closer to your vanishing point. DRAWING BOXES 1 Using a ruler and a sharp HB pencil. draw a horizon line across your paper Mark a spot on the horizon line. corresponding to a single vanishing point. Draw four dotted lines radiating out from the vanishing point. discovering the image as it progressed. This lesson shows you how to make a simple illusion of space defined by two boxes and three flat boards.) . 2 3 corners must each touch a dotted line. Each line should pass through one corner of the rectangle. You have completed your first box. this is your vanishing point. Piranesi planned his drawing with only the essential lines needed. This ensures that the second rectangle aligns with the shape and 4 Draw four short lines to connect the four corners of the two rectangles. Draw each step over the preceding one to build up a single image. On the previous page we looked at its essential mechanism through drawings by Leonardo and Piranesi. you will amplify the illusion of distance. Erase the dotted construction lines.

Connect this to the vanishing point— again. The board's sides should be parallel. Repeat this to add two more boards to the composition. the closer it will appear to the viewer. .asIhavedonehere.willhelptomake them appear more solid. draw four dotted lines radiating from your vanishing point Pass these through each comer of the new rectangle. 8 Complete the second box with short lines as in step 4. 6 As in step 2. Note that this does not surround the vanishing point In the future.77 SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE 5 Draw a new rectangle. The larger you make your second rectangle. 7 As in step 3. Continue the dotted lines out toward the edge of your drawing. and erase the dotted lines. 9 Use dotted lines connecting the slanting linetothe vanishing point to locate the top. with two dotted lines. bottom. The four comers must each touch a dotted line to be sureitaligns with the first. you can place rectangles anywhere youwishin relation to a vanishing point. N e x t draw a slanting line to mark the height of the first flat board. andfarside of this first board. draw a second. when inventing your own compositions. 1 0 Erase all ofthedottedlinestoseeyourfinishedboxes Thickeningtheiredges. larger rectangle.

Linear perspective will support y o u by providing a frame in which to b u i l d your picture as it did for Leonardo. As David Lynch. It highlights the importance of having faith in your imagination and trusting your ability to invent. I always start with a script but I don't follow it all the way through to the end.78 ARCHITECTURE Creating an Imaginary Space T H I S CLASS USES SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE t o c r e a t e a s i m p l e to you and if you listen to it. it is interaction that makes the work richer. 7 4 ) . then let the space suggest its c o n t e n t s and purpose. APPLYING PERSPECTIVE An Imagined Scaffold "Enjoy your illusion as you make it and it will become more real. you will find white adhesive stationery labels are useful for covering errors or changing the direction of your idea. O n a fresh page in your d r a w i n g b o o k . A lot more happens when you open yourself up to the work and let yourself act and react to it. artist and film director." ." imaginary room. The m i s t a k e n belief that we s h o u l d k n o w exactly what o u r finished drawings will l o o k like before we m a k e t h e m prevents many people from ever starting. p . w h e t h e r it is a film or a painting. once said: "I never end up with what I set out to do. draw a b o x as shown opposite. Then follow the three given steps. let simple lines suggest a simple space. it will take you places you never dreamed of. Every work talks In this class. If using a fibertip pen as I have done for this drawing.

The space has become more solid and real. Here. CREATING AN IMAGINARY SPACE 1First. This initial space will be transparent and open to change. horizontal.Addanarray of converging lines to provide a "scaffold" for vertical. 2 first before adding furniture. parallel planes such as walls converge toward the vanishing point. 3 Remove the construction lines with an eraser and the room will becomeclearer. and floors and ceilings also converge and rise o r lower toward the horizon. you will beableto draw more complex objects orpeoplewithin them. additional lines have established the different surfaces and how they relate to each other. With some practice.There is great pleasure tobefoundin spending time inventing interiors. .79 DRAWING A SIMPLE ROOM Essentials t o remember: objects and people dimmish in size as they move farther away. and leaning surfaces.drawthehorizonlineand vanishingpoint.

p o i n t perspective ( s h o w n opposite top). That is where we e to find them. To draw such a view APPLICATION Copy these drawings to see and feel how they work before inventing your own versions. Search for the application of these perspectives among works by other artists in this book and in galleries. verticals appear p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the g r o u n d . Only when y o u might employ t h r e e . They could be drawn on any scale from miniature to monumental. These elaborations could continue indefinitely across a sheet of paper in pursuit of complex and intricate ideas. Free vanishing points On paper we can enjoy the freedom of fantastic structural invention without limitations of solid materials or gravity. they can be placed anywhere inspaceto describe the perspective of flyi c tilted objects. T h i s is d e m o n s t r a t e d immediately below. The boxes drawn here are seen partly or entirely disassociated from a horizon line drawn across the bottom of the image. a n d this is how we have drawn them so far (see pp. 76-79). or low and we look u p . Further aspects of three-point perspective are also illustrated opposite. From our normal eye level. It is important to realize that you can have as many vanishing points as you wish. do verticals appear inclined.80 ARCHITECTURE Further Aspects of Perspective W E ARE ACCUSTOMED TO SEEING our e n v i r o n m e n t from a relatively constant point of view. but they are not confined to this level. Potentially. Copying what you see in the work of others will help you to understand what they have done. located anywhere inside or outside the pictorial space. Here. T h e y d o n o t have to relate to each other. Elaborations . T h i n k of standing at the top of a skyscraper and imagine h o w its parallel sides would appear to converge below you. o r to the h o r i z o n . I have elaborated on the simple boxes above. our eye level is very high and we look down. Vanishing points are commonly found on horizon—our eye level. showing y o u h o w to draw curved surfaces and a tiled floor.

I added horizontal lines t o define the tiles. An array of curved lines (drawn freehand) link the two lateral points.75.81 FURTHER ASPECTS OF Three-point towers This drawing depicts three-point perspective. tostraightlines can amplify drama in a picture.Istarted with two parallel lines. and therefore tension. they mark the corners of the floor tiles. Giving curvature. I then drew three fanned groups of lines connecting each of the three points above to the seven points below. Three-point checkered floor This d bottom floor. Where thelinescross.) By comparing this drawing t o Piranesi's example of two-point perspective on p. by adding a third point you can achieve a sense of incline. (Turn the book around to see a view looking up. useful for representing steep views looking up or down tall structures. you will see how. Note that altering the distance between the three dots above will tilt the level of the floor . Iusedthese lines as a guide t o draw the curvature of boxes and panels flying through space. PERSPECTIVE Three-point curves Here.Finally. three vanishing points are evenly spaced along a horizon line. I marked the toplinewith three evenly spaced points and the line with seven.


making drawings to resolve questions and express personal responses to the nature and history of anatomy. These walnut-skin ink pen and brush drawings show imagined views of theaters that do not exist but were inspired by places I studied.Theaters RESEARCHING FOR MY P H D . I visited many anatomical theaters and museums. .


Venetian Life sitting point buildings ThisP E N . The vanishing of the drawing is directly opposite as we look across The constancy of the bridge and surrounding frames the movement in the life that flows past. . the water.I N KDRAWING is one of a series I made while next to the Rialto Bridge in Venice.A N D .




or drawing w e see Leonardo daVinci'sprecision as can be given meaning. Previously. C o m m o n items. have often carried great weights of allegorical once.Objects and Instruments T HE THINGS WE INVENT describe our lives. and a wire violin. or to explain and present a finished concept to a client. A chair. With the sudden onset of mass production. design. sculpted. even more advanced drawings are made on computers. from s p o o n s and pens to chairs and bicycles. hooked bars that can be pulled and tied closely form. that test our logic with a sense of mystery. In past eras. making a clear instruction t o his bronzemeaning. to record an observed detail. and some apes use simple tools. are all made bearing the signature of our time and place. these. and the behavior of light through making still-life paintings and together. W e also explore v o l u m e and form in the classes by spinning lines to make vessels. T h e Industrial Revolution c h a n g e d the traditional w a y s in w h i c h objects were designed. In this chapter. Today. color. 1493 117/8c81/4in (300 x 210 m m ) LEONARDO D A V I N Ccreating I . Technical drawing was speedily developed as a meticulous international code of m e a s u r e m e n t and explanation. H e has described contour and function at drawings. each demanding more of the other as they increased in sophistication. but humans LEONARDO DA VINCI Inthisbeautiful red chalk Our items all have a purpose—practical or ornamental—and all have a meaning. drawings were needed to instruct workers on the factory floor. drawn. passing them on to others through the act of making. texture. fictional realities caster of h o w t o make it andhowit will w o r k . we look at the importance are the only creatures on Earth w h o actually design and create great ranges of things. Birds follow instinct to make a nest. for example. of light in the creation of pictorial illusions. for example—whether. It was in this era that the blueprint was born. r an equestrian statue. craftsmen had held plans in their memory. History will be learned from the artifacts w e leave behind. or used on stage hood for a mold t o make theheado f a horse f oas a p r o p — i m b u e d with e n o u g h energy or character can "become" a man. It is shaped in sections w i t h Artists have for centuries studied and expressed composition. planned. T h e precision of engineering d r a w i n g s e v o l v e d alongside machine tools. Engineers and designers of our objects and instruments make drawings for many reasons: to test an idea that is yet to be made. drawing c. and made. too. H e has described a casting through metaphor. illuminating snail shells. Artists also make images of objects that can never exist. and the way in w h i c h the brain reacts Head and Neck Sections of Female Mold for the Sforza Horse to visual stimulus and optical illusions. Artists and actors use the meanings of things to communicate a speculative mechanic.

Below. and shading. and a journal jacket with words makes this drawing chatter about the moment.90 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS Still Life THESE DRAWINGS REVEAL t w o o p p o s i t e m o t i v a t i o n s i n we can. He takes us into the bustle of the Paris cafe.. steaming with music and conversation. still feel this projected moment.. Mucha's drawing glistens with possession. not of place but of things. Braques "justly" arranged combination of cut black card." La Cuitare. and glass objects of exquisite elegance for only the gentlest of touch and appreciation. representing still life. Opposite. wood-look wallpaper. charcoal. T h i s is a designers drawing made to enthuse surface and style in its delicate brushing of china. perfect i n their newly made availability. There is a fragile eloquence to these objects as they drift in slow motion past our gaze. . "I believe [it] is the most radicalattempttostampout ambiguity and to enforce one readingofthepicture—that of a manmade construction. silverware. His work is characterized by calm and harmonious still-life compositions. One of the great joys of this movement in art is the musicality of its multipoint view. Statue D'Epouvante 1913 2 f t 5 in x 3 ft 5 in (0. Clashes The art historian Ernst Gombrich said of Cubism. not to work in harmony. Braque established Cubism in partnership with Picasso just before World War I. a colored canvas.Braque marshals all the forces of perspective.73 x 1 m) GEORGES BRAQUE . Even today GEORGES BRAQUE French painter who as a young man was influenced by the work of the Fauves and of Cezanne. Braques image is a Cubist collage. texture. but to clash in virtual deadlock.

Look at the two spoons at toprightand see how has suggested that they are so brilliantly shiny they reflect the background color. He is best known for posters featuring ethereal women in typical Art Nouveau style. For ten years Mucha designed theater posters exclusively for the actress Sarah Bernhardt. and also stamps and bank notes. Black watercolor washes and lines of white gouache have been added with a fine brush. Background color Between the delicate shadows and highlights of these glazed and surfaces ofthebackground metal color of the Mucha we see a large amount Art Nouveau curling motifs of birds. The three plates facing us were drawn with a compass.ALPHONSE MUCHA Czech graphic artist and painter who worked in Prague. He designed the Austrian pavilion for the Paris World Fair in 1900. Study for Plate 59 from "Documents Decoratifs" 17x121/4(430 x 310 mm) ALPHONSE MUCHA 1902 . Chicago. Art Nouveau motifs This is a preliminary study for a subsequent print.fruit. and New York. and fish have been outlined using a sharp pencil. Pans.

0 0 0 perfect hemispheres. and his hand moving across the light. each reflecting a view of his own world—his window. He counted 1 4 . Hooke's head of a drone fly seen through a microscope may represent the first time man and insect came face to face. It was then reflected up inside the tube and. offering a transparent view. the law o f gravity. and Fellow of the University o f C a m b r i d g e .92 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS by their very nature must gauge or chronicle precision. mathematician. It is a diagrammatic explanation of how to catch and magnify a star in a mirrored tube. Newton's 1672 ISAAC Telescope NEWTON . and the nature o f light and color. Their delicate construction is only as valuable as the measurements they make. via a second mirror. astronomer. and philosopher Newton was President of the Royal Society. shape the very cause and effect of investigatory thought. Ink lines Several drawings appear among Newton's letters. into the eyepiece. With dotted lines Newton has drawn his arrangement of elements inside the tube. The power of this drawing reflects the pure passion of discovery. Newton used this instrument to calculate the speed required to escape earth's gravity. a tree outside. drawing is there to pin the moment down. In the graphic work of these two great men of science. A disembodied eye at the top of the drawing indicates where to look. alchemist. Look how confidently he draws with ink the sphere of this wooden globe by which his telescope rotates. Newton's drawing of his first reflecting telescope is ISAAC N E W T O N English scientist. each one skillfully rendered with the alarmingly matter-of-fact ease of explaining the commonplace. Transparent view Newton's reflecting telescope focused light in a parabolic mirror. w h e r e he developed his three greatest theories: the law o f motion. we see drawing Instruments of Vision found among his letters. From the concept of capturing the infinite to the mapping of microscopic sight.

An experimental scientist who drew many of his discoveries. 1665). ROBERT H O O K E 93 Magnifications This acutely detailed engraved drawing is taken from Hooke's Micrographia (pub. It is an exhilarating read. Hooke invented the camera diaphragm. universal joint a prototype respirator clock balance. The Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 1665 ROBERT HOOKE 111/2 x 105/8 in (294 x 270 mm) . a breathtaking book containing many of his drawings showing some of the first microscopic and telescopic magnifications of our environment Hooke's text and illustrations carry us to the moment of discovery. and anchor escarpment. and calculated the theory of combustion.

and winner of the 2004 Jerwood Drawing Prize. Sarah Woodfines flat cut-out m o d e l plan is a witty and surprising drawing. Van Gogh's tipsy seat is a metaphor for an absent person. while the tabs make us see a flat paper cut-out. its character. and has drawings in numerous public and private collections. each drawn with the s a m e unfaltering lines and tones that are between reality and impossibility. OBJECTS AND SARAH WOODFINE British contemporary artist graduate of the Royal Academy Schools. craft. has published several catalogs of her work. From component parts we understand how to put it together and make it stand sensible in space. and w h e r e the chair b e l o n g s . W i t h h o m e y c o n t r a s t . Chair Cut Out 2002 22'A x 23 in (565 x 585 mm) SARAH WOODFINE . and place in the world are truly seen.94 INSTRUMENTS W H E N WE DRAW A COMMON OBJECT like a chair. Two-dimensional was made This highly finished drawing ruler using a sharp pencil and on smooth white drawing paper glistening dark drawings are artificial representations of known Woodfine's two-dimensional things balanced in the world. this chair p r e s e n t s us with a clever visual contradiction: deeply drawn shadows tell us it must be solid. A renegade from the p a p e r dolls' h o u s e . it has so m u c h familiar personality that it seems to talk to us. Drawn in more-or-less c o n v e n t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . Woodfine exhibits internationally. Bench Marks W e are left a little c o n f u s e d as to what we s h o u l d do. Its wobbly gait and squashed s y m m e t r y m u m b l e endless h o m e y tales about the life it has seen.

drawn opposite way of plan. Cornfield and Sunflowers.95 VINCENTVAN GOGH Dutch painter who produced over 800 paintings and 850 drawings in only the last ten year's of his life. Among van Gogh's best-known canvases are Trees. Van Chair 1890 VINCENT VAN GOGH . inner recording while Fierce strokes This is a portrait of the mechanical drew immediately and almost harshly. and Starry Cypress Night. His passionate brush and pencil strokes are honest and of also turmoil and growing alarm at the world around him. not is made present in only strokes and is subdued to distract us from flat a meaningful chair. what direct in their he saw and describing his felt. The floor few as engagement with the chair.hehas marked the full emotion of the subject with a fierce grip of concentration.

perhaps. a n d we can be fooled. The small squares are identical in tone. but do not appear so. We will even see things that d o not exist because minimal information suggests they are likely to be there. Artists emulate and manipulate this effect in their pictures. cards the same size. Adjust the angleofthe protruding part and again stepback. Card experiment cho can gra on . w e turn our head but n o one w a s there. a n d our ability to see forms in c l o u d s or fire.96 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Light and Illusions SEEING IS MIRACULOUS. Tape them to the glass. U p s i d e . one blackandone white. Three factors change it: the amount of light it receives. Run The bottom-left quarter of the egg lightens slightly toward its "edge" when seen against the darker shadow cast on the paper. W e learn to read light and shadow in our environment as indicators of solidity and depth of space. From across the room both will appear black card and fold and retapeitwith half sticking out. Through these we can enjoy witnessing our o w n d e c e p t i o n a n d b a f f l e m e n t a n d u n d e r s t a n d certain factors that are very useful in picture-making. The rim of light on the egg is reflected light received from surrounding paper. try this experiment. think about its illumination. Below. To interpret visual s t i m u l u s .At one point you will catchenoughlight lighter than the white one.This effect is caused by the contrast of their surroundings. your eye around the circumference of the egg. form. are translated into a world of space.d o w n patterns of light on our retinas. We perceive one to be lighter than theother. The two tones meet without a division or outline between. a n d are q u i c k to p r o p o s e ideas. two identical mid-gray squares are seen against black and paler gray squares. Here. atmosphere. hence our recognition of a cartoon face c o m p o s e d of three lines. S o m e o n e passes our o p e n door. the adjustment of our eyes (in growing accustomed to a level of light). o u r b r a i n s search for n a m e a b l e things. We only need small prompts. Are you happy LIGHT AND SHADOW with what you see? Does the light enhance the subject? Could you alter and improve it? On pp. a n d m o v e m e n t . Below the bottom "edge" of the egg there is a rim of light reflected onto the paper by the underside of the egg. reads only m o v e m e n t a n d can often m a k e mistakes. Gray squares To further examine changes in tone. T h e slightest recognition is instantly matched to our wealth of experience a n d expectation. and the proximity of contrasting tones. transmitted to the brain as chains of electrical impulses. or colored surface is never constant. Before starting a tonal drawing of any subject.102-03 deep shadows cast across shells make their form easier to perceive. On acloudyday. The egg's lightest region is seen against a darker background. less developed than the center. gray. The outermost edge of our vision. See how its "edge" smoothly changes from light against dark to dark against light. Here w e look briefly at our perception of light a n d darkness a n d our interpretation of diagrammatic illusions. The egg's darkest region is seen against a lighter background. The perceived tone of a black white. a lit photograph of an egg shows essential points to observe in tonal drawing.

. T h e r e is n o obligation t o a d d b l o c k s o f t o n e t o a l i n e a r d r a w i n g . respectively. start o u t w i t h one. by d i r e c t e d a r r o w s ( A ) . In this linear drawing w e read t h i c k as closer a n d t h i n as f a r t h e r away. If y o u w i s h t o m a k e a t o n a l drawing. T h i s fundamental o p p o s i t e is a reason w h y l i n e a r a n d t o n a l d r a w i n g does not a l w a y s c o m b i n e w e l l in t h e s a m e i m a g e . Y o u m a y e x p e r i e n c e s o m e t h i n g similar h a p p e n i n g w h e n y o u m a k e s i n g l e . B o t h are identical in length. Bending straight lines Linear distance These t w o jugs have b e e n d r a w n w i t h lines o f d i f f e r i n g thicknesses. In a t o n a l d r a w i n g . O f t e ndoingso w i l l s p o i l y o u r w o r k . Apparent lengths T h e s e optical illusions s h o w h o w lines o f identical length can b e m a d e t o l o o k quite different f r o m each o t h e r by t h e addition o r association o f o t h e r lines. S h o r t h o r i z o n t a l lines o f identical length are m a d e t o l o o k d i f f e r e n t by c o n v e r g i n g lines beside t h e m ( C ) . A n u p r i g h t line stands in t h e c e n t e r o f a h o r i z o n t a l line.97 LINE VERSUS TONE In l i n e a r d r a w i n g s . LIGHT AND ILLUSIONS Tonal width T h e s e black a n d w h i t e bands are o f equal thickness o n e i t h e r side o f t h e i r central division. Seven parallel lines are m a d e t o tilt t o w a r d and away f r o m each o t h e r by n u m e r o u s s h o r t strokes crossing t h e m diagonally ( A ) . T w o relatively t h i c k parallel lines are m a d e t o b e n d away f r o m each o t h e r as t h e y pass in f r o n t o f an a r r a y o f c o n v e r g i n g f i n e lines ( B ) . O b s e r v e h o w each white b a n d appears t h i c k e r t h a n its black c o u n t e r p a r t . w h i l e t h i n n e r lines recede. l i g h t e r surfaces s t a n d f o r w a r d w h i l e d a r k e r s u r f a c e s recede. T w o horizontal lines o f equal length are m a d e t o l o o k longer and shorter.p o i n t p e r s p e c t i v e d r a w i n g s w i t h a large n u m b e r o f c o n v e r g i n g rays b e h i n d y o u r horizontals. t h i c k e r l i n e s a p p e a r t o stand forward. b u t t h e u p r i g h t o n e l o o k s t a l l e r (B). In this t o n a l image w e read w h i t e as f a t t e r t h a n black. T h e jug d r a w n w i t h a t h i n line appears f a r t h e r away t h a n t h e j u g d r a w n w i t h a t h i c k e r line.

Two ways of seeing T h i s is t h e b o x c r e a t e d in t h e f o u r t h step o n p. w e will find that in terms of the direction it faces. C l o s i n g t h e surface o f t h e f o r m seals o u r d e c i s i o n as t o w h i c h w a y it faces. it oscillates between t w o possibilities. including some shown here. w e can only look f r o m one t o the o t h e r If an artist is not aware this can happen in their image. Yet many illusions." . It is possible t o r e a d i t t w o ways: as a t r u n c a t e d r e c t a n g u l a r p y r a m i d seen d i r e c t l y f r o m a b o v e . Today we are bombarded with images but rarely have difficulty reading them. Some artists use known optical illusions to make art. and so calculated precisely how much to fatten columns to make them appear straight. among others.116-17) to make painted figures look correct when viewed from below. and we learn to read the styles of diverse cultures and periods.s i d e d r e c t a n g u l a r t r a y ( b o t h are illustrated far r i g h t ) "The brain is so eager to name a fragment we see that we need only a suggestion to grasp the whole. are still not agreeably understood. Ancient Greek architects knew parallel upright lines appeared to bend toward each other in the middle. such as Bridget Riley. it can oscillate b e t w e e n facing t o w a r d o r a w a y f r o m us. Op(tical) artists.76. A few suggestive marks will tip the decision one way o r the o t h e r Closing the surface W h e n a t r a n s p a r e n t elliptical o b j e c t has b e e n d r a w n . In the 1960's. Artists make pictorial illusions when they paint or draw. such as t h e dish seen h e r e o n t h e left. perfected the acceleration of perspective (see pp. made paintings that depended upon the physical sensation of our brain's reaction to known optical illusions. others adjust works to avoid their effects. w h e n drawing the outline o f a three-dimensional form. SEEING TWO OPTIONS Sometimes. Artists can communicate much in few lines and the viewer will do the rest of the work. o r as a s l o p i n g . Michelangelo. as s h o w n o n t h e right.98 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Further Illusions PSYCHOLOGISTS AND PHYSIOLOGISTS have studied optical illusions for decades in pursuit of what they tell us about the brain. their picture could be ambiguous. It is a curious fact that w e can never see both options at once.

T h e s e e x a m p l e s illustrate h o w little is n e e d e d t o c o n v e y an image. — a n d so t h e artist can create m u c h o u t o f an impression w i t h o u t overdescribing. this is a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f t h e viewer's b r a i n b e i n g willing t o d o a large a m o u n t o f t h e w o r k in d e c i p h e r i n g a p i c t u r e . C o u n t t h e n u m b e r o f d a r k spots y o u can see. S o m e artists use ink blots t o p r o m p t t h e beginning o f an image. . C Escher u s e d this phenomenon t o great effect in his many p o p u l a r d r a w i n g s o f puzzles and impossible buildings. O n l y o n closer inspection we realize that t h e s e o b j e c t s are fooling us. This effect can o c c u r naturally w h e n looking at a b r i g h t l y lit w h i t e g r i d such as a w i n d o w f r a m e against t h e night sky.99 Impossible objects T h e s e clever configurations o f outlines and t o n a l surfaces convince us at a glance that we are seeing a solid three-dimensional triangle and a three-pronged fork. B e l o w is a b r i g h t n e s s c o n t r a s t illusion.c e n t u r y Swiss psychologist H e r m a n n Rorschach. smoke. F a m i l i a r i t y in r a n d o m s h a p e s T h e Rorschach test was established by t h e 1 9 t h . e t c . M u c h can b e e x p r e s s e d in o n l y a f e w marks. C o u p l e d w i t h t h e Rorschach b l o t above. 1 6 t h .c e n t u r y Italian painters. N e i t h e r triangle exists. T h e y a r e o f t e n c r e d i t e d w i t h t h e invention o f t h e c o m i c c a r t o o n . W e should r e m e m b e r t h a t o u r brains will always search f o r a p i c t u r e — i n ink blots. This simple five-line d r a w i n g is o f a C a p u c h i n priest asleep in his pulpit. FURTHER ILLUSIONS Seeing things that are n o t t h e r e H e r e o n t h e left. clouds. T h e a r t i s t M. T h e patient's answers are t h e n diagnosed as a psychological profile. w e see t w o overlapping triangles: o n e outlined in black b e n e a t h a n o t h e r in solid w h i t e . T h e t e s t e x p l o r e s o u r n o r m a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o find things w e can n a m e a m o n g r a n d o m shapes. His highly d i s p u t e d and i m p r e c i s e science involves s h o w i n g u n p r e p a r e d p a t i e n t s t e n p a r t i c u l a r ink b l o t s a n d asking t h e m t o i n t e r p r e t w h a t t h e y see. P e r c e i v i n g a w h o l e i m a g e f r o m m i n i m a l lines T h i s is a w i d e l y r e p r o d u c e d visual j o k e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e C a r r a c c i b r o t h e r s . Minimal-line j o k e s such as this rely u p o n t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y v i e w e r ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e shapes. b u t w e believe w e see t h e m because e n o u g h f r a g m e n t a r y i n f o r m a t i o n is given f o r o u r brains t o c o n c l u d e t h e y are v e r y likely t h e r e . Yet still w e try resolve t h e m .

you will achieve steadiness with practice. even if y o u r hand w o b b l e s a little at first. Ellipse are best d r a w n quickly. since this is h o w w e experience them in e v e r y d a y use. Watch the tip of your pen and see it draw an ellipse in the air Keep this movement going while gently lowering the pen onto the paper like the needle of a record player closing on the disc (only it is your lowering hand that spins. How to Draw Ellipses of seeing. though. for example. (see p. Don't worry if it is uneven— just try again. hesitant one that has edged its w a y nervously around the vessel's rim. Be aware. a n d in o n e bold stroke. I have drawn these for you here. I have exaggerated this error here. However. and these narrow or widen depending on the height of our view. Cover a sheet of paper with spinning. To make a cylindrical object appear real in our pictorial space. such as bowls and cups. for example plates or bowls on a table. there are three common errors people stumble upon.100 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS W E VISUALIZE CYLINDRICAL VESSELS.90) takes a different as essentially circular. third common error is to draw upper and lover ellipses with different-sized apertures. circles change into ellipses. WHERE TO START In the air above a spacious sheet of scrap paper. not the paper!) As the pen touches down. describing many sides of an object simultaneously. giving the cylinder four corners. The second common error is to tilt the upper and lower ellipses at different angles. suggesting that the vessel is lopsided. A wobbling but confident ellipse will still be more convincing than a slow. smoothly. w e use ellipses to give a sense of perspective. The first common error is to draw two pointed ellipses. like a disposable plastic cup that has been crushed in your hand. springlike forms like those I have drawn below. COMMON ERRORS W h e n drawing cylindrical objects in perspective. that this is o n l y o n e w a y view. while its upper rim remains level. w h e n seen at an angle. as if the table surface slopes upward beneath the vessel. spin your hand in a relaxed circle. Cubism. . keep it spinning.

Create a Solid Surface Once you have drawn the shape and volume of each form. you can make it solid by building up highlights and tones on visible surfaces. enlarging and diminishing the ellipse to determine the overall shape and volume. working from top to bottom. thereby hiding lines that show the other sides. Altering the pressure—and therefore tone—of the line as it spins gives the impression of light shining on one side. HOW TO DRAW E L L I P S E S A Single Vessel One Inside Another Grouped Together Finding Shape and Volume Draw an imagined vessel in one continuous spinning line. Seeing Through Allow lines to travel around each vessel as if it were transparent. Draw quickly. you can start to control your spinning ellipse to make a vessel. .101 DRAWING VESSELS Once you have mastered drawing free-hand springs.

leaving detail until last. beams of light. You can begin with outlines and build slowly from light to dark (see opposite top). Draw the largest and most distinct areas of light and darkness first. It is important to place them on the correct side so as to draw comfortably (see pp. Illuminate them with a gooseneck lamp placed very close and directed away from your eyes. Gradually hone your drawing. t h e r e a r e p r i n c i p a l l y Dramatic lighting emphasizes texture and contour. In the finished drawing there should be few. and solid objects are all of equal importance. Remember that shadows. outlines. or you can begin with a mid-gray ground and model light out of darkness (see opposite bottom). and strong contrasts are easier to draw. if any. It maximizes the range of tones between black and white. OBJECTS AND Start by arranging a choice of shells on a sheet of paper to your left if you are right-handed (or vice versa). making complicated or subtle surfaces easier to see and understand.22-23). two opposite methods of achieving the same result. simply shapes and subtleties of light and dark meeting each other with no divisions in between. Relaxing your eyes out of focus as you draw will help to dissolve the distraction of detail. if light shines in them.102 INSTRUMENTS Tonality W H E N MAKING A TONAL DRAWING. LIGHT TO DARK DARK TO LIGHT . it will inhibit your perception of tone.

Use quick. . 2 3 Gentlydissolveoutlines so that areas oflightanddark meet without a line between them.103 LIGHT TO DARK (LINE TO TONE) TONALITY 1 Using a sharp HB pencil. shape. Remember that its size. Honetheshapesand angles of the shells. Relaxing your eyes out of focus will help to eliminate distracting details. Avoid a rough significant areas of light in your gray rectangle with texture and do not press the graphite hardwhite plastic eraser Ignore all detail and draw a into thepaperor you will not be able to erase it. Continue working between light and dark to refine the drawing. Draw in the details last of all. Treat positive form and negative space (see pp. Fll in broad areas first and leave all detail until last. with broad sweeps of the eraser. Let your eyes go out of focus while looking gently layer marks to create an even tone at your subject and paper: Draw the most ofmid-graywithin a rectangle. until you are happy frame. pale lines with equal importance. Erase and make changes to roughly place the shells inside your with your composition. draw a rectangle. loose. and edges definingthespacialrelationships between are important aspects of your composition them. look at the main areas of darkness. boldly 2 3 Keeping your eyes out of focus. DARK TO LIGHT (TONE TO TONE) 1 Using the flattened tip of an HB pencil.56-57). Use your pencil to develop these in relation to the areas of light.

our image is stronger if we understand and can visualize what is happening on the other side too.104 OBJECTS AND I N S T R U M E N T S Drawing with Wire DRAWINGS DO NOT HAVE to be two-dimensional. This class uses thin-gauge wire to create a threedimensional violin. 176 the British artists Noble and Webster draw with domestic refuse in a beam of light. They can also be made in space. Seeing through a wire drawing of a known object such as a violin gives us a visual and tactile understanding of all its sides and shapes at once. you can create your own more ambitious works. The first is that figurative and abstract drawings can be made in space. and on p.220 Mamoru Abe draws with forged steel rods. There are essentially three lessons to be learned. The second is that after achieving this simple example. Place the instrument on a plain surface and illuminate it with a desk lamp to add the delicate dimension of shadows. On p. When drawing anything viewed from one side on paper. continuous lines. and on p. 19 Picasso draws with a pen-light for the camera. On p. PEN LINES Once you have created your three-dimensional violin (opposite). smooth. . Third.69 we see how the architect Antonio Gaudi drew proposed domes using suspended wires and weights. try drawing it with a pen on paper Use bold. three-dimensional drawings teach us about the totality of forms in space. and physical relationships between them.

105 SETTING UP DRAWING WITH WIRE Follow these steps to draw a three-dimensional violin Choose a gauge of wire sturdy enough to hold the shape ofyourfinished drawing. thin wire will make a smaller drawing. brace the two ends of the violin with a length of wire along the back. but thin enough to be easily manipulated inyourfingers Here. and thick wire a larger one. Join the two sides together with four short pieces of wire. I used garden wire and cut it carefully with pruners. Then begin to define its uppermost surface with Scurves and the bridge. Cut a length. 1 Decide how big to draw your violin relative to the gauge of your wire. and pinch and bend it to shape the base of the instrument Repeat this process to make the identical upper side of the instrument. 2 3 If needed. I started with the scroll at the top and fixed the four component wires with two drawings of tuning pegs. Here. begin to shape the curvature of the fingerboard. These will hold the sides apart and help to keep the form in shape. 4 . Once you have completed the body.

some of which are shown here.Artifacts and Fictions IN 1993 I WORKED with a group of schoolchildren who were responding to the astonishing objects in the collection of the Pitt Rivers Museum. Oxford. Using found materials. I had the privilege of drawing their inventions. England. . they invented new anthropological finds—objects that reflected the distant past and their immediate future.



R. Look closely at Renaissance drawings of the female b o d y and you will see that m o s t are actually y o u n g m e n with minor adjustments. Artists now explore the interior of the body with new media and Lateral Contour Map of a Full-Term Primipara Produced by Light 1979 A. and in San could easily be transferred into three dimensions. herimpressive presence because we are given such Life drawing no longer dominates the art school curriculum. in our privileged and comfortable society. In this period. is the most c o m m o n subject in art. He even believed he had located the soul contours of her form like a cartographer's map of in the pituitary fossa beneath the brain and behind the eyes. giving physical foundation undulating land. history paintings and other stories. Drawings were usually made from the male nude to avoid offending the church. while Durer took his research further— A. W e understand every curve and balance of to the theory that the eves are the windows of the soul. from video and X-ray to thermal imaging. R. During this time. Leonardo drew a man within a circle and square. She the body is still essential.The Body O UR BODIES MAKE us TANGIBLE. explaining ranges e/ of materials and techniques and showing diversities of thought and purpose in making. but the study of a controlled. a n d w e d r a w o u r s e l v e s to a s s e r t o u r e x i s t e n c e . much Western contemporary art. WILLIAMS he sought perfection in the infinitesimal measurement of the body and produced four Contemporary photographer volumes of illustrated explanation. while Leonardo opened the body to see and projected onto a woman's body draw the celebratory discover for himself our physical mechanisms. myths and fables. and surgically rebuilt. Artists are thought to have b e g u n drawing from the nude during the Italian Renaissance. Strangely. portraiture. This F finished image was produced as r a n c i s c o . diseased. the Bay Area Models' Guild h o l d s a quarterly life-drawing m a r a t h o n aprinton Kodak transfer paper with green-colored dye added celebrating the great diversity of human proportion. It also looks at the representation of the b o d y b11y4o n d traditional life drawing. Michelangelo attended dissections to made this image by light sectioning: fine beams of light perfect his understanding of surface form. Renaissance artists studying anatomy from dissection clinically trained and specialized as a medical illustrator. and anatomical and erotic art. This chapter addresses issues that are most commonly faced by beginners attending life-drawing classes. W e are the only creatures on Earth that can make our own image. 3 x 7 in (300 x 180 . These classes are popular around the world. It gives physical and emotive form to religious narratives. W I L L I A M S technology. Williams were decades ahead of their medical counterparts. focus has turned to the vulnerability of flesh: how it can be damaged. The human body. clothed or nude. The body remains at the core of over the initially white lines. the junior workshop apprentices posed as part of their duties. sculptural description of her form. artists also tried to define ideal proportions in the body. and because the female was deemed inferior.

Matisse's b l u e n u d e sings with life and c e l e b r a t i o n . RAFFAELLO SANZIO (RAPHAEL) Italian High Renaissance painter: Raphael is best known for his images of the Madonna and Child. Raphael drew delicate tones of black chalk on tinted paper. Raphael's study of fallen m e n leaves no doubt that they are in anguish. T h e y b o t h raise one arm to cup their head in their hand. By way of contrast. In a single drawing we see equally o b s e r v e d studies of f o r e s h o r t e n i n g (see pp.110 T H E BODY THESE DISTINCTIVE WORKS show two strikingly different ways of modeling the body on paper. so that we read this drawing like a sculptural frieze. Sculptural frieze This is a preparatory drawing for Raphael's painting of the Resurrection of Christ. But the meanings of each gesture and the materials and methods by which they Postures and Poses were m a d e contrast greatly. altar pieces. and studied to learn from the works of Michelangelo and Leonardo besides whom he was soon ranked. Principal figures m i r r o r e a c h other. and human defeat. and Vatican frescos.116-17). filling the page with her presence. while Matisse used scissors and glue to cut out and paste a flat collage of brilliant color. Three Guards 1500-20 91/4 x143/8in (234 x 365 mm) RAPHAEL . anatomy. She u n f o l d s and s t r e t c h e s shapely limbs. In this highly s o p h i s t i c a t e d a b s t r a c t i o n . we see the e s s e n c e of h e r b e a u t y w i t h o u t a single detail. Here three male nudes are compressed into very shallow pictorial space. He trained under Perugino. while supporting the weight of their body with the other. Muscular dramatic postures reflect the influence of Michelangelo and the Renaissance celebration of the idealized male body.

a mental soother. serenity.which might be.designer writer. teacher and principal exponent o f Fauvism—a movement established in 1905 in which bold color is the most essential element. foundamong many other groups of papercut these works as an elderly man confined to his bed or wheelchair.111 HENRY MATISSE French painter: draftsman. as his w o r k matured.or like a good armchair in which to rest from physical fatigue... devoid of troubling Blue Nude 1 1952 413/4 HENRY MATISSE .. Matisse became an artist after studying law. and Islamic art.. lifelong love of brilliant They celebrate the culmination of spectacular and sometimes drawings. his pattern. printmaker. Matisse Soothing influence This drawing expresses the achievement of Matisse's personal aim: "What I dream and depressing subject matter. and more energetic Color and form This collage is one of a series of Blue Nudes. freer.." of is an art of an appeasing influence.. His calligraphic natural abstractions of form grew brighter. fabric.

turned gray. Opposite. stands in counterpoise holding a dark globe and his thoughts in m o m e n t a r y balance. and color His applied theories still influence painters in their manipulation and rendering of local. His drawings are similarly u n i q u e . reflected. Typically. velvet d a r k n e s s . agreeing to coalesce and show us the form of a waiting boy. T h e space around h i m chatters with symbols. w h o sits propped in the contradictory darkness of a hot summer's day. he used b l a c k c o n t e (see p. Here. Seurat evolved a distinctive t e c h n i q u e called p o i n t i l l i s m — i m a g e s literally made from myriad points of color.112 T H E BODY Choreographs T I M E IS A SIGNIFICANT E L E M E N T i n t h e m a k i n g o f a l l d r a w i n g s . 162) and an eraser to model teeming points of artificial light amid GEORGES SEURAT French painter classically educated in the Ingres school of thought. In his f a m o u s paintings of social e n g a g e m e n t . form. Tone and light In this black conte drawing. Below. and c o m p l e m e n t a r y hues. there are no outlines. scratched in seconds. Using the paper to create light is important for beginners to learn. like small birds attendant on the meditation. or abruptly meeting. other tones. Light is given by the paper alone. it is as if the very atoms of air are made visible. and muddied the brilliance of the drawing. Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 1883-84 91/2 x 121/4 in (241 x 312 m m GEORGES SEURAT . Seurat engaged in lifelong studies of line. we c o m p a r e a skillful design that absorbed m u c h time in its making with the quickness of an idea marked instantly. it would have mixed with unseen black dust. Beuys's magician. If Seurat had added white. in a perfect e x a m p l e . only tones blending into.

113 JOSEPH BEUYS One of the most influential German artists of the 20th century. Beuys gave performances. Perfectly modeled rather conventional for Joseph Focus Beuys's hand moved quickly to draw dotted lines flowing downward on either side of the figure. and drawings. Unbroken lines stream from his simultaneously movement. Our focus joins shoulders. His The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland UNDATED 113/4 J O S E P H BEUYS x81/4in (297 x 210 mm) . He was a shaman who believed in intuition and in the investment of healing force. Many of his other symbolic works on paper have been drawn with materials such as honey. transience. free from the constraint of immaculate form opposite) impetus is irrelevant to the and meaning of this work (as we see in Seurat's drawing representation. in different positions. taught workshops with a cult following. This figure is drawn iodine. video art. CHOREOGRAPHS the profound power materials with spiritual or of Free lines This pale pencil drawing is Beuys. and blood. and that These aspects of the work convey fractured visibility. and made installations.

Free lines Rodin's public audience was understandably shocked by the eroticism of his drawings. flushed skin made ruddy and black with crushed cinders. Our bodies radiate the passion of our thoughts and so become beacons of our frailty and power. Rodin employed models to move freely or pose together in his studio. the women are framed and caressed by long. and one of hundreds of rapid studies of nudes.000 drawings shown in rotation at the Musee Rodin. Opposite. As here. Rodin produced portraits and statues of public and literary figures. his w o r k is characterized by deliberate un-finish and powerfully modeled emotion. Delicate strokes This is one of about 7. THE AUGUSTE RODIN French Romantic sculptor and prolific draftsman employed as an ornamental mason until the age of 42. Paris. They whisper and writhe in a brushed and sultry embrace that devours our watching." as seen here. We are asked to gaze u p o n her flesh. he typically drew them with a few delicate strokes of pencil and brushed watercolor. 125/8x 9 in (320 x 229 mm) AUGUSTE RODIN Two Women 1911 Embracing . In both drawings. its soft. and went on to inspire generations of artists. In Rodins work. His exquisite flow of paint beyond "outlines.114 BODY Passion SUMMONING HUMANITY in a drawing of the nude is a subtle and emotional task. the fierceness of the women's kiss is beautifully matched by the tenderness of his line. was perceived as scandalous. Inspired by Michelangelo. But what is stranger to us now is that they were also outraged by his free use of line. sweeping lines— of either purple silk fabric or cool studio air—that imprint and amplify their past and future movements. Achieving international acclaim in mid-life. We are involved not as a shabby voyeur but as a bystander engaged through our recognition of shared joy. Anita Taylor has drawn her protective body hug out of the darkly glistening compression of willow charcoal and the dynamism of her shy but momentous femininity.

and rework rich depths of light and tone. scrutiny. Taylor's immense self-portraits explore the relationship between the artist as maker and the artist as model. This order of light below and dark above gives glowing from within. exposure. The sturdy surface of the sheet has allowed her to press hard when needed. Charcoal Taylor has drawn freely with charcoal and an eraser on thick. erased and drawn again.I 15 ANITA T A Y L O R Painter. A thinner sheet might have crumpled and torn under such vigorous force of making. intimately reflecting upon the emotions and meaning of nudity. Luminosity Layered marks flicker likefirelight as they sculpt the woman's body. professor and Vice Principal of Wimbledon School of Art. textured paper. the impression of luminosity All and Nothing 1999 67 x447/8in (170 x 1 1 4 cm) ANITA TAYLOR . London. Taylor has drawn. and gaze. draftsman. leaving her lightest marks at the deepest level of the image and applying darker marks above.

2 Hold your pencil upright. persistence. MEASURING This is a simple method of making measured comparisons for relating the true size of one part to another This is a tool to assist observation and thinking. elbow. for example. plummeting. you will make inconsistent and unrelated comparisons. London). patience. which is imperceptible from below.116 T H E BODY Measurement and Foreshortening FORESHORTENING IS AN ASPECT of perspective. There is no need to mark them all down on paper. helping us to see more clearly. Rome. Close one eye. and wrist joints. and measurements do not have to be carried to the paper and slavishly drawn the same size they appear on your pencil. 1 Hold your arm straight. Up close on the scaffold we would witness Michelangelo's subtle application of accelerated perspective. This is chiefly a correcting device by which figurative painters and sculptors have for centuries countered the effects of our viewing their work from far below or on the curvature of a vault. just making them helps you see. Spend time making comparisons before you draw. Return to this posture every time. the skull in Holbein's The Ambassadors (The National Gallery. with dramatic illusions of figures painted in normal proportion. when beginners prop their board in their lap and look down at too steep an angle. It can also be a little demon in the life room. If your arm is not straight. It is not complicated. Imagine Michelangelo's murals in the Sistine Chapel. Align the top with a point on your subject. and to draw what we see. We also look at another very interesting branch called accelerated (or anamorphic) perspective. or coming forward. or shrivelling at odd. without taking off. more extreme examples have been made for court entertainment. we would arrive to find many of the same figures strangely distorted. "Simple measured comparisons reveal surprising truths about proportion. To avoid its effects ensure you always look flat onto the surface of your page. unfathomable angles. to be translated by mirrors or seen from only one point in the room. It is not so hard. rather that what we believe we know from experience. Smaller. Accelerated perspective plays a great role in much art.limbs happily receding. Move the tip of your thumb down to a second chosen point. But if we could take a scaffold and climb up to the work. Lock your shoulder. In the life class it is the mechanism for ensuring that a drawn figure lies correctly in pictorial space . The length of exposed pencil is your measurement. elongated as if stretched across the plaster. and a few measured comparisons are key." . How to make and apply these is explained below and opposite. 3 Keep your pencil perpendicular Measure and compare at any angle.

Keep t h e b o a r d steady and draw. W o r k a r o u n d t h e figure. adjusting a n o n y m o u s shapes. See h o w d i f f e r e n t t h e relative heights o f t h e s e shapes are f r o m w h a t w e m i g h t e x p e c t in real life. y o u must let go o f w h a t y o u k n o w f r o m e x p e r i e n c e a b o u t t h e relative sizes o f b o d y parts and trust y o u r eyes. A t a c e r t a i n angle. MEASUREMENT AND FORESHORTENING Tilt t h e t o p edge o f this b o o k t o w a r d you and look d o w n o n this figure f r o m a b o v e . y o u r hand travels f a r t h e r than y o u expect. which feels strange. looking d o w n t h e p a p e r at t h e a n g l e at w h i c h I d r e w . T h i s is t h e s a m e d r a w i n g p h o t o g r a p h e d f r o m above. . FORESHORTENING To f o r e s h o r t e n a figure. belly. C o m p a r e t h e heights o f t h e nose and eye shapes t o t h o s e o f t h e f o r e a r m . W e appear t o be looking d o w n o n a w o m a n s t a n d i n g b e n e a t h us.117 ACCELERATED PERSPECTIVE To discover h o w this w o r k s . t a p e s o m e p a p e r t o a board. To m a k e f o r m s l o o k c o r r e c t . h e r p r o p o r t i o n s will appear correct. L o o k at y o u r m o d e l as if he o r she is a flat series o f shapes o n e o n t o p o f a n o t h e r Measure t h e height and w i d t h o f each shape and c o m p a r e it t o its neighbor. a n d thighs. Stand its b o t t o m edge o n y o u r lap. S o o n t h e b o d y will lie d o w n in space. P r o p o r t i o n s will only l o o k c o r r e c t f r o m t h e angle at w h i c h y o u make t h e drawing. pleasingly f o r e s h o r t e n e d . Lean t h e t o p e d g e t o w a r d y o u and find a p o s i t i o n w h e r e y o u can c o m f o r t a b l y l o o k d o w n t h e p a p e r at an angle o f a b o u t 4 0 degrees.

and height. feeling. Start each new drawing by lightly marking the model's height with a loose line in ten seconds. imagine holding up a plumb line. To draw this effect. make the upper body smaller give your model a high waist. Avoid drawing up one side and down the other. propelling you to make immediate assessments and trust them. height. and work over t h e m with further o b s e r v a t i o n s . To see this. working from her center to her feet and to her head. and energy. THE SEQUENCE OF POSES H e r e the model was asked to move every t w o minutes. Leave first thoughts in place. balance. and stance before honing her balance and expression. Height This pose leans away into space above our eye level. work back and forth across the body. her center of balance is normally found in a vertical line beneath her head. because it results in two unrelated sides drifting apart. Layered lines give d e p t h . Outline To outline a figure. Balance When a model stands upright on both feet. I used a sharp H B pencil and began each drawing by marking her outline.118 BODY Quick Poses DRAWING QUICK POSES l o c k s y o u r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n t o what is most essential. . Be bold and dive into your drawing with c o n f i d e n c e . T h i s q u i c k e x p l o r a t o r y line does not perfectly describe shape but expresses a decision about overall flow of form. and slightly enlarge her legs and feet.

the activity of circular lines and the repetition of limbs suggest movement. and this should be avoided Twist QUICK POSES A model standing on one leg usually drops the opposite hip. Tilt Movement Here. This drawing shows how different observations be overlaid to bring a drawing alive. Most of us have a tendency to over-straighten the drawn figure. . The tilt of the pelvis is then counter balanced by the model's shoulders tilting the other way (as seen here).119 The twist of a model is most easily and expressively captured if it is exaggerated.

W h e n starting. Group the fingers together as one mass. Draw large shapes and their orientation. but regard these practice studies as ongoing processes of thought and observatio Add details such as nails last if you wish. 3 . and a gooseneck lamp casts shadows that clarify planes and depths GESTURES OF THE HAND Curled Fingers 1 Open Palm Start honing the shapes of the dominant planes. starting with the largest. Then subdivide each shape so that you w o r k from large to small.120 BODY Hands and Feet THERE ARE MANY different ways of approaching h a n d s and THE of form. It also helps the beginner to progress from drawing outlines to drawing confidently across the surface of the whole form. This exercise is useful when struggling with proportion. Keep lines open to change and take measurements if they help. express structure and gesture far more successfully and easily than ten worried outlines wandering up and down between the fingers and toes. Do not separate them yet. Practice by drawing your own hands and feet. it is important to leave aside all details of the fingers and toes. or those of a friend. feet. 2 Build your drawing gradually from light to dark. especially the lengthwise divisions between them. Focus instead on how planes change direction across the knuckles from one side of the hand or foot to the other. general to specific. and ignore all details. Don't worry about achieving perfect solutions. drawn in relation to each other. and they need not be daunting to draw. These planes. Begin by drawing lines to encompass the whole hand. swiftly marking its essential gesture. A mirror increases your range of views.

121 HANDS AND FEET MOVEMENTS OF THE FOOT Flat Stance Raised Heel Instep 1 Let your first marks be light. and don't worry about accuracy t o begin with. flattened though out o f wood. however. It can be a mistake. Hew it roughly in broad. as if with a chisel. loose. these are what give a drawing its tangible structure. t o remove t o o many early lines. Nowimagineyou are carving the foot insidethepaper. Try t o express the whole foot and t o encapsulate its entire shape and direction in a few marks. 2 3 Use an eraser t o refine decisions o r t o suggest areas o f light. . and spontaneity. and rapid. depth. Leave aside all detail. Look for key angles without becoming distracted by detail.

I also used white ink with a steel dip pen." . The white lines demonstrate what is often called "bracelet shading. Compare its nature in close-up to that of willow charcoal used on pp.Charcoal Hands T H E S E DRAWINGS ARE MADE in compressed charcoal.204-05. Opposite.


Phrasing Contours . length. before honing his or her shape (see pp. 118-19). I make these lines in the first five to ten seconds of a drawing to locate the presence.HERE TRACES OF RAPID initial lines are still seen within and outside each body. and posture of the model.


and narrative pulse become vivid when you realize them in the middle of your study. It is now viewed with some skepticism and often seen as academic. I draw in museums in support of written research and as an artist seeking answers to questions about the practicalities of image making. Forms. . perspectives. feeling them through the attentive movements of your own hand. characters.The Visual Detective DRAWING FROM MASTERWORKS was once a staple component of an artist's education. Drawing work by another artist enables you to discover and understand the inventive hand in their composition.


. Walls are lined with hundreds of faintly animated body parts. These almost life-size figures were composed from my imagination and achieved with the help af studies discussed on pp.La Specola At17V i a Romana. Life-size women wearing wigs recline on beds of embroidered silk in cabinets of mahogany and Venetian glass This is a detail of a compressed charcoal drawing measuring 14 x 10 ft (4. each modeled from dissection. 126-27.3 x 3 m) made in response to La Specola. there is a unique museum of 18th-century anatomical waxes. Florence.



throat. usually strangers from past times. bells. Halls and palaces are filled with pictures of the mighty and significant. character. religious. and their posture can be changed with just one line. For centuries. historical. It also reminds us o f b o t h t h e intimacy and a scene as scrutiny o f an honest portrait. his changes in pressure and Hitchcock length o f line. Movie director Alfred similarly signed his films by playing a fleeting role: he walks through an extra. made as he passed through the ages of man. Goya. Rembrandt's famous multitude of self-portraits. and it is very rewarding. a single line can deliver an entire expression. Man Ray's self-portrait of scored lines. live. and expression of the individual. Once you understand Self-Portrait in a Cocked Hat c. Portraits can be highly or loosely detailed. became more poignant as he progressed. is here to both meet and look through us. compliant subject to scrutinize. neck. We are also reassured by keeping records of ourselves. draftsman. W h e n drawing a person. 1790-92 4 x 3 in ( 1 0 2 x 7 6 m m ) F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A and memorize the basic structure that we all share. single or of groups. Beginners often draw themselves as a way of establishing their practice. and satirical or metaphorical. The returning image was of crucial consideration in any proposal. their stance. and in a few scrolling rafts of pen lines and stubbled dots. and shoulders. abstract or figurative. or past us. and lucrative genre for artists. Past rulers sent painters across continents to bring back a likeness in advance of a prospective royal marriage. This enlargement o f his miniature p o r t r a i treveals t h e s p e e d and agility o f his p e n and about himself. In this chapter. We can mold and animate qualities of expression out of objects and fragments of disassociated things—for example. . The truth is that we all like looking at faces and observing the billions of variations that make us individuals. who. buttons. having been documented and preserved. painters have dropped discreet records of themselves into commissioned narratives so that they can remain a face in the crowd. or a glimpse of him is caught in a photograph used as a prop. look directly at us. Goya's w o r k s include many royal and society p o r t r a i t s .Portraiture IN P O R T R A I T U R E W E MEET PEOPLE. Self-portraiture gives every artist a constant.139). Our homes are filled with images of our loved ones and of those in our families who have gone before. Equally. and social and political commentaries. and a handprint (see p. and secular narratives. the meaning of their face. and p r i n t m a k e r . you can capture the subtlety. To create a face is to see and interpret the essence of an identity. or whose eyes can seem to follow us around the room Portraiture is a constant. in a miniature self-portrait magnified opposite. we use the delicate medium of silver point to look at foundation structures of the head. gathered all that he knew FRANCISCO DE GOYA V i s i o n a r y Spanish painter.

PABLO PICASSO Spanish Cubist painter (see also p. breadth. For the beginner. The Tightness of a line is felt in its speed. The aesthetic sense of a line being just right can make a drawing sing. they serve as a great lesson that it is not always necessary to add tone to your drawing. stealthily using his chalk to find contours and mass. It is the portrait of a countrywoman. While with longer consideration. adding smudges of tone for weight and solidity. Picasso strikes and scrolls his pencil. Her face is drawn tenderly and with a luminous glow. The truth is often the opposite. and pressure as it conducts our eye through the image. Through exhibitions and copies in books. teetering on the brink of older age. Holbein maps the still landscape of Dorothea's body in questioning marks. Without faltering. He makes his flair and skill look easy. one eye already cast askew into the autumn of her life. There is a common misunderstanding that a drawing with only a few lines is both less finished and easier to make than a drawing with more. hand to capture something well in only Frangoise au Bandeau 1946 660 x 505 mm (26 x197/8in) PABLO PICASSO . whisking a timeless girl onto the page.30). length. caught in her last moments of youth. We can read so much about them by studying their gaze. Here the grace and beauty of two young women are held forever.132 PORTRAITURE Poise THE BALANCE BETWEEN a mark and a blank space is often a tantalizing form of perfection. Picasso has left to posterity many hundreds of magnificent line drawings. we can enjoy and learn from them. We can actually count that he struck the paper 40 times. It takes a truly accomplished a few strokes. How could the addition of shadows have enhanced this image? Few strokes The simplicity of Picasso's line is breathtaking.

Holbein has cropped and pinned his subject within the four outermost lines of the image—the edges of the page. made a popular series o f w o o d c u t prints titled The Dance of Death. Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 1516 51/8 x121/4in (385 x 310 m m ) HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER . Cropping This regal composition fits its paper perfectly. and designer f r o m Basel. Her folded forearms support and frame her weight above. He outlined her nose but not her upper lip.133 HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER German p o r t r a i t painter draftsman. Holbein was employed toward the end of his life by King Henry VIII of England. In addition t o his numerous exquisite portraits in oil. he designed c o u r t costumes. Blended colors In this portrait drawn with colored chalks on slightly textured paper. The peak of her cap clips the uppermost edge. Holbein unified the woman with her background by gently blending colors from her clothes and face into the atmosphere around her. which. and its downward slope crowns the diagonal of the composition. and produced numerous society portraits such as this one here. presses against the binding across her face. gently flushed.

VICTOR NEWSOME British sculptor painter and draftsman.134 PORTRAITURE Anatomies These highly finished drawings express the emotional power and physicality of the head and neck. taught at numerous British art schools from 1962-77. the face is one of the hardest parts to dissect. This is a m a r v e l o u s interpretation of the truth. and glands also complicate form. Delicate muscles are integrated with the skin and fat that is to be r e m o v e d . Newsome was awarded the Prix de Rome in 1960. Nerves. Contrasts Sharp. continues to exhibit regularly. blood vessels. perhaps applied using a tortillon. and has works in major collections including the Tate Gallery. and unpleasant to see. It floats in space. This is one of a number of similar disembodied female heads seen behind. or defined by. the contours of a grid. London. using a fine and relatively 1982 13 x 181/8 in (328 x 460 mm) VICTOR NEWSOME brush. Anatomically. confusing. N e w s o m e ' s eerily shadowed form is smooth and bears a linear grain evocative of w o o d . The style of Durelli's d r a w i n g opposite sings with the confidence of truth and precision. In fact. dark lines made with a pencil appear against smooth. but they are irrelevant here. its highly clarified detail claiming to be d r a w n from observation. dark tones of graphite blended into the paper. The real dissection w o u l d have been far more c o m p l e x . distorted. Psychological drama is contained behind a grid. solid above and almost hollow below. Highlights of white gouache were dry Profile Head late in the making. while white painted flecks and wisps suggest electrical illumination. . Durelli has m a d e a few m i n o r mistakes.

Stylized parallel lines are reminiscent of engravings. It is hard to think of a more difficult medium with which to achieve such linear perfection. Durelli's experience as an engraver is reflected in his stylized drawing o f muscle fibers.135 ANATOMIES ANTONIO DURELLI Linear perfection This is a red chalk drawing of extraordinary accomplishment. and it is likely that this drawing was intended for reproduction as a print. Pencil numbers refer to the list of muscles written beneath. w h e n contracted. Red Chalk the Muscles 1837 173/8 x 145/8 in ( 4 4 0 x 3 7 2 m m ) ANTONIO DURELLI and Pencil Drawing and of Neck of the Head Little is k n o w n o f this M i l a n e s e p a i n t e r a n d engraver w h o c a m e from a family o f artists. which. pull their points o f attachment t o w a r d each other .

Bellini gently conjures the features of his saint with soft marks that tease his presence out of shadows into the light. with speed and urgency. Giacometti settled in Paris. and with staccato flinches his hyperactive eye moves from paper to model. painter draftsman. We are brought intimately close to this man gazing up to heaven. The camera watches him at work. cutting and carving the paper with matted and spiraling restless energy. Energy This is a portrait of a woman drawn with black crayon on a plain page of a book Lines search for the essence of form. They show us clearly the bones of drawing. Portrait de Marie-Laure de Noailles c. Speed Giacometti probably began with an oval shape placed in relation to the proportion of the page. each portrait is inscribed onto the page. necks. which are characteristically elongated. ALBERTO GIACOMETTI Swiss sculptor. close enough to touch his hair and feel his breath. Both works demonstrate how simple lines can be made complex by being intense. and heads. he drew over the whole image at once. Agitated marks make patches of tone that cut away the space around the character. There is a film of Giacometti drawing. Opposite. 1948 77/8 x 6 in (200 x 150 mm) ALBERTO GIACOMETTI . while his hand stabs and thrusts Revelations like a conductors baton. each locked into a visionary gaze. Then. as if seen from a distance.136 PORTRAITURE THESE ARE DRAWINGS of shoulders. Without paint and with very little tone. and poet After studying in Geneva and Italy. He is best known for his bronze sculptures of human form. Similar movements sculpted the head below into its page. They confuse our perception of scale by being intimately fragile and at the same time far removed. Flesh is built and personality carved simultaneously.

lyrical.25 6 . Mantegna. These are pinholes. a n d b r o t h e r in-law.G I O V A N N I BELLINI A prominent member of a large family o f V e n e t i a n painters. Head and Shoulders of a Man 73/8 x 21/4 in ( 1 8 6 x 5 8 UNDATED GIOVANNI BELLINI . Character This is one of many cartoons produced by Bellini the and his family. Bellini s t u d i e d u n d e r his f a t h e r J a c o p o . a n d his w o r k is d i s t i n c t i v e l y calm. Sometimes different narrative same character was reused in compositions. a n d c o n t e m p l a t i v e . H e t a u g h t G i o r g i o n e Barbarelli and Titian. H e p r e f e r r e d religious t o classical t h e m e s . transferring which were made in the process of the saint to his final place in the composition of a painting (see Glossary pp. Transfer This delicate humorous chalk a drawing is a cartoon—not image but a type of template used to plan the composition of a larger work Look closely and you will see rows of tiny dots along every significant line in the picture.5 9 ) .

political outcry. their most immediate and best-known subject: themselves. and sheet metal before being snapped up by the New York contemporary art scene.221). marks. JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT Short-lived American painter and graffiti artist who began his blazing nine-year career drawing on lower Manhattan subway trains with a friend. It has proved to be a subject of piercing scrutiny. humor. Signs and symbols with symbols This painting shudders that ore written. and everything flux. and confrontations with. In 1986 he traveled to Africa and showed his work in Abidjan on the Ivory Coast He also exhibited in Germany and France. and buttons rings with surrealist wit and agile improvisation. Islands of graphic marks.138 PORTRAITURE THE MIRROR OF SELF-PORTRAITURE offers artists infinite reflections of. The figure's position is unequivocal and defiant while around him is in a state Without the essential of cultural and figure we would elegant belookingat a sophisticated painting of signs. scrolls. The artist has finished his portrait with the signature of his hand smacked in the middle like a kiss: a declaration of existence as old as man's first drawing. scratched into its surface. It is an image of confrontation—the ever-controversial young artist roars at us from his abstract city-scape. postcards. skull- Self-Portraits headed. and attitudes. It is an opportunity to look deep without the infringement of courtesies owed to a commissioning sitter. and indulgence. signing their work SAMO. spear-brandishing warrior. Self Portrait 1982 9 4 x 7 6 in (239 x 193 cm) JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT . similar to work by Cy Twombly (see p. The incandescent New York painter Jean Michel Basquiat pictured himself here in naked silhouette. bells. scratched lines. Al Diaz. float and shimmer in the shallow pictorial space. made with great energy. Man Ray's playful silk-screen assembly of color blocks. drawn. Later Basquiat sold drawings on T-shirts. a tribal.

painter. They experimented with camera-free photography working directly onto photographic paper Silk and ink This is a silkscreen print made through the following process: the paper was laid on a flat surface and a frame stretched with fine silk was placed on top. last of all. The handprint appears to be made directly. while a squeegee was used to drag thick lilac-brown ink across the silk pushing it though exposed areas onto the paper below. Man Ray lived and worked in Paris. The first part of the stenciled image was already marked on the silk The screen and paper were then held tightly together. During the 1920's and 30s. Man Ray probably used his own hand.139 MAN RAY American surrealist photographer. Autoportrait 1916 195/8 MAN RAY . They suggest speed and make the picture look immediate and spontaneous. Black ink was printed next and then white. caked in thick printing ink or paint. printmaker and cofounder of the New York Dada movement. where he collaborated with the artist Laslo MoholyNagy. Frame White lines are seemingly (though not actually) scratched through ink to frame this face.

If w o r k i n g o n an emulsion-painted wall. or ring. purchase silver wire. and alloys work on matt emulsion. copper. and t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h strips a b o v e and b e l o w . the surface must be primed with a ground such as gouache. who used it to outline initials and border characters before painting. w h i t e d r a w i n g paper) and cut it t o fit y o u r d r a w i n g b o a r d w i t h a generous b o r d e r a r o u n d its edges. or wood. I m a k e m y o w n f r o m o l d dip pens. Note h o w domestic paintwork marks with a coin. 1. was familiar to or eggshells with animal glue. SILVER P O I N T W I R E H O L D E R : T h e s e c a n b e p u r c h a s e d a n d t e n d t o b e heavy. b u t d o n ' t w o r r y . 2. Gesso o r m a t t e m u l s i o n c a n a l s o b e u s e d . bone. and is therefore useful w h e n using w a t e r c o l o r as well as silver point. W e t a n d fix a s e c o n d strip t o t h e o p p o s i t e side. laid on paper. Find a n i t e m t h a t y o u can h o l d a n d draw with comfortably. and gold have also been used. s e e p . s o m e m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n o t h e r s . Lay a clean d r a w i n g b o a r d o n a flat surface. which quickly oxidizes into a gray line.140 PORTRAITURE Silver P o i n t SILVER OR METAL POINT STRETCHING PAPER A sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has been made w e t with the strokes o f a paintbrush will buckle d u e t o its uneven expansion.54-55). E m p t y mechanical pencils designed f o r t h i c k leads ( s e e p. illuminators of medieval m a n u s c r i p t s . choose a silver object. M E T A L OBJECTS: All metal objects m a r k a p r e p a r e d surface. S i l v e r is b e s t . 144-45. it leaves a deposit. c h o o s e a s o f t full b r u s h t h a t c a n c a r r y p l e n t y o f l i q u i d . Opposite. 1 4 4 . Metal point does not work on ordinary paper. Metal point is simply a strip of metal bound in a holder. I t is a v a i l a b l e f r o m all a r t s h o p s . b e f o r e priming stretched paper. MATERIALS 1 Find a clean sponge and b o w l o r d e e p t r a y a n d fill it w i t h w a t e r W e t t h e p a p e r evenly in t h e t r a y o r o n t h e b o a r d . o n e t o fit each side o f t h e b o a r d — t h e s e will make t h e glued f r a m e t h a t holds y o u r p a p e r in place.54) can also b e used. platinum. Be swift and firm. Take a sheet o f any t y p e o f p a p e r (for e x a m p l e . artists mixed white lead. Pages 142 to 147 are illustrated in silver point and techniques are explained on pp. This browns with age unless sealed by fixative (see pp. you will need t o stretch paper and lay a wash (see right and opposite). This is called a three-tone drawing. M a k e s u r e i t is c o m p l e t e l y clean t o avoid u n w a n t e d streaks. 5." Lead.Tear o f f f o u r lengths o f b r o w n p a p e r g u m tape. 156). W e t o n e length o f g u m . Drawn across a prepared surface. an exciting indication of how large-scale drawings could be made on a wall. 2 . For i m p o r t a n t a d v i c e o n p r e p a r a t i o n a n d use. Stretched paper remains taut as a d r u m .s t r i p a n d use i t t o fix o n e side o f t h e p a p e r t o t h e b o a r d . To begin. The most c o m m o n metal has always been silver—hence the term "silver point. I combined silver point with painted white gouache on a pink ground. p a r c h m e n t . T h e p a p e r will l o o k b u c k l e d . Straighten the w o r s t buckles. 3 . SILVER W I R E : Purchase different gauge lengths f r o m a traditional a r t supplier o r jeweler. Historically. and make o r buy a holder. Lightly s p o n g e o f f t h e excess. Numerous early European artists also enjoyed its fine qualities (see p. Z I N C W H I T E G O U A C H E : Dilute with w a t e r A d d c o l o r i f r e q u i r e d (as opposite) 4 . S O F T F U L L B R U S H : W h e n laying a w a s h . key.

leaving a smooth surface. Reload the brush and add a second line overlapping it beneath. LAYING A WASH It your stretched paper so as to prime it for silver point. Here. Dry thoroughly before laying a wash. Dip a soft. so put newspaper under the lower edge. Beware of the tape's coming loose at any point while drying. as the paper will be ruined by a raised ridge. Prop up your board of dry.141 SILVER POINT 3 Leave the paper to dry flat. stretched paper at a 45-degree angle.t o n e silver point drawing of a skull . Make an even line across to the right. Mix a very wet but not weak solution of gouache in a jar with a lid (add pigment at this stage for a three-tone drawing). Leave the wash to dry thoroughly before you begin to draw. overlapping lines until you reach the bottom. slowly add powder pigment or gouache from a tube. is necessary to lay a wash o Three-tone When coloring ground. and let tests dry before deciding to change the mixture. I used a powder pigment called Caput Mortuum. Keep testing on spare paper. Runs blend into each other evenly. v e r y little at a time. T h r e e . The next step will make a small mess. full brush into the gouache and start in the top left corner. Make enough to cover your paper. Keep adding smooth. any extra will keep. It will slowly straighten and become taut.



Head and Neck
THE HEAD AND NECK are best conceived as one unit arranged in four parts: cranium, face, neck, and throat. Each is of equal importance. The cranium is essentially egg-shaped and pivots on the first vertebra. The face is suspended beneath, like a softly curved triangle. The n e c k — a powerful, shapely column of layered muscles rigged to vertebrae—adjusts and holds the angle and expression of the head. The throat is delicate, hard, and lumpy to the touch, formed of cartilaginous rings, glands, thin muscles, and looser skin. Framing the throat, two columnar neck muscles (sternomastoids) project the head forward and also turn it to the opposite side.

This is a simple shorthand diagram representing the cranium, face, neck, and throat. It can be learned and visualized in different positions very easily, giving the novice a firm footing on which to stand and develop their drawings of the head and neck.

Shorthand diagram

Cranium Begin with an egg shape. Tilt it on the paper to change the position of the head.

Face Draw a rounded triangular shape below the forward point of the egg to represent the face.

Neck This shape represents the trapezius; the largest surface muscle of the neck and shoulders.

Throat A triangular shape represents the throat. (The nose makes the diagram clearer)

Applied shorthand

After copying the diagram above, animate it. Practice drawing the cranium at different angles, add the face beneath, then the neck, shoulders, and throat. Shape your diagrams so they are more lifelike, but avoid adding detailed features too soon.

143 These three drawings demonstrate (from left to right) the following: why the cranium may be considered egg-shaped; now the face can be seen as a curved triangle suspended beneath and where the division lies between the two; and the form of sternomastoid muscles that frame thethroatsodistinctlywhen the head is turned and inclined forward.

The skull and the frame of the throat


Bones of the cranium are locked together by jagged joints. Sinuses in the frontal (forehead) bone between and beneath the eyebrows are larger in men, making their brows pronounced and often ridged compared to those of women.

Bones of the face house our sight, smell, taste, The skull pivots on the first vertebra or "atlas," and speech. Cartilage extending from nasal bones after the Greek god condemned to carry the shapesthenose.Pads of fat resting on the base of Earth. The jaw hinges in front of the ears. Behind, eacheyesocket support the eyeballs in position. If bony ridges give anchor to the sternomastoid thefatisreducedby old age, eyes look sunken. muscles rising from the breast- and collarbones.

Three useful generalizations

General rules about the relative positions of body parts can hinder artists as much as help them, since they are often based on classical ideals rather than thediversityoflife.However,some generalizations can help as a rough guide to start with, so long as good observation takes over as soon as possible.

In general, when the face is relaxed (not smiling or frowning), the corners of the mouth are found directly beneath the pupils of the eyes. Vertical lines can be drawn down from the pupils to meet the corners of the mouth.

The height of a young adult's ear is often the same as their nose and found on the same level. There is no general rule for growing children, and remember that ears grow again in old age, which is most obvious in men.

The height of the face is about the length of the handspan and the eye is normally halfway down the total height of the head. A common error is to draw the eyes too high up on the face.



Essential Observations

(see pp. 140-41) is perfect for

such as a beach pebble. Here, I stretched drawing paper and laid a wash of white gouache (see pp.140-41). As you can see, the line and tone of silver point varies with pressure, but only slightly. Too much pressure cuts the ground. Silver point erases, but so does ground. Erased ground can be repaired gently with extra gouache. You can also use gouache to paint over mistakes and make corrections.

small, detailed drawings. The drawings below and opposite show useful observations of the head and neck, which are explained in the captions below. Each drawing was made with a silver wire held in a large-gauge mechanical pencil. Newly clipped wires are sharp and cut rather than draw. Before use, they need to be rubbed and smoothed on a stone

Here I imagined placing my silver point wire against the skin of each head and neck and, working in parallel bands from the crown downward, I traced the undulation of surfaces. Linear bands imagined around the head and neck can help you t o clearly see the tilt of the head and relative levels of the features. Ask a friend t o model for you and try this exercise life-size using a pencil and eraser


Tilted forward

Tilted backward

Three-quarter view

Seeing that the face is never flat

Drawings below left and center are summaries of the generalizations given on p.143. Far right is an image to remind us that the face is never flat. It slopes back to varying degrees among individuals, from the tip of the nose t o the ears. For example, note that the innermost corners of the eyes are farther forward in space than the outermost corners.

General measurements, side

General measurements, front

View from above


Male and female head and neck
Men's necks a r e g e n e r a l l y s h o r t e r a n d t h i c k e r t h a n w o m e n ' s b e c a u s e t h e angles a n d levels o f c e r t a i n b o n e s a r e d i f f e r e n t b e t w e e n t h e sexes ( i n d i c a t e d h e r e b y d o t t e d lines) a n d m e n are n o r m a l l y m o r e muscular. T h e male t h y r o i d cartilage ( A d a m ' s apple) is larger a n d m o r e visible than t h e f e m a l e . L a r g e r f e m a l e t h y r o i d glands also s o f t e n t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e t h r o a t .

Female skull





Trapezius muscle
The largest m u s c l e o f t h e s h o u l d e r s a n d n e c k is called the trapezius. A r r a n g e d on e i t h e r side o f t h e spine, it shapes t h e u p p e r back and neck above the s h o u l d e r blades. C o n t r a c t i n g in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h d e e p e r and surrounding muscles, it raises and l o w e r s t h e shoulders a n d d r a w s t h e h e a d backtoeitherside.

The whole



half with



with head



with head


Side with


Front with




Drawing Portraits
USING A SHARP 3 B PENCIL, I drew this head quickly from imagination, evolving its character and expression from the scheme of four parts: cranium, face, neck, a n d throat (see p. 142). Here, five steps show you how to practice doing the same. This approach can be used to draw from imagination or from life. Keep your wrist loose and hold your pencil away from its point (see pp.22-23). Build the layers of your drawing from pale to dark, a n d from general balance a n d form to specific detail. Remember that successful drawings are built on foundations of "seeing the whole," then dividing the whole into smaller parts, with details brought in last of all. Phrased tonal marks modeling this girls skin and hair follow the technique demonstrated by Goya in his self-portrait on p. 130. Turn to Goya's drawing and study how, in a circle beginning across his hat, moving down his hair, and around his coat, he flows lines over surfaces to describe their contour. As you build from steps 1 to 5, bring phrased groups of lines across the surfaces of your form, using their directions to capture the expression of the head and neck. If unsure, copy my steps until you gain the confidence to make your own decisions.

This drawing is the final stage of the four steps opposite. Here, I have enlarged the eye, and moved it back into the head by trimming the length of the upper lid and adding a more pronounced lower lid. It is important to set eyes far enough back from the relatively prominent nose; too close to it and the face flattens. Hair swept back and extended behind the cranium balances the regal pose. Lines shaping the hair echo those marking the cranium in step 1. Here, the lower part of step 1 comes through as wisps of hair across her face and ear


Portrait of a Young Girl

The eye announces the nature and expression of the emerging person. over the cranium. down the face to the throat. neck. 3 Place the eye beneath the cranium. Keep your first lines light.147 Building up the portrait DRAWING PORTRAITS 1 Gently spin pale lines in a softly drawn shape representing the cranium. they are also still sweeping and confident. Here. The nose and ear begin to shape the head. avoid drawing too dark. I modeled the outline of the character I imagined light shining from above and in front and adjusted the pressure of lines to reflect this. I used light to describe the upper lid first with a shadow beneath for the lower lid and open eye. too soon. Moving from the back of the neck. and throat. so it is important to the life of the image that while controlled. 4 . 2 Rapidly add shorthand shapes to represent the face. First lines will remain visible in the final drawing.Theangle at which you draw this shape of the paper will determine the angle of the finished head.


Above all.T o DRAW PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGES. a n d t h o s e w h o a r e Generations asleep (see overleaf). be aware of the subtle differences in skin surface. muscular tension. the texture of hair. and gravity. empathize. .



Van Dyke's noble cast of characters was modeled more finely. seeking the dominant contours of each individual expression. with a steel dip pen and acrylic ink. Madrid.Castings DRAWING IN THE PRADO MUSEUM. I used the nib upside down to gain needle-sharp precision. . Fast lines carve out the features of Goya's soup-slurping hag.



outrageous. Bakst's designs and costumes immediately To the fine artist. so that c h o i c e . and atmosphere. Like it or not. c u l t u r e . was a Belarussian A r t Deco theater fantasies and desires to immediately possess a version of the same. of Scheherazade. st 111/4 x 81/2 in (285 x 220 mm) u d i e d L E O NB A K S T and explore the characterization of fabric t h r o u g h m o v e m e n t . while court p a i n t e r s — M i c h e l a n g e l o and Holbein. T h e p a p e r p a t t e r n is p e r h a p s the m o s t w i d e l y k n o w n of c o s t u m e d r a w i n g s : a formalized plan of lines. Practical classes Bacchante 1911 l o o k at r a n g e s of c o l o r e d m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d i n g p a s t e l s a n d felt-tip p e n s . shapes. S t r u c t u r e is t h o u g h the i n v e n t i o n of shoes. b u t influenced Parisian fashion and interiordecor.Costume W E MAKE OURSELVES EXOTIC. dancer leaps through swaths of golden cloth. In this c h a p t e r w e see h o w c l o t h i n g c a n s e e m to p o s s e s s the w e i g h t and m o n u m e n t a l i t y of stone. e m u l a t e textures. or calm u s w i t h chic.As artistic director of the It is s h o c k i n g to t h i n k h o w m a n y m i l l i o n s of d r a w i n g s m u s t be m a d e a n d d i s c a r d e d Ballet Russe. c o s t u m e o f f e r s a r i c h v o c a b u l a r y of t e x t u r e s a n d c o l o r . intriguing. known as Leon Bakst. W e dress ourselves and costume designer trained in in St. it is the public sign by w h i c h w e are j u d g e d . T h e e n t o u r a g e of the theatrical stage o f t e n l e a d s the c a t w a l k . a n d p r o f e s s i o n — b e g a n life as a d r a w i n g . In psychology. a n d s u b t l e t o n e s . and e x u b e r a n c e . and even invisible by the w a y w e dress. and i n d e e d image b e c a m e the property also of the industrial classes. woman was drawn by Bakst one year later for the ballet Narcisse. Artists do this not so m u c h b y the style of a figure's garment. variety. Previously.This voluptuous above all a physical p u p p e t w i t h w h i c h to animate character and narrate personality. P o p u l a r f a s h i o n d e s i g n e x p l o d e d w i t h the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n . w h i c h in turn feed c o n s u m e r Lev. and s y m b o l s that lets m e n and w o m e n in all countries and areas have w o r k i n g access to the latest fashions. charcoal. personality. and intent. Designers all over the w o r l d c o n t i n u a l l y p e n and b r u s h lines to lash us w i t h color. . theb u t b y the w a y it s p e a k s w i t h its flying. w a r m t h . gesture. and everything w e h a v e c h o s e n for o u r w a r d r o b e s — r e f l e c t o r s of o u r taste. g l o s s y folds. fulfilling lavish and spectacular briefs. and gouache. toParis. articulate a d a n g e r o u s satirical j o k e . Petersburg and later exiled designers' ideas and are surprised and delighted b y their continual f l o w of inspiration. Cities c h a n g e d all. arichand unusual combination of pencil. he and cofounder Serge Diaghilev took Paris by eac storm in 1910 with their production h year in the industrial f r e n z y of creating o u r image and aspirations. D e s i g n e r s create m a s t e r p i e c e s of haute couture LEON BAKST for H o l l y w o o d stars. cool. Samoylovich Rosenberg. caricatured p l u m e s . or b u l g e s . and be so expressive of temperament that it overtakes the need for an o c c u p y i n g h u m a n form. c r u m p l e s . T h e rural masses w o r e h o m e s p u n simplicity. for e x a m p l e — d e s i g n e d the w a r d r o b e s of p o p e s a n d k i n g s . o n l y the w e a l t h y c o u l d afford to h a v e c o s t u m e s specially m a d e . a n d c o u r t i e r tailors f o l l o w e d suit. a n d w e will c o l l e c t patterns.

With a stylus such as Van Eyck used here. it is only possible to create very thin. He has layered these slowly and carefully so as not to cut through the ground and produce a white mark just where he intended a dark one. Above them. with their jagged edges. H e m e t i c u l o u s l y a r r a n g e d subjects t o c o n v e y d e e p e r meaning. the vaulted stone roof echoes and crowns the moment. Vertical lines The highly controlled lines of this drawing cascade from top to bottom of the image.140-41). Maelbeke I44I Madonna 11 x 7 in (278 x 180 m m ) JAN V A N EYCK . her marble garment holds u p the infant Christ in a fountain of compressed line. and snakelike marks. Sculpted one. Van Eyck's highly polished w o r k is c e l e b r a t e d f o r its disguised symbolism. Short and subtle horizontal punctuations are only given in the background by sections of floor. swirling printed fabrics. delicate lines. Delicate marks Silver (or metal) point is the most delicate of traditional drawing media (see pp. dragons. However. Keisai Eisen's intense. In Van Eyck's drawing below. Their uninterrupted emphasis is entirely vertical. bands around the columns. and the kneeling abbot is a ghost by comparison. the carefully composed outline of his cloak shows us how the artist would have also begun his immaculate rendering of the Virgin's clothes. Church and deities are drawn as JAN VAN EYCK Flemish oil p a i n t e r f r o m L i m b o u r g . folds and patterns of material speak more resolutely of their wearers than any small glimpses of body we can see. Marble gown We will never know if Van Eyck considered this drawing unfinished or intended the kneeling abbot to remain transient and ghostly. Her gown is carved and polished as if made from marble. Below this. best k n o w n f o r his G h e n t altarpiece ( 1 4 3 2 ) a n d m a r r i a g e p o r t r a i t o f Giovanni A r n o l f i n i and his w i f e (1434). the Madonna and her architecture are both dressed in the same manner. The quiet stillness of this image is achieved by a masterly economy of stylized line. Opposite. and implied striation in the stone of the architecture. Flaxmans sleeper—perhaps a pilgrim or a soldier resting between campaigns—has wedged himself into the cleft of some great building to grab a moment of peace. resonate with their wearers startled expression.156 COSTUME Cloth and Drapery EACH OF THESE FIGURES is ninety percent cloth.

and the feet notched against the pillar tell us that A lines holds him into the cleft. and Man Lying Down in a Cloak I 787-94 21/4 JOHN FLAXMAN x 41/8 in (57 x 105 mm) . stone wall of downward-stroked this sleeper's position is momentary. Position In this pen and ink drawing. and teacher Distinctive linear illustrations for the works of Homer. Parts of the image to be left unprinted are gouged out with a metal tool.157 KEISAI EISEN Japanese draftsman. This complex numerous blocks prepared image and may have been made with printed separately. The inked block is laid face-down on damp paper and pressed to make the print. draftsman. Images are drawn onto smooth. which are sometimes also cut into pieces like a jigsaw puzzle. an 18th-19th century document on the lives of the ukiyo-e artists. the angle of the head. flat sheets of wood. Dante. the cloak sliding to the ground. Remaining raised areas of wood are rolled with colored inks. CLOTH AND DRAPERY Relief printing This is a woodblock print made by a relief process. Respected for his sumptuous images of geisha and editions of erotic prints. he also co-edited and expanded the Ukiyo-e Ruiko (History of Prints of the Floating World). Aeschylus earned Flaxman an international reputation. designer. each delivering a different part and color of the design. writer and printmaker Keisai Eisen took his name from the masters Kano Hakkeisai and Kikugawa Eizan. Koimurasaki of Tama-ya 1810-50 15 x101/4in (381 x 260 mm) KEISAI EISEN The Courtesan JOHN F L A X M A N English late 18th-century neoclassical sculptor. one over the other.

w h e r e . t h r o u g h n u m e r o u s p o r t r a i t and C h u r c h commissions. Its warm surface flows in contrast to the stiff metal armor. all ruffs and wrinkles. He has been rendered on this olive<olored page with pen and gray wash worked over a red and black under-drawing. a n d w a s e m p l o y e d as c o u r t painter t o King Charles I. In 1 6 3 2 he m o v e d p e r m a n e n t l y t o L o n d o n . Opposite is a dangerous drawing. for she would not have been amused and William Wodall might have been stretching his luck. Pen and wash In the graphic accuracy of this armored knight we see the idealized identity of a warrior from another time: a gleaming defender of the realm. Details and voices are worn externally with great imagination. a scurrilous cartoon by a courtier of Queen Elizabeth I. where sometimes there just might not be anybody inside. theater. The metal.158 COSTUME Character Costumes an extreme form of the clothed figure. Man in Armor UNDATED 1 6 x 9 1 / 2 in ( 4 0 5 x 2 4 0 m m ) A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE . A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE Flemish painter and draftsman. lace. and feather were all CHARACTER COSTUMES REPRESENT observed with closely crafted conviction. cinema. A s a y o u n g man. Leg section Compare mid-shin the section of white boots cropped to the section of similarly cropped trousers in drawings Gruau's drawing on p. A flamboyant territory. cloth. 160. Anthony Van Dyke's Man in Armor is a masterpiece of drawn surface. Fine examples can be plucked from fashion. Leg sections in both support the figure without taking our attention away from the main garment above. Van D y k e was chief assistant t o Rubens f o r t w o years. It is presumed Her Royal Highness never saw it. and even formal portraiture. he c o o l e d and redefined his style. cartoon. The slight uncertainty of the pose and the limp cloak suggest a little more metal than man. The aged queen is compared to an overdressed bird. b e f o r e traveling t o Italy. Its color is also reflected in the metal. Flowing scarf The knight's scarf of gilded blue is drawn in a pale wash over red ink lines.

while a raised foot pauses to assess the next displaying a fan of daggers. and her pride. By her old upto three tiers supported on sticks. hooded with an overinflated fluffy ruff eye pins us. Beneath the lethal fan is the body of a bird of trimmed feathers suggest age. manuscript comprising six c a n t o s . bitten nature. suggest the use of iron-gall ink (see p. and saturations showing through from the other side. A Ruffs and feathers Starched white ruffs worn at court and by society grew steadily larger as Elizabeth's reign progressed.159 WILLIAM W O D A L L A u t h o r and illustrator o f The Aaes of Queene a Elizabeth poem Allegorized. she is shown as a grossly disproportioned bird. t h e Ridolfi Plot.35). the queen is masterfully rebalanced by words at her feet The whole drawing's blackened. t h e Rising. t h e Jesuit Mission.1599 71/2 WILLIAM x 51/4 in ( 1 9 0 x 1 3 4 mm) WODALL . T h e poem recounts t h e six m a j o r crises o f Elizabeth's reign: t h e Spanish A r m a d a . t h e B a b i n g t o n Plot. Top-heavy. Northern Satire This is a quill-and-ink satire of the elderly queen's pride-As head of state and fashion. here dark tawny owl. it was customary to Iron-gall ink Wodall's dangerous caricature steps daintily the written lines of her dedicated page. Satire of the Queen's Dress c.

as is Spider-Girl opposite. India ink and gouache This swish of confidence and style our enters the page turning everyone's head. 158. a n d L'Officiel de la couture. Gruau's model regally swans to the fore with cool pride. and gray pigments were applied separately. elegant chic and svelte. Composition Look how well this image is frame knee is parallel to the bottom edge spacehorizontalline cropping the trousers be outermostuprightbordersof her cuffs are similar above her head thesidesoftheimage. muscular aggression. Spider-Girl leaps like an insect.5 9 ) and a three-spoke balance of cuffs and cropped trousers to create an almost flag-like emblem of power. His model is outlined. She has been drawn with brushes dipped into India ink and gouache. Fashion and fantasy drawings invent prototypes of ideals and perfection—be they for the catwalk or the fast-paced pages of comic books. The black red. and both share the power of scarlet and black. Gruau uses starkly cut negative space (see pp. G r u a u ' s highly distinctive d r a w i n g s have a p p e a r e d Couture. 5 8 .160 COSTUME Femmes Fatales THESE DEVASTATING femmes fatales force back the onlooker with their demure. Drying time in between applications ensured the colors did not run into each other. demanding attention with gesture and flair.F r e n c h f a s h i o n i l l u s t r a t o r w h o in his l o n g and esteemed career w o r k e d with many of the g r e a t e s t d e s i g n e r s o f 2 0 t h .c e n t u r y haute i n n u m e r o u s m a g a z i n e s i n c l u d i n g Elle. studio-like rectangle of paper.and tilted to the same de a little deeper than sp kneestogivehergravity. Compare the compositio beneathVanDyke'sstudy of armor on p. Rene Gruau's bold gouache drawing of smoothly swaying sophistication captures a brilliantly cut garment and frames it with great dynamism in a white. Harpers & Queen. Vogue. possibly over a pencil outline. ofcroppedtrousershere to the device of the w Illustration 1949 for Jacques Fath in L ' O f f i c i e l d e la C o u t u r e RENE GRUAU . Fine lines drawn against the building behind her echo the threads on which we have all seen arachnids drop and hang. RENE GRUAU I t a l i a n . diving to catch us in the grip of her machine-like limbs. Airbrushed reflective surfaces further amplify our perception of speed.

It is outside the picture frame. to the right of its center. and figure are all locked into equally shatp through the traditional process of a pencilled outline over-drawn ink. a great characteristic superhero comics. He began work on Spider-Girl in 1998.74-77).RON F R E N Z Contemporary American graphic artist w h o designs and pencils the dynamic scenes of numerous superheroes featured in Marvel Comics. Single-point understand perspective To how Frenz created up therefore the effect of steeply between looking buildings—and howyou can do the same in your own work—take calculate where a ruler the and single vanishing point lies. Align your ruler to the upright of each building. at Their extensions will meet the same single vanishing (see point pp. moon. MARVEL C O M I C S . Airbrushed color and with tonal focus. In your mind's eye extend the uprights out of the top of the picture. Sharp focus black outlines in this drawing create a hyper-real dynamic. and Amazing Spider-Man. Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 2001-04 R O N FRENZ. Frenz has drawn for Marvel for about 20 years. not far above the drawing. This s modeling applied over the top give the image a sleek and mechanical of gravity. sky. beginning with Star Wars. and has been the title's regular artist since 2003. The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones. Buildings.

the finer and more subtle the texture and color should be. you may be pleasantly surprised to discover something you could not have imagined using. these work best when slightly warm. Often. Degas built his pastels in layers. intensity. though lines can develop greasy stains around the edges if the paper is not first stretched and treated with a gelatin paste laid as a wash.162 COSTUME Colored Materials ART STORES BRIM OVER w i t h t h e m a n y wherever permitted. clay. paper-wrapped. Most stores leave small pads of paper on their counters for customers to test materials. Beware—some are toxic. colored materials available. great for tin . slightly oily to the touch. 1. made in about 80 colors. 4. 3. They work well on PIGMENTS Pigments. plants. unwrapped harder pastels. animals. and synthetics. The worst are like revolting old lipsticks that get everywhere except where you intend. Sticks and conte crayons make thicker marks (as below). and CHALK PASTELS Pastel pencils make fine lines (as above). COLORED PENCILS: Dry pigments ground together with chalk. quality and cost T h e best are paperwrapped sticks of sumptuous. and can be softened and manipulated with degrees of heat. See h o w they work and return later for more of what proved best for you. fixing each layer on the front. They vary hugely in cost. OIL PASTELS Oil-based. wash. hue. Many artists apply fixative to the back of their work. Children's wax crayons are relatives. Be aware that fixative dulls pastel. and sold in many colors. Store loose pastels in dry rice to keep them clean. except the final layer. oily pigment. Many products are sold individually and in boxed sets. Dissolve in turpentine or mineral spirits to produce oil paint or or dark paper. FELT-TIP PENS: Instant-drying alcoholor water-based inks stored in the barrels of the pens are delivered via smooth nylon o r felt tips of varying shapes and thicknesses. Bright pastels are more brilliant on colored paper. I suggest you do so. which he left unfixed to retain its brightness. Try materials that are new and unfamiliar. CHALK PASTELS: Blackboard chalk is sidewalk work. used to make colors. and cost are laid out for our pleasure and perusal. including iridescents. insects. and can be a great rediscovery for bold drawings. The nontoxic range below represents a suggested starting point for experiment. chalkbased but very subtle. allowing it to fix slightly from behind. soft. quality. there are disparities between the apparent nature or color of what you hold in your hand and its performance on paper. shape. minerals. size. crumbly. Seemingly infinite choices of texture. the diverse are made in brands of basic member of the family. The higher the quality (and cost). Use them to draw lightly (as above left) or thickly. OIL PASTELS: Many colors. mixed on the paper and scratched into (as below). Pastels are finer. Before making substantial investments. C o n t e crayons are square-formed. purchase a small selection of different items you think you will like. or wax and a binder are shaped into fine strips and encased in w o o d like a graphite pencil. 2. are derived from many sources: rocks. Pastel pencils are slender and in w o o d casing. and subtlety.

163 COLORED PENCILS These are wax.or clay-based thin crayons in wood casing. Some are nonsoluble. others dissolve in water or turpentine to make a wash. Think of Matisse's Blue Nude (see p. Diverse brands are harder or soften greasier or chalkier in use. 111). Colors can be blended as shown right) and tones graded by altering pressure. If you love smooth blocks and lines of colon felt-tip pens are perfect. . leaving the paper to shine through for highlights (as below). Brands made for designers sold in enormous ranges of colors are far more subtle and sophisticated than those made for children. it is still a great champion and support for those beginners feeling shyly obligated to tone down their love of color to conform with what others say they should use. Fine lines can be achieved (as above). FELT-TIP PENS Although not made with felt-tip pen. so it is best to test them before buying. Some give richer lines than others.

I m a d e n u m e r o u s s h e e t s o f d r a w i n g s . the era in which we live. Here we go one step further. you will need several large sheets of drawing paper. social and economic status. structure. Linear Outline Using fine pens. S H O E S TELL LIFE STORIES. and they have been concealed in buildings to ward off misfortune. and a selection of shoes. This class takes the shoe as its subject in building on earlier lessons concerned with seeing through objects to understand their function. To set up. As artifacts in museums.164 COSTUME Study and Design they reflect our age. imagining y o u can see t h r o u g h it. Turn t h e m in different d i r e c t i o n s and o b s e r v e t h e i r s t r u c t u r e and f o r m . . and how we stand and walk. D r a w each o n e first as a solid object. will discover m o r e . personality. a range of colored felt-tip pens with both fine and broad tips. REPEATED STUDY T o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s class. values. style. e n j o y i n g t h e study a n d i n v e n t i o n o f shoes. You. they record and reflect our common history. if y o u m a k e p l e n t y o f d r a w i n g s as o p p o s e d t o o n l y a f e w . 104-07). t h e n again as if transparent. t o o . while artists have painted their boots or those of others as personal portraits and memorials. 100-01 and pp. Superstitions and fetishes are attached to them: we are told never to put new shoes on a table. a n d e x p e r i e n c e visible p r o g r e s s . c o v e r a large sheet o f p a p e r w i t h line drawings o f several shoes. and volume in space (see pp. and after studying familiar shoes we use the information learned to invent new ones.


The Surface


study the surface contours using fineand broad-tipped felt-tip pens. For best results, it is important to be bold and brief. Draw firmly, fast, and with as few strokes as possible. Build up each shoe from light to dark andleavesome paper showing through to create highlights.

Design Your Own

Using what you have learned from the previous steps about the structures of your shoes, and about the use of pens, invent new designs from your imagination. Start with fine outlines and progress to colored and textured surfaces. Modify your ideas by rotating the views.



The Structure of Costume

rich resource for the artist and

information given by a period style. Arrange to visit a costume museum or ask a friend to model clothes for you at home. Using fine felt-tip pens, begin with quick, pale impressions of each garment's shape before homing in on its borders and seams. Try to draw transparent views wherever possible to record the relationships between all component parts. Aim to draw enough information for it to be possible to make up a version of the garment using paper pinned to a tailor's dummy.

designer. They often give quite unexpected gems of ideas and information—whatever the subject. These drawings, made in a costume museum, demonstrate ways of recording structural information and detail for later use in the studio. They could form the basis of new designs for a fashion project or theater production, for example. Drawings of shoes on pp. 164-65 show how new designs can be evolved from the structural

It is usually best when collecting information for reference to apply the restraint of dispassionate observation. Set yourself the test of drawing facts with as little artistic license or embellishment as possible. Here I chose fine felt-tip pens because they are at their best when used swiftly, and therefore encourage bold, unhesitant decisions.

Swift lines record the hanging weight of this gentleman's coat, the relative proportions of its layers, and minimal details of the buttons and cuffs.

Thick velvet fabric is pulled tight beneath and across the bust by a single button. This transparent view shows how the fabric falls loosely in straight panels beneath the level of the sleeve.


W h e n visiting museums, be prepared f o r l o w lighting, which can make it hard t o see and draw. A book can help if attached t o your drawing board.

Adding stripes and dashes of color with a thicker pen brings out the glossy sheen and sculptural rigidity of this dress, which would have been worn over a whalebone corset. small reading light designed t o clip o n t o a


In small drawings such as these, use thick pens to color entire sections with a few marks, as I did here down the side of the bodice.

The light, frilly bulk of this crinoline dress is propelled forward with lines. pinching its gathers and sways that are hiding a horsehair bustle. fleets of quick



Textures and.Patterns
THIS CLASS FOCUSES ON how to draw textures through the collection of fabric, pattern, and embroidery samples from a costume m u s e u m . This formal method, using ruled squares, can create an invaluable library of ideas a n d i n f o r m a t i o n for future r e f e r e n c e — w h e n painting a clothed figure, or preparing a textile project, for example. However, if making a book of samples for a project, remember that it is important to also include collages of f o u n d materials (see pp.230-31) To d r a w a fabric texture, b e g i n by concentrating o n h o w y o u i m a g i n e it w o u l d feel if you t o u c h e d it. Decide if it w o u l d be rough, s m o o t h , w a r m , cold, thick, thin, tough, or fragile, for example. As you draw, believe you can feel these qualities at your fingertips a n d that your pencil is responding to the sensation. Undulate the pressure of your lines and marks according to the feeling of the fabric rather than its appearance. Let your pencil enact the sensation of touching its surface.

and to experiment more loosely with mixed media.

This starchy, quilted, b o w e d creation started life as an imagined corset, I intended t o d r a w together in one sculptural f o r m a range o f t h e details opposite. T h e garment quickly got o u t o f hand. T h e r e is great e n j o y m e n t in letting y o u r imagination run wild w h e n inventing costumes. If you are unable t o visit a costume museum, many exciting fabric details and textures can be found in y o u r o w n closet o r home.


Colored pencils give precision and tonal range; they can be faded but not erased. Lightly use an HB graphite pencil if you wish to plan a design first. Pressed hard, colored pencils build up a waxy finish of brilliant color. Used lightly, they appear powdery and show the texture of the paper.


Silk and braid


Embroidered leather





Outline stitch


and motivation of an individual. selected from different pages of my original book. I made a drawing book full of studies seeking to understand how he composed drama and pathos in his narratives (see also pp. shape. and 252-53). These characters. 172-73. .126-27. identity.Dressing Character I O N C E SPENT THREE MONTHS researching the work of Francisco de Goya at the Prado Museum. Madrid. look at how Goya delineated volumes of thick fabric to express the posture.

and tangible. are copies of works by Goya in which he makes air seem heavier than flesh.170—71). . and visible.T H E S E PENCIL STUDIES. Posture Carving also taken from my Madrid drawing book (see pp. To understand how he did this. as it rushes and carves fabric-wrapped forms like rivers and desert winds shaping the earth. I carefully copied the direction of each of his lines.



Drawings selected for this chapter explore these Saskia Lying in Bedand a Nurse ranges of proximity 1638 9 x61/2in (227 x 164 mm) and a travel journal. even up her were laid with a brush. the viewer's attention in a scene by the format of its composition. Second. daily newspapers. paintings depicting scenes from history. stares out from her gloomy sickbed. and other masters of Western Art. The spaces between people and the positions they occupy on a page are vital to our understanding of the psychology or emotion of an event. He in turn scorches the paper with his view and a certain speed of seeing all. the speed and printmaker and one of the greatest and most influential density of its lines. and novels—our staple cultural diet—are driven by a fascination with shared experience and the detail of what happens in other people's lives. and instantly engage with the action of the scene. the direct exchange (as shown here) where one or more characters hold eye Aneedproduced the thicker lines of the nurse. Here. too. R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN in the delivery of narrative. Seeing through Rembrandt's eyes. we can learn most about handling pen and ink. heighten or subdue drama with subtleties of exaggeration or caricature. soap operas. He is also the artist from whom props to add layers of meaning and attitude. this is not the portrait of an old woman. As artists. Her all-too-clear expression shows annoyance and irritation with her husband. while a quill contact with. comics. We read tensions and exchanges between people. Washes of shadow behind engaged and as a natural voyeur can feel invisible while watching the scene. there are no longer individuals but one significant group or mass action. and therefore seem to see. It middle. Saskia died after childbirth. we can R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter draftsman. television documentaries. are implicated in this marital exchange made over the head of the anonymous nurse. . the viewer. we. Later in their lives. Blockbuster movies. the viewer is not directly made the finer lines of Saskia. vivid portrait of his wife captures our attention. but drawings of gathered people tell them most directly. in spite of how it may seem. Third. This J u s t as there are three parts to a traditional landscape drawing—the foreground. furniture. a crowd tells the story from a distance. We can also use clothes. finding corners in crowded places to inscribe their action and energy onto the page. and distance—so drawings of gathered people can be loosely arranged in three took only minutes to make and yet it lives for centuries. types. With a pocket full of disposable pens we also go out and draw the expressions of gathered people. We can direct close. Storytelling and people-watching are obsessive human activities. presumably while he is making this drawing. and so. Saskia. First. Rembrandt's bored and frustrated wife.Gatherings A LL DRAWINGS TELL STORIES. and its illumination.

or even the office photocopier.." (Tim Noble) Drawing with light it is important to think about what you is Here timelessly we see a in can draw with. a kitchen explodes in o u r faces. garbage and chaos are piled a n d e x p l o d e d in r o o m s full of event. and smoke billows around the agitated jives of the Duchess. Below. and Alice. and projectors to create their anarchic punk satires of modern life. junk. Here. narrative is delivered through the air. N o b l e a n d W e b s t e r s w i t t y a n d o f t e n s u b v e r s i v e d r a w i n g s are also c o n t e m p o r a r y art installations. and on. TIM N O B L E A N D SUE W E B S T E R British artists who collaborate using neon. t h e y select and arrange familiar items of street detritus into what appears to be an u n p l e a s a n t pile. the Cat. c o m p o s e d garbage p r o d u c e s a c a l m . Real Life is Rubbish 2002 Dimensions variable TIM N O B L E A N D SUE WEBSTER . plates shatter.kicks against the mundane things that close down your mind is a refreshing and good thing. In both works. In one of R a c k h a m s great illustrations for Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland. for example. Pencil on paper important but only the beginning of possibility the combination of three-dimensional space. Pans fly oft the stove. T h e i m m a c u l a t e d r a w i n g is only r e v e a l e d w h e n t h e b e a m of a p r o j e c t o r c a s t s t h e s h a d o w Projections of the h e a p o n t o a wall.176 GATHERINGS SOME DRAWINGS ARE MADE e n t i r e l y o f i l l u m i n a t i o n that floods drama into the viewers gaze. via the animated clutter of o u r material lives. h a l o e d portrait of the artists seated b a c k to b a c k . the C o o k . F o r e a c h w o r k . and projector."Anything that.. hearth i m p l e m e n t s crash at o u r feet. Think about what else you could use: a laser smoke. and in. refuse.

Stowe's ofMysteryand Queer Little Folks. Rackham Vanishing point In this marvelous drama made with pen. Depth Billows of smoke expand and are lighter as they come forward. and Alice's shoulder. ink. tabletop. and Poe's Tales Imagination. This makes the story appear to leap out at us. H e is best k n o w n forillustratingIrving's Rip vanWinkle. we find several devices already explored through our drawing classes. Find the singleperspective pp. See how the In the Duchess's Kitchen 1907 77/8 x 6 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 5 0 m m ) ARTHUR RACKHAM .177 ARTHUR RACKHAM British watercolorist and book illustrator. Refer back to the drawing class how pots In drawn objects and elements that those behind.76-77) above vanishing point (see that is about3/4in (2 cm) oak converge at this point. amplifying movement outward from the vanishing point. The wood grain acts like marks of speed behind the scene. humor. are very large compared to on p. a n d an unmistakable graphic style. beams. 100 to see for make elliptical objects and pans fly through the the foreground. by vivid children's Rakham's w o r k is characterized fantasy. and watercolor.

perhaps these two are the most extreme. London. which still narrates vivid days in the lives of an energetic nation. and art in the landscape.178 GATHERINGS we have seen in the pairs and trios of drawings by masters and makers. HENRY MOORE Crowd 1942 Looking at Tied-up Object . The image stands out among his more usual graphic works in which he hones and carves semi-abstract human forms. a great Shoshone drawing blazes with the color. a n d l o v e d t o d r a w in t h e BritishMuseum. A glimmer of gold light appears from the left No explanation is given. The mournful gray landscape of Henry Moore's northern British field has gathered by night an overcoated audience to stand and wait before a wrapped and roped monument. Chalk and graphite This fog-bound but humorous gathering of souls is made in graphite and colored chalk with gray wash. This is an ironic drawing from Moore. heat. join in the waiting. and we. meaning. Magnetic Fields sculpture. a sculptor. Opposite. audiences. M o o r e t o u r e d Italy as a young man. Moore's spectators appear to have walked a long way from nowhere to witness and wait beside this mysterious obelisque. This is just one of many precious artifacts from a lost time. as if Moore's wrapping has been literally outstretched. as fellow watchers.The human form w a s the vehicle o f his expression and h e w a s t h e official W o r l d W a r II artist. In culture. and action of a buffalo hunt. and composition they are polar opposites. expressing his dry humor about O F ALL THE CONTRASTS HENRY MOORE British s c u l p t o r w h o t r a i n e d a n d taught at t h e R C A .

Stylized hunters. horses. Each color is evenly distributed throughout the scene. MAGNETIC FIELDS Horses It is interesting to note how the outstretched limbs ofthesehorses echo European images of the runningBuffalo horse before the sequence-photographer Muybridge taught us to 19TH understand their movement differently. and helping our eye to dart around. tolearnhow to paint a scene on a hide are and buffalo circle and charge the perimeters of a skin "field. creating harmonious balance with words but through silent demonstration. Skills are taught not center chant or dance to the beat of a drum." Men at the instructed to sit and watch.179 SHOSHONE SCHOOL Stylized characters This vital image of a buffalo hunt is made with pigment Members of the Shoshone community wishing painted within dark outlines on a stretched elk hide. Hunt CENTURY SHOSHONE SCHOOL .

Heath Robinson lived through the same war-torn.180 GATHERINGS The Human Condition IN THE SPECTRUM of these vastly d i f f e r e n t g a t h e r i n g s of p e o p l e . p o e t . w e f i n d a spiritual v i s i o n . We also see qualities of line. a n d o t h e r w o r k s . Opposite. w h i c h b y their c h o i c e a n d h a n d l i n g a c t u a l l y b e c o m e the force a n d spirit of e a c h i m a g e . color. a d e a t h c h a r g e of brutality. a n d the gentle h u m o r of sedate r i d i c u l e . inextinguishable in its fortitude and h u m o r . K a t h e K o l l w i t z s c r a t c h e d a n d e n g r a v e d her a r m y of c l a y . Blake w a s d r i v e n b y a passion f o r j u s t i c e a n d a p r o f o u n d b e l i e f in his v i s i t a t i o n s f r o m angels. a n d f o c u s . Brushed line and wash This is an ink-outlined drawing made with a fine brush on paper with added washes of watercolor The image was subsequently redrawn as a line engraving. The muscularity of Blake's figures was inspired by Michelangelo's works. W I L L I A M BLAKE British visionary. a pink-inked cinema wobbles along with string. The Circle of the (The Whirlwind 1824 of Lustful Lovers) mm) 143/4 x 207/8i n ( 3 7 4 x 5 3 0 WILLIAM BLAKE . m a r k . B l a k e h a s i l l u m i n a t e d his s a d d e n e d Virgil on the s h o r e s of a d a r k w o r l d . It illustrates a scene from Dante's Divine Comedy. texture. era as Kollwitz. w h e r e he w a t c h e s a t u r b u l e n t s p i r a l of p u n i s h m e n t f o r the d a m n e d . w r i t e r a r t i s t . Misted in translucent layers of paint. and sweetened the often bleak years with his impractical inventions. t h e Bible. a n d e n g r a v e r w h o p o w e r f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e d his o w n t e x t s in a d d i t i o n t o D a n t e ' s Divine Comedy.f o o t e d t r o g l o d y t e s w h o rage into w a r like a m u d s l i d e of revenge. pale souls of the lustful are being s p u n into yet another realm of hell.

Kollwitz survived the two World Wars. British Pen and wash This is a pen-andwatercolor drawing made for a color-platereproduction in an edition of T h e Bystander. Ink rolled over was selectively polished off using a rag. and clearly focused. poverty. plodding along with hazy. What remained in scratched grooves printed on damp paper as lines. THE HUMAN CONDITION Scratched lines This is a dry-point etching with monoprint.181 KATHE KOLLWITZ German printmaker. White marks were made with a dusting of French chalk on the artist's finger to wipe away ink leaving clean metal. children. and the family home. however meager or ridiculous their activity. stoical bemusement. The image was scratched directly onto a metal plate. Losbruch (The Outbreak) 1955 20 x 233/8 in (507 x 592 mm) KATHE KOLLWITZ HEATH ROBINSON humorous illustrator and a regular contributor to magazines and journals such as The Sketch and The Bystander. humor by making his characters earnest. and her powerful and sensitive drawings center on nurture. HEATH ROBINSON The Kinecar 1926 103/8 x 15 in (262 x 380 mm) . and controlled smears on the metal surface printed as tones. Robinson and Kollwitz (above) share almost identical life dates and their work expresses a shared history from opposite sides oftheworld wars. With masterful gentility. and the impact of death and war upon women. Heath Robinson shows England in a past era. who lived in a poor district of Berlin. He created sincere. sculptor and draftsman.

a n d ranges o f colors. I keep quantities at home.182 GATHERINGS Disposable Pens (ballpoints. Quick-drying. turn the page. G E L P E N : P r o d u c e d in b l a c k w h i t e . W h i t e gel p e n s a r e v e r y e f f e c t i v e o n d a r k papers. dark sheen. aiming for correct outlines would result in drawing too slowly to c a t c h the moment. R e m e m b e r . 7 6 . Unlike pencils. and in most pockets so I can always record a thought DISPOSABLE PENS QUICK NOTES O n a c o l d day in Venice. build to a rich. a n d pressure-sensitive.188-89) and Caravans (see pp. or turn into washes and make monoprints if flooded with an alcohol-based substance such as hairspray. they each offer distinct and sometimes unexpected qualities. T h e r e w e r e c seconds t o snatch this impression b e t w e e n their emergence from one bridge and disappearance b e n e a t h t h e next. The f o u r i l l u s t r a t e d h e r e r e p r e s e n t a basic r a n g e . trusting shape and form to follow. indent paper. For example. t h e y a r e lightfast. R O L L E R B A L L : A c o n s t a n t i n k flow 3 .r e s i s t a n t .7 7 and 214-15). 192-93) w e r e b o t h m a d e w i t h a ballpoint. CHOICES AVAILABLE T h e r e a r e m a n y d i s p o s a b l e p e n s t o c h o o s e from. blob when old. these pens enable you to sketch. in the car. in the studio. 4. or idea. . jot notes. So many stores sell them. gel pens) are the most convenient of all materials with which to travel. I swiftly focused on gesture. including l u m i n o u s a n d m e t a l l i c . they can be obtained within minutes. p e r m a n e n t . Lines t h i c k e n as t h e p e n w e a r s o u t G r a n d Canal (see pp. fibertips. fine fiber-tip Drawing with a fine fiber-tip pen. FIBER-TIP: M a n u f a c t u r e d f o r artists a n d d e s i g n e r s in a r a n g e o f w i d t h s . dropped in your pocket and forgotten till needed. 2. is d e l i v e r e d t h r o u g h a m e t a l t u b e o v e r a t i n y ball bearing. Available in blacks and ranges of colors. Insensitive t o p r e s s u r e : lines d o n o t v a r y in w i d t h o r t o n e . a ballpoint will make faint lines. rollerballs. if y o u w i s h y o u r d r a w i n g s t o last a n d n o t fade o r b l u r w i t h t i m e a n d e x p o s u r e t o light." 1. t w o tourists and their gondolier drifter past m e o n a canal. w a t e r . c h o o s e p e n s l a b e l e d " p e r m a n e n t " o r "lightfast. shut your book. B A L L P O I N T : Black a n d b o l d c o l o r s o f f e r d i v e r s e qualities. which can snap or pierce through your clothes. Ideal f o r precision w o r k (see p p . At a time like this. a disposable pen with its clip-on cap goes anywhere. or put the paper in your pocket instantly without fear of smudging.

not form. Compare this Klee's mules on p. Earlier I had witnessed a crammed en masse in a fleet of hired gondolas complete with musicians and choir. Fast lines focus on action. crowd of fellow travelers Fast lines These scribbled lines model the mass and shadows of heads belonging passengers packed into the boat.FROMMEMORY Here I used the same fiber-tip pen to compose a scene from memory.31 .

angles will happen as a matter of course. Each line acts its part in the narrative. Let the line of the flying coat fly and the hanging arm hang. Movement . let it enter the stage and perform. of course. just draw the action. if a person was stout. FLEETING MOMENTS Walking through Venice with a small. Each one was witnessed and drawn immediately from the afterimage of what I had just seen. I caught fleeting glimpses of gathered people and solitary souls going about their affairs. Push toward caricature and this will draw out of your memory what was most important. You will make outlines. and companionship. Circular lines buzz around a man puzzling at the end of a train platform (left). Exaggeration helps. You must learn to trust your memory and to draw what impressed you most. animate them more. when out drawing. if animated. make them stouter. No camera can tie you to a time or people in the same way. activity. Above all. However. black. pocket notebook and a fiber-tip pen. not its outline. Don't worry about measuring angles. A curatorial assistant flies to do a chore (right). focus on the action of the event.184 GATHERINGS The Travel Journal I CANNOT OVERSTATE THE JOY of making a travel journal. life will not slow and wait for you to catch it. Every drawing writes an indelible memory of place. all action is in the line of his coat and directed by his nose. but they should not be what you dwell on.

185 A large lady is photographed in front of a delicate work of art. Observation THE TRAVEL JOURNAL The same willowy assistant dashes about his work. The rush of his legs isamplifiedby their blurred lines. Expression . In turn. I drew him three times on the same page to catch a range of his physical expressions. I am watched by the aggravated guard. eager to herd us all from his house of responsibility.

186 GATHERINGS Catching the Moment On A BITTERLY COLD November day. He and his simpering assistant would not allow me in. Be aware that their placement on the page is part of the narrative. and there met this sullen custodian. rather than the works of art they guarded. focus on action. furniture leans. if they are being devious. placement. and clothing or bags hang. elevate them in the pictorial space. or pushes. and involvement in the story. not outline. start by focusing on its action. pulls. you might place them lower down. Identify the principal character and draw him or her first. flap. if they are being haughty. and let every detail speak by its size. Place the person carefully. or bulge. ACTION AND DETAIL W h e n drawing people. When your attention has been caught. I took refuge in a church in Venice. . emotion. and you decide to draw the moment. For example. and reason for happening. For example. Here I have recreated my drawing in steps to show you how to set about capturing such a scene. Here the custodian projects fastidious ownership of his desk and pamphlets by pushing from behind the center of the space and challenging our entry to his image. forcing me to remain at the back and look at them. decide how faces and bodies contort.

CATCHING THE MOMENT The assistant Identify t h e antagonist ( o r second character) in t h e scene. together with any immediate props they are using. such as the desk and pamphlets seen here. Here. Decide where t o place them t o emphasize their role.187 The custodian Identify your principal character a n d their psychological role in the scene. In the final step (left) I reinforced t h e custodian's desk. which is pushed toward us in a gesture of confrontation. D r a w their action. a pillar locates t h e scene in a depth o f space. who is largely expressed through the shape and fall o f his raincoat and his way o f using a note pad. . If drawing a more complex scene. continue adding characters. Draw their action and props. Decide where you will place them o n the paper t o emphasize their action and intent. W i t h a few strokes. I added t h e assistant.


An imminent deluge of tourists urged me to work catching no more than the skeleton of the view. I developed detailofthis drawing from memory using a ballpoint pen.Grand Canal T H E CANALS OF VENICE are bustling places full of occupation. and buildings. where vertical mooring poles give space and pulse to the horizontal speed of water quickly. .

followed by the streets. note only their most essential action and feature. and drawn immediately from memory. Venetians flow across a stepped bridge and cascade into the streets beyond.Crossings DURING THIS RUSH HOUR. then the bridge beneath them. Each person was glimpsed in an instant. Caricature each person slightly. To catch characters like this. Characters in the foreground were drawn first. .



Sitting at a distance on a hot. and a great subject to draw. quiet afternoon. . I used a ballpoint pen to compose a series of scenes.Caravans T H E PARAPHERNALIA O F TRAVEL i s an intriguing part of circus life. Caravans and other backstage activity convey expectations of energy and repose. I found this circus by chance in the Swiss mountains.




These conditions are very difficult to express well. In this chapter Moon Pastel 1795 Drawing we experiment with charcoal. the sun comes out to blind it. they are the animators of your subject. how the soil is scorched. What they have drawn is the force of nature on these properties: how the wind heaves the night ocean. Beginners will often choose calm. t w o e n g r a v e d m a p s k n o w n as The Lunar Planispheres. By drawing such momentous and everyday events. speculation. or has cracked and fallen under the weight of water. artists see for themselves that which is momentary and eternal. It now hangs on the staircase of the History of Science Museum. makes his work by the act of walking. and meteor impacts have scarred. but it can be seen as a lens to our observation of this planet. and experiment. and take bold steps in emulating the swell of clouds and the forces of torrential water. learning to draw light out of dark. as opposed the physicality of Earth. and the sea. England. Richard Long. pages o f softly i l l u m i n a t e d craters and lunar "seas" c o v e r e d in m a t h e m a t i c a l and s h o r t h a n d calculations. or the wind carries it away. a contemporary environmental artist. the face of the Moon. and its draws the tides of the seas. JOHN RUSSELL A p o r t r a i t pastelist t o King G e o r g e III o f England. how the mountain cut by ice and rain is now fleetingly lit. are the real subjects in great landscape drawings. a n d a m o o n globe called t h e Selenographia. rivers. The forces of nature. surrounded by the bright instruments of centuries of navigation. marking the ground with lines of footprints or by turning stones. a n d a n astronomer w h o dedicated 20 years t o studying t h e M o o n . so J o h n Russell's tour de f o r c e drawing (opposite) was a masterpiece of observation in his time. Take chances against the rain and work with the wind or fog. and even how the Sun illuminates. sunny days. There is a sense of the heroic in drawing outside—we race to catch a form before the tide engulfs it. when little stirs and empty blue skies offer even less to latch lines to. William Turner is said to have had himself lashed to a ship's mast to comprehend the storm (see p. to be ready to draw the new light as it breaks across the land. 199). Just as NASA photographs of Earth have had a profound effect on the way we view our fragile home. This is the world's first accurate image of the Moon. It is better to get up before dawn. Look closely at works by many artists and you will see that they have not represented hills. Russell d r e w this. trees. H e a l s o p r o d u c e d an a l b u m o f 1 8 0 exquisite pencil drawings. Weather is essential in all landscape drawing. The pastel drawing was constructed from myriad telescopic observations almost 200 years before the Apollo Moon landing. It is Earths satellite. arranging them in perfect circles on the mountainside or in lines drifting out of sight beneath low clouds. 5 f t x 5 ft 6 in ( 1 5 2 x 1 6 8 c m ) J O H N RUSSELL .Earth and the Elements I T MAY SEEM PERVERSE to start a chapter titled "Earth and the Elements" with an image of the Moon. our companion. t h e first-ever accurate image o f t h e M o o n ' s surface. Oxford.

By Turner carries us to the heart of the maelstrom. and gives motion to each image. and pioneer ofexpressionism. This wife. A hard waxy was drawn across a heavy limestone Varying definitions crayon of lire and depths of tone conspire to give volume. we can soon learn to draw its force. speed. and by observing its tides and eddies in our o w n environment.Through political drawings he fired his sharp wit at the king. Danger of Wearing Balloon Petticoats UNDATED HONORE DAUMIER . Dots and dashes suggest receding trees out of focus. fluttering heavily. lifts. distance. T h e ship. serving a prison sentence for his views. and solidity. the bourgeoisie. Hokusais sedate wind presses reeds a n d the j o u r n e y s o f young ladies. like an umbrella forced inside-out. undramatic b u t brimming with stylized realism. Flapping kimonos and an onlooker turning his b a c k have the magic of a m o m e n t caught. has b e c o m e a hysterical kite. Fluid strokes inflate the woman's dress and pin shadows to the ground. painter. Terrifying waves of merciless nature roar across the paper. seeing how it shakes. Below. H O N O R E DAUMIER French satirical cartoonist lithographer. the government. a sail b r o k e n loose in a stormy marriage. and the legal profession. Daumier's c a r t o o n shines with the brilliance of his comic memory. He knew how the world bends and stutters under such gusts. Hazy vertical marks reveal buildings into the mist. sculptor.198 EARTH AND THE E L E M E N T S Air in Motion THE GREAT INVISIBLE SUBJECT o f these d r a w i n g s is t h e w i n d . is already lost. a scratched ghost. Crayon and limestone This is a lithograph. T h e great master of English seascape is c o n d u c t i n g with his graphic energy.

l o v e dw o r k s i n c l u d e 1 0 0 v i e w s o f M o u n t Fuji and 1 2 v o l u m e s o f Manga.M. Landscape a n d city life w e r e his principal subjects. W . Wind direction wood-block This is a colored To represent the blows lifted flowed wind.199 J.M. into this very as pressed sheet The paper's through own coior is brought banks of mist and fog. a n d his b e s t . horizontally then and of the it into the stream Plants also bend and flow right to Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 1802 81/2 HOKUSAI KATSUSHIKA x 131/2 in ( 2 1 7 x 3 4 3 mm) . painter. d e s i g n e r a n d b o o k i l l u s t r a t o r . Hokusai direction (from clothing from has chosen which it the right). AIR IN MOTION Pencil and watercolor subdued brushed. including being lashed t o a ship's m a s t in o r d e r to study a storm.i n f l u e n c e d b y examples o f W e s t e r n art obtained through D u t c h t r a d i n g in Nagasaki. Ship in a Storm c. seascape. and history painter w h o s e p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t a b o v e all w a s light. 1826 91/2 x 113/4 in ( 2 4 1 x 3 0 0 m m ) J. T U R N E R British landscape. leans the whole composition swells around its fateful center. T u r n e r w o r k e d in oils a n d w a t e r c o l o r s a n d s k e t c h e d c o p i o u s l y o n his travels. absorbent watercolor and are Stains of splashed. TURNER KATSUSHIKA HOKUSAI Prolific J a p a n e s e c o l o r w o o d . wind. H o k u s a i in t u r n has since significantly influenced European art.W.b l o c kprintmaker. from left print. A outline scratched of a skeletal into penciled ship is while and the waves. T h e r e a r e m a n y stories o f his p a s s i o n a t e w o r k i n g methods.

T h e very nature of b o t h is turmoil and an interweaving of elements. h a u n t e d shadows.28). or charcoal. and swim into the page. leaving nothing but a glimpse of moonlight glistening on the froth below.198) admires the majesty of nature. composing banks of waves and dense. grab their b r u s h .200 ELEMENTS Storms STORMS CAN BE SEEN and drawn in two ways: first. he blanketed the drawing in darkness. Turner (see p. Leonardos Cloudburst of Material Possessions is o n e of his m o s t enigmatic and mysterious works. water. marks. His subjects include ruins. Then. inks. D o m e s t i c o b j e c t s we can o w n and name fall from the clouds. as a subject and second. active surfaces of water. and t h e sea s t u d i e d f r o m his h o m e in Guernsey in t h e Channel Islands. this is a writer's narrative of terror. with a brush. By contrast. as a gestural storm on the paper. lines of rain escorting them to b o u n c e and clatter. Opposite. In periods b e t w e e n writing. as if drawn j u s t this year. ink. Le Bateau-Vision 1864 71/2 x 1 0 in ( 1 9 2 x 2 5 5 m m ) VICTOR H U G O . He brings us to stare into a place that no sane human would enter. and tossed o b j e c t s — a perfect subject in which artists can forget themselves. An update on biblical showers of fish and frogs. fantasy palaces. this is a b o m b a r d m e n t from o u r h o m e s . Pen and brush Hugo drew first with pen and ink. it is difficult to contemplate its brooding and night-soaked heart. T h e m e n a c i n g darkness of Hugo's storm b e l o w is so convincing. It looks so contemporary. drawing was Hugo's principal means o f expression. EARTH AND THE VICTOR HUGO French novelist and artist (see also p.

It is interesting to speculate how engineering might have developed if his ideas had been shared with the world earlier Ink and chalk This is a pen and ink drawing with touches of black chalk. together with half the contents of our garage. He was left-handed and wrote backwards in Italian from left to right. He bequeathed his drawings to a friend. a bell. for example). envisioning machines centuries before their making (helicopters and bicycles. and they passed through private hands for 400 years before becoming widely known. There is a little magic in recognizing many items from our homes something like a rake. Above and below are examples of his mirror handwriting. Cloudburst of Material Possessions 1510-12 45/8 x 43/8 in ( 1 1 7 x 1 1 1 mm) L E O N A R D O DA VINCI . Each item that has crashed from heaven is drawn in such a way that we can feel Leonardo's nib picking it up in the speed of a doodle. and a wheel.LEONARDO DA VINCI Leonardo devised many artifacts of our modern lives. a hook.

Segments The top half of the drawing is a view as we enter the valley. and we can imagine standing over his shoulder. In the lower half he has walked downhill a little. or cityscape. Nature Profiles Opposite below. it is the unique calligraphic signature of the place in which we stand. EARTH AND THE Bryan cut the profile of a city. sea-. made inside a book. rich. and etcher who lived most of his life in 17th-century Rome. Claude Lorrain drew directly on location. thick. Paler. his unsurpassed handling of light. and famed for. watching his hand and eye at work together. Claude is distinguished by. She was inspired by her research of aerial plans of London and the story of an alien map butterfly (see caption). transferred it to a scroll. rapidly layering contours to shape place. which he used to unify his compositions. Clare Bryan took panoramic photographs of the English South Downs. atmosphere. In a very different work (opposite above).202 ELEMENTS THE PROFILE OF A HORIZON is a line we immediately recognize and respond to. Views from Velletri c.1638 85/8 x 121/2 in (219 x 320 mm) CLAUDE LORRAIN . Drawing with a scalpel. Whether land-. C L A U D E LORRAIN French classical landscape painter draftsman. cooler tones receding into the distance are applied with a brush. Over first lines. and dry marks in the foreground appear to be made with his finger. a horizon line can trigger our recognition. and mood simultaneously. Claude has used a fine nib to delineate segments of land as they recede into space. and across to the right. and after tracing her captured line. Even distilled from all other detail. she teased away fragments of paper to illuminate her view.

progressively settlement (cropped more and more paper is drawn away to show the expansion of human page of an around the river. The edges of each here) fade into the solid paper unpopulated with a scalpel landscape.5-m)scroll. source workisilluminatedby standing its lower edge on a CLARE BRYAN . drawings Ideas of introduction Clare Bryan to research introduced down and led NATURE PROFILES and removal historical plans and aerial growth of London showing its population since Roman times. printmaker graphic designer.203 Scalpel-drawn This book-bound drawing was inspired by the story of a foreign butterfly wrongly to Great Britain in 1912. On turning the pages of City.The horizon was drawn with a City Landline 2003 271/2x 59 in (70 x 150 cm) scalpel. 2001 CLARE BRYAN C L A R E BRYAN 3ritish artist." Cut line This is a small section of a preparatory 5-ft(1. Her recent paper photographic. specialty bookbinder. and digital print-based works reflect upon the histories and poetry of "left behind and in-between spaces. then hunted destroyed. and visiting professor at numerous art schools.

R o u g h paper c a n b e loaded. It is also easily erased if the maker of the mark is not happy with the result. maple. Boxes often contain a range of thicknesses to choose for different needs. Essentially. cylindrical. harder line. a n d p l u m . it is compressed and m o l d e d at high pressure. SQUARE COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Not often sold. Lines are achieved by d e p o s i t i n g particles in the grain o f paper. it looks gray and feels like chalk. feather. a piece of fresh bread. C h a r c o a l naturally glistens. and offers a rich. Hold it over your drawing RANGE AVAILABLE Charcoal (in its several forms shown here) is loved or loathed by the beginner to whom it is often recommended because it produces pleasing results quickly. Artists have also used lime. this does not exist. Slightly dull the tape's stickiness before use t o prevent it from lifting out more than you intend. Beware of cheap brands selling dyed chalk as compressed charcoal. It allows you greater precision in your mark-making than if you rub away the charcoal with an eraser. the heel o f y o u r h a n d . or fingertip. The tip snaps easily to renew a sharp edge if required. only a little thicker. CHALK CHARCOAL: Technically. Charcoal lifts away from paper easily with the very light touch o f an eraser. B u n d l e s o f twigs were traditionally sealed into earthenware j a r s or wet clay and heated slowly and intensely in a fire or kiln. 162) or graphite (see p. a n d m o r e i n d e l i b l e by soaking it in linseed oil. Then lift it away. Try itworking on big paper covering a wall. vine. leaving u n d e r t r a c e s of first thoughts. black finish. 3 A white line is lifted out by the tape.204 E A R T H AND THE E L E M E N T S Charcoal CHARCOAL IS PRODUCED from wood baked slowly without exposure to air. sticky side down. blacker. tape. MEDIUM W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 5. Smooth paper accepts few particles. resulting in a pale line. and heavier than willow. It c a n be m a d e duller. CHARCOAL PENCIL: Types made by different manufacturers vary in quality and density of line. fine. In use. Alternatively. Use any fine-point pen or pencil (I used a ballpoint) to draw a firm line on the back of the Big pieces are perfect for very large-scale drawings—even larger than yourself. 1. white line into the blackor grayness of willow charcoal. between your middle finger and thumb.54). 4. The same as above. 2. Not to be confused with square conte sticks (see p. THICK W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 2 Keep the tape above your drawing. 7. so it chars b l a c k as o p p o s e d to igniting a n d turning to ash. It does n o t erase easily. 1 Suspend a length of masking tape. b l a c k e r . without touching the surface. COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Machine-made. b e e c h . but some specialists stock compressed charcoal in delicate square sticks. Willow is the most c o m m o n wood. A great find when available. LIFTING OUT This technique is a very easy method of drawing a crisp. you can p u r c h a s e m a c h i n e . . they are all intended for fine work. resulting in a stick that gives a blacker. As its name implies.m a d e c o m p r e s s e d charcoal. 3. THIN WILLOW CHARCOAL: I used a piece like this to make the drawing opposite. 6. a rag.

Different tones seen throughout the main drawing on pp. pastels. Cotton swabs also work. 9. MASKING TAPE: An invaluable resource. Layers can be peeled away to refresh its surface. Here we used a ballpoint. T O R T I L L O N : This is a tight roll of paper used to blend charcoal. 10. PEN: Any fine pen or pencil can be used to draw on the back of masking tape when lifting out.205 ERASING Thickly applied charcoal quickly o v e r c o m e s a plastic eraser A w a r m (soft and tacky) putty eraser is more effective. Use high quality (very sticky) to fix paper to walls and boards. graphite. . as is fresh (unbuttered!) bread. I used a plastic eraser effectively on thinly applied charcoal. or any other dry media. Here. Use cheaper (less sticky) for lifting out. Lift out broader marks with a larger implement.212-13 were made by altering the pressure applied to the charcoal. 8 . sold in several widths. CHARCOAL Lifting out This detail shows an example of where I used the lifting-out technique demonstrated opposite to draw flashes of lightning against rain clouds.

9 9 we noted that in response to visual stimulus. pack your materials (as advised below) and set off for a local view or your nearest arboretum. the less you describe. details blur and colors grow paler and bluer. the more you encourage the viewer's imagination to join in and see.212-13). Successful drawings often only suggest the qualities of the scene without overdescribing them. especially when making first excursions into aerial perspective. a reel of masking tape. Landscape drawings are traditionally arranged in three parts: a detailed foreground. an eraser your drawing book or a board and paper fixative (or hairspray). MATERIALS In this first view there is only a foreground and middle distance. Ironically. They are also good markers of receding space. and a cushion in a plastic bag to sit on. I relaxed my eyes out of focus to dissolve distracting detail into abstract patches of light and darkness. The long view is hidden behind trees. It is the visible effect of the atmosphere between where you stand and what you see in the distance. On p p . When you arrive. a less distinct middle ground composed of shapes and textures. to contain each of your compositions. This term simply means that as land rolls away into the distance. begin by marking out several small squares on your paper. Don't worry if it is cloudy: clouds add drama and perspective and make good subjects in themselves (see pp. To experiment with drawing landscapes and the use of charcoal. hazy distance. 9 8 . Seeing tones . our brains search for nameable things and will perceive complete pictures from very little information. but is often less evocative and engaging. and an abstract. Pack several thick and thin sticks of willow charcoal. it results in flat planes of clutter. Then I drew the shape of the tonal patches I perceived.206 EARTH AND THE ELEMENTS Landscapes TREES ALONE OFFER MARVELOUS shapes to draw. Excessive detail can be admired for its skill and achievement. At its worst.

Remember. and broke a view through the hedge into the distance with a dark sky threatening rain.207 LANDSCAPES In my second square I explored a simple view contrasting soft. full of information you can use to create what you want! Inventing drama . shadows. rounded. It is better to give distinctly more pictorial space to one or the other (see below). the trunk of a bare tree. horizontal regions of grass. Exploring the view Redrawing the scene above. This composition turned out a little flat because I have an almost even quantity of earth and sky. dark trees with bright. your view is your inspiration. I have invented drama with diagonals set against each other I tilted the earth.

I usually begin by making an image of the whole view. 2 1 4 .208 ELEMENTS Drawing in the Round WHEN DRAWING IN THE LANDSCAPE. taking with you your drawing book and pen. Building on earlier studies of structure in space using shoes (pp. EARTH AND THE FINDING THE SUBJECT Finding a remarkable subject is even better when you can circumnavigate it in an arena of space." . The mud of the tidal shore in Rye. Circling a subject and drawing it from several views imprints on your memory a better understanding of its three-dimensional form. settling my concentration. engine. I am then able to home in on what interests me most for further study. s e e k places in light After my first drawing. so the paper is not made blinding and your hand cannot cast a shadow on your work. which was the flow of water over rocks. on p p . Similarly. and tiller still standing proud. shade out of the glare of the sun.1 5 my first drawing of the whole view of the Tiber led me to see the real subject of the day. This first drawing serves as a process of arrival. observing it from several views so as to better understand it as a whole. your challenge now is to find a sculptural subject in the landscape. bare ribs. "Drawing in the round means to literally walk around your subject. making the scene below led me to focus on the decaying boat opposite.164-65) and a wire violin (pp.104-05). For example. and seeing what the real choice of subject is. England has embedded within it the decaying skeleton of a burned fishing boat.

looking more at the boat than at the paper From this low position I have emphasized how the boat is swallowed in mud by outlining its shadow on the ground. W h e n you have found your subject. unfussy lines. its overall balance. marking straight. The outline ties a shape of darkness to the boat like a weight so that it becomes part of its form. I spent equal time looking at the subject and the paper. w h e n t h e sea recedes. and the order and shape of its component parts. DRAWING IN THE 1 Here. I looked more boldly at the planes and the dynamic of the sculptural craft My lines have become darker and more forceful as confidence in my understanding of the vessel grew. careful lines to establish the skeleton that gives this wreck its distinct form.209 SERIES OF STUDIES This stunning ghost o f a boat comes into v i e w t w i c e a day. 3 This impression notes the angle of the broken boat. and structure. character. ROUND 2 In this tail-end view. Each n e w drawing gives a different insight. I drew with quick. make a series o f drawings f r o m different positions. Overleaf: Decaying Boat 4 .



m a d e on s m o o t h .20-21) using a thin stick of willow charcoal. hot-pressed drawing p a p e r (see pp.Cloudburst THIS STORM DRAWING. was made with gentle but unhesitating s p e e d . L o o k i n g b a c k and forth from the heavens to firmly taped-down paper. . I worked quickly to catch and weave the turbulent contrasts of rising wind and approaching water before the drawing could be washed away.


On the pages of a small. . since ancient times. shaping the city. and rhythmic detail as it passed through the ancient gully of the city. black.Notes of Force T H E GREAT FLOWING TIBER RIVER has cut through Rome. pocket-sized notebook. focusing on the river's eddies. pulse. I drew with a needle-fine fiber-tip pen.


.Mountains SITTING IN THE SHADE of a tree on the Greek island of Antiparos. The strong diagonal of the composition from bottom left to top right carries the eye through changes of height and focus from the foreground to the mountains beyond. I used a dip pen and waterproof India ink with brushed watercolor to draw the view.



Not everything we know has a physical form in the world. and independent means of communication. He made thousands of drawings to chronicle his complex life. direction. spontaneous image-making. Outsider artists. However. be brave and enjoy them. writer and composer who suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and was resident in the Waldau Aslyum near Berne. Many concepts and feelings can only be expressed through marks. sounds. opposite. and have been making abstract drawings for centuries—Japanese calligraphy. From one point of view. drawn sound. Perhaps in Western culture we bred this intuitive freedom out of ourselves in our insistence on complex figuration. and history.Abstract Lines T HE DEVELOPMENT OF W E S T E R N abstract art at the beginning of the 20th century significantly paralleled major changes in world thought. First marks. or gestures. and young children show us that abstract. abstraction is not so easy to define. which are essentially abstract. fictional language. don't be timid. Artists were given a different tool—a line threaded directly from their subconscious to their hand—and with it they began to map a bold new landscape of marks and concepts that would dramatically and forever change the face of Western art. Internal workings of the mind were suddenly free to find a new language of expression. . actions. Wolfli was a Swiss draftsman. The growing rise of Darwinian ideas coupled with Freudian and Marxist perspectives forced Western society to reconsider its origins and future. The fate of Old World thinking was finally sealed with the brutality of World War I. Berne. and emotion. Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape 1915 413/8 x 285/8 in (105 x 72. An abstract mark is often a better conductor of a thought or feeling. all pictorial representations are abstractions of reality. many nonWestern cultures have highly sophisticated abstractions at the core of their art. Indian mandalas. belief. It was not invented in the 20th century. ADOLF WOLFLI One of the greatest masters of Art Brut. writhing torrents of color. precisely because it does not have to represent a physical object. Afterward. From another viewpoint. only rediscovered.8 cm) A D O L F WOLFLI Abstraction is a direct. It also underpins and gives strength and unity to all figurative work. As you approach the classes in this chapter. and Aboriginal art. and poetic myth roar and cascade within his tightly framed pages. expressive marks and shapes are at the core of natural. My own work is firmly centered in figuration. liberating. picturing a stabilized world was impossible and Modernism rode forth with vigor. for example. Museum of Fine Arts. it is simply itself. poet. Swirling. strike the paper to find form. yet my kinship to abstraction is fundamental. It is actually its foundation and its infrastructure. I begin every image by feeling its meaning. and it has always been with us. People are often scared by abstraction and see it as the enemy of figurative art. His drawings are collected and exhibited internationally and held by the Adolf Wolfli Foundation. such as Adolf Wolfli.

A line can be finished in a second. texture.220 A B S T R A C T LINES Process and Harmony SOMETIMES A DRAWN LINE sings on the surface of its support. Twombly's mesmeric wax line worked over house paint is like a signature. A Neolithic chalk tablet bears cut lines that were slowly carved. and temperature rim of floor space. and Assistant Professor of Fine A r t at Fukuoka University. and patient watching. Mamoru Abe prepares an image that will appear through the chemistry of iron. Damp Japanese paper was laid over carefully arranged iron bars. Changes paper. and wood are also part of the work. it can keep reforming through the inherent repetition of a process. Five forged steel shapes. salt. akin to stones in a Zen garden. as Twombly shows us opposite. ice. This the paper rest within the amplifies framelike of the floor from the ceiling. It can proclaim mood. tone. He travels widely to research ancient sacred sites. Abe's physical drawing is a sculptural installation. and sensitivity with its thickness and pressure of touch. Lines. Iron rods in tone. iron. and plaster in galleries and landscapes. silence. Below. quoting ink marks on a page. forged steel. or. The Physical Space 1990 3 0 x 30 ft ( 9 1 4 x 9 1 4 cm) MAMORU ABE . staining redbrown lines into the white surface. scrolling across the canvas in an intimate crescendo. brass. Abe works with materials such as soil. sit in silent harmony. and texture their bracing separation reaching between from beneath Pillars of the gallery are made part of this drawing by their inclusion in the paper. Moisture produced rust. rhythmically engaged with itself. MAMORU ABE Japanese sculptor and installation artist. water. Sometimes it smolders like a deep shadow.

theories suggest astrological observations. close to Stonehenge in Wiltshire. the Babylonian world map. energetic.000-2. and American Indian petroglyphs (see p. The central pictorial space is also similarly cut and divided by the considered arrangement of straight lines. Twombly has language works CY TWOMBLY Contemporary American artist who emerged through the 1950s New York art scene in the heyday of Abstract Expressionism and Action Painting. such as the Rosetta stone. Many of his graffiti-like combine abstract gestures with statements. At the 2001 Venice Biennale. This example is one of two chalk tablets found in a Late-Neolithic pit. evolved a raw. Neolithic Chalk Tablet 3. Precise lines suggest the use of a sharp flint The framed rectangle of this image is echoed in that of Abe's installation.241). and Untitled 1970 Here we might seek to grasp letters in the turning of his line. PROCESS AND HARMONY Cut lines Chalk carves easily. burials. that challenges the separation of word from image.England. and sensuous drawing from painting. emotive.Twombly was presented with a Golden Lion award for lifetime achievement.221 ANCIENT CARVINGS Many ancient cultures have made and left behind drawings and texts carved into stones or animal bone. CY TWOMBLY . and the worship of the sun and ancient gods.Thesite's purpose is unknown.400BCE 21/4 x 21/4 in (58 x 58 mm) ARTIST UNKNOWN Language Over the course of fifty years.

and lifted them away to leave impressions of watery planets and seas. interpret. he mixed graphite into ink. Two Impressions Paper 1853-55 VICTOR HUGO Disk from a Cut-Out . Bussotti. Ink impressions When drawing nightscapes Hugo often laid paper disks in place of the moon. and participate in the composition.28. "There is nothing like dream to create the future. said. too. Marks across the center appear to be made with his fingers. brushed night skies over them with ink then lifted the disks to reveal white moons.222 ABSTRACT LINES Writing Time SINCE THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY. abstract.28). Hugo." An innovator who never fails to surprise. a configuration. pressed them face down. and inventive of his time. The scores are also exhibited in galleries as visual art. Here he appears t o have saturated the cut-out moon disks with gritty pigment. A graphic score is a V I C T O R H U G O Hugo's abstract French novelist w h o m a d e m a n y drawings in m i x e d m e d i a ( s e e also p. have striven to break down old pictorial and musical structures to explore new and unfettered modes of expression. abstract artists and composers unique. Gestalt o f an unnameable thing. Similarity in gritty texture suggests that here. o r a pattern o f elements s o unified as a w h o l e t h e y c a n n o t b e e x p l a i n e d asa s u m o f parts. drawing here can b e described in t e r m s o f a G e r m a n philosophical idea a b o u t is t h e i n s t a n t r e c o g n i t i o n t h e p o w e r o f m o m e n t . His drawing writes the time of its own physical process by expressing the extreme concentration of the moment in which it was made. Gestalt. broke new ground in the 1950s with graphic scores now considered among the most extreme. and let the drying meniscus deposit granules in linear drifts such as we would see in the satellite photographic mapping of rivers. below. Both abstract drawing and composition involve the perfect sequencing of sounds and marks against space and silence. beautiful. here he anticipates abstract expressionism by 100 years. Texture Compare this drawing to Hugo's octopus on p. o f t e n e x p r e s s e d in v i s u a l t e r m s . opposite. music manuscript requiring instrumentalists to improvise.

Following the notes. a far cry from any recognized musical notation.223 W R I T I N G TIME SYLVANO BUSSOTTI Italian avant-garde composer and principal 20thcentury exponent of the graphic score. His later works become increasingly abstract. Bussotti's first mature work. 1958 SYLVANO BUSSOTTI . 70 in relation to Bussotti's clustered notes to the left of his rondo and open space to the right. Sound and rhythm This flickering rondo of sound written in pen on a hand-ruled stave can be heard in our imaginations as much as seen. we can feel their rhythm and easily attach sounds to them. Circular Score for "Due Voci" c. This is a page from Due Voci. Compare this work to that of Libeskind on p.

O p p o s i t e . d i p p i n g h e r fingers into a pot o f rice flour. In the late 1 9 t h century. making objects and images outside o f mainstream culture. Torn cloth This is one of two published photographs showing Marie Leib's torn cloth strips significantly placed on her cell floor. This takes a form in most cultures. centuries. Cloth is the simple instrument with which she has conducted and ordered her universe. T h e s e p h o t o g r a p h s d o c u m e n t the meditative drawings o f two w o m e n living worlds apart in different countries. Lieb is one o f countless thousands of "Outsider" artists—diverse individuals including ordinary citizens. Compositional rightness (see pp. and sufferers of psychiatric illnesses—who have always existed. She tore c l o t h into strips a n d used these to draw patterns a n d symbols o n h e r cell floor. In music it can be felt in the diversity of plainsong and African d r u m m i n g . It will protect the place from evil and make a pleasing invitation to good spirits. MARIE LIEB Little is known of this w o m a n for w h o m the act of drawing was essential. Marie Lieb w a s a psychiatric patient in the Heidelberg Asylum. Visually. they m a k e a visual a n d physical e c h o that t o u c h e s s o m e deep part of the human spirit.228-29) has been adjusted with each movement of the rags to draw a cosmos of balance and perfection.224 A B S T R A C T LINES Chants and Prayers WHEN ABSTRACT LINES are organized in repetition. an a n o n y m o u s w o m a n in the southeast Indian state o f Tamil Nadu m a k e s a ritual drawing o n the b r i c k courtyard o f h e r h o m e . Cell Floor With Torn Strips of Cloth 1894 MARIE LIEB . and c i r c u m s t a n c e s . cultures. social outcasts. it is found in the regularity o f ordered lines or a pattern. for e x a m p l e . Germany.

Popular magazines feature new ideas each week and on special occasions there may be contests. at the University of London and Ohio State University. lime.Theseare widely published in journals and are the subjects of international exhibitions.000 images.HUYLER Photographer art historian. women pride themselves on never repeating a design. Motifs are geometrical or based on plants. chalk. or flowers are marked or arranged on the ground or on the walls of homes. and in places of worship and celebration. Painted Prayers UNDATED STEPHEN R HUYLER . Designs and motifs Rangoii (or mandalas) are ritual drawings made by many millions of women across rural India. cultural anthropologist. Skills are handed down through generations and from friend to friend. Materials such as rice flour. lecturer on the subjects of Indian art and Indian women's identity.225 STEPHEN P. and for over 30 years has traveled extensively through the Indian subcontinent creating an edited archive of 200. Huyler is the author of Painted Prayers. animals. among others. In daily practice. and birds.

Oval moons eclipse each other and oscillate between landforms and portraiture. Catling's abstract drawings are usually made in series and in parallel to written poetry and sculptural installations. structure. it is ruled and contained in one dimension by its interlocking ink-lined borders. Mixed media This is a collage of torn white and gray tissue paper previously stained with ink.226 ABSTRACT LINES Compositions ABSTRACT DRAWINGS ARE LARGELY or entirely free from using the viewer's eye to track and unfold layers of meaning. Klee's mathematical maze of thinly washed surface resonates with meticulous planning. performance and installation artist. rocks or heads in a subdued atmosphere of dream. With no depth of field. and water-resistant layers of spray and enamel paint on thick paper. Untitled 2001 2001 153/4x 215/8 in ( 4 0 0 x 550 mm) BRIAN C A T L I N G . Oxford. Catling's works made for international galleries and museums involve drawing as a tool in their development and making. filmmaker Professor of Fine Art. and choice of hues. gold paint and iridescent gouache mixed with water. figurative representation—that is. free from the direct imaging of known physical things. They each find their pathways and equilibrium in atmosphere and suggestion. and Fellow of Linacre College. Ruskin School. but similarities in mood. Their energy can therefore be a purer expression of an idea or emotion. BRIAN CATLING British sculptor poet. These two works present complex compositions with differing intensions and methods of making. Catling's torn paper shapes and shadows spill light out of their frame like a fractured mirror.

and brush.31). Geometric harmony This is a work on paper made with a sharp ink pen. It is a geometric harmony of straight lines and tonally graded flat colors that by their arrangement draw our eyes inward to their white center. ruler. and wrote copiously about the natures and relationships of color and form. He explained his polyphonic painting as "a harmony of several color voices" searching for a visual parallel to music. philosophized. watercolor. Polyphon Gefasstes Weiss (White Framed Polyphonically) 1930 131/8x95/8 in (333 x 245 mm) Paul-Klee-Stiftung. Line and surface Klee observed the visual capacity of lines to push or pull within an image. and might be read as active or passive. Kunstmuseum Bern PAUL KLEE . drew. Klee also felt that a line represents the passing of time. We can see some diagrammatic examples of this among the optical illusions on pp.97-99. Klee painted. whereas tonal surfaces are perceived more immediately as a whole.227 PAUL K L E E Swiss painter and sculptor (see also p.

Feel for it when youdraw. It is found in all great art and design. "Whenall pictorial elements come together in pleasing and perfect balance. media. they reach a perfect position. M a n y of their inter-relationships will be meaningless. culture. their impact." .228 ABSTRACT LINES Being "Just" A SENSE OF "JUST" (or rightness) is a difficult concept to explain. and ten straight sticks painted black. or degree of figuration. W h e n m o v i n g objects around in your yard." SETTING UP Justness can be harmonious or deliberately discordant. they are just. a glass. or home. w i l l c h a n g e w i t h e v e r y r e a r r a n g e m e n t .Thisexercise will help you start. but an easy o n e to u n d e r s t a n d . b u t e v e r y n o w a n d again you will hit on an arrangement w h i c h appears just. s o m e will be more or less h a r m o n i o u s . and put them o n a tray. It is also found in nature. or on a page. This balance is what every artist and designer searches a n d feels for when making an image. for instance. Set up a sheet of paper with a rectangle drawn on it. Take. and an apple. As y o u m o v e them around. the late garden designer Russell Page explains. after being continuously adjusted. angles. and elements settle in definitive balance. In his b o o k The Education of a Gardener. Seek it when looking at other artists' work and in your everyday environment. a b u n c h of keys. regardless of style. there is a clear feeling when. "I have experimented endlessly with this idea. the impression y o u receive from t h e m . There is a single m o m e n t w h e n all proportions.

A stick touching the rectangle links the composition to the frame. making the composition seem to float beneath. horizontals dominate the top. Here. . fix it with glue. In the final step (left) there is an even balance.56-57). Within a rectangle on a flat sheet of paper set about making a composition using no other rule than a sense of "just. B E I N G "JUST" 1 Arrange your ten sticks in t w o groups of five. painted black.229 WHERE TO START Take ten sticks of equal length. 2 3 In the step above. which now becomes a tight frame. W h e n the composition falls into place. suggesting a horizon. Remember the drawn rectangle is a part of the composition (see pp. Move the sticks out into the rectangle. Feel for the rightness of their grouping and their relationships to surrounding spaces. horizontals dominate the lower area. as shown here. Arrange them so they touch or cross in a series of intersecting balances." Move the sticks to find alignments and imagined perspectives.

they become a scaffold for the addition of further textures..230 ABSTRACT LINES Collage H E R E W E EXPERIMENT with collage. correction fluid or white paint." overlapping placement of materials on a flat plane. Images and fragments torn from day-to-day life can be brought together to make a chorus of ideas and emotions.228-29). and black ink. found or made items. Cut or torn layers and shapes. glue. To prepare for this lesson. This principal also applies to three-dimensional drawings such as Gaudi's work with wire and weights on p. or even strident. he went on to say ". colors and textures can be manipulated until their pictorial harmony.. colors. Once the ten painted black sticks are set and glued in place.69 and Abe's installation on p. you start composing by adding or subtracting shapes and textures and using colors and tones to achieve the impression you want to m a k e — w h e t h e r dramatic or s u b d u e d . Collage offers the artist a liberating palette of SETTING UP This lesson in collage is a direct continuation of the compositional lines made in the previous class. ready-made depths and surfaces. harmonious.220. stain and dry a sheet of tissue paper using blueink. or discordance. and tones. feels "just" (see pp." (Russell Page) . "My understanding is that every object [or shape] emanates—sends out vibrations beyond its physical body which are specific to itself. Returning to Russell Page.Youwill also need spare white paper. which is the shifting. a compass. scissors. hard or soft. an infinite range of voices and meaning.

and with a compass and scissors. then cut out. correction fluid and ink marks add further dimensions. COLLAGE 1 Regular-sized pieces of white paper are moved over the surface to disrupt the even lines. Obscuring the blue disks. solidity. Cut six small rectangles the same proportion as your whole image. four circles of blue tissue paper. and shadow to thepicture.228) in front of you. . Glue them in place once they feel "just" Translucent circular disks of tissue paper give color tone.231 WHAT TO DO Lay the final step of the previous lesson (p. 2 3 Torn white paper moved over the surface adds masks of rough-edged irregular volume. In the last step (left). draw. they deepen pictorial space.The single disk that is folded with its straight edge facing up appears heavier than those that are flat. This can also give a sense of fragmentation or punctuation to the composition.


emotion. Hitsuzendo drawings aspire to "breathe with the energy and vitality of eternal life" achieved through "a state of no mind—beyond thought." [Tanchu Terayama. A MODERN JAPANESE meditative art form inspired by the teachings of Yamaoka Tesshu (1836-1888). . Zen Brushwork]. and expectation. is the practice of Zen through the calligraphic marks of a brush dipped in carbon ink.Zen Calligraphy HITSUZENDO.

discord is balanced against rhythm to create mood. These vibrate against washes of shadow and pitch-black mass. Lines made with a steel dip pen take on a scratchy nervousness.Nocturnes IN THIS QUARTET of semi-abstract drawings made with India ink. I flicked spatters of ink and rubbed the paper with a wet and a dry brush to achieve these effects. .





movie studios now brim with as many monsters as the visual art of the Medieval and Renaissance Church. and the Alien trilogy. sculptures. a collaboration between the two will ensure that your drawings glow with originality. look for images in the folds of clothing. We then add substances we dislike: unidentified fluids. . our literate and more secular Western society still hungers for another world and to ravenously indulge its fascination for the marvelous. we select details of animals farthest from ourselves and that are widely thought disturbing—reptilian and insect features.247. feathers. England. or strange. Lord of the Rings. for example. and stained-glass windows deliver powerful visual sermons to the once-illiterate populace. For example. angels. Be inspired by the irrational comedy of word association or puns. To learn to flex your imagination. When creating monsters. and deep fur—and we alter their scale. wings. and damnation are found in most world faiths. Neither should be slave or master. Fantasy is most successful when founded on strong and familiar visual logic. impossible. Throughout this book images are presented to excite and surprise and drawing classes created to increase your confidence. which were widely distributed and influential in his time. I was on a train passing through Nuneaton. Schongauer is best known for his prints. Here. all of which originated as hundreds of drawings. Depictions of God or of gods in the contexts of daily life. In the Christian churches of Europe. serpentine tails. The salvation of heaven and terrors of hell are represented equally—enough to make any sinner shudder. in the cracks of walls. which is to have eaten a nun—it inspired the drawing on p. Perhaps the Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 1485 121/4 x 9 in (312 x 230 mm) MARTIN SCHONGAUER most important conclusion in this final chapter is to advise you to develop your skills in parallel with the joy of your unfolding imagination. Humans are equally troubled by the imperceptibly small and the enormous. Reading the place name I momentarily glimpsed an alternative meaning. and the faces of God have for centuries given artists a feast for the extremes of their imagination. We watch with captivated pleasure movies such as The Fly. Monsters take advantage of both. Images we are now surrounded by bear testimony to the power and resourcefulness of their collective imagination. beasts. a Catherine wheel of drawn sparks spiraling around the quietly resolute saint. our eye circulates around a flutter of leather and scaly wings. a human-animal mix that implies this could MARTIN SCHONGAUER German painter and engraver who settled to work in Colmar Alsace. or in smoke. Feeding this demand. Star Wars. Today. happen to us. scales. We love our fear of the hybrid—ideally. paradise. aliens.Gods and Monsters OUR SACRED AND SECULAR need to visualize demons. thousands of paintings.

Near the end of his life he made his "Black Paintings" on the walls of his home. Violent white marks symbolizing Achilles' rage resonate with the energy of Twombly's script on p. noisy seascape on p. In this softer aquatint he poses for his portrait Textured background The aquatint process has been used to great effect in making a gritty toned background.220. a Shoshone seeking guidance and power meditates at the sacred site of a petroglyph. portraits. to Picasso's similarly tight. Visions experienced in front of the drawing sometimes instruct the making of a new one. Paul Thomas's studies of Picasso and Twombly can be traced directly. quoting great paintings and popular culture to add cunning twists to his satires. we see the international icon of stupidity. vanity. Saturn devouring his son. Compare his dark. his lover a dog. Pictorially. Goya's plainly textured gray background pushes back the space behind the illuminated simply subject. which can swamp the subject Here. The title "And So Was His Grandfather" adds that should we not already know. The well-dressed mule is cumbersome. hags. He would be graceless if he stood. reading from a book of asses. They depict as if by lamplight the devil and witches. Opposite. crammed tightly at his desk. and follies of court through copious graphic works including his best-known prints. barren land rising like MYRIAD CHAINS RUN THROUGH ART HISTORY. Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 1799 81/2 x 6 in (218 x 154 mm) FRANCISCO DE GOYA . Goya later recorded the horrors of Napoleonic occupation. Francisco de Goya was a master of borrowing. In this ass. whose impassioned work begins with light tapestry cartoons. and men clubbing each other to death. Other drawn versions of this image are more savage and frightening. below. Opposite below. F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A Spanish court painter printmaker and draftsman.30. rushing. plain wall suggests a blinkered view of nothing. This act defines the vision and continues the line of spirit guides. deranged masses. such asinine behavior can be hereditary. The high. This continuity enriches the making of art and our heritage. Aquatint Goya has drawn a learned man as an ass. and exposed the superstitions. a wave to join Achilles' chase of Hector. it allows the mule to stand forward. Many students leave white backgrounds in their work. Los Caprichos.240 GODS AND M O N S T E R S Marks of Influence marking the influence of one artist upon another. and church murals.

Wind River Reservation. Parallel lines within the body of the figure are likely to denote power." Each sacred image drawn into rock belongs to one of three realms in the Shoshone world: the realm of the sky. A vivid spectrum of energized graphite marks and a masterly composition give this drawing vitality and speed.241 MARKS OF INFLUENCE PAUL T H O M A S British contemporary artist whose epic graphic work questions and reflects upon issues of European identity. meaning "place of power. or of the water Chipped image This is a sacred creature of the sky chipped onto rock at Dinwoody Lake. Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range UNDATED ARTIST UNKNOWN . and personal and social struggles. White marks like flashes of light are cut though graphite with an eraser to reveal the paper beneath. Achilles Chases Hector 1996 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) PAUL THOMAS SHOSHONE PETROGLYPH The Shoshone people of Wyoming name petroglyph sites Poha Kahni. Simple wall stones cleverly state their cold solidity while also fading from our attention as the scene roars by. It was made with a sharp implement. values. ideals. of the earth. Wyoming. by a supplicant in a trance of meditation. Thomas conducts his explorations in the mine of Greek and Roman mythology. perhaps a stone. Graphite marks Here Achilles chases Hector around the walls of Troy before killing him.

Compare worked textures throughout the whole of this image to those found throughout Anita Taylor's charcoal drawing on p. Redon lifted them out with some sort of eraser. The monsters of Bosch grew from his observations of beggars going about their trade in 15th. and writer In contrast t o the light and visual accent of contemporary Impressionism. T H E EXPLORATION AND DEPICTION Hauntings Grandville has drawn a scurrying zoo of half-known demons and animals that appear to have been stolen from the glass eye of the microscope. Our subconscious can be drawn with pleasure and ease.and 16th-century Holland. Techniques demonstrated on pp. We may feel safe so long as the eye looks heavenward. we see parallel slanting pale marks that might have been made with fresh bread—a very effective eraser used before the wide availability of rubber or plastic. Here we see how he evolved their injuries into new limbs and warped proportions. H e was influenced by his friends. the shock would be extreme. the writers Joris-Karl Huysmans and Stephane Mallarme. which sometimes—half-dressed and carrying a familiar trophy— stride. GODS AND Erasure In this charcoal drawing. to the right of the balloon. below left. lifting its cranial passenger over a seascape of repose. The Eye Like a Strange Mounts Balloon 165/8 x131/8in (422 x 332 mm) ODILON REDON 1882 Toward Infinity . crawl.242 MONSTERS of the unknown is a classical and constant occupation for the artist. They float toward us like a horrid visitation. graphic artist. 115. Lifting out Fine strings of the hot-air balloon appear dark against the sky and light against the balloon. Children are also delighted to invent a monster or ghoul. Redon's eyeball balloon rises up. as he did the grass. ODILON REDON French painter draftsman. and scuttle over all known reality. Redon explored the darker side of the human imagination through symbols and mysticism. If it were to turn and stare this way.204-05 will enable you to produce a similar effect of white lines shining out of dark charcoal.

Light shines from the right. sucker-faced creatures dash and trundle toward it They are drawn solidly to emphasize their earthbound weight. Last Judgment. Quill and ink This typical Bosch monster is a quill drawing in bistre ink The phrasing of light and contour here is masterly.243 J E A N I G N A C E ISIDORE GERARD ("GRANDVILLE") French graphic artist and political satirist. grimacing. Smiling. Garden of Earthly Delights. Two Monsters UNDATED 45/8 x61/2in (117 x 163 mm) HIERONYMUS BOSCH . 1840 61/8 x41/2in ( 1 5 5 x 1 1 5 mm) GRANDVILLE HIERONYMUS BOSCH Dutch painter Bosch's highly detailed iconographic religious panel paintings. which is still available today. Comic little headbands of waving hair express more hysteria than fear. teeming with the exhilaration of unrestrained fantasy. HAUNTINGS Engraving This is an engraving made so that Grandville's original drawing could be reproduced. Madrid. include The Haywain. This image is from one of Grandville's best-known publications. The quality of the line is therefore uniform throughout. A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects c. Les Animaux (1840). and Ship of Fools. and he illustrated the Fables of La Fontaine and Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe. His other major works include Metamorphoses du Jour (1828). Most of his work is in the Prado Museum.

Opposite.244 GODS AND MONSTERS Convolutions THESE CONVOLUTED DRAWINGS were made almost 5 0 0 years apart. snake. and dying slaves. and dog. His entire drawing wrestles and weaves the viewer's eye into its retracting folds. Michelangelo's dragon. she formed a series of ghostly pale. and mist-swathed land. hatched lines. Scaly. David. gamboling copulations. the dome of the Vatican. below. and engineer Among Michelangelo's great works are the painted ceiling and altar wall of the Sistine Chapel. wraps and coils its lithe body ready to strike or whimper at a touch. phrased over the contours of form and bridging darker areas of shadow. Two previously drawn faces become humorous antagonists to the beast. Grimes found the genesis of her beast not among animals. In her studio. lion. and play with its perfection and meaning. pinnacled. and marble sculptures including Pieto. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI Florentine painter sculptor. sometimes artists purposefully tie a knot in the configuration to disturb. Chalk and ink A quill dipped in brown ink was worked over black chalk on this reused sheet. muscular tension is carved out of the paper using layered. architect. topple. Grimes' delicately cavorting figures dive into and consume each other. a stunning hybrid of a swan. but in the seductive landscape of Leonardo da Vinci's oil painting Madonna of the Rocks. as we might expect. A snake eating its own tail is a universal image of the eternal and continuous. They share between them the pleasures of inventing a hybrid beast. remembering the cavernous. Dragon 1522 10 x 133/8 in ( 2 5 4 x 3 3 8 m m ) MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI . St Peter's square. However. poet.

How Clever of God #84 2002 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) O O N A GRIMES . boards finished paper. and the Camberwell and Slade Schools of Fine Art. The large space around figure has been cropped Grimes drawings to flatten presses them. London. London. Oxford. details evolved slowly using a drier brush. Ink-wash delicately gouache (smooth) and gouache brushed drawing on This is a and was hot-pressed Shadows The dark shadow of the Other the ink-wash earth was made with a brushstroke of ink laid into wet paper. The image formed directly without first making a pencil outline. her under heavy here.245 CONVOLUTIONS O O N A GRIMES British contemporary artist and professor of printmaking at the Ruskin School. It is one of a series of fragile earth figures inspired by rocks. Grimes exhibits internationally and features in the collections of the New York Public Library and the Victoria and Albert Museum. each one iridescent and crumbly like a weathered while oyster.

and hold prodigious weights of ink or paint. and texture. and effects. Soaps purchased from good art supply stores will gently cleanse particles of pigment that become trapped in the hairs or ferrule. It is capable of very fine pointing. ideally suited to drawing. thicknesses. the very opposite of pencil or silver point. and never leave them standing on their tip in a jar of water. Brushes vary in size. 2.Theyhold plenty of ink and make continuous. Suitable for wash techniques but also capable of very fine detail. 1. SYNTHETIC-HAIR BRUSH: Bound in a synthetic ferrule with good inkholding capacity and good spring and control. SQUIRREL-HAIR S W O R D LINER:This brush has a maximum ink-holding capacity and an extremely fine and flexible point 8. materials. SABLE-HAIR RIGGER: Made with very long kolinsky sable hairs. 10. S Y N T H E T I C . 3. dense.H A I R RIGGER: Made with long synthetic hair for fine-point work It has a good ink-holding capacity and is slightly more resilient than sable hair with more "snap. SABLE-HAIR LINER: Made with ordinary sable hair surrounding an extralong. all perfect for drawing and.H A I R LINER: Very responsive oriental-style liner This to the touch. with a fine point for delicate work 4. and wrist into a fluid and soft touch. flowing. return them to their pointed shape. SMALL JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with sable hair.246 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brushes T H E BRUSH IS A VOLUPTUOUS and delicate weights. The brushes shown here are a mixture of This is a selection of riggers. it has good inkholding capacity and is very flexible. POINTED SQUIRREL-HAIR MOP: With a synthetic quill ferrule and extra high inkholding capacity. which holds long sable hair This brush holds large amounts of ink for long lines and points well for detailed work. 13. between them. and very fine lines. This brush has a broad wash capability and can achieve a very wide range of marks. Always clean them thoroughly. This design supplies the fine tip with a long continuity of ink 5. SYNTHETIC-HAIR S W O R D LINER: A lining brush with high ink-holding capacity and a fine point. How you care for your brushes will determine how long they last. others are as fine as a whisker with a gentle touch. 12. washes." 6. SYNTHETIC-HAIR LINER: This brush gives a medium line and is firm with a spring to the touch. and writers. drawing tool extending the arm. ink-laden tip allow an expression that is beyond the linear. LARGER JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with natural hair held in a plastic ferrule on a bamboo handle. 7. it has good wash capabilities. making rt ideally suited to Japanese painting and small-scale calligraphy. The living marks of a wet. and has a fine tip for detailed work. Shorter brushes designed for other purposes run out of ink more quickly. It is still relatively small in the total range of Japanese brushes. JAPANESE PAINTING BRUSH: Made with natural hair. Slightly less flexible than the squirrel-hair sword liner 9. giving a variety of lines. It has exceptional painting characteristics. L A R G E R S Y N T H E T I C . this brush has a soft drawing tip and small ink-holding capacity. M T RA S AEIL . needle-sharp center of kolinsky red sable hair. Some are bold. Some used by master calligraphers are 2-3 in (5-8 cm) in diameter 11. P O I N T E D T R A D I T I O N A L WRITER: The ferrule is made from a small duck quill. shape. liners. fingers.


I rubbed a block of Chinese ink (see p.) I .248 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brush Marks A S I N G L E BRUSH will m a k e an e n o r m o u s range of m a r k s depending u p o n the width. I had left the end of the ink block in the water overnight to make it easier to dissolve.35) into two tablespoons of water in a shallow. SETTING UP Blowing spots T h e s e t h r e e s p i d e r y c r e a t u r e s (above right and below) w e r e m a d e by d r o p p i n g s p o t s o f ink f r o m a b r u s h o n t o t h e p a g e and. length. unglazed earthenware dish. softness. w i t h m y face close. the degree of pressure applied. A single brush has almost balletic potential to draw fine or undulating lines and curves. and to make pools and stains o n the page. and above all w h e t h e r the b r u s h is saturated with pigment or relatively dry.246-47). and type of its hairs. the speed of the s t r o k e . Here I drew with a soft Japanese painting brush (see pp. It also depends on the angle at w h i c h it is held. the texture and a b s o r b e n c y of the paper ( w h i c h m a y be d a m p or dry). b l o w i n g h a r d o n t h e m several t i m e s t o disperse t h e ink ( c l o s e y o u r eyes if y o u t r y this. and spatters. splashes.

a n d b r u s h . w e see fine lines and s p o t s . a n d t h e w a y it d i s t r i b u t e s w h e n t h e b r u s h is d a b b e d o n its s i d e . . b l e e d i n g f r o m strokes b e l o w left.249 Gritty texture T h e details o f t h e largest creatures b e l o w and opposite s h o w the granular texture of Chinese b l o c k ink. t h e effects of the b r u s h r u n n i n g o u t o f ink. BRUSH MARKS Wet and dry strokes A m o n g these concentrated drawings ink made into with the same w a t e r y lines.

. I borrowed small and fragile specimens from the University Museum of Natural History. and used their detail to draw new creatures that might at first seem familiar.Monsters THESE LITTLE CREATURES o f i n k and i n v e n t i o n were b o r n out of animal and bird studies. until we look again. Oxford.


showing us that gallery study is not just for the student and beginner. Here. They are a pair and hang opposite each other. Isidore. With further research. are two long. . thin works made by Bartolome Murillo in Seville about 120 years earlier. Goya often invented his monsters out of characters seen in other painters' works. Through studying and drawing these great paintings I have discovered that they are based on a pair of similarly long. thin works titled The Witches' Sabbath and The Procession of St. Among his "Black Paintings" in the Prado Museum. Madrid. Goya's witches have been literally drawn and evolved out of the shapes of Murillo's prophet and pilgrims. two of my own drawings show you how Goya's devil (below) is based on the shape of Murillo's boy on a horse (top right).Goya's Monsters W I T H CUNNING BRILLIANCE. I found relationships between all four paintings in terms of shapes. and narrative twists. formal composition.


Consumed THIS IS A SERIES OF CARTOONS I m a d e s o m e years ago. . Sometimes drawings come out of nowhere and surprise even the artist. little comments on politeness and sexual politics. drawn rapidly and with great joy.


s u c h as a d r a w i n g o r painting. W o r d s o r symbols are Cold-pressed papers P a p e r manufactured with a "not" o r " r o u g h " surface. Ferrule T h e s h o r t m e t a l t u b e t h a t s u r r o u n d s a n d g n p s t h e hairs o f a p a i n t b r u s h a n d fixes t h e m t o t h e brush handle. a n d given t h e n a m e Sho. F r o m t h e French v e r b coller. so t h a t ink r e m a i n s o n l y in t h e g r o o v e s o f s c r a t c h e d lines. in w h i c h parts o f an image are depicted v e r y brightly and dramatically against d a r k n e s s . p h o t o g r a p h s . Crosshatching Parallel lines d r a w n across o n e a n o t h e r at right angles. Blotting T h e use o f a b s o r b e n t m a t e r i a l t o lift a w a y excess liquid. t h e l i g h t is b e h i n d h i m o r her. Camera lucida A n optical device t h a t p r o j e c t s an image o f an o b j e c t o n t o a plain s u r f a c e so t h a t it can be traced. L a t e r it c a m e t o m e a n h i g h l y c o n t r a s t e d light effects. R o u g h p a p e r is m a d e b e t w e e n t w o blankets t h a t . See also Hotpressed papers. pressurized t o o l used f o r spraying fine mists o f s m o o t h c o l o r P i g m e n t is d e l i v e r e d b y a j e t o f air n o t t h e bristles o f a brush. a n d g r a p h i t e . in w h i c h t h e subject's distinctive features o r peculiarities are deliberately exaggerated f o r c o m i c o r g r o t e s q u e effect. as o p p o s e d t o t h e s t r a i g h t e d g e o f a sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has b e e n machine-trimmed. A l s o called m u s e u m g r a d e .c e n t u r y Italian t e r m m e a n i n g "clear-obscure. A h u m o r o u s d r a w i n g o r parody. usually at a n a c u t e angle t o t h e s u r f a c e . R e m b r a n d t is a great master o f chiaroscuro. Cartoon 1.d i m e n s i o n a l i m a g e . S o m e t i m e s f e r r u l e s a r e m a d e o f plastic o r o t h e r materials.m a d e paper. n e w s p a p e r cuttings. Camera obscura A d a r k e n e d c h a m b e r i n t o w h i c h an i m a g e o f w h a t is o u t s i d e is received t h r o u g h a small o p e n i n g o r lens a n d f o c u s e d in natural c o l o r o n a facing surface. linseed oil o r egg y o l k Caricature A representation Contour line A line t h a t f o l l o w s t h e s h a p e o f a surface. Air brush A mechanical. w h e n a p e r s o n is p a i n t e d standing a g a i n s t a w i n d o w . A l s o called r i n g l e t shading." It w a s first given t o t o n a l paintings m a d e in o n e c o l o r — s e e Grisaille. t h e field is t h e a p p a r e n t a n d b e l i e v a b l e space inside t h e p i c t u r e . A p o t e n t i a l l y h a r s h m e t h o d o f p r o d u c i n g t o n e s in a d r a w i n g . F r o m t h e G r e e k kallos." " N o t " p r e s s e d p a p e r is r o l l e d a s e c o n d t i m e w i t h o u t blankets t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders t o p r o d u c e a s m o o t h e r b u t still slightly t e x t u r e d s u r f a c e . Collage C o l l e c t e d materials such as c o l o r e d p a p e r s . Fixative lightly glues t h e d r a w i n g t o t h e surface o f t h e p a p e r t o p r e v e n t smudging. pastel. s u c h as a s c r e e n . w h e n v i e w e d f r o m a specified point. Field In a t w o . p r i n t i n g press face up. T h e m o v e m e n t was started by a g r o u p o f French artists including H e n r i Matisse. 2. charcoal. Acid-free paper P a p e r w i t h a neutral p H t h a t will n o t darken o r d e t e r i o r a t e excessively w i t h age. Anamorphic distortion Stretching an i m a g e across a p i c t u r e surface so t h a t it can o n l y b e u n d e r s t o o d . m e a n i n g " t o stick" Dry media M e d i a t h a t a r e n o t w e t o r o i l y — f o r e x a m p l e . A i r b r u s h e s are u s e d in t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c o m i c s . Bracelet shading C u r v e d parallel lines t h a t f o l l o w t h e c o n t o u r s o f f o r m . o f t e n d i s t o r t e d forms and vivid colors. Bleed T h e e f f e c t o f t w o w e t colors running into one another o r o n e color applied t o a w e t surface a n d a l l o w e d t o d i s p e r s e . chance mark-making. Fauvism A n early 2 0 t h . It is p u t o n a Body color See Gouache.s i z e d r a w i n g m a d e for t h e purpose o f transferring a design t o a painting. A " s h a l l o w d e p t h o f field" m e a n s t h e p i c t u r e appears t o have only a shallow s p a c e inside i t Diffuse T o s o f t e n o r m a k e less brilliant. Deckle edge T h e i r r e g u l a r e d g e o f a s h e e t o f m o l d . p r a c t i c e d meditatively w i t h a brush. written with a broad-nibbed pen o r brush. a r e r o l l e d t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders. T h e b l a n k e t s g i v e t h e p a p e r its rough texture o r "tooth. r a t h e r t h a n r e c o r d e d o n a film o r plate. Calligraphy Beautiful h a n d w r i t i n g . Fixative Liquid acrylic resin a n d l a c q u e r t h i n n e r usually a p p l i e d as a n a e r o s o l s p r a y m i s t t o t h e surface o f a d r y . T h e prints t a k e n from t h e s e plates o r blocks. a n d attaches t h e m t o t h e s u p p o r t — f o r example. It can also seal a silver p o i n t d r a w i n g t o p r e v e n t t h e oxidization (browning) o f t h e Drypoint A d r a w i n g is s c r a t c h e d directly o n t o a m e t a l plate w i t h a m e t a l t o o l h e l d like apen. U s e d as a c o r r e c t i n g device o r pictorial game. 2. m e a n i n g "beauty". Composition T h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e p a r t s o f an i m a g e t o m a k e u p the whole. o r o t h e r (usually large) w o r k — s e e Pouncing. Also called accelerated perspective. A l s o c a l l e d t h e h o r i z o n line. A f u l l .c e n t u r y painting m o v e m e n t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e use o f b o l d . o r will o n l y a p p e a r n o r m a l . C o p p e r p l a t e engravings w e r e widely used t o r e p r o d u c e images b e f o r e p h o t o g r a p h y . Binder A substance t h a t holds particles o f p i g m e n t t o g e t h e r in a paint f o r m u l a t i o n . In t h e W e s t p e n calligraphy is u s e d t o c r e a t e f o r m a l a n d d e c o r a t i v e t e x t s ." D e s c r i b e s a p a i n t i n g in w h i c h t h e light s o u r c e is b e h i n d t h e s u b j e c t F o r e x a m p l e . Erasure T h e a c t o f r e m o v i n g a n i m a g e f r o m a surface. Eye level T h e i m a g i n a r y h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e a t t h e s a m e h e i g h t as t h e a v e r a g e p e r s o n ' s eyes. T h e name " n o t " simply refers t o t h e fact t h a t t h e cylinders are n o t h o t in t e m p e r a t u r e . for example. D a m p p a p e r is laid o n t o p . Aerial perspective The effect of the a t m o s p h e r e o v e r distance as it lightens t o n e s a n d cools c o l o r s progressively t o w a r d t h e horizon.m e d i a d r a w i n g . A g e n e r a l t e r m t h a t describes t h e various processes o f c u t t i n g a design i n t o a plate o r b l o c k o f m e t a l o r w o o d . Contre jour A F r e n c h t e r m m e a n i n g " a g a i n s t day. tapestry. Engraving 1.256 GLOSSARY Glossary Accidental drawing Random. In t h e Far East calligraphy is a highly r e s p e c t e d a r t f o r m . t o g e t h e r w i t h a t h i c k felt b l a n k e t T h e w h o l e s a n d w i c h o f l a y e r s is t h e n railed t h r o u g h t h e press t o m a k e a p r i n t D r y p o i n t is a very portable and immediate m e t h o d o f printmaking.The plate is t h e n r o l l e d w i t h ink a n d polished with a rag. Blending M e r g i n g t w o o r m o r e neighboring colors o r tones t o g e t h e r using a tortillon. Conservation grade D e s c r i b e s a range o f materials t h a t d o n o t d e c a y and cannot be broken d o w n by insects. and readymade objects arranged and stuck o n t o a flat surface. Chiaroscuro A 1 7 t h .

Impressing Stamping or printing. Gamut A complete range or extent Glassine A type of thin. used for fixing paper to walls and boards. glass. Pointillism A technique of using points or dots of pure color in such a way that when the picture is viewed from a distance they react Masking tape Invaluable. 2. or canvas and allowed to dry before an image is drawn or painted. Hot-pressed papers (HP) Paper made using hot cylinders. work. format" (abbreviated to "portrait").The degree to which detail is defined. glossy. shape. aiming to represent facts rather than an interpretation of the subject. Giotto's Virtues and Vices in the Arena Chapel. but each print will be unique. or a family of colors. or synthetic material that are suspended in a medium to constitute paint. or a drawing made in any single color GLOSSARY Linear perspective A form of perspective in which parallel lines are represented as converging. It can be used with any wet media to isolate or protect parts of an image from further Optical blending See Pointillism. or even a beam of light. This method incorporates the excitement of accidental and unpredicted marks. materials that produce marks on a surface. lifting out charcoal and other dry media. Picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. which give it a smooth surface (as opposed to cold-pressed paper. the surface of the stone is made wet before being rolled with a thin film of oilbased printing ink. Padua. This may be disregarded in real life.while secretion of the acacia tree. are painted in grisaille and appear to be made of stone. of the ingredients in inks and watercolors. oil-. sticky paper tape. to describe a surface to which paint will adhere readily. and that will "escape" or change over time.The paper then bears a crayon impression or copy of the surface that was underneath it A number of Surrealists. cadmium yellow hue. and it has a history in enamel work. . Hairspray is an effective and inexpensive alternative. and translucent paper—a delicate material used in collage. including Max Ernst used frottage in their work." A piece of paper is placed on top of an object or rough surface. it is the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work Pigment Any substance used as a coloring agent—for example. Usually an academic drawing observed from life. Alternatively. Hatching (cross-) See Crosshatching. Fugitive A term given to a pigment that it is not stable. This effect emulates what we see in real life. which has a rough surface). mineral. A small image might be described as small format Horizontal images are often said to be "landscape format" (abbreviated G u m arabic The natural to"landscape"). After several intervening processes. with the area beneath remaining unaffected. Negative space The space between things. F o r m The outer surface of a three-dimensional object. then rubbed over carefully but vigorously with a crayon.Theground provides a particular color or texture beneath the image. Lifting out A method of creating highlights and mid-tones in a drymedia drawing (such as charcoal or graphite). multiH u e A term for a color. and by artists representing stone sculptures in a painting. Masking fluid Clear or opaque latex fluid developed for watercolor painting. the finely ground particles of plant. and is also used as a size. Monoprinting A direct method of printing in which wet medium (water-. Foreshortening A method of depicting an object at an angle to the surface of the picture. Ground A wet solution usually of gouache or gesso (chalk and animal glue) brushed onto paper board. Also refers to an additive used to control the application properties of a color Golden Section A proportion in which a straight line or rectangle is divided into two unequal parts in such a way that the ratio of the smaller part to the greater part is the same as that of the greater part to the whole. pastel. Focus 1 . A point of interest in a drawing. Grisaille A painting in gray or a grayish color Often made by students as a tonal exercise. Medium A generic term for art Key A painting is said to be "high key" when the colors and tones are bright and "low key" when they are dark or somber The term is also used Gouache Opaque watercolor Also called body color. Paper is then pressed against the stone to take a print. oil-based printing ink is rolled evenly onto a smooth metal. Lightfast A term confirming that pigment in the product will not fade with exposure to light. The ink attaches to the oil-based image and is repelled by the wet stone. It is a strong adhesive. so that (using vanishing point perspective) the object appears to change shape and become narrower or smaller as it recedes. upright images are called "portrait which is used as a binding agent in many liquid media. white. or for wrapping and protecting a finished piece of work. and orientation of the image. Paper is laid on top and a rapid drawing is made on the back of it The paper lifts away to reveal the image on its other side.257 metal line. or plastic surface. Objective drawing Refers to the concept of objectivity. F o r m a t T h e size. The surface can be reloaded or redrawn with more medium. Dark tones are laid down first then an eraser or masking tape is used to lift away particles of the drawing media to reveal the lightness of the paper beneath. and masking off areas of a drawing that the artist wishes to keep untouched by media applied above or beside the tape. rock. Grisaille is occasionally seen in church stained-glass windows. or spirit-based) is applied to a surface that is then pressed onto paper and removed to leave a print. Rubens used grisaille to paint small images for engravers. enabling them to stick to paper It also helps to maintain a stable dispersion of pigment particles in water as the film of a wash dries. purpose. Lithography A method of printmaking in which a drawing or painting is made directly onto a smooth slab of particular limestone or a metal plate using an oilbased crayon or ink. graphite. Papercut A type of collage in which flat sheets of paper are cut into an image. It improves the bonding properties Frottage A French term meaning "rubbing. Plumb line A line from which a weight is suspended in order to determine verticality or depth. and gray drawing. Monochrome Usually refers to a black. It is then peeled away. but in picture-making it is as important as the objects/subjects themselves. to give the illusion of depth and distance. Artists can paint freely over dry masking fluid. ink. Also used by artists' materials manufacturers to indicate the use of a substitute pigment—for example. or can be otherwise used to create an image—for example.

commonly referred to as the lead. Stylus A sharp. or point on which parallel lines converge to give the impression of receding space. tight. design. orchids. compound of water-soluble pigment. in tone running from black to white or vice versa. Zen A school of Mahayana Buddhism that asserts that enlightenment can come through meditation and intuition rather than faith. usually diluted with water and applied with a brush. cut-out profile made along every outline of the usually made in black paper image. which are then called editions. or any physical object that can be stamped or pressed onto a surface to leave an impression. Zen brushwork encompasses calligraphy and painting. Support The structure on which an image is made—for example. or pen. Viewpoint The position from which something is observed or considered.258 GLOSSARY together optically. Props An abbreviation of the word properties. plaster. . or wood. Single-point perspective The most basic form of linear perspective in which there is only one vanishing point. watercolor. Underdrawing A pale preliminary drawing made prior to adding layers of another medium such as oil paint or watercolor Value The extent to which a color reflects or transmits light This is the equivalent of tone in a black and white image. Although drawings can be made with wash alone. Stippling Applying color or tone in areas of fine dots or flecks. W e t media Any liquid media— for example. The translucent Tint A color mixed with white. sometimes drawn from a and leaving only the pricked sheet of shadow cast on a wall. Squeegee A rubber-trimmed scraper used in the screenprinting process for dragging ink across a surface. Still life A picture composed of inanimate objects such as bowls. and paperweights." Applied to the blurring or softening of sharp outlines by the subtle and gradual blending of one tone into another Sgraffito A technique of scratching or cutting through a surface of paint. "Spirits" or "oil" of turpentine refer to the volatile portion used by artists to thin or dilute oil-based paint. using a brush. or mark using an inked or pigment-covered surface." Materials for Zen brushwork include round brushes of varied size. The crude material is called oleoresin. wall or tapestry. Sketch A quick or rough drawing. Shade A that is color mixed (or toned) with black Shading A lay term for adding tone to a drawing. or the left-hand page in a book. ink. nature of watercolor allows the white surface of the paper to Tonal scale A scale of gradations shine through. Pouncing If a large drawing or design (called a cartoon) is to be Shadow Darkness cast by the transferred to a surface such as a obscuring of light. fruit. Named paper in place. carbon ink. A term borrowed from the theater. Technical drawing A universal it is often used in conjunction language of lines and measurements with line drawings in pen and that is used to make diagrammatic ink—for images. Zen brushwork This is an oriental meditative art form originating in China and practised for many centuries in Japan. fine paper. or watercolor paint. glasses. Etienne de material) dabbed through the Silhouette (1709-67). paper or canvas. a tightly folded piece of cotton batting can be used for the same effect. Tone A degree of lightness or darkness. Subjective drawing A drawing that expresses the personal view and interpretation of the artist An invented image. and chrysanthemum—which in Chinese tradition are called "The Four Gentlemen. an ink stone usually cut from slate. in order to flick the pigment onto the image surface.Technicaldrawing has been example. plum blossom. Size A weak glue used for filling the porous surface of wood or canvas in order to seal it. such as an inscribed sheet of metal. Volume The amount of space occupied by an object or an area of space in itself. by imposing a grid that is then scaled up to a larger size. Pounce (a fine for an unpopular 18th-century powder of charcoal or similar French politician. Squaring up A method of enlarging and transferring an image from one surface to another. Strip Core of a pencil. pointed instrument used for marking or engraving. or gouache. evolved by engineers and architects for the purpose of conveying W a t e r c o l o r A painting accurate structural information. giving it a brilliance. a sheet of paper is placed beneath and pinpricks are Silhouette A flat. Scale Describes the size of one element in relation to another Sepia A brown pigment taken from the sun-dried ink sacs of cuttlefish and used to make ink or watercolor The term is now often incorrectly used to refer to brown colors. meaning objects used in setting up a life model or still life. Spattering A mottled texture produced by drawing your fingers across the bristles of a stiff brush loaded with pigment. Sfumato An Italian term meaning "smoky. and flowers. Vanishing point In linear perspective. creating more vibrant effects than if the same colors were physically mixed together with a brush. to model areas of light and shade. Wash A technique using ink. or ceramic glazing to reveal a different color beneath. a point at which receding parallel lines meet Verso The back or underside of a piece of paper. Alternatively. Tortillon A short. Printmaking The act of making a picture. Recto The front or top side of a piece of paper.Thedrawing is removed. or the right-hand page in a book. pointed roll of white paper that is used to blend dry media. Artists' prints are normally made in multiple. pencil. Zen paintings usually depict scenes of nature and plants such as bamboo. acrylic. Serigraphy Silk-screen printing. plaster or cloth surface beneath. Turpentine A colorless solvent distilled from the resinous sap of pine trees. whose pinpricks creates a "connect-thepersonal pastime was making dots" replica of the image on the cut-out portraits.

Giovanni 137 Head and Shoulders of a Man 136. 116. 204-205. 9.44-45. to draw 100 Cypripedium calceolus L. 29 Hugo's octopus 28. 189.133. 243 botanical drawing 48-49 Boullee. Mamaru 104. 128. 242 to blend 205 compressed 122. 165. 52 cotton swabs 205 Coup de Vent a Asajigabare (Hokusai) 198.51 All and Nothing (Taylor) 114. 71 Bacchante (Bakst) 155 background: color 91 textured 240 Baker Matthew: Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry 32 Bakst. 90.89.169 colors: airbrushed 161 background 91 A Abe. 186 charcoal 114. 203 Landline 202. 241 action.117 Achilles Chases Hector (Thomas) 240. Brian 226 Untitled 2001 226 "Cave of the Hands" (Cueva de las Manas) 8. 206. 180 blending: color 133.226. 206 checkered floor 80. Statue d'Epouvante 90 calligraphy. Joseph 113 The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland 112. 113 bird bones 12.198. 94 cylindrical objects. 98. Zen c 232-233 blended 133.212 to erase 205 to hold 23 pencils 204 willow 114. 78 aerial perspective 206 airbrushing 160. 250 Bishndas and Nanha: Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity 50. 74 brush (es) 246-247 Japanese 248 for laying a wash 140 marks 248-249 to hold 23 brush drawings 14-15 Bryan.115 anatomical drawing 134-135 anatomical theaters 82-83 anatomical waxes 128 ancient carvings 221. Basilius 47 Beuys.184. layers 53 chalk pastels 162. 203 Buffalo Hunt (Shoshone) 178. Franz 48 Protea nitida 48 Bellini. 72 bracelet shading 122 Braque. 222.163 graded 227 composition 56-57. Filippo 67. to model 110-111 border 51 Bosch. 139 Nanha) 50. 133. Jean Michel 138 Self-Portrait 138 Bateau-Vision. Georges 67. 180 Circular Score for "Due Voce" (Bussotti) 223 circus scenes 192-195 City (Bryan) 202. 220. 74. 221 animals. 223 Circular Score for "Due Voce" 223 children's art 9. 81 135. 198.31 Picasso's horse and bird 30. 137 Besler. 203 Claude Lorrain 202 Views from Velletri 202.184. 40-41 Durer's rhinoceros 26. 8 cave paintings 8. 41 principal 186.27 turtles 42-43 aquatint 240 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels (Leonardo) 12. Sylvano 222. 205 Baltard. 230-231 Cubist 90. 81 cut-out model plan 94. 94 chalk(s) 53. 193 in lifting out 204. 182. 71 Blake. 161 Akhlaq-I Rasul Allah manuscript 51. 202 cloth. 30 sleeping dog 38-39 Stubbs's horse skeleton 26. to express 39. Augustin 67 Basquiat. 201 collage 111. 134 costume(s) 155 character 158-159 structure of 166-167 Cottage Among Trees (Rembrandt) 52. 70 Art Nouveau motifs 91 Autoportrait (Ray) 138. 75. Le (Hugo) 200.Index Page numbers in italics refer t o captions and illustrations Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity (Bishndas and 259 INDEX B bread (as eraser) 205. 50. Etienne-Louis 72 Newton's Cenotaph 72. to draw 80. 13. William: The Circle of the Lustful 180.162 Conte.13.50.44-45 bird studies 12. 247-248 carving see lines.186 see also movement Adoration of the Magi perspective study (Leonardo) 74. 26 geese 38-39 Gericault's cats 28. 38-39. 200 Bauer. 90. to draw 25. cut Catling. 74. to depict 156-157 Cloudburst of Material Possessions (Leonardo) 200. 90 La Guitare.163 dry media 205 Blue Nude (Matisse) 110. 179 Bussotti. 157 cropping 56-57. 163.163 body. 198 cartoon (preparatory drawing) 137 (satirical) 159. 178 Cubism 67. 190 Caricature of a Woman (Daumier) 198. 242 Brunelleschi. Victor: West Facade of the Church of St. 244 head and neck 144 phrased 124-125 contrast: brightness 99 of media 30 tonal 96. 160 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object (Moore) 178. 90 colored materials 162-163 colored pencils 162. Leon: Bacchante 155 balance.100 curves. 230 The Physical Space 220 abstract drawing 219. 9 Chair (Van Gogh) 94. Clare 203 City 202. 158. 71 conte 112. 13 architectural drawing 67-71 Arctic Flowers (Libeskind) 70. 75 Circle of the Lustful (Blake) 180. 162 character: to capture 38-39. center of 118 ballpoint 182. Nicolas-Jacques 54 contours 146. 204. 28 Klee's horses 30. 226-227 Acanthus spinosus 65 accelerated perspective 22. Hieronymus 243 Two Monsters 242. 111. 244 and graphite 178 . 199 Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya (Eisen) 156. (Ross-Craig) 49 to hold brush for 23 caricature 159. 95 Chair Cut Out (Woodfine) 94.

161 fashion drawings 160.116. to suggest 177 see also perspective diagonals diffuser 55 dip pens 34.216.97. 71 minimal line 99 and music 70-71 quick 38-39.160. 252 depiction of fabric monsters 252-253 Self Portrait in a Cocked Hat 130. Sir Ernst 12.104. 144 Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (Baker) 32. Rene 160 Illustration for Jacques Fath E easel.230 three-tone 140.37. 220 dry brush 234 234 57. 30 Fauves/fauvism 90. 134. 93 horizon 52. 29 H hands. Alberto 136 Portrait of Marie-Laure de Noailles 136.121 felt-tip pens 162. 124. 162 Flaxman. 120. Victor 200. Cheval et Oiseau (Picasso) 30. 245 Gruau. 55. 160 as ground for metal point 140. 134. Hans 133 The Ambassadors 116 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 132.12 fixative 54. 99 etching.252-253 from memory 183. Antonio 135 Muscles of the Head and Neck 134.109 Rhinoceros 26. to draw 120. 240. 230 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction 68. 125.160. Nicholas 68 St Paul's Baptistry 68 head and neck to draw 142-145 Head and Shoulders of a Man (Bellini) 136. 7 33 Hooke. to draw 78. Antonio 68. 190 Middle Eastern 50-51.111 feet.198 Degas. 203 Hotel de la Suzonnieres (Satie) 70. 115 Escher. 104-105. disposable pens 182-183 dissections: botanical 48 of horse 27 distance: illusion of see perspective linear 97 tonal 97 Documents Decoratifs. 131 Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 240. 122.244. 122 Hawksmoor. Keisai 157 The Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya 156. 157 . 226-227 anatomical 134-135 architectural 67-71 botanical 48-49 brush 14-15 dark to light 102. 90 gouache 30. 223. 69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt 68.91. 41 in the round 208-209 with scalpel 202.260 INDEX D Dada 139 Daumien Honore 198 Caricature of a Woman 198. 69. 222 Grimes. 240 Black Paintings 152. 25 focus 65. 203 semi-abstract 234-237 three-dimensional 68. 160 hitsuzendo 233 light to dark 102. 245 layers 30 Goya. 222. Jean Ignace Isidore see Grandville Gericault.157 ellipses 100. to draw 134-137 Helleborus corsicus 55 highlights 91.189. 37 Grandville 243 A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the Near-Microscopic World of Scale Insects 242. 55.184 165.144 and ink 30. 202. 69 Guitare. 245 Hugo. 136 Golden Section 67 Gombrich. 134.102-103 drawing board 20 drawing books 20-21 drawing paper 144. 132 Frenz.103. 163. 32 framing 139 Franfoise au Bandeau (Picasso) 132. 161 changing 216 Focusing on the Negative (Walter) 16 foliage 52. 26 Flying Fish (White) 25. 200 F fabric. Oona 245 How Clever of God #84 244. 240 170-173 five Ships in a Port with Lighthouse (Wallis) 11. The 242. 765 hitsuzendo drawings 233 Hokusai. Francisco de 131. M.103 with eraser 103.69 Gerard.112. 55.115 exploratory 17 fantasy 72-73. 112. 161 fashion 160.146 from masterworks 126-127. Ron 161 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 161 160. 79. 799 Holbein.216 Durelli. 170-173. proportions of 143 fantasy drawings 72-73.166 170-173 Gestalt 222 Giacometti.141. 243 graphic score 222. position of 143.101 engraving 243 erasers/erasing 55.John 157 Man Lying Down in a Cloak 156.117 fountain pens 34. 93 eye level 80 Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity. La (Braque) 90. 242 eyes. 223 graphite 54. 113.207.244 drawing(s): abstract 219. fiber-tip pen 182. 69. Robert 93 Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 92. Edgar 162 depth. 163.Theodore 29 Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 28. position of 22 Eisen. 77 How Clever of God #84 244. 137 heads. 141 tonal 96. 40.141. Statue d'Epouvante. 241 to blend 205 and chalk 178 and ink 28. 73. drypoint 181 exaggeration 184 expressionism 198 E ye and Head of a Drone Fly (Hooke) 92. 160 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction (Gaudi) 68. to draw 168-169 in Goya's artworks face. 135 Duren Albrecht 26. 205 drawing with 103. Study for Plate 59 (Mucha) 90. Katsushika 199 Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 198. C . 216 foreshortening 110. 91 Dragon (Michelangelo) 36. 160 Faune. 222 Le Bateau-Vision 200. 90 G Gaudi. 52 foreground 208.

114 hatched 244 layered 118 pace of 65 pale 40 rapid 49. 205.102.182 Moore.91 Study for Plate 59 of INDEX illumination see lighting Illustration for Jacques Fath (Gruau) 160. Daniel 70 Arctic Flowers 70 Lieb. Rose: Tantalus or the Future of Man 20 minimal line drawing 99 mirror use of 120 mixed media 28.166 La Specola. 252 Muscles of the Head and Neck (Durelli) 134. Erich 73 design for Metropolis 72. 220. 31 Klimt. 170-173. 63. 757 mandalas 219. 53 monoprint 787. 225 masking tape 204. 111. Florence 128 lighting in 167 Pitt Rivers. 203 landscape 206-208 brushed 14 Landscape in Hoboku Style (Sesshu) 14 layers 146 chalk 53 gouache 30 ink 28. Phyll: hands 18 lifting out 204. 36.109. 76 Libeskind.104. 159 Japanese 35 to make 36 sepia 35 walnut 36. 74-77. 220. 78 Study ofThree Male Figures 110. 220. 54 silver point 156 leg sections 158 length.243 carbon 35 Chinese 30. 201 head and neck sections of female mold for Sforza Horse 89 Madonna of the Rocks 244 perspective study for Adoration of the Magi 74. 249 and gouache 30 Indian 35. 103 Neolithic chalk tablet 220. Victor 134 Profile Head 134. 163 pens 36 measuring 116 memory. 789. artistic 240-241. 244 lithograph 198 Losbruch (Kollwitz) 180. 252 ink 16. 756 priming for 140.124. 28 Two Impressions from a Cut-out Paper Disk 222 Huyler Stephen R 225 261 Kinecar. 177 influences. 183 vertical 156 linear distance 97 linear perspective 69. 184.181 L Landline (Bryan) 202. Johan 32.96. 181 luminosity 115 Lynch.Pieuvre (Octopus) 28. David 78 M Mackintosh. 158 Man Lying Down in a Cloak (Flaxman) 156. 73 Michelangelo Buonarroti 48. 53 Tree II 52. 34-35 acrylic 35 bistre 35. Alphonse 90.276.167 line(s) 132. 35. 110 Sistine Chapel ceiling 116 Middle Eastern drawing 50-51. 99. 205 masterworks. Oxford 106 Prado.120. Henry 178 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object 178. Paul 227 Polyphonic Setting for White 226. Oxford 250 music 70-71 Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks (Knopf) 32. 176. 58-59.141. Piet 52. Henri 111 Blue Nude 1110. 201 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels 12.227 to "bend" straight 97 compositional 228-229 cut 202. 203. 135 museums 44. 242 light 96 to depict drawing with 1 76 painting with 176 . 156 magnification 93 Man in Armor (Van Dyck) 158.33 Mysterious Affairs of the lighting 2 7. 160 In the Duchess's Kitchen (Rackham) 176. 244 ink 36 252-253 Documents Decoratifs 90.The (Robinson) 108. 13 Cloudburst of Material Possessions 200. Matisse. Charles Rennie 48. 221 endless 31 free 113. 234 iron-gall 35. 166. 248. 190 metal pens see dip pens metal point 25. drawing from 126-127.134 K Kettlehut. 220. 97 Murillo. 244 Dragon 36.112. 37 lines 118 pastel 162 pencil 31. 244. 227 Newsome. 178 motifs: A r t Nouveau 9 7 stylized 51 mountains 216-217 movement: of animals 30-31 of humans 7 79.115 98. drawing from 183.141 Metropolis (film) 72. 73 Kigell. 77 Miller. 226 Modernism 67.109. apparent 97 Leonardo da Vinci 74. Marie 244 cloth drawing 244. 230 invented creatures 106-107 250-251 invented objects 89. Madrid 171 University Museum of Natural History. Kathe 181 Losbrunch (The Outbreak) 180. 83 white 122 ink impressions 222 ink spatters 234 installations 176. Bartolome: Moses Striking the Rock ofHoreb 252. 72. 60. I Murderous Attacks 33 Kollwitz. 185 Mucha. 49 Rose 49 Maelbeke Madonna (Van Eyck) 156. 227 Scene of Comical Riders 30. 181 Klee. 219 Mondrian. 33 J justness 228-229 N naive art 74 negative space 53. Gustav 49 Knopf. 34.

159. 36. 37 38. 166 fiber-tip 782. 4 8 putty eraser 55. 243. 205 157.Tim.54 pastel 162 perspective 1 0 0 . 72 Noble.7 77 rapidograph 70 Raphael 110. 30 Fran<. 244 Q s Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape (Wolfli) 2 79 St. 2 2 0 for oil pastels 162 stained 230 to stretch 140-141 tissue 21.52 pen and wash 158. Stella 48 Cypripedium calceolus L 49 rotated view 7 65 Rubens. Russell 228.262 INDEX Newton. 161. Erik 70. 1 6 3 . 76 plastic eraser 55. 36. 36.40. 73 Noble. 52 pens 36 scalpel 54 drawing with 202. 103.Paul'sBaptistry (Hawksmoor) 68. 234 disposable 182-183 felt-tip 162. 239 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat (Seurat) 112. Giovanni Battista 74. 230 parallel planes 79 Parisian street 86-87 pastels 162 to blend 205 to hold 23 layers 162 pencils 162 pen(s): dip 34 . Paul 73 Nobson Central 72. 165 figure 118 filled 37 pencil 48. 736 portraits. Sue 104.759.240.226. 78 single-point 74. 243. 241 Physical Space. 230 paper(s) 21 colored 162 drawing 144. 7 72 Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland. 216. 81 two-point 74. 1 1 6 accelerated 2 2 . 165. 36. 7 77 three-point 80. 76-79. Bridget 98 Robinson. 227 portfolios 20 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser de Noailles (Holbein) 132. The (Abe) 220 Picasso. Auguste 114 Two Women 114. 7 73 self-portraits: Basquiat 138. 164. Faune. 732 influence of 240 painting with light 78. 239 Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 238. 7 76 receding space 206 Redon.131 Cottage Among Trees 52.9 3 Schongauer. Georges 112 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 112. 1 6 9 to hold 2 2 . Martin 238. 36 relief printing 757 Rembrandt van Rijn 52.37.oise au Bandeau 132. and Webster. Cheval et Oiseau 30.36.37. 122. Arthur 177 In the Duchess's Kitchen 176. 97. 7 70 Ray.139 Autoportrait 138. 181 Rodin. 57 Ross-Craig. 224 0 layers 31. 75 Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range 241 petroglyphs 221.The (Beuys) 112. 40-41. 75 Two Courtyards 75.184 fountain 34. to draw 146-147 R Rackham. Peter Paul 126-127 Embracing pose(s): balanced 146 quick 118-119 positive form 103 posture: of artist 22 of subject 3 8 . 181 pencil(s) 54 charcoal 204 colored 762.176 Real Life Is Rubbish 176.Toyo: Landscape in Hoboku . 141 Piranesi.71 Hotel de la Suzonnieres 70. 28 pigment 162 bright 50 Caput Mortuum 7 4 7 for three-tone drawing 141. 38. 74-77. 91 outsider artists 33. 139 Real Life is Rubbish (Noble and Webster) 176. 205 pointillism 112 polyphonic painting 227 Polyphonic Setting for White (Klee) 226. 36. Heath 181 The Kinecar 180.104 Pieuvre (Hugo) 28. 114 rollerball 182 Rorschach blot 99 Rose (Mackintosh) 48. 244 reed 34. 34-35. 9 0 . 162 O p A r t 98 optical illusions 96-99 outline 33.2 3 age and youth sleeping subjects 148-149 150-151 Renaissance 109 Rhinoceros (Durer) 26. 759 P Page. Man 131. Odilon 242 The Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity 242. J 76 nudes 114-115 to make 36 metal see dip quill 34. 36 pen and brush 8 3 pen and ink 70.37 scientific instruments 9 2 . 163. 68 Satie. 203 Scene of Comical Riders (Klee) 30. 9 8 . 4 9 Rose of Mohammed 50. 160. Pablo 6 7 . 772 234-237 Sesshu. 782 relief 757 silk-screen 739 woodblock 134. 26 Riley.141 prints/printing: aquatint 240 dry-point etching 181 engraving 243 monoprint 181. Isaac 92 Telescope 92 Newton's Cenotaph (Boullee) 72. 71 Satire of the Queen's Dress (Wodall) 158. 734 Protea nitida (Bauer) 48. 1 1 6 . 733 Portrait de Marie-Laure (Giacometti) 136. 212 Japanese 2 1 . 38. 739 semi-abstract drawings Style 14 Seurat.199 Profile Head (Newsome) oil pastels 162. 1 1 7 aerial 206 linear 69. 1 2 4 priming for metal point 140. 74. 1 3 2 quill pens 34. 242 reed pens 34. 219. 7 38 Ray 138.

7 79 Shoshone petroglyph 240. 69. 7 70 Tiber 214-215 Untitled ( T w o m b l y ) 2 2 0 . 9 2 Tesshu. T i m W e s t Fagade of the Church of St. Paul 2 4 1 Achilles Chases Hector 2 4 0 . 743 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City ( F r e n z ) 1 6 0 . 74.J. 76.12 W a l t e r . Vincent 95 Chair 94. Man in Armor 1 5 8 . C y 138. 156 Van Gogh.241 s i l k . v i e w s o f 85.141 S i m b l e t . 104-105. b l o w n 248 steel p e n s see d i p p e n s still life 89. Sue see N o b l e . 79.s c r e e n p r i n t i n g 139 silver p o i n t 1 4 0 . H e n r i de: Woman at Her Toilet 14 t r a n s p a r e n t v i e w 92. 245 sharpener 54 Ship in a Storm ( T u r n e r ) 1 9 8 . 7 6 Two Impressions from a Cut-Out Paper Disk ( H u g o ) 2 2 2 Two Monsters 2 4 2 . 1 4 0 . 2 9 wind. Taylor A n i t a 115 All and Nothing 1 1 4 . 65 symbols 138. 1 4 1 . 1 6 6 t r a p e z i u s m u s c l e 142. phrased 146 tonal modeling 161 tonal range 169 t o n a l surfaces 2 2 7 tonal width 97 t o n e ( s ) 33. 4 4 boat 209 botanical 4 9 G e r i c a u l t ' s cats 2 9 from Goya 170-173 125. 1 4 4 . 186. 2 4 4 . 7 75 Telescope ( N e w t o n ) 9 2 . 69. 2 1 2 . 115.216 W e b s t e r . 249 t o describe 39. 1 9 9 . 9 5 pens 36 v a n i s h i n g p o i n t 74. t o d r a w 1 0 1 viewfinder 57 Views from Velletri ( C l a u d e L o r r a i n ) 152. 7 6 1 spots. 199. Adolf: Giant-Grape Saint-Mary-Castle 219 Woman at Her Toilet ( T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c ) 74 w o o d b l o c k print 157. 1 3 .1 0 5 vision 9 6 Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects (Grandville) 242. 170 shoes 1 6 4 stylized m o t i f 51 Summer Flowers 63. 240 Two Women Embracing ( R o d i n ) 114. W . 7 9 0 vessels. t o d r a w 5 2 .9 1 storms.125 W o o d f i n e . William 159 Satire of the Queen's Dress INDEX 226. 2 2 0 influence o f 2 4 0 Untitled 220. 164. Jan 1 5 6 Maelbeke Madonna 1 5 6 . 1 4 1 w a t e r c o l o r 25. 9 0 .2 1 3 Stubbs. 75.d i m e n s i o n a l 1 0 4 . 75 Skeleton of the Horse ( S t u b b s ) 26.1 4 5 . 1 2 Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse 71. t o d r a w 2 0 0 .d i m e n s i o n a l d r a w i n g 68. 7 1 4 . 2 3 0 tonal contrast 96 tonal distance 9 7 t o n a l d r a w i n g 9 6 .1 4 1 . 241. M . 2 4 2 w Wallis.1 6 5 shorthand diagram 142 Shoshone buffalo hide painting 178. G e o r g e 2 7 Skeleton of the Horse 26. John: Focusing on the Negative 14 w a s h . 2 7 studies: b i r d s 7 2 . John 25 Flying Fish 25 Wild Striped Cat Sketches of ( G e r i c a u l t ) 28. 102-103 tonal marks. 1 4 5 travel journal 2 0 . 159 Wolfli. t h r e e . 226 V Van Dyck. Sarah: child's m a p 75.199 tissue p a p e r 21. A n t h o n y 152. 49.27 skull 747.243 Leonardo's machines 12. 53 trees. t o lay 1 4 0 . 97. Augustin ( B a l t a r d ) 6 7 w e t and dry brush-strokes 2 4 9 Turner. 202 violin. 2 4 7 t h r e e . 1 6 . 161.Sforza Horse. 206-207 202. 96. 77. Sarah 9 4 Chair Cut Out 94. 1 9 9 Two Courtyards (Piranesi) 75.1 9 9 wire. 6 9 Wodall.120. 141 Three Male Figures. t o draw 1 9 8 .2 0 1 .13 M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s m a l e figures 110. 2 2 6 . 725 fabric 1 6 8 T h o m a s .158 158. drawing with 104-105 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt ( G a u d i ) 68. 9 4 z Z e n calligraphy 232-233 contrast 96 t o grade 163 ink 37 pencil 5 4 t o r t i l l o n 205 T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c .5 3 in l a n d s c a p e 2 0 6 . 1 8 4 .1 8 5 Tree II ( M o n d r i a n ) 52.41. 174 T w o m b l y . 158 V a n Eyck. 57.Yamaoka 233 t e x t u r e 2 2 2 . 156 layers 7 5 6 priming for 140. 2 3 4 . 1 7 7 free 8 0 V e n i c e . h e a d a n d n e c k sections o f female m o l d f o r (Leonardo) 89 shading 2 9 s h a d o w s 28. 230 t h r e e . 1 8 4 . 221 . 199 shoes 1 6 4 . 182.t o n e d r a w i n g 140. 7 77. 243 (Bosch) T Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos ( G o y a ) 2 4 0 . 2 2 7 Untitled 2001 ( C a t l i n g ) u 263 W h i t e . Study of (Michelangelo) 110. 2 0 0 Ship in a Storm 1 9 8 . A l f r e d 1 1 .

72: akg-images. papers. Christopher Davis. 2 4 5 : Oona Grimes. 177: Mary Evans Picture Library. P h y l l Kiggell. 88: www. S i m o n L e w i s . 1 5 9 : Bodleian Library. c o . Paris and D A C S . 5 3 : Collection of the Gemeentemuseum D e n Haag/Mondrian Trust. u k / T o k y o National M u s e u m . 2 0 3 : Clare Bryan (t). Orientabteilung/Ruth Schacht. L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 .939).20-21 a n d 246-47. Germany/Joerg P. A n d y C r a w f o r d for p h o t o g r a p h y a n d L .uk/Guildhall Library. 74: Corbis. 2 0 0 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. London/courtesy of Stuart Shave. 49: Hunterian Museum (t). Paris. B e m d Kunzig. Dover Publications/ISBN: 0486229912 (t). 2 4 0 : w w w .bridgeman. 69: Institut Amatller d'Art Hispanic (tl).a. Lisbon. 1901. R u t h P a r k i n s o n . 179: 113: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. 51: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (t). Picture Credits 8: Corbis/Hubert Stadler. 75: © The British Museum (b). Sir Brinsley F o r d . 2 3 8 : akg-images. H e l e n S h u t t l e w o r t h . Rocio Arnaez. Patty Stansfield. Angela Palmer. 9 0 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/© A D A G P .r. J o n Collection. B . 130: The Metropolitan M u s e u m of Art/Robert L e h m a n Collection.Paris ( b ) .uk/Mucha Trust. 225: Stephen P Collection. Roddy Bell.bridgeman. © Tate. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett.bridgeman. B e r l i n . O. C o r n e l i s o n & 1975 ( 1 9 7 5 . (r). L o n d o n (t). L o n d o n . for s u p p l y i n g the d r a w i n g books. Psychiatric Institute of the U n i v e r s i t y of Heidelberg. Graphische Sammlung. 5 2 : T h e Metropolitan Museum of Art/Bequest of Mrs. 2 0 1 : T h e Royal Collection © 2 0 0 2 H e r Majesty Queen Elizabeth I I . 6 6 : w w w . Salisbury & South W i l t s h i r e M u s e u m ( t ) . 3 3 : Prinzhom Collection. J o h n Collection. Maureen Paley Interim Art (b). 1 5 6 : Graphische S a m m l u n g A n n a P l u c i n s k a . Corporation of London. 2 2 0 : Mamaru Abe. Julie O u g h t o n . L o n d o n . NY. London/Bequeathed by Charles Landseer. 2 7 : Royal Academy of Arts. B M G .co. A . 2 2 7 : Paul Klee Stiftung. 199: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee des arts asiatiquesGuimet. 1879. Fund. L e n . Florence/MoMA. Publisher's Acknowledgments Dorling Kindersley w o u l d like to thank Caroline H u n t for editorial contribution. Paul T h o m a s ( t ) . 9 4 : Sarah Woodfine. a n d D e p a r t m e n t s o f E n t o m o l o g y a n d Zoology at the University of Oxford. 9 7 6 ) . 68: www. University of Cambridge. F r a n c e . 4 8 : T h e N a t u r a l H i s t o r y M u s e u m . Also. Clare Bryan. 157: U C L Art Collections .co.bridgeman. Oxford. 2 1 8 : Adolf-Wdlfli-Stiftung. Kirsten Norrie. H . u k / O n Loan to the H a m b u r g Kunsthalle. 174: Artothek/Munich. Germany. Diana Bell. Jackie Douglas. Natalie G o d w i n . 1 3 5 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library.l.bridgeman. K e v i n a n d Rebecca Slingsby. 1 7 8 : © T h e British M u s e u m / H e n r y Moore F o u n d a t i o n . c o . 2 2 4 : P r i n z h o m Collection. Productions Clovis Prevost (c). U K . Italy. Anders/ © D A C S 2 0 0 5 . Staatliche Museen z u Berlin/Jorg P. Andy Crawford. B e r l i n . 2 4 2 : Photo's Yard. a n d encouragement i n m a k i n g this book: M a m o r u Abe. u k / L o u v r e . b r i d g e m a n . K u n s t m u s e u m .uk/British Museum. 111: Fondation Beyeler/Riehen (Bale)/© Succession H Matisse/DACS 2005. Paris a n d D A C S . Sammy De Grave. Paris a n d D A C S . 181: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. b r i d g e m a n .co. H a y w a r d Gallery.Strang Print Room ( b ) . H a m b u r g . 2 4 4 : Ashmolean Museum.bridgeman. R .uk /Biblioteca Nacional. M a n d y Staatliche Museen z u Berlin.100. Havemeyer. 9 1 : www. 1 6 1 : D C C o m i c s I n c . Paris/ © Succession Picasso / D A C S 2005. H e a t h e r M c C a r r y . 112: Yale University A r t Gallery/Everett V 158: Calouste Gulbenkian Museum. L o n d o n . France. Angela W i l k e s . Antonia Cunliffe Davis. 2 4 : © T h e British Museum./Galerie Sylvie Nissen./Private Collection/© D A C S 2005. L o n d o n . 2 4 1 : Corbis/David M u e n c h ( b ) . 9 5 : V a n Gogh M u s e u m . Berlin/Staatsbibliothek zu A l l other images © Sarah Simblet .uk /© Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery. K u n s t m u s e u m Bern/© D A C S 2 0 0 5 . 7 1 : I M E C / A r c h i v e s E r i k Satie. Paris. Anita Taylor. 4 6 : B r i t i s h Library. Magdalene College Cambridge. Berlin (b). 176: Modem Art. 1 3 6 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Centre Pompidou-MNAM-CCI. 16: www. Peter L u f f . 221: Gagosian Gallery/Private Collection (b). Agnieszka Mlicka. 1 6 0 : Rene G R U A U s. Carlo O r t u for picture research s u p p o r t . K a t h r y n W i l k i n s o n . A . . 139: Galerie Marion Meyer/© Man Ray Trust / A D A G P . O o n a G r i m e s . Madrid. University of Oxford. Wolfson College. 226: Brian Catling. Anders. Paris. F i n n . 2 6 : Topfoto. Paula Regan. 9 3 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. 30: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. 2 2 3 : Lebrecht Music and Arts Photo Library/Ricordi. 1 9 6 : Museum of the History of Science. 2 8 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. 3 2 : Pepys Library. Carole A s h .co. Portugal. Pamela Ellis for compiling the index. 1 3 4 : © T h e British Museum. G e r m a n y .264 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Acknowledgments Author's Acknowledgments: T h e author wishes to thank the following people for their enormous help. K e w ft)). George M c G a v i n ./© D A C S 2 0 0 5 ( t ) .uk/Musee des Augustins. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. U K . J o h n Walter. 1 . T h e R u s k i n School of D r a w i n g a n d Fine A r t . Kunstmuseum Bern. L o n d o n . Sarah Woodfine. Jean Pierre Roy. D a w n Henderson. 1 5 4 : akg-images/Musee National d'Art Moderne. 17: J o h n Walter. Winthrop. G i n a R o w l a n d . 5 0 : Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (1). Copyright Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens. c o . G e r m a n y . L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . 7 0 : Studio Daniel L i b e s k i n d . and Tamsin Woodward Smith.bridgeman. 1 0 8 : Arts C o u n c i l Collection. 115: Anita Taylor. 1 5 : w w w . a n d brushes o n pp. 1929 (29. 11: www. T o n y G r i s o n i . Inc. Psychiatric Institute of the University of Heidelberg. support. 9 2 : Science Photo L i b r a r y . 243: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. 1 9 : Getty Images/© Succession Picasso / D A C S 2 0 0 5 . 137: © The British Museum. 114: Musee Rodin.bridgeman. Japan. 73: Berlin F i l m Museum (t). 2 2 2 : Pierre Georgel/Private Collection. 1 9 8 : Dover Publications. Illustrated London News Picture Library/The Bystander (b). Paris. 1 3 8 : © Christie's Images Ltd/© A D AGP. 1 1 0 : www. 29: Fogg A n Museum/Collections Baron de Vita: Grenville L. . 132: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. Basel. b r i d g e m a n . Sarah D u n c a n . 13: www. R o y a n d D i a n n e Simblet. Toulouse. 2 0 2 : © T h e British Museum. Paul T h o m a s . 3 1 : Tom Powel Imaging. London 2005. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. J a c k a n d Brian Catling. Flossie. Sophie Laurimore. Paris. 1 3 3 : Artothek/Kupferstichkabinett. R o s e m a r y S c o u l a r . 180: www. Paris.

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