An innovative, practical approach to drawing the world around you







LONDON • NEW YORK MELBOURNE • MUNICH • DELHI Senior Editor Paula Regan Senior Art Editor Mandy Earey Art Editor Anna Plucinska Managing Editor Julie Oughton Managing Art Editor Heather McCarry Art Director Peter Luff Publishing Director Jackie Douglas Production Joanna Bull DTP Designer Adam Walker Picture Research Sarah Smithies US Editor Christine Heilman First American Edition, 2 0 0 5 First Paperback Edition, 2 0 0 9 Published in the United States by DK Publishing 3 7 5 Hudson Street New York, New York 1 0 0 1 4 10 11 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3

6 8 20 22 Master Builders The Order of Sound Future Fictions Pathways of Sight Single-Point Perspective Creating an Imaginary Space Further Aspects of Perspective Theaters Venetian Life Parisian Street

68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86

Foreword Introduction Drawing Books and Papers Posture and Grip

Objects and Instruments

TD075-July 2009 Copyright © 2 0 0 5 Dorling Kindersley Limited Text and authors artworks © Sarah Simblet 2 0 0 4 Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited A Cataloging-in-Publication record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN 9 7 8 - 0 - 7 5 6 6 - 5 1 4 1 - 1 Color reproduction by GRB, Italy Printed and bound in China by Toppan

Still Life Instruments of Vision Bench Marks Light and Illusions Further Illusions How to Draw Ellipses Tonality Drawing with Wire Artifacts and Fictions


90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106

Documentaries Presence and Mood Movement Icon and Design Pen and Ink Drawing with Ink Capturing Character Sleeping Dogs Turtles Dry Birds

26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44

The Body
Postures and Poses Choreographs Passion Measurement and Foreshortening Quick Poses Hands and Feet Charcoal Hands Phrasing Contours The Visual Detective La Specola

110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128

Plants and Gardens
Botanical Studies Jeweled Gardens Fast Trees Graphite and Erasers Cropping and Composition Negative Space Fig Tree Summer Flowers Acanthus Spinosus

48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64

Discover more at

Projections Magnetic Fields The Human Condition Disposable Pens The Travel Journal Catching the Moment Grand Canal Crossings Caravans The Big Top

174 Abstract Lines
176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 Process and Harmony Writing Time Chants and Prayers Compositions Being "Just" Collage Zen Calligraphy Nocturnes

220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234

Poise Anatomies Revelations Self-Portraits Silver Point Head and Neck Essential Observations Drawing Portraits Generations Castings

132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 152

Earth and the Elements
Air in Motion Storms Nature Profiles Charcoal Landscapes Drawing in the Round Decaying Boat Cloudburst Notes of Force Mountains

198 200 202 204 206 208 210 212 214 216

Gods and Monsters
Marks of Influence Hauntings Convolutions Brushes Brush Marks Monsters Goya's Monsters Consumed Glossary Index Acknowledgments

240 242 244 246 248 250 252 254 256 259 264

Cloth and Drapery Character Costumes Femmes Fatales Colored Materials Study and Design The Structure of Costume Textures and Patterns Dressing Character Posture Carving

156 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172


By using our imaginations. Combine these things and the possibilities are endless. through history. I work with people of diverse ages. Drawing is a mirror through which I understand my place in the world. a sculptor. Drawing occupies a unique place in every artist and creator's life. I also make drawing books. and be slowly washed or worn away. Some of my drawings cover entire walls. or a quantum physicist trying to see for themselves the fluctuations of our universe. be they a child discovering their vision and dexterity. These inspirations led me to invent museums. that inspired the title and structure MEMORY T H E A T E R S This pen-and-ink drawing was made from imagination during research for my PhD. remain unseen by most. For me personally. and in a few sessions they will be flying. I was also reading among The Confessions of St. texture. where spaces are shaped by nothing more than the objects and activities contained within them. Some are more traditionally framed and hung in galleries for solo or group exhibitions. The very first step is to believe it. undergraduates to fellow professors. It is a tool for investigating ideas and recording knowledge. especially as travel journals. and size. We can all learn how to draw. we have looked at. art schools. are made outside as discreet installations. shape. They occupy a shelf in my studio. and through which I can see how I think. It makes me feel excited to be alive. and their importance to so many artists. by invitation. For twelve years I have enjoyed the privilege of teaching drawing. geologists. who tells me firmly upon approach that they cannot draw. we learn to feel truly alive. in which he describes himself flying and diving in his imagination through pictorial caverns of knowledge. and a reflector of experience. from schoolchildren to senior citizens. of Sketch Book for the Artist. as a visiting professor at universities. and makers of special effects. I was training in anatomy and studying how. still standing by the door. perhaps hidden on a door hinge or a street bench rail. I will always draw. I know that with their cooperation I can soon prove them wrong. a cartographer charting the land. Chosen in any color. a composer notating a musical score. aspirations. we learn to see it. where I expect them to be discovered by some people. not only to make art. and feeling. but because it is how I engage with and anchor myself in life. and I refer back to them for years after they are made. architect. The most rewarding challenge is always the newcomer. Augustine his notes on memory. a drawing book is the perfect portable private vehicle for your imminent exploration of drawing. understood (and often misunderstood) our own bodies. and local c o m m u n i t y classes. fashion designer. night security staff. They enfold their viewer and are made on joined sheets of paper that I reach by climbing ladders. .Foreword B Y DRAWING THE WORLD AROUND US. doctors. and experience. drawing is the immediate expression of seeing. thinking. It is my love of these. or engineer. Others can be held in the h a n d or.

is not afforded us by drawing. not just chosen pictures on our walls but everywhere—maps. signs. in lectures. logos. At home and at work we doodle. Most adults still feel that certain exquisite pleasure on arriving at a beach to find the tide out and the sand perfect. They have a natural affinity to many modern graffiti signatures. We are bombarded with linear and tonal pictorial information. Cueva de las Marios. and we spend our lives reading it. a great crowd is raising their hands in greeting.000-9500 bce . Drawing is international. and in meetings. waving to us from many thousands of yearsago. packaging. "CAVE OF THE HANDS" In this drawing. like a great canvas for them to mark. We are surrounded by drawings in our daily lives.Theseancient silhouettes were drawn with earth pigments rubbed onto rock. Sometimes we draw because we are bored. inscribing every fresh part of it with their eager scrapes and trails. We can always read each others drawings. graffiti. but more often because drawing actually helps us to focus and take in what is said. Rio Pinturas 13. irreverent to language barriers.8 INTRODUCTION Where We Begin There is a fundamental drive in our human nature to make a mark. scrawling shapes and cartoons when on the telephone. The sense of relief we may feel from the information overload of modern commercial life when visiting a country in which we can no longer read every written word. Children cannot be restrained from running across the pristine white lawn of newly fallen snow. and patterns on our clothes.

we see our oldest surviving images.9 WHERE WE BEGIN FIRST PORTRAIT For sorre forgotten reason. but I had never yet attempted to figuratively picture my world. and she kept it as my first step beyond the delighted realms of scrawl. She gave me a notepad and a red crayon and asked me to draw her "a picture of Daddy. I. . an expression of existence. Eyelashes take up as much of my attention as the head itself. had happily scribbled. and belonging to place. like all toddlers. enjoying the physical sensation of crayon on paper. and the appearance of my strikes of colors. In cave paintings like the one opposite." Until this day. at age two-anda-half. I was sitting with my mother. Cave art was not made for decoration but as a fundamental part of life. power. created by societies of hunter-gatherers. I now think this is a picture of proximity. MAKING OUR MARK It seems reasonable to assume that we have engaged in pictorial mark-making for as long as we have made conscious use of our hands. who in their day-to-day hardship made time to picture themselves and the animals on which they depended. Even though it is made by a toddler this image would be recognizable to anyone. the hair of my first portrait was most important. The image above is what I gave back to my mother. reflecting my experience of looking closely at my father's face. On a particular afternoon in September 1974.

h o w e v e r small a n d u n f o r m e d y o u believe they are. Inhibitions creep in and ideas of good a n d b a d terminate confidence. It was made with a few bold strokes of a steel pen dipped in ink to conjure the dried bee I was holding between my fingers on a pin. yet still turn to drawing w h e n their verbal language fails or is inadequate. then drag o u r line into a loop. As you progress. b e p r o u d o f what m a k e s y o u r w o r k individual to y o u . to help a stranger see their way W h e n taking first steps in relearning h o w to draw. for example. But as adolescents. W e do n o t hesitate to draw a map. Young children love to draw. Don't b e p e r s u a d e d to draw in a w a y s o m e o n e else .10 INTRODUCTION PEN-AND-INK BEE This tiny drawing has been enlarged to show its texture and composition. and this activity plays a vital role in their d e v e l o p m e n t . most of us stop. PROGRESSION T h e r e is a point in all o u r lives w h e n w e first c o n t r o l o u r mark and m a k e it a line. Hours are lost immersed in the glorious world of imagination. At this point many will insist they cannot draw. and from that first unit build and describe the shape of something or someone we know. it is important to value your natural abilities a n d ways of seeing.

and which aspects of the vast wealth and diversity of graphic language would be most appropriate to their goals. and they have never questioned why. remember that all advice is only advice. After experimenting and trying each new idea. Enjoy the control of your own journey. harbor and sea is one of many that Alfred Wallis made from memory while sitting at home. Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse c. you must decide whether to keep or discard it. Think how much would have been lost if anyone had interfered with Alfred Wallis' personal sense of proportion and perspective in the exquisite drawing above. He was a retired Cornish fisherman and junk dealer who began drawing at the age of 70 "for company" after his wife died. but it does help to set out facing in the right direction. Occasionally. 1925-42 53/8x87/8in (135 x 225 mm) ALFRED WALLIS prefers and tells you is better. He used leftover ship and yacht paint with crayons on cut-out pieces of cardboard boxes. As you read this b o o k and perhaps attend art classes. The journey of every artist demands hard work and discipline. Someone once told them they must draw in this way. what they most want to achieve. I ask them their reasons for drawing.11 PROGRESSION A UNIQUE SIGHT This innocent yet sophisticated drawing of boats. I meet students struggling unhappily with a particular method of drawing. .

The observed world may be our subject. They are also always written backward. There are countless reasons for drawing. We also see differently ourselves. There are only artists. If as artists we nail a subject down too hard. clear-minded understanding of the sea. author of The Story of Art. IDEAS A N D I N V E N T I O N S These active machines. but it should be the experienced world we draw. boats. the breast.and collarbones and shoulder blades of a different bird almost become new creatures in themselves. be visionary. it may not be accurate to our critical adult eye. I hope. There should neve: be a slavish obligation to represent things exactly as we collectively agree we see them. we can drive out its spirit. Below. and breathtaking wind of a choppy harbor. We BIRD STUDIES The flutter of faint scratches that dance across the pages on the right is an attempt to see the movement and bony weightlessness of a bird." The clarity and empowerment of these words. We all see differently. perhaps for comfort or ease as a left-hander or a habitual enjoyment of the challenge. Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels LEONARDO DA VINCI . wrote as the opening line of this great work. and lose the very thing that attracted us to it. The art historian Professor Sir Ernst Gombrich. 11). "There really is no such thing as Art. right.12 INTRODUCTION VISION All artists see the world differently. the page bristles with the focus of ideas. depending on the occasion and our purpose. When we look back at Wallis' seascape (see p. His notes visually balance his drawings. is. all raise water From the Archimedes' screw to Leonardo's own cupped wheel. not for disguise but as a personal choice. and inspire others. Our imaginations are the tools with which we can increase the essence of life. embedded in this book. but the child in us knows that this is an all-embracing.

make a calculation. Decide before you start whether you are drawing to warm up. conduct an experiment. I drew to understand the apparatus of flight. Leonardo drew to invent a machine. to express the beauty in a moment's play of light. We have both covered our paper with focused. Don't be disheartened. it may be best to start afresh. This also applies if struggling at length with a larger picture. stripped-down parts. drawing in pursuit of our own thoughts and understanding.13 VISION should not try to know how every finished picture will look. time spent is not lost. Each fresh image reflects growing confidence and the experience of the preceding study. while below. More was learned drawing the bird 18 times than would have been understood drawing it only once or twice. when it looks tired and still feels wrong. Opposite. . or illustrate a dream. It will be invested through your experience in the new drawing. but it is important to be clear why we are making it. shout against a terrible injustice. Our drawings are annotated investigations into the mechanisms of nature and of an idea. My drawings of a housemartin (opposite top) illustrate the importance of repeated study. or to discover the best use of a new material.

This suits many artists well and is perfectly valid. or imagine—it is not enough to only render its shape. ink. are both made of ink laid onto wet paper with speed and agile certainty. and sometimes beyond. BRUSHED LANDSCAPE FLOWING SKELETON T h e gliding poise of this walking anatomy comes as much from the feeling of movement as it does from the feeling of drawing. explain the composition. balance. it should be responding to the sensation and meaning of the subject it draws. Whatever the material— wood. the unknown. We are caught in a shifting focus that makes everything fluid. created centuries and cultures apart. or ice—you must actually feel it beneath your fingers as you draw.14 INTRODUCTION ALCHEMY At school. and spirit of each subject was held strongly but loosely between the fingertips. we are advised or even required to plan our pictures. Know the texture. If you can do this. meaning. and allowed to flow through the brush. silk. trusting my intuition to find a visual equivalence for the sensation of weight within my body. your marks will become the subject on the paper. and an island brushed with trees. and how it feels to the touch. and paper. and at speeds beyond conscious thought. and practice each part before putting the final image together. excessive planning can get in the way of the imagination. These two brush drawings. Landscape in Haboku Style 15TH CENTURY . declare the idea. size. As your hand meets the paper to make a mark. W e float toward the quiet vista as it also moves toward us. It denies the importance of accident. and we can just make out the distant stains of mountains. mists. temperature. The physicality. Imagine these qualities so strongly that you feel them in your mind and at your fingertips. I made it almost unconsciously with a pen and a brush. water. feel. metal. and position in space. depth. bone. You must also think of its intrinsic nature: its purpose. and what you discover in the process of making. As you draw any subject—something you see. They each allowed the energy and focus of the moment to be expressed through controlled accident and a degree of the unknown Both drawings were made trusting the marks. and opacity of your subject. fire. Our position asvieweris unsteady. This is the alchemy of drawing. However. This is a detail of a brush-and-ink drawing by a Japanese Buddhist monk. which can offer keys to other things. Each image relied upon past experience to know the probable behavior of the brush.


left. more than 100 years after its making. Focusing on the Negative 2004 22 x 30 in (56 x 76 cm) J O H N WALTER . gold leaf and spray paint. lives on. one of many luminous works in watercolor. acrylic. c. He dazzles us with flashes o f light and dabbed marks o f shadow. Lautrec's flamboyant splashes o f petticoats and pantaloons are drawn with long sweeps of chalk and brushed oil paint. right is set inside a rib cage. made by a young British artist who creates alphabets o f the absurd f r o m familiar childhood characters. stand table-sized with furniture legs attached t o b o t h sides of their jacket. pastel. which evoke realities o f place and the p o w e r o f moment.1896 Woman at her Toilet 41 x 26 in (104 x 66 cm) TOULOUSE LAUTREC RIB-CAGE D R A M A Thus drama. like folded insects. W a l t e r also makes books: some.16 INTRODUCTION PLACE A N D MOMENT The heat and teeming atmosphere o f this Parisian dressing room.

and miscellaneous items of inspiration. and mistakes are a valuable process of learning. try not to grip your pen worrying about the technical terms you might have heard. Try to keep all of your first drawings. Much will be learned on these test sheets and in your first drawings. just through the act of making. Enjoy discovering what your hand and the material can do. Such books are personal: the territory of new exploration and experiment. take your time and don't worry if you need to make several attempts to grasp a concept. you will be surprised and encouraged to see how far you have come. It is yours. With no help and advice at all. FREEINGTHEHAND . diary-like observations. at a point when you feel you are not making progress. you will naturally make progress on your own in response to concentration and the decision to look and draw. Choose other materials and do the same. Put them away and look at them later. even those you dislike. potential ideas still forming. Drawing is exploratory. Start by choosing a material you like the look of and cover a piece of paper with different marks. As you follow lessons in this book.17 FREEING THE HAND If you are just beginning to learn how to draw. One of the advantages of a drawing book is that you can shut it. Ignore these at first and allow yourself the freedom to play. Pages do not have to lie open for other people to inspect and comment on.

it will be your creation as you discover your own personal vision. we still only glimpse a corner of the magnitude of this subject and the infinity of what can be achieved. it is this voice that is the subtle part of their art and something that ultimately.18 INTRODUCTION THE THINKING EYE Techniques and materials are the grammar and vocabulary of drawing and can be studied and shared. Picasso has just finished his drawing. but not confined to them. which is held frozen in space by a camera lens. The chapters of this book present 90 different artists' ways of seeing. Picasso Painting with Light at the Madoura Pottery 1949 . adapting its form and occupation.Their elegant strength seems to summon a lifetime of drawing. and enfolding new media. An artist's personal voice is something that also evolves through lessons learned. The real drawing book has yet to come. Once there. This practical journey will take you through the door into the vivid heart of drawing. the path is yours. staring straight through his image of a bull. Picasso is poised smiling. However. which of course he cannot see. 150). As you draw. threedimensionally. seek ideas in the life around you. when they are more experienced. Drawing is a living language that over millennia has grown and changed. It rarely flourishes in isolation. Imagination needs nourishment. and became a great subject for me. In the total wealth of these pages. To these I have added my own drawings to explain elementary materials and techniques and offer introductory approaches. Note that the drawing classes are allocated to subjects. I was particularly attracted to their gentle articulation and understated determination. Look to your own experience and also learn from the work of others. Its sensuous and flowing line seems to drift like smoke. and many more reasons for drawing the world. A N ARTIST'S HANDS These are the hands of the artist Phyll Kiggell (see p. comes from within. caught between action and repose. ELECTRIC BULL With a penlight.


If you intend to carry your boards for a distance. and glued t o a s t r i p o f bias binding. Most contain thin p a p e r and are perfect f o r use w i t h disposable pens. a n d r e f e r e n c e b o o k s f o u n d in s e c o n d . and collage their ideas. drawing book. be sure they fit comfortably under your arm. and handles to lift the weight of your artworks. H O M E M A D E : I m a d e this b o o k f r o m drawing paper that I folded. It is also useful to own a portfolio. it is better to have them made at a lumber yard or home improvement store. catalogs. A high-quality one will last a DRAWING BOOKS Select d r a w i n g b o o k s t o suit y o u r aims.b o u n d p a d if y o u w i s h t o keep your drawings together long-term. pastels. t h e i r jackets w i l l a c t like d r a w i n g b o a r d s a n d p r o t e c t y o u r w o r k . is perfect. Alternatively.B O U N D PADS: T h e s e are t h e least expensive a n d useful f o r o p e n i n g flat. c o l o r If planning t o use pencils. y o u n e e d a lifetime. 1. 6.20 INTRODUCTION Drawing Books and Papers T o BEGIN YOUR EXPLORATION o f d r a w i n g . You simply need two strong boards hinged together well. F o r traveling.q u a l i t y r i n g . Smooth plywood. H o w e v e r r i n g bindings o f t e n break. N o t e t h e w i d e l y differing c h o i c e o f p a p e r s w i t h w h i c h t h e s e are m a d e . F o r e v e n i n g classes. C A N V A S . which are also sold in an enormous range. t h i s is h o w I l e a r n e d . texture. binding. Homemade books can be assembled easily from found materials or selections of loose sheet papers. thickness. a n d crayons. Dissecting a d i s c a r d e d h a r d . and cost. There are dozens to choose from. Art students often make use of printed books picked up from secondhand stores into which they draw.C O V E R E D H A R D B O U N D : Ideal f o r c a r r y i n g a r o u n d . cheap corrugated plastic ones fall apart in days. Sand the edges to avoid splinters.h a n d s t o r e s make unique subjects f o r e x p e r i m e n t s a n d collage. These are perfect f o r w o r k i n g in novels. T h e hardb o a r d j a c k e t is s t r e t c h e d w i t h canvas beneath t h e p a p e r sleeve. They can be very expensive in art stores.b o u n d b o o k s t h a t fit in y o u r p o c k e t o r bag. c h o o s e s m a l l e r h a r d . quality. BLACK P O C K E T B O O K S : Hand-sized w i t h ready-made elastic binder and a marker ribbon. 2. Gleaming store purchases vary greatly in format. thick enough not to flex. C O L O R E D PAPERS: Large a r t supply stores o f t e n sell t h i c k b o o k s full o f c o l o r e d p a p e r s . ties on either side to keep your papers in place. study the structure of a good portfolio and make your own. color. Many artists invent ways o f binding their o w n books. 4. Purchase a h i g h . R I N G . stitched. 2002 Tantalus o r The Future of Man 81/2 x61/4in (215 x 158 mm) ROSE MILLER . Drawing boards are invaluable. c h o o s e larger f o r m a t s t o give y o u s c o p e f o r e x p e r i m e n t . 5. a l e n g t h o f black elastic t i e d a r o u n d t h e m i d d l e will h o l d the contents together w h e n y o u f o l d in c o l l e c t e d items. cut.b o u n d b o o k w i l l s o o n s h o w y o u h o w it is m a d e . b e a w a r e t h a t p a p e r t e x t u r e effects a n d changes t h e i r marks. Calculate a range of useful dimensions and have several cut at once. F O U N D B O O K S : O l d p r i n t e d 3 .

VELIN ARCHES 250GMS: Printmaking paper available in black white. METALLIC PAPER: Thin paper in different metallic colors. SAUNDERS WATERFORD N O T 300GMS: Mid-quality textured watercolor paper. it is made from rice. C A R B O N PAPER: Available in dark and light blue. not. It is available in white or cream. C A N S O N : Inexpensive lightweight pastel paper in many colors. 21. 11.5 9 ) for explanations of rough. ITALIAN PARCHMENT: Imitation-animal-skin parchment that is translucent and slightly waxy.Papers differ in thickness (weight). 15. printed on one side only. Use with a brush in clean water Water makes a dark mark like ink and becomes invisible again when dry. tough. FABRIANO R O U G H 600GMS: Very heavy. T W O RIVERS GREEN 410G MS: Very heavy tinted textured cold-pressed watercolor paper See Two Rivers Yellow. It is also excellent for drawing with marker pens on layered sheets. 22. cold. 8. GLASSINE: Sold as protective wrapping. and cost. MAGIC PAPER: A reusable sheet for testing ideas without creating waste.TISSUE PAPER: Place sheets between drawing book pages to keep images from printing on each other and use for delicate collage. Ph. 12. used to imprint lines of these colors onto a surface. mulberry. 100% cotton and sold in sheets. pastel paper in flecked pastel colors with a distinctive ribbed marking. size. fine. and other plant fibers. 20. AQUARELLE ARCHES 300GMS:The very top quality hot-pressed (smooth) watercolor paper. resisting deterioration. PAPERS . and white. absorbency. They are hand-. and cream sheets or rolls. turning brown and brittle. and hot pressed papers. 2 5 6 . 14. or machine made in sheets. FABRIANO INGRES: Thin. also good for drawing with colored pencils. Use for brushwork drawings. JAPANESE PAPER: Strong. or rolls. mold-. Cotton papers are high-quality and acid-free. red. 7. from pencil to paint 9. FABRIANO ACADEMIA: Standard medium-range multipurpose paper Use with any media. 17. For use with any media. and translucent. Use cheap paper for rough ideas and quality paper for work to last See the glossary ( p p . 18. 10. texture. T W O RIVERS Y E L L O W 410GMS: See Two Rivers Green 19. bamboo. white textured paper that can take abrasive use of any medium. 13. color. and rolls. blocks. yellow. 16. Cheap wood-pulp papers are acidic. blocks. smooth.

Use the side of your little fingernail as a support on the page. don't sit too close to the paper. This photograph illustrates how some people hold a pen to write. . Relaxed fingers: Hold the pencil away from its tip and relax your fingers. your whole relaxed b o d y should be involved. If seated on a b e n c h easel (a donkey). How you hold your drawing materials is also important. make sure you have enough room to back away and view your work. If your body posture is well balanced and you can move freely. There are also parallels to dance. Regularly step back 6-9 ft (2-3 m) to check your progress. You do not have to dance to draw. a n d look to the left of it at your subject. you can draw lines freely and achieve a significant arc of movement. From a distance you will spot errors you cannot see close up. You cannot draw like this—your hand is locked and your fingers can barely move. and subject. There should be an open. place it on your left. 116-17). Ideally. Placing your easel o n the w r o n g side folds y o u r b o d y against your drawing arm. Examples are shown here. should be able to look comfortably straight ahead at your picture plane. you Drawing classes can be cramped places.22 INTRODUCTION Posture and Grip T o DRAW WELL. SPACE TO WORK Cramped grip. arm. With your hand in this position. b u t it should n o t be forgotten that many people make remarkable a n d striking works drawing with their feet or holding their brush or pencil in their mouths. but you need to understand that the expression of a line or mark originates in the body and flows t h r o u g h the shoulder. body. place it on the correct side: if right-handed. If using an upright easel. or with your drawing board angled between your lap and a chair. your lines will distort. a n d h a n d to the fingertips. Turning your drawing sideways or upside-own will also help reveal what is wrong. Accelerated perspective also occurs if you look down the surface steeply (see pp. your drawing will reflect this. If your hand twists to maneuver between the paper and your body. place it on your right. This cramped grip tires your hand and makes small. It will also reflect discomfort if you are in any way cramped. and look to the right. In this book we will look at parallels between drawing and music. if left-handed. flowing space between your hand. but wherever possible. strangledlooking drawings.

232-33). find an unfamiliar. This can be used to great effect. If you turn a brush or dip pen up into the air to draw above your hand. It is most comfortable when reaching to draw above your head. This can give a new lease on life to your mark-making. To stop this. or it can spoil your work if not anticipated. arm. As long as your fingers. depending upon what it is and how large you are working. alternative way of holding the pencil. Large amounts of ink can be applied without fear of uncontrolled running if the paper is flat. hold your material as you find most comfortable. GRAVITY Remember that gravity affects the flow of ink and paint. But be careful not to tense your fingers. roughly marking out a large-scale work. not up to the paper Brushes can be used on upright paper but dip Anticipating effects: A fully loaded pens need a level surface. . or change to the wrong hand. Remember you can also draw just by dipping your fingers in pigment—this is how many women draw in rural India.23 This loose "candle" grip is very useful when drawing with your arm extended. Brush calligraphy: This comfortable. ALL MEDIA There are no rules as to how you should hold your drawing media. Soft media: Short materials such as pastels and charcoal can be accommodated in the palm. and body are not restricted. brush pressed against an upright surface will cause a dribble of ink to run down your drawing. upright way of holding the brush near its base is similar to the Japanese way used in Zen calligraphy (see pp. liquid will run down your hand. Large scale: POSTURE AND GRIP U n f a m i l i a r i t y : T h e habitual movements of our handwriting style will sometimes infringe upon our drawing.


" Animals perpetually feed our imaginations. and we still see escapees from its pages carved and grinning as the gargoyles of churches. the Latin bestiary was one of the most popular picture books—an illustrated dictionary of one hundred parts. and learn how to Flying Fish c. animals provide a perfect subject with which to begin.Animals H UMANS HAVE DRAWN ANIMALS from the beginning of our time. and to bring h o m e drawn documentaries of their finds. to be there at the m o m e n t of discovery. In 19th-century Europe this became a "science. and pioneer born c. Facial features were analyzed in terms of their animal likeness. or scampering through the initials and borders of pictures from that time. 11 x91/4in (277 x 234 mm) . W e have drawn them in m a n u s c r i p t s to explain our genesis and to c o u n t their species into Noah's ark. cartographer. In this chapter we discover the use of pens and ink through the delineation of insects. Framed in the z o o or in domestic cohabitation. 1590 J O H N WHITE capture form and movement from the m a n n e r i s m s of honking geese. insects. This drawing is made in black lead (metal point) with watercolor Highlights of silver would have gleamed. mermaids. Here (left) we see J o h n White's exquisite record of a flying fish. O v e r the centuries. After the subject of ourselves. fish. and snakes have between them engendered harpies. sleeping dogs. which are so unlike ours. and dragons. Europeans on board had never seen such a thing. As children we delight in the humanized trials of Tom and Jerry and their c a r t o o n relations. we turn and take the features of beasts. In medieval England. On the Roanoke voyages of Sir Walter Raleigh. and silent. and this very drawing was to endure many copies and plagiarisms after its triumphant return to the English court of Queen Elizabeth I.. White's commission was to ". and people.m o u n t e d skeletons of birds.. birds. plants. their different speeds and patterns of action. W h e n lost to explain our own emotions. We have drawn them on the walls of caves to evoke their kinship and power. For the novice artist.drawe to lief one of each kinde of thing that is strange to us in England. from which personality and predicted behavior were " d e d u c e d . they are perhaps our favorite pictorial preoccupation. dogs. bats. who described in words what White drew." He worked with the scientist Thomas Harriot. floating turtles. JOHN WHITE British artist. each dedicated to the moralized tale of an animal or monster The bestiary profoundly influenced the art of its period. we have employed artists on expeditions. offer challenges and delights to draw. werewolves. which very likely leaped o n t o the deck of Sir Walter Raleigh's ship Tiger as it sailed north from the Caribbean to Virginia in 1585. out are now oxidized and so appear black W h e n less preoccupied with understanding ourselves. m u s e u m . Together they made maps and documented animals. 1540." Paranoid newcomers c r a m m e d into swelling industrial cities used handbooks of physiognomy to identify and judge their neighbors.

the home of ALBRECHT DURER German Renaissance painter. filled journals with ideas and observations. Unsurpassed. DURER'S RHINOCEROS AND STUBBS'S skeletal Durer. Converted into a print. The first live rhinoceros to reach Europe came from India in May 1515. Durer's image changed eager hands until it was known across Europe. a gift to the Portuguese King. a drawing of it arrived in Nuremberg.26 ANIMALS Documentaries horse are superb affirmations of the power of drawing as a recorder and communicator of knowledge. draftsman. inspiring countless works of art and so touching people's imaginations that later. and wrote four books on proportion. Contemporary texts related accounts of the beast as the mortal enemy of the elephant and rare relative of the "more common" unicorn. the ship was lost. years after its publication. Meanwhile. Durer traveled widely to study at different European schools of art. and mathematician. Stubbs's Anatomy of the Horse achieved similar documentary status. Life-like This is Durer's original quill-and-ink drawing made after an anonymous Portuguese drawing. they were rejected. It was to become the animal's only accepted likeness for 250 years. He in turn sent the mysterious creature to the Pope via Marseilles at the request of the King of France. it continued its journey to Rome. writer. naturalist. It is such a lifelike triumph of imagination and intelligence that for centuries zoologists never questioned its authority. Carefully stuffed. it is still consulted by veterinarians today. He studied the image and drew his own interpretation. when more accurate portrayals were made without armor and scales. printmaker. Sailing to Rome. Original Ink Drawing of a Rhinoceros 1515 ALBRECHT DURER 103/4 x 161/2 in ( 2 7 4 x 4 2 0 mm) . but the drowned animal washed ashore.

Stubbs w a s o n e o f t h e first E u r o p e a n artists t o m a k e a n a c c u r a t e representation o f the rhinoceros. Stubbs's m o s t c e l e b r a t e d publication. knowledge of parts. Dissections Stubbs took his knife and his pencil and physically climbed inside the horse. is no other work like it. composed from notes and observations. He translated his own drawings into engravings for publication. c o m p r i s e s 1 8 p l a t e s s h o w i n g d i s s e c t i o n s in l a y e r s f r o m b o n e t h r o u g h m u s c u l a t u r e t o skin. which has never diminished. a n d anatomist. in t h r e e v i e w s — r e a r f r o n t . naturalist. and therefore invented the lighting that Compare how Stubbs and Durer both invented lighting to portray the reality of their animals. This is one of Stubbs' original finished pencil drawings. Dissections were made over a total of 18 months. a n d s i d e . Table of the III of the Horse (rear Skeleton view) mm) 1756-58 1 4 x 7 in ( 3 5 4 x 1 8 0 GEORGE STUBBS . Anatomy of the Horse. Lighting Stubbs's breathtaking international work won immediate There acclaim.GEORGE STUBBS B r i t i s h e q u i n e a n d s o c i e t y p o r t r a i t painter. dissecting and drawing until he understood the mechanisms of its power and grace. L o n d o n . His painted p o r t r a i t o f t h e b e a s t is in t h e R o y a l C o l l e g e o f S u r g e o n s o f England. The entire project was developed over ten years. He composed makes each horse appear so real and each plate from his three-dimensional.

Gericault's sheet a p p e a r s almost s c r a t c h e d b y the f e r o c i o u s play of his cat. it silently rises to the light. and leader of the French Romantic movement.28 ANIMALS Presence and Mood THESE DRAWINGS HAVE BEEN CHOSEN to s h o w t w o v e r y different ways of picturing a wild animal.. playwright. ink and linseed oil on paper.. sepia. drawing her again and again to pin d o w n the texture of her loose skin.". and all sorts of bizarre concoctions which manage to convey above all in mind. Hugo used graphite powder. novelist. Hugo's novels Les Miserables and Dame have become classics of film and stage. The Hunchback of Notre Layers and shadows Throughout this drawing. her sharp teeth. The octopus is formed in layers applied and distressed with a brush. Gericault took a sharp p e n c i l to m a k e repeated direct o b s e r v a t i o n s f r o m life. H u g o mixed his media and drew from m e m o r y and imagination to create narrative atmosphere. more or less what I have in view. VICTOR HUGO Poet. the ominous beast unwinds from the dark of the sea and of our nightmares. her b o n y frame.. His copious drawings are characterized by mixed media. snarl. Surrounding sprays of graphite powder are stuck into washes of oil and ink to suggest glutinous depths. He has w a t c h e d her p o u n c e . and turn. and Pieuvre 1866-69 91/2 x81/8in (242 x 207 mm) VICTOR H U G O . charcoal.. and her distinctive temperament. A s if disturbed from its gritty b e d by our presence and curiosity. coal dust. He wrote to poet and art critic Charles-Pierre Baudelaire about his experiments. linseed oil soaked into the paper has made shadows and repelled the ink to create translucent tentacles. and a love of accident. Mixed media Here. drama. Apparently drawn in its o w n ink. soot. By contrast. conjured b y the hand of a great author of French literary fiction. saying ". I've ended up mixing in pencil. Hugo's page is f l o o d e d w i t h the fearful presence of a remembered octopus.

displayed in the Louvre. 144. of previous Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 1817-18 121/2 x 151/2 in ( 3 1 9 x 3 9 8 mm) T H E O D O R E GERICAULT . Tones that do not follow surface contour is very difficult to do well. since it can lead to a flattened form. s h o r t . artists reused sheets and them full of studies.l i v e d French R o m a n t i c painter and lithographer Largely self-taught. Paris. parallel.118-119). Beginners are advised to follow the natural contours of form as shown on pp. focused upon seeing will lead to a greater understanding of the subject Much is learned from repeated study. standing sideways. and keep trying again. diagonal strokes of his pencil. facing right. Undertraces Beneath these graphite studies we see traces Tones On the top row we see clearly how Gericault laid broad areas of tone using fast. H e is best k n o w n f o r his gigantic painting.29 THEODORE GERICAULT C o n t r o v e r s i a l . undertraces unify and vitalize the composition. Before paper became so cheap. 124-25 and p. horses w e r e a favorite subject t o g e t h e r w i t h politics and history. At the center of the page is crammed drawings the outline of a horse. Here. and it can be applied to any subject (see pp. of drawings Gericault erased. Repeated study This drawing demonstrates of feeling confident repeat different the importance subject Remaining enough to isolate parts of a views. fiery. The Raft of the Medusa.

The fact that they never stand still influences the movement in his line. Klee's riders are constructed from all the gestures of greeting mules. made only a year apart. and brown. noise is everywhere. quivering horse. The ink is used to make sharply defined solid. with George Braque (see p90). Ink and gouache This drawing is made in black Chinese ink and gouache (opaque watercolor) applied with a brush. These media complement and amplify each other with their brilliant contrast. His hand must have shuddered and twitched just like the constant actions of this humorous meeting. dissolving faun kneels stranded. Artists commonly focus on such actions.30 ANIMALS Movement M O V E M E N T IS OFTEN THE CHARACTERISTIC b y w h i c h w e their lines and the power of their beasts. and scrolled lines. the first abstract movement of the 20th century. we see semi-abstract. the whinnying of a frantic horse. hooked. Faune. Cheval et Oiseau 1936 173/8 x 211/4 in ( 4 4 0 x 5 4 0 m m ) PABLO PICASSO . or proud. In these two drawings. overwhelmed by a screeching bird. slow tortoise. Both Picasso and Klee have enclosed their subjects to compress and amplify the speed of PABLO PICASSO A prolific Spanish painter sculptor. In Picasso's drawing. gray. draftsman. and waves breaking distantly below. His powdery. Picasso cofounded Cubism. Gouache is brushed softly in translucent hazy layers of cool blue. printmaker ceramicist graphic and stage designer who lived in France. flattened animals composed almost entirely of movement. flapping bird. identify an animal: the fast cheetah. taking them to guide their hand in bringing form and essence together.

" They chatter around bodies in groups. well-worn copies o f w h i c h are found in m a n y art schools. printmaker.PAUL KLEE Swiss painter. and t e a c h e r at t h e Bauhaus school. He is a u t h o r o f The Thinking Eye (1923). They remain in contact with the surface of the page and scribble back and forth as they maneuver from one area to another. violinist. sculptor. draftsman. Layers of marks In this pale Dentil drawing we see layers of' agitated marks that together present a kind of visual "itch. W i t h his drawings Kleeb o u n d sophisticated theories to personal and often witty childlike imagery. The entire drawing suggests the endless small movements of horses standing still. turning our eye and around inside the and postures of the paper- thin on pictorial space. top all happily of each other in the Endless lines Look closely at how Klee's lines rarely leave the paper and how they are free from the constraint of finite shape. N e u m a n n Family Collection. Scene der Komischen of Comical Reiter Riders) (Scene 1935 161/2x111/2in ( 4 1 9 x 2 9 1 mm) M o r t o n G . Chicago PAUL KLEE . creatures.

Below we see his revolutionary design for an Elizabethan warship. plans. Knopf's drawing opposite is the personal enigmatic expression of a mind gripped by illness. Exquisite details in this drawing include the lips of the fish. The fish It is likely that Baker drew with a quill dipped in irongall ink. and author o f Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (1586). mathematician. In just one drawing he has displayed more angles of his design than we would expect to see from a single viewpoint Fragments English 1586 101/2 x 153/8 in (270 x 390 mm) MATTHEW BAKER of Ancient Shipwrightry . This drawing illustrates Baker's theory. t h e earliest geometrically defined elevations. and steerage. and s e c t i o n s o f ships. and scales. In contrast to the practical clarity of Baker's thought. It is simply how we read his perspective. the expression of its eye. and the carefully observed gills. adding washes of color with a fine brush. Baker did not intend this. drawings of animals that are each held tightly in a surprising space: a giant fish wears a ship's hull. b a s e d o n his studies o f fish. it would achieve greater speed. which in application gave strength and advantage to the English fighting the Spanish Armada. B a k e r initiated t h e scientific p r a c t i c e o f naval a r c h i t e c t u r e and applied h y d r o d y n a m i c s . slim stern). The ship The upper decks of the ship appear curved toward us at both ends. later called a galleon. and blackbirds fly in formation through a mosaic of text. He studied the anatomy of fish. Baker lived in an era when ships were built without drawn plans. and from them learned that if he designed his ship with a "cod's head MATTHEW BAKER Master shipwright. His birds stare. fins.32 ANIMALS Icon and Design IN THESE T W O MANUSCRIPTS we discover diagrammatic and mackerel's tail" (full bow. balance. and to assess our next move. seemingly looking for our attention.

The main group is placed in a circle drawn with a compass. and filled evenly with tone. appears to be stirred like water by the presence of the The Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks UNDATED 133/8 x 115/8 in (340 x 2 9 6 mm) and psychiatrist Hans Prinzhom collected this image. circle and the birds. written last of all. The text. firmly outlined.K n o p f b e l i e v e d h e c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h e language o f birds. w h i c h o f t e n f e a t u r e as s y m b o l i c creatures in his drawings. JOHANN KNOPF . numbered.JOHANN KNOPF An " O u t s i d e r " a r t i s t w h o s u f f e r e d f r o m m e n t a l illness. T h e G e r m a n a r t historian Outline and tone The blackbirds illuminating this frantic manuscript are drawn in pencil.

and first used by the Egyptians. They fit into wooden holders. In the Far East. Quills were later cut from feathers. then pour a little warm gum water into it and temper the two together. they are associated with rapid. where reeds were gathered. QUILLS: These are cut from the barrel of a flight or tail feather." "Gum" refers to gum arabic extracted Dip pens are essential and inexpensive drawing tools. Intricate or dramatic lines. and it is still in use today. a n d m e t a l p o i n t s . Dip pens began their history in the Nile River. you can have great fun drawing the world around you. F O U N T A I N PENS: These vary in quality and nib width. Only fill with suitable inks. REED PENS: A broad nib can be cut from bamboo or another tubular grass. Responsive to slight changes in pressure. The paste from either recipe is pressed and dried into a bar for storage.246-47). 4. 5 0 0 years ago. light it. simultaneously 4 . the recipes for which have been handed down over centuries. The reservoir gives a constant flow of ink for very long unbroken lines and continuous bottle-free use. expressive drawing techniques such as the ones we explore in this chapter 1. METAL PENS: Inexpensive removable steel nibs are available in a range of widths. distinguished manufacture. Masters choose brands of long. Early artists recommended raven and crow for especially fine work. ink is traditionally applied with a brush (see pp. which scratch rather than draw. producing a different line. PENS . Avoid needle-sharp mapping pens. and hold it under a clean basin until the soot hangs to it. and spatters can be made with an exotic choice of inks.34 ANIMALS Pen and Ink W I T H A HANDFUL OF FEATHERS. A German recipe of 1531 gives a simple description: "Take a wax candle. high-quality Chinese and Japanese inks are subtler and more complex than those produced in Europe. The bar is then rubbed into water on a slate block to produce ink. spots. from the acacia tree. The Egyptians and Chinese are credited with the invention of carbon ink. while metal nibs began as rare gifts in gold and silver before being perfected by the British steel industry. The Chinese used animal or fish glue. which range greatly in their handling and character of line. s t i c k s . Each pen has a unique character. That is an ink. 2. 3. The best are goose or swan. Today.

. and are still in use today: carbon (Chinese and Indian). Bistre is the more humane use of soot scraped from the fireplace and ground into wine. boiled.35 PEN AND INK Four types of ink were common before the 20th century. iron-gall. Beechwood soot is best. Excellent for drawing they are bright and non-clogging. they produce a golden dye for drawing. Old stock turns solid and bottlesChina. ACRYLIC / CALLIGRAPHY INKS: Available in black and a range of colors. is the ink of a cuttlefish or squid extracted post-mortem.G A L L INK: Abnormal spherical growths caused by parasitic wasps can be collected from some oak trees in fall. suspended in a binder and stored as a solid block Blocks are imported today 7. I N D I A N INK: Carbon ink sold today in liquid form. or charcoal. Now we also have acrylic ranges in many colors. bistre. Non-waterproof Indian inks can be reworked with a wet brush after drying. an often misused term. SEPIA A N D BISTRE INKS: Sepia. from are not 6. 5.36. Crushed. 8. The complexities of traditional iron-gall ink are explained on p. and sieved. C A R B O N INK: Traditionally produced from oil or resin soot (Lamp Black). They are the easiest inks to use. It dries with a sheen and clogs uncleaned pens. and sepia. Inks can be lightfast or non-lightfast. and most can be homemade. I R O N . Waterproof types contain shellac. reduced. roastedwine sediment (Yeast Black). charred bone (Ivory Black). waterproof or non-waterproof. dated. and can be mixed and diluted to create subtler colors and tones. INKS 9.

Reed marks The darker left wing of this beetle was drawn with the wet inky stroke wing. red-brown. always be cautious when experimenting with recipes. and turned brown with time. a n d M a t i s s e also e n j o y e d t h e m . giving longer lines. T h e y give a finer. Scribes o f t h e M i d d l e Ages. finding reed p e n s unwieldy. are surprisingly tough. r e s e r v e d t h e i r use f o r large c h o i r b o o k s . For centuries. U n d e r heavy pressure. it was gray-purple. Paler strokes were made where the mark has the legs and antennae the ink ran out. fleshy skins that surround ripe walnuts. t h e y stick a n d j u d d e r f o r w a r d . Although oak galls and walnut skins are harmless. and boiled to make a golden ink. m o r e e x t e n d e d line than reed and a m o r e organic line t h a n m e t a l . can also be collected from affected trees. QUILL PENS Q u i l l s a r e highly r e s p o n s i v e t o c h a n g e s in p r e s s u r e . Oak galls. then cut a final nib (feathers. crushed. Walnut ink is gloopy. forming the REED PENS R e e dpens dispense ink quickly. The lighter right Quill marks Quills carry more ink than strokes and for as reeds. since t h e D u t c h w e r e t h e first t o realize t h a t they could be hardened and i m p r o v e d w i t h heat t r e a t m e n t in ash o r sand. drawn to glisten with a dryer nib. reduced. galls were ground with iron sulfate to make an unstable solution. of a loaded nib. Some of Michelangelo's drawings are now a little eaten by their own ink. giving a s h o r t .) You can make ink easily from the boiled. The darkest of this grasshopper wings) were made (around the head first. appears broken to show paper beneath. and delicious to draw with. It dried black. Practice to gain a feel for how materials behave. for example. V a n G o g h . Collect skins from the ground beneath trees once they are blackened. Quills are also called D u t c h pens. Rembrandt.36 ANIMALS Drawing With Ink To MAKE A QUILL OR REED PEN. the blade and cut away from you. M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s d r a g o n o n p . I u s e d t h e s e qualities t o d r a w t h e w o r m s above. . It also oxidized and ate or burned paper. d r y mark. a n d d e v e l o p e d t h e quill instead. keep all your fingers behind basis of iron-gall ink. 2 4 4 is an e x q u i s i t e e x a m p l e . sieved. Running fresh.

withstanding great pressure without sticking. Each layer of of the drying droplet dome the drawing was left to dry before adding more. breaking. W h e n the nib is pressed upside down. sharp.37 METAL PENS Metal pens give long. they splay to make thick o r double lines. it is important to feel for when the ink will run out and to know how much ink you pick up when dipping the nib. Loaded with ink and pressed hard. When using dip pens. tonal Ink layers The wings of this beetle were drawn in layers using black and white ink on pale gray paper. clean strokes. . DRAWING WITH INK Filled outlines Each segment of wing was outlined. The of pigment to fall to the edges effect of the shape. o r being ruined as fountain pens would be under the same pressure. White markings were drawn last Tones Here we see subtle tones of diluted ink beneath the undiluted black rim of a beetle's wing. giving a graded. particles then filled with a droplet of ink. marks become fine and needle-sharp.

Watch their heavy feathered bodies flap. test your limits. You cannot break the nib. there is no obligation to prepare a quill. waddle. Try to hold the whole posture in your mind's eye. Pack plenty of tissue around a bottle of calligraphy or acrylic ink. Posture . Focus on it. Geese are nosy birds. Cover a sheet.38 ANIMALS Capturing Character GEESE ARE EXCELLENT SUBJECTS to draw when practicing the first use of pen and ink. Empathize. Study them before drawing. and boldly plunge into your drawing. and be brave." If you don't like a stroke. That said. and a large drawing book or plenty of paper Use masking tape to secure pages against the wind. Illustrating this exercise on Oxford Port Meadow. not on your drawing. Dip your pen in ink. be bold and press firmly. Quick drawing trains you to see what is most important about a subject and to mark only its most essential expression. Take no more than ten seconds to draw each one and make lots of drawings. MATERIALS NEEDED Look for a bird expressing a simple posture. It happens that goose feathers also provide artists with the best type of quills. It teaches confidence and focus through intensive repetition. I covered eleven sheets in sixty quick drawings—in less than an hour. steel nibs are fine. Attempt with a loose hand to capture their posture and outline. draw what the bird is doing. Cover your drawing book pages in speedy responses to the geese and try to capture each bird in as few lines as possible. Experiment. Focus on the geese. to absorb blots when drawing. so pick a spot where other people can keep them entertained. and there is no "wrong. Take a cup and water for diluting a range of tones. make another one. touch the bottle's rim to drain the excess. and quickly draw around it using only three or four strokes. and bellyflop off the waterside.

. Use more lines than before to express these. Avoid detail unless really tempted by a close-up visit Fluctuate the pressure of your pen in response to how you know the bird would feel if you touched it. and diving. running. flapping.39 Action With growing confidence. and don't worry about mechanical facts or accuracy. look among the birds for more complicated actions such as shaking off water. draw the feeling of what you see. CAPTURING CHARACTER Texture Gradually allow yourself more lines to describe the texture of each bird as well as its posture and action. Again.

Now it will make a pale line. and drain the excess by touching the nib against the rim of the bottle. This will give a medium-gray line.40 ANIMALS Sleeping Dogs R A S WAS A GREAT CHARACTER. a dip pen and ink of your choice (see pp. engaged in his and everyone else's business. Make a test sheet to discover your control of diluting on the nib. The only time he remained still was when he was sleeping. your drawing book. Then dip the nib quickly into a glass of water and drain the excess again. For this class you will need one oblivious dog. a d o g w h o w a s a l w a y s town. MAKING A PALE LINE To make a pale line. Sleeping animals present the artist with ideal opportunities to study their texture. and even then he twitched and stretched in dreams. form. Dip the nib quickly again into water and again drain it.34-37). first dip your pen in ink. and personality. These drawings are not an analysis of his anatomy or breed but the expression of his satisfied comfort in a deep sleep after a night out on the together with a glass of water for diluting tones on the nib. Ras Curled Up Asleep "Capturing the true character of a cherished companion is best achieved with objective determination rather than sentimental shyness." . and a tissue for blotting drawn lines that appear too dark.

second thoughts may be different Changing your mind is a positive aspect o f seeing and thinking. this time to create a line a little darker in tone. W i t h pale lies. 3 Gradually introduce darker tones. SLEEPING DOGS 1 Fix your eyes at the center of the dog. see how the animal's posture determines its whole shape. add more detail. and the shadows in his coat. ignoring all detail. D o not go back over lines you are pleased with—doing so dulls their lively freshness. ears. quickly draw what you see. Then I immediately rebalanced the drawing with lines around his hind quarters.It is essential when drawing any subject (even something abstract) to know how it feels andtoemulate this with your line. 2 Reload your pen with ink. First lines are first thoughts.41 DRAWING YOUR DOG Be bold in this exercise. . Here I marked the features of Ras's head. Trust your intuition. tail. alter the pressure and moisture of your line in response to howyouknow your dog feels when you ruffle itscoat. to emphasize how he is curled up. Remain focused on the whole dog and. Here. in bold layers. I added ink to Ras's nose. Layers o f thoughts can bring a drawing alive. Character is better captured drawing quickly with confidence than w o r k i n g slowly. To add texture. c o n c e r n e d a b o u t detail. Then.

as if caught in a camera freeze-frame. offering plenty of time for the artist to draw the pose. swinging their limbs and shells with a slow circular movement. they stretch and paddle.Turtles to observe. A perfect subject for the beginner. THE ELONGATION AND BUOYANCY of a group of turtles is fascinating . Beyond the glass wall of the aquarium. turtles often pause unexpectedly.


dry. I made repeated studies of the housemartin to discover its mechanism of flight. India ink. Beginning with very pale tones.Dry Birds THESE ARE THE ARTICULATED BONES o f a k i w i a n d a h o u s e - martin drawn in a museum using a steel pen. I sought to capture the form. . I darkened lines as each drawing progressed. With speed. and water. balance. weightlessness of the kiwi. and sharp.



infinitely vivid. Fledgling years Botanist and apothecary who compiled the Hortus Eystettensis of scientific research bore manifold explosions of knowledge in a fever of discovery. —-the largest and most influential botanical book of the early Natural scientists accompanied explorers to document unknown finds. season. Chapters are arranged by out. We collect. and the drawn pages ofthesame name. manipulations of light and shade. and focus. and to ornament our lives. The revolution came in the 1530s. nurture. We draw them to celebrate their beauty and range. Early European illustrators were trapped within dogma that was determined by ancient scholarship. Botanic gardens were established and expanded. B A S I L I U SBESLER when botanists founded new work upon the direct study of plants. as opposed to only herbal. and hybridize them for our sustenance and pleasure. to the proliferation of floral designs with which we have dressed ourselves and furnished our homes for centuries. and the Acanthus spinosus constant but exhilarating struggle to make a living image feel right. an There are close parallels between the acts of gardening and drawing. form. color.000 species of plants are depicted life-size drawn. Both embrace the anticipation of evolving shape. and diverse kingdom of plants. It was published plain in 1611 and withhand-paintedplates in poured off ships returning from the New World and were eagerly collected and 1613. Later.Morethan 1. and texture. From its history there is one overriding lesson to be learned: the importance of looking and seeing with our own eyes. on which our lives depend. After Here Aconthus spinosus is combined with forget-me-nots and-a-half centuries of intensive observation. to catalog our knowledge. and beauty. shape. Classifications were set in367copperengravings. 1613 187/8x153/4in(480 x 400 mm) BASILIUS BESLER . Conrad von Gemmingen. the microscope was refined to unfold yet another world. where a number of uncredited artistsd r e wthem for Besler. In this chapter. Plants are the principal inspiration of the decorative arts—from Roman Corinthian columns crowned with carved leaves of the acanthus. Rich owners of private gardens commissioned large-format florilegiums commissioned the volume to document his private garden to immortalize their personal taste and power of acquisition. Botanical illustration is a precisely defined and scientific art. Plants seventeenth century. the punctuation of space with structure and mass.Plants and Gardens W E SHARE THIS PLANET with the more ancient. we now have laid before us fourto show how well their colours complement each other infinite wealth of material to explore. we see very different cultural visions of plants and gardens and use pencils and plants to learn the pictorial values of space. robust. Medieval knowledge was not gained by the first-hand observation of life but by reading. Patrons funded the breeding of decorative. PriceBishopof Eichstatt specimens. He sent boxes of plants to Nuremburgburned with the urgency and excitement of explaining every plant's form.

fruit. Here. leaves. delicate. or that were diseased. Stella Ross-Craig said of the need to d r a w from a dried herbarium plant "I could make it live again. Outline Bauer prepared a pencil outline before laying in fleshy succulent hues and tones of watercolor. flowers. subtle union of beauty. measured drawings. o p e n i n g a n d c l o s i n g i n the w a r m t h a n d light of the studio.48 PLANTS AND GARDENS THE SCIENTIFIC VALUE OF A BOTANICAL DRAWING lies i n its Botanical Studies were specimens that often refused to stay still. Botanical art c o n c e a l s the challenge of its m a k i n g . stems. and Franz Bauer and his brother Ferdinand were employed there to draw specimens. petal tip over a lower leaf Protea nitida 201/4 x141/4in (513 x 362 mm) FRANZ BAUER 1796 . T h e rest of u s are free to d r a w as w e w i s h . insect-ravaged. and wilted. Dissections Across the lower part of this drawing we can see dissections of seed pods and petals. The King was then establishing the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. detail." Her slipper orchid s h o w s that botanical drawing must often resolve the challenge of its subject's p r o d u c i n g parts in different seasons — r o o t s . naturalist explorer and advisor to King George III invited Bauer to London in 1 7 9 0 . B e h i n d detailed. He has made the spatial and physical relationships in this drawing all the more real by placing a single. o p t i m i s m . W i t h bright F R A N Z BAUER An Austrian artist who trained at the Schonbrunn Imperial Gardens in Vienna. It is likely Bauer would have studied these under a microscope. Each plant must b e clearly distinguished from its closest relative. M a c k i n t o s h e x p r e s s e s the f o l d e d petals of a broken rose b u d so delicately w e can sense the perfume. Sir Joseph Banks. and seeds conventionally a p p e a r o n o n e plate. Light in this drawing is given by the paleness of the paper showing between washes of darker tones. They are counted among the most accomplished 18th-century botanical artists. and meticulous precision. s u c h as w e see here in Bauer's Protea nitida.

K e w . H e r Drawings of British Plants. and speed depends upon the immediate perception of the essential characteristics of the plant. G u s t a v K l i m t In his r e t i r e m e n t Mackintosh m a d e n u m e r o u s inventive pencil a n d w a t e r c o l o r d r a w i n g s o f plants. Curtis's Botanical Magazine. p u b l i s h e d 1 9 4 8 . and follow shadow. and observation the nuance and contour of every in one image. and perfect coordination of hand and eye. BOTANICAL STUDIES Lines and shadows This lush.g a r d e in G e r m a n y a n d A u s t r i a . Ross-Craig said of her work "Plants that wither rapidly present a very difficult problem to which there is only one answer—speed. A s m a n y of her drawings are kept G a r d e n s . is r e c o g n i z e d as tne m o s t c o m p l e t e a n d i m p o r t a n t work 3. a n d he inspired.286 studies for her book Drawings of British Plants. L o n d o n in 1 9 2 9 . a n d f o u n d e r o f t h e G l a s g o w S c h o o l o f A r t M a c k i n t o s h ' s flair h a d an e n o r m o u s i n f l u e n c e o n t h e a v a n t . a m o n g o t h e r s .7 3 in 3 1 p a r t s . and it shows how design. as at trained botanical artist Ross-Craig Swift lines The drawing was planned in pencil and then overworked with a lithographic pen. Closer to fiction can come together perfectly. found among Mackintosh's than reality. 1970 x 81/4 in ( 3 2 5 x 2 1 0 m m ) STELLA ROSS-CRAIG .000 Kew to archive accessible t o d a y v i a t h e I n t e r n e t of o n British flora. imagination. sensual pencil drawing is later works. Pencil lines cling to.. Line Drawing of Cypripedium calceolus L c.. S h e also o f thousands o f contributed an drawings. Rose 1894 103/4 x 83/4 in ( 2 7 5 x 2 2 1 mm) CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH STELLA ROSS-CRAIG A j o i n e d t h e staff a t t h e R o y a l B o t a n i c G a r d e n s ." This line drawing is one of 1. it is small and discreet.49 C H A R L E S RENNIE MACKINTOSH Scottish a r c h i t e c t d e s i g n e r painter.

Upright shallow perspectives. in the early 16th century. uniform focus. Opposite is the Rose of Mohammed. Below. Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity c. painting. anticipating their view. Babur directs his gardeners in the design and planting of this quartered chahar bagh. paper is brimming with the beauty and celebration of nature. which he personally created near Kabul. By Muslim tradition. The white of the page shines through the brilliant color. They used a fine brush to lay pigment over a line drawing. and calligraphy are brought together to hold the sacred names of prophets and the 99 beautiful names of God. in miniature. Every fiber of AMONG DRAWINGS FROM BISHNDAS A N D N A N H A Little is known of these Mughal painters who were related as uncle and nephew and commissioned to illustrate the pages of Babur's journal. the sumptuous petals permeated with prayer and wisdom. The first Mughal Emperor Babur's Garden of Fidelity (Bagh-e Vaja). roses took their form in a bead of perspiration on the brow of Mohammed as he passed through his heavenly journey. Bishndas was probably responsible for the overall design. urgent attentive human activity. Envoys chatter outside the gate. a notable portrait painter drew the faces.50 PLANTS AND GARDENS Jeweled Gardens the Middle East we find exquisite stylization of form and upright formality in pictorial space. and miraculous growth. is remembered in the pages of his journal. and attention to detail are all shared with medieval European manuscript drawings. Afghanistan. 1590 85/8 x55/8in (219 x 1 4 4 mm) BISHNDAS AND NANHA Bright pigment These pages were illuminated by Mughal artists in the late 16th century. Drawing. . fluctuations in scale. and Nanha.

fragmenting its detail in a whisper of prayers.AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH This is a detail o f a page from a n 1 8 t h . t h e Staatsbibliothek zu Arabic. look closely and you will see words written in gold fluttering over the form of the flower. and how the shape has been repeated freehand. The physical anatomy of the rosebud has been studied and translated into a repeated stylized motif.c e n t u r y Turkish manuscnpt a book of religious e t h i c s w r i t t e n in the O r i e n t a l C o l l e c t i o n s of Berlin. G e r m a n y . Note how each bud is essentially the same shape. However. so that overlapping petals and stems give an impression of fulfillment and abundance. The Rose of Mohammed 1708 9 1 / 2 x 61/2 in ( 2 4 0 x 1 6 5 mm) FROM THE TURKISH M A N U S C R I P T AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH . It is n o w k e p t in Border The elegant border of this drawing was mode with a pen and ruler It cleverly compresses and defines the composition. Stylized motif A fine brush has been used throughout this drawing to apply inks and watercolors. Sacred words The central rose is more solid than any other on the page.



Fast Trees
IN CONTRAST TO THE QUIET, formal detail of other drawings in this chapter, these powerful fast trees enact the actions of plants. Each tree reaches out and holds its landscape with dynamism and pulse. In both drawings we find testament to the inexorable energy of growth. Rembrandt expresses a delicate quickness. Gentle lines draw a warm breeze through this remote wooded garden. Rustling in a loose foliage of soft marks, his pen evokes the weight of abundant activity on this late summer's day. Mondrian's arch of scratching branches is drawn with such force it will always be alive. We can still feel his hand storming across the paper. Set within a frame of smudged landscape, the tree possesses a musical agitation. This characteristic will increase in the artist's later abstract work. Here, we see a punctuated ordering of space. Sharp branches cut out negative shapes of winter sky.

R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter; etcher; and draftsman. Rembrandt's prolific output comprises oil paintings of historical and religious subjects together with group and self- portraits. His emotive etchings and pen and ink drawings (see also p. 174) are great resources for artists learning to understand the potential of these media.


Pen and ink lines describing foliage also tell

us the directions of sunlight and wind. An arc crossing the bottom of the drawing from one side to the other supports the scene and separates us from the landscape beyond. Compare Rembrandt's arc to that of Mondrian's. and note the similar treatment of low horizons in both works emphasizing the height and dominance of trees.

Cottage Among Trees 1648-50 63/4 x121/8in ( I 7 I x 308 mm) R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN





Atmosphere Here we see how shapes of negative space are as important as the physical subject they enclose (see pp.58-59). Mondrian has again lightly dragged his chalk on its side to evoke a wet depth of atmosphere. These passive gray marks contrast with the assertive tension of the tree.

Dutch Pure abstract painter preoccupied w i t h line and plane relationships. W i t h increasing austerity, Mondrian banished t h e subject from his drawings, in his later w o r k he also banished space, composing visual h a r m o n i e s using only straight lines a n d flat planes o f black, w h i t e , gray, o r p r i m a r y color.

Winter ground Short vertical marks along thebottomof this drawing reveal the length oftheblackchalk Mondrian used. Rubbed onitsside,itroughly blocks in the ground. Thecrudeeconomy of line is all we need tofeelthecold, wet, unwelcoming quality ofthiswinterearth.

Branches and trunk Lines shaping the branches of the tree are built up in layers. To make the trunk more dense, the artist has rubbed and smudged preliminary marks with his fingers before firmly overdrawing with new lines. Solid black lines are achieved by pressing the chalk hard. When used lightly, it shows the texture of the paper. Tree: Study for the Grey 1911 23 x 335/8 in ( 5 8 4 x 8 5 5 m m ) Tree




Graphite and Erasers

This drawing illustrates a range of achieved with graphite pencils of different grades.


Modern pencils are graded from 9H (hard and pale) to 9B (black and soft). Graphiteclay sticks are also available, together with a powder form. All possess a natural sheen and are erasable to a varying degree. Graphite drawings smudge easily, so fixative, a form of varnish, can be used to hold a drawn surface in place. It is applied as a fine mist from an aerosol can, or from a bottle using a diffuser. For the beginner, ordinary hairspray is an effective and cheaper alternative.

(to write), is a soft and brittle carbon. It was first mined in Cumbria, England, in 1 5 6 4 , and was initially used in small, pure pieces bound in lengths of string. Pencils as we know them—with their slender wood casing and "lead" of graphite—were invented in France in 1794 by Nicolas-Jaques Conte. He discovered that milled graphite mixed with clay and water, press-molded, and baked to a high temperature produces a harder and paler medium than graphite alone.

3B pencil A range of mark and textures can be achieved with a 3B pencil when you vary its pressure, speed, and direction, as this detail shows.

Here is a selection of 14 items to illustrate a basic range of pencils, graphite sticks, sharpeners, erasers, and fixative.
1. AND 2. HB AND 3B PENCILS: It is unnecessary to possess every grade of pencil. HB, the central and most common grade, is perfect for making delicate lines. 3B gives a blacker tone. A great variety of effects can be achieved with just these two. 3. WATER-SOLUBLE PENCIL Effective for atmospheric drawing, but be aware of how watery tones can dull the impact of the line. 4. AND 5. MECHANICAL PENCIL Thick or fine leads are made in a range of grades. They are particularly useful because they do not require a sharpener 6. ROUND SOLID GRAPHITE PENCIL: Excellent for large-scale drawing, producing thick bold lines. A range of grades can be honed with a craft knife or sharpener 7. THICK GRAPHITE STICK: For large-scale drawing. Graded soft, medium, and hard. It crushes to produce graphite powder 8. SQUARE GRAPHITE STICK: Useful for making broad, sweeping marks in large-scale drawing. If worn and rounded, the stick can be snapped into pieces to regain the sharp, square end. 9. CRAFT KNIFE AND BLADES: Handles are sold in two sizes to fit large or small blades, and blades are sold in a range of shapes. Perfect for sharpening pencils to a long point, to cut lines in paper or to remove areas. 10. PENCIL SHARPENER: Makes a uniform point. Keep one in your pocket for drawing outside the studio, together with an envelope for shavings.

HB and 5B Layers of tone have been built up withHBand5Bpencils. Softer pencils require less pressure to make a mark, revealing the texture of the paper surface. It is important to keep the point of the pencil sharp with either a craft knife or a sharpener.


Erasers can be used t o blend and s o f t e n lines, o r t o r e m o v e altogether. Fixative them prevents


s m u d g i n g a n d s e c u r e s lines.

Using fixative You can use fixative while drawing to hold the definition of lines you wish to gently fade but not remove entirely, for which you would use an eraser.

11. P L A S T I C E R A S E R : Avoid cheap colored erasers that may stain drawings with grease and dye. White brands are available in soft and hard versions.



W a r m it in your hand before use. It is excellent for removing powdery materials, and for making crisp sweeps of light across a delicate pencil drawing

13. D I F F U S E R : Helleborus corsicus (Corsican hellebore) fixative, or to spray mists of ink.



Cropping and Composition
M A N Y STUDENTS WILL START a d r a w i n g i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e

that its skin nearly touches the boundary. The meaning of the same drawing changes simply by its relationship to the space it occupies. The size of any subject, its placement on the page, the size of the page, and its overall proportion are all discrete and essential aspects of successful picture-making. Before you begin to draw, think carefully about where to place your subject. Are you are happy with your paper? If not, change it; add more, take some away, or turn it around. Do not just accept what you are given, adapt it to what you need.

paper. Focused on the shape and detail of their subject, they remain happily unaware that there is, or should be, any relationship between what they are drawing and the surface they are drawing it on. The paper is only paper, and the troublesome subject floats somewhere in the expanse of it. However, a single fig drawn in the middle of a large, empty square of paper gives quite a different impression from the same fig drawn on such an intimately small square


A Single Fig

"The size, shape, and orientation of the paper are so integral to the composition that they determine the impact and meaning of the drawing."

running corner t o corner. Space as the subject Inallpictures. its illumination. and lines describing shadows cast by the fruit .57 THE VIEWFINDER T h e s e pencil drawings o f figs d e m o n s t r a t e different crops and compositions. bottom-left t o top-right. Here the left fig is attached to. its stem and shadow framing a white center.O u r focus is on the white cloth supporting the figs. When subjects touch two or more edges. they establish a tension and unity with the paper. spaces between things are as important as the things themselves. Touching the edge When the subject o f a drawing touches one edge of the paper it attaches t o it visually. This drawing hasbeencropped to emphasize space between thefruit. t h e n m o v e t h e c a r d t o e x p l o r e different views. a device to help you decide what t o draw. CROPPING AND COMPOSITION Off-center and diagonal Here I held my viewfinder so the fig appeared upper-left in the space. and therefore apparently suspended from. The angle of the fruit together with dark shadow (top left) and bright light(bottom right) suggest a diagonal division across the whole drawing. the uppermost edge of the drawing. U s e it as a starting point. A card with a small rectangle cut out o f it makes a useful viewfinder C l o s e o n e e y e t o look through the hole. as also shown here.

position. But how often do we look at the air between things. It helps to start at the center and map outward. shapes of air cut out and defined by the physicality of our environment? When we look into the branches of a tree. and engaging. Viewers appreciating a finished image may not see shapes of space. but if the artist does. their subject and composition will become more real. an eraser. remember to draw only space. Remember that plants do move! Therefore it is best to complete your drawing in one sitting if possible. The drawing opposite is of the uppermost leaves of a potted fig tree. erasing and adjusting lines until itlooked right. Negative space is the simple key to getting positive shape right. third. you will need a similar large-leaved plant.58 PLANTS AND GARDENS Negative Space UNCONSCIOUSLY WE ASSESS spatial relationships all the time to guide ourselves through the world. which is shown in the three steps below. rather than what you see in front of you. and so on. this ensures a consistent view. Unfamiliar shapes of negative space reveal the real shape of a positive subject. In following this class. then added a second shape. and a role to play. WHERE TO START Arrange your plant and paper so you can look back and forth by barely moving your head. dynamic. Looking at negative space overrides the problem of drawing what you know. not leaves. tone. Draw a complete shape Map outward from the center Erase and adjust lines until correct . unified. and a fresh page in your drawing book. Follow these from left to right and see how I began with one complete shape between two parts of a leaf. It is an astonishingly simple device that many artists use and I strongly recommend. fourth. do we see myriad distinct and unique shapes of daylight or do we just see branches? Why as artists should we look at the air? Every space in a picture has a shape. a sharp H B pencil. In your own version. a foundation stone in picture-making.The box opposite isolates an area.


Here I drew only spaces, adding one to another until the leaves were revealed. Besides looking at negative space, there are two other useful things to do when a drawing feels wrong but you cannot see why: look at it in a mirror or turn it upside down. errors and suggest changes.

Spaces between leaves

Either view will


Fig Tree
WALKING IN THE ALPUJARRAS in A n d a l u c i a ,

Spain, I drew a bare fig tree clinging to the wall of an almond grove; a perfect subject for seeing negative space. I marked its essential frame of large branches first, frequently erasing lines and changing my mind until the balance felt right.

S a l v i a , RIBES, CLEMATIS, Allium, Passiflora, and Acanthus

Summer Flowers


drawn with an H pencil by observing the

negative spaces between the stems, petals, and leaves. I arranged the flowers on a sheet of paper in a cool r o o m and rapidly sketched a composition. Then I put them in water, taking the stems out one at a time to draw.


gathering less distinct information on the way. Compare changes of pace and focus here to the flatter finish of Summer Flowers (see pp. We never see everything at once. they emulate our experience of seeing. If an artist changes the pace of their line and focus of their attention.Acanthus Spinosus As we LOOK AROUND. interfolding points of detail with areas of loose suggestion. our eyes travel and adjust from one point of focus to another. Excessive detail leaves no space for the eye to rest or imagination to wander. 62-63). .


Among the drawings of this chapter we look from 17th-century ecclesiastical calm. and sound. and architects of ancient Greece who first pursued the formula for "divine proportion. with gray and brown watercolor wash. from political commentary to musical abstraction. film-set design. and from West Facade of the Church of St Augustin. add and subtract ideas. each VICTOR BALTARD . architects. the device that has since governed most of our picture-making (sec pp. they have the Golden Section.Architecture I N THE CONTEMPORARY PRACTICES of architecture." reflecting the eye's love of unity in difference. It was the mathematicians. to 20th-century film fantasy. Through the animation of the screen. to help them create new form. of the west facade of St Augustin. balance. Besides sketches of first thoughts and polished drawings of the finished look for clients. was preserved into the Renaissance where it became a foundation stone for thinking and creativity From 15thcentury Italy. composers. Baltard designed the Church of St. drawing plans around themselves within a program as opposed to on a flat sheet of paper. Yet the pursuit of divine proportion and harmony remains. mass. Augustin. Paris 1871-74 the child's view to the infinity of the vanishing point. Since the first flowering of Modernism in the early 20th century. coupled with the importance of exercizing your imagination. which can be clearly seen in ancient Greek architecture.This is a pencil drawing. and writers have been breaking away from traditional forms of representation to seek new expressions of shape. Computer programs allow the virtual drawing of ideas. and computer game imaging.The church is still in use today. architects and designers can imaginatively "climb inside" three-dimensional space and. and in the 19th century it was given the name the Golden Section. which was the first church in the capital to be built entirely of metal and then clad in stone. At the core of their practice. It is the focus of practical class in this chapter. invaluable to understand and apply when you choose. European conventions of pictorial perspective have lost their monopoly on seeing. It was also during the Renaissance that the architect Brunelleschi invented linear perspective. time. designers. they also have a diagrammatic language for communicating plans to builders. fine artists. Perhaps in the sheer planes of some of our greatest modern buildings it is finding its clearest expression. made by the architect himself. space. philosophers. Linear perspective is a marvelous device. Since Picasso and Braque's revolution of Cubism in around 1907. Architects have been fine-tuning their specialized branch of drawing for centuries. VICTOR BALTARD French architect employed by the city of Paris. filmmakers. 74-75). the formula for perfection spread through Europe. we find the most recent steps in the evolution of graphic language. once there. This harmony.

and balance. relative levels. Finished surface On the left the finished surface of the building is given depth and emphasis by immaculate vertical and horizontal brush strokes of shadow. marks the end of a long journey from the first few marks the architect made on a sheet of paper. A student of Wren's. Hampton Court Palace. and later an assistant to Vanbrugh. Hawksmoor established his reputation with university and church architecture including All Souls College. Three aspects This subtle and sophisticated drawing made in pen and wash displays three distinct aspects of Hawksmoor's baptistry. testing gravity to calculate the inverted shapes of domes. Cut-away interior On the right a section cut through the center of the building reveals material thicknesses. We see the modeled detail of Corinthian columns. Gaudi's fluid architecture grew up through many kinds of drawing. and Castle Howard. and labor. St Paul's Baptistry c. pilasters. Together they explain how interior structure and space define exterior form and shape. Pillars and floor At the base of the drawing a compass-drawn plan tilted downward through 90 degrees illustrates the arrangement of pillars around a central circular floor. Below it. Oxford. Hawksmoor's drawing is both a plan and an evocation. Architects draw for many reasons: to visualize ideas. structure. and ultimately to show builders what to do. describe a finished look to a client. embodying a massive investment of ideas. The photograph opposite shows his studio hung with metal pendulums. Blenheim Palace. materials.68 ARCHITECTURE Master Builders EVERY NEW BUILDING. he also worked on St Paul's Cathedral. 1711-12 NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR . and six London churches. Drawings underpin every great human-made structure like hidden linear ghosts at their core. Lines define structure while washes suggest light and atmosphere. and an inscribed entablature. calculate function. densely layered lines in mists of color weave the presence of the expected building into shape. evoke presence. and the shapes of interior domes and apses. NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR One of Britain's "three great" Baroque architects (along with Sir Christopher Wren and Sir John Vanbrugh). a three-dimensional drawing made with wires and weights.

light. To the right isawatercolordrawing thought to havebeenmade over a photograph ofthemodelabove. and his love of music. Gaudi's cathedral in Barcelona. Guell Crypt of its at the Time Construction c. churches. The Art Nouveau movement. This sculptural drawingenvisionsthe finished crypt glowingandethereal as if caught in thelightof red morning sun. Gaudi air than on paper. unique organic manipulation of high shapes. 1900 ANTONIO GAUDI ANTONIO GAUDI Visionary Catalan architect. Wire and watercolor three-dimensional preferred to calculate Above is a drawing form in the made withlinkedwires and weights.69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt c. embellishment. and apartment homes are distinguished by their Their and Flowering curves of stone or concrete are often encrusted with Gaudi was inspired by medieval and oriental art. 1910 24x181/4( 6 1 0 x 4 7 5mm) A N T O N I O GAUDI .

Visual rhythms In the lower half of this drawing architectural language has broken loose: escaped and transformed into an image of rebellious pleasure. Floor space appears divided by discernible walls. flat boards. and the spaces between his windows and turrets are the visual equivalent of pauses in h i s m u s i c c o m p o s i t i o n s for p i a n o (see also Bussotti. before cascading into a riot of line and sound below. Floor plan This drawing has been made with a rapidograph. while the composer Erik Satie has made an enclosure of quiet order and grace. and rooms. theater sets.70 ARCHITECTURE The Order of Sound B O T H OF THESE VISIONARY DRAWINGS o c c u p y a s l e n d e r . a refillable pen that feeds a constant supply of ink through a fine tubular nib. p. such a rapport in both of these drawings. and dotted lines. and exhibitions of his drawings. Libeskind begins quietly in the upper space of his drawing. Arctic Flowers 1980 DANIEL LIBESKIND .223). Satie draws quietly throughout. Both men used rulers and pens to carefully and slowly construct their compositions. short curved poles. Across the top and center right of the image w e perceive an almost recognizable architectural plan. There has always DANIEL LIBESKIND A Polish American architect of international acclaim. upright pictorial space. Libeskind studied music before transferring to architecture. corridors. been a natural affinity between the visual rhythms of pictures and the audible rhythms of music. Libeskind's numerous commissions include concert halls and museums. and arched dotted lines depict the radius of doors. He also produces urban and landscape designs. We can see. He also contributed to plans for the rebuilding of the World Trade Center site in New York. The architect and musician Daniel Libeskind has drawn a stampeding cacophany of airborne architectural detail. We can imagine how a musician might interpret this drawing by looking at the abstract visual rhythms of masses composed of long straight poles. installations. Contemporary musicians commonly collaborate with artists by interpreting images as sound. and in a sense hear.

H e p e r f o r m e d in cabarets. Satie collaborated w i t h hisfriends J e a n C o c t e a u a n d P i c a s s o . theater. They definespaceand pictorial balance. 1 8 9 3 77/8 x 51/2 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 4 0 mm) ERIK SATIE . Onpp. o f which he was the sole m e m b e r Parcel paper Satie has drawn this fantasy hotel using a ruler. dressed eccentrically. a conventional dip or fountain pen. andfouredges of the paper tothecompositionand impact animage.Edges are how are of orientation.narrowshape of its paper. Hotel de la Suzonnieres c. a n d ballet. effectively additional lines in a work. lived a l o n e . minimalist s c o r e s scandalized a u d i e n c e s with o r c h e s t r a t i o n s f o r t h e foghorn and typewriter.ERIK SATIE F r e n c h pianist and c o m p o s e r for t h e piano.H i s witty. and founded his o w n church.56—57 we discussed important the shape. the perimeter Composition Look how well this drawingfitsand resonates with the upright. Compare the even and and the shape wall to the elegantly stylized order of the many windows of arrangement of details and the shape of the wall in Babur's Garden of Fidelity on p. Eastern influence The upright image Eastern is reminiscent and medieval of Middle pictorial space and subject of this European drawing.50. and ink on a fragment folded brown paper—a of everyday happened material of scrap that to be at hand.

enter the long-shadowed architecture of imaginary worlds. This shift makes the cenotaph appear three-dimensional.72 ARCHITECTURE T H E S E T H R E E HIGHLY DETAILED DRAWINGS Future Fictions invite us to soaring above normal life. and dramatic lighting.The lower-left section of the building appears relatively pale against a darker sky. we find other Utopian visions Paul Nobles epic drawing summons an imperfect and disturbing township where ruin and activity are equal and strange. His celebrated imaginary buildings are characterized by pyramids. ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE French architectural theorist. made in 1926. Art director Erich Kettlehut's vertiginous design for the city of a slavelike populace had a future influence on movies such as Blade Runner. We glide over exquisitely drawn wastelands of damage and abandonment. and taught at t h e A c a d e m i e d'Architecture. cylinders. Boullee's monolithic apparition was drawn as a monument to Sir Isaac Newton. Among preparations for Fritz Langs film Metropolis. arched vaults. spheres. Within it. the ominous globe exists only as a series of drawings. experiencing a fascinating conflict between curiosity and desolation.96. Newton's Cenotaph 1784 153/4 x 25 in ( 4 0 2 x 635 m m ) ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE . This is the work of an architectural theoretician. Light illusions This pen-and-wash drawing shows a subtle application of the principles of illumination demonstrated with an egg on p. antlike mortals might have speculated upon the universe. painter. Boullee lived in Paris. and the reverse is true on the right. and draftsman.

and morality o f an invented place called His satires exhibited w o r l d w i d e .m a k e r In t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f Metropolis. intensely detailed graphite drawings explaining and questioning t h e geography. 1926 ERICH KETTLEHUT PAUL N O B L E British c o n t e m p o r a r y artist who creates m o n u m e n t a l . Its sheerscaleengulfs the viewer and demands based time and patience to on letters and in some beread. and are Graphite shapes Nobson Central isoneof a series of very large graphite drawings of the spoil and detritus of Nobson Newtown. Nobson political visions of humanity Newtown.Building shapes are works can be read as text. architecture. and m o d e l . mythology. Kettlehut drew using a fine and relatively dry brush dipped in black. used forced perspective camera t e c h n i q u e s t o amplify t h e m a g n i t u d e o f buildings in relation t o human characters. and white ink on brown-gray paper. FUTURE FICTIONS Brush and ink This is a dramatic drawing from a film that shaped the history of world cinema. Fritz Lang's Metropolis c.73 ERICH KETTLEHUT Influential film a r t director. draftsman.a r t director O t t o Hunte. Working on toned paper such as this gives an artist greater scope for dramatic lighting effects than if they work on white paper. Nobson Central 9 ft 1 0 in x 1 3 f t 2 in (3 x 4 m ) PAUL N O B L E 1998-99 . Kettlehut and his c o . together with c i n e m a t o g r a p h e r Karl Freund. gray.

I contribute the child's perspective. Invented by Italian artist and architect Brunelleschi in 1413 (late in the history of art). See how the thread corresponds to each converging line. Here Leonardo provides a superb example of a single vanishing point. and age eight. In his notebooks. and those of Naive artists and children.74 ARCHITECTURE Pathways of Sight LINEAR PERSPECTIVE (also called vanishing-point perspective) is a simple device for calculating the relative size of things in pictorial space. scientists. Note how architectural features conform to lines and how human figures diminish in size toward thevanishingpoint. It is also distinguished from aerial perspective (see pp. 206-07). LEONARDO DA VINCI One of the greatest artists. and inventions— essential reading for inquiring minds. this perspective is often an imagined bird's-eye view in which details are mapped according to logic and importance rather than how they might appear in real life. Piranesi an example of two. Single-point perspective Tie a thread to a pin. Leonardo recorded constant streams of ideas. Study of Perspective Adoration of the for the Magi 1481 61/2 x111/2in (165 x 290 mm) LEONARDO DA VINCI . and thinkers ever to have lived. but is most easily seen and understood in pictures of buildings and interiors. It can be applied to any subject. All forms of perspective are of equal value. observations. inventors. found at the center of all converging lines. We use it to structure illusions of depth. Sometimes shared with Naive artists. Pull the thread taut and rotate it slowly above the drawing. linear perspective is distinct from more ancient systems practiced in the East. Press the pin into Leonardo's vanishing point.

a points in logical narrative of memories. architect. at the top of each lateral column base. Scale Our farmhouse my experience was in the woods. Children are uninhibited and problems with one element being obscured by another rarely arise. including all they recall about the subject. Two-point perspective Sunlight through this colonnade a great example of two-point perspective. Note the rather large rabbits and pheasants the hills. Mark these points with your pin and follow the converging lines of the drawing by rotating your thread. 1740 5 1 / 2 x 83/8 in (141 x 212 mm) G I O V A N N I B A T T I S T A PIRANESI points are located on either side of the drawing. which I saw from home every day. and designer Piranesi's prolific architectural drawings. and theoretical writing strongly influenced neoclassicism. . visionary and practical understanding of ancient Rome. It shows how children usually map large scenes in flat layers one above the other. This drawing Young children typically maps ignore on and understanding of the nearby village.SARAH SIMBLET I made this drawing (at age 8) in response to a local bookstore's request for children to draw their village. Breamore Village. New Forest. issues of scale when making room for important their story. Lightly marked illuminates vanishing Two Courtyards c. England 1980 9 x 16 in (228 x 405 mm) S A R A H SIMBLET GIOVANNI BATTISTA PIRANESI Italian artist.

draw a horizon line across your paper Mark a spot on the horizon line.) . Leonardo began with a grid of many lines within which he invented his scene. this is your vanishing point. Erase the dotted construction lines. then follow the ten steps below. Surround the vanishing point with a small rectangle. 2 3 corners must each touch a dotted line. This is where we will begin. Extend each dotted line to the edge of your drawing. Study these pages first before embarking on this lesson. Next. DRAWING BOXES 1 Using a ruler and a sharp HB pencil. Piranesi planned his drawing with only the essential lines needed. Note that if you place large structures in the foreground and smaller ones closer to your vanishing point. Each line should pass through one corner of the rectangle. This ensures that the second rectangle aligns with the shape and 4 Draw four short lines to connect the four corners of the two rectangles.76 ARCHITECTURE Single-Point Perspective MASTERING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE i s e a s i e r t h a n y o u m a y First read through.98 for an important note on oscillation. using a sharp HB pencil and ruler. You have completed your first box. Draw four dotted lines radiating out from the vanishing point. you will amplify the illusion of distance. discovering the image as it progressed. imagine. try composing your own space. (See p. This lesson shows you how to make a simple illusion of space defined by two boxes and three flat boards. On the previous page we looked at its essential mechanism through drawings by Leonardo and Piranesi. Draw each step over the preceding one to build up a single image. In contrast. corresponding to a single vanishing point.

and erase the dotted lines.77 SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE 5 Draw a new rectangle. the closer it will appear to the viewer. draw four dotted lines radiating from your vanishing point Pass these through each comer of the new rectangle. N e x t draw a slanting line to mark the height of the first flat board. Connect this to the vanishing point— again. larger rectangle.willhelptomake them appear more solid. 6 As in step 2. Note that this does not surround the vanishing point In the future. The four comers must each touch a dotted line to be sureitaligns with the first. you can place rectangles anywhere youwishin relation to a vanishing point. with two dotted lines. 9 Use dotted lines connecting the slanting linetothe vanishing point to locate the top. 1 0 Erase all ofthedottedlinestoseeyourfinishedboxes Thickeningtheiredges. when inventing your own compositions. draw a second. . Continue the dotted lines out toward the edge of your drawing. bottom. The larger you make your second rectangle. 8 Complete the second box with short lines as in step 4.asIhavedonehere. The board's sides should be parallel. Repeat this to add two more boards to the composition. andfarside of this first board. 7 As in step 3.

" . you will find white adhesive stationery labels are useful for covering errors or changing the direction of your idea. it is interaction that makes the work richer. artist and film director. The m i s t a k e n belief that we s h o u l d k n o w exactly what o u r finished drawings will l o o k like before we m a k e t h e m prevents many people from ever starting. Linear perspective will support y o u by providing a frame in which to b u i l d your picture as it did for Leonardo. it will take you places you never dreamed of. I always start with a script but I don't follow it all the way through to the end. let simple lines suggest a simple space. draw a b o x as shown opposite. If using a fibertip pen as I have done for this drawing. once said: "I never end up with what I set out to do. O n a fresh page in your d r a w i n g b o o k ." imaginary room. then let the space suggest its c o n t e n t s and purpose. A lot more happens when you open yourself up to the work and let yourself act and react to it. p . 7 4 ) . Every work talks In this class. It highlights the importance of having faith in your imagination and trusting your ability to invent. Then follow the three given steps.78 ARCHITECTURE Creating an Imaginary Space T H I S CLASS USES SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE t o c r e a t e a s i m p l e to you and if you listen to it. As David Lynch. w h e t h e r it is a film or a painting. APPLYING PERSPECTIVE An Imagined Scaffold "Enjoy your illusion as you make it and it will become more real.

2 first before adding furniture. 3 Remove the construction lines with an eraser and the room will becomeclearer. . Here. and floors and ceilings also converge and rise o r lower toward the horizon. With some practice.drawthehorizonlineand vanishingpoint. CREATING AN IMAGINARY SPACE 1First. additional lines have established the different surfaces and how they relate to each other.79 DRAWING A SIMPLE ROOM Essentials t o remember: objects and people dimmish in size as they move farther away. and leaning surfaces. This initial space will be transparent and open to change. parallel planes such as walls converge toward the vanishing point. The space has become more solid and real.There is great pleasure tobefoundin spending time inventing interiors.Addanarray of converging lines to provide a "scaffold" for vertical. you will beableto draw more complex objects orpeoplewithin them. horizontal.

Further aspects of three-point perspective are also illustrated opposite. do verticals appear inclined. our eye level is very high and we look down. Search for the application of these perspectives among works by other artists in this book and in galleries. Potentially. The boxes drawn here are seen partly or entirely disassociated from a horizon line drawn across the bottom of the image. That is where we e to find them. or low and we look u p . Here. verticals appear p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the g r o u n d . but they are not confined to this level. I have elaborated on the simple boxes above. They could be drawn on any scale from miniature to monumental. Copying what you see in the work of others will help you to understand what they have done. located anywhere inside or outside the pictorial space. Vanishing points are commonly found on horizon—our eye level. showing y o u h o w to draw curved surfaces and a tiled floor. T h i s is d e m o n s t r a t e d immediately below. o r to the h o r i z o n . they can be placed anywhere inspaceto describe the perspective of flyi c tilted objects. Only when y o u might employ t h r e e . To draw such a view APPLICATION Copy these drawings to see and feel how they work before inventing your own versions. It is important to realize that you can have as many vanishing points as you wish. T h e y d o n o t have to relate to each other. Free vanishing points On paper we can enjoy the freedom of fantastic structural invention without limitations of solid materials or gravity. T h i n k of standing at the top of a skyscraper and imagine h o w its parallel sides would appear to converge below you.80 ARCHITECTURE Further Aspects of Perspective W E ARE ACCUSTOMED TO SEEING our e n v i r o n m e n t from a relatively constant point of view. These elaborations could continue indefinitely across a sheet of paper in pursuit of complex and intricate ideas. From our normal eye level. Elaborations .p o i n t perspective ( s h o w n opposite top). 76-79). a n d this is how we have drawn them so far (see pp.

three vanishing points are evenly spaced along a horizon line. by adding a third point you can achieve a sense of incline.) By comparing this drawing t o Piranesi's example of two-point perspective on p. Iusedthese lines as a guide t o draw the curvature of boxes and panels flying through space.81 FURTHER ASPECTS OF Three-point towers This drawing depicts three-point perspective. Giving curvature.I added horizontal lines t o define the tiles. useful for representing steep views looking up or down tall structures.75. Where thelinescross. PERSPECTIVE Three-point curves Here. they mark the corners of the floor tiles. I then drew three fanned groups of lines connecting each of the three points above to the seven points below. Three-point checkered floor This d bottom floor. tostraightlines can amplify drama in a picture. (Turn the book around to see a view looking up. and therefore tension.Finally. Note that altering the distance between the three dots above will tilt the level of the floor . An array of curved lines (drawn freehand) link the two lateral points. I marked the toplinewith three evenly spaced points and the line with seven. you will see how.Istarted with two parallel lines.


I visited many anatomical theaters and museums. . These walnut-skin ink pen and brush drawings show imagined views of theaters that do not exist but were inspired by places I studied.Theaters RESEARCHING FOR MY P H D . making drawings to resolve questions and express personal responses to the nature and history of anatomy.


Venetian Life sitting point buildings ThisP E N .A N D . . The vanishing of the drawing is directly opposite as we look across The constancy of the bridge and surrounding frames the movement in the life that flows past. the water.I N KDRAWING is one of a series I made while next to the Rialto Bridge in Venice.




and the way in w h i c h the brain reacts Head and Neck Sections of Female Mold for the Sforza Horse to visual stimulus and optical illusions. that test our logic with a sense of mystery. for example—whether. With the sudden onset of mass production. Birds follow instinct to make a nest. In past eras. 1493 117/8c81/4in (300 x 210 m m ) LEONARDO D A V I N Ccreating I . Today. too. making a clear instruction t o his bronzemeaning. and some apes use simple tools. H e has described contour and function at drawings. color. craftsmen had held plans in their memory. from s p o o n s and pens to chairs and bicycles. but humans LEONARDO DA VINCI Inthisbeautiful red chalk Our items all have a purpose—practical or ornamental—and all have a meaning. Previously. these. W e also explore v o l u m e and form in the classes by spinning lines to make vessels. design. for example. sculpted. Artists and actors use the meanings of things to communicate a speculative mechanic. drawings were needed to instruct workers on the factory floor. It was in this era that the blueprint was born. or used on stage hood for a mold t o make theheado f a horse f oas a p r o p — i m b u e d with e n o u g h energy or character can "become" a man. Technical drawing was speedily developed as a meticulous international code of m e a s u r e m e n t and explanation. even more advanced drawings are made on computers.Objects and Instruments T HE THINGS WE INVENT describe our lives. texture. of light in the creation of pictorial illusions. we look at the importance are the only creatures on Earth w h o actually design and create great ranges of things. T h e precision of engineering d r a w i n g s e v o l v e d alongside machine tools. and a wire violin. illuminating snail shells. have often carried great weights of allegorical once. A chair. It is shaped in sections w i t h Artists have for centuries studied and expressed composition. passing them on to others through the act of making. planned. T h e Industrial Revolution c h a n g e d the traditional w a y s in w h i c h objects were designed. to record an observed detail. hooked bars that can be pulled and tied closely form. or to explain and present a finished concept to a client. H e has described a casting through metaphor. Artists also make images of objects that can never exist. drawn. History will be learned from the artifacts w e leave behind. each demanding more of the other as they increased in sophistication. In this chapter. drawing c. are all made bearing the signature of our time and place. fictional realities caster of h o w t o make it andhowit will w o r k . r an equestrian statue. or drawing w e see Leonardo daVinci'sprecision as can be given meaning. and the behavior of light through making still-life paintings and together. C o m m o n items. and made. Engineers and designers of our objects and instruments make drawings for many reasons: to test an idea that is yet to be made.

charcoal. a colored canvas.90 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS Still Life THESE DRAWINGS REVEAL t w o o p p o s i t e m o t i v a t i o n s i n we can. wood-look wallpaper." La Cuitare. steaming with music and conversation. One of the great joys of this movement in art is the musicality of its multipoint view.Braque marshals all the forces of perspective.. "I believe [it] is the most radicalattempttostampout ambiguity and to enforce one readingofthepicture—that of a manmade construction. Opposite. His work is characterized by calm and harmonious still-life compositions. Braques "justly" arranged combination of cut black card. There is a fragile eloquence to these objects as they drift in slow motion past our gaze. Even today GEORGES BRAQUE French painter who as a young man was influenced by the work of the Fauves and of Cezanne.. . Braques image is a Cubist collage. texture. and glass objects of exquisite elegance for only the gentlest of touch and appreciation. T h i s is a designers drawing made to enthuse surface and style in its delicate brushing of china. not to work in harmony. Mucha's drawing glistens with possession. Statue D'Epouvante 1913 2 f t 5 in x 3 ft 5 in (0. Below. Braque established Cubism in partnership with Picasso just before World War I. but to clash in virtual deadlock. He takes us into the bustle of the Paris cafe. silverware.73 x 1 m) GEORGES BRAQUE . not of place but of things. representing still life. and shading. perfect i n their newly made availability. Clashes The art historian Ernst Gombrich said of Cubism. and a journal jacket with words makes this drawing chatter about the moment. still feel this projected moment.

The three plates facing us were drawn with a compass. and also stamps and bank notes. Background color Between the delicate shadows and highlights of these glazed and surfaces ofthebackground metal color of the Mucha we see a large amount paper. Chicago. For ten years Mucha designed theater posters exclusively for the actress Sarah Bernhardt. and New York. Art Nouveau curling motifs of birds.fruit. He designed the Austrian pavilion for the Paris World Fair in 1900. He is best known for posters featuring ethereal women in typical Art Nouveau style. Study for Plate 59 from "Documents Decoratifs" 17x121/4(430 x 310 mm) ALPHONSE MUCHA 1902 . Art Nouveau motifs This is a preliminary study for a subsequent print. Look at the two spoons at toprightand see how has suggested that they are so brilliantly shiny they reflect the background color. Pans. and fish have been outlined using a sharp pencil.ALPHONSE MUCHA Czech graphic artist and painter who worked in Black watercolor washes and lines of white gouache have been added with a fine brush.

Newton's 1672 ISAAC Telescope NEWTON . It was then reflected up inside the tube and. 0 0 0 perfect hemispheres. From the concept of capturing the infinite to the mapping of microscopic sight. into the eyepiece. Their delicate construction is only as valuable as the measurements they make. offering a transparent view. In the graphic work of these two great men of science. and philosopher Newton was President of the Royal Society. each one skillfully rendered with the alarmingly matter-of-fact ease of explaining the commonplace. the law o f gravity. Ink lines Several drawings appear among Newton's letters. A disembodied eye at the top of the drawing indicates where to look. alchemist. and his hand moving across the light. Transparent view Newton's reflecting telescope focused light in a parabolic mirror. mathematician. Look how confidently he draws with ink the sphere of this wooden globe by which his telescope rotates. astronomer. shape the very cause and effect of investigatory thought. and the nature o f light and color. Newton's drawing of his first reflecting telescope is ISAAC N E W T O N English scientist. each reflecting a view of his own world—his window. and Fellow of the University o f C a m b r i d g e . we see drawing Instruments of Vision found among his letters. He counted 1 4 . The power of this drawing reflects the pure passion of discovery. It is a diagrammatic explanation of how to catch and magnify a star in a mirrored tube. Newton used this instrument to calculate the speed required to escape earth's gravity. With dotted lines Newton has drawn his arrangement of elements inside the tube. w h e r e he developed his three greatest theories: the law o f motion. via a second mirror. a tree outside.92 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS by their very nature must gauge or chronicle precision. Hooke's head of a drone fly seen through a microscope may represent the first time man and insect came face to face. drawing is there to pin the moment down.

It is an exhilarating read. universal joint a prototype respirator clock balance. and calculated the theory of combustion. a breathtaking book containing many of his drawings showing some of the first microscopic and telescopic magnifications of our environment Hooke's text and illustrations carry us to the moment of discovery.An experimental scientist who drew many of his discoveries. The Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 1665 ROBERT HOOKE 111/2 x 105/8 in (294 x 270 mm) . Hooke invented the camera diaphragm. ROBERT H O O K E 93 Magnifications This acutely detailed engraved drawing is taken from Hooke's Micrographia (pub. and anchor escarpment. 1665).

this chair p r e s e n t s us with a clever visual contradiction: deeply drawn shadows tell us it must be solid. W i t h h o m e y c o n t r a s t .94 INSTRUMENTS W H E N WE DRAW A COMMON OBJECT like a chair. its character. and place in the world are truly seen. has published several catalogs of her work. craft. Bench Marks W e are left a little c o n f u s e d as to what we s h o u l d do. Van Gogh's tipsy seat is a metaphor for an absent person. Its wobbly gait and squashed s y m m e t r y m u m b l e endless h o m e y tales about the life it has seen. Woodfine exhibits internationally. each drawn with the s a m e unfaltering lines and tones that are between reality and impossibility. From component parts we understand how to put it together and make it stand sensible in space. and winner of the 2004 Jerwood Drawing Prize. A renegade from the p a p e r dolls' h o u s e . and w h e r e the chair b e l o n g s . Chair Cut Out 2002 22'A x 23 in (565 x 585 mm) SARAH WOODFINE . Drawn in more-or-less c o n v e n t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . while the tabs make us see a flat paper cut-out. OBJECTS AND SARAH WOODFINE British contemporary artist graduate of the Royal Academy Schools. it has so m u c h familiar personality that it seems to talk to us. Two-dimensional was made This highly finished drawing ruler using a sharp pencil and on smooth white drawing paper glistening dark drawings are artificial representations of known Woodfine's two-dimensional things balanced in the world. and has drawings in numerous public and private collections. Sarah Woodfines flat cut-out m o d e l plan is a witty and surprising drawing.

His passionate brush and pencil strokes are honest and of also turmoil and growing alarm at the world around him. Van Chair 1890 VINCENT VAN GOGH .hehas marked the full emotion of the subject with a fierce grip of concentration. and Starry Cypress Night. The floor few as engagement with the chair. drawn opposite way of plan. what direct in their he saw and describing his felt. Cornfield and Sunflowers. not is made present in only strokes and is subdued to distract us from flat a meaningful chair. Among van Gogh's best-known canvases are Trees.95 VINCENTVAN GOGH Dutch painter who produced over 800 paintings and 850 drawings in only the last ten year's of his life. inner recording while Fierce strokes This is a portrait of the mechanical drew immediately and almost harshly.

Tape them to the glass.d o w n patterns of light on our retinas. atmosphere. Are you happy LIGHT AND SHADOW with what you see? Does the light enhance the subject? Could you alter and improve it? On pp. On acloudyday. We perceive one to be lighter than theother. Gray squares To further examine changes in tone. Below. but do not appear so. and the proximity of contrasting tones. one blackandone white. less developed than the center. hence our recognition of a cartoon face c o m p o s e d of three lines. The outermost edge of our vision. T h e slightest recognition is instantly matched to our wealth of experience a n d expectation. reads only m o v e m e n t a n d can often m a k e mistakes. The egg's lightest region is seen against a darker background. Adjust the angleofthe protruding part and again stepback. The two tones meet without a division or outline between. a n d our ability to see forms in c l o u d s or fire. Three factors change it: the amount of light it receives. The perceived tone of a black white. Before starting a tonal drawing of any subject. To interpret visual s t i m u l u s . try this experiment. a n d we can be fooled. perhaps. or colored surface is never constant. From across the room both will appear black card and fold and retapeitwith half sticking out. the adjustment of our eyes (in growing accustomed to a level of light). Artists emulate and manipulate this effect in their pictures. We will even see things that d o not exist because minimal information suggests they are likely to be there. Here. are translated into a world of space. We only need small prompts.At one point you will catchenoughlight lighter than the white one. cards the same size. think about its illumination. Through these we can enjoy witnessing our o w n d e c e p t i o n a n d b a f f l e m e n t a n d u n d e r s t a n d certain factors that are very useful in picture-making.102-03 deep shadows cast across shells make their form easier to perceive. form. Run The bottom-left quarter of the egg lightens slightly toward its "edge" when seen against the darker shadow cast on the paper. Card experiment cho can gra on .96 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Light and Illusions SEEING IS MIRACULOUS. a n d are q u i c k to p r o p o s e ideas. The rim of light on the egg is reflected light received from surrounding paper. transmitted to the brain as chains of electrical impulses. The small squares are identical in tone. Here w e look briefly at our perception of light a n d darkness a n d our interpretation of diagrammatic illusions. gray. W e learn to read light and shadow in our environment as indicators of solidity and depth of space. S o m e o n e passes our o p e n door. two identical mid-gray squares are seen against black and paler gray squares. The egg's darkest region is seen against a lighter background.This effect is caused by the contrast of their surroundings. your eye around the circumference of the egg. a n d m o v e m e n t . Below the bottom "edge" of the egg there is a rim of light reflected onto the paper by the underside of the egg. w e turn our head but n o one w a s there. o u r b r a i n s search for n a m e a b l e things. U p s i d e . See how its "edge" smoothly changes from light against dark to dark against light. a lit photograph of an egg shows essential points to observe in tonal drawing.

O b s e r v e h o w each white b a n d appears t h i c k e r t h a n its black c o u n t e r p a r t . T h e r e is n o obligation t o a d d b l o c k s o f t o n e t o a l i n e a r d r a w i n g . If y o u w i s h t o m a k e a t o n a l drawing. respectively. T w o relatively t h i c k parallel lines are m a d e t o b e n d away f r o m each o t h e r as t h e y pass in f r o n t o f an a r r a y o f c o n v e r g i n g f i n e lines ( B ) . B o t h are identical in length. Bending straight lines Linear distance These t w o jugs have b e e n d r a w n w i t h lines o f d i f f e r i n g thicknesses. t h i c k e r l i n e s a p p e a r t o stand forward. In a t o n a l d r a w i n g . S h o r t h o r i z o n t a l lines o f identical length are m a d e t o l o o k d i f f e r e n t by c o n v e r g i n g lines beside t h e m ( C ) . LIGHT AND ILLUSIONS Tonal width T h e s e black a n d w h i t e bands are o f equal thickness o n e i t h e r side o f t h e i r central division. b u t t h e u p r i g h t o n e l o o k s t a l l e r (B). start o u t w i t h one. T h i s fundamental o p p o s i t e is a reason w h y l i n e a r a n d t o n a l d r a w i n g does not a l w a y s c o m b i n e w e l l in t h e s a m e i m a g e . Apparent lengths T h e s e optical illusions s h o w h o w lines o f identical length can b e m a d e t o l o o k quite different f r o m each o t h e r by t h e addition o r association o f o t h e r lines. T w o horizontal lines o f equal length are m a d e t o l o o k longer and shorter. l i g h t e r surfaces s t a n d f o r w a r d w h i l e d a r k e r s u r f a c e s recede. A n u p r i g h t line stands in t h e c e n t e r o f a h o r i z o n t a l line. . T h e jug d r a w n w i t h a t h i n line appears f a r t h e r away t h a n t h e j u g d r a w n w i t h a t h i c k e r line. by d i r e c t e d a r r o w s ( A ) . In this t o n a l image w e read w h i t e as f a t t e r t h a n black. Seven parallel lines are m a d e t o tilt t o w a r d and away f r o m each o t h e r by n u m e r o u s s h o r t strokes crossing t h e m diagonally ( A ) . w h i l e t h i n n e r lines recede. In this linear drawing w e read t h i c k as closer a n d t h i n as f a r t h e r away.p o i n t p e r s p e c t i v e d r a w i n g s w i t h a large n u m b e r o f c o n v e r g i n g rays b e h i n d y o u r horizontals. Y o u m a y e x p e r i e n c e s o m e t h i n g similar h a p p e n i n g w h e n y o u m a k e s i n g l e .97 LINE VERSUS TONE In l i n e a r d r a w i n g s . O f t e ndoingso w i l l s p o i l y o u r w o r k .

It is possible t o r e a d i t t w o ways: as a t r u n c a t e d r e c t a n g u l a r p y r a m i d seen d i r e c t l y f r o m a b o v e . among others. and we learn to read the styles of diverse cultures and periods. Artists can communicate much in few lines and the viewer will do the rest of the work. such as Bridget Riley. their picture could be ambiguous. perfected the acceleration of perspective (see pp. Ancient Greek architects knew parallel upright lines appeared to bend toward each other in the middle. Artists make pictorial illusions when they paint or draw. Some artists use known optical illusions to make art. w e can only look f r o m one t o the o t h e r If an artist is not aware this can happen in their image. are still not agreeably understood. Michelangelo. In the 1960's. Op(tical) artists. it oscillates between t w o possibilities.76. A few suggestive marks will tip the decision one way o r the o t h e r Closing the surface W h e n a t r a n s p a r e n t elliptical o b j e c t has b e e n d r a w n . It is a curious fact that w e can never see both options at once.s i d e d r e c t a n g u l a r t r a y ( b o t h are illustrated far r i g h t ) "The brain is so eager to name a fragment we see that we need only a suggestion to grasp the whole. Today we are bombarded with images but rarely have difficulty reading them. others adjust works to avoid their effects. SEEING TWO OPTIONS Sometimes." . Yet many illusions.116-17) to make painted figures look correct when viewed from below. and so calculated precisely how much to fatten columns to make them appear straight. w h e n drawing the outline o f a three-dimensional form. as s h o w n o n t h e right. o r as a s l o p i n g . C l o s i n g t h e surface o f t h e f o r m seals o u r d e c i s i o n as t o w h i c h w a y it faces. such as t h e dish seen h e r e o n t h e left. it can oscillate b e t w e e n facing t o w a r d o r a w a y f r o m us. including some shown here. w e will find that in terms of the direction it faces.98 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Further Illusions PSYCHOLOGISTS AND PHYSIOLOGISTS have studied optical illusions for decades in pursuit of what they tell us about the brain. made paintings that depended upon the physical sensation of our brain's reaction to known optical illusions. Two ways of seeing T h i s is t h e b o x c r e a t e d in t h e f o u r t h step o n p.

F a m i l i a r i t y in r a n d o m s h a p e s T h e Rorschach test was established by t h e 1 9 t h . — a n d so t h e artist can create m u c h o u t o f an impression w i t h o u t overdescribing. This simple five-line d r a w i n g is o f a C a p u c h i n priest asleep in his pulpit. smoke. b u t w e believe w e see t h e m because e n o u g h f r a g m e n t a r y i n f o r m a t i o n is given f o r o u r brains t o c o n c l u d e t h e y are v e r y likely t h e r e .c e n t u r y Swiss psychologist H e r m a n n Rorschach. This effect can o c c u r naturally w h e n looking at a b r i g h t l y lit w h i t e g r i d such as a w i n d o w f r a m e against t h e night sky. P e r c e i v i n g a w h o l e i m a g e f r o m m i n i m a l lines T h i s is a w i d e l y r e p r o d u c e d visual j o k e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e C a r r a c c i b r o t h e r s . C Escher u s e d this phenomenon t o great effect in his many p o p u l a r d r a w i n g s o f puzzles and impossible buildings. T h e a r t i s t M. 1 6 t h . . FURTHER ILLUSIONS Seeing things that are n o t t h e r e H e r e o n t h e left. Minimal-line j o k e s such as this rely u p o n t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y v i e w e r ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e shapes. w e see t w o overlapping triangles: o n e outlined in black b e n e a t h a n o t h e r in solid w h i t e . S o m e artists use ink blots t o p r o m p t t h e beginning o f an image. e t c . B e l o w is a b r i g h t n e s s c o n t r a s t illusion. C o u n t t h e n u m b e r o f d a r k spots y o u can see. T h e y a r e o f t e n c r e d i t e d w i t h t h e invention o f t h e c o m i c c a r t o o n . W e should r e m e m b e r t h a t o u r brains will always search f o r a p i c t u r e — i n ink blots. O n l y o n closer inspection we realize that t h e s e o b j e c t s are fooling us. Yet still w e try resolve t h e m . T h e t e s t e x p l o r e s o u r n o r m a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o find things w e can n a m e a m o n g r a n d o m shapes.c e n t u r y Italian painters. T h e patient's answers are t h e n diagnosed as a psychological profile. His highly d i s p u t e d and i m p r e c i s e science involves s h o w i n g u n p r e p a r e d p a t i e n t s t e n p a r t i c u l a r ink b l o t s a n d asking t h e m t o i n t e r p r e t w h a t t h e y see. M u c h can b e e x p r e s s e d in o n l y a f e w marks.99 Impossible objects T h e s e clever configurations o f outlines and t o n a l surfaces convince us at a glance that we are seeing a solid three-dimensional triangle and a three-pronged fork. clouds. T h e s e e x a m p l e s illustrate h o w little is n e e d e d t o c o n v e y an image. this is a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f t h e viewer's b r a i n b e i n g willing t o d o a large a m o u n t o f t h e w o r k in d e c i p h e r i n g a p i c t u r e . C o u p l e d w i t h t h e Rorschach b l o t above. N e i t h e r triangle exists.

To make a cylindrical object appear real in our pictorial space. circles change into ellipses.90) takes a different as essentially circular. w e use ellipses to give a sense of perspective. COMMON ERRORS W h e n drawing cylindrical objects in perspective. as if the table surface slopes upward beneath the vessel. Be aware. Cover a sheet of paper with spinning. . you will achieve steadiness with practice. Cubism. The first common error is to draw two pointed ellipses. for example plates or bowls on a table. even if y o u r hand w o b b l e s a little at first. hesitant one that has edged its w a y nervously around the vessel's rim. Watch the tip of your pen and see it draw an ellipse in the air Keep this movement going while gently lowering the pen onto the paper like the needle of a record player closing on the disc (only it is your lowering hand that spins. like a disposable plastic cup that has been crushed in your hand. while its upper rim remains level. (see p. though. WHERE TO START In the air above a spacious sheet of scrap paper. not the paper!) As the pen touches down. I have exaggerated this error here. suggesting that the vessel is lopsided. However. smoothly. Don't worry if it is uneven— just try again. Ellipse are best d r a w n quickly. third common error is to draw upper and lover ellipses with different-sized apertures. since this is h o w w e experience them in e v e r y d a y use. keep it spinning. springlike forms like those I have drawn below. w h e n seen at an angle. spin your hand in a relaxed circle. for example. there are three common errors people stumble upon. that this is o n l y o n e w a y view. How to Draw Ellipses of seeing. A wobbling but confident ellipse will still be more convincing than a slow. describing many sides of an object simultaneously. The second common error is to tilt the upper and lower ellipses at different angles. and these narrow or widen depending on the height of our view. giving the cylinder four corners. such as bowls and cups. I have drawn these for you here. a n d in o n e bold stroke.100 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS W E VISUALIZE CYLINDRICAL VESSELS.

thereby hiding lines that show the other sides. Draw quickly. you can start to control your spinning ellipse to make a vessel. Seeing Through Allow lines to travel around each vessel as if it were transparent. you can make it solid by building up highlights and tones on visible surfaces. working from top to bottom. HOW TO DRAW E L L I P S E S A Single Vessel One Inside Another Grouped Together Finding Shape and Volume Draw an imagined vessel in one continuous spinning line. enlarging and diminishing the ellipse to determine the overall shape and volume. Create a Solid Surface Once you have drawn the shape and volume of each form. . Altering the pressure—and therefore tone—of the line as it spins gives the impression of light shining on one side.101 DRAWING VESSELS Once you have mastered drawing free-hand springs.

Draw the largest and most distinct areas of light and darkness first. Gradually hone your drawing.22-23). and solid objects are all of equal importance. it will inhibit your perception of tone. Relaxing your eyes out of focus as you draw will help to dissolve the distraction of detail.102 INSTRUMENTS Tonality W H E N MAKING A TONAL DRAWING. leaving detail until last. or you can begin with a mid-gray ground and model light out of darkness (see opposite bottom). In the finished drawing there should be few. It is important to place them on the correct side so as to draw comfortably (see pp. OBJECTS AND Start by arranging a choice of shells on a sheet of paper to your left if you are right-handed (or vice versa). beams of light. Remember that shadows. two opposite methods of achieving the same result. t h e r e a r e p r i n c i p a l l y Dramatic lighting emphasizes texture and contour. and strong contrasts are easier to draw. Illuminate them with a gooseneck lamp placed very close and directed away from your eyes. You can begin with outlines and build slowly from light to dark (see opposite top). simply shapes and subtleties of light and dark meeting each other with no divisions in between. if light shines in them. if any. LIGHT TO DARK DARK TO LIGHT . outlines. It maximizes the range of tones between black and white. making complicated or subtle surfaces easier to see and understand.

boldly 2 3 Keeping your eyes out of focus. until you are happy frame. and edges definingthespacialrelationships between are important aspects of your composition them. Fll in broad areas first and leave all detail until last. . DARK TO LIGHT (TONE TO TONE) 1 Using the flattened tip of an HB pencil. Use your pencil to develop these in relation to the areas of light. Use quick. Erase and make changes to roughly place the shells inside your with your composition. Continue working between light and dark to refine the drawing. draw a rectangle. pale lines with equal importance. Let your eyes go out of focus while looking gently layer marks to create an even tone at your subject and paper: Draw the most ofmid-graywithin a rectangle. Avoid a rough significant areas of light in your gray rectangle with texture and do not press the graphite hardwhite plastic eraser Ignore all detail and draw a into thepaperor you will not be able to erase it. shape.103 LIGHT TO DARK (LINE TO TONE) TONALITY 1 Using a sharp HB pencil. Remember that its size.56-57). Honetheshapesand angles of the shells. 2 3 Gentlydissolveoutlines so that areas oflightanddark meet without a line between them. Draw in the details last of all. with broad sweeps of the eraser. Treat positive form and negative space (see pp. look at the main areas of darkness. Relaxing your eyes out of focus will help to eliminate distracting details. loose.

When drawing anything viewed from one side on paper. try drawing it with a pen on paper Use bold. Third. The second is that after achieving this simple example. continuous lines. Place the instrument on a plain surface and illuminate it with a desk lamp to add the delicate dimension of shadows. There are essentially three lessons to be learned. . and on p. This class uses thin-gauge wire to create a threedimensional violin. Seeing through a wire drawing of a known object such as a violin gives us a visual and tactile understanding of all its sides and shapes at once. you can create your own more ambitious works. and on p. our image is stronger if we understand and can visualize what is happening on the other side too.104 OBJECTS AND I N S T R U M E N T S Drawing with Wire DRAWINGS DO NOT HAVE to be two-dimensional. The first is that figurative and abstract drawings can be made in space.69 we see how the architect Antonio Gaudi drew proposed domes using suspended wires and weights. and physical relationships between them. PEN LINES Once you have created your three-dimensional violin (opposite). On p. smooth.220 Mamoru Abe draws with forged steel rods. 19 Picasso draws with a pen-light for the camera. 176 the British artists Noble and Webster draw with domestic refuse in a beam of light. three-dimensional drawings teach us about the totality of forms in space. On p. They can also be made in space.

and pinch and bend it to shape the base of the instrument Repeat this process to make the identical upper side of the instrument. thin wire will make a smaller drawing. I started with the scroll at the top and fixed the four component wires with two drawings of tuning pegs. I used garden wire and cut it carefully with pruners. 1 Decide how big to draw your violin relative to the gauge of your wire. Cut a length. 4 . but thin enough to be easily manipulated inyourfingers Here. Here. These will hold the sides apart and help to keep the form in shape. and thick wire a larger one. brace the two ends of the violin with a length of wire along the back. Once you have completed the body. Then begin to define its uppermost surface with Scurves and the bridge. begin to shape the curvature of the fingerboard.105 SETTING UP DRAWING WITH WIRE Follow these steps to draw a three-dimensional violin Choose a gauge of wire sturdy enough to hold the shape ofyourfinished drawing. 2 3 If needed. Join the two sides together with four short pieces of wire.

Using found materials. . they invented new anthropological finds—objects that reflected the distant past and their immediate future. some of which are shown here.Artifacts and Fictions IN 1993 I WORKED with a group of schoolchildren who were responding to the astonishing objects in the collection of the Pitt Rivers Museum. I had the privilege of drawing their inventions. England. Oxford.



The body remains at the core of over the initially white lines. Drawings were usually made from the male nude to avoid offending the church. Renaissance artists studying anatomy from dissection clinically trained and specialized as a medical illustrator. giving physical foundation undulating land. and anatomical and erotic art. a n d w e d r a w o u r s e l v e s to a s s e r t o u r e x i s t e n c e . She the body is still essential. Williams were decades ahead of their medical counterparts. but the study of a controlled. in our privileged and comfortable society. He even believed he had located the soul contours of her form like a cartographer's map of in the pituitary fossa beneath the brain and behind the eyes. These classes are popular around the world. The human body. W e understand every curve and balance of to the theory that the eves are the windows of the soul. In this period. focus has turned to the vulnerability of flesh: how it can be damaged. the Bay Area Models' Guild h o l d s a quarterly life-drawing m a r a t h o n aprinton Kodak transfer paper with green-colored dye added celebrating the great diversity of human proportion. sculptural description of her form. Artists are thought to have b e g u n drawing from the nude during the Italian Renaissance. explaining ranges e/ of materials and techniques and showing diversities of thought and purpose in making. R. and in San could easily be transferred into three dimensions. This chapter addresses issues that are most commonly faced by beginners attending life-drawing classes. R. It gives physical and emotive form to religious narratives. W I L L I A M S technology. while Leonardo opened the body to see and projected onto a woman's body draw the celebratory discover for himself our physical mechanisms. portraiture. while Durer took his research further— A. and because the female was deemed inferior.The Body O UR BODIES MAKE us TANGIBLE. This F finished image was produced as r a n c i s c o . much Western contemporary art. and surgically rebuilt. myths and fables. clothed or nude. During this time. herimpressive presence because we are given such Life drawing no longer dominates the art school curriculum. Michelangelo attended dissections to made this image by light sectioning: fine beams of light perfect his understanding of surface form. 3 x 7 in (300 x 180 . diseased. Artists now explore the interior of the body with new media and Lateral Contour Map of a Full-Term Primipara Produced by Light 1979 A. the junior workshop apprentices posed as part of their duties. Strangely. W e are the only creatures on Earth that can make our own image. from video and X-ray to thermal imaging. artists also tried to define ideal proportions in the body. It also looks at the representation of the b o d y b11y4o n d traditional life drawing. history paintings and other stories. is the most c o m m o n subject in art. Look closely at Renaissance drawings of the female b o d y and you will see that m o s t are actually y o u n g m e n with minor adjustments. WILLIAMS he sought perfection in the infinitesimal measurement of the body and produced four Contemporary photographer volumes of illustrated explanation. Leonardo drew a man within a circle and square.

Muscular dramatic postures reflect the influence of Michelangelo and the Renaissance celebration of the idealized male body. But the meanings of each gesture and the materials and methods by which they Postures and Poses were m a d e contrast greatly. while supporting the weight of their body with the other. filling the page with her presence. Matisse's b l u e n u d e sings with life and c e l e b r a t i o n . Raphael drew delicate tones of black chalk on tinted paper. and Vatican frescos. Three Guards 1500-20 91/4 x143/8in (234 x 365 mm) RAPHAEL . Sculptural frieze This is a preparatory drawing for Raphael's painting of the Resurrection of Christ. RAFFAELLO SANZIO (RAPHAEL) Italian High Renaissance painter: Raphael is best known for his images of the Madonna and Child. By way of contrast. She u n f o l d s and s t r e t c h e s shapely limbs. Raphael's study of fallen m e n leaves no doubt that they are in anguish.110 T H E BODY THESE DISTINCTIVE WORKS show two strikingly different ways of modeling the body on paper. while Matisse used scissors and glue to cut out and paste a flat collage of brilliant color. Here three male nudes are compressed into very shallow pictorial space. and human defeat. Principal figures m i r r o r e a c h other. altar pieces.116-17). so that we read this drawing like a sculptural frieze. we see the e s s e n c e of h e r b e a u t y w i t h o u t a single detail. In a single drawing we see equally o b s e r v e d studies of f o r e s h o r t e n i n g (see pp. T h e y b o t h raise one arm to cup their head in their hand. anatomy. and studied to learn from the works of Michelangelo and Leonardo besides whom he was soon ranked. He trained under Perugino. In this highly s o p h i s t i c a t e d a b s t r a c t i o n .

which might be. Matisse became an artist after studying law.. foundamong many other groups of papercut these works as an elderly man confined to his bed or wheelchair.. a mental soother...or like a good armchair in which to rest from physical fatigue. His calligraphic natural abstractions of form grew brighter. and Islamic art. devoid of troubling Blue Nude 1 1952 413/4 HENRY MATISSE .like an appeasing influence." of is an art of balance. freer. teacher and principal exponent o f Fauvism—a movement established in 1905 in which bold color is the most essential element. lifelong love of brilliant They celebrate the culmination of spectacular and sometimes drawings. fabric. as his w o r k matured. his pattern. printmaker.. serenity. and more energetic Color and form This collage is one of a series of Blue Nudes.sculptor.. Matisse Soothing influence This drawing expresses the achievement of Matisse's personal aim: "What I dream and depressing subject matter.designer writer.111 HENRY MATISSE French painter: draftsman.

velvet d a r k n e s s . If Seurat had added white. or abruptly meeting. Light is given by the paper alone. scratched in seconds. Typically. Opposite. other tones. Using the paper to create light is important for beginners to learn.112 T H E BODY Choreographs T I M E IS A SIGNIFICANT E L E M E N T i n t h e m a k i n g o f a l l d r a w i n g s . Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 1883-84 91/2 x 121/4 in (241 x 312 m m GEORGES SEURAT . form. Tone and light In this black conte drawing. T h e space around h i m chatters with symbols. Here. His drawings are similarly u n i q u e . we c o m p a r e a skillful design that absorbed m u c h time in its making with the quickness of an idea marked instantly. Below. Seurat engaged in lifelong studies of line. turned gray. like small birds attendant on the meditation. reflected. agreeing to coalesce and show us the form of a waiting boy. Seurat evolved a distinctive t e c h n i q u e called p o i n t i l l i s m — i m a g e s literally made from myriad points of color. and color His applied theories still influence painters in their manipulation and rendering of local. stands in counterpoise holding a dark globe and his thoughts in m o m e n t a r y balance. 162) and an eraser to model teeming points of artificial light amid GEORGES SEURAT French painter classically educated in the Ingres school of thought. there are no outlines. and muddied the brilliance of the drawing. Beuys's magician. he used b l a c k c o n t e (see p. in a perfect e x a m p l e . In his f a m o u s paintings of social e n g a g e m e n t . w h o sits propped in the contradictory darkness of a hot summer's day. only tones blending into. and c o m p l e m e n t a r y hues. it is as if the very atoms of air are made visible. it would have mixed with unseen black dust.

and that These aspects of the work convey fractured visibility. Unbroken lines stream from his simultaneously movement. This figure is drawn intuitively. Many of his other symbolic works on paper have been drawn with materials such as honey. and drawings. Beuys gave performances. Our focus joins shoulders. iodine. video art. taught workshops with a cult CHOREOGRAPHS the profound power materials with spiritual or of Free lines This pale pencil drawing is Beuys. He was a shaman who believed in intuition and in the investment of healing force. His The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland UNDATED 113/4 J O S E P H BEUYS x81/4in (297 x 210 mm) . transience. in different positions. and blood. free from the constraint of immaculate form opposite) impetus is irrelevant to the and meaning of this work (as we see in Seurat's drawing representation.113 JOSEPH BEUYS One of the most influential German artists of the 20th century. and made installations. Perfectly modeled rather conventional for Joseph Focus Beuys's hand moved quickly to draw dotted lines flowing downward on either side of the figure.

As here. Achieving international acclaim in mid-life. was perceived as scandalous. Delicate strokes This is one of about 7. flushed skin made ruddy and black with crushed cinders. They whisper and writhe in a brushed and sultry embrace that devours our watching. his w o r k is characterized by deliberate un-finish and powerfully modeled emotion. We are involved not as a shabby voyeur but as a bystander engaged through our recognition of shared joy. But what is stranger to us now is that they were also outraged by his free use of line. Opposite. the women are framed and caressed by long. Paris. Inspired by Michelangelo. THE AUGUSTE RODIN French Romantic sculptor and prolific draftsman employed as an ornamental mason until the age of 42. 125/8x 9 in (320 x 229 mm) AUGUSTE RODIN Two Women 1911 Embracing . In both drawings. and went on to inspire generations of artists.000 drawings shown in rotation at the Musee Rodin. His exquisite flow of paint beyond "outlines. We are asked to gaze u p o n her flesh. sweeping lines— of either purple silk fabric or cool studio air—that imprint and amplify their past and future movements. Rodin employed models to move freely or pose together in his studio. and one of hundreds of rapid studies of nudes. In Rodins work. Free lines Rodin's public audience was understandably shocked by the eroticism of his drawings. its soft. Rodin produced portraits and statues of public and literary figures. he typically drew them with a few delicate strokes of pencil and brushed watercolor." as seen here. Anita Taylor has drawn her protective body hug out of the darkly glistening compression of willow charcoal and the dynamism of her shy but momentous femininity. Our bodies radiate the passion of our thoughts and so become beacons of our frailty and power.114 BODY Passion SUMMONING HUMANITY in a drawing of the nude is a subtle and emotional task. the fierceness of the women's kiss is beautifully matched by the tenderness of his line.

exposure. and gaze. A thinner sheet might have crumpled and torn under such vigorous force of making. professor and Vice Principal of Wimbledon School of Art. scrutiny. Taylor's immense self-portraits explore the relationship between the artist as maker and the artist as model. London. draftsman. the impression of luminosity All and Nothing 1999 67 x447/8in (170 x 1 1 4 cm) ANITA TAYLOR . intimately reflecting upon the emotions and meaning of nudity. Charcoal Taylor has drawn freely with charcoal and an eraser on thick. and rework rich depths of light and tone. Luminosity Layered marks flicker likefirelight as they sculpt the woman's body. textured paper. This order of light below and dark above gives glowing from within. Taylor has drawn. erased and drawn again. leaving her lightest marks at the deepest level of the image and applying darker marks above.I 15 ANITA T A Y L O R Painter. The sturdy surface of the sheet has allowed her to press hard when needed.

We also look at another very interesting branch called accelerated (or anamorphic) perspective. 1 Hold your arm straight. If your arm is not straight. It can also be a little demon in the life room. Rome. How to make and apply these is explained below and opposite. more extreme examples have been made for court entertainment. you will make inconsistent and unrelated comparisons. just making them helps you see. Up close on the scaffold we would witness Michelangelo's subtle application of accelerated perspective. unfathomable angles. for example. In the life class it is the mechanism for ensuring that a drawn figure lies correctly in pictorial space . and measurements do not have to be carried to the paper and slavishly drawn the same size they appear on your pencil. Smaller. elbow. helping us to see more clearly. which is imperceptible from below. Lock your shoulder. or coming forward. the skull in Holbein's The Ambassadors (The National Gallery. Imagine Michelangelo's murals in the Sistine Chapel. MEASURING This is a simple method of making measured comparisons for relating the true size of one part to another This is a tool to assist observation and thinking. patience. It is not complicated. There is no need to mark them all down on paper. This is chiefly a correcting device by which figurative painters and sculptors have for centuries countered the effects of our viewing their work from far below or on the curvature of a vault. and a few measured comparisons are key. 3 Keep your pencil perpendicular Measure and compare at any angle. But if we could take a scaffold and climb up to the work. To avoid its effects ensure you always look flat onto the surface of your page. when beginners prop their board in their lap and look down at too steep an angle. It is not so hard. "Simple measured comparisons reveal surprising truths about proportion. and wrist joints. Close one eye. rather that what we believe we know from experience. The length of exposed pencil is your measurement. or shrivelling at odd. Spend time making comparisons before you draw. Return to this posture every time. with dramatic illusions of figures painted in normal proportion. plummeting.limbs happily receding. Align the top with a point on your subject. persistence.116 T H E BODY Measurement and Foreshortening FORESHORTENING IS AN ASPECT of perspective. elongated as if stretched across the plaster. Move the tip of your thumb down to a second chosen point. without taking off. 2 Hold your pencil upright. Accelerated perspective plays a great role in much art. London). and to draw what we see. to be translated by mirrors or seen from only one point in the room." . we would arrive to find many of the same figures strangely distorted.

Keep t h e b o a r d steady and draw. t a p e s o m e p a p e r t o a board. S o o n t h e b o d y will lie d o w n in space.117 ACCELERATED PERSPECTIVE To discover h o w this w o r k s . FORESHORTENING To f o r e s h o r t e n a figure. P r o p o r t i o n s will only l o o k c o r r e c t f r o m t h e angle at w h i c h y o u make t h e drawing. pleasingly f o r e s h o r t e n e d . Lean t h e t o p e d g e t o w a r d y o u and find a p o s i t i o n w h e r e y o u can c o m f o r t a b l y l o o k d o w n t h e p a p e r at an angle o f a b o u t 4 0 degrees. W e appear t o be looking d o w n o n a w o m a n s t a n d i n g b e n e a t h us. h e r p r o p o r t i o n s will appear correct. See h o w d i f f e r e n t t h e relative heights o f t h e s e shapes are f r o m w h a t w e m i g h t e x p e c t in real life. adjusting a n o n y m o u s shapes. looking d o w n t h e p a p e r at t h e a n g l e at w h i c h I d r e w . belly. MEASUREMENT AND FORESHORTENING Tilt t h e t o p edge o f this b o o k t o w a r d you and look d o w n o n this figure f r o m a b o v e . y o u r hand travels f a r t h e r than y o u expect. C o m p a r e t h e heights o f t h e nose and eye shapes t o t h o s e o f t h e f o r e a r m . L o o k at y o u r m o d e l as if he o r she is a flat series o f shapes o n e o n t o p o f a n o t h e r Measure t h e height and w i d t h o f each shape and c o m p a r e it t o its neighbor. To m a k e f o r m s l o o k c o r r e c t . which feels strange. Stand its b o t t o m edge o n y o u r lap. . T h i s is t h e s a m e d r a w i n g p h o t o g r a p h e d f r o m above. W o r k a r o u n d t h e figure. a n d thighs. y o u must let go o f w h a t y o u k n o w f r o m e x p e r i e n c e a b o u t t h e relative sizes o f b o d y parts and trust y o u r eyes. A t a c e r t a i n angle.

height. Outline To outline a figure. and stance before honing her balance and expression. feeling. To draw this effect. I used a sharp H B pencil and began each drawing by marking her outline. . make the upper body smaller give your model a high waist. work back and forth across the body. THE SEQUENCE OF POSES H e r e the model was asked to move every t w o minutes. her center of balance is normally found in a vertical line beneath her head. To see this. and slightly enlarge her legs and feet. working from her center to her feet and to her head. propelling you to make immediate assessments and trust them. Start each new drawing by lightly marking the model's height with a loose line in ten seconds. because it results in two unrelated sides drifting apart. Layered lines give d e p t h . Be bold and dive into your drawing with c o n f i d e n c e . imagine holding up a plumb line. T h i s q u i c k e x p l o r a t o r y line does not perfectly describe shape but expresses a decision about overall flow of form. Height This pose leans away into space above our eye level. Balance When a model stands upright on both feet.118 BODY Quick Poses DRAWING QUICK POSES l o c k s y o u r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n t o what is most essential. balance. and energy. and height. Leave first thoughts in place. and work over t h e m with further o b s e r v a t i o n s . Avoid drawing up one side and down the other.

This drawing shows how different observations be overlaid to bring a drawing alive. Most of us have a tendency to over-straighten the drawn figure.119 The twist of a model is most easily and expressively captured if it is exaggerated. . The tilt of the pelvis is then counter balanced by the model's shoulders tilting the other way (as seen here). and this should be avoided Twist QUICK POSES A model standing on one leg usually drops the opposite hip. the activity of circular lines and the repetition of limbs suggest movement. Tilt Movement Here.

2 Build your drawing gradually from light to dark. Don't worry about achieving perfect solutions. Begin by drawing lines to encompass the whole hand. feet. Practice by drawing your own hands and feet. starting with the largest. Keep lines open to change and take measurements if they help. Then subdivide each shape so that you w o r k from large to small. general to specific. and a gooseneck lamp casts shadows that clarify planes and depths GESTURES OF THE HAND Curled Fingers 1 Open Palm Start honing the shapes of the dominant planes. and they need not be daunting to draw. but regard these practice studies as ongoing processes of thought and observatio Add details such as nails last if you wish. swiftly marking its essential gesture. It also helps the beginner to progress from drawing outlines to drawing confidently across the surface of the whole form. A mirror increases your range of views. W h e n starting. drawn in relation to each other. especially the lengthwise divisions between them. Group the fingers together as one mass. and ignore all details. This exercise is useful when struggling with proportion. it is important to leave aside all details of the fingers and toes.120 BODY Hands and Feet THERE ARE MANY different ways of approaching h a n d s and THE of form. Draw large shapes and their orientation. These planes. or those of a friend. Do not separate them yet. Focus instead on how planes change direction across the knuckles from one side of the hand or foot to the other. 3 . express structure and gesture far more successfully and easily than ten worried outlines wandering up and down between the fingers and toes.

Try t o express the whole foot and t o encapsulate its entire shape and direction in a few marks. depth. and don't worry about accuracy t o begin with. Nowimagineyou are carving the foot insidethepaper. however. Hew it roughly in broad. loose.121 HANDS AND FEET MOVEMENTS OF THE FOOT Flat Stance Raised Heel Instep 1 Let your first marks be light. and rapid. It can be a mistake. . as if with a chisel. these are what give a drawing its tangible structure. t o remove t o o many early lines. 2 3 Use an eraser t o refine decisions o r t o suggest areas o f light. and spontaneity. flattened planes. Leave aside all though out o f wood. Look for key angles without becoming distracted by detail.

204-05.Charcoal Hands T H E S E DRAWINGS ARE MADE in compressed charcoal. Opposite. Compare its nature in close-up to that of willow charcoal used on pp. I also used white ink with a steel dip pen." . The white lines demonstrate what is often called "bracelet shading.


Phrasing Contours . I make these lines in the first five to ten seconds of a drawing to locate the presence. before honing his or her shape (see pp. 118-19). and posture of the model. length.HERE TRACES OF RAPID initial lines are still seen within and outside each body.


It is now viewed with some skepticism and often seen as academic. I draw in museums in support of written research and as an artist seeking answers to questions about the practicalities of image making. feeling them through the attentive movements of your own hand. and narrative pulse become vivid when you realize them in the middle of your study. characters. Forms. perspectives. Drawing work by another artist enables you to discover and understand the inventive hand in their composition.The Visual Detective DRAWING FROM MASTERWORKS was once a staple component of an artist's education. .


Walls are lined with hundreds of faintly animated body parts. each modeled from dissection. 126-27. These almost life-size figures were composed from my imagination and achieved with the help af studies discussed on pp. there is a unique museum of 18th-century anatomical waxes.La Specola At17V i a Romana. Florence. .3 x 3 m) made in response to La Specola. Life-size women wearing wigs recline on beds of embroidered silk in cabinets of mahogany and Venetian glass This is a detail of a compressed charcoal drawing measuring 14 x 10 ft (4.



and a handprint (see p. abstract or figurative. The truth is that we all like looking at faces and observing the billions of variations that make us individuals. Portraits can be highly or loosely detailed. you can capture the subtlety. Self-portraiture gives every artist a constant. 1790-92 4 x 3 in ( 1 0 2 x 7 6 m m ) F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A and memorize the basic structure that we all share. Past rulers sent painters across continents to bring back a likeness in advance of a prospective royal marriage. and satirical or metaphorical. We can mold and animate qualities of expression out of objects and fragments of disassociated things—for example. gathered all that he knew FRANCISCO DE GOYA V i s i o n a r y Spanish painter. usually strangers from past times. historical. Movie director Alfred similarly signed his films by playing a fleeting role: he walks through an extra. painters have dropped discreet records of themselves into commissioned narratives so that they can remain a face in the crowd. W h e n drawing a person. In this chapter. and their posture can be changed with just one line. and social and political commentaries. live. Man Ray's self-portrait of scored lines. Halls and palaces are filled with pictures of the mighty and significant. we use the delicate medium of silver point to look at foundation structures of the head. or a glimpse of him is caught in a photograph used as a prop. and it is very rewarding. and shoulders. made as he passed through the ages of man. in a miniature self-portrait magnified opposite. having been documented and preserved. look directly at us. draftsman. buttons. or whose eyes can seem to follow us around the room Portraiture is a constant. Once you understand Self-Portrait in a Cocked Hat c. their stance. or past us. and p r i n t m a k e r . compliant subject to scrutinize. To create a face is to see and interpret the essence of an identity. Rembrandt's famous multitude of self-portraits.Portraiture IN P O R T R A I T U R E W E MEET PEOPLE. Goya's w o r k s include many royal and society p o r t r a i t s . This enlargement o f his miniature p o r t r a i treveals t h e s p e e d and agility o f his p e n and about himself. Equally. We are also reassured by keeping records of ourselves. character. who. a single line can deliver an entire expression. religious. bells. For centuries. . throat. and in a few scrolling rafts of pen lines and stubbled dots. the meaning of their face. is here to both meet and look through us. and lucrative genre for artists. and expression of the individual. and secular narratives. became more poignant as he progressed. The returning image was of crucial consideration in any proposal. neck. Our homes are filled with images of our loved ones and of those in our families who have gone before. Goya. his changes in pressure and Hitchcock length o f line. Beginners often draw themselves as a way of establishing their practice. single or of groups. It also reminds us o f b o t h t h e intimacy and a scene as scrutiny o f an honest portrait.139).

teetering on the brink of older age.132 PORTRAITURE Poise THE BALANCE BETWEEN a mark and a blank space is often a tantalizing form of perfection. Without faltering. It takes a truly accomplished a few strokes. How could the addition of shadows have enhanced this image? Few strokes The simplicity of Picasso's line is breathtaking. The truth is often the opposite. The Tightness of a line is felt in its speed. For the beginner. PABLO PICASSO Spanish Cubist painter (see also p. adding smudges of tone for weight and solidity.30). caught in her last moments of youth. one eye already cast askew into the autumn of her life. hand to capture something well in only Frangoise au Bandeau 1946 660 x 505 mm (26 x197/8in) PABLO PICASSO . Picasso has left to posterity many hundreds of magnificent line drawings. He makes his flair and skill look easy. Her face is drawn tenderly and with a luminous glow. It is the portrait of a countrywoman. The aesthetic sense of a line being just right can make a drawing sing. There is a common misunderstanding that a drawing with only a few lines is both less finished and easier to make than a drawing with more. breadth. We can read so much about them by studying their gaze. we can enjoy and learn from them. We can actually count that he struck the paper 40 times. stealthily using his chalk to find contours and mass. they serve as a great lesson that it is not always necessary to add tone to your drawing. Through exhibitions and copies in books. Holbein maps the still landscape of Dorothea's body in questioning marks. Picasso strikes and scrolls his pencil. length. Here the grace and beauty of two young women are held forever. While with longer consideration. and pressure as it conducts our eye through the image. whisking a timeless girl onto the page.

he designed c o u r t costumes. Holbein was employed toward the end of his life by King Henry VIII of England. gently flushed. Blended colors In this portrait drawn with colored chalks on slightly textured paper. made a popular series o f w o o d c u t prints titled The Dance of Death. He outlined her nose but not her upper lip. and produced numerous society portraits such as this one here. The peak of her cap clips the uppermost edge. and its downward slope crowns the diagonal of the composition. which. In addition t o his numerous exquisite portraits in oil.133 HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER German p o r t r a i t painter draftsman. Holbein has cropped and pinned his subject within the four outermost lines of the image—the edges of the page. Her folded forearms support and frame her weight above. Holbein unified the woman with her background by gently blending colors from her clothes and face into the atmosphere around her. Cropping This regal composition fits its paper perfectly. and designer f r o m Basel. Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 1516 51/8 x121/4in (385 x 310 m m ) HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER . presses against the binding across her face.

134 PORTRAITURE Anatomies These highly finished drawings express the emotional power and physicality of the head and neck. dark lines made with a pencil appear against smooth. Delicate muscles are integrated with the skin and fat that is to be r e m o v e d . and glands also complicate form. distorted. Psychological drama is contained behind a grid. The style of Durelli's d r a w i n g opposite sings with the confidence of truth and precision. using a fine and relatively 1982 13 x 181/8 in (328 x 460 mm) VICTOR NEWSOME brush. but they are irrelevant here. or defined by. blood vessels. Contrasts Sharp. while white painted flecks and wisps suggest electrical illumination. The real dissection w o u l d have been far more c o m p l e x . This is a m a r v e l o u s interpretation of the truth. N e w s o m e ' s eerily shadowed form is smooth and bears a linear grain evocative of w o o d . and unpleasant to see. This is one of a number of similar disembodied female heads seen behind. confusing. perhaps applied using a tortillon. Nerves. In fact. its highly clarified detail claiming to be d r a w n from observation. London. VICTOR NEWSOME British sculptor painter and draftsman. It floats in space. Highlights of white gouache were dry Profile Head late in the making. . Newsome was awarded the Prix de Rome in 1960. solid above and almost hollow below. the contours of a grid. dark tones of graphite blended into the paper. and has works in major collections including the Tate Gallery. continues to exhibit regularly. taught at numerous British art schools from 1962-77. Anatomically. the face is one of the hardest parts to dissect. Durelli has m a d e a few m i n o r mistakes.

It is hard to think of a more difficult medium with which to achieve such linear perfection. Stylized parallel lines are reminiscent of engravings.135 ANATOMIES ANTONIO DURELLI Linear perfection This is a red chalk drawing of extraordinary accomplishment. pull their points o f attachment t o w a r d each other . and it is likely that this drawing was intended for reproduction as a print. Red Chalk the Muscles 1837 173/8 x 145/8 in ( 4 4 0 x 3 7 2 m m ) ANTONIO DURELLI and Pencil Drawing and of Neck of the Head Little is k n o w n o f this M i l a n e s e p a i n t e r a n d engraver w h o c a m e from a family o f artists. Pencil numbers refer to the list of muscles written beneath. Durelli's experience as an engraver is reflected in his stylized drawing o f muscle fibers. which. w h e n contracted.

Bellini gently conjures the features of his saint with soft marks that tease his presence out of shadows into the light. Portrait de Marie-Laure de Noailles c. Agitated marks make patches of tone that cut away the space around the character. and heads. painter draftsman. and with staccato flinches his hyperactive eye moves from paper to model. Opposite. cutting and carving the paper with matted and spiraling restless energy. while his hand stabs and thrusts Revelations like a conductors baton. Speed Giacometti probably began with an oval shape placed in relation to the proportion of the page. Then. as if seen from a distance. There is a film of Giacometti drawing. 1948 77/8 x 6 in (200 x 150 mm) ALBERTO GIACOMETTI . We are brought intimately close to this man gazing up to heaven. The camera watches him at work. he drew over the whole image at once. Energy This is a portrait of a woman drawn with black crayon on a plain page of a book Lines search for the essence of form. each locked into a visionary gaze. Without paint and with very little tone. Similar movements sculpted the head below into its page. ALBERTO GIACOMETTI Swiss sculptor. necks. close enough to touch his hair and feel his breath. He is best known for his bronze sculptures of human form. Flesh is built and personality carved simultaneously. Both works demonstrate how simple lines can be made complex by being intense. Giacometti settled in Paris. and poet After studying in Geneva and Italy. They show us clearly the bones of drawing. They confuse our perception of scale by being intimately fragile and at the same time far removed. with speed and urgency.136 PORTRAITURE THESE ARE DRAWINGS of shoulders. which are characteristically elongated. each portrait is inscribed onto the page.

a n d his w o r k is d i s t i n c t i v e l y calm. These are pinholes. H e p r e f e r r e d religious t o classical t h e m e s . Head and Shoulders of a Man 73/8 x 21/4 in ( 1 8 6 x 5 8 UNDATED GIOVANNI BELLINI . Sometimes different narrative same character was reused in compositions. a n d c o n t e m p l a t i v e . Mantegna.G I O V A N N I BELLINI A prominent member of a large family o f V e n e t i a n painters.5 9 ) .25 6 . lyrical. a n d b r o t h e r in-law. Bellini s t u d i e d u n d e r his f a t h e r J a c o p o . Character This is one of many cartoons produced by Bellini the and his family. H e t a u g h t G i o r g i o n e Barbarelli and Titian. transferring which were made in the process of the saint to his final place in the composition of a painting (see Glossary pp. Transfer This delicate humorous chalk a drawing is a cartoon—not image but a type of template used to plan the composition of a larger work Look closely and you will see rows of tiny dots along every significant line in the picture.

It is an image of confrontation—the ever-controversial young artist roars at us from his abstract city-scape. marks. Signs and symbols with symbols This painting shudders that ore written. It has proved to be a subject of piercing scrutiny. political outcry. bells. The incandescent New York painter Jean Michel Basquiat pictured himself here in naked silhouette. and everything flux. drawn. their most immediate and best-known subject: themselves. a tribal. and confrontations with. and sheet metal before being snapped up by the New York contemporary art scene.221). skull- Self-Portraits headed. scrolls. signing their work SAMO. postcards. The artist has finished his portrait with the signature of his hand smacked in the middle like a kiss: a declaration of existence as old as man's first drawing. and attitudes. and buttons rings with surrealist wit and agile improvisation. Self Portrait 1982 9 4 x 7 6 in (239 x 193 cm) JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT . spear-brandishing warrior. The figure's position is unequivocal and defiant while around him is in a state Without the essential of cultural and figure we would elegant belookingat a sophisticated painting of signs. Later Basquiat sold drawings on T-shirts. float and shimmer in the shallow pictorial space. It is an opportunity to look deep without the infringement of courtesies owed to a commissioning sitter. In 1986 he traveled to Africa and showed his work in Abidjan on the Ivory Coast He also exhibited in Germany and France. JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT Short-lived American painter and graffiti artist who began his blazing nine-year career drawing on lower Manhattan subway trains with a friend. Man Ray's playful silk-screen assembly of color blocks. Islands of graphic marks. scratched lines. scratched into its surface. and indulgence. Al Diaz.138 PORTRAITURE THE MIRROR OF SELF-PORTRAITURE offers artists infinite reflections of. humor. similar to work by Cy Twombly (see p. made with great energy.

Man Ray lived and worked in Paris. Black ink was printed next and then white. where he collaborated with the artist Laslo MoholyNagy. Man Ray probably used his own hand. caked in thick printing ink or paint. last of all. while a squeegee was used to drag thick lilac-brown ink across the silk pushing it though exposed areas onto the paper below. Frame White lines are seemingly (though not actually) scratched through ink to frame this face. They experimented with camera-free photography working directly onto photographic paper Silk and ink This is a silkscreen print made through the following process: the paper was laid on a flat surface and a frame stretched with fine silk was placed on top. Autoportrait 1916 195/8 MAN RAY . During the 1920's and 30s. The handprint appears to be made directly. printmaker and cofounder of the New York Dada movement.139 MAN RAY American surrealist photographer. They suggest speed and make the picture look immediate and spontaneous. painter. The first part of the stenciled image was already marked on the silk The screen and paper were then held tightly together.

1. and is therefore useful w h e n using w a t e r c o l o r as well as silver point. and gold have also been used. W e t o n e length o f g u m . Opposite. b e f o r e priming stretched paper." Lead. and t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h strips a b o v e and b e l o w . Metal point does not work on ordinary paper. platinum. S O F T F U L L B R U S H : W h e n laying a w a s h .54-55). o n e t o fit each side o f t h e b o a r d — t h e s e will make t h e glued f r a m e t h a t holds y o u r p a p e r in place. S i l v e r is b e s t . W e t a n d fix a s e c o n d strip t o t h e o p p o s i t e side.54) can also b e used. the surface must be primed with a ground such as gouache. Take a sheet o f any t y p e o f p a p e r (for e x a m p l e . Pages 142 to 147 are illustrated in silver point and techniques are explained on pp. T h e p a p e r will l o o k b u c k l e d . bone. Historically. w h i t e d r a w i n g paper) and cut it t o fit y o u r d r a w i n g b o a r d w i t h a generous b o r d e r a r o u n d its edges. M E T A L OBJECTS: All metal objects m a r k a p r e p a r e d surface. This is called a three-tone drawing. or wood. Lay a clean d r a w i n g b o a r d o n a flat surface. which quickly oxidizes into a gray line. E m p t y mechanical pencils designed f o r t h i c k leads ( s e e p. was familiar to or eggshells with animal glue.Tear o f f f o u r lengths o f b r o w n p a p e r g u m tape. and alloys work on matt emulsion. Numerous early European artists also enjoyed its fine qualities (see p. 1 4 4 . I combined silver point with painted white gouache on a pink ground. Metal point is simply a strip of metal bound in a holder. purchase silver wire. Straighten the w o r s t buckles. SILVER W I R E : Purchase different gauge lengths f r o m a traditional a r t supplier o r jeweler. s e e p . an exciting indication of how large-scale drawings could be made on a wall. copper. 144-45. you will need t o stretch paper and lay a wash (see right and opposite). key. I m a k e m y o w n f r o m o l d dip pens. 2. c h o o s e a s o f t full b r u s h t h a t c a n c a r r y p l e n t y o f l i q u i d . artists mixed white lead. 156).s t r i p a n d use i t t o fix o n e side o f t h e p a p e r t o t h e b o a r d . and make o r buy a holder. illuminators of medieval m a n u s c r i p t s . 5. Note h o w domestic paintwork marks with a coin. choose a silver object. To begin. M a k e s u r e i t is c o m p l e t e l y clean t o avoid u n w a n t e d streaks. laid on paper. This browns with age unless sealed by fixative (see pp. Gesso o r m a t t e m u l s i o n c a n a l s o b e u s e d . I t is a v a i l a b l e f r o m all a r t s h o p s . or ring. b u t d o n ' t w o r r y . If w o r k i n g o n an emulsion-painted wall. Z I N C W H I T E G O U A C H E : Dilute with w a t e r A d d c o l o r i f r e q u i r e d (as opposite) 4 . 2 . it leaves a deposit. Drawn across a prepared surface. SILVER P O I N T W I R E H O L D E R : T h e s e c a n b e p u r c h a s e d a n d t e n d t o b e heavy. The most c o m m o n metal has always been silver—hence the term "silver point. who used it to outline initials and border characters before painting. s o m e m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n o t h e r s . For i m p o r t a n t a d v i c e o n p r e p a r a t i o n a n d use. p a r c h m e n t . Find a n i t e m t h a t y o u can h o l d a n d draw with comfortably. Lightly s p o n g e o f f t h e excess. MATERIALS 1 Find a clean sponge and b o w l o r d e e p t r a y a n d fill it w i t h w a t e r W e t t h e p a p e r evenly in t h e t r a y o r o n t h e b o a r d . 3 . Be swift and firm.140 PORTRAITURE Silver P o i n t SILVER OR METAL POINT STRETCHING PAPER A sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has been made w e t with the strokes o f a paintbrush will buckle d u e t o its uneven expansion. Stretched paper remains taut as a d r u m .

Prop up your board of dry. slowly add powder pigment or gouache from a tube. It will slowly straighten and become taut. stretched paper at a 45-degree angle. LAYING A WASH It your stretched paper so as to prime it for silver point. The next step will make a small mess.141 SILVER POINT 3 Leave the paper to dry flat. Dry thoroughly before laying a wash. Here. I used a powder pigment called Caput Mortuum. Mix a very wet but not weak solution of gouache in a jar with a lid (add pigment at this stage for a three-tone drawing). overlapping lines until you reach the bottom. Runs blend into each other evenly. Dip a soft. Reload the brush and add a second line overlapping it beneath. Leave the wash to dry thoroughly before you begin to draw. Keep testing on spare paper. Beware of the tape's coming loose at any point while drying. any extra will keep. so put newspaper under the lower edge. is necessary to lay a wash o Three-tone When coloring ground. Make an even line across to the right. v e r y little at a time. Keep adding smooth. as the paper will be ruined by a raised ridge.t o n e silver point drawing of a skull . and let tests dry before deciding to change the mixture. full brush into the gouache and start in the top left corner. Make enough to cover your paper. T h r e e . leaving a smooth surface.



Head and Neck
THE HEAD AND NECK are best conceived as one unit arranged in four parts: cranium, face, neck, and throat. Each is of equal importance. The cranium is essentially egg-shaped and pivots on the first vertebra. The face is suspended beneath, like a softly curved triangle. The n e c k — a powerful, shapely column of layered muscles rigged to vertebrae—adjusts and holds the angle and expression of the head. The throat is delicate, hard, and lumpy to the touch, formed of cartilaginous rings, glands, thin muscles, and looser skin. Framing the throat, two columnar neck muscles (sternomastoids) project the head forward and also turn it to the opposite side.

This is a simple shorthand diagram representing the cranium, face, neck, and throat. It can be learned and visualized in different positions very easily, giving the novice a firm footing on which to stand and develop their drawings of the head and neck.

Shorthand diagram

Cranium Begin with an egg shape. Tilt it on the paper to change the position of the head.

Face Draw a rounded triangular shape below the forward point of the egg to represent the face.

Neck This shape represents the trapezius; the largest surface muscle of the neck and shoulders.

Throat A triangular shape represents the throat. (The nose makes the diagram clearer)

Applied shorthand

After copying the diagram above, animate it. Practice drawing the cranium at different angles, add the face beneath, then the neck, shoulders, and throat. Shape your diagrams so they are more lifelike, but avoid adding detailed features too soon.

143 These three drawings demonstrate (from left to right) the following: why the cranium may be considered egg-shaped; now the face can be seen as a curved triangle suspended beneath and where the division lies between the two; and the form of sternomastoid muscles that frame thethroatsodistinctlywhen the head is turned and inclined forward.

The skull and the frame of the throat


Bones of the cranium are locked together by jagged joints. Sinuses in the frontal (forehead) bone between and beneath the eyebrows are larger in men, making their brows pronounced and often ridged compared to those of women.

Bones of the face house our sight, smell, taste, The skull pivots on the first vertebra or "atlas," and speech. Cartilage extending from nasal bones after the Greek god condemned to carry the shapesthenose.Pads of fat resting on the base of Earth. The jaw hinges in front of the ears. Behind, eacheyesocket support the eyeballs in position. If bony ridges give anchor to the sternomastoid thefatisreducedby old age, eyes look sunken. muscles rising from the breast- and collarbones.

Three useful generalizations

General rules about the relative positions of body parts can hinder artists as much as help them, since they are often based on classical ideals rather than thediversityoflife.However,some generalizations can help as a rough guide to start with, so long as good observation takes over as soon as possible.

In general, when the face is relaxed (not smiling or frowning), the corners of the mouth are found directly beneath the pupils of the eyes. Vertical lines can be drawn down from the pupils to meet the corners of the mouth.

The height of a young adult's ear is often the same as their nose and found on the same level. There is no general rule for growing children, and remember that ears grow again in old age, which is most obvious in men.

The height of the face is about the length of the handspan and the eye is normally halfway down the total height of the head. A common error is to draw the eyes too high up on the face.



Essential Observations

(see pp. 140-41) is perfect for

such as a beach pebble. Here, I stretched drawing paper and laid a wash of white gouache (see pp.140-41). As you can see, the line and tone of silver point varies with pressure, but only slightly. Too much pressure cuts the ground. Silver point erases, but so does ground. Erased ground can be repaired gently with extra gouache. You can also use gouache to paint over mistakes and make corrections.

small, detailed drawings. The drawings below and opposite show useful observations of the head and neck, which are explained in the captions below. Each drawing was made with a silver wire held in a large-gauge mechanical pencil. Newly clipped wires are sharp and cut rather than draw. Before use, they need to be rubbed and smoothed on a stone

Here I imagined placing my silver point wire against the skin of each head and neck and, working in parallel bands from the crown downward, I traced the undulation of surfaces. Linear bands imagined around the head and neck can help you t o clearly see the tilt of the head and relative levels of the features. Ask a friend t o model for you and try this exercise life-size using a pencil and eraser


Tilted forward

Tilted backward

Three-quarter view

Seeing that the face is never flat

Drawings below left and center are summaries of the generalizations given on p.143. Far right is an image to remind us that the face is never flat. It slopes back to varying degrees among individuals, from the tip of the nose t o the ears. For example, note that the innermost corners of the eyes are farther forward in space than the outermost corners.

General measurements, side

General measurements, front

View from above


Male and female head and neck
Men's necks a r e g e n e r a l l y s h o r t e r a n d t h i c k e r t h a n w o m e n ' s b e c a u s e t h e angles a n d levels o f c e r t a i n b o n e s a r e d i f f e r e n t b e t w e e n t h e sexes ( i n d i c a t e d h e r e b y d o t t e d lines) a n d m e n are n o r m a l l y m o r e muscular. T h e male t h y r o i d cartilage ( A d a m ' s apple) is larger a n d m o r e visible than t h e f e m a l e . L a r g e r f e m a l e t h y r o i d glands also s o f t e n t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e t h r o a t .

Female skull





Trapezius muscle
The largest m u s c l e o f t h e s h o u l d e r s a n d n e c k is called the trapezius. A r r a n g e d on e i t h e r side o f t h e spine, it shapes t h e u p p e r back and neck above the s h o u l d e r blades. C o n t r a c t i n g in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h d e e p e r and surrounding muscles, it raises and l o w e r s t h e shoulders a n d d r a w s t h e h e a d backtoeitherside.

The whole



half with



with head



with head


Side with


Front with




Drawing Portraits
USING A SHARP 3 B PENCIL, I drew this head quickly from imagination, evolving its character and expression from the scheme of four parts: cranium, face, neck, a n d throat (see p. 142). Here, five steps show you how to practice doing the same. This approach can be used to draw from imagination or from life. Keep your wrist loose and hold your pencil away from its point (see pp.22-23). Build the layers of your drawing from pale to dark, a n d from general balance a n d form to specific detail. Remember that successful drawings are built on foundations of "seeing the whole," then dividing the whole into smaller parts, with details brought in last of all. Phrased tonal marks modeling this girls skin and hair follow the technique demonstrated by Goya in his self-portrait on p. 130. Turn to Goya's drawing and study how, in a circle beginning across his hat, moving down his hair, and around his coat, he flows lines over surfaces to describe their contour. As you build from steps 1 to 5, bring phrased groups of lines across the surfaces of your form, using their directions to capture the expression of the head and neck. If unsure, copy my steps until you gain the confidence to make your own decisions.

This drawing is the final stage of the four steps opposite. Here, I have enlarged the eye, and moved it back into the head by trimming the length of the upper lid and adding a more pronounced lower lid. It is important to set eyes far enough back from the relatively prominent nose; too close to it and the face flattens. Hair swept back and extended behind the cranium balances the regal pose. Lines shaping the hair echo those marking the cranium in step 1. Here, the lower part of step 1 comes through as wisps of hair across her face and ear


Portrait of a Young Girl

over the cranium. Keep your first lines light. so it is important to the life of the image that while controlled.147 Building up the portrait DRAWING PORTRAITS 1 Gently spin pale lines in a softly drawn shape representing the cranium. 3 Place the eye beneath the cranium. they are also still sweeping and confident. The nose and ear begin to shape the head. 2 Rapidly add shorthand shapes to represent the face. I used light to describe the upper lid first with a shadow beneath for the lower lid and open eye. too soon. down the face to the throat. and throat. First lines will remain visible in the final drawing.Theangle at which you draw this shape of the paper will determine the angle of the finished head. Here. The eye announces the nature and expression of the emerging person. avoid drawing too dark. neck. Moving from the back of the neck. I modeled the outline of the character I imagined light shining from above and in front and adjusted the pressure of lines to reflect this. 4 .


T o DRAW PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGES. a n d t h o s e w h o a r e Generations asleep (see overleaf). . and gravity. the texture of hair. Above all. empathize. be aware of the subtle differences in skin surface. muscular tension.



with a steel dip pen and acrylic ink. . Van Dyke's noble cast of characters was modeled more finely. seeking the dominant contours of each individual expression. Madrid. Fast lines carve out the features of Goya's soup-slurping hag.Castings DRAWING IN THE PRADO MUSEUM. I used the nib upside down to gain needle-sharp precision.



toParis. charcoal. he and cofounder Serge Diaghilev took Paris by eac storm in 1910 with their production h year in the industrial f r e n z y of creating o u r image and aspirations. and gouache. c o s t u m e o f f e r s a r i c h v o c a b u l a r y of t e x t u r e s a n d c o l o r . personality. was a Belarussian A r t Deco theater fantasies and desires to immediately possess a version of the same. gesture. c u l t u r e . b u t influenced Parisian fashion and interiordecor. arichand unusual combination of pencil. T h e e n t o u r a g e of the theatrical stage o f t e n l e a d s the c a t w a l k . st 111/4 x 81/2 in (285 x 220 mm) u d i e d L E O NB A K S T and explore the characterization of fabric t h r o u g h m o v e m e n t . fulfilling lavish and spectacular briefs. cool.This voluptuous above all a physical p u p p e t w i t h w h i c h to animate character and narrate personality. o n l y the w e a l t h y c o u l d afford to h a v e c o s t u m e s specially m a d e . Artists do this not so m u c h b y the style of a figure's garment. intriguing. while court p a i n t e r s — M i c h e l a n g e l o and Holbein. dancer leaps through swaths of golden cloth. for e x a m p l e — d e s i g n e d the w a r d r o b e s of p o p e s a n d k i n g s . c r u m p l e s . and atmosphere. and s y m b o l s that lets m e n and w o m e n in all countries and areas have w o r k i n g access to the latest fashions. articulate a d a n g e r o u s satirical j o k e . . Samoylovich Rosenberg. shapes. Designers all over the w o r l d c o n t i n u a l l y p e n and b r u s h lines to lash us w i t h color. D e s i g n e r s create m a s t e r p i e c e s of haute couture LEON BAKST for H o l l y w o o d stars. of Scheherazade. Cities c h a n g e d all. w h i c h in turn feed c o n s u m e r Lev. or b u l g e s . and even invisible by the w a y w e dress. S t r u c t u r e is t h o u g h the i n v e n t i o n of shoes.Costume W E MAKE OURSELVES EXOTIC. and i n d e e d image b e c a m e the property also of the industrial classes. variety. Bakst's designs and costumes immediately To the fine artist. and intent. so that c h o i c e . a n d s u b t l e t o n e s .As artistic director of the It is s h o c k i n g to t h i n k h o w m a n y m i l l i o n s of d r a w i n g s m u s t be m a d e a n d d i s c a r d e d Ballet Russe. Petersburg and later exiled designers' ideas and are surprised and delighted b y their continual f l o w of inspiration. g l o s s y folds. In psychology. theb u t b y the w a y it s p e a k s w i t h its flying. and e x u b e r a n c e . T h e rural masses w o r e h o m e s p u n simplicity. Like it or not. T h e p a p e r p a t t e r n is p e r h a p s the m o s t w i d e l y k n o w n of c o s t u m e d r a w i n g s : a formalized plan of lines. it is the public sign by w h i c h w e are j u d g e d . Practical classes Bacchante 1911 l o o k at r a n g e s of c o l o r e d m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d i n g p a s t e l s a n d felt-tip p e n s . w a r m t h . and be so expressive of temperament that it overtakes the need for an o c c u p y i n g h u m a n form. outrageous. a n d p r o f e s s i o n — b e g a n life as a d r a w i n g . known as Leon Bakst. or calm u s w i t h chic. a n d w e will c o l l e c t patterns. W e dress ourselves and costume designer trained in in St. woman was drawn by Bakst one year later for the ballet Narcisse. e m u l a t e textures. In this c h a p t e r w e see h o w c l o t h i n g c a n s e e m to p o s s e s s the w e i g h t and m o n u m e n t a l i t y of stone. and everything w e h a v e c h o s e n for o u r w a r d r o b e s — r e f l e c t o r s of o u r taste. caricatured p l u m e s . Previously. a n d c o u r t i e r tailors f o l l o w e d suit. P o p u l a r f a s h i o n d e s i g n e x p l o d e d w i t h the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n .

and snakelike marks. and the kneeling abbot is a ghost by comparison. the Madonna and her architecture are both dressed in the same manner. and implied striation in the stone of the architecture. it is only possible to create very thin. Their uninterrupted emphasis is entirely vertical. Marble gown We will never know if Van Eyck considered this drawing unfinished or intended the kneeling abbot to remain transient and ghostly. her marble garment holds u p the infant Christ in a fountain of compressed line. He has layered these slowly and carefully so as not to cut through the ground and produce a white mark just where he intended a dark one. Keisai Eisen's intense. Maelbeke I44I Madonna 11 x 7 in (278 x 180 m m ) JAN V A N EYCK .140-41). Sculpted one. Short and subtle horizontal punctuations are only given in the background by sections of floor. bands around the columns. Flaxmans sleeper—perhaps a pilgrim or a soldier resting between campaigns—has wedged himself into the cleft of some great building to grab a moment of peace. In Van Eyck's drawing below.156 COSTUME Cloth and Drapery EACH OF THESE FIGURES is ninety percent cloth. the vaulted stone roof echoes and crowns the moment. delicate lines. folds and patterns of material speak more resolutely of their wearers than any small glimpses of body we can see. Below this. dragons. the carefully composed outline of his cloak shows us how the artist would have also begun his immaculate rendering of the Virgin's clothes. resonate with their wearers startled expression. Van Eyck's highly polished w o r k is c e l e b r a t e d f o r its disguised symbolism. However. H e m e t i c u l o u s l y a r r a n g e d subjects t o c o n v e y d e e p e r meaning. Church and deities are drawn as JAN VAN EYCK Flemish oil p a i n t e r f r o m L i m b o u r g . Opposite. Vertical lines The highly controlled lines of this drawing cascade from top to bottom of the image. best k n o w n f o r his G h e n t altarpiece ( 1 4 3 2 ) a n d m a r r i a g e p o r t r a i t o f Giovanni A r n o l f i n i and his w i f e (1434). Delicate marks Silver (or metal) point is the most delicate of traditional drawing media (see pp. Her gown is carved and polished as if made from marble. Above them. with their jagged edges. With a stylus such as Van Eyck used here. The quiet stillness of this image is achieved by a masterly economy of stylized line. swirling printed fabrics.

Aeschylus earned Flaxman an international reputation.157 KEISAI EISEN Japanese draftsman. the angle of the head. and Man Lying Down in a Cloak I 787-94 21/4 JOHN FLAXMAN x 41/8 in (57 x 105 mm) . The inked block is laid face-down on damp paper and pressed to make the print. each delivering a different part and color of the design. This complex numerous blocks prepared image and may have been made with printed separately. Images are drawn onto smooth. stone wall of downward-stroked this sleeper's position is momentary. the cloak sliding to the ground. designer. draftsman. CLOTH AND DRAPERY Relief printing This is a woodblock print made by a relief process. Parts of the image to be left unprinted are gouged out with a metal tool. Dante. writer and printmaker Keisai Eisen took his name from the masters Kano Hakkeisai and Kikugawa Eizan. Position In this pen and ink drawing. he also co-edited and expanded the Ukiyo-e Ruiko (History of Prints of the Floating World). an 18th-19th century document on the lives of the ukiyo-e artists. Remaining raised areas of wood are rolled with colored inks. Koimurasaki of Tama-ya 1810-50 15 x101/4in (381 x 260 mm) KEISAI EISEN The Courtesan JOHN F L A X M A N English late 18th-century neoclassical sculptor. flat sheets of wood. and teacher Distinctive linear illustrations for the works of Homer. and the feet notched against the pillar tell us that A lines holds him into the cleft. which are sometimes also cut into pieces like a jigsaw puzzle. Respected for his sumptuous images of geisha and editions of erotic prints. one over the other.

t h r o u g h n u m e r o u s p o r t r a i t and C h u r c h commissions. The metal. A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE Flemish painter and draftsman. and even formal portraiture. 160. Leg sections in both support the figure without taking our attention away from the main garment above. and feather were all CHARACTER COSTUMES REPRESENT observed with closely crafted conviction. Anthony Van Dyke's Man in Armor is a masterpiece of drawn surface. Opposite is a dangerous drawing. Fine examples can be plucked from fashion. Pen and wash In the graphic accuracy of this armored knight we see the idealized identity of a warrior from another time: a gleaming defender of the realm. The slight uncertainty of the pose and the limp cloak suggest a little more metal than man. Leg section Compare mid-shin the section of white boots cropped to the section of similarly cropped trousers in drawings Gruau's drawing on p. Its color is also reflected in the metal. He has been rendered on this olive<olored page with pen and gray wash worked over a red and black under-drawing. Details and voices are worn externally with great imagination. A s a y o u n g man. cinema. cartoon. It is presumed Her Royal Highness never saw it. a scurrilous cartoon by a courtier of Queen Elizabeth I. Man in Armor UNDATED 1 6 x 9 1 / 2 in ( 4 0 5 x 2 4 0 m m ) A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE . all ruffs and wrinkles. Flowing scarf The knight's scarf of gilded blue is drawn in a pale wash over red ink lines. In 1 6 3 2 he m o v e d p e r m a n e n t l y t o L o n d o n . where sometimes there just might not be anybody inside. for she would not have been amused and William Wodall might have been stretching his luck. lace. Its warm surface flows in contrast to the stiff metal armor. cloth. w h e r e . Van D y k e was chief assistant t o Rubens f o r t w o years.158 COSTUME Character Costumes an extreme form of the clothed figure. a n d w a s e m p l o y e d as c o u r t painter t o King Charles I. The aged queen is compared to an overdressed bird. b e f o r e traveling t o Italy. theater. he c o o l e d and redefined his style. A flamboyant territory.

and her pride. hooded with an overinflated fluffy ruff eye pins us. t h e Ridolfi Plot. Satire of the Queen's Dress c. t h e B a b i n g t o n Plot. she is shown as a grossly disproportioned bird. Top-heavy. it was customary to Iron-gall ink Wodall's dangerous caricature steps daintily the written lines of her dedicated page. Northern Satire This is a quill-and-ink satire of the elderly queen's pride-As head of state and fashion. t h e Rising. t h e Jesuit Mission. By her old upto three tiers supported on sticks. Beneath the lethal fan is the body of a bird of trimmed feathers suggest age. suggest the use of iron-gall ink (see p.159 WILLIAM W O D A L L A u t h o r and illustrator o f The Aaes of Queene a Elizabeth poem Allegorized. manuscript comprising six c a n t o s .35). A Ruffs and feathers Starched white ruffs worn at court and by society grew steadily larger as Elizabeth's reign progressed. the queen is masterfully rebalanced by words at her feet The whole drawing's blackened. bitten nature.1599 71/2 WILLIAM x 51/4 in ( 1 9 0 x 1 3 4 mm) WODALL . here dark tawny owl. while a raised foot pauses to assess the next displaying a fan of daggers. T h e poem recounts t h e six m a j o r crises o f Elizabeth's reign: t h e Spanish A r m a d a . and saturations showing through from the other side.

ofcroppedtrousershere to the device of the w Illustration 1949 for Jacques Fath in L ' O f f i c i e l d e la C o u t u r e RENE GRUAU . Fine lines drawn against the building behind her echo the threads on which we have all seen arachnids drop and hang. 5 8 . a n d L'Officiel de la couture.c e n t u r y haute i n n u m e r o u s m a g a z i n e s i n c l u d i n g Elle. Compare the compositio beneathVanDyke'sstudy of armor on p.160 COSTUME Femmes Fatales THESE DEVASTATING femmes fatales force back the onlooker with their demure. Gruau's model regally swans to the fore with cool pride. The black red. India ink and gouache This swish of confidence and style our enters the page turning everyone's head.F r e n c h f a s h i o n i l l u s t r a t o r w h o in his l o n g and esteemed career w o r k e d with many of the g r e a t e s t d e s i g n e r s o f 2 0 t h . Drying time in between applications ensured the colors did not run into each other. Vogue. elegant chic and svelte. Composition Look how well this image is frame knee is parallel to the bottom edge spacehorizontalline cropping the trousers be outermostuprightbordersof her cuffs are similar above her head thesidesoftheimage. G r u a u ' s highly distinctive d r a w i n g s have a p p e a r e d Couture. She has been drawn with brushes dipped into India ink and gouache. Fashion and fantasy drawings invent prototypes of ideals and perfection—be they for the catwalk or the fast-paced pages of comic books. 158. studio-like rectangle of paper. Gruau uses starkly cut negative space (see pp. and both share the power of scarlet and black. diving to catch us in the grip of her machine-like limbs. and gray pigments were applied separately. Spider-Girl leaps like an insect.5 9 ) and a three-spoke balance of cuffs and cropped trousers to create an almost flag-like emblem of power. demanding attention with gesture and flair. Harpers & Queen. Rene Gruau's bold gouache drawing of smoothly swaying sophistication captures a brilliantly cut garment and frames it with great dynamism in a white. RENE GRUAU I t a l i a n . possibly over a pencil outline. muscular aggression. Airbrushed reflective surfaces further amplify our perception of speed. as is Spider-Girl opposite.and tilted to the same de a little deeper than sp kneestogivehergravity. His model is outlined.

a great characteristic superhero comics. and has been the title's regular artist since 2003. Sharp focus black outlines in this drawing create a hyper-real dynamic. sky. Align your ruler to the upright of each building. at Their extensions will meet the same single vanishing (see point pp. In your mind's eye extend the uprights out of the top of the picture. to the right of its center. and figure are all locked into equally shatp through the traditional process of a pencilled outline over-drawn ink.RON F R E N Z Contemporary American graphic artist w h o designs and pencils the dynamic scenes of numerous superheroes featured in Marvel Comics. It is outside the picture frame. beginning with Star Wars. and Amazing Spider-Man. MARVEL C O M I C S . Single-point understand perspective To how Frenz created up therefore the effect of steeply between looking buildings—and howyou can do the same in your own work—take calculate where a ruler the and single vanishing point lies. Frenz has drawn for Marvel for about 20 years. moon. not far above the drawing. Airbrushed color and with tonal focus. Buildings. He began work on Spider-Girl in 1998. This s modeling applied over the top give the image a sleek and mechanical of gravity. The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones. Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 2001-04 R O N FRENZ.74-77).

fixing each layer on the front. shape. COLORED PENCILS: Dry pigments ground together with chalk. the diverse are made in brands of basic member of the family. Degas built his pastels in layers. and synthetics. oily pigment. chalkbased but very subtle. crumbly. Seemingly infinite choices of texture. Many products are sold individually and in boxed sets. OIL PASTELS: Many colors. quality. OIL PASTELS Oil-based. slightly oily to the touch. Many artists apply fixative to the back of their work. Try materials that are new and unfamiliar. FELT-TIP PENS: Instant-drying alcoholor water-based inks stored in the barrels of the pens are delivered via smooth nylon o r felt tips of varying shapes and thicknesses. used to make colors. Often. minerals. CHALK PASTELS: Blackboard chalk is sidewalk work. and subtlety. C o n t e crayons are square-formed. intensity. except the final layer. The higher the quality (and cost). Store loose pastels in dry rice to keep them clean. paper-wrapped. and CHALK PASTELS Pastel pencils make fine lines (as above). plants. mixed on the paper and scratched into (as below). wash. unwrapped harder pastels. and sold in many colors. allowing it to fix slightly from behind. quality and cost T h e best are paperwrapped sticks of sumptuous. though lines can develop greasy stains around the edges if the paper is not first stretched and treated with a gelatin paste laid as a wash. Beware—some are toxic. or wax and a binder are shaped into fine strips and encased in w o o d like a graphite pencil. 1. Pastel pencils are slender and in w o o d casing. hue. there are disparities between the apparent nature or color of what you hold in your hand and its performance on paper. Before making substantial investments. Use them to draw lightly (as above left) or thickly. insects. great for tin . Be aware that fixative dulls pastel. They work well on PIGMENTS Pigments. and cost are laid out for our pleasure and perusal. Pastels are finer. They vary hugely in cost. made in about 80 colors. Children's wax crayons are relatives. you may be pleasantly surprised to discover something you could not have imagined using. 4. including iridescents. 2. are derived from many sources: rocks. I suggest you do so. Sticks and conte crayons make thicker marks (as below). 3. The nontoxic range below represents a suggested starting point for experiment. these work best when slightly warm. See h o w they work and return later for more of what proved best for you.162 COSTUME Colored Materials ART STORES BRIM OVER w i t h t h e m a n y wherever permitted. which he left unfixed to retain its brightness. and can be a great rediscovery for bold drawings. size. and can be softened and manipulated with degrees of heat. purchase a small selection of different items you think you will like. The worst are like revolting old lipsticks that get everywhere except where you intend. Dissolve in turpentine or mineral spirits to produce oil paint or or dark paper. colored materials available. soft. Most stores leave small pads of paper on their counters for customers to test materials. the finer and more subtle the texture and color should be. animals. Bright pastels are more brilliant on colored paper. clay.

Fine lines can be achieved (as above). 111).or clay-based thin crayons in wood casing. so it is best to test them before buying.163 COLORED PENCILS These are wax. Diverse brands are harder or soften greasier or chalkier in use. If you love smooth blocks and lines of colon felt-tip pens are perfect. it is still a great champion and support for those beginners feeling shyly obligated to tone down their love of color to conform with what others say they should use. Some are nonsoluble. Colors can be blended as shown right) and tones graded by altering pressure. Think of Matisse's Blue Nude (see p. . FELT-TIP PENS Although not made with felt-tip pen. Some give richer lines than others. others dissolve in water or turpentine to make a wash. leaving the paper to shine through for highlights (as below). Brands made for designers sold in enormous ranges of colors are far more subtle and sophisticated than those made for children.

100-01 and pp. t o o . Turn t h e m in different d i r e c t i o n s and o b s e r v e t h e i r s t r u c t u r e and f o r m . and after studying familiar shoes we use the information learned to invent new ones. REPEATED STUDY T o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s class. Here we go one step further. S H O E S TELL LIFE STORIES. To set up. the era in which we live. Linear Outline Using fine pens. I m a d e n u m e r o u s s h e e t s o f d r a w i n g s . style. As artifacts in museums. and they have been concealed in buildings to ward off misfortune. and volume in space (see pp. personality. t h e n again as if transparent. and how we stand and walk. you will need several large sheets of drawing paper. 104-07). D r a w each o n e first as a solid object. imagining y o u can see t h r o u g h it. values. will discover m o r e . they record and reflect our common history. a n d e x p e r i e n c e visible p r o g r e s s . structure. c o v e r a large sheet o f p a p e r w i t h line drawings o f several shoes. e n j o y i n g t h e study a n d i n v e n t i o n o f shoes. This class takes the shoe as its subject in building on earlier lessons concerned with seeing through objects to understand their function. You. a range of colored felt-tip pens with both fine and broad tips. while artists have painted their boots or those of others as personal portraits and memorials. social and economic status.164 COSTUME Study and Design they reflect our age. . Superstitions and fetishes are attached to them: we are told never to put new shoes on a table. and a selection of shoes. if y o u m a k e p l e n t y o f d r a w i n g s as o p p o s e d t o o n l y a f e w .


The Surface


study the surface contours using fineand broad-tipped felt-tip pens. For best results, it is important to be bold and brief. Draw firmly, fast, and with as few strokes as possible. Build up each shoe from light to dark andleavesome paper showing through to create highlights.

Design Your Own

Using what you have learned from the previous steps about the structures of your shoes, and about the use of pens, invent new designs from your imagination. Start with fine outlines and progress to colored and textured surfaces. Modify your ideas by rotating the views.



The Structure of Costume

rich resource for the artist and

information given by a period style. Arrange to visit a costume museum or ask a friend to model clothes for you at home. Using fine felt-tip pens, begin with quick, pale impressions of each garment's shape before homing in on its borders and seams. Try to draw transparent views wherever possible to record the relationships between all component parts. Aim to draw enough information for it to be possible to make up a version of the garment using paper pinned to a tailor's dummy.

designer. They often give quite unexpected gems of ideas and information—whatever the subject. These drawings, made in a costume museum, demonstrate ways of recording structural information and detail for later use in the studio. They could form the basis of new designs for a fashion project or theater production, for example. Drawings of shoes on pp. 164-65 show how new designs can be evolved from the structural

It is usually best when collecting information for reference to apply the restraint of dispassionate observation. Set yourself the test of drawing facts with as little artistic license or embellishment as possible. Here I chose fine felt-tip pens because they are at their best when used swiftly, and therefore encourage bold, unhesitant decisions.

Swift lines record the hanging weight of this gentleman's coat, the relative proportions of its layers, and minimal details of the buttons and cuffs.

Thick velvet fabric is pulled tight beneath and across the bust by a single button. This transparent view shows how the fabric falls loosely in straight panels beneath the level of the sleeve.


W h e n visiting museums, be prepared f o r l o w lighting, which can make it hard t o see and draw. A book can help if attached t o your drawing board.

Adding stripes and dashes of color with a thicker pen brings out the glossy sheen and sculptural rigidity of this dress, which would have been worn over a whalebone corset. small reading light designed t o clip o n t o a


In small drawings such as these, use thick pens to color entire sections with a few marks, as I did here down the side of the bodice.

The light, frilly bulk of this crinoline dress is propelled forward with lines. pinching its gathers and sways that are hiding a horsehair bustle. fleets of quick



Textures and.Patterns
THIS CLASS FOCUSES ON how to draw textures through the collection of fabric, pattern, and embroidery samples from a costume m u s e u m . This formal method, using ruled squares, can create an invaluable library of ideas a n d i n f o r m a t i o n for future r e f e r e n c e — w h e n painting a clothed figure, or preparing a textile project, for example. However, if making a book of samples for a project, remember that it is important to also include collages of f o u n d materials (see pp.230-31) To d r a w a fabric texture, b e g i n by concentrating o n h o w y o u i m a g i n e it w o u l d feel if you t o u c h e d it. Decide if it w o u l d be rough, s m o o t h , w a r m , cold, thick, thin, tough, or fragile, for example. As you draw, believe you can feel these qualities at your fingertips a n d that your pencil is responding to the sensation. Undulate the pressure of your lines and marks according to the feeling of the fabric rather than its appearance. Let your pencil enact the sensation of touching its surface.

and to experiment more loosely with mixed media.

This starchy, quilted, b o w e d creation started life as an imagined corset, I intended t o d r a w together in one sculptural f o r m a range o f t h e details opposite. T h e garment quickly got o u t o f hand. T h e r e is great e n j o y m e n t in letting y o u r imagination run wild w h e n inventing costumes. If you are unable t o visit a costume museum, many exciting fabric details and textures can be found in y o u r o w n closet o r home.


Colored pencils give precision and tonal range; they can be faded but not erased. Lightly use an HB graphite pencil if you wish to plan a design first. Pressed hard, colored pencils build up a waxy finish of brilliant color. Used lightly, they appear powdery and show the texture of the paper.


Silk and braid


Embroidered leather





Outline stitch


identity.Dressing Character I O N C E SPENT THREE MONTHS researching the work of Francisco de Goya at the Prado Museum. Madrid.126-27. 172-73. and 252-53). . selected from different pages of my original book. These characters. shape. I made a drawing book full of studies seeking to understand how he composed drama and pathos in his narratives (see also pp. and motivation of an individual. look at how Goya delineated volumes of thick fabric to express the posture.

as it rushes and carves fabric-wrapped forms like rivers and desert winds shaping the earth. . To understand how he did this. are copies of works by Goya in which he makes air seem heavier than flesh. I carefully copied the direction of each of his lines. and visible.T H E S E PENCIL STUDIES. and tangible.170—71). Posture Carving also taken from my Madrid drawing book (see pp.



finding corners in crowded places to inscribe their action and energy onto the page. but drawings of gathered people tell them most directly. there are no longer individuals but one significant group or mass action. He is also the artist from whom props to add layers of meaning and attitude. This J u s t as there are three parts to a traditional landscape drawing—the foreground. are implicated in this marital exchange made over the head of the anonymous nurse. and instantly engage with the action of the scene. Her all-too-clear expression shows annoyance and irritation with her husband. too. We can direct close. the speed and printmaker and one of the greatest and most influential density of its lines. Third. we. a crowd tells the story from a distance. We can also use clothes. and its illumination. the viewer's attention in a scene by the format of its composition. this is not the portrait of an old woman. the viewer. while a quill contact with. the viewer is not directly made the finer lines of Saskia. We read tensions and exchanges between people. First. furniture. and novels—our staple cultural diet—are driven by a fascination with shared experience and the detail of what happens in other people's lives. television documentaries. Here. It middle. paintings depicting scenes from history. Storytelling and people-watching are obsessive human activities. the direct exchange (as shown here) where one or more characters hold eye Aneedproduced the thicker lines of the nurse. and other masters of Western Art. With a pocket full of disposable pens we also go out and draw the expressions of gathered people. we can R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter draftsman. The spaces between people and the positions they occupy on a page are vital to our understanding of the psychology or emotion of an event. Drawings selected for this chapter explore these Saskia Lying in Bedand a Nurse ranges of proximity 1638 9 x61/2in (227 x 164 mm) and a travel journal. Rembrandt's bored and frustrated wife. As artists. He in turn scorches the paper with his view and a certain speed of seeing all. Washes of shadow behind engaged and as a natural voyeur can feel invisible while watching the scene. Blockbuster movies. vivid portrait of his wife captures our attention. . R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN in the delivery of narrative. Saskia. even up her were laid with a brush. stares out from her gloomy sickbed. presumably while he is making this drawing. and distance—so drawings of gathered people can be loosely arranged in three took only minutes to make and yet it lives for centuries. and so. heighten or subdue drama with subtleties of exaggeration or caricature. daily newspapers. and therefore seem to see. soap operas. we can learn most about handling pen and ink. in spite of how it may seem. Seeing through Rembrandt's eyes. comics. Second. Later in their lives. types.Gatherings A LL DRAWINGS TELL STORIES. Saskia died after childbirth.

In one of R a c k h a m s great illustrations for Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland. and projector. t h e y select and arrange familiar items of street detritus into what appears to be an u n p l e a s a n t pile. or even the office photocopier. plates shatter. Think about what else you could use: a laser smoke. and on." (Tim Noble) Drawing with light it is important to think about what you is Here timelessly we see a in can draw with. h a l o e d portrait of the artists seated b a c k to b a c k . c o m p o s e d garbage p r o d u c e s a c a l m . a kitchen explodes in o u r faces. the Cat. and smoke billows around the agitated jives of the Duchess. and Alice. and in. Real Life is Rubbish 2002 Dimensions variable TIM N O B L E A N D SUE WEBSTER . Pans fly oft the stove. for example. Below. via the animated clutter of o u r material lives. the C o o k . In both works.. Pencil on paper important but only the beginning of possibility the combination of three-dimensional space. TIM N O B L E A N D SUE W E B S T E R British artists who collaborate using neon. garbage and chaos are piled a n d e x p l o d e d in r o o m s full of event. T h e i m m a c u l a t e d r a w i n g is only r e v e a l e d w h e n t h e b e a m of a p r o j e c t o r c a s t s t h e s h a d o w Projections of the h e a p o n t o a wall.kicks against the mundane things that close down your mind is a refreshing and good thing. N o b l e a n d W e b s t e r s w i t t y a n d o f t e n s u b v e r s i v e d r a w i n g s are also c o n t e m p o r a r y art installations. and projectors to create their anarchic punk satires of modern life. hearth i m p l e m e n t s crash at o u r feet.. F o r e a c h w o r k . refuse. Here. narrative is delivered through the air. junk."Anything that.176 GATHERINGS SOME DRAWINGS ARE MADE e n t i r e l y o f i l l u m i n a t i o n that floods drama into the viewers gaze.

100 to see for make elliptical objects and pans fly through the the foreground.76-77) above vanishing point (see that is about3/4in (2 cm) oak converge at this point. amplifying movement outward from the vanishing point. are very large compared to on p. Rackham Vanishing point In this marvelous drama made with pen. ink. tabletop. This makes the story appear to leap out at us.Stowe's ofMysteryand Queer Little Folks. See how the In the Duchess's Kitchen 1907 77/8 x 6 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 5 0 m m ) ARTHUR RACKHAM . we find several devices already explored through our drawing classes. Depth Billows of smoke expand and are lighter as they come forward. by vivid children's Rakham's w o r k is characterized fantasy. and Poe's Tales Imagination. Find the singleperspective pp.177 ARTHUR RACKHAM British watercolorist and book illustrator. humor. and Alice's shoulder. The wood grain acts like marks of speed behind the scene. beams. and watercolor. H e is best k n o w n forillustratingIrving's Rip vanWinkle. a n d an unmistakable graphic style. Refer back to the drawing class how pots In drawn objects and elements that those behind.

Magnetic Fields sculpture. heat. In culture. and composition they are polar opposites. audiences. M o o r e t o u r e d Italy as a young man. This is an ironic drawing from Moore. as if Moore's wrapping has been literally outstretched. The image stands out among his more usual graphic works in which he hones and carves semi-abstract human forms. This is just one of many precious artifacts from a lost time. as fellow watchers. and action of a buffalo hunt. and we. expressing his dry humor about O F ALL THE CONTRASTS HENRY MOORE British s c u l p t o r w h o t r a i n e d a n d taught at t h e R C A . Opposite. a n d l o v e d t o d r a w in t h e BritishMuseum. A glimmer of gold light appears from the left No explanation is given. perhaps these two are the most extreme. a great Shoshone drawing blazes with the color. a sculptor. meaning. Chalk and graphite This fog-bound but humorous gathering of souls is made in graphite and colored chalk with gray wash. HENRY MOORE Crowd 1942 Looking at Tied-up Object . Moore's spectators appear to have walked a long way from nowhere to witness and wait beside this mysterious obelisque.The human form w a s the vehicle o f his expression and h e w a s t h e official W o r l d W a r II artist. London.178 GATHERINGS we have seen in the pairs and trios of drawings by masters and makers. The mournful gray landscape of Henry Moore's northern British field has gathered by night an overcoated audience to stand and wait before a wrapped and roped monument. and art in the landscape. join in the waiting. which still narrates vivid days in the lives of an energetic nation.

creating harmonious balance with words but through silent demonstration. Skills are taught not center chant or dance to the beat of a drum. MAGNETIC FIELDS Horses It is interesting to note how the outstretched limbs ofthesehorses echo European images of the runningBuffalo horse before the sequence-photographer Muybridge taught us to 19TH understand their movement differently." Men at the instructed to sit and watch. and helping our eye to dart around.179 SHOSHONE SCHOOL Stylized characters This vital image of a buffalo hunt is made with pigment Members of the Shoshone community wishing painted within dark outlines on a stretched elk hide. Stylized hunters. Each color is evenly distributed throughout the scene. Hunt CENTURY SHOSHONE SCHOOL . tolearnhow to paint a scene on a hide are and buffalo circle and charge the perimeters of a skin "field. horses.

w e f i n d a spiritual v i s i o n . Misted in translucent layers of paint. W I L L I A M BLAKE British visionary. t h e Bible. It illustrates a scene from Dante's Divine Comedy. a pink-inked cinema wobbles along with string. a n d e n g r a v e r w h o p o w e r f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e d his o w n t e x t s in a d d i t i o n t o D a n t e ' s Divine Comedy. w r i t e r a r t i s t . a n d f o c u s . m a r k . B l a k e h a s i l l u m i n a t e d his s a d d e n e d Virgil on the s h o r e s of a d a r k w o r l d .180 GATHERINGS The Human Condition IN THE SPECTRUM of these vastly d i f f e r e n t g a t h e r i n g s of p e o p l e . The muscularity of Blake's figures was inspired by Michelangelo's works. texture. a d e a t h c h a r g e of brutality. Heath Robinson lived through the same war-torn.f o o t e d t r o g l o d y t e s w h o rage into w a r like a m u d s l i d e of revenge. Brushed line and wash This is an ink-outlined drawing made with a fine brush on paper with added washes of watercolor The image was subsequently redrawn as a line engraving. inextinguishable in its fortitude and h u m o r . Opposite. Blake w a s d r i v e n b y a passion f o r j u s t i c e a n d a p r o f o u n d b e l i e f in his v i s i t a t i o n s f r o m angels. a n d the gentle h u m o r of sedate r i d i c u l e . and sweetened the often bleak years with his impractical inventions. color. w h i c h b y their c h o i c e a n d h a n d l i n g a c t u a l l y b e c o m e the force a n d spirit of e a c h i m a g e . The Circle of the (The Whirlwind 1824 of Lustful Lovers) mm) 143/4 x 207/8i n ( 3 7 4 x 5 3 0 WILLIAM BLAKE . We also see qualities of line. era as Kollwitz. pale souls of the lustful are being s p u n into yet another realm of hell. K a t h e K o l l w i t z s c r a t c h e d a n d e n g r a v e d her a r m y of c l a y . a n d o t h e r w o r k s . p o e t . w h e r e he w a t c h e s a t u r b u l e n t s p i r a l of p u n i s h m e n t f o r the d a m n e d .

children. poverty. stoical bemusement. plodding along with hazy. who lived in a poor district of Berlin.181 KATHE KOLLWITZ German printmaker. and controlled smears on the metal surface printed as tones. humor by making his characters earnest. Losbruch (The Outbreak) 1955 20 x 233/8 in (507 x 592 mm) KATHE KOLLWITZ HEATH ROBINSON humorous illustrator and a regular contributor to magazines and journals such as The Sketch and The Bystander. and the impact of death and war upon women. THE HUMAN CONDITION Scratched lines This is a dry-point etching with monoprint. With masterful gentility. British Pen and wash This is a pen-andwatercolor drawing made for a color-platereproduction in an edition of T h e Bystander. Ink rolled over was selectively polished off using a rag. HEATH ROBINSON The Kinecar 1926 103/8 x 15 in (262 x 380 mm) . White marks were made with a dusting of French chalk on the artist's finger to wipe away ink leaving clean metal. however meager or ridiculous their activity. and clearly focused. and the family home. Heath Robinson shows England in a past era. Kollwitz survived the two World Wars. He created sincere. The image was scratched directly onto a metal plate. What remained in scratched grooves printed on damp paper as lines. Robinson and Kollwitz (above) share almost identical life dates and their work expresses a shared history from opposite sides oftheworld wars. and her powerful and sensitive drawings center on nurture. sculptor and draftsman.

or idea. FIBER-TIP: M a n u f a c t u r e d f o r artists a n d d e s i g n e r s in a r a n g e o f w i d t h s . in the car. gel pens) are the most convenient of all materials with which to travel. 7 6 . is d e l i v e r e d t h r o u g h a m e t a l t u b e o v e r a t i n y ball bearing. blob when old. jot notes. t w o tourists and their gondolier drifter past m e o n a canal. build to a rich. I swiftly focused on gesture. 2. Insensitive t o p r e s s u r e : lines d o n o t v a r y in w i d t h o r t o n e . B A L L P O I N T : Black a n d b o l d c o l o r s o f f e r d i v e r s e qualities. Quick-drying.7 7 and 214-15). p e r m a n e n t . a ballpoint will make faint lines. t h e y a r e lightfast.182 GATHERINGS Disposable Pens (ballpoints. they can be obtained within minutes. turn the page. a n d ranges o f colors. 4.r e s i s t a n t . . they each offer distinct and sometimes unexpected qualities. these pens enable you to sketch. aiming for correct outlines would result in drawing too slowly to c a t c h the moment. rollerballs. I keep quantities at home. a n d pressure-sensitive. CHOICES AVAILABLE T h e r e a r e m a n y d i s p o s a b l e p e n s t o c h o o s e from. W h i t e gel p e n s a r e v e r y e f f e c t i v e o n d a r k papers. indent paper. a disposable pen with its clip-on cap goes anywhere. if y o u w i s h y o u r d r a w i n g s t o last a n d n o t fade o r b l u r w i t h t i m e a n d e x p o s u r e t o light. which can snap or pierce through your clothes. fibertips. dropped in your pocket and forgotten till needed.188-89) and Caravans (see pp. G E L P E N : P r o d u c e d in b l a c k w h i t e . 192-93) w e r e b o t h m a d e w i t h a ballpoint. fine fiber-tip Drawing with a fine fiber-tip pen. dark sheen. and in most pockets so I can always record a thought DISPOSABLE PENS QUICK NOTES O n a c o l d day in Venice. c h o o s e p e n s l a b e l e d " p e r m a n e n t " o r "lightfast. Available in blacks and ranges of colors. Ideal f o r precision w o r k (see p p . Lines t h i c k e n as t h e p e n w e a r s o u t G r a n d Canal (see pp. in the studio. w a t e r . For example. At a time like this. or turn into washes and make monoprints if flooded with an alcohol-based substance such as hairspray. R e m e m b e r . So many stores sell them. R O L L E R B A L L : A c o n s t a n t i n k flow 3 . trusting shape and form to follow. including l u m i n o u s a n d m e t a l l i c . shut your book. The f o u r i l l u s t r a t e d h e r e r e p r e s e n t a basic r a n g e ." 1. Unlike pencils. T h e r e w e r e c seconds t o snatch this impression b e t w e e n their emergence from one bridge and disappearance b e n e a t h t h e next. or put the paper in your pocket instantly without fear of smudging.

Fast lines focus on action. Compare this Klee's mules on p. Earlier I had witnessed a crammed en masse in a fleet of hired gondolas complete with musicians and choir. crowd of fellow travelers Fast lines These scribbled lines model the mass and shadows of heads belonging passengers packed into the boat.31 . not form.FROMMEMORY Here I used the same fiber-tip pen to compose a scene from memory.

Each line acts its part in the narrative. Every drawing writes an indelible memory of place. if a person was stout. You must learn to trust your memory and to draw what impressed you most. activity. focus on the action of the event. You will make outlines. not its outline. Don't worry about measuring angles. if animated. life will not slow and wait for you to catch it. just draw the action. No camera can tie you to a time or people in the same way. but they should not be what you dwell on. Circular lines buzz around a man puzzling at the end of a train platform (left). angles will happen as a matter of course. FLEETING MOMENTS Walking through Venice with a small. let it enter the stage and perform. I caught fleeting glimpses of gathered people and solitary souls going about their affairs. Movement . Push toward caricature and this will draw out of your memory what was most important. Each one was witnessed and drawn immediately from the afterimage of what I had just seen. animate them more. of course. However. when out drawing. and companionship.184 GATHERINGS The Travel Journal I CANNOT OVERSTATE THE JOY of making a travel journal. pocket notebook and a fiber-tip pen. Let the line of the flying coat fly and the hanging arm hang. A curatorial assistant flies to do a chore (right). black. make them stouter. Above all. Exaggeration helps. all action is in the line of his coat and directed by his nose.

eager to herd us all from his house of responsibility. I drew him three times on the same page to catch a range of his physical expressions. In turn. Observation THE TRAVEL JOURNAL The same willowy assistant dashes about his work. I am watched by the aggravated guard. Expression . The rush of his legs isamplifiedby their blurred lines.185 A large lady is photographed in front of a delicate work of art.

furniture leans. Place the person carefully.186 GATHERINGS Catching the Moment On A BITTERLY COLD November day. and there met this sullen custodian. For example. He and his simpering assistant would not allow me in. . and clothing or bags hang. or bulge. forcing me to remain at the back and look at them. if they are being haughty. if they are being devious. pulls. ACTION AND DETAIL W h e n drawing people. and reason for happening. I took refuge in a church in Venice. start by focusing on its action. placement. or pushes. and let every detail speak by its size. Here the custodian projects fastidious ownership of his desk and pamphlets by pushing from behind the center of the space and challenging our entry to his image. focus on action. elevate them in the pictorial space. you might place them lower down. Identify the principal character and draw him or her first. not outline. and involvement in the story. flap. decide how faces and bodies contort. When your attention has been caught. emotion. For example. rather than the works of art they guarded. and you decide to draw the moment. Here I have recreated my drawing in steps to show you how to set about capturing such a scene. Be aware that their placement on the page is part of the narrative.

In the final step (left) I reinforced t h e custodian's desk. a pillar locates t h e scene in a depth o f space. which is pushed toward us in a gesture of confrontation. Decide where t o place them t o emphasize their role. Draw their action and props. continue adding characters. Decide where you will place them o n the paper t o emphasize their action and intent. such as the desk and pamphlets seen here. who is largely expressed through the shape and fall o f his raincoat and his way o f using a note pad. W i t h a few strokes. CATCHING THE MOMENT The assistant Identify t h e antagonist ( o r second character) in t h e scene. Here.187 The custodian Identify your principal character a n d their psychological role in the scene. together with any immediate props they are using. . I added t h e assistant. If drawing a more complex scene. D r a w their action.


. I developed detailofthis drawing from memory using a ballpoint pen. and buildings.Grand Canal T H E CANALS OF VENICE are bustling places full of occupation. An imminent deluge of tourists urged me to work catching no more than the skeleton of the view. where vertical mooring poles give space and pulse to the horizontal speed of water quickly.

and drawn immediately from memory. To catch characters like this. Characters in the foreground were drawn first. note only their most essential action and feature.Crossings DURING THIS RUSH HOUR. Caricature each person slightly. Venetians flow across a stepped bridge and cascade into the streets beyond. Each person was glimpsed in an instant. then the bridge beneath them. . followed by the streets.



Sitting at a distance on a hot. I found this circus by chance in the Swiss mountains. quiet afternoon. and a great subject to draw.Caravans T H E PARAPHERNALIA O F TRAVEL i s an intriguing part of circus life. . Caravans and other backstage activity convey expectations of energy and repose. I used a ballpoint pen to compose a series of scenes.




5 f t x 5 ft 6 in ( 1 5 2 x 1 6 8 c m ) J O H N RUSSELL . to be ready to draw the new light as it breaks across the land. artists see for themselves that which is momentary and eternal. It is Earths satellite. a n d a n astronomer w h o dedicated 20 years t o studying t h e M o o n . and take bold steps in emulating the swell of clouds and the forces of torrential water. Oxford. By drawing such momentous and everyday events. marking the ground with lines of footprints or by turning stones. There is a sense of the heroic in drawing outside—we race to catch a form before the tide engulfs it. the sun comes out to blind it. how the mountain cut by ice and rain is now fleetingly lit. t h e first-ever accurate image o f t h e M o o n ' s surface. It now hangs on the staircase of the History of Science Museum. JOHN RUSSELL A p o r t r a i t pastelist t o King G e o r g e III o f England. and even how the Sun illuminates. are the real subjects in great landscape drawings. as opposed the physicality of Earth. What they have drawn is the force of nature on these properties: how the wind heaves the night ocean. The forces of nature. they are the animators of your subject. Take chances against the rain and work with the wind or fog. a n d a m o o n globe called t h e Selenographia. how the soil is scorched. or the wind carries it away. pages o f softly i l l u m i n a t e d craters and lunar "seas" c o v e r e d in m a t h e m a t i c a l and s h o r t h a n d calculations. or has cracked and fallen under the weight of water. England. makes his work by the act of walking. a contemporary environmental artist. and its draws the tides of the seas. our companion. Russell d r e w this. sunny days. Weather is essential in all landscape drawing. 199). Beginners will often choose calm. and the sea. arranging them in perfect circles on the mountainside or in lines drifting out of sight beneath low clouds. H e a l s o p r o d u c e d an a l b u m o f 1 8 0 exquisite pencil drawings. Look closely at works by many artists and you will see that they have not represented hills. trees. surrounded by the bright instruments of centuries of navigation. This is the world's first accurate image of the Moon. learning to draw light out of dark. speculation. when little stirs and empty blue skies offer even less to latch lines to. The pastel drawing was constructed from myriad telescopic observations almost 200 years before the Apollo Moon landing. the face of the Moon. rivers. so J o h n Russell's tour de f o r c e drawing (opposite) was a masterpiece of observation in his time. t w o e n g r a v e d m a p s k n o w n as The Lunar Planispheres. Richard Long. and experiment. and meteor impacts have scarred. It is better to get up before dawn. but it can be seen as a lens to our observation of this planet.Earth and the Elements I T MAY SEEM PERVERSE to start a chapter titled "Earth and the Elements" with an image of the Moon. These conditions are very difficult to express well. In this chapter Moon Pastel 1795 Drawing we experiment with charcoal. Just as NASA photographs of Earth have had a profound effect on the way we view our fragile home. William Turner is said to have had himself lashed to a ship's mast to comprehend the storm (see p.

has b e c o m e a hysterical kite. serving a prison sentence for his views. Hokusais sedate wind presses reeds a n d the j o u r n e y s o f young ladies. a scratched ghost. Daumier's c a r t o o n shines with the brilliance of his comic memory. Below. is already lost. speed. the bourgeoisie.198 EARTH AND THE E L E M E N T S Air in Motion THE GREAT INVISIBLE SUBJECT o f these d r a w i n g s is t h e w i n d . lifts. Terrifying waves of merciless nature roar across the paper. Hazy vertical marks reveal buildings into the mist. T h e great master of English seascape is c o n d u c t i n g with his graphic energy. T h e ship. Crayon and limestone This is a lithograph. Dots and dashes suggest receding trees out of focus. H O N O R E DAUMIER French satirical cartoonist lithographer. This wife.Through political drawings he fired his sharp wit at the king. Danger of Wearing Balloon Petticoats UNDATED HONORE DAUMIER . a sail b r o k e n loose in a stormy marriage. fluttering heavily. and by observing its tides and eddies in our o w n environment. Fluid strokes inflate the woman's dress and pin shadows to the ground. painter. the government. A hard waxy was drawn across a heavy limestone Varying definitions crayon of lire and depths of tone conspire to give volume. we can soon learn to draw its force. and solidity. Flapping kimonos and an onlooker turning his b a c k have the magic of a m o m e n t caught. By Turner carries us to the heart of the maelstrom. distance. and the legal profession. He knew how the world bends and stutters under such gusts. and gives motion to each image. and pioneer ofexpressionism. seeing how it shakes. sculptor. like an umbrella forced inside-out. undramatic b u t brimming with stylized realism.

A outline scratched of a skeletal into penciled ship is while and the waves. 1826 91/2 x 113/4 in ( 2 4 1 x 3 0 0 m m ) J. into this very as pressed sheet The paper's through own coior is brought banks of mist and fog.b l o c kprintmaker. Wind direction wood-block This is a colored To represent the blows lifted flowed wind. Hokusai direction (from clothing from has chosen which it the right). AIR IN MOTION Pencil and watercolor subdued brushed. T u r n e r w o r k e d in oils a n d w a t e r c o l o r s a n d s k e t c h e d c o p i o u s l y o n his travels. T U R N E R British landscape. wind. a n d his b e s t . TURNER KATSUSHIKA HOKUSAI Prolific J a p a n e s e c o l o r w o o d . T h e r e a r e m a n y stories o f his p a s s i o n a t e w o r k i n g methods. including being lashed t o a ship's m a s t in o r d e r to study a storm. Landscape a n d city life w e r e his principal subjects. from left print.M. and history painter w h o s e p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t a b o v e all w a s light. W . seascape.199 J. H o k u s a i in t u r n has since significantly influenced European art.W.l o v e dw o r k s i n c l u d e 1 0 0 v i e w s o f M o u n t Fuji and 1 2 v o l u m e s o f Manga. Ship in a Storm c. leans the whole composition swells around its fateful center. absorbent watercolor and are Stains of splashed.i n f l u e n c e d b y examples o f W e s t e r n art obtained through D u t c h t r a d i n g in Nagasaki.M. d e s i g n e r a n d b o o k i l l u s t r a t o r . painter. horizontally then and of the it into the stream Plants also bend and flow right to Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 1802 81/2 HOKUSAI KATSUSHIKA x 131/2 in ( 2 1 7 x 3 4 3 mm) .

as a subject and second. and tossed o b j e c t s — a perfect subject in which artists can forget themselves. or charcoal. D o m e s t i c o b j e c t s we can o w n and name fall from the clouds. By contrast. T h e m e n a c i n g darkness of Hugo's storm b e l o w is so convincing. leaving nothing but a glimpse of moonlight glistening on the froth below. inks.198) admires the majesty of nature. He brings us to stare into a place that no sane human would enter. active surfaces of water. Leonardos Cloudburst of Material Possessions is o n e of his m o s t enigmatic and mysterious works. with a brush. Le Bateau-Vision 1864 71/2 x 1 0 in ( 1 9 2 x 2 5 5 m m ) VICTOR H U G O . composing banks of waves and dense.28). His subjects include ruins. fantasy palaces. lines of rain escorting them to b o u n c e and clatter. it is difficult to contemplate its brooding and night-soaked heart. as if drawn j u s t this year. In periods b e t w e e n writing. ink. marks. An update on biblical showers of fish and frogs. EARTH AND THE VICTOR HUGO French novelist and artist (see also p. grab their b r u s h . Opposite. this is a writer's narrative of terror. Turner (see p. he blanketed the drawing in darkness.200 ELEMENTS Storms STORMS CAN BE SEEN and drawn in two ways: first. as a gestural storm on the paper. and t h e sea s t u d i e d f r o m his h o m e in Guernsey in t h e Channel Islands. water. It looks so contemporary. drawing was Hugo's principal means o f expression. this is a b o m b a r d m e n t from o u r h o m e s . T h e very nature of b o t h is turmoil and an interweaving of elements. Then. and swim into the page. h a u n t e d shadows. Pen and brush Hugo drew first with pen and ink.

together with half the contents of our garage. Each item that has crashed from heaven is drawn in such a way that we can feel Leonardo's nib picking it up in the speed of a doodle. Cloudburst of Material Possessions 1510-12 45/8 x 43/8 in ( 1 1 7 x 1 1 1 mm) L E O N A R D O DA VINCI . for example). Above and below are examples of his mirror handwriting. It is interesting to speculate how engineering might have developed if his ideas had been shared with the world earlier Ink and chalk This is a pen and ink drawing with touches of black chalk. and they passed through private hands for 400 years before becoming widely known. a bell.LEONARDO DA VINCI Leonardo devised many artifacts of our modern lives. There is a little magic in recognizing many items from our homes something like a rake. and a wheel. a hook. He bequeathed his drawings to a friend. envisioning machines centuries before their making (helicopters and bicycles. He was left-handed and wrote backwards in Italian from left to right.

she teased away fragments of paper to illuminate her view. made inside a book.202 ELEMENTS THE PROFILE OF A HORIZON is a line we immediately recognize and respond to. In a very different work (opposite above). Paler. EARTH AND THE Bryan cut the profile of a city. it is the unique calligraphic signature of the place in which we stand. atmosphere. Nature Profiles Opposite below. a horizon line can trigger our recognition. transferred it to a scroll. Claude has used a fine nib to delineate segments of land as they recede into space. In the lower half he has walked downhill a little. Even distilled from all other detail. and across to the right. and etcher who lived most of his life in 17th-century Rome. Over first lines. Drawing with a scalpel. and mood simultaneously. Whether land-. and dry marks in the foreground appear to be made with his finger. thick. or cityscape. C L A U D E LORRAIN French classical landscape painter draftsman. sea-. and we can imagine standing over his shoulder. and after tracing her captured line.1638 85/8 x 121/2 in (219 x 320 mm) CLAUDE LORRAIN . which he used to unify his compositions. Segments The top half of the drawing is a view as we enter the valley. and famed for. Views from Velletri c. rich. Clare Bryan took panoramic photographs of the English South Downs. Claude is distinguished by. Claude Lorrain drew directly on location. She was inspired by her research of aerial plans of London and the story of an alien map butterfly (see caption). rapidly layering contours to shape place. cooler tones receding into the distance are applied with a brush. his unsurpassed handling of light. watching his hand and eye at work together.

printmaker graphic designer. then hunted destroyed.5-m)scroll. specialty bookbinder. and visiting professor at numerous art schools. On turning the pages of City. progressively settlement (cropped more and more paper is drawn away to show the expansion of human page of an around the river. 2001 CLARE BRYAN C L A R E BRYAN 3ritish artist." Cut line This is a small section of a preparatory 5-ft(1. drawings Ideas of introduction Clare Bryan to research introduced down and led NATURE PROFILES and removal historical plans and aerial growth of London showing its population since Roman times. source workisilluminatedby standing its lower edge on a CLARE BRYAN . The edges of each here) fade into the solid paper unpopulated with a scalpel landscape.The horizon was drawn with a City Landline 2003 271/2x 59 in (70 x 150 cm) scalpel.203 Scalpel-drawn This book-bound drawing was inspired by the story of a foreign butterfly wrongly to Great Britain in 1912. Her recent paper photographic. and digital print-based works reflect upon the histories and poetry of "left behind and in-between spaces.

so it chars b l a c k as o p p o s e d to igniting a n d turning to ash. Lines are achieved by d e p o s i t i n g particles in the grain o f paper. Charcoal lifts away from paper easily with the very light touch o f an eraser. R o u g h paper c a n b e loaded. you can p u r c h a s e m a c h i n e . As its name implies. MEDIUM W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 5. a n d p l u m . leaving u n d e r t r a c e s of first thoughts. 2.m a d e c o m p r e s s e d charcoal. they are all intended for fine work. tape. resulting in a stick that gives a blacker. In use. It is also easily erased if the maker of the mark is not happy with the result. without touching the surface. 4. LIFTING OUT This technique is a very easy method of drawing a crisp. Beware of cheap brands selling dyed chalk as compressed charcoal. It c a n be m a d e duller. CHARCOAL PENCIL: Types made by different manufacturers vary in quality and density of line. Artists have also used lime. 3. maple. harder line. 6. The tip snaps easily to renew a sharp edge if required. THIN WILLOW CHARCOAL: I used a piece like this to make the drawing opposite. 162) or graphite (see p. sticky side down. 1 Suspend a length of masking tape. blacker. Essentially. feather. C h a r c o a l naturally glistens. and offers a rich. only a little thicker. the heel o f y o u r h a n d . Smooth paper accepts few particles. A great find when available. b l a c k e r . cylindrical. white line into the blackor grayness of willow charcoal. Use any fine-point pen or pencil (I used a ballpoint) to draw a firm line on the back of the Big pieces are perfect for very large-scale drawings—even larger than yourself. or fingertip. Hold it over your drawing RANGE AVAILABLE Charcoal (in its several forms shown here) is loved or loathed by the beginner to whom it is often recommended because it produces pleasing results quickly. it looks gray and feels like chalk. Slightly dull the tape's stickiness before use t o prevent it from lifting out more than you intend. vine. this does not exist. 3 A white line is lifted out by the tape. Then lift it away. black finish. The same as above.204 E A R T H AND THE E L E M E N T S Charcoal CHARCOAL IS PRODUCED from wood baked slowly without exposure to air.54). fine. it is compressed and m o l d e d at high pressure. Alternatively. Boxes often contain a range of thicknesses to choose for different needs. resulting in a pale line. It allows you greater precision in your mark-making than if you rub away the charcoal with an eraser. COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Machine-made. It does n o t erase easily. Not to be confused with square conte sticks (see p. a piece of fresh bread. 1. . THICK W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 2 Keep the tape above your drawing. 7. a rag. B u n d l e s o f twigs were traditionally sealed into earthenware j a r s or wet clay and heated slowly and intensely in a fire or kiln. SQUARE COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Not often sold. CHALK CHARCOAL: Technically. Try itworking on big paper covering a wall. and heavier than willow. b e e c h . but some specialists stock compressed charcoal in delicate square sticks. between your middle finger and thumb. a n d m o r e i n d e l i b l e by soaking it in linseed oil. Willow is the most c o m m o n wood.

Layers can be peeled away to refresh its surface. 10. Here. 8 . Use high quality (very sticky) to fix paper to walls and boards. I used a plastic eraser effectively on thinly applied charcoal. Lift out broader marks with a larger implement. Cotton swabs also work. Use cheaper (less sticky) for lifting out. CHARCOAL Lifting out This detail shows an example of where I used the lifting-out technique demonstrated opposite to draw flashes of lightning against rain clouds. . as is fresh (unbuttered!) bread. or any other dry media. Different tones seen throughout the main drawing on pp.205 ERASING Thickly applied charcoal quickly o v e r c o m e s a plastic eraser A w a r m (soft and tacky) putty eraser is more effective. 9. pastels. PEN: Any fine pen or pencil can be used to draw on the back of masking tape when lifting out. graphite. MASKING TAPE: An invaluable resource.212-13 were made by altering the pressure applied to the charcoal. T O R T I L L O N : This is a tight roll of paper used to blend charcoal. sold in several widths. Here we used a ballpoint.

This term simply means that as land rolls away into the distance. a reel of masking tape. It is the visible effect of the atmosphere between where you stand and what you see in the distance. To experiment with drawing landscapes and the use of charcoal. a less distinct middle ground composed of shapes and textures. the less you describe. the more you encourage the viewer's imagination to join in and see. MATERIALS In this first view there is only a foreground and middle distance. The long view is hidden behind trees. begin by marking out several small squares on your paper. pack your materials (as advised below) and set off for a local view or your nearest arboretum. Landscape drawings are traditionally arranged in three parts: a detailed foreground. Ironically.206 EARTH AND THE ELEMENTS Landscapes TREES ALONE OFFER MARVELOUS shapes to draw.212-13). details blur and colors grow paler and bluer. to contain each of your compositions. When you arrive. At its worst. Don't worry if it is cloudy: clouds add drama and perspective and make good subjects in themselves (see pp. but is often less evocative and engaging. Excessive detail can be admired for its skill and achievement. especially when making first excursions into aerial perspective. Pack several thick and thin sticks of willow charcoal. it results in flat planes of clutter. and an abstract. Then I drew the shape of the tonal patches I perceived. Seeing tones . an eraser your drawing book or a board and paper fixative (or hairspray). They are also good markers of receding space.9 9 we noted that in response to visual stimulus. 9 8 . our brains search for nameable things and will perceive complete pictures from very little information. I relaxed my eyes out of focus to dissolve distracting detail into abstract patches of light and darkness. hazy distance. Successful drawings often only suggest the qualities of the scene without overdescribing them. and a cushion in a plastic bag to sit on. On p p .

horizontal regions of grass. full of information you can use to create what you want! Inventing drama . I have invented drama with diagonals set against each other I tilted the earth. the trunk of a bare tree. Exploring the view Redrawing the scene above. This composition turned out a little flat because I have an almost even quantity of earth and sky. rounded. dark trees with bright. and broke a view through the hedge into the distance with a dark sky threatening rain. shadows. It is better to give distinctly more pictorial space to one or the other (see below). Remember.207 LANDSCAPES In my second square I explored a simple view contrasting soft. your view is your inspiration.

EARTH AND THE FINDING THE SUBJECT Finding a remarkable subject is even better when you can circumnavigate it in an arena of space. "Drawing in the round means to literally walk around your subject. Circling a subject and drawing it from several views imprints on your memory a better understanding of its three-dimensional form. and tiller still standing proud. settling my concentration. For example. taking with you your drawing book and pen. shade out of the glare of the sun. This first drawing serves as a process of arrival.1 5 my first drawing of the whole view of the Tiber led me to see the real subject of the day. and seeing what the real choice of subject is. England has embedded within it the decaying skeleton of a burned fishing boat. Building on earlier studies of structure in space using shoes (pp. The mud of the tidal shore in Rye. 2 1 4 . observing it from several views so as to better understand it as a whole.164-65) and a wire violin (pp. so the paper is not made blinding and your hand cannot cast a shadow on your work. your challenge now is to find a sculptural subject in the landscape. Similarly. on p p . bare ribs.208 ELEMENTS Drawing in the Round WHEN DRAWING IN THE LANDSCAPE. making the scene below led me to focus on the decaying boat opposite. I usually begin by making an image of the whole view. engine. s e e k places in light After my first drawing. which was the flow of water over rocks." .104-05). I am then able to home in on what interests me most for further study.

The outline ties a shape of darkness to the boat like a weight so that it becomes part of its form. careful lines to establish the skeleton that gives this wreck its distinct form. and structure. I looked more boldly at the planes and the dynamic of the sculptural craft My lines have become darker and more forceful as confidence in my understanding of the vessel grew. unfussy lines. and the order and shape of its component parts. its overall balance. 3 This impression notes the angle of the broken boat. Each n e w drawing gives a different insight. looking more at the boat than at the paper From this low position I have emphasized how the boat is swallowed in mud by outlining its shadow on the ground. ROUND 2 In this tail-end view. DRAWING IN THE 1 Here. marking straight. I spent equal time looking at the subject and the paper. I drew with quick.209 SERIES OF STUDIES This stunning ghost o f a boat comes into v i e w t w i c e a day. W h e n you have found your subject. w h e n t h e sea recedes. character. Overleaf: Decaying Boat 4 . make a series o f drawings f r o m different positions.



Cloudburst THIS STORM DRAWING. hot-pressed drawing p a p e r (see pp. . L o o k i n g b a c k and forth from the heavens to firmly taped-down paper. was made with gentle but unhesitating s p e e d . I worked quickly to catch and weave the turbulent contrasts of rising wind and approaching water before the drawing could be washed away. m a d e on s m o o t h .20-21) using a thin stick of willow charcoal.


Notes of Force T H E GREAT FLOWING TIBER RIVER has cut through Rome. black. pulse. since ancient times. . pocket-sized notebook. focusing on the river's eddies. I drew with a needle-fine fiber-tip pen. shaping the city. On the pages of a small. and rhythmic detail as it passed through the ancient gully of the city.


The strong diagonal of the composition from bottom left to top right carries the eye through changes of height and focus from the foreground to the mountains beyond.Mountains SITTING IN THE SHADE of a tree on the Greek island of Antiparos. I used a dip pen and waterproof India ink with brushed watercolor to draw the view. .



. My own work is firmly centered in figuration.Abstract Lines T HE DEVELOPMENT OF W E S T E R N abstract art at the beginning of the 20th century significantly paralleled major changes in world thought. I begin every image by feeling its meaning. The growing rise of Darwinian ideas coupled with Freudian and Marxist perspectives forced Western society to reconsider its origins and future. and emotion. Afterward. and Aboriginal art. it is simply itself. for example. It is actually its foundation and its infrastructure. Internal workings of the mind were suddenly free to find a new language of expression. Many concepts and feelings can only be expressed through marks. Artists were given a different tool—a line threaded directly from their subconscious to their hand—and with it they began to map a bold new landscape of marks and concepts that would dramatically and forever change the face of Western art. actions. From another viewpoint. strike the paper to find form. He made thousands of drawings to chronicle his complex life. many nonWestern cultures have highly sophisticated abstractions at the core of their art. Swirling. Outsider artists. opposite. However. and it has always been with us. such as Adolf Wolfli. and history. ADOLF WOLFLI One of the greatest masters of Art Brut. Perhaps in Western culture we bred this intuitive freedom out of ourselves in our insistence on complex figuration. which are essentially abstract. Museum of Fine Arts. His drawings are collected and exhibited internationally and held by the Adolf Wolfli Foundation. First marks. yet my kinship to abstraction is fundamental. expressive marks and shapes are at the core of natural. It was not invented in the 20th century. It also underpins and gives strength and unity to all figurative work. belief. writhing torrents of color.8 cm) A D O L F WOLFLI Abstraction is a direct. People are often scared by abstraction and see it as the enemy of figurative art. abstraction is not so easy to define. The fate of Old World thinking was finally sealed with the brutality of World War I. Indian mandalas. As you approach the classes in this chapter. picturing a stabilized world was impossible and Modernism rode forth with vigor. spontaneous image-making. and poetic myth roar and cascade within his tightly framed pages. Wolfli was a Swiss draftsman. An abstract mark is often a better conductor of a thought or feeling. fictional language. Not everything we know has a physical form in the world. poet. only rediscovered. drawn sound. From one point of view. direction. all pictorial representations are abstractions of reality. precisely because it does not have to represent a physical object. writer and composer who suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and was resident in the Waldau Aslyum near Berne. and have been making abstract drawings for centuries—Japanese calligraphy. sounds. Berne. liberating. don't be timid. Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape 1915 413/8 x 285/8 in (105 x 72. or gestures. be brave and enjoy them. and young children show us that abstract. and independent means of communication.

sit in silent harmony. Abe works with materials such as soil. tone. akin to stones in a Zen garden. and sensitivity with its thickness and pressure of touch. Abe's physical drawing is a sculptural installation. Lines. Five forged steel shapes. scrolling across the canvas in an intimate crescendo. A Neolithic chalk tablet bears cut lines that were slowly carved. MAMORU ABE Japanese sculptor and installation artist. forged steel. as Twombly shows us opposite. Sometimes it smolders like a deep shadow. Changes paper. Damp Japanese paper was laid over carefully arranged iron bars. It can proclaim mood. quoting ink marks on a page. Iron rods in tone. or. and texture their bracing separation reaching between from beneath Pillars of the gallery are made part of this drawing by their inclusion in the paper. The Physical Space 1990 3 0 x 30 ft ( 9 1 4 x 9 1 4 cm) MAMORU ABE . Twombly's mesmeric wax line worked over house paint is like a signature. Below. texture. staining redbrown lines into the white surface. He travels widely to research ancient sacred sites. iron. Mamoru Abe prepares an image that will appear through the chemistry of iron. and temperature rim of floor space.220 A B S T R A C T LINES Process and Harmony SOMETIMES A DRAWN LINE sings on the surface of its support. Moisture produced rust. This the paper rest within the amplifies framelike of the floor from the ceiling. A line can be finished in a second. silence. salt. and Assistant Professor of Fine A r t at Fukuoka University. brass. and wood are also part of the work. ice. and plaster in galleries and landscapes. it can keep reforming through the inherent repetition of a process. water. rhythmically engaged with itself. and patient watching.

emotive. theories suggest astrological observations.400BCE 21/4 x 21/4 in (58 x 58 mm) ARTIST UNKNOWN Language Over the course of fifty years. Twombly has language works CY TWOMBLY Contemporary American artist who emerged through the 1950s New York art scene in the heyday of Abstract Expressionism and Action Painting. such as the Rosetta stone. close to Stonehenge in Wiltshire. and Untitled 1970 Here we might seek to grasp letters in the turning of his line. and American Indian petroglyphs (see p. The central pictorial space is also similarly cut and divided by the considered arrangement of straight lines. PROCESS AND HARMONY Cut lines Chalk carves easily. At the 2001 Venice Biennale. Many of his graffiti-like combine abstract gestures with statements. the Babylonian world map.England. energetic. and sensuous drawing from painting. that challenges the separation of word from image. and the worship of the sun and ancient gods. CY TWOMBLY . This example is one of two chalk tablets found in a Late-Neolithic pit. Neolithic Chalk Tablet 3. Precise lines suggest the use of a sharp flint The framed rectangle of this image is echoed in that of Abe's installation.241).Thesite's purpose is unknown. evolved a raw. burials.000-2.Twombly was presented with a Golden Lion award for lifetime achievement.221 ANCIENT CARVINGS Many ancient cultures have made and left behind drawings and texts carved into stones or animal bone.

said. and let the drying meniscus deposit granules in linear drifts such as we would see in the satellite photographic mapping of rivers. Ink impressions When drawing nightscapes Hugo often laid paper disks in place of the moon. he mixed graphite into ink. broke new ground in the 1950s with graphic scores now considered among the most extreme. Gestalt. Hugo. Marks across the center appear to be made with his fingers. Similarity in gritty texture suggests that here." An innovator who never fails to surprise. The scores are also exhibited in galleries as visual art. pressed them face down. Gestalt o f an unnameable thing. beautiful.28. abstract. below.28). Texture Compare this drawing to Hugo's octopus on p. A graphic score is a V I C T O R H U G O Hugo's abstract French novelist w h o m a d e m a n y drawings in m i x e d m e d i a ( s e e also p. music manuscript requiring instrumentalists to improvise. Two Impressions Paper 1853-55 VICTOR HUGO Disk from a Cut-Out . o r a pattern o f elements s o unified as a w h o l e t h e y c a n n o t b e e x p l a i n e d asa s u m o f parts. a configuration. Bussotti. too. Here he appears t o have saturated the cut-out moon disks with gritty pigment. interpret. Both abstract drawing and composition involve the perfect sequencing of sounds and marks against space and silence. opposite. His drawing writes the time of its own physical process by expressing the extreme concentration of the moment in which it was made. and participate in the composition. have striven to break down old pictorial and musical structures to explore new and unfettered modes of expression. here he anticipates abstract expressionism by 100 years. abstract artists and composers unique. "There is nothing like dream to create the future. drawing here can b e described in t e r m s o f a G e r m a n philosophical idea a b o u t is t h e i n s t a n t r e c o g n i t i o n t h e p o w e r o f m o m e n t . and lifted them away to leave impressions of watery planets and seas. brushed night skies over them with ink then lifted the disks to reveal white moons. and inventive of his time.222 ABSTRACT LINES Writing Time SINCE THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY. o f t e n e x p r e s s e d in v i s u a l t e r m s .

His later works become increasingly abstract. Compare this work to that of Libeskind on p. Bussotti's first mature work. This is a page from Due Voci. Following the notes.223 W R I T I N G TIME SYLVANO BUSSOTTI Italian avant-garde composer and principal 20thcentury exponent of the graphic score. we can feel their rhythm and easily attach sounds to them. 1958 SYLVANO BUSSOTTI . Sound and rhythm This flickering rondo of sound written in pen on a hand-ruled stave can be heard in our imaginations as much as seen. 70 in relation to Bussotti's clustered notes to the left of his rondo and open space to the right. Circular Score for "Due Voci" c. a far cry from any recognized musical notation.

Lieb is one o f countless thousands of "Outsider" artists—diverse individuals including ordinary citizens. Cell Floor With Torn Strips of Cloth 1894 MARIE LIEB . it is found in the regularity o f ordered lines or a pattern. Cloth is the simple instrument with which she has conducted and ordered her universe. Germany. O p p o s i t e . for e x a m p l e . making objects and images outside o f mainstream culture. She tore c l o t h into strips a n d used these to draw patterns a n d symbols o n h e r cell floor. an a n o n y m o u s w o m a n in the southeast Indian state o f Tamil Nadu m a k e s a ritual drawing o n the b r i c k courtyard o f h e r h o m e . cultures. T h e s e p h o t o g r a p h s d o c u m e n t the meditative drawings o f two w o m e n living worlds apart in different countries. centuries. Compositional rightness (see pp.228-29) has been adjusted with each movement of the rags to draw a cosmos of balance and perfection. In music it can be felt in the diversity of plainsong and African d r u m m i n g . In the late 1 9 t h century. social outcasts. MARIE LIEB Little is known of this w o m a n for w h o m the act of drawing was essential.224 A B S T R A C T LINES Chants and Prayers WHEN ABSTRACT LINES are organized in repetition. This takes a form in most cultures. and c i r c u m s t a n c e s . It will protect the place from evil and make a pleasing invitation to good spirits. Visually. Torn cloth This is one of two published photographs showing Marie Leib's torn cloth strips significantly placed on her cell floor. Marie Lieb w a s a psychiatric patient in the Heidelberg Asylum. d i p p i n g h e r fingers into a pot o f rice flour. they m a k e a visual a n d physical e c h o that t o u c h e s s o m e deep part of the human spirit. and sufferers of psychiatric illnesses—who have always existed.

women pride themselves on never repeating a design. and birds. animals. Huyler is the author of Painted Prayers. lecturer on the subjects of Indian art and Indian women's identity. Popular magazines feature new ideas each week and on special occasions there may be contests. Designs and motifs Rangoii (or mandalas) are ritual drawings made by many millions of women across rural India.225 STEPHEN P. cultural anthropologist. Skills are handed down through generations and from friend to friend. or flowers are marked or arranged on the ground or on the walls of homes.HUYLER Photographer art historian. among others. and for over 30 years has traveled extensively through the Indian subcontinent creating an edited archive of 200. Materials such as rice flour. at the University of London and Ohio State University. Painted Prayers UNDATED STEPHEN R HUYLER . lime. In daily practice.000 images. chalk. and in places of worship and celebration. Motifs are geometrical or based on plants.Theseare widely published in journals and are the subjects of international exhibitions.

figurative representation—that is. BRIAN CATLING British sculptor poet. Untitled 2001 2001 153/4x 215/8 in ( 4 0 0 x 550 mm) BRIAN C A T L I N G . Mixed media This is a collage of torn white and gray tissue paper previously stained with ink. it is ruled and contained in one dimension by its interlocking ink-lined borders. Catling's torn paper shapes and shadows spill light out of their frame like a fractured mirror. structure. Catling's abstract drawings are usually made in series and in parallel to written poetry and sculptural installations. Catling's works made for international galleries and museums involve drawing as a tool in their development and making. performance and installation artist. Oval moons eclipse each other and oscillate between landforms and portraiture. Oxford. Their energy can therefore be a purer expression of an idea or emotion. With no depth of field. These two works present complex compositions with differing intensions and methods of making. filmmaker Professor of Fine Art. Klee's mathematical maze of thinly washed surface resonates with meticulous planning. and choice of hues. and Fellow of Linacre College. free from the direct imaging of known physical things. gold paint and iridescent gouache mixed with water. but similarities in mood. and water-resistant layers of spray and enamel paint on thick paper. They each find their pathways and equilibrium in atmosphere and suggestion. rocks or heads in a subdued atmosphere of dream.226 ABSTRACT LINES Compositions ABSTRACT DRAWINGS ARE LARGELY or entirely free from using the viewer's eye to track and unfold layers of meaning. Ruskin School.

Klee painted. Line and surface Klee observed the visual capacity of lines to push or pull within an image. He explained his polyphonic painting as "a harmony of several color voices" searching for a visual parallel to music. watercolor. It is a geometric harmony of straight lines and tonally graded flat colors that by their arrangement draw our eyes inward to their white center. Klee also felt that a line represents the passing of time. Geometric harmony This is a work on paper made with a sharp ink pen. Polyphon Gefasstes Weiss (White Framed Polyphonically) 1930 131/8x95/8 in (333 x 245 mm) Paul-Klee-Stiftung. ruler. and brush. and might be read as active or passive. drew. Kunstmuseum Bern PAUL KLEE .97-99.227 PAUL K L E E Swiss painter and sculptor (see also p. and wrote copiously about the natures and relationships of color and form. whereas tonal surfaces are perceived more immediately as a whole. We can see some diagrammatic examples of this among the optical illusions on pp.31). philosophized.

" SETTING UP Justness can be harmonious or deliberately discordant. their impact. w i l l c h a n g e w i t h e v e r y r e a r r a n g e m e n t . M a n y of their inter-relationships will be meaningless. Feel for it when youdraw. the impression y o u receive from t h e m . and elements settle in definitive balance. In his b o o k The Education of a Gardener. the late garden designer Russell Page explains. "I have experimented endlessly with this idea. angles. and put them o n a tray. It is also found in nature.Thisexercise will help you start. culture. they are just. or degree of figuration. but an easy o n e to u n d e r s t a n d . It is found in all great art and design. after being continuously adjusted. regardless of style. there is a clear feeling when. s o m e will be more or less h a r m o n i o u s . or on a page. W h e n m o v i n g objects around in your yard. or home. they reach a perfect position. As y o u m o v e them around." . and an apple. This balance is what every artist and designer searches a n d feels for when making an image. a b u n c h of keys. for instance. media. Take. a glass.228 ABSTRACT LINES Being "Just" A SENSE OF "JUST" (or rightness) is a difficult concept to explain. Set up a sheet of paper with a rectangle drawn on it. b u t e v e r y n o w a n d again you will hit on an arrangement w h i c h appears just. Seek it when looking at other artists' work and in your everyday environment. and ten straight sticks painted black. "Whenall pictorial elements come together in pleasing and perfect balance. There is a single m o m e n t w h e n all proportions.

" Move the sticks to find alignments and imagined perspectives. which now becomes a tight frame. In the final step (left) there is an even balance. . painted black.229 WHERE TO START Take ten sticks of equal length. horizontals dominate the lower area. Within a rectangle on a flat sheet of paper set about making a composition using no other rule than a sense of "just. fix it with glue. 2 3 In the step above. A stick touching the rectangle links the composition to the frame. suggesting a horizon. Arrange them so they touch or cross in a series of intersecting balances. W h e n the composition falls into place. Move the sticks out into the rectangle. as shown here. Here. making the composition seem to float beneath. horizontals dominate the top. B E I N G "JUST" 1 Arrange your ten sticks in t w o groups of five. Remember the drawn rectangle is a part of the composition (see pp.56-57). Feel for the rightness of their grouping and their relationships to surrounding spaces.

they become a scaffold for the addition of further textures.228-29). "My understanding is that every object [or shape] emanates—sends out vibrations beyond its physical body which are specific to itself. Cut or torn layers and shapes. or even strident. hard or soft. harmonious." (Russell Page) . a compass.220. glue. Once the ten painted black sticks are set and glued in place.230 ABSTRACT LINES Collage H E R E W E EXPERIMENT with collage. and tones. which is the shifting. This principal also applies to three-dimensional drawings such as Gaudi's work with wire and weights on p.. stain and dry a sheet of tissue paper using blueink. ready-made depths and surfaces. he went on to say ".Youwill also need spare white paper. Returning to Russell Page.. colors and textures can be manipulated until their pictorial harmony. colors. To prepare for this lesson. scissors. or discordance. and black ink. feels "just" (see pp. correction fluid or white paint. an infinite range of voices and meaning. found or made items." overlapping placement of materials on a flat plane. you start composing by adding or subtracting shapes and textures and using colors and tones to achieve the impression you want to m a k e — w h e t h e r dramatic or s u b d u e d . Images and fragments torn from day-to-day life can be brought together to make a chorus of ideas and emotions. Collage offers the artist a liberating palette of SETTING UP This lesson in collage is a direct continuation of the compositional lines made in the previous class.69 and Abe's installation on p.

they deepen pictorial space. COLLAGE 1 Regular-sized pieces of white paper are moved over the surface to disrupt the even lines.228) in front of you. Cut six small rectangles the same proportion as your whole image.The single disk that is folded with its straight edge facing up appears heavier than those that are flat. four circles of blue tissue paper. 2 3 Torn white paper moved over the surface adds masks of rough-edged irregular volume. Glue them in place once they feel "just" Translucent circular disks of tissue paper give color tone. and with a compass and scissors. solidity. Obscuring the blue disks. then cut out. . This can also give a sense of fragmentation or punctuation to the composition. In the last step (left). draw.231 WHAT TO DO Lay the final step of the previous lesson (p. correction fluid and ink marks add further dimensions. and shadow to thepicture.


and expectation.Zen Calligraphy HITSUZENDO. emotion." [Tanchu Terayama. is the practice of Zen through the calligraphic marks of a brush dipped in carbon ink. Hitsuzendo drawings aspire to "breathe with the energy and vitality of eternal life" achieved through "a state of no mind—beyond thought. Zen Brushwork]. . A MODERN JAPANESE meditative art form inspired by the teachings of Yamaoka Tesshu (1836-1888).

These vibrate against washes of shadow and pitch-black mass. .Nocturnes IN THIS QUARTET of semi-abstract drawings made with India ink. Lines made with a steel dip pen take on a scratchy nervousness. discord is balanced against rhythm to create mood. I flicked spatters of ink and rubbed the paper with a wet and a dry brush to achieve these effects.





Throughout this book images are presented to excite and surprise and drawing classes created to increase your confidence. for example. thousands of paintings. which is to have eaten a nun—it inspired the drawing on p. our eye circulates around a flutter of leather and scaly wings. Star Wars. serpentine tails. sculptures. and the faces of God have for centuries given artists a feast for the extremes of their imagination. our literate and more secular Western society still hungers for another world and to ravenously indulge its fascination for the marvelous. or in smoke. Reading the place name I momentarily glimpsed an alternative meaning. and damnation are found in most world faiths. scales. feathers. Depictions of God or of gods in the contexts of daily life. we select details of animals farthest from ourselves and that are widely thought disturbing—reptilian and insect features. Fantasy is most successful when founded on strong and familiar visual logic. Images we are now surrounded by bear testimony to the power and resourcefulness of their collective imagination. . Today. We watch with captivated pleasure movies such as The Fly. happen to us. Perhaps the Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 1485 121/4 x 9 in (312 x 230 mm) MARTIN SCHONGAUER most important conclusion in this final chapter is to advise you to develop your skills in parallel with the joy of your unfolding imagination. and the Alien trilogy. a collaboration between the two will ensure that your drawings glow with originality. all of which originated as hundreds of drawings. impossible. England. Lord of the Rings. Neither should be slave or master. in the cracks of walls. paradise. When creating monsters. We love our fear of the hybrid—ideally. To learn to flex your imagination. Feeding this demand. I was on a train passing through Nuneaton. movie studios now brim with as many monsters as the visual art of the Medieval and Renaissance Church. and deep fur—and we alter their scale.Gods and Monsters OUR SACRED AND SECULAR need to visualize demons. Here. which were widely distributed and influential in his time. Be inspired by the irrational comedy of word association or puns. a Catherine wheel of drawn sparks spiraling around the quietly resolute saint. For example. or strange. a human-animal mix that implies this could MARTIN SCHONGAUER German painter and engraver who settled to work in Colmar Alsace. The salvation of heaven and terrors of hell are represented equally—enough to make any sinner shudder. look for images in the folds of clothing. aliens. We then add substances we dislike: unidentified fluids.247. In the Christian churches of Europe. Schongauer is best known for his prints. wings. beasts. Humans are equally troubled by the imperceptibly small and the enormous. angels. and stained-glass windows deliver powerful visual sermons to the once-illiterate populace. Monsters take advantage of both.

reading from a book of asses. Goya's plainly textured gray background pushes back the space behind the illuminated simply subject. Visions experienced in front of the drawing sometimes instruct the making of a new one. Francisco de Goya was a master of borrowing. a wave to join Achilles' chase of Hector. to Picasso's similarly tight. a Shoshone seeking guidance and power meditates at the sacred site of a petroglyph. Compare his dark. whose impassioned work begins with light tapestry cartoons. and exposed the superstitions. The title "And So Was His Grandfather" adds that should we not already know. Other drawn versions of this image are more savage and frightening. such asinine behavior can be hereditary. Saturn devouring his son. They depict as if by lamplight the devil and witches. barren land rising like MYRIAD CHAINS RUN THROUGH ART HISTORY. hags.240 GODS AND M O N S T E R S Marks of Influence marking the influence of one artist upon another. and men clubbing each other to death. Opposite. F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A Spanish court painter printmaker and draftsman. vanity. plain wall suggests a blinkered view of nothing. This continuity enriches the making of art and our heritage. noisy seascape on p. Near the end of his life he made his "Black Paintings" on the walls of his home.30. Los Caprichos. He would be graceless if he stood. we see the international icon of stupidity. Paul Thomas's studies of Picasso and Twombly can be traced directly. portraits. and church murals. Opposite below. Violent white marks symbolizing Achilles' rage resonate with the energy of Twombly's script on p. quoting great paintings and popular culture to add cunning twists to his satires. rushing. it allows the mule to stand forward. crammed tightly at his desk. Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 1799 81/2 x 6 in (218 x 154 mm) FRANCISCO DE GOYA . In this ass. Goya later recorded the horrors of Napoleonic occupation. Pictorially. which can swamp the subject Here. The well-dressed mule is cumbersome. deranged masses. This act defines the vision and continues the line of spirit guides. and follies of court through copious graphic works including his best-known prints. In this softer aquatint he poses for his portrait Textured background The aquatint process has been used to great effect in making a gritty toned background. Aquatint Goya has drawn a learned man as an ass. below.220. his lover a dog. Many students leave white backgrounds in their work. The high.

Wyoming." Each sacred image drawn into rock belongs to one of three realms in the Shoshone world: the realm of the sky. Graphite marks Here Achilles chases Hector around the walls of Troy before killing him. meaning "place of power. and personal and social struggles. ideals. Simple wall stones cleverly state their cold solidity while also fading from our attention as the scene roars by.241 MARKS OF INFLUENCE PAUL T H O M A S British contemporary artist whose epic graphic work questions and reflects upon issues of European identity. of the earth. values. White marks like flashes of light are cut though graphite with an eraser to reveal the paper beneath. A vivid spectrum of energized graphite marks and a masterly composition give this drawing vitality and speed. Parallel lines within the body of the figure are likely to denote power. Wind River Reservation. perhaps a stone. by a supplicant in a trance of meditation. Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range UNDATED ARTIST UNKNOWN . Achilles Chases Hector 1996 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) PAUL THOMAS SHOSHONE PETROGLYPH The Shoshone people of Wyoming name petroglyph sites Poha Kahni. or of the water Chipped image This is a sacred creature of the sky chipped onto rock at Dinwoody Lake. Thomas conducts his explorations in the mine of Greek and Roman mythology. It was made with a sharp implement.

Redon's eyeball balloon rises up.242 MONSTERS of the unknown is a classical and constant occupation for the artist. Here we see how he evolved their injuries into new limbs and warped proportions. GODS AND Erasure In this charcoal drawing. 115. Redon explored the darker side of the human imagination through symbols and mysticism. as he did the grass. If it were to turn and stare this way. Lifting out Fine strings of the hot-air balloon appear dark against the sky and light against the balloon.204-05 will enable you to produce a similar effect of white lines shining out of dark charcoal. and writer In contrast t o the light and visual accent of contemporary Impressionism. T H E EXPLORATION AND DEPICTION Hauntings Grandville has drawn a scurrying zoo of half-known demons and animals that appear to have been stolen from the glass eye of the microscope. lifting its cranial passenger over a seascape of repose. They float toward us like a horrid visitation. to the right of the balloon. below left. We may feel safe so long as the eye looks heavenward. The Eye Like a Strange Mounts Balloon 165/8 x131/8in (422 x 332 mm) ODILON REDON 1882 Toward Infinity . and scuttle over all known reality.and 16th-century Holland. which sometimes—half-dressed and carrying a familiar trophy— stride. we see parallel slanting pale marks that might have been made with fresh bread—a very effective eraser used before the wide availability of rubber or plastic. Children are also delighted to invent a monster or ghoul. ODILON REDON French painter draftsman. Compare worked textures throughout the whole of this image to those found throughout Anita Taylor's charcoal drawing on p. the writers Joris-Karl Huysmans and Stephane Mallarme. crawl. the shock would be extreme. Redon lifted them out with some sort of eraser. H e was influenced by his friends. Techniques demonstrated on pp. Our subconscious can be drawn with pleasure and ease. The monsters of Bosch grew from his observations of beggars going about their trade in 15th. graphic artist.

Quill and ink This typical Bosch monster is a quill drawing in bistre ink The phrasing of light and contour here is masterly. This image is from one of Grandville's best-known publications. Comic little headbands of waving hair express more hysteria than fear. Last Judgment.243 J E A N I G N A C E ISIDORE GERARD ("GRANDVILLE") French graphic artist and political satirist. Smiling. A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects c. Light shines from the right. and he illustrated the Fables of La Fontaine and Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe. and Ship of Fools. Two Monsters UNDATED 45/8 x61/2in (117 x 163 mm) HIERONYMUS BOSCH . teeming with the exhilaration of unrestrained fantasy. Les Animaux (1840). The quality of the line is therefore uniform throughout. which is still available today. sucker-faced creatures dash and trundle toward it They are drawn solidly to emphasize their earthbound weight. Garden of Earthly Delights. His other major works include Metamorphoses du Jour (1828). grimacing. Most of his work is in the Prado Museum. 1840 61/8 x41/2in ( 1 5 5 x 1 1 5 mm) GRANDVILLE HIERONYMUS BOSCH Dutch painter Bosch's highly detailed iconographic religious panel paintings. include The Haywain. HAUNTINGS Engraving This is an engraving made so that Grandville's original drawing could be reproduced. Madrid.

Chalk and ink A quill dipped in brown ink was worked over black chalk on this reused sheet. and engineer Among Michelangelo's great works are the painted ceiling and altar wall of the Sistine Chapel. sometimes artists purposefully tie a knot in the configuration to disturb. Michelangelo's dragon. A snake eating its own tail is a universal image of the eternal and continuous. Grimes' delicately cavorting figures dive into and consume each other. wraps and coils its lithe body ready to strike or whimper at a touch. and play with its perfection and meaning. muscular tension is carved out of the paper using layered. the dome of the Vatican. below. Dragon 1522 10 x 133/8 in ( 2 5 4 x 3 3 8 m m ) MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI . Scaly. remembering the cavernous. hatched lines. lion.244 GODS AND MONSTERS Convolutions THESE CONVOLUTED DRAWINGS were made almost 5 0 0 years apart. but in the seductive landscape of Leonardo da Vinci's oil painting Madonna of the Rocks. St Peter's square. gamboling copulations. Grimes found the genesis of her beast not among animals. However. In her studio. and mist-swathed land. poet. Two previously drawn faces become humorous antagonists to the beast. David. phrased over the contours of form and bridging darker areas of shadow. His entire drawing wrestles and weaves the viewer's eye into its retracting folds. and marble sculptures including Pieto. snake. as we might expect. They share between them the pleasures of inventing a hybrid beast. topple. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI Florentine painter sculptor. and dying slaves. Opposite. a stunning hybrid of a swan. and dog. architect. she formed a series of ghostly pale. pinnacled.

details evolved slowly using a drier brush.245 CONVOLUTIONS O O N A GRIMES British contemporary artist and professor of printmaking at the Ruskin School. The image formed directly without first making a pencil outline. boards finished paper. each one iridescent and crumbly like a weathered while oyster. London. It is one of a series of fragile earth figures inspired by rocks. Ink-wash delicately gouache (smooth) and gouache brushed drawing on This is a and was hot-pressed Shadows The dark shadow of the Other the ink-wash earth was made with a brushstroke of ink laid into wet paper. and the Camberwell and Slade Schools of Fine Art. How Clever of God #84 2002 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) O O N A GRIMES . Oxford. The large space around figure has been cropped Grimes drawings to flatten presses them. Grimes exhibits internationally and features in the collections of the New York Public Library and the Victoria and Albert Museum. her under heavy here. London.

SYNTHETIC-HAIR S W O R D LINER: A lining brush with high ink-holding capacity and a fine point. needle-sharp center of kolinsky red sable hair. Slightly less flexible than the squirrel-hair sword liner 9. It is still relatively small in the total range of Japanese brushes. SABLE-HAIR RIGGER: Made with very long kolinsky sable hairs. and wrist into a fluid and soft touch. it has good inkholding capacity and is very flexible. it has good wash capabilities.246 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brushes T H E BRUSH IS A VOLUPTUOUS and delicate weights. and hold prodigious weights of ink or paint. return them to their pointed shape. Brushes vary in size. L A R G E R S Y N T H E T I C . How you care for your brushes will determine how long they last. washes. It is capable of very fine pointing. giving a variety of lines. and writers. The brushes shown here are a mixture of This is a selection of riggers. 12. This brush has a broad wash capability and can achieve a very wide range of marks. M T RA S AEIL .H A I R LINER: Very responsive oriental-style liner This to the touch. making rt ideally suited to Japanese painting and small-scale calligraphy. Always clean them thoroughly. and very fine lines. P O I N T E D T R A D I T I O N A L WRITER: The ferrule is made from a small duck quill." 6. JAPANESE PAINTING BRUSH: Made with natural hair. this brush has a soft drawing tip and small ink-holding capacity. SYNTHETIC-HAIR BRUSH: Bound in a synthetic ferrule with good inkholding capacity and good spring and control. SQUIRREL-HAIR S W O R D LINER:This brush has a maximum ink-holding capacity and an extremely fine and flexible point 8. 3. liners. S Y N T H E T I C . thicknesses. SMALL JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with sable hair. It has exceptional painting characteristics. and texture.Theyhold plenty of ink and make continuous. Soaps purchased from good art supply stores will gently cleanse particles of pigment that become trapped in the hairs or ferrule. Some used by master calligraphers are 2-3 in (5-8 cm) in diameter 11. 13. flowing. which holds long sable hair This brush holds large amounts of ink for long lines and points well for detailed work. fingers. ideally suited to drawing. This design supplies the fine tip with a long continuity of ink 5. The living marks of a wet. Shorter brushes designed for other purposes run out of ink more quickly. 7. the very opposite of pencil or silver point. LARGER JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with natural hair held in a plastic ferrule on a bamboo handle. 1. and effects. with a fine point for delicate work 4. between them. others are as fine as a whisker with a gentle touch. drawing tool extending the arm. SABLE-HAIR LINER: Made with ordinary sable hair surrounding an extralong. POINTED SQUIRREL-HAIR MOP: With a synthetic quill ferrule and extra high inkholding capacity. materials. dense. 10. ink-laden tip allow an expression that is beyond the linear. and never leave them standing on their tip in a jar of water. shape. 2. Some are bold. all perfect for drawing and. SYNTHETIC-HAIR LINER: This brush gives a medium line and is firm with a spring to the touch.H A I R RIGGER: Made with long synthetic hair for fine-point work It has a good ink-holding capacity and is slightly more resilient than sable hair with more "snap. Suitable for wash techniques but also capable of very fine detail. and has a fine tip for detailed work.


248 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brush Marks A S I N G L E BRUSH will m a k e an e n o r m o u s range of m a r k s depending u p o n the width. b l o w i n g h a r d o n t h e m several t i m e s t o disperse t h e ink ( c l o s e y o u r eyes if y o u t r y this.35) into two tablespoons of water in a shallow. and spatters. SETTING UP Blowing spots T h e s e t h r e e s p i d e r y c r e a t u r e s (above right and below) w e r e m a d e by d r o p p i n g s p o t s o f ink f r o m a b r u s h o n t o t h e p a g e and. I rubbed a block of Chinese ink (see p. and type of its hairs. It also depends on the angle at w h i c h it is held. A single brush has almost balletic potential to draw fine or undulating lines and curves. I had left the end of the ink block in the water overnight to make it easier to dissolve. the texture and a b s o r b e n c y of the paper ( w h i c h m a y be d a m p or dry).) I . softness. splashes. the degree of pressure applied. and above all w h e t h e r the b r u s h is saturated with pigment or relatively dry. length.246-47). and to make pools and stains o n the page. the speed of the s t r o k e . w i t h m y face close. Here I drew with a soft Japanese painting brush (see pp. unglazed earthenware dish.

249 Gritty texture T h e details o f t h e largest creatures b e l o w and opposite s h o w the granular texture of Chinese b l o c k ink. . a n d t h e w a y it d i s t r i b u t e s w h e n t h e b r u s h is d a b b e d o n its s i d e . BRUSH MARKS Wet and dry strokes A m o n g these concentrated drawings ink made into with the same w a t e r y lines. t h e effects of the b r u s h r u n n i n g o u t o f ink. w e see fine lines and s p o t s . a n d b r u s h . b l e e d i n g f r o m strokes b e l o w left.

Monsters THESE LITTLE CREATURES o f i n k and i n v e n t i o n were b o r n out of animal and bird studies. I borrowed small and fragile specimens from the University Museum of Natural History. and used their detail to draw new creatures that might at first seem familiar. Oxford. . until we look again.


Goya's witches have been literally drawn and evolved out of the shapes of Murillo's prophet and pilgrims. and narrative twists. Through studying and drawing these great paintings I have discovered that they are based on a pair of similarly long. are two long. Among his "Black Paintings" in the Prado Museum. Isidore. showing us that gallery study is not just for the student and beginner. They are a pair and hang opposite each other.Goya's Monsters W I T H CUNNING BRILLIANCE. Goya often invented his monsters out of characters seen in other painters' works. thin works titled The Witches' Sabbath and The Procession of St. Madrid. Here. I found relationships between all four paintings in terms of shapes. . formal composition. two of my own drawings show you how Goya's devil (below) is based on the shape of Murillo's boy on a horse (top right). With further research. thin works made by Bartolome Murillo in Seville about 120 years earlier.


drawn rapidly and with great joy. little comments on politeness and sexual politics.Consumed THIS IS A SERIES OF CARTOONS I m a d e s o m e years ago. . Sometimes drawings come out of nowhere and surprise even the artist.


for example. D a m p p a p e r is laid o n t o p . A l s o c a l l e d t h e h o r i z o n line. A i r b r u s h e s are u s e d in t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c o m i c s ." D e s c r i b e s a p a i n t i n g in w h i c h t h e light s o u r c e is b e h i n d t h e s u b j e c t F o r e x a m p l e . Calligraphy Beautiful h a n d w r i t i n g . T h e name " n o t " simply refers t o t h e fact t h a t t h e cylinders are n o t h o t in t e m p e r a t u r e . Fauvism A n early 2 0 t h . L a t e r it c a m e t o m e a n h i g h l y c o n t r a s t e d light effects.The plate is t h e n r o l l e d w i t h ink a n d polished with a rag. chance mark-making. W o r d s o r symbols are Cold-pressed papers P a p e r manufactured with a "not" o r " r o u g h " surface. Conservation grade D e s c r i b e s a range o f materials t h a t d o n o t d e c a y and cannot be broken d o w n by insects. linseed oil o r egg y o l k Caricature A representation Contour line A line t h a t f o l l o w s t h e s h a p e o f a surface. A p o t e n t i a l l y h a r s h m e t h o d o f p r o d u c i n g t o n e s in a d r a w i n g . Collage C o l l e c t e d materials such as c o l o r e d p a p e r s . t h e l i g h t is b e h i n d h i m o r her. Camera obscura A d a r k e n e d c h a m b e r i n t o w h i c h an i m a g e o f w h a t is o u t s i d e is received t h r o u g h a small o p e n i n g o r lens a n d f o c u s e d in natural c o l o r o n a facing surface. T h e m o v e m e n t was started by a g r o u p o f French artists including H e n r i Matisse. pressurized t o o l used f o r spraying fine mists o f s m o o t h c o l o r P i g m e n t is d e l i v e r e d b y a j e t o f air n o t t h e bristles o f a brush. 2. F r o m t h e G r e e k kallos. A l s o called m u s e u m g r a d e . a r e r o l l e d t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders. Fixative Liquid acrylic resin a n d l a c q u e r t h i n n e r usually a p p l i e d as a n a e r o s o l s p r a y m i s t t o t h e surface o f a d r y ." " N o t " p r e s s e d p a p e r is r o l l e d a s e c o n d t i m e w i t h o u t blankets t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders t o p r o d u c e a s m o o t h e r b u t still slightly t e x t u r e d s u r f a c e . Field In a t w o . o r will o n l y a p p e a r n o r m a l . R e m b r a n d t is a great master o f chiaroscuro. Chiaroscuro A 1 7 t h . r a t h e r t h a n r e c o r d e d o n a film o r plate. p r a c t i c e d meditatively w i t h a brush. T h e b l a n k e t s g i v e t h e p a p e r its rough texture o r "tooth. written with a broad-nibbed pen o r brush. 2. Aerial perspective The effect of the a t m o s p h e r e o v e r distance as it lightens t o n e s a n d cools c o l o r s progressively t o w a r d t h e horizon." It w a s first given t o t o n a l paintings m a d e in o n e c o l o r — s e e Grisaille. usually at a n a c u t e angle t o t h e s u r f a c e .m a d e paper. t h e field is t h e a p p a r e n t a n d b e l i e v a b l e space inside t h e p i c t u r e . Acid-free paper P a p e r w i t h a neutral p H t h a t will n o t darken o r d e t e r i o r a t e excessively w i t h age. Composition T h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e p a r t s o f an i m a g e t o m a k e u p the whole. o f t e n d i s t o r t e d forms and vivid colors. Engraving 1. m e a n i n g " t o stick" Dry media M e d i a t h a t a r e n o t w e t o r o i l y — f o r e x a m p l e .s i z e d r a w i n g m a d e for t h e purpose o f transferring a design t o a painting. T h e prints t a k e n from t h e s e plates o r blocks. See also Hotpressed papers. a n d given t h e n a m e Sho. In t h e W e s t p e n calligraphy is u s e d t o c r e a t e f o r m a l a n d d e c o r a t i v e t e x t s .256 GLOSSARY Glossary Accidental drawing Random. S o m e t i m e s f e r r u l e s a r e m a d e o f plastic o r o t h e r materials. s u c h as a d r a w i n g o r painting. in w h i c h parts o f an image are depicted v e r y brightly and dramatically against d a r k n e s s . In t h e Far East calligraphy is a highly r e s p e c t e d a r t f o r m . C o p p e r p l a t e engravings w e r e widely used t o r e p r o d u c e images b e f o r e p h o t o g r a p h y . Bracelet shading C u r v e d parallel lines t h a t f o l l o w t h e c o n t o u r s o f f o r m . Air brush A mechanical. s u c h as a s c r e e n . t o g e t h e r w i t h a t h i c k felt b l a n k e t T h e w h o l e s a n d w i c h o f l a y e r s is t h e n railed t h r o u g h t h e press t o m a k e a p r i n t D r y p o i n t is a very portable and immediate m e t h o d o f printmaking. Cartoon 1. charcoal.d i m e n s i o n a l i m a g e . Crosshatching Parallel lines d r a w n across o n e a n o t h e r at right angles. Blending M e r g i n g t w o o r m o r e neighboring colors o r tones t o g e t h e r using a tortillon. U s e d as a c o r r e c t i n g device o r pictorial game. in w h i c h t h e subject's distinctive features o r peculiarities are deliberately exaggerated f o r c o m i c o r g r o t e s q u e effect. It can also seal a silver p o i n t d r a w i n g t o p r e v e n t t h e oxidization (browning) o f t h e Drypoint A d r a w i n g is s c r a t c h e d directly o n t o a m e t a l plate w i t h a m e t a l t o o l h e l d like apen. tapestry. Bleed T h e e f f e c t o f t w o w e t colors running into one another o r o n e color applied t o a w e t surface a n d a l l o w e d t o d i s p e r s e . A g e n e r a l t e r m t h a t describes t h e various processes o f c u t t i n g a design i n t o a plate o r b l o c k o f m e t a l o r w o o d . Binder A substance t h a t holds particles o f p i g m e n t t o g e t h e r in a paint f o r m u l a t i o n . It is p u t o n a Body color See Gouache. p h o t o g r a p h s . p r i n t i n g press face up. A f u l l . and readymade objects arranged and stuck o n t o a flat surface. a n d attaches t h e m t o t h e s u p p o r t — f o r example.c e n t u r y Italian t e r m m e a n i n g "clear-obscure. Deckle edge T h e i r r e g u l a r e d g e o f a s h e e t o f m o l d . w h e n v i e w e d f r o m a specified point.c e n t u r y painting m o v e m e n t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e use o f b o l d . as o p p o s e d t o t h e s t r a i g h t e d g e o f a sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has b e e n machine-trimmed. A h u m o r o u s d r a w i n g o r parody. pastel. Anamorphic distortion Stretching an i m a g e across a p i c t u r e surface so t h a t it can o n l y b e u n d e r s t o o d . w h e n a p e r s o n is p a i n t e d standing a g a i n s t a w i n d o w . o r o t h e r (usually large) w o r k — s e e Pouncing. Blotting T h e use o f a b s o r b e n t m a t e r i a l t o lift a w a y excess liquid. n e w s p a p e r cuttings. Ferrule T h e s h o r t m e t a l t u b e t h a t s u r r o u n d s a n d g n p s t h e hairs o f a p a i n t b r u s h a n d fixes t h e m t o t h e brush handle.m e d i a d r a w i n g . so t h a t ink r e m a i n s o n l y in t h e g r o o v e s o f s c r a t c h e d lines. Also called accelerated perspective. m e a n i n g "beauty". A l s o called r i n g l e t shading. F r o m t h e French v e r b coller. A " s h a l l o w d e p t h o f field" m e a n s t h e p i c t u r e appears t o have only a shallow s p a c e inside i t Diffuse T o s o f t e n o r m a k e less brilliant. Eye level T h e i m a g i n a r y h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e a t t h e s a m e h e i g h t as t h e a v e r a g e p e r s o n ' s eyes. Camera lucida A n optical device t h a t p r o j e c t s an image o f an o b j e c t o n t o a plain s u r f a c e so t h a t it can be traced. Erasure T h e a c t o f r e m o v i n g a n i m a g e f r o m a surface. Contre jour A F r e n c h t e r m m e a n i n g " a g a i n s t day. Fixative lightly glues t h e d r a w i n g t o t h e surface o f t h e p a p e r t o p r e v e n t smudging. R o u g h p a p e r is m a d e b e t w e e n t w o blankets t h a t . a n d g r a p h i t e .

Masking fluid Clear or opaque latex fluid developed for watercolor painting. The surface can be reloaded or redrawn with more medium. Impressing Stamping or printing. Usually an academic drawing observed from life. to describe a surface to which paint will adhere readily. but in picture-making it is as important as the objects/subjects themselves. and masking off areas of a drawing that the artist wishes to keep untouched by media applied above or beside the tape. A point of interest in a drawing. Picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. and by artists representing stone sculptures in a painting. or synthetic material that are suspended in a medium to constitute paint. which has a rough surface). work. enabling them to stick to paper It also helps to maintain a stable dispersion of pigment particles in water as the film of a wash dries. then rubbed over carefully but vigorously with a crayon. This effect emulates what we see in real life. and that will "escape" or change over time. ink. Negative space The space between things. and is also used as a size. Focus 1 . Lightfast A term confirming that pigment in the product will not fade with exposure to light. or canvas and allowed to dry before an image is drawn or painted. or even a beam of light. Giotto's Virtues and Vices in the Arena Chapel. or a family of colors. the surface of the stone is made wet before being rolled with a thin film of oilbased printing ink. with the area beneath remaining unaffected. Gamut A complete range or extent Glassine A type of thin. Hairspray is an effective and inexpensive alternative. Dark tones are laid down first then an eraser or masking tape is used to lift away particles of the drawing media to reveal the lightness of the paper beneath. graphite. Monoprinting A direct method of printing in which wet medium (water-. so that (using vanishing point perspective) the object appears to change shape and become narrower or smaller as it recedes. upright images are called "portrait which is used as a binding agent in many liquid media. mineral. and orientation of the image. oil-based printing ink is rolled evenly onto a smooth metal. are painted in grisaille and appear to be made of stone.Theground provides a particular color or texture beneath the image. Medium A generic term for art Key A painting is said to be "high key" when the colors and tones are bright and "low key" when they are dark or somber The term is also used Gouache Opaque watercolor Also called body color. and translucent paper—a delicate material used in collage. Paper is then pressed against the stone to take a print. used for fixing paper to walls and boards. white. multiH u e A term for a color.257 metal line. It is then peeled away.The paper then bears a crayon impression or copy of the surface that was underneath it A number of Surrealists. Alternatively. This may be disregarded in real life. Ground A wet solution usually of gouache or gesso (chalk and animal glue) brushed onto paper board. It is a strong adhesive. Padua. Papercut A type of collage in which flat sheets of paper are cut into an image. and gray drawing. Grisaille A painting in gray or a grayish color Often made by students as a tonal exercise. Foreshortening A method of depicting an object at an angle to the surface of the picture. pastel.while secretion of the acacia tree.The degree to which detail is defined. After several intervening processes. oil-. Pointillism A technique of using points or dots of pure color in such a way that when the picture is viewed from a distance they react Masking tape Invaluable. Rubens used grisaille to paint small images for engravers. sticky paper tape. or plastic surface. glossy. This method incorporates the excitement of accidental and unpredicted marks. The ink attaches to the oil-based image and is repelled by the wet stone. or can be otherwise used to create an image—for example. A small image might be described as small format Horizontal images are often said to be "landscape format" (abbreviated G u m arabic The natural to"landscape"). 2. Paper is laid on top and a rapid drawing is made on the back of it The paper lifts away to reveal the image on its other side. lifting out charcoal and other dry media. Hot-pressed papers (HP) Paper made using hot cylinders. but each print will be unique. cadmium yellow hue. It can be used with any wet media to isolate or protect parts of an image from further Optical blending See Pointillism. format" (abbreviated to "portrait"). Hatching (cross-) See Crosshatching." A piece of paper is placed on top of an object or rough surface. or for wrapping and protecting a finished piece of work. shape. including Max Ernst used frottage in their work. Also used by artists' materials manufacturers to indicate the use of a substitute pigment—for example. glass. rock. Plumb line A line from which a weight is suspended in order to determine verticality or depth. to give the illusion of depth and distance. F o r m The outer surface of a three-dimensional object. aiming to represent facts rather than an interpretation of the subject. Lifting out A method of creating highlights and mid-tones in a drymedia drawing (such as charcoal or graphite). Lithography A method of printmaking in which a drawing or painting is made directly onto a smooth slab of particular limestone or a metal plate using an oilbased crayon or ink. Also refers to an additive used to control the application properties of a color Golden Section A proportion in which a straight line or rectangle is divided into two unequal parts in such a way that the ratio of the smaller part to the greater part is the same as that of the greater part to the whole. the finely ground particles of plant. Artists can paint freely over dry masking fluid. Grisaille is occasionally seen in church stained-glass windows. or a drawing made in any single color GLOSSARY Linear perspective A form of perspective in which parallel lines are represented as converging. F o r m a t T h e size. Monochrome Usually refers to a black. and it has a history in enamel work. it is the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work Pigment Any substance used as a coloring agent—for example. of the ingredients in inks and watercolors. materials that produce marks on a surface. Objective drawing Refers to the concept of objectivity. Fugitive A term given to a pigment that it is not stable. . or spirit-based) is applied to a surface that is then pressed onto paper and removed to leave a print. purpose. which give it a smooth surface (as opposed to cold-pressed paper. It improves the bonding properties Frottage A French term meaning "rubbing.

" Applied to the blurring or softening of sharp outlines by the subtle and gradual blending of one tone into another Sgraffito A technique of scratching or cutting through a surface of paint. evolved by engineers and architects for the purpose of conveying W a t e r c o l o r A painting accurate structural information. Zen A school of Mahayana Buddhism that asserts that enlightenment can come through meditation and intuition rather than faith. an ink stone usually cut from slate. Sketch A quick or rough drawing. or wood. or the left-hand page in a book. a tightly folded piece of cotton batting can be used for the same effect. Underdrawing A pale preliminary drawing made prior to adding layers of another medium such as oil paint or watercolor Value The extent to which a color reflects or transmits light This is the equivalent of tone in a black and white image. usually diluted with water and applied with a brush. Although drawings can be made with wash alone. Stylus A sharp. or gouache. nature of watercolor allows the white surface of the paper to Tonal scale A scale of gradations shine through. Spattering A mottled texture produced by drawing your fingers across the bristles of a stiff brush loaded with pigment. Sfumato An Italian term meaning "smoky. Still life A picture composed of inanimate objects such as bowls. and flowers. Viewpoint The position from which something is observed or considered. and paperweights. carbon ink. Recto The front or top side of a piece of paper. Pounce (a fine for an unpopular 18th-century powder of charcoal or similar French politician. Tortillon A short." Materials for Zen brushwork include round brushes of varied size. in tone running from black to white or vice versa. creating more vibrant effects than if the same colors were physically mixed together with a brush. Squeegee A rubber-trimmed scraper used in the screenprinting process for dragging ink across a surface. Pouncing If a large drawing or design (called a cartoon) is to be Shadow Darkness cast by the transferred to a surface such as a obscuring of light. Turpentine A colorless solvent distilled from the resinous sap of pine trees. orchids. or watercolor paint. . Strip Core of a pencil. cut-out profile made along every outline of the usually made in black paper image. plum blossom. a sheet of paper is placed beneath and pinpricks are Silhouette A flat. watercolor. by imposing a grid that is then scaled up to a larger size. which are then called editions. to model areas of light and shade. The translucent Tint A color mixed with white. Zen paintings usually depict scenes of nature and plants such as bamboo. Tone A degree of lightness or darkness. tight. Props An abbreviation of the word properties. fruit. Printmaking The act of making a picture. or pen. W e t media Any liquid media— for example.258 GLOSSARY together optically. glasses. Support The structure on which an image is made—for example.Thedrawing is removed. or point on which parallel lines converge to give the impression of receding space. pointed instrument used for marking or engraving. or the right-hand page in a book. paper or canvas. and chrysanthemum—which in Chinese tradition are called "The Four Gentlemen. meaning objects used in setting up a life model or still life. Wash A technique using ink. Single-point perspective The most basic form of linear perspective in which there is only one vanishing point. Stippling Applying color or tone in areas of fine dots or flecks. Volume The amount of space occupied by an object or an area of space in itself. or ceramic glazing to reveal a different color beneath. pointed roll of white paper that is used to blend dry media. Squaring up A method of enlarging and transferring an image from one surface to another. Zen brushwork encompasses calligraphy and painting. fine paper. pencil. Size A weak glue used for filling the porous surface of wood or canvas in order to seal it. Shade A that is color mixed (or toned) with black Shading A lay term for adding tone to a drawing. compound of water-soluble pigment. or any physical object that can be stamped or pressed onto a surface to leave an impression. commonly referred to as the lead. Alternatively. in order to flick the pigment onto the image surface. Zen brushwork This is an oriental meditative art form originating in China and practised for many centuries in Japan. Named paper in place. giving it a brilliance. Subjective drawing A drawing that expresses the personal view and interpretation of the artist An invented image. The crude material is called oleoresin. ink. wall or tapestry. plaster. whose pinpricks creates a "connect-thepersonal pastime was making dots" replica of the image on the cut-out portraits. using a brush. Serigraphy Silk-screen printing. acrylic. Artists' prints are normally made in multiple. sometimes drawn from a and leaving only the pricked sheet of shadow cast on a wall. "Spirits" or "oil" of turpentine refer to the volatile portion used by artists to thin or dilute oil-based paint. plaster or cloth surface beneath. Scale Describes the size of one element in relation to another Sepia A brown pigment taken from the sun-dried ink sacs of cuttlefish and used to make ink or watercolor The term is now often incorrectly used to refer to brown colors. such as an inscribed sheet of metal. Technical drawing A universal it is often used in conjunction language of lines and measurements with line drawings in pen and that is used to make diagrammatic ink—for images. or mark using an inked or pigment-covered surface.Technicaldrawing has been example. Vanishing point In linear perspective. A term borrowed from the theater. Etienne de material) dabbed through the Silhouette (1709-67). design. a point at which receding parallel lines meet Verso The back or underside of a piece of paper.

90 La Guitare. Hieronymus 243 Two Monsters 242.212 to erase 205 to hold 23 pencils 204 willow 114. 71 Bacchante (Bakst) 155 background: color 91 textured 240 Baker Matthew: Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry 32 Bakst. 222. 241 action. 182. 41 principal 186. 94 chalk(s) 53. 78 aerial perspective 206 airbrushing 160. to express 39. cut Catling. 250 Bishndas and Nanha: Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity 50. Etienne-Louis 72 Newton's Cenotaph 72. 205 Baltard. 230 The Physical Space 220 abstract drawing 219.51 All and Nothing (Taylor) 114. 204. 139 Nanha) 50. 226-227 Acanthus spinosus 65 accelerated perspective 22.163 graded 227 composition 56-57.50.184. 193 in lifting out 204. 94 cylindrical objects.44-45 bird studies 12. Statue d'Epouvante 90 calligraphy. 71 conte 112. 70 Art Nouveau motifs 91 Autoportrait (Ray) 138. 40-41 Durer's rhinoceros 26. 28 Klee's horses 30. 74. 134 costume(s) 155 character 158-159 structure of 166-167 Cottage Among Trees (Rembrandt) 52. 98. 180 blending: color 133. center of 118 ballpoint 182. 242 Brunelleschi. 13 architectural drawing 67-71 Arctic Flowers (Libeskind) 70.163 body. layers 53 chalk pastels 162. Brian 226 Untitled 2001 226 "Cave of the Hands" (Cueva de las Manas) 8. 189. 203 Claude Lorrain 202 Views from Velletri 202. Victor: West Facade of the Church of St.31 Picasso's horse and bird 30. 165. 178 Cubism 67. 242 to blend 205 compressed 122. 186 charcoal 114.Index Page numbers in italics refer t o captions and illustrations Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity (Bishndas and 259 INDEX B bread (as eraser) 205. 160 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object (Moore) 178. 199 Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya (Eisen) 156. 244 head and neck 144 phrased 124-125 contrast: brightness 99 of media 30 tonal 96.44-45. 75 Circle of the Lustful (Blake) 180. 133. 198. Mamaru 104. 116. Zen c 232-233 blended 133. 179 Bussotti.133.89. Le (Hugo) 200. 202 cloth. to draw 25. 204-205. 221 animals.169 colors: airbrushed 161 background 91 A Abe. Clare 203 City 202.100 curves. Jean Michel 138 Self-Portrait 138 Bateau-Vision. 9. 128. 95 Chair Cut Out (Woodfine) 94. 157 cropping 56-57. Basilius 47 Beuys. 161 Akhlaq-I Rasul Allah manuscript 51. 90. (Ross-Craig) 49 to hold brush for 23 caricature 159. 206. 163. 38-39. 90 colored materials 162-163 colored pencils 162. 244 and graphite 178 . 247-248 carving see lines. 75. William: The Circle of the Lustful 180. 74.27 turtles 42-43 aquatint 240 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels (Leonardo) 12. 201 collage 111. 72 bracelet shading 122 Braque.163 dry media 205 Blue Nude (Matisse) 110. 9 Chair (Van Gogh) 94. Franz 48 Protea nitida 48 Bellini.184. 113 bird bones 12. Georges 67. 29 Hugo's octopus 28. 137 Besler.186 see also movement Adoration of the Magi perspective study (Leonardo) 74. 50. 71 Blake. Leon: Bacchante 155 balance. 90. to depict 156-157 Cloudburst of Material Possessions (Leonardo) 200. 52 cotton swabs 205 Coup de Vent a Asajigabare (Hokusai) 198. 200 Bauer. Filippo 67. 8 cave paintings 8. Joseph 113 The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland 112. 243 botanical drawing 48-49 Boullee. to draw 80. 220.226. to model 110-111 border 51 Bosch. 81 cut-out model plan 94. Augustin 67 Basquiat. 81 135. 203 Buffalo Hunt (Shoshone) 178. 230-231 Cubist 90. 198 cartoon (preparatory drawing) 137 (satirical) 159. 206 checkered floor 80. to draw 100 Cypripedium calceolus L. 203 Landline 202. 74 brush (es) 246-247 Japanese 248 for laying a wash 140 marks 248-249 to hold 23 brush drawings 14-15 Bryan. 180 Circular Score for "Due Voce" (Bussotti) 223 circus scenes 192-195 City (Bryan) 202.13. Nicolas-Jacques 54 contours 146. 26 geese 38-39 Gericault's cats 28. 162 character: to capture 38-39. Giovanni 137 Head and Shoulders of a Man 136. 158. 190 Caricature of a Woman (Daumier) 198. 111. 223 Circular Score for "Due Voce" 223 children's art 9.117 Achilles Chases Hector (Thomas) 240.198. 13. 30 sleeping dog 38-39 Stubbs's horse skeleton 26. Sylvano 222.115 anatomical drawing 134-135 anatomical theaters 82-83 anatomical waxes 128 ancient carvings 221.162 Conte.

37 Grandville 243 A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the Near-Microscopic World of Scale Insects 242. 160 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction (Gaudi) 68. 131 Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 240. 55. 104-105.184 165. La (Braque) 90. 25 focus 65.166 170-173 Gestalt 222 Giacometti.121 felt-tip pens 162. 242 eyes. 200 F fabric.101 engraving 243 erasers/erasing 55. 161 fashion 160. 71 minimal line 99 and music 70-71 quick 38-39. Francisco de 131. 190 Middle Eastern 50-51. 55. 240. 216 foreshortening 110. Nicholas 68 St Paul's Baptistry 68 head and neck to draw 142-145 Head and Shoulders of a Man (Bellini) 136. 40. Jean Ignace Isidore see Grandville Gericault.104. 245 Hugo. 160 as ground for metal point 140. 223.244. 243 graphic score 222. 161 fashion drawings 160. Ron 161 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 161 160.115 exploratory 17 fantasy 72-73. 26 Flying Fish (White) 25. 7 33 Hooke.198 Degas.216. 202. 135 Duren Albrecht 26.69 Gerard. 77 How Clever of God #84 244. Alberto 136 Portrait of Marie-Laure de Noailles 136. Hans 133 The Ambassadors 116 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 132.109 Rhinoceros 26. The 242. 93 eye level 80 Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity. 222 Grimes.103.157 ellipses 100. Katsushika 199 Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 198.116. Antonio 68.102-103 drawing board 20 drawing books 20-21 drawing paper 144. 124. 241 to blend 205 and chalk 178 and ink 28. 69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt 68. Antonio 135 Muscles of the Head and Neck 134. 170-173. 125. Sir Ernst 12. 205 drawing with 103. 163. 69. 137 heads. 91 Dragon (Michelangelo) 36.12 fixative 54. 157 .John 157 Man Lying Down in a Cloak 156. 90 gouache 30. 30 Fauves/fauvism 90. 161 changing 216 Focusing on the Negative (Walter) 16 foliage 52. to draw 134-137 Helleborus corsicus 55 highlights 91. 69. 112. 160 Faune.111 feet. 134. Robert 93 Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 92.112. to suggest 177 see also perspective diagonals diffuser 55 dip pens 34. 245 layers 30 Goya.146 from masterworks 126-127. position of 22 Eisen. 240 170-173 five Ships in a Port with Lighthouse (Wallis) 11.103 with eraser 103.160. 144 Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (Baker) 32.216 Durelli. M. 120. 141 tonal 96. 222 Le Bateau-Vision 200. to draw 168-169 in Goya's artworks face. 160 hitsuzendo 233 light to dark 102.141.252-253 from memory 183. 122 Hawksmoor. 240 Black Paintings 152.91. 226-227 anatomical 134-135 architectural 67-71 botanical 48-49 brush 14-15 dark to light 102. 55. 134. 113. Rene 160 Illustration for Jacques Fath E easel. 115 Escher. 122.97. 32 framing 139 Franfoise au Bandeau (Picasso) 132. 69 Guitare. fiber-tip pen 182.189. 41 in the round 208-209 with scalpel 202. 799 Holbein. 230 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction 68. Keisai 157 The Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya 156.244 drawing(s): abstract 219.144 and ink 30. 163. C . 134. 222. 93 horizon 52. to draw 78.160. 223 graphite 54. 136 Golden Section 67 Gombrich. 132 Frenz. proportions of 143 fantasy drawings 72-73. drypoint 181 exaggeration 184 expressionism 198 E ye and Head of a Drone Fly (Hooke) 92. 29 H hands.230 three-tone 140. 765 hitsuzendo drawings 233 Hokusai. Oona 245 How Clever of God #84 244. position of 143. 52 foreground 208.260 INDEX D Dada 139 Daumien Honore 198 Caricature of a Woman 198. 245 Gruau.141. 252 depiction of fabric monsters 252-253 Self Portrait in a Cocked Hat 130. Study for Plate 59 (Mucha) 90. Cheval et Oiseau (Picasso) 30. Victor 200. Edgar 162 depth. 203 Hotel de la Suzonnieres (Satie) 70. 73. 162 Flaxman. 203 semi-abstract 234-237 three-dimensional 68.Theodore 29 Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 28. 220 dry brush 234 234 57.117 fountain pens 34. 99 etching. 79.207. 90 G Gaudi. to draw 120.37. Statue d'Epouvante. disposable pens 182-183 dissections: botanical 48 of horse 27 distance: illusion of see perspective linear 97 tonal 97 Documents Decoratifs.

201 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels 12. 77 Miller. Charles Rennie 48. Victor 134 Profile Head 134.96. Johan 32.141.134 K Kettlehut. 111. 54 silver point 156 leg sections 158 length.104.276. 226 Modernism 67. 183 vertical 156 linear distance 97 linear perspective 69. Gustav 49 Knopf. apparent 97 Leonardo da Vinci 74. Madrid 171 University Museum of Natural History. 252 Muscles of the Head and Neck (Durelli) 134. 97 Murillo. 72.120. Paul 227 Polyphonic Setting for White 226. 244. 177 influences. 789. 49 Rose 49 Maelbeke Madonna (Van Eyck) 156.115 98. 205 masterworks. 227 Newsome.141 Metropolis (film) 72. 63.112. I Murderous Attacks 33 Kollwitz.102. 203. 36.166 La Specola. 114 hatched 244 layered 118 pace of 65 pale 40 rapid 49. drawing from 126-127. 73 Michelangelo Buonarroti 48. 220. 244 Dragon 36. 178 motifs: A r t Nouveau 9 7 stylized 51 mountains 216-217 movement: of animals 30-31 of humans 7 79. 76 Libeskind. Daniel 70 Arctic Flowers 70 Lieb. 163 pens 36 measuring 116 memory.124. 252 ink 16. 110 Sistine Chapel ceiling 116 Middle Eastern drawing 50-51. 248.181 L Landline (Bryan) 202. Phyll: hands 18 lifting out 204. 244 lithograph 198 Losbruch (Kollwitz) 180. 156 magnification 93 Man in Armor (Van Dyck) 158. 83 white 122 ink impressions 222 ink spatters 234 installations 176. 28 Two Impressions from a Cut-out Paper Disk 222 Huyler Stephen R 225 261 Kinecar. 170-173.167 line(s) 132.243 carbon 35 Chinese 30. 13 Cloudburst of Material Possessions 200. David 78 M Mackintosh. 227 Scene of Comical Riders 30. 176. artistic 240-241. 249 and gouache 30 Indian 35. 135 museums 44.109. 230 invented creatures 106-107 250-251 invented objects 89. 78 Study ofThree Male Figures 110. Kathe 181 Losbrunch (The Outbreak) 180. 35. 53 monoprint 787. 203 landscape 206-208 brushed 14 Landscape in Hoboku Style (Sesshu) 14 layers 146 chalk 53 gouache 30 ink 28. 159 Japanese 35 to make 36 sepia 35 walnut 36. 242 light 96 to depict drawing with 1 76 painting with 176 .182 Moore. 185 Mucha. 60. Henri 111 Blue Nude 1110. 33 J justness 228-229 N naive art 74 negative space 53. 53 Tree II 52.227 to "bend" straight 97 compositional 228-229 cut 202. Rose: Tantalus or the Future of Man 20 minimal line drawing 99 mirror use of 120 mixed media 28. 220. 756 priming for 140. 219 Mondrian.Pieuvre (Octopus) 28. Henry 178 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object 178. 225 masking tape 204.91 Study for Plate 59 of INDEX illumination see lighting Illustration for Jacques Fath (Gruau) 160. Matisse. Piet 52. Oxford 106 Prado. 166. 757 mandalas 219. 58-59. 234 iron-gall 35. Bartolome: Moses Striking the Rock ofHoreb 252. Marie 244 cloth drawing 244. 34-35 acrylic 35 bistre 35. Florence 128 lighting in 167 Pitt Rivers. 37 lines 118 pastel 162 pencil 31. Erich 73 design for Metropolis 72. 158 Man Lying Down in a Cloak (Flaxman) 156. Alphonse 90. 181 luminosity 115 Lynch. 201 head and neck sections of female mold for Sforza Horse 89 Madonna of the Rocks 244 perspective study for Adoration of the Magi 74. 73 Kigell.33 Mysterious Affairs of the lighting 2 7. 34. 184. drawing from 183. 244 ink 36 252-253 Documents Decoratifs 90. 205. 190 metal pens see dip pens metal point 25. 99.109. 220. 221 endless 31 free 113.The (Robinson) 108. 74-77. 220. 181 Klee. 160 In the Duchess's Kitchen (Rackham) 176. 31 Klimt. Oxford 250 music 70-71 Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks (Knopf) 32. 103 Neolithic chalk tablet 220.

139 Autoportrait 138. 230 parallel planes 79 Parisian street 86-87 pastels 162 to blend 205 to hold 23 layers 162 pencils 162 pen(s): dip 34 .240. 230 paper(s) 21 colored 162 drawing 144. 234 disposable 182-183 felt-tip 162. Erik 70. 74. 160. to draw 146-147 R Rackham. 181 Rodin. 241 Physical Space. 36.Toyo: Landscape in Hoboku . 78 single-point 74. 38. 165.262 INDEX Newton. Arthur 177 In the Duchess's Kitchen 176.141 prints/printing: aquatint 240 dry-point etching 181 engraving 243 monoprint 181.oise au Bandeau 132. J 76 nudes 114-115 to make 36 metal see dip quill 34. 239 Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 238. 7 72 Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland. 227 portfolios 20 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser de Noailles (Holbein) 132. 166 fiber-tip 782. Isaac 92 Telescope 92 Newton's Cenotaph (Boullee) 72. Giovanni Battista 74. 73 Noble. 161. 772 234-237 Sesshu. 9 0 . 26 Riley.Tim. 1 1 7 aerial 206 linear 69. 52 pens 36 scalpel 54 drawing with 202. Georges 112 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 112. 1 6 9 to hold 2 2 . 7 77 three-point 80. Odilon 242 The Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity 242. 244 reed 34. 74-77. 34-35. 37 38. Man 131.184 fountain 34. 75 Two Courtyards 75. 68 Satie.54 pastel 162 perspective 1 0 0 . 36 pen and brush 8 3 pen and ink 70. 159. 30 Fran<. 734 Protea nitida (Bauer) 48. 141 Piranesi. 164. 9 8 . Sue 104. 28 pigment 162 bright 50 Caput Mortuum 7 4 7 for three-tone drawing 141. Pablo 6 7 . 36. 122. 1 3 2 quill pens 34.52 pen and wash 158. 732 influence of 240 painting with light 78. 81 two-point 74. 242 reed pens 34. 97. 759 P Page. 239 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat (Seurat) 112. 91 outsider artists 33. Martin 238. Heath 181 The Kinecar 180.7 77 rapidograph 70 Raphael 110. 205 157. and Webster. 181 pencil(s) 54 charcoal 204 colored 762.199 Profile Head (Newsome) oil pastels 162.The (Beuys) 112.40. 40-41.36. 216. 2 2 0 for oil pastels 162 stained 230 to stretch 140-141 tissue 21. Auguste 114 Two Women 114. 103. 7 38 Ray 138.226. 163. 224 0 layers 31.37. Russell 228.2 3 age and youth sleeping subjects 148-149 150-151 Renaissance 109 Rhinoceros (Durer) 26. 36. 203 Scene of Comical Riders (Klee) 30. 243. 243. 7 70 Ray. Paul 73 Nobson Central 72. 1 1 6 . 219.Paul'sBaptistry (Hawksmoor) 68. 36. 1 6 3 . 4 8 putty eraser 55. 782 relief 757 silk-screen 739 woodblock 134. 72 Noble. 1 2 4 priming for metal point 140. 736 portraits. Peter Paul 126-127 Embracing pose(s): balanced 146 quick 118-119 positive form 103 posture: of artist 22 of subject 3 8 .759. 733 Portrait de Marie-Laure (Giacometti) 136. 205 pointillism 112 polyphonic painting 227 Polyphonic Setting for White (Klee) 226. 36 relief printing 757 Rembrandt van Rijn 52. 71 Satire of the Queen's Dress (Wodall) 158. 76 plastic eraser 55.176 Real Life Is Rubbish 176. Stella 48 Cypripedium calceolus L 49 rotated view 7 65 Rubens.37. 7 76 receding space 206 Redon. 244 Q s Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape (Wolfli) 2 79 St.104 Pieuvre (Hugo) 28. 38. 739 semi-abstract drawings Style 14 Seurat. 162 O p A r t 98 optical illusions 96-99 outline 33. 4 9 Rose of Mohammed 50. Bridget 98 Robinson.131 Cottage Among Trees 52. Faune. 75 Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range 241 petroglyphs 221. 212 Japanese 2 1 . 114 rollerball 182 Rorschach blot 99 Rose (Mackintosh) 48. 36. 76-79.9 3 Schongauer. 7 73 self-portraits: Basquiat 138. 1 1 6 accelerated 2 2 . 139 Real Life is Rubbish (Noble and Webster) 176. 165 figure 118 filled 37 pencil 48.37 scientific instruments 9 2 . Cheval et Oiseau 30.71 Hotel de la Suzonnieres 70. The (Abe) 220 Picasso. 57 Ross-Craig.

1 6 6 t r a p e z i u s m u s c l e 142.5 3 in l a n d s c a p e 2 0 6 .241 s i l k . t o d r a w 5 2 . 77.1 4 1 . 57.2 1 3 Stubbs. 159 Wolfli. phrased 146 tonal modeling 161 tonal range 169 t o n a l surfaces 2 2 7 tonal width 97 t o n e ( s ) 33. 9 4 z Z e n calligraphy 232-233 contrast 96 t o grade 163 ink 37 pencil 5 4 t o r t i l l o n 205 T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c . 199. t o d r a w 1 0 1 viewfinder 57 Views from Velletri ( C l a u d e L o r r a i n ) 152. 230 t h r e e . 245 sharpener 54 Ship in a Storm ( T u r n e r ) 1 9 8 . 2 3 0 tonal contrast 96 tonal distance 9 7 t o n a l d r a w i n g 9 6 . 79. Augustin ( B a l t a r d ) 6 7 w e t and dry brush-strokes 2 4 9 Turner. Paul 2 4 1 Achilles Chases Hector 2 4 0 . 7 70 Tiber 214-215 Untitled ( T w o m b l y ) 2 2 0 . W . 2 7 studies: b i r d s 7 2 . 9 0 . Sue see N o b l e .s c r e e n p r i n t i n g 139 silver p o i n t 1 4 0 .J. 164. 75 Skeleton of the Horse ( S t u b b s ) 26. 2 4 4 . drawing with 104-105 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt ( G a u d i ) 68. A l f r e d 1 1 .9 1 storms. 199 shoes 1 6 4 . 74. William 159 Satire of the Queen's Dress INDEX 226. 156 layers 7 5 6 priming for 140. 115. 1 8 4 . 2 2 7 Untitled 2001 ( C a t l i n g ) u 263 W h i t e .d i m e n s i o n a l d r a w i n g 68. 7 1 4 .1 4 5 . 249 t o describe 39. Jan 1 5 6 Maelbeke Madonna 1 5 6 . 102-103 tonal marks. 7 6 1 spots.125 W o o d f i n e . 9 2 Tesshu. John 25 Flying Fish 25 Wild Striped Cat Sketches of ( G e r i c a u l t ) 28. 2 2 6 . 725 fabric 1 6 8 T h o m a s . John: Focusing on the Negative 14 w a s h . C y 138. 2 3 4 . 2 2 0 influence o f 2 4 0 Untitled 220.2 0 1 . 69. 241. 4 4 boat 209 botanical 4 9 G e r i c a u l t ' s cats 2 9 from Goya 170-173 125. h e a d a n d n e c k sections o f female m o l d f o r (Leonardo) 89 shading 2 9 s h a d o w s 28. 2 4 2 w Wallis. 1 4 4 . 182. v i e w s o f 85.216 W e b s t e r . Adolf: Giant-Grape Saint-Mary-Castle 219 Woman at Her Toilet ( T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c ) 74 w o o d b l o c k print 157. Sarah 9 4 Chair Cut Out 94. 2 9 wind. 206-207 202.27 skull 747. t o draw 1 9 8 . 161. 743 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City ( F r e n z ) 1 6 0 . 226 V Van Dyck. G e o r g e 2 7 Skeleton of the Horse 26. 2 4 7 t h r e e . 1 4 0 . 141 Three Male Figures. M . 243 (Bosch) T Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos ( G o y a ) 2 4 0 . 170 shoes 1 6 4 stylized m o t i f 51 Summer Flowers 63. 7 9 0 vessels. 1 4 1 w a t e r c o l o r 25. 49. 2 0 0 Ship in a Storm 1 9 8 .1 0 5 vision 9 6 Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects (Grandville) 242.243 Leonardo's machines 12.41. b l o w n 248 steel p e n s see d i p p e n s still life 89. 96. 65 symbols 138. 104-105.12 W a l t e r . Sarah: child's m a p 75. 1 3 . 1 4 5 travel journal 2 0 . 1 8 4 . 97. 7 75 Telescope ( N e w t o n ) 9 2 .1 9 9 wire. 9 5 pens 36 v a n i s h i n g p o i n t 74. 1 4 1 . t o d r a w 2 0 0 . T i m W e s t Fagade of the Church of St. Vincent 95 Chair 94. 174 T w o m b l y . 53 trees. 156 Van Gogh. 69.1 8 5 Tree II ( M o n d r i a n ) 52.141 S i m b l e t . 158 V a n Eyck.13 M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s m a l e figures 110. Study of (Michelangelo) 110. 240 Two Women Embracing ( R o d i n ) 114. 7 6 Two Impressions from a Cut-Out Paper Disk ( H u g o ) 2 2 2 Two Monsters 2 4 2 .120. 6 9 Wodall. Man in Armor 1 5 8 . 2 1 2 . 76. 75. 7 77. H e n r i de: Woman at Her Toilet 14 t r a n s p a r e n t v i e w 92.1 6 5 shorthand diagram 142 Shoshone buffalo hide painting 178. 1 2 Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse 71.d i m e n s i o n a l 1 0 4 . 7 79 Shoshone petroglyph 240.Yamaoka 233 t e x t u r e 2 2 2 . 1 6 .199 tissue p a p e r 21.158 158.t o n e d r a w i n g 140. A n t h o n y 152. 186. 221 . 1 9 9 Two Courtyards (Piranesi) 75. 202 violin. t o lay 1 4 0 . 1 9 9 . 1 7 7 free 8 0 V e n i c e . t h r e e . Taylor A n i t a 115 All and Nothing 1 1 4 .Sforza Horse.

uk/Private Collection. B e r l i n . 1 9 : Getty Images/© Succession Picasso / D A C S 2 0 0 5 . B e m d Kunzig. K e v i n a n d Rebecca Slingsby. 7 1 : I M E C / A r c h i v e s E r i k Satie. 1 9 6 : Museum of the History of Science. B M G . 1 . Paris. University of Cambridge. 1 3 4 : © T h e British Museum./© D A C S 2 0 0 5 ( t ) . Copyright Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens. b r i d g e m a n . Berlin (b). Kirsten Norrie. 2 4 : © T h e British Museum. 112: Yale University A r t Gallery/Everett V Meeks. a n d brushes o n pp. 221: Gagosian Gallery/Private Collection (b). 130: The Metropolitan M u s e u m of Art/Robert L e h m a n Collection. G e r m a n y . 29: Fogg A n Museum/Collections Baron de Vita: Grenville L. 5 0 : Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (1). 114: Musee Rodin.bridgeman. U K . L o n d o n .co. 226: Brian Catling. Wolfson's Yard. 1 3 6 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Centre Pompidou-MNAM-CCI. 1929 (29. B . M a n d y Earey.264 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Acknowledgments Author's Acknowledgments: T h e author wishes to thank the following people for their enormous help. L o n d o n ./Private Collection/© D A C S 2005. 1 7 8 : © T h e British M u s e u m / H e n r y Moore F o u n d a t i o n . R u t h P a r k i n s o n . Publisher's Acknowledgments Dorling Kindersley w o u l d like to thank Caroline H u n t for editorial contribution. F r a n c e .l. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. 2 2 4 : P r i n z h o m Collection. (r). Jackie Douglas. Jean Pierre Roy. H a m b u r g .uk /© Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery. 3 2 : Pepys Library. 1 6 0 : Rene G R U A U s. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin. c o . A n n a P l u c i n s k a . u k / T o k y o National M u s e u m . Sir Brinsley F o r d .uk /Biblioteca Nacional. Anders. 111: Fondation Beyeler/Riehen (Bale)/© Succession H Matisse/DACS 2005. 137: © The British Museum. J a c k a n d Brian Catling. Corporation of London. Dover Publications/ISBN: 0486229912 (t). P h y l l Kiggell. Paul T h o m a s . 1 3 8 : © Christie's Images Ltd/© A D AGP. 75: © The British Museum (b). H e a t h e r M c C a r r y . 4 8 : T h e N a t u r a l H i s t o r y M u s e u m . 113: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Salisbury & South W i l t s h i r e M u s e u m ( t ) . Paris a n d D A C S . 2 2 0 : Mamaru Abe. Natalie G o d w i n . Toulouse. 2 3 8 : akg-images. O. 74: Corbis. Havemeyer. Italy. 1 1 0 : www. and Tamsin Woodward Smith. G e r m a n y .uk/Guildhall Library. 49: Hunterian Museum (t). 9 5 : V a n Gogh M u s e u m . L o n d o n (t). 2 1 8 : Adolf-Wdlfli-Stiftung. 2 4 4 : Ashmolean Museum. 2 0 3 : Clare Bryan (t). Julie O u g h t o n . Clare Bryan./Galerie Sylvie Nissen. Paris.r. 132: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Trust. Paris and D A C S . Christopher Davis. 2 4 5 : Oona Grimes. Graphische Sammlung. Productions Clovis Prevost (c). T o n y G r i s o n i .uk/British Collection. 11: www. K a t h r y n W i l k i n s o n . London 2005. 174: Artothek/Munich. 225: Stephen P Huyler. 2 4 1 : Corbis/David M u e n c h ( b ) . 2 7 : Royal Academy of Arts. 115: Anita Taylor. S i m o n L e w i s . 2 8 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. 158: Calouste Gulbenkian Museum. 2 0 2 : © T h e British Museum. Germany. 9 7 6 ) . Oxford. c o . Angela W i l k e s .bridgeman. Paula Regan. 51: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz.20-21 a n d 246-47. K u n s t m u s e u m Bern/© D A C S 2 0 0 5 . Psychiatric Institute of the University of Heidelberg. 73: Berlin F i l m Museum (t).bridgeman. L o n d o n . France. 16: www. 9 3 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. O o n a G r i m e s . K u n s t m u s e u m .bridgeman. Angela Palmer. 1 0 8 : Arts C o u n c i l Collection. Andy Collection. 181: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. 3 1 : Tom Powel Imaging. 13: www. L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . Patty Stansfield. Sarah D u n c a n . 180: www. 1 3 5 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. 139: Galerie Marion Meyer/© Man Ray Trust / A D A G P .co.939). Roddy Bell.bridgeman. Winthrop. Paris. Orientabteilung/Ruth Illustrated London News Picture Library/The Bystander (b). . u k / O n Loan to the H a m b u r g Kunsthalle. H a y w a r d Gallery. Maureen Paley Interim Art (b). 2 4 0 : w w w . 6 6 : w w w . Pamela Ellis for compiling the index. D a w n Henderson. Sophie Laurimore. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. 30: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. Peter L u f f . University of Oxford. 72: akg-images. Lisbon.bridgeman. 88: www. 7 0 : Studio Daniel L i b e s k i n d .bridgeman. 9 1 : www. Anders/ © D A C S 2 0 0 5 . Antonia Cunliffe Davis. Diana Bell. Magdalene College Cambridge. J o h n Walter. 2 2 7 : Paul Klee Stiftung. Carole A s h . . R . Paris/ © Succession Picasso / D A C S 2005. 2 0 1 : T h e Royal Collection © 2 0 0 2 H e r Majesty Queen Elizabeth I I . 1 5 : w w w . for s u p p l y i n g the d r a w i n g des Augustins. Florence/MoMA. Sammy De Grave. Germany/Joerg P. 1 5 6 : Graphische S a m m l u n g Albertina. © Tate. 2 2 3 : Lebrecht Music and Arts Photo Library/Ricordi. NY. K e w ft)). 4 6 : B r i t i s h Library. 1 5 9 : Bodleian Library. 1 3 3 : Artothek/Kupferstichkabinett. L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . 157: U C L Art Collections . u k / L o u v r e . Rocio Arnaez. A . 1 6 1 : D C C o m i c s I n c . 2 2 2 : Pierre Georgel/Private Collection. Anita Taylor. B e r l i n . H . T h e R u s k i n School of D r a w i n g a n d Fine A r t . George M c G a v i n . 177: Mary Evans Picture Library. R o y a n d D i a n n e Simblet. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin/Jorg P.bridgeman. 2 4 2 : Photo Scala.Paris ( b ) . 199: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee des arts asiatiquesGuimet. A n d y C r a w f o r d for p h o t o g r a p h y a n d L . Flossie. Amsterdam. G i n a R o w l a n d . H e l e n S h u t t l e w o r t h . a n d encouragement i n m a k i n g this book: M a m o r u Abe. Kunstmuseum Bern. Paris a n d D A C S . A . Sarah Woodfine. 69: Institut Amatller d'Art Hispanic (tl). Japan. 179: www. Picture Credits 8: Corbis/Hubert Stadler. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. 1 9 8 : Dover Publications. L o n d o n .Strang Print Room ( b ) . Agnieszka Mlicka. 243: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. a n d D e p a r t m e n t s o f E n t o m o l o g y a n d Zoology at the University of Oxford. Berlin/Staatsbibliothek zu A l l other images © Sarah Simblet . b r i d g e m a n . 1975 ( 1 9 7 5 . 9 4 : Sarah Woodfine. London/Bequeathed by Charles Landseer. papers. Portugal. L e n . support. L o n d o n . 176: Modem Art. 5 2 : T h e Metropolitan Museum of Art/Bequest of Mrs. Paris. Paris. Madrid. 3 3 : Prinzhom Collection. 68: www. R o s e m a r y S c o u l a r .bridgeman. J o n Roome. F i n n . Fund. Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (t). Also. 2 0 0 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. C o r n e l i s o n & Son. 17: J o h n Walter. b r i d g e m a n . 5 3 : Collection of the Gemeentemuseum D e n Haag/Mondrian Trust. Psychiatric Institute of the U n i v e r s i t y of Heidelberg. c o . U K . Paul T h o m a s ( t ) . 9 2 : Science Photo L i b r a r y . Carlo O r t u for picture research s u p p o r t . 2 6 : Topfoto. 9 0 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/© A D A G P .a. J o h n 1879. 1 5 4 : akg-images/Musee National d'Art Moderne. London/courtesy of Stuart Shave.

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