An innovative, practical approach to drawing the world around you

SARAH SIMBLET

BOOK
FOR T H E ARTIST

BOOK

FOR THE ARTIST

SARAH SIMBLET

DK PUBLISHING

CONTENTS
LONDON • NEW YORK MELBOURNE • MUNICH • DELHI Senior Editor Paula Regan Senior Art Editor Mandy Earey Art Editor Anna Plucinska Managing Editor Julie Oughton Managing Art Editor Heather McCarry Art Director Peter Luff Publishing Director Jackie Douglas Production Joanna Bull DTP Designer Adam Walker Picture Research Sarah Smithies US Editor Christine Heilman First American Edition, 2 0 0 5 First Paperback Edition, 2 0 0 9 Published in the United States by DK Publishing 3 7 5 Hudson Street New York, New York 1 0 0 1 4 10 11 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3

Architecture
6 8 20 22 Master Builders The Order of Sound Future Fictions Pathways of Sight Single-Point Perspective Creating an Imaginary Space Further Aspects of Perspective Theaters Venetian Life Parisian Street

66
68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86

Foreword Introduction Drawing Books and Papers Posture and Grip

Objects and Instruments

TD075-July 2009 Copyright © 2 0 0 5 Dorling Kindersley Limited Text and authors artworks © Sarah Simblet 2 0 0 4 Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited A Cataloging-in-Publication record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN 9 7 8 - 0 - 7 5 6 6 - 5 1 4 1 - 1 Color reproduction by GRB, Italy Printed and bound in China by Toppan

Still Life Instruments of Vision Bench Marks Light and Illusions Further Illusions How to Draw Ellipses Tonality Drawing with Wire Artifacts and Fictions

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90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106

Animals
Documentaries Presence and Mood Movement Icon and Design Pen and Ink Drawing with Ink Capturing Character Sleeping Dogs Turtles Dry Birds

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26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44

The Body
Postures and Poses Choreographs Passion Measurement and Foreshortening Quick Poses Hands and Feet Charcoal Hands Phrasing Contours The Visual Detective La Specola

108
110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128

Plants and Gardens
Botanical Studies Jeweled Gardens Fast Trees Graphite and Erasers Cropping and Composition Negative Space Fig Tree Summer Flowers Acanthus Spinosus

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48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64

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Gatherings
Projections Magnetic Fields The Human Condition Disposable Pens The Travel Journal Catching the Moment Grand Canal Crossings Caravans The Big Top

174 Abstract Lines
176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 Process and Harmony Writing Time Chants and Prayers Compositions Being "Just" Collage Zen Calligraphy Nocturnes

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220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234

Portraiture
Poise Anatomies Revelations Self-Portraits Silver Point Head and Neck Essential Observations Drawing Portraits Generations Castings

130
132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 152

Earth and the Elements
Air in Motion Storms Nature Profiles Charcoal Landscapes Drawing in the Round Decaying Boat Cloudburst Notes of Force Mountains

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198 200 202 204 206 208 210 212 214 216

Gods and Monsters
Marks of Influence Hauntings Convolutions Brushes Brush Marks Monsters Goya's Monsters Consumed Glossary Index Acknowledgments

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240 242 244 246 248 250 252 254 256 259 264

Costume
Cloth and Drapery Character Costumes Femmes Fatales Colored Materials Study and Design The Structure of Costume Textures and Patterns Dressing Character Posture Carving

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156 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172

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The very first step is to believe it. or engineer. through history. shape. be they a child discovering their vision and dexterity. It makes me feel excited to be alive. not only to make art. drawing is the immediate expression of seeing. For me personally. a sculptor. and I refer back to them for years after they are made. where I expect them to be discovered by some people. that inspired the title and structure MEMORY T H E A T E R S This pen-and-ink drawing was made from imagination during research for my PhD. Augustine his notes on memory. are made outside as discreet installations. We can all learn how to draw. I know that with their cooperation I can soon prove them wrong. we have looked at. undergraduates to fellow professors. we learn to see it. For twelve years I have enjoyed the privilege of teaching drawing. and size. I work with people of diverse ages. art schools. a cartographer charting the land. It is my love of these. perhaps hidden on a door hinge or a street bench rail. and feeling. architect. and experience. Chosen in any color. It is a tool for investigating ideas and recording knowledge. but because it is how I engage with and anchor myself in life. night security staff. Combine these things and the possibilities are endless. Drawing is a mirror through which I understand my place in the world. thinking. These inspirations led me to invent museums. who tells me firmly upon approach that they cannot draw. we learn to feel truly alive. and makers of special effects. Drawing occupies a unique place in every artist and creator's life. and a reflector of experience. of Sketch Book for the Artist. and their importance to so many artists. The most rewarding challenge is always the newcomer. and be slowly washed or worn away. Others can be held in the h a n d or. a drawing book is the perfect portable private vehicle for your imminent exploration of drawing. aspirations. a composer notating a musical score. I was training in anatomy and studying how.Foreword B Y DRAWING THE WORLD AROUND US. doctors. still standing by the door. By using our imaginations. I will always draw. where spaces are shaped by nothing more than the objects and activities contained within them. from schoolchildren to senior citizens. They enfold their viewer and are made on joined sheets of paper that I reach by climbing ladders. texture. geologists. as a visiting professor at universities. . understood (and often misunderstood) our own bodies. in which he describes himself flying and diving in his imagination through pictorial caverns of knowledge. and local c o m m u n i t y classes. by invitation. Some of my drawings cover entire walls. I also make drawing books. and in a few sessions they will be flying. remain unseen by most. especially as travel journals. I was also reading among The Confessions of St. Some are more traditionally framed and hung in galleries for solo or group exhibitions. or a quantum physicist trying to see for themselves the fluctuations of our universe. and through which I can see how I think. They occupy a shelf in my studio. fashion designer.

Drawing is international.8 INTRODUCTION Where We Begin There is a fundamental drive in our human nature to make a mark. not just chosen pictures on our walls but everywhere—maps. and in meetings. inscribing every fresh part of it with their eager scrapes and trails. and we spend our lives reading it. Sometimes we draw because we are bored. is not afforded us by drawing. The sense of relief we may feel from the information overload of modern commercial life when visiting a country in which we can no longer read every written word.Theseancient silhouettes were drawn with earth pigments rubbed onto rock. irreverent to language barriers. "CAVE OF THE HANDS" In this drawing. We can always read each others drawings. graffiti. At home and at work we doodle. in lectures. We are bombarded with linear and tonal pictorial information. They have a natural affinity to many modern graffiti signatures. Children cannot be restrained from running across the pristine white lawn of newly fallen snow. Cueva de las Marios. but more often because drawing actually helps us to focus and take in what is said. and patterns on our clothes. signs. waving to us from many thousands of yearsago. like a great canvas for them to mark. packaging. a great crowd is raising their hands in greeting.000-9500 bce . Most adults still feel that certain exquisite pleasure on arriving at a beach to find the tide out and the sand perfect. scrawling shapes and cartoons when on the telephone. We are surrounded by drawings in our daily lives. logos. Rio Pinturas 13.

On a particular afternoon in September 1974. She gave me a notepad and a red crayon and asked me to draw her "a picture of Daddy. we see our oldest surviving images. and belonging to place. the hair of my first portrait was most important. MAKING OUR MARK It seems reasonable to assume that we have engaged in pictorial mark-making for as long as we have made conscious use of our hands. and she kept it as my first step beyond the delighted realms of scrawl. I was sitting with my mother. The image above is what I gave back to my mother. created by societies of hunter-gatherers. had happily scribbled." Until this day.9 WHERE WE BEGIN FIRST PORTRAIT For sorre forgotten reason. but I had never yet attempted to figuratively picture my world. I. enjoying the physical sensation of crayon on paper. . like all toddlers. Cave art was not made for decoration but as a fundamental part of life. and the appearance of my strikes of colors. power. In cave paintings like the one opposite. an expression of existence. Eyelashes take up as much of my attention as the head itself. Even though it is made by a toddler this image would be recognizable to anyone. at age two-anda-half. I now think this is a picture of proximity. who in their day-to-day hardship made time to picture themselves and the animals on which they depended. reflecting my experience of looking closely at my father's face.

As you progress. W e do n o t hesitate to draw a map. h o w e v e r small a n d u n f o r m e d y o u believe they are. most of us stop. yet still turn to drawing w h e n their verbal language fails or is inadequate. PROGRESSION T h e r e is a point in all o u r lives w h e n w e first c o n t r o l o u r mark and m a k e it a line. Inhibitions creep in and ideas of good a n d b a d terminate confidence. b e p r o u d o f what m a k e s y o u r w o r k individual to y o u . Young children love to draw. Don't b e p e r s u a d e d to draw in a w a y s o m e o n e else .10 INTRODUCTION PEN-AND-INK BEE This tiny drawing has been enlarged to show its texture and composition. to help a stranger see their way W h e n taking first steps in relearning h o w to draw. and from that first unit build and describe the shape of something or someone we know. At this point many will insist they cannot draw. and this activity plays a vital role in their d e v e l o p m e n t . But as adolescents. It was made with a few bold strokes of a steel pen dipped in ink to conjure the dried bee I was holding between my fingers on a pin. then drag o u r line into a loop. Hours are lost immersed in the glorious world of imagination. it is important to value your natural abilities a n d ways of seeing. for example.

but it does help to set out facing in the right direction. He used leftover ship and yacht paint with crayons on cut-out pieces of cardboard boxes. After experimenting and trying each new idea. Someone once told them they must draw in this way. Occasionally. I meet students struggling unhappily with a particular method of drawing. and which aspects of the vast wealth and diversity of graphic language would be most appropriate to their goals. Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse c.11 PROGRESSION A UNIQUE SIGHT This innocent yet sophisticated drawing of boats. . Enjoy the control of your own journey. The journey of every artist demands hard work and discipline. what they most want to achieve. and they have never questioned why. Think how much would have been lost if anyone had interfered with Alfred Wallis' personal sense of proportion and perspective in the exquisite drawing above. As you read this b o o k and perhaps attend art classes. remember that all advice is only advice. you must decide whether to keep or discard it. He was a retired Cornish fisherman and junk dealer who began drawing at the age of 70 "for company" after his wife died. 1925-42 53/8x87/8in (135 x 225 mm) ALFRED WALLIS prefers and tells you is better. harbor and sea is one of many that Alfred Wallis made from memory while sitting at home. I ask them their reasons for drawing.

but it should be the experienced world we draw.12 INTRODUCTION VISION All artists see the world differently. and inspire others. but the child in us knows that this is an all-embracing.and collarbones and shoulder blades of a different bird almost become new creatures in themselves. If as artists we nail a subject down too hard. clear-minded understanding of the sea. be visionary. We all see differently. author of The Story of Art. "There really is no such thing as Art. IDEAS A N D I N V E N T I O N S These active machines. Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels LEONARDO DA VINCI . I hope. it may not be accurate to our critical adult eye. the page bristles with the focus of ideas. not for disguise but as a personal choice. wrote as the opening line of this great work. we can drive out its spirit. all raise water From the Archimedes' screw to Leonardo's own cupped wheel." The clarity and empowerment of these words. Our imaginations are the tools with which we can increase the essence of life. There should neve: be a slavish obligation to represent things exactly as we collectively agree we see them. 11). embedded in this book. They are also always written backward. We also see differently ourselves. When we look back at Wallis' seascape (see p. Below. boats. the breast. is. There are only artists. right. depending on the occasion and our purpose. The art historian Professor Sir Ernst Gombrich. and breathtaking wind of a choppy harbor. His notes visually balance his drawings. There are countless reasons for drawing. We BIRD STUDIES The flutter of faint scratches that dance across the pages on the right is an attempt to see the movement and bony weightlessness of a bird. perhaps for comfort or ease as a left-hander or a habitual enjoyment of the challenge. and lose the very thing that attracted us to it. The observed world may be our subject.

. or illustrate a dream. stripped-down parts. it may be best to start afresh. when it looks tired and still feels wrong. but it is important to be clear why we are making it.13 VISION should not try to know how every finished picture will look. time spent is not lost. It will be invested through your experience in the new drawing. shout against a terrible injustice. make a calculation. We have both covered our paper with focused. Each fresh image reflects growing confidence and the experience of the preceding study. while below. or to discover the best use of a new material. drawing in pursuit of our own thoughts and understanding. Decide before you start whether you are drawing to warm up. Don't be disheartened. More was learned drawing the bird 18 times than would have been understood drawing it only once or twice. Our drawings are annotated investigations into the mechanisms of nature and of an idea. conduct an experiment. I drew to understand the apparatus of flight. This also applies if struggling at length with a larger picture. Opposite. Leonardo drew to invent a machine. to express the beauty in a moment's play of light. My drawings of a housemartin (opposite top) illustrate the importance of repeated study.

feel. silk. explain the composition. and we can just make out the distant stains of mountains. it should be responding to the sensation and meaning of the subject it draws. and sometimes beyond. trusting my intuition to find a visual equivalence for the sensation of weight within my body. fire. excessive planning can get in the way of the imagination. which can offer keys to other things. If you can do this. size. we are advised or even required to plan our pictures. metal. and opacity of your subject. As you draw any subject—something you see. meaning. Our position asvieweris unsteady. and allowed to flow through the brush. or ice—you must actually feel it beneath your fingers as you draw. bone. However. This is the alchemy of drawing. The physicality. Whatever the material— wood. and practice each part before putting the final image together. They each allowed the energy and focus of the moment to be expressed through controlled accident and a degree of the unknown Both drawings were made trusting the marks. We are caught in a shifting focus that makes everything fluid. mists. BRUSHED LANDSCAPE FLOWING SKELETON T h e gliding poise of this walking anatomy comes as much from the feeling of movement as it does from the feeling of drawing. or imagine—it is not enough to only render its shape. I made it almost unconsciously with a pen and a brush. These two brush drawings. declare the idea. This is a detail of a brush-and-ink drawing by a Japanese Buddhist monk. temperature. Imagine these qualities so strongly that you feel them in your mind and at your fingertips. and what you discover in the process of making.14 INTRODUCTION ALCHEMY At school. This suits many artists well and is perfectly valid. As your hand meets the paper to make a mark. and how it feels to the touch. created centuries and cultures apart. are both made of ink laid onto wet paper with speed and agile certainty. W e float toward the quiet vista as it also moves toward us. balance. and at speeds beyond conscious thought. You must also think of its intrinsic nature: its purpose. Each image relied upon past experience to know the probable behavior of the brush. your marks will become the subject on the paper. It denies the importance of accident. and position in space. Know the texture. and spirit of each subject was held strongly but loosely between the fingertips. and paper. water. the unknown. ink. and an island brushed with trees. depth. Landscape in Haboku Style 15TH CENTURY .

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like folded insects. left. c. stand table-sized with furniture legs attached t o b o t h sides of their jacket. Focusing on the Negative 2004 22 x 30 in (56 x 76 cm) J O H N WALTER . He dazzles us with flashes o f light and dabbed marks o f shadow. acrylic. more than 100 years after its making. gold leaf and spray paint.16 INTRODUCTION PLACE A N D MOMENT The heat and teeming atmosphere o f this Parisian dressing room.1896 Woman at her Toilet 41 x 26 in (104 x 66 cm) TOULOUSE LAUTREC RIB-CAGE D R A M A Thus drama. W a l t e r also makes books: some. which evoke realities o f place and the p o w e r o f moment. made by a young British artist who creates alphabets o f the absurd f r o m familiar childhood characters. lives on. pastel. Lautrec's flamboyant splashes o f petticoats and pantaloons are drawn with long sweeps of chalk and brushed oil paint. right is set inside a rib cage. one of many luminous works in watercolor.

and miscellaneous items of inspiration. you will be surprised and encouraged to see how far you have come. Try to keep all of your first drawings. Much will be learned on these test sheets and in your first drawings. at a point when you feel you are not making progress. Choose other materials and do the same. just through the act of making. Put them away and look at them later. potential ideas still forming. Drawing is exploratory. Start by choosing a material you like the look of and cover a piece of paper with different marks. and mistakes are a valuable process of learning. With no help and advice at all. Ignore these at first and allow yourself the freedom to play.17 FREEING THE HAND If you are just beginning to learn how to draw. take your time and don't worry if you need to make several attempts to grasp a concept. Pages do not have to lie open for other people to inspect and comment on. It is yours. As you follow lessons in this book. diary-like observations. One of the advantages of a drawing book is that you can shut it. FREEINGTHEHAND . try not to grip your pen worrying about the technical terms you might have heard. Such books are personal: the territory of new exploration and experiment. you will naturally make progress on your own in response to concentration and the decision to look and draw. even those you dislike. Enjoy discovering what your hand and the material can do.

I was particularly attracted to their gentle articulation and understated determination. Picasso Painting with Light at the Madoura Pottery 1949 . when they are more experienced. we still only glimpse a corner of the magnitude of this subject and the infinity of what can be achieved. Look to your own experience and also learn from the work of others. comes from within. and many more reasons for drawing the world. which of course he cannot see. However.18 INTRODUCTION THE THINKING EYE Techniques and materials are the grammar and vocabulary of drawing and can be studied and shared. it will be your creation as you discover your own personal vision. Its sensuous and flowing line seems to drift like smoke. ELECTRIC BULL With a penlight. An artist's personal voice is something that also evolves through lessons learned. but not confined to them. Once there. It rarely flourishes in isolation. and became a great subject for me. Picasso has just finished his drawing.Their elegant strength seems to summon a lifetime of drawing. staring straight through his image of a bull. caught between action and repose. adapting its form and occupation. To these I have added my own drawings to explain elementary materials and techniques and offer introductory approaches. and enfolding new media. A N ARTIST'S HANDS These are the hands of the artist Phyll Kiggell (see p. it is this voice that is the subtle part of their art and something that ultimately. Drawing is a living language that over millennia has grown and changed. The real drawing book has yet to come. seek ideas in the life around you. Picasso is poised smiling. threedimensionally. the path is yours. Imagination needs nourishment. As you draw. The chapters of this book present 90 different artists' ways of seeing. 150). In the total wealth of these pages. Note that the drawing classes are allocated to subjects. This practical journey will take you through the door into the vivid heart of drawing. which is held frozen in space by a camera lens.

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H o w e v e r r i n g bindings o f t e n break.b o u n d b o o k s t h a t fit in y o u r p o c k e t o r bag. thickness. C A N V A S . c h o o s e larger f o r m a t s t o give y o u s c o p e f o r e x p e r i m e n t . Most contain thin p a p e r and are perfect f o r use w i t h disposable pens. t h e i r jackets w i l l a c t like d r a w i n g b o a r d s a n d p r o t e c t y o u r w o r k . a n d r e f e r e n c e b o o k s f o u n d in s e c o n d . pastels. Homemade books can be assembled easily from found materials or selections of loose sheet papers. and handles to lift the weight of your artworks.b o u n d p a d if y o u w i s h t o keep your drawings together long-term. cut. Sand the edges to avoid splinters. Many artists invent ways o f binding their o w n books. Alternatively. which are also sold in an enormous range. BLACK P O C K E T B O O K S : Hand-sized w i t h ready-made elastic binder and a marker ribbon. c o l o r If planning t o use pencils. catalogs. and glued t o a s t r i p o f bias binding. binding. y o u n e e d a lifetime. and cost.q u a l i t y r i n g .B O U N D PADS: T h e s e are t h e least expensive a n d useful f o r o p e n i n g flat. b e a w a r e t h a t p a p e r t e x t u r e effects a n d changes t h e i r marks. F O U N D B O O K S : O l d p r i n t e d 3 . H O M E M A D E : I m a d e this b o o k f r o m drawing paper that I folded. Drawing boards are invaluable.h a n d s t o r e s make unique subjects f o r e x p e r i m e n t s a n d collage. and collage their ideas. a n d crayons. Dissecting a d i s c a r d e d h a r d . T h e hardb o a r d j a c k e t is s t r e t c h e d w i t h canvas beneath t h e p a p e r sleeve. 1. quality. These are perfect f o r w o r k i n g in novels. You simply need two strong boards hinged together well. They can be very expensive in art stores. R I N G . study the structure of a good portfolio and make your own. C O L O R E D PAPERS: Large a r t supply stores o f t e n sell t h i c k b o o k s full o f c o l o r e d p a p e r s . color. A high-quality one will last a DRAWING BOOKS Select d r a w i n g b o o k s t o suit y o u r aims. N o t e t h e w i d e l y differing c h o i c e o f p a p e r s w i t h w h i c h t h e s e are m a d e . a l e n g t h o f black elastic t i e d a r o u n d t h e m i d d l e will h o l d the contents together w h e n y o u f o l d in c o l l e c t e d items. texture. There are dozens to choose from. Smooth plywood. Purchase a h i g h . drawing book.C O V E R E D H A R D B O U N D : Ideal f o r c a r r y i n g a r o u n d . thick enough not to flex. ties on either side to keep your papers in place. Art students often make use of printed books picked up from secondhand stores into which they draw.20 INTRODUCTION Drawing Books and Papers T o BEGIN YOUR EXPLORATION o f d r a w i n g . cheap corrugated plastic ones fall apart in days. is perfect. If you intend to carry your boards for a distance. stitched.b o u n d b o o k w i l l s o o n s h o w y o u h o w it is m a d e . c h o o s e s m a l l e r h a r d . F o r e v e n i n g classes. 4. 2. 2002 Tantalus o r The Future of Man 81/2 x61/4in (215 x 158 mm) ROSE MILLER . t h i s is h o w I l e a r n e d . 6. 5. F o r traveling. it is better to have them made at a lumber yard or home improvement store. It is also useful to own a portfolio. Calculate a range of useful dimensions and have several cut at once. Gleaming store purchases vary greatly in format. be sure they fit comfortably under your arm.

or rolls. FABRIANO ACADEMIA: Standard medium-range multipurpose paper Use with any media. it is made from rice. mold-. Cheap wood-pulp papers are acidic. GLASSINE: Sold as protective wrapping. VELIN ARCHES 250GMS: Printmaking paper available in black white. 16. and other plant fibers. It is also excellent for drawing with marker pens on layered sheets. turning brown and brittle. Use cheap paper for rough ideas and quality paper for work to last See the glossary ( p p . 20. 13. 7. resisting deterioration. Ph.5 9 ) for explanations of rough. T W O RIVERS Y E L L O W 410GMS: See Two Rivers Green 19. T W O RIVERS GREEN 410G MS: Very heavy tinted textured cold-pressed watercolor paper See Two Rivers Yellow. C A N S O N : Inexpensive lightweight pastel paper in many colors. and translucent. smooth. and cost. from pencil to paint 9. fine. 18. red. mulberry. Use with a brush in clean water Water makes a dark mark like ink and becomes invisible again when dry.TISSUE PAPER: Place sheets between drawing book pages to keep images from printing on each other and use for delicate collage. C A R B O N PAPER: Available in dark and light blue. printed on one side only. FABRIANO R O U G H 600GMS: Very heavy. and white. and cream sheets or rolls. pastel paper in flecked pastel colors with a distinctive ribbed marking. absorbency. 15. 17. MAGIC PAPER: A reusable sheet for testing ideas without creating waste. 12. bamboo. For use with any media. not. 100% cotton and sold in sheets. 14. 8. FABRIANO INGRES: Thin. METALLIC PAPER: Thin paper in different metallic colors. and hot pressed papers. and rolls. AQUARELLE ARCHES 300GMS:The very top quality hot-pressed (smooth) watercolor paper. It is available in white or cream. used to imprint lines of these colors onto a surface. yellow. cold. 10. texture. They are hand-. white textured paper that can take abrasive use of any medium. 21. PAPERS . or machine made in sheets. ITALIAN PARCHMENT: Imitation-animal-skin parchment that is translucent and slightly waxy. 2 5 6 . Use for brushwork drawings. also good for drawing with colored pencils. JAPANESE PAPER: Strong. blocks. color. 11. 22. tough. Cotton papers are high-quality and acid-free. size. blocks. SAUNDERS WATERFORD N O T 300GMS: Mid-quality textured watercolor paper.Papers differ in thickness (weight).

or with your drawing board angled between your lap and a chair. place it on the correct side: if right-handed. Examples are shown here. This cramped grip tires your hand and makes small. don't sit too close to the paper. if left-handed. body. With your hand in this position. In this book we will look at parallels between drawing and music. If seated on a b e n c h easel (a donkey). but wherever possible. Use the side of your little fingernail as a support on the page. . place it on your left. Relaxed fingers: Hold the pencil away from its tip and relax your fingers. You do not have to dance to draw. place it on your right. If using an upright easel. a n d h a n d to the fingertips. you can draw lines freely and achieve a significant arc of movement. your whole relaxed b o d y should be involved. How you hold your drawing materials is also important. flowing space between your hand. b u t it should n o t be forgotten that many people make remarkable a n d striking works drawing with their feet or holding their brush or pencil in their mouths. should be able to look comfortably straight ahead at your picture plane.22 INTRODUCTION Posture and Grip T o DRAW WELL. This photograph illustrates how some people hold a pen to write. Ideally. It will also reflect discomfort if you are in any way cramped. strangledlooking drawings. There should be an open. your drawing will reflect this. Placing your easel o n the w r o n g side folds y o u r b o d y against your drawing arm. Regularly step back 6-9 ft (2-3 m) to check your progress. and look to the right. If your hand twists to maneuver between the paper and your body. Turning your drawing sideways or upside-own will also help reveal what is wrong. SPACE TO WORK Cramped grip. but you need to understand that the expression of a line or mark originates in the body and flows t h r o u g h the shoulder. From a distance you will spot errors you cannot see close up. If your body posture is well balanced and you can move freely. There are also parallels to dance. 116-17). your lines will distort. make sure you have enough room to back away and view your work. you Drawing classes can be cramped places. and subject. a n d look to the left of it at your subject. arm. Accelerated perspective also occurs if you look down the surface steeply (see pp. You cannot draw like this—your hand is locked and your fingers can barely move.

arm. and body are not restricted. not up to the paper Brushes can be used on upright paper but dip Anticipating effects: A fully loaded pens need a level surface.232-33). or change to the wrong hand. It is most comfortable when reaching to draw above your head. hold your material as you find most comfortable. GRAVITY Remember that gravity affects the flow of ink and paint. depending upon what it is and how large you are working. upright way of holding the brush near its base is similar to the Japanese way used in Zen calligraphy (see pp. alternative way of holding the pencil. As long as your fingers. To stop this. Large amounts of ink can be applied without fear of uncontrolled running if the paper is flat. This can be used to great effect. brush pressed against an upright surface will cause a dribble of ink to run down your drawing. If you turn a brush or dip pen up into the air to draw above your hand. find an unfamiliar. This can give a new lease on life to your mark-making. But be careful not to tense your fingers. Soft media: Short materials such as pastels and charcoal can be accommodated in the palm. liquid will run down your hand. or it can spoil your work if not anticipated. Large scale: POSTURE AND GRIP U n f a m i l i a r i t y : T h e habitual movements of our handwriting style will sometimes infringe upon our drawing. . roughly marking out a large-scale work. ALL MEDIA There are no rules as to how you should hold your drawing media.23 This loose "candle" grip is very useful when drawing with your arm extended. Brush calligraphy: This comfortable. Remember you can also draw just by dipping your fingers in pigment—this is how many women draw in rural India.

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On the Roanoke voyages of Sir Walter Raleigh." He worked with the scientist Thomas Harriot.. their different speeds and patterns of action. fish. As children we delight in the humanized trials of Tom and Jerry and their c a r t o o n relations. to be there at the m o m e n t of discovery. W h e n lost to explain our own emotions. mermaids. 11 x91/4in (277 x 234 mm) . In this chapter we discover the use of pens and ink through the delineation of insects. and snakes have between them engendered harpies. and learn how to Flying Fish c. dogs. offer challenges and delights to draw. and people. from which personality and predicted behavior were " d e d u c e d . and to bring h o m e drawn documentaries of their finds. who described in words what White drew. plants. we have employed artists on expeditions. werewolves. they are perhaps our favorite pictorial preoccupation.m o u n t e d skeletons of birds. and we still see escapees from its pages carved and grinning as the gargoyles of churches. bats. 1590 J O H N WHITE capture form and movement from the m a n n e r i s m s of honking geese. birds. After the subject of ourselves. and this very drawing was to endure many copies and plagiarisms after its triumphant return to the English court of Queen Elizabeth I. " Animals perpetually feed our imaginations. which are so unlike ours. Framed in the z o o or in domestic cohabitation. m u s e u m . we turn and take the features of beasts." Paranoid newcomers c r a m m e d into swelling industrial cities used handbooks of physiognomy to identify and judge their neighbors. sleeping dogs. For the novice artist. and dragons. the Latin bestiary was one of the most popular picture books—an illustrated dictionary of one hundred parts. White's commission was to ". and silent. and pioneer born c. floating turtles. Together they made maps and documented animals. In 19th-century Europe this became a "science. JOHN WHITE British artist. or scampering through the initials and borders of pictures from that time. Here (left) we see J o h n White's exquisite record of a flying fish. W e have drawn them in m a n u s c r i p t s to explain our genesis and to c o u n t their species into Noah's ark.Animals H UMANS HAVE DRAWN ANIMALS from the beginning of our time.. O v e r the centuries. We have drawn them on the walls of caves to evoke their kinship and power. out are now oxidized and so appear black W h e n less preoccupied with understanding ourselves. In medieval England. insects. which very likely leaped o n t o the deck of Sir Walter Raleigh's ship Tiger as it sailed north from the Caribbean to Virginia in 1585. cartographer. animals provide a perfect subject with which to begin. Facial features were analyzed in terms of their animal likeness. This drawing is made in black lead (metal point) with watercolor Highlights of silver would have gleamed. 1540.drawe to lief one of each kinde of thing that is strange to us in England. each dedicated to the moralized tale of an animal or monster The bestiary profoundly influenced the art of its period. Europeans on board had never seen such a thing.

and mathematician. the ship was lost. It was to become the animal's only accepted likeness for 250 years. filled journals with ideas and observations. writer. and wrote four books on proportion. when more accurate portrayals were made without armor and scales. Stubbs's Anatomy of the Horse achieved similar documentary status. He studied the image and drew his own interpretation. Converted into a print. Sailing to Rome. naturalist. the home of ALBRECHT DURER German Renaissance painter. Original Ink Drawing of a Rhinoceros 1515 ALBRECHT DURER 103/4 x 161/2 in ( 2 7 4 x 4 2 0 mm) . He in turn sent the mysterious creature to the Pope via Marseilles at the request of the King of France. Unsurpassed. years after its publication. a drawing of it arrived in Nuremberg. a gift to the Portuguese King. Durer's image changed eager hands until it was known across Europe. Meanwhile. inspiring countless works of art and so touching people's imaginations that later. DURER'S RHINOCEROS AND STUBBS'S skeletal Durer. Contemporary texts related accounts of the beast as the mortal enemy of the elephant and rare relative of the "more common" unicorn. it continued its journey to Rome. printmaker. they were rejected. it is still consulted by veterinarians today. draftsman. Life-like This is Durer's original quill-and-ink drawing made after an anonymous Portuguese drawing. Durer traveled widely to study at different European schools of art. but the drowned animal washed ashore. It is such a lifelike triumph of imagination and intelligence that for centuries zoologists never questioned its authority. Carefully stuffed. The first live rhinoceros to reach Europe came from India in May 1515.26 ANIMALS Documentaries horse are superb affirmations of the power of drawing as a recorder and communicator of knowledge.

Dissections Stubbs took his knife and his pencil and physically climbed inside the horse. naturalist. and therefore invented the lighting that Compare how Stubbs and Durer both invented lighting to portray the reality of their animals. L o n d o n . dissecting and drawing until he understood the mechanisms of its power and grace. composed from notes and observations. in t h r e e v i e w s — r e a r f r o n t . The entire project was developed over ten years. which has never diminished. Stubbs w a s o n e o f t h e first E u r o p e a n artists t o m a k e a n a c c u r a t e representation o f the rhinoceros. This is one of Stubbs' original finished pencil drawings.GEORGE STUBBS B r i t i s h e q u i n e a n d s o c i e t y p o r t r a i t painter. Dissections were made over a total of 18 months. is no other work like it. He translated his own drawings into engravings for publication. His painted p o r t r a i t o f t h e b e a s t is in t h e R o y a l C o l l e g e o f S u r g e o n s o f England. He composed makes each horse appear so real and each plate from his three-dimensional. Lighting Stubbs's breathtaking international work won immediate There acclaim. Anatomy of the Horse. Table of the III of the Horse (rear Skeleton view) mm) 1756-58 1 4 x 7 in ( 3 5 4 x 1 8 0 GEORGE STUBBS . a n d s i d e . knowledge of parts. a n d anatomist. Stubbs's m o s t c e l e b r a t e d publication. c o m p r i s e s 1 8 p l a t e s s h o w i n g d i s s e c t i o n s in l a y e r s f r o m b o n e t h r o u g h m u s c u l a t u r e t o skin.

the ominous beast unwinds from the dark of the sea and of our nightmares. drama. Apparently drawn in its o w n ink. conjured b y the hand of a great author of French literary fiction. novelist. By contrast. A s if disturbed from its gritty b e d by our presence and curiosity. linseed oil soaked into the paper has made shadows and repelled the ink to create translucent tentacles. Surrounding sprays of graphite powder are stuck into washes of oil and ink to suggest glutinous depths.. sepia. saying ". drawing her again and again to pin d o w n the texture of her loose skin. more or less what I have in view. and turn. I've ended up mixing in pencil. Gericault's sheet a p p e a r s almost s c r a t c h e d b y the f e r o c i o u s play of his cat. Hugo used graphite powder. Mixed media Here. her sharp teeth. The Hunchback of Notre Layers and shadows Throughout this drawing. Hugo's page is f l o o d e d w i t h the fearful presence of a remembered octopus..28 ANIMALS Presence and Mood THESE DRAWINGS HAVE BEEN CHOSEN to s h o w t w o v e r y different ways of picturing a wild animal. H u g o mixed his media and drew from m e m o r y and imagination to create narrative atmosphere. and leader of the French Romantic movement. and all sorts of bizarre concoctions which manage to convey above all in mind. He has w a t c h e d her p o u n c e . her b o n y frame. Hugo's novels Les Miserables and Dame have become classics of film and stage. it silently rises to the light. ink and linseed oil on paper. His copious drawings are characterized by mixed media. Gericault took a sharp p e n c i l to m a k e repeated direct o b s e r v a t i o n s f r o m life. playwright. VICTOR HUGO Poet. and her distinctive temperament. charcoal. snarl.. and a love of accident. The octopus is formed in layers applied and distressed with a brush. soot. and Pieuvre 1866-69 91/2 x81/8in (242 x 207 mm) VICTOR H U G O .. coal dust. He wrote to poet and art critic Charles-Pierre Baudelaire about his experiments.".

s h o r t . The Raft of the Medusa. 144. 124-25 and p. artists reused sheets and them full of studies. horses w e r e a favorite subject t o g e t h e r w i t h politics and history.29 THEODORE GERICAULT C o n t r o v e r s i a l . standing sideways. diagonal strokes of his pencil. focused upon seeing will lead to a greater understanding of the subject Much is learned from repeated study. and it can be applied to any subject (see pp.l i v e d French R o m a n t i c painter and lithographer Largely self-taught. undertraces unify and vitalize the composition. Here. Beginners are advised to follow the natural contours of form as shown on pp. facing right. of previous Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 1817-18 121/2 x 151/2 in ( 3 1 9 x 3 9 8 mm) T H E O D O R E GERICAULT . Before paper became so cheap. and keep trying again.118-119). fiery. displayed in the Louvre. H e is best k n o w n f o r his gigantic painting. Repeated study This drawing demonstrates of feeling confident repeat different the importance subject Remaining enough to isolate parts of a views. parallel. of drawings Gericault erased. Paris. since it can lead to a flattened form. Tones that do not follow surface contour is very difficult to do well. At the center of the page is crammed drawings the outline of a horse. Undertraces Beneath these graphite studies we see traces Tones On the top row we see clearly how Gericault laid broad areas of tone using fast.

dissolving faun kneels stranded. slow tortoise. and scrolled lines. draftsman. overwhelmed by a screeching bird. flapping bird. and brown. His hand must have shuddered and twitched just like the constant actions of this humorous meeting. Ink and gouache This drawing is made in black Chinese ink and gouache (opaque watercolor) applied with a brush. we see semi-abstract. In these two drawings. noise is everywhere. quivering horse. with George Braque (see p90). Artists commonly focus on such actions. The ink is used to make sharply defined solid. identify an animal: the fast cheetah. In Picasso's drawing. taking them to guide their hand in bringing form and essence together. made only a year apart. The fact that they never stand still influences the movement in his line. Cheval et Oiseau 1936 173/8 x 211/4 in ( 4 4 0 x 5 4 0 m m ) PABLO PICASSO . or proud. Klee's riders are constructed from all the gestures of greeting mules. Both Picasso and Klee have enclosed their subjects to compress and amplify the speed of PABLO PICASSO A prolific Spanish painter sculptor. and waves breaking distantly below. Gouache is brushed softly in translucent hazy layers of cool blue. His powdery. the first abstract movement of the 20th century. Picasso cofounded Cubism. flattened animals composed almost entirely of movement. Faune. printmaker ceramicist graphic and stage designer who lived in France. hooked. These media complement and amplify each other with their brilliant contrast. the whinnying of a frantic horse. gray.30 ANIMALS Movement M O V E M E N T IS OFTEN THE CHARACTERISTIC b y w h i c h w e their lines and the power of their beasts.

printmaker. well-worn copies o f w h i c h are found in m a n y art schools. Scene der Komischen of Comical Reiter Riders) (Scene 1935 161/2x111/2in ( 4 1 9 x 2 9 1 mm) M o r t o n G . and t e a c h e r at t h e Bauhaus school. N e u m a n n Family Collection. He is a u t h o r o f The Thinking Eye (1923).PAUL KLEE Swiss painter. W i t h his drawings Kleeb o u n d sophisticated theories to personal and often witty childlike imagery. The entire drawing suggests the endless small movements of horses standing still. sculptor." They chatter around bodies in groups. Layers of marks In this pale Dentil drawing we see layers of' agitated marks that together present a kind of visual "itch. violinist. draftsman. turning our eye and around inside the and postures of the paper- thin on pictorial space. They remain in contact with the surface of the page and scribble back and forth as they maneuver from one area to another. creatures. top all happily of each other in the Endless lines Look closely at how Klee's lines rarely leave the paper and how they are free from the constraint of finite shape. Chicago PAUL KLEE .

t h e earliest geometrically defined elevations. and steerage.32 ANIMALS Icon and Design IN THESE T W O MANUSCRIPTS we discover diagrammatic and mackerel's tail" (full bow. The fish It is likely that Baker drew with a quill dipped in irongall ink. mathematician. plans. Knopf's drawing opposite is the personal enigmatic expression of a mind gripped by illness. slim stern). seemingly looking for our attention. the expression of its eye. This drawing illustrates Baker's theory. The ship The upper decks of the ship appear curved toward us at both ends. drawings of animals that are each held tightly in a surprising space: a giant fish wears a ship's hull. and to assess our next move. In just one drawing he has displayed more angles of his design than we would expect to see from a single viewpoint Fragments English 1586 101/2 x 153/8 in (270 x 390 mm) MATTHEW BAKER of Ancient Shipwrightry . Below we see his revolutionary design for an Elizabethan warship. fins. Exquisite details in this drawing include the lips of the fish. balance. Baker lived in an era when ships were built without drawn plans. and blackbirds fly in formation through a mosaic of text. and scales. His birds stare. and from them learned that if he designed his ship with a "cod's head MATTHEW BAKER Master shipwright. which in application gave strength and advantage to the English fighting the Spanish Armada. later called a galleon. and the carefully observed gills. it would achieve greater speed. adding washes of color with a fine brush. In contrast to the practical clarity of Baker's thought. It is simply how we read his perspective. b a s e d o n his studies o f fish. He studied the anatomy of fish. and s e c t i o n s o f ships. B a k e r initiated t h e scientific p r a c t i c e o f naval a r c h i t e c t u r e and applied h y d r o d y n a m i c s . and author o f Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (1586). Baker did not intend this.

The text. firmly outlined.K n o p f b e l i e v e d h e c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h e language o f birds. written last of all. appears to be stirred like water by the presence of the The Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks UNDATED 133/8 x 115/8 in (340 x 2 9 6 mm) and psychiatrist Hans Prinzhom collected this image. numbered. and filled evenly with tone. JOHANN KNOPF . The main group is placed in a circle drawn with a compass.JOHANN KNOPF An " O u t s i d e r " a r t i s t w h o s u f f e r e d f r o m m e n t a l illness. circle and the birds. T h e G e r m a n a r t historian Outline and tone The blackbirds illuminating this frantic manuscript are drawn in pencil. w h i c h o f t e n f e a t u r e as s y m b o l i c creatures in his drawings.

light it. ink is traditionally applied with a brush (see pp. producing a different line. a n d m e t a l p o i n t s . where reeds were gathered. 3. 4. and hold it under a clean basin until the soot hangs to it. The Chinese used animal or fish glue.246-47). and spatters can be made with an exotic choice of inks. The reservoir gives a constant flow of ink for very long unbroken lines and continuous bottle-free use. In the Far East. QUILLS: These are cut from the barrel of a flight or tail feather." "Gum" refers to gum arabic extracted Dip pens are essential and inexpensive drawing tools. which scratch rather than draw. Masters choose brands of long. That is an ink.34 ANIMALS Pen and Ink W I T H A HANDFUL OF FEATHERS. PENS . Each pen has a unique character. expressive drawing techniques such as the ones we explore in this chapter 1. 5 0 0 years ago. They fit into wooden holders. The Egyptians and Chinese are credited with the invention of carbon ink. and first used by the Egyptians. Only fill with suitable inks. Early artists recommended raven and crow for especially fine work. they are associated with rapid. which range greatly in their handling and character of line. Avoid needle-sharp mapping pens. you can have great fun drawing the world around you. s t i c k s . from the acacia tree. the recipes for which have been handed down over centuries. Today. The bar is then rubbed into water on a slate block to produce ink. spots. Dip pens began their history in the Nile River. Quills were later cut from feathers. F O U N T A I N PENS: These vary in quality and nib width. A German recipe of 1531 gives a simple description: "Take a wax candle. 2. REED PENS: A broad nib can be cut from bamboo or another tubular grass. The paste from either recipe is pressed and dried into a bar for storage. The best are goose or swan. high-quality Chinese and Japanese inks are subtler and more complex than those produced in Europe. while metal nibs began as rare gifts in gold and silver before being perfected by the British steel industry. simultaneously 4 . METAL PENS: Inexpensive removable steel nibs are available in a range of widths. distinguished manufacture. Intricate or dramatic lines. Responsive to slight changes in pressure. and it is still in use today. then pour a little warm gum water into it and temper the two together.

Inks can be lightfast or non-lightfast. charred bone (Ivory Black). and are still in use today: carbon (Chinese and Indian). waterproof or non-waterproof. Waterproof types contain shellac. I N D I A N INK: Carbon ink sold today in liquid form. It dries with a sheen and clogs uncleaned pens. SEPIA A N D BISTRE INKS: Sepia. and most can be homemade. and sieved.35 PEN AND INK Four types of ink were common before the 20th century. and sepia. The complexities of traditional iron-gall ink are explained on p. reduced. Beechwood soot is best. Old stock turns solid and bottlesChina. from are not 6. INKS 9. suspended in a binder and stored as a solid block Blocks are imported today 7. roastedwine sediment (Yeast Black). Excellent for drawing they are bright and non-clogging. dated. . or charcoal. 5. ACRYLIC / CALLIGRAPHY INKS: Available in black and a range of colors. and can be mixed and diluted to create subtler colors and tones. they produce a golden dye for drawing. Non-waterproof Indian inks can be reworked with a wet brush after drying. 8. Crushed.G A L L INK: Abnormal spherical growths caused by parasitic wasps can be collected from some oak trees in fall. C A R B O N INK: Traditionally produced from oil or resin soot (Lamp Black). bistre. Bistre is the more humane use of soot scraped from the fireplace and ground into wine. They are the easiest inks to use. boiled. Now we also have acrylic ranges in many colors. is the ink of a cuttlefish or squid extracted post-mortem. an often misused term.36. I R O N . iron-gall.

It also oxidized and ate or burned paper. Reed marks The darker left wing of this beetle was drawn with the wet inky stroke wing. Paler strokes were made where the mark has the legs and antennae the ink ran out. Rembrandt. giving longer lines. are surprisingly tough. it was gray-purple. T h e y give a finer. r e s e r v e d t h e i r use f o r large c h o i r b o o k s . can also be collected from affected trees. Collect skins from the ground beneath trees once they are blackened. of a loaded nib. Practice to gain a feel for how materials behave. Although oak galls and walnut skins are harmless. keep all your fingers behind basis of iron-gall ink. reduced. crushed. galls were ground with iron sulfate to make an unstable solution. fleshy skins that surround ripe walnuts. and turned brown with time. the blade and cut away from you. and boiled to make a golden ink. It dried black. . The darkest of this grasshopper wings) were made (around the head first. sieved. Walnut ink is gloopy. Scribes o f t h e M i d d l e Ages. always be cautious when experimenting with recipes. m o r e e x t e n d e d line than reed and a m o r e organic line t h a n m e t a l . Running fresh. a n d d e v e l o p e d t h e quill instead. I u s e d t h e s e qualities t o d r a w t h e w o r m s above. U n d e r heavy pressure. For centuries. Quills are also called D u t c h pens. Oak galls. Some of Michelangelo's drawings are now a little eaten by their own ink. then cut a final nib (feathers. M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s d r a g o n o n p . QUILL PENS Q u i l l s a r e highly r e s p o n s i v e t o c h a n g e s in p r e s s u r e . giving a s h o r t . red-brown. t h e y stick a n d j u d d e r f o r w a r d . finding reed p e n s unwieldy. and delicious to draw with.) You can make ink easily from the boiled. appears broken to show paper beneath. d r y mark. forming the REED PENS R e e dpens dispense ink quickly. The lighter right Quill marks Quills carry more ink than strokes and for as reeds. since t h e D u t c h w e r e t h e first t o realize t h a t they could be hardened and i m p r o v e d w i t h heat t r e a t m e n t in ash o r sand.36 ANIMALS Drawing With Ink To MAKE A QUILL OR REED PEN. a n d M a t i s s e also e n j o y e d t h e m . V a n G o g h . 2 4 4 is an e x q u i s i t e e x a m p l e . for example. drawn to glisten with a dryer nib.

. W h e n the nib is pressed upside down. breaking. o r being ruined as fountain pens would be under the same pressure. it is important to feel for when the ink will run out and to know how much ink you pick up when dipping the nib.37 METAL PENS Metal pens give long. marks become fine and needle-sharp. Each layer of of the drying droplet dome the drawing was left to dry before adding more. tonal Ink layers The wings of this beetle were drawn in layers using black and white ink on pale gray paper. they splay to make thick o r double lines. The of pigment to fall to the edges effect of the shape. White markings were drawn last Tones Here we see subtle tones of diluted ink beneath the undiluted black rim of a beetle's wing. When using dip pens. sharp. Loaded with ink and pressed hard. DRAWING WITH INK Filled outlines Each segment of wing was outlined. particles then filled with a droplet of ink. withstanding great pressure without sticking. clean strokes. giving a graded.

so pick a spot where other people can keep them entertained." If you don't like a stroke. Take no more than ten seconds to draw each one and make lots of drawings.38 ANIMALS Capturing Character GEESE ARE EXCELLENT SUBJECTS to draw when practicing the first use of pen and ink. not on your drawing. waddle. and boldly plunge into your drawing. You cannot break the nib. there is no obligation to prepare a quill. Illustrating this exercise on Oxford Port Meadow. Experiment. to absorb blots when drawing. Empathize. I covered eleven sheets in sixty quick drawings—in less than an hour. Try to hold the whole posture in your mind's eye. Quick drawing trains you to see what is most important about a subject and to mark only its most essential expression. make another one. draw what the bird is doing. Focus on it. It teaches confidence and focus through intensive repetition. Cover a sheet. Attempt with a loose hand to capture their posture and outline. That said. and a large drawing book or plenty of paper Use masking tape to secure pages against the wind. Focus on the geese. Pack plenty of tissue around a bottle of calligraphy or acrylic ink. Cover your drawing book pages in speedy responses to the geese and try to capture each bird in as few lines as possible. Study them before drawing. It happens that goose feathers also provide artists with the best type of quills. and be brave. and quickly draw around it using only three or four strokes. and there is no "wrong. test your limits. Watch their heavy feathered bodies flap. touch the bottle's rim to drain the excess. and bellyflop off the waterside. Posture . Take a cup and water for diluting a range of tones. Geese are nosy birds. Dip your pen in ink. be bold and press firmly. steel nibs are fine. MATERIALS NEEDED Look for a bird expressing a simple posture.

. look among the birds for more complicated actions such as shaking off water. Use more lines than before to express these. draw the feeling of what you see. and diving. CAPTURING CHARACTER Texture Gradually allow yourself more lines to describe the texture of each bird as well as its posture and action. flapping. Avoid detail unless really tempted by a close-up visit Fluctuate the pressure of your pen in response to how you know the bird would feel if you touched it. running. Again.39 Action With growing confidence. and don't worry about mechanical facts or accuracy.

your drawing book. form. a dip pen and ink of your choice (see pp. The only time he remained still was when he was sleeping. and a tissue for blotting drawn lines that appear too dark. and even then he twitched and stretched in dreams. Dip the nib quickly again into water and again drain it. Then dip the nib quickly into a glass of water and drain the excess again. This will give a medium-gray line. and personality. first dip your pen in ink.40 ANIMALS Sleeping Dogs R A S WAS A GREAT CHARACTER. For this class you will need one oblivious dog. engaged in his and everyone else's business. Now it will make a pale line. Ras Curled Up Asleep "Capturing the true character of a cherished companion is best achieved with objective determination rather than sentimental shyness. MAKING A PALE LINE To make a pale line. and drain the excess by touching the nib against the rim of the bottle. Make a test sheet to discover your control of diluting on the nib. These drawings are not an analysis of his anatomy or breed but the expression of his satisfied comfort in a deep sleep after a night out on the together with a glass of water for diluting tones on the nib. Sleeping animals present the artist with ideal opportunities to study their texture.34-37). a d o g w h o w a s a l w a y s town." .

2 Reload your pen with ink. Character is better captured drawing quickly with confidence than w o r k i n g slowly. W i t h pale lies.41 DRAWING YOUR DOG Be bold in this exercise. ignoring all detail. D o not go back over lines you are pleased with—doing so dulls their lively freshness. in bold layers. to emphasize how he is curled up. Layers o f thoughts can bring a drawing alive. Remain focused on the whole dog and. Trust your intuition. tail. second thoughts may be different Changing your mind is a positive aspect o f seeing and thinking. SLEEPING DOGS 1 Fix your eyes at the center of the dog. ears. Then I immediately rebalanced the drawing with lines around his hind quarters. I added ink to Ras's nose. . alter the pressure and moisture of your line in response to howyouknow your dog feels when you ruffle itscoat. Here I marked the features of Ras's head. To add texture. and the shadows in his coat. this time to create a line a little darker in tone. see how the animal's posture determines its whole shape.It is essential when drawing any subject (even something abstract) to know how it feels andtoemulate this with your line. Here. add more detail. 3 Gradually introduce darker tones. Then. quickly draw what you see. c o n c e r n e d a b o u t detail. First lines are first thoughts.

A perfect subject for the beginner. they stretch and paddle.Turtles to observe. offering plenty of time for the artist to draw the pose. Beyond the glass wall of the aquarium. swinging their limbs and shells with a slow circular movement. as if caught in a camera freeze-frame. turtles often pause unexpectedly. THE ELONGATION AND BUOYANCY of a group of turtles is fascinating .

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I darkened lines as each drawing progressed. . Beginning with very pale tones. I sought to capture the form. weightlessness of the kiwi. India ink.Dry Birds THESE ARE THE ARTICULATED BONES o f a k i w i a n d a h o u s e - martin drawn in a museum using a steel pen. and water. With speed. dry. balance. I made repeated studies of the housemartin to discover its mechanism of flight. and sharp.

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From its history there is one overriding lesson to be learned: the importance of looking and seeing with our own eyes. an There are close parallels between the acts of gardening and drawing. Botanical illustration is a precisely defined and scientific art. robust. to catalog our knowledge. and focus. the microscope was refined to unfold yet another world. and diverse kingdom of plants. PriceBishopof Eichstatt specimens. shape. Early European illustrators were trapped within dogma that was determined by ancient scholarship. color. In this chapter. We draw them to celebrate their beauty and range. Fledgling years Botanist and apothecary who compiled the Hortus Eystettensis of scientific research bore manifold explosions of knowledge in a fever of discovery. form. —-the largest and most influential botanical book of the early Natural scientists accompanied explorers to document unknown finds. to the proliferation of floral designs with which we have dressed ourselves and furnished our homes for centuries. Plants seventeenth century. Chapters are arranged by out. and the Acanthus spinosus constant but exhilarating struggle to make a living image feel right. and texture. and to ornament our lives. and the drawn pages ofthesame name.Morethan 1. nurture. Patrons funded the breeding of decorative. where a number of uncredited artistsd r e wthem for Besler. Medieval knowledge was not gained by the first-hand observation of life but by reading. B A S I L I U SBESLER when botanists founded new work upon the direct study of plants. we see very different cultural visions of plants and gardens and use pencils and plants to learn the pictorial values of space. infinitely vivid. Rich owners of private gardens commissioned large-format florilegiums commissioned the volume to document his private garden to immortalize their personal taste and power of acquisition. on which our lives depend. and hybridize them for our sustenance and pleasure.Plants and Gardens W E SHARE THIS PLANET with the more ancient. After Here Aconthus spinosus is combined with forget-me-nots and-a-half centuries of intensive observation. manipulations of light and shade.000 species of plants are depicted life-size drawn. season. the punctuation of space with structure and mass. as opposed to only herbal. Both embrace the anticipation of evolving shape. It was published plain in 1611 and withhand-paintedplates in poured off ships returning from the New World and were eagerly collected and 1613. Plants are the principal inspiration of the decorative arts—from Roman Corinthian columns crowned with carved leaves of the acanthus. Classifications were set in367copperengravings. and beauty. Conrad von Gemmingen. The revolution came in the 1530s. Later. We collect. 1613 187/8x153/4in(480 x 400 mm) BASILIUS BESLER . we now have laid before us fourto show how well their colours complement each other infinite wealth of material to explore. Botanic gardens were established and expanded. He sent boxes of plants to Nuremburgburned with the urgency and excitement of explaining every plant's form.

He has made the spatial and physical relationships in this drawing all the more real by placing a single. insect-ravaged." Her slipper orchid s h o w s that botanical drawing must often resolve the challenge of its subject's p r o d u c i n g parts in different seasons — r o o t s . subtle union of beauty.48 PLANTS AND GARDENS THE SCIENTIFIC VALUE OF A BOTANICAL DRAWING lies i n its Botanical Studies were specimens that often refused to stay still. Outline Bauer prepared a pencil outline before laying in fleshy succulent hues and tones of watercolor. T h e rest of u s are free to d r a w as w e w i s h . Light in this drawing is given by the paleness of the paper showing between washes of darker tones. Botanical art c o n c e a l s the challenge of its m a k i n g . naturalist explorer and advisor to King George III invited Bauer to London in 1 7 9 0 . flowers. and wilted. and seeds conventionally a p p e a r o n o n e plate. It is likely Bauer would have studied these under a microscope. M a c k i n t o s h e x p r e s s e s the f o l d e d petals of a broken rose b u d so delicately w e can sense the perfume. They are counted among the most accomplished 18th-century botanical artists. Each plant must b e clearly distinguished from its closest relative. or that were diseased. delicate. Dissections Across the lower part of this drawing we can see dissections of seed pods and petals. fruit. s u c h as w e see here in Bauer's Protea nitida. and Franz Bauer and his brother Ferdinand were employed there to draw specimens. Stella Ross-Craig said of the need to d r a w from a dried herbarium plant "I could make it live again. Sir Joseph Banks. and meticulous precision. o p t i m i s m . stems. W i t h bright F R A N Z BAUER An Austrian artist who trained at the Schonbrunn Imperial Gardens in Vienna. The King was then establishing the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. detail. o p e n i n g a n d c l o s i n g i n the w a r m t h a n d light of the studio. leaves. Here. petal tip over a lower leaf Protea nitida 201/4 x141/4in (513 x 362 mm) FRANZ BAUER 1796 . measured drawings. B e h i n d detailed.

.49 C H A R L E S RENNIE MACKINTOSH Scottish a r c h i t e c t d e s i g n e r painter.. it is small and discreet. Closer to fiction can come together perfectly. p u b l i s h e d 1 9 4 8 . BOTANICAL STUDIES Lines and shadows This lush. and it shows how design. Curtis's Botanical Magazine. a n d he inspired. 1970 x 81/4 in ( 3 2 5 x 2 1 0 m m ) STELLA ROSS-CRAIG . found among Mackintosh's than reality.7 3 in 3 1 p a r t s . imagination. as at trained botanical artist Ross-Craig Swift lines The drawing was planned in pencil and then overworked with a lithographic pen. and perfect coordination of hand and eye.286 studies for her book Drawings of British Plants. L o n d o n in 1 9 2 9 . a n d f o u n d e r o f t h e G l a s g o w S c h o o l o f A r t M a c k i n t o s h ' s flair h a d an e n o r m o u s i n f l u e n c e o n t h e a v a n t . a m o n g o t h e r s . H e r Drawings of British Plants.000 Kew to archive accessible t o d a y v i a t h e I n t e r n e t of o n British flora. sensual pencil drawing is later works. Rose 1894 103/4 x 83/4 in ( 2 7 5 x 2 2 1 mm) CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH STELLA ROSS-CRAIG A j o i n e d t h e staff a t t h e R o y a l B o t a n i c G a r d e n s . is r e c o g n i z e d as tne m o s t c o m p l e t e a n d i m p o r t a n t work 3. A s m a n y of her drawings are kept G a r d e n s . Ross-Craig said of her work "Plants that wither rapidly present a very difficult problem to which there is only one answer—speed. and observation the nuance and contour of every in one image. Line Drawing of Cypripedium calceolus L c." This line drawing is one of 1. S h e also o f thousands o f contributed an drawings. G u s t a v K l i m t In his r e t i r e m e n t Mackintosh m a d e n u m e r o u s inventive pencil a n d w a t e r c o l o r d r a w i n g s o f plants.g a r d e in G e r m a n y a n d A u s t r i a . and follow shadow. and speed depends upon the immediate perception of the essential characteristics of the plant. Pencil lines cling to. K e w .

Babur directs his gardeners in the design and planting of this quartered chahar bagh. Afghanistan. .50 PLANTS AND GARDENS Jeweled Gardens the Middle East we find exquisite stylization of form and upright formality in pictorial space. By Muslim tradition. the sumptuous petals permeated with prayer and wisdom. paper is brimming with the beauty and celebration of nature. uniform focus. Envoys chatter outside the gate. Upright shallow perspectives. Bishndas was probably responsible for the overall design. 1590 85/8 x55/8in (219 x 1 4 4 mm) BISHNDAS AND NANHA Bright pigment These pages were illuminated by Mughal artists in the late 16th century. Below. and miraculous growth. anticipating their view. is remembered in the pages of his journal. which he personally created near Kabul. The white of the page shines through the brilliant color. The first Mughal Emperor Babur's Garden of Fidelity (Bagh-e Vaja). a notable portrait painter drew the faces. roses took their form in a bead of perspiration on the brow of Mohammed as he passed through his heavenly journey. Opposite is the Rose of Mohammed. Every fiber of AMONG DRAWINGS FROM BISHNDAS A N D N A N H A Little is known of these Mughal painters who were related as uncle and nephew and commissioned to illustrate the pages of Babur's journal. and Nanha. in the early 16th century. in miniature. They used a fine brush to lay pigment over a line drawing. urgent attentive human activity. painting. Drawing. and calligraphy are brought together to hold the sacred names of prophets and the 99 beautiful names of God. fluctuations in scale. Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity c. and attention to detail are all shared with medieval European manuscript drawings.

and how the shape has been repeated freehand.c e n t u r y Turkish manuscnpt a book of religious e t h i c s w r i t t e n in the O r i e n t a l C o l l e c t i o n s of Berlin. The Rose of Mohammed 1708 9 1 / 2 x 61/2 in ( 2 4 0 x 1 6 5 mm) FROM THE TURKISH M A N U S C R I P T AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH . so that overlapping petals and stems give an impression of fulfillment and abundance. fragmenting its detail in a whisper of prayers. The physical anatomy of the rosebud has been studied and translated into a repeated stylized motif. G e r m a n y . look closely and you will see words written in gold fluttering over the form of the flower. Stylized motif A fine brush has been used throughout this drawing to apply inks and watercolors. However. It is n o w k e p t in Border The elegant border of this drawing was mode with a pen and ruler It cleverly compresses and defines the composition. t h e Staatsbibliothek zu Arabic. Note how each bud is essentially the same shape. Sacred words The central rose is more solid than any other on the page.AKHLAQ-I RASUL ALLAH This is a detail o f a page from a n 1 8 t h .

52

PLANTS AND GARDENS

Fast Trees
IN CONTRAST TO THE QUIET, formal detail of other drawings in this chapter, these powerful fast trees enact the actions of plants. Each tree reaches out and holds its landscape with dynamism and pulse. In both drawings we find testament to the inexorable energy of growth. Rembrandt expresses a delicate quickness. Gentle lines draw a warm breeze through this remote wooded garden. Rustling in a loose foliage of soft marks, his pen evokes the weight of abundant activity on this late summer's day. Mondrian's arch of scratching branches is drawn with such force it will always be alive. We can still feel his hand storming across the paper. Set within a frame of smudged landscape, the tree possesses a musical agitation. This characteristic will increase in the artist's later abstract work. Here, we see a punctuated ordering of space. Sharp branches cut out negative shapes of winter sky.

R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter; etcher; and draftsman. Rembrandt's prolific output comprises oil paintings of historical and religious subjects together with group and self- portraits. His emotive etchings and pen and ink drawings (see also p. 174) are great resources for artists learning to understand the potential of these media.

Horizon

Pen and ink lines describing foliage also tell

us the directions of sunlight and wind. An arc crossing the bottom of the drawing from one side to the other supports the scene and separates us from the landscape beyond. Compare Rembrandt's arc to that of Mondrian's. and note the similar treatment of low horizons in both works emphasizing the height and dominance of trees.

Cottage Among Trees 1648-50 63/4 x121/8in ( I 7 I x 308 mm) R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN

53

FAST TREES

PIET

MONDRIAN

Atmosphere Here we see how shapes of negative space are as important as the physical subject they enclose (see pp.58-59). Mondrian has again lightly dragged his chalk on its side to evoke a wet depth of atmosphere. These passive gray marks contrast with the assertive tension of the tree.

Dutch Pure abstract painter preoccupied w i t h line and plane relationships. W i t h increasing austerity, Mondrian banished t h e subject from his drawings, in his later w o r k he also banished space, composing visual h a r m o n i e s using only straight lines a n d flat planes o f black, w h i t e , gray, o r p r i m a r y color.

Winter ground Short vertical marks along thebottomof this drawing reveal the length oftheblackchalk Mondrian used. Rubbed onitsside,itroughly blocks in the ground. Thecrudeeconomy of line is all we need tofeelthecold, wet, unwelcoming quality ofthiswinterearth.

Branches and trunk Lines shaping the branches of the tree are built up in layers. To make the trunk more dense, the artist has rubbed and smudged preliminary marks with his fingers before firmly overdrawing with new lines. Solid black lines are achieved by pressing the chalk hard. When used lightly, it shows the texture of the paper. Tree: Study for the Grey 1911 23 x 335/8 in ( 5 8 4 x 8 5 5 m m ) Tree

PIET MONDRIAN

54

PLANTS AND GARDENS

Graphite and Erasers
GRAPHITE, FROM THE G R E E K word

USING GRAPHITE
This drawing illustrates a range of achieved with graphite pencils of different grades.

graphein

Modern pencils are graded from 9H (hard and pale) to 9B (black and soft). Graphiteclay sticks are also available, together with a powder form. All possess a natural sheen and are erasable to a varying degree. Graphite drawings smudge easily, so fixative, a form of varnish, can be used to hold a drawn surface in place. It is applied as a fine mist from an aerosol can, or from a bottle using a diffuser. For the beginner, ordinary hairspray is an effective and cheaper alternative.

(to write), is a soft and brittle carbon. It was first mined in Cumbria, England, in 1 5 6 4 , and was initially used in small, pure pieces bound in lengths of string. Pencils as we know them—with their slender wood casing and "lead" of graphite—were invented in France in 1794 by Nicolas-Jaques Conte. He discovered that milled graphite mixed with clay and water, press-molded, and baked to a high temperature produces a harder and paler medium than graphite alone.

3B pencil A range of mark and textures can be achieved with a 3B pencil when you vary its pressure, speed, and direction, as this detail shows.

MATERIALS
Here is a selection of 14 items to illustrate a basic range of pencils, graphite sticks, sharpeners, erasers, and fixative.
1. AND 2. HB AND 3B PENCILS: It is unnecessary to possess every grade of pencil. HB, the central and most common grade, is perfect for making delicate lines. 3B gives a blacker tone. A great variety of effects can be achieved with just these two. 3. WATER-SOLUBLE PENCIL Effective for atmospheric drawing, but be aware of how watery tones can dull the impact of the line. 4. AND 5. MECHANICAL PENCIL Thick or fine leads are made in a range of grades. They are particularly useful because they do not require a sharpener 6. ROUND SOLID GRAPHITE PENCIL: Excellent for large-scale drawing, producing thick bold lines. A range of grades can be honed with a craft knife or sharpener 7. THICK GRAPHITE STICK: For large-scale drawing. Graded soft, medium, and hard. It crushes to produce graphite powder 8. SQUARE GRAPHITE STICK: Useful for making broad, sweeping marks in large-scale drawing. If worn and rounded, the stick can be snapped into pieces to regain the sharp, square end. 9. CRAFT KNIFE AND BLADES: Handles are sold in two sizes to fit large or small blades, and blades are sold in a range of shapes. Perfect for sharpening pencils to a long point, to cut lines in paper or to remove areas. 10. PENCIL SHARPENER: Makes a uniform point. Keep one in your pocket for drawing outside the studio, together with an envelope for shavings.

HB and 5B Layers of tone have been built up withHBand5Bpencils. Softer pencils require less pressure to make a mark, revealing the texture of the paper surface. It is important to keep the point of the pencil sharp with either a craft knife or a sharpener.

55

ERASING AND FIXING
Erasers can be used t o blend and s o f t e n lines, o r t o r e m o v e altogether. Fixative them prevents

GRAPHITE AND ERASERS

s m u d g i n g a n d s e c u r e s lines.

Using fixative You can use fixative while drawing to hold the definition of lines you wish to gently fade but not remove entirely, for which you would use an eraser.

11. P L A S T I C E R A S E R : Avoid cheap colored erasers that may stain drawings with grease and dye. White brands are available in soft and hard versions.

12.

P U T T Y RUBBER:

W a r m it in your hand before use. It is excellent for removing powdery materials, and for making crisp sweeps of light across a delicate pencil drawing

13. D I F F U S E R : Helleborus corsicus (Corsican hellebore) fixative, or to spray mists of ink.

56

PLANTS AND GARDENS

Cropping and Composition
M A N Y STUDENTS WILL START a d r a w i n g i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e

that its skin nearly touches the boundary. The meaning of the same drawing changes simply by its relationship to the space it occupies. The size of any subject, its placement on the page, the size of the page, and its overall proportion are all discrete and essential aspects of successful picture-making. Before you begin to draw, think carefully about where to place your subject. Are you are happy with your paper? If not, change it; add more, take some away, or turn it around. Do not just accept what you are given, adapt it to what you need.

paper. Focused on the shape and detail of their subject, they remain happily unaware that there is, or should be, any relationship between what they are drawing and the surface they are drawing it on. The paper is only paper, and the troublesome subject floats somewhere in the expanse of it. However, a single fig drawn in the middle of a large, empty square of paper gives quite a different impression from the same fig drawn on such an intimately small square

CHOOSING A VIEW

A Single Fig

"The size, shape, and orientation of the paper are so integral to the composition that they determine the impact and meaning of the drawing."

as also shown here. spaces between things are as important as the things themselves. and lines describing shadows cast by the fruit .O u r focus is on the white cloth supporting the figs. a device to help you decide what t o draw. The angle of the fruit together with dark shadow (top left) and bright light(bottom right) suggest a diagonal division across the whole drawing. U s e it as a starting point. When subjects touch two or more edges. Touching the edge When the subject o f a drawing touches one edge of the paper it attaches t o it visually. the uppermost edge of the drawing. its illumination. This drawing hasbeencropped to emphasize space between thefruit. running corner t o corner. bottom-left t o top-right.57 THE VIEWFINDER T h e s e pencil drawings o f figs d e m o n s t r a t e different crops and compositions. and therefore apparently suspended from. Space as the subject Inallpictures. t h e n m o v e t h e c a r d t o e x p l o r e different views. they establish a tension and unity with the paper. its stem and shadow framing a white center. Here the left fig is attached to. A card with a small rectangle cut out o f it makes a useful viewfinder C l o s e o n e e y e t o look through the hole. CROPPING AND COMPOSITION Off-center and diagonal Here I held my viewfinder so the fig appeared upper-left in the space.

which is shown in the three steps below. WHERE TO START Arrange your plant and paper so you can look back and forth by barely moving your head. a sharp H B pencil. not leaves. and a role to play. tone. then added a second shape. a foundation stone in picture-making. third.The box opposite isolates an area. Looking at negative space overrides the problem of drawing what you know. Unfamiliar shapes of negative space reveal the real shape of a positive subject.58 PLANTS AND GARDENS Negative Space UNCONSCIOUSLY WE ASSESS spatial relationships all the time to guide ourselves through the world. In following this class. and engaging. Negative space is the simple key to getting positive shape right. dynamic. It is an astonishingly simple device that many artists use and I strongly recommend. erasing and adjusting lines until itlooked right. but if the artist does. remember to draw only space. But how often do we look at the air between things. fourth. you will need a similar large-leaved plant. Follow these from left to right and see how I began with one complete shape between two parts of a leaf. rather than what you see in front of you. an eraser. this ensures a consistent view. and a fresh page in your drawing book. their subject and composition will become more real. In your own version. unified. Remember that plants do move! Therefore it is best to complete your drawing in one sitting if possible. shapes of air cut out and defined by the physicality of our environment? When we look into the branches of a tree. do we see myriad distinct and unique shapes of daylight or do we just see branches? Why as artists should we look at the air? Every space in a picture has a shape. and so on. Draw a complete shape Map outward from the center Erase and adjust lines until correct . position. Viewers appreciating a finished image may not see shapes of space. It helps to start at the center and map outward. The drawing opposite is of the uppermost leaves of a potted fig tree.

59

Here I drew only spaces, adding one to another until the leaves were revealed. Besides looking at negative space, there are two other useful things to do when a drawing feels wrong but you cannot see why: look at it in a mirror or turn it upside down. errors and suggest changes.

Spaces between leaves

Either view will

NEGATIVE SPACE

Fig Tree
WALKING IN THE ALPUJARRAS in A n d a l u c i a ,

Spain, I drew a bare fig tree clinging to the wall of an almond grove; a perfect subject for seeing negative space. I marked its essential frame of large branches first, frequently erasing lines and changing my mind until the balance felt right.

S a l v i a , RIBES, CLEMATIS, Allium, Passiflora, and Acanthus

Summer Flowers

Alchemilla,

drawn with an H pencil by observing the

negative spaces between the stems, petals, and leaves. I arranged the flowers on a sheet of paper in a cool r o o m and rapidly sketched a composition. Then I put them in water, taking the stems out one at a time to draw.

.

If an artist changes the pace of their line and focus of their attention. We never see everything at once.Acanthus Spinosus As we LOOK AROUND. interfolding points of detail with areas of loose suggestion. . Excessive detail leaves no space for the eye to rest or imagination to wander. our eyes travel and adjust from one point of focus to another. gathering less distinct information on the way. 62-63). they emulate our experience of seeing. Compare changes of pace and focus here to the flatter finish of Summer Flowers (see pp.

.

to 20th-century film fantasy. invaluable to understand and apply when you choose. and writers have been breaking away from traditional forms of representation to seek new expressions of shape. and sound. once there. and architects of ancient Greece who first pursued the formula for "divine proportion. Architects have been fine-tuning their specialized branch of drawing for centuries. was preserved into the Renaissance where it became a foundation stone for thinking and creativity From 15thcentury Italy. space. Among the drawings of this chapter we look from 17th-century ecclesiastical calm. This harmony. they also have a diagrammatic language for communicating plans to builders. It was the mathematicians. to help them create new form. from political commentary to musical abstraction. and in the 19th century it was given the name the Golden Section. we find the most recent steps in the evolution of graphic language. It was also during the Renaissance that the architect Brunelleschi invented linear perspective. Since Picasso and Braque's revolution of Cubism in around 1907. of the west facade of St Augustin. add and subtract ideas. Besides sketches of first thoughts and polished drawings of the finished look for clients." reflecting the eye's love of unity in difference.Architecture I N THE CONTEMPORARY PRACTICES of architecture. which can be clearly seen in ancient Greek architecture. which was the first church in the capital to be built entirely of metal and then clad in stone. each VICTOR BALTARD . coupled with the importance of exercizing your imagination. Perhaps in the sheer planes of some of our greatest modern buildings it is finding its clearest expression. It is the focus of practical class in this chapter. film-set design. architects. the device that has since governed most of our picture-making (sec pp. mass. filmmakers. Yet the pursuit of divine proportion and harmony remains. architects and designers can imaginatively "climb inside" three-dimensional space and. Computer programs allow the virtual drawing of ideas.This is a pencil drawing. 74-75). designers. with gray and brown watercolor wash. fine artists. and computer game imaging. European conventions of pictorial perspective have lost their monopoly on seeing. they have the Golden Section. the formula for perfection spread through Europe. Augustin. VICTOR BALTARD French architect employed by the city of Paris. Baltard designed the Church of St. Linear perspective is a marvelous device. made by the architect himself. philosophers. Since the first flowering of Modernism in the early 20th century. At the core of their practice. drawing plans around themselves within a program as opposed to on a flat sheet of paper. Paris 1871-74 the child's view to the infinity of the vanishing point. Through the animation of the screen. composers.The church is still in use today. balance. and from West Facade of the Church of St Augustin. time.

St Paul's Baptistry c. Together they explain how interior structure and space define exterior form and shape. Cut-away interior On the right a section cut through the center of the building reveals material thicknesses. 1711-12 NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR . Finished surface On the left the finished surface of the building is given depth and emphasis by immaculate vertical and horizontal brush strokes of shadow. and Castle Howard. A student of Wren's. pilasters. Drawings underpin every great human-made structure like hidden linear ghosts at their core. describe a finished look to a client. and ultimately to show builders what to do. a three-dimensional drawing made with wires and weights. evoke presence. Below it. and later an assistant to Vanbrugh. Oxford. he also worked on St Paul's Cathedral. We see the modeled detail of Corinthian columns. The photograph opposite shows his studio hung with metal pendulums. structure. calculate function.68 ARCHITECTURE Master Builders EVERY NEW BUILDING. embodying a massive investment of ideas. and six London churches. Blenheim Palace. Hampton Court Palace. Hawksmoor's drawing is both a plan and an evocation. and labor. marks the end of a long journey from the first few marks the architect made on a sheet of paper. Gaudi's fluid architecture grew up through many kinds of drawing. Architects draw for many reasons: to visualize ideas. NICHOLAS HAWKSMOOR One of Britain's "three great" Baroque architects (along with Sir Christopher Wren and Sir John Vanbrugh). Three aspects This subtle and sophisticated drawing made in pen and wash displays three distinct aspects of Hawksmoor's baptistry. testing gravity to calculate the inverted shapes of domes. and the shapes of interior domes and apses. materials. and balance. and an inscribed entablature. relative levels. Lines define structure while washes suggest light and atmosphere. Hawksmoor established his reputation with university and church architecture including All Souls College. Pillars and floor At the base of the drawing a compass-drawn plan tilted downward through 90 degrees illustrates the arrangement of pillars around a central circular floor. densely layered lines in mists of color weave the presence of the expected building into shape.

light. and his love of music. unique organic manipulation of high shapes. embellishment. and apartment homes are distinguished by their Their and Flowering curves of stone or concrete are often encrusted with Gaudi was inspired by medieval and oriental art. This sculptural drawingenvisionsthe finished crypt glowingandethereal as if caught in thelightof red morning sun. churches. To the right isawatercolordrawing thought to havebeenmade over a photograph ofthemodelabove. Gaudi's cathedral in Barcelona. Gaudi air than on paper. 1900 ANTONIO GAUDI ANTONIO GAUDI Visionary Catalan architect. 1910 24x181/4( 6 1 0 x 4 7 5mm) A N T O N I O GAUDI . Wire and watercolor three-dimensional preferred to calculate Above is a drawing form in the made withlinkedwires and weights. Guell Crypt of its at the Time Construction c. The Art Nouveau movement.69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt c.

Floor plan This drawing has been made with a rapidograph. theater sets. short curved poles. p. Visual rhythms In the lower half of this drawing architectural language has broken loose: escaped and transformed into an image of rebellious pleasure. been a natural affinity between the visual rhythms of pictures and the audible rhythms of music. before cascading into a riot of line and sound below. and the spaces between his windows and turrets are the visual equivalent of pauses in h i s m u s i c c o m p o s i t i o n s for p i a n o (see also Bussotti. Arctic Flowers 1980 DANIEL LIBESKIND .223). and arched dotted lines depict the radius of doors. while the composer Erik Satie has made an enclosure of quiet order and grace. and rooms. and in a sense hear. There has always DANIEL LIBESKIND A Polish American architect of international acclaim. upright pictorial space. Floor space appears divided by discernible walls.70 ARCHITECTURE The Order of Sound B O T H OF THESE VISIONARY DRAWINGS o c c u p y a s l e n d e r . Contemporary musicians commonly collaborate with artists by interpreting images as sound. Libeskind begins quietly in the upper space of his drawing. flat boards. Libeskind's numerous commissions include concert halls and museums. a refillable pen that feeds a constant supply of ink through a fine tubular nib. and exhibitions of his drawings. Across the top and center right of the image w e perceive an almost recognizable architectural plan. We can see. We can imagine how a musician might interpret this drawing by looking at the abstract visual rhythms of masses composed of long straight poles. Satie draws quietly throughout. The architect and musician Daniel Libeskind has drawn a stampeding cacophany of airborne architectural detail. Libeskind studied music before transferring to architecture. Both men used rulers and pens to carefully and slowly construct their compositions. and dotted lines. He also contributed to plans for the rebuilding of the World Trade Center site in New York. He also produces urban and landscape designs. installations. corridors. such a rapport in both of these drawings.

H e p e r f o r m e d in cabarets. andfouredges of the paper tothecompositionand impact animage.ERIK SATIE F r e n c h pianist and c o m p o s e r for t h e piano.56—57 we discussed important the shape. a conventional dip or fountain pen. theater. a n d ballet. Compare the even and and the shape wall to the elegantly stylized order of the many windows of arrangement of details and the shape of the wall in Babur's Garden of Fidelity on p. lived a l o n e .H i s witty.Edges are how are of orientation.narrowshape of its paper. 1 8 9 3 77/8 x 51/2 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 4 0 mm) ERIK SATIE . effectively additional lines in a work. dressed eccentrically. Satie collaborated w i t h hisfriends J e a n C o c t e a u a n d P i c a s s o . They definespaceand pictorial balance. Hotel de la Suzonnieres c. and founded his o w n church. Onpp. the perimeter Composition Look how well this drawingfitsand resonates with the upright. minimalist s c o r e s scandalized a u d i e n c e s with o r c h e s t r a t i o n s f o r t h e foghorn and typewriter.50. o f which he was the sole m e m b e r Parcel paper Satie has drawn this fantasy hotel using a ruler. and ink on a fragment folded brown paper—a of everyday happened material of scrap that to be at hand. Eastern influence The upright image Eastern is reminiscent and medieval of Middle pictorial space and subject of this European drawing.

ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE French architectural theorist.The lower-left section of the building appears relatively pale against a darker sky. painter. Light illusions This pen-and-wash drawing shows a subtle application of the principles of illumination demonstrated with an egg on p. experiencing a fascinating conflict between curiosity and desolation. the ominous globe exists only as a series of drawings. we find other Utopian visions Paul Nobles epic drawing summons an imperfect and disturbing township where ruin and activity are equal and strange. This shift makes the cenotaph appear three-dimensional. cylinders. and taught at t h e A c a d e m i e d'Architecture. and dramatic lighting. Boullee lived in Paris. Art director Erich Kettlehut's vertiginous design for the city of a slavelike populace had a future influence on movies such as Blade Runner. Among preparations for Fritz Langs film Metropolis. Newton's Cenotaph 1784 153/4 x 25 in ( 4 0 2 x 635 m m ) ETIENNE-LOUIS BOULLEE . arched vaults. This is the work of an architectural theoretician.96. Within it. and the reverse is true on the right. spheres. made in 1926. His celebrated imaginary buildings are characterized by pyramids. We glide over exquisitely drawn wastelands of damage and abandonment. enter the long-shadowed architecture of imaginary worlds. and draftsman. Boullee's monolithic apparition was drawn as a monument to Sir Isaac Newton. antlike mortals might have speculated upon the universe.72 ARCHITECTURE T H E S E T H R E E HIGHLY DETAILED DRAWINGS Future Fictions invite us to soaring above normal life.

73 ERICH KETTLEHUT Influential film a r t director. Kettlehut and his c o .a r t director O t t o Hunte. Its sheerscaleengulfs the viewer and demands based time and patience to on letters and in some beread. 1926 ERICH KETTLEHUT PAUL N O B L E British c o n t e m p o r a r y artist who creates m o n u m e n t a l .m a k e r In t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f Metropolis. draftsman. used forced perspective camera t e c h n i q u e s t o amplify t h e m a g n i t u d e o f buildings in relation t o human characters. gray. and m o d e l . Kettlehut drew using a fine and relatively dry brush dipped in black. Working on toned paper such as this gives an artist greater scope for dramatic lighting effects than if they work on white paper. architecture. intensely detailed graphite drawings explaining and questioning t h e geography. and are Graphite shapes Nobson Central isoneof a series of very large graphite drawings of the spoil and detritus of Nobson Newtown. and morality o f an invented place called His satires exhibited w o r l d w i d e . together with c i n e m a t o g r a p h e r Karl Freund. Nobson Central 9 ft 1 0 in x 1 3 f t 2 in (3 x 4 m ) PAUL N O B L E 1998-99 .Building shapes are works can be read as text. FUTURE FICTIONS Brush and ink This is a dramatic drawing from a film that shaped the history of world cinema. Nobson political visions of humanity Newtown. Fritz Lang's Metropolis c. and white ink on brown-gray paper. mythology.

All forms of perspective are of equal value. LEONARDO DA VINCI One of the greatest artists. Study of Perspective Adoration of the for the Magi 1481 61/2 x111/2in (165 x 290 mm) LEONARDO DA VINCI . Sometimes shared with Naive artists. linear perspective is distinct from more ancient systems practiced in the East. Note how architectural features conform to lines and how human figures diminish in size toward thevanishingpoint. and thinkers ever to have lived. Invented by Italian artist and architect Brunelleschi in 1413 (late in the history of art). 206-07). but is most easily seen and understood in pictures of buildings and interiors. scientists. It can be applied to any subject. Pull the thread taut and rotate it slowly above the drawing. this perspective is often an imagined bird's-eye view in which details are mapped according to logic and importance rather than how they might appear in real life. Here Leonardo provides a superb example of a single vanishing point. and inventions— essential reading for inquiring minds. and age eight. See how the thread corresponds to each converging line. and those of Naive artists and children. We use it to structure illusions of depth. Piranesi an example of two. observations. found at the center of all converging lines. Single-point perspective Tie a thread to a pin. Press the pin into Leonardo's vanishing point. Leonardo recorded constant streams of ideas. inventors. In his notebooks.74 ARCHITECTURE Pathways of Sight LINEAR PERSPECTIVE (also called vanishing-point perspective) is a simple device for calculating the relative size of things in pictorial space. I contribute the child's perspective. It is also distinguished from aerial perspective (see pp.

issues of scale when making room for important their story. Note the rather large rabbits and pheasants the hills. It shows how children usually map large scenes in flat layers one above the other. at the top of each lateral column base. This drawing Young children typically maps ignore on and understanding of the nearby village.SARAH SIMBLET I made this drawing (at age 8) in response to a local bookstore's request for children to draw their village. New Forest. architect. visionary and practical understanding of ancient Rome. England 1980 9 x 16 in (228 x 405 mm) S A R A H SIMBLET GIOVANNI BATTISTA PIRANESI Italian artist. a points in logical narrative of memories. Breamore Village. Mark these points with your pin and follow the converging lines of the drawing by rotating your thread. Lightly marked illuminates vanishing Two Courtyards c. Scale Our farmhouse my experience was in the woods. Children are uninhibited and problems with one element being obscured by another rarely arise. and designer Piranesi's prolific architectural drawings. Two-point perspective Sunlight through this colonnade a great example of two-point perspective. 1740 5 1 / 2 x 83/8 in (141 x 212 mm) G I O V A N N I B A T T I S T A PIRANESI points are located on either side of the drawing. which I saw from home every day. . including all they recall about the subject. and theoretical writing strongly influenced neoclassicism.

98 for an important note on oscillation. you will amplify the illusion of distance. This lesson shows you how to make a simple illusion of space defined by two boxes and three flat boards. Leonardo began with a grid of many lines within which he invented his scene. draw a horizon line across your paper Mark a spot on the horizon line. try composing your own space. Draw four dotted lines radiating out from the vanishing point. On the previous page we looked at its essential mechanism through drawings by Leonardo and Piranesi. this is your vanishing point. imagine. This is where we will begin.) . 2 3 corners must each touch a dotted line. corresponding to a single vanishing point. Draw each step over the preceding one to build up a single image. Surround the vanishing point with a small rectangle. discovering the image as it progressed. Note that if you place large structures in the foreground and smaller ones closer to your vanishing point. DRAWING BOXES 1 Using a ruler and a sharp HB pencil. This ensures that the second rectangle aligns with the shape and 4 Draw four short lines to connect the four corners of the two rectangles. In contrast. (See p. using a sharp HB pencil and ruler. then follow the ten steps below. Study these pages first before embarking on this lesson. You have completed your first box. Piranesi planned his drawing with only the essential lines needed.76 ARCHITECTURE Single-Point Perspective MASTERING LINEAR PERSPECTIVE i s e a s i e r t h a n y o u m a y First read through. Erase the dotted construction lines. Extend each dotted line to the edge of your drawing. Next. Each line should pass through one corner of the rectangle.

77 SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE 5 Draw a new rectangle. 6 As in step 2. with two dotted lines. N e x t draw a slanting line to mark the height of the first flat board. you can place rectangles anywhere youwishin relation to a vanishing point. Continue the dotted lines out toward the edge of your drawing. . bottom. Repeat this to add two more boards to the composition. The board's sides should be parallel. 8 Complete the second box with short lines as in step 4. and erase the dotted lines. when inventing your own compositions. Connect this to the vanishing point— again. The four comers must each touch a dotted line to be sureitaligns with the first. 1 0 Erase all ofthedottedlinestoseeyourfinishedboxes Thickeningtheiredges. larger rectangle. draw a second. draw four dotted lines radiating from your vanishing point Pass these through each comer of the new rectangle. andfarside of this first board. 7 As in step 3. Note that this does not surround the vanishing point In the future. the closer it will appear to the viewer. The larger you make your second rectangle. 9 Use dotted lines connecting the slanting linetothe vanishing point to locate the top.asIhavedonehere.willhelptomake them appear more solid.

78 ARCHITECTURE Creating an Imaginary Space T H I S CLASS USES SINGLE-POINT PERSPECTIVE t o c r e a t e a s i m p l e to you and if you listen to it. APPLYING PERSPECTIVE An Imagined Scaffold "Enjoy your illusion as you make it and it will become more real. If using a fibertip pen as I have done for this drawing. p . w h e t h e r it is a film or a painting." . I always start with a script but I don't follow it all the way through to the end. draw a b o x as shown opposite. once said: "I never end up with what I set out to do. then let the space suggest its c o n t e n t s and purpose. O n a fresh page in your d r a w i n g b o o k ." imaginary room. A lot more happens when you open yourself up to the work and let yourself act and react to it. Every work talks In this class. Linear perspective will support y o u by providing a frame in which to b u i l d your picture as it did for Leonardo. artist and film director. As David Lynch. it will take you places you never dreamed of. It highlights the importance of having faith in your imagination and trusting your ability to invent. let simple lines suggest a simple space. Then follow the three given steps. it is interaction that makes the work richer. The m i s t a k e n belief that we s h o u l d k n o w exactly what o u r finished drawings will l o o k like before we m a k e t h e m prevents many people from ever starting. 7 4 ) . you will find white adhesive stationery labels are useful for covering errors or changing the direction of your idea.

and leaning surfaces. 3 Remove the construction lines with an eraser and the room will becomeclearer. With some practice.Addanarray of converging lines to provide a "scaffold" for vertical.79 DRAWING A SIMPLE ROOM Essentials t o remember: objects and people dimmish in size as they move farther away.drawthehorizonlineand vanishingpoint. horizontal. parallel planes such as walls converge toward the vanishing point. The space has become more solid and real.There is great pleasure tobefoundin spending time inventing interiors. This initial space will be transparent and open to change. additional lines have established the different surfaces and how they relate to each other. and floors and ceilings also converge and rise o r lower toward the horizon. you will beableto draw more complex objects orpeoplewithin them. . Here. CREATING AN IMAGINARY SPACE 1First. 2 first before adding furniture.

Only when y o u might employ t h r e e . Search for the application of these perspectives among works by other artists in this book and in galleries. From our normal eye level. Potentially. It is important to realize that you can have as many vanishing points as you wish.80 ARCHITECTURE Further Aspects of Perspective W E ARE ACCUSTOMED TO SEEING our e n v i r o n m e n t from a relatively constant point of view. or low and we look u p . Elaborations . Here. do verticals appear inclined. They could be drawn on any scale from miniature to monumental. T h i n k of standing at the top of a skyscraper and imagine h o w its parallel sides would appear to converge below you. 76-79). T h i s is d e m o n s t r a t e d immediately below. they can be placed anywhere inspaceto describe the perspective of flyi c tilted objects. Further aspects of three-point perspective are also illustrated opposite. but they are not confined to this level. I have elaborated on the simple boxes above. showing y o u h o w to draw curved surfaces and a tiled floor. our eye level is very high and we look down. T h e y d o n o t have to relate to each other. These elaborations could continue indefinitely across a sheet of paper in pursuit of complex and intricate ideas. o r to the h o r i z o n . a n d this is how we have drawn them so far (see pp. The boxes drawn here are seen partly or entirely disassociated from a horizon line drawn across the bottom of the image. Free vanishing points On paper we can enjoy the freedom of fantastic structural invention without limitations of solid materials or gravity. To draw such a view APPLICATION Copy these drawings to see and feel how they work before inventing your own versions. located anywhere inside or outside the pictorial space.p o i n t perspective ( s h o w n opposite top). verticals appear p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the g r o u n d . Vanishing points are commonly found on horizon—our eye level. Copying what you see in the work of others will help you to understand what they have done. That is where we e to find them.

I added horizontal lines t o define the tiles. by adding a third point you can achieve a sense of incline. Three-point checkered floor This d bottom floor.Istarted with two parallel lines. An array of curved lines (drawn freehand) link the two lateral points. Giving curvature. Where thelinescross. Note that altering the distance between the three dots above will tilt the level of the floor . I then drew three fanned groups of lines connecting each of the three points above to the seven points below. tostraightlines can amplify drama in a picture. I marked the toplinewith three evenly spaced points and the line with seven. useful for representing steep views looking up or down tall structures.) By comparing this drawing t o Piranesi's example of two-point perspective on p. you will see how. they mark the corners of the floor tiles. Iusedthese lines as a guide t o draw the curvature of boxes and panels flying through space.81 FURTHER ASPECTS OF Three-point towers This drawing depicts three-point perspective. and therefore tension. PERSPECTIVE Three-point curves Here.Finally. (Turn the book around to see a view looking up. three vanishing points are evenly spaced along a horizon line.75.

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making drawings to resolve questions and express personal responses to the nature and history of anatomy. These walnut-skin ink pen and brush drawings show imagined views of theaters that do not exist but were inspired by places I studied. .Theaters RESEARCHING FOR MY P H D . I visited many anatomical theaters and museums.

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The vanishing of the drawing is directly opposite as we look across The constancy of the bridge and surrounding frames the movement in the life that flows past. .I N KDRAWING is one of a series I made while next to the Rialto Bridge in Venice. the water.Venetian Life sitting point buildings ThisP E N .A N D .

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and the way in w h i c h the brain reacts Head and Neck Sections of Female Mold for the Sforza Horse to visual stimulus and optical illusions. H e has described a casting through metaphor. that test our logic with a sense of mystery. C o m m o n items. It was in this era that the blueprint was born. In this chapter. to record an observed detail. W e also explore v o l u m e and form in the classes by spinning lines to make vessels. are all made bearing the signature of our time and place. 1493 117/8c81/4in (300 x 210 m m ) LEONARDO D A V I N Ccreating I . Today. texture. we look at the importance are the only creatures on Earth w h o actually design and create great ranges of things. or to explain and present a finished concept to a client. Previously. and a wire violin. making a clear instruction t o his bronzemeaning. illuminating snail shells. and the behavior of light through making still-life paintings and together. design. H e has described contour and function at drawings. have often carried great weights of allegorical once. these. It is shaped in sections w i t h Artists have for centuries studied and expressed composition. each demanding more of the other as they increased in sophistication. planned.Objects and Instruments T HE THINGS WE INVENT describe our lives. History will be learned from the artifacts w e leave behind. for example—whether. but humans LEONARDO DA VINCI Inthisbeautiful red chalk Our items all have a purpose—practical or ornamental—and all have a meaning. or drawing w e see Leonardo daVinci'sprecision as can be given meaning. and made. too. for example. T h e Industrial Revolution c h a n g e d the traditional w a y s in w h i c h objects were designed. Birds follow instinct to make a nest. Artists and actors use the meanings of things to communicate a speculative mechanic. hooked bars that can be pulled and tied closely form. from s p o o n s and pens to chairs and bicycles. craftsmen had held plans in their memory. Artists also make images of objects that can never exist. A chair. even more advanced drawings are made on computers. color. and some apes use simple tools. drawn. T h e precision of engineering d r a w i n g s e v o l v e d alongside machine tools. passing them on to others through the act of making. r an equestrian statue. of light in the creation of pictorial illusions. Engineers and designers of our objects and instruments make drawings for many reasons: to test an idea that is yet to be made. Technical drawing was speedily developed as a meticulous international code of m e a s u r e m e n t and explanation. sculpted. drawings were needed to instruct workers on the factory floor. In past eras. fictional realities caster of h o w t o make it andhowit will w o r k . or used on stage hood for a mold t o make theheado f a horse f oas a p r o p — i m b u e d with e n o u g h energy or character can "become" a man. With the sudden onset of mass production. drawing c.

His work is characterized by calm and harmonious still-life compositions. wood-look wallpaper.90 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS Still Life THESE DRAWINGS REVEAL t w o o p p o s i t e m o t i v a t i o n s i n we can. Braques image is a Cubist collage. . representing still life. texture. and a journal jacket with words makes this drawing chatter about the moment. steaming with music and conversation.73 x 1 m) GEORGES BRAQUE . not of place but of things. Mucha's drawing glistens with possession. Even today GEORGES BRAQUE French painter who as a young man was influenced by the work of the Fauves and of Cezanne. a colored canvas. Clashes The art historian Ernst Gombrich said of Cubism. not to work in harmony.." La Cuitare. One of the great joys of this movement in art is the musicality of its multipoint view. silverware.. but to clash in virtual deadlock. Statue D'Epouvante 1913 2 f t 5 in x 3 ft 5 in (0. Braques "justly" arranged combination of cut black card. Braque established Cubism in partnership with Picasso just before World War I. and shading. "I believe [it] is the most radicalattempttostampout ambiguity and to enforce one readingofthepicture—that of a manmade construction. Opposite. There is a fragile eloquence to these objects as they drift in slow motion past our gaze.Braque marshals all the forces of perspective. Below. T h i s is a designers drawing made to enthuse surface and style in its delicate brushing of china. charcoal. and glass objects of exquisite elegance for only the gentlest of touch and appreciation. perfect i n their newly made availability. still feel this projected moment. He takes us into the bustle of the Paris cafe.

He designed the Austrian pavilion for the Paris World Fair in 1900. Look at the two spoons at toprightand see how has suggested that they are so brilliantly shiny they reflect the background color. and New York. Black watercolor washes and lines of white gouache have been added with a fine brush.flowers.fruit. Pans. Art Nouveau curling motifs of birds. Art Nouveau motifs This is a preliminary study for a subsequent print. and also stamps and bank notes. Study for Plate 59 from "Documents Decoratifs" 17x121/4(430 x 310 mm) ALPHONSE MUCHA 1902 . The three plates facing us were drawn with a compass. and fish have been outlined using a sharp pencil. Chicago. He is best known for posters featuring ethereal women in typical Art Nouveau style. For ten years Mucha designed theater posters exclusively for the actress Sarah Bernhardt. Background color Between the delicate shadows and highlights of these glazed and surfaces ofthebackground metal color of the Mucha we see a large amount paper.ALPHONSE MUCHA Czech graphic artist and painter who worked in Prague.

via a second mirror. offering a transparent view. It was then reflected up inside the tube and. Their delicate construction is only as valuable as the measurements they make. each reflecting a view of his own world—his window. alchemist. Newton's 1672 ISAAC Telescope NEWTON . into the eyepiece. The power of this drawing reflects the pure passion of discovery. With dotted lines Newton has drawn his arrangement of elements inside the tube. Ink lines Several drawings appear among Newton's letters. From the concept of capturing the infinite to the mapping of microscopic sight. In the graphic work of these two great men of science. shape the very cause and effect of investigatory thought. Look how confidently he draws with ink the sphere of this wooden globe by which his telescope rotates. astronomer. Hooke's head of a drone fly seen through a microscope may represent the first time man and insect came face to face. Transparent view Newton's reflecting telescope focused light in a parabolic mirror. It is a diagrammatic explanation of how to catch and magnify a star in a mirrored tube. mathematician. A disembodied eye at the top of the drawing indicates where to look.92 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS by their very nature must gauge or chronicle precision. we see drawing Instruments of Vision found among his letters. w h e r e he developed his three greatest theories: the law o f motion. and Fellow of the University o f C a m b r i d g e . and the nature o f light and color. and his hand moving across the light. Newton used this instrument to calculate the speed required to escape earth's gravity. and philosopher Newton was President of the Royal Society. drawing is there to pin the moment down. He counted 1 4 . 0 0 0 perfect hemispheres. a tree outside. Newton's drawing of his first reflecting telescope is ISAAC N E W T O N English scientist. the law o f gravity. each one skillfully rendered with the alarmingly matter-of-fact ease of explaining the commonplace.

1665).An experimental scientist who drew many of his discoveries. It is an exhilarating read. The Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 1665 ROBERT HOOKE 111/2 x 105/8 in (294 x 270 mm) . Hooke invented the camera diaphragm. and calculated the theory of combustion. ROBERT H O O K E 93 Magnifications This acutely detailed engraved drawing is taken from Hooke's Micrographia (pub. universal joint a prototype respirator clock balance. and anchor escarpment. a breathtaking book containing many of his drawings showing some of the first microscopic and telescopic magnifications of our environment Hooke's text and illustrations carry us to the moment of discovery.

W i t h h o m e y c o n t r a s t . craft. OBJECTS AND SARAH WOODFINE British contemporary artist graduate of the Royal Academy Schools. each drawn with the s a m e unfaltering lines and tones that are between reality and impossibility. Drawn in more-or-less c o n v e n t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . From component parts we understand how to put it together and make it stand sensible in space. and has drawings in numerous public and private collections. Two-dimensional was made This highly finished drawing ruler using a sharp pencil and on smooth white drawing paper glistening dark drawings are artificial representations of known Woodfine's two-dimensional things balanced in the world. its character. Chair Cut Out 2002 22'A x 23 in (565 x 585 mm) SARAH WOODFINE . Its wobbly gait and squashed s y m m e t r y m u m b l e endless h o m e y tales about the life it has seen. A renegade from the p a p e r dolls' h o u s e . has published several catalogs of her work. this chair p r e s e n t s us with a clever visual contradiction: deeply drawn shadows tell us it must be solid.94 INSTRUMENTS W H E N WE DRAW A COMMON OBJECT like a chair. while the tabs make us see a flat paper cut-out. and w h e r e the chair b e l o n g s . Sarah Woodfines flat cut-out m o d e l plan is a witty and surprising drawing. and winner of the 2004 Jerwood Drawing Prize. Van Gogh's tipsy seat is a metaphor for an absent person. Bench Marks W e are left a little c o n f u s e d as to what we s h o u l d do. it has so m u c h familiar personality that it seems to talk to us. Woodfine exhibits internationally. and place in the world are truly seen.

His passionate brush and pencil strokes are honest and of also turmoil and growing alarm at the world around him. what direct in their he saw and describing his felt.hehas marked the full emotion of the subject with a fierce grip of concentration. Cornfield and Sunflowers.95 VINCENTVAN GOGH Dutch painter who produced over 800 paintings and 850 drawings in only the last ten year's of his life. Among van Gogh's best-known canvases are Trees. inner recording while Fierce strokes This is a portrait of the mechanical drew immediately and almost harshly. not is made present in only strokes and is subdued to distract us from flat a meaningful chair. and Starry Cypress Night. drawn opposite way of plan. The floor few as engagement with the chair. Van Chair 1890 VINCENT VAN GOGH .

a n d our ability to see forms in c l o u d s or fire. a lit photograph of an egg shows essential points to observe in tonal drawing. two identical mid-gray squares are seen against black and paler gray squares. Card experiment cho can gra on . We perceive one to be lighter than theother. On acloudyday. a n d are q u i c k to p r o p o s e ideas. We will even see things that d o not exist because minimal information suggests they are likely to be there. Adjust the angleofthe protruding part and again stepback. Tape them to the glass. think about its illumination. The small squares are identical in tone.At one point you will catchenoughlight lighter than the white one. Run The bottom-left quarter of the egg lightens slightly toward its "edge" when seen against the darker shadow cast on the paper.d o w n patterns of light on our retinas. Three factors change it: the amount of light it receives. the adjustment of our eyes (in growing accustomed to a level of light). T h e slightest recognition is instantly matched to our wealth of experience a n d expectation.This effect is caused by the contrast of their surroundings. reads only m o v e m e n t a n d can often m a k e mistakes. a n d m o v e m e n t . The egg's lightest region is seen against a darker background. To interpret visual s t i m u l u s .96 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Light and Illusions SEEING IS MIRACULOUS. and the proximity of contrasting tones. The outermost edge of our vision. transmitted to the brain as chains of electrical impulses. hence our recognition of a cartoon face c o m p o s e d of three lines. From across the room both will appear black card and fold and retapeitwith half sticking out. gray. The rim of light on the egg is reflected light received from surrounding paper. one blackandone white. U p s i d e . We only need small prompts. W e learn to read light and shadow in our environment as indicators of solidity and depth of space. less developed than the center. Artists emulate and manipulate this effect in their pictures. The two tones meet without a division or outline between. Here w e look briefly at our perception of light a n d darkness a n d our interpretation of diagrammatic illusions. Gray squares To further examine changes in tone. Here. but do not appear so. are translated into a world of space.102-03 deep shadows cast across shells make their form easier to perceive. form. Before starting a tonal drawing of any subject. perhaps. try this experiment. your eye around the circumference of the egg. Below the bottom "edge" of the egg there is a rim of light reflected onto the paper by the underside of the egg. or colored surface is never constant. Below. See how its "edge" smoothly changes from light against dark to dark against light. The perceived tone of a black white. o u r b r a i n s search for n a m e a b l e things. cards the same size. S o m e o n e passes our o p e n door. Are you happy LIGHT AND SHADOW with what you see? Does the light enhance the subject? Could you alter and improve it? On pp. Through these we can enjoy witnessing our o w n d e c e p t i o n a n d b a f f l e m e n t a n d u n d e r s t a n d certain factors that are very useful in picture-making. atmosphere. The egg's darkest region is seen against a lighter background. w e turn our head but n o one w a s there. a n d we can be fooled.

97 LINE VERSUS TONE In l i n e a r d r a w i n g s . If y o u w i s h t o m a k e a t o n a l drawing. O b s e r v e h o w each white b a n d appears t h i c k e r t h a n its black c o u n t e r p a r t . In this linear drawing w e read t h i c k as closer a n d t h i n as f a r t h e r away. respectively.p o i n t p e r s p e c t i v e d r a w i n g s w i t h a large n u m b e r o f c o n v e r g i n g rays b e h i n d y o u r horizontals. In this t o n a l image w e read w h i t e as f a t t e r t h a n black. w h i l e t h i n n e r lines recede. O f t e ndoingso w i l l s p o i l y o u r w o r k . T w o horizontal lines o f equal length are m a d e t o l o o k longer and shorter. . T w o relatively t h i c k parallel lines are m a d e t o b e n d away f r o m each o t h e r as t h e y pass in f r o n t o f an a r r a y o f c o n v e r g i n g f i n e lines ( B ) . by d i r e c t e d a r r o w s ( A ) . t h i c k e r l i n e s a p p e a r t o stand forward. T h i s fundamental o p p o s i t e is a reason w h y l i n e a r a n d t o n a l d r a w i n g does not a l w a y s c o m b i n e w e l l in t h e s a m e i m a g e . Bending straight lines Linear distance These t w o jugs have b e e n d r a w n w i t h lines o f d i f f e r i n g thicknesses. Apparent lengths T h e s e optical illusions s h o w h o w lines o f identical length can b e m a d e t o l o o k quite different f r o m each o t h e r by t h e addition o r association o f o t h e r lines. In a t o n a l d r a w i n g . T h e r e is n o obligation t o a d d b l o c k s o f t o n e t o a l i n e a r d r a w i n g . b u t t h e u p r i g h t o n e l o o k s t a l l e r (B). T h e jug d r a w n w i t h a t h i n line appears f a r t h e r away t h a n t h e j u g d r a w n w i t h a t h i c k e r line. A n u p r i g h t line stands in t h e c e n t e r o f a h o r i z o n t a l line. B o t h are identical in length. Seven parallel lines are m a d e t o tilt t o w a r d and away f r o m each o t h e r by n u m e r o u s s h o r t strokes crossing t h e m diagonally ( A ) . Y o u m a y e x p e r i e n c e s o m e t h i n g similar h a p p e n i n g w h e n y o u m a k e s i n g l e . LIGHT AND ILLUSIONS Tonal width T h e s e black a n d w h i t e bands are o f equal thickness o n e i t h e r side o f t h e i r central division. S h o r t h o r i z o n t a l lines o f identical length are m a d e t o l o o k d i f f e r e n t by c o n v e r g i n g lines beside t h e m ( C ) . l i g h t e r surfaces s t a n d f o r w a r d w h i l e d a r k e r s u r f a c e s recede. start o u t w i t h one.

It is possible t o r e a d i t t w o ways: as a t r u n c a t e d r e c t a n g u l a r p y r a m i d seen d i r e c t l y f r o m a b o v e . and so calculated precisely how much to fatten columns to make them appear straight. and we learn to read the styles of diverse cultures and periods. SEEING TWO OPTIONS Sometimes. Op(tical) artists. Artists make pictorial illusions when they paint or draw. w e will find that in terms of the direction it faces. C l o s i n g t h e surface o f t h e f o r m seals o u r d e c i s i o n as t o w h i c h w a y it faces. Two ways of seeing T h i s is t h e b o x c r e a t e d in t h e f o u r t h step o n p.98 O B J E C T S AND I N S T R U M E N T S Further Illusions PSYCHOLOGISTS AND PHYSIOLOGISTS have studied optical illusions for decades in pursuit of what they tell us about the brain. It is a curious fact that w e can never see both options at once. w h e n drawing the outline o f a three-dimensional form. their picture could be ambiguous. Today we are bombarded with images but rarely have difficulty reading them. made paintings that depended upon the physical sensation of our brain's reaction to known optical illusions. among others. A few suggestive marks will tip the decision one way o r the o t h e r Closing the surface W h e n a t r a n s p a r e n t elliptical o b j e c t has b e e n d r a w n . it oscillates between t w o possibilities." .116-17) to make painted figures look correct when viewed from below. w e can only look f r o m one t o the o t h e r If an artist is not aware this can happen in their image. such as t h e dish seen h e r e o n t h e left. it can oscillate b e t w e e n facing t o w a r d o r a w a y f r o m us. Artists can communicate much in few lines and the viewer will do the rest of the work. Michelangelo. perfected the acceleration of perspective (see pp. Ancient Greek architects knew parallel upright lines appeared to bend toward each other in the middle. are still not agreeably understood.76. others adjust works to avoid their effects. In the 1960's.s i d e d r e c t a n g u l a r t r a y ( b o t h are illustrated far r i g h t ) "The brain is so eager to name a fragment we see that we need only a suggestion to grasp the whole. including some shown here. o r as a s l o p i n g . as s h o w n o n t h e right. such as Bridget Riley. Yet many illusions. Some artists use known optical illusions to make art.

— a n d so t h e artist can create m u c h o u t o f an impression w i t h o u t overdescribing.99 Impossible objects T h e s e clever configurations o f outlines and t o n a l surfaces convince us at a glance that we are seeing a solid three-dimensional triangle and a three-pronged fork. S o m e artists use ink blots t o p r o m p t t h e beginning o f an image. smoke. Minimal-line j o k e s such as this rely u p o n t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y v i e w e r ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e shapes. T h e a r t i s t M. F a m i l i a r i t y in r a n d o m s h a p e s T h e Rorschach test was established by t h e 1 9 t h . C o u p l e d w i t h t h e Rorschach b l o t above. His highly d i s p u t e d and i m p r e c i s e science involves s h o w i n g u n p r e p a r e d p a t i e n t s t e n p a r t i c u l a r ink b l o t s a n d asking t h e m t o i n t e r p r e t w h a t t h e y see. b u t w e believe w e see t h e m because e n o u g h f r a g m e n t a r y i n f o r m a t i o n is given f o r o u r brains t o c o n c l u d e t h e y are v e r y likely t h e r e . this is a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f t h e viewer's b r a i n b e i n g willing t o d o a large a m o u n t o f t h e w o r k in d e c i p h e r i n g a p i c t u r e . This effect can o c c u r naturally w h e n looking at a b r i g h t l y lit w h i t e g r i d such as a w i n d o w f r a m e against t h e night sky. W e should r e m e m b e r t h a t o u r brains will always search f o r a p i c t u r e — i n ink blots. T h e y a r e o f t e n c r e d i t e d w i t h t h e invention o f t h e c o m i c c a r t o o n . . M u c h can b e e x p r e s s e d in o n l y a f e w marks. N e i t h e r triangle exists. C o u n t t h e n u m b e r o f d a r k spots y o u can see. T h e s e e x a m p l e s illustrate h o w little is n e e d e d t o c o n v e y an image. FURTHER ILLUSIONS Seeing things that are n o t t h e r e H e r e o n t h e left. 1 6 t h . B e l o w is a b r i g h t n e s s c o n t r a s t illusion.c e n t u r y Italian painters. clouds.c e n t u r y Swiss psychologist H e r m a n n Rorschach. e t c . This simple five-line d r a w i n g is o f a C a p u c h i n priest asleep in his pulpit. w e see t w o overlapping triangles: o n e outlined in black b e n e a t h a n o t h e r in solid w h i t e . T h e patient's answers are t h e n diagnosed as a psychological profile. T h e t e s t e x p l o r e s o u r n o r m a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o find things w e can n a m e a m o n g r a n d o m shapes. C Escher u s e d this phenomenon t o great effect in his many p o p u l a r d r a w i n g s o f puzzles and impossible buildings. O n l y o n closer inspection we realize that t h e s e o b j e c t s are fooling us. Yet still w e try resolve t h e m . P e r c e i v i n g a w h o l e i m a g e f r o m m i n i m a l lines T h i s is a w i d e l y r e p r o d u c e d visual j o k e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e C a r r a c c i b r o t h e r s .

Cubism. as if the table surface slopes upward beneath the vessel. keep it spinning. I have exaggerated this error here. The first common error is to draw two pointed ellipses. WHERE TO START In the air above a spacious sheet of scrap paper. not the paper!) As the pen touches down. The second common error is to tilt the upper and lower ellipses at different angles. circles change into ellipses. like a disposable plastic cup that has been crushed in your hand. suggesting that the vessel is lopsided. since this is h o w w e experience them in e v e r y d a y use. smoothly. spin your hand in a relaxed circle. Watch the tip of your pen and see it draw an ellipse in the air Keep this movement going while gently lowering the pen onto the paper like the needle of a record player closing on the disc (only it is your lowering hand that spins.100 OBJECTS AND INSTRUMENTS W E VISUALIZE CYLINDRICAL VESSELS. you will achieve steadiness with practice. Be aware. I have drawn these for you here. hesitant one that has edged its w a y nervously around the vessel's rim. and these narrow or widen depending on the height of our view. such as bowls and cups. Don't worry if it is uneven— just try again. describing many sides of an object simultaneously. while its upper rim remains level. for example. that this is o n l y o n e w a y view. w h e n seen at an angle. . giving the cylinder four corners. COMMON ERRORS W h e n drawing cylindrical objects in perspective. (see p. w e use ellipses to give a sense of perspective. How to Draw Ellipses of seeing. though. To make a cylindrical object appear real in our pictorial space. However. even if y o u r hand w o b b l e s a little at first. for example plates or bowls on a table. third common error is to draw upper and lover ellipses with different-sized apertures. there are three common errors people stumble upon. A wobbling but confident ellipse will still be more convincing than a slow. Cover a sheet of paper with spinning. a n d in o n e bold stroke.90) takes a different as essentially circular. Ellipse are best d r a w n quickly. springlike forms like those I have drawn below.

working from top to bottom. Seeing Through Allow lines to travel around each vessel as if it were transparent.101 DRAWING VESSELS Once you have mastered drawing free-hand springs. you can start to control your spinning ellipse to make a vessel. Altering the pressure—and therefore tone—of the line as it spins gives the impression of light shining on one side. HOW TO DRAW E L L I P S E S A Single Vessel One Inside Another Grouped Together Finding Shape and Volume Draw an imagined vessel in one continuous spinning line. thereby hiding lines that show the other sides. Create a Solid Surface Once you have drawn the shape and volume of each form. you can make it solid by building up highlights and tones on visible surfaces. enlarging and diminishing the ellipse to determine the overall shape and volume. Draw quickly. .

It maximizes the range of tones between black and white. leaving detail until last. or you can begin with a mid-gray ground and model light out of darkness (see opposite bottom).102 INSTRUMENTS Tonality W H E N MAKING A TONAL DRAWING. Gradually hone your drawing. if light shines in them. beams of light. it will inhibit your perception of tone. two opposite methods of achieving the same result. OBJECTS AND Start by arranging a choice of shells on a sheet of paper to your left if you are right-handed (or vice versa). It is important to place them on the correct side so as to draw comfortably (see pp. simply shapes and subtleties of light and dark meeting each other with no divisions in between. making complicated or subtle surfaces easier to see and understand. You can begin with outlines and build slowly from light to dark (see opposite top). and solid objects are all of equal importance. Draw the largest and most distinct areas of light and darkness first. Relaxing your eyes out of focus as you draw will help to dissolve the distraction of detail. if any.22-23). and strong contrasts are easier to draw. Remember that shadows. outlines. t h e r e a r e p r i n c i p a l l y Dramatic lighting emphasizes texture and contour. In the finished drawing there should be few. LIGHT TO DARK DARK TO LIGHT . Illuminate them with a gooseneck lamp placed very close and directed away from your eyes.

Remember that its size. Continue working between light and dark to refine the drawing. Treat positive form and negative space (see pp. pale lines with equal importance. Use your pencil to develop these in relation to the areas of light. Fll in broad areas first and leave all detail until last. loose. Draw in the details last of all. Avoid a rough significant areas of light in your gray rectangle with texture and do not press the graphite hardwhite plastic eraser Ignore all detail and draw a into thepaperor you will not be able to erase it. Erase and make changes to roughly place the shells inside your with your composition. draw a rectangle. . boldly 2 3 Keeping your eyes out of focus. shape. Honetheshapesand angles of the shells. and edges definingthespacialrelationships between are important aspects of your composition them. until you are happy frame. DARK TO LIGHT (TONE TO TONE) 1 Using the flattened tip of an HB pencil. Let your eyes go out of focus while looking gently layer marks to create an even tone at your subject and paper: Draw the most ofmid-graywithin a rectangle. with broad sweeps of the eraser. Use quick.56-57). Relaxing your eyes out of focus will help to eliminate distracting details.103 LIGHT TO DARK (LINE TO TONE) TONALITY 1 Using a sharp HB pencil. look at the main areas of darkness. 2 3 Gentlydissolveoutlines so that areas oflightanddark meet without a line between them.

you can create your own more ambitious works. try drawing it with a pen on paper Use bold. . and physical relationships between them. three-dimensional drawings teach us about the totality of forms in space. and on p. Third. and on p. This class uses thin-gauge wire to create a threedimensional violin. our image is stronger if we understand and can visualize what is happening on the other side too.104 OBJECTS AND I N S T R U M E N T S Drawing with Wire DRAWINGS DO NOT HAVE to be two-dimensional. The second is that after achieving this simple example.220 Mamoru Abe draws with forged steel rods. Place the instrument on a plain surface and illuminate it with a desk lamp to add the delicate dimension of shadows. They can also be made in space. PEN LINES Once you have created your three-dimensional violin (opposite). The first is that figurative and abstract drawings can be made in space. continuous lines. There are essentially three lessons to be learned. When drawing anything viewed from one side on paper. 19 Picasso draws with a pen-light for the camera. Seeing through a wire drawing of a known object such as a violin gives us a visual and tactile understanding of all its sides and shapes at once. smooth. On p. On p.69 we see how the architect Antonio Gaudi drew proposed domes using suspended wires and weights. 176 the British artists Noble and Webster draw with domestic refuse in a beam of light.

but thin enough to be easily manipulated inyourfingers Here. and thick wire a larger one.105 SETTING UP DRAWING WITH WIRE Follow these steps to draw a three-dimensional violin Choose a gauge of wire sturdy enough to hold the shape ofyourfinished drawing. 4 . begin to shape the curvature of the fingerboard. Once you have completed the body. Cut a length. 1 Decide how big to draw your violin relative to the gauge of your wire. I started with the scroll at the top and fixed the four component wires with two drawings of tuning pegs. thin wire will make a smaller drawing. These will hold the sides apart and help to keep the form in shape. Join the two sides together with four short pieces of wire. I used garden wire and cut it carefully with pruners. Here. 2 3 If needed. and pinch and bend it to shape the base of the instrument Repeat this process to make the identical upper side of the instrument. Then begin to define its uppermost surface with Scurves and the bridge. brace the two ends of the violin with a length of wire along the back.

Using found materials. I had the privilege of drawing their inventions. England. some of which are shown here. they invented new anthropological finds—objects that reflected the distant past and their immediate future. . Oxford.Artifacts and Fictions IN 1993 I WORKED with a group of schoolchildren who were responding to the astonishing objects in the collection of the Pitt Rivers Museum.

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and surgically rebuilt. artists also tried to define ideal proportions in the body. history paintings and other stories. a n d w e d r a w o u r s e l v e s to a s s e r t o u r e x i s t e n c e . The human body. Leonardo drew a man within a circle and square. Drawings were usually made from the male nude to avoid offending the church. He even believed he had located the soul contours of her form like a cartographer's map of in the pituitary fossa beneath the brain and behind the eyes. Strangely. WILLIAMS he sought perfection in the infinitesimal measurement of the body and produced four Contemporary photographer volumes of illustrated explanation. It gives physical and emotive form to religious narratives. Artists are thought to have b e g u n drawing from the nude during the Italian Renaissance. Michelangelo attended dissections to made this image by light sectioning: fine beams of light perfect his understanding of surface form. During this time. herimpressive presence because we are given such Life drawing no longer dominates the art school curriculum. much Western contemporary art. and because the female was deemed inferior. W e understand every curve and balance of to the theory that the eves are the windows of the soul. R. in our privileged and comfortable society. explaining ranges e/ of materials and techniques and showing diversities of thought and purpose in making. R. She the body is still essential. Look closely at Renaissance drawings of the female b o d y and you will see that m o s t are actually y o u n g m e n with minor adjustments. In this period. The body remains at the core of over the initially white lines. This chapter addresses issues that are most commonly faced by beginners attending life-drawing classes. while Leonardo opened the body to see and projected onto a woman's body draw the celebratory discover for himself our physical mechanisms. but the study of a controlled. diseased. Artists now explore the interior of the body with new media and Lateral Contour Map of a Full-Term Primipara Produced by Light 1979 A. Williams were decades ahead of their medical counterparts. focus has turned to the vulnerability of flesh: how it can be damaged. This F finished image was produced as r a n c i s c o . W I L L I A M S technology. and in San could easily be transferred into three dimensions. while Durer took his research further— A. sculptural description of her form. portraiture. clothed or nude. giving physical foundation undulating land. is the most c o m m o n subject in art. from video and X-ray to thermal imaging. the junior workshop apprentices posed as part of their duties. These classes are popular around the world. myths and fables.The Body O UR BODIES MAKE us TANGIBLE. W e are the only creatures on Earth that can make our own image. Renaissance artists studying anatomy from dissection clinically trained and specialized as a medical illustrator. and anatomical and erotic art. 3 x 7 in (300 x 180 . the Bay Area Models' Guild h o l d s a quarterly life-drawing m a r a t h o n aprinton Kodak transfer paper with green-colored dye added celebrating the great diversity of human proportion. It also looks at the representation of the b o d y b11y4o n d traditional life drawing.

He trained under Perugino. and human defeat. filling the page with her presence. while supporting the weight of their body with the other. RAFFAELLO SANZIO (RAPHAEL) Italian High Renaissance painter: Raphael is best known for his images of the Madonna and Child. Raphael's study of fallen m e n leaves no doubt that they are in anguish. and Vatican frescos. By way of contrast. we see the e s s e n c e of h e r b e a u t y w i t h o u t a single detail. In this highly s o p h i s t i c a t e d a b s t r a c t i o n . while Matisse used scissors and glue to cut out and paste a flat collage of brilliant color.110 T H E BODY THESE DISTINCTIVE WORKS show two strikingly different ways of modeling the body on paper. Muscular dramatic postures reflect the influence of Michelangelo and the Renaissance celebration of the idealized male body. altar pieces. In a single drawing we see equally o b s e r v e d studies of f o r e s h o r t e n i n g (see pp. Principal figures m i r r o r e a c h other. Sculptural frieze This is a preparatory drawing for Raphael's painting of the Resurrection of Christ. and studied to learn from the works of Michelangelo and Leonardo besides whom he was soon ranked. T h e y b o t h raise one arm to cup their head in their hand.116-17). Matisse's b l u e n u d e sings with life and c e l e b r a t i o n . But the meanings of each gesture and the materials and methods by which they Postures and Poses were m a d e contrast greatly. She u n f o l d s and s t r e t c h e s shapely limbs. Here three male nudes are compressed into very shallow pictorial space. so that we read this drawing like a sculptural frieze. Raphael drew delicate tones of black chalk on tinted paper. anatomy. Three Guards 1500-20 91/4 x143/8in (234 x 365 mm) RAPHAEL .

foundamong many other groups of papercut these works as an elderly man confined to his bed or wheelchair....like an appeasing influence. lifelong love of brilliant They celebrate the culmination of spectacular and sometimes drawings.sculptor. serenity.. as his w o r k matured.111 HENRY MATISSE French painter: draftsman. Matisse Soothing influence This drawing expresses the achievement of Matisse's personal aim: "What I dream and depressing subject matter. and more energetic Color and form This collage is one of a series of Blue Nudes." of is an art of balance. and Islamic art... devoid of troubling Blue Nude 1 1952 413/4 HENRY MATISSE . His calligraphic natural abstractions of form grew brighter. fabric.which might be. his pattern. freer. printmaker. teacher and principal exponent o f Fauvism—a movement established in 1905 in which bold color is the most essential element.or like a good armchair in which to rest from physical fatigue.designer writer. a mental soother. Matisse became an artist after studying law.

112 T H E BODY Choreographs T I M E IS A SIGNIFICANT E L E M E N T i n t h e m a k i n g o f a l l d r a w i n g s . agreeing to coalesce and show us the form of a waiting boy. T h e space around h i m chatters with symbols. w h o sits propped in the contradictory darkness of a hot summer's day. Beuys's magician. Here. he used b l a c k c o n t e (see p. it is as if the very atoms of air are made visible. like small birds attendant on the meditation. other tones. reflected. If Seurat had added white. His drawings are similarly u n i q u e . and c o m p l e m e n t a r y hues. it would have mixed with unseen black dust. Seurat engaged in lifelong studies of line. and muddied the brilliance of the drawing. and color His applied theories still influence painters in their manipulation and rendering of local. scratched in seconds. stands in counterpoise holding a dark globe and his thoughts in m o m e n t a r y balance. Using the paper to create light is important for beginners to learn. we c o m p a r e a skillful design that absorbed m u c h time in its making with the quickness of an idea marked instantly. there are no outlines. form. In his f a m o u s paintings of social e n g a g e m e n t . Opposite. Typically. or abruptly meeting. turned gray. 162) and an eraser to model teeming points of artificial light amid GEORGES SEURAT French painter classically educated in the Ingres school of thought. only tones blending into. Light is given by the paper alone. Below. Seurat evolved a distinctive t e c h n i q u e called p o i n t i l l i s m — i m a g e s literally made from myriad points of color. Tone and light In this black conte drawing. Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 1883-84 91/2 x 121/4 in (241 x 312 m m GEORGES SEURAT . velvet d a r k n e s s . in a perfect e x a m p l e .

Many of his other symbolic works on paper have been drawn with materials such as honey. and that These aspects of the work convey fractured visibility. and made installations. video art. This figure is drawn intuitively. Unbroken lines stream from his simultaneously movement. free from the constraint of immaculate form opposite) impetus is irrelevant to the and meaning of this work (as we see in Seurat's drawing representation. Beuys gave performances. taught workshops with a cult following. transience. in different positions.gold. and blood. iodine. His The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland UNDATED 113/4 J O S E P H BEUYS x81/4in (297 x 210 mm) . Perfectly modeled rather conventional for Joseph Focus Beuys's hand moved quickly to draw dotted lines flowing downward on either side of the figure. He was a shaman who believed in intuition and in the investment of healing force. Our focus joins shoulders.113 JOSEPH BEUYS One of the most influential German artists of the 20th century. and drawings. CHOREOGRAPHS the profound power materials with spiritual or of Free lines This pale pencil drawing is Beuys.

and one of hundreds of rapid studies of nudes. In both drawings. his w o r k is characterized by deliberate un-finish and powerfully modeled emotion. Anita Taylor has drawn her protective body hug out of the darkly glistening compression of willow charcoal and the dynamism of her shy but momentous femininity. We are involved not as a shabby voyeur but as a bystander engaged through our recognition of shared joy. sweeping lines— of either purple silk fabric or cool studio air—that imprint and amplify their past and future movements. 125/8x 9 in (320 x 229 mm) AUGUSTE RODIN Two Women 1911 Embracing . They whisper and writhe in a brushed and sultry embrace that devours our watching.114 BODY Passion SUMMONING HUMANITY in a drawing of the nude is a subtle and emotional task. Rodin employed models to move freely or pose together in his studio.000 drawings shown in rotation at the Musee Rodin. the fierceness of the women's kiss is beautifully matched by the tenderness of his line. was perceived as scandalous. His exquisite flow of paint beyond "outlines. Free lines Rodin's public audience was understandably shocked by the eroticism of his drawings. But what is stranger to us now is that they were also outraged by his free use of line. the women are framed and caressed by long. Achieving international acclaim in mid-life." as seen here. In Rodins work. its soft. Rodin produced portraits and statues of public and literary figures. Paris. Opposite. he typically drew them with a few delicate strokes of pencil and brushed watercolor. Our bodies radiate the passion of our thoughts and so become beacons of our frailty and power. Delicate strokes This is one of about 7. flushed skin made ruddy and black with crushed cinders. and went on to inspire generations of artists. We are asked to gaze u p o n her flesh. Inspired by Michelangelo. As here. THE AUGUSTE RODIN French Romantic sculptor and prolific draftsman employed as an ornamental mason until the age of 42.

and rework rich depths of light and tone. intimately reflecting upon the emotions and meaning of nudity. the impression of luminosity All and Nothing 1999 67 x447/8in (170 x 1 1 4 cm) ANITA TAYLOR . The sturdy surface of the sheet has allowed her to press hard when needed. Charcoal Taylor has drawn freely with charcoal and an eraser on thick. Taylor has drawn. and gaze. This order of light below and dark above gives glowing from within. Taylor's immense self-portraits explore the relationship between the artist as maker and the artist as model. scrutiny. exposure. erased and drawn again.I 15 ANITA T A Y L O R Painter. draftsman. Luminosity Layered marks flicker likefirelight as they sculpt the woman's body. textured paper. leaving her lightest marks at the deepest level of the image and applying darker marks above. London. professor and Vice Principal of Wimbledon School of Art. A thinner sheet might have crumpled and torn under such vigorous force of making.

Smaller. Move the tip of your thumb down to a second chosen point. rather that what we believe we know from experience. and measurements do not have to be carried to the paper and slavishly drawn the same size they appear on your pencil. This is chiefly a correcting device by which figurative painters and sculptors have for centuries countered the effects of our viewing their work from far below or on the curvature of a vault. which is imperceptible from below. London). elongated as if stretched across the plaster. just making them helps you see. when beginners prop their board in their lap and look down at too steep an angle. It is not so hard. Lock your shoulder. Return to this posture every time. Imagine Michelangelo's murals in the Sistine Chapel. Spend time making comparisons before you draw. plummeting. If your arm is not straight.116 T H E BODY Measurement and Foreshortening FORESHORTENING IS AN ASPECT of perspective. Close one eye. or shrivelling at odd. Up close on the scaffold we would witness Michelangelo's subtle application of accelerated perspective." . to be translated by mirrors or seen from only one point in the room. we would arrive to find many of the same figures strangely distorted. and wrist joints. unfathomable angles. There is no need to mark them all down on paper. MEASURING This is a simple method of making measured comparisons for relating the true size of one part to another This is a tool to assist observation and thinking. It can also be a little demon in the life room. for example. "Simple measured comparisons reveal surprising truths about proportion. Align the top with a point on your subject. 2 Hold your pencil upright. or coming forward. helping us to see more clearly. with dramatic illusions of figures painted in normal proportion. elbow. 1 Hold your arm straight. Rome. In the life class it is the mechanism for ensuring that a drawn figure lies correctly in pictorial space . without taking off. We also look at another very interesting branch called accelerated (or anamorphic) perspective. How to make and apply these is explained below and opposite. But if we could take a scaffold and climb up to the work. the skull in Holbein's The Ambassadors (The National Gallery. and a few measured comparisons are key. you will make inconsistent and unrelated comparisons. To avoid its effects ensure you always look flat onto the surface of your page. The length of exposed pencil is your measurement. and to draw what we see. Accelerated perspective plays a great role in much art. more extreme examples have been made for court entertainment. persistence. It is not complicated. 3 Keep your pencil perpendicular Measure and compare at any angle.limbs happily receding. patience.

Keep t h e b o a r d steady and draw. P r o p o r t i o n s will only l o o k c o r r e c t f r o m t h e angle at w h i c h y o u make t h e drawing. looking d o w n t h e p a p e r at t h e a n g l e at w h i c h I d r e w . MEASUREMENT AND FORESHORTENING Tilt t h e t o p edge o f this b o o k t o w a r d you and look d o w n o n this figure f r o m a b o v e . adjusting a n o n y m o u s shapes. L o o k at y o u r m o d e l as if he o r she is a flat series o f shapes o n e o n t o p o f a n o t h e r Measure t h e height and w i d t h o f each shape and c o m p a r e it t o its neighbor. y o u r hand travels f a r t h e r than y o u expect. T h i s is t h e s a m e d r a w i n g p h o t o g r a p h e d f r o m above. To m a k e f o r m s l o o k c o r r e c t . Lean t h e t o p e d g e t o w a r d y o u and find a p o s i t i o n w h e r e y o u can c o m f o r t a b l y l o o k d o w n t h e p a p e r at an angle o f a b o u t 4 0 degrees. FORESHORTENING To f o r e s h o r t e n a figure.117 ACCELERATED PERSPECTIVE To discover h o w this w o r k s . y o u must let go o f w h a t y o u k n o w f r o m e x p e r i e n c e a b o u t t h e relative sizes o f b o d y parts and trust y o u r eyes. which feels strange. . a n d thighs. h e r p r o p o r t i o n s will appear correct. pleasingly f o r e s h o r t e n e d . See h o w d i f f e r e n t t h e relative heights o f t h e s e shapes are f r o m w h a t w e m i g h t e x p e c t in real life. W e appear t o be looking d o w n o n a w o m a n s t a n d i n g b e n e a t h us. belly. S o o n t h e b o d y will lie d o w n in space. C o m p a r e t h e heights o f t h e nose and eye shapes t o t h o s e o f t h e f o r e a r m . t a p e s o m e p a p e r t o a board. Stand its b o t t o m edge o n y o u r lap. A t a c e r t a i n angle. W o r k a r o u n d t h e figure.

working from her center to her feet and to her head. To draw this effect. Outline To outline a figure. feeling. Be bold and dive into your drawing with c o n f i d e n c e . Balance When a model stands upright on both feet. work back and forth across the body. Layered lines give d e p t h . her center of balance is normally found in a vertical line beneath her head. propelling you to make immediate assessments and trust them. and energy. Start each new drawing by lightly marking the model's height with a loose line in ten seconds. imagine holding up a plumb line. height. To see this. balance. . and slightly enlarge her legs and feet. and height. Leave first thoughts in place. T h i s q u i c k e x p l o r a t o r y line does not perfectly describe shape but expresses a decision about overall flow of form. I used a sharp H B pencil and began each drawing by marking her outline. because it results in two unrelated sides drifting apart.118 BODY Quick Poses DRAWING QUICK POSES l o c k s y o u r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n t o what is most essential. Avoid drawing up one side and down the other. make the upper body smaller give your model a high waist. THE SEQUENCE OF POSES H e r e the model was asked to move every t w o minutes. and stance before honing her balance and expression. Height This pose leans away into space above our eye level. and work over t h e m with further o b s e r v a t i o n s .

119 The twist of a model is most easily and expressively captured if it is exaggerated. . the activity of circular lines and the repetition of limbs suggest movement. Most of us have a tendency to over-straighten the drawn figure. This drawing shows how different observations be overlaid to bring a drawing alive. Tilt Movement Here. The tilt of the pelvis is then counter balanced by the model's shoulders tilting the other way (as seen here). and this should be avoided Twist QUICK POSES A model standing on one leg usually drops the opposite hip.

120 BODY Hands and Feet THERE ARE MANY different ways of approaching h a n d s and THE of form. Begin by drawing lines to encompass the whole hand. Focus instead on how planes change direction across the knuckles from one side of the hand or foot to the other. feet. swiftly marking its essential gesture. or those of a friend. Do not separate them yet. 3 . This exercise is useful when struggling with proportion. general to specific. express structure and gesture far more successfully and easily than ten worried outlines wandering up and down between the fingers and toes. Group the fingers together as one mass. Keep lines open to change and take measurements if they help. These planes. it is important to leave aside all details of the fingers and toes. drawn in relation to each other. W h e n starting. but regard these practice studies as ongoing processes of thought and observatio Add details such as nails last if you wish. Practice by drawing your own hands and feet. and ignore all details. starting with the largest. and a gooseneck lamp casts shadows that clarify planes and depths GESTURES OF THE HAND Curled Fingers 1 Open Palm Start honing the shapes of the dominant planes. A mirror increases your range of views. 2 Build your drawing gradually from light to dark. especially the lengthwise divisions between them. Don't worry about achieving perfect solutions. It also helps the beginner to progress from drawing outlines to drawing confidently across the surface of the whole form. Draw large shapes and their orientation. Then subdivide each shape so that you w o r k from large to small. and they need not be daunting to draw.

Leave aside all detail. and rapid. these are what give a drawing its tangible structure. depth. and spontaneity. loose. however. Nowimagineyou are carving the foot insidethepaper. It can be a mistake. Hew it roughly in broad.121 HANDS AND FEET MOVEMENTS OF THE FOOT Flat Stance Raised Heel Instep 1 Let your first marks be light. and don't worry about accuracy t o begin with. as if with a chisel.as though out o f wood. flattened planes. 2 3 Use an eraser t o refine decisions o r t o suggest areas o f light. . t o remove t o o many early lines. Try t o express the whole foot and t o encapsulate its entire shape and direction in a few marks. Look for key angles without becoming distracted by detail.

Opposite.204-05. The white lines demonstrate what is often called "bracelet shading.Charcoal Hands T H E S E DRAWINGS ARE MADE in compressed charcoal. Compare its nature in close-up to that of willow charcoal used on pp. I also used white ink with a steel dip pen." .

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I make these lines in the first five to ten seconds of a drawing to locate the presence. length. Phrasing Contours .HERE TRACES OF RAPID initial lines are still seen within and outside each body. 118-19). before honing his or her shape (see pp. and posture of the model.

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Drawing work by another artist enables you to discover and understand the inventive hand in their composition. . Forms. perspectives. and narrative pulse become vivid when you realize them in the middle of your study. feeling them through the attentive movements of your own hand. characters. I draw in museums in support of written research and as an artist seeking answers to questions about the practicalities of image making.The Visual Detective DRAWING FROM MASTERWORKS was once a staple component of an artist's education. It is now viewed with some skepticism and often seen as academic.

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each modeled from dissection. . Walls are lined with hundreds of faintly animated body parts. These almost life-size figures were composed from my imagination and achieved with the help af studies discussed on pp. Florence.La Specola At17V i a Romana. Life-size women wearing wigs recline on beds of embroidered silk in cabinets of mahogany and Venetian glass This is a detail of a compressed charcoal drawing measuring 14 x 10 ft (4. there is a unique museum of 18th-century anatomical waxes. 126-27.3 x 3 m) made in response to La Specola.

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Our homes are filled with images of our loved ones and of those in our families who have gone before. and a handprint (see p. look directly at us. in a miniature self-portrait magnified opposite. Beginners often draw themselves as a way of establishing their practice. live. painters have dropped discreet records of themselves into commissioned narratives so that they can remain a face in the crowd. and expression of the individual. Halls and palaces are filled with pictures of the mighty and significant. W h e n drawing a person. or past us. We are also reassured by keeping records of ourselves. For centuries. Movie director Alfred similarly signed his films by playing a fleeting role: he walks through an extra. and their posture can be changed with just one line. compliant subject to scrutinize. This enlargement o f his miniature p o r t r a i treveals t h e s p e e d and agility o f his p e n and about himself. religious. buttons. or a glimpse of him is caught in a photograph used as a prop. and lucrative genre for artists. Rembrandt's famous multitude of self-portraits. Portraits can be highly or loosely detailed. character. we use the delicate medium of silver point to look at foundation structures of the head.139). It also reminds us o f b o t h t h e intimacy and a scene as scrutiny o f an honest portrait. Man Ray's self-portrait of scored lines. To create a face is to see and interpret the essence of an identity. abstract or figurative. the meaning of their face. and secular narratives. and it is very rewarding.Portraiture IN P O R T R A I T U R E W E MEET PEOPLE. Equally. made as he passed through the ages of man. or whose eyes can seem to follow us around the room Portraiture is a constant. you can capture the subtlety. . and social and political commentaries. a single line can deliver an entire expression. We can mold and animate qualities of expression out of objects and fragments of disassociated things—for example. and satirical or metaphorical. Once you understand Self-Portrait in a Cocked Hat c. Goya. Self-portraiture gives every artist a constant. having been documented and preserved. and in a few scrolling rafts of pen lines and stubbled dots. The returning image was of crucial consideration in any proposal. historical. his changes in pressure and Hitchcock length o f line. and p r i n t m a k e r . throat. Past rulers sent painters across continents to bring back a likeness in advance of a prospective royal marriage. became more poignant as he progressed. bells. who. gathered all that he knew FRANCISCO DE GOYA V i s i o n a r y Spanish painter. single or of groups. draftsman. their stance. usually strangers from past times. The truth is that we all like looking at faces and observing the billions of variations that make us individuals. and shoulders. Goya's w o r k s include many royal and society p o r t r a i t s . is here to both meet and look through us. neck. In this chapter. 1790-92 4 x 3 in ( 1 0 2 x 7 6 m m ) F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A and memorize the basic structure that we all share.

Here the grace and beauty of two young women are held forever. Her face is drawn tenderly and with a luminous glow.30). We can actually count that he struck the paper 40 times. Without faltering. It takes a truly accomplished a few strokes. whisking a timeless girl onto the page. stealthily using his chalk to find contours and mass. caught in her last moments of youth. one eye already cast askew into the autumn of her life. Holbein maps the still landscape of Dorothea's body in questioning marks. Picasso has left to posterity many hundreds of magnificent line drawings.132 PORTRAITURE Poise THE BALANCE BETWEEN a mark and a blank space is often a tantalizing form of perfection. The aesthetic sense of a line being just right can make a drawing sing. For the beginner. length. There is a common misunderstanding that a drawing with only a few lines is both less finished and easier to make than a drawing with more. Through exhibitions and copies in books. and pressure as it conducts our eye through the image. We can read so much about them by studying their gaze. adding smudges of tone for weight and solidity. hand to capture something well in only Frangoise au Bandeau 1946 660 x 505 mm (26 x197/8in) PABLO PICASSO . breadth. He makes his flair and skill look easy. we can enjoy and learn from them. teetering on the brink of older age. PABLO PICASSO Spanish Cubist painter (see also p. Picasso strikes and scrolls his pencil. How could the addition of shadows have enhanced this image? Few strokes The simplicity of Picasso's line is breathtaking. The Tightness of a line is felt in its speed. While with longer consideration. they serve as a great lesson that it is not always necessary to add tone to your drawing. It is the portrait of a countrywoman. The truth is often the opposite.

Cropping This regal composition fits its paper perfectly. Her folded forearms support and frame her weight above. made a popular series o f w o o d c u t prints titled The Dance of Death. gently flushed. which.133 HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER German p o r t r a i t painter draftsman. and designer f r o m Basel. Holbein unified the woman with her background by gently blending colors from her clothes and face into the atmosphere around her. he designed c o u r t costumes. and its downward slope crowns the diagonal of the composition. Holbein was employed toward the end of his life by King Henry VIII of England. The peak of her cap clips the uppermost edge. In addition t o his numerous exquisite portraits in oil. Holbein has cropped and pinned his subject within the four outermost lines of the image—the edges of the page. He outlined her nose but not her upper lip. presses against the binding across her face. Blended colors In this portrait drawn with colored chalks on slightly textured paper. Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 1516 51/8 x121/4in (385 x 310 m m ) HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER . and produced numerous society portraits such as this one here.

but they are irrelevant here. The style of Durelli's d r a w i n g opposite sings with the confidence of truth and precision. It floats in space. dark tones of graphite blended into the paper. the contours of a grid. solid above and almost hollow below. taught at numerous British art schools from 1962-77. In fact. blood vessels. and has works in major collections including the Tate Gallery. its highly clarified detail claiming to be d r a w n from observation. the face is one of the hardest parts to dissect. Contrasts Sharp. This is a m a r v e l o u s interpretation of the truth. . Psychological drama is contained behind a grid. while white painted flecks and wisps suggest electrical illumination.134 PORTRAITURE Anatomies These highly finished drawings express the emotional power and physicality of the head and neck. or defined by. London. N e w s o m e ' s eerily shadowed form is smooth and bears a linear grain evocative of w o o d . confusing. Durelli has m a d e a few m i n o r mistakes. continues to exhibit regularly. Delicate muscles are integrated with the skin and fat that is to be r e m o v e d . and glands also complicate form. distorted. dark lines made with a pencil appear against smooth. perhaps applied using a tortillon. The real dissection w o u l d have been far more c o m p l e x . Anatomically. using a fine and relatively 1982 13 x 181/8 in (328 x 460 mm) VICTOR NEWSOME brush. Highlights of white gouache were dry Profile Head late in the making. VICTOR NEWSOME British sculptor painter and draftsman. Newsome was awarded the Prix de Rome in 1960. This is one of a number of similar disembodied female heads seen behind. Nerves. and unpleasant to see.

Pencil numbers refer to the list of muscles written beneath. It is hard to think of a more difficult medium with which to achieve such linear perfection. which. w h e n contracted. Durelli's experience as an engraver is reflected in his stylized drawing o f muscle fibers. and it is likely that this drawing was intended for reproduction as a print. Red Chalk the Muscles 1837 173/8 x 145/8 in ( 4 4 0 x 3 7 2 m m ) ANTONIO DURELLI and Pencil Drawing and of Neck of the Head Little is k n o w n o f this M i l a n e s e p a i n t e r a n d engraver w h o c a m e from a family o f artists.135 ANATOMIES ANTONIO DURELLI Linear perfection This is a red chalk drawing of extraordinary accomplishment. pull their points o f attachment t o w a r d each other . Stylized parallel lines are reminiscent of engravings.

Flesh is built and personality carved simultaneously. cutting and carving the paper with matted and spiraling restless energy. and poet After studying in Geneva and Italy. Giacometti settled in Paris. Energy This is a portrait of a woman drawn with black crayon on a plain page of a book Lines search for the essence of form. Speed Giacometti probably began with an oval shape placed in relation to the proportion of the page. Bellini gently conjures the features of his saint with soft marks that tease his presence out of shadows into the light. each portrait is inscribed onto the page. close enough to touch his hair and feel his breath. The camera watches him at work. ALBERTO GIACOMETTI Swiss sculptor. which are characteristically elongated. and with staccato flinches his hyperactive eye moves from paper to model. while his hand stabs and thrusts Revelations like a conductors baton.136 PORTRAITURE THESE ARE DRAWINGS of shoulders. He is best known for his bronze sculptures of human form. They confuse our perception of scale by being intimately fragile and at the same time far removed. We are brought intimately close to this man gazing up to heaven. he drew over the whole image at once. each locked into a visionary gaze. Similar movements sculpted the head below into its page. and heads. painter draftsman. Both works demonstrate how simple lines can be made complex by being intense. Agitated marks make patches of tone that cut away the space around the character. 1948 77/8 x 6 in (200 x 150 mm) ALBERTO GIACOMETTI . as if seen from a distance. necks. There is a film of Giacometti drawing. They show us clearly the bones of drawing. Then. Without paint and with very little tone. with speed and urgency. Opposite. Portrait de Marie-Laure de Noailles c.

Mantegna. a n d c o n t e m p l a t i v e . These are pinholes. transferring which were made in the process of the saint to his final place in the composition of a painting (see Glossary pp. Bellini s t u d i e d u n d e r his f a t h e r J a c o p o . a n d b r o t h e r in-law. Head and Shoulders of a Man 73/8 x 21/4 in ( 1 8 6 x 5 8 UNDATED GIOVANNI BELLINI .G I O V A N N I BELLINI A prominent member of a large family o f V e n e t i a n painters.25 6 . a n d his w o r k is d i s t i n c t i v e l y calm.5 9 ) . lyrical. H e t a u g h t G i o r g i o n e Barbarelli and Titian. Sometimes different narrative same character was reused in compositions. Transfer This delicate humorous chalk a drawing is a cartoon—not image but a type of template used to plan the composition of a larger work Look closely and you will see rows of tiny dots along every significant line in the picture. H e p r e f e r r e d religious t o classical t h e m e s . Character This is one of many cartoons produced by Bellini the and his family.

signing their work SAMO. Self Portrait 1982 9 4 x 7 6 in (239 x 193 cm) JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT . similar to work by Cy Twombly (see p. and confrontations with. and attitudes.138 PORTRAITURE THE MIRROR OF SELF-PORTRAITURE offers artists infinite reflections of. skull- Self-Portraits headed. float and shimmer in the shallow pictorial space. humor. marks. Signs and symbols with symbols This painting shudders that ore written. and everything flux. scratched into its surface. Later Basquiat sold drawings on T-shirts. spear-brandishing warrior. and sheet metal before being snapped up by the New York contemporary art scene. It is an opportunity to look deep without the infringement of courtesies owed to a commissioning sitter. It is an image of confrontation—the ever-controversial young artist roars at us from his abstract city-scape. The artist has finished his portrait with the signature of his hand smacked in the middle like a kiss: a declaration of existence as old as man's first drawing. bells. In 1986 he traveled to Africa and showed his work in Abidjan on the Ivory Coast He also exhibited in Germany and France. The figure's position is unequivocal and defiant while around him is in a state Without the essential of cultural and figure we would elegant belookingat a sophisticated painting of signs. postcards. JEAN MICHEL BASQUIAT Short-lived American painter and graffiti artist who began his blazing nine-year career drawing on lower Manhattan subway trains with a friend. and buttons rings with surrealist wit and agile improvisation. It has proved to be a subject of piercing scrutiny. Man Ray's playful silk-screen assembly of color blocks. scrolls. and indulgence. a tribal.221). political outcry. The incandescent New York painter Jean Michel Basquiat pictured himself here in naked silhouette. drawn. Al Diaz. Islands of graphic marks. made with great energy. scratched lines. their most immediate and best-known subject: themselves.

Autoportrait 1916 195/8 MAN RAY . They experimented with camera-free photography working directly onto photographic paper Silk and ink This is a silkscreen print made through the following process: the paper was laid on a flat surface and a frame stretched with fine silk was placed on top. last of all. The handprint appears to be made directly. Frame White lines are seemingly (though not actually) scratched through ink to frame this face. painter. Man Ray probably used his own hand. The first part of the stenciled image was already marked on the silk The screen and paper were then held tightly together. while a squeegee was used to drag thick lilac-brown ink across the silk pushing it though exposed areas onto the paper below. printmaker and cofounder of the New York Dada movement.139 MAN RAY American surrealist photographer. During the 1920's and 30s. where he collaborated with the artist Laslo MoholyNagy. Black ink was printed next and then white. They suggest speed and make the picture look immediate and spontaneous. Man Ray lived and worked in Paris. caked in thick printing ink or paint.

and make o r buy a holder. and alloys work on matt emulsion. This browns with age unless sealed by fixative (see pp. 2 . 156). and t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h strips a b o v e and b e l o w . o n e t o fit each side o f t h e b o a r d — t h e s e will make t h e glued f r a m e t h a t holds y o u r p a p e r in place. This is called a three-tone drawing. 1 4 4 . S i l v e r is b e s t . Stretched paper remains taut as a d r u m . Lay a clean d r a w i n g b o a r d o n a flat surface. 5. you will need t o stretch paper and lay a wash (see right and opposite). The most c o m m o n metal has always been silver—hence the term "silver point. the surface must be primed with a ground such as gouache. 1. an exciting indication of how large-scale drawings could be made on a wall. Note h o w domestic paintwork marks with a coin. it leaves a deposit.Tear o f f f o u r lengths o f b r o w n p a p e r g u m tape.54) can also b e used. which quickly oxidizes into a gray line. M a k e s u r e i t is c o m p l e t e l y clean t o avoid u n w a n t e d streaks. For i m p o r t a n t a d v i c e o n p r e p a r a t i o n a n d use. Z I N C W H I T E G O U A C H E : Dilute with w a t e r A d d c o l o r i f r e q u i r e d (as opposite) 4 . choose a silver object. was familiar to or eggshells with animal glue.140 PORTRAITURE Silver P o i n t SILVER OR METAL POINT STRETCHING PAPER A sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has been made w e t with the strokes o f a paintbrush will buckle d u e t o its uneven expansion. Take a sheet o f any t y p e o f p a p e r (for e x a m p l e . s e e p . Straighten the w o r s t buckles. copper. W e t o n e length o f g u m . Numerous early European artists also enjoyed its fine qualities (see p. SILVER W I R E : Purchase different gauge lengths f r o m a traditional a r t supplier o r jeweler. laid on paper. p a r c h m e n t .54-55).s t r i p a n d use i t t o fix o n e side o f t h e p a p e r t o t h e b o a r d . artists mixed white lead. who used it to outline initials and border characters before painting. and gold have also been used. To begin. S O F T F U L L B R U S H : W h e n laying a w a s h . and is therefore useful w h e n using w a t e r c o l o r as well as silver point. M E T A L OBJECTS: All metal objects m a r k a p r e p a r e d surface. or ring. illuminators of medieval m a n u s c r i p t s . Find a n i t e m t h a t y o u can h o l d a n d draw with comfortably. I t is a v a i l a b l e f r o m all a r t s h o p s . I combined silver point with painted white gouache on a pink ground. b e f o r e priming stretched paper. purchase silver wire. Opposite. Drawn across a prepared surface. bone. I m a k e m y o w n f r o m o l d dip pens. Metal point does not work on ordinary paper. SILVER P O I N T W I R E H O L D E R : T h e s e c a n b e p u r c h a s e d a n d t e n d t o b e heavy. 144-45. b u t d o n ' t w o r r y . Pages 142 to 147 are illustrated in silver point and techniques are explained on pp. Lightly s p o n g e o f f t h e excess. w h i t e d r a w i n g paper) and cut it t o fit y o u r d r a w i n g b o a r d w i t h a generous b o r d e r a r o u n d its edges. platinum. Be swift and firm. key. s o m e m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n o t h e r s . W e t a n d fix a s e c o n d strip t o t h e o p p o s i t e side. 3 . Gesso o r m a t t e m u l s i o n c a n a l s o b e u s e d . T h e p a p e r will l o o k b u c k l e d . MATERIALS 1 Find a clean sponge and b o w l o r d e e p t r a y a n d fill it w i t h w a t e r W e t t h e p a p e r evenly in t h e t r a y o r o n t h e b o a r d . Historically. 2. Metal point is simply a strip of metal bound in a holder. or wood. c h o o s e a s o f t full b r u s h t h a t c a n c a r r y p l e n t y o f l i q u i d . E m p t y mechanical pencils designed f o r t h i c k leads ( s e e p." Lead. If w o r k i n g o n an emulsion-painted wall.

slowly add powder pigment or gouache from a tube. I used a powder pigment called Caput Mortuum. so put newspaper under the lower edge. T h r e e . Leave the wash to dry thoroughly before you begin to draw. Keep testing on spare paper. and let tests dry before deciding to change the mixture. Make an even line across to the right. The next step will make a small mess. Dry thoroughly before laying a wash. overlapping lines until you reach the bottom. LAYING A WASH It your stretched paper so as to prime it for silver point. Here. is necessary to lay a wash o Three-tone When coloring ground. Reload the brush and add a second line overlapping it beneath. Mix a very wet but not weak solution of gouache in a jar with a lid (add pigment at this stage for a three-tone drawing). any extra will keep. It will slowly straighten and become taut.141 SILVER POINT 3 Leave the paper to dry flat. as the paper will be ruined by a raised ridge. Runs blend into each other evenly. full brush into the gouache and start in the top left corner. v e r y little at a time. Prop up your board of dry. leaving a smooth surface. Make enough to cover your paper. stretched paper at a 45-degree angle.t o n e silver point drawing of a skull . Dip a soft. Beware of the tape's coming loose at any point while drying. Keep adding smooth.

142

PORTRAITURE

Head and Neck
THE HEAD AND NECK are best conceived as one unit arranged in four parts: cranium, face, neck, and throat. Each is of equal importance. The cranium is essentially egg-shaped and pivots on the first vertebra. The face is suspended beneath, like a softly curved triangle. The n e c k — a powerful, shapely column of layered muscles rigged to vertebrae—adjusts and holds the angle and expression of the head. The throat is delicate, hard, and lumpy to the touch, formed of cartilaginous rings, glands, thin muscles, and looser skin. Framing the throat, two columnar neck muscles (sternomastoids) project the head forward and also turn it to the opposite side.

This is a simple shorthand diagram representing the cranium, face, neck, and throat. It can be learned and visualized in different positions very easily, giving the novice a firm footing on which to stand and develop their drawings of the head and neck.

Shorthand diagram

Cranium Begin with an egg shape. Tilt it on the paper to change the position of the head.

Face Draw a rounded triangular shape below the forward point of the egg to represent the face.

Neck This shape represents the trapezius; the largest surface muscle of the neck and shoulders.

Throat A triangular shape represents the throat. (The nose makes the diagram clearer)

Applied shorthand

After copying the diagram above, animate it. Practice drawing the cranium at different angles, add the face beneath, then the neck, shoulders, and throat. Shape your diagrams so they are more lifelike, but avoid adding detailed features too soon.

143 These three drawings demonstrate (from left to right) the following: why the cranium may be considered egg-shaped; now the face can be seen as a curved triangle suspended beneath and where the division lies between the two; and the form of sternomastoid muscles that frame thethroatsodistinctlywhen the head is turned and inclined forward.

The skull and the frame of the throat

HEAD AND NECK

Bones of the cranium are locked together by jagged joints. Sinuses in the frontal (forehead) bone between and beneath the eyebrows are larger in men, making their brows pronounced and often ridged compared to those of women.

Bones of the face house our sight, smell, taste, The skull pivots on the first vertebra or "atlas," and speech. Cartilage extending from nasal bones after the Greek god condemned to carry the shapesthenose.Pads of fat resting on the base of Earth. The jaw hinges in front of the ears. Behind, eacheyesocket support the eyeballs in position. If bony ridges give anchor to the sternomastoid thefatisreducedby old age, eyes look sunken. muscles rising from the breast- and collarbones.

Three useful generalizations

General rules about the relative positions of body parts can hinder artists as much as help them, since they are often based on classical ideals rather than thediversityoflife.However,some generalizations can help as a rough guide to start with, so long as good observation takes over as soon as possible.

In general, when the face is relaxed (not smiling or frowning), the corners of the mouth are found directly beneath the pupils of the eyes. Vertical lines can be drawn down from the pupils to meet the corners of the mouth.

The height of a young adult's ear is often the same as their nose and found on the same level. There is no general rule for growing children, and remember that ears grow again in old age, which is most obvious in men.

The height of the face is about the length of the handspan and the eye is normally halfway down the total height of the head. A common error is to draw the eyes too high up on the face.

144

PORTRAITURE

Essential Observations
T H E DELICACY OF SILVER POINT

(see pp. 140-41) is perfect for

such as a beach pebble. Here, I stretched drawing paper and laid a wash of white gouache (see pp.140-41). As you can see, the line and tone of silver point varies with pressure, but only slightly. Too much pressure cuts the ground. Silver point erases, but so does ground. Erased ground can be repaired gently with extra gouache. You can also use gouache to paint over mistakes and make corrections.

small, detailed drawings. The drawings below and opposite show useful observations of the head and neck, which are explained in the captions below. Each drawing was made with a silver wire held in a large-gauge mechanical pencil. Newly clipped wires are sharp and cut rather than draw. Before use, they need to be rubbed and smoothed on a stone

Here I imagined placing my silver point wire against the skin of each head and neck and, working in parallel bands from the crown downward, I traced the undulation of surfaces. Linear bands imagined around the head and neck can help you t o clearly see the tilt of the head and relative levels of the features. Ask a friend t o model for you and try this exercise life-size using a pencil and eraser

Contours

Tilted forward

Tilted backward

Three-quarter view

Seeing that the face is never flat

Drawings below left and center are summaries of the generalizations given on p.143. Far right is an image to remind us that the face is never flat. It slopes back to varying degrees among individuals, from the tip of the nose t o the ears. For example, note that the innermost corners of the eyes are farther forward in space than the outermost corners.

General measurements, side

General measurements, front

View from above

145

Male and female head and neck
Men's necks a r e g e n e r a l l y s h o r t e r a n d t h i c k e r t h a n w o m e n ' s b e c a u s e t h e angles a n d levels o f c e r t a i n b o n e s a r e d i f f e r e n t b e t w e e n t h e sexes ( i n d i c a t e d h e r e b y d o t t e d lines) a n d m e n are n o r m a l l y m o r e muscular. T h e male t h y r o i d cartilage ( A d a m ' s apple) is larger a n d m o r e visible than t h e f e m a l e . L a r g e r f e m a l e t h y r o i d glands also s o f t e n t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e t h r o a t .

ESSENTIAL OBSERVATIONS
Female skull

Male

skeleton

Male

skull

Trapezius muscle
The largest m u s c l e o f t h e s h o u l d e r s a n d n e c k is called the trapezius. A r r a n g e d on e i t h e r side o f t h e spine, it shapes t h e u p p e r back and neck above the s h o u l d e r blades. C o n t r a c t i n g in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h d e e p e r and surrounding muscles, it raises and l o w e r s t h e shoulders a n d d r a w s t h e h e a d backtoeitherside.

The whole

muscle

Upper

half with

sternomastoids

Above

with head

straight

Above

with head

forward

Side with

sternomastoid

Front with

sternomastoid

146

PORTRAITURE

Drawing Portraits
USING A SHARP 3 B PENCIL, I drew this head quickly from imagination, evolving its character and expression from the scheme of four parts: cranium, face, neck, a n d throat (see p. 142). Here, five steps show you how to practice doing the same. This approach can be used to draw from imagination or from life. Keep your wrist loose and hold your pencil away from its point (see pp.22-23). Build the layers of your drawing from pale to dark, a n d from general balance a n d form to specific detail. Remember that successful drawings are built on foundations of "seeing the whole," then dividing the whole into smaller parts, with details brought in last of all. Phrased tonal marks modeling this girls skin and hair follow the technique demonstrated by Goya in his self-portrait on p. 130. Turn to Goya's drawing and study how, in a circle beginning across his hat, moving down his hair, and around his coat, he flows lines over surfaces to describe their contour. As you build from steps 1 to 5, bring phrased groups of lines across the surfaces of your form, using their directions to capture the expression of the head and neck. If unsure, copy my steps until you gain the confidence to make your own decisions.

This drawing is the final stage of the four steps opposite. Here, I have enlarged the eye, and moved it back into the head by trimming the length of the upper lid and adding a more pronounced lower lid. It is important to set eyes far enough back from the relatively prominent nose; too close to it and the face flattens. Hair swept back and extended behind the cranium balances the regal pose. Lines shaping the hair echo those marking the cranium in step 1. Here, the lower part of step 1 comes through as wisps of hair across her face and ear

BALANCED POSE

Portrait of a Young Girl

down the face to the throat. avoid drawing too dark. Moving from the back of the neck.Theangle at which you draw this shape of the paper will determine the angle of the finished head. The nose and ear begin to shape the head. Here. neck. Keep your first lines light. 4 . so it is important to the life of the image that while controlled. First lines will remain visible in the final drawing. The eye announces the nature and expression of the emerging person. I used light to describe the upper lid first with a shadow beneath for the lower lid and open eye. 3 Place the eye beneath the cranium.147 Building up the portrait DRAWING PORTRAITS 1 Gently spin pale lines in a softly drawn shape representing the cranium. I modeled the outline of the character I imagined light shining from above and in front and adjusted the pressure of lines to reflect this. and throat. over the cranium. they are also still sweeping and confident. too soon. 2 Rapidly add shorthand shapes to represent the face.

.

Above all. be aware of the subtle differences in skin surface. and gravity. a n d t h o s e w h o a r e Generations asleep (see overleaf). . the texture of hair. empathize.T o DRAW PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGES. muscular tension.

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seeking the dominant contours of each individual expression. Van Dyke's noble cast of characters was modeled more finely.Castings DRAWING IN THE PRADO MUSEUM. with a steel dip pen and acrylic ink. Fast lines carve out the features of Goya's soup-slurping hag. Madrid. I used the nib upside down to gain needle-sharp precision. .

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he and cofounder Serge Diaghilev took Paris by eac storm in 1910 with their production h year in the industrial f r e n z y of creating o u r image and aspirations. and intent. and e x u b e r a n c e . c u l t u r e . a n d p r o f e s s i o n — b e g a n life as a d r a w i n g . Samoylovich Rosenberg. Like it or not. toParis. dancer leaps through swaths of golden cloth. shapes. fulfilling lavish and spectacular briefs. Practical classes Bacchante 1911 l o o k at r a n g e s of c o l o r e d m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d i n g p a s t e l s a n d felt-tip p e n s . In psychology. and be so expressive of temperament that it overtakes the need for an o c c u p y i n g h u m a n form. a n d c o u r t i e r tailors f o l l o w e d suit. while court p a i n t e r s — M i c h e l a n g e l o and Holbein. c o s t u m e o f f e r s a r i c h v o c a b u l a r y of t e x t u r e s a n d c o l o r . e m u l a t e textures. In this c h a p t e r w e see h o w c l o t h i n g c a n s e e m to p o s s e s s the w e i g h t and m o n u m e n t a l i t y of stone. and everything w e h a v e c h o s e n for o u r w a r d r o b e s — r e f l e c t o r s of o u r taste. . c r u m p l e s . outrageous. and gouache.Costume W E MAKE OURSELVES EXOTIC. Bakst's designs and costumes immediately To the fine artist. st 111/4 x 81/2 in (285 x 220 mm) u d i e d L E O NB A K S T and explore the characterization of fabric t h r o u g h m o v e m e n t . caricatured p l u m e s . Petersburg and later exiled designers' ideas and are surprised and delighted b y their continual f l o w of inspiration. for e x a m p l e — d e s i g n e d the w a r d r o b e s of p o p e s a n d k i n g s . cool. theb u t b y the w a y it s p e a k s w i t h its flying. or calm u s w i t h chic. D e s i g n e r s create m a s t e r p i e c e s of haute couture LEON BAKST for H o l l y w o o d stars. known as Leon Bakst. gesture. and atmosphere. Previously. Artists do this not so m u c h b y the style of a figure's garment. T h e e n t o u r a g e of the theatrical stage o f t e n l e a d s the c a t w a l k . and s y m b o l s that lets m e n and w o m e n in all countries and areas have w o r k i n g access to the latest fashions. it is the public sign by w h i c h w e are j u d g e d . and i n d e e d image b e c a m e the property also of the industrial classes. g l o s s y folds. T h e p a p e r p a t t e r n is p e r h a p s the m o s t w i d e l y k n o w n of c o s t u m e d r a w i n g s : a formalized plan of lines. S t r u c t u r e is t h o u g h the i n v e n t i o n of shoes. of Scheherazade. o n l y the w e a l t h y c o u l d afford to h a v e c o s t u m e s specially m a d e .This voluptuous above all a physical p u p p e t w i t h w h i c h to animate character and narrate personality. charcoal. was a Belarussian A r t Deco theater fantasies and desires to immediately possess a version of the same. P o p u l a r f a s h i o n d e s i g n e x p l o d e d w i t h the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n . T h e rural masses w o r e h o m e s p u n simplicity. woman was drawn by Bakst one year later for the ballet Narcisse. b u t influenced Parisian fashion and interiordecor. intriguing. a n d w e will c o l l e c t patterns. Designers all over the w o r l d c o n t i n u a l l y p e n and b r u s h lines to lash us w i t h color. variety. so that c h o i c e . and even invisible by the w a y w e dress. arichand unusual combination of pencil.As artistic director of the It is s h o c k i n g to t h i n k h o w m a n y m i l l i o n s of d r a w i n g s m u s t be m a d e a n d d i s c a r d e d Ballet Russe. w h i c h in turn feed c o n s u m e r Lev. or b u l g e s . W e dress ourselves and costume designer trained in in St. personality. a n d s u b t l e t o n e s . Cities c h a n g e d all. w a r m t h . articulate a d a n g e r o u s satirical j o k e .

Marble gown We will never know if Van Eyck considered this drawing unfinished or intended the kneeling abbot to remain transient and ghostly. the Madonna and her architecture are both dressed in the same manner. her marble garment holds u p the infant Christ in a fountain of compressed line. However. Sculpted one. swirling printed fabrics. Church and deities are drawn as JAN VAN EYCK Flemish oil p a i n t e r f r o m L i m b o u r g . He has layered these slowly and carefully so as not to cut through the ground and produce a white mark just where he intended a dark one. Above them. Her gown is carved and polished as if made from marble. Flaxmans sleeper—perhaps a pilgrim or a soldier resting between campaigns—has wedged himself into the cleft of some great building to grab a moment of peace.140-41). best k n o w n f o r his G h e n t altarpiece ( 1 4 3 2 ) a n d m a r r i a g e p o r t r a i t o f Giovanni A r n o l f i n i and his w i f e (1434). resonate with their wearers startled expression. it is only possible to create very thin. and snakelike marks. In Van Eyck's drawing below. with their jagged edges. the carefully composed outline of his cloak shows us how the artist would have also begun his immaculate rendering of the Virgin's clothes. Delicate marks Silver (or metal) point is the most delicate of traditional drawing media (see pp. Keisai Eisen's intense. folds and patterns of material speak more resolutely of their wearers than any small glimpses of body we can see. and the kneeling abbot is a ghost by comparison. delicate lines. and implied striation in the stone of the architecture. H e m e t i c u l o u s l y a r r a n g e d subjects t o c o n v e y d e e p e r meaning. Below this.156 COSTUME Cloth and Drapery EACH OF THESE FIGURES is ninety percent cloth. Their uninterrupted emphasis is entirely vertical. Van Eyck's highly polished w o r k is c e l e b r a t e d f o r its disguised symbolism. dragons. Opposite. Vertical lines The highly controlled lines of this drawing cascade from top to bottom of the image. Maelbeke I44I Madonna 11 x 7 in (278 x 180 m m ) JAN V A N EYCK . bands around the columns. With a stylus such as Van Eyck used here. Short and subtle horizontal punctuations are only given in the background by sections of floor. the vaulted stone roof echoes and crowns the moment. The quiet stillness of this image is achieved by a masterly economy of stylized line.

each delivering a different part and color of the design. This complex numerous blocks prepared image and may have been made with printed separately. one over the other. the angle of the head. and teacher Distinctive linear illustrations for the works of Homer. Aeschylus earned Flaxman an international reputation. he also co-edited and expanded the Ukiyo-e Ruiko (History of Prints of the Floating World). which are sometimes also cut into pieces like a jigsaw puzzle. Dante. the cloak sliding to the ground. Position In this pen and ink drawing. Respected for his sumptuous images of geisha and editions of erotic prints.157 KEISAI EISEN Japanese draftsman. stone wall of downward-stroked this sleeper's position is momentary. and the feet notched against the pillar tell us that A lines holds him into the cleft. draftsman. Remaining raised areas of wood are rolled with colored inks. and Man Lying Down in a Cloak I 787-94 21/4 JOHN FLAXMAN x 41/8 in (57 x 105 mm) . an 18th-19th century document on the lives of the ukiyo-e artists. Parts of the image to be left unprinted are gouged out with a metal tool. writer and printmaker Keisai Eisen took his name from the masters Kano Hakkeisai and Kikugawa Eizan. The inked block is laid face-down on damp paper and pressed to make the print. Koimurasaki of Tama-ya 1810-50 15 x101/4in (381 x 260 mm) KEISAI EISEN The Courtesan JOHN F L A X M A N English late 18th-century neoclassical sculptor. designer. CLOTH AND DRAPERY Relief printing This is a woodblock print made by a relief process. flat sheets of wood. Images are drawn onto smooth.

and even formal portraiture. The metal. t h r o u g h n u m e r o u s p o r t r a i t and C h u r c h commissions. It is presumed Her Royal Highness never saw it. Leg sections in both support the figure without taking our attention away from the main garment above. Leg section Compare mid-shin the section of white boots cropped to the section of similarly cropped trousers in drawings Gruau's drawing on p. he c o o l e d and redefined his style. A flamboyant territory. Flowing scarf The knight's scarf of gilded blue is drawn in a pale wash over red ink lines. Man in Armor UNDATED 1 6 x 9 1 / 2 in ( 4 0 5 x 2 4 0 m m ) A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE . theater. b e f o r e traveling t o Italy. cartoon. In 1 6 3 2 he m o v e d p e r m a n e n t l y t o L o n d o n . a n d w a s e m p l o y e d as c o u r t painter t o King Charles I. Pen and wash In the graphic accuracy of this armored knight we see the idealized identity of a warrior from another time: a gleaming defender of the realm. Details and voices are worn externally with great imagination. The slight uncertainty of the pose and the limp cloak suggest a little more metal than man. w h e r e . 160. cinema. Anthony Van Dyke's Man in Armor is a masterpiece of drawn surface. A N T H O N Y V A N DYKE Flemish painter and draftsman. lace. a scurrilous cartoon by a courtier of Queen Elizabeth I. where sometimes there just might not be anybody inside. and feather were all CHARACTER COSTUMES REPRESENT observed with closely crafted conviction. Van D y k e was chief assistant t o Rubens f o r t w o years. Opposite is a dangerous drawing. Fine examples can be plucked from fashion. A s a y o u n g man. Its color is also reflected in the metal. all ruffs and wrinkles. He has been rendered on this olive<olored page with pen and gray wash worked over a red and black under-drawing. for she would not have been amused and William Wodall might have been stretching his luck. cloth. Its warm surface flows in contrast to the stiff metal armor. The aged queen is compared to an overdressed bird.158 COSTUME Character Costumes an extreme form of the clothed figure.

Satire of the Queen's Dress c. here dark tawny owl. t h e Rising. suggest the use of iron-gall ink (see p. t h e Ridolfi Plot. Top-heavy. Beneath the lethal fan is the body of a bird of trimmed feathers suggest age. the queen is masterfully rebalanced by words at her feet The whole drawing's blackened.159 WILLIAM W O D A L L A u t h o r and illustrator o f The Aaes of Queene a Elizabeth poem Allegorized. while a raised foot pauses to assess the next displaying a fan of daggers.1599 71/2 WILLIAM x 51/4 in ( 1 9 0 x 1 3 4 mm) WODALL . she is shown as a grossly disproportioned bird. hooded with an overinflated fluffy ruff eye pins us. it was customary to Iron-gall ink Wodall's dangerous caricature steps daintily the written lines of her dedicated page. A Ruffs and feathers Starched white ruffs worn at court and by society grew steadily larger as Elizabeth's reign progressed. Northern Satire This is a quill-and-ink satire of the elderly queen's pride-As head of state and fashion. and her pride. t h e Jesuit Mission. By her old upto three tiers supported on sticks. t h e B a b i n g t o n Plot. and saturations showing through from the other side. manuscript comprising six c a n t o s . T h e poem recounts t h e six m a j o r crises o f Elizabeth's reign: t h e Spanish A r m a d a . bitten nature.35).

5 8 . RENE GRUAU I t a l i a n . muscular aggression. and gray pigments were applied separately. Fine lines drawn against the building behind her echo the threads on which we have all seen arachnids drop and hang.F r e n c h f a s h i o n i l l u s t r a t o r w h o in his l o n g and esteemed career w o r k e d with many of the g r e a t e s t d e s i g n e r s o f 2 0 t h . 158.c e n t u r y haute i n n u m e r o u s m a g a z i n e s i n c l u d i n g Elle. Gruau's model regally swans to the fore with cool pride. Fashion and fantasy drawings invent prototypes of ideals and perfection—be they for the catwalk or the fast-paced pages of comic books. His model is outlined. India ink and gouache This swish of confidence and style our enters the page turning everyone's head. elegant chic and svelte. Airbrushed reflective surfaces further amplify our perception of speed. Harpers & Queen. diving to catch us in the grip of her machine-like limbs.160 COSTUME Femmes Fatales THESE DEVASTATING femmes fatales force back the onlooker with their demure. possibly over a pencil outline. The black red. Compare the compositio beneathVanDyke'sstudy of armor on p.5 9 ) and a three-spoke balance of cuffs and cropped trousers to create an almost flag-like emblem of power. and both share the power of scarlet and black. Spider-Girl leaps like an insect. Vogue. She has been drawn with brushes dipped into India ink and gouache. demanding attention with gesture and flair.and tilted to the same de a little deeper than sp kneestogivehergravity. studio-like rectangle of paper. Rene Gruau's bold gouache drawing of smoothly swaying sophistication captures a brilliantly cut garment and frames it with great dynamism in a white. Gruau uses starkly cut negative space (see pp. G r u a u ' s highly distinctive d r a w i n g s have a p p e a r e d Couture. ofcroppedtrousershere to the device of the w Illustration 1949 for Jacques Fath in L ' O f f i c i e l d e la C o u t u r e RENE GRUAU . Composition Look how well this image is frame knee is parallel to the bottom edge spacehorizontalline cropping the trousers be outermostuprightbordersof her cuffs are similar above her head thesidesoftheimage. a n d L'Officiel de la couture. Drying time in between applications ensured the colors did not run into each other. as is Spider-Girl opposite.

In your mind's eye extend the uprights out of the top of the picture. beginning with Star Wars. not far above the drawing. sky. and Amazing Spider-Man. moon. at Their extensions will meet the same single vanishing (see point pp. Single-point understand perspective To how Frenz created up therefore the effect of steeply between looking buildings—and howyou can do the same in your own work—take calculate where a ruler the and single vanishing point lies. Airbrushed color and with tonal focus. It is outside the picture frame. The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones. He began work on Spider-Girl in 1998. Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 2001-04 R O N FRENZ.74-77).RON F R E N Z Contemporary American graphic artist w h o designs and pencils the dynamic scenes of numerous superheroes featured in Marvel Comics. This s modeling applied over the top give the image a sleek and mechanical of gravity. MARVEL C O M I C S . Buildings. and figure are all locked into equally shatp through the traditional process of a pencilled outline over-drawn ink. Frenz has drawn for Marvel for about 20 years. to the right of its center. Sharp focus black outlines in this drawing create a hyper-real dynamic. Align your ruler to the upright of each building. and has been the title's regular artist since 2003. a great characteristic superhero comics.

insects. hue. fixing each layer on the front. used to make colors. paper-wrapped. and cost are laid out for our pleasure and perusal. and subtlety. FELT-TIP PENS: Instant-drying alcoholor water-based inks stored in the barrels of the pens are delivered via smooth nylon o r felt tips of varying shapes and thicknesses. Seemingly infinite choices of texture. 4. Pastel pencils are slender and in w o o d casing. size. the diverse are made in brands of basic member of the family. Many products are sold individually and in boxed sets. 2. you may be pleasantly surprised to discover something you could not have imagined using. Be aware that fixative dulls pastel. except the final layer. and can be softened and manipulated with degrees of heat. which he left unfixed to retain its brightness. and CHALK PASTELS Pastel pencils make fine lines (as above). purchase a small selection of different items you think you will like. They vary hugely in cost. animals. 3. I suggest you do so. mixed on the paper and scratched into (as below). The higher the quality (and cost). OIL PASTELS: Many colors. Beware—some are toxic. Children's wax crayons are relatives. Before making substantial investments. COLORED PENCILS: Dry pigments ground together with chalk. these work best when slightly warm. Bright pastels are more brilliant on colored paper. and synthetics. intensity. Many artists apply fixative to the back of their work. crumbly. and sold in many colors. The nontoxic range below represents a suggested starting point for experiment. minerals.162 COSTUME Colored Materials ART STORES BRIM OVER w i t h t h e m a n y wherever permitted. Often. Dissolve in turpentine or mineral spirits to produce oil paint or or dark paper. oily pigment. 1. Use them to draw lightly (as above left) or thickly. the finer and more subtle the texture and color should be. quality and cost T h e best are paperwrapped sticks of sumptuous. shape. Sticks and conte crayons make thicker marks (as below). Try materials that are new and unfamiliar. are derived from many sources: rocks. allowing it to fix slightly from behind. made in about 80 colors. and can be a great rediscovery for bold drawings. Degas built his pastels in layers. clay. They work well on PIGMENTS Pigments. quality. including iridescents. though lines can develop greasy stains around the edges if the paper is not first stretched and treated with a gelatin paste laid as a wash. plants. colored materials available. slightly oily to the touch. Pastels are finer. unwrapped harder pastels. Store loose pastels in dry rice to keep them clean. great for tin . The worst are like revolting old lipsticks that get everywhere except where you intend. there are disparities between the apparent nature or color of what you hold in your hand and its performance on paper. OIL PASTELS Oil-based. soft. Most stores leave small pads of paper on their counters for customers to test materials. wash. chalkbased but very subtle. C o n t e crayons are square-formed. CHALK PASTELS: Blackboard chalk is sidewalk work. or wax and a binder are shaped into fine strips and encased in w o o d like a graphite pencil. See h o w they work and return later for more of what proved best for you.

Colors can be blended as shown right) and tones graded by altering pressure. Some are nonsoluble. others dissolve in water or turpentine to make a wash. Some give richer lines than others.163 COLORED PENCILS These are wax. so it is best to test them before buying. 111).or clay-based thin crayons in wood casing. Fine lines can be achieved (as above). it is still a great champion and support for those beginners feeling shyly obligated to tone down their love of color to conform with what others say they should use. . leaving the paper to shine through for highlights (as below). Brands made for designers sold in enormous ranges of colors are far more subtle and sophisticated than those made for children. FELT-TIP PENS Although not made with felt-tip pen. Think of Matisse's Blue Nude (see p. Diverse brands are harder or soften greasier or chalkier in use. If you love smooth blocks and lines of colon felt-tip pens are perfect.

I m a d e n u m e r o u s s h e e t s o f d r a w i n g s . As artifacts in museums. c o v e r a large sheet o f p a p e r w i t h line drawings o f several shoes. This class takes the shoe as its subject in building on earlier lessons concerned with seeing through objects to understand their function. Turn t h e m in different d i r e c t i o n s and o b s e r v e t h e i r s t r u c t u r e and f o r m . style. values. and volume in space (see pp. personality.164 COSTUME Study and Design they reflect our age. Linear Outline Using fine pens. and how we stand and walk. you will need several large sheets of drawing paper. t h e n again as if transparent. will discover m o r e . while artists have painted their boots or those of others as personal portraits and memorials. and a selection of shoes. a n d e x p e r i e n c e visible p r o g r e s s . a range of colored felt-tip pens with both fine and broad tips. . and after studying familiar shoes we use the information learned to invent new ones. Superstitions and fetishes are attached to them: we are told never to put new shoes on a table. 100-01 and pp. and they have been concealed in buildings to ward off misfortune. S H O E S TELL LIFE STORIES. D r a w each o n e first as a solid object. social and economic status. You. they record and reflect our common history. Here we go one step further. if y o u m a k e p l e n t y o f d r a w i n g s as o p p o s e d t o o n l y a f e w . the era in which we live. To set up. t o o . imagining y o u can see t h r o u g h it. e n j o y i n g t h e study a n d i n v e n t i o n o f shoes. structure. REPEATED STUDY T o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s class. 104-07).

165

The Surface
Next,

STUDY AND DESIGN

study the surface contours using fineand broad-tipped felt-tip pens. For best results, it is important to be bold and brief. Draw firmly, fast, and with as few strokes as possible. Build up each shoe from light to dark andleavesome paper showing through to create highlights.

Design Your Own

Using what you have learned from the previous steps about the structures of your shoes, and about the use of pens, invent new designs from your imagination. Start with fine outlines and progress to colored and textured surfaces. Modify your ideas by rotating the views.

166

COSTUME

The Structure of Costume
MUSEUMS ARE AN INFINITELY

rich resource for the artist and

information given by a period style. Arrange to visit a costume museum or ask a friend to model clothes for you at home. Using fine felt-tip pens, begin with quick, pale impressions of each garment's shape before homing in on its borders and seams. Try to draw transparent views wherever possible to record the relationships between all component parts. Aim to draw enough information for it to be possible to make up a version of the garment using paper pinned to a tailor's dummy.

designer. They often give quite unexpected gems of ideas and information—whatever the subject. These drawings, made in a costume museum, demonstrate ways of recording structural information and detail for later use in the studio. They could form the basis of new designs for a fashion project or theater production, for example. Drawings of shoes on pp. 164-65 show how new designs can be evolved from the structural

OBSERVATION
It is usually best when collecting information for reference to apply the restraint of dispassionate observation. Set yourself the test of drawing facts with as little artistic license or embellishment as possible. Here I chose fine felt-tip pens because they are at their best when used swiftly, and therefore encourage bold, unhesitant decisions.

Swift lines record the hanging weight of this gentleman's coat, the relative proportions of its layers, and minimal details of the buttons and cuffs.

Thick velvet fabric is pulled tight beneath and across the bust by a single button. This transparent view shows how the fabric falls loosely in straight panels beneath the level of the sleeve.

167

LIGHTING
W h e n visiting museums, be prepared f o r l o w lighting, which can make it hard t o see and draw. A book can help if attached t o your drawing board.

Adding stripes and dashes of color with a thicker pen brings out the glossy sheen and sculptural rigidity of this dress, which would have been worn over a whalebone corset. small reading light designed t o clip o n t o a

THE STRUCTURE OF COSTUME

In small drawings such as these, use thick pens to color entire sections with a few marks, as I did here down the side of the bodice.

The light, frilly bulk of this crinoline dress is propelled forward with lines. pinching its gathers and sways that are hiding a horsehair bustle. fleets of quick

168

COSTUME

Textures and.Patterns
THIS CLASS FOCUSES ON how to draw textures through the collection of fabric, pattern, and embroidery samples from a costume m u s e u m . This formal method, using ruled squares, can create an invaluable library of ideas a n d i n f o r m a t i o n for future r e f e r e n c e — w h e n painting a clothed figure, or preparing a textile project, for example. However, if making a book of samples for a project, remember that it is important to also include collages of f o u n d materials (see pp.230-31) To d r a w a fabric texture, b e g i n by concentrating o n h o w y o u i m a g i n e it w o u l d feel if you t o u c h e d it. Decide if it w o u l d be rough, s m o o t h , w a r m , cold, thick, thin, tough, or fragile, for example. As you draw, believe you can feel these qualities at your fingertips a n d that your pencil is responding to the sensation. Undulate the pressure of your lines and marks according to the feeling of the fabric rather than its appearance. Let your pencil enact the sensation of touching its surface.

and to experiment more loosely with mixed media.

INVENTING COSTUMES
This starchy, quilted, b o w e d creation started life as an imagined corset, I intended t o d r a w together in one sculptural f o r m a range o f t h e details opposite. T h e garment quickly got o u t o f hand. T h e r e is great e n j o y m e n t in letting y o u r imagination run wild w h e n inventing costumes. If you are unable t o visit a costume museum, many exciting fabric details and textures can be found in y o u r o w n closet o r home.

169

COLORED PENCILS
Colored pencils give precision and tonal range; they can be faded but not erased. Lightly use an HB graphite pencil if you wish to plan a design first. Pressed hard, colored pencils build up a waxy finish of brilliant color. Used lightly, they appear powdery and show the texture of the paper.

TEXTURES AND PATTERNS
Wool

Silk and braid

Ribbon

Embroidered leather

Feathers

Pearls

Knit

Tassels

Outline stitch

.

selected from different pages of my original book. identity. and motivation of an individual. and 252-53).126-27. . I made a drawing book full of studies seeking to understand how he composed drama and pathos in his narratives (see also pp. shape.Dressing Character I O N C E SPENT THREE MONTHS researching the work of Francisco de Goya at the Prado Museum. look at how Goya delineated volumes of thick fabric to express the posture. These characters. Madrid. 172-73.

and visible. are copies of works by Goya in which he makes air seem heavier than flesh. and tangible.170—71). I carefully copied the direction of each of his lines. Posture Carving also taken from my Madrid drawing book (see pp. . To understand how he did this. as it rushes and carves fabric-wrapped forms like rivers and desert winds shaping the earth.T H E S E PENCIL STUDIES.

.

.

. the viewer. types. We can also use clothes. With a pocket full of disposable pens we also go out and draw the expressions of gathered people. the speed and printmaker and one of the greatest and most influential density of its lines. Storytelling and people-watching are obsessive human activities. a crowd tells the story from a distance. we can R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN Dutch painter draftsman.Gatherings A LL DRAWINGS TELL STORIES. this is not the portrait of an old woman. and other masters of Western Art. and its illumination. We can direct close. stares out from her gloomy sickbed. Third. Second. soap operas. First. Later in their lives. finding corners in crowded places to inscribe their action and energy onto the page. too. the direct exchange (as shown here) where one or more characters hold eye Aneedproduced the thicker lines of the nurse. there are no longer individuals but one significant group or mass action. Drawings selected for this chapter explore these Saskia Lying in Bedand a Nurse ranges of proximity 1638 9 x61/2in (227 x 164 mm) and a travel journal. Rembrandt's bored and frustrated wife. He in turn scorches the paper with his view and a certain speed of seeing all. television documentaries. we. and instantly engage with the action of the scene. the viewer's attention in a scene by the format of its composition. As artists. but drawings of gathered people tell them most directly. and novels—our staple cultural diet—are driven by a fascination with shared experience and the detail of what happens in other people's lives. paintings depicting scenes from history. He is also the artist from whom props to add layers of meaning and attitude. Saskia died after childbirth. and therefore seem to see. presumably while he is making this drawing. Here. in spite of how it may seem. comics. the viewer is not directly made the finer lines of Saskia. This J u s t as there are three parts to a traditional landscape drawing—the foreground. heighten or subdue drama with subtleties of exaggeration or caricature. vivid portrait of his wife captures our attention. Washes of shadow behind engaged and as a natural voyeur can feel invisible while watching the scene. We read tensions and exchanges between people. even up her were laid with a brush. we can learn most about handling pen and ink. while a quill contact with. Her all-too-clear expression shows annoyance and irritation with her husband. and distance—so drawings of gathered people can be loosely arranged in three took only minutes to make and yet it lives for centuries. are implicated in this marital exchange made over the head of the anonymous nurse. Saskia. R E M B R A N D T V A N RIJN in the delivery of narrative. The spaces between people and the positions they occupy on a page are vital to our understanding of the psychology or emotion of an event. daily newspapers. Seeing through Rembrandt's eyes. Blockbuster movies. It middle. furniture. and so.

narrative is delivered through the air. T h e i m m a c u l a t e d r a w i n g is only r e v e a l e d w h e n t h e b e a m of a p r o j e c t o r c a s t s t h e s h a d o w Projections of the h e a p o n t o a wall. In one of R a c k h a m s great illustrations for Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland. In both works.kicks against the mundane things that close down your mind is a refreshing and good thing. a kitchen explodes in o u r faces. and Alice. and on. hearth i m p l e m e n t s crash at o u r feet.176 GATHERINGS SOME DRAWINGS ARE MADE e n t i r e l y o f i l l u m i n a t i o n that floods drama into the viewers gaze. TIM N O B L E A N D SUE W E B S T E R British artists who collaborate using neon. refuse. via the animated clutter of o u r material lives. for example. Real Life is Rubbish 2002 Dimensions variable TIM N O B L E A N D SUE WEBSTER . Think about what else you could use: a laser smoke. Here. the C o o k . F o r e a c h w o r k ."Anything that. N o b l e a n d W e b s t e r s w i t t y a n d o f t e n s u b v e r s i v e d r a w i n g s are also c o n t e m p o r a r y art installations. and projectors to create their anarchic punk satires of modern life. and projector. h a l o e d portrait of the artists seated b a c k to b a c k . Pencil on paper important but only the beginning of possibility the combination of three-dimensional space. and in. c o m p o s e d garbage p r o d u c e s a c a l m . and smoke billows around the agitated jives of the Duchess. junk.. Pans fly oft the stove. the Cat. garbage and chaos are piled a n d e x p l o d e d in r o o m s full of event." (Tim Noble) Drawing with light it is important to think about what you is Here timelessly we see a in can draw with. Below. t h e y select and arrange familiar items of street detritus into what appears to be an u n p l e a s a n t pile. plates shatter. or even the office photocopier..

177 ARTHUR RACKHAM British watercolorist and book illustrator.76-77) above vanishing point (see that is about3/4in (2 cm) oak converge at this point. are very large compared to on p. This makes the story appear to leap out at us. by vivid children's Rakham's w o r k is characterized fantasy. tabletop. Rackham Vanishing point In this marvelous drama made with pen. See how the In the Duchess's Kitchen 1907 77/8 x 6 in ( 2 0 0 x 1 5 0 m m ) ARTHUR RACKHAM . and Poe's Tales Imagination. humor. Find the singleperspective pp. and Alice's shoulder. Depth Billows of smoke expand and are lighter as they come forward. Refer back to the drawing class how pots In drawn objects and elements that those behind.Stowe's ofMysteryand Queer Little Folks. The wood grain acts like marks of speed behind the scene. beams. 100 to see for make elliptical objects and pans fly through the the foreground. amplifying movement outward from the vanishing point. we find several devices already explored through our drawing classes. a n d an unmistakable graphic style. ink. and watercolor. H e is best k n o w n forillustratingIrving's Rip vanWinkle.

perhaps these two are the most extreme. as if Moore's wrapping has been literally outstretched.The human form w a s the vehicle o f his expression and h e w a s t h e official W o r l d W a r II artist. M o o r e t o u r e d Italy as a young man. and composition they are polar opposites. The mournful gray landscape of Henry Moore's northern British field has gathered by night an overcoated audience to stand and wait before a wrapped and roped monument. as fellow watchers. and action of a buffalo hunt. In culture. Moore's spectators appear to have walked a long way from nowhere to witness and wait beside this mysterious obelisque. London. HENRY MOORE Crowd 1942 Looking at Tied-up Object .178 GATHERINGS we have seen in the pairs and trios of drawings by masters and makers. and we. a sculptor. This is an ironic drawing from Moore. heat. and art in the landscape. meaning. expressing his dry humor about O F ALL THE CONTRASTS HENRY MOORE British s c u l p t o r w h o t r a i n e d a n d taught at t h e R C A . audiences. a n d l o v e d t o d r a w in t h e BritishMuseum. a great Shoshone drawing blazes with the color. Magnetic Fields sculpture. A glimmer of gold light appears from the left No explanation is given. which still narrates vivid days in the lives of an energetic nation. Opposite. The image stands out among his more usual graphic works in which he hones and carves semi-abstract human forms. join in the waiting. This is just one of many precious artifacts from a lost time. Chalk and graphite This fog-bound but humorous gathering of souls is made in graphite and colored chalk with gray wash.

MAGNETIC FIELDS Horses It is interesting to note how the outstretched limbs ofthesehorses echo European images of the runningBuffalo horse before the sequence-photographer Muybridge taught us to 19TH understand their movement differently. creating harmonious balance with words but through silent demonstration. Stylized hunters. Hunt CENTURY SHOSHONE SCHOOL . horses.179 SHOSHONE SCHOOL Stylized characters This vital image of a buffalo hunt is made with pigment Members of the Shoshone community wishing painted within dark outlines on a stretched elk hide. tolearnhow to paint a scene on a hide are and buffalo circle and charge the perimeters of a skin "field. Skills are taught not center chant or dance to the beat of a drum. Each color is evenly distributed throughout the scene. and helping our eye to dart around." Men at the instructed to sit and watch.

We also see qualities of line. B l a k e h a s i l l u m i n a t e d his s a d d e n e d Virgil on the s h o r e s of a d a r k w o r l d . w e f i n d a spiritual v i s i o n . w h i c h b y their c h o i c e a n d h a n d l i n g a c t u a l l y b e c o m e the force a n d spirit of e a c h i m a g e . The muscularity of Blake's figures was inspired by Michelangelo's works. a n d the gentle h u m o r of sedate r i d i c u l e . The Circle of the (The Whirlwind 1824 of Lustful Lovers) mm) 143/4 x 207/8i n ( 3 7 4 x 5 3 0 WILLIAM BLAKE . Misted in translucent layers of paint. p o e t . It illustrates a scene from Dante's Divine Comedy.180 GATHERINGS The Human Condition IN THE SPECTRUM of these vastly d i f f e r e n t g a t h e r i n g s of p e o p l e . color. a pink-inked cinema wobbles along with string. texture. w r i t e r a r t i s t .f o o t e d t r o g l o d y t e s w h o rage into w a r like a m u d s l i d e of revenge. era as Kollwitz. pale souls of the lustful are being s p u n into yet another realm of hell. a n d o t h e r w o r k s . Brushed line and wash This is an ink-outlined drawing made with a fine brush on paper with added washes of watercolor The image was subsequently redrawn as a line engraving. a n d e n g r a v e r w h o p o w e r f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e d his o w n t e x t s in a d d i t i o n t o D a n t e ' s Divine Comedy. a n d f o c u s . w h e r e he w a t c h e s a t u r b u l e n t s p i r a l of p u n i s h m e n t f o r the d a m n e d . t h e Bible. Blake w a s d r i v e n b y a passion f o r j u s t i c e a n d a p r o f o u n d b e l i e f in his v i s i t a t i o n s f r o m angels. K a t h e K o l l w i t z s c r a t c h e d a n d e n g r a v e d her a r m y of c l a y . m a r k . inextinguishable in its fortitude and h u m o r . W I L L I A M BLAKE British visionary. Heath Robinson lived through the same war-torn. a d e a t h c h a r g e of brutality. and sweetened the often bleak years with his impractical inventions. Opposite.

Heath Robinson shows England in a past era. THE HUMAN CONDITION Scratched lines This is a dry-point etching with monoprint. and controlled smears on the metal surface printed as tones. The image was scratched directly onto a metal plate. plodding along with hazy. Robinson and Kollwitz (above) share almost identical life dates and their work expresses a shared history from opposite sides oftheworld wars. Kollwitz survived the two World Wars. humor by making his characters earnest. What remained in scratched grooves printed on damp paper as lines. HEATH ROBINSON The Kinecar 1926 103/8 x 15 in (262 x 380 mm) . and the family home. poverty. however meager or ridiculous their activity. Losbruch (The Outbreak) 1955 20 x 233/8 in (507 x 592 mm) KATHE KOLLWITZ HEATH ROBINSON humorous illustrator and a regular contributor to magazines and journals such as The Sketch and The Bystander. who lived in a poor district of Berlin. and her powerful and sensitive drawings center on nurture. and the impact of death and war upon women.181 KATHE KOLLWITZ German printmaker. sculptor and draftsman. Ink rolled over was selectively polished off using a rag. He created sincere. British Pen and wash This is a pen-andwatercolor drawing made for a color-platereproduction in an edition of T h e Bystander. and clearly focused. stoical bemusement. With masterful gentility. children. White marks were made with a dusting of French chalk on the artist's finger to wipe away ink leaving clean metal.

Quick-drying. a n d pressure-sensitive. dark sheen. Unlike pencils. 7 6 ." 1. rollerballs. fine fiber-tip Drawing with a fine fiber-tip pen.182 GATHERINGS Disposable Pens (ballpoints. . I swiftly focused on gesture. R e m e m b e r . t w o tourists and their gondolier drifter past m e o n a canal. aiming for correct outlines would result in drawing too slowly to c a t c h the moment. a n d ranges o f colors. which can snap or pierce through your clothes. they can be obtained within minutes. t h e y a r e lightfast. gel pens) are the most convenient of all materials with which to travel. Lines t h i c k e n as t h e p e n w e a r s o u t G r a n d Canal (see pp. they each offer distinct and sometimes unexpected qualities. fibertips. in the studio. p e r m a n e n t . W h i t e gel p e n s a r e v e r y e f f e c t i v e o n d a r k papers. blob when old. including l u m i n o u s a n d m e t a l l i c . T h e r e w e r e c seconds t o snatch this impression b e t w e e n their emergence from one bridge and disappearance b e n e a t h t h e next. indent paper. 4. turn the page. or put the paper in your pocket instantly without fear of smudging. these pens enable you to sketch. is d e l i v e r e d t h r o u g h a m e t a l t u b e o v e r a t i n y ball bearing. in the car. For example. At a time like this.188-89) and Caravans (see pp. or turn into washes and make monoprints if flooded with an alcohol-based substance such as hairspray. So many stores sell them.7 7 and 214-15). dropped in your pocket and forgotten till needed. Insensitive t o p r e s s u r e : lines d o n o t v a r y in w i d t h o r t o n e . The f o u r i l l u s t r a t e d h e r e r e p r e s e n t a basic r a n g e .r e s i s t a n t . and in most pockets so I can always record a thought DISPOSABLE PENS QUICK NOTES O n a c o l d day in Venice. shut your book. trusting shape and form to follow. if y o u w i s h y o u r d r a w i n g s t o last a n d n o t fade o r b l u r w i t h t i m e a n d e x p o s u r e t o light. jot notes. Ideal f o r precision w o r k (see p p . Available in blacks and ranges of colors. I keep quantities at home. FIBER-TIP: M a n u f a c t u r e d f o r artists a n d d e s i g n e r s in a r a n g e o f w i d t h s . a disposable pen with its clip-on cap goes anywhere. c h o o s e p e n s l a b e l e d " p e r m a n e n t " o r "lightfast. build to a rich. a ballpoint will make faint lines. or idea. 2. CHOICES AVAILABLE T h e r e a r e m a n y d i s p o s a b l e p e n s t o c h o o s e from. R O L L E R B A L L : A c o n s t a n t i n k flow 3 . w a t e r . B A L L P O I N T : Black a n d b o l d c o l o r s o f f e r d i v e r s e qualities. 192-93) w e r e b o t h m a d e w i t h a ballpoint. G E L P E N : P r o d u c e d in b l a c k w h i t e .

Fast lines focus on action. Earlier I had witnessed a crammed en masse in a fleet of hired gondolas complete with musicians and choir. crowd of fellow travelers Fast lines These scribbled lines model the mass and shadows of heads belonging passengers packed into the boat.31 .FROMMEMORY Here I used the same fiber-tip pen to compose a scene from memory. not form. Compare this Klee's mules on p.

angles will happen as a matter of course. make them stouter. You must learn to trust your memory and to draw what impressed you most. activity. black. No camera can tie you to a time or people in the same way. Push toward caricature and this will draw out of your memory what was most important. Exaggeration helps. A curatorial assistant flies to do a chore (right). all action is in the line of his coat and directed by his nose. Movement . However. Every drawing writes an indelible memory of place. You will make outlines. Don't worry about measuring angles. if animated. Above all. Each line acts its part in the narrative. and companionship. if a person was stout.184 GATHERINGS The Travel Journal I CANNOT OVERSTATE THE JOY of making a travel journal. focus on the action of the event. of course. when out drawing. just draw the action. FLEETING MOMENTS Walking through Venice with a small. not its outline. life will not slow and wait for you to catch it. I caught fleeting glimpses of gathered people and solitary souls going about their affairs. let it enter the stage and perform. pocket notebook and a fiber-tip pen. but they should not be what you dwell on. animate them more. Circular lines buzz around a man puzzling at the end of a train platform (left). Each one was witnessed and drawn immediately from the afterimage of what I had just seen. Let the line of the flying coat fly and the hanging arm hang.

The rush of his legs isamplifiedby their blurred lines.185 A large lady is photographed in front of a delicate work of art. Expression . Observation THE TRAVEL JOURNAL The same willowy assistant dashes about his work. I drew him three times on the same page to catch a range of his physical expressions. In turn. eager to herd us all from his house of responsibility. I am watched by the aggravated guard.

and clothing or bags hang. and reason for happening. ACTION AND DETAIL W h e n drawing people. Here I have recreated my drawing in steps to show you how to set about capturing such a scene. pulls. or bulge. and let every detail speak by its size. rather than the works of art they guarded. placement. Place the person carefully. Identify the principal character and draw him or her first. decide how faces and bodies contort. emotion. not outline. or pushes.186 GATHERINGS Catching the Moment On A BITTERLY COLD November day. if they are being haughty. and involvement in the story. He and his simpering assistant would not allow me in. For example. When your attention has been caught. focus on action. if they are being devious. and there met this sullen custodian. flap. Be aware that their placement on the page is part of the narrative. forcing me to remain at the back and look at them. Here the custodian projects fastidious ownership of his desk and pamphlets by pushing from behind the center of the space and challenging our entry to his image. you might place them lower down. For example. . I took refuge in a church in Venice. start by focusing on its action. elevate them in the pictorial space. and you decide to draw the moment. furniture leans.

W i t h a few strokes. D r a w their action. . CATCHING THE MOMENT The assistant Identify t h e antagonist ( o r second character) in t h e scene. a pillar locates t h e scene in a depth o f space.187 The custodian Identify your principal character a n d their psychological role in the scene. I added t h e assistant. Here. together with any immediate props they are using. In the final step (left) I reinforced t h e custodian's desk. Decide where you will place them o n the paper t o emphasize their action and intent. who is largely expressed through the shape and fall o f his raincoat and his way o f using a note pad. If drawing a more complex scene. continue adding characters. Draw their action and props. which is pushed toward us in a gesture of confrontation. such as the desk and pamphlets seen here. Decide where t o place them t o emphasize their role.

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and buildings. I developed detailofthis drawing from memory using a ballpoint pen. . An imminent deluge of tourists urged me to work catching no more than the skeleton of the view.Grand Canal T H E CANALS OF VENICE are bustling places full of occupation. where vertical mooring poles give space and pulse to the horizontal speed of water quickly.

Characters in the foreground were drawn first. note only their most essential action and feature. Caricature each person slightly. then the bridge beneath them. To catch characters like this. followed by the streets. Each person was glimpsed in an instant. and drawn immediately from memory. Venetians flow across a stepped bridge and cascade into the streets beyond. .Crossings DURING THIS RUSH HOUR.

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I used a ballpoint pen to compose a series of scenes. and a great subject to draw.Caravans T H E PARAPHERNALIA O F TRAVEL i s an intriguing part of circus life. Caravans and other backstage activity convey expectations of energy and repose. Sitting at a distance on a hot. I found this circus by chance in the Swiss mountains. quiet afternoon. .

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The pastel drawing was constructed from myriad telescopic observations almost 200 years before the Apollo Moon landing. as opposed the physicality of Earth. It is Earths satellite. arranging them in perfect circles on the mountainside or in lines drifting out of sight beneath low clouds. the sun comes out to blind it. Oxford. What they have drawn is the force of nature on these properties: how the wind heaves the night ocean. trees. surrounded by the bright instruments of centuries of navigation. It is better to get up before dawn. Russell d r e w this. Take chances against the rain and work with the wind or fog. Just as NASA photographs of Earth have had a profound effect on the way we view our fragile home. and even how the Sun illuminates. There is a sense of the heroic in drawing outside—we race to catch a form before the tide engulfs it. our companion. they are the animators of your subject. a contemporary environmental artist. but it can be seen as a lens to our observation of this planet. makes his work by the act of walking. or the wind carries it away. marking the ground with lines of footprints or by turning stones. The forces of nature. the face of the Moon. to be ready to draw the new light as it breaks across the land. By drawing such momentous and everyday events. t h e first-ever accurate image o f t h e M o o n ' s surface.Earth and the Elements I T MAY SEEM PERVERSE to start a chapter titled "Earth and the Elements" with an image of the Moon. how the mountain cut by ice and rain is now fleetingly lit. and its draws the tides of the seas. Look closely at works by many artists and you will see that they have not represented hills. JOHN RUSSELL A p o r t r a i t pastelist t o King G e o r g e III o f England. and meteor impacts have scarred. or has cracked and fallen under the weight of water. are the real subjects in great landscape drawings. learning to draw light out of dark. pages o f softly i l l u m i n a t e d craters and lunar "seas" c o v e r e d in m a t h e m a t i c a l and s h o r t h a n d calculations. Weather is essential in all landscape drawing. how the soil is scorched. William Turner is said to have had himself lashed to a ship's mast to comprehend the storm (see p. and experiment. These conditions are very difficult to express well. and take bold steps in emulating the swell of clouds and the forces of torrential water. H e a l s o p r o d u c e d an a l b u m o f 1 8 0 exquisite pencil drawings. Richard Long. t w o e n g r a v e d m a p s k n o w n as The Lunar Planispheres. so J o h n Russell's tour de f o r c e drawing (opposite) was a masterpiece of observation in his time. In this chapter Moon Pastel 1795 Drawing we experiment with charcoal. a n d a n astronomer w h o dedicated 20 years t o studying t h e M o o n . sunny days. rivers. Beginners will often choose calm. and the sea. This is the world's first accurate image of the Moon. artists see for themselves that which is momentary and eternal. It now hangs on the staircase of the History of Science Museum. when little stirs and empty blue skies offer even less to latch lines to. a n d a m o o n globe called t h e Selenographia. 5 f t x 5 ft 6 in ( 1 5 2 x 1 6 8 c m ) J O H N RUSSELL . England. 199). speculation.

and gives motion to each image. a sail b r o k e n loose in a stormy marriage. Hazy vertical marks reveal buildings into the mist. T h e great master of English seascape is c o n d u c t i n g with his graphic energy. we can soon learn to draw its force. Crayon and limestone This is a lithograph. Below. This wife. painter.Through political drawings he fired his sharp wit at the king. seeing how it shakes. T h e ship. is already lost. undramatic b u t brimming with stylized realism. and the legal profession. Hokusais sedate wind presses reeds a n d the j o u r n e y s o f young ladies. speed. He knew how the world bends and stutters under such gusts. a scratched ghost.198 EARTH AND THE E L E M E N T S Air in Motion THE GREAT INVISIBLE SUBJECT o f these d r a w i n g s is t h e w i n d . has b e c o m e a hysterical kite. and solidity. serving a prison sentence for his views. and by observing its tides and eddies in our o w n environment. distance. sculptor. Danger of Wearing Balloon Petticoats UNDATED HONORE DAUMIER . A hard waxy was drawn across a heavy limestone Varying definitions crayon of lire and depths of tone conspire to give volume. Dots and dashes suggest receding trees out of focus. the bourgeoisie. Fluid strokes inflate the woman's dress and pin shadows to the ground. Daumier's c a r t o o n shines with the brilliance of his comic memory. like an umbrella forced inside-out. By Turner carries us to the heart of the maelstrom. Flapping kimonos and an onlooker turning his b a c k have the magic of a m o m e n t caught. Terrifying waves of merciless nature roar across the paper. fluttering heavily. the government. H O N O R E DAUMIER French satirical cartoonist lithographer. lifts. and pioneer ofexpressionism.

W . H o k u s a i in t u r n has since significantly influenced European art.M. AIR IN MOTION Pencil and watercolor subdued brushed. seascape. d e s i g n e r a n d b o o k i l l u s t r a t o r . wind. a n d his b e s t . T u r n e r w o r k e d in oils a n d w a t e r c o l o r s a n d s k e t c h e d c o p i o u s l y o n his travels. from left print. leans the whole composition swells around its fateful center. Wind direction wood-block This is a colored To represent the blows lifted flowed wind. T U R N E R British landscape.W. T h e r e a r e m a n y stories o f his p a s s i o n a t e w o r k i n g methods. painter. including being lashed t o a ship's m a s t in o r d e r to study a storm. Landscape a n d city life w e r e his principal subjects.b l o c kprintmaker. 1826 91/2 x 113/4 in ( 2 4 1 x 3 0 0 m m ) J. TURNER KATSUSHIKA HOKUSAI Prolific J a p a n e s e c o l o r w o o d .M. A outline scratched of a skeletal into penciled ship is while and the waves.199 J.i n f l u e n c e d b y examples o f W e s t e r n art obtained through D u t c h t r a d i n g in Nagasaki. and history painter w h o s e p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t a b o v e all w a s light. Hokusai direction (from clothing from has chosen which it the right). Ship in a Storm c. horizontally then and of the it into the stream Plants also bend and flow right to Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 1802 81/2 HOKUSAI KATSUSHIKA x 131/2 in ( 2 1 7 x 3 4 3 mm) . absorbent watercolor and are Stains of splashed. into this very as pressed sheet The paper's through own coior is brought banks of mist and fog.l o v e dw o r k s i n c l u d e 1 0 0 v i e w s o f M o u n t Fuji and 1 2 v o l u m e s o f Manga.

200 ELEMENTS Storms STORMS CAN BE SEEN and drawn in two ways: first. He brings us to stare into a place that no sane human would enter. and t h e sea s t u d i e d f r o m his h o m e in Guernsey in t h e Channel Islands. water. Opposite. EARTH AND THE VICTOR HUGO French novelist and artist (see also p. and swim into the page. leaving nothing but a glimpse of moonlight glistening on the froth below. composing banks of waves and dense. ink. as a subject and second. T h e very nature of b o t h is turmoil and an interweaving of elements. as if drawn j u s t this year. By contrast. grab their b r u s h . active surfaces of water. Pen and brush Hugo drew first with pen and ink.198) admires the majesty of nature. this is a b o m b a r d m e n t from o u r h o m e s . lines of rain escorting them to b o u n c e and clatter. fantasy palaces. An update on biblical showers of fish and frogs. His subjects include ruins.28). It looks so contemporary. Leonardos Cloudburst of Material Possessions is o n e of his m o s t enigmatic and mysterious works. he blanketed the drawing in darkness. marks. this is a writer's narrative of terror. or charcoal. T h e m e n a c i n g darkness of Hugo's storm b e l o w is so convincing. In periods b e t w e e n writing. Turner (see p. Then. drawing was Hugo's principal means o f expression. it is difficult to contemplate its brooding and night-soaked heart. and tossed o b j e c t s — a perfect subject in which artists can forget themselves. D o m e s t i c o b j e c t s we can o w n and name fall from the clouds. as a gestural storm on the paper. h a u n t e d shadows. Le Bateau-Vision 1864 71/2 x 1 0 in ( 1 9 2 x 2 5 5 m m ) VICTOR H U G O . with a brush. inks.

and they passed through private hands for 400 years before becoming widely known. and a wheel.LEONARDO DA VINCI Leonardo devised many artifacts of our modern lives. together with half the contents of our garage. He was left-handed and wrote backwards in Italian from left to right. He bequeathed his drawings to a friend. Each item that has crashed from heaven is drawn in such a way that we can feel Leonardo's nib picking it up in the speed of a doodle. Cloudburst of Material Possessions 1510-12 45/8 x 43/8 in ( 1 1 7 x 1 1 1 mm) L E O N A R D O DA VINCI . Above and below are examples of his mirror handwriting. envisioning machines centuries before their making (helicopters and bicycles. for example). a hook. It is interesting to speculate how engineering might have developed if his ideas had been shared with the world earlier Ink and chalk This is a pen and ink drawing with touches of black chalk. There is a little magic in recognizing many items from our homes something like a rake. a bell.

Clare Bryan took panoramic photographs of the English South Downs. and across to the right. a horizon line can trigger our recognition. thick. transferred it to a scroll. Nature Profiles Opposite below. and famed for. and we can imagine standing over his shoulder. sea-. In a very different work (opposite above). cooler tones receding into the distance are applied with a brush. made inside a book. which he used to unify his compositions. it is the unique calligraphic signature of the place in which we stand. C L A U D E LORRAIN French classical landscape painter draftsman. atmosphere. Claude Lorrain drew directly on location. Claude is distinguished by. Paler.1638 85/8 x 121/2 in (219 x 320 mm) CLAUDE LORRAIN . EARTH AND THE Bryan cut the profile of a city. In the lower half he has walked downhill a little. and dry marks in the foreground appear to be made with his finger. Over first lines. watching his hand and eye at work together. and etcher who lived most of his life in 17th-century Rome. and mood simultaneously. Claude has used a fine nib to delineate segments of land as they recede into space. she teased away fragments of paper to illuminate her view. and after tracing her captured line. Drawing with a scalpel. Segments The top half of the drawing is a view as we enter the valley. rapidly layering contours to shape place. She was inspired by her research of aerial plans of London and the story of an alien map butterfly (see caption).202 ELEMENTS THE PROFILE OF A HORIZON is a line we immediately recognize and respond to. rich. Whether land-. or cityscape. Even distilled from all other detail. Views from Velletri c. his unsurpassed handling of light.

then hunted destroyed." Cut line This is a small section of a preparatory 5-ft(1. 2001 CLARE BRYAN C L A R E BRYAN 3ritish artist. and visiting professor at numerous art schools. On turning the pages of City. source workisilluminatedby standing its lower edge on a CLARE BRYAN .5-m)scroll. and digital print-based works reflect upon the histories and poetry of "left behind and in-between spaces. The edges of each here) fade into the solid paper unpopulated with a scalpel landscape. Her recent paper photographic. printmaker graphic designer. drawings Ideas of introduction Clare Bryan to research introduced down and led NATURE PROFILES and removal historical plans and aerial growth of London showing its population since Roman times. progressively settlement (cropped more and more paper is drawn away to show the expansion of human page of an around the river. specialty bookbinder.The horizon was drawn with a City Landline 2003 271/2x 59 in (70 x 150 cm) scalpel.203 Scalpel-drawn This book-bound drawing was inspired by the story of a foreign butterfly wrongly to Great Britain in 1912.

without touching the surface. so it chars b l a c k as o p p o s e d to igniting a n d turning to ash. or fingertip. a rag. Boxes often contain a range of thicknesses to choose for different needs. harder line. you can p u r c h a s e m a c h i n e . a n d m o r e i n d e l i b l e by soaking it in linseed oil. Hold it over your drawing RANGE AVAILABLE Charcoal (in its several forms shown here) is loved or loathed by the beginner to whom it is often recommended because it produces pleasing results quickly. it is compressed and m o l d e d at high pressure. MEDIUM W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 5. The same as above. Then lift it away. 1 Suspend a length of masking tape. Try itworking on big paper covering a wall. sticky side down. 162) or graphite (see p. but some specialists stock compressed charcoal in delicate square sticks. leaving u n d e r t r a c e s of first thoughts. white line into the blackor grayness of willow charcoal. C h a r c o a l naturally glistens. 3. 1. CHALK CHARCOAL: Technically. this does not exist. feather. In use. Charcoal lifts away from paper easily with the very light touch o f an eraser.m a d e c o m p r e s s e d charcoal. 6. black finish.54). resulting in a pale line. Slightly dull the tape's stickiness before use t o prevent it from lifting out more than you intend. CHARCOAL PENCIL: Types made by different manufacturers vary in quality and density of line. cylindrical. R o u g h paper c a n b e loaded. and offers a rich. fine. SQUARE COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Not often sold. Smooth paper accepts few particles. As its name implies. B u n d l e s o f twigs were traditionally sealed into earthenware j a r s or wet clay and heated slowly and intensely in a fire or kiln. 3 A white line is lifted out by the tape. COMPRESSED CHARCOAL: Machine-made. only a little thicker. THIN WILLOW CHARCOAL: I used a piece like this to make the drawing opposite. It does n o t erase easily. they are all intended for fine work. it looks gray and feels like chalk. Alternatively. It c a n be m a d e duller. It allows you greater precision in your mark-making than if you rub away the charcoal with an eraser. vine. resulting in a stick that gives a blacker. Artists have also used lime. Willow is the most c o m m o n wood. THICK W I L L O W CHARCOAL: 2 Keep the tape above your drawing. blacker. 4. 2. Lines are achieved by d e p o s i t i n g particles in the grain o f paper. the heel o f y o u r h a n d . The tip snaps easily to renew a sharp edge if required. Use any fine-point pen or pencil (I used a ballpoint) to draw a firm line on the back of the Big pieces are perfect for very large-scale drawings—even larger than yourself. LIFTING OUT This technique is a very easy method of drawing a crisp. . between your middle finger and thumb. maple. Not to be confused with square conte sticks (see p. and heavier than willow. tape. A great find when available. Essentially. It is also easily erased if the maker of the mark is not happy with the result. a piece of fresh bread.204 E A R T H AND THE E L E M E N T S Charcoal CHARCOAL IS PRODUCED from wood baked slowly without exposure to air. b l a c k e r . a n d p l u m . b e e c h . 7. Beware of cheap brands selling dyed chalk as compressed charcoal.

Layers can be peeled away to refresh its surface. Use high quality (very sticky) to fix paper to walls and boards. 9. I used a plastic eraser effectively on thinly applied charcoal. Here we used a ballpoint. 8 . T O R T I L L O N : This is a tight roll of paper used to blend charcoal. . or any other dry media. Here. 10. pastels. sold in several widths. Use cheaper (less sticky) for lifting out. CHARCOAL Lifting out This detail shows an example of where I used the lifting-out technique demonstrated opposite to draw flashes of lightning against rain clouds.212-13 were made by altering the pressure applied to the charcoal. Different tones seen throughout the main drawing on pp. as is fresh (unbuttered!) bread. graphite. MASKING TAPE: An invaluable resource. Cotton swabs also work. PEN: Any fine pen or pencil can be used to draw on the back of masking tape when lifting out.205 ERASING Thickly applied charcoal quickly o v e r c o m e s a plastic eraser A w a r m (soft and tacky) putty eraser is more effective. Lift out broader marks with a larger implement.

pack your materials (as advised below) and set off for a local view or your nearest arboretum. When you arrive. the more you encourage the viewer's imagination to join in and see. Don't worry if it is cloudy: clouds add drama and perspective and make good subjects in themselves (see pp. begin by marking out several small squares on your paper. details blur and colors grow paler and bluer. MATERIALS In this first view there is only a foreground and middle distance. and an abstract.206 EARTH AND THE ELEMENTS Landscapes TREES ALONE OFFER MARVELOUS shapes to draw. 9 8 .9 9 we noted that in response to visual stimulus. On p p . Landscape drawings are traditionally arranged in three parts: a detailed foreground.212-13). hazy distance. an eraser your drawing book or a board and paper fixative (or hairspray). At its worst. Seeing tones . Excessive detail can be admired for its skill and achievement. I relaxed my eyes out of focus to dissolve distracting detail into abstract patches of light and darkness. to contain each of your compositions. it results in flat planes of clutter. It is the visible effect of the atmosphere between where you stand and what you see in the distance. Pack several thick and thin sticks of willow charcoal. the less you describe. This term simply means that as land rolls away into the distance. Then I drew the shape of the tonal patches I perceived. a less distinct middle ground composed of shapes and textures. Ironically. Successful drawings often only suggest the qualities of the scene without overdescribing them. and a cushion in a plastic bag to sit on. but is often less evocative and engaging. The long view is hidden behind trees. a reel of masking tape. especially when making first excursions into aerial perspective. They are also good markers of receding space. To experiment with drawing landscapes and the use of charcoal. our brains search for nameable things and will perceive complete pictures from very little information.

shadows. full of information you can use to create what you want! Inventing drama . horizontal regions of grass. dark trees with bright. the trunk of a bare tree. and broke a view through the hedge into the distance with a dark sky threatening rain. It is better to give distinctly more pictorial space to one or the other (see below). This composition turned out a little flat because I have an almost even quantity of earth and sky.207 LANDSCAPES In my second square I explored a simple view contrasting soft. Remember. I have invented drama with diagonals set against each other I tilted the earth. rounded. Exploring the view Redrawing the scene above. your view is your inspiration.

England has embedded within it the decaying skeleton of a burned fishing boat.1 5 my first drawing of the whole view of the Tiber led me to see the real subject of the day. "Drawing in the round means to literally walk around your subject. I am then able to home in on what interests me most for further study. engine. and tiller still standing proud.208 ELEMENTS Drawing in the Round WHEN DRAWING IN THE LANDSCAPE. settling my concentration. on p p . 2 1 4 . bare ribs. which was the flow of water over rocks. s e e k places in light After my first drawing. taking with you your drawing book and pen. your challenge now is to find a sculptural subject in the landscape. This first drawing serves as a process of arrival.104-05). EARTH AND THE FINDING THE SUBJECT Finding a remarkable subject is even better when you can circumnavigate it in an arena of space.164-65) and a wire violin (pp. making the scene below led me to focus on the decaying boat opposite. Building on earlier studies of structure in space using shoes (pp." . For example. I usually begin by making an image of the whole view. Circling a subject and drawing it from several views imprints on your memory a better understanding of its three-dimensional form. shade out of the glare of the sun. so the paper is not made blinding and your hand cannot cast a shadow on your work. observing it from several views so as to better understand it as a whole. and seeing what the real choice of subject is. The mud of the tidal shore in Rye. Similarly.

make a series o f drawings f r o m different positions. its overall balance. I spent equal time looking at the subject and the paper. I drew with quick. I looked more boldly at the planes and the dynamic of the sculptural craft My lines have become darker and more forceful as confidence in my understanding of the vessel grew. 3 This impression notes the angle of the broken boat. and structure. Overleaf: Decaying Boat 4 . W h e n you have found your subject. careful lines to establish the skeleton that gives this wreck its distinct form.209 SERIES OF STUDIES This stunning ghost o f a boat comes into v i e w t w i c e a day. unfussy lines. ROUND 2 In this tail-end view. character. Each n e w drawing gives a different insight. and the order and shape of its component parts. The outline ties a shape of darkness to the boat like a weight so that it becomes part of its form. DRAWING IN THE 1 Here. looking more at the boat than at the paper From this low position I have emphasized how the boat is swallowed in mud by outlining its shadow on the ground. w h e n t h e sea recedes. marking straight.

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I worked quickly to catch and weave the turbulent contrasts of rising wind and approaching water before the drawing could be washed away. was made with gentle but unhesitating s p e e d . m a d e on s m o o t h . L o o k i n g b a c k and forth from the heavens to firmly taped-down paper. .Cloudburst THIS STORM DRAWING. hot-pressed drawing p a p e r (see pp.20-21) using a thin stick of willow charcoal.

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pulse. and rhythmic detail as it passed through the ancient gully of the city. pocket-sized notebook. . On the pages of a small. black. shaping the city. focusing on the river's eddies.Notes of Force T H E GREAT FLOWING TIBER RIVER has cut through Rome. since ancient times. I drew with a needle-fine fiber-tip pen.

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. The strong diagonal of the composition from bottom left to top right carries the eye through changes of height and focus from the foreground to the mountains beyond. I used a dip pen and waterproof India ink with brushed watercolor to draw the view.Mountains SITTING IN THE SHADE of a tree on the Greek island of Antiparos.

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It also underpins and gives strength and unity to all figurative work. From another viewpoint. and Aboriginal art. Not everything we know has a physical form in the world. However. strike the paper to find form. abstraction is not so easy to define. He made thousands of drawings to chronicle his complex life. all pictorial representations are abstractions of reality. Outsider artists. I begin every image by feeling its meaning. Internal workings of the mind were suddenly free to find a new language of expression. As you approach the classes in this chapter. and history. It was not invented in the 20th century. His drawings are collected and exhibited internationally and held by the Adolf Wolfli Foundation. be brave and enjoy them. yet my kinship to abstraction is fundamental. or gestures. it is simply itself. picturing a stabilized world was impossible and Modernism rode forth with vigor. drawn sound. . direction. many nonWestern cultures have highly sophisticated abstractions at the core of their art. and poetic myth roar and cascade within his tightly framed pages. An abstract mark is often a better conductor of a thought or feeling. sounds. poet. First marks. It is actually its foundation and its infrastructure. Indian mandalas. Wolfli was a Swiss draftsman. Swirling. The fate of Old World thinking was finally sealed with the brutality of World War I. precisely because it does not have to represent a physical object. and young children show us that abstract.Abstract Lines T HE DEVELOPMENT OF W E S T E R N abstract art at the beginning of the 20th century significantly paralleled major changes in world thought. and it has always been with us. Many concepts and feelings can only be expressed through marks.8 cm) A D O L F WOLFLI Abstraction is a direct. From one point of view. for example. which are essentially abstract. expressive marks and shapes are at the core of natural. belief. spontaneous image-making. writhing torrents of color. Perhaps in Western culture we bred this intuitive freedom out of ourselves in our insistence on complex figuration. People are often scared by abstraction and see it as the enemy of figurative art. Afterward. Artists were given a different tool—a line threaded directly from their subconscious to their hand—and with it they began to map a bold new landscape of marks and concepts that would dramatically and forever change the face of Western art. don't be timid. and emotion. only rediscovered. such as Adolf Wolfli. Berne. and independent means of communication. ADOLF WOLFLI One of the greatest masters of Art Brut. writer and composer who suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and was resident in the Waldau Aslyum near Berne. The growing rise of Darwinian ideas coupled with Freudian and Marxist perspectives forced Western society to reconsider its origins and future. actions. and have been making abstract drawings for centuries—Japanese calligraphy. fictional language. opposite. liberating. Museum of Fine Arts. Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape 1915 413/8 x 285/8 in (105 x 72. My own work is firmly centered in figuration.

silence. texture. brass.220 A B S T R A C T LINES Process and Harmony SOMETIMES A DRAWN LINE sings on the surface of its support. akin to stones in a Zen garden. MAMORU ABE Japanese sculptor and installation artist. Abe's physical drawing is a sculptural installation. The Physical Space 1990 3 0 x 30 ft ( 9 1 4 x 9 1 4 cm) MAMORU ABE . as Twombly shows us opposite. and texture their bracing separation reaching between from beneath Pillars of the gallery are made part of this drawing by their inclusion in the paper. staining redbrown lines into the white surface. Iron rods in tone. or. sit in silent harmony. Moisture produced rust. Twombly's mesmeric wax line worked over house paint is like a signature. scrolling across the canvas in an intimate crescendo. iron. He travels widely to research ancient sacred sites. Below. rhythmically engaged with itself. Five forged steel shapes. and temperature rim of floor space. Abe works with materials such as soil. Sometimes it smolders like a deep shadow. A Neolithic chalk tablet bears cut lines that were slowly carved. it can keep reforming through the inherent repetition of a process. Mamoru Abe prepares an image that will appear through the chemistry of iron. tone. and Assistant Professor of Fine A r t at Fukuoka University. and plaster in galleries and landscapes. forged steel. and sensitivity with its thickness and pressure of touch. Lines. quoting ink marks on a page. salt. Changes paper. Damp Japanese paper was laid over carefully arranged iron bars. This the paper rest within the amplifies framelike of the floor from the ceiling. and patient watching. ice. It can proclaim mood. A line can be finished in a second. water. and wood are also part of the work.

such as the Rosetta stone. and the worship of the sun and ancient gods. evolved a raw. Many of his graffiti-like combine abstract gestures with statements.Twombly was presented with a Golden Lion award for lifetime achievement. that challenges the separation of word from image. PROCESS AND HARMONY Cut lines Chalk carves easily.000-2. CY TWOMBLY . and Untitled 1970 Here we might seek to grasp letters in the turning of his line.Thesite's purpose is unknown. Twombly has language works CY TWOMBLY Contemporary American artist who emerged through the 1950s New York art scene in the heyday of Abstract Expressionism and Action Painting. The central pictorial space is also similarly cut and divided by the considered arrangement of straight lines. burials.400BCE 21/4 x 21/4 in (58 x 58 mm) ARTIST UNKNOWN Language Over the course of fifty years. This example is one of two chalk tablets found in a Late-Neolithic pit.241). the Babylonian world map.England. close to Stonehenge in Wiltshire. emotive. and American Indian petroglyphs (see p. and sensuous drawing from painting.221 ANCIENT CARVINGS Many ancient cultures have made and left behind drawings and texts carved into stones or animal bone. Neolithic Chalk Tablet 3. energetic. Precise lines suggest the use of a sharp flint The framed rectangle of this image is echoed in that of Abe's installation. theories suggest astrological observations. At the 2001 Venice Biennale.

brushed night skies over them with ink then lifted the disks to reveal white moons. Ink impressions When drawing nightscapes Hugo often laid paper disks in place of the moon. and lifted them away to leave impressions of watery planets and seas. His drawing writes the time of its own physical process by expressing the extreme concentration of the moment in which it was made.28. o f t e n e x p r e s s e d in v i s u a l t e r m s . Hugo. Here he appears t o have saturated the cut-out moon disks with gritty pigment. Both abstract drawing and composition involve the perfect sequencing of sounds and marks against space and silence. here he anticipates abstract expressionism by 100 years. drawing here can b e described in t e r m s o f a G e r m a n philosophical idea a b o u t is t h e i n s t a n t r e c o g n i t i o n t h e p o w e r o f m o m e n t .28). abstract. below. beautiful. o r a pattern o f elements s o unified as a w h o l e t h e y c a n n o t b e e x p l a i n e d asa s u m o f parts. broke new ground in the 1950s with graphic scores now considered among the most extreme. A graphic score is a V I C T O R H U G O Hugo's abstract French novelist w h o m a d e m a n y drawings in m i x e d m e d i a ( s e e also p. he mixed graphite into ink. Marks across the center appear to be made with his fingers. music manuscript requiring instrumentalists to improvise. Gestalt. too. a configuration. Similarity in gritty texture suggests that here." An innovator who never fails to surprise. have striven to break down old pictorial and musical structures to explore new and unfettered modes of expression. Texture Compare this drawing to Hugo's octopus on p. pressed them face down. Two Impressions Paper 1853-55 VICTOR HUGO Disk from a Cut-Out . The scores are also exhibited in galleries as visual art. Bussotti. interpret. and participate in the composition. and inventive of his time. abstract artists and composers unique. said. "There is nothing like dream to create the future.222 ABSTRACT LINES Writing Time SINCE THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY. Gestalt o f an unnameable thing. opposite. and let the drying meniscus deposit granules in linear drifts such as we would see in the satellite photographic mapping of rivers.

70 in relation to Bussotti's clustered notes to the left of his rondo and open space to the right. Compare this work to that of Libeskind on p.223 W R I T I N G TIME SYLVANO BUSSOTTI Italian avant-garde composer and principal 20thcentury exponent of the graphic score. Circular Score for "Due Voci" c. a far cry from any recognized musical notation. we can feel their rhythm and easily attach sounds to them. His later works become increasingly abstract. Sound and rhythm This flickering rondo of sound written in pen on a hand-ruled stave can be heard in our imaginations as much as seen. This is a page from Due Voci. Bussotti's first mature work. 1958 SYLVANO BUSSOTTI . Following the notes.

She tore c l o t h into strips a n d used these to draw patterns a n d symbols o n h e r cell floor. d i p p i n g h e r fingers into a pot o f rice flour.228-29) has been adjusted with each movement of the rags to draw a cosmos of balance and perfection. centuries. social outcasts. Lieb is one o f countless thousands of "Outsider" artists—diverse individuals including ordinary citizens.224 A B S T R A C T LINES Chants and Prayers WHEN ABSTRACT LINES are organized in repetition. it is found in the regularity o f ordered lines or a pattern. they m a k e a visual a n d physical e c h o that t o u c h e s s o m e deep part of the human spirit. Cell Floor With Torn Strips of Cloth 1894 MARIE LIEB . Germany. for e x a m p l e . O p p o s i t e . In music it can be felt in the diversity of plainsong and African d r u m m i n g . making objects and images outside o f mainstream culture. and sufferers of psychiatric illnesses—who have always existed. Cloth is the simple instrument with which she has conducted and ordered her universe. In the late 1 9 t h century. It will protect the place from evil and make a pleasing invitation to good spirits. Visually. This takes a form in most cultures. cultures. Compositional rightness (see pp. an a n o n y m o u s w o m a n in the southeast Indian state o f Tamil Nadu m a k e s a ritual drawing o n the b r i c k courtyard o f h e r h o m e . Marie Lieb w a s a psychiatric patient in the Heidelberg Asylum. MARIE LIEB Little is known of this w o m a n for w h o m the act of drawing was essential. and c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Torn cloth This is one of two published photographs showing Marie Leib's torn cloth strips significantly placed on her cell floor. T h e s e p h o t o g r a p h s d o c u m e n t the meditative drawings o f two w o m e n living worlds apart in different countries.

Popular magazines feature new ideas each week and on special occasions there may be contests. among others. Painted Prayers UNDATED STEPHEN R HUYLER . and birds. and for over 30 years has traveled extensively through the Indian subcontinent creating an edited archive of 200. lime. lecturer on the subjects of Indian art and Indian women's identity. Motifs are geometrical or based on plants. chalk. Huyler is the author of Painted Prayers. In daily practice. Materials such as rice flour.000 images. and in places of worship and celebration. animals. Skills are handed down through generations and from friend to friend.Theseare widely published in journals and are the subjects of international exhibitions. Designs and motifs Rangoii (or mandalas) are ritual drawings made by many millions of women across rural India.225 STEPHEN P. cultural anthropologist. or flowers are marked or arranged on the ground or on the walls of homes. at the University of London and Ohio State University. women pride themselves on never repeating a design.HUYLER Photographer art historian.

Untitled 2001 2001 153/4x 215/8 in ( 4 0 0 x 550 mm) BRIAN C A T L I N G . Catling's abstract drawings are usually made in series and in parallel to written poetry and sculptural installations. rocks or heads in a subdued atmosphere of dream. and choice of hues. filmmaker Professor of Fine Art. gold paint and iridescent gouache mixed with water. Catling's torn paper shapes and shadows spill light out of their frame like a fractured mirror.226 ABSTRACT LINES Compositions ABSTRACT DRAWINGS ARE LARGELY or entirely free from using the viewer's eye to track and unfold layers of meaning. These two works present complex compositions with differing intensions and methods of making. performance and installation artist. it is ruled and contained in one dimension by its interlocking ink-lined borders. and water-resistant layers of spray and enamel paint on thick paper. Mixed media This is a collage of torn white and gray tissue paper previously stained with ink. Oxford. Catling's works made for international galleries and museums involve drawing as a tool in their development and making. Oval moons eclipse each other and oscillate between landforms and portraiture. but similarities in mood. They each find their pathways and equilibrium in atmosphere and suggestion. With no depth of field. Ruskin School. and Fellow of Linacre College. BRIAN CATLING British sculptor poet. structure. Klee's mathematical maze of thinly washed surface resonates with meticulous planning. free from the direct imaging of known physical things. figurative representation—that is. Their energy can therefore be a purer expression of an idea or emotion.

Polyphon Gefasstes Weiss (White Framed Polyphonically) 1930 131/8x95/8 in (333 x 245 mm) Paul-Klee-Stiftung. It is a geometric harmony of straight lines and tonally graded flat colors that by their arrangement draw our eyes inward to their white center. drew. Kunstmuseum Bern PAUL KLEE . and brush. ruler. and might be read as active or passive. Line and surface Klee observed the visual capacity of lines to push or pull within an image. He explained his polyphonic painting as "a harmony of several color voices" searching for a visual parallel to music.31). whereas tonal surfaces are perceived more immediately as a whole. philosophized. Geometric harmony This is a work on paper made with a sharp ink pen. watercolor.97-99. We can see some diagrammatic examples of this among the optical illusions on pp. Klee painted.227 PAUL K L E E Swiss painter and sculptor (see also p. Klee also felt that a line represents the passing of time. and wrote copiously about the natures and relationships of color and form.

In his b o o k The Education of a Gardener. after being continuously adjusted. As y o u m o v e them around. This balance is what every artist and designer searches a n d feels for when making an image.Thisexercise will help you start. Seek it when looking at other artists' work and in your everyday environment. b u t e v e r y n o w a n d again you will hit on an arrangement w h i c h appears just. and an apple. regardless of style. but an easy o n e to u n d e r s t a n d . media. and put them o n a tray. w i l l c h a n g e w i t h e v e r y r e a r r a n g e m e n t . for instance. culture. or on a page. Set up a sheet of paper with a rectangle drawn on it. a b u n c h of keys. a glass. It is found in all great art and design. It is also found in nature. there is a clear feeling when.228 ABSTRACT LINES Being "Just" A SENSE OF "JUST" (or rightness) is a difficult concept to explain. their impact. s o m e will be more or less h a r m o n i o u s . M a n y of their inter-relationships will be meaningless." . or home. There is a single m o m e n t w h e n all proportions. "I have experimented endlessly with this idea. they are just. angles. Feel for it when youdraw. and elements settle in definitive balance. or degree of figuration. the late garden designer Russell Page explains. they reach a perfect position. the impression y o u receive from t h e m . W h e n m o v i n g objects around in your yard. and ten straight sticks painted black. "Whenall pictorial elements come together in pleasing and perfect balance." SETTING UP Justness can be harmonious or deliberately discordant. Take.

Move the sticks out into the rectangle. fix it with glue. Arrange them so they touch or cross in a series of intersecting balances. 2 3 In the step above. Within a rectangle on a flat sheet of paper set about making a composition using no other rule than a sense of "just. W h e n the composition falls into place. suggesting a horizon. painted black." Move the sticks to find alignments and imagined perspectives.56-57). B E I N G "JUST" 1 Arrange your ten sticks in t w o groups of five. as shown here.229 WHERE TO START Take ten sticks of equal length. making the composition seem to float beneath. horizontals dominate the top. A stick touching the rectangle links the composition to the frame. Remember the drawn rectangle is a part of the composition (see pp. . In the final step (left) there is an even balance. horizontals dominate the lower area. which now becomes a tight frame. Feel for the rightness of their grouping and their relationships to surrounding spaces. Here.

.228-29). they become a scaffold for the addition of further textures. and tones.220. harmonious. correction fluid or white paint. Once the ten painted black sticks are set and glued in place. or even strident. colors. an infinite range of voices and meaning.Youwill also need spare white paper." overlapping placement of materials on a flat plane. stain and dry a sheet of tissue paper using blueink. This principal also applies to three-dimensional drawings such as Gaudi's work with wire and weights on p.69 and Abe's installation on p. glue. "My understanding is that every object [or shape] emanates—sends out vibrations beyond its physical body which are specific to itself.. Images and fragments torn from day-to-day life can be brought together to make a chorus of ideas and emotions. feels "just" (see pp.230 ABSTRACT LINES Collage H E R E W E EXPERIMENT with collage. which is the shifting. colors and textures can be manipulated until their pictorial harmony. ready-made depths and surfaces. Returning to Russell Page. To prepare for this lesson." (Russell Page) . you start composing by adding or subtracting shapes and textures and using colors and tones to achieve the impression you want to m a k e — w h e t h e r dramatic or s u b d u e d . he went on to say ". hard or soft. a compass. Cut or torn layers and shapes. scissors. Collage offers the artist a liberating palette of SETTING UP This lesson in collage is a direct continuation of the compositional lines made in the previous class. found or made items. or discordance. and black ink.

draw.231 WHAT TO DO Lay the final step of the previous lesson (p. solidity. correction fluid and ink marks add further dimensions. In the last step (left). . Glue them in place once they feel "just" Translucent circular disks of tissue paper give color tone. Obscuring the blue disks.The single disk that is folded with its straight edge facing up appears heavier than those that are flat.228) in front of you. 2 3 Torn white paper moved over the surface adds masks of rough-edged irregular volume. Cut six small rectangles the same proportion as your whole image. four circles of blue tissue paper. and shadow to thepicture. and with a compass and scissors. This can also give a sense of fragmentation or punctuation to the composition. they deepen pictorial space. then cut out. COLLAGE 1 Regular-sized pieces of white paper are moved over the surface to disrupt the even lines.

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A MODERN JAPANESE meditative art form inspired by the teachings of Yamaoka Tesshu (1836-1888). . emotion." [Tanchu Terayama. and expectation. is the practice of Zen through the calligraphic marks of a brush dipped in carbon ink. Hitsuzendo drawings aspire to "breathe with the energy and vitality of eternal life" achieved through "a state of no mind—beyond thought.Zen Calligraphy HITSUZENDO. Zen Brushwork].

These vibrate against washes of shadow and pitch-black mass. . Lines made with a steel dip pen take on a scratchy nervousness. I flicked spatters of ink and rubbed the paper with a wet and a dry brush to achieve these effects.Nocturnes IN THIS QUARTET of semi-abstract drawings made with India ink. discord is balanced against rhythm to create mood.

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When creating monsters. movie studios now brim with as many monsters as the visual art of the Medieval and Renaissance Church. and stained-glass windows deliver powerful visual sermons to the once-illiterate populace. The salvation of heaven and terrors of hell are represented equally—enough to make any sinner shudder. We love our fear of the hybrid—ideally. Star Wars. Neither should be slave or master. We then add substances we dislike: unidentified fluids. look for images in the folds of clothing. our eye circulates around a flutter of leather and scaly wings. or strange. and damnation are found in most world faiths. our literate and more secular Western society still hungers for another world and to ravenously indulge its fascination for the marvelous. impossible. Feeding this demand. a Catherine wheel of drawn sparks spiraling around the quietly resolute saint. aliens. wings. Fantasy is most successful when founded on strong and familiar visual logic. angels. feathers. or in smoke. England. Today. sculptures. happen to us. Be inspired by the irrational comedy of word association or puns. and the faces of God have for centuries given artists a feast for the extremes of their imagination. Humans are equally troubled by the imperceptibly small and the enormous. Monsters take advantage of both. Lord of the Rings. which were widely distributed and influential in his time. Here. In the Christian churches of Europe. For example. I was on a train passing through Nuneaton. which is to have eaten a nun—it inspired the drawing on p. beasts. Perhaps the Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 1485 121/4 x 9 in (312 x 230 mm) MARTIN SCHONGAUER most important conclusion in this final chapter is to advise you to develop your skills in parallel with the joy of your unfolding imagination. for example. a collaboration between the two will ensure that your drawings glow with originality. a human-animal mix that implies this could MARTIN SCHONGAUER German painter and engraver who settled to work in Colmar Alsace. and deep fur—and we alter their scale. thousands of paintings. Depictions of God or of gods in the contexts of daily life. all of which originated as hundreds of drawings.247. we select details of animals farthest from ourselves and that are widely thought disturbing—reptilian and insect features. Reading the place name I momentarily glimpsed an alternative meaning.Gods and Monsters OUR SACRED AND SECULAR need to visualize demons. To learn to flex your imagination. in the cracks of walls. . paradise. serpentine tails. scales. Throughout this book images are presented to excite and surprise and drawing classes created to increase your confidence. Images we are now surrounded by bear testimony to the power and resourcefulness of their collective imagination. and the Alien trilogy. Schongauer is best known for his prints. We watch with captivated pleasure movies such as The Fly.

which can swamp the subject Here. to Picasso's similarly tight. a Shoshone seeking guidance and power meditates at the sacred site of a petroglyph. deranged masses. rushing. Visions experienced in front of the drawing sometimes instruct the making of a new one. Paul Thomas's studies of Picasso and Twombly can be traced directly. Goya's plainly textured gray background pushes back the space behind the illuminated simply subject. Violent white marks symbolizing Achilles' rage resonate with the energy of Twombly's script on p. Saturn devouring his son. Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 1799 81/2 x 6 in (218 x 154 mm) FRANCISCO DE GOYA . reading from a book of asses. Pictorially. barren land rising like MYRIAD CHAINS RUN THROUGH ART HISTORY. Aquatint Goya has drawn a learned man as an ass. The title "And So Was His Grandfather" adds that should we not already know. plain wall suggests a blinkered view of nothing. we see the international icon of stupidity. Goya later recorded the horrors of Napoleonic occupation. it allows the mule to stand forward. This continuity enriches the making of art and our heritage. Compare his dark. his lover a dog. Opposite below. Opposite. below. hags. This act defines the vision and continues the line of spirit guides. Near the end of his life he made his "Black Paintings" on the walls of his home.30. such asinine behavior can be hereditary. noisy seascape on p. Francisco de Goya was a master of borrowing. Los Caprichos. He would be graceless if he stood. and church murals. and follies of court through copious graphic works including his best-known prints. In this softer aquatint he poses for his portrait Textured background The aquatint process has been used to great effect in making a gritty toned background. Other drawn versions of this image are more savage and frightening. a wave to join Achilles' chase of Hector.240 GODS AND M O N S T E R S Marks of Influence marking the influence of one artist upon another. and exposed the superstitions. The high. F R A N C I S C O DE G O Y A Spanish court painter printmaker and draftsman. quoting great paintings and popular culture to add cunning twists to his satires. crammed tightly at his desk. They depict as if by lamplight the devil and witches. In this ass. and men clubbing each other to death. whose impassioned work begins with light tapestry cartoons. Many students leave white backgrounds in their work.220. The well-dressed mule is cumbersome. vanity. portraits.

and personal and social struggles. It was made with a sharp implement. meaning "place of power. Simple wall stones cleverly state their cold solidity while also fading from our attention as the scene roars by. Parallel lines within the body of the figure are likely to denote power. Thomas conducts his explorations in the mine of Greek and Roman mythology. by a supplicant in a trance of meditation. of the earth. Achilles Chases Hector 1996 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) PAUL THOMAS SHOSHONE PETROGLYPH The Shoshone people of Wyoming name petroglyph sites Poha Kahni. Wyoming. values.241 MARKS OF INFLUENCE PAUL T H O M A S British contemporary artist whose epic graphic work questions and reflects upon issues of European identity. A vivid spectrum of energized graphite marks and a masterly composition give this drawing vitality and speed. ideals. White marks like flashes of light are cut though graphite with an eraser to reveal the paper beneath. Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range UNDATED ARTIST UNKNOWN . Graphite marks Here Achilles chases Hector around the walls of Troy before killing him. Wind River Reservation." Each sacred image drawn into rock belongs to one of three realms in the Shoshone world: the realm of the sky. or of the water Chipped image This is a sacred creature of the sky chipped onto rock at Dinwoody Lake. perhaps a stone.

and 16th-century Holland. Redon lifted them out with some sort of eraser. Redon explored the darker side of the human imagination through symbols and mysticism. graphic artist. which sometimes—half-dressed and carrying a familiar trophy— stride. Lifting out Fine strings of the hot-air balloon appear dark against the sky and light against the balloon. T H E EXPLORATION AND DEPICTION Hauntings Grandville has drawn a scurrying zoo of half-known demons and animals that appear to have been stolen from the glass eye of the microscope. as he did the grass. below left. The monsters of Bosch grew from his observations of beggars going about their trade in 15th. and scuttle over all known reality.204-05 will enable you to produce a similar effect of white lines shining out of dark charcoal. to the right of the balloon. 115.242 MONSTERS of the unknown is a classical and constant occupation for the artist. Techniques demonstrated on pp. GODS AND Erasure In this charcoal drawing. we see parallel slanting pale marks that might have been made with fresh bread—a very effective eraser used before the wide availability of rubber or plastic. H e was influenced by his friends. Here we see how he evolved their injuries into new limbs and warped proportions. and writer In contrast t o the light and visual accent of contemporary Impressionism. the writers Joris-Karl Huysmans and Stephane Mallarme. lifting its cranial passenger over a seascape of repose. Our subconscious can be drawn with pleasure and ease. The Eye Like a Strange Mounts Balloon 165/8 x131/8in (422 x 332 mm) ODILON REDON 1882 Toward Infinity . Redon's eyeball balloon rises up. ODILON REDON French painter draftsman. the shock would be extreme. We may feel safe so long as the eye looks heavenward. Compare worked textures throughout the whole of this image to those found throughout Anita Taylor's charcoal drawing on p. If it were to turn and stare this way. They float toward us like a horrid visitation. crawl. Children are also delighted to invent a monster or ghoul.

grimacing. include The Haywain. which is still available today. Quill and ink This typical Bosch monster is a quill drawing in bistre ink The phrasing of light and contour here is masterly. and Ship of Fools. 1840 61/8 x41/2in ( 1 5 5 x 1 1 5 mm) GRANDVILLE HIERONYMUS BOSCH Dutch painter Bosch's highly detailed iconographic religious panel paintings. The quality of the line is therefore uniform throughout. Comic little headbands of waving hair express more hysteria than fear. Madrid. Smiling.243 J E A N I G N A C E ISIDORE GERARD ("GRANDVILLE") French graphic artist and political satirist. sucker-faced creatures dash and trundle toward it They are drawn solidly to emphasize their earthbound weight. His other major works include Metamorphoses du Jour (1828). This image is from one of Grandville's best-known publications. Two Monsters UNDATED 45/8 x61/2in (117 x 163 mm) HIERONYMUS BOSCH . HAUNTINGS Engraving This is an engraving made so that Grandville's original drawing could be reproduced. Garden of Earthly Delights. Last Judgment. A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects c. Light shines from the right. Most of his work is in the Prado Museum. Les Animaux (1840). and he illustrated the Fables of La Fontaine and Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe. teeming with the exhilaration of unrestrained fantasy.

Grimes' delicately cavorting figures dive into and consume each other.244 GODS AND MONSTERS Convolutions THESE CONVOLUTED DRAWINGS were made almost 5 0 0 years apart. However. St Peter's square. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI Florentine painter sculptor. topple. His entire drawing wrestles and weaves the viewer's eye into its retracting folds. the dome of the Vatican. David. architect. wraps and coils its lithe body ready to strike or whimper at a touch. snake. and dog. Michelangelo's dragon. and play with its perfection and meaning. Chalk and ink A quill dipped in brown ink was worked over black chalk on this reused sheet. In her studio. she formed a series of ghostly pale. phrased over the contours of form and bridging darker areas of shadow. remembering the cavernous. Opposite. as we might expect. and mist-swathed land. below. lion. muscular tension is carved out of the paper using layered. a stunning hybrid of a swan. pinnacled. They share between them the pleasures of inventing a hybrid beast. gamboling copulations. but in the seductive landscape of Leonardo da Vinci's oil painting Madonna of the Rocks. A snake eating its own tail is a universal image of the eternal and continuous. and engineer Among Michelangelo's great works are the painted ceiling and altar wall of the Sistine Chapel. Scaly. sometimes artists purposefully tie a knot in the configuration to disturb. and dying slaves. poet. Grimes found the genesis of her beast not among animals. Two previously drawn faces become humorous antagonists to the beast. hatched lines. Dragon 1522 10 x 133/8 in ( 2 5 4 x 3 3 8 m m ) MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI . and marble sculptures including Pieto.

boards finished paper. each one iridescent and crumbly like a weathered while oyster.245 CONVOLUTIONS O O N A GRIMES British contemporary artist and professor of printmaking at the Ruskin School. and the Camberwell and Slade Schools of Fine Art. Oxford. The large space around figure has been cropped Grimes drawings to flatten presses them. London. How Clever of God #84 2002 22 x 30 in (560 x 760 mm) O O N A GRIMES . London. her under heavy here. Ink-wash delicately gouache (smooth) and gouache brushed drawing on This is a and was hot-pressed Shadows The dark shadow of the Other the ink-wash earth was made with a brushstroke of ink laid into wet paper. It is one of a series of fragile earth figures inspired by rocks. Grimes exhibits internationally and features in the collections of the New York Public Library and the Victoria and Albert Museum. details evolved slowly using a drier brush. The image formed directly without first making a pencil outline.

and has a fine tip for detailed work. JAPANESE PAINTING BRUSH: Made with natural hair. and never leave them standing on their tip in a jar of water. Slightly less flexible than the squirrel-hair sword liner 9. making rt ideally suited to Japanese painting and small-scale calligraphy. and effects. needle-sharp center of kolinsky red sable hair. The living marks of a wet. and wrist into a fluid and soft touch. 10. Some are bold. SMALL JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with sable hair. Soaps purchased from good art supply stores will gently cleanse particles of pigment that become trapped in the hairs or ferrule.Theyhold plenty of ink and make continuous. SYNTHETIC-HAIR LINER: This brush gives a medium line and is firm with a spring to the touch. others are as fine as a whisker with a gentle touch. This brush has a broad wash capability and can achieve a very wide range of marks. How you care for your brushes will determine how long they last. 1. P O I N T E D T R A D I T I O N A L WRITER: The ferrule is made from a small duck quill.H A I R RIGGER: Made with long synthetic hair for fine-point work It has a good ink-holding capacity and is slightly more resilient than sable hair with more "snap. shape. SABLE-HAIR RIGGER: Made with very long kolinsky sable hairs. and texture. L A R G E R S Y N T H E T I C . LARGER JAPANESE BRUSH: Made with natural hair held in a plastic ferrule on a bamboo handle. Some used by master calligraphers are 2-3 in (5-8 cm) in diameter 11. Always clean them thoroughly. with a fine point for delicate work 4. thicknesses. return them to their pointed shape. 13. giving a variety of lines. 3. 7. 2. SYNTHETIC-HAIR S W O R D LINER: A lining brush with high ink-holding capacity and a fine point. drawing tool extending the arm. it has good wash capabilities. It has exceptional painting characteristics. fingers. Brushes vary in size. Suitable for wash techniques but also capable of very fine detail. ideally suited to drawing. dense. the very opposite of pencil or silver point.H A I R LINER: Very responsive oriental-style liner This to the touch. and writers. ink-laden tip allow an expression that is beyond the linear. and hold prodigious weights of ink or paint. between them. liners. It is still relatively small in the total range of Japanese brushes. and very fine lines. SQUIRREL-HAIR S W O R D LINER:This brush has a maximum ink-holding capacity and an extremely fine and flexible point 8. M T RA S AEIL . which holds long sable hair This brush holds large amounts of ink for long lines and points well for detailed work. 12. this brush has a soft drawing tip and small ink-holding capacity. flowing. SYNTHETIC-HAIR BRUSH: Bound in a synthetic ferrule with good inkholding capacity and good spring and control. SABLE-HAIR LINER: Made with ordinary sable hair surrounding an extralong. This design supplies the fine tip with a long continuity of ink 5. all perfect for drawing and.246 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brushes T H E BRUSH IS A VOLUPTUOUS and delicate weights. S Y N T H E T I C ." 6. The brushes shown here are a mixture of This is a selection of riggers. Shorter brushes designed for other purposes run out of ink more quickly. materials. washes. POINTED SQUIRREL-HAIR MOP: With a synthetic quill ferrule and extra high inkholding capacity. It is capable of very fine pointing. it has good inkholding capacity and is very flexible.

247 BRUSHES .

35) into two tablespoons of water in a shallow. and to make pools and stains o n the page. I rubbed a block of Chinese ink (see p. Here I drew with a soft Japanese painting brush (see pp.248 GODS A N D M O N S T E R S Brush Marks A S I N G L E BRUSH will m a k e an e n o r m o u s range of m a r k s depending u p o n the width. w i t h m y face close. I had left the end of the ink block in the water overnight to make it easier to dissolve. It also depends on the angle at w h i c h it is held.) I . A single brush has almost balletic potential to draw fine or undulating lines and curves. softness. the speed of the s t r o k e . splashes. and above all w h e t h e r the b r u s h is saturated with pigment or relatively dry. the texture and a b s o r b e n c y of the paper ( w h i c h m a y be d a m p or dry). length.246-47). the degree of pressure applied. SETTING UP Blowing spots T h e s e t h r e e s p i d e r y c r e a t u r e s (above right and below) w e r e m a d e by d r o p p i n g s p o t s o f ink f r o m a b r u s h o n t o t h e p a g e and. and type of its hairs. unglazed earthenware dish. b l o w i n g h a r d o n t h e m several t i m e s t o disperse t h e ink ( c l o s e y o u r eyes if y o u t r y this. and spatters.

. b l e e d i n g f r o m strokes b e l o w left. w e see fine lines and s p o t s . a n d b r u s h .249 Gritty texture T h e details o f t h e largest creatures b e l o w and opposite s h o w the granular texture of Chinese b l o c k ink. BRUSH MARKS Wet and dry strokes A m o n g these concentrated drawings ink made into with the same w a t e r y lines. a n d t h e w a y it d i s t r i b u t e s w h e n t h e b r u s h is d a b b e d o n its s i d e . t h e effects of the b r u s h r u n n i n g o u t o f ink.

Oxford. I borrowed small and fragile specimens from the University Museum of Natural History. until we look again. and used their detail to draw new creatures that might at first seem familiar. .Monsters THESE LITTLE CREATURES o f i n k and i n v e n t i o n were b o r n out of animal and bird studies.

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showing us that gallery study is not just for the student and beginner. two of my own drawings show you how Goya's devil (below) is based on the shape of Murillo's boy on a horse (top right). . formal composition. Among his "Black Paintings" in the Prado Museum. Goya often invented his monsters out of characters seen in other painters' works. are two long. Here. Isidore. thin works titled The Witches' Sabbath and The Procession of St. thin works made by Bartolome Murillo in Seville about 120 years earlier. Goya's witches have been literally drawn and evolved out of the shapes of Murillo's prophet and pilgrims. I found relationships between all four paintings in terms of shapes. They are a pair and hang opposite each other. With further research.Goya's Monsters W I T H CUNNING BRILLIANCE. and narrative twists. Madrid. Through studying and drawing these great paintings I have discovered that they are based on a pair of similarly long.

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little comments on politeness and sexual politics. Sometimes drawings come out of nowhere and surprise even the artist. drawn rapidly and with great joy. .Consumed THIS IS A SERIES OF CARTOONS I m a d e s o m e years ago.

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p r i n t i n g press face up. R o u g h p a p e r is m a d e b e t w e e n t w o blankets t h a t . T h e b l a n k e t s g i v e t h e p a p e r its rough texture o r "tooth.The plate is t h e n r o l l e d w i t h ink a n d polished with a rag. Also called accelerated perspective. w h e n v i e w e d f r o m a specified point. a n d given t h e n a m e Sho. Blending M e r g i n g t w o o r m o r e neighboring colors o r tones t o g e t h e r using a tortillon." It w a s first given t o t o n a l paintings m a d e in o n e c o l o r — s e e Grisaille.m a d e paper. Binder A substance t h a t holds particles o f p i g m e n t t o g e t h e r in a paint f o r m u l a t i o n . so t h a t ink r e m a i n s o n l y in t h e g r o o v e s o f s c r a t c h e d lines. Chiaroscuro A 1 7 t h . See also Hotpressed papers. m e a n i n g " t o stick" Dry media M e d i a t h a t a r e n o t w e t o r o i l y — f o r e x a m p l e . p h o t o g r a p h s . 2. A i r b r u s h e s are u s e d in t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c o m i c s .d i m e n s i o n a l i m a g e . D a m p p a p e r is laid o n t o p . chance mark-making. F r o m t h e French v e r b coller. U s e d as a c o r r e c t i n g device o r pictorial game. o f t e n d i s t o r t e d forms and vivid colors. L a t e r it c a m e t o m e a n h i g h l y c o n t r a s t e d light effects. Fixative lightly glues t h e d r a w i n g t o t h e surface o f t h e p a p e r t o p r e v e n t smudging. Aerial perspective The effect of the a t m o s p h e r e o v e r distance as it lightens t o n e s a n d cools c o l o r s progressively t o w a r d t h e horizon. A l s o called m u s e u m g r a d e . s u c h as a d r a w i n g o r painting. T h e m o v e m e n t was started by a g r o u p o f French artists including H e n r i Matisse. Field In a t w o . A g e n e r a l t e r m t h a t describes t h e various processes o f c u t t i n g a design i n t o a plate o r b l o c k o f m e t a l o r w o o d . in w h i c h t h e subject's distinctive features o r peculiarities are deliberately exaggerated f o r c o m i c o r g r o t e s q u e effect. A " s h a l l o w d e p t h o f field" m e a n s t h e p i c t u r e appears t o have only a shallow s p a c e inside i t Diffuse T o s o f t e n o r m a k e less brilliant. Composition T h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e p a r t s o f an i m a g e t o m a k e u p the whole.s i z e d r a w i n g m a d e for t h e purpose o f transferring a design t o a painting. 2. W o r d s o r symbols are Cold-pressed papers P a p e r manufactured with a "not" o r " r o u g h " surface. and readymade objects arranged and stuck o n t o a flat surface. Camera obscura A d a r k e n e d c h a m b e r i n t o w h i c h an i m a g e o f w h a t is o u t s i d e is received t h r o u g h a small o p e n i n g o r lens a n d f o c u s e d in natural c o l o r o n a facing surface. Acid-free paper P a p e r w i t h a neutral p H t h a t will n o t darken o r d e t e r i o r a t e excessively w i t h age. r a t h e r t h a n r e c o r d e d o n a film o r plate. T h e prints t a k e n from t h e s e plates o r blocks. tapestry. o r will o n l y a p p e a r n o r m a l . F r o m t h e G r e e k kallos. p r a c t i c e d meditatively w i t h a brush. usually at a n a c u t e angle t o t h e s u r f a c e . a r e r o l l e d t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders. Crosshatching Parallel lines d r a w n across o n e a n o t h e r at right angles. T h e name " n o t " simply refers t o t h e fact t h a t t h e cylinders are n o t h o t in t e m p e r a t u r e . w h e n a p e r s o n is p a i n t e d standing a g a i n s t a w i n d o w ." D e s c r i b e s a p a i n t i n g in w h i c h t h e light s o u r c e is b e h i n d t h e s u b j e c t F o r e x a m p l e .m e d i a d r a w i n g . Contre jour A F r e n c h t e r m m e a n i n g " a g a i n s t day. o r o t h e r (usually large) w o r k — s e e Pouncing. Erasure T h e a c t o f r e m o v i n g a n i m a g e f r o m a surface. S o m e t i m e s f e r r u l e s a r e m a d e o f plastic o r o t h e r materials. Blotting T h e use o f a b s o r b e n t m a t e r i a l t o lift a w a y excess liquid. Engraving 1. Conservation grade D e s c r i b e s a range o f materials t h a t d o n o t d e c a y and cannot be broken d o w n by insects. A f u l l . Ferrule T h e s h o r t m e t a l t u b e t h a t s u r r o u n d s a n d g n p s t h e hairs o f a p a i n t b r u s h a n d fixes t h e m t o t h e brush handle. Fauvism A n early 2 0 t h . In t h e Far East calligraphy is a highly r e s p e c t e d a r t f o r m . C o p p e r p l a t e engravings w e r e widely used t o r e p r o d u c e images b e f o r e p h o t o g r a p h y . t h e l i g h t is b e h i n d h i m o r her." " N o t " p r e s s e d p a p e r is r o l l e d a s e c o n d t i m e w i t h o u t blankets t h r o u g h c o l d cylinders t o p r o d u c e a s m o o t h e r b u t still slightly t e x t u r e d s u r f a c e . Calligraphy Beautiful h a n d w r i t i n g . Camera lucida A n optical device t h a t p r o j e c t s an image o f an o b j e c t o n t o a plain s u r f a c e so t h a t it can be traced. It is p u t o n a Body color See Gouache. Fixative Liquid acrylic resin a n d l a c q u e r t h i n n e r usually a p p l i e d as a n a e r o s o l s p r a y m i s t t o t h e surface o f a d r y . A p o t e n t i a l l y h a r s h m e t h o d o f p r o d u c i n g t o n e s in a d r a w i n g .c e n t u r y painting m o v e m e n t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e use o f b o l d . a n d g r a p h i t e . A h u m o r o u s d r a w i n g o r parody. In t h e W e s t p e n calligraphy is u s e d t o c r e a t e f o r m a l a n d d e c o r a t i v e t e x t s . pastel. charcoal. pressurized t o o l used f o r spraying fine mists o f s m o o t h c o l o r P i g m e n t is d e l i v e r e d b y a j e t o f air n o t t h e bristles o f a brush. A l s o called r i n g l e t shading. linseed oil o r egg y o l k Caricature A representation Contour line A line t h a t f o l l o w s t h e s h a p e o f a surface. as o p p o s e d t o t h e s t r a i g h t e d g e o f a sheet o f p a p e r t h a t has b e e n machine-trimmed. Collage C o l l e c t e d materials such as c o l o r e d p a p e r s . t h e field is t h e a p p a r e n t a n d b e l i e v a b l e space inside t h e p i c t u r e . Anamorphic distortion Stretching an i m a g e across a p i c t u r e surface so t h a t it can o n l y b e u n d e r s t o o d . Cartoon 1.c e n t u r y Italian t e r m m e a n i n g "clear-obscure. in w h i c h parts o f an image are depicted v e r y brightly and dramatically against d a r k n e s s . Bracelet shading C u r v e d parallel lines t h a t f o l l o w t h e c o n t o u r s o f f o r m .256 GLOSSARY Glossary Accidental drawing Random. Eye level T h e i m a g i n a r y h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e a t t h e s a m e h e i g h t as t h e a v e r a g e p e r s o n ' s eyes. m e a n i n g "beauty". A l s o c a l l e d t h e h o r i z o n line. Air brush A mechanical. Bleed T h e e f f e c t o f t w o w e t colors running into one another o r o n e color applied t o a w e t surface a n d a l l o w e d t o d i s p e r s e . for example. n e w s p a p e r cuttings. R e m b r a n d t is a great master o f chiaroscuro. Deckle edge T h e i r r e g u l a r e d g e o f a s h e e t o f m o l d . s u c h as a s c r e e n . written with a broad-nibbed pen o r brush. a n d attaches t h e m t o t h e s u p p o r t — f o r example. t o g e t h e r w i t h a t h i c k felt b l a n k e t T h e w h o l e s a n d w i c h o f l a y e r s is t h e n railed t h r o u g h t h e press t o m a k e a p r i n t D r y p o i n t is a very portable and immediate m e t h o d o f printmaking. It can also seal a silver p o i n t d r a w i n g t o p r e v e n t t h e oxidization (browning) o f t h e Drypoint A d r a w i n g is s c r a t c h e d directly o n t o a m e t a l plate w i t h a m e t a l t o o l h e l d like apen.

and by artists representing stone sculptures in a painting. shape. then rubbed over carefully but vigorously with a crayon. white. graphite. the finely ground particles of plant. or even a beam of light. Monoprinting A direct method of printing in which wet medium (water-. and is also used as a size. or for wrapping and protecting a finished piece of work. oil-. which has a rough surface).257 metal line. Plumb line A line from which a weight is suspended in order to determine verticality or depth. the surface of the stone is made wet before being rolled with a thin film of oilbased printing ink. multiH u e A term for a color. Grisaille is occasionally seen in church stained-glass windows. of the ingredients in inks and watercolors. cadmium yellow hue. Hot-pressed papers (HP) Paper made using hot cylinders. Also refers to an additive used to control the application properties of a color Golden Section A proportion in which a straight line or rectangle is divided into two unequal parts in such a way that the ratio of the smaller part to the greater part is the same as that of the greater part to the whole. Picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. or spirit-based) is applied to a surface that is then pressed onto paper and removed to leave a print. Lightfast A term confirming that pigment in the product will not fade with exposure to light. This method incorporates the excitement of accidental and unpredicted marks. It is a strong adhesive. Grisaille A painting in gray or a grayish color Often made by students as a tonal exercise. it is the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work Pigment Any substance used as a coloring agent—for example. work. so that (using vanishing point perspective) the object appears to change shape and become narrower or smaller as it recedes.The paper then bears a crayon impression or copy of the surface that was underneath it A number of Surrealists. are painted in grisaille and appear to be made of stone. Foreshortening A method of depicting an object at an angle to the surface of the picture. F o r m The outer surface of a three-dimensional object. or canvas and allowed to dry before an image is drawn or painted. pastel. or a family of colors. and translucent paper—a delicate material used in collage. F o r m a t T h e size. to give the illusion of depth and distance. This effect emulates what we see in real life. Paper is then pressed against the stone to take a print. format" (abbreviated to "portrait"). but in picture-making it is as important as the objects/subjects themselves. including Max Ernst used frottage in their work. Padua. purpose. used for fixing paper to walls and boards. glass. A small image might be described as small format Horizontal images are often said to be "landscape format" (abbreviated G u m arabic The natural to"landscape"). Pointillism A technique of using points or dots of pure color in such a way that when the picture is viewed from a distance they react Masking tape Invaluable. After several intervening processes.while secretion of the acacia tree. upright images are called "portrait which is used as a binding agent in many liquid media. It is then peeled away. rock. Hatching (cross-) See Crosshatching. Also used by artists' materials manufacturers to indicate the use of a substitute pigment—for example. It can be used with any wet media to isolate or protect parts of an image from further Optical blending See Pointillism. to describe a surface to which paint will adhere readily. Masking fluid Clear or opaque latex fluid developed for watercolor painting. It improves the bonding properties Frottage A French term meaning "rubbing. or can be otherwise used to create an image—for example. aiming to represent facts rather than an interpretation of the subject. materials that produce marks on a surface. enabling them to stick to paper It also helps to maintain a stable dispersion of pigment particles in water as the film of a wash dries. Alternatively. Dark tones are laid down first then an eraser or masking tape is used to lift away particles of the drawing media to reveal the lightness of the paper beneath. but each print will be unique. Medium A generic term for art Key A painting is said to be "high key" when the colors and tones are bright and "low key" when they are dark or somber The term is also used Gouache Opaque watercolor Also called body color. A point of interest in a drawing. Paper is laid on top and a rapid drawing is made on the back of it The paper lifts away to reveal the image on its other side. and it has a history in enamel work. The surface can be reloaded or redrawn with more medium. and that will "escape" or change over time. with the area beneath remaining unaffected. Negative space The space between things. and masking off areas of a drawing that the artist wishes to keep untouched by media applied above or beside the tape. ink. Rubens used grisaille to paint small images for engravers. Focus 1 . or synthetic material that are suspended in a medium to constitute paint. mineral.The degree to which detail is defined. Lifting out A method of creating highlights and mid-tones in a drymedia drawing (such as charcoal or graphite). Artists can paint freely over dry masking fluid. and orientation of the image.Theground provides a particular color or texture beneath the image. which give it a smooth surface (as opposed to cold-pressed paper. This may be disregarded in real life. Lithography A method of printmaking in which a drawing or painting is made directly onto a smooth slab of particular limestone or a metal plate using an oilbased crayon or ink." A piece of paper is placed on top of an object or rough surface. Fugitive A term given to a pigment that it is not stable. Impressing Stamping or printing. glossy. Ground A wet solution usually of gouache or gesso (chalk and animal glue) brushed onto paper board. or a drawing made in any single color GLOSSARY Linear perspective A form of perspective in which parallel lines are represented as converging. Monochrome Usually refers to a black. sticky paper tape. Objective drawing Refers to the concept of objectivity. or plastic surface. Papercut A type of collage in which flat sheets of paper are cut into an image. Giotto's Virtues and Vices in the Arena Chapel. The ink attaches to the oil-based image and is repelled by the wet stone. and gray drawing. . oil-based printing ink is rolled evenly onto a smooth metal. Usually an academic drawing observed from life. Gamut A complete range or extent Glassine A type of thin. 2. lifting out charcoal and other dry media. Hairspray is an effective and inexpensive alternative.

or watercolor paint. plum blossom. . acrylic." Applied to the blurring or softening of sharp outlines by the subtle and gradual blending of one tone into another Sgraffito A technique of scratching or cutting through a surface of paint. using a brush. Size A weak glue used for filling the porous surface of wood or canvas in order to seal it. or the left-hand page in a book. by imposing a grid that is then scaled up to a larger size. and paperweights. plaster or cloth surface beneath. compound of water-soluble pigment. or mark using an inked or pigment-covered surface. "Spirits" or "oil" of turpentine refer to the volatile portion used by artists to thin or dilute oil-based paint. an ink stone usually cut from slate. Scale Describes the size of one element in relation to another Sepia A brown pigment taken from the sun-dried ink sacs of cuttlefish and used to make ink or watercolor The term is now often incorrectly used to refer to brown colors. design. and chrysanthemum—which in Chinese tradition are called "The Four Gentlemen. Zen brushwork This is an oriental meditative art form originating in China and practised for many centuries in Japan.258 GLOSSARY together optically. creating more vibrant effects than if the same colors were physically mixed together with a brush. Wash A technique using ink. ink. evolved by engineers and architects for the purpose of conveying W a t e r c o l o r A painting accurate structural information. giving it a brilliance. Support The structure on which an image is made—for example. in tone running from black to white or vice versa. Pouncing If a large drawing or design (called a cartoon) is to be Shadow Darkness cast by the transferred to a surface such as a obscuring of light. Zen brushwork encompasses calligraphy and painting. paper or canvas. Zen A school of Mahayana Buddhism that asserts that enlightenment can come through meditation and intuition rather than faith. or pen. Tortillon A short. meaning objects used in setting up a life model or still life. such as an inscribed sheet of metal. a sheet of paper is placed beneath and pinpricks are Silhouette A flat. Squeegee A rubber-trimmed scraper used in the screenprinting process for dragging ink across a surface.Technicaldrawing has been example. Sketch A quick or rough drawing. Squaring up A method of enlarging and transferring an image from one surface to another. Subjective drawing A drawing that expresses the personal view and interpretation of the artist An invented image. Artists' prints are normally made in multiple. Viewpoint The position from which something is observed or considered. Alternatively. plaster. which are then called editions. Technical drawing A universal it is often used in conjunction language of lines and measurements with line drawings in pen and that is used to make diagrammatic ink—for images. The crude material is called oleoresin. or gouache. Volume The amount of space occupied by an object or an area of space in itself. W e t media Any liquid media— for example. in order to flick the pigment onto the image surface. commonly referred to as the lead. Stippling Applying color or tone in areas of fine dots or flecks. Single-point perspective The most basic form of linear perspective in which there is only one vanishing point. The translucent Tint A color mixed with white. Turpentine A colorless solvent distilled from the resinous sap of pine trees. a tightly folded piece of cotton batting can be used for the same effect. or point on which parallel lines converge to give the impression of receding space. A term borrowed from the theater. Shade A that is color mixed (or toned) with black Shading A lay term for adding tone to a drawing. Recto The front or top side of a piece of paper. glasses. Pounce (a fine for an unpopular 18th-century powder of charcoal or similar French politician. pointed instrument used for marking or engraving. to model areas of light and shade. or wood. fine paper. orchids. tight. a point at which receding parallel lines meet Verso The back or underside of a piece of paper. usually diluted with water and applied with a brush. Underdrawing A pale preliminary drawing made prior to adding layers of another medium such as oil paint or watercolor Value The extent to which a color reflects or transmits light This is the equivalent of tone in a black and white image. Printmaking The act of making a picture. sometimes drawn from a and leaving only the pricked sheet of shadow cast on a wall. Spattering A mottled texture produced by drawing your fingers across the bristles of a stiff brush loaded with pigment. Serigraphy Silk-screen printing. Although drawings can be made with wash alone. Zen paintings usually depict scenes of nature and plants such as bamboo. wall or tapestry. Strip Core of a pencil. Vanishing point In linear perspective. Etienne de material) dabbed through the Silhouette (1709-67). Props An abbreviation of the word properties. Sfumato An Italian term meaning "smoky. watercolor. fruit. Still life A picture composed of inanimate objects such as bowls. pencil. or ceramic glazing to reveal a different color beneath. or any physical object that can be stamped or pressed onto a surface to leave an impression. whose pinpricks creates a "connect-thepersonal pastime was making dots" replica of the image on the cut-out portraits. Named paper in place. Tone A degree of lightness or darkness. and flowers. pointed roll of white paper that is used to blend dry media. cut-out profile made along every outline of the usually made in black paper image. or the right-hand page in a book.Thedrawing is removed." Materials for Zen brushwork include round brushes of varied size. carbon ink. nature of watercolor allows the white surface of the paper to Tonal scale A scale of gradations shine through. Stylus A sharp.

38-39. Brian 226 Untitled 2001 226 "Cave of the Hands" (Cueva de las Manas) 8. 75. 111.51 All and Nothing (Taylor) 114. 157 cropping 56-57. 50. 222. to express 39. 78 aerial perspective 206 airbrushing 160. 90. 137 Besler. Zen c 232-233 blended 133. 161 Akhlaq-I Rasul Allah manuscript 51. 40-41 Durer's rhinoceros 26. 90 La Guitare. 189.186 see also movement Adoration of the Magi perspective study (Leonardo) 74. 94 chalk(s) 53. 250 Bishndas and Nanha: Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity 50. 9 Chair (Van Gogh) 94. 71 Blake. 198. 179 Bussotti. Franz 48 Protea nitida 48 Bellini. 242 Brunelleschi. Filippo 67. 200 Bauer. 162 character: to capture 38-39. 8 cave paintings 8.13. 70 Art Nouveau motifs 91 Autoportrait (Ray) 138. 74 brush (es) 246-247 Japanese 248 for laying a wash 140 marks 248-249 to hold 23 brush drawings 14-15 Bryan. 206. 199 Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya (Eisen) 156. 71 conte 112. Victor: West Facade of the Church of St. 71 Bacchante (Bakst) 155 background: color 91 textured 240 Baker Matthew: Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry 32 Bakst. layers 53 chalk pastels 162.169 colors: airbrushed 161 background 91 A Abe. 139 Nanha) 50. Statue d'Epouvante 90 calligraphy. Mamaru 104. 178 Cubism 67. 9. 165. 180 blending: color 133. 204-205. 244 head and neck 144 phrased 124-125 contrast: brightness 99 of media 30 tonal 96. 41 principal 186. 74. to draw 25. 204.Index Page numbers in italics refer t o captions and illustrations Babur Supervising Out of the Garden of Fidelity (Bishndas and 259 INDEX B bread (as eraser) 205. 94 cylindrical objects.115 anatomical drawing 134-135 anatomical theaters 82-83 anatomical waxes 128 ancient carvings 221. 220. 13. 29 Hugo's octopus 28. 180 Circular Score for "Due Voce" (Bussotti) 223 circus scenes 192-195 City (Bryan) 202. 30 sleeping dog 38-39 Stubbs's horse skeleton 26.27 turtles 42-43 aquatint 240 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels (Leonardo) 12. 75 Circle of the Lustful (Blake) 180. 193 in lifting out 204. 160 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object (Moore) 178. 72 bracelet shading 122 Braque.100 curves. Augustin 67 Basquiat.226.212 to erase 205 to hold 23 pencils 204 willow 114. 230-231 Cubist 90. Etienne-Louis 72 Newton's Cenotaph 72. 182. 113 bird bones 12. to depict 156-157 Cloudburst of Material Possessions (Leonardo) 200.184. Giovanni 137 Head and Shoulders of a Man 136. (Ross-Craig) 49 to hold brush for 23 caricature 159. 198 cartoon (preparatory drawing) 137 (satirical) 159. 128.89. 242 to blend 205 compressed 122. 95 Chair Cut Out (Woodfine) 94. 241 action.44-45. Clare 203 City 202.50.31 Picasso's horse and bird 30.163 body. Sylvano 222. Joseph 113 The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland 112. Georges 67. Hieronymus 243 Two Monsters 242. 244 and graphite 178 . 28 Klee's horses 30.163 graded 227 composition 56-57. Jean Michel 138 Self-Portrait 138 Bateau-Vision. 133. 186 charcoal 114. to model 110-111 border 51 Bosch. 81 135. Leon: Bacchante 155 balance. 116. 230 The Physical Space 220 abstract drawing 219. Le (Hugo) 200. 158. 206 checkered floor 80.163 dry media 205 Blue Nude (Matisse) 110. 163. 226-227 Acanthus spinosus 65 accelerated perspective 22.184. 203 Claude Lorrain 202 Views from Velletri 202. to draw 80. 90. 205 Baltard. 190 Caricature of a Woman (Daumier) 198. 90 colored materials 162-163 colored pencils 162. 247-248 carving see lines.117 Achilles Chases Hector (Thomas) 240. 81 cut-out model plan 94. William: The Circle of the Lustful 180. 223 Circular Score for "Due Voce" 223 children's art 9. 221 animals. 74. 243 botanical drawing 48-49 Boullee. 203 Landline 202. Basilius 47 Beuys. 202 cloth. Nicolas-Jacques 54 contours 146. 98. cut Catling. 26 geese 38-39 Gericault's cats 28.198. to draw 100 Cypripedium calceolus L. 203 Buffalo Hunt (Shoshone) 178. 201 collage 111. 134 costume(s) 155 character 158-159 structure of 166-167 Cottage Among Trees (Rembrandt) 52. center of 118 ballpoint 182.133.162 Conte. 13 architectural drawing 67-71 Arctic Flowers (Libeskind) 70. 52 cotton swabs 205 Coup de Vent a Asajigabare (Hokusai) 198.44-45 bird studies 12.

241 to blend 205 and chalk 178 and ink 28.116.166 170-173 Gestalt 222 Giacometti. 161 fashion 160. 220 dry brush 234 234 57. 137 heads. 122.216.189. 131 Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos 240.184 165. Francisco de 131. 163. 52 foreground 208. 161 changing 216 Focusing on the Negative (Walter) 16 foliage 52. 202. Robert 93 Eye and Head of a Drone Fly 92.117 fountain pens 34.112. 55. 29 H hands. 240 170-173 five Ships in a Port with Lighthouse (Wallis) 11. 90 G Gaudi. Ron 161 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City 161 160. to draw 168-169 in Goya's artworks face. 245 layers 30 Goya. 252 depiction of fabric monsters 252-253 Self Portrait in a Cocked Hat 130. Cheval et Oiseau (Picasso) 30.252-253 from memory 183. 26 Flying Fish (White) 25. 245 Gruau. 160 hitsuzendo 233 light to dark 102. 77 How Clever of God #84 244. 134. 55. Nicholas 68 St Paul's Baptistry 68 head and neck to draw 142-145 Head and Shoulders of a Man (Bellini) 136.103 with eraser 103. 79. 144 Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (Baker) 32. 69. 93 eye level 80 Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity.37.101 engraving 243 erasers/erasing 55. 141 tonal 96. 222 Le Bateau-Vision 200. 7 33 Hooke.John 157 Man Lying Down in a Cloak 156.69 Gerard.103.160.102-103 drawing board 20 drawing books 20-21 drawing paper 144. 222.141. 765 hitsuzendo drawings 233 Hokusai. 240 Black Paintings 152. C . 69. 122 Hawksmoor. 124.12 fixative 54. 91 Dragon (Michelangelo) 36.216 Durelli. proportions of 143 fantasy drawings 72-73.144 and ink 30. 30 Fauves/fauvism 90. Keisai 157 The Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya 156. 135 Duren Albrecht 26. 55. 73. 160 Faune. 112. M. Antonio 135 Muscles of the Head and Neck 134. 240. 69 Guitare. to draw 78. 69 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt 68. 41 in the round 208-209 with scalpel 202. Jean Ignace Isidore see Grandville Gericault. 132 Frenz. 99 etching.141. La (Braque) 90.115 exploratory 17 fantasy 72-73.104. Edgar 162 depth.230 three-tone 140. 115 Escher.146 from masterworks 126-127.160. 230 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction 68.97. disposable pens 182-183 dissections: botanical 48 of horse 27 distance: illusion of see perspective linear 97 tonal 97 Documents Decoratifs. 40. 25 focus 65. 136 Golden Section 67 Gombrich. drypoint 181 exaggeration 184 expressionism 198 E ye and Head of a Drone Fly (Hooke) 92. 113. 222 Grimes. 90 gouache 30. 163. 37 Grandville 243 A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the Near-Microscopic World of Scale Insects 242. Rene 160 Illustration for Jacques Fath E easel.244 drawing(s): abstract 219. 190 Middle Eastern 50-51.260 INDEX D Dada 139 Daumien Honore 198 Caricature of a Woman 198.207. Katsushika 199 Coup de Vent a Asajigahare 198. 242 eyes. to draw 134-137 Helleborus corsicus 55 highlights 91. 157 .198 Degas. Antonio 68. 205 drawing with 103. position of 22 Eisen. Sir Ernst 12. fiber-tip pen 182. Alberto 136 Portrait of Marie-Laure de Noailles 136. 93 horizon 52. Study for Plate 59 (Mucha) 90. 170-173.121 felt-tip pens 162. 243 graphic score 222.91. 223 graphite 54. 226-227 anatomical 134-135 architectural 67-71 botanical 48-49 brush 14-15 dark to light 102. 203 semi-abstract 234-237 three-dimensional 68. 134. Oona 245 How Clever of God #84 244.Theodore 29 Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat 28. 161 fashion drawings 160. 120. Victor 200. 223. 216 foreshortening 110. position of 143. 134. 104-105. The 242.111 feet. 32 framing 139 Franfoise au Bandeau (Picasso) 132. 162 Flaxman. 799 Holbein. 203 Hotel de la Suzonnieres (Satie) 70.109 Rhinoceros 26.157 ellipses 100. Hans 133 The Ambassadors 116 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser 132. Statue d'Epouvante. 125. 200 F fabric. 245 Hugo.244. 160 as ground for metal point 140. to suggest 177 see also perspective diagonals diffuser 55 dip pens 34. to draw 120. 71 minimal line 99 and music 70-71 quick 38-39. 160 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Construction (Gaudi) 68.

185 Mucha. 110 Sistine Chapel ceiling 116 Middle Eastern drawing 50-51. 53 Tree II 52. David 78 M Mackintosh. Daniel 70 Arctic Flowers 70 Lieb. I Murderous Attacks 33 Kollwitz. 97 Murillo.120. 221 endless 31 free 113. 83 white 122 ink impressions 222 ink spatters 234 installations 176. 227 Scene of Comical Riders 30.141. 181 luminosity 115 Lynch. 49 Rose 49 Maelbeke Madonna (Van Eyck) 156. drawing from 126-127. 58-59. 201 Archimedes' Screws and Water Wheels 12. 166. Florence 128 lighting in 167 Pitt Rivers. Alphonse 90.Pieuvre (Octopus) 28. 111.167 line(s) 132. 789. Oxford 250 music 70-71 Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous Attacks (Knopf) 32. 203 landscape 206-208 brushed 14 Landscape in Hoboku Style (Sesshu) 14 layers 146 chalk 53 gouache 30 ink 28. 163 pens 36 measuring 116 memory. 33 J justness 228-229 N naive art 74 negative space 53. 244 Dragon 36.182 Moore. 135 museums 44. 248. Victor 134 Profile Head 134. 73 Michelangelo Buonarroti 48. 244 ink 36 252-253 Documents Decoratifs 90. Bartolome: Moses Striking the Rock ofHoreb 252.102. Kathe 181 Losbrunch (The Outbreak) 180. 72. apparent 97 Leonardo da Vinci 74. 183 vertical 156 linear distance 97 linear perspective 69. 159 Japanese 35 to make 36 sepia 35 walnut 36. 76 Libeskind. artistic 240-241. 77 Miller. 226 Modernism 67. 205. 114 hatched 244 layered 118 pace of 65 pale 40 rapid 49. Gustav 49 Knopf. 249 and gouache 30 Indian 35. 244. 201 head and neck sections of female mold for Sforza Horse 89 Madonna of the Rocks 244 perspective study for Adoration of the Magi 74. Marie 244 cloth drawing 244. 220. 13 Cloudburst of Material Possessions 200.124. 176. Henri 111 Blue Nude 1110. 220. 54 silver point 156 leg sections 158 length. 757 mandalas 219. 63. 244 lithograph 198 Losbruch (Kollwitz) 180. Matisse. Charles Rennie 48.96. 225 masking tape 204. 234 iron-gall 35. Rose: Tantalus or the Future of Man 20 minimal line drawing 99 mirror use of 120 mixed media 28. 205 masterworks. drawing from 183. 220. 190 metal pens see dip pens metal point 25. 184. 31 Klimt. 74-77.141 Metropolis (film) 72.166 La Specola.276.The (Robinson) 108.112. Madrid 171 University Museum of Natural History. 53 monoprint 787. 36. 219 Mondrian. 35. 158 Man Lying Down in a Cloak (Flaxman) 156. 227 Newsome. 170-173. 203.115 98. Erich 73 design for Metropolis 72. 103 Neolithic chalk tablet 220.109.134 K Kettlehut. 230 invented creatures 106-107 250-251 invented objects 89. 99. 242 light 96 to depict drawing with 1 76 painting with 176 .243 carbon 35 Chinese 30. 177 influences. 73 Kigell. 78 Study ofThree Male Figures 110.109. 756 priming for 140. 37 lines 118 pastel 162 pencil 31. 156 magnification 93 Man in Armor (Van Dyck) 158.181 L Landline (Bryan) 202.91 Study for Plate 59 of INDEX illumination see lighting Illustration for Jacques Fath (Gruau) 160. 160 In the Duchess's Kitchen (Rackham) 176. 28 Two Impressions from a Cut-out Paper Disk 222 Huyler Stephen R 225 261 Kinecar. Johan 32. 181 Klee. 34-35 acrylic 35 bistre 35. Oxford 106 Prado. 220. Piet 52. 178 motifs: A r t Nouveau 9 7 stylized 51 mountains 216-217 movement: of animals 30-31 of humans 7 79.104. Paul 227 Polyphonic Setting for White 226.227 to "bend" straight 97 compositional 228-229 cut 202.33 Mysterious Affairs of the lighting 2 7. 252 ink 16. Henry 178 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object 178. 34. Phyll: hands 18 lifting out 204. 252 Muscles of the Head and Neck (Durelli) 134. 60.

7 72 Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland. 57 Ross-Craig. Arthur 177 In the Duchess's Kitchen 176. 759 P Page. 36. 7 76 receding space 206 Redon. Russell 228.37.759. 165 figure 118 filled 37 pencil 48. 9 8 .2 3 age and youth sleeping subjects 148-149 150-151 Renaissance 109 Rhinoceros (Durer) 26. 227 portfolios 20 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser de Noailles (Holbein) 132. 734 Protea nitida (Bauer) 48. Isaac 92 Telescope 92 Newton's Cenotaph (Boullee) 72.54 pastel 162 perspective 1 0 0 . 30 Fran<. 212 Japanese 2 1 .37. 205 157. J 76 nudes 114-115 to make 36 metal see dip quill 34. 7 70 Ray. Erik 70. 74. Heath 181 The Kinecar 180. 73 Noble.oise au Bandeau 132. 239 Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons 238. 34-35.184 fountain 34. 241 Physical Space. Stella 48 Cypripedium calceolus L 49 rotated view 7 65 Rubens.262 INDEX Newton. 243. Pablo 6 7 . 1 6 3 . 76-79. 114 rollerball 182 Rorschach blot 99 Rose (Mackintosh) 48. 1 2 4 priming for metal point 140.Toyo: Landscape in Hoboku . 72 Noble. 36. The (Abe) 220 Picasso.226. Paul 73 Nobson Central 72.139 Autoportrait 138. 244 reed 34. 159. 9 0 . 38.131 Cottage Among Trees 52. 78 single-point 74.36.141 prints/printing: aquatint 240 dry-point etching 181 engraving 243 monoprint 181. Giovanni Battista 74. 7 73 self-portraits: Basquiat 138.40. 2 2 0 for oil pastels 162 stained 230 to stretch 140-141 tissue 21. 38. Sue 104.104 Pieuvre (Hugo) 28. 782 relief 757 silk-screen 739 woodblock 134. 52 pens 36 scalpel 54 drawing with 202. 36 relief printing 757 Rembrandt van Rijn 52. 91 outsider artists 33. and Webster.199 Profile Head (Newsome) oil pastels 162.Paul'sBaptistry (Hawksmoor) 68. 36.52 pen and wash 158. 81 two-point 74.9 3 Schongauer. 230 parallel planes 79 Parisian street 86-87 pastels 162 to blend 205 to hold 23 layers 162 pencils 162 pen(s): dip 34 . 75 Two Courtyards 75. 71 Satire of the Queen's Dress (Wodall) 158. 68 Satie. 76 plastic eraser 55. 219. 230 paper(s) 21 colored 162 drawing 144. 216.7 77 rapidograph 70 Raphael 110. 181 pencil(s) 54 charcoal 204 colored 762. 1 1 6 accelerated 2 2 . 181 Rodin.Tim. 36. 74-77. Cheval et Oiseau 30. 239 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat (Seurat) 112. 1 6 9 to hold 2 2 .The (Beuys) 112. Bridget 98 Robinson. 166 fiber-tip 782. 7 38 Ray 138.37 scientific instruments 9 2 .240. Auguste 114 Two Women 114. 242 reed pens 34. 736 portraits. 203 Scene of Comical Riders (Klee) 30. 162 O p A r t 98 optical illusions 96-99 outline 33. 1 3 2 quill pens 34. 165. 733 Portrait de Marie-Laure (Giacometti) 136. 205 pointillism 112 polyphonic painting 227 Polyphonic Setting for White (Klee) 226. 36.176 Real Life Is Rubbish 176. 234 disposable 182-183 felt-tip 162. 224 0 layers 31. 732 influence of 240 painting with light 78. 36 pen and brush 8 3 pen and ink 70.71 Hotel de la Suzonnieres 70. Martin 238. 26 Riley. Peter Paul 126-127 Embracing pose(s): balanced 146 quick 118-119 positive form 103 posture: of artist 22 of subject 3 8 . 7 77 three-point 80. 103. 28 pigment 162 bright 50 Caput Mortuum 7 4 7 for three-tone drawing 141. 97. Faune. 160. 75 Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River Range 241 petroglyphs 221. 243. Odilon 242 The Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts Toward Infinity 242. 244 Q s Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape (Wolfli) 2 79 St. 37 38. 122. to draw 146-147 R Rackham. 4 8 putty eraser 55. 1 1 6 . 163. 4 9 Rose of Mohammed 50. 161. 139 Real Life is Rubbish (Noble and Webster) 176. 164. 40-41. Georges 112 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat 112. 1 1 7 aerial 206 linear 69. Man 131. 739 semi-abstract drawings Style 14 Seurat. 141 Piranesi. 772 234-237 Sesshu.

199 tissue p a p e r 21. 53 trees. t h r e e . drawing with 104-105 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt ( G a u d i ) 68. 7 79 Shoshone petroglyph 240. 57. 159 Wolfli. 79. 1 4 1 . M . 199 shoes 1 6 4 . 102-103 tonal marks. 4 4 boat 209 botanical 4 9 G e r i c a u l t ' s cats 2 9 from Goya 170-173 125. 1 8 4 . 249 t o describe 39. 7 77. 75 Skeleton of the Horse ( S t u b b s ) 26. 2 4 4 . 9 5 pens 36 v a n i s h i n g p o i n t 74. Sarah 9 4 Chair Cut Out 94.1 4 5 . Study of (Michelangelo) 110. 1 7 7 free 8 0 V e n i c e . T i m W e s t Fagade of the Church of St. 1 3 . 6 9 Wodall. 2 7 studies: b i r d s 7 2 .Yamaoka 233 t e x t u r e 2 2 2 . phrased 146 tonal modeling 161 tonal range 169 t o n a l surfaces 2 2 7 tonal width 97 t o n e ( s ) 33. 77. 1 9 9 Two Courtyards (Piranesi) 75. 7 70 Tiber 214-215 Untitled ( T w o m b l y ) 2 2 0 . 2 4 7 t h r e e .J. 182. A l f r e d 1 1 . 74.13 M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s m a l e figures 110. 156 Van Gogh.241 s i l k . 75. 240 Two Women Embracing ( R o d i n ) 114.d i m e n s i o n a l 1 0 4 . 743 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through City ( F r e n z ) 1 6 0 . 164. 2 0 0 Ship in a Storm 1 9 8 . H e n r i de: Woman at Her Toilet 14 t r a n s p a r e n t v i e w 92. h e a d a n d n e c k sections o f female m o l d f o r (Leonardo) 89 shading 2 9 s h a d o w s 28.d i m e n s i o n a l d r a w i n g 68. 174 T w o m b l y . William 159 Satire of the Queen's Dress INDEX 226. Adolf: Giant-Grape Saint-Mary-Castle 219 Woman at Her Toilet ( T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c ) 74 w o o d b l o c k print 157. 1 2 Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse 71.120. 2 9 wind. 725 fabric 1 6 8 T h o m a s . 245 sharpener 54 Ship in a Storm ( T u r n e r ) 1 9 8 . 1 9 9 . G e o r g e 2 7 Skeleton of the Horse 26. 1 6 . John: Focusing on the Negative 14 w a s h . Augustin ( B a l t a r d ) 6 7 w e t and dry brush-strokes 2 4 9 Turner. t o d r a w 2 0 0 .2 0 1 . 243 (Bosch) T Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos ( G o y a ) 2 4 0 . Taylor A n i t a 115 All and Nothing 1 1 4 . t o d r a w 1 0 1 viewfinder 57 Views from Velletri ( C l a u d e L o r r a i n ) 152. 2 3 0 tonal contrast 96 tonal distance 9 7 t o n a l d r a w i n g 9 6 . 49. 161. 104-105.243 Leonardo's machines 12.12 W a l t e r . 202 violin. 141 Three Male Figures. v i e w s o f 85. 2 2 7 Untitled 2001 ( C a t l i n g ) u 263 W h i t e . 1 4 4 . 7 6 1 spots.158 158. 2 4 2 w Wallis. 7 1 4 . 170 shoes 1 6 4 stylized m o t i f 51 Summer Flowers 63. 1 8 4 .s c r e e n p r i n t i n g 139 silver p o i n t 1 4 0 .t o n e d r a w i n g 140. 69.27 skull 747.1 4 1 . 115.141 S i m b l e t . 65 symbols 138. 226 V Van Dyck.216 W e b s t e r . 230 t h r e e . 2 2 6 . 156 layers 7 5 6 priming for 140. 186.1 9 9 wire. 7 9 0 vessels.9 1 storms. 69.1 6 5 shorthand diagram 142 Shoshone buffalo hide painting 178. 9 4 z Z e n calligraphy 232-233 contrast 96 t o grade 163 ink 37 pencil 5 4 t o r t i l l o n 205 T o u l o u s e L a u t r e c . 158 V a n Eyck. 76. b l o w n 248 steel p e n s see d i p p e n s still life 89. Man in Armor 1 5 8 . 1 6 6 t r a p e z i u s m u s c l e 142. 241.41. 7 6 Two Impressions from a Cut-Out Paper Disk ( H u g o ) 2 2 2 Two Monsters 2 4 2 . 9 2 Tesshu. 2 3 4 . C y 138. Jan 1 5 6 Maelbeke Madonna 1 5 6 . Sue see N o b l e .5 3 in l a n d s c a p e 2 0 6 .125 W o o d f i n e .1 8 5 Tree II ( M o n d r i a n ) 52. t o d r a w 5 2 . Vincent 95 Chair 94. 1 4 0 . t o lay 1 4 0 . 7 75 Telescope ( N e w t o n ) 9 2 . Sarah: child's m a p 75. 206-207 202. Paul 2 4 1 Achilles Chases Hector 2 4 0 . 2 1 2 . 96.1 0 5 vision 9 6 Volvox Epidemic Strikes the NearMicroscopic World of Scale Insects (Grandville) 242. W . 97. 199. John 25 Flying Fish 25 Wild Striped Cat Sketches of ( G e r i c a u l t ) 28. 221 . 1 4 1 w a t e r c o l o r 25.Sforza Horse. t o draw 1 9 8 . 1 4 5 travel journal 2 0 . 2 2 0 influence o f 2 4 0 Untitled 220.2 1 3 Stubbs. A n t h o n y 152. 9 0 .

L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 .uk/Private Collection. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin. 2 4 0 : w w w . Jackie Douglas. 9 1 : www. Peter L u f f . B . Fund.bridgeman. Amsterdam.uk/Musee des Augustins.co. 2 2 0 : Mamaru Abe. 1 0 8 : Arts C o u n c i l Collection. Illustrated London News Picture Library/The Bystander (b). 2 0 3 : Clare Bryan (t). London 2005. R u t h P a r k i n s o n ./Private Collection/© D A C S 2005.co. B M G . L o n d o n . 177: Mary Evans Picture Library. T o n y G r i s o n i . 88: www. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. 1 5 4 : akg-images/Musee National d'Art Moderne. J o h n Roberts. B e m d Kunzig. R .co. 9 0 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/© A D A G P . Paul T h o m a s . 1 3 4 : © T h e British Museum. Paris a n d D A C S . 225: Stephen P Huyler. J o h n Walter. 74: Corbis.264 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Acknowledgments Author's Acknowledgments: T h e author wishes to thank the following people for their enormous help. Anita Taylor. c o . L o n d o n . 226: Brian Catling. Oxford. Clare Bryan. 9 4 : Sarah Woodfine. 49: Hunterian Museum (t). Angela W i l k e s . Lisbon. Christopher Davis. Berlin/Staatsbibliothek zu A l l other images © Sarah Simblet . 2 0 0 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. H e l e n S h u t t l e w o r t h .bridgeman. Dover Publications/ISBN: 0486229912 (t). M a n d y Earey. Corporation of London. 72: akg-images. L o n d o n . 9 2 : Science Photo L i b r a r y . G e r m a n y . 17: J o h n Walter. Carlo O r t u for picture research s u p p o r t . University of Oxford. 68: www. 139: Galerie Marion Meyer/© Man Ray Trust / A D A G P .l. Roddy Bell.bridgeman./© D A C S 2 0 0 5 ( t ) . for s u p p l y i n g the d r a w i n g books. 112: Yale University A r t Gallery/Everett V Meeks. 1901. 2 4 4 : Ashmolean Museum. S i m o n L e w i s . Havemeyer. Sammy De Grave.r.co. Toulouse. 73: Berlin F i l m Museum (t). 30: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. 114: Musee Rodin. 2 4 5 : Oona Grimes. 5 2 : T h e Metropolitan Museum of Art/Bequest of Mrs. 5 3 : Collection of the Gemeentemuseum D e n Haag/Mondrian Trust. Psychiatric Institute of the U n i v e r s i t y of Heidelberg. Publisher's Acknowledgments Dorling Kindersley w o u l d like to thank Caroline H u n t for editorial contribution. 2 4 2 : Photo Scala. Paris/ © Succession Picasso / D A C S 2005.uk/British Museum. 2 2 2 : Pierre Georgel/Private Collection. 11: www. Paris.uk/Kettle's Yard.Strang Print Room ( b ) . Productions Clovis Prevost (c). L o n d o n . 2 2 7 : Paul Klee Stiftung.bridgeman. 3 1 : Tom Powel Imaging.bridgeman. P h y l l Kiggell. France. 1 3 3 : Artothek/Kupferstichkabinett. 2 4 : © T h e British Museum. G i n a R o w l a n d . and Tamsin Woodward Smith. B e r l i n . Paris. 243: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. 1 1 0 : www. H e a t h e r M c C a r r y . 1 .uk/Private Collection. Kirsten Norrie. Winthrop. Florence/MoMA. Graphische Sammlung. Magdalene College Cambridge. 137: © The British Museum. 3 3 : Prinzhom Collection. 1 6 0 : Rene G R U A U s. U K . .co. 1 5 9 : Bodleian Library. Paris. u k / T o k y o National M u s e u m . 2 0 2 : © T h e British Museum. 3 2 : Pepys Library. 181: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz. J o n Roome. Flossie. A n n a P l u c i n s k a . 1 5 6 : Graphische S a m m l u n g Albertina. . 157: U C L Art Collections . 29: Fogg A n Museum/Collections Baron de Vita: Grenville L.bridgeman. Paris. 2 1 8 : Adolf-Wdlfli-Stiftung. 176: Modem Art. 199: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee des arts asiatiquesGuimet. Portugal. Paris.co. 2 4 1 : Corbis/David M u e n c h ( b ) . 1 3 6 : R e u n i o n Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Centre Pompidou-MNAM-CCI.a. U K .co. Sarah Woodfine. F i n n .uk/Private Collection. London/Bequeathed by Charles Landseer. 1 9 : Getty Images/© Succession Picasso / D A C S 2 0 0 5 . 13: www. 1929 (29. J a c k a n d Brian Catling. 7 0 : Studio Daniel L i b e s k i n d . G e r m a n y . 2 7 : Royal Academy of Arts. Inc. H a y w a r d Gallery. Pamela Ellis for compiling the index. 1 9 6 : Museum of the History of Science. K e w ft)). 115: Anita Taylor. Japan. K e v i n a n d Rebecca Slingsby.bridgeman. Patty Stansfield. a n d brushes o n pp. 111: Fondation Beyeler/Riehen (Bale)/© Succession H Matisse/DACS 2005. a n d D e p a r t m e n t s o f E n t o m o l o g y a n d Zoology at the University of Oxford. University of Cambridge. 130: The Metropolitan M u s e u m of Art/Robert L e h m a n Collection. Germany/Joerg P. b r i d g e m a n . K u n s t m u s e u m Bern/© D A C S 2 0 0 5 . Paul T h o m a s ( t ) . Paris and D A C S . (r). Julie O u g h t o n . Sir Brinsley F o r d . 2 0 1 : T h e Royal Collection © 2 0 0 2 H e r Majesty Queen Elizabeth I I . C o r n e l i s o n & Son. 16: www. 2 3 8 : akg-images. K u n s t m u s e u m . Natalie G o d w i n . L o n d o n 2 0 0 5 . T h e R u s k i n School of D r a w i n g a n d Fine A r t . 221: Gagosian Gallery/Private Collection (b). B e r l i n . b r i d g e m a n . © Tate. 179: www. 1 3 8 : © Christie's Images Ltd/© A D AGP. 6 6 : w w w . O. Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (t). Madrid. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin/Jorg P. 1 3 5 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library.100. Jean Pierre Roy.Paris ( b ) .co. Germany. Anders/ © D A C S 2 0 0 5 . Picture Credits 8: Corbis/Hubert Stadler. 2 8 : Bibliotheque Nationale De France. 75: © The British Museum (b). 1975 ( 1 9 7 5 . F r a n c e . L e n .uk /Biblioteca Nacional. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. Basel. Diana Bell. K a t h r y n W i l k i n s o n . 9 5 : V a n Gogh M u s e u m . 1 9 8 : Dover Publications. 158: Calouste Gulbenkian Museum. George M c G a v i n . Maureen Paley Interim Art (b). Psychiatric Institute of the University of Heidelberg. Paris. u k / L o u v r e . Berlin (b). Wolfson College. 1 7 8 : © T h e British M u s e u m / H e n r y Moore F o u n d a t i o n . 1879. 132: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Picasso. R o y a n d D i a n n e Simblet. Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. 1 5 : w w w .bridgeman. 174: Artothek/Munich. c o . NY. 69: Institut Amatller d'Art Hispanic (tl). London/courtesy of Stuart Shave. Angela Palmer. Paris a n d D A C S . 4 6 : B r i t i s h Library. 9 3 : T h e Wellcome Institute Library. 1 6 1 : D C C o m i c s I n c . A n d y C r a w f o r d for p h o t o g r a p h y a n d L . Andy Crawford. Sophie Laurimore. c o . H . u k / O n Loan to the H a m b u r g Kunsthalle. Rocio Arnaez. 4 8 : T h e N a t u r a l H i s t o r y M u s e u m . 9 7 6 ) . Sarah D u n c a n . support. L o n d o n (t). Also. Antonia Cunliffe Davis. Carole A s h . Salisbury & South W i l t s h i r e M u s e u m ( t ) . D a w n Henderson./Galerie Sylvie Nissen.20-21 a n d 246-47. 7 1 : I M E C / A r c h i v e s E r i k Satie. 2 6 : Topfoto. Anders.939). 2 2 3 : Lebrecht Music and Arts Photo Library/Ricordi. R o s e m a r y S c o u l a r .bridgeman.co. 5 0 : Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (1). 2 2 4 : P r i n z h o m Collection. A . 113: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz. Kunstmuseum Bern.uk/Guildhall Library. b r i d g e m a n . A . Italy.uk /© Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery. Copyright Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens. 51: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz.co. L o n d o n . papers. Agnieszka Mlicka. Orientabteilung/Ruth Schacht. 180: www. H a m b u r g .uk/Mucha Trust. O o n a G r i m e s . a n d encouragement i n m a k i n g this book: M a m o r u Abe. Paula Regan.

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